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Full text of "The Entomologist's record and journal of variation"

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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Library of the 

Museum of 

Comparative Zoology 



PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY 



Entomologist's Record 




Journal of Variation 



Edited by 
C.W. PLANT, BScFRES. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, F.R.E.S. & A. SPALDING, F.R.E.S. 



January/ February 1997 



ISSN 0013-3916 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Editor 
C.W. PLANT, B.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

14 West Road, Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire CM23 3QP. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., F.L.S. & A. SPALDING, M.A., F.R.E.S. 

Editorial Panel 

A.A. Allen, b.Sc, a.r.c.s. A.M. Emmet, m.b.e., t.d., f.r.e.s. 

N. L. Birkett, j.p., m.a., m.b.. f.r.e.s. J.A. Owen, m.d., Ph.D., f.r.e.s. 

J.D. Bradley, Ph.D., f.r.e.s. C.J. Luckens, m.b., ch.B., d.r.c.o.g. 

J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. B. Skinner 

PJ. Chandler, B.Sc, f.r.e.s. P.A. Sokoloff, m.Sc c.Bioi., M.i.Bioi., f.r.e.s. 

C.A. Collingwood, b.Sc, f.r.e.s. 

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EUPITHECIA EGENARIA IN LINCOLNSHIRE 1 

THE PAUPER PUG EUPITHECIA EGENARIA H.-S. 

(LEP.: GEOMETRIDAE) DISCOVERED IN LINCOLNSHIRE, 

AND OTHER INTERESTING MOTH RECORDS FROM A SURVEY 

OF THE BARDNEY LIMEWOODS SITE OF SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC 

INTEREST IN 1995 

Paul Waring 

1366 Lincoln Road, Wenington, Peterborough PE4 6LS. 

UNTIL 1995, the Pauper Pug Eupithecia egenaria was only known to occur 
in the Wye Valley woodlands on the borders of Monmouthshire and 
Gloucestershire where it was discovered in 1962 (Mere, 1962), the Thetford 
area of south-west Norfolk/north Suffolk (Haggett, 1981) and recently in 
Hockering Wood to the north-east of the latter, where the moth was recorded 
by Rafe Eley {pers. comm.) on 2 June 1984 and by G. Haggett, M. Hall and 
S. Ward {pers. comm.) on three separate visits in 1989 (29 May, 9 June and 7 
July). In 1993 four adults were captured in King's Forest, Suffolk, in 
the 10km square to the south of the Thetford Forest complex, on 23 and 24 
May, and on 15 June 1993 larvae were beaten from limes Tilia sp. in the 
same area, followed by more adults on 1 June 1994 and 27 May 1995 (C. 
Smith, pers. comm.). There is also a record of a single adult captured at a 
garden light trap at Walberton, West Sussex on 1 June 1987 (by J. Radford, 
det. A. Riley). There is a post- 1980 record from SN8780 which requires 
confirmation. A pre- 1879 record from Loughton, Essex (Carrington, 1879) is 
now considered not to refer to this species (Plant, 1993) but to have arisen 
due to the early confusion over nomenclature described by Wakely (1957). It 
is therefore of interest to report that during an English Nature (EN) research 
project on the moths of the Bardney Lime woods in Lincolnshire from June 
to September 1995 (Waring, 1996), the Pauper Pug was found in three of the 
four woods studied. The identities of these fairly distinctive moths were 
confirmed by dissection of the genitalia by Barry Dickerson. The genitalia 
are diagnostic and quite unlike any other British Eupithecia species, due to a 
pronounced spine mid-way along the ventral edge of the valves or claspers 
of the male (shown in Agassiz et ah, 1981). Fig. 1 summarises the known 
national distribution of this moth to date. 

The larvae of the Pauper Pug feed on the flowers of the Small-leaved 
Lime Tilia cordata and, in Norfolk, breeding also occurs on Large-leaved 
Lime T. platyphyllos and the hybrid T. x europea (Haggett, 1981). The 
Bardney Limewoods are one of the major concentrations of Small-leaved 
Lime-dominated woodlands in England and the largest concentration of 
ancient woodlands in Lincolnshire so the occurrence of this moth was not 
unexpected. Indeed, it had been something of a puzzle that the moth had not 
already been recorded from this stronghold of Small-leaved Lime, which 
was formerly a much more widespread species in the native woodlands of 



2 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

Britain. The puzzle was all the more so because some of these woods were 
surveyed extensively for moths by the late Rick Pilcher in the 1960s and 
early 1970s. 

The Pauper Pug was first recognised as British from the Wye Valley 
woodlands, in 1962 (Mere, 1962; 1963). The first Norfolk specimen was 
actually captured in 1953 but not identified for nearly twenty years (Agassiz 
et al., 1981). Whether the species is a previously overlooked relic survivor of 
the ancient wildwood or a recent arrival has been debated by Emmet (1981) 
and Haggett (1981). The fact that the moth is present in the Bardney 
Lime woods might be seen as strengthening the case for the former view. The 
occurrence of the moth on more recently planted limes at Thetford, as 
described by Haggett (1981), is not a problem for this view, bearing in mind 
the reserves of Small-leaved lime in Hockering Wood and other ancient 
woods in Norfolk, from which the moths may have colonised more recent 
plantations. Interestingly, Wakely (1957) predicted that the moth might be 
found in the west of Britain where he knew the foodplants to be indigenous 
and Mere (1962) proved him right. 

The discovery of the Pauper Pug in Lincolnshire was just one of the 
results which confirmed the national and local importance of the Bardney 
Limewoods for invertebrate conservation. Single specimens were caught 
(and retained) in Stainfield Wood and Ivy Wood and two specimens were 
collected in Great West Wood, all by the author and all on the night of 25/26 
June 1995. Other nationally scarce moths recorded during the study in 1995 
included the Mere Wainscot Photedes fluxa Hb. and the micro-moths 
Oecophora bractella L., Epinotia demarniana F.v.R. and Spatalistis 
bifasciana Hb. Three of the micro-moth species recorded are first records for 
the vice-county (VC54), these being Batia unitella Hb., Pammene fasciana 
L. and S. bifasciana (A.M. Emmet, /7er5. comm.). 

The study involved simultaneous sampling of four sites, each in a different 
wood, using standard Robinson patterned mercury-vapour light traps (fitted 
with 125W MBAJ bulbs), which were operated throughout the night from 
before dusk till after dawn on the nights of 25/26 June, 8/9 July, 21/22 July 
and 1/2 September 1995. Trap-sites in rides were chosen at Stainfield Wood 
(S) (TF 118721) and Hatton Wood (H) (TF 162748) to include sampling of 
the fauna present in rides, whereas at Ivy Wood (I) (TF 145737) and Great 
West Wood (G) (TF 107763) trap-sites were on minor tracks some 30 metres 
into the woodland stands, where the trees met overhead and where there 
were only small gaps open to the night sky. The trapping programme was 
supplemented by some baiting for adults, using wine-ropes, and by beating 
and searching for larvae. Waring (1995) describes and illustrates the 
technique of wine-roping. Full details of the results at the Bardney 
Limewoods are given in Waring (1996), including photographs and 
descriptions of the trap-sites and details of the numbers of individuals of 
each species per trap per night. 



EUPITHECIA EGENARIA IN LINCOLNSHIRE 



Tables 1 and 2 summarise the results of greatest interest. Table 1 shows 
the occurrence at the traps of the Red Data Book and Nationally Scarce 
moths (as recognised in Waring, 1994 and, for the micros. Ball, 1986). Table 
2 shows the occurrence of species which are considered Local on a national 
basis (following Waring, 1994) or which are more widespread but of interest 
in the context of Lincolnshire. 

Table 1: 

Red Data Book & Nationally Scarce species recorded during the fieldwork in 1995. 



Species 


National 
Status 


Sites 


S 


I 


H 


G 


Pauper Pug 

Eupithecia egenaria 


RDB3 


1 (25.vi) 


1 (25.vi) 


- 


2 (25.vi) 


Oecophora bractella 


pRDB3 


- 


1 (S.vii) 


1 (S.vii) 


1 (S.vii) 
1 (21.vii) 


Mere Wainscot 
Photedes fluxa 


Notable B 


5 (S.vii) 
1 (21.vii) 


- 


- 


- 


Epinotia demarniana 


Notable B 


- 


1 (25. vi) 


- 


- 


Spatalistis bifasciana 


Notable B 


- 


- 


- 


1 (S.vii) 



Note that a "-" in the Tables only means that the species was not found in 
the relevant trap session(s). The species may well be present at the site, but 
missed detection on that particular sampling occasion. The counts in the 
Tables show the number of individuals on each date. Counts in square 
brackets refer to individuals seen at additional lights or bait where the 
species was not recorded in the main trap. 

Notable B is a subdivision of the Nationally Scarce category and for 
macro-moths is applied to species recorded from 31-100 10km squares in 
Great Britain since 1980. For the less well recorded micro-moths this grade 
is applied to species known from between eight and 20 vice-counties. Local 
macro-moths are defined in Waring (1994) as species which are localised in 
Britain, having been recorded from between 101 and 300 10km squares 
since 1980, or 1960 where more recent national distribution maps are not 
available. Note that the Local category covers both species which are 
patchily distributed throughout Britain and species which are confined to 
particular areas but may be generally distributed within these. Species 
known from more than 300 of the 10km squares in Britain are considered 
Common in terms of distribution. Some of the Common species are often 
also numerically abundant but others might be seen only in small numbers at 
individual localities. This grade does not mean that the species occurs 
everywhere or is found in all habitats. 



4 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

Note that the Broad-bordered Bee Hawkmoth Hemaris fuciformis L. 
(Notable B) was seen by day on 25 June 1995 by Chambers Plantation, en 
route to Ivy Wood by Keith Shaw and the live specimen passed to me for 
confirmation. Several others had visited flowers in Keith's garden on the 
edge of this wood during the month. 

The distinctive black and yellow Oecophora bractella L. had not been 
recorded in Lincolnshire before 1995 (A.M. Emmet & R. Johnson, pers. 
comm.). During the study single specimens were collected on 8/9 July at Ivy 
Wood (Waring), Hatton Wood (Lorand), and Great West Wood (Chainey 
and Spence) and the moth was still about on the session on 21/22 July when 
Rex Johnson took one in Great West Wood. The larva feeds on debris under 
the bark of various trees and in rotten stumps (Emmet, 1988). 

A number of the species recorded during the project are of considerable 
interest at the county level, some of which are not particularly localised on a 
national basis. Some comments on the status of these in Lincolnshire are 
given below. These comments are based upon information given by 
Duddington and Johnson (1983), updated according to more recent largely 
unpublished information from Rex Johnson, the county moth recorder. There 
are now over 30 moth recorders in Lincolnshire contributing records to Rex 
{pers. comm.) and a more detailed impression of the moth fauna of the 
county is developing year by year. 

Orange moth Angerona prunaria L: We found this large attractive moth in 
considerable numbers at Stainfield Wood, on both the trapping sessions in 
July (about 50 individuals were seen in and around two lights on 8 July 
1995) but in none of the other three woods. Furthermore, it is such a readily 
detectable species that it is unlikely to have been overlooked in these and is 
most probably absent. Stainfield Wood is one of only two sites currently 
known in the county, the other being Callans Lane Wood near Boston. There 
are old records for a number of other woods in Lincolnshire and these are 
listed in Duddington and Johnson (1983). 

Pinion-streaked Snout Schrankia costaestrigalis Steph.: Hardy recorded 
inland in the county, but likely to be overlooked, owing to its micro-moth- 
like appearance. Well established at Donna Nook on the east coast (Dick 
Lorand). Singletons were recorded at Ivy Wood on the night of 8/9 July 
(PW) and Hatton Wood on 21/22 July (D. Lorand). 

Mere Wainscot Photedes fluxa: Recorded from two or three sites in 1995, 
bringing the total current in Lincolnshire to about half a dozen. Associated 
with woodland rides in mid-Lines. Five were recorded at Stainfield Wood on 
8/9 July and one more there on 21/22 July (J. Janes). 



EUPITHECIA EGENARIA IN LINCOLNSHIRE 



Table 2: 

Macro-moths recorded during the project which are local on a national basis or are more 
widespread but of interest in Lincolnshire. 

* = confirmed by genitalia dissection by Barry Dickerson. 

** = a singleton presumed vagrant because no appropriate habitat or foodplant in this 
locality. Resident on heathland in the north of the county. 

*** = confirmed by genitalia dissection by John Chainey. 



Species 


National 
Status 


Sites 


S 


I 


H 


G 


Poplar Lutestring 
Tethea or 


Local 


1 (S.vii) 


- 


- 


- 


Blotched Emerald 
Comibaena bajiilaria 


Local 


To sheet 
(S.vii) 


— 


1 (25.vi) 
3 (S.vii) 


— 


Small Emerald 

Hemistola 

chrysoprasaria 


Local 


- 


- 


1 (S.vii) 


- 


Birch Mocha 
Cyclophora albipunctata 


Local 


- 


1 (S.vii) 


- 


1 (25. vi) 


Maiden's Blush 
Cyclophora punctaria 


Local 


2 (25.vi) 


2 (25.vi) 
1 (S.vii) 
1 (l.ix) 


2 (25.vi) 
1 (l.ix) 


1 (S.vii) 
1 (l.ix) 


Satin Wave 
Idaea siibsericeata 


Common 


- 


- 


1 (25.vi) 


[1] (25.vi) 


Large Twin-spot Carpet 

Xanthorhoe 

quadrifasciata 


Local 


To sheet 

[2] (S.vii) 


- 


- 


2 (21.vii) 


Wood Carpet* 
Epirrhoe rivata 


Local 


- 


1 (l.ix) 


1 (25.vi) 


- 


Beautiful Carpet 
Mesoleiica albicillata 


Common 


10 (S.vii) 


1 (25. vi) 


1 (S.vii) 


1 (S.vii) 


Scallop Shell 
Rheumaptera undulata 


Local 


5 (S.vii) 


- 


1 (S.vii) 


- 


Brown Scallop 
Philereme vetulata 


Local 


- 


- 


1 (25.vi) 


- 


Dark Umber 
Philereme transversata 


Local 


[l]to 
sheet 
(S.vii) 


- 


- 


- 


Currant Pug* 
Eupithecia assimilata 


Common 


- 


- 


- 


1 (21.vii) 


Clouded Magpie 
Abraxas sylvata 


Local 


[l]to 
sheet 
(S.vii) 


- 


- 


- 


VMoth 
Semiothisa waiiaria 


Local 


- 


- 


- 


[1] (S.vii) 


Scorched Wing 
Plagodis dolabraria 


Local 


4 (25. vi) 


2 (25 .vi) 


1 (25.vi) 


1 (25. vi) 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.1.1997 





Species 


National 
Status 


Sites 


S 


I 


H 


G 


Lilac Beauty 
Apeira syringaria 


Local 


1 (25 .vi) 
3 (S.vii) 
1 (21.vii) 


5 (S.vii) 


2 (S.vii) 


1 (S.vii) 


Orange Moth 
Angerona prunaria 


Local 


c50 

(S.vii) 

10(21.vii) 


- 


- 


- 


Lime Hawk-moth 
Mimas tiliae 


Common 


1 (S.vii) 


- 


- 


- 


Marbled Brown 
Drymonia dodonaea 


Common 


1 (S.vii) 


1 (S.vii) 


3 (25 .vi) 


- 


White Satin 
Leucoma salicis 


Local 


[1] to sheet 

(S.vii) 
1 (21.vii) 


- 


- 


- 


Rosy Footman 
Miltochrista miniata 


Local 


5 (S.vii) 
1 (21.vii) 


1 (S.vii) 


— 


13 (S.vii) 
17(21.vii) 


Four-dotted Footman 
Cybosia mesomella 


Local 


— 


4 (S.vii) 
2 (21.vii) 


1 (S.vii) 


— 


Scarce Footman 
Eilema complana 


Local 


1 (21.vii) 


- 


- 


- 


Buff Footman 
Eilema deplana 


Local 


[l]to 
sheet 
(S.vii) 




[1] 

(21.vii) 


2 
(21.vii) 


Least Black Arches 

Nola confusalis 


Local 


- 


1 (25.vi) 


- 


- 


Purple Clay 
Diarsia brunnea 


Common 


[l]to 
sheet 
(S.vii) 


1 (25.vi) 


- 


3 (S.vii) 


Dotted Clay 
Xestia baja 


Common 


3 (21.vii) 


1 (21.vii) 


[1](21.7) 


- 


Heath Rustic** 
Xestia agathina 


Local 


1 (l.ix) 


- 


- 


- 


Gothic 

Naenia typica 


Local 


1 (21.vii) 




- 


1 (S.vii) 


Green Arches 
Anaplectoides prasina 


Common 


10 (25 .vi) 
2 (S.vii) 


1 (S.vii) 


— 


[1] (S.vii) 


Orange Sallow 
Xanthia citrago 


Common 


2 (l.ix) 


- 


1 (l.ix) 


- 


Sycamore 
Acronicta aceris 


Local 


1 (21.vii) 


- 


- 


- 


Svensson's Copper 
Underwing 
Amphipyra berbera 


Local 


- 


- 


- 


2 (l.ix) 


Small Clouded Brindle 
Apamea unanimis 


Common 


1 (25.vi) 


- 


2 (25.vi) 


1 (S.vii) 


Slender Brindle 
Apamea scolopacina 


Local 


1 (21.vii) 


- 


[l](21.vii) 


- 



EUPITHECIA EGENARIA IN LINCOLNSHIRE 





Species 


National 
Status 


Sites 


S 


I 


H 


G 


Rufous Minor*** 
Oligia versicolor 


Local 


- 


- 


- 


[1] (S.vii) 


Scarce Silver-lines 
Bena prasinana 


Local 


[l]to 
sheet 
(S.vii) 


- 


- 


- 


Beautiful Hook-tip 
Laspeyria flexula 


Local 


3 (S.vii) 


2 (S.vii) 


- 


3 (S.vii) 


Pinion-streaked Snout 

Schrankia 

costaestrigalis 


Local 


- 


1 (S.vii) 


1 (21.vii) 


- 



Wood Carpet Epirrhoe rivata Hb.: Only two Lincolnshire sites are given in 
Duddington and Johnson (1983), both pre- 1970, but it is acknowledged that 
the species is easily confused with the much more widespread Common 
Carpet E. alternata Mtill. The Bardney specimens were confirmed by 
genitalia dissection (B. Dickerson). One was recorded in Hatton Wood on 
25/26 June (PW) and one in Ivy Wood on 1/2 September (PW). 

Beautiful Carpet Mesoleuca albiciUata Hb.: Until 1995, recorded from few 
sites in Lincolnshire but recorded widely in 1995 and seems to have had a 
good year. Probably persists at low density in other years but examination of 
the new records may reveal evidence of dispersal. One was recorded in Ivy 
Wood on 25/26 June (PW) followed by ten in Stainfield Wood (Janes) and 
singletons on Hatton Wood (Lorand) and Great West Wood (J. Chainey), all 
on 8/9 July. 

Currant Pug Eupithecia assimilata DoubL: A singleton came to light in 
Great West Wood on 21/22 July (R. Johnson) and was confirmed by 
genitalia dissection (B. Dickerson). There are few confirmed records for 
Lincolnshire. The species is likely to be under-recorded because it is difficult 
to distinguish from several other Eupithecia species without dissection. 



Acknowledgements 

I would like to thank all the following for their valued contributions to this 
project: Graham Weaver of English Nature, for conceiving the project and 
for spending time with me in the field selecting the trapping sites; the 
following volunteers who so kindly assisted me by manning light traps: John 
Janes, Rex Johnson, Dick Lorand, Mick Speight, Geoff Wright, John 
Chainey and Jenny Spence; Keith and Doreen Shaw for their company as 
hosts living by Chambers Plantation; Barry Dickerson for identifying the 
microlepidoptera we collected during the project and for undertaking the 



8 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

genitalia dissections which confirmed the Pauper Pug and other species as 
noted; and Rex Johnson again, for valuable discussion on the status of 
certain species in Lincolnshire. Copies of the full report, which comprises 
light trap catches in sites with different woodland management regimes, 
have been lodged at the offices of English Nature at Grantham and the Forest 
Enterprise Sherwood and North Lincolnshire District office, and with Rex 
Johnson, County Moth Recorder, and the above-named trap operators. 



References 

Agassiz, D. et al., 1981. An identification guide to the British pugs. British 
Entomological and Natural History Society, London. 

Ball, S., 1986. Terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates with Red Data Book, Notable or 
Habitat Indicator status. Invertebrate Site Register Report 66. Nature Conservancy 
Council, Peterborough. 

Carrington, J.T., 1879. Localities for beginners No. 4. Loughton. Entomologist 12: 233- 
237. 

Duddington, J. and Johnson, R., 1983. The butterflies and larger moths of Lincolnshire. 
Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union, Lincoln. 

Emmet, A.M., 1981. Eupithecia egenaria H.-S. - an ancient relic? Entomologist' s 
Record and Journal of Variation 93: 177. 

- , 1988. A field guide to the smaller British Lepidoptera. British Entomological and 
Natural History Society, London. 

Haggett, G.M., 1981. Eupithecia egenaria H.-S. - a recent arrival? Entomologist' s 
Record and Journal of Variation 93: 236. 

Haggett, G.M. and Mere, R.M., 1964. A note on the biology of Eupithecia egenaria 
Herrich-Schaffer (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Entomologist' s Gazette 15: 25-28. 

Mere, R.M., 1962. Eupithecia egenaria Herrich-Schaffer (Fletcher's Pug) (Lepidoptera: 
Geometridae) in the British Isles. Entomologist' s Gazette 13: 155-158. 

- , 1963. Eupithecia egenaria Herrich-Schaffer (Lepidoptera) in the British Isles. 
Entomologist' s Gazette 14: 23. 

Plant. C.W., 1993. Larger moths of the London area. London Natural History Society, 
London. 

Wakely, S., 1957. Eupithecia egenaria H.-S. Entomologist' s Record and Journal of 
Variation 69: 199-200. 

Waring, P., 1994. National Moth Conservation Project. News Bulletin 5. Butterfly 
Conservation, Dunstable. 

- , 1995. "Wine-roping" for moths. Butterfly Conservation News 60: 27. 

- , 1996. A comparison of the moth fauna of four woodland sites within the Bardney 
Limewoods Site of Special Scientific Interest, Lincolnshire. Unpublished report for 
English Nature, Grantham, and Forest Enterpirse. 105pp. 

- , in prep. An atlas of the nationally scarce and threatened macro-moths of Great 
Britain. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough. 



EUPITHECIA EGENARIA IN LINCOLNSHIRE 




10 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

Tetrastichus legionarius Giraud (Hym.: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) new 
to Britain 

A total of six S S and 26 $ 5 examples of the chalcid parasite Tatrastichus 
legionarius was reared by me from a single gall of Lipara lucens (Diptera: 
Chloropidae) on a reed Phragmites australis stem collected at the Essex 
Wildlife Trust's Rushey Mead Nature Reserve in the Stort Valley, North 
Essex, on 12 June 1996 (O.S. grid reference TL 4919). 

The species is known as a gregarious endoparasitoid of the larvae and 
pupae oi Lipara species in the Netherlands, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, 
Italy and the Czech Republic (Graham, 1991. Memoirs of the American 
Entomological Institute 49), but is apparently unrecorded from Britain prior 
to this record. The specimens are preserved in the Royal Museum of 
Scotland, Edinburgh. 

The Stort Valley is well-blessed with small stands of reed, and though it is 
not continuous there is a presence of the plant throughout this valley which 
separates Essex from Hertfordshire. At its termination, the Stort flows into 
the larger River Lea and in the valley of that river are larger stands of reed in 
several places. It is thus evident that the chalcid parasite is likely to be 
present throughout, and perhaps elsewhere, also; like so many other 
"difficult" species, its apparent absence may well be more a function of 
under-recording than genuine rarity. 

I am most grateful to Dick Askew for the identification of these difficult 
insects and for casting an eye over this note prior to publication; without his 
assistance the species would likely have still remained unrecorded from 
Britain. I also thank the Essex Wildlife Trust for permission to record insects 
at the Rushey Mead Nature Reserve.- Colin W. Plant, 14 West Road, 
Bishops Stortford, Herfordshire CM23 2QP. 

Aderus populneus (Panz.) (CoL: Aderidae) at light in south-east London 

I think it worth noting that a single example of this insect flew to mercury- 
vapour light here on the night of 20 July 1996, even though the species is 
somewhat widespread with us and the above habit already documented. A. 
populneus is however in general far from common, especially in more recent 
times, and, while several records exist for the metropolitan area, they are - I 
believe without exception - matters of ancient history. For this district one 
may cite Lee and Lewisham (Fowler, 1891, Coleoptera of the British Isles 5: 
91). I had only twice before met with this beetle, again singly: Windsor 
Great Park, swept from oak, 6.viii.l953; and Dartford Reach, W. Kent, 
swept under an elm, 11. v. 1965. On the extraordinary habitat-diversity of A. 
populneus, and certain mysterious aspects of biology, see Allen, 1981, Ent. 
Rec. 93: 208-9; and for instance of its exceptional occurrence in large 
numbers in special conditions, see Whitehead, 1996, Ent. mon. Mag. 132: 
194.- A. A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



HYBRIDISATION IN LADYBIRDS 1 1 

INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDISATION IN LADYBIRDS 
(COL.: COCCINELLIDAE) 

Michael E.N. Majerus 

Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3 EH. 

Introduction 

THE MOST COMMONLY used definition of a biological species is based 
upon effective reproduction. Members of a sexually reproducing species do, 
or potentially could, inter-breed amongst themselves, but not with members 
of other species (Mayr, 1963). This definition implies not only that matings 
occur, but that viable and fertile offspring are produced. Matings between 
individuals of putatively different species have long interested biologists for 
their potential in helping to unravel the evolutionary mechanisms of 
speciation, the nature of barriers to mating and so gene-flow between 
populations, and their possible role in the origin of new species. 

Matings between members of different species are a waste of reproductive 
resources for both partners. The waste for females is generally greater than 
for males, because females produce large, heavily resourced gametes, while 
males produce small gametes containing little more than a nucleus and a 
"tail". However, the cost to males is not negligible. Not only does a male 
that mates with a female of another species waste gametes, he wastes energy 
in mating, he wastes time that might be used in more productive ways such 
as feeding, resting or courting more appropriate females, and, as he is less 
mobile while copulating, he may be more prone to predation. He also runs 
the risk of contracting disease from his mating partner. Of course females are 
liable to these latter costs as well. 

Ladybirds that mate with non-conspecific partners suffer all these costs. 
Mating in Adalia bipunctata, a highly promiscuous species, generally lasts 
for several hours. Both sexes expend considerable energy while mating. The 
female almost invariably shows rejection behaviour when mounted by a 
male, stretching up with her back legs, kicking back at the male's genitalia 
and running while swaying her abdomen from side to side. This rejection 
behaviour may last for many minutes before the female accepts the male. 
The male has to cling on while the female is trying to dislodge him. 
Thereafter, he is energetic throughout the copulation, twisting in a 
corkscrew motion during the first phase of mating, and rocking rapidly from 
side to side at regular intervals later (Ransford & Majerus in prep.). Mating 
ladybirds are less mobile than those that are not mating, and, in Coccinella 
7-punctata at least, are consequently more prone to parasitisation by the 
bracionid wasp Dinocampus coccinellae (Majerus, unpublished data). 
Several species of coccinellid {A. bipunctata, A. 10-punctata, C. 11- 
punctata, Hippodamia convergens, Tytthaspis 16-punctata, and two African 
species, Exochomus fulvimanus and E. concaius) are also known to bear a 



12 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

mite, Coccipolipus hippodamiae . This mite is transmitted from one ladybird 
to another during mating and has a detrimental effect on host fecundity and 
fertility (McDaniel & Morrill, 1969; Husband, 1984; Majerus, 1994; Hurst et 
al, 1995; Webberley et al, in prep.). 

Given these potential costs to mating with a member of another species, 
selection should promote mechanisms of species recognition in animals. 
That this is the case is supported by the existence of a huge array of such 
mechanisms and by the fact that interspecific matings are very rare in 
animals. However, they do occur occasionally. This paper contains details of 
a number of interspecific matings involving ladybirds, and discusses the 
reasons for the occurrence of this apparently inept behaviour. 

Observations of hybrid matings 

The records of interspecific matings contained herein comprise three 
categories defined by the situation of the mating ladybirds. Some 
observations are of ladybirds mating in the field. Others are of matings 
between individuals that had recently been collected and had been placed 
together in the same container. The third category involves ladybirds that 
were maintained in the laboratory, under specific conditions, for some period 
before being placed together specifically to determine whether they would 
copulate. 

Field observations 

Details of 18 field observations of interspecific matings are given in Table 1. 
Most of the pairs concerned were collected. These were kept in captivity to 
determine the outcome of the copulation. The ladybirds were kept 
individually in Petri-dishes, and fed daily on pea aphids Acyrthosiphon 
pisum, black bean aphids Aphis fahae or oyster scale Pseudochermes fraxini 
depending on the food preference of the female involved. The dishes 
containing females were examined for eggs daily. If eggs had been laid, the 
female was removed to a clean dish. Eggs were counted and monitored for 
signs of embryonic development. Small pea aphids were added to any dishes 
containing eggs that showed signs of development. If the eggs hatched, 
larvae were reared on pea aphids, using techniques previously described 
(Majerus et al, 1989). The external morphology of fourth instar larvae and 
pupae was examined to compare with that of the parental species. Any 
progeny that reached adulthood were examined in detail. The sex, pronotal 
and elytral colour patterns and other external morphological features were 
noted while these ladybirds were alive. Attempts were then made to back- 
cross them to an opposite sex individual of the parental species that they 
most resembled. In the case of progeny that resembled C. 7 -punctata, adults 
were overwintered before back-crossing, as most British individuals of this 
species require a dormant period before becoming reproductively mature. 
Eggs from any successful matings were collected and their hatch rates 



HYBRIDISATION IN LADYBIRDS 



13 



recorded as an indication of fertility level. Once the ladybirds had died, their 
genitalia were examined to check sex and look for abnormalities that might 
be indicative of an interspecific hybrid origin. 

Brief details of the outcomes of these treatments for each of the pairs 
collected are given in Table 1 . 

Table 1. Records of hybrid matings observed in the field. 

+ Indicates that copulation was already in progress when the pair was first seen. 

* Suspected that the progeny were the result of the female having previously mated with a male of 
her own species. 











Mins. 


No. of 




Location 


Date 


Male 


Female 


mating 


eggs laid 


Egg fate 


Cambridge 


May 1984 


A. bipimctata 


A. 10-punctata 


43+ 


14 


Infertile 


Abingdon, Oxon 


July 1984 


A. bipimctata 


A. 10-punctata 


26+ 


>100 


A. 10-punctata 
progeny* 


Exeter, Devon 


May 1985 


A. bipimctata 


A. 10-punctata 


all day 


? 


(Brakefield, 
pers. comm.) 


Bedford, Beds. 


July 1986 


A. bipimctata 


A. 10-punctata 


30+ 


9 


(Hardimann, 
pers. comm.) 


Totnes, Devon 


July 1987 


A. bipimctata 


A. 10-punctata 


126+ 


>100 


A. 10-punctata 
progeny* 


Totnes, Devon 


July 1987 


A. bipunctata 


A. 10-punctata 


83 


58 


Infertile 


Calais, France 


Sept. 1989 


A. bipunctata 


A. 10-punctata 


24 


None 




Keele, Staffs. 


June 1991 


A. bipunctata 


A. 10-punctata 


154+ 


>200 


A. 10-punctata 
progeny* 


Cardiff 


June 1985 


A. 10-pimctata 


A. bipunctata 


8+ 


5 


Infertile 


Cambridge 


June 1990 


A. 10-punctata 


A. bipunctata 


49+ 


>200 


A. bipunctata 
progeny* 


Hyde Park, 
London 


May 1994 


A. 10-punctata 


A. bipunctata 


38+ 


196 


5 hybrid 
progeny 


Calais, France 


Sept. 1989 


C. 7-punctata 


C. 11 -punctata 


64+ 


None 




Cambridge 


June 1993 


C. 11 -punctata 


C. 7-punctata 


120+ 


287 


C. 7-punctata 
progeny* 


Lincoln 


July 1994 


C. 11 -punctata 


C. 7-punctata 


47 


284 


C. 7-punctata 
progeny* 


Clervaux, 
Luxembourg 


July 1995 


C. 5-punctata 


C. 7-punctata 


58+ 


127 


C. 7-punctata 
progeny* 


Lakenheath, 
Suffolk 


Apr. 1991 


E. 4-pustulatus 


C. 7-punctata 


17 


None 




Chobham 
Common, Surrey 


May 1991 


E. 4-pustulatus 


C. bipustulatus 


102 


14 


Developed but 
did not hatch 


Lakenheath, 
Suffolk 


May 1995 


C. bipustulatus 


E. 4-pustulatus 


36+ 


71 


Developed but 
did not hatch 



14 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

Obsen'ations of recently-collected ladybirds 

Observations of interspecific matings between recently-collected individuals 
involve ladybirds that were either put into the same container in the field, or 
ladybirds that were sent in to the Cambridge Ladybird Survey and were 
placed in the same container, when they were unpacked, before sorting. In 
all cases, the matings involved took place less than 72 hours after the 
ladybirds were collected from the wild. The ladybirds involved were treated 
in the same way as those collected having been observed mating in the wild. 
Details of these pairings appear in Table 2. 

Table 2. Records of hybrid matings between recently collected coccinellids 



1. A female C. 5 -punctata and a male C. 11 -punctata sent in the same box from the 
Spey Valley, Scodand, in June 1987 by Patricia Duncan, mated soon after arrival. 
They subsequently remated on three occasions. The female C. 5-punctata produced 
eggs, however, all the progeny were normal C. 5-punctata, the ensuing stock being 
maintained for two more generations without producing any abnormal descendants. 

2. Male E. 4-pustulatus repeatedly attempted to mate with both a C. renipustulatus 
(sex not determined) and a male A. bipunctata. Mating attempts were apparently 
unsuccessful (Davies, pe/-^. comm.). 

3. Male C. bipustulatus and female E. 4-pustulatus collected Lakenheath, May 1987, 
mated within a few minutes of collection and stayed in copula for over two hours. 
No eggs resulted. 

4. Male C. 7 -punctata placed in container with a number of C. 11 -punctata collected 
earlier the same day, attempted to mate with several of them, and then apparently 
succeeded in copulating with one, remaining in copula for approximately 45 
minutes. Some 73 eggs were produced, but all progeny were normal C. 11- 
punctata. 

5. A female A. bipunctata and a male A. 10 -punctata collected from overwintering 
sites in Cambridge, 11 December 1991, mated the following day while still in 
collecting box. The pair copulated for 75+ minutes. No eggs resulted for 1 1 days. 
Thereafter, a few infertile eggs were laid. 

6. Male A. obliterata mated with a female C. 7 -punctata in the laboratory, for over an 
hour, shortly after being collected from the wild. No fertile eggs resulted. 

7. A sample of T. 16-punctata, swept from grass with a few C. 7-punctata, at King's 
Forest, Suffolk, in June 1994, were placed in the same box. A male T. 16-punctata 
mated with a female C. 7-punctata shortly afterwards. The pair were isolated to 
allow close scrutiny. The pair remained in copula for 71 minutes, the female did 
not appear to reject the male. 

8. A male C. magnifica and a female C. 7-punctata collected together in Germany by 
Hinrich Schulenberg, mated. The pair was sent to John Sloggett in Cambridge. No 
eggs resulted (Sloggett, per^. comm.). 



HYBRIDISATION IN LADYBIRDS 1 5 

Laboratoij obsei'vations 

It is known that isolating A. 10 -punctata or A. bipunctata adults from 
opposite sex conspecific individuals, for a period of two or more weeks, 
while keeping them active (temperature 12-28°C) and well-fed on an 
appropriate aphid diet, will lead these individuals to mate with partners of 
the other species more readily than is normal (Lusis, unpublished data 
communicated by LA. Zakharov; Ireland et al., 1986; Majerus & Keams, 
1989; O'Donald & Majerus, 1993; Majerus, 1994). It was considered 
possible that this procedure might induce other coccinellid species to 
copulate. Therefore, at various times over the last ten years, when culturing 
two or more species of coccinellid, the chance to test this possibility has 
arisen. In these cases, known virgin females of one species that were in 
reproductive condition and had been fed on an excess of a principal food 
{sensu Hodek, 1973) for at least two weeks, were offered males of a different 
species in Petri-dishes, a single pair being placed in each dish. The ladybirds 
were kept under observation and their behaviour recorded. Copulations that 
occurred were timed. Pairs were separated after parting, and the females 
were treated as described above. 

The details of pairs of species tested and the results obtained are given in 
Table 3. 



Results and discussion 

Matings observed in the wild 

Eighteen interspecific hybrid pairs were recorded in the wild. Of these, 15 
were between congeneric species. Of the others, two were between members 
of the sister genera Exochomus and Chilocorus. Only one pair involves 
species that would not be considered closely related, that being the mating 
between E. 4-pustulatus and C. 7-punctata. 

The initial mounting of the female by the male was only observed in five 
of the matings. It was notable that in none of these cases did females show 
strong initial rejection of the male, and insertion of the sipho occurred within 
two minutes. In the mating between E. 4-pustulatus and C. 7-punctata, the 
female began to show vigorous rejection behaviour (kicking back with her 
hind legs) some 16 minutes after being mounted. The male disengaged after 
about a minute. The lack of initial rejection of males by females suggests 
that the females may have been reproductively mature, and ready to oviposit, 
but that they had been unmated for some period. Females (whether virgin or 
not) that have been kept isolated from males for a significant period show 
less rejection behaviour than those that have mated in the last two or three 
days (Ireland et al, 1986). In the case of the female C. 7-punctata that began 
to reject the E. 4-pustulatus male after initially appearing to accept him, her 
response may have been triggered by some genitalial incompatibility. 



16 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25. L 1997 



Table 3. Results of attempts to induce interspecific hybrid matings between 
coccinellids by isolating females for two weeks or more before offering a male of a 
different species 



Male 


Female 


No. of 
matings 


Mean 
mating 
duration 
(mins.) 


No. of 
eggs 


Notes on offspring 


A. bipunctata 


P. 14-punctata 


2 


117 


54 


No development. 


P. 14-punctata 


A. bipunctata 


1 


83 


87 


No development. 


A. bipunctata 


A. obliterata 


5 


96 


167 


No development. 


A. obliterata 


A. bipunctata 


2 


138 


473 


No development. 


H. 4-punctata 


H. axyridis 


4 


164 


128 


8 eggs showed signs of 
development. 
None hatched. 


H. axyridis 


H. 4-punctata 


2 


214 


51 


3 eggs showed signs of 
development. 
None hatched. 


A. oc el lata 


A. labiculata 


4 


98 


201 


15 eggs developed. 
3 hatched. All died in 
first instar. 


A. labiculata 


A. ocellata 


7 


71 


154 


1 1 eggs developed. 
6 hatched. All died in 
first instar. 


C. 7-punctata 


C. magnifica 


W( 


)uld not n 


late in three replicates. 


C. magnifica 


C. 7-punctata 


3 


93 







C. 11 -punctata 


C. 7-punctata 


4 


56 


23 


No development. 


C. 7-punctata 


C. 11 -punctata 


1 


42 







C. renipustulatus 


C. bipustulatus 


1 


45 


16 


2 eggs developed. 
None hatched. 


C. bipustulatus 


C. renipustulatus 


5 


39 


28 


No development. 


E. 4-pustulatus 


C. bipustulatus 


3 


71 


53 


14 eggs developed. 
None hatched. 


C. bipustulatus 


E. 4-pustulatus 


6 


38 


13 


1 egg developed. 
It did not hatch. 



Thirteen of the pairs produced eggs. The eggs from five of the pairs, three 
between A. bipunctata and A. 10-punctata and two between E. 4-pustulatus 
and C. bipustulatus, failed to hatch. The eggs from the matings involving 
Adalia species shrivelled and turned orange after about three days, a pattern 
which usually indicates that eggs are infertile. It is probable that the females 
involved were virgins, or at least were devoid of sperm from previous 
matings. The eggs laid, if they were fertilised at all, showed no signs of 



HYBRIDISATION IN LADYBIRDS 1 7 

development, indicating that zygotes perished very early in embryogenesis. 
Conversely, some of the eggs from the two matings between E. 4-pustulatus 
and C. bipustulatus did begin to develop, turning grey after three days. The 
deduction in the case of these two pairs is that the eggs produced were the 
product of the observed hybrid matings, but that the genetic constitution of 
the species is sufficiently divergent that the zygotes produced suffer 
developmental breakdown. The possibility that the zygotes failed to hatch 
because they became cramped in the eggs before they were ready to hatch, 
as is known to occur in some hybrids between different species of hawkmoth 
(Newman, 1965) was considered. However, this does not seem probable 
given that the two pairs were reciprocal, unless the hybrid zygotes were 
larger than those of either parent. 

The remaining eight pairs produced eggs that did hatch. The egg hatch 
rates of seven of these were high (>70%). Examination of the progeny from 
these seven crosses revealed all to be apparently normal individuals of the 
maternal species. The back-crosses all produced high egg hatch rates, and 
progeny that were normal. The deduction that the females involved in the 
hybrid matings had previously been mated by one or more conspecific males 
is obvious. The final cross, between a male A. 10-punctata and a female A. 
bipunctata produced 183 eggs of which only five hatched. These were all 
raised to adulthood. From examination of the larvae and adults it was 
obvious that these were true hybrids. The fourth instar larvae were paler than 
those of A. bipunctata, but had the abdominal spotting pattern of this species 
rather than that of A. 10-punctata. The patterns of the adults were variable. 
Two had pronotal patterns similar to those of the typical form of A. 
bipunctata, the others having pronota more like those of A. 10-punctata, but 
with the spots fused together. The ground colour of the elytra (at three weeks 
old), was orange in all five cases, and was thus akin to that of A. 10- 
punctata. The elytra of one was marked with a single bold black central spot 
as in typical A. bipunctata. The other four had small dark-brown dots on the 
elytra. Three had six of these dots, the other having ten, positioned as in a 
typical A. 10-punctata. The legs of all five hybrids were brown as in A. 10- 
punctata. Externally, two of the progeny appeared male, the other three 
appearing female. 

Attempts to back-cross these progeny failed to produce issue. Three of the 
individuals (one male and two females) did appear to mate normally, 
however, none of the eggs laid as a result showed any sign of embryonic 
development. 

Dissection of the two males showed each to have severely under- 
developed testes. The sipho of both males appeared indistinguishable from 
that of a normal A. bipunctata. The ovaries of the females were variable. In 
one the ovary was extremely under-developed. In the second the left ovary 
appeared normal, while the right ovary was only partly developed, and the 
ovarioles were somewhat distorted. The ovaries of the third appeared to be 



Ig ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECO RD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

normal The genitalia of the three females were all similar. As with female 
hybrids of these two species described by Ireland et al. (1986), the genitalia 
were more similar to those of A. bipunctata than those of A. 10-puctata, but 
in all three the infundibulum was unique, and readily distinguishable from 
that of either parental species. It is questionable whether, in back-cross 
matings, males of either parental species would be able to insert their sipho 
and manufacture a spermatophore efficiently in one of these female hybrids. 

Recently collected ladybirds 

The observations of interspecific matings between ladybirds recently 
collected extend the range of species which will attempt or actually mate 
together. Again most of the pairings observed were of congeneric species, 
however, two were between individuals from different genera. Both of these 
matings involved female C. 7 -punctata, one pairing with a male Aphidecta 
obliterata, and the other mating, most incongruously with a male T. 16- 
punctata. Because of the difference in size between the sexes in these two 
pairings, and in particular the minute size of the male T. 16-punctata, the 
genital contact was examined both during the copulation and at the moment 
of withdrawal. In both cases the impression was that the male's sipho was 
fully embedded, an impression that was reinforced as the siphos were 
withdrawn. 

There are two possible explanations for the occurrence of interspecific 
hybrid matings between recently collected individuals. First, males may be 
stimulated by the close proximity of, or contact with, other coccinellids, 
particularly if they have not encountered females in the wild for some time. 
Reproductively mature male ladybirds are known to mount other 
coccinellids, and some other beetles, rather indiscriminately of species or 
sex, or even of whether the individual being mounted is alive or dead 
(Majerus, 1994). Second, recently collected females placed with males may 
be prepared to accept non-conspecific partners if the female has not 
copulated for some time. This may be the case when population density is 
low, and appropriate food is common so that members of a species do not 
become concentrated together on a few patches of resource-rich habitat. 
These two possibilities are not mutually exclusive. 

In three of the cases (numbers 1, 3 and 6) it seems probable that what 
might be termed "frustrated female syndrome" was the primary cause of the 
interspecific pairings. With respect to pair 1, both Coccinella 5 -punctata and 
C. 11 -punctata were recorded as being rare in the Spey Valley in 1987 
(Duncan, pers. comm.). Indeed, the female C. 5-punctata in question is one 
of only two recorded from that region since the early 1950s (Majerus & 
Fowles, 1989; Majerus, 1994). That said, the fact that this female produced 
normal C. 5-punctata progeny suggests that she was not a virgin. In the case 
of pair 3, the female species, Exochomus 4-pustulatus, was unusually scarce 
in the Lakenheath area in 1987. The fact that the female that accepted a 



HYBRIDISATION IN LADYBIRDS 19 

C. bipustulatus male failed to produce any eggs suggests that she was devoid 
of conspecific sperm. The same argument applies to the case of the female C. 
7 -punctata that mated with A. obliterata (pair 6). 

The instances of a male E. 4-pustulatus which attempted to mate with both 
a Chilocorus renipustulatus , and a male A. bipunctata (pair 2) and of the 
male C. 7 -punctata that attempted to mate with several C. 11 -punctata (pair 
4) are both probably the result of male "randiness". Certainly the male E. 4- 
pustulatus attempted to mount any ladybird he came into contact with. 

The other two pairings fit less well with either the female frustration 
syndrome or male randiness explanations. The pairing of an A. bipunctata 
with an A. 10-punctata only 24 hours after they were removed from 
overwintering sites is certainly difficult to explain. Usually female A. 
bipunctata have to be fed for several days after removal from overwintering 
sites before they mate. This is probably because ovaries that become 
dormant in the winter have to be reactivated and resourced. The fact that no 
eggs were laid by the female for 1 1 days after the mating suggests that the 
female was not bearing ovaries with mature eggs. The T. 16-punctata that 
mated with a female C. 7-punctata was one of 39 collected with five C. 7- 
punctata by sweeping long grass. All 44 ladybirds were placed in the same 
small perspex container. Both species were very common at the site making 
the female frustration extremely unlikely. It is possible that the male may 
have been stimulated by the proximity of conspecific females in the box, and 
simply mounted the wrong partner. In such a case, the female would usually 
reject a ladybird of another species. That this female C. 7-punctata did not 
reject the male may be a consequence of his very much smaller size. The 
female may simply not have realised what was going on. 

None of these pairings produced true hybrid offspring. In all cases, either 
no eggs were laid, or the eggs were infertile, or the eggs were fertile but the 
progeny produced were normal individuals of the maternal species. 

Laboratoiy pairings 

Most of the pairings set up were of congeneric species. The exceptions were 
crosses of A. bipunctata with both P. 14-punctata and A. obliterata, and of 
E. 4-pustulatus and the two British Chilocorus species. The protocol of 
keeping females isolated from males for two weeks or longer proved 
successful in inducing hybrid mating in all cases except one. The general 
conclusion is that the rejection behaviour that female ladybirds of most 
species show towards non-conspecific males can be broken down easily. 
Interestingly, there was some indication that sympatric species mated less 
readily than those that do not have overlapping distributions. Thus, the pairs 
of species that hybridised most easily were Anatis ocellata and A. labiculata 
from England and the USA respectively, and Harmonia 4-punctata and H. 
axyridis from England and Japan respectively. The reason for this may be 
that part of the female's mate recognition system involves a rejection 



20 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

response to males of other species that they encounter reasonably frequently 
in evolutionary time. This part of the recognition system is only likely to 
extend to sympatric species that share similar habitat requirements. 

The one pairing that did not produce a copulation involved female C. 
magnifica that were placed with male C. 7-punctata. This failure is of 
particular interest because the reciprocal pairing did produce matings, 
although no eggs resulted. Coccinella magnifica is a myrmecophile, usually 
living in close proximity to nests of the wood ant Formica rufa 
(Donisthorpe, 1920; Pontin, 1960; Majerus, 1989). It is morphologically 
very similar to C. 7-punctata, and often occurs with it. Speculation on the 
evolutionary divergence of these two species has concentrated on the 
ecological questions of why C. magnifica lives close to ants, and why it does 
not live elsewhere (see Majerus, 1994 for review). Less consideration has 
been given to the way in which gene flow between the two species was 
arrested. The fact that female C. magnifica would not accept male C. 7- 
punctata, even when the females had been prevented from mating for a 
considerable period, suggests that the mate recognition system of females of 
this species is stronger than that of most. 

Only two of the successful pairings (C. magnifica male x C. 7-punctata 
female and C. 7-punctata male x C. 11 -punctata) failed to produce eggs. 
However, the eggs from six of the pairings did not show any sign of 
development, indicating either that the eggs had not been fertilised, or that 
the zygotes perished early in embryogenesis. 

A small proportion of eggs developed from seven of the hybridisations. 
However, in only two of these, the reciprocal crosses of A. ocellata and A. 
labiculata did any of the eggs hatch, and in both instances all the larvae died 
in the first instar. Interestingly the two reciprocal sets of crosses between 
non-sympatric congeneric species (A. ocellata x A. labiculata and H. 4- 
punctata x H. axyridis all showed some embryonic development, perhaps 
suggesting that the divergence between these species may not be as great as 
that between C. 7-punctata and either C. magnifica or C. 11 -punctata. 

When are interspecific hybrid matings likely to occur in the wild? 
The ease with which females can be induced to mate with males from other 
species suggests that interspecific hybrid matings may occur in the wild 
whenever females of a species do not encounter males very frequently. This 
may occur in three situations. First, when a species is at very low density, 
males and females may simply not come across each other very often. This 
may be the result of a species either being very rare, or being less rare but 
distributed widely and thinly across the environment. 

Second, there is a period towards the end of the main reproductive season 
in Britain, but before the new generation of adults have emerged from their 
pupae and become reproductively mature, when the sex ratio of adults in 
mating condition may become strongly female biased. This is because the 



HYBRIDISATION IN LADYBIRDS 21 

longevity of females is slightly greater than that of males. Such a bias is only 
likely to occur to any appreciable extent in populations that have a single 
generation each year. 

Third, the sex ratio of some species of ladybird may be female biased due 
to the occurrence of male-killing bacteria. A number of species of 
coccinellid are known to be infected by endosymbiotic bacteria that kill male 
embryos but not female embryos. This may result in a female bias in the 
population sex ratio. For example, about 7% of A. bipunctata in Cambridge 
are infected with a male-killing Rickettsia-\\k.& bacterium (Hurst et al., 1992; 
Werren et al., 1994). This results in a pupal population comprising 54% 
females and 46% males (Hurst et. al., 1993). Similarly, some 30% of 
females in some Russian populations of A. bipunctata are infected with a 
spiroplasma male-killer (Zakharov et al., in prep.; Hurst et al., in prep.). In 
these populations the proportion of females is about 60%. The bias may be 
even higher in Japanese populations of H. axyridis, where up to 48% of 
females may be infected by a male-killer (probably a spiroplasma) (Majerus 
et al., in prep.). The female biases in these populations obviously provide 
conditions in which females may not encounter males as often as they would 
were the population sex ration 1:1. 

Conclusion 

In most ladybirds, conspecific mate recognition appears to be primarily a 
function of females. Females that are in reproductive condition and have not 
been denied access to males for a significant period, vigorously reject non- 
conspecific males. However, if females are denied access to males for a 
substantial period, their species recognition system appears to become over- 
ridden by their drive to mate. In such circumstances, females may accept a 
male of another species both in the laboratory and in the field. The male role 
in species recognition appears to be less important. Observations suggest that 
male ladybirds in reproductive condition attempt to mount any others they 
come into contact with irrespective of their sex, species or state of health. 
Inappropriate encounters (i.e. those with other males, or non-conspecific 
females) are, in general, only broken off in response to rejection behaviour, 
or in some cases possibly a lack of an appropriate stimulus from the female. 

It is probable that the conditions required to induce females to accept non- 
conspecific males are rare in the wild. However, they may occur either when 
a species occurs at very low density, or when the overwintering generation 
begins to die off prior to the eclosion of the new generation of adults. It is 
also possible that in species bearing male-killing endosymbionts at high 
frequency, the sex ratio becomes sufficiently female biased to reduce the 
encounter rate between females and conspecific males to a level where 
hybrid matings become a more common occurrence. 

One important consequence of the occurrence of inter-specific hybrid 
matings is that they will allow the transmission of sexually transmitted 



22 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

diseases between species. For example, inter-specific hybridisation may be 
implicated in the finding that the sexually transmitted mite Coccipolipus 
hippodamiae infests a wide range of coccinellid species (Webberley et al., in 
prep.). 

Acknowledgements 

I wish to thank those members of the Cambridge Ladybird Survey who sent 
in records of hybrid matings. At various times over the last 12 years, 
Dominique Betrand, Helen Forge, Greg Hurst, Heather Ireland, Peter 
Kearns, Tamsin Majerus, Emma Purvis, Mark Ransford, John Sloggett, 
Linda Walker and Mary Webberley have helped with the maintenance of 
ladybird cultures. I am also grateful to them for constructive discussion of 
this work at various times, and for bringing hybrid matings to my attention 
in the lab. The work was carried out in a laboratory funded by The Wolfson 
Foundation. The research was funded by donations from members of The 
Cambridge Ladybird Survey, and the Department of Genetics, University of 
Cambridge. 



References 

Donisthorpe, H.StJ.K., 1920. The myrmecophilous ladybird Coccinella distincta, Fald., 

its life-history and association with ants. Entomologist' s Record and Journal of 

Variation, 32: 1-3. 
Hodek, I., 1973. Biology ofCoccinellidae. Junk: The Hague; Academia: Prague. 
Hurst, G.D.D., Majerus, M.E.N. & Walker, L.E., 1992. Cytoplasmic male killing 

elements in Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Heredity, 69: 

84-91. 
Hurst, G.D.D., Majerus, M.E.N. & Walker, L.E., 1993. The importance of cytoplasmic 

male killing elements in natural populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia 

bipunctata (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean 

Society 49: 195-202. 
Hurst, G.D.D., Purvis, E.L., Sloggett, J.J. & Majerus, M.E.N., 1994. The effect of 

infection with male-killing Rickettsia on the demography of female Adalia bipunctata 

L. (two-spot ladybird). Heredity, 73: 309-316. 
Hurst, G.D.D., Sharpe, R.G., Broomfield, A.H., Walker, L.E., Majerus, T.M.O., 

Zakharov, LA. & Majerus, M.E.N. , 1995. Sexually transmitted disease in a 

promiscuous insect, A Ja/za bipunctata L. Ecological Entomology, 20: 230-236. 
Hurst, G.D.D., Von de Schulenberg, H.G., Walters, R., Walker, L.E., Majerus, T.M.O., 

Ashbumer, M. & Majerus, M.E.N., in prep. Group VI spiroplasma associated with 

male-killing in Russian populations oi Adalia bipunctata L. 
Husband, R.W., 1984. The taxonomic position of Coccipolipus (Acarina: 

Podapolipidae), a genus of mites which are parasites of ladybird beetles. In Acarology 

VI, Volume 1, (Eds. Griffiths, D.A. & Bowman, C.E.) pp. 328-336. Ellis Harwood: 

Chichester. 
Ireland, H., Kearns, P.W.E. & Majerus, M.E.N. , 1986. Interspecific hybridisation in the 

Coccinellidae: some observations on an old controversy. Entomologist' s Record and 

Journal of Variation, 98: 181-185. 



HYBRIDISATION IN LADYBIRDS 23 

Majerus, M.E.N. , 1989. Coccinella magnifica Redtenbacher - a myrmecophilous 

ladybird. British Journal of Entomology & Natural History, 1: 1-19. 
- , 1994. Ladybirds {No. 81 New Naturalist Series). Harper Collins, London. 
Majerus, M.E.N. & Keams, P.W.E., 1989. Ladybirds (No. 10 Naturalist' Handbook 

Series). Richmond Publishing, Slough. 
Majerus, M.E.N., Keams, P.W.E., Forge, H. & Ireland, H., 1989. Ladybirds as teaching 

aids: I: Collecting and culturing. Journal of Biological Education, 23: 85-95. 
Majerus, T.M.O., Majerus, M.E.N. , Knowles, B., Wheeler, J., Betrand, D., Kuznetzov, 

v., Ueno, H. & Hurst, G.D.D., in prep. Variation in male killing behaviour in two 

populations of the \didyh\rd Harmonia a.xyridis (Col.: Coccinellidae). 
Mayr, E., 1963. Animal Species and Evolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 

Massachusetts. 
McDaniel, B. & Morrill, W., 1969. A new species of Tetrapolipus from Hippodamia 

convergens from South Dakota (Acarina: Podapolipidae). Annals of the Entomological 

Society of America, 61: 1456-1458. 
Newman, L.H., 1965. Hawkmoths of Great Britain and Ireland. Cassell, London. 
O'Donald, P. & Majerus, M.E.N. , 1992. Non-random mating in the two-spot ladybird, 

Adalia bipunctata. III. New evidence of genetic preference. Heredity, 61: 521-526. 
Pontin, A.J., 1960. Some records of predators and parasites adapted to attack aphids 

attended by ants. Entomologists Monthly Magazine, 95: 154. 
Ransford, M.O. & Majerus, M.E.N. , in prep. Male copulatory behaviour and strategies in 

Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). 
Webberley, K.M., Hurst, G.D.D., Purvis, E.L. & Majerus, M.E.N., in prep. Infestation of 

coccinellids by the mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae (Acarina: Podapolipidae). 
Werren, J.H., Hurst, G.D.D., Zhang, W., Breeuwer, J.A.J., Stouthamer, R. & Majerus, 

M.E.N. , 1994. Rickettsial related male-killing in the ladybird beetle {Adalia 

bipunctata). Journal of Bacteriology, 176: 388-394. 
Zakharov, LA., Hurst, G.D.D., Chemyshova, N.E. & Majerus, M.E.N. , in prep. The 

maternally inherited male-killing bacterium in the Petersburg population of Adalia 

bipunctata does not belong to the genus Rickettsia. Russian Journal of Genetics. 



Some notable Devon Lepidoptera records 

Specimens of Pediasia contaminella Hb. (Pyralidae) were found on the Maer 
Local Nature Reserve, Exmouth, East Devon on 20.vii.l996, during a moth 
event that was being run by East Devon District Council with myself 
operating the moth traps. This species has been recorded from Dawlish 
Warren in the past but this locality is in a different tetrad in the SY section of 
the OS map, whereas the old record is in the SX section. 

A specimen of Ancylosis oblitella Zell. (Pyralidae) was taken on Dawlish 
Warren, South Devon on 19.vii.l996 during a routine moth recording 
session. A second example was later captured on the Axmouth Saltings on 
4.viii.l996. I understand that there have been very few records of this 
species in the past. 

A specimen of the Lace Border Scopula ornata Scop. (Geometridae) was 
captured in the Rothamsted trap in Yarner Wood on 20.viii.l984. The 



24 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

specimen was identified by Adrian Riley and is retained at the Yamer Wood 
Forest Office. As far as I am aware this was the first specimen of this species 
to be captured in Devon. 

A specimen of the Sword Grass Xylena exsoleta L. (Noctuidae) was 
captured in the Rothamsted trap in Yarner Wood, Dartmoor, Devon on 
7.xii.l994. The specimen is retained at the Yamer Wood Forest Office and 
was subsequently confirmed by myself on 25.vii.1996. As far as I can see, 
there have been seven other historic sightings of this species in Devon. 

A specimen of Haworth's Minor Celaena haworthii Curt, was taken by 
Mr A. Jenkins at Chardstock, Devon on 18.viii.l996; there have been 
specimens of this species taken on Dartmoor in the past although none of 
these records have been published. If anyone can help to rectify this lack of 
records of this species it would prove to be very useful. I would like to thank 
Mr Jenkins for allowing me to publish this finding; the specimen is in the 
collection of the author of this note. 

Finally, following my earlier note (Ent. Rec. 108: 148), I have now 
confirmed that the Bloxworth Snout Hypena obsitalis Hb. is in fact breeding 
at Churston, South Devon. Larvae were collected on 2.vii.l996 and were 
bred through to adult on 18.vii.l996 (male) and 22.vii.1996 (female). 
- Roy McCormick, Devonshire Lepidoptera Recorder, 36 Paradise Road, 
Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 8NR. 



Observation of a second generation Orange-tip Anthocharis cardamines 
L. (Lep.: Pieridae) 

Throughout most of Hertfordshire, the Orange-tip remains one of our most 
common butterflies. The 1996 season proved no exception, with large 
numbers being observed on the Environmental Change Network (ECN) 
common butterfly census conducted on the Rothamsted estate. Males of the 
Orange-tip are usually on the wing in late April and early May. The earliest 
siting for Hertfordshire is 13 April 1961 and the latest, 8 July 1902 
(Sawford, 1987, The Butterflies of Hertfordshire, Castlemead, Ware). Very 
occasionally, a second generation may emerge in late summer, (Sawford, 
1987 op. cit., Thomas and Lewington, 1991, The Butterflies of Britain and 
Ireland, Dorling Kindersley, London). On 5 September 1996, on a sunny 
afternoon with a light breeze, whilst working in a garden in the village of 
Redbourn, OS grid reference TL 103122, a male Orange-tip flew in and 
remained briefly but long enough to observe its characteristic orange wing- 
tips. This observation is nearly two months later than any previous record for 
Hertfordshire.- John E. Bater, Department of Entomology and 
Nematology, I ACT Rothamsted, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ. 



NAME OF NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LEOPARD 25 

THE CORRECT NAME OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT 

LEOPARD MOTH 

Martin R. Honey' and Mark Young^ 

' Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD. 
- Culterty Field Station, University of Aberdeen, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire AB41 OAA. 

A CORRECTION is necessary to the scientific name given by Young (1995) 
to the Great Leopard Moth found in 1994 in Aberdeen, which was 
apparently imported from Houston, Texas, USA. The name of this species 
has been the subject of some confusion in the past, even in its native North 
America, and it has been incorrectly cited in the British literature. According 
to Watson and Goodger (1986: 30), the correct scientific name for this 
species is Hypercompe scribonia (Stoll, [1790]) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) 
which occurs naturally in central and eastern North America. 

In Heath and Emmet (1979: 110), de Worms used the name Ecpantheria 
deflorata (Fab.) for a specimen of the Great Leopard Moth that was imported 
with American oak to Edinburgh but gave the type locality of the species as 
"India". This confusion is due to an incorrect citation: ''Bombyx deflorata 
Fabricius, 1794, Ent. Syst. 3(2): 127". This refers to a different species, 
Hyblaea deflorata Fabricius, which was described from India and is now 
placed in the genus Hypocala (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The correct 
reference for Bombyx deflorata is Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Ent.: 582. 

However, the issue is further complicated as B. deflorata was described 
from South America and, according to Watson and Goodger (1986: 30), the 
correct name for the North American species should be scribonia Stoll 
(formerly regarded as a junior synonym of deflorata) . This species is 
currently assigned to the genus Hypercompe Hiibner, [1819], a senior 
synonym of Ecpantheria Hiibner, [1820]. 

The citation in Heath and Emmet (1979) should read: 

"HYPERCOMPE Hubner 

Hypercombe Hubner, [1819], Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pi. [191]. 

Ecpantheria Hubner, [1820], Verz. bekannt. Schmett.: 183. 

HYPERCOMPE SCRIBONIA (StoU) 

Phalaena (Noctua) scribonia Stoll, [1790], Uit. Kapell. (Aanhangsel): 177, 

184,pl. 41,fig. 3. 

Bombyx deflorata sensu auct. 

Type locality: New York." 

The entry in Bradley and Fletcher (1986: 56), no. 2096a should also be 
amended accordingly. 

As no previous illustration of this species has been given in the British 
literature we figure both specimens referred to by Young (1995) (Figs. 1 & 2). 



26 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.1.1997 




Fig. L Hypercompe scribonia (Stoll), female, Aberdeen, 9.vi.l994. 




Fig. 2. H. scribonia (Stoll), female, 18.vii.l974. 
Scale bar = millimetres 

PLATE A 



Acknowledgements 

We thank Dr Mark Shaw, National Museums of Scotland, for the loan of the 
two specimens for illustration and Mr P. Hurst, the Photographic Unit, The 
Natural History Museum, for the black and white photographs. 



OBITUARY ^^ 27 



References 

Bradley, J.D. and Fletcher, D.S., 1986. An indexed list of British Butterflies and Moths. 

Kedleston Press, Orpington. 
Heath, J. and Emmet, A.M. (eds), 1979. Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and 

Ireland. Vol. 9. Curwen Books, London. 
Watson, A. and Goodger, D.T., 1986. Catalogue of the Neotropical tiger-moths. Occ. 

Pap. syst. Ent. 1: 1-71. 
Young, M.R., 1995. An American moth in Aberdeen. Entomologist's Record and 

Journal of Variation, 107: 198-199. 



OBITUARY 

Denis Frank Owen, MA, PhD, DSc, FLS 

Denis Owen died of cancer on 3 October 1996. He was an enthusiastic field 
naturalist and a prolific writer, publishing some 250 scientific papers, ten 
books and numerous articles in many different publications. Besides his 
intellectual and academic achievements he maintained an insatiable zest for 
field natural history, operating the m.v. traps in his rural Oxfordshire garden 
to within three days of his death. 

While still at school he joined the London Natural History Society and 
quickly impressed the senior members of the Society. He took a prominent 
part in the Society's ecological survey of the bombed sites of central 
London, publishing his first entomological paper The macrolepidoptera of 
the Moor gate, London, bombed sites {Entomologist 82: 59-62) in 1949. Later 
that year he was called-up for National Service with the Royal Army 
Ordnance Corps. He was fortunate in some ways that he spent most of his 
two years' service in isolated camps adjacent to the Solway Firth, thus 
giving him splendid opportunities to familiarise himself with the rich 
wildlife to be found there, especially the northern species of Lepidoptera. It 
was here that he captured and described in 1952 a new aberration, inocellata 
Owen, of Erebia aethiops (Esper) (Entomologist 85: 92). 

Towards the end of his army service he was invited by Dr David Lack, 
Director of the Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology at Oxford 
University, to work with him on the ecology of titmice, grey herons, rooks 
and swifts, on which he published several papers in his own right. He 
maintained unabated, however, his interest in entomology, studying insect 
migration with the writer in south-west France in 1953, for example, and 
continuing to publish prolifically on the subject. 

In 1956 he was given a belated opportunity to read for an Honours Degree 
in zoology at Oxford and after graduating in 1958 he went to the USA to 
take up a lectureship at the University of Michigan, gaining his doctorate 
there in 1961. He became well-known in entomological and ornithological 
circles in the United States as papers continued to flow steadily from his pen, 
including four on industrial melanism in North American moths. His first 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.i. 1997 

contribution to the Entomologist' s Record was published in 1950 and his last 
one eariy in 1996 was also concerned with melanism, in Biston betularia L. 
(108: 23). 

In June 1962 he took up a lectureship in Zoology at Makerere University 
College in Kampala, Uganda. This new appointment enabled him to extend 
his interest to the African tropics, especially the genetics and population 
ecology of butterflies and snails. In 1966 his first book. Animal Ecology in 
Tropical Africa, was published. That year a move to West Africa as 
Professor of Zoology at the University of Sierra Leone enabled him to 
expand his studies to that region, and eventually led to the publication of his 
internationally acclaimed book Tropical Butterflies (1971). 

In late 1973 Denis returned to the UK to become Principle Lecturer in the 
Department of Biology at the Oxford Polytechnic, now Oxford Brookes 
University, where he introduced research to what was then a predominantly 
teaching institution. Apart from his academic work he contributed frequently 
to magazines such as the New Scientist and Country Life, and to BBC radio. 

Barely two weeks before he died Owen received an honorary DSc. from 
his university, bravely making a humourous acceptance speech although in 
considerable discomfort. He retired in April 1996 and was looking forward 
to completing some of his outstanding long-term research projects, such as 
the genetics and population ecology of Biston betularia, the evolution and 
mimetic relationships of African butterflies, the evolutionary history of the 
butterflies of the Atlantic Islands and an evaluation of the work of the 
founder of the Record, J.W. Tutt. A paper shortly to be published 
posthumously completed his work on Callimorpha dominula L., in which he 
followed on the early work begun at Cothill by the late E.B. Ford. 

Denis Owen had a magnetic personality combined with prodigious 
intellectual and physical strength, and packed more into his 65 years than 
most would in a hundred. Although outspoken he tempered it with an 
infectious sense of humour. His love and command of the English language, 
backed up as it was by extensive reading by no means confined to natural 
history, made him an excellent communicator and broadcaster. His name 
will be perpetuated in those insects named after him: a West African 
hawkmoth Phylloxiphia oweni and a whole genus of Ichneumonids, Owenus. 
He will be remembered with great affection. We offer our sympathy to his 
first wife, Jennifer, their son and daughter, and his second wife, Clare. 

A Denis Owen Memorial Fund has been set up c/o the Linnean Society of 
London, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London WIV OLQ. 

John F. Burton 

D.F. Owen, RIP 

The committal service for the late Denis Owen took place on 10 October 
1996 at Oxford Crematorium, which is on the road which leads out from 



OBITUARY 29 



Oxford to Bemwood Forest where many of Denis's PhD students did their 
fieldwork. The service was attended by his family, close friends, colleagues 
from Oxford Brookes University and some of those past PhD students, 
including myself and Rachel Thomas, whom I first met at Oxford 
Polytechnic, as Oxford Brookes then was, and who later became my wife. 

On the way into the service with Derek Whiteley, I found a dead moth 
lying on its back on the tarmac by the chapel door. I picked up the insect and 
was able to identify it immediately as Blair's Shoulder-knot Lithophane 
leautieri Boisd, This, of course, was a moth which particularly interested 
Denis, who wrote a couple of papers on it and arranged for co-workers to 
investigate its recent colonisation of Britain. Derek Whiteley prepared a fine 
illustration of the moth, which adorned one of those papers. The original 
artwork hung on a wall in the "Poly" throughout my time there. The moth 
was recorded for the first time ever in Bemwood Forest during my PhD work 
in the mid-1980s. It is now well established and common in the Oxford area 
and no doubt its foodplant grows near the Crematorium chapel. 

Before entering the service, I placed the moth in one of the flower 
arrangements. After the service I decided to retrieve the moth but failed to 
find it. If I were superstitious, I am sure I would regard the finding, and even 
the subsequent disappearance, of that particular moth, with all its 
associations, as a good omen. But this was all a matter of coincidence, 
wasn't it? 

Rest in peace, Denis Owen. You will not be forgotten. 

Paul Waring 



Fletcher's Pug versus Pauper Pug Eupithecia egenaria H.-S. 
(Lep.: Geometridae) 

Reflection on the use of English names for British butterflies and moths is 
sparked by Bernard Skinner's thoughtful article {Ent. Rec. 108: 284-285). 
Vernacular epithets are available for most taxa and eligible for general 
purposes, unfettered by the rules that apply to the latinised scientific names 
under the zoological code (International Code of Zoological Nomenclature). 
Their application is governed chiefly by suitability and a consensual theme 
with an awareness of the principle of priority. An English name, if 
consistently and logically applied, can be a useful surrogate if a scientific 
name, although always preferable, is difficult to call to mind or has been 
changed. 

Indeed, many species have more than one common name. Species that are 
widely distributed geographically often accumulate an assortment, eg. the 
Scarce Bordered Straw Heliothis armigera Hb. (Noctuidae), which is an 
abundant agricultural pest found from Europe to Australasia, is also known 
as the Com Earworm, Old World Bollworm, African Cotton BoUworm, the 



30 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

Tomatoworm and, at one stage, erroneously as the American BoUworm. 
Conceivably, with global warming causing a stronger northerly drift, the 
"Scarce" element in the present British appellation may require emendation. 
Other such "Status" names at risk could be mentioned, and one wonders 
whether converse misnomers might arise among common species in decline, 
eg. the Common Clothes Moth Tineola bisselliella Hummel (Tineidae). 

The scientific name Eupithecia egenaria appears in An accentuated list of 
the British Lepidoptera (1858: 25), and the derivation of the specific name is 
given as "poor, needy". So far as is known, early records of egenaria were 
due to misidentifications of Freyer's Pug E. intricata Zett. and the Golden- 
rod Pug E. virgaureata Doubl. Nevertheless, Heslop (1947, Indexed Check- 
List of British Lepidoptera) included the species as British and introduced 
the common name Pauper Pug. The species is, however, excluded from the 
revised version (1952-62, Entomologist' s Gazette 10-13). 

The first fully authenticated finding of egenaria as a resident species in 
Britain was in June 1962. Mere (1962, Entomologist' s Gazette 13: 155-158) 
relates the sequence of events that led to its discovery and proposed the 
name Fletcher's Pug to commemorate the role played by Steve Fletcher of 
the Natural History Museum, who specialised in Geometridae and suggested 
searching for this species in the stands of Large-leaved Lime Tilia 
platyphyllos in the Wye Valley in Monmouthshire. Heslop 's epithet Pauper 
Pug was used in the Log Book (Bradley & Fletcher, 1979) in deference to its 
seniority. But at my instigation it was replaced by Fletcher's Pug in the 
indexed list (Bradley & Fletcher, 1986). To me the appellation Pauper Pug is 
unuseful, the moth being no more pauperate than most of its congeners. On 
the other hand the commemorative name Fletcher's Pug has connotations of 
inspired field work and discovery; but perhaps I am not totally impartial 
since we were colleagues at the BM for half a century.- J.D. Bradley, 
Conifers, Chard Junction, Chard, Somerset TA20 4QJ. 

The larva of Hyles lineata livornica Esper (Lep.: Sphingidae) in 
Shropshire 

On 26 July 1996 a single larva of Hyles lineata livornica was found on 
rosebay willowherb Chamaenerion angustifolium near Quatford, Shropshire 
(VC 40). In captivity the larva moulted once and was fed on rosebay until 
full-grown; although it started to construct a rather flimsy cocoon amongst 
dried leaves and sand, it failed to pupate and perished on 1 1 August, possibly 
from a viral infection. The capture site was an open clearing with coniferous 
woodland on the National Trust Estate at Dudmaston (grid reference 
S0746897), where the hostplant was abundant over disturbed ground 
following recent tree felling operations. Despite further searches on 26 July 
and again the following week, no further larvae were located.-A.P. Foster, 
23 The Dawneys, Crudwell, Malmesbury, Wiltshire SN16 9HE. 



SOUTH WALES MICROLEPEDOPTERA 3 1 

MICROLEPIDOPTERA RECORDED FROM SOUTH WALES IN 
1995, INCLUDING FOUR SPECIES NEW TO WALES 

David Slade 

53 Woodville Road, Cathay s, CardijfCFI 4DX. 

DURING THE SUMMER of 1995, Darren Mann and I were contracted by 
the Zoology Department of the National Museums and Galleries of Wales to 
collect material for their entomological collections. Around 30 sites in South 
Wales were visited between June and October, and each site was visited at 
least twice during this period. Unfortunately since it was necessary to collect 
material from all orders, it was impossible to concentrate on any one group. 
Also, we were able to go light trapping only four times. Since this is 
generally accepted as the main method for collecting Lepidoptera, it easily 
accounts for the low number of Microlepidoptera recorded, which is just 
over 150 to date. 

A provisional list of the Microlepidoptera resulting from this field work 
was forwarded to David Agassiz for comment, who in turn passed it on to 
Maitland Emmet, who stated (pers. comm.) that four of the species listed 
were new to Wales, and that over 30 of the species listed from Glamorgan 
(VC41) had not previously been recorded from that vice-county. However, 
since this list was initiated, records from earlier this century have come to 
light, indicating that although unpublished, many of the species added to the 
Glamorgan list were known to occur in the area by Hallett (1918, and his 
notes). 

Some records from a malaise trap survey at Kenfig NNR in 1993 have 
also been included. 

Species of particular interest: 

Phyllonoiycter saportella (Duponchel) (Gracilariidae) 

Provisional second Welsh record. This species was previously recorded in 

Wales from Denbighshire (VC50) by J.S. Ashworth (1855). It is an oak 

feeder, but my specimen was taken at light. I will be much happier with the 

record once the larval mines have been located, especially since there are 

very few oak trees at Kenfig. 

Coleophora trifolii (Curtis) (Coleophoridae) 

New to Wales. This species is recorded from every adjacent English county, 
as well as from the Isle of Man, and five Irish counties. It has presumably 
been overlooked in Wales. It occurs on dry pastures and waste-ground, 
where the foodplant Melilot Melilotus occurs. 

Blastobasis decolorella (WoUaston) (Blastobasidae) 

New to Wales. Since this species feeds in leaf-litter, has no specific habitat 
requirements and is extending its range, I would expect to find it throughout 
the region. 



32 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.1.1997 



Aethes dilucidana (Stephens) (Tortricidae) 

New to Wales. This species inhabits calcareous soils, feeding on Wild 
Parsnip, Pastinaca and Hogweed, Heracleum. There is no obvious reason for 
it not to occur at other similar sites in South Wales. 

Eucosma tripoliana (Barrett) (Tortricidae) 

New to Wales. Although mainly restricted to the southern and eastern coasts 
of England, it has been recorded from across the Bristol Channel in 
Somerset. It is a saltmarsh species feeding on sea aster, Aster tripolium. 

Species not covered by any easily obtainable publication were either 
identified by comparison with the museum's collection (eg Aristotelia 
ericinella (Zeller) (Gelechiidae)), or were passed on to David Agassiz who 
kindly identified them for me (or at least pointed me in the right direction). 
Material is still being processed, and the list could double when some of the 
more difficult species have been identified. 

The following list represents all the species of microlepidoptera from the 
1995 season identified to date. Species new to Wales are printed in bold 
type. To save space, each site has been given a number code, as represented 
in the following table. 



Glamorgan (VC41) 

Site 

Number Site Name and Status 

1 Aberthaw Leys SSSl 

2 Atlantic Great Wharf SSSl 

3 Crymlyn Bog NNR 

4 Crymly Burrows SSSl 

5 Hawordian LNR 

6 Kenfig NNR 

7 Merthyr-mawr Warren 

8 Michealston Marsh 

9 Oxwich Bay NNR 

10 Plymouth Great Wood 

1 1 Tydu Marsh 

12 Tidal sidings 

13 Waterhall Plantation 



lOkm Grid 
Reference Habitat 

ST06 Saltmarsh, coastal shingle, pool. 

ST27 Coastal grazing marsh, fen, ditches. 

SS69 Lowland fen, carr. 

SS79 Coastal dune, slacks and scrub 
woodland. 

ST 17 Damp grassland, marsh and 
secondary woodland. 

SS78 An extensive dune system, including 
good slacks with temporary pools, 
and a large permanent pool. 

SS87 Calcareous dunes, saltmarsh, 
woodland. 

ST17 Secondary oak/ash woodland, marsh 
and pool. The river Ely forms part of 
the site boundary. 

SS58 Dunes, woodland, saltmarsh. 

ST 17 Mixed woodland. 

ST 17 Marshland and secondary woodland. 

ST17 Scrubland. 

ST 17 Secondary woodland, grassland and 
marsh. 



SOUTH WALES MICROLEPIDOPTERA 



33 



Monmouthshire (VC35) 

Site lOkm Grid 

Number Site Name and Status Reference Habitat 

1 Bargain Woods SO50 

2 Cwm Merddog LNR SO 10 

3 Gellyrhydd Farm S021 
(nr Crickhowell) 

4 Magor Marsh LNR, SSSI ST48 



5 Peterson Great Wharf ST27 

6 WyndcHff (Wye Valley) ST59 



Plantation woodland. 

Open woodland, interspersed with 
wet flushes and open meadow. 

Unimproved pastures, alongside a 
tributary of the river Usk. 

The last remnant fenland on the 
Gwent Levels. Contains areas of 
ponds, ditches, reedbeds and willow 
carr. 

Coastal grazing marsh, fen, ditches. 

Broadleaved woodland, including 
small-leaved lime. 



Brecknock (VC42) 

Site 

Number Site Name and Status 



Cae Bryntywarch LNR 
Coad Dyrysiog LNR 

Daudraeth Illtud LNR 



lOkm Grid 
Reference Habitat 

SN82 



Damp unimproved herb-rich pasture 
with a dry bank and wet flushes. 

A mixed broadleaved woodland on a 
steep bank of red sandstone. Some 
wet flushes. 

Moorland, including a collection of 
pools and peat-filled hollows. Part of 
the site has blanket bog vegetation, 
with many flushes and a basin fen. 

Upland birchwood 

Permanent pastures, including both 
dry and damp meadows. 

The following format is used to present the records: 



Pont-nedd-fechan LNR 
Vicarage Meadows LNR 



SN93 



SN92 



SN80 
SN85 



0464 Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) 



VC35 2(viii), VC41 3(vii), 
6(vii, m.v.), 13(vii, m.v.) 



Explanation 

0464 = Bradley and Fletcher (1979) number. 

Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) = species name and author. 

VC35 2(viii) = vice-county, site number and (month). 

VC35 = vice-county of Monmouthshire (Site number 2 = Cwm Merddog, SO 10, 
taken in August) 

VC41 = Glamorgan sites; 3 = Crymlyn Bog; 6 = Kenfig NNR; 13 = Waterhall 
Plantation. All from July, with the Kenfig and Waterhall Plantation specimens 
taken at m.v. light. 



34 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.L1997 



Voucher material is held at the NMW, Cathays Park, Cardiff, under the 
accession number, NMW.Z. 1995.033. 

I would greatly appreciate any records of Microlepidoptera from the vice- 
county of Glamorgan for inclusion in a forthcoming review of the county 
fauna. 



Nepticulidae 

0019 Bohemannia quadrimaculella (Boheman) 

Tischeriidae 

0125 Emmetia marginea (HawoTth) 

Incurvariidae 

0130 Incurvaria masculella 

([Denis & Schiffermuller]) 

Tineidae 

0219 Nemapogon rwicolella (Stainton) 

Gracillariidae 

0286 Caloptilia alchimiella (Scopoli) 

0288 C. stigmatella (Fabricius) 

0297 Calybites auroguttella (Stephens) 

03 19? Phyllonorycter saportella (Duponchel) 

Choreutidae 

0385 Anthophila fabriciana (Linnaeus) 

Glyphipterigidae 

0396 Glyphipterix fuscoviridella (Haworth) 

0397 G. thrasonella (Scopoli) 

0470 Orthotelia sparganella (Thunberg) 



Yponomeutidae 

0410 Argyresthia brockeella (Linnaeus) 

0411 A. goedartella (Vivihntx) 

0424 Yponomeuta evonymella (Linnaeus) 

0425 Y. padella (Linnaeus) 
0428 Y. rorrella (Hubner) 

0449 Prays fraxinella (Bjerkander) 

0455 Ypsolopha scabrella (Linnaeus) 

0460 Y. parent he sella (Linnaeus) 

0461 Y.ustella (Clerck) 

0464 Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) 



VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 



VC41 6(ix) 



VC41 6(vii) 



VC41 13(vii) 



VC41 13(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 6(vii) 
VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 



VC416(vii), VC42 2(viii) 



VC41 7(v) 

VC35 3(vi), VC41 11 (vi) 
VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 
8(vii, m.v.), 13(vii, m.v.) 



VC41 3(vii), 8(vi), 
13(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 13(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 
VC35 6(vi) 
VC41 8(vii, m.v.) 
VC35 2(viii), VC42 l(viii) 
VC42 2(viii) 

VC35 2(viii), VC41 3(vii), 
6(vii, m.v.), 13(vii, m.v.) 



Schreckensteiniidae 

0485 Schreckensteiniafestaliella (Hubner) 



VC41 3(vii) 



SOUTH WALES MICROLEPIDOPTERA 



35 



Coleophoridae 




0490 


Coleophora lutipennella (Zeller) 


VC41 6(vii), 13(vii) 


0492 


C. flavipennella (Duponchel) 


VC41 13(vii) 


0493 


C. serratella (Linneaus) 


VC41 6(vii) 


0504 


Coleophora lusciniaepennella (Treitschke) 






= viminetella Zeller 


VC41 4(ix, larvae) 


0510 


C. juncicolella Stainton 


VC41 3(vii) 


0512 


C. binderella (Kollar) 


VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 


0516 


C. trifolii (Curtis) 


VC41 l(vii) 


0518 


C. mayrella (Hubner) 


VC41 6(vii) 


0519 


C. deawatella Lienig & Zeller 


VC41 6(vii) 


0530 


C. lixella Zeller 


VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 


0547 


C discordella Zeller 


VC41 6(vii) 


0563 


C. argentula (Stephens) 


VC41 12(x, larvae) 


0573 


C. atriplicis Meyrick 


VC41 l(vii) 


0582 


C. glaucicolella Wood 


VC41 6(vii) 


0583 


C. tamesis Waters 


VC41 3(vii), 6(vii, m.v.) 


0587 


C. caespititiella Zeller 


VC41 2(vi) 



Elachistidae 

0609 Elachista monosemiella Rossler 
= cerusella (Hubner) 

Oecophoridae 

0658 Carcina quercana (Fabricius) 
0701 Agonopterix oceUana (Fabricius) 

Gelechiidae 

0726 Metzneria metzneriella (Stainton) 



VC41 6(vii-viii, 1993, 
Malaise), 8(vii, m.v.), 
13(vii. m.v.) 

VC41 3(vii, m.v.), 6(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 3(ix) 



0731 
0733 

0752 
0779 

0782 
0787 
0812 
0819 



0855 
0858 
0859 
0868 



VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 
13(vii, m.v.) 
Eulamprotes atrella{\PQms & Schiffermiiller]) VC41 6(vii) 



E. wilkella (Linnaeus) 

Aristotelia ericinella (Zeller) 
Bryotropha ajfinis (Haworth) 

B. senectella (Zeller) 
B. terrella ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 
Scrobipalpa instabilella (Douglas) 
S. costella (Humphreys & Westwood) 



Acompsia cinerella (Clerck) 
Hypatima rhomboidella (Linnaeus) 
Psoricoptera gibbosella (Zeller) 
Brachmia rufescens Haworth) 



Blastobasidae 

0873 Blastobasis lignea Walsingham 

0874 B. decolorella (Wollaston) 



VC41 6(viii-ix), 1993, 

Malaise) 

VC41 3(vii) 

VC41 6(vii-viii, 1993, 

Malaise) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC41 4(vii) 

VC35 2(viii), 

VC41 6(vii-viii, 1993, 

Malaise), 8(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 13(vii), VC42 2(ix) 

VC41 13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii,m.v.), 

13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 13(vii,m.v.) 
VC41 3(vii), 4(ix) 



36 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.i.l997 



Bactrachedridae 

0878 Batrachedra praeangusta (Haworth) 

Momphidae 

0886 Mompha ochraceella (Curtis) 

0893 M. epilobiella ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) 

Cosmopterigidae 

0898 Limnaecia phragmitella Stainton 

0904 Spuleria flavicaput (Haworth) 



Tortricidae 

0926 Phalonidia manniana 

(Fischer von Rosslerstamm) 

0959 Cochylidia rupicola (Curtis) 

0937 Agapeta hamana (Linnaeus) 

0949 Aethes dilucidana (Stephens) 

0964 Cochylis dubitana (Hiibner) 

0970 Pandemis cerasana (Hiibner) 

0972 P. heparana ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) 

0977 Archips podana (Scopoli) 

0994 Clepsis consimilana (Hiibner) 

0993 C. spectrana (Treitschke) 

0998 Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) 

1000 Ptycholoma lecheana (Linnaeus) 

1010 Ditula angustiorana (Haworth) 

1011 Pseudargyrotoza conwagana (Fabricius) 

1016 Cnephasia longana (Haworth) 

1018 C. communana (Herrich-Schaffer) 

1020 C. stephensiana (Doubleday) 

1021 C. inter jectana (Haworth) 

1022 C. pasiuana (Hiibner) 
1033 Tortrixviridana (Linnaeus) 
1036 Acleris forsskaleana (Linnaeus) 

1038 A. later ana (Fabricius) 

1043 A. aspersana (Hiibner) 

1053 A. hastiana (Linnaeus) 

1062 A. emargana (Fabricius) 

1067 Celypha cespitana (Hiibner) 

1076 Olethreutes lacunana 

([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

1082 Hedya pruniana (HubneT) 



VC42 3(viii) 



VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 
VC35 4(x) 



VC41 8(vii, m.v.), 
13(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 
13(vii, m.v.) 



VC41 6(vii) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 8(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 4(vii) 

VC41 4(vii) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 

8(vii. m.v.), 13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC41 8(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 

13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(x, m.v.), 12(x) 

VC41 lO(vii) 

VC41 8(vii, m.v.) 

VC35 6(vi), 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.), lO(vi) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC42 4(v) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 

8(vii, m.v.), 13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 

8(vi), 13(vii) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 lO(vi), 11 (vi) 

VC41 8(vii, m.v.), 

13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 3(vii) 

VC41 4(vii), 6(vii), 7(vii) 

VC41 6(x) 

VC42 l(viii) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC35 3(vi), 4(viii), 

VC41 3(vii), 6(vii), 8(vi), 

lO(vi), ll(vi) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 



SOUTH WALES MICROLEPIDOPTERA 



37 



1092 Apotomis turbidana (Hiibner) 

1098 Endothenia oblongana (Haworth) 

1 108 Lobesia abscisana (Doubleday) 

1 1 1 1 Bactra lancealana (Hiibner) 

1113 Eudemis profundana 

([Denis & Schiffermuller]) 

1 126 Ancylis badiana ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

1 134 Epinotia ramella (Linneaus) 

1 139 E. tenerana ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

1 147 E. cruciana (Linnaeus) 

1154 E. caprana (Fabricius) 

1155 E. brunnichana (Linnaeus) 

1 169 Gypsonoma dealbana (Frolich) 

1 175 Epiblema uddmanniana (Linnaeus) 

1 178 E. roborana ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) 

1183 E. foenella (Linnaeus) 

1 184 E. scutulana ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 
1 187 E. costipunctana (Haworth) 

1193 Eucosma tripoliana (Barrett) 

1 197 E. campoliliana ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

1200 E. hohenwartiana ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

1201 E. cana (Haworth) 

1202 E. obumbratana (Lienig & Zeller) 

1205 Spilonota ocellana ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

1219 Lathronympha sthgana (Fabricius) 

1241 Cydia compositella (Fabricius) 

1257 C. nigricana (Fabricius) 

1260 C . splendana (livibnQr) 

1272 C. aurana (Fabricius) 

1273 Dichrorampha petiverella (Linnaeus) 
1281 D . simpliciana (HsiwoTth) 

Alucitidae 

1288 Alucita hexadactyla (Linnaeus) 

Pyralidae 

1290 Chilo phragmitella (HuhnQT) 

1293 Chrysoteuchia culmella (Linnaeus) 



1294 Crambus pascuella (Linnaeus) 

1301 C. lathoniellus (Zincken) 

1302 C . perlella {Sco^oW) 

1303 Agriphila selasella (Hiibner) 



VC41 lO(vi) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC41 13(vii, m.v.) 

VC35 3(vi), 4(viii), 

VC41 3(vii), 8(vii) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 

13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 4(vii), 6(vii), 13(vii) 

VC42 2(viii), 3(viii) 

VC41 6(vii), 

VC42 l(viii), 2(viii) 

VC41 6(vii), 9(vii) 

VC41 6(vii-viii, 1993, 

Malaise) 

VC41 13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 

13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii,m.v.), 

8(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 5(vi) 

VC41 8(vi) 

VC41 4(vii) 

VC41 8(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 4(vii) 

VC41 13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC41 3(vii), 4(vii), 6(vii) 

VC41 lO(vi) 

VC41 8(vii, m.v.), 

13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 4(vi), 13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 8(vi) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC35 l(vi), VC41 3(vii), 

4(vii), 6(vii), 8(vii, m.v.), 

ll(vi), 13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 3(vii) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC41 3(vii), 4(vii), 6(vii), 

13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 4(vii) 



38 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.1.1997 



1304 A. straminella ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 



1305 A. tristella ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

1309 A. geniculea (Haworth) 

1311 Acentria ephemerella 

([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

1334 Scoparia ambigualis (Trietschke) 

1338 Dipleurina lacustrata (Panzer) 

1 336 Eudonia pallida (Curtis) 

1341 E.lineola {CmXi^) 

1342 E. angustea (Curtis) 
1344 E. mercurella (Linnaeus) 

1348 Parapoynx stratiotata (Linnaeus) 

1350 P. stagnata (Donovan) 

1354 Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus) 

1358 Evergestis pallidata (Hufnagel) 

1361 Pyrausta aurata {Sco'poM) 

1365 P. cespitalis ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

1376 Eurrhypara hortulata (Linnaeus) 

1388 U dea lutealis {Wuhntr) 

1398 N omophila noctuella 

([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

1405 Pleuroptya ruralis (Scopoli) 

1413 Hypsopygia costalis (Fabricius) 

1424 Endotricha flammealis 

([Denis & Schiffermuller]) 

1438 Eurhodope suave I la (Zincken) 

1452 Phycita roborella ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

1470 Euzophera pinguis (Haworth) 



VC41 2(vii), 3(vii), 4(vii), 
6(vii), 8(vii, m.v.), 9(vii), 
13(vii, m.v.), VC42 3(viii) 
VC41 4(vii), 8(vii, m.v.), 
13(vii, m.v.) 
VC35 l(viii) 

VC41 8(vii, m.v.), 

13(vii, m.v.) 

VC35 3(vi) 

VC35 2(viii), 

VC41 13(vii,m.v.) 

VC41 6(viii) 

VC41 6vii, m.v.) 

VC35 4, VC41 4(ix, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 

13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 8(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 3(vii), 6(vii, m.v.) 

VC35 4(viii), VC41 6(x, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 6(vii) 

VC41 4(vii), 6(vii), 7(vii) 

VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 13(vii) 

VC41 6(ix), 9(ix), 12(x), 

VC42 5(ix) 

VC41 8(vii, m.v.), 

13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 8(vii, m.v.), 

13(vii, m.v.) 

VC41 13(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 13(vii,m.v.) 
VC41 13(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 8(vii, m.v.), 
13(vii, m.v.) 



Pterophoridae 

1495 Marasmarcha lunaedactyla (Haworth) 
1504 Platyptilia pallidactyla (Haworth) 
1509 Stenoptilia pterodactyla (Linnaeus) 
1513 Pterophorus pentadactyla (Linnaeus) 
1524 Emmelina monodactyla (Linnaeus) 



VC41 6(vii, m.v.), 9(vii) 
VC41 13(vii) 
VC41 6(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 13(vii, m.v.) 
VC41 3(xi), 6(vi-vii„ 
Malaise, 1993) 



Acknowledgements 

I would like to thank the National Museum of Wales and Dr Mike Wilson 
for making funds available for the field work and the Gwent and Brecknock 



SOUTH WALES MICROLEPIDOPTERA 39 

Wildlife Trusts and their conservation officers who gave us permission to 
visit their sites. Permission for SSSI was kindly granted by Countryside 
Council for Wales. My thanks to David Agassiz for confirming some of my 
identifications and adding some of his own, and to Col. Maitland Emmet for 
information and invaluable advice. And finally, to Darren Mann for his 
company and expertise during the collecting trips. 

References and Biliography 

Agassiz, D.J.L., 1987. British Argyresthiinae and Yponomeutinae. Proc. Trans. Br. ent. 

nat. Hist. Soc. 20: 1-36, 2 col. pis. 
Ashworth, J.S., 1855. List of a few rare lepidoptera captured in Wales. Zoologist: 4184- 

4185. 
Bradley, J.D. & Fletcher, D.S., 1979. A recorder's log book on label list of British 

butterflies and moths. London. 
Bradley, J.D., Tremewan, W.G. & Smith, A., 1973, 1979. British tortricoid moths, 1,2. 

Ray Society, London. 
Goater, B., 1986. British pyralid moths, Harley Books, Colchester. 
Hallett, H.M., 1918. The Lepidoptera of Glamorgan. Trans. Cardiff Ent. Soc. 50: 45-86 

[copy with annotations by the author]. 
Heath, J. & Emmet, A.M. (Eds), 1975, 1985, 1991. The moths and butterflies of Great 

Britain and Ireland, 1, 2 & 7(ii). London, Colchester. 
Jacobs, S.N. A. et al. Illustrated papers on British Microlepidoptera. BENHS, London. 
Johansson, R., Nielsen, E.S., van Nieukerken, E.J. & Gustafsson, B., 1990. The 

Nepticulidae & Opostegidae (Lepidoptera) of North- West Europe. Fauna ent. scand. 

23(1,2). 
Patzak, H., 1974. Beitrage zur Insektenfauna der DDR: Lepidoptera - Coleophoridae. 

Beitr. Ent. 24: 153-278*^ 
Pierce, F.N. & Metcalfe, J.W., 1922. The genitalia of the group Tortricidae of the 

Lepidoptera of the British Islands, xxii, 101pp., 34 pis. Oundle. 
- , 1935. The genitalia of the tineid families of the Lepidoptera of the British Islands, 

xxii, 114pp., 68 pis. Oundle. 
Traugott-Olsen, E. & Nielsen, E.S., 1977. The Elachistidae (Lepidoptera) of 

Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna ent. scand. 6. 



The Pale Shoulder Acontia lucida Hufn. (Noctuidae) and the Small 
Eggar Eriogaster lanestris L. (Lasiocampidae) in Hampshire 

I was delighted to find a larval web of the Small Eggar Eriogaster lanestris 
on blackthorn Prunus spinosa on the Hampshire/ Dorset border, in VC 1 1 , 
on 8 July 1996 in an area where the species was rediscovered in 1993 (B. 
Goater, pers. comm.). A few weeks later, on 19 August 1996, a fine 
specimen of the uncommon immigrant Pale Shoulder Acontia lucida was 
taken at m.v. light by Andrew Page at his home in Linford, also in 
Hampshire. This is the first record of this species for Hampshire and only the 
fifth British example for the present century.- R. Cook, 11 Greensome 
Drive, Femdown, Dorset BH22 8BE. 



40 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - vanishing Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson, 
Oban Hills, Nigeria, March 1995 

Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson is one of the largest butterflies in the world, and 
after P. antimachus Drury the second-largest in Africa (its wing contour 
covers these pages). I had never caught either until I visited the Oban Hills 
National Park near Calabar in the Cross River National Park in Nigeria. On 
our way to Old Ekuri we crossed a river. I always stop to check whether 
something interesting might be drinking along the banks. Here was a fresh 
male P. zalmoxis. The sight of this magnificent insect, twice as large as any 
other local butterfly, reduced even this hardened specialist to a state of 
adrenaline-bolstered jelly. I missed it in the first try, but - glory be - it came 
back, and I got it with a two-handed backstroke. More luck than I deserved! 
The adrenaline vanished, only the jelly remained! It took me several minutes 
to fully recover. 

In the rainforest it is often difficult to dry the butterflies collected, which is 
important since they may otherwise rot or get mouldy. That evening I 
carefully hung the day's butterflies to dry on a washing-line under the ceiling 
of the room that we had been allocated by the chief, in a open box, inside a 
spare net-bag, suspended by a pipe-cleaner. That should keep them clear of 
marauding ants. During the night, mice managed to climb this structure, 
chew their way through the butterfly net, and eat a total of eight butterflies - 
including my first and only P. zalmoxis as the most important casualty. Only 
a sliver of blue wing remained. This seemed to indicate that P. zalmoxis is 
not a toxic species, though its bright-yellow abdomen might suggest this. 
Rothschild & Reichstein {Amenna, 1994, 18(4): 207) found that its larger 
cousin, P. antimachus has sufficient toxins to kill several cats. But, of 
course, I do not know what subsequently happened to the mice in question! I 
caught another P. zalmoxis the following day, and devised a safer drying 
apparatus. I also managed to see the mice - walnut-sized little creatures that 
could hardly have weighed more than the butterflies they ate. 

I hired a young man to keep watch on the P. zalmoxis situation at the 
second river - at the princely sun of £1.30 a day, with a promise of double 
that for success - but for the next four days none turned up, and neither did 
P. amimachus. These two giants of the butterfly world tend to keep high in 
the canopy, but the males are addicted to drinking from river-banks. I guess 
that at least 90% of all specimens in collections were collected at water, 
which accounts also for the fact that there are only one or two females for 
every hundred males. There is no doubt that they are both extremely scarce 
in West Africa, though widely distributed where primary forest remains. 

During several years as District Commissioner in the 1960s at Ikom, 
which covers what is now the national park, my good friend. Bob St. Leger 
saw only a few of either giants, though P. zalmoxis was certainly the 
commoner of the two. A few days before his much too early death in 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 41 

December 1994 he told me that he had seen P. antimachus only rarely, and 
caught only one - under circumstances worth recording. He was driving 
back from Calabar to Ikom and stopped for mechanical reasons close to a bit 
of surviving primary forest. While he was tinkering with the car, a huge and 
perfect P. antimachus swooped down to investigate - quite possibly attracted 
by the impression of water given by the chrome bumpers of the car. With the 
unflappable calm bom of a long career in the colonial service, he did the 
right thing, on the spot - he peed, just in front of the bumper. Four minutes 
later, the prize was in his net. I assume the car was eventually fixed as well! 

One day I shall also bag my first P. antimachus. There are 3700 butterfly 
species in Africa, and 1400 of these are in West Africa. I am supposedly 
studying all of these in a scientific manner. Species new to science turn up at 
a low but steady rate. No foray into West Africa fails to turn up interesting 
new ecological and biogeographical information. So a single species, the 
distribution and ecology of which is well known and large as it is, should 
exert no particular attention. Sorry too much! Each time I enter one of the 
forests where I might encounter P. antimachus, that is foremost in my mind. 
Irrational? Yes! Do I mind? Not in the least!- Torben B. Larsen, 358 
Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 



Agonopteryx curvipunctosa (Haw.) {zephyrella (Hb.)) 
(Lep.: Oecophoridae) in Somerset, 1995 

On the night of 30 March/1 April 1995 my garden m.v. trap at Berrow, 
Somerset (VC 6) produced two Common Quakers Orthosia cerasi Fabr., two 
Hebrew Characters O. gothica D. & S., one Early Grey Xylocampa areola 
Esp., one Epiphyas postvittana Walker and an Agonopteryx species which 
was unfamiliar to me. 

After consulting the Illustrated Papers on British Microlepidoptera 
(BENHS), I confidently pronounced it to be Agonopteryx curvipunctosa. As 
this was a new species for me I photographed it and decided to preserve it 
for future reference. 

I thought little more of it until I sent my new records of micromoths to Col 
A.M. Emmet. His letter made me realise the significance of my find, 
provided I had made the correct identification. He suggested that Dr J.R. 
Langmaid would be interested in seeing the specimen or the photograph. 

I eventually forwarded the specimen to Dr D.J.L. Agassiz who kindly 
forwarded it to Dr Langmaid who has confirmed my identification. 

This appears to be the first recorded in Britain (excluding the Channel 
Islands) since Col Emmet found a specimen at Dartford, Kent in 1965. 

I wish to thank the above-mentioned for all their help and guidance.- 
Brian E. Slade, 40 Church House Road, Berrow, Burnham-on-Sea, 
Somerset TAB 2NQ. 



42 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

Large Heath Butterfly Coenonympha tullia MiiU. (Lep.: Satyridae): 
Appeal for information 

I am carrying out a study on the decline of the Large Heath Butterfly C. 
tullia Mtiller, in England. Its present status is far from certain, but it is 
known that many sites have been lost to agriculture, afforestation, draining 
and peat extraction, during the last decade alone. 

I am seeking data regarding sites, no matter how well known, number of 
specimens seen, site area, site altitude, any threat either direct or indirect 
which may affect any colony. Information from data labels in collections, 
photographic or notebook records, in fact any data from any date period 
whatsoever, would be most welcome. 

I intend to contact museums holding collections of this species, to extract 
any data which may be available. This will give me historical records, but 
current information is in very short supply. All information will be treated in 
confidence where this is requested. 

At the present time I would estimate that Northumberland has 75% of all 
the colonies in England. I have just completed a second year of a five-year 
study of this species in this county, and I have located it on 116 separate 
sites. I anticipate that there are at least another 100 colonies awaiting 
detection. The rest of England is less fortunate, and it may not be long before 
many of the more southern sites lose their resident populations. 

Should you have any queries or reservations regarding my appeal for 
information, please do not hesitate to contact me.- Harry T. Eales, 11 
Ennerdale Terrace, Low Westwood, Derwentside, Co. Durham NE17 7PN. 

On the name Typhoeus (Col.: Geotrupidae) 

This familiar name having given rise to some confusion and vagaries of 
spelling, a few words on the subject may not be out of place. Firstly, the 
Linnaean version (1758) is fortunately correct and stands today as the trivial 
name of the species. Not so that of Leach (1815) who made the name generic 
while perversely altering the o to an a without the least need, in consequence 
of which the species is saddled with the rather awkward binomen Typhaeus 
typhoeus (L.). Leach's action here is a good example of the fallacy remarked 
upon earlier by me {Ent. Rec. 108: 38) of supposing that the diphthongs ae, 
oe, are freely interchangeable. 

However, the matter is not quite as simple as that, for the actual diphthong 
in Typhoeus is not the oe but the eu, which happens here to be preceded by 
the letter omega, or long "o". In Greek mythology it was the name of the 
giant whom Zeus struck with lightning and (for good measure) buried under 
Mount Etna, and literally means "the smoker". The -eus is the same as that 
in Zeus, Odysseus, Perseus, Theseus etc.; correctly, therefore, Typhoeus 
rhymes with "no use" and not with "see us".- A.A. Allen, 49 Montcalm 
Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



LIFE HISTORY OF CRYPTOCEPHALUS SEXPUNCTATUS 43 

SOME NOTES ON THE LIFE HISTORY OF CRYPTOCEPHALUS 
6-PUNCTATUS L. (COL.: CHRYSOMELIDAE) 

John Owen 

8 Kingsdown Road, Epsom, Surrey KT17 3PU. 

ON A JOINT VISIT to a site near Stockbridge, Hampshire on 25.vi.93, my 
friend Ian Menzies beat from hazel Corylus avellana a female 
Cryptocephalus sexpunctatus which he generously presented to me. During 
the next week or so she laid a number of eggs from which larvae, pupae and, 
ultimately, further adults were obtained. These notes present observations 
made in rearing the species through two generations, a process which 
occupied three years. As in the case of other members of the genus 
Cryptocephalus, complete development of the beetle from egg to adult takes 
place within a capsule formed from faecal material and enlarged as growth 
occurs. Rearing the species in captivity revealed the relation of this 
encapsulation to development and demonstrated other aspects of its life 
history not easily observed in the wild. 

Eggs and egg-laying 

The females were kept in glass jars covered with netting and given hazel 
leaves which they nibbled almost continuously. The captured specimen had 
apparently mated before capture for she was laying eggs which proved fertile 
within a few days of capture. Mating was not observed with the reared 
specimens but they started egg-laying within a few days of emerging. 

While laying eggs, the beetle hangs from a leaf or stem, producing an egg 
at intervals and holding it with her hind tarsi against an excavation on the 
apical stemites. She then extrudes faecal material which she moulds around 
the egg using her hind tarsi forming a strongly carinated, mildly elongated 
capsule (Plate A, Fig. 1). The encapsulated egg is then dropped and the 
process continued with the next egg. 

The captured female laid only about 20 eggs in captivity but she may have 
laid many more in the wild before capture. Some of the eggs were without 
faecal cover, possibly because one of her hind legs was damaged. These 
uncoated eggs produced living larvae but the latter did not survive. The two 
first-generation females laid about 160 eggs between them during a period of 
about two weeks. Unfortunately, most of these eggs were accidently 
discarded but about 30 were saved. 

Larvae 

The eggs hatched in about three weeks, the newly hatched larvae remained 
within the faecal coating of the egg which formed the start of the larval 
capsule. They were supplied with hazel leaves in which they ate small holes. 
When they were about ten days old, they stopped crawling about and eating 



44 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

for about a week. Then head cases appeared in the container indicating that 
they had moulted. They then started eating again. Eight weeks later they 
again stopped eating and crawling about. A set of larger head cases appeared 
in the container a week later and the larvae started feeding again. Increase in 
capsule size involved the larva making a longitudinal slit in the wall of the 
capsule, expanding it a Httle and then plugging the gap with more faecal 
material. For a day or so afterwards, the position of the filled gap showed as 
a lighter streak along the capsule. As capsules grew in size, weak 
longitudinal ridges developed, possibly related to the process of their 
expansion. By the time the larvae had become full-grown, the capsules 
measured 7-8mm in length and 3.5-4mm in diameter (Plate A, Fig. 2). 

Larvae from the captured female continued to eat until the end of October 
1993 but then stopped eating and became more or less inactive. Up until that 
time, they had been kept in containers indoors but they were then put into 
winter quarters outside. The latter consisted of squat jars with perforated 
screw-cap lids, containing a layer of moistened sand 2-3cm deep and a few 
withered hazel leaves. The containers were placed in a cold part of the 
garden with a raised plastic cover over the containers to keep out the rain. 
The larvae spent most the winter within the curled up leaves. As spring and 
summer ensued, they gradually became active, nibbling first hazel catkins, 
then withered hazel leaves and finally fresh hazel leaves. 

The larvae continued feeding throughout the summer of 1994. By 
October, however, they had become much less active and were put outside 
into the same winter quarters as they had had the previous winter. Most of 
the time throughout the winter they lay motionless within curled up withered 
leaves. 

In early spring 1995, they were seen to have moved on occasions but not 
to eat. Towards the end of March, they took up positions in curled up, 

PLATE B: opposite 

Fig.l. Eggs of C. sexpunctatus showing a coating of faeces from the female, sculpted 

into carinae by her hind tarsi. 

The encapsulated eggs measure approximately 0.12 x 0.08mm. 

Fig.2. Larva, showing head and front legs extruded from its capsule. When the head and 
legs are withdrawn into the capsule, the flattened front of the head seals the entrance. 
The well-developed front legs provide sufficient traction to make the encapsulated larva 
quite mobile on more or less level surfaces. The full-grown capsules measure 7-8mm in 
length and 3.5- 4.0mm in diameter. 

Fig. 3. Empty pupal chamber. Before pupating, the larva has attached the open end of the 
capsule to a dried leaf with a few silk threads and then sealed the opening. The adult has 
escaped from the opposite end of the capsule by cutting round to form a hinged cap. 

Fig.4. Adult female C. sexpunctatus: length of females 5.5-6.5mm; males 5.0-6.0mm. 



LIFE HISTORY OF CRYPTOCEPHALUS SEXPUNCTATUS 



45 




PLATE B 



46 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

withered hazel leaves and fastened their capsules to the leaves with short siUc 
threads. Afterwards, the mouth of the capsule was sealed and it was 
presumed that pupation occurred shortly after this. A capsule cut open at this 
stage showed a pupa with its head pointing away from the attached end. The 
containers were left outside in a position where they were warmed by the sun 
until the adults emerged. 

Larvae from the first captive generation behaved similarly but took only 
one summer to become full-grown. They were put into winter quarters at the 
beginning of November 1995. As with the first generation larvae, they 
remained inactive until March of the following year when they fastened their 
capsules to withered leaves and pupated. 

Adults 

Adults emerged from the capsule by cutting round what had been the closed 
end of the larval capsule to make a hinged cap (Plate A, Fig. 3). In 1995, 
four adults of the first captive generation (two males, followed by two 
females) emerged at the end of April. These were obtained from seven larvae 
put outside to overwinter in November the previous year. One of the males 
died a few days after emerging. The other and the females lived for several 
weeks. A photograph of an adult female is shown in Plate A, Fig. 4. 

In 1996, twelve adults of the second captive generation (three males and 
nine females) emerged during the last week of April and the first two weeks 
of May. These were the product of fifteen larvae put outside in October 
1995. As with the previous generation, the males emerged first. For 
unknown reasons, all three males, together with the first female to appear, 
died within a few days of emerging. The remaining eight, however, appeared 
healthy and lived in a large glass container for several weeks, nibbling fresh 
hazel leaves. Presumably one of the surviving females had mated for only a 
few uncoated eggs were laid and these proved infertile bringing the colony 
to an unfortunate end. 

A summary of the breeding progress in the two generations is presented in 
Table 1. 

Discussion 

The development of the larvae of Ciyptocephalus and related species in 
capsules has long been known though the exact nature of the capsule was not 
appreciated initially. Rye (1866) states that early observers thought that the 
capsules were formed of earth but that further studies had shown that they 
comprised faecal material. This study confirms this for sexpunctatus . Hinton 
(1944) states that the outline and sculpture of the egg capsules of different 
species are sufficiently characteristic in a number of British species to allow 
identification of the species but he does not mention whether this applies to 
the eggs of sexpunctatus. 



LIFE HISTORY OF CRYPTOCEPHALUS SEXPUNCTATUS 



47 



Most of what was observed in this study no doubt reflects the life history 
of the species in the wild. Two questions, however, remain unanswered. The 
first concerns the duration of the life cycle. The first captive generation took 
two years to develop while the second took only one year (see Table). This 
was probably due to larvae of the second generation having a longer growing 
season the year they hatched because they came from eggs laid towards the 
end of May rather than from eggs laid at the end of June as in the case of the 
first set of larvae. 



Table 1 . Timetable of development of Cryptocephalus sexpunctatus in captivity. 



Stage 


first captive generation 


second captive generation 


female(s) laying 


1st week July 1993* 


May to June 1995 


1st instar larvae 


20 at start of July 1993 


30 at end of May 1995# 


2nd instar larvae 


Uatendof July 1993 


20 at end of June 1995 


3rd instar larvae 


10 at end of September 1993 


16 at middle of August 1995 


full-grown larvae 


6 at end of October 1994 


15 at end of October 1995 


anchored capsules 


6 at end of March 1995 


15 by first week of April 1996 


adults 


2 d & 2 9 April/May 1995 


3 c? & 9 9 May 1996 



* this was the female captured in the wild. 

# about 160 eggs were laid but most were accidentally discarded. 



The second unanswered question is what serves as larval foodplant in the 
wild. In captivity, larvae were supplied with fresh hazel leaves simply 
because the captured female was found on hazel. They developed well on 
this diet but it seems very unlikely that larvae in the wild could reach fresh 
hazel leaves. The larvae are able to crawl about objects lying on the surface 
of the ground in spite of the impediment of a capsule but their legs appear 
designed for traction and, in captivity at least, the larvae showed no evidence 
that they could climb up a hazel tree. Overwintering larvae were seen 
occasionally to nibble at withered hazel leaves such as are likely to be 
available to a larva on the ground on a year round basis but these would have 
a much lower nutritional value than green hazel leaves. Fallen hazel catkins 
with a higher nutritional value would be available in the spring but only for a 
short period. It seems likely, accordingly, that the bulk of the larval 
nourishment in the wild comes from other sources such as low growing 
plants. Other trees and bushes on which adults have been found include 
aspen Populus tremula (Ashe, 1921; Cox, 1948), birch Betula sp. (Fowler, 
1890), crack willow Salix fragilis (Cox, 1948), hawthorn Crataegus sp. and 



48 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.1.1997 

oak Quercus sp. (Koch, 1992) but with none of these are fresh leaves likely 
to be any more accessible to larvae than those of hazel. Moreover, if the 
larvae of this species did climb trees to eat fresh leaves, it might be expected 
that they would have been encountered by entomologists beating the trees 
for one reason or another but this does not seem to have been recorded. The 
same remark applies to the larvae of other relatively common 
Cryptocephalus species, such as labiatus (Linnaeus), parvulus Miiller or 
pusillis Fabricius, whose adults occur on the same trees and shrubs. 

In the two generations studied, one of two adult males in the first 
generation died within days of emerging and all three males of the second 
generation suffered the same fate. The reason for this selective mortality is 
not known. In both generations, females treated in the same way as the 
males, lived in captivity for several weeks. It is conceivable that lack of a 
normal dietary factor (? low growing plants) may have been responsible. 
Alternatively, the relatively rich diet of fresh hazel leaves may have 
interfered in some way with proper development. Clearly further studies are 
desirable and will be attempted but these may well take a few years to 
perform. 

Acknowledgements 

I am much indebted to Dr I.S. Menzies for presenting me with the only 
specimen we encountered on our visit to Stockbridge and for looking after 
the second generation larvae while I was on holiday. I am indebted also to 
Mr D.J.M. Owen for a loan of the equipment used in photographing the 
various stages of the beetle. 

References 

Ashe, G.H., 1922. Coleoptera in Worcestershire in 1921. Entomologist' s monthly 

Magazine 58: 108. 
Cox, D., 1948. Foodplants of Cryptocephalus 6-punctatus L. (Col.: Chrysomelidae). 

Entomologist' s monthly Magazine 84: 185. 
Fowler, W.W., 1890. The Coleoptera of the British Islands, vol. 4, L. Reeve & Co., 

London. 
Hinton, H.E., 1944. Discussion on an exhibit of Crytocephalus primarius. Proceedings 

of the Royal Entomological Society 9: 23-24. 
Koch, K.C., 1992. in Die Kdfer Mitteleuropas. Ecologie i.Goecke & Evers, Krefeld. 
Rye, E.C., 1866. British Beetles. Taylor & Co., London. 



BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL & NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

ENTOMOLOGY WORKSHOPS IN 1997 

A series of entomological workshops has been arranged by the BENHS, particularly to 
help and encourage beginners and new members taking up the study of a group of 
invertebrates. Members, their friends and visitors are equally welcome to attend. 
Workshops in 1997 include: 

Click beetles - 15th February - led by Howard Mendel 

Lacewings - 1 st March - led by Colin Plant 

Aculeate Hymenoptera - 22nd March - led by Mike Edwards 

Tipula craneflies - 19th April - led by Alan Stubbs 

Lepidoptera larvae - 3rd May - led by Jim Porter 

All workshops are on Saturdays and commence at 10.30am. There is normally no fee. 
They are held at the BENHS headquarters in The Pelham-Clinton Building, Dinton 
Pastures Country Park, Winnersh, near Reading, Berkshire (grid reference SU 
784718). Turn left off the B3030 driving north from Winnersh. Fee for parking is 
waived for workshop attendees if you tell the attendant at the entrance. The nearest BR 
station is Winnersh (trains from Reading and London-Waterloo). The nearest 
motorway exit is M4 junction 10 - the A329(M) interchange between Reading and 
Bracknell. 

To book your place on any workshop, please contact Ian MacLean, 109 Miller Way, 
Brampton, Huntingdon PE18 8TZ in advance. This is essential for planning and 
organising these events. 

Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 

Caters for articles on all orders of insects and terrestrial arthropods, specialising in the 
British fauna and groups other than Lepidoptera. 
Published March, July and November (4 months per issue) 
Annual subscription £30 ($65). 

Entomologist's Gazette 

An illustrated quarterly, devoted to Palaearctic entomology. It contains articles and notes on 
the biology, ecology, distribution, taxonomy and systematics of all orders of insects, with a 
bias towards Lepidoptera. Caters for both the professional and amateur entomologist. 
Published January, April, July and October. 
Annual subscription £27 ($60). 

NEW! 

Butterflies on British and Irish Offshore Islands 

by R.L.H. Dennis and T.G. Shreeve 
This new book provides an up-to-date synthesis of butterfly records for 219 of Britain's and 
Ireland's offshore islands, 144 pages complete with bibliography, checklist of species, 
figures and tables. Two appendices list rare immigrants and provide advice for making 
observations on the butterflies of islands. 
Price £16. Postage and packing £1 per copy. 

Payments by cheque or Giro Transfer to account no. 467 6912. 

GEM PUBLISHING COMPANY 

For further details Brightwood, Brightwell, 

please write to: Wallingford, Oxon OXIO OQD 




THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

The Pauper Pug Eupithecia egenaria H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae) discovered in 
Lincolnshire and other interesting moth records from a survey of the Bradney 
Limewoods site of Special Scientific Interest in 1995. Paul Waring 1 

Interspecific hybridisation in ladybirds (Col.: Coccinellidae). Michael E.N. Majerus ... 11 

The correct name of the North American Great Leopard Moth. Martin R. Honey and 

Mark Young 25 

Microlepidoptera recorded from South Wales in 1995, including four species new to 

Wales. David Slade 31 

Some notes on the life-history of Cijptocephalus 6-punctatus L. (Col.: Chrysomelidae). 
John Owen 43 



Notes and observations 

Tetrastichus legionarius (Giraud) (Hym.: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) new to Britain. 

Colin W. Plant 10 

Aderus populneus (Panz.) (Col.: Aderidae) at light in south-east London. A.A. Allen ... 10 

Some notable Devon Lepidoptera records. Roy McCormick 23 

Observation of a second generation Orange-tip Anthochares cardamines L. (Lep.: 

Pieridae). John E. Bater 24 

Fletcher's Pug versus Pauper Pug Eupithecia agenaria H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae). J.D. 

Bradley 29 

The larva of Hyales lineata livornica Esper (Lep.: Sphingidae) in Shropshire. A.P. 

Foster 30 

The Pale Shoulder Acontia lucida Hufn. (Noctuidae) and the Small Eggar Eriogaster 

lanestris L. (Lasiocampidae) in Hampshire. R. Cook 39 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - vanishing Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson, Oban Hills, 

Nigeria, March 1995. Torben B. Larsen 40 

Agonopteryx curvipunctosa (Haw.) (zephyrella (Hb.)) (Lep.: Oecophoridae) in 

Somerset, 1995. Brian E. Slade 41 

Large Heath butterfly Coenonympha tullia Miill. (Lep.: Satyridae): Appeal for 

information. Hariy T. Eales 42 

On the name Typhoeus (Col.: Geotrupidae). A.A. Allen 42 



Obituary 

Denis Frank Owen MS, PhD, DSc, FLS 27 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

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PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY 



Entomologist's Record 




Nos3-4 

L.IBRA.RY 

' 1997 






Journal of Variation 



Edited by 
C.W. PLANT, BScFRES. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, F.R.E.S. & A. SPALDING, F.R.E.S. 



March/April 1997 



ISSN 0013-3916 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Editor 
C.W. PLANT, B.Sc.,F.R.E.S. 

14 West Road, Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire CM23 3QP. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., F.L.s. & A. SPALDING, ma., f.r.e.s. 

Editorial Panel 

A A. Allen, b.Sc, a.r.c.s. A.M. Emmet, m.b.e., t.d., f.r.e.s. 

N. L. Birkett, j.p., m.a., m.b., f.r.e.s. JA. Owen, m.d., Ph.D., f.r.e.s. 

J.D. Bradley, Ph.D., f.r.e.s. CJ. Luckens, m.b., Ch.B., d.r.c.o.g. 

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EPIONE PARALELLARIA AND ASPEN 49 

EPIONE PARALELLARIA D. & S. (LEP.: GEOMETRIDAE)AND ITS 

ASSOCIATION WITH ASPEN POPULUS TREMULA IN THE 

SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS 

'Roy Leverton, ^Mark R. Young and ^David A. Barbour 

' Whitewells, Ordiquhill, Cornhill, Banffshire AB45 2HS. 

^Culterty Field Station, Newburgh, Ellon, Aberdeenshire AB41 OAA. 

'125a High Street, Aberlour, Banffshire AB38 9PB. 

THE DARK BORDERED BEAUTY Epione paralellaria is a very local 
species in Britain. Shirt (1987) accorded it RDB 3 status: "Rare". At present, 
there are post- 1980 records from only four 10km squares. Waring {in press) 
gives details of its current distribution, and revises its status to RDB 2: 
"Vulnerable". It seems to be confined to a handful of widely separated sites 
in the north of England and in Scotland, most of which have long been 
known, where it forms discrete colonies. The few individuals reported from 
southern England, if genuine, are thought to be migrants or strays. 
Presumably the species has very exacting requirements, or it is a poor 
coloniser; perhaps a combination of both factors applies. 

The historical background 

The named localities given in South (1907) comprise two mosses and two 
bogs, so the moth has always been linked with damp habitats. The main 
foodplant at its sites in the north of England, and in southern Scotland too, is 
considered to be dwarf sallow Salix repens. Hewett ( in Tutt, 1902) 
described how larvae could be obtained at the Yorkshire sites by sweeping 
dwarf sallow in June, and the females found resting on that plant in July. 
Sadler (1975) describes the finding of 13 small larvae on dwarf sallow in 
June 1974 at a site in southern Scotland (presumably Adderstonlee Moss, 
Roxburghshire). More recently, M. Britton has found larvae at Strensall 
Common, Yorkshire, only on S. repens, and never on any other Salix species 
or on the small birches Betula which are also present (H.E. Beaumont, in 
litt.), although these are cited by most authors as alternatives, or as 
occasionally used (eg. Emmet & Heath, 1992). 

The history of E. paralellaria in the Scottish Highlands is not clear-cut. 
South (1907), quoting Salvage, describes the moth as widely distributed in 
Sutherlandshire, but this is now thought unreliable. The first incontrovertible 
record of its occurrence in the Highlands came only in 1953, when E.C. 
Pelham-Clinton took seven males at light at Spey bridge, and suggested that 
they were associated there with aspen Populus tremula, not dwarf sallow. 
This site is usually given as being in Inverness-shire, but is actually in 
Moray in terms of the Watsonian vice-county boundaries. (How many 
entomologists realise that the village of Aviemore itself is in VC95, Moray, 
and not VC 96, East Inverness-shire?) 



50 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

Then, in or around 1968, W. Mc William discovered a colony of E. 
paralellaria near Balmoral on Deeside, but the find was not published. 
Following his directions, R.M. Palmer and MRY confirmed the moth's 
presence in 1975, and added it to the Aberdeenshire list (Palmer & Young, 
1977). Intriguingly, while transcribing data labels from a collection (now 
destroyed) made by a Mr Catto in Aberdeenshire around the end of the 19th 
Century, DAB found two undated specimens of E. paralellaria labelled "B- 
mar" - almost certainly Braemar, and conceivably the same Balmoral site. If 
so, its existence on Deeside was not known to the Aberdeenshire recorders 
of the time such as Reid (1893) or later collectors such as Duncan in the 
1920s- 1940s, who collected extensively in the Braemar area. 

Ecology of the Highlands sites 

The moth is apparently confined to a relatively small area at the Balmoral 
site, which superficially seems no different from many other places on 
Deeside, or elsewhere in the Scottish Highlands. It is sheltered, and runs 
alongside a bum, but is not especially wet, and S. repens is almost certainly 
absent. Instead, E. paralellaria is associated with aspen. In particular, it is 
found amongst small and stunted aspen bushes about one to two metres high, 
arising from suckering, and low growth springing up where taller trees have 
been felled. 

A visit was made to this colony by MRY and RL in the early evening of 
30.vii.l994. The weather was still, overcast and warm. E. paralellaria was 
the most numerous moth seen. Males were easily disturbed from the low 
aspens and surrounding herbage such as bracken. The female is said to be 
sluggish, and rarely found (Hewitt, loc. cit.; Skinner, 1984), but at least six 
were noted, two of which were resting low down on fenceposts, and others 
sitting fairly openly in the vegetation. As the colony was clearly having a 
good year, one female was retained for eggs by MRY, with the aim of 
discovering more about the species' requirements in the early stages. 

The Speybridge area is also characterised by the presence of aspen, but we 
could not trace any records of E. paralellaria there subsequent to its 1953 
discovery. Indeed, there appears to be only one further record for Speyside: a 
casual single specimen in 1975 at Aviemore (Wild, 1975). Accordingly, an 
attempt to refind the moth at Speybridge was made in 1994 by DAB and Dr 
Paul Waring. This was unsuccessful, and it was noted that, although aspen 
was still present, the trees were now mostly tall and mature. Further searches 
by DAB proved equally fruidess, until he and RL found three (possibly four) 
males in aspen woodland on 1 l.viii.l996. The first was resting low down on 
an aspen bole, and the others disturbed from foliage. Significantly, the moths 
were found only in a small part of the woodland, where the aspens were 
producing suckers, even though these were less than 0.5 metres tall. As with 
the Balmoral site, the habitat was sheltered and near a stream, but not wet; S. 
repens was apparently absent. 



EPIONE PARALELLARIA AND ASPEN 5 1 

Captive breeding 

Eleven of the eggs laid by the Balmoral female were passed to RL, with 
about two dozen kept by MRY. They were overwintered in unheated 
outbuildings. Those held by RL did not begin to hatch until 28.V.1995 - a 
wise precaution this far north, where cold springs often delay leafbreak. 
Formal descriptions of the larval instars are given later. 

Young leaves of aspen were provided for the newly hatched larvae, this 
being the presumed foodplant at the Balmoral site. They were eaten readily. 
Aspen being in short supply, RL also provided tender leaves of birch, and of 
sallows Salix aurita and S. cinerea, but all were untouched. Larvae reared by 
MRY even refused Italian Poplar P. serotina. Later, MRY had cause to 
transport his larvae to an area of Yorkshire where aspen was unavailable, but 
foresaw no problem because Salix repens was common there. Surprisingly, 
the Balmoral larvae refused to eat this, even when no other food was 
available and they were in danger of starving. Supplies of aspen had to be 
obtained urgently by post, whereupon the larvae resumed feeding. RL also 
offered S. repens to his larvae with the same result, except that a small part 
of one leaf was eaten initially, but none was touched after that. 

The ten larvae reared by RL (one having died from injury soon after 
hatching) were closely observed throughout their development. Some 
interesting behaviour was noted. During the first three instars, but not 
afterwards, the larvae spent most of their time when not feeding suspended 
from the twigs of their foodplant by a silk thread. The length of this thread 
was fairly constant, being roughly one and a half times that of the larva. At 
any one observation, an average of eight of the ten larvae would be 
suspended in this way. Caterpillars of many species will drop and hang by a 
thread if disturbed, so great care was taken to establish that this was not 
happening with the E. paralellaria larvae, and they were not reacting to any 
vibration or the observer's shadow. This was ruled out. On the contrary: any 
disturbance had the opposite effect, causing the larvae to climb rapidly up 
the silk and regain the twig. Piles of frass clustered immediately below each 
larva proved they had been hanging in the same place for some time. They 
fed mainly at night. 

Occasionally, a larva was seen hanging head-downwards from its silk. 
Such larvae appeared ready to moult. Eventually, ecdysis from the second to 
the third instar, while the larva was still suspended, was observed. The old 
skin split dorsally behind the head in the usual way, and rhythmic 
movements caused it to concertina upwards towards the tail. Just as it 
seemed that the larva must surely fall, being almost free of the old skin, it 
looped up to grasp the thread of silk with its thoracic legs. Next, it seized the 
old skin in its jaws, pulling it off the anal claspers. Still holding the bundle of 
old skin, it climbed the silk back onto the twig, where the old skin was 
deposited. Whether this is the normal method of ecdysis in the early instars 



52 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

is unknown, but other larvae were seen hanging head-downwards without 
the full process being observed. 

The captive larvae ate relatively sparingly, yet grew quickly. They were 
ready to pupate in a little over three weeks. The rather slight cocoons of 
brownish silk were spun in surface debris or between dead leaves. Moths 
emerged about three weeks after pupation, always at night. They were 
normal in size and appearance. 

Not being able to release them at the original site, RL placed five females 
and two males in a large container. They were supplied with aspen foliage 
and twigs, and fed with a sponge soaked in sugar solution. Mating was 
observed on several occasions. The females all lived 14-15 days, and the 
males 16 and 17 days. At first it seemed that few eggs had been laid, but 
when the container was emptied, it was found that nearly all had been laid on 
the twigs at the bottom of the pile, and in the darkest comers, with none on 
the exposed, uppermost twigs. Shrivelled fern leaves had also been used. If 
repeated in the wild, such behaviour would suggest that eggs are laid 
amongst ground litter, and perhaps dead bracken, rather than on the living 
twigs of the foodplant. On two occasions in autumn, in 1990 and 1994, 
MRY had searched the aspen bushes at the Balmoral site for eggs of E. 
paralellaria with success, even though he was familiar with the 
characteristic colour and appearance of the eggs by the time of the second 
visit. 

The five dead females were dissected, and found to be completely spent. 
Two contained no unlaid eggs, two contained a single egg, and the fifth had 
two unlaid eggs. Those which had been laid were carefully counted, giving a 
total of 598 - a rough average of 120 eggs per female. 

In spite of the imbalance of the sexes, only about 4% of the eggs were 
obviously infertile from their appearance when checked the following April. 
The eggs were later taken back to the original site by DAB. 

The finding of larvae in the wild 

The insistence on aspen by the captive larvae lent weight to the assumption 
that this was the foodplant at the Balmoral site. To confirm it, DAB beat low 
aspens there on l.vii.l995, and eventually found three E. paralellaria larvae, 
each in a different instar from third to last. 

Discussion 

In the Scottish Highlands, E. paralellaria has different foodplant from that 
used at its other British colonies, and occupies a different habitat. Although 
Salix repens is widespread in the Highlands, it seems not to be used there, 
and captive larvae refused to eat it even when starving. Instead, the moth 
requires aspen thickets where the growth is low and scrubby, as occurs 
where the trees are producing suckers. Possibly the need for low sheltered 
bushes results from the larva's habit, in the early instars, of hanging from a 



EPIONE PARALELLARIA AND ASPEN 5 3 

silk thread for long intervals when not feeding. This may help it to avoid 
parasites or predators. Such a tactic would be impossible on tall, windswept 
trees. Also, if the eggs are laid on ground debris, as is suggested by the 
behaviour of captive females and our failure to find eggs on living aspen 
twigs in the wild, the newly-hatched larvae may have a better chance of 
reaching the leaves of their foodplant in low, dense growth, rather than in 
tall, more widely-spaced woodland. 

Both Deeside and Speyside have been relatively well-worked since 
Victorian times, yet this distinctive and attractive moth was presumably 
overlooked there until comparatively recently. Even after its discovery at 
Speybridge in 1953, there were no further records from that area for over 40 
years, and it took several expeditions by observers familiar with the species 
at its Balmoral site before the moth was refound. 

Many of the sexually dimorphic Ennominae with fully-winged females are 
at least partially diurnal, and this behaviour is well-documented for E. 
paralellaria by Hewett {loc. cit.), who describes an early morning flight by 
the males between 6am and 9am. Thus light trapping may not be particularly 
effective for this species, given also that the females are sluggish, compared 
with daytime searching of likely habitat. We consider it probable that further 
colonies of E. paralellaria will be discovered in the Highlands once the 
connection with aspen, rather than dwarf sallow, is more widely recognised. 
In flight by day, slightly worn males can resemble the ubiquitous Yellow 
Shell, Camptogramma bilineata L. so it is well worth investigating any small 
yellow geometer seen near aspen in Scotland, especially between late July 
and mid- August. 

Descriptions of the early stages 

Eggs 

Of the usual geometrid lozenge shape, pale cream, soon changing to a deep, 
bright pinkish orange. In captivity, laid on dead twigs in small, irregular 
clusters, resembling slightly the coral spot fungus Nectria cinnabar ina. 
Overwintering; shortly before hatching becoming purplish-grey. 

Larva 

Newly hatched, before feeding: long and slender, strikingly patterned for a 
first instar larva, being dirty white, with a broad, dark grey-brown dorsal 
stripe and similar, slightly less broad, ventral stripe. Head rounded, pale 
brownish-yellow. The pattern becomes more diffuse as the larva grows, the 
sides becoming pale greenish-white and the dorsal and ventral areas dark 
greenish-grey. 

Second and third instars: Contrast between dark dorsal and ventral stripes 
and pale sides now less sharp, due to each having fine, wavy, longitudinal 
striations of the opposite colour. Spiracles and warts small and black. 



54 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

inconspicuous. The most noticeable feature is a comma-shaped mark, 
intensely brownish-black, on each side of the second abdominal segment. It 
is set in a slight depression, and roofed along its convex upper edge by a 
ridge or fold of skin, displacing the spiracles upwards. Because of these 
structural features, RL considers it might be some sort of gland, perhaps with 
a defensive function. Head, pale brown with dark brown spots. 

The bicoloured, striped pattern of the first three instars corresponds with 
the stage when the larva hangs suspended from a silk thread when not 
feeding. 

Fourth instar: More twig-like; still with dorsal and ventral areas darker than 
the sides, but with a less clear-cut division. The sunken mark on the sides of 
the second abdominal segment is now less conspicuous due to additional 
dark marking dorsally on that segment. 

Fifth (final) instar: Long and slender, tapering evenly from tail to head, apart 
from a knuckle-like bulge on the second abdominal segment, emphasised by 
black dorsal and lateral marking. Dorsal surface grey -brown, tinged violet, 
with fine, wavy, longitudinal striations both paler and darker. A raised white 
dot, partially outlined with black, subdorsally on each segment, and several 
smaller black warts each bearing a short fine bristle. Sides, dull purplish red; 
spiracles small and black, indistinctly ringed whitish. Subspiracular line not 
sharply demarcated, pinkish-white blotched with pale yellow, continuing 
down the side of the proleg on abdominal segment 6, and edged there with 
black. Ventral surface pale grey, tinged yellow and pink, and striated paler 
and darker; a black oblong or X-shaped blotch, increasingly heavy, on 
abdominal segments 3-6. Thoracic legs whitish, marked with black. Head 
sloping, small and rounded, pale greyish, heavily spotted dark brown, with 
pale mark across frons. Full-grown length c.26mm. 

Although some of the colours themselves are bright, they merge and blend 
to give the larva a procryptic, twig-like appearance. It rests at an angle to the 
stem of its foodplant, with the abdomen straight, but the thoracic segments 
and head gently curved backwards away from the stem. Each pair of thoracic 
legs then forms a separate tooth in a serrated profile. 

Acknowledgements 

We thank Paul Waring for allowing us to see the provisional map and text 
for this species from his forthcoming atlas of the scarcer British macro- 
moths. H.E. Beaumont kindly provided information about the moth at its 
Strensall Common site. 

References 

Emmet, A.M. & Heath, J., (eds), 1992. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and 

Ireland vol. 7(2). Harley, Colchester. 
Hewett {in Tutt, J.W., 1902). Practical Hints for the Field Lepidopterist vol. n. Stock, 

London. 



EPIONE P ARALELLARIA AND ASPEN 5 5 



Palmer, R.M. & Young, M.R., 1977. Lepidoptera of Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire. 

Entomologist' s Record and Journal of Variation 89: 239-243. 
Reid, W., 1893. List of the Lepidoptera of Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire. Swan 

Sonnenschein, London. 
Sadler, E.A., 1975. Scotland 1974. Entomologist' s Record and Journal of Variation 87: 

85-92. 
Shirt, D.B., 1987. British Red Data Books: 2. Insects. Nature Conservancy Council. 
Skinner, B., 1984. Moths of the British Isles. Viking, Harmonds worth. 
South, R., 1907. Moths of the British Isles vol. II. Wame, London. 
Waring, P., {in press). Atlas of the Scarce and Threatened Macro-moths of Great 
Britain. JNCC. 

Wild, E.H., 1975. Epione paralellaria D.&S. and Hyles gallii Rott. in 1975. Ento- 
mologist's Record and Journal of Variation 87: 278. 



Notable ant records from Glen Strathfarrar, East Inverness 

Glen Strathfarrar National Nature Reserve (2189 hectares) occupies the 
lower part of Glen Strathfarrar, East Inverness (VC 96). The heavily 
glaciated valley has steep slopes where relatively extensive tracts of 
Caledonian pine forest, and birch woodlands have survived. In the valley 
bottom, the tree cover, in combination with free draining fluvio-glacial 
deposits, have created ideal conditions for a number of ant species. 

Mixed nests of Formica lemani and Formica sanguinea were seen in 
many areas where there was sandy and stony ground adjacent to trees. Glen 
Strathfarrar provides the beginnings of the link between the populations of 
F. sanguinea to the north at Migdale Wood (Hughes, 1994), and those in 
Glen Affric to the south. It is possible that F. sanguinea survives in other 
fragments of ancient birchwoods in the Glens of East Inverness and East 
Ross although I am yet to find any colonies. Myrmica sabuleti, M. 
lobicornis, and Lasius flavus, Lasius niger agg. were all frequent amongst 
similar habitat along the valley bottom. 

In addition, the woodlands along the first six miles of the Glen support a 
thriving population of F. aquilonia which, with the woodland management 
initiatives developed by Scottish Natural Heritage, are set to fare well in the 
coming decades. 
- Jonathan Hughes, 1 la King St, Embo, Sutherland IV25 3PU. 

Pontia daplidice (Lep.: Pieridae) in Kent, Argynnis lathonia (Lep.: 
Nymphalidae) in Gloucestershire, and some other 1996 migrant records 

Ever since childhood I have been scanning, without success, Buddleia 
bushes for something a bit rarer than the usual vanessid or pierid. It is 
therefore with a slight degree of chagrin that I have to report that it was my 
father, Dr Albert Woiwod, rather than myself, who was fortunate enough to 
see a Bath White Pontia daplidice L. in such circumstances. It was in his 



56 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

garden which is on the shingle at Lade, Lydd-on-Sea, Kent (OS grid 
reference TR 084205), on 8 August 1996. Although he is not an expert he 
knew that it was something different and thinking it might be a Marbled 
White, Melanargia galathea L., had time to get a book out and compare the 
individual directly with the illustrations to confirm identification. In a similar 
way, I was discussing the regular occurrence this year of Colias croceus 
Geoffr. on the fields where I work at Harpenden, Hertfordshire when a 
colleague, Dr Steve Foster, casually announced that he had seen a Queen of 
Spain Fritillary Argynnis lathonia L. the previous weekend whilst walking in 
the Cotswolds. With his agreement I am reporting the observation here. It 
was at Shenberrow Hill, near Stanton, Gloucestershire (SP 075339) on 17 
August. (Yes, we have already had the Dr Foster went to Gloucester joke!) 
Steve is now a professional entomologist working on aphids but he collected 
butterflies as a boy and is certain that his fleeting glimpse, as the species 
alighted briefly, was of this species. By comparison with the above, and in 
this exceptional year for migrant Lepidoptera, my personal records so far are 
somewhat meagre. An Heliothis peltigera D. & S. nectaring on Centauria in 
Potton Wood, Bedfordshire on 21 August (TL 55505) and a further one in 
my Rothamsted Insect Survey light trap on 1 September (RIS site 336 
Cockayne Hatley (TL 253494)). Also in my trap, Spodoptera exigua Hb. 
between 17-18 August was the first confirmed record for this species in 
Bedfordshire. All four of the common migrant species Autographa gamma 
L., Udeaferrugalis Hb., Nomophila noctuella D. & S. and Plutella xylostella 
L. have occurred in exceptional numbers, higher than anything recorded in 
the last twenty years at this site. Finally, a Macroglossum stellatarum L. 
resting on The Cutters Inn, Ely, Cambridgeshire (TL 543798) on 25 
August.- Ian Woiwod, South Lodge, Cockayne Hatley, Sandy, Bedfordshire 
SG19 2EA. 

Southern Ch^sinui Agrochola haematidea D.&S. (Lep.: Noctuidae) 
recently discovered in Hampshire 

Whilst reviewing the autumn species at m.v. light in a grassy field adjoining 
oak woodland on 8.x. 1996, in the company of Don Humphrey and Andrew 
Page, I was amazed to see three specimens of Agrochola haematidea. They 
came in at about 7pm in characteristic buzzing flight. We were about 200 
metres from the the nearest heathland. Mercury-vapour light trapping on this 
heathland on 12.x. 1996, produced twenty specimens of the moth and, as it 
was seen in several other spots, it seems likely that it is established over 
quite a wide area here. 

The exact locality is being withheld for the time being; it is hoped 
however, that this short note will stimulate other lepidopterists to look for 
the moth in new areas in southern England.- R.R. Cook, 1 1 Greensome 
Drive, Femdown, Dorset BH22 8BE. 



FOODPLANTS OF CATAPLECTICA FARRENI 57 

THE FOODPLANTS OF CATAPLECTICA FARRENI WALS. 
(LEP.: EPERMENIIDAE) 

Mark R. Young 

Culterty Field Station, Newburgh, Ellon, Aberdeenshire AB41 OAA. 

TUTT (1902) RECORDS that the larvae of Cataplectica farreni Walsingham 
feed within the seeds of wild parsnip Pastinaca satvia, entering each at the 
base, devouring its contents and then leaving through a hole in the side, 
before spinning it to another seed and entering that. This refers to locations 
for the species in Cambridgeshire. This foodplant information is then repeated 
until the 1970s in texts such as Ford (1949) and Emmet (1979). 

In 1975 Dr John Langmaid found the first Scottish C. farreni, an adult, at 
Muchalls, Kincardineshire (VC91), at rest on a flowerhead of hogweed 
Heracleum sphondylium and he speculated whether this could be its foodplant 
there (Langmaid, 1976). Emmet (1988) included this possibihty in the second 
edition of his Field Guide as well as in The Moths and Butterflies of Great 
Britain and Ireland (MBGBI) (Emmet, 1991) and Godfray & Sterling (1993) 
referred to P. sativa "and perhaps other Apiaceae" in their first account of the 
Epermeniidae. However, in their definitive chapter on this family in MBGBI 
(Godfray & Sterling, 1996), they revert to referring only to P. sativa. 

In Scotland P. sativa is found only as a casual introduction and it has never 
been recorded at Muchalls. Accordingly, following Langmaid's speculation, I 
collected some seedheads of H. sphondylium on 1 1 August 1993, 
overwintered them, and in mid- June 1994 a few adult C. farreni emerged, 
confirming hogweed as a natural foodplant at Muchalls. Some of the seeds 
had smaU holes in them and there was evidence of silk threads around them. 
The only other similar umbels which are common at Muchalls are hemlock 
water-dropwort Oenanthe crocata, which is found only along some streams 
by the shore, and angelica Angelica sylvestris, which is also restricted to 
damp areas. Seeds were collected from neither of these plants. 

C. farreni has a dramatically disjunct distribution in Britain, recorded only 
from East Anglia, Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire and Kincardineshire. 
Godfray & Sterling (op. cit.) comment that it is "probably under-recorded" 
and I concur with this. Despite its continued presence at Muchalls, and many 
searches, adults have only been found there on three or four occasions. 
Hogweed is, of course, an abundant and widespread plant and it seems likely 
that C. farreni will be found elsewhere on Britain's east coast. It would also 
be of interest to discover whether H. sphondylium is used as a foodplant in 
East Anglia. 

References 

Emmet, A.M., 1979. A Field Guide to the Smaller British Lepidoptera. British 
Emomological and Natural History Society, London. 



58 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

- , 1988. A Field Guide to the Smaller British Lepidoptera (2nd Edition). British 
Entomological and Natural History Society, London. 

- , 1991. Chart showing the Life History and Habits of the British Lepidoptera. In: 
Emmet, A.M. & Heath, J. (eds). Moths and and Butterflies of Great Britain and 
Ireland 7(2). Harley Books, Colchester. 

Ford, L.T., 1949. A Guide to the Smaller British Lepidoptera. South London 

Entomological and Natural History Society, London. 
Godfray, H.C.J. & Sterling, P.H., 1993. The British Epermeniidae. British Journal of 

Entomology and Natural History 6: 141-144. 

- , 1996. Epermeniidae. In: Emmet, (ed). Moths and and Butterflies of Great Britain and 
Ireland 3. Harley Books, Colchester. 

Langmaid, J.R., 1976. Cataplectica farreni Walsingham (Lep.: Epermeniidae) in 
Kincardineshire. Entomologist' s Record and Journal of Variation 88: 29. 

Tutt, J.W., 1902. Practical Hints for the Field Lepidopterist vol. II. Elliot Stock, 
London. 



The British species of Stigmus Panzer, 1804 (Hym.: Sphecidae) 

This is a follow up note to one published earlier, where Stigmus pendulus 
was reported as new to Britain (Allen, 1987 Stigmus pendulus Panzer 
(Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) new to Britain. Entomologist' s Gazette 38: 
214). In that paper a key was given to the two British Stigmus species. 
Unfortunately, by a lapsus, I transposed the mesopleural character, 
rendering the key of limited value. By way of amendment I present a 
revised key here: 

1 . Upper part of mesopleuron strongly reticulate, so as to appear dull and 
not reflect light; pronotal tubercle pale yellowish-brown, at least 
posteriorly; male with the mesoscutum dull, shagreened (in the female 
more shining) Stigmus solskyi Morawitz, A. 

Upper part of mesopleuron more weakly sculptured, reflecting light 
between the weak rugae; pronotal tubercle nearly black; male and 
female with the mesoscutum shining, reflecting light 
strongly Stigmus pendulus Panzer 

S. pendulus is still a rare species in Britain but has now been recorded 
from several of the home counties. These include another Kent record (L. 
Clemons) and records from Surrey (S. Miles), Middlesex (C.W. Plant), 
Hertfordshire (R. Uffen) (all pers. comm.) and Essex (Harvey & Plant, 
1996, A provisional list of the bees, wasps and ants (Hymenoptera: 
Aculeata) of Essex. Essex Naturalist 13 (new series): 43-1 15). 
- G.W. Allen, 9 Folkestone House, Fontwell Close, Senacre, Maidstone, 
Kent,ME15 8XB. 



OVIPOSITION IN BOMBYLIUS FIMBRIATUS 59 

QUANTITIVE DATA CONCERNING THE OVIPOSITION OF 

BOMBYLIUS FIMBRIATUS MEIGEN (DIP.: BOMBYLIIDAE), A 

PARASITE OYANDRENA AGILISSIMA (SCOPOLI) 

(HYM.: ANDRENIDAE) 

F. Andreetti, A. Martinoli and F. Rigato 

Universita degli Studi di Milano, Museo Didattico di Zoologia, Sezione Zoologia e Citologia, 
via Celoria 26, 20133 Milano, Italy. 

Summary 

Bombylius fimbriatus Meigen females were observed at Isola d'Elba 
parasitising the nests of Andrena agilissima (Scopoli). Bee fly oviposition 
occurred around noon and usually a single egg (sometimes a few of them) 
was thrown into each opening. The fly did not seem to be able to 
discriminate between the Andrena nest openings and any other dark spot of 
comparable size. Mean time spent in hovering flights in front of the nests 
and in oviposition has been calculated from filmed sequences. On the base of 
quantitative data some inferences have been drawn regarding a few other 
aspects of oviposition behaviour. 

Introduction 

Bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) parasitise other insects, especially 
Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera, and 
Bombylius seems specialised in attacking solitary bees and, less usually, 
wasps (HuU, 1973). 

Although some species of Bombylius are widespread and easily observed, 
few data are available about their behaviour. Dufour (1858) gave the first 
account of the life history of a Bombylius (B. major L. living at the 
expenses of an Andrena); since then little and scattered information is 
available. 

A description of the oviposition in Bombylius was briefly reported by 
Chapman (1878) {B. canescans Mikan parasitising the solitary wasp 
Odynerus spinipes L.), Seguy and Baudot (1922) who saw B. vulpinus 
Wiedemann (as fugax Wiedemann) throwing its eggs into the nest of the bee 
Panurgus dentipes Latr., Scott (1952) and Knight (1968). Associations 
between a Bombylius and an Andrena host were reported among others, by 
Chapman {op. cit.: B. major L. and A. labialis (Kirby)). Knight (op. cit.: B. 
major L. and Andrena spp.), Bonelli (1964: B. canescens Mikan and A. 
humilis Imhoff) and Litt (1988: B. major L. and A. fulva (Miiller)). Further 
references are listed in Du Merle (1975), yet no data have ever been 
published about B. fimbriatus Meigen, nor about Andrena agilissima 
(Scopoli) being a host of Bombylius. 

In this paper we provide some quantitative information about oviposition 
of Bombylius fimbriatus. 



60 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

Materials and Methods 

Observations were carried out in the period 2/9 May 1993 at Isola d'Elba 
(Toscana, Italy) near a crossroad between the towns of Cavoli and Marina di 
Campo where an aggregation of some 130 nest openings of Andre na 
agilissima was found on an earth wall 2.5 metres high and six metres wide, 
facing south-west. 

During our observations the soil temperature of the site varied on the 
average from 18°C (at 10.00am) to 2rC (at 5.00pm). In the same period the 
air temperature varied between 17°C and 23°C. 

Above the earth wall there is a holm oak Quercus ilex wood, surrounded 
by typical Mediterranean scrub (cisto-lavanduletea) with Lavandula 
stoechas, Cistus salvifolius, C. monspeliensis, C. incanus; the wall is fully 
devoid of vegetation. At Isola d'Elba precipitations in May- June are usually 
less than 25mm; overall annual precipitations are usually about 700mm. 

The site was visited every day from 8.30am to 5.30pm. Bee flies were 
filmed when close to the bee nests by means of a SONY Video Camera 
Recorder HiS CCD-V800E. 

Analysing the tape by means of a video recorder we calculated the number 
and duration of the "wait time", and of the "oviposition time". The "wait 
time" is the time that the bee fly spends hovering in front of an Andrena nest 
hole (or a wrong target) before throwing its egg; the "oviposition time" is the 
combined duration of the movements of the Bombylius female laying her 
egg: she suddenly lowers, pushes her abdomen forward hurling an egg to the 
bee nest and finally returns to a horizontal position. "False waits" (hovering 
flights not followed by oviposition) were also counted. 

Lastly we recorded how many times a bee fly female laid into the same 
hole and we noticed whether the egg was directed towards either an Andrena 
nest ("right target") or an "wrong target", i.e. any dark object or spot 
different from a bee nest opening. 

Results and Discussion 

Bombylius fimbriatus females arrived at the bee nests around 11.30am and 
stayed there until about 1.30pm (solar time). Their presence at the site was 
observed during that time period only. 

Since we did not mark Bombylius females, we cannot tell the number of 
different flies to which data refer, and whether the individuals present on 
different days were the same or different ones; however, we never saw more 
than two bee flies hovering simultaneously over the wall. 

The sequences showing Bombylius behaviour last 21 minutes and 1 
second in total; 102 filmed sequences, varying in length from one second to 
one minute and 14 seconds were examined. Data summarised in Table 1 are 
concerned with all observed sequences, either complete or incomplete. 
However, to calculate the mean "oviposition time" and the mean "wait time" 



O VIPOSmON IN BOMB YLIUS FIMBRIATUS 6 1 

we used uniquely complete sequences showing full behavioural acts filmed 
from the beginning to the end, whose time length could be determined; 
incomplete sequences were discarded. The employed values included 184 
ovipositions, either into "right" or "wrong targets" (114 resulted incomplete 
if compared with those, for a total of 298, see Table 1) and 251 waits 
followed from oviposition (either into "right" or "wrong targets") (47 
incomplete, for a total of 298, see Table 1); 16 "false waits" were also 
considered (three incomplete, for a total of 19, see Table 1). Complete 
sequences of ovipositions into true nests ("right targets") were 111 (31 
incomplete, for a total of 142, see Table 1), into "wrong targets" were 27 (12 
incomplete, for a total of 39, see Table 1). 

The average frequency of oviposition was 298 (number of ovipositions) in 
1261 seconds (duration of the film) = 0.236 per second. That means that 
Bombylius "swooped" once every 4.2 seconds on the average. This value 
could be overestimated for it is referred just to the filming of Bombylius 
when it was detected near the nests of Andre na. 

The average "oviposition time" was 0.087 seconds (n = 184, range 0.04- 
0.12, SD = 0.02), and the average "wait time" was 2.24 seconds (n = 251, 
range: 0.16-7.32, SD= 1.06). 

The frequency distribution of the oviposition during the day did not show 
any significant pattern and it maintained a constant rhythm when the fly 
stayed close to the bee nests. 

Usually Bombylius laid only once per opening, afterwards it often moved 
to a new target. When more than one egg was thrown into the same hole (see 
Table 1, fourth column), it was difficult to understand which stimuH cause 
the bee fly to lay more than once. 

Though at the beginning of its stay close to the Andrena nesting site 
Bombylius showed a somewhat lower frequency of oviposition and often 
hovered without laying, this trend was not statistically significant (x^ = 8.43, 
6df). 

There are no differences between the mean waiting times not followed 
from an oviposition or followed from it (Mann-Whitney U test = 1602, n^ = 
16, n2 = 251, p = 0.071). 

The choice of the target by Bombylius seemed to be primarily linked to the 
darkness of a point in comparison to that of the surrounding soil. So we often 
observed the fly throwing an egg towards different small dark spots as rock 
crevices, stones, roots etc ("wrong targets"). Even if at a first examination 
the shape did not seem to be an important clue for the fly choice, at a closer 
analysis some more subtle conditions appear to be at work. In fact Bombylius 
females spent less time waiting in front of an Andrena nest opening, before 
oviposition, than in front of a "wrong target" (Mann- Whitney U test = 245 1 , 
Uj = 27, n2 = 111, p = 0.002); so probably the right place where to lay eggs 
could be detected more readily by the flies. Moreover, multiple ovipositions 



62 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.iii.1997 



seem to have been more common into "right targets" (35 compared to one 
into "wrong targets" and to ten into "undetermined" ones). 

The ecological variables that could influence the behaviour of the bee fly 
have not been examined. For instance, the influence of the air temperature on 
the oviposition rate should be evaluated. Furthermore we could not see any 
interaction between the bees, which were very abundant, and the flies; nor 
whether any kind of competition existed among Bombylius females, so few 
in a large area available for oviposition. 



Time 
Range 


Duration of 
recorded 
sequences 

(sec) 


No. 
of acts 


No. of 
ovipositions* 


False 
waits 


Right 
Targets 


Wrong 
Targets 


Undetermined 
Targets** 


11.40-1 1.49am 


71 


18 


14 (2-12) 


4 


11 


5 


2 


11.50-1 1.59am 


111 


31 


29 (3-26) 


2 


8 


3 


20 


0.00- 0.09pm 


369 


99 


93 (13-80) 


6 


50 


14 


35 


0.10- 0.19pm 


388 


96 


91 (13-78) 


5 


42 


10 


44 


0.20-0.29pm 


210 


48 


46 (10-36) 


2 


18 


6 


24 


1.20- 1.29pm 


82 


14 


14 (2-12) 





8 





6 


1.30- 1.39pm 


30 


11 


11 (3-8) 





5 


1 


5 


Total 


1261 


317 


298 (46-252) 


19 


142 


39 


136 



Table 1: Data concerning Bombylius fimbriatus oviposition. 

* Values between brackets are respectively the ovipositions directed to the same target 
(multiple ovipositions) and to different ones (single ovipositions). 

** Targets unrecognisable from the analysis of the filmed sequences. 

Acknowledgements 
The authors are deeply grateful to Guido Pagliano (Torino) and Mauro 
Daccordi (Verona) who determined respectively Andrena and Bombylius 
specimens, and to Stefano Amonte and Manuela Giovanetti for their 
assistance. We owe special thanks to N.L. Evenhuis (Honolulu, Hawaii, 
USA) who gave us important bibliographical information. Also we are 
indebted to an anonymous referee for some helpful criticism and useful 
suggestions. 

References 

Bonelli, B., 1964. Osservazioni biologiche sugli Imenotteri melliferi e predatori della 

Val di Fiemme. V. Bollettino dell' Instituto di Entomologia dell' Universitd di Bologna, 

11: 1-32. 
Chapman, T.A., 1878. On the economy, &c., of Bombylius. Entomologist' s Monthly 

Magazine, 14: 196-200. 
Dufour, L., 1858. Histoire des metamorphose de Bombylius major. Annales de la Societe 

Entomologique de France, ser. 3, 6: 503-511. 



OVIPOSITION IN BOMBYLIUS FIMBRIATUS 63 

Du Merle, P., 1975. Les botes et les stades pre-imaginaux des dipteres Bombyliidae: 
revue bibliographique annotee. Bulletin de l' Organisation Internationale de Lutte 
Biologique, Section Regionale Quest Palearctique, 1975, 4; 1-289. 

Hull, F.M., 1973. Bee flies of the world. The genera of the family Bombyliidae. 
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. 

Knight, G.H., 1968. Observations of the behaviour of Bombylius major L. and 
B. discolor Mik. in the Midlands. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 103: 177-181. 

Litt, R., 1988. Observations sm Andrena fulva Schrk. Revue Vervietoise d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Spring: 22-30. 

Scott, H., 1952. Oviposition in Bombylius. Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine, 88: 216. 

Seguy, E. & Baudot, E., 1922. Note sur les premiers etats du Bombylius fugax Wied. 
(Dipt.: Bombylidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France: 139-141. 



High population densities of Garden Tiger Moth caterpillars 
Arctia caja L. (Lep.: Arctiidae) on Handa Island, Sutherland. 

For a number of years, small numbers of caterpillars of the Garden Tiger 
Moth Arctia caja L. have been recorded by seasonal wardens of the Scottish 
Wildlife Trust on Handa Island Wildlife Reserve, north-west Scotland. In 
1995 and 1996 numbers were unusually high. So dramatic was the black 
carpet of caterpillars, that it attracted the attention of the national media (e.g. 
Chalmers, "Something is aflutter on island people left in 1848", Daily Mail, 
10th June, 1995, page 3). High densities of Arctia caja caterpillars have been 
seen elsewhere, on similar dune grasslands on the west coast of Scotland 
(Mark Young, pers. comm.). Data was collected on population densities and 
foodplant preferences in order to provide baseline information for 
comparison with other sites and future years on Handa. The population on 
Handa was confined to two, contiguous, and relatively homogenous dune 
grassland areas (mainly SD6 and SD7 in Rodwell, J (1991 et seq) British 
Plant Communities. 5 Vols. Cambridge University Press). 

On the 2.V.1995, 60 x Im^ stratified random quadrats were sampled 
throughout the main area of distribution to estimate density of caterpillars. 
Within this area there where two density classes: "high", within a dune 
grassland area adjacent to the open dunes, and "low", within a band of 
neutral grassland surrounding the dune grassland to the west. The boundary 
between the two classes was discrete enough to be delineated with the naked 
eye and mapped. 

On the 12.V.96, 100 xlm- stratified random quadrats were sampled (60 in 
the "high" density area, 40 in the "low" density area). The two areas were 
again discrete. Also during 1996, the foodplants of the caterpillars were 
recorded along 2 x 30m transects in the high density area, as well as more 
casually over the spring and early summer. The results are summarised 
below. 



64 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

1995 High density 20.90/m^ 1996 High density S.TS/m^ 

Low density 4.19/m^ Low density 2.23/m^ 

Mean 11.40/m^ Mean 5.49/m' 

On the 2.V.95, the entire population was confined to an area of neutral 
grassland and open dune connecting two beaches on the south-east of the 
island (approximately 80,000m^). During the next few weeks of 1995 the 
caterpillars spread to cover a much wider area, mostly neutral grassland with 
occasional wet heath and willow Salix aurita scrub, where they occurred at 
lower densities. 

The distribution on 12.V.96 was similar to the final extent covered in 1995. 
The area of highest density was again associated with open dunes bordering 
neutral grassland. 

The transects showed red fescue Festuca rubra to be the favoured host 
plant in the highest density areas, although in other areas caterpillars had 
almost completely defoliated patches of willow scrub Salix aurita and broad- 
leaved dock Rumex obtusifolius . The high figure for Festuca rubra is 
probably related to its dominance within the sward. 

In 1993, most sheep grazing was removed from Handa, with a few 
remaining stock removed in 1994. Since this time the only significant 
grazing mammal has been the rabbit. The population explosion of Arctia 
caja caterpillars on Handa seems in some way to be related to this recent 
change in management on the reserve. 

It should be noted that despite the massive number of caterpillars present 
in early summer, most die before they pupate. The high mortality is probably 
due to a fungal or viral pathogen (Phillip Entwistle, pers. comm.) which 
affects caterpillars of all ages and sizes.- Jonathan Hughes and Julie 
Stoneman, 11a King Street, Embo, Sutherland IV25 3PU. 

Prionus coriarius (Linn.) (Col.: Cerambycidae) in Hampshire 

On 8 August 1996 I took a single male specimen of Prionus coriarius at 
Denny Wood, New Forest, Hampshire. I caught it in my hand as it flew 
noisily across a clearing in late afternoon. In spite of two further visits I failed 
to discover others. According to Hyman & Parsons (1992) {Review of the 
scarce and threatened Coleoptera of Great Britain. Part 1., UK Joint Nature 
Conservation Committee, Peterborough), P. coriarius come under category 
Notable A. Prior to 1970 it was reported from aU the southem counties, most 
of the midlands as far north as Cheshire and Lancashire, and from Glamorgan 
amd Denbighshire. Since 1970 it has only been reported from East and West 
Sussex, East and West Kent, Surrey, Berkshire, East Suffolk and Flintshire. 

I would be most interested to know if this species is increasing its range, 
or if my single specimen does no more than highlight under reporting of this 
spectular beetle.- Dr Michael A. Salmon, Avon Lodge, Woodgreen, 
Hampshire SP6 2AU. 



EARLY STAGES OF XYLENA EXSOLETA 65 

CONTRIBUTION TO THE EARLY STAGES OF 
XYLENA EXSOLETA L.(LEP.: NOCTUIDAE) 

G. M. Haggett' and R. Leverton- 

' Meadows End, Northacre, Caston, Norfolk NR17 IDG. 
- Whitewells, Ordiquhill, Cornhill, Banffshire AB45 2HS. 

THE HISTORY of Xylena exsoleta in Britain since the turn of the century 
is well documented (Lorimer, in Heath and Emmet, 1983). In modern 
times the moth has been recorded mostly from Scotland. In the spring of 
1995, a pairing was made from moths at sugar in Banffshire. Eggs were 
laid in quantity, batches being distributed to colleagues and their 
acquaintances in both Scotland and parts of England. The fate of the 
numerous broods reared by the different persons in widely differing 
locations and on a range of host-plants is summarised in this paper. The 
opportunity to rear this fine insect prompted a review by GMH of literature 
references to larval descriptions and illustrations, which appear to have 
arisen during the 1880s and which have a uniformity about them that could 
suggest a common origin; no account could be found of the life-history or 
of rearing in captivity. Only one published record of the occurrence in 
Britain of the wild larva is known to us. 

The Banffshire Site. 

This consists of a mixture of wet and dry heathland, bog, marsh and sallow 
carr, on a gentle northerly slope at around 160m. It is surrounded by rather 
unintensive mixed farmland. X. vetusta Hb. is also present, and slightly the 
more numerous. In autumn, the main flight period of exsoleta at this locality 
extends from the last week in September to the middle of October. Extreme 
dates during the years 1990-95 were 17 September to 5 November, the latter 
being the only sighting of the month. Tutt (1901-05) gives several references 
to November as a good month for the moth, which may have been the case 
further south then. Sugaring is usually many times as productive as light 
trapping at this season, as neither Xylena species seems to fly much in 
autumn - identifiable individuals re-appear night after night at the same or an 
adjacent sugared post. Ripe blackberries are also visited. 

Where exsoleta hibernates is not known. None has yet been found in 
various outbuildings used by Aglaias urticae L. and the large dense tussocks 
of tufted hair-grass and Juncus which cover parts of the site seem a more 
likely choice. In spring exsoleta re-appears during the first proper spell of 
mild weather; exceptionally, as early as 6 February as in 1993, but normally 
slightly before the first Orthosia species emerge. This is well before any 
sallow catkins show blossom, so sugar is again attractive, and exsoleta may 
attend in temperatures as low as 3°C. However, light trapping is equally 
effective now, though a high proportion of moths do not enter the trap itself 



66 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

but settle on the ground some distance away. Latest sightings during 1990- 
95 were on 23 April; thus the flight period here is rather eariier than the "late 
March to May, exceptionally June" given in Heath and Emmet (1983). 

In early April 1995, favourable weather produced up to five exsoleta per 
look at sugar, giving a rare opportunity to study the life history of this scarce 
and declining species. Two moths of each sex were placed in a large 
container, and supplied with sallow catkins plus a variety of green and dead 
vegetation; they were fed each night with sugar solution, which they drank 
(and excreted) copiously. One pair was observed in copulation on 20/21 
April, and egg-laying began two days later. Eggs were laid in prodigious 
numbers; Tutt {loc. cit.) states 1000-2000 per female. Most were laid in large 
batches, carefully packed well down inside old flowering heads of Soft Rush 
Juncus ejfusus. Dry seed-heads of Cocks-foot grass Dactylis glomerata. 
Self-heal Prunella vulgaris and Sneezewort Achillea ptarmica were also 
used, but no eggs were laid on the sallow Salix catkins, green vegetation, 
crumpled paper tissue or on the sides and muslin top of the container. Eggs 
were small in relation to the size of the moth, and creamy white when first 
laid, but soon changing to a pinky brown which closely matched the colour 
of the old seed-heads. Once sufficient eggs had been obtained, the moths 
were released at the original site. 

Accounts of Rearing 

Eggs were distributed by RL to a number of colleagues in England and in 
Scotland; the fate of each batch is recorded here as far as we know of them. 

1. By GMH in Norfolk. 

Eggs hatched in around ten days. Recorded dates of moults of most 
advanced larvae reared by GMH in Norfolk were 13, 18, 23 and 28 May. 
Larvae were managed initially in batches of twenty in plastic boxes 
measuring 150 x 100 x 50 mm. Larvae on dock ate only the broadleaved 
Rumex obtusifolia but during the fourth instar the furthest developed 
attacked and devoured their smaller brethren, especially those in moult or 
newly moulted; this was attributed to food being allowed to remain long 
enough to go limp during the very hot weather at that time, so larvae were 
segregated into batches of four, six and fifteen depending on size and put 
into appropriately-sized containers; from that time dock was selected only 
from the most luscious and rapid growth, avoiding flat, pale leaves no matter 
how young. No further cannibalism occurred in any box. 

Boxes of last instar larvae became heavy with condensation due mainly, it 
was thought, to the high moisture content of the dock, and for a while boxes 
were laboriously cleaned and dried and the paper lining and crumpled resting 
niches changed frequently. Later into the instar it was thought dampness 
might not be inappropriate for this larva of wet Scottish moorland, so 
condensation was allowed to accumulate and cleaned only at longer 



EARLY STAGES OF XYLENA EXSOLETA 67 

intervals. Larvae appeared at the time no worse for this indifferent treatment 
and some colleagues had adopted a similar pattern. 

Last instar larvae were far less irritable than those of second and third 
instars, when they readily thrashed about at disturbance or twitched violently 
if contacted by another larva. The larger larvae were indeed placid by 
contrast and when handled they displayed no such vigour and unlike so 
many other species they did not vomit then. They rarely curled up, being 
mostly laid stretched, and when replaced in their box they just rambled off. 
Their crotchets gave a grip that might feel sticky to human skin but which 
allowed the larva to be separated from its perch with no suggestion of 
damage. They fed by day and night. When approaching full-growth they 
were given fresh flowering shoots of sorrel Rumex acetosa and these were 
readily devoured. 

As larvae appeared to be ready to prepare for pupation they were divided 
into three treatments, two smaller batches put into slightly moist peat to a 
depth of 100mm, and a larger batch of forty larvae into 40mm of peat over 
dried sharp sand that sloped from 1 10mm to none beneath peat. Larvae were 
introduced as they were judged to approach maturity, this being when they 
felt firm to the touch in contrast to their earlier rather soft, flabby feel. 
Larvae spent their first two days if not in constant motion then at least for 
much of that time, day and night, until they finally rested full length against 
the glass lid at the top of the wooden box. The earliest disappeared after 2-3 
days, but thereafter it was not possible to record the time of individuals 
because of continued addition of larvae until 24 June, by which time all 
larvae had been judged to be fully grown. During the while that larvae were 
motionless the body colour changed from uniform pea-green to mottled 
yellow and green, with patches of alternating colours, not at all attractive and 
indeed suggestive of sickness (or as parasitism might appear in wild larvae). 
Also at this time larvae shortened in length to some three-quarters and with 
rings swollen, taut and wet they shortly disappeared into peat, having not 
eaten for several days. All larvae had gone into peat or were resting upon it 
by 28 June. 

Examination of the pupating medium soon found corpses in blackened, 
rotting state both upon the surface of peat and below with no cocoon begun; 
others had made a cocoon but failed to pupate. Of a total of 72 mature larvae 
only 1 1 had pupated, being distributed through the three pupal batches with 
no one proving advantageous. One moth that emerged on 17 August was the 
sole survivor of the Norfolk attempt. 

Most of the larval life of batches reared in England was passed under cool 
to cold conditions with temperatures around 10°C, but the remarkable 
heatwave of early May shot thermometers to 2rC and cooler sites had to be 
located: late May was extremely cold and the first two weeks of June quite 
the most dismal on record with indoor temperatures regularly no more than 
10°C. 



68 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

2. By Robert Harvey in Norfolk 

Starting with around 100 eggs, larvae were fed throughout on dock leaves. 
Most larvae reached full growth but then suffered heavy losses after entering 
soil. 15 moths were reared, all of them from pupae formed in kitchen-roll 
paper that had not been available to the rest of the batch. 

3. By RL in Banffshire 

Eggs hatched in 10-12 days. The tiny larvae were extremely active for the 
first three days (in the wild this presumably ensures dispersal). They were 
kept in plastic boxes in an unheated room, exposed to normal daylight. 
Initially they were fed on potted clumps of grass, mainly Poa annua. Couch 
grass Agropyron repens was also eaten, but otherwise they would eat only 
meadow vetchling Lathyrus pratensis from a wide variety of herbaceous 
plants offered. 

Once past the second instar the larvae stopped eating grasses; they were 
offered a wide selection of plants and shrubs picked at or near the original 
site of their parents. For a supposedly polyphagous species, exsoleta proved 
very choosy. The following plants were rejected or barely nibbled - 
chickweed, cranes-bill, bird's-foot trefoil, tufted-vetch, clovers, broom, 
meadow-sweet, raspberry, bramble, strawberry, black-currant, rowan, 
knotgrass, dead-nettle, groundsel, honeysuckle, sallow, rush and wood club- 
rush. However, bird-cherry Prunus padus was eaten avidly and the larvae 
completed their growth on this food with negligible loss. Sprigs and, 
eventually, small branches were provided. These had to be replenished twice 
a day during the final instar, which at least ensured freshness. Also eaten 
were large crisp leaves of dock and sorrel when newly picked. 

Supplies of bird cherry being limited, dozens of surplus larvae were 
periodically released at the original site; none was ever seen again. The 
twenty-five penultimate instar larvae eventually retained became fully-grown 
in mid to late June. In appearance and behaviour they agreed closely with the 
detailed description given by GMH. In the penultimate instar the length 
attained was 40-45 mm, and in the final instar they reached 65-70mm. They 
were remarkably invariable in colour and pattern. 

Pupation took place at or near the bottom of a loose mixture of 
unsterilised, slightly damp, peat and Sphagnum, 20cm deep in large 
containers. Unlike other genera of autumn moths such as Agrochola and 
Xanthia, there seemed to be no prepupal diapause. One of the twenty-five 
larvae produced a deformed pupa. The twenty-four healthy pupae were 
disinterred and laid upon the surface of slightly damp Sphagnum but not 
sprayed. Development was slow and gradual, producing moths without loss; 
these emerged in the middle part of the day between 19 August and 13 
September. Unless there is a diapause after emergence in the wild, this 
would be earlier than for wild moths. All were in the upper half of the 
normal size range. They were released at the original site. 



EARLY STAGES OF XYLENA EXSOLETA 69 

4. By M.R. Young in Aberdeenshire 

In the first instar, larvae were fed entirely on grasses, eating both coarse and 
fine. From the second instar, half were reared solely on hawthorn Crataegus 
monogyna leaves, and half on blackthorn Prunus spinosa leaves with equal 
success. They were kept entirely in the dark in a warm kitchen, and they fed 
up very rapidly. Larval losses were about 10%, and occurred in the third or 
fourth instar. 

Most larvae were passed on to others or released. The two dozen larvae 
finally retained produced moths without loss. They pupated in a mixture of 
potting compost and sand, 10-15 cm deep. The pupae were not watered. 
Moths were of normal size. 

5. By R.M. Palmer in Aberdeenshire 

Of twenty third instar larvae received, three lagged behind and died. The 
seventeen pupae then obtained gave rise to fourteen moths. Hawthorn was 
the sole foodplant. No special treatments or techniques were used. 

6. By David Brown in Warwickshire. 

Larvae hatching from 120 ova were started on a mixture of dock and sallow, 
but they much preferred the former. They were reared in plastic boxes, and 
forced throughout at high temperatures, sometimes in direct sunlight. Sallow 
was offered at intervals but always refused. Overcrowding was tolerated, 
with no cannibalism. Five at most were lost before the final instar. 

In the final instar the larvae were transported to North Wales. They now 
consumed huge amounts of carefully selected dock, which had to be 
replenished two to three times a day. About twenty full-grown larvae 
became less healthy, and mostly died. The remaining 100 larvae burrowed 
into 10cm of bulb fibre, from 6 June onwards, and they were left undisturbed 
until early August. 

Only thirty of the 100 larvae that went into compost were found to have 
pupated successfully, the others being dead and shrivelled. The thirty healthy 
pupae were sprayed with water daily, and in due course twenty-six gave rise 
to moths. 

7. By Andrew Gardner in Warwickshire. 

Larvae from 90 ova were reared in plastic boxes at a constant room 
temperature of about 2rC. They were fed on dock, refusing sallow that was 
offered at various times. Few were lost during the early instars, but twenty- 
five died in the penultimate or final instar. Full growth was reached by mid- 
June, but the 60 larvae which went down into bulb fibre produced only 
twenty live pupae and from these, sixteen moths emerged. 

8. By Michelle Stephenson in Warwickshire. 

Began with twenty-four second instar larvae, reared on dock at room 
temperature. Again, sallow was refused. Two larvae died before the final 



70 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

instar. None of the twenty-two larvae that reached full growth pupated 
successfully. The 20cm of bulb fibre provided may have been kept too dry. 

9. By John Ward in Northamptonshire 

Newly-hatched larvae were put on to osier Salix viminalis foliage in plastic 
boxes and they fed up well enough until the second instar when they were 
sleeved on osier in the hope of simulating a more natural environment. 
Development became very uneven with increasing losses so twenty-four of 
the largest individuals were sleeved on growing dock on which they fed until 
they were fully grown, when most of them died. 

Fifteen of the surviving larger larvae of those still on osier were then tried 
individually in plastic boxes and offered a range of food that included 
flowers of sorrel and buttercup, also dock and osier, but these larvae shared 
the fate of their fellows, and there were no viable pupae from any treatment. 

We understand that a similar attempt to rear this species was made a while 
prior to this study with larvae from three batches of eggs reared separately by 
different persons in different parts of England; the history of these larvae is 
said to be similar to our experience except that no moths at all were reared. 

Summary descriptions of the early stages. 

The only illustrations of early instars known to us are those by Buckler 
(1896) and Wilson (1880); the latter is crudely unreaHstic while Buckler's 
figure, plate 96, fig. 2, does not convey the impact of a dark-green larva with 
fine stripes, and his larger figure 2a is improbable according to our 
experience. 

First instar : length to 4mm just prior to moult; body uniformly yellow-green, 
the skin glassy and shining, totally lacking stripes or ornamentation and 
relieved only by the finely dotted black warts each finely ringed in blanched 
green and bearing a stiff short bristle. Head pale light brownish-green, 
prothoracic plate pale brown heavily studded with black warts and bristles, 
anal plate similar but paler, true legs, prolegs and anal claspers all 
translucent with black flecks. 

Second instar : length at full growth to 8mm, glassy olive-green with fine 
dorsal and rather thicker subdorsal lines both pale-yellow, a fainter creamy 
spiracular band merging into the pale ventral region, warts black, 
conspicuous. All body lines continuous from prothoracic plate to anal plate. 

Third instar : length to 15mm, deeper matt green with similar body lines and 
of same relative proportions but brighter and better defined, the whitish 
subspiracular in particular now contrasted against the dappled green and 
white ventral region; warts black but smaller in relation to body size and 
dorsally not outstanding. 



EARLY STAGES OF XYLENA EXSOLETA 7 1 

Fourth instar : length to 26mm, handsome, fulvous darker green, the dorsal 
line so narrow and faint as to be noticeable only under magnification, and 
then well interrupted at ring divisions; subdorsal bold deep-yellow, 
subspiracular narrower than in the previous instar but crisply yellowish- 
white; tiny black warts quite indistinguishable from the wriggling dark-green 
pattern over the pale ground colour. In this instar and in the next the larva 
bears a striking resemblance to that of Heliothis maritima Grasl. (but of 
course lacking the posteriorly-directed body spines of that species). 

Fifth instar : length to 35mm. similar in every aspect to the previous instar, 
the anal claspers with better developed extension of subspiracular stripe, 
which on the body is itself much broader (twice as broad) as the subdorsal, 
the dorsal scarcely discernible even under magnification. 

Final instar : six instars were counted of the larvae reared by GH and RL, but 
Dr H. Beck who also reared larvae from this same stock has reported seven 
instars. The larva at full growth recorded by Buckler (1886) to be two and a 
half inches (60mm) long is quite correct, the largest even to 70mm, but 
considerable shortening takes place as the larva ceases to feed and as it 
grows firm to the touch, but before it begins its marathon perambulation 
prior to entering the pupating medium. It is only at this instar that the larva 
displays its highly individual and ornamental pattern that has led Barrett 
(1900) to write, page 54, "very few larva of equal beauty to this are known 
here" - an apt expression that has been copied by later writers. 

Contrary to the account given by Lorimer (in Heath & Emmet, 1983) there 
was very little variation amongst the many larvae reared to last instar by 
GMH and RL; the separate orange lateral dashes that margin above the 
subspiracular band were quite uniform in size and colour, never dark-red as 
figured by Buckler (1886), Wilson (1880), Barrett (1900), Stokoe (1948) or 
Hoffmann (1893). The colour of the subdorsal and subspiracular stripes 
varied from whitish to cream and pale-yellow. No larva developed orange 
(and certainly none red) markings dorsally or along the subdorsal stripe, and 
the figure 2a of Buckler {loc. cit., pi. 96) appears a combination of fifth instar 
with artist's licence that depicts rich orange subdorsals. Only the intensity of 
black markings that bordered the subdorsal could be described as 
significantly variable, in the weakest development reduced to a narrow line 
that merely edged the subdorsal and simply linked the trapezoidal warts 
which, in this genus and its allies, are so far displaced towards the subdorsal 
as to be almost in straight alignment; the opposite was the maximum 
development of this black figure to broadly rectangular proportions that 
engulfed both warts so masking their usual black edges. There was but one 
example only of each of these extreme varieties, but the weakly etched form 
is the sole (and very stylised) figure of Wilson {loc. cit., pi. 38, larger fig. 
13), and Buckler's fig. 2d is even more extreme. The illustrations of 



72 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

Hoffmann (pL 32, figs. 21a, 21b) are also of the stylised presentation of that 
time, fig. 21b being remarkable for the total absence of orange from the 
subspiracular band, while fig. 21a has its upper edge bright-red and 
continuous. 

Pupa 

Barrett (1900) gives a good description that is evidently copied by Lorimer 
in Heath and Emmet (1983): the most significant features are its light, 
glossy, thin cuticle of chestnut-brown colour, contorted abdominal rings and 
rather Cucullia-like appearance but so much more substantial and with no 
projection of mouth-parts beyond the wing covers. Cremaster conical and 
heavily sculptured, bearing two almost straight, pointed spines 1mm long, 
which diverge at an angle usually of 30-40 degrees, whereas those of X. 
vetusta are parallel. 

Cocoon 

A large rounded, oval structure, greatly larger than the pupa, which is 
comparatively short and dumpy although bulky; the cocoon is of fragile 
construction that does not appear to be strengthened by silk, instead its wall 
of some 2-3mm thickness is simply firmly pressed to present a smooth 
interior. Those in sand are reminiscent of the Agrochola texture and like 
them it crumbles as soon as touched. 

Larval comparison with other species 

The last instar is so individual that it could not be confused with any other 
larva in Britain or indeed in Europe. The well-developed but fine dark or 
blackish dorsal edge of the subspiracular band present in X. vetusta in both 
last instar and in earlier instars is an immediate and constant character that 
easily separates exsoleta from it, while vetusta has never a pea-green body 
colour and lacks the black subdorsal suffusion around the trapezoidal warts; 
vetusta alone has the continuous pale medio-dorsal line. 

Confusion is more likely between the earlier instars of exsoleta with larger 
larvae of common green noctuids that feed up at the same time of year; but the 
common green Orthosia larvae have yellow dots through the green body 
colour and display a conspicuous pale dorsal stripe against weak subdorsals, 
and have a large, rounded, pale-brown head, which features are shared also by 
Diyobotodes eremita. The Lithophane species Jtiave well-marked and well- 
developed, conspicuous dorsal stripe and large, rounded pale-brown head. The 
head of the young exsoleta larva is consistently pale green with fainter flecks. 

The third to fifth instars of exsoleta could be likened to the larger and 
yellow-striped larva of Ceramica pisi L. because this larva lacks a dorsal 
stripe and because both species have their spiracles placed at the dorsal edge 
of the subspiracular band; in C. pisi the dorsum is much darker and its 
mottling denser than those of its lateral zones, whereas in exsoleta these 
zones are all of equal intensity; the head of C. pisi is warm honey-coloured 



EARLY STAGES OF XYLENA EXSOLETA 73 

to light-brown, that of exsoleta pale-green; however the larva of C. pisi is 
scarcely to be found before September whereas young exsoleta will be 
feeding in May. 

The larva closest in superficial appearance to the third to fifth instar 
exsoleta is the last instar Heliothis maritima because of the matt dark-green 
body colour and pale-yellow lateral stripes present in both species; maritima 
has its head and prothoracic plate with black etching, and particularly its skin 
coated with tiny black, backwardly-directed spines; and maritima is of 
course another September feeder. 

Occurrence of the wild larva 

The finding of so striking a larva as the last instar of X. exsoleta would be a 
matter for record, even at a time when the species might be more plentiful 
than it is today, yet the absence of mention of the larva by Tutt (1901) 
suggests that wild-found examples were not recorded if not unknown up to 
the time when Tutt compiled his book. The range of figures made by Buckler 
would seem to indicate that his larvae were reared from the egg, and this at a 
time when he was receiving wild-found material from many colleagues of 
very diverse and hitherto undescribed larvae. In fact there is no book known 
to us that actually states the fact of a larva ever being found wild. 

Examination of British journals has brought to light but one instance of 
the wild larva of exsoleta, this of a moth bred 28.ix.1929 by J.J. Walker from 
a larva found on thistle at Tubney, Berkshire (Baker, 1990). A second record 
(Haggett, 1992) of a third-grown larva found in a water-trap during the 
Welsh peatland invertebrate survey is now recognised to have been a mis- 
identification due to the lack of knowledge of the early instars. Just recently 
we have learned from John Fenn of his discovery of a fully grown last instar 
larva amongst commercially grown lettuces at Wissington, Norfolk, in 1950, 
and that he knew additionally of larval records from Vic Day in the Stoke 
Ferry area also of that time; these records are notable also because they 
confirm the species to be still resident in Norfolk at that date. 

There are however two recent records of the wild larva, both unpublished, 
and for which we are pleased to acknowledge the experience of Dr M.R. 
Young. The first was a larva at Udny in 1974 and the second at Oldmeldrum 
in 1986, both in Aberdeenshire, Scotland; both were full-grown and engaged 
in their pre-pupatory wanderings, thus giving no clue as to foodplant. 

There may surely be records of wild larvae from the period of the last 
century into this when the insect was regarded as common over Britain 
including the southern counties of England, and these would be worthy of 
collation. In the absence of such data we can only conclude that the life 
history of exsoleta has been based wholly on examples reared from the egg. 

There are two accounts of larvae found in the Middle East, one of fully 
fed larvae found in April in Iran, the other of a larva found by Mountfort 



74 ENTOMOLOGISTS RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

(Wiltshire, 1948) in Cyprus on 10 April. Another unpublished account from 
John Fenn concerns his finding two larvae both in the penultimate instar 
feeding on low herbs in the Italian Alps at Col de Tende on 17-18 July 1974, 
and which reminded him of Heliothis viriplaca Hufn.; they constitute the 
latest larval dates known but still produced moths in the following September. 

Discussion 

The main feature of the rearing programme was the contrast between the 
success rather casually achieved by the Scottish rearers, and the high levels 
of mortality at about the time of pupation amongst the stock reared in 
England. 

Because all the ova were from the same source, differences in viability 
can be ruled out. Nor can husbandry have been a factor when so many 
experienced breeders had similar problems at the same stage. The simplest 
explanation is that the Scottish reared stock were fed mostly on a rosaceous 
shrub whereas dock was widely used in England. It might be that dock alone 
is not quite a sufficient food for last instar larvae. Many noctuid larvae that 
begin life feeding on low plants later climb to complete their growth on the 
foliage of woody shrubs or trees. 

However, there is a more intriguing, if less likely possibility - that it was 
no coincidence the larvae reared in an area where the moth is still resident 
did much better than those reared in areas from which the species has died 
out in recent history. Perhaps exsoleta is particularly vulnerable to minute 
levels of toxins in its foodplant, arising from agricultural contaminants or 
industrial pollutants. The very large volume of food consumed by the larva 
in its final instar, remarked upon by many of the breeders, might cause toxin 
build-up to a fatal level at the time of pupation. 

Until this question is resolved, the consensus of those taking part in this 
study is that exsoleta larvae should be reared in warm, and possibly humid 
conditions. At least in the early instars dock seems to be a suitable food, but 
it is important to select only large, fast-grown, crisp leaves from robust, 
vigorous plants, more readily obtainable from Rumex obtusifolia. Especially 
in the final instar, plum, cherry or blackthorn should be supplied. The 
pupation medium should be deep (20cm) and not too dry. Because of the 
extreme fragility of the cocoon, the danger of disturbance by other tunnelling 
larvae should be avoided by provision of plenty of space and by limiting 
numbers. 

The foodplant(s) of wild larvae remains unknown; at the Banffshire site it 
is clearly not sallow, as RL had always assumed, and which is used by X. 
vetusta there; nor can it be bird cherry, blackthorn or hawthorn as these do 
not occur there naturally. The failure to find such a large, brightly coloured 
and (at least in captivity) diumally feeding larva is puzzling, but fits in with 
the dearth of published records. 



EARLY STAGES OF XYLENA EXSOLETA 75 

Acknowledgements 

The co-operation of all who participated in this study is gratefully 
acknowledged, and all of us express our thanks for the rare opportunity to 
rear and examine this magnificent larva. Particular thanks are due to David 
Brown who co-ordinated results from his area. 

References 
Baker, B.R., 1990. Xylena exsoleta L., the Sword-grass in VC 22 Berkshire. 

Entomologist' s Rec. J. Var. 102: 20. 
Barrett, C.G., 1900. Lepidoptera of the British Islands. 6: 54. 
Buckler, W., 1886-1899. Larvae of British Butterflies and Moths 6, pi. 96. 
Haggett, G.M., 1992. Pitfall and Water-trapping of Lepidopterous larvae. Entomologist's 

Rec. J. Var. 104: 289-296. 
Heath, J. and Emmet, A.M., (Eds.). 1983. Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and 

Ireland 10: 77 
Hoffmann, E., 1893. Die Raupen der Schmetterlinge Europas, pi. 32. 
Stokoe, W.J., 1958. Caterpillars of British Moths I, pi. 82. 
Tutt, J.W., 1901-1905. Practical hints for the Field Lepidopterist, I-in. 
Wilson, O.S., 1880. Larvae of the British Lepidoptera and their foodplants. 
Wiltshire, E.P., 1945. 70 New records of Leidoptera from Iran. Entomologist' s Rec. J. 

Var. 57: 82. 
- , 1948. Middle East Lepidoptera IX: Two new forms or species and thirty-five new 

records from Cyprus. Entomologist' s Rec. J. Var. 60: 81. 



Bird-cherry Ermine Yponomeuta evonymella L. (Lep.: Yponomeutidae) 
infestations in the Scottish Highlands 

Dr Murdo Macdonald of Strathpeffer reported to me that he had seen serious 
defoliation of Bird-cherry Prunus padus along the Bridge of Gaim and main 
Royal Deeside roads, between Ballater and Braemar, in the 10km squares 
N019, 29 and 39, in June 1996. Whole trees had been stripped of their 
leaves and branches were covered in webs. 

On returning home he found several Bird-cherry trees were also infested 
on the Moy Island in the River Conon (10km square NH45), though not as 
devastatingly as in Aberdeenshire. I visited this Ross-shire locality with my 
wife on 23 July and found the infected trees. A few imagines of 
Yponomeuta evonymella L. were emerging from the webs. Bird-cherry trees 
were examined on the short drive to Muir of Ord but the only infestation 
noted was at Orrin Falls in the same 10km square. This species is not shown 
as occurring in VC 106 on Map 2 of Volume 3 of The Moths and Butterflies 
of Great Britain and Ireland.- Derek C. Hulme, Ord House Drive, Muh of 
Ord, Ross-shire rV6 7UQ. 



76 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

Diaperis boleti (L.) (Col.: Tenebrionidae) from a second 
Huntingdonshire National Nature Reserve 

During a field meeting of the Huntingdonshire Fauna and Flora Society on 
19 May 1996 at Woodwalton Fen I examined a clump of birch trees growing 
in the centre of this National Nature Reserve (grid reference TL2284). 
Several trees bore birch bracket fungi of Piptoporus betulinus. On one dead 
stem, on the northern edge of the clump, I noticed an old dry bracket fungus 
with large holes, 4-5mm diameter, bored into its stem. Breaking open the 
fungus, which was about 1 .5mm up a two metre high dead stem, produced a 
single adult Diaperis boleti (L.). Bracket fungi on the other trees were 
promptly searched and another with similar sized holes was found half a 
metre above ground near the base of a multi-stemmed birch. This produced 
three more examples of Diaperis although one was a deformed teneral 
specimen. Other species of Coleoptera present in these fungi included two 
Paromalus flavicornis (Hbst.); one Atheta fungi (Gr.); four Dacne 
bipustulata (Thnb.); three Orthoperus mundus Matt.; one Aridius bifasciatus 
(Reitt.); about 30 Cis bilamellatus Wood; and five Mycetophagus 
quadripustulatus (L.). 

The two old bracket fungi removed from the trees were brought home 
and placed in a plastic sandwich box together with the three mature 
specimens. The contents were not examined again until 18 July 1996 when 
I removed seven adult beetles to my collection. On 1 August the remains of 
the bracket fungi were removed and broken open. A total of 3 1 beetles were 
found, many still within pupal cells which formed discrete spheres 
approximately 12 mm in diameter. On the following day, 2 August 1996, 30 
adult beetles were taken and released at three separate locations in 
Woodwalton Fen NNR; 16 at the original site, eight in an adjacent 
compartment, and six in the north-west of the Reserve in TL2285. At each 
site the beetles were either placed within holes bored into the flesh of the 
fungus, or the hymenium was eased away from the main body of the fungus 
and the beetles inserted between them. A bracket removed during the first 
visit in May had been left at the base of the tree. This was re-examined on 2 
August and when two D. boleti emerged they and the fungus were replaced. 
When I finally cleaned out the semi-liquid contents of the box in which the 
fungus had been kept I found four more adult beetles together with scores 
of Cis bilamellatus. 

Hyman and Parsons in their Review of the scarce and threatened 
Coleoptera of Great Britain (1992) list the nine Counties from which 
Diaperis boleti has been recorded including the only post 1970 records for 
East Sussex, East Kent and Huntingdonshire. This last record refers to 
Holme Fen NNR, approximately four kilometres NNE of Woodwalton Fen, 
where several coleopterists collected specimens in 1985.- R. Colin Welch, 
The Mathom House, Hemington, nr. Oundle, Peterborough PE8 5QJ. 



THE ENCHANTED BUILDE^G 77 

THE ENCHANTED BUILDING 

Brian K. West 

36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent DAS 2HN. 

IN THE Iguazu National Park, Argentina, above the famous falls, a dirt road 
runs alongside the Rio Iguazu, and in a small clearing in the forest between 
them is a most remarkable building. It consists of an elevated room set upon 
square-sectioned concrete pillars, and is connected by a concrete overhead 
pathway to a large, solid, square concrete block which forms a platform to 
house some machinery; one wall of the block backs onto the river. The 
building was constructed about 1983, and I came across it on 19 October 
1994; the sight that met my glance that day was unbelievable. Much of the 
platform wall facing the building and the underside of the elevated pathway 
were covered with butterflies quietly feeding, presumably upon salts 
emanating from the cement; there was very little evidence of algal growth 
except in several areas, where in fact butterflies were sparse or absent. Well 
over 90% comprised only two species of large, grey Hamadryas settled with 
wings widespread - H. februa Hb. and H. epinome Feld. It would have been 
very difficult to insert a finger to touch the cement without making contact 
with a butterfly. Lesser numbers were settled on the concrete pillars and the 
underside of the elevated room, congregations being noted especially at the 
heads of the columns where there were also small clusters of nests of solitary 
wasps. 

At the road margins in the vicinity were puddles and damp patches from 
rain, and there was also a small damp gutter beside a short drive close to one 
side of the building. The species feeding on the cement structure were to 
some extent different from those at roadside damp patches, and those at the 
damp gutter were different again. Two days of rain prevented my visiting the 
area again in 1994, and when I returned in October 1995 the building 
presented a very different picture. On arriving at Puerto Iguazu it became 
immediately apparent that butterflies were scarce, both around the hotel on 
the edge of the town and in the nearby forest, so I was not surprised to find 
only a few feeding at the cement walls of the building, nor did matters 
improve over the ensuing two weeks. However, on reflection, I realise that 
the main difference was the absence of the Hamadryas species in numbers; 
in fact quite a variety of other species were present in ones and twos. 

Damp patches beside the road attracted characteristic, but small, 
assemblies of Papilionidae and Pieridae, in particular the common large 
yellow and orange Coliadinae, along with some Nymphalids - small Ortilia 
species, and quite a variety of bright medium-sized insects of such genera as 
Doxocopa, Adelpha, Eunica and Pyrrhogyra, plus the occasional Hesperiid 
or Riodinid, and the occasional Ithomiid-like Nymphalid Eresia lansdorfi 
Godt. This list also describes very well the composition of the small 



78 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

assembly always present in the damp gutter beside the building, except that 
it was never seen to be visited by any Papilionidae or Pieridae, despite their 
presence only a few yards away at the roadside. Presumably water dripping 
from the building during rain carried dissolved salts from the cement to 
sufficiently alter the composition of the water which might remain to 
dampen the soil or gutter below. Elsewhere beside the building the ground is 
covered by low vegetation. 

Of other species, besides the Hamadryas at the cement walls, only two 
were more frequent than to be noted in more than ones or twos, and these 
were the Nymphalid Diaethria clymena Cram, and the whitish Hesperiid 
My Ion menippe Hew., both of which are commonly seen beside roadside 
puddles. In 1994 several large Nymphalids, Victorina stelenes L., Siproeta 
trayja Hb. and Smyrna blomfeldi Fab. and two rather smaller Memphis 
species, M. ryphea Cram, and a black and blue one, probably M. morvus 
Fab., both with a wide distribution from Mexico to Argentina, were present. 

A feature of roadside damp patches, at least in October, on the basalt 
plateau of northern Misiones is the frequent predominance of Nymphalids 
and absence of Pierids and Papilionids, or only a token representation of 
them. Feeding at the concrete of the building and at the damp gutter beside it 
was a considerable variety of medium-sized and small Nymphalids, many as 
singletons. They included several Adelpha species, A. mincia Hall 
commonly, and A. iris Drury, A. goyama Schaus and A. calliphane Fruh. 
rarely, Pyrrhogyra amphiro Bates, Doxocopa linda Feld., D. agathina 
Cram., D. seraphina Hb. and D. zunilda Godt. The small species included 
Dynamine tithia Hbn., D. mylitta Cram., Diaethria candrena Godt., 
Paulogramma pyracmon Godt., Callicore eucale Fruh. and C. hydaspes 
Drury, and also the small blue Riodinid Lasseia agesilas Latr. Three species 
of small brown Nymphalid were invariably present in small numbers, and 
were also attracted to the flowers of a tall ragwort {Senecio sp.), five to six 
feet in height, which grew beside the road; these were Ortilia dicoma Hew., 
O. vellica Hew. and O. orthia Hew. 

On 14 October 1995, what I thought was a large brown Nymphalid was 
later identified as the Brassolid Opsiphanes invirae Hb. a species with a range 
from Honduras to Argentina. The specimen was observed feeding at one of the 
concrete pillars soon after noon in bright sunlight. Whether it was disturbed 
initially from the adjoining forest, or whether it came to feed spontaneously, 
there is no way of knowing. It made several short sorties, and twice settled on 
nearby foliage. The flight time of Brassolids is dusk and dawn, and DeVries 
(1987) emphasises this regarding this genus, and of O. invirae states that he 
has only taken it in baited traps high in the forest canopy in Costa Rica. 

A surprising feature was the absence of Satyrids feeding at damp roadside 
patches and the building, especially as several Euptychia species were 
common in the forests at that time; one Morpho species which frequently 



THE ENCHANTED BUILDING 79 

flew along the road, and Lycaenids which were scarce, were not observed at 
the building. 

Two particular aspects of this phenomenon make it worthy of report and 
study. Firstly it is most unusual, if not unique, to witness so vast an assembly 
of butterflies at a cement structure; not far away were other concrete 
buildings, but no butterflies in attendance. Secondly, why this particular 
composition of species and absence of Pieridae and Papilionidael 

Scoble (1975) states that despite many observations, basic questions about 
butterflies feeding are still unknown, including precisely what substances are 
sought and what substances stimulate feeding. He suggests that from most 
substrates upon which they feed they derive a number of substances, and that 
different species probably have different requirements, and therefore the 
various species at damp sand may in fact be seeking different nutrients. 

Many of the species attracted to the concrete are more often associated 
with rotting fruit or animal excreta, nevertheless, the vast majority also feed 
at the roadside puddles. Arms et al. (1974) using controlled experiments 
with feral Papilio glaucus L. found that anions such as phosphate, chloride 
and nitrate as such did not attract butterflies, and that visits were confined 
almost entirely to salts containing sodium ions. The main salt found at the 
surface of the concrete is calcium carbonate, but salts migrating to the 
surface also include sulphates of calcium, sodium and potassium. Therefore 
it appears that the food sought at this building and the damp gutter beside it 
was sodium ions derived from sodium sulphate, for extraneous contaminants 
such as bird or animal excreta, or solutions from rotting fruit, were certainly 
absent, and there were no overhanging trees. A further relevant observation 
in 1994 was the placing of a piece of black nylon fabric on the ground within 
the clearing, and in shade; within a few minutes it was covered with a score 
of Hamadiyas intently feeding and reluctant to move on my approach. The 
material had been handled, and in the hot, humid conditions would have 
become contaminated with perspiration, ie sodium chloride solution. 

It is most unfortunate that this building is within the bounds of the Iguazu 
National Park, for two intriguing questions must be left unanswered. Do 
Brassolids and other crepuscular species visit it at dusk and dawn, and is it 
an attraction to nocturnal moths? 

Acknowledgement 

I wish to thank Mr P. Longman of the Technical Centre of Blue Circle 
Industries pic, Greenhithe, for kindly supplying me with information 
regarding surface salts on cement structures. 

References 

Arms, K., Feeny, P. and Lederhouse, R., 1974. Sodium stimulus for puddling behaviour 
by Tiger Swallowtail butterflies, Papilio glaucus. Science 185: 372. 

DeVries, P., 1987. The Butterflies of Costa Rica. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. 

Scoble, M., 1995. The Lepidoptera: Form function and diversity. Oxford University 
Press, New York. 



80 ^^H ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

Ectoedemia turbidella (Zell.) (Lep.: Nepticulidae) at Castle Ashby, 
Northamptonshire 

On 15 November 1995 I found several hundred leaf-mines in fallen leaves of 
grey poplars at the estate access between Grendon Quarter Pond and 
Scotland Pond (grid reference SP 866601). 

I collected leaves for further study, 46 having a single leaf -mine and ten 
having two leaf-mines. A further six leaves had an egg deposited on each 
side of the petiole but with only one larva surviving to the stage of making a 
blotch in the leaf-blade. 

The eggs were deposited on the side of the petiole at the following 
distances from the leaf base: 



mm 


6 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 unclear 


number 


1 


11 


14 


12 


18 


11 


5 


1 5 



Most of the leaves were kept outdoors over the winter and nine moths 
emerged between 4 May and 15 May 1996. These were confirmed as 
Ectoedemia turbidella by making genitalia slides. 

In The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1 , this 
species is recorded from VCs 18, 21 and 29. Maitland Emmet now has 
further records from VC 19, North Essex; VC 20, Hitchin (1985); VC 22, 
Faringdon (1976); VC 23, Oxford; VC 30, Stotfold (1986).- D.V. Manning, 
27 Glebe Rise, Shambrook, Bedford MK44 IJB. 



Holly Blue Celastrina argiolus (L.) (Lep.: Lycaenidae) ovipositing on 
cherry laurel Prunus laurocerasus L. 

On 31.V.1996 at Manor Wood, Rothamsted, Harpenden, Hertfordshire (TL 
124132), I noticed that a number of individuals of C. argiolus were paying 
particular attention to shrubs of cherry laurel, which grow abundantly at the 
site. I followed one female which eventually alighted on a flowering spike of 
the plant and promptly laid an egg on a young fruit. 

The first generation of C. argiolus lays its eggs mainly on Holly Ilex 
aquifolium L, but a number of other foodplants have been recorded including 
gorse Ulex spp., spindle Euonymous europaeus L., dogwood Cornus spp. 
and snowberry Symphoricarpos spp. (Thomas & Lewington, 1991, The 
Butterflies of Britain and Ireland, Dorling Kindersley, London). However, I 
can find no reference to the species using cherry laurel, or any other Prunus 
spp., as a foodplant.- Ian R. Wynne, 151 Riverside Road, St. Albans, 
Hertfordshire ALl IRZ. 



BEETLES IN THE SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS 8 1 

BEETLES FROM PITFALL-TRAPPING AT HIGH ALTITUDE IN 
THE SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS 

D. HORSHELD 

131 Comiston Road, Edinburgh EHIO 6AQ. 

THIS PAPER records beetles taken from traps operated in a range of 
montane habitats at three widely separated sites in the eastern, central and 
north-western Highlands. Some hand-collected species are also included. 
Similar studies are the recent work by Owen and Thaxton (1994) detailing 
captures from high altitude in the Cairngorms while Greenslade (1968) 
examined Carabids at a range of altitudes on two hills in Argyll. 

The trapping was carried out: (1) on Meall a' Chrasgaidh, a summit in the 
Fannich Hills range (West Ross), (2) on the high-altitude plateau of Creag 
Meagaidh in the central Highlands (Inverness-shire) and (3) in Lurcher's 
Gully, a north-facing stream gully on the Cairngorms (Inverness-shire). The 
traps were pitfalls consisting of white plastic drinking cups, 9.5cm tall and 
6.7cm in diameter with drain holes 3cm below the rim. The pitfalls were 
sunk in the ground with their rims flush with the ground surface, set 2m apart 
and filled up to the drain holes with 4% formalin solution to which were 
added a few drops of detergent. The latter facilitates capture by lowering the 
surface tension of the trapping fluid. The whole of the trapping covered the 
period from the end of May to the beginning of October, though the duration 
of trapping at any one site ranged from only 25 to 57 days. 

The traps were operated in a range of representative montane habitats. On 
both Meall a 'Chrasgaidh and Creag Meagaidh traps were operated in tufted- 
hair grass Deschampsia cespitosa grassland, mat-grass Nardus striata 
grassland and woolly fringe-moss Racomitrium lanuginosum heath, which 
grows with three-leaved rush Juncus trifidus on Creag Meagaidh. On Creag 
Meagaidh traps were also operated in lichen-rich bilberry Vaccinium 
myrtillus heath. Two sets of traps were in operation on Creag Meagaidh in 
1985, in mat-grass grassland and woolly-fringe moss heath at the same 
places as in 1983. In Lurcher's Gully the traps were operated in blanket bog 
with heather Calluna vulgaris and cotton-grasses Eriophorum spp., wet 
heath with heather and deer-grass Trichophorum cespitosum, tall heather 
heath, prostrate heather heath, mat-grass grassland, lichen-bilberry heath 
crowberry Empetrum nigrum heath with woolly fringe-moss, and a mossy 
spring. Six pitfalls were operated in each habitat. Table 1 provides further 
details of the trapping which was supplemented by short sessions of hand- 
collecting. 

The numbers of each of the 112 species trapped and the percentage of the 
total are given in Table 1. The list is dominated by Carabids and 
Staphylinids with 26 and 57 species respectively. No other family has more 



82 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

than five species. The catch on Creag Meagaidh in 1985 is much lower in 
species compared with 1983 which may be due to trapping at two instead 
of four trap sites, and possibly also to poor weather during the trapping 
period. 

The results are presented more for the overall picture of the montane 
beetle fauna than for comparisons between sites. The latter are difficult to 
make because of differences in the range of habitat trapped, numbers of 
specimens caught and the length and dates of trapping. Half the species (56) 
were trapped on at least two of the sites, if the two lists from Creag 
Meagaidh are treated as one. These include most of the more frequently 
taken species. Many fewer species were taken on Meall a'Chrasgaidh and 
on Creag Meagaidh in 1985 than at the other two sites. The majority of the 
species taken on Meall a'Chrasgaidh and on Creag Meagaidh in 1985 were 
also taken at the other sites and the main difference between the species- 
poor and the species-rich catches was in the absence of species. 

This study complements that of Owen and Thaxton (1994) by presenting 
the results of trapping at a series of trap sites in montane ground at lower 
altitudes than in their study. A wider range of species was taken (112 species 
as against 25 species) which is perhaps attributable to the less severe 
climatic conditions at the lower altitudes and wider range of habitats trapped 
overall. All the species taken by Owen and Thaxton (1994), with the 
exception of Nebria nivalis (PaykuU) and Corticaria linearis (PaykuU), were 
taken in traps in this study. Chiefly, the additional species taken in this study 
are eurytopic species that are found generally over a wide range of altitudes, 
though an additional eight montane species were also taken, to give 21 in 
total (Table 1). 

Greenslade (1968) recorded only three species of Carabid {Carabus 
problematicus, Nebria gyllenhali and Patrobus assimilis) by hand- searching 
above 760m on Ben Cruachan and Beinn Eunaich. This compares with 26 
species of Carabids taken above an altitude of 790m in this study. 

Two of the species caught in traps, Amara alpina and Stenus glacialis, 
are listed as Red Data Book species (Hyman and Parsons 1992, 1994). 
Specimens of A. alpina were taken at six out of the nine trap sites in 
Lurcher's Gully. The numbers, given in brackets, taken at each trap site 
with the altitude of the site were: blanket mire at 575m (12), wet heath at 
650m (26), tall heather heath at 740m (2), mat-grass grassland at 830m (4), 
prostrate heather heat at 885m (1) and mat-grass grassland at 980m (4). 
Adults were seen feeding on the seed heads of deer-grass between the two 
lower trap sites when the catch was emptied. Two specimens of A. alpina 
were taken by hand-searching in the Cairngorms in Gleann Einrich at an 
altitude of around 600m (grid ref. NH 9302) in wet heath with heather and 
deer-grass on 15 July 1986. On Creag Meagaidh A. alpina was only taken at 
the highest trap site at an altitude of 1000m in woolly fringe-moss heath. 



BETTLES IN THE SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS 



83 



Table 1. Site data and numbers of beetles trapped in each area and percentage of 
the area totals. 



Name of hill or range 


Fannich Hills 
Meall a'Chrasgaidh 


Creag Meagaidh (1) 
An Cearcallach 


O.S. grid refs. 


NH1873 


NN4185, NN4286, NN4386 


Altitude (m) of trap sites 


853, 883, 900 


790, 885, 975, 1000 


Dates of trapping 


7.vi.-ll.vii.l982 


16.v.-10.vii.l983 


No. of trap days 


792 


1344 


Number of beetles trapped 


3587 


2631 


Number of species trapped 


32 


88 


Name of hill or range 


Creag Meagaidh (2) 
An Cearcallach 


Cairngorms 
Lurcher's Gully 


O.S. grid refs. 


NN4286, NN4386 


NH9703, NH9704, NH9705 


Altitude (m) of trap sites 


975, 1000 


575, 650, 740, 830, 885, 920, 
975, 980 


Dates of trapping 


13.viii- 8.x. 1985 


28.v.-21.vi.l988 


No. of trap days 


672 


1200 


Number of beetles trapped 


317 


1609 


Number of species trapped 


31 


60 







Fannich 


Creag 


Creag 


Cairngorms 






Hills 


Meagaidh (1) 


Meagaidh (2) 


(Lurcher's 










1983 


1985 


Gully) 




No. 




No. 




No. 




No. 




Family/species 


status* 


trapped 


% 


trapped 


% 


trapped 


% 


trapped 


% 


Carabidae 




















Cychrus [carabiodes (L.)] 


E 


- 


- 


4 


0.2 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


s. rostratus (L.) 




















Carabus [glabratus Paykull] 


M 


- 


- 


15 


0.6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


s. lapponicus Bom 




















C. [problematicus Herbst] 


E 


80 


2.2 


189 


7.2 


29 


9.1 


126 


7.8 


s. gallicus Gehin 




















C. [violaceus L.] 


E 


- 


- 


11 


0.4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


V. sollicitans Hartert britannicus Bom 




















Nebria gyllenhali (Schoenherr) 


M 


85 


2.4 


203 


7.7 


24 


7.6 


42 


2.6 


A', salina Fairmaire & Laboulbene 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.3 


- 


- 


Notiophilous aquaticus (L.) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


0.2 


A^. biguttatus (Fabr.) 


E 


- 


- 


12 


0.5 


- 


- 


6 


0.4 


A', germinyi Fauvel 


E 


8 


0.2 


16 


0.6 


2 


0.6 


29 


1.8 


Elaphrus cupreus Duftschmid 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


0.2 


Loricera pilicornis (Fabr.) 


E 


- 


- 


6 


0.2 


- 


- 


35 


2.2 


Miscodera arctica (Paykull) 


E 


- 


- 


6 


0.2 


7 


2.2 


1 


0.1 


Patrobus assimilis Chaudoir 


M 


83 


2.3 


175 


6.7 


13 


4.1 


146 


9.1 


P. septentrionis (Dejean) 


M 


- 


- 


22 


0.8 


- 


- 


228 


14.2 


Trechus obtusus Erichson 


E 


3 


0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


34 


2.1 


Pterostichus adstrictus Eschscholtz 


E 


- 


- 


5 


0.2 


1 


0.3 


- 


- 


P. diligens (Sturm) 


E 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


P. nigrita (Paykull) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


3 


0.2 


Calathus melanocephalus (L.) 


E 


- 


- 


59 


2.2 


63 


19.9 


179 


11.1 


Amara aenea (Degeer) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.3 


- 


- 


A. alpina (Paykull) 


M 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


1.3 


49 


3.0 


A. lunicollis Schiodte 


E 


- 


- 


3 


0.1 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


Harpalus latus (L.) 


E 


- 


- 


6 


0.2 


- 


- 


- 


- 



84 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.iii.1997 



Trichocellus cognatus (Gyllenhal) 


E 


- 


- 


4 


0.2 


- 


- 


3 


0.2 


Bradycellus ruficollis (Stephens) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


4 


0.2 


Cymindis vaporariorum (L.) 


M 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


0.3 


Hydrophilidae 




















Cercyon atomarius (Fabr.) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Megasternum obscurum (Marsham) 


E 


- 


- 


4 


0.2 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


Leiodidae 




















Agathidium seminulum (L.) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


Choleva agilis (Illiger) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


3 


0.2 


C. glauca Britten 


E 


- 


- 


3 


0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Staphylinidae 




















Anthobium unicolor (Marsham) 


E 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


- 


- 


5 


0.3 


Olophrum piceum (Gyllenhal) 


E 


- 


- 


4 


0.2 


1 


0.3 


1 


0.1 


Arpedium brachypterum (GravenhorstJ 


M 


519 


14.5 


18 


0.7 


4 


1.3 


56 


3.5 


Acidota crenata (Fabr.) 


E 


- 


- 


3 


0.1 


11 


3.5 


- 


- 


Lesteva monticola Kies. 


M 


306 


8.5 


4 


0.2 


- 


- 


5 


0.3 


Geodromicus longipes (Mannerheim) 


M 


- 


- 


29 


1.1 


39 


12.3 


- 


- 


Anthophagus alpinus (Paykull) 


M 


19 


0.5 


10 


0.4 


2 


0.6 


9 


0.6 


Eusphalerum minutum (Fabr.) 


E 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


Eudectus whitei Sharp 


M 


1 


<0.1 


4 


0.2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Syntomium aeneum (Miiller, P.WJ.) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


Anotylus rugosus (Fabr.) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


Oxytelus laqueatus (Marsham) 


E 


1 


<0.1 


3 


0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Stenus brevipennis Thompson, C.G. 


E 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


S. brunnipes Stephens 


E 


- 


- 


7 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


S. geniculatus Grav. 


E 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


S. glacialis Heer 


M 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


1 


0.3 


- 


- 


S. impressus Germar 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


3 


0.2 


Lathrobium brunnipes (Fabr.) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


L.fulvipenne (Grav.) 


E 


- 


- 


4 


0.2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Othius angustus Stephens 


E 


2 


0.1 


16 


0.6 


1 


0.3 


8 


0.5 


0. punctulatus (Goeze) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Philonthus laminatus (Creutzer) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Quedius boopoides Munster 


E 


2 


0.1 


4 


0.2 


6 


1.9 


13 


0.8 


Q. boops (Grav.) 


E 


- 


- 


4 


0.2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Q.fulvicollis (Stephens) 


E 


- 


- 


5 


0.2 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


Q. molochinus (Gravenhorst) 


E 


55 


1.5 


68 


2.6 


5 


1.6 


193 


12.0 


Q. nitipennis (Stephens) 


E 


- 


- 


8 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Q. schatzmayri Gridelli 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Q. umbrinus Erichson 


E 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Mycetoporus angularis Mulsant & Rey 


E 


4 


0.1 


13 


0.5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


M. baudueri Mulsant & Rey 


E 


3 


0.1 


68 


2.6 


20 


6.3 


3 


0.2 


M. clavicornis (Stephens) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


M. lepidus (Grav.) 


E 


1 


<0.1 


9 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


M. rufescens (Stephens) 


E 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


Btyoporus rugipennis Pandelle 


M 


3 


0.1 


2 


0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Bolitobius inclinans (Grav.) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


Tachyporus chrysomelinus (L.) 


E 


- 


- 


7 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Tachinus elongatus Gyllenhal 


E 


- 


- 


3 


0.1 


- 


- 


23 


1.4 


T. marginellus (L.) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


T. proximus Kraatz 


E 


- 


- 


5 


0.2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


T. signatus Grav. 


E 


4 


0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Boreophilia islandica (Kraatz) 


M 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


4 


0.2 


Aloconota gregaria (Erichson) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


Alaobia scapularis (Sahlberg, C.R.) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.3 


- 


- 


Geostiba circellaris (Grav.) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


0.6 


1 


0.1 


Liogluta nitidiuscula (Sharp) 


M 


7 


0.2 


3 


0.1 


11 


3.5 


- 


- 



BEETLES IN THE SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS 



85 



Atheta arctica (Thomson, C.G.) 


M 


1 


<0.1 


10 


0.4 


- 


- 


28 


1.7 


A. tibialis (Heer) 


M 


2349 


65.5 


546 


20.8 


21 


6.6 


191 


11.9 


A. celata (Erichson) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


A. brunneipennis (Thomson, C.G.) 


E 


- 


- 


5 


0.2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Mniusa incrassata (Mulsant & Rey) 


E 


- 


- 


40 


1.5 


- 


- 


20 


1.2 


Oxypoda elongatula Aube 


E 


- 


- 


4 


0.2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0. nigricornis Motschulsky 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


0. procerula (Mannerheim) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


0. tirolensis Gredler 


M 


1 


<0.1 


35 


1.3 


- 


- 


13 


0.8 


Aleochara bipustulata (L.) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


A. lanuginosa Grav. 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.1 


Pselaphidae 




















Bythinus burrelli (Denny) 


E 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Geotrupidae 




















Geotrupes stercorarius (L.) 


E 


- 


- 


5 


0.2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Scarabaeidae 




















Aphodius borealis Gyllenhall 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


A. depressus (Kugelann) 


E 


- 


- 


69 


2.6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


A. lapponum Gyllenhal 


M 


- 


- 


49 


1.9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Byrrhidae 




















Simplocaria semistriata (Fabr.) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Byrrhus arietinus (Fabr.) 


E 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


B.fasciatus (Forster) 


E 


3 


0.1 


62 


2.4 


3 


0.9 


10 


0.6 


B. pilula (L.) 


E 


3 


0.1 


76 


2.9 


1 


0.3 


30 


1.9 


Elateridae 




















Hypnoidus riparius (Fabr.) 


E 


29 


0.8 


162 


6.2 


9 


2.8 


- 


- 


Ctenicera cuprea (Fabr.) 


E 


- 


- 


46 


1.8 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


Cantharidae 




















Rhagonycha femoralis (Brulle) 


E 


- 


- 


3 


0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Malthodes pumilus (Brebisson) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Nitidulidae 




















Meligethes aeneus (Fabr.) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


0.1 


Rhizophagidae 




















Rhizophagus dispar (PaykuU) 


L 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Monotoma longicollis Gyllenhal 


E 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Cryptophagidae 




















Antherophagus pallens (L.) 


E 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


0.3 


- 


- 


Chrysomelidae 




















Chrysolina staphylaea (L.) 


E 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Apionidae 




















Apion cruentatum Walton, J. 


E 


- 


- 


8 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Curculionidae 




















Otiorhynchus arcticus (Fabricius, 0.) 


M 


2 


0.1 


265 


10.1 


26 


8.2 


54 


3.4 


0. nodosus (Miiller, O.F.) 


M 


6 


0.2 


12 


4.3 


6 


1.9 


9 


0.6 


Hylobius abietis (L.) 


L 


- 


- 


1 


<0.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Notaris acridulus (L.) 


E 


3 


0.1 


51 


1.9 


1 


0.3 


- 


- 


Micrelus ericae (Gyllenhal) 


L 


- 


- 


6 


0.2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Total numbers caught 




3587 




2631 




317 




1609 





Status codes: E = eurytopic species; L = lowland species; M = montane species. 



86 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

Owen and Thaxton (1994) trapped a single specimen of A. alpina at an 
altitude of 980m. They also give details of earlier records. The collections of 
the Royal Scottish Museum (RSM) and the Scottish Insects Record Index 
(SIRI) show that the species is known from four areas, discounting the 
suspect record from Rona by Harrison (1935). These are Rannoch (Meall 
Garbh), Aviemore (Cairn Gorm), Braemar and Blair AthoU. None of these 
records give any precise details of capture. One published record (Evans 
1899), not listed in SIRI, is from an altitude of 1700 ft. (520m) on a hill a few 
miles up Glen Tilt near Blair AthoU. The two specimens on which the record 
is based are in the RSM, and the Blair AthoU specimens assumed by Owen 
and Thaxton (1994) to have been taken from high altitude are presumably the 
same. The captures in Lurcher's Gully in this study, coupled with previous 
records, show that A. alpina has a wide altitudinal range from around as low 
as 500-600m up to about 1000m. The data from Lurcher's GuUy also indicate 
that the species is more frequent at low altitude, at least on the northern slopes 
of the Cairngorms. Further, the species was taken in largest numbers in 
blanket mire and wet heath with abundant deer-grass, on which the adult was 
observed to feed. Deer-grass also occurs, but less abundantly, among the mat- 
grass at altitudes of 830m and 980m where the species was taken in small 
numbers. At the capture sites at high altitude on Creag Meagaidh and on 
A'Choinneach (Owen and Thaxton 1994), where deer-grass is absent, three- 
leaved rush may provide an alternative food source for adults. 

The record of A. alpina from Creag Meagaidh extends the known range to 
West Inverness-shire. 

The captures of S. glacialis on both Meall a'Chrasgaidh and Creag 
Meagaidh were in woolly fringe-moss heath at altitudes of 900m and 1000m 
respectively. This species is known from only five vice-counties according to 
Hyman and Parsons (1994), but records are widely distributed from North 
Northumberland to Fife and the Highlands. 

Two other montane species were taken by hand-collecting on the Fannich 
Hills. A single specimen of A^. nivalis was taken on a rocky slope below the 
summit of Sgurr Mor (grid ref. NH 205716), at an altitude of 950m on 25 
June 1987. On the same day four males of Phyllodecta polaris Schneider 
were taken on the summit of Sgurr Mor (grid ref. NH 203716) at an altitude 
of 1050m. They were taken in woolly fringe-moss heath with an abundance 
of small herbs such as alpine bistort Polygonum viviparum, and least willow 
Salix herhacea. The latter is known to be the foodplant of P. polaris (Owen, 
1988a). Graham Dalby gave me a single male P. polaris taken the following 
day on the neighbouring summit of Sgurr nan Clach Gaela (grid ref. NH 
188719), at an altitude of 920m. An examination of the capture site showed 
that the vegetation was similar to that on Sgurr Mor. 

N. nivalis was formerly regarded as a rare species from high altitude but is 
now known from 13 vice-counties in the eastern, northern and western 



BEETLES IN THE SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS 87 

Highlands, Ebudes, Shetland, England and Wales (Hyman and Parsons 
1992). P. polaris was first reported in Britain by Morris (1970), and was first 
found on Sgurr Mor by Owen (1983). The species is currently known from 
four vice-counties, all in the Highlands (Hyman & Parsons 1992). 

Another species, Eudectus whitei, was formerly thought to be rare but is 
now known from about 20 sites in Scotland and northern England (Owen, 
1988b; Owen and Thaxton, 1994). The species was captured on Meall 
a'Chrasgaidh in woolly fringe-moss heath at an altitude of 883m. On Creag 
Meagaidh the species was caught in tufted-hair grass grassland, bilberry- 
lichen heath and woolly fringe-moss heath. E. whitei was also caught on 
Creag Meagaidh in 1985, though lower down the trap transect than reported 
in this paper, at an altitude of only 620m, in bilberry heath. 

Three of the species caught on Creag Meagaidh {Rhizophagus dispar, 
Hylobius abietis and Macrelus ericae) are lowland species out of place at 
high altitude. R. dispar is found under bark and on bark fungus (Peacock, 
1977). H. abietis feeds on Pinus and Picea spp. and M. ericae feeds on 
Calluna vulgaris and Erica spp. (Bullock, 1992). Birch, pine and spruce 
woods grow on the lower slopes two to three kilometres from the trap sites. 
C. vulgaris mixed with Erica spp. is frequent on the lower slopes below the 
traps sites, up to an altitude of about 600m. 

In conclusion this study shows that there is a richer beetle fauna on 
montane ground at 575- 1000m altitude compared with that known from very 
high altitude at 980- 1300m (Owen and Thaxton, 1994). This study confirms 
the latter study in showing that a large part of the fauna (79%, Table 1) is 
made up of widely distributed eurytopic species. 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to Colin Welch for identification of some of the Staphylinid 
species. Graham Rotheray kindly provided access to the collections and the 
Scottish Insects Records Index at the Royal Museum of Scotland. 

References 

Bullock, J. A., 1992. Host plants of British beetles: a list of recorded associations. 

Supplement to A Coleopterisf s Handbook. The Amateur Entomologist 1 la. 
Evans, W. 1899. Amara alpina F., and other Insects in "East Perth". Scottish Naturalist 

1899: 54-55. 
Greenslade, P.J.M., 1968. Habitat and altitude distribution of Carabidae (Coleoptera) in 

Argyll, Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 120 (2): 

39-54. 
Harrison, G. H., 1935. Coleoptera. In Peacock, A.D., Smith, E.P. and Davidson, C.F. 

(Eds). The natural history of South Rona. Scottish Naturalist 1935: 4-7. 
Hyman, P.S. and Parsons, M., 1994. A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera of 

Great Britain. Part 1. UK Nature Conservation No. 3. JNCC, Peterborough. 
- , 1994. A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera of Great Britain. Part 2. UK 

Nature Conservation No. 12. JNCC , Peterborough. 



88 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

Morris, M. G., 1970. Phyllodecta polaris Schneider (Col., Chrysomelidae) new to the 
British Isles from Wester Ross and Inverness-shire, Scotland. Entomologist' s monthly 
Magazine 106: 48-53. 

Owen, J.A., 1983. More about Phyllodecta polaris Schneider (Col., Chrysomelidae) in 
Britain. Entomologist' s monthly Magazine 119: 191. 

- , 1988a. A note on the life history of Phyllodecta polaris Schneider (Col.: 
Chrysomelidae). Entomologist' s Rec. J. Var. 100: 91-92. 

- , 1988b. Additional Scottish records for Eudectus whitei Sharp (Col.: Staphylinidae), 
with a comment on its status in Britain. Entomologist' s Rec. J. Var. 100: 184. 

Owen, J. A. and Thaxton, R. W., 1994. Beetles from pitfall-trapping at high altitudes in 

the Cairngorms. Entomologist' s Rec. J. Var. 106: 51-54. 
Peacock, E.R., 1977. Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae. Handbooks for the Identification of 

British Insects 5(5a) Royal Entomological Society. 



Channel Islands fauna is not "British" 

I would emphatically support Clive Simpson's contention in his note under 
this heading (Ent. Rec. 108: 210), in which he sets out the case with unerring 
cogency. There is simply no escaping the fact that the Britannic area is a 
geographic and faunistic unity and that the Channel Islands are not part of it 
- however much this may offend patriotic susceptibilities in some quarters. 
Devotees of other orders than Lepidoptera are not entirely free of fallacy, but 
at least coleopterists have never, I think, been seriously tempted in that 
direction. Geography and politics are two different things and should not be 
confused: the one is natural and for practical purposes stable, the other 
artificial and liable to change. Suppose, for argument's sake, that Scotland 
were to secede from the UK in the near future - unlikely perhaps but not 
unthinkable. Would the "Channel Island moths are British" faction then act 
logically and reduce the "British List" accordingly? I doubt it.- A.A. Allen, 
49 Montcalm Road, Chariton, London SE7 8QG. 

A record of Hipparchia semele (L.) (Lep.: Satyrinae) for Grassholm 
Island, Wales 

Hipparchia semele was observed on Grassholm Island (grid reference SR51) 
on 22.vii.1996 by Mr Graham Thompson, warden of Skokholm, who has 
kindly passed the record on to me. This raises the number of species 
observed on the island to six, the other being: Pieris brassicae, P. rapae*, 
Vanessa atalanta*, Cynthia cardui dind Aglais urticae*. Three of the records, 
marked with an asterisk, predate 1960. C. cardui has been recorded in 1996, 
on 26.vi. by Ian Bullock (from RSPB) at St. Davids amid the substantial 
migration of this butterfly throughout Britain. Unfortunately the record of H. 
semele has arrived too late to entered into The butterflies of British and Irish 
offshore islands (Gem Publishing Company, Wallingford, Oxon) to be 
published shortly.- R.L.H. Dennis, 4 Fairfax Drive, Wilmslow, Cheshire 
SK9 6EY. 



HILLTOPPING BY EARWIGS 89 

MASS HILLTOPPING OF EARWIGS ON THE TROODOS SUMMIT 
IN CYPRUS (DERMAPTERA) 

TORBEN B. LaRSEN 

358 Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 

Introduction 

ON 23 OCTOBER 1994 I stopped briefly at the very summit of the Troodos 
Mountains (c. 2000m) from where, on a good day all of Cyprus can be seen. 
It was obviously too late in the season to hope for any interesting hilltopping 
butterflies (during four days on the island only Iphiclides podalirius L., 
Artogeia rapae L., Gonepteryx rhamni L., and Pararge aegeria L. were 
seen). But on reaching the summit, it was found to be full of smaller 
hilltopping insects, notably a small red ladybird (Coleoptera, CoccineUidae), 
a small grey stinking bug (Hemiptera), and an earwig (Forficula lurida 
Fischer - a common species centered on Turkey). 

Observations on the Troodos Summit 

The weather on the day in question was one of hazy sunshine with an air 
temperature of about 22° Celsius at 2000m. The wind was so fresh that the 
possibility of small insects hilltopping seemed remote, but the summit was 
crowded with them, and especially with both sexes of the earwig. 

They were seated on south-facing rocks, paths, and roads all over the 
summit area, and on the cement observation platform, often in little clusters 
of two to five, but not touching each other. Every so often, an individual 
would suddenly, and unprovoked, fly off for a couple of small circles and 
land again in a rather ungainly manner. 

I seem to remember reading a book on insects where the author doubted 
whether earwigs ever flew spontaneously under normal circumstances. These 
ones certainly did. During the twenty minutes spent on the peak at least fifty 
take-offs were personally witnessed. Mostly take-off was too fast to see what 
happened, as was the folding of the wings after the ungainly landings. Only 
in two cases were the unfolding of their remarkably hinged and folded wings 
actually witnessed. The flight seemed surprisingly confident, able to 
withstand the strong wind. At any given time hundreds of earwigs were 
airborne on the summit. 

When not flying, the earwigs generally sat still in the sun, not touching, 
and not interacting with each other. In one case, only, a pair was seen seated 
side by side, the male of which had unfolded the wing furthest from the 
female and appeared to be grooming it with the anal tongs. After a while, he 
folded the single wing, and then flew away abruptly. 

Six individuals were caught by grasping their tongs, in the hope of 
showing to my companions how the unfolding of the wings looked, but they 
did not oblige. Immediately on being placed back in their original position, 
they scuttled off into a dark crevice as earwigs normally do. 



90 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

Every suitable rock or flat area which the sun reached had several earwigs 
per square metre. The investigated area covered at least 100 x 100m 
(10,000m2), but there must have been earwigs over a larger area than that. A 
total of 5,000 is an absolute minimum, but the true total must have been 
considerably higher than that. I made no formal count, but the sex-ratio 
appeared to be roughly 1 : 1 , the sexes being easily distinguished by the shape 
of the anal tongs. 

Discussion 

Hilltopping of this nature is normally seen as a way of allowing the sexes of 
a species to meet for mating purposes, and this has been carefully 
documented for both butterflies (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) and hoverflies 
(Diptera, Syrphidae). This may have been so also in the present case; my 
brief stay was possibly too short to see examples of sexual behaviour. 

Another possibility is that the hilltopping constitutes a prelude to 
communal hibernation. Ladybirds of the type seen are notorious for 
communal roosting, and often in places where they do not normally live and 
feed. Many of the small stinking bugs were seen further down the mountain 
in shady places in very large numbers (more than 100 under the palm-sized 
ledge of a small rock). 

However, a conversation with Judith Marshall on the habits of earwigs in 
the UK, suggests that both mechanisms may actually be combined, since 
here females are impregnated in the autumn and hibernate to lay eggs the 
following spring, while the males die off. 

Whatever the reason, the fact remains that the earwigs were hilltopping, 
that they flew frequently, spontaneously, and quite strongly, and that they 
were present by the thousands or tens of thousand. 

Acknowledgements 

My wife, Nancy Fee, and I would like to thank Christos and Stavroulla 
Demetriou for taking us on the lovely trip through the Troodos where these 
observations were made. The earwig was kindly determined by Judith 
Marshall of the Natural History Museum, London. 



Pyrausta aurata Scop. (Lep.: Pyralidae) on Wanstead Flats, east London, 
1996 

I first became aware of the existance of this Pyrale in east London in October 
1994, having found larvae on a small cluster of Mentha growing in a tiny 
Plaistow garden on 8.x. 1994. 

A Heath trap set up on 30.V.1996 on Wanstead Flats, resulted in the 
capture of a single male. Subsequent examples of the moth, the first 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 91 

4.vi.l996, were found flying in sunshine in my untidy garden by Wanstead 
Flats, which was graced by a small batch of mint in one comer. An initial 
female was seen in the vicinity of the aforementioned plants on 5.vi.l996, 
flying at 12.30 hours, depositing a single ovum on the underside of a mint 
leaf near the mid-rib. Other examples were seen on 9.vi.l996, 15.vi.l996 
and 20.iv.l996, generally flying in the sunshine around midday. Larvae of 
various stadia were first noted on mint, 20.vi.l996. Larvae were seen to be 
relatively abundant on 14.vii.l996, always on the same few mint plants, 
feeding in close proximity to each other, spinning webs on the terminal 
shoots. 

A single example of P. aurata was also seen in nearby West Ham Park on 
15.V.1996, flying in close proximity to the mints which formed part of the 
herb garden. No larvae were seen here. 

Larvae were fully-grown on 19.vii.l996, the last being noted on 
27.vii.1996, and imagines were seen flying until 18.viii.l996, their numbers 
being added to by those specimens released into the garden from 
27.vii.1996. 

The diurnal nature of the insect, and its propensity to fly in bright 
sunshine, was no doubt encouraged by the favourable weather conditions of 
June and July (see Table). 



month 


deviation 30 - year norms °C, 1951-1980 


sunshine % deviation, 30-year norms 


June 1996 
July 1996 


+0.8°C 
+0.8°C 


119% 
112% 



- G.E. King, cl. Luis Lopez AUue, 2-1° h, 50005 Zaragoza, Spain. 



Fletcher's Pug versus Pauper Pug 

I fear that Bernard Skinner had his tongue firmly in his cheek when he wrote 
on this matter {Ent. Rec. 108: 284-285); he knows better than most that 
Heslop's use of the name Pauper Pug for egenaria related absolutely to last 
century mis-identifications of similar species and that such a name had no 
place in the British literature. Moths of Eupithecia egenaria H.-S. were 
recognised for the first time in Britain from wild populations in 1962, and 
the significance of the two vernacular names was not lost on Robin Mere 
(1962, Ent. Gaz. 13: 155), and I re-stated this position (1981, Larvae Brit. 
Lep. not figd. by Buckler: 34) and summarised it again in the recent 
Newsletter no. 49 of the Norfolk Moth Survey Group (which three sources I 
recommend to interested readers). 

We had all been seduced since 1984 by the alliterative ease with which 
Pauper Pug popped from the tongue; and the fact that successive authors 



92 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

since that time have followed that unsubstantiated name cannot in any way 
justify its validity. Use of Fletcher's name deliberately honours the name of 
D.S. Fletcher whose national and international work on the Geometridae 
spanned many years, and whose name was chosen to commemorate that 
recognition in the name of a moth newly added to the British fauna. And we 
might remember that its use perpetuates the memory also of Robin Mere, 
one of a distinguished band of Lepidopterists of the post-war years and to 
whom we also pay tribute. 

There is no case for a populist vote on the matter because it is not just a 
question of like or preference, as it might be for the species that Bernard 
Skinner lists and to which could be added legions more; for in the case of 
egenaria the use of the name of Fletcher's Pug distinguishes between the 
clear genuine records of this century and the confused, unsubstantiated 
references of the last century. 

We should not forget in all this that egenaria had actually been found in 
1953 by John Fenn at Thetford but not recognised then as this species; so 
Mere's name of Fletcher's Pug still remained the earliest. 

The usual clarity of mind of the author of Colour Identification Guide to 
the Moths of the British Isles will surely prevail in the choice of Fletcher's 
Pug in further revision of that book.- G.M. Haggett, Meadows End, 
Northacre, Caston, Norfolk NR17 IDG. 



Is Rhizophagus oblongocollis Blatch & Horner (Col.: Rhizophagidae) 
basically a subterranean species? 

As part of a survey of beetles living beneath the surface of the soil, an 
underground pitfall trap (Owen, 1995, Ent. Rec. 107: 225-228) was set at the 
base of an old oak tree on Ashtead Common NNR in November 1995. 
Among the beetles trapped between March 1996 and July 1996 were 14 
examples of Rhizophagus oblongocollis. The only other Ashtead record for 
this beetle known to me is for a single specimen which I found in April 1979 
by sieving leaf-mould from the base of an old oak sited about 150 metres 
from where the trap was set. 

In Britain, R. oblongocollis is known from only a few old parklands and is 
remarkable for its erratic appearances. For example, it was first taken (then 
new to science) in Sherwood Forest around 1892 (Blatch & Homer, 1892, 
Ent. mon. Mag. 28: 303) but it has not been found there since; it was found 
in Richmond Park in 1896 (Peacock, 1997, Hnbk. Id. br. Ins. V pt 5a) but, 
similarly, it has not been seen there again in spite of the entomological 
interest which has been taken in the park over the years including an 
intensive survey carried out recently (Hammond & Owen, in press); it has 
been taken in Epping Forest (Forster, 1954, Ent. mon. Mag. 91: 6) but only 
once. Only at Windsor has the beetle been recorded on a number of 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 93 

occasions (e.g. Donisthorpe, 1937, Ent. mon. Mag. 73: 244; Allen, 1942, 
Ent. mon. Mag. 78: 152-154 but none of these were before 1937 or after 
1972. 

Its occurrence at Ashtead in leaf mould and in a subterranean pitfall trap 
and its erratic appearances in well-worked, old parklands suggests, perhaps, 
that R. olongicollis is basically a subterranean species appearing above 
ground only in exceptional circumstances. Like it congener i?. parallelocollis 
Gyllenhal, a species with well-documented subterranean habits, R. 
oblongicollis has small eyes which further suggests a subterranean lifestyle, 
as my friend Colin Johnson has pointed out to me. The trap on Ashtead 
Common was set as close as possible to the trunk of the oak tree. The trap 
reached to a depth of about 25 cm and was almost certainly in contact with 
large roots. There was, in addition, an old burrow under the tree and the trap 
may, in part, have protruded into the burrow. 

I thank Mr R. Wamock, Corporation of London for permission to study 
beetles on Ashtead Common, NNR, Miss V. Forbes for help in setting traps 
there and Mr Colin Johnson for confirming the identification of examples of 
the beetle.- J. A. Owen, 8 Kingsdown Road, Epsom, Surrey KT17 3PU. 



Little-known entomological literature - Nature Study and Naturalists' 
Journal - a correction 

Having just completed cataloguing the serial publications in the library of 
the British Entomological and Natural History Society (BENHS) I was 
interested to see Brian Gardiner's note concerning the Naturalists' Journal 
and it's successor Nature Study {Ent. Rec. 108: 216-219). I was surprised, 
therefore, to find that in the BENHS library there are three volumes of 
Nature Study rather than the single 1903 volume mentioned by Gardiner. 
The 1903 volume was published as Nature Study and without a volume 
number; it was followed by the 1904 volume published as Nature Study and 
the Naturalists' Journal and which, as volume 13, reverted to the sequence 
of volume numbers of its predecessor the Naturalists' Journal. The final 
volume was published in 1905 as volume 14 and retained the 1904 title. All 
three volumes of Nature Study were published by Charles Moseley. Volumes 
13 and 14 have much the same entomological content as the earlier volumes 
but with rather more in Volume 14 than in Volume 13. 

I understand that Brian Gardiner's error arose because he relied on the 
1975 catalogue of serial publications in the Natural History Museum 
(Gardiner, pers. comm.) which lists only one volume for Nature Study. The 
correct publication history, as given above, may be found in the World List 
of Scientific Publications 1900-1960, 4th edition, Vol. 2 (1964).- John 
MuGGLETON, 30 Penton Road, Staines, Middlesex TW18 2LD. 



94 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

Hazards of butterfly coUecting - Jos Plateau, Nigeria - February 1978 

The Jos Plateau in Central Nigeria, despite intense environmental 
degradation, remains a most interesting place. Because of its appreciable 
altitude in otherwise lowland West Africa, it represents the westernmost 
bastion of fauna and flora otherwise more characteristic of eastern and 
southern Africa. Here I have found the westernmost colonies of butterflies 
like Eronia leda Boisduval, Colotis protomedia Klug, Euchrysops 
subpallida, and Cacyreus virilis Aurivillius. Stuart Norman did even better 
in finding Hypolycaena hatita Hewitson in a subspecies near the eastern ssp. 
ugandae Sharpe (ssp. anara Larsen, 1986), though the nominate West 
African subspecies occurs a few hundred kilometres to the south - to my 
mind an excellent illustration that the subspecies category is a real and 
important one. Stuart Norman also found a splendid member of the genus 
Capys Hewitson which remains undescribed; its Protea host plants also have 
their westernmost limit at Jos. 

So even a brief visit was to be cherished, and I arranged to spend most of 
a Sunday in Jos, rather than sweating it out in Lagos. An uneventful early 
morning flight with "Skypower" (Nigeria Airways) - most unusual since 
Skypower is usually full of surprises - brought me to Jos, and I immediately 
set out on foot from the hotel to collect. Very soon, I had bagged a good 
series of whites of the Pierid genus, Mylothris Hb., the taxonomic position of 
which had remained somewhat elusive, and which in principle should not be 
in Jos at all, since it is a rainforest genus. One or two other goodies were also 
bagged, before I had to repair to the hotel for a meeting with other members 
of my team who arrived on the afternoon plane (after having sweated it out 
in Lagos). 

Later that evening, I discovered that I had two distinct species of 
Mylothris, one of which proved to be an undescribed subspecies of Mylothris 
rueppelli Koch, previously thought to go no further west than eastern Zaire 
and Uganda. I described this as M. rueppelli josi (1983 (1986) Bulletin de 
rinstitut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire, A45: 151-172), though strange to 
say I am still unsure of the exact taxonomic status of the one originally 
known from Jos. Not bad for a few hours' work. 

Since my discovery of Mylothris rueppelli josi, Steve Collins from 
Nairobi upped me considerably. A few years ago, on a walk through the 
rocky hills a few hundred yards from the hotel, he came across a colony of a 
completely new member of the genus Alaena Boisduval, no species of which 
are known closer to Nigeria than the Zaire/Rwanda border. 

On my way back, after a few days of work, "Skypower" had reverted to 
par. The ancient Fokker Friendship was hopelessly overbooked, the selling 
of additional boarding being a more secure source of income for airline staff 
than their salary, which the debt-ridden airline paid only irregularly. Being 
well-practiced in the ways of Skypower, I had spotted that the rear cargo 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 95 

door was open, so when the ugly rush for the aircraft began, I vaulted up that 
instead of the main door, brandishing my boarding card. 

The aircraft was soon filled to the last seat, and staff had great difficulties 
in fending off the twenty or so people with valid boarding passes still 
waiting. A bit of help from police and army soon sorted that out. Ready for 
take-off? Not quite! A flight attendant approached the aisle passengers in the 
last row to inform them that they would have to leave - the seats were 
reserved for cabin crew during take-off and landing. No response. Soon the 
captain came on the intercom, "Ladies and gentleman ... I am afraid that 
due to international regulations the cabin crew have to be seated during take- 
off .. . would the passengers in seats 12b and 12c kindly leave the aircraft". 
They sat tight. The captain came to remonstrate. They were disinclined to 
listen. Back came the captain on the intercom, "Unless the passengers in 
seats 12b and 12c leave the aircraft immediately, I have no option but to call 
the authorities. Please leave the aircraft voluntarily". The poker faces in 12b 
and 12c set even deeper, the rest of us trying to suppress any trace of 
smugness. 

A few moments later a squad of special police burst in with submachine 
guns and bundled off the recalcitrant passengers, who were at least wise 
enough not to resist. Soon the flight attendant was on the intercom "Ladies and 
gentleman. Welcome on board this Nigeria Airways Fokker Friendship bound 
for Kaduna, Ibadan and Lagos. Our cruising altitude wiU be at 21,000 feet. The 
estimated flying time to Kaduna is 55 minutes. We wish you a pleasant flight". 
Stoic lass - 1 don't think I could have resisted a slight change of script, "I hope 
those of you who are stLU with us have a pleasant flight"! 

Ironically, in Kano a week later, I was faced with the opposite situation, a 
small Fokker F-28 had been replaced by a DC- 10, seating four times the 
number of passengers. Sixty passengers, clutching mounds of luggage 
(sensibly refraining from placing it at the tender mercy of Skypower's 
baggage handling), ran for their lives across six hundred metres of heat- 
shimmering apron, to find themselves in a near-empty aircraft. 

It is supposed to be better to travel hopefully than to arrive. Not with 
Skypower, in the 1980s, it wasn't! You hoped to travel - arrival was proof !- 
TORBEN B. Larsen, 358 Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 



Eurois occulta (L.) (Lep.: Noctuidae) apparently showing migratory 
restlessness 

On the night of 25.vii.1991, during a period of southeasterly winds, two 
Great Brocades Eurois occulta were found on sugar at my home address. 
Both were females of the pale grey immigrant form, and in pristine 
condition. They were the forerunners of a small invasion of eastern Britain 
that year (Skinner & Parsons, Ent. Rec. 108: 151-157). 



96 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

So that they could be photographed in daylight, each was put into a 
separate, suitably large container, and placed in a refrigerator kept solely for 
the purpose. When checked about an hour later, neither moth had settled 
down. Both were flying vigorously, and had already begun to damage 
themselves. The thermostat of the fridge was then turned down until the 
temperature inside was only just above freezing, yet still both moths feebly 
attempted to crawl and flutter. By morning, one was very badly worn, and 
the other moderately so. 

After taking what were, by then, mainly voucher photographs, it was 
planned to release the moths at dusk. However, the more worn one of the 
two became so frenetic in its container that it was released at midday, and 
flew off strongly in a northerly direction. 

Over the years, I have kept hundreds of moths overnight for later 
examination, breeding or photography, but have never encountered such 
extreme hyperactivity as was shown by these E. occulta. It brought to mind 
the pre-migratory restlessness well-known to occur in birds, for which the 
German term Zugunruhe is sometimes used (Campbell & Lack, 1985. A 
Dictionary of Birds. Poyser, Calton). It is thought that many migrant moths 
continue to fly onwards, even when they have reached an area of suitable 
habitat, until they have used up their metabolic resources, lipids (Young, M., 
1997. The Natural History of Moths. Poyser, London). Certainly, these E. 
occulta seemed "programmed" to fly in spite of being almost torpid with 
cold. Perhaps it explains why this species is one of the more regular migrants 
to reach Britain from similar latitudes across the North Sea, yet the pale grey 
form never becomes established here: the migrants might continue to 
disperse after arrival, and become too thinly spread.- Roy Leverton, 
Whitewells, Ordiquhill, Comhill, Banffshire AB45 2HS. 



LT. COL. W.A.C. (SAM) CARTER 

It is with deep regret that we announce the death of Sam Carter 
on 8 February 1997. Readers will be aware that Sam was 
responsible for the production of the Special Index to this 
journal until the end of 1995 - a labour of love which he carried 
out to the highest standard of accuracy. The preparation of a 
species index requires a meticulous eye for detail and many 
hours of labour. Very few entomological journals now index 
their contents down to species level and it was entirely due to 
Sam that this journal continued to do so when others stopped. 
Anyone who has ever tried to track down literature references to 
a particular species will, like me, offer up a silent vote of thanks 
for Sam's endeavours. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 97 

Butterfly notes from the Greenwich district, S.E. London 

Our Editor, Colin Plant, in his admirable book The Butterflies of the London 
Area (1987), gives (p.23) a most useful analysis of the species found to 
occur in each of the thirty-three London Boroughs during the period 1980 to 
1986. Allowing for minor changes and perhaps a few losses, the position is 
doubtless not very different today, a decade later. The list for my borough, 
Greenwich, there stands at 19 species, to which I am able to add three - 
bringing it up to 22 (an average figure for the London area) assuming no 
losses in the meantime. 

1. Large Skipper. An unexpected absentee from the 1987 list, and in a 
different class from the two following which are clearly newcomers. It 
was not scarce annually in my former garden at Blackheath (first noticed 
some time before 1950), and likewise in my present one at Charlton every 
year up to 1996 when it apparently failed; also sparingly but frequently 
throughout the district. 

2. Orange-tip. In previous notes I have already recorded the first modem 
appearance of A. cardamines at Shooters Hill and Woolwich Common; 
since when, in 1994, it appeared in a third locality: Mary on- Wilson Park, 
Charlton, in one area only where the cuckoo-flower grows. None, 
however, could be seen there during the past two seasons, which I put 
down to the appalling summer droughts. Happily, however, the butterfly 
has fared somewhat better in its other station here, Woolwich Common; 
where, in its very restricted haunt, two males were noted in flight last year 
(4. V. 1996). May was so wintry with us as probably to disfavour the 
Orange-tip which, hereabouts, seems almost over by June, and its status 
in the local fauna must be regarded as precarious. It seems to me that in 
our climate the species can suffer through being only single-brooded! 

3. Gatekeeper. The one outstanding success-story among Charlton 
butterflies in 1966: in just one season it has become common in 
apparently all suitable places. First seen here only a few years ago, and 
till now confined in my vicinity to a very small part of a lightly-wooded 
area of Woolwich Common, except for a few stragglers - the same area 
in which the Orange-tip first appeared, but a shadier part of it. It was a 
pleasure to see Gatekeepers freely mingling with Meadow Browns at 
Buddleia flowers in the garden in July and August; and during the same 
period along waysides, field edges etc., usually in company with Meadow 
Browns and in similar numbers, or tithonus might even slightly 
outnumber jurtina here and there. It seems strange that the former has 
taken so long to reach us here; I never saw it in all my years at 
Blackheath. In this it contrasts strikingly with the Essex Skipper, which 
arrived here long ago and become locally the most abundant butterfly. 



98 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

Of the other resident species listed for Greenwich Borough in 1987, 1 have 
yet to meet with the Grizzled Skipper (which could well occur on Woolwich 
Common); the Purple Hairstreak (probably present in the Shooters Hill 
woods but very easily missed); and the Brimstone, whose foodplants are 
absent locally. I have not for several years seen the Wall, previously not 
uncommon in two restricted sites: a field edge at Kidbrooke, and a short 
riverside stretch of Charlton Reach approaching Greenwich, at both of which 
there has been severe disturbance. It would be premature to write off L. 
megera as a loss to the Borough - though indeed it may be - because so 
many apparently suitable spots remain, and, as just noted, the butterfly can 
be very local. 

Further species that have shown a drastic reduction in numbers here in 
1996 are: Speckled Wood (scarce also in 1995 after a period of increase; a 
fine late female at ivy-bloom, 18.x. 93, in a north-east wind after frost, is 
perhaps worth mention); Small Heath (not seen at all, though noted each 
year on Woolwich Common up to then); and Small Tortoiseshell (only two 
met with, besides a small colony of larvae at Kidbrooke). For what is 
supposed to be the commonest British butterfly, this degree of rarity surely 
calls for some explanation - has it been the general experience last year?- 
A.A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

Cicones undatus Guer. (CoL: Colydiidae) and other beetles on sycamore 
Acer pseudoplatanus killed by sooty bark disease at Grafham, 
Huntingdonshire 

Following Mendel and Owen's discovery of Cicones undatus under 
sycamore bark in Windsor Great Park in 1984 (1987, Ent. Rec. 99: 93-95) 
and Jones' account of a diverse and rare beetle fauna associated with sooty 
bark disease on sycamore at Nunhead Cemetery between 1988 and 1992 
(1993, ibid. 105: 1-10), I enquired of Mr D. Evans, Tree Officer for 
Huntingdon District Council, whether the disease had been reported from the 
old County of Huntingdonshire. He was aware of one earlier localised 
outbreak in a large garden at Alconbury, but the infected trees had long been 
fefled and removed from the site. 

Sooty bark disease is caused by an ascomycete fungus Cryptostoma 
corticale Ell. & Ev. which, in Britain, is almost confined to sycamore Acer 
pseudoplatanus L., although it occurs occasionally on other species oi Acer 
and horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L. Strouts and Winter (1994, 
Diagnosis of ill-health in trees, HMSO) state that this disease was first 
recorded in Great Britain in London during 1948. They add that "the fungus 
is widespread on dead wood, but requires long, hot, dry summers to cause 
disease", and conclude that "outbreaks are, therefore, sporadic and 
concentrated in the southern half of the country". However, David Rose of 
the Forestry Authority's Pathology Diagnostics Advisory Service at Alice 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 99 

Holt informs me (pers. comm.) that cases of sooty bark disease were 
reported in 1991/92 following the drought years of 1989/90. Similarly after 
the hot summer of 1995 outbreaks have occurred in Suffolk, 
Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, the Vale of Cheshire, and possibly in 
Derbyshire. With the apparent increasing frequency of dry years when trees 
suffer water stress, sooty bark disease has spread rapidly into East Anglia 
and central England. The big question for coleopterists was, would species 
such as Cicones undatus and Synchita separanda (Reitt.) spread north with 
the disease? 

On 8 October 1996 mr Evans notified me of a number of small to medium 
sized sycamore trees which had been killed at Grafham Caravan Park (TL 
156696) in the Administrative County of Cambridgeshire, but in vice county 
31, Huntingdonshire. I was unable to visit the site until 8 November when 
Mr Cubberley, the site owner, readily gave me permission to strip bark from 
the dead standing trees. Against all my expectations every tree was found to 
harbour large numbers of adult Enicnus brevicornis (Mann.) and Litargus 
connexus (Fourc.) together with four Enicmus larvae plus one larva and one 
pupa of Litargus. Among the other Coleoptera collected from beneath the 
bark were five adult Cicones undatus Guer. and 1 1 larval Colydiidae thought 
to be of this species. Certainly they were not larvae of Bitoma crenata (F.), 
ten adult specimens of which occurred under the flaking bark, or of Synchita 
which, alas, was not found to be present. This is not only the first record of 
Cicones from Huntingdonshire but it is also considerably further north than 
any other locality for this species of which I am currently aware. 

The following is a complete list of the other species of Coleoptera 
recorded from under sycamore bark at Grafham and includes a few strays 
and species in over-wintering sites (single specimens where not stated 
otherwise): 

Leistus spinibarbis (F.) 2 Cryptophagus dentatus (Hbst.) 5 

Dromius agilis (F.) Biphyllus lunatus (F.) 9 

D. quadrinotatus (Pz.) 2 adults, 1 larva Adalia bipunctata (L.) ca.20 

Microlestes maurus (Stm.) 3 Coccinella septempunctata L. 2 

Megasternum obscurum (Marsh.) Aridius bifasciatus Reitt.) 

Oligota picipes (Steph.) 2 Mycetophagus quadripustulatus (L.) 5 

Leptusafumida (Er.) adults, 1 larva 

Atheta trinotata (Kr.) Vincinzellus ruficoUis (Pz.) 22; 

Thanasimus formicarius (L.) adult and Rhinosimus planirostris (F.) 1 8 adults, 8 

larva larvae 

Rhizopahagus bipustulatis (F.) Anthicus anthehnus (L.) 2 
Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Steph.) 21 adults, Bruchus rufimanus Boh. 

1 larva Sitona Uneatus (L.) 6. 

In addition to several woodlice Porcellio scaber Latr., a few earwigs 
Forficula auricularia L., and one nettle bug Heterogaster urticae (P.), the 



100 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

following subcortical Heteroptera were present: Dufouriellus ater (Dufour) 
16 adults, 2 larvae; Cardiastethus fasciiventris (Garb.) 2 adults, 10 larvae; 
and one Xylocoris curtisans (Fall.)- R. Colin Welch, The Mathom House, 
Hemington, nr. Oundle, Peterborough PES 5QJ. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Provisional atlas of the click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) of Britain 
and Ireland by H. Mendel and R.E. Clarke. 82 pages, including 73 full- 
page distribution maps. A4, paper - ISBN 906688 24 8. Ipswich Borough 
Council Museums, £5 plus £1 UK postage and packing. Available from 
Ipswich Museum, High Street, Ipswich, Suffolk, IPl 3QH. 

This is an A4 sized revision of Howard Mendel's earlier provisional atlas 
(Mendel, 1988) which was published in A5 format by the Institute of 
Terrestrial Ecology. In it we find a much improved coverage of the British 
Isles, especially Ireland and Scotland, and the maps are inevitably, therefore, 
of far greater value to entomologists, ecologists and others than the earlier 
versions. The larger size, though not quite so comfortable on the shelf, 
certainly improves the clarity of the maps (produced using the DMAP 
programme), which are now annotated with Red Data Book or Nationally 
Notable status as appropriate. The introductory text is minimal, as may be 
expected in a provisional publication, but there is an extremely useful, 
updated synonymic checklist of British Isles species. Well worth the small 
price if you are a coleopterist in any form or if you are involved in using 
invertebrates in site assessments and the like. 

Reference 

Mendel,. H., 1988. Provisional atlas of the click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) of the 
British Isles. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Cumbria. 

Colin W. Plant 



The Butterflies of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly by R.D. Penhallurick. 

180 pages, numerous maps and text figures. Hardbound. ISBN 9515785 1 
0. Published by Dyllansow Pengwella, 10 Treseder's Gardens, Truro, 
Cornwall TRl ITR. £14.75. 

The latest in a long line of county butterfly faunas, this should certainly be of 
interest in view of the peculiarities of the climate in the extreme south- 
western tip of England which it covers in its pages. Cornwall, so it seems, 
remains a good place for butterflies, in spite of the best efforts of the tourist 
industry, with some 66 species here listed for all time. The species accounts 
are well researched and presented in a scholarly manner and the result of 



BOOK REVIEWS 101 



several years of concentrated hard work by the author in assimilating and 
interpreting records from the many contributors and in extracting 
information from the entomological literature as far back in time as 1796. 

The length of text devoted to each species varies, from half a page on 
some of the scarcer species recorded once or twice only, to over eight pages 
on the Large Blue. Sadly, however, beyond the species accounts there is 
precious little else to review. The author excuses his lack of "where to watch 
butterflies" by telling us that the Cornwall Branch of Butterfly Conservation 
is attempting to produce a register of important butterfly sites in the county. 
He continues by listing the six sites they have already noted in their files! 
This suggests to me that such a register is some way off production and I 
cannot see how a chapter on butterfly habitats and conservation in Cornwall 
would in any way have detracted from the value and usefulness of the 
Butterfly Conservation Register when it eventually appears. 

However, this is only a personal opinion and should not put off the reader 
from investing in a copy. The price seems a bit steep, for a book lacking in 
colour plates, but it will surely be of interest to local residents and to anyone 
visiting Cornwall from outside. 

Colin Plant 

Animals under logs and stones by C. Philip Wheater & Helen J. Read. 

NaturaUsts' Handbook 22, 1996, 90 pages (ISBN 0-85546-310-5 PB and 0- 
85546-302-3 HB). Blowflies by Zakaria Erzin^lioglu. Naturalists' 
Handbook 23, 1996, 72 pages (ISBN 0-85546-303-1 PB and 0-85546-304-X 
HB). Ants by Gary J. Skinner & Geoffrey W. Allen. Naturalists' 
Handbook 24, 1996, 84 pages (ISBN 0-85546-305-8 PB and 0-85546-306-6 
HB). Thrips by William D. J. Kirk. Naturalists' Handbook 25, 1996, 70 
pages (ISBN 0-85546-307-4 PB and 0-85546-308-2 HB). PubHshed for the 
Company of Biologists Ltd by The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd, Slough. 
Each available in paperback (£8.95) and hardback (£15.00). 

This excellent series continues with these four titles, written by specialists 
but for inexperienced naturalists and professional ecologists alike. The 
numerous illustrations in each handbook are of the usual high quality and the 
format follows the pattern of others in the series. The main emphasis is the 
ecological study of the particular group and each handbook contains 
identification schemes, notes on the ecology and natural history and the 
techniques involved in the study of the group. Ideas are given for further 
study which could be undertaken by students and serious researchers alike. 

The keys used in Animals under logs and stones will enable readers to 
variously identify to families, genera and species level and further 
identification aids are listed. It will be of particular interest to readers with a 
broad interest in invertebrates and should encourage the study of the 
fascinating communities found in this microhabitat. 



102 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

Thrips have been a very under- worked group of insects in this country and 
this new handbook should encourage many naturalists to successfully take 
on their identification and study. In most cases the keys enable identification 
of the commoner thrips to species level and rarer species to genus or family. 
Details are given of specialist keys that can be used to identify specimens 
further. 

Blowflies are common and familiar insects and this excellent handbook 
should encourage a serious interest in them by students and naturalists. 
Despite being ideal insects for study, easy to keep and breed in captivity and 
the subject of much research, there are still many aspects of the biology of 
British blowflies which remain to be explored and the author ably 
encourages the reader to do so. 

Ants can be valuable habitat indicators and have a fascinating biology but 
with an unsatisfactory British identification literature they have been a very 
under-worked group. This new handbook is therefore a very important 
addition to the literature. Although the handbook does not claim to be a 
comprehensive work and the keys encourage the reader to consult an expert 
for difficult species, I was disappointed to find that the opportunity had not 
been taken to fully illustrate the keys to help distinguish all the species in the 
Myrmica genus. Good line drawings of the scapes of each species would 
have made a modest but valuable addition to the key. I would still not be 
without The Formicidae by C.A. Collingwood {Fauna Entomologica 
Scandinavica, volume 8), and was extremely surprised not to find this work 
included in the suggestions for further reading. Nevertheless this handbook 
is an important work which no naturalist with an interest in invertebrates or 
serious ecologist should be without. 

All four handbooks are extremely valuable additions both to the 
Naturalists' Handbook series and to the identification works available for 
British invertebrates. 

P.R. Harvey 



British and European butterfly vernacular names, including forms, 
subspecies and aberrations (second edition) by William A. M'^Call and 

Gergely Toth. 76 pages plus wrapper. A5, folded and stapled. ISBN 
952997 60 6. 1997. Privately published by the authors. £5. Available from 
E. W. Classey, P.O. Box 93, Faringdon, Oxon, SN7 7DR. 

In spite of its title, this small booklet is essentially a list of British species of 
butterfly, though it is not at all clear what the criteria for inclusion may be. 
By way of example, the Southern Festoon Zerynthia polyxena ([D.&S.]) 
which, according to Emmet (1991) is known in Britain from a single 
example in vice county 3 during 1884 - probably as an escape from captive 
stock, is included, whilst its congener Z. rumina (L.) is omitted in spite of 



BOOK REVffiWS 103 



being recorded equally dubiously in vice county 14 during 1877. The entry 
for each species commences with the currently used English vernacular 
name, followed by the scientific name below, with author and date 
appended. The vernacular names are then presented, where available, in Old 
English, Gaelic (it is not specified if this is Scottish Gaelic or Irish Gaelic), 
Welsh, French, Spanish, Dutch, German, Italian, Portuguese, Finnish, 
Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Romanian, 
Russian, Greek, Filipino, Tagalog, Yugoslavian, Japanese, Turkish, Urdu, 
Bengali and Arabic. Regrettably, the reviewer's linguistic skills do not 
extend to a verification of more than a fraction of these. A comprehensive 
list of the subspecies and aberrations follows, most of which are suffixed 
with authority names and/or countries where they occur but some of which 
are not. Boxed information under each species also gives wingspan in 
millimetres, number of broods per year, the stage in the life history which 
overwinters and the months when both caterpillar and adult may be 
encountered. A half-tone illustration of the adult butterfly completes the 
entry. A list of 55 books used in researching the work is given, though the 
publishers of these are, sadly, omitted. Two titles and their authors are listed 
under the heading "Paper references Life Science Collection 1982-1992" 
but no reference is given to where or when these were published. At the rear 
of the booklet, a list of author names and their abbreviations as used in the 
lists has annoying full-points after names which are not abbreviated (for 
example "Agassiz.") though this scarcely matters all that much. 

In spite of all this and a few typographical errors which are surely 
inevitable in a work which is apparently produced from a home-based desk- 
top publishing package, together with the annoying words "continued on 
next page" every time an entry does not end on the same page on which it 
started, this is nevertheless an interesting and potentially useful booklet and 
probably worth the low price for which it is offered. 

Reference 

Emmet, A. M., 1991. Chart showing the life history and habits of the British 
Lepidoptera. In Emmet, A.M. & Heath, J. (Eds.) The moths and butterflies of Great 
Britain and Ireland, volume 7, part 2, pages 61-303. 

Aquatic Insects of North Europe: A taxonomic handbook. Volume 1 - 
Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Heteroptera, Neuroptera, Megaloptera, 
Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera. Edited by Anders Nilsson. Apollo 
Books, 1996. 274 pp., 1371 line drawings. Hardbound. ISBN 87-88757-09-9. 
DKK 400 (DKK 700 for volumes 1 and 2 if ordered together- order form 
from Apollo Books, Kirkeby Sand 19, DK-5771 Stenstrup, Denmark). 

This is the first of two volumes (volume 2 covering Odonata and Diptera will 
be published at the end of 1997), covering principally identification, but also 
biology and ecology, of all of the species of aquatic insects known in 



104 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.iii.1997 

northern Europe. Most British species are included, though the work centres 
upon the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland and 
so inevitably a few British species are omitted. Absent too are some species 
from further south (for example, the spongilla-fly Sisyra iridipennis Costa, 
1884 known in Europe only from Sardinia). In the section on Lepidoptera, 
all the native British species are included but the various introduced tropical 
species given in Goater (1986) are quite properly not treated. 

The book comprises a series of chapters by established specialists on 
each of the eight Orders of aquatic insect covered and it is particularly 
pleasing to see a British author (in the form of David Agassiz) contributing 
the chapter on the Lepidoptera. Each chapter is divided into sections, with 
discussion presented on life-cycles and phenology, habitats, trophic 
relationships, morphology, collecting methods, identification keys and a 
checklist. The state of present knowledge is summarised where appropriate 
and the chapter on Lepidoptera includes an interesting section on 
respiration. The richly illustrated identification keys are generally given for 
both larvae and adults at least to generic level and in many cases to species 
level. 

With a work of this size and nature it is only real use over time that will 
permit a proper evaluation of the identification keys. I possess no preserved 
larvae of aquatic Pyralidae to test though there seems to be no reason why 
the key should not work; that to the adults certainly does. I have tested the 
key to larvae of the alderflies (Megaloptera: Sialidae) and it works very 
well. The keys to adult water beetles will surely be a very valuable addition 
to the library of the coleopterist including, as they do, many species which 
could perhaps ultimately be added to the British list. 

Environmental applications have engaged many people in the 
identification of aquatic insect larvae at a scientific, commercial or 
governmental level. However, these activities have been hampered by a 
general lack of an up to date standard work providing modem nomenclature 
and reliable identification keys to all taxa known from the region. This book 
is designed to fill this gap, as far as taxonomic knowledge is available, and 
in this task, I would suggest, it succeeds admirably - drawing together 
existing keys and combining them with new ones in a single, English- 
language volume. This magnificent volume more than upholds the tradition 
of excellence and quality established by Apollo Books and is destined to 
become the standard work of reference on aquatic insects in northern 
Europe. No serious British freshwater entomologist can afford to be without 
a copy. 



Reference 

Goater, B. 1986 British Pyralid moths: a guide to their identification. Harley Books, 
Colchester. 



Notes and observations - continued from back cover 

Little-known entomological literature - Nature Study and Naturalists' Journal - a 

correction. John Muggleton 93 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - Jos Plateau, Nigeria - February 1978. Torben B. Larsen 94 

Eurois occulta (L.) (Lep.: Noctuidae) apparently showing migratory restlessness. Roy 

Leverton 95 

Lt.Col. W.A.C. (Sam) Carter. Editor 96 

Butterfly notes from the Greenwich district, S. E. London. A.A. Allen 97 

Cicones undatus Guer. (Col.: Colydiidae) and other beetles on sycamore Acer 
pseudoplatanus killed by sooty bark disease at Grafham, Huntingdonshire. R. Colin 
Welch 98 

Book Reviews 

Provisional atlas of the click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) of Britain and Ireland 

by H. Mendel & R.E. Clarke 100 

The Butteiflies of Cornwall and the Isles ofScilly by R. D. Penhallurick 100 

Animals under logs and stones by Philip Wheater & Helen J. Read 101 

Blowflies by Zakaria Erzin^lioglu 101 

Ants by Gary J. Skinner & Geoffrey W. Allen 101 

Thrips by Wilham D.J. Kirk 101 

British and European butterfly vernacular names, including forms, subspecies and 

aberrations by William A. M'Call & Gergely Toth 102 

Aquatic insects of North Europe: A taxonomic handbook. Volume 1 edited by Anders 

Nilsson 103 



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An illustrated quarterly, devoted to Palaearctic entomology. It contains articles and notes on 
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Annual subscription £27 ($60). 

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This new book provides an up-to-date synthesis of butterfly records for 219 of Britain's and 
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figures and tables. Two appendices list rare immigrants and provide advice for making 
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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Epione paralellaria D.& S. (Lep.: Geometridae) and its association with Aspen Populus 

tremiila in the Scottish Highlands. Roy Leverton, Mark R. Young & David A. Barbour . 49 
The foodplants of Cataplectica farreni Wals. (Lep.: Epermeniidae). Mark R. Young .... 57 

Quantitative data concerning the oviposition oi Bombylius fimbriatus Meigen (Dip.: 

Bombyliidae), a parasite of Andre na agilissima (Scopoli) (Hym.: Andrenidae). F. 

Andrietti, A. Martinoli & F. Rigato 59 

Contribution to the early stages of Xylena exsoleta L. (Lep.: Noctuidae). G.M. Haggett 

& R. Leverton 65 

The Enchanted Building. Brian K. West 77 

Beetles from Pitfall-trapping at high altitude in the Scottish Highlands. D. Horsfield ... 81 

Mass hilltopping of earwigs on the Troodos summit m Cyprus (Dermaptera). 

Torben B. Larsen 89 

Notes and observations 

Notable ant records from Glen Strathfarrar, East Inverness. Jonathan Hughes 55 

Pontia daplidice (Lep.: Pieridae) in Kent, Argynnis lathonia (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in 

Gloucestershire, and some other 1996 migrant records. Ian Woiwod 55 

Southern Chtstmit Agrochola haematidea D.& S. (Lep.: Nocmidae) recently discovered 

in Hampshire. R.R. Cook 56 

The British species of Stigmus Panzer, 1804 (Hym.: Sphecidae). G.W. Allen 58 

High population densities of Garden Tiger Moth caterpillars Arctia caja L. (Lep.: 

Arctiidae) on Handa Island, Sutherland. Jonathan Hughes & Julie Stoneman 63 

Prionus coriarius (Linn.) (Col.: Cerambycidae) in Hampshire. Michael A. Salmon 64 

Bird-cherry Ermine Yponomeuta evonymella L. (Lep.: Yponomeutidae) infestations in 

the Scottish Highlands. Derek C. Hulme 75 

Diaperus boleti (L.) (Col.: Tenebrionidae) from a second Huntingdonshire National 

Namre Reserve. R. Colin Welch 76 

Ectoedemia turbidella (Zell.) (Lep.: Nepticulidae) at Castle Ashby, Northamptonshire. 

D.V. Manning 80 

Holly Blue Celastrina argiolus (L.) (Lep.: Lycaenidae) ovipositing on cherry laurel 

Prunus laurocerasus L.. Ian R. Wynnne 80 

Channel Islands fauna is not "British". A.A. Allen 88 

A record of Hipparchia semele (L.) (Lep.: Satyridae) for Grassholm Island, Wales. 

R.L.H. Dennis 88 

Pyrausta aurata Scop. (Lep.: Pyralidae) on Wanstead Flats, east London, 1996. G.E. King 90 

Fletcher's Pug versus Pauper Pug. G.M. Haggett 91 

Is Rhizophagus oblongocollis Blatch & Horner (Col.: Rhizophagidae) basically a 

subterranean species? J.A. Owen 92 

(Continued on inside back cover) 

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TIMANDRA GRISEATA: VOLTINISM READDRESSED 105 

TIMANDRA GRISEATA PETERSEN (LEP.: GEOMETRIDAE): 
VOLTINISM READDRESSED 

B.K. West 

36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent DAS 2HN. 

PERUSING THE standard textbooks one must wonder if Timandra 
griseata's time of appearance has changed over the past one hundred and 
fifty years. The latest textbook, by Skinner (1984) states that the moth is 
bivoltine, presumably throughout its range, in the British Isles, flying from 
late May to early June, and again in August and September. However, 
earlier textbooks present a different picture. Edward Newman (1874) and 
L.W. Newman and Leeds (1913) give it as being single-brooded. Barrett 
(1895) suggests a partial or complete second generation at the end of July 
and August, probably only in favourable seasons or localities, and South 
(1939), perhaps merely following Barrett, also suggests that there may 
sometimes be a second generation of moths in August. Thus we are 
presented with a progression from univoltinism, through partial second 
brood to bivoltinism. 

Two outstanding local works have appeared in recent years, renowned for 
their detail and accuracy. Chalmers-Hunt (1969) states "There appear to be 
two generations annually, with perhaps a third in favourable seasons". 
Referring to Kent he adds that of the generations the second appears to be 
numerically the greatest, and a series of records quoted bears this out, but no 
evidence is presented for an occasional third generation. Plant (1993) for the 
London area comes to the same conclusion as B. Skinner, but in contrast to 
Chalmers-Hunt states that there is no direct evidence to support "the popular 
theory that there are three generations in London during 'favourable' years". 

From 1969 to 1996 griseata has been noted at my garden m.v. light, 
almost invariably as singletons, on 85 nights in May, June and early July 
(generation 1) and on 237 nights in July, August and early September 
(generation 2), and also a number of specimens in September and October a 
month or more after the previous record. In the pages of this journal and 
elsewhere further examples of such late and isolated records are quoted as 
being worthy of special mention. 

My records indicate that the timing of the two generations is influenced 
independently by climatic conditions. Thus, in 1970 an early first brood was 
succeeded by an unusually extended time between broods, and consequently 
a late second generation. In that year 24 specimens, equally divided between 
the two broods, were noted at my garden m.v. light from 28 May to 12 June, 
and again 10 August to 21 September, unusually five being noted in 
September. In general my records confirm Chalmers-Hunt's suggestion that 
the second generation is the larger; in only one of the twenty-eight years was 
the reverse the case, and that year, unusually, the species was noted on only 



106 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25 .V. 1997 



one occasion. On the other hand no first generation specimens were recorded 
in six of the years. In eighteen of the years the normal sequence of second 
generation records ended in August, in 1982 as early as 9 August, but was 
followed by an isolated late specimen on 15 September, and in 1992 14 
second brood specimens were noted between 7 July and 8 August, to be 
followed by two specimens on 15 and 21 September, 38 and 44 days 
respectively later. 





First 


Gap in 


Second 


Gap in 


Late 


Year 


generation 


days 


generation 


days 


dates 


1969 


10 June - 22 June (6) 


36 


28 July -18 Sept. (14) 


25 


13 Oct. 


1974 


4 June - 20 June (3) 


29 


19 July -26 Aug. (6) 


32 


27 Sept. 


1977 


23 June - 6 July (2) 


26 


1 Aug. -6 Sept. (16) 


30 


6 Oct. 


1982 


6 June (1) 


42 


18 July -9 Aug. (7) 


36 


15 Sept. 


1983 


8 June (1) 


47 


25July-23 Aug. (10) 


33 


25 Sept. 


1986 


- 


- 


27July-21 Aug. (8) 


33 


25 Sept. 


1992 


20 May -10 June (12) 


27 


7 July- 8 Aug. (14) 


38/44 


15, 21 Sept. 


1993 


24 May - 29 May (6) 


39 


7 July- 19 Aug. (10) 


33 


21 Sept. 


1996 


5 June- 18 June (3) 


34 


22 July -4 Sept. (12) 


33 


7 Oct. 




Average 


35 




33 





Table 1. Timandra griseata recorded at garden m.v. light at Dartford, 1969 - 1996 
showing the probable third generation. Figures given in brackets are the number of 
nights in the stated period on which T. griseata was recorded. 



The twenty-eight years of records indicate that the September ones fall 
into two categories. In nine of the years, September sightings, mostly for the 
earlier part of the month, are simply a continuation at short intervals of those 
in August, and sometimes July; others are single, isolated records usually 
about a month after the previous latest sighting, and all October and 
November records come into this category. These late isolated records for 
Dartford are listed in Table 1 in which the figures in brackets refer to the 
number of nights when they were noted; also indicated are the number of 
days between the first and second generation, and between the last date of 
the presumed second generation and the isolated record. There is a regular 
pattern in these late records - they average 33 days after the last previous 
sighting, and 35 days is the average time lapse between the first and second 
generations, although the former is usually poorly represented. It is mainly 
on these grounds that I believe these late specimens to be representatives of a 
partial third generation which occurs here some years. 



TIMANDRA GRISEATA: VOLTINISM READDRESSED 1 07 

The literature, especially this journal, contains several references to 
isolated, late sightings of T. griseata, and the following have come to my 
notice: 

Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex, 1 Novermber 1958 (Dewick, Ent. Rec. 71: 14); 

Stanford le Hope, Essex, 24 October 1968 (Tomlinson, Ent. Rec. 81: 234); 

Blandford, Dorset, 13 October 1960 (de Worms, Ent. Rec. 82: 60); 

Outwood, Surrey, 31 October 1970 (K.L. Evans, 1973, A Survey of the 
Macro-lepidoptera of Croydon and North-east Surrey)', 

Eastbourne, Sussex, 16 October 1976 (Parsons, Ent. Rec. 91: 149); 

Ninfield, Sussex,29 October 1978 (Parsons, Ent. Rec. 91: 149). 

Chalmers-Hunt {op. cit.) contains several October records listed as the 
final dates in sequences containing only the first and last dates, thus negating 
much of their significance. 

Contra-indicating an occasional partial third generation is the lack of 
evidence of second-brood larvae feeding up quickly to produce such 
imagines, indeed, Barrett {op. cit.) although stating that a second generation 
of moths may be produced in this way, adds that second-brood eggs laid in 
August took longer in hatching and the resultant larvae went into hibernation 
when half-grown in October. However, that is but one example. 

I suspect that rather more than ten late, isolated specimens would have 
been recorded at my garden m.v. light had I not been abroad for most of 
September on three occasions, and October for nine of the twenty-eight 
years. However the significance of such late sightings largely rests with the 
rearing in captivity, under as near natural conditions as possible, of third 
generations of moths; perhaps someone can already supply information 
regarding this? 

References 

Barrett, C, 1895. Moths of the British Isles, Vol. VIII. Lovell, Reed & Co. Ltd., London. 
Chalmers-Hunt, CM., 1969. The Butterflies and Moths of Kent, in Entomologist' s Rec. 

J. Var. 81. 
Newman, E., 1874. An illustrated Natural History of British Moths, Robert Hardwicke, 

London. 
Newman, L.W. & Leeds, H., 1913. Textbook of British Butterflies and Moths. Gibbs & 

Bamford. 
Plant, C.W., 1993. Larger Moths of the London Area. London Natural History Society. 
Skinner, B., 1984. Moths of the British Isles. Viking. 
South, R., 1939. Moths of the British Isles. Wame. 



108 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Chloroclystis debiliata (Hb.) (Lep.: Geometridae): first recent record of 
Bilberry Pug in Scotland 

On 9 July 1995, while walking through dense Bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus 
bushes on the western edge of Kirkconnell Flow NNR, near Dumfries, we 
disturbed a number of pugs which we tentatively identified as the Bilberry 
Pug Chloroclystis debiliata (Hiibner, [1817]). The identification was later 
confirmed by Martin Honey of the Natural History Museum, London. In 
1996, we attempted to learn more about its local distribution and flight 
period. On 30 June we visited the same locality with six companions and 
spent some time searching without success. BM returned on the afternoon of 
7 July and caught and released four individuals, all in immaculate condition. 
We returned on 14 July and found six more. Our next visit was not until 1 1 
August when none were found. We had, therefore, only ever seen them in 
July although published references to the flight period state June and July 
(Skinner, B., 1994. Colour Guide to the Moths of the British Isles: 48). We 
found that the species occurs throughout the Birch and Bilberry habitat from 
the northern reserve entrance at Grid Ref. NX 962702 to NX 967697. 
Similar habitat ten miles to the south-west was searched on 9 July but no 
pugs were seen. 

The Kirkconnell Flow population is well outside the currently known 
range of this species. According to Skinner, C. debiliata occurs in parts of 
Ireland and Wales and is very local in southern and western England. 
Skinner & Goater (1981 in An Identification Guide to the British Pugs) state 
"Apparently no recent records for Scotland". Barrett (1904, The Lepidoptera 
of the British Islands 9: 146) repeated by South (1908, The Moths of the 
British Isles Second series: 253) cites Aberdeenshire as the only Scottish 
locality but there are three specimens in the R.C.K. collection (in the Natural 
History Museum, London) from Kincraig, Inverness-shire, July 1959 (ex 
coll. Vine-Hall). 

We thank Martin Honey for confirming the identification and for 
assistance with the preparation of this note.- Richard and Barbara 
Mearns, Connansknowe, Kirkton, Dumfries DGl ISX. 

Idaea vulpinaria atrosignaria (Lempke) (Lep.: Geometridae) new to 
North Hampshire 

Two specimens of Idaea vulpinaria atrosignaria flew to m.v. light at the 
cottage here on 15 and 22 July 1996. Clearly, this species has much extended 
its range since I used to see it near the Thames at Purfleet in 1949 and at 
Dulwich in 1962. I understand from Barry Goater {pers. comm.) that these 
Selborne specimens are the first to have been recorded from North 
Hampshire (VC12).- Alasdair Aston, Wake's Cottage, Selborne, 
Hampshire GU34 3JH. 



ABUNDANCE OF PIERIS BRASSICAE 109 

THE EXCEPTIONAL ABUNDANCE OF THE LARGE WHITE 

BUTTERFLY PIERIS BRASSICAE (L.) (LEP.: PIERIDAE) IN 

BRITAIN IN 1992: RELEVANT REPORTS FROM GERMANY AND 

THE NETHERLANDS 

John F. Burton 

In der Etzwiese 2, D-69181 Leimen-St. Ilgen, bei Heidelberg, Germany. 

THE ARTICLE in this journal by Howard Mendel (1995) concerning the 
exceptional abundance in Britain in 1992 of the Large White Pieris 
brassicae (L.) and his comments on Dr Ernest Pollard's 1994 paper in The 
Entomologist prompts me to draw attention to the Dutch annual report on 
migrant Lepidoptera for the year 1992 (de Vos & Rutten, 1995) and to the 
reports published in the German journal Atalanta (Eitschberger & Steiniger, 
1994; Kistner, 1994) of movements of brassicae in the Baltic Sea and 
southern North Sea area in 1992, including a report in the latter of one at 
Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex, not mentioned by Pollard (1994) or Mendel (1995). 

Kistner {op. cit.) describes a southerly movement across the estuary of the 
River Elbe in north Germany which he observed at Duhnen, near Cuxhaven, 
Lower Saxony, on 30 June 1992. The movement began at 10.45 hours and 
he estimated that it lasted for 15 minutes; 20 butterflies a minute flying past 
him during that period within a field of view of ten metres. On an estimated 
total front of about 80 metres that gave a total count of some 2,400 
individuals. They flew at a height of about half a metre above the sea and the 
coastal sand-flats, and did not allow themselves to be deflected from their 
course by the many human walkers on the sand-flats. There were no 
stragglers and he was unable to detect any other species among the 
brassicae. He did not collect any voucher specimens. 

On subsequent days Kistner found Large Whites to be present everywhere 
in the neighbouring gardens and parks. All were in good to very good 
condition, but reluctant to fly. The ratio of males to females was about 2:1. 
He considered that the fine condition of the butterflies suggested that the 
flight originated from the opposite side of the estuary around Friedrichskoog, 
about 18km to the north-east (he included a map of the area), rather than 
from St. Peter Ording on the northernmost shore of the estuary, which would 
otherwise have corresponded with the southerly direction of the movement. 
The butterflies flew in a very weak north-westerly breeze under a bright blue 
sky; the day, like the previous one, being very hot with an air temperature of 
24°C. 

At Hallig Grode on the small island of Grode-Appelland, just off 
Ockholm, near Bredstadt, on the north-west coast of Schleswig-Holstein, K. 
Fleeth saw migrating brassicae throughout 6 July 1992 flying from west to 
east into a Force 5 north-east wind. He was unable to estimate their numbers. 
Also in north-west Germany, H.J. von Loh reported that on 8 June 1992, 



110 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

during a two-hour watch, he counted 39 brassicae (22 males, 17 females) 
migrating together with 35 Red Admirals Vanessa atalanta L. to the east- 
south-east along the lee-side of the new Leysiel sea-wall, five kilometres 
south-west of Greetsiel, which is to the north-west of Emden on the East 
Friesland coast. 

Much farther east in Germany, on the Baltic Sea coast around 
Warnemiinde and Rostock, Rudnick (1994) observed movements of 
brassicae, P. rapae and other insect species from 30 June to 12 July 1992. 
Following the arrival from the north, possibly from the Danish island of 
Falster, of swarms of Pierids, mostly brassicae, flying into a light easterly to 
south-easterly wind, easterly coastal movements on a broad front of 
brassicae and rapae were regularly seen during this period. All the Pierids 
were considered to be of the second generation. Rudnick also heard from H. 
Hoppe {in litt.) that large Pierid movements also occurred during this time 
farther west along the Baltic coast at Kliitz, near Travemiinde. 

In the Netherlands, a westward movement of brassicae was reported in 
ever-growing numbers from the land of Terschelling in the Dutch West 
Friesian Islands on several dates from 20 May to 28 July 1992 (de Vos & 
Rutten, 1995). From a sighting of one flying west on 20 May the numbers 
grew to 265 on 31 May. Then, on two later dates, massive movements were 
reported: a swarm on 30 June, estimated at more than 10,000, was seen to fly 
west past Post 16 along the North Sea beach; on 28 July a second swarm of 
many thousands flew over the Boschplaat on the island. A Landrover-type 
vehicle which drove through the swarm with open doors was found after a 
short time to contain more than 200 butterflies! 

Migrating brassicae were also observed flying along the Hondsbossche 
Zeewering, near Petten, on the coast of the province of Noord Holland, on 
several dates from 2 to 1 1 July, and on 22 August 1992. However, numbers 
were very small (de Vos & Rutten, 1995). 

From the English side of the North Sea, Eitschberger & Steiniger {op. cit.) 
drew attention to a report by Crome (1992) of a huge westerly movement of 
Large Whites against the wind at Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex, on 18 July 1992, 
the same date on which Mrs E.M. Parsons saw huge numbers on the saltings 
adjoining Hamford Water, Little Oakley, in north Essex, and J.P. Bowdrey 
witnessed hundreds coming in off the sea at Dunwich, Suffolk (Mendel, 
1995). 

The events recorded in Germany do not on the face of it seem to bear any 
direct relationship to those on the Dutch and English coasts except for some 
overlap in dates; being, on the whole, somewhat earlier, and consisting of 
easterly or southerly movements in contrast to the predominantly westerly 
flight directions observed in the Netherlands and eastern England (see Table 
1). Judging, however, from the reports from near Cuxhaven and from the 
Wamemiinde-Rostock area of brassicae arriving from the north, presumably 
from Denmark (observations from that country and southern Sweden would 



ABUNDANCE OF PffiRIS BRASSICAE 1 1 1 

be welcome!), it is possible that these easterly movements were a temporary 
response to a big build-up in numbers through June into early July. 
Meanwhile, it seems likely that a large part of the population building up 
near the German North Sea coast at the end of June moved west into the 
Dutch West Friesian Islands, and that eventually, from the middle of July, 
many of them headed off westwards or south-westwards in large swarms 
from here, and also perhaps from as far south as the mouth of the Rhine, 
across the North Sea to the East Anglian and Kent coasts of England. 
Swarms flying west for Terschelling, for instance, could have accounted for 
the movement of unusual numbers of Large Whites reported as far north on 
the English east coast as Humberside (Pollard, 1994). There are, of course, 
tantalising gaps in the available data - it is probable that movements 
occurred on other dates and in other places where there were no 
entomologically-minded observers present to notice and record them. On 
balance, I believe that the swarms seen on the east coasts of England in July 
came direct from the Dutch North Sea coasts rather than, as suggested by 
Mendel (1995), from France. 

All reports indicate that brassicae became very abundant in northern and 
north-eastern Germany in the summer of 1992, as it had been the previous 
year, in direct contrast to the south of the country, where it was scarce, 
particularly in the south-east. In the Hamburg area of north-west Germany it 
was reported to be too numerous to count, and remained numerous until at 
least mid-September. Such high numbers seem to have been the result of 
mass emergences of the second brood from the end of June to early August 
in response to the prevailing high temperatures. 

Thus, the additional information available from Germany and the 
Netherlands given above does, I believe, strongly support Mendel's 
contention that migratory movements of Pieris brassicae did in fact cross the 
North Sea to England from the Continental mainland in July 1992, and that 
the large movements seen in England that summer cannot be explained 
almost entirely in terms of emergence within that country rather than 
immigration from abroad, as suggested by Pollard. However, in 
correspondence with me since the publication of his paper {op. cit.), Dr 
Pollard remarked that he is "open-minded about the extent of migration in P. 
brassicae". 

At this juncture, I feel I must emphasise that British lepidopterists 
interested in the migration and dispersal of butterflies and moths should be 
aware of and consult the annual reports on migrant Lepidoptera published in 
Germany {Atalanta - not confined to Germany) and the Netherlands 
{Entomologische Berichten Amsterdam). 

Finally, I find myself unable to agree wholeheartedly with Mr Mendel's 
remarks in his paper about the attitudes of professional entomologists to the 
role played by the host of amateurs in advancing our science. It is true that 
there are a minority of professionals who do tend to be somewhat arrogant in 



112 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.V.1997 



their approach to the work of amateur naturalists, but I would not include Dr 
Pollard among them. Like Drs Jeremy Thomas, Paul Waring and Martin 
Warren, and many others one could name, he has done much to foster co- 
operation with amateurs, and not only through the Butterfly Monitoring 



Location 


Date 


Numbers 


Direc 
flight 


tion of 
wind 


Source 


Terschelling, 
Netherlands 


20-30 May 


small 


W 


7 


de Vos & Rutten 


Near Emden, 
Germany 


8 June 


small 


ESE 


7 


Eitschberger & 
Steiniger 


Near Cuxhaven, 
Germany 


30 June 


large 


S 


NW 


Kistner 


Wamemiinde, 
Germany 


30 June- 12 July 


large 


S&E 


E-SE 


Rudnick 


Nr. Travemiinde, 
Germany 


30 June- 12 July 


large 


E 


E-SE 


Rudnick 


Terschelling, 
Netherlands 


30 June 


10,000-K 


W 


7 


de Vos & Rutten 


Petten, Netherlands 


2-llJuly 


small 


W 


7 


de Vos & Rutten 


Schleswig-Holstein, 
Germany 


6 July 


large 


E 


NE 


Eitschberger & 
Steiniger 


Felixstowe, England 


6 July - 14 Aug. 


small-large 


N&NW 


7 


Pollard 


Near Felixstowe 


July 


large 


NW? 


7 


Mendel 


Hamburg, Germany 


10 July -3 Aug. 


large 


? 


7 


Eitschberger & 
Steiniger 


14km SE of Harwich, 
England 


14 July 


V. large 


W 


sw 


Mendel 


Sandwich Bay, 
England 


15-25 July 


many thousands 


wsw 


7 


Mendel 


Bradwell-on-Sea, 
England 


18 July 


V. large 


7 


7 


Crome 


Hamford Water, 
England 


18 July 


V. large 


? 


7 


Mendel 


Dunwich, England 


18 July 


V. large 


w 


E 


Mendel 


Terschelling, 
Netherlands 


28 July 


many thousands 


w 


7 


de Vos & Rutten 



Table 1. Movements of Pieris hrassicae (L.) in the Baltic and North Sea regions in 1992 
arranged approximately chronologically. 



ABUNDANCE OF PIERIS BRASSICAE 1 13 

Scheme. There is, of course, much to to be achieved in harnessing the 
expertise of amateurs to projects led by professionals, such as ecological 
surveys, mapping schemes, and the study of insect migration and dispersal, 
in the same way that the British Trust of Ornithology has so effectively co- 
ordinated the activities and work of Britain's numerous knowledgeable 
amateur ornithologists. 

Summary 

Particulars are given of movements of the Large White Butterfly Pieris 
brassicae (L.) in the summer of 1992 reported in Germany and the 
Netherlands, and published in journals there; and these are discussed in 
relation to the apparent immigrations in the same period reported from the 
English side of the North Sea. It is suggested that on the evidence of the 
Continental data and that provided by Mendel (1995), that at least the bulk 
of the large numbers of brassicae seen on the eastern coasts of England did 
in fact come across the North Sea from the Continental mainland. 

References 

Crome, D.A., 1992. Migration of Large Whites at Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex. Bull. 

Amateur Entomologists' Society 51: 255. 
Eitschberger, U. & Steiniger, H., 1994. Papilionidae und Pieridae. Atalanta 24: 19-41. 
Kistner, F., 1994. Ein wanderflug von Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, 1758, in Cuxhaven- 

Duhnen (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Atalanta 25: 147-148. 
Mendel, H., 1995. It was migration - the exceptional abundance of the Large White 

butterfly Pieris brassicae (L.) in 1992. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 107: 293-294. 
Pollard, E., 1994. Was it migration? - the exceptional abundance of the Large White 

Pieris brassicae (L.) in 1992. Entomologist 113: 211-216. 
Rudnick, K., 1994. Eine Pieridenmigration im Jahr 1992 vor Warnemiinde 

(Mecklenburg- Vorpommem) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Atalanta 25: 455-459. 
Vos, R. de & Rutten, A.L.M., 1995. Trekvlinders in 1992 (drieenvijftigste jaarverslag) 

(Lepidoptera). Entomologische Berichten Amsterdam 55: 37-46. 



Flying power of Atlantoraphidia maculicollis Stephens (Raphidioptera: 
Raphidiidae) 

A specimen of the snake-fly, Atlantoraphidia maculicollis, flew to m.v. light 
here on 14 July 1996. 1 am grateful to Stephen Brooks of the Natural History 
Museum for identifying the insect and for commenting that the species is 
widespread in the United Kingdom and associated with pine- woods. After 
selective felling in this village we are left with no pines and the nearest pine- 
woods are about four miles away. It would, therefore, seem likely that the 
snake-fly had flown a considerable distance, a view possibly supported by 
the arrival here on the same night of several heath and pine moths. Whereas 
distance presents no problem to moths, which are regular dispersers, I do 



1 14 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

wonder how an insect of such apparent ungainliness as the snake-fly can 
negotiate flight over distance. I should be interested to hear of other instances 
or to receive any general comments about the flight capabilities of such 
insects- Alasdair Aston, Wake's Cottage, Selbome, Hampshire GU34 3JH. 

Editorial comment: Snake-flies (Raphidioptera) are very poor flyers. 
Usually they show a kind of "jumping flight", sometimes also fluttering, and 
only in the bright sunshine they may fly in a buzzing-like way over a 
distance of a few metres. Some species of the family Inocelliidae with 
relatively short wings compared to the large abdomen are possibly unable to 
fly at all. In the course of the past 35 years I have had the opportunity to 
observe thousands of individuals of a large part of the extant species in the 
field. Thus, one can absolutely exclude that the specimen reported above has 
actively flown over a distance of four miles. It is most likely that the 
individual has been drifted by wind. 

There is, however, another possibility: Many snake-flies show a close, but 
not really strict association with certain species of trees. A. maculicollis 
usually develops on or around pines, but I have no doubt that a population 
may also survive in a biotope where the pines have been cut down - at least 
for a longer period. The biology of A. maculicollis has not yet been studied 
in detail and has thus not yet been fully understood so far. 

Finally, an additional comment: The specimen reported was taken at a 
m.v. light. This is a very unusual event. Snake-flies are active only in the 
daytime and are found at artificial lights only occasionally and incidentally. 
Species of the genus Dichrostigma Navas were repeatedly found at light 
traps, but all other species are normally not attracted by m.v. (or other 
artificial) fight. Any other observations are worth being published.- Horst 
AspocK, Abt. fiir Med. Parasitologic, Klinisches Institut fiir Hygiene der 
Universitat, KinderspitalgaBe 15, A- 1095 Wien, Austria. 

Yponomeuta rorrella (Hb.) (Lep.: Yponomeutidae) new to Wales 

With reference to David Slade's paper on records of Microlepidoptera made 
in South Wales in 1995 (antea : 31-39), this species was not included in the 
draft which he sent me for checking and which is still on my files. Had it 
been there, I would have told him that he is to be congratulated on five, not 
four, species new to the Principality. 

Although he is correct in stating that light-trapping "is generally accepted 
as the main method for collecting Lepidoptera", the trap is a poor substitute 
for fieldwork. On a single day in late October, if directed to suitable 
localities, I would expect to add at least 50 species for Glamorgan. Next 
October I shall be aged 89 and am less agile than formerly, but if all goes 
well and suitable arrangements can be made, I would be prepared to justify 
that claim, if challenged to do so.- A.M. Emmet, Labrey Cottage, Victoria 
Gardens, Saffron Walden, Essex CBl 1 3AF. 



NEW SPECIES OF CORTIC ARIN A 1 1 5 

TEN NEW SPECIES OF CORTICARINA REITTER 
(COL.: LATRIDIIDAE) FROM CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA 

Colin Johnson 

Department of Entomology , Manchester Museum, The University, Manchester, Ml 3 9PL. 

IN AN EARLIER PAPER (Johnson, 1990), some general comments were 
made on the appearance, taxonomy and ecology of the Latridiidae subfamily 
Corticariinae (which includes the genus Corticarina Reitter), after which six 
new species from diverse parts of the world were described and their male 
genitalia figured. As a result of that work, I have had the opportunity to 
study additional material collected recently in Central and South America. 
This has produced a surprisingly rich number of species of Corticarina, most 
of which are unknown and which are now described and figured. References 
to works dealing with allied species are given where appropriate, as the 
genus has not yet been monographed. 

Abbreviations have been used to indicate the institutional source of 
studied material as follows: MM - Manchester Museum; SEM - Snow 
Entomological Museum, University of Kansas; ZML - Zoological Museum, 
University of Lund. Where the series permits, duplicates of species will be 
placed in the Manchester Museum. 

Corticarina ashei sp.n. 

Length 1.57mm; head breadth 0.34mm; pronotal breadth 0.44mm; elytral 
breadth 0.70mm; antennal length 0.53mm. Pale brown, legs yellowish 
brown, antennae pale at the base but increasingly infuscated apically. 
Antennal segments rather long; 8 about as long as broad, 9 barely longer 
than broad, 10 slightly longer than broad; club narrow and gradual. Body 
moderately convex. Pronotum somewhat small, 1.20 times as broad as long, 
broadest somewhat in front of the middle, the sides somewhat weakly 
curved; post median depression well marked, lateral impressions distinct; 
surface weakly shining, alutaceous microsculpture rather strong; pronotal 
punctures moderate, not deep, rather close, discal punctures about half a 
diameter apart; hind angles moderately toothed. Elytra long oval, 2.78 times 
as long as the pronotum and 1 .47 times as long as broad, broadest around the 
middle, sides moderately curved; surface shining, reticulation weak and little 
distinct; strial punctures moderately large and close, interstices basally 
barely broader than the striae; elytral pubescence curved and only slightly 
raised, the hairs c. 0.048mm, slightly overlapping. Winged. Male: anterior 
tibial tooth small, ventral, situated at the apical fifth; ventrite 5 with large 
semi-circular impression in middle third, apical margin of this somewhat 
emarginate; aedeagus Fig. 1. 

Holotype male. Mexico - Hidalgo: 30.8km S Jacala Hwy. 85, 12.vii.l990, 
2050m, shaking oak leaves, leg. J.S. Ashe, K.J. Ahn & R. Leschen (SEM). 



116 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Similar in size, colour and shape to riveti Johnson from Ecuador (Johnson, 
1981), especially due to the somewhat small pronotum. Besides its quite 
different aedeagus, the male of Sishei can be easily distinguished by its 
straight front and middle tibiae and modified ventrite 5. 

Corticarina brooksi sp.n. 

Length 1.54- 1.68mm; head breadth 0.34-0.38mm; pronotal breadth 0.46- 
0.58mm; elytral breadth 0.68-0. 83mm; antennal length 0.58-0. 62mm. 
Colour brown, head and pronotum usually darker than the paler elytra; legs 
yellowish-brown; antennae with at least the two basal segments yellowish- 
brown, the stem mostly paler but increasingly infuscated in at least the apical 
half. Antennal segments rather long, slender; 8 quadrate to slightly longer 
than broad; 9 conical and markedly longer than broad, 10 about as long as 
broad, the club narrow and gradual. Body rather markedly convex. 
Pronotum moderately broad, 1.10-1.39 times as broad as long, broadest 
around middle, sides moderately rounded; post median depression weakly 
impressed, lateral impressions absent; surface rather shining, alutaceous 
microsculpture fine and distinct; puncturation moderate, rather close, discal 
punctures about half a diameter apart or less; hind angles moderately 
toothed. Elytra rather ample and long oval, 2.42-2.68 times as long as the 
pronotum, 1.31-1.48 times as long as broad, broadest in front of the middle, 
mostly near the basal third; sides moderately curved, somewhat contracted in 
a straight line apically, curved basally; surface shining, not reticulate; strial 
punctures moderate and close, interstices basally much broader than striae; 
elytral pubescence slightly curved, nearly flat, the hairs c.0.048mm, slightly 
overlapping. Winged. Male: anterior tibial tooth strong, ventral, situated in 
front of the middle; aedeagus Fig. 2. 

Holotype male. Costa Rica - Puntarenas: Monte Verde, 1420m, 25.V.1989, 
ex. gilled mushrooms on log, leg. J. Ashe, R. Brooks & R. Leschen (SEM). 

Paratypes. Costa Rica - Puntarenas: same data but 1450m, ex. polypore on 
log, 1 male (SEM); same data but 1550m, 26.V.1989, ex. beating, 2 females 
(SEM); same data but 1400m, 28.V.1989, ex. cycad sporocarp, 1 male, 1 
female (SEM); same data but ex. beating, 1 female (SEM). 

Allied to the Mexican baranowskii Johnson (Johnson, 1990) in colour, 
especially including the apically infuscated antennae. Distinguishable by the 
longer antennae, larger size, smaller pronotum, more convex dorsum and 
somewhat more apically constricted elytral shape. The aedeagus is extremely 
characteristic in each species. 

Corticarina conjuncta sp.n. 

Length 1.4 1-1. 62mm; head breadth 0.34-0.37mm; pronotal breadth 0.43- 
0.54mm; elytral breadth 0.64-0. 73mm; antennal length 0.48-0. 56mm. 
Colour pale brown, rarely darker; legs yellowish-brown; antennae pale at the 
base (at least basal two segments) but increasingly infuscated apically. 



NEW SPECIES OF CORTIC ARINA 1 1 7 

Antennal segments rather long; 8 about as long as broad; 9 conical and 
markedly longer than broad; 10 about as long as broad, the club narrow and 
gradual. Body rather convex. Pronotum moderately to rather broad, 1.26- 
1.38 times as broad as long, broadest around middle, sides moderately 
curved; post median depression moderately impressed, lateral impressions 
absent; surface weakly shining to rather dull, alutaceous microsculpture 
usually well marked; puncturation somewhat moderate, close, discal 
punctures less than half a diameter apart; hind angles moderately toothed. 
Elytra oval, 2.44-2.60 times as long as the pronotum, 1.30-1.43 times as long 
as broad, broadest somewhat in front of middle; sides moderately curved, 
very feebly contracted in a straight line behind middle; surface shining, not 
reticulate; strial punctures moderate and close, interstices much broader than 
striae; elytral pubescence slightly curved, nearly flat, the hairs c. 0.04mm, 
slightly overlapping. Winged. Male: anterior tibial tooth moderate, ventral, 
situated in front of the middle; aedeagus Fig. 3. 

Holotype male. Guatemala - Guatemala City, near Univ. del Valle de 
Guat., 1540m, 6.xi.l991, sifting litter in tropical montane forest, leg. R. 
Baranowski (ZML). 

Paratypes. Guatemala - some data as holotype, one female (ZML); 3km E 
Antigua Guatemala, 1600m, 7.xi.l991, sweeping at road in tropical montane 
forest, leg. R. Baranowski, two males (ZML); same data but sifting litter in 
tropical montane forest, two females (ZML); Solola, 2km N Panajachel, 
1700m, 15.xi.l991, beating vegetation in tropical montane forest, leg. R. 
Baranowski, one female (ZML); 5km E Antigua Guatemala, 1780m, 
6.xii.l991, sifting litter near small stream in ravine of tropical montane 
forest, leg. R. Baranowski, one male (ZML). 

Other specimens. Guatemala - Panajachel, 4.xii.l973, leg. J. & S. 
Klapperich, two females (MM). 

In general appearance this species is closely allied to the nearctic and 
central American cavicollis (Mannerheim) (see Andrews, 1985) and can 
only be recognised with certainty by the aedeagus. However, there are some 
subtle external differences. The pronotum in conjuncta is broadest at the 
middle (in front in cavicollis), its puncturation is somewhat coarser and 
denser, and the more convex elytra usually have less flattened and more 
distinctly overlapping pubescence. 

Corticarina guatemalica sp.n. 

Length 1.42- 1.57mm; head breadth 0.32-0.35mm; pronotal breadth 0.42- 
0.50mm; elytral breadth 0.64-0. 80mm; antennal length 0.46-0.5 1mm. 
Colour dark brown, head and pronotum ± reddish brown; legs yellowish- 
brown, apical tarsal segments slightly infuscated; antennae pale at the base 
(at least basal two segments) but increasingly infuscated apically. Antennal 
segments rather short; 8 broader than long, 9 quadrate to slightly longer than 
broad, 10 distinctly broader than long, club somewhat narrow and weakly 



118 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.V.1997 




Figures 1-10, aedeagi of new species of Corticarina, ventral and lateral views: 1, ashei; 
2, brooksi; 3, conjuncta; 4, guatemalica; 5, impensa; 6, portentosa; 7, lescheni; 8, 
inobsei'vata; 9, rickardi; 10, viatica. (All figures drawn to the same scale). 



NEW SPECIES OF CORTICARINA 1 1 9 

abrupt. Body moderately convex. Pronotum somewhat narrow to moderately 
broad, 1.24-1.38 times as broad as long, broadest at or slightly in front of 
middle; sides somewhat moderately curved; post median depression 
moderately impressed, lateral impressions absent; surface weakly shining to 
rather dull, alutaceous microsculpture strong and distinct; puncturation rather 
fine, shallow, close to rather sparse, discal punctures half to one diameter 
apart; hind angles somewhat finely toothed. Elytra long oval, 2.76-2.88 times 
as long as the pronotum, 1.26-1.49 times as long as broad, broadest at or 
behind the middle; sides moderately curved; surface shining, not reticulate; 
strial punctures moderate to somewhat fine and close, interstices much 
broader than striae; elytral pubescence feebly curved, nearly flat, the hairs c. 
0.040-0.048mm, slightly overlapping. Winged. Male: anterior tibial tooth 
well marked, ventral, situated near the apical quarter; aedeagus Fig. 4. 

Holotype male. Guatemala - Puerta Parada, near Guat. City, 1840m, 
10. xi. 1991, beating vegetation on open ground at small road, leg. R. 
Baranowski (ZML). 

Paratypes. Guatemala - same data as holotype, two males, three females 
(ZML); same data but 2.xi.l991, sweeping in mixed Cupressus forest, three 
females (ZML); Solola, 2km N. Panajachel, 1700m, 15.xi.l991, beating 
vegetation in tropical montane forest, leg. R. Baranowski, three males, three 
females (ZML); same data but 19.xi.l991, one female (ZML); 5km E 
Antigua Guatemala, 1780m, 5.xii.l991, beating vegetation in tropical 
montane forest, leg. R. Baranowski, one male (ZML); same data but 
7.xii.l991, sweeping in tropical montane forest, one male, four females 
(ZML). 

Other specimens. Guatemala - Antigua, 30. xi. 1973, leg. J. & S. 
Klapperich, one female (MM); Sierra Madre, 5.xii.l973, by J. & S. 
Klapperich, one female (MM). 

This species is very closely allied to simoni Johnson from Venezuela 
(Johnson, 1981), and apart from the brownish coloration, seems to differ 
only in its highly distinctive aedeagus. 

Corticarina impensa sp.n. 

Length 1.44- 1.76mm; head breadth 0.32-0.39mm; pronotal breadth 0.46- 
0.61mm; elytral breadth 0.64-0. 82mm; antennal length 0.58-0. 64mm. 
Colour usually pale brown, rarely darker, head and pronotum often slightly 
darker than the paler elytra; legs and antennae entirely yellowish-brown, 
except for the antennal club which is a slightly darker brown. Antennal 
segments long and slender; 8 slightly longer than broad; 9 conical and 
markedly longer than broad, 10 longer than broad although slightly shorter 
than 9, the club narrow and gradual. Body rather markedly convex. 
Pronotum rather broad, 1.26-1.42 times as broad as long, broadest around 
middle, sides rather strongly rounded; post median depression moderately 



120 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

impressed, lateral impressions absent; surface rather shining, alutaceous 
microsculpture fine and distinct; puncturation somewhat fine to moderate, 
close, discal punctures usually less than half a diameter apart; hind angles 
moderately toothed. Elytra rather ample and long oval, 2.35-2.48 times as 
long as the pronotum, 1.33-1.41 times as long as broad, broadest in front of 
the middle, near the basal third; sides moderately curved, somewhat 
contracted in a straight line apically, curved basally; surface shining, not 
reticulate; strial punctures moderate and close, interstices basally much 
broader than striae; elytral pubescence slightly curved, nearly flat, the hairs 
c. 0.048-0.056mm, overlapping. Winged. Male: anterior tibial tooth strong, 
ventral, situated in front of the middle; aedeagus Fig. 5. 

Holotype male. Guatemala - 5km E Antigua Guatemala, 1780m, 
4.xi.l991, sifting litter near small stream in ravine of tropical montane forest, 
leg. R. Baranowski (ZML). 

Paratypes. Guatemala - same data as holotype, one male (ZML); same 
data but 5.xii.l991, one male, one female (ZML); same data but 6.xii.l991, 
one female (ZML); 3km E Antigua Guatemala, 1600m, 7.xi.l991, sifting 
litter in tropical montane forest, leg. R. Baranowski, one female (ZML); 
Puerta Parada near Guatemala City, 1840m, 2.xi.l991, sweeping in mixed 
Cupressus forest, leg. R. Baranowski, one male (ZML); Solola, 4km N 
Panajachel, 1900m, ll.xi.l991, sifting litter in tropical montane forest, leg. 
R. Baranowski, one female (ZML); Solola, 2km N Panajachel, 1700m, 
15.xi.l991, sifting litter near small stream in tropical montane forest, leg. R. 
Baranowski, one female (ZML). 

This large and broad species comes near to the Panamanian ignea Johnson 
(Johnson, 1979). It is larger than ignea, has a broader pronotum, longer 
antennae and somewhat longer and less flattened elytral pubescence. The 
aedeagus of impensa is highly characteristic, being unlike that of any other 
neotropical species known to me, although there are related species in North 
America, eg. scissa LeConte (Andrews, 1985). 

Corticarina inobservata sp.n. 

Length 1.39- 1.50mm; head breadth 0.32-0.34mm; pronotal breadth 0.44- 
0.45mm; elytral breadth 0.62-0. 66mm; antennal length 0.50-0.5 1mm. 
Colour dark brownish-black, rarely dark-brown; legs yellowish-brown; 
antennae with basal segment pale brown, segment 2 yellowish, 3-7 
increasingly infuscated apically, club dark brown. Antennal segments 
moderately long, slender; segment 8 broader than long, 9 slightly longer than 
broad, 10 about as long as broad, club rather narrow and gradual. Body 
somewhat strongly convex. Pronotum somewhat moderately broad, 1.18- 
1.21 times as broad as long, broadest slightly in front of middle, sides almost 
moderately curved; post median depression feeble, lateral impressions weak; 
surface little shining, alutaceous microsculpture distinct; puncturation 



NEW SPECffiS OF CORTIC ARINA 1 2 1 

somewhat fine, moderately close, shallow; hind angles somewhat finely 
toothed. Elytra rather short oval, 2.43-2.49 times as long as the pronotum, 
1.42-1.47 times as long as broad, broadest around middle, rarely before; 
humeri effaced, callus absent; sides moderately curved; surface shining not 
reticulate, rarely ± shagreened; strial punctures moderate and close, interstices 
basally slightly wider than striae; elytral pubescence slightly curved, a little 
raised, the hairs c. 0.056mm, slightly overlapping. Brachypterous, wings 
narrower and distinctly shorter than an elytron. Male: anterior tibial tooth 
small, ventral, situated in front of the middle; aedeagus Fig. 8. 

Holotype male. Mexico - Oaxaca: 53km S Miahuatlan, 2300m, 
18.xi.l989, sifting deep litter near small stream in mixed montane forest, leg. 
R. Baranowski (ZML). 

Paratypes. Mexico - Oaxaca: same data, two males (ZML). 

This brachypterous species is extremely closely allied to reidi Johnson, 
known only from the unique Colombian holotype (Johnson, 1990). It may be 
most reliably distinguished from the latter species by its much smaller size 
and highly distinctive aedeagus. 

Corticarina lescheni sp.n. 

Length 1.25- 1.44mm; head breadth 0.31 -0.34mm; pronotal breadth 0.46- 
0.50mm; elytral breadth 0.66-0. 70mm; antennal length 0.43-0.46mm. Pale 
reddish-brown, legs and antennae paler, more yellowish. Antennal segments 
short; 8 broader than long, 9 almost as long as broad, 10 conspicuously 
broader than long, the club moderately marked. Body somewhat strongly 
convex. Pronotum short and broad, 1.38-1.45 times as broad as long, 
broadest somewhat in front of the middle, the sides somewhat strongly 
rounded; post median depression shallowly impressed; lateral impressions 
absent; surface weakly shining, alutaceous microsculpture well marked; 
pronotal puncturation fine, very shallow and close, discal punctures c. one 
diameter apart; hind angles moderately toothed. Elytra short oval, 2.52-2.67 
times as long as the pronotum and 1.26-1.31 times as long as broad, broadest 
in front of middle, sides rather strongly rounded; somewhat constricted 
behind; surface shining, reticulation weak and little distinct; strial punctures 
rather fine and close, interstices basally much broader than striae; elytral 
pubescence fine and almost flat, the hairs c. 0.024-0. 032mm, barely 
overlapping. Winged. Male: anterior tibial tooth moderate, ventral, situated 
well in front of the middle; aedeagus Fig. 7. 

Holotype male. Peru - Tambopata Prov.: Madre de Dios Dpto., 15km NE 
Puerto, Maldonado Reserva Cuzco Amazonico, 12° 33 'S, 69° 03 'W, 200m, 
swamp trail, ex. flight intercept trap, 16.vii.l989, leg. J.S. Ashe & R.A. 
Leschen (SEM). 

Paratypes. Peru - same data as holotype, one female (SEM); same data but 
10.vii.l989, no trail name, one male, two females (SEM); same data but Plot 
Zl, trail 26, one female (SEM). 



122 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

In external appearance, this species is very closely allied to amoena 
Johnson (Johnson, 1981), described from Panama. It may be distinguished 
from that species by its larger size and different aedeagus. 

Corticarina portentosa sp.n. 

Length 1.55- 1.66mm; head breadth 0.36-0. 37mm; pronotal breadth 0.48- 
0.50mm; elytral breadth 0.70-0. 72mm; antennal length 0.50-0. 58mm. 
Colour pale yellowish-brown, legs and basal third or so of antennae paler 
still. Antennal segments rather long, slender; 8 almost as broad as long; 9 
conical and distinctly longer than broad; 10 only slightly longer than broad, 
the club narrow and gradual. Body moderately convex. Pronotum 
moderately broad, 1.29-1.33 times as broad as long, broadest slightly in front 
of middle, the sides somewhat weakly curved; post median depression 
moderately impressed, lateral impressions distinct; surface little shining, 
alutaceous microsculpture rather strong; puncturation moderate, rather close, 
discal punctures about half a diameter apart or less; hind angles moderately 
toothed. Elytra long oval, 2.80-2.88 times as long as the pronotum, 1.43-1.53 
times as long as broad, broadest around to behind the middle, sides rather 
weakly curved; surface rather shining, not or indistinctly reticulate; strial 
punctures somewhat moderate and close, interstices basally much broader 
than striae; elytral pubescence distinctly curved, somewhat raised, the hairs 
c. 0.048-0.056mm, strongly overlapping. Winged. Male: anterior tibial tooth 
strong and ventral, situated in front of the middle; aedeagus Fig. 6. 

Holotype male. Mexico - Oaxaca: 21km N Villa Diaz Ordaz, 3100m, 
10.ix.l990, sifting litter in boreal forest, leg. R. Baranowski (ZML). 

Paratype. Mexico - Oaxaca: same data but 2750m, sifting litter in pine/oak 
forest, one male (ZML). 

The pale coloration, somewhat narrow body shape and rather weakly 
curved elytral sides seem to place this species near the Brazilian beloni 
Johnson (Johnson, 1981). However, portentosa is more yellowish, has a 
smaller pronotum, longer antennae and longer and more raised, overlapping, 
elytral pubescence. The aedeagus is quite different in both species. 

Corticarina rickardi sp.n. 

Length 1.44- 1.63mm; head breadth 0.31 -0.37mm; pronotal breadth 0.43- 
0.51mm; elytral breadth 0.69-0. 78mm; antennal length 0.50-0. 58mm. 
Colour dark, head and pronotum usually brownish-black, elytra dark brown; 
legs yellowish-brown, not or feebly infuscated; antennae with the basal 
segment pale to dark brown, 2 yellowish-brown, the stem paler basally but 
increasingly infuscated in the apical half or so. Antennal segments 
moderately long, slender; 8 quadrate to slightly longer than broad; 9 conical 
and markedly longer than broad; 10 about as long as broad, the club narrow 
and gradual. Body rather markedly convex. Pronotum moderately broad, 
1.20-1.27 times as broad as long, broadest around to somewhat in front of 
middle, sides moderately rounded; post median depression strongly 



NEW SPECIES OF CORTICARINA 1 23 

impressed, lateral impressions weak but usually distinct; surface rather 
uneven, shining, alutaceous microsculpture indistinct; puncturation 
moderate, very close, spaces between punctures somewhat ridge-like; hind 
angles moderately toothed. Elytra somewhat short oval, 2.60-2.75 times as 
long as the pronotum, 1.36-1.47 times as long as broad, broadest around 
middle, sides somewhat strongly curved; surface shining, not reticulate; 
strial punctures somewhat coarse and close, interstices basally narrower than 
striae; elytral pubescence slightly curved, nearly flat, the hairs c. 0.056- 
0.064mm, slightly overlapping. Winged. Male: anterior tibial tooth 
moderate, ventral, situated close to the apical third; aedeagus Fig. 9. 

Holotype male. Mexico - Oaxaca: 53km S Miahuatlan, 2300m, 
18.xi.l989, sifting deep litter near small stream in mixed montane forest, leg. 
R. Baranowski (ZML). 

Paratypes. Mexico - same data, five males, two females (ZML). 

In size, colour and shape, this species approaches the Mexican 
baranowskii Johnson (Johnson, 1990). Apart from the highly characteristic 
aedeagus, it may be separated from baranowskii by its more closely 
punctured pronotum whose surface is more uneven, lacks distinct 
microsculpture, and has distinct lateral impressions. 

Corticarina viatica sp.n. 

Length 1.57- 1.68mm; head breadth 0.35-0. 38mm; pronotal breadth 0.45- 
0.47mm; elytral breadth 0.69-0. 74mm; antennal length 0.50-0. 56mm. 
Colour dark, head and pronotum black, elytra brownish-black; legs dark 
brown, tibiae and tarsi ± infuscated; antennae with the basal segment dark 
brownish-black, segment 2 yellowish-brown, remaining segments 
increasingly infuscated, club blackish. Antennal segments rather long; 8 
about as long as broad; 9 more or less longer than broad; 10 about as long as 
broad; club narrow and gradual. Body moderately convex. Pronotum 
somewhat small, 1.19-1.28 times as broad as long, broadest around or 
somewhat in front of the middle, the sides somewhat moderately curved; 
post median depression well marked, lateral impressions rather weak; 
surface weakly shining, alutaceous microsculpture fine and distinct; pronotal 
punctures moderate, not deep, rather close, discal punctures mostly up to 
half a diameter apart; hind angles moderately toothed. Elytra long oval, 2.87- 
3.04 times as long as the pronotum and 1.54-1.59 times as long as broad, 
broadest around middle, sides somewhat weakly curved; surface shining, 
reticulation lacking; strial punctures moderately large and close, interstices 
basally broader than striae; elytral pubescence slightly curved, nearly flat, 
the hairs c. 0.04mm, barely overlapping. Winged. Male: anterior tibial tooth 
small, ventral, situated at the apical fifth; ventrite 5 simple; aedeagus Fig. 10. 
Holotype male. Mexico - Oaxaca: 20km N Oaxaca City, hwy 175, 2600m, 
12.ix.l990, sweeping at roadside, pine/oak forest, leg. R. Baranowski 
(ZML). 



124 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Paratypes. Mexico - Oaxaca: 21km N Villa Diaz Ordaz, 3100m, 
20.ix.l990, sifting litter in boreal forest, leg. R. Baranowski, one female 
(ZML); same data but 10.ix.l990, one female (ZML); same data but 
7.ix.l990, sweeping at roadside in boreal forest, one female (ZML). 

Very closely allied to ashei sp.n. in general appearance but distinguishable 
by its blacker coloration, darker legs and antennae, flatter elytral pubescence, 
as well as by the simple ventrite five and characteristic aedeagus of the male. 

Acknowledgements 

I am indebted to the late J. Klapperich for material collected in Guatemala 
which is now in the Manchester Museum. Other material was very kindly 
collected and prepared for my attention by Rickard Baranowski and made 
available through Roy Danielsson, Zoological Museum, University of Lund, 
Sweden; Rich Leschen and R. Brookes, Snow Entomological Museum, 
University of Kansas, USA, kindly made available material collected on 
their expeditions. 

References 

Andrews, E.G., 1985. Corticarina scissa (LeConte): a valid species (Coleoptera: 

Lathridiidae). Coleopterists' Bull. 39(2): 147- 149. 
Johnson, C, 1979. New species of Corticarina Reitter (Col. Lathridiidae). 

Entomologist' s Mon. Mag. 114: 55-62. 

- , 1981. New species of Corticarina Reitter (Col. Lathridiidae), Part 2. Entomologist' s 
Mon. Mag. Ill: 117-123. 

- , 1990. New exotic species of Corticariinae (Col., Latridiidae). Entomologist' s Rec. J. 
Vflr. 102:11-16. 



Ladybirds (CoL: Coccinellidae) attracted to light 

It may be of interest that the 60 beetle species caught during the years 1994, 
1995 and 1996 in a mercury-vapour light-trap run by one of us (JVD) in his 
garden in Wimbledon, Surrey included six ladybirds, viz: 

Adalia bipunctata (L.) - two in July 1995 

A. 10-punctata (L.) - one in August 1996 

Harmonia quadripunctata (Pontoppidan) - one in July 1995 

Anatis ocellata (L.) - one in August 1995 

Myrrha 18-guttata (L.) - one in July 1996 

Halyzia 16-punctata (L.) - four in July 1996 

The capture in the trap of several examples of H. 16- guttata is in keeping 
with the report of Majerus and Williams (1989 Ent. Gaz. 40: 71-78) that this 
is a species attracted to mercury vapour light and with a similar observation 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 1 25 

recently reported by our friend A.A. Allen (1996, Ent. Rec. 108: 298). Our 
findings indicate, however, that other species of ladybird also are attracted to 
light- J. A. Owen, 8 Kingsdown Road, Epsom, Surrey KT17 3PU and J.V. 
Dacde, 10 Alan Road, Wimbledon, Surrey SW19 7PT. 

Some records of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) attracted to mercury 
vapour light 

These notes have been stimulated by the reading of A.A. Allen's interesting 
note on the occurrence of Halyzia sedecimpunctata (L.) at his mercury 
vapour lamp in south-east London {Ent. Rec. 108: 298). I can report two 
captures of the Orange Ladybird taken in my mercury vapour trap at Grange- 
over-Sands, Cumbria (SD4077). The first was on 4.vii.l994 and the second 
on 2.vii.l996. Both specimens were in the trap. They exhibit the prominent 
translucent explanate sides of the thorax which Mr Allen emphasises as a 
useful diagnostic character of the species. 

Mr Allen also refers to the interesting article by Majerus and Williams 
(1989, Ent. Gaz. 40: 1-8) in connection with the distribution of the Orange 
Ladybird. In the same article the authors note that "... though ladybirds on 
the whole do not visit moth-traps, this species may be attracted to ultra-violet 
light". Apropos this statement, in addition to the above records I can add the 
following: Adalia 10-punctata (L.) one specimen on 27.ix.1995; Coccinella 
11 -punctata (L.) one specimen on 10.viii.l995; Myzia oblongo guttata (L.) 
one specimen 27.vii.1995. All these records were at my m.v. trap at Grange- 
over-Sands. Regarding M. oblongo guttata I was interested to read that a 
specimen was exhibited, at the BENHS Exhibition, taken at m.v. light in 
Richmond Park, Surrey by M.S. Parsons {Br. J. ent. nat. Hist. 9: 234). 

Though I have no specific data I have in the past frequently noted both 
Coccinella 7-punctata (L.) and Adalia 2-punctata (L.) in or about the trap. 
- Neville L. Birkett, Beardwood, Carter Road, Grange-over-Sands, 
Cumbria LAI 1 7 AG. 

Halyzia sedecimguttata (L.) (Col.: Coccinellidae): a postscript 

My recent note {Ent. Rec. 108: 298) recording this ladybird here at light is 
inaccurate in one particular: it appears now that I had previously taken a 
specimen at m.v. light at Blackheath near here (24.vi.1959), but retained no 
memory of the event, and the beetle is not in my collection. This, therefore, 
and not the above Charlton record, may be the first for the London suburbs; 
though, as 1959 was a year of far greater insect abundance and migratory 
activity than 1996 in this district, the Halyzia may have come from an 
indefinite distance. Finally, two further specimens turned up at the lamp here 
last summer (22.vii.1996 & 19.viii.l996).- A.A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, 
Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



126 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Notes on the voltinism of Scythropia crataegella (L.) 
(Lep.: Yponomeutidae) 

The standard textbooks (Meyrick, 1928 A revised handbook of British 
Lepidoptera; Emmet 1979 & 1988 Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain 
and Ireland; Agassiz (1996, in Emmet (Ed.) MBGBI 3)) are unanimous in 
giving the time of year for the appearance of imagines of Scythropia 
crataegella (L.) as July. 

This moth is a relative newcomer to Yorkshire, being first recorded in 
1983 near Doncaster, since when both moths and larvae have been recorded 
with increasing frequency in the south of VC63 in the Doncaster, Rotherham 
and Sheffield districts. Moths have occurred between 13 June and 19 July 
with the majority of records being during the last week of June and the first 
week of July. 

During 1995 crataegella appeared in my garden m.v. trap between 1 and 9 
July and then was not seen again until I emptied the trap on the morning of 
1 September and was surprised to find a single fresh moth. That same 
evening I made a field excursion to Anston Stones Wood, south-east of 
Rotherham where a further moth was attracted to m.v. light. 

The summer of 1996 saw a similar pattern with moths present in my 
garden trap from the beginning of July until the latest, four on 14 July. I 
walk the short distance between my home and office daily during weekdays 
and about the third week of August (exact date not recorded) 1 noticed a 
small patch of webbing on a low trimmed Cotoneaster hedge bordering the 
pavement a few properties up from my own which looked reminiscent of 
that of crataegella. During the following week the amount of webbing had 
increased markedly until, by early September, a two-metre length of the 
hedge was entirely enveloped with further sporadic small patches elsewhere 
on the same hedge. On 4 September the first adult crataegella were noticed 
sitting among the webbing and on adjacent foliage and small numbers of 
apparently freshly emerged moths were casually noticed most subsequent 
mornings as I walked by. On 26 September a slightly more thorough 
inspection revealed over a dozen moths, two of which were retained as a 
voucher for what I now regarded as a very late date, and just in time, for 
heavy rain and a sudden drop in temperature resulted in no further moths 
being seen. 

There can be little doubt that the substantial population on the Cotoneaster 
hedge was of a hitherto unrecorded second generation, that this should first 
occur at the very northern limit of the species distribution in Britain is all the 
more remarkable.- H.E. Beaumont, 37 Melton Green, West Malton, 
Rotherham, South Yorkshire S63 6AA. 



EUROPEAN TEMNOSTOMA 127 

THE EUROPEAN TEMNOSTOMA SPECIES (DIP.: SYRPHIDAE) 

M.C.D. Speight' & J.-P. Sarthou' 

'Research Branch, National Parks & Wildlife Sennce, 51 St Stephens Green. Dublin 2, Ireland. 
'INP-ENSAT, 145 avenue de Muret, F-31076 Toulouse, France. 

FOUR SPECIES OF Temnostoma Lepeletier & Serville are at present 
known from Europe. The least well-known of these is T. meridionale 
Krivosheina and Mamaev, described from the Caucasus. Until recently, T. 
meridionale has been known only from south-east Europe, but we have 
encountered the species in France and, while this note was in preparation, 
Doczkal's (1996) paper appeared, recording the species from Sweden, 
Germany and the Czech Republic. Keys to the adults of the four European 
species are provided in French by Bradescu (1991) and in Dutch by van der 
Goot (1981). Krivosheina and Mamayev (1962) provide a key distinguishing 
last instar larvae of these species. With the thought that an English-language 
account of European Temnostoma species might be useful, the present note 
summarises available information on the European Temnostoma species, 
provides a key for their determination, details the French T. meridionale 
records and includes figures of the male terminalia of T. meridionale. T. 
meridionale is remarkably similar to T. vespiforme in general appearance, 
size, adult habits and habitat. 

Species accounts 

Temnostoma apiforme (Fabricius), 1794 

Preferred environment: forest; humid deciduous forest, from northern Betula 
forest to the upper levels of FaguslPicea forest and down to the alluvial 
hardwood forest of major rivers. Adult habitat: clearings, track-sides, 
meadows adjacent to forest; although a forest insect, can be found flying 
close to the ground and visits the flowers of low-growing plants. Flowers 
visited: white umbellifers, Geum, Matricaria inodora, Potentilla, 
Ranunculus, Rubus idaeus, Trientalis. Flight period: June/end July, and on 
into August at higher altitudes/more northerly latitudes. Lan^a: wood-boring, 
in solid wood within part-rotted stumps and logs; described and figured by 
Heqvist (1957), based on larvae collected from a rotten Betula stump. 
Krivosheina and Mamayev (1962) also figure and describe the larva of this 
species, from material collected from stumps of Tilia. These latter authors 
provide a key distinguishing T. apiforme larvae from those of the other 
European Temnostoma species. Range: Lapland south to northern France 
(Ardennes, Vosges); from eastern Belgium through northern and central 
Europe into European parts of Russia and on through Siberia to the Pacific 
coast and Japan; also known from southern Europe in the former 
Yugoslavia. Although this species has a wide geographic range, it has a 
relictual distribution pattern over much of its European range and is probably 



128 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

now under threat at European leveL Determination: Bradescu (1991), van 
der Goot (1981). The adult insect is illustrated in colour by Torp (1994). The 
male and female terminalia are figured by Barkalov (1991). This species has 
a strong general resemblance to T. meridionale and T. vespiforme. 

Temnostoma bombylans (Fabricius), 1805 

Preferred environment: Fagus forest with over-mature trees, up to its upper 
altitudinal limits and old alluvial hardwood forest. Adult habitat: clearings 
and track-sides etc.; flies one to two metres from ground; settles on low- 
growing vegetation. Flowers visited: Cornus, Hypericum, Ranunculus, 
Rubus, Sambucus nigra. Viburnum opulus. Flight period: May/June and July 
at higher altitudes. Larva: wood-boring, in solid wood within part-rotted 
stumps and logs; described and figured by Krivosheina and Mamayev 
(1962), from larvae collected from stumps and logs of Acer, Fagus, Quercus 
and Tilia; also reared from well-rotted Fagus stumps by Derksen (1941), 
who indicates metamorphosis takes two years and the larvae inhabit stumps 
of trees felled seven to eight years previously. The larvae described and 
figured, with puparium, by Heiss (1938) and Metcalf (1933) as those of T. 
bombylans were probably those of T. balyras (Walker). T. bombylans is not 
known to occur in North America. Krivosheina and Mamayev (1962) 
provide a key distinguishing T. bombylans larvae from those of the other 
European Temnostoma species. Range: Finland and Sweden south to the 
Pyrenees and North Africa; the former Yugoslavia; eastwards from northern 
France through northern and central Europe into Asiatic parts of Russia as 
far as the Pacific coast and Japan; Korea. In Europe, probably the most 
frequently met with Temnostoma species, but nonetheless very local. 
Determination: Bradescu (1991), van der Goot (1981). The male terminaUa 
are figured by Hippa (1978) and Barkalov (1991), who also figures the 
female terminalia. The adult insect is illustrated in colour by Kormann 
(1988), Torp (1984, 1994) and van der Goot (1986). 

Temnostoma meridionale Krivosheina & Mamayev, 1962 

Preferred environment: Fagus and thermophilous Quercus {Q. pubescens) 
forest containing over-mature and fallen trees. Adult habitat: sunlit forest, 
where the species flies between the trees, the males hovering at three metres 
or higher; settles on low-growing vegetation. Flowers visited: no 
information. Flight period: beginning May /beginning July. Larva: wood- 
boring, in solid wood within part-rotted stumps and logs; described and 
figured by Krivosheina and Mamayev (1962), from larvae collected from a 
Fagus log. These authors also provide a key distinguishing T. meridionale 
larvae from those of the other European Temnostoma species. Range: 
Sweden, Finland, Germany, central and south-west France (including the 
Pyrenees), the Czech Republic, Romania and the Caucasus. Determination: 



EUROPEAN TEMNOSTOMA 129 

Bradescu (1991), van der Goot (1981), Doczkal, (1996). The male terminalia 
are figured by Barkalov (1991), Doczkal (1996) and the present article (Figs. 
Id, le). Barkalov also figures the female terminalia. Hippa (1978) 
erroneously figures the male terminalia of this species under the name T. 
vespiforme. Krivosheina & Mamayev (1962) had no access to the Linnaean 
material of T. vespiforme and were unaware that their new species occurred in 
Scandinavia. Whether their concept of T. vespiforme corresponds with that of 
Lirmaeus is therefore unknown. Re-examination of the Linnaean type of T. 
vespiforme is necessary to establish which species should carry that name. 

Details of known French records as follows: Dordogne: Razat d'Eymet, 
21. v. 1996, male, col. & det. C.W. Plant, in coll. CWP; Haute-Garonne: 
Candele, 14.v - 4.vi.l995, females, col. & det. JPS, in coll. JPS; Pyrenees- 
Atlantiques: Foret d'Iraty, 12.vii.l981, males, 800m., col. & det. MCDS, in 
coll. MCDS and Mus. Nat. d'Hist. Nat., Paris; Bosdarros, 2.vii.l995, female, 
col. & det. JPS, in coll. JPS. 

Temnostoma vespiforme (L.), 1758 

Preferred environment: deciduous forest containing over-mature and fallen 
trees, especially riverine alluvial gallery forest. Adult habitat: open forest, 
especially near brooks and rivers; males hover at three metres and higher; 
both sexes frequently visit flowers (often visiting pasturage and meadows for 
the purpose) and settle on shrub foliage etc.; in flight an exact mimic of 
Vespula; when settled this insect carries its black fore tarsi as though they 
were antennae, resembling exactly black Vespula antennae and vibrates them 
as Vespula does its antennae. Flowers visited: umbellifers; Clematis, 
Cornus, Crataegus, Lonicera xylosteum, Papaver nudicaule, Ranunculus, 
Rubus idaeus, Senecio, Sorbus. Flight period: May/June and on into 
July/August at higher altitudes/more northerly latitudes. Larva: wood- 
boring, in solid wood within part-rotted stumps and logs; described and 
figured by Stammer (1933) and Krivosheina and Mamayev (1962); 
illustrated in colour by Rotheray (1994); distinctions from the larva of T. 
apiforme (Fab.) are detailed in Heqvist (1957). Krivosheina and Mamayev 
(1962) provide a key distinguishing T. vespiforme larvae from those of the 
other European Temnostoma species. This species has been bred from Acer, 
Alnus, Betula, Fagus, Quercus and Tilia. Range: from central Sweden south 
to northern Spain; from northern France (Brittany) eastwards through most 
of Europe and on through asiatic parts of Russia to the Pacific coast and 
Japan; also in the Nearctic from Alaska south to New Mexico and east to 
Quebec. Now rather localised over much of its European range. 
Determination: Bradescu (1991), van der Goot (1981). The male terminaUa 
of a Finnish specimen of T. meridionale are erroneously figured under the 
name T. vespiforme by Hippa (1978). The male terminalia of T. vespiforme 
are figured by Barkalov (1991), Doczkal (1996) and the present article (Figs 



130 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25 .V. 1997 



IF, IG). Barkalov also figures the female terminalia. The adult insect is 
illustrated in colour by Kormann (1988), Torp (1984, 1994) and van der 
Goot (1986). T. meridionale Krivosheina & Mamaev is extremely similar to 




Fig. 1 : Temnostoma species. 

A - C = mesoscutum and scutellum, dorsal view; D, F = surstylus, lateral view; E, G = 

hypandrium, lateral view; A = T. apiforme; B, D, E = T. meridionale; C, F, G = T. 

vespiforme. 



T. vespiforme. The two species are almost indistinguishable in the field and 
occur in the same habitats. Care is needed to ensure correct identification of 
these two species, given that T. meridionale is now known to occupy much 
the same European range as T. vespiforme. T. meridionale was not taken into 
account in the review of Linnaean types of Syrphidae conducted by 
Thompson et al (1982). Since it is now known that T. meridionale occurs 
over such a wide range in Europe, it cannot be assumed that vespiforme of 
Linnaeus is the species assumed to bear this name by Krivosheina & 
Mamayev, who did not examine the Linnaean type. However, until and 
unless the identity of the Linnaean type is checked it is reasonable to assume 
current interpretations of T. vespiforme are correct. 



EUROPEAN TEMNOSTOMA 1 3 1 

Key to the identification of European Temnostoma species 

1. Abdomen predominantly blackand yellow, tergites 2-4 each with a 
transverse yellow band confined to the anterior half of the tergite; at its 
apex, abdominal tergite 2 less than two times as wide as its median 
length bombylans (Fab.) 

- abdomen predominantly black, tergites 2-4 each with yellow markings 
within both the anterior and posterior halves of the tergite; at its apex, 
abdominal tergite 2 more than two times as wide as its median length . 2 

2. Posterior half of the mesoscutum black, except for a median patch of 
silver-grey dusting along the posterior margin, immediately anterior to 
the scutellum (Fig. lA) apiforme (Fab.) 

- posterior half of the mesoscutum with at least one pair of distinct yellow 
marks, which may, or may not, reach the post-alar calli 3 

3. Post-alar calli partly yellow; transverse suture of the mesoscutum 
marked by a short, transverse, yellow stripe at each side, which continues 
a similar distance toward the mid-line as silver-grey dusting (Fig. IC). 
Male terminali as in Figs. IF, IG vespiforme (L.) 

- post-alar calli without yellow markings, though with more or less 
extensive silver-grey dusting; transverse suture marked on each side by a 
pair of rounded, yellow patches, which are narrowly connected by a 
transverse stripe of silver-grey dusting (Fig. IB). Male terminalia Figs. 
ID, IE meridionale Krivosheina & Mamayev 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to Colin Plant for information on the Dordogne specimen of 
T. meridionale. 

References 

Barkalov, A.V., 1991. Genitalia construction in the genus Temnostoma Lep. et Serv. 

(Diptera, Syrphidae) of the Soviet Union fauna. Izv. Sib. Otd. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Sib. 

Biol. Zh. 5: 59-66. 
Bradescu, V., 1991. Les Syrphides de Roumanie (Diptera, Syrphidae), Cles de 

determination et repartition. Trav. Mus. Hist. nat. Grigore Antipa 31: 7-83. 
Derksen, W., 1941. Die Succession der pterygoten Insekten im abgestorben Buchenholz. 

Z. Morph. Okol. der Tiere 37: 683 - 734. 
Doczkal, D., 1996. Schwebfliegen aus Deutschland: Erstnachweise und wenig bekannte 

Arten (Diptera, Syrphidae). Volucella 2: 36-62. 
Heiss, E.M., 1938. A classification of the larvae and puparia of the Syrphidae of Illinois 

exclusive of aquatic forms. Illinois Biol. Mon. 16: 141pp. 
Heqvist, K.-J., 1957. Uber die Larve von Temnostoma apiforme Fab. (Diptera, 

Syrphidae). Entom. Ts. Arg. 78: 29 - 31. 
Hippa, H., 1978. Classification of Xylotini (Diptera, Syrphidae). Acta zool. Fenn. 156: 1- 

153. 



132 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Kormann, K., 1988. Schwebfliegen Mitteleuropas: Vorkommen, Bestimmung, 

Beschreibung. Ecomed, Miinchen. 1-176. 
Krivosheina, N. P. & Mamayev, B.M. 1962. Larvae of the European species of the genus 

Temnostoma (Diptera, Syrphidae). Entomological Review 41: 570-575. 
Metcalf, C.L., 1933. An obscure Temnostoma differentiated by its larval characters. Ann. 

Ent. Soc. Amer. 26: 1-8. 
Rotheray, G.E., 1994. Colour guide to hoverfly larvae (Diptera, Syrphidae) in Britain 

and Europe. Dipterists Digest 9: 1-156. 
Stammer, H.J., 1933. Die metamorphose der Syrphide Temnostoma vespiforme (L.) und 

die eigenartigen Anpassungen der Larve dieses Tieres an das Bohren im Holz 

(Dipt.). Zeit.furMorph. Okol. Tiere 26: 437 - 446. 
Thompson, F.C., Vockeroth, J.R. and Speight, M.C.D., 1982. The Linnaean species of 

flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae). Mem. Entomol. Soc. Wash 10: 150 -165. 
Torp, E., 1984. De danske svirrefleur (Diptera: Syrphidae), Kendetegn, levevis og 

udbredelse. Danmarks Dyreliv. 1: 1-300. Fauna Boger, Kobenhavn. 

- , 1994. Danmarks Svirrefluer (Diptera: Syrphidae). Danmarks Dyreliv 6: 1 - 490. 
Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 

Van der Goot, V.S., 1986. Zweefvliegen in kleur. KNNV, Uitgave 32a: 1 - 17. 

- , 1981. De zweef\'liegen van Noordwest-Europa en Europees Rusland, in het bijzonder 
van de Benelux. KNNV, Uitgave no. 32. Amsterdam. 



Ptilophora plumigera D.&S. (Lep.: Notodontidae) in the London area 

In Ent. Rec. 108: 72 Ian Furguson records the capture of a male of this 
species at Shoreham, Kent on lLxi.1995 confirming the continued presence 
of the species in the London area and invalidating the suggestion by Colin 
Plant {Larger Moths of the London Area, 1993) that P. plumigera may now 
be extinct in the area. However, both Plant and Furguson, in stating that the 
last previous record for the species was in 1955, were evidently unaware of 
the specimen observed by Paul Sokoloff in this locality on 7.xi.l973, 
reported in Chalmers-Hunt's supplement to his Butterflies and Moths of Kent 
in Ent. Rec. 92. To this I must add that the species was not uncommon there 
in 1966; five specimens came to a single m.v. light on 8 November located 
in tetrad TQ56F, the tetrad to the south of that where the moth has frequently 
been observed in the past. 

Although part of this habitat has changed by the spread of scrub on the 
open downland, the decline in insects has been phenomenal. I believe the 
cause, and the continuing threat to P. plumigera and other species remains 
with the destruction of surrounding downland, the abandonment of pasture 
and fodder crops such as clovers, vetches, lucerne and sainfoin which 
abounded in the neighbourhood fifty years ago in favour of subsidised arable 
farming, especially of cereals and rape with attendant toxic chemical 
spraying.- B.K. West, 36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent DA5 2HN. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 133 

Acrobasis tumidana (D.&S.) (Lep.: Pyralidae): 1996 records from south- 
east Kent 

Several scarce migrant species of Lepidoptera were recorded from the 
Dungeness area during 1996, but the most unprecedented event of the year 
involved the arrival over a 17-day period in August of 24 individuals of the 
species Acrobasis tumidana. These are summarised as follows: Greatstone, 
5.viii.96 (2), (B. Banson); Dungeness, 9.viii.96 (D. Walker); New Romney, 
ll.viii.96 (K. Redshaw); New Romney, 12.viii.96 ( KR); New Romney, 
13.viii.96 (KR); Dungeness, 17.viii.96 (S.P. Clancy); Greatstone, 18.viii.96 
(3) (BB); New Romney, 18.viii.96 (KR); Lydd, 18.viii.96 (KR); Greatstone, 
19.viii.96 (2) (BB); Lydd, 19.viii.96 (SPG); Lydd, 19.viii.96 (KR); 
Dungeness, 19.viii.96 (3) (KR & SPG); Dungeness, 20.viii.96 (KR); 
Dungeness, 21.viii.96 (3) (KR); Dungeness, 22.viii.96 (SPG). 

To put these records in perspective. Skinner {Ent. Rec. 107: 241-243) lists 
all confirmed and unconfirmed records of this species to the end of 1994. 
These comprised 13 authentic and six unconfirmed twentieth-century 
records. 

I would be interested to learn of any other records of this species to find 
out how widespread the 1996 tumidana invasion was.- S.P. Glancy, 
"Delhi" Gottage, Dungeness, Romney Marsh, Kent TN29 9NE. 

Morophaga choragella ([Denis and Schiffermiiller, 1775]) 

(Lep.: Tineidae), its distribution and preferred diet in southern England 

I was interested to read Dr Alexander's note concerning the above species 
(Alexander 1996, Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 9: 165). I have been rearing tineids 
associated with fungi for about six years now and have encountered this 
moth on numerous occasions over this period. I feel that putting on record 
these occasions may add additional information to our knowledge of its 
present distribution and abundance, at least in south-east England, and hope 
that others will find this information useful for recording this large and 
attractive Tineid. 

I first reared M. choragella from the bracket fungi Ganoderma adspersum 
and Piptoporus betulinus collected at Burnham Beeches near Slough, 
Berkshire (VG22) in October 1990 (total of a dozen examples) and again in 
March 1996 (several from the same species of fungi). Subsequently I have 
reared examples from larvae collected at the following localities: 

Gockthorpe, Wells-next-the-Sea, West Norfolk (VG28), August 1991, 
two from Ganoderma applanatum; Hainault Forest, Ghigwell Row, 
Essex (VG18, November 1992, one from Fistulina hepatica; 
Medmenham, Buckinghamshire (VG24), September 1994, one each from 
Pseudotrametes gibbosa and Coriolus hirsutus; Rufous Stone, New 
Forest, South Hampshire (VGll), March 1995, four from a huge colony 



134 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

in G. adspersum; Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, March 1996, ten 
from G. adspersum and four in P. betulinus; Moor Cops, Reading, 
Berkshire, September 1996, four from G. adspersum. 

Unfortunately I have not had the opportunity to collect fungal material 
from south-west England, Wales or the Midlands northwards, but I hope to 
do so as the opportunities arise. With the exception of Medmenham, the 
localities where this moth have been found consist mostly of dense 
woodland rather than pasture woodland. 

Pelham-Clinton (1985, Tineidae. In: The moths and butterflies of Great 
Britain and Ireland, Volume 2. Harley Books.) states that M. choragella 
feeds on Leptiporus, Phellinus and Piptoporus fungi and possibly on dead 
wood. Despite rearing numerous tineids from dead wood I have never 
encountered this moth in such material, neither have I found infested 
Leptiporus or Phellinus fungi. I have retained infested material in Inonotus 
dryadeus, Coriolus versicolor and Fomes fomentarius but again failed to rear 
this moth. At the sites I have collected material from it is clear that 
Ganoderma fungi are the preferred diet of M. choragella- L Sims, 2 The 
Delph, Lower Earley, Reading, Berkshire RG6 SAN. 

Nemapogon varietella (Clemens, 1859) (Lep.: Tineidae) in Berkshire 

I wish to record the occurrence of the above moth at Bumham Beeches near 
Slough, Berkshire (VC22). During a field meeting of the British 
Entomological and Natural History Society on 14 October 1990 I collected 
examples of the fungus Piptoporus betulinus showing signs of infestation by 
lepidopterous larvae. These were characterised by holes situated around the 
edge where the pore-like gills met the margin of the cap, with a 
concentration of holes near the stem. The holes were exuding white frass 
trapped in silken material. The fungi were kept in a shed in Perspex boxes 
and produced fourteen examples of Nemapogon variatella (formerly known 
as A^. personella) on 13 April 1991. This would appear to be a new record for 
VC22, as this species is not listed by Baker (1994, The butterflies and moths 
of Berkshire. Hedera Press). In the spring of 1995, 1 took Mr D. O'keeffe to 
this locality. From material that he collected he succeeded in rearing 
numbers of this species later that year from an example of the fungus 
Fistulina hepatic a. 

On a subsequent visit to this locality on 13 March 1996 I collected further 
P. betulinus with the hope of obtaining Nemaxera betulinella, another 
species reared from this locality by Mr O'keeffe the previous year. My 
material did not produce any of these, but a further three N. variatella 
emerged on 8 May that year. I have not met with this moth elsewhere and 
believe this discovery constitutes a record worthy of publication. I have 
heard rumour that this site has been threatened with gravel extraction in the 
past.- L Sims, 2 The Delph, Lower Earley, Reading, Berkshire RG6 3AN. 



TRIOZ A ALACRIS NEW TO IRELAND 1 3 5 

TRIOZA ALACRIS FLOR (HEMIPTERA), A GALL-CAUSING 
PYSLLID NEW TO IRELAND 

J.P. O'Connors P. Ashe^ S. Wistow^ 

'National Museum of Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland. 

^Research Associate, Department of Zoology, University College, Dublin 4, Ireland. 

^"Derrymore" , Coliemore Road, Dalkey, Co. Dublin, Ireland. 

ON 23 SEPTEMBER 1996, JPOC noticed numerous unusual-looking galls 
on a small (2m) bay laurel Laurus nobilis L. growing in the front garden of a 
house on Essex Road, Dublin City (01632). The margins of the leaves were 
thickened and rolled downwards. One of the galls was collected. Using 
Stubbs (1986), it was identified as being caused by a psyllid, Trioza alacris 
Flor. Since this species had not been recorded previously from Ireland, JPOC 
returned to the tree on 25 September 1996 and obtained additional material. 
Galls were also discovered on a tree in a neighbouring garden and on the 
next day, a further infestation was noted on Pembroke Road (01732), some 
half a kilometre distant. Subsequently on 6 October 1996, galls were found 
on a bay laurel in the Zoological Gardens, Dublin (01235), circa five 
kilometres away from the original discovery. In all these instances, the trees 
were large and the galls scarce. 

The collected galls were carefully opened and numerous nymphs of T. 
alacris were obtained. Adults (male and female) of T. alacris were also 
discovered. The material was determined using Hodkinson and White (1979) 
and White and Hodkinson (1982). Syrphid larvae were present within 
several of the galls where they had eaten nearly all the contained nymphs. 
They were identified as belonging to either Syrphus ribesii (L.) or S. 
vitripennis Meigen using Rotheray (1989). Both these species also attack 
aphids. 

The discovery of T. alacris in Ireland is very interesting. The species is 
widely distributed throughout Europe and also occurs in the Crimea and 
Georgia. It was introduced into Great Britain in the early 1920s where it is 
now locally common in nurseries and gardens in southern England, 
extending northwards to North Wales (Hodkinson & White, 1979). It is 
considered a pest species and has the common name of Bay Sucker. Young 
plants are most susceptible and when heavily infested, leaves shrivel and fall 
prematurely. Shoots also die (Buczacki & Harris, 1983). T. alacris is also a 
pest in North America where it was first reported in 1911. As nearly as can 
be determined, it was introduced on nursery stock that had originated in 
Belgium (Johnson & Lyon, 1988). The species is also reported to have been 
introduced into Argentina and Chile. In Italy, the species has two to five 
generations per year and the adult overwinters on its hostplant 
(Ossiannilsson, 1992). However in Britain, there is only one adult generation 
each year (Hodkinson & White, 1979; Buczacki & Harris, 1983). 



136 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Undoubtedly, the species has been brought into Ireland on imported 
plants, probably during recent times. 

Voucher specimens have been deposited in the National Museum of 
Ireland. 

Acknowledgements 

We are very grateful to Dick Dunne of Teagasc and Robert Nash of the 
Ulster Museum for confirming that the species is new to Ireland. 

References 

Buczacki, S.T. & Harris, K.M., 1983. Collins shorter guide to the pests, diseases and 

disorders of garden plants . Collins, London. 
Hodkinson, I.D. & White, I.M., 1979. Homoptera Psylloidea. Handbk Ident. Br. Insects 

2(5a): 1-98. 
Johnson, W.T. & Lyon, H.H., 1988. Insects that feed on trees and shrubs. 2nd edition. 

Cornell University Press, Ithaca & London. 
Ossiannilsson, F., 1992. The Psylloidea (Homoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. 

Fauna Entomologica Scandinavia 26: 1-347. 
Rotheray, G.E., 1989. Aphid predators. Naturalists' Handbooks 11. Richmond 

Publishing Co., Slough. 
Stubbs, F.B. (ed.), 1986. Provisional keys to British plant galls. British Plant Gall 

Society. 
White, I.M. & Hodkinson, I.D., 1982. Psylloidea (nymphal stages). Hemiptera, 

Homoptera. Handbk Ident. Br. Insects 2(5b): 1-50. 



Hazards of butterfly coflectihg - the lost sheep, Ghana, August 1996 

In August 1996 I did something that I never, ever, thought I would do. I led a 
14-strong tour-group through Ghana. Not just any old tour-group, mind you, 
but one of dedicated American entomologists. Our friends in London were 
laying bets on the odds of my coming back with my sanity intact. But the 
Ghana Wildlife Department was very keen on the first ever eco-tourism tour 
to Ghana, so when the call came, I had to respond. After all ... I had first 
suggested the idea some three years ago in order to establish my street 
credibility with the Department. The old World War One recruitment poster 
materialised in front of my eyes, with the Director (Gerry Punguse, aka 
Bushman number one) in the place of Lord Kitchener; "Ghana conservation 
needs YOU!". 

So there I was, at Accra Airport, to receive my group, British Airways 
contriving to bring them in seven hours late. An inauspicious start. 

But things looked up. We had a fine hotel. The first day in Aburi Botanical 
Gardens went well. The second day on the Atewa Range at Kibi was 
sensational. Any visit to the Atewa forests is sensational, since it is one 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 



137 




The lost sheep, well and truly found! (Photo: J. Khun). 



of the finest remaining rainforests in all of West Africa. The group as a 
whole notched up more than 200 species that day (there may well be 700 
species in all). 

The third day was designed for contrast. We went to the Shai Hills, a 
conservation area on the Accra Plains. This is part of the Dahomey Gap, a 
tongue of savannah that separates the West African forest zone from that of 
Nigeria, and a major biogeographical feature. Instead of the lush forest of 
Atewa, this is savannah, complete with troops of baboons and gazelles. 
Butterflies are not thick on the ground in West African savannahs, though 
90% of the species are not found in the rainforest, but I am happy to report 
that the educational aspects of the visit were appreciated. 

We re-assembled at 14.00 at the bus. We did the usual head-count - this 
seems to be one of the most important aspects of leading a tour-group. We 
were one short. Eileen was missing. We waited half-an-hour. No Eileen. We 
sent the group back to Accra and began a search. Only a handful of rangers 
were available, and by nightfall we had to stop without success. 

Eileen was a sensible person, with considerable experience in tropical 
countries. She should be able to cope - unless she had been incapacitated. 
The Warden, James Oheimi, arrived towards dusk from Accra. It was 
comforting having a good friend on hand, but after dark, nothing could be 
done as far as the search was concerned. 



138 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

James was excellent. He took us to the nearby army training base. We 
were promised a company of soldiers for tomorrow's search. The police 
were notified. The chief promised community support if needed. 

We then returned to Accra . . . with the aim of chartering an aircarft first 
thing in the morning. It was a glum crew in the car that evening . . . Dr Tom 
Emmel, the US tour leader, Dr Malcohn Stark, the Ghana ground coordinator, 
and myself. We headed for the restaurant where the group was scheduled for 
dinner. No Eileen. We got a thumbs-up from members of the group. They 
thought we had found Eileen? I shook my head, and gave a thumbs-down. It 
was a few moments till it became clear that she had returned. 

She had actually done well, apart from getting lost. After becoming aware 
that she was lost, she tried climbing a small peak to check if she could find 
some bearings. She could not. But she did see a road in the far distance, and 
headed for there. A quarry truck took her to a main road. She asked for the 
"ranger post" . . . no-one understood what she was talking about. Taxis and 
buses stopped, and pretty soon she was surrounded by hundreds of people, 
and lots of conflicting advice. So she decided to go back to Accra - then she 
could phone and call off the flap . . . logical to an American. Well, in the 
outback of Africa, things are not always that simple. For one, you cannot 
phone Shai Hills from Accra. Then the taxi punctured twice on the way back 
to Accra - and had no spare tyre. When it eventually arrived, the hotel could 
not be located (no-one thought to look in the telephone directory - they do 
this well in Ghana, though in many African countries the directories are a 
decade old). 

When she finally reached the hotel, our assistant there immediately packed 
her into a taxi, and went back to Shai HiUs - we must have crossed them in 
the dark somewhere along the line. By 22.00 we were all re-assembled, and I 
had a very stiff drink. The next morning I was back at Shai Hills to thank the 
Army, the Police, etc. - James acknowledged that he had actually shed a tear 
when Eileen turned up that night. 

But all is well that ends well. The combined tour clocked up about 450 
species, half of Ghana's known butterfly fauna. We had no further traumas 
(or is that traumae?). Everything went well, but then Ghana is one of the 
nicest and most friendly countries that I know. And, believe it or not, the 
Nigerian Conservation Foundation has now press-ganged me into doing a 
similar tour to Nigeria! Watch this page!!- Torben B. Larsen, 358 
Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 

Withdrawal of record of Cochylis pallidana ZelL (Lep.: Tortricidae) for 
North Hampshire 

My record from Selbome, Hampshire, in August 1995 {Ent. Rec. 108: 42) 
was based on an insecure identification and should, therefore, be 
withdrawn.- A.E. Aston, Wake's Cottage, Selbome, Hampshire GU34 3JH. 



EXPEDITION TO ENGLAND 1 39 

AN EXPEDITION TO ENGLAND 

Anon 
JUNE, and already Orthosia gothica was nearly over in the Scottish 
Highlands. It was time for our long-planned trip to southern England, 
hopefully to see and catch moths which were known to us only as coloured 
illustrations in the field guides. After loading the battered old camper-van, 
my three companions and I set off eagerly southwards, having told our wives 
that we were going to an important business conference. 

Curiously, as we crossed the English border, we passed an identical van 
on its way north. We were roughly at the halfway point in our journey. Soon, 
the scenery became increasingly flat and monotonous, with the grey ribbon 
of motorway stretching out endlessly before us. 

Gradually, it began to get dark. Moths appeared in the headlights; it was 
obviously a very suitable night. The temptation to stop became irresistible, 
as we left the motorway and quickly found some suitable woodland in which 
to operate our generators and traps. Moths started arriving almost at once, 
but their quality disappointed us - a few Blepharita adusta, a couple of 
insipid Selenia lunularia, one Cleorodes lichenaria. Surely we hadn't come 
all this way for such familiar species? We need not have worried. Much 
better things began to arrive; beautiful dove-grey Calliteara pudibunda 
males, and the stunning melanic form of Biston betularia, which none of us 
had ever seen. 

On the road once more as it got light, we reached the M25. It was the first 
time any of us had been south of Watford. Suitable habitat was hard to find, 
and the verges of the motorway itself looked as good as any. Seeing some 
mullein plants growing on a recently bulldozed embankment, we parked the 
van in a convenient small, raised lay-by, and set to work collecting larvae of 
one of our target species, Cucullia verbasci. This task was interrupted by the 
arrival of a police car containing two constables who told us that we were 
committing an offence. However, there seemed to be a communication 
problem, possibly because we replied in Gaelic. This had the desired effect, 
as after debating whether to call in the Ethnic Liaison Officer they moved us 
on with only a warning. 

Leaving the motorway, we drove through leafy North London suburbs, 
with detached houses set in large gardens, shielded from the road by tall 
cypress hedges. Simultaneously, we had the same thought - leautierV. - and 
leapt out as the van screeched to a halt. We formed into pairs, taking one 
side of the road each. The person on the pavement held a beating tray, while 
his companion gave the cypresses a few hefty whacks with a stout stick to 
dislodge the larvae, a procedure best accomplished from within the garden. 
Fortunately, the natives were friendly, tapping on their windows to attract 
our attention, then waving vigorously. A few appeared on their doorsteps to 
shout a cheery greeting. Within a couple of hundred yards, our sporrans were 



140 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

bulging with pill-boxes containing enough Lithophane leautieri larvae to 
satisfy everyone's needs. 

Stopping only to gather a few armfuls of delphiniums from a herbaceous 
border, to be checked at leisure for Polychiysia moneta, we made our way 
back to the van. For the second time that day, a policeman was in attendance. 
He obviously had more entomological knowledge than his colleagues, 
because he asked us whether we had noticed the Double Yellow-lines. 
Lacking the scientific name, we were about to reply that this was a moth 
with which we were unfamiliar, then realised it must be a local term for 
Camptogramma bilineata, more commonly known as the Yellow Shell. 
After setting him straight on this point, we were once more on our way. 

The plan was to stay a night with some friends in Kent, and operate the 
traps in their large mature garden on a slope of the North Downs. A peaceful 
night's mothing seemed in prospect. However, it proved impossible to work 
out a route from house to trap which did not trigger the infra-red beams 
operating the security system, causing floodlights to blaze and electronic 
alarms to sound. I almost expected machine guns to open up! What a 
contrast to our Scottish croft, where the door can safely be left ajar for the 
postie if a person goes out for the day. But we did get Apamea anceps, the 
only resident member of the genus that I'd ever seen. 

Next day the van set out for the extreme south-east comer of England - a 
land more bleak and barren than anything the Cairngorms has to offer, known 
(we think) as "Dungnesse". We marvelled how the inhabitants of the 
scattered cottages could scrape a living from their tiny crofts on such stoney 
ground! Hardy indeed must be the clan that lives there. The weather was very 
hot, making lightweight kilts essential. Hadena perplexa was high on our Ust 
of wants, but most specimens had been bleached almost white by the sun and 
salt spray, and it was difficult to find any of the requisite tawny-brown shade. 

That night we ran the light-traps, and were pleased to take a fine series 
each of Agrotis exclamationis (not a species I see every year), while being 
careful not to remove so many as to threaten the population. I next had the 
good fortune to net a Char any ca trigrammica, which one of my companions 
was particularly desirous to obtain. Naturally, I insisted that he should have 
it, having earlier boxed a rather better specimen for myself when no-one was 
looking. 

The weather forecast was poor for our final night. We sugared in the sultry 
dusk, and thereby lured the moth that was easily the highlight of the whole 
expedition - a species which we had hardly dared hope for - a perfect 
Agrotis puta\ Then the heavens opened, putting paid to all further work, so 
we made for the capital to celebrate this prize capture in style . . . 

Next morning we set off for home. It had been a successful trip. Each of 
us had seen many new species, each had has own small triumphs. Honour 
was more than satisfied; we dropped her back at King's Cross on our way 



EXPEDITION TO ENGLAND 



141 



north. As we reached the Scottish border with our precious cargo, already 
planning the next excursion south, we were amazed to meet coming the other 
way the same van that we had seen on our outward journey. 




"Apart from Cucullia verbasci and Biston betularia I would say that they were 

speaking Gaelic!" 

Drawing by Alan Turner (01277) 624647 



Hunting behaviour of Dipogon subintermedius (Magretti) 
(Hym.: Pompilidae) 

I found Dipogon subintermedius to be quite numerous in Chatsworth Park, 
Derbyshire (VC57) while studying aculeate Hymenoptera there around 1983. 
It hunted on the surfaces of large, dry, standing oak trunks in bright 
sunshine. On two occasions I observed the wasp seemingly attempt to lure 
its prey, the spider Segestria senoculata (L.), out of its hiding place. The web 
of these spiders spreads over the surface of the trunk around a small silk 
tube, in which the spider hides. D. subintermedius landed on the bark beside 
the web and flew quickly onto the edge of the web, with its wings vibrating. 
The movement on the web attracted the spider, which emerged. At this 
moment the wasp attacked the spider. 

I observed this behaviour on two occasions, but in neither case was the 
wasp successful, though it did seem to be a promising strategy for catching 
S. senoculata- Steve Garland, Bolton Museum, Art Gallery & Aquarium, 
Le Mans Crescent, Bolton, Lancashire BLl ISE. 



142 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Return of the White Admiral Lagoda Camilla L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) to 
north-west Kent 

The history of this butterfly in north-west Kent up until 1960 has been 
summarised by Chalmers-Hunt (1961, The butterflies and moths of Kent, 
Vol. 1), with later records, such as they are, noted by Plant (1987, The 
butterflies of the London Area, LNHS). Broadly speaking, this butterfly was 
quite common in Kent during the 18th century, but declined during the first 
half of the 19th century, becoming almost extinct around 1860. There are 
very few records after this date until the period 1925-1937 when it 
reappeared in many woodland areas, extending its range from the west, with 
the number of colonies peaking around 1945. 

In north-west Kent it was reported as "common" at Keston and West 
Wickham (presumably in Spring Park Woods). J.F. Owen (1950), writing in 
the pages of this journal on the butterflies of Shoreham and Eynsford, 
declared that the White Admiral ". . . occurred in all woods where 
honeysuckle abounds and appears to be steadily increasing . . .". This was a 
singularly unfortunate remark, as the butterfly declined markedly after this 
date! Very few sightings were made in the area over the next 30 years - 
Magpie Bottom in 1953, High Elms in 1961 and Spring Park Woods in 1965 
were probably vagrants as there was no evidence of the butterfly breeding, 
despite apparently suitable habitats. 

A town centre sighting in Bromley in 1982 was followed in 1983 by a 
single butterfly reported in Meenfield Woods, near Shoreham on 19 July, with 
further sightings - each of a single butterfly - in 1984 and 1985. In 1986 there 
was a sighting in Sparrow Wood, close to the centre of Orpington. A further 
White Admiral was noted in Sparrow Wood and in Petts Wood (a National 
Trust woodland also close to Orpington) in 1995. During 1996, there were 
numerous sightings of the White Admiral in Petts Wood, between 17 July and 
4 August by several observers including the National Trust Warden, David 
Clarke. At the same time several individuals were reported from High Elms 
woodland, some three miles from Petts Wood. 

The woodlands of north-west Kent merge with the suburban sprawl of 
south-east London and are frequented by many naturalists. Amateur 
botanists and ornithologists regularly supply butterfly records for these 
woods and it is highly unlikely that an insect such as Camilla would escape 
attention - on the contrary, when sightings are made they are soon drawn to 
the attention of the local recorders. Without confirmed records of larvae, 
breeding of the butterfly cannot be claimed, but the number and 
concentration of records in two woodlands does suggest that this is a 
possibility. 

Although the appearance of this butterfly is predominantly of local 
interest, it does raise interesting questions as to the source of the 
colonisation. Perhaps the butterfly has remained over the years at very low 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 143 

densities? If not, colonists must have faced a daunting journey towards the 
Orpington area - open farmland, suburban gardens and the M25 motorway 
having to be negotiated, with individual butterflies needing to fly many miles 
from the nearest known colonies. The contraction and spread of the range of 
Camilla has been well documented, and explanations for the phenomenon, at 
least on a macro scale, have included climatic shifts combined with changes 
in the patterns of woodland management. Interesting explanations of 
changes in range are given by Pollard (1979, Ecological entomology, 4: 61- 
74) and Dennis (1992, The ecology of butterflies in Britain), but whatever 
the answer, there is considerable pleasure in seeing such an attractive 
butterfly attempting to establish itself in one's local patch.- Paul Sokoloff, 
4 Steep Close, Green Street Green, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 

Recurrence of Callicera aurata Rossi (= aenea Fabr.) (Dip.: Syrphidae) 
in North Hampshire 

On 10 July 1996 a specimen of Callicera aurata Rossi flew to m.v. light at 
Wake's Cottage, Selbome, along with 302 moths of 94 species. During that 
part of July, significantly enough, the blossom on next-door's Tulip Tree 
Liriodendron tulipifera had been attracting large numbers of Diptera and 
Hymenoptera. When I reported the first Selbome occurrence in August 1995 
(Ent. Rec. 108: 48), I raised the problem that this rare insect was associated 
with pine, of which there is a local paucity, but recent published work notes 
that larvae have been found in a water-filled rot-hole in beech (Stubbs, 1996, 
British Hoverflies, Second Supplement). Mr Nigel Wyatt of the Natural 
History Museum kindly identified both the 1995 and 1996 specimens. 
- Alasdair Aston, Wake's Cottage, Selbome, Hampshire GU34 3JH. 

Editorial comment: As far as I am aware this is the first record of 
Callicera aurata attracted to a m.v. trap, and it is certainly one of the most 
interesting records of hoverflies attracted to m.v. light. C. aurata is certainly 
a scarce species, but since the recording scheme became active again in 1991 
it has become apparent that it is by no means as rare as was formerly 
believed. Records of adults suggest that it is by no means confined to 
woodland, with records from heathland and even a suburban garden; it 
therefore seems likely that a variety of trees support larvae, but rot holes in 
beech are almost certainly the main larval habitat. As far as I am aware, 
there is no association with pine, although a relative C. rufa is known 
principally from Caledonian pine forests. The recording scheme would 
welcome further records of hoverflies at m.v. light and I would be happy to 
identify material if accompanied by data comprising date of capture, place of 
capture and a four figure grid reference.- Roger Morris, 3 Lindale Mount, 
Wakefield, West Yorkshire WF2 OBH. 



144 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Collecting notes, 1996 

1996 would have been a poor season indeed had it not been for the arrival of 
migrant moths in June and my first encounter with Goat Moth Cossus cossus 
L. larvae later in the year. More about them later. Cold, clear nights 
prevented serious trapping until a trip to Cornwall at Easter produced a very 
white form of Early Grey Xylocampa areola Esp. and a range of other 
common, but very welcome, spring moths. 

On 7 June I arrived home in Somerset in warm, thundery weather to see 
what appeared to be a shower of snow over the paddock. The snowflakes 
proved to be Painted Ladies Cynthia cardui L. and Silver Y moths 
Autographa gamma L. which were flying around in dozens and continued to 
do so until dark. The trap was switched on at dusk and by 11.30pm had 
attracted the first Bordered Straw Heliothis peltigera D.&S. and numerous 
Rush YenQer Nomophila noctuella D.&S. By the following morning, the trap 
contained four Small Mottled Willows Spodoptera exigua Hb., a further 
three Bordered Straws and over 100 each of Silver Y and Rush Veneer. 

At about midday on 8 June I noticed numbers of Painted Ladies flying 
across the paddock. At 1.10pm I sat down in the warm sunshine to count the 
butterflies. All were heading 64° east-north-east and flying at a tangent to the 
stiff breeze from the north-west. In twenty minutes I counted 178 cardui 
travelling either singly or in "pods" of up to five individuals. The movement 
was over by 3.30pm when only a few "resident" cardui flew at random over 
the paddock. In a lifetime of entomological experience, the sight of all those 
butterflies determinedly flying past will stand out as a particularly vivid 
memory. 

Although I was unable to take full advantage of the 1996 migration the 
final score for my garden trap is set out below. 

Gem Orthonama obstipata F 3 

Pearly Underwing Peridroma saucia Hb Numerous 

Delicate Mythimna vitellina Hb 3 

White-speck M. unipuncta Haw 1 

Small Mottled Willow Spodoptera exigua Hb 27 

Bordered Straw Heliothis peltigera D.&S 19 

Scarce Bordered Straw H. armigera Hb 2 

Ni Moth Trichoplusia ni Hb 4 

I reared broods of Gem, Small Mottled Willow and Pearly Underwing. I 
hoped to "keep the Gem going" for a few generations but I lost the stock 
when the interior of the car overheated whilst in France. I also lost some 
interesting larvae of Callimorpha dominula L. and a toad. The new car has 
air conditioning! 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 145 

On 19 June, Richard Clinton and I set out for Scotland to look for 
montane birds and to trap moths on the hallowed ground around 
Newtonmore. The bird observation went well with plenty of Ptarmigan, 
Dunlin, Golden Plover and Dotterel but a biting north wind prevented moth 
trapping. The only moth of note was the Broad-bordered White Underwing 
Anarta melanopa Thunb. which flew in the cold sunny periods in the hills 
above Dalwhinnie (where I was the only person carrying a kite net for use 
in the snow and sleet!). We obtained eggs from a female melanopa and the 
larvae did well on sallow until left with a relative whilst RC went on 
holiday. 

On 1 1 July, I left for France for a holiday based near Cordes-sur-Ciel in 
Tarn. Once again cool, clear nights adversely affected the moth trapping 
around our gite, but the moths did turn up (and there were lots of them) 
proving interesting. Amongst the 1 1 species of Sphingid was a single male 
Marumba quercus D.&S., my first encounter with this species. I searched the 
local oaks in vain for larvae. Amongst the "non-British" species were 
noctuids such as Lamprosticta viridana Walch and Ephesia fulminea Sc. and 
geometrids including two pretty little waves Ptychopoda moniliata Schiff. 
and P. ostrinaria Hb. Scarce Dagger Acronicta auricoma D.&S. was 
common and I obtained ova from a couple of females. The larvae are 
polyphagous showing a marked preference for the leaves of blackthorn, 
plum and apple. They are easily reared. 

Moths with names more familiar to British collectors included the Striped 
Hawk Hyles lineata Esp., a white form of the Speckled Footman Coscinia 
cribraria arenaha Lempke, Purple Cloud Actinotia polyodon CL, Light 
Crimson Underwing Catocala promissa D.&S. and Alchymist Catephia 
alchymista D.&S. I recorded 43 species of butterfly on the farm. The only 
one which caused temporary field identification problems was a spotless ab. 
alconides Auriv. of the Large Blue Maculinea arion L. (apart from the 
Pale/Berger's Clouded Yellows, that is, and I've more-or-less given up 
trying to sort them out!). 

The trap also produced a female Goat Moth which, in turn, produced a 
huge number of eggs. By 29 July, all had hatched and I turned in panic to 
Friedrich (1986, Breeding Butterflies and Moths, Harley Books) who 
recommended that the larvae be reared in a box layered with wood shavings, 
brown bread (wholemeal) and slices of apple. This did not appear to me to 
be a reasonable substitute for the wood of oak or birch and I added the larvae 
with considerable scepticism before leaving for a week in Birmingham. On 
my return, my worst fears were confirmed. A smell of fermented apple lead 
to boxes of mould which had become home to every fruit fly in Somerset! 
Assuming the larvae to be dead, I left the boxes untouched and unlidded. A 
couple of days later, I sat at my desk to write a few letters. Lifting a pad, I 
discovered three guilty-looking Goat larvae attempting to eat my furniture. I 



146 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

rummaged in the boxes - not only had they survived, but they had tripled in 
size! 

From then on, the larvae never looked back. I continued with the apple, 
though the larvae showed a marked preference for fresh beetroot which 
stood up well to their ravages. Turnip was also reluctantly accepted. The 
larvae soon became too large to hide in excavations in the fruit. Instead, they 
spun silken tubes within the wood shavings from which they emerged to 
attack the apple. As I write (January 1997) 144 larvae are safely tucked-up 
asleep in loose silken cocoons. How I miss the unique combination of goat- 
smell and cider, the fruit flies, being bitten and then spat at by ungrateful, 
ugly wildlife! 

After all that, the 1996 season slowly petered out. A trip to Cornwall in 
late August produced more Small Mottled Willows and a few Clouded 
Yellows Colias croceus Geoffr. but trapping was spoiled by yet more cool, 
clear nights. A few more immigrant moths appeared at home in September 
and October, but numbers of resident moths were low. I added only the 
Deep-brown Ddcci Aporophyla lutulenta D.&S. to the garden list. 

Even a poor season leaves memories. Watching Minotaur beetles 
Typhaeus typhoeus L. on the Quantocks in February, those Painted Ladies in 
June, a Dotterel with chicks on a Scottish mountain, catching French 
butterflies in baking sunshine in July and catching Grey Bush-crickets 
Platycleis denticulata Panzer with my daughter on the sandhills overlooking 
the sea in August. And who could ever forget those Goat Moth larvae? 
- M.D. Bryan, "Extons", Taunton Road, Bishops Lydeard, Somerset 
TA4 SLR. 

Zygaenafilipendulae L. and Z. trifolii Esp. (Lep.: Zygaenidae): aberrant 
colonies 

Z. filipendulae is a species in which aberrations are usually rare. In May 
1974 this species and Z. purpuralis Briinn. were abundant on Fanore Strand, 
Co. Clare, Ireland, and it immediately became apparent that an extraordinary 
number of the former were of confluent forms in which the pairs of red spots 
tended to coalesce laterally, culminating in ab. cytisi Hb. I estimated that 
over 30% of the specimens exhibited this feature to some degree, the 
commonest expression of which was for the distal pair of spots to form a 
large blotch and the other pairs to show some enlargement of the individual 
spots laterally, but to remain separate by virtue of the black vein between 
them. Nevertheless, many of the specimens had all three pairs of spots 
conjoined laterally. Subsequent examination has revealed a tendency for the 
basal spots, and especially the costal one, to extend up the costa, frequently 
to reach the level of the median pair of spots, and in one of my ten 
specimens coalesces with it. Perhaps, surprisingly, there was no evidence of 
other expressions of enlargement of the spots longitudinally. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 147 

Between Fanore Strand and the coast road is a well-trampled grassy strip, 
and beyond the road at the foot of the hillside is a different habitat 
characterised by tall grass, and in May 1974 many of the grass stems were 
adorned with filipendulae cocoons, mostly with pupae or pupating larvae. 
Moths here were later in emerging, and all were normal as were the moths 
which emerged from collected cocoons. 

I returned to Fanore Strand in May 1975; filipendulae were much less in 
evidence and no confluent forms were observed; in May 1987 aU specimens 
seen were normal. However, I understand that Bernard Skinner has come 
across these aberrsLnt filipendulae at Fanore Strand in other years than 1974. 

A somewhat similar outburst of aberrant forms occurred in a small, 
isolated colony of Z. trifolii on the chalk escarpment at Wrotham Hill, Kent 
in 1952. The colony was revisited after the War, in 1949, 1950 and 1951. On 

7 June 1951 a specimen of ab. glycirrhizae Hb. (the apical spot and the 
median pair coalesced) was found, and another on 20 June, all other 
individuals seen being normal. In late May and early June 1952 the moths 
were much commoner than had been noted in previous years, and confluent 
specimens were as common, perhaps more so, than normal ones, and 
included many ab. minoides Selys (all spots joined to form an irregular 
blotch). Despite several visits being made in 1953, Z. trifolii was scarce and 
no aberrant forms could be found, and the only noteworthy specimen noted 
subsequently was an ab. minoides in 1960, after which time the locality was 
rarely visited; road making and scrub invasion has almost destroyed the 
original habitat. 

E.B. Ford {Butterflies, 1945 and Ecological Genetics, 1964) considers this 
phenomenon of the sudden appearance of aberrant forms in a colony, stating 
that it is invariably accompanied by a great increase in numbers of 
individuals, the aberrations disappearing with the colony returning to normal 
size. In the latter work in which a study of a fluctuating colony of Melitaea 
aurinia Rott. over a long period is described, the author states that it is a 
depressing fact that no other equally comprehensive observations of such 
events had been reported; nor have I seen reference subsequently, hence my 
recounting my limited observations on these two Zygaena colonies. 
- B.K. West, 36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent DA5 2HN. 

A successful hibernated Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis antiopa, West 
Sussex, April 1996? 

8 April 1996 was a fine spring day, with temperatures reaching 15°C for the 
first time in the year. It was the ideal day to visit Chiddingfold Forest on the 
SurreyAVest Sussex border to observe the early flights of the Brimstone 
Gonepteryx rhamni and the spring Nymphalids. I also knew of a patch of 
Wild Daffodils Narcissus pseudonarcissus, as an added incentive for my 
wife to accompany me on this occasion. 



148 ENTOMOLOGIST'S P^CORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Reaching the relevant Forest Enterprise wood at 10.30am we slowly made 
our way towards the daffodils, which was some distance from where the car 
was parked. Brimstones and Commas Polygonia c-album were already on 
the wing. Whilst walking along a now disused timber extraction road, which 
runs in an east-west direction, we came upon a group of sallows Salix sp. 
which had, interestingly, recently been pollarded. It was nearly half-past 
eleven and I was contemplating the impact of this form of sallow 
management on the Purple Emperor Apatura iris when suddenly a large fast- 
flying Nymphalid was upon us, from the north out of the lightly dappled 
shade of a group of leafless standard oaks Quercus sp. 

Fortunately we had just reached a newly-created south-facing clearing in 
full sun, so after coming through less hospitable terrain, this large 
Nymphalid was happy to stay, if only briefly, in the full warmth of the spring 
sunshine. It circled us two or three times, at low elevation, and this enabled 
us to identify it, whilst still on the wing, as a Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis 
antiopa. We were both gripped with excitement, wondering what this fine 
insect would do next. It was a truly lucky day, for lo and behold, it settled 
down beautifully on a bed of dried oak leaves on the bank of a roadside 
ditch, giving us a great opportunity to have a careful close-up view. 

My wife peered through her close-focus binoculars and I approached as 
close as as I dared to admire this fine insect as close quarters. It was 
noticeable that the borders were very white in appearance with very little 
dusting of black scales, as sometimes seen on freshly emerged specimens. 
This suggested it being of Scandinavian origin rather than one from further 
south in Europe, as the colouration of the border is supposedly connected 
with the latitude of the breeding area, specimens becoming progressively 
more yellow on their border as one travels south. 

Although far from knowledgeable on this British rarity I would think this is 
a more plausible explanation of examples found in Britain invariably having 
pale borders than that expounded by some authors of the borders having a 
scale defect causing its pale appearance and this being more prevalent in 
Scandinavian specimens. Such a scale defect presumably refers to a 
pathological variety, being a deformation of the scales. In some years these 
pathological varieties are frequent in such species as the Meadow Brown 
Maniola jurtina and less frequently in the Silver-washed FritiUary Argynnis 
paphia, but normally the pale areas only occur in patches, of various sizes. 

The Sussex Camberwell Beauty was in a very good condition for a post- 
hibernated specimen. There were no pieces missing from its wings, although 
certainly a few scales were detached from the areas of its deep maroon 
colour, giving the large veins on the discal cell in particular, a shiny scale- 
less appearance. 

It was time to stop admiring and get the camera ready! A basking 
Camberwell Beauty and my camera annoyingly packed away in my 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 149 

rucksack! Curse my inefficiency, but who would have thought of a 
successfully hibernated Camberwell Beauty amongst the wealth of 
Brimstones and Commas on the wing? A cursory rummage in the rucksack 
resulted in the inevitable, the Camberwell Beauty lifted off its bed of warm 
dry oak leaves and rising high in the air to continue its southward flight. This 
time its mode of flight was different from the fast erratic approach to the 
sunlit clearing. It gently glided, quickly gaining altitude amongst the tall 
trees of the mixed forest, almost as if searching, perhaps for an odorous sap 
run, or a tall flowering sallow, which at this time were at the peak of their 
flower production. 

And so it wafted away through the trees, never to be seen again, despite us 
spending some time in the area hoping to catch another glimpse. The 
magnificent insect was one of about fifty spring 1996 recorded sightings, 
following the unprecedented "invasion" of late summer 1995 when 
approximately three hundred and fifty were recorded. With only a 14% 
survival rate amongst the British Camberwell Beauty population that entered 
hibernation over the 1995-96 winter, chances of a successful spring paring 
and a British summer 1996 progeny were negligible. Successful hibernation 
was probably due to the fact that the 1995-96 winter was relatively severe (in 
comparison with recent British winters) and more comparable to the 
inevitably harsh Scandinavian winters; these benefit the Camberwell Beauty 
population by counteracting fatal fungal and bacterial infection, which 
would be prevalent in the mild damp winters more often than not 
experienced in the British Isles. 

This was not my wife's first experience of the Camberwell Beauty and I 
believe she must be almost unique in sighting both pre- and post-hibernated 
examples of this rare immigrant. On 8 August 1995 she spent almost an hour 
observing a fine fresh example (interestingly with notably more yellow 
borders) feeding avidly from a Buddleia flowering in the grounds of a 
hsopital in Musselburgh, East Lothian. I was away in the hills at the time, 
watching Scotch Argus Erebia aethiops not knowing that I would only have 
wait eight months before joining the exclusive ''antiopa club".- Ken 
WiLLMOTT, 3 Yarm Court Road, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 8NY. 

Editorial comment: Although not in any way denying the possibility that 
this specimen of the Camberwell Beauty may have successfully over- 
wintered in Britain, I would suggest that some caution is required in 
interpreting Ken Wilmott's observation; the addition of a question mark at 
the end of the title of his note was an editorial decision. Newly arrived 
immigrant Lepidoptera are typically in pristine condition and this, therefore, 
is no indication of their origin. There was a large number of Camberwell 
Beauty sightings in Holland during late March and early April 1996 and 
much discussion and disagreement concerning the origin of these; one or 
more of these continental specimens could easily have flown across to 



150 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

southern England and, indeed, an example was noted at Hoddesdon, 
Hertfordshire, on 26 March by Rev. T. Gladwin. The rather early date, whilst 
supporting the hibernation theory, is not a bar to the possibility of it being a 
primary immigrant. A wander through past literature reveals a good many 
sightings of Painted Lady Cynthia cardui and moths such as Agrotis ipsilon 
as early as February in some years - all individually held by observers to 
have hibernated but collectively indicating immigration rather more strongly. 
On the other hand, I am informed (Bernard Skinner, pers. comm.) that two 
separate individuals were discovered in garden sheds in the spring of 1996, 
providing rather more positive evidence of over-wintering in Britain.- Colin 
W. Plant. 

Pre-publication announcement - Butterflies of Essex 

The book Butterflies of Essex will be published in mid-1997, jointly by the 
Essex Wildlife Trust and Butterfly Conservation (Cambridge & Essex 
Branch). Written by myself and with a foreword by Gordon Benningfield, 
the book will present detailed accounts of and distribution maps for all 
species and will be illustrated by 40 full-colour photographs. A summary of 
the status of every species of moth in the county will also be provided by 
Brian Goodey, the County Lepidoptera Recorder. The book will have 
approximately 200 pages. Retail price after publication will be £22, but for 
copies reserved before the end of June the price falls to £15. If you wish to 
reserve a copy, please write to me. DO NOT SEND MONEY NOW - you 
will be invoiced when the book is delivered.- David Corke, Tye Green 
House, Wimbish, Saffron Walden, Essex CBIO 2XW. 

Request for information on Mazarine Blue Cyaniris semiargus Rett, 
specimens 

I am presently conducting research into the long-extinct colony of the 
Mazarine Blue butterfly Cyaniris semiargus Rott. (Lep.: Lycaenidae) at 
Epworth in Lincolnshire, originally announced by Samuel Hudson in 1860. 

If anyone possesses or knows of examples of the butterfly bearing the key 
words "Epworth", "Lincolnshire", "Lines." or "Hudson" on the data label I 
would be deeply grateful if they would contact me. 
- W.E. RiMMiNGTON, 8 Riverside Drive, Sprotborough, Doncaster DN5 7LE. 

Melanism in Bistort betularia L. (Lep.: Geometridae) 

The late Denis F. Owen was working on melanism in Biston betularia in a 
joint study with Bruce Grant in Williamsburg. Denis made several public 
appeals for records and there may be people with information who do not 
know where to send it. This information should now be sent to Dr Bruce Grant 
at the Department of Biology, P.O. Box 8795, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187- 
8795, USA.- John Owen, Eastbridge House, Dymchurch, Kent TN29 OHZ. 



TETRIX SUBULATA IN NORTH LANCASHIRE 1 5 1 

TETRIX SUBULATA L., SLENDER GROUND-HOPPER 
(ORTH.: TETRIGIDAE) IN NORTH LANCASHIRE, VC60 

Jennifer Newton 

94 Main Street, Hornby, Lancaster LA2 8JY. 

ON 26 APRIL 1987, one adult ground-hopper was found swimming in a 
ditch on Silverdale Moss, grid reference SD474774, a remnant of fen 
vegetation on the edge of a largely drained and reclaimed moss in North 
Lancashire, close to the border with Cumbria. Although the pronotum of the 
specimen barely reached the tips of the hind femora, the hindwings projected 
just beyond the pronotum. It was finally identified by Judith Marshall as the 
short-winged form bifasciata (Herbst) of Tetrix subulata (L.) and is now 
held at the British Museum (Natural History). 

Further searches turned up no more specimens of T. subulata, either here 
or on other mosses in the area (although T. undulata Sowerby is known from 
a number of sites nearby). In 1992 Hawes Water Moss, SD4776 about a 
kilometre to the south of Silverdale Moss, was acquired by English Nature 
as an extension to the Gait Barrows National Nature Reserve. This moss, 
lying to the south of Hawes Water tarn, comprised an area of very wet fen 
peat, largely under alder-willow carr Abius glutinosa and SaUx cinera with 
some reed-bed Phragmites australis. In the winter of 1994-95, a great deal 
of the alder and willow was coppiced. 

In 1995 a Malaise trap was set up on the western edge of the moss at 
SD474764, just east of the main dyke and a fringing alder woodland. The 
trap was in place from 1 3 April to mid-December, with samples removed on 
six occasions, 26 June, 10 July, 27 July, 16 August, 16 September and mid- 
December. The first three samples contained no Orthoptera, but on 16 
August there was one male and one female T. subulata, on 16 September 
there were 19 males and 15 females of T. subulata, one male T. undulata and 
two Tetrix nymphs, while in mid-December there were two male and one 
female T. subulata. All 39 adult T. subulata were of the bifasciata form, 
separable from T. undulata by the hindwings protruding just beyond the tip 
of the pronotum and the much less pronounced crest to the pronotum, which 
also lacks the dorsal arching of T. undulata. Without careful examination 
they could easily be passed over as T. undulata. Voucher specimens are held 
at Liverpool Museum (National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside) and 
Tullie House Museum, Carlisle. 

In 1996 no Orthoptera were found on visits to the site on 24 April and 6 
May. On 16 August, in addition to Chorthippus brunneus Thunberg, there 
were a number of Tetrix nymphs and one adult T. subulata. On 14 
September the first and only typical, long-winged specimen was found (a 
male), in addition to six f. bifasciata (three males and three females). All 
specimens were found in open areas where the ground was either moss- 



152 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

covered or bare peat by open water. In the mossy areas there were small 
scattered shoots of cyperus sedge Carex pseudocyperus and greater tussock- 
sedge C. paniculata, yellow flag Iris pseudacorus, common reed Phragmites 
australis and creeping bent Agrostis stolonifera. These open areas occupy a 
fairly small proportion of the whole, where bulky sedges, grasses and herbs 
such as watermint Mentha aquatica, gipsywort Lycopus europaeus, greater 
skullcap Scutellaria galericulata and meadow-sweet Filipendula ulmaria 
mostly form a closed canopy. Salix cinerea and Alnus glutinosa are 
regrowing vigorously. The long-term aim is, however, to manage the site for 
fen and reed-bed. 

It is interesting that so many Tetrix specimens were caught in a Malaise 
trap, and no C brunneus, although C. brunneus was plentiful at the site on 
16 August 1996. Haes {pers. comm.) has observed that in Cornwall T. 
subulata moves from very wet sites in early autumn to overwinter in drier 
sites. Adult C. brunneus presumably die on the site. 

These records of T. subulata from Silverdale and Hawes Water Mosses 
are the most northerly so far from Britain, although it has been found 
further north in Ireland. Last century it was known from Thome Moors, 
VC63, previously its most northerly known locality, and in 1983 it was 
found by the Dee near Overton, Clwyd, VC50 (Marshall and Haes, 1988). 
Since 1988 there have been records form VCs 54 (N. Lincolnshire, update 
to a pre- 1960 record), 56 (Nottinghamshire), and 57 (Derbyshire) (Haes, 
1991). 

Gait Burrows NNR stands out as an exceptional site for Orthoptera in the 
north of England, with six species. The limestone pavement and associated 
scrub and woodland carry Myrmeleotettix maculatus (Thunberg), 
Chorthippus brunneus, Omocestus viridulus (L.) and Tetrix undulata. 
Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt) and O. viridulus flourish in the black 
bog-rush Schoenus nigricans and small sedge mire at the edge of Hawes 
Water, while the two Tetrix species occur on Hawes Water Moss with C. 
brunneus. Close by, on Arnside Knott in Cumbria, the bush crickets 
Pholidoptera griseoaptera (De Geer) and Meconema thalassinum (De Geer) 
replace C parallelus and T. subulata to bring this site's total to six species 
and the total for grid square SD47 to eight. 

My thanks to Rob Petley- Jones and Neil Robinson who supplied me with 
the Orthoptera specimens from the Malaise trap. Thanks also to English 
Nature for special permission to visit Hawes Water Moss, a sensitive area of 
restricted access. 

References 

Marshall, J.A., Haes, E.C.M., 1988. Grasshoppers and allied Insects of Great Britain 

and Ireland. Colchester, Harley Books. 
Haes, E.C.M., 1991. Orthoptera Recording Scheme. Newsletter 18. Biological Records 

Centre, Huntingdon. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 153 

Brown Hairstreak Thecla betulae L. (Lep.: Lycaenidae) - unusual egg 
clusters, myths and misconceptions 

In all of the older books that I referred to concerning egg-laying by the 
Brown Hairstreak, it says that the eggs are laid singly in the angle formed by 
a thorn and the stem on Blackthorn Prunus spinosa. This myth is perpetuated 
in several of the more recent publications. Exceptions are the works of 
Jeremy Thomas. In Thomas & Lewington (1991, The Butterflies of Britain 
and Ireland) it states that it is not unusual to find two, three or even four 
eggs on the same twig (see illustration on p. 61 of that work where two eggs 
are shown fairly close together near a fork in a blackthorn stem) and by 
Heath, Pollard and Thomas (1984, Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland, 
Viking Press) who state that the eggs are laid in "ones and twos". Emmet 
and Heath (1989, The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Vol. 7, part 1. Harley Books) state that eggs are sometimes found in twos 
and threes. 

However, whilst searching for eggs of the Brown Hairstreak over the last 
two years, as part of the Butterflies for the New Millennium map, I have 
come across several occurrences of multiple eggs that enable the above 
statements to be amplified. 

More than one egg along the same twig, but not in contact, are common. 
Pairs of eggs in contact occur in the ratio of 1 in 20 (3 in 61 sightings) as 
recorded by myself and Maurice Edmonds over the last two years: 1.5m 
from the ground on an east-north-east-facing hedge (SS 779035) in the fork 
of a one-year-old offshoot on a three-year-old stem on 9 December 1996; on 
a west-south- west-facing hedge about 1.4m from the ground (SX 699883) on 
5 January 1997, and on a south-south-east-facing hedge on 11 January 1997 
(SS 781033). 

On 15 January 1996, just south of Upton Pyne, Devon, I came across a 
cluster of three eggs arranged in a tight equilateral triangle in the fork of a 
one-year old offshoot from a two-year old stem of Blackthorn (SX 907967), 
I had previously spent about 40 minutes searching a 200m length of an east- 
south-east facing hedge to no avail. The eggs were about 0.6m off the 
ground; there was one other egg close by, but then I stopped searching. 
Amongst other Devon recorders with whom I have discussed my findings, 
Maurice Edmonds found three eggs arranged as described above in 1994 and 
Graham Madge informs me that occasionally he has found three eggs 
together (see below). 

My best-ever find, however, was four eggs together on a west-south-west- 
facing hedge about 1.5m from the ground (SX 694879) on 5 January 1997. 
In this last example, three eggs were arranged in a straight line, all touching, 
with the fourth egg just above and separated from the median egg. In 1996, 
Graham Madge recorded a female laying an egg at the apex of an equilateral 
triangle of three eggs. Simon Mitchell has on one occasion found four eggs 



154 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

together and they were arranged in contact Hke a chain - one up, one down, 
one up, one down. The ultimate record, however, is that of Tony Hawtin 
who found five eggs within a diameter of L2cm, with a sixth egg L5cm 
away and another 4.5cm away on 1 1 November 1987. 

The question is, are these multiple occurrences the eggs of one butterfly, 
or of separate butterflies? Graham Madge observed that in the "four-egg 
situation" noted above, the female fluttered about and alighted briefly here 
and there, before crawling in behind some leaves near the base of the hedge 
and remained there for a few seconds. She then re-emerged, flew to the top 
of the hedge and disappeared. To him, it seemed as though the female 
deliberately selected the egg-laying spot as if she already knew that it was a 
highly favourable site. 

Further previously unrecorded observations on Brown Hairstreak egg 
laying include a single egg on a 1cm thick stem of blackthorn found by 
myself on 3 February 1997. Maurice Edmonds notes that occasionally eggs 
can be found under the blackthorn fork. Maurice has also found eggs laid on 
a honeysuckle stem entwined around blackthorn. 

North Devon is commonly stated (eg. Emmet and Heath, op. cit.) to be the 
stronghold of the Brown Hairstreak in Devon. This is certainly not true since 
at least the 1960s (see distribution map in Bristow, Mitchell and Bolton 
(1993, Devon Butterflies, Devon Books)), nor borne out by the recent 
recording for the Millennium Atlas. Searches by Kevin Bastow and Graham 
Madge in North Devon during the last two years were mostly unsuccessful. 
The major stronghold is mid-Devon - eggs have been recorded by Graham 
Madge and myself on every tetrad (well over 100 tetrads) within a radius of 
14km of my house (SS 7703). 

Finally, Stainton (1857, A Manual of British Butterflies and Moths, 
London) notes that larvae also feed on Birch Betula alba. I must admit that I 
have never looked for the eggs on birch and know no one who has seen the 
female egg laying on this tree. I assume that Stainton's record is erroneous. 
- C.R. Bristow, Davidsland, Copplestone, Devon EX 17 5NX. 

A precisely timed case of nocturnal migration by Aeshna cyanea (Miiller) 
(Odonata: Aeshnidae) 

Migrating dragonflies are not infrequently recorded at lighthouses and in 
m.v. light-traps used for trapping moths. However, there is very little 
information on the time of arrival of such individuals at light and thus the 
time of night that migration occurs. For this reason the following instance is 
of interest. 

During the night of 2-3 August 1996, 1 was running a mains-operated m.v. 
moth-trap in a garden on a housing estate in the village of Tarvin in 
Cheshire, VC58 (OS Grid reference SJ 4866). As numerous guests were 
staying overnight in the house and the night was fine and overcast, I pitched 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 1 55 

my tent on the lawn next to the moth-trap and settled down for the night. At 
precisely 03.40 hrs, I was suddenly awakened by a vigorous scraping and 
rustling sound coming from the vicinity of the light-trap some three metres 
away. Investigation revealed a fine female Southern Hawker Aeshna cyanea 
Miiller, 1764), rattling against the illuminated asbestos wall immediately 
behind the light-trap. As the trap was more than a mile from the nearest open 
water it is probable that this individual was pulled into the light while 
actively migrating at this early hour. However, none of the 64 species of 
moth in the trap next morning were particularly indicative that a long- 
distance migration of other insects was in progress. 

I am grateful to Betty Smith for identifying the species. - K.P. Bland, 35 
Charterhall Road, Edinburgh EH9 3HS. 



Lace wings in light traps: a request 

In my capacity as organiser of the British Isles Recording Scheme for 
Neuropteroidea, I am keen to examine samples of lacewings Neuroptera 
(= Planipennia), Raphidioptera and Megaloptera as well as scorpion flies 
(Mecoptera) taken by lepidopterists in their light traps. Data will be used, 
primarily, to strengthen the existing national distribution maps but will also 
be of value in current research into lace wing phenology. 

The familiar green lacewings (Chrysopidae) - which comprise several 
species not immediately separable by eye - are doubtless recognised by most 
people. Less familiar are the brown lacewings (Hemerobiidae) and the 
sponge flies (Sisyridae); many species in these two families are frequent 
visitors to light traps. The minute, white Coniopterygidae resemble white 
flies and are usually overlooked. If in doubt, send it to me; I shall not 
complain if it is not a lacewing. 

Lacewings may be picked up in fingers or forceps without causing damage 
or they may be collected in a pooter or into glass tubes. Samples should be 
killed in ethyl acetate or else placed in the freezer for a while. Ammonia is 
not recommended. Pinning is not necessary. The entire sample from one 
night should be placed in a paper triangle and left to dry (if enclosed in a box 
before they are dried the specimens will develop mould). Triangles may be 
sent to me as convenient, either on a regular basis or as a large batch at the 
end of the year, suitably packed to prevent damage in transit. Samples are 
needed from all areas, including domestic gardens, woodlands, wetlands, 
mountain regions, etc. Samples are especially needed from Scotland and 
Ireland and from the English counties of Devon, Somerset, Wiltshire, 
Berkshire, Northamptonshire and Westmorland. 

A list of species identified will be provided to each contributor in due 
course.- Colin W. Plant, 14 West Road, Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire 
CM23 3QP. 



156 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Unusual behaviour in Papilio ulysses L., 1758 (Lep.: Papilionidae) 

The process whereby butterflies obtain salts by probing damp sand or mud 
with their proboscis is well documented. In suitable places they may 
congregate in very large numbers, particularly (though not exclusively) in 
the tropics and the sight of a carpet of coloured wings shimmering in the 
sunshine on a mud bank is a memorable experience. Rotten meat, fish, urine 
and faeces are commonly used as bait to attract butterflies in the tropics and I 
well remember being involved (in an administrative capacity) in the filming 
of a "Wildlife on One" programme about Sulawesi some ten years ago. It 
was necessary to get a shot of butterflies "puddling" by the River Tumpah 
and this was effected by my urinating on the river bank an hour before 
filming was due! 

Large Papilio species frequently "puddle", usually sitting on the ground 
with wings closed and proboscis extended. Unusual behaviour which, 
despite long periods in the tropics, I have never seen before, was recently 
observed in the Solomon Islands. On 15 September 1996, 1 was in the bar of 
the Mendana hotel in Honiara, Guadalcanal, which is open to the sea. A 
fresh male Papilio ulysses was seen flying slowly over the sea, several 
metres from the shore-line and parallel to it. On close examination, it was 
seen to have its proboscis extended, with the tip in the water, apparently 
imbiding sea-water. Some fluctuation in water level was caused by small 
waves lapping the shore and the butterfly skilfully avoided being swamped 
by flying and hovering just above the water, always keeping its probiscis in 
the water. It was observe4 for five full minutes, before it flew away - 
possibly disturbed by the close attention paid to it by myself and colleagues. 

It is interesing that Charles Morris Woodford, a Naturalist who lived in 
the Solomon Islands and who became the first Resident Commissioner of the 
Territory in 1896, observed the attraction of salt water to ulysses and other 
swallowtails more than a century ago: 

"Perhaps you did not know that butterflies were fond of salt water. Yet 
look at that large black one with the swallowtails sitting on the wet 
sand only just clear of the water, and greedily imbiding the moisture 
through its long tongue. I pop the net carefully but quickly over him 
while he is still intent upon his draught. Black, did I say? Well, he 
looked black with his wings folded over his back, but the instant the 
net closed round him he showed his beautiful upperside of bright blue, 
with deep velvety black border. It is Papilio orsippus (the race on 
Guadalcanal is known as Papilio ulysses orsippus Godman & Salvin, 
1888), one of the most beautiful insects of the Malayo-Australian 
region. This addiction to salt water is not confined to this species only, 
as I frequently catch other butterflies, chiefly Papilios, in the same 
position. Indeed, such strong and swift-flying things as Papilio 
islander (Graphium sarpedon islander Godman & Salvin, 1888) and 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 157 

P. solon (Graphium codrus gabriellae Racheli, 1979) are more easily 

caught when thus intent upon a draught." 

Charles Woodford. 

A Naturalist among the Head-Hunters 1890, pp. 94-95. 
- John Tennent, 1 Middlewood Close, Fylingthorpe, Whitby, North 
Yorkshire Y022 4UD. 

An additional record of the Scots Pine Wood Gnat Mycetobia gemella 
Mamaev (Dip.: Mycetobiidae). 

Since the addition of Mycetobia gemella Mamaev to the British list 
(Hancock et al. 1996, Dipterists Digest 3: 32-35) another two examples have 
been reared from larvae, found in May 1996, under the bark of a dead pine 
tree in Glen Affric, Inverness-shire. The tree had been blown down about 
three years previously, judging from the fact that the bark was beginning to 
loosen while retaining a strong resinous odour in the moist yellowish layer 
between it and the sap wood. This record constitutes a third British site, the 
others being Rothiemurchus and Abemethy, both shghdy further south and 
east within Scotland. Abroad it is known from Norway, Denmark and 
European Russia. On the occasions on which this species has been reared it 
has always been from gymnosperms in a decayed condition and it is 
hypothesised that there is a possible obligatory biological link as yet 
undefined. Other Palaearctic members of the genus have been found under 
similar conditions but in association with deciduous (dicotyledonous) trees. 

The Anisopodidae have been split in recent years by the creation of other 
families of which Mycetobiidae is the only other one with Palaearctic 
representatives. The Anisopodidae sensu lato are often referred to 
generically in British literature as window gnats, but by the term wood gnats 
in North America. Without wishing to enter into arguments about the 
standardisation of vernacular names, or even the desirability of them in 
generally unfamiliar insects, the habit of being associated with human 
habitation is limited to but one or two of the numerous world wide species 
and hence is not very appropriate for the group as a whole. However, the use 
of an "English" name for M. gemella in this short note title is intended to be 
purely descriptive.- E. Geoffrey Hancock, Glasgow Museums, 
Kelvingrove, Glasgow G3 SAG, Scotland. 

Nemapogon clematella (Fabricius, 1781) (Lep.: Tineidae) larval habits 

In May 1995 I discovered evidence of lepidopterous larvae feeding on the 
fungus Diatiype disciformis growing on dead hazel Corylus avellanus wood. 
Affected hazels were characteristically old coppiced plants where some of 
the upright boughs had died and been infected with this fungus. D. 
disciformis produces small, hard, roundish, black pustules on the bark's 
surface. Phillips (1981, Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain and 



158 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Europe. Pan Books) states that it grows on dead branches of deciduous trees, 
usually beech Fagus sylvaticus. 

The larval workings took the form of silken galleries on the surface of the 
bark coated externally with fine white and black grains of frass. These 
galleries varied from one to ten centimetres in length and were three or four 
millimetres wide. They traversed the surface of the bark in an irregular 
manner, joining several of the characteristic fruiting bodies of the fungus in 
the process. The fungal material had been consumed by the larvae and 
further investigation showed that the surface of the bark beneath the galleries 
had also been eaten. Periodically, the larvae responsible would bore down 
into the wood and commence tunnelling one or two millimetres below the 
surface, this accounting for the abrupt termination of the surface galleries. 
Subsequently the larvae emerged again to feed on the fungal material, 
constructing further surface galleries in the process. 

I collected samples of these larval workings at the time of discovery and 
over the following fortnight. These were kept in Perspex boxes indoors and on 
2 June 1995 a male example of the tineid Nemapogon clematella emerged, 
followed by four more (males and females) up to 11 July that year. The pupal 
exuviae, which characteristically protrude from the surface of the feeding sites 
with most tineids, were seen projecting from the ends of some of the silken 
galleries and from the surface of the bark. Closer examination of these showed 
that pupation had occurred in slight silken spinnings (cocoons?) within the silk 
galleries or beneath the surface of the bark at the end of tunnels in the wood. 

In order to investigate this further I collected larval workings on D. 
disciformis-inf ectQd dead hazel in the spring of 1996 and kept these as 
before. Subsequently about a dozen examples of this moth emerged from 
early July until mid- August that year. I have succeeded with further rearings 
from fungal-infected, dead, coppiced hazel bordering a footpath at 
Medmenham, Buckinghamshire (VC24), from the Icknield Way near 
Thame, Oxfordshire (VC23), from Cothill Fen near Abingdon, Berkshire 
(VC22) and from Ashley Hill Forest at Knowl Hill, Berkshire where 
spinnings were found on a field meeting of the British Entomological and 
Natural History Society on 27 October 1996. In 1995 I showed the larval 
workings to Mr O'keeffe and he subsequently found examples at several 
sites in and around Kent and has succeeded in rearing the adults. 

Despite extensive rearings of tineids from other species of fungus over the 
past six years I have not obtained this moth from any other source but dead 
hazel infected with D. disciformis. I have also sampled dead beech infected 
with this fungus from several sites on the Chiltems, but these lacked surface 
signs of larval workings and failed to produce moths of this or any other 
species. Many of the fungal feeding Tineidae belonging to the genus 
Nemapogon are notoriously difficult to record as larvae (Pelham-Clinton 
1985, Tineidae. In: The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 159 

Volume 2. Harley Books) but the characteristic workings of this species on 
hazel, which are present all the year round, mean that the breeding range of 
this moth may now be ascertained with little difficulty .- I. Sims, 2 The 
Delph, Lower Barley, Reading, Berkshire RG6 SAN. 

Nemapogon ruricolella (Stainton 1849) (Lep.: Tineidae) in southern 
England 

I wish to record the occurrence of the above moth at several localities in 
southern England. In each case this has been the most abundant tineid I have 
reared from larvae collected in fungi: 

Hainault Forest, Chigwell Row, South Essex (VC18), December 1993 in Coholus 

versicolor, and December 1994 in Oxyporus populinus; Rufous Stone, New 

Forest, South Hampshire (VCll), March 1995 in C. versicolor, Medmenham, 

Buckinghamshire (VC24), March 1995 in C. versicolor, and March 1996 in 

Hymenochaete rubiginosa and Stereum hirsutum; Bear Wood, Wokingham, 

Berkshire (VC22) April 1995 in C. versicolor; Bramshill Plantation, Eversley, 

North Hampshire (VC12), April 1995 in Bjerkandera adjusta; Ashley Hill Forest, 

Knowl Hill, Berkshire, March 1996 in Herschioporus abietinus; Burnham 

Beeches, Slough, Berkshire, March 1996 in C. versicolor. 

The records from Berkshire appear to be the first since the Victoria County 

History when this moth was recorded from the Reading area. It was not 

mentioned from Essex by Emmet (1981, The smaller moths of Essex. Essex 

NaturaUst 6: 1-158) but by 1985 it had been recorded from VC18 (Pelham- 

Clinton, 1985, Tineidae. In: The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and 

Ireland, Volume 2). The latter work shows no record for this species from 

North Hampshire either although this situation may have changed since 

1985. It would appear that this moth has increased its distribution and 

abundance in recent times, as Mr D. O'keeffe informs me that it is very 

common in his area of West Kent and surrounding vice-counties. It is 

certainly one worth looking out for in coming seasons.- I. Sims, 2 The 

Delph, Lower Earley, Reading, Berkshire RG6 SAN. 

The Clouded Yellow Colias croceus Geoffrey (Lep.: Pieridae) in Devon 
during 1996 

There was a good invasion of Clouded Yellows in Devon in 1996, with a 
total of 240 adults recorded. There was an early sighting on 6 May 
(Exmouth, D.C.M. Radford), but the first invasion did not begin until 6 June 
at Ebford (D. Hopkins) and with 21 sightings scattered across the County 
during the rest of the month. Apart from a single observation on 1 8 July 
(Beesands, K. Goatly), the second immigration did not start until the end of 
July (26 July, Chefham, J. Butter), with numbers peaking in August. A few 
were seen during September and October, with the last one being seen on 13 
November (together with a Small Copper - the latest ever Devon record - 
and a Comma) at Knap Mill by Ken Goatly .-C.R. Bristow, Davidsland, 
Copplestone, Devon EX 17 5NX. 



160 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

BOOK REVIEWS 

A guide to moth traps and their use by Reg Fry and Paul Waring. 60 

pages, 8 monochrome plates, 21 text figures. Folded and stapled (like this 
journal) with a coloured wrapper. ISBN 900054 61 1. Amateur 
Entomologists' Society, 1996. Obtainable direct from the publisher at £5 
(UK) or £5.50 (overseas) at AES Publications, The Hawthorns, Prating 
Road, Great Bromley, Essex C07 7JN. Prices include postage and 
packaging. 

This is a low-priced yet high quality publication - just the combination one 
has come to expect from the equally successful combination of the Amateur 
Entomologists' Society and Cravitz Printing Company. Within its pages are 
the answers to a great many questions to which most of us have sought the 
answers from time to time. A brief history of light-trapping for Lepidoptera 
leads the work (the first use of light to deliberately attract and trap moths 
was in the year AD 60!), and is followed by a very simple guide to the 
measurement and properties of light. This is well written and makes things 
crystal clear, providing a useful background for the rest of the book. A short 
section on "The light trap response" summarises some of the theories on 
why moths are attracted to light, though it neither sets out to find nor does it 
achieve the solution to this phenomenon. Useful chapters follow on the 
different kinds of bulb and their varying degrees of attractiveness to moths, 
the different types of trap and their construction and trap operation. This 
latter section includes a very useful summary on the relative performance of 
the different kinds of light traps. 

This is not a major scientific treatise, but a very readable summary of 
knowledge on the subject, by two very well-known and highly experienced 
light-trappers, intended to replace AES Leaflet 33 on the same subject. It 
covers just about everything that the amateur Lepidopterist is likely to want 
to know about light trapping and I would venture to suggest that it is 
absolutely essential reading for anyone who is serious about catching moths 
both here in Britain and elsewhere in the world. 

Colin W. Plant 

The Hymenoptera edited by Ian Gauld and Barry Bolton. 332 pages, 148 
text figures, 8 coloured and 2 half-tone plates, hardbound. ISBN 19 858521 
7. Oxford University Press, 1996. £37.50. 

With more than six and a half thousand species, the Hymenoptera is by far 
the largest Order of insects in Britain and yet is one of the least studied. The 
Editors' Preface suggests that one reason for this may be that there has been 
no satisfactory and comprehensive introductory work to the group. This may 
or may not be the case (one may prefer to think that it is rather more to do 
with the lack of adequate identification keys) but either way there has indeed 



BOOK REVIEWS 161 



been a lack of such a work in the British literature until the publication of 
this present volume. 

The introductory chapter encompasses the diversity and natural history of 
the Hymenoptera as a whole and also examines the British fauna as a sample 
of that of the world. A chapter on biology makes fascinating reading; I found 
it particularly pleasing at last to be able to comprehend the differences 
between parasites, parasitoids, cleptoparasites and so on. A great many such 
technical words are clearly defined and explained and this is extremely 
helpful. However, these words tend to get lost in a sea of text and it would 
perhaps have improved the reference value of the book had these terms also 
been pulled together in a Glossary. Chapters follow on Economic importance 
of Hymenoptera, Collecting and studying, Structure, Classification and 
Evolution. The chapter on structure is particularly valuable in its provision 
of labelled drawings indicating the various body parts, wings cells, etc and 
their technical names - especially those peculiar to the Hymenoptera. Most 
of these names can be encountered in a variety of published identification 
keys without any explanation, so that the non-specialist is unable to proceed 
in a satisfactory manner; this book solves much of that problem. 

A brand new key to enable identification of British adult Hymenoptera to 
Superfamily follows. This is a marked improvement on earlier versions 
scattered across the literature; I have tested it and it works very well. The 
remainder of the book, which is the greater part, deals with all the British 
Hymenoptera groups, including easy to use keys to all families. A brief 
synopsis of each family is given and is accompanied by an excellent line- 
drawing of a representative species. 

This is a definitive guide to this interesting and neglected group of British 
insects and an encyclopaedic reference work on the subject. The ident- 
ification keys given are also of great relevance to the study of the group in 
Western Europe and much of the work is also of relevance in Canada and the 
USA. It will appeal mainly to those readers who are already in some degree 
interested in the group but is equally likely to prove an invaluable reference 
work for non-specialists and should certainly find a place on the shelves of 
university and other technical libraries. 

Colin W. Plant 

The thermal warriors: strategies of insect survival by Bernd Heinrich. 

222 pages, 8 coloured plates, numerous text figures. Hardbound. ISBN 674 
88340 3. Harvard University Press, 1996. £17.95. 

Modem day crawling arthropods are all "cold-blooded" - that is their bodies 
approximately assume the temperature of their surroundings. Not so all 
flying insects, we discover; there is a wide range of species capable of 
positive thermoregulation. Some species of hawk moth, for example, 
normally maintain a thoracic temperature at more or less 46°C over a wide 



162 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

range of ambient air temperatures, so that their flight muscles are kept in a 
state of constant readiness. 

The mechanisms of thermoregulation are almost as many and varied as 
insects themselves. Most readers will be familiar with moths "shivering" to 
warm up sufficiently for flight. This, we are told, increases the thoracic 
temperature to a level at which the flight muscles can operate at optimum 
level. But other insects employ different techniques to control their body 
temperatures. Desert dwelling carpenter bees Xylocopa species, for example, 
are large and usually hairless bees which lose heat through their heads and 
gain it by simply flying faster! Robber flies (Asilidae), bask in direct 
sunshine to enable rapid dashes to catch passing bees and other insects. 
Sawfly larvae (Symphyta), raise their rear ends off the substrate to increase 
heat loss through convection. These and a great many other fascinating facts 
are divulged to us in the pages of this interesting book. 

Thermoregulation has distinct advantages for insects which are able to 
perform it. Advantages for flight, for growth, for egg incubation in colonial 
nesting species and even in defence against predators - the coloured plates 
show a group of about 400 Apis cerana bees forming a tight ball around a 
predatory wasp Vespa mandarina to kill it by overheating before gradually 
releasing it again! 

Though this book contains a great deal of interesting information, its style 
is informal and it is by no means a work of reference. To glean all of the 
valuable tidbits contained in its pages requires reading it from cover to 
cover. To my mind, this is excellent bedtime reading for entomologists of all 
leanings. 

Colin W. Plant 

The Lepidoptera of Europe: a distributional checklist edited by Ole 
Karsholt & Josef Razowski. 380 pages, hardbound. ISBN 87-88757-01-3. 
Also provided on compact disk within the purchase price. Apollo Books, 
1996. 490 DKK (approximately £55) exclusive of postage. Available by post 
from Apollo Books, Kirkeby Sand 19, DK-5771 Stenstrup, Denmark. 
This review is in two parts. The printed book is reviewed in the usual 
manner and then, in a break with tradition, a separate reviewer discusses the 
compact disk version. 

1. The printed version 

The purpose of a scientific name is, in theory, to introduce a degree of 
uniformity to enable international understanding. There are many differences 
in names used for the same moth by entomologists in different countries. 
Such differences are also noted between entomologists of different 
generations in Britain - those brought up on "South" often using different 
names to younger generations who were raised on "Skinner" and/or 
"Bradley & Fletcher". For this reason, we should all welcome the production 



BOOKREVffiWS 163 



of a European checklist of Lepidoptera. As Europe gets metaphorically 
closer, as more and more continental moths find their way to Britain, and as 
more and more British entomologists "discover" Europe as a collecting 
ground, the need for the standardisation of names gets ever greater. The last 
European checklist was published as long ago as 1901! We would therefore 
expect a number of changes and should accept them as inevitable, no matter 
how alien they may seem at first glance, and we would expect to be able to 
relate these changes to our existing British checklists. The new European 
checklist succeeds admirably in the first of these expectations but, in this 
reviewer's opinion, falls down slightly on the second. 

Many of the changes in this new checklist may come as a considerable 
shock. Many familiar names have been reduced to synonymy; several 
species have been moved to other genera; more species have been moved to 
different families or subfamilies. Some subfamilies have been raised to 
family status and the entire sequence of families has been completely 
altered. To deal first with the sequence of families, the Hepialidae remain in 
their position at the front of the checklist, but the Zygaenidae, Sesiidae and 
Cossidae are moved to a position after most of the micros in front of the 
Tortricidae. Three families of micros - the Choreutidae, Schreckensteiniidae 
and Epermeniidae, are now to be found sandwiched between the Tortricidae 
and the Alucitidae, whilst the Lymantriidae, Nolidae (which now includes 
several former noctuids) and Arctiidae are placed in this order after the end 
of the Noctuidae. Families Lasiocampidae, Endromidae, Saturniidae and 
Sphingidae now precede the butterflies which are followed by the 
Drepanidae (of which the Thyatiridae is now a mere subfamily - the 
Thyatirinae) then the Geometridae. All this, we are assured, is in accordance 
with the most recent research, though I think we have all heard that one 
before! I have no doubt that these will not be the last changes to be made, in 
spite of the publisher's well-intentioned hopes that "the list will lead to 
uniformity in the systematics and nomenclature used in European 
lepidopterology ' ' . 

At the more detailed level of changes in genera and species, and the 
positions of these in the list, it is clearly impractical to review every item, so 
I shall look only at one family, the Noctuidae. This family has been 
completely revamped, an action long overdue. Picking on the subfamilies at 
the end of our existing British checklist, the Hypeninae are now split into the 
Herminiinae {Paracolax Hb., Macrochilo Hb, Herminia Latr., Pechipogo 
Hb. and Zanclognatha Lederer), the Strepsimaninae (Hypenodes Doubl. and 
Schrankia Hb.) and - separated from these by the Catocalinae and the 
Calpinae - the Hypeninae {Hypena Schrank together with Phytometra Haw., 
Rivula Guen. and Parascotia Hb. - moved here from the Ophiderinae, 
remaining members of which, except for Scoliopteryx Germar - moved to 
the Calpinae - are now returned to the Catocalinae). The genus Tristateles 



164 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.V.1997 

Tarns has moved to the Eustrotiinae, occupying a position somewhat later in 
the list. Similar changes are to be found throughout the rest of the Noctuidae. 
This is all very well, and doubtless taxonomically better than before, but a 
by-product of this much needed sorting of the chaos that has dominated 
European Lepidoptera taxonomy is still a degree of confusion. It took me 
quite a while to discover, for example, where Tristateles emortualis (D.& S.) 
had disappeared to (though perhaps I should have used the index) and I was 
on the point of wondering whether it had perhaps got missed out altogether 
when I eventually found it. Similarly, looking for Lithophane ornitopus 
(Hufn.) occupied a great deal of my time until I discovered that it had been 
removed from the Cuculliinae and placed in the Hadeninae. Colocasia 
coryli (L.) is elevated to the Pantheidae, positioned after the Noctuidae, and 
the genera Nycteola Hb., Bena Billberg, Pseudoips Hb. and Earias Hb. are 
no longer regarded as belonging here and are moved to the Nolidae, which 
now features at the end of the checklist between the Lymantriidae and the 
Arctiidae. 

Further confusion is likely to result from changes of both genera and 
specific epithets. By way of example, Hoplodrina alsines (Brahm) has not 
only been placed in the Hadeninae, along with other genera including 
Apamea, Xylena, Lithophane, Aporophyla and Xylocampa, but has also 
changed its name to H. octogenaria (Goeze). Occasional species (of which 
this is one) have a black spot placed against the left margin. This indicates 
that a note is given in the rear of the book. Looking at this we can find 
important synonyms. However, this is extremely inconvenient in daily usage 
and is also unidirectional - I can discover that species X was once called 
species Y but I can't open the book and find what species Y is now called. 
The index contains those synonyms mentioned in the notes but British 
readers will be hard pressed to find all of the ones they will need. Of course, 
the checklist already occupies 380 quite large pages and to introduce 
synonymies would doubtless have made it too large and too expensive. On 
the other hand, this is far from being a book for the amateur. It will be 
greatly popular with taxonomists, regardless of whether they agree or 
disagree with its contents, but it is unlikely to find a space on the bookshelf 
of every British Lepidopterist - particularly since only 800 copies are being 
printed. On this basis, and given that most purchasers are thus likely to be in 
a position to get someone else to pay for it, one wonders whether or not it 
may have been wise to produce a synonymic list in two volumes rather than 
what is effectively a "label list" in one. 

On a more positive note, the checklist does provide a very valuable 
summary of known European distribution data, the countries in which a 
species is recorded being indicated by letter codes, although this takes no 
account of status and includes extinct species (for example, Emmelia 
trabealis (Scop.) and others are shown as occurring in Britain in spite of 
being extinct here). 



BOOK REVIEWS 165 



Overall, this new checklist is to be much welcomed. In my opinion, the 
real problem lies in that it has been so long since a "whole Europe" list has 
been produced that the changes now introduced are enormous, if not 
overwhelming. Different countries, including Britain, have followed 
different tracks and produced their own, quite different, lists and it is 
therefore inevitable that any attempt to revise the full European list will 
introduce an inordinately large number of changes, many of which may not 
be immediately popular. I suspect that it will take a while before its contents 
find universal acceptance, and there will inevitably need to be some fine- 
tuning in places (the Pyralidae in particular), but in due course the majority 
are likely to do so. 

The ground is now laid. There is now a clear opportunity for a revised 
British checklist, taking into account the various changes made; until that 
takes place it is likely that far less confusion will result from sticking to the 
names we know and love. As far as this journal is concerned, it would be 
unwise to switch nomenclature in mid-volume and the earliest one might 
expect any changes here would be January 1988! 

Colin W. Plant 

2. The compact disk (CD) version 

Reviewing a book presented in a CD format requires a totally different 
technique - gone are the pleasures of flicking through the pages, gazing at 
sumptuous illustrations, and getting an overall "feel" for a book before 
systematically sampling the text. But we must all put behind us the Luddite 
tendency, and embrace this new technology. 

The disk was sampled through both Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 - both 
working perfectly well. There is a very brief "Readme" notepad supporting 
the disk, which is essentially a compilation of the datafiles as they appear in 
the book. This did not include the explanatory material found in the book, so 
a user separated from the printed text would be rather lost. There are no 
resident programmes for manipulating or editing the data - this must be done 
by the user (if competent to do so!). Three formats are used - Paradox 
(although working only with version 4, 4.5 or Paradox for Windows), Dbase 
in and a Text file in a comma-delineated form. Each version comes with its 
own set of notes. 

The files are very large, ranging from 1748Kb for the text only to 2757Kb 
for the Dbase version. This exceeds the capacity of Windows clipboards, so 
care must be taken when transferring data around your system. The reviewer 
looked only at the Dbase and text versions. Both worked well, but the Dbase 
version did not include a form for viewing the notes alongside the species. It 
was possible to manipulate the files to allow this, but required a fair degree 
of familiarity with Dbase working to achieve this. 

The Text files, with all the distribution data, were very messy when 
imported into a Word file. To make them manageable, some editing is 



166 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25 .v. 1997 

necessary, but the files were too large for Word 6.0 to handle (for example, 
using a search and replace command). The notes to the species were in a 
separate file, and from the Text version it was not possible to determine if a 
species or family had a note associated with it. Printing out the files is 
possible, but at 474 pages, it would be easier to buy the book! 

For the general user of a reference book, the CD will have little appeal. 
Where it does score is in being a list of species, with some associated data, 
that can be downloaded in part or whole and manipulated at will. Creating a 
database of species of Lepidoptera is a huge and complicated task - Apollo 
have done it for us in this disk, and as such it will be welcomed. What might 
not be welcomed is the large number of taxonomic changes in the list - but 
that is for another reviewer! 

Paul Sokoloff 

Name that insect. A guide to the insects of south-eastern Australia by 

T.R. New. 208 pages, paperback. Several line drawings. ISBN 19 553782 
3. Oxford Scientific Publications, 1997. £12.99. 

With over 100,000 species or forms of insect estimated to be present in 
Australia, and only about half of them formally described, it is inevitable 
that a book of this nature should direct its efforts to the understanding of the 
fauna of just one of the better studied regions of the country. This book 
presents a compact and highly usable visual guide to the insect groups and 
provides simple dichotomous keys for the identification of all the individual 
orders present in Australia. It makes no pretence at being a formal 
identification guide and makes frequent reference to the need to use proper 
identification keys. An excellent introductory chapter covers diversity, 
structure and classification of insects and is followed by one concerned with 
insect diversity in the region covered by the book. Recognition of each of the 
orders of insects occurring in Australia is covered next. Here, silhouettes of 
whole insects serve as an aid to recognition, whilst the text introduces the 
reader to the use of dichotomous keys and then proceeds to key out orders of 
insects and classes of allied animals - both adults and larvae. The remainder 
of the book is taken up with introductions to each major group. A section on 
collection and preservation follows, in which the critical importance of 
correct preparation of each group of insects to enable proper identification is 
emphasised, then a useful glossary and the index. 

The book serves its purpose of introducing south-eastern Australia's 
insects to the reader very well. Some of the taxonomy may appear strange to 
British readers but the content of the work is accurate, as indeed one might 
expect from this particular author, and should any British entomologists find 
themselves travelling "down under" in the future, this would make very 
useful reading during the flight. 

Colin W. Plant 



BOOK REVIEWS 167 



The butterflies and moths of Bedfordshire by V.W. Arnold, C.R.B. 
Baker, D.V. Manning and I.P. Woiwod. 416 pages plus 16 pages of colour 
plates, 30 black & white photographs, 80 line drawings and over 1300 
distribution maps. Hardbound, ISBN 950 6521 5 6. Published by the 
Bedfordshire Natural History Society, 9 Ullswater Road, Dunstable, 
Bedfordshire, LU5 6JP. £14.90 plus £3.70 postage & packaging (UK). 

The proven track-record of the authors, and the fact that the Foreword was 
written by Maitland Emmet, suggest immediately that this book is likely to 
combine a high degree of quality with the highest degree of accuracy. The 
reader will not be disappointed in either respect; this is one of the better-by- 
far county faunas to be produced. 

In a single, manageable volume, the team of authors provide up-to-date 
information on all the Lepidoptera within the county of Bedfordshire with 
almost all species of moth, including the micros, represented by a ten- 
kilometre square distribution map, and the better recorded butterflies mapped 
to tetrad level (2 Km x 2 Km squares). The species accounts are concise and 
to the point, summarising past and present status, adult flight periods and 
larval foodplants. The latter are cribbed from other (national) sources but 
this is acknowledged in the introduction and when a foodplant has been 
recorded in Bedfordshire it is flagged with a star. 

The introductory chapters of this book are particularly worth reading - 
even if only to look at the wonderful "then and now" black and white 
photographs of various sites in the county which the authors have revisited 
to repeat shots originally taken in the dim and distant past. Discussion on the 
major habitat types present in Bedfordshire is illustrated by accounts of 
selected sites and, as might perhaps be expected, Ian Woiwod presents an 
account of monitoring population change and diversity in butterflies and 
moths. The section on Bedfordshire lepidopterists is most interesting and 
includes current, as well as past, persons. Bringing up the rear of the book 
are tables of indices of butterfly abundance derived from the various 
butterfly monitoring transects, followed by indices to scientific names, 
English names, larval foodplants and places in the county. 

It is very difficult to fault this book, a few minor errors not the fault of the 
authors having already been detected and covered by the insertion of six 
sticky correction labels in the appropriate places. To most people, 
Bedfordshire is merely somewhere that one drives through on the Ml 
motorway; this excellent book will do much to alter that image and it is 
strongly recommended to all. 

CoUn W. Plant 



168 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.V.1997 



C,onQressof^^^^ 




Xlth European Congress of Lepidopterology 

B-2390 Malle Belgium 

22 - 26 March 1998 

FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Xlth European Congress of Lepidopterology will be 
organised by the Societas Europaea Lepidopterologica (SEL) in 
the "Provinciaal Vormingscentrum Malle", at about 25km NE 
Antwerpen, Belgium, from Sunday 22 to Thursday 26 March 
1998. 



Plenary sessions: 

Conservation biology 
Field reports and fauni sties 
Systematics and phylogeny 
Zoogeography and biodiversity 



Parallel sessions/Workshops 

Computer workshop 

Microlepidoptera 

Noctuidae 

Pest Control 

Tropical Lepidoptera 



Registration form and details: 

Dr. Ugo Dair Asta 

Royal Museum for Central Africa 

B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium) 

Tel: +32.2.769.5373 

Fax: +32.2.769.5695 

e-mail: selcon98@africamuseum.be 



Notes and observations - continued from back cover 

Zygaena filipendulae L. and Z. trifolii Esp. (Lep.: Zygaenidae): aberrant colonies. B.K. 

West 146 

A successful hibernated Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis antiopa, West Sussex, April 

1996? Ken Willmott 147 

Pre-publication announcement — Buttetflies of Essex. David Corke 150 

Request for information on Mazarine Blue Cyaniris semiargus Rott. specimens. W.E. 

Rimmington 150 

Melanism in Biston betularia L. (Lep.: Geometridae). John Owen 150 

Brown Hairstreak Thecla betulae L. (Lep.: Lycaenidae) - unusual egg clusters, myths 

and misconceptions. C.R. Bristow 153 

A precisely timed case of nocturnal migration by Aeshna cyanea (Muller) (Odonata: 

Aeshnidae). K.P. Bland 154 

Lacewings in light traps: a request. Colin W. Plant 155 

Unusual behaviour in Papilio ulysses L., 1758 (Lep.: Papilionidae). John Tennent 156 

An additional record of the Scots Pine Wood Gnat Mycetobia gemella Mamaev (Dip.: 

Mycetobiidae). E. Geojfrey Hancock 157 

Nemapogon clematella (Fabricius, 1781) (Lep.: Tineidae) larval habits. /. Sims 157 

Nemapogon ruricolella (Stainton, 1849) (Lep.: Tineidae) in southern England. /. Sims . . 159 
The Clouded Yellow Colias croceus Geoffroy (Lep.: Pieridae) in Devon during 1996. 

C.R. Bristow 159 

Xlth European Congress of Lepidopterology: first announcement 168 

Book Reviews 

A guide to moth traps and their use by Reg Fry & Paul Waring 160 

The Hymenoptera edited by Ian Gauld & Barry Bolton 160 

The thermal warriors: strategies of insect survival by Bemd Heinrich 161 

The Lepidoptera of Europe: a distributional checklist edited by Ole Karsholt & Josef 

Razowski 162 

Name that insect. A guide to the insects of south-eastern Australia by T.R. New 166 

The butterflies and moths of Bedfordshire by V.W. Arnold, C.R.B. Baker, D.V. 

Manning & LP. Woiwod 167 

Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 

Caters for articles on all orders of insects and terrestrial arthropods, specialising in the 

British fauna and groups other than Lepidoptera. 

Published March, July and November (4 months per issue) Annual subscription £30 ($65). 

Entomologist's Gazette 

An illustrated quarterly, devoted to Palaearctic entomology. It contains articles and notes on 
the biology, ecology, distribution, taxonomy and systematics of all orders of insects, with a 
bias towards Lepidoptera. Caters for both the professional and amateur entomologist. 
Published January, April, July and October. Annual subscription £27 ($60). 

Butterflies on British and Irish Offshore Islands 

by R.L.H. Dennis and T.G. Shreeve 
This new book provides an up-to-date synthesis of butterfly records for 219 of Britain's and 
Ireland's offshore islands, 144 pages complete with bibliography, checklist of species, 
figures and tables. Two appendices list rare immigrants and provide advice for making 
observations on the butterflies of islands. Price £16. Postage and packing £1 per copy. 

Payments by cheque or Giro Transfer to account no. 467 6912. 
For further details GEM PUBLISHING COMPANY 

please write to: Brightwood, Brightwell, 

Wallingford, Oxon OXIO OQD 




THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Timandra griseata Petersen (Lep.: Geometridae): voltinism readdressed. B.K. West . . . 105 
The exceptional abundance of the Large White Butterfly Pieris brassicae (L.) (Lep.: 

Pieridae) in Britain in 1992: relevant reports from Germany and the Netherlands. 

John F. Burton 109 

Ten new species of Corticarina Reitter (Col.: Latridiidae) from Central and South 

America. Colin Johnson 115 

The European Temnostoma species (Dip.: Syrphidae). M.C.D. Speight & J. -P. Sarthou . 127 
Trioza alacris Flor (Hemiptera), a gall-causing psyllid new to Ireland. J. P. O'Connor, 

P. Ashe & S. Wistow 135 

An expedition to England. Anon 139 

Tetrix subulata L., Slender Ground-hopper (Orth.: Tetrigidae) in North Lancashire, 

VC 60. Jennifer Newton 151 

Notes and observations 

Chloroclystis debiliata (Hb.) (Lep.: Geometridae): first recent record of Bilberry Pug in 

Scotland. Richard & Barbara Mearns 108 

Idaea vulpinaria atrosignaria (Lempke) (Lep.: Geometridae) new to North Hampshire. 

Alasdair Aston 108 

Flying power of Atlantoraphidia maculicollis Stephens (Raphidioptera: Raphidiidae). 

Alasdair Aston 113 

Yponomeuta rorella (Hb.) (Lep.: Yponomeutidae) new to Wales. A.M. Emmet 114 

Ladybirds (Col.: Coccinellidae) attracted to light. J. A. Owen 124 

Some records of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) attracted to mercury vapour light. Neville L. 

Birkett 125 

Halyzia sedecimguttata (L.) (Col.: Coccinellidae): a postscript. A. A. Allen 125 

Notes on the voltinism of Scythropia crataegella (L.) (Lep.: Yponomeutidae). H.E. 

Beaumont 126 

Ptilophora plumigera D.& S. (Lep.: Notodontidae) in the London area. B.K. West .... 132 
Acrobasis tumidana (D.& S.) (Lep.: Pyralidae): 1996 records from south-east Kent. S.P. 

Clancy 133 

Morophaga choragella ([Denis & Schiffermiiller, 1775]) (Lep.: Tineidae), its 

distribution and preferred diet in southern England. /. Sims 133 

Nemapogon variatella (Clemens, 1859) (Lep.: Tineidae in Berkshire. /. Sims 134 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - the lost sheep, Ghana, August 1996. Torben B. Larsen . 1 36 
Withdrawal of record of Cochylis pallidana Zell. (Lep.: Tortricidae) for North 

Hampshire. A.E. Aston 138 

Hunting behaviour of Dipogon subintermedius (Magretti) (Hym.: Pompilidae). Steve 

Garland 141 

Return of the White Admiral Ladoga Camilla L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) to north-west 

Kent. Paul Sokoloff 142 

Recurrence of Callicera aurata Rossi (= aenea Fabr.) (Dip.: Syrphidae in North 

Hampshire. Alasdair Aston 143 

Collecting notes, 1996. M.D. Bryan 144 

(Continued on inside back cover) 

Printed in England by 
Cravitz Printing Company Limited, 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM 14 4TA. Tel: 01277 224610 



PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY 



Entomologist's Record 




Journal of Variation 



Edited by 
C.W. PLANT, BScFRES. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, F.R.E.S. & A. SPALDING, F.R.E.S. 



July/August 1997 



ISSN 0013-3916 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Editor 

C.W. PLANT, B.Sc.,F.R.E.S. 

14 West Road, Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire CM23 3QP. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., F.L.S. & A. SPALDING, m.a., f.r.e.s. 

Editorial Panel 

AA. Allen, b.Sc, a.r.c.s. A.M. Emmet, m.b.e., t.d., f.r.e.s. 

N. L. Birkett, J.P., m.a., m.b., f.r.e.s. J.A. Owen, m.d., Ph.D., f.r.e.s. 

J.D. Bradley, Ph.D., f.r.e.s. C.J. Luckens, m.b., Ch.B., d.r.c.o.g. 

J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. B. Skinner 

P.J. Chandler, b.Sc, f.r.e.s. P.A. Sokoloff, m.Sc, cbioL, m.i.bioI., f.r.e.s. 

C.A. Collingwood, b.Sc, f.r.e.s. 

Registrar 

R.F. McCormick, f.r.e.s. 36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, Devon TQM 8NR 

Hon. Treasurer Official Photographer 

C.C. Penney, f.r.e.s. 109 Waveney Drive, David Wilson, Joyce House, Green Tye, 

Springfield, Chelmsford, Essex CMl 7QA Much Hadham, Hertfordshire SGIO 6JJ 

WHERE TO WRITE 

EDITOR: All material for publication and books for review. 

REGISTRAR: Changes of address. 

HON. TREASURER: Subscriptions and non-arrival of the Journal. 



Readers are respectfully advised that the publication of material in this journal does not 
imply that the views and opinions expressed therein are shared by the Editor, the Editorial 
Board or any party other than the named author or authors. 

Instructions for contributors 

This journal publishes original papers and short notes from both professionals and amateurs. All material is accepted on 
the understanding that it is not currently being offered to or considered by any other publications. AU papers submitted 
for pubUcation will be subject to peer review. Authors of papers likely to exceed 15 pages of this journal in length (over 
8,000 words), are asked to contact the Editor in advance of submission. Prospective authors of both papers and notes are 
asked to follow the guidelines given below, referring to this volume for examples if in any doubt. 

Manuscripts should be typed or neatly hand-written on one side of the paper only and must be double-spaced. Long 
papers that are not double-spaced and which require a lot of marking-up may be remmed to the author for re-typing. 
Pages should be numbered (by hand is adequate). Two copies of all papers are required; two copies of notes are highly 
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follow the SI system (Systeme International d'Unite), with imperial equivalents in brackets thereafter if required. 

When both common and scientific names of species appear together there should be no brackets or commas separating 
them. Genus names must appear in full when first cited (eg in the title). Authorities should be given for all genera, 
specific epithets and binomials at their first citation, correctly abbreviated where possible, and attention should be paid to 
the correct usage of brackets around such authorities. Titles of papers and notes containing species names should also 
include the Order and Family to which the species belongs in brackets to facilitate indexing. 

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Whilst all reasonable care is taken of manuscripts and other material neither the Editor nor his staff can accept 
responsibihty for any loss or damage. 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW OF 1 995 1 69 

MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW OF 1995 

David J.L. Agassiz', Robert J. Heckford^ and John R. LangmaidI 

' 23 St. James's Road, Gravesend, Kent DAI 1 OHF. 

- 67 Newnham Road, Plympton, Devon PL7 4 AW. 

-' 1 Dorrita Close, Southsea, Hants P04 GNY. 

READERS MAY FEEL that the list of publications in this review is more 
impressive than the list of records. Perhaps a succession of dry summers is 
not helpful to microlepidoptera or their study, or else in this computerised 
age perhaps it is easier and more appealing to produce publications and 
manage data than to undertake painstaking fieldwork. 

In 1995 there was only one species added to the British list, Eccopisa 
ejfractella Zeller, and that is perhaps more likely to be a casual introduction 
than a genuine addition to our fauna. Palm (1986) cites records from the 
Baltic States, Poland and Belgium in northern Europe although the species is 
better known much further south. Beyond that the authors, selecting records 
for mention independently, only agreed on three that were worthy of 
mention: the third British record of Sclerocona acutellus (Eversmann) adds 
to the mystery surrounding this species which has appeared not only more 
widespread and commonly in Europe but also in North America (D. Wagner, 
pers. comm.). Agonopterix cwvipunctosa (Haw.) recorded from Somerset is 
encouraging since it had not been seen in England for 30 years. Tachystola 
acroxantha (Meyr.), formerly assigned to the genus Parocystola, had been 
confined to the south-west, where it was slowly extending its range; its 
establishment in the Manchester area is remarkable, and must surely be due 
to transportation by mankind - but who moves large quantities of decaying 
leaves, sufficient for the founding of a local population? 

Rare species continue to be found. Eudarcia richardsoni (Wals.) 
rediscovered in its former Dorset localities is exciting, but we echo the 
words of the discoverers: surely it can be found somewhere else in the 
world? Records of Monochroa monachella (Hiibn.) and M. fenestratella 
(Heyd.) are of interest, and Phyllonorycter sagitella (Bjerk.) is normally at 
such a low density as seldom to be detected. 

New life history information is always welcome. The discovery by Ian 
Sims of the larval stage of Nemapogon clematella (Fabr.) should surely lead 
to better knowledge of the distribution of this attractive moth. Post- 
hibernation information about Agonopterix kuznetzovi Lvov, adds to the 
knowledge of this species group about which so much has been learned in 
recent years. 

Recently established species continue to be recorded and spread: 
Evergestis limbata (Linn.) continues to be recorded and in new localities 
must surely be resident, and Cochylis molliculana Zeller appears to be 
consolidating its foothold on the south coast. Blastobasis decolorella (WoU.) 



170 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

has now nearly completed its spread through Great Britain. Those species 
newly recorded from Scotland or Wales are emphasised in the systematic list 
and so there is no need for further mention of them here. 

Among the literature published since our last Review, the long awaited 
volume 3 of The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland will 
surely stimulate further interest, especially in the Coleophoridae whose 
larval descriptions and illustrations of the cases are outstanding. Plume 
moths come in for special attention with the publication of two books: the 
first volume of Microlepidoptera of Europe and volume 9 of Micro- 
lepidoptera Palaearctica; however discrepancies remain and any hope that 
the difficult groups would be sorted out are soon dashed. Arenberger in MP 
avoids treating the Platyptiliinae with the problems of Stenoptilia, and whilst 
there is some agreement about generic placements, the name-endings in 
Arenberger follow the current ICZN Code, whereas those in Gielis anticipate 
changes proposed for a new Code. What is more alarming is that the number 
of species in Europe, belonging to the groups treated by both, according to 
Gielis is 13 fewer than according to Arenberger! 

The Lepidoptera of Europe: a distributional checklist by Karsholt & 
Razowski was another publication of significance which has appeared. If we 
continue to focus on plumes, in the genus Stenoptilia there are included 61 
species whereas Gielis treats only 43 species. This merely demonstrates how 
much thorough research still needs to be done on this group, hopefully 
before there are any more publications. This gives us some problems in 
knowing what to include in the systematic list in this Review, and, for the 
present, species whose status is contentious are omitted, in order to avoid 
causing further confusion. Apart from this the list, although considered 
better in some parts than others, will help to stabilise names in cases where 
usage has been different between Britain and the Continent. 

Local lists contain much information, especially concerning distribution of 
species in Britain. The Butterflies and Moths of Lincolnshire - micromoths 
and species review to 1996 by Rex Johnson, and The Butterflies and Moths 
of Bedfordshire by Arnold, Baker, Manning and Woiwod are important new 
county lists which include micros. Additional records for Ireland compiled 
by Ken Bond were published in Irish Naturalists Journal IS (6): 193-236 
and a further list by A.M. Emmet & J.R. Langmaid is published in the 
Entomologist's Gazette 48 in press. A number of records from south Wales 
were published in this Journal 109: 31-39 by David Slade. As usual many 
records are included in the report of the Annual Exhibition of the British 
Entomological & Natural History Society published in Br. J. ent. Nat. Hist. 9: 
218-225. 

Records of Migrants in 1991 and 1992 have now been published in this 
journal and contain important micro records. 

The full systematic list includes records submitted by recorders and those 
which have been published in entomological journals. Many thanks to those 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW OF 1 995 171 

whose records are included, as always these are identified by their initials: 
D.J.L. Agassiz, M.V. Albertini, H.E. Beaumont, K.P. Bland, K.G.M. Bond, 
M.F.V. Corley, K.V. Cooper, A.M. Davis, B. Dickerson, A.M. Emmet, A.P. 
Foster, B. Goater, M.W. Harper, R.J. Heckford, S.H. Hind, J.R. Langmaid, 
R. Leverton, D.V. Manning, D. O'Keeffe, S.M. Palmer, M.S. Parsons, J. 
Robbins (Somerset), A.N.B. Simpson, B.F. Skinner, D.J. Slade, R.A. Softly, 
P.H. Sterling, M.J. Sterling & M.R. Young. PPRS denotes Pyralid & Plume 
Recording Scheme, information supplied by Tony Davis. 

Journal titles are abbreviated for economy of space: Ent.Gaz. for the 
Entomologist's Gazette, Ent. Rec. for the Entomologist's Record and Journal 
of Variation, and BJENH for the British Journal of Entomology and Natural 
Histoiy. 

Again an attempt has been made to identify new vice-county records, 
these are bold and underlined . The maps held by A.M. Emmet have been 
used for this purpose and we are grateful to Maitland Emmet for providing 
this information. 

The sequence of records follows the numbers of Bradley & Fletcher's 
checklists, but where new names or combinations have been published these 
are followed. In one case in the Pyralidae it was necessary to change the 
order so as to keep together two species in the same genus. Family names are 
not taken from a consistent source, but it is hoped by next year a more up-to- 
date list may be available. 

Copies of the full list of records submitted are available from David 
Agassiz. 

SYSTEMATIC LIST 

MICROPTERIGIDAE 

3 Micropterix aureatella (Scop.) - Selkirk (79) one 12.vi.95 - AME & JRL 

ERIOCRANIIDAE 

6 Dyseriocrania subpurpurella (Haw.) - Selkirk (79) many tenanted 

mines on Quercus 12.vi.95 - AME & JRL; near Craigellechie (94) 

mines xi.95 - MRY 
8 Eriocrania unimaculella (Zett.) - Gait Barrows NNR (60) tenanted 

mines on Betula - AME 
11 E. haworthi Bradl. - Warton Crags NR (60) tenanted mines on Betula 

23.V.95-AME 
13 E. semipurpurella (Steph.) - Warton Crags NR (60) tenanted & vacated 

mines on Betula 23. v. 95 - AME 

NEPTICULIDAE 

23 Ectoedemia argyropeza (Zell.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted 
mines on Populus tremula 4-5. xi.95 - AME 

24 E. turbidella (Zell.) - Castle Ashby (32) mines 15. xi.95, moths bred - 
DVM 



172 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

25 E. intimella (Zell.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted mine on Salix 

cinerea 4-5.xi.95 - AME 
28 E. angulifasciella (Staint.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54 ) tenanted mines 

very common on Rosa spp 4-5.xi.95 - AME 
30 E. arcuatella (H.-S.) - Wolfscastle (45) a few vacated mines on 

Fragaria vesca 13.ix.95 - AME & JRL 
35 E. minimella (Zett.) - Whixall Moss (40) one vacated mine on Betula 

pubescens 23.ix.95 - AME & JRL 

37 E. albifasciella (Hein.) - Nisbet (80) one 14.vi.95 - AME & JRL; near 
Craigellechie (94) mines xi.95 - MRY 

38 E. subbimaculella (Haw.) - Haighton (60) vacated mine on Quercus 
8.xi.95-SMP 

39 E. heringi (Toll) - Wolfscastle (45) a few tenanted mines on Quercus 
13.ix.95- AME & JRL 

41 E. atrifrontella (Staint.) - Bagley Wood (22) 2.viii.95 - MFVC, BJENH 

9:219 
41a E. amani Svensson - Waresley Wood (31) 10.vii.95 - BD, Ent. Rec. 

108: 95 
46 Thfurcula immundella (Zell.) - Mount Desert ( H4 ) vacated mines in 

Cytisus scoparius, l.v.95 - KGMB 
53 Stigmella splendidissimella (H.-S.) - Wolfscastle (45) a few vacated 

mines on Rubus fruticosus 13.ix.95 - AME & JRL; Buckingham Thick 

Copse (32) 17.xi.95 - DVM 
55 S. aeneofasciella (H.- S.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) two tenanted 

mines on Agrimonia 5. xi.95 - AME 
58 S. ulmariae (Wocke) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) vacated mines on 

Filipendula ulmaria 5. xi.95 - AME 

64 S. continuella (Staint.) - Whixall Moss (40) many vacated mines on 
Betula pubescens 23.ix.95; Wolfscastle (45) one vacated mine on Betula 
13.ix.95 — AME & JRL 

65 S. speciosa (Frey) - Whitland (44) one vacated mine on Acer 
pseudoplatanus 12.ix.95 - AME & JRL 

66 S. sorbi (Staint.) - Rincrew Wood ( H6 ) mines on Sorbus aucuparia 
3.vi.l995; Kilcumber Bridge (H18) mines with dead larvae on Sorbus 
aucuparia 4.x. 95 - KGMB 

67 S. plagicolella (Staint.) - near Dufftown (94) mines xi.95 - MRY; 
Ballybeg quarry ( H5 ) mine on Prunus domestica 16.viii.95 - KGMB 

74 S. assimilella (Zell.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) vacated mines on 
Populus tremula 4-5. xi.95 - AME ; Martinshaw Wood (55) mine on 
Populus tremula 22.X.95 - J.R. McPhail per AME 

75 S. floslactella (Haw.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) vacated mines on 
Coiylus 4-5. xi.95 - AME 

78 S. incognitella (H.-S.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted and 

vacated mines on Malus 5. xi.95 - AME 
80 S. ulmivora (Haw.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted and vacated 

mines on Ulmus 4. xi.95 - AME 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW OF 1 995 173 

83 S. atricapitella (Haw.) - Anglezarke (59) vacated mine on Quercus 
26.X.95; Red Scar Wood (60) vacated mine on Quercus 24.X.95 - SMP 

84 S. ruficapitella (Haw.) - Wolfscastle (45) a few vacated mines on 
Quercus 13.ix.95 - AME & JRL; Brock Bottom (60) tenanted mine on 
Quercus 22.vii.95 - SMP; Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted mines 
on Quercus 4-5.xi.95 - AME 

86 S. roborella (Johan.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted mines on 
Quercus 4-5.xi.95 - AME; Martinshaw Wood (55) mine on Quercus 
22.X.95 - J.R. McPhail per AME 

90 S. tiliae (Frey) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) vacated mines on Tilia 4- 
5.xi.95-AME 

103 S. nylandriella (Tengst.) - Rincrew Wood (H6) mines on Sorbus 
aucuparia 3.viii.95; Kilcumber Bridge (H18) vacated mines 4.x. 95 - 
KGMB 

104 S. magdalenae (Klim.) - Whixall Moss (40) one vacated mine on Sorbus 
aucuparia 23.ix.95 - AME & JRL; Rincrew Wood (H6) mines on 
Sorbus aucuparia 3.viii.95 - KGMB 

108 S. crataegella (Klim.) - Wolfscastle (45) one vacated mine on 
Crataegus laevigata 13.ix.95 - AME & JRL 

111 S. microtheriella (Staint.) - near Dufftown (94) mines xi.95 - MRY 

112 S. luteella (Staint.) - Wolfscastle (45) several vacated mines on Betula 
13.ix.95- AME & JRL 

113 S. sakhalinella Puplesis - Winmarleigh Moss (60) vacated mine on Betula 
pendula 20.X.95 - SMP; Hazelborough Wood (32) 1 l.x.95 - DVM 

115 S. alnetella (Staint.) - Cross Hands (44) one vacated mine on Alnus 
glutinosa 12.ix.95; Wolfscastle (45) two vacated mines 13.ix.95 - AME 
& JRL; Farthinghoe Reserve (32) 2.xi.95 - DVM; near Dufftown (94) 
mines xi.95 - MRY; Messingham NR (54) vacated mines on Alnus xi.95 
- R. Johnson per AME 

116 S. lapponica (Wocke) - Wolfscastle (45) a few vacated mines on Betula 
13.ix.95- AME & JRL 

117 S. confusella (Wood) - Wolfscastle (45) one vacated mine on Betula 
13.ix.95- AME & JRL 

TISCHERIIDAE 

123 Tischeria ekebladella (Bjerk.) - near Craigellechie (94) mines xi.95 - 

MRY 
127 Emmetia angusticolella (Dup.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted 

mines common on Rosa 4-5. xi.95 - AME 

INCURVARIIDAE 

129 Incurvaria pectinea Haw - Selkirk (79) several tenanted mines on 
Betula 12.vi.95 - AME & JRL 

PRODOXIDAE 

135 Lampronia luzella (Hiibn.) - Launde Big Wood (55) 4.vi.95 - A.P. 
Russel per AME 



174 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

136 L. corticella (Linn.) = rubiella (Bjerk.) - Selkirk (79) many 12.vi.95 - 

AME & JRL 
138 L.fuscatella (Tengst.) - Higher Hyde NR (9) at m.v. light 15.vi.95 - PHS 

ADELIDAE 

142 Nematopogon pilella ([D.&S.]) - Longridge Fell (60) three 7.vii.95 - 

SMP 
145 Nemophora minimella ([D.&S.]) - Redditch (37) twenty swept 21.vii.95 

-ANBS 

HELIOZELIDAE 

156 Heliozela resplendella (Staint.) - Wolfscastle (45) several vacated mines 
on Alnus glutinosa 13.ix.95 - AME & JRL 

157 H. hammoniella (Sorh.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) vacated mines on 
Betula, 5.xi.95 - AME 

PSYCHIDAE 

175 Narycia monilifera (Geoffr.) - Nisbet (80) one case on tree trunk 
14.vi.95- AME & JRL 

TINEIDAE 

196 Morophaga choragella ([D.&S.]) - Berks (22) records - K.N. A. 

Alexander, 5/£A^// 9: 165-6 
202 Eudarcia richardsoni (Wals.) - Punwell Cove (9) larval cases 28.ii.95- 

MSP & PHS et al.\ Dorset (9) sites, history and ecology - MSP & PHS, 

Ent. Gaz. 46: 227-230 

219 Nemapogon ruricolella (Staint.) - Hatfield Forest (19) a few bred from 
bracket fungus on fallen tree 5.iv.95 - AME & JRL 

220 N. clematella (Fabr.) - Medmenham, Marlow (24) larval workings in the 
fungus Diatj-ype disciformis, moths bred - LM. Simms, antea: 157 

227 Monopis laevigella ([D.&S.]) - Comhill (94) vii.95 - MRY & RL 

232 M. monachella (Hubn.) - Sandwich (15) 12.viii.95 - DJLA 

233 M . fenestratella (Heyd.) - Richmond Park (17) one at m.v. light 20.vi.95 
- MSP, £/?r. Gflz. 47: 19-20 

OCHSENHEIMERIIDAE 

251 Ochsenheimeria mediopectinellus (Haw.) - Hoar Oak Water (4) 
29.vii.95 - JR 

252 O. urella F. v. R. - Hoar Oak Water (4) 29.vii.95; Weir Water, Exmoor 
(5) 19.vii.95-JR 

253 O. vacculella F. v. R. - Great Coxwell (22) 22.viii.95 - APE, BJENH 9: 
220 

BUCCULATRICIDAE 

272 Bucculatrix cidarella Zell. - Wolfscastle (45) a few mines and moulting 
cocoons on Alnus glutinosa 13.ix.95 - AME & JRL 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW OF 1 995 175 

273 B. thoracella (Thunb.) - Hampstead (21) 6-8.v. and 19.vii. - l.viii.95 
indicating two generations - RAS; Chambers Farm Wood (54) vacated 
mines, moulting cocoons and larval feeding on Tilia 4-5.xi.95 - AME 

274 B. ulmella Zell. - Lord's Lot Wood, near Borwick (60) vacated mines, 
moulting cocoons and larval feeding on Quercus 19.x. 95 - AME 

GRACILLARIIDAE 

281 Caloptilia populetorum (Zell.) - Famborough (12) one at light 31.iii.95 

- R.W. Parfitt, genitalia det. JRL; near Dolgellau (48) viii.95 - MRY 

282 C. elongella (Linn.) - Messingham NR (54) larval feeding on Alnus 
xi.95 - R. Johnson per AME; Ross Island (H2) larva on Alnus glutinosa 
17.V.95 - KGMB 

283 C. betulicola (Hering) - Wolfscastle (45) a few mines and spinnings on 
Betula 12.vi.95; Selkirk (79) several tenanted mines and one spinning on 
Betula 12.vi.95 - AME & JRL 

284 C. rufipennella (Hiibn.) - Uffington (40) a few vacated mines and 
spinnings on Acer pseudoplatanus 23.ix.95 - AME & JRL; Famborough 
(12) one 16.iv.95 - R.W. Parfitt per JRL 

285 C. azaleella (Brants) - Bumham (24) 6.V.95 - MVA 

286 C. alchimiella (Scop.) - Waterhall Plantation (41) at m.v. light 26.vii.95 
-DJS 

287 C. robustella Jackh - Chambers Farm Wood (54) old larval feeding on 
Quercus 4-5. xi.95 - AME 

292 C. leucapenella (Steph.) - Glen Artney (88) 16.ix.95 - KPB 

296 Calybites phasianipennella (Hiibn.) - West Melton (63) 28.vi.95 - HEB 

297 C. auroguttella (Steph.) - Kenfig NNR (41) 29.vii.95 - DJS 

301 Parornix betulae (Staint.) - Wolfscastle (45) one mine and spinning on 

Betula 13.ix.95 - AME & JRL 
305 P. scoticella (Staint.) - Anglezarke (59) mines & folds on Sorbus 

aucuparia 26.x. 95 - SMP 
316 Phyllonorycter roboris (Zell.) - Wolfscastle (45) one mine on Quercus 

13.ix.95- AME & JRL 
319 P. saportella (Dup.) - East Wretham (28) one beaten from Quercus 

9.vi.95 - AME & JRL; Kenfig NNR (41) 10.vii.95 - DJS, Ent. Rec. 109: 

31 
321 P. messanieUa (Zell.) - Lightfoot Green (60) 4.X.95 at m.v. fight - SMP 
327 P. cydoniella ([D.&S.]) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted mines on 

Malus 5. xi.95, moths bred - AME 
330 P. cerasicolella (H.-S.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted mines on 

Prunus avium 4. xi.95 - AME 
332a P. leucographella (Zell.) - Leicester, Loughborough & East Goscote 

(55) mines on Pyracantha - A.P. Russell per AME 
337 P. hilarella (Zett.) - near Craigellechie (94) mines xi.95 - MRY 
343 P. esperella (Goeze) = quinnata (Geoffr.) - Porlock (5) mines on 

Carpinus 28.x. 95 - JR; Dumplington (59) mines on Carpinus 22,viii.95 

- L.W. Hardwick per SHH 



176 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

344 P. strigulatella (Zell.) - Warwicks (38) several localities 1992-95 - J. 

Robbins, Ent. Rec. 108: 305 
349 P. nigrescentella (Logan) - Abbots Kerswell (3) mines on Trifolium 

repens - B.P. Kenwood, BJENH 9: 220 

351 P. lautella (Zell.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted mines on 
Quercus 4— 5.xi.95, moths bred - AME 

352 P. schreberella (Fabr.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted mines on 
Ulmus A-5.xi.95 - AME 

356 P. tristrigella (Haw.) - Wolfscastle (45) several mines on Ulmus 
procera 12.ix.95 - AME & JRL; Lord's Lot Wood, near Borwick (60) 
tenanted mines on Ulmus xi.95, moths bred - AME 

362 P acerifoliella (Zell.) - Gait Burrows NR (60) tenanted mines on Acer 
campestre 18.X.95 -AME 

363 P. platanoidella (Joan.) - Washingborough (54) tenanted mines on Acer 
platanoides 5.xi.95 - AME 

364 P . geniculella (Rag.) - Wolfscastle (45) several mines on Acer 
pseudoplatanus 12.ix.95 - AME & JRL 

366 P. sagitella (Bjerk.) - Pershore (37) mines 3.ix.95, two moths bred - 

ANBS, Ent. Rec. 
368 Phyllocnistis unipunctella (Steph.) - Lightfoot Green (60) 10.ix.95 at 

m.v. light - SMP; Thorpe Hall, Rudson (61) 29.viii.95, mines on 

Populus, moths bred - HEB; Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted mines 

on Populus 4-5. xi.95 - AME 

CHOREUTIDAE 

390 Choreutis diana (Hubn.) - Glen Affric (96) several 16.viii.95 - KPB, 
BJENH 9:2\% 

YPONOMEUTIDAE 

401 Argyresthia laevigatella (Heyd.) - Old Pond Close (32) 4.vii.95 - DVM 

410 A. brockeella (Hiibn.) - Comhill (94) vii.95 - MRY & RL 

426 Yponomeuta malinellus Zell. - Shambrook (30) 19.vii.96 - DVM 

428 Y. rorrella (Hubn.) - Kenfig (41) vii.95 - DLS. New to Wales, antea: 34 

437 Swammerdamia caesiella (Hiibn.) - Winmarleigh Moss (60) 3. vii.95 - SMP 

442 Cedestis gysseleniella Zell. - Great Staughton (31) 28.vii.95 - BD 

443 C. subfasciella (Steph.) - Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted mines on 
Pinus sylvestris 4.xi.95 - AME 

448 Atemelia torquatella (Zell.) - South Shian (98) viii.95 - MRY 

450 Scythropia crataegella (Linn.) - two Yorks localities (63) l.ix.95, 

possibly a second generation - HEB 
453 Ypsolopha dentella (Fabr.) - Pennerley (40) 26.vi.94 - D. Poynton, Ent. 

Rec. 108: 25 

455 Y. scabrella (Linn.) - Pennerley (40) 26.vi.94 - D.Poynton, Ent. Rec. 
108: 25 

456 Y. horridella (Treits.) - Luffenham Heath (55) 1 1. viii.95 - A.P. Russell 
per AME 

459 Y. sylvella (Linn.) - Little Budworth Common (58) 8.X.94 - per SH 



MICROLEPIDOPTER A REVIEW OF 1 995 1 77 

462 Y. sequella (Clerck) - Pennerley (40) 26.vi.94 - D. Poynton, Ent. Rec. 

108: 25 
465 Plutella porrectella (Linn.) - Pennerley (40) larvae, moths bred 24.V.94 

- D. Poynton, Ent. Rec. 108: 25 
470 Orthotelia sparganella (Thunb.) - Kenfig NNR (41) 10.vii.95; Waterhall 

Plantation (41) 26.vii.95; Michealston Marsh (41) 28.vii.95 - DJS 
476 Acrolepia autumnitella Curt. - larva feeding on tomato {Lycopersicon 

esculentum) — JRL, Ent. Gaz. 47: 8 

EPERMENIIDAE 

479 Cataplectica farreni Wals. - Heracleum sphondylium confirmed as a 

foodplant, MRY, Ent. Rec. 109: 57 
483 Epermenia chaerophyllella (Goeze) - Lightfoot Green (60) 11.x. 95 - 

SMP 

COLEOPHORIDAE 

490 Coleophora lutipennella (Zell.) - Gait Burrows NR (60 ) larval cases on 
Quercus 18.X.95; Keswick (70) 23.X.95 - AME 

496 C. milvipennis Zell. - South Shian (98) viii.95 - MRY 

497 C. badiipennella (Dup.) - Yardley Chase (32) 17.X.95 - DVM 
499 C. limosipennella (Dup.) - Old Pond Close (32) v.vii.95 - DVM 
501 C. siccifolia Staint. - Sane Copse (32) 9.vii.95 - DVM 

510 C. juncicolella Staint. - Crymlyn Burrows (41) cases 25.ix.95 - DJS; 

Chesters (80) one 14.vi.95 - AME & JRL; Comhill (94) vi.95 - MRY & 

RL 
513 C. potentillae Elisha - Chambers Farm Wood (54) larval feeding on 

Rubus caesius 4-5.xi.95 - AME 

516 C. trifolii (Curt.) - Corby (32) 2.vii.94 - D.H.Howton; Aberthaw Leys 
(41) 13.vii.95 - DJS, New to Wales 

517 C.frischella (Linn.) - Porlock (5) 16.vii.95 - JR 

523 C. hemerobiella (Scop.) - Luton Hoo (30) 25.vii.95 - DVM 

526 C. laricella (Hubn.) - Selkirk (79) one case on Larix 12.vi.95 - AME & 

JRL 
530 C. lixella Zell. - Great Doward (36) bred 15.vii.95 - MWH; Kenfig 

NNR(41)10.vii.95-DJS 
533 C. anatipennella (Hiibn.) - Name established as valid in place of 

bernoulliella (Goeze) - AME, Ent. Gaz. 47: 89-91 
537 C. palliatella (Zinck.) - Name established as valid in place of kuehnella 

(Goeze) - AME, Ent. Gaz. 47: 89-91, not accepted by Karshoh & 

Razowski, 1996 
541 C. pyrrhulipennella Zell. - A life history study - J.Feehan, Ent. Gaz. 47: 

169-177 
549 C. pennella ([D.&S.]) = onosmella (Brahm) - Shrewton Folly (8) cases on 

Echium vulgare 5.V.95, moths bred - E.G. & M.H. Smith, BJENH 9: 224 
555 C. follicularis (Vallot) - Castlemorton Common (37) 20.V.95 cases on 

Pulicaria - ANBS 



178 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

561 C. therinella Tengst. - Savemake Forest (7) 29.vi.94 - M.H. Smith, Ent. 

Rec. 108: 141-142 
563 C. argentula (Steph.) - Wolfscastle (45) a few cases on Achillea 

millefolium 13.ix.95 - AME & JRL 

567 C. adspersella Ben. - Studham (30) 1 1 .vii.95 - DVM 

568 C. versurella ZelL - West Melton (63) 15 & 17.vii.95 - HEB 

572 C. vestianella (Linn.) - Rossington (63) 28.vii.93, 8.vii.95 - R.L 

Heppinstall 
582 C. glaucicolella Wood - Carr House Green Common (60) cases 

common on Juncus ejfusus 8.x. 95 - SMP; Wolfscastle (45) a few cases 

on Juncus spp. 13.ix.95 - AME & JRL 
588 C. salicorniae Wocke - Saffron Walden (19) 26.vii.95 - AME, BJENH 

9:220 

ELACHISTIDAE 

593 Elachista regificella (Sire.) - Dura Den (85) mines in Luzula sylvatica 

10.vi.95, moth bred - KPB, BJENH 9: 218 
601 E. albifrontella (Hubn.) - Grafham Water (31) 5.vi.95 - BD 
606 E. humilis Zell. - Ettrickbridge (79) one vacated mine on Deschampsia 

cespitosa 12.vi.95; Nisbet (80) one vacated mine on D. cespitosa 

14.vi.95 - AME & JRL; Silverwells, Coldingham (81) one 15.vi.95 - 

KPB, AME & JRL 
608 E. rufocinerea (Haw.) - Kirk Yetholm (80) a few 10.vi.95 - AME & JRL 
616 E. bedellella (Sire.) - Linkim Bay (81) mines in Helictotrichon pratense 

15.vi.95, moth bred - KPB, BJENH 9: 218 

628 Biselachista eleochariella (Staint.) - Comhill (94) vi.95 - MRY & RL 

629 B. utonella (Frey) - Gozzards Ford, Abingdon (22) 31. vii.95 - MFVC, 
BJENH 9: 219 

OECOPHORIDAE 

636 Denisia similella (Hubn.) - GlendoU Lodge (90) 9.vii.95 - KPB, BJENH 

9:218 
642 Crassa unitella (Hiibn.) - Alveston (57) l.viii.95 - I. Travers-Ayre per 

KVC 
656 Tachystola acroxantha (Meyr.) - Sale (58) 3.vi. & 30. vii.95 - P.B. 

Hardy per SHH, and records from the Manchester area since 1986 
658 Carcina quercana (Fabr.) - Hampstead (21) 1 l.xi.95, a very late date - 

RAS 
664 Diurnea lipsiella ([D.&S.]) = phryganella (Hiibn.) - Chambers Farm 

Wood (54) 4-5.xi.95 - AME 
676 Depressaha pulcherrimella Staint. - Bullock Down (14) larva on Seseli 

lihanotis 21. v. 95, moth bred - MSP, RJH & JRL, Ent. Gaz. 47: 30 
678 D. sordidatella (Tengst.) = weirella Staint. - Low Row (65) five, 

2.viii.95; West Melton (63) several vii.95 - HEB 
697a Agonopterix kuznetzovi Lvovsky - Kynance (1) 4.iv.95, a post 

hibernation record - A. Spalding, Ent. Gaz. 47: 150 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVffiW OF 1 995 1 79 

702 A. assimilella (Treits.) - Pennerley (40) larvae 7.V.94, moth bred - D. 

Poynton, Ent. Rec. 108: 26 
708 A. carduella (Hiibn.) - Studham (30) 16.viii.95 - DVM 
711 A. cwvipunctosa (Haw.) - Berrow (6) 30.iii.95 - B.E. Slade, Ent. Rec. 

109: 41 
713 A. angelicella (Hiibn.) - Cloud Wood, Breedon-on-the-Hill (55) 

26.vii.95 - A. P. Russell per AME 
718 Ethmia dodecea (Haw.) - Luffenham Heath (55) 23.vi. & 7.vii.95 - A. 

P. Russell per AME 

GELECHIIDAE 

733 Eulamprotes wilkella (Linn.) - Kenfig NNR (41) in Malaise trap 14.viii. 

-l.ix.95-DJS 
740 Monochroa hornigi (Stdgr) - Savemake Forest (7) 29.vi.94 - M. H. 

Smith, Ent. Rec. 108: 141-142 
740a M. niphognatha (Gozm.) - Stodmarsh NNR (15) six at m.v. light 

20.vi.95 - DO'K 
743 M. elongella (Hein.) - Stodmarsh NNR (15) one at m.v. light 20.vi.95 - 

DO'K 

748 Ptocheuusa paupella (Zell.) - Tourig Estuary (H5) two bred from 
Pulicaria 8.viii.95 - KGMB 

749 Sitotroga cerealella (0\.) Southsea (11) one at m.v. light 
28.vii.95 - JRL, Ent. Gaz. 47: 50 

757 Recw-varia nanella ([D.&S.]) - Old Fletton (31) viii.95 - BD 

758 R. leucatella (Clerck) - Porlock (5) at m.v. light 27.vii.95 - JR 

776 Teleiopsis dijfinis (Haw.) - Lightfoot Green (60) 19. viii.95 at m.v. light 
-SMP 

778 Bi-yotropha umbrosella (Zell.) - Bamburgh (68) a few 16.vi.95 - AME 
&JRL 

779 B. ajfinis (Haw.) - Kenfig NNR (41) in Malaise trap 25.vii. - 13.viii.95 - 
DJS 

780 B. similis (Staint.) - Lytham St Annes LNR (60) 13.viii.95 - SMP 

78 1 B. mundella (Dougl.) - Bamburgh (68) several 16.vi.95 - AME & JRL 

786 B. desertella (Dougl.) - Dale Top Quarry (58) 25.vii.94, det HEB - SHH 

787 B. terrella ([D.&S.]) - Lytham St Annes LNR (60) 1 1. viii.95 - SMP 

788 B. politella (Staint.) - Low Row (65) 23.vii.95 - HEB 

792 Mirificarma mulinella (Zell.) - Selkirk (79) a few vacated larval 

feedings in flowers of Cytisus scoparius 12.vi.95 - AME & JRL 
794 Lita sexpunctella (Fabr.) - Nipstone Rock (40) 31. v. 94 - D. Poynton, 

Ent. Rec. 108: 25 
796 Aroga velocella (Zell.) - Low Row (65) 7.viii.95 - HEB 
801a Gelechia senticetella Stdgr - Petts Wood (16) many at m.v. light vii.- 

viii.95 - DO'K; Saffron Walden (19) one at m.v. light 25.vii.95 - AME 
808 Platyedra subcinerea (Haw.) - Richmond Park (17) 6.V.95 - MSP 
819 Scrobipalpa costella (H. & W.) - Lightfoot Green (60) 26. vi. & 

10.viii.95 at m.v. light - SMP; Kenfig NNR (41) in Malaise trap 14.viii. 

-l.ix.95 



180 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

820 S. artemisiella (Treits.) - Bamburgh (68) two 16.vi 95 - AME & JRL 
828 Caiyocolum viscariella (Staint.) - Low Row (65) 6.viii.95 - HEB 

830 C. fraternella (DougL) - Low Row (65) 2.viii.95 - HEB 

831 C. proximum (Haw.) - Pucketty, Faringdon (22) bred 3.vii.95 from 
larvae on Stellaria media - MFVC, BJENH 9: 219 

833 C. junctella (Dougl.) - Wyre Forest NNR (37) 27.iv.94 - MWH & 

ANBS, Ent. Rec. 108: 145-146 
840 Thiotricha subocellea (Steph.) - Linkim Bay (81) many adults 15.vi.95, 

larval cases on Thymus 22.viii.95 - KPB, BJENH 9: 218 
844 Syncopacma larseniella (Goz.) - Bransford (37) larva vi.94 on Lotus 

corniculatus, moth bred, genitalia det. - ANBS 
849 S. cinctella (Clerck) - Worcester (37) vii.1854 at light, specimen in 

Worcester museum, genitalia det. - ANBS 

854 Anacampsis blattariella (Hiibn.) - Freshwater (10) 22.vi.95 - S.A. 
Knill- Jones, Em. Rec. 108: 18 

855 Acompsia cinerella (Clerck) - Low Row (65) 23.vii.95 - HEB 

858 Hypatima rhomboidella (Linn.) - Waterhall Plantation (41) 25.vii.95 - 

DJS 
861 Telephila schmidtiellus (Heyd.) - Willingdon Dow (14) larvae v. 95; 

Rodborough Common (34) larvae 20.V.95 - MSP; Ford (7) larvae 

8.vi.95, moths bred - E.G. & M.H. Smith, BJENH 9: 224 
871 Oegoconia deauratella (H.-S.) - Bluntisham (31) 7.vii.95 - BD; 

Rossington (63) 14.vii.95 - R.I. Heppenstall; Wroughton (7) 21.vii. - 

viii.95 - D.J. Brotheridge, BJENH 9: 218 

BLASTOBASIDAE 

873 Blastobasis lignea Wals. - Lightfoot Green (60) very common 13.vii. - 
15.ix.95 - SMP; Gairloch (105) viii.95 - MRY; Waterhall Plantation 
(41) 26.vii.95 - DJS; Coventry (38) 1994-95 - R.C. Kendrick, BJENH 
9:221 

874 B. decolorella (Woll.) - New Mills (57) 1993 onwards - J. Potts per 
SHH; Swindon (7) 10.vii.95 - D.J. Brotheridge, BJENH; Cheylesmore, 
Coventry (38) common pre 1995 - R.C. Kendrick, BJENH 9: 221; 
Aspley Heath (24) 3.vii.95, Bledlow Ridge (24) 7.vii.95 - MVA; North 
Baddesley (11) 9.vi.95 - A.H.Dobson; Morden Bog (9) 24.vi.95 - PHS; 
Crymlyn Bog (41) 1 l.vii.95 - DJS, New to Wales, Ent. Rec. 109: 31 

MOMPHIDAE 

881 Mompha terminella (H. & W.) - Whitland (44) a few tenanted mines on 
Circaea lutetiana 12.vi.95 - AME & JRL 

882 M. locupletella ([D.&S.]) - Comhill (94) vii.95 - MRY & RL 

883 M. raschkiella (Zell.) - Comhill (94) vii.95 - MRY & RL 

885 M. conturbatella (Hiibn.) - Selkirk (79) a few larvae 12.vi.95; Kirk 
Yetholm (80) several larvae 10.vi.95; Coldstream (81) a few larvae 
13.ix.95 - AME & JRL; Gresford (50) 12.vi.94 - D. Poynton, Em. Rec. 
108: 25 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA RE VffiW OF 1 995 181 

886 M. ochraceella (Curt.) - Kenfig NNR (41) 10.vii.95 - DJS 

887 M. lacteella (Steph.) - Hilton (31) 28.vii.95 - BD 

890 M. subdivisella Bradl. - Petts Wood (16) 4.ix.95 - DO'K; Fareham (U) 
12.iii.95 - R.J. Dickson, Ent. Gaz. 46: 242 

891 M. nodicolella Fuchs - Famborough (11) one 15.viii.95 - R.W. Parfitt 
per JRL 

COSMOPTERIGIDAE 

896 Cosmopterix orichalcea Staint. - Laccombe (5) 20.vii.95 - JR; 

Chambers Farm Wood (54) tenanted mines on Phalaris arundinacea 

5.xi.95-AME 
898 Limnaecia phragmitella Staint. - Waterhall Plantation (41) 26.vii.95 - 

DJS 

903 Glyphipteryx linneella (Clerck) - Yardley Chase (32) l.viii.95 - DVM; 
Poole (9) larval workings on lime trees 4.V.95 - PHS 

904 Spuleria flavicaput (Haw.) - Kenfig NNR (41) 10.vii.95; Waterhall 
Plantation (41) 25.vii.95 - DJS 

SCYTHRIDIDAE 

911 Scythris grandipennis (Haw.) - Porlock (5) at m.v. light 9.vii.95 - JR 

TORTRICIDAE 

929 Gynnidomorpha vectisana (H. & W.) - Conheath, Clencaple (72) 
several, 10.viii.95 - HEB, New to Scotland 

930 G. alismana (Rag.) - Little Paxton Pits (3 1 ) 29.vii.95 - BD 
945 Aethes cnicana (Westw.) - Comhill (94) vi.95 - MRY & RL 

949 A. dilucidana (Steph.) - Crymlyn Burrows (41) 29.vii.95 - DJS, New to 

Wales, Ent. Rec. 109: 32 
956 Cochylidia implicitana (Wocke) - Spurn (61) 1995 - B.R. Spence det 

HEB 
964a Cochylis molliculana Zell. - Thomey Island (13) larvae in seedheads of 

Picris echioides ll.ix.94, one moth bred - MSP & JRL, Ent. Gaz. 47: 

50; Article on its biology - RJH & JRL, Ent. Gaz. 47: 15-16 
965 C. hybridella (Hubn.) - Gozzards Ford, Abingdon (22) 1995 - MFVC, 

BJENH 9:2\9 

989 Aphelia paleana (Hiibn.) - Pennerley (40) 21.vii.94 - D. Poynton, Ent. 
Rec. 108: 26 

990 A. unitana (Hubn.) - Low Row (65) 30.vi.95 - HEB 

998 Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.) - Fixton (59) 16.x. 95 - K. McCabe; 
Dumplington (59) 22.viii.95 - L.W. Hardwick; Sale (58) 13.viii.95 - 
P.B. Hardy; Heald Green (58) 10.viii.95 - B.T. Shaw; all per SHH; 
Hampstead (21) 3 l.viii.95 - RAS; Climping Sands (13) two lO.x.95 - 
MSP; Famborough (12) v-x.93, 94, 95 - R.W. Parfitt; Selbome (12) 
21.viii.94 - A.E. Alston; Basingstoke (12) 8.x. 95 - A.H. Dobson; 
Lightfoot Green (60) 21.viii. - 12.X.95 at m.v. hght - SMP; Wroughton 
(7) 30.viii.95 - D.J. Brotheridge, BJENH 9: 219 



182 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

1001 Lozotaeniodes formosanus (Gey.) - Point House Farm (58) 2.viii.95 - 
C.I. Rutherford per SHH; New Mills (57) vii.95 - J. Potts per SHH; 
Prestbury (58) 14.vii.94, 7 & 27. vii.95 - D. Poynton, Ent. Rec. 108: 25 

1009 Philedonides lunana (Thunb.) - Whixall Moss (40) a few larvae on 
Betula pendula 23.ix.95, moths bred - AME & JRL 

1012 Sparganothis pilleriana ([D.&S.]) - Porlock (5) at m.v. light 30.vii.95 - 
JR 

1013 Olindia schumacherana (Fabr.) - Ballinger (24) 10.vii.95 - MVA 

1014 Isotrias rectifasciana (Haw.) - Linkim Shore, Coldingham (81) a few 
15.vi.95 - KPB, AME & JRL 

1015 Eulia ministrana (Linn.) - Selkirk (79) several 12.vi.95 - AME & JRL 

1016 Cnephasia longana (Haw.) - Lytham St Annes LNR (60) 13.vii.95 - 
SMP 

1023 C. genitalana P. & M. - Reaveley Wood (31) 5.viii.95 - BD 

1026 Exapate congelatella (Clerck) - Pennerley (40) 29.x. 94 - D. Poynton, 

Ent. Rec. 108: 26 
1038 A. laterana (Fabr.) - Comhill (94) viii.95 - MRY & RL 
1043 A. aspersana (Hubn.) - Comhill (94) vii.95 - MRY & RL 
1051 A. logiana (Clerck) - Havant Thicket (11) one at rest on tree trunk 

2.iv.95 - MSP & JRL 
1068 Olethreutes rivulana (Scop.) - Porlock (5) at m.v. light 16.vii.95 - JR; 

Little Ballo, Coupar (90) vii.95 - MRY 
1074 O. palustrana (L. & Z.) - Malham Tarn (64) several 29.vi.95 - MSP 
1091 Apotomis lineana ([D.&S.]) - Saffron Walden (19) ll.viii.95 - AME, 

BJENH 9: 220 
1099 Endothenia marginana (Haw.) - Yardley Chase (32) 1. viii.95 - DVM 
1103 E. ericetana (H. & W.) - Lightfoot Green (60) 7.vii.95 at m.v. light - 

SMP 

1109 Lobesia littoralis (H. & W.) - Bridlington (61) 29.viii.95 - HEB; Cullen 
(94) vi.94 - MRY & RL 

1 1 10 Bactrafurfurana (Haw.) - Cow Lane Pits (31) 29.vi.95 - BD 

1113 Eudemis profundana ([D.&S.]) - Waterhall Plantation (41) 26, vii.95; 
Kenfig NNR (41) 10.vii.95 - DJS 

1117 Ancylis unguicella (Linn.) - Hartlebury Common (37) 9.V.89 - J. Price 
per ANBS and 5.vi.94 - ANBS 

1 1 18 A. uncella ([D.&S.]) - Scarborough (62) 23.V.95 - M.R. Britton, BJENH 
1121 A. upupana (Treits.) - Skipwith Common, Selby (61) 31. v. 95 - M.R. 

Britton, BJENH; Ryton Wood, Warwicks (38) 11. viii.95 - R.C. 

Kendrick,5/£A^//9:221 
1 124 A. tineana (Hiibn.) - Struan (88) larval stages confirmed and described - 

KPB, £/7r. Gflz. 47: 17-18 
1126 A. badiana ([D.&S.]) - Comhill (94) vi.95 - MRY & RL 
1 136 Epinotia immundana (F. v. R.) - Gordon Moss (81) one 13. vi.95 - AME 

&JRL 
1143 E . fraternana (Haw.) - Charterhall Wood (81) a few beaten from Abies 

grandis 13. vi.95 - AME & JRL 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW OF 1 995 183 

1144 E. signatana (Dougl.) - Drakes Broughton (37) beaten from Prunus 

spinosa 14.vi.94 - ANBS 
1 146 E. rubiginosana (H.-S.) - Lightfoot Green (60) 28.vi.95 - SMP 
1 152 E. maculana (Fabr.) - Pickworth Great Wood (55) 9.X.95 - A.P. Russell 

per AME 
1 155 E. brunnichana (Linn.) - Waterhall Plantation (41) 26.vii.95 - DJS 
1157 Crocidosema plebejana Zell. - Freshwater (10) 26.vii.95 - S.A. Knill- 

Jones,5/£A^//9:221 
1166 Zeiraphera diniana (Guen.) - Selkirk (79) several vacated larval 

spinnings on Larix 12.vi.95 - AME & JRL 
1 169 Gypsonoma dealbana (Frl.) - Lightfoot Green (60) 2.vii.95 - SMP 
1 174 Epiblema cynosbatella (Linn.) - Comhill (94) vi.95 - MRY & RL 
1 179 E. incamatana (Hubn.) - Spurn (61) 14.vii.95 - B.R. Spence det HEB 
1184a^. cirsiana (Zell.) - Halse Combe, Porlock (5) 30.V.95 - JR; Cullen (94) 

vi.95 - MRY & RL 

1192 Eucosma conterminana (H.-S.) - Southsea (11) one at m.v. light 
5.viii.95 - JRL; Wroughton (7) 20.vii. - l.viii.95 - D.J. Brotheridge, 
BJENH 9:2X9 

1193 E. tripoliana (Barr.) - Crymlyn Burrows (41) 29.vii.95 - DJS, New to 
Wales 

1197 E. campoliliana ([D.&S.]) - Comhill (94) vi.95 - MRY & RL 

1199 E. pupillana (Clerck) - Biggleswade (30) l.viii.95 - R.C. Revels per 

DVM; Hampstead (21) 3.viii.95 - RAS 
nOSaSpilonota lahcana (Hein.) - Lightfoot Green (60) 10.vii.95 - SMP 
1207 Clavigesta purdeyi (Durr.) - Lightfoot Green (60) 1 l.viii.95 - SMP; 

Cold Oak Copse (32) 27.vii.95 - DVM 
1210 Rhyacionia buoliana ([D.&S.]) - Lightfoot Green (60) 17.vii.95 - SMP 
1215 Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyr.) - Worcester (37) bred from imported 

orange ix.95 - ANBS; Southsea (11) one at m.v. light 1 l.viii.95 - JRL, 

Ent. Gaz. 47: 50 
1218 Selania leplastriana (Curt.) - Arish Mell (9) a few larvae in Brassica 

oleracea 2.xii.95 - PHS et al. 
1232 Pammene populana (Fab.) - Monk Wood (37) 2 larvae on Salix caprea 

14.vi.94, moths bred - ANBS 
1235 P. trauniana ([D.&S.]) - Little Paxton Pits (31) 29.vii.95 - BD 
1243 Cydia pallifrontana (L. & Z.) - Biddestone (7) larvae vii., moths bred 

30.vii.95 - M.H. Smith, Ent. Rec. 108: 131-132 

1248 C. molesta (Busck) - Malvern (37) bred 26.viii.94 from nectarine bought 
in shop - ANBS 

1249 C. prunivorana (Rag.) - Weymouth (9) at m.v. light 10.vii.95 - PHS 
1254 C. strobilella (Linn.) - Savemake Forest (7) a few bred from cones of 

Picea omorika collected 6.iii.95 - JRL, Ent. Gaz. 47: 8 
1255aC. medicaginis (Kuzn.) - Gravesend (16) 27. vi.95 - DJLA 
1262 C. amplana (Hubn.) - St Helier, Jersey ( 113 ) 7.viii.95 - R. Burrow per 

E.G. Hancock, Ent. Gaz. 47: 179-180 
1268 C. coniferana (Ratz.) - Stockgrove Country Park (30) v.95 - DVM 
1272 C. aurana (Fabr.) - Comhill (94) vi.95 - MRY & RL 



1 84 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 1 09 25 . vii. 1 997 

ALUCITIDAE 

1288 Alucita hexadactyla (Linn.) - Waterhall Plantation (41) 25.vii.95 - DJS 

PYRALIDAE 

1289 Euchromius ocellea (Haw.) - Dungeness (15) 27.vii.95 - S. Clancy per 
BFS; Lizard (1) 14.X.95 - D.C.G. Brown; St Agnes, Scilly (1) 20.X.95 - 
J. Martin per BFS; Thundersley (18) 22.X.95 - D. Down per BFS 

1290 Chilo phragmitella (Htibn.) - Kenfig NNR (41) 10.vii.95 - DJS 

1292 Calamotropha paludella (Hiibn.) - Cricklade (7) 6.viii.95 - APF, Ent. 

Gaz. 47: 92; Spurn (61) 27.vii.95 - B. Elliott 
1298 Crambus ericella (Hiibn.) - Tairlaw Toll & near Loch Braden (75) 

8.vii.95-AMD 
1310 Catoptria permutatella (H.-S.) - Comhill (94) vii.95 - MRY & RL 

1323 Pediasia contaminella (Hiibn.) - Dawlish Warren (3) 25 .vii. 60 - A.H. 
Dobson, BJENH 9: 219, apparently the earliest Devon record. 

1324 P. aridella (Thunb.)- Redlynch Common (8) 7.vii.95 - MFVC, BJENH 
9: 219; Dawlish Warren (3) 24.vii.68 - A.H. Dobson, BJENH 9: 219; 
Lakenheath (26) 15. vii.95 - D. Young, PPRS 

1332 Scoparia subfusca Haw. - CuUen (94) vi.95 - MRY & RL 

1335 S. ancipitella (La Harpe) - Herefordshire (36) viii.95 - MWH; Great 
West Wood (53) 21. vii.95 - R. Johnson, PPRS 

1336 Eudonia pallida (Curt.) - Kenfig NNR (41) 9.viii.95 - DJS 
1341 E. lineola (Curt.) - Cow Gap (14) 13 & 26.vii.95 - MSP 

1348 Parapoynx stratiotata (Linn.) - Kenfig NNR (41) 10.vii.95; Michealston 

Marsh (41) 28.vii.95- DJS 
1350 Nymphula stagnata (Don.) - Kenfig NNR (41) 10.vii.95; Crymlyn Bog 

(41) ll.vii.95- DJS 
1354 Cataclysta lemnata (Linn.) - Kenfig NNR (41) 29.X.95 - DJS 
\?>56diEvergestis limbata (Linn.) - Chale Green (10) 14 & 21. vii. 95, suggesting 

resident status - S.R. Colenutt; Portslade (13) 1 l.ix.95 - A.R. Cronin 

1357 E. extimalis (Scop.) - Hampstead (21) 5.viii.95 - RAS 

1358 E. pallidata (Hufn.) - Kenfig NNR (41) 10.vii.95 - DJS 

1360 Hellula undalis (Fabr.) - Portland (9) 11. viii.95 - M. Cade & lO.x.95 - 
BG; Lydd (15) 14.ix.95 - K. Redshaw; Lizard (1) ten 9-30.X.95 - 
D.C.G. Brown; Gaunts Common (9) ll.x.95 - P. Davey; Durlston (9) 
26.X.95-A. KolasperBFS 

1363 Pyrausta ostrinalis (Hiibn.) - Geeston Quarry (55) v.95 - J.R. McPhail 
per AME 

1368 Margaritia sticticalis (Linn.) - An immigration throughout July and 
August with almost 100 specimens recorded from Devon to Sutherland. 
A full list with precise data will appear in due course in the article on 
Migration in Ent. Rec. Vice-counties from which it is recorded are: 3, 6, 
7,9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,20,22,26,27,28,29,30,32,33,38, 
40, 49, 53, 63, 65, 71, 93, 94, 108- 

1369 Uresiphita polygonalis ([D.&S.]) - Lizard (1) 17.X.95 - D.C.G. Brown 
per BFS 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW OF 1 995 1 85 

1370 Sitochroa palealis ([D.&S.]) - Cricklade (7) 27.vii.95 - APF, Ent. Gaz. 
47:92 

1374 Microstega hyalinalis (Hiibn.) - Wendover Woods (24) 28.vii.95 - 
MVA; Great Doward (36) bred 15.vii.95 - MWH 

\31AdiSclerocona acutellus (Evers.) - Henley-on-Thames (23) 20.vi.95 - D. 
Wedd, BJENH 9: 225, third British specimen. 

1375 Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubn.) - Kingsthorpe (32) 20.vi.95 - P.B. Sharpe per 
DVM 

1380 Phlyctaenia perlucidalis (Hubn.) - Crowle Moor (63) l.vii.95 - HEB; 
Matlock (57) 14.viii.95 - B.L. Statham per KVC; Godshill (10) 27.vii.95 

- P. Cramp, Ent. 7?ec.l08: 18; Cawood (64) 1995 - J. Payne det HEB; 
Newstead Abbey Park (56) 3.viii.95 - KVC; Abbotsworthy (12) 5.vi.95 

- A.H. Dobson, BJENH 9: 220 

1384 P. stachydalis (Germ.) - Herodsfoot (2) 19.vi.95; Bodmin Beacon (2) 
7.vii.95 - A.R. Spalding, Ent. Gaz. 46: 288 

1382 Anania verbascalis ([D&S.]) - Porton Down (8) 30.vii.95 - A. Steele, 
PPRS 

1383 Psammotis pulveralis (Hubn.) - Matley Bog, New Forest (U) one by day 
28.vii.95 - DO'K; Sixpenny Handley (9) 28.vii.95 - P. Davey - per BFS 

1389 Udeafulvalis (Hubn.) - Freshwater (10) 11 & 17.vii.95 - S.A. Knill- 
Jones, BJENH 9: 221; Summary of British records, with colour 
illustrations of early stages - BFS, Ent. Rec. 108: 108-109 
1392 U. olivalis ([D.&S.]) - Lamdoughty Glen (75) 8.vii.95 - AMD, PPRS 
1396 Mecyna flavalis ([D.&S.]) ssp. flaviculaUs (Carad.) Hartslock NR (22) 
10.vi.95 - M. Harvey, BJENH 9: 220 

1398 Nomophila noctuella ([D.&S.]) - Cullen (94) vi.94 - MRY & RL 

1399 Dolicharthria punctalis ([D.&S.]) - Porlock (5) three at m.v. light 
4-6.vii.95 - JR 

1400 Antigastra catalaunalis (Dup.) - Dungeness (15) 12.X.95 - S. Clancey; 
Portland (9) 9.X.95 - M. Cade; Gaunts Common (9) 1 l.x.95 - P. Davey; 
Parkstone (9) 21.X.95- A. Bromby; all records per BFS 

1404 Hymenia recurvalis (Fabr.) - Portland (9) 10-1 l.x.95 - M. Cade; West 
Bexington (9) 1 l.x.95 - R. Eden; Lizard (1) 17.X.95 - D.C.G. Brown, all 
per BFS 

1408 P alpha unionalis (Hubn.) - Portland (9) one at m.v. Hght 14.X.95 - B. 
Goater, PHS & JRL; Southsea (11) singletons at m.v. light 13, 17, 23 & 
26.X.95 - JRL; Porlock (5) at m.v. hght 1 1 .xi.94 - JR 

1413 Hypsopygia costalis (Fabr.) - Conheath, Clencaple (72) 12.viii.95, one 
at light - HEB; Low Row (65) 2.viii.95 - HEB 

1416 Pyralis lienigialis (Zell.) - Cricklade (7) 24.vi.94 & 21.viii.95 - APF, 
Ent. Gaz. 47: 92 

1424 Endotricha flammealis ([D.&S.]) - Waterhall Plantation (41) 25.vii.95 - 
DJS; Cold Oak Copse (32) 27.vii.95 - DVM 

1425 Galleria mellonella (Linn.) - Glapwell (57) 27.vii.95 - J. Culpin per 
KVC; Alveston (57) 2.viii.95 - I.Travers-Ayre per KVC 

1432 Anerastia lotella (Hubn.) - Lytham St Annes LNR (60) 27.vii.95 - SMP 



186 ENTOMOLOGIST'S P^CORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

1435 Acrobasis tumidana ([D.&S.]) - Southsea (11) 30.vii.95 - JRL & 

Christchurch (11) 4.viii.94 - M. Jeffs, Ent. Gaz. 47: 30 
1438 Numonia suavella (Zinck.) - Pegsdon Hills (30) 14.vii.95 - DVM; 

Waterhall Plantation (41) 26.vii.95 - DJS 
1446 Salebriopsis albicilla (H.-S.) Summary of British records, with colour 

illustrations of early stages - BFS, Ent. Rec. 108: 110-1 1 1 
\A5\2iEtiella zinckenella (Treits.) - Christchurch (1 1) 1 l.viii.95 - M. Jeffs per 

BFS 
1452 Phycita roborella ([D.&S.]) - Waterhall Plantation (41) 26.vii.95 - DJS 
1454 Diojyctria abietella ([D.& S.]) - Alderley Edge (58) 1991 & 1995 - C.L 

Rutherford per SHH 
1454aD. schuetzeella Fuchs - Dubeley Wood (31) 28.vii.95 - BD 
1461 Assara terebrella (Zinck.) - Saffron Walden (19) one at m.v. light 

18.vii.95-AME 
\46lsiEccopisa ejfractella Zell. - Buckingham Palace, London (21) 13.vii.95 - 

DJLA, New to Britain, Ent. Gaz. 47: 1 8 1-1 83 
1467 Ancylosis oblitella (Zell.) - Southsea (11) one at m.v. light 10.viii.95 - 

JRL; Kingsthorpe (32) 8.ix.95 - P.D. Sharpe per DVM 

1469 Euzophera cinerosella (Zell.) - Beeston Sidings (56) 5.vii.95 - Notts. 
Wildlife Trust per KVC; Corby (32) 7.vii.95 - DHH; Raynes Park (17) 
3.vii.95-MSP 

1470 E. pinguis (Haw.) - Waterhall Plantation (41) 25.vii.95; Michealston 
Marsh (41) 28.vii.95- DJS 

1475 Ephestia kuehniella Zell. - Lightfoot Green (60) 26.X.95 indoors - SMP 
1477 E.figulilella Gregs. - Godshill (10) 1991 - P.J. Cramp, BJENH 9: 219 

1479 Plodia interpunctella (Hiibn.) - Preston (60) in pet shop 21.vii.95 - SMP 

1480 Homoeosoma nebulella ([D.&S.]) - Porlock (5) at m.v. light ll.vii.95 - 
JR 

1484 Phycitodes saxicola (Vaugh.) - Lytham St Annes LNR (60) 
13-27. vii. 95 - SMP; Corby (32) 10.viii.95 - D.H. Howton; 
Cheylesmore, Coventry (38) 15.viii.95 - R.C. Kendrick, BJENH 9: 221 

1485 P. maritima (Tengst.) - Brampton Wood (31) l.vii.95 - BD 

1486 Apomyelois bisthatella (Hulst) ssp. neophanes (Durr.) - Raynes Park 
(17) 15.viii.95- MSP 

PTEROPHORIDAE 

1488 Agdistis bennetii (Curt.) - Buckland, Reigate (17) 20.viii.95 - C. Hart, 

BJENH 9: 220 
1492 Crombrugghia laetus (Zell.) - Gaunts Common (9) 12.X.95 - P. Davey, 

gen. det. PHS; Summary of records with colour plate of adult and 

genitalia illustrations - C. Hart, Ent. Rec. 108: 113-117 
1494 Capperia britanniodactyla (Gregs.) - Hartlebury Common (37) very 

locally common on Teucrium 30. v. 94 - ANBS 
1497 Amblyptilia acanthadactyla (Hubn.) - Sandy (30) 10.vii.95 - DVM; 

Comhill (94) v.95 - MRY & RL 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW OF 1 995 1 87 

1498 A. punctidactyla (Haw.) - Studham (30) 17.vii.95 - DVM; Selkirk (79) 
two 12.vi.95 - AME & JRL; Comhill (94) vii.95 - RL 

1500 Platyptilia calodactyla ([D.&S.]) - Gosberton (53) 11 & 13.vi.94 - 
M.A. Joy, PPRS 

1504 P. pallidactyla (Haw.) - Cullen (94) vi.94 - MRY & RL 

1506 Stenoptilia millieridactyla (Bruand) = saxifragae Fletch. Higher Poynton 
(58) 3-22.vii.94 - SHH 

1507 S. zophodactylus (Dup.) - Beeley Moor (57) 2.x. 95 - B. Statham per 
KVC 

1508 S. bipunctidactyla (Scop.) - West Wood, Knotting (30) 14.viii.95 - 
DVM 

1509 S. pterodactyla (Linn.) - Comhill (94) vi.95 - MRY & RL 

1518 Hellinsia lienigianus (Zell.) - Upton Warren (37) l.vii.94 at light - J4 

ANBS; West Melton (63) 31.viii.95 - HEB 
1523 Oidaematophorus lithodactyla (Treits.) - Clayton Green (59) four 

amongst Pulicaria 31. vii.95 - SMP 

Correction to 1994 Review 

1494 Capperia britanniodactyla (Gregs.) - Record from Ballaglass misidenti- 
fied - should be deleted. 



Ectoedemia quinquella (Bedell, 1848) (Lep.: Nepticulidae) in the Reading 
area. 

I wish to report the discovery of the above species at Lower Earley, at 
Dinton Pastures Country Park and at Bear Wood near Wokingham. These 
sites are within four or five miles of each other situated to the south and east 
of Reading, Berkshire. 

At Lower Earley, E. quinquella abounds on a group of oaks Quercus 
robur growing along a field boundary just south of of the River Lodden, near 
Lodden Bridge. Here I have seen mines for the past three or four years. Last 
year (autumn 1996) they were particularly abundant; one leaf I examined 
contained thirty-five to forty larvae. Adults have been successfully reared 
from this site on two occasions. Identical mines, though fewer in number, 
containing the characteristically spotted early-instar larvae were noted in the 
autumn of 1996 in oaks growing in Bear Wood near Wokingham and two 
adults were netted by day flying around oak trees during a meeting of the 
British Entomological and Natural History Society's Conservation Group 
held at Dinton Pastures on 7 July 1996. These sites are all located in the 
eastern part of Berkshire (VC22). Baker (1994, The Butterflies and Moths of 
Berkshire. Hedera Press) gives one locality in Berkshire for this species 



188 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

since the 1930s, at Buckland Warren which is at the other end of the county 
from Reading. Further searches in the Reading area will be made in the 
coming autumn to ascertain the extent of this moth's distribution in the 
area.- 1. Sims, 2 The Delph, Lower Barley, Reading, Berkshire RG6 3AN. 



Early appearance of Macroglos sum stellatarum L. (Lep.: Sphingidae) 

An adult Humming-bird Hawk-moth Macroglossum stellatarum was seen 
hovering over the flowers of Japanese quince in my garden here on 19 March 
1997.- L. Christie, 129 Franciscan Road, Tooting, London SW17 8DZ. 



Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) (Lep.: Noctuidae): a pest of a medicinal plant 
at 1685 metres (5500 feet) altitude in the Kumaon Hills, India 

During a survey of the insect pests of medicinal and aromatic plants in 
Central Himalaya, larvae of Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) were observed heavily 
infesting plants of Egyptian Henbane Hyocyamus niger - a source of 
trophane alkaloids - in the Kumaon Hills of India. S. lituta is known to 
damage jute, fibre crop, linseed, pulses and millet (Nair, 1986, Insect and 
mites of crops in India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research) and is a 
minor pest of bananas. David and Nandagopal (1986, Pests of sugarcane: 
distribution, symptomology of attack and identification, in Sugarcane 
Entomology in India, ICAR, New Delhi), reported it as an occasional 
defoliator of sugarcane. In the Kumaon Hills, the larvae were infesting the 
floral parts of plants during the months of August and September. 

Egyptian Henbane is one of the more important medical plants and is a 
source of the trophane alkaloid hyoscine. Medicines prepared from the plant 
are used to treat a variety of diseases and ailments including worms, coughs, 
liver pain, heart disease, intestinal disorders etc. (Pant and Pandey, 1991, 
Kumaon Ki Upyogi aushadhiya vanasptiyan, Uttrakhand Sodh Sansthan, pp. 
1-35). The plant occurs naturally in the middle hills of Central Himalaya at 
2450 to 3370 metres (8000 to 1 1000 feet) altitude and has been introduced at 
lower altitudes for cultivation purposes. 

The green larvae were collected and reared on the host plant in the 
laboratory. They emerged after twelve days in the pupal stage. Males and 
females survived for four and six days respectively. Under laboratory 
conditions, one larva was observed to devour one plant with five leaves in a 
single day. From the available literature, this would appear to be the first 
record of S. litura feeding on Egyptian Henbane in the Central Himalayas. 
We are grateful to Dr J.D. Holloway and the Director of the Institute of 
Entomology, CAB, London, for the identification of the insect. 
- MoHOMMAD Arif & Narendra Kumar, Defence Agriculture Research 
Laboratory, Pithoragarh (UP), 262501 India. 



CHRISTMAS IN HONG KONG 1 89 

CHRISTMAS IN HONG KONG 

Brian Baker 

25 Matlock Road, Caversham, Reading, Berkshire RG4 7BP. 

IN THE STEAMY heat of that September afternoon, a large green 
Swallowtail butterfly flew through the open window of the house opposite 
our commandeered quarters in 47 Hankow Street. From our enforced 
confinement I watched the beautiful creature as it beat against the glass in its 
attempts to escape. A Chinese lady then entered the room, delicately took a 
wingtip 'twixt thumb and finger, extended her arm over the street and 
released the butterfly into the sun. 

This little episode from fifty years ago took place in Kov/loon opposite 
Hong Kong Island, itself, as I remember it, a place of great beauty. I am told 
that today a tunnel connects island to mainland and, traffic allowing, access 
is quicker and easier. Perhaps this is so, but I doubt that many Swallowtail 
butterflies still flit in and out of windows in Hankow Street. 

My early years had been happy, uncomplicated ones with exhortations 
from loving parents to do well at school, always tell the truth, not to worry if 
you can't do those maths and "now don't let that master frighten you". Then 
one afternoon after school I called into my local museum and met the 
kindliest of men. A bom naturalist who took me under his wing, taught me 
the names of plants and animals, loaned me all manner of natural history 
books, took me to his favourite places and opened my eyes. 

I was to benefit from his kindly teaching for over thirty years but wartime 
disrupted those carefree days and visits back home were few but precious. 
We did find enough petrol to motorcycle to Wicken Fen in the sunny spring 
of 1945 but within a few weeks Wicken swallowtails were a world away. 

On 7 July a long journey began, its destination unknown, schoolboy 
geography became reality, and through it all that early nurturing in natural 
history proved invaluable. Manx shearwaters off the Pembrokeshire coast 
gave way to Atlantic dolphins, porpoises and cascades of flying fish. Panama 
with its tropical greenery, birds and butterflies gave way to the Pacific, a 
vastness seemingly unwilling to give way to anything. Pearl Harbour, first 
glimpsed as the sun turned the mountains golden, made a welcome break, of 
necessity brief, then it was off again with the Empress of Australia protected 
by six destroyers. 

One of our medical officers loaned me his copy of Insects of Hawaii and I 
was deep into its butterflies and moths whilst, unknown to everyone, 
momentous events were taking place over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On 15 
August news filtered through that Japan had accepted surrender terms and 
the next day we anchored off the Marshall Islands where, a year later, the 
world would hear of Bikini Atoll and the beginning of the United States 
atomic tests. A period of uncertainty followed and it wasn't until 24 August 



190 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

whilst in the Admiralty Islands that we learnt that Okinawa, our original 
destination, would be replaced by Hong Kong. But first, small detachments 
were given a brief period ashore and we hesitantly stepped into paradise - 
the tiny island of Pityilu. 

My Royal Air Force colleagues were content with the "refreshments" they 
had carried ashore but they missed the bright green lizards that stared with 
red eyes, the gauzy-winged grasshoppers which whirred away over the 
grasses and the lagoon where I swam to the limit of the reef. Regardless of 
depth, the water was crystal clear and I played patience with multi-coloured 
clouds of little tropical fish. Who could have missed the wonder of living 
jewels swimming between one's legs? Pityilu became only a dream for in 
less than a week the Pacific said its goodbyes with a vengeance - the 
typhoon began off the Phillipines and ended the day before we entered the 
calm of Hong Kong's anchorage. 

As the great liner approached Kowloon quayside, ships of the Pacific Fleet 
stood at boat stations, sampans and latticed-sailed junks vied with each other 
for clear water and a small group of service and civilian personnel, survivors 
of the previous three and a half years, proudly stood at attention far down 
below. 

The Japanese had yet to be disarmed and we were initially confined within 
47 Hankow Street awaiting instructions. That Swallowtail butterfly across 
the street and Chinese children flying praying mantids from silken tethers 
were only promises of the normality that eventually returned. 

By 7 October I was posted to Air Headquarters on Hong Kong Island and 
worked there for the next five months. The elegant old Victorian building 
was close to the lower terminus of the now silent Peak Mountain Railway 
and our living quarters were easiest reached by walking a short distance up 
the line. 

Wireless operators work round the clock so there were regular off-duty 
days, days on which to watch Monarch butterflies and Long-tailed blues 
within our very overgrown garden; days on which to toil up the railway track 
and, on reaching The Peak, walk into another world. A world of hills and 
islands, bays and inlets, the sight of which made the heart sing. 

I came to know these hills well and each became of greater interest through 
chance meetings with an entomologist and a botanist. Major Eggleton of the 
Royal Army Medical Corps had collected here in peacetime and knew the 
names of all the butterflies. Father Ryan at the Forestry Office talked of plants 
and kindly loaned me Familiar Wild Flowers of Hong Kong. I managed to 
send small consignments of carefully packed insects back to my old friend in 
England, he in return, sent me the Natural History Museum's Instructions for 
Collectors - the much thumbed copy is with me still. 

I also remembered a technique he had often demonstrated when returning 
from our late night mothing expeditions. Hawkmoths would eventually tire 



CHRISTMAS IN HONG KONG 



191 



of encircling the tall mercury vapour lamps, newly installed along town 
streets, and would sit quietly just below the bright-blue glare. From this lofty 
resting place a slight touch with the tip of a three-joint fishing rod would 
induce them to spiral down to the pavement. English fishing rods had not yet 
reached Hong Kong but very long bamboo poles on which the Chinese hung 
their washing were stored in plenty at the rear of Air Headquarters. Would 
this modified technique work with the delicate green, long-tailed Moon 
moths of Hong Kong? Just before midnight, and with great difficulty, I 
withdrew my bamboo pole but immediately regretted doing so. It was 
gigantic, of the order of 40 feet! I approached my mercury vapour lamp 
rather unsteadily but found that the road, even at this late hour, was busy 
with cars returning their officers from varied engagements. My courage 
failed me and I would have welcomed a power cut. 




Pre-war Hong Kong - the view from The Peak across to Kowloon and beyond. 



Someone trying to manoeuvre 20 feet of oscillating bamboo fore and aft is 
a rarity in any road, anywhere, and documentary evidence shows that it only 
occurred once - in Queen's Road, Hong Kong, in late 1945! 

On Christmas Day the Peak Railway restarted and, after the traditional 
meal a few of us rode up in unaccustomed style. We climbed Mount Kellett 
and rested whilst the sun streamed over all the islands - on this date four 



192 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

years earlier Hong Kong had fallen. Those early weeks of discovery would 
never occur again. They took place at the close of one chapter of the Island's 
history, the next had yet to be written. 

Back in the fields and woods of England in 1947 little seemed to have 
changed, but change was coming and the countryside would never feel the 
same again. That countryside has now been subjected to endless regulations; 
some of these have been welcomed, other are thought to spell doom. One 
eminent author has described the 1981 Wildlife and Countryside Act as "the 
most oppressive piece of legislation since children were hung for stealing 
apples"! Land, wherever it happens to be, is finite for, as Mark Twain once 
observed "they've stopped making it". 

With this thought in mind and whatever the pros and cons of particular 
proposals, there is without any doubt much to admire in the field of nature 
conservation in this small island of ours. But one wonders for the future of 
that other tiny island on the hem of China and which returns to her control in 
July 1997. 

Our protracted journey there took just over eight weeks, but Hong Kong 
can now be reached by a flight of 13-14 hours. Friends have told me of their 
recent visits but the place they describe holds few attractions. With 
agricultural land scarce, tourism a major source of revenue and a population 
in excess of five and a half miUion, the remoteness has gone, and there's no 
putting back the clock - not for all the tea in China. 



Xylena exsoleta L. (Lep.: Noctuidae): an old record 

I was most interested in the note on the early stages of Xylena exsoleta 
{antea, 65-75) and especially to learn that so few fully-grown larvae have 
been recorded in the wild. In view of this I would like to place on record the 
finding of a fully-grown larva way back in 1938. This was on a railway 
embankment at Loughton, north Buckinghamshire (LMS and good old steam 
in those days!). A rich hunting-ground marvellous for butterflies and 
supporting strong colonies of the Chimney Sweeper Odezia atrata L., The 
Four-spotted Tyta luctuosa D.& S. and The YoxQSiQV Adscita statices L. I still 
have specimens of these dating back to the 1930s. 

I recall the finding of this larva so clearly and even remember that it was 
feeding on Potentilla reptans. I have no doubt whatsoever regarding this 
record, it remains so clear in my memory. 

Unfortunately I was relieved of the creature by an uncle who was 
returning to Stamford the following day and I know not of its fate. I shall 
always be grateful to this said uncle, however, as he introduced me to 
Lepidoptera long before I started school in 1927 and it has remained a 
fascinating interest ever since.- G.E. HiGGS, The Cottage, Willen, Milton 
Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK15 9 AD. 



KENYAN ORTHOPTERA 193 



ONE AND A HALF YEARS OF KENYAN ORTHOPTERA: 

H. PAMPHAGIDAE, PYRGOMORPHIDAE, LENTULIDAE 

AND SPUR-THROATED ACRIDIDAE 

John Paul 

Downsflint, High Street, Upper Beeding, West Sussex BN44 3WN. 

THE RICHNESS OF the Kenyan grasshopper fauna owes much to the 
country's geography and ecological diversity: in the west are grasshopppers 
typical of central Africa; the Indian Ocean coast has its own special fauna 
and the forests and pastures of the highlands support a number of montane 
endemics such as Parasphena spp., Kinangopa jeanneli and Pezocatantops 
spp. In terms of African biogeography, Kenya is Afrotropical and at the 
boundary of the Sudanian and Somalian sub-zones (Dirsh, 1966). The semi- 
desert and thorn scrub of the Rift Valley allows Somalian species like 
Pycnodictya kelleri and Oedaleus instillatus to penetrate far into the country. 
Most of the African subfamilies recognised by Dirsh (1965) are represented 
in Kenya, including some genera from the mainly southern African groups 
Porthetinae, Lentulidae and Euryphyminae. 

A representative collection of grasshoppers was made while resident 
between 1991 and 1993 and on other visits. Most genera were readily 
identified using Dirsch (1965), whilst determination of species was achieved 
using many works listed by Johnston (1968) and Ritchie (1987) and by 
reference to collections at BM(NH) and the National Museum in Nairobi. 
Many African genera are unrevised, rendering accurate identification to 
species difficult. 

Pamphagidae: Porthetinae 

Lobosceliana gilgilensis (Bolivar). Split Crater, near Lake Elmenteita, 
13.xii.l992, two females in long grass. These massive grasshoppers made no 
attempt to escape and were easily picked up by hand. In life the cervical 
membrane is lilac in colour. 

Pyrgomorphidae 

Chrotogonus spp. Members of this genus, especially micropterous 
specimens are difficult to identify. Specimens from the coast and Lake 
Victoria (Kilifi, Mnarani, 15-17.V.1992; Sokoke Forest, 24.iii.1992; Lamu, 
Shela, X.1992; Lake Victoria, Usengi, xi.l992) appear to be C. hemipterus 
Schaum whilst material from northern Kenya and the southern Rift Valley 
(Lake Magadi, xii. 1992; Olorgasaihe, 26.iv.1992; Baragoi, El Barta Plains, 
l.xi.l992; Kisimia, near Maralal, 5.xi.l992) appears to be C. homalodemus 
(Blanchard). 

Phyteumas purpurascens (Karsch). Masai Mara, vii. 1985; Tigoni Falls, 
29.xii.1991. Seen but not collected in the Nairobi National Park and in a 
field near Peponi Road, Nairobi. 

Part I of this paper appeared in Volume 107: pages 277-281. 



194 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

Taphronota calliparea (Schaum). Kakamega Forest, 11.x. 1991. 

Dictyophorus griseus (Reiche & Fairmaire). Naivasha, Fisherman's Camp, 
Top Camp, 5.xii.l992. 

Parasphena keniensis rehni Kevan. Tigoni Falls, 29.xii.1991 four males, 
eight females; Gatamayu, 13.ix.l992, one female. 

P. naivashensis Kevan. Crater Lake, Naivasha, 22.xii.1991, one male, three 

nymphs; Eburru (Doinyo Burn), near Naivasha, 6.xii.l992, five males, two 

females. 

P. ngongensis Kevan. Ngong Hills, 19.i.l992. 14 males, five females, one 

nymph. 

P. mauensis Kevan. Kakamega Forest, 7-9.ii.l992, one female. A form with 

a purple dorsal stripe. 

Pyrgomorpha cognata Krauss. Amboseli National Park, 5.xii.l991; 
Olorgasailie, 26.iv.1992. 

Attractomorpha acutipennis (Guerin). Sokoke Forest, Kenya Glass Track, 
l.xii.l991; Mnarani Kilifi, 21-24.iii.1992; Jimba, near Kaloleni, 23.iii.1992. 

Lentulidae 

Usambilla oraria Jago. Sokoke Forest, Jilore Track, 23. in. 1992 & 16.V.1992. 

Acrididae: Hemiacridinae 

Spathosternum pygmaeum Karsch. Kakamega Forest, 11.x. 1991 & 7- 
9.ii.l992. 

Mesopersa filum (Bolivar). Kakamega Forest, 7-9.ii.l992. 

Oxyinae 

Oxya hyla Serville. Sokoke Forest, Kenya Glass Track, l.xii.l991, swept 
from long grass. 

Coptacridinae 

Parepistaurus felix Kevan. Sokoke Forest, 24.iii.1992, 20.iv.l992, coastal 
endemic. 

P. deses nairobii Green {in press). Hurlington, Nairobi, in garden, v. 1992; 
Njukiini Forest, Embu, 5.vii.l992; Thika Falls, xi.l992; Gatamayu, 
13.ix.l992; Ololua Forest, Karen, 15.iii.l992, ll.vii.l992, 15.viii.l992, 
19.ix.l992. A newly described subspecies with a bright orange-red underside 
in mature adults. 

Paracoptacra ?ascensi Giglio-Tos. A single female with brown markings 
collected above Lessos at 8000ft, 7.ii.l992, on shrubs in open woodland 
shows features of P. ascensi but to some extent also of P. cauta. 

P. cauta Karsch. Ololua Forest, Karen, 15.iii.l992; Peponi Road, Nairobi, 
19.i.l992; Kakamega Forest, 7-9.ii.l992, Njukiini Forest, Embu, 5.vii.l992. 



KENYAN ORTHOPTERA 195 



These grasshoppers have green markings and dwell amongst luxuriant 
vegetation at forest edges or in light gaps. 

Calliptaminae 

Acofjpha sp. Eburru, 6.xii.l992; Split Crater, Lake Elmenteita, 13.xii.l992. 

Euryphyminae 

Phymeurus granulatus (Uvarov). Eburru, 6.xii.l992. Two males. 

Eyprepocnemidinae 

Eyprepocnemis plorans (Charpentier). Awasi, Lake Victoria, xi.l992, two 
females; Kakamega Forest, 7-9. ii. 1992, one female. A darkly pigmented, 
fully-winged Eyprepocnemis which appears to be a form of E. plorans was 
collected from several sites in the Naivasha district (Hell's Gate, l.xi.l991, 
one male; Crater Lake, 22.xii.1991, one nymph; Split Crater, Lake 
Elmenteita, 13.xii.l992, one male; Eburru, 6.xii.l992, one male). 

Heteracris coerulescens (Stal). Kibarani, Kilifi, 22.iii.1992. 

H. brevipennis Bolivar. Hurlingham, Nairobi, iv.l992, in garden; Lavington, 
Nairobi, v-vi.l991, on garden bean plants; Ol Doinyo Sabuk, 25.1.1992; 
Ngong Hills, 19.1.1992; Tigoni Falls, 29.xii.1991; Ololua Forest, Karen, 
15.iii.l992. Kenya highland endemic. 

Oxyaeida poultoni Ramme. Sokoke Forest, Kenya Glass Track, l.xii.l991, 
swept from grass; Ngerenya, Kilifi, 21.iii.l992, colony on reeds in dried-up 
pond. 

Taramassus sp. Olekemonge Gorge, Magadi Road, 25.V.1991; Mnarani, 
Kilifi, 21-24.iii.1992 & 15-17.V.1992; Ololua Forest, Karen, lO.x.1992; 
Sokoke Forest, Kararacha Track, 18.iv.l992; Sokoke Forest, 24.iii.1992; 
Lerochi Plateau, Maralal, 3 1.x. 1992; Nairobi, wasteland beside Mbagathi 
Way, V.1991. This genus is unrevised. 

Cataloipus cognatus (Walker). Nairobi, on wasteland between Kenyatta 
National Hospital and Mbagathi Way, v. 1 99 1 . 

Tylotropidius didymus (Thunberg). Kakamega, in old quarry, 7-9. ii. 1992. 

Metaxymecus gracilipes (Brancsik). Long-winged examples were found in 
dry open scrub at the following localities: Magadi Road, l.ii.l992; Kilifi, 
Ngerenya, 21.iii.l992; Kilifi, Mnarani, 21-24.iii.1992. The short-winged 
form, formerly known as Tylotropidius lanceolatus Ramme but synonymised 
with Metaxymecus gracilipes by Grunshaw (1995) was found at Kakamega, 
in a moist clearing next to the Forest Resthouse, ll.x.1991 & 7-9. ii. 1992. 
The two forms appear to have different ecological requirements. 

Paraprocticus pendulus (Karsch). Sokoke Forest, 1991-1992; Ololua Forest, 
Karen, ll.vii.l992 & i.l993; Chania Falls, Thika, 5.vii.l992; Nairobi, 
Hurlingham, in garden, v. 1992. 



196 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

Catantopinae 

Kinangopa jeanneli Uvarov. Gatamayu Forest, 13. ix. 1992. The 
predominantly green males occur on forest herbage in light gaps in company 
with Aresceutica vansomerini. The brown angular females which resemble 
Ixalidium occur in leaf litter nearby. 

Ixalidium sp. Sokoke Forest, Kenya Glass Track, l.xii.l991; Sokoke Forest, 
Jilore Track, 23.iii.1992 & 16.V.1992; Sokoke Forest, 24.iii.1992; Mnarani 
Kilifi, 21-24.iii.1992. The genus awaits revision. 

Stenocrobylus cennnus Gerstaecker. Kilifi, 20.iv.l992, a male appeared on 
Land-rover window when driving across Kilifi Bridge. 

P seudophialosphera severini (Ramme). Sokoke Forest, Kenya Glass Track, 
l.xii.l991; Sokoke Forest, Jilore Track, 23.iii.1992; Sokoke Forest, 
24.iii.1992. 

Aresceutica vansomerni Kevan. Tigoni Falls, 29.xii.1991; Gatamayu Forest, 
13.ix.l992; Kieni Forest, 13.ix.l992; Njukiini Forest, Embu, 5.vii.l992. 

Brachycatantops emalicus (Kevan). Sokoke Forest, Jilore Track, 20.iv.l992. 

Pezacatantops lobipennis (Sjostedt). Timboroa, 9000ft, 10.x. 1991. 

P. ngongi (Uvarov). Ngong Hills, 8000ft, 19.1.1992. Endemic to the Ngong 
Hills. 

Auloserpusia phoeniconata Jago. Kakamega Forest, 1 1.x. 1991. 

Cerechta bouvieri Bolivar. Sokoke Forest, Kararacha Track, 18.iv.l992. 

Pteroperina steini Ramme. Kakamega Forest, 7-9. ii. 1992; Saiwa Swamp, 
12.X.1991. 

Abisares viridipennis (Burmeister). Nairobi, dead on path, Wellcome Trust 
research laboratories compound, iv.l992. 

Cardeniopsis nigropunctatus (Bolivar). Kakamega Forest, abundant in large 
clearing north of the Forest Resthouse, 7-9. ii. 1992. 

Diabolocatantops axillaris (Thunberg). Magadi, l.ii.l992; Kilifi, xi.- 
xiLl991;Malindi, vii.1985. 

Hadrolecocatantops kissanjanicus (Rehn). Kakamega Forest, 7-9. ii. 1992. 

Epacrocatantops cwvicercus (Miller). Nairobi, Kirichwa Kubwa, l.i.l992; 
Nairobi, Wellcome Trust research laboratories compound, iv.l992; Tumu 
Tumu, near Karatina, 26-27. ix, 1992. 

Cryptocatantops alessandricus (Sjostedt). Kilifi, Mnarani, 21-24.iii.1992 
Sokoke Forest, Kararacha Track, 18.iv.l992; Malindi, Silversands, vii.1985 
Sokoke Forest, Jilore Track, 23.iii.1992 & 16. v. 1992; Sokoke Forest 
24.iii.1992; Kilifi, Kibarani, 22.iii.1992; Kilifi, xi-xii.l991. 

Catantops momboensis Sjostedt. Hell's Gate, l.vi.l991; Naivasha, Kongoni, 
22.xii.1991; Lake Victoria, Usengi, xi.l992. 



KENYAN ORTHOPTER A 197 



Pseudopropacris vana (Karsch). Ololua Forest, Karen, 15.iii.l992; Njukiini 
Forest, Embu, 5.vii.l992. 

Cyrtacanthacridinae 

Anacridium melanorhodon (Walker). Lake Magadi, Emarti Oo Lainyamok 
Plain, 11.x. 1992, in thorn scrub; seen but not collected by Magadi 
golf course, 1992. 

Cyrtacanthacris tatarica (L.). Nairobi, Wellcome Trust research laboratories 
compound, iv.l992. 

Ornithacris turbida (Walker). Kakamega Forest, 7-9.ii.l992. A huge orange- 
winged species, of Central African distribution (Mungai, 1987a); scarce in 
large grassy clearings, such as the old quarry; wary and very difficult to catch. 

O. pictula magnifica (Bolivar). These huge purple-winged grasshoppers 
were found in small numbers at the Split Crater near Lake Elmenteita, 
13.xii.l992. When disturbed they fly like birds between scrubs. 

Acanthacris deckeni (Gerstaecker). A large pale-green species. Sokoke 
Forest along the Jilore Track, 16.V.1992. 

A. ruficornis (Fab.). Nairobi; Tigoni Falls, 29.xii.1991; Ololua Forest, Karen, 
xi.l992; Wellcome Trust research laboratories compound, iv.l992. 
Examples seen high in trees at Kakamega but not collected, may have been 
A. ruficornis or A. elgonensis (see Mungai, 1987b). 

Localities: 2. Western Kenya 

Western Kenya is densely populated but the surviving natural habitat 
preserves many western elements otherwise unknown in Kenya. Kakamega 
Forest is the most impressive entomological locality with over three-hundred 
species of butterfly (Larsen, 1991), including majestic blue Charaxes 
tiridates and C. bipunctatus, Salamis femora and the endemic Euphaedra 
rex. One may stay at the Forest Resthouse, a basic but perfectly situated 
building on stilts. An attempt at camping in torrential rain resulted in a tent 
full of water. Entry to the forest is provided by unsignposted dirt roads 
which are slippery in wet weather. The roadsides, trails and small tea 
plantations are colonised by grasshoppers typical of disturbed ground like 
Heteropternis couloniana and Morphacris fasciata. Kakamega M. fasciata 
have yellow wings unlike others I have seen in Kenya with red wings. Light 
gaps in the forest itself harbour species characteristic of the equatorial forests 
of Central Africa such as Spathosternum pygmaeum, Auloserpusia 
phoeniconata, Pteroperina steini, the short-winged form of Metaxymecus 
gracilipes (syn. Tylotropidius lanceolatus) and the leaf-like tetrigid 
Xerophyllum russisianum Rehn. At night, an illuminated sheet attracted the 
common phaneropterine Phaneroptera sparsa and the beautiful mantid 
Phloeomantis sp. Open areas of grassland at Kakamega are populated by 



198 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

equatorial grassland species including Hadrolecocatantops kissanjanicus, 
Gastrimargus mirabilis, Mesospersa filum and Cardeniopsis nigropunctatus 
and more widespread insects like Gastrimargus africanus. Outside 
Kakamega Forest there are other interesting areas of woodland in western 
Kenya. For instance, at Saiwa Swamp National Park there are strips of forest 
with Pteroperina steini and Odontomelas kwidschwianus. 

The habitat around Lake Victoria is largely degraded by the dense human 
population and species typical of disturbed ground occur, such as Acrotylus 
patruelis. On the sandy lakeshore itself, Calephorus compressicornis occurs, 
a very widespread insect found as far north as dunes on the Brittany coast. A 
feature of gravel road verges in western Kenya is Acrotylus elgonensis, 
occurring at Awasi (4500ft) near Lake Victoria and abundantly in the 
Western Highlands near Lessos (8000ft) and Timboroa (9000ft). It seems 
likely that road construction has allowed this insect to extend its range. Also 
at Timboroa, where a main road provides easy access to highland pasture is 
Pezocatantops lobicornis, a small brachypterous catantopine grasshopper 
endemic to the Western Highlands. 

Acknowledgements 
I thank S.V. Green, M.N. Mungai, D.R. Ragge, N.D. Jago and J.M. Ritchie 
for their helpful advice. 

References 

Dirsh, V.M., 1965. The African genera of Acridoidea. Cambridge University Press. 

- , 1966. Acridoidea of Angola. Publ. cult. Comp. Diam. Angola. 74(1-2): 1 1-527. 
Grunshaw, J.P., 1995. The taxonomy of Tylotropidius StSl 1873 and related genera 

(Orthoptera Acrididae Eyprepocnemidnae). Tropical Zoology. 8: 401-433. 
Johnsen, P. & Schmidt, G.H., 1982. Notes on and a checklist of Acridoidea (Saltatoria) 

collected in Somalia (East Africa). Monitore zool. ital. (N.S.) Suppl. 16: 69-1 19. 
Johnsen, P. & Forchhammer, P., 1975. Checklist of the Acridomorpha of Tanzania. 

Naturajutl. 18: 26-62. 
Johnston, H.B., 1968. Annotated catalogue of African grasshoppers: Supplement. 

Cambridge University Press. 
Larsen. T.B., 1991. The butterflies of Kenya and their natural history. Oxford University 

Press. 
Mungai, M.N., 1987a. A taxonomic revision of the genus Ornithacris based on the 

internal morphology male genitalia: Acrididae: Cyrtacanthacridinae. Eos, 63: 153-169. 

- , 1987b. The African grasshopper genus Acanthacis (Orthoptera: Acrididae: 
Cyrtacanthacridinae). /. nat. Hist. 21: 807-823. 

Ritchie, J.M., 1987. Taxonomy of the African acridoid fauna: progress and prospects 1970- 
1985. In Evolutionaij biology of orthopteroid insects. Baccetti. B. (Ed.), Chichester. 

Corections to One and a half years of Kenyan Orthoptera: I. Introduction 
and Tettigoniidae. (Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 107: 277-281) 

p. 281 . For Parasphena kinangopa read Parasphena keniensis rehni. 

p. 281. The end of the second paragraph should read ". . . Parasphena 
naivashensis, Phymeurus granulatus, Acorypha sp., . . ." 



GREEK BUTTERFLIES 199 



SOME NOTABLE BUTTERFLY RECORDS FROM GREECE IN 

1992 AND 1995 

Andrew Wakeham-Dawson 

The Game Conservancy Trust, Fordingbridge, Hampshire SP6 lEF. 

DURING TRAVELS IN Greece between 19 July to 3 August 1992 and 
3 July to 17 July 1995 (Fig. 1), 114 species of butterflies were seen. As the 
butterfly fauna of Greece has been well recorded (Gaskin, 1996), only the 
most notable of these species are listed here. These include species which 
were rare or less easy to identify. An asterisk (*) next to a species indicates 
that identification was confirmed by examination of male genitalia. Species 
are listed in alphabetical order within family groups. Butterflies appeared to 
be most active between 10.00 and 12.00 hours. The greatest diversities and 
abundances of butterfly species were found in wet areas, especially near 
streams in the mountains. Altitudes at which butterflies are recorded on 
Mount Chelmos in the current list are generally c.200-300 metres lower than 
the more accurate altitudes estimated for the same areas by Leestmans & 
Arheilger(1987). 

List of species 
Papilionidae 

Zerynthia cerisyi Stichel. Wet stream valley, Mt Falakro at 600m, a single worn female. 

Parnassius apollo L. Mount Olympus, North Pindos Mts. Locally common above 
1000m. Females seen in the North Pindos were large and brightly marked with red (f. 
rhodopensis Markovic?). 

P. mnemosyne athene* Stichel. Mt Chelmos, Mount Parnassos. Males and females 
(unmated and mated with a sphragis) locally common above 1000m in pine forest and 
sub-alpine pasture. Specimens from North Pindos Mts and Mt Veluchi were larger 
than those from Mt Chelmos and the chain of white spots in the grey marginal area of 
the upper forewing was reduced or absent {mnemosyne mnemosyne L.). 

Pieridae 

Colias aurorina heldreichii Staudinger. Males and females locally common on Mt 
Chelmos, Mt Parnassos and Mt Veluchi (including white females f. fountaineae) 
above 1000m in pine forest and sub-alpine pasture. 

Nymphalidae 

Boloria graeca graeca Staudinger. Mt Veluchi. Males and females common on stony 
sub-alpine pasture above 1500m. Specimens from this region were larger and had 
blacker and brighter orange wing colours than specimens from Mt Falakro (Wakeham- 
Dawson, 1995). Specimens from Mt Falakro were probably graeca balcanica Rebel 
(van der Poorten, 1982). 

Brenthis hecaie D.&S. Mt Falakro, Mt Olympus, North Pindos Mts. A few worn females 
in meadows above 1000m. 

Mellicta athalia* Rott. North Pindos Mts. A few worn males in a flowery roadside above 
1000m. 



200 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

Satyridae 

Coenonympha rhodopensis* Elwes. Mount Falakro in a pine forest clearing at 1400m, a 

single male. 
Erebia medusa medusa D. & S. Locally common on Mt Olympus, and Mt Falakro in 

pine forest clearings at 1400m. 

E. ottomana bulgarica Drenowski. Common on rocky sub-alpine slopes on Mt Veluchi 
above 1500m, but only males (very fresh) seen. 

Hipparchia volgensis delattini* Kudma. Mt Chelmos. A few fresh males and females 
resting on tree trunks in pine forest at <900m, with wings closed. 

Neohipparchia fatua* Freyer. South Peleponnesos. Locally common at sea level, resting 
on tree trunks with wings closed. 

P seudochazara amhelea amalthea* Frivaldsky. Mt Chelmos, Mt Pamassos. Males and 
females common at c. 1000m, flying among pine trees and resting on the ground with 
wings closed. 

P. graeca graeca* Staudinger. Mt Chelmos. Common above 1300m, but fresh males 
only, flying close to the ground and resting on rocks with wings closed. 

P. mniszechii tisiphone* Brown (= cingovskii tisiphone Brown). Mt Smolikas, barren 
rocky slopes near pine forests at c. 1000m. Five fresh males and one female, feeding 
on flowers. 

Lycaenidae 

Agrodiaetus admetus* Esper. Below 1000m. Mt Chelmos region, Taygetos Mts, Mt 
Pamassos, Mt Veluchi. Males and females locally common in arid areas and less 
common in mountain meadows to 1300m, often resting in or beneath scrub bushes 
during the hottest parts of the day. Specimens fresh. 

A. amanda* Schneider. Mt Chelmos, Mt Olympus, Mt Pamassos, Mt Smolikas. Males 
and females locally common in mountain meadows to c. 1000m. Specimens wom. 

A. aroaniensis* Brown. North Peleponnesos. Males locally common in arid areas, only 
one female seen. Specimens fresh. 

A. damon* D. & S. Small colony (males only, specimens very fresh) in herb-rich pasture 
c.l500m,Mt Veluchi. 

A. escheri dalmaticus'^ Speyer. Mt Falakro, Mt Pamassos, North Pindos Mts. Males and 
females uncommon in mountain meadows to c. 1000m. 

A. iphigenia nonacriensis Brown. Despite a close search to 1500m on Mt Chelmos in 
1992 and 1995, this species was not found. 

A. pelopi* Brown. Taygetos Mts, Mt Chelmos, Mt Pamassos, Mt Veluchi, North Pindos 
Mts. Males and females very common in hot, arid areas and mountain meadows to 
1500m. On a wet day, fresh males and females were observed roosting on mint 
(Mentha sp.?) plants along a ski-road through pine woods at 1500mm on Mt 
Pamassos. The pelopi were roosting with their heads downwards and there was 
generaUy only one butterfly per plant. In areas below 1000m near Mt Chelmos, pe/o/?/, 
admetus and aroaniensis were observed flying together. 

A. ther sites* Cantener. Widespread and common at low level. 

Aricia anteros Freyer. Mt Veluchi. A single male in herb-rich pasture at c. 1500m. 

A. artaxerxes allous* Geyer. Pamon Mts where the species was uncommon in dry, rocky 
meadows at c. 1000m. Mount Veluchi where the species was common in meadows 
above 1500m. Orange markings were completely absent from the upper surfaces of 
the forewings in males and females from both areas. 



GREEK BUTTERFLffiS 



201 



Heodes ottomanus Lefebvre. One male by a stream below 1000m near Kalavryta and 
one male near a stream at 1300m on Mount Chelmos. 

lolana iolas Ochsenheimer. Mt Pamassos, larvae in seedpods of Colutea arborescens L. 

Lycaeides idas idas* L. Mt Pamassos. A single male in sub-alpine pasture above 1500m. 

L. idas magnagraeca* Verity. Mt Olympus, North Pindos Mts in grassy areas at 
c. 1000m. Genitalia similar to idas idas, but wings larger and more purple with broader 
black margins. Common. The idas recorded from north-east Greece (Wakeham- 
Dawson, 1995) were idas magnagraeca. 




Fig. 1. Areas surveyed for butterflies in Greece in July 1992 (dotted line shows route of 

travel) and July 1995 (solid line shows route of travel). 

A, Athens; P, Peleponnesos; T, Thessalonika. 

1. Mount Falakro; 2. Mt Olympus; 3. North Pindos Mts (inc. Mt Smolikas); 4. Mt 

Veluchi (= Mt Timphristos); 5. Mt Pamassos; 6. Mt Chelmos (Aroanian Mts), 7. 

Taygetos Mts; 8. Pamon Mts. 



202 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

Lycaena dispar riitila Wemeburg. A single worn male (probably first brood), wet stream 
valley, Mt Falakro at 600m. Fresh second brood specimens of this species were found 
in the same location in late July 1994 (Wakeham-Dawson, 1995). 

Lysandra bellargus Rott. Mt Chelmos, a few males c. 1000m. 

L. coridon Poda. Mt Pamassos, a single male c. 1000m. 

Maculinea arion L. Wet stream valley, Mt Falakro at 600m, a single male. 

Plebejus argus* L. Mt Chelmos, Mt Falakro, Mt Veluchi. Locally very common, 
especially at higher altitudes. 

P. pylaon brethertoni* Brown. Mt Chelmos, Mt Veluchi. Locally common above 1000m 
in mountain meadows. 

Polyommatus eros menelaos Brown. Mt Chelmos, a single male at c. 1300m. 

Pseudophilotes bavius casimiri Hemming. Mt Chelmos, a single female at 1300m. 

Thersamonia thersamon Esper. A single female by a stream near Kalavryta (c.750m) at 
the base of Mt Chelmos. 

Hesperiidae 

These species were generally found in grassy areas and were easy to overlook because of 
their small size and rapid flight. 

Carcharodus alceae* Esper. Widespread. 

C orientalis* Reverdin. Mt Chelmos, Mt Veluchi. Locally common c. 1000m. 
Specimens found on these two mountains were much browner than grey specimens 
from north-east Greece in May (Wakeham-Dawson, 1996). The browner July 
specimens were superficially similar to C. lavatherae Esper on the uppersides of the 
wings. 

C. focciferus* Zeller. North Pindos Mts. A single male c. 1000m. 

Ei-ynnis tages L. Mt Chelmos region, North Pindos Mts. Widespread and common. 

Pyrgus armoricanus^ Oberthur. Widespread and common. 

P. sidae Esper. North Pindos Mts. A few specimens c 1000m, very worn. 

Spialia orbifer* Hiibner. Mt Pamassos. Common. 

S. phlomidis* Herrich-Schaffer. Mt Chelmos, North Pindos Mts. Common above 1000m. 

Syrichtus proto* Ochsenheimer. Mt Chelmos region, Parnon Mts, Taygetos Mts. 
Common between 700 and 1500m. 

Thymelicus acteon* Rott. North Pindos Mts, a single male c. 1000m. 

T. sylvestris Poda. Mt Chelmos region. North Pindos Mts, Mt Veluchi. Widespread. 

T. lineola Ochsenheimer. Mt Veluchi. A single male above 1000m. 

Acknowledgements 

I thank the Greek Ministry of Agriculture, General Secretariat of Forests and 
Natural Environment, Direction of Aesthetic Forests, Natural Parks and 
Game in Athens for permission to conduct this study and collect material 
(Research Licences: 89875/4255, 76205/2348 and 62070/303), and the 
Trustees and Staff of The Natural History Museum, London for allowing the 



GREEK BUTTERFLIES 203 



the use of the National Collections and the Entomology Library (and 
especially the librarians Julie Harvey, Loma Michell and Ruth Lanstone) for 
the present work. I thank Colin Plant (Editor) and an anonymous referee for 
helpful comments on an earlier draft of this list. 

References 

Gaskin, D.E., 1996. Research on Grecian Butterflies: a Bibliography. Entomologist' s 

Rec.J.Var.\{iS:A9-6\. 
van der Poorten, D., 1982. Interessante Dagvlinderwaamemingen in Griekenland, Juli 

\9%\.Phegeam. 11-^1. 
Wakeham-Dawson, A., 1995. Butterflies in north-east Greece (28th July - 4th August 

1994). Entomologist' sRec. J. Var. 107: 267-271. 
- , 1996. Butterflies in north-east Greece 2 (4 - 11 May 1995). Entomologist' s Rec. J. 

Var. 108:85-91. 
Leestmans, R. & Arheilger, T., 1987. Les Lepidopteres du massif du Chelmos 

(Peloponnese, Grece): inventaire et considerations zoogeographiques (premiere 

partie). Linneana Belgica 4: 150-192. 



The arrival of Phyllonorycter platani and P. leucographella 
( Lep.: Gracillariidae) in Reading 

I have been looking out for Phyllonorycter platani (Stgdr.) and for 
Phyllonoiycter leucographella (Zell.) in my local area since finding mines of 
the former in London Plane Platanus x hispanica, at the annual exhibition of 
the British Entomological and Natural History Society at South Kensington, 
London on 22 October 1994, and of the latter in firethom Pyracantha sp. in 
my parents' garden at Wickford in Essex on 22 April 1989 (about two weeks 
after its discovery in this area by M. Emmet, although for some time I 
believed the moths I reared from these pod-like mines to be unusual varieties 
of P. coTylifoliellainh.)). 

At a field meeting I led at Ashley Hill Forest, Knowl Hill near 
Maidenhead, Berkshire on 27 October 1996 I heard rumour that both these 
species had been seen that year in the Reading area. Subsequently I 
discovered the unmistakable mines of P. platani in plane leaves on sapling 
trees outside the main train station in Reading on 5 January 1997. One leaf 
contained four mines, a second contained two. On arriving back at my house 
on the same day I noticed the characteristic early mines of P. leucographella 
over the mid-rib of three firethom leaves on a bush growing at the end of my 
road. Since then, the number of mined leaves on this bush has increased to 
15, despite the bush having been pruned by its owners in February. This 
exercise removed two of the three leaves noted as mined on 5 January. 

I also noted mines of P. platani in plane leaves lying in the High Street of 
Marlow, Buckinghamshire on 14 December 1996, but have not seen 
evidence of this species yet in Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire (10 March 
1997), despite looking for it.- L Sims, 2 The Delph, Lower Farley, Reading, 
Berkshire RG6 3AN. 



204 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 1 09 25 . vii. 1 997 

Beetles in Toad Faeces 

A large toad Bufo bufo L. resided for the whole of the summer of 1993 under 
a flat metal sheet lying on the surface of a vegetable garden in Blackford, 
Edinburgh (O.S. Grid reference NT2571, VC83). Prior to moving to 
hibernation quarters in October 1993 this toad produced a single large faecal 
stool. After rearing some sphaerocerid flies from the stool (Bland, K.P., 
1995, Dipterists Digest 2 (second series): 12), the insect remains in the faecal 
material were studied. Some indication of the prehibemation binge indulged 
in by this toad can be gathered from the following list of insect remains: 

COLEOPTERA 

Carabidae 

Leistus fulvibarbis Dejean - 1 pronotum, 1 right elytron 

Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius) or N. salina Fairmaire & Laboulbene - 

1 pronotum, 1 elytron, 1 abdomen 
Agonum dorsale (Pontoppidan) - 1 elytron 

Staphylinidae 

Philonthus decorus (Gravenhorst) - a few abdominal sclerites. 

IStaphylinus brunnipes Fabricius - 1 elytron 

S. globulifer Fourcroy - 5 heads, 3 right & 5 left elytra, 8 pronota 

S. olens Miiller, O.F. - 7 heads, 9 right & 9 left elytra, 8 pronota, 2 aedeagi 

ICreophilus maxillosus (Linnaeus) - one abdominal sclerite 

Quedius tristis (Gravenhorst) - 2 heads, 9 elytra, 1 aedeagus 

Also numerous bits and pieces of one or more small/medium-sized species 
of IQuedius, but it was not possible to be more precise. 

Curculionidae 

Otiorhynchus singularis (Linnaeus) - 1 pronotum, 1 elytron, 1 abdomen 
Phyllobius sp. - 1 head 

Also numerous unidentifiable fragments of assorted thoracic appendages of 
coleopterous origin. 

DIPTERA 

2 heads of unidentified species. 

The nine large Devil's Coach-horses Staphylinus olens must have accounted 
for 30-40% of the bulk of the insect food that was eaten to produce the faecal 
material from which these remains were taken. The poor toad must have had 
some intestinal discomfort passing such a substantial faecal stool. In total 
fragments were present of a minimum of 33 insects. All the species recorded 
are quite common, although Leistus fulvibarbis is less common than the 
others.- K.P. Bland, National Museums of Scotland, Chambers Street, 
Edinburgh EHl IJF and M. Sinclair, Gipnigoe, Main Street, Denholm, 
Roxbs. TD9 8NU. 



HIGH ALTITUDE BEES IN INDIA 



205 



OCCURRENCE OF POLLINATOR BEES IN LEH: LADAKH 

(JAMMU & KASHMIR) AT 3430 METRES (11,200 FEET) 

ALTITUDE IN INDIA 

MOHOMMAD ArIF AND NaRENDRA KuMAR 
Defence Agricultural Research Laboratoiy. Pithorogarh, 262501 , India 

OUT OF 19,000 species of wild bee in the world (Linsley, 1958) only two, 
the leaf-cutting bee Megachile rotunda Fabr. (Bohrat, 1972; Johanson & 
Mayer, 1976) and the Alkali Bee Nomia melanderi Cockerell (Johanson & 
Eves, 1973) are manipulated and used in crop pollination. 

During the survey and collection of insects at high altitude in the north- 
west Himalayas, two hymenopterous insects, Andrena peregrina Smith 
(Andrenidae) and a CoUetes species (Colletidae) were collected from flowers 
of mustard, lai, radish, turnip, knol-khol, carrot and onion in the Leh: Ladakh 
region, Jammu & Kashmir, at 3430 metres (11,200 feet) altitude from the 
last week of July to mid-August during 1992. The population of A. peregrina 
dominated in all crop types, in comparison with the unknown CoUetes. 
However, the average population of A. peregrina on each crop was low, with 
a high of ten on mustard followed by eight on carrots (Table 1). 

The pollen collected by A. peregrina and held in the pollen-baskets on the 
hind tibiae appeared as a yellowish-white ball approximately 4mm in 
diameter. The bees in the present study were observed actively pollinating 
the crops in these high altitude areas. Rashad and Moneim (1983) have 
reported two species, Andrena savignii and A. fucosa pollinating a broad 
bean crop in Egypt and Kapil and Jain (1983) list A. ilerda, A. leana, A. 
carantonica and A. Candida on a variety of different vegetable crops and in 



Table 1: Populations of Andrena peregrina and the unknown CoUetes species on 
different crops in Leh: Ladakh, India in 1992 



Crop 


Numbers of bees per plant recorded 


Andrena peregrina 


CoUetes sp. 


Mustard Brassica campestris L. 

Lai B.juncea L. 

Radish Raphnus sativus L. 

Turnip B. rap a L. 

Knol-khol B. oleracea var. gongy lodes 

Carrot Daucus carota L. 

Onion Allium cepa L. 


10 
3 
4 
5 
4 
8 
6 


3 
1 
2 
3 
3 
4 
3 



206 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 1 09 25 . vii. 1 997 

orchards. From the available literature, this present report of A. peregrina 
appears to be the first from Leh: Ladakh since it was collected at Yangihissar 
on the second Yarkand Mission (Donald Baker, /767-5. comm.). 

Acknowledgements 

The authors are grateful to Dr Donald B. Baker, Hope Department 
Entomological Collections, Oxford University Museum and Director of the 
International Listitute of Entomology, London, for the identification of insect 
specimens. 

References 

Bohart, G.E., 1972. Aimual Review of Entomology 17: 287. 

Johanson, C. & Eves, I.D., 1973. Washington Agric. Ext. Serv. EM 3535: 7 

Johnson, C. & Mayer, D., 1976. Pacific North West Ext. Pub. 155: 19. 

Linsley, E.G., 1958. Hilgardia, 593 - 599. 

Kapil, R.P. & Jain, K.L., 1977. Role of solitary bees in promotion of agricultural 

production. Second International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates. 

ICAR, New Delhi, pp. 557 - 579. 
Rashad, E.S. & Moneim, E.A., 1983. Some notes on the biology and behaviours of the 

wild bee Megachile patelimana Spin, in the New Valley, Egypt. Second International 

Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates. ICAR, New Delhi, pp. 310 - 319. 



Hazards of butterfly collecting - Christian Cat goes camping, 
Botswana 1991 

It was to be our joint swan-song expedition in Botswana, to the Tswapong 
Hills, one of the finest collecting spots in the country. There are probably at 
least 125 butterfly species in the area - not much by rainforest standards, but 
a lot by the semi-desert conditions of Botswana (1992, Butterfly collecting in 
the Tswapong Hills, Botswana. Metamorphosis 3: 18-20). The well-wooded 
hills are very beautiful, and no-one else is around. 

We loaded up the Toyota Hilux at dawn. There is no need to travel light if 
you do not have to, and Nancy likes a few creature comforts when camping. 
I think I have previously mentioned that we carry chopsticks on camping 
trips - just in case we get the fancy for crab with straw-mushrooms and glass 
noodles. We also carry a wok. 

As usual our cat. Christian - the only survivor of Christian, Frederick and 
Margrethe, named after the Danish royal lineage - participated 
enthusiastically in the preparations. He loved poking about the car. He hated 
driving in it, though. Once, when taking him to the vet, he escaped through a 
slit in the window that seemed too narrow for a spider. We got him back 
only four hours later after distributing a generous amount of Pula notes to all 
the kids in the neighbourhood. He was found hiding deep under a pile of 
bricks at a building site. It took a long time to coax him out, and several 
additional Pula to the finder. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 207 

Off we went at 06.00 for the four hour drive. We stopped' just before the 
destination to have a rest. We opened the back of the Hilux to get a cold 
drink and heard a curious, tentative squeak. Rats among food stocks? No . . . 
a bedraggled and shell-shocked Christian Cat was found ... in need of 
serious comforting. We had a drink. Christian Cat had a snack. He spent the 
rest of the drive draped across Nancy's lap, the claws of all four paws firmly 
embedded in her thighs. 




Nancy and Christian Cat at camp. 

We had to leave the cat inside the car while collecting for the rest of the 
day - not to his liking. At 15.30 we found a good campsite and set up camp 
with well-honed skills. Christian Cat promply disappeared. We began to be 
worried, but it turned out he was just "casing the joint", systematically 
exploring - and perhaps even marking - his new territory. 

Christian had a share of the boerwurst (made by Boers, not from Boers) 
we were going to grill for dinner and seemed content and secure. We had an 
excellent dinner (grilled boerwurst, potatoes baked in the campfire, salad, 
and excellent South African plonk). What to do with the cat? We had 
designs of spending the night in the tent engaging in activities with which a 
cat would only interfere. But the cat went absolutely spare when locked up 
in the car, careering so fast that literally hit the roof. We decided that it 
would be safe to leave him in the open. After all, he had already cased the 
joint. Just after reaching this comfortable conclusion, all hell broke loose. A 
pack of hyenas went off in a chorus of laughter all around the camp. Sorry 
Christian . . . into the cab you go. A city cat would make a nice hyena snack. 



208 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

We could hear him whirling around the cab of the car while we implemented 
our original designs. 

Over the next few days we caught several very interesting butterflies that 
were not yet seen before. We were at the end of a series of quite wet years 
by Botswana standards - following a protracted drought - and it seems that 
many species were gradually moving back into Botswana from the 
Transvaal. Doubtless this kind of retrenchment and expansion are a regular 
feature in very arid zones. 

We changed campsite and it was fascinating to see Christian Cat casing 
the joint once again, in a most methodical manner. They may have been 
human companions for millenia, but some of their original territorial 
behaviour survives. It was rather less fascinating bringing him back to 
Gaborone. Nancy did not have the heart to relegate him to the back of the 
Hilux. He was draped over her lap for the four-hour journey, all four sets of 
claws again embedded in Nancy's thighs, never looking out. There was the 
occasional low moan from both of them. I kept my foot on the accelerator till 
we reached home. 

We opened the front door of the house and started lugging in the gear. 
We found Christian in his usual place - in front of the fridge staring 
intently at the door - that great white deity in which the catfood lives. 
Christian Cat was back home!- Torben B. Larsen, 258 Coldharbour 
Lane, London SW9 8PL. 



Commemorative March flight of the Horse Chestnut Moth for Colin Smith 

On 15 March 1997 the ashes of Professor Colin Smith were scattered by his 
wife Ruth and family on a Sussex heath, so returning Colin to his county of 
birth. 

Towards the end of this little ceremony a pale moth, that was too large for 
most micros and rather long-winged, flew up from the heather. Whilst 
working nearby for larvae afterwards, I caught and identified a number of 
similar moths which were the Horse Chestnut Pachycnemia hippocastanaria 
Steph., the exceptionally early date of emergence being due doubtless to the 
long spell of unusually warm spring temperatures with sunshine, rather than 
as a tribute to Colin, nice though that thought is; Barrett, Lepidoptera of the 
British Islands 7: 251 (how very thorough the Victorians were with full 
original text), remarks that this moth will fly in March in forward seasons. 

The Calluna was a sorry sight, showing die-back and desiccation 
following drought but the Erica was by contrast green and healthy with 
abundant seedling regeneration. Larvae disturbed from Erica and Calluna 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 209 

included third instar Noctua comes mostly parasitised by Aleiodes spp., 
small Xestia agathina, and a tiny Noctua fimbriata both also attacked by 
Aleiodes spp., a small Campaea margaritata and Aids repandata definitely 
from Calluna, a half-grown Dyscia fagaria and a pupa of Thera obeliscata 
amongst Erica beneath pine. 

Colin Smith will be better known to academia for his outstanding literary 
achievements associated with his renowned work in promoting better 
understanding of the Spanish language and literature in which he became a 
recognised authority of Spanish medieval epic. His Collins Spanish 
Directory is widely acclaimed. He held the Chair of Spanish at St. 
Catherine's, Cambridge from 1975 to 1990 and pursued a busy life that took 
him worldwide; a measure of the global esteem in which he is held is a 
planned two-day conference in his honour. His appointment in 1988 by the 
Spanish Crown as Commander on the Order of Isabel la Catolica is an 
outstanding honour and testimony to his eminence. 

He reached fame amongst lepidopterists by his discovery of the Southern 
Chestnut moth Agrochola haematidea Dup. in Britain. He was urged at that 
time to accept the name of Smith's Chestnut for the moth and when he 
modestly rejected that, then the Sussex Chestnut was also suggested to him, 
but his better instincts were to adopt a name that not only fixed the species 
firmly as an inhabitant of the south of Britain, but also recognised that it had, 
until found in Sussex by Colin, a decidedly southern European distribution. 
Few of life's achievements are so deliciously rewarding that a moth best 
known from Spain should be found so far northwards by a Professor of 
Spanish and lover of all things Hispanic- Gerry Haggett, Meadows End, 
Northacre, Caston, Norfolk NR17 IDG. 



Further records of scarce Tachinidae (Diptera) from Brent Reservoir 
(Middlesex) and corrections to a previous note on Thecocarcelia 
acutangulata (Macquart) 

These records supplement a previous note on scarce Tachinidae at Brent 
Reservoir (Dobson, 1996. Some nationally rare Tachinidae (Diptera) from 
Brent Reservoir including the second British record of Thecocarcelia 
acutangulara (Macquart). Ent. Rec. 108: 308-310). 

Subclytia rotundiventris (Fallen), 17 August 1995, from the west end of 
the carr woodland on the south bank of the East SSSI, TQ2187. A small but 
distinctive species, a female was found "sunning" on a bramble leaf 
alongside a path at this location. It is a parasitoid of certain Shield Bugs of 
the families Acanthosomatidae and Pentatomidae, and there are UK rearing 
records of this species from two members of the former family (Belshaw, 
1993. Tachnid Flies. Diptera: Tachinidae. Handbooks for the Identification 



210 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

of British Insects. Royal Entomological Society of London. 10 4a (i)). The 
same author cites 14 UK records of this Rare (RDB 3) species from a variety 
of habitats, mainly in south England. 

In my previous note (Dobson, op. cit.) I gave one record of Wagneria 
gagatea R.-D. from Brent Reservoir. I now have an additional record of this 
Rare (RDB 3) Tachinid fly from a different area of the same site: two males, 
5 June 1996, East SSSI, TQ2187. It is of interest that a male of this species 
was also recorded from a garden in the area (c. 7km from Brent Reservoir), 
adjacent to Coppetts Wood LNR, Bamet by K.G.V. Smith (1996. Wagneria 
gagatea R.-D. (Dipt.: Tachinidae) in north London (Middlesex). 
Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine, 132: 176) on 25 May 1995, three days 
before I first found it at Brent Reservoir. The only UK rearing record is from 
The Chestnut Conistra vaccinii (L.), a moth which is widespread in the 
London area and associated here with Salix spp. (Plant, C.W., 1993. Larger 
moths of the London area. London Natural History Society). Continental 
rearing records (from a small number of species of Lepidoptera) and the 
distribution of this fly in the UK are discussed by Belshaw {op. cit.) and 
Smith {op. cit.). 

It is unfortunate that two errors occurred in my note on Thecocarcelia 
acutangulata in this journal (Dobson, op. cit.). In the first instance, the 
correct date of capture for this specimen is 3 September 1994 (not 3 October 
1994 as cited). I would like to apologise to anyone who is inconvenienced by 
my mistake. In the second place a "printer's devil" lost 15 words, splicing 
the beginning of one sentence with the end of the next. This occurs two- 
thirds of the way down page 309 and should read as follows: 

"Reared specimens of T. acutangulata in the Natural History Museum 
are all Afrotropical and are associated with five species of hesperiid host 
(N. Wyatt, pers. comm.). In addition there is an Austrian rearing record 
of this species (as Thecocarcelia incendens (Rondani)) from Thymelicus 
lineola Ochs., the Essex Skipper butterfly (which occurs at Brent 
Reservoir) (Carl, K.P., 1968. Thymelicus lineola (Lepidoptera: 
Hesperiidae) and its parasites in Europe. The Canadian Entomologist 
100(8): 785-801)." 

- John R. Dobson, 46 Elmwood Avenue, Kenton, Harrow, Middlesex 
HA3 8AH. 

Some notes on Lepidoptera in Surrey, 1994-6 

Phyllonorycter leucographella Zell. is a species that has been rapidly 
extending its range since first being recorded in Britain in 1989. The first 
time I encountered this species was on a visit to Surrey in October 1995 
when I found dozens of mines on a Pyracantha bush in Caterham - 
TQ331540. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 2 1 1 

On Box Hill, TQ181515, in June of the same year a single larva was found 
under a web on the upperside of a leaf of wild privet Ligustrum vulgare, 
which, when bred proved to be Zelleria hepariella Stt. This appears to be a 
new foodplant for the species in Britain; Fraxinus is the only foodplant 
mentioned by Emmet (1991, in The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain 
and Ireland 7(2) Harley Books). 

Pediasia contaminella Hb. is a species I have mostly encountered on the 
coast in Kent and Hampshire, although Goater (1996, British Pyralid Moths, 
Harley Books) gives Middlesex and Hertfordshire as inland counties. I 
identified this species from Caterham TQ331540 first in vii.1994, and again 
on 28.vii and l.viii.l996. Whether this represents its recent arrival in the 
area or whether it had previously been overlooked is uncertain. At the same 
locality, between 27.vii and l.viii.l996 a single Idaea vulpinaria 
atrosignaria Lempke, and four specimens of Parascotia fuliginaria Linn, 
were taken at m.v. Although both species are well known from Surrey (e.g. 
Skinner, 1984. Colour Identification guide to the Moths of the British Isles, 
Viking), I had encountered neither in over 30 years acquaintance with the 
Lepidoptera of the eastern border of Surrey. 

Finally, also at TQ331540, a large moth sitting on a tree trunk on the night 
of the 20.x. 1995 proved to be a male Mormo maura Linn, in reasonable 
condition and a very unusual date for this species.- Robert M. Palmer, 
Greenbum Cottage, Bucksbum, Aberdeen AB21 9UA. 



An early spring sighting of the Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis antiopa 
Linn. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in Northumberland 

Walking east of Morpeth along the northern bank of the River Wansbeck 
on 8 March 1977 my wife and I observed (and photographed) a 
Camberwell Beauty butterfly initially sunning itself on a fallen tree trunk 
and subsequently on the ground leaf litter, over a period of twenty minutes. 
The location (at grid reference NZ2 19859) was an open, sunny, but 
sheltered, area between the river and mixed woodland, which includes 
mature larch trees. Afterwards it flew off amongst the trees and was not 
seen again. 

The butterfly was in good condition with only a few minor tears at the 
margins of the hindwings. The pair of subtriangular blotches on each 
fore wing together with the borders of the wings, which are all usually cream 
coloured, were white. 

Most sporadic sightings of the Camberwell Beauty have been in late 
summer (Chalmers-Hunt, 1977, Ent. Rec. 89: 89-105; Pittman, 1995, Ent. 
Rec. 107: 309-310) with spring sightings accounting for only about ten per 
cent (Bretherton & Emmet, 1989, In: The Moths and Butterflies of Great 



212 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

Britain and Ireland. Vol. 7(1). Harley Books). The present sighting so early 
in March is strongly suggestive that the butterfly was a 1996 immigrant 
which had then hibernated somewhere locally over winter. The whitening of 
the wing borders is consistent with this view. 

One can only speculate about the origin of this butterfly. It was observed 
inland at about 8.7km (as the crow flies) from the North Sea coast. 
Possibly it crossed the North Sea in the summer or autumn of 1996 and 
then moved inland following the course of the valley of the River 
Wansbeck to reach a suitable place in which to hibernate. In the past it has 
been suggested (Newman, 1955, The Entomologist, 88: 25-27) that the 
Camberwell Beauty is not a natural immigrant but enters the United 
Kingdom with imported timber from Scandinavia. Interestingly, there is a 
sawmill and joinery situated about 1.7km downstream towards Bothal. The 
results of my enquiries here have been inconclusive. Although the larch 
logs stacked at the sawmill are home grown, in addition so-called "sawn- 
joinery" wood is utilised for the construction of sheds and this comes from 
a wholesale distributor located on the Tyne Dock, South Shields, which, in 
turn, imports the seasoned and sawn timber from Sweden, Finland and 
Latvia! 
- Hewett a. Ellis, 16 Southlands, Tynemouth North Shields NE30 2QS. 



The occurrence of Apomyelois bistriatella (Hulst) ssp. neophanes 
(Durrant) (Lep.: Pyralidae) in Yorkshire with a comment on its flight 
period. 

On the evening of 3 September 1996 in the company of Mr Tony Ezard I 
visited Skipwith Common, near Selby (VC61) where we operated two m.v. 
lights in an area dominated by heather and birch. During the course of the 
evening a very worn brown pyralid moth came to my sheet which, at the 
time, I suspected would turn out to be Metriostola betulae (Goeze). 
Fortunately my recollection was that recent records of that species in VC61 
were very few and so I retained the specimen for verification. It was not until 
the end of February 1997 that I got round to having another look at the moth, 
which was a male. An examination of the genitalia showed it to be 
Apomyelois bistriatella (Hulst). 

This species has not previously been recorded from any of the five 
Yorkshire vice-counties. Goater (1986, British Pyralid moths) gives the most 
northerly British locality as Whixall Moss in Shropshire. 

The date of capture of my moth appeared to be very late as the standard 
sources of information (Goater, op. cit.\ Emmet, 1988, A Field Guide to the 
smaller British Lepidoptera; Parsons, 1993, A review of the scarce and 
threatened pyralid moths of Great Britain) are unanimous in giving the flight 



BOOK REVIEWS 213 



period of this species as being June and July. However, Palm (1986, 
Nordeuropas Pyralider) gives the flight period in Denmark as "mid- June 
through August" with a spread of dates ranging from 1 1 June to 6 September. 
In fact, despite the information regarding the flight period given in Goater 
(op. cit) the same author (1974, The Butterflies and Moths of Hampshire and 
Isle of Wight) lists records of bistriatella at Southampton on 22 August 1968 
and at Browndown on 17 September 1966 and 23 August 1968. 

The worn state of the moth recorded at Skipwith Common on 3 September 
is more indicative of it being a late emerging example of a single prolonged 
generation than belonging to a partial second generation. It is suggested 
therefore that the flight period of this species in Britain be amended to "June- 
August".- H.W. Beaumont, 37 Melton Green, West Melton, Rotherham, 
South Yorkshire S63 6AA. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



The butterflies and moths of Lincolnshire - The micro-moths and 
species review to 1996 by Rex Johnson. 85pp. A4, softback. ISBN 
948005 07 62. Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union. £14.95. Available from the 
author at 23 Church Street, Messingham, North Lincolnshire DN17 3 SB. 

Rex Johnson was co-author, with the late Joe Duddington, of The butterflies 
and larger moths of Lincolnshire and South Humberside which was 
published by the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union in 1983. Since that work 
the number of active moth trappers and observers in Lincolnshire has grown 
substantially, considerably encouraged by Rex and his enthusiasm as County 
Moth Recorder, and communications between lepidopterists have greatly 
improved. About sixty observers are now supplying information to Rex on 
an annual basis. Consequently coverage of the county is better than ever 
before and many important records have been up-dated. The book under 
review here marshalls this new information and adds it to what was already 
known about the moths in Lincolnshire in a comprehensive and most 
accessible annotated list. 

The book is very much a supplement to the earlier volume. It does not 
repeat the chapters on the geology, habitats, recording and conservation 
work in the county. After a brief introduction to developments since 1983, 
and a reference list and key, we go straight to the list of moths, which is the 
bulk of the book. The list sets out to include every species recorded in 
Lincolnshire (vice-counties 53 & 54) from the earliest work in the nineteenth 
century up to the middle of 1996. The list includes the microlepidoptera, 
which were not covered by the earlier book, though they were included in 
the first county list for Lincolnshire, which was published in parts by G.W. 
Mason via the LNU between 1905 and 1918. 



214 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 

The list follows the order, numbering and scientific names used by 
Bradley and Fletcher (1979) with some of the subsequent amendments by 
Bradley and Fletcher (1986) and Emmet (1991). 

The list is tabulated very clearly in a series of columns and the format for 
each species is as follows: 

Bradley and Fletcher number, Heslop number (as used in the 1983 book); 
Scientific name; Vernacular English name for butterflies and macro-moths 
(for the microlepidoptera this column is used to give the scientific name used 
by Mason, Maitland Emmet having given Rex considerable help in 
deciphering and cross-referencing this section); National Status, following 
the various National Reviews published by the Nature Conservancy Council 
and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee; Presence in vice-county - 
four columns are given, showing whether there is a record for the species 
from each of the two vice-counties for the period up to 1918 (Mason's list) 
and for the period from 1918 to the present, and finally Comments. For 
species with only one or two records or sites, the site name, date of record 
and initials of the recorder are given, otherwise a more general statement on 
the habitats occupied and/or frequency of records is provided. 

There is also an additional table for the macro-moths, which covers the 
period from 1986 to 1995 and shows in which of these years each species 
has been recorded in Lincolnshire, by shading of the relevant column. This 
serves to highlight which species have not been seen for a while, which will 
stimulate special searches to update the records or to explore other localities 
to find the moth. Species recorded in Lincolnshire but not seen since before 
1986 are included in this table, with a note of the last record and this really 
helps to identify species in need of special searches. 

The book concludes with a list of contributors and an index of scientific 
and vernacular names. The cover is a striking pink, the colour of the petals 
of an Aubretia flower photographed by Roger Key, with the common pyralid 
moth Pyrausta aurata taking nectar at the centre. Rex is to be congratulated 
on collating a vast amount of data into such an accessible and useful form. 
This book will help anyone recording Lepidoptera in Lincolnshire to put 
their own lists into context, it will help make the Lepidoptera even more 
useful in site evaluation, and it shows us which species we must make a 
special effort to track down. I thoroughly recommend the book and hope that 
a similar approach will be adopted in other counties, whether or not they 
already have full published county lists or not. Paul Waring 

A Systematic Catalogue of the Zygaeninae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) 
by A Hofmann & W.G. Tremewan. Harley Books, 1996. ISBN 946589 
57 7. £42.50 nett. 

In 1988, W.G. Tremewan's volume on Burnets, A Bibliography of the 
Zygaeninae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) was published. The current volume 



BOOK REVIEWS 215 



by him and his co-author Axel Hofmann is very much a companion 
volume but also complete in its own right. Entomologists with deep 
interest in the Zygaeninae will find this an essential tool for researching 
this family quickly and simply, and it contains much of the authors' own 
original research. 

The content beyond the Introduction goes straight into the Systematics, 
which anyone with experience of working on families of insects and their 
synonymy will appreciate as being a major headache. This has been 
especially true of Burnets in the past and the authors have set out to 
simplify their study in this volume by the use of clearly explained ground 
rules for specific and subspecific level. Those with an interest in the status 
of the biological species in insects will find this section of considerable 
interest. There follows a Check-list of the 116 currently recognised 
species, though the main body of the work, the Systematic Catalogue, in 
159 pages, covers the family at species and subspecies level, with 
reference to original descriptions, host-plants, distribution range, 
synonyms and other additional material selected as of interest since the 
publication of the Systematic Catalogue of the genus Zygaena (Reiss & 
Tremewan, 1967). 

The very significant reduction in the number of subspecies attributed to 
some species in the past is of note and importance. The authors point out 
that recent thinking on the definition of a subspecies has led to, in the case 
of Z. purpuralis, a reduction from 79 to 18 subspecies in this catalogue and 
subsequently justifies the 20 pages of index for only 116 species and 
synonyms! 

The Catalogue of Zygaeninae section is followed by a 135 page 
supplement to the 1988 Bibliography and lists omissions to that work and 
also updates it to the end of 1995, and in some cases, into 1996. 

An Index of host-plants follows, and the work concludes with an index 
to family, generic, subgeneric, specific and subspecific references. 

Two points might add to this volume. The reviewer firmly believes that 
fine new books need protecting from dirt and wear and especially sunlight 
that can be quite destructive to a book's spine. However, this volume, like 
its companion, lacks a dust wrapper. Secondly, a companion CD to this 
volume and the Bibliography would speed searching for obscure references 
enormously, probably at relatively little extra cost. 

Altogether a most useful work, very well produced, set in typefaces that 
are easy and pleasurable to read, the book is put together in a form that is 
easy to use. J.W. Tutt, who was deeply interested in this family, would 
certainly have approved of this volume! 

The publishers are offering this Catalogue together with the companion 
Bibliography at a special price of £60. 



David Wilson 



216 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.vii.1997 



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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Microlepidoptera review of 1995. D.J.L. Agassiz, R.J. Heckford & J.R. Langmaid 169 

Christmas in Hong Kong. Brian Baker 1 89 

One and a half years of Kenyan Orthoptera: II. Pamphagidae, Pyrgomorphidae, 

Lentulidae and spur-throated Acrididae. John Paul 193 

Some notable butterfly records from Greece in 1992 and 1995. Andrew Wakeham- 

Dawson 199 

Occurrence of pollinator bees in Leh: Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir) at 3430 metres 

(1 1,200 feet) altitude in India. Mohommad Arif & Narendra Kumar 205 

Notes and observations 

Ectoedemia quinquella (Bedell, 1848) (Lep.: Nepticulidae) in the Reading area. /. Sims . 187 

Early appearance of Macroglossum stellatarum L. (Lep.: Sphingidae). L. Christie 188 

Spodoptera litura. (Fabr.) (Lep.: Nocmidae): a pest of a medicinal plant at 1685 metres 
(5500 feet) altitude in the Kumaon Hills, India. Mohommad Arif & Narendra Kumar ... 188 

Xylena exsoleta L. (Lep.: Noctuidae): an old record. G.E. Higgs 192 

The arrival of Phyllonorycter platani and P. leucographella (Lep.: Gracillariidae) in 

Reading. /. Sims 203 

Beetles in toad faeces. K.P. Bland & M. Sinclair 204 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - Christian Cat goes camping. Torben B. Larsen 206 

Commemorative March flight of the Horse Chestnut Moth for Colin Smith. Gerry 

Haggett 208 

Further records of scarce Tachinidae (Diptera) from Brent Reservoir (Middlesex) and 
corrections to a previous note on Thecoarcelia acutangulata (Macquart). John R. 

Dobson 209 

Some notes on Lepidoptera in Surrey, 1994-6. Robert M. Palmer 210 

An early spring sighting of the Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis antiopa Linn. (Lep.: 

Nymphalidae) in Northumberland. Hewett A. Ellis 211 

The occurrence of Apomyelois bistriatella (Hulst) ssp. neophanes (Durrant) (Lep.: 
Pyralidae) in Yorkshire with a comment on its flight period. H.W. Beaumont 212 

Book Reviews 

The butterflies and moths of Lincolnshire - The micro-moths and species review to 1996 

by Rex Johnson 213 

A Systematic Catalogue of the Zygaenidae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) by A. Hofmann 

& W.G. Tremewan 214 

Special notice 

Submitting papers and notes on disk or by e-mail. Editor 216 

SPECIAL NOTICE. 

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C.W. PLANT, B.Sc.,F.R.E.S. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, F.R.E.S. & A. SPALDING, F.R.E.S. 



September/ October 1997 



ISSN 0013-3916 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Editor 
C.W. PLANT, B.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

14 West Road, Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire CM23 3QP. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., F.L.s. & A. SPALDING, m.a., f.r.e.s. 

Editorial Panel 

A.A. Allen, b.Sc, a.r.c.s. A.M. Emmet, m.b.e., t.d., f.r.e.s. 

N. L. Birkett, j.p., m.a., m.b., f.r.e.s. J.A. Owen, m.d., Ph.D., f.r.e.s. 

J.D. Bradley, Ph.D., f.r.e.s. CJ. Luckens, m.b., Ch.B.. d.r.c.o.g. 

J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. B. Skinner 

P.J. Chandler, B.Sc, f.r.e.s. P.A. Sokoloff, M.Sc, c.Bioi., M.i.Bioi., f.r.e.s. 

C.A. Collingwood, b.Sc, f.r.e.s. 

Registrar 

R.F. McCormick, f.r.e.s. 36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth. Devon TQM 8NR 

Hon. Treasurer Official Photographer 

C.C. Penney, f.r.e.s. 109 Waveney Drive, David Wilson, Joyce House, Green Tye, 

Springfield. Chelmsford. Essex CMl 7QA Much Hadham. Hertfordshire SGIO 6JJ 

WHERE TO WRITE 

EDITOR: All material for publication and books for review. 

REGISTRAR: Changes of address. 

HON. TREASURER: Subscriptions and non-arrival of the Journal. 



Readers are respectfully advised that the publication of material in this journal does not 
imply that the views and opinions expressed therein are shared by the Editor, the Editorial 
Board or any party other than the named author or authors. 

Instructions for contributors 

This journal publishes original papers and short notes from both professionals and amateurs. All material is accepted on 
the understanding that it is not currently being offered to or considered by any other publications. All papers submitted 
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BENHS ANNUAL EXHIBITION 

(British Entomological and Natural History Society) 

SATURDAY, 25th OCTOBER 1997 

Sherfield Room, Imperial College, 
South Kensington, London SW7 

11am - 5pm 
ADMISSION FREE 

Members and non-members alike are invited to bring exhibits to illustrate their 
entomological discoveries for 1997 and earlier years. This major event in the 
entomological calendar is as much a social gathering as a scientific meeting. It is 
an excellent opportunity to meet other entomologists from all over Britain (and 
some from overseas) and should be of particular interest to beginners in 
entomology as well as to those with some experience. As always, a table will be 
provided on which unidentified specimens may be placed for identification by the 
experts during the day. 

BENHS ENTOMOLOGY WORKSHOPS 
Places are still available on the following workshops 

4th October 1997 - Staphylinid identification - led by Derek Lott 

15th November 1997 - Caddis identification - led by Ian Wallace 

29th November 1997 - Oecophorid identification - led by John Langmaid 

31st January 1998 - Insects in stems - led by Ian McLean 

21st February 1998 - Tephritidae identification - led by Laurence demons 

21st March 1998 - Andrena identification - led by Mike Edwards 

18th April 1998 - cryptic and elusive bugs - led by Peter Kirby 

16th May 1998 - Pyralid moth identification - led by Tony Davis 

These are held on Saturdays at the Society's headquarters in The Pelham Clinton 
Building, Dinton Pastures Country Park, Winnersh, near Reading, Berkshire (grid 
reference SU 784718). Turn left off the B.3030 driving north from Winnersh. Fee for 
parking waived for workshop attendees. Nearest BR station is Winnersh (trains from 
Reading and London- Waterloo). The nearest motorway exit is junction 10 on the M4 - 
the A.329(M) interchange between Reading and Bracknell. Advance booking is 
required for planning the events. Please inform Ian McLean, 109 Miller way, 
Brampton, Huntingdon, PE18 8TZ if you wish to attend. 



THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS' SOCIETY 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION, 1997 

Saturday, 4th October 
11 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

KEMPTON PARK RACECOURSE, 

STAINES ROAD, SUNBURY, MIDDX. 

ACCESSIBILITY: The Racecourse is easy to reach by road and rail, and 
there is adequate free car parking. The i\/i25 is very near and is linked 
to Kempton Park by the M3, which is less than a mile away. Sunbury 
Railway Station with trains from Waterloo, is a short walk away. The 
site is served by two bus routes. Green Line No. 290, and Red bus No. 
216. Both these buses stop right outside. 

ADMISSION: Members free on production of pass to be issued with 

the August Bulletin. 

PARKING: in the free car parks only. NOT outside the Grandstand. 

Keep all entrances clear. 

EXHIBITORS AND DEALERS ONLY will be admitted between 8 am 

and 11 am. 

TROLLEYS are not provided and provision should be made for heavy 

loads. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL DEALERS are attending. 

REFRESHMENTS: Full facilities are available. All food and drink to be 
consumed in the Refreshment Area. 

SURPLUS MATERIAL: will be welcome for sale on behalf of the 
Society's funds. 

ANSORGE BEQUEST: Cash prizes and certificates to Junior Members 
for exhibits at the Exhibition. 

LIVESTOCK: It is the duty of both dealers and buyers to ensure that all 
livestock is kept in containers which are roomy, hygienic and secure 
against any possible escape. 

EXHIBITS which show long series of wild-caught, rare or endangered 
species will not be allowed. 

ALL ENQUIRIES: 

The AES, PO Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG. 



IMMIGRANT LEPIDOPTERA IN 1 993 217 

THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE BRITISH ISLES 

IN 1993 

Bernard skinner' and Mark parsons^ 

' 5 Rawlins Close, South Croydon, Surrey CR2 8JS. 
- Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD. 

IN 1993 BOTH THE regular and scarcer immigrants were well below their 
usual numbers. Only single records of the Bordered Straw Heliothis 
peltigera ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) and Scarce Bordered Straw 
Heliocoverpa armigera (Hiibner) were received and were, when compared 
with the relevant abundance of these two species in recent years, good 
examples of the paucity of migrants for the year. Reports of about seventy 
Clouded Yellow Colias croceus (Fourcroy) were a dramatic contrast to the 
record numbers noted the previous year and, with the status of a "scarcer 
species", all records have been detailed in Annex 1 . 

Fortunately even the poorest migrant years have their highlights and in 
1993 there were the second British records of both Porter's Rustic Proxenus 
hospes (Freyer) and Tawny Prominent Harpyia milhauseri (Fabricius), and 
the fourth example of Radford's Flame Shoulder Ochropleura leucogaster 
(Freyer). The three records of Dusky Hook-tip Drepana curvatula 
(Borkhausen) represented a record total for a single year and brought the 
total number of specimens noted in Britain to nine. First prize must go to the 
specimen of the Rosy Underwing Catocala electa (Vieweg) found fluttering 
during the day in the car park of the Old Bill Lighthouse on Portland, Dorset, 
and presented to the resident entomologist of the local bird observatory. This 
is only the second example of this spectacular species to have been reported 
in the British Isles this century. 

Details of the commoner species which in previous years have been 
summarised in the preamble are to be found in Annex 2. 

In the hope of aiding the compilation of the migrant reports for future 
years and enabling a quicker publication it is requested that records should 
be stated clearly with as full details as possible and ideally the Watsonian 
vice-county should be given. If it is not possible to give the vice-county, a 
six figure grid-reference would aid the placing of the record within a vice- 
county at the compilation stage. The dates given for the records should be 
the day of the sighting, or if from a light trap it should be the date of the 
evening that the trap was operated. If the date given with the records is for 
the following morning, this should be stated clearly so that the records could 
be suitably amended to ensure a consistent approach. 

The species listed in the annexes are laid out following Bradley & Fletcher 
(1979), although the nomenclature has been updated utilising Karsholt & 
Razowski (1996). Several records were supplied by more than one 
contributor and it is possible that some duplication of records has occurred. 



218 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

although every effort was made to eliminate this. Little attempt has been 
made to interpret locality data and it is possible that the same site is 
occasionally treated by different names. Records placed in square brackets 
either require confirmation, are known to be releases or, as in the case of the 
Cypress Carpet Thera cupressata (Geyer), are of individuals that are 
considered to be resident but are included for interest. The abbreviations 
listed below are used in Annex 1 . 

Abbreviations 

I Primary immigrants 

R Resident 

R(i) Recent resident/Invader 

R(t) Temporary resident 

V Vagrant/wanderer 



ANNEX 1: RECORDS OF "SCARCER" SPECIES 

PYRALIDAE 

Sitochroa palealis ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) [I?/R?/R(t)?] 

Note: Possible immigrant examples only. 

SOUTH HAMPSHIRE (11): Beaulieu, 20.6 (BIJ per EG); Hayling Island, 12.7 (R.R. 
Cook); NORTH HAMPSHIRE (12): East Stratton, 21.7 (A.M. James per EG); EAST 
KENT (15): Dungeness, 7.7 (SPC). 

Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) [I?/R?/R(t)?] 

Note: Records outside Thames estuary only. 

SOUTH HAMPSHIRE (11): Eitteme, 29.7 (P. A. Eudd per EG); Brockenhurst, undated - 

3 (I.E. Chainey per EG); EAST SUSSEX (14): Peacehaven, 10.6; 7.7; 20.7 (CRP); 

EAST KENT (15): Greatstone, 1 1.10 (BE per SPC). 

Udeafulvalis (Hubner) [I?/R(t)] 

ISLE OF WIGHT (10): Freshwater, 8.8; 11.8 (SAKJ); SOUTH HAMPSHIRE (11): 

Christchurch, 7 - several (MJ per EG). 

Palpita unionalis (Hubner) [I] 

WEST SUSSEX (13): Thomey Island, 6.6 (per M. Kenefick per CRP); WEST SUSSEX 
(13): Eeeding, 16.8 (GH per CRP); EAST SUSSEX (14): Newhaven, 24.8 (per GH per 
CRP); Peacehaven, 13.8 (CRP); EAST KENT (15): Dungeness, 11.9 - 1 male (SPC); 
Littlestone, 10.10 - 1 female (KR per SPC); SOUTH ESSEX (18): Eradwell-on-Sea, 
19.9-1 female; 11.10-1 female (AID). 

Conobathra tumidana ([Denis & Schiffermiillerl) [I?] 
WEST SUSSEX (13): Pagham, 14.8 (BFS). 

Dioryctria abietella ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) [I?/V?l 
SURREY (17): Addington, 9.6 (EFS). 

Ancylosis oblitella (Zeller) [I?/R(t)?/R?l 

ISLE OF WIGHT (10): Chale Green, 23.7 (SC per EG). 



IMMIGRANT LEPIDOPTERA IN 1 993 219 

PIERIDAE 

Clouded Yellow Colias croceus (Fourcroy) [I] 

WEST CORNWALL (1): The Lizard, 25.8 (J. Whiteside); Old Town Bay, St. Mary's, 
Isles of Scilly, 27.5 (R.D. Penhallurick); Isles of Scilly, mid 10 - "one or two reported, but 
no further details" (VT); EAST CORNWALL (2): Portquin, nr. Port Isaac, 1.7 (AG); 
SOUTH DEVON (3): Locality not given, "small arrival ... was evident for several days 
beginning 7.8" (VT); Churchstone, nr. Kingsbridge, 5.8 (P. Sanders per VT); Strete gate, 
Slapton Sands, 8 - 20; 1.9; 3.9; 10.9 - 2; 11.9; 15.9 - 2; 16.9 (HLO'H); DORSET (9) 
Ballard Down, undated - 3 (B. Shreeve); Portland, 5.8 - 2 male; 2.9 - 1 male (A. Harmer) 
6.8 to 18.8 - 4; 26.8 - 5; 27.8 - 2; 28.8 - 2; 29.8 - 2 (MC); ISLE OF WIGHT (10) 
Binstead, 24.10 (BJW per SAKJ); Gorecliff, Blackgang, 7.5 (AW per SAKJ) 
HAMPSHIRE: Locality not given, undated (Bowles (1993a); SUSSEX: Locality not 
given, undated (Bowles 1993a); WARWICKSHIRE (38): Locality not given, 6.9 (Bowles 
1993b); STAFFORDSHIRE (39): Saltwells LNR, 28.7; 7.8 (per T. Beynon); SOUTH 
LINCOLNSHIRE (53): TF435326, undated (per A. Binding); SOUTH-EAST 
YORKSHIRE (61): Spurn Head, 10.9; 11.9 (BS); NORTHUMBERLAND: Locahty not 
given, 25.9 (Bowles 1993b); CHANNEL ISLANDS (113): South coast of Guernsey, 31.5 
(Mr Kinsey per Austin (1993)); Guernsey, Le Petit Pre, 31.7 (Austin 1993); Guernsey, La 
Corbiere, 18.8 (MH per Austin (1993)); Guernsey, Belle Elizabeth, 13.10 (MH per Austin 
(1993)); Guernsey, Long Cavaleux, 13. 10; 15.10 (MH per Austin (1993)); Guernsey, 
Mont Heralt, 18.10 (MH per Austin (1993)); MID CORK (H4): Lee Fields, 29.8 
(KGMB); CO. DOWN (H38): Ballykeel, Ballygowan, 13.5 (C. Coates per IR). 
Summary: (1): 3; (2): 1; (3): 30; (9): 21; (10): 2; Hampshire: 1; Sussex: 1; (38): 1; (39): 
2; (53): 1 (61): 2; Northumberland: 1; (113): 7; (H4): 1; (H38): 1. 

DREPANIDAE 

Dusky Hook-tip Drepana curvatula (Borkhausen) [I] 

WEST SUSSEX (13): Church Norton, Pagham, 24.5 (RFMc); Middleton-on-Sea, 29.8 
(IDM & R.J. Brooker); NORTH LINCOLNSHIRE (54): Dalby, 30.7 (Mrs M.E. Dawson 
per RJ). 

GEOMETRIDAE 

The Gem Orthonoma obstipata (Fabricius) [I] 

WEST CORNWALL (1): Isles of Scilly, 12.7 - 1 (RAS); St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 30.4; 
11.5-1 male; 30.7; 31.7; 4.8 - 2; 13.8; 16.8; 19.8 - 2; 4.9; 12.9; 28.9 - 6; 3.10 - 3; 6.10 - 
15; 10.10 - 2; 12.10 - 2; 13.10 - 5; 30.10; 4.11 - 3; 5.11 (JWH & MEH); SOUTH 
HAMPSHIRE (11): Leckford, 23.7 (DHS); Winchester, 31.5; 8.7 (DHS); EAST SUSSEX 
(14): Peacehaven, 21.9 - 1 female (CRP); EAST KENT (15): Dungeness, 20.9 - 2 (BFS); 
3.11-1 male (SPC); Folkestone Warren, 20.9 - 1 female (TR per SPC); Greatstone, 3.8 - 
1 male (BB per SPC); SOUTH ESSEX (18): Bradwell-on-Sea, 19.9-1 female; 20.9 - 1 
male (AID); 11.9-1 male; 19.9 - 1 male; 20.9 - 1 female (SD); WARWICKSHIRE (38): 
Charlecote, 28.7 (AG); Rugby, 6.8; 25.9 (Dr D. Porter per AG); SOUTH-EAST 
YORKSHIRE (61): Spurn Head, 11.10 (BS); MID CORK (H4): Cork, 22.9 (KGMB). 
Summary: (1): 51; (11): 3; (14): 1; (15): 5; (18): 5; (38): 2; (61): 1; (H4): 1. 

[Cypress Carpet Thera cupressata (Geyer) [R] 

Note: All records probably represent resident examples. 

DORSET (9): Durlston, 1.7 (per DB-); CHANNEL ISLANDS (113): Guernsey, St. John, 
8.6 (Austin 1993); Guernsey, L'Ancresse, 19.6 (Austin 1993); Guernsey, Damouettes 
Lane, 17.7 (Austin 1993).] 



220 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

SPHINGIDAE 

Convolvulus Hawk-moth Agnus convolvuli (Linnaeus) [I] 

WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 16.8; 31.7; 8.9; 21.9; 12.10 (TWH & 
MEH); 25.9 - 1 washed up dead on the shoreline (A. McCrae per Waring (1993)); 
SOUTH DEVON (3): West Charleton, nr. Kingsbridge, 9.9 (PS per VT); NORTH 
SOMERSET (6): Keynsham, Bristol, 6.7 (Mrs J. Pusey per RJB); DORSET (9): Portland, 
24.9 (MC); West Bexington, 18.8; 10.9; 16.9; 18.9; 23.9 (RME); ISLE OF WIGHT (10): 
Bembridge, 10.9 (Dr Thomas per SAKJ); Binstead, 8.9, at petunias (R. Gough per SAKJ); 
WEST SUSSEX (13): Hassocks, undated (DD per CRP); Portslade, 10.10 at rest on a 
road (D. Burchell per CRP); Walberton, 7.10 (JTR per CRP); Wick (Littiehampton), 1.7 
(R. Pratt per CRP); EAST SUSSEX (14): Ringmer, 11.10 (AB per CRP); EAST KENT 
(15): Hythe, 3.10 - 1 male (B. Searle per TR per SPC); near Folkestone, 2.10 - 1 female 
(Tansley 1994); SOUTH ESSEX (18): Bradwell-on-Sea, 18.8 - 1 male (AJD); ESSEX: 
No locality given, 9 (Waring (1993)); EAST SUFFOLK (25): Fagbury Cliffs, 
Felixestowe, 10.10 - 1 found at rest on a concrete post (G. Grieco); EAST NORFOLK 
(27): Waxham, 22.8 (KJB per DH); Wheatacre, 13.9, at Nicotiana flowers; 2.10; 3.10 
(R.P. Harvey per DH); MERIONETHSHIRE (48): Cwm Bychan, 29.8 (NH). 
Summary: (1): 6; (3): 1; (6): 1; (9): 6; (10): 2; (13): 4; (14): 1; (15): 2; (18): f; Essex: 1; 
(25): 1; (27): 2; (48): 1. 

Death's-head Hawk-moth Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus) [I] 

NORTH SOMERSET (6): Cheddar Gorge, end 6 (per A. Woodhall per RJB); NORTH 
HAMPSHIRE (12): Selborne, 22.8 (AEA); week-ending 17.9-2 (DO per Waring 
(1993)). 

Pine Hawk-moth Hyloicus pinastri (Hiibner) [I?/V?] 

Note: Possible immigrant examples only. 

EAST KENT (15): Dungeness, 3.6; 7.6 (SPC & DW); Greatstone, 18.5; 15.6; 25.6 (BB 

per SPC). 

Humming-bird Hawk-moth Macroglossum stellatarum (Linnaeus) [I/R(t)?/R?] 
WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 13.6 - 2; 1.9; 2.9; 5.9; 8.9 (JWH & 
MEH); SOUTH DEVON (3): Hooe, near Plymouth, 28.6 (VT); South Milton Ley, 
Thurlestone, undated (VT); Strete Gate, Slapton Sands, 1.8; 3.8; 7.8 - 2; 8.8 - 2; 10.8; 
12.8; 13.8 - 3; 14.8 - 3; 14.8 - 5; 15.8; 18.8 - 2; 24.8 - 3; 26.8 - 3; 28.8; 31.8 (possibly only 
about 3 moths involved over these dates) (HLO'H); West Charleton, nr. Kingsbridge, 

25.7 (PS per VT); SOUTH SOMERSET (5): Hinckley Point, end 1 (K. Cadwaldar per 
KB); DORSET (9): Portland, 27.4; 24.7; 6.8 (MC); WEST SUSSEX (13): Climping, 7.8; 

15.8 (RJLK per CRP); EAST SUSSEX (14): Beachy Head, 24.3 (R.H. Charlwood per 
CRP); EAST KENT (15): Dungeness, 10.8; 13.8; 20.8; 3.9 (DW & SPC); 
NORTHAMPTONSHIRE (32): Great Houghton, undated (A. Pyke); SOUTH-EAST 
YORKSHIRE (61): Spurn Head, 16.7 (BS); CHANNEL ISLANDS (113): Guernsey, La 
Coutanche, 4.11 (Austin 1993); CO. DOWN (H38): Johns Island, Copelands, 26.9 - 5+ 
(N. McKee per IR); Killard Point, 27.8 - 3 (S. Foster per Miss J. Montgomery per IR). 
Summary: (1): 6; (3): 33; (5): 1; (9): 3; (13): 2; (14): 1; (15): 4; (61): 1; (113): 1; (H38): 8+. 

Spurge Hawk-moth Hyles euphorbiae (Linnaeus) [I] 

EAST KENT (15): Dungeness, 12.8-1 female (DW per SPC). 

Bedstraw Hawk-moth H. gallii (Rottemburg) [I] 

EAST KENT (15): Greatstone, 9.6 - 1 female (RET per SPC); WEST 
GLOUCESTERSHIRE (34): St Briavels, Lydney, 10.6 - 1 to actinic light (R. Gaunt); 
NORTH LINCOLNSHIRE (54): Gibraltar Point, 7.6 (K. Wilson per RJ). 



IMMIGRANT LEPIDOPTERA IN 1 993 221 

Silver-striped Hawk-moth Hippotion celerio (Linnaeus) [I] 

DORSET (9): Coombe Keynes, 19.10, found resting on a flower (Mrs A. Johnson per 

PHS per DHS). 

NOTODONTIDAE 

Tawny Prominent Harpyia milhauseri (Fabricius) [I] 

EAST KENT (15): Dungeness, 24.5 - 1 male (KR per SPC). 

LYMANTRIDAE 

Brown-tail Euprochtis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus) [I?/V?/R?] 

Note: Records outside known resident range only. 

EAST NORFOLK (27): Hemsby, 30.6; 2.7 (KJB per DH). 

Gypsy Moth Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) [I] 

ISLE OF WIGHT (10): Chale Green, 1.9 - 1 male (SC per SAKJ). 

ARCTIIDAE 

Jersey Tiger Euplagia quadrpunctaria (Poda) [I?/R(t)?/V?] 

DORSET (9): Portland, 14.8 (MC); ISLE OF WIGHT (10): Freshwater, 19.8 - 1 female 

(SAKJ); 21.8 (DBW per SAKJ). 

NOLIDAE 

Scarce Black Arches Nola aerugula (Hubner) [I] 

EAST KENT (15): Greatstone, 2.7 - 1 male (BB per SPC). 

NOCTUIDAE 

Crescent Dart Agrotis trux (Hubner) [I?/V?] 
EAST KENT (15): Dungeness, 1 1.9 - 1 male (SPC). 

Radford's Flame Shoulder Ochropleura leucogaster (Freyer) [I] 

EAST KENT (15): Dungeness, 11.10-1 male (SPC). 

Great Brocade Eurois occulta (Linnaeus) [I] 
SOUTH-EAST YORKSHIRE (61): Spurn Head, 15.9 (BS). 

White-point Mythimna albipuncta ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) [I/R(t)?] 
WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 5.6; 29.8; 31.8-2 (JWH & MEH); 
DORSET (9): Durlston, 29.1; 29.6 (per DB-); Portland, 14.8 to 14.9 - 24 (peak on 15.8 - 
4) (MC); West Bexington, 7.6; 25.8; 15.9 (RME); Woolgarston, Corfe Castle, 20.9 
(DB-); ISLE OF WIGHT (10): Binstead, 9.6 (BJW per SAKJ); Chale Green, 27.5; 1.9; 
2.9 (SC per SAKJ); Freshwater, 12.9; 20.9; 21.9-2 (SAKJ); Niton, 2.9 (AW per SAKJ); 
SOUTH HAMPSHIRE (11): Brockenhurst, 8.9; 9.9 (JEC); East Boldre, 8.6; 13.6 
(GEH); Hengistbury Head, 15.9; 7.10 (MJ per BG); WEST SUSSEX (13): Walberton, 
21.8; 2.9; 8.9; 19.9 (JTR per CRP); EAST SUSSEX (14): Beachy Head, 20.9 - 2 (JC); 
Crowborough, 15.9 (MJS per CRP); Peacehaven, 16.9 (CRP); Ringmer, 20.9 (AB per 
CRP); EAST KENT (15): Densole, 25.8 - 2; 26.8; 29.8; 19.9; 20.9 (TR per SPC); 
Dungeness, 6.9; 2.7; 17.8; 29.8 - 2; 30.8; 31.8; 3.9; 4.9 - 3; 6.9 - 2; 10.9; 11.9 - 3; 14.9; 
15.9; 17.9; 18.9; 19.9; 20.9 (SPC, KR per SPC and DW per SPC); 9.6 - 2; 8.9 - 5; 20.9 - 
2; 6.10 (BFS); 19.8 (JC); Folkestone Warren, 3.10 (TR per SPC); Greatstone, 10.9; 11.9; 



222 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

14.9 (BB per SPC); Lydd, 22.6; 23.6; 26.8; 27.8; 9.9; 10.9 (KR per SPC); New Romney, 
23.8; 1.9; 14.9 (KR per SPC); SURREY (17): Lingfield, 13.9 (JC); SOUTH ESSEX 
(18): Bradwell-on-Sea, 8.6 - 1 male; 17.6-1 male; 22.6 - 1 male; 8.8 - female; 13.8-1 
male; 16.8 - 1 female; 21.8 - 1 male; 10.9 - 1 male; 12.9 - 1 male; 19.9 - 1 male; 22.9 - 1 
female (AJD); 26.6 - 1 male; 14.8 - 1 female; 10.9 - 1 female; 11.9-1 male (SD); 
CHANNEL ISLANDS (113): Guernsey, L'Ancresse, 5.6; 7.8; 20.8 (Austin 1993). 
Summary: (1): 4; (9): 30; (10): 9; (11): 6: (13): 4; (14): 5; (15): 53; (17): 1; (18): 15; 
(113): 3. 

The Delicate M. vitellina (Hubner) [I/R(t)?] 

WEST CORNWALL (1): Coverack, 18.9 - 2; 19.9 - 3; 20.9 - 4; 21.9 - 5; 22.9 - 5; 23.9 - 
10 (DB); North Predannack Downs, The Lizard, 12.10 (AS); St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 
12.4 - 2; 13.4 - 2; 14.4 - 5; 15.4 - 3; 25.4; 5.5; 20.5 - 7; 21.5; 23.5 - 8; 25.5 - 3; 26.5; 28.5 

- 7; 29.5; 31.5 - 3; 2.6 - 2; 4.6 - 6; 5.6; 6.6 - 3; 8.6 - 3; 11.6; 19.6; 23.6; 30.6 - 2; 3.7 - 3; 

31.8 - 2; 4.9 - 2; 8.9 - 3; 12.9 - 2; 14.9 - 4; 15.9 - 7; 21.9 - 13; 21.9 - 5; 23.9 - 2; 26.9; 

28.9 - 5; 6.10; 9.10 - 2; 10.10; 12.10 - 4; 13.10 - 4; 26.10; 30.10; 31.10; 2.11 (JWH «fe 
MEH); EAST CORNWALL (2): Carlyon Bay, St. Austell, 24.9 (AS); Tregame, 2.8; 

11.10 (A. Spalding); NORTH SOMERSET (6): Westonzoyland, 3.7 (D. Miller per KB); 
DORSET (9): Durlston, 11.10 - 4; 12.10 - 4 (DB); 4.9; 8.9 - 2; 20.9 - 2; 25.9; 9.10; 
11.10; 12.10-2; 13.10; 4.11 (per DB^); Portland, 19.6 - 2; 4.7 - 8; 11.9 - 2; 7.9 - 13; 8.11 
(MC); Studland, 10.10 - 5; 11.10 - 3; 12.10 - 3 (DB); West Bexington, 13.6; 14.6; 21.6; 
23.6; 25.6; 27.6; 30.6; 10.9; 15.9; 20.9; 22.9; 24.9; 25.9; 2.10; 10.10; 11.10; 25.10; 
27.10; 30.10 (RME); Woolgarston, Corfe Castle, 27.6; 1.7; 2.7; 4.7; 18.7; 22.7; 26.7; 

14.9 - 2; 19.9; 23.9 - 2 (DB^); ISLE OF WIGHT (10): Chale Green, 30.6; 22.7; 11.9 - 2; 

11.10 - 4; 3.11 - 2 (SC per SAKJ); Cranmore, 2.7; 4.11 (SAKJ); Freshwater, 4.7; 9.7; 
15.7; 15.9; 25.9; 29.9; 12.10; 27.10; 28.10 (SAKJ); 27.6 - 2; 29.6 - 2 (DBW per SAKJ); 
Niton, 17.7 (AW per SAKJ); SOUTH HAMPSHIRE (11): Brockenhurst, 27.6; 9.9 
(JEC); Hegistbury Head, undated - 21 (MJ per BG); Woolston, Southampton, 14.7 
(ARC); NORTH HAMPSHIRE (12): Selborne, 4.7 (AEA); WEST SUSSEX (13): 
Climping, undated (R.J.L. Kemp per CRP); Middleton-on-Sea, 10.9 (R.J. Brooker per 
IDM); Walberton, 29.7; 20.9; 9.10; 10.10; 11.10; 24.10; 26.10; 28.10 (JTR per CRP); 
EAST SUSSEX (14): Crowborough, 28.7, 11.10 (MJS per CRP); Peacehaven, 19.6; 1.7 
(CRP); EAST KENT (15): Densole, 8.9; 11.9; 16.9; 19.9 - 2; 25.9 - 2; 8.10; 10.10; 11.10 
(TR per SPC); Dungeness, 22.6; 10.9; 11.9; 21.9; 14.9 - 2; 20.9 - 2 (DW per SPC); 9.9; 

11.9 - 2; 14.9 - 3; 15.9; 3.10 - 2; 7.10; 9.10; 10.10 - 2; 11.10; 12.10 - 2 (KR per SPC); 
15.7; 7.9; 11.9; 14.9; 7.10 - 2; 13.10 (SPC); 20.9 - 5; 6.10 - 2 (BFS); Greatstone, 15.6; 
29.9; 7.10 - 3; 8.10; 9.10 (BB per SPC); Littlestone, 20.9; 3.11; 4.11 (KR per SPC); 
Lydd, 9.9; 15.9 - 3; 29.9; 2.10; 13.10 (KR per SPC); New Romney, 9.9; 10.9 - 2; 7.10; 
8.10; 10.10 - 2; 11.10 - 3; 12.10 - 2; 23.10 (KR per SPC); SURREY (17): Lingfield, 25.6 

- 1 fresh male; 14.7 - 1 male (JC); SOUTH ESSEX (18): Bradwell-on-Sea, 28.6; 13.7; 
5.8; 13.9; 14.9 - 3; 19.9 - 3; 20.9; 21.9 - 2; 22.9 - 3; 23.9 - 2; 8.10; 9.10; 10.10; 11.10 - 3; 

12.10 - 2 (AJD); 13.9 - 2; 16.9 (SD); CHANNEL ISLANDS (113): Guernsey, St. John, 
14.7 (Austin 1993); Guernsey, L'Ancresse, 16.7; 11.9 (Austin 1993). 

Summary: (1): 160; (2): 3; (6): 1; (9): 88; (10): 26; (11): 24; (12): 1; (13): 10; (14): 4; 
(15): 78; (17): 2; (18): 29; (113): 3. 

White-speck M. unipuncta (Haworth) [I] 

WEST CORNWALL (1): Coverack, 22.9 (DB); North Predannack Downs, The Lizard 
12.10 (AS); St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 30.4; 20.5; 23.5; 26.5; 29.5; 15.9; 17.9; 21.9; 23.9 
26.9; 28.9; 4.10; 9.10 - 2; 10.10; 12.10 - 3; 13.10; 19.10; 20.10 (JWH & MEH) 
DORSET (9): Durlston, 10.10 - 2; 11.10 - 4 (DB); 9.10; 10.10; 11.10 - 3 (per DB-) 
Portland, 2.10 (MC); Studland, 10.10 (DB); West Bexington, 10.10; 11.10 (RME) 
SOUTH HAMPSHIRE (11): Christchurch, 17.9 (MJ per BG); Hengistbury Head, 24.9 
7.10 (MJ per BG); NORTH HAMPSHIRE (12): Selborne, 20.9 (AEA); WEST SUSSEX 



^^B IMMIGRANT LEPIDOPTERA EN 1993 223 

(13): Walberton, 20.9 (JTR per CRP); EAST KENT (15): Dungeness, 29.9; 3.10 (SPC); 
11.10 (DW per SPC); SOUTH ESSEX (18): Bradwell-on-Sea, 22.9 (AID); 
OXFORDSHIRE (23), Long Wittenham, Abingdon, 11.10 (DO). 
Summary: (1): 23; (9): 15; (11): 3; (12): 1; (13): 1; (15): 3; (18): 1; (23): 1. 

The Cosmopolitan M. loreyi (Duponchel) [I] 

WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 25.5; 15.9; 17.9 (JWH & MEH). 

Flame Brocade Trigonophora flammea (Esper) [I] 

Note: Does not include Channel Islands where the species is resident. 

DORSET (9): Durlston, 9.10 (per DB^); 10.10 (P. Sharpe); EAST KENT (15): 

Dungeness, 10.10 - 1 male (A. Butcher per SPC); 12.10-1 male (KR per SPC). 

The Concolorous Chortodes extrema (Hiibner) [I?/V?] 

EAST KENT (15): Dungeness, 10.6 (SPC); Greatstone, 1.6 (BB per SPC). 

Small Mottled Willow Spodoptera exigua (Hiibner) [I] 

WEST CORNWALL (1): Tregame, 11.10 (AS); SOUTH HAMPSHIRE (11): Beaulieu, 
undated (recorded as "[fairly common]") (BIJ per BG); Woolston, Southampton, 27.8 
(ARC). 

Porter's Rustic Proxenus hospes (Freyer) [I] 

WEST CORNWALL (1): St Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 14.9 (JWH & MEH, see also Agassiz 
(1994)). 

Scarce Bordered Straw Heliocoverpa armigera (Hiibner) [I] 

WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 7.9 - 1 found by day (JWH & 
MEH). 

Bordered Straw Heliothis peltigera ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) [I] 

NORTH LINCOLNSHIRE (54): Hemswell, 2.7 (RJ). 

Silver Barred Deltote bankiana (Fabricius) [I?/V?] 

EAST SUSSEX (14): Peacehaven, 9.6 (CRP); EAST KENT (15): Dungeness, 9.6 - 1 
(BFS); SOUTH ESSEX (18): Bradwell-on-Sea, 26.5 (AJD); EAST NORFOLK (27): 
Hemsby, 9.6 (K.J. Brett, conf. G. Haggett per DH); Scole, 6.6 (M.R. Hall). 

Golden Twin-spot Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper) [I] 

EAST KENT (15): Lydd, 19.8 - 1 male (Miss P. Carter per SPC); SOUTH ESSEX (18): 

Bradwell-on-Sea, 20.9 - 1 female; 22.9 (AJD). 

Dewick's Plusia Macdunnoughia confusa (Stephens) [I] 

EAST KENT (15): New Romney, 21.9 - 1 male (KR per SPC). 

Gold Spangle Autographa bractea ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) [I?/V?] 
SOUTH ESSEX (18): Bradwell-on-Sea, 22.7 (AJD). 

Clifden Nonpareil Catocala fraxini (Linnaeus) [I] 

WEST CORNWALL (1): Cot Manor, near St. Just, 14.8 (K. Jackson per Spalding 

(1994)). 

Rosy Underwing C. electa (Vieweg) [I] 

DORSET (9): Portland, 11.9 (MC). 

Lunar Double-stripe Minucia lunaris ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) [I] 

DORSET (9): Gaunts Common, 26.5 (PD per DB per BFS). 



224 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

Olive Crescent Tristalis emortualis ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) [I] 
SOUTH ESSEX (18): Bradwell-on-Sea, 9.6 - 1 female (AJD). 

ANNEX 2: SELECTED RECORDS OF "COMMONER" SPECIES 

This annex gives a very brief summary of the abundance over the year as well as the 
earliest and latest date for the more frequent immigrant species which are not covered in 
Annex 1. Other significant records or observations for 1993 which have been received 
and were not covered in Annex 1, such as large numbers of an individual species, are 
also given. 

YPONOMEUTIDAE 

Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) 

Few records received and, although those that were provided no clear picture of 

abundance, it would appear to have been a poor year for the species. Over the year, a 

total of 254 were recorded at Portland, Dorset (9) (MC) and 28 were recorded at 

Peacehaven, East Sussex (14) (CRP). 

Earliest date: SOUTH HAMPSHIRE (1 1): Winchester, 21.4 (DHS). 

Latest date: DORSET (9): Portland, 7.1 1 (MC). 

Other significant record: DORSET (9): Portland, 12.6-31 (MC). 

PYRALIDAE 

Udeaferrugalis (Hiibner) 

Comparatively few records received. Over the year, a total of 2 were recorded at 
Peacehaven, East Sussex (14) (CRP), 20 were recorded in the Dungeness area. East Kent 
(15) (per SPC) and 21 were recorded at Bradwell-on-Sea, South Essex (18) (AJD & SD). 
Earliest date: WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 30.4 (JWH & MEH). 
Latest date: WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 18.1 1 (JWH & MEH). 
Other significant records: WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 6.10 - 14; 
12.10 - 29; 4.11 - 13 (JWH & MEH); CHANNEL ISLANDS (113): Guernsey, 
L'Ancresse 16.7 - 10; 23.7 - 11; 7.8 - c.l5; 28.8 - c.l2; 11.9 - 32 (Austin 1993). 

Nomophila noctuella ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 

Records received of approximately only 160 individuals. Over the year, a total of 2 were 
recorded at Peacehaven, East Sussex (14) (CRP) and 25 were recorded at Bradwell-on- 
Sea, South Essex (18) (AJD & SD). 

Eariiest date: ISLE OF WIGHT (10): Freshwater, 25.4 (SAKJ). 
Latest date: SURREY (17): Lingfield, 4. 11 (JC). 

Other significant record: WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 12.10 - 29 
(JWH & MEH). 

PIERIDAE 

Large White Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus) 

Possibly significant records only: DORSET (9): Portland, strong northerly movements, 
in off the sea 16.8; 20.8 (MC). 

NYMPHALIDAE 

Red Admiral Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus) 

Many records received. 

Eariiest date: WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 14.1 (MEH & M. 

Horobin). 



IMMIGRANT LEPIDOPTERA IN 1993 225 

Latest date: CO. DOWN (H38): Helens Bay, 8.11 (T. Boyd per IR). 
Other significant records: SOUTH DEVON (3): Rame Head and coastal strip to Penlee 
area, 15.9 - 500+ nectaring on ivy (VT); Strete Gate, Slapton Sands, 28.5 - 10; 4.9 - 30 
(HLO'H); DORSET (9): Portland, 17.9 - large numbers (MC); WEST SUSSEX (13): 
Hove, 18.9 - 10 at one time on ivy (R.M. Craske per CRP); EAST SUSSEX (14): 
Peacehaven, 10.8 - 1 at mv light (CRP); SOUTH ESSEX (18): Bradwell-on-Sea, 20.4 - 
10; 30.4 - 11; 20.6 - 20; 7.8 - 28 (AJD); SOUTH-EAST YORKSHIRE (61): Spurn 
Head, 10.6 - 30 (BS); CO. DOWN (H38): Arboretum, Castlewellan Forest, 15.8 - 10; 
13.9-12; 20.9 - 10 (Mrs A. McComb per IR); Ballyskeagh, Newtonards, 22.9 - 12 (J. 
Phillips per IR); Glasdrumman House, Newcastle, 17.9 - 12 (Mrs A. McComb per IR); 
Johns Island, Copelands, 9. 10 - 12 (N. McKee per IR). 

Painted Lady V. cardui (Linnaeus) 

Records received of only about 110 individuals. 

Earliest date: DORSET (9): Portland, 25.4 (MC). 

Latest date: NOTTINGHAMSHIRE (56), Colwick Park, 25.9 (A.S. Boot per Dr S. 

Wright). 



NOCTUIDAE 

Dark Sword-grass Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) 

Received records suggest a comparatively poor year. Over the year, a total of 69 were 

recorded at the Portland Bird Observatory, Dorset (9) (MC), 2 were recorded at 

Peacehaven, East Sussex (14) (CRP), 30 were recorded in the Dungeness area. East 

Kent (15) (per SPC) and 13 were recorded at Bradwell-on-Sea, South Essex (18) (AJD 

&SD). 

Earnest date: WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 13.4 - 2 (JWH & 

MEH). 

Latest date: WEST CORNWALL (1): St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, 5.11 (JWH & MEH). 

Other significant records: DORSET (9): Portland, 14.4 to 5.5 - 49; 25.7 to 14.9 - 20 

(MC). 

Pearly Underwing Peridroma saucia (Hiibner) 

Comparatively few records received comprising approximately 170 individuals. Over 
the year, a total of 17 were recorded at the Portland Bird Observatory, Dorset (9) (MC), 
none were recorded at Peacehaven, East Sussex (14) and 5 were recorded at Bradwell- 
on-Sea, South Essex (18) (AJD & SD). 

Earliest date: Bristol, 12.2 (dead on a pavement) (P.J. Chadwick per RJB). 
Latest date: DORSET (9): West Bexington, 1.12 (RME). 

Silver Y Autographa gamma (Linnaeus) 

Many records received, although possibly not as many as in some other recent years. 

Over the year, a total of 518 were recorded at the Portland Bird Observatory, Dorset (9) 

(MC), 301 were recorded at Peacehaven, East Sussex (14) (CRP) and 1,824 were 

recorded at Bradwell-on-Sea, South Essex (18) (AJD & SD). 

Earliest date: SOUTH HAMPSHIRE (11): Woolston, Southampton, 17.3 (ARC). 

Latest date: SOUTH SOMERSET (5): North Cheriton, 9.12 - freshly emerged example 

at rest on a wall (KB). 

Selected significant records only: DORSET (9): Portland, 24.9 - 39 (MC); EAST 

SUSSEX (14): Peacehaven, 19.7 - 52 (CRP); SOUTH ESSEX (18): Bradwell-on-Sea, 

17.7 - 31; 6.8 - 129; 7.8 - 128; 20.8 - 115 (AJD). 



226 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25. ix. 1997 







Initials of recorders 






The recorders initials are 


listed alphabetically so that records can be extracted with 


relative 


ease. 










AEA 


A.E. Aston 


DO 


Dr D. Owen 


MJ 


M. Jeffes 


AB 


A. Batten 


DW 


D. Walker 


MJS 


M.J. Simmons 


AG 


A. Gardner 


GEH 


G.E. Higgs 


NH 


N. Hall 


AJD 


A.J. Dewick 


GH 


G.Hart 


PD 


P. Davey 


ARC 


A.R. Collins 


HLO'H H.L. O'Heffeman 


PHS 


Dr P.H. Sterling 


AS 


A. Spalding 


IDM 


LD. Masters 


PS 


P. Sanders 


AW 


Mrs A. Wilkinson 


IR 


L Rippey 


RAS 


R.A. Softly 


BB 


B. Banson 


JC 


Dr J. Clarke 


RET 


R.E. Turley 


BFS 


B.F. Skinner 


JEC 


J.E. Chainey 


RFMc 


R.F. McCormick 


BG 


B. Goater 


JTR 


J.T. Radford 


RJ 


R. Johnson 


BIJ 


B. Ivon- Jones 


JWH 


J. Hale 


RJB 


R. Bamett 


BJW 


B.J. Wame 


KB 


K. Brown 


RJLK 


R.J.L. Kemp 


BS 


B. Spence 


KGMB 


K.G.M. Bond 


RME 


R.M. Eden 


CRP 


C.R. Pratt 


KJB 


K.J. Brett 


SAKJ 


S.A. Knill- Jones 


DB 


D. Brown 


KR 


K. Redshaw 


SC 


S. Colenutt 


DB- 


D.Burt 


KW 


K. Wilson 


SD 


S. Dewick 


DBW 


D.B. Wooldridge 


MC 


M. Cade 


SPC 


S.P. Clancy 


DD 


D. Dey 


MEH 


M.E. Hicks 


TR 


T. Rouse 


DH 


D. Hipper son 


MH 


M. Hill 


VT 


V. Tucker 


DHS 


Col. D.H. Sterling 











Other contributors 

T. Beynon; A. Binding; J.L. Campbell; R.R. Cook; M.A. Enfield; P. Fleming; S.V. 
Gauld; R. Gaunt; G. Grieco; M.R. Hall; A. Harmer; A. Knight; R. Leverton; M.S. 
Parsons; R.D. Penhallurick; A. Pyke; A.N. Scott; P. Sharpe; B. Shreeve; W. & K. 
Wheatley; J. Whiteside; Dr S. Wright. 

Acknowledgements 

We would like to thank all of the above-mentioned recorders and 
contributors. It is possible that we have unwittingly failed to acknowledge 
some contributors, if this is the case we would like to take this opportunity to 
apologise for this oversight. 

References 

Agassiz, D.J.L. 1994. 1993. Annual exhibition. Imperial College, London SW7 - 30 

October 1993. British macrolepidoptera. British Journal of Entomology & Natural 

Histoi-y 7: 149. 
Austin, R. 1993. Moths and butterflies of Guernsey 1993. La Societe Guemesiaise. 
Bowles, N. 1993a. Wildlife reports. Butterflies. British Wildlife 4(6): 390-392. 
- , 1993b. Wildlife reports. Butterflies. British Wildlife 5(2): 116-117. 
Bradley, J.D. & Fletcher, D.S. 1979. A recorder' s log book or label list of British 

butterflies and moths. London, Curwen Books. 
Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J. 1996. The Lepidoptera of Europe. A distributional checklist. 

Stenstrup, Apollo Books. 
Spalding, A. 1994. Catocala fraxini L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Cornwall? Entomologist' s 

Record & Journal of Variation 106: 46. 
Tansley, M. 1994. A Convolvulus Hawkmoth near Folkestone, Kent. Bulletin of the 

Amateur Entologists' Society, 53: 80. 
Waring, P. 1993. Wildlife reports. Butterflies. British Wildlife 5(2): 1 17-119. 



COLEOPHORA FUSCICORNIS 227 

THE EARLY STAGES OF COLEOPHORA FUSCICORNIS 
ZELLER, 1847 (LEP.: COLEOPHORIDAE) 

A.M. Emmet 

Labrey Cottage, 14 Victoria Gardens, Saffron Walden, Essex CBll 2AF. 

THE ACCOUNT GIVEN by Emmet (1996) was based on that written by 
Uffen in Emmet & Uffen (1975). Since his descriptions both of the larva 
and life history were incomplete, in 1994 I went in search of new material 
to Fingringhoe Wick Nature Reserve, Essex, where I had discovered the 
species in 1973. However, the open area where it had occurred was 
overgrown by scrub and I failed to observe it elsewhere. An opportunity to 
visit the only other known locality in Britain, close to a sea wall on the 
Essex coast, did not arise until 14 June 1996, when Dr John Langmaid 
drove me to the site. We found adults in good numbers, flying in the 
sunshine. Accordingly I made a second visit on 12 July to search for larval 
cases on the foodplant, smooth tare Vicia tetraspermum; likewise, they were 
not uncommon, up to five cases occurring on a single plant. I collected a 
sufficiency, but the number was later increased by young larvae that had 
been feeding in their pod without visible sign of their presence and tiny 
larvae that must have hatched from the supply of foodplant I had gathered 
at random. I intended a third visit to return the surplus, but unwisely 
combined the trip with a reconnaissance of the south-east coast of Suffolk, 
to see if the moth was present in that county. It was late afternoon after 
several long walks before I located a spot where smooth tare occurred, but 
without trace of C. fuscicornis. I thought it would be wrong to liberate my 
unwanted stock in Suffolk, and by then I was too tired for the additional 
mileage and subsequent walk that a visit to the Essex locality would have 
involved. 

Since there are minor inaccuracies as well as omissions in Raymond 
Uffen 's account, completed two years after I had given him the larvae, I will 
describe the life history in full. 

Ovum 

Laid on smooth tare Vicia tetrasperum, probably not on the pod itself, which 
is only beginning to form at the commencement of the flight period. In 
captivity newly hatched larvae were seen walking freely and this is likely to 
occur also in natural conditions, where they wander in search of a suitable 
pod. No hatched ovum was observed on any of the pods used as first cases. 
June-July. 

Larva 

Raymond Uffen evidently described a larva in its penultimate instar, which 
differs in certain respects from the final instar. This may be characteristic of 
the trifolii group, since Stuart (1958) states without detail that there are 
differences in pigmentation between the third and fourth larval instars of 



228 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

C. frischella (Linnaeus) {1 alcyonipennella (Kollar) sensu Stuart). The 
description that follows is of the final instar. 

Head honey-brown. Body whitish green; prothoracic plate honey-brown 
with four black spots, two each side of a narrow median sulcus, one lateral 
and one posterior; other plates black; mesothoracic plate divided into four 
elongate sclerites, the posterior pair approximate, the anterior pair centred 
over the tips of the posterior pair and at an angle; metathoracic plate two 
well-separated elongate sclerites; lateral plates large, generally round and of 
equal size, but in some larvae that on thoracic segment 1 larger and elongate 
in the horizontal plane; anal plate large, covering whole segment; thoracic 
legs honey-brown with posterior black spot; four pairs of abdominal prolegs. 
In the first instar, only the prothoracic plate is pigmented, pigmentation 
extending to the mesothoracic plate in the second and third instars and to the 
metathoracic plate in the final instar. 

Newly-hatched larvae were observed to walk freely and rapidly, using 
only their thoracic legs and anal claspers; the other abdominal prolegs appear 
to be non-functional. The body is held horizontal and not arched, as 
described for other species by Sich (1904-05). When the larva finds a 
suitable pod, it enters it and feeds on the ripening peas. At this stage, there is 
no evidence of its presence; Uffen is incorrect in stating that there is already 
an anal opening for the ejection of frass. When the contents of the pod have 
been consumed, the larva severs it untidily near the stalk and, using it as a 
case, walks in search of another pod to which it attaches its case, generally at 
the tip and in alignment, but sometimes near the stalk, where it may be fixed 
vertically (mouth angle 90°) or almost horizontally (mouth angle c. 5°). This 
variation is possible because there is no silken reinforcement at the oral 
opening of the case. Most seed-feeding coleophorids attack a succession of 
small seeds involving frequent transportations of the case, and whilst feeding 
the posterior part of the larva remains within its case; therefore a well- 
formed oral opening that can be attached firmly with silk and allows constant 
passage is needed. C. fuscicornis uses only three or four pods and wholly 
enters the new pod, returning only to defecate; this is the probable reason 
why the oral and anal openings are left as jagged, unfashioned holes. The 
pod in which the larva is feeding is green, but the one used as a case turns 
yellowish-brown or greyish-brown and this contrast in colour makes the case 
conspicuous. During the period in which the contents of the second pod are 
being eaten, the larva cuts an untidy, irregular slit at the tip of the pod it is 
using as a case and from then onwards frass is ejected. Soon a third pod is 
needed and the larva appears to have three strategies for making the transfer. 
Most often the first pod is large enough, is severed from the second and the 
larva continues to use it as a portable case. Sometimes, when the first pod is 
too small, the second pod is severed and the larva carries both pods in 
tandem so that when the third pod is attached, the three are strung together 



COLEOPHORA FUSCICORNIS 229 

like beads. The third method is for the larva to vacate the pod and walk fully 
exposed in search of another. It moves swiftly and its gait is as described for 
the newly-hatched larva. Clover-feeding members of the trifolii group can 
also change florets without the use of a case. 

The inner walls of the pod used as a case are thinly spun with silk, but 
otherwise little silk is used during the feeding phase. When feeding is 
finished, the larva spins a tough, trivalved, pale reddish-brown case or 
cocoon at the anal end of its pod. It is firmly attached to the inner walls and 
there appears to be no anal opening to enable the larva to move to the oral 
end of the pod for locomotion in the spring. Uffen noted that in January the 
larvae were already facing the valves for pupation and emergence. The case 
is attached for the winter low down to a stem or to detritus. Larvae are fully- 
fed in late July or early August. 

Pupa 

In the cocoon-like case spun inside the pod, the transition probably occurring 
in April. 

Imago 

Univoltine, occurring in late May and June. The adult flies or is easily 
disturbed in sunshine. There is probably a long emergence period, since 
newly-hatched and fully-fed larvae are found simultaneously. 

Distribution 

Known in Britain only from Essex, where it occurs close to the sea on sparse 
grassland suited to the growth of smooth tare. Though at present reported 
from only one site, it is likely to be found in similar localities in the south- 
east of England. 



References 

Emmet, A.M., 1996. Coleophora fuscicornis Zeller, pp. 249-250, in Emmet, A.M. (Ed.), 
The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 3, Colchester. 

Emmet, A.M. & Uffen, R.W.J. , 1975. Coleophora fuscicornis Zeller, 1847 (Lepidoptera: 
Coleophoridae), a species new to Britain, with an account of its life cycle. 
Entomologist' s Rec. J. Var. 87: 259-266, 4 figs. 

Sich, A., 1904-05. Notes on the genus Coleophora. Proc. Trans. S. Lond. ent. nat. Hist. 
Soc. 1904-05: 1-11. 

Stuart, A.M., 1958. A review of the work in New Zealand on the clover case-bearers 
Coleophora spissicornis Haworth and C. alcyonipennella? Kollar (Coleophoridae, 
\^e.^.). New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 1: 239-248. 



Postscript: A second locality, situated on the Essex coast, was discovered 
by Brian Goodey on 17 May 1997. 



230 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

Imported insects: British or not? 

Further to the comments by Brigadier Simpson {Ent. Rec. 108: 210) and 
Mr Allen {antea, 88), I am given to wonder about the "Britishness" of 
many of our immigrants. For example, on 29 December 1996, my wife 
bought a lettuce at Tesco's. When it was brought home it was discovered 
to have a green noctuid larva in it, which I must admit I did not describe 
carefully. My daughter insisted that we keep it (I was at work at the 
moment of discovery), so we bred it through. It pupated in peat in the third 
week of January. In February we were on holiday and, when we returned, 
we found it had already emerged. It turned out to be a male Heliothis 
armigera Hb. 

The original lettuce came from a pallet-sized box which evidently had not 
been opened or inspected since leaving Spain. I see that Bernard Skinner in 
his Colour identification guide to moths of the British Isles alludes to 
tomatoes from the Canaries as being a source of this moth. Does this make 
them British? 

A more extraordinary example is a butterfly I have from my father, who 
used to provide all the plants for the Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth when 
they did the transatlantic run. He discovered a "clouded yellow" species on 
the Queen Mary when she docked at Southampton. I believe it is a Colias 
eurytheme. Is this a unique record of a British species? 

It would be interesting to know if there is any conventional wisdom on 
this subject. Should British status imply unaided entry? If so, how do we 
know it is unaided, with the amount of travel and traffic there is these days 
from the continent? Does aided include just settling on a boat and flying 
on?- James Fradgley, The White House, Merley Park Road, Ashington, 
Wimbome, Dorset BH21 3DB. 

Insects associated with sycamore - a plea for information 

Although often regarded as rather a "weed" because of its invasive nature 
and vigorous growth, many insects are associated with sycamore, Acer 
pseudoplatanus Linnaeus. I am trying to compile a comprehensive index of 
such associations and would welcome reports (detailed or anecdotal, 
published or not, from rough field notes or just from memory) of any insects 
or other invertebrates found feeding on sycamore leaves, sheltering or 
feeding under loose or fungoid bark, or simply crawling on foliage or trunks. 
I am also keen to discover the past and current distribution of the sooty bark 
disease, Cryptostroma corticale, a fungal infection which kills sycamores 
and which is characterised by a black sooty powder on and under parts of the 
dead bark. Have you seen any dead standing sycamores in your 
neighbourhood? Any information will be much appreciated.- Richard A. 
Jones, 13 Bell wood Road, Nunhead, London SE15 3DE. 



SUBSPECffiS OF HYPOLIMNAS BOLINA 23 1 

HYPOLIMNAS BOLINA L. (LEP.: NYMPHALIDAE): RECENT 

EVIDENCE OF STATUS OF SUBSPECIES BOLINA L. AND 

JACINTHA DRURY IN MALAYA 

B.K. West 

36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent DAS 2HN. 

PENINSULAR MALAYA has been the scene of invasions by two very 
different subspecies of Hypolimnas bolina over the past century and a half, 
overland from Thailand and Burma to the north (spp. jacinthd) and over sea 
from the south (ssp. bolina). In Malaya the species inhabits gardens, 
plantations, forest edges and secondary jungle on the plains. The males of 
the two subspecies are somewhat similar and not unlike those of H. missipus 
L., deep purplish-blue with whitish discal patches on all wings, jacintha 
additionally possessing a series of postdiscal white spots. The females are 
very different from each other; bolina is a magnificent insect, bluish-black 
with white and orange patches, while jacintha is a dull dark-brown with 
submarginal white spots. It has been suggested that the latter may mimic 
females of Euploea species (Woodhouse, 1950; Corbet and Pendlebury, 
1992). I note that for Thailand, Pinratana (1979) incorrectly refers to ssp. 
bolina; the coloured plate correctly dQ^\c\mg jacintha is mislabelled. 

Corbet and Pendlebury {op. cit.) summarise the insect's history in Malaya 
- in the nineteenth century all specimens observed were of the continental 
form jacintha; towards the end of the century it became increasingly rare, 
then from about 1930 subspecies bolina from what is now Indonesia 
established itself and became fairly common; later, from about 1970, 
jacintha has partly re-established itself, and has interbred with f. bolina to 
produce hybrids difficult to classify. 

During the two years I lived in Malaya from 1957 to 1959, except on one 
occasion, I did not encounter the species. However, I was residing in the 
Cameron Highlands at 5000 feet altitude. On 30.V.1959 I visited the 
mangrove swamps south of Sungei Selangor for the very local Danaus 
affinis Fab. (now a protected species in Malaya). During my short visit I saw 
several female H. bolina bolina, and was fortunate to notice a specimen 
laying eggs on flowering Portulaca which in places covered the 
embankments. Three eggs found later produced further females in August. 

Recently I returned to Malaya and at Kaki Bukit on the Thailand border 
near Kangar I came across several specimens of the continental subspecies 
jacintha, all males. I failed to see it on the several visits made in January and 
April when living in Malaya. In January 1995, on leaving Kangar, I moved 
to Bentong, Pahang, where I found the species common, and both sexes were 
seen. All these were also of the continental subspecies, and there was no 
evidence of the presence of ssp. bolina or hybridisation. Bentong is almost in 
the same latitude as Sungei Selangor, but on the east side of the central 
mountain chain, Sungei Selangor being on the west coast. 



232 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

Although there is a resemblance between jacintha females and some 
Euploea species, very noticeable in set specimens, I found no difficulty in 
recognising f^md^t jacintha in flight - the females of bolina do not appear to 
mimic any distasteful model. 

My observation would seem to suggest that jacintha from the north is now 
the predominant subspecies as far south as latitude 3°N in Malaya, and that 
ssp. bolina has declined or disappeared to the north of this latitude. The 
fluctuating colonisation and decline of the two subspecies in Peninsular 
Malaya and Sumatra is interesting, and perhaps unique. Although best 
monitored by resident Lepidopterists, it is a phenomenon deserving of 
attention by visitors to the country which at present has a rational policy 
regarding collecting and studying insects, having some very rare species 
protected, to which have been added other species, some quite common, 
liable to persecution for commercial gain. 

References 

Corbet, A. & Pendlebury, H., 1992. The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan 

Nature Society. 
Pinratana, A., 1979. Butteiflies in Thailand. Vol. 3, Viratham Press. 
Woodhouse, L., 1950. The Butterfly Fauna of Ceylon. Ceylon Government Press. 



Records of Erebia butterflies (Lep.: Satyridae) from Europe, 1983-1993 

While extracting information from my butterfly collection for the Mapping 
European Butterflies project (Kudma, 1996. Mapping European Butterflies: 
Handbook for Recorders. Oedippus 12: 1-60.), I collated several records of 
European Erebia butterfly species coUected during 1983-1993 that have not 
been reported previously in my records of this genus (Wakeham-Dawson, 
1992, Bull. Amateur Ent. Soc. 51: 163-166; 1992, Bull. Amateur Ent. Soc. 
51: 289-291; 1995, Ent. Rec. 107: 267-271; 1996, Ent. Gaz. 47: 247-251 
and in press). These are listed in Table 1, with information relating to 
dates, locations, habitats and altitudes of capture. Identification was 
confirmed by examination of male genitalia using Higgins (1975, The 
Classification of European Butterflies. London). Nomenclature is based on 
Warren (1963, Monograph of the Genus Erebia. British Museum (N.H.)) 
and Higgins & Riley (1980, A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and 
Europe. Collins). 

I thank Eliza- Jane Hollond, Hugh McLean, Dr Miles Parkes, Edward 
Wake, Katherine Wake, Dr Anne White and the Trustees and Entomology 
Library Staff (Julie Harvey, Lorna Mitchell and Ruth Lanstone) of The 
Natural History Museum, London for their assistance in this research. 
- Andrew Wakeham-Dawson, Mill Laine Farm, Offham, Lewes, East 
Sussex BN7 3QB. 



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STRANGALIA REVESTITA IN BRITAIN 235 

A PROVISIONAL HISTORY OF STRANGALIA (PEDOSTRANGALIA) 
REVESTITA (L.) (COL.: CERAMBYCIDAE) IN ENGLAND 

Raymond R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann 

13 Old Road, Old Harlow, Essex CM170HB. 

STRANGALIA REVESTITA is a very, very rare British Longhom beetle. It is 
also a very odd one. It shares one characteristic with the crepuscular Weaver 
Beetle Lamia textor L. - elusiveness; but unlike the latter, which is furtive 
and secretive, and has not been seen in this country for over forty years, it is 
diurnal, prefers hot sunshine, and may be described as almost flamboyant by 
nature, for it is brightly coloured - red head, pronotum and legs, black elytra 
with a metallic blue sheen and, more often than not turns up quite 
unexpectedly like a jack-in-a-box on open land (Kaufmann, 1992). This 
happens so infrequently - three examples since the third year of the Great 
War (1917) at approximately quarter-century intervals in 1945, 1971 and 
most recently 1996 - that this has led, in a sense, to its own protection, for it 
is not on the vulnerable/at risk list (Shirt, 1987). The subfasc female in 
contrast is even more rarely encountered; there are hardly any examples in 
our museum collections. 

This, however, is to anticipate. 

Strangalia revestita is an indigenous insect which must have been known 
to our entomologists at least as early as the penultimate decade of the 1 8th 
century, for it is depicted by Martyn (1792, pi. 27, f.l). In 1802, Marsham 
describes it precisely, habitat unknown, a specimen being "In mus. D. 
Beckwith". Furthermore, he also accounts for Leptura {Strangalia) 
fuscicornis, a description which adequately fits the female, although this has 
since been synonymised with the var. rubra Geoffr. (Daniel, 1904; 
Aurivillius, 1912; Villiers, 1978). Marsham's L. fuscicornis was "In mus. D. 
Lewin". S. revestita is referred to briefly by Turton (1806); Samouelle 
(1819) merely gives July as the month in which it occurs. This is rather late 
as the beetle more usually chooses to appear in June. 

S. revestita has always been a scarce native, but the published evidence 
shows that it was slightly less uncommon during the early part of the 19th 
century, a period of which collectors took full advantage to comb its few 
known haunts in Berkshire, Cambridgeshire and Kent, for by early Victorian 
times it was already a rare and prized specimen. 

The sexes are dimorphous, the bulkier female being overall yellowish- 
brown superficially and black underneath. Something of a role reversal, at 
least among our Cerambycids, as, for example, with Strangalia melanura, it 
is the female which is generally more brightly red and, where Leptura rubra 
and L. sanguinolenta are concerned, it is the male which is yellowish and the 
female red. Stephens (1831, 1839) distinguishes between the sexes as does 
Fowler (1890). Planet 0924) figures both, but unfortunately, a printer's error 
has transposed the sex legends. 



236 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

Stephens {op. cit.) possessed "specimens of this rare species, which were 
captured in Coombe-wood, and others found in the vicinity of Windsor". 
There are four of these beetles in his collection, one of which is a female. He 
adds that S. revestita was once taken by Rev. L. Jenyns in Gamlingay 
([Cambs.] - this example is still extant) and two other localities where it was 
found, namely "Near Colney-hatch-wood - Mr A. Ingpen" (Middlesex) and 
"Windsor - Dr (W.E.) Leach". These data are summarised in Stephens' later 
work (1839), which adds "Flowers & c. ... 6."(June). John Curtis in his 1837 
catalogue, evidently had a specimen of British origin in his collection, 
number 415 - 1. 

Coombe Wood, Surrey, a favourite collecting ground of Stephens and so 
often referred to by him, still exists, albeit greatly reduced and fenced in, 
now forming part of a golf links situated south of Coombe Lane, precisely as 
Stephens (1831) stated: ". . . in the lane behind Coombe-wood leading from 
Kingston to Merton". 

5'. revestita, a singleton, was beaten from an oak in June, 1843 at Hainault, 
Essex (Norman, 1844); this record is of some significance, as will be later 
explained, as is another record of the beetle, found in similar circumstances 
the following century near Ringwood, Hampshire. Nothing more is heard of 
this insect until twenty years later when another was captured at Darenth, 
Kent, in June 1862 by J. Scott (Rye, 1863). There is an existing example 
simply labelled "B.C. Rye" in one museum collection, but nothing further to 
indicate that it is a Scott specimen from the above locality. On the other 
hand, the latter was fortunate enough to find a few more revestita in the 
Darenth Woods and they have found their way through purchase by Jansons 
into other collections, including one example marked "J. Scott" which 
circumstances imply that it, too, was taken in Darenth (Allen, 1972). 

There is a short description of this beetle in Cox (1874) noting its 
variability in coloration and that it is rare. Turning now to Fowler (1890), 
sexual characteristics are detailed only as to the antennae, together with 
comments on the differing colour forms. He adds, "On flowers; very rare" 
and then repeats the information given by Stephens (1831, 1839), and these 
additional localities: Birch Wood (Kent), (S. Stevens) - an example from 
there has been traced, but captured by F. Smith - and Darenth Wood (S. 
Stevens). Fowler states further that there is one specimen without locality in 
Dr Power's collection. There are in fact no less than four, all sine datis in 
that collection. 

Canon Fowler's own collection contains a single specimen of 5'. revestita 
bearing an encrypted label, "7.91"; unfortunately, he left no key to this code, 
but an educated guess suggests that the numerals refer to the date - July, 
1891. Nevertheless, one must be wary of making what might be a fallacious 
assumption, witness Waterhouse's purchases {infra), also numbered 
similarly, but for which the latter left some detailed notes. 



STRANGALIA REVISTITA IN BRITAIN 237 

Nothing more is heard of this still enigmatic British species until this 
century when P. Harwood captured one from off a flower-head on 20 June 
1909 in Harewood Forest, near Andover, Hants. (Rowland-Browne, 1910; 
Kaufmann, 1948; Allen, 1972). A record of the above capture is repeated by 
Fowler (1922), who at the same time published another new record for the 
beetle, found in June 1917 in the New Forest by C. Gulliver (Kaufmann, 
1948; Allen, 1972). In fact, A. Ford, the dealer/collector, had already taken 
S. revestita in June 1908 in the Burley Woods, Ringwood, Hants., by beating 
it off oak; his specimen has been traced (see below). 

There are two data-less examples, representing each sex, in the Dale 
collection, "both much broken", according to Walker (1932). However, a 
recent examination in 1996 of this pair reveals that they are in better 
condition than the late Commander Walker wrote. 

Donisthorpe (1939) states that the beetle was found in Windsor Forest by 
T. Desvignes, an eminent entomologist, whose collections were sold at one 
of the Stevens auctions in 1868. It was reputedly bought by E.W. Janson, 
according to a member of the family, and then re-sold to that great 
Coleopterist, George Crotch. When in turn Crotch's huge collections were 
sold, it supposedly found its way into the Cambridge or Oldham collections. 
It is in neither, although both museums acquired portions of Crotch's 
materials, and has not been traced. Crotch certainly bought several 5'. 
revestita at one time or another, for these are to be found in other hands, but 
the Desvignes record raises some doubt as to its authenticity. 

At this point it is appropriate to discuss the place-name, Coombe, which 
occurs in many counties, and its association with Henry Harding of Dover, a 
contemporary of Stephens, the Dale family and many other famous 
Coleopterists to whom he sent beetles, represented in a number of 
collections. Stephens differentiates between Coombe Wood and Coombe, at 
present a built-up part within the administrative area of Maiden, Surrey, a 
few miles south-west of the Wood; but there is another Coombe, in East 
Kent, within the rural district of Eastry, some miles north of Dover and 
where Harding may well have collected, for he was active in these 
surroundings. An example of S. revestita taken by Harding, but 
unfortunately lacking details, was bought by O.E. Janson at a Stephens sale 
in 1873; it has been found. It is tentatively suggested that this specimen is a 
Kent rather than a Surrey one. 

After 1917 there is a long silence before revestita emerges literally once 
more into the daylight. The story has been told before (Allen, 1972; 1993), 
but it is so amusing that it bears repetition. On 17 June 1945, the Rev. C.E. 
Tottenham was sweeping the verges of a lane in Croydon cum Clapton, 
Cambs., not far from Gamlingay (where Jenyns had found it in the Spring of 
1829), watched - and perhaps questioned - by a boy. Rev. Tottenham, no 
doubt slightly exasperated by his onlooker, handed his net to him, telling 
him to try his luck further down the lane. This the boy did, returning 



238 ENTOM OLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25. ix. 1997 

presently to hand back the sweep net, and, behold, crawling up its side intent 
upon escape was a female S. revestita. Beginner's luck, indeed! This 
specimen was later presented to the Natural History Museum. 

At some time during the early 1950s a collector was credited with the 
capture of this species in White Wood, Everton, Beds. (Driscole, 1977; 
Harding, 1978; Hyman & Parsons, 1992). This is an erroneous record, 
recently confirmed as such in writing by the person in question, and hence is 
to be deleted from the distribution Usts. 

In June 1971, Mr G.E. Woodroffe caught a single revestita walking along 
a sandy heathland track on Hankley Common, near Thursley, Surrey (Allen, 
1972; Kaufmann, 1988, 1992). This is not the only occasion that the beetle 
has shown itself well in the open and, as will be explained, is of some 
significance. 

Lastly, a male of this extraordinary Strangalia was found at midday in June 
1996 crawling along some bare ground in parkland near Coventry, 
Warwickshire by Dr T.G. Forsythe. The find confirms an irretrievable pre- 
1947 record from the county (Kaufmann, 1948; Allen, 1972; Forsythe, 1997). 

Other British examples of S. revestita, not dealt with above, will be found 
in the annotated summary. 

Earlier, reference has been made to numbered codes, which apply, for 
instance, to a specimen marked "23.62" in the G.R. Waterhouse collection 
and would be wrongly interpreted as being a precise date. It is a sequential 
number indicating the acquisition of a number of beetles, subsequent to a 
purchase from a J. A. Brewer (another comtemporary), who had bought 
certain lots at a Stevens auction in the 1860s. This small collection contained 
a single S. revestita, data-less, but as Brewer lived in Reigate, it is 
conceivably a Surrey beetle. There is a second specimen in the collection, 
more clearly defined in Waterhouse 's notebooks, again bought off Brewer in 
March 1863, who had similarly acquired it at a Stevens sale that month. As 
is so often the case with many of these earlier captures it is frustrating that 
data labels have disappeared or that locality records cannot be found. 

Strangalia revestita is listed in all the British catalogues published since 
1819 as a native beetle save, strangely, in the Waterhouse Pocket Catalogue 
of 1861 - of all people - for he names it as an indigene in his earlier 
Catalogue of 1858, and by Beare and Donisthorpe's Catalogue of 1904, who 
omit it altogether. 

The life history and bionomics of the insect are still unknown in this 
country and, indeed, that was the case abroad until the mid-1980s (Hellrigl, 
1986). Beyond finding the imagines, the larval and pupal stages remained a 
mystery (Duffy, 1953; v. Demelt, 1966; Villiers, 1978; Klausnitzer and 
Sander, 1981). Duffy (1953) suggested that the host plant was Prunus avium, 
echoed by Hickin (1987). There is a host of others (Bense, 1995), and a short 
list of flowers visited by the perfect insect, although it is not a true floricole. 



STRANGALIA REVESTITA IN BRITAIN 



239 



such as Cornus, Crataegus and Rosa canina. Villiers (1978) also gives 
umbellifers, those strongly-scented plants so favoured by the genus 
Strangalia, but Hellrigl {op. cit.) categorically denies this in his experience - 
and he should know, he collected hundreds of the species! 

The males always outnumber the females in the ratio 4:1 and since both 
sexes largely frequent the canopies of their host trees, this may explain their 
rare incidence - at least with us - at ground level. S. revestita has become 
rarer and more localised on the Continent (Freude, Harde and Lohse, 1966; 
Villiers, 1978; Klausnitzer and Sander, 1981), but remains widespread, 
ranging from Scandinavia, throughout the Mediterranean countries and as far 
east as Transcaucasia (Bense, 1995). The many different colour forms 
displayed more particularly by the male are both illustrated (Bijiaoui, 1986) 
and described (Daniel, 1904; Aurivillius, 1912). Villiers (1978) names no 
less than sixteen varieties. 




Fig. 1. Small stripped oak branch with enveloping scar healing tissue. 



S. revestita has been recorded from the following host trees: beech 
(Fagus), birch (Betula), elm (Ulmus), hornbeam (Carpinus), maple (Acer), 
oak (Quercus), plum (Prunus), poplar (Populus), sour cherry {Prunus 
avium), sweet chestnut (Castanea) and walnut (Juglans), not to mention 
some other growths unlikely to be found in this country. It is the considered 
view that of all the above trees the oak bears the closest attention, as already 
commented upon. 

A great deal more is now known about the appearance and structure of the 
revestita larva and how to distinguish it from the five species of 
Pedostrangalia {Strangalia auctt. Brit.), outside the scope of this account 
(Svacha and Danilevsky, 1989), but their morphological information remains 
incomplete: neither mating, ovipositing nor the egg is described, and the 
shape of the pupa is un-illustrated. 



240 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.ix.1997 



Hellrigl {op. cit.) and Bense (1995) explain precisely in what parts of the 
host plant the larval and pupal stages occur (see Fig. 1). 

The polyphagous larva of S. revestita develops preferably in trees on the 
edges of woodlands and in those isolated in wide areas, such as are found on 
estates and parks. They feed in the thinner branches, more particularly in 
those whose bark has been excoriated or otherwise damaged, round the scars 
of which the parent tree produces an overlapping healing skin; the larva eats 
into this crust as well as boring into the remaining living part of the branch. 
When this dies, breaks off and lies rotting on the soil, the larva continues 
undisturbed; its presence may be detected by the colour of the frass it leaves 
behind, which turns from a pale to darker brownish shade. It also occurs in 
decaying tree stumps and fallen dead branches, provided they are still moist. 
The life cycle lasts from two to three years, pupation taking place in the 
wood. The imagines emerge usually in April and have been collected as late 
as 'August but, as has been related, June seems the most usual month of 
capture. 

Specimens which have been examined and researched are as follows: 



Natural History Museum, London: 



Royal Museum of Scotland: 



National Museum of Wales: 



Manchester Museum: 



Hope Dept., Oxford: 
University Museum, Cambridge: 



Castle Museum, Norwich: 



4 spp. in coll. J.F. Stephens, data-less. 

4 spp. ex coll. J.A. Power, sine datis. 

1 sp. in coll. G.C. Champion, ex coll. G.R. Crotch. 

1 sp. in coll. G.C. Champion, purchased at a 
Stevens sale. 

1 sp. presented Tottenham {supra). 

1 sp. in coll. G.R. Waterhouse, probably ex J.A. 
Brewer. 

1 sp. in coll. G.R. Waterhouse, bought from 
Brewer, who had bid for it at a Stevens auction in 
March 1863. 

3 spp. ex coll. A.E. Gardner, without data and 
doubtfully British. 

1 sp. (A. Ford), ex coll. J. Kidson-Taylor. 

1 sp. ex coll. T.H. Edmonds, no other data and 
possibly foreign. 

2 spp. in coll. Dale. 

1 sp. ex coll. Rev L. Jenyns. 

1 sp. Darenth Wood (J. Scott) WK (West Kent). 
ex coll. O.E. Janson. 

1 sp. "1082" ex coll. O.E. Janson. Labelled 
"Harding collection, sold at Stevens' April 17th, 
1873". 

1 sp. ex coll. G.R. Crotch, 1844. 

1 sp. ex coll. G.R. Crotch. 

1 sp. in coll. J. Edwards, perhaps British, sine datis. 



STRANG ALIA REVESTITA IN BRITAIN 24 1 

Bolton Museum: 2 spp. unlabelled (British?). 

Isp. labelled only "E.C. Rye". 

Merseyside Museum: 1 sp. in coll. B.S. Williams, Birch Wood (Fredk. 

Smith). 

Doncaster Museum: 1 sp. "10", but questionably British. 

Bristol Museum: 3 spp. in coll. F.C. Adams. Data-less. He was a 

well-known New Forest entomologist. 

Nottingham Museum: 1 sp. in coll. W.W. Fowler, coded "7.91" and with a 

yellow tag. 

Glasgow Museum, Kelvingrove: 2 spp. un-labelled and of unknown origin. 

Hunterian Museum, Glasgow: 7 spp. (no data). 

1 sp. Brockenhurst, (New Forest) June, 1917. 

Acknowledgements 

Cordial thanks for their information and help are extended to R. Aldridge, 
A.A. Allen, J. Bowdrey, M.D. Bryan, Dr M.D. Darby, Miss D.L. Driscole, 
Dr T.G. Forsythe, Dr W.A. Foster, S. Garland, W. Grange, Miss S. Hallett, 
E.C. Hancock, C. Howes, Dr F.A. Hunter, Dr P.S. Hyman, L. Jessop, C. 
Johnson, B. Langridge, Dr B. Levey, Dr G.C. McGavin, H. Mendel, Mrs 
M.J. Morgan, Miss G. Myers, Dr C. Palmer, J.M. Price, Miss M. Reilly, Mrs 
J.M. Ruffle, Dr M.R. Shaw, Mrs S.L. Shute, Dr P.F.G. Twinn, Miss S. 
Wright and the Zoological Society, London. 

References 

Allen, A.A., 1972. Strangalia revestita L. (Col.: Cerambycidae) in Surrey, with a 
synopsis of its British history. Entomologist' s monthly Mag. 108: 22. 

- , 1993. On a Cambridgeshire capture of Strangalia revestita (Col.: Cerambycidae), 
Entomologist' sRec. J. Var. 105: 197-198. 

Aurivillius, C, 1912. Cerambycidae in Junk, W. & Schenkling, S., (eds.) Coleopterorum 

Catalogus, 39. Berlin. 
Beare, T. Hudson & Donisthorpe, H. StJ. K., 1904. Catalogue of British Coleoptera. 

London. 
Bense, U., 1995. Longhorn Beetles: Bockkdfer. Weikersheim. 
Bijiaoui, R., 1986. Atlas des Longicornes de France. Realmont. 

Cox, H.E., 1874. A handbook of the Coleoptera of Great Britain and Ireland 2. London. 
Curtis, J., 1837. A guide to the arrangement of British Insects. 2nd edn. London. 
Daniel, K., 1904. Ueber Leptura revestita, verticalis Germ, und ihre nachsten 

Verwandten, Miinch. Koleopt. Zeitschr. 2: 355-371. 
Demeh, C. von, 1966. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 52: 2, Bockkdfer oder Cerambycidae, 

1 . Jena. 
Donisthorpe, H. SU. K., 1898. Notes on the British Longicornes. Entomologist's Rec. J. 

Var. 10: 249. 

- , 1939. A preliminary list of the Coleoptera of Windsor Forest. London. 

Driscole, D.L., 1977. The Coleoptera . . . and Lepidoptera of Darenth Wood. N.C.C. 
Library Services Report. 



242 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

Duffy, E.A.J. , 1952. Handbooks for the identification of British insects. 5(12). 
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae. Royal Entomological Society. 

- , 1953. A monograph of the immature stages of British and imported Timber Beetles. 
London. 

Forsythe, T.G., 1997. Strangalia revestita (Linnaeus) (Cerambycidae) in Warwickshire, 

The Coleopterist, 5(3): 91. 
Fowler, W.W., 1890. The Coleoptera of the British Islands 4. London. 

- , 1922. Leptura sanguinolenta at Nethy Bridge, N.B., Entomologist' s monthly Mag 58: 
208-209. 

Freude, H., Harde, K.W. & Lohse, G.A., 1966. Die Kdfer Mitteleuropas 9. Krefeld. 
Harding, P.T., 1978. A bibliography of the occurrence of certain woodland Coleoptera 

in Britain . . . associated with old trees, C.S.L Report, no. 161, N.C.C. & N.E.R.C., 

Peterborough. 
Hellrigl, K., 1986. Zur Entwicklung, Farbung und Lebensweise von Pedostrangalia 

revestita (L.) (Coleopt., Cerambycidae), Anz. Schddlingskunde 59: 14-17. 
Hickin, N., 1987. Longhorn Beetles of the British Isles. Princes Risborough. 
Hodge, P.J. & Jones, R.A., 1995. New British Beetles, species not in Joy's practical 

handbook. BENHS. 
Hyman, P.S. & Parsons, M.S., 1992. A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera 

of Great Britain. U.K. Nature Conservation, 3. Part 1. Peterborough. 
Klausnitzer, B. & Sander, F., 1981. D/e Kdfer Mitteleuropas. Wittenburg. 
Lyneborg, L., 1987. Beetles in colour. English edn. Vevers, G. Poole. 
Marsham, T., 1802. Entomologica Britannica, 1. Coleoptera. London. 
Martyn, T., 1792. The English Entomologist. London. 
Norman, J.S., 1844. Insects. Zoologist 2: 414. 
Planet, L-M., 1924. Les Longicornes de France. Paris. 

Rowland-Browne, H., 1910. Proc. Ent. Soc. London. Entomologist' s mon. Mag. 48: 148. 
Rye, E.C., 1863. New British species, etc., 1861-62. Entomologist' s Annual. 1963: 115. 
Samouelle, G., 1819. The Entomologist' s useful compendium. London. 
Shirt, D.B. (ed.), 1987. British red data books, 2, Insects. Peterborough. 
Stephens, J.F., 1831. Illustrations of British Entomology. Mandibulata 4. London. 

- , 1839. A manual of British Coleoptera. London. 

Svacha, P. & Danilevsky, M.L., 1989. Cerambycoid larvae of Europe and Soviet Union 
(Coleoptera: Cerambycoidea). Part III. Acta Univ. Carolinae, Biologica 32: 123-129. 

Turton, W., 1806. A general system of Entomology, 1. London. 

Uhthoff-Kaufmann, R.R., 1948. Notes on the distribution of the British Longicorn 
Coleoptera. Entomologist' s mon. Mag. 84: 66-85. 

- , 1988. The occurrence of the genus Strangalia Serville (Col.: Cerambycidae) in the 
British Isles. Entomologist' s Rec. J. Var. 100: 63-71. 

- , 1992. Extinct and very scarce Longhorn Beetles (Col.: Cerambycidae and Lamiidae). 
Ibid. 104: 113-121. 

Villiers, A., 1978. Faune des Coleopteres de France, 1. Cerambycidae. Paris. 

Walker, J.J., 1932. The Dale collection of British Coleoptera. Entomologist' s mon. Mag. 

66: 105-108. 
Waterhouse, G.R., 1858. Catalogue of British Coleoptera. London. 

- , 1861. Pocket catalogue of British Coleoptera. London. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 243 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - Driven out by drivers - Ghana, 1993 

The forests on the Atewa Range at Kibi in Ghana are among the finest 
survivors of one of the most threatened habitats in the world, the true West 
African rainforest. They are of especial beauty since they stretch over rolling 
hills which - with peaks of 850 metres or so - are higher than most in West 
Africa. I was very pleased that my first serious collecting trip as part of a 
five-year research project into West African butterflies was a weekend at 
Kibi - my last visit there in 1977 had been sheer delight. 

Two four-wheel drive vehicles were loaded up with two British Army 
majors, one butterfly researcher, their respective wives, an impressive 
amount of food and drink, as well as a generous supply of British Army 
impedimenta such as tarpaulins, camp beds, furniture and ingenious cooking 
devices. We were planning to sleep in the forest overnight. 

Kibi did not disappoint us. Though early in the season, with really good 
rains still to fall, no less than 160 species were chalked up in two days, 
including great rarities such as two beautiful Swordtails Graphium illyris 
Hewitson and G. latreillanus Godart. I also took a Dotted Border Mylothris 
atewa Berger, a species named after the very ridge on which we were 
camping. I have seen no references to this species except for the type series, 
described by Berger as recently as 1980. We did not, alas, see Papilio 
antimachus Drury, Africa's largest butterfly, which is found there. 

Darkness comes early in the rainforest, so there was time for a splendid 
dinner, drinks and talk, as well as visits to a moth-screen that, unfortunately, 
did not produce moths as well as the day had produced butterflies. Soon the 
army issue camp beds were assembled, and we retired to sleep in various 
comers of the camp. 

I still remember how surprised I was when I first realised that in many 
rainforests it is possible to sleep undisturbed in the open, without mosquito 
nets to keep away the hordes of noxious insects that seem to figure so 
prominently in books of the early explorers. The Kibi forests are one of those 
places, and soon six tired campers were fast asleep. Until two o'clock, that is. 

Nancy and I woke up when driver ants began to bite. The light of the full 
moon revealed that the ground beneath the camp beds was a seething mass 
of ants which had fanned out to feed, and which had only just begun to 
ascend the beds. One of the expedition cars was smothered in ants, inside as 
wefl as outside. One lucky couple was out of the ants' range, enjoying the 
privilege of seeing the rest of us in various stages of undress, trying to 
retrieve our beds and our kit while fending off as many ants as possible. 
Once fifty or so ants are biting at the same time, it becomes almost 
impossible to act rationally. We fled a few hundred metres down a forest 
path and regrouped. Nancy's shoes were left behind in the confusion. I 
volunteered to pick them up - after all, the idea of camping out in the open 
was mine, and Nancy is not a naturally outdoorsy type. 



244 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

The shoes were covered in ants, though by the time I reached the beds 
most of them had been dislodged by banging the shoes together. This had 
also scattered Nancy's watch, earrings, necklace and other sundries placed 
in the shoes, but a solution for that would have to wait for dawn. 

Ten minutes of mutual grooming and inspection of beds allowed us to 
declare an ant-free-zone, and we bedded down for another three hours of 
sleep. 

Dawn permitted us to retrieve Nancy's trinkets and revealed that the ants 
had largely departed, leaving just a hundred thousand or so clinging as an 
intertwined ball to our garbage bags. The opportunity for sweet revenge 
was there! Nancy was given the honour. Kerosene was poured over the 
ants. The first match fizzled out. The second produced a fireball large 
enough the singe Nancy's hair and eyebrows, it had been petrol, not 
kerosene, that I had poured over the ants, most of which survived at least 
as well as Nancy. 

Ghanaians, and not just city folk, share a deep distrust of the forest as a 
place of wild animals and evil spirits. Had anyone been at Kibi at 02.00 on 
Monday 8 March 1993, they would have been confirmed in their beliefs. 
- ToRBEN B. Larsen, 358 Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 



Two Dipogon subintermedius (Magretti) (Hym.: Pompilidae) 
apparently developing on one spider 

I was interested to read Steve Garland's note (antea: 141), describing the 
behaviour of Dipogon subintermedius in hunting its regular (cf. Day, 1988: 
Handbks. Ident. Br. Insects 6(4): 31) spider prey Segestia senoculata (L.). 
It prompts me to record that on 8.iv.l997 I collected two very unevenly 
sized cocoons of D. subintermedius, positioned outward of the remains of a 
single large spider that seems compatible with S. senoculata, from one of 
several characteristic emergence holes of the large buprestid beetle Agrilus 
pannonicus (Filler & Mitterpacher) seen in the bark of a standing mature 
Quercus robur at Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire. Because the cocoons 
were immediately recognised as probably those of a pompilid (which 
normally develop in strict one-to-one relation to their spider prey), I 
looked carefully for the remains of a second spider but could find nothing. 
The conclusion that on this occasion two wasps had, for some unknown 
reason, developed on a single spider was strengthened by the abnormally 
small size (3mm long) of the male D. subintermedius that emerged on 
11.V.1997, to be followed by a more normally-sized female (7mm long) 
eight days later.- Mark R. Shaw, National Museums of Scotland, 
Chambers Street, Edinburgh EHl IJF. 



BUTTERFLIES IN THE BENASQUE VALLEY, SPAIN 245 

BUTTERFLIES IN THE BENASQUE VALLEY, SPAIN 

Andrew Wakeham-Dawson 

Mill Laine Farm, Ojfham, Lewes, East Sussex, BN7 3QB. 

Introduction 

THE BENASQUE VALLEY lies in the Spanish Pyrenees between the 
Ordesa National Park to the west and the Vail d'Aran to the east. The area 
was visited in May 1991, June 1994 and July/August 1991 and 1993 to 
investigate the butterfly fauna. The spring butterflies have already been 
described (Wakeham-Dawson, 1992a), as have the Erebia species found 
flying in July/early August (Wakeham-Dawson, 1992b). The current paper 
reports on butterflies seen during a visit to the valley between 22 and 29 
September 1996 (Appendix 1), but also discusses some of the more 
interesting species that fly earlier in the year. During the September visit, the 
weather was warm and dry and the leaves had not begun to change colour or 
fafl. Snow was lying on the peaks of the taller mountains. A farmer's wife at 
Chia reported that it had been a very wet summer in 1996. 

Habitat types 

The Benasque Valley is cut by the River Esera (Fig. 1). InitiaUy the Esera 
flows east to west fed by streams from mountains in the Maladeta range 
(which includes Pico de Aneto), but then turns south. Between the towns of 
Benasque and Castejon de Sos (c. 14 km), the valley floor is at c. 1000m 
above sea level. The vaUey sides are steep and rise to high mountain peaks 
such as Pico de Aneto (3404m), El Gallinero (2728m), El Turbon (2492m) 
and Pico de Cerler (2407m). Vegetation is stratified up the valley sides 
providing a range of habitat types that support a rich flora and associated 
butterfly species (some of which are endemic to the Pyrenees). The 
vegetation can be classified into five main habitat types (not including the 
alpine habitat of high mountain peaks). These are listed here with an 
indication of the altitude ranges in which they occur. These habitats can be 
found throughout the Benasque VaUey and similar valleys in the region, but 
a number of areas which are good examples of each type are given below. 

1. Terrace meadows (1000 - 1400m) along the banks of the Esera and on 
the lower valley slopes. These meadows (and the sub-alpine pastures 
discussed below) have developed a rich flora and fauna through extensive 
hay making and grazing with farm livestock over the last thousand years. A 
moderate intensity of grazing or mowing keeps the vegetation at a height and 
diversity which suits many lepidopteran communities (Montesinos, 1994). 
However, changes in farming practices which lead to the abandonment of 
traditional pastoral systems (often accompanied by under- or over-grazing) 
or to the introduction of more intensive management methods (especially the 



246 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

use of artificial fertiliser to improve agricultural productivity) are 
endangering mountain meadows throughout Europe (Bignal & McCracken, 
1992). In the Benasque Valley, some of the larger meadows have been 
subjected to mechanical mowing and fertiliser application which has resulted 
in a poor flora, often dominated by sown agricultural grass species. 
However, around the villages of Eriste and Anciles the meadows are too 
small or steep for 'improvement' of the grassland. Even in late September, 
there were many plants still in flower and butterflies including Erebia 
neoridas Boisduval, Colias alfacariensis Ribbe, Hesperia comma L. and 
very worn Agrodiaetus damon D. & S. In June and July, Maculinea arion 
obscura Christ and M. alcon rebeli Hirschke (Wakeham-Dawson, 1996) had 
been flying. Gentiana cruciata, the rebeli larval food plant, had been in 
flower. By September, the blue flowers had been replaced by seedheads full 
of small seeds and the leaves were yellow and weathered. A number of 
plants still had white rebeli eggs at the base of the seedheads and on the 
smaller leaves at the top of the plants. These were dead and inspection under 
a xlO lens showed no sign that larvae had hatched from them. Perhaps these 
eggs had been infertile or killed by the very wet summer that the valley had 
experienced in 1996. 



Figure 1. Sketch map of the Benasque Valley. A. Pico de Aneto (in the Maladeta 
Range); B. Benasque town; C. Pico de Cerler; G. El Gallinero; S. Castejon de Sos; T. El 
Turbon. 1. Chia; 2. Collado de Sahiin; 3. Eriste; 4. Els Plans dAbajo: 5. Anciles; 6. El 
Ampriu; 7. Hospital de Benasque; 8. La Besurta. Solid line with dotted line = main road 
running along River Esera; solid lines = other roads. See text for indication of scale. 




BUTTERFLffiS IN THE BENASQUE VALLEY 247 

Other July lycaenids included Pseudophilotes baton baton Bergstrasser 
and a type of Aricia species. Some specimens (of both sexes) collected 
resemble Aricia allous Geyer from the Parnon Mountains and Mount 
Veluchi in Greece (Wakeham-Dawson, antea: 199-203) and have no orange 
markings on the upper forewings. Others have reduced orange markings like 
the male montensis montanabella Verity from central Spain illustrated in 
Manley & Allcard, 1970 (plate 31), but none of them have the pronounced 
orange markings found in montensis montensis Verity from North Africa 
(Tennent, 1996: plate 12). The Benasque population may be an example of 
the intermediate form of allous and montensis reported from areas of Greece, 
North Spain, Pyrenees and south-west Alps (Coutsis, 1972; Higgins, 1975; 
Higgins & Riley, 1980; Leestmans & Arheilger, 1987). Male genitalia 
distinguish the Benasque allous x montensis from agestis agestis D.&S. 
(Higgins, 1975: Fig 178) found north of the Pyrenees and agestis cramera 
Eschscholtz (Higgins, 1975: Fig 178) from central Spain. However, there 
appears to be little to distinguish between the genitalia of Benasque allous x 
montensis and Greek allous (which resemble Fig 179b in Higgins, 1975). 
Neither A. agestis agestis or agestis cramera were found in the Benasque 
valley. Also flying in the meadows in July were Heodes alciphron gordius 
Sulzer, Agrodiaetus escheri escheri Hiibner, Mellicta parthenoides 
Keferstein, Melitaea didyma meridionalis Staudinger and Satyrus ferula F. 

2. Dry scrub (maquis) at c. 1200m. Around the village of Chia on the road 
up to the Collado de Sahiin, the scrub includes oak (Quercus), box (Buxus), 
blackthorn (Prunus) and lavender (Lavandula). Between July-August, A. 
damon, Coenonympha dorus Esper and Hipparchia semele cadmus 
Fruhstorfer fly in the area, accompanied by the western European satyrids 
that live in dry scrub. In May/June Glaucopsyche melanops Boisduval were 
found. In late September, very worn Hipparchia statilinus Hufnagel were 
present with worn E. neoridas. Clossiana dia L. (a species which appears to 
be triple brooded in the Benasque valley) was very fresh and a single mint 
male Gonepteryx cleopatra L. was seen. 

3. Deciduous woodland between 1000- 1500m. Around Eriste, Anciles and 
throughout the valley, the woodland was rich with butterfly species in July. 
These included Erebia meolans de Prunner, Limenitis reducta Staudinger, 
Apatura ilia D.&S. and Laeosopis roboris Esper. In Late September, all 
woodland species were worn and included E. neoridas, female Quercusia 
quercus L. and a single female ilia. 

4. Coniferous woodland 1300- 1800m. The denser areas of coniferous 
woodland did not support butterflies, but new plantations, clearings and 
pasture just above the tree-line had a number of interesting species. In rocky 
pasture (c. 1600m) on the edge of pines at Els Plans d'Abajo (across the 
reservoir east from Eriste), Melanargia russiae cleanthe Boisduval 



248 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

(Wakeham-Dawson, in press) were flying with Hipparchia alcyone D.&S., 
Boloria pales pyrenesmiscens Verity and Parnassius apollo L. in July. 
Erebia triaria triaria de Prunner were flying in the area in late May. 

5. Sub-alpine slopes (above 1600m). This was the most interesting habitat 
type providing two types of terrain: (a) steep pasture and (b) scree slopes (at 
lower altitudes often interspersed with pine trees). 

(a) On pasture at El Ampriu (1900m) in July, Erebia hispania rondoui 
Oberthur were flying with Colias phicomone Esper and Heodes 
virgaureae L. E. rondoui was still flying in mid-August. In July, at the 
CoUado de Sahun (1900m), Erebia gorgone Boisduval and E. epiphron 
pyrenaica H-S were flying close to the short grass on very steep slopes. 
By late September there was no sign of any butterflies at either site, but 
at c. 1800m on the road to Plan west of the Collado de Sahiin, mint 
condition hispania rondoui (males and females) were found flying with 
fresh E. neoridas on rocky slopes among the pine trees on 27 September. 
The wing colour and male genitalia of these rondoui were similar to 
those from El Ampriu in July. It appears that the flight period of rondoui 
is much longer than suggested by Higgins & Riley (1980), unless the 
population at the Collado de Sahun had been unusually affected by the 
wet summer in 1996. In September, a colony of E. neoridas was flying 
close to the ground on south facing slopes above Cerler (1600m). This 
species appears to fly in all the habitat types listed above, but females 
were more common here than elsewhere. These were basking on warm 
areas of bare soil and some were crawling among the grass stems, but 
none was observed to lay eggs. 

(b) In July, on rocky slopes in the valley around the Hospital de 
Benasque (1760m) Erebia euijale Esper were flying among the pine 
trees where Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne L. had been flying in 
June. Above the tree line in July were E. lefebvrei lefebvrei Boisduval 
and E. gorge ramondi Oberthur. Polymmatus eros Ochsenheimer were 
present here on the lower slopes and high up near the Portillon de 
Benasque (2444m) were fast flying Pontia callidice Hiibner. In late 
September, worn E. neoridas and fresh E. pronoe glottis Fruhstorfer 
were flying near streams on a south slope in clearings among the pine 
trees at La Besurta (1900m). Warren (1963) suggests that pronoe tends 
to be overlooked because of its late flight period. One of the male pronoe 
captured was smaller than the others and marked like pronoe vergy 
Ochsenheimer (Higgins & Riley, 1980: plate 53). The genitalia (valves) 
also differ from those of the glottis specimens. The glottis valves from 
Benasque are variable in structure but resemble those drawn for pronoe 
pronoe from Austria by Higgins (1975: fig. 346a), while the vergy 
genitalia from Benasque are similar to those drawn for vergy from 



BUTTERFLIES IN THE BENASQUE VALLEY 249 

Switzerland by Higgins (1975: fig. 346b). In the Benasque vergy 
specimen, the distal section of the valve is less elongated and the mid- 
costa teeth less pronounced than in the glottis specimens. Higgins & 
Riley (1980) record that some races of pronoe show intermediate 
characters between the subspecies pronoe, glottis and vergy, but the 
appearance of two distinct forms in one population in the Benasque 
Valley is surprising. 

Acknowledgements 

I thank the Trustees and Staff of The Natural History Museum, London for 
allowing use of the Entomology Library and butterfly collections in this study 
(especially P.R. Ackery, J. Harvey, L. Mitchell and R. Lanstone for their 
help) and P. Wakeham-Dawson for his helpful comments on an earlier draft 
of this paper. I thank Dr M.P.A. White for her assistance with this research. 

Correction: In the spring report of Benasque butterflies (Wakeham-Dawson, 
1992a), Pyrgus alveus should read P. malvae L. and P. foulquieri should 
read P. carthami Hubner. In the list of species Lysandra coridon should read 
L. hispana Herrich-S chaffer and Agrodiaetus escheri Hubner should be 
included in the list. 

References 

Bignal, E.M. & McCracken, D.I., 1992. Prospects for Nature Conservation in European 

Pastoral Farming Systems. Joint Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough. 
Coutsis, J.G., 1972. List of Grecian butterflies: additional records 1969-1971. 

Entomologists Rec. J. Var. 84: 145-151. 
Higgins, L.G., 1975. The Classification of European Butterflies. London. 
Higgins, L.G. & Riley, N.D., 1980. A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and 

Europe. London. 
Leestmans, R. & Arheilger, T., 1987. Les lepidopteres du massif du Chelmos 

(Peloponnese, Grece): inventaire et considerations zoogeographiques (premiere 

partie). Linneana Belgica 4: 150-192. 
Manley, W.B.L. & Allcard, H.G., 1970. A Field Guide to the Butterflies and Burnets of 

Spain. Hampton. 
Montesinos, J. L.V., 1994. Extensive livestock raising and butterflies. La Canada 2: 5. 
Tennent, J., 1996. The Butterflies of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Wallingford. 
Wakeham-Dawson, A., 1992a. Spring butterflies of the Spanish Central Pyrenees. 

Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 51: 163-166. 

- , 1992b. An identification guide to Ringlet (Erebia) butterflies to be found in the 
Central Pyrenees. Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 51: 289-291. 

- , 1996. Some observations on large blue Maculinea van Ecke 1915 butterflies 
(Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in the Pyrenees. Entomologists Rec. J. Var. 108: 301-304, 
plate H. 

- , in press. A comparison of specimens of Melanargia russiae Esper (Lepidoptera: 
Satyridae) from Greece and Spain. Entomologist' s Gaz. ??? 

Warren, B.C.S. 1963. Monograph of the Genus Erebia. British Museum (Natural 
History). 



250 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.ix.1997 



Appendix 1. Species of butterfly seen in the Benasque Valley between 22- 
29 September 1996. 

All species were worn unless marked *. This indicates that adults appeared 
to have recently emerged. Both sexes were seen unless otherwise stated. 



Papilionidae 

Papilio machon L. * (females) 
Parnassius apollo L. (single female with 
sphragis) 

Pieridae 

Pieris brassicae L. * 

Artogeia rapae L. 

Colias hyale L.? * 

C. alfacariensis Ribbe * 

Gonepteryx cleopatra L. * (single male) 

Lycaenidae 

Quercusia quercus L. (females) 

Lycaena phlaeas L. * 

Lampides boeticus L. * (single male) 

Agrodiaetus damon D.&S. 

A. escheri Hii.bner * (single female) 

Lysandra coridon Poda 

L. bellargus Rottemburg * 

Polyommatus icarus Rottemburg * 



Vanessa atalanta L. * 

Cynthia cardui L. 

Aglais urticae L. * 

Argynnis paphia L. (a single female) 

Issoria lathonia L. * 

Clossiana dia L. * (third brood) 

Mellicta deione Geyer * (second brood) 

Satyridae 

Hipparchia semele cadmus Fruhstorfer * (a 

single male in Benasque town centre) 
H. statilinus Hufnagel (females) 
Erebia hispania rondoui Oberthur * 
E. pronoe glottis Fruhstorfer * 
E. neoridas Boisduval * (some worn) 
Pyronia tithonus L. 
Coenonympha pamphilus L. 
Pararge aegeria aegeria L. * 
Lasiommata megera L. * 
L. maeraf. adrasta Illiger * 
Maniola jurtina L. (females) 



Nymphalidae 

Apatura ilia D.&S. (single female) 
Nymphalis antiopa L. * 
Inachis io L. * 



Hesperiidae 

Spialia sertorius Hoffmannsegg * 
Hesperia comma L. * 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 25 1 

Notable Lepidoptera from Barking, Essex 

On 4.viii.l990, 29.vii. 1992 and 5.viii.l992 two mercury-vapour (m.v.) 
lights (one Robinson trap and one over a sheet) were operated at Thames- 
side Park, Barking, South Essex, VC18 (OS grid reference TQ 4682). The 
site, adjacent to the River Thames, was much disturbed in the past, being 
used as repository for the pulverised fuel ash (PFA) generated by the nearby 
Barking Power Station (now demolished). The PFA, mixed with water, was 
pumped into a number of man-made "lagoons" which, since the closure of 
the power station in the 1960s, have dried out to varying degrees. A varied 
vegetation structure has developed with dry, damp and water-logged 
grassland. Birch Betula and Willow Salix scrub, areas of bare ground and an 
extensive network of ditches, of varying widths, dominated either by 
Phragmites, Typha or both. 

The m.v. lights were operated in an open area, sheltered by BirchAVillow 
scrub and in close proximity to a ditch dominated by Phragmites with some 
Typha. The following moths, considered to be nationally scarce (Notable 
category Nb: species which are thought to occur in between 31 and 100km 
squares of the National grid) by Waring (1993, National Moth Consei-vation 
Project, News Bulletin 5, Butterfly Conservation) or by Parsons (1993, A 
review of the scarce and threatened pyralid moths of Great Britain. UK 
Nature Conservation No. 11, JNCC, Peterborough) were recorded, with 
numbers given where noted. 

Eupithecia millefoliata (Rossi.), Yarrow Pug. 

Nb. 29.vii.1992, one; 5.viii.l992, Local in the London area, but locally 
abundant, most records in close proximity to the Thames (Plant, 1993, 
Larger Moths of the London Area, LNHS, London). 

Cucullia absinthii (L.) The Wormwood. 

Nb. 4.viii.l990, Ic^; 29.vii.1992, Ic^. In London, very local, but locally 

common (Plant, op. cit.). 

C. asteris (D.&S.), Star-wort. 

Nb. 29.vii.1992, \S . Very local, but locally abundant in London (Plant, op. 

cit.). 

Archanara sparganii (Esp.), Webb's Wainscot. 

Nb. 4.viii.l990, 1 ? ; 5.viii.l992, 2S 6 If. Extremely local and rare in 

London (Plant, op. cit.). 

Earias clorana (L.), Cream-bordered Green Pea. 

Nb. 4.viii.l990, one; 29.vii.1992, one. Extremely local in London (Plant, op. 
cit.). Very local and scarce on the Essex coast (Emmet & Pyman, 1985, The 
larger moths and butterflies of Essex, Essex Field Club). 

Calamotropha paludelh (Hb.), Reed-mace Grass-veneer. 

Nb. 4.viii.l990, one. Local in South-Eastem England (Parsons, op. cit.). 

Evergestis extimalis (Scopoli), Marbled-yellow Straw Pearl. 

Nb. 4.viii.l990, several seen, four retained; 29.vii.1992, two. Although 



252 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

recorded from 23 vice-counties Parsons {op. cit.) considers this species to be 
breeding only in the Breckland and the Thames estuary area. 

Other species, considered by Plant {op. cit.) to be local or uncommon in the 

London area, include the following: 

Cyclophora albipunctata (Hufn.), Birch Mocha. 

5.viii.l992. A widespread but very local resident in the London area (Plant, 

op. cit.). Local and generally scarce in Essex (Emmet & Pyman, op. cit.). 

Perizoma bifaciata (Haw.), Barred Rivulet. 

4.viii.l990, one; 5.viii.l992, two. The distribution map in Plant {op. cit.) 
shows a concentration of records in the North Downs area of London, but 
very few records north of the Thames. Local and generally scarce in Essex 
(Emmet & Pyman, op. cit.). 

Aspitates ochrearia (Rossi), Yellow Belle. 

4.viii.l990, one at rest. Locally common in East London, in the vicinity of 
the Thames, rare elsewhere in the London area (Plant, op. cit.). Locally 
common on the coast of Essex (Emmet & Pyman, op. cit.). 

Lacanobia suasa (D.&S.), Dog's Tooth. 

4.viii.l990, several; 29.vii.1992, \S\ 5.viii.l992, IcJl?. Widespread and 

locally common along Thames; uncommon elsewhere in London (Plant, op. 

cit.). 

Mythimna straminea (Treit.), Southern Wainscot. 

27.vii.1992, two; 5.viii.l992, 1 ? . In London, very local in Phragmites beds 

along the Thames, mostly in the east (Plant, op. cit.). 

Amphipoea fucosa (Freyer), Saltern Ear. 

4.viii.l990, common, 6S S 99 9; 29.vii.1992, 2S 6; 5.viii.l992, ?>S S 
(vouchers retained and genitalia examined). Last recorded in the London 
area at Mitcham Common, Surrey in 1969 (B. Skinner; Plant, op. cit.). 
Locally fairly common on the coast and estuaries of Essex (Emmet & 
Pyman, op. cit.). No other members of this genus were recorded. 

Archanara geminipuncta (Haw.), Twin-spotted Wainscot. 

4.viii.l990, 1 $ ; 5.viii.l992, 26 S . Extremely local in London (Plant, op. cit.). 

Arenostola phragmitidis (Hb.), Fen Wainscot. 

4.viii.l990, one. In London, very local but locally abundant in Phragmites 

beds (Plant, op. cit.). Locally common in Essex (Emmet & Pyman, op. cit.). 

Pyrrhia umbra (Hufn.), Bordered Sallow. 

29.vii.1992, \S', 5.viii.l992, 1$. Very local and generally uncommon in 
London (Plant, op. cit.). Local and scarce in Essex (Emmet & Pyman, op. cit.). 
- Adrian M. Riley, Martin C. Townsend and Ian R. Wynne, Entomology 
& Nematology Department, lACR-Rothamsted, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 253 

Rain and gales are good for sugaring 

In 1993 Michael Majerus reported a remarkable catch of moths at light-traps 
during a torrential thunderstorm (Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' 
Society 52: 157-159). I recently came across an 1888 record of an equally 
remarkable catch of moths, this time at sugar, during a violent storm which I 
feel is worth re -publishing. The article, entitled Sugaring at Deal is by J.W. 
Tutt and appeared in The Young Naturalist 9: 164. The following account is 
as published, with the original parenthesis ( ) and capitalisation, but I have 
inserted the modem names in square [ ] brackets. 

"I went to Deal on the 7th July and stayed a few days. Ochrata [Idaea 
ochrata, Bright Wave] was only just coming out, and will be very rare (end 
of June is the ordinary time). Littoralis, [Mythimna litoralis, Shore Wainscot 
- but see comment below] only just ovX. Caecana [Cydia caecana, Kentish 
Piercer] I made a special journey for and never saw. I did nothing up to the 
Tuesday when I made a final rush for the sandhills Gel.[echia] distinctella 
[Chionodes distinctella, Distinct Groundling] and desertella [Bryotropha 
desertella, Common Sandhill Groundling] were the only insects in 
abundance and they did not care to fly. About eight, the wind dropped and I 
got my little fellow to put on the treacle. He had hardly finished when (about 
nine) the wind increased almost to a gale. I could scarcely keep the lantern 
alight, and to make matter worse, rain came on torrents. There was no 
shelter, but we were provided with macintoshes, so I looked at the sugar. 
The posts were alive with insects: Exclamationis [Agrotis exclamationis, 
Heart and Dart], segetum [Agrotis segetum, Turnip Moth], polyodon 
[Apamea monoglypha, Dark Arches], pronuba [Noctua pronuba, Large 
Yellow Underwing] &c., fought in crowds for room, until they were blown 
off by the wind. How they managed to stand still at all was a mystery. I filled 
up my boxes in about 20 minutes, with fine vars. of Corticea [Agrotis clavis, 
Heart and Club], littoralis [Mythimna litoralis. Shore Wainscot], sublustris 
[Apamea sublustris, Reddish Light Arches] and such like sandhill 
specialities, and after they were all filled I looked and longed. I could have 
filled 500 boxes with really useful insects, had I had them. I found Acer 
tridens [Acronicta tridens, Dark Dagger - but see below] (a splendid form) 
triangulum [Xestia triangulum. Double Square-spot], putris [Axylia putris, 
Flame Rustic] and such like species that probably had never been seen on the 
sandhills before, for there are no woods for miles around. Aceris [Acronicta 
tridens, Dark Dagger] was on a gate post facing the sea, and clinging like 
grim death. It is a puzzle where he came from. I took all I could box and 
returned. I do not care for too many in one box, but some of them had three 
in, and I found my night's work was about a gross and a half of insects. The 
greater mass were good Noctua varieties. Such a night does not happen 
often, and I would put up with the drenching every night for a long time 
under similar conditions. The most marvellous part of the matter relating to 



254 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

the grandest and most exciting night's collecting I have mentioned above, is 
that on Saturday and Sunday nights, my total at sugar on the same ground 
were 14 all told, and two of these were brown varieties of Polyodon 
[Apamea monoglypha, Dark Arches]. Where do they get to on these 
unproductive nights? They do not fly, but must be present in thousands. If 
they will not come to sugar it is rarely of use working the marram flowers, 
but when it is a good night to sugar, it is generally good at flowers also." 

I find the account both rather disjointed, ambiguous and rather intriguing. 
Who, for instance, was "my little fellow" who put on the treacle? If Tutt had 
been playing golf he would have been a Caddie. Was he one of Tutt's 
servants who he had taken with him to Deal, or more likely a local lad 
accompanying him for a shilling or two in order to help carry the equipment 
as well as apply the treacle? 

Now 7 July 1888 was a Friday, so I find it most surprising that Tutt, of all 
people, "did nothing up to the Tuesday" and then made a "final" rush to the 
sandhills, the word "final" clearly implying that he must have done some 
collecting before then! Now since he clearly also states that he collected at the 
same spot on Saturday and Sunday nights was this the weekend /o//ow/«g his 
arrival on Friday the 7th, which contradicts "did nothing up to the Tuesday", 
or was it the following weekend? In which case we have no account of how 
he spent the rest of the week and his "few days" were a very extended visit. 
The note looks as if it were written in a hurry and since the last few lines as 
printed in The Young Naturalist have been squeezed up to fit the page, may 
well have been severely edited. One also has to consider the speed with which 
he boxed his specimens. "A gross and a half in 20 minutes equals ten moths 
a minute! All done in a gale with torrential rain. One has to admire the man. 

A few years after Tutt's visit much of the sandhills was converted into a 
golf course. Nevertheless, sixty years later, with one exception, all the macros 
mentioned were still to be found in the area and were recorded by Embry and 
Youden in their 1949 book The butterflies and moths found in the Dover and 
Deal district of Kent. They do not mention the Dark Dagger, notoriously 
difficult to separate from the Grey Dagger Acronicta psi, which is recorded at 
Deal, except by rearing or examination of the genitalia; a technique very 
much in its infancy in 1888. Whether Tutt took it to be that species on a dark 
and stormy night in the pouring rain or whether he confirmed it when he got 
home, we shall never know, but the fact remains that it is the only published 
record of the Dark Dagger from Deal, unless someone has found it there 
recently. There is also a slight possibility of mis-identifying ''littoraM' as the 
present name, with the two t's is Lobesia littoralis Shore Doubtful Marble, 
but since this is a common and widespread micro I feel sure that Tutt meant 
the one "t" litoralis which is Mythimna litoralis Shore Wainscot, a typical 
sandhill species which was worth coming to Deal for.- Brian O.C. 
Gardiner, 2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 



OBSERVATIONS OF BUTTERFLY BEHAVIOUR 255 

OBSERVATIONS OF BUTTERFLY BEHAVIOUR IN 1996 IN 

BERKSHIRE: INTERPLAY BETWEEN VANESSA ATALANTA (L.), 

CYNTHIA CARDUI (L.) (LEP.: NYMPHALIDAE) AND ONE GAY 

CAT, AN (?) ALLURING PREDATOR 

E.P. Wiltshire 

Wychwood, High Road, Cookham Rise, Berkshire SL6 9JF. 

Summary 

THE BEHAVIOUR in 1996 of the Red Admiral Vanessa atalanta (L.) and 
the Painted Lady Cynthia cardui (L.) differed from that observed in the 
exceptional year of 1995, cardui outnumbered atalanta tenfold in July and 
August, atalanta established in June the same territory as in 1995 and held it 
throughout July, but did not share it with the Comma Polygonia c-album (L.) 
and from 2 August started nectaring, curtailing territorial behaviour by 
several weeks. In neither year was any other territory noted. In late July 
sunlight, the gay coat of the same cat predator, noted in previous years, 
seemed to attract atalanta from his perch on the usual bush and for half an 
hour the author repeatedly intervened in order to save the butterfly's life. 

Introduction 

My first detailed observations (Wiltshire, 1997) of the territorial behaviour 
of Vanessa atalanta were made almost daily, during the 1995 heatwave, in 
my back garden. Usually rather rare in Cookham, Cynthia cardui was not 
noted in 1995 until August, but reached Cookham in 1996 during June, only 
a few days after atalanta, a good month after the arrival of these two 
immigrants in the south and west of England. My old Barr and Stroud 
binoculars needed repair in 1995 but were fortunately mended in time to 
help distinguish, at a distance. Red Admirals from Painted Ladies. 

The cat incident was at such close quarters that there was no need to use 
binoculars. This individual was the same as in the 1995 observations; below 
he is referred to as "Spike", the name my neighbours gave him. He is one of 
a troop of four cats from my westward neighbour - three toms, all differently 
coloured, plus a black female, who is the mother of a tabby tomcat, the 
others are unrelated to each other. The other two are both short-haired. The 
leader, large, about equally black and white, a dour tom, and lastly Spike, 
with about equal orange and white blotches and a tiny grey moustache not 
really compensating for some effeminate habits. The three toms prowl far 
and wide in the close neighbourhood, each alone, and habitually crossing my 
lawn or front garden on their eastward way and westward return home. The 
smaller female goes less far afield. Spike has for years marked the flowers on 
the sunny lawn border with his urine-spray as his own territory, whether for 
grooming or watching the Rhododendron bush on which the shorter-lived 
butterfly owners successively perch, when not patrolling the lawn or settling 



256 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

on one of its hotspots where, on midsummer afternoons, the sun sinks behind 
a high laurel-hedge and warms the mown turf. The three others, naturally, 
were tempted to stalk or catch passing insects, but without Spike's 
perseverance and systematic predation method with chosen location 
developing from several years experience. One suggestive incident is 
described in detail below under 3 1 July. 

Some other butterflies were more scarce in Cookham Rise in 1996 than in 
1995 - the Comma Polygonia c-album (L.), the Peacock Inachis io (L,), the 
Small Tortoiseshell Aglais urticae (L.) and the Speckled Wood Pararge 
aegeria (L.). This year I noticed that the nettles, which constitute the 
principal foodplant of the first three and usually grow rife on the edges of 
allotments or the large playground at the end of my back garden, had been 
sprayed with herbicide or cut with a scythe. I think this accounts for the 
scarcity in their case. For the aegeria our own actions in reducing long grass 
in our various gardens are doubtless responsible. 

On the other hand, the Holly Blue Celastrina argiolus (L.), which had 
disappeared from my garden in 1993, had reappeared in 1994 and by 1996 
was as common as ever, the first brood flying from mid- April to end of May 
and again from mid- July to August, with several evident courtships. Though 
holly grows in my garden, I have not found the butterfly's early stages 
thereon, my trees being male with no berries and brittle, spiky leaves, which 
would seem inedible. However, most years I have noted the second brood 
larvae on ivy, both fruit and leaves. 

The Comma was more scarce in 1996 than were either the Peacock or the 
Small Tortoiseshell and I only saw one in the whole season, on 4 September 
on one of my Buddleia bushes, by which date the Red Admirals and Painted 
Ladies had all departed. 

Excerpts from my 1996 diary, summarised the immigrants' season. 

The first atalanta of the year arrived before 18.00 hrs BST on 6 June, sat 
first on the lawn "hot-spot", later circled over the flowering Rhododendron 
bush in the sunlight, perched on the bush, challenged two different species of 
butterfly but did not chase them far, and patrolled the sunny parts of lawn 
before disappearing, these comprising all the usual procedures of a male 
atalanta claiming a territory as its own. About a week elapsed before this 
species reappeared. The first male presumably continued migrating 
northwards the next day, though this was cooler and more dull. 

The first cardui was seen in the garden at 15.35 hrs on 9 June, settling on 
the lawn at the usual "hot spot". Later it visited other parts of the garden, 
basked on warm ground briefly, patrolled the sunlit but rather breezy lawn, 
left the garden, and narrowly escaped Spike, on the gravel drive of the front 
garden, if indeed this was the same butterfly. It looked travel-worn but still 
lively. Both species reappeared in the afternoon of 13 June in my back 
garden, a single fresh atalanta and two cardui - apparently a courting couple. 



OBSERVATIONS OF BUTTERFLY BEHAVIOUR 257 

On 14 June both species were noted - cardui briefly nectaring at 14.25 hrs 
and not reappearing and a small, fresh atalanta from 17.15 hrs until 19.20 
hrs, when the sun sank lower and he moved into apple foliage two metres 
higher in the same prelude to roosting in the taller trees as repeatedly seen in 
1995. Of the two species, at this midsummer date, cardui was the more 
mobile and restless, atalanta tending more to settle. 

The next two days were hot and sunny with a variable breeze, but neither 
of the two species were noted. Perhaps both had moved on northwards. As 
for the Silver Y moth Autographa gamma (L.), not one had yet been noted, 
though reports had said it was accompanying the immigrant butterflies. In 
mid-June the sun sets at about 20.55 hrs at Cookham and similar latitudes, 
thereafter gradually earlier. 

During the rest of June, cardui was not noted at all, but atalanta appeared 
in my back garden most afternoons, mostly as singletons "owning" the bush, 
and sometimes challenging a rival male or coquettish female. Three June 
days were rather cool or rainy and atalanta was not seen, other butterflies 
being equally discouraged; otherwise this went on until about 20 July. I 
cannot be sure how often ownership changed during these forty-five days, 
not having marked any atalanta. 

About 18-21 July hot weather arrived and cardui returned to my garden in 
small numbers to nectar at lavender and other flowers. On and after 25 July 
Buddleia attracted an assortment of butterflies, and numbers of cardui 
increased. On 25 July an atalanta drove one away from his Rhododendron 
bush. It was not tempted at this time to join the butterflies on Buddleia 
flowers, though during the previous week or two it had sometimes basked on 
one of my three Cotoneaster trees and may have sipped from their flowers, 
though these seem rather unattractive to insects. 

Despite some search I found no other territory in Cookham with an 
atalanta owner, but feel sure that Berkshire and the Thames valley contain 
many other such small kingdoms. The Silver Y moth was noted in another 
part of Cookham on 22 July and in my garden on 3 1 July. 

31 July : While several Aglais urticae and Inachis io fluttered all day on 
the biggest Buddleia together with about twelve cardui, V. atalanta persisted 
in territorial rituals, starting about 17.00 hrs with two of them clashing above 
the bush. Afterwards, the victor perched and patrolled in the usual way. At 
17.25 hrs Spike the cat walked slowly to his couch on the hotspot and, not 
seeing atalanta, started grooming himself. I had already this year seen him 
try to catch, but miss, both cardui and atalanta and in earlier years had seen 
him succeed in killing several. At 17.20 hrs there were again two atalanta 
males circling over the bush. Spike had left his place of ambush, visited the 
neighbour's garden for a prowl, and returned again to the hotspot and 
watched atalanta circling above the bush. When the flight dipped to near the 
lawn he leapt, struck with both paws and missed. Between 18.30 hrs and 



258 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

19.30 hrs I myself approached the bush, and the sun fell straight onto the cat. 
The atalanta fluttered straight towards the cat, but I waved him away, 
stopping the cat from striking. Thinking it must be the bright colours of 
Spike's coat that allured the atalanta, I interposed myself between the sun 
and the cat. Atalanta then perched on my shoulder and basked contentedly, 
until I moved away and the sunlight again fell on the cat. The butterfly was 
more attracted to Spike than to me. To save him from death I again 
intervened, and each time he sat on my pale beige jacket. At 19.00 hrs the 
sunlight left the lawn but still lit Cotoneaster leaves about a foot above 
Spike's head, and when atalanta tried to bask there Spike tried to catch him 
again, so I held the cat down. He became angry and tried to bite me, but at 
last he thought something moved below the tree's foliage and, distracted, he 
cautiously crept through into my eastern neighbour's garden, thus 
terminating a very curious hour. 

1 August : Intermittent sunshine. Cardui, io and urticae nectared at my 
best Buddleia from about 13.00 hrs onwards. One atalanta arrived at a 
hotspot on the lawn about 17.00 hrs after Spike had visited his usual place 
and left again. At 18.30 hrs two atalanta danced a pas-de-deux above the 
bush. At 18.45 hrs a cardui searching for a roosting place in the Cotoneaster 
foliage was driven off by the Red Admiral, which then basked on the 
Rhododendron bush until the sun went down, the cat not having returned. 

2-11 August : I was away in Switzerland where good weather lasted until 
the 10th. I stayed in the canton Vaud and also made a trip to greater heights 
of the Jura Mountains. I saw neither atalanta nor cardui there during this 
visit, to my surprise. However my son-in-law sent me a photo of cardui 
taken in his garden about ten days after my return to Cookham, probably 
evidence that a return migration from northern Europe southwards was 
beginning. 

Rain storms occurred in Berkshire during my absence and reached the 
Jura on 10 August. I found wet and cool weather on landing in Berkshire on 
1 1 August, but fine weather must have preceded it during which Spike may 
have killed one or more atalanta or cardui, for even when present at home I 
could not always prevent it, as happened on 13 August below. The weather 
change induced a behaviour change in atalanta - nectaring replacing 
territorial behaviour, such as I did not see in 1995 at all. 

By counting the number of inflorescences on a single branch of Buddleia 
in my garden I estimated that my best bush had over 150 racemes this 
summer. The other two had fewer, depending on the amount of sun and 
shade of each. Every winter they were strongly back pruned. 

12 August : Despite changeable weather, at 16.30 hrs one atalanta and two 
cardui nectared at Buddleia, the former eagerly, the latter more restlessly, 
together with other butterflies. 

13 August : From 10.00 hrs several cardui and one atalanta nectared at 
Buddleia. The latter also basked briefly on a white-painted chair on my back 



OBSERVATIONS OF BUTTERFLY BEHAVIOUR 259 

terrace. By midday io and urticae had joined the throng on my best bush, 
and nectaring cardui numbered about a dozen. Pyronia tithonus (L.) and io 
also visited the lawn hotspot to bask, and Spike, arriving at 17.30 hrs stalked, 
but failed to catch them. Unfortunately an atalanta on a neighbouring 
Buddleia bush imitated them. Spike sprang again, killed it, and ate the 
abdomen, also mauling the wings and thorax. When cardui also settled on 
the lawn. Spike showed no interest, perhaps being replete with what he had 
swallowed. At 18.00 hrs two cardui performed a courtship dance above the 
Rhododendron bush. One gamma was seen at the Buddleia, at 18.50 hrs. At 
17.45 cardui would search for a roosting place, usually in garden trees or 
bushes about one to three metres high. 

14 August : About 13.00 hrs I counted one atalanta and 12 cardui 
nectaring on my best Buddleia. They were safe there from the cats, and 
Spike paused at the lawn hotspot on his way from the daily prowl, and then 
proceeded home. 

15-28 August : Fine, dry but often cool weather prevailed over this period. 
Nearly every day at least one, at most three, atalanta nectared at my best 
Buddleia, while cardui continued to become much more numerous. Gamma 
also increased its numbers. Atalanta nectared assiduously several hours 
daily, mainly in the afternoon, but on fine days as early as 10.00 hrs, and 
never challenging any other butterfly even when conspecific. A large 
dragonfly patrolled the lawn and may have been the only successful 
predator. Several argiolus were noted on the 17th but none thereafter. 
Whites were common. 

29, 30 August : The weather broke, it rained and no butterflies were seen. 

3 1 August and 2-3 September : Red Admiral singletons and a few Painted 
Ladies continued to build up for their southward journey, though the 
Buddleia racemes were getting browner and drier. From 4 September my 
garden saw them no more. But on 8 September the Comma nectared on the 
last flowering Buddleia before hibernation locally. Whites were seen until 16 
September. 

Discussion 

Having been in Cookham throughout the first half of 1996, I am not in a 
position to explain the very high numbers of cardui, nor the polyphagy 
which, I am told, was found in the resulting generation, so I pass over these 
phenomena which marked the year, and move on to other points of interest. 

The terriorial behaviour which I first noted in my back garden in 1989, 
must be due to a favourable conjunction of topographical features and 
climatic conditions encountered in June by a newly arriving butterfly. It is 
not necessarily continued by this individual on the morrow. In butterflies this 
behaviour is generally a prelude to courtship. Having seen both cardui and 
atalanta behaving thus, I have still to observe the act of copulation in the 



260 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

wild in Cookham, and I deduce that it happens in the tall trees where 
atalanta roosts, and the less-tall vegetation where cardui roosts. 

Semi-aestivation is a term applicable to three different types of resting 
before mating. Perhaps each species and each individual "does its own 
thing", but the individual nature of territorial behaviour in atalanta is quite 
distinct from the congregating in masses of Dansaus plexippus (L.) 
performing semi-hibernation (Urquhart, 1976 a, b) or of Euplagia 
quadripunctaria (Poda) at Petaloudes in Rhodes (Elger, 1969), a semi- 
aestivating univoltine migrant. Whether the term semi-aestivation, suggested 
as perhaps describing the 1995 atalanta behaviour, rightly applies there, is 
debatable but it can be ruled out for the atalanta s 1996 behaviour at 
Cookham - 22 days nectaring following about 40 days territorial behaviour 
might be an average, normal division of behaviours at a northern terminus 
for this migrant, due to more normal, local weather in 1996. 

The cat incident of 3 1 July was the climax to several years observation of 
the same individual predator in the same locality, and evokes two different 
questions - the reaction of butterflies to visual stimuli and the utility to a 
predator of its coloration. 

Attraction to a white surface (e.g. washing on a line, or painted garden 
furniture) is frequently noted in atalanta, perhaps less in cardui, which, 
however, sometimes comes to light. Numerous authors have discussed 
phototropism in insects, and this aspect need not be discussed here. On the 
side of the predator, the incident might be taken as a case of "alluring 
coloration" (a term used by Cott, 1940) for two species of bird and one of 
fish. Over several years, Spike unquestionably learnt to profit, as described 
previously. It is however, an individual progress unlikely to evolve into a 
race of dangerous predators, as domestic cats' main food is tinned meat 
supplied by their owners and cryptically coloured cats, inheriting patterns of 
ancestral wild cats are probably more advantaged in hunting wild prey than 
aposematic cats. 

References 

Cott, Hugh R., 1940. Adaptive coloration in animals. Methuen. 

Elger, R., 1969. Freilandstudien zur Biologic und Okologie con Panaxia quadripunctaria 

(Lep.: Arctiidae) an der Insel Rhodos. Oecologia (Berl.) 2: 102-197. 
Urquhart, F.A. & Urquhart, N.R., 1976. A study on Peninsular Florida of populations of 

the Monarch butterfly. J. Lepidoptera Soc. 30(2): 1?)-^1 . 
Urquhart, F.A., 1976b. Found at last, the Monarch's winter home. National Geographic 

Magazine 150(2). 
Wiltshire, E.P. 1997. Territorial Red Admirals: behaviour of Vanessa atalanta (L.) 

(Lep.: Nymphalidae) in a Berkshire garden during the 1995 heatwave, discussed and 

compared. Entomologist 116: 58-65. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 261 

Is cypress an alternative foodplant of Argy re sthia arceuthina Zell. 
(Lep.: Yponomeutidae)? 

In the latest source-book available to me on the subject (Emmet (ed.), 1979, 
A field guide to the smaller British Lepidopterd), Argyresthia arceuthina 
Zell. (p. 68), like its four allies, has only Juniperus assigned to it as a 
foodplant. The following incident suggests a strong possibility that species 
of Chamaecyparis or Cupressus may also serve, either occasionally or as a 
fairly recent innovation. 

By the front door of my former house in Blackheath near here stood a C. 
lawsoniana of the fastigiate cultivar allumii. One day (22.V.1965) when 
running an eye over it for possible insects, I espied a very small, pale moth 
hovering among the sprays of foliage, seemingly intent on investigating and 
never moving far. Though watching it for a while I never saw it settle, still 
less engage in evident egg-laying activity. Having no more time to spend in 
watching, I took the moth which proved to be a female A. arceuthina. 
Despite frequent inspection of the cypress thereafter, no other was ever 
seen. 

It is quite true that this experience proves nothing, except that that 
particular moth must have found cypress in some way interesting or 
attractive. There was no juniper in the garden, nor, as far as I knew, in either 
of the next-door ones. Still, it appears strongly indicative in the light of 
certain other recent findings. One could instance the juniper-feeding shield- 
bug Cyphostethus tristriatus (F.), which has of late years extended its hosts 
to species of Chamaecyparis and Thuja (and Cupressusl). Botanically, these 
genera are very closely akin to Juniperus. On might instance also certain of 
the "pugs", perhaps especially Eupithecia intricata (Zett.) and its subspecies 
arceuthata (Freyer) named after the juniper, and frequently recorded from 
cypresses.- A.A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



Demise of The Entomologist 

When the Royal Entomological Society re-launched The Entomologist in 
1988 it was always with the intention that while it would be necessary to 
subsidise it initially, there was every hope and intention that it would 
eventually break even. Unfortunately, after ten years of publication, this has 
not happened and a study of the Annual Accounts, which are published in 
Antenna, show that even with a circulation of around 800 it continues to be a 
drain on the Society's resources, although this has reduced in recent years. 
Approaches have been made to other organisations to take over, or combine 
it with their journal, but without success. Sadly, therefore, perhaps 
precipitated by my intention to retire as editor, it has been decided to 
discontinue the journal with the completion of the current volume.- Brian 
O.C. Gardiner, 2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 



262 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

Some interesting invertebrate captures from a dung heap in West 
Lothian (VC84), with reference to the recent status of Labia minor (L.) 
(Dermaptera: Labiidae) in Scotland, and a new habitat for this species 

An investigation of a horse dung heap on farmland at Old Philpstoun, West 
Lothian (NT0577, VC84) on 24 May 1995 yielded a number of new vice- 
county records, with captures of single specimens of the syanthropic 
woodlouse Porcellionides pruinosus (Brandt, 1833) (Isopoda: 
Porcellionidae) and Ontholestes tessellatus Geoffroy (Col.: Staphylinidae) in 
dry powdery dung at the edge of the heap. Particularly interesting was the 
unexpected capture of a 5th instar male Labia minor, which had not been 
previously noted from the county, also in the dry dung at the edge of the 
heap. 

Further examples were found in a bowling green grass clippings heap in 
Bo'ness, West Lothian (NT0081) on the 26 July 1995, when an adult female 
L. minor was found in company with numerous Forficula auricularia (L.) 
(Dermaptera: Forficulidae). A single male L. minor was found subsequently 
in the same heap, and it appears that the decaying short grass provides 
conditions almost identical to those found in horse dung heaps. It seems 
likely that further specimens of L. minor may occur in grass clipping heaps, 
especially where the grass is kept particularly short, and could reveal a 
number of new localities in Scotland. 

There are very few recent records for L. minor in Scotland, despite its 
former widespread distribution as far north as South Aberdeenshire (VC92). 
Most recently it has only been recorded from a muckheap at the side of a 
field southwest of Rosehearty (NJ9165, VC93) on 28 September 1993, 
where it was collected by Jon Dawes. The only other specimens recorded 
since 1960 are a series of four males and six females collected by Dr R.A. 
Crowson in 1987 from a compost heap in Garscube, Glasgow, which is also 
a new record for VC77. Of historical interest is a female specimen collected 
in 1904 by J.J.F.X. King at Forres (VC95), which has apparently been 
unrecorded in literature. My thanks to Chris Timmins for confirming the 
West Lothian specimens of L. minor, and to Dr David Bilton for confirming 
the specimen of P. pruinosus. Special thanks must go to Maggie Reilly for 
allowing me to study the Orthoptera collection at the University of Glasgow, 
to staff at the Royal Museum of Scotland for arranging access to their 
collections and Scottish Invertebrate Records Index, and finally to Chris 
Haes for his helpful comments.- A. Ramsay, Dryfemount, Dundas Street, 
Bo'ness, West Lothian EH51 ODG. 

Trichoplusia ni (Hb.) (Lep.iNoctuidae) The Ni Moth in Glamorganshire 

A single specimen of Trichoplusia ni was caught in the Rothamsted Insect 
Survey light-trap at Cardiff (site number 347, O.S. grid reference ST198788) 
on 10.vi.l996. So far as I am aware, this scarce immigrant has not previously 



BOOK REVIEW 263 



been recorded from Glamorganshire (Heath, J. & Emmet, A. M., 1983, The 
Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, volume 10: Harley 
Books). These authors state that arrivals of T. ni are usually associated with 
those of Heliothis peltigera (D,& S.) - the Bordered Straw. Interestingly, an 
individual of this species was caught in the same trap on 14. vi. 1996. Thanks 
are extended to Roger and Vicky Smith for operating the trap at Cardiff and 
for identifying their catches.- Adrian M. Riley, Entomology & Hematology 
Department, lACR Rothamsted, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ. 



BOOK REVIEW 



Butterflies on British and Irish offshore islands by Roger Dennis and 
Tim Shreeve. 132 pages, 11 text figures and 9 Tables of data. 233 x 155 
mm, paper covers, perfect bound. ISBN 906802 06 7. Gem Publishing 
Company, Wallingford, OXIO OQD, 1996. £16.00. 

For the ecologist and general entomologist alike, islands hold a particular 
fascination. Here, in splendid isolation, may be found races, forms, 
subspecies (call them what you like) of a variety of insects that occur 
nowhere else. This fascinating book draws together data on the butterfly 
species from no less than 219 British and Irish offshore islands and analyses 
them in a most thorough manner which sets out an excellent baseline for 
further ecological studies. As such, the work is long overdue and the two 
authors are to be congratulated on a most excellent piece of research, 
accurately and thoroughly conducted and very well presented in a very 
readable form that will surely stimulate the further researches which they 
themselves aim to encourage. 

The book falls into two sections. Collectors will doubtless only be 
interested in the second, which is essentially a complete species listing for 
each of the islands from which data are available, together with a 
bibliography complete to 1 August 1996. Islands from where no data are 
available are listed and it is hoped that this will stimulate recording work on 
these. However, more serious entomologists will hopefully find the first 
section, which forms the bulk of the book, a more serious proposition, 
though in fairness to potential purchasers it has to be said that some working 
knowledge of ecological mathematics will greatly ease passage through 
some of the pages. The ecology of island butterflies is introduced, as far as it 
is known, and then in different chapters the authors discuss the analysis of 
island records, factors affecting species' richness on islands, relationship 
among islands, butterfly associations on islands, predicting butterfly records 
on islands, migration, ecological basis for island butterflies, variation and 
historical considerations, before ending with suggestions for future work and 
some conclusions, which take the form of an eight point summary. 



264 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.ix.1997 

The bibliography is well researched and, though it is really irrelevant to 
this review, it is of great interest to note the number of times that the 
Entomologist' s Record & Journal of Variation is mentioned in this list - 
proof positive that even the shortest, most trivial of notes submitted here for 
publication can make a positive contribution to the greater understanding of 
much wider issues. 

At £16.00 I personally feel that this book is a little over-priced. This may 
reflect the relatively small potential audience and consequently restricted 
sales potential which affects most insect books in Britain (the more you print 
the cheaper the price but you have a lot unsold at the end). On the other hand 
I feel that this book has a far wider appeal than just amongst British 
entomologists. It is a model ecological study that will be of great interest to 
other ecologists, to academics and others not only in Britain but also 
elsewhere in the world. 

Colin W. Plant 



The Pollen Wasps: Ecology and Natural History of the Masarinae by 
Sarah K. Gess. 340 pp., 25 colour plates and 60 black and white 
illustrations. A5, hardbound. Harvard University Press, 1996. ISBN 674 
68964 X. £31.50. 

Pollen wasps are the only wasps to provision their nest cells with pollen and 
nectar and are of special interest because of their close associations with 
flowering plants and because certain species produce silk for nest building. 
Related to the vespids, there are about 300 known species found in many 
parts of the world, favouring regions with hot dry climates and scrubby 
vegetation including the Mediterranean, 

Sarah K. Gess has made the study of aculeate Hymenoptera in southern 
Africa her life's work and this authoritative book is based on her extensive 
field observations of the many pollen wasp species found there and the 
associations between them and five plant families. There are chapters on the 
biogeography, flower associations, life history, nesting and associates of 
pollen wasps. Further chapters look at pollen wasps as potential pollinators 
and their conservation status and relationship to land use. 

Appendices provide records of masarine wasp flower visiting divided into 
geographical regions, plants associated with masarine wasps in southern 
Africa with their solitary aculeate wasp and bee visitors and a checklist of 
described species. 

This book will be indispensable to any student of the group and of 
considerable interest to many other entomologists and naturalists. 

Peter Harvey 



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ENTOMOLOGY HOLIDAYS IN HUNGARY? 

Well ... why not? 
It's only 12 hours drive to the border and its entirely motorway from Calais! 

Another hour and you can be resting in our house near Lake Balaton, in the village of 
Balatonfiizl^, listening to the Golden Orioles singing in the garden. From here the 
Bakony Mountains are less than an hour's drive and offer unspoilt broad-leaved forest 
stretching for many miles as well as superb areas of flower-rich limestone grassland; 
over 140 species of butterfly are recorded from the Bakony and we have only just 
started on the moths! The hoverflies are worth a look in May or June too and the dead- 
wood beetles have to be seen to be believed! There is enough in the Bakony to occupy 
an entomologist for the entire week, but just in case you get bored there are reed-beds 
and other wetland habitats along the margins of Lake Balaton five minutes walk from 
the house, and a little futher away the Tihany Peninsula nature reserve. And in a 
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here by car to the forested Dolomite hills of the Biikk and Aggtelek National Parks 
where wolves, wild boar and red deer may still be seen, the volcanic wine growing 
region of Tokaj, the huge areas of wetland habitat in the Danube Valley south of 
Budapest; the vast, endless expanse of the Great Hungarian Plain where Great 
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Add on to this the incredibly cheap price of food, wine and almost everything else 
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Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 

Caters for articles on all orders of insects and terrestrial arthropods, specialising in the 
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Published March, July and November (4 months per issue) 
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Published January, April, July and October. 
Annual subscription £27 ($60). 

NEW! 

Butterflies on British and Irish Offshore Islands 

by R.L.H. Dennis and T.G. Shreeve 
This new book provides an up-to-date synthesis of butterfly records for 219 of Britain's and 
Ireland's offshore islands, 144 pages complete with bibliography, checklist of species, 
figures and tables. Two appendices list rare immigrants and provide advice for making 
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Price £16. Postage and packing £1 per copy. 

Payments by cheque or Giro Transfer to account no. 467 6912. 

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For further details Brightwood, Brightwell, 

please write to: Wallingford, Oxon OXIO OQD 




THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

The immigration of Lepidoptera to the British Isles in 1993. Bernard Skinner & Mark 

Parsons 217 

The early stages of Coleophora fuscicornis Zeller, 1847. A.M. Emmet 227 

Hypolimnas holina L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae): recent evidence of status of subspecies 

bolina L. and jacintha Drury in Malaya. B.K. West 231 

A provisional history of Strangalia (Pedostrangalia) revestita (L.) (Col.: Cerambycidae) 

in England. Raymond R. Uhthojf-Kaujfmann 235 

Butterflies in the Benasque Valley, Spain. Andrew Wakeham-Dawson 245 

Observations of butterfly behaviour in 1996 in Berkshire: interplay between Vanessa 
atalanta (L.), Cynthia cardui (L.) (Lep.: Nymphalidae) and one gay cat, an (?) 
alluring predator. E.P. Wiltshire 255 



Notes and observations 

Imported insects: British or not? James Fradgley 230 

Insects associated with sycamore - a plea for information. Richard A. Jones 230 

Records of Erebia butterflies (Lep.: Satyridae) from Europe. Andrew Wakeham-Dawson 232 
Hazards of butterfly collecting - driven out by drivers - Ghana, \993.Torben B. Larsen . 243 
Two Dipogon subintermedius (Magretti) (Hym.: Pompilidae) apparently developing on 

one spider. Mark R. Shaw 244 

Notable Lepidoptera from Barking, Essex. Adrian M. Riley, Martin C. Townsend & Ian 

R. Wynne 251 

Rain and gales are good for sugaring. Brian O.C. Gardiner 253 

Is cypress an alternative foodplant of Argyresthia arceuthina Zell. (Lep.: 

Yponomeutidae)? A.A. Allen 261 

Demise of The Entomologist. Brian O.C. Gardiner 261 

Some interesting invertebrate captures from a dung heap in West Lothian (VC 84), with 

reference to the recent status of Labia minor (L.) (Dermaptera: Labiidae) in Scotland, 

and a new habitat for this species. A. Ramsey 262 

Trichoplusia ni (Hb.) (Lep.: Noctuidae) The Ni Moth in Glamorganshire. Adrian M. 

Riley 262 



Book Reviews 

Butteiflies on British and Irish offshore islands by Roger Denis and Tim Shreeve 263 

The Pollen Wasps: Ecology and natural history of the Masarinae by Sarah K. Gess .... 234 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

The Editor would be willing to consider the purchase of a limited number of back issues. 

Printed in England by 
Cravitz Printing Company Limited, 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. Tel: 01277 224610 



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PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY 



Entomologist's Record 




Journal of Variation 



Edited by 
C.W. PLANT, BScFRES. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, F.R.E.S. & A. SPALDING, F.R.E.S. 



NovemberlDecember 1997 



ISSN 0013-3916 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Editor 

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J.D. Bradley, Ph.D.. f.r.e.s. C.J. Luckens, m.b., Ch.B., d.r.c.o.g. 

J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. B. Skinner 

P.J. Chandler, b.Sc f.r.e.s. P.A. Sokoloff, m.Sc c.Bioi.. m.i.bioI., f.r.e.s. 

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SHETLAND LEPIDOPTERA 265 

LEPIDOPTERA NEW TO SHETLAND, 1994-1996 

M.G. Pennington, T.D. Rogers and K.P. Bland 

Shetland Entomological Group, 9 Daisy Park, Baltasound, Unst, Shetland ZE2 9EA. 

THE LEPIDOPTERA of Shetland have probably never received as much 
attention as they have in the last few years with the establishment of regular 
trap-sites in the islands. Short notes giving details of some recent records 
have been published by Riddiford and Harvey (1992), Pennington (1993a) 
and Pennington and Rogers (1994), but records for the years since 1993 have 
not been published, partly because of the volume of new information. This 
paper lists the 86 species recorded in the islands for the first time during 
1994-96, a period which included several notable immigrations of migrant 
insects. The additions take the list of Lepidoptera recorded in Shetland to 
286 species. There is no space to include information on several other 
notable records but a brief annotated Shetland Lepidoptera list has been 
compiled and will hopefully appear in a forthcoming book on Shetland. 

Each of the last three years has been notable for periods of immigration 
associated with south-easterly winds. In 1994 there were two principle 
periods of immigration, in early July and early August. The July influx 
principally involved diurnal species with large numbers of Red Admirals 
Vanessa atalanta (L.) and hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae), two Hummingbird 
Hawk-moths Macroglossum stellatarum (L.) and Shetland's first Green- 
veined White Pieris napi (L.), although Bird-cherry Ermine Yponomeuta 
evonymella (L.) was also new to the islands. In early August 1994 there was 
an influx of more nocturnal species including two species. Crescent Celaena 
leucostigma (Hb.) and Nutmeg Discestra trifolii (Hiifn.), which appear to be 
an important component of any easterly immigration into Shetland. Fourteen 
species were added to the Shetland list during this period, including some 
species which may be resident, and some microlepidoptera of uncertain 
status. The most notable additions were a dead Swallowtail Papilio machaon 
(L.) (Pennington, 1996) and the tortricid Lobesia abscisana (Doubl.). 

For most of 1995 there was no major immigration although there was a 
steady trickle of migrants beginning in late July when Shetland's first 
Double Square-spot Xestia triangulum (Hiifn.) was recorded. In September 
there were several notable records including another Swallowtail, a Clifden 
Nonpareil Catocala fraxini (L.) and the pyralid Euchromius ocellea (Haw.). 
There were also large numbers of certain species apparently associated with 
easterlies in September, such as the Brick Agrochola circellaris (Hiifn.), Red 
Sword-grass Xylena vetusta (Hb.) and the Satellite Eupsilia transversa 
(Hiifn.), accompanied by a reasonable influx of Rush Veneers Nomophila 
noctuella ([D. & S.j). 

After a relatively quiet start 1996 exploded into activity in early August 
with a massive invasion of hundreds of millions of Silver Ys Autographa 



266 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

gamma (L.) accompanied by a wide range of other species (Pennington 1997). 
Over 40 species were added to the Shetland list in 1996, most in August, with 
highlights including Scarce BrmdlcApamea lateritia (Hiifn.), Dewick's Plusia 
Macdunnoughia confusa (Steph.) and more Lobesia abscisana. 

All records in this paper are by the authors and unless otherwise stated 
records from Unst are by Mike Pennington, records from Mainland are by 
Terry Rogers and determinations are by Keith Bland, with specimens placed 
in the National Museum of Scotland. Nomenclature and food plants are 
taken from Emmet and Heath (1991) and wherever comments are made on 
the status of food plants in Shetland the source of information is Scott and 
Palmer (1987). 

Systematic list of species new to Shetland 

In this list the following status categories are used based on those used by 
Lorimer (unpub.) and unpublished lists of Shetland Lepidoptera produced by 
Mike Pennington. 

Resident - a species which definitely or probably has a resident breeding 
population in the islands. Little work has been directed towards locating 
larvae so sometimes this assessment involves some intelligent guesswork. 

Immigrant - any species which does not have a resident breeding population 
in the islands but which occurs on a regular basis. Some immigrants, such as 
vanessid butterflies, may breed but they are not resident. 

Vagrant - any immigrant which has occurred on less than 20 occasions. This 
definition of vagrancy is similar to the definition used by birdwatchers and it 
indicates the rarity of the occurrence. Vagrants may be long-distant migrants 
well outside their normal range or resident species wandering over a short 
distance. 

Accidental import - any species which has only occurred with the obvious 
assistance of man's activities. 

Status uncertain - any species for which there is not enough evidence to 
assign a status, usually species which have available food plants in the 
islands but which have occurred during periods of immigration. 

GRACILLARIIDAE 

Caloptilia elongella (L.) 

Presumed resident: two singles at Eswick, Central Mainland: bred from alder 

Alnus, emerged 24 September 1995, and on sugar, 16 December 1995. 

YPONOMEUTIDAE 

Argyresthia conjugella Zell. Apple Fruit Moth 

Presumed resident: at least four flying at dusk at Eswick, Central Mainland 

on 8 July 1996. 



SHETLAND LEPIDOPTERA 267 

Yponomeuta evonymella (L.) Bird-cherry Ermine 

Immigrant: following one caught at Voehead on Bressay on 7 July 1994 

(Joyce Gammack) another five were recorded in South and Central Mainland 

in August 1994 and there were about 20 on Mainland and Unst in August 

1996. 

Y. cagnagella (Hb.) Spindle Ermine 

Vagrant: at least four records in August 1996 - Walls, West Mainland on 5th 
(Billy Watt), Ocraquoy, South Mainland on 7th and 9th (George Petrie) and 
at least one on Foula on 12th (Sheila Gear). 

COLEOPHORIDAE 

Coleophora mayrella (Hb.) 

Presumed resident: one record only, at light on Fair Isle on 17 July 1994 

(Nick Riddiford, det. Maitland Emmet, specimen retained by collector). 

C. asteris (Miihl.) 

Status uncertain, probably vagrant - one record at light at Eswick, Central 
Mainland on 13 August 1996. The record occurred during considerable 
immigration and the food plant Aster tripolium is extremely rare in Shetland. 
There are only two previous Scottish records. 

C. versurella Zell. 

New to Scotland. Presumed resident. Singles collected from Eswick, Central 
Mainland on 7 July and 2 August 1994 and Baltasound, Unst on 5 
September 1995. The food plants are various species of Chenopodiaceae 
which are reasonably common around beaches in Shetland. 

C. vestianella (L.) 

Presumed resident: only record at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 8 

July 1994. 

C. alticolella Zell. 

Resident: fairly frequent on moorland on Foula in July (Frances Ratter). 

ELACHISTIDAE 

Elachista kilmunella Stt. 

Presumed resident: only record, one caught by day on Foula on 28 July 1996 

(Frances Ratter). 

E. alpinella Stt. 

Presumed resident: only record, several flying by day on Foula on 28 July 

1996 (Frances Ratter). 

E. apicipunctella Stt. 

Presumed resident: only record one at light at Veensgarth, Central Mainland 

on 1 July 1996 (Paul Sclater). 

E. argentella (CI.) 

Presumed resident: only record, one caught by day at Norwick, Unst on 30 

June 1996. 



268 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

OECOPHORIDAE 

Depressaria pastinacella (Dup.) Parsnip Moth 

Status uncertain, probably vagrant: only record, one on sugar at Eswick, 
Central Mainland on 27 August 1996. This species is usually quite hard to 
overlook and the only record from Orkney is a suspected migrant (Lorimer 
unpub.) so this record probably relates to a migrant. 

Exaeretia allisella Stt. 

Status uncertain: one record, at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 12 
August 1994. Although oecophorids are not thought of as migrants there was 
considerable immigration at the time. 

Agonopterix subpropinquella (Stt.) 

Status uncertain: one record, on sugar at Eswick, Central Mainland on 11 

August 1996. Another record which coincided with obvious immigration. 

A. alstromeriana (CI.) 

Presumed vagrant: one record, on sugar at Veensgarth, Central Mainland on 
24 August 1996 (Paul Sclater). This record came on the tail end of a 
considerable immigration and the usual food plants, Conium, are not present 
in Shetland. 

A. nervosa (Haw.) 

Resident: singles at light at Veensgarth, Central Mainland on 17 August 
1996 (Paul Sclater) and Voehead on Bressay on 26 August 1996 (Joyce 
Gammack), both in the vicinity of established planting of the food plant Ulex 
europaeus, but the first Shetland record on Foula on 19 August 1994 
(Frances Ratter) was a presumed vagrant. 

GELECHIIDAE 

Bryotropha politella (Stt.) 

Presumed resident: only record, one caught by day on St Ninian's Isle, South 

Mainland on 16 July 1996. 

Chionodes fumatella (Dougl.) 

Status uncertain: one record, at light at Ocraquoy, South Mainland on 10 
August 1996 (George Petrie). One of a number of species recorded in August 
1996 that could be resident but whose occurrence coincided with immigration. 

Scrobipalpa instabilella (Dougl.) 

Vagrant: one at light on Fair Isle on 8 August 1994 (Nick Riddiford, det. 
Colin Plant, confirmed by the late Eric Bradford, specimen retained by the 
collector). The food plant Halimione is absent from Shetland and there was 
considerable immigration at the time. 

Scrobipalpa atriplicella (F.v.R.) 

Status uncertain: one at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 7 August 1994 
and about twelve in Central Mainland, Foula and Unst in August 1996. 
Although this species feeds on Chenopodiaceae, records have coincided with 
immigration and there are very few other Scottish records, so the species is 
probably immigrant. 



SHETLAND LEPIDOPTERA 269 

[Phthorimaea operculella (Zell.) Potato Tuber Moth 

Accidental import: several in an imported bag of Cyprus potatoes on Foula 

in September 1995 (Frances Ratter).] 

TORTRICIDAE 

Aethes smeathmanniana (Fabr.) 

Presumed immigrant: singles at light at Ocraquoy, South Mainland on 7 August 

1996 (George Petrie) and Eswick, Central Mainland on 22 August 1996. 

Argyrotaenia Ijungiana (Thunb.) 

Presumed resident: only record one caught by day on Hermaness, Unst on 22 

June 1995. 

Acleris notana (Don.) 

Status uncertain: singles on sugar at Eswick, Central Mainland and at light at 

Baltasound, Unst, both on 20 September 1996. 

A. variegana ([D. & S.]) Garden Rose Tortrix 

Resident: first located in 1994 but locally frequent in Lerwick, Eswick in 

Central Mainland and Baltasound, Unst with larvae found on Rosa cultivars 

at the first site. 

A. maccana (Treit.) 

Presumed resident: only records at sugar at Baltasound, Unst on 21 
September 1996 and at Eswick, Central Mainland on 24 September 1996. 
Another montane species occurring near sea-level in Shetland. Although 
largely found at altitude in Britain there is a record of a suspected migrant 
from the Faroes (Svend Kaaberper^. comm.). 

Hedya ochroleucana (Fr 1.) 

Status uncertain: one at light at Ocraquoy, South Mainland on 10 August 
1996 (George Petrie). Another Hedya sp. on Foula in August 1994 could not 
be identified to species due to damage in transit. 

Endothenia ericetana (Humph. & Westw.) 

Status uncertain: only record one at light at Veensgarth, Central Mainland on 
10 August 1996 (Paul Sclater). Another record which co-incided with a 
period of immigration. 

Lobesia abscisana (Doubl.) 

New to Scotland. Immigrant: one at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 1 
August 1994 was generally regarded as an exceptional record, but there were 
up to 26 at light between 7-18 August 1996, at four sites on Mainland, two 
sites on Unst and on Bressay. This would seem to establish this species as a 
migrant which should be looked for at other coastal locations during periods 
of immigration. 

Bactra furfur ana (Haw.) 

Presumed resident: only record at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 2 
August 1994. Although a likely resident it has not been found again and 
there was immigration at the time of the record. 



270 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

Epinotia nisella (CL) 

Vagrant: six at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 11-12 August 1996 and 
singles at sugar at Sandwick, South Mainland on 14th (Paul Harvey) and at 
light at Baltasound, Unst on 25 August 1996. The only Orkney records are 
also suspected immigrants (Lorimer 1983). 

E. maculana (Fabr.) 

Status uncertain: only record at Eswick, Central Mainland in 1996, data lost 

but most probably in August. 

Rhopobota naevana (Hb.) Holly Tortrix 

Immigrant: up to 23 at light or at sugar at two sites on Mainland, two sites on 
Unst and on Bressay between 10-26 August 1996. Orkney records have also 
related to immigrants (Lorimer 1983). 

R. myrtillana (Humph. & Westw.) 

Presumed resident: only record one caught by day at Nibon, North Mainland 

on 24 June 1995. 

Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Ratz.) 

Resident: three singles caught so far in a garden with many planted trees at 

Eswick, Central Mainland in August 1995 and 1996. 

Z. rufimitrana (H.-S.) 

Presumed resident: singles at light at Ocraquoy, South Mainland on 9 August 
1996 (George Petrie) and at Eswick, Central Mainland on 12 August and two 
of this species from a sample of seven Zeiraphera from a plantation at 
Baltasound, Unst on 28 August 1996. It seems likely that this species has been 
brought in with recent tree-planting and exists in small numbers alongside the 
populations of Zeiraphera diniana (Guen.) now found at several plantations. 

Z. isertana (Fabr.) 

Status uncertain: only record one at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 13 
August 1996. Unlike other members of this genus, this species has virtually 
no available food plants in Shetland. Planted oaks Quercus struggle to 
survive and there is just one tiny plant at the capture site. There was 
considerable immigration at the time of the record. 

Epiblema foenella (L.) 

Vagrant: two records - singles at light on the same night at Easter Quarff, 
South Mainland (specimen evaded capture) and Veensgarth, Central 
Mainland on 10 August 1996 (Paul Sclater). 

Eucosma lacteana (Treit.) 

Presumed vagrant: one record, at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 14 

August 1996. The food plant is absent from Shetland. 

E. fulvana (Stephens) 

Status uncertain: singles caught by day at Quendale, South Mainland on 16 
July 1996 and at light at Easter Quarff, South Mainland on 1 1 August 1996. 
The normal food plants of this species, Centaurea, are absent or very rare in 
Shetland, but it is most likely resident. 



SHETLAND LEPIDOPTERA 271 

PYRALIDAE 

Euchromius ocellea (Haw.) 

Vagrant: one record at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 17 September 

1995. 

Agriphila selasella (Hb.) 

Vagrant: two singles at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 7 and 14 

August 1996. 

A. tristella ([D. & S.]) 

Vagrant: one at a lighted window on Foula on 7 August 1996 (Frances Ratter) 
followed by about five at light at Eswick, Central Mainland between 9-13 
August, two each night at Easter Quarff, South Mainland on 11-12 August 
and one on Fair Isle on 16 August (Elizabeth Riddiford). An unpublished 
record from Fair Isle in August 1990 is best considered unproven. 

Pediasia aridella (Thunb.) 

Vagrant: one record, at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 1 1 August 
1996. The second Scottish record, the first recorded by Pelham-Clinton in 
Midlothian (unpublished but specimen in NMS). 

Platytes alpine lla (Hb.) 

Vagrant: one record, at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 1 1 August 
1996. The only other Scottish record is of four at light at Lunan Bay, near 
Montrose just four days earlier on 7 August 1996 (Goater 1997). Although 
these Mainland moths were found in suitable breeding habitat, perhaps they 
were migrants as well. 

Margaritia sticticalis (L.) 

Vagrant: about 15 records, beginning with two by day at Baltasound, Unst 

and one at light on Fair Isle (Mark Newell) on 11 August 1996, followed by 

records at three sites on Mainland and on Bressay and Foula until 22 August 

1996. 

Udeaferrugalis (Hb.) Rusty-dot Pearl 

Immigrant: the first record was one at light at Eswick on 6 August 1994, 
there were four at the same site in September 1995 and 11 in August 1996. 
In August 1996 there were also records of another five, from two other sites 
on Mainland and on Foula. 

Pleuroptya ruralis (Scop.) Mother of Pearl 

Immigrant: the first record was one at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 1 
August 1994. On 27 July 1995 there were 13 at two trap sites on Mainland, 
with a few stragglers the next day. In August 1996 the species was recorded 
at three sites on Mainland, two sites on Unst and on Foula with a maximum 
of 33 at light at Norwick, Unst on 13 August 1996. 

Numonia advenella (Zinck.) 

Vagrant: one record, on sugar at Eswick, Central Mainland on 4 August 1994. 



272 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

Pylafusca (Haw.) 

Presumed resident: one at light at Sullom, North Mainland on 24 July 1996 

(Brian Elliott, specimen retained by the collector). 

PTEROPHORIDAE 

Platyptilia gonodactyla ([D. & S.]) 

Resident: singles at light at Baltasound, Unst on 7 July 1994, caught by day 
on Fitful Head, South Mainland on 1 August 1994 (Jon and Ad Clifton) and 
at Ocraquoy, South Mainland at light on 8 August 1996 and indoors on 15 
September 1996 (George Petrie). 

Emmelina monodactyla (L.) 

Status uncertain: two records from Eswick, Central Mainland, 16 December 

1995 and 20 September 1996. The food plants, Convolvulus and Calystegia, 
are absent from Shetland except as garden plants. The only suitable plant at 
the site was imported as a root many years ago. 

PAPILIONIDAE 

Papilio machaon (L.) Swallowtail 

Vagrant: two records, at Voe on Mainland in August 1994 and on Fair Isle in 

September 1995 have already been reported (Pennington 1996). 

PIERIDAE 

Pieris napi (L.) Green-veined White 

Vagrant: one seen on Bressay on 6 July 1994 (Dr Chris Smout and John 

Scott). No specimen was obtained but there was a considerable immigration 

that day including many Red Admirals Vanessa atalanta and hoverflies 

(Diptera: Syrphidae). 

GEOMETRIDAE 

Timandra gr is eat a (Peters.) Blood- vein 

Vagrant: four records, one at light at Ocraquoy, South Mainland on 1 1 
August 1996 (George Petrie) followed by three singles on consecutive nights 
at Eswick, Central Mainland on 12-14 August 1996. 

Scopula imitaria (Hb.) Small Blood-vein 

Vagrant: one record, one at Norwick, Unst on 8 August 1994 (Jim Platts, 

specimen retained by collector). 

Orthonama obstipata (Fabr.) The Gem 

Vagrant: two records, both at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 23 

October 1994 and 18 August 1996. 

Epiirhoe alternata (Miill.) Common Carpet 

Vagrant: one record, on sugar at Eswick, Central Mainland on 1 1 August 

1996 during a period of considerable immigration. 



SHETLAND LEPIDOPTERA 273 

Thera cognata (Thunb.) Chestnut-coloured Carpet 

Resident: larvae tapped from the food plant on Juniperus on CoUafirth Hill, 
North Mainland in July 1996, the bred specimens being extremely dark 
(Brian Elliott, specimens retained by the collector). The food plant is very 
local in Shetland and the moth is unlikely to be found away from the vicinity 
of this record, although Muckle Roe may be worth searching. 

Eupithecia centaureata ([D. & S.]) Lime-speck Pug 

Status uncertain: three records at light on Foula on 12 August 1996 (Frances 
Ratter) and at Eswick, Central Mainland on 13 and 22 August 1996. While 
this species could be an overlooked resident, August 1996 was a time of 
considerable immigration. 

E. assimilata Doubl. Currant Pug 

Resident: found to be present at Eswick, Central Mainland in June to July 

1995 and 1996 with larvae found on Ribes there in September 1996. 

E. lariciata (Freyer) Larch Pug 

Resident: found to be locally common on Larix at Kergord, Central 

Mainland in July 1996 (TDR and Svend Kaaber). 

Agriopis marginaria (Fabr.) Dotted Border 

Resident: bred from larvae collected from the Burn of Valayre, Central 

Mainland in July 1996, adults emerging in late February 1997 (Brian Elliott, 

specimens retained by the collector). Intriguingly, geometer moths were 

reported seen in car headlights a few hundred metres from this site in March 

1996. 

Erannis defoliaria (L.) Mottled Umber 

Resident: an infestation of larvae on just about every species of deciduous 
tree at the plantations at Kergord, Central Mainland was first noticed in July 
1996, and males were found flying there in November. The species must 
have been present for several years given the numbers present, but it is 
probably a recent arrival brought in with trees planted at the site. 

ARCTHDAE 

Arctia caja (L.) Garden Tiger 

Vagrant: one at light at Easter Quarff, South Mainland on 28 July 1995 was 
followed by seven, at three sites on Mainland and on Yell and Unst in 
August 1996. 

NOCTUIDAE 

Agrotis segetum ([D. & S.]) Turnip Moth 

Vagrant: nine records, all at Eswick, Central Mainland on 15 July 1994, 23 
October 1994, four in September-October 1995, 13 June 1996 and two on 24 
August 1996. 



274 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

Ochropleura plecta (L.) Flame Shoulder 

Status uncertain: three records on Foula on 25 June 1996 and two on 22 July 
1996 (Frances Ratter). Presumably an overlooked resident, but possibly a 
wanderer from nearby populations in Orkney. 

Noctuafimbriata (Schreb.) Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing 
Vagrant: at least eight records, the first at light at Toab, South Mainland on 8 
August 1994 (Jon and Ad Clifton) and at light at Eswick, Central Mainland 
on 30 August 1995, followed by at least six at four sites on Mainland and 
Unst in August 1996. 

N. interjecta Hb. Least Yellow Underwing 

Vagrant: one record at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 19 August 1996. 

Xestia triangulum (Hufn.) Double Square-spot 

Vagrant: one record at light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 29 July 1995. 

Lacanobia suasa ([D. & S.]) Dog's Tooth 

Vagrant: about twelve records - one at light at Baltasound, Unst on 23 July 
1996 was followed by about 11 at two sites on Mainland and two sites on 
Unst between 12-16 August 1996. 

Papestra biren (Goeze) Glaucous Shears 

Presumed resident: the only record involves about 12 at light or sugar at 

Eswick, Central Mainland between 26 May and 13 June 1995. 

Xanthia icteritia (Hiifn.) The Sallow 

Status uncertain, probably vagrant: ten records, all on sugar, and mostly at 
Eswick, Central Mainland where there were three in early August 1994, 
three in August to September 1995 and one in August 1996. There were also 
singles at Veensgarth, Central Mainland (Paul Sclater), Fetlar (Daniel 
Houghton) and Baltasound, Unst in August 1996. Most of these records are 
rather early for Scotland, making immigration from earlier flying southern 
populations more likely. 

Amphipyra berbera (L.) Svensson's Copper Underwing 

Vagrant: one record, at sugar at Eswick, Central Mainland on 1 1 August 1996. 

Enargia paleacea (Hb.) Angle-striped Sallow 

Vagrant: five records, all on 12 August 1996 - by day at Skaw, Unst (Wendy 

Dickson), on sugar at Baltasound, Unst and three on sugar at Eswick, Central 

Mainland. 

Parastichtis suspecta (Hb.) The Suspected 

Vagrant: about 20 records, about 18 on sugar at Eswick Central Mainland on 
12-14 and 24 August 1996, and three on sugar at Baltasound, Unst on 13-14 
August 1996. 

Cosmia trapezina (L.) The Dun-bar 

Vagrant: over 20 records, about 17 at three sites on Mainland and two on 
Unst (Jim Platts) between 1-8 August 1994, and another five at Baltasound, 
Foula and Eswick, Central Mainland on 12-13 August 1996. 



SHETLAND LEPIDOPTERA 275 

Apamea lateritia (Hufn.) Scarce Brindle 

New to Scotland. Vagrant: two records, on sugar on consecutive nights at 
Norwick, Unst on 11-12 August 1996. These are the 8th-9th British records. 
This species was commoner than usual in Denmark in 1996 and was also 
recorded from the Faroes on 10 August 1996 (Svend Kaaberp^r^. comm.). 

A. ophiogramma (Esp.) Double Lobed 

Vagrant: five records, on sugar at Baltasound, Unst on 7 and 14 August 
1996, singles at light and sugar at Norwick, Unst on 12 August 1996 and at 
light at Eswick, Central Mainland on 12 August 1996. 

Mesoligia furuncula ([D. & S.]) Cloaked Minor 

Vagrant: two records, singles on consecutive nights on sugar at Ocraquoy, 
South Mainland on 11 August 1996 (George Petrie) and at sugar at Eswick, 
Central Mainland on 12 August 1996. 

Mesapamea didyma (Esp.) Lesser Common Rustic 

Presumed resident: one record, on sugar at Eswick, Central Mainland on 18 
August 1996. The Common Rustic Mesapamea secalis (L.) has only been 
confirmed in the islands from three specimens, although there are several 
records of secalis sensu lato. 

Photedes minima (Haw.) Small Dotted Buff 

Status uncertain: five records at light at Eswick, Central Mainland in late 

July and early August in each year 1994-96 would suggest a small local 

population. 

Luperina testacea ([D. & S.]) Flounced Rustic 

Status uncertain: one record, at Norwick, Unst on 4 August 1994 (Jim Platts, 

specimen not retained). 

Amphipoea fucosa (Freyer) Saltern Ear 

Vagrant: a small influx of over 2>0 Amphipoea between 1-17 August 1994, of 
which the majority were probably this species, with nine specimens from 
Norwick, Unst (Jim Platts) and Eswick, Central Mainland confirmed by 
dissection, as was another from Muckle Roe on 31 August 1994. The Large 
^diX Amphipoea lucens (Freyer), first recorded on Fair Isle in 1991, was also 
present in this influx and the 14 Amphipoea recorded in 1995-96 were all this 
latter species. 

Spodoptera exigua (Hb.) Small Mottled Willow 

Vagrant: seven records in August 1996, two at Veensgarth, Central Mainland 
on 13th (Paul Sclater), four at Ocraquoy, South Mainland on 13- 16th (George 
Petrie) and one at Eswick, Central Mainland on 14 August 1996. 

Macdunnoughia confusa (Steph.) Dewick's Plusia 

Vagrant: two records, different singles at light on consecutive nights at 
Eswick, Central Mainland on 12 and 13 August 1996. There is one previous 
Scottish record in Orkney in 1969 (Lorimer 1983). 



276 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

Autographa bractea ([D. & S.]) Gold Spangle 

Vagrant: one record, flying by day at Baltasound, Unst on 19 August 1996 

(Margaret MacLeod). No specimen as the moth evaded capture. 

Amendments 

There is no room to list other interesting records but two errors from 
Pennington and Rogers (1994) need correcting. The gelechiid Scrobipalpa 
acuminatella (Sircom) should be deleted from the Shetland list as the 
specimens have been redetermined as the tineid Monopis laevigella ([D. & 
S.]). The Red-green Carpet Chloroclysta siterata (Hiifn.) should also be 
deleted from the list as all specimens have now been identified as Autumn 
Green Carpet Chloroclysta miata (L.) (det. Barry Goater and Mark Young). 
In addition the pyralids Agriphila geniculea (Haw.) and Agriphila 
inquinatella ([D. & S.]) referred to in Pennington (1997) should be ignored 
as they were provisional identifications, now redetermined, while the 
references to Yponomeuta padella (L.) refer to the records of Y. cagnagella. 

Discussion 

Of the 86 additions to the Shetland list in 1994-96, only about 29 species are 
believed to be resident. Of these the majority are microlepidoptera, which is 
not surprising as these moths are always somewhat overlooked. Although 
many species are known only from a few specimens, they include several 
very inconspicuous species and several species with spring or early summer 
emergence which would have avoided capture by visiting entomologists, 
most of whom visited later in the year. Newly discovered resident 
macrolepidoptera include five species of geometrid, three probably imported 
by man along with trees and shrubs {Eupithecia lariciata, Eupithecia 
assimilata and Erannis defoliaria), one with a very localised food plant 
{Thera cognata) and one flying very early in the year (Agriopis marginaria). 
Two new resident species of noctuid include one which has only recently 
been recognised as a distinct species (Mesapamea secalella), and one which 
flies early in the Shetland spring {Papestra biren), thereby escaping 
detection by visitors. 

In general, macrolepidoptera of uncertain status in Shetland are probably 
scarce residents which may be immigrants (although Xanthia icteritia is 
more likely to be a migrant). Most of the microlepidoptera of uncertain 
status, however, are species which have occurred just once or twice during 
periods of immigration, but which are not accepted migrants and which also 
have possible food plants available in the islands. It is recognised that these 
species may be scarce or local residents in the islands recorded during 
periods of immigration, either through increased observer effort or because 
they have wandered from their usual range within Shetland. However 
immigration is a distinct possibility. 



SHETLAND LEPIDOPTERA ^^^^B 277 

Excluding one species known to be an accidental import by man, this 
leaves 39 species out of our list of 86 additions which are most likely 
immigrants from outside Shetland. This list of immigrants makes interesting 
reading. While the two Yponomeuta species are well established migrants, 
members of the Oecophoridae and the Gelechiidae are not usually accepted 
migrants or even long distance wanderers. Both Agonopterix alstromeriana 
and Scrobipalpa instabilella are assumed to be immigrants as their food 
plants are absent from Shetland and they were recorded during periods of 
immigration. It is worth noting that most of the other recent additions from 
these two families are of uncertain status, and several are strongly suspected 
of being immigrants (e.g. Scrobipalpa atriplicella). Even one of the 
suspected residents, Agonopterix nervosa, has been recorded as an 
immigrant on Foula. Four species of tortricid are immigrants, including 
Epinotia nisella and Rhopobota naevana where there is evidence from 
Orkney to support the theory (Lorimer 1983 and unpub.), and Lobesia 
abscisana and Epiblema foenella which are so far outside their normal range 
that they must be immigrant. The occurrence of one specimen of L. 
abscisana in 1994 was regarded with incredulity by several authorities, but 
the arrival of more than 20 in August 1996 must lead to some reappraisal of 
its status. Several tortricids of uncertain status will probably be confirmed as 
immigrants in the long term (e.g. the records of Hedya sp.). Of the nine 
recent additions to the Shetland pyralid list no less than eight are immigrants. 
Although some famous migrants are included, such as Udea ferrugalis, 
Euchromius ocellea and Margaritia sticticalis, species such as Numonia 
advenella, Pediasia aridella, Platytes alpinella are much less expected. 
These records are however, similar to another previously unpublished record 
of Thistle Ermine Myelois cribrella (Hb.), caught at light on Fair Isle on 12 
June 1992 (Nick Riddiford, det. by the late Ian Lorimer). 

Butterflies are less surprising immigrants and most of the whites in the 
family Pieridae are known to wander, as are the continental subspecies of 
Papilio machaon. It is worth noting that of 13 species of butterfly on the 
Shetland list only one is resident (Pennington 1993b). Many species of 
macrolepidoptera are also known to wander widely even if they are not 
established migrants although the geometrids are generally less mobile. The 
recent additions to the Shetland list include one well known migrant 
{Orthanoma obstipata), another for which some degree of wandering is well 
established {Timandra griseata) and two slightly more surprising species 
{Scopula imitaria and Epirrhoe alternata). Only four of the nine additions to 
the Shetland geometrid list are suspected immigrants, but no less than 16 of 
the 22 additions to the noctuid list fall in this category. Most of the noctuids 
added to the list are known migrants or have a known tendency to wander, 
with Amphipyra berbera perhaps the most surprising name on the list. 

The word immigrant has been used advisedly in this account, and in 
preference to the word migrant whenever possible. Migration is a term that is 



278 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

difficult to define when working with insects, as discussed by Young (1997). 
Young tried to make a distinction between migration, implying a definite 
directional movement from one specific place to another and dispersal, 
which is more random and usually over a shorter distance. However, he 
acknowledged the problems with these definitions, while Baker (1982) drew 
no distinction and termed all movements from one spatial unit to another as 
migration. The term itinerancy is advocated by Parsons (1996) as better 
suited to describing the more random and less intentional movements of 
insects. However, as immigrant merely implies an arrival from outside an 
area, this term seems especially appropriate for use when discussing an 
isolated island group such as Shetland. 

If one ignores the island of Fair Isle, Shetland is more than 50 km from 
the nearest land, and this is also an island group, the neighbouring 
archipelago of Orkney. Shetland is almost 200 km from the mainland of 
Scotland and over 300 km from Norway. Clearly any immigrant moth has 
travelled over a considerable distance before it reaches Shetland, even if it 
has come from the nearest land. However, the conditions most suitable for 
immigration into the islands, whether it involves birds or insects, always 
coincide with south-easterly winds. There is plenty of evidence to show that 
birds which arrive in Shetland in south-easterlies have been deflected from a 
crossing of the North Sea and many originate in southern Scandinavia or the 
Low Countries (see for example Robertson, 1980). It seems highly likely 
that many of the moths and other insects that occur in Shetland during south- 
easterly winds originate in similar areas. Back-tracking of the moths 
involved in the peak of the 1996 influx on 13 August suggested an original 
departure from continental Europe in Denmark or the southern Baltic 
(Davey, 1997). Some moths may of course originate further east and there is 
some evidence to support this theory (Bretherton, 1983). 

Wind directions away from the south-eastern quadrant are much less 
productive. If the wind moves into the north-east the temperature tends to 
drop, inhibiting insect activity, while bird immigration also tends to be 
minimal. If the wind moves to the south relatively few insect migrants arrive 
in Shetland, presumably because the landmass of Britain lies in the way and 
intercepts most long-distance immigration. A few long distance migrants 
such as Vanessa atalanta or Orthonama obstipata may occur in southerly 
winds and a few moths have occurred which may have wandered from the 
north of Scotland, such as Agrochola circellaris or Amphipyra tragopoginis. 
However, even these species occur more regularly during south-easterlies. 

If most of the immigrant moths arriving in Shetland leave land in the 
south-east comer of the North Sea in the vicinity of Denmark this would 
require a minimum sea-crossing of about 800km, although some species may 
originate even further east. While this is now accepted as a reasonable 
distance for the known migrant species such as Plutella xylostella (L.), 
Autographa gamma or Vanessa atalanta, it is a considerable distance for 



SHETLAND LEPIDOPTERA 279 

dispersing or itinerant species. Although several of the more interesting 
records are not proven to be immigrants, it is certainly worth considering the 
idea that even some sedentary species may be capable of longer distance 
movements than is currently accepted. It may be that some of the moths have 
been "caught up" by a passing migration. It is accepted that most species 
have some sort of dispersive period and possibly a large-scale migration 
occurring when they are in this phase may attract them in some way and lead 
to a greater dispersion that would occur in normal circumstances. It is 
interesting to note the range of unexpected immigrants recorded in 1994 and 
1996 which feed on coastal or saltmarsh plants (e.g. Coleophora asteris, 
Scrobipalpa atriplicella, Scrobipalpa instabilella, Eucosma lacteana, 
Pediasia aridella, Platytes alpinella, Apamaea oblonga (Haw.)). If these 
species had got caught up with a movement crossing the Danish coast in a 
south-easterly they would be carried out to sea very quickly, with Shetland 
probably the first landfall. This is supposition of course, but it is difficult to 
see why these species turn up in Shetland otherwise. Svend Kaaber {pers. 
comm.) has confirmed that most of the vagrants and possible vagrants 
recorded in Shetland over the last few years are common in the coastal areas 
of the south-east North Sea around Denmark and adjoining areas. 

Acknowledgements 

Many thanks to Jon and Ad Clifton, Brian Elliot, Joyce Gammack, Paul 
Harvey, Svend Kaaber, George Petrie, Jim Platts, Frances Ratter, Nick and 
Elizabeth Riddiford and Paul Sclater for providing full details of their 
records and to all other observers who have submitted records. Svend 
Kaaber and Maitland Emmet also made useful comments on a draft. The 
influence and encouragement of the late Ian Lorimer was also crucial in 
promoting the study of Lepidoptera in Shetland and no study of moths in the 
north isles of Britain can fail to acknowledge his influence. 

References 

Baker, R.R., 1982. Migration: Paths through Space and Time. Hodder and Stoughton, 

London. 
Bretherton, R., 1983. The incidence of migrant Lepidoptera in the British Isles. In: 

Heath, J. and Emmet, A.M. (eds.) The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and 

Ireland. 9. Harley Books, Colchester 
Davey, P., 1997. The 1996 insect immigration. Atropos 2: 2-12. 
Emmet, A.M. and Heath J., (eds.) 1991. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and 

Ireland. 7 (2). Harley Books, Colchester. 
Goater, B., 1997. Platytes alpinella (Hubner 1813) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) new to 

Scotland, and two other interesting Scottish records. Entomologist' s Gazette 48: 53-54. 
Lorimer, R.I., 1983. The Lepidoptera of the Orkney Islands. Classey, Oxford. 
- , unpub. The Lepidoptera of the Orkney Islands, supplement I983-I992. Unpublished MS. 
Parsons, A.J., 1996. The Invertebrates of the Island of Steep Holm in the Bristol 

Channel. Wincanton Press, Somerset. 



280 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

Pennington, M.G., 1993a. Recent Lepidoptera records from Shetland. Entomologist' s 
Rec. J. Var. 105: 173-174. 

- , 1993b. Butterflies in Shetland. Butterfly Conservation News 55: 45-47. 

- , 1996. Camberwell Beauties Nymphalis antiopa L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) and 
Swallowtails (L.) Papilio machaon (Lep.: Papilionidae) in Shetland. Entomologist' s 
Rec. J. Var. 108: 67-68. 

- , 1997. Lepidoptera immigration into Shetland during August 1996. Atropos 2: 17-24. 
Pennington, M.G. and Rogers, T., 1994. Notes on Lepidoptera in Shetland in 1993. 

Entomologists' s Rec. J. Var. 106: 186-187. 
Robertson, I., 1980. Birds of Fair Isle. In: Berry, R.J. and Johnston, J.L The Natural 

History of Shetland. Collins, London. 
Riddiford, N. and Harvey, P., 1992. New moth records and a wasp from Fair Isle. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 104: 263-264. 
Scott, W. and Palmer, R., 1987. The Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Shetland Islands. 

Shetland Times, Lerwick. 
Young, M. 1997. The Natural History of Moths. T. & A.D. Poyser, London. 



BOOK REVIEW 



Grasshoppers and Crickets of Essex by Alan Wake. 57 pages, 34 maps, 8 
coloured plates. A5, folded and stapled. ISBN 0410 993X. Colchester 
Natural History Society, 1997. Available from Museum Resource Centre, 
14 Ryegate Road, Colchester, Essex, CGI lYG. £6 inclusive of postage. 

Historically, grasshoppers and crickets are a much neglected Order of insects 
in Britain and with such a high proportion of British species concentrated in 
the south of the country it is fitting that a southern-county fauna of this 
nature should be briefly reviewed in a national journal. As with most county 
works nowadays, distribution is presented on the basis of tetrads (2km x 2km 
squares), but a very interesting addition in this work is an Appendix of maps 
showing distribution by monads (1km x 1km squares); this gives a much 
more accurate representation of the true spread of each species in the county 
and is most helpful. 

However, this work is rather more than just a set of maps. An Essex 
Orthoptera checklist is followed by a history of Essex grasshoppers and 
crickets which makes quite interesting reading. A further chapter introduces 
the survey; two maps summarise numbers of species by ten-kilometre grid 
square and a table is presented giving a year by year summary of numbers of 
records of each species from 1980 to 1991. Short but useful accounts for 
each of the sixteen species present today in Essex follow. A centre-fold of 
four pages containing eight coloured plates illustrates the work. An 
interesting addition is a section which now follows listing historical records 
not re-found during the present day survey. The work concludes with a 
chapter on key grasshopper and cricket sites in the county. 

All in all this is a useful work of reference. Although primarily of local 
interest, it may have a wider appeal, at least to entomologists in the southern 
part of Britain. Colin W. Plant 



FLORIDA BUTTERFLIES 28 1 



FLORIDA BUTTERFLIES 
RECORDED DURING MARCH-APRIL, 1981 

'Hugh D. Loxdale and ^Adrian M. Riley 

' 25, Pickford Hill, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 SHE 
^ 35 Park Mount, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 3 AS 

FLORIDA IS OF particular interest to Lepidopterists because of its 
geographical location on the continent of North America: it is a peninsula 
surrounded by the sea on three sides. Some of the butterflies are native, some 
migrants, whilst some are common to other parts of mainland North America 
as well as to the Caribbean islands to the south and south-east, and Central 
and South America (Barcant, 1970; Lewis, 1974; Riley, 1975; Harris, 1989; 
Gerberg & Amett, 1989; Scott, 1992). 

Florida is one of the United States most affected by building development 
in recent decades, particularly for the tourist industry. Hence land utilisation 
is changing rapidly, as consequently are fragile habitats and their associated 
butterfly faunas. Clearly, such faunas need to be monitored temporally as 
well as spatially in order to determine which species are under special threat 
from land development. 

Between 28 March and 10 April, 1981, HDL visited Florida on an 
entomological and ornithological field trip. During this time, voucher butterfly 
specimens were coUected throughout the state and identified. In this paper, we 
present a list of the species recorded, along with a brief discussion of the 
findings. We hope that this information may be useful to other entomologists 
studying the spatio-temporal dynamics of the butterflies of this region. 

Species recorded 

The scientific and English names used follow Scott, 1992. The number of 
examples recorded is given in brackets after each entry. 

Family PAPILIONIDAE 

Tribe Leptocircini: Kite Swallowtails 

Eurytides marcellus Cramer Zebra Swallowtail 

Ocala Nat. Forest, near Gainesville, 2.iv. 1981 (2); Osceola Nat. Forest, near 

Lake City, 2.iv.l981 (1) 

Tribe Papilionini: Fluted Swallowtails 

Papilio cresphontes Cramer Giant Swallowtail 
Keys, 9.iv.l981 (1); Key West, 10.iv.l981 (1) 

P. troilus Linnaeus Spicebush Swallowtail 
Rorida Caverns, Marianna, l.iv.l981 (1) 

P. palamedes Drury Laurel Swallowtail 

Osceola Nat. Forest, 2.iv.l981 (1); Lake Woodruff Nat. Wildlife refuge, near 

De Land, 2.iv. 1981 (1) 



282 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

Family PIERIDAE 

Subfamily Coliadinae: Sulfurs 

Colias ewy theme Boisduval Orange Sulfur 
Lake Okeechobee, near Okeechobee, 5.iv.l981 (4) 

Phoebis sennae Linnaeus Cloudless Sulfur 
Newman's Lake, Gainesville, 2.iv.l981 (1) 

P. agarithe Boisduval Large Orange Sulfur 
Keys, 9.iv. 1981 (1) 

P. philea Linnaeus Orange-barred Sulfur 
Key West, 10.iv.l981 (3) 

Eurema daira Godart Barred Sulfur 

Ocala Nat. Forest, Gainesville, 2.iv.l981 (1); Tamiami Trail, near Miami, 

28.iii.1981 (1); Keys, 9.iv.l981 (1) 

Nathalis iole Boisduval Dainty Sulfur 
Turkey Point, near Horida City, 6.iv.l981 (4) 

Subfamily Pierinae: Whites 

Pieris protodice Boisduval & Leconte Chequered White 
Lake Okeechobee, near Okeechobee, 5.iv.l981 (3) 

Ascia monuste Linnaeus Southern White 
Flamingo, south Florida, 7.iv.l981 (1); Keys, 9.iv.l981 (1) 

Appias drusilla Cramer Tropical White 
Keys, 9.iv.l981 (1) 

Family NYMPHALIDAE 

Subfamily Satyrinae: Satyrs 

Hermeuptychia hermes Fabricius Southern Satyr 
Cottondale, near Marianna, 31.iii.l981 (1) 

Megisto cymela Cramer Little Wood Satyr 
Newman's Lake, Gainesville 2.iv.l981 (1) 

Tribe Nymphalini: Varied Brush-Footed butterflies 

Marpesia petreus Cramer Red Dagger Wing 
Everglades 7.iv.l981 (1) 

Anartia jatrophae Johanssen White Peacock 
Turkey Point 6.iv.l981 (4) 

Precis coenia Hiibner Buckeye 

Lake Woodruff, 2.iv.l981 (1); Merritt Island, 3.iv.l981 (1) 

Vanessa atalanta Linnaeus Red Admiral 
Newman's Lake, Gainesville 2.iv.l981 (1) 



FLORTOA BUTTERFLIES 283 



Tribe Melitaeini: Checkerspots and Crescents 

Phyciodes tharos Drury Pearl Crescent 

Ocala Nat. Forest, 2.iv.l981 (1); Florida Caverns, Marianna l.iv.l981 (1) 

P. phaon Edwards Mat-Plant Crescent 
Turkey Point, 6.iv. 1981 (1) 

P.frisiaFoQy Black Crescent 
Keys,9.iv.l981(l) 

Tribe Heliconiini: Longwings 

Dione vanillae Linnaeus Gulf Fritillary 
Tamiami Trail, Miami, 6.iv.l981 (1) 

Heliconius charitonia Linnaeus Zebra Long Wing 
Key West, 10.iv.l981 (2) 

Family LYCAENIDAE 

Subfamily Lycaeninae, Tribe Theclini: Hairstreaks 

Strymon melinus Hiibner Grey Hairstreak 
Keys, 9.iv. 1981 (1) 

Tribe Polyommatini: Blues 

Leptotes cassius Cramer Tropical Striped Blue 
Upper Matecumbe Key, Keys, 9.iv.l981 (2) 

Family HESPERIIDAE 

Subfamily Hesperiinae: Grass Skippers 

Copaeodes minima Edwards Tiny Skipper 

Lake Okeechobee, near Okeechobee, 5.iv.l981 (1) 

Asbolis capucinus Lucas Palm Skipper (The Monk) 
Key West, 10.iv.l981 (1) 

Panoquina panoquin Scudder Salt-Marsh Skipper 
Merritt Island 3.iv.l981 (4) 

Subfamily Pyrginae: Herb, Shrub, and Tree Skippers 

Urbanus proteus Linnaeus Long-Tailed Skipper 
Key West 10.iv.l981 (2) 

Thoijbes bathyllus Abbot & Smith Eastern Cloudy Wing 
Lake Woodruff, 2.iv.l981 (1) 

Erynnis brizo Boisduval & Leconte Banded Oak Dusky Wing 
Ocala Forest, Gainesville 2.iv.l981 (2) 



284 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

Discussion 

The recorded species were identified using the field guides of Barcant 
(1970), Lewis (1974), Riley (1975), Harris (1989), Gerberg & Amett (1989) 
and Scott (1992). The last work, which is comprehensive and generally 
excellent, unfortunately does not list the authors of specific names. 

In all, thirty two species were recorded during the period 28 March to 10 
April, 1981, some 5% of the total of 679 butterflies listed for North America 
by Scott (1992). All the species recorded fall within the distributions 
presented by Scott (1992) for North America, and are either native 
subtropical species (M. petreus; A. jatrophae) or predominantly resident 
subtropical/eastern deciduous forest species of the Rorida peninsula/ Keys 
and south-eastern States (eg. A. drusilla, P. frisia, H. charitonia, A. 
capucinus), with year-round ranges. Many of the species recorded are 
migratory to a greater or lesser extent (e.g. P. philea, P. agarithe, L. cassius, 
U. proteus, V. atalantd). V. atalanta, a renowned migrant of both the Old 
and New Worlds, has at least four flights throughout the year in southern 
Florida, southern Texas and lowland California (Scott, 1992). In conclusion, 
from this brief survey, the species recorded are typical for Florida and no 
'unusual' species were found in terms of geographical distribution or 
phenology. 

References 

Barcant, M., 1970. Buttei-flies of Trinidad and Tobago. Collins, London. 

Gerberg, E.J. & Amett, R.H., 1989. Florida Butterflies. Natural Science Publications, 

Baltimore, U.S.A. 
Harris, L. jnr., 1989. Butterflies of Georgia. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 

Oklahoma, U.S.A. 
Lewis, H.L., 1974. Butterflies of the World. Harrap, London. 

Riley, N.D. , 1975. Field Guide to the Butterflies of the West Indies. Collins, London. 
Scott, J.A., 1992. The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. 

Stanford University Press, California. 



The Portland Ribbon Wave Idaea degeneraria Hb. (Lep.: Geometridae) 
on the Isle of Wight 

I captured an example of the Portland Ribbon Wave Idaea degeneraria at 
m.v. light at Freshwater, Isle of Wight, on 1 1 August 1997. This appears to be 
only the second record for the island; the first was taken at Sandown as long 
ago as 5 September 1902 (Prout, 1902, Ent. Rec. 14: 274). No doubt this was 
an immigrant, since both the Silver-Y Autographa gamma L. and the pyralid 
Udea ferrugalis Hb. were also taken on the same night.- S.A. Knill- Jones, 
Roundstone, 2 School Green Road, Freshwater, Isle of Wight. 



CAMBERWELL BEAUTY 285 



CAMBER WELL BEAUTY NYMPHALIS ANTIOPA L. 
(LEP.: NYMPHALIDAE): FIRST RECORDED BREEDING IN 

BRITAIN? 

Howard Mendel 

The Museum, High Street, Ipswich IPl 3QH. 

There are numerous references to the "fact" that there have been no 
breeding records of Nymphalis antiopa in Britain, recent instances (Bowles, 
1996; Tunmore, 1996) presumably following the statement in Emmet and 
Heath (1989) that ''None of the earlier stages has been found in the wild in 
Britain". The prospect of butterflies from the 1995 migration emerging 
from hibernation and breeding stimulated considerable discussion. The 
possibility that spring migrants might supplement small numbers surviving 
hibernation (Plant, antea, 149-150) increases the likelihood of breeding in 
Britain. 

There is already some evidence that N. antiopa may have bred in Britain. 
Butterfly records in Notes or jottings about Aldeburgh (Hele, 1870) were 
abstracted for The Butterflies of Suffolk (Mendel & Piotrowski, 1986) but 
only later did I realise that there was an updated 2nd edition (Hele, 1890) of 
this interesting book. I quote, verbatim, the relevant passage (p. 101) in this 
2nd edition :- 

''Camberwell Beauty (v. antiopa) was found clinging to a post on the 
Aldeburgh Park estate, in 1876. It had just emerged, for the wings were 
limp, and partially expanded. These subsequently developed most 
perfectly. The specimen is in the possession of Mr. H. Wightman, of this 
town." 

Nicholas Fenwick Hele (1859-1892) was a competent naturalist and 
carefully recorded the natural history of the Aldeburgh area of the Suffolk 
coast. He was respected by his peers and succeeding generations of Suffolk 
naturalists have found no reason to question his reputation. 

References 

Bowles, N., 1996. The strange attraction of the Camberwell Beauty. Butterfly 

Conservation News, no. 62, pp. 34-35. 
Emmet, A.M. & Heath, J. (eds.), 1989. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and 

Ireland. Volume 7, part 1 Hesperiidae - Nymphalidae. Harley Books. 
Hele, N.F., 1870. Notes or jottings about Aldeburgh, Suffolk. London: John Russell 

Smith. 
- , 1890. Notes or jottings about Aldeburgh, Suffolk. 2nd edition. Ipswich: S. & W.J. 

King (printer). 
Mendel, H. & Piotrowski, S.H., 1986. The butterflies of Suffolk. Ipswich: Suffolk 

Naturalists' Society. 
Tunmore, M., 1996. The 1995 Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis antiopa (L.) influx. 

Atropos 1: 2-5. 



286 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

Roesel's bush-cricket M^/riop^^ra roeselii (Hagenbach) 
(Orth.: Tettigoniidae) in Oxfordshire 

A male of the fully-winged form diluta Charpentier of Roesel's bush-cricket 
was taken by me near Watlington, Oxfordshire (grid reference SU 700940) 
on 8 August 1997. 

Ragge (1965) Grasshoppers, Crickets and Cockroaches of the British 
Isles) does not mention Oxfordshire for this distinctive cricket and there are 
similarly no records for the county in the more recent works by Paul (1989) 
Grasshoppers and Crickets of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire) 
and Haes & Harding (1997, Atlas of grasshoppers, crickets and allied insects 
in Britain and Ireland). 

Comparison of the distribution map in the latter work with that produced 
by Haes some eighteen years earlier (1979, Provisional atlas of the insects of 
the British Isles. Part 6: Orthoptera), shows clearly that in recent years this 
species has spread westwards. There are, however, only two Oxfordshire 
vice-county records held on the database at the Biological Records Centre at 
Monks Wood, from Shipdale (grid reference SU 77) in 1992 and from 
Henley-on-Thames (grid reference SU 78) in 1993. 

The insect was first noticed because of its distinctive "song" and, in spite 
of the suggestion by Ragge {op. cit.) that it may be easily taken with a net, 
evaded capture for a full three quarters of an hour! 

I am grateful to Dr Henry Arnold at the Biological Records Centre 
(Monks Wood) for information on existing Oxfordshire records of this 
species and to the Editor for helpful suggestions in the preparation of this 
note. 
- K.F. Williams, 11 Gable Close, Daventry, Northamptonshire NNll 4EX. 



The Channel Islands Pug Eupithecia ultimaria (Boisd.) 
(Lep.: Geometridae) new to the Isle of Wight 

Brian Wame organised members of the Isle of Wight Natural History and 
Archaeological Society to beat tamarisk bushes in various localities on the 
Isle of Wight in a bid to find larvae of the Channel Isles Pug here, during the 
second half of July 1997. The operation was successful at Bembridge (over a 
dozen larvae found). Niton (one) and St Lawrence (one) and the first adults 
emerged from these on 9 August. Other pug larvae were also beaten from 
this foodplant and these proved, on emergence as adults, to be the Double- 
striped Pug Gynmnoscelis rufifasciata (Haw.). 

It would appear that E. ultimaria is present in the east of the island and has 
not spread to western localities; this compares to the spread on the mainland 
where it has been found at Southsea and Hayling Island but not further west 
(Langmaid, 1996, Ent. Gaz. 47: 239 - 240).- S.A. Knill-Jones, Roundstone, 
2 School Green Road, Freshwater, Isle of Wight. 



LINCOLNSHIRE'S LIME WOODS 287 

THE LIMEWOODS OF CENTRAL LINCOLNSHIRE AND THEIR 

MOTHS INCLUDING FLETCHER'S PUG 

EUPITHECIA EGENARIA U.S. (LEP.: GEOMETRIDAE) 

Gerry Haggett 

Meadows End, Northacre, Caston, Noifolk. 

PAUL WAKING'S ACCOUNT (antea, 1-9) of the expeditions mounted in 
1995 to the limewoods of central Lincolnshire reads as though previous 
working had failed to reveal very much. In fact the majority of the species 
that he lists in his Table 2 were already well known from records compiled 
by Ric Pilcher and myself; these derived from Ric Pilcher's own work 
before I arrived on the scene in 1971, and from my own considerable records 
from the next seven years which were passed to him but evidently escaped 
inclusion into Duddington and Johnson (1983), with only the most 
significant of my work added later that year in an apologetic addendum. 

It is however, about the recent history of the woodlands themselves that I 
would first seek to write because the present state of these precious woods 
and their facilities derive largely from the efforts and determination of 
unsung heroes who were active in protecting them in earlier decades. 

The majority of the Tilia cor data limewoods formed part of the then 
Forestry Commission estate of North Lincolnshire which from its early days 
had been managed on traditional forestry practice with oak Quercus as the 
principal tree planted on the heavy clay soils, often with Scots pine Pinus 
sylvestris and Norway spruce Picea abies intended for later removal. The 
main core of the Bardney string of woods is Chambers which itself is a 
scatter of ancient limewoods linked by former agricultural land that was 
planted with the traditional tree mixtures. In late post-war years economic 
dictum drove the Forestry Commission into plans to eradicate the oak and 
natural broad-leaved species for timber production; this was attempted by 
use of herbicides, applied by hand sprayer or by aerial spray from fixed-wing 
aircraft. Most of the native broad-leaved areas had been felled in the 1939-45 
war and no work had been done since, so there was lime coppice growing 
with ash Fracinus exelsior, oak, field maple Acer campestre and birch Betula 
into high forest, much of it standing in water with rides impassable even if 
traceable. The oldest stands in Great West Wood and Hatton Wood had 
survived because of their unprofitable timber size at war-time coupled with 
remoteness, that inhibited timber extraction. All woods indeed owed their 
escape from earlier conversion to agriculture because of their valley bottom 
sites on the heaviest land. 

During those long years of unenlightenment, the Forestry Commission 
promoted to top positions those most likely to achieve the economic criteria 
being set and few were brave enough to put their heads above the parapet; it 
is said that there is always a man for the right occasion in life and such a 
man chanced to be given the top administrative job to oversee the Eastern 



288 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

England empire in 1970 and although he was in post for all too short a time 
it was he who arranged for me to move to Bardney to do the job of Chief 
Forester, whose domain ran from the Nottinghamshire border to Somercotes 
plantations on the very east coast (and where I was to find Ethmia 
bipunctella Fabr. larvae on Echium {Ent. Rec. 90: 275); I inherited a team of 
foresters sickened at the carnage and enthusiastic for change alongside a 
chief-of-staff veteran of Forestry Commission accounting who would 
manage for me the hefty budget. 

Damage done by 1971 was breathtaking; the herbicide 2,4,5-T appUed in 
diesel had been the main instrument of destruction, sprayed on cleared sites 
in such flood that the forest workers told how the ground ran rivers and how 
the land stank; when clearance of young broad-leaved trees was too 
expensive the jim-jem was used, a diabolical invention that chopped into the 
base of a young lime and then injected poison. The tenacity of the native 
broad-leaved root-system defied death but produced malformed and stunted 
growth through which western American shade-bearing conifers were 
planted. The wettest open areas became choked with Calamagrostis and only 
the better drained were stocked with Corsican pine. In outlying woods, aerial 
spraying had the ironic effect of stunting the spruce but allowing the oak to 
recover and these woods I believe have since been sold. The whole dismal 
programme was a disaster for both site and taxpayer. 

Coming green into this mayhem, I quickly found that while the Nature 
Conservancy staff had been making representation for long enough, they all, 
from ancient woodland specialist George Peterken to local officer Mike 
Schofield, regarded Forestry Commission staff to be equally tainted, so I could 
never achieve with them the rapport I hoped for; the luminaries and wardens of 
the Lincolnshire Trust for Nature Conservation also regarded me with 
suspicion that has taken long to dispel. Neighbouring farmers wanted only one 
thing in life, which was the conversion of the woods to add to their acreage, 
already of prairie proportions, and I soon ran into hostility when I expressed 
astonishment that I was expected to deepen drains through and around these 
lovely woods for farmers' benefit. As local farmers comprised the working end 
of the Internal Drainage Board I found myself assailed on aU sides as I evolved 
a policy of drain maintenance to existing levels and by permit, after which 
drainage demands ceased, although relations never improved. 

Although the economic direction of the Forestry Commission remained 
dominant until comparatively recent times, I was fortunate then in being able 
to reverse the programme of coniferisation at Bardney and to switch money 
for labour and machine use to a massive scheme of ride widening and ride 
drainage to which the forest workers responded with great heart and huge 
success. But it was the response by nature that gave the greatest pleasure, in 
place of mud and jungle grew swards of primrose Primula vulgaris, bluebell 
Endymion non-scriptus, cowslip Primula veris and anemone Anenome 



LINCOLNSHIRE'S LIME WOODS 289 

nemorosa and within the opened woodland canopy the famed lily-of-the- 
valley Convallaria majalis beds blossomed as never before, the blackthorn 
Prunus spinosa and sallows at ride edge gave of their best and my slide 
collection of this awakening remains amongst my happiest. An early reward 
was to see White Admiral Ladoga Camilla appear as the advance guard of 
their re-occupation of the county and later a single male Silver-washed 
Fritillary Argynnis paphia. Ride awakening brought its own problems when 
distant executives became alarmed at the accruing cost, but more down to 
earth were the local Hunts, two of which met at Chambers and both wished to 
continue the joy of their full field charging tally-ho up and down the newly 
levelled rides. I learned to resist the bribe of the Hunt-Ball, even the invitation 
to ride (God forbid!) and other better-concealed pressures, but we ended up 
good friends with only the Huntsman entering to draw and the field politely 
restrained at the gate; I even later had lunch with the senior Hunt Master. 

Once a form of access was made it became possible to offer thinnings of 
the better-grown, younger limewoods poles for standing sale, again incurring 
displeasure from head office that demanded detailed pole measurement on 
standard forms, whereas we achieved sale by the acre that made possible the 
thinning of oak, ash and lime by wood bodgers using such antiquated 
machinery and tractors that Health and Safety rules would not now allow; in 
this way whole tracts of woods were opened up, first at Ivy Wood, Minting 
and Great Scrubbs, then on to Great West, Newball and Hardy Gang with the 
provision that rides were to made good following the lengthy working of 
each block. 

This programme was sustained for the seven years that I worked there and 
it attracted increased interest and participation from what is now English 
Nature and, as always, the Lincolnshire Trust. Not long after I had left, the 
Forestry Commission made an agreement with the Nature Conservancy 
Council to declare 270 hectares of limewoods to be managed as a Forest 
Nature Reserve with a view to restoring coppice whilst managing high forest 
on long rotation with minimum intervention of the oldest stands. I was 
hugely pleased to be invited to the inauguration ceremony of the plan at 
Chambers in 1989. 

There must be many folk who have contributed to conservation in the 
similar broader sense of we who helped restore Bardney limewoods but 
whose work remains unrecorded. I like to think that they have enjoyed a 
similar outcome and satisfaction. The history of man's impact on nature and 
the response of wildlife is the history of our countryside and its flora and 
fauna and I like to think, too, that those who collect moths or data from sites 
like the Bardney limewoods might benefit with knowledge of that recent 
history. 

During the whole of my time Lincolnshire, I ran an m.v. trap from the 
Chambers office and I had abundant opportunity in my daily work to wonder 



290 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

at the wildlife of the limewoods, to compile maps that charted the 
appearance of young Sorbus torminalis suckers and above all to witness the 
Lepidoptera. All this while I worked closely with Ric Pilcher at many county 
sites but especially frequently in the limewoods, my individual records being 
passed to him. Ric maintained a detailed card index system as part of his 
scrupulously compiled county data and he was the first modern county 
recorder for Lincolnshire; presumably this mass of information was made 
available to Paul Waring along with Johnson's comprehensive update of 
records to 1995 as well as the printed supplement of the 1983 book. 

A few species notes will indicate the difference between one-night stands 
and regular working; larvae of Tethea or D.&S. were numerous on well- 
grown beds of aspen Populus tremula suckers in College Wood, Hemaris 
fuciformis L. regular at Ragged Robin Lychnis flos-cuculi in Chambers, 
some Acronicta alni L. neither type nor melanic but of a soft velvety black 
sheen within rosy dove-grey ground colour, and more Spaelotis ravida 
D.&S. would fall from the office door frame each morning than were to be 
found in the trap, a habit that at my garden shed some ten miles away 
supplied collectors anxious to see this moth; Photedes fluxa Hb. so plentiful 
on Calamagrostis in Chambers that I used to examine hundreds in order to 
pick out the red forms, larvae of both Philereme vetulata D.&S. and P. 
transversata Hufn. on Purging Buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica within the 
limewoods and also outside it. The most significant species not recorded by 
Waring is of course Photedes extrema Hb., the only known residential 
population in Lincolnshire; thorough working of Calamagrostis beds in all 
of the limewoods should indicate how strong its presence remains. Of the 
five pugs given in Table 1 , only Eupithecia valerianata Hb. was not in these 
woods in good numbers. Neither Ric Pilcher nor I saw any sign of Angerona 
prunaria L. and despite annual attempts we saw nothing of Eupithecia 
egenaria, either at m.v. light within the limewoods or at the Chambers static 
trap or by day searching of boles of lime in the older stands. Beating lime 
flowers was scarcely possible with so much of it out of reach and I found 
Tilia cordata to flower so late that food for egenaria larvae might not be 
available before August of most years. The absence of T. cordata seedlings 
also contrasted with what I have since found in Norfolk, so I had to conclude 
viability might be reduced further north, but perhaps a higher resident small 
rodent population might be the answer; however in Norfolk I have seen trees 
of T. cordata with canopy so heavy with fertile seed and bracts in late 
autumn that the wood wore an orange-yellow mantle the like of which I 
never saw in Lincolnshire. 

Moths like Epirrhoe rivata Hb. and Eupithecia assimilata Doubleday 
(abundant as larvae) were known from other habitats and their occurrence in 
limewoods, like most of the moths in Table 2 of Waring 's paper, has no 
special significance, but then I have never rated most of those listed footman 



LINCOLNSHIRE'S LIME WOODS 



291 



to be anything other than general in their occurrence in lowland Britain and 
quite half of the species listed there are noted in Johnson's 1995 updated 
paper to have been recorded elsewhere in Lincolnshire in most of the years 
between 1986 and 1995. The moths in Table 2 that most attract my attention 
are Hemistola chrysoprasaria Esp. and Xestia agathina Dup., simply 
because I cannot recall their hostplants from anywhere nearby. In my Table 
1 I list those species reckoned to be known nationally only from 31-300 ten 
km squares that I recorded on the Bardney limewoods in 1971-1978 and that 
are not noted in Tables 1 and 2 of Waring 's paper. 

Ric Pilcher found Schrankia costaestrigalis Steph. in a number of inland 
sites from Crowle Waste to Market Rasen to Woodhall; its occurrence within 
old woodlands awakens one's interest as a potential candidate for S. 
intermedialis Reid but as wing pattern and colour of both taxa are identical 
that is probably a red herring. 

Table 1. List of moths recorded by G.M. Haggett in Bardney limewoods 1971-1978 
reckoned to be known from only 31-300 ten km squares in Britain and not recorded by 
Waring era/, in 1995. 



Thyatiridae 

Polyploca ridens Fab. 

Geometridae 

Cyclorophora porata L. 
Idaea straminata Bork. 
Euphyia unangulata Haw. 
Eupithecia inturbata Hb. 
E. insigniata Hb. 
E. valerianata Hb. 
E. trisignaria H.-S. 
E. tripunctaria H.-S. 
Ectropis crepuscularia D.&S. 

Notodontidae 

Furcula bifida Brahm 
Peridia anceps Goeze 
Drymonia ruficornis Hufii. 
Clostera curtula L. 



Arctiidae 

Thumata senex Hb. 

Noctuidae 

Spaelotis ravida D.&S. 
Lacanobia w-latinum Hufn. 
Mythimna straminea Treits. 
Acronicta alni L. 
Mormo maura L. 
Ipimorpha subtusa D.&S. 
Enargia paleacea Esp. 
Parastichtis ypsillon D.&S. 
Apamea ophiogramma Esper 
Amphipoea fucosa Freyer (det. gen.) 
Celaena leucostigma Hb. 
Archanara dissoluta Treits. 
Arenostola phragmitidis Hb. 
Coenobia rufa Haw. 
Chilodes maritimus Tausch. 
Nycteola revayana Scop. 



Section 2 of the Addendum paper issued November 1983 by the authors of 
Butterflies and Larger Moths of Lincolnshire 1983 is entitled "Notes on 
species of particular interest found in the Bardney woodlands and at 
Lissington between 1971 and 1978, received from Mr Gerry Haggett 
16.11.83". That paper was written by me after I had been invited to 
introduce the book at its launch at a meeting of the Lincolnshire Naturalists 
Union in the summer of 1983; it was an attempt to fill the most obvious gaps 
registered in a quick scan of the book which I was seeing for the first time. 



292 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

That paper does not include some the some moths listed below because I 
regarded them to be of pretty general occurrence (as I still do) or because 
they had already been given mention in the Duddington and Johnson (1983). 
Their status coding is of course a recent innovation. 

Reference 

Duddington, J. and Johnson, R., 1983. The Butterflies and Larger Moths of Lincolnshire. 
Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union. 



OBITUARY 

Thomas Cecil Dunn BSc, MSc, MBE 

It was with a feeling of great sadness and loss that the naturaUsts of the north 
of England learned of the death of Tom Dunn on Monday 21 July 1997. 

Bom on 8 January 1911 at Edmonsley, County Durham, Tom was the son 
of a Colliery Railwayman who worked at Pelton Fell, Co. Durham, at that 
time a large railway junction. It was from the nameplate of one of the small 
shunting engines on this railway that Tom received his middle name of 
Cecil. After a basic junior school education Tom won a free place to 
Chester-le-Street Secondary School (now a Grammar School). Without this, 
Tom would not have had a higher education as his parents would not have 
been able to afford the fees. An additional award enabled him to stay at 
school where he obtained his Higher School Certificates. A further grant 
partially financed his place at University. The remaining money for his 
education coming from his violin accompaniment of silent films at local 
cinemas. 

He went on to take a "first" in Botany at Hatfield College in 1932. In this 
he was in a class of one as Botany was a new subject in the curriculum. After 
leaving university during the depression, he held a series of temporary 
teaching posts and obtained further qualifications by way of a City and 
Guilds Diploma in Woodwork and Engineering Drawing. He found a 
permanent post shortly before the Second World War at Blaydon, teaching 
the unemployed men and boys woodwork. 

He served with the RAF between 1939 and 1945 installing radio 
equipment into aircraft. 

His marriage at the beginning of the War to Marjory Jude was to produce 
a son. Alec and a daughter Judith. Tragically his wife passed away whilst 
still young in 1960. From 1945 to 1971 he taught at the Chester-le-Street 
Grammar School, initially as a woodwork instructor, and in later years as the 
biology teacher. His interest in natural history dates from his early 
schooldays when he collected snails. This initial interest expanded into his 
lifelong study of botany and entomology. 



OBITUARY 



293 



He joined the Northern Naturalists Union, a confederation of local natural 
history societies, in 1945 and became assistant editor of The Vasculum under 
his mentor J. W. Heslop-Harrison in July 1963, and then editor in April 1967 
on Heslop-Harrison 's death; he retained this position until December 1990. 
A leader of many of the field trips organised by local natural history societies 
he was constantly asked to identify various "finds". This ability led to him 
becoming a television personality in BBC television's Looks Natural 
programme in the 1970s. 




Thomas Cecil Dunn BSc, MSc, MBE, 1911 - 1997 

Photo: Courtesy of North of England Newspapers (Westminster Press Ltd) 



Tom was one of the first in the country to operate a Rothamstead Light 
Trap which was in continuous use in his garden for many decades. For many 
years he identified the captures of not only his own light trap, but from 
several others in both counties. He wrote articles for both local and national 
natural history publications. One of his minor achievements but one which 
gave him much satisfaction was the detection of the Purple Hairstreak 
Butterfly Quercusia quercus L. on the Scottish island of Colonsay in 1964, 
but his over-riding interest was in the more localised recording of the plants 
and insects of Northumberland and Durham. Many of his botanical records 
found their way into the recently published "Floras" of both counties. The 
Lepidoptera records he obtained from Co. Durham were combined with 



294 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

those of Dr. Jim Parrack from Northumberland in a joint publication entitled 
The Moths and Butterflies of Northumberland and Durham issued in two 
parts as Supplements to The Vasculum in 1986 (Macrolepidoptera) and 1992 
(Microlepidoptera). For many years prior to the publication of these 
volumes, a visitor to his home would find the living room table covered with 
small boxes containing specimens awaiting identification, a file of record 
cards and his binocular microscope at the ready. His two greenhouses bulged 
with his large collection of cacti and every visitor was treated to a tour of the 
garden. 

A tireless worker for conservation and in the formation of the 
Northumberland and Durham Trusts and later the Durham Wildlife Trust his 
efforts in this field were recognised in 1979 by Durham University, who 
awarded him an honorary MSc. He was further honoured for his "services to 
Nature Conservation" when the then Nature Conservancy Council forwarded 
his name for a proposed MBE. This award was announced in the 1987 
Birthday Honours List and he went to Buckingham Palace to be presented to 
the Queen, a meeting of which he was extremely but quietly proud. A non- 
smoker and teetotaller Tom was a very fit person and at the age of 72 years 
climbed Red Pike in the Lake District, a task that would daunt many a 
younger man. Even in his early eighties he could be seen every day taking 
his afternoon "constitutional" with his dog which invariably led him to his 
favourite localities at either Waldridge Fell or Hermitage Woods. 

From very humble beginnings he rose through his own endeavours to be 
one of the most knowledgeable and respected of naturalists and he was 
certainly the finest microlepidopterist produced by the north of England this 
century. He had a quiet natural authority, and when he spoke people listened 
and learnt from what he said. He was a gentleman in every sense of the 
word. 

In 1995 he gifted his collections and those of T. Ashton Lofthouse and 
J.W. Heslop-Harrison, along with his record cards, to the Sunderland 
Museum. His departure from our presence leaves a void which will be very 
difficult, if not impossible, to fill. 

Harry T.Eales 



An appeal for invertebrate specimens 

At the De Montfort University we are building up a reference collection of 
named invertebrates to be used in the teaching of students. We are 
particularly seeking insect specimens. Undated specimens are acceptable. If 
you are able to help, please send specimens direct or telephone to discuss our 
needs in more detail on 01162 551551.- K.M. Stewart, Department of 
Biological Sciences, De Montfort University, Scraptoft Campus, Leicester 
LE7 9SU. 



BUTTERFLffiS ON PATMOS 295 

BUTTERFLIES ON THE ISLAND OF PATMOS (GREECE) IN 

APRIL 1995, WITH AN UPDATED CHECKLIST 

AND BIOGEOGRAPHIC NOTES 

(LEPIDOPTERA: HESPERIOIDEA & PAPILIONOIDEA) 

Alain Olivier 

Luitenant Lippenslaan 43 B14, B-2140 Antwerpen, Belgium. 

THE GREEK ISLAND of Patmos (32 km-), of volcanic origin, is situated in 
the south-east Aegean Sea. To the north, it is flanked by the islands of 
Samos, Foumi and Ikaria. To the south, it is more or less connected to the 
Bodrum Peninsula (Prov. Mugla, Turkey) through a chain of islands, i.e. 
Lipsi, Leros, Kalimnos, Pserimos and Kos (Fig. 1). Patmos is covered 
mainly with garrigue and, in the vicinity of Skala, the main settlement, 
orchards. 

While the island is rather popular with tourists for its famous monastery, it 
has been largely ignored by lepidopterists. Olivier (1987) traced one single 
specimen of Plebeius loewii loewii (Zell.) in the collection of the Zoological 
Museum of Amsterdam. That same year, on 15 July, Dr. George Thomson 
made some observations on this island, recording six additional species. 
These records were dealt with by Olivier (1990a; 1993). Further quotations 
can be found in Olivier (1990b), Olivier & Coutsis (1993; 1995), Hesselbarth, 
van Oorschot & Wagener (1995) and Tolman &Lewington (1997). 

I had the pleasure to stay for two days on this charming little island, on 9 
& 10 April 1995. All observations were made on the first day in the 
immediate vicinity of Skala, from sea level up to about 150m, mostly on 
waste grounds, along roadsides and in orchards. A planned more extensive 
investigation of the island on the next day had to be abandoned, because of 
extremely adverse meteorological conditions (windy, rainy weather at very 
low temperatures and even a hailstorm!). A couple of additional spring 
butterflies (lycaenids), that are very likely to occur there, thus remain 
unknown from Patmos. Nevertheless, 14 species were recorded, nine of 
which are newly reported here, bringing the known total up to the present to 
16. All these species are known as well from Kos, Kalimnos and Leros 
(Olivier, 1996, 1997; Olivier & De Prins, 1996), while only one, i.e. 
Gegenes pumilio pumilio (Hoffmansegg), hasn't been recorded from the 
Bodrum Peninsula yet (cf. Hesselbarth, van Oorschot & Wagener, 1995). 
Interestingly, one species, P. loewii loewii, is not found further north than 
Patmos in the Aegean, as far as known. Lycaena thersamon (Esper) neither 
is known to occur on the islands north of Patmos, though it has been found 
further north along the Turkish coast at Efes (Prov. Izmir). All remaining 
species are known from Samos as well. There is thus but little evidence in 
favour of any source area rather than another for the present-day butterfly 
fauna of Patmos. There is no taxonomic differentiation at all of the 



296 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 



25.xi.1997 



Fig. 1. 

Map showing the geographical position of Patmos in the south-east Aegean Sea. 



1 . Foumi 

2. Agathonissi 
S.Arki 

4. Lipsi 

5. Farmakonissi 



6. Leros 

7. Telendos 

8. Kalimnos 

9. Pserimos 

10. Bodrum Peninsula 



U.Giali 

12. Nissiros 

13. Astipalea 

14. Levitha 

15. Kmaros 




BUTTERFLIES ON PATMOS 297 

population of any species on Patmos, as compared to the adjacent island and 
mainland populations. About 18,000 years B.P. all fore-mentioned islands 
were part of one single continental land mass, together with Turkey, but at 
about 9,000 years B.P., Patmos formed one large island together with 
Foumi, equidistant from Samos (still connected with Turkey) and from the 
southern chain of islands, that formed one land mass together with the 
Bodrum Peninsula (van Andel & Shackleton, 1982). L. thersamon and P. 
loewii loewii at least may have arrived from the south. There is no evidence 
supporting a colonisation from the west (Kiklades): four species that occur 
on Patmos are unknown from this island group, while two of these (Maniola 
telmessia (Zell.) and P. loewii loewii) are not even known from mainland 
Greece, and a third one, Zerynthia cerisy cerisy (Godart) penetrates into the 
Balkans not further south than northern Greece. 

Checklist 

Nomenclature used follows Olivier (1993). Species indicated by one asterisk 
were observed during my April 1995 trip and were previously known from 
the island; species indicated by two asterisks, also observed on the same trip, 
are newly recorded for the butterfly fauna of Patmos. 

* * Ge genes pumilio pumilio (Hoffmansegg) 
** Car char odus alceae alceae (Esper) 

** Zerynthia cerisy cerisy (Godart) 

* Iphiclides podalirius podalirius (Linn.) 

* Papilio machaon syriacus Eller 
** Colias crocea (Fourcroy) 

** Euchloe (ausonia) ausonia taurica Rober 

* Pieris brassicae brassicae (Linn.) 

* Pieris rapae rapae (Linn.) 

** Lycaena phlaeas phlaeas (hinn.) 

** Lycaena thersamon (Esper) 

Plebeius loewii loewii (Zeller) 
** Polyommatus icarus (Rottemburg) 

Maniola telmessia (Zeller) 
** Vanessa atalanta atalanta (Linn.) 

* Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus) 

References 
Andel, T.H. van & Shackleton, J.C, 1982. Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Coastlines of 

Greece and the Aegean. Journal of Field Archaeology 9: 445-454. 
Hesselbarth, G., Oorschot, H. van & Wagener, S., 1995. Die Tagfalter der Ttirkei unter 

Beriicksichtigung der angrenzenden Lander. Selbstverlag Sigbert Wagener, Bocholt. 
Olivier, A., 1987. Catalogue of the butterflies of the Greek islands in the collection of the 

Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie (Zoologisch Museum) Amsterdam 

(Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea & Papilionoidea). Phegea 15: 77-88, 165-170. 



298 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

- , 1990a. Butterfly records from the Greek island of Patmos (Lepidoptera: 
Papilionoidea). Phegea 18: 31-32. 

- , 1990b. Critical notes on the butterflies of the Greek island of Kastellorizo 
(Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea & Papilionoidea). Phegea 18: 169-190. 

- , 1993. The butterflies of the Greek island ofRodos: taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and 
phenology with a tentative synthesis on the biogeography of the butterflies of Kriti 
(Crete), Kdrpathos, Rodos, the Eastern Aegean islands and Kipros (Cyprus) 
(Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea & Papilionoidea). Vlaamse Vereniging voor 
Entomologie, Antwerpen. 

- , 1996. The butterflies of the Greek island of Kalimnos (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea & 
Papilionoidea). Phegea 24: 149-156. 

- , 1997. The butterflies of the Greek island of Leros (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea & 
Papilionoidea). Phegea 25: 123-128. 

Olivier, A. & Coutsis, J.G., 1993. Notes on Maniola telmessia (ZeUer, 1847) from the 
Eastern Aegean islands, with new insights about its populations on the Greek islands 
of Karpathos and Kassos (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae Satyrinae). Phegea 21: 113-130. 

- , 1995. Rhopalocera of Turkey 13. Sympatry and supposed gene exchange between 
Maniola telmessia (Zeller, 1847) and Maniola halicarnassus Thomson, 1990 on the 
Bodrum Peninsula (SW. Turkey) vs. evidence for their specific distinctness: two sides 
of the same coin (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae Satyrinae). Entomobrochure 7: 1-60. 

Olivier, A. & Prins, R. De, 1996. The butterflies of the Greek island of Kos: a synthesis 
(Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea & Papilionoidea). Nota Lepidopterologica 19: 185-211. 

Tolman, T. & Lewington, R., 1997. Field Guide to Butterflies of Britain and Europe. 
Collins. 



Hazards of butterfly collecting - last flight to Natitingou 

In 1978 I found myself a member of a rather large family planning 
evaluation mission to Benin in West Africa. It was a paranoid place at the 
time, a point which was driven home to us on the way from the airport to 
Cotonou, where banners exhorted "eternal vigilance" and "death to traitors". It 
was driven home again, but even more strongly that night when volleys of shots 
brought death to that day's crop of traitors. 

Our hosts proudly proclaimed, "Your internal travel permits have already been 
authorised. As soon as we receive them, we can plan your field visits." In the 
meantime we visited government ministries and development agencies, as one 
does on such missions. ''Photography is only permitted in the tourist-authorised 
areas of the stilt village of Ganvie. However, even here we have reports of 
tourists being arrested for taking photographs. We recommend you do not 
attempt to take pictures'", said a sign at the US Embassy. 

For reasons that I have now forgotten, it was deemed essential that part of our 
group went to Natitingou, in the extreme north-east of the country. Given our 
timing, it had to be by air. The only air transport was provided by the Benin Air 
Force. They had only two serviceable aircraft. Our status was sufficient to book one, 
though we had to share with a delegation from the African Friendship Committee of 
the Association of Siberian Agricultural Cooperatives - 1 kid you not! 

One fine morning we assembled at the Air Force base at Cotonou Airport. 
Coffee was served. We were introduced to the members of the friendship 



^^B NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 299 

committee. The chief of the delegation spoke French of sorts, the others not. We 
were to drop the delegation at Parakou, and then continue to Natitingou. We then 
piled into the aircraft. Not just any aircraft, mind you, but an Antonov 2. It is just 
possible that some readers do not know the exact specifications of an Antonov 2. 
Well, it is a biplane (two sets of wings, one above the other), which seats 12 
people. Struts and wires connect the two wings. In front of the pilots is a huge 
radial piston engine of the type that you to find on the DC-6 or the Lockheed 
Constellation. Maximum airspeed 120km/h. Seating configuration paratroop 
fashion, with canvas seats along the fuselage. Unpressurised. Noise level 
impossible. Mitigating circumstances - possibly the toughest thing with wings 
ever built. 

Off we took, our delegation facing the friendship delegation across the aisle. 
The pilots were two Russians, impossibly young and impossibly pink of 
complexion. An hour out from Cotonou, we met a solid bank of white cloud, 
solid from ground-level to 18,000 feet or more, well above the oxygen limit. 

The pilot took us for a look at the wall edge of cloud, wing-tips almost 
touching its solid edge. He went down from 7,000 to 3,000 feet to have a look. 
There was hardly a ripple of turbulence. Back at 7,000 feet he motioned to us 
that we would go in and have a look. The moment we entered the murk, all hell 
broke loose. The little plane moved vertically from 7,000 feet to 3,000, back up 
to 15,000 where oxygen began to get scarce. My next-seat neighbour, a very 
ample Beninoise was draped against me as much as the seat-belt would allow - 
she had never flown before. After a few minutes, the pilot had us back in the 
open. Total tranquillity was restored. 

We tried flying under the front, low enough to see the individual plants in the 
sisal plantations below. Suddenly an unseen hand slapped us down to the point 
where we could see the individual leaves of the sisal plants - make that 300 feet 
above ground. Discretion became the better part of valour, and pretty soon we 
were back on the tarmac at Cotonou. And pretty shaken at that! 

We were taken to the officers' mess to recover, a rambling room equipped 
with the seats of the many and varied aircraft of the Benin Air Force that had 
since gone unserviceable. Smart batmen in white mess-jackets served drinks 
(political correctness demands that I call them batpersons, but they were all 
male). Cognac, vodka and beer were on offer. The head of the friendship 
delegation selected the largest of the glasses. The batman was about to pour a 
beer, "Njet", came the response, "vodka!" Not one finger, not two fingers, but 
full five fingers. After the calming of nerves came the toasts - to our mission, to 
their mission, to West Africa, to the Benin Air Force, and to druzhba and mir 
(friendship and peace). We had all survived! 

We did reach Natitingou the following day after a five hour flight. The 
friendship delegation had opted for terra firma. We had a rather pleasant, though 
not terribly exciting, time. While conducting a somewhat slow interview with the 
Comerade Sous-Prefet (an African Catholic Marxist in the 1970s was not 
promising material for family planning discussions), I noticed an increasing 
migration of butterflies outside the office and left the interview to my colleagues. 



300 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

The next two days at least two million butterflies of eight species flew through 
Natitingou in a north-easterly direction. The bulk were African Emigrants 
Catopsilia florella Fabricius, but one in ten was an African Queen Danaus 
chfjsippus Linnaeus which I had never seen migrating before. I am certain that 
this type of migration is responsible for the sudden appearance of the West 
African form of D. chrysippus in Tunisia and Malta. I have a sneaking suspicion 
that my small paper on this migration is the only remaining trace of our 
expedition (see 1978, Atalanta 9: 191-198 for details)!- Torben B. Larsen, 358 
Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 

Plea leachi Mc Gregor & Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Heteroptera: Pleidae) in 
Scotland. 

The distribution of Plea leachi McGregor & Kirkaldy (syn. P. atomaria 
(Pallas) and P. minutissima Leach) is summarised in Southwood & Leston 
(1959, Land and water Bugs of the British Isles. Warne) as "throughout 
England and probably just into southernScotland". In June 1960, this 
probability was confirmed by finding Plea leachi in a pond at the west end of 
Torrs Warren, at OS grid ref NXl 19536, VC74 (voucher specimens in the 
National Museums of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh). In the years 
immediately following 1960, this pond was used for dumping waste material 
and it was not until 1994 that the author tried to refind the bug in other ponds 
at Torrs Warren, without success (Huxley, 1997, The Distribution of Aquatic 
Bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) in Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage 
Review ^o. 81). 

On 17 August 1997, Plea leachi was discovered about 35 kilometres away 
in an approximately one hectare fly-fishing loch near Newton Stewart, at 
grid ref NX442674 (VC 73, Kirkcudbright). The loch is called Lower 
Glenamour on the fishing club notice board and Old Mill Dam on the 
1:25000 Ordnance Survey Pathfinder map 540. On searching the pond net 
with a hand lens for small molluscs, a juvenile Plea leachi was seen, of 
about 1mm in length and, after about 20 minutes further search, an adult and 
a larger juvenile. Because the pond has a thickly vegetated margin and dense 
growth of Elodea canadensis over the bottom, the search for further 
specimens was assisted by washing out fine material into a shallow dish and 
it was in this that the second juvenile and adult specimen were seen. 

From these three specimens (now in the author's collection but ultimately 
destined to join the earlier collected Scottish specimens in the National 
Museums of Scotland) it is clear that there is a definite breeding population 
of this bug in Scotland, in a water body that has existed for well over half a 
century (according to nearby recollection) and possibly much longer from its 
name of Old Mill Dam. There are other lochs nearby, including the larger 
Glenamour Loch, which should be visited in an earlier or later month, 
August generally being poor for recording adult water bugs, so as to discover 
whether these also hold Plea leachi.- Thomas Huxley, The Old Manse, 
Pitcaimgreen, Perth PHI 3LR. 



HEADLEY WARREN BEETLES 301 

SOME UNCOMMON BEETLES FROM 

HEADLEY WARREN, 

SURREY 

John Owen 

5 Kingsdown Road, Epsom, Surrey KTl 7 3PU. 

HEADLEY WARREN is a private chalkland Nature Reserve at the north- 
east end of the chalk ridge which extends from Mickleham to Headley. It 
occupies a south-west facing slope, above the dry valley running from 
Juniper Hall to Headley Heath. Apart from the remnants of largely 
unsuccessful conifer plantations in a few positions, the site is basically a 
piece of unimproved chalk downland with the rich chalkland flora 
characteristic of the North Downs. In terms of flora and fauna, the area can 
be regarded as part of Mickleham Downs. It has long been a site of 
entomological interest, containing the area known to 19th century 
entomologists as "Hilly Field, Mickleham" (Macworth-Praed, pers. comm.). 
This is where Power in 1862 took the first British specimen of Borboropora 
kraatzi Fuss (Linnell, 1899), a species not again found in Britain until over a 
hundred years later. 

During the periods April to October 1994 and 1995, two flight interception 
traps were operated on the site, positioned approximately 150 metres apart, 
trap A at OS grid reference TQ 191542 and trap B (set only in 1995) at TQ 
189541, respectively. The traps were set up and operated as previously 
described (Owen, 1993a). They were orientated to be essentially at right 
angles to the prevailing wind which blows up the partially wooded valley 
from the south-west. 

A total of over 4000 beetles were caught, comprising 367 species. The 
majority of the species were typical chalkland species presumably part of the 
fauna of the Warren but some were dead-wood species which may have 
flown or been blown from some distance. Most were relatively common 
species but a few are worthy of the special mention below because they 
appear not to have been recorded from Surrey, at least for many years, 
because they are rated nationally noteworthy (Hyman & Parsons, 1992 & 
1994) or because they are relative newcomers to the British Isles. Two local 
lists of beetles have been used to help put records into perspective. The first 
is the list of 499 beetle species recorded (Owen, 1993a) during the operation 
of a flight interception trap in Oyster Wood, Headley, a wooded site 
approximately 1000 m to the north-east of the nearest trap site on Headley 
Warren. The second is a manuscript list of the beetles of the Box Hill- 
Mickleham Downs area, compiled from published and unpublished records 
and containing 1350 species (Owen, 1996 unpub.). 

This paper deals with 20 of the species caught. A complete list of the 
species taken will be sent on request to the author. 



302 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

Notes on selected species 

The letters A and B in parenthesis after the species name in these notes 
indicate the trap in which the specimens were caught. The numbers indicate 
the number of specimens caught. 

HISTERIDAE 

Acritus homoeopathicus WoUaston : 1994 May (A, 5); 1995 May (A, 2), 
July (B, 2). 

This species was not noted in Britain until 1938 though it is generally 
regarded as a native species. It has most commonly been recorded from old 
bonfire sites which is the habitat in which I first met with it in the Mickleham 
area in 1991 (Owen, 1994). It seems to fly readily for it was among the 
species recorded from the flight-interception trap at Oyster Wood and was 
present in 1993 and in 1994 in a partially burnt, grass compost heap on 
Epsom Downs (Owen, Allen, Booth and Luff, 1997). 

LEIODIDAE 

Colon zebei Kraatz : 1994 August (A, 1) 

Fowler (1888) recorded this species from various Surrey localities including 

Mickleham (Champion) but I am unaware of any recent Surrey records. 

Hyman & Parsons (1994) list post- 1969 records for only two vice-counties - 

East Suffolk and Carnarvonshire. 

SCYDMAENIDAE 

Euconnus duboisi Mequignon : 1994 June (A, 1); August (A, 1) 
This species was first recorded in Britain by Last (1945) on the basis of two 
specimens found respectively at Banstead and Capel in Surrey. Concluding 
that it was an undescribed species. Last gave it the name E. murielae but by 
the time of publication of the latest British Check List (Pope, 1977) it had 
been shown that murielae was a synonym of duboisi described from 
specimens taken by M. Dubois at Versailles (Mequignon, 1929). The species 
has subsequently been recorded from a number of sites in the southern half 
of England, often in synanthropic situations suggesting that it is an 
introduced species. 

STAPHYLINIDAE 

Dropephylla devillei Bernhauer (= grandiloqua (Luze)): 1994 October (A, 2) 
Formerly, this species was considered confined to Scotland (Tottenham, 
1954) but it has extended its range southwards in the second half of this 
century like a number of other species previously known only from Scotland 
(Welch & Hammond, 1996). I am unaware of any other Surrey records. 

Hypopycna rufula (Erichson) : 1994 October (A, 1) 

In Britain, this beetle is known only from West Kent, Surrey, East Sussex, 
South Devon and Worcestershire (Owen, 1993b). The species appears well 
established in the Mickleham area for I took two examples on 26.X.85 under 



HEADLEY WARREN BEETLES 303 

the bark of a fallen beech tree on Mickleham Downs about 400 m to the west 
of the trap site and a specimen turned up in the flight - interception trap in 
Oyster Wood in October 1993. 

Anotylus hamatus (Fairmaire & Laboulbene) : 1995 May (B, 3 males) 
This species has mainly been recorded from chalk grassland. I have a taken 
it from grass tufts on a south-facing chalk slope at Box Hill and by sieving 
dead leaves among grass on chalk near Epsom. 

A. saulcyi (Pandelle) : 1995 May (A, 2 males) 

Most records for this beetle have been from mole's nests but it has also been 
found in the nests of other mammals such as badgers (Lott, 1995). There was 
a heavy rabbit population at Headley Warren at the time the traps were 
operating and the beetles probably bred in rabbit nests. 

Oxytelus migrator ¥2M\t\ : 1995 April (B, 1) 

This originally oriental species was first noted in Europe, in Finland in 1975 
since when it has spread westwards in Europe (Lohse & Lucht, 1989). It was 
recorded in Battersea Park, London in 1988 (Hammond, pers. com.) and in 
Clarke Gardens, Liverpool in the same year (Eccles, in lift.). 

Dacrila pruinosa (Kraatz) : 1995 April (A, 1) 

There are very few records for this species in Britain. It was introduced to 
the British list by Champion (1897) on the basis of a few specimens taken by 
Elliman at Chesham, Bucks. Subsequently, Champion (1898) took 
specimens on chalk downland at Guildford, Surrey "..running on the bare 
chalk in the sunshine after a shower....". These are the only two published 
records of which I am aware. My friend, Mr Allen tells me, however, that 
there are specimens from Box Hill, Surrey and Otford, Kent in Harwood's 
collection, taken about 1920. More recently, on 29. v. 82 my friend Mr 
Johnson took a specimen in a chalk pit at Little Blakenham, Suffolk in 
similar circumstances to those taken by Champion (1898). 

Ceritaxa pervagata Benick (= dilaticornis Kraatz) : 1994 June (A, 1), 1995 
July (A, 1) 

This is the species known in Britain until recently as C. dilaticornis Kraatz 
(Hammond pers. com.). It was recorded from Mickleham by Champion and 
Power (Fowler, 1888) and it occurred in the trap in Oyster Wood but I am 
unaware of an other published records for Surrey. 

Alevonota aurantiaca Fauvel : 1994 April (A, 2) 

This is a species primarily of chalk downland. Most records refers to 
specimens taken singly by sweeping in the late afternoon or evening, in 
spring or early summer. To account for this behaviour, it has been postulated 
that the species is basically a subterranean species. Direct evidence for this 
lifestyle was obtained by the capture of a specimen in an underground pitfall 
trap set in a garden on the edge of the chalk at Ashtead, Surrey in June 1996 
(Owen, 1997). This is a rare species recorded only from Dorset, Hampshire 



304 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

and Surrey. Allen (1991) has reviewed records up to that time. I can add the 
record of a specimen found under a stone at Arundel, West Sussex on 
14.V.79. 

A. gracilenta (Erichson) : 1994 April (A, 1) 

Like the preceding, this is probably a subterranean species, appearing above 
the surface for a limited period in spring and early summer. There are old 
records for Surrey but none that I can find for the period after 1969. 

Aleochara discipennis Mulsant & Rey : 1994 April (A, 2), June (A, 2), July 
(A, 1); 1995 April (B, 1), May (A, 1), June (A, 4), July (B, 9) 
The ecology of this species remains to be determined. Other members of the 
genus are known to be predatory (as larvae) on early stages of diptera 
species. Adults have been found in various types of herbivore dung and in 
carrion. My first specimen was shaken out of a dead rook in Windsor Great 
Park, Berkshire. As far as Headley Warren goes, there were horses and sheep 
grazing in fields within a short distance of the trap sites. A number of 
specimens were trapped in Oyster Wood. There appear to be no other recent 
Surrey records. 

A. verna Say : 1995 May (B, 2), July (A, 2) 

Because of doubts about their identity, Aleochara specimens which I had 
taken at various sites including Headley Warren and which matched some 
tentatively identified as A. pauxilla (Owen, 1990), were recently submitted 
on request to Dr Ch. Maus, Freiberg and to Dr R.C.Welch who both returned 
them as A. verna. The opportunity is taken here of recording A. verna 
formally as a Surrey insect. 

BUPRESTIDAE 

Trachys scrobiculatus Kiesenwetter : 1994 April (A, 1), June (A, 1), 
August (A, 2); 1995 May (A, 2; B, 8), June (A, 1; B, 1), July (A, 4; B, 2) 
This is a species of open chalk downland of the North and South Downs 
where it is associated with ground ivy. I have found it frequently by sieving 
moss on various parts of Box Hill. 

EUCNEMIDAE 

Hylis olexai (Palm) : 1995 July (A, 1) 

This eucnemid appears to be well established in the Mickleham area. 
Interestingly, the first British specimen was taken at Box Hill in 1951 though 
the captor - a visiting Finnish entomologist, did not realise that the beetle 
was not then on the British list (Allen, 1954). I found a dead specimen in a 
fallen beech tree at the base of Mickleham Downs on 8.ix.90. On 23.vi.93, 
my friend, Dr Booth, found a number running over a spruce stump in the 
same area and very kindly gave me one. A recent publication (Mendel, 
1996) shows that this beetle is known in Britain only from Hampshire, 
Sussex, Kent and Surrey. 



HEADLEY WARREN BEETLES 305 

DERODONTIDAE 

Laricobius erichsoni Rosen : 1995 April (A, 1) 

This species was recorded new to Britain on the basis of a specimen taken at 
Boyton, Suffolk in 1971 (Hammond & Barham, 1982). It was deliberately 
released in Kent in 1972 as a biological control agent against a conifer aphid 
but this was after it had been found at Boyton which is reason to consider its 
appearance in Suffolk the consequence of natural spread to Britain. It was 
recorded from central Scotland in 1982 (Lyszkowski, 1987), southern 
Scotland in 1987 (Sinclair, 1989) and from Speyside in 1995 (Booth, pers. 
comm; Hodge, pers. comm.). This appears to be the first record from Surrey. 
Its apparent absence so far from other southern counties or from the 
Midlands suggests, perhaps, that its appearance in Scotland is a result of 
direct immigration from Scandinavia rather than spread from Suffolk. 

ANTHRIBIDAE 

Choragus sheppardi Kirby : 1994 June (A, 1) 

This is a species of woodlands and old hedgerows where its larvae develope 
in dead ivy branches. There are many ivy-covered trees in the valley leading 
up, to Headley and the specimens may have come from these. The species 
has been recorded from many counties in the past, including Surrey. 
Recently, however, it has become much less common and I have been 
unable to find any recent Surrey records. 

CURCULIONIDAE 

Smicronyx reichi (Gyllenhal) : 1995 May (B, 1), September (B, 1), October 
(B, 10) 

Another species of chalk downland, associated with commc; centaury and, 
possibly, also yellow-wort. I beat a specimen from a crab-apple tree at Box 
Hill on 26.V.86 and shook another out of moss on White Down, Surrey on 
3.xi.93. Recorded from various southern counties in the past but only from 
East Sussex and Surrey in recent years (Hyman & Parsons, 1992). 

Trichosirocalus (= Ceuthorhynchidius) horridus (Panzer) : 1994 April 

(A, 1) 

This beetle is associated with various thistle species. There are old published 
records for Surrey but I am unaware of any recent, published records. Dr 
R.G.Booth, however, took a specimen on Mickleham Downs in April 1992 
and another in June 1993. 



Acknowledgements 

I am much indebted to the late Mr H. Macworth-Praed for permission to visit 
Headley Warren, for information about the site and for help in setting up the 
flight-interception traps. I thank Mr A. A. Allen, Mr P.M. Hammond, Dr Ch. 
Maus, Mr H. Mendel and Dr R.C.Welch for checking critical species and Dr 



306 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

R.G. Booth, Mr T. Eccles, Mr P. Hodge and Mr C. Johnson for information 
on their own relevant captures. Lastly, I must thank my wife for her unfailing 
help in constructing the traps, setting them up and retrieving the catch. 

References 

Allen, A. A., 1954. Hypocoelus procerulus Mannh. (Col., Eucnemidae, Anelastini) in 
Kent and Surrey: A tribe, genus and species new to Britain. Entomologist' s mon. Mag. 
90 : 228 230. 

- , 1991. Alevonota aurantiaca Fauv. (Col.: Staphylinidae) recaptured at Mickleham, 
Surrey; with short notes on two of its congeners. Entomologist' s Rec. J. Var. 103: 100 
-101. 

Champion, G.C., 1897. Homolota (Dilacra) pruinosa Kraatz, an addition to the British 
List. Entomologist' s mon. Mag. 33: 274 - 275. 

- ,1898. Homolota (Dilacra) pruinosa Kraatz at Guildford. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 
34: 160. 

Fowler, W.W., 1888. The Coleoptera of the British Islands, vol 2, L. Reeve & Co., 

London. 
Hammond, P.M. & Barham, C.S., 1982 Laricobius erichsoni Rosenhauer (Coleoptera. 

Derodontidae): A species and superfamily new to Britain. Entomologist' s Gaz. 33 : 

35 - 40. 
Hyman, P.S. and Parsons, M.S., 1992 (pt. 1), 1994 (pt. 2). A review of the scarce and 

threatened Coleoptera of Great Britain. UK Joint Nature Conservation Committee, 

Peterborough. 
Last, H.R., 1945. Euconnus (Napochus) murielae sp.n., a new British scymaenid (Col.). 

Entomologist' s mon. Mag. 81: 275 
Linnell, J., 1899. Natural History ofReigate and its vicinity. List of the Coleoptera. part 

III Staphylinidae. Gumey & Jackson, London. 
Lohse, G.A. & Lucht, W.H., 1989. in Die Kdfer Mitteleuropas. vol 12: Goecke & Evers, 

Krefeld. 
Lott, D., 1995. Leicestershire Red Data Books: Beetles. Leicestershire Museums Arts 

and Records Service and Leicestershire and Rutland Wildlife Trust. 
Lyszkowski, R., 1987. Seven species of Coleoptera apparently unrecorded from 

Scotland. Entomologist' s mon. Mag. 123: 250. 
Mendel, H., 1996. Provisional Atlas of the Click Beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) of 

Britain and Ireland. Ipswich Borough Council Museums 
Mequignon, A., 1929. Description d'un Euconnus nouveau de France. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 

297 - 298. 
Owen, J.A., 1990. Notes on three species of Aleochara (s.g. Coprochara Muls. & Rey) 

(Col.: Staphylinidae) including two new to Britain. Entomologist' s Rec. J. Var. 102 : 

225 - 232. 

- , 1993a. Use of a flight-interception trap in studying the beetle fauna of Surrey wood 
over a three year period. Entomologist 112 : 141-160. 

- , 1993b. Additional sites for Phyllodrepa (Hypopycna) rufula (Erichson) 
(Col.:Staphylinidae) in Surrey, with a review of other records. Entomologist' s Rec. J. 
Var. 105: 187- 190. 

- ,1994. Acritus homoeopathicus Woll. (Col.: Histeridae) at Box Hill, Surrey. 
Entomologist' s Rec. J. Var. 106 : 194. 

- ,1997. Observations on Raymondionymus marqueti (Aube) (Col., Curculionidae) in 
North Surrey, f/zromo/ogm 116: 122-129. 



HEADLEY WARREN BEETLES 307 

Owen, J. A., Allen, A.J.W., Booth, R.G. & Luff, M.L. 1997. Beetles from a large grass- 
compost heap on Epsom Downs, Surrey studied over three years. Entomologist's. Gaz 
48: 111-124. 

Pope, R.D., 1977. in Kloet & Hincks: A check list of British insects. 2nd ed. pt 3; 
Coleoptera and Strepsiptera. Royal Entomological Society of London. 

Sinclair, M., 1989. Two Coleoptera (Lathridiidae, Derodontidae) records from 
Roxburghshire (VC 80), Scotland. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 125: 198. 

Tottenham, C.E., 1954. Handbk. Ident. Br. Insects IV: pt 8a. Coleoptera. Staphylinidae 
section (a) Piestinae to Euaesthetinae. Royal Entomological Society London. 

Welch, R.C. & Hammond, P., 1996. Breckland Coleoptera in Ratcliffe, P. & Claridge, J. 
(eds.) Forestry Commission Technical paper 13: Therford Forest Park: the ecology of 
a pine forest. Forestry Commision, Edinburgh 1996. 



The wasp-nest beetle Metoecus paradoxus L. (Col.: Rhipiphoridae) in 
north-east Hampshire 

A deceased male specinmen of this curious insect was found in a mv moth 
trap located in my garden at Famborough, Hampshire (OS grid reference SU 
858755) on 30 July this year (1997). It was the second occurrence of this 
species in the trap, the first one, also a male, was noted on 9 July 1995. 

Both specimens arrived on warm, humid nights during periods when many 
wasps Vespula vulgaris L. were active. Twelve wasps were recorded in the 
trap on 30 July 1997 and three on 9 July 1995 (increasing that summer to 
fifty a night by 1st August).- R.W. Parhtt, 29 Manor Road, Famborough, 
Hampshire GUM 7EX. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Scythrididae by Bengt A. Bengtsson in P. Huemer, O. Karsholt and L. 
Lyneborg (Eds.) Microlepidoptera of Europe, Volume 2. 301 pages, 14 
colour plates, 419 text figures. 248 x 175 mm, hardbound. ISBN 87 88757 
11 0. Apollo Books, Kirkeby Sand 19, DK-5771 Stenstrup, Denmark, 1997. 
500 Danish Kroner plus postage (review copy weighs just over 1 Kg without 
packaging). 

This is the second volume in the series Microlepidoptera of Europe; the first 
volume, covering the Pterophoridae, was reviewed during 1996 by Paul 
SdkoXofimEnt.Rec. 108: 172-174. 

The Scythrididae have a world-wide distribution and are even encountered 
on isolated islands, where they often show special features which differ from 
the rest of the family. However, with only about a dozen species known from 
the British Isles one may wonder how this book can be of use to British 
lepidopterists, given that our species will in any event shortly be covered in 
volume 4 of The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland from 
Harley Books. In my own view the answer to this is quite simply that 
because the family contains so many species which are quite difficult to 
identify and because a large proportion of them have some association with 



308 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

ruderal habitats, there is great potential for additional species to be 
discovered here. Finding them is likely to prove impossible without this 
excellent new book from Apollo. 

The introductory sections are short but useful. Clear details of the 
important scythridid morphological features, identification hints, instructions 
for making genitalia preparations (how nice to see that it is not taken for 
granted that everyone already knows how to do this), bionomics, hints on 
collecting and geographical distribution are all covered. The bulk of the book 
is taken up with the individual species accounts which follow the formula of 
synonymy, identification (diagnosis), male genitalia, female genitalia, 
distribution, biology and additional remarks. Fourteen pages of superbly 
printed colour plates of beautifully executed paintings follow and then 70 
pages of genitalia drawings - first 49 pages of males then 21 of females. A 
tabular presentation of the distribution of Scythrididae species in Europe and 
North Africa ensues and the work ends with references and an index. 

As a work for the identification of the members of this family this book 
appears to be excellent, though I confess to having rather too few specimens 
in my collection to test it properly. Where it perhaps falls down most is in 
the scant detail provided on biology of each species, though perhaps in many 
cases this is because the information is simply unknown. Hopefully the book 
will stimulate further research towards resolving this problem. 

It is a little disconcerting to discover that the two recent works produced 
from Apollo Books, both of which have received editorial input from Ole 
Karsholt and, having been published only a year apart from each other, can 
reasonably be assumed to have overlapped in production, have different 
opinions on the definition of the European scythridid fauna. Karsholt & 
Razowski (1996) listed 152 European species in the family; the present 
volume under review names 237. Forty of these are new species, here 
described for the first time but that still leaves 45 left over. At least some of 
this discrepancy seems to be explainable through the discovery that 
"Europe" in the sense of Dr Bengtsson includes northern Africa (for 
example, the inclusion of Eretmocera microbarbara Walsingham (known 
from Algeria and Egypt) and E. nomadica Walsingham (known only from a 
single Algerian specimen in the BM(NH)). I note that Iranian species are 
also included and wonder just what the definition of Bengtsson 's Europe 
truly is. I personally consider that the inclusion of these additional areas is a 
good idea, since some species from them may well find their way into 
Europe proper, but I am amazed that the two volumes give these different 
definitions of the same named geographical area. 

Of course, some of the discrepancy can also be accounted for by 
taxonomic revision, but the order of presentation of the species differs 
between the two works and quite frankly, not having a specific interest in 
this family, I could not be bothered to work through the two lists to cross- 
reference everything. The author states (on page 14) that "... Instead of 



BOOK REVIEWS 309 



trying to utilise a systematic sequence in the present work, I have dealt with 
the species in alphabetic order. As a result, regrettably, some obviously quite 
closely allied species are parted." Unfortunately, reference to the checklist 
on pages 17-24, in which the species are listed (and numbered) in the order 
of their later presentation, shows that this is simply not the case. The generic 
sequence given is Scythris, Erigethes, Parascythris, Eretmocera, 
Necrothalassia, Episcythris, Enolmis and then Apostibes; within the last 
seven genera the species are indeed arranged alphabetically, but in the 
largest genus, Scythris, the 204 species are most certainly not so presented. 

These criticisms are, however, relatively minor and certainly do not 
detract from either the enjoyment or the immense value of this long-needed 
volume. It goes on my list of recommended books for Christmas for anyone 
seriously interested in the microlepidoptera. 

Reference 

Karsholt, O. & Razowski, J., 1996. The Lepidoptera of Europe: A distributional 
checklist. Apollo Books. 

Colin W. Plant 

Atlas of grasshoppers, crickets and allied insects in Britain and Ireland by 

E.C.M. Haes and P.T. Harding. 62pp. A4, softback. ISBN 11 702117 2. 
Published by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology and the Joint Nature 
Conservation Committee, July 1997. £15.50. Also available direct from 
Stationery Office Publications, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT at £15.50 plus 
£2.50 p&p. 

This glossy-covered tome joins mammals, reptiles & amphibians and 
dragonflies as the fourth in the series of "final" distribution atlases of British 
Isles insects to arise from the Biological Records Centre at Monks Wood. 

Minimal introductory text leads us straight into the distribution maps and 
associated species accounts which are the main purpose of the work. The 
maps place on record the distribution of each species on the basis of ten- 
kilometre squares in the two date bands pre- 1970 and 1970 onwards; for a 
few selected species, introductions or "records of colonisation since 1990" 
are also indicated. The species accounts are good but scarcely original, with 
much of the text taken from existing publications. However, since the work 
is intended as a companion volume to Marshall & Haes (1988) this is 
scarcely important and those who do not have this latter work will surely be 
satisfied with the quite adequate text in this new work. 

Reviewing maps is interesting, but always difficult. The maps represent 
factual data - a report on what was actually found without interpretation - 
and as such can not be directly criticised. But, since this is a "final" set of 
distribution maps one should examine carefully the degree of coverage 
achieved to help assess if these maps reflect accurately the true distributions 
of the species concerned. Of course, nobody would truly expect the authors 



310 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

to have recorded every species available in every ten-kilometre square; that 
would be an impossible task. However, if coverage is adequate then the overall 
patterns of distribution will represent the true situation and there will be no 
subsequent surprises when new areas are visited. For example, Tetrix ceperoi 
(Bolivar) is shown as clearly a coastal species, extending from about 
Pembrokeshire around the south coast to the Thames estuary with an isolated 
record in the fenland area of East Anglia. Do the maps convince me that 
sufficient work has been done on the remainder of Britain's coastline, or 
indeed inland, to enable me to be certain that this is a true distribution pattern 
and not the product of the fact that there are more entomologists in the south of 
England than elsewhere in the country? I think that the answer is yes, but I 
would draw attention to the map of the distribution of all species on page 9 in 
which there are, perhaps inevitably, large areas of Ireland and Scotland from 
where there no records at all. Another map, on page 6, purports to be a 
coverage map expressing findings in terms of the number of species per ten- 
kilometre square. I suggest that this may not be a coverage map at all, but a 
map of species density. The lowest value on the map for species per ten- 
kilometre square is one; surely a coverage map should show the squares 
covered - including those where zero species were found after proper 
searching. This vital information is not given and the reader is left not knowing 
if these squares have no orthopteroids in them (which is quite possible) or if 
they were simply not visited (in which case an important colony of a mountain 
form of Tetrix ceperoi could perhaps have been missed!). 

A number of minor, but nevertheless annoying, production errors are 
evident and tend to spoil what is overall an excellent and valuable piece of 
work. A number of the map captions, for example on page 15, have the text 
overlapping beyond the frame in which they are printed - sloppy editorial 
input. A Corrigenda slip included with the published book (but not included 
with the advance copies for review) apparently lists a number of other 
annoying errors that appeared after the final page proofs had been corrected 
and returned by the authors. Unfortunately this apparently does not mention 
the transposition of map captions between pages 15 and 16 - the keys to map 
symbols for Metrioptera brachyptera (L.) and M. roeselii (Hagenbach) 
should be swapped around. 

Overall this is an excellent publication and one which will prove of 
interest to entomologists of all persuasions and a positive asset to people 
who, like the reviewer, are involved professionally in the assessment of 
invertebrate interest of discrete sites. 

Reference 

Marshall, J.A. & Haes, E.C.M., 1988. Grasshoppers, crickets and allied insects of Great 
Britain and Ireland. Harley Books, Colchester. 

Colin W. Plant 



BOOK REVIEWS 311 



Netzfliigler, Schlamm- und Kamelhalsfliegen: Beobachtung, Lebensweise 
by Ekkehard Wachmann and Christoph Saure. 160 pages, numerous 
colour plates. 187 x 115 mm, hardbound. ISBN 3 89440 222 9. Weltbild 
Verlag GmbH, Steineme Furt 68 - 72, 86167 Augsburg, Germany, 1997. 
36DM plus postage. 

For those, like the reviewer, whose sole language is English (and not 
always particularly accurate English at that!) this is a book entitled 
Lacewings, alder- and snake-flies: observations, life-histories. So what, I 
hear the reader ask, is point of reviewing a German language book in a 
journal whose readership, by and large, most probably can not read that 
language? 

At present there is a rather glaring lacuna in the British literature 
concerning these insect groups. The Royal Entomological Society's 1959 
key, by Lt.-Col. Eraser, in their series Handbooks for the identification of 
British insects is not only long out of print but is also rich in errors and does 
not include a number of species which have been added to the British fauna 
since publication. For the serious student of lacewings, the only work 
available for the identification of British species is, at present, the 
magnificent two-volume work Die Neuropteren Europas by H. & A. 
Aspock (1980), but this is also in German and costs about £250. Thus, 
whilst we await production of the AIDGAP key to lacewings and allies 
from the Field Studies Council, there is effectively no key to British 
species. 

This new book by Wachmann & Saure, which is perhaps something akin 
to our own Obsei-vers Books, may be of some help in plugging this gap. A 
lengthy and comprehensive introduction to the three groups of insects is 
followed by keys to identify specimens to family for both adults and larvae. 
The remainder of the book comprises a short but comprehensive text on a 
number of representative species. If one reads German then this book will be 
invaluable. Its main value, however, lies in the large number of excellent 
colour photographs of both adults and larvae. These are some of the finest 
that the reviewer has seen and, though pictures are no substitute for keys, 
they are likely to be of considerable help at least to those lacking experience 
in the groups covered. 

Two small errors have been notified to me by Christoph Saure: on page 57 
drawing Z-16 has been reduced too much whilst the accompanying captions 
have not, with the result that the caption arrows point to the wrong features 
and on pages 84 and 88 the pictures of Hemerobius atrifrons and 
Wesmaelius concinnus have been accidentally transposed. Apart from these 
two, the book seems remarkably error-free; it would make an excellent 
Christmas stocking-filler for anyone with an interest in the Neuroptera, 
Megaloptera and Raphidioptera. 

CoHn W. Plant 



312 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 109 25.xi.1997 

From the Editor's chair ... 

With this page we reach the end of volume 109. I have tried to present a 
balance of papers and notes on a range of entomological topics whilst still 
endeavouring to maintain an emphasis on the British Lepidoptera. I think 
that I have succeeded at least moderately well, but I am always keen to 
listen to constructive criticism. I can, of course, only publish what I 
receive. 

Unfortunately, rising costs have given us some problems. Efforts to 
subsidise production with money from advertising and sponsorship have 
met with only limited success. I would like to take this opportunity to 
thank the British Entomological and Natural History Society for a very 
generous grant towards the production of this issue of the journal but this 
alone is not adequate to stave off a subscription increase. We have held the 
price at an artificially low level for several years now and, in the absence 
of sponsorship, bequest or a simple, old-fashioned donation or two, have 
finally reached the stage where an increase to a more realistic level is not 
only inevitable but is also essential to our survival. We note with great 
concern the fact that the Entomologist has now ceased publication for 
purely financial reasons {antea: 261). With considerable regret, therefore, I 
have to announce that the annual subscription for private subscribers to the 
1998 Entomologist' s Record will rise to £28. 

It ought to be higher, but we aim to save costs in other areas. A number 
of options were considered and we have come up with the following 
package which we hope will meet with approval. We will continue to 
produce six issues per year, but these will each involve only 48 pages 
(unless we find extra money from other sources), so keeping us in a lower 
postage bracket as well as saving on printing costs. To compensate for this 
loss of space, we will be increasing the width of the printed area of the 
page so that, although you will only get 288 pages per volume, the content 
will be equivalent to 312 pages of the 1997 format. In other words, there 
will be no real reduction in the average amount of words published per 
year. This means I will be able to continue to offer authors publication of 
their papers within a year and of their notes within three months. This is 
probably the fastest rate in British entomological publishing and can only 
make us more attractive to potential authors. Authors should also note that 
we save £3 per page for material submitted on floppy disk or by e-mail 
(equivalent to 30 subscriptions at the new rate if the whole volume is 
prepared this way). 

I hope, then, that you will not feel that the rather large jump from £22 to 
£28 is too much, and that you will continue to support us by remaining as a 
subscriber. The 1998 renewal form is included with this issue and I hope 
that you will fill it in and return it to the Treasurer as soon as possible. 

Colin W. Plant 



Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 

Caters for articles on all orders of insects and terrestrial arthropods, specialising in the 
British fauna and groups other than Lepidoptera. 
Published March, July and November (4 months per issue) 
Annual subscription £30 ($65). 

Entomologist's Gazette 

An illustrated quarterly, devoted to Palaearctic entomology. It contains articles and notes on 
the biology, ecology, distribution, taxonomy and systematics of all orders of insects, with a 
bias towards Lepidoptera. Caters for both the professional and amateur entomologist. 
Published January, April, July and October. 
Annual subscription £27 ($60). 

NEW! 

Butterflies on British and Irish Offshore Islands 

by R.L.H. Dennis and T.G. Shreeve 
This new book provides an up-to-date synthesis of butterfly records for 219 of Britain's and 
Ireland's offshore islands, 144 pages complete with bibliography, checklist of species, 
figures and tables. Two appendices list rare immigrants and provide advice for making 
observations on the butterflies of islands. 
Price £16. Postage and packing £1 per copy. 

Payments by cheque or Giro Transfer to account no. 467 6912. 

GEM PUBLISHING COMPANY 

For further details Brightwood, Brightwell, 

please nrite to: Wallingford, Oxon OXIO OQD 




THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Lepidoptera new to Shetland. M.G. Pennington, T.D. Rogers & K.P. Bland 265 

Florida butterflies recorded during March- April, 198 1 . Hugh D. Loxdale & Adrian M. Riley 28 1 
The Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis antiopa L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae): first recorded 

breeding in Britain? Howard Mendel 285 

The limewoods of central Lincolnshire and their moths including Fletcher's Pug 

Eupithecia egenaria H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae). Geny Haggett 287 

Butterflies on the island of Patmos (Greece) in April 1995, with an updated checklist 

and biogeographic notes (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea & Papilionoidea). Alain Olivier 295 

Some uncommon beetles from Headley Warren, Surrey. John Owen 301 



Notes and observations 

The Portland Ribbon Wave Idaea degeneraria HB. (Lep.: Geometridae) on the Isle of 
Wight. SA. Knill-Jones 284 

Roesel's bush-cricket Metrioptera roeselii (Hagenbach) (Orth.: Tettigoniidae) in 
Oxfordshire. K.F. Williams 286 

The Channel Islands Pug Eupithecia ultimaria (Boisd.) (Lep.: Geometridae) new to 
the Isle of Wight. S.A. KniU-Jones 286 

An appeal for invertebrate specimens. KM. Stewart 294 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - last flight to Natitingou. Torben B. Larsen 298 

Plea leachi McGregor & Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Heteroptera: Pleidae) in Scotland. 
Thomas Huxley 300 

The wasp-nest beetle Metoecus paradoxus L. (Col.: Rhipiphoridae) in north-east 
Hampshire. R.W. Patfitt 307 

From the Editor's chair . . . Colin W. Plant 312 



Obituary 

Thomas Cecil Dunn BSc, MSc, MBE. Hany T. Eales 292 

Book Reviews 

Grasshoppers and Crickets of Essex by Alan Wake 280 

Scythrididae by Bengt A. Bengtsson (in Huemer, Karsholt & Lyneborg (Eds.) 

Microlepidoptera of Europe) 307 

Atlas of grasshoppers, crickets and allied insects in Britain and Ireland by E.C.M. Haes 

& P.T. Harding 309 

Netzfliiger, Schlamm- und Kamelhalsfliegen: Beobachtung, Lehensweise by Ekkehard 

Wachmann & Christoph Saure 311 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

The Editor would be willing to consider the purchase of a limited number of back issues. 

Printed in England by 
Cravitz Printing Company Limited, 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. Tel: 01277 224610 



Entomologist's Record 




Journal of Variation 



Edited by 
C.W. PLANT, BScFRES. 

CONTENTS 

AND 

SPECIAL INDEX 



Vol. 109 
1997 



CONTENTS 

A precisely timed case of nocturnal migration by Aeshna cyanea (Miiller) (Odonata: Aeshnidae). 

K. P. Bland, 154 
A provisional history of Strangalia (Pedostrangalia) revestita (L.) (Col.: Cerambycidae) in 

England. Raymond R. Uhthqff-Kauffmann, 235 
A record of Hipparchia semele (L.) (Lep.: Satyridae) for Grassholm Island, Wales. R.L.H. 

Dennis, 88 
A successful hibernated Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis antiopa. West Sussex, April 1996? Ken 

Willmott, 147 
Acrobasis tumidana (D.&S.) (Lep.: Pyralidae): 1996 records from south-east Kent. S.P. Clancy, 133 
Aderus populneus (Panz.) (Col.: Aderidae) at light in south-east London. A.A. Allen, 10 
Agonopteryx cwvipunctosa (Haw.) (zephyrella (Hb.)) (Lep.: Oecophoridae) in Somerset, 1995. 

Brian E. Slade, 41 
An additional record of the Scots Pine Wood Gnat Mycetobia gemella Mamaev (Dip.: 

Mycetobiidae). E. Geojfrey Hancock, 157 
An appeal for invertebrate specimens. KM. Stewart, 294 
An early spring sighting of the Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis antiopa Linn. (Lep.: 

Nymphalidae) in Northumberland. Hewitt A. Ellis, 211 
An expedition to England. Anon, 139 

Beetles from Pitfall-trapping at high altitude in the Scottish Highlands. D. Horsfield, 81 
Beetles in toad faeces. K.P. Bland & M. Sinclair, 204 
Bird-cherry Ermine Yponomeuta evonymella L. (Lep.: Yponomeutidae) infestations in the 

Scottish Highlands. Derek C. Hulme, 75 
Brown Hairstreak Thecla betulae L. (Lep.: Lycaenidae) - unusual egg clusters, myths and 

misconceptions. C.R. Bristow, 153 
Butterfies in the Benasque Valley, Spain. Andrew Wakeham-Dawson, 245 
Butterflies on the island of Patmos (Greece) in April 1995, with an updated checklist and 

biogeographic notes (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea & Papilionoidea). Alain Olivier, 295 
Butterfly notes from the Greenwich district, S. E. London. A.A. Allen, 97 
Channel Islands fauna is not "British". A.A. Allen, 88 
Chloroclystis debiliata (Hb.) (Lep.: Geometridae): first recent record of Bilberry Pug in Scotland. 

Richard & Barbara Mearns, 108 
Christmas in Honk Kong. Brian Baker, 189 
Cicones undatus Guer. (Col.: Colydiidae) and other beetles on Sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus 

killed by sooty bark disease at Grafham, Huntingdonshire. R. Colin Welch, 98 
Collecting notes, 1996. M.D. Bijan, 144 

Commemorative March flight of the Horse Chestnut Moth for Colin Smith. Genj Haggett, 208 
Contribution to the early stages of Xylena exsoleta L. (Lep.: Noctuidae). G.M. Haggett & R. 

Lever ton, 65 
Correction to list of Greek butterflies. Andrew Wakeham-Dawson, 296 
Demise of The Entomologist. Brian O.C. Gardiner, 261 
Diaperus boleti (L.) (Col.: Tenebrionidae) from a second Huntingdonshire National Nature 

Reserve. R. Colin Welch, 76 
Early appearance of Macroglossum stellatarum L. (Lep.: Sphingidae). L. Christie, 188 
Ectoedemia turbidella (Zell.) (Lep.: Nepticulidae) at Castle Ashby, Northamptonshire. D.V. 

Manning, 80 
Ectoedemia quinquella (Bedell, 1848) (Lep.: Nepticulidae) in the Reading area. /. Sims, 187 

2 



Epione paralellaria D.&S. (Lep.: Geometridae) and its association with Aspen Populus tremula 

in the Scottish Highlands. Roy Lever ton, MarkR. Young & David A. Barbour, 49 
Enrols occulta (L.) (Lep.: Noctuidae) apparently showing migratory restlessness. Roy Leverton, 95 
Fletcher's Pug versus Pauper Pug Eupithecia egenarla U.S. (Lep.: Geometridae). J.D. Bradley, 29 
Fletcher's Pug versus Pauper Pug. G.M. Haggett, 91 

Florida butterflies recorded during March - April, 198 1 . Hugh D. Loxdale & Adrian M. Riley, 281 
Flying power of Atlantoraphidia maculicollis Stephens (Raphidioptera: Raphidiidae). Alasdair 

Aston, 113 
Editorial comment on Flying power of Atlantoraphidia maculicollis Stephens (Raphidioptera: 

Raphidiidae). H. Aspock, 114 
From the Editor's chair . . . Colin W. Plant, 312 
Further records of scarce Tachinidae (Diptera) from Brent Reservoir (Middlesex) and corrections 

to a previous note on Thecoarcelia acutangulata (Macquart). John R. Dobson, 209 
Halyzia sedecimguttata (L.) (Col.: Coccinellidae): a postscript. A.A. Allen, 125 
Hazards of butterfly collecting - Christian Cat goes camping. Tor ben B. Larsen, 206 
Hazards of butterfly collecting - driven out by drivers - Ghana, 1993. Torben B. Larsen, 243 
Hazards of butterfly collecting - Jos Plateau, Nigeria - February 1978. Torben B. Larsen, 94 
Hazards of butterfly collecting - last flight to Natitingou. Torben B. Larsen, 298 
Hazards of butterfly collecting - the lost sheep, Ghana, August 1996. Torben B. Larsen, 137 
Hazards of butterfly collecting - vanishing Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson, Oban Hills, Nigeria, 

March 1995. Torben B. Larsen, 40 
High population densities of Garden Tiger Moth caterpillars Arctia caja L. (Lep.: Arctiidae) on 

Handa Island, Sutherland. Jonathan Hughes & Julie Stoneman, 63 
Holly Blue Celastrina argiolus (L.) (Lep.: Lycaenidae) ovipositing on cherry laurel Prunus 

laurocerasus L. Ian R. Wynnne, 80 
Hunting behaviour of Dipogon subintermedius (Magretti) (Hym.: Pompilidae). Steve Garland, 141 
Hypolimnas bolina L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae): recent evidence of status of subspecies bolina L. and 

jacintha Drury in Malaya. B.K. West, 235 
Idaea vulpinaria atrosignaria (Lempke) (Lep.: Geometridae) new to North Hampshire. Alasdair 

Aston, 108 
Imported insects: British or not? James Fradgley, 230 

Insects associated with sycamore - a plea for information. Richard A. Jones, 230 
Interspecific hybridisation in ladybirds (Col: Coccinellidae). Michael E.N. Majerus, 11 
Is cypress an alternative foodplant of Ar gyre sthi a arceuthina Zell. (Lep.: Yponomeutidae)? A.A. 

Allen, 261 
Is Rhizophagus oblongocollis Blatch & Homer (Col.: Rhizophagidae) basically a subterranean 

species? J. A. Owen, 92 
Lacewings in light traps: A request. Colin W. Plant, 155 
Large Heath butterfly Coenonympha tullia Miill. (Lep.: Satyridae): Appeal for information. 

Harry T. Eales, 42 
Lepidoptera new to Shetland. M.G. Pennington, T.D. Rogers & K.P. Bland, 265 
Mass hiiltopping of earwigs on the Troodos summit in Cyprus (Dermaptera). Torben B. Larsen, 89 
Little-known entomological literature - Nature Study and Naturalists' Journal - a correction. 

John Muggleton, 93 
Lt.Col. W.A.C. (Sam) Carter. Editor, 96 

Melanism in Biston betularia L. (Lep.: Geometridae). John Owen, 150 
Ladybirds (Col.: Coccinellidae) attracted to light. J. A. Owen, 124 

3 



Microlepidoptera recorded from South Wales in 1995, including four species new to Wales. 

David Slade, 31 
Microlepidoptera review of 1995. D.J.L. Agassiz, RJ. Heckford & J. R. Langmaid, 169 
Morophaga choragella ([Denis & Schiffermiiller, 1775]) (Lep.: Tineidae), its distribution and 

preferred diet in southern England. /. Sims, 133 
Nemapogon clematella (Fabricius, 1781) (Lep.: Tineidae) larval habits. /. Sims, 157 
Nemapogon ruricolella (Stainton, 1849) (Lep.: Tineidae) in southern England. /. Sims, 159 
Nemapogon variatella (Clemens, 1859) (Lep.: Tineidae in Berkshire. /. Sims, 134 
Notable ant records from Glen Strathfarrar, East Inverness. Jonathan Hughes, 55 
Notable Lepidoptera from Barking, Essex. Adrian M. Riley, Martin C. Townsend & Ian R. 

Wynne, 251 
Notes on the voltinism of Scythropia crataegella (L.) (Lep.: Yponomeutidae). H.E. Beaumont , 

126 
Observation of a second generation Orange-tip Anthochares cardamines L. (Lep.: Pieridae). John 

E. Bater, 24 
Observations of butterfly behaviour in 1996 in Berkshire: interplay between Vanessa atalanta 

(L.), Cynthia cardui (L.) (Lep.: Nymphalidae) and one gay cat, an (?) alluring predator. E.P. 

Wiltshire, 255 
Occurrence of pollinator bees in Leh: Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir) at 3430 metres (11,200 feet) 

altimde in hidia. Mohommad Arif & Narendra Kumar, 205 
On the name Typhoeus (Col.: Geotmpidae). A.A. Allen, 42 
One and a half years of Kenyan Orthoptera: 11. Pamphagidae, Pyrgomorphidae, Lentulidae and 

spur-throated Acrididae. John Paul, 193 
Plea leachi McGregor & Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Heteroptera: Pleidae) in Scotland. Thomas 

Huxley, 300 
Pontia daplidice (Lep.: Pieridae) in Kent, Argynnis lathonia (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in 

Gloucestershire, and some other 1996 migrant records. Ian Woiwod, 55 
Pre-publication announcement - Butterflies of Essex. David Corke, 150 
Prionus coriarius (Linn.) (Col.: Cerambycidae) in Hampshire. Michael A. Salmon, 64 
Ptilophora plumigera D.&S. (Lep.: Notodontidae) in the London area. B.K. West, 132 
Pyrausta aurata Scop. (Lep.: Pyralidae) on Wanstead Flats, east London, 1996. G.E. King, 90 
Quantitative data concerning the oviposition of Bombylius fimbriatus Meigen (Dip.: 

Bombyliidae), a parasite of Andrena agilissima (Scopoli) (Hym.: Andrenidae). F. Andrietti, A. 

Martinoli & F. Rigato, 59 
Rain and gales are good for sugaring. Brian O.C. Gardiner, 253 

Records of Erebia butterflies (Lep.: Satyridae) from Europe. Andrew Wakeham-Dawson, 232 
Recurrence of Callicera aurata Rossi (= aenea Fabr.) (Dip.: Syrphidae in North Hampshire. 

Alasdair Aston, 143 
Request for information on Mazarine Blue Cyaniris semiargus Rott. specimens. W.E. 

Rimmington, 150 
Remm of the White Admiral Ladoga Camilla L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) to north-west Kent. Paul 

Sokolojf, 142 
Roesel's bush-cricket Metrioptera roeselii (Hagenbach) (Orth.: Tettigoniidae) in Oxfordshire. 

K.F. Williams, 286 
Some notable butterfly records from Greece in 1992 and 1995. Andrevi^ Wakeham-Dawson, 199 
Some notable Devon Lepidoptera records. Roy McCormick, 23 

Some notes on the life-history of Ctyptocephalus 6-punctatus L. (Col.: Chrysomelidae). John 
Owen, 43 



Some interesting invertebrate captures from a dung heap in West Lothian (VC 84), with 

reference to the recent status of Labia minor (L.) (Dermaptera: Labiidae) in Scotland, and a 

new habitat for this species. A. Ramsey, 262 
Some notes on Lepidoptera in Surrey, 1994 - 96. Robert M. Palmer, 210 
Some uncommon beetles from Headley Warren, Surrey. John Owen, 301 
Some records of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) attracted to mercury vapour light. Neville L. Birkett, 

125 
Southern Chestnut Agrochola haematidea D.&S. (Lep.: Noctuidae) recently discovered in 

Hampshire. R.R. Cook, 56 
Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) (Lep.: Noctuidae): a pest of medicinal plants at 1685 metres (5500 feet) 

altitude in the Kumaon Hills, India. Mohommad Arif & Narendra Kumar, 188 
Submitting papers and notes on disk or by e-mail. Editor, 216 
Ten new species of Corticarina Reitter (Col.: Latridiidae) from Central and South America. 

Colin Johnson, 115 
Tetrastichus legionarius (Giraud (Hym.: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) new to Britain. Colin W. 

Plant, 10 
Tetrix subulata L., Slender Ground-hopper (Orth.: Tetrigidae) in North Lancashire, VC 60. 

Jennifer Newton, 151 
The arrival of Phyllonorycter platani and P. leucographella (Lep.: Gracillariidae) in Reading. 

/. Simms, 203 
The British species of Stigmus Panzer, 1804 (Hym.: Sphecidae). G.W. Allen, 58 
The Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis antiopa L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae): first recorded breeding in 

Britain? Howard Mendel, 285 
The Channel Islands Pug Eupithecia ultimaria (Boisd.) (Lep.: Geometridae) new to the Isle of 

Wight. S.A. Knill-Jones, 286 
The Clouded Yellow Colias croceus Geoffroy (Lep.: Pieridae) in Devon during 1996. 

C.R. Bristow, 159 
The correct name of the North American Great Leopard Moth. Martin R. Honey and Mark 

Young, 25 
The early stages of Coleophora fuscicornis Zeller, 1847. A.M. Emmet, 111 
The Enchanted Building. Brian K. West, 77 

The European Temnostoma species (Dip.: Syrphidae). M.C.D. Speight & J. -P. Sarthou, 127 
The exceptional abundance of the Large White Butterfly Pieris brassicae (L.) (Lep.: Pieridae) in 

Britain in 1992: relevant reports from Germany and the Netherlands. John F. Burton, 109 
The foodplants of Cataplectica farreni Wals. (Lep.: Epermeniidae). MarkR. Young, 57 
The immigration of Lepidoptera to the British Isles in 1993. Bernard Skinner & Mark Parsons, 111 
The larva of Hyles lineata livornica Esper (Lep.: Sphingidae) in Shropshire. A.P. Foster, 30 
The lime woods of central Lincolnshire and their moths including Fletcher's Pug Eupithecia 

egenaria H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae). Gerry Haggett, 287 
The occurrence of Apomyelois bistriatella (Hulst) ssp. neophanes (Durrant) (Lep.: Pyralidae) in 

Yorkshire with a comment on its flight period. H.E. Beaumont, 212 
The Pale Shoulder Acontia lucida Hufn. (Noctuidae) and the Small Eggar Eriogaster lanestris L. 

(Lasiocampidae) in Hampshire. R. Cook, 39 
The Pauper Pug Eupithecia egenaria H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae) discovered in Lincolnshire and 

other interesting moth records from a survey of the Bradney Limewoods Site of Special 

Scientific Interest in 1995. Paul Waring, 1 
The Portland Ribbon Wave Idaea degeneraria HB. (Lep.: Geometridae) on the Isle of Wight. 

S.A. Knill-Jones, 284 



The wasp-nest beetle Metoecus paradoxus L. (Col.: Rhipiphoridae) in north-east Hampshire. 

R.W. Parfitt, 307 
Timandra griseata Petersen (Lep.: Geometridae): voltinism readdressed. B.K. West, 105 
Trichoplusia ni (Hb.) (Lep.: Noctuidae) The Ni Moth in Glamorganshire. Adrian M. Riley, 262 
Trioza alacris Flor (Hemiptera), a gall-causing psyllid new to Ireland. J. P. O'Connor, P. Ashe & 

S. Wistow, 135 
Two Dipogon subintermedius (Magretti) (Hym.: Pompilidae) apparently developing on one 

spider. Mark R. Shaw, 244 
Unusual behaviour in Papilio ulysses L., 1758 (Lep.: Papilionidae). John Tennent, 156 
Withdrawal of record of Cochylis pallidana Zell. (Lep.: Tortricidae) for North Hampshire. A.E. 

Aston, 138 
Xlth European Congress of Lepidopterology: first announcement, 168 
Xylena exsoleta L. (Lep.: Noctuidae): an old record. G.E. Higgs, 192 
Yponomeuta rorella (Hb.) (Lep.: Yponomeutidae) new to Wales. A.M. Emmet, 114 
Zygaena filipendulae L. and Z. trifolii Esp. (Lep.: Zygaenidae): aberrant colonies. B.K. West, 146 



OBITUARIES 

Thomas Cecil Durm BSc, MSc, MBE. Harry T. Eales, 292 
Denis Frank Owen MS, PhD, DSc, FLS. John F. Burton, 27 
D. F. Owen, RIP Paul Waring, 27 



BOOK REVIEWS 

A guide to moth traps and their use by Reg Fry & Paul Waring, 160 

A systematic catalogue of the Zygaenidae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) by A. Hofmann & W.G. 

Tremewan, 214 
Animals under logs and stones by Philip Wheater & Helen J. Read, 101 
Ants by Gary J. Skinner & Geoffrey W. Allen, 101 

Aquatic insects of North Europe: A taxonomic handbook. Volume 1 edited by Anders Nilsson, 103 
Atlas of grasshoppers, crickets and allied insects in Britain and Ireland by E.C.M. Haes & 

P.T. Harding, 309 

Blowflies by Zakaria Erzinglioglu, 101 

British and European butterfly vernacular names, including forms, subspecies and aberrations 

by William A. M^Call & Gergely Toth, 102 
Butterflies on British and Irish offshore islands by Roger Denis and Tim Shreeve, 263 
Grasshoppers and Crickets of Essex by Alan Wake, 280 

Name that insect. A guide to the insects of south-eastern Australia by T.R. New, 166 
Netzfliiger, Schlamm- und Kamelhalsfliegen: Beobachtung, Lebensweise by Ekkehard 

Wachmann & Christoph Saure, 311 
Provisional atlas of the click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) of Britain and Ireland by H. 

Mendel & R.E. Clarke, 100 
Scythrididae by Bengt A. Bengtsson (in Huemer, Karsholt & Lyneborg (Eds.) Microlepidoptera 

of Europe), 307 



The butterflies and moths of Bedfordshire by V.W. Arnold, C.R.B. Baker, D.V. Manning & LP. 

Woiwod, 167 
The Butterflies of Cornwall and the Isles ofScilly by R.D. Penhallurick, 100 
The butteiflies and moths of Lincolnshire - the micro-moths and species review to 1996 by Rex 

Johnson, 213 

The Hymenoptera edited by Ian Gauld & Barry Bolton, 160 

The Lepidoptera of Europe: a distributional checklist edited by Ole Karsholt & Josef 
Razowski, 162 

The Pollen Wasps: Ecology and natural history of the Masarinae by Sarah K. Gess, 264 
The thermal warriors: strategies of insect survival by Bemd Heinrich, 161 
Thrips by WiUiam D. J. Kirk, 101 



CORRIGENDA 



Page 88, line 20: insert "the" before "fallacy". 
Page 97, line 13 up: for 1966 read 1996. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Agassiz, D.J.L., Heckford, R.J., & 

Langmaid, J.R., 169 
Allen, A.A., 10, 42, 88, 97, 125, 261 
Allen, G.W., 58 

Andrietti, F., Martinoli, A. & Rigato, F., 59 
Anon. 139 

Arif, M. & Kumar, N., 188, 205 
Ashe, P., 135 
Aspock, H., 114 
Aston, A., 108, 113, 138, 143 
Baker, B., 189 
Barbour, D.A., 49 
Bater, J.E., 24 
Beaumont, H.E., 126, 212 
Birkett, N.L., 125 
Bland, K.P., 154, 265 
Bland, K.P. & Sinclair, M., 204 
Bradley, J.D., 29 
Bristow, C.R., 153, 159 
Burton, J.F., 27, 109 
Bryan, M.D., 144 
Christie, L., 188 
Clancy, S. P., 133 
Cook, R.R., 39, 56 
Corke, D., 150 
Dennis, R.H.L., 88 



Dobson, J.R., 209 

Bales, H.T., 42, 290 

Ellis, H.A., 211 

Emmet, A.M., 1 14, 227 

Foster, A.P., 30 

Fradgley, J., 230 

Gardiner, B.O.C., 253, 261 

Garland, S., 141 

Haggett, G.,91,208, 285 

Haggett, G. & Leverton, R., 65 

Hancock, E.G., 157 

Heckford, R.J., 169 

Higgs, G.E., 192 

Honey, M.R. & Young, M., 25 

Horsfield, D., 81 

Hughes, J., 55 

Hughes, J. & Stoneman, J., 63 

Hulme, D.C., 75 

Huxley, T., 300 

Johnson, C, 115 

Jones, R.A., 230 

King, G.E., 90 

Knill-Jones, S.A., 284, 286 

Kumar, N., 188,205 

Langmaid, J.R., 169 

Larsen, T.B., 40, 89, 94, 137, 206, 243, 298 



Leverton, R., 65, 95 

Leverton, R., Young, M.R. & 

Barbour, D.A., 49 
Loxdale, H.D. & Riley, A.M., 281 
Majerus, M.E.N., 1 1 
Manning, D.V., 80 
Martinoli, A., 59 
McCormick, R., 23 
Meams, R. & Meams, B., 108 
Mendel, H., 285 
Muggleton, J., 93 
Newton, J., 151 

O'Connor, P.P., Ashe, P. & Wistow, S., 135 
Olivier, A., 295 
Owen, J., 150 

Owen, J.A., 43, 92, 124,301 
Palmer, R.M., 210 
Parfitt, R.W., 307 
Parsons, M., 217 
Paul, J., 193 
Pennington, M.G., Rogers, T.D. & 

Bland, K.P., 265 
Plant, C.W., 10, 96, 155, 216, 312 
Ramsey, A., 262 
Rigato, F., 59 
Riley,A.M., 262, 281 
Riley, A.M., Townsend, C, & 

Wynne, I.R., 251 



Rimmington, W.E., 150 

Rogers, T.D., 265 

Salmon, M.A., 54 

Sarthou, J.-P., 127 

Shaw, M.R., 244 

Sims, I., 133, 134, 157, 159, 187, 203 

Sinclair, M., 204 

Skinner, B. & Parsons, M., 217 

Slade, B.E., 41 

Slade,D., 31 

Sokoloff, P., 142 

Speight, M.C.D. & Sarthou, J.-P., 127 

Stewart, K.M., 294 

Stoneman, J., 63 

Tennent, J., 156 

Townsend, C, 251 

Uhtoff-Kauffmann, R R., 235 

Wakeham-Dawson, A., 199, 232, 245, 296 

Waring, P., 1,27 

Welch, R.C., 76, 98 

West, B.K., 77, 105, 132, 146, 235 

Wiliams, K.F., 286 

Willmott, K., 147 

Wiltshire, E.P., 255 

Wistow, S., 135 

Woiwod, I., 55 

Wynne,I.R., 80, 251 

Young, M.R., 25, 49, 57 



4> 



<!" 



SPECIAL INDEX 

Compiled by David Wilson 

Newly described taxa are indexed in bold type. 

Taxa new to Britain or newly recognised as British are denoted by an asterisk. 



Page 
LEPIDOPTERA 

A 

abietella Dioryctria 186, 218 

abscisana Lobesia 37, 265, 266, 269, 277 

absinthii Cucullia 251 

acanthadacty la Amblyptilia 186 

acerifoliella Phy llonorycter 176 

aceris Acronicta 6 

acroxantha Tachystola 169, 178 

acteon Thymelicus 202 

acuminatella Scrobipalpa 276 

acutellus Sclerocona 169, 185 

Adelidae 174 

Adelpha 77 

admetus Agrodiaetus 200 

adspersella Coleophora 178 

adusta Blepharita 139 

advenella Numonia 271, 277 

aegeria aegeria Pararge 250 

aegeria Pararge 89, 98, 256 

aeneofasciella Stigmella 172 

aerugulaNola 221 

aethiopella Erebia 234 

aethiops Erebia 148, 234 

affinis Bryotropha 35, 179 

affinis Danaus 231 

agarithe Phoebis 282, 284 

agathina Doxocopa 78 

agathina Xestia 6, 209, 291 

agesilas Lasseia 78 

agestis agestis Aricia 247 

agestis cramera Aricia 247 

Agrochola 72 

Alaena 94 

alberganus Erebia 234 

albicilla Salebriopsis 186 

albicillata Mesoleuca 5, 7 

albifasciella Ectoedemia 172 

albifrontella Elachista 178 

albipuncta Mythimna 221 

albipunctata Cyclophora 5, 252 

alceae alceae Carcharodus 297 

alceae Carcharodusn 202 

alchimiella Caloptilia 34, 175 

alchymista Catephia 145 

alciphron gordius Heodes 247 

alcyone Hipparchia 248 

alcyonipennella Coleophora 228 



Page 

alfacariensis Colias 246, 250 

alismana Gynnidomorpha 181 

allisella Exaeretia 268 

allous Aricia 247 

ahietella Stigmella 173 

alni Acronicta 290, 291 

alpinella Elachista 267 

alpinella Platytes 271, 277, 279 

alstromeriana Agonopterix 268, 277 

altemata Epirrhoe 7 

altemata Epirrhoe 272, 277 

alticolella Coleophora 267 

Alucitidae 184 

alveus Pyrgus 249 

amanda Agrodiaetus 200 

amani Ectoedemia 172 

ambigualis Scoparia 38 

amphiro Pyrrhogyra 78 

amplana Cydia 183 

anatipennella Coleophora 177 

anceps Apamea 140 

anceps Peridia 291 

ancipitella Scoparia 184 

angelicella Agonopterix 179 

angulifasciella Ectoedemia 172 

angustea Eudonia 38 

angusticolella Emmetia 173 

angustiorana Ditula 36 

anteros Aricia 200 

anthelea amalthea Pseudochazara 200 

antimachus Papilio 40, 243 

antiopaNymphalis..l47, 148, 149, 150,211 

antiopa Nymphalis 250, 285 

apicipunctella Elachista 267 

apoUo Pamassius 199, 248, 250 

apollo rhodopensis Pamassius 199 

arceuthina Argyresthia 261 

Arctiidae 63, 291 

arcuatella Ectoedemia 172 

areola Xylocampa 41, 144 

argentella Elachista 267 

argentula Coleophora 35, 178 

argiolus Celastrina 80, 256, 259 

argus Plebejus 202 

argyropeza Ectoedemia 171 

aridella Pediasia 184, 271, 277, 279 

arion alconides Maculinea 145 

arion Maculinea 202 

arion obscura Maculinea 246 

arion rebeli Maculinea 246 



Page 

armigera Heliocoverpa 217, 223 

armigera Heliothis 29, 144, 230 

armoricanus Pyrgus 202 

aroaniensis Agrodiaetus 200 

artaxerxes allous Aricia 200 

artemisiella Scrobipalpa 180 

aspersana Acleris 36, 182 

assimilata Eupethecia 5, 7, 273, 276, 290 

assimilella Agonopterix 179 

assimilella Stigmella 172 

asteris Coleophora 267, 279 

asteris Cucullia 251 

atalanta Vanessa 88, 110, 224, 250, 255, 

256, 257, 258, 259,260, 
265, 278, 282, 284, 297 

atewa Mylothris 243 

athalia Mellicta 199 

atrella Eulamprotes 35 

atricapitella Stigmella 173 

atrifrontella Ectoedemia 172 

atriplicella Scrobipalpa 268, 277, 279 

atriplicis Coleophora 35 

atropos Acherontia 220 

aurana Cydia 37, 183 

aurata Pyrausta 38,90,91,214 

aureatella Micropterix 171 

auricoma Acronicta 145 

aurinia Melitaea 147 

auroguttella Calybites 34, 175 

aurorina heldreichii Colias 199 

aurorina heldreichii f fountaineae Colias 199 

ausonia taurica Euchloe 297 

autumnitella Acrolepia 177 

azaleella Caloptilia 177 

B 

badiana Ancylis 37, 182 

badiipennella Coleophora 177 

bajaXestia 6 

bajularia Comibaena 5 

bankiana Deltote 223 

bathyllus Thorybes 283 

baton baton Pseudophilotes 247 

bavius casimiri Pseudophilotes 202 

bedellella Elachista 178 

bellargus Lysandra 202, 250 

bennetii Agdistis 186 

berbera Amphipyra 6, 274, 277 

betulae Metriostola 212 

betulae Paromix 175 

betulae Thecla 153 

betularia Biston 139, 150 

betulicola Caloptilia 175 

betulinella Nemaxera 134 



Page 

bifaciata Perizoma 252 

bifasciana Spatalistis 2, 3 

bifida Furcula 291 

bilineata Camptogramma 53, 140 

binderella Coleophora 35 

bipunctatus Charaxes 197 

bipunctella Ethmia 288 

bipunctidacty la Stenoptilia 1 87 

biren Papestra 274, 276 

bisselliella Tineola 30 

bistriatella Apomyelois 186 

bistriatella neophanes Apomyelois 212 

Blastobasidae 180 

blattariella Anacampsis 180 

blomfeldi Smyrna 78 

boeticus Lampides 250 

bolina Hypolimnas 231, 232 

bractea Autographa 223, 276 

bractella Oecophora 2, 3, 4 

brassicae brassicae Pieris 297 

brassicae Pieris 88, 109, 224, 250 

britanniodactyla Capperia 186, 187 

brizoErynnis 283 

brockeella Argyresthia 34, 176 

brunnea Diarsia 6 

brunnichana Epinotia 37, 183 

Bucculatricidae 174 

buoliana Rhyacionia 183 



c-album Polygonia 148, 255 

caecana Cydia 253 

caesiella Swammerdamia 176 

caespititiella Coleophora 35 

cagnagella Ypomomeuta 267, 276 

caja Arctia 63, 273 

callidice Pontia 248 

calliphane Adelpha 78 

calodactyla Platyptilia 187 

Camilla Lagoda 142, 289 

campoliliana Eucosma 37, 183 

canaEucosma 37 

candrena Diaethria 78 

caprana Epinotia 37 

capucinus Asbolis 283, 284 

Capys 94 

cardamines Anthocharis 24, 97 

carduella Agonopterix 179, 250, 255, 

256, 257, 260 

cardui Cynthia 88, 144, 146, 150 

cardui Vanessa 225, 297 

carthami Pyrgus 249 

cassioides arvemensis Erebia 234 

cassioides cassioides Erebia 234 



10 



Page 

cassius Leptotes 283, 284 

catalaunalis Antigastra 185 

celerio Hippotion 221 

centaureata Eupithecia 273 

cerasana Pandemis 36 

cerasi Orthosia 41 

cerasicolella Phy llonory cter 175 

cerealella Sitotroga 179 

cerisy cerisy Zerynthia 297 

cerisyi Zerynthia 199 

cenisella Elachista 35 

cespitalis Pyrausta 38 

cespitana Celypha 36 

chaerophyllella Epermenia 177 

chalcites Chrysodeixis 223 

charitonia Heliconius 283, 284 

choragella Morophaga 133, 174 

Choreutidae 176 

chrysippus Danaus 300 

chrysoprasaria Hemistola 5, 291 

chrysorrhoea Euprochtis 221 

cidarella Bucculatrix 174 

cinctella Syncopacma 180 

cinerella Acompsia 35, 180 

cinerosella Euzophera 186 

cingovskii tisiphone Pseudochazara 200 

circellaris Agrochola 265, 278 

circiana Epiblema 183 

citrago Xanthia 6 

clavis Agrotis 253 

clematellaNemapogon....l57, 158, 169, 174 

Cleopatra Gonepteryx 247, 250 

clorana Earias 251 

clymena Diaethria 78 

cnicana Aethes 181 

codrus gabriellae Graphium 157 

coenia Precis 282 

cognata Thera 273, 276 

Coleophoridae 170, 177, 227, 267 

Coliadinae 77 

comes Noctua 209 

comma Hesperia 246, 250 

communana Cnephasia 36 

complana Eilema 6 

compositella Cydia 37 

confusa Macdunnoughia 223, 266, 275 

confusalis Nola 6 

confusella Stigmella 173 

congelatella Exapate 182 

coniferana Cydia 183 

conjugella Argyresthia 266 

consimilana Clepsis 36 

comaminella Pediasia 23, 184, 211 

conterminana Eucosma 183 



Page 

continuella Stigmella 172 

conturbatella Mompha 180 

convolvuli Agrius 220, 226 

conwagana Pseudargyrotoza 36 

coridon Lysandra 202, 249, 250 

corticella Lampronia 174 

corylifoliella Phyllonorycter 203 

Cosmopterigidae 180 

cossus Cossus 144, 145 

costaestrigalis Schrankia 4, 7, 291 

costalis Hypsopygia 38, 185 

costella Scrobipalpa 35, 179 

costipunctana Epiblema 37 

crataegella Scythropia 126, 176 

crataegella Stigmella 173 

crepuscularia Ectropis 291 

cresphontes Papilio 281 

cribraria arenaria Coscinia 145 

cribrella Myelois 277 

croceaColias 297 

croceus Colias 56, 146, 159, 217, 219 

cniciana Epinotia 37 

CucuUia 72 

culmella Chrysoteuchia 37 

cupressata Thera 217, 219 

curtula Clostera 291 

curvatula Drepana 219 

curvipunctosa Agononpteryx....41, 169, 179 

cydoniella Phyllonorycter 175 

cymela Megisto 282 

cynosbatelia Epiblema 183 

D 

dairaEurema 282 

damon Agrodiaetus 200, 246, 250 

daplidice Pontia 55 

dealbana Gypsonoma 37, 183 

deauratella Coleophora 35 

deauratella Oegoconia 180 

debiliata Chloroclystis 108 

decolorella Blastobasis 31,35, 169, 180 

defoliaria Erannis 273, 276 

degeneraria Idaea 284 

deione Mellicta 250 

demamiana Epinotia 2, 3 

dentella Ypsolopha 176 

deplana Eilema 6 

desertella Bryotropha 179, 253 

dia Clossiana 247, 250 

diana Choreutis 176 

dicoma Ortilia 78 

didyma meridionalis Melitaea 247 

didyma Mesapamea 275 

diffinis Teleiopsis 179 



11 



Page 

dilucidana Aethes 32, 36, 180 

diniana Zeiraphera 183 

discordella Coleophora 35 

dispar Lymantria 221 

dispar rutila Lycaena 202 

dissoluta Archanara 291 

distinctella Chionodes 253 

dodecea Ethmia 179 

dodonaea Drymonia 6 

dolabraria Plagodis 5 

dominula Callimorpha 144 

dorus Coenonympha 247 

Doxocopa 77 

drusilla Appias 282, 284 

dubitana Cochylis 36 

E 

effractella Eccopisa 169, 186* 

egenaria Eupithecia 1, 3, 29, 30, 91, 92 

287, 290 

ekebladella Tischeria 173 

Elachistidae 178,267 

electa Catocala 217, 223 

eleochariella Biselachista 178 

elongella Caloptilia 175, 266 

elongella Monochroa 179 

emargana Acleris 36 

emortualis Tristalis 224 

Ennominae 53 

Epermeniidae 57, 177 

ephemerella Acentria 38 

epilobiella Mompha 36 

epinome Hamadryas 77 

epiphron fauveaui Erebia 233 

epiphron aetheria Erebia 233 

epiphron pyrenaica Erebia 248 

Erebia 232,245 

eremita Drybotodes 72 

Eretmocera microbarbara 308 

Eretmocera nomadica 308 

ericella Crambus 184 

ericetana Endothenia 182, 269 

ericinella Aristotelia 32, 35 

Eriocraniidae 171 

eriphyle tristis Erebia 233 

eros menelaos Polyommatus 202 

eros Polymmatus 248 

escheri Agrodiaetus 249, 250 

escheri dalmaticus Agrodiaetus 200 

escheri escheri Agrodiaetus 247 

esperella Phyllonorycter 175 

eucale Callicore 78 

Eunica 77 

euphorbiae Hyles 220 



Page 

Euploea 231, 232 

Euptychia 78 

euryale Erebia 233, 248 

eurytheme Colias 230, 282 

evonymella Yponomeuta ... 34, 75, 265, 267 

exclamationis Agrotis 140, 253 

exigua Spodoptera 56, 144, 223, 275 

exsoleta Xylena 24, 65, 75, 192 

extimalis Evergestis 184, 251 

extrema Chortodes 223 

extrema Photedes 290 

F 

fabriciana Anthophila 34 

fagaria Dyscia 209 

farreni Cataplectica 57, 177 

fasciana Pammene 2 

fatua Neohipparchia 200 

februa Hamadryas 77 

fenestratella Monochroa 169 

fenestratella Monopis 174 

ferrugalis Udea 56, 224 

ferrugalis Udea 271, 277, 284 

ferula Satyrus 247 

festaliella Schreckensteinia 34 

figulilella Ephestia 186 

filipendulae Zygaena 146, 147 

fimbriata Noctua 209, 274 

flammea Trigonophora 223 

flammealis Endotricha 38, 185 

flavalis Mecyna 184 

flavicaput Spuleria 36, 181 

flavipennella Coleophora 35 

flexula Laspeyria 7 

florella Catopsilia 300 

floslactella Stigmella 172 

fluxa Photedes 2, 3, 4, 290 

focciferus Carcharodus 202 

foenella Epiblema 37, 270, 277 

follicularis Coleophora 177 

formosanus Lozotaeniodes 182 

forsskaleana Acleris 36 

foulquieri Pyrgus 249 

fratemana Epinotia 182 

fratemella Caryocolum 180 

fraxinella Prays 34 

fraxini Catocala 223, 226, 265 

frischella Coleophora 177, 228 

frisia Phyciodes 283, 284 

fuciformis Hemaris 4, 290 

fucosa Amphipoea 252, 275, 291 

fuliginaria Parascotia 21 1 

fulminea Ephesia 145 

fulvalis Udea 185, 218 



12 



Page 

fulvana Eucosma 270 

fumatella Chionodes 268 

fiirfurana Bactra 182,269 

furuncula Mesoligia 275 

fuscaPyla 272 

fuscatella Lampronia 174 

fuscicomis Coleophora 227, 228 

fuscoviridella Glyphipterix 34 

G 

gallii Hyles 220 , 265, 278, 284 

gamma Autographa...56, 144, 225, 257, 259 

Gelechiidae 179, 268, 277 

geminipuncta Archanara 252 

geniculea Agriphila 38, 276 

geniculella Phyllonorycter 176 

genitalana Cnephasia 182 

Geometridae 150, 284, 286, 287, 291 

gibbosella Psoricoptera 35 

glaucicolella Coleophora 35, 178 

glaucus Papilio 79 

goedartella Argyresthia 34 

gonodactyla Platyptilia 272 

gorge ramondi Erebia 248 

gorgone Erebia 234, 248 

gothica Orthosia 41, 139 

goyama Adelpha 78 

Gracillariidae 175, 203, 266 

graeca balcanica Boloria 199 

graeca graeca Boloria 199 

graeca graeca Pseudochazara 200 

grandipennis Scythris 181 

griseata Timandra 105, 272, 277 

gysseleniella Cedestis 176 

H 

haematidea Agrochola 56, 209 

Hamadryas 78, 79 

hamana Agapeta 36 

hammoniella Heliozela 174 

hastiana Acleris 36 

hatita anara Hypolycaena 94 

hatita ugandae Hypolycaena 94 

haworthi Eriocrania 171 

haworthii Celaena 24 

hecate Brenthis 199 

Hedyasp 277 

Heliconiini 283 

Heliozelidae 174 

hemerobiella Coleophora 177 

heparana Pandemis 36 

hepariella Zelleria 21 1 

heringi Ectoedemia 172 

hermes Hermeuptychia 282 



Page 

Hesperiidae 202, 250, 283 

Hesperiinae 283 

Hesperioidea 295 

hexadactyla Alucita 37, 184 

hilarella Phyllonorycter 175 

hippocastanaria Pachycnemia 208 

hispana Lysandra .....249 

hispania rondoui Erebia 248, 250 

hohenwartiana Eucosma 37 

homigi Monochroa 179 

horridella Ypsolopha 176 

hortulata Eurrhypara 38 

hospes Proxenus 217, 223 

humilis Elachista 178 

hyaleColias 250 

hyalinalis Microstega 185 

hybridella Cochylis 181 

hydaspes Callicore 78 

I 

icarus Polyommatus 250, 297 

icteritia Xanthia 274, 276 

idas idas Lycaeides 201 

idas magnagraeca Lycaeides 201 

ilia Apatura 247, 250 

illyris Graphium 243 

imitaria Scopula 272, 277 

immundana Epinotia ...182 

immundella Trifurcula 172 

implicitana Cochylidia 180 

incamatana Epiblema 183 

incognitella Stigmella 172 

Incurvariidae 173 

inquinatella Agriphila 276 

insigniata Eupithecia 291 

instabilella Scrobipalpa 35, 268, 277, 279 

interjecta Noctua 274 

interjectana Cnephasia 36 

intermedialis Schrankia 291 

interpunctella Plodia 186 

intimella Ectoedemia 172 

intricata arceuthata Eupithecia 261 

intricata Eupithecia 30, 261 

inturbata Eupithecia 291 

invirae Opsiphanes 78 

io Inachis 250, 256, 257, 258, 259 

iolas lolana 201 

iole Nathalis 282 

iphigenia nonacriensis Agrodiaetus 200 

ipsilon Agrotis 150, 225 

iris Adelpha 78 

iris Apatura 148 

isertana Zeiraphera 270 

islander Papilio 156 



13 



Page 

J 

jacintha ssp of bolina Hypolinmas..231, 232 

jatrophae Anartia 282, 284 

juncicolella Coleophora 35, 177 

junctella Caryocolum 180 

jurtina Maniola 97, 148, 250 

K 

kilmunella Elachista 267 

kuehniella Ephestia 186 

kuznetzovi Agonopterix 169, 178 

L 

lacteana Eucosma 270, 279 

lacteella Mompha 181 

lacunana Olethreutes 36 

lacustrata Dipleurina 38 

laetus Crombrugghia 186 

laevigatella Argyresthia 176 

laevigella Monopis 174, 276 

lancealana Bactra 37 

lanestris Eriogaster 39 

lansdorfi Eresia 77 

lapponica Stigmella 173 

laricana Spilonota 183 

laricella Coleophora 177 

lariciata Eupithecia 273, 276 

larseniella Syncopacma 180 

laterana Acleris 36, 182 

lateritia Apamea 266, 275 

lathonia Argynnis 55 

lathonia Issoria 250 

lathoniellus Crambus 37 

latreillanus Graphium 243 

lautella Phyllonorycter 176 

lavatherae Carcharodus 202 

leautieri Lithophane 29, 139, 140 

lecheana Ptycholoma 36 

leda Eronia 94 

lefebvrei lefebvrei Erebia 248 

lefebvrei pyrenaea Erebia 234 

lemnata Cataclysm 38, 184 

leplastriana Selania 183 

Leptocircini 281 

leucapenella Caloptilia 175 

leucatella Recurvaria 179 

leucogaster Ochropleura 221, 217 

leucographella Phyllonorycter 175, 203, 210 

leucostigma Celaena 265, 291 

leucotreta Cryptophlebia 183 

lichenaria Cleorodes 139 

lienigialis Pyralis 185 

lienigianus Hellinsia 187 

lignea Blastobasis 35, 180 

limbata Evergestis 169, 184 



Page 

limosipennella Coleophora 177 

linda Doxocopa 78 

lineana Apotomis 182 

lineataHyles 30,145 

lineola Eudonia 38, 184 

lineola Thymelicus 97, 202, 210 

linneella Glyhipteryx 181 

Lipara 10 ? 

lipsiella Diumea 178 

lithodactyla Oidaematophorus 187 

Lithophane 72 

litoralis Mythimna 253, 254 

littoralis Lobesia 182, 254 

litura Spodoptera 188 

livomica Hyles 30 

lixella Coleophora 35, 177 

Ijungiana Argyrotaenia 269 

locupletella Mompha 180 

loewii loewii Plebeius 295, 297 

logiana Acleris 182 

longana Cnephasia 36, 182 

loreyi Mythimna 223 

lotella Anerastia 185 

lucens Amphipoea 275 

lucida Acontia 39 

lunaedactyla Marasmarcha 38 

lunana Philedonides 182 

lunaris Minucia 223 

lunularia Selenia 139 

lusciniaepennella Coleophora 35 

lutealisUdea 38 

luteella Stigmella 173 

lutipennella Coleophora 35, 177 

lutulenta Aporophyla 146 

luzella Lampronia 173 

Lycaenidae 153, 153, 250, 283 

Lycaeninae 283 

M 

maccana Acleris 269 

machaon Papilio 250, 265, 272, 277 

machaon syriacus Papilio 297 

maculana Epinotia 183 

maculana Epinotia 270 

maera f adrasta Lasiommata 250 

magdalenae Stigmella 173 

malinellus Yponomeuta 176 

malvae Pyrgus 98, 249 

manniana Phalonidia 36 

manto constans Erebia 233 

manto manto Erebia 233 

marcellus Eurytides 281 

margaritata Campaea 209 

marginana Endothenia 182 



14 



Page 

marginaria Agriopis 273, 276 

marginea Emmetia 34 

maritima Heliothis 71, 73 

maritima Phycitodes 186 

maritimus Chilodes 291 

masculella Incurvaria 34 

maura Mormo 211, 291 

mayrella Coleophora 35, 267 

medicaginis Cydia 183 

mediopectinellus Ochsenheimeria 1 74 

medusa medusa Erebia 200 

megera Lasiommata 98, 250 

melampus Erebia 234 

melanopa Anarta 145 

melanops Glaucopsyche 247 

melinus Strymon 283 

Melitaeini 283 

mellonella Galleria 185 

menippe Mylon 78 

meolans Erebia 234, 247 

mercurella Eudonia 38 

mesomella Cybosia 6 

messaniella Phyllonorycter 175 

metzneriella Metzneria 35 

miata Chloroclysta 276 

Micropterigidae 171 

microtheriella Stigmella 173 

milhauseri Harpyia 217, 221 

millefoliata Eupithecia 251 

millieridactyla Stenoptilia 187 

milvipemiis Coleophora 177 

mincia Adelpha 78 

miniata Miltochrista 6 

minima Copaeodes 283 

minima Photedes 275 

minimella Ectoedemia 172 

minimella Nemophora 174 

ministrana Eulia 182 

missipus Hypolimnas 231 

mnemosyne athene Pamassius 199 

mnemosyne mnemosyne Pamassius 199, 248 

mnestra Erebia 234 

mniszechii tisiphone Pseudochazara 200 

molesta Cydia 183 

molliculana Cochylis 169, 180 

Momphidae 180 

monachella Monochroa 169 

monachella Monopis 174 

moneta Polychrysia 140 

moniliata Ptychopoda 145 

monilifera Narycia 174 

monodactyla Emmelina 38, 272 

monoglypha Apamea 253, 254 

monosemiella Elachista 35 



Page 

montana goante Erebia 234 

montensis montanabella Aricia 247 

montensis montensis Aricia 247 

monuste Ascia 282 

Morpho 78 

morvus Memphis 78 

mulinella Mirificarma 179 

mundella Bryotropha 179 

mylitta Dynamine 78 

myrtillana Rhopobota 270 

N 

naevana Rhopobota 270, 277 

nanella Recurvaria 179 

napi Pieris 265, 272 

nebulella Homoeosoma 186 

Nemapogon 158 

neoridas Erebia 246, 247, 248, 250 

Nepticulidae 171 

nervosa Agonopterix 268, 277 

ni Trichoplusia 144, 262 

nigrescentella Phyllonorycter 176 

nigricana Cydia 37 

niphognatha Monochroa 179 

nisella Epinotia 265, 270, 277 

noctuellaNomophila...38, 56, 144, 185, 224 

Noctuidae 188, 192, 291 

nodicolella Mompha 181 

notana Acleris 269 

Notodontidae 132,291 

nubilalis Ostrinia 185, 218 

nylandriella Stigmella 173 

Nymphalidae 142, 199, 211, 250, 

255, 282, 285 
Nymphalini 282 

O 

obeliscata Thera 209 

oblitella Ancylosis 23, 186, 218 

oblonga Apamaea 279 

oblongana Endothenia 37 

obsitalis Hypena 24 

obstipata Orthonama .144, 219, 272, 277, 278 

obumbratana Eucosma 37 

occulta Eurois 95, 221 

ocellana Agonopterix 35 

ocellana Spilonota 37 

ocellea Euchromius 184, 265, 271, 277 

ochraceella Mompha 36, 181 

ochrata Idaea 253 

ochrearia Aspitates 252 

ochroleucana Hedya 269 

Ochsenheimeriidae 174 

Oecophoridae 178, 268, 277 



15 



Page 

oeme oeme Erebia 234 

olivalis Udea 185 

onosmella Coleophora 177 

operculella Phthorimaea 269 

ophiogramma Apamea 275, 291 

or Tethea 5, 290 

orbifer Spialia 202 

orichalcea Cosmopterix 180 

orientalis Carcharodus 202 

omataScopula 23 

orthiaOrtilia 78 

Orthosia 65, 72 

Ortilia 77 

ostrinalis Pyrausta 184 

ostrinaria Ptychopoda 145 

ottomana bulgarica Erebia 200 

ottomanus Heodes 201 



padella Yponomeuta 34, 276 

palamedes Papilio 281 

paleacea Enargia 274, 291 

palealis Sitochroa 185, 218 

paleana Aphelia 181 

pales pyrenesmiscens 248 

palliatella Coleophora 177 

pallida Eudonia 38, 184 

pallidactyla Platyptilia 38, 187 

pallidana Cochylis 138 

pallidata Evergestis 38, 184 

pallifrontana Cydia 183 

paludella Calamotropha 184, 251 

palustrana Olethreutes 182 

pamphilus Coenonympha 98, 250 

pandrose Erebia 234 

panoquin Panoquina 283 

paphia Argynnis 148, 250, 289 

Papilionidae 77, 78, 156, 199, 250, 281 

Papilionini 281 

Papilionoidea 295 

paralellaria Epione 49 

parenthesella Ypsolopha 34 

Parocystola 169 

parthenoides Mellicta 247 

pascuella Crambus 37 

pasiuana Cnephasia 36 

pastinacella Depressaria 268 

paupella Ptocheuusa 179 

pectinea Incurvaria 173 

pelopi Agrodiaetus 200 

peltigera Heliothis 56, 144, 217, 223, 263 

pennella Coleophora 177 

pentadactyla Pterophorus 38 

perlella Crambus 37 



Page 

perlucidalis Phlyctaenia 185 

permutatella Catoptria 184 

perplexa Hadena 140 

petiverella Dichrorampha 37 

petreus Marpesia 282, 284 

phaon Phyciodes .....283 

pharte Erebia 233 

phasianipennella Calybites 175 

phicomone Colias 248 

philea Phoebis 282, 284 

phlaeas Lycaena 250 

phlaeas phlaeas Lycaena 297 

phlomidis Spialia 202 

phragmitella Chilo 37, 184 

phragmitella Limnaecia 36, 180 

phragmitidis Arenostola 252, 291 

phryganella Diumea 178 

Pieridae 77, 78, 159, 199, 250, 282 

Pierinae 282 

pilella Nematopogon 174 

pilleriana Sparganothis 182 

pinastri Hyloicus 220 

pinguis Euzophera 38, 186 

pisi Ceramica 72 

plagicolella Stigmella 172 

platani Phyllonorycter 203 

platanoidella Phyllonorycter 176 

Platyptiliinae 170 

plebejana Crocidosema 183 

plecta Ochropleura 274 

plexippus Danaus 260 

plumigera Ptilophora 132 

podalirius Iphiclides 89 

podalirius podalirius Iphiclides 297 

podana Archips 36 

politella Bryotropha 179,268 

polygonalis Uresiphita 184 

polyodon Actinotia 145 

Polyommatini 283 

polyxena Zerynthia 102 

populana Pammene 183 

populetorum Caloptilia 175 

porata Cyclophora 291 

porrectella Plutella 177 

postvittana Epiphyas 36, 41, 181 

potentillae Coleophora 177 

praeangusta Batrachedra 36 

prasina Anaplectoides 6 

prasinana Bena 7 

Prodoxidae 173 

profundana Eudemis 37, 182 

promissa Catocala 145 

pronoe glottis Erebia 248, 249, 250 

pronoe pronoe Erebia 248, 249 



16 



Page 

pronoe vergy Erebia 248, 249 

pronuba Noctua 253 

proteus Urbanus 283, 284 

proto Syrichtus 202 

protodice Pieris 282 

protomedia Colotis 94 

proximum Caryocolum 180 

prunaria Angerona 4, 6, 290 

pruniana Hedya 36 

prunivorana Cydia 183 

psi Acronicta 254 

Psychidae 174 

pterodactyla Stenoptilia 38, 187 

Pterophoridae 186 

pudibunda Calliteara 139 

pulcherrimella Depressaria 178 

pulveralis Psammotis 185 

pumilio pumilio Gegenes 295, 297 

punctalis Dolicharthria 185 

punctaria Cyclophora 5 

punctidactyla Amblyptilia 187 

pupillana Eucosma 183 

purdeyi Clavigesta 183 

purpuralis Zygaena 146, 215 

puta Agrotis 140 

putris Axylia 253 

pylaon brethertoni Plebejus 202 

pyracmon Paulogramma 78 

Pyralidae 133, 171, 184,212 

Pyrginae 283 

Pyrrhogyra 77 

pyrrhulipennella Coleophora 177 

Q 

quadrifasciata Xanthorhoe 5 

quadrimaculella B ohemannia 34 

quadripunctaria Euplagia 221, 260 

quercana Carcina 35, 178 

quercus Marumba 145 

quercus Quercusia 98, 247, 250, 293 

quinquella Ectoedemia 187 

R 

ramella Epinotia 37 

rapae Artogeia 89, 250 

rapae Pieris 88, 110 

rapae rapae Pieris 297 

raschkiella Mompha 180 

ratzeburgiana Zeiraphera 270 

ravida Spaelotis 290, 291 

rectifasciana Isotrias 182 

recurvalis Hymenia 185 

reducta Limenitis 247 

regificella Elachista 178 



Page 

repandata Alcis 209 

resplendella Heliozela 174 

reveyana Nycteola 291 

rex Euphaedra 197 

rhamni Gonepteryx 89, 98, 147 

rhodopensis Coenonympha 200 

rhomboidella Hypatima 35, 180 

richardsoni Eudarcia 169, 174 

ridens Polyploca 291 

rivata Epirrhoe 5, 7, 290 

rivulana Olethreutes 182 

roborana Epiblema 37 

roborella Phycita 38, 186 

roborella Stigmella 173 

roboris Laeosopis 247 

roboris Phyllonorycter 175 

robustella Caloptilia 175 

rorrella Yponomeuta 34, 114, 176 

rubiginosana Epinotia 183 

rueppelli josi Mylothris 94 

rueppelli Mylothris 94 

rufaCoenobia 291 

rufescens Brachmia 35 

ruficapitella Stigmella 173 

ruficomis Drymonia 291 

rufifasciata Gymnoscelis 286 

rufimitrana Zeiraphera 270 

rufipennella Caloptilia 175 

rufocinerea Elachista 178 

rumina Zerynthia 102 

rupicola Cochylidia 36 

ruralis Pleuroptya 38, 271 

ruricolella Nemapogon 34, 159, 174 

russiae cleanthe Melanargia 247 

ryphe a Memphis 78 

S 

sagitella Phyllonorycter 169, 176 

sakhalinella Stigmella 173 

salicis Leucoma 6 

salicomiae Coleophora 178 

saportella Phyllonorycter 31, 34, 175 

sarpendon islander Graphium 156 

Satyridae 200, 232, 250 

Satyrinae 282 

saucia Peridroma 144, 225 

saxicola Phycitodes 186 

saxifragae Stenoptilia 187 

scabrella Ypsolopha 34, 176 

schmidtiellus Telephila 180 

schreberella Phyllonorycter 176 

schuetzeella Dioryctria 186 

schumacherana Olindia 182 

scolopacina Apamea 6 



17 



Page 

scoticella Paromix 175 

scribonia Hypercompe 25 

scutulana Epiblema 37 

Scythrididae 181 

secalella Mesapamea 276 

secalis Mesapamea 275 

segetum Agrotis 253, 273 

selasella Agriphila 37, 271 

semele cadmus Hipparchia 247, 250 

semele Hipparchia 88 

semiargus Cyaniris 150 

semipurpurella Eriocrania 171 

senectella Bryotropha 35 

senex Thumata 291 

sennae Phoebis 282 

senticetella Gelechia 179 

sequella Ypsolopha 177 

seraphina Doxocopa 78 

serratella Coleophora 35 

sertorius Spialia 250 

sexpunctella Lita 179 

siccifolia Coleophora 177 

sidae Pyrgus 202 

signatana Epinotia 183 

similella Denisia 178 

similis Bryotropha 179 

simpliciana Dichrorampha 37 

siterata Chloroclysta 276 

smeathmanniana Aethes 269 

solon Papilio 157 

sorbi Stigmella 172 

sordidatella Depressaria 178 

sparganella Orthotelia 34, 177 

sparganii Archanara 251 

speciosa Stigmella 172 

spectrana Clepsis 36 

Sphingidae 188 

splendana Cydia 37 

splendidissimella Stigmella 172 

stachydalis Phlyctaenia 185 

stagnata Nymphula 184 

stagnata Parapoynx 38 

statilinus Hipparchia 247, 250 

stelenes Victorina 78 

stellatarum Macroglossum ..56, 188, 220, 265 

Stenoptilia 170 

stephensiana Cnephasia 36 

sticticalis Margaritia 184, 271, 277 

stigmatella Caloptilia 34 

straminata Idaea 291 

straminea Mythimna 252, 291 

straminella Agriphila 38 

stratiotata Parapoynx 38, 184 

strigana Lathronympha 37 



Page 

strigulatella Phyllonorycter 176 

strobilella Cydia 183 

suasa Lacanobia 252, 274 

suaveila Eurhodope 38 

suavella Numonia 186 

subbimaculella Ectoedemia 172 

subcinerea Platyedra 179 

subdivisella Mompha 181 

subfasciella Cedestis 176 

subfusca Scoparia 184 

sublustris Apamea 253 

subocellea Thiotricha 180 

subpallida Euchrysops 94 

subpropinquella Agonopterix 268 

subpurpurella Dyseriocrania 171 

subsericeata Idaea 5 

subtusa Ipimorpha 291 

suspecta Parastichtis 274 

sylvata Abraxas 5 

sylvella Ypsolopha 176 

sylvestris Thymelicus 202 

syringaria Apeira 6 

T 

tages Erynnis 202 

tamesis Coleophora 35 

telmessia Maniola 297 

temora Salamis 197 

tenerata Epinotia 37 

terebrella Assara 186 

terminella Mompha 180 

terrella Bryotropha 35, 179 

testacea Luperina 275 

tharos Phyciodes , 283 

Theclini 283 

therinella Coleophora 178 

thersamon Lycaena 295, 297 

thersamon Thersamonia 202 

thersites Agrodiaetus 200 

thoracella Bucculatrix 175 

thrasonella Glyphipterix 34 

Thyatiridae 291 

tihae Mimas 6 

tiliae Stigmella 173 

tineana Ancylis 182 

Tineidae 133, 157, 159, 174 

tiridates Charaxes 197 

Tischeriidae 173 

tithia Dynamine 78 

tithonus Pyronia 97, 250, 259 

torquatella Atemelia 176 

Tortricidae 181,269 

tragopoginis Amphipyra 278 

transversa Eupsilia 265 



18 



Page 

transversata Philereme 5, 290 

trapezina Cosmia 274 

trauniana Pammene 183 

trayja Siproeta 78 

triangulum Xestia 253, 265, 274 

triaria hispanica Erebia 234 

triaria triaria Erebia 248 

tridens Acronicta 253 

trifolii Coleophora 31, 35, 177 

trifolii Discestra 265 

trifolii Zygaena 146, 147 

trigrammica Charanyca 140 

tripoliana Eucosma 32, 37, 183 

tripunctaria Eupithecia 291 

trisignaria Eupithecia 291 

tristella Agriphila 38, 271 

tristrigella Phyllonorycter 176 

troilus Papilio 281 

trux Agrotis 221 

tullia Coenonympha 42 

tumidana Acrobasis 133, 186 

tumidana Conobathra 218 

turbidana Apotomis 37 

turbidella Ectoedemia 80, 171 

tyndarus Erebia 234 

typica Naenia 6 

U 

uddmanniana Epiblema 37 

ulmariae Stigmella 172 

ulmella Bucculatrix 175 

ulmivora Stigmella 172 

ultimaria Eupithecia 286 

ulysses orsippus Papilio 156 

ulysses Papilio 156 

umbra Pyrrhia 252 

umbrosella Bryotropha 179 

unangulata Euphyia 291 

unanimis Apamea 6 

uncella Ancylis 182 

undalis Hellula 184 

undulata Rheumaptera 5 

unguicella Ancylis 182 

unimaculella Eriocrania 171 

unionalis Palpita 185, 218 

unipuncta Mythimna 144, 222 

unipunctella Phyllonorycter 176 

unitana Aphelia 181 

unitella Batia 2 

unitella Crassa 178 

upupana Ancylis 182 

urella Ochsenheimeria 174 

urticae Aglais 65, 88, 98 

250, 256, 257, 258, 259 



Page 

ustella Ypsolopha 34 

utonella Biselachista 178 



vaccinii Conistra 210 

vacculella Ochsenheimeria 174 

valerianata Eupithecia 290, 291 

vanillae Dione 283 

variatella Nemapogon 134 

variegana Acleris 269 

vectisana Gynnidomorpha 181 

vellica Ortilia 78 

velocella Aroga 179 

venata Ochlodes 97 

verbascalis Anania 185 

verbasci Cucullia 139 

versicolor Oligia 7 

versurella Coleophora 178, 267 

vetulata Philereme 5, 290 

vetusta Xylena 2 

vetusta Xylena 265 

viminetella Coleophora 35 

virgaureae Heodes 248 

virgaureata Eupithecia 30 

viridana Lamprosticta 145 

viridana Tortrix 36 

virilis Cacyreus 94 

viriplaca Heliothis 74 

viscariella Caryocolum 180 

vitellina Mythimna 144, 222 

volgensis delattini Hipparchia 200 

vulpinaria atrosignaria Idaea 211 

vulpinaria Idaea 108 

W 

w-latinum Lacanobia 291 

wauaria Semiothisa 5 

weirella Depressaria 178 

wilkella Eulamprotes 35, 179 



xylostella Plutella 34, 56, 224, 278 



Yponomeuta 277 

Yponomeutidae 75, 114, 126, 176,261 

ypsillon Parastichtis 291 



zalmoxis Papilio 40 

zinckenella Etiella 186 

zophodactylus Stenoptilia 187 

zunilda Doxocopa 78 

Zygaenidae 146, 214 

Zygaeninae 214 



19 



Page 



ARACHNIDA 



Coccipolipus hippodamiae 12, 22 

Segestria senoculata 141, 244 



COLEOPTERA 

Acidota crenata 84 

Acritus homoeopathicus 302 

Adalia 10-punctata 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 

17, 18, 19, 124, 125 

2-punctata 125 

4-punctata 16 

bipunctata 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 

17, 18, 19,21,99, 124 

Aderus populneus 10 

Agathidium seminulum 84 

Agonum dorsale 204 

Agrilus pannonicus 244 

Alaobia scapularis 84 

Aleochara bipustulata 85 

discipennis 304 

lanuginosa 85 

pauxilla 304 

vema 304 

Alevonota aurantiaca 303 

gracilenta 304 

Aloconota gregaria 84 

Amaraaenea 83 

alpina 82, 83, 86 

lunicollis 83 

Anatis labiculata 16, 19, 20 

ocellata 16, 19,20, 124 

Anotylus hamatus 303 

rugosus 84 

saulcyi 303 

Antherophagus pallens 85 

Anthicus antherinus 99 

Anthobium unicolor 84 

Anthophagus alpinus 84 

Anthribidae 305 

Aphidecta obliterata 14, 16, 18, 19 

Aphodius borealis 85 

depressus 85 

lapponum 85 

Apion cruentatum 85 

Apionidae 85 

Aridius bifasciatus 76, 99 

Arpedium brachypterum 84 

Atheta arctica 85 

brunneipennis 85 

celata 85 

fungi 76 



Page 

tibialis 85 

trinotata 99 

Biphyllus lunatus 99 

Bitoma crenata 99 

Bolitobius inclinans 84 

Borboropora kraatzi 301 

Boreophilia islandica 84 

Bradycellus mficollis 84 

Bruchus rufimanus 99 

Bryoporus rugipennis 84 

Buprestidae 304 

Byrrhidae 85 

Byrrhus arietinus 85 

fasciatus 85 

pilula 85 

Bythinus burrelli 85 

Calathus melanocephalus 83 

Cantharidae 85 

Carabidae 83, 204 

Carabus gallicus 83 

glabratus 83 

lapponicus 83 

problematicus 82, 83 

soUicitans britannicus 83 

violaceus 83 

Cerambycidae 235 

Cercyon atomarius 84 

Ceritaxa dilaticomis 303 

pervagata 303 

Cermambycidae 64 

Ceuthorhynchidius horridus 305 

Chilocorus 15, 19 

Choleva agilis 84 

glauca 84 

Choragus sheppardi 305 

Chrysolina staphylaea 85 

Chrysomelidae 85 

Cicones undatus 98, 99 

Cis bilamellatus 76 

Coccinella 11-punctata 11,14,16,18, 

20,125 

5-punctata 13, 14, 18 

7-punctata 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 

18, 19,20, 125 

bipustulatus 13, 14, 16, 

17, 19 

magnifica 14, 16, 20 

renipustulatus 14, 16, 19 

septempunctata 99 

Coccinellidae 124, 125 

Colon zebei 302 

Colydiidae 98,99 

Corticaria linearis 82 

Corticarina 115 



20 



Corticarina amoena 122 

ashei 115, 118, 124 

baranowskii 116, 123 

beloni 122 

brooksi 116,118 

cavicollis 117 

conjuncta 116, 118 

guatemalica 117, 118 

ignea 120 

impensa 118, 119 

inobservata 118, 120 

lescheni 118, 121 

portentosa 118, 122 

reidi 121 

rickardi 118,122 

riveti 116 

scissa 124 

simoni 119 

viatica 118, 123 

Creophilus maxillosus 204 

Cryptocephalus labiatus 48 

parvulus 48 

pusillis 48 

sexpunctatus 43 

Cryptolestes ferrugineus 99 

Cryptophagidae 85 

Cryptophagus dentatus 99 

Ctenicera cuprea 85 

Curculionidae 85, 204, 305 

Cychms carabiodes 83 

rostratus 83 

Cyminidis vaporariorum 84 

Dacne bipustulata 76 

Dacrila pruinosa 303 

Derodontidae 305 

Diaperis boleti 76 

Dromius agilis 99 

quadrinotatus 99 

Dropephylla devillei 302 

grandiloqua 302 

Elaphrus cupreus 83 

Elateridae 85 

Elateroidea 100 

Enicnus brevicomis 99 

Eucnemidae 304 

Euconnus duboisi 302 

murielae 302 

Eudectus white! 84, 87, 88 

Eusphalerum minutum 84 

Exochomus 4-pustulatus 13-19 

concaius 11 

fulvimanus 11 

Geodromicus longipes 84 

Geostiba circellaris 84 



Page 

Geotrupes stercorarius 85 

Geotrupidae 85 

Halyzia 16-punctata 124 

sedecimguttata 125 

sedecimpunctata 125 

Harmonia 4-punctata 16, 19, 20 

axyridis 16, 19, 20, 21 

quadripunctata 124 

Harpalus latus 83 

Hippodamia convergens 11 

Histeridae 302 

Hydrophilidae 84 

Hylis olexai 304 

Hylobius abietis 85, 87 

Hypnoidus riparius 85 

Hypopycna rufula 302 

Lamia textor 235 

Laricobius erichsoni 305 

Lathrobium brunnipes 84 

fulvipenne 84 

Latridiidae 115 

Leiodidae 84,302 

Leistus fulvibarbis 204 

spinibarbis 99 

Leptura fuscicomis 235 

rubra 235 

sanguinolenta 235 

Leptusa fumida 99 

Lesteva monticola 84 

Liogluta nitidiuscula 84 

Litargus connexus 99 

Loricera pilicomis 83 

Macrelus ericae 87 

Malthodes pumilus 85 

Megastemum obscurum 84, 99 

Meligethes aeneus 85 

Metoecus paradoxus 307 

Micrelus ericae 85 

Microlestes maurus 99 

Miscodera arctica 83 

Mniusa incrassata 85 

Monotonia longicollis 85 

Mycetophagus quadripustulatus 76, 99 

Mycetoporus angularis 84 

baudueri 84 

clavicomis 84 

lepidus 84 

rufescens 84 

Myrrha 18-guttata 124 

Myzia oblongoguttata 125 

Nebria brevicollis 204 

gyllenhali 82,83 

nivalis 82,86 

salina 83, 204 



21 



Page 

Nitidulidae 85 

Notaris acridulus 85 

Notiophilus aquaticus 83 

biguttatus 83 

germinyi 83 

Oligota picipes 99 

Olophrum piceum 84 

Ontholestes tessellatus 262 

Orthoperus mundus 76 

Othius angustus 84 

punctulatus 84 

Otiorhynchus arcticus 85 

nodosus 85 

singularis 204 

Oxypoda elongatula 85 

nigricomis 85 

procerula 85 

tirolensis .....85 

Oxytelus laqueatus 84 

migrator 303 

P 14-punctata 16, 19 

Paromalus flavicomis 76 

Patrobus assimilis 82, 83 

septentrionis 83 

Pedostrangalia revestita 235 

Philonthus decorus 204 

laminatus 84 

Phyllobius 204 

Phyllodecta polaris 86, 87, 88 

Prionus corianius 64 

Pselaphidae 85 

Pterostichus adstrictus 83 

diligens 83 

nigrita 83 

Quedius 204 

Quedius boopoides 84 

boops 84 

fulvicollis 84 

molochinus 84 

nitipennis 84 

schatzmayri 84 

tristis 204 

umbrinus 84 

Rhagonycha femoralis 85 

Rhinosimus planirostris 99 

Rhipiphoridae 307 

Rhizopahagus bipustulatis 99 

Rhizophagidae 85,92 

Rhizophagus dispar 85, 87 

oblongocollis 92 

parallelocollis 92 

Scarabaeidae 85 

Scydmaenidae 302 

Simplocaria semistriata 85 



Page 

Sitona lineatus 99 

Smicronyx reichi 305 

Staphylinidae 81, 84, 204, 262, 302 

Staphylinus brunnipes 204 

globulifer 204 

olens 204 

Stenus brevipennis 84 

brunnipes 84 

geniculatus 84 

glacialis 82, 84, 86 

impressus 84 

Strangalia melanura 235 

revestita 235, 236, 237, 238, 

239, 240 

Synchita separanda 98 

Syntomium aeneum 84 

Tachinus elongatus 84 

marginellus 84 

proximus 84 

signatus 84 

Tachyporus chrysomelinus 84 

Tenebrionidae 76 

Thanasimus formicarius 99 

Trachys scrobiculatus 304 

Trechus obtusus 83 

Trichocellus cognatus 84 

Trichosirocalus horridus 305 

Typhaeus typhoeus 146 

Typhoeus 42 

Tytthaspis 16-punctata 11, 14, 18, 19 

Vincinzellus ruficollis 99 



DERMAPTERA 

Forficula auricularia 99 

lurida 89 

Forficulidae 262 

Labia minor 262 

Labiidae 262 



DIPTERA 

Anisopodidae 157 

Bombylius canescens 59 

fimbriatus 59 

fugax 59 

major 59 

vulpinus 59 

Callicera aenea 143 

aurata 143 

rufa 143 



22 



Page 

Mycetobia gemella 157 

Mycetobiidae 157 



HEMIPTERA : HETEROPTERA 

Cardiastethus fasciiventris 100 

Cyphostethus tristriatus 261 

Dufouriellus ater 100 

Hemiptera 300 

Heterogaster urticae 99 

Heteroptera 300 

Plea atomaria 300 

leachi 300 

minutissima 300 

Pleidae 300 

Xylocoris curtisans 100 



Page 

Odynerus spinipes 59 

Panurgus dentipes 59 

Pompilidae 141, 244 

Stigmus pendulus 58 

solskyi 58 

Vespula 129 

Vespula vulgaris 307 



HYMENOPTERA : PARASITICA 

Dinocampus coccinellae 11 

Tetrastichus legionarius 10* 



MECOPTERA 

Mecoptera 155 



HEMIPTERA : HOMOPTERA 

Acyrthosiphon pisum 12 

Aphis fabae 12 

Pseudochermes fraxini 12 ? 

Trioza alacris 135 



MEGALOPTERA 

Megaloptera 155 

NEUROPTERA 



HYMENOPTERA : ACULEATA 

Andrena 59 

Andrena agilissima 59 

Candida 205 

carantonica 205 

fucosa 205 

fulva 59 

humilis 59 

ilerda 205 

labialis 59 

leana 205 

peregrina 205 

savignii 205 

Colletes 205 

Dipogon subintermedius 141, 244 

Formica aquilonia 55 

lemani 55 

sanguinea 55 

Lasius flavus 55 

niger 55 

Megachile rotunda 205 

Myrmica lobicomis 55 

sabuleti 55 

Nomia melanderi 205 



Chrysopidae 155 

Coniopterygidae 155 

Hemerobiidae 155 

Neuropteroidea 155 

Planipennia 155 

Sisyridae 155 



ODONATA 

Aeshna cyanea 154, 155 

Aeshnidae 154 



ORTHOPTERA 

Abisares viridipennis 196 

Acanthacris deckeni 197 

elgonensis 197 

ruficomis 197 

Acorypha 195, 198 

Acrididae 193, 194 

Acrotylus elgonensis 198 

patruelis 198 

Anacridium melanorhodon 197 

Aresceutica vansomemi 196 



23 



Page 

Attractomorpha acutipennis 194 

Auloserpusia phoeniconata 1 96, 1 97 

Brachycatantops emalicus 196 

Calephorus compressicomis 198 

Calliptaminae 195 

Cardeniopsis nigropunctatus 196, 198 

Cataloipus cognatus 195 

Catantopinae 196 

Catantops momboensis 196 

Cerechta bouvieri 196 

Chorthippus brunneus 151, 152 

parallelus 152 

Chrotogonus hemipterus 193 

homalodemus 193 

Coptacridinae 194 

Cryptocatantops alessandricus 196 

Cyrtacanthacridinae 197 

Cyrtacanthacris tatarica 197 

Diabolocatantops axillaris 196 

Dictyophorus griseus 194 

Epacrocatantops curvicercus 196 

Euryphyminae 193, 195 

Eyprepocnemidinae 195 

Eyprepocnemis plorans 195 

Gastrimargus africanus 198 

mirabilis 198 

Hadrolecocatantops kissanjanicus ..196, 198 

Hemiacridinae 194 

Heteracris brevipennis 195 

coerulescens 195 

Heteroptemis couloniana 197 

Ixalidium 196 

Kinangopa jeanneli 193, 196 

Lentulidae 193, 194 

Lobosceliana gilgilensis 193 

Meconema thalassinum 152 

Mesospersa filum 194, 198 

Metaxymecus gracilipes 195, 197 

Morphacris fasciata 197 

Myrmeleotettix maculatus 152 

Odontomelas kwidschwianus 198 

Oedaleus instillatus 193 

Omocestus viridulus 152 

Omithacris pictula magnifica 197 

turbida 197 

Oxyahyla 194 

Oxyaeida poultoni 195 

Oxyinae 194 

Pamphagidae 193 



Page 

Paracoptacra ascensi 194 

cauta 194 

Paraprocticus pendulus 195 

Parasphena 193 

Parasphena keniensis rehni 194, 198 

kinangopa 198 

mauensis 194 

naivashensis 194, 198 

ngongensis 194 

Parepistaurus deses nairobii 194 

felix 194 

Pezacatantops 193 

Pezacatantops lobipennis 196 

ngongi 196 

lobicomis 198 

Phaneroptera sparsa 197 

Phloeomantis 197 

Pholidoptera griseoaptera 152 

Phymeums granulatus 195, 198 

Phyteumas purpurascens 193 

Platycleis denticulata 146 

Porthetinae 193 

Pseudophialosphera severini 196 

Pseudopropacris vana 197 

Pteroperina steini 196, 197, 198 

Pycnodictya kelleri 193 

Pyrgomorpha cognata 194 

Pyrgomorphidae 193 

roeselii Metrioptera 286 

Spathostemum py gmaeum 1 94, 1 97 

Stenocrobylus cervinus 196 

Taphronota calliparea 194 

Taramassus 195 

Tetrigidae 151 

Tetrix subulata 151, 152 

undulata 151, 152 

Tettigoniidae 286 

Tylotropidius didymus 195 

lanceolatus 195, 197 

Usambilla oraria 194 

Xerophyllum russisianum 197 



RAPHIDIOPTERA 

Adantoraphidia maculicollis 113, 114 

Dichrostigma 114 

Inocelliidae 1 14 

Raphidioptera 155 



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