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Full text of "The Entomologist's record and journal of variation"






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THE 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

INDITED Hy 
RiOHAKD S. BAGNALL, f.l.s., f.b.s. I T. A. CHAPMAN, m.d.. k.z.h.. f.e.s. 



T. HUDSON BEARE, 

Geobgk T. BETHUNE-BAKER, 

f.z.8., f.l.s., f.b.s. 
m. burr, d.sc, f.z.s., f.l.8., f.k.8. 
(Rbv.) C. R. N. burrows, f.b.s. 



Jas. E. COLLIN, F.B.S. 

H. St. J. K. DONISTHORPE, 

F.Z.S., F.E.9. 

Alfred SIGH, f.e.s. 

J. R. le B. TOMLIN, m.a., f.k.s. 

Gkohgb WHEELER, m.a., f.e.s. 



Henks J. TURNEK, f.e.s., 
Editorial Secretary. 



VOL. XXVII. 
JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1915. 




PRICE 10s. 6d. 

Special In^ex (with every reference), Is. 6d. 

LONDON: 
ELLIOT STOCK, 7, Paternoster Row, E.G. 

BERLIN : 

R. FRIEDLANDER & SOHN, 

11, Carlstrasse, N.W. 



PREFACE TO VOL. XXYII. 



Other thoughts and other pursuits have rightly commandeered 
the opportunities of many students of Entomology during the past 
season ; still the study goes on and we are much indebted to those 
who have helped to fill our pages. 

Ere another Christmas greets us may there be peace to crown 
the honour we cherish so dearly. 

With kindly greetings to all our readers, and with the best of 
thanks to all our contributors, we look hopefnlly to the coming year 
with its many possibilities. 

Hy. J. Turner. 



The Entomologist's Record & Journal of Variation. 



VOL.. XXYII. 



SPECIAL INDEX. 

By T. HUDSON BEAEE, B.Sc, F.R.S.E., F.E.S. (Coleoptera); J. E. COLLIN, 
F.E.S. (Diptera); and H. J. TURNER, F.E.S. (Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, 
Lepidoptera, etc). 

Coleoptera arranged in order of Genera. The other orders arranged by Species, 
Species, Genera, etc., new to Britain are marked with an Asterisk*, those new 
to Science ^vith txco Asterisks**. 



ACARINA. 

coryli, Eriophyes . . 
dispar, Eriophyes . . 
Eriophyes . . 
foreli, Antennophorus 
lintearius, Tetranychus 
pubescens, Antennophorus 
triradiatus, Eriophyes 



PAGE 

. 23 

. 286 

. 21 

. 184 

. 215 

, 184 

. 286 



ARANEINA. 




aviculare, Mygale . . 


.. 188 


conicla, Cyclosa 


.. 282 


Thomisida? . . 


.. 184 


vatia, Misumena 


.. 184 


COLEOPTERA. 




Aegosoma scabricorne 


.. 257 


Agabus nebulosus . . 


.. 88 


paludosus . . 


.. 88 


Agrilus viridis 


.. 216 


Alophus triguttatus 


.. 88 


Amara acuminata . . 


.. 88 


anthobia . . 


.. 87 


lucida 


.. 87 


Anchomenes piceus 


.. 87 1 


viduus 


.. 87 


Anisodactylus binotatus . . 


.. 88 1 


Anthricus . . 


.. 200 


Apatophyes caspica 


. . 257 


Aphodius niger 


.. 216 


Apion hydrolapathi 


. . 88 i 


marchicura 


.. 88 


subulatum 


.. 88 


Aromia moschata . . 


..213 I 


Arrhaphypterus shelkovnikovi 


..257 1 


Athous rhombus 


.. 284 


Bembidium adustum 


.. 94 


anghcanum 


.. 94 


argenteokim 


.. 94 1 


assimile 


.. 88 


5-striatum 


. 94 


fluviatile .. 


. 94 


fumigatum 


. 94 


lunatum . . 


. 94 


nigricorne 


. 94 


prasinum . . 


. 94 


schuppoli . . 


. 94 


stomoides . . 


. 94 



testaceum . . 
Blethisa multipunctata 
Broscus cephalotus. . 
Bruchus chinensia (pectinicornis) 

*pusiilus var. seminarius 
Calosoma sycophanta 
Campylus hnearis . . 
Carabidae 
Carabus arvensis 

auratus 

nemoralis 

Carcinops minima .. 
Cassida equestris . . 

flaveola 
Cetoniidae 

Chiaenius nigricornis 
Chrysomela banksi . . 
Cicindela sublacerata 
Claviger testaceus . . 
Clytus arietis 
Coecinella bipunctata 
Ccelambus confluens 
C(florrhina mutica . . 
Colydium elongatum 
Crepidodera ventralis 
Criocephalus ferus . . 
Cryphalus abietis . . 
Dromius nigriventris 
J^ytiscidae 
Dytiscus circumcinctus 

margiiialis . . . . 199, 

Elater miniatus 

sanguinolentus . . . . 216, 

Eryx ater 

*Euthia formicetorum 
*Gabrius primigenius 
Geotrupes stercorarius 
Grammoptera prseusta 
* * Hal ti ca br i tte n i . . 

ericeti 
Harpalus ruficornis 
Helophorinae 
**Helophorus championi 

strigifrons. • 
Hispidus atra 
**Homalota exillima 
HydrophilidiE 
Hydrophilus profanifugus 

liavipes 



PAGE 

. 94 

. 87 

. 184 

140 

, 138 

. 187 

. 140 

. 87 

. 87 

. 187 

, 140 

. 88 

, 213 

88 

186 

, 87 

88 

257 

206 

216 

284 

88 

186 

216 



138 

88 

88 

187 

213 

216 

237 

213 

138 

21 

212 

216 

21 

21 

184 

137 

233 

233 

188 

235 

88 

257 

257 



SPECIAL INDEX. 





PAGE 


Hydroporus flavipes 


.. 88 


lituratus . . 


.. 88 


nigrita 


.. 88 


iimbrosus . . 


.. 88 


•Hypophld'us linearis 


.. 262 


Jubodella dilaticoUis 


.. 257 


Lacon murinus 


.. 184 


Lagria hirta. . 


.. 184 


Lampropborus tenebrosus. 


.. 120 


Lampyris noctiluca. . 


.. 213 


Lathrobium quadratum 


.. 88 


terminatum 


.. 88 


Leistotropbus murinus 


.. 88 


Leptinotarsa decemlineata 


.. 184 


Leptura scutellata . . 


.. 216 


Luciola italica 


.. 187 


Mantura rustica 


.. 88 


Meloe proscarabfeus 


.. 88 


Melolontba vulgaris 


.. 184 


Meotica exiliformis 


.. 281 


exilis 


.. 281 


Meotica 


.. 235 


Merimna atrsea 


.. 120 


Mesosa nubila 


.. 216 


Micraspis 16-punctata 


.. 187 


Morica planata 


.. 188 


Notiopbilus 4-punctati>6 . 


.. 187 


Ocbthebius bicolor . . 


.. 88 


Ocypus olens 


.. 184 


Otiorhynchus atroapterus . 


.. 88 


sulcatus . . 


.. 184 


Paracymus nigroajneus 


.. 88 


Pbgedon armoraciffi. . 


.. 88 


Philonthus agilis . . 


.. 88 


micans 


.. 88 


nigrita 


.. 88 


splendens . . 


.. 88 


Phylbydrus coarctatus 


.. 88 


Phyllotreta atra 


. . 88 


nigripes 


.. 88 


Pterosticbus madidus 


. 184, 213 


minor 


.. 87 


vernalis . . 


.. 87 


Quedius fulgidus . . 


.. 88 


maurorufus 


.. 88 


scintillans 


.. 88 


Kbagiuni inquisitor 


.. 284 


Rbantus grapii 


.. 88 


Rhyncbites minutus 


.. 88 


Rbyneopbora 


.. 88 


Scymnus arcuatus . . 


. 232, 284 


Silpha opaca 


.. 88 


Sitones cambricus . . 


.. 88 


Stapbylinidffi 


88, 200 


ytapbylinus ciesareus 


.. 88 


Stenus pallitarsis . . 


.. 88 


picipennis.. 


.. 88 


Stigmodera conspicillata . 


.. 120 


eyanura . . 


.. 120 


Stoniis pumicabus . . 


.. 87 


Strophosomus faber 


.. 88 


Subcoccinella 24-punctata 


.. 88 


Telephorinte . . 


72, 214 


Timarcha tenebricosa 


.. 213 


Tomicus bidens 


.. 262 



COLLEMBOLA. 

albinos, Cyphoderus 
viridis, Sminthurus 

CRUSTACEA. 

diaphanus, Branchippus . . 
hoffmannseggii, Platyarthrus 
Platyartbrus 

quadranguli, Ceriodaphnia 
rectangula, Alona . . 
scbobli, Platyartbrus 
serrulatus, Cyclops., 
sphfericus, Cbydorus 
strenuus, Cyclops . . 
tardus, Lucasius 

DIPTERA. 

Agromyza 

*bialorussica, Mycetopbila 
blattoides, ^nigmatias 
Bombylius , . 
Borborid;e . . 
brassicffi, Cbortopbila 
corvina, Musca 
cylindrica, Leptogaster 
domestica, Musca . . 
*eriopbthalma, Lasiops 
Ephydridffi . . 
fasciatus, Promachus 
*flavicauda, Tricbonta 
flavipennii, Tepbritis 
genisticola, Perrisia 
heraelei, Aeidia 
*hirtipes, Trichocera 
*bortensis, Culex . . 
keilini, Plastosciaria 
*ligulata, Execbia . . 
lubboeki, Platypbora 
*membranacea, Execbia . . 
morsitans, Glossina 
*mutatus, Trichopticus 
myrmecopbilus, Ceratopogon 
Nemotelus . . 
Nycteribia . . 
*pallescens, Eccoptomera . . 
parietina, Tepbritis 
*'"pernitida, Plastosciaria . . 
proboscidea, Tepbritis 
Promacbus . . 
rosaciella, Rhabdophaga . . 
salicaria, Perrisia . . 
salicis, Rbabdopbaga 
sisymbrii, Dasyneura 
Stratiomyidffi 
*subtusca, Tricbonta 
Sympboromyia 
*tarnanii, Rbymosia 
TipulidfB 
Trypetidffi . . 
*vernalis, Tricbonta 
violue, Cecidomyia, Urocystis 
virens, Agromyza . . 



PAGE 

. 184 
, 184 



284 
184 
183 
184 
184 

17 
184 
184 
184 

17 



.. 233 

.. 185 
.. 45 
.. 254 

.. 139 

.. 186 

140, 214 

.. 184 



138, 



233 
236 
139 

93 
185 

57 
287 
186 

20 
185 
281 
185 

45 
185 
283 
236 

72 
282 
141 
236 

57 
185 

57 
140 
286 
287 
286 
286 
282 
185 
234 
185 
233 

57 
185 
286 
234 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



HYMENOPTERA. 

abdominalis, Camponotus . . 23 

aceris, Phyllotoma . . . . . . 283 

Aculeata . . . . . . • • l-lo 

agrorum, Bombus . . . . • • 184 

albilabris, Cnibro . . • . . . 45 

aliena, Lasius . . . . 54, 207 

Andrena . . . . • • • • 234 

Anergates . . . . • • • • 2u6 

aspidioti. Aphidencyrtus . . . . 262 

aterrima, Phymatocera 145, 148, 149 

atratukis, Anergates • • . . 260 

barbaius, Messor . . . . . . 17 

batesii, Cardiocondyla .. .. 260 

becki (maculatus ab.), Camponotus 222 

Bombus . . . . . . . . 35 

Braconidie . . . . . . . . 262 

brevicornis, Hyheus . . . . 283 

biittanicus, Coccophagus . . . . 262 

brittanicus (aspidioti vnr.), Aphi- 
dencyrtus . . . . - . . . 262 

csespitum. Tetramorium .. ..53 

eallosus, Odyneius . . . . . . 184 

cameroni, Anochetus .. .. 237 

centuncularis, Megachile . . . . 213 

communis, Prosopis . . . . i)2 

conspieuus (maculatus subsp.), 

Camponotus . . . . . . 222 

derhaiuellus, Bombus .. .. 184 

Dimorphopteryx . . . . . . 234 

Donislliorpea . . 205, 206, 207 

Dufourea . . . . . . • . 283 

erraticum, Tapinonia . . . . 16 

ervi, Aphidius .. .. .. 263 

exsecta, Formica . . . . . . 260 

flavus, Lasius 55, 184, 205, 206, 207 

tloricola, Monomorium . . . . 260 

fodiens, Coliete? ., .. .. 184 

fcetens, Megaponera 120, 214, 236 

Formicidffi 237, 238 

frencbi, Tetramorium . . . . 117 

fugax, Solenopsis . . . . . . 260 

fuliginosa, Donistborpea . . . . 207 

fulvum, Stenamma. . .. .. 260 

fusca, Formica . . . . 53, 238 

germanica, Vespa .. .. .. 213 

gigas, Sirex . . . . . . . . 93 

graminicola, Myrmecina . . . . 283 

grossulariiE, Emphytus . . . . 145 

gwynana, Andrena.. .. .. 184 

Halictoides . . . . . . . . 283 

Halictup 266 

*bartigii, Ccenopachys .. .. 262 

hyalinata, Prosopis. . .. .. 184 

Ichneumon . . . . . . . . 113 

Icbneumonidse (Ophioninffi) 46, 90 

inflata. Cremastogaster . . . . 237 

inquilina, Epipbeidole . . . . 260 

instabilis, Azteca . . . . . . 260 

instigator, Pimpla . . . . . . 213 

joffrei, Tetramorium .. .. 117 

juvencus, Suex . . . . . . 23 

labialis, Andrena . . . . . . 237 

hevigatus, Halictus. . .. .. 283 



PAOK 

lasvinodis, Myrmica 54, 260, 266 

lapidarius, Bombus. . .. .. 216 

Lasius = Donistborpea 205,206, 207 
ligniperdus, Camponotus . . . . 260 

lobicornis, Myrmica 260, 265, 266 

longiclava, Apterotrix . . . . 262 

lucidus (rufescens sit/w^'O'Pob'si'gus 260 
lucorum, Bombus . . . . . . 184 

maculatus, Camponotus . . 221, 222 
meridionalis, Bothryomyrmex . . 17 
microgyna, Formica . . . . 260 

mixto-umbratus, Donistborpea . . 207 
Mymaridfe . . . . . . 72, 90 

Myimoturba. . .. .. .■ 222 

niger, Lasius 54, 184, 205, 206, 207 
nigra (batesi vnr.), Cardiocondyla 260 
nitidulus, Formicoxenus . . . . 72 

noctilio, Sirex . . . . 23, 93 

obturator, Leptothorax . . . . 260 

Odynerus 45, llO 

Opbioninas (Ichneumonidiv) 46, 90 

Opiime 234 

pagana, Arge . . . . . . 45 

pallidula, Pbeidole.. .. .. 16 

persuasoria, Rhyssa . . 93, 23 

Phyllotoma 283 

Phymatocera 145, 146, 147, 148, 149 
picea, Formica . . . . 45, 213 

piceum (aquia rflr.)(fulvum sulisp.), 

Stenamma . . . . • • 260 

popovici, Tetramorium .. ..117 

pratensis, Formica. . .. 187, 188 

radicis, Aphilothrix . . . . 286 

ramuli, Andricus . . . . . . 286 

ribesii, Nematus . . . . • . 145 

rubra, Myrmica . . . . 265, 266 

rufa, Formica 72, 138, 187, 213, 

214, 238 
rufescens, Polyergus . . . . 260 

rufibarbis, Formica . . . . 260 

ruginodis, Myrmica .. .. 260 

rugulosa, Myrmica . . . . . . 266 

sanguinea, Formica 238, 239, 259, 260 
scabrinodis, Myrmica 205, 258, 

260, 265, 266 
*schencki, Myrmica . . 265, 266 

sertifer, Pteronus . . . . . . 283 

simillimum. Tetramorium . . 260 

terrestris, Bombus . . . . . . 184 

tuberum, Leptothorax . . . . 260 

Tricbiosoma .. 145,146, 148 

truncicola, Formica .. .. 260 

tydei, Ammophila .. .. ..46 

umbratus, Lasius . . 205, 206, 207 
Vespida; . . . . . . . . 115 

viaticus, Mjrmecocystus .. .. 16 

vulgaris, Vespa . . . . 87, 115 

westwoodi, Stenamma . . . . 260 

williamsi (maculatus vor.), Cam- 
ponotus.. .. .. .. 222 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



abbreviata, Eupithecia 
abencerragus = baton 



286 
204 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

78, 121, 172 

.. 100 

144 

95 



abietai'ia, Boarmia. . 
Ablabia 

abrasana, Sciaphila .. 101, 

abruptaria, Hemeropbila .. 2, 

acacite, Nordmannia 28, 36, 39, 83, 
84, 85, 157, 
acainas, Spindasis, Aphnaeus 
Acentropus . . 
acerls, Apatela 
acetosaa, Nepticula . . 
achatinella, Nyctegretes 
achillcie, Anthrocera 
acbine, Pararge 
Acrolopus 
Acronicta 
actfea, Satyrus 

acteon, Tbymelicus 81, 172, 173, 
adippe, Argynnis 30, 67, 71, 78, 
83, 105, 171, 172, 190, 218, 279, 
adiiietus, Hirsutina 37, 38, 40, 83, 
adonis = tbetis 
adrasta (niiEra ah.), Pararge 
adusta, Had«iii, Eurois 75, 77, 
segeria, Pararge 15, 25, 30, 71, 73, 

73, 79, 105, 126, 130, 131, 143, 

171, 172, 183, 187, 192, 

Aegeriidffi (Sesiida-) 43, 119, 202, 

203, 

Kjgidion (argyrognomon var.), 

Plebeius .. .. 164, 

ffigon (argus), Plebeius 29, 37, 58, 

71, 74, 105, 122, 123, 124, 
125, 172, 173, 217, 218, 219, 
aello, Oeneis 

**ffiratana, Lipoptycba .. 95, 
aarealis, Botys 
sescularia, Anisopteryx 
8esculi = pyrina 

assculi, Strymon (Tbecia) . . 262, 282 
ffistiva (duponcheli var.}, Leptosia 
ajtbiops, Erebia 30, 51, 59, 66, 
alHnis, Calymnia . . 
affinitata, Perizoma, EramelesiaSl: 
agatbina, Agrotis . . 

Ageroiiia 97,98, 

agestis = medon .. ..4,204, 

aglaia, Argynnis 6, 30, 67, 71, 73, 

76, 83, 105, 141,164, 171, 176, 
267, 
Agriades 

agrippina, Tbysania 
Agrotidte 
ajax, Papilio 

albana (variegana ah.), Peronea . . 
albianteiiniBlla, Coleopbora 
albicans (coridon var.), Agriades 
189, 279, 
7, 76, 170, 
75, 



158 

62 

134 

2 

68 

19 

93 

106 

134 

263 

84 

190 

285 

84 

177 
274 



235 
166 



273 
22 
118 
224 
168 



162 

78 

76 

75 

154 

305 



albicillata, Mesoleuca 
albicolon, Mamestra 
albicosta, Coleopbora 
albifrontella, Elacbisda 
albipuncta, Leucania 
albipunctata, Eupithecia . . 
**alboconspersana (conspersana, 
ab.), Cnepbasia 



285 
283 
141 
249 
186 
94 
235 

280 

172 

78 

50 

SO 

272 

142 

118 



PAGE 

**albooctomacuIana (octomacu- 

lana (/7>.), Cnepbasia .. 102, 118 
albulata, Emmelesia . . . . 3 

alcea;, Erynnis . . 39, 77, 79, 177 
alcella (tessarana), Cbrosis .. 183 

alcetas, Everes .. .. ..38 

alebemillata, Perizoma . . . . 51 

aleipbron, Loweia, Cbrysopbanus 
28, 29, 35, 58, 66, 80, 82, 108, 

128, 175, 213 
alcippus (cbrysippus var.), Danais 62 
alcyone, Satyrus 59, 84, 98, 125, 

275, 276 
aleeto, Erebia 27, 30, 136, 156, 158 
aleeto, Tberetra . . . . . , 257 

alexandrffi, Ornitboptera . . . . 236 

alexanor, Papilio . . . . . . 84 

alexis = iearus .. ..28,29, 79 

algse, Bryophila . . . . . . 123 

allardi, Scolitantides .. .. 204 

alniella, Lithocolletis . . . . 232 

alnifoliella, LitbocoUetis . . . . 49 

alpella, Cerostoma . . . . . . 68 

alpina (medon I'a/-.), Aricia .. 224 

alpinalis, Botys . . . . . . 225 

alsines, Caradrina . . . . . . 272 

alternana, Seiapbila . . . . 100 

altba38e, Erynnis 39, 40, 79, 83, 177 
alticola, Hepialus . . . . . . 123 

alticolana, Cnepbasia . . . . 100 

Alucitides (Pterophorina) . . 69, 274 
alveus, Hesperia . . . . 166, 224 

amandus, Polyommatus 15, 16, 37 
39, 59, 83, 104, 128, 1-56, 160, 

200, 201, 202, 267 
amasina (trux at.), Agrotis 192, 193 
amatbusia, Brentbis ..30,66, 105 

ambigua, Caradrina . . . . 272 

arabigualis, Scoparia . . . . 50 

Amblypodia . . . . . . ... 136 

amenopbis = evanida .. 129, 268 

Amorphinne . . . . . . . . 227 

ampbidamas, Loweia 14, 28, 29, 

58, 65, 104, 1.56, 157, 160, 161 
amphinoine, Peridroma . . . . 154 

Anapbora . . . . . . . . 134 

Anapborinffi . . . . 135, 136 

anellus (bipunctanus), Melisso- 

blaptes . . . . . . . . 19 

angulifasciella, Nepticula . . . . 68 

angulifera, Samia . . . . . . 21 

angustana, Euxanthis . . . . 183 

angustea, Eudoria . . . . . . 173 

anomala, Stilbia . . . . 78, 143 

anteros, Aricia . . . . . . 37 

Anthocharid.'ii . . . . . . 67 

Antbrocera (Zygaena) 22, 29, 43, 

72, 205, 216 
Antbroceridffi (Zygsenidte) 22, 29, 

43, 74, 134 
anthyllidis, Antbrocera . . 22, 93 
antico-obsoleta (icarus ab.), Poly- 
ommatus . . • . . . 24 
antico-striata (icarus ah.), Polyom- 
matus . . . . . . . • 24 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



antiopa, Euvanessa 25, 35, 40, 59, 22(3 
antiqua, Orgyia .. ..2,231,286 

Apaturidi . . . . 157, 158, 161 

Aphantopus . . . . . . . . 153 

Aphomia . . . . . . . . 230 

apiforme, Aegeria, Trochilium . , 177 
apollo, Painassius 29, 30, 58, 66, 

84, 105, 107, 108, 123, 161, 

162, 200, 201, 222, 267 

applar>a, Depressaria . . . . 182 

aprilina, Agriopis . . . . . . 94 

arbusculfB, Eriogaster . . 168, 225 

arbutella, Eucbromia . . . . 182 

arcania, Coenonympha 30, 39, 59, 

66, 83, 104, 105, 106, 123 
areas, Lyc-ena 14, 26, 29, 106, 157, 

160, 200, 201, 202, 268 

Arctiidae 202 

Arctiinffi . . . . . . . . 43 

arcuata = melanotoxa 

arcuosa, Petilampa. . .. 7,50, 78 

arenella, Depressaria . . . . 49 

arete, Ageronia . . . . . . 98 

arete (byperantus «/>.), Aphantopus 141 

arethusa, Ageronia. . .. .. 154 

argentana, Cnephasia,Argyroptera, 

Nepbodesme . . . . 100, 102 

argentana, Aphelia. . .. 164, 166 
argentata (pseudargiolus ab.), 

Celastrina .. .. .. 211 

argentula, Coleophora . . . . 69 

argiades, Everes 38, 40, 83, 137, 

141, 159, 160, 189, 275 

argillacea, Dianthcecia . . . . 271 

argiolus, Celastrina 2, 25, 35, 59, 

78, 79, 129, 130, 131, 132, 143, 

169, 170, 171, 172, 174, 176, 

189, 190, 19], 204, 207, 210, 

211, 220, 231, 263, 274 
argus = segon 

Argynnidffi . . . . . . . . 67 

argyrognomon, Plebeius 45,58, 71, 

164, 166, 213, 223, 224, 225 

Argyroptera . . . . . . . . 100 

arinome, Peridroma . . . . 154 

arion, Lycsena 5, 6, 35, 58, 83, 

123, 189, 217, 237, 258, 282, 283 
arizonensis (pscudargiolus ab.), 

Celastrina . . . . . . 211 

armoricanus, Hesperia . . 35, 37 

Arotrura . . . . . . . . 134 

arragonensis (coridon var.), Agri- 

ades 127, 280 

arsilache (pales var.), Brentbis 30, 

107, 1.39, 158, 164, 166, 214, 

224, 263 

artaxerxes (medontJ«/-.), Aricia 71, 220 

aruncella, Micropteryx . . . . 49 

arundinis, Nonagria . . . . 143 

asbworthii, Agrotis. . .. 23, 285 

asinalis, Botys . . . . . . 6 

asinana, Cnepbasia . . . . 100 

aspersana, Peronea.. 51, 182, 183 

asperaria, Gnopbos. . .. .. 123 

assimilata, Eupithecia . . 2, 172 



PAGE 

assimilis (exulis ab.), Crymodes .. 143 

asteria, ftlelitaea . . . . . . 14 

asterias, Papilio . . 119, 184, 186 

astrarebe = niedon .. 23,80,125, 176 

atalanta, Pyrameis 20, 22, 39, 59, 

78, 93, 120, 123, 126, 129, 139, 

172, 173, 176, 214, 231, 236, 

252, 263, 273, 285 

atalanta (i« <'/vor) = cardui .. 23 

atbalia, Melita^a . . 39, 40, 59, 278 

atomalis, Scoparia . . . . . . 183 

atomaria, Eniaturga 49, 50, 76, 95, 

170, 219 
atra (t» e/7o;') = atrata .. .. 171 
atra = hellerella 

atrata (cbaBrophyllata), Odezia 3, 

171, 187 
atropos, Manduca .. ..20,33, 187 

augur, Noctua . . . . . . 1 

aurago, Ocbria . . . . . . 285 

aurantiaria, Hibernia . . . . 144 

aurea (chrysitis, ((?^), Plusia .. 123 
aureatella, Micropteryx . . . . 50 

aurelia, Melitsea 15, 28, 103, 104, 

156, 278 
auriflua = siniilis 
aurinia, Melittea 13, 25, 26, 29, 45, 

70, 82, 158, 159, 169, 174, 225 

aurita, Endrosa . . . . . . 154 

aurivillius (electra a?i.), Colias .. 188 

aurolimbata, Orgyia . . . . 123 

ausonia (belia var.), Anthocharis 

27, 81 

autumnaria, Eugonia ..47,48, 230 

aversata, Acidalia .. .. 171, 172 

avis, Callophrys . . . . , . 277 

azagra (tbersites ab.), Agriades . . 176 

bacbmanni, Libytbea .. .. 119 

badiatii, Anticlea .. .. 49, 188 

badiella, Depressaria . . . . 182 

baja, Noctua . . . . 1 75 

balcanica (semiargus var.), Poly- 

ommatus . . . . . . 35 

balcanica - intermedia (semiargus 

var.), Polyommatus . . . . 35 

Baoris . . . . . . . . 269 

barrettii (luteago var.), Dianthoecia 

1, 5, 6, 22, 46, 69, 70, 271 
basijuncta (icarus ab.), Polyomma- 
tus 24 

basilinea, Apamea . . . .• 4, 170 

batis, Thyatira . . . . 3, 6, 78 

baton, Scolitantides 14, 37, 79, 175, 204 

baton = abencerragus .. .. 204 

bavius, Scolitantides . . 39, 40 

baxteri (gueneei ah.), Luperina . . 276 

belemia, Anthocharis . . 62, 129 
belgiaria, Scodiona. . .. ..76 

belia = crameri 27, 36, 37, 39, 61, 
61, 62, 66, 79, 80, 81, 120, 

159, 175, 187, 204 

belia i« error = tagis .. .. 79 

bellargus = thetis 

bellatrix, Aphna^us.. ,. .. 62 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



bellezina (tap;is var.), Antbocharis 

79, 80, 120 
bellidice (daplidice var.), Pontia 79, 80 
bellus (quercusrt/;.), Bithys 36, ]4H, 188 
bembeciformis = crabroniformis 
berKmanniana, Toitrix . . . . fiS 

berisalensis (deione var.), Melitica 

14, -28, 159 
betula', Oinix . . . . . . 50 

betuho, lluialis 31, 58, 143, 17'2, 188 
betularia, Amphidasis . . '2, 3, 112 
biarouata (icarus ah.), Polyomniatus 24 
bicolorana (qnercana), Hylophila 3 

bicolorata, Melanthia . . . . 96 

bicoloria, Miaiia . . . . 75, 172 

bicuspis, Dicranura . . . . 74 

bidentata. Odontopera 23, 24, 76, 

109, 113, 114, 170 
bieti(hypevantus !?«/•.), Aphantopus 141 
bifida, Dicianiua . . . . . . 74 

bilinea (trigrammiea ab.), Gram- 

mesia . . . . . . . . 4 

bilineata, Camptogramina, Laren- 

tia .. ..76, 123, 170, 183 

bilunaria (illnnaria), Selenia 2, 188 
bimaeulata, Bapta . . . . . . 43 

binaria (hamula), Drepana . . 3 

biocellata, Nacaduba . . . . 93 

bipuncta («gon ab.), Plebeius . . 122 
bipunctana, Avgyroploce . . . . 182 

bipunctanus = anellus 
bipunctaria, Ortbolitha, EuboMa 

6, 7, 76, 123 
bipunctidactyla, Adkinia . . 144, 182 
biscutana, Eucosma . . . . 182 

bisetata, Acidalia . . . . . . 172 

bisontella, Ochsenheimeria . . 52 

bistortata, Tephrosia . . . . 49 

biundularia, Tephrosia . . . . 168 

blacbieri (cyllarus ab.), Nomiades 27 
blandiata, Perizonia . . . . 50 

bleuesi (dorilis var.), Loweia . . 14 
biomeri, Asthena . . . . 76, 171 

bciticus, Lampides 13, 40, 123, 

125, 126, 127, 129, 159, 175, 

189, 278 
boleti, Scardia . . . . . . 93 

boinbyliformis = tityus 

boiidii, Tapinostola .. .. 143 

boibonica, Baoris . . . . . . 269 

boreata, Ciieimatobia . . 52, 280 
bradyporina (leporina ab.), Acron- 

icta 170 

brassicffi, Mamestra . . 78, 183 

brassiere, Pievis 22, 25, 32, 38, 34, 

58, 79, 80, 141, 142, 170, 172, 

175, 183, 187, 191, 231, 273 
brevicauda, Papilio .. .. 186 

bievilinea, Leucania . . . . 143 

briseis, Satyrus . . 40, 85, 127, 159 
brockeella, Aigyresthia . . 50, 182 
brumata, Cheiniatobia . . . . 144 

brunnea, Noctua .. .. 1, 75 

bryonire (napi rar.), Pieris .. 220 

bucepbala, Pygaera . . 2, 231 



PAflE 

276 



266 

143 
46 



70 
166 
142 

286 
52 
ls9 
119 
167 
137 

182 



50 



buoliana, Evetria . . 

burdigalensis (macbaon ab.), 
Papilio . . . . . . 25, 

cieca (byperantns ab.), Aphan- 
topus . . 73, 141, 

crevulea (icarus), Polyomniatus . . 

CiEruleocephala, Diloba 

creruleopunetata (phlajas ab.), 
llumicia 

ciPsiata, Entephria . . . .51. 76, 

caia, Arctia .. ..74, 78, 141. 

c-album, Polygonia 23, 27, 28, 73, 
139, 157, 158, 231, 

caledoniana, Peronea 

calida (medon var.), Aricia 176, 

californica, Synchlot' 

callidice, Pcntia . . 66, 166. 

Callimorpha. . .. .. 134, 

calodactyla (zetterstedtii), Frede- 
ricina . . 

calluniE (quercus nir.), Lasioeampa 

74, 216 

calthella, Micropteryx 

cambrica (cambricata), 
Yenusia. . 

camelina, Lophopteryx 

Camilla, Limenitis . . 

cana, Catoptria 

caniola, Litbosia 

cannre, Nonagria 

capsincdla, Dianthcecia 

capsophila (carpophaga 
Dianthieeia 

Caradrinu' 

cardamines, Euchloe 2, 24, 2i, 29, 
37, 58, 59, 70, 73, 78, 79, 80, 
95, 104, 130, 131, 130, 170, 

175, 187, 191, 251. 263, 286 

cardui, Pyrameis 5, 22, 23, 59, 62, 
78, 79, 93. 119, 123, 125, 126, 
12'.^, 173, 174, 176, 188, 231, 

251, 263, 273 

carpinata (lobulata), Lobophora 

4y, 76, 286 

carpini = pavonia 

carpophaga, Dianthcecia 23, 190, 271 

cartbami, Hesperia .. .. 81, 177 

casaieus (regon var.), Plebeius 122, 

123, 124 

Cassandra (polvxena var.), Thais 

36, 81 

cassiope (epipbron var.), Erebia 30, 158 



Acidulia, 




..51, 76, 


143 




74 


81. 


157 


.. 144, 


183 




271 




143 


78, 


271 


I var.). 




23. 190. 


271 




272 



casta, Fumea 
castanea, Noctua . . 
castigata, Eupitheoia 
castilanus, Hepialus 
castrensis, Malacosonia 
Catasticta . . 
Catocalae 
Catonephele . . 
celerio, Hippotion . . 
celtis, Libytbea 
cembrre, Scoparia . . 
centaureata = oblongata 
centifoliella, Nepticula 



50, 



78 

75 

142 

.. 123 

123, 216 

45, 72, 214 

.. 235 

227, 283 

.. 188 

25, 84, 85 

52, 170, 173 

69 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



centripuncta (tiliffi ob.), Mimas .. 
centum-notata (truncata ab.), 

Cidaria . . 
cerisyi, Thais . . . . 37, 

ceronus (thetis var.). Agriades 28, 

66, 
Cerostoma . . 
certata, Eucosmia . . 
Cervantes (tages var.), Nisoniades 
cervinata, Ortholitha, Eubolia 4, 
cerymica, Plcetzia . . 
cespitalis, Herbula (Pyrausta) 50, 
cespitis, Luperina . . . . 20, 

ceto, Erebia. . . . . . 66, 

chffiiophyllata = atrata 
cliamanica (loewii var.), Plebeius 
chamomilht, Cucullia 
Charaxes 

charlonia, Antliocbaris . . 129, 
cbarlotta (aglaia ab.), Argynuis .. 
chi, Poha .. 24,52,75,231, 
chilo, Acia?a. . 

chlorodippe (adippe var.), Argynnis 
chnsti, Eiebia . . 27, 107, 

chrysantheana, Cnephasia 100, 
101, 
ehrysippus, Danais. . .. 62, 

chrysitaria (peiinigeraria «?/.), Eur- 

ranthus . 
chrysitis, Plusia . . . . 123, 

chrysocephala(geryoni'«/-.), Adscita 
chrysomellus, Zezius 
ChrysophanidEe . . . . 65, 

Chrysopbanus . . . . 66, 

chrysonbcta, Euproctis 

chrysotheme, Colias 

Cidaria 

Cigaritis 

cinerea, Agrotis 

cinerea (pseudargiolus ab.), Celas- 

trina .. •• .. 211, 

ciaxia, Melitsea . . 36, 80, 271, 
circe (pr(iserpina), Satyrus 
circe, tsatyrus 36, 84, 156, 157, 
158, 161, 162, 
circellaris, Amathes 
cirrana (variegana ab.), Peronea . . 
citraria = ochrearia 
citrata = iaimanata, Dysstroma 52, 
76, 78, 96, 178, 179, 180, 181, 
citronia(cardainines rar.), Eucbloe 
cladiella (tbrasonella v<ir.), Gly- 

phipteryx . . 
clatbrata, Cbiasmia . . 78, 

cleodippe (adippevur.), Argynnis. . 
cleodoxa (adippe var.), Argynnis 

105, 190, 
Cleopatra, Gonepteryx 25, 40, 58, 
59, 79, 80, 
climene (synclimene), Epinephele 
clytie (ilia var.), Apatura 21, 157, 
158, 161, 162, 
Cnephasia (Sciapbila) 99, 100, 101, 
c-nigrura, Noctua . . . . 75, 

Codonia 



PAGE > PAGE 

142 Ctwnonympha 66, 152, 153, 156, 204 

' cognata, Eupithecia . . . . 142 

23 ! Coleophora 135, 235 

40 : Coleophoridffi 144 

Colias 34, 72, 187 

170 Coliida3 67 

68 ( colqubounana, Nephodesme 100, 102 

43 comes, Triphffina .. .. ..51 

177 I comma, Leueania . . . . • • 171 

78 i comma, Urbicola . . . . 6, 123, 139 

140 i communana, Sciapbila . . 100, 101 

182 j compiana, Litbosia . . . . 78 

78 complanella, Tischeria . . . . 50 

155 eomplanula, Lithosia . . . . 263 
compta, Dianthoecia . . . . 123 

65 i concinnata, Dysstroma 178, 179, 

95 : 180, 181 
137 ; concomitella, Lithosia . . . . 227 

204 i confertata (puUata var.), Gnopbos 123 

76 I confusa (johnstoni far.), Acraea .. 237 
286 j confusalis, Nola 78 

72 ' conjugella, Argyresthia .. ..50 

279 I conspersa = nana 

158 I Gonspersana, Cnephasia 100, 102, 118 
I conspersella, Swammerdammia . . 182 

102 constrietata = distinetata 

129 contaminana, Teras . . . . 182 
contaminei, Anthrocera .. ..22 

123 ' contaminellus, Crambus . . . . 19 

170 contiguaria, Acidalia, Ptychopoda 

164 23, 142 

63 I conversaria (repandata var.), 

128 ' Boarmia ' ..6,24,70,283,284 

67 ■ convolvuli, Agrius .. 21, 74, 260, 272 

286 conwayana, Argyrotoxa . . . . 50 

58 i Coptotriche . . . . . . . . 135 

96 cordula, Satyrus . . . . 66, 84 

205 coretas, Everes .. 159,266,275 
4 coridon, Agriades 23, 24, 30, 46, 

58, 65, 67, 70, 71, 85, 86, 95, 
276 96, 127, 131, 139, 141, 142, 

273 143, 164, 173, 187, 189, 210, 

156 220, 221, 224, 231, 279, 280, 

283, 

267 coronata, , Eupithecia, Chryso- 
75 I clystis .. .. .. 3, 

94 coronillella, Anacampsis . . 

corticea, Agrotis, Euxoa 75, 194, 

corydonis (coridon ah.), Agriades 
198 I corylata, Cidaria .. 
104 coryli, Demas 

coryli, LithocoUetis 
151 cosmopborana. Coccyx 

123 Cossidas 

279 costajuncta (segon ab.), Plebeius . . 

costajuncta (icarus ab.), Polyom- 
279 matus . . 

costajuncta (medon a&.), Aricia .. 
175 costajuncta (thetis a6.), Agriades. . 
156 costalis, Pyralis 

costosa, Depressaria 
267 crabroniformis (bembeciformis), 
144 Trochilium 

77 craccae, Toxocampa 
125 Crambus .. .. 19,20,123, 



284 

78 
280 
282 
224 

49 

77 
232 
144 

43 
122 

24 

220 

218 

2 

183 

74 

5 

231 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PA<iE 

cramerella, Lithocolletis . . . . 49 
crameri (belia), Anthocharis 27, 36, 

37, 39, 61, (12, 66, 79, 80, 81, 

120, 159, 175, 187, 204 

crata>gata, Rumia . . . . . . 286 

cratffigi, Aporia .. 37, 80, 175, 204 

cratiegi, Trichiura . . . . 7, 286 

crenana, Phla'des . . . . . . 182 

crepuscularia, Tephrosia . . . . 286 

cretacea (segon var.}, Plebeius 217, 218 

cribrellum, Hesperia . . . . 102 

cribrum, Myelophila . . . . 2 

cristulalis, Nola . . . . . . 4 

croatica, Macroglossa . . . . 36 

crocealis, Ebulea . . . . . . 7 

croceus = edusa 

cruciana, Hypermecia .. .. 182 

cruciferarum = maculipennis 

cucubali, Dianthoecia .. 50, 123 

cucullatella, Nola . . . . 2, 286 

culmellus, Crambus . . 51, 182 
cuneiger (dispar ab.), Chrysopha- 

nus 212 

curius, Leptocircus. . .. .. 285 

cursoria, Agrotis . . . . . . 197 

curtisellus. Prays . . 68 

Cybdelis 285 

Cyclogramma . . . . . . 263 

cygnipennella, Elachista . . . . 183 

cyllarus, Nomiades, Glaucopsyche 

25, 27, 28, 80, 82, 103, 143, 

174, 176. 204, 218, 267 

cynthia, Melitsea . . . . . . 158 

cytisaria = pruinata . . 

dahlii, Noctua . . . . . . 75 

damon, Polyoramatus 30, 59, 65, 67 

damone, Euchloe . . 58, 139, 141 

daphne, Brenthis .. ..36,39, 83 

daplidice, Pontia 28, 35, 58, 61, 

66, 79, 80, 81, 103, 124, 125, 

126, 127, 159, 175, 187, 286 

Daptoneura . . . . . . . . 214 

darwiniana (arcania i^<ir.), Cwno- 

nympha .. ..30,66, 106 
dealbata = lineata .. 
decolorata = flavofasciata .. 

decrepitalis, Pionea . . . . 50 

deloliaria, Hibernia 143, 144, 280, 284 



deione, Melitaea 

deleta (lacticolor) 
ab.), Abraxas 
Delias 
delius, Parnassius 



14, 28, 82, 83, 
159, 176, 204, 
(grossulariata 

24, 

15, 27, 30, 58, 



60, 107, 108, 158, 159, 

demodocus, Papilio.. 
demolion, Papilio .. 
dentina, Hadena, Mamestra 

deplana, Lithosia . . 
derasa, Habrosyne, Thyatira 
derivana, Cnephasia 
derivata, Anticlea . . 
descombesi, Delias . . 



163, 
266, 



123, 
170, 



3, 



277 



142 
22 



267 

188 

90 

183 
284 

78 
100 

78 
140 



PA8E 

deserticola, Melitasa . . . . 62 

depfontainii, Melitaea . . 72, 176 

designata, Coremia 50, 51, 52, 169 

Deuterocopus . . . . . . 277 

dia, Brenthis .. .. 28, 30 

diana, Simaethis, Allononvma . . 182 

DianthiMiffi .. .. '. 141, 271 

Dicranuridie. . .. .. ..74 

dictseoides, Pheosia, Notodonta 74, 77 
dictynna, Melitasa 29,59, 104, 105, 

156, 216 
didyma, Melitaea 39, 59, 104, 125, 

126, 204, 216 

didymata, Melenydris .. 51, 76 

diffinis, Calyinnia . . . . . . 78 

diffinis, Gelechia . . . . . . 68 

dilutaria = interjectaria 

dilutata, Oporabia . . . . . . 52 

disco-elongata (segon ab.), Plebeius 122 

Discophora . . . . . . . . 227 

Dismorphia . . . . . . . . 22 

dispar, Chrysophanus . . 212, 282 

dissimilis, Mamestra . . . . 78 

distinctaria (constrictata), Eupi- 

theeia . . . . . . . . 144 

ditrapeziura, Noctua .. .. 1 

divisa (scabiosaj ab.), Anthrocera 123 

dominuia, Callimorpha . . . . 143 

donzelii, Aricia .. .. 158, 159 

dorilis, Loweia 14, 15, 30, 36, 66, 

107, 128 

dorus, Ccenonympha 83, 124, 125, 177 

dotata, Larentia . . . . . . 123 

doubledayaria (betularia var.), 

Amphidatis . . . . 2, 3 

Drepanulidas . . . . . . 43, 74 

dromedarius, Notodonta . . 74, 274 

dryas, Enodia, Satyrus . .30, 38, 40 

dubitalis (pyralella), Scoparia 50, 183 

dubitana, Eupoecilia . . . . 94 

dubitata, Scotosia . . . . . . 272 

duplaris, Palimpsestis, Cymato- 

phora . . . . . . 3, 7, 51 

duponeheli, Leptosia 37, 38, 40, 80 

Dysstroraa . . . . . . . . 181 

Earias 205 

echo (pseudargiolus ab.), Celastrina 211 

edda, Erebia . . . . . . 155 

edusa, Colias 4, 22, 24, 25, 35, 36, 

39, 58, 62, 63, 67, 71, 78, 79, 

124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 175, 

188, 204, 208, 215, 231, 273 

egea, Polygonia . . 36. 79, 82, 84 
egerides (^geria var.), Pararge 15, 

25, 30, 187, 192 

egialea, Acrtea . . . . . . 93 

Elachista 232 

electra, Colias . . . . . . 188 

eleus (phlffias !'«»•.), Kumicia .. 142 

elinguaria, Crocallis ..2, 172, 284 

ellena, Satyrus . . . . . . 204 

elongella, Gracilaria . . . . 182 

elpenor, Eumorpha . . 20, 272 
elymi, Tapinostola. . .. ..75 

emarginata, Acidalia . . . . 7 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



49 
15, 107, 108, 158 



PAGE 

Emmelesia . . . . . . . . 76 

encedon, Acraaa .. .. .. 139 

Endrosa . . . . . . . . 154 

Epinephele 31, 152, 158, 154, 155, 

156, 204 
epiphron, Erebia 30, 31, 122, 155, 

217, 219, 225, 226 
epistygne, Erebia .. ..78,79, 80 

equitella, Glyph iptei\yx . . . . 151 

erate, Colias. . .. .. 58, 71 

Erebia 26, 27, 30, 66, 108, 152, 

153, 155, 156, 158, 160, 163, 226 

Erebiinffi 67 

ericetaria (plumaria), Selidosema 

219, 271 
ericetella, Geleehia 
eriphyle, Erebia 
eris (niobe rar.), Argynnis .. 177 

eros, Polyommatus 45, 90, 158, 

159, 164, 187, 213 
Erycinid8e = RiodinidiE .. .. 278 

Erynnis . . . . . . . . 39 

escheri, Polyommatus 59, 83, 176, 

188, 189, 213, 236, 262, 283 

Euchloe 139 

eucrate (sac ab.), Powellia .. 123 

eudora-mauretanica, Epinephele.. 204 
eudora = lycaon 

Eudoria (Scoparia) 165, 172, 173, 278 
eumedon, Aricia .. ..22,59, 224 

euonymellus (padi), Hyponomeuta 20 
eupheme, Zegris . . 58, 143, 175 

euphemus, Lyciena 26, 29, 58, 105, 
106, 162, 200, 201, 
e'upheno = crameri (belia) .. 
euphenoides, Euchloe 25, 59, SO, 

143, 
euphorbiffi, Celerio, Deilephila, 

Hyles 34, 257 

euphorbife-mauretanica, Celerio . . 205 
euphrosyne, Brenthis 29, 66, 73, 
81, 103, 105, 130, 142, 166, 

169, 188, 191, 285, 286 
Eupithecia 42, 43, 119, 135, 141, 

142, 227, 228, 276 
euryale, Erebia 30, 59, 66, 158, 223 
eurybia (hippothoe r«)-.), Heodes 

107, 167 
eurymedon, Papilio. . .. .. 186 

eurytheme, Colias, Eurymus . . 119 
evanida, Pyrgus, Hesperia, . . 64 

evanida (amenophis), Hesperia 64, 

65, 129, 268, 270 
evias, Erebia 82, 105, 121, 122, 

160, 177 
exanthemaria, Cabera . . . . 272 
exclamationis, Euxoa, Agrotis 4, 

183, 196, 197, 198 
exiguata, Eupithecia . . 2, 78 

exoleta, Calocampa . . 75, 77 

extensaria, Eupithecia .. .. 143 

extrema (minimus nli.), Cupido 

24, 70 
exulans, Anthrocera 70, 93, 168, 287 
exulis, Crymodes . . . . . . 143 



202 

204 



175 



fabriciana (oxyacanthella), SimiE- 

this 151, 183 

fagella, Chimabache . . 68, 168 

fagi, Stauropus . . . . . . 130 

faginella, Litbocolletis . . . . 50 

falcataria, Drepana . . 50, 74 

falloui, Anthocharis . . . . 204 

farinosa, Gonepteryx . . . . 38 

fascelina, Dasychira . . 270, 271 

fasciata, Arctia . . . . . . 122 

fasciuncula, Miana . . 51, 171, 183 

fatma, Scolitantides . . 204, 205 

fausta, Teraeolus . . . . . . 62 

februa, Ageronia .. .. 98, 154 

feisthamelii (podalirius v/ir.), Pa- 
pilio .. ..125, 126, 127, 204 

fenestrella, Thyris, Endrosis 123, 

183, 190 
ferchaultella, Luffia . . . . 282 

ferrugalis, Pionea . . . . . . 52 

ferrugana, Peronea. . .. .. 52 

ferrugata, Coremia.. 49, 136, 169, 170 
fervida (trux I'fj/-.), Agrotis .. 197 

festiva = primul8e, Noctua. 
festucffi, Plusia .. .. .. 170 

fibulella, Adela .. .. 144, 170 

fidia, Satyrus . . 85, 126, 127, 205 

filipendulse, Anthocharis . . 4, 22, 

120, 131, 164, 183, 224, 284, 287 
fimbria, Triph^na . . 2, 6, 46, 144 

firmata, Thera . . . . . . 78 

fischeriella, Glyphipteryx . . . . 183 

fisonii (betulte ab.), lluralis .. 31 

tissipuncta, Dyschorista . . . . 286 

flammealis, Endotricha . . 172, 183 
tiava (linea) (thaumas), Adopa3a 

6, 39, 59, 73, 171, 177 
flavescens (quadripunctaria <(''.), 

Callimorpha . . . . . . 272 

flavicincta, Poha . . . . . . 272 

flavicinctata, Larentia, Entephria 

142, 224 
flavicornis, Polyploca . . . . 49 

flavidior (simplonia I'nr.}, Antho- 
charis 27, 66, 82 

flavifrontella, Borkhausenia . . 68 
flaviolaria, Acidalia 164, 166, 223 

flavofasciata, Erebia 16, 107, 108, 

164, 165 
flavofasciata (decolorata), Perizoma 

78, 271 
florella, Catopsilia - . . . . . 129 

liuctuata, Xanthorhoe, Melanippe 

170, 183, 187, 271 
fowleri (coridon a/>.), Agriades .. 173 
fontis, Bomolocha . . . . . . 78 

forticalis, Pionea . . . . . . 172 

francillonana, Lozopera . . . . 226 

fraterna (aiundinis ab.), Nonagria 143 
fraxinata (innotata), Eupithecia 

2, 119, 142 
frequentella, Scoparia . . . . 51 

fritilla, Ageronia . . . . . . 98 

fritillum, Hesperia . . . . . . 278 

fulgurita, Eribomorpha . . . . 21 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

fuliginaiia, Parascotia . . . . 72 

fuliginosa, Phrasmatobia . .50, 74, 78 

fulva, Tapinostola 52 

fulvago, Mellinia . . . . 142, 285 

fiiniata, Acidalia . . . . 51, 76 

fumida (pseudargiolus ah.), Cela- 
stvina .. .. .. .. 211 

fusca, PygmaMia . . . . . . 22-5 

fusca, Salebria . . . . . . 51 

fusca (neurica ((//.), Nonagria .. 142 
fuscata (abruptavia ah.), Hemero- 

pbila . . . . . . . . 95 

fuscedinella, Coleopbora . . . , 183 

fusconebulo.sa (velleda), Hepialus 

74, 78 
fuscoviridella, Glyphipteryx . . 151 

furcata (sordidata), Hydriomena 

51, 76 
fuicatellus, Crambus . . . . 224 

furva, Mamestra . . . . . . 23 

galactina (compta «'>.), Diantbcecia 123 
galactodactyla, Ponittia . . . . 4 

galathea, Melanargia 6. 28, 39, 71, 

71, 74, 83, 131, 171, 217, 267 
galiata, Xantborhoe, Larentia 6, 

78, 95, 123, 271 
gallii, Celerio . . . . . . 141 

gamma, Plusia 123, 170, 174, 190, 231 

Gegenes 269 

gemina, Apamea . . . . . . 51 

gemmana (njevana var.), Grapbo- 

litha 182 

gemmaria, Boarmia 5, 170, 172, 284 
gemmifeiana, Grapbolitha (Laspey- 

resia) . . . . . . . . 23 

geniculeus, Crambus . . . . 231 

genistse, Hadena . . . . . 4 

**genitalana, Cnepbasia (Sciapbila) 

95, 100, 102, 118 

gentiana, Pentbina 23 

geoffrella, Harpella. . .. .. 170 

Geometrffi . . . . . . . . 75 

Geometridae . . 40, 43, 170, 177, 229 
geryon, Adscita . . 74, 164, 220, 224 
gigas (loi'wii ah.), Lyccena ., 129 

glvago, Mellinia 142 

gilvaria, Aspilates .. .. 7, 173 

glabraria = ]ubata 

glaeialis (alecto vnr.), Erebia 27, 

30, 186, 156, 158 
glandifera = mnralis 

glareosa, Noctua 75 

glauca, Hadena . . . . 75, 169 

glaucata, Cilix . . 74, 123, 190 

glaucinaiia, Gnopbos . . . . 224 

glauconome, Pontia . . 62, 129 

glyphica, Euclidia 4 

Gnopbos . . . . . . . . 165 

goante, Erebia . . . . . . 168 

gonodactyla, Platyptilia . . 2, 51, 223 
gooasen3iata(minutata),Eapitbecia 51 
gordius (alcipbron var.), Loweia 

20, 29, 66, 80, 82, 108, 128, 175, 213 
gorge, Erebia 15, 30, 66, 158, 168 

gotbica, Tiuniocampa . . 49, 187 



gozora (pseudargiolus var.), Celas- 

trina 
gracilis, Treniocampa 
graminis, Charreas . . .. 51, 

grandis, Stenoptilia 
grisealis, Zanclognatba 
grisearia (mucidaria ah.), Gnopbos 
grossulariata. Abraxas 23, 24, 51, 
70, 94, 114, 142, 
grunus, Plabrodias . . 
guadarramensis (aurolimbata ah.}, 

Orgyia . . 
gueneei, Apamea, Luperina 276, 
gutta, Plusia . . . . 123, 

bamana, Xanthosetia 
haniula = binaria 
harrisii, Halisidota.. 
harrisoni, Itbysia .. 
bastata, Eulype . . . . 50, 

hastiana, Peronea .. 
baworthiata (isogrammaria), Eu- 

pitbecia.. 
bawortbii, Celsena .. .. 52, 

Hebomoia 

becta, Hepialus . . . . 50, 

belice (edusa var.), Colias 24, 62, 
127, 
bellerella (atra), Blastodacna 
belvoia (rurina). Amatbes.. 
bepatariella, Depressaria . . 
Hepialidse .. .. .. 43, 

bera = quadripunctaria 
heracleana, Depressaria . . 
hermione = syriaca .. 
bermione, Satyrus 36, 59, 66, 84, 
98, 275, 
beroldella, Swammerdammia 
Hesperia 

besperica (sepbyrus var.), Plebeius 
72, 143, 
Heaperiido3 71, 82, 133, 135, 137, 
Heterocera . . 
bexadactyla, Orneodes 
hiera, Pararge 
Hipparcbia . . 
bippia, Eronia 

bippocastanaria, Pacbycnemia . . 
hippocrepidis, Antbrocera.. 22, 
hipponi edusa (medusa var.), Erebia 
bippotboe, Cbrysopbanus, Heodes 

14, 29, 58, 6o, 67, 107, 123, 

12«, 167, 

birtaria, Lycia, Biston 24, 76, 139, 

187, 

bispanica (hylas var.), Polyomma- 

tus?? 

hispidaria, Nyssia . . . . 24, 

bispidus, Heliopbobus 
bispuUa (jurtina var.), Epinephele 
30, 123, 125, 153, 154, 
belli (boibonica var.j, Baoris 
bolmiana, Dictyopteryx 
holosericata, Ptycbopoda . . 
bomerus, Papilio .. .. 119, 

bortuellus, Crambus . . 50, 



211 
•2 

78 
275 
171 
123 

143 
12 

123 
278 
190 
183 
3 
227 
139 
191 
285 

2 

75 

275 

7S 

188 
50 
75 

182 

74 

4 

49 

36 

276 

50 

129 

176 

177 

177 

169 

26 

276 

135 

78 

95 

66 



223 

286 

143 

285 
273 

190 
269 
144 
6 
186 
183 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

Homoptera . . . . . . . . 275 

humuli, Hepialus . . . . 170, 183 

huntera. Pyiameis . . . . . . 188 

hutchinsoni (c-album rar.), Poly- 

gonia . . . . . . . . 23 

Hyades 236 

hyale, Colia's 25, 37, 40, 58. 71, 72, 

79, 127, 175, 200, 204, 258 

Hybernia 76 

hybridalis = noctuella 

hybridus, Smeiinthus 95, 275, 276 

Hydriomena.. .. .. .. 118 

Hydroecia . . . . . . . . 278 

hyemana, Tortricodes, Nephodes 

100, 102 
hylas, Polyommatus 30, 59, 63, 

66,143, 170, 216 
hyperantas, Aphantopus 6, 29, 30, 
31, 32, 71, 73, 74, 141, 143 
^ 171, 183, 217 

hypericana, Catoptria . . . . 182 

hypoehiona [tegon var.). Plebeius 219 
Hyponepbele . . . . . . 156 

Hyponoraeuta . . . . . . 230 

ibeiiea (aurinia v(ir.), Melitfea . . 174 
ibipennella, Coleophora . . . . 68 

icarus (alexis), Polyommatus 20, 
21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 29, 37, 39, 
45, 4(i, 51, 59, 63. 70, 71, 73, 
79, 95. 125, 141, 142. 143, 164, 
169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 176, 
183. 187. 189, 191, 216, 218, 
219. 220, 223, 224, 231, 263, 

271. 273, 284, 286 
ictericana. Sphalei-optera .. 100, 102 
ida, Epinephele 125, 126, 152, 

154, 155, 156 
ilia, Apatura 21, 59, 83, 157, 158, 

161, 162, 267 
iliades (ilia var.), Apatuva... .. 21 

ilicifolia, Gastropacba, Epicnaptera 

24, 45 
ilicis, Nordmannia 28, 36, 39, 83, 

157, 262 
inunaria = bilunaria. . .. 2, 188 

illustris, Automeris. . .. ..21 

iraitaria. Leptomeris, Acidalia . . 7 
immanata = citrata . . 
immorata, Leptomeris, Acidalia .. 142 
impluviata, Hydriomena ..50,76, 169 
impura, Leucania . . . . . . 2 

imsqualis (coridon ah.), Agriades 

24, 85, 86, 96, 142 
incanaria = virgularia, Ptychopoda, 

Acidalia . . . . 143, 170 

incerta, TiEniocampa .. ..49 

incertana (subjectana), Cnephasia, 

Sciapbila . . . . . . 100 

inclara (medon nh.), Aricia . . 220 

indecisa, Ecpanthera .. .. 187 

indigata, Eupithecia .. ..78 

ines, Melanargia .. 143,177, 204 

infecta, Agrotis . . . . . . 194 

infraradiala (phleeas ab.), Rumicia 70 



infuscata (marginaria ah.), Hiber- 
nia 

innotata, Eupithecia -.2, 119, 

innuba (pvonuba ab.), Tripbasna.. 

ino, Brentbis . . 29, 108, 

inquinatellus, Ciambus 

insubrica (arcania ab.), Cu'nonvm- 
pba .. .. 104, ies, 

interjectana, Cnephasia, Sciapbila 

interjectaria (dilutaria), Ptycho- 
poda, Acidalia. . 

intermedia (segeria ali.), Pararge 
25, 105, 

intermedia (ocellaris al>.), Meliinia 

intermedia (pseudargiolus ab.), 
Celastrina 

interrogationis, Plusia . . 51, 

io, Vanessa 6, 25, 27, 73, 92, 123, 
130, 172, 173, 191, 231, 

iolas, Lyca3na . . 28, 161, 204, 

iota, Plusia . . 

iphioides, Cifnonympba . . 124, 

ipbis, C(e nonympba . . 166, 

iris, Apatura 21, 30, 59, 157, 158, 

159, 161, 162, 163, 172, 263, 

267, 

isis (pales), Brentbis 

isogrammata = baworthiata 

jacobasa;, Hipocrita, Eucbelia 4, 94, 
143, 183, 

janira = jurtina 

jantbina, Tripbfena .. 2,51, 

jasius, Charaxes . . . . 143, 

johnstoni, Acrasa .. .. 237, 

jubata (glabraria), Cleora 

juncicolella, Coleophora 

jurtina (janira), Epinephele 2, 30, 

36, 51, 59, 71, 78, 94, 98, 123, 

125, 127, 152, 153, 154, 156, 

183, 190, 216, 217, 218, 219, 

231, 258, 271, 273, 284, 286, 

karsandra, Zizera, Zizeeria 129, 

kenricki, Morphotetiaris .. 

kirbyi (kirbii), Oiketicus . 

kleemanella, LithocoUetis. 

kiibniella, Epbestia 

lacertinaiia, Drepana 

lacbesis, Melanargia 125, 127, 143, 

lactearia, lodis . . . . 2, 

lacticolor = deleta 

lacunana, Sericoris.. 

1-album, Polygonia.. 

lancealis, Perinephele 

lanceolata (hypcrantu.s 
Aphantopus 

lanestris, Eriogaster 

lapella. Tinea 

lapidata, Phibalapteryx 

lappona, Erebia .. ..27,66, 

lapponaria, Nyssia . . .. 187, 

laricella, Coleophora 

lariciata, Eupithecia 3, 50, 78, 

larissa, Melanargia.. 

larydas, Lycajnepthes 

Lasiocampa . . 



21, 



94, 



182, 



ah.), 
141, 



76 
142 
272 
1.56 

51 

108 
100 

78 

270 
142 

211 

75 

273 
267 
51 
177 
167 



268 
166 



191 

172 
174 
278 
172 

182 



287 

269 

236 

93 

50 

26S 

74 

177 

171 

183 

35 

123 

143 

168 

50 

52 

168 

286 

182 

119 

40 

236 

205 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

43 
123 
176 

28 
274 



Lasiocanipidffi 

latenai (dentina eh.), Hadena 

lathonia, Issoiia .. ..28,30, 

lathyii (sinapis i-ar.), Leptosia .. 
latruncula, Miana . . 
lavandulffi, Anthrocera .. 174, 177 
lefebvrei, Erebia .. .. .. 275 

lefebvrii, Gegenes . . . . . . 209 

Lemonia . . . . . . . . 205 

Jenticulosa (trux ah.), Agrotis 192, 

193, 197 
lentiginosella, Gelechia . . .68 

leporina, Acronicta 74, 95, 170, 173 
Leptosia . . . . . . . . 37 

lesbia, Coliaa . . . . . . 187 

Leucania . . . . . . . . 228 

leucographa, Pachnobia . . . . 75 

leueomelas (galathea ah.), Abraxas 83 
leucophffia, Pachetra . . 3,4 

leucopbfearia, Hibernia . . 213, 285 
levana, Araschnia 13, 14, 23, 26, 
59, 106, 107, 108, 109, 139, 



171, 267 

.. 285 
78, 286 
70, 75 



libelluloides, Leptocircus 

lichenaria, Cleora . . 

lichenea, Epunda . . 

lichenella, Solenobia . . . . 188 

ligea, Erebia . . . . . . 66 

ligniperda, Cossus . . . . 2, 74 

ligHstri, Craniophora . . . . 272 

ligustri, Sphinx . . . . 95, 183 

limitata, Ortholitba, Eubolia . . 172 
linariata, Eupithecia . . . . 78 

linea = liava . . 

lineago (ocellaris al).), Mellinia . . 142 

linearia, Oodona, Ephyra. . .. 190 

lineata (dealbata), Scoria . . . . 3 

linneella, Chrysoclysta . . . . 68 

literana, Tortrix . . . . . . 130 

Jiterosa, Miana . . . . 75, 78 

lithargyiia, Leucania . . . . 171 

Lithosia . . . . . . . . 74 

Litbosiidaj .. .. .. .. 226 

Litbosiinse .. .. .. ..43 

litura, Amathes .. .. .. 219 

liturata, Semiothisa .. 171,219 

livia, Viracbola . . 63, 129, 269 

livornica, Phryxus . . . . . . 207 

loewii, Plebeiue .. 63,64,65,129 
logiana, Sciaphiia . . . . . . 100 

loniceriE, Antbrocera ..22,74, 171 

lowei (luteago ah.), Dianthtecia . . 271 
lota, Amathes .. ..75,77,286 

loudeti, Euterpia .. .. .. 277 

lubricipeda, Spilosonia 112, 170, 231 
lucernea, Agrotis . . 23, 120, 214 

lucia (pseudargiolus ah.), Celas- 

trina 211 

lucina, Hamearis 4, 59, 73, 130, 

131, 191 
lugens (cyllarusa/;.), Glaucopsyche 104 
lunaria, Selenia . . . . . . 21 

lunigera, Agrotis 23, 192, 193, 194, 

195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 247, 

248, 249, 251, 272 



64, 224 


.. 52 


.. 50 


.. 50 


.. 231 


.. 75 


.. 204 


47, 277 



156 

75 



143 



PAGE 

lunosa, Omphaloscelis . . 75, 77 
lupulina, Hepialus . . 50, 169, 183 

lurideohi, Lithosia . . . . . . 172 

lutarella, Lithosia . . . . . . 19 

lutea (flavago), Citria, Xanthia . . 285 
luteago, Dianthiecia 1, 5, 6, 22, 46, 

69, 70, 271 
lutearia, Cleogene . . 
lutealis, Pionea 
luteata, A&tbena 
luteolata, Opisthograptis 
lutosa, Calamia 
lutulenta, Epunda . . 
LycsBna 
Lyctenesthes 
LycienidtB 16, 47, 63, 06, ('.7, 79, 

136, 262, 277 
Lyeaenopsis . . . . . . . . 276 

lycaon, Epinephele, Hyponephele 

59, 125, 127, 152, 155, 

lychnidis (pistacina), Amathes .. 

lycidas (hylas far.), Polyommatus 

?? 
lycidas (sephyrus var.), Plebeius 

27, 72, 90, 143, 176 
lycoa, Acrsea . . . . . . 278 

LymantriidiE . . . . . . 43 

lysimon, Zizera, Zizeeria . . 62, 129 
machaon, Papilio 13, 14, 15, 25, 
27, 30, 35, 38, 67, 79, 80, 126, 
159, 174, 175, 204, 222, 258, 

26(3, 267, 285 
macilenta, Amathes . . 75, 77 

macularia, Venilia . . . . . . 4 

maculipennis (cruciferarum), Plu 

tella . . 20, 49, 50, 68 

msera, Pararge 30, 37, 40, 45, 59, 

80, 126, 177 
magniflca, Citheronia .. ..21 

maia, Hemileuca . . . . . . 274 

malvffi, Hesperia 23, 35, 36, 37, 79, 

82, 143, 190, 191, 2(17, 278 
manni, Pieris . . 45, 220. 275, 276 

manto, Erebia 15, 26, 27, 30, 66, 225 
margaritaria, Metrocampa 2, 51 

margaritellus, Crambus .. 51, 182 
marginaria, Hibernia 49, 76, 285, 286 
marginata, Lomaspilis . . 50, 169 
marginata (pseudargiohis ah.), 

Celastrina 
marginepunctata (promutata), Aci- 

dalia 
marginepunctata, Leptomeris 
mai'morea, Gelechia 
marmorinaria (leucophaaria var.), 

Hibernia 
Marmortffi . . 
martini, Scolitantides 
masseyi (segon var.), Plebeius 217, 218 
mathewi (dorus far.), Ccenonympha 

124, 125 
mathias, Chapra . . 12;t, 268, 269 

matura, Cerigo . . . . 7, 20 

maturna, Melitaea . . . . 15, 66, 107 

maura, Mania, Mormo .. 2, 22, 172 



183 



211 

78 
143 
183 

265 
156 

204 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

mauretanica, Celerio .. .. 205 

mauretanica, Epinephele . . .. 204 

media, Basiothia .. .. .. 188 

medio-lugens (niegferaa/^), Pararge 271 
medesicaste (luniina rar.), Thais 80 
medon (astraiche) (agestis), Aricia 

4, 23. 70, 71, 73, 80. 125. 

176, 189, 204, 205, 217, 219, 

220, 221, 224, 273 
medusa, Erebia . . . . 66, 105 
megsera, Pararge 25, 30, 73, 79, 

171, 172, 173, 174, 177, 191, 

200, 217, 231, 252. 270, 286 
mehadiensis (athalia vflr.), Melitsea 

39, 40 
melampus, Evebia 66, 164, 166, 

224, 225 
melanina (phcebe var.), Melitsea .. 189 
melanops, Glaucopsyche 27, 79, 80, 

105, 123, 189 
melanotoxa (arcuata) (icarus ab.), 

Polyommartus .. .. 24, 263 

melas, Erebia . . . . . . 136 

meleager, Polyommatus 40, 59, 84, 85 
melibteus (alciphron ah.), Loweia 35 
meliloti, Anthrocera . . . . 72 

Melitsea . . . . 116, 215, 277 

mellonella, Galleria . . . . 183 

melotis, Hesperia . . . . . . 278 

memnon, Caligo .. .. 284, 236 

mendica, Spilosoma, Diaphora 3, 

4, 78, 192, 286 
menephron, Psiligramma 
nienthastii, Spilosoma 



21 

94, 170, 

183, 231 
75, 169, 188 
.. 182 



menyantbidis, Pbaretra 
meicuriana, Pamplusia 
meridionalis (eupbeme v(iy.), Zeg- 

gris .. .. .. 143, 

merope (aurinia var.), Melitsea 

158, 159, 225 
merularia (leucophsearia var.), 

Hibernia 
metallicus, Nemotois 
Matapoiia 

meticulosa, Phlogopbora 
mi, Euclidia. . . . . . 4, 

Miana 

microdactyla, Leioptilus . . 

Micropterygidae 

miegii (viigauieic ah.), Heodes .. 

miniata, Miltoebrista . . 7, 77, 

minimellus, Neraotois 

minimus, Cupido 24, 25, 26, 28, 

29, 70, 74, 79, 80, 82, 143, 173 
ministrana, Tortrix . . . . 50 

minor (byperantus ah.), Aphanto- 

pus 
minorana, Cnephasia, Sciaphila . . 
minutata = goossensiata 
minutissiraus (coridon ah.), Ag- 

riades . . 
misella. Tinea . . . . 68, 

misippus, Hypolimnas 
mitterbacheriana, Ancylis.. 



175 



285 
134 



.77, 78, 183 
4, 49 
.. 135 
. . 23 
.. 43 
190 
272 
51 



141 
100 



24 
183 

188 
50 



PAGE 

mixtana, Peronea . • . . . . 52 

mnemosyne, Parnassius 66, 104, 

106, 227 

mnestra, Erebia . . . . . . 158 

monacba, Psilura . . 46, 70, 78, 286 

nioneta, Plusia . . . . . . 91 

monodactyla, Emmelina . . . . 2 

monoglypba(poiyodon), Xylopbasia 

(5, 51, 75, 183 
montana (semiargus rar.), Poly- 
ommatus . . . . . . 31 

montanata, Xanthorhoe, Larentia 

50, 76, 77, 123, 170, 22a 

mori, Bombyx .. 133, 136, 22S 

morpheas, Caradrina . . . . 272' 

morpheus, Heteropterus ..29,35, 107 

niucidaria, Gnophos . . . . 123 

multistrigaria, Malenydris, Larentia 

2, 49, 78, 28& 

munda, Tsenioeampa . . . . 286' 

mundana, Nudaria. . .. ..74 

muralis (glandifera), Bryophila . . 78 

murana, Scoparia . . . . . . 51 

musciijformis (philanthiformis), 

Aegeria . . . . . . . . 183 

muscalella, Incurvaria . . . . 50" 

myopasformis, Aegeria, Sesia . . 2 
myrmidone, Colias .. ..58 

myrochracearia, Anarta . . . . 123 

mytilellus, Crambus . . . . 123 

myrtilli, Anarta .. .. 51, 78 

Myseelia 283 

nsEvana, Grapholitha, Rhopobota 

182, 275 
nana (conspersa), Dianthoecia 6, 

23, 141, 271 

nanata, Eupithecia 6, 51, 78, 119, 172 
napeea (pales ah.), Brenthis 159, 

166, 268 
napffiffi (napi var.), Pieris . . 38, 39 
napella (napi ((/;.), Pieris .. .. 122 
napi, Pieris 22, 25, 38, 39, 58, 80, 
122, 131, 169, 170, 175, 183, 
191, 218, 219, 220, 231, 285, 286 
narica, Epinephele.. 152, 155, 156 
neapolisata (tiuctuata ah.), Xan- 
thorhoe 187 

nebulella, Homoesoma . . . . 172 

nebulosa, Aplecta .. 24, 112 282 

neglecta (castanea var.), Noctua .. 75 
neglecta (pseudargiolus ah.), Celas- 

trina 210 

nelamus (epiphron a?;.), Erebia .. 225 

nelvai, Satyrus .. .. .. 204 

Nemoria . . . . . . . . 123 

Nephodesme 100, 102 

nerii, Daphnis .. .. .. 133 

nerine, Erebia . . . . 107, 155 

nervosa, Depressaria . . . . 52 

Nessjea . . . . . . . . 227 

neurica, Nonagria . . . . . . 142 

neustria, Malacosoma 7, 78, 216, 286 

nicellii, LithocoUetis . . . . 232 

nictitans, Hydru'cia 51, 172, 278 

nig (pseudargiolus ('flr.), Celastrina 211 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



nigra, Aporophyla . . . . 77, 78 

nigra (bidentata ab.), Odontopera 

23, 24 
nigra (hippothoe ci/).), Heodes .. 167 
**nigra (lariciata ah.), Eupitheeia 119 
nigra (orion a/^.), Scolitantides .. 175 
nigra (pseudargiolus var.), Celas- 

trina .. .. ., ..211 

nigrescens (pseudargiolus var.}, 

Ceiastrina .. .. .. 211 

nigricans, Agrotis . . . . 75, 188 

nigricans, Doryius . . . . . . 93 

nigricomella, Bucculatrix . . . . 50 

nigroeostata (grossulariata nb.), 

Abraxas.. .. .. 94, 143 

nigromaculana, Grapholitha . . 183 
nigromaculata (phliieas ah.), Rumi- 

cia . . . . . . . . 125 

nigrospavsata (grossulariata ah.), 

Abraxas.. .. 23, 94, 142, 143 

nimbelia, Homreosoma . . . . 183 

niobe, Argynnis . . 92, 164, 177 

Nisoniades . . . . . . . . 134 

nitidata, Acidalia .. .. .. 123 

nitidella, Argyresthia . . . . 183 

nivescens (iaylas /'«)•.), Polyomma- 

tus 176 

Noctua 7, 205 

Noctuffi 70, 75, 170 

noctuella (bybridalis), Nomopbila 231 
NoctuidiB 134, 135, 136, 227, 228, 

275, 278 
Nonagria . . . . . . . . 228 

nostrodamus, Gegenes . . 268, 269 
Notocrypta . . . . . . . . 278 

Notodontidffi . . . . 43, 74 

nouna, Calicharis .. .. .. 204 

nubeculosa, Asteroscopus . . . . 286 

Nubilaj 156 

nubilana, Nephodesme . . 190, 102 
numida, Syrichthus . . . . 204 

nupta, Catocala . . . . 2, 272 

nurag, Epinephele . . 152, 153, 154 
nynjphffiata, Hydrocampa. . .. 183 

obeliscata (variata), Thera 52, 91 

oberthiui (pyrenaica vnr.), Latior- 

ina 263 

obidana, Ageronia . . . . . . 98 

obliterata, Euchceca . . . . 169 

oblongata (centaureata), Eupitheeia 

2, 172, 207 
obscura, Agrotis . . . . . . 75 

obscuraiia (obscurata), Gnophos 5, 

76, 78, 173. 272 
obscurella, Elacbista . . 50, 232 

obscurissima (castigata ab.), Eu- 
pitheeia.. .. .. .. 142 

obsoleta (coridon ab.), Agriades 24, 

70, 127 
obsoleta (cortieea ab.), Euxoa, 

Agrotis 282 

obsoleta (epiphron a&.), Erebia .. 226 
obsoleta (bjperantus ab.), Apban- 

topus .. .- .> 74, 141 



123 
231 
137 

118 

15 



PAGE 

obsoleta (icarus ab.), Polyommatus 

24, 45. 142, 187 
obsoleta (minimus ab.), Cupido 24, 70 
obsoleta (phlfeas ((/).), Rumicia .. 70 
obsoleta (smaragdaria ab.), Eu- 

chloris . . . . . . . . 70 

obsoletana, Caephasia, Seiaphila 100 
occitanica (ph(ebe var.), Melitaea 176 
occulta, Aplecta . . . . . . 75 

ocellaris, Mellinia, Xanthia 142, 285 
ocellata, Mesoleuca. . .. ..51 

ocellatus, Smerinthus 23, 46, 141, 

246, 257 
ocellatus (hyperantus ab.), Aphan- 

topus . . . . . . . 141 

ocellina, Agrotis . . . . 164, 224 

ochracea, Gortyna . . . . . . 272 

ochraeearia (mueidaria var.), Gno- 
phos 
ochrearia (citraria), Aspilates 
Ochsenheimeria 

octomaculana, Cnephasia, Seia- 
phila .. ..100, 101, 102, 

oculea = secalis 

tedipus, Ctenonympha 

oeme, Erebia 29, 30, 66, 266, 267 

(Eneis 153 

Ogyris . . 274 

oleracea, Hadena, Noctua 183, 194, 

196, 250 
olivata, Amii'be .. ..51.52. 143 

olivalis, Pionea . . . . . . 51 

**oliveri (nanata ;(/).), Eupitheeia 119 
olivierella, Dasycera, fficophora . . 170 
olivina (trux ab.), Agrotis 192. 193, 

196, 248 
onopordi, Syrichthus . . . . 204 

operosa, Smerinthus . . 275, 276 

Oporabia 118, 138 

optilete, Vacciniina . . 158, 168 

or, Cymatophora . . . . . . 74 

orbicularia, Codona, Ephyra . . 190 
orbitulus, Latiorina 158, 187. 213, 

225, 263 
Oreades = Satyrus .. .. .. 156 

orientalis, Erynnis .. ..36, 37, 39 

orion, Scolitantides 13, 14, 16, 25, 

128, 160, 175, 200, 201, 266, 283 
orion (scabiosse ab.), Anthrocera . . 123 
ormenus, PapiJio . . . . . . 33 

ornatella, Phycis . . . . . . 183 

Ornithoptera . . . . 134, 185 

osiris = sebrus 

osseana, Aphelia . . . . 182, 223 

osseana, Cnephasia, Ablabia, Ne- 
phodesme, Seiaphila . . 100, 102 
oxyacanthae, IMyselia . . . . 286 

oxyacanthella = fabriciana . . . . 183 

padi (euonymellus), Hyponomeuta 20 
palsemon (paniscnsj, Cyclopides .. 23 
palfeno, Colias 15, 30, 58, 72, 108, 

157, 158, 159, 167, 168, 225, 267 
palarica, Erebia .. 121,122,274 
pales, Brenthis 30, 66, 107, 108, 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



•263 



113, 139, 158, 159. 163, 164, 
166, 167, 168, 214, 216, '223, 

224, 263, 268 
pallescens (ilia ab.), Apatura . . 21 
pallescentella. Tinea .. 68, 69 

pallida (iBgeria (i^.), Pararge . . 30 
pallida (edusa (i/>.), Colias.. 62, 175 
pallida (pamphiius ab.), Cceno- 

nympha .. .. 70, 127 

paludata, Carsia . . . . . . 144 

palustris (trifolii var.), Anthrocera 

22, 

pamphiius, Caenonympha 24, 25, 
51, 70, 71, 79, 91, 127, 143, 
169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 
175, 177, 187, 188, 191, 218, 

219, 221, 287 
pandora, Diyas 13, 36, 59, 127, 

143, 159, 177 
paniscus = palffimon 

panoptes (baton war.), Scolitantides 175 
pantarioides, Abraxas . . . . 95 

paphia, Dryas 6, 30, 35, 39, 59, 67, 
71, 78, 108, 132, 139, 159, 171, 

172, 218, 231, 274 
paphia, Antheraja . . . . . . 21 

Papilio . . 34. 119, 134, 156, 284 

Papilionidffi . . 11, 32, 33, 34, 67, 135 
paradisea, Ornithoptera . . . . 236 

paraliana, Cnephasia, Sciaphila . . 100 

Pararge 66, 15B 

parenthesella, Cerostoma . . . . 68 

parisiensis (coridon ab.), Agriades 

24, 142 
Parnassius . . 
parthenias, Brephos 
parthenie, Melitsea.. 
parvidactyla, Oxyptilus 
pascuana, Cnephasia, Sciaphila 

100, 101 
pasiphae, Epinephele 81, 123, 152, 
154, 155, 156, 174, 
pasivana, Cnephasia, Sciaphila . . 
pastinum, Toxocampa 
pasyphae = pasiphae 
pavonia, Saturnia 49, 74, 78, 95, 

120, 169, 286 
pedaria, Phigalia . . . . 46, 285 

peletieraria, Cleogene . . . . 275 

pendularia, Zonosoma . . 140, 141 
penkleriana, Grapholitha . . . . 182 

pennigeraria, Eurrauthus . . . . 123 

penziana, Cnephasia, Sciaphila 

100, 102 
peribolata, Eubolia. . .. .. 272 

Peridromia . . . . . . . . 154 

perla, Bvyophila . . . . 2, 51, 172 

perlellus, Crarabus . . . . 183, 2x9 

Pero 277 

persica (icarus ah.), Polyommatus 45 
persicarite, Mamestra . . . . 78 

petiverana, Tirumala . . 9, 12 

petiverella, Dichrorampha .. 183 

petraria, Lozogramma, Phasiane, 

Panagra . . 2, 49, 123, 183 



. 215, 283 

. 142, 168 

.25, 30, 158 

.. 6 



177 

100 

75 



pharte, Erebia ,, .. 30, 

phegea, Syntomis . . . • 22, 

pheretes, Albulina . . 22, 66, 166, 

phicomone, Colias .. 67, 107, 164, 

philanthiformis = musc!Bformis 

phlaeas, Rumicia 23, 35, 36, 45, 46, 

58, 66, 70, 79, 82, 83, 92, 108, 

125, 142, 169, 170, 171, 173, 

175, 183, 190, 191, 220, 221, 

231, 270, 

phoebe, Melitsea 59, 104, 125, 159, 
176, 

phcenicola, Oenides 

Phyciodes . . 

piasus, Lycffina 

picata, Euphyia 

Pieridffi .. 11,27,33,34,67, 

Pierinoe 

Pieris 

pilosellte = purpuralis 

pinastri, Dipterygia 

piiiellus, Crambus . . 

pinguinella, Gelechia 

pini, Dendrolimus . . 

piniaria, Bupalus, Fidonia 3, 50, 
78, 91, 94, 95, 143, 216, 

pinicolana, Evetvia 

piniperda, Panolis . . 

pisi, Mamestra, Hadena . . 

pistaeina = lychnidis 

pityata (asperaria vnr.), Gnophos 

pityocampa, Tbaumatopcea 87, 
116, 208, 

plagiata, Anaitis 

plagicolella, Nepticula 

plantaginis, Nemeophila 

platensis, Oiketicus 

plecta, Noetua 

plexippus, Danaida. . 

plumaria = ericetaria 

plumbana, Lipoptycha 

plumbaria, Ortholitha 

plumbata (bicolorata ab 
leuca, Melanthia 

plumbellus, Hyponomeuta 

plumella, Rebelia . . 

Plusia 

pluto (alecto var.), Erebia. . 
! pluto (glacialis var.), Erebia 

podalirius, Papilio 13, 25, 37, 79 

80, 125, 126, 127, 174, 175 

204 

podana, Coccecia 

poUux (lappona ab.), Erebia 27 

polychloros, Eugonia 27, 59, 172 

polycommata, Tricopteryx, Lobo- 
phora . . 

poiyodon = monogly pha 

polytes, Papilio 

polyxena, Thais .. ..36,81, 

**pomedaxana, Pcecilochroma 95 

pomonella, Carpocapsa 

populata, Lygris .. ..51,76, 

populeti, Tffiniocampa .. 75, 

populi, Amorpha, Smerinthus 2, 



PAGE 

158 
263 
223 
223 



71, 74, 



75. 



,.51, 78, 
L Meso- 



286 

189 

187 

215 

262 

78 

68 

214 

66 

2 

52 

68 
275 

219 
276 

78 
78 

123 

209 
286 
232 
263 
187 
183 
19 

118 
123 

96 
272 
275 
276 

27 
156 



266 
68 
66 

176 

188 

72 

187 
118 
184 
78 
286 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

23, 24, 46, 74, 95, 135, 141, 

142, 226, 286 
populi, Limenitis 59, 156, 157, 

159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 267 
populi, Pcpcilocampa . . 77, 286 

populi-ocellatus, Smerinthus . . 226 
porcellus, Tberetra.. .. 20,170 

porima (levana var.), Arascbnia 106 
poseidon, Hirsutina . . . . 38 

postico-apicalis (icarus ab.), Poly- 

onimatus . . . . . . 24 

potatoria, Cosmotriche 74, 191, 216 
prasina, Aplecta . . . . . . 75 

prasinana, Hylophila . . 3, 74, 188 

pratana = osseana 

pretiosa, Lycsena . . . . . . 135 

prieuri, Satyrus . . . . . . 204 

primulae (festiTa), Noetua 1,51,75, 164 
pratellus, Crambus.. 50,182, 183 

procellata, Melanthia . . . . 43 

processionea, Tbaumatopcea 86, 87, 116 
procida (galatbea var.), Melan- 

ai'gia . . . . . . . . 28 

profundana, Pttcilochroma 95, 118 

prometbea, Samia . . . . . . 21 

promutata = marginepunctata 

pronoe, Erebia . . . . 155, 215 

pronuba, Tasniocampa 51, 75, 211, 272 
pronubana, Tortiix. . .. 68, 94 

prorsa (levana rar.), Arascbnia 26, 

29, 106, 107, 108. 10'.), 139, 267 
prosapiaria, Ellopia 78^, 123, 144 

proserpina = circe .. .. .. 156 

in-otea, Hadena . . . . . . 75 

proto, Pyrgus, Muschampia, Sv- 

rictbus 102, 103, 123, 190, 204 
protodice, Pieris .. .. .. 119 

provincialis (auvinia rai'-), Melitjta 82 
proxiniella, Gelecbia . . 50, 182 

pruinata (cytisaria), Pseudoterpna 

6, 78 
prunalis, Seopula .. .. 51, 183 

prunata, Lygris . . . . . . 78 

pi-uni, ytry'mon .. 143,188,267 

pseudargiolus (argiolus far.), 

Celastrina .. .. 210, 211 

pseudora (pseudargiolus ah.), Celas- 
trina . . . . . . . . Ill 

pseudospretella, Borkbausenia 113, 183 
psi, Triiena . . . . 216, 263, 274 

Psodos . . . . . . . . 225 

Psyebida; 43, 93, 144 

psyttalea, Amauris . . .. .. 93 

Pteropbori . . . . . . . . 20 

Pteropborina = Alucitida? .. 
pudibunda, Dasyebira . . . . 78 

pulchellata. Eupitbecia . . 6, 78 

pulcberimella, Depressaria . . 182 

pulcbrina, Plusia . . 4, 7, 51, 170 

pullata, Gnopbos . . . . . . 123 

pulveraria, Numeria . . 24, 284 

pulverulenta, Tajniocampa . . 49 

pumilata, Eupitbecia . . 5, 183 

punctalis, Stenia . . . . . . 183 

puncta (tbetis ab.), Agriades 164, 189 



PAGE 

punctularia, Tephrosia . . 169, 170 

purdeyi, Retinia . . . . . . 19 

purpuralis (pilosellis), Antbrocera 

164, 166, 224 

purpuralis, Pyrausta 172, 173, 182 

purpurella, Eriocrania . . 49, 68 

pusaria, Cabera . . . . 50, 169 

pusillata, Eupitbecia . . . . 3 

puta, Agrotis . . . . 4, 77, 272 

putrescens, Leucania . . . . 272 

putris, Axylia . . . . . . 2 

pygmgeata, Eupitbecia . . 50, 142 

pygmaeella, Argyrestbia . . . . 50 

pygma3ola (lutarella !•«;-.), Litbosia 19 

pylades, Papilio . . . . . . 284 

pyralella = dubitalis 

Pyralides . . . . . . . . 20 

pyramidea, Ampbipyra . . . . 22 

pyrenaella, Oreopsycbe .. 20, 21 

pyrenaica, Latiorina 263, 275, 283 

pyrenaica (epipbron var.), Erebia 122 

pyri, Saturnia .. .. 21, 177 

pyrina (sesculi), Zeuzera . . 2, 7 

Pyronise . . . . . . . . 156 

pyrrbula (manto ab.), Erebia26, 27, 30 
pytbonissata (citrata var.), Dys- 

stroma 179, 181 

quadra, Oenistis . . . . . . 123 

quadrifasciaria, Ortbolitba . . 170 
quadripunctaria ^bera), Callimorpba 

4, 190, 272 

quadripunctata, Caradrina 52, 272 

quadripunctella, Lampronia . . 50 
quercana = bicolorana 

quercifolia, Eutricba . . . . 286 

quercifoliella, Litbocolletis . . 49 
querciis, Bitbys 35, 36, 58, 72, 78, 

83, 84, 143, 172, 188 

quercus, Lasiocampa 74, 216, 270 
quesnellii (pseudargiolus ab.), 

Celastrina . . . . . . 211 

radiata (grossulariata «/>.), Abraxas 70 

radiata (pblajas ab.), Kumicia . . 70 

radiatella, Cerostoma ..49,52, 68 

ramella, Grapbolitba . . . . 182 

rapse, Pieris 25, 62, 66, 79, 80, 

129, 170, 175, 183, 184, 218, 

231, 251, 275, 276 

rapbani (daplidice ab.), Pontia . . 175 

rectangulata, Eupitbecia . . 2, 7, 274 
remutaria, Acidalia .. ..50 
repandata, Boarmia 2, 6, 22, 23, 

24, 46, 51, 69, 70, 95, 183, 283, 284 
reticulata (saponariae), Neuria 21, 

45, 75 

retinella, Argyrestbia . . . . 182 
retrojuncta (argus = tegon ab.), 

Plebeius 122 

retrosagittata (argus = a3gon ab.), 

Plebeius 122 

rba3a, Lycffina . . . . . . 262 

rbamni, Gonepteryx 22, 25, 27, 38, 

58, 59, 79, 80, 130, 131, 172, 

175, 191, 251, 272, 273, 284, 286 

rbododendralis, Pyrausta . . . . 225 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



rbymnus, Lycsena . . 
ribeana, Pandemis.. 
ridens, Asphalia 
KiodinidiB (Erycinidffi) 
ripas, Agrotis 
ripartii (admetus var.), 
roboravia, Boarmia. . 
roboris, Laeosopis . . 
robsoui (nebulosa ab.), 



Hii- 



utina 



PAGE 
135 

68 
286 
278 
75 
38 
.. 171 
84, 85, 189 
Aplecta 24, 
282, 283, 284 
.. 18G 
Polyomma- 

..188 



rcjepstortii, Hebomoia 
rondoui (escheri var. 

tus 

rosinse (deione «/;.), Melitaia .. 277 
rossica{dominulaa6.),Calliniorpha 143 
lossi (manni var.), Pieris .. 220, 275 
rostialis, Hypena . . . . . . 2 

roxelana, Pararge . . . . 36, 40 

roystonensis (coridon ah.), Agriades 

85, 86, 96 
ruberata, Hypsipetes . . . . 76 

rubi. Callophrys 4, 6, 35, 49, 73, 

78, 79, 169, 175, 191, 213, 273 
rubi, Maciothylacia74, 77, 78, 169, 263 
rubi, Noctua . . . . 77, 272 

rubidata, Anticlea . . . . . . 78 

rubiella, Lampionia . . . . 50 

rubigiaea, Dasycampa . . . . 143 

rubricosa, Pachnobia . . 2, 49, 78 
rufescens (neuriea ab.), Nonagria 142 
rufiiia = belvola 
rufocineiea, Elacbista . . . . 49 

rumicis, Pbaretra, Acronicta 78, 

169, 231 
rumina, Thais . . 80, 143, 175, 204 

lluralidse . . . . . . 22, 276 

russata = truncata . . . . . . 23 

russula = sannio 

rusticella, Monopis.. .. 50, 277 

rutilans (dispar var.), Chryso- 

phanus . . . . . . . . 212 

rutulus, Papilio . . . . . . 186 

sagittata (regon) (argus), Plebeius 122 
salicata, Maienydris . . . . 49 

salicis (rumicis ah.), Pharetra 74, 169 
salmacis (aiedon var.), Aricia 73, 219 
sambucalis, Ebulea. . .. .. 183 

sanguinalis, Pyrausta . . . . 172 

sanguiuella (semirubella ab.), Sale- 

bna, Ilithyia . . . . . . 143 

sannio (russula), Diacrisia 50, 74, 188 
sao, Powellia . . . . 123, 177 

saponaiice = reticulata 

sarpedon, Anthrocera . . . . 22 

saturnalia, Dichrorampha 23, 118 

Saturniidte . . . . . . . . 43 

satyrata, Eupithecia . . 49, 50 

Satyridai 67, 73, 98 

Batyrion, Ccpnonympha 66, 107, 

164, 166, 167, 168, 224, 225 
Satyrus . . 98, 152, 156, 204, 276 
saucia, Peridroina, Agrotis 77, 78, 

194, 272 
saurites, Ageronia .. .. 97, 98 

scabiosii!, Anthrocera . . . . 123 



scabiosata, Eupithecia 

schalleriana, Peronea . . 52, 

scbmidtii (phlaeas ab.), Rumicia . . 

schulziana, Mixodia . . 94, 

Sciaphila = Cnephasia 

seipio, Erebia 

scolopacina, Xylophasia 

Scoparia = Eudoria 165, 172, 173, 

sebrus (osirisK Cupido 37, 38, 39, 
40, 83, 103, 159, 160, 176, 213, 

secalis (oculea), Apamea .. 52, 

segetum, Agrotis 77, 196, 197, 

segregatus, Dendrolimus . . 

selasellus, Crambus 

selene, Brenthis 6, 15, 29, 50, 59, 

66, 73, 105, 143, 170. 188, 191, 

268, 

sellasia, Ageronia . . 

semele, Hipparchia, Satyrus 6, 36, 

59, 73, 77, 84, 98, 172, 173, 

204, 217, 219, 221, 271, 273, 

semi-allous (medon ab.), Aricia . . 

semiargus, Polyommatus 29, 31, 
35, 82, 160, 164, 

semifulvella. Tinea.. 

semipurpurella, Eriocrania 49, 

semirubella, Salebria, Ilithyria . . 

semispilotella (weaverella ah.), 
Monopis 

semisyngrapha (coridon ab.), Agri- 
ades 24, 70, 71, 139, 142, 187, 
220, 

semitestacella, Argyresthia 

semi-vedr£e (medon ah.), Aricia . . 

senectella, Gelechia 

sephyrus, Plebeius 27, 72, 90, 143, 

septembrella, Nepticula 

sesamus. Precis 

Sesiidse = -Egeriidas . . 

sibiricus, Dendrolimus 

Sibylla, Limenitis . . . . 172, 

sidse, Hesperia 35, 37, 39, 81, 

siderata (siterata) (psitticata), 
Cidaria . . . . . . 52, 

silaceata, Eustroma, Cidaria 7, 

similana, Eucosma . . 

similis (auriflua), Portbesia 7, 

similis (medon (!?^.), Aricia 

simpliciana, Dichrorampha 

simplonia, Anthocharis 22, 27, 28, 
66, 82, 103, 159, 

sinapis, Leptosia 1, 6, 23, 25, 28, 
37, 58, 79, 80, 175, 190, 191, 

sinuana, Nephodesme, Cnephasia 
100, 

sinuella, Homoeosoma 

smaragdaria, Euchloris . . 

smeathmanniana, Conchylis 

Smerinthus . . . . . . 95, 

sobrinata, Eupithecia 

sociata, Xanthorhoe 49, 164, 170, 

sociella, Aphomia .. .. 5, 

solandriana, Epiblema, Psedisca, 
68, 94, 

Solenobia 



PAGE 

4 

, 182 

45 

, 182 



155 

188 

278 

267 
172 
198 
275 
51 



285 
98 



287 
23 

176 
50 
68 

143 

277 



284 
52 
220 
51 
176 
231 
188 

275 
218 

82 

78 

49 

182 

172 

219 

68 

267 

217 

102 
183 

70 
170 
276 

78 
263 
230 

182 

188 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



38, 40, 83, 

49, 196, 

74, 

59, 125, 126, 

74, 



solidaginis, Calocampa 
Somabrachys 
sorbi, Lithocolletis . . 
sordidata = furcata .. 
sororculella, Gelechia 
sparganii, Nonagria 
sparsata, Collix 
spartiata, Chesias . . 
Sphingidas .. 
spini, Klugia 
spinolella. Lithocolletis 
stabilis, Tieniocampa 
stagnata, Nymphula 
statices, Adscita 
statilinus, Satyrus 
stellatarnm, Sesia 
stigmatica, Noctua .. 
striana, Orthotrenia 
striata (coridon ah.), Agriades 
striata (icarus ah.), Polyommatus 
striata (thetis ah.), Agriades 
strigata, Hemithea.. 
strigilis, Miana 

strigillaria, Perconia, Aspilates . . 
strigula, Agrotis .. 5,51,74, 
stygne, Erebia 66, 106, 121, 122, 
suavis (coridon ah.), Agriades 
subfulvata, Eupithecia 2, 6, 51, 78, 
subjeetana, Cnephasia, Sciaphila 
100, 101, 
subnotata, Eupithecia 
SLibobsoleta (icarus oh.), Polyom- 

matus . . 
subochreata (pendularia ah.), Zono- 

soma 
siibpurpuiella, Eriocrania.. 
subroseata (pendularia ah.), Zono- 

soma . . . . . . 140, 

subsequa, Triphaena 
subsericeata, Ptychopoda, Acidalia 

4, 
substrigilis, Oxyambulyx 
succenturiata, Eupithecia 
sudetica, Scoparia .. 
suffumata, Lampropteryx . . 49, 
suffusa, Agrotis 
suffusa (gilvago ah.), Mellinia 
suspecta. Dyschorista, Orthosia 7, 
syllius, Melanargia.. 80, 82, 143, 
sylvanus, Augiades. . 73,192, 

sylvata (ulmata). Abraxas.. 76, 95, 
171, 
sylvinus, Hepialus . . 
syncliraene = climene 
syngrapha (corydon ah.), Agriades 
syriaca, Satyrus .. ..36,98, 

syriaca (larissa var.), Melanargia 
syringaria, Hygrochroa 
syringella, Gracilaria 
taeniata. Perizoma .. .. 51, 

Tseniocampa 

tages, Nisoniades . . 7, 73, 177, 

tagis, Anthoeharis .. ..79,80, 

tanaceti, Dichrorampha .. 95, 
taras (malvte ab.), Hesperia 23, 36, 



PAGE 

75 

205 

50 

50 

143 

43 

286 

228 

175 

50 

286 

51 

271 

127 

78 

75 

144 

24 

24 

70 

171 

171 

76 

75 

274 

141 

142 

102 

284 

24 

140 
49 

141 
272 

78 

21 

78 

223 

109 

272 

142 

75 

174 

219 

287 

78 

36 

284 

276 

40 

78 

50 

143 

277 

191 

120 

118 

267 



PAGE 

tarasaci, Caradrina. . .. .. 272 

tecta, Agrotis . . . . . . 276 

telicanus, Eaywardia, Lampides, 

Tarucus.. 13, 107, 108, 129, 279 
templi, Dasypolia .. .. ..75 

Tenaris 236, 277 

tenebrata, Heliaca . . . . . . 3 

tengstrcemi, Lyceena . . . . 135 

tenuiata, Eupithecia . . . . 78 

Tephrosia . . . . . . . . 131 

Teracolus 62, 283 

terranea (trux ah.), Agrotis 192, 

193, 196, 197, 248, 250 

terrella, Bryotropha, Gelechia 50, 183 

teruelensis (urtiere I'ar.), Aglais .. 176 
tessarana = alcella .. 

tessellum, Hesperia. . .. .. 102 

testaceolata (bilineata var.), Camp- 

togramma . . . . 123, 286 

testata, Lygris .. .. 52, 76 

Thanaos 228 

thaumas = flava 

Thecla (Lyca^na) . . . . . . 135 

theophrastus(?), Tarucus 123, 129, 

278, 279 
thersites, Agriades 36, 37, 39, 48, 

72, 143, 176 

Thestor 205 

thetis (bellargus) (adonis), Agriades 

3, 4, 22, 24, 28, 30, 37, 38, 40, 

58, 65, 66, 70, 71,82,164,170, 

173, 176, 187, 189, 191, 204, 

218, 221, 231, 263, 283, 285 
thompsoni (nebulosa var.), Aplecta 

282, 283, 284 
thore, Brenthis 29, 30, 104, 105, 

106, 108, 1.58, 161 

thrasonella, Glyphipteryx. . .. 151 

tilia?, Mimas 2, 78, 142 

tilias, Nepticula . . . . . . 232 

Tineidse 76 

tiphon, Ctenonympha 15, 26, 29, 

51, 66, 74, 105, 10!), 143, 160, 

200, 201, 202, 217, 219, 268 

tipuliformis, ^Egeria . . . . 74 

Tisiphonse . . . . . . 156 

tisiphone = pluto .. .. .. 156 

tithonus, Epinephele, Pyronia 13, 

30, 77, 84, 123, 124, 127, 152, 

155, 156, 162, 171, 173, 271, 273 
tityus (bombyliformis), Hsemaris 

20, 169 

Tortriees 20 

Tortricidfe .. .. 95,99,100,118 

transalpina (dorilis var.), Loweia 1.5 

Transalpiniformes . . ■ . . . 22 
transcaspica (megaera var.), Par- 

arge . . . . . . . . 25 

trapezina, Calymnia . . . . 75 

tremnlEE (populi var.), Limenitis 

160, 161 

trepida, Peridea, Notodonla . . 277 

triangulum, Noctua .. 1, 75 
tridens, Trisena, Acronicta 7, 216, 

268, 274, 277 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



tiifolii, Anthrocera 8, 22, 71, 131, 

263, 271, 287 

tiifolii, Mamestra 277 

trifolii. Pachygastria 188, 272, 286 

trigeminana, Ephippipbora 94, 183 
trigeminata, Ptychopoda, Acidalia 78 
trigrammica, Giammesia . . . . 4 

triliiiea = trigrammica 
trimaculella, Nepticula . . . , 232 

triopes (gorge var.), Erebia 15, 168 
triparella, Gelecbia. .• .. ..49 

tripartita, Habrostola . . 7, 50 51 
triplasia, Habrostola . . . . 2 

tripuncta, Teracolus . . . . 62 

tripnnctata, Pseuderesia . . . . 12 

tristata, Xanthorhoe . . 49, 50, 76 

tristelhis, Crambus.. .. ..51 

tritici, Agrotis .. ..70,75, 77 

trivia, Melitfea . . . . 36, 39 

trocbilus, Chilades . . . . 39, 269 

Troidos 185 

troilus, Papilio . . . . . . 186 

truncata (russata), Dysstroma, ■ 
Cidaria 23, 51, 96, 172, 178,179, 

180, 181 
trux. Agrotis 192, 193, 194, 195, 

196, 197, 198, 199, 247, 248, 

249, 250 
tulbaghia, Meneris . . . . . . 71 

turfosana, Oletbreutes . . . . 274 

turnus, Papilio .. .. .. 186 

turritis (cardamines var.), Euchloe 139 
tuttodactyla, Marasmarcba . . 275 

tyndarus, Erebia 30, 66, 107, 164 

166, 168, 225 
typica, Mania . . . . 2, 78 

ulmata = sylvata 

umbelaria, Acidalia . . . . 224 

umbra, Characlea . . . . 75, 95, 183 

umbratica, Plusia . . . . . . 183 

umbrosa, Noctua .. ..51,75, 272 

unangulata, Xanthorhoe, Melan- 

ippe 4 

uncana, Ancylopera . . . . 50 

undulata, Eucosmia . . . . 76 

unguiceJla, Ancylopera . . . . 50 
unguicula, Drepana . . . . 130 

**unicolor (innotata ah.), Eupi- 

thecia . . . . . . . . 119 

unicolor (satyrion var.), Coeno- 

nympha.. .. 164, 166, 224 

unidentaria, Coremia 50, 136, 272 

unifasciana, Tortrix . . . . 52 

unimaculella, Eriocrania . . 49, 68 
unipuncta, Cryphus, Leucania . . 214 
unipuncta (regon) (argus), Plebeius 122 
urania (thetis ah.), Agriades .. 218 
urticffi, Aglais 20, 27, 52, 59, 66, 

73, 87, 123, 172, 173, 176, 183, 

219, 226, 231, 251, 286, 287 
urticana, Sericoris . . . . . . 188 

urticata, Eurrbypara . . . . 183 

vaccinii, Orrbodia . . . . . . 75 

valesiana, Oletbreutes . . . . 274 



PAGE 

valesina (paphia var.), Dryas 172, 218 
Vanessidi . . . . . . . . 73 

varia, Melitssa . . . . . . 158 

variata, Thera . . . . . . 91 

variata = obeliscata . . 

variegana, Peronea . .. 52, 94 

varleyata (grossulariata ah.), Ab- 

laxas . . . . . . . . 142 

vauaria, Thamnonoma . . . . 172 

vedrffi (medon ab.), Aricia. . . . 219 

velleda = f useonebulosa 

venosata, Eupithecia . . . . 78 

verbasci, Cucullia .. .. 78,208 

vernaria, Geometra. . .. .. 286 

versicolora, Dimorpha, Endromis 286 
viburnana, Tortrix.. .. ..51 

vidua (hyperantus ab.), Aphantopus 141 
villica, Arctia .. 4,78,142,271 

villosella, Pachythelia . . . . 284 

viminalis, Bombycia, Cleocera 7, 52 
vinula, Dieranura 74, 120, 141, 

177, 183 
violacea (pseudargiolus ah.), Celas- 

trina . . . . . . . . 211 

viretata, Tricopteryx, Lobopbora 

78, 131 
virgaureae, Heodes 58, 65, 105, 108, 

128, 190, 213 
virgaureana, Cnephasia, Sciapbila 

100, 102 
virgularia (incanaria), Ptychopoda 

143, 170 
viridana, Tortrix . . 68, 188, 211 

viridaria, Prothymnia, Phyto- 

metra 49, 78 

viridata, Nemoria . . . . . . 271 

vitellina, Leucania . . 143, 272 

vittella, Cerostoma . . . . . . 50 

vulgata, Eupithecia 142, 169, 172 

v?ahlbomiana, Cnephasia, Scia- 

phila .. 100, 101, 134, 144 

w-album, Strymon .. . 30, 73 

warringtonellus, Crambus.. .. 183 

weaverella, Monopis . . . . 277 

wolfenbergeri (maturna var.), 

MelitiBa 15, 66, 107 

wollastoni (brassicae var.), Pieris.. 273 
Xantbife . . . . . . . . 75 

xanthographa, Noctua .. 51, 75 
xanthomelas, Eugonia . . . . 35 

Xylina 227 

xylosteana, Caccecia . . . . 68 

xylostella, Cerostoma . . . . 232 

ypsilon, Agrotis .. .. ..77 

Ypthima . . . . . . . . 136 

zelleri, Baoris .. .. 268,269 

zetterstedtii = calodactyla .. 

ziczac, Notodonta . . . . 183, 274 

zonaria, Itbysia, Nyssia . . 139, 233 
Zonosoma . . . . . . 92, 227 

Zygffina = Anthrocera ..29,72, 205 

Zygfenid;e = Anthroceridae ..22, 43, 134 

Zizeeria (Zizera) 277 

Zizera = Zizeeria .. .. .. 277 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



MYRIAPODA. 

Lithobius 183 

NEUROPTERA. 

aleurodiformis, Coniopteryx, Semi- 

dalis .. ..241, 244, 245, 247 

Aleiu-opteryginfe . . . . 243, 246 

Aleuropteryx. . .. .. •• 246 

annffi, Parasemidalis . . . . 245 

Ascalaphus 21, 22, 254 

coa, Nemoptera . . . . ■ ■ 187 
Coniopterygidffi .. .. 241, 242 

Coniopteryginffi .. .. 242, 243 

Coniopteryx 243, 247 

Conwentzia . . . . • . • • 243 

Conwentziinas .. .. •• 243 

Corydalis (Coidiceps in error) . . 187 
**cryptoneuvis, Conwentzia 185, 

213, 241, 242, 243, 246 
curtisiana, Conioptei-yx, Semidalis 

242, 243, 244, 245, 247 
flava, Chrysopa . . . . 213, 283 

fuscipennis, Parasemidalis . . 245 

grammatica, Cbloroperla . . . . 45 

Helicoconis . . . . . . . . 246 

hyalinus, Coniopteryx .. 241, 242 
libelluloides, Palpares . . . . 254 

*livida, Pterodela . . . . 229, 230 

Icewi, Aleuropteryx . . . . 245 

I'ucifugus, Leucotermes . . . . 16 

lutea, Helicoconis . . . . . . 245 

obscurus, Coniopteryx . . . . 241 

parvulus = tineiformis .. 241, 247 
pedicularia, Pterodela . . 229, 230 
perla, Chrysopa . . . . . . 263 

phalifinoides, Drepanopteryx . . 93 
pineticola, Conwentzia 185, 241, 

242, 243, 246 

Psocidffi 229, 237 

psociformis, Coniopteryx 241, 242, 

243, 246 
Pterodela 
pygmaeus, Coniopteryx 



ORTHOPTERA. 



229 

241, 242, 

243, 244, 246 

.. 229, 230 

.. 138 

243, 244 



quercus, Pterodela . . 

Eaphidia 

Semidalis 

tetensi (pineticola var.), Conwent 

zia 241 

tineiformis (parvulus), Coniopteryx 

241. 243, 244, 246, 247 
venosa, Cbloroperla . . . . 45 



ODONATA. 

andromache, Anax.. .. ..36 

Cordulegaster . . . . . . 236 

depressa, Libellula . . . . . . 36 

eponina, Celitbemis . . . . 184 

pratense (hafniense), Brachytron 36 

puella, Agrion . . . . . . 213 

Thaumatoneura . . . . . . 235 



setolica, Forfieula . . 
adspersus, Thisoicetrus 
albicornis, Stauronotus 
albifrons, Decticus . . 
alliaceus, Parapleurus 
amplipennis, Isophya 
anatolicus, Stauronotus 
angustipennis, fficantbus 
apricarius, Stauroderus 
assimilis, Platycleis. . 
auricularia, Forfieula 



93, 



253, 
2.54, 



187, 



252 



azurescens, Sphingonotus . . 
bicolor, Stauroderus 184, 252 
bilobus, Tniethis . . 
bioculata, Spbodromantis. . 
bipunctata, Anechura 
bipunctatus, Tettix.. 
Blattidse 

brachyptera, Bolivaria 
brachyptera, Pyrgomorpha 
brevicollis, Stauronotus 
burdigalensis, Gryllus 
cserulans, Sphingonotus 
caerulescens, (Edipoda 
campestris, Gryllus. . 
cantans, Locusta 
caudata, Locusta 
chabrieri, Olynthoscelis 
cognatus, Stauroderus 
dalmaticus, Olynthoscelis 
Decticus 
Deinacrida . . 
dorsatus, Thisoicetrus 
Ephippigera . . 
Gampsocleis. . 
gibbosus, Dericorys 
gratiosa = salina 
grisea, Platycleis 
griseo-aptera, Olynthoscelis 
Gryllotalpa . . 
gryllotalpa, Gryllotalpa 
heydeni, Nemobius.. 
indistincta, (Edipoda 
indistineta, Olynthoscelis . . 
intermedins, Decticus 
italicus, Caloptenus 
insubricus, Acrotylus 
kaznakovi, Forfieula 
konigi, Podisma 
kraussi, Stauronotus 
lateralis, Gryllodes . . 
laticauda, Leptophyes 
Leptophyes . . 
lesnei, Forfieula 
littoralis, Olynthoscelis 
Locusta 

maroccanus, Stauronotus . . 
meridionalis, Paratettix . . 
minor. Labia 
mlokosiewiczi, ffidaleus 
Neoxabea 
nigricornis, CEcanthus 



253, 
251, 
253, 

253, 



2.52, 

253, 
257. 
253, 

255, 



252 
254 
255 
2.56 
252 
258 
255 
137 
2.58 
256 

258 

253 

258 

254 

253 

251 

253 

22 

253 

254 

2.55 

258 

253 

256 

258 

255 

253 

.. 253 

.. 253 

.. 253 

93, 255, 256 

.. 71 

.. 253 

.. 258 

.. 256 

.. 254 

.. 256 

256 

256 

257 

257 

252 

256 

253 

93 

254 

253 

252 

252 

255 

257 

252 

251 

200 

253 

256 

255 

253 

257 

253 

261 

137 



253, 
253, 

256, 



255, 
254, 

253", 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

nigrofasciatus, CEdaleus . . . . 253 

niveus, CEcantbus .. .. .. 137 

CEcantbuP 261 

Olynthoscelis .. .. 252, 258 

patruelis, Acrotylus . . . . 256 

pellucens, fficanthus . . . . 257 

petersi, Hetrodes .. .. 23, 93 

Platycleis 256, 258 

plorans, Euprepocnemis . . . . 253 

Podisma 252 

Poecilimon . . . . . . 258, 255 

pomerantsevi, Forficula . . . . 257 

Psalidffi 281 

relif^'iosa. Mantis . . . . 184, 253 

riparia, Labiduia . . . . . . 257 

roseipennis, Deiicor)s .. .. 254 

salina (gratiosa), (Edipoda 253, 256 

saussurei, Nemobius .. 253, 257 

schochii, ffidipoda . . . . . . 254 

simplex, Stauroderus . . . . 253 

sordida, Paradrymadusa . . . . 256 

Stauronotus . . . . . . . . 255 

stepbaniana, Prosopis . . . . 253 

stridulus, Psophus . . . . . . 254 

tergestina, Epacronia . . . . 256 

tesselatus, Decticus, Platycleis . . 93 

thalassina, Epacronia . . 256, 257 

tibialis, Platypterna . . . . 256 

tomis, Forficula . . . . . . 252 

transylvaticus, Olyntboscelis . . 253 

truchmana, Arcyptera . . . . 254 

turanicus, fficanthus . . . . 257 

turrita, Acrida . . . . . . 256 

ussuriensis, Gampsocleis . . . . 256 

variabilis, Celes . . . . . . 254 

variegatus, Tridactylus . . . . 256 

verrucivorus, Decticus . . 93, 258 
viridissima, Locusta 255, 25j6, 258 

viridulus, Omocestus . . . . 258 

vittata, Platycleis. . .. .. 253 

RYNCHOPHORA. 



albicans, Idiocerus . . 

**alienus. Aphis 

Aleurodes, Aleyodes 

Aneurus 

ApbidaB 

avenius, Aneuris 

burriana, Rustovelia 

buxtoni, RectinasuB 

carrotffl, Aphis 

Cicada 

Coccus 

Corixa 



.. 335 
.. 54 
130, 215, 232 
.. 67 
52, 282 
.. 67 
.. 257 
.. 16 
.. 54 
.. 95 
.. 141 
.. 257 



PAGE 

corni, Anoecia . . . . . . 52 

**donisthorpei, Trama .. ..52 

Fairmairia . . . . . . . . 283 

Forda 53, 54 

**formicarium, Macrosiphum .. 55 

furcata, Forda . . . . • • 53 

**fusco - cffiruleus (albicans ah.), 

Idiocerus . . . . . . 235 

**gahani, Pseudococcus .. .. 213 

grandicoUis, Mononyx . . . . 236 

**hexagona, Forda . . . . 53 

Homoptera . . . . . . . . 235 

Iffivis (tuberculatus), Aneuris 67, 68 

lanigera, Eriosorna. . .. .. 184 

**leontodoniella. Aphis .. 52, 54 

Leucaspis . . . . . . 45, 90 

limitatum, BracbyarthruBi . . 251 

Macrosiphum . . . . . . 52 

maidisradicis. Aphis . . . . 52 

**mali, Zygina .. .. .. 235 

Parafairmairia . . . . . . 283 

pini, Chermes . . . . . . 187 

prasina, Palomena . . . . . . 186 

*reaumuri, Pachypappa .. .. 139 

rotunda, Forda . . . . . . 16 

•rubicundus, Lygus . . . . 43 

**saturata, Limotettix .. .. 235 

**scabripennis, Megophthalmus .. 235 

**sphagni, Pseudococcus .. .. 213 

**subferruginea, Psylla .. .. 235 

subterranea. Aphis. . .. 54, 55 

ulmi, Lepidosaphes . . . . 262 

**thenii, Deltocephalus .. .. 235 

Trama . . . . . . . . 53 

troglodytes, Trama . . . . . . 53 

tuberculatus (laivis), Aneurus .. 67 

viridana, Forda . . . . . . 54 

SIPHONAPTERA. 

pectinipes, Stephanocircus . . 138 

THYSANOPTERA. 

obscuripennis, Haplothrips . . 299 

**tamicola, Euthrips .. ..21 



THYSANURA. 



Campodea (idse) 
wasmanni, Lepisma 



183, 184, 262 
16, 17 



TRICHOPTERA. 

Trichoptera . . 



144 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



COKRIGENDA, etc. 



(Most of the errors in the spelling of scientific names have been corrected in the 

Special Index.) 

insert pyrina before aesculi. 
etc., ior pyraenella read pi/renaella. 
for atalanta read cardui. 
insert a comma after " river." 
insert 'last " after " which." 
insert " there " after " found." 
insert a comma after " clubs." 
for didyma read didymata. 
for loweii read lopwii. 
for matura read maturna. 
■ 50, for helia read tagis. 
for Polyommatus read Lampides. 
after hylns insert " and Flebeius sephyrus." 
for hispanica read hesperica. 
read " Dasycera (Oecophora) olivierella." 
for atra read atrata. 
for Gordiceps read Corydalis. 
for litura read liturata. 
for Cnephasia read Aphella. 
for " Mr. Lachlan " read " Mr. MacLachlan." 
before griseo-aptera put Olynthocelis. 
for Andridus read Andriciis. 
for Asphilobiu put Aphilotrix. 



age 2, line 14, 


,, ■ 21, , 


, 45, 


,, 23, , 


, 5. 


„ 37, , 


, 16, 


,, 37, , 


, 41, 


,, 37, , 


, 53, 


,, 39, , 


, 36, 


,, 51, , 


, 48, 


64, et 


c, 


,, 66, li 


tie 2, 


,, 79, , 


, 37 & 


,, 123, , 


, 16, 


,, 143, , 


, 33, 


,. 143, , 


, 34, 


,, 170, , 


8, 


,. 171, , 


, 35, 


,. 187, , 


• 12, 


,, 219, , 


, 20, 


,, 223» , 


, 17, 


,, 241, , 


, 4, 


„ 256, , 


, 38, 


,, 286, , 


, 21, 


,, 286, , 


22, 



Subscriptions for Vol. XXVI i. are nov\^ due. 






THE 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 



JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Edited by 

Richard S. BAGNALL, f.l.s,, f.e.s. | T. A. CHAPMAN, bi.d.,k.z.8., F.K.a, 
T. HUDSON liEAlilO, Jas. E. COLLIN, f.e.s. 

- - - H. St. J. K. DONISTHORPE, 



li.SC, F.li.M., l.Il.S.E 

George T. BETHUNE-BAKEll, 

F.Z.S., F.L.S., F.E.S 
M. BUKR, D.SC, F.Z.S., F.L.S., F.E..S. 

(Rev.) C. R. N. BURROWS, f.e.s 



F.7..a., F.E.9. 

Alfred SICH, f.e.s. 

J. R. le B. TOMLIN, m.a., f.e.s. 

George WHEELER, m.a., F.e.s. 



Henky J. TURNER, f.e.s., 



Editorial Secretary. 






JANUAEJ 15th, 1915. 




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READ THE BACK Nos. OF THE 

Entomologist's Record & Journal of Variation 

(Practical Hints, Field Work, etc. useful for every year's collecting). 
VOL. VI. 

The TITLES of some of the articles are as follows : — Notes on Butterfly Pupse, with some remarks 
on the Phylogenesis of the Ehopalocera."— 7)r. T. A. Chapman, F.E.S., "Phytophagic Spf ries." — 
Prof. A. UailcUfl'e Orote, M.A. "Varieties and aberrations of Noctune from Doncaste-."-.?/. H. 
Corbett, M.R.C.S. "The frenulum of the British species of Smerinthns."— G. C. GrijHtlm, F.Z.S., 
F.E.S. " Eudryas stje-johannis.,' — A. Radeiifle Orote, M.A. " Parthenogenesis or Aganiogenesis." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Larvue."— 2J«c. O. M. A'. Heicitt, M.A. "Retrospect of a Lepid.~pterist for 1894." 
— ■/. W. Tiitl, F.E.S. " Generic Namas in the Noctuida;." — Prof. A. li. Orole. M.A. " Pupa hunting in 
October." -J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Polygamy and Polyandry in Moths." "The nature of certain 
insect colours."— ir.S. m(iiny,M.D.,B. Freer,'M.S.,J. W. Tutt, F.E.S., Bev. C. R. N. Burrows,.!. Ant)n:<on, 
Jim. "The fjepidoptera of Swansea" — Major U. B. Robertson. "Caradrina ambigua in the Isle of 
Wight."— .J. J. Hodges. "The insects of Bourg St. Maurice."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Orrhodia 
erythrocephala ab. glabra from Devonshire and comparison with O. vaccinii." — Dr. W. S. Riding, 
F.E.S. "Notes on Caradrina ambigua and C. superstes."— </. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Entomology and 
Entomologists, being the Annual Address to the City of London Entom. Society." Notes on 
Aphomia sociella " (with plate). — W. P. Blackbinne Maze, F.E.S. "Apterous females and Winter 
Emergence "—B. F. Studd, M..4., B.C.L., F.E.S., L. B. Prout, F.E.S. "Collecting Noctuidte by Lake 
Erie."— ^4. Radclifie Orote, M.A. " Coleoptera at Ipswich." — Claude Morley, F.E.S. "Notes on 
Bombus visurgire." " Synonymic Notes on Acidalia humilata and A. dilutaria." — L. B. Piout, F.E.S. 
" The Lepiiloptera of Hresy-sur-Aix."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Apatura iris."— Jfri' G. ]»/. A. H,uett- 
"Scheme of (Jlassifioation of the Rhopalocera founded on the structure of tho Pupce." — 7. A. 
Chapman, M.D., F.E.S. "Glimpses of American Entomology."—./. W. Tutt, F.E..^. " The Genus 
Smerinthus." — A. Bacot. " Variation considered biologically : Some notes suggested bv the Romanes 
Lecture of 1894."-.;. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Wing structure."— J. Alston Moffatf. "On the development 
of sex in social insects " — ,1. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "The British representatives of the Genus Caradrina." — 
L. B. Prout, F.E.S. "Habits and variation of'Lithosia lutarella and its variety xi.Vgmaeola." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. On the gradual disappearance of Lepidoptera from South-Eastern London and 
itsneiehboiuhood." — O. Fenn, F.E.S. " A hunt for Neuroterusaprilinus." — T.A. Chapman. M.T)., F.E.S. 
"On the development of pigment in Nemeobius liicina."— F. J. Buckell, M.B. "The Macro-Lepi- 
doptera of Keswick." — H. A. BcadU. " Varieties of Argynnis selene " (with plate).— S. G. C. RusseJl, 
F.E.S. " Hadenoid genera with hairy eyes." — Prof. A. R. Groe, M..4. '• Zygnena minos and its 
varieties."—,/. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Notes on the pupse of Castnia and Anthocharis."— T. A. Chapman, 
M.D., F.E.S. Besides these articles, a large number of short notes are contained in every number under 
the follewing titles: " Scientific Notes and Observations," " Variation," " Notes on Larvaj and Life- 
histories," " Notes on Collecting," "Current Notes." The reports of Societies are very carefully edited, 
and only scientific paragraphs published. The " Practical Hints " and " Field work " for each month 
are quite unique. 

The entomologist who will read carefully through the back numbers of The Entomologi-it's Record 
will find himself better equipped for the further study of his subject than by any other means. 
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JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Vol. XXVII. No. 1. Januaey 15th, 1915. 



Lepidopterological Notes for 1914. 

By RUSSELL JAMES. 

At our editor's request, I have with some amount of trouble put 
together the following collecting notes on the past season. I have 
difficulty amidst the great happenings of the present in casting my 
thoughts from war news, back to the peaceful days of early summer, 
when the capture of Dianthoecia lutewjo var. barrettii, on the beach near 
Bude, or Leptosia [Leiicophasia) sinapis in the home counties seemed 
matters of more importance than at the present moment. Still 
perhaps those of us, who by reason of age or responsibilities (or as in 
my case both) are prevented from taking active part in the war, are 
the better fitted for doing our share in things at home, if we obtain 
what measure of relaxation we can in continuing our innocent hobby. 

I had intended taking my proper holiday on the West Coast of 
Wales — country quite new to me — but this fell through on the outbreak of 
war. I found it iiiipossible to leave my business, which for a time 
was thoroughly disorganised, and when things partially settled into 
more normal ways, the holiday time had passed. So my collecting 
notes are limited to odd days and home work, but yet may be of interest 
to beginners. 

The year has certainly been a marvellous one from the weather 
point of view, and although treacle has failed, and no rarities have 
come my way, the abundance that I augured from the day spent in 
Surrey on May 15th, when L. sinapis was so plentiful {Ent. Fwc, 
Vol. XXVI., p. 144), has been realised in my subsequent experiences. 

With a small son coming along and showing extraordinary 
enthusiasm, I have had the pleasure of running over some old haunts, 
and one of the first of these was Hampstead Heath, where, after a 
lapse of many years, we spent two evenings. Considering its limited 
space, its proximity to London, and the trampling the heath gets by 
holiday crowds every week-end, it is quite remarkable the number of 
species that maintain their ground. 

The dwarf sallow there, partly protected by the shelter of large 
birch trees, still carries on a precarious existence, and on these shrubs, 
and on the brambles and birches, most of the larva3 were obtained. 
The numbers were very considerable, and the commonest were certainly 
those of Xoctua awjur, closely followed by X. trianinditm. X. baja, 
N. brunnea, N. festiva, and V. ditrapezinm all occurred in small 



Z THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 

numbers, and seven fat Triphaena jinthria taken by mj* boy for the 
first time caused great joy. Other larvae taken were those of T. 
janthina, yaenia typlca, Leucania impura, and Boaniiia repandata. 
Occasional Taeniocanqia (jracilis, Selenia illunaria, and Fanaijra 
petraria were netted, but Padinobia rubricosa and Larentia ))}ultistri- 
(jaria — two of the old time species — have apparently gone for ever. 

Really there is quite a considerable amount of interesting work to 
be done almost in London itself. In my own garden (five miles from 
Charing Cross) we have been collecting assiduously, and the number 
and interest of the species taken is quite remarkable, especially for a 
boy beginner. There are plenty of large species, such as Amorpha 
populi, Mimas tiliae, and CofisHslij/niperda, which last abounds in an ash 
tree and pupates in the rotten part of a neighbouring fence, Zenzera 
aescitli, I'halera bitcephala, and Catocala nnpta (in numbers), and the 
violent wriggling of a full-fed larva of the latter species caused great 
amusement to its finder, the third, and by no means the least ardent 
entomologist of the family, aged just five. The butterfly of the year 
in the garden has undoubtedly been Celastrina (Cyaniris) anjiolna — 
both broods plentiful. In fact, in July, it was no uncommon thing 
to see several at once over an ivy covered fence, which ivy affords the 
principal beating in the garden, and I may say gets fairly well worked 
— perhaps twenty times a day on an average. This ivy and the fences 
produce wonderful things, and I generally have an array of full boxes 
awaiting my inspection when I arrive home in the evening. 

Among the captures of the year in this way and at light, the 
following are the most interesting for such a locality : — Aef/eria (Seiiia) 
myopaeformis, Myelophila cribnoit, yola ciiciillatella, Bryo/ihila perla, 
EuDiielina {Pteyuplwrus) monodactyla, Platyptilia gonodactyla, Hypena 
rostralis, Pyralis contalis, Eapithecia exiynata, K. af<si)inllata, E. sub- 
fulvata, E. oblongata (ce?itaiireata), E. haworthiata (isogratnmata), E. 
fraxinata, E. rectanyulata (black vars.), Metrocampa maryaritaria, 
lodis lactearia, Crocallis elinynaria, Habrostola triplasia, Dipteryyia 
pinastri, Axylia putris, Apatela aceris, AmpJiidasis betularia var. 
doubledayaria and intermediates, Hemerophila abrnptaria and 
chocolate var., and many others. Mania waura has this year turned 
up in numbers. Every evening in late July they flew round commonly 
at dusk and were found in sheds, in the house, and on fences, and 
several butterflies have re-appeared after many j^ears' absence, notably 
Epinephele jurtina [janira) and Etichloe cardamines. 

In August larvae of EJiipitliecia assiiiiilata and Habrostola triplasia 
ate some ornamental hops to shreds, and, of course, Oryyia antiqua 
larvae have been in evidence. An interesting sembling experience 
with this last species occurred in September. I had been breeding a 
fresh series in a sleeve, and thought all the pupae were removed. One, 
however, which remained proved to be a female. Its presence was 
indicated by a swarm of males in the garden, round the old sleeve, 
and these continued in great numbers for two whole days. They 
appeared fairly early in the morning and continued until nearly sunset 
practically without any interval. The children netted and boxed great 
numbers (which were afterwards liberated), but still the supply con- 
tinued undiminished, until on the third day a male also emerging 
inside the sleeve : the attraction ceased. The only parallel in point of 
numbers I have seen, was in the case of a $ A. betularia, three years 



LEPIDOPTEROLOGICAL NOTES FOR I'JU. 3 

ago, also in the garden. This attracted vast numbers of males for 
three nights, once twenty-three being on the cage together. This 
experience was especially interesting, as it enabled me to realise the 
advance of var. donbledatjaria since my last attempt at sembling with 
the species— in 1895. On that occasion I took 77 males, all strictly 
typical. In 1911 the captures showed only 16 per cent, typical, 78 
per cent, doitbledai/aria, and 12 per cent, decidedly intermediate, an 
extra.ordinary change in sixteen years. 

The same reason that has led to renewed research in the garden 
has prompted occasional visits to the private woods in the district, 
especially Bishop's Wood, edging the Highgate Golf Course. The 
wood, I fear, is in danger, as several plots have already been bought 
and cleared for private houses, but at present, when standing near the 
11th tee, which is some 50 yards inside the Wood, it is inconceivable 
that such a place should exist withm five miles of Charing Cross. 

In front is the open and rising ground of the Golf Course, shutting 
out all signs of building except where Lane's farm hides the Great 
North Road, and behind and around one might be in the depths of 
Surrey or Sussex — the wood retaining all its primitive beauty, and in 
early summer being carpeted with bluebells. Such species as Thijatiya 
bat is, Habrosi/ne (Goxo/diora) derasa, Drepaua binaria (haiiuda), Hijla- 
phila [Halias) prasinana, H. quercana, C'l/niatupJiom dnplarU, Sjtilosoina 
mendica and many others still survive, and on the neighbouring golf 
course Odezia {Tanwira) atiata {chaerophijllata), Eiiuueleaia eiUndata, 
and Heliaca tenebrata occur, the latter in some numbers. 

A morning, May 17th, spent at Brentwood, was devoted more to 
spring flowers than to insects, but the extreme forwardness of the 
season was noticeable. Enpitliecia coronata was taken from its favourite 
haunt — the trunks of Spanish chestnut. The spruce furs produced a 
few E. lariceata and E. pusillata — both nearly over. BnpaUis piniaria 
was already out, and plenty of common Geometers. There can be no 
connection between E. coronata and Spanish chestnut, yet nearly all 
the specimens I have taken at Brentwood from time to time have 
used these trunks as resting places. 

The earliness of the season was still more marked during a stormy 
week-end spent at Wye, on June 6th and 7th, and we entirely missed 
Parhetra leitcophaea, which had been more plentiful than usual seven 
to fourteen days earlier. Agriadea tlietis also was apparently over, as 
the only specimen seen was one male, worn to shreds. The ground at 
the foot of the chalk pit has been burned since my last visit and it was 
feared that Scoria lineata [dealbata) had been badly injured. I was 
pleased, therefore, to find it had survived, and although in diminished 
numbers still reasonably plentiful. It would be a thousand pities if 
this local and beautiful species were exterminated here, and it should 
be treated very tenderly for some years to come. 

There has been a remarkable increase in Anthrocera trifolii. In 
place of the odd specimens I have been accustomed to take here, the 
whole hillside was swarming with them. Even during the rain they 
could be seen in hundreds all over the grass and the trefoil blossoms, 
and some lovely confluent vars. were taken. I particularly regretted 
that f. Iciicophaca was over, as never before at Wye have I seen so 
many moths on sugar, although it was the only time this year that I 
found it any good at all. Always hitherto I have had the ill-luck to 



a THE ENTOMOLOGIST S ItECORD. 

strike bright moonlight, or east winds, and my series of P. leiicophaea 
must have cost me a considerable amount per head in railway fares 
alone. From hordes of Ai/rotis exdaviationh wo picked out two fine 
A. cinerea (one a female), two very large A. pnta, several Hailena 
geniatae, and Grammesia trifjammica {trilinea) var. bilinea, but very 
little else of interest. 

The question of the attractiveness and otherwise of treacle is very 
mysterious, especially as regards individual species and acurious instance 
occurred this night. On every previous occasion I have found the 
commonest species on treacle at Wye, to be G. tririramniica and Apcimea 
basilinea {e.rclamationis being scarcely out before). On this occasion 
among the crowds of moths on the posts there was not a single 
basilinea, although the species was flying over the grass . in some 
numbers both at dusk and later; G. triyrawiiiira on the other hand was 
in quite its normal numbers. I have frequently noticed how certain 
species vary from night to night, quite out of proportion to the total 
numbers on the sugar, but never remember so marked an instance of 
this before. At dusk we failed to find Eitpitheria scahiosata, (usually 
in fair numbers), but in its place took a very nice lot of Acidalia 
subsericeata, and on the way home at night took a dozen and a half 
full fed Kubolia cervinaria larvfe, from an isolated plant of mallow 
which has never yet failed to produce the species. 

The weather was all against day-work, and the woods at the top of 
the downs were unpleasantly wet. In the course of a good long tramp, 
however, we took a ver}- beautiful series of Aricia medon {ai/iKtis) — just 
out and settling on the grass in quantities — I'lusia pulchrina at rest, 
Nola cristidalis, Melani})pe iniani/iUata, !Spilos(iiiia iiii'iulifa and many 
common things that rejoiced the heart of my small companion. A 
visit to a distant wood for " wild Columbines " and larvfe of Forrittia 
galactodactyla was very successful as regards the flowers, but curiously 
enough the leaves of the burdock, usually riddled to shreds by those 
larvae, were quite untouched. We had no sun to induce the day-fliers 
and so my promises of Hamearis {Neiiieobius) lucina, L'olUiphiyit rubi, 
Eiiclidio mi, K. f/li/phica, etc., were almost unfulfilled. 

This being so, I endeavoured to make good, by utilising the school 
" mid-term holiday " (June 15), for a day in the old Folkestone Warren. 
As I have found on other occasions, things there are altogether later 
than at Wye. Ayriitdts tlwtis, which was apparently over there, was 
still flying and with picking over, many good specimens were found. 
Hipocrita [KucJudia) Jacohaeac was also still in evidence and A'. c/Z///'/(/crt 
was in great numbers and fresh. E. »r/ was rather scarcer, but to my 
surprise there were considerable numbers of Venilia macular ia, all in 
beautiful condition. This species was already well out at Brentwood 
on May 17th. Several belated (.'. rubi occurred but the greatest 
enthusiasm was aroused by the sight and capture of two fine Arctia 
villica on the wing. I think there is no other British insect that looks 
so gorgeous on the wing. It quite puts its fellow "tigers," even L'alli- 
morpha quadripunctaiia {/lera), and (.'alias cdiisa in the shade. Anthrocera 
filipendnlae was just coming out, but did not appear to be m quite the 
usual numbers, very few cocoons and larvns being seen. I remember 
a day twenty years ago, when one could scarcely move without treading 
on them. Strawberries and cream (unexpectedly discovered by the 
Warren " Halt ") put the cap on an extremely enjoyable day amongst 



LEPIDOPTER6r40GICAL NOTES FOR 1914. 5 

brightly coloftred insects and flowers. Tlie j^ellow horned-poppies and 
the masses of bii,Q;loss in the Warren are magnificent. 

At the beginning of July I revisited for a few days another old 
haxint (this time alone) — the " ariou " ground near Bude. 

It is a long time since I have been there, and my main objective 
was a '■ bred " series of To.mcaDipa craccae. I have seen them there 
in immense numbers on the wing and at heather blossom, but the best 
of the captured specimens lack the rich bloom of those freshly 
emerged. 

I was nearl}^ too late, and most of the larvte were full fed. There 
are few things more fascinating to me than searching for larvae by 
night, especially in such a situation as Toxocanipa craccae haunts — 
right down by a rocl^y beach at the foot of immense cliffs. I planned 
my evenings to work at dusk on another beach for Diantlioecia Inteago 
var. harrettii, and there being no way round the foot, I had to descend 
the cliff path in the dark. Having prospected the ground in the day- 
time, and located the foodplant, I arrived about 11 p.m., and suc- 
ceeded in getting enough on the first evening to breed a good series. 

Subsequent visits only added a few, and had I been a week later I 
doubt if any would have been left feeding. Judging by the appear- 
ance of the foodplants, however, they had evidently been in great 
numbers, as in some places the plants were reduced to mere skeletons. 
Passing from one beach to the other, the way leads along a sunken 
lane across the top of the headland, with high gorse and heather-clad 
banks. Both these plants were covered with moths, the most plentiful 
being Eupithecia pmiiilata and Ajirotis strii/iila, both in great numbers. 

There were also quite a fair lot of Aphomia sociella, Boannia 
geDiiiiaria, and Gnoplioa ohsciiran'a about the gorse, and many common 
Noctuids about the heather, bat the queerest experience of the night 
was with a butterfly — Pi/ranieift cardiii. 

Each night I saw P. cardiii vevy conspicuously at rest on the gorse 
along this lane, and was interested to note that certain bushes were 
favoured night after night, probably by the same individuals. On the 
last night as I passed along to the cntceae ground at 10.30 p.m. there 
were three P. cardui at intervals of about twenty yards. Upon my 
return two hours later I looked for them and found the first one gone. 
The second was where I had left it, but what was my astonishment at 
finding the third one paired, doubtless with the missing first specimen. 

There is no possibility of error in this fact, as in each case the 
particular position of the specimen was known to me exactly from 
observation of previous nights. Cardiifs habit of flying late into the 
dusk is familiar to me, but even assuming that my strong light had 
unsettled them at 10.30, such a proceeding as this is, as far as I know, 
quite without parallel. It would be interesting to hear if others have 
had a similar experience. 

The weather was very unpropitious for butterflies, as whenever the 
sun shone it blew hard, and when it ceased to blow it rained. The ex- 
ception, however, that proved the rule, came on the last morning, when, 
although the sun only got half through, it was so warm and still that 
butterflies flew freely. I had heard bad reports of Lycaena avion, and 
it was therefore gratifying to find it on this last day at least as 
plentiful, if not more so, than on the only other occasion I had 
previously seen it — in early July, 1901. After a lapse of thirteen 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



years it seems to have maintained its numbers well, and to be 
spread over a large area. At this comparatively late date many were 
in surprisingly fine condition, and I could not resist tailing a few 
picked specimens, although I had not intended doing so. I must 
confess to a great love for butterflies, and revelled in the abundance 
seen on this last morning. jSIdananjia ijalatlwa, HijiparcJiia semele, 
and Adnpaea fiava {litwa), with the Lycaena arion abounded all over 
the hillsides, and in the valleys Aj)/iantopiift hi/fcianti(s swarmed. 
Drj/as [Aniynnis) papJtia and A. aijlaia were just starting, the former 
on the brambles in the valley and the latter on the hillsides ; Brenthis 
selenc also was still hanging on, and even belated Callophrys nihi. In 
1901 I took this latter species in good condition at this date, 
together with first brood Leptosia (LeiicapJiasia) fiinapis, although H. 
semele and A. ar/laia weie already well out. One immense mass of 
Vanesm io larvfe proved from the few I took to be nearly all ichneu- 
moned. Every one pupated, but the pupa cases only contained a 
mass of ichneumon cocoons. 

The weather was little better for night than day work, but never- 
theless, a few Dianthoecia var. barrettii and D. nana {cunapersa) were 
netted at dusk, both going over. Larvjt also of the latter were taken 
from the sea-campion in various stages of growth. While D. nana 
(conapersa) were netted at any part of the cliff where the Silene grew, 
the var. barrettii were all taken actually on the beach itself, where the 
plant grew in some quantity amongst the shingle, just above high 
water mark. 

Treacle, tried on two occasions, once in the wood and once on the 
cliffs, proved a failure, although on the cliffs some numbers of 
Xi/lophasia monoyhjpha were attracted. There was nothing else except 
one Triphaena Jiwbria and two Scoparia cewbrae, and the wood produced 
nothing but one Thtjatira batia and a few ordinary Bnannia repandata. 
A magnificent var. conversaria of the latter was seen on a head of 
Enpatoriiim on the beach whilst larva hunting, and quietly allowed 
itself to be boxed. Larv;^ of Enpithecia ptilchellata were everywhere in 
the foxgloves, but nearly all ichneumoned, and a few Geometers were 
netted and kicked up in the day time, such as Melanippe (/aliata, 
Pseudoterpna pruinata [ci/tisaria), Enpithecia nanata and E. snbfnlvata, 
but nothing of much interest. On my way down I broke my journey 
at Bristol, and spent a few hours after Pti/rhopoda (Acidalia) Jmlosericata. 
Clifton was my only guide as to its whereabouts, but there is no mis- 
taking the spot and I found it very speedily. Many were worn, but it 
was in the greatest abundance, and a series was picked out. 1 got very 
wet as it rained all the time, and the only other insects seen were 
occasional Enbolia bipnnctaria, 0.vyj)tilns parvidactyla, and Botys 
asinalis. It is remarkable how the species sticks to one bank only of 
the ravine where it occurs. Not a single specimen occurred ou the 
other side, which I tried first, but the welcome sound of another 
beating-stick going gave me the hint and saved me much time. 

The only other trip I had, was with my boy to Betchworth on 
August 13th for Vrbicola cotnwa. 

As with others, this year, we found the butterfly in more than its 
usual numbers — not only on the steep hillsides, but also over the long 
grass and scabious blossom at the foot of the downs. In some of the 
hollows Vanessa in was in great numbers, and three specimens were 



NOTES ON THE GENITAL ARMATURE. 7 

netted of Nisoniades tar/es — two just out, and obviously of a second 
brood. Aspilates (jilvaria was commoner than I have ever before seen it, 
but Fubolia hipunctaria was decidedly scarce. A Noctna flying from 
flower to flower in the sun proved to be Ceri(/o matiira, a habit I have 
never before noticed in this species.* 

Through late June and Jul}', we had rooms at a farm near Ongar, 
but although I spent many of my evenings there, travelling to town 
each day, I had little time for Entomology. A very casual survey of 
the district was promising and the following is a list of the more 
interesting species noted ; Tricldura crataei/i (larvae), Miltnchrista 
(Calliiienia) nuniata, Zeuzcra pyrina (aesculi) (very rare in ni}' experi- 
ence away from London), Cywatophora duplarh, PluRia pidchrina, 
Triaena (Acronicta) tridens, Orthosia siispecta, Cleoceris viininalis, 
Petilanipa (TapiMosiola) arcuosa, Habrostola tripartita, Cidaria silaceata, 
Eupithecia rectamiulata (black form), Acidalia emarginata, A. imitaria, 
Mesolenca (^Melanthia) alhicillata and Ebulea crocealis. 

Diloha cacruleocephala and MalacoxoiDa [Bouiby.i^ neustria larvse 
were abundant, and never before hare I seen so many Porthesia similis 
[aurifiita) both in larval and perfect states. Treacle was as usual an 
utter failure, and the greatest attractions proved to be the grasses and 
sedges by the roadside and the American willow-herb in the woods. 
There is a most attractive-looking treacling ground in Ongar Park 
Wood, and I shall hope in other years to work the district more 
thoroughly. 

The war stopped all other work, and although I had intended 
compensating myself for the loss of a holiday by taking several odd 
week-end trips, the anxieties of the August and September campaign 
drove the inclination away, and I have done nothing since. Perhaps 
during the continuation of the war, this will be a general effect and 
lepidoptera consequently get a much-needed rest. If this be so, when 
all is finished, and we settle down again, we shall be able to claim for 
our own particular study, a definite good out of all the evil ; and more 
especially so, as we have had a year of more than usual plenty as a 
starting-point. 



" Notes on the Taxonomic Value of the Genital Armature in 
Lepidoptera." 

By F. N. PIERCE, F.E.S. 

The following critical remarks have been suggested by a paper 
under the above title which appeared in Part ii. of this year's Trans- 
actions of tlic Entomolor/ical Socii'ttj of London, from the pen of Mr. G. 
T. Bethune-Baker. 

The author's name is so well known amongst entomologists that 
any article by him carries great weight, and when I read the title 
" Notes on the Taxonomic value of Genital Armature in Lepidoptera," 
I looked forward with much pleasant expectation to the perusal of the 
text. Alas ! I cannot say that my expectations were realised, and 
letters received from correspondents interested in genitalia revealed the 
fact that they too found themselves unable either to understand the 

• I noticed this habit some years ago on the railway banks at Thomastown, 
near Waterford.— H..J.T. 



8 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

article or to make anything of the plates which accompany it. They 
confessed that they were completely mystified and had given up the 
attempt in despair. These facts have induced me to make the follow- 
ing critical suggestions, in the hope that they may assist future writers 
on this most important branch of entomological study in making their 
communications such as can be more easily undei'stood by the student. 

With the avowed and modest object of Mr. Bethune-Baker's paper 
I have, of course, no quarrel. Although perhaps it is a little belated 
to set out to prove the Jong established fact that genitalic differences in 
lepidoptera have both specific and generic value. One of my corres- 
pondents wrote that it was hardly worth while going through so much 
to get so little. 

The points I wish to deal with concern rather those matters which 
make the paper so difficult, or even well nigh impossible, to follow, 
and are these : (i) The use of photographs for the plates ; (ii) the pro- 
file method of mounting the genitalia; and (iii) the employment of 
unrecognised names and descriptive phrases for the various parts and 
organs. 

(i) First, I am convinced that photography is far from being a 
happy method of depicting the structure of the genital organs. It is 
one thing to see the mount through the microscope and quite another 
to see the reproduction in the photograph. A photograph, while from 
one point of view showing too much, i.e., parts that have no particular 
significance, from another point of view conceals far more than it 
reveals. Even in the best photographs the superimposed masses give 
such a confused picture that the organs cannot be discerned, whilst 
many important features do not appear at all. The result is that only 
a very small percentage of the parts described in the text can be made 
out with any degree of certainty in the plate, and when, as in the 
article before me, an unscientific printer, whose only idea is apparently 
to fill up a blank space, has used every possible variation in the position 
of the figures, and when, moreover, the figures appear without titles, 
the student has to add sleight of hand to his other qualifications, for he 
must keep the book open at three places, whilst he twists in all direc- 
tions in order to get the figure the right way up. From the point of 
view of instructive value there is no comparison between a photograph 
and a drawing. The latter reveals to the student what the master's 
eye can see, and whilst obscuring and unimportant parts can be omitted 
it is possible to present with clearness every feature and organ that is 
of characteristic and distinctive value. With a drawing it is possible 
to follow the descriptions of the text, with a photograph this can only 
be done in part, and that with the greatest difficulty. 

(ii) In the second place I would suggest that while the method of 
mounting the genitalia so as to give a side view is occasionally neces- 
sary, in most cases the ventral view discloses the organs in a far more 
comprehensible manner. It is only necessary to lay the abdomen on 
its back and then turn back the enclosing valvae to allow the student to 
see right into the genital cavity, with all the organs visible and the 
paired organs systematically arranged. A glance at the object thus 
mounted will reveal what it w^ould take a very long study of the side- 
way mount to discover, and much more that the latter method could 
never show. 

(iii) In the third place, I do most earnestly deprecate the employ- 



NOTES ON THE GENITAL ARMATURE. b 

ment of unrecognised names and descriptive phrases for the various 
organs. It is quite impossible for even those who have had consider- 
able apprenticeship in the study of the genitalia to recognise what 
organs are thus referred to. The want of uniformity in our termin- 
ology is at once unnecessary and the cause of hopeless confusion, not 
only to the student but also to the advanced worker. 

In this article before me I find that the names employed are for the 
most part not generally accepted, or they are recognised names used to 
denote quite other parts than they commonly signify, indeed one can 
only hazard a very uncertain guess as to the organs to which they 
refer. I select the following for comment. The Cla>tpfi fairly obviously 
denote the valvse. The Te(/i(nien apparently denotes only the dorsal part 
of the whole organ to which the name rightly belongs, but it also 
appears to include the uncus, which in the article is only obscurely 
alluded to. The Girdle one must conclude is used for the remainder 
(by far the larger part) of the tegumen. When, however, we come not 
only to an upper and lower girdle, but also to an inner and outer one, 
I confess I have to give it up. The Falces can only stand for the 
gnathos when the two arms of this organ are widely separated. The 
Dorsum and Dorsal Bridi/e one judged to be the uncus. The Cnrtainis 
a puzzle, but may denote the socii, whilst the Lateral Cheeks is a 
descriptive expression that does not seem to help much. The Fidcrum 
evidently represents the sacculi when projecting ventrally and fused 
together, that is to say the furca. In addition to the use of such un- 
recognised names, I find forwards and backwards, front and rear, 
employed with the opposite of their usual significance, forwards here 
denoting towards the tail of the insect, backwards towards the head ! 
Sternite and tergite occur freely regardless of the fact that no settle- 
ment has yet been attained as to what organs constitute these pieces, 
whilst, perhaps wisely, the question as to which segment of the body 
they belong is ignored. The expression, " the end segment of the 
abdomen proper," leaves me wondering. 

Now with such a terminology it is not a matter of surprise that the 
student is left baffled and in despair. What can he be expected to 
make of this on page 316 ? " The girdle is erect, expanding suddenly 
forwards below the tegumen, which is funnel shaped, deeply excavated 
in front with the dorsum terminating in a blunt point. Whilst the 
lower part is bifid, also terminating in blunt points, below these are the 
falces, broad and strong, suddenly curved upwards near the tips with 
one or two sharp teeth near the bend ; the apices of the lower part of 
the tegumen are furnished plentifully wuth bristles, but the dorsum 
very sparingly." Or of this again on page 320. " The general outline 
. . . . to end of section." Or suppose he attempts to compare 
the figure of Tirumala petiverana. No. 25, with the description on page 
323, he can only conclude that the figure has been wrongly numbered. 

Now all this incomprehensible confusion is not only sad but un- 
necessary. Dr. McDonnough, in the Canadian Kntninoloiiist for June, 
1911, has given us a list of names which rightly belong to the different 
parts under the law of priority. These names are now in common use 
amongst workers, and I have given a list of them and others with full 
explanations in -'The Genitalia of the Geometridse." If only writers 
-would adopt accepted names the progress of our study would be 
immensely facilitated, whilst much that is now incomprehensible to 



10 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

the student would become plain. The present want of uniformity in 
the terminology brings the whole study of the genitalia into discredit, 
and daunts the hearts of many would-be students. 

In making the above critical remarks I am moved only in the hope 
and wish that better things are coming. 



•' Notes on the Taxonomic Value of the Genital Armature in 
Lepidoptera." A Reply. 

By G. T. BETHUNE-BAKER, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Mr. Pierce's criticism of a paper of mine is interesting as a case of 
special pleading for his own views to be generally adopted. I fear, 
however, that be and I look at things from different points of view 
and I think I know that he is not likely to come to my point of view, 
whilst with my very long experience in this section of morphology, 
backed up as it is b}' some of the ablest insect anatomists on the 
Continent, I am not at all likely to accept his statements. 

Mr. Pierce says, " it is a little belated to set out to prove the long 
established fact that genitalic differences in lepidoptera have both 
specific and generic value." My critic's statement is true as regards 
many lepidopterists, but he is evidently ignorant of the fact that many 
do not at all believe in them and that among them will be found 
systematists who are really eminent to-day. This is, moreover, proved 
to some extent by the small number of subscribers to his volume, viz. 
132, which number includes 20 copies to two publishers which have 
been counted as twenty subscribers. I will now consider his criticisms 
in his own order. 

(i.) Photography. Mr. Pierce's criticism that superimposed masses 
give a confused picture is true : " that the organs cannot bediscerned" 
is entirely incorrect, whilst " many important features do not appear 
at all " is generally speaking equally incorrect, though of course in 
some figures where I have wanted to bring out certain particulars it 
may be true that I have let them disappear in the reproduction. 
The real point of the photograph, however, is that it shows all the 
organs (under ordinary circumstances) in their proper proportion, in 
their proper place, and in their natural position if the profile view is 
taken. The drawing shows, as Mr. Pierce himself practically says 
" what the master's eye sees," or rather what he wants his readers to 
see. Mr. Pierce's own drawings convict him absolutely. Look at his 
books and they show in the plates the gradual change and formation 
of his opinions, he emphasises his views in the view he gives his 
readers in the figures. We see what Mr. Pierce's hand has brought 
prominently into view, such a prominence would not be given by 
photography and does not exist in the object. All the parts are 
co-ordinated together, and their relativity is shewn in a photograph, 
while it is quite decidedly abeent in Mr. Pierce's drawings by hand. 
From the point of view of scientific value there is certainly no 
comparison between a photograph and a drawing. 

(ii.) " The profile position." I had no intention of ever attacking 
Mr. Piei'ce's method, feeling that every man must work on his own 
lines — some years ago, I think, before his book on the Xactxae was- 
published, I wrote to him pointing out the value of the profile view 



NOTES ON THE GENITAL ARMATURE. A REPLY. 11 

and the disadvantages of the vertical spread position, but my letter 
was not acknowledged. I am now of course obliged to defend myself 
and in doing so I must ask my critic to forgive me when I say that I 
wholly and entirely differ from him in his view. For my own investi- 
gations I make both profile and vertical preparations and in cases of 
necessity I make opaque objects, when I want to see all the muscular 
parts, either in spirit or in balsam, but for the edification of others 
who know less than I do, I have no doubt whatever that the profile is 
the view that ought to be shewn. It is the natural position, the onhj 
position in which the various organs are to be seen co-ordinated 
together as the insect uses them and as they lie together quiescent in 
the natural condition. If it is necessary to show some of the more 
inaccessible organs, they are much better shown by taking off' one of the 
clasps and still showing them in profile. This is a question that I 
have discussed with some of the most able continental insect morpho- 
logists and it is a satisfaction, at least to me, to know that they agree 
with me absolutely on the point. 

(iii.) Mr. Pierce says " I do most earnestly deprecate the employ- 
ment of unrecognised names and descriptive phrases." As to 
descriptive phrases my critic does not believe in descriptions at all. 
He does not describe, he trusts to his figures and in these figures his 
readers only see what he wants them to see. I consider a careful 
description is necessary, and Avith a photograph accompanying them 
no mistake need be made. I emphasise the word need as I have to 
refer to this again. 

Now as to unrecognised names, it would have been better had he 
said " names that I do not recognise " because he simply means that 
he desires to insist on his own terminology being generally adopted. 
Closiifi, for instance have been in use before Mr. Pierce had begun to 
work and even before I had begun to work on this subject, and are 
used regularly in most British periodicals. 

Valrae or ralres as used by Gosse are restricted to the Papilinuidae 
and some I'ieridae, but as I am writing an article on the Teniiiiieu and 
on the ]'(:ilres, I leave argument alone on these two words, as this 
rejoinder would run to too great length, suffice it to say that I do use 
the word 'tegumen' for what Dr. White so carefully described, c/c, the 
dorsal part only of the organ that I subdivided with the name 'cingula' 
or 'girdle' years ago. 

The Falces is again a name given by me some years ago, and I 
think has considerable precedence to my critic's " gnathos." 

The Domiiw is too well-known a name to need comment. 

The Dorxol Bridi/e is a descriptive phrase that I should have 
thought would have carried its own meaning even to a tyro. 

Curtain and Lateral (.'heeks are also descriptive phrases in precisely 
the same category. 

The Fulcrioii I admit is a slip for the Furca named some years 
ago by me. 

Most assuredly forwards and backwards have no reference to the 
head of the insect. Does Mr. Pierce really intimate that he would 
suggest that it is correct to say that the tedoeagus is emitted back- 
wards ? ! It reminds me of the Turco-Grecian war, when the Greek 
commander issued the notable order for his troops to advance to the 
rear. 



12 THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 

This brings me to the baffled despair of Mr. Pierce and his 
correspondents, where he refers to my descriptions on pages 316-320 
and 323. {Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1914). 

Habrodia^ jirunKs on p. 316. Had the figure (sharp in outline and 
simple in detail) been referred to, it is quite incomprehensible to me 
that any one could fail to follow the two — but then Mr. Pierce does not 
like descriptions. 

Fseudcresia tripnnctata on page 320. " The general outline . . . 
. to the end of the section." " The general outline " is the be- 
ginning of my description — " to the end of the section " are Mr. Pierce's 
words to define the paragraph he refers to— I cannot for a moment 
imagine that Mr. Pierce did not refer to the figure 14 on Plate LIX., 
and yet had he done so I really cannot see how anyone with any know- 
ledge of these organs could fail to follow the descriptions and the 
figure, and here I may say that the tine lateral curtain (a word 
complained of), is palpable in the figure, and I submit is a most useful 
and understandable word. 

Figure 25. Tiruinala petirerana is, I admit, much less easy to 
follow on account of the dark masses, but nevertheless the description 
can be followed with the figure and is correct, but it is necessary to be 
careful to locate correctly the various parts. 

I venture to suggest that any confusion that exists does not rest in 
the descriptions and figures, and that much of my critic's protest is 
because I do not adopt his terminology, and because I do not agree 
with his methods of work. 

In reference to the article by my friend Dr. McDonnough I should 
say that Mr. Pierce himself adopts what he wishes from that paper, and 
ignores what he wishes ; for instance, I believe that Zander's rinyivall 
has been renamed by Mr. Pierce the Juxta or the A>ielliis or it may be 
a combination of both, but I must admit that I find it very difficult 
to be certain as to what is what in the many new names given by him, 
for we have no " figure key " given, and there are no real descriptions 
of the species, so that one has to try and fix the location of a name to 
an organ with much uncertainty, because there is no perspective in a 
flattened and distorted object as it appears on the plate. Again. Mr. 
Pierce's use of " penis " and " fedoeagus " is quite contrary both to 
Dr. McDunnough's and Zander's use and also contrary to general 
custom ; both of the observers use the word " penis " for the middle 
tube containing the ductus ejaculatorius, and I am satisfied that this 
is the general custom. Zander called the outside cover, which is some- 
times a tube and sometimes not a tube the " penis pouch" — this Mr. 
Pierce ignores. The word "a3doe.agus " has long been in use I believe 
among Coleopterists and has by them been referred to as the whole 
organ and I should say that that signification has been very generally 
accepted ; it appears to me that the word " penis " cannot properly be 
used, as it is by Mr. Pierce. In conclusion I would say that I 
regret that I have had to traverse considerably my critics statements. 
I should not have called in question any of his work willingly, but his 
criticisms on me have compelled it. Critiques sometimes are necessary, 
certainly necessary where there are errors that will not be acknow- 
ledged, but in cases such as this, where it is very largely a question of 
opinion and where one observer is merely advocating the adoption of 



NOTES ON THE SWISS RHOPALOCERA. III. 13 

his own terminology and his own method of work, they seem to me to 
to be rather subversive to the advancement of science than otherwise. 
Every observer must work on his own lines and his work must 
stand or fall on its own merit. I hope in our next number to insert 
an article on the " Tei^umen " of White and the " Valva " of Gosse. 



Notes on Swiss Rhopalocera. III. 

By the late Mr. A. J. FISON. 
(Communicated by Miss L. M. Fison.) 

Extracts from letters addressed to and kindly lent by the Rev. George 

Wheeler. 

1900. 

1. Localities for Raywardia telicanus, Lang. 

" Clarens, April 24th, 1900. 

" After receiving your note I tried to get the address of the two 
ladies who caught my telicanus in 1894. They are now near Brussels ; 
but a letter from them does not tell all one would like to know about 
their catch. 

They caught the butterfly on the road between Trois Torrents and 
and Morgins, close to the inn, which is at a corner of the road above 
Trois Torrents. I remember they told me it was ' with a crowd of 
other Blues.' 

" As to the date they can only say that it was in June or July. As 
I see Kane gives no locality for tdicaivis in this country, to know 
where one was found is at least interesting." 

N.B. — I took several specimens of this butterfly at Charpigny, 
St. Triphon, Vaud, early in September, 1913. It has evidently been 
taken there before, as Mr. Wheeler tells me ' such rarities as ti'licanusy 
bdcticiis, and pandora, have all been taken at Charpigny.' — L. M. 

FiSON. 

2. Epinephele tithonin^, L. 

" Clarens, March 22nd, 1900. 
"I have a note of 6 large Heaths — tithonim — taken at Charpigny^ 
on August 4tb, 1890 .... I only remember the ' large heath ' 
there in summer." 

3. Fapilin viarliaon, L., etc. 

" Clarens, May 5th, 1900. 
"The day after we were at Charpigny I saw there (but could not 
catch it) a very dark uiachaon. It was chasing another of much 
lighter colour, so I could compare its hue well. A few minutes later 
I took a P. jiodaliruiH as white as any I have, but it had lost some of 
its wing. I must look out for others. On Saturday I went to Payerne 
and the Broye Valley to look for levana, but found no trace of it. It 

might possibly haunt the other, warmer side of the valley 

"I found aiirinia at Charpigny — a very dry place for it, but one 
year it abounded there." 

1901. 
4. Scolitantidi's orion, Pallas, etc. 

" Clarens, May 27th, 1901. 
Last Monday I went to Martigny by early train. As it was too 



14 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

early to look for levana I walked to Fully, and from 8.30 to 9.30 a.m. 
caught 21 orion, besides one baton and a ' small copper.' At times I 
had two orion in my net at once. I got so many because I paid little 
attention to the flat meadow, but took up a station by the rock (say 
ten yards from the path) where they were dying like bees, on the vines 
and plants. Perhaps one should look for orion at Bovernier in a 
similar place.''' Crossmg the valley I hunted its S. edge to Martigny, 
and all under En Chemin, but saw nothing of levana. From the top 

I looked down on La Valette and its so-called lake 

"Have seen no darker vars. of iiiacliaon at Charpigny, but have 
caught several which approach it, with lighter coloured eyes near tails." 

5. Melitaea deiune, Hb., var. berisalensia, Fav. 

"Clarens, May 28th, 1901. 
" Have been to-day to Martigny, and in the meadows below (E. of) 
Plan Cerisier. I got 13 heriaalcnus and a few other flies." 

6. Lycaena areas, Rott., etc. 

"Clarens, June 11th, 1901. 

" Do you remember my speaking to you once of a big marsh about 
one mile west of Attelens, which I wished to explore? To-day I went 
there, chiefly to look for flowers near by. I also thought I would look 
for areas, though as it is said to be found onlt/ in July, I had little idea 
of seeing it. I got easily down to the marsh through a wood of fine 
beeches, having followed a road, or track, from near Les Tuilieres (S. 
Joigny). In the centre of the marshy part (near its few alders) I soon 
saw two or three undoubted areas — very perfect specimens .... 
I also saw one hippotho'e .... The sun was not out long. I 
hope to go to Thusis on Monday, and if I should find asteria near 
there should I send you some ? Probably they would be abundant." 

7. Localities for Lijeaena areas, Rott., and Lotreia amphidainas, Esp. 

" Clarens, June 12th, 1901. 

"I went by the Baumaroche Funiculaire to Chardonne yesterday, 
and climbed to La Tuiliere farm. There is a good road from the N.E. 
or E. corner of Chardonne village — steep at first — up to La Tuiliere. 
At La Tuiliere I descended about 100 yards and took a rough country 
road S. and then E. of it, leading straight on through woods and 
scrub, with endless chances of wild strawberries in the clearings. 
Beyond Attelens and its Church there was a wood of tall beech. In 
the grass below I only found one path, and returned the same way. 
The marshy part of short grass was narrow, and by the few alders in 
its centre I found areas and the Santiuisorba, on which it feeds .... 

" To-day I took seven areas at En Saumont, say 200 yards beyond 
the Measured (lugeing) Mile and the Jump. This small spot is 
below the road, before it reaches a little wood. It is a very limited 
spot, and I only saw the seven areas I caught. A mile further on, on 
the road, 1 caught a lovely little Copper, with fine purple lines near 
the edges of both upper wings, and very yellow below, which I hope 
may be dorilis var. bleuesi."j- 

* See end of notes. 
f (N.B. — It is amphida)iias. 1 have seen it. — G.W.) 



notes on the swiss rhopalocera. iii. 15 

8. Butterflies around Coire and Davos. 

"Coire, July 4th, 1901. 

" I must tell you how I have been getting on in these parts and at 
Davos as to butterflies. The weather has not been good, and there 
was snow at Davos when I left at 7.40 yesterday morning. 1 had two 
capital days there — June 27th and July 2nd — in the Dischmathal. 
On the first day I took 12 iiiatunia,'''- and on the second 26, also a few 
selene, and eriphyle, the marks on underside hindwing, in one case or 
more, being much like nianto. I may have seven or eight, if they all 
travel well to Charpigny. 

" In the Fluela valley, on July 28th, amongst a lot of <ior<je were 
two var. tnopes. Here yesterday I looked for aurelia, and took six. I 
also caught a very tattered and old fly, which looks greatly like aedipus 
by its spots, but the colour of underside hindwings is gone after all the 
late rains. P. deliiis I found twice, and some iialaeno, though the sun 
was in at the best spot .... I hope to be in the Grisons all the 
summer .... This season, at Charpigny, 1 only took one dark 
macltaon before leaving, but nearly one-half I, caught inclined that 
waj^, with yellower tail spots than most." 

8. Hoenunyuipha tiplion, Rott. 

" Pontresina. July 22nd, 1901. 

" On the whole I have been successful. My visit to Utznach, near 
the Lake of Zurich, was not on a good day, however, by waiting one 
and a half hours in the marsh I captured four fine tiphon.'" 

(N.B. — As the information on the remainder of this post-card, 
describing expeditions at Pontresina, Weesen, Brusio, Bernina Pass, 
and Le Prese, is identical with Mr. Fison's notes cai these places 
already published [Ent. liecord, vol. xxvi., pp. 228 and 242) it is 
unnecessary to communicate it again here. — L.M.F.) 

9. Miscellaneous. 

"Charpigny, November 29th, 1901. 

" For days I have been working here to get my flies in better order. 
Going through some this morning I find a statemant in Kane as to 
var. egerides (Wood Argus) which I cannot think correct, and yoa 
might like to note it. He says, ' the $ has fewer and stiialler spots, 
much faded in colour, and apex of fore wing not so pointed.' I under- 
line the part I doubt from an examination of my set. It seems to me 
the $ has larger spots, and usually iiiore. 

" I should like some day to show you again the dorilis I got from 
Davos and Fexthal. Very black on upperside, and a bright, light 
yellow ground below, with small, hadsome series of spots. They are 
much like the fine fly you said was a southern form of tran>ialpina $ , 
only they are not so finely coloured .... 

"I have a 'Blue' taken at Pontresina, July 19tb, 1901 (where there 
are a lot of low marshy meadows) that I cannot name, unless it is 
aniandas. The dark apical border is not very deep, though the rays are 
fairly pronounced. On underside are no spots. Underside it would 
do well for aniandns, only in Lang, on hindwing, the inner circle of 
large spots is evenly placed, while in mine it is distinctly wavey. The 

* i.e., var. xvolfenshergeri. — L.M.F. 



IG THE ENTOMOLOGISTS RECORD. 

ground colour on underside is distinctly grey. Tbe blue on upperside 
is rather dark. After reading Kane, I think it is really a^iandtis^ 
although there are only the slightest traces of peacock eyes. Spots 
are very round and ringed — the discoidal spots are cuned, not anijnlar 
as in Lang and Kane, Mine differs a little from one you gave me, 
the rays are less clear. 

" I have recovered my 9th flavofasciata. It is a damaged 2 , but 
as a ? is valuable." 

N.B. — With reference to localities iovorion, it may be of interest to 
mention here that I found it at Charpigny on June 2nd this summer 
(1914). I wondered whether Mr. Fison had tried to introduce it by 
bringing larvfe from the Southern Alps. However, Mr. Wheeler tells 
me he does not think my uncle " deliberately brought orion larvae to 
Charpigny. He may possibly have brought ova in plants of Sedum 
from Branson, or more probably from south of the Alps .... 
Charpigny is quite ideal for nn'Du, and it might get there from Branson 
as easily as aniaiidus from Vernayaz. — L.M.F. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Resting Attitude of the Lyc.enid.e. — Mr. F. W. Frohawk has 
recently called attention to the fact that the sleeping attitude of the 
Li/caenidae is with the head upwards, and that although they take up 
their position in the early evening with head downward, they turn 
round on the approach of darkness. It is suggested that in the pre- 
liminary position the butterfly is safer from a fatal attack by birds, 
while when no necessity for such position arises, as in the dark, the 
natural position is assumed. 



J2*^0TES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

Myrmecophilous Arthropoda from Algeria. — I give below a list 
of Arthropoda taken in ants' nests in Algeria''' in April, 1913. The 
phenomenon of myrmecophily is so interesting, and has been so little 
studied in most parts of the world, that, though a hurried visit prevents 
the possibility of making biological observations on ant guests, yet this 
bare list is perhaps worth publishing. At Hammam Meskoutine the 
bristle-tail Lepis^na nasinanni, Moniez, was found in a nest of Mi/niie- 
cocijsfKs viatieits in the hard clay of a pathway. A nest of Tapinoma 
erraticuni harboured an Aphid which Prof. Theobald has described as 
new under the name Forda rotunda. A week later we found a num- 
ber of myrmecophilous creatures at Lambese, in the region of the high 
and arid plateau. Nests of Pheidole palliditla were tenanted by a new 
genus and species of Aphid {Eectinasits biia-toni,i Theobald). In one 
case such an ants' nest was found under the same stone as a colony of 
the " white ant," Leucoter)tie» Incifiiiins. This was, however, apparently 
not a case of association, but rather due to accident. The Aphid in 
question was often extremely abundant ; several hundred might be 
seen covering any rootlet which happened to cross the cavities within 
the nest. The same species of Aphid was also found in a nest of 

* Ent. Rec, xxvi., p. 63, "Notes on Tunisian and Algerian Insects." 
^ Kntom., xlvii., p. 28, 2 figs., "Two new Myrmecophilous Aphides from 
Algeria." 



CURRENT NOTES. 17 

BothrijoDiyniiex iiieridionalis, which was also tenanted by the Isopod 
Plati/arthriis schobli and numbers of a Coccid which Prof. R. Newstead 
has so far been unable to determine. A nest of Mcssor barbanis shel- 
tered the Thysanuran Lepi.vna iras)iia)uti and the two woodlice (Isopoda) 
P. srhiihli and Liicasiiis tardus, both of them in abundance. All these 
nests at Lambese were found under large loose stones. At El Kantara 
a colony of Messor barbarus, under a rock, harboured at least fifteen 
Lepisiiia iras)iionni. 

I am indebted to Mr. Robert Gurney for a good deal of the material 
and for determining the Isopods. The Rev. F. D. Morice identified 
the ants, Prof. F. V. Theobald described the Aphids, Prof. G. H. 
Carpenter named the Thysanura, and Prof. Nils Holmgren the Termite. 
Prof. R. Newstead was good enough to take charge of the Coccid. — 
P. A. Buxton (F.E.S.), Fairhill, Tonbridge. 



(CURRENT NOTES AND SHORT NOTICES. 

Pressure on our space often curtails our column of " Current Notes " 
and defers many interesting items until they are hardly " current." 
This is occasionally somewhat unfortunate. 

The only son of Mr. Donisthorpe has been given a Commission ; 
he is attached to the Intelligence Corps and left for the front in 
December. 

The two sons of Mr. C. J. Gahan, Keeper of the British Museum 
(Natural History), are serving at the front. 

Dr. Chapman's nephew and Mr. T. W. Halls's two sons passed 
through the terrible bayonet charges with the London Scottish quite 
unscathed, although the younger of the latter has since been wounded 
by a shell, but we are pleased to hear only slightly. 

A son of Dr. Longstaif, F.E.S., is serving in the artillery in France. 

A nephew of Mr. R. S. Mitford, C.B., F.E.IS., was granted the 
D.S.O. and the French Cross of the Legion of Honour for distinguished 
service in the Field. 

Captain P. A. Cardew, till recently a regular attendant at the 
meetings of the South London Entomological Society, has been for 
some time on the lines of communication in France. 

The Staff of the Entomological Department at S. Kensington is 
well to the fore in this mighty struggle. Out of the 23 members of 
the staff uo less than 12 are actively engaged in the war. Mr. E. E. 
Austm is a Captain in the Artists, 28th Co. of London, Mr. N. D. 
Riley is a Lieutenant in the Army Service Corps, and Mr. K. G. Blair 
is in the 4th Battalion of the Seaforth Highlanders. This is 3 out of 
the 10 Assistant Keepers. From the 12 Attendants no less than 9 
are away, viz .—Messrs. H. G. Herring and H. Stringer in the Surrey 
Yeomanry, Messrs. C. Hill, J. Gabriel, H. F. Mugford, C. A. Cockley 
and M. W. Stanley in the Civil Service Corps, and Messrs. W. E. 
Phillips and F. Barnett, in the Army Service Corps. Mr. D. H. 
Gotch, of the Imperial Bureau of Entoiiiology, is also in the Artists 
Corps. In addition we understand that Sir G. F. Hampson is a 
special constable and that Messrs. J. H. Durrant, G. Meade-Waldc, 
F. W. Edwards, and F. Laing are connected with ambulance corps. 

Mr. R. S. Bagnall has two brothers serving, Mr. C. L. Bagnall is a 
Captain in the Durham Light Infantry Territorials and is attached to 



18 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

the Service Brigade, while Mr. W. A. Bagnall is a Captain in the Dur- 
ham Light Infantry. Under these circumstances Mr. Bagnall has been 
compelled to leave Oxford and take up his old duties in Sunderland. 

In the terrible calamity which happened to the steamship " Empress 
of Ireland," Entomology lost a splendid worker in the death of Mr. H. 
H. Lyman, who with his wife was comin-g to Europe. Only the night 
before his fatal voyage he was present at a meeting of the Royal 
Society in Montreal. An account of his life and work has been 
promised. 

The Nominations for Officers and Council of the Entomological 
Society of London for the ensuing session, 1915-16, are as follows : — 
Presi(fent: The Hon. N. C. Rothschild, M.A., F.Z.S. Treasurer: 
Albert Hugh Jones. Secretaries : Commander James J. Walker, M.A., 
R.N., F.L.S., and The Rev. George Wheeler, M.A., F.Z.S. Librarian: 
George Charles Champion, A.L.S. Council : George T. Bethune- 
Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S., E. A. Butler, B.A., B.Sc, E. A. Cockayne, 
M.A., M.D., M.R.C.P., J. E. Collin, F.Z.S., H. Eltringham, M.A., 
D.Sc, F.Z.S., C. J. Gahan, M.A., E. Ernest Green, G. B. Loncrstaff, 
M.A., M.D., G. Meade- Waldo, M.A., G. W. Nicholson, M.A., M.D., 
H. Rowland-Brown, M.A., A. E. Tonge. 

The List of Members nominated for the Officers and Council of the 
South London Entomological and Natural History Society for the 
ensuing session, 1915-16, is as follows ■.—President: B. H. Smith, B.A., 
F.E.S. Vice-Presidents: A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., F.E.S., and A. E. 
Tonge, F.E.S. Treasurer: T. W. Hall, F.E.S. Librarian: A. W. 
Dods. Curator: W. West (Greenwich). Editor of Proceedings: 
Edward Step, F.L.S. Hon. Secretaries: Stanley Edwards, F.L.S., 
F.E.S., F.Z.S., and Henry J. Turner, F.E.S. Council: R. Adkin, 
F.E.S., S. R. Ashby, F.E.S., J. Piatt Barrett, F.E.S., Dr. T. A. 
Chapman. F.Z.S., B. S. Curwen, W. J. Kaye, F. E. S., D. R. Morford, 
N. D. Riley, F.E.S., and W. G. Sheldon, F.E.S. 

Now that magazines and other publications no longer arrive from 
the Continent of Europe, there is much less entomological doing to 
chronicle in our Current Notes. 

In the September magazines the following items may be of interest. 
(1) A summary of the Destructive Insects of New Jersey given in the 
Canadian Entomologist gives the following table. 





No. of 


No. 0* 


Percentage of 




species. 


desh'uctive speoies. 


destructive species. 


Coleoptera 


3092 


50 


1-6 


Lepidoptera . . . 


2120 


58 


2-7 


Hymenoptera ... 


1980 


9 


0-4 


Diptera 


1661 


28 


1-6 


Hemiptera 


504 


8 


1-5 


Homoptera 


479 


28 


5-8 


Orthoptera 


154 


5 


3-2 



The insects considered destructive are those against which measures 
of control must at some time or other be directed. 

(2) In the Scottish Naturalist, Mr. Percy H. Grimshaw, after a lapse 
of several years, has resumed his articles on " Diptera Scotica " and 
deals with the species which appear to have been recorded from the 
area of Scotland comprised in the Western Isles. 



CURRENT NOTES. 19 

(3) In the Entomolofjist, Mr. W. G. Sheldon has commenced an 
interesting account of an " Expedition in Search of Russian Butter- 
flies," giving the results of a long holiday spent by Mr. A. H. Jones 
and himself mainly at Sarepta, some three hundred miles from the 
mouth of the Volga. 

(4) To the same magazine the Rev. J. W. Metcalfe, who is 
collaborating with Mr. F. N. Pierce in the study of the genitalia of the 
British Tortrices, contributed an article on some of our local Cnvnhi. 
He reports that Lithosia liitardla \{iY. piji/niacola, Crambus containinelhts, 
Xycfeiirctt'f! achatinella, Melissoblaptes anellus {bipnnctanns), Retiuia 
purdeiji, etc., were easily obtainable, by those who knew their peculiar 
habits, in their old Deal habitats. 

(5) Mr. J. R. le B. Tomlin, in the Ent. Mo. Ma>/., contributed a list 
with a few notes of the 343 species of Coleoptera taken by him at 
Cloghane, Co. Kerry, during a short visit in the spring. 

(6) To the same magazine Commander J. J. Walker is contributing 
a very comprehensive article on the Geographical Distribution of 
PanaiiJa ple.rippus and its recent migrations. 

Mr. Bagnall writes, " The war has affected me in other ways. As 
you know I was writing the volume on Thysanoptera for Das Tierreich 
and had hoped to send the MS. for the first part to Berlin in April, 
1915, whilst I had intended to set aside this winter for the preparation 
of a Monograph of the Tertiary Thysanoptera — chiefly based on a 
large and unique collection of Thrips preserved in Baltic amber — to be 
published in Konigsberg (!!) Now my opportunities for research will 
be very much curtailed, but I feel that I am beginning to get the 
Order (Thysanoptera) into a better working condition, and I think of 
shortly publishing a Catalogue of the World's Species, with an Index 
of generic names used to the end of 1914, and a Bibliography. This 
would form at any rate a basis to work on." 

A Year's Scientific Worl; in Yorkshire, being the Yorkshire 
Naturalists Union's Fifty-second Annual Report, is always interesting 
reading. It consists of some 20 pages of matter. The reports of the 
secretaries of the various sections take up by far the greater part of 
the account. The Vertebrate Section has detailed notes from the 
four Ridings of Yorkshire, from the Wild Birds Protection Committee 
and from the Mammals, Reptiles, etc., Committee, including accounts 
of the watching at Hornsea Mere, Spurn and Bempton. The 
Conchological Section has notes from the various Ridings and from 
the Marine Biological Committee. The Entomological Section has 
reports on Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and 
Hemiptera, Neuroptera and Orthoptera, and Arachnida. In the 
Botanical Section are Notes on the Flora, Reports of the Botanical 
Survey Committee of the Bryological Committee, of the Mycological 
Committee and Notes on the Alg;t. The Geological Section contams 
notes on the practical work which has been carried out in a number of 
specified localities, Report of the Jurassic Flora Committee, Report of 
the Glacial Committee and Report of the Coast Erosion Committee. 
There is also a Report from the Committee dealing with Micro-Botany 
and Micro- Zoology. The official organ of the Union is the Xatiiralint, 
in which accounts of much of the individual work of meml)ers of the 
Union are recorded month by month. It would seem from this report 
that the Union, which has less than 400 members, must have few 



20 THE entomologist's r.ECORD, 

non-workers. The sectionising of the Union into small groups of 
workers seems to be conducive to good results and gives an opportunity 
for each and all to take a definite part in some special investigation or 
join in some scientific study for the advancement of knowledge. 

In the October Magazines the following items are more or less 
interesting. 

(1) In the Canadian Entoniolof/ist, is announced the death of Dr. 
William Saunders, one of the founders of the Entomological Society of 
Ontario, at the ripe age of 79. For many years after his retirement 
from his business as a druggist, in 1886, he had been Director of the 
Experimental Farms of the Dominion. 

(2) In the Scottish Xatiiralist, Mr. Wm. Evans commenced an 
account of the Lepidoptera (moths) captured at Scottish lighthouses 
mainly in the Forth area. Fully 6,000 moths, of which 4,000 were 
from the Isle of May lighthouse alone, have been sent to him. On 
one night in July no less than 400 specimens of 80 species were 
secured, on another in September, 1918, 857 specimens of 11 species 
were sent to him from Killantringan. It is interesting to note that 
several examples of At/lais urticac and one each of Pi/rauieis atalanta 
and Pobjoniviatus icanis were included among the insects forwarded. 
Among the Noctuids were examples of two which are always considered 
very rare so far north, viz., Luperina ceapitis and Cerij/o matnra. 

(8) The Rev. W. F. Johnson contributed some interesting 
observations on infrequent species of Lepidoptera in Ireland to the 
Irish Naturalist. Afflais urticae commenced hybernation in the latter 
half of July. A specimen of Mamhica atropos was sent to him by the 
Rev. J. Jennings on June 24th. Both Einnorpha elpenor and Theretra 
porcellns were sent to him from Donegal. Hemaris titijns {bo)iibi/liformis) 
was taken in Armagh. A nest of the larvae of Hyponomeuta euony- 
niellus (padi) was met with at Newcastle, Co. Down. The larvje of 
Plutella crHciteranihi occurred only too plentifully on cabbage at 
Poyntzpass. 

(4) In the FJnt. Mo. Ma;/. Dr. Chapman gave a note on the 
Pyrenaean Psychid r>)-fo^).s//c7u'/)//''f"«t'^^«i with a plate of larval structures. 

(5) In the same number Mr. C. G. R. Waters gave a list vfith 
localities of the Pj/ralides, Pterophori, Cramhi, and Tortrices taken at 
Oxford and the adjoining country from Chinnor to Wantage. 

(6) In the same number Mr. T. W. Kirkpatrick contributed a List 
of Marlborough Diptera and has included a species new to the British 
list, viz., Trichocera hirtipes, and Mr. J. R. Collin adds a further note 
on the status of the species. 

(7) In the Entonwloi/ist, Mr. Percy C. Reid by his account of a 
visit to Shetland, recalls to mind the various visits which were, during 
the latter part of the century, an annual feature of the Retrospects in 
our magazines. Most of the special species and local forms appear to 
have turned up in more or less quantity. 

The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, the authorities of the 
United States National Museum, have sent us the following recent 
publications: — Lejiidoptera of the Yale-Dominican Expedition of 1913, 
by Harrison G. Dyar. Orthoptera of the Yale-Dominican Expedition 
of 1913, by A. N. Caudell. Hymenoptcra of the Yale-Peruvian Expedi- 
tion ot 1911, by P. R. Myers. (Addendum). Nen- Species and Genera 
of Lepidoptera from Mexico, by Harrison G. Dyar. Xew X. American 



SOCIETIES. 21 

Bees of the (jenus Andrena, by H. L. Viereck and F. D, A. Cockerell. 
Tespoid and Spheroid Hymenoptera collected in Guatonala hij \V. P, 
Cockerell, by S. A. Rohwer. The same criticism does for all. It is a 
great pity that so many of the descriptions of new species are isolated. 
Comparisons with and references to allied species are mostly conspicuous 
by their absence, and many of the descriptions must be useless to the 
student except with a deal of unnecessarily caused trouble. 

The magazines for November contain the following articles of 
general interest. 

(1) In the Scottish Xatnralint are two records of the occurrence of 
Afiriiis conrolrtili, one taken at the lighthouse at North Unst, Shetland, 
on August 2Sth, 1914, and the other taken at the Isle of May light. 

(2) Mr. Norman H. Joy, in the Knt. Mo. Mat/., announced the 
discovery of a Coleopteron new to Britain, Gabrius priiiriijeiiiiis, taken in 
sphagnum near Bradfield, of which several specimens were obtained by 
Mr. Tomlin and himself. Mr. David Sharp described a species of Haltica, 
H. britteni as new to science. It appears to be no rarity in Scotland, 
where it occurs on Erica with a closely allied species fl. ericeti, with 
which it has hitherto been mixed. Mr. K. S. Bagnall described a 
species of Thysanoptera new to science, Knthripn tamicola. It was 
taken on flowers of Black Bryony {l^aviioi coDiuiunis) at Yarn ton, Oxon, 
and subsequenth' in ether localities in Berks. 

(8) In the Kntomoloiiist, Mr. H. Rowland-Brown gave an account 
of a collecting tour of three weeks in the Dauphiny Alps. 



i^ C I E T I E S . 

The South London Entomological and Natural History Society. 
— August IBth. — Exhibit of Exotic Saturniids and Sphingids. — Mr. 
Edwards, the large Saturniids Avtheraea paphia, Automeris illustrin, 
■Citheronia )iia(/nipca, Sauria aiujulifera, S. proniethea, the Sphingids 
Oxyainbuh/.v substrigilis and Psilijp-aniiiia niencphroii, and Eribomorjiha 
fuhinrita. Pink variation in N. reticulata, etc. — Mr. Newman, 
the pink form of Neuria reticulata from the coast of Co. Cork, and 
two forms of the pupa of Selenia hnmi'ia, the chocolate coloured 
hybernating form and the bright green second brood form. A 
Psychid larva.,-- Mr. A. E. Gibbs, a large Psj'chid larva {(Ekcticus 
kirbi/i) which fed on sweet lemon. Variation in European Apaturids. 
— Mr. Curwen, fine series of Apatura iris, A. ilia with ab. chjtie, ab. 
iliades, ab. pallescens, etc., from Samoussy near Laon. The willow 
mite, etc. — Mr. C. B. Williams, living larvse of Satiirnia ppri from 
Syria, and reported finding a mite, Eriophijes, in the willow galls 
exhibited at the last meeting. Eggs of Ascalaphus. — Mr. Main, a 
living pupa of .S'. pijri from Lugano and eggs of Ascalaphus from S. 
France. The Psychid, Oreopsyche pyraenella. — Dr. Chapman, the 
cases of a Psychid, Oreopsyche pyraenella, from Gavarnie, Pyrenees, 
and gave notes on the life-history of the species. The S moults twice 
at pupation, the $ only once. 

Auyust 27th. — Aberrations of P. icakus. — Mr. T. W. Hall, 
aberrations of I'olyonnnatus irarus from Hertford and Folkestone, 
including radiated underside, dwarf, brilliant blue $ , bleached J ,etc., 
specimens. 0. pyraenella. — Dr. Chapman, the Psychid (h-enpsyche pij- 
.laenella with examples of the larval skins moulted at pupation. Alien 



22 THE entomologist's record. 

INSECTS IMPORTED WITH SUGAR.— Mr. Main, insects found in baskets of 
cane sugar from Java, including Coleoptera, Blattidae, a cricket, etc. 
Aberrations of P. icarus. — Mr. Neave, blue 9 aberrations of Polyom- 
niatus icartis from Otford 1st brood and Chipstead 2nd brood. 
Exotic butterflies. — Mr. Edwards, examples of the genera of 
Rhopalocera, Delias, Metapnria and ] Jismnrphia. Discussion on the 
habit of returning to the same place. — A discussion took place as to 
the habit of some species of Lepidoptera to return again and again to 
the same spot. Mania niaiira, (ronepteri/.r rhai)ini, Aiiip/iipijra pijra- 
midea, etc., being instanced. 

8epte)nher lOtJi. — Swiss Lepidoptera. — Mr. Ashdown exhibited 
lepidoptera taken by him in June and July at Lugano and Zermatt, 
including (Kneix aelln, Anthocharis siinplonia, Aricia eiimedmi, Albiilina 
pheretes, Sipitoinis pJiei/ea, etc. Larv.e of Ascalaphus. — Mr. H. Main, 
larvfe of an AHcalaphns just hatched sitting with open jaws for prey. 
Aberrations of Ruralid.e. — Mr. Turner, Aijriaden thetia J with very 
dark underside, and a ^ Polyoiiimattis icarus with much intensified 
submarginal dark spots on the underside. Aberrations of M. 
BRASsicE. — Mr. B. S. Williams, a black suffused Mawestra brassicae, 
and one with pale ground and aberrant stigmata. Exhibit of 
Anthrocerids.^ — ^Mr. Curwen, species of Antlirocera taken by him 
recently, and suggested a future discussion on the genus. 

September 24itli. — Lantern Slides. — Exhibition of lantern slides 
by Messrs. B. S. Williams and Dennis. Variation in P. napi. — Mr. 
Newman, bred series of I'ieris napi from Cork and Sligo with j^ellow 
suffused and black suffused aberrations, one of the latter having a 
complete transverse black band on forevvings. Autumn appearances. 
— Reports were made on the occurrence of C. ednsa, P. atalanta, P. 
cardiii, etc. Only stray specimens had been seen of C. ednsa, while 
the other two species were common. 

October 8th. — Dr. Salisbury gave a lecture on the " Flora of the 
Seashore," with a long series of lantern illustrations. 

October 22nd. — -Discussion on the Anthroceridae (Zygaenidae). — 
The evening was set apart for an exhibition and discussion of the 
genus Antlirocera, introduced by Mr. B. S. Curwen. Mr. Curwen 
exhibited a collection of PahBarctic Anthroceridae consisting of some 
26 species and forms. Dr. E. A. Cockayne, the series of A. Iiippocre- 
pidis from the late J. W. Tutt's collection, with various series of A, 
filipendidae, A. trifolii, A. paliistris, and A. lonicerae. Mr. F. H. Stall- 
man, early and late races of A. trifolii, A. jilipendidae, etc., Mr. Buck- 
stone, similar series with a suggested hybrid series trifolii x f'dipendulae. 
Dr. Chapman, a drawer of European Anthroceridae captured during 
the last few years, including A. anthyllidis, A. containinei, A. sarpedon, 
etc. Mr. Hy. J. Turner, series from many localities, mainly of the 
five- and six-spotted species of the Transalpiniforines group. Mr. L. 
W. Newman, series of bred Anthroceridae species. Mr. Page, long 
series of British Anthrocerids, with a parallel series of A. hippo- 
crepidis taken at the same time and place as the late Mr. Tutt's series. 
Papers and notes on the above exhibits were read and communicated 
by Messrs. Curwen, Cockayne, P. A. Buxton, Turner, R. Adkin, and 
others. Varieties and hybrids exhibited. — Mr, Newman exhibited 
long varied series of Dianthoecia barrettii, bred from Co. Cork and 
S. Devon, bred series of Boarmia repandata from the Wye Valley and 



SOCIETIES. 23 

from N. Cornwall, and a series of the rare hybrid papuli x ocellatus. 
Mr. Tonge, the same hybrid and a liioiiicia pldaeas from Deal, with 
the red submarginal band on the hindwing quite wanting. 

November 12f/i.— Hibernating P. atalanta. — Mr. Sich reported 
having seen a Fi/ranieis atalanta in Holborn on that day, November 
12th. An immigrant ant colony. — Mr. H. Moore, a small colony of 
the ant (Jamponotns adutninalu, found in a banana from W. Indies. A 
hazel gall-mite. — Mr. Step, abnormal catkins of hazel from Mickle- 
ham, probably due to the attack of the gall-mite En'ophijes cor>jli. A 
GYNANDROMORPH OF A. coRiDON. — Mr. Hall, a gynandi'omorphous speci- 
men of Aijriades coridon, essentially a female, but with patches of blue 
scales and androconia on the right forewing. French Lepidoptera. — 
Mr. Curwen, a number of species of Geometer taken in France. 

December lAtli. — New Member. — Mr. W. Schmassmann, F.E.S., 
was elected a member. Paper. — Mr. W. .J. Lucas read a Paper on the 
"British Long-horned Grasshoppers," and illustrated his remarks with 
a long series of lantern slides depicting the various species. The 
Giant Sawflies of Great Britain and their large Parasite. — Mr. A. 
E. Gibbs exhibited the two large species of British sawflies, Sire.v 
noctilin and "Sirex jnvejicus with their parasite B/q/ssa perifKasoria, and 
gave details of their life-histories and distribution. He said that both 
species were found at St. Albans or in the neighbourhood, and tlmt the 
parasite bad also been taken there but was probably rare. Orthoptera, 
— Mr. H. Moore, a number of species of exotic long-horned grasshop- 
pers. Mr. Step, an apterous form of a long-ho-rned grasshopper from 
South Africa — -Hetrodes j/etersi female. He believed that both sexes 
were apterous. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — October. — This 
was the opening meeting of the Society. Exhibits of the Season's 
Work. — Mr. F. N. Pierce showed Cyclopides palaemon {paniscm) from 
Northants and a large number of Micro-lepidoptera including GraphoUtha 
(Laspei/resia) (/emmiferana, I'enthina (jentiana, and Leioptilns microdactylus 
from Devon, and DichrorampJia satitrnana. Mr. A. W. Hughes brought 
a long series of FoUjgonia c-albnm including var. Jnitcldmoni, and 
Araschnia levana from Herefordshire ; he reported that the latter 
butterfly seemed to be establishing itself there. By the same member, 
a long series of Aricia viedon (astrarche), including var. semi-alloiis from 
Silverdale. Mr. Buckley had a fine series of Odontopera bidentata var. 
nit/ra from Birmingham, also the local form of the same species from 
Urmston, varied series of Aprotis ashtvorthii and Boarmia repandata 
from North Wales, Diantlioecia nana from Anglesey, and />. capsophila, 
pale forms, from Eastbourne. Mr. B. Tait, Jnr., had three large cases 
containing the results of his holiday in South Devon, these included 
Leptosia sinapi\, Hesperia iiiahae var. taras, Cidaria trnncata {rasnata), 
and var. centiim-notata, and varieties of Pohjommatus icams. From 
Penmaenmawr he showed the following taken at heather bloom : — 
Aijrotis lunit/era, A. lucernea, A. ashtcorthii, and Mamestra ftirra : he had 
also found Acidalia contignaria, and for the first time captured wild the 
local melanic form of Boarmia repandata. And from Huddersfield he 
showed a very fine lot of varieties of Abraxas gromidariata which 
in3luded a grand series of ab. nigro-sparsata and one remarkable 
specimen having the left side wmgs black with a few marginal streaks 
on the hind-wing, while the wings on the right side were typical. Dr. 
J. Cotton brought a fine specimen of Manduca atropos captured at light 



24 THE entomologist's record. 

at Knowsley early in October. Mr. R. Wilding showed fine series of a 
number of Rhopalocera from the New Forest, Silverdale and Ireland ; 
noteworthy among these was a fine row of Irish females of VoUionnnatns 
icarus. Mr. W. Mansbridge brought a long bred series of Aplecta 
nebtilosa, the progeny of Delamere parents ; these included the local 
type form, var. robsoni, and a scarce leaden grey variation, also a short 
series of Abraxas ijroi^sHlariata frdm Huyton of which a number were 
ab. laeticolor, dark Polia chi from Hebden Bridge and Oduntopcrabiden- 
tata var. ni'i/ra from wild larvfe beaten on Simonswood Moss, in which 
locality, although of rare occurrence, it appears to be increasing. 

London Natural History Society. — April 2Xfit, 1914. — Asymme- 
trical N. pulveraria. — Mr. Bernard Cooper exhibited a fine asymme- 
trical specimen of Xuineria pulveraria, bred in March, 1914, from New 
Forest ova. The band was obsolete on the right forewing. 

May 19f/(. — Melanic L. hirtaria. — Mr. A. W. Mera, on behalf of 
Mr. B. S. Williams, a melanic specimen of Lycia [Biaton) hirtaria, bred 
at Finchley from wild pup^e. Hybrids. — Mr. A. J. Willsdeu, the 
reciprocal hybrids of Lycia hirtaria and Nyssia hispidaria. 

June 2nd. — Bred C. edusa ab. helice. — Mr. J. Riches Colias edusa 
var. helice, bred from Eastbourne ova. 

September 1st. — Aberrations and Gynandromorphs.— Mr. H. B. 
Williams, a short series of Eachloe cardamines, bred in May, 1914, 
including a J with extra spot below the discoidal spot, underside. A 
long series of Polycvninatus icarus, taken in June at Boxhill and Ban- 
stead Downs, showing strong tendency to obsolescence in the underside 
spotting; also two gynandromorphous specimens of Atiiorpha populi, bred 
on August 2nd, from June ova. Aberrations of C. minimus. — Mr. W, E. 
King, specimens of L'upido urinimus with ab. obsuleta and ab. e.rtrewa, 
from Horsley. The Season 1914. — Mr. Williams read some notes on 
the season's collecting. 

October Qth. — Varieties of B. repandata. — Mr. F. H. Heath, a tine 
series of Boarmia repandata from Lynton, including ab. conrersaria. 
Varieties of P. icarus, etc. — Mr. C. H. Williams, Polyouniiatus icarus 
from Ireland; also an ab. obsnleta S aod an ab. ajitico-striata, Tutt. Mr. 
W. E. King, a series of P. icarus taken at Horsley this year, includmg 
ab. striata, ab. obsoleta, ab. antico-obsoleta, ab. subobsoleta, ab. postico- 
apicalis, ab. costajuncta, ab. nielanotoxa, etc. Mr. L. W. Newman, a 
gynandromorphous P. icarus having right forewing J , remainder J 
except one red ? lunule on each hindwing; another chiefly 2 but 
having small <? patches ; also a gynandromorphous Aijriades tlwtis, 
chiefly $ , but with a splash of 3- colour along the costa of the right 
forewing; Ayriades coridon ab. ininutissiinus : and a series of Gastro- 
pacha ilicifnlia bred from a 5 taken at Cannoch Chase by Mr. G. B. 
Oliver in 1913. Mr. H. B. Williams a long series of Ayriades coridon 
taken in August, 1914, in North Herts, including long series of ab, 
se»ii>iyniirapha, Tult, ab. inaequalis, Tutt, ab. parisiensis, Gerh., and tine 
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N. 



CONTENTS. 



Lepldopterological Notes for 1914. Russell James 

"Notes on the Taxonomic Value of the Genital Armature in Lepidoptera," F. 

Fierce, F.E.S 

"Notes on the Taxonomic Value of the Genital Armature in Lepidoptera." AEeply. 

G. T. Bethiuie-Baker, F.L.S., F.E.S 

Notes on Swiss Ehopalocera. III. The \a,te A . J . Flson 

Scientific Notes and Obserkations : — Resting Attitude of the LycEenidse 

Notes on Collecting : — Myrmecophilous Arthropoda from Algeria, P. A. Buxton, 

F.E.S 

Current Notes and Short Notices 

Societies : — The South London Entomological and Natural History Society. The 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. London Natural History 

Society . . 
Special Index 
Corrections, etc. . . 
Title Page. 



10 
13 
16 

16 
17 



21 
i-xxii 
xxiii 



Communications have been received or have been promised from Dr. Chapman, Dr. 
Verity, Dr. Cockayne, Rev. G. Wheeler, Messrs. R. S. Bagnall, Hy. J. Turner, C. W. 
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C. P. Pickett, W. G. Sheldon, Miss Lilian Fison, etc., with Reports of Societies and 
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READ THE BACK Nos. OF THE 

Entomologist's Record & Journal of Variation 

(Practical Hints, Field Work, etc. useful for every year's collecting). 
VOL. VI. 

The TITLES of some of the articles are as follows : — Notes on Butterfly Pupoe, with some remarks 
on the Phylogenesis of the Rhopalocera." — Dr. T. A. Chapman, F.E.S., " Phytophagic Species." — 
Prof. A. lladcliffe Qrote, M.A. "Varieties and aberrations of Noctuas from Doncaster." — H. H. 
Corbett, M.R.C.S. "The frenulum of the British species of Sraerinthus."— G. C. GrijfUhn, F.Z.S., 
F.E.S. "Eudryas stse-johannis..' — A. RadcUfie' Qrote, M.A. "Parthenogenesis or Aganiogenesis." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.R.S. " Larvae."— 7?«i'. G. M. A. Hewitt, M.A. "Retrospect of a Lepidopteiist for 1894." 
— ,T. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Generic Names in the Nootuidse. "—Pior. A. li. Orote. M.A. " Pupa hunting in 
October." — J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Polygamy and Polyandrv in Moths." "The nature of certain 
insect colours."— fl'.S. Riding, M.D., R. Freer, M.B., J. W. Tutt,'F.E.S., Rer. C. R. N. Biirrouoi, J. Anderson, 
Jiin. " The Lepidoptera of Swansea." — Major R. B. Rohertson. " Caradrina ambigua in the Isle of 
Wight."— ^. ./. Hodges. " The insects of Bourg St. Maurice."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Orrhodia 
erythrocephala ab. glabra from Devonshire and comparison with C). vaccinii." — Dr. TV. .S. Riding, 
F.E.S. "Notes on Caradrina ambigua and C. superstes."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Entomology and 
Entomologists, being the Annual Address to the City of London Entom. Society." Notes on 
Aphomia sociella " (with plate). — W. P. Blnckburne Maze, F.E.S. "Apterous females and Winter 
Emergence "—E. F. Stadd, M.A., B.G.L., F.E.S., L. B. Prout, F.E.S. " Collecting Noctuidse by Lake 
Erie."— ^. RadcUjfe Qrote, M.A. " Coleoptera at Ipswich."— CJaitcfe Morleij, F.E.S. "Notes on 
Bombus visurgipe." " Synonymic Notes on Acidalia humilata and A. dilutaria."— L. B. Prout, F.E.S. 
"The Lepidoptera of Gr6sy-sur-Aix."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Apatura iris." — Rev. Q. M. A. Heu-etf 
"Scheme of Classification of the Rhopalocera founded on the structure of the Pupje." — J. A. 
Chapman, M.D., F.E.S. " Gliinpses of American Entomology."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "The Genus 
Smerinthus." — A. Baeot. " Variation considered biologically : Some notes suggested by the Romanes 
Lecture of 1H'.)4."— .7. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Wing structure."— J^. Alston Moffatt. "On the development 
of sex in social insects." — J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "The British representatives of the Genus Caradrina." — 
L. B. Front, F.E.S. " Habits and variation of Lithosia lutarella and its variety pygmaeola." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. On the gradual disappearance of Lepidoptera from South-Eastern London and 
its neighbourhood." — C. Fenn, F.E.S. "A hunt for Neuroterusaprilinus." — T.A. Chapman. M.I)., F.E.S. 
"On the development of pigment in Nemeobius lucina." — F. J, Buchell, M.B. "The Macro-Lepi- 
doptera of Keswick." — H. A. Beadle. " Varieties of Argynnis selene " (with plate).— S. O. C. Ri/s.iclf, 
F.E.S. " Hadenoid genera with hairy eyes." — Prof. A. R. Oro'e, M.A. '• Zygtena minos and its 
varieties." — J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Notes on the pupse of Castnia and Anthooharis."— T. A. Chapman, 
M.D., F.E.S. Besides these articles, a large number of short notes are contained in every number under 
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NOTES ON THE SWISS RHOPALOCERA. IV. 25 




Notes on Swiss Rhopalocera. IV. 

By the late A. J. FISON. 
(Communicated by Miss L. M. Fisox.) , w g^ 

Extract from his letters to, and kindly lent hj, the Rev^G. "wftlle^ 

1902. 
1. Monte Bre, near Lugano. 

" Lugano, April 16th, 1902. 
"Am just back from Monte Bre, near Gandria, where I took the 
following: — Six Libi/thea relth (three very old), one Cupidn vi'nuiua, 
one Xoniiades cifllarus, Papilio iiiachaon and Papilio podaliriiis, three 
Gonepteriix rJwDiDii, Vauesfia io, two Euranesi^a antiopa, five Celastrina 
ar(/iolii!<, Leptosia sinapi.s, Pieria brasffieae, Pieris rapae, Pieria napi^ 
Coliofi hiiale, Colias ediiaa, Cofnoni/nipJia painpJiiliiK, and one Parar;/e 
ae;/eria, southern form.''' 

"Of course, the first is the best catch. I must have seen a dozen 
settling on the young oak or other trees ; they were not very hard to 
catch. On Monday next I hope to go on for a week to Pension 
Righetta, Madonna del Sasso, above Locarno. I forgot to say that 
there were lots of Fhicldo'e cardamines, bat no EucJdoe eupJie)toides, or 
0(1)1 fjiteri/.v cleopatra " 

2. Lugano. 

" Clarens, May 5th, 1902. 

" I came back last Tuesday, having had very bad and cloudy 
weather ; only two-and-a-half days really fine and fit for insect 
hunting. Except the Libytkea celtift, I only got of any importance 
Scolitantides orion, and the southern form of Ptvann' aei/eria. 

" I must except, however, my last butterfly caiu/ht, which is a very 
handsome, dark variety of Pararye vief/aera. On all' the wings the 
dark lines and margins are broad and strong ; not much of the yellow 
is seen. This gives it an appearance quite different from the type. 
The pupilled eyes are well developed, and at the apex of forewing 
there is a second tiny white pupilled e.ye.f .... It was too wet 
to go to the marshes at Locarno." 

3. Charpigny and Plan Cerisier. 

"Charpigny, .June 12fch, 1902. 

" One has lost so much time lately through wet. Like you, I have 
got one or two good 2 cijllanis this season — one with blue on it. 

. Here I have found some of the dark vars. of Papilio )iiachaon,l 
and took two. I also took a fine Mditaea aurinia on the rock about a 
week ago. One day (the only outing lately) I found no berisalennia at 
Plan Cerisier, but took a line orion by the little chapel due S. of it. I 
fancy parthenie must be flying here now." 

* K.B. — What form is this? Not the type, I suppose? Is var. eueyidea, 
StRi-., the usual form in Switzerland? — L.M.F. Eijerichs is the usual form in 
Switzerland north of the Alps, except in the .Jura, where intermedia is general. 
Tlie Lusjano form is rather tawny intermedia. — G.W. 

t N.B. — Is this Mr. Fison's ab. transcaspiea, Stgr., from Losone, near 
Lugano?— L.M.F. Yes.— G.W. 

I Are these var. hurdiniilennis, Trimoulet? — L.M.F. 
Febhuary 15th, 1915. 



.^^iM^JfJ^s 



26 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

4. Weesen. 

" Weesen, Walensee, June 20th, 1902. 
" I must tell you how I got two perfect specimens of Araschnia 
levana var. prorsa yesterday near here. Both were in a sunny, narrow 
ravine up which the road climbs to Thalalp See over Filzl^ach. The 
first was with some Cupido minima on some garbage in the road, and 
I got it at once. It was in a spot where all trees (firs and beeches) 
had been cut, and nettles were abundant. I waited 45 minutes, but 
saw no more. Only a good number of ' Wood Argus.' ' Orange 
Tips' and ' Green-veined whites' were abundant. Going on, I soon 
entered the Thalalp cow-pastures by a gate, and at once a second var. 
prorsa got up (probably also from the wet path), and I got it directly. 
At that height near by were a great many Pararf/e hiera, but I could 
see no nettles there. Later I went further up the path, and again 
there was a good, sunny gorge with nettles abundant, and the same 
butterflies, but no var. prorsa. This was close to the lake level of, 
say, 1,150 metres. The first I got was at about 950 metres. Ke- 
turning, I went over the best (S.) side of the Weesen Marsh, but only 
saw two or three Melitaea oiirinia. No Coeno»y)iiplia tip/uni, Lijcae)ta 
euplminis, or L. areas. Men I spoke to say everything here is at least 
three weeks late this season. To-day I was again in a part near the 
fine Obersee where nettles and beeches grew, but there was no sun and 
no butterflies. This ought to be a good district for var. prorsa. 

Weesen is not such a desirable centre as Bex " 

{Cf. note on Arasdtnia levana in Ent. Hecord, vol. xxvi., p. 242.) 

5. Araschnia levana, L. 

" Clarens. June 28th, 1902. 
" Am glad to know where you are that I may correct mistakes in 
my last p.c. .It was Araschnia levana, and not var. prorsa, that I 
caught. A second day in the little Kupfernaseruns gorge I got two more, 
and in the Murgthal a third couple. Of these, four were on the roads 
or paths, one on nettles, and one on grass, with few nettles or beeches 
anywhere about, and rather high. All were caught as high as the one 
in the cow-pastures. Both valleys were cool and faced North. No 
doubt things are very late on the high pastures. ... I have only 
seen four or five Erehia yet. ... I should add that my levana 
have much golden-brown colour about them, and are not so black as 
var. prorsa would be. All are perfect. I possibly saw two others, but 
not near." 

6. Erehia manti), Esp., var. pyrrlntla, Frey.. etc. 

"Charpigny, August 8th, 1902. 
" You will, I know, be interested to hear that I have had what I 
believe is an undoubted catch of Erehia manto var. pi/rrhnla ; and on 
the Dent du ]\Iidi too (W. corner). I can pretty well see one spot 
from the window (Mr. Fison's sitting-room at Charpigny), i.e., 
Anthemoz, S. of Champery, where I first got them on the 29th 
July, and there again (and further S. of it too) on 6th inst. To-day I 
have been comparing these with the six in my drawer, which you said 
were no doubt var. piirrhula. They are quite as small (some I fancy 
smaller), and have forewings quite as pointed and angular. The fore- 
wings spots vary much ; one or two have largish black spots in oval 



NOTES ON THE SWISS RHOPALOCERA. IV. 27 

-patches ; generally, I think the band is in long, narrow patches ; 
sometinies it is reduced to two or three Huiall chestnut patches. In 
some the colour on underside huidwing is very faint ; but in half or 
more I note a tiny spot of colour three-fifths of the way across the 
wing (two-fifths from body, and two-fifths from top of ring), which is 
noted byFrev as found in var. /ii/rrhula. This spot I cannot find in 
xny <y iiianto or in my six pijrrhnla, but it corresponds with the bright 
yellow blotch in my $ inanto, where it forms part of an irregular line 
of yellow spots. This is interesting. Lacking this spot, my six could 
scarcely be from the Dent du Midi, as I thought at first. I hoped I 
had twenty, but to-day I found twelve is nearer ; two or three are ? s. 
I wish I had stopped to get more. I found them in long grass between, 
or amongst, forest, at say, 5,000ft. The first were 150ft. from 
Anthemoz cow-chalets. Much higher up (7,000ft), under the Dent du 
Midi rocks, I got six Erebia alecto var. (/lacialis ; three of which, I find 
now, are var. phito. I had a great catch of Rnsticas sepliijrns var. 
lycidas going to Simplon. Got many small Erebia in Laquinthal, but 
would not be sure I had Erebia chriffti. As I left Simplon, on the 
2 1st, I met Chanoine Favre and a naturalist arriving. He thought I 
probably had christi, but could not see my specimens. The fortnight 
at Champery was very pleasant. I got several Erebia lap/iona ab. 
pollii.r under the Dent du Midi, and one Pamas'iias deliiis at Barmaz. 
I may try the Rochers de Naye for manto. Will you not try for var. 
Ijyrrhida at Anthemoz, S. of Champery, and at same level more to S., 
opposite Bonaveau ? " 

1903. 

1. Butterflies in March, 1903. 

" Clarens, March 23rd, 1903. 
" Last Saturday, at Salvan, I saw a white butterfly of some rather 
quick-flying sort, but failed to get it. On Monday (22nd) I saw a fine 
Pa])ilio iiiachaon at Massongex, near Bex. Yesterday, another was 
playing round La Tete at Charpigny. I also saw there, two or three 
Pieridae, a Polyt/onia c-albinii, and a EiKjonia poli/chloros, beside lots of 
A(/lais tirticac, and (j-niiejiteri/.v rliavtni. It must be very early for 
■'swallow-tails.' On Saturday we also saw a Vanesaa io." 

2. SlERRE. 

" May 7th, 1903. 
" I suppose the fly you call melanops''^- is a var. of No)iiiades cyllarus 
and probably a ? . To-day I have caught many Nonriades cyllarus in 
the meadows along E. edge of Pfynwald towards Illgraben ; several are 
dark ? s, but I cannot recognise a ))ielanop!<. One has a lovely double 
stroke of blue V from forewing near to the centre, and a less 
clear blue stroke below on lower wing, both upperside. The rest is 
dark. Most of the Xoniiades cyllarus are small, especially two 2 s. I 
also got, nearer Illgraben, a lovely fly with a luost conspicuous circular 
spot near apex forewing, upperside, and touching costa, which reminds 
me much of the Anthocharis belia var. ausonia you once had to compare 
with mine.f The irregular white spots, hindwing underside, are 

* Mr. Elwes reports melanops from Sion, but no other specimen is known. 
-Mr. Fison's insects are cyllarun ab. hlachicri. — G.W. 
t A. simi)lonia var. fiavidior. — G.W. 



28 THE entomologist's RECORD, 

pearly-white. The discoidal spot does not touch costa upperside, but 
nearly touches a comma-like spot above it, which also lies below the 
costal edge. The costal edge, from this upper long spot towards body, 
is powdered (rather pointed), at regular intervals. The white line 
along centre of lower side, so clear in AnthocJiaris simidonia, is exces- 
sively faint. I never saw the like, I believe, in my siinplnnia. The 
points on the costal edge are more numerous along underside forewing 
in which the viarrelloiish/ exact circle is reproduced on a pale green 
o-round. It touches costa above, and is bounded by a descending black 
mark on innerside ; a second black mark is a little nearer body with 
the green between them. The discal spot on underside has a slight 
white line in its centre. The rays are very bright green of lighter 
colour. I note the season is so late that the grass has not grown at 
all; small gentians abound. 

"I got one Pontia daplidice, but no siwplonia, 12-20 Leptosia sinapis 
ab. lathyri, yesterday at Niouc; none of type here. Many Brenthis dia, 
Polyi/(»iia c-alhiiii), four or five Cupido ininvna (only), and one lovely 
5 "blue" with colour of Agriades tJietis ab. ? ceromis, which I 
fancy must be PolyoiiniiatKS icariiH (ale.ris). 

" Several ojllaria^ are very small, especially one or two $ ?. Only 

about three 3- s are large in size Little at Niouc and 

beyond yesterday, except Issoria lathonia and Leptosia sinapis ab. 
latlnjri. 

" Rather warmer just now, and nightingales have sung last three 

days." 

3. Lycaena tolas, Ochs. ; Loireia {Clirysophanits) a))ipliida)iias, Esp., etc. 

" Bex, June 25th, 1903. 

" Have been a good deal in the Yalais lately At 

Lugano, in three weeks, I did not get so much as in April or August 
last year in the same parts. ^lelitaea anrelia abounded, but I only 
saw three 'Melanaraia yalatca var. procida out. It was cold and wet at 
times, and a late season. 

"Whilst here I have got a lot of Loireia (CJtryxojihanufi) alci/iJiron 
var. (/ordiiis at Vernayaz and La Butiaz, and about nine Mditaea 
deione var. berisalensis. 

"At Sierre, on the 20th, I got four Lycaena iolas in 40 minutes, 
when the sun went in. On the 23rd I could find none there at the 
same time, although the day was perfect, but returning about 1 p.m. 
I saw and took a $ . I had expected a great haul. Between, I went 
up to Niouc, but found nothing. On the 18th, at Caux, I took 48 
Loxceia {ChrysoplianuH) aiiip/ddainas* in about two hours, and two 
more yesterday. To-day, at Charpigny, I got eight Kordnmnvia 
{T/tecla) ilicis, and two N. {'ihecla) acaeiae. These all just N. of the 

tower " 

4. Trawelan. 

" Tavannes, June 80th, 1903. 

" You may like to hear how 1 have succeeded here I 

have just returned from exploring the valley of the Trame from Fuet 
to Tramelan. In the valley of hay, and a few fields under Fuet, I 
could find no trace of the ' Tourbieres,' spoken of by the country 

* See end of notes. 



NOTES ON THE SWISS RHOPALOCERA. IV. 29 

folk. All was now hay-ground, but near the cross-roads I got four 
Chri/sniihanits hip/wt/ioe. In the next part — a very narrow gorge — I 
got Loweia aiiiiiltidcaiias as it flew up from the nettles and rough stuft" 
which lined the tiny torrent. No more about there, but I got another 
old fellow, as I came to a wider part, and had to climb up S. to 
see if there was any shelter from a coming storm. This part, though 
it faced W., was the best butterfly ground I have yet seen. It gave 
me one good Chrijsophanus hippothoe and one Cupicio vnnitna, whilst 
Plebeitia anjns, FolyoiiiDiatus icarits [alexis) (old), Erebia oeiiie (old), 
Euchlo'e cardamines (old), and battered Brenthis euphrosijno were 
abundant. I got a good BrentJm selene too, and saw a bad Melitaea 
anrhiia. I found shelter at the Orange railway halt, which would be 
an excellent point to train to, and then walk to Tramelan. Of that 
part, the first half mile from the narrow gorge to a large mill pond 
seemed to me the most likely ground of any for Loivcia amphidainas. 
I am sure I should have got some there earlier in the day, but now 
all was too wet and sunless. I see by the state here of the butterflies 
I caught in good condition with anipliidaiiias at Caux and Villars, that 
it is at least a fortnight too late for Tramelan now; almost everything 
seems past. P. icarm [ale.via) is rare, and the only common ' blue ' 
is Foli/oiiiiriatKs semiar(/us. I have seen no ' Burnets ' [Anthroceridae, 
Zijijaenidae). Aphantopus hypeiantns is common, and the hawthorn, 
but nothing else. All round Tramelan there is little or nothing 
except ha^^fields, as here, and around all Jura villages." 

5. Miscellaneous. 

" Weesen, July 17th, 1903. 

'" A few lines to tell you how I have got on lately. 

" At Wassen 1 stayed five days, but could not find Brenthis thore. 
Indeed, I did not know where to look for it, and the weather was soon 
too cold. This induced me to go S. to Faido for six days. There I 
got lots of Loweia {ChrysophaiiKs) alciphron var. cjordiiis, and some 
well-marked ? Paniassius apollo. Amongst these I was much 
interested in an aberration with yellow spots, underside especially 
fine. Unfortunately, of the four I got, only one was not old, but I 
caught a good intermediate fly. One day, three miles from Locarno, 
I got (on mud in the road), four specimens of a fine new ' Skipper,' 
new to me. Upperside black, with a Greek e or s on upper edge of 
forewing, underside with yellow lozenges in black rings. A very 
pretty insect. Could it be the one you said flies at Giubuisco ?- The 
last day at Faido, going out with a little American girl, she caught 
an old butterfly, which I soon decided must be Brenthis thore. 
This was in a cool forest clearing. Next day I came here. On 
Wednesday, in Weesen Marsh, I got sixteen Lycaena areas, sixteen 
Lycaena eiiphenitis (rather old), seven Coenonytnplia tiphon, and four 
old Brenthis ino. Yesterday I went to a little shaded ravine with an 
unpronouncable name (above Filsbachjf to look for var. prorsa, saw 
none, but in the nettles soon got two Brenthis thore, and later two more ; 
lots of Melitaea dictynna flying with them made great confusion. 



* This was, as Mr. Fison supposed, Heteropteriis morpheus. It was the first 
Swiss record for over 50 years. — G.W. 

t Kupfernaseruns— an equivalent of •' Brazenose," I suppose.— G.W. 



30 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

Lunched. Saw nothing at all higher up, and almost thought of 
returning without seeing the Thalalpsee, when I got a second M. 
tlwre, and soon found there were lots about on a fairly clear, sunny 
part over (east of) the path. For half-an-hour I had an active time, 
whenever the sun came out. By 3 p.m. it was too shady and cool, 
but in all I came back with 20 thore. About one-half are rather old, 
but a few are splendid. Five or six IhentJiis a)iiat}iut<ia flew with 
them." 

5. Champery. 

" August 4th, 1903. 
" The cold and wet thus far have greatly hindered me. One day, 
on the sunny corner of an old moraine, one mile beyond Barmaz, 1 
found 12 or 13 Brentlm pales, but no var. arsilacJie. It was very cold. 
Yestei'day, at 1,800 m., behind Croix de Culet, I got a 2 Kpinephele 
jirrtina, which looks more like var, hhpiilla than any I took south of 
the Alps. To-day I have had a grand time at Anthemoz, but of my 
fourteen Brenthia jialea most are $ , and I fear none are var. arsilache. 
When near returning, about 2 p.m., I went into a dry gully half a 
mile south of Anthemoz, and I think I never found a better place for 
small Erehia. I got about fourteen Erebia pharte (some few old), 
three or four Erebia epiphron var. cassinpe, Erebia tyndarus and a 
large varietj^ of it, two Erehia f/orge, six very small Erebia manto var.. 
pyrrliula, two Brenthis pales, four Cinmonyiiipha arcania var. dar- 
uiniana, Erebia euryale, possibly a small Erebia oenie, and one or two- 
other things I hope it may prove a permanent place for 

Erebia jdiarte. I have not seen Culiax palaeno, Parnassius deliiis, or 
Erebia aledo var. ylacialiH. I have got two Cliattendenia {Tliecla) 
n'-albii)ii, and I saw a fine Apatura iris on Sunday." 

6. CHAMPIiRY TO ChARPIGNY. 

" Charpigny, August 22nd, 1903. 
"Was able to do but little after you left, but on Tuesday afternoon 
I went to the zigzags at Barmaz. I got rather a good yellow Par- 
7iassiiis apollo, and two bad intermediate ones, like the one you caught. 
There were a few very small Ayriades coridon. On Thursday I walked 
to Charpigny and found so many butterflies on the way, it took me 
seven hours. Below Trois Torrents I got three tiny Loireia {Chryso- 
phauns) darilis, but very old, plenty larger at cross-ways on old road, 
and one fairly true E)>inephele jiirtina var. hispulla. Hirsutina damoiv 
had disappeared, except one 5 . From CoUombex to the Rhone, 
Enodia dry as abounded, and in the alder scrub over the Ehone Bridge' 
I was surprised to find crowds of fine ' Wood Argus "'' (some dark and 
some lighter) and Aphantnpus hyperantus, the last rather old, but I got 
one fresh (very small) specimen. Near Trois Torrents too, I had' 
taken a tiny Polynnunatus hylas. At Charpigny yesterday butterflies 
were more numerous than any day I have been there this year, all of 
common kinds, Erebia aethiops, Eiwdia dryas, Epiuephele titJionus, 
Pararye meyaera, Polyommatus hylas (one very small), Ayriades 
coridon, Ayriades thetis (bellaryns), Brenthis dia, Melitaea juirthenie,. 
Issoria lathnnia, Ihi/as paphia, Aryynnis adippe, one fine and one very 
old Papilio niachann, and one Pararye viaera. 

* Does Mr. Fison mean the egerides form of Parargc aegeria? — L.M.F. Yes. 
probably also ab. pallida. — G.W. 



WHAT ARE THE TEGUMEN AND VALV.E ? 31 

" On Thursday, on the straight Collombex road, I took two small 
Mazarine Blues — Poh/ommatiis seiiiian/iis : one seemed a true var. 
montana. I could not see Puiralin betidae in the vines at Charpigny ; 
I fancy it is early for it there." 

7. London. 

" September 1st, 1903. 
" If you go to Charpigny do look at the aberration of Unralis 
betulae-' to which you have given my name. I think it is the one of 
two similar which I caught S. of Brigue by a chapel W. or S.W. of 
Napoleon's Bridge. I do not remember ever getting a var. at Char- 
pigny. Have you not mistaken the locality ? I am trying here to see 
some Erehia epiphron, type form, as it would be interesting to know if 
the riy I took on the Dent du Midi is it. I saw Mr. Kirby at the 
South Kensington Museum, but the drawer full of Erehia epiphron and 
vara, which he showed me was so arranged that I could not be quite 
sure which was the line of epiphron types. Mine i%much like one I 
took for a type, but it has no spots on underside as the South Ken- 
sington specnnenhad. . . . Few of my summer captures are yet 
set, except those from Champery." 



What are the Tegumen and Valvae in the Armature of the 
Lepidoptera? 

By G. T. BETHUNE-BAKEE, F.L.S., F.Z.S., etc. 

Quite oblivious of the fact that he himself has divided up more than 
one organ that formerly had an '-omnibus" name, Mr. Pierce takes 
me to task for dividing up the large organ called, by Buchanan White, 
the 2\'!iiniien, and for not adopting the use of the term Uncus. Some 
years ago, finding out the need of designations for different parts of 
the tegumen, I called the hind ring of this organ, with especial refer- 
ence to the sternite, the ('impda or "girdle," and I have never used, 
and do not propose to use, the word "uncus" for the dorsal part of the 
tegumen, as it is merely a synonym for Dr. White's "tegumen"; that 
is to say, using it as Mr. Pierce uses it, it is nothing more than a 
synonym. To prove this we have only to refer to Dr. White's 
description of it and to his figures. He devotes nearly two pages of 
the 2Vrt».s. [Ann. Soc, 1877, Zoology, vol. I., pp. 360-362, to this one 
organ, and he takes as his type for figuring and description in detail 
Epinephele (or, as we should now call it, Aphantopm hijperantns. 
The following is an extract : — 

"Viewed from above, the tegumen is oval-acuminate in outline, but 
truncate at the base ; the basal half is ovately spherical ; and the acuminate 
apex is somewhat terete, and curved slightly downwards. Nearly half- 
way between the base and apex a slender, curved, spine-like lobe 
(which will hereafter be termed the side lobe) is given off on each side, 
and curves downwards, inwards, and backwards, so that it is not very 
well seen from above (plate Iv., fig. 3, undissected, and fig. 8, dissected 
out)." 

This figure is simply the " uncus " of Gosse as applied to hyper- 

* Ab. ? fisonii. ButterfJie.'^ of Switzerlaitd, -p. il. — G. Wheelek. 
' ? yellow band instead of orange.' — L.M.F. 



32 THE entomologist's record. 

antiis, there cannot be two opinions about it, it is so definite. Dr. 
White's name therefore has the priority and must be adhered to. 

The description is then continued by the author, viewed from the 
side and viewed from below, and in each case he gives a figure of the 
part dissected out as well as an outline figure in profile, which latter 
will naturally not meet with Mr. Pierce's approval because he prefers 
an artificial view of the genitalia to that which always obtains in 
nature. Buchanan White only once mentions the fact that the 
tegumen encircles the abdomen, when, on page 858, he says, " the 
tegumen, though most largely developed in the dorsal arc (the 
tergite) of the segment, is continued as a chitinous ring round the 
ventral arc (or sternite)"; and then he gives a diagrammatic view of it. 

It is quite evident that his whole mind, descriptions, and all his 
really important figures were bent on and depict the dorsal part, and 
that the term " tegumen " must take precedence over the term 
" uncus " for the dorsal armature rather than for the armature in the 
sternite section of the abdomen, which I named the " girdle " in 1905 
(Trans. Ent. 8oc., p. 290); whilst in 19101 adopted its Latin equivalent 
Chypda, so as to bring it into line with other scientific appellations. 
In 1905 I also called White's " side lobes " Falces, with the same 
object in view, these are, I suppose what Mr. Pierce now calls the 
■" socii." 

Mr. Gosse, in dealing with the "clasping organs of the Papilinnidae " 
[Trans. Linn. 8oe., ZdoL, vol. ii., p. 274), evidently feels that he is 
over-riding Dr. White's previously given name, for he says in reference 
to the uncus, " the word tei/iiiiicn adopted by Dr. White, seems hardly 
appropriate for this spinous, often wiry, point, which is certainly in 
no sense a cover." It must be admitted that even in Injperantiis, the 
tegumen is not really a cover at all, but to the author who gave the 
name, it appeared as a cover, and from Mr, Gosse's own admission the 
two names " cover " the same dorsal organ, therefore the term 
" tegumen " has priority and I hope will be generally used in the 
future. So far as I am concerned I shall continue to use Dr. White's 
name for the dorsal area that he so specifically described and figured, 
which includes the " uncus " of Gosse. I drew attention to this as 
long ago as 1890 {Trans. Ent. Soc. Land., 1891, p. 3). At the same 
time I would point out that I have acted in accordance with well 
acknowledged precedent (as a reviser) in sectioning off a portion and 
giving it the name of Cin<iiila or " girdle." In some families the 
sternite and tergite parts of the Cingula are almost separated by an 
articulation. With Dr. White's very definite and accurate description 
and equally definite figures, there is no question at all in my mind 
that the term tcf/itinen must be used for the dorsal portion of the 
armature and that the term nnct(s must sink to it. 

I must now consider Mr. Pierce's use of the term I'alrae or " valves," 
a word that first came into what we might call " modern usage " with 
Mr. Gosse's elaborate and beautifully illustrated paper on these organs 
in the l^apiliaiiidae {'Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 265, rt scij.). 
Herold, in 1815, uses the German word " Klappe " or valve, for that 
organ v.hich we still call the valve in Pieris brassicae. This is the 
very first definite appellation (perhaps) for a defined portion of the 
male armature, a portion that was confirmed by Gosse, with a reference 
.to Herold, showing that ho recognised the organ in the Pierine as 



WHAT AKE THE TEGUMEN AND VALV.E ? 83 

homologous to that in the Papilionine. 1 believe Gosse to have been 
absolutely right in this, I have considerable acquaintance with these 
organs in both families and I agree entirely with his identification. 
The term Valcae or valves must therefore be restricted to this special 
part in the Pa/iilioniilae, and in a section of the Pieridae, for the 
Valva or valve is not the same organ as the Harpaijo of White. 

After describing the valves Gosse goes on to describe another organ 
lying within the valve, which he designates as the Harpe (Gr. dp-n-q, a 
grappling iron), and he stated that he considered he was justified in 
so doing because the valve and the harpe united represented Dr. 
White's liarpaijo in other Rhopalocera. I would remind my readers 
that Gosse was a very accurate and exact observer, that he was making 
these designations with full knowledge of what had already been done, 
and that he was writing with the intention of Revision in these organs. 

He then described the Harpe, thinking that the valve with the 
harpe were homologues of White's Harpai/o. In 1911 my friend Dr. 
McDunnough pointed out that he did not consider Gosse was correct 
in this conclusion, as he thought the Harpago was a simple valve 
rather than a fusion of harpe and valve (Ent. Xen-f;, 1911, p. 187). I 
quite agree with Dr. McDunnough in considering that the harpago is 
not a fusion of the harpe and valve, but I am afraid I strongly disagree 
with the supposition that the harpago is a simple valve. I am con- 
vinced, in my own mind, that the harpago is a more fully developed 
harpe, and that the term Harpai/o must stand, also that the term 
Valca must stand, and further, I see no reason why Harpe should not 
remain in usage also, for it is so different in the Fapilionidae from the 
ordinary Harpago that it would be a mistake to sink it. 

To prove this point it is necessary for me to make some reference 
to these organs in the Fapilionidae. Some years ago I was uncertain 
of some of Gosse's points ; it was necessary, therefore, to prepare 
various " mounts " to enable me to clear them up, and I made fresh 
microscopic slides in different positions, and some of the profile slides 
I prepared by carefully lifting off" one valve and mounting the remains ; 
this method left behind all the organs except the one valve with most, 
but not all, of the harpe adhering to it. This proved to me what 1 
had already observed, viz., that the harpe is a continuous part of the 
whole armature, but that the valve (being possibly in this family a later 
development) would come right away, leaving merely a slight tearing 
of the exterior chitin, whereas the Harpe was fractured at a point, 
about a fifth within the valve, the broken portion being quite continu- 
ous with the basal part of the Cinyula. I prepared several species in 
this way and all proved this one point, that the valve would come 
right ofi", leaving merely a rough abrasion on the exterior, but that 
the harpe would be fractured from the main internal structure; in one 
case, /', oniu'nu>i, there is a very shallow external sort of socket at the 
base of the cingula, wherein the basal extremity of the valve fitted and 
from which it has come away with the slightest abrasion, but the 
harpe is broken oft" (a definite fracture) from the structural stem. This 
shows that the valve is wholly external, and, I think, is cleai- evidence 
of a later development than the harpe, which is a continuous part of 
the skeleton, if 1 may use the expression. 

The name valve, being first given to P. hransicae, it is advisable to 
see whether there is any homology between these organs in the two 



34 THE entomologist's record. 

families. If we compare the genus Caliaa with I'apilin, we should be 
immediately impressed with the similarity of structure of the tegumen 
and the cingula with the curious development of the proximal tergite,. 
which in both seems to form a sort of additional " cover," to use Dr. 
White's expression ; the valves are small and different, and are really 
akin to the harpagones. If, however, we turn to Pier is brassicae and 
its allies, it will be seen that the dorsal section of the armature is less 
similar, but that the large valves are quite extraordinarily similar, 
whilst 10 the furca is attached a longitudinal, short hornlike sclerite that 
might well be the initial stages of the Papilionid harpe. Gosse, 
however, seeing the homology, examined various Pierids, and in some- 
found the harpe as quite a distinct organ within the valve. 

These observations point very conclusively to the correctness of 
both Gosse's and my statements that the valves in the Papilionidae 
and in the Pieridae are certainly homologous, and I assume this as a 
fact. This brings us to the decision as to the use of the name '•' valve." 
It was first used colloquially in 1815 for P. braasicae ^ . 

It was used again by Burmeister in 1832 colloquially for D.. 
eiiphorbiae. De Haan then used it in 1842 for the Papilionidae, again 
colloquially. Gosse comes next (so far as I have been able to trace), 
with his memoir already referred to, but, and this is important, he- 
comes in with full knowledge of earlier literature, referring specifically 
to it, and acting definitely as a reviser. This revision (of terms) cannot 
be overridden to-day with the historical facts as they are. Let me 
summarise them in a sentence or two. 

" Valves" were first used by Herold in 1815 for Pieris brassicae. 
The word was then used indiscriminately for a period. 

Gosse then as first reviser fixes the word " valves " to the- 
Papilionidae and a section of the Pieridae, referring pointedly to the 
homology of the two sets of organs in the two families, this action,, 
therefore, cannot be annulled. 

We are thus left to provide a term for the clasps of other families, and 
this had been done by Buchanan White, who gave the term IJarpar/o,. 
plural Harpariones, to these structures ; this is one of the first scientific 
appellations given to these organs, and it has precedence over others in- 
asmuch as the valvae and the harpagones are not the same. We thus 
arrive at the conclusion that : — 

White's terms Tei/uwen, as applied to the dorsal armature, and 
Harpai/o, as applied to the lateral ventral armature, must stand, that 
the term Valvae, or valves, and the term Harpe must stand, as applied 
to the Papilionidae and some Pieridae : and the term Uncuti, of Gosse,. 
if used at all, can only be used for the terminal segment of the group 
it is referrpd to, but in view of Dr. White's very clear description and 
figures, it ought to be dropped as a synonym of the term tegumen. 
It may appear that I am a little dogmatic in this article, but I am 
obliged to be so, for with a recent author practically claiming that his 
designations shall be unreservedly adopted, a little dogmatism is 
absolutely necessary if future nomenclature is to be put on a right, 
basis. 

N.B. — Since writing the above, my friend, the Rev. F. D. Morice, 
has called my attention to a work published in Switzerland in 1820 
by J. J. Hegetschweiler, " Dissertatio inaug. zootom. de Insectorum 
genitalibus," and also to an appendix on the same subject by Kirby 



COLLECTING IN CONSTANTINOPLE IN 19U. 35 

and Spence in their ■\vell-known ■work, in which certain scientific 
designations are applied to definite parts. 

I have not y.et seen the former -work, but it appears that in 1826 
Kirby and JSpence quite definitely applied the term " Prehensores " to 
the organs in the genus Boinbiit> that are homologues of the 
*' Harpago " of White. 

I mav have to make further reference to both these works at a 
later date.— G.T.B-B. 



Collecting at Constantinople in 1914. 

By P. P. GRAVES, F.E.S. 
Spring began early at Constantinople this year and on my first 
expedition to Kiathane, on March 28rcl, I found Papilio machaon, 
Callojihri/s riibi, Einnicia phlaeas, Celastrina arf/iolns, Coiias eduso, and 
the " whites " including Pontia daplidice well out. The promise of 
]\[arch was well maintained till the end of May, but the first half of 
June was very rainy and wild along the Bosphorus and after July 24th 
m}' collecting came to rather an abrupt end. I was able during the 
season to add quite a number of species to the Constantinople list, all 
on the limestone, often near chalk beyond Tuzla, on the Southern 
coast of the Ismid Constantinople peninsula, a warm, sheltered 
region, dry and hilly, with a good deal of scrub-wood and well 
sheltered from the Bosphorus draught. As in my last notes, I will 
deal separately with my collecting on the European and Asiatic sides 
of the Bosphorus. 

European Side. 

My first day, March 23rd, has already l)een mentioned ; I may add 
that on that day I found that the Kiathane ground was uncomfortably 
near a ritie mnge and that caution must be exercised in visiting it. I 
worked it on April 30th and again twice in the first half of May, 
finding P. seDiiannis rarer than in previous years, though 1 took one 
magnificent large male of the form halcanica, or better balcanica- 
intermcdia, differing from the former as described by Tutt in having 
faint traces of the orange lunules on the underside of the hindwings. 
" Skippers " were rare as they have been elsewhere near Constanti- 
nople this year. Still I took a couple of fresh Hesperia malime, not a 
common species at all near Constantinople, on May 4th, and as many 
Reaper ia arriioricanus. Hesperia xidae was uncommon despite the 
abundance of Fotentilla. 

After this date I confined myself to the Asiatic side till June, when 
I paid a series of visits to the Belgrade Forest hoping to improve my 
series of Hetoroptents iiwrpheiis, Lycaena avion, and Bithys qtiercus, and 
to come across either Polipjonia l-albtnn or Kugojiia .xanthoinelas which 
1 have always hoped to find near Constantinople. In this I was 
disappointed as I was in my search for Eiivauessa antiopa larvae. I 
found an excellent locality for lleteroptenis iiioi-p/ieus, between Yenikeui 
and Therapia and near Therapia took a few fine Lycaena avion, but the 
bad weather of June soon spoiled these two species. 

Lotreia alcipJivon var, meliboeiia was local, but the males were the 
worse for wear by June 11th, the date of my first visit to Belgrade 
Forest this year. The Argynnids were advanced, P)vyas paphia and 



■86 THE entomologist's kecord. 

Z). pandora well out by June 11th with plenty of JJrenthis daphne, and, 
less commonly Ar;/i/nnis. ai/laia. Of the "skippers," I may note 
Erynnis orientalis which occurred everywhere singly from the beginning 
of May till after mid June, and a fine Hesperia malvae ab. taraa taken 
in mid June, a very late date it would seem for so southerly a locality, 
though I am bound to admit that I have never seen this species near 
Constantinople in April. Bithi/.f (jnercus was well out, despite the 
early June rains, at the end of June, and of a series of fourteen 
specimens, four males and ten females taken then, six $ s were more 
or less of the ab. beliis. All were large specimens, though smaller 
than those which I have seen from Cyprus, 

Parair/e roxelana was commoner than in the previous year, and the 
Satyrids, Satyrns circe, S. herinione (syriaca) and Hipparchia seinele very 
numerous with the common Theclids, Nurclinannia ilicis &nd X.acaciae, 
though I am afraid I neglected the latter species. I paid two visits to 
Kutchiik-Tchekmedjo and on the first, April 25th, took a short series 
of Ant/wcharis helia but little else. Odonata w^ere in great evidence 
that day, Libdlnla depresxa and Brachytron jivatenae {liafniense) abound- 
ing. I may add that I took the handsome Anax androuiache 9 in the 
Belgrade Forest in June. The specimen had just seized a large 2 
Epinephele Jintina. On my second visit to Kiitchiik-Tchekmedje on 
Juh^ 25th, I took a few specimens of the second brood of Erynnis 
orientalix with various common things and noted frequency of rather 
worn Macroylossa croatica. I did not come across Ay Hades [Polyoin- 
viatns) thersitc-s. After this I had no collecting save for a quarter 
of an hour in the Club Garden at Constantinople, where I took a 
couple of Polyyonia eyea, a species which is not uncommon at Con- 
stantinople but which one generally finds on ruined towers, high up on 
old walls and in similar inaccessible places. When you do see it at 
Constantinople within reach of you it is generally in the middle of a 
crowded street where butterfly nets are not carried. 

Asiatic Side. 

I worked the Gyok-su localities in April, finding Thais i>oly.vena 
var. Cassandra decidedly local and uncommon, and making few obser- 
vations of interest save an attempt at coupling between a male 
Loweia durilis, and a female Euniicia phlaeas. I watched the insects for 
upwards of five minutes. The female phlaeas kept running along the 
blades of short grass which covered the spot, followed by the male 
dorilis, and from time to time stopping, with wings extended and 
fanning, only to move away as soon as dorilis approached and 
touched her. I w^as watching this courtship with intense interest 
when a vagrant sfoecimen of Colias ednsa disturbed the pair ; dorilis 
rose and nearly fell a victim to a dragonfly, I think an immature 
Libellnla depressa, which made a swoop at him and effectually 
frightened him ofl'. 

Larvfe of Melitaea trivia were common here as at Kiathane, but 
most of the larger ones which I took home proved to be stung. The 
larvje were not too easy to rear, requiring a constant supply of fresh 
mullein leaves. On some plants of mullein I found as many as half-a- 
dozen larvae of M. trivia which always seemed to me very conspicuous. 

I tQok Melitaea cinxia at Yakadjili on April 19th, I think my notes 
nave unfortunately been left with my collections in good hands at 



COLLECTING IN CONSTANTINOPLE IN 19H. 37 

Constantinople, and with it a torn specimen of Hoxjteria aniwricanus, 
many rather large Leptosia ,^inapis, and not much else. I visited Yakadjik 
again on May 11th, and found Aporia crataei/i well out quite a fortnight 
earlier than in 1911, and also took Erynnis orientalu, and PohjomwatHs 
aiiiandits, damaged A(jriade>> (P.) thersites, and one or two other things. 

But my best work on the Asiatic side was done further away from 
Constantinople. In the first week of May I paid a visit to the lime- 
stone country round Dil Iskelessi, about 33 miles from Constantinople. 
To reach this place, a little station on the Anatolian Railway between 
Constantinople and Ismid, it was necessary to leave Haidar Pasha 
Station at about 8 a.m., reaching Dil Iskelessi at 10.80. The return 
train, which it was necessary to catch, reached Dil at about 2.85 p.m., 
so that one had about four hours' collecting, for all the ground was 
productive the moment one left the station enclosure. It was mostly 
down-land with patches of cultivation, plenty of ilex scrub and arbutus 
in places, and by the little river orchards and very unkempt gardens. 
The people, all Turks save for the inevitable Greek fisherman, were 
loutish and I think harmless, though I never ventured in close country 
more than four hundred or five hundred yards from the railway where 
there were many workmen and a few engineers of the Baghdad Rail- 
way Company. Here I made a number of interesting additions to my 
Constantinople list. In May lliais cen'si/i, of which I saw but failed to 
catch a large and unmistakeable specimen ; Colias In/ale, of which I 
caught a single very fresh specimen, and saw another which gave me 
much exercise; Leptosia dupour/ieli, for which I was already a trifle late 
in the beginning of May, but which was here decidedly commoner than 
L. ainajiis ; Cupula sebnis [osiris) which occurred sparingly in a grassy 
valley between two patches of scrub wood, and fine large specimens of 
Af/riades {!'.) thetis [bellar(/iis), much larger with paler undersides and 
less strongly chequered fringes than a series I took at Ventnor early in 
September, 1913. I took one magnificent underside aberration of 
A. tlietia, which I hope one day to figure. Lyc^enids were not numerous 
but I took a good many species, including with those recorded above, A. 
thersites one or two blue suft'used females, worn Scolitantides baton, Foly- 
(Diniiatiis ainajidiis, P. icariis, buinot F. seiiiian/us. Plebeiiis an/us (aet/on) 
did not seem to occur on the limestone, but only on a strip of alluvial 
soil on the railway bank near the bridge. While butterflies were by 
no means common, there were a great many species in evidence^ 
including, as well as the usual Constantinople insects, Paran/e niaera,. 
Hespcria sidae, H. nialrae, very large and handsome Pjiichlo'e cardaiiiines, 
Anthocliaris belia and Ijihiclides /lodalirius, which I have never found 
very common round the Turkish capital. I tried to find the foodplant 
of /.. dupnncheli and came to the conclusion that it was a species of 
latJujnis, with reddish-purple flowers which grew amid the scrub and 
on the edges of the very ill kept fields hard by. On three occasions I 
saw females after flying in the usual aimless fluttering fashion of 
Leptosia above the plant, settle thereon, walk about and make a flexing- 
movement of the abdomen but try as I would I could not find the ova. 
My efforts to find the foodplant of Alicia anteros were also unsuccessful. 
This species was not so common this year at Constantinople. It is 
generally abundant. 

I did not visit this interesting locality in June. On .July 7th, I 
found what I take to be Hirsntina adiiutiis, but answering the des- 



38 THE ENTOMOLOGISTS RECORD. 

cription of the Albarracin form given by M. C. Oberthilr, in vol. iv. of 
T.cp. Coynparee, and in some cases showing an approach as far as the 
underside is concerned to the form ripartii, which I have often taken 
in Syria. All the 2 s showed more or less the reddish ante-marginal 
lunules on the npperside of the hindwings, which I have noted in 
Syrian females of //. poxeidcm, but have never seen in Syrian li/iartii. 
This insect was not uncommon and I secnred a fair series. On the 
same day I took a very wasted specimen of Kliii/ia spini, the first I 
have taken in the Constantinople region, anfl half-a-dozen L. diipnncheli, 
g.a. aestlva, two of which were very yellowish-white indeed. One or 
two fresh C. sebriis (osiris) were taken here, a second brood no doubt, and 
two or three A. thetis. I much wondered whether these were the last 
survivors of the first or the first comers of the second brood. Large 
specimens of (J. rhamni were noted but I took none, which I now 
regret as they might have proved to be G. farinosa. I was, however, 
much bothered by a policeman, fat and obsequious who followed me 
everywhere for some time, puffing and dripping, and urged me to 
repair to a cafe where I was, I suppose, to " stand " him some refresh- 
ment. I had in the end to give the creature a box of cheap cigarettes to rid 
myself of him. His prompt disappearance on receiving the " back- 
sheesh " suggested that his fears of some menace to my safety from 
'hypothetical bad characters which, he averred, had prompted 
hnn to accompany me on a broiling day were invented, and that he had 
really been inspired either by thirst or greed. 

Mrs. R. Whittall, who with her young family, visited Dil 
Iskelessi on a yacht in May and again in mid-July, took there in 
addition to my additions to the local list, a fine male of Everfa an/iades 
differing very much from ray /'J. alcetas, taken in 1912 at Yalova, and 
a small but beautifully fresh Enodia dn/as, the latter an interestmg 
record, and I think the first of recent date for Western Asia Minor, 

I paid a brief visit to Gyok-su on May 25th, and on that day took 
a very large and characteristic P. iia/d of the summer form napaeae. 
As /'. napi g.a. 7Jrt/*rt<?rt£^ occurred with fresh and fairly typical specimens 
in the Belgrade Forest in early June, and a good napaeae fell to my 
net on St. Nicolas' islet in the Sea of Marmora, on May 30th, I should 
like to get the experiences of those who have collected in spring and 
early summer in 8. Europe. Have they taken the two forms together 
in early summer? I doubt the Belgrade Forest napi taken in June 
having been first brood specimens. F. napi was getting worn at 
Gyok-su in early April, and I am therefore inclined to believe that the 
vernal form occurs with napaeae in early summer, later emergencies 
being very marked napaeae, and only napaeae. 

In some ways my most interesting collecting was done during a 
brief, all too brief, yachting trip on the coast beyond Pendik. Pendik, 
like Kartal and Yakadjik, is on a grey limestone formation covered on 
the higher ground by schists and sandstone. Beyond Pendik and 
between it and Tuzla one finds a sandy coastal strip stretching for 
many miles with outcrops of limestone, and of what appears to be a 
red conglomerate. Vegetation here is richer than on the dry and 
treeless hill slopes though there are few trees. On this trip on May 
29th-31st, I had a good many hours' collecting in delightful weather 
on two days. On the first I spent the whole morning near iMavri, a 
pretty little bay some five miles beyond Pendik, and there took several 



COLLECTING IN CONSTANTINOPLE IN 1914. 89 

■Cupido sebriis, including one minute ? , the lirst Melanartjia (jalatliea and 
Nordiiiannia ilicis, and many common things, including Adofiaea jiava, 
which was well out at this early date for it. In this afternoon I 
visited St. Nicolas' islet and there took a passable Hesperia sidae, the 
P. napi g.a. napaeae already recorded, Antluicharis belia, fresh Pi/raweis 
atalanta, not a common insect at Constantinople this year, some very 
fresh and fine Colias ednsa, which seemed to be the first examples of 
the 2nd brood and a number of Geometrids, some of which I sent to 
Mr. L. B. Prout for determination. Next day I went further along 
the coast, and at a place which I will for the present call X, lest some 
German or Austrian professional descends upon it, found butterflies 
really abundant on what I should be inclined to call " steppe " country, 
dry and decidedly sandy, with scattered trees and as a rule sparse 
undergrowth. Here I found my prize of the year, Scolitnntides baviioi 
in fair numbers, though few indeed of the males were at all worth 
capturing. The females were often in beautiful condition and I 
greatly admired the contrast between the glossy blackish-brown upper- 
side, with its relief of orange lunules near the anal angle of the 
posterior wings and deep blue powdering on the wing-bases, and the 
deep dove-grey underside with its full orange band. The butterfly 
tiew rather low, fairly rapidly and seemed to be less given to the habit 
of darting about in circles than other " blues " which I know, but was 
perfectly capable of dodging and turning very suddenly and sharply 
when threatened by the net. It evidently loved dry. sunny, and sandy 
spots, including those where, to judge from the vegetation, there was 
much salt in the sand, and seemed partial to thyme flowers. With 
S. bavins I took occasional specimens of A. thersiti's, mostly going over, 
P. a)iiandits already on the wane, B . sidae, Erynnis orientalis and on 
a large mallow plant a female Enjnnis so much darker, with the 
underside so much more distinctly marked and the upperside so much 
less greenish in general tone than E. orientalis, that I am strongly of 
opinion that it is E. althaeae. Frankly I do not know the last named 
insect save from figures and specimens in the Museum at South 
Kensington, but to judge from these figures and specimens it might 
possibly be mistaken by a collector, who did know the difference in 
the shape of the antennal clubs for E. alceae. But I cannot imagine 
the possibility of any E. orientalis that I have taken being confused 
for a moment with E. alceae, while the female specimen I have 
described did certainly bear some resemblance to it at first sight. 
With these interesting insects were hosts of fine A. Jiava of both sexes, 
worn P. icanis, M. didijviu, 21. trivia going over, some huge C'. edusa, 
larger and finer than any I have yet taken, A. belia and occasional 
A\ acaciae. I hoped to find Chilades trochiliis on this favoured spot 
but failed. After five hours' collecting I returned to a repast in which 
whitebait and fresh red mullet were a leading, and, as the newspapers 
say, a popular feature. Next day the weather broke: floods, thunder- 
storms, and wind descended on the Sea of Marmora and I was back in 
Constantinople. On June 6th I visited the Beikos woods opposite the 
Belgrade Forest hoping to get M. atlialia var. iiiehudiensis, but not one 
did I see. The woods were dripping wet and save for a few very fresh 
and fine Dnjas papliia, Breiitliis dap/Dw, and the ordinary woodland 
insects, such as A. ilicis and (Joenoiupnplia arca)iia I saw nothing 
fiying. On July 16th I went on another yachting trip, this time to 



40 THE entomologist's kecord. 

the white cliffs of Ayasma between Tuzla and Dil Iskele?si. Here I 
took a couple of Cnpido sebriis, and quite a good series of //. aihnetiis, 
A good female of Paran/e roxelana taken in an orchard near the shrine 
from which Ayasma (Agiasma) derives its name, and one or two P. 
maera were also among my captures. I may note that Mrs. Whittall 
took a single S. haviits near here in May. My search for Polyommatim 
nuicai/er on Prinkipo Island at the end of June w^as a complete failure. 
I was too late I expect, that is if P. melcaiier is still to be found there.. 

The Southern Marmora. 

During a yachting cruise in June, Mrs. Whittall brought back a 
fine series of Melanar(/ia larism closely approaching var. syriaca from' 
Artaki on the south coast of the Sea of Marmora, and several fine 
specimens of HipparcJiia bi-iseis with Envanessa aiiti<jpa from Marmora 
Island, Melitaea athalia var. uteliadienais from woods on the south coast 
of the Gulf of Ismid, and Lampides hueticiis from near Yalova. She 
also received a very fine specimen of Gonejitenjx deopatra from 
Smyrna. 

To my Constantinople list must now be added the following species:: 
— (?) Vlrynnia althaeae, Klnyia spini, Everex aryiadi's, Cnpido sebrtis^ 
Ayriades tJietis, Hirsntina adjnetiiK, Scolitantidcs harius, Tliaia cerixyi, 
Leptoaia duponclwli, C'olias liyale, Eiiodia dri/as, and Hlppan/tia briseis,, 
specimens of the latter having been taken, so Mrs. R. Whittall tells me,, 
near Dil Iskelessi. Should I return to Constantinople I hope to make 
a few more additions to the local list in happier years. 



Notes on the Taxonomic Value of the Genital Armature in 
Lepidoptera. 

By the Rev. C. R. N. BURHOWS, F.E.S. ' 

I myself executed (with one exception) the preliminary drawings 
for all the figures in Mr. Pierce's Genitalia of the Geuiiietiidae. These 
drawings were made by Camera Lucida, with the same apparatus and 
the same Microscope objective throughout the series. Mr. Pierce and 
I, in continuous consultation, completed the drawings. I passed his 
ink drawings, with one exception, where we disagreed as to the obscure 
details of an exceptionally complicated species. 

All this is to be read in the Preface to Mr. Pierce's Book. 

I share, therefore, with Mr. Pierce, Mr. Bethune-Baker's somewhat 
severe condemnation, in the January Number of the Kntonioloyiat's 
Record , oi thase same figures. I am quite sure that Mr. Bethune-Baker 
did not mean to write harshly or unkindly, and I trust that he and 
those Avho read this will acquit me of the smallest wish to be harsh or 
unkind. 

I very earnestly deprecate the suggestion that we have drawn 
" what he wants his readers to see," or " what does not exist in the 
object," and further that our drawings depict '' a flattened and distorted 
object." To the latter quotation I might retort "Tu quoque." I will 
return to this subject. 

The proof of our honesty is in every collector's Imnd. To have 
published fictitious drawings would surely have been foolishness of the 
worst kind. 



NOTES ON THE GENITAL ARMATURE. 41 

My mounts, many hundreds in number, are entirely at the disposal 
of anyone who cares to travel down to Mucking to examine them, and 
I have no doubt but Mr. Pierce will, with equal pleasure, say the same. 
More than this I am willing (within reasonable limits of course) to 
mount for any one who wishes it, any Geometrid genitalia which may 
be called in question, on condition that at least two males and one 
female be sent; in order that I may have an opportunity of making 
apparent, the superiority of the Vertical over the Profile-position, 
Again, I have no doubt but, Mr. Pierce will be equally willing to do 
the same. Or, I will submit such mounts to Mr. Tonge, Mr. Noad 
Clark, or other Photographic expert (if such there be) that he may 
make a photograph free from bias. Or again, I will submit a set of 
selected mounts for examination by any Entomological Society. 

I do not think that I can do more than this to prove my own 
conviction as to the honi'sti/ of the figures in question. 

As I am thus drawn into this controversy, I may, perhaps be 
allowed to place on record my own opinion upon some of the pomts in 
question, taking such in the order followed by Mr. Bethune-Baker. 

1. PJiotof/rap/nj. I notice that this method of reproduction is not 
preferred by all scientists. In the Tra^hsactions and ['roceedini/s of the 
Kntomological Societi/ of London, 1912-13, I find (excluding colour 
plates, plates of imagines, landscapes, etc.), 50 drawings to 20 
photographs. In those for 1913-14, 15 drawings to 13 photographs, 
and in the current Volume, 13 drawings to 30 photographs, making 
for the period covered, 78 drawings to 75 photographs. It may be 
said that these plates represent the views of but very few individuals, 
but there stands the fact. I remember that our dear old friend J. W. 
Tutt, just before his fatal illness, having before him the completed 
photographic plates of my series of Hydra'cias, deliberately called in 
the aid of a hand artist to produce understandable pictures. My own 
objections to the Photographic method of illustration are: — 

(1) That each figure represents a single individual, perfect or 
imperfect. 

(2) That it is necessary to flatten unduly (squash) the specimen 
to be photographed. 

(3) That it is not possible to make a detail picture of thick chitin 
and thin integument with the same exposure. One or other must be 
sacrified unless the object be unduly thinned or " squashed." 

I emphasize the flattening of the specimen, which is necessary to 
secure, as far as possible, that all the object shall be in the focal plane 
and thin enough to agree with the focal depth, of even the best of 
microscope objectives. 

(4) That it is true that superposition of several organs does obscure 
the true structure. I can produce a mount in which it would be quite 
possible to have, in the profile 12, separate surfaces at least. 

2. The profile /iDsition. How Mr. Bethune-Baker can claim this at 
the more natural position I cannot imagine. Is it natural for a 
Lepidopteron to have its final segments pressed flat with a fold all 
along the dorsal and ventral centres? The NatKral iiositi(»i (in 
life I presume) depends entirely upon the point of view of the 
observer, and upon the conditions. If I look upon the side, it is true 
that I get a profile view, but the parts are riot squeezed together. If 



42 THR entomologist's recoud. 

I look verticall}' I get a vertical view. In any case, when the organs 
are in use, tlic f/cnitalia arc open — iu)t fihiit. 

Again, what advantage does the profile view give ? It shows the 
contour of the ralrefi'^-, a side (and strictly limited) view of the tci/anien-'- 
with its ring formation crashed (or often broken) and the penis''-. All 
these points are equally or better shown by the vertical position, and a 
great deal more. For Mr, Pierce and I have pointed out that the 
valves, tegumen, and penis are not the " be all and end all " of the 
matter, but that there are other structures hitherto neglected which 
belong neither to valve, tefptuien, or penis. These structures arising 
from the central area of the genitalia, between the valves, are entirely 
concealed by the profile position, though they must be of the greatest 
interest and importance. Reference to Petersen's Monograph upon 
"The Genus I'^iipitJiecia" {Iris, Band, xxii., 1909) will illustrate my 
meaning. 

In all his drawings of the single valves in pro/ile position, the 
organs, which belong to the central area of the genitalia, are shown as 
though part of the valve. The reason is plain. The imaginal 
abdomen is cylindrical, but the two final segments are practically 
hemi -cylindrical. In the profile mount the dorsal half cylinder must 
be flattened, while the approximately fiat ventral surface must be 
either " bulged " or crumpled up. The suggestion that the examina- 
tion of the central area in the profile specimens may be attained by 
the mutilation of the object, I cannot accept as scientific. Dissection 
is all very well, and necessary, but it will not, in the present case, help 
the observation of the organs in " a natural position." 

I do not wish to seem to undervalue the profile view. We get it 
during the preparation of the object. Nor do I despise the profile 
mount, which is very useful. But I do earnestly uphold the vertical 
as showing more, and therefore more useful. 

And I further assert that the profile method of mounting is more 
worthy of a beginner than of a competent scientist. It is vastly more 
easy and more speedy. It requires less care, less patience. I would 
undertake to instruct, any but the clumsiest youth, to prepare a pass- 
able profile mount, in half-an-hour, I could mount thus as fast as 
hand and eye could work. But it is not thus Science works. Witness, 
for instance, the long patience of the Chemist, the Astronomer, the 
Physicist, etc. 

In this matter I personally entirely disagree with " some of the 
most able Continental insect Morphologists." Mr. Pierce and I can- 
not be ignorant that " Systemists who are really eminent to-day do 
not believe in the Study of the Genitalia " as an aid to their work. 

* I use these terms advisedly. 

Valve. Mr. Rethune-Baker accepts the authority of Dr. McDunnough, so do 
I, here. Dr. McDuunough al'linns that this teini has been used from hrfare the 
year JUIS, and gives the authorities. Amongst these is Durmeister, wlio aiiplied 
the term, as does Mr. Pierce. " Clasper " seems to have come in with Scudder, 
1870. 

Teguman. Reference to G. Buchannan White's paper and diagram {Trans. 
Linn. Soc, ser. 2, Zool., vol. I., phite 55 ; figures 10, 11, 42) prove that he meant 
by this term the whole circle or ring, except the " saccus," which, in his dried 
specimens, ho could not set. 

Penis. " The greatei includes the less." 

Surely there can be no objection to an Author who corrects his previous 
mistakes ? 



CURRENT NOTES. 43 

So much the worse for them, I say ! But 1 take it that Mi. Bethune- 
Baker is on our side, if he were not be would scarcely be wasting time 
upon a useless job. 

This investigation appeals naturally, at present, to a limited 
number of Entomologists. Is it not quite possible that the two 
Publishers expected to dispose of the twenty copies of Mr. Pierce's 
book? 

May I, in conclusion, suggest to Mr. Bethune-Baker that he 
mount, in his profile position, specimens of, ej/., an Kupithecia, 
Mt'laniiipe /trucdlata, Blncosiiiia certata, CoUix aparmta, or lilapta hiiiiacn- 
lata — photograph them, and publish the result with las explanation. 



(CURRENT NOTES AND SHORT NOTICES. 

The December Magazines contain the following : — 

In the Kui. Mo. Ma;/. Mr. E. A. Butler announces an addition 
to the British List of Hemiptera, Lynus rubicnndu^, taken by Mr. H. 
F. Fryer by sweeping in a ditch of mixed herbage in Cambridgeshire. 

On January 20th, the Annual Meeting of the Entomological 
Society of London took place. Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, F.L.S., the 
President, for the past two years, completed his term of office and read 
the Annual Address. The subject was " The Development of Clasping 
Organs in Insects,"' and was illustrated with a \evy large number of 
lantern slides, some 90 or more of which have been reproduced on 
twelve half-tone plates, to be issued with the Transactions. Com- 
mencing with the consideration of the characteristics of the genitalia 
of the Thysanura, the address went on to discuss these organs in the 
Orthoptera, the Odonata, the Trichoptera and the Coleoptera. The 
Lepidoptera Heterocera were next dealt with, the Micropteri/gidae, the 
IJepialidar, the ConHidae, the Anthroceridae (Ziji/aenidae), the L'sj/cliidae, 
the Aetjeriidae, the Drcpanulidae, the Lithosiinae, the Arctiinae, and 
the Nolodotdidai', in more or less detail. The Lymantriidae, the 
Laaincatiipidae, and the Satitrniidae, came next with a few (jeoiiictyldae. 
Consideration was then given to the various families of the Diptera, a 
few Hymenoptera and one or two species of ant. This paper will be 
a very useful introduction to a study of the ancillary appendages of 
other orders in comparison with those of the Lepidoptera, illustrated 
as it will be by twelve plates, with figures nearly all in profile and thus 
more useful to the ordinary worker, who wants readily and easily to 
grasp the signij&cance of the various developments of those organs. 

The last issue of the " Transactions of the Entomological Society 
of London " contains but four papers. (1) Description of South 
American ]\Iicro-Lepidoptera, by Edward Meyrick, B.A., F.E.S. ; (2) 
A contribution to the Life-History of Ayriaden thersites, by T. A. Chap- 
man, ]\I.D., illustrated by twenty-eight plates, two of which are 
coloured ; (3) On a new form of seasonal (and heterogeneutic) 
dimorphism in Ayriades thersites, by T. A. Chapnum, M.D., with one 
plate ; and (4) Notes on the Taxonomic value of Genital Armature in 
Lepidoptera, by G. T. Bethune-Baker, F.L.S., with eleven plates. In 
addition there are 82 pages of interesting matter concerning the 
exhibits and discussions which took place at the ordinary meetings of 
the Society. 



44 THE entomologist's uecord. 

Mr. H. S. Fremlin, F.E.S., is engaged under the military 
authorities in training sanitary officials to attend the expeditionary 
force in France. Some hundreds have already passed through his 
hands. He recently received his promotion to Major. 

Lieutenant H. F. Stoneham, F.E.S., has recently come home 
wounded, but is, we hear, rapidly recovering. 

Dr. Malcolm Burr has recently accepted an appointment in Russia, 
where he has numerous friends. His knowledge of the Russian 
language will be of great service to him when he takes up his duties 
there. The British Museum (Natural History) has acquired Dr. 
Burr's well-known and rich collection of the Dermaptera. There are 
somewhere about 120 or more type specimens and a large number of 
CO- types. The whole collection contains a gross total of some 800 
species and is a valuable addition to the South Kensington Museum. 

We understand that arrangements have been made by the 
Lepidoptera Committee of the London Natural History Society for a 
member of the Committee to attend at Salisbury House at 6.30p.m. on 
meeting nights (1st and 3rd Tuesdays in each month, except July and 
August) for the purpose of giving advice and assistance to young 
entomologists, whether members of the Society or not. 

The " Verrall " Supper took place on January 19th at the Holborn 
Restaurant as usual. Some hundred guests assembled from 6.30 
onward in the " Entomological Salon," and old friends met old friends, 
and new friends were welcomed in the conversazione which preceded 
the repast. Shortly after eight o'clock supper was served. Among 
those who were present were the following : — 

R. Adkin, H. E. Andrewes, S. R. Ashby, F. Balfour-Browne, E. C. 
Bedwell, G. Bethell, G. T. Bethune-Baker, F. Bouskell, H. Britten, 
Dr. Burr, D. A. J. Buxton, P. A. Buxton, A Cant, Prof. J. W. Carr, 
G. C. Champion, R. J. Champion, Dr. T. A. Chapman, F. Noad Clarke, 
J. E, Collin, Joseph Collins, W. C. Crawley, Bruce F. Cummings, B. 
G. Curwen, F. B. Carr, Dr. Dixey, A. W. Dods, H. Donisthorpe, J. H. 
Durrant, F. W. Edwards, Stanley Edwards, E. A. Elliott, H. 
Willoughby Ellis, Dr. Eltringham, Dr. FremHn, G. E. Frisby, F. W. 
Frohawk, J. C. F. Fryer, C. J. Gahan, Lachlan Gibh, A. E. Gibbs, 
E. E. Green, H. M. Hallctt, A. H. Hamm, B. S. Harwood, P. 
Harwood, Prof. Image, 0. E. Janson, 0. J. Janson, F. B. 
Jennings, A. H. Jones, Dr. K. Jordan, T. W. Kirkpatrick, Dr. 
G. B. Longstafi", W. J. Lucas, R. W. Lloyd, H. Main, G. Meade- 
Waldo, A. W. Mera, Rev. F. D. Morice, Claude Morley, F. Merrilield, 
S, A. Neave, C. Nicholson, W. North, Prof. G. Okajima, G. T.Porritt, 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, R. M. Prideaux, Hon. N. C. Rothschild, Hon. 
W. Rothschild, H. A. Saunders, W. Schmassmann, A. J. Scollick, 
H. Scott, W. E. Sharp, Dr. J. Shiraki, V. E. Shaw, W. G. Sheldon, 
A. Sich, E. A. Smith, E. Step, Rev. J. E. Tarbat, Rev. C. F. 
Thornewill, J. le B. Tomlin, A. E. Tonge, H. J. Turner, Comm. J. J. 
Walker, F. C. Woodforde, L. H. Bonaparte Wyse, Rev. Waterston. 



.SOCIETIES 



Entojiolopical Society of London. — October 7f/'.— Election of 
Fellows. — Dr. Leslie C. Coleman, D.Bc, Dept, of AgrieultHre, Banga- 



SOCIETIES. 45 

lore, Mysore, Inclia, and the Rev. Frederic S. F. Jannings, Warmsworth 
Rectory, Doncaster, were elected Fellows of the Society. Abnormal 
Neuration in Melitaea AURiNiA.^Mr. 0. E. Janson exhibited an 
abnormal specimen of Melitaea aurinia, taken in Kent, in which six of 
the nervures were almost symmetrically deficient on either side, 

ChLOROPERLA VENOSA, StPH., AND C. GRAMMATICA, PoDA. Mr. G. T. 

Porritt exhibited a series of C. venosa, Stph., taken by Prof. Carr and 
Mr. Mottram in the river Trent near Nottingham ; also a series of C. 
(jramniatica, Poda, for comparison. Abnormal Hymenopteron, etc. — 
The Rev. F. D. Morice exhibited a specimen of (Jrabro (Lindcinus) 
albilabris, F., ? , with abnormal ocelli ; also a photograph, from nature, 
of eggs in situ, laid in a rose-stem in a duuble row by Vallisnieri's 
" Mosca dei Rosai," Arye pai/ana, exactly as in the author's original 
figure. Gyn ANDROMORPHOUS Plebeius argyrognomon, etc., from Swit- 
zerland. — The Rev. G. Wheeler exhibited a gynandromorphous 
specimen of Plebeius argijnuinomon taken by him in the Val Maggia on 
July 13th this year, alsoanextreme exampleof ab. persica of Puli/uunnatas 
icavKs taken on the marshes at Altmatt, on July 11th, and a (3^ of 
Pararije iiiaera with symmetrical deeply concave costa of both forewings, 
taken on the Via Mala on July 17th ; also a well-marked series of 
Pieris manni from Vernayaz, taken on July 5th this year. Rumicia 
phl.eas, etc., from North Kent. — Mr. Prideaux brought for exhibition 
a very perfect example of lluDiicia phlaeas ab. scluniiltii, of a pale yellow 
colour; also a 3 L'ulijDminatiis icarns Sih. obsoleta, and some very blue 
$ s of the latter species, all taken in the neighbourhood of Brasted, N. 
Kent. Platyphora lubbocki, Verrall, and Aenigmatias blattoides, 
Meinert, one species. — Mr. Donisthorpe exhibited specimens of Platy- 
phora lubbocki, Verrall, and Aeniginatias blattoides, Meinert, which he 
had reared in a nest of Formica picea, Nyl., taken in the New Forest in 
July last. He pointed out that he believed he had proved that these 
two flies were the J and $ of the same species. Noteworthy Lepidop- 
TERA. — Mr. L. W. Newman exhibited :— (1) A curious gynandromorphic 
Pohjo)it)uatus icarus, the right fore-wing being $ and the remaining 
three wings J except for one orange lunule on each of the hindwings. 
(2) A curious Zygnsnid of doubtful species, being small and having 
four spots only. (3) A short series of Epicnaptera ilicifolia, bred from 
the wild 2 taken May, 1913, at Cannock Chase by Mr. Oliver. (4) A 
pair of beautiful Nenria saponariae from the Cork coast, the ground- 
colour being a rich pink instead of the usual yellowish colour. The 
following papers were read: — "Contributions to the Life-History of 
Pohjonuiiatus eros," by T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S., F.E.S. " Par- 
thenogenesis in Worker-bees at the Cape," by R. W. Jack, F.E.S. 
" Description of New Species of Catasticta,'' by W. F. H. Rosenberg, 
F.E.S. " Revision of the Species of the Genus (^ili/nenis (Hymenoptera) 
occurring in the /Etbopian Region," by G. Meade- Waldo, M.A., F.E.S. 
" Some Remarks on the Coecid Genus Lencaspis, with Descriptions of 
two New species," l)y E. Ernest Green, F.E.S. 

October 21.s(. — Messrs. L. D. Cleave, Dept. of Science and Agri- 
culture, Georgetown, British Guiana, and J. R. Menon, B.A., Trichur, 
Cochin State, South India, were elected Fellows of the Society. The 
death was announced of Mr. William Warren, M.A., F.E.S. Abnormal 
Anthrocerids. — Dr. T. A. Chapman exhibited three abnormal speci- 
mens of Anthrocerids, and read notes. Variation in Dianthiecia 



46 THE entomologist's kecoud. 

BAURETTii AND BoARMiA REPANDATA. — Mr. L. W. Newiiian exhibited a 
long and varied series of Dianihoecia banettii, bred from wild larvfe 
collected in Co. Cork, and from dug pupje from B. Devon. Hybrid 
Amorpha populi and Smerixthus ocelt^atus. — Mr. A. E. Tonge exhibited 
a specimen of the hybrid A. popiili 3' X S. oceUatus 5 , bred ab uvo, 
which emerged September 11th, 1914. Mr. Tonge said he was 
informed that this was the first larva frorm the crossing which had 
hatched normally. Aberrant Rumicia PHL,iEAs. — Mr. Tonge also 
exhibited a specimen of li. fildaca^, taken on Deal Sandhills in 
September, 1914, without the red marginal band on the hindwings. 
Stylopised Sand-wasp. — Mr. G. Meade- Waldo exhibited a stylopised 
specimen of the Sand-wasp, Ai)iiiiophila ti/dci, Guill., from South 
Africa. South European Butterflies. — Mr. E. B. Ashby exhibited 
some South European butterflies, chiefly from the south of France. 
Xanthic Psilura monacha. — Mr. Rippon exhibited, a variety of /'. 
vionaclia, which, as far as he had been able to ascertain, had not been 
previously recorded. The variation consists in the body being banded 
with black and ycUoir instead of black andrc////.vr;;;. Tripii.ena fimbria. 
— Mr. Rippon also exhibited five specimens of Triiiluiena /intbria, bred 
from Pamber Forest larvaj. South Russian IIeterocera. — Mr. A. H. 
Jones exhibited a number of moths from Sarepta, and read notes. 
Lyc^nids showing some degree of Gynandromorphism. — Dr. E. A. 
Cockayne exhibited : — [a) Thirty-eight gynandromorphous Aiiriadcs 
coridiin from Royston. [b) Two ? s of A. caridun, from Royston, 
showing streaks of blue. Neither showed any signs of androconia. 
(f) One gynandromorphous Poli/oiiniiatiia icarns (Co. Clare, 1914), 
predominantly female ab. caenda, but with streaks of male colour on 
the right forewing and both hindwings. The following paper was 
read : — ^" On Hawaiian Ophioninae (Hymenoptera, Fam. Iclnu'ii- 
vioiwlac)," by R. C. L. Perkins, M.A., D.Sc, F.E.S. 



e^EYIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

Some South Indian Insects and other Animals of Importance 
considered specially from an Economic point of view. By T. 
Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., etc., Imperial Entomologist to the 
Government of India. Published in Madras. Price 9s. — The author 
of this handsome w^ork is an old correspondent of the Entoinohxjist'a 
Record, and probably known to many readers as a valued contributor 
to our knowledge of the " Plumes." The present book is one of those 
large and comprehensive works on the Fauna which the Governments 
of India have for a long time been bringing out. Mr. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher was for some years and until 1912 Government Entomologist 
in Madras. Had it not been for his appointment in that year to the 
post of Imperial Entomologist to the Government of India the publica- 
tion of the present work on South Indian Insects would have been 
deferred for some years, pending a more thorough investigation into 
the life-histories of those insects of greater economic importance. 
Much of the necessary material having been accumulated, however, it 
was considered better to issue it now, as a basis for further work, rather 
than defer it for a possibly indefinite period, * 



REVIEWS. 47 

There are 50 coloured plates, mainly the work of native talent, and 
no less than 440 text figures, many of them composite, showing the 
various metamorphic stages of the life-histories. There are of course 
chapters on General Structure of Insects, Classification and Nomen- 
clature, and Metamorphosis. But probably the reader will be more 
interested in the chapters which give large selections of facts from the 
Indian fauna bearing on the more modern aspects of Entomology, the 
Means of Defence in Insects, Communication amongst Insects, Tro- 
pisms (response to stimulus of light, temperature, gravity, air, etc.), 
Insects and Plants, Symbiosis and Parasitism, and the Balance of Life. 
Several further chapters treat in detail with the subject of Insect Pests, 
Control of such Pests both of the Growing Crops and of Stored 
Products. A chapter on Household Pests naturally leads to others on 
Insects and Disease, Beneficial and Useful Insects. Probably Avhat is 
unusual in a book on Entomology is to find a chapter on Some other 
Animals, which deals with enemies of crops in all classes of animals, 
from the elephant to the snake, and even the fish. The last half of 
the volume, the more profusely illustrated portion, deals with the 
insects of all orders of commoner occurrence and whose control is of 
more or less importance to the agriculturist. Although written pri- 
marily for residents in India, there is much in the volume which 
should ensure a wider circulation, and we congratulate the author on 
the all-round excellence, not only in the method of presentation and on 
the value of the matter selected, but also for the illustration and general 
mechanical get-up. — H.J.T. 

The Genitalia of the Geometeid^^ of the British Isi-es, by F. 
N. Pierce, F.E.S. (110 pp., 48 plates, with 450 figs.). Price lOs., post 
free, from the author. — [Concluded.] The term " Furca " has been 
previously applied to the structure formed by the fusion of the two 
extensions from the base of the valva, and called the " Sacculi " by 
Mr. Pierce. In the Transactions of the Entoinelof/ical Society of London 
for 1910, ]\Ir. G. T. Bethune-Baker published a " Revision of the 
African species of the Lijcaenestiies group of the Lycaenidae." On page 
6, in a key to a figure for the description of Genitalia, we read " e. 
Furca; consisting of two arms from a common base in the harpagones, 
the support to the penis." There are ten plates of figures of ancillary 
appendages attached to this paper, many of which show very plainly 
a structure similar to that of Jinnomos aittnmnaria given in plate iv. 
Hence, although Mr. Bethune-Baker did not name the processes 
(Sacculi of Pierce), he named the structure formed by their anasto- 
mosis as the "Furca." Possibly, since he, Mr. Bethune-Baker, had 
up to that time largely confined his investigations to the Lycaenidae, 
he was not aware that in the Geometers the Furca was represented by 
two quite separate processes. Hence Mr. Bethune-Baker is the author 
of the term "Furca," June, 1910. 

The consideration of these two papers and the careful examination 
of the plates of figures of genitalia there given, brings us to another 
point, which was strongly suggested by the study of the above-men- 
tioned slides and numerous slides of profiles, and that is that diagram- 
matic figures are not sufficient, and especially if those figures be of 
the structures " cut " and "spread." By all means let us have the 
diagrams, but only as an elucidation of the photographs. Granted 
that the photograph gives too much or not enough, these defects can 



48 THE entomologist's record. 

always be rectified by a diagram. However clever the draughtsman 
may be he " sees " into his sketch a personal bias, and often omits 
w^hat would modify the impression which his drawing produced, or 
emphasises too greatly points with which he is obsessed at the time. 
How can one get an idea of the use or purpose of the various struc- 
tures by a "cut and spread" method nnlu ? While many of the small 
appended structures can be pourtrayed better as to shape and origin 
by this method, one must have a profile to see the relative positions 
of parts when naturally arranged. Take the " f urea" for example. 
One can get no idea what the use of this structure is in K. atitiDiinaria 
from plate iv., one can only see the shape, pomts of origin and 
relation to the harpes (harpagones). But if one looks at the profile 
views, say on plate v., attached to Mr. Bethune-Baker's paper, one can 
at once see how strongly the inference is that the Furca is a support 
to the penis. We want profiles, we want photographs, and we want 
diagrams, but the diagram must be what it is in all branches of science, 
a biassed illustration of particular points, either as to shape or i-elative 
position, to elucidate points of study, not to be the final result of the 
study. 

The author dealing with the ^ and $ structures naturally gives 
us the classificatory results to which they appear to him to point, 
without, we imagine, in any way wishing to controvert the principle 
so well expressed by our late Editor, when he wrote in 1909 {Ent. 
Record, vol. xxi., p. 92), "Of course a satisfactory classification must 
take account of all characters, not only of one instar, but throughout 
the whole life cycle. These appendages, however, present nearly as 
large a group of characters as those usuallj' used in making classifi- 
cations .... so that the addition to the usual material for 
classification of a knowledge of these organs is rather doubling our 
resources than adding one item to them." 

When one comes to consider the vast amount of patient work in- 
volved, the intricate care in manipulation to secure that the prepara- 
tions may be readily comparable, and the time which all this involves, 
one can scarcely express sufficiently the admiration felt. 

It can be truly said of this work that it is another " land-mark in 
the advance of a more complete knowledge of our British Lepidoptera," 
and as the British fauna, although limited in species, is typical of 
almost all the Paljearctic genera, these new facts accumulated and 
classified, must have an influence far greater than in the area which 
the book nominally deals with. 

We had almost forgotten that an early announcement of the 
volume coupled the name of one of our colleagues, the Rev. C. R. N. 
Burrows, with that of the author. It may be said that it was Mr. 
Burrows' own wish that his name should not appear on the title-page 
Avith that of the titular author, but we know that the investigation has 
been a joint one. Independent preparations have been made with 
every species, subsequent comparisons always carried out, with further 
investigation and comparison if thought necessary, and discussion on 
every point of apparent divergence. In fact, Mr. Burrows has equally 
shared with Mr. Pierce the work of inAestigation, but the author has 
made himself alone responsible for the facts and opinions as they 
are put before the public. — H.J.T. 



WATKINS 8c DONCASTER, 
Naturalists and Manufacturers of Entomological Apparatus and Cabinets. 

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Collecting Boxes, 9d., 1/-, 1/6, 2/-. Nested Chip Boxes, 7d. per four dozen, 1 gross, 1/6. 
Entomological Pins, 1/6 per ounce. Pocket Lanterns, 2/6 to 8/-. Sugaring Tin, with 
brush, 1/6, 2/-. Sugaring Mixture, ready for use, 1/9 per tin. Store-Boxes, with camphor 
cells, 2/6, 4/-, 5/-, 6/-. Setting-Boards, flat or oval, lin., 6d. ; IJin., 8d.; 2in., lOd.; 2^in., 
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japanned double tin, 1/6 to 4/6. Botanical Paper, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, 2/2 per quire. Insect 
Glazed Cases, 2/6 to 11/-. Cement for replacing Antennae 4d. per bottle. Steel Forceps, 
1/6, 2/-, 2/6 per pair. Cabinet Cork, 7 by 3J, best quality 1/6 per dozen sheets. Brass 
Chloroform Bottle, 2/6. Insect Lens, 1/- to 8/-. Glass-top and Glass-bottomed Boxes, 
from 1/- per dozen. Zinc Killing Box, 9d. to 1/-. Pupa Digger, in leather sheath, 1/9. 
Taxidermist's Companion, containing most necessary implements for skinning, 10/6. 
Scalpels, 1/.3 ; Scissors, 2/- per pair ; Eggdrills, 2d., 3d., 9d. ; Blowpipes, 4d. ; Artificial 
Eyes for Birds and Animals. Label-lists of British Butterflies, 2d. ; ditto of Birds' Eggs, 
2d., 3d., 6d.; ditto of Land and Fresh-water Shells, 2d. Useful Books on Insects, Eggs, etc, 

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Will he sent Post Free on receipt of Postal Order for 3s. to — 

A. H., 41, Wisteria Road, Lewisham, S.E. 



SOMETHING NEW AND CHEAP. 

By special request of many of my clients, I have issued a small leaflet entitled, 
"Valuable Hints to Collectors." This little work will be found most useiul to 
the advanced collector as well as the beginner and one of the hints alone is wor h more 
than the cost of the work. Amongst other matters it deals with treatment of Ova, Larvse 
and Pupae in captivity, cleaning insects for grease, killing and setting, and gives some 
very useful substitute foodplants. Price 9d. only, post free. 

Write for latest price lists of Ova, Larvae, Pupte, and Set Insects, the smallest order 
thankfully received. Don't forget I can supply all apparatus at usual prices. 



Remember my Relaxing Tins and Text-book. 
L. W. NEWMAN, F.E.S., Bexley, Kent. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Notes on Swiss Ehopalocera. IV. The lute A. J, Fison .. .. .. .. 25 

What are the Tegumen and Valvae in the Armature of the Lepidoptera, G. T. 

Bethune-Baker, F.L.S.,F.Z.S.,F.E.S 31 

Collecting in Constantinople in 1914, P. P. Graves, F.E.S 36 

"Notes on the Taxonomic Value of the Genital Armature in Lepidoptera," Eev. C. 

R. N. Burroas, F.E.S 40 

Current Notes and Short Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 

Societies :— Entomological Society of London .. .. .. .. .. .. 44 

Reviews and Notices of Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 



Communications have been received or have been promised from Dr. Chapman, Dr. 
Verity, Dr. Cockayne, Eev. G. Wheeler, Messrs. R. S. Bagnall, Hy. J. Turner, C. W. 
Colthrup, A. Dalglish, G. T. Bethune-Baker, H. E. Page, A. J. Fison, J. A. Simes, 
C. P. Pickett, W. G. Sheldon, P. H. Muschamp, Dr. Reverdin, Miss Lilian Fison, etc., 
with Reports of Societies and Reviews. 

All MS. and editorial matter should be sent and all proofs returned to Hy. J. Turner, 
98, Drakefell Road, New Cross, London, S.E. 

We must earnestly request our correspondents not to send us co)nninnications identical 
with those they are sending to other magazines. 

Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata should be sent direct to Mr. H. E. Page, 
Bertrose, Gellatly Road, New Cross, S.E. 



FOR SALE. 

BOOKS : : ENTOMOLOGICAL . 

The Entomologist, vols. 20-30, 1887-1897 (U vears) „„ .„ r., 

,. ,, vols. 39-46, 1906-1913 (7 years )' *"^ ^^^' " 

Entomologist's Record, &c., vols. 1-25. Price, £5 Os. Od. 
Practical Hints for the Field Lepidopterist, Tutt, 2 vols. 73. 6d. 
Stainton's Manual of Butterflies and Moths, vol. 1. 2s. 6d. 
British Noctuse and their Varieties, Tutt, 4 vols. 16s. 6d. 
British Moths, Tutt, 2s. Moths of Brit. Isles (South), Vols. 1 A 2. 10s. 
British Lepidoptera, Tutt, vols. 1-5. The 5 vols, for £3 Os. Od. 
Natural History of the Btit. Butterflies and Moths, Ed. Newman, 2 vols. 17s. 6d. 
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ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 



JOURNAL OF VARIATION 




T. A. CHAPMAN, M.D.,F.z.s., F.E.f 

Jas. E. COLLIN, F.E.s. 

It. St. J, K. DONISTHORPE, 

F.z.a., F.E. 
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READ THE BACK Nos. OF THE 

Entomologist's Record & Journal of Variation 

(Practical Hints, Field Work, etc. useful for every year's collecting). 
VOL. W. 

The TITLES of some of the articles are as follows : — Notes on Butterfly Pupte, with some remarks 
on the Phylogenesis of the Ehopalocera. "—£))•. T. A. Chapman, F.E.S., "Phytoi^hagic Species."— 
Prof. A. Uadcliffe Qrote, M.A. "Varieties and aberrations of Nocture from Doncastei-."--lf. H. 
Corbett, M.Ii. C'..S. "The frenulum of the British species of Smerinthus."— ff. 6'. Griffitht, F.Z.S., 
F.E.S, "Euiliyas stse-johannis.,' — A. linjlcUftii Grote, M.A. "Parthenogenesis or Agamogenesis." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.K.S. " Larva;."— iJt'r. G. HI. A. Hewitt, M.A. "Retrospect of a Lepidopterist for 189-1." 
— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Generic Names in the Noctuidse."— Prof. A. li. Qrote. M.A. " Pupa hunting in 
October."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Polygamy and Polyandry in Moths." "The nature of certain 
insect colours."— ir.S. liiilhw, M.D., R. Freer, M.S., J. W. Tutt, F.E.S., Rev. C. R. N. Burrows, J. Antlerson, 
Jun. "The Lepiiloptcra of Swansea." — Major R. B. Robertson. " Caradi-ina ambigua in the Isle of 
Wight."— .-1. J. Ho/Uieit. "The insects of Bourg St. Maurice."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Orrhodia 
erythrocepbala ab. glabra from Devonshire and comparison with U. vaccinii." — Dr. W. S. Riding, 
F.E.S. "Notes on Caradrina ambigua and C. superstes."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Entomology and 
Entomologists, being the Annual Address to the City of London Entom. Society." Notes on 
Aphomia sociella " (with platel. — ir. P. Bhickhurue Maze, F.E.S. "Apterous females and Winter 
Emergence "—E. F. Studd, M..i., B.C.L., F.E.S., L. B. Prout, F.E.S. " Collecting Noctuidre by Lake 
Erie."— ^. Radclifie Grate, M.A. " Coleoptera at Ipswich." — Claude Morten, F.E.S. " Notes on 
Bombu-i visurgisB." " Synonymic Notes on Acidalia humilata and A. dilutaria." — L. B. Prout, F.E.S. 
"The Lepidoptera of Uresy'-sur-Aix." — /. ir. Tutt, F.E.S. " Apatura iris."— flcr G. M. A. Hewett- 
" Scheme of i,'las?ification nf the Rhopalocera founded on the structure of the Pupte." — '/. A, 
Chapman, M.D., F.E.S. " Glimpses of American Entomology."—./.!^'. Tutt, F.E.S. " The Genus 
Smerinthus." — A. Bncot. " Variation considered biologically : Some notes suggested by the Romanes 
Lecture of 1894."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Wing structure."— J. Aliton Moffatt. "On tlie development 
of sex in social insects." — /. 11'. Tutt, F.E.S. "The British representatives of the Genus Caradrina." — 
L. B. Prout, F.E.S. " Habits and variation of Lithosia Intarella and its variety pygmaeola." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. On the gradual disappearance of Lepidoptera from Sonth-Eastern London and 
its neighbourhood." — ('. Feuu, F.E.S. "A hunt for Neuroterusaprilinus." — T.A. Chapman. M.D., F.E.S. 
" On the development of pigment in Nemeobius lucina." — F. .T Buclcell, M.B. " The Macro-Lepi- 
doptera of Keswick." — H.A.Beadle. " Varieties of Argynnis Selene " (with plate). — S. G. C. lius/ell, 
F.E.S. " Hadenoid genera with hairy eyes." — Prof. A. R. Groe, M.A. '■ Zygtena minos and its 
varieties."— .7. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Notes on the pux^as of Castnia and Anthocharis."— T. A. Chapman, 
M.D., F.E.S. Besides these articles, a large number of short notes are contained in every number under 
the follewing titles: " Scientific Notes and Observations," " Variation," " Notes on Larvoa and Life- 
histories," " Notes on Collecting," "Current Notes." The reportsof Societies are very carefully edited, 
and only scientific paragraphs published. The " Practical Hints " and " Field work " (or each month 
are quite unique. 

The entomologiht who will read carefully through the back numbers of The Entomoloyixt's Beeord 
will find himself better equipped for the further study of his subject than by any other means. 
Price 7/6 per volume, of Mr. H. E. Page, " Bertrose." Gellatly Road, New Cross, 8.E. 

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THE SEASON OF 1914 NEAR POLLOKSHIELDS, ETC 




The Season 1914 near Pollokshields, etc. 

By ANDREW ADIE DALGLISH, F.E.S. 

Though we had exceptionally long spells of fine weather 
past season, and the year as a whole might be considered a very 
one, it was, however, spoiled to a great extent for collecting purposes 
by the prevalence of cold biting -winds which would spring up in the 
evenings, even after a long fine day of brilliant sunshine. 

The Saturday afternoons fared little better, as on many occasions 
the wind was blowing half a gale. Under these conditions one was 
forced to seek the most sheltered corners in the deepest glens, or some 
secluded spot in the thickest woods, but even there the searching winds 
had found its way, and little or nothing could be beaten from foliage, 
or found at rest on the rocks or tree trunks. 

The spring was very cold and early insects scarce. I'hii/alia /wdaria 
was out on February 28rd, when I took a cj and $ at Johnstone, and 
and on tbe same date found hibernated specimens of Depresmria 
heradeana and Cerostoiiia radiatdla, both under loDse bark. Hybernia 
iiian/iuaria occurred at the same place on March 7th, and Foli/jilaca 
/iariciirnis on the 21st. On the 28th a couple of MaleinjLlris iindti- 
stritjaiia were taken at rest near Milngavie. 

I spent three days at Arrochar, from April 11th to 13th, but the 
weather was very stormy with cold sleety showers. Insects were 
difficult to obtain. Four fine specimens of Tephroda hUtortata were 
taken from the larch, but owing to the high wind blowing, these were 
obtained from crevices low down on the trunks and exposed roots. A 
couple of Lubophnra carpinata were found in the same manner, and a 
single Depreanaria areneLla was netted. I tried sugaring one evening, 
but with little success, a very few Taenincninpa pidceridenta, T. (jothica, 
T. inct'ita, T. stahilis, and Pachnobia rnbricosa, being the total to visit 
the patches. Kriocrania iiniiiiacidella and Fj. sendpufpnrella were 
common at Milngavie on the 18th ; and a few E. parpurella and 
Antidea badiata at Johnstone on the 26th. 

May 9th. Eriocrania sitbptirpiirella was taken from oaks at 
Johnstone where LithocoUetis qiwrcifuliella was abundant. On the 16th 
an afternoon on the Gourock Hills, did not produce much, a single 2 
Satiirnia pavonia was found at rest on the heather, Ematurga atonuiria 
was abundant, but Enpithecia sntijrata was only beginning to emerge. 
Plutdla cniciferantm, and Elachista rtifocinerea were fairly common. 
The 19th being a holiday, I travelled to Luss, Loch Lomond, and 
found insects becoming more plentiful, Callophrys riibi was in fair 
numbers and in fine condition, but difficult to capture owing to the 
rough nature of the ground. The other species taken were, Cidaria 
corylata, Euntioina dlaceata, Laiiipropteryx snjf'umata, Lozot/raiinna 
petraria, Coreniia ferrityata, Xantlinr/ioe trhtata, X. nociata, Lithnadletia 
ciauicrella, L. abtifoUella, Micrnptery.r aruncdla, and (Telcchia tripardla, 
while single specimens of Eiididia mi, and Frotliymnia viridaria turned 
up. On the 26th I was again on the Gourock Hills, but it was blowing 
a gale, and all the insects I obtained were taken by creeping along the 
lea side of a wall. I however managed to gather in, by boxing them 
from the wall, several Malenydris salicata, and a fair number of 
Eupitlu'cia satyrata. GelecJiia erketella was common, and several nice 

March Ioth, 1915. 



50 THE entomologist's record. 

5 s of Einaturfja atoniaria were obtained in the same manner. In a 
wood at the foot of the hill Micropteri/x aiireatella and Gracilaria 
syrhujella were boxed. 

June 3rd. Bepialits hecta made an early appearance at Johnstone. 
A single Eupithecia lariciata was dislodged from a fir. and shortly after 
two fine black varieties of E. castii/ata were taken, and single specimens 
of Monopis TKsticella and Elaclusta albifrontella. On the 10th, at 
Johnstone, Bupalus piniaria, Cnunbim pratelliis and Scoparia anibi(inalis 
were common, while Lithncolletis fafjineUa, Lampronia rnbiella, Incur- 
varia nni Kcalella Sind F'AachiHta obscitreUa were also taken. 

An evening at Crookston on the 11th produced two fine specimens 
of Eupithecia pipjmaeata, a single Tinea lapella, while Opisth(>(/raj)tis 
Ivteolata, Xanthorlw'e luontanata, Hepialus liiptiliiia, Artiyrest/iia 
pyrpiiaeella, and Phitella criteiferarnm were common. On the 12th I 
was again at Luss, and this being an exceptionally fine day insects 
were very plentiful. A couple of fair Pionea decrepitalis were boxed on 
the hillside. Fine specimens of Acidalia remiitaria, Loniaspiiin vianjinata, 
Corettiia desiynata, Cabera ])iisaHa, Asthena luteata, Eiilype haatata, 
Micropteryx calthella, Tortrix (Eitlia) viinistiaua, Ancylis imyiiieella, A. 
nncana, and A. witterbaclwnana, while single specimens of Phraymatobia 
fuliyinom, JSivanninrdaiiniiia lieroldella and Incurvaria )iiuscalella were 
taken. Two specimens of Drepana falcataria were dislodged from a 
birch, and both captured, one in the finest condition, the other a mere 
rag. Ciaiiibiis hortnelhis was very abundant in the old slate quarries, 
and Aryynnis selene was found settling down in the late afternoon, 
when five or six specimens could be taken in groups at the one time 
on clumps of brackens, and dwarf sallows, A fine specimen of 
Xanthorho'e montanata was boxed with the band on the wings almost 
obsolete ; and a single Diacrisia samiio ( rnsmla) was chased and 
captured, but received its liberty again owing to its tattered condition. 
On the 15th at Crookston Bucculatrix niyricoiiiella, Onrix betiilae, 
Coleophora albicosta, Chrysoclista atra/'' Aryyrotoxa conivayana, and 
Lawpronia qnadripiinctella were obtained : while after dusk Pian- 
thoecia cucuhali, Abrostola tripartita and Petilanipa arciiDsa were 
captured. On the 17th, at Milngavie, Uydrioniena iniplnriata 
was abundant on the alders on the banks of the Allander, the 
majority of the specimens being black. Fhipithecia natyrata, 
Coreiiiia unidentaria, Lithocolletis kleewannella, and Cabera pnmria were 
abundant, while specimens of Cerostoma rittella and Lithocidletis 
spiwdclla were boxed. On the 18th at Johnstone, "Scoparia dnbitalis 
was abundant and variable, Aryyresthia covjuyella, (jelechia terrellaaxidi 
G. pruxiniella were taken along with a few Litliocolletiti sorbi. At 
Whistlefield on the 20th, amid a downpour of rain, I boxed from tree 
trunks a few Tischeria coviplanella, Aryyresthia brockeella and Tinea 
aenrifulrella, while Scojiaria ainbiyualis was very common. During the 
one short blink of sunshine a single Pyratista cespitalis appeared. On 
the 27th I again visited Whistlefield with the hope of taking Periwvia 
blandiata, but this was another afternoon when the wind rose to half a 
gale, and only a single specimen, which was actually blown into the 
net, was taken. Xantlwrhoe triatata was still in good condition and a 
single Gelechia sororculella was taken. 

* Now known as Blastodacna liellerella. — -A.S. 



THE SEASON OF 1914 NEAR POLLOKSHIELDS, ETC. 51 

July 3rd. I had a whole day at Irvine ; and this being a fine, 
warm day, insects were again abundant. A number of Lycaena icarus 
were taken with the object of obtaining aberrations, and in this I was 
very fortunate in taking two nice forms of undersides, and a female 
with prominent pale blue -grey discal spots on the forewings. 
Coenoiv/iiipha jianiphiliis, Nyniphida stai/nata, Ortholitha pliDnbaria, 
Salebria fnsca, (ielerhia senectella, Perizoina alcheniillata, and Platypt'dia 
gonodactyla were also taken. Single types of Ayrotis utriyida and 
Miana fanciiincida were caught on the wing in the afternoon. 

A visit to Brodick, Arran, from July 9th to 17th, produced some- 
thing better in the insect way. Epincjdu'le jiirtina [janira) was in 
magnificent condition, several <? s with two well-developed spots on 
the underside of the hindwings being obtained, while another with the 
left forewing bleached was captured. A single but poor Coenonywpha 
tiphon was caught on the moor. About a dozen Flnsia interroyationis 
fell to the net one forenoon, along with several Ayrotis striyula and a 
couple of Anarta vujrtilli. A number of Pcdiinpsestis duplaris were 
shaken from birch. A single and large Abraxas yrossulariata was 
taken far up the hillside, I have never taken this species in a similar 
situation in Clydesdale before. Venusia cambrica. was fairly common 
in the birch glen on the old Lamlash Road; here they seemed to prefer 
the smooth barks of two or three large beech-trees, over a dozen being 
taken from a single trunk one forenoon. I generally find this species 
on the light-coloured bark of the birch. (Several Cidaria tnincata, 
Entephria caedata, Mesoleuca ocellata, Lyyris popidata (dark), Mctrucaiiipa 
maryaritaria, Boarmia repandata, Coreniia denynata, Kupitkecia nanata, 
and E. yooasensiata [mintdata) were also captured in this locality. 
CranibKS niaryaritelliis was common in Glen Cloy, where also a few C. 
imjidnatelliis were taken ; the latter along with ('. selaselliis, which I 
found in fair numbers, but very local, on the grass behind the shore, is 
new to Clydesdale. (,'. cnhtiellns was flying on the moor in countless 
thousands, and (J. trUtellus was just making its appearance. Scoparia 
frequentella was taken from tree-trunks, and a few .S. murana were 
boxed from the walls on the shore road. A single Ihyopldla peda (a 
very scarce insect in Clydesdale) was taken from a rock far up Glen 
Cloy. Several Acidalia funiata, Tortrix viburnaiia, Salebria fiisca, and 
Nemotois iiuninidliis were also obtained there. Collecting in the 
evenings resulted in several I'lnua judchriua, F. iota, AbrosUda 
tripartita, Triphaena prouuba, Noctua prinndae (festiva), Apamea yeniina, 
Xylop/iasia iiionoylypha (dark), Noctua umbrosa, Perizoma alcheniillata, 
P. a(finitata, Kiipitliecia siibfulvata, Pionea olixalis, and P. priinalia 
being captured. 

August 1st saw me again at Whistlefield. Krebia aethiops was out 
in abundance, but I only obtained J s. Working up the bed of a 
burn, I took Anioebe olivata in fair quantity, but the capture of the 
afternoon was two fine Perizovia taeniata, another species new to 
Clydesdale. Malenydria didyina was ver\ common, as also llydrioniena 
f areata. 

My holidays were spent at Glen Sluain near Strachur, Loch Fyne 
from August 19th to the 25th, and collecting was almost entirely con- 
fined to the evenings with the net only. Several C/iaraeafi yraniinis, 
Hydroecia nictitans, Triphaena ianthina, T. comes, Noctua xanthoyrapha, 



52 THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 

and a single Bomhi/ria rimijialia were taken from the ragwort, where 
also Apamea secalis (ociilca) and Caradrina quadripunctata were common. 
Amoebe olirata was abundant in the glens but in very poor condition, 
Lyiiris testata, was common on the moors, and two or three Coremia 
deminata of a very small form were taken, but the insect of the locality 
at this tune of the year is certainly (Jidaria iiniiiauata, which occurred 
all over the district and exhibited an almost endless range of variation. 
Folia chi was taken from the walls, Pemnea caledoniana and P. aspersana 
were common, Scoparia cemhrae, Pionea lutealis, Aniyresthia seniites- 
tacella and a single Pionea femif/alis, and a few Crambus pinellns were 
taken . 

September 5th. I had an afternoon at Irvine. A single Aijlais 
urticae was found on a thistle. Thera nheliscata (variata) was disturbed 
in some numbers from the pines in fine condition and very variable. 
Several Depressaria nervosa and Peronea schalleriana were taken. On 
September 8th Peronea rarieijana and single Tortrix niiifasciana 
and OchKenlieiiiieria hisontella were boxed from a fence in Pollokshields. 
On the 12th I tried to obtain a few Pliihalapteryx lapidata on the 
Lanarkshire Hills, but rain coining on just at the time of flight, I was 
forced to abandon my search and make for the station. Only a single 
specimen was obtained, along with a few Tapinostola fulra and Celaena 
liaivorthii. 

October Brd. Thera oheliscata {variata) was still to be taken in 
good condition at Johnstone. On the 24th, an afternoon at Whistle- 
field produced Oporabia diliitata in some numbers. Several Cerostonia 
radiatella and a single Cidaria siderata were shaken from foliage, and 
a single L-'cronea inixtana was netted on the hillside. 

Novembsr 7th. A fine afternoon at Milngavie, where over a dozen 
Cliaeniatobia boreata were taken, Cevostoiita radiatella and Peronea 
ferriKjana were common, and two dark ? s of Oporabia diliitata were 
obtained from oak. And on the 21st, though it was a frosty afternoon, 
C. boreata and C. radiatella could still be taken there. 



New Myrmecophilous Aphides. 

By FRED. V. THEOBALD, M.A., F.E.S. 

The following are descriptions of some new species of Aphidae 
found in ants' nests. With the exception of two (Aphis leontoduniella 
and a MacrosiphiiDi) they were collected by Mr. Donisthope, and 
found amongst the large number of Myrmecophilous plant-lice that 
he has sent me. This collection also included several unknown 
stages of some previously described species and enabled me to trace 
the complete life-cycle of some, notably of Anoecia corni, Fabricius, 
which is a serious pest to wheat and other cereals, as well as grass, in 
parts of Europe, and which seems to be one of the commonest Myrme- 
cophilous species, the ants appearing to look after the oviparous 
females and the eggs just as they do those of Aphis maidisradicis, 
Forbes, in America. 

TrAMA DONISTHORPEI, nOV. Sp. 

Apterous viviparous female. Head, thorax, antennse, and legs dark ; abdomen 



NEW MYRMECOPHILOUS APHIDES. 53 

paler with dark lateral spots and dusky cross-bars, broken posteriorly by a median 
pale line. Antenna? of six segments, the two first segments nearly equal in length, 
but the basal one wider, the third the longest, about as long as the fourth and 
fifth, the fourth shorter than the filth, fifth and sixth equal ; the third has twelve 
sensoria on the apical two-thirds, the fourth five to six sensoria, the fifth three and 
a large sub-apical one, the sixth three basally, then a group of three small ones, 
and then two close to the large one beneath the " nail," which has one small one ; 
hairs long as in troglodytes, " nail " longer than in the latter. Eyes large, black. 
Body hairy. Head hairy with a marked median suture. Segments of the thorax 
markedly distinct, especially the pronotum. Cauda short, rounded, with rather 
long hairs. Cornicles slightly elevated, with large circular openings. Proboscis 
long, reaching well beyond the third coxte, apex dark. The hind tarsus much 
more than half the length of the hind tibia ; both are very hairy, but the hairs are 
scantier on the tibia? ; posterior trochanters large. A distinct stemma above 
each eye, the latter with a distinct ocellar process. 

Lenijtli. 3mm. 

Locaiitij. Blackgang Chine, Isle of Wight, 26 viii. 1913 (Donis- 
thorpe) . 

Obserrations. Found in an ant's nest (Tetratiiorinni caespitinn). 

I think that this insect must be placed in Trama. It diflers from 
T. trcxjlodijtes, first in general colour, secondly in the marked antennae, 
and thirdly in the hmd tarsus. The marked ocellar process below the 
eyes is very characteristic. It may be pointed out here that I have 
always found a minute basal segment to the long hind tarsus in 
trof/lodi/tes as well as in this species. 

FORDA HEXAGONA, nOV. Sp. 

Apterous viviparous female. Globular in form, somewhat flattened behind. 
Head fiat and broad, slightly rounded at the sides ; the integument prominently 
marked with hexagonal sculpturing, which also passes on to the pronotum, a few 
short curved hairs in front. Antennae of five segments, rather more than J the 
length of body : basal segment much broader and a little shorter than the second, 
which is cylindrical ; third segment the longest, about as long as the fourth and 
fifth together ; fourth swollen towards the apex where there is a single sensorium ; 
fifth a little longer than the fourth, with a prominent blunt nail, one large and 
four small sensoria at its base ; the third to fifth segments with a few markedly 
capitate hairs, only slightly so on the two basal segments. Eyes small but 
prominent, black. Kostruni reaching to the base of the third pair of legs. Legs 
and antennae appear darker than the body, the legs with scanty hairs. Cauda very 
dark, with numerous short, pale hairs. 

Len(jth, I'Smm. ; breadth 1mm. 

Localitij. Whitsand Bay, Cornwall, iv. 1909 (Donisthorpe). 

Obsercations. I have only seen one specimen found in the nest of 
Foriiiira fii>ica. It had been preserved in alcohol so I cannot give its 
colour. The marked hexagonal sculpturing separates it from the 
other species of Forda. 

FoRDA FURCATA, nOV. Sp. 

Apterous viviparous female. Pearly to creamy-white ; domed ; segments 
marked ; legs pallid, tarsi dusky. Antennse pallid, but darkened at the tips ; 
rostrum pale, brown on the last segment, broad, reaching past the second pair of 
legs; vertex broad, slightly rounded. Antennas moderately long, of five segments; 
the first two small, about equal in size; the third the longest, as long as fourth 
and fifth together, showing a slight constriction near the apex ; the fourth slightly 
longer than the second, the fifth nearly twice as long as the fourth, all the seg- 
ments with rather long simple hairs ; the fourth with a single sub-apical sensorium, 
the fifth with one large and several small sensoria just below the short " nail." 
Eyes very small, reddish, represented by 3 ocelli. Legs rather short, with dark tarsi, 
with numerous rather stiff hairs on all the segments. Hairs on the head both 



54 THE ENTOMOLOGISTS RECORD, 

simple and furcate : on the body some are more broadly expanded apically, others 
slightly capitate ; cauda pale, rounded, with four long pale hairs and some 
median shorter ones, notched at the sides, and from each notch arises a long hair. 

Length. l'5mm. to 2mm. 

Locality. Sandown, Isle of Wight, 24 viii. 1908 (Donisthorpe). 

Notes. Described from two 5 s taken in the nest of Mi/nnica 
laevinodu. It can at once be told by the form of the hairs. The 
antennal structure certainly places it in Forda, and approaches that of 
F. viridana, Buckton. The siphon openings are quite level with the 
body. 

Aphis alienus, nov. sp. 

Apterous viviparous female. Bright emerald green. Eyes large, dark. An- 
tennae shorter than the body, of six segments, the fifth dusky at the apex and all 
the sixth ; first segment broader and slightly longer than the second ; the third 
longer and narrower than the second ; but often not quite as long as the fifth ; the 
fourth about one-third the length of the third, and about equal to the length of 
the first two ; fifth slightly longer than the third, up to the long " nail," about as 
long as the fourth ; the first and second slightly darker than the third and base of 
the fourth; the fourth and fifth markedly imbricated, the third on the apical half 
only ; edges serrated, a few scattered hairs on all the segments. Proboscis dark 
at base and apex, reaching to the third coxa. Prothoracic ring with blunt lateral 
processes. Abdomen with one lateral blunt papilla on each side, between the 
second and third pairs of legs and another between the cornicles and cauda. 
Cornicles rather short, black, thick, expanded basally, marked with dotted lines 
instead of true imbrication, about as long as the cauda, which is dusky especially 
at the apex. Legs moderately long, especially the hind pair, the tarsi and apices 
of the tibiae dusky ; femora with a few hairs ; tibiae with many ; last tarsal with 
serrated edges and markedly Imbricated. A large, marked papilla on each side of 
the Cauda, between it and the cornicles. Penultimate segment of the rostrum 
swollen. 

Length. 1mm. to TSmm. 

Locality. Seaton, South Devon, 2 viii. 1912 (Donisthorpe); Whit- 
sand Bay, Cornwall. 

Observations. Found in the nests of Lasius alienus. 

It is one of the smallest Aphides I have seen. It approaches 
Walker's Aphis subterranca, but can at once by told by having antennae 
composed of five, not six, segments in the apterous female ; the 
cornicles are also relativelj'^ longer and of different shape being much 
expanded basally, they are also black whilst in subterranea, they are 
only black at the tips. The antennse and legs are also thinner than 
in Walker's species. Nor is it Koch's Aphis carrotae, which Buckton 
and others take to be subterranea, for Koch's species has a dark head 
and dark cauda and also antennae of six segments and shorter cornicles. 
I have not found alatae of Aplris carrotae, but judging from the apterae 
it is distinct from subterranea and the one I describe here. 

Aphis leontodoniella, nov. sp. 

Apterous viinparous female. Very pale yellowish-green all over. Eyes large, 
deep black, edged with red. Head with a depression on each side, raised in the 
centre, with numerous longish pale hairs. Antennne pallid, thin, half the length 
of the body, of six segments, the basal one large and broad, the second narrower 
and slightly shorter, the third long, but not as long as the sixth ; the fourth rather 
more than half the length of the third, the fifth slightly shorter to nearly as long 
as the fourth, longer than the basal part of the sixth, which has a very long thin 
" nail" ; all segments with prominent long thin pale hairs ; a sensorium near apex 
of fifth and some faint ones at the base of the " nail," which is markedly striate 
and serrated at the edges. A distinct large rounded process on each side of the 
pronotum and five smaller ones on each side of the abdomen, which has very small, 



NEW MYRMECOPHILOUS APHIDES. 55 

blunt spine-like processes all around and some longer hairs. Cauda pale, 
rounded, with minute, dense, blunt spines and longer hairs. Anal plate I'ounded 
and similarly adorned. Cornicles very pale, moderately long, showing faint im- 
brication aud tine serrated edges. Legs, including the ungues, very pale, hairy, 
with the apex of the tibiae projecting on one side in a short, sharp process. Pro- 
boscis pallid, reaching beyond the third coxae. 

LeiKjth. l-8mm. 

The nymph is very similar but the cornicles are slightly longer ; the wing pads 
are pallid and semitransparent. 

Locality. Wye, 27 x. 1911 (Theobald). 

obscrrotions. Found in the nest of Lasins fJaviis and also feeding 
on dandelion roots. I found many apteraB in both situations, but 
when I searched for them some ten days later, none could be found ; 
as the nymphs were appearing on the 27th, probably they had all 
become winged and fled. It is possibly the ground form of some other 
described species, but I have named it provisionally. The ants were 
watched "milking" the females whilst they were suckiisg the sap from 
the dandelion roots, 

MaCROSIPHUM FORMICARIUM, nOV. Sp. 
Alate viviparous female. Head dark brown. Antennte much longer than the 
body ; basal segment brown, much longer than the second, which is pale, rest of 
antenna dark brown, except just the base of the third; third segment a little 
longer than fourth, with about 20 sensoria over about two-thirds of its length; 
fourth segment longer than fifth, which has a large sub-apical sensorium ; hairs 
scanty, rather long and stiff. Eyes black. Proboscis pale, black at the apex, 
reaching to the second coxae. Thorax dark. Abdomen pale with dark lateral 
spots from which arise longish hairs from distinct tubercles ; over the rest of the 
abdomen also arise straight stiff hairs from pale tubercles. Cornicles very long, 
cylindrical, slightly swollen at the base, dark, except just at the base, reticulate 
for the greater part of their length, markedly imbricated near the base, which is 
uniulorned. Cauda large, bluntly lanceolate, pale with three large pale hairs on 
each side and two median sub-apical ones. Legs moderately long, pale yellowish- 
green with dark areas at the apices of the femora and tibiae and dark tarsi ; rather 
long, stiff hairs on the femora and tibias. Wings ample, with brown veins, pale 
brown stigma and pale insertions. 

Lemjtlt, 2-3mm ; /c/vi// e.rpanse, 7mm. 

Localitij. Lundy Island, 9 vi. 1913 (Donisthorpe). 

Obserratiom. Described from a single specimen taken by Mr. 
Donisthorpe in a nest of Lasinn flavim. The cornicles are very long, 
and peculiar in that they are reticulate over nearly their whole length ; 
the stiflf hairs on the body are also characteristic. As the specimen 
had been for some time in spirit, it is not possible to give the actual 
coloration. Koch describes an underground Macrosiphum as Siphono- 
phora sabten-a}i('a, but this species has shorter cornicles and a black 
Cauda. 

I have received two other species of Macrosiphum from ants nests, 
but both too damaged to describe. One was an apterous female of a 
uniform pale colour, with black eyes ; long, thin, straight, imbricated 
pale cornicles; cauda long, uniform and pale. Tarsi dusky. Length, 
2-3mm. Taken by Donisthorpe in a nest of Lasins nit/cr at Rossbeigh, 
Co. Kerry, in June, 1902. 

The other was sent to me by Mr. Britten, taken " in ants' nest at 
Great Salkeld, Penrith." 

I think these are the only records of this genus being found in ants' 
nests. 



56 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

A Reply to the Rev. C. R. N. Burrows, F.E.S. 

By G. T. BETHUNE-BAKER, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

I am unfeignedly sorry that my friend and brother editor should 
think that I have called in question his honesty, or Mr. Pierce's either, 
I can quite truly assure both that no such motive ever entered my 
thoughts. The latter gentleman attacked my method of work and my 
method of illustration, and if I carried my defence into the opposing 
camp I do not think there is just cause for complaint, but in so doing 
I certainly have impugned no one's honesty of purpose. 

" What the master's eye can see " is Mr. Pierce's own expression — 
the full sentence reads thus : — 

" The latter (a drawing) reveals to the student what the master's 
eye can see, and whilst obscuring and nnimiiortant parts can be omitted, 
it is possible to present with clearness every feature and organ that is 
of characteristic and distinctive value." 

That sentence is quite conclusive justification for my conclusions 
as regards this particular point. There are one or two things that 
Mr. Burrows refers to that I had better further elaborate, and explain. 
He evidently thinks that I prepare my "mounts" quite fiat in the 
profile position, though I should have thought that every one, who 
looked over my papers and read my arguments, would have under- 
stood that such was not the case ; all my preparations are mounted in 
as deep cells as possible, with the cover glass laid over them so as only 
just to keep them in position. In this method the natural position is 
accurately maintained, and it is possible to examine the whole cavity 
within, and as I stated at first the correlation of all the parts is before 
the observer. I have been fortunate enough to get some specimens 
mounted thus " in coitii," in cases where I have been able to kill them 
suddenly before separation, and so have been able to compare the actual 
position in use with the i^osition at rest — the two positions are natural 
as in life. To obtain the natural vertical position would involve the 
genitalia, being mounted edgeways in such deep cells, that generally 
speaking the venter would be out of focus when examining the dorsum, 
and in addition to this it would be impossible to mount the majority of 
insects thus without using considerable pressure and thus distorting the 
organs. Mr. Burrows will no doubt bear in mind in the future that I 
never do and never have used any pressure to my profiles, and that 
therefore they are trulj' in their natural positions as at rest. He must, 
I think admit that the Hat spread position, wbich I say is distorted, 
can never be assumed in nature. 

Mr. Burrows says I accept the authority of Dr. McDunnough. I 
nowhere said so, and in one special point I expressly disagreed with 
him. I quoted him as being accepted by Mr. Pierce, and then went on 
to show that he accepted him where it was convenient and ignored him 
in other cases. With these exceptions my previous article covers, I 
think, all the material points raised by my brother editor, and in 
closing I will only say one word which is to express again my sincere 
regret that he should think for a moment that I called in question 
either his or Mr. Pierce's honesty of purpose, on the contrary, I rather 
pointed out the latter's thorough openness in showing us so plainly by 
his drawings how his opinions were materialising. 



TEPHRITIS (oXYNa) FLAVIPENNIS, LW. 57 

Variation in the wing=niarkings of Tephritis (Oxyna) flavipennis, Lw. 

(IVitk plate.) 
By J. E. COLLIN, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

The Dipterous family Tri/petidae, to which the above species belongs, 
is composed of Acalyptrate Muscids with, in the majority of cases, 
prettily mottled or banded wings ; the shape and disposition of these 
wing-markings constituting specific, and to a certain extent, generic 
characters. Many of the species live in the larval stages intheliower- 
heads, or stems, or in galls on the stems or roots of 'Jumiumtae. : others 
live in the seeds, or fruit, or mine the leaves, of various plants. The 
■imagines in many cases are never found far away from their food-plant, 
and are often sporadic in their appearance, so that a species which for 
man^^ years may have been considered a great rarity suddenly turns up 
in considerable numbers ; this has been the case so far as ni}' experience 
goes with the species under discussion, T. jiavipenim : over forty years 
collecting by the late Mr. Verrall produced only two specimens, but in 
June and July, 1904 and 1911, Mr. C. G. Lamb of Cambridge found 
the species in a very limited area in the parish of St. Merryn (Corn- 
wall) and could have taken any number of specimens ; he called my 
attention to the great variation displayed in the wing-markings of his 
long series, and very kindly placed the specimens unreservedly at my 
disposal for purposes of study. Owing to the great use made of 
characters in the wing-markings for distinguishing species, the publi- 
cation of a few photographs taken by my friend Mr. Hugh Main, 
showing, to a certain extent, the amount of variation in Mr. Lamb's 
specimens, may not be without scientific interest. 

T. jiai-ipennis, Lw., so closely resembles two other British species, 
parietina, Lw., and proboscidea, Lw., that Loew in his monumental 
work Die Eio-opaischeii Bohrjiieifen (1862) expressed a doubt as to 
whether they were not really all varieties of one species ; he, however, 
overlooked the important character of an extra pair of dorso-central 
bristles on the thorax oijiavii)eiuiis, making three pairs in all, while 
parietina and' probuscidea have only two pairs of such bristles. The 
larva of T. jkicipennis lives in galls on the root-stock of Acliillea iiiille- 
foliniii. 

T. parietina, L., has rather smaller eyes and consequently larger 
cheeks ihena jlaripennis, and the proportion of depth to length of head 
is more equal, while the proboscis is not quite so long. On the wings 
the crossveins are rather closer, and the triangle of hyaline spots having 
its base on the costa is not so directly over the crossveiu closing 
the discal cell, but slightly beyond it. I have not yet seen a British 
specimen, but as the larvie live in the stems of Artemisia rnli/aris, a 
common British plant, ; the record as British is probably correct. 

1 . proboscidea, Lw., has more the wings of parietina and the head 
of llaripennis, but in addition to the one pair of black incurved lower 
fronto-orbital bristles, there are 1-2 pairs of quite small, whitish, 
incurved bristles that are absent in the other two species ; moreover 
proboHciilea normally has only two pairs of scutellar bristles, while the 
other two species normally have four. The larv;e live singly in galls 
on the root-stock of Chri/sant/iemKni le>icanthetintni. 

The Plate is self-explanatory, the top left hand figure showing a 
specimen with the pale markings abnormally extensive, those below 
this and on the right showing a gradual restriction of these pale 



58 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

markings. Loew figured a still darker form in his photograph of a 
female wing on Plate xvi. of his work quoted above. 



Gynandromorphs and Sex. 

By Hy. J. TURNER, F.E.S. 

In the h!iit(iiii()lii(/ixt's Record, vol. xxiii., page 215, was a Current 
Note on '• Gynandromorphous Macro-Lepidoptera," giving a list of 
references to a series of articles in which were catalogued all the 
gynandromorphous specimens known, with details of their individual 
characteristics. 

We have recently gone through the first four series of these records 
with a view to test the value of a general statement which has been 
made sometimes, ch., that as a rule the right side was male and the 
left side female. 

The references are all to species of the Rhopalocera of the Paltearctic 
Fauna. Those gynandromorphous examples whose sexes were mixed, 
and indefinite as to sex division, have been omitted. 

[Illiiatn'erte IVochenschrift fi'tr Entomolui/ie, vol. i., 1896 ; vol. ii., 
1897 ; vol. iii., 1898 ; and Berliner Kntoiuolat/ische ZeiUchrift, vol. 
xlix., 1904.] 

Papilio inachaon, right side <? =3, left side <? =1. 
Pariiassiiis apollo, right side J —2, left side ^ —1. 
Parnassiiis delitis, right side (? =6, left side t? =8. 
Pieris bransicae, right side ^ =1, left side $ —2. 
Pieris napi, right side ^ =2, left side S =5. 
Pontia dapliilice, right side (? =4, left side J =8. 
KncJdo'e cardaiirines, right side <? =7, left side J =11. 
Kttchloe daiiione, right side J =1, left side J =0. 
Leptosia sinapift, right side ^ —0, left side ^ =1. 
Zecfris enpheme, right side J =0, left side c? =1. 
Colias chri/sutheiiw, right side <? =1, left side 3' =0. 
(Julias erate, right side cj =1, left side J =0. 
Coliaa Ill/ale right, side <? =3, left side J =0. 
Colins edu>ia, right side <? =3, left side J =5. 
Coiias palaeno, right side <? =1, left side J =2. 
Coliaa myrmidone, right side 3' =0, left side c? =1. 
Gonepteryx rhanini, right side 3 =18, left side S =16. 
Gonepteryx cleopatra, right side 3 =12, left side 3 =9. 
Bithya qiierciis, right side J =1, left side rT =0. 
Rtiralia betiilae, right side cT =1, left side J =0. 
Runiicia phlaeas, right side J =0, left side c? =!• 
Heodes viryaureae, left side J =8, left side 3 =0. 
Chrysophainis hippothoe, right side (? =0, left side J" =1. 
Loweia alci/ihron, right side 3 =0, left side 3 =1. 
Lvweia aniphidaiiiaH, right side 3 =6, left side c? =2. 
Lycaena arioii, right side c? =1, left side 3 =0- 
Lycaena eiipheniiis right side 3 =0> left side J =1. 
Ayriades thetis, right side J =3, left side J =2. 
Ayriades coridon, right side (? =2, left side (? =0. 
Plebeiiis aryns (aeyon), right side J' =1, left side 3 =4. 
Plebeius aryyroynonion, right side c? =3, left side 3 =^- 



GYNANDROMORPHS AND SEX. 59 

Celastrina artjiolus, right side 3 =0, left side c? =1. 
Poli/o)iiiiiatt(s iearas, right side <? =12, left side <^ =9. 
Poli/o))imatus hijlas, right side 3 —\, left side 3 —\. 
Pob/oni Hiatus meleayer, right side (? =1, left side 3 =2. 
Polijoiiiiiiatns eacheri, right side 3 =1, left side <^ =0. 
Poli/oiiimatiis ainaiidiis, right side (? =1, left side 3 =2. 
Aricia enmedon, right side <? =1, left side 3 =0. 
Hirsittina damon, right side <? =0, left side 3 =1. 
fjamearis Iticina, right side c? =1, left side cj" =1. 
Araschnia levana, right side <? =1, left side 3 =1. 
Dryafi paphia, right side 3 =18, left side 3 =20. 
Dryas pandora, right side J^ =1, left side «? =0. 
Pyraiiieis cardni, right side 3 =0, left side (J =1. 
Pyrameis atalanta, right side ^ =1, left side 3 =1. 
Eiiyonia polychloros, right side J =0, left side 3 =1. 
Euvanessa antiopa, right side 3—6, left side 3—4:. 
Aylais urticae, right side 3 =0, left side c? =1. 
Brenthis selenc, right side J =0, left side <? =1. 
Melitaea didyiiia, right side <3^ =1. left side 3—0. 
Melitaea phnebe, right side c? =1, left side tj =0. 
Melitaea athalia, right side <? =1, left side 3 =0. 
Melitaea dictynna, right side <? =0, left side J =1. 
Liniejiitis popnli, right side (3^ =9, left side <? =6. 
Apatura iris, right side (? =1, left side 3 =1. 
Apatura ilia, right side 3 =2, left side J =5. 
Epinephele lycaon, right side c? =0, left side 3 =2. 
Epinephele jnrtina, right side c? =7, left side J =0. 
Erebia aethiops, right side 3—1, left side 5" =1. 
Erebia euryale, right side J =0, left side 3—2. 
Hipparchia seinele, right side 3 =\, left side 3 =0. 
Pararye viaera, right side c? =0, left side J" =2. 
Hipparchia statiliiiiis, right side (? =0, left side 3 =1. 
Satyr us hermiune, right side 3 =0, left side J =2. 
Satyrus alcyone, right side (7=1, left side J =0. 
(Joeno7iynipha arcania, right side J" =0, left side 3 =2. 
Adopaea flava, right side 3 =1, left side 3 =0. 

Summing up these we find that out of 302 examples of recorded 
gynandromorphic specimens of European Rhopalocera, we have 157 
cases in which the 3 secondary sexual characters predominate on the 
right side, and 145 cases in which they predominate on the left side, 
rthat is, approximately the same numbers, so that these figures give no 
support to the statement that in gynandromorphic specimens the right 
side of the insect is usually predominantly male. The figures for 
individual species give the same indication, Oryas paphia, 18 to 20 ; 
Polyiminiatus icariis, 12 to 9 ; (jonepteryx rhaiiini, 18 to 16, etc. 

Certain species seem very prone to the phenomenon of gynandro- 
morphism. Both Gunepteryx rhanini and G. deopatra ; Dryas paphia, 
but not the closely allied D. pandora ; Enchloe cardainines, but not E. 
cuphe)u)ides, of which no specimen was recorded ; Polyoinmatiis icartis, 
but none of the rest of the "blues"; Limcnitis populi and perhaps 
Apatura ilia. The remainder of the species show but very slight 
-tendency to this aberration. 



60 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

A large number of gynandromorphs of the Heterocera are catalogued 
in the lists referred to, but no summary has been made. Casual 
inspection of odd chapters have supported the contentions (1) that 
no predominance exists in the side of the insect which assumes the 
male secondary sexual characters, and (2) that the number of each sex 
in a species is approximately the same. 



A " Priority " Note. 

By GEORGE WHEELER, M.A., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 
On the last page of the December number of the Ent. Ilecord we 
find the following observation : — " As the term ' falces ' was introduced 
so long ago as 1905, it liaa prioritij over the term ' gnathos,' uJiich will 
fall " ! ! (The italics and notes of exclamation are mine.) I express 
no opinion as to the greater suitability of one term or the other, but 
the implication contained in this phrase that the Law of Priority has 
any reference whatever to the names of anatomical sections, or indeed to 
anything at all except classification, cannot be too soon exposed or too 
emphatically contradicted, especially since the same monstrous 
doctrine seems to be accepted, and almost taken for granted, in the 
subsequent papers on the same subject by Mr. Bethune-Baker and 
the Rev. C. R. N. Burrows. Fortunately not even the maddest of 
Priority fanatics has yet succeeded in reducing us to this condition of 
helplessness, and we are still absolutely at liberty to choose the most 
suitable and descriptive nomenclature in all such cases, without giving 
a thought to the question which was the first in use. In point of fact 
it is quite unlikely that the first name used Avill in most cases meet 
with general acceptance, since later nomenclature generally means- 
further research, and the wisdom of yesterday will often be the ignor- 
ance of to-morrow. At the same time there are two principles which 
should (in my opinion at least) be generally recognised : first, a word 
used in any branch of science by one author to designate a particular 
object, or part of an object {('.</., '^ scaphiiim "), should not be available 
for use by another author to designate some other object, or some other 
part of the same object, in the same branch of science ; and secondly, 
an author changing his nomenclature should be expected to draw 
attention to, and explain, the change, in such a way as to leave no 
doubt as to his meaning in the minds of his readers. A general regard 
for these two principles will obviate any probability of misunderstand- 
ing, without dragging the hateful Priority question into matters for 
which it was never intended, and where it could only become a bar to 
any rational progress even more effectively than it has already done in 
the domain of Classification. 



The Butterflies of Lower Egypt. 

By Colonel N. MANDERS, D.D.M.S. Egypt, F.E.S. 

I had intended to publish nothing on the above subject until I had 
completed my tour of service in Egypt, but tenure of appointment is 
so uncertain m these troublous times that I think it better to put on 
record the few observations 1 have made, and if opportunity occurs to 
extend them afterwards. 

The most useful paper I know on Egyptian butterflies is one 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF LOWER EGYPT. 61 

published by Mr. P. P. Graves in the Entomoloiiist'n Uecord, 1904, and 
these notes may be regarded as supplementary to that paper. Mr. 
Graves is in Cairo at the time of writing, having had an exciting and 
trying time in getting out of Constantinople at the declaration of war. 
We hope to forget our labours for the moment in a jaunt into the 
desert for the few but interesting insects that occur there. Egypt is 
sufficiently well known to make any remarks on the country super- 
fluous ; but one scarcely realises, until one actually sees it, the extra- 
ordinary proximity of the most fertile land probably in the globe with 
the most sterile ; the dividing line is most strongly drawn, a yard even 
separating the two ; the cause, of course, being the fertile alluvium 
brought down by the annual Nile flood. This makes it difficult to 
say, in many cases, what are actually desert species and what not, 
particularly among the Hymenoptera, as, owing to their powers of 
Sight, they spread from cultivated districts far into the desert, being 
attracted at certain seasons of the year by the flora that grows in the 
bottom of the valleys, which meander far into the hills and which 
debouch on to the desert plains in close proximity to the Nile's over- 
flow. Dragonflies also are extraordinarily wandering creatures ; though 
found usually in the neighbourhood of water, they occur miles from it 
in the very heart of the desert, and some butterflies whose larvae feed 
on garden plants, by means I do not attempt to explain, have thrown 
o&' their usual habits and have become entirely denizens of the desert. 
I'ontia dajilidice is one of these ; on the continent of Europe, so far 
as I have observed it, this may be regarded almost as a garden insect, 
but I was surprised to find that the only locality, except for an 
occasional stray specimen, was the desert ravines miles away from 
cultivation of any kind. In Egypt it is a scarce insect, and the only 
two specimens I have taken were a pair at Wadi Hof, on March 8th, 
1914. They were flying about some dried-up grass at the bottom of 
the ravine, which, even at this early period of the year, was very hot, 
and the vegetation already becoming desiccated with the heat. 

A)ith(jcharis belia, a butterfly I have not yet met with here, is also 
an entirely desert species. 

The appearance of butterflies in Egypt, more especially those of 
the desert, is very largely dependent on the rains which usually fall in 
the winter months. These are very capricious, occasionally, perhaps 
once in fifteen or twenty years, there is such a heavy downfall, that 
the Wadis become raging torrents, banks and roads are washed away, 
and considerable damage is done to property. 

On the other hand, no rain or a few drops only may fall for two 
or three years, and the average at Cairo is but a little more than an 
inch. 

Last year, 1913-1914, the rains almost entirely failed and con- 
sequently the desert plants, which are entirely dependent on them for 
their spring and early summer growth, scarcely flowered at all and put 
forth a very scanty leaf, the result being that all through the year the 
desert flora was by no means in evidence. Butterflies are likewise 
affected by the climate. In what stage the desert butterflies pass the 
hot dry summer months I am unable to say, it probably varies with 
the species, but there is little doubt that if the winter rains fail the 
species emerge in verj' diminished numbers, and it is quite possible 
that under these circumstances the earlier stages take more than a 



62 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

single year for their completion. My first year in Egypt fell on a leaa 
year and consequently some species such as Authorharia helia and 
Melitaea ileserticola, which I might reasonably have expected to meet 
with, failed to put in an appearance. 

Many butterflies, such as Piiraineis cardui and Zizeeria li/simon, have 
a succession of broods throughout the year if the seasons should be 
favourable. In the intense heat of summer and in the cold weather 
their numbers decrease or tend to disappear. 

Some butterflies have a succession of broods, perhaps two or 
three, or a prolonged emergence in the spring from February until the 
end of April. Antliocliaris belemia, for instance, is on the wing for 
almost six weeks in March- April, and then disappears until November 
or December when it becomes common again in its special localities. 
1 have found no great dijfference in the underside in the spring and 
autumn bi'oods. I'ontia i/laiiconoiiie occurs in the same way ; my dates 
are March 8th, April 22nd, and single specimens in December. It is 
strictly a desert insect, the larva feeding on Cajipans s/miosa. 

It is with diffidence but with conviction that I record the genus 
Teracoliis in Egypt ; on April 13th in Wadi Hof near Helouau a 
butterfly flew past me, and which I failed to catch, but recognized as 
Teracohia {hhnai.i) faiista from a full acquaintance with its South 
Indian form T. tripiincta. In the heat of the day it is an extremely 
fast flier, but in the early morning before the sun is well up, it can be 
approached fairly easily, and this applies to many tropical and sub- 
tropical butterflies. There is no reason why it should not occur in 
Egypt, as it is fairly common in certain parts of Syria and in all 
probability in the Wadis of the Sinai peninsula. 

Another butterfly I record for the first time in Egypt is Spindans 
[Aphnaeiia) accDiiaa, a female specimen of which was captured in 
October, 1913, m the desert beyond Heliopolis, by Mr. Adair, of the 
Egyptian Agricultural Department. I tried for it unsuccessfully this 
year, and possibly it was a straggler. I took it many years ago at 
Suakin, during the campaign, and these were described by Mr. A. G. 
Butler as a new species, to which he gave the name A. bellatrix, to 
commemorate the circumstances under which they were taken. The 
type is in the British Museum. No doubt they are a geographical race 
of this variable insect. The specimens I took in the Punjab are very 
much paler. 

Danais chr)/sippi(s is a common insect and of the dark African type; 
I was shown by Dr. Gough, of the Agricultural Department, a speci- 
men of the form alcippns, the first, I believe, recorded in Lower 
Egypt. I am told that this form is not uncommon in the Fayum, 
where I have had no opportunity of collecting. This form has not 
been recorded south of Assouan. 

Coliaa edit»a flies in March, April and May, when towards the end 
of the month it disappears till autumn, then it gradually increases in 
numbers till the spring, when it is at its maximum. A lucerne field 
in April reminds one very much of an August day in England in an 
edum year. The fields are alive with this striking insect and with 
Pieris rapae and Pi/rameis cardui. The helice form of the female, or 
rather that named pallida by Tutt, is not uncommon, and I thought I 
had caught a record with the measurement of 62mm., until shortly after 
I read that Mr. Frohawk had bred one in England measuring 67mm. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF LOWER EGYPT. G3 

My largest ediisa female is 57mm. Among the Lijcaeniilae I may refer 
to Plebeiiis [Lycaena) loewii as being one of the most interesting. The 
male is of a most brilliant hue, reminding one of hijlan. The female 
is dimorphic. In other countries than Egypt it is brown with white 
spots; in Egypt this form is very exceptional and I only know of one 
specimen. The usual form might be described as of a bright blue, 
rather duller than the male, but perhaps more correctly as brown 
covered almost completely with blue scales ; the brown is almost con- 
fined to an ill-defined suffusion extending from the cell to the costa of 
the forewing, giving the insect an almost smudged appearance even in 
perfect specimens. It bears the same relation to the brown form as 
the blue form of the female icanis usual in Ireland does to the normal 
form in England. It is very local and only found near the foodplant, 
around which it dutters. The males are somewhat pugnacious, and 
are rather difticult to obtain in good condition. The only locality I 
know of near Cairo is the Mokattam Hills, where it is not uncommon 
in April in a space about a quarter of a mile long and about a hundred 
yards broad ; it might therefore be easily exterminated. 

A few other specimens have been noted in other parts of the 
Arabian desert. The foodplant is Astrayalits furskalfi, and in the 
female's method of oviposition we have a remarkable instance of how 
an instinct devoted to one purpose evidently assists the preservation of 
the species in another way. 

After apparently aimless fluttering round a bush, she finally settles 
on one of the larger branches and walks down it into the centre of the 
plant, and selecting a leaf-bad which is quite low down and scarcely 
visible, deposits her egg close by its side. In what stage the hot weather 
is passed I am unable to say definitely, but the advantage of laying her 
eggs low down in the centre of the bush is threefold. The young 
leaves which bud in the late winter or spring, first start from the lower 
stems; by placing them in a sheltered position they are protected from 
the fierce hot winds which blow with great persistence throughout the 
summer; and thirdly, and quite inadvertently, they are protected from 
the camels, which in spite of the formidable thorns browse down the 
plant almost to the ground when the scanty forage in the desert 
becomes still further reduced by the summer heats. 

It may be of interest to note that when finding a place in which to 
oviposit the female rotates the hindwings in the manner so noticeable 
in many species of the males of the Lycaenidae when at rest after a 
flight, and which has been presumed to be, and probably is, a stridu- 
lating process. Excitement is no doubt the stimulus in this case. 

ViracJiola liria is one of tbose interesting butterflies in which the 
sexes are differently coloured ; in this case^the male is a bright copper 
and the female brown with a bluish suffusion. I have seen no trace 
of red in any of the numerous females I have examined, and infer that 
the brighter colour of the male is a later development. In coloration 
and habits it recalls very vividly to my mind Zezius chrysonialliis, so 
frequent in old days in the neighbourhood of Colombo, The males 
fly vigorously round flowering shrubs in the full sunshine and the 
females are rather more secluded in their habits, but they do not, in 
any way, seek concealment, and the brighter colour of the male is 
probably an indication of greater and more active vigour. The larva 
feeds, as do other species of the genus, in the interior of pomegranates, 



64 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



and does considerable damage to the crop in Egypt, and is indeed classed 
as a noxious insect. In other countries it is usually considered a 
somewhat scarce butterfly. 

A butterfly very rarely taken in Egypt is Hesperia {I'l/ri/ns) evanida, 
Butler. I have already made mention of this in the Fhitoiiwlouist's 
Montldij Magazine of last year but cannot give the reference and have 
mislaid the notes I sent on the subject. [Vol. L. (xxv.), p. 174. — 
H.J.T.] 

I may say here that it is an entirely desert insect, and is, so far as 
I have observed, single-brooded in April. It is extremely difficult to 
catch as it has a rapid zigzag flight close to the ground, and is almost 
impossible to see in the flare of the desert. It settles with closed 
wings always on the ground and is very hard to make out amongst the 
rocks and sandy soil it always frequents. I have never found it far 
away from Conrolndiis lauatiix which I have no doubt is the foodplant. 
I may mention the curious fact that this plant has two sets of leaves, 
those grown in the spring being long, and those in early summer 
narrow and short. 

Note. — Bingham's description of the male of Pleheins loireii, 
BiitteijUea in India, vol. 2, p. 343, probably taken from Beluchistan 
specimens, is decidedly different from Egyptian specimens ; how far 
either agree with Zeller's original description I am for the time being 
unable to say. — N. M. 

Note. — 13ingham, Butt. Ind., vol. ii., p. 343 (1907), Lyraena 
lueirii, Zell. 

^ Upperaide. — A beautiful purplish-blue, changing in certain 
lights to deep blue ; veins of both fore- and hindwings jet-black, out- 
wardly very conspicuous. 

Forewing : Costa very slenderly, termen from apex to tornus much 
more brosdly and evenly, black. 

Hindwing: Costa broadly, termen a little more narrowly and 
dorsum broadly dusky black ; posteriorly the blue ground-colour 
between the conspicuous black veins terminates in each interspace in 
an intense black spot, that contrasts strongly with the duller black on 
the terminal margin ; outwardly these black spots are separated from 
an anteciliary intense black line by a slender edging of bluish-white 
scales. Cilia of both fore- and hindwings white, with their basal 
halves dusky black. 

$ Underside. — Brownish-grey. 

Forewing: A prominent cliscocellular, transverse, white encircled 
black spot; a transverse discal row of six comparatively black spots, 
edged very slenderly on the inner side, very broadly on the outer side 
with snow-white, the anterior five spots of the row placed in a slight 
curve, the upper four round, the lower spot larger, oval and obliquely 
placed ; the lowest posterior spot of the row also large, elongate, some- 
times composed of two geminate spots placed vertically under and out 
of line of the curve formed by the anterior five; these are followed by 
a broad, transverse, post-discal blackish-brown band, a terminal, 
catenulated transverse white band, each link of which is centered with 
a dusky black spot and an anteciliary, very prominent, somewhat 
lunular black line. 

Hindwing : A transverse subbasal series of four black spots, a 
transverse discocellular spot and a discal series of six similar spots, 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF LOWER EGYPT. 65 

the antenor five of which are placed in a semicircular curve, vertically 
below which the posterior spot, which is sometimes double and 
geminate, is posited out of line of the curve formed by the anterior 
five. All these spots encircled with white, which on the outer side of 
the discal series of spots entirely replaces the ground-colour up to the 
terminal margin. On the white area are superposed a transverse, 
post-discal, highly curved series of connected black lunules, a sub- 
terminal series of black spots, one in each interspace, and an anti- 
ciliary slender black line ; the posterior two spots of the subterminal 
row are inwardly edged with bright ochraceous and sprinkled with 
metallic blue scales. 

Antenn:^ black, the club touched with white apically and the shaft 
ringed with the same colour ; head, thorax, and abdomen black, with 
a little blue pubescence ; beneath, the palpi, thorax and abdomen 
white. 

Var. chanianica, Moore, J.A.S.B. (1884), p. 23. 

The S is slightly paler blue on the upperside, on the underside 
the markings, though small, are precisely as in L. loweia." — H.J.T. 

Note. — Zeller " List of the Lepidoptera collected by Prof. Dr. 
Loew in Turkey and Asia," his, 1847, p. 9. 

Lycaena loweii, n.sp. (Zell.). — Alis supra g laetissime azureis, $ 
fuscis, maculis posteriorum tribus aurantiaco marginatis ; subtus 
griseis punctis ocellaribus distinctis, fascia posteriorum marginali 
dimidia aurantiaca, maculis duabus nigris coeruleo argentatis. 

Zeller, in his notes, says, " The uppersides of the wings of the 
male have a deeper and more brilliant blue than has L. adonis : the 
margin is very narrow black ; the black scaling on the veins does not 
extend far from the margin ; on the hindwings there are traces of 
blackish spots between the veins along the hind margin. Fringes 
brownish, at the apex of the forewings whitish. 

The undersides of the males powdered light gray." — H.J.T. 



Addendum to Mr. A. J. Fison's Note on Loweia (Chrysophanns) 
amphidamas, Frey. 

By LILIAN M. FISON. 

Loweia (Chrysophanus) ampliidamas has apparently become scarce at 
Caux latterly. A visit to and beyond Caux on May 31st, 1918, resulted 
in nothing, and two more in early June, 1914, proved equally fruitless. 
I hope other collectors may have been more successful in their quest 
of this pretty butterfly. 

One may say, in fact, that an outstanding feature of my two 
seasons' collecting — 1913 and 1914 — in several parts of Switzerland 
and Savoy — at least, as far as my experience goes — was the remarkable 
scarcity of " Coppers." Indeed, theonly timel found any Chrysojihanidae 
in anything approaching profusion was in the valley of the Arve at 
Chamonix, June 12th-21st, 1913, where Heodes [ChrysopJianns) rir- 
yaitrcae was swarming with Chrysophanns hippothoe, chiefly over fields 
of rye, the $ s easily out-numbering the J s. Both races were large, 
and, being quite fresh, one was able to secure a nice series. 

At Grindelwald, July 22nd-August 7th, 1914, these species were 
only very fairly common, even on the (sunny) slopes of the Faulhorn, 
behind Grindelwald, where Ayriadescoridon, Hirsiitina daman, Folyom- 



66 THE entomologist's record. 

viatKs phereteH, Brenthh pales, B. euphrosi/ne, B. selcne, B. auiathusia, 
Melitaea ci/nt/iia, M. matura var. icnlfensboyeri, Poutia calUdice, Coeno- 
nyinpha airania var. daridniana, C. sati/rion, Af/lais iirticae, Pieris 
rapae, with various forms of Erehia, many of which, alas ! still need 
identification, owing to necessity decreeing they must be left behind 
in Switzerland, swarmed always on higher rhododendron covered slopes 
right up to the summit, some 8,000ft. — and in fields equally beloved 
of butterflies around the Upper and Lower Glaciers, and in the valley 
of the Liitschine. 

Loeuia [Chrysophaniis) dorilis g I found unce in fields between 
Baugy and Vevey La Tour, August 18th, 1914 ; although there were a 
few J s at Charpigny during both seasons. 

Loiveia {Cliri/wplianiis) alciphron var. gordius was never really 
plentiful, even at Yernayaz or around La.Batiaz; and Riniiicia phlaeas 
I saw not at all ! male nor female. 

The seasons were, however, wet and sunless, except, perhaps, mid- 
June and part of August, 1914 ; as, I believe, was the preceding one, 
1912. 

One feels inclined to think that want of sun tends to produce 
scarcity to a more marked degree in particularly bright-coloured races, 
such as Chrysophaniis, than in darker ones, such as the genus Eiebia, 
species of which were numerous in some places, viz., aethinps and 
melawpus from Villars-Bretaye, and at Grindelwald, July, 1914 ; oeme 
and manto (not so common) above Upper Grindelwald Glacier; 
tyndarus, lappona (with ab. polltix), (jorye, and styyne on Faulhorn, 
August 1st, 1914 ; medusa and var, hlppomedusa between Bex and 
Charpigny, May-June, 1918-14 ; oeme on Dent du Midi with ceto, 
ligea, and higher, euryale, July, 1914; ceto (perhaps not very 
abundant) at Zermatt, June, 1914, etc. ; Satyrus herutione swarming 
with S. cordula all June and July, both years, at Charpigny, and in 
vineyards above Martigny ; most forms of the genus Pararye (Char- 
pigny, Lac Champex, Grindelwald, etc.); Coenonympha, most forms at 
several places, including the rarer tiphon, W. of St. Triphon Marsh, 
etc., and in lighter-coloured races as the genus Pieris, usual forms of 
which were plentiful everywhere, except daplidice, Anthocharis helia 
var. simplonia, smaller race than some, but not quite alpine, nearly 
profuse at Zermatt in early June, 1914; and var. jiavidior fairly 
common along the banks of the Gryonne (near Bex), 1914 — odd 
specimens spreading to the Charpigny rock. May, 1913, and Parnas- 
sius apollo, at many places most abundant (Finhaut, Champery, 
Grindelwald, etc.), although neither delius nor mnemosyne came under 
ray notice. 

This opinion is strengthened from the fact that on my return to 
England, at the end of August, 1914, Bumicia phlaeas was swarming 
to mid-September on the Surrey Downs between Guildford and 
Newlands Corner, the summer having been an exceptionally dry one ! 
Of course, Bumicia phlaeas is admittedly a commoner species in 
England than in Switzerland. It must, therefore, be with reservation 
that one argues — although one does argue it — that the theory of the 
sun tending to produce brilliant forms, and lack of it only dark, or 
lighter ones, holds good in this case. Especially, when, on the other 
hand, such highly-coloured butterflies ascertain species of Lycaenidae : 
Agriades thetis (bellargus), including ab. ? ceronus, Polyommatus hylas, 



ADDENDUM TO MR. A. J. FISOn's NOTE ON LOWEIA AMPHIDAMAS. 67 

Affriades coridon, Hirsntina danion : of An/;/nnidae : Anjynnis adippe, 
Argynnis atjlaia, T)n/as paphio : of CoUadae : Coliuft edii.sa, Colitts 
pliiroiiione : of Pai>ilionidac : Papilio iiKtchanii : and perhaps a few 
others, were, if not always plentiful everywhere, at least, quite fairly 
common in places (Charpigny and district ; Orsieres to Lac Champex ; 
Val d' Entremonts) in 1913; if less so in 1914, except at Grindelwald, 
July, 1914, where many of these species were most abundant. 

One doubts, however, if any theory' holds good invariably without 
exception, although at times, there may be, and probably is — as 
perhaps in this case — " something in it." 

If this theory be true, and one infers that it Diay be, then an 
interesting question arises from the preceding, viz: — Win/ shn aid sunless 
si'asons produce a scarcer race of Clirysnidianidn, than of darker butterflies: 
Krebiinac, Sati/ridae ; of iij/hter ones: Pieridae, Ant/irocharidae : and 
still more of hi(ildii-coloure.d flies such as the species of Lycaenidae, Argyn- 
iiidae, CoUadae, Papilionidae, cited above as examples / It is obvious, 
of course, that damp and want of sun affect all races of Rhopalocera 
more or less ; but it would be interesting to know why they should 
affect some, to so far greater an extent than others. 

liemg as yet somewhat inexperienced, I unfortunately neglected to 
hunt particularly for " foodplants " in the several localities where I 
found my " Coppers." This I now regret, as the presence of food in 
abundance or otherwise must have some sort of effect on a race of 
butterflies. At one spot, however, near Chamonix, I noticed common 
sorrel {Rumex acetosa) and golden rod (Solidayo virt/aurea) growing in 
the rye-fields which appeared such acceptable localities for hippothoe 
and viryaureae. 

However, even were there a scarcity of foodplants — as there may 
have been — which would account for the meagre race of Chryso- 
phanids, one has still to trace the cause of the absence of food heiove 
considering the matter closed. The cause, obviously, is climate. If 
sunless, damp, cold weather affects the flora of a district, as it 
admittedly does, and did in 1913-1914 {e.y., absence of fruit in the 
Rhone valley in 1913, owing to a sharp frost in April, lateness of hay 
in 1914, particularly in higher valleys, owing to a vast amount of 
snow, disease amongst vines and potatoes owing to damp at Char- 
pigny, etc.), then also in their turn the fauna dependent on the flora 
for their existence, must also be affected. Thus, indirectly, a sunless 
season would account for a scarcity in a race of butterflies as it 
appeared to do (at least, as far as my experience goes) in the genus 
Chrysopiuuuts, in 1913-14, which fact leads one to suppose, as stated 
above, that " Coppers " are dependent on sun for their existence to a 
more marked degree than certain species, belonging to darker or lighter 
genera than Chrysophanus. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Hemiptera. — In the January number of the Kiit. Mo. May. Dr. 
Bergroth shows that there are two British species of the genus 
Aneurus : A. laevis, Fab. [ — tuberculaius, Mjob.), and A. avenius, Duf. 
[Uteris of some authors). He states that avenius seems to be common 
in England, but that the true laevis is a very much rarer insect, 
recording specimens taken by Mr. Champion near Woking and others 



68 THE entomologist's record. 

in the Power collection in the British Museum, taken by the late 
George Norman, the specimens being without locality label, but 
presumably taken in Scotland. I have examined examples of both 
sexes of the insect I recorded as A. laevis from Chopwell, Co. Durham, 
where it occurred in great numbers, and find that it is the true 
AnenriiR laevix, and therefore helps to corroborate the Scotch record. — 
Richard S. Bagnall (F.E.S.), Hylton, nr. Sunderland. 



:]g^OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

Seasonal Notes. ^ — It is a pleasure to have to record that the last 
season was certainly an improvement on that of 1912 or 1913 from a 
micro-entomological point of view. One feature was certainly the 
abundance of that usually common species Plntella Diandipennis 
{cruciferariDii). This is one of those very widely distributed species, 
occurring even within the Arctic circle. It wonld be interesting to 
obtain a list of its foodplants, probably all belonging to the cruci- 
ferous order, and to discover whether the larva would eat Tropeolum 
like some of the Pieridae. One of the first species usually noted in 
the year is Cldmabache fcvjella, and this was abundant on the tree 
trunks at Richmond, Surrey, very pale specimens being rare. On 
April 2nd, at Wimbledon, Eriocrania iinimaculella was in fine condi- 
tion and plentiful, while E. ]iurpnrella and E. seniipurpurella were 
scarce. The newly-awakened larvae of Coleophnra ibipennella were 
common on the birches. On April 26th a darkly marked Tinea palles- 
centella was taken in the house. In May larvae of three species of 
Cerostnma, C. radiatella, C. parenthesella, and (J. alpella, occurred on 
oak at Richmond, where the larvas of Tortrix viridana, Pandemu 
ribeana and Cacoecia xijlosteana were doing a certain amount of 
damage. Here, also, two larv^ of Epiblcwa solandriana, and one of 
Cacoecia podana, were taken off birch. In the same place, on 
June 8th, while sheltering from a heavy shower, I saw, for the first 
time, a living specimen of Burkhausenia ricivifrontella. It was resting 
on a birch stem. The common Gelechia diffinis was abundant in June 
in places where sorrel grew in the turf. Cluysoclista linneella was out 
unusually early this year in the Avenue at Chiswick. It was a sur- 
prise to take, on June 17th, two Prays cnrtisellus off a small oak tree 
in the garden, for though there are some quite large ashes in Chiswick, 
this species has hitherto escaped observation here. So has also IHchro- 
ravipha sim.pliciana, but this occurred this year in July on a plant of 
Artemisia vulfiaris, which has been allowed to grow in the garden. A 
few hours were spent at Whitstable, June 25th ; my bag was one pupa 
off rose and one larva of Gelechia lenti(jinosella off Genista tinctoria, 
this yielded a very dark specimen and the rose pupa Tortri.r benjman- 
niana ! Gelechia pinijiiinella was out on poplar trunks at Barnes at 
the end of July, and later I found larvie of Nepticida acetosae on the 
common, a locality in which I had not noticed them previously. On 
August 28th, Tinea miscella was recorded for Chiswick for the first 
time. On May 30th a worn ? Tortri.r pronubana occurred at 
Chiswick, and some larvfe taken off a bay tree in August produced 
this species. Many others were observed on the wing, the last on 
October 18th. At Wendover, September 27th, the mines of Nepticnla 
amjulifasciella were found in leaves of rose in the hedges, at the same 



SOCIETIES. 69 

time, N. centifnlieUa was mining the garden roses in Chiswick, A 
week or so later the larvje of Coleophora arijentnla were gathered from 
yarrow heads on the cliffs near Brighton. As usual, the year's pro- 
ceedings were wound up with the capture of Tinea pallescentdla, but it 
was rather late, being December 14th, and the moth occurred on a 
lime trunk in a road instead of, as usual, in the house. — Alfred Sigh 
(F.E.S.), Corney House, Chiswick. Janiiavji 25tk, 1915. 



CURRENT NOTES AND SHORT NOTICES. 

We learn that Mr. C. C. Best Gardner, F.E.S., has entered the 
Admiralty Aeroplane Service. 

When last heard of Mr. K. G. Blair, F.E.S., was in Nq. 1 Con- 
valescent Hospital at Boulogne. 

Mr. P. P. Graves, F.E.S., is now in Cairo, having with some 
difficulty succeeded in getting away from Constantinople. 

Lieutenant Colonel Manders, R.A.M.C., has been for some time in 
Egypt with the British forces. 

Dr. Burr, who is taking up an appointment in Russia, writes from 
Stockholm. He says : "I am stopping here for a day en route for 
Petrograd, and find it strange to be m a neutral country. The 
hereditary fear of Russia inclines the Swedes, it seems, to sympathise 
with Germany, though ready to listen to reasonable discussion of 
pros and cons. I have enquired for news of enemy-entomologists and 
am informed that Dr. Horn is at the front somewhere as a Regimental 
Doctor; Dr. Speiser, who came to the Brussels and Oxford Congresses, 
is a Doctor of a regiment of field artillery, he was in the advance 
through Belgium, Aerschot, the Aisne and Ypres, and then moved on 
to Poland." 

The volume of IJritish lA-jiidojitura left unfinished by the late Mr, 
J. W. Tutt at his decease has now been finished, and is being delivered 
to the subscribers. It is vol. xi. of the British Lepidoptera or vol. iv. 
of British Butterfiies. We hope in a subsequent issue to publish a full 
review of this important work. 

It will be remembered that previous to his turning his attention to 
the British butterflies, Mr. Tutt had in vol. v. of British Lepidoptera 
dealt with about half the species comprised in the family Aliicitides 
[I'teroplid) ina). We have been unable to find among Mr. Tutt's papers 
any material relating to the second half of this family, although there 
must have been a considerable amount of MS. already accumulated 
with the view of completion. Dr. Chapman has an amount of 
microscopical and life-history matter relating to the remaining species, 
which would no doubt be at the disposal of any one who would take 
up the task of completing the section. The difficulty is, of course, to 
find the student who has time, enthusiasm, and opportunity to com- 
plete the monograph in the style of our lost friend, as the Rev. G. 
Wheeler has so ably and successfully done in the recently published 
vol. xi. with the British Lycienids. 



SOCIETIES. 

London Natukal Histoky Socuety. — October 20th, 1914. — 

DiANTHCECIA LUTEAGO VAK. BARRETTII, AND BoARMIA REPANDATA, BRED. 



70 THE entomologist's record. 

Mr. L. W. Newman, a series of var. harrettii bred from wild larviB and 
pupic from Co. Cork, and from South Devon, the specimens being very 
varied, and a few showing tendencies to melanism. Also a very varied 
series of 11. repandata including melanic specimens, very pale forms, 
and ab. convemaria, all from wild larvtB taken in April in the Wye 
Valley. Varieties of Psilura monacha. — Mr. A. W. Mera, a series 
of P. monacha, bred from ova received from Middlesborough, the 
original parents coming from Ringwood and North Kent. The 
specimens varied from typical to black, the $ s showing a stronger 
tendency to melanism than the 9 s. Agriades coridon from Herts. 
— Dr. E. A. Cockayne, a series of A. coridon from Herts, 1914, 
including a very fine ab. acmisijnf^rapJia and five fine ab. obsnleta forms. 
Abraxas grossui.ariata vars. — Mr. V. E. Shaw, five very dark A. 
i/rofisidariata bred in 1914, from some 2,000 North London larvte ; also 
a fine ab. radiata from Eltham. Mr. W. E. King, a fine series of 
varieties bred from North London, 1914. Irish insects. — Mr. L. A. 
E. Sabine, a fine variety of Melitaea aiirinia from Co. Sligo, also a 
remarkable Poli/oniiiiatits icarus having forewings and body <? , hind- 
wings 5 , on superficial appearance. Dr. Cockayne having examined 
the specimen with a microscope, said that though only a low power 
was available, he thought he could detect androconia showing that the 
specimen was gynandromorphous. Euchloris smaragdaria bred. — 
Mr. J. Riches, a series of /?. sixaraiidaria bred in 1914, including ab. 
ohsoleta, Burrows. EucHLoii cardamines pup,e. — Mr. H. B. Williams, 
two pupfe of E. cardanunea, one green and the other ochreous, both of 
which pupated on the same day, in the same box. 

November 'drd, 1914. — Exhibition of Small butterflies. — Dr. E. A. 
Cockayne, four extremely sufl'used forms of Rnmicia pidaeas from Japan, 
much darker than any English specimens. Mr. W. E. King. Aricia 
medon from Wendover, including an immense 5 , obsolete undersides, 
and one partly striated, also Cnpido minimus from Horsley, including 
ab. ohsoleta and ab. extrema. Mr. H. B. Williams, four Aricia medon 
showing obsolescence in the underside spotting, ab. striata underside of 
Ai/riades t/ictis, five specimens of Coenonymplia pa))iphilus ab. pallida, 
Tutt, from Herts, Rnmicia phlaeas ab. infra-radiata, Tutt, two ab. 
radiata, Tutt, ab. ohsoleta, Tutt, and an ab. caernleo punctata, Std., with 
pallid patches on the forewings, from Wimbledon, also a <? of the 
same species with left forewing almost entirely white, from Herts. 
Irish insects. — Mr. L. A. E. Sabine, a store box of Noctuae from Co. 
Sligo, 1914, including a remarkably fine series of Agrotis tritici, and a 
fine form of Epunda lichenea. Boarmia repandata from London. — ^Mr. 
A. W. Mera, comparative series showing the marked darkening that 
has taken place in the general facies of this species in the London 
district during the last 30 years. 

The Entomological Society of London. — Xovember 4^//. — Mr. 
Alleyne Leechman, M.A,, F.L.S., F.C.S., of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, and St. Hubert's, Main Street, Georgetown, British Guiana ; 
Dr. T. Miyake, the Agricultural College, Tokyo Imperial University, 
Komaba, Tokyo, Japan ; and Mr. George W. Murray, ■ Dirimu 
Estate, Bmaturi River, Daru, Papua, were elected Fellows of the 
Society. Reply to the Declaration of the German Professors. 
— On the motion of the President, a Resolution was unanimously 
passed associating the Society with the Reply published in the Times 
to the Declaration of certain German Professors on the respon- 



SOCIETIES. 71 

sibility of Great Britain for the War. Invitation to Entomologists 
OF the Allied Nations. — The Rev. F. D. Morice then proposed the 
following resolution: — "That all members of recognised Entomological 
Societies in the countries of our Allies, residing in or visiting this 
Country, be invited during the continuance of the Vv^ar to attend the 
Ordinary and Annual Meetnigs of the Society, and to make use of the 
Society's Library, in the same manner as though they were themselves 
Ordinary Fellows, except as to the right of voting." This was seconded 
by Dr. Burr, and carried unanimously. Isolated Colonies or Anthro- 
CERA (ZYG.t:NA) TPjEOLii, AND Parasemia plantaginis. — Commander 
Walker exhibited, on behalf of Dr. R. C. L. Perkins, specimens of A. 
trifolii and P. plantaginin showing the effects of isolation. Winged 
" Weta." — Commander Walker also exhibited, on behalf of Mr. Morris 
N. Watt, of New Zealand, a photograph of a "Weta " {Deinacrida sp.) 
fully winged, the species being usually apterous. Colias erate and 
HYBRIDS. — Mr, A. H. Jones exhibited a series of Colias erate, from 
Sarepta, and its supposed hybrids with C. hyale and C. ediisa. Meneris 
TULBAGHiA AND ScARLET Flowers.— Dr. G. B. LoHgstaff exhibited a fine 
series of Meneris tidbaf/hia, L.,a large and handsome Satyrine butterfly 
having much the appearance and habits of a Nymphaline. He said 
that Trimen called attention to the decided liking of tidhaf/hia for red 
flowers, mentioning yerine, Haemanthiis anthob/za and Disa cornuta. 
The Rev. G. Wheeler said that amongst the old records of Aricia medon 
var. arta.verxes, two entomologists published observations on the fond- 
ness of this insect for blue flowers. Prof. Poulton observed that the 
fondness of certain Pierids for yellow flowers might be accounted for 
on cryptic grounds, and further mentioned Prof. Meldola's observations 
that in some cases of British butterflies where the ? carried the 
J in flight when paired, the $ was the more brightly coloured. 
The Rev. G. Wheeler said that he had paid a good deal of attention 
to this point for some years, and that the result of his experience was 
that in the Lycaenids the 3' always carried the ? , while in other 
families, except the Hesperiidae, none of which he had ever seen in 
flight when paired, the $ carried the ^ . Speaking from memory, he 
could say with certainty that this was the case on the one hand with 
Pleheius ar(jus {ae(jon), P. ari/ijroffnoiiwn, Poli/oDniiatus icarns, Ar/riades 
coridon, and A. thetis, and on the other with Dri/as paplda, Argt/nnis 
adijtpe, A. aglaia, Pararge aegeria, Epinephele jurtina, Aphuntopus 
hgperantus, Cuenonyiiipha pamphiliis, Melanargia galathea, and the 
common Pierids. What had specially struck him was that he had 
never seen a single exception to the rule. He suggested that it was 
rather a matter of weight than of colour, the ? being generally 
smaller than the ^ among the Lycaenids, whilst in other families it 
was usually the larger, often conspicuously so. Mr. H. J. Turner said 
that in all cases he had noticed the ? carried the <? , but that he had 
never seen paired Lycfenids in flight. The President entirely 
endorsed Mr. Wheeler's observations as to the Lycaenids, having seen 
the 2 of various species carried by the S' ■ With regard to colour 
forming an attraction to the J , Dr. Cockayne commented on the fact 
that at Royston, where the J A. coridon was so scarce that every 
specimen was surrounded by half-a-dozen $ s, the $ s also pursued 
specimens of ab. scmi-si/ngrapha, vfhich. is common there, and whose 
blue colour renders it conspicuous and causes an approach to the j" 
in appearance. The proportion of the female forms of Papilio 



72 THE entomologist's record. 

poLYTES IN North Kanara. — Prof. Poulton read a letter on this sub- 
ject, written June 27th, 1914, by Mr. T. R. Bell from Karwar, N. 
Kanara, in Bombay Presidency. The male and female of Acr.ea 
cHiLo observed IN coitC. — Prof. Poulton said that he had received a 
letter dated October 6th, 1911, from Rev. K. St. Aubyn Rogers at 
Sagalla, near Voi, British P^ast Africa, giving confirmation of Neave's 
discovery {Knt. Ala. Mcuj., 1909, p. 171). Males of Ceratopogon 

MYRMECOPHILUS AND FoRMICOXENUS NITIDULUS ON THE HILLOCK OF 

Formica rufa near Bournemouth. — Prof. Poulton exhibited specimens 
and read a note contributed by Mr. A. H. Hamm. New Species of 
Rhopalocera. — Mr. G. Talbot, on behalf of Mr. J. J. .Joicey, ex- 
hibited specimens to illustrate a paper, by Messrs. Joicey and Rosen- 
berg, on new species of ( 'atastirta. Tbe following papers were read : 
— " Notes on the Life-History of I'lcheius xephi/nis var. b/cidax," by 
T. A. Chapman, M.O., F.Z.S., F.E.S. ; " Nol^e on the Manubrium of 
the ninth sternite in the male earwig," by Malcolm Burr, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.E.S., etc. ; " Tha Opisthomeres and the Gonapophyses in the Der- 
maptera," by the same. " On the Male Genital Armature of the 
Dermaptera," Part I. -III., by the same. 

November IStli. — Messrs. Harry George Champion, B.A., c/o U.S. 
Dept. of Agriculture, Entomological Bureau, Washington, U.S.A. ; J. 
J. Lister, St. John's College, Cambridge, and Merton House, Grant- 
chester; and Rev. James Waterston, B.D., B.Sc, 22, Blandford 
Road, Bedford Park, W., were elected Fellows of the Society. 
The President announced that the Royal Society had awarded the 
Darwin Medal to Prof. E. B. Poulton, a former President of 
the Entomological Society. Anthrocera meliloti and Parascotia 
fuliginaria from Camberley,- — Mr. E. E. Green exhibited two speci- 
mens of an Anthfoceia (Zi/gaena) from Camberley, taken August 
20th, 1914, which appeared to be A. meliloti : also a specimen of the 
rare Hypenid I'arascotia fidif/inaria taken at light at Camberley, 
July 21st, 1914. The President said that he should have named the 
specimens meliloti without hesitation, and Mr. Jones concurred. A 
remarkable Coliad. — Mr. E. B. Ashby exhibited, on behalf of Mr, 
Dickinson, a few butterflies from Hinterzarten in the Black Forest 
and from Pontresina. Amongst them was a $ Colias, which was 
regarded by the exhibitor as an aberration of C. palaeno. The Rev. G. 
Wheeler expressed the opinion that the latter was a hybrid between 
C. palaeno and C. hi/ale. It was afterwards pointed out by Mr. Hy. J. 
Turner that the antenna were dilierent, one resembling those of C. 
palaeno, the other those of C. hi/ale. Parasite imprisoned in the 
Cocoon of its Host. — Mr. Prideaux brought for exhibition a cocoon 
of Jjomby.T (jKerciis with the dead, shrivelled larva inside, together with 
the empty puparium of a dipterous parasite, which, with the wings 
unexpanded, lay beside it, imprisoned within the cocoon of its host. 
Butterflies from Central Spain. — Mr. Simes exhibited a series of 
A(jriadefi tliersiteti, Plebeiim sephi/nis var. hesperica, and Melitaea desfon- 
tainii from Albarracin, taken in the end of May and the beginning of 
June, 1914. The following papers were read: — "A Revision of the 
Mexican and Central American TelepJwrinae (Fam. Telephoridae) with 
Descriptions of New Species," by George Charles Champion, A.L.S., 
F.Z.S., F.E.S. " Descriptions of two New Genera and New Species of 
Mymaridae from Tasmania," by Chas, 0. Waterhouse, I.S.O., F.E.S. 



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Chloroform Bottle, 2/6. Insect Lens, 1/- to 8/-. Glass-top and Glass-bottomed Boxes, 
from 1/- per dozen. Zinc Killing Box, 9d. to 1/-. Pupa Digger, in leather sheath, 1/9, 
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L. W. NEWMAN, F.E.S., Bexley, Kent. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

The Season 1914 near Pollokshields, etc., A. A. Dalglhh, F.E.S 49 

■iiiewMjYmecoTphUons Aphides, Fred. A. Theobald, M. A., F.E.S 52 

A Reply to the Rev. C. R. N. Burrows, F.E.S. , G. T. Bethiine-Baker, F.Z.S., 

F.L.S., F.E.S 56 

Variation in the wing-markings of Tephritis flavipennis, J. E. Collin, F.Z.S., 

F.E.S. (With plate) 57 

Gynandromorphs and Sex, Wv- ^- ^'"'"^'■' -^•'^•'S 58 

A " Priority " Note, G Wheeler, M.A., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 60 

The Butterflies of Lower Egypt, Col. N. Manders, D.D.M.S. Egypt, F.E.S. . . 60 
Addendum to Mr. A. J. Fison's Note on Loiveia {Chrysophanus)amphidavius, Lilian 

F. Fiso7i . . . . . . . . • . • • ■ ■ • • • • • • • • 65 

Scientific Notes and Observations : — Hemiptera, R. S. Bagnall, F.E.S 67 

Notes on Collecting : — Seasonal Notes, A. kick, F.E.S. . . . . . . . . 68 

Current Notes and Short Notices 69 

Societies :— London Natural History Society ; Entomological Society of London. . 69 



Communications have been received or have been promised from Dr. Chapman, Dr. 
Verity, Dr. Cockayne, Rev. G. Wheeler, Messrs. R. S. Bagnall, Hy. J. Turner, C. W. 
Colthrup, G. T. Bethune-Baker, H. E. Page, A. J. Fison, J. A. Simes, C. P. Pickett, 
W. G. Sheldon, P. H. Muschamp, Dr. Reverdin, Dr. Burr, A. Tetley, Parkinson Curtis, 
H. B. Williams, C. J. Bird, F. N. Pierce, etc., with Reports of Societies and Reviews. 

All MS. and editorial matter should be sent and all inoofs returned toHy. J. Turner, 
98, Drakefell Road, New Cross, London, S.E. 

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with those they are sending to other magazines. 

Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata should be sent direct to Mr. H. E. Page, 
Bertrose, Gellatly Road, New Cross, S.E. 



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Practical Hints for the Field Lepidopterist, Tutt, 2 vols. 7s. 6d. 
Stainton's Manual of Butterflies and Moths, vol. 1. 2s. 6d. 
British Noctuae and their Varieties, Tutt, 4 vols. 168. 6d. 
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THE 




ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Edited by 

Richard S. BAGNALL, f.l.s., f.e.s. I T. A. CHAPMAN, m d ,f z s f e s 



T. HUDSON BEARE, 

u.sc, f.is.s., f.u.s.e 
Geokgk T. BETHUNE-BAKER, 

f.z.s., f.l.s., f.e.s 
M. BURR, D.sc, F.Z.S., r.r..s., f.e.s. 
(Rev.) C. R. N. burrows, f.e.s 



and 



Jas. E. COr.EIN, F.E.S. 

H. St. J. K. DONISTHORPE, 

F.Z.a., F.E.S. 

Alfred SICH, f.e.s. 

J. R. le B. TOMLIN, M.A., f.e.s. 

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APBIL Idth, 1915. 



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READ THE BACK Nos. OF THE 

Entomologist's Record & Journal of Variation 

(Practical Hints, Field Work, etc. useful for every year's collecting). 
VOL. VI. 

The TITLES of some of the articles are as follows : — Notes on Butterfly Pupa?, with some remarks 
on the Phylogenesis of the Rhopalocera." — Dr. T. A. Chapman, F.E.S., " Phytophagic Species." — 
Prof. A. Radcliffe Qrote, M.A. "Varieties and aberrations of Noctufe from Doncaster."-i/. H. 
Cnrbett, M.R.C.S. "The frenulum of the British species of Smerinthns." — G. C. Ohfiths, F.Z.S., 
F.E.S. "Eutlryas stse-johaniiis..' — A. Railcliffe Grote, M.A. " ParthenoRenesis or Agamogenesis." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.K.S. " Larvae." — /?«■!•. Gf. M. A. Hewitt, M.A. "Retrospect of a Lepidopterist for 1894." 
— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Generic Names in the NoctuidiE. " — Pror. A. li. Grote. M..4. " Pupa hunting in 
October."— J. Tr. Tutt, F.E.S. "Polygamy and Polyondrv in Moths." "The nature of certain 
insect colours."— TF.S. liidiiKj, M.D., R. Freer, M.B., J. W. Tutt,'F. E.S., Rev. C. R. N. Biirniti'x, J. Aiitlirion, 
Jun. "The Lepidoptera of Swansea." — Major R. B. Rohe.rtsim. " Caradrina ambigua in the Isle of 
Wight."— ^. J. Hodfjes. "The instcts of Bourg St. Maurice."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Orrhodia 
erythrocephala ab. glabra from Devonshire and comparison with (). vaccinii." — Dr. W. S. Riding, 
F.E.S. "Notes on Caradrina ambigua and C. superstes."— .7. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Entomology and 
Entomologists, being the Annual Address to the City of London Entom. Society." Notes on 
Aphomia sociella " (with platel. — W. P. Blockburne Maze, F.E.S. "Apterous females and Winter 
Emergence "—S. F. Studd, M..4., B.C.L., F.E.S., L. B. Prout, F.E.S. " Collecting Noctuidse by Lake 
Erie."— .4. RadcHfe Qrote, M.A. " Coleoptera at Ipswich." — Claude Morten, F.E.S. "Notes on 
Bombiis visurgioe." " Synonymic Not^s on Acidalia huniilata and A. dilutaria." — L. B. Prout, F.E.S. 
"The Lepiloptera of (Jresy-sur-.\ix." — /. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Apatura iris."— Rci' G. M. A. Hcwett- 
" Scheme of Classification of the Rhopalocera founded on the structure of the Pupje." — 7. A. 
Chapman, M.D., F.E.S. " Glimpses of Amerxan Entomology."-./. T^. Tutt, F.E.S. " The Genus 
Smerinthus." — A. Bacot. " Variation considere 1 biologically: Some notes suggested by the Romanes 
Lecture of 1804."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Wing structure."— J. Alston Mofatt. "On the development 
of sex in social insects " — J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "The British representatives of the Genus Caradrina."— 
L. B. Prout, F.E.S. " Habits and variation of Lithosia lutarella and its variety pygmaeola." — 
J. W. Tuff, F.E.S. On the gradual disappearance of Lepidoptera from Sonth-Eastern London and 
its neighbourhood." — C. Fenn, F.E.S. "A hunt for Neuroterusaprilinus." — 2'. .4. Chapman. lil.D., F.E.S. 
"On the development of pigment in Nemeobius lucina." — F. J BuclceU, MB. "The Maoro-Lepi- 
doptera of Keswick." — H. A. Beadle. " Varieties of Argynnis selene " (with plate). — S. G. C. liustell, 
F.E.S. " Hadenoid genera with hairy eyes." — Prof. .4. R. Oro e, 31. A. '• Zyga3na minos and its 
varieties." — J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Notes on the pupre of Castnia and Anthoebaris."— T. A. Chapman, 
M.D., F.E.S. Besides these articles, a large number of short notes are contained in every number under 
the follewing titles: "Scientific Notes and Observations," " Variation," " Notes on Larvre and Life- 
histories," " Notes on Collecting," " Current Notes." The reports of Societies are very carefully edited, 
and only scientific paragraphs published. The " Practical Hints " and " I'ield. work " for each month 
are quite unique. 

The entomologist who will read carefully through the back numbers of The Entomologist's Record 
will find himself better equipped for the further study of his subject than by any other means. 
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LEPIDOPTERA ROUND ABOUT SCARBOROUG«.\V 

Lepidoptera round about Scarborough; "^ " 1^10 

By A. S. TETLEY, M.A., F.E.S.V" *^ ^ 

It is just thirteen years since I left Mid-WalesTell'3fl|iihj '"^ 
Yorkshire, leaving a district almost unknown to the entomoTogist for 
one that has, at least in the past, been very much better worked. 
Glancing through my note books I feel prompted to set forth some of 
the more interesting records therein, in the hope that their perusal 
may encourage other lepidopterists to visit our country-side and help 
in its fuller exploration. 

The hinterland of Scarborough falls into three natural divisions — 
the North York Moors, which come close up to the town on the north 
and west, the ^ ale of Pickering, which runs east and west and 
approaches the coast just to the south of the town, and the Yorkshire 
Wolds, which bound that vale on the south. The moors and the 
valley are in the great Jurassic Belt, which runs from Dorset north- 
east to Cleveland. The rocks in the main belong to the Oolitic Lime- 
stone. The wolds, on the other hand, are part of the chalk measures. 
The Vale of Pickering is a broad alluvial plain, bounded on its eastern 
extremity by the marsh or " carr " land in the neighbourhood of 
Seamer, some three miles north of Scarborough. On the north side 
of the valley a number of little dales run up with the moors, nine or 
ten of them in some seventeen or eighteen miles. Well wooded and 
well watered, and sheltered from cold winds, these dales aftbrd the best 
hunting ground in the district. Next to them I place certain parts of 
the wolds, and hist in productiveness, but perhaps first in the interest 
of their fauna, the high moors. 

The butterflies are very poorly represented in the neighbourhood 
of Scarborough, but as one goes west towards Pickering, or south on 
the Wolds, they become far more numerous in individuals, if not in 
species. Auijiadefi sylraniis and Niso)ii(nles tai/es are generally dis- 
tributed, and Adopea fiava is locally abundant on the Wolds. Of the 
blues I have taken only I'dlymiimatiiH icaiiis and Aricia viedon, which 
swarms on the Wolds and near Pickering, where I have taken a 
specimen very near to var. salmaris. Callophri/a rnbi is a moorland 
butterfly here, its larva feeding on bilberry. I once saw hundreds of 
('. riibi at the bead of Beedale, resting on stunted mountain-ash trees 
growing among the heather. Chattendenia [Edirardsia) w-albnin occurs 
in Sleightholmdale, to the west of Pickering, and Haiiwaris lucina I 
have found in two localities, near Pickering and Helmsley respectively. 
Kiicldo'e cardaiiiivi's, very scarce near Scarborough, is common at 
Thornton Dale and further west. In all the dales Brentlm eiip/irns)jite 
and B. selenc occur, the latter much the comiiioner and extending 
higher than its congener. Artjyiuns ai/laia is generally distributed on 
the moors and wolds and in the dales. Of the I'anessidi, I'ancssa io is 
very rare. I have seen it once only, in Langdale in the spring of 
1912. Af/lais uiticae is common, the two Pyrameids occur frequently, 
and of F(d;/;ionia c-album. I have seen specimens taken at Helmsley. 
Among the Sati/riilae 1 have not so far discovered either Pararye 
aei/eria or /'. ineijaera. Hipjiarchia seiiicle used to be taken on the Castle 
Hill in Scarborough, and is on the wolds and near Pickering. Aphan- 
tnpux {F.nodia) /ii/pcrantiis is locally abundant, with ab. caeca and ab. 

April Ioth, 1915. 



74 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

obfioleta. CoennnipiijiJia tiplion is our most interesting local bntterfl}'. 
I have found it in two places on the moors, and searched for it, so far 
without success, at May Moss, where it has been recorded. A full 
description of one of these localities, with figures of the butterfly, is to 
be seen in Mr. Kowland-Brown's monograph in Fascicule VII. of 
Oberthiir's Ktiuies de Lepidopterolorjie comparee. Last of all, Melananfia 
(jalatlica was really abundant in 1914 near Cowlam on the Wolds. I 
turned it up there in 1902 ; this must be, I think, its most northerly 
habitat in the British Isles. 

I have not mentioned species of general distribution or others like 
Pleheiiia aef/on and (Jiipidn uiiuiiniis, which have been recorded here and 
probably only want working for to be found again. 

Of the hawk moths, Aniorjt/ia pojnili is our only resident species, 
and it occurs everywhere in and around the town. Afirius couvolndi 
and Sesia [Macrotjloftsa) titeUatariiiii turn up in numbers novv' and then, 
generally on the cliffs and sea-front. My clearwing records are two 
only : ^Ef/eria (Sesia) tifiulifoniiis and TrocliiUioii crabmnifuniiis {heiiihe- 
cifoiiiiis) ; doubtless the fault is mine. The latter is common all over 
the town wherever Popidua nhpa has been planted. I took a dozen 
and a half in three or four bright mornings last July from a small 
group of poplar trees in the Valley. Our Antlnoceridae are interesting 
because of the large forms of A. lonicerae which can be got in any 
quantity at various places along the clifi's, north and south of the 
town. Adscita (jcriion is common on Haugh Rigg near Pickering and 
also at Sledmere, and A. atatices in the marshes east of Seamer. 

Hijhifdiila prasinana is frequent; Nolo stii(iida rarer in Eainclift" 
Woods than formerly. Ni(daria inundana is common generally, but I 
have not seen a single member of the genus IJtIuma. On the moors 
one gets i^/flr/'i'.s/rt aannio, Paraseuiia {Xe}iiC()phila) jdantaiiinis, and I'hrai/- 
tiialiibia {Sjiilosoina) fiiliijinosa, as well as J\Iacrotln/lacia rubi, Ladocavi pa 
(jiicrciis var. callunae, and Saturnia paconia. All except the first are 
common. The cocoons of P. fidif/inosa are easy to find in the spring, 
spun up in the heather tops. The three last-named are really 
abundant, especially on the wide stretches of untouched moorland be- 
tween Newton Dale and the sea. Arctia caia is locally common and 
Cdsiiiotric/ie (Odonestis) jiotatoria I have never found myself, though 
larvffi were once brought to me. Leucoina saliciK turned up once in a 
friend's garden. I have other solitary records equally difticult of 
explanation. 

All the Hepialidae are here, 11. rellcda in swarms on the moors and 
hillsides, and in every variety. Cossits U(jniperda I once took sitting 
on an ash tree ; it is fairly general. 

Among the Drepamdidac, 1). lacertinaria occurs at the edge of the 
moorland above the town and D. falcataria in the woods with Cili.r 
(jlancata. Scarborough was at one time noted as a locality for 
P>lr.ranura bicuspis. I have found D. bifida and D. vinida, but so far 
not the other. We get several Xotndontidae, of course chiefly as larva', 
though I have taken LofduiptcDjx camcUna, Xotudonta dictaeoides, and 
K. drotnedaiiiia as imagines. There are certain groups of small aspens 
and birches here and there on the moors where one can be almost sure 
of getting larvct of the commoner Dicrannridae and Xntodontiflac, as 
well as Acronicta leporina, Ci/iiiatophora or, and other things. 



LEPIDOPTEEA ROUND ABOUT SCARBOROUGH. 75 

Year in, year out, I have sugared a line of oak-trees that crown an 
ancient entrenchment on the edge of the moors overlooking the town, 
a spot from which one can (or one could) see all the lights of the two 
bays, the glitter of the Spa, and far away the twinkling white and red 
of Flamborough. I have taken close on 90 species of Noctnae there, 
most of them common enough, but now and again there comes a prize 
among the host of Triphaena pronuba and Xylopliasia ))tono(/b/pha. 
The latter occurs in great variety, with a goodly proportion of all- black 
forms. One year Arpoti^ obscura turned up in some numbers. Xeiiria 
reticulata can always be counted on, though it is never common. 
A[p-'>tis [Li/cophotia] stritpda, abundant at heather bloom, also comes to 
sugar, contrary to Barrett's experience. We get a large proportion of 
the genus ?\(ictiia — A', castanea var. neglecta, N. baia, X. (/larcosa (some 
lovely forms), X. triampiliiui, X. c-iwp-Hm, X. stii/Diatica, X. brunnea, 
y. (laJilii, X. festiva, X. iDxbnma, X. plecta, and A', xantluiijrapha. 
Di/sch(irlsta snsjiecta is common at intervals. In 1911 autumn sugar- 
ing was very productive. There were literally thousands of Jniatlu's 
{Anrhoa'lis) helvola (nifina) of every shade of colour, and A. Utiira and 
AiiiatJics [Mdlinia) circellariswere just as abundant. Aiiiathes {(Jrthosia) 
macilenta and A. lota, A)iiat/us [Anchocelis) li/chnidix (pistacina) and 
Oiiiphaloscclis liinosa (both generally scarce here), the two common 
Xanthiae, Calymnia trapezina and Hadena jirotea were all there, and as 
these species began to go off, Orrhodia vaccinii and big Calocampa 
exoleta took their place. 

Another good sugaring ground is a small patch of sandhills some 
three miles south of Bridlington, at the point where once stood the 
village of Auburn. Tapin(»it(da ebpiii is there, to be taken best as it 
sits, after dark, on its food-plant. I have found there also Maiiiestra 
albicolon, Aurotis corticea, A. tritici, A. nijfricatis and A. ripae, Miana 
bicoloria and M. literosa, Xeinia reticulata and L'hariclea innbra, some 
in very large numbers. 

Heather bloom is worth working in August. Recently 1 have 
found Af/rotis a</athina not uncommon, and Calocaiiijia solidaginis in 
two or three restricted localities. This is the best way to take Xoctiia 
dahlii and X. castanea var. neglecta. Other NoctinB worthy of mention are 
Epunda liitidenta and K. lichenea, the latter on walls and rocks along 
the coast, Aplecta pranna and A. occulta (once only), Polia chi (abundant 
and with little variation), Ikisijpolia tcuipli (rare), To.cocampa pastinuut 
(on the cliffs, at Sledmere, Pickering and elsewhere), Viminia meiojan- 
tliidis, IJadena plauca and tl. adusta (all on the moors), and Celaena 
haivorthii (abundant in the "moss" beyond the Falcon Inn on the 
"Whitby Road). 

Of the sallow-frequenting XoctuiP, the best is Paclinvbia leuco- 
(/rapha, which is to be got in Rainclift' Woods. In 1902 it was fairly 
common. Taeniocauipa pop uleti one can find as larv;e, but I have never 
been able to work the sallows in its neighbourhood. 

I must not forget Plusia interroifatioiis, best obtained in the larval 
stage. But I recall one evening when, hurrying across the high moors 
to Ravenscar Station, I found quite a number of the moths at rest on 
ling and easily boxed. I know of no swifter flier on a bright sunny 
day. 

For the (deowetrae the best hunting grounds are the dales, and, 
close to Scarborough, Rainclift' Woods. In the early months the 



76 THK entomologist's RECORD. 

three Hyherniae are common ; of H. vmniinaria a large percentage are 
var. infuNcata. In April Lobap/mra carpinata is locally abundant on 
birch trunks and gives some pretty forms. In the early summer 
months the woods are well worth working for Astliena hhniieri, Vemisia 
ccuiihriva, Odo7itopera bidentata (with numerous dark forms), Abra.ras 
sylvato, three Eninielesiae [K. affinitata is very common), Hypi^i petes 
rube'ata and H. inipluviata, Me^ideuca {MelavtJiia) olbiriUata, and the 
like. The two pests are Xanthnrhd'e (Melanippr) uxintonata and 
]\Jalc)ii/drin (Larentia) didywata. CaniptoiiranDiia hilineata is nowhere 
common around Scarborough. I have taken it on Seamer Carr, where 
pretty banded forms occur. 

The moors afford certain species in great abnndance and varietj'^, 
such as K))iatin(/a atoDiaria, Kntephria (Loreniia) caesiata, hypKi petes 
ftircata (sordidata), Lyyris (Cidaria) popnlata and L.textaia. Rarer are 
Perconia (Aspilates) strigillaria (Seamer and Hackness Moors), Saidiuna 
hehjiaria and Xantlwrlio'e [Melanippe) tiistata. The pine woods are 
good for Cidaria imwanata besides the ordinary pine feeding species. 
In August, 1903, I took this species in great numbers and extra- 
ordinary variety. Twice Eiicosmia inidiilata has fallen to the net in a 
pine wood above Beedale, one specimen in each of two successive 
years. But a much stranger record is a single Bistmi hirtaria g , ten 
years ago, in Kaincliti' Woods, which I have worked very thoroughly 
without a second occurrence. Another moorland species, generally on 
the lower slopes, is Acidalia fuviata. Mid-June to the end of July is 
the best time for working moors with their pine and larch plantations. 
One can combine moors, plantations and dales quite easily in a day's 
excursion, going up, let us say, Beedale to its head, working east or 
west across the moors, and coming down another dale to the railway, 
or through Rainclilf Woods to Scarborough. In the latter half of 
July Cayton Bay ought to be visited for Giwplws obscuraria, which 
hides by day in holes and cracks in the boulder clay. UrtJiulitJia 
(Eubdlia) bipimctaria flies there at the same time. The cliffs are a 
good hunting ground, and I think it very likely that some of our lost 
records will be found there again. 

I hope at a later date to deal with the other groups (except the 
Tineidic). If any lepidopterist decides to come here, I shall be only 
too glad to place my knowledge at his disposal and, if he so wish, to 
act as his ouide. 



Aberrations of Argynnis aglaia and some other Notes from the 
Minehead District. 

By J. F. BIRD. 
Last season I had the extreme good fortune to capture two 
splendid aberrations of Aryyimis aylaio : (1) a 3 example of ab. 
rhaiiotta on June 29th, and (2) a magnificent white $ on July 4th. 
I can find nothing exactly like the latter described in the magazines. 
Of the aberrations of this species mentionad, the nearest approach is 
the "silvery-white" specimen formerly in the Clark collection, which 
realised £7 10s. at Stevens' {ride Ent., vol. xlii., p. 319), but judging 
from the illustration of that insect in South's Butterjiies of the British 
Ixles (pi. 61, fig. 3), my specimen is, in every respect vastly superior. 
The ground colour is white, slightly tinged with cream ; the hind- 



ABERRATIONS OF ARGYNNIS AGLAIA. 77 

wings the same except for a small area towards the costal margin, 
which is slightly suffused with pale tawny ; the thorax, the cloudings 
at the base of the wings -tnd along the costa of the forewings are a 
beautiful greenish-grey, while the spots are intensely black. Alto- 
gether it 13 a grand specimen, and as I regarded it before capture 
while, with outspread wings, it imbibed the sweets from blackberry- 
blossom, I must confess I suffered from certain nervous tremors, so 
afraid was I that I should miss it. To get within striking distance I 
had to. force my way through a deep ditch densely overgrown with 
brambles, but the capture of so beautiful an insect amply recompensed 
me for the numerous scratches received. 

ISati/rns seiiiele. — During the last two seasons I have sought for 
aberrations of this abundant species. In both sexes the variation of 
the marbling on the underside is considerable, as is also the extent 
and brightness of the orange-tawny areas on the upperside. Many, 
also, have additional " blind " spots on the forewing, between the two 
apical ocelli. I have also taken one of each sex without any ocellus 
on the upperside of the hindwings, and also' a ^ with only one, the 
upper, apical ocellus on the underside of the forewings. 

hlpinephele tithonns is another butterfly, abundant in this district, 
which varies a good deal in the number of ocelli present on both the 
upper- and undersides. I have taken several interesting specimens 
with from one to three spots on the forewings, and up to as many as 
four spots on the upperside of the hindwings. These also vary in the 
size of the spots. 

Xanthorhae iiiuntanata. — On June 3rd, 1913, my wife netted a most 
uncommon and beautiful form of this species. The forewings are pure 
white and, beyond the central fascia, the basal patch, and a row of 
minute spots faintly visible on the extreme edge, are perfectly devoid 
of any further markings or cloudings whatever. The central fascia is 
wide, greyish, and distinctly and broadly edged on each side with deep 
black ; central spot elongate and conspicuous. Hindwings, also, pure 
white with a light-grey central band, broadly edged with black, run- 
ning from the costa almost to the inner margin. Cilia on fore- and 
hindwings almost immaculate, the chequering only visible on careful 
examination. So much does the specimen differ from the type that I 
thought, when I first saw it, that something neAv had been captured. 
I ought to mention that it is a ? . 

In 1913, treacling, during September and October, was very pro- 
ductive, although no great variety of species turned up. The four 
kinds which were easily first in abundance were Ai/rutis se(ietam, which 
showed considerable variation, I'eii'drouia saiicia, also variable, Ajioyo- 
■ jilii/la Hi//r(i and Pldiiijophova iiieticnhmi, the last a perfect pest. Other 
insects attracted that autumn were A(p-(itis ijpsilon (common), Xoctiia 
c-7ii(/nini, N. riihi, Omphaldxcelis liinom, Auiathc'^ lota, A. mai-ilciitti and 
Cal(jc(uiijia exiileta. In 1914, treacling was practically a failure. A. 
seiiftiiiii, A. !/jisili)n and P. miicia failed to make any appearance what- 
ever, while only two A. nii/ra were seen. Often there would be no 
lepidopterous visitors at all to the treacled patches, and on the most 
attractive nights only half-a-dozen moths or so would turn up ! 

At light we have taken, amongst other things, Miltoc/irista uiiniata, 
Veiiias ruryli, Foecilocauipa jiojiidi, Macrothylacia riihi ( ? s), I'Jtcusia 
dictaeoides, Agrotis /mta, A. tritiri, Envois adiista, Luperiua [TItnlcra) 



78 THE entomologist's record. 

cespitis ^ (also a $ netted at dusk), Mamestra alhicolon, M. (lisHtDiiUfi, 
Miana literasa, Pachnubia nihricosa, Petilaiii/ia arciiosa, Stilhia anomala 
(also netted at dusk), Cabjninia <U [finis, Clcora lichenaiia, I'nchijoieinia 
hi/ifiocastanario, Anticlea nibidata, A. deiicata,Maleny/h is iimltistrii/aria, 
Cidaria siderata (and at ivy-blossom), Hupit/iecia venosata, I-j. li)iariata, 
E. siircenturiata, and E. sobrinata. 

Of other lepidoptera my father and I have met with in this district 
during the last two seasons, the following are perhaps the most 
interesting: Colias ednsa (occurred sparingly during August, 1913), 
Enchloi' cardainines (a fresh-looking J as late as June 29th, 1914), 
Celastrina anjioliis (earliest record, April 30th, 1914), Bitln/s ijiierciis, 
Ccdlophrys riibi (May 19th-July 15th, 1914), Pi/raiiieis ranhti (fairly 
common in 1914), Dnjas paphia, A. adip/ie, Mimas tiliae, Sesia (Mdrm- 
jllossa) stellatariiiii, Hepialiis hectiis, H. fiisconebiilosa (i-elleda), H. si/lviniis, 
yola co7ifusalis, Lithnsia cmiijdana, Arctia rillica, Sjnlosonia meiidica, 
L]/))iantHa nninacha, Satitrnia jiavonia, H<ibnis>/)U' derasa, T/n/atira batis, 
Chayaeasiiraiiiinis, (!aly)>iniaaffinis, PJryojdiila (jlandifera, Anarta Dnptilli, 
Protlij/iiinia riridnria, JioiiKdocha fimtis, Ph/nrochroa syrimjaria, Kllojiia 
j)r()sapiavia, Gnophos obscttrata, Biipahis piniaria, Chiasiiiia rlathrata, 
Boariiiia abietaria, Acidolia trineiiiinata, A. interjectaria [dilntaria), A. 
niarainepunctata {pronnitatd), A. snbsericenta, Xantharhoc galiata, 
Cidaria inniianata, Lyi/ris pnoiata, L. populata, Eiiphyia picata, Thera 
fi)iiiata, OrtJi(ditha rerrinata, (J. pliiiiibaria, Lobop/iora viretata, Eiipithecia 
pnlchellata, PL subftdvata, E. nanata, E. lariciata, E. indif/ata, PI, 
exii/iiata, PJ. tenidata, and Cldoroclystis conmata. 

I am afraid we have not paid much attention to larvae, but, amongst 
others, we have met with the following: Calhqihrys nibi, Ci'lastrina 
aniioliis, Pyraiiieis atalanta, Epineplide jmtina, Arctia caia, A. rillica, 
P/u(tfpiiat(ibia fiiliyinosa, Lyiiiantria iiKmaclia (elm), Dasycliira pudilmnda 
(walnut and lUrberis), Piniiea casta (from one case, attached to a grass 
stem, I bred an apterous J parasitic fly in July, 1913), Malacosonia 
)ieastria, Macrothylacia rnbi (swarms), Satiirnia pavnnia (common on 
heather), Acronicta ruiiiicis, Peridroiiia sancia (pupse), Mamestra 
[liadena) pisi, Mamestra persicariae, Dianthoecia capsincolo, Aporop/iyla 
nii/ra (heather), PJilof/ophora meticiilosa (mentioned because it is such 
a pest and even takes the place of .1/. brassicae in our cabbages), 
Panolis piniperda, Naenia typica, (Jiiciillia rerbasci (mullein), Anarta 
iinjrtilli, Pseuduterpna pruinata {govse), Perizoina fiavofasciata (decularata) 
abundant in the flowers of white campion), Lobop/iora viretata (buds of 
ivy-blossom), Urtholitha ceninata (mallow), and Eliipithecia linariata 
(toadflax). 



The Season of 1914 in South Provence. 

By HERBERT L. EARL, F.E.S. 

The following account of butterfly-collecting cannot claim to be an 
exploration, as I have broken no fresh ground, but as the period covers 
the whole season from the beginning of April almost to the outbreak 
of the war, it may offer some features of interest for collectors. 

My first object was Erebia epistyyne, and acting on Mr. Wheeler's 
advice to be early in the field, my wife and I made Aix-en-Provence 
our base from April 6th to the 25th. Then followed ten days at 
Avignon, from which centre we worked Pont du Gard. May 4th to 



THE SEASON OF 1914 IN SOUTH PROVENCE. 79 

the 14th saw us on the Riviera, and the latter half of the month was 
passed at Nice. A fortnight at St. Martin Vesubie took us back almost 
to winter, then came ten days in the milder climate of Annot, and on 
June 28rd began four weeks at Digne, which brought the season to a 
close. In 1911, I had worked Digne from May 16th to June 12th, 
and I was much interested in picking up the season there where I had 
left it. 

With the exception of the fortnight at St. Martin Vesubie, the 
weather was excellent throughout, bright hot summer from the very 
first, and at Digne the afternoon thunderstorm, which seems a feature 
in the day's weather, never interfered with the morning's work. 
During the whole of the sunny stay at Nice, masses of clouds brooded 
over the Maritime Alps, and when we trained up to St. Martin we 
simply went under them and into an English April at its worst, and 
the change was equally great when we came on to Digne and the July 
of South France. On the whole the season was decidedly early. 

On April 6th we passed streams of Pieris brassicae and P. rajme 
along the embankments and cultivated fields, as our train did its twelve 
miles an hour from Marseilles towards Aix, and on the 7th I began 
work round Cesar's Tower in quest of E. einstyiine. The mistral 
was blowing strongly, but I managed to put up four fresh specimens ; 
a single (rlaiicoiifii/che )iielanops, and two very fresh GoRepterijA- deopatra 
were tha only other signs of life on this barren and and hill. Lower 
down Anthdc/iaris belia and Pontia dajdidice var, hellidice, were begin- 
ning to appear, also CuUas edasa, Paraiye meijaera and P. aei/eria, 
Goncjiteri/.v rhannii and Eucldo'e canlaniines. There is a great charm to 
my mind in early collecting in Provence. There is no bewildering 
profusion of insects, but everything is fresh and worth looking at, and 
there is the hourly interest of seeing new species emerge, and the feel- 
ing that one is adding five weeks to the English collecting year. 

The wind was still too strong for Krebia eiiistij(jne on the 8th, but 
Lepto.sia ninapis, Colias lnjale, and Pajiillo podaliiins appeared. The 9th 
was a calm day at last, and a good series of PL episUjipie resulted, males 
and females almost equally divided. The only Lycaenidae about were 
G. nielaudps and Sculitantides baton, the latter the smallest butterfiy I 
have ever seen, much less than the average size of Cupido iiiinintuii. On 
the 11th we tried another hill, the Gallifet estate, for Anthocharis belia 
var. belU'zina, but nothing appeared except L. ninapk and G . welanops, 
the latter not abundant, but spread evenly over the district, all males in 
fine condition. Lower down I also took Eripivu altheae and E.alceae, 
and a very fine dark form of limincia pidaeas. Several Polyyonia eyea 
were seen, settled on walls, but in very bad repair. 

Of hybernated species, Pyriimeis cardiii was everywhere in force, 
and continued so throughout the summer. 1 had already noticed 
Papilio iiiac/i(tn)i, Hesperia nidlvae, CoeiionyDijiha paDip/iiliix, Pidyoni- 
Hiatus icanis [aliwis), Celastrina aryialiis and CaWiphrys nibi, or 31 
species up to April 11th. 

On returning from a useless search over the Gallifet ground on the 
13th, I noticed some small whites on the high road, and found them to 
be Ant/ioc/iaris belia var. belUzina, though I could not trace them to any 
likely breeding ground, but on the next day, passing the open gate of 
an abandoned oliveyard, I noticed three small buttertiies just inside, 
and arrested them on suspicion. They proved to be var. bellezina, 



80 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

Li'jitosia (liij)oncheli, and G. inelanops. It was such a plainly desirable 
neighbourhood that we spent the whole daj^ there, and indeed several 
days, patrolling the delightfully neglected terraces in a space of less 
than two acres. The result of the day was nine var. bellezina, five /.. 
clKjioncheli, and several G. melanops, Knchlo'c euplienoides, and Melitaea 
cinxia. 

April 15th was the best day of the whole month. Twenty-six 
species w'ere on the wing, including a good number of A. helia, P. 
(lajiliiUce var. helUdice, P. hrannicae, very large, with P. rapae and P. 
7iajti, L. si)iaj)is and L. dujioncJiAi, the latter nearly all males, a few 
P. pH)ilalirit(x, and P. macJiaoii drying its wings, and when G. clenp)atra 
sailed in about ten o'clock, attended by G. rhaund, E. euplienoidea and 
E. caidainines, the effect was a brave show of brightness and colour. 
E. eplsti/ifue had now entirely disappeared from Ciesar's Tower Hill, 
but could still be taken, strange to say, in good condition in a deserted 
stone quarry at the level of the plain. Why are these quarries, with 
nothing apparently but grass and stone, so often the pick of the dis- 
trict ? The following week saw little development, except that Glauco- 
psi/cJie cyllarns was relieving G. mdamips, L. diiponcheli disappeared, 
and Pararge macra and MelcDwri/ia s>/lliits were seen. 

On the 27th we trained from our new headquarters, x\vignon, to 
Kemoulins, and walked on to Pont du Gard, to which I was kindly 
directed by Mr. Rowland-Brown. It was a fine opportunity for com- 
bining the study of ancient masonry and modern Rhopalocera, and a 
day to be remembered. While crossing the bridge an excited young 
German called my attention to a shoal of big fish, three or four pounds 
in weight, and possibly char from the red underneath ; he was clearly 
an angler, and distressed, as I was myself, at seeing such grand fish 
swimming about with no one to attend to them. Over the bridge we 
came to a public notice board with three lines, "defense de fuiner," 
" defense de chasser," and lastly, " defense d'entrer ; " taking this as a 
permit, we entered, but found little within except groups of C. )iiini)nus 
and a few Aricia medon {astrarchc). The really productive ground was 
a sandy waste between the only private house (a staring villa with 
pompous gates) and the restaurant. Here Thais )iiedesicaste was out in 
splendid form, with almost everything seen at Aix, except E. cjdsti/gne 
and var. bellezina. Up to the 27th I had taken or noticed forty-two 
species. 

The 28th was spent at Orange, not with the idea of collecting, but 
of viewing the Roman triumphal arch and amphitheatre, and of course 
we climbed the hill close to the town where stand the remains of the 
little fort of William III., destroyed by orders of Louis XIV. This 
hill was literally fluttering with A. helia and E. euplienoides and the 
Pierids, in fact I never saw so many of the first two in one spot. The 
local goats were evidently not allowed among the flowers of this 
charming spot. 

On the 30th, at Aries, when walking round the Arena, besides 
three black bulls, fated to be baited {a iiioit) to make a Proven9al 
holiday on the following Sunday, I noticed P. brassicae in numbers 
around the chicory and mallows growing in the joints of the stone 
work. 

After five days interval. May day saw us again at Pont du Gard. 
Six species had emerged, Aporia crataegi, Loiveia alciphrun \B.r. (joidius, 



THE SEASON OF 1914 IN SOUTH PROVENCE. 



81 



Liwenitis Camilla, Pontia daplidice, A. helia var. ausnnia, and last and 
least, a single specimen of fjesperia sidae. I had no idea of seeing H. 
sidae, and merely netted it to welcome the first Heaperia carthami of 
the season. (This is why a beginner who catches everything within 
his radius of action, takes the prize of the day.) My earliest date for 
its appearance in 1911 was May 8th. This, of course, took us to the 
same place next day, when careful search resulted in two more H. sidae. 
Liiiienitis Camilla was now very common over a very limited area of 
ground. Speaking of L. Camilla, this species accompanied me on the 
wing for six months, during an extended tour in 1911. It began at 
Carqueiranne on April 25th, became very common at Plan du Pont 
till the middle of May, and emerged at Digne in June ; on the 18th of 
that month it began at Martigny, Hew during July, and finally on my 
return from a mountain campaign at Simplon and Saas Fee, a second 
brood, feeble in size and numbers, was ditting about on the cliff walk 
near Vernayaz until September 12th. 

Arriving at Costebelle, May 4th, the manager met us with the 
.announcement that he was closing the hotel on the 7th, a thing he 
might have told us before, as half a day was wasted in hunting up 
new quarters. The hotel season at Hyeres seems to be closing earlier 
than in former years, and we were only able to find accommodation 
for a week, because an invalid was too ill to be moved, and so kept 
the hotel open. At Costebelle I had the pleasure of meeting Mr. G. 
H. Gurney, and we agreed to beat up the quarters of H. sidae on the 
6th, at the place where I had taken my one specimen three 3-ears 
before. Of course, I fondly imagine this spot is my own corner, but 
it is probably well known to every resident and visiting collector at 
Hyeres. H. sidae kept the appointment, and we each returned with 
a fair series in mint condition. They were extremely active in flight, 
and it was hopeless to pursue them on the wing, fortunately they were 
much given to alighting on a yellow hawk-weed and the white cistus, 
with wings outspread. The only other skipper was TJn/melicus acteon. 
A single worn Tltais pohj.vena var. cassandra fell to me, and my wife 
found a splendid variety of the large form of Brent his euiiltrosi/ne, 
fresh from the chrysalis. The spaces between the nervures towards 
the base of the upper wings are filled in with black, much more so on 
the right wing than on the left. 

On the 7th, following Mr. Gurney's instructions, I took Kpinejdiele 
jiasijihae near the cemetery. The 8th was a typical Rhone Valley day, 
cloudless, as we trudged along the hot walk to Plan du Pont ; then 
the sun went in, and nothing could be done. On the 10th we found 
the ridge which divides Plan du Pont from Hyeres flying the red flag, 
and rifle practice in full swing, so we gave JrJ. sidae a day off, and 
found /'.'. pasip/iar swarming up the hillside to within a yard of the 
top ; here it ceased abruptly, as it requires a hot southward slope. It 
was not in evidence flying on the ground, but two or three could be 
put up out of every prickly shrub as we brushed against them. They 
were all in perfect form, females nearly as abundant as the males, 
and a collector of the " destroyer class " could easily have taken three 
hundred in a day. 

At La Valette, on the 12th, I noticed two H. sidae in separate 
localities, one or two E. pasipliac in a stone-quarry, also Aijriades 



82 THE entomologist's record. 

adonis, or hellaryus, or thetis, or whatever new flag that harassed insect 
may be flying. 

The 14th was spent in moving on to Nice, and a visit next day to 
the Vallon Obscur once more revealed a single H, sidaf. The place 
struck me as combining all possible objections in a collecting ground ; 
it is too populous, too shut in and damp, and except at the bottom of the 
gorge, fenced in and unworkable, and lastly, very little to be seen. 
The Vallon des Fleurs was equally free from flowers and butterflies, 
and a walk up the stony Montboron resulted in Melananiia si/lUus 
alone. 

On the 19th, braving the clouds which lay low on the horizon over 
the Maritime Alps, we left a peifect day at Nice, and trained up to 
La Vesubie for the day. Half-way up we ran under the clouds and a 
violent thunderstorm burst upon us just as we arrived, and lasted until 
the arrival of our returning train ; half-way down, we cleared the- 
clouds, and found Nice in perfect sunshine, and were told it had been 
so all day. The " Cote d'Azur " is a real thing. Two days later we 
agam made the attempt and were rewarded by a fine day. A walk of 
five miles to La Mescla was more remarkable for romantic scenery than 
for Lepidoptera. The Gorge was narrow, only space enough at the 
bottom for the torrent, the rail, and our road : the sides, of smooth 
slaty rock, rose in some places over a thousand feet, sometimes sheer, 
at others overhanging the road, which tunnelled through it. Melitaaa 
deiune and L. alcijihron var. t/orditis were out, and Pohiiionia I'ljea was- 
not uncommon on the rock face. On the 28th we took the mountain 
tram up to St. Martin Vesubie. This was of course very early for an 
altitude of 3,000 feet, and the thermometer dropped from 74° at Nice 
to 45° degrees in the bedroom, but I wished to begin the season over 
again, and compare types of the Alpes Maritimes with insects taken at 
Aix and Pont du Gard, also I did not wish to be at Digne until about 
June 20th, and was well content to mark time in anew country. The 
weather or climate was Swiss at its worst ; bright sun in the early 
morning, then a gathering cloud on the head of an evil neighbouring 
peak (Malvoisin it should have been named), that overspread the whole 
sky and wiped out the whole of every noon and afternoon for 
collecting, then a clearance, and bright suri from 5 to 7 p.m. More 
vexatious weather for a collector could not well be imagined. We 
arrived in sleet, and after two days tried a morning on the Boreon 
road. Few^ specimens were about, though there was a fair number of 
species, a dark and large form of HiDiiicia pldaeas, Erehia erias, Poly- 
uiiniiadis seiiiiaryus, by far the commonest blue, (t. ci/llanis, C. inininius,. 
and a number of Hesj>eiidae of the malvae group, which always remind 
me of the dictum of that authority who says, " the more elucidation 
of this genus, the greater the darkness," also a welcome reminder of 
the Khone Valley in the shape of Anthncharia sinijddnia. I think the- 
latter, ab. jiacidior, must have been unusually common in 1913, as I 
came upon a cleared space in a fir wood where it was abundant, indeed 
the only white, and almost the only species : it ranged from flaridior, 
with the yellow predominating on the under side, to a form in which 
the lower wings were almost entirely covered with dark green, 
June 1st was a fairly good morning above Venanson, for the first time 
groups of " blues " appealed on the road, A'ln'ades thctis {adonis), G^ 
cyllarni;, and C uiinimus, also Melitaea auiinia var. /inirincialis, and 



THE SEASON OF 1U14 IN SOUTH PROVENCE. 83 

M. deidUi'. I was glad to take five FJrynnis altheae in a corner of a bank 
on the way up, large and just out, also Coenunnwplui an-ania, the only 
specimen seen in the district, but it made up for its scarcity by its size, 
being 42 mm. in expanse. The land is very much enclosed and fenced 
off, and where open, the goats had utterly destroyed all iiowers, and 
often pulled up the plants by the roots. 

From very bad the weather now became daily worse, and on the 
12th we travelled down in pouring rain to Annot, where ten days were 
spent in exploring a most interesting district, though I felt I was 
leaving just as it was beginning to be productive. We had now dropped 
265 metres, leaving the rigorous June of St. Martin, and butterfly 
life was everywhere more in evidence. On the 13th a very large form 
of Foli/oiiiijiatiis aiiuniila appeared, contrary to its custom, on a dry 
hillside, together with Lijcaena avion and Cupido sebius. On the 16th 
I took a small Theclid flying over a stunted sloe bush, and which I 
identified as Nonlniannia acaciae ; it was very fresh, and had a dark 
purple sheen in the sunlight. Next day 1 again took N. acaciae, and 
for several daya I found one at the same spot and nowhere else ; the 
district was not more than four yards by two. On the 19th Brentliis 
dajilnw, Anji/unis ai/laia, and A. adi/ipe were flying, and Xi)ydiiia)inia 
(7/c/.s- and Kliujia njiini, and a small breed of Puh/diiniiatKs csc/wri were 
to be taken on the privet. 

While working for A', acaciae we were hailed by a farmer, on whose 
land we were walking, not to order us oft', but to insist on our accepting 
a tin of large strawberries, just picked, with the flavour of the sun 
upon them. Annot is a pleasant district for collecting and I hope to 
visit it again. 

On the 23rd we travelled down to Digne. Though only 110 metres 
lower, it was like stepping from spring into thehottest summer. The 
first afternoon was devoted to a visit to a little gorge leading from the 
Eaux Chaudes road, which I had seen crowded with Kveres anjiades 
and C. sebnis on the Goiista in 1911. Just as we emerged from that 
alley with the strange device, " Rue de Paradis," Ajiatura ilia was 
taken, flying along the road, almost the only one I saw. At the 
entrance to the gorge was a group of privet bushes m blossom, swarm- 
ing with A', .yiini and X. ilicift. 1 never saw any of the family in such 
profusion, except Bit/n/s qncrciis in the New Forest in 1888. Next to 
these in abundance came lirenthis daphne and Mela)iar(iia tjalathea, 
with a sprinkling of ab. leucDinelas. C. arcania was abundant and past 
its best. Among the A', Hpini I took a variety in which the light streak 
underside is enlarged to a broad band. 

On the 2oth I worked the fiats by the river on the Eaux Chaudes 
for Hir.siitina adnietiis, but the lavender was not yet in full bloom. 
Coenoni/iiijilia donis appeared on the 26th on the Les Dourbes road ; 
this insect has a peculiar partiality for hot dry places, without water or 
vegetation ; Hmnicii jddacas, too, was found on sand too hot to touch, 
it seemed to prefer the Brusquet road, which I consider the one barren 
region out of Digne. That part of the Dourbes road which I will call 
the " narrows," was difficult of approach, a steep rock on the left, on 
the right a farmhouse, and a big mongrel left in charge, who held the 
road against all comers and flew at us each time we passed, and waited 
for us till we returned. The French were invariably kind and courteous 
to us, but their dot's never understood what I said to them, and took me 



84 



THli ENTOMOLO(iISTS KKCOKD. 



for a " maudit Teuton." The Satyrids began on the tilth with Satynis 
lu'i-inioHi', beautifully irridescent and large, quite putting into the shade 
its humble relative — .S. alcijnne of Martigny and lirigue. The latter 
always settled upon the bare road like Hijijianhia xemele, giving chance 
after chance to take it, even alighting upon my clothes, while ^\ 
heniiione never left the wooded gorges, and preferred the tree trunks. 
Thus far I had only seen three Pajiilia ahwaimr, and was told that a 
local innkeeper was exterminating the larva? in its best district, so it 
seems in a fair way to be stamped out. 

On July 2nd 1 took a single Hirsittina ailnictiis on a half-opened 
lavender blossom, also Sati/rus circe and Laeusojiis roboris. The heat 
was now intense, butterflies were flying at 6 a.m., and soon after ten 
o'clock they nearly all ceased flying, and took shelter under the trees. 
I noted that in the great heat of September, 1911, at Martigny, they re- 
appeared about four in the afternoon, when the t^un had set behind the 
mountains, and flew on till six. On the Dourbes Road the crop had 
been gathered from a large cherry tree, leaving single fruit here and 
there, bursting and rotting in the sun, and whenever we passed, a 
score or more of S. circe, 8. heniiinne, and very large hi. scinele would 
fly out, to return as soon as we had left. The new brood of /'. eyea 
appeared on the 4th, and on revisiting the roboris spot I was fortunate 
enough to take five, three being females in fine condition, also three 
N. acaciac, which I did not expect, on some dwarf sloes on the same 
ground. Faniassjim apollo were very common, I counted eighteen at 
once, soaring up the slope, and those that I sampled were larger than 
the specimens from the Rhone Valley. A single Siiti/rn.s actaea was 
caught on the 7th. .S'. cordula had been well out for ten days, very 
fine and large. No H. admctus had appeared since the one taken on 
the 2nd, but on the 5th they emerged on the flat opposite the Eaux 
Chaudes, and I took nine at rest on lavender on a cloudy afternoon. 
On the 10th, at Les Dourbes, I turned up some very large Bitlnjs 
qtterciis, Epinephele tithonits, and a female N. circe, measuring 87mm., 
also a flne series of S. henirinue. Returning, we crossed the valley 
and came up on to the Eaux Chaudes road, where my wife called me 
to look at a new butterfly. She does not herself collect, but from 
experience I never fail to hurry to the spot when any novelty arrests 
her attention. On the top twig of a high bramble overhanging the 
road I could see against the sky the unfamiliar outline of the upper- 
wing of Libythea celtis. It was quite inaccessible, but after many 
attempts I threw some dust over it, and it flew lower down and into 
my net. it was evidently fresh out that morning. No others were 
visible, and a long wait at the spot was in vain, but when I passed the 
place two hours later, there was L. celtis on the same twig. I have 
often noticed this demand and supply habit in butterflies ; the loss is 
not repaired while you wait, but if you pass over the place the next 
day there is another. " Uno avulso, non deficit alter." One of the 
greatest moments of pleasure for a collector is to see and take for the 
first time a species which he has only seen in books or museum collec- 
tions. I took eight L. celtia in all at different dates on the same 
bramble on the same twig. Then came a violent hailstorm, with the 
afternoon thunder, which knocked the blossom, already pink, to pieces, 
and I never saw L. celtis again. 

The 13th saw the first Pohjcnnmatus ineleai/cr on the Dourbes road, 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 85 

and on the 14th Sati/nis riilici was taken opposite the depressing 
bathing-place of the Eaux Chaudes. A hot tramp to St. Benoit along 
the right bank of the Bleone resulted in several male F. iiit'leai/er, one 
S. fiiiia, and my first and last ^'. brisei>i. The next few days saw 
nothing fresh to report. I have often noticed that a single specimen 
appears, as the advanced guard of a species, and not another is seen 
for a week or more, when the main body come on. I had come to 
Digne especially to get the Satyrids, and a few other species, and I had 
taken them all, with L. celtis, L. roboris, and xY. acaciae besides. My 
last note, written on the day of our arrival home, reads curiously in 
the light of recent events: "20th, Digne to Grenoble; 21st, Grenoble 
to Paris ; 22nd, Paris to London ; 28rd, Austrian ultimatum to 
Servia. Where shall I collect in 1915 '? " 



.^^CIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Agriades cokidon ab. roystonensis, Pickett. — In Tlie F'.ntinitohxiisi's 
Record, vol. xxvi., p. 275, appears an article by Mr. C. P. Pickett, in 
which an asy'mmetrical form of A. coridon is described under the 
varietal name "roystonensis." It will probably obviate considerable 
confusion in the future if Mr. Pickett will more precisely indicate 
which forms are included under this name. In Mr. Pickett's first 
paper [Ent. i^^-c, xxvi., p. 59) he refers to the exhibition of a specimen 
of A. coridon by Mr. Newman at the South London Entomological 
and Natural History Society, "a 2 specimen with asymmetrical 
wings, the smaller pair dusted with blue" {ibid, p. 25), and subsequently 
refers to the capture by himself and others of other specimens. These, 
he says, have " one side more or less dusted strongly with blue," and 
as they are " similar " to Mr. Newman's specimen one may assume 
that all have one pair of wings dusted with blue, and this pair smaller 
than the other. On page 60 Mr. Pickett says, "I . . . . can 
now total 48 females of this form, and have also seen a lovely asym- 
metrical male.'' 

There the matter remained until the publication of Dr. Cockayne's 
masterly examination of these forms in the Kiit. luc., xxvi., 221, in 
which, before describing specimens in detail, he says, " Last year . 
. . a considerable number of specimens were taken, whic-h had the 
wings on one side smaller than the other and a variable amount of 
blue scaling on the small side. Mr. Pickett recorded 43 examples in 
his paper in the Ent. Her., xxvi., p. 59, and doubtless more had been 
captured. The form has recived the name ab. inequalis." 

In my own notes, p. 272, I also referred to these forms as " ab. 
ineqnalis, Tutt," as I had previously done in describing Mr. Pickett's 
exhibit at the London Natural History Society (p. 212). Mr. Pickett 
corrected me (p. 260) though, as his name was not then published, 
and the specimens appear to come within Mr. Tutt's description {Nat. 
Hist. Brit. Butts., iv., 80, I do not think I was in error. In any case, 
if I sinned, I feel that I sinned in good company. 

Mr. Pickett says, in his recent paper, that Tutt " surely meant the 
usual form where the blue was either streaked or splashed on one side 
more than the other." This may be so, as no specimen similar to any 
of the "roystonensis" is mentioned by Tutt, and one is therefore almost 



86 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

justified in assuming that no such specimens had come to his notice. 
His description, however, in addition to repeating the description from 
his British Biitterfiies (1B96, p. 167), quoted bj Mr. Pickett, says, 
" Irregularity in the blue sraliiui is a not uncommon feature, specimens 
with one or even all, the wings irregularly and asymmetrically marked 
with blue scales, are frequently observed," which is surely wide enough 
to cover the present form, even if that form was not present to the 
writer's mind. 

However this may be. Dr. Cockayne has clearly proved these 
Eoyston specimens to be distinct from what we formerly knew as 
.ineq}(aliii, in strKctiire, apart altogether from markiivi, and this may or 
may not justify Mr. Pickett's action in applying a varietal name. 
This depends upon whether a form which differs from the normal in 
possessing sexual characters of the other sex, is properly called an 
" aberration," and is a question I do not feel competent tc discuss. Tutt 
admits {Nat. Hist, nf t/ir Brit. Butts., iv., 13) a suspicion that his 
ineijHalis are gynandromorphic in some degree, though it does not 
appear that he ever investigated them microscopically. 

I do not wish to use the columns of the hhit. lief, for the purpose 
of criticising the work of a fellow-worker (the paper would be more 
appreciated by the general entomological public if others exercised the 
same discretion), but I should like Mr. Pickett to give us a detailed 
description of ab. rnijstonensis, and particularly to say if the name 
includes : — 

{a) The male specimen referred to in the Eut. Bee, xxvi., p. 60. 

(h) Specimens with the blue scaling on the lanjer side. (One was 
recently exhibited by Dr. Cockayne at a meeting of the London 
Natural History Society.) 

(c) The small stjiiinietrical specimen with blue scaling on all four 
wings {Ent. Bee, xxvi., p. 275). 

(d) The asymmetrical forms with no blue scaling. (Ibid.) 

(e) The specimens I recorded {ibid., p. 272) in which there are 
■" blue sprinkled " areas, though the wings are symmetrical as far as 
size is concerned. 

If Mr. Pickett will clear up these points the specialist of the future 
will at any rate know what he has to deal with, and not have to guess 
at the meaning of the name. At present one is referred from one 
paper to another, but arrives at no conclusion. — Harold B. Williams, 
82, Filev Avenue, Stoke Newington, N. 



:g{^OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

Thaumatopcea processioxea, L. (Processionary Moth). — On our 
arrival at Pallanza, Lago Maggiore, February 11th, 1914, we came 
across a band of Processionary caterpillars, evidently going out, or 
returning from, feeding. They formed a line the shape of a right- 
angle across the path in the garden of Hotel Castagnola (south 
aspect). It was then about 2.30 p.m. — sunny, but cold, and snow lay 
in patches in the shade. 

The next morning, which was damp and showery, we again saw a 
few — possibly the end of another "procession." At the moment it 
was fine, although it rained shortly afterwards. 

The vegetation in the garden itself was distinctly tropical — but, as 



NOTES ON COLLECTING. 87 

fai' as one can remember, there was a clump of large trees, possibly 
oaks {(Jiicrciis), at the entrance. 

I see Kirby gives May and June as the regular months when T. 
pnn-esniiinea feeds [IhittcrtUes and Mollis of Eiirojie), SO conclude Feb- 
ruary must be very early for it. He also gives night as its feeding- 
time — but the hour, on this date, was about 2.30 p.m. 

It may possibly have been the next species described 'J'hautnatopoea 
pityocaiiifia, W.V. (p. 143), but the description of the larvie agrees 
rather with the former than with the latter species. 

" Thaiiiiiato})oea [CnetJiocanipa) jirocessionea, L. — Larvae is bluish- 
black on back, and wliitisJi on sides, with two small reddish -yellow or 
grey warts on each segment." 

" Thaiiiiiato/ioea iiitijurainjia, W.V. — Larva is bluish-black above, 
with a brownish-yellow transverse projection on each segment, and 
tcliitis/i beneath." {Cf. p. 142, liutterfHes and Moths of Europe, W. F. 
Kirby.) — Lilian M. Fison, Southcote, Guildford. 

Hibernation in a Church. — One Sunday during the morning- 
service in October last (1914), my father, Mr. J. H. Fison, observed an 
Ai/lais (Vanessa) urticae on a north window in St. Mary's Church, 
Guildford. This morning — Sunday, February 21st — I observed one 
on a south window of the same Church, which by the way dates back 
to the Conquest, and conclude from this that it v\'as the same insect 
which had spent the winter there. 

The sun was shining brightly, and the, window caught the full 
force of a warmer mid-day sun than we have had for weeks, probably 
bringing the butterfly out. It seemed a very lobust insect and fluttered 
energetically to escape into the sunshine outside, evidently not under- 
standing why a window-pane should be transparent and yet the barrier 
that it unfortunately so effectively proved. — Id. 

Hibernation of Vespa vulgaris 5 . — A "Queen Wasp" was found 
by my mother, hibernating behind a picture-frame, a few days before 
Christmas. She states it seemed attached to the wall by some sort of 
thread, after the manner of some pupa'. I do not suppose there is 
anything unusual in this fact — but as a locality for hibernation it is 
at least interesting. — Id. 

Records of Coleopteka for South Wales district. — During 
April, 1914, I was staying at St. David's, Pembrokeshire, at the 
extremity of West Wales. The country lies wide open. There 
are great stretches of rough moorland, large tracts of marsh, and a 
highly indented cliff line, with a small area of sand-burrows in one of 
the larger bays. The district is, I think, certainly a fine hunting 
ground for the collecting of beetles. The most productive localities 
discovered by me were a big stretch of marshland known as Dowrog 
Moss, a similar but smaller area round Trefeithan Pool, and the 
boggy bed of the river Alan, known as Merry Vale. The following 
notes of species taken in this little known district may be of interest. 

Carabid.t;. — Carabus arvensis occurred on the moorland, but was 
scarce; JJlethisa inulti punctata occurred on Dowrog Moss and at Tre- 
feithan ; Chlaenins niffvicornis, Stoinis puniicatns, I'terostiehus lernalis 
and P. uiinor, all on Dowrog Moss. Anvhotnenus viduns was abundant 
at Dowrog and Trefeithan; A. piceus far less numerous; Aniara 
anthohia was common on the burrows along with A. lucida ; Amara 



88 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



acuminata, Bemhiditnii ammile, Droiiiiiis nii/riventn's ; Anisodactyhis 
binotatiiH occurred on the cliff line. 

Dytiscid.e. — Af/abiis paliidosiis was common and far more numerous 
than A. nehuhmta ; Hj/droporus fiavipes abundant at Trefeithan ; H. 
nif/Hta common; H. Kinbrosiix, H. lituratiis, CoelawbiiH cnnfiitens, 
Bhantus nrapii. 

HYDROPHiLiDiE.— Among the Hydrophilidd were taken Philhydrns 
cnarctatus, Ochthebius bicnlnr and a single Paracymns niyroaeneus. 
Within the last two years I have found this last species in three 
widely separated localities in S. Wales. 

Staphylinid.?5. — Philiinthns splendens, P. niyrita, P. ayilis, P. 
viicans, Qiiediits fnlyidnii, Q. maurorufns, Q. scintillans, Staphylini(s 
caesareiis, Leistotrop/iux viurinnx, Lathrobiuiii qitadratiim and L. termi- 
natiiiii. Stt'UKs pallitarsis and 8. picipennis, were abundant in Merry 
Vale. 

Rhyncophoea. — J/>/o?i niarcJiiciim, A. siibiilatwii and A. hydro- 
lapathi, Fihync/iites DiuiiitiiK, Strnpho!i(»ifns faber, OtiorJnjnchiis atroaptenis, 
AlnpJiiis triyiittatiis was common in one meadow, and several speci- 
mens of Sitones cambricns were takn on St. David's Common. 

Other groups. — SiljjJta opaca, (.'arcinoj>s iinmina, Snbcoccinella 
24:-j)i(nctata, L'/iryxnniela bauksi, PJiyllotreta niyripes and P. atra, 
ManUira rnstica, Crepuhidera voitralis, Phaednn anitoraciae, Cassida 
fiaveola ; Melor jiroscarabeiis was very common on the cliffs. 

It may be of interest to add that last August I found a specimen 
of CriocepJialits ferns at Camberley. — J. W. Ali-en, 266, Willesden 
Lane, N.W. 



CURRENT NOTES AND SHORT NOTICES. 

His numerous English friends will be interested to hear that A. N. 
Avinov has been serving with the Red Cross in Poland, and has been 
through some exciting experiences in Lodz and elsewhere. He was 
in that tow i during the early part of the winter, when it was entirely 
surrounded by the enemy ; he narrowly escaped being killed by a 
bomb dropped from a Taube, while he was admiring its graceful 
evolutions over the very prominent Red Cross flag that was intended 
to protect the hospital. For a long time the town was entirely cut ofl', 
and the small garrison saw the enemy gradually closing in on them 
from every side ; A. N. Avinov witnessed the terrific fighting when the 
Germans attacked in mass, in entire confidence of victory, onl}' to be 
defeated and driven back with appalling slaughter by the splendid 
Russian troops, after five hours desperate battle. Shortly after that 
the town was relieved, and the twenty-five thousand wounded safely 
removed to a more secure shelter. 

On another occasion he was in a Red Cross train without an engine, 
when the enemy began firing upon them ; the doctors and nurses were 
obliged to get out on to the line, put their shoulders to the coach, and 
actually push it down the line; by these means they succeeded after 
tremendous efforts in getting their train full of wounded out of range 
of the enemy's guns. 

A. N. Avinov is now back in Petrograd , where he has recently read 
two very interesting papers, one on the subdivision of the Palaearctic 
Region, based solely upon the Rhopalocera, the other upon the 



CURRKNT NOTES. 



89 



/,oo.Q;eogi'aphical relations of Tibet. In the former he brings the 
Mediterranean Province right through the plains of Turkestan to the 
foothills of the great mountains of Central Asia, and includes only 
Morocco and Algeria, and Tunis in the African portion of the llegion; 
the Turkestan Province he confines to the north western portion of 
the great mountain system. Tibet is a well-defined province itself, 
with highly characteristic physical and faunistic features. The manu- 
script of one important paper, with a number of illustration?, was on 
its way to England, through the post, when the war broke out, and the 
precious parcel has disappeared in Germany, the unfortunate author is 
now engaged in re-writing the paper, which includes the results of his 
adventurous journey from India through the Himalayas and Kashgar 
into Russian Turkestan. — M.l>. 

ilussian Entomologists are doing well by their country. A 
prominent young Economic Entomologist, L. L. Kumberg, has fallen 
on the field of honour. 

Colonel A. N. Kaznakov, the genial and distinguished Director of 
the Caucasus j\Iuseum, Titlis, commanded a regiment of (Caucasian 
Cossacks in the autumn, and received three bullet wounds ; fortunately 
he is recovering, and is now anxious to return to the front. V. M. 
Isaev, a well known Embryologist, who was an officer m the Reserves, 
has been called to cne of the Siberian Infantry regiments. 

V. V. Bai'ovsky, the Coleopterist has a staft' appointment, and D. N. 
Borodin, also a Coleopterist, has a commission in an Ural Cossack 
Regiment, and has received two decorations for distinguished conduct 
in the field. 

A. I. Kiritchenko, Lepidopterist, is serving in the Medical Corps. 
A. V. Martynov, the well-known Trichopterist, author of many 
important works on that group, is a Reserve Officer in the Artillery. 
T>. A. Smirnov, Entomologist at the Imperial Demesne at Margab 
(Transcaspia), is an officer in the Turkestan Army, now serving in 
the Caucasus. J. P. Razilevsky, a young Coleopterist, has recently 
returned from the front. — M.P>. 

Dr. Burr writes from Petrograd : " I attended a meeting of the 
Russian Entomological Society the other day, and had a very warm 
welcome. A few days previously I attended a very interesting meeting 
of the Biogeographical Commission of the Imperial Geographical 
Society, and was elected a member. This makes me a Corresponding- 
Member of the Geographical Society. Our Hon. F.E.S., A. P. 
Semenov-Tian-Shansky, is President." 

The Spring Meeting of the South-Eastern Union of Scientiiic 
Societies will be held on Saturday, April 24th, when a visit will be 
made to the Zoological Gardens, Regents Park, We will remind our 
readers that the Insect House in the gardens is a sight not to be 
missed in the summer, and no doubt at the present time there are 
plenty of items well worth viewing. Tickets including admission, tea, 
guide-book, etc., can be obtained by all members of affiliated societies 
at 2/G each, from the Hon. Excursion Secretary, H. Norman Gray, 
334, Commercial Road, London, E. 

Mr. W. ]5owater, F.E.S., of Birmingham, is a Lieutenant in the 
R.A.M.C, and has just gone to the front. During his training in 
camp he spent some of his spare time at night in writing up some 
entomological notes, which we shall publish later on. 



90 THE KNTOMOLOGISt's KECORD. 

On Thursday, April 22nd, the South London Entomological and 
Natural History Society will hold its usual spring exhibition devoted 
to objects of all orders other than Lepidoptera. Friends and visitors are 
cordially invited to bring exhibits. This somewhat recent innovation 
has, on the two previous occasions on which it has been held, been a 
marked success, and must be a gratification to the Hon. Curator, Mr. 
W. West of Greenwich, at whose suggestion it was first held. The 
exhibition will be held at the Society's Rooms, Hibernia Chambers, 
adjoining London Bridge, South, and will commence at eight o'clock. 

We are preparing a Bibliography of books and articles in maga- 
zines in which the sexual apparatus of the Lepidoptera are discussed, 
figured, or form an integral part of the subject dealt with, and should 
be pleased to have our attention called to anything published previous 
to the classical contributions of Buchanan White and P. H. Gosse, in 
1876 and 1882 respectively. 

Parts iii. and iv. of the I'rausactions of the Entomological Society of 
London for 1914, issued in February, 1915, contain the following 
papers : — (1) A Reprint of Panzer's " Jurinean Genera of Hymenoptera 
with a translation, introduction and bibliographical and critical notes," 
by the Rev. F. D. Morice and J. Hartley Darrant, A most important 
paper from a priority point of view. (2) " New species of Lepidoptera- 
Hetcrdceva from S.-E. Brazil," by E. Dukinfield Jones. (3) "Notes on 
the Life-history of Fapilio de)iioli(iii," by Margaret E. Fountaine, with 
a coloured plate. (4) " Some remarks on the Coccid genus Leucaapis, 
with descriptions of two new species," by E. Ernest Green, with two 
plates. (5) " Contributions to the Life-history of FolyoiiDiiatoa eros," 
with sixteen plates (two coloured), by Dr. T. A. Chapman. (6) " A 
contribution to the Life-history of Plebeiiin sephjjnis var. lycidas," with 
six plates (one coloured), by Dr. T. A. Chapman. (7) " A Revision of 
the genus Odynerus {Hymenoptera) occurring in the Ethiopian Region," 
with one plate, by GeotiVey Meade- Waldo. (8) "On Hawaiian Ophio- 
ninae {Ichneu)iw)iidae,)" by R. C. L, Perkins. (9) " Descriptions of two 
new genera and new species of Mywaridae from Tasmania," with a 
plate, by Messrs. Chas. 0. Waterhouse and F. Enock. (10) Forty- 
eight pages of the Proceedings of the meetings. 

The Societe lepidopterologique de Geneve is one of the most virile 
of the smaller societies of the Continent. The annual Bulletin issued 
by the Society is more than a return for the small subscription paid by 
the members. The matter contained in its pages is of the highest 
order, and to say that the plates, at least four in each issue, are the 
work of M. Culot, is to say that they are as nearly perfection as is pos- 
sible. A notice recently to hand says that the Officers and Council for 
the ensuing year are as follows : — President, M. J. JuUien ; Vice- 
president, Dr. J. L. Reverdin ; Treasurer, M. H. Gallay ; Secretaries, 
MM. M. Rehfous and J. Mongenet; Council, M.M. J. Culot, Ch. 
Blachier, and Dr. A. Pictet. Members pay a subscription of 12 francs, 
while those who live outside the canton (foreign members) pay only 
8 francs. We can strongly urge our readers to belong to this society, 
the address of the Treasurer is Pinchat, Geneva, Switzerland. 

We wish to again remind our readers that Mr. F. N. Pierce and the 
Rev. C. W. Metcalfe are working hard at the genitalia of the British 
Tortrices, and would be glad of any material which can be spared. A 
single preparation of a species is quite insufficient, as with the small 



CURRENT NOTES. 91 

species so much verification is needed. Another great difficulty has 
cropped up, and that is the numbers of specimens of these "smaller fry" 
which have been mended with a body from somewhere. Such speci- 
mens of course are worse than useless. Already three new British 
species have been described through the labours of these two enthusi- 
astic workers, and a letter lying before us refers to others. All honour 
to those whose earnest endeavour is to add to the sum total of human 
knowledge, and although we sometimes may seem to criticise what is 
achieved, we cannot but admire the steady and sound advance which 
has been made. 

We have received tlio announcement that the long promised Mono- 
graph of I5i-itish Ants will shortly be published. All who know the 
patiently careful work of the author, our colleague Mr. Horace Donis- 
thorpe, will be assured that the volume will be most reliable in all its 
details. For many years past Mr. Donisthorpe has been collecting a 
mass of material, partly from his own detailed observation and partly 
from facts imparted to him by means of his close correspondence with 
all the foremost workers, students, and authorities of the world, so that 
every verification of facts attainable has been made. There will be 
accounts of all British species, including the original descriptions, full 
literature references, synonymy, life-histories, world distribution, and 
references to closely allied species which may possibly occur in Britain. 
Slavery, colony-founding, and the general economy of ant-life will be 
dealt with at length from the author's long personal observation and 
experiments, and compared with the opinions and observations of con- 
tinental and American authorities. The book will comprise some 350 
pages, 8vo., and will be illustrated by over a hundred illustrations. We 
would urge all who are the least bit interested in these marvellously 
human little insects to send in their names to the subscription list, 
since such a work necessitates considerable expenditure, and cannot be 
published at the present time without the assurance to the author of 
adequate support. 

It was with much regret that we saw the disappearance of the City 
of London Entomological Society, as such, and its absorption into the 
much larger North London Natural History Society, to form the Lon- 
don Natural History Society, with a very extended range of study, even 
embracing archajology. For twenty-three years the old Society had 
issued its Transactions, and although always small in compass they con- 
tained records of the meetings showing steady, earnest work and study, 
and in addition at least one very valuable paper each year, which was 
generally worth more than the small circulation which the volume 
must have had. The last part of the Transactions issued, that for the 
years 1912-13, has been lying on the table for some time, and is in no 
whit behind that of its predecessors. It contains seven plates illustra- 
tive of a paper by Dr. Chapman, " Some Lyca^nid Notes, with a 
discussion of the Segmentation of the abdomen in Lepidoptera." Mr. 
L. B. Prout contributed a very valuable paper entitled, " Notes on 
Thera variata, Schiff'., and L. ubeliscatd, lib." Dr. E. A. Cockayne, 
who is in the chair of the new combined society for the present year, 
contributed a paper, "Notes on lliipalits piiu'arins, L." Mr. H. B. 
Williams has an article entitled, " Notes on Coenoni/mpho pa)ii/)hiliis." 
Mr. Chas. Nicholson and Mr. P. H. Tautz respectively contriijute, 
" Plnsia Hioneta, Treit., in Britain," and " Notes on the Lepidoptera of 



92 THE entomoi-ogist's record. 

the Pinner District." In addition there are the Reports of the various 
meetings which took place during the two years, and among the 
matters reported, which were of greater interest, were an exhibition 
and discussion of Bionicia jMaeaa, a discussion of the Mendelian 
Inheritance of Wing-markings, the variation in Vaneima io, Oporabias 
and Hybrids, Discussion on the genus Zonosoma, and the Annual 
Addresses by the President, Mr. A. W. Mora, which contain a summary 
of Lepidopterology for the respective years. The volume can be 
obtained from the Secretary of the new society, Hall 20, Salisbury 
House, Finsbury Circus, London, E.G. 

Mr. J. Bondroit, the lielgian coleopterist, who was wounded at 
Ramscapelle, is now invalided from the army through kidney trouble 
caused, as he quaintly puts it, " by taking too many baths m the Yser 
with all my clothes on." He is now in Paris, and is engaged in 
drawing insects, and would possibly be glad to hear from correspondents. 

The Journal of Entonwlociy a ml ZooUhih formerly the Pomona Journal 
of Entomology, of Claremont, California, becomes increasingly interest- 
ing with each quarterly part. It is always fully illustrated with 
diagrams, drawings and photographs. In the December number we 
find (1) An account of the Pseudoscorpions of the Claremont-Laguna 
Region. (2) Some points in the Nervous System of a large Deep 
Water Crab. (3) The Starfish of Laguna Beach. (4) An account of the 
Summer School at Laguua Beach, where much investigation in all 
orders is carried on by the students, with several photographs of the 
neighbourhood. (5) Much other matter relating to marine life. 

Will the Third Entomological Congress be held in Vienna this 
year ? We read in the November number of the Knt. News, a long 
note from the General Secretarij, Dr. F. Maidl and the President, Prof. 
A. Handlirsch, giving full details as to tickets and general arrangements 
as to meetings, exhibitions and excursions. In the last arrangements 
there is proposed a visit to the Adriatic coast. 



SOCIETIES. 

The Entomological Society of London. — ]>eeeinber 2n(L — Prof. 
Lameere, of Brussels, was elected to the Honorary Fellowship 
vacant by the resignation (and subsequent death) of Dr. August 
Weisinann. Prof. Poulton read a letter showing the circum- 
stances under which Dr. Weismann had been persuaded to sign the 
declaration of the German Professors. The President announced 
that he had nominated the following Fellows to act as auditors : On 
the Council: Messrs. S. Edwards, G. Meade- Waldo, and H. Rowland- 
Brown. Not on the Council: Messrs. R. W. Lloyd, Hy. J. Turner, 
and C. 0. Waterhouse. Coloration of Desert Hymenoptera. — The 
Rev. F. D. Morice exhibited a few Hymenoptera of various groups 
from Egypt, Algeria, etc., showmg the silvery pubescence and pale 
colours frequently characteristic of desert insects. Also a lantern 
slide showing the seventh ventral segment in Proyopis comniunia $ . 
Dark aberration of Argynnis niobe. — Mr. H. J. Turner exhibited a 
striking aberration of an An/ynnis niobe with symmetrically coalescent 
dark markings on the upperside and the silvery spots on the underside 
hindvving forming a triple basal blotch and marginal streaks. Prey 
OF AN African Asilid, — Mr, S, A. Neave exhibited a large series of 



SOCIETIES. 



93 



insects, 1826 in all, forming the prey of a common Asilid rroniachus 
I'lisricitiis. A SCARCE Ukitish Neuroptekon. — Mr. W. J. Lucas ex- 
hibited a specimen of Ifri'iiciitoptcn/.r /i/ialaenoides, Linn. {\at. Onl. 
Seiiniiitera), taken about the end of July, 1914, by Mr. E. A. C. Stowell, 
B.A., at Bexhill. A moveable microscopic stage. — Dr. H. Eltringham 
exhibited a little machine of his own invention consisting of a 
mechanical stage specially adapted for the microscopical examination 
of pinned insects, and so contrived as to admit of the insect on its 
pin being turned completely round on both a vertical and horizontal 
axis, without its departing from the centre of the field or the focal 
plane. An Australian Lyc.eniij larva resembling thk flower of the 
" Wattle," on which it feeds. — Prof. Poulton exhibited the Howers 
of an Acacia, prol^ably A. hailei/aiia, F. v. MuelL, together with a 
female Lycfenid, Nacadnha biucellata, Feld., and the pupa case from 
which it had emerged. Tlie likeness, mainly due to the long yellow 
hairs with which the larva was clothed, was increased by its attitude, 
the body being rather strongly curved. Dr. G. D. H. Carpenter's 
observation of the epioamic use of its anal brushes by the male 
Amauris psyttalea, Plotz. — Prof. Poulton read a note on this sub- 
ject, from a letter written to him, July 23rd. 1914, from Kome 
island in the N.W. of the Victoria Nyanza. Dr. G. D. H. Carpenter's 
observations on Dorylus nigricans, Illig., in Damba and Bugalla 
Islands. — Prof. Poulton read a record of observations from the same 
letter as that quoted in the preceding note on A. ei/ialea, giving Dr. 
Carpenter's further conclusions as to the habits of the driver ants 
of these islands in the N.W. of the Victoria Nyanza. The following 
paper was read : — " Further Observations on the Structure of the 
Scent-organs in certain Brush- bearing Male Butterflies," l)y H. 
Eltringham, M.A., D.Sc, F.E.S. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History Society. 
— Decriiihcr ]0</t.--NEw Members. — Mr. W. Schmassmanu, F.E.S. , was 
elected a member. Paper. — Mr. W. J. Lucas read a paper " The 
l)ritish Long-horned Grasshoppers " and shewed a large number of 
lantern slides in illustration. Exotic Long-horned Grasshoppers. — 
Mr. H. Moore, a drawer of Decticiiiidae, long-horned grasshoppers, con- 
taining Decticns albifrons, I), inteniiediiis, D. tessellatas, D. verrucivorus, 
etc. Mr. Step, a long-horned grasshopper, Hetrodes petersi, female, 
from S. Afi'ica, both sexes w^ere said to be apterous. Mr. A. E. 
Gibbs referred to the two large British sawflies, Sirex (jhias and S. 
noctiliii, and exhibited their large parasite Rln/ff^ia pcrsnasoria from 
the neighbourhood of Berkhanipstead. He also read notes on the 
species referi-ed to. Correction. — In the report for November 12ih 
last, I'l/raiiicis atalanta should be l')/raiiieis cardiii. 

Jaiiiiari/ 1-it/i, 1915. — Teratoj.ogical examples.— Dr. Chapman 
exhibited an Aiithroccra exidana with six Avings, an A. antlnjUidis with 
three tarsi on the left raesothoracic leg, and an A. acliilleae with 
symmetrical wing notches. Pupal habitations. — Dr. Chapman also 
showed exotic lattice-work cocoons, probably Syntomid or Lithosiid, 
and pupal burrows of Scardia bolrti, showing the trap-door closing the 
cocoon proper. Mr. Moore, cases of Psi/chidae from the Island of 
Rhode.-, cases of Oeccticim hirhii from Antigua, etc. Mr. R. Adkin, 
various cocoons of British species of Lepidoptera. Paper. — Mr. Adkin 
then read a paper entitled " Some Pupal Habitations." A field- 



94 THE entomologist's record. 

MEETING NEARLY 300 YEARS AGO. — Mr. Sich, read an extract from the 
" Flora of Middlesex," Trimen and Dyer, 1869, giving an account of a 
natural history field meeting which took place in 1629 to Hampstead 
Heath. 

Janmrnj tiSt/i, 1915. — Annual Meeting. — The Balance Sheet and 
the Report of the Council were read and adopted. The President read 
his address dealing with the position and work of the Society during 
the past year, and with general entomology during the same period. 
The usual votes of thanks were passed. Elections. — The Officers and 
Council for the session 1915-16, were then elected. Ordinary meeting. 
— Examples of variation in British Lepidoptera. — Mr. Buckstone 
exhibited a bred series of lliipaliis piniaria showing much variation ; 
aberrations of llipocrita jacohaeae, smoky, streaked with pink, and 
entirely smoky hindwings ; and Spiloaoma meut/uistri, which on 
emergence had a pink flush which was evanescent. A food pest. — 
Mr. Edwards, living specimens of Ephestia kuhniella with pupfe and 
cocoons. Aberrations of A. grossulariata. — Mr. G. T. Porritt, a fine 
series of ab. ni(/rocostata and ab. nif/rosparsata of Abraxas grosHidariata. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — Noreiiiher IGth. 
— New Member. — Dr. W. J. Fordham, The Villa, Bubwith, near 
Selby. Reports of Field Observations. — The subject for the evening 
entitled " The most interesting Field Ol)servations made during the 
last Season " gave rise to a discussion which was entered into by most 
of the members present. The Genus Bembidium. — Mr. R. Wilding- 
brought his collection of the genus Beuihidium (Coleoptera) and made 
descriptive remarks upon the occurrence and peculiarities of each 
species, particularly mentioning the following, viz. — BoiibidiiDn 
5-striatH)ii, B. fiiiiii//atnt)i, B. scJtiippeii, B. ni(/ncorne, B. atomoides, B. 
limatiim, B. testacetoii, B. aiifilicaniini, B. fiuviatile, B. pramiutn, B. 
adiistii III a,nd B. anjentcolain. Varieties of British Lepidoptera. Mr. A. 
W. Hughes exhibited a yellow variety of Eiichelia jacobaeae, a series of 
Rpinephde jiirtina (janira) including an example with strongly pupillate 
spots on the upperside of the hindwings, also a specimen of Jf/riopis 
aprilina taken at sugar on the Crosby sand-hills. Micro-Lepidopterv. 
— Mr. W. Mansbridge, the following micro-lepidoptera, viz. — Tortri t 
pronubana, bred from larvas found in the palm house in one of the 
Birmingham parks by Mr. W. Bowater ; the caterpillars were doing 
great damage to the acacias in the house. Peronea variegana with vars. 
albana and ciriana bred from Wavertree larvte ; Mixndia sclnilziana, 
a series from Delamere Forest where it was plentiful though not 
previously on record for the locality ; Paedisca wlandriana, selected 
varieties from Huddersfield and Hebden Bridge, W, Yorks. ; Ephippi- 
phora triijeiiiinana from the sand-hills at Crosby, very small specimens ; 
and a fine series of EupoeciUa diibitana, light and dark forms from the 
same locality. 

December 21.s^ — Annual Meeting. — New Members. — Messrs. Vincent 
Fogarty, 56, Bolton Road, Ewood, Blackburn ; and Wm. Buckley, 59, 
Roseneath Road, Urmston, nr. Manchester. The Election of Officers. 
— The usual business of an annual meeting was transacted and the 
following members were elected as officers and council for the ensuing 
year, viz.: — President: Prof. R. Newstead, M.A., F.R.S. Vice- 
Presidents: R. Wilding; J. Cotton, M.R.C.S., etc.; J. R. le B. Tomlin, 
M.A., F.E.S. ; H. R. Sweeting, M.A. Hon. Treasurer: J. Cotton. 



SOCIETIES. 95 

Librarian: F.N.Pierce. Hon. Secretary : Wm. Mansbridge, F.E.S. 
Council: L. West; P. F. Tinne, M.A.; S. P. Doudney ; Wm. Webster; 
R. S. Bagnall, F.L.S.. F.E.S. ; Chas. Frederick Burne; J. W. Ellis, 
M.B., Ch.B., F.E.S.; Arnold W. Hughes; J. Collins. Annual Addkkss. 
— The retiring president, Mr. R. Wilding, read his addiess, in which 
he reviewed the entomological events of the past year in an able and 
interesting manner. Species of Toutrices New to Jjritain. — Mr. F. 
N. Pierce exhibited and described the hitherto unrecognised species of 
Tortricidae as follows, viz. : — Cneji/iasia (jenitalana, found in various 
collections mixed with other species of the genus. Ilab. Esse^c and 
Kent. Poerilochronid jiniiiecla.mna, an apple feeder, until now considered 
to be a variety of /'. profundana. Hab. Devon and Herefordshire. 
Lipoptijclia aeratana, for some time represented only by a single speci- 
men in his collection, but lately found in Threlfall's series of Dickro- 
rauiplia tanaceti. These have all been distinguished through examina- 
tion of the genitalia and full descriptions are published in the Ent. 
Mo. Mail, for January' 1915. British Lepidoptera. — Mr. W. A. 
Tyerman showed a fine series of Sphinx lii/iistri, most of which had 
laid over until the second year before emerging; a fine and long 
series of Xaiitltorhoc {Mela)iippe) (jaliata from Ainsdale ; the ova were 
deposited in September by a very late female; also from Ainsdale, 
Acronicta lejiorina, (Jticnllia c/iaiiioiiiillae, and Chariclea nuibra. An 
Indian Cicada. — Mr. Wm. Webster, a large species of Cicada from 
India. 

The North London Natural History Society. — December Int, 1914. 
Gynandromorphs exhibited. — Mr. A. W. Mera, a mixed gynandromorph 
of Satiirnia carpini, right side predominantly ^ , but with large J 
patches, antennst intermediate, and a regularly halved gynandromorph 
of Hoaniiia repandata, left side J , right ^ . Mr. V. E. Shaw, an 
Ainorpha popidi, bred June lOtb, 1909, left side 3^ , right J , antennje, 
genitalia, and wing markings, the line of division along the centre 
of the bod}- being clearly defined. Dr. E. A. Cockayne, Pohp))iiniatitx 
icariis, a symmetrical gynandromorph with upperside predominantly 
g , underside predominantly 5 , another of the same species pre- 
dominantly 5 , but with streaks of S' colour on right forewing 
and both hindwings. Androconia were numerous on the male areas 
and the genitalia externally purely J ; four gynandromorphous A. 
pnpiili all showing mixture of g and $ parts in their external genitalia, 
three were predominantly 2 in their internal organs, having ovaries 
but no testes, the other was predominantly S ! a Sxierinthas hyb. 
In/bridiis 3 ; two gynandromorphs ot Ant/irocera hippocrepidis (doubtful) ; 
a heterochroic gynandromorph of Ueinerophila abruptaria, right side g 
ab. fiiscata, left side 2 typical; a lieterochroic gynandromorph of Abraxas 
■si/lrata {idiiiata), right side J ab. pantarioidcs (?), left side $ fypical ; 
37 gynandromorphous Ai/riadcs coridon with one side smaller than the 
other, and having blue scales and androconia on the smaller side, one 
with blue scales and androconia on both sides, two with streaks of J 
colour ; also drawings of dissections of gynandromorphous lepidoptera 
of various species. Mr. H. B. Williams, a regularly halved gynandro- 
morph of Fidonia piniaria, left side, ? , right <? , a $ Eiiiatunpx atoniaria 
with wing coloration of the ^ , a 5 Kuchhu' cardaiiiines with a splash 
of 3 colour on underside of left forewing, a regularly halved gynan- 
dromorph of AiiKirp/ui pnpiili, left side ? , right J , a mixed gynandro- 



96 THE entomologist's record. 

morph of the same species, left wings and antennae $ , right antennae 
and (apparently) wings intermediate, bod}^ apparently $ , also specimens 
of A(jriat]eit, coridon ab. iiiaeqiialin, Tutt, and ab. roystonendu, Pickett. 
Dr. Cockayne delivered an instructive and interesting address on 
" Gynandromorphism." Cidaria species from Scotland. — Mr. L. B. 
Front, series of Cidaria tnincata and <'. iuniianata from a Scotch 
locality, showing considerable variation. 

Deceiiiher 15th, 1914. — Mr. L. B. Prout, a short series of Mdonthia 
hicolorata bred from Forres ova, showing an interesting modification of 
the plionbata form of variation, the forewing being largely infnscated, 
but with parts, in particular a broad subterminal line, remaining white, 
while the hindwing showed infuscation in the terminal region only. 
The following officers were elected for the session 1915: — Preaident: 
Dr. E. A. Cockayne, M.A., M.D., F.E.S. Vice PreHidenU: Mr. A. 
Bacot ; Rev. C. K. N. Burrows ; Dr. T. A. Chapman ; Messrs. M. 
GreenAvood ; F. J. Hanbury ; A. W. Mera ; L. B. Prout; and R. W. 
Robbins. Trustees : Messrs. A. W. Mera ; C. S. Nicholson ; and L. 
B. Prout. Librarians: Messrs. W. E. Glegg, and A. E. Mera. 
Curators: Messrs. S. Austin; C. S.Nicholson ; A. J. Willsden. President 
of Research •Section: Mr. E. B. Bishop. Treasurer: Mr. F. G. Dill. 
Secretaries: Messrs. J. Ross, and H. B. Williams. Council: Messrs. 
F. B. Cross ; L. B. Hall ; L. W. Newman ; H. E. Stevenson ; and H. 
Worsley Wood. 



(D BIT U AR Y. 

Major Henry H. Lyman, M.A., R.C.I., F.R.G.S., F.E.S., etc. 

By the appalling disaster that befell the steamship " Empress of 
Ireland " in the River St. Lawrence, last May, Canada lost one of her 
leading entomologists. 

Born in 1854, he in very early life developed a taste for entomo- 
logy, and in 1875 joined the Montreal Branch of the Entomological 
Society of Ontario, and always took the liveliest interest, not only in 
the, success of the branch, but also in the parent society, which a 
couple of years ago celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. 

His splendid collection, with his library, has been bequeathed to 
the McGill University, with a sufficient endowment fund to cover 
expenses in maintaining it, and it is to be accessible to all students of 
entomology. 

In his mercantile life he was a most busy man, but had always time 
to give any information willingly to any entomologist, this, with his 
genial disposition, endeared him to all who had the privilege of work- 
ing with him. 

His military career ended in 1885, when he retired from the Royal 
Scots of Canada with the rank of Major. 

He was a strong Imperialist, and was one of the deputation which 
waited on Lord Salisbury in 1886 begging for an Imperial Conference 
for the whole of the British Empire. This conference was called and 
held the next year. He also strongly advocated Imperial preferential 
trade within the Empire, and that Canada should bear her share for 
Imperial defence. 



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Collecting Boxes, 9d., 1/-, 1/6, 2/-. Nested Chip Boxes, 7d. per four dozen, 1 gross, 1/6. 
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brush, 1/6, 2/-. Sugaring Mixture, ready for use, 1/9 per tin. Store-Boxes, with camphor 
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CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Lepidoptera round about Scarborough, A. S. Tetley, M.A., F.E.S 73 

Abberrations of Argynnis aglaia and some other Notes from the Minehead 

District, J. F. Bird 76 

The Season of 1914 in South Provence, Herbert S. Earl, F.E.S 78 

Scientific Notes and Observations : — Agriades coridon ab. I'oystonensis, Pickett, 

Harold B. Williams .. .. .. .. .. •• .. •• •• 85 

Notes ON Collecting : — Thaumatopfea processionea, Lilian M. Fison ; Hiberna- 
tion in a church, Id. ; Hibernation of Vespa vulgaris. Id. ; Eeeords of 
Coleoptera for S. Wales district, J. TF. ^ZZen , ; .. 86 

Current Notes and Short Notices . . . . . . • . • . . ■ • • 88 

Societies . . . . . . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 92 

Obitdary:— Henry H. Lyman 96 



Communications have been received or have been promised from Dr. Chapman, Dr. 
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W. G. Sheldon, P. H. Muschamp, Dr. Reverdin, Dr. Burr, A. Tetley, Parkinson Curtis, 
H. B. Williams, W. Bowater, F. N. Pierce, H. L. Earl, etc., with Reports of Societies 
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All MS. and editorial matter should be sent and all proofs returned to Hy. J. Turner, 
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l^ 



\ 




OLOGIST'S RECORD 



AMD 



JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Edited by 

Richard S. BAGNALL, f.l.s., f.e.s. | T. A. CHAPMAN, M.D.,r.z.8., f.k.s, 



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VOL. VI. 

The TITLES of some of the articles are as follows: — Notes on Butterfly Pupa?, with some remarks 
on the Phylogenesis of the Rhopalocera." — Dr. T. A. Chapman, F.E.S., "Phytophagio Species." — 
Prof. A. liadclife Orote, M.A. "Varieties and aberrations of Nocture from Doncastei'." — H. H. 
Corbett, M.R.C.S. "The frenulum of the British species of Smerinthus."— G. C. QrifHthf, F.Z.S., 
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"The Lepi'loptera of (Ir^sy-sur-Aix." — /. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Apatura iris."— Rev G. M. A. Hewett- 
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L. B. Prout, F.E.S. " Habits and variation of Lithosia lutarella and its variety pygmaeola." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. On the gradual disappearance of Lepidoptera from South-Eastern London and 
itsneiehbourhood." — C. Fenn, F.E.S. "A hunt for Neuroterusaprilinus." — T.A. Chapvian. M.O., F.E.S. 
"On the development of pigment in Nemeobius luoina." — F. .T. Buekell, M.B. "The Macro-Lepi- 
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F.E.S. " Hadenoid genera with hairy eyes." — Prof. A. R. Oroe, M.A. '• Zygaena minos and its 
varieties."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Notes on the pupre of Castnia and Anthocharis."— T. A. Chapman, 
M.D., F.E.S. Besides these articles, a large number of short notes are contained in every number under 
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Vol. XXVII. 



Plate II. 




Photo. J. L. Beverdin. 



Ageronia sps. An unknown organ. 
The Entomologist's Record etc., 1915. 



A HITHERTO UNKNOWN ORGAN. 97 

A hitherto unknown organ in the Ancillary Appendages of the 
Lepidoptera (Ageronia sps.). (M'/VA jdate.) 

By Dr. J. L. REVERDIN (Geneva). 
(Translated by P. H. Muschamp, F.E.S.) 

Among some mounts that M. Fruhstorfer had begged me to make 
to facilitate his studies, was one of the J genitalia of an Aijeronia, 
and I was surprised to find in this butterfly an organ unknown to me. 
]\I. Fruhstorfer has since then kindly handed me the abdomens of 26 
species of this genus, and in all I have found the same organ ; it 
belongs exclusively to the J . 

Here is a description of this organ : It is placed in the last section 
of the abdomen and is formed of a chitinous rod of varying length 
and springs from the upper-posterior angle of the 8th abdominal 
sternite. The form and curve of this rigid rod would appear to be 
constant ; it bears at its extremity thick pointed chitinous spiculae, 
varying in different species, and all along the rest of it fine hairs and 
a certain number of spiculfe, which in certain species are more abundant 
than in others. The rods are very long in certain species, shorter in 
others ; they are rectilineal or slightly curved, generally strongly 
concave at foot, their extremity is often clubbed, sometimes imper- 
ceptibly ; the upper border of the sternite seems to be thickened; it is 
both extended with the wand to its source and prolonged on its 
proximal side to a point considerably beyond the sternite (figs. 2 and 4). 

When the genitalia are completely sheathed by the abdomen, the 
extremity of the rods extends beyond that of the abdomen, and in dry 
specimens these rods are easily broken off or deprived of their spicuhi?; 
among the abdomens, which I received from M. Fruhstorfer, such 
accidents had been rather frequent. 

Each species of the genus Agenmia possesses these organs and of a 
form peculiar to the species. The accompanying figures show the 
different types of rods, and it will be seen that the diagnosis of a 
species might be established by an examination of the rods alone. I 
must confess that I possess only one specimen each of many species, 
but those of which I have several specimens (four specimens apiece of 
five species, and two of several others), the form of the rods may be 
said to be constant, any slight difference in the mounts being due to a 
difference in their orientation. As I just observed, the spicuhe are 
liable to be broken off', but it is always easy to ascertain their true 
number by counting the little circles in the surface of the rods, for 
these are the points of insertion of the detached spiculae. The 
examples of which I have had photographs made are naturally those 
which seemed to me to be most nearly intact. The spicuhe are 
generally densest at the extremity of the rods, but in certain species, 
ejj., A. satirites (fig. 5), they are dense throughout the whole length. 
The spicuho terminate in pin points (figs. 5 and 6) or in lance-heads 
(figs. 1,2, b, and 4); and in some of the other species, the distal border 
of the sternite, below the spot where the rod is inserted, is furnished 
more or less abundantly with long, heavy spiculte. 

This peculiar A;/eronia organ has not escaped observation ; Godman 

May 15th, 1915. .^<^!^^ n**''^?^ 

' jijiN] % 1S16 



98 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

and Salvin mention it but give no details other than* " There are two 
rods attached to the upper edge of the ventral portion of the terminal 
segment of the abdomen." 

To sum up : This organ is peculiar to the <? and displays distinct 
characteristics in all the different species I have examined. 

My colleague M. JuUien discovered an organ in certain Satt/ridae. 
This organ, called by Fruhstorfer " Jullienische Organ," is composed 
of thick, chitinous, very darkly coloured rods with dentated or pointed 
extremities ; these rods are inserted in the last abdominal tergite (not 
the sternite); they are found in Satyriis alcyone, S. Iierviume, S. ^yriaca, 
and S. seuiele, and in Epinejihele jiirtina, in which latter there is one 
instead of three or more rods on either side ; but this one rod is really 
formed by the soldering together of several into one multidentated rod. 
In S. hermione and S. alcijorie the insertion is made in a sort of wing 
detached from the lateral parts of the tergite, whereas in E.jitrtina it 
is made on the slight prolongation of the somewhat flattened exterior 
angle of this sternite. 

The analogy is evident if not close ; it is true that the points of 
insertion and the dimensions of the rods are very different in Satyrus 
and* in Aiiemnia. There is, however, analogy enough to cause us to 
suspect that their functions are similar. 

Dampf thinks that Jullien's organs are scent organs, but Jullien 
himself believes them to be of a tactile order, and the latter hypothesis 
seems more in keeping with their constitution ; it is hard to see how 
these thick rods can disperse a volatile substance. 

A third solution of the problem suggests itself to me. I have read 
a remark by Fritz Miiller incorporated in Dr. G. B. Longstaff''s work.f 
" Just as the Ageronia, four species of which I had an opportunity of 
observing in some numbers during the past summer, only make the 
remarkable crackling sound on the wing and during the courtship, so 
also, in all probability, butterflies equipped with brands, tufts, etc., 
only distribute their scent under the same circumstances." May we 
not deduce that this crackling sound is caused by the friction of the 
spiculse against other parts of the genitalia, and that the Jullien organ 
has the same function, the action being modified by their situation ; it 
would seem almost as though the motionless organ of Acieronia were 
rubbed by the mobile valves, whereas the mobile spiculte of the Jullien 
organ in Satyrus rub against the valves or uncus ; the way in which 
the Jullien organ is inserted leads us to suppose that it can be moved 
at will. I submit my hypothesis to the numerous and clever English 
observers, and to the Swiss field-workers ; they will perhaps tell me 
if E.jitrtina and S. alcyone perform on the castanets as Ayeronia does 
in order to charm its lady mate. 

Explanation of Plate II. 

Fig. 1. Ageronia febriia, <?, genitalia and Godman-and-Salvin organ. 

Fig. 2. Ageronia arete, <f , 8th abdominal segment. 

Fig. 3. Ageronia obidana, S , 7ib and 8th abdominal segments. 

Fig. 4. Ageronia jritilla, <? , 8th abdominal segment. 

Fig. 5. Ageronia saurites, i , 8th abdominal segment. 

Fig. 6. Ageronia sellasia, <? , 8th abdominal segment. 

* " Biologia Centrali-Americana." Insecta Lepidoptera Rhopalocera , by F. 
D. Godman and D. Salvin. Vol. i., p. 268. 

f Butterfly -hunting in many Lauds. George B. Longstaff. p. 616. 



Vol. XXVII. 



ff.I 









^!J \ 



i'lp^yz^m^.^^fZ.^Z'Tz.ay. c..^/:i,ftoccci/?tyCC- 










AiA.ae^z.cc^te<Z/n^co■ 




3<5'?«^/^.^*<*tss^z^a>, 























Del. J. W. Metcalfe. 
Diagnostic details in the Genitalia of the Genus Cnephasia. 



The Entomologist's Record, etc., 1915. 



AN EASY METHOD OF IDENTIFYING CNEPHASIA. 99 

An easy method of identifying the species of the genus Cnephasia 
= Sciaphila (Tortrlcidae). (With /ihtte.) 

By F. N. PIERCE, F.E.S., and the Kkv. J. W. METCALFE, F.E.S. 

The Sciaphilas, as they are generally termed, have long presented 
such insurmountable difficulties to collectors that they have practically 
given up the genus in despair, and have placed such speciiuens as they 
have received from correspondents in their cabinets under the name 
sent rather than attempt to settle their identity for tbemselves. That 
this state of affairs is general is evident from the mixed series forwarded 
for examination from many collections. Here the study of the genitalia 
steps in, and separating the specimens with indisputable accuracy 
removes the problem from the sphere of individual opinion. 

Entomologists, when in future setting their captures, would do 
w«ll to open the valvse as far as possible whilst the insects are still on 
the boards, and thus make subsequent examination a simple matter. 

In order first of all to discover how many British species the group 
contained it was necessary to make microscopical mounts of many 
named specimens and unnamed varieties. This having been done it 
was not a very difficult matter to determine to which species each form 
belonged. Having thus obtained reliable examples of all the British 
species, the question as to whether a simpler and less destructive 
method could not be devised for determining the species by means of 
the genitalia, since collectors not unnaturally object to the breaking up 
of each specimen, in order to discover to what species it belongs. 
With this end in view a thorough examination was made of dried but 
unmounied examples of all the species, using the already mounted 
examples as a guide. The method of working is as follows: — 

Hun a knife across a piece of flat cork, and then pencil the slit so 
that it may be readily found. Next, by pushing the head of the pin 
(holding the point by the forceps) into- the slit, the insect is held 
securely with the ventral surface of the abdomen in position for exami- 
nation under the microscope. Having brought the genitalia into focus 
and arranged a bull's eye condenser so as to illuminate brilliantly the 
part, remove by means of a small sable brush (Vv'^. and N., No. 00) 
sufficient scales to expose the junction of the valvte. At first it will 
probably be found necessary to lay bare both valvw, but when the eye 
gets accustomed to the appearance the merest touch is sufficient to 
determine the species. With the aid of the drawings, herewith given, 
of the genitalia as thus seen with the scales removed, no one should 
have the siuallest difficulty in naming his male captures. Once having 
located the mnles, but little further trouble should be experienced in 
mating the females. 

The dili'erent species are subject to great variation in wing mark- 
ings, but I'irhaps the most difficult to determine superficially are those 
which tend towards albinism, the markings almost entirely disappear- 
ing, and we are left with a chalky white specimen and nothing to guide 
us as to lis species except the shape of the wing, which is so variable 
as to be absolutely useless. The examination of the genitalia, how- 
ever, at once determines the question. 

Before describing the distinguishing features of the genitalia in 
each case, attention must be drawn to certain difficulties in the 
nomenclature. 



100 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



Following Meyiick's Tortricidae, published by Wytsman, which I 
have found of the utmost value in nomenclature, we read, p. 44. 

Genus Cnephada, Curtis. 

Cnephasia, Curt., 1826, type paseuana, Hiib. 
Ablabia, Hiib., 1816, type ot^seana, Scopoli. 
Nephodesme, Hiib., 1816, ty^e j>en::iana, Thunb. 
SciAPHiLA, Treit., 1829, type wa/ilbouiiono, L. 
Argyroptera, Dup., 1834, type an/evtana, Clerk. 

The whole group falls naturally in accordance with the genitalia 
into two sections : — 

(a) The Cnephasia (Curt., 1826) group type jiascnana. 

(b) The Nephodesme (Hiib., 1816) group type pendana. 

In this division (a) would contain of the British species Cneji/tasia 
octomaciilava, C. conspersaiia, C. chrysantlwana, C. paseuana, C. rirf/aii- 
reana, C. (jenitalana, C. siibjectana, and !Sphaleroptera ictcricanu. (b) 
would contain XejiJwdesme penziana, N. culqniiounana, N. sinuana, N. 
nuhilana, with Ablabia osseana, Aniyroptera arr/cntana, and Tortricodes 
hye)iia)ia. 

The generic naiTie Sciaphila, Treit., 1829, of which valdh<nuiana is 
the type, must fall, not only on the ground of priority, but also because 
the type naldburiiiana does not, as we shall presently show, represent 
any particular species. 

What then is icaldboiiiiana ! As early as 1873, in the Kuioninhuihfa 
Aiiniial, p. 50, O. Hofmann quotes Heinemann's opinion that nieer- 
tana [siibjectana) }vaJdbt))iiiana, commnnana, altiralana, minorana, and 
vircfanreana, are simply varieties of the Linnean irahlboiiiana. " The 
ivahlboniiana ijroiip as it can scarcely be rightly described as composed 
of one species.'" Heinemann. Vol. ii., p. 58. Knt. Ann., p. 68. 

Hofmann, Entonudouist's 'Annual, 1873, p. 63, writes: — " Wahlbo- 
iniana, comvnrniana, alticolana, virf/aiireaiia, dericana, and paraliana, 
seem all to be only different forms of a single species, which shows an 
extraordinary tendency to vary even in the larval state, as will be 
pointed out further on." 

Mr. Meyrick [in litt. 18:12: 24) writes : — " Wa/dboniiana. In my 
opinion this name is not applicable to any species, having probably 
been originally a confused jumble of several. But its use on the con- 
tinent is certainly for the species we call (in my opinion correctly) 
Tir<jaureana, though not infrequently authors still mix up other species 
with it. I think you may neglect it." 

Kennel, Zuohu/ia I'alaarktiscJien Turtriciden, Stuttgart, 1908, 
figures the genitalia of iraldbmniana. The figure is, however, not good 
enough to decide whether it represents chyijsa)it/ieana, paseuana, octo- 
maculana, or comniunana, but there is sufficient detail to say that it is 
certainly not vir(jaureana. Kennel includes under Cnephasia, irahlbo- 
miana, alticalana, vire/aureana, derivana^= paraliana, elirysantheana, 
Du^). — clrnjsontheana, }i.S. = assinana, Hw. (Wood, fig. 1,000) = fl^^6'/-- 
nana, Wilk., pasicana (rect. paseuana), }ih.=pasivana, H.-S. = oi.soZe- 
tana, Stph. (Wood, fig. 1,003), hxjiaiia (Wood, fig. 1,002) = inteijectatia 
(Wood, fig. 1,001). 

This list includes all given by Heinemann except ineertana and its 
var. minorana, which he evidently rejects because of the retractile 



AN EASY METHOD OF IDENTIFYING CNEPHASIA. 101 

ovipositor of the female, and coiinnitnana, which Kennel and Hofmann 
evidently consider a good species. 

Mr. A. Thurnall, in a letter to j\Ir. Mansbridge, 26 : 1 : 15, writes: — 
" WaliUxmiiana I never could make out. It appears to me that this 
name has been used (in this country at all events) as a sort of entomo- 
logical scrap-heap on which to pitch all dubious specimens of this 
difficult genus ! ! The late Mr. Ragonot told me once {in litt.) that the 
species was a good one and not unlike siibjectana." 

Bankes, hhit. Mo. Mcu/., 1906, p. 84, writes of " the various forms 
included by Rebel under the all embracing term ira/ilbdwiaiia." 

From the above it is evident that wahlbomiana is a hotch-potch, a 
group of species to which any dubious specimen can be relegated. It 
must be left to those versed in the law of priority to state a case as to 
what should be done with the name ! 

Another difficult point is : What is ahramna .' It has not been 
possible to obtain specimens for examination, and the only definite 
particulars to hand are contained in an article by Prof. 0. Hofmann, 
EntoDioloiiist'ti Annual, 1873, p. 50, where he describes the female as 
possessing a long ovipositor. As this long ovipositor only occurs 
among our British species in siibjectana, id follows that abraf<ana could 
only be confounded with this last named species. Mr. Meyrick writes, 
" my specimens (Ik'itish) are only $ . 1 see no reason why they 
should not be unicolorous females of /laaciiana, and this is probable. 
Kennel does not figure the male genitalia, and therefore probably had 
also only females, though he does not explicitly say so." 

Mr. Thurnall writes, " With regard to abramna I never saw but 
two, and these seemed to me simply small melanic specimens of cJinjs- 
aiitheana such as I have bred (with the type) and captured." 

Barrett, Lep. Brit. Isles, vol. x., p. 271, places it next to siibjectana 
and describes it, " Forewings short and broad, uniform dark olive 
grey." His figure is a unicolorous olive-brown. He says, " A very 
rare species in this country, and one of which next to nothing is 
known." 

All other collectors appealed to report that they do not possess 
specimens, and the probable conclusion is that in Britain no such 
species exists. 

In conclusion, a few remarks on the distinguishing features on the 
genitalia as figured may be of use. 

In section (a), the Cnephasia group, the important feature to note 
is the position of the blackish extremity of the sacculus. In this group 
the four species, c/iii/saiithea)ia, octmiiacnlana, enuniiinuina, and ixisciiana, 
are the only ones which will present any difficulty. 

In rlinjsatitheana the extremity of the sacculus is seen on the edge 
of the margin of the valva, u'cll towards the tip. If it appears toicards 
the centre, the specimen must be either connminana, pascnana, or 
octoinacida)ia. 

In coinniiinana the edge of the sacculus is very straight, the point 
turning sharply inwards at the middle. The long narrow wings are a 
useful guide, and if in addition it be known that the insect was 
captured at the end of May or in early June, this fact provides further 
confirmation. 

In jiasrnana the margin of the sacculus is more curved and the 
extremity emerges at the middle, with rather more of its length free 
from the valva. 



102 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

In octouiaciilana the point appears slightly beyond the middle, but 
not so near the tip as in cltryxantlieana. This species possesses, in 
addition to the albino form, var. albo-octoinaciilana, a slatey-grey form, 
which might be confused with chnjaantlieana, hut if the position of the 
end of the sacculus be kept in mind no difficulty should be experienced. 
It should also be noted that there is a northern form of vonsperxana, 
which bears a striking resemblance to nctnniacidana, but of course the 
resemblance does not extend to the genitalia. 

Viniaiireana presents but little diflficult}', the small point of the 
sacculus at the extreme end of the squared valra determining it at once. 
When the pntnts are very hmi/ and cross each other, the collector 
recognises the new species ijenitalana. 

In conspersana and siihjectana the pomt of the sacculus is not as a 
rule visible, but there is not much chance of confusing these two 
species with each other. 

In ictericana, which might well be confused with the albino forms 
of other species, the point of the sacculus is large, black, and very low 
down towards the base of the valva. 

In section (b), the Nephodesme group, no difficulty will be found 
in separating b}' the wing markings aryentana, osseana, and liyeinaiia. 

In penziaua the sacculus is slightly more robust and rather more 
curved than in cohjuhounaiia, but the difference is very small. 

In sinnana, which is really the only species over which trouble may 
arise, the long transparent amber coloured sacculus at once separates 
the male, and the flattened appearance of the floricomus ovipositor the 
female, from the species in section (a). 

In nubilana the twice angled margin of the sacculus is at once 
decisive. 

It will thus be seen that any two species liable to be mixed up in 
the wing markings can be separated readily by the genitalia, whereas 
in those species where the genitalia in unmoiinted examples appear to 
run rather close, the wing parts lend assistance to their determination. 

[If any difficulty is experienced Mr. Pierce will be pleased to 
examine and report on any series of specimens that may be submitted 
to him at " The Elms, Dingle, Liverpool."— H.J. T.] 



A Contribution to the Life=history of Pyrgus proto. 

By. W. G. SHELDON, F.E.S. 

On May 15th, last year, I found the larvae of a Hesperid commonly 
on a species of P/domis, since identified as P. herba-venti, at Novo- 
rossisk, and later in the month the same larv^ were locally abundant 
at Sarepta, on this plant. 

At the time I presumed they were either Hesperia crihrellion, or H. 
tessellitiii , both of which species are known to feed upon I'/ilonn's, but, 
as they did not pupate until after these were on the wing, I could only 
conclude that they would produce some other species. 

The larvae attained their full growth at the end of May, and then 
formed a chamber in which to pupate, eithei by spinning together the 
edges of a leaf of their food-plant, or by forming with silk a pocket in 
the gauze of the sleeve in which they were kept. In this chamber they 
remained unchanged for a period of several weeks, for the majority of 
them had certainly not pupated on my return to England on July 5th. 



NOTES ON THE SWISS RHOPALOCERA. V. 103 

The first imago, which proved to be Pijrijiis protn, appeared on July 
18th, and individuals kept on emerging at intervals until September 
12th. 

So little is known of the earlier stages of many European butter- 
flies that I am not aware if it is usual for the larvfe of Hesperids to 
remain after attaining their full size a considerable period without 
pupating, but it seems difficult to assign a reason for this habit in a 
species that attains the perfect state in the middle of the summer. 

The time of emergence of P. proto seems to be much later in S'outh- 
East Russia than it is in Spain, and the state of the vegetation does 
not apparently account for this. At Algeciras, in 1908, I took a speci- 
men in April, and at Albarracin, the altitude of which is about 4,000 
feet, the species Hies at the end of June and throughout July. It must 
be borne in mind that Novorossisk is at the sea level, and Sarepta is 
below it, and at both of these places the vegetation would be far more 
advanced when /*. jn-otn emerges than is the case when it is out in its 
Spanish localities. 

I should mention that there can be no doubt as to the identity of 
my Russian specimens, Mr. Rayward having made preparations of the 
genitalia of both these and Spanish examples, and finding them 
identical. F/tlmiiis herba-centi is a Spanish as well as a Russian plant. 

The following is a rough description made of the larva in the last 
instar, with the aid of a lens. 

Length when stretched out 22mm. ; the head is black and hirsute ; the second 
segment glabrous and flesh-coloured with darker brown markings ; the colour of 
the remainder of tne segments appears grey, in consequence of the whole area 
being thickly covered with white tubercles, which almost hide the dark ground 
colour. Many of these tubercles had a white spine. Down the centre of the 
dorsal area runs a thin indistinct black line, caused by the white tubercles being 
less in number along its length. In the subdorsal area there is a small orange 
tubercle on each segment. The spiracular region is lighter than the subdorsal; 
the spiracles are orange coloured outlined with black, and are not conspicuous ; 
above them, but in the spiracular region, is a row of not conspicuous dark mark- 
ings ; the prolegs are amber coloured. 

The larva spins together the edges of a leaf of its food-plant, and 
lives in the chamber so formed during the day, feeding at night. 



Notes on the Swiss Rhopalocera. V. 

By the late A. J. IISON. 

(Communicated by Miss L. M. Fison.) 

Extracts from letters to, and kindly lent by, the Rev. George Wheeler, 

1904. 
1. SioN AND Montana. 

" Grand Hotel, Sion, May 17th, 1904. 
" I have now been here four weeks. On Saturday I got my first 
Brenthis eiipliriisi/nt' and the two first Ant/iocharis siiiiplo)iia I have 
seen (high up). Have seen no Pontia daplidice yet, which surprises me. 
Yesterday, going up to Montana from Grange, I got lots of Melitaea 
aiirelia, above Olon hamlet (say GOO feet above the valley), (ilaiicupsyche 
c}/llanis was in croinls as everywhere. All the $ s were of the black or 
dark brown kind,* and some were very large. Cnpido sebnis abounds, 
but altogether I have not found much yet this season .... I may 



104 THE entomologist's record. 

try Fusio and then Davos again, towards the end of June .... 
I hope to be in the Val Bregaglia part of July at least." 

[" Is this dark J an intermediate form, approaching ab. liKjens, 
Caradja. " Almost without eye-spots, hindwing upperside 3 darker 
in tint, $ very dark." Wheeler, Butterfiies of Switzerland. — L. M. 
Fison.] 

2. SiON. 

" Grand Hotel, Sion, May 20fch, 1904. 

"■To-day I went down to your place for yielitaea aiirdia and found 
a good many there. They often seem very dark. I got four ? s, and 
two of them had lif/Iiter rows of spots. I was most surprised to find 
four beautiful, and undoubted, Pol}/o)iiiiiatiis omandiis at the same spot, 
by the thin alder wood, about 40 yards south of the char road. I 
hunted about for more, but saw none. At a further wood I got three 
Melitaea dictynna, and two or three Melitaea aiirelia. This afternoon 
I got two more aurelia, about one mile east of Sion, by the high road 
after crossing the rickety planks of the aqueduct bridge. Nearer south, 
just below Tourbillon on the north, I was surprised to find a ? Par- 
nassiiis ijinemosyne in a meadow. Near by, on a dry hill, I took about 
six Melitaea didyma, and twenty-one on Tuesday afternoon {ejj., May 
18th) in the same place. I saw also two Melitaea plwebe there. 

" This is a capital district for Kuc/dw' cardamiiies ab. citrania, and 

I should think a better place than Charpigny." 

8. Loiceia (Chrysoplianiift) auiphidaitias, Esp. 

" Grand Hotel, Bex, May 30th, 1904. 

" I had to go to Caux this morning, so went on to the spot for 
Loiveia {Chrywplianus) amphidaiiias, which I reached about 9.45. I 
caught one at once. Then dotm by path below last chalet but one on 
right, to the Torrent, where there were laf^ (I canght about twenty) 
till the sun catne out more clearly at 11.30, when they all disappeared ! 
At 12 p.m. 1 prepared to go, when more liyJit clouds brouyht theiu out, 
and at 12.30 T departed with a catch of 26. A few were washed and 
some chipped." 

[This detail may go to disprove the suggestion in my note on this 
species Etit. Record, vol. xxvii., p. 65), that am/dridaiuas (together 
with other " coppers "), is more dependent on sun than some other 
species for its existence. I am afraid, as each time (three visits — one 
on May 31st, and two in early June) we did not reach its haunt before 

II a.m., it was a case of the "late bird losing the worm!" and 
nhsence of sun, rather than the opposite, which brought the butterflies 
out, at any rate as regards C. aiuphidaiiias, if not other Chrysophanids. 
— L.M.F.] 

4. Faido. 

"Hotel Angelo, Faido, June 11th, 1904. 
"You will, I think, be interested to know that this morning, when 
the sun came out for an hour, I at once caught a fine Brenthis thore, on 
the cool, south side of the torrent, below Faido. Almost my next 
capture, on the same open bit of grass, was a fine Coenonyiiipha 
arcania var. insubrica, but I saw no more. Going up the new char 
road in the same wood, about half or three-quarters of a mile, I reached 
the only long bit of clearing (just past a waterfall) where I got my B. 



NOTES ON THE SWISS RHOPALOCEBA. V. 105 

thore last July. Several were about, and I had a total of five before 
rain drove me down. This clearing is a good spot for them no doubt, 
and it gives room for a chase. B. tlmrr flies in a jerlcey way in straight, 
even linos, a little like the ' White Admiral.' I expect they are to be 
had in this clearing every June. I also got Erebia jiicdiitia, Jhoitliis 
eKjihrosi/iie, J)re)it/iis si'leiie (one), JSientliis aiiiathnnia, Melitaea dictniina 
(one very good), C/irj/sophaniis rin/aiireae, Pleheixn argus {afffo})), 
and Varanje aei/eria. [Probably ab. intermedia, Tutt. — L.M.F.] 

" Yesterday, on the hot north terraces of grass over Faido, when 
the sun at last came out for ten minutes, I at once caught one AKjynnis 
aifldia and one Ari/t/nnis adi/ijie var. cleodoxa, also Paniassiiis apoUo. 

"P.S. — On the Weesen marshes I found the best places for Lycaeyia 
eiiidu'iinis were beside the railway (the Filzbach footpath), but for 
i'(ieii(i)u/iii{iha tiphon near its further side, South or South-East of its 
centre." 

5. Weesen, etc. 

(Although some of the matter in this and succeeding letters is 
identical with that already published in the Ent. Itecord (vol. xxvi., 
pp. 228 and 242), I am communicating it again, in the first place, for 
its many extra details, and in the second, for the original observant 
personality which pervades it, and indeed all Mr. Fison's correspond- 
ence, entomological or otherwise. — Lilian M. Fison.) 

" Hotel Speer, Weesen, June 24th, 1904. 

" I have too much to sa,y to-day, for one of my usual post cards. 

" First, did I ever write you about the day's hunt I had (May 24th) 
up from Bramois to Vex, looking for (Tlaucopsyc/te {Xoitiiades) inelanopa. 
A vcnj fine dcuj, but scarce a butterfly on all that part, though ever}' 
second plant in most places was thyme. The thyme, however, was so 
young I did not recognise it at first, though the scent was very strong. 
The leaves were not their usual colour, and not a trace of flower or 
bud, in even the hottest parts. W'ould it not be very strange if a fly 
that fed on a plant should appear when it was so little grown ? The 
entire absence of any blues there was remarkable. I got four Erebia 
evias in the cool bottom of gorge by Hermitage (opposite). 

" At Faido I got lirentliis thme at once : five, the first day's hunt 
(a cool day) in the best clearing south of Faido. A second day the 
clearing seemed deserted, but I found six more going about at the same 
level (some bOO feet up). It was a hotter day. I got my twelfth and 
last tluire higher up the forest the day before I left, as 1 returned from 
a rather fruitless higher alpine walk. They were in good condition. 

" As to yellow ' Apollos ' I only got one Avith the lowest spot 
yellow. At Lavorgo there were no flne $ ' Apollos ' about. Indeed 
it seemed too early for that place. 

"Although I soon got a flne ( 'ooioin/miiha anania var. insubrira in 
the cool, south forest meadows at Faido, I scarcely found another as 
fine ; but still, of the seven to ten I iiian have, they all have the white 
band iinich reduced, and I hope they are true. I was there from the 10th 
to the 16th (June), when I went to Arth Cloldau till last Wednesday 
(June 25th). 

"At Arth-Goldau I got Coennni/inp/ia tip/i<in (eight on 16th), at the 
end of Lowjerzee Lake, but found a better place for them later, close to 
Arth Goldau. This was just east of it, at the very lowest western 



106 THE entomologist's record. 

corner of the Rock Slide. In the first, cool woods were lots of Pamrge 
acliine, and in the bits of sloping, wet ground, I got, one afternoon, a 
dozen C. tiphon, and there or in open meadows more west (under rocks), 
three ver)/ fine Lycaena enpheuuoi, though I could see no trace of their 
food-plant. 

"On the Rigi (Staftelhohe) I was interested in some ('oenuui/tnpha 
airania var. darwlniana, in which the females have a very white, clearly 
defined fringe, or edging, at apex of underside forewing. It may be 
that all have more or less of this edging, but I went up a second time 
to get more (I brought down forty), though I see the edging is only a 
real creamy- white in the J s; and got one specimen without any spots 
on white band of under wings. This must be rare. 

" On Wednesday I came here (Weesen), but I got little that after- 
noon in the marsh on account of the wind: two Lrjcaena areas, six or 
seven Coenotnjuiji/ia tijiJton, and one bad Lijcaeua euphemxs. Yesterday 
(23rd) I got up to the gorge leading to the Thalalpsee in two and a 
quarter hours (10 a.m.), just as the sun came in to it. Last year I got 
my thirty-eight Brent/iis tliore there, on July 16th and 18th, so you 
may fancy my surprise at finding two B. thore at ontr, and soon a third, 
I did not see many besides, but near the top were a few, and I got eight 
in all — generally in good condition. As I was hoping to find ArascJinia 
levana, this was a little disappointing; and fewer flies of any sort 
seemed about. However, whilst taking comfort from some cherries at 
the cow pasture fountain, higher up, I saw a yellow creature alight 
about eight yards oft", and going to see, soon had a fine A. levana, and 
directly after a second. This was at 11.45 or 12. Of course I hunted, 
and by 1.80 had ten. I had then worked up to the top of the gully^ 
where I got the last on a thyme flower. Most were settling on a tall^ 
two foot, yellow Senecio (Ragwort), which was as common as the nettles^ 
on which I saw none. One was on a white parsley-like flower, one was 
on the path, and one I took as it flew. About 2 p.m., as I returned, I 
began again to catch them near the pass top, but I missed one. I also 
got a few Brenthis t/tore there. Below, the gorge was then in the shade. 
My total catch was, thirteen Aranclnria levana, eight Brenthis thore, four 
Parnassiiis mnemosyne (near top), two Krebia styyne (by fountain at 
top), and a few minor things. 

" Of the lerana, three were damaged. I have no book but yours^ 
with me {i.e., Biitterjiies of Switzerland, by George Wheeler, M. A.), also 
some notes from Kane. By these I find the upperside (as I read it, of 
jn-orsa) should have a good deal of white. My thirteen have no white 
except two or three roundish spots, like pin-heads, on each wing, upper- 
side, hindwings have also each two small marks, not pure ivhite as the 
roundish spots of upper wings. Except the black or ground colour all 
the wings, upperside, are tawny-yellow in their larger markings. This 
looks like ab. porima. The broad tawny band, hindwing, upperside- 
(from anal angle to apex), has four large black spots on it — three quite 
round .... I caught levana here from June 18th-25th, 1902, 
They were darker than those taken yesterday. In this thirteen there 
must be several 5 s." 

6. Sertigthal. 

"Davos Platz, July 11th, 1904. 
"Have just been up the Sertigthal to the rhododendron end of 
the pastures (to the Dorfli). I was surprised to find so little, and 



NOTKS ON THR SWISS KHOPALOCERA. V. 107 

evidently becaiise it is late. I saw four Paniasains deliiis and took two ; 
one l'(n)tansiii!i ojiolln. Mo sign of Melitaea iiiaturna (var. indfcnsher- 
geri), saw a L'vlias jihi con tone, and another 'yellovr.' The rhododendron 
there was past, and nothing about it except a lot of Kvchia tipi(l((ri(s. 
I did, however, get about nine F.rehia enplnjle, though rather old ones. 
They were on moist banks where Adinosti/lefi and other big-leaved 
things grow just as in the Dischmathal. Heodes {Clirynopltanits) hip- 
iwtho? var, eini/bia was pretty good; also Coenonyiii})ha satyrion and 
Loireia {ClirysojiIia)iitii) dorilis. No good 'blues.' Evidently one should 
go higher than the Thais. I shall try to do so, and may go on to Pon- 
tresin?. I hope to go up th^ Dischmathal to-morrow. Very fine 
and hot to-day, until a little storm at 8.30." 

7. Localities for Heteropterus worpheus, Pallas, etc. 

" Hotel Steinbok, Pontresina, July 21st, 1904. 
"I send a second post-card, in case my first to Fusio misses you. 
From Reazzino walk towards Locarno. First you go near the Quarries, 
Then comes a sort of farm with open grass in front. There 1 saw one 
or two Hetetopterus morphetix in the road. The spring may be 100 
yards further. It flows across the road or track, and has tall rushes 
round. That was where I got four , , . . At this hotel are two 
ardent collectors. They got a Lam/iides [Uaytvardio) telicannx two or 
three days ago, neai' Celerina. I could see no trace of Hrcbia flavo- 
faariata yesterday on the Schafberg, though I went far about. At 
Davos the peasants said everything was three weeks early. I expect 
butterllies are very irregular. I hope you will have a fine time, but 
the heat of Bellinzona ought to be an experience to remember." 

8. Pontresina. 

"July 80th, 1904. 
" A Professor, of Berlin, has taken Krehia darofascidta here this 
year, from July lst-15th. Not in my place, but between the first 
Schafberg Restaurant and Languard Alp ditto. 200 yards from restau- 
rant, in a ravine, and in a further (south) ravine below path, and just 
before it, on an even steep grass shoulder, with a good guide's path up. 
This last is above the horizontal path. A friend will ask if he has found 
Erebia christi ; I suppose from your account on a path above Languard 
Alp Restaurant, which the natives use. The Professor says Kiebia 
nerine is to be had at top of the Laquinthal (under Piz), beyond first 
or second snow. This must be the north side of the valley, and high. 
Some collectors say here that hotter weather and more butterflies will 
come in August, but may we expect Parnassius deli us and Paniassiiisajiollo 
again--, which are now my few and old ? Also, will Jheniltis jtalex var. 
armlarlie return ? It is past now, but I got nme or ten (some very old) 
along edge of the Celerina woods, towards Pontresina. I have got five, 
twelve, and ten on three days, but most are old. 1 hope to go down 
for two or three nights to Murg, or Weesen. I go to look for Arasdniia 
levana var. prorsa, but return here. Hoffmann gives as tlie tim siinnner 
forms of Araschnia levana exactly the two distinct forms I got last year 
and this. Lang does not agree Avith my forms at all well, unless it be 

' I took twenty P. dcUus in excellent condition on August Dtb, 1914, in less 
than half an hour in the Suvretta Thai near the cow-hut at the gateway of the 
path.— H.J. T. 



108 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



one darker fly. I have two $ Paniassiusi deliiis (unless one is Parnas- 
siiifi apolln) with three red spots by discoidal spot. Brent his ino abounds, 
though now old, and Brenthis pales. Very few flies of any kind on 
high parts as near the Tscherva scherva glacier and hut. No Colias 
palaeiKi to be seen. I got two old BrenthU tlwre to-day in Rosegthal 
at the end in glades. They have been taken there all July. I 
cannot find Erebia eriphyle there." 

9. Araschnia levana var. prorsa, L., etc. 

" Hotel Speer, Weesen, August 3rd, 1904. 
" I came down here yesterday to look for var. jn-orsa in the 
Murgthal, and have just returned. There was scarcely any sun. 
Under the wood, on a tiny ridge, where avalanche debris lies about, I 
got one. Then a second after a long chase, and when the sun came 
out for a few minutes, four more. More sun produced no more there 
for a long time, but on going down (150 feet) to the warm, bare path 
and fountain, I got four at once, making my total ten. I fear all are 
a little spoilt, and would have been better a week ago. All (except 
one) have double white spots on centre of upperside fotewing, and a 
long white bar across hindwing, also a few small white spots besides. 
All the rest upperside is black with a few bright brown dashes. In 
one (perhaps a 2 ) the patches are yellow or creamy. I think I have 
now the three forms portrayed by Hofl'mann, for I do not think this 
is the form of which I took six last year. It is larger, and the white 
spots are larger, but I will read Hoftmann again when I return to 
Pontresina. This form flies like small ' White Admirals,' and greatly 
resembles them. Before leaving Pontresina I heard that the German 
Professor (who perhaps collects for the Berlin Museum) got fifteen 
Erebia fiavofasciata this year, and his companion forty. The forty were 
given away to Mr. W. Rothschild, who has been at Campfer. At this 
rate the persistent 'pot-hunters' will certainly clear the place, which is 
too easy to get at. Happily there are scores of similar mountains about, 
with gullies that look likely places for it. I hear of a place called 
Guarda above Siis, as a great place for plants and insects. Scarcely 
anything was on the wing to-day, except Dryas jtaplria and some 
Erebiae. Rain came on at 2 p.m. Certainly the ' Murgthal-place' for 
Araschnia lecana is easy to reach — one good hour up from Murg. I 
may go there again to-morrow if fine." 

10. Stampa. 

"Hotel Speer, Weesen, August 31st, 1904. 
"I came here yesterday after two weeks at Stampa, in the Val 
Bregaglia. Of course it was too late for much there, but 5 ' coppers' 
were very common, and ('hri/sopJianiis (^Heodes) virganreae a, brighter 
yellow tint (uppersides and perhaps undersides too) even than those I 
got at Pontresina. I have many, but scarcely any from either place 
are quite fresh. I also got two or three dark and rather interesting 
Buinicia phlaeas, one with blue ante-marginal spots. I got three ? 
Loireia {Chri/sophanns) alciphron var. (jordins, but saw no 3 s, and only 
two 3 s oi H. vinjaureae. My great catch at Stampa was three Lampides 
telicanus. The first two in about an hour, on August 17th. Then last 
Sunday — the 28th— close to the same spot, another was on the path, 
and I knocked it over with my hat — as fine a fly as the others, only 



NOTES ON BRKEDING ODONTOPERA BIDENTATA. 109 

minus one tail. You may like to know the spot was about half a mile 
west of Stampa, beyond the hamlet of Cultura ; one found by the 
rough bridge, and the two just beyond, in clearings of alder scrub. 
That was a good place too for ' Coppers.' Stampa seems well placed. 
Promontogno is too hot and shut in, but I should like to hunt earlier 
in the lovely little Val Bondasca above it. I have come here to look 
for var. proisa, but it has turned out too wet. I shall probably stay a 
few days." 



Notes on breeding Odontopera bidentata. 

By W. BOWATEK, Lieut. It.A.M.C.T., F.E.S. 
In 1909 I commenced breeding Odontajiera bidentata, a^nd have con- 
tinued till the present time. My main object was to discover the 
method of the heredity of the melanic form of this species. It was 
found to be Medelian; the melanic form being a simple dominant, and 
the type form the recessive. Full details have been recorded. • Since 
then the experiment has produced still more evidence to confirm this. 

I have bred from ova ... ... 2300 specimens. 

Ditto from larvte ... ... ... 350 ,, 

Imngines captured or exchanged ... 700 ,, 

Total in cabinet ... ... 3850 

I have now about 650 pupa;. 

During the experiment over 200 pairings have been made, and 71 
families have reached maturity. This does not represent the mortality 
due to disease. Many families were given away, or exchanged, or 
destroyed. 

Copious notes on every detail of the life-history have been made, 
and may on analysis be found useful for publication at a future date. 
This specially refers to microscopical details. Throughout the experi- 
ment scrupulous care has been taken to keep each family separate, for 
in the study of heredity this is absolutely essential, a xinc qua non. 
Departure from this rule has led at times to some confusion, and 
apparently conflicting evidence. I would earnestly appeal to all 
breeders of Lepidoptera to keep families separate, and so labelled that 
material would be formed from which valuable evidence might be 
obtained bearing on some of the vexed questions of heredity, especially 
as to the heredity of mnall characteristics, anatomical, physiological, 
and even psychological. The following details are observations made 
on the specimens used in the experiment and on them only. 

1. I'aiiini/. — This usually occurs soon after emergence, and in 
several cases even before the wings were quite dry. In some cases, 
however, 2-1 hours elapsed before copulation. In three cases fruitful 
pairing occurred between $ s emerged 4-7 days and fresh J s. Copu- 
lation almost invariably occurs between 8 p.m. and 11 p.m. The J 
in almost every case holding on to the lid of the box or cage, and the 
3 hanging pendulous without foothold. Separation occurs in the 
early hours of the morning. In one case only copulation began at 

* 1. Trans. Brit. Assoc, 1913. 

2. Journal of Genetics, vol. lii., no. 4, April 1914, pp. 299-315. 



110 THE ENTOMOL,OGISt's RECORD. 

10 a.m. and ended at 3 p.m. Fruitful pairings have frequently- 
occurred in temperatures of 40°F.-50°F. ; and in several cases at 33°F. 

2. Ovulation. — -Unimpregnated $ s almost invariably deposit ova 
5-12 days after emergence. An impregnated ? usually deposits about 
100 ova during the night following impregnation, and repeats the 
process within the next 24 hours. A large chip pill box was used for 
ovulation, and most ? s were satisfied to lay their ova on its sides or 
lid, but some preferred the small twigs which were always placed in 
the box. The 2 s were usually killed as soon as 100 ova were laid, in 
order to retain them in good condition, but if allowed to live in some 
cases 400-500 ova were deposited, and in one case 585 were noted. In 
gauze cages, the gauze was commonly used as a place for oviposition. 
Glass also often served. 

Both sexes accepted moistened lump sugar as refreshment in the 
intervals of their marital duties. 

3. Ova. — Pale yellow when laid ; if fertile, becoming bronze in 3-8 
days, according to temperature. Hatching occurs in 15-84 days, 
according to temperature. In ordinary April and May weather 22 
days. The bronze colour deepens and becomes dusky 36-24 hours 
before hatching. Ova were kept in glass topped tin boxes. Hatching 
is usually spread over 2-5 days. Introduction of even a single leaf 
before hatching is fatal to the ova, presumably this is due to the 
moisture. 

4. Larva' on liatchimj take no further notice of the egg-shell, but 
are very active, and walk round ceaselessly till the}^ find a pabulum. 
Of one batch, which after hatching was forgotten for 72 hours, nearly 
all were found to be alive. The larvfe were kept in glass topped tin 
boxes for the first few days, or even few weeks, of their existence. If 
direct sunlight is prevented from falling on the boxes the mortality is 
extremely low. Throughout the experiment, of all the larvje which 
hatched less than 5% died from disease. 

5. Lenijth of larval life.— In the single case where forcing was 
tried, hatching to cocoon formation occupied 41-64 days. Under 
apparently natural conditions the shortest was May 3rd-June 20th. 

Much depends on the foodplant. 

6. Food-plant. — Privet, especially the evergreen variety, and apple, 
are the best food-plants. They promote more rapid growth in the 
larva? than ivy, pear, plum, sallow, birch, hawthorn, Prioms /lii^sardU, 
willow, poplar, travellers' joy, which also form useful food-plants. 
Broom produced but very slow growth, but all lived. 

7. Ca;ics.- — In addition to 

(a) Ordinari/ breedimf cages, epecially that special variety which 
■each collector has evolved for his own use, and secretly considers the 
best on earth. 

(b) Biscuit tins, half-size, were found to be most useful, giving a 
minimum of trouble, occupying so little space, and cheap, and above 
all healthy, as might hardly be expected, and, moreover, repeated 



NOTES ON BREEDING ODONTOPERA BIDENTATA. Ill 

experiment proved that larvse fed up much more rapidly in these tins 
than in any other form of breeding cage. 

The floor of the tin is covered with one inch of moss fibre, diiihtlij 
damp, with a piece of paper on top, leaving a margin, and the twigs of 
privet or apple laid on top. 

Although it is necessary to open them at least every 48 hours, one 
or two minutes sufJtices to change the food, and the mortality was not 
above 3%, including some weak families. Ten to 35 larvae pupated in 
each tin, and in many cases mortality was nil, the larvje being put in 
when half grown. 

{(■) Slccriiui. — Ova, or very young larvfe, were sleeved on privet and 
apple. Mortality less than 2%, except from parasites. As rate of 
(growth in the various families and within a family is so variable, 
frequent watching is necessary in order to remove full fed larva? to 
material suitable for pupation. 

H. Coldiir (if iMnue. — It was interesting to note the variation of 
colour due to environment, as proved in Professor Poulton's classical 
experiments. The red of PrnnnR pissardii. twigs, the beautiful green 
of apple shoots, the gray brown or black of apple twigs, and the brown 
of moss fibre, were all faithfully imitated. 

9. liiiltits of Larva-. — They feed only at night, eating voraciously 
and moving actively. Characteristic " stick" habits by day. Not only 
a general feeder, but enjoys a mixed diet, or after feeding for weeks on 
one food-plant readily changes to another. Occasionally cannibalism 
has been suspected, but never actually observed, and certainly does not 
occur if food supply is plentiful. It is very probaljle that various 
characteristics and habits of larvje run in families, and efforts have 
been made to collect evidence on this point. 

10. I'lijiation. — Larvae prefer moss fibre to any thing else in my 
experience. It should bo sieved to remove dust and very fine particles. 
If cokernut fibre is used many imagines are strangled and fail to 
emerge from cocoons. Althoutijh dead leaves always littered the cage 
floor, larvfe used them for pupation in only about ten out of over 2500 
observed cases. 

11. i'ocoim is made of granules of moss fibre, and is lined by a 
loose meshed network of strong, thick strands of silk. The cocoons 
are usually collected in bunches, but I have never found two pupte in 
one cocoon. If a larva has no available material for cocoon, it spins a 
slight net of fine closely meshed silk. If left late in a sleeve, frass is 
utilised in forming the cocoon. 

12. I'lipa. — Larval skin is shed in 3-5 days after the cocoon is 
foriueii. The pupa moves if touched at any time throughout the 
winter. If kept indoors, even in a non-heated room, emergence of the 
imago occurs frequently in December, January, and February, especially 
of the melanic form. In this observation I am supported by several 
entomological friends. Curiously enough 

13. F(irciii(/ during the autumn does not hasten the emergence. 



112 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

Pupfe have been kept at 65-78° F. for ten weeks in autumn and they 
emerged no sooner than the rest of the family left in a cold room. 

14. EiDenjence has been repeatedly noted in January and February 
when the thermometer in the cage stood at 33° F. In one instance 
only a pupa forced its way half out of its cocoon five days before the 
imago emerged. Normally dehiscence occurs inside the cocoon. In 
cases where exit is impossible the 2 deposits ova in the cocoon. 

Emergence almost always occurs between 7 and 11 p.m. Growth 
of wings occupies 15-20 minutes, and the moths are able to retain their 
hold on vertical glass. 

15. Habits of iiiia/fiues. — During day very sluggish, resting with 
the wings flat, with the upper hiding the lower, hiding in corners, and 
if possible touching a leaf, label, or another moth. 

In the evening and during the night they rest with wings upright 
over the back. 

Females can be handled with impunity, and lose condition but 
little if allowed to live a week in cage or pill- box. 

16. Variation. — When freshlj- emerged some of the imagines are 
surprisingly handsome. In the type form, variation extends from the 
palest yellow, butt", orange, fawn, grey, golden brown, up to dark brown 
with heavier markings. 

Within the melanic form variation occurs in the intensity, and 
exact tint of the blackness, and m some cases a large central patch 
of brown occurs on the forewings, and at times this is sharply defined 
and quite light in colour. 

The melanic form is, however, quite sharply defined from the 
darkest of the type forms by the fact that in every melanic the 
abdomen and legs are black, and never is this so in the type. Thus 
even cripples can be distinguished. The thoracic hairs in the melanic 
are often lighter than in the type. 

A non-entomological eye can distinguish between the two forms in 
almost every case ; and not one of all my specimens could be called 
intermediate, thus difl'ering from A. betularia, S. lubricipeda, A. 
nchulof^a, etc. 

Some specimens are scantily-scaled and these are often rather 
handsome. 

Males are on the average slightly smaller and darker than the 
corresponding females. This' applies to all forms and varieties. 

In a " Journal of Variation," I feel that more prominence should 
be given to this part of the subject, and trust for an opportunity to 
dilate on this when I see my specimens again. 

17. G!/)ia)i(lroiiior/)hi!iiii. — Only one specimen showed signs of this, 
the left half being apparently (J , and the right half $ . I hope to 
publish microscopical details later. 

18. Inbreeding was sustained well as shown in diagrams. 

19. Safiitation. — I am assured that the frequent sterilisation by 
boiling of cages and boxes and sleeves was essential in this breeding 



NOTES ON BREEDING ODONTOPERA BIDENTATA. 113 

experiment ; and lack of this precaution is a common cause of failure 
in similar ventures. 

20. Parositcs. — Of these (i.) I>nrkha)isenia psendospretella was the 
most harmful. In spite of carefully baking the mossfibre used, loss 
was caused each year by the larvie of this moth eating the bidentata 
puptp. The only consolation was afforded by remarkable cases of 
assembling displayed by the parasite. 

(ii.) Four cases of Ichneumon appeared. 

(iii.) Of the coleoptera a cannibal species slaughtered fifteen larvae 
and pupfe in two sleeves. 

(iv.) l'!anri'(/s are under my suspicion, but several prolonged 
attempts to persuade them when under observation, to devour larvae 
or soft pupae failed. 

(v.) Mice accounted for 300 pupaj in 1912-13, but fortunately did 
not break the generations. 

21. iMhellin//. — Every cage or box was labelled inside and out. 
The orthodox method was used ; thus : — 

10-4 = family derived from the 4th pairing in 1910. 
1334= „ „ „ „ 34th „ „ 1913. 

(See diagrams). 

22. Double Brood.- — Family 13*20 consists of about 100 members, 
which fed as larvae during May, June, July, 1913, the last to pupate 
going down on July 31st. Although kept in a cold room, a few 
imagines emerged in December, and on January 8th. 1914, two 
emerged and paired. The resultant ova. Family 14*2, were divided 
into : — 

(i.) Batch A, kept in a room at 45°F-55°F. They hatched on 
February 1st, and the larvag were incubated at 65°F. They pupated 
(about 50) from March 12th-28th. Pupae were forced in a friend's 
greenhouse and imagines emerged in July. Two paired July 20th 
and the resultant ova, 15*1, hatched August 10th. My wife, although 
absolutely inexperienced in entomology, rose to the occasion, and 
took charge of these (and of all my other specimens) from this date. 
The larvae were kept in an ordinary room, fed on apple and privet 
and about 50 safely pupated September 12th-October 3rd, thus 
completing the double brood. 

(ii.) Batch B ova of 14-2 were left in the cold room. They did 
not hatch till February 22nd, the temperature then being 44°F. 
During the next few w^eks they lived in 42°F.-53°F. On April 2nd 
they were sleeved in the garden, survived several nights frosts and 
pupated out of doors in the first twelve days of Ma}'. 

Although still left out of doors, some of the imagines appeared in 
the first three weeks in September. Two emerged October 9th and 
paired. Resultant ova, 15-2, brought indoors, and kept in a living 
room. They hatched November 6th, and fed on evergreen privet, 
pupated in the last week of January and first week of February, 1915. 

Thus bidentata can with care, be made to withstand various dis- 
advantages of parentage and environment. 

23. Breedimj black fonns. — Finally, with regard to the statement 



114 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



heard at times that the melanic form of hidentata does not " breed 
true," the explanation is that in this species blackness is dominant, 
not recessive as in A. ;/rosfiiilariata. 

A recessive character is easy to get pure and " breed true," and a 
dominant character is difficult. Our domestic sheep forms a good 
example ; — whiteness is recessive, and blackness dominant. 

To put it in a practical way for the benefit of those entomologists 
(probably still numerous) who have not had opportunity or inclination 
to study Mendelism : — 

All Type hidentata (whether their parents were both type, one type 
and one black, or both black) are exactly alike as regards their powers 
of transmitting colour to their offspring. 

Melanic specimens all look exactly alike, but really consist of two 
sorts, differing in powers of transmitting colour : — 

A. Pure melanic. (homozygous). 

B. Impure melanic. (heterozygous). 
Therefore, 

1. Type X type always produces offspring all types. 

2. Type X melanic produces either 

i. offspring all melanic. 
or ii. offspring 50% melanic, 50% type. 

3. Melanic x melanic produces either 

i. offspring all melanic. 
ii. offspring 75% melanic, 25% type. 
In 2 i. the melanic parent must have been A. 

The melanic specimens of families 2 i. and 2 ii. are all B. 

In 3 i. although all look alike, there are two possibilities : — 

If both parents were A, the offspring are all A. 

If one parent was A, and one B, then the offspring are 50% A 
and 50% B (although they all look alike). 

In 3 ii. the parents must have been both B. Of the melanic 
specimens (75%), i are A, and | B. 

Thus to get a pure black strain is very difficult, because A cannot 
be distinguished by the eye from B, but attention to the above points 
will help. 

A common experience is as follows : — A black specimen is taken 
and deposits ova. Larvfe carefully reared, and the following year 
imagines appear, either 50% or all black. In either case, two blacks 
are chosen ; paired and larvaB reared. Next year imagines are 76% 
black and 25% type. 

(The type are really pure although parents black, so time spent in 
breeding from them is wasted). 

Two black are chosen, and here is the difficulty. There are twice 
as many B's as A's, so the chances of picking two A's is less than the 
chance of picking A and B, or two B's, and thus often to the chagrin 
of the breeder aiming at a " pure," strain, types again appear. 

Still, as I have shown, definite rules govern the heredity of melanism, 
and mongrelisation is only apparent not real. 

[I wish to acknowledge with thanks the courtesy of Messrs. 
Mosely of Birmingham, G. T. Porritt, Parkin, and A. Home, who 
have given me valuable advice and helped in other ways.] 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 



115 



09-1 



10-2 



York 



11-9 



09-1 



10-4 



091 



. 09-2 

I 



10-3 



11-4 Middlesex 



12-44 
I 



I 
13-20 



14-2 



I 
1212 



(Pupated September) 15-1 & 15-2 (pupated February, 1915). 



09-1 



10-4 

I I 

I I 
1111 



09-1 



09- 



10-3 



Warwick 
(wild) 



11-23 



12-34 
13-34 
14-20 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Hibernation of Vespa vulgaris. — Having a warm corner in my 
heart for the British Vcspidae I was particularlj' interested in Miss 
Fison's note on p. 87 under the above heading. It is not a rare thing 
I believe to find queen wasps hibernating behind pictures, but they 
are usually attached to the /nctnn', not to the iiall. It is not clear 
how the thread referred to secured the wasp to the wall ; if it were in 
the form of a loop over the thorax or abdomen in the manner of the 
thread in the case of the pupa) of Pierid and other butterflies, then 
I should think it was spun by a spider after the wasp had become 
thoroughly torpid. Since queen wasps fold up their legs and wings 
beneath the abdomen and thorax and cling to the support only by 
their jaws, the specimen in question must have gripped a small 
irregularity in the plaster of the wall by that means, or possibly, a 



116 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

strand of spider's web already there. If Miss Fison can elicit more 
definite information on these points it would be useful. — C. Nicholson 
(F.E.S.), 35, The Avenue, Hale End, Chingford, Essex. 

Thaumatopaea pityocampa. — The larvfe Miss Fison saw {E7it. Bee, 
xxvii., p. 86) in the road at Pallanza, on February 11th, were certainly 
not processionea but jiityocainiia. The larvie of the latter hatch in 
autumn, make their great nests in the pine trees, and are full-fed in 
early spring, they then leave the trees and "process" across country 
roads or anywhere, to find a place in which to spin their cocoons and 
pupate. They enter some cavity together and spin their cocoons in a 
mass. They do " process " on the trees from their nests to the feeding 
places, but only leave the trees and march on the ground when ready 
to pupate. Pityocampa feeds on pines, and in its southern habitats 
feeds all the winter. On the other hand processionea feeds on deciduous 
trees, usually oaks. The small larvfe may be found, in beautifully 
radiating groups, on oak leaves, not very long after these have fully 
expanded in the spring, but they still have nearly all their growth and 
feeding to do, and are not full-fed till well on in the summer. The 
life histories of both species are well-known, and the discrimination 
between them when found as larvae is easy, but the facts do not seem 
to be familiar to everyone. — T. A. Chapman (M.D.), Betula, Reigate. 
April, 1915. 



(grURRENT NOTES AND SHORT NOTICES. 

The earnest sympathies of all our readers will go out to Professor 
E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., of the Hope Museum, for the loss of his son, 
Lieutenant R. W. Poulton-Palmer, killed in action in France. 
Lieutenant Poulton took the name of Palmer two years ago when he 
inherited the fortune of his uncle, a director of the great biscuit 
factory at Reading. He was a well known athlete and had taken part 
in many first-class and international matches. 

Those entomologists who were present at the South London 
Entomological Society to hear Dr. Dixey's paper on " Seasonal 
Dimorphism " had a treat. It was an admirable and lucid statement 
of the phenomena by the author at his best, and was fully illustrated 
by diagrams and a valuable series of appropriate slides. Those 
members of the Society who were unable to be present will enjoy 
reading this paper ivhen it is printed. 

The word when in the last paragraph calls attention to a grievance 
which not only authors of papers, read at our various societies, have, 
but which is also shared by the audience, the members unfortunately 
unable to be present, and often by science itself. An extreme 
instance may be quoted. On February 12th, 1914, our colleague, the 
Rev. G. Wheeler, read a very valuable paper on the "Genus Melitaea" 
at a London Society, and yet owing to the customary routine this paper 
has not yet been published. 

This is in no way intended to signalise any individual society ; similar 
delays occur in most of them. A paper read early in the official year 
rarely gets printed until well over twelve months after, and it may, by 
that time, be somewhat out of date. Having appreciated the delay, 
and its effects on the progress of our knowledge, how can it be avoided ? 
There seem but two ways to get over the difficulty, either the societies 



CURRENT NOTES. 117 

must have more frequent issues of their proceedings, a much more costly 
arrangement than the present annual issue, or the magazines must 
step in and publish the papers, when the societies would lose the 
advertisement and credit. Of course the whole difficulty is one of 
pounds, shillings and pence. No society can exist unless the sub- 
scription is very moderate, and every society must proclaim its work 
to the world and advertise itself by a publication. This latter is costly 
and usually falls largely on the shoulders of a few more enthusiastic 
members. There is always the necessity for the most rigid economy 
in the finances of a society which would be quite impossible did pub- 
lication of papers occur every few months. Is it worth the while 
for these smaller societies to cripple their resource and so restrict 
their usefulness by struggling to publish papers '? Some papers in 
these lesser publications are naturally very limited in their appli- 
cation and perhaps, from a scientific point of view, not worth 
printing, while others are of more or less permanent value and their 
restricted circulation is not only a loss to the advancement of science 
if so published, but, even may be completely hidden away, as was for 
so many years the now famous paper of Mendel on Heredity. Every 
new serial publication adds to the difficulty of the future student ; at 
the present time it is well nigh impossible for any individual worker 
by himself to make a complete search in a question which for the time 
being he is dealing with. On the other hand each member of a society 
feels that he is hardly dealt with if he has nothing in return for his 
subscription, nothing permanent to remind him of his many pleasant 
hours of social concourse with his fellow enthusiasts. Such are some 
of the points in a difficulty that one sees. 

Professor Forel has recently described three new species of ant from 
South Africa, under the following names, Tetiawariinii juffrei, T. 
frenchi, and T. popovici. — H.D. 

The Growth and Organization of Applied Entomology in the United 
States is the title of a Reprint from the Junrnal of Kroncmic Kntnw- 
oloyy, by P. J. Parrott. He shows that the great feature of the past 
quarter of a century was " the rise of the entomological expert with his 
official connections, and of organizations of workers engaged in the 
promotion of agriculture" and that this movement " has exerted a 
profound influence on the aims and success of this branch of science " 
in the country. The development of iMitomology, he shows, to be 
largely utilitarian, induced by the continued application to legislatures 
for assistance in coping with the overwhelming insect depredations and 
by the inability of individuals to deal unaided with the trouble. The 
history of state-aid m applied Entomology in the States is sketched, 
and reference is made to such eminent pioneers as Harris, Fitch and 
and Riley. The Budget for 1918-14 provided no less than 752,210 
dollars for this purpose in connection with agriculture. The author 
concludes with a plea for greater opportunities for experimental work, 
which the insistent demands of present arrangements in economic work 
do not permit to be sufficiently undertaken. 

For many years we have been accustomed to go through the cata- 
logues of second-hand books, not only with the object of finding a 
bargain or a desideratum, but for the interesting comments of the 
compiler on a large number of items. These remarks are not only 
often very instructive from a historical, literary and scientific point of 



118 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

view, but they are frequently most amusing and even witty in their 
comment. The war even has had an effect upon the fertile brains of 
these would-be instructors, for from a catalogue recently to hand we 
cull the following caustic items. " Becker (Leon) Les Araclmides de 
Belf/iqiie." .... " Since the publication of the above work 
Belgium has been overrun by the enormous migration of a gigantic 
blood-sucking spider, Knlturia vastatrix, Treits., with falces of a 
noxiousness hitherto unknown to naturalists. Although in their new 
habitat these Araclmida have approximated to the trap-door spiders, 
their expulsion and extermination is only a matter of time." " Bene- 
den (Pierre Joseph), LouvAiN, ^H?/;/flZ Parrrs/Yf'.s rtHci M«.s.s»/a(«?s." . . . . 
"Like Belgium in general, Louvain in particular is suffering from the 
unexpected arrival of vermin of a very low type, which are unlikely to 
survive the freshening winds of spring." " Lambillion (L. J. L.) 
Histoire Natiirelle de Moeiirs de tons les FapilloJis de Beliivjue." .... 
" The complete devastation by the savages of so much of the low-lying 
area of Belgium may very possibly lead to some of the species here 
described becoming extinct." " Haeckel (Ernst), Report of the Sipho- 
niphorae, etc." . . . . " This is the man who, with Dr. Eucken, 
put forth, with his tongue in his cheek, the lying statement, that the 
French invaded Belgium before his own countrymen did." And so 
forth. 

Among the more interesting matter in the January magazines are 
the following. The Canadian Entomologist : — (1) F. H. WoUey Dod 
continues his valuable contribution to our knowledge of the Lepi- 
doptera of Alberta ; he deals in this chapter with further Noctuid 
species. (2) L. W. Swett continues his Revision of the genus Hydrio- 
mena : the group with long palpi is under consideration at present. 
(3) The first of what purports to be a very useful series of articles on 
the educational side, entitled " Popular and Economic Entomology," 
is published. This instalment deals with " Some Inhabitants of a 
Land Plain in June," using as a text the locality Aweme, Manitoba, 
and the date June 20th. The Scottish Naturalist: — (1) Frank Balfour 
Browne contributes the first portion of an account of the Aquatic 
Coleoptera of the Outer Hebrides, dealing with the general character- 
istics and limits of the area and methods of collection, record and 
study involved. The Entoinolof/ist's Monthly Mayazine : — •(!) F. N. 
Pierce and the Rev. J. W. Metcalfe describe three new species of Tor- 
tricidae, discovered in working through the genitalia of the British 
representatives of the group. The species are Cnephasia yenitalana, 
hitherto stated to have been mixed in collections and confused with C. 
conspersana. Of the latter species the authors also announce and 
describe an aberration, viz., ab. albo-eonspersana, and of Cnephasia octo- 
macidana they also describe a new aberration, ab. albo-octoiimcnlana, 
both aberrations are forms which might possibly be confounded with 
the new species. (2) Voecilochroina potnedaxana, described from series 
bred by Mr. E. Studd, at Oxton, Devon, and hitherto considered as a 
form of h\ profundana upon the authority of Mr. E. R. Bankes. It 
has been bred for a number of years from old apple trees. (3) Lipo- 
ptycha aeratana has been confused hitherto with series of Dicroranipha 
[Lipoptycha) pliiinbana and 1). saturnana, or even among series of D. 
tanaceti. The Kntoxioloyist: — (1) J. W. Harrison contributes an article 
" On the Hybrids of the genus Oporabia with some notes on its ' Micro- 



CURRENT NOTES. 119 

genes.' " (2) L. B. Prout announces and describes the following new 
melanic aberrations of species of Kiqiitlwcia. E. nanata ab. oliveri, 
bred by Mr. Oliver from Warwickshire ; /•-'. lariciata ab. 7ii(/ra, captured 
in the same district by Mr. Oliver; f,'. iuuotata ab. imicalor, bred 
second-brood small dark form from Durham. (3) Notes on the Larval 
and Pupal Stages in some of the Si'siiilae = Ae(ieiiidac, by Col. R. H. 
Rattray. 

The following are the more important articles in the h'ntntnohxjirol 
News for the latter half of 1914. (1) An account of the life and work 
of " J. Brackenridge Clemens," who, it will be remembered, was the 
friend and correspondent of Stainton, and who, with the latter, took 
considerable interest in the Micro-lepidoptera of the United States. 
Clemens was in fact the "father" of the study of the smaller moths 
in America. (2) An account of " Butterfly-collecting in Mojave 
County, Arizona," by J. R. Haskins, of Los Angeles, describes the 
district in an interesting manner and gives notes on the chief species 
and forms found, including I';/ra)iieis cardiii, Sync/doe californica, 
I'ieris jnotoiUce, Libi/thea hachmanni, L'olias cnrytlnnne, Papilio astcriax, 
etc. (3) " The origin of Oligotropism in Bees," by .John H. Lovell. 
(4) Dr. Phillip P. Calvert continues his " Studies on Costa Rica 
Odonata," dealing with the " Waterfall Dwellers " in this contribution. 
There is one plate. (5) Messrs. E. M. Swainson and Henry Skinner 
describe a larva of the rare Jamaican Papilio, P. honn'rns, and figure 
it. (6) John Werner Pranzen gives a list, with notes, on " Minesota 
Butterflies," mainly from his own observations. (7) Harry B. Weiss 
goes into the subject of the introduction and spread of injurious 
insects, in an article entitled " Insects found on Nurserj- Stock im- 
ported into New Jersey during 1913." More than half the imported 
stock was from Belgium, and the rest largely from Holland. A list of 
the insects met with is given with the host plant of each species. 

(8) John H. Lovell enters into a discussion on the question " Why do 
Honey-bees discriminate against black ?" He gives the curious facts 
that, " Of a flock of twelve chickens running in a bee-yard seven black 
ones were stung to death, while five light coloured ones escaped 
uninjured. A white dog ran among the bee-hives without attracting 
much attention, while at the same time a black dog was furiously 
assailed by the bees." "A black and white cow, tethered about forty 
feet from an apiary, was one afternoon attacked and badly stung by 
bees. On examination it was found that the black spots had five or 
six stings to one on the white." " A black felt hat will be literally 
decorated with stings, while a gray hat will not get a single sting." 

(9) B. W. Evermann reports from the San Joaquin Valley, California, 
on the abundance of Pi/ra»iiis canhii in April, 1914. He says, " As we 
drove through the fields of yellow mustard these beautiful butterflies 
flew up in front and on either side of us literally % tlwir t/unt.santls. 
There must have been millions of them, they were everywhere in the 
fields." (10) H. A. Allard describes a series of experiments he has made 
on the subject of " Locust Stridulations." 



j^OC I E T IE S. 

The Entomological Society of London. — February 3n/, 1915. — 



120 THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD. 

Election of Fellow. — Mr. Adam Charles Smith, of Horton, Morning- 
ton Road, Woodford Green. Nomination of Vice-Presidents. — The 
President announced that he had appointed Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, 
Mr. E. Ernest Green, and Dr. G. B. Longstaff to act as Vice-Presidents 
for the current session. South European Rhopalocera. — Mr. E. B. 
Ashby exhibited some Ruralids from Southern Europe, including 
specimens from Digne, le Vernet, and La Granja. A Giant Glow- 
worm. — Mr. E. E. Green exhibited specimens of the giant glow-worm 
of Ceylon {LaniprophoiKs tenebrosux), and its male — a large firefly. An 
Ingenious Device. — Dr. H. Eltringham exhibited an instrument made 
to his instructions by the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company, 
for cutting paraffin blocks perfectly square preparatory to placing them 
on the microtome. The Life-history of Agrotis lucernea. — Mr. 
Lupton communicated notes on this species at Torquay. The habits 
of the Australian Buprestid "Fire-beetle," Merimna atraea, Lap. et 
Gory. — Prof. Poulton exhibited specimens of the above-named beetle 
and read notes. The Australian Buprestid beetles Stigmodera con- 
SPiciLLATA, White, and S. cyanura, Hope, proved to be female and 
male of the same species. — Prof. Poulton exhibited the male and female 
of S. consjiieillata. The two sexes had been bred by Mr. H. M. Giles 
from the same food-plant, Melaleuca sp., and had also been captured by 
him in coitu. The African ant Megaponera foetens, F., and its raids 
upon termites. — Prof. Poulton said that he had recently received notes 
upon the habits of this ant from three different observers. Butter- 
flies from Biak. — Mr. Talbot exhibited on behalf of Mr, J. Joicey a 
number of new forms of Lepidoptera from Biak, the largest of the 
Schouten Islands to the north of New Guinea. The following paper 
was read : — " New Butterflies and a Moth from Biak," by J. J. Joicey, 
F.L.S., F.E.S., and A. Noakes, F.E.S. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History Society. 

February 11th. — New members. — Messrs. E. J. Bunnett, M.A., of 
Forest Hill, and Gordon Fryer, of Twickenham, were elected members. 
New records re Pyrameis atalanta. — Mr. L. W. Newman communi- 
cated a long record of the results of the October pairing of Pyrameis 
atalanta, and of his unsuccessful attempt to keep the fertile females 
alive through the winter. He felt conscious that we were almost 
entirely dependent upon immigration for our supply of this species. 
Mr. Frohawk said that P. atalanta was on the wing all the winter in 
suitable weather in the Scilly Isles. Mr. Barrett said that it occurred 
similarly in Sicily all the winter. Cocoon structure. — Mr. R. Adkin 
exhibited photographs, highly magnified, of the silken thread construc- 
tion of the cocoons of Satumia pavonia, Anthrocera tili]>e7idiilae and 
Dicrafiura vintila. Lantern slides.- — Mr. Frohawk showed a large 
number of lantern slides of birds, and gave an address incorporating 
his own observations on the Scilly Isles. 



Correction. — An unpardonable error has crept into the last num- 
ber of the magazine for which the author of the paper is not respon- 
sible. On page 79 Anthocharis belia var. bellezina should of course be 
Anthocharis tagia var. bellezina. — H.J.T. 



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Chloroform Bottle, 2/0. Insect Lens, 1/- to 8/-. Glass-top and Glass-bottomed Boxes, 
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Taxidermist's Companion, containing most necessary implements for skimiing, 10/6. 
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By special request of nuiny of my clients, 1 have issued a small leaflet entitled, 
"Valuable Hints to Collectors." This little work will be found most useful to 
the advanced collector as well as the beginner and one of the hints alone is worth more 
than the cost of the work. Amongst other matters it deals with treatment of Ova, Larvoe 
and Puprc in captivity, cleaning insects for grease, killing and setling, and gives some 
very useful substitute foodplants. Price 9d. only, post free. 

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Remember my Relaxing Tins and Text-book. 
L. W. NEWMAN, F.E.S., Bexley, Kent. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

A hitherto unknown organ in the Ancillary Appendages of the Lepidoptera 

(Agerona sps.), Dr. J. L. Reverdi)i (with plate) . . . . . . . . . . 97 

An easy method of identifying the species of the genus Cnephasia (Tortricidee), 

F. N. Pierce, F.E S., and Rev. J. W. Metcalfe, F.E.S. (with plate) . . . . 99 

Notes on the Swiss Rhopalocera. V., the late A. J. Fison . . . . . . . . 103 

Notes on breeding Odontopera bidentata, IF, Bowater, F.E.S. - .. .. .. 109 

Scientific Notes and Observations : — Hibernation of Vespa vulgaris, C. Nicholson, 

F.E.S.; Thaumatopsea pityocampa, Dr. T. J. C/)((/;ma7! .. .. .. 115 

CcRBENT Notes and Short Notices . . . . . . . . . • . . . . 116 

Societies : — The Entomological Society of London ; The South London Entomo- 
logical Society .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 119 

COPRECTION • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . 120 



Communications have been received or have been promised from Dr. Chapman, Dr. 
Verity, Dr. Cockayne, Eev. G. Wheeler, Messrs. R. S. Bagnall, Hy. J. Turner, C. W. 
Colthrup, G. T. Bethune-Baker, H. E. Page, A. J. Fison, J. A. Simes, C. P. Pickett, 
P. P. Graves, P. H. Muschamp, Dr. Burr, A. Tetley, Parkinson Curtis, H. B. Williams, 
H. L. Earl, etc., with Reports of Societies and Reviews. 

All MS. and editorial matter should be sent and nil proofs returned to Hy. J. Turner, 
98, Drakefell Road, New Cross, London, S.E. 

We must earnestly request our correspondents not to send us comviiinications identical 
with those they are sending to other magazines. 

Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata should be sent, direct to Mr. H. E. Page, 
Bertrose, Gellatly Road, New Cross, S.E. 



FOR SALE. 

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The Entomologist, vols. 20-30, 1887-1B97 (11 years) „, .^ ^v, 
vols. 39-46, 1906-1913 (7 years ) *"' ^'"" ""' 
Entomologist's Record, &c., vols. 1-25. Price, £5 Os. Od. 
Practical Hints for the Field Lepidopterist, Tutt, 2 vols. 7s. 6d. 
Stainton's Manual of Butterflies and Moths, vol. 1. 2s. 6d. 
British Moths, Tutt, 2s. Moths of Brit. Isles (South), Vol. 2. Ss. 
British Lepidoptera, Tutt, vols. 1-5. The 5 vols, for £3 Os. Od. 
Natural History of the Brit. Butterflies and Moths, Ed. Newman, 2 vols. 17s. 6d. 
Lepidopterist's Calender, Jos Merrin. is. Out of print. 
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ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 



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READ THE BACK Nos. OF THE 

Entomologist's Record & Journal of Variation 

(Practical Hints, Field Work, etc. useful for every year's collecting). 
VOL. VI. 

The TITLES of some of the articles are as follows :— Notes on Butterfly Pupse, with some remarks 
on the Phylogenesis of the Rhopalocera."— Dr. T. A. Chapmctn, F.E.S., " Phytophagic Species."— 
Prof. A. Radclife Grote, M.A. "Varieties and aberrations of Nootuie from Doncaster."- -H. H. 
Corbett, M.R.C.IS. "The frenulum of the British species of Smerinthus."— G. C. Griffiths, F.Z.S., 
F.E.S. "Eudryas stse-johannis..' — A. liaiidife' Grote, M.A. "Parthenogenesis or Agamogenesis." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Larvfe."— R«!-. G. M. A. Hewitt, M.A. "Retrospect of a Lepidopterist for 1894." 
—J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Generic Names in the Nootuidse."— Pror. A. It. Grote, 31. A. " Pupa hunting in 
October."— J. IT'. Tutt, F.E.S. "Polygamy and Polyandry in Moths." "The nature of certain 
insect colours."— TT'.S. liieUmj, M.D., R. Freer, M.B., J. W. Tutt,'F.E.S., Rev. C. R. N. Burrows, J. Anderson, 
Jtin. "The Lepirioptera of Swansea."— A/ojor R. B. Robertson. " Caradrina ambigua in the Isle of 
Wight."— .4. J. Hodfies. "The insects of Bourg St. Maurice."— J^. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Orrhodia 
erythrocephala ab. glabra from Devonshire and comparison with C). vaccinii." — Dr. IT'. .S'. Riding, 
F.E.S. "Notes on Caradrina ambigua and C. superstes."— ./. IT'. Tutt, F.E.S. "Entomology and 
Entomologists, being the Annual Address to the City of London Entom. Society." Notes on 
Aphomia sociella " (with plate).— IT. P. Blackhiirne Maze, F.E.S. "Apterous females and Winter 
Emergence "—E. F. Studd, M.A., B.C.L., F.E.S., L. B. Pront, F.E.S. " Collecting Noctuidfe by Lake 
Erie."— ^. RadcHfle Grote, M.A. " Coleoptera at Ipswich." — Claude Morleii, F.E.S. "Notes on 
Bombus visurgice." " Synonymic Notes on Acidalia humilata and A. dilutaria." — L. B. Prout, F.E.S, 
"The Lepidoptera of Gresy-sur-Aix."— ./. ^^ Tutt, F.E.S. " Apatura iris."— Rev. G. M. A. Hewett' 
" Scheme of Classification of the Rhopalocera founded on the structure of the Pupte." — T. A. 
Chapman, M.D., F.E.S. "Glimpses of American Entomology."— J. IT'. Tutt, F.E.S. "The Genus 
Smerinthus." — A. Bacot. " Variation considered biologically : Some notes suggested by the Romanes 
Lecture of 1894."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Wing structure."— J. Alston Moffatt. "On the development 
of sex in social insects." — J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "The British representatives of the Genus Caradrina."— 
L. B. Prout, F.E.S. "Habits and variation of Lithosia lutarella and its variety pygmaeola." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. On the gradual disappearance of Lepidoptera from South-Eastern London and 
its neighbourhood. "—C. Fenn, F.E.S. "A hunt for Neuroterusaprilinus." — T.A. Chapman. M.D., F.E.S. 
"On the development of pigment in Nemeobius lucina." — F. J. Bnclzell, M.B. "The Macro-Lepi- 
doptera of Keswick." — H. A. Beadle. " Varieties of Argynnis selene " (with plate). — S. G. C. Ttussell, 
F.E.S. " Hadenoid genera with hairy eyes." — Prof. A. R. Gro'e, M.A. '• Zygsena minos and its 
varieties."— J. IT'. Tutt, F.E.S. "Notes on the pupse of Castnia and Anthocharis."— T. A, Chapman, 
M.D., F.E.S. Besides these articles, a large number of short notes are contained in every number under 
the foUewing titles: "Scientific Notes and Observations," " Variation," " Notes on Larvse and Life- 
histories," " Notes on Collecting," " Current Notes." The reports of Societies are very carefully edited^ 
and only scientific paragraphs published. The " Practical Hints " and " Field work " for each month 
are quite unique. 

The entomologist who will read carefully through the back numbers of The Entomologist's Hecord 
will find himself better equipped for the further study of his subject than by any other means. 
Price 7/6 per volume, of Mr. H. E. Page, " Bertrose." Gellatly Road, New Cross, S.E. 

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PAJARES. 121 

Pajares. 

By P. H. MUSCHAMP, F.E.S. 

On July 18th, 1914, the proprietor of The liecord and myself 
stepped out of the train at the Itttle station of Pajares after a long but 
rather amusing journey down from Paris. Pajares is a village in the 
Asturian Cantabrians, on the watershed between the provinces of Leon 
and Oviedo; it is 1364 metres above the sea level. This place is 
known to entomologists as being the haunt of h'rebia palarica, the 
largest and one of the most beautiful of its genus, a species found by 
Dr. Chapman in 1904, and not retaken since then. The mean expanse 
of wing of those he took is between 59mm. and 60mm., a 10mm. 
greater expanse than /•>'. cvias, the giant among Swiss Erebias. Its 
upper surface strongly resembles that of eviax, but the band on the 
imderside of its hindwings is abundantly distinct from those of either 
criaa or stj/tiue : its male genitalia are ver}' close indeed to the genitalia 
of Kti/iine, although the shoulder of the clasp is bolder in the two 
specimens which I have sacrificed to the microscope. The ova would 
seem to be quite distinct according to Mr. Powell's notes on material 
received from Dr. Chapman. Wishing to be in a position to examine 
the genitalia of a number of palarica, and unsatisfied with those which 
Dr. Chapman so generously sent me 10 years ago, I was right glad to 
join Mr. Page in a palarica hunt. Right glad were we two to have 
been able to get away from our homes so early in the summer, and it 
was with hearts as joyous as the sun was bright that we reached the 
station of Pajares an hour or two after sunrise. The village of Pajares 
was invisible from the station, but we had Dr. Chapman's letter with 
us which directed us to a " tienda " or village shop, where we were to 
lind rooms over a pigsty ! Inquiries of the stationmaster elicited no 
information respecting the proprietor of said pigsty, but a pale-faced 
consumptive youth soon put us on what we supposed to be the right 
track. He led us to the village, showed us the " tienda " in which he 
himself was a guest, and we took a room over the pigsty facing the 
" tienda " — the dependance of this " hotel ! " We have since heard 
from Dr. Chapman that we should have stopped one station before 
getting .to Pajares and sampled the pigsties there. It would seem then 
to be a speciality of inns in this neighbourhood to have their guest- 
chambers in close proximity to the " habilles de sole," a compliment I 
was to learn to " properly appreciate " a few days later when our 
imshutable door was pushed open in the middle of the night and two 
"gentlemen" entered the room, and with many grunts began to investigate 
my friend's valise, and, as my shouts neither disturbed the grunter's 
activity nor my friend's slumbers, I was obliged to tumble out of bed 
and drive them downstairs to their own flat ; we had paid for ours and 
I wanted no other sleeping companion than Mr. Page, besides, 
their conduct in nosing about his valise was absolutely indiscreet — 
well, after all they were Spanish pigs, and discretion is a flower that 
does not often grow in Spain, It is just possible that these useful 
animals considered that we were not paying enough for our board 
and thus had no right to our lodging. If this were so, there was 
some excuse for them. In addition to our share of the sty we were 
fed and excellently fed, better, I expect, than even our neighbours 

June I^th, 1915. 



122 THE entomologist's record. 

themselves Avere ; for us many an innocent trout gave up its little life, 
for us were slain fatted lambs — we were even invited to view the 
slaying — for us came beef from afar, for us one of our dear neighbours 
uttered its last squeal, for us many and mysterious vegetables were 
culled ; fruit indeed, was very rare, but after each meal we were 
regaled with black coffee and our hosts pet liqueur ^ — -and for 
this we were expected to pay a sum equivalent to 4s. a day. It was 
hardly ruinous. Our host fed — -I cannot say ate — with us, his wife 
and daughters served us with the viands that themselves had erst 
prepared. The fair daughters of the house did our washing and 
deemed the labour to be one of pure love; why not? water is plentiful 
and women's work too cheap to be taken into consideration ! The 
air was glorious, the vieAV fine — only— a very big only — we were too 
late for fialarica — much too late, as not even one ragged specimen was 
taken ! Oh reader, follow our example, learn the lingo in your leisure 
moments, master the host of irregular verbs and the sulajunctive of 
the regular verb with its three imperfects and its future and go to 
Pajares, but go there at least a fortnight earlier than we did ! The 
only Erebias we took at Pajares were a few worn eriafi, some fresh 
ntyi/nc and a half-a-dozen very fine cjiijiJiron var. j>yrenaica, much 
larger than those fi-om the Pyrenees. 

At Pajares we found few other butterflies worthy of note except L. 
an/IIS var. catiaiciis, which we were destined to find more abundantly 
at Brafiuelas. Casaicua $ varies principall}^ in size, the largest of a 
series of 500 which I have, has an expanse of 31imm., and the smallest 
rather less than 20mm., the orange-peacock spots on upperside of hind- 
wings varying in number from five to zero, about 50 per cent, of mine 
have these orange spots, but this is far too large a proportion, as I 
naturally selected my specimens. The 5 varies more than the $ in 
size, breadth of orange and of white bands, and in the eye-spots of 
undersides. Among my underside abs. are retiosatfittata, retrojnncta, 
sagittata, costa-jnneta, disvoelongata, and iDiijiiincta. I believe that the 
first mentioned has not yet been noted among the argus, though fairly 
common in other " blues," and of the last mentioned a single specimen is 
cited by Tutt as an extreme rarity which owes its name to Mousley. 
Of unipuncta I have no less than 26 specimens, seven of which are S 
and nineteen $ . An extreme form of Mousley's butterfly is one 
having not one, but two basal eyespots ; of this I find two specimens, 
one J and one 5 , in my series, and propose for them the Courvoisier 
name bipuncta (nov. ab.). The orange bands of the uppersides are 
sometimes very broad and sometimes disappear ; generally speaking 
the larger the butterfly, the broader the bands. The casaictoi 
taken at Pajares are generally smaller than those from Brafiuelas ; it 
is, however, vain to break casaicus up, as Tutt does, into several forms, 
butterflies of extreme sizes and breadths of band being found flying 
together. On the heather on which we found this pretty insect 1 kIso 
had the good fortune to take two splendidly black-spotted specimens 
of P. napi 2 , one of 50mm. and the other, a napella, of 28mm. wing 
expanse ; the great black spots extend to the margin of the wing. 
Here, too, I boxed two fresh specimens of Arctia fanciata, one <? and 
one 5 ; the latter laid a large number of eggs, which hatched out 
before I left Spain and were fed on all kinds of food during a very 



PAJARES. 123 

long voyage home ; these were all doing \Yell when I left Switzerland 
for England in January. When I returned here in the middle of 
April, I found that hut a few were alive and Nourishing, the rest 
having died. I shall not easily forget feeding them on August 20th ; 
I sprang out of the train and gathered a few dandelion leaves growing 
on the lines. The attention of some French veterans was attracted by 
my strange conduct, and they approached with fixed bayonets to see 
what I was up to. As they saw my handful of leaves they at once 
concluded that I was going to make myself a salad, and were very 
sympathetic. Three days later I fed them in a meadow near the station 
of Amberieu, and, made lively by the sun, about 100 of them escaped 
and gave me a line hunt. Fortunately, the train made a very long 
halt there. 

Few butterflies other than those I have mentioned were taken at 
Pajares. A single L. avion, a few Tantcna theop/irastNn, flying with 
PobjoinmatHn boeticiia over a mixed barley and pea field close to the 
-(■asdicKs heather patch, some P. apalhi on the slopes of a gorge, and a 
single specimen on the heights, a sprinkling of C/ui/sop/ianus /lippotlm,', 
single specimens of (ilaumpsip-he melanops, Mnsc/uoiiju'o proto, and 
l^oirellia saa var. eitcrate, got into my net. (_'oe}u)ny)ii}iha anania was 
to be found on all the hillsides. Kpiiicplw/e Jnrtina ab. hispidla was 
abundant in all the meadows, and I took a few /'.'. tit/ionus and a single 
K. paaiphar on the border of a copse. Uvbirola coiinnu was going over. 
The nettles and thistles, there were large patches of both, were peopled 
with io, iiiticoe, atalanta, and ((mini larviS. 

A few moths came to the light of our acetylene lamp in the pigsty, 
and others were met with while in the field. I have set the follow- 
ing : — Ortholitlia jdituibaria (dark), (>. biptinctaria, KnrranthiiK penniije- 
laria var. c/inj!<itaria, Hejiialiis alticola, 11. castilanin;, Perinephcle 
lanrealii., Acidalia nitidata, Larentia tuontanata, L. tjaliatu, L. dotaUi, 
L. bilineata var. testaceolata, Phasiane jietraria, P. clathratd (dark), 
(hujyia anroliiiibata var. (/nadarrainrnsia, Gjiop/tos asperaria and var. 
pitijata, (t. itiiicidaria and var. ocliracearia and ab. (jrisearia, (J. pullata 
and var. eimfertata, Kllopia prosapiaria, Xcnioria sp., Codonia sp., 
Pliisia chri/Kitis ab. aitrea, I', i/ittta, P. (janitiui, Vilix ijlancatns, Anattia 
nn/roc/iracearia, Anthrocera ncabiosae and ab. dirisa and var. orion, 
T/ii/ris fenestrclla, MalacosoDia castrensis var., (J'hiistis ijuadya, Pri/o- 
phila ahjae (dark var.), Ma))iestra dentina ab. latenai, Diantlioecia cinii- 
bali, and 7). conipta var. i/alactina. The (jalactina is especially interest- 
ing as, so far as I know, it has not been taken yet on the Continent of 
Europe. At all events the authors do not give it as having been taken 
anywhere on the mainland, its habitat being given as Sicily. 

The moths that some people arc still pleased to call micros I have 
not yet had time to work through, but they were fairly plentiful on 
the " maquis " of the hillsides round Pajares. The < rainhns that seemed 
to be most abundant was ' '. uiytilellux. 

A further account of outwork in Spain I now leave to the able pen 
of Mrs. Page, who joined us when we left the pigsties. 



124 THE entomologist's record. 

In the Cantabrians. August, 1914. 

By ROSA E. PAGE, B A. 

" blest seclusion from a jarring world 
Which he thus occupied enjoys." — Cowpee. 

" That is my highest joy, that I am beyond the reach and press of the world. "^ 

— Luffmann's Quiet Days in Spain. 



How true the above quotations were to prove I little dreamt when 
I left England towards the end of July to join Mr. Page and Mr.. 
Muschamp in Spain. I found them both very disappointed with their 
fortnight's work at Pajares, where there seemed to be practically 
nothing to do, entomologically speaking. We therefore decided tO' 
make a move to Braiiuelas, a village on the direct line to Corufia, and 
right among the Montanes de Leon. Reaching Leon about 10 p.m., 
we supped at the Station Fonda anjl procu':'ed a few hours sleep in 
the dependance, picking up the Madrid-Corufia train at 4 a.m. 

The journe}' from Leon to Corufia was most delightful, and showed 
us quite a new type of scenery. The reddish-brown soil glowed with 
ruddy hues as a magnificent sunrise gradually lit it up, the Montanes 
de Leon forming a low line along the distant horizon and standing- 
out in much darker lines from the lighter tints of the canijio. As the 
train crawled slowly westward we passed village after village 
of sundried bricks (a composition of mud and straw), the exact 
tint of the soil, with here and there trees of a variety of poplar, the 
branches of which had been lopped in such a manner as to leave a 
regular series of tufts from base to crown. 

Arriving at Brannelas, we found there was no accommodation for 
visitors except at the Cantina of Roman Fidalgo opposite the station, 
a very dirty place, with food " en suite," but the beds a little better 
than one might have expected. The village itself is not so dirty as 
those we passed through in the Albarracin Sierras, but water is a rare 
commodity and sanitation non-existent. The old village, about ten 
minutes' walk, is still more primitive, and quite impossible. 

We found the rock here a carboniferous one, as at Pajares, and the 
rounded hills of only slight elevation covered with various species of 
heather and two or three varieties of a large-flowered Ki-oiUniii, which 
gave us hopes of finding Coenonyinpha dorits var. viatlwiri. On July 
blst we followed the waters of the valley from their head, working the 
marshes on both banks. Here Coenonymjiha I'jiJiioiih's appeared in 
numbers, a fair proportion of both sexes being fresh. We found the 
larger proportions of the specimens in the drier part of the marsh, and 
especially in a small grassy patch close to the stream. They fly on 
the level of the tops of the reeds, and one has to follow up each insect 
as soon as spotted, no easy task, with one's feet sinking into the bog at 
each step ; but about midday they become lazy and lie slightly on 
their sides ovipositing, in which condition they are very easy to pick 
up. I noticed, as at La Granja, an occasional Kpiiu'iihile tithonus 
flying with them, and a "blue" or two from the higher slopes. 

The dark green of the heather forms an admirable background for 
the azure sheen of crowds of Plebeius arf/iis var. casaicii^, both sexes in 
very good order, and many with very red spots round the bases of the 
wings ; they are rather larger than the Pajares specimens. Of other 
insects there were only Pont la dajiUdice (mostly over), Culicis edum, 



IN THE CANTABRIANS, AUGUST, 1914. VI5 

Melana>;/ia lachesis, and a single Laiiipules hoeticus. Up to now no sign 
of (.'oeiiunijiiipha darns var. iiiat/wiri. 

August 2nd. — On the hills among the heather we at last found 
C. iloiKs var. niat/icivi, but very scarce ; the total number taken by the 
three of us, after much tramping up and down to get them to rise, was 
18 specimens, of which only the 2 s were fresh ; one $ was taken in 
the afternoon, resting on heather, among a crowd of I'lebcius an/iif; : 
but all the other specimens had settled out of sight, and when dis- 
turbed flew a short distance and then settled again. P. argim was 
everywhere, flitting among the bushy heather all the morning, and 
resting in the afternoon about six inches down the stems. Although 
many settle on one plant, very rarely is there more than one on a stem, 
and they appear to arrange themselves so as to simulate a cluster of 
flowers. 

Besides these few species, there seemed to be nothing at all, and if 
one may confess it, we found the Montanes de Leon somewhat mono- 
tonous, with their eternal repetition of gently-rounded heather-clad 
summits, in whatever direction one tramped. 

After some poring over the wonderful geological maps (the only 
ones procurable and not in the least to be relied upon), we fixed on 
Ponferrada as a new centre from which we could, by means of a tent 
brought with us from England, explore both the Cantabrians to the 
north, and El Teleno in the Montanes de Leon to the south. It also, 
so far as could be ascertained from the map, promised a different rock 
to the carboniferous, Vv-hich had not, so far, brought us much luck. 

At Ponferrada we found the only fonda quite comfortable, although 
of course the cooking is Spanish; the extensive view from the balconies 
over the city and the campo towards El Teleno is, to my mind, 
quite unique, and the collecting is in every way more interesting than 
at Brafmelas. In May and early .June I should say it would be an 
ideal spot for a stay, and it would be interesting to know what species 
■are to be found there at that time. In August we found most of the 
flowers dried up, and the hills looking quite bare. Crossing the Roman 
bridge, and getting up into the hills on the 4th, we worked up a dry 
torrent bed, shaded by chestnut trees. There were EpinepliUe ida (^s 
all passes) flying with Ariria medon (astraiche) ; rather large Biniiieia 
phlaeas ab. nif/ioiiiocidata were settling on a large flowered lavender, 
together with a few Poli/onnnatKs icams : P.pineiihde jurtina with many 
var. hispiilla and /'.'. bjraim were in crowds under the chestnut trees, 
resting in very much thfe same way as Satyrids do ; K. jintina v&v. 
hinpidlu was also in numbers on the dry sandy torrent bed evidently 
enjoying the heat. Among other captures were two Papilio podalirius 
var. feistluuiieUi, one freshly emerged Sati/rns statilinus, a single S. 
alcyone, Melitaaa plmebf, and one very worn XL didi/nia with a few 
Pohtia dapUdicc, Pj/raiiieis raidiii and (JoliaH ediina. 

. While working in this secluded valley, so far away from home, it 
suddenly struck us for the first time that perhaps the war might 
seriously affect the chances of our return ; on further consideration, it 
seemed possible that it was our duty to return at once, although the 
French lines were all closed for mobilisation and the frontier impossible 
to pass. We therefore wired to Madrid for instructions, and having 
done all that was possible, made the most of our time, and next day 
lunched in the same valley, whore, however, we found nothing fresh, 



12G THE entomologist's record. 

except a« single specimen of Papilio uiacliaon. A wire had meanwhile 
arrived, advising us to take an American boat from Yigo or from 
Cornfia, and another informed Mr. IMuschamp that the Swiss frontier 
was closed except to reservists. The next few days were passed in 
much uncertainty as to what might be the right thing to do; from the 
replies it was plain that no help could be expected from the consuls ; 
we decided to remain where we were, and trust to the French frontier 
being re-opened and the train service to Paris re-established after the 
completion of mobilisation. All hope of penetrating the mountains 
W'ith the idea of camping there now had to be abandoned, so we made 
the best of the grand sunny days still left to us, by working in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Ponferrada. 

Our favourite collecting grounds were the rocky banks of the Rio 
Sil, above the tow^n — a delightful spot, where in the hot sun, we took 
a few Laiiipides boeticiis, several pairs of Parari/e ae(jeria gambolling 
under the chestnut trees, and a couple of prettily-marked P. maera : 
C. edtma and P. daplidice were everywhere, and ^'. staiiliniis was just 
emerging. Here it was our wont to take under the trees, a light 
repast of eggs, trout, green figs and wine, and some of us slept away 
the afternoons in the shade of the chestnut-tree?, lulled by the gentle flow 
of the limpid river, the singing of many birds of species unknown to 
us, and the gentle breezes which tempered the heat of the fierce 
Spanish sun, while the energetic minority scoured the slopes in the hopes 
of finding new species. 

While rambling one afternoon among the ruins of an exceedingly 
fine old castle of the Knights Templars, which dominates a bend of 
the river, to our delight we came upon several P. podaliriiis var. 
fei^thauielii circling round the highest tower, and ever and anon 
alighting on the ragwort with which the enclosure was covered. 
Being without nets, we could not resist the temptation to follow them 
up, and had very little difficulty in taking them from the flowers with our 
fingers, setting them free again for the mere pleasure of watching 
them fly. 

The heat continued, culminating on August 11th in a grand 
thunderstorm. The 12th was a hot but very pleasant day, and we 
worked the hills through which the river cuts its way, finding much 
the same insects as before, *S'. statilinus increasing in numbers. Mr. 
Muschamp took the first S. fidia, just emerged. .S'. statiliuiis appeared 
to be everywhere ; they settle most frequently on a species of holly- 
thistle, where the ? probably oviposits. They have a habit, when 
disturbed, of flying a short distance, but are easy to capture if stalked; 
they like to rest on stones, with wings tilted sideways. Each day we 
took a few P. jiodaliriiis var. feisthainelii, Mr. Muschamp picking 
up one verj' yellow specimen. P. vtachaon were also captured, together 
with a pair of Melitaea didyma, in co^i. A fresh brood of /'. carditi 
were now emerging, while C. edusa seemed to be continuously brooded; 
E. ida were still coming out, as were some Pi/)-a)iiein atalanta from 
Pajares pupfe. During this heat wave we found the river most 
attractive, the water being quite warm. Here, lying on the sun-baked 
rocks, and glad of the slightest breezes wafted over the water, we 
envied the trout darting to and fro or hiding under the rock ledges, 
and watched the clouds of dragonflies, the deep blue males glittering 
with purple iridescence as their wings caught the sunlight, flirt- 
ing and mating with their greenish -yellow partners. 



IN THE CANTABRIANS. AUGUST, 191J. 127 

On the 13th we tried new ground towards the vampo, but turned 
off to the left just over the bridge and followed the stream downwards; 
we found no butterflies here, and were presently barred by precipitous 
rocks, up which we scrambled and reached some rough hills above, 
overlooking the railway from Astorga. Here we saw many .S'. statiliiuis 
and a couple of S. fidia, but found them very wild owing to a strong 
wind which was blowing. 

The next day was devoted to some (jarbanzos fields near the Roman 
bridge, where L. boeticKs was plentiful but in varying condition, flying 
with a second brood of /'. ila/didict', an occasional /'. jindalirius or I'. 
viaciiaon, and a single specimen of Cidias ediisa var. Iwlice. L. boeticns 
flew^ low among the chick-peas, the pods and leaves of which were as 
dry and brittle as can only be possible in a country so parched up as 
Spain is in August. About one-third of our captures were worth 
retaining, which may be partly explained by the quantity oi f^arbanzos 
debris netted with them. It says much for the courtesy and long- 
suffering of the peasants who passed on mule-back, that they did 
nothing more than shout at us. 

On our last day in Ponferrada Mr. Muschamp took a very worn 
Dryas pandora near the Rio Sil; this is an interesting record from the 
locality. 

The French mobilisation being now completed, the Government 
arranged to run one train a day to Paris, commencing on the 19th ; 
we therefore got on as far as Burgos, so as to be within easy reach of 
the frontier. Having wired to the French Consul at San Sebastian for 
instructions, we took our nets, and following the Paseo to the Cartuja 
de Miratlores, on a bare hill in high wind took N. sfatilinu^ and C 
■paiiijdiilna ab. pallida, the latter of w^hich was the same form as we had 
taken at La Grauja in 1912 ; one 5 F. coridon ab. nbsoleta was also 
netted here. No answer having come from San Sebastian, we worked 
the same ground again next day ; the air being close and the sky over- 
cast, we observed S. statilinus to be as tricky as D. pandora had been 
at La Granja on a similar day. In addition to the insects noted, there 
were Hipparrhia brheia, ('. ediisa, (J. In/ale, P. dapUdice, I\. titliomis, 
Melananjia lachesh, K. jurtina, and a tribe of very small E'. bjcaon, 
with one 5 and four ^ roridon var. arrat/onensis. 

Here collecting ended, as we left Burgos next morning at 3 a.m., 
and spent the day in San Sebastian, fulfilling toe requirements of the 
French consul with regard to passports and photographs. Leaving in 
the evening for Hendaye, we found ourselves the only passengers in 
the train as it crossed the frontier, and we were privileged to have the 
attention of the military and customs officers centred upon us. They 
were, however, very friendly, frankly admired the insects, and passed 
all our luggage, camera included. Of the journey home through poor 
unfortunate France, and the contrast between her and the happy, peace- 
ful Spain we had left behind us, of the kindness shown us everywhere, 
(and especially at Paris by some English gentlemen who had only just 
succeeded in escaping from Germany, and were returning home, ruined 
by the outbreak of war), I cannot write here. For the first time, we 
regretted maligning on previous trips the dear old English Channel; 
the crossing had always been a bete-noire, but we now knew La 
Manche to be the only bar to a similar invasion to that which was 
taking place so near Paris. 



128 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



A Note on the Chrysophanidi, and Polyommatus amandus. 

By B. C. S. WARREN, F.E.S. 

In the March number of the Ent. Record there were some notes on 
the ChrysojiJianida- by Miss Fison, in which the fact that she had not 
observed the species of this tribe in abundance during the last two 
seasons' collecting was attributed to the weather and made the basis of 
certain arguments. 

The majority of the (luysoji/ianido are somewhat localised in their 
habitats, and three or four visits on separate days to such localities 
cannot give one anything like a sufficiently accurate amount of 
information, as to their abundance or otherwise, for such arguments. 

I collected during the seasons 1913 and 1914 in the Rhone valley 
and neighbouring country, over much of the ground referred to by 
Miss Fison, and my experience has been very different. Without 
claiming to have given any particular attention to the species in 
question, I should say they were quite as well represented as usual, 
and judging from the series taken, and those taken by friends, both 
C. hijtpothor and L. alcipltyiyn var. ijordinx were unusually abundant. 
H. vufanreae is of course seldom abundant in the lower valleys of 
Switzerland, and L. dorilis is always erratic in its appearance, but of 
it I have seen a dozen or more specimens in a single morning at a less 
well known spot near Vernayaz. C. hippotlio? in one or two localities 
was very plentiful, and L. alciphrnn var. (jordiiia also. Miss Fison 
notes that she never found this species "really plentiful" at Vernayaz, 
but, on June 30th last, when I had the pleasure of taking Col. Manders 
to Vernayaz, the sight of the day was without doubt the dozens of 
specimens of this species resting on and Hying round the privet 
bushes. We were both much interested, and 1 certainly had never 
seen it in such numbers before. 

All collectors know how easy it is to overlook a species, if not 
singled out for special attention. A marked instance of this was shown 
in another note of Miss Fison's. She writes [Ent. Rcc, vol. xxvii., 
p. 16j — "Charpigny is quite ideal for orion, and it might get there 
from Branson as easily as ainandiis from Vernayaz." P. amandus is 
quite common in the marshes at the north end of the Rock of 
Charpigny. One can only suppose that Miss Fison overlooked this 
fine "blue" both seasons, as she did the ('hii/w}i}ianidae, and on taking 
a specimen of it at Charpigny concluded it came from Vernayaz. 
While mentioning 1'. amandas it may be interesting to add that it 
occurs over a great tract of ground on the S. side of the Rhone from 
Aigle down to the level of Roche, and on towards Vouvry. 

I merely publish these notes as it seems a pity to try and found 
theories on such subjects, with so very incomplete and fragmentary an 
amount of data to build upon. 



Egyptian Butterflies. 

By P. P. GRAVES, F.E.S. 

I have little indeed to add to Colonel N. Manders' most interesting- 
account of his experiences while collecting in Lower Egypt. I had 
scarcely any time to collect between November 10th, 1914, when I 



AN EARLY VISIT TO UANMORE COMMON. 129 

arrived in Egypt from Turkey, and March 23rd, when I left for Athens. 
In January and February Ant/ioc/uuis belctiiia was noted in fair num- 
bers, and I took an example of Ila;/wanlla tdicanKs in late January in 
a garden in Cairo. I have not generally taken this species in winter 
in Egypt. Despite heavier rain than usual the desert was most unpro- 
ductive. 1 took four Pontia j/lauanioine in December and January near 
Heluan, On March 14th I paid a visit to Heliopolis for Ilesperia 
evanida {aweuop/iis, Rev.). Result, one 2 Henjieria taken by my com- 
panion, and a larva, apparently of this species, taken among spun-up 
leaves on the lower stalks of ('onmlvulKs lanatns. 

On March 17th I went to the Mokattams to look for this " skipper" 
and saw, but after a hard chase failed to catch, a J Catopsilia /lorella. 
On the 18th Dr. A. Andres, of Heliopolis, took a <? of this species in 
Wadi Hof. This is the first recent record of C. fioidla in Lower Egypt, 
I believe. To the meagre list of Egyptian butterflies I must add 
Anthochan's charlonia, of which Dr. Andres took a good $ late in 
February, 1908, at Kingi Maryut, a station in the Maryut steppe. 

The butterflies observed or taken by me in Egypt this winter were: 
— Cha}na viathias (just emerged, Cairo, March 21st, 1915), llcuperia 
evanida, Virachola livia (larvie), Lainin'des boeticus, Uai/wardia telicanus, 
y^izera Larsandra {hjaimon of earlier collectors, but identified by the 
genitalia as the sp. or var. karsandra), Tanicits theophrastits, Fieris 
rapae, Pontia (jlaucoiioine, Anthocharis beleniia, Coiias ediisa, CatopniUa 
florella, Danain c/injsi})piis, Pjjra)iiei-s atalanta and P. cardtii — a total of 
fifteen species. 

lie Colonel Mander's remarks concerning P. loiveii, is not the large 
intensely coloured Egyptian (? form var. i/ii/as ! It seems to me 
identical with my Lebanon specimens, which are certainly i/idoa. The 
blue $ has been recently described by Dr. Andres. As regards ]l.ra- 
vhola liria, I have obtained the larvas in spring and early summer, 
before the pomegranate season, from the pods of "fitneb" — Acacia 
faniesiana ; the larva has also, so I learn, been taken from dates. If 
climatic conditions prove suitable there is really no reason why this 
insect should not eventually make its way into South Asia Minor, 
Crete, Cyprus, and the Peloponnese. I have taken it near Beirut, and 
am inclined to think it a recent immi2:rant there. 



An early visit to Ranmore Common, Surrey. 

By Hy. J. TURNER, F.E.S. . 

May 9th was a lovely, warm and sunny morning after several fine 
days, and being at liberty I thought that a trip to an old collecting 
ground of mine would be a pleasure. A glance into the small garden 
at the back of the house gave a glimpse of ( 'dastrina aryiidim flying 
across, and on the railway bank beyond Pieris rapae was also among 
the early risers. 

Burford Bridge station was reached somewhat past ten o'clock. 
Strange to say not a single "white" had been seen on the banks of 
the railway during the journey down. The dandelion had now replaced 
the earlier Composite, the Coltsfoot, and other spring flowers were 
beginning to show strongly. I noticed that one of the row of big 
ipoplars near the station had no foliage, and showed clearly masses of 



130 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



the mistletoe which all of the trees here have borne for so many years 
past. 

Soon after leaving the station the roadside hedge, where ivy 
and holly mingle, was dotted here and there with the males of C. 
arf/ioliis, either flitting or settling. Strangely there were uo females, 
nor did I see any on my return in the late afternoon, although some of 
the males were worn. 

Continuing along the road, after securing some half a dozen of the 
" blues," the ruins of the old pilgrims' church was passed, near which, 
years ago, quite by chance, I picked two or three Roman snails, Helix 
poiiiatia, for a friend, and met with one having its whorl left-handed. 
Along the roadside grows plenty of the delicate celandine, Chdiihiiinm 
mojus, on which one can usually find a species of the beautiful dusty- 
wing Ehyncophorid Alei/rodes. It was close here, too, that several 
times an adder has been met with curled up basking in the sun. Pasta 
wood and deserted chalk pit, where later on plenty of Geometers may 
be met with, the road runs between open fields, usually under cultiva- 
tion, and produces as a rule at this time of the year Enchloi' carda- 
mines and Gonepten/.r r/ia)iini. However, on this occasion only the 
latter turned up, and evidently the former was not yet generally out, as 
none of the orange-coloured eggs were to be found on the Sisi/Dibrhini: 
I'Ificinalix, which grows so abundantly along the hedgerows. 

On reaching Bagden Farm the road was left and the unfrequented 
footpath leading through the fields and woods to Ranmore was taken. 
Under the adjacent elms there was plenty of the flower-spikes of the 
toothwort, Latliraea aquawaria. This spot is hallowed ground to the 
lover of nature, for here more than three hundred years ago our illus- 
trious countr3'man, John Ray, found and recorded the occurrence of 
this uncommon saprophyte on the roots of the elm. The path leads 
into a short valley, partly ploughed up and partly covered by rough 
growth and a few birch, privet, hawthorn, rose, etc., bushes. This is 
a capital hunting ground both for insects and flowers, but to-day of 
the former only. Vanessa in in some number were met with. If a 
search had been made on the tree-trunks of the adjacent woods no 
doubt the beautiful green Tortrix literana would have turned up, and 
later on Hainearis lucina, Staiiropns fagi, Brenthis eiiplirosyne, etc. 
Instead of continuing up the valley, which leads to the well-known 
post-office tea-house, a return was made to the path beneath the big 
tree at the right hand side, where grows abundance of the large tutsan, 
Hypericum aiidrosaein it in . 

A long walk through the beautiful woods on the northern slope of 
the common brought me to a lonely house known as Tanners Hatch 
on the path leading from Bookham past Polesden Lacy, eastern side. 
Here among low herbage was a large and thickly clustered patch of the 
lady's-smock Cardamiue pratense, on one flower of which hung a 
Li. rliaiinii. About this spot in years past I have taken rarari/e aee/cria, 
but apparently this beautiful species has strangely gone from this as well 
as from many other of its near-London habitats during the last twenty 
years. The woods were seemingly very bare of Lepidoptera, for nO' 
signs were seen on the fair number of trunks examined, and nothing 
was stirred from the undergrowth or rubbish. Later on plenty of 
Drepana inujtricida may be beaten from the overhanging beeches which 
grow so luxuriantly on this slope. 



AN EARLY VISIT TO RANMORE COMMON. 



131 



At last the top of the common was reached, towards the western 
end, where the woods were more open, with a growth of holly bushes, 
hawthorn and scattered oaks, and here too were C. aripoliis males quite- 
common, with (j. rliaiiini interspersed. This was the old spot for 
Trirojiti'ri/r (Lobuphora) rirctata, but I have heard of no records of the 
species having been taken here of late years. Passing through the 
gate at the western end of the common a sharp turn to the left W'as 
made along an old bridle-])ath through the beautiful woods on the level 
to the very crest of the hill which dominates the wooded hollow in the 
downs known as Pickett's Hole. In this neighbourhood at the right 
time abundance of Ilaiitearis biciuit, early and late races of Anthrocera 
t'ilipend lilac, a race of A. trifolii, plenty of Ai/riades coridon, etc., occur. 
Here too in past years I have taken Melanaryia i/alatliea and Paran/e 
aeiieria. Now all to be seen were Gnneptery.v rhawni of both sexes 
with one or two examples of Kuchlor cardmnines^ and a solitary 
Pieria napi S The woods were filled at this date with bluebells, and 
having hitherto rarely visited Ranmore Common without meeting 
white aberrations of this beautiful flower of spring, I pushed into the 
undergrowth and almost immediately found several spikes of pure 
white. A halt for an al fresco lunch was made on the top of this coign 
of vantage, where there is an extensive view of the beautiful Holmesdale 
valley stretching from Reigate on the east, with the sand ridge of 
Reigate Park on the south of it, as far as Guildford on the west. The 
village of Betchworth and the town of Dorking, where the river Mole 
and the Horsham and Portsmouth line pass through the chalk of 
the North Downs, with Leith Hill, the highest point of Surrey, to 
the south, while the pretty village of Abinger is directly below. The 
continuation of the high sandy ridge from Leith Hill, covered by 
pines., lies right away towards Guildford on the West, with a glimpse 
of the isolated sandy mount of St. Martha's Hill in the middle of 
the valley, in view at the same time is the winding track of the S.E. 
Railway, which traverses the whole length from Guildford to Red 
Hill, and affords numerous means of ready access to the prolific 
collecting districts on both sides. 

The area of Ranmore Common is so well besprinkled with notice 
boards that one would suggest that the preparation, etc., of them, 
must form a considerable industry in the neighbourhood. The fact is 
that there are many public paths and several " private roads " (which 
often means public path) as well as private tracks. These boards are 
so ambiguously placed that it is quite impossible to tell which path is 
forbidden, the only indication one can get is that at least one of the 
tracks is public, which of course to the average entomologist is more 
than sufficient. A ramble through the western portion of these woods 
on the crest, the spot for the Tcphrosia species and Poarmia abietarioy 
produced nothing but P. cardamincs, P. napi and G. ihaiiini. A path 
leading on to the open common again was taken with the intention of 
ascertaining how the "land thieves" were progressing with an 
old lane I have watched for many years as becoming more and more 
overgrown. As expected I found that the neglect and overgrowth of 
years has now been successful. There is a fence across the entrance, 
the first portion of the road cleared of undergrowth, and dug up, 
showing a plentiful crop of the flints that formed the road and young 
firtrees thickly planted. Twenty years ago this was an open track 



132 THE ENTOMOLOGISTS RECORD. 

beginning to be overgrown. Further along another path was taken to 
the southern slope which was traversed to and fro for some distance on 
the outskirts of the fringe of wood-land, but only the same species 
were met with. Here are to be found plenty of cowslips and bluebells, 
interspersed with the early purple orchid, and large quantities of the 
local plant, Hellebonts nitjer, now showing its green flowers in 
abundance. 

At last a turn homewards was made with a visit to the post-office 
for refreshment, the only spot for miles round where anything of the 
kind can be obtained. As a matter of fact not even water can be got 
at the cottages scattered around. It is said that prompt eviction would 
follow those who would do aught to refresh the wanderer in these 
beautiful spots. Having made arrangements with the post mistress 
for a subsequent visit, the north-eastern somewhat barren extension of 
the ridge of the common was traversed, and a path taken down through 
the woods, where Druas paphia has been freely taken, and where now 
Celastrina aiyiolits was flying vying in colour with the super- 
abundance of bluebell which for some years has been so prominent 
just here. Further on the spot where (.'. an/iolus was taken earlier in 
the day was reached, and one or two more picked specimens taken, all 
males, just before reaching the station. 



Nomenclature. 



KiRBY, William. " Monographia Apum Anglise," vol. I., pp. 98-9, 
Ipswich, 1802. [Dedication dated " Barham, Maij ht, 1802."] 

" Terminum Explicatio." 
(p. 98). "III. Abdomen." 

" Pars corporis postica ten/iiui ventremgue complectens. Organa 
hujus mobilia sunt feminis acideiis, et penis maribus, 

1. TenjHw. Abdominis dorsum .s. pars supina, segnienta dorsalia, 
jietiolum, basin, et aninii includens. 

a. Setjiiienta dorsalia. Tergi sectiones transversii?, ventralium 
segmentorum latera obvolventes, spiraculis pertusse. 

a. Spiracnla. Pori laterales, in singulo abdominis segmento 

dorsali utrinque solitarii, per quos respirat animal [Tab. 13, 
fig. 35, 36. a] . 

b. Petiolus. Pedicellus metathoraci basin abdominis subnectens." 
(p. 99). 

"c. Basis. Pars antica abdominis ex qua oritur petiolus. 

d. Anns. Abdominis apex genitalia exerens, fiiitbriaui, aciilenin, 

et penevi complectens. 
a. Fimbria. Pilorum cilia densa anum vestiens, Melittanun 

familiffi ultimo propria [Tab. 4. ■'", c. fig. 1, a] . 
p. Acnleiis. Instrumentum ovipositionis,et inquibusdambellorum 

gladius timendus, valvas et va</inam includens [Tab. 13, 

figs. 27, 28] . 

a. Yaloie. Laminae dute coriaceae, quibus vagina retracta utrinque 

obtegitur [Tab. 13, figs. 27, hb., 28, aa] . 

b. Va<iina. Theca cornea spicula jaculans [Tab. 13, fig. 29] . 

■■\ Spicula. Aculei ipsissimi, intra vaginam retractiles, bini, fili, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BOOKSj ETC. 135 

formes, tenuissinii, apud apicem hinc retrorsum serrulati- 
retinaculo instructi [Tab. 13, fig. 28, hb, fig. 30j . 

i IUtinac\diiw. Squamula cornea, mobilis, qua retinetur spiculum 
ne jnsto longius jaculetur [Tab. 18, fig. 30, a] . 

y. Penis. Genitale marJH fnrci/ieiii et p/iolliiin complectcns. 

a. Forci'jix. Unci duo vel plnres interdum interne ramosi, quibus 

mas corripit etcomprimit anum femina^ [Tab. 13, fig. 33,afl] . 

b. I'/ialli(s. Organum masculum [Tab. 13, fig. 33, b] . 

2. Venter. Prona pars abdominis se;f)iienta ventralia includens. 
a. Sciiiiteiita ventrolia. Ventris sectiones transversfe." 



Bibliography of books and articles in which the Genitalia of the 
the Lepldoptera are considered and discussed, or used as the 
basis of the subject matter. 

Compiled by Hy. J. TUENER, F.E.S. 

1736. Reaumur, de. — De I'accouplement des diftorentes especes de 
papillons. 21cw. serr. Hist. Ins., vol. ii., mem. 2., 
pp. 57-120., pits. 1-5. Paris. 

1738. SwAMMERDAMM, Jan. — Bjbel der Natuuie. ^'ol. ii., pp. 598-9., 
pit. xxxvi., fig. 2. Lejden, 

1802. [KiRBY, William. — Terminuin explicatio. Monoi/raii/ii<i Aptnn 
Anfjliac. Vol. i., pp. 98-9. Ent. Ilec, xxvii., 182. 

Ipswich.] 

1809. Rolando, L. — Observations anatomiques sur la structure du 

iS/'. nerii et autres insectes. {Mn)i. Acad. Turin, vol. 16, 

pp. 39-60, pit. 2. Turin. 

1815 ct 1817. Gaepe, Heinrtch Moritz. — Beytriige zur Anatomie der 

Insekten. 2 plates. Luttich. 

1815. Herold, Mauritius. — Entwickelungsgeschichte der Schmet- 

terlinge anatomische und physiologische bearbeitet. 

Cassel and Marburg. 
1818. SucKow, F. W. L. — ^Anatomische physiologische Untersuch- 

ungen der Insekten u. Krustenthiere. pits. Heidelberg. 

1820. Hegetschweiler, Jouann Jacob, (Rifferschweil). — Dissertatio 

inauguralis zootomica de Insectorura genitalibus. Turin. 

1821. Herrich-Schaeffer, G. A. W. — De generatione insectorum 

partibusque et inservientibus. Dissert, inaug. Ratisbona\ 

Ratisbon. 

1826. KiRBY AND Spence. — Introduction to Entomology. "\'ol. iv., 
and Appendix, pp. 561-7, De Genitalibus et Generatione 
Insectorum. pit. 22. London. 

1832. BuRMEisTKR, H. C. C. — Handbuch der Entomologie. Vol. i., 
p. 232. (Translation by Shuckhard, Manual of En- 
tomology, p. 216, Eng. Ed. 1836). Berlin. (London). 

1837. Rambur, M. p. — Fauna Entomologique de I'Andalousie. 
Ilesperiiles. Vol. ii., pit. 8. [Catalogue ditto, pp. 60-93. 
(1858)] . ^ Paris. 

1810. De Haan, Willem. — Bijdragen tot de Kennis de Papilionidea. 

{\'cr/i. not. (JescJi. ned., 9 pits. Leyden. 

1814. Bassi, Dr. C. A. — Studi sulle funzioni degli organi genitali 
degli Insetti da lui osservati pin specialmento nella Hmnb. 
iiinri. {Att. <lrl. 5 JUiiii. Sc. It., Lucca, pp. 39-94). 

Lucca. 



134 THE entomologist's record. 

1848. SiEBOLDAND Staxnius. — Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie 
der wirbellosen Thiere. Aiiat. Invert., p. 462 (Amer. Ed.). 

Berlin. 

1853. Lacaze-Duthiers, H. — Recherches sur i'armure genitale 
femelle des insectes. [Ann. Sue. Xat., Sine Ser., vol. xix., 
pp. 203-237, pit. 4). Paris. 

1857. Lederer, Julius. — Die Noctumen Europas. p. 27., pit. 4. 

Wien. 

1859. HoFMANN, 0. — ilber die Naturgeschichte der Psychiden. Bed. 
Ent. Zi'it., pp. 1-53, 2 pits. Berlin. 

1870. ScuDDER AND BuRGEss. — On Asymmetry in the Appendages of 
Hexapod Insects especially as illustrated in the lepidopterous 
genus yisonirules. Pior. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hixt., vol. xii., pp. 
282-306. Boston. 

1872. McLachlan, R. — On the Sexual Apparatus of the male 
AcentropHs. Trans. Ent. Soc. L«»(/., pp. 157-162. London. 

1872. HoFMANN, Dr. Ottmar. — Investigations on Sciap/iila waldbuuii- 
ana and the allied species. Stett. Ent. Zeit., vol. xxxiii., 
pp. 433-446. [Trans. Ent. Ann., 1873, pp. 50-69.] 

Stettin. [London.] 

1876. White, F. Buchanan. — On the Male Genital Armature in the 

European Rhopalocera. Trans. Linn. Soc, Ser. 2, vol. i., 
pp. 357-369, pits. 55-57. London. 

1877. Graber, V. — Die Insekten. yatarhrdfte Series, xxii., p. 151. 

Vienna. 

1878. White, F. Buch. — Observations sur I'armure genitale de 

plusieurs especes franyaises de Zipjaenidae. Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Er., (5), vol. viii., pp. 467-76, pits, xi.-xii. Paris. 

1881. Gosse, p. H. — The Prehensores of male butterflies of the 

Genera Omithoptera and I'apilio. I 'roc. Boi/al Soc, vol. 
xxxiii., pp. 23-27, pits. London. 

1882. GossE, P. H. — On the Clasping Organs ancillary to Generation 

in certain groups of the Lepidoptera. Trans. Linn. Soc, 
2nd ser., Zool., vol. ii., pp. 265-345, pits. 26-33. London. 

1885. Cholodkovsky, N. — Uber den Geschlechts-apparat von Neinatois 

wetallicus. Zeit. wiss. Zool., Bnd. 42. Leipzic. 

1886. Cholodkovsky, Prof. N. — Der mannliche Geschlechtsapparat 

der Lepidopteren, 130 pp., 5 pits. St. Petersburg. 

1887. Smith, Prof. J. B. — CallimorpJia. Proc U.S. Xat. Miis., p. 

338, etc. Washington. 

1887. Walsingham, The Right Hon. Lord. — A Revision of the genera 

Acrolopus, Poey, and Anaphora, Clem. Tians. Ent. Soc 
Loncl., pp. 137-173, pits. vii. viii. London. 

1888. Walsingham, The Right Hon. Lord [and John H. Durrant] . — 

Arotrura, gen. nov. Imect Life, vol. i., pp. 116-117, fig. 22. 

Washington. 
1888. Standfuss, Dr. Max. — Alte und neue Agrotiden der europiiischen 

Fauna. Iris, vol. i., pp. 211-219., pit. x., xi. Dresden. 
1888. Hoffmann, 0. — Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Butaliden. Stett. 

Ent. Zeit., vol. xlix., pp. 335-347, pit. i. Stettin. 

1889 etc. Smith, J. 13. — Contributions towards a Monograph of the 

N. American Noctuidae. Proc i.S. Nat. Mas., vols. 12, 

13, 15, 21 ; Bull. U.S. Nat. Mas., 38. Washington. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BOOKS, ETC. 135 

1889. Pierce, F. N. — The Determination of Species of Lepidoptera 
by Examination of the Anal Appendages. Youmj Sat., vol. 
X., pp. 51-56. Hartlepool. 

1889. SouDUER, Samuel Huuiurd. — The Butterflies of the Eastern 
United States and Canada. Vol. iii., pits. 83-H7. 

Cambi-idge, U.S.A. 

1889. Smith, J. B. — Contril)utions towards a Monograph of the 

yortuitlac of temperate N. America. I'nic. Am. Knt. Sac, 
vol. xvi., pp. 821-350, pit. viii. Washington, 

1888-1901. GoDMAN it Sai.vin. — Papiliiinidac and Hcsjicriiilar. Biol. 
Cent. Am., vol. ii., pp. 113-637., vol. iv., pits. 65-106. 

London. 

1890. Smith, J. B. — Contributions towards a Monograph of the 

Xoctitidai' of temperate N. America, rtiill. V.S. Xat. Mas., 
pp. 1-282., pit. i-v. Washington. 

1890. Jackson, W. H.— Studies on the Morphology of the Lepidoptera. 
Pt. i. Trans. Linn. Sac, ZooL, Ser. 2, vol. v., pit. 4. 

London. 

1890. Walsingham, The Right Hon. Lord [and John H. Durrant] . — 

Coptutriclie, gen, nov. Insect Life, vol. ii., pp. 322-8, fig. 
64 a-c. Washington. 

1891, Walsingham, The Right Hon. Lord [and John H. Durkant] . — 

Anaji/iorinae. Pioc Xool. Snc. Lond., p]). 511-516, pit. -41, 
figs. 10-15. London. 

1891. Baker, G. T. (Bethune). — Notes on the Genitaliaof agynandro- 
morphous Eronia hippia. Trans. Knt. Snc. Lond., pp. 1-6. 

London. 

1891. White, F. Buchanan. ^ — Structure of the Terminal Abdominal 
Segments in the males of the (renus Lupithevia. Knt., 
vol. xxiv., p. 129, pits. i. and ii. London. 

1891. Pierce, F. N. — The (ienital Armature of the Genus, Miana. 
Brit. Not., vol. i., pp. 70-76, 2 figs. Hartlepool. 

1891. Smith, J. B. — Contribution towards a Monograph of the 
Xoctiiidae of temperate N. America. Pnic. I'.s. Xat. ^[l(.s., 
pp. 197-276, pits, viii.-xi.; pp. 397-406, 1 fig.; pp. 407-448, 
Pits, xxxvi-xxxvii. Washington. 

1891. Tetens, Herman. — Resultate der anatomischen Untersuch- 
ung eines lateraleu Zwitters von .Smerinthus pojuili. Ber. 
Knt. Zeit., vol. xxxvi., pp. 457-466, pit. xiii., 2 text figs. 

Berlin. 

1891. Wood, J. H. — On Oviposition and the Ovipositor, in certain 
Lepidoptera. K.M..M., vol. xxvii., pp. 175-185, 212-215, 
253-258, figs. 1-12. London. 

1891. Smith, J. B. — Contributions towards a Monograph of the 

Xoctiiidae of N. America. l-!nt. Am., vol. v., pp. 175-180. 

Washington. 

1892. Wood, J. H. — Our Rush-feeding < 'olcophorat: K.M..\l, vol. 

xxviii., pp, 117-122, 169-176, pit. iv., pp. 282-283, 3 text 
figs. London. 

1892. Escherlich, K. — Biolog. Bedeutung der (ienitalanhange der 
Insekten. Ver/i. k.h. zoo-bot. (resell., p. 225. Wien. 

1892. Bethune-Baker, Geo. T. — Notes on Lyraena (recte Theda) 
rhyninus, tenystrneini, and jiretinsa. Trans. ]\nt. Soc. Lond,, 
pp. 27-81, pit. 2. London. 



136 THE entomologist's record. . 

1892. Pierce, F. N. — Coremia femifiata and ('. iinidentaria. Ent 
lieeord, vol. iii., p. 177, text figs. London, 

1892. Bethune-Baker, Geo. T. — A Revision of the Awhhj podia- 

Group of Butterflies of the Family Lycaenidae. Trans^. 
Zool. Soc. Land., vol. xvii., pt. 1, pp. 1-158, pits. 4-5. 

London. 

1893. Elwes and Edwards. — A Revision of the genus Ypthima witb 

special reference to the characters afforded by the male- 
genitalia. 2'rnns. Ent. Soc Loud., pp. 1-54, pits. 1-8. 

London. 

1894. Prout, L. B. [it F. N. Pierce]. — ('oreiiiia ferruriaria, Haw.,. 

and ('. Iinidentaria, Haw. Trans. City of Lond. Ent, Soc, 
vol. iv., pp. 20-85, 2 figs, (and P:nt. Bn-., vol. v., p. Ill, 
etc.). London. 

1894. Peytoureau, S. A. — Remarques sur I'organisation et I'anatomie 
comparee des derniers segments du corps des Lepidopteres, 
Coleopteres et Hemipteres. 7iVc. biol. JSOrd. Erance. Vol. 
vii., pp. 29-181. Lille. 

Recherches sur I'anatomie et le developpement de I'armure 
genitale femelle des Insectes Lepidopteres. Comp. rend. Ac 
Sci., vol. cxviii., p. 858, etc. ditto, male. p. 542, etc. 

Paris. 

1894. HoFJiANN, 0. — Genitalanhilnge bei verschiedenen Coleophoren. 

Ver. Ges. dent. Naturf. Vol. Ixv. (2), p. 140. Leipzic. 

■1895. Peytoureau, S. A. — -Contributions a I'ctude de la morphologie 
de I'armure genitale des Insectes. (248 pp., 22 pits., 43 
figs, in text.) Bordeaux. 

1895. Jordan, Karl. — The Variation of the Genital Armature of 

certain Papilios. Nor. Zool., vol. iii, pp. 458-525, 

pits, xvi-xix. Tring. 

1895. Smith, J. B. — Contributions towards a Monograph of the 
Nintiiidae of temperate N. America. Jhill. I'.S. Nat. Mas., 
pp. 1-126, pits i.-xiv. Washington. 

1895. HoFFJiANN, O. — Die deutschen Pterophorinen, systematisch und 

biologisch bearbeitet. Jler. des iiaturwisK. \'cr. Tteyensbury., 
Heft v., pp. 200-207. Regensburg.' 

1896. Verson, E. — La borsa copulatrice nei Lepidotteri. Att. e Mem. 

Accad. Sc. Lett, ed Aiti., vol. xii., pp. 869-72., 4 pits. 

Padua. 
1896. Rothschild and Jordan. — Notes on Heterocera. Nor. ZooL, 
vol. iii., pp. 185-209, pit. iv. Tring. 

1896. Calberla. H. — Uber Erehia ylacialis, Esp., insbesondere var. 
alecto, Hb. and nielas, Hbst. Iris, vol. ix., pp. 877-393, 
pit. viii. Dresden. 

1896. Verson and Bisson. — Die postembryonale Entwicklnng der 

Ausfiihrungsgiiuge und der Nebendriisen beim milnnlichen 
Geschleehtsapparat von Bomhy.r iiiori, Zeit. f. iriss. Zool., 
vol. Ixi., p. 818, pits, xii., xiii. Leipzic. 

1897. Walsingham, The Right Hon. Lord [and J. H. Durrant] . — 

Anajdioiinae. Proc Zoo. Soc Lond., pp. 109-176. 

London. 
1897. Schultz, Oscar. — Uber den inneren Bau gynandromorpher 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 137 

Macrolepidoptei-en. Jlliis. Worh. f. Knt., vol. ii., \)\\ 199-202, 
ligs. 1-3. Neudamm. 

1897. Dyer, Harrison, G. — Callimorpha again. Can. I'lnt., Vol. 
xxix., pp. 97-100, pit. 4. Ontario. 

1897. Elwes and Edwards.— A Revision of the Oriental Hesperiidae. 

Trans. Zool. Soc, vol. xiv., pp. 101-324, pits, xxii-xxvii. 

London. 

1898. Rothschild and .Jordan. — A Monograph of Charaxcs and the 

the allied Prionoptcrous Genera. Xuv. Zool., vol. v., pp. 
545-605, pit. xiv. A. Tring. 

(To he concluded.) 



(iilURRENT NOTES AND SHORT NOTICES. 

Messrs. P. J. Parrott and B. B. Fulton have issued a pamphlet from 
the New York Agricultural Experimental Station, entitled " Tree 
Crickets injurious to Orchard and (iarden Fruits." They deal mainly 
with the three more or less abundant species in the State of New York, 
Oecanthns itiicus, Oc. aniiustipennis, and Oe. nlijiiroinia. The general 
characters of these and allied species are given for identification pur- 
poses, the distribution so far as is known, and also their economic 
importance, from their predatory habits in attacking other forms of 
insect life, and from their injurious work upon various cultivated crops. 
An account is given of the life stages of tree-crickets, and a section is 
devoted to " Natural Enemies," of which the most common and most 
efiicient are the egg parasites, eight species of Hymenoptera. The rest 
of the bulletin is taken up with the detailed observation and experi- 
ment with the three species referred to and the means of control 
recommended. The chief damage arises apparently from the establish- 
ment of a bark disease in the oviposition punctures, which causes the 
bark of the older trees to become scarred and roughened, or kills the 
bark on the younger wood. This disease is a micro-fungus, Lejito- 
sii/iaeria loniuthi/riiiiii, of which spores are probably deposited, (1) as a 
result of wounds produced by the gnawing of the bark by the female as 
the initial step in the act of oviposition ; (2) by means of the ovipositor, 
the adhesive substance discharged at the time of oviposition serving to 
collect and hold such spores as may be left in and around the holes 
during the drilling process ; (3) by the remarkable habit of the insect, 
which employs its own excreta to close the openings in the bark after 
the deposition of the egg. The chief remedial measures, upon which 
stress is laid by the authors, are first and most important, clean culture, 
and if necessary arsenical spraying. Incidentally information is given 
as to mating habits, musical structures and song of adults, and feed- 
ing habits. There are ten plates and a number of text figures in 
illustration. 

The following are interesting and useful articles in the February 
magazines. The Knt. Mo. May. contains (1) a most important con- 
tribution by Dr. Chapman, describing larvte and larval habits of Eierca 
anjlades, with five plates, one of which is coloured. (2) Mr. D. Sharp 
continues his "Studies in JJtiojdiorinae" in an account of the aedo-agus 
in that group of Coleoptera. (3) Mr. .J. R. le B. Tomlin continues his 
account of the Coleoptera obtained in Herefordshire. (4) Mr. Sich 
gives " Notes on the British species of (hlisenheimeria described by 



138 THE entomologist's record. 

Haworth. (5) Mr. H. Champion concludes an article on the life- 
history of the Snake-fly, Rajihidia. The Entomolu(/ist contains (1) 
Description of a new flea, Step/ianocircus pectinipes from Victoria, with 
a plate of details, by the Hon. N. C. Rothschild. (2) An account of the 
Butterflies of the Bucks Chilterns, by Mr. H. Row^land-Brown. (3) A 
continuation of the consideration of the Hybrids of Oporahia species, 
with a plate of the genital armatures, by Mr. .J. W. H. Harrison. 

In the Canadian Ento))inlo(iist for March is an article, " The Sym- 
metry of Insects," by H. B. Weiss. The statement is made that, "All 
insects are bilaterally symmetrical, or, in other words, the two lateral 
halves of an insect are alike, and symmetry can be defined as a pleasing 
equality of parts. Bilateral symmetry is sometimes known as hori- 
zontal dual symmetry, inasmuch as bilaterally symmetrical objects are 
usually oriented from a middle point or portion and exploited by equal 
movements of the eyes to the right and to the left, which is the natural 
method. As a result the aesthetic value of dual symmetry is greater 
in the horizontal than in the vertical." 

In the same number is a very important article from an economic 
point of view, " Notes on the Pupation of the House-fly [Alusca dowet<- 
tiia) and its mode of overwintering," by Prof. C. Gordon Hewitt. The 
writer points out four methods of the latter habit in northern latitudes, 
(1) Dormant in cool and suitable shelter ; (2) Periodical activity under 
periodical stimulus of temperature, etc. ; (3) Permanently active in 
warmed buildings, factories, restaurants, etc. ; (4.) In the immature 
stages. His remarks on the pupation habits are equally useful to those 
engaged in sanitation work. 

The monthly article in the Canadian Entomologist for March on 
Popular and Ecomic Entomology deals with the "Importance of Obser- 
vations on apparently unimportant insects," the author supporting his 
assertion by numerous instances of detailed work in life-histories which, 
made years ago, have only recently become of first importance. 

In the Scottish Naturalist for March is a record of the occurrence of 
the Coleopteron, Cnjphalns ahietis, in Aberdeenshire, a very destructive 
insect in many pine forests. Scotland has hitherto been immune from 
attacks of this destructive pest, the only previous record being one by 
our colleague Prof. Hudson Beare. 

The Ent. Mo. Ma;/, for March contains a supplement of 64 pages 
and eight plates, comprising a " Synopsis of the British Siphonaptera," 
by the Hon. N. C. Rothschild. In all 45 species are included. In the 
same number the following two species of Coleoptera are recorded as 
new to Britain. 1. Enthia fonnicetoraiii, taken by Mr. Bedwell in 
decaying wood in the New Forest, recorded on the continent as occur- 
ring with the ant, I'oDiiica ntfa. 2. r>ri(chiis pusillns var. seininarii(s, 
taken in a greenhouse from a bag of French beans (seeds) from Essex. 
It is a species well known in the southern countries of Europe. 

The Xattiralist for March contains a full account of Yorkshire 
Entomology in 1914, from reports sent in by the various members of 
the Entomological Section of the Union. Light and sugar were both 
very unproductive, and imagines generally were scarce. " Melanism 
has not been a pronounced feature of the year. Dry seasons seem to 
arrest the progress of this phenomenon." 

The Annual Report of the J'nited States National Mtisenm, for the 
year ending June, 1914, has been received. It says that, " The deposits 



SOCIETIES. 189 

of insects by the Bureau of Entomology were exceptionally extensive 
and notable. The largest and most important was a collection made 
by the force of the Bureau engaged in the investigation of southern 
field crops, and came chiefly from Texas. This is probably the best 
state collection ever brought together." Other noteworthy accessions 
are from the Bahama Islands and Florida, New Mexico, Arizona, Cali- 
fornia and Alaska, and numerous gifts from individuals of specimens 
from faunas outside the United States area. No less than a hundred 
separate publications, from the department of insects alone, have been 
issued during the year, many of them containing plates and diagrams ; 
twenty-eight of these contributions deal with the Lepidoptera. 

In the Kntonioloiiist for April, T. V. Theobald announces a lime- 
trre aphis, Pac/n/pappa remimnri, as new to Britain. This is of 
ef:pecial interest both from its rarity and from the fact that the great 
French observer, Reaumur, described and figured the leaf monstrosity 
caused by it in Vol. II. of his famous Mcmoires poto sercir a V 
llistoirc des Insectes in 1737. 



^^ C I E T I E S . 

Entomological Society of London. 

March 3nl, 1915. — Election of Fellow. — Prof. Wm. Blaxland, 
M.A., D.Sc, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Brenthis 
pales and var. arsilache from Norway. — Mr. P, A. Buxton exhibited 
a short series of B. pales and B. arsilache from Lesjevaerk and Suren- 
dal, Central Norway, the former having been taken at an altitude 
of 3,000 to 4,000 feet, the latter from 1,000 to 3,000 feet. Sicilan 
Species of Euchloe. — Mr. J. Piatt Barrett exhibited a series of E. 
damone from Mt. Etna, and commented on their lack of variation. 
Also a series of E. cardamines var. turritis, remarking on their small 
size. Gynandromorphous Lepidoptera. — Dr. Cockayne exhibited : — 
(1) Gynandromorphous A;/riades coridon, from Royston, August, 1914. 
The specimen was predominantly female, var. semisyiujrajiha. (2) 
Gynandromorphous hybrid harri:>(ini {Ithysia sonan'a $ x Lycia hirtaria 
2 ), bred in April, 1912, by Mr. Worsley-Wood. Noteworthy British 
1{hopalocera. — Comm. Walker, on behalf of Mr. Adams, exhibited : — 
(a) A magnificent series of varieties of Polyr/onia c-alhnm, including 
several strongly suffused examples, from the Forest of Dean, [b) Two 
specimens of Araschnia Icvana, gen. aest. jirorsa, from the same 
locality, taken in 1914, (r) A gynandromorphous Urbi'cola ounina, 
right side ? , left side ^ , from Box Hill. ('/) A very fine melanic 
aberration of Dryas paphla J , from South Wales. Diptera from the 
l'\\LKLAND Islands. — Mr. F, W. Edwards exhibited two species of 
apterous Diptera, one belonging to the Borhnridae, the other to the 
Ephyilridae, both collected in the Falkland Islands by Dr. Malcolm 
Cameron, Fleet Surgeon of H.M.S. Cornirall, on December 7th, the 
day before the naval battle. Both appeared to be new to science. A 
IIyeernatino Pupa of Pyrameis atalanta. — Mr. L. W. Newman exhi- 
bited a living pupa of P. atalanta, and read notes on the copulation of 
Pyrameis atalanta in October, and the hybernating of the species in the 
pupal stage. A large family of Acraea encedon, L,, bred at Durban 



140 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

FROM A KNOWN FEMALE PARENT. — Prof. Poulton exhibited a portion of 
this family sent to him by Mr. E. E. Piatt, who had conducted the 
experiment. The gregarious habit during Hibernation of Musca 
coRViNA, F. — Prof. Poulton described the hibernation of vast numbers 
of M. corvina in the cistern-loft of St. Helens Cottage, St. Helens, Isle 
of Wight. A paper was read as a basis for a discussion on mimicry : — 
" The Mimetic Theory — ' A Crucial Test,' " by Colonel N. Manders, 
F.Z.S., F.E.S. A most important reply was' made by Mr. C F. M. 
Swynnerton, which he has embodied in the following paper: — "A 
Brief Preliminary Statement of a few of the Results of Five Years' 
Special Testing of the Theories of Mimicry," by C. F. M. Swynnerton, 
F.E.S., C.M.B.O.U. Several Fellows took part in the discussion. 

March 11th, 1915. — A Sikkim Asilid with a large Delias as prey. 
— Prof. Poulton exhibited a female PrDmachus sp., captured with its 
prey, a male Delias descombeni, Boisd., at Takdah (5,000 feet), Sikkim. 
A note on the African Hesperid butterfly Ploetzia cerymica, Hew. 
— Prof. Poulton exhibited the specimen referred to in the following 
note written December 26th, 1914, by Dr. G. D. H. Carpenter, from 
Kakindu. " I send you a skipper of much interest. It came to light 
one night [December 2Brd] about 9 p.m., and behaved much like a 
moth ; the large white patch on the antenna was extremely conspicuous 
and really filistenetl in the light almost as if it were phosphorescent." 
Prof. Poulton said that the species was usually diurnal. Scarce 
Varieties of Zonosoma pendularia. — Comm. J. J. Walker exhibited, 
on behalf of Mr. F. C. Woodforde, bred specimens of Zoiiosoma pendu- 
laria, L., var. sabroseata, Woodforde, and var. siibochreata, Woodforde, 
with the type form of the species for comparison. Organs in Ants' 
Antenn.f.. — Mr. W. C. Crawley exhibited drawings in various species of 
ants, of two kinds of organs in the funiculi of antennje. They are 
often, if not always, in the living insects filled with air, and may pos- 
sibly be connected with the sense of hearing. He also exhibited draw- 
ings of genital armatures of various ^ ants. Teratological Specimens 
OF CoLEOPTERA. — Mr. H. WiUoughby Ellis exhibited a male specimen 
of Carabus nemoralis, Mull., taken at Braemar, May 7th, 1912 ; the 
right posterior leg is little more than half the size of the left one ; the 
tarsus has the 4th joint truncate at the base, making it much shorter, 
and soldered to the 5th joint, which is rather broadened. He also 
exhibited a specimen of the dark variety of ('uMipiilna linearis, L., taken 
at Knowie, Warwickshire, in June, 1899. It is of the usual size and, 
with the exception of the thoracic fove^e being more exaggerated and 
the right intermediate tarsus being very remarkable, is normal in all 
respects. Mr. Champion exhibited, on behalf of Mr. W. West of 
Greenwich, specimens of Brnchus rhinensis, L. {pertinicnrnis, L.), found 
in lentils in a London warehouse, also a male found at large at 
Dartford. Nuptial Flight of Butterflies. — Dr. F. A. Dixey made a 
communication on this subject. In his experience the ^ supported 
the 2 in the Pierines. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History Society. 

February 25</(. — Lantern exhibitions.— A special exhibition of 
lantern slides by Messrs. W. West (Ashtead), A. E. Tonge, E. J. 



SOCIKTIES. 141 

Bunnett, C. W. Colthrup, and by Mr. Colthrnp on behalf of the mem- 
bers of the Nature Photographic Society, including Messrs. Bedford, 
Salmon, Sanders, Main, Hocking, Tonge, Irving and Stanley Cook. 
Bred C. gallii. — Mr. Newman, a long series of Celerin (/allii bred 
from N. Cornwall ova. Sicilian E. damone. — Mr. -J. Piatt Barrett, a 
series of Eiichln'e (hniwne from Sicily, and remarked on the small 
amount of variation in the species. Aberrations of A. ca.ta. — Mr. F. 
W. Frohawk, a series of yellow forms of Arctia caja from the Scilly 
Isles, where it was met with in some numbers. 

March IWi. — Ephyra pendularia ab. subroseata bred from Surrey. 
— Mr. Bowman exhibited a bred series of Ephyra pendularia, including 
f considerable percentage of ab. snhroaeata. They were a second 
generation from larvip beaten in Surrey. The huge Noctuid Thysania 
AORippiNA. — ^Mr. Gibbs, a specimen of the huge Noctuid T/n/sam'a 
af/rippina from Costa Rica, whore it sits on tree trunks as does an 
Kupithccia. A CtYnandromorpiious hybrid. — Mr. Wicher, a remarkable 
gynandromorphous hybrid iS/;;(^r//if/(//.s' oc-<'Z^fl?».s (J x popnli $ in which 
the left side was J and the right side 2 ■ A rare book. — Mr. Hy. J, 
Turner, a copy of an uncommon work, Illustrations of British Mj/eolni/i/, 
by Mrs. Hussey, 1846, with 92 coloured plates, which he had recently 
bought cheap, as it was about to be torn up by the bookseller to dis- 
pose of the plates at a few pence each as "pretty pictures." Micro- 
scopical Exhibits. — The rest of the evening was devoted to exhibitions 
under microscopes. Mr. Adkin, the structure of the cocoon of Dicra- 
niira viniila and antennal structure in Lepidoptera. Mr. Edwards, a 
species of Xncteribia, the parasite of the Fishing-bat. Mr. West 
(Ashtead), androconia of Vieris hrassicae, a Coccns found on bananas, 
and Hy/iolo.ri/hni cocrinciiin, a micro-fungus on wood. Mr. Coxhead, a 
number of mites infesting a brazil-nut. ]\Ir. Ashdown, minute species 
of Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Mr. Bunnett, larva of a Thrips which 
had been attacked by a micro-fungus. Dr. Chapman, skins of the first 
and last stages of Erercs ariiiailes, with figures and illustrative notes on 
the same. 

March, ^nth. — Special Exhibition of A. hyperantus, — The 
evening was specially devoted to an exhibition and discussion of 
Aphantopiia hiiperantux, contributed to by Messrs. Frohawk, R. Adkin, 
Bright, B. Adkin, Edwards, Dennis, Turner, Curwen, Ashdown, 
Gibbs, and Leeds. Ab. arete, ab. vidxa, ab. ocellatus, ab. lanceolata, 
ab. minor, var. bieti, ab. caeca, ab. ohsoleta, with numerous other forms 
were shown. Aberrations of British Lepidoptera. — Mr. Bright 
showed a fine .Irt/i/nnis ai/laia with numerous coalesced blotche.'i of 
black, a Poli/ommatits icarns with extremely light ground on the 
underside, and a ^ Ai/riailes coridni of the form sands in which red 
scaling was developed adjoining the eyespots of the hindwings 
upperside. 

London Natt'ral History Society.— ./«»(/«?•(/ 5tli, 1915. — New 
Members. — Mr. T. H. Archer, of 52, Elsenham Street, Southfield^i, 
and Mr. A. E. Hodge, of Southlields, were elected members of the 
Society. Scotch Dunthcecia nana exhibited. — Mr. C. H. Williams, a 
long series of Dianthoecia nana {compersa) from the Shetland Isles and 



142 THE entomologist's record. 

a few specimens from Croydon. Annual Address. — Mr. L. B. Prout, 
the retiring President, read his presidential address. 

January 19th, 1915. — New Members. — The Rev. C. E. Raven, of 
Cambridge, was elected a member of the Society. Exhibit of 
Eupithecle. — Mr. L. B. Prout, two drawers containing a series of 
nearly all the British species of Enpithecia, including very variable 
K. mhfulvata and its Scottish forms coi/nata, etc. ; E. pygmaeata 
captured flying in the afternoon at Doncaster ; melanic forms of 
E. castif/ata, E. albipnnctata, E. vulgata, etc. Mr. H. W. Wood, E. 
laHtiyata and its melanic form ab. obsciirissinio, Prout ; E. innotata, 
showing 1st and 2nd brood usual forms, and some without the usual 
markings, also of both broods, from Durham, and ab. fta.vinata from 
Middlesborough ; also larvre of I'ieris bratfsicae taken in a garden at 
Southfields on January 17th, several degrees of frost being registered 
that morning. M. tili/E. — Mr. Bernard Cooper, a varied series of 
Minicifi tiliae bred from a Lyndhurst J taken June, 1913. 

February %i(J, 1915. — The Annual Exhibition. — Dr. Cockayne, an 
extreme specimen of Ilinnicia phlaeaR ab. eleus from Berkhampstead, 
1911, (a very hot season) ; a specimen of Agriades coridon ab. semi- 
syufirap/ia, Tutt, from Royston, showing additional blue scales on 
inner margin of left forewing (a gynandromorph). Also a photograph 
of the specimen, in which the gynandromorphic characters were clearly 
shown. Mr. C. P. Pickett, long series of Agriades coridon from 
Royston, the result of 4 years collecting, including males and females 
with underside markings obsolete ; ab. inaeqnaliii, Tutt, and certain 
gynandromorphic females with one side smaller than the other, the 
small side having scattered blue scales; a specimen in which the male 
element was on the larger side; and a female unequal on the two sides, 
the lunules larger and brighter on the right side, which was also of the 
ab. parisiensis form beneath. Mr. H. B. Williams, Mimas tiliae and 
some of its commoner aberrations including ab. centripuncta, Clark; and 
a long series of Amorpha populi including two gynandromorphs bred 
from one brood in 1914 ; also a drawer of underside forms of 
T'nlyoiiinatuH icarus including ab. obsoleta, Clark, ab. antico-striata, 
Tutt, and others. Mr. H. W. Wood, Larentia ftavicinctata, type from 
Rannoch, and a remarkable, light, local race from Ireland ; three 
yellow abs. of Jirephos part/tenias from Surrey; Nonagria neurica and 
its ab. fiiscn and ab. rtifescens from East Sussex: Acidalia iinmorata bred 
as a 3rd brood from Lewes, October, 1913 ; Ptychopoda (Sterrha) 
c(intignaria, and a melanic form, and a drawer of Mellinia ocellaris 
and all its known British varietal forms including ab. lineago, 
Gn., and intermedia, also the allied species fulvagn, L., and 
gilrago, Esp., and gilvagu ab. .s;(//W.sfl ; also drawings by Mr. 
Bachlade of the differentiated parts of the genitalia (penis with 
cornuti) of the allied species ocellaris, gilvago, and fidvago. Mr. 
J. Riches, a series of Abraxas grossidariata bred from wild North 
London larvie from 1905 to 1918, including abs. nigrosparsata and 
deleta [lacticolor), and one approaching varleyata ; also on behalf of 
Mr. Dewey, of Eastbourne, three Arctia caja with yellowish-orange 
hindwings, and two Arctia villica with confluent markings, all bred in 
1914, and nine Brenthis euphrosyne with confluent markings taken in 



SOCIEtlElS. 148 

Abbots Wood in 1913 and 1914. Mr. G. T. Porritt, Abraxas yroasu- 
latiata ab. niiirocnstata (a maf^nificent form), and five extreme ab. 
niiirosjia)s(it(( bred from wild Huddersfield larvjo in 1914 ; also an 
extraordinary small second brood specimen, bred from a wild larva. 
Mr. L. W. Newman, series of Callimorp/ia (hnniaida and its ab. 
rossica from Kent, of Stri/iiioii jinnii bred 1914 from Hunts, and of 
Pieris uapi from Ireland, including strongly-marked and yellow 
females (second brood). Mr. A. W. Mera, series of I'oenonijiiijiha tijihoii 
and ('. pamp/iilns, the latter including a female with a patch of upper- 
side coloration, containing an eyespot, on the underside of the left 
hindwing, also the British Acidaliids, including melanic forms of 
A' idalia caiiibricata and A. incanaria. Mr. R. S. Benton, a specimen 
o. Crijiiwdex exulix ab. axaimilis taken at sugar at Braemar. 
Mr. W. E. King, a long and varied series of Hibernia defoliaria 
from Epping Forest, including a fine melanic S • Mr. V. E. 
Shaw, a series of Celastrina ariji(di(s, bred 1914 from Sandown 
(Isle of Wight) larvfe, a long series of Eiipithecia extensaria 
bred May, 1914, from Norfolk larvie and specimens of Salebria seiiii- 
ndu'lla, and its ab. mwiuineila from Dover, 1914. Mr. H. T. Payne, 
two drawers of Leucaniids including Xuiuti/ria cannae, X. anoidinis 
and ab. fratcnia, X. spaiiiauii, Tajd)i(>!itola buiidii, Leticania vitellina and 
L. bredlima. Mr. A. W. Buckstone, a specimen of Brcnthia ^ideiw 
with black markings obsolescent, from Guildford, Bitlnjs (jKera'ts ab. 
bell n^ horn Oxshott, -a, s\)ecimen oi Juic/udia jacobaeae with hindwings 
smoky black and transparent, from Oxshott, a fine obsolescent under- 
side of Pidi/omiiiatus icants from Sevenoaks. and several smoky females 
of IJiipalus phiiaria bred from Oxshott. 

Februaii/ IQtIi, 1915. — Exhibits. — Mr. W. E. King, a series of 
undersides of Aphantujtna Injperantus, including one ab. lanccolata and 
several ab. caeca. Mr. J. Simes, some Spanish butterfiies, including 
Thais riDiiiiia, Kuc/doe exphenoides, Zeijris eiijiheiiic var. )iicridionalis, 
I'hara.ves ja.sius, Dnjas pandora, Melanar/iia sijllins, M. i)ics and M. 
lac/iesis, Aip'iades t/wmitA's, XoDiiade.s ci/llanis, Polijo})i})mtHs /njlas var. 
hispanica, and var. li/cidas. Mr. A. Willsden, Dasi/caiiijia rubo/iiwa 
from Bournemouth, Hereford, and Torquay, the Bournemouth speci- 
mens being lighter than the Hereford ones, and the Torquay more 
reddish, also a fine variety from Torquay. Paper. — Mr. J. Simes, 
read a paper entitled " A month amongst Spanish Butterflies." 

TuK Lancasuike and Cheshire Entomological Society. 
Janiiari/ ISlfi, 1915. — Paper. — Mr. Wm. Mansbridge read a paper 
entitled " Silverdale as a Collecting-ground." Having given a brief 
survey of the Geology and Mora of the district, the author enumerated 
a large number of local species of Lepidoptera, generally rare in the 
North of England, but which had been recorded from this favoured 
area. Many of these, however, had not been recorded for a couple of 
decades or longer, and members were urged to endeavour to confirm, 
such as Afjriades c(irido)i, Hiiralis betidae, Paranje aajeria, Ap/ia)itojins 
hi/perantns, Ciqndo winiiiius, Hesperia malrae, Stilbia anoniala, Leptomeris 
(Acidalia) uiariiiuejiiinctata, Aniuebe ulirata, and Perizoiiia taeniata: all of 
Avhich had been recorded some thirty years ago. He also referred to 
the two field meetings which had been held at Silverdale ; gatherings 
that had been greatly enjoyed by all who had attended. The author 



144 THE entomologist's record. 

mentioned having taken a fine specimen of Coccyx cosmophorana on 
May 30th, 1914, in the Gatebarrow wood, also Adela jibulella and 
Eupithecia distinctaria (constiictata). Eastham Lepidoptera. — Mr. A. 
W. Hughes exhibited Lepidoptera from Eastham as follows: — Ihjhcrnia 
defoliaria, II. aurantiaria, and a \evy long series of Cheimatohia briiiuata, 
the latter showing great variation from very pale to very dark brown, 
almost chocolate coloured forms, the last were scarce,, forming only 
three per cent, of the number captured. II. aurantiaria had not been 
recorded previously for the locality. The genus Cnephasia (Sciaphila). 
— Mr. F. N. Pierce showed his extensive series of the genus Cnephasia 
(Sciaphila), containing all the British species except aahlbomiana and 
ahrasana. With regard to these he stated that it was considered very 
doubtful whether they had any right to be included in the British 
fauna or even to be ranked as good species at all. The variation was 
remarkable in that almost every species showed both melanism and 
albinism and it is only by a microscopical examination of the genitalia, 
which can easily be done without damaging the specimen, that the 
moth can be identified, especially when it approaches the extreme 
variation. 

Fehniarij 15th. — Pocket-box Exhibition.— The evening was devoted 
to a pocket-box exhibition of Natural History objects. Mr. F. N. 
Pierce contributed a selection of " Insect Habitations," which included 
portable cases characteristic of the FsycJudae, Coleophoridac, and the 
Trichuptera ; he also showed the cases of the Coleophoridae under the 
microscope, and called attention to the character of the silk of which 
some of them were composed. Mr. R. Wilding exhibited a number of 
Tortrices collected in the neighbourhood of West Derby, including 
series of the following : — Dicti/optcri/j: holiitiaiia, (^atoptria cana, Ortho- 
taenia striana, and many of the common hedge-side species. Dr. 
Cotton, a box of Triphaena /iiiibria and Carsia puludata from near St. 
Helens. Mr. W. Mansbridge brought a specimen of the fungus Vohj- 
porus betalintif, which, when dried and cut into strips, he used for 
mounting micro-lepidoptera ; also a series of Adidnia (Miinaesioptilus) 
bipiinctidactijla, cinnamon-coloured form, from the Crosby sandhills, 
and a short series of a melanochroic variation of Ellopia prosapiaria 
bred from a Delamere female ; he stated that, although not usually so 
dark as the present series, the species is considerably darker in 
Delamere Forest than in the South of England. 

March 15th. — Election. — Dr. A. Randell .Jackson, M.D., M.Sc, 
Westcote, Hoole Road, Chester, was elected a member of the Society. 
Paper. — Mr. Leonard West, M.I.M.E., read a paper entitled "A Short 
Account of some Neuroptera." The paper was fully illustrated by 
lantern slides of the principal species of the various families; these were 
treated in a way specially designed to enlist the interest of the young 
entomologist. The metamorphoses and general economy of the Stone- 
flies, May-flies, and Caddis-flies being ably described by the author. 
At the close of the paper Mr. West also shewed a number of beautiful 
slides of river scenery as examples of the breeding places of the insects 
and as showing the loveliness of the natural surroundings the student 
would become familiar with in pursuit of these comparatively little 
known creatures. 



WATKINS 8c DONCASTER, 
Naturalists and Maiiiifactiirers of Entomological Apparatus and Cabinets. 

Plain lliiig Nets, wire or cane, including Stick, 1/3, 2/-, 2/(i, 3/-. Folding Nets, 3/6, 
4/-, 4/6. Umbrella Nets (self-acting), 7/-. Pocket Boxes (deal), 6d., '.»d., 1/-, 1/G. Zinc 
Collecting Boxes, 9d., 1/-, 1/G, 2/-. Nested Chip Boxes, 7d. per four dozen, 1 gross, 1/6. 
Entomological Pins, 1/6 per ounce. Pocket Lanterns, 2/6 to 8/-. Sugaring Tin, with 
brush, 1/6, 2/-. Sugaring Mixture, ready for use, 1/9 per tin. Store-Boxes, with can'iphor 
cells, 2/6, 4/-, 5/-, 6/-. Setting-Boards, Hat or oval, lin., 6d. ; W\n., 8d.; 2in., lOd.; 2^in., 
1/- ; S^in., 1/4; 4in., 1/6; 5in., 1/10; Complete Set of fourte~en Boards, 10/6. Setting 
Houses, 9/6, 11/6 ; corked back, 14/-. Zinc Larva Boxes, 9d., 1/-, 1/6. Breeding Cage, 
2/6, 4/-, 5/-, 7/6. Coleopterist's Collecting Bottle, with tube, 1/6, 1/8. BotanicafCases', 
japanned doable tin, 1/6 to 4/6. Botanical Paper, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, 2/2 per quire. Insect 
Glazed Cases, 2/6 to 11/-. Cement for replacing Antennre 4d. per bottle. Steel Forceps, 
1/6, 2/-, 2/6 per pair. Cabinet Cork, 7 by 3i, best quality 1/6 per dozen .sheets. Brass 
Chloroform Bottle, 2/6. Insect Lens, 1/- to 8/-. Glass-top and Glass-bottomed Boxes,' 
from 1/- per dozen. Zinc Killing Box, 9d. to 1/-. Pupa Digger, in leather sheath, 1/9. 
Taxidermist's Companion, containing most necessary implements for skinning, 10/6. 
Scalnf-ls, 1/3 ; Scissors, 2/- per pair ; Eggdrills, 2d., 3d., 9d. ; Blowpipes, 4d. ; Artificiai 
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2(V, 3d., 6d.; ditto of Land and Fresh-water Shells, 2d. Useful Books on Insects, Eggs, etc' 

SILVER PINS for collectors of Micro-Lepidoptera, etc., as well as minute insects of 
all other families. 

We stock various sizes and lengths of these Silver Pins which have certain advantages 
over the entouioiogical pins (whether enamelled black or silver or gilt). 

For instance, insects liable to become greasy and to verdigris like Se.nitUie, etc., ar 
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We shall be pleased to send pattern cards on application. 

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SYNOPSIS OF THE ORTHOPTERA OF WESTERN 

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By MALCOLM BURR. D.Sc, F.Z.S., F.L.S., F.E.S.. &g. 

Bound in Cloth, 160 pp., with good Index (Specific and Generic). 

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A pocket handbook for the use of collectors in the field. Covers all species found west 
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CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Pajaves, P.P. MmdfJinp, F.E.S 121 

In the Cantabrians, 1914, Rosa K. Fiujc, B.A 123 

A Note oil the Chrysophanidi and Polyommatns amandus, B. C. S. V'arren, F.E.S. 128 

Egyptian Butterflie?, P.P. Graves, F.E.S 128 

An early visit to TLanmoie Common, Surrey, //. J. Turner, F.E.S. .. .. 129 

Nomenclature [Kirby, William. Monographia Apum Angliae] .. .. .. 132 

Bibliography of books and articles in which the Genitalia of the Lepidoptera 

are considered and discussed, H. J. Turner, F.E.S. .. .. .. .. 133 

Cdruent Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 

Societies: — The Entomological Society; The South London Entomological 
Society ; The London Natural History Society ; The Lancashire and 

Cheshire Entomological Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 



Communications have been received or have been promised from Dr. Chapman, Dr. 
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All MS. and editorial matter should be sent and all proofs teturnedtoHy. .J. Tuuner, 
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Del. T. A. Chfiimiiin. 
Diagrams to illustrate the cutting of the pocket by Phymatocei!A x about 10. 



The Entomologist's Record, 1915. 



THE EGG-LAYING OK PHYMATOCERA ATERRIMA, KLUCi. 145 

The Egg=laying of Phymatocera aterrima, Klug. {With tno platrs.) 

By T. A. CHAPMAN, M.D. 
]\Ir. L. E. Adams, having discovered in his garden a colony of 
P/iijiiiatocera aterrima, Khig., afforded me the opportunity of observing 
its process of ovipositing. This is the species that Mr. Morice observed, 
and gave so interesting an account of in his Presidential address to the 
Entomological Society in January, 1912. As such records are not 
numerous, it is not undesirable that further observations should be 
reported in confirmation and extension of those already made. It 
seems also expedient to compare the operation of egg-laying as carried 
out by Pkijiiuitorera with the procedure of Trifhiosoina, which I 
observed two years ago {Trans. Ent. Soc, 1914, p. 173). 

Without regarding it as necessary to adopt strict priority in the 
naming of anatomical structures and various parts of insects, it is well 
to do so as far as possible. 

"Mr. Morice has been kind enough to give me the result of his 
enquiries as to the names of the several structures used by sawHies in 
oviposition given by the earliest authorities. Linn;T3us recognising, that 
these parts are, as has since been shown, homologous throughout the 
Hymenoptera, called the piercing organ, as a whole, aculeiis. 

Latreille apparently restricted acuh'ii:< to the ovipositor of the 
Anileata, giving the name terehra to that of sawflies (and others). 

Recognising that terebra is in one sense a partial synonyiii of 
aculetis, we may accept it for the ovipositor of sawliies, since though 
we might call it an acideus, we could not very well call it a sting. The 
terebra consists of two plates, each of two parts, which in the vernacu- 
lar are now known as " saws " and " supports." The Latin names for 
these as given by Kirby (1802 '?) are, for the supports, vaijina, for the 
saws, s/iiciila, and for the saw-sheath into which the terebra retires 
when at rest, the valrae. Mr. Morice discards .y<-aljielli(iii as synony- 
mous with ariileiis (and terebra). 

I'/iijiiititocera lays in stems of ('onrallaria which are still growing 
and succulent, just as Trichiosonia lays in the young growing leaves of 
Sali.r. It resembles it in another peculiarity, ri:., that its operations 
are carried out by separating the cuticle from the underlying tissues, 
and not by digging into the latter. The same process is followed by 
other species whose eggs I have examined after they were laid, though 
Avithout having seen the actual laying. For example this was the case 
■with a fly, which, if I remember rightly, Mr. Morice told me was 
E)iil>lnjtns (jrassiilariae, of which, some years ago, I bred continuously 
several generations, on violet. The larva was black with white dots, 
quite unlike that described as that of E. t/nmsiilariae in Cameron's 
I'/ii/toij/iaf/ons I li/inenoptera. This insect is of course unrelated to 
Xeniatiis ribesii, the gooseberry pest. The eggs are laid singly in the 
upper surface of leaves of dog-viol(;t, and grow somewhat after they are 
laid. 

A peculiarity in the laying of I'/ii/iiiatdcera depends on the circum- 
stance that the growing stems of Conrallaria, in which the eggs are 
laid, are small, 2mm., 2-5mm. to 8mm. in diameter, larger (and 
older) stems are not, so far as my few observations go, affected by the 
insect, the largest I have seen was under 4mm. in diameter. The 
cutting is done transversely to the stem, and so, to accom4iio^te.it^lf 
July-August, 1915. X'\?^^'**'^ ''f«^'///f-J;> 

JUL 30 1815 




146 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



to the surface of so small a stem, the terebra of the insect has to be 
bent into a corresponding curvature. The cuticle, beneath -which it 
works, seems to be strong enough easily to hold the saws to this curve. 
Until one sees that there is and necessarily must be this curvature, 
there is nothing in the actual working of the saws to suggest that it is 
so, and certainly it causes no impediment to their operation. One 
observes nothing to suggest, as something actually seen, this curving 
of the terebra whilst it is at work, but as it is for its whole length 
equally visible through the very transparent cuticle, it is obvious that 
it follows the curve of the surface between the cuticle and the under- 
lying tissue. 

(See pi. v., fig. 5, diagram of transverse section of stem of Cimral- 
laria, with the incision of Pliymatocera, through an egg, showing how 
the incision curves round the stem, the thinness of the raised cuticle, 
and the position of the egg, not quite at the bottom of the incision.) 

The attachments of the bases of the saws and supports to the abdo- 
men are much more visible than in TricliioHoiua, and so the movement 
of the saws may be gathered almost as well by watching the move- 
ments of the parts at the extremity of the abdomen. 

The posterior margins of the supports for a portion of their basal 
halves are soldered together, unlike the saws, each of which can move 
independently of the other, of course only through a small distance. 

The fly begins her operations by penetrating the cuticle and 
advancing the terebra beneath it for half its length (pit. v., fig. 1, ^), 
then it cuts in the direction in which the saws face, till it arrives at 
the position Fig. 1, ^. It then carries the terebra back towards 
position ^, with the apex all the time within the slit, as indicated in 
fig. 1, 3, until it reaches the place shown in fig. 2, ^, some way short 
of position ^. It then descends to the depth of position ^. It now again 
cuts, may we say, downwards as suiting the diagrams, and also as being 
away from the body of the insect, for the same distance as in the first 
incision (fig. 1) that is, about half the length of the terebra, to the 
actual position shown in fig. 2, ^. It then cuts very similarly to 
the previous cut (fig. 1), passing through the positions shown in 
fig. 2, 5, g, ^. The terebra then returns from position 2, ^, to position 
2, 4, passing along with only the tip within the incision, as shown in 
fig. 1, 3. It now descends into position fig. 3, ^, which is practically 
identical with position 2, ^. The first Qgg is now laid, in the position 
shown in fig. 4. The terebra is now withdrawn but not so far as 
fig. 1,3, but only as far as fig. 3, 0, is then carried across the top of 
the egg and descends into position 3, j^j which is identical with the 
position 2, ,, but is really, the same position as regards the second 
egg, as fig. 2, ^ was with regard to the first; the space for the second 
egg is cut as indicated in fig. 3, precisely as that for the first was done, 
as shown in fig. 2. Again, the terebra is brought back, in the way 
shown in fig, 1, 3, and the second egg is laid, and so on. 

The laying of the egg is very like that noted in Tric/ti<>so»ia, after 
a short rest some heavy movements occur at the base of the terebra 
and at the extremity of the abdomen, and almost immediately the egg 
appears. It has much the effect of a conjuring trick. 

At the margin of the saws at their lower cutting half, opposite the 
arrows as shown in fig. 3, g, the edge of the egg appears and gradually 
passes forward till it reaches the position shown in fig. 4. It seems to 



THE EGG-BAYING fil" PHYMATOCERA ATERRIMA, KLUG. 



147 



couie entirely from the narrow piece of terebra opposite to it, which is 
much too small to hold it. Some trace of its movements may be seen 
at the base of the terebra, but the egg certainly passes clown the 
terebra to the place where it appears, as a very much narrowed and 
therefore lengthened body, so that no trace of its passage in the terebra, 
beyond the heaving movements of the parts, is visible ; so that when 
it does appear, gradually protruding from the cutting luargm of the 
tei-ebra, it appears to come from nowhere or to be suddenly materi- 
alised from nothing. 

All this agrees with Mr. Morice's observations except as to two 
items. One is that I never saw the fly withdraw the terebra from the 
incision during the whole time she was occupied with it, but always 
carried it back from finishing the portion being cut to the egg-laying 
position with the tip within the incision, except on one occasion, when 
1 happened to shake the stem so as to cause the terebra to leave the 
slit. It was with a little delay and some awkwardness that the fly 
managed to re-introduce it properly. In discussing this point with 
Mr. Morice he assures me that in all his observations the terebra was- 
removed and re-inserted as he describes. 

Mr. Morice describes the terebra when first introduced as being 
Avorked straight in to its full depth at the position it will occupy when 
the first egg is laid, that is to the position shown in fig. 2^. 

There are two difticalties in the way of supposing that this occurs. 
The first is that all the incisions with eggs of Phi/uiatocera I have 
seen show a step at the beginning of the slit, as shown diagrammati- 
cally in figs. 2, 3, and 4. The other difficulty is that the terebra 
seems to have no cutting power except in its distal half, by which it 
can cut all the sections shown in my diagrams, but could not cut the 
portions shown in figs. 1 and 2 at one operation, as it would have to 
do if it made the complete penetration at first, nor does it seem probable 
it would make this deep incision once only during the long process of 
laying a series of eggs. 

The eggs when laid do not reach quite the bottom of the pocket, 
but rest a little way above it, as shown in diagrams 4 and 5. 

It is also the case that at the line of incision the flap of cuticle 
does not quite return to its original place, but leaves a slight gap, as 
indicated in diagram 5. This seems a necessary result of the space 
taken up by the egg, but may also be due, to some slight extent, to 
contraction from d^iccation. 

To return to the actual process of cutting, we may take diagram 2, 
in which the part above the dotted line is already cut, but the part 
l)elow has to be cut, the terebra taking up the several positions 4, 5, 
6, and 7 in doing so. 

Two photographs of the terebra are shown in Plate l\. In my 
hands, the two plates of the terebia never remain, when mounted, in 
their natural positions, one accurately applied to the other, so that 
there would, in such photographs as those shown, seem to be only 
one ))late, apart from any differences in the advancement of the sav,-. 

In my preparations (and photographs) the two plates are always 
more or less dislocated ; this is not true to nature, but demonstrates 
that there are two platet-. A photograph of the terebra undislocated 
might suggest that there was only one plate. 

In the photographs the supports are to the left, and are not very 



148 THE entomologist's record. 

much dislocated in fig. 1, except quite at their tips, much more so in 
fig. 2. 

In fig. 1, one plate has the saw and support in the position of 
rest, that is, their tips coincide ; the other plate has the saw somewhat 
advanced. In fig. 2 both saws are advanced, but unequally. In the 
movements of cutting, the saws are advanced rather more than the 
most forward in fig. 2. 

The actual cutting movements difter, not essentially, but in detail, 
very much from those of Trichiosoma. The actual cutting edge is the 
margin of the "saws," chiefly towards their tips, and hardly, if at all, in 
their basal halves. But in Tric/n'osovia the ends of the saws curl round 
the ends of the guides and the cutting is done to a great extent by this 
curled round tip. In Plujmatocera the saws remain all the time quite 
straight, but in the sawing movements extend some way beyond the ends 
•of the supports when advanced, being brought back to be level with 
them when retracted. The two saws seem to be thus thrust forward 
and retracted together, with, however, a differential to and fro move- 
ment of the one on the other. This difterential movement of the saws 
on each other is of much less amplitude than their conjoined move- 
ment on the supports. 

In making the pocket, say as in diagram 2, the terebra moves 
directly forward as a whole in cutting the deeper portion between 4 and 

5. In doing this 36 to and fro movements of the saws on the supports 
were counted. From 5 to 6 the base of the terebra, i.e., the extremity of 
the insect's body, moves little, and the terebra sweeps round to position 

6, making in doing so some 50 to and fro movements of the saws ; in 
still sweeping round in much the same way to position 7 the basal 
portion of the terebra gradually emerges from the pocket, and after 
some 50 more strokes, this portion of the cutting is finished and the 
terebra returns to the egg-laying position. 

During the last portion of the cutting, a curious detail, illustrating 
the scissors-like process by which the two saws between them do the 
cutting is easily seen. It may be most easily made intelligible by aid 
of the very diagrammatic fig. 6, since, simple and obvious as it is 
when seen, it is not easy to describe. 

The line a h c is that to which cutting is done, and as the terebra 
sweeps forward, the body of the insect being the centre, the end of the 
supports follows the dotted line (unfortunately omitted in Plate, it 
should pass through the ends of the supports as it^ h, c does through 
the ends of the saws), but the saws, continuing their thrusting and to 
.and fro movements, gradually extend further and further beyond the 
supports as at h and c, then by a movement of the insect the supports 
slide down and resume at <■ the same relation to the saws that they 
liad at a. 

In the straighter portions of the cutting the relative movements 
■&ve the same, but the supports remain at some distance from the lower 
anargin of the pocket. 

What most interests me in these observations is their bearing on 
the question as to how the cutting is really done by the terebra, is it 
sawing, or cutting, or splitting, or by a wedge? They left on my mind 
no doubt that the cutting is done not as by a knife or a wedge, but by 
a scissors action, much as horse-clippers act. A number of projecting 
edges on one saw continually pass too and fro across similar edges of 



A DAY IN THE 



149" 



the other, and at each such passage the action is that of a pair of 
scissors. In I'/u/matoct'ia, the saws as they cut in this way remain 
quite straight, but as they cut they gradually extend beyond the sup- 
ports so far as they can, and are then Avithdrawn, to repeat the process 
one step forward, or what comes to the same thing, the supports are 
advanced to where the saws have reached so that they can again 
advance. 

Explanation of Plates. 
Plate IV. 

Two photographs of the Terebra of l'hy)iiatocera aterrima x 20. In both the two 
plates of the teiebra are dislocated in mounting so as not to be exactly over each 
other, as they are in nature. The saws happen to be in relation to the supports ia 
different degrees of advancement, positions they pass through when in action. 

Plate V. 

Diagrams to illustrate the cutting of the pocket by Plujmatocera. These are 
sulliciently referred to in the text ; it is only necessary here to emphasise that they 
are diagrams and not drawings, and though fairly to scale, are not to be taken as 
accurate in this respect. They are about ten times natural size. 



A Day in the . 

By Lieut. -CoL. N. MANDERS, E.A.M.C,, F.E.S. 

[Note. — Owing to the strict censorship of our correspondence I am 
unable to state the exact position from which 1 write, but I daresay 
entomologists can make a fair guess from what I have written.] 

The following, except for a few verbal alterations, is taken verbatim 
from my notebook dated May 3rd. I may first, however, give a general 
idea of what the surrounding country is like. To those who know the 
Riviera, and more particularly Hyeres and the hills at the back of it, 
I need only say a description of that locality would fulfil all needful 
conditions except that of course there are no houses and practically no 
cultivation. The hills are exceedingly steep, with deep precipitous 
ravines covered with dwarf holly, Mediterranean heath, myrtle and 
rhododendrons. The pretty pink and white cistus covers the hillsides 
everywhere, the broom is just coining into flower ; tbe one small open 
field, the only Hat piece of land about, and now converted into a 
cemetery, is carpeted with a beautiful pink convolvulus, which 
no doubt in after years will cover the graves of our comrades. Tbe 
view from my dug-out is very similar to that looking south from any 
place on that favoured coast. Beautiful summer weather prevails, with 
cold nights, and were it not for the perpetual cannonade and musketry 
one could thoroughly enjoy a ramble over the hills — a joy at present 
entirely denied us. l^ut 1 am wandering from what I set out to do, 
and which runs as follows: — "I am writing this at 9.15 a.m. at the 
bottom of a steep wooded valley sheltered behind a bank covered with 
heath and holly, alongside me on a stretcher is a desperately wounded 
man, and close around are the bodies of an oflicer, four men and a 
mule lying in and beside a muddy stream, which is the only path. All 
were killed by snipers two days ago, but it has been too dangerous 
and times have been too strenuous to remove and bury them. The 
gully here leading up to the firing line beggars description. It is full 
of old meat and biscuit tins, bo.xes and broken rifles, kit of all sorts, 
many dead mules and not a few dead men. Testaments and bibles are 



1 50 THE entomologist's kecord. 

also among the debris. The butterflies flit about undisturbed by the 
turmoil, and among this squalor and filth, with a constant stream of 
wounded on stretchers, donkeys' and men's backs, with mud above the 
ankles, the painted ladies and green hairstreaks flutter about quite 
unconcerned. Shells and bullets pass over in a continuous stream, 
and with the echo from the hills make a perpetual din. And yet from 
a copse close by, possibly concealing a sniper, wonder of wonders, 
there is a nightingale in full song ! oblivious of the making of history, 
and only impressing upon a casual listener that after all it is love that 
rules the world." 



Notes on the Micro=lepidoptera of South=West London. 

By ALFRED SICH, F.E.S. 

It is difficult to find a suitable title to this paper, but the above has 
Toeen chosen because most of the localities to be mentioned are situated 
on the south-west side of London. The lanes and open spaces here 
included have formed the chief hunting-grounds in which, for many 
years past, I have endeavoured to become acquainted with those most 
fascinating and somewhat cryptic beings, known as the Micro- 
lepidoptera. 

The district covered by these observations is so well known, and so 
much has been written concerning it, that it seems quite unnecessary 
to preface these notes with any general remarks on its physical, 
geological or even botanical peculiarities. The area in question is that 
situated in the Thames valley between Charing Cross and Kingston- 
on-Thames. It all lies within the ten-mile radius from Charing Cross. 
The land north of the Thames belongs to the county of Middlesex, and 
that south of the river to Surre}'. The whole district lies at a low 
level and there is nowhere any chalk or limestone exposed on its 
surface, so that the plants and the numerous attendant Lepidoptera, 
which specially inhabit calcarious districts, are naturall}' absent. 
Unfortunately, too, the woods have nearly all disappeared. 

The following are the localities which will be cited: Coombe Wood, 
the only real wood in the district, still retained its sylvan features in 
1909, and no doubt many species of Lepidoptera still occur there. 
When in the heart of it, it is difficult to realise that the centre of the 
great city is not ten miles distant. It is unfortunately not available 
as a hunting-ground. 

Richmond Park with its ponds, oaks, thorns, birches and fine 
stretches of turf, in which many wild flowers lie hidden, affords a home 
to numerous species, and would doubtless contain more but for the 
want of undergrowth. 

Sheen Conunon is better favoured with bushes, such as bramble 
and gorse, but there is no broom. It contains some wild apple trees, 
and in one damp spot Drnsera grew a year or two ago and may be 
there still. Palewell, though very limited in extent, was perhaps, till 
1913, the most primitive and undisturbed of the unenclosed spaces. 
Barnes Common, Putney Heath and Wimbledon Common, Ham 
Common and Kew are all well known. The chief attraction of the 
first mentioned is afforded by the presence of broom and Uoaa spino- 
ninsinia. All these localities are in Surrey. On the Middlesex side of 
the river we have Chiswick, Brentford, Ealing, and Greenford. The 
hunting-grounds in the first three of these- parishes are now confined 



Vol. XXVII. 



"Plate Vl. 




Del. P. A. H. Miiachamp. 
EpINEPHELE (1) JURTINA, (2) NUKAG, (3) IDA, (4) PASIPHAK, (5) (5a) LYCAON, (6) NARICA, 

(7) TITHONUS. 

Tlie Entomologist's Record, 1915. 



NOTES ON THE MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA OF SOUTH-WEST LONDON. 151 

to the lanes and hedgerows, and Ealing Common has been improved 
far beyond the needs of the entomologist. Greenford has still some 
pretentions to rural conditions but it is a duller and less inviting 
district than the higher lands on the other side of the river and there- 
fore has had less attention paid to it. The old-time famous Hammer- 
smith Marshes were obliterated by houses and railways many years 
ago. Owing to the great extension of buildings in these suburban 
districts, the hunting-ground has greatly decreased in area during late 
years, and the increased traffic, especially due to motor cars, has 
rendered many of the lanes so dusty in summer that they cease to be 
lit habitations for the Lepidoptera. Under these circuuistances any 
great increase in the number of species recorded for this district 
appears improbable, and it seems, therefore, now opportune to publish 
the names of those species which do or did recently occur in any of 
the localities mentioned. The names used are those of Staudinger and 
Rebel's Catalogue of 1901, except where special mention is made to 
the contrary. A date following the name of a locality denotes the last 
year in which the species was observed in that locality. (For further 
particulars of this district see Tninmctionx of the Citij of [jondoa 
Kntoiiiolofiical and Xat. Hist. Soc, for the year 1906, p. 37 et se<i.) 

Siiiiaet/iis fahriiiana. — Chiswick, abundant. It may safely be said 
to occur in all the localities, but being such a common insect it has 
been neglected. 

Gly/j/ii/iteri/.c fitscofiriilidia. — -Chiswick, Barnes, Kew, Richmond 
1915, and Wimbledon. This species may be seen on the wing at any 
time during the day and especially in the late afternoon. It haunts 
open spaces and meadows where its food plant, Luznla caiiipestris, 
grows. The meadow in Chiswick where the moth was very abundant 
and the larva was first discovered has been converted into a lawn, and 
though the field rush still exists in the turf the moth is no longer seen. 
The larva may be found in April in the stem of the rush below the 
surface of the ground, {hhit. llecitrd, vol. xii., 1900, p. 192.) 

(jr. tliraf.onella. — -Richmond, 1907. var. dadiella, Richmond. The 
type and the variety occur together. This species varies considerably 
in the intensity of the pale costal markings, in size and colour of 
the apical spot and dorsal patch, and in the presence or absence of the 
metallic spots. Some specimens are almost unicolorous. The moth 
flies in the sunshine and in the late afternoon in damp places about 
Jitiiciis. Generally there are several together. I have seen them 
ovipositing in the heads of .liincim, but the larvae I had all left the 
rush-heads on hatching. Possibly they feed in the lower parts of the 
stems. 

(jf. eiinitella. — -Chiswick, 1915. This seems to be a fairly constant 
species but it varies in the presence or absence of pale marks between 
the white lines on the costa. It delights to Hy in the sunshine over 
the yellow flowers of the stone-crop. It sometimes comes down from 
its hcjme on the wall tops into the gardens below. The egg is laid on 
the leaf of Si'ilmn acre, and the larva feeds in the interior of the 
leaves. It is not difficult to find, as the pale and shrunken leaves 
betray its presence. In captivity the larva quits the foodplant 
to spin its cocoon. This species probably occurs in some of the other 
localities of the district, but from the nature of its habitat it is not 
easily noticed. {H)U. Record, vol. xii, 1900, p. 298.) 

(To he continued.) 



152 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



The Ci=devant Genus Epinephele. {Witlt one jdate.) 

By P. A. H. MUSCHAMP, F.E.S. 

At Ponferrada last midsummer ]\Ir. and Mrs. Page and myself took 
a large number of K. ida and K. tit/iontis flying together on the banks 
of the Sil (north-west Spain). One or two J s that I netted were so 
far from the typical form as to render it difficult to determine to which 
species they belonged. To settle the question I made mounts of the 
genitalia of the doubtful specimens, together with a number of indis- 
putable E. ilia and A'. titJionvs. The butterflies in question were not 
hybrids, but simply aberrant E. titlioniis. There could be no doubt 
about this, for though these two butterflies seem from their wing 
coloration and pattern to be very close to one another, their respective 
genitalia do not belong to insects of the same genus. Wishing to 
compare them with their congeners, I at once made a few mounts of 
each of the European Epinephele and came to the conclusion that 
several distinct genera are grouped together under the name of 
Epinepliele. 

In his able review of the genus Krchia, Dr. Chapman tells us that 
from the standpoint of Eichia and its neighbouring genera — of which 
Epinep/ielc is one^the sickle or uncus is so constant in form that one 
might say it presents generic characters, while those of the clasps are 
sj)ecific. In w^orking through several genera, I have only found 
confirmation of Dr. Chapman's conclusion. Now, when I apply this 
rule to Ejiinephele and find that the uncus is far from being constant, 
I am bound to believe that this genus is really composed of several 
groups, so distant from one another that it would be well to break it 
up into several distinct genera. 

Epinepl)ele presents the strongest imaginable contrast to its near 
neighbour Coenoiupnilia. The former seem to have been lumped together 
for no very good reason, the latter might all be considered as varietal 
forms of one or two species (see ^litteilunqen der Entomolnqia, Ziirich, 
Heft I.). 

I am not yet prepared to say exactly where in the Satyrid family 
the different groups of this most heterogeneous genus fit in, they are all 
fairly closel}' connected with Sati/nif^, but are all, I believe, as distinctly 
separated from this genus as they are from one another. Unfortu- 
natelj' I only possess very few of the Paltearctic, South American and 
Indian species, and must therefore confine my notes to the European 
species and their connection inter se. I should be deeply grateful to 
any collector who may happen to have poor specimens from any 
habitat outside Europe if he would allow me to examine the same, and 
thus enable me to learn something about the non-European KpinepJtde. 

There are only seven species of European Epitiephele, they are 
jurtina, luirai/, lycaon, iiarica, titJioniis, ida, and paaipha'c. Of these the 
ovum, larva and pupa of norira are, I believe, unknown ; those of 
jmtina, lycaon, titJionii^, ida -dud /lasiphar do not resemble one another 
any more than they resemble the Sati/ms ova, larvae and pupse. There 
is nothing generically distinct in their antennae, palpi or veins. It 
looks really very much as if they were lumped together because they 
are somewhat similar in colouring, especially in the $ s. This is 
evidently a very convenient but perhaps not altogether satisfactory 
system of grouping. I see, however, that the latest authority on 
Epincpltele, Dr. A. Seitz, does not seem quite comfortable about them : 



THK CI-I)KVANT GENUS EP INEPHELE. 



15a 



he says:— "The Pahearctic forms of this genus, ahout 70 of which 
have received names, helong to ahout 25 species, whose relationship to 
one another is not yet irell knoirn in every im^tance. The,y are closely 
related lo sSati/rxs. The antennse are delicate, gradually incrassate,. 
and without distinct club. The ]mlpi are strongly bristly and project 
a head's length. Eyes naked, liody weak in comparison with the 
width of the wings, the abdomen of the $ s not nearly so stout as, for 
instance, in Knbia, (Jvneis, etc. Forewing very broad, with the costal 
margin strongly convex, the subcostal very strongly, and the median a 
little less inllated at the base; the submedian, though a little incras- 
sate at the base, is not inflated. The anal angle of the hindwings often 
very strongly produced, the external margin being excised above the 
angle." He then goes on to tell us that they are medium sized to 
rather small dark brown and russet-yellow butterflies, which have as a 
rule only one ocellus on the upperside, etc. ; falling back on the worn 
out colour system of classification. Now all this is very well in its 
way, but might have been written about other genera than that of 
l^pinephele ; for example, about Aphantopua, Coenimymiiha or even 
Sotynis, if we leave out the colour clause. By the way, it would be 
well to know the dimensions of a viediiim sized butterfly, especially as 
in German and French one word includes butterflies and moths. 

l^pinc/ihele's sister genera, Krehia, Oeneia, Coeiumyinjilia, etc., have 
had their social position put to the test, verified or corrected from the 
standpoint of the genitalia. It is fully time for Kpineplwle to be 
examined by the Censor. No admittance to Hiibner's genus should 
be allowed to l)utterflies whose passports do not show their Epinephelian 
origin. 

Let us first examine the jurtina-hiaindla-ntiydy group. These 
butterflies have extremely characteristic genitalia. The uncus is 
mandibulate and very bold ; it broadens out at about half-way betAveen 
the part to which the lateral processes or brachia are attached, then 
tapers oft" like the beak of a bird of prey. The harpes are very broad 
and heavy, covered with rather fine bristles. It is very irregularly 
shaped for a Satyrid, being made up of concave and convex hills and 
valleys that in a drawing make it appear far less constant than it really 
is; even when the genitalia are allowed to float without any pressure in 
Canada balsam no accurate drawing can be made with the camera lucida. 
Most interesting are the long wands of chitinous matter, something 
between hairs and scales, having their points of insertion at the 
thittened exterior angle of the eighth sternite. These wands, each 
formed of a bundle of rods, seem to me to have the same function as 
the peniculus of certain Noctuids, i.e., they act as brushes for the 
ipda-agus. I do not think they can be styled tactile, for the micro- 
scope has revealed to me nothing near their extremities that resembles 
a nerve, They may evidently be extended by a backward movement 
of the segment to which they are attached, or, more correctly speaking, 
when the butterfly contracts or extends the last segnnent, the relative 
position of the wands is necessarily changed. Their normal position 
in an unprepared abdomen is the position they take in my drawing of 
l\. nuray. I do not think that Dr. Ixeverdin's conjecture (vol. xxvii., 
p. 98, Knt. Her.) can be the correct solution to the problem. I have 
listened very attentively to E. jtirtina 3 s when courting and have 
caught no crackling sound such as Dr. Longstaft' heard made by 



154 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S ItliCORD. 



Ageronia, or such a sound as we can hear everywhere where Endrosa 
fly. Now, at about the same time that Dr. Reverdin first noticed the 
Godman-and-Salvin organ in Ageronia, I remarked it in Pendrowia, 
and we exchanged correspondence on the subject. I had only four 
different Peridrotnia species to examine, and, in all four, Dr. Reverdin's 
organ was much in evidence. Now Dr. Longstafi' notes that Aijaonia 
only emits the crackling sound when on the wing. This is just what 
one remarks in Kndrom ; I have often noticed that Endrona aurita ^ 
makes its presence known by a loud tic-tic repeated about 70 times 
in a minute. This cracking noise is so loud that I have heard it when 
the moth was fully six yards away from me, possibly farther. I have 
on the microscope before me the big drum or sounding board of 
E. anrita, a chitinous plate connected with the thorax and the root of 
the femur of the moth's hind leg. I have also before me a similar part 
•of the thorax of Atjeronia arethttaa, and of Feridnnnia am pJdnome Q,Xidi oi 
P. arinoine. These three butterflies have no such inflated plates as 
that which Endrosa possesses, but they are provided with hard 
chitonous plates which should be certainly capable of producing a 
cracking sound. Now if this sound were produced by my friend Dr. 
Reverdin's organ, it would obviously be more natural that the 
butterfly should produce it when settled, for then the extension and 
retraction of the last segment would be most facile. We are told that 
the sound is never produced during flight. The conclusion is obvious, 
the crackling sound produced by ^^7('ro»/a = the ticking sound produced 
by Endrosa. Either many ages must have elapsed before the Aneronia- 
Peridromia or the. y»r<iurt-«»rflr/ organs could have reached their actual 
degree of development, or they were rapidly produced at an epoch when 
the hairs and scales had not yet taken a specialized form, and I think 
generic value may safely be accorded them. I am inclined to believe 
that Peridniiiiia and Ageronia should be considered as one and the 
same genus. My mounts of P. ainpliinome might easily be confused 
with Dr. Reverdin's mounts of A. febrna as published in No. 5 of the 
present volume. T esteem then theitjurtina, hispitlla and niiraij might 
very well be placed in a genus of their own on the sole evidence of this 
peculiar and interesting auxiliary genital organ, but when we further 
take into consideration the Papilio-shaped valva, no doubt can subsist 
as to the generic separation of these butterflies from all other so-called 
Epinephele. I have made some twenty mounts each of jurtina and of 
hispidla, and am inclined to believe that the valve is not exactly the 
same in the southern var. as in the species ; the valve of hispidla is 
blunter and more squared oft' in almost every case. As for niirati, of 
which, for want of material, I have only made two mounts, it has a 
still squarer and stouter valve than hispitlla. I should deduce that it 
is a specialized island form of the southern var. 

The second group consists of ida and pasipha'e, very distinct from 
one another in both valva and uncus, still near enough to justify the 
supposition of a not too distant common origin; the uncus, narrowing 
at the point of insertion of the brachia, then broadening, then 
strangled again and finally tapering oft" slowly, is very similar to that 
of jurtina. The valvar, however, are of an absolutely difterent class. 
Those of ida resemble the blade of a clasp knife, or rather, thanks to 
the regular row of teeth, a broad- bladed saw in a clasp knife. I have 
before me 30 mounts of ida, they are absolutely constant in form. 



THE CI-DEVANT GENUS EPINEPHELK. 155 

The uncus of iiasiji/iai' is similar to that of ida, but more finely 
drawn out; the valvie are of a rough and rather irregular form, jagged 
on the lower side, and without the sawlike teeth on the upper edge ; 
there is also a prominent shoulder. I have only five mounts of this 
species, four from Marseilles and one from N.W. Spain. Judging from 
such a very small number, the form of valvjB and uncus is constant. 
There is no peniculus. 

The third group consists of h/raiDi and iiarica. The uncus, a pro- 
longation of the tegumen, the dorsal outline of which is an unbrol<en 
curve, separates these two species from all other European ci-devant 
KpineplieU'. The uncus, indeed, looks as though it were of a piece 
with the tegumen, and not a process of the same. The lateral pro- 
cesses, that I call the brachia, are stout and immovable, springing 
from rather low down, and broadly separated from the dorsal process, 
thus resemblmg the brachia of many of the Kirhia, ejj., eiiiphnni, 
nerine, ceto, edda, pronoe, sci/iin. 

The uncus of hjcaon is extremely long and fine, it curves right 
down over the valvse. This in connection with much shorter brachia 
gives it a different aspect from the uncus of narica. The valvse of 
narica are rather broader at the base than those of hjcaon, instead of 
gradually tapering off from base to toe, there is a kind of heel and a 
rapid tapering off upwards. 

In considering the connection between one species and another, I 
have not allowed myself to take the wing of the butterfly into con- 
sideration, but now that this part of the work is finished, it is with 
pleasure that I remark that the close relationship between li/raon and 
)iarica is entirely supported by the similarity of wing stucture. The 
lengthening of the lateral and shortening of the dorsal process of the 
uncus in narica — or vice versa in hjcaon — seems to be an application of 
Geoffroy's law of compensation which accounts for a fowl with a large 
tuft of feathers on the head having a dimished comb, or the possession 
of a large beard being accompanied by diminished wattles. Lengthen 
the beak and shorten the brachia of narica's uncus and we have the 
uncus of bjcaan, The difference between the two is rather apparent 
than real. 

Together with the genitalia of bjcann I give a figure of those of the 
gynandromorpbous bjcaon, about which a note was published in the 
Knt. Uecord, vol. xxvi., pp. 252, 253. It will be observed that the 
uncus is foreshortened and lumpy, the wdU'X asymmetrical and mis- 
formed. For an account of the ovaries and other organs, see above 
note. 

The genitalia of bjcaon are constant m form. I have too few 
narica to allow me to come to any conclusion on this point. 

In the fourth group there is only one European representative, 
tit/tonus. The dorsal and lateral process is jointed on to the tegumen, 
there being a strong depression at the point of insertion. The valva 
has a cruel jaw-like appearance ; several rather small teeth at the 
extremity, followed by a row of strong sharp teeth, often set in pairs. 
I have about 40 mounts from Switzerland, France and Spain, and find 
the uncus absolutely constant in all; the position and number of teeth 

[On p. 153, line 3, the Italics are mine. — P.A.H.M.] 



156 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS KECOKD. 



of valvje vary, but not more than is usual in sister genera, such as 
Ercbia. 

I do not think it necessary to say anything further to prove that 
Epinepliele is composed of several distinct genera, the subjoined figures 
are in themselves such a sledge-hammer argument that none other can 
be requisite. 

So far as I can learn Hiibner created the genus Epinepliele 
for jnitina=janira, thus separating this genus from Coenoni/iiipha, 
Parmye, Satyriis, etc., to all of which he had previously given the 
collective name of Oreades with Ureas pru^erpina^Satynis circe as 
representative. Still earlier Hubner refers to all the Sat'yrids by that 
much abused name Pajiiliu. 

(In 1816 Hiibner published at Augsburg his " Verzeichniss 
bekannter Schmettlinge." Kpinepliele is the 6th Coitus of the 4th 
Familia {KnbUae) of the 9th Stirps {Oreades = Sati/ri, Fabr.) of 
the first Phalanx (p. 59). Both Familia and Coitus are, naturally 
enough, purely colour arrangements. The first mentioned Kpinepliele 
is janira, no. 565, and this is followed by eialaro, Esp. { = lt/ca<)ii, 
Rott.), and by si/ndintene [ditiiene, Esp.). We turn to the 6th 
Coitus, the i'ljionicxe, and we find the three butterflies that have 
been since placed with janira, viz., tithunus, idu, and narica. We 
have thus a name provided for the tithonns group, J'l/ronia 
tit/ionns. I'asyjltai', Hiibner calls it pasyphae (p. 60), has its place in 
the next Familia — the Alamioitae — and belongs to the third Coitus, 
the Tiaiphonae ; now, as tiaiphone (our (/larialis var. pinto) has its 
uncontested placed among the Krehiae, we may safely utilize the name 
Tisiphune for the pasipliae group. I don't think I am wrong in 
assuming that no author has till now separated lycaon from janira, 
so there is nothing for it but to find it a new name ; I should 
propose then, the new generic name Hyponephcle. — P.A.H.M.] 



Notes on the Swiss Rhopalocera. VI. 

By the late A. J. FISON. 

(Communicated by Miss L. M. Fisok.) 

Extracts from his letters to, and kindly lent by, the Rev. G. Wheeler. 

1905. 

]. Luiveia [L'lirysophanna) aniphidamas, Esp., etc. 

" Bex, June 9th, 1905. 
"On Monday I found a good many Polyoimitatns ainanda flying near 
Sion, but Melitaea aurelia was old. Yesterday I found the place for 
Loweia (i'lirysopliannti') antpliidanias at the end of the Tiniere Road, 
but there Avas no sun, and I only took one — a J . To-day W. of the 
St. Triphon rock I got one Polyounnatiis ainanda. It was very fresh." 

2. Li)ne)iitis jiopnli, L., and Loireia (Ch'-yso/ilianus) ain/diidainas,^s\).,. 

etc. 

" Biel, June 19th, 1905. 

" Am just back from Yvonand. First I tried a valley between' 

hills and valleys S.W. of the station, H miles off — but only found 

Brentliia ino, and Melitaea diitynna. Returning I steered for a part — ■ 

say one mile S. of the station, where in the centre of the line of 



NOTES ON THE SWISS RHOPAI.OCERA. VI. 157 

wooded hills, a wall can be seen holding up a broad road (otherwise 
invisible) which zigzags through the forest. It was then 12.15 p.m. 
and passing the next corner above the wall I ?oon saw a Linwnitis 
pojiiiU on the moist road, and got it. Three minutes later I saw, but 
missed, another. Though I stayed one hour there, no more were seen, 
probably because tlie sun went in somewhat. That part of the forest 
was of beech, ash, aspen, oak, poplar, fir, nut, cherry, etc. The 
specimen I took was very fresh. Saturday 1 went to the Tram gorge 
below Orange, and I took seven Loireia {C/trijso/ihaniis) awpliiiiaiiian 
when the sun got up about 10 a.m. By 11 a.m. it began to rain. I 
saw no bilberries about there in the cow-pastures, so fancy it would not 
do for ( 'nlias palaejio. The a)iij)/iiila))ias were like those from Caux." 

8. Liiii(')iitif< pnpiili, L., etc. 

" Yverdon, .June 28rd, 1905. 

" You will like to hear how I got live I /niw.nitis popiili to-day at 
Yvonand, seeing only seven or eight. Getting only one at my old place 
(the branch of the road going up H.W.) I went down to the junction 
and up the branch going S.E. There were larger forests, but I only 
got one until about 1 p.m. Returning from the top to a curved part, 
say 200 yards above the junction, 1 suddenly at one place saw a 
succession of three $ s within five minutes, and got two. Waiting a 
little, the very fine one I missed again tried to come up the road, but 
turned too soon. Some ten minutes later I caught a J , and directly 
after missed a fifth ; it was then 2 p.m. Two of my J s have bad 
chips, but all seem quite fresh. It is curious to see so many $ s, and 
to see them two and three together, and in the same spot. 

I saw a 1 .i)iirnitis Camilla just above the shallow S. curve in the 
road." 

4. AiHitnridi and ?\or(hiia)tuia (icaciu, Fabr. 

"Yverdon, .Tune 29th, 1905. 
" Am just back from Eclepens, where A/iatiird /r/x is fully out. 
I had H houi's in the wood and got four (of H vars.), but missed more. 
Fjefore this, when on the green lane under the hill, and W. of station 
(150 yds.) I got eight, yordmannia (Tficrla) acaciir was on elder 
flowers. Could see no Lijcaota areas. There were many Xordiiiainiid 
iliris and the "White Admirals" in the wood were a nuisance. Have 
arranged for attractive mess on bare path of wood opposite the station. 
I went no further." 

5. A pat in id i. 

"Yverdon, July 1st, 1905. 
" ]\Iy total catch to-day was 85. Of these eight were abs., three 
being yellow (ab. ch/tic) and live black. One cli/tie and two or three 
of the blacks are e8])ecially fine. One black has scarcely a trace of 
white on upperside. Of the whole most are Apatma iiiH. Only four 
-or five are damaged. Before to-day I had caught seven at Eclepens. 
Of these one was ab. cb/tii' and one a black. Thus out of 42 almost 
one in four is an aberration." 

6. Ajnitinidi : l'uli/(/o)iia c-albimi, Li. ; Saii/nis circr, Vnh. 

" Yverdon, July 3rd, 1905. 
"My catch to-day was 35 again, several near Inn, where I got 



158 THE entomologist's record. 

two Apatura ilia ab. ch/tie, before filling my water-bottles at the 
fountain. Of the whole I seem to have five ab. dytie and seven blacks. 
One of these last is ab. dytie or Apatura ilia. One or two blacks are 
very fine, with scarce a speck of white, whilst one has the forewings 
black and the hindwings much as usual. I think though my best 
catch of all will be a lovely little ab. of the "Comma." It has a few 
large dark spots on upperside. It is small but shaped like a usual 
Polyyonia c-album. As the sun went in I went to \ookiov Nordmannia 
{Theda) acacicB, and found them very lively, taking eight in about 
fifteen minutes. I took also there the first Satynm circe I have caught 
for some sixteen years. 

P.S. — Two of the ab. dytie are large and handsome. Apatura 
ilia was more common to-day than Apatura iris." 

7. Apaturidi. 

"Aigle, July 11th, 1905. 
"Having now ended my catch of Apaturids, I think you will like to 
hear the total is 156. This includes 22 Apatura dytie (you see I 
count dytie now as a type) and 18 blacks (with three or four inter- 
mediates). There is also a ? amongst them. One day I went for an 
hour into a forest one mile 8.S.W. of Chavornay, and although the 
sun went in at times I took eight easily, including two Apatura dytie. 
1 had not time in the ten days (June 29th — July 8th) to visit any wood 
at or towards Yvonand. On the 8th at Eclepens the sun was out all 
the time and I took 42, but only two of these in the clearing, which 
was practically deserted, as was the pit. On your high road^- there were 
lots. I got eight dytie but only two black abs. Most were still in 
very yood condition." 

8. Butterflies at Binn. 

" Hotel Ofenhorn, Binn, July 21st, 1905. 
" The season has been so backward here that when I went up a 
little height on Saturday I found no Erebia at all above the valley. A 
few Colias palaeno were flying, and lots of Melitaea uierojie, Melitaea 
parthenie var. varia, Polyoiu)jiati(s eras, and Latiuriiia orbitulun. 
Yesterday near the Albrun Pass was better, and I found some Erebia 
umeatra with their dark bordered upperwings nearly as narrow as those 
of Erebia diristi, but not so regular or clearly cut. I got about ten 
Melitaea cyiitJiia in one spot (several rather black) ; one Vacciniina 
[Polyo)Uiuatus) ojitilete ; two Erebia yorye ; and the first Erebia euryale 
and Parnassius deli us. On the white Dolomite rocks vegetation was 
too little advanced for "Erebias" to be out. I have not seen Erebia 
cassiope, Erebia pliarte, Erebia alecto var. ylacialis. Two days ago I got 

two Aricia [Pulyommatus) douzelii This does not look like 

the place for JlrentJiis thore, Erebia cripliyle, or Brent/tis pales var. 
arsiladie." 

9. Binn. 

"Hotel Ofenhorn, Binn, August 9th, 1905. 

" Have got little lately until to-day on W. side of the Stockhorn 

(just above Binn). I got a nice lot (say twelve) $ Colias palaeno — 

most white, but three were pale yellow, two of them very fresh. 

Amongst the $ s is one with patches or bars of greenish colour on the 

* i.e., Between Oulens and Bavois. — [G.W.] 



NOTES ON THE SWISS RHOPALOCERA. 



15^ 



black of forewing upperside. Panwssins dclins is very rare. Dark $ 
I i rent his pales are not uncommon. Aricia {['oli/dinjiiatnx) donzelii 
abounds on road up E. vallej', and Pohiimmiatus erns\^^i\\\ frpsh there. 
A fortnight ago I got a dozen very dark Mclitaca inerope, and ought to 
have secured more, as they were in crowds. Mditaca pliocbc has been 
very common." 

10. Miscellaneous. 

" Aigle, September 12th, 1905. 
" Came here from Binn a fortnight ago. Have now placed in my 
drawers practically all I have taken this season — and there is perhaps 
not so much to show for it as sometimes. At l>inn I found innumer- 
able 5 Colios fialacno of different shades (white and yellow), although 
many were faded. Hrent/iis /lales ab. napaea also was excessively 
common on the same Alp (Stockhorn), but in the clearings. Lately I 
have been four times to Martigny between September 5th and 11th, 
and twice beyond La Tour de la Batiaz. Have got three or four 
Mi'litaea deionc, var. bnisalemis. A 3 and ? I took yesterday were 
nearly fresh, and so were the Pierh dapUdice I found in about equal 
numbers, indeed they were perhaps better. It is interesting to know 
how late var. berisaleusis can be had, a fact many may be glad to know, 
if it is as most years. At Branson Bridge we also got three or four 
FA-eren arf/iades, var. coretas, a few nicely fresh. I got one fine large 
( 'iipido seinia there. I had a long hunt for Lai)ij>ides [Li/caena) boeticiis 
around the ( oliitca corner, but saw nothing. The ddutea arborescens 
bushes are in a bad way — only one had six or seven pods on it. 
Twice I looked above the vines by the road beyond La Batiaz for 
Satj/iKs ij/.sr/s, but could not find it. A collector took many I'ar)iassiiis 
ddiiis by Lac Lioson, sixteen Apatioa iris on the Sepey road and 
some Liiiieiiitis /inpidi." 

11. Lani/iides boeticiis, L., etc. 

" Aigle, September 19th, 1905. 
"Yesterday I was at C'harpigny .... and got four "Pea-pod 
argup " {Laviiiides bueticns), rather old of course, but two I kept are not 
too bad. I caught three — two high on an ash. I also took two dark 
yellow L'apiliit inoilunin.'" 

12, hri/as pandora, Schiff. 

" Charpigny, September 23rd, 1905. 
" Have just taken a very good Drtjas pandora here. A slight chip 
in one wing, but that is renj little, and it is nicely fresh too. It was 
on clover flowers. An old 2 Dri/aa paphia turned up too, which I took. 
The fiando)!! was between the Chalet and Les Saves." 

18. Antlmcltaris sinijiloiiia, Frr. 

"Clarens, December 11th, 1905. 
"If I can go to Charpigny for the two 'mountain Simplonias' 
from Binn, would you mind taking them for comparison'? A Swiss 
collector says positively 'they are the Swiss form of Aitt/mcliaris belia.' 
1 should like the question thrashed out." ■ 

* Of course they are nothing of the sort. The early stages of A. simjflouia 
seem really nsarer to I'ontia ddplidice than to .1. crameri {lielia auctorum). — G.W. 



160 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

1906. 

1. Branson and Les Follaterres. 

"May 5th, 1906. 
"On the 4th I went to Branson and Les Follaterres for flowers. 
Although fine, there were scarcely any butterflies at Branson. I got 
one ScoUtantides or ion, one Cnpulo sebrus, and one PolijniiniiatiiH 
{NoDiiades) setiiiarfius, but saw no Everea aniiadea var. coretas — indeed, 
vegetation there still seemed too backward for them. On the cool side 
of Les Follaterres corner I saw and caught an I'.rebia which was, as I 
expected, a bad Krebia rrias." 

2. L.oxveia (^Chn/sophaiius) aiiiphidaiiias, Esp., Everes arr/iadev, 
Pallas, var. coretas, Ochs., etc. 

"Bex, June 16th, 1906. 
"Tuesday or Wednesday I hope to go to Yverdon for two weeks 
at least. Would it still be too early for Limenitis populi at Bramois or 
Yvonand, seeing this season is late? My more important captures 
have been — on the 6th : two Eh-erca arf/iaden var. coretas by the canal, 
150 yards before the Branson Rhone Bridge from Martigny (a new 
place, I think) ; on the 7th : seventeen Loweia {(Jhri/sophamis) amphi- 
danias at Villars-sur-OUon, but the majority in a place quite new to 
me. A day at En Saumont Marsh 1 found too early for hijcaena areas, 
and I saw no amphidamas around Bains d'AUiaz. The day, however, 
was unfavourable. On the 14th I took six i'obpmnnatKs aniandn below 
St. Triphon Quarries, in the marsh, and on my bit of land there; and 
yesterday five more, walking from St. Triphon to Aigle Rhone Bridge 
by the canal (most were about half-way there). I could see no 
■ijoeiioiiyiiipha tiplnni near the Rhone Bridge, but the sun was in then. 
Three of my a)iianda are ? s." 

3. Lijcaena iolas, Ochs., etc. 

"Yverdon, .June 22nd, 1906. 
"I do not think there can be many Linienitis popuH about here. 
To-day was perfect, and at Yvonand I only saw four, and caught three. 
Yesterday I saw two and got one — a very fine ab. treiindae. All seem 
fresh ( $ s). I must tell you about my catch of eight f.ycaena iolas at 
Sierre on the 19th. Passing the church and going under the railway 
I took the steep path to the left by the shooting tower or house. 
About 100 or 150 yards further I saw several Lijcaena iolas down on 
the right and crossing the road, and a few steps further found (^olittea 
arborescots on the left, and iolas flying freely. I never saw so many 
together before, and two or three times could strike at two <? s at once. 
I got two 5 s, and then two (^s, the latter alive in boxes. Wishing to 
get more of the crowds about, I went back to the chemist to buy boxes, 
and on my return, confident of a good haul, not a fly was to be seen. 
The place was as deserted as other parts to which I soon went off. It 
is true I got one 2 later, by the near arm of the lake, and saw a second 
iolas, but not another till 1 returned about 2.15 p.m. to the first spot. 
I then got two more <? s alive and a $ . I concluded that n/ien I caiKj/tt 
the first two ? s tlie attraction for the ^ s liad ijone, and had not another 
? turned up about 2.15 p.m. I might have taken no more. I turned 



NOTES ON THE SWISS KUOl'AI.OCERA. VI. 161 

out four $ s and two J s at Charpigny that evening. '■ I will write you 
when Apatnra j'r/s appears. I got a Sati/nis circe at Eclepens, but it 
was lame in one wing. The roads here, too, are far too dry to attract 
Liinenitis jiojndi. I should think the collector who got six must have 
done so after the last wet." 

4. Linioiitis /inpuli, L., ab. treinnlae, Esp., etc. 

"Yverdon, June 25th, 1906. 

"Have got my third ab. tn'uudar to-day, and that a ? with three- 
red-brown bands over its big body. Ten yards from it I got a fine 
Liiiii'nitis pn/ndi 9 , but saw no more at all. The three J s I have 
seem to me tending towards ab. tn'iinilae a little. May this be more 
common this year! 'White Admirals' were rather abundant in the 
]>avois Wood, but no Ajiatnra iris." 

5. liri'iithis t/iiirc, Hb., etc. 

"Aigle, July 14th, 1906. 

" Iheiithix thnjT is taken at Faido on the cooler south or west side of 
the river, in the small forest glades or openings. Crossing the bridge,, 
one goes up south above the first pastures for twelve to fifteen minutes 
at least. The best place was a larger clearing ((hnre and on the forest 
road. The clearing had a little "source'' at the lower entrance to it, 
and at a second higher entrance is a half-hidden old limekiln hole, as- 
1 take it. I got two or three ISrent/ti.s tltore also higher up, where a 
horizontal path goes along to the grass land. In most clearings I 
found none, but took one in the wood a good deal higher. None were 
seen in the woods north of the bridge, but they might still be there in 
cool but perhaps not too damp places. The i'anuissins apollo I got u[> 
a gully on a common-like bit south-east of the village. Also below 
Lavorgo station where the old, disused road crosses the first bridge 
below it. The old road was excellent, especially near the big cascade. 
Beyond too, the half or three-quarter-mile-long path to the next rail- 
station was good, but hard to get along on account of brambles. I got 
5i2 Apatnra abs. at HI, four or five with only forewings black. Nine 
were Apatnra ilia ab. rlj/tic." 

1907. 
1. Liiiioiitis jiiipnli, L., ab. tri'innlac, Esp., etc. 

"Bex, June 20th, 1907. 
"To-day I took at Charpigny, in one stroke of the net, two fine 
I .inicnitis po/>itli ab. trcninlaf. They were fresh, but a little chipped. 
Another was on the same fir trees (north of La Tete) from which the 
two came down, l)ut would not be tenijited to the ground even by some 
bait. On J\Ionday at Villars (about 1 p.m.) I took five fresh Loireia 
{( Itri/sop/ianKx) anipliidanias. Have done little else lately, as am kept at 
Charpigny by the disease amongst our fir trees, which will, I fear, 
cause the destruction of all of them." 

* "Mr. Fison's attempt to introduce ioltts to Charpigny has, so far as I know, 
been quite unsuccessful." — L.M.F 
t No doubt Bavois.— L.JM.F. 



162 THE entomologist's record. 

2. ECLEPENS. 

"Yverdon, July 9th, 1907. 
"I saw no Apatma iris or Limenitis populi at Eclepens to-day, and 
shall not return for them until next week. I got the four usual 
Theclas, and over the tunnel, I believe, two Lycaena euphemus (a queer 
place for them), and four of the pearly Parnamus a polio someone spoke 
about last year. Their spots and colours are really very fine." 

3. Notes on the Season 1907. 

"Clarens, December -ith, 1907. 

"As to butterflies, there is really very little to write about this 
year. I never had so bad a season, and fear that its effects will not be 
quickly remedied. This, however, will be quite interesting to note in 
1908. For instance, Erebia aethiojis, generally so common at Charpigny 
in autumn, was scarcely there at all, and there were not many 
E/iinephile tit/ioniis. Except a few fairly dark 'Swallow-tails,' I found 
nothing to catch. I told you, I think, of the Liiuenitis populi caught 
there on June 20th and 24th. It is grievous to say all that line of 
firs on which they used to sit are now down, and quite half the firs in 
my wood are gone too — cut down on account of the Bostrych.* By a 
new order we have to burn the bark of all such trees as well as their 
branches. 

"I have been making out a detailed list of the Apaturids, with 
the number of their dark aberrations, which I took at Eclepens in 
the last three years. I quite thought there was an interesting point 
about it, in the decrease of dark abs., culminating in none this season. 
However, in counting the eight transitional abs. taken in 1906, as I 
am doing, in the total of fifteen, there is not much in it ; although it 
IS curious that I should not certainly have seen one dark ab. this year, 
for although I netted only 28 in all quite 70 must have been observed. 
Var, clytie was not rare, although I only took one. The proportion of 
Apotura iris to Apattira ilia I have rather to guess at, and of their abs. 
too. Also, I have a third ab. of dytie, which is not given below in 
the following list : — 

1905. Six days at Eclepens and Chavornay (one hour on July 7th, 

getting eight), June 29th-July 8th. 
Iris. ab. ilia. ab. ch/tic. ab. Types, abs. lirce. populi. 
65 10 51 8 21 1 or 2. 156 19 1 1 

1906. Six days at Eclepens. June 3rd-July 10th. 

42 8 38 6 9 1 103 15 8 7 

1907. Three days at Eclepens. July 9th-12th. 
4 9 1 14 

Upper and lower roads. From Yverdon to Yvonand, two 
days. July 10th-13th. 
12 2 14 

16 11 1 28 

You see I count clytie as a type. I only caught one 2 Apaturid — 
Apatura ilia. It is only fair to say the five days on which I caught 
these Apaturids this year were very cool, with north wind, although 

* Disease amongst firs, caused by a parasite underneath the bark. — L.M.F. 



THK UPl'EK KNGAmNE IN I'.lll. 1 G3 

sunny. One day on the lower Yvonand road I saw a good number of 
A/iotiira iris all along, but the strong breeze from the lake must always 
interfere with what might be a most excellent place, and good probably 
also for Limenitis pajiidi. I feel rather inclined, if possible, to go 
again next year to Yverdon, to see if the dark abs. are again as 
numerous as in 1905. I should like, too, to try the wood south of 
Chavornay (one hour otl") again, where I did so well in an hour in 
1905, and to visit a wood I see four or five miles south of Yverdon. 

At Finhaut in August I got very little. The only good high place 
was the large valley beyond and below the Col de la (iueuroz. The 
Barbarine Club Hut is in it. From its size and isolated position it 
might i)e a first-rate place, but I was there too late, and the rantassiiis 
ili'liiis, llreitthis jhiIcs, and forms of ]\i-rhia I saw were all old." 



The Upper Engadine in 1914. 

By Hy. J. TURNER, F.E.S. 

Year by year, as my wife and I have passed the great fortress of 
Belfort and seen the earl}' sun shining peacefully over the prosperous 
towns, Altkirch and Mulhausen, on our way to the Swiss mountains, 
have we thought of the terrible scenes enacted and the devastation 
achieved in the war of 1870. Little did we think as we again saw 
these fertile fields in the early morning of .July 25th, 1914, that almost 
ere another week had passed, the scenes would be re-enacted with even 
greater "frightfulness" than before. 

Our usual way is to go direct to Paris, get a substantial evening 
meal, and do the somewhat tedious crossing of France in the night, 
reaching Bale in time for an early breakfast, and thence have the 
choice of trains to our destination. This year we were bound for the 
Engadine, and after a good breakfast on liale platform entrained for 
Chur, where we had our midday meal and a walk in the town while 
waiting for the afternoon train to St. Moritz. The weather v.as 
delightful, and what could be finer than the grand and wild scenery of 
the Albula as the train wound its way through the mountains, some- 
times at giddy heights above huge ravines, sometimes in spiral tunnels, 
sometimes in open valleys, always with change of scene, until finally, 
after passing through the long tunnel under the Guimals to Bevers, 
we saw the delightful Engadine valley, and leaving Samaden and 
Celerina behind at last came to the Innfall ravine, and reached St. 
Moritz station about 6 p.m., quite ready, after a wash and change, for 
a hearty meal. 

The next morning, July 26th, the sun shone gloriously, and I was 
out before 7 o'clock. My way was along the upper Campfer road, 
towards that village, to the slopes of the Suvretta, which 1 found so 
prolific in insect life in July, 1907. The air was very cool, and every- 
thing was soaked w'ith moisture from the rain which had fallen in the 
night. Turning to the right by the St. Moritz cemetery, I was 
astonished to see a huge hotel standing right on top of one of the 
choicest parts of the ground I had previously known. 

Passing some little way beyond this hotel on the lower path I had 
one of the greatest pleasures of an entomologist abroad, that of seeing 
the insects creep up from the herbage as the rays of the sun, rising 
over the mountains, gradually reach them. Not in ones or two< i\o 



164 THE entomologist's record. 

they come up, but in countless numbers, and their movements and 
orientation, or whatever one calls it, seem to indicate that they too^ 
have "joy in life." The species, so far as noted, were Arfiynnis aijlaia, 
A. niohe, Colias jiliicumone, the mountain form var. aei/idii»i of 
Flebeiits argynxinonien, Coenoiii/inp/ia sati/unii with its ab. unicolor, 
Ai/riaJea thetis, Rrcbia melawpiis, Antltrocera fdipendulae, A. purpuralia 
{]>ilo>iellae), the Noctuids Ayroth ocellina and Xoctiia festica (?), both 
on flower heads, the Geometers Clcof/ene Intearia a.xid Acid alia fiaiiolaria 
in abundance, Xantlun-lin'r sociata, a plume not yet identified, numerous. 
Tortrices and Tinea, including the common and widely spread Aphelia 
arf/cntana, as well as many species of Coleoptera and representatives of 
other insect orders. 

After breakfast the road taken, past the house formerly the alpine 
residence of Prince Henry of Prussia, led up to the gorge which forms 
the entrance to the wild and secluded Suvretta Thai. This road is 
usually a most prolific spot for butterflies before the hay is cut. Just 
now the cutting had scarcely commenced, and the alpine pasture 
flowers were at their best. With the brilliant sunshine and clear 
atmosphere the views of the surrounding peaks, mountains, lakes and 
valleys were enthusiastically admired by several English visitors who 
were new to the district and had come out with us for the morning. 
On the right one could see the peaks of Piz Julier and Piz Albana, 
towering close above and separating the commencement of the Suvretta 
Thai from the Julier Pass leading to Tiefenkastel on the Albula, below 
lay the Upper Engadine valley with its chain of glittering lakes, 
Silvaplana, Campfer, and 8t. Moritz, and its lovely pine woods backed 
by the snow covered Piz Magna, Piz Corvatsch (with its pure white 
glacier), and Piz Surlej, beyond the village of St. Moritz on the left, 
looking over the fir covered hills which separates the Upper and Lower 
Engadine, and which is probably the terminal moraine formed by the 
great glacier that ages ago filled the valley, can be seen the beginning 
of the Valley of Pontresina, made b}- the waters of the Filsbach from 
the Bernina Pass, with its north-east mountain boundary topped by the 
snow-covered Piz Albris, Piz Languard, and Piz Muraigl, on the 
slopes of which lies the home of the much desired Krehia liarofasviata. 
Eeturning to the lesser, if not to us the less, attractive features of 
the walk, one could but notice the bunches of butterflies drinking the 
moisture on the roadway. As we passed they flew up in small clouds 
each few yards. Af/riatles coridov, PobjontDiatiis irarus, Pleheius anpi- 
nn/nnwon, PolyoiiiDiatiis fvos, and Erehia tyndarm, formed the bulk of 
the drinkers, with a few Agn'ades t/ietis and Pulyo)iniiatiin seiniaryiix. 
All the species seen in the early morning were again noted, most of 
them either flying across the roadway or settling on the flowers fring- 
ing it. The Noctuids mentioned above were on the head of ('entamra 
and thistles, and with them were the mountain form of Adscita (/eryou 
var. cJirywcephala. Aniynnia pales occurred, mostly quite typical, but 
one was taken in which the black spots were fairly conspicuous on the 
underside of the forewings, var. arisilache in tendency. An ab. punctata 
of Af/riades thetis, an Erebia mela)iipus with dots in the dull orange 
blotches on all the wings very minute as well as reduced in number, 
plenty of Coenonynipha satijrion, both <? s and 2 s, etc., were obtained. 
The afternoon turned somewhat cloudy, with rain in the near 
distance, and a quiet walk was taken with our friends through St, 



THE UPPER ENGADINE IN 1914. 165 

Moritz Bad and around the St. Moritz lake to the Meieii for a cup of 
€offoe, of which, having once tasted, the temptation is too strong not 
to endeavour to make one's rambles terminate again and again at the 
far-famed "Gasthaus." Just at one ])oint in the walk we saw a rain- 
bow in the spray above the Innfall at the exit of the stream from the 
lake. I might say that the views during the earlier part of our visit 
were much enhanced by the late disappearance and fre(iuent renewal of 
the snow on the mountain tops. For a week after we arrived the snow 
did not recede from the slopes of the Muotta Muraigl above the pine 
trees. The ground sacred to A>. ilavofaaciata was so covered by snow 
that a projected visit was put off and unfortunately indefinitely so, for 
war broke out and all means of conveyance were stopped, small 
money was quite unobtainable, and when a chance of paying a visit did 
eventually occur it was much too late for the species to be found. 

The early morning of July 27th was very misty and the sunlight 
was very bright at intervals, but we had determined to go to the 
Morteratsch Glacier and walk along the western mountain slope towards 
the l)Oval hut. 1 had arranged to walk from St. Moritz through 
Pontresina and Mrs. Turner was to come on by train and meet me at 
Morteratsch station later in the morning. The night had been wet 
and then frosty, so that the air was delightfully cold as I started to 
renew my memories of some seven years before, when I had taken the 
same road. Many were the changes I saw, all no doubt induced by the 
railway, which did not exist on my previous visit. My way led through 
the village, by the station, to the Innfall and St. Moritzer See, around 
which the ground was still white, as the sun's rays had not come over 
the tops to the eastward. The reflection of the snow-capped mountains 
in the perfectly clear and still waters of the See was at its best. Later 
in the day, when agitated by the movements of boats or the changing 
winds, this is to a great extent spoiled. The Meierei, where one 
always wanders towards late afternoon for a delightful cup of coffee, 
seemed unchanged, and early as it was the women were washing as 
usual at the running stream. Further on was reached Statzer See, a 
small shallow lake among the pines, now with an ugly restaurant for 
afternoon tea spoiling its loneliness. The path then led into the pine 
forest fringing the base of the Piz Rosatsch, still dripping with 
moisture too much to stir its foliage or undergrowth, but as was 
always my experience in the some dozen times I passed that way 
during my stay, the insects resting on the trunks, etc., were very 
sensitive to every neighbouring movement and flew off in considerable 
numbers. Species of Scoparia, (j )i(>i>lios a.nd "Carpets" seemed to be 
the luore prevalent. As the path through the woods to Pontresina 
would be more or less shaded at this early hour, and was also damp, 
I took that leading across the rail and JJernina-bach to the lower end 
of the village, expecting to meet with a few insects on the low meadows 
covered with scattered glacier blocks, but in this I was disappointed, as 
not a wing was seen in spite of the now brilliant sunshine. Passing 
rapidly through the mile-long village, stopping a moment to admire 
the glorious view up the Rosegg Thai with its lovely white glacier at 
its head, 1 took the path to the right across the meadows and bach 
towards the Sansouci Restaurant, now relieved of its loneliness by the 
near approach of the Pernina Railway and a station. After passing a 
little way along the path I wandered to the edge of the trees and along 



166 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

the railway banks, where it was more open and sunny, and collected 
for the remaining four miles to the Morteratsch station. Butterflies 
were here fairly abundant. Bre)tthis pale^ perhaps predominated, the 
males were quite normal as to colour and size, while the females were 
of the var. hh form, the upperside dusted with blackish and the yellow 
of the underside predominating over the red. Some females were of 
the ab. nnpaea with upperside shot with purple, but still not of the 
extreme form of this ab. There was also a tendency to develop 
spotting on the underside of the forewings in some of the females, a 
sort of intermediate step to var. a rsila die v^here this spotting is strongly 
emphasised. One female was a very pale washed-out tint, although in 
good condition. One example of Brentlns eiiji/iroaj/ne was taken, and 
this at over 6,000 feet. It was large in size and quite fresh. There 
were plenty of Krehia ti/ndanis and C. vielavipiis was in some number. 
The former were the typical twin-ej'e-spot upperside forewing, but the 
undersides of the hindwings were of a dark inconspicuous gray, devoid 
of character, the latter with a tendency to the diminution of the 
reddish patches and black spots ; in one brought home there are only 
two reddish patches on the hindwings, and these without black dots. 
Coeiinni/iiipha xatyrion was very common and generally typical on the 
underside. All the specimens taken had no apical eye-spot on the under- 
side of the forewings. The males were of the unicolor form. ( 'oenoin/m- 
pha ip/iis was much worn and only a few were noted. A beautiful Pontia 
calliilice was taken, nearlj^ to the Morteratsch station. There were 
plenty of Plchriiis oriiiirixjnonion of the large alpine form ai'tiidion in 
quite good condition. Albtilina plierftc'swa.s, as usual, in marsh}^ .spots and 
as usually my luck not in good condition. A Hesperiid was common , which 
so far as I can see was onl}' Hei^peria alveiis. A specimen of Larentia 
(■aesiata was of large size and with very clearly emphasised transverse 
markings. A few plumes were met with but none were taken. Of 
Anthrocerids only one or two Anthrocera purjmralis {pilosellae) were 
seen. The little yellow Geometer Acid alia flariolaria was also very 
abundant here, as was the Tortricid Aphelia avfientana. The flowers 
noted were Pip-ola rotund i folia, locally common under shade, and 
plenty of Pirviidcula miliaria, the fly-eating butterwort, on the wet 
marshy banks. 

At last the station was reached, and the weather changed. The 
sun gradually disappeared, and collecting was over for the day. My 
wife met me, and we wended our waj' towards the glacier, and then 
up the steep zigzag to the level path skirting the western side. From 
the Chunetta one has a fine view of the glacier, its terminus, and its 
whole surface for miles. At one's feet are the smooth rock surfaces 
made by the glacier when it extended further down than now ; on the 
centre of the glacier lies an unusually wide moraine, and along each 
side one can plainly see the huge lateral moraines. The path, some 
five miles, to the Boval hut goes sometimes on the mountain slope, 
sometimes on the moraine, sometimes over snow even at this time of 
the year. As we went it got colder, and finally, w^hen we reached the 
rough steps for the final climb, it began to snow. This made us, after 
a rest and refreshment, forego our intention to reach the hut, and 
we turned back. There was an almost complete absence of insect life^ 
but the patches of colour from the flowers were very pleasing. In 
many places the rhododendrons were not yet over, and on the moraine 



THE UPPER ENCADINE IN 1911. 167 

were many flourishing plants of the beautiful lAnaria al/iiiia. Near 
the hut a plume was seen, but the spot was too dangerous to plunge, 
and it escaped. This was practically the only Lepidopteron seen on 
the path. The only quadruped seen was a mule, which passed us on 
the giddy steps near the hut. We ought lo have had a glimpse of the 
cbamois from here had the day been fine and bright. All around 
the Bernina group of the Alps the country is treated as a government 
preserve for this now vanishing denizen of Switzerland. The return 
journey was a cold one, and the coffee obtainable at the station was 
most acceptable and refreshing. 

July 28th was chosen for a long expected visit to the Bernina Pass 
and Alp Gram. The rail mounts rapidly in zigzags from the 
IMorteratseh station crossing the beautiful Bernina Falls with grand 
views of the huge glacier with its unusually wide central moraine, and 
quicivly gets above the tree line. The first stopping-place is at the 
Bernina Haus, Avhich is at the entrance of the narrow and wild 
Heuthal or Val del Fain, famed as one of the finest localities for 
alpine llowers, and known to entomologists for the extremely dark race 
of lln')ithis pall's which is said to be taken in some numbers about the 
falls and marshy spots at the far end some six miles distant. The 
road from the Morteratsch to the Bernina Haus passes through an 
area of sparsely timbered ground which is a capital collecting place for 
entomologists and amid the grandest yiews of snow, glaciers, and 
mountain peaks. Some miles further on the chain of small lakes is 
reached and the watershed, a narrow barrier between the "black" and 
"white" lakes, Lago Nero and Lago Bianco, is passed. The water 
from the former goes into the Inn and on to the Danube, that from 
the latter lake flows to the Adda. Lake Como and the Adriatic. By the 
Lago Bianco the road and rail diverge to unite at Poschiavo more 
than 4,000 feet below, the former taking the valley north-east of Piz 
Campassio where easier gradients are available, while the latter takes 
the much steeper Alp Grum, obtaining its gradients by many tunnels. 
As Alp Grum is our destination we pass the fine Cambrena glacier 
and descend the gradients, soon coming into view of the Piz Palu 
glacier, the curious high-perched hut on Sassal Massone and the view 
station of Alp Gram, which dominates the tremendous deeps of the 
Poschiavo valley down almost to Tirano in Italian Switzerland, with 
a grand circle of snow-capped mountains as a background. The air 
is cold, the sun elusive, but for half-an-hour after leaving the station 
we enjoy the warmest spot of the day, and the sun allows us to take a 
nice 'series of Heodes. /tipiuit/io'c, including a few females which are 
flying along the path between the only cultivated and cultivatable 
spots at that height. Of course they are of the emi/bia form, but the 
discoidal is present in all the males, though small. The females are 
all ab. nif/ra, in which the upperside is without a touch of orange. 
Keeping fairly close to the return path (no road is possible here), 
towards the Bernina Hospice, (Julias /lalafiio is met with, and several 
Pontia rallidire, which latter the steepness of the slopes and the swift- 
ness of the insects allow to escape, except a ragged male. ( 'dOKDij/ni/i/ia 
sati/rii»i and C. //)/(/.s are both in numbers, but the latter too worn to 
trouble about. The steep climb having been negotiated a rest for 
refreshment is called. Below us we note that some workmen are 
quarrying. Suddenly we hear shrill whistles and at least a hundred 



168 THE entomologist's record. 

men rush for shelter. A territic explosion takes place, huge rents are 
made in the mountain side near the path we were about to take, and 
great masses of rock roll down, while the echo and re-echo from side 
to side is grand. We hurry on out of range and come to slopes and 
hollows which should prove prolific spots for the collector if only the 
sun could be propitiated. As it was we found Erebia (/onje var. triopes 
commonly (only one specimen of the type was noted), Colias palaemi 
several, ( 'oi'iinni/Hiplia i<atyrion in numbers, a few Anthrocera e.rulans of 
a robust well-scaled race, one firentliis jiales only, and that a cripple, 
red predominating on the underside of the hindwings, some Erebia 
tijnilariis and /'7. f/oante, two or three " skippers," which might have 
been prizes unfortunately missed, one female Vacdnilna ojitilete, the 
only "blue" seen, a fine form in which there was considerable blue 
scaling on the upperside with pale bluish clouded blotches on the 
outer margins gradually disappearing in the general ground colour, 
and several nests of the larvte of Eriogaster arbiisciilae, which some 
authors take to be the alpine race of our E. laiu'!ifris of the lowlands, 
were among the things noted or taken. The flowers both here and on 
the more rocky places were very interesting. We were not too late at 
this elevation to meet with both primulas and gentians, and even a 
Christmas rose greeted us at one spot. The PhKjHicula and Soldanella 
were also seen, the former in abundance. Divergmg froih the paths, 
and wishing to see the far-famed Bernina Hospice, we crossed the 
bare wind-swept Alp, capturing a few Erebia lappnna, which were 
stirred up as we went along. Afterwards we went over the top of the pass 
(7,600 feet) as far as the road galleries on the eastern side, where there 
are numerous avalanches in winter and spring. Even now there was 
thick ice under these shelters, so cold had the season been. From this 
" coign of vantage " there is a most extensive view of the road as it 
circles in and out on the gradients for miles adown the valley, and no 
doubt traverses much ground that is entomologically good. Only one 
insect could I find here, and that a micro, on the moss just outside the 
galleries. One could only anathematise the weather and return from 
this grand locality with the few samples it was possible to take, and 
the wish to revisit with " better luck next time." 

{To be continued.) 



Notes on Collecting in 1914. 

By W. RAIT-SMITH, F.E.S. 



On previous occasions I have described my notes as collecting in 
the Abertillery district of Monmouthshire, but as this has been objected 
to on admittedly reasonable grounds I will change the title of my notes, 
and more especially as I have done comparatively little collecting 
locally this season. 

The early months of the year in Aoertillery produced nothing 
beyond the common spring insects in fair numbers. Aimopteryx aexcii- 
laria, once very abundant here, still remains unaccountably scarce. A few 
Brejihos parthenias were noticed flying round the birches on sunny days 
towards the end of March. ('/litnabachefaijella in both light and dark 
forms, with ^ s largely predominating, were very common on tree 
trunks during April, together with a few Tej>hrosia biimdidaria, of 



NOTES ON COLLECTING IN 19H. 1 09 

which species I took a very nicely marked example at rest on a larch 
trunk on the 24th. I have previously recorded Jallo/ihri/s nibi as 
swarming in a small valley near Abertillery in April, 1912. They 
were not so abundant in 1913, but occurred in even greater numbers 
this year. Amongst others 1 took a very perfect example, iiaving the 
underside of the wings of a deep bronze colour in place of the usual 
bright green. Examples with bleached patches on one or more wings 
were not uncommon. The Pierids were about in fair numbers, Pieris 
uapi as usual by far the most common of the three species, i'oeno- 
)i!/iiifi/ia /laiii/ihiliiswsis common enough, in company witii odd examples 
of liiiiiiicia }ihlaeaH and l'<)l!/n)ii)iiatus icanta. 

I spent several days in May collecting in the neighbourhood of 
Port-llan-fraith, principally after Hemoris titj/ns {boiiihi/lifinini.s), of 
which species I took an odd example in 1907. I was fortunate enough 
to find this interesting insect fairly common in one marshy field at 
Port-llan-fraith on the 17th, eight or nine examples were seen and 
five were taken as they fed at bugle and other low growing flowers. The 
easiest way to take this species is to place one's net Hat on top of them, 
it is quite useless striking sideways. This moth does not appear to be 
on the wing for any length of time. I visited this locality again a 
week later, but not a single specimen was to be seen, but that may 
have been on account of the weather, which was dull and cold, as titi/ns 
will only fly high in bright sunshine. Melitaea aininia, which used to 
occur in this field in abundance, has now almost entirely disappeared, 
a dozen examples were seen in 1913 and only one this year. I cannot 
account for the disappearance of this butterfly, as the ground is 
untouched from year to year, and as far as I know the locality is quite 
unknown to any other collector. In a small wood adjoining this field 
I took a fine series of Tfjilinma punctularia at rest on birch and alder 
trunks, together with several nice forms of Hiidrioiiiena iiiijdnriata and 
iMiniiVDpterijj- sujfniiiata. Beating bushes and rough herbage gave 
several Lnmasjiilis inan/inata of varied forms, Enchoeca obliterata, 
■Coreiiiia denifpiata and C. fernn/ata, Cabera pui^aria, ar.d other common 
Geometers. One or two Orucodes he.radfirti/la were beaten out of honey- 
suckle. A few Brcnt/tis ciiphroxt/ue were noticed on the 17th and 24th, 
but they were too worn to be worth taking. The males of Satiirnia 
pavnnia and Macrothi/lacia riibi were fairly common in large open 
spaces, the former at the beginning and the latter at the end of the 
month. (Ji'Ltstrina arriioliis has been more plentiful here this year than 
usual, several were taken flying round the hollies on the 17th, one or 
two were fairly fresh but the others were decidedly pasiic. This is not 
a common species here as a rule. A few lladena ijlauca and I'haretia 
(Ariniiicta) iiu'iu/antliidis were found at rest on stone walls during the 
first fortnight in May. I'harctra {Acroiiicla) nniiicis was not uncom- 
monly at rest on tree trunks and walls; a nice var. salicis was taken on 
May 24th. 

On ]\Iay 31st I went down to Bickley, Kent, for a few days. Col- 
lecting at Bickley is almost entirely confined to searching the fences 
and going round the lamps at night. Searching the fences was rather 
productive. Hi'pialns Inpnliniin was very abundant, a beautifully 
marked example having the ground colour silvery white was taken on 
June 1st. hlitpithecia vid(iata was another very common species, 
dozens were seen in the course of a week. Amongst other species 



170 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

taken or noticed on the fences were Xanthorlwe fiitctiiata (common), 
S/)ilosuiiia iiienthastri and 8. Itibricipeda, Xanthorhoc iiiDutanata (com- 
mon), a C(i)i'iiiia quad ri fascia ria on a fence near Chislehurst Common, 
Tcplirosia piinctularia, Caiiiptngraiiniia hilineata (common), Xant/iorhur 
sociata, (Tunodontift hidentata, Hadena dentina, one very dark suffused 
example was taken on June 7th ; Ajiamea basilinea, Aridalia vinitdavia 
and Corciin'a fernn/ata, as well as several Torfcrices and other small fry, 
including three fresh Oecophora oLiviella taken on a decaj'ed oak post 
on June 6th. In a lane near Bickley the brilliant HarpeUa iieojfrella 
was flying over the rank herbage in the ditches in dozens, active when 
the sun shone, but very lethargic and easily boxed if the weather was 
at all dull. This lane also produced a few Adela fibtddla. Butterflies 
were rather scarce. 1 only noticed the following: — Pieris brassicae, 
P. rapae and P. napi, Kiicldu? cardaiiiiiics, Hainicia phlaeas, Polijom- 
iiiatits icavHs, Celastrina ar(/ioliis and Coenoni/iiipha pa»ip/tiliis. 

On June 4th I went down to one of my favourite collecting 
grounds, the Warren at Folkestone, chiefly for the first brood of 
Ar/riades tlietia (adonis). The weather was brilliant until Folkestone 
was reached, when unfortunately the climatic conditions changed ; 
the sky was very heavy and overcast by the time I arrived on the 
Warren. This was very disappointing, so there was nothing for it 
but to beat and search grass stems and bushes. A few A. thetis 
(adonis) were taken at rest on grass stems, and I was very fortunate 
to include amongst them a perfect ab. ceronus. Polyoinviatus icarris^ 
was common enough. Beating rough herbage only produced a few 
common insects, such as Kmatiixia atomaria, Coreinia ferriifiatay 
'Jaiiij)to[/raiii)]ia bilineata, and Xanthorliof inontanata, etc., in spite of 
much hard work. 

On my return to Abertillery, further visits were paid to Port-llan- 
fraith, on June llth and 21st. Insects of a common order were 
abundant, especially Brenthis selene, which swarmed here. The most 
interesting insect taken was an Acmnicta lepnrina var. hradi/pcriita, 
which was found at rest on a birch trunk. This is the first example 
of this species I have seen here. A few ConchyUs smeatlunanniana 
and other Tortrices were beaten out of rushes, and one or two beau- 
tiful Mesideiica albicillata Avere fovind at rest on rocks. 

" Dusking " at Abertillery during June was very productive as far 
common Noctuae and Geonietridae were concerned, but nothing of any 
great interest was noted ; the best thing was a fine Theretra (Chaero- 
rampa) porcellns, only the second noticed in this district, which was- 
netted on the 29th as it fed at the flowers of ragged-robin. Several 
Scojiaria ccmhrae, an insect I have not previously taken here, were 
netted at dusk as they flew over nettles and other rough herbage. A 
very perfect melanic Boarmia f/eiiii)iaria came to the light in my 
dining-room on the 17th ; this usually common species is quite scarce 
here. The Plusias were scarce this year ; a few Plnsia jiulchrina, P. 
festiicae, and /■'. f/amnia were netted at dusk. P. festucae, usually the 
most abundant species, was particularly scarce, not more than two or 
three were seen altogether, whilst P. chrysitis was not noticed at all. 
Hepialits hitiiinli is usually very common where it occurs, but I have 
never seen it in such numbers as this season. There were scores on 
the wing at once in every field. " Sugaring " during June produced 
insects in fair numbers, but of a common order, especially Miana 



NOTES ON COLLECTING IN WU. 171 

fanciuiiciila and M. strii/ilix, and a few nice Leiicania cunuiia and Z>. 
lit/iaii/i/ria. I find the lattef insect comes more freely to sugared 
thistle heads than anything else. 

On June 27th I paid a flying visit to Weston-super-Mare, in the 
hopes of taking Asthcna lihnneri. This pretty little Geometer was not 
uncounnon in the Kewstoke woods, but is not easily taken. They 
rest rather high up on tree trunks, prmcipally wych-elm and ash, and 
are very skittish, taking flight before one can reach them. By dint of 
hard work I managed to get twenty good examples. Abra.vos sijlrata 
swarmed everywhere, especially amongst ivy. Several lodis lartearia, 
lleinitlwa strigata, Acidalia acersata, Sciiiiothisa litiirata, and Zondoii- 
natha (p-isealis were beaten out of rough herbage. Butterflies were 
rather scarce, the most common species was Paranje aei/cria, which at 
this date was decidedl}' jiasxe. 

Owing to pressure of business I was unable to do much collecting 
during July. I do not find anything of particular interest in my notes 
of the little I was able to do. On the 11th my wife and I had an 
enjoyable day in the Forest of Dean. We had visions of taking our 
latest addition to the British list, r/c, AraKcIniia lerana, a single 
example of which was taken near the Forest of Dean last year. We 
failed to find any trace of that butterfly, although several have been 
taken at Symonds Yat and other points of the Forest this season. We 
were too early in any case. I believe this is a very local species even 
on the Continent. Butterflies, and especially Ariij/miis adippe^ were 
abundant. Several scores of A. adippe could have been taken had we 
wanted them. Drj/att paphia was common, and three An/i/nms atflaia 
were netted as they flew along a railway bank. The three Pierids, 
Apliantojtiii^ Injpercoitiis and A'lopaea jiara {tlioiii)ia'<) were common, and 
I was interested to find several Mclanan/ia (jalatca on the railway 
banks. I have always associated this local species more or less with 
the sea coast. I was pleased to take a few Antlirocera {Zipjaena) loni- 
cerae, as they lazilj' flew from flower to flower, as I have not hitherto 
seen this burnet on the wing. A few "plumes" were beaten out of 
rough herbage, and a large but verj' worn $ Boarniia roboraria was 
found at rest on a pine trunk. Odezia atra was common, but worn. 
Geometers, on the whole, were scarce. Although insects have been 
more abundant this year than usual I notice it has only been amongst 
the commonest species, at least so far as this district is concerned. 

On August 1st I took my annual holiday, going with my wife and 
family to Lymington, Hampshire. This place was chosen as I thought 
it would be a convenient centre both for the Isle of Wight and the 
New Forest. I am very sorry now we did not stick to our original 
intention of staying at Brockenhurst, as we did last year. On August 
2nd Germany declared war on Russia, and after that everything was 
chaos as far as railway travelling was concerned. Our proposed trips 
to the Isle of Wight were stopped altogether, and getting about any- 
where was difficult. There was nothing for it but to make the best of 
things and to collect when and where we could. 

Lymington itself appeared to be a poor locality for Lepidoptera ; 
butterflies were scarce in numbers and species, a few " whites," Poli/- 
ntnmatuti icariis, Celastrina an/iolus, the commonest of the " blues," 
Ihoiiicia {Chrgfiophanns) plilaeas, Coennnynipha jxoiipjiiliis, Kpinepluie 
tithontis and Pararqc inei/acra were noticed. Moths were fairlv common 



172 THE entomologist's recobd. 

round the electric lamps at night. Among others we took the follow- 
ing at light, Porthesia aimilis, Hydraecia nlctitaus (common), Acidalia 
hiaetata, Crocallis elin(jiicuia, Pioiiea for/icalis (common), Kupithecia 
ohlowjata, J\. asaiinilata and K. vidijata, Bnjophila jierla (abundant), 
Apaiiiea secalis (common), Cidaria truncata, Miami bicoloria, Thavmonoma 
vaitaiia, Boaniiia (/einiiiaria, Lithosia luiideola, TrijJiaena ianthina, 
Honioeosuma nebidella, and a few Tortrices. A fine Moniio numra was 
taken at rest under a window-sill. 

Several visits were paid to Stubby and other parts of the New 
Forest. I was anxious to get Jittralis {Zephyriis) betulae, but failed to 
find this species, although a considerable amount of time was devoted 
to the search. Onl}^ one Bit/ujs qiiercns was seen, flying high up 
round an oak. 

Butterflies were fairly plentiful in the forest; by far the commonest 
species at this date was Pararye aegeria, in beautifully fresh condition, 
one or two worn AtyynnU adippe were noticed, Aryynni^ paplda was 
common but very worn, a fair ab. valezina was taken at Stubby on the 
7th. The second brood Pieris brassicae was abundant, and towards 
the middle of the month (Tonepteryx rliamni put in an appearance in 
large numbers, one or two examples were tai^en with numerous spots 
and blotches t rust colour distributed over the wings, and another 
example had the costal margin of the forewings heavily marked with 
rust colour. Over twenty of these butterflies were counted in a small 
space of about 30 square yards at the same time. Celastrina arywlus 
was common wherever there was holly. I do not remember ever 
seeing this blue so abundant as it has been this year. At Brocken- 
hurst Heath Satynis seuiele was swarming, and in fine fresh condition. 
Pararye iiieyaera was not uncommon, and Coenonyinpha pa)i}philas as 
usual swarmed everywhere. Polydmniatns icariis was fairly common, 
and a single J PLebeius aryiis (aeyon) in very fresh condition was 
taken on Khinelield Heath. ]'a7iest>a io and Aylais nrticne were 
common. Pyraiiieis atalanta was rather scarce. Juiynnia polychloraf 
was not seen, although a sharp look out was kept for this butterfly. 
A few very dilapidated Ltinenitls sybilla were fluttering feebly along 
the glades. We did not see Apatwra iris, but we heard that one or two 
had been taken. I was told by other collectors we met that iris has 
been very scarce in the Forest this year. 

We took a lot of sugaring mixture down with us but were unable 
to use it, consequently the only moths we could obtain were by beating 
and searching. These included, amongst others, Mesolenca albicillata, 
Euchatricha. jiaiiniicalis (common), Ortholitha limitata, Pyrausta 
purpnralis and P. sanyainalis, Acidalia avermta and A. bisetata, a fine 
fresh Cleora jiibata taken at rest on a large whitethorn trunk, Crocallis 
eliiiytiaria, Kupithecia rulyata and A', iianata, a fine melanic Boariiiia 
abietaria, beaten out of a fir tree, and a good many Tortrices and 
Scoparia and Eiidoria. 

I was anxious to get a good series of Adopaea acteon, so several 
visits were paid to Swanage. I had heard that at one or two places 
near Swanage this species swarmed, the exact localities were kept more 
or less secret. By devoting several hours to close searching, and 
walking several miles over rough ground, I was at last rewarded by 
finding one spot where this local skipper occurred in hundreds. In a 
very short time I got as many as I wanted. Acteon simply swarmed 



A MONTH AMONGST SPANISH KUTTKRFLIES. ' 17^^ 

here. I had as many as six in iny net at a time. In spite of its quick 
tiip;ht this insect is easily taken. It is exceedingly local but very 
abundant where it occurs. I found a second locality a few days later 
where it was almost equally abundant. At the beginning of August 
arteon was in fine fresh condition ; it very soon gets worn, and really 
good cabinet specimens require to be taken within a day or so of 
emergence. The "blues" were common in certain spots, /'. irarim 
being by far the most abundant. A curious ab. of this species was 
taken on the 18th ; the spots were normal on the left wings, but were 
altogether missing on the uppcrside of the right wings, on the under- 
side the spots were quite normal in the left wing, but were streaked to 
a marked degree on the right wings, and especially so in the forewing. 
The specimen was a ? in fair condition. Pleheiiis anjuH was fairly 
common. A good many Aijiiades cnridou were netted in the hopes of 
ab. fou'lcri, but without success, although a few minor varieties were 
taken. A single J Ji/riades t/tet is {adonis / was netted on the 18th, 
the only example noticed, and one or two very worn Ciipido mini ma 
were seen on the 14th. Other butterflies noticed at Swanage were 
Pararfje Dictfaera, J-'pincpfiele tit/ioniis, Melanari/ia i/alatca, Sati/ras 
seiiiele (common), Vanessa ia, Aijlais iirtirae, Pyrameis cardiii and /'. 
atalanta, Cocnonj/ntiiha itainplitliis and Hioiiicia p/tlaeas. Amongst the 
moths (inojihns olisnirata fairly commonly on bare chalky patches, a 
few Aspilati's (/ilraria were beaten out of rough herbage, Pi/ransta 
piirpiiralis was verj' common, with other small fry, amongst the short 
herbage on top of the cliffs. 

We returned back to Abertillery on August 15th, bringing home 
about 600 insects, which kept me busy setting for a week or two. 
Since August I have been unable to do any collecting. Throughout 
September Kudoria {Scoparia) an(jnstca occurred at light m extra- 
ordinary numbers, hundreds could have been taken had one wanted 
them. This local l-.'ndnria {Srnparia) is common enough here as a 
rule, but I have never before seen it in such profusion. Taken on the 
whole, this has been a fairly good year in the Abertillery district. I 
have taken one or two species which rarely occur here, and have been 
able to add two new and interesting species to our local list, v/c, 
AoDnicta Ic/mrijia and Scoparia cemhrae. 



A month amongst Spanish Butterflies. 

By JAMES A. SIMES, F.E.S. 
The account published by Mr. W. G. Sheldon, F.E.S. , of an 
expedition undertaken by himself and Mr. A. H. -Jones, F.E.S., in 
^lay and .June, 1918, to the Albarracin Sierras {Kntmn., vol. xlv., 
p. '288, and vol. xlvi.), revived a desire which I had long felt to visit 
Spain armed with a butterfly net. As circumstances did not seem to 
interpose any obstacle to the realisation of this desire during the 
season of 1914, plans for an expedition speedily began to assume a 
definite shape; and finding that Messrs. T. F. P. Hoar, F.E.S., and 
A. C. Smith, F.E.S., were bent on a similar undertaking, I concluded 
arrangements with them for a joint campaign. Various itineraries 
were discussed, including some which would have left little of the 
Iberian peninsula unexplored ; but we eventually abandoned such 
ambitious projects as outside the realm of practical politics, and came 



174 THE EN'TOMOLOiiJST S RECORD. 

to the conclusion that, for a first trip, we could not do better than 
follow in the footsteps of Messrs. Sheldon and Jones. 

We left England on May 20th, and travelled direct to Barcelona. 
We broke the journey here for a few hours to make an expedition to 
Tibidabo. It was a glorious day, and notwithstanding that our quarry 
was not over-plentiful, the menjory of the hours spent on that lovely 
hillside will not soon fade. The first hour revealed nothing more 
exciting than an odd Faran/e uu'(jaera or two, a very worn C(ien<iiii/)iijiha 
/iani})hili(s, a few hibernated Pyraiiieis cnrdiii, and a number of Pliniia 
i/a;iniia ; but soon afterwards we had a vision of a fine I/ihiclidcs 
podaliriun, shortly followed by an unmistakable Fa])ilio uiacliaon. 
Matters improved when we got out on to the open hillside amongst 
the scrub. Here we found that darkest of " burnets " Anthiocera 
larandiilae in some numbers, a few Melananjia si/llius, mostly worn, 
numbers of Celastrina arifioliis, and, to our delight, Melitaea aurinia 
var. iberica. Of the latter, both sexes were in evidence in first-rate 
condition. By dint of steady work each of us managed to pick up a 
short series of excellent specimens. An odd specimen or two of 
Glaucojisijclie (XuDiiadcs) cyllayns and I'lpituplielc jictsijiluie completed 
our bag. So we descended to the valley, rolled our nets, and took our 
places on the top of the electric car which was to take us back to 
Barcelona. Hardly had we taken our seats when a big dark butterfiy 
floated lazily over our heads, so low that had any one of us had a net 
handy the insect must have been captured. As it was the butterfiy 
pursued its leisurely way unmolested. It was C/uirares jasin>i ! 

On the following morning we left for the south. We broke the 
journey for a few hours at Valencia — which does not strike one as being 
of much interest as an entomological centre — then proceeded to Teruel, 
where we stayed the night at the station restaurant and on the morrow 
embarked in the crazy mule-diligence for Albarracin, where, after 
many adventures, we arrived in the afternoon. We had arranged for 
quarters at the Hospederia Narro, where our predecessors had stayed ; 
and we can only say that, after the dark hints we had heard in London 
about life in small country hotels in Spain, we were agreeably surprised 
at the cleanliness and comfort which we found at Sefior Narro's 
house. 

Mr. Sheldon's account of the Albarracin district is so complete and 
admirable that no remarks on the subject from me are called for. His 
notes, coupled with some additional hints and directions which were 
kindly supplied to us by him and his companion, Mr. Jones, were of 
the utmost use to us in our wanderings, and the success we met with 
we owe in large measure to the help ungrudgingly given us by those 
two gentlemen. Our hunting was done for the most part over the 
ground mapped out by them, our principal locality being the sainfoin 
fields some two or three kilometres belovv Albarracin and the gorges on 
the left bank of the Guadalaviar. The sainfoin fields were not, however, so 
productive at the time of our visit as they were in the previous year ; 
but this was probably due to the fact that we were a fortnight later 
and the flowers were long past their best. They were most attractive 
on our first morning and steadily declined in their yield as the days 
went by. The weather, too, was distinctly less favourable to us. 
There were few days when there was unbroken sunshine ; and on 
most mornings we set out under a cloudy sky, wondering if the 



A MONTH AMONGST SPANISH BUTTERFLIES. 175 

Aveather was goin^- to clear sufficiently for insects to Hy. Friend Hoar 
usually sallied forth wearing a warm British overcoat, albeit he carried 
—somewhat pessimistically— a butterfly net ready for action. I 
append a few notes on the individual species met with in the hope 
that, taken in conjunction with those published by Mr. Sheldon, they 
may be of assistance to future visitors. 

]/i/iirli(les pndabrinn. A few only. First seen on May '29th. 

I'apiUo iiKir/uton. Very scarce. Not more than six examples seen. 

Thais nniiina. Practically over. One or two passable examples 
on May 30th. The larva? were very numerous on the Aristubxhia and 
on the stones in the vicinity. They seem fond of resting on these 
stones, often at a considerable distance from the plant, when not 
actually feeding, and I have no doubt that they usually pupate on 
them. Probably the stones are more comfortable than the plant 
because they retain the heat better. 

Afioria cratacin'. Fine large examples. Not common. First seen 
on May 30th. 

Pierin hrasaieae and /'. rapae. Abundant. 

P. napi was not met with. 

Pontia ihipliilice var. raphani (gen. aest.) Abundant from May 2Gth. 

Aiithor/taris bdia. A few in cornfields. \'ery worn. 

Kucldn'e cardaiiiines. Generally common from May 28th. 

h\ eiiphenoides. First seen on jNIay 31st and afterwards generally 
abundant. The females generally have much less orange than those 
which I took in the Esterel some years ago. I took one male, flying 
strongly, which had the left hindwing of a very small size, being 
scarcely larger than that of ( '. painphiliis. The malformation is the 
more noticeable as the insect is larger than the average. 

Zeyris ciiphewe var. iiicyidionalis. We were almost too late for this 
species and only managed to obtain about three or four each, and these 
were the worse for wear. Only one female was secured and this was 
unfortunately killed before its captor realised its sex. It is very strong 
on the wing and difficult to catch. 

Lejitosia sinapis. A few at La Losilla from June 4th onwards. 

Coliax hipde. Uncommon and worn. 

C. ediisa. Common. Fine fresh examples from May 28th on- 
wards. Ab. pallida was more frequent than I have found it elsewhere, 

GoneptenjA- (Ithndocera) rhaiinii and (i . (//.) dcnpatra. Hibernated 
examples only. They are very fond of a shrub which has scented 
blossoms resembling those of Jasniinuni midiiloniin. 

KliKjia (Thecla) spini. One worn example on June 10th. 

Calldphri/x riibi. Very worn. Both upper and undersides were too 
rubbed to permit of any opinion as to the form to which they should 
be ascribed. 

Lowcia {Chri/s(ipltani(s) alcip/uDii var. 'innliiis. One female in a 
meadow by the river about three miles above Albarracin on June 8th. 

Iiiiiniria {< '.) piilacan. Uncommon and typical. 

Laiiipidcn hortiriis. Getting over at the time of our arrival, the few 
good examples taken being met with in sainfoin fields. 

Sc(dita)itiilis nrion. Not common. First seen May 27th. They 
were mostly of the iii/ira form. One was taken at La Losilla. 

S. baton var. panoptcx. Practically over. Only worn examples 
were seen. 



176 THE entomologist's BECORD. 

Plebeiiis scji/u/riis var. Itesperica. First met with on May 30th, 
when five males and one female were taken on the ground indicated 
by Mr. Sheldon. After this it was met with regularly in this locality, 
though not in any great numbers on any one day. In addition to the 
plateau near the road, where Mr. Sheldon discovered it, we found it 
more than a mile up the gorge, and on June 8th I was very pleased to 
come across five exaiiiples by the roadside about 3i miles above 
Albarracin. I could not discover the foodplant in the latter locality, 
but no doubt it is there. Like the var. b/cidas, it seems to emerge 
over a long period, and we found perfectly fresh examples right up to 
the middle of June, when we left. 

Ari'ia tiiedan {astrarche). Uncommon. First seen May 30th. 
All examples of the calida form. 

Polyoniiinitiis ican(s. Scarce and worn. 

Aijriades tlwrsites. Numerous in the sainfoin fields, but not met 
with elsewhere. It was well out at the time of our arrival. In one 
of my males the spotting on the underside is almost obsolete. All 
the females met with were of the ab. azcujra, Sheldon, form. 

Poli/oDDiiatiis eu-hei:L From June 9th onwards. Males only were 
seen, and these are all typical. Not common. 

Aiiriades thctis {Ixdlariiua). Common from May 30th. A fine 
large race. 

Puli/unnitatiis liijlax var. iiire^cenx. First seen on May 30th, when 
one male and one female were taken. It was never abundant during 
our stay, my maximum take being three in one morning. It was 
mostly met with in the neighbourhood of Santa Croche, but we found 
it to be widely spread. 

Celai^trina aniiolits. A few only in the vicinity of the town. 
From May 26th.' 

Ciipidc sfbnis. A fine large form, abundant from May 28th. 
Fond of drinking on the wet mud at the side of the river on hot days. 
Rests in large numbers on shrubs in dried up watercourses, especially 
on Arteim'sia fniticosa. 

PohjoviDiatiis seviiari/iis. Very rare. Only two males seen. 

Glaucopsj/cJii' {Xoiiu'ailcs) ojllarns. Fairly frequent, and of fine 
size. Continued fresh throughout our stay. First seen on May 27th. 

FAKjonia /loli/c/iloros. Larvfe in great abundance on elms by the 
roadside above the town. 

Aglais iirticar. A few larvse were found which produced the form 
referred to and named by Mr. Sheldon (var. temelensis). The imago 
was first seen on May 29th, when two fresh examples were taken. 

Pyramei^ canliii. Abundant, but mostly worn. 

P. atalcuita. A few onh% worn. 

Melitaea di'sfoittainii. Abundant in the gorge below Santa Croche. 
First taken on May 30th. The males frequent the hot gorges, but the 
females do not often visit these, preferring the open hillsides. 

1/. pliot'hc var. inritanica. A few from May 28th onwards. The 
examples taken were not of a very extreme octitanica type. 

M. di'ionc. Common on May 30th and for about ten days after- 
wards, when it completely disappeared. 

hsoria latlmnia. Very common. 

Arffi/nms aijlcda. Not properly out at the time of our departure. 
Two examples only taken. 



A MONTH AMONfiST SPANISH HUTTKKFI.IKS. 17/ 

A. niobe var. eris. One only. 

hri/cxs pandora. First seen on Jane 8th. A tine lai'ge form. 

Mclananiia lachcsis. This species was not out at the time of our 
visit. I did not take it at all. 1 saw it in numbers on the railway 
banks about twenty miles north of Barcelona, when homeward bound 
in the express for Port Bou. 

M. incs. First seen on June 8th. We took very few owing to 
unfavourable weather. 

Kiebia crias. One example at La Losilla on June 12th. 

I'artin/c iiiacra var. adrasta. Not uncommon, but usually worn. 

/'. iiit't/aeia. Frequent. 

l-'.pinephele jiasip/iiie. Common from May 29th onwards. 

L'ue)i())iijiiipha dorns. Two males on June 9th. 

C. ipJiioiiles. First appeared on June 12th when we took three 
examples. Unfavourable weather prevented additions to the series. 

('. pawphilHu. Not common and very worn. 

Kr>inni:^ {('atrliamihis) alrcat . Not uncommon ; about halt-a-dozen 
were taken. 

E. {(\) althcac. Two examples on June 8th. 

A'. (C.) laratcrac. Fre(iuent near Santa Croche. 

PnivelUa san. Not very common. 

He>ij)ciia caitliaini. Very numerous, especially near Santa Croche 
from May 81st onwards. 

Of the other black and white IJespcn'idaf I cannot speak with any 
degree of certainty, as my specimens have not been subjected to the 
only reliable test of identity. 

Xisdjiiades tat/es. A few of the (-('rranti's form from May 2Gth 
onwards. 

Adopaea fiara. Not common from May 31st onwards. 

Amongst the Ueteroceia the only species not met with by Mr. 
Sheldon, which we came across, were Satnrnia pyri, Dicrauura linnla, 
and Tiochiluiiii apifomie. The latter was discovered on the poplar 
trunks on two or three occasions about 9 a.m. It had evidently just 
emerged. 

The very few (ieiwu'tridae taken have been handed over to Mr. 
Prout for identification. 

In a district new to all of us there were of course numerous natural 
objects of interest other than entomological ones. ' It was a treat to 
see for the first time a pair of vultures poised high over the sierras, 
and on another occasion to catch a glimpse of a pair of eagles — I 
believe, Bonelli's. Raptores of smaller species were fairly numerous, 
but I fear I am not ornithologist enough to hazard a guess at their 
identity. My notes record numbers of the little owl — a species which 
was generally observed on the top of a telegraph pole, from which it 
flew oft' as one approached, to take up a similar position on the next. 
Of the small perching birds no one could fail to remark the numbers 
of nightingales, which sang incessantly day and night in the bushes 
along the course of the Guadalaviar, and the great abundance and 
variability of the wheatear. One example of the latter species had 
all the grey parts replaced by a yellow- brown tint. 

On one occasion as we rounded a bend in the road near Santa 
Croche a fellow passenger in the diligence excitedl} exclaimed " Lobo ! 
Lobo ! " and looking in the direction indicated I was just in time to 



178 THK entomologist's rkcorh. 

catch sight of swishing bushes and some gray-bi'own fur as some 
animal dived into a cavern in the cliff face. It may have been a wolf, 
as the man said, but I could not swear to it. 

Of snakes, I am thankful to say, I saw none. The only reptilian 
met with which interested me was the fine big green lizard (Lacerta 
ririilis), which we came across everywhere. 

Trout are common in the river, but they are mostly small, and a 
small crayfish is also abundant. When alarmed, the latter darts 
rapidly backwards, and is lost to sight in the cloud of mud disturbed 
by its motion. 

Mr. Sheldon has described some of the most interesting plants of 
the neighbourhood, one of which is certainly the glorious blue Lininu 
which is to be met with everywhere on the limestone rocks. The 
Savin Tree, which is frequent on the same formation, interested me 
very much. The adult tree strongly suggests a cypress, and it is only 
when ones comes across a sapling that the characteristic juniper 
foliage is noticed. A magnificent wild rose with huge, rich yellow 
blossoms was discovered in one locality near the town. The big 
asphodels were very common on the hillside, but I do not think they 
are of the same species as that which I find so abundant in Southern 
Italy. The root of the latter is a huge bulb like an onion, whereas the 
Albarracin asphodel has a root consisting of a mass of tubers something 
like that of our garden plant lucan-illm delaroj/i. Oleanders do not 
occur so high up in the sierra as Albarracin ; but we saw masses of 
them in full bloom in dry river-beds between Valencia and Barcelona. 

It only remains for me to place on record our indebtedness to Seuor 
Don Mariano Rabinad,the Secretary to the Ayuntamiento of Albarracin, 
to whose kindness much of the success of our expedition was due. It 
was a matter of great regret to us that during the greater part of our 
stay Sefior Rabinad was obliged, by official duties, to remain at 
]\Iadrid. 



Dysstroma concinnata, Steph. [Witli tln-ec platefi.) 

By E. A. COCKAYNE, M.A., M.D., F.E.S. 

In a paper read before the City of London Entomological Society, 
Mr. Prout gave his reasons for believing Diisstrania concinnata to be a 
species distinct frqm 7>. tnincata and /). citrata [iwnianata). These 
were based on the external appearances and genitalia of the imago, and 
on differences in habits, time of appearance and distribution. All 
these species inhabit the Island of Arran, a fact which proves that 
these differences are not dependent on local climate or isolation. I 
will summarise the points which Mr, Prout brings out so clearly. 

Dj/sstniina tnincata on Arran is double-brooded, appearing in May 
and June and again in August and September; D. concinnata is single- 
brooded, appearing in July or August or even occasionally at the end 
of June ; />. tnnicata inhabits the low ground, and the larva is a 
general feeder; l>. concinnata is confined to the high ground and the 
larva feeds on heather, Valhina ruhiaris. It must be admitted that 
larvae of both the other species are sometimes seen feeding- on heather, 
but in my experience they prefer other plants, even on the open moors. 
TK citrata passes the winter as an egg, D. tnincata as a larva ; the 
hibernating stage of P, concinnata is unknown. P. concinnata rests on 



Vnr.. XXVIT. 



Pl.ATI- VI f. 




9 
1-2 



10 
13 



I'lml.K K. A. Ci>,l.-ii!iili 
I I 



Till' F.iilKiiiKloiiist'^ ]!,,;>nl. I'.ll.".. 



Vol,. XXVI I. 



I'lATK VIII. 



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: V-- r^^ >'^''^^-Vjv^':V,^;-v, 



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Photo. K. A. Coeknynr. 
M.\LE Gkxitalia of: 1, Dysstroma ioncinnata ; 2, D. trincata. 
The Kiil,iiniilo;iiKt'x liecortl, 1915. 



Vol.. XXVII. 



I'l.ATK IX. 




I'lwlo. /•;. .(. Cochn,,i 



Mat.k GKNiTAr.iA OF : :}, Dyssthoma citrata. 



The F.iili>mnh,.ii:<i'.< Uemnl. lOl.".. 



DYSSTKOJIA CONCINNATA, STEIMI. 179 

granite boulders, />. tntnrata and /'. citiatu prefer the branches and 
trunks of trees. 

Concinnata is very variable in colouring, but has a different facies 
from either tnoicata or citntto, a difference better brought out by long 
series than by isolated specimens. 

It agrees with trumata in shape. The wings lack the narrowness 
and slight hardness of surface seen in citrata. 

The shape of the outermost line of the broad central band is a 
fairly reliable feature when large numbers are examined, and in this 
too it agrees with tnnicdta rather than with citrata. In the latter this 
tends to make a smooth sweep from the costa to a projection outwards, 
which is usually double-toothed and sometimes deeply indented. 

Traniata and rourinnata generally show one or even two sharp 
projections near the costa, and the large elongation outwards shows 
three teeth, which are often ill-defined. 

The dappled appearance of the central area and the well-marked 
pale submarginal spots on the hindwings are usually co isidered the 
most characteristic features of concinnata. In a considerable number 
of individuals which I have examined they were always present. 
Both features are often found in Shetland citrata (var. /iijt/i'niixsata, 
Milliere), the pale submarginal row of spots in the hindwings are some- 
times well developed in tnoicata, and exceptionally the central area 
in this species may be as dappled as that of c(>nci)inata. The central 
area in some specimens of concinnata is greatly suffused with black or 
chesnut scales, but there is never the uniformity of colouring which 
is the rule in similarly coloured tnoicata. 

The line on the underside of the hindwing is shaped like that of 
triincata, with a deep indentation between veins 5 and 6, but the line 
is very thick. In truncata this line is usually tj^uite thin, especially in 
the lighter Scottish forms, and in the darker ones there is a general 
suffusion of the whole wing with dark scales, which makes it even less 
conspicuous. In the plate the indentation in tnonata is not sufli- 
ciently clear. 

Thickening of the line is rarely met with in truncata, but is con- 
stant in concinnata, and the thick indented line appears to me the 
single character which is most reliable in differentiating it from its 
allies. 

In the most melanic concinnata there is no general darkening of 
the underside of the hindwing, though thert; may be a good deal of 
black scaling in the basal area. 

The shape of the line in citrata is usually quite distinct, being 
sharply angled, and without the indentation. The difference is well 
shown in the plate. (Pit. vii.) 

The central spot in cincinnata is, on the average, larger than in 
the other species, and the wing surface is more glistening. 

In such protean species where variation runs on such closely 
parallel lines, too much reliance must not be placed on a single 
point ; all must be considered to arrive at a correct determination. 

I have failed to find any constant structural characters in antenna? 
or elsewhere except in the genitalia, by which I can separate one 
species from the others. 

In outline, markings and colouring, the Arrau species comes nearer 
to truncata than to citrata. 



180 THE entomologist's kecord. 

With regard to the male genitalia, Mr. Prout published a note in 
this paper stating on the authority of Mr. Pierce that in ronr'umata the 
spines on the tedoeagus are intermediate between those of the allied 
species and nearer to those of citrata. In spite of this it appears to 
me that in the general appearance and in individual details alike 
tnincata and concinnata are extremely close, whilst citrata is somewhat 
removed from either. 

In the case of the jedcieagus the total width and length is the same in 
tnincata and cuncinnata ; in citrata it is much longer- and about double 
the width. The area covered by spines is also the same in length and 
width in these two species, but much broader and longer in citrata. 
In fact, so great is this difference that mounted specimens of the 
genitalia of this species can be recognised readily with the naked eye 
from those of either of the other two. 

The individual spines vary considerably in length and breadth in 
all three species, and those of tnincata cannot be distinguished from 
those of co)tcinnata, but those of citrata are much longer and broader 
(about two-thirds larger). The total number is about the same in all. 
The valvHB in all three species differ a little. They are of equal length 
in trnncaia and concinnata, and obviously shorter in citrata. They 
widen out more abruptly in concinnata and reach a greater maximum 
width than in trnncaia. Thus the total area of the valva is greatest in 
concinnata and least in citrata. The valva of citrata has a straighter 
inner edge and the smooth area covered by long straight hairs (costa 
of Pierce) is longer than in the other two. In concinnata the costa is 
broader than in tnincata, and the hairs on the anellus seem to be a 
little coarser. 

The total length of the tegumen is equal in tnincata and concinnata, 
shorter in citrata, it is also narrower throughout in the last-named. 
The uncus also is shorter and narrower in citrata, and is different in 
shape. It tapers much less gradually and the extreme tip is shorter 
and narrower than in either concinnata or tnincata, Avhich in this 
respect resemble one another closely. 

The females of all three have a rather elaborate genital apparatus, 
but, as in the case with the male armature, the resemblance is closest 
between tnincata and concinnata. 

The signum is scobinate in all three species, but in these two 
species the scobinations become smaller towards the middle, leaving a 
smooth central area. In citrata Pierce says the whole is scobinate ; 
there is, however, a very narrow, smooth strip down the centre. 

In all three species there is a thickening of the chitin at the neck 
of the bursa, and on the inner aspect their spines are placed at regular 
intervals. In citrata these are few, and they only occupy a part of the 
ventral side of the neck. At a rough glance the neck appears to be 
spineless. 

In the other two species they extend almost all the way round, but 
the band covered with spines in concinnata is nearly double the width 
of that in tnincata. 

Thus in every point of external appearance and in the details of 
internal structure concinnata is seen to approach more closely to 
tnincata than to citrata. 

The geographical distribution of concinnata is a most interesting 
one. It is quite common in the island of Arran and has been recorded 



hysstkoma concixnata, stkph. 



]K1 



from the mainland, but these records are old and have never been 
confirmed. A Dysstroma which I took on July 5th at Tongue in 
Sutherland was shown at the City of London Entomological Society 
and doul)tfully assigned to this species. It is, however, tnnu-atu. 
Placed with a long series of true mncinnata it has a slightly different 
general appearance and diverges in details, such as the narrowness of 
the line on the underside of the hindwing (see Pit. vii., tig. 7). 

The genitalia are those of tnmcata. The Hebridean specimens, 
loo, are said to be tnnirata, so that Arran is the only certain Scottish 
locality and until recently was the only known British locality. F>ut 
at the pocket- box exhibition of the South London Natural History 
Society last year Captain Gwatkin-AVilliams, R.N., showed some Irish 
Lepidoptera, amongst which were two Dysstromas taken by him on 
July 14th, 1912. I suggested at the time that these \^'ere ron'-innata 
and he most kindly lent them to me for further examination. Both 
are females. Except that they are slightly brighter in colour than the 
average Arran specimens and have a faint yellowish tinge on the 
underside they agree with them in all respects. The thick black line 
on the underside of the hindwings is specially well-marked. They 
were taken at dusk up on a bare heather-clad bill-side in Achil Island 
oft' Co. Mayo on the w^est coast of Ireland, a locality in many ways 
r(!S('mbling the Arran one. 

Captain Gwatkin-Williauis unfortunately did not realise the 
interest of the capture until it was too late to pursue his investigations 
further. But we shall probably find the species elsewhere on the hills 
of this little known coast. 

Outside these two restricted localities in Great Britain the species 
has not been met with. 

I cannot help thinking, however, that if entomologists who visit 
Norway will look in suitable localities they will lind it. 

Nearly all our insects with a similar distribution have a Scan- 
dinavian origin. 

Stephens, J. F. ... lllus. Brit. Kiit., Ilanst., 1831, vol. iii., p. 229. 

Pkout, L. B. ... /vH^ /?cr., 1908, vol. XX., p. 143. 

,, ... 7Vrn;.s. City of L.ond. l-^nt. and Xat. Ilist.Snr., 

1908, vol. xviii., p. 52. 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate VII. 

Figs. 1 <Sc 2. Dijsstroma coiicimiata from Achil Island. 

,, 3 A- 4. ,, ,, from Arran Island. 

(Fig. 3 unusually pale). 
,, 5 & 6. D. citrata {immniifita) var. pytlionissntii from Shetlands. 

,, 7. IK truticatii from Tongue. 

,, 8. J), citrata var. piithoninsata (underside). 

,, •.), 10 (V 11. Underside hindwings of I), coiidnmita, pale, average and 

melanic. respectively. 
,, 12. Upperside hindwing of D. coiicinnata. 

,, 13. Underside hindwing of D. truucata (Kannoch). 

,, 11. ,, ,, ,, D. c/fra^i (Aberdeenshire). 

Plate VIII. 

Male Genitalia of D. concinnata and 7). tnoicata. 

Plate IX. 

Male Genitalia of D. citrata {itiniuniata). 

N.B. — The AedcL'agus is somewhat hent in I), citrata, and all are taken with 
r<iiial magnification. 



182 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Earliest stages of Coleophoka juncicolella, Stt. — The ovum 
is a low cone with several ribs, very similar to the ovum of (J. larirdla. 
It is laid on the lower surface of a leaf of L'alluna viil(/aris, almost at 
the base and half-way between the mid-rib and the margin, so that it 
is partly hidden by the leaf growing immediately below on the same 
stem. The larva on hatching passes through the base of the egg-shell 
into the leaf, which it mines. It then probably changes its skin. 
Whether this is so or not, it enters a second leaf without forming a 
case. As far as I was able to ascertain it forms its first case by cutting 
oft" a portion from a third leaf. The first case is formed of the upper 
three-quarters of a leaf which the larva has previously mined, and is of 
a pale fawn colour. I have always considered ( '. laricella and this 
species as closely allied, but there is one great difference in the larva, 
the former possesses four pairs of abdominal prolegs, while C. juncico- 
lella only has three pairs. — Alfred Sich. 



JI2»^0TES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

Collecting Records. — [I think the following two lists of captures 
should be put on record, more for the sake of the localities, than for 
any rarity in the insects themselves. Mr. Meyrick and Mr. Durrant 
have been good enough to identify some Microlepidoptera. These 
species I have marked with an asterisk (-). — -P.A.B.] 

I. Microlepidoptera of Norway. — In the Flni. llecord, xxvi., p. 
152 (1914) my brother and I published an account of two Norwegian 
localities. I am now in a position to give a list of the Microlepidoptera 
which we took there. As the larger paper shows, we were at Lesje 
July 25th-30th, and in the Sura valley August lst-26th, 1918, and 
again at Lesje August 29th. 

Pi/raiista pnrpiiralis (forewing band divided), Lesje; Herbala 
cespitalis, Sura ; Fredericlna caludactyla (zetterstedtii), and Adkinia 
bifjiinctidactyla, both the above were in worn condition early in August 
on the Sura ; I'rambnK mhnellns, C. pratellun both abundant on Sura 
and at Lesje; ( '. viari/aritdlus, Sura; Peronea s</uilleriana, Sura, 
common ; P. a>sj>ersana, Sura ; Teras contaiiiitiana, Sura ; !Sericuris 
lacunana, Sura ; '^An/i/ropluce hipunctana, Lesje ; Mi.mdia >>chuhiana, 
Lesje, 3,500 ft.; '■'• Hnchmtiiia arhutella, Lesje, in bad condition; 
(rrapholit/ta raiiwlla, type with white ground. Sura; '''(t. nacvana var. 
(leiiiinana, ^\xrck\ G. penkleriana, common, Lesje and Sura; '■'Phlucdes 
crenana, Sura ; IrJypeniiecia crnciana, Lesje and Sura, a very dark red 
fuscous form ; Pacdiaca solandriana, not at all abundant, Sura ; 
^Kucdfiiiia bisciitana, August 29th, Lesje, common (the species is like 
a very unicolorous variety of P. suiiilana); Pampliisia uiercuriana, Sura, 
3,000 feet, mid- August common ; -Catoptria lujpericana, Sura ; 
Aphelia asseana, Sura and Lesje, comm^on ; '■•Siraiiniu'rda)iiiiiia c())i- 
upersella, Lesje ; ■'■\Deprensaria badiella, Sura ; '■!>. piililierriinella, Sura ; 
D. {Pinaris) applana, Sura; ■D. (P.) /wpatariella, Sura; ■(Tdechia 
pruxiiiiella, bred from birch (Betula), spring of 1914 ; Anji/resthia 
brockeella, Sura; A. retinella, Sura; Gracilaria elonnclla, Sura; 
'•'iJoleophora laricella, Sura ; '' Si)iiaethis {Albnioiiipiia) diana, Sura. 

II. Fauna of Caldey Island, Pembrokeshire. — Before the 
commencement of the war some Cambridge entomologists proposed 



NOTKS ON COLLECTING. 183 

to investio-ate the island ot' Caldey. I visited it from July 24th to 
2Sth, 1914, and collected rather widely, hopinj^ that my collections 
mjoht supplement those of others at other seasons. There is now no 
hope of the investigation heing completed and I am publishing this 
list because Caldey is an interesting locality and seldom visited. Its 
interest is this, that it is separated from the naainland of Wales by a 
couple of miles of tide-swept sea, yet it contains many forms of wing- 
loss Arthropoda, for instance I'lati/art/irus, and ('ainpoilca and Litlinhvia, 
all of which are not only wingless but subterranean. The geologists 
must decide whether Caldey Isle has been lately connected to the main- 
land. If it has )iot, then w'o must suppose that it has been colonized 
through the medium of that ancient bone of contention — the floating 
log. It is clear enough that we must know much more before we 
can decide for or against these accidents ; personally I incline to 
favour the log. 

The isle is less than two miles long, and large parts of it are 
covered by gorse, bracken and heath vegetation. The clifi's. which 
are 300 feet high in places, are covered with thrift and many other 
maritime plants. The isle is inhabited and owned by a Benedictine 
Brotherhood, who would always be willing to further faunistic 
researches, and in whose Guest House I was most comfortably 
entertained. 

Lkpidopteka : I'ieris brasKicor, P. rapae, /'. napi, Af^lais iirtirac, one 
rararf/c (U'lieria, ApIiovtapiiH kyperantus, Einnephele jurtina (janiro), 
J'tili/niiniiatiis icai us, 'Jliniiicia p/dacas, Spliiji.v lifiitstii (bred from larva 
by Brother Gilbert), Anthioccra fdipentlulae, generally distributed and 
not rare even at this early date. I took a g with a "Triungulin" 
larva on its head, and another bearing poUinia which I fancy were 
those of On/iis pi/raiin'dcdis. 

Aefferia DiKftcarformis {philanthiinrinis) (not uncommon on the 
thrift on the cliffs); llipoiiitti jncohacae : Spilosnnia mentliastri ; 
llt'pialiis humtdi (abundant) ; 11. liipiiliniif; and Vicvanura vinida : 
Xntnilonta ziczac (larvae of both these on poplar in the guest-house 
garden); Xijlophasia tuonnrihipha : ^lamfistra hrasHicae ; Miaijo fasciun- 
rida (on flower heads of HcradriDii) : Ar/rotis e.rcla)iiati(iiiii< : Xortiia 
jdi'fta : lladcna olnacfd : H. dentinn : <_'Hvidlia iDnbratica : C/iarirlca 
iiiidira : I'ldiuiopliora nieticidnsa : Boaruiia rcpandata : Ln^of/raiiniia 
petraria : I'litpitlx'ria ptinulata : Xanthorho'e [Melanijtpi') jliictiiota : 
Cmuptofiramnm hilineata : Scoparia dKhitalin (pi/ralclla) ; S. atntiidlis : 
l\nd()tri(ha flaw meal is : Ktirilnjpaia urticata : Scopiila jiriitialis : Khulea 
sa)id)iiralis ; Stevia piinctalis ; Hiidroramfia iiyiiiphaeata : Crauibiis 
liortiielliis ; ('. pratdbis : ('. perlelhis and var. icarriiKjtoiiellns ; Hmiweo- 
soma ainiiella : /V. niinbella : PIn/cis ornateUa ; Gallcria mellonetta ; 
Peronea a.ipctsaiia : Scrimris laninana : S. iirticana : '''Grajdiolit/ia 
iiiipomaodatm : I'!ii.ra)it/iis aiKjtistana : '■ ]''.pln}>piphora triifeiiiinana : 
Pi<-lnnrawjdia jirtirrrclla : ('ato]itria i(i)ia : Xanthosetia hatnana : C/irosis 
alcella {iessarana): Pliitdla rni< ^rrannii (the imagines frequented plants 
of Reseda after dusk, rather than the various Cruciferous plants) ; 
J>epressaria castusa : Bri/otrop/ia terrella ; "'(jelechia iiianiioiea (beaten 
from Psa)in)ia) : Oerapdiara psemlnspretella : Kudvosis fenestrella : Tinea 
)ii i sella : ''(Tli/p/iijiteii/.r /isrheiielln : Ari/i/icst/iia nitidella : ( 'nlenpliora 
fiiseedinella ; I'llarhista rtjiinipeimeUa and Siniaet/iis fabriiiana {o.eij- 
iu-autli(U(i). 



184 THE kntomologist's rkcord. 

CoLEOPTERA : Determined by Mr. Hugh Scott. Jlrasnis <u'/>/ialiih's, 
Pterostichtia inadidus, Harpalus rnficoniis, MeloluntJia vul(/aris, ( k-yinia 
olens, Lacon murinus, Lar/ria hirta, and OtiorJn/nchi(s sjtlcatiis. 

Orthoptera : Statidenis hicoloi-. 

DiPTERA : Leptof/aster cylindrica, common. 

Ants and Myrmecophiles : Determined by Mr. Donisthorpe. I'l/p/io- 
(leirus (Bcckia) albinos, in ants' nests ; Lasiiis nhjer and L. liar tin 
mixed, under a stone ; a nest of L. niyer with the Isopod Platj/arthrns 
hnflniannsi'iiyii a,n(\. the Acarid Antennnphnnis foreli. A nest of /.. jlarus 
with winged ? and Antennnjihorui^ piibe^ceiis. 

Hymenoptera (other than Ants) : Determined by Dr. R. C. L. 
Perkins. ProsopishyaLinata; Colletes fodiens : Andrena ijicynana: Boni- 
bi<!i te)-i-extris : 11. liicoriDii : B. der/iaiiwllus : B. a(/roriiiii, SbXid (hlynenis 
callosiiti. 

Aptera. I. Thysanura. Cawpodea (sp.?) and a Machiliid of an nn- 
described species {jide G. H. Carpenter). 

II. CoLLEMBOLA : SuiiiitJi Kills n'riilis (determined by Professor G. 
H. Carpenter). 

Crustacea : Determined by Mr. R. Gurney. 

I. Cladocera : Alona rectanyula, Cerimlaplinia (jiiadranijida, and 
L 'Jn/donis spJtaericiis. 

II. Copepoda : (_'i/rlops stroiinis and < '. serridatiis. — P. A. Buxton 
(F.E.S.), Fairhill, Tonbridge, Kent. 



URRENT NOTES AND SHORT NOTICES. 

The April number of the Canadian l^ntoinoloyist contains several 
interesting and genertxlly useful articles. R. C. Treherne contributes 
notes on the history of the arrival and spread of various insect pests in 
agriculture in the British Columbia area, ['ifris rapae was first seen 
in 1898 and '9, and m 1902 it had crossed to Vancouver Island. Two 
dreaded pests are being closely watched in their progress north in the 
States, viz., the "Colorado Beetle," Lcptinutarsa dereiidineata and the 
San Jose Scale, which latter has already once been observed in Canada. 
The apple moth Carpocapm (Cydia) pniiionella has already appeared in 
isolated places. And since 1893 the Woolly Aphis Krinsoma lanigera 
has become a more dreaded pest each year. Further it has been 
observed that with the breaking up of the land and the cutting down 
of the forests many insects transfer their attentions to agricultural 
crops and fruit trees, and often thrive amazingly. Annette F. Braun 
gives the life- histories, with many references, of a number of North 
American Tineina hitherto unknown. John H. Lovell gives an 
account of numerous instances of spiders of the family Thoniisidae 
capturing other insects, and figures a Fapilio af^terias captured by 
Misiiinena vatia and a dragon-fly Celitheinis fponina taken by the same 
species of spider. The victims are usually captured as they sit on the 
dense flower-heads on which the spiders lurk, protected as a rule by 
their wonderful resemblance to their surroundings when there. Three 
specimens of the European Praying Mantis {Mantis reliyiosa) have been 
recorded from Canada during the past two years, all taken in Ontario, 

In the Civil List Pensions published on March 30th of the present 
year we read, " Mr, Robert Henry Rippon, in consideration of his con- 



CURRENT NOTES. 



185 



ti'ibutions to natural history, and of his inadequate means of support, 
£100." Mr. Rippon is the author of Iconea OmitJiopterormn, a mono- 
graph of the Piipilionine Tribe Truides of Hiibner, or Omithoptera of 
Boi&duval, with 101 coloured plates and many figs., 2 vols., folio, 1898- 
1906. He has also been responsible for the rro/'/^'s-section of Wyts- 
mann Goioa Insectonuii, 1902. 

We regret to announce that two members of the South London 
Entomological Society have fallen in action in France. Lieut. W. W. 
Penn-Gaskell, of the C^)ueen's London Regiment, who was killed on 
May 25th, and W. D. H. Gotch. 

In the May number of the l^nt. Mo. Ma;/. Mr. F. W. Edwards 
announces several species of Diptera new to Britain, and describes one 
as new to science. Turlionta rlaricanda, from Nethy Bridge, taken by 
D. Sharp in 1908 ; T. subfusca, from Elgin, taken by T. Jenkinson ; 
T. venialis, taken by A. Piflfard, in Herts; Itlnjuiosia tarnanii, from 
Cambridge, F. .Jenkinson ; K.vechia liiinlata, from Lelant, Cornwall 
and the" New Forest, taken by Col. Yerbury and F. C. Adams; /•-'. 
meiiibrauaira, from Crowborough, taken by F. .Jenkinson ; Mycetophila 
hialoiKssira, from Elgin, taken by F. .Jenkinson ; and ( iile.r kortoifus, 
from Elgin, taken by F. Jenkinson, are all new to Britain. While 
Plastosciara /icniitido is described as new to science, from specimens 
bred from rotten wood at Stanmore Common, in 1914, by K. G. Blair. 

Mr. A. Bacot, who has been making investigations on the carrying 
of disease in Sierra Leone during the past year, is shortly to return to 
this country. 

The Syllabus of the London Natural History Society has come to 
hand, and the larger proportion of its arrangements for the coming 
session deal with Entomology, as did those of its predecessor the City 
of London Society. 

Mr. R. S. Bagnall, F.L.S., F.E.S., our colleague, is largely respon- 
sible for a new venture called the ]'asci(liii)i, an illustrated quarterly 
dealing primarily with the Natural History of Northumberland and 
Durham. The general editor is the Rev. J. E. Hull, of Ninebanks, 
Northumberland, and in addition are the names of Messrs. G. Bolam, 
of Alston, Cumberland, and J. W. H. Harrison, of Middlesborough. 
The last named will no doubt be responsible for the Lepidoptera 
section, for which he is eminently qualified. Mr. G. Bolam will deal 
with Onithological records, etc., while Mr. Bagnall will see that the 
sections devoted to Coleoptera and what are known as "other orders " 
are adequately dealt with. In the current number a considerable mass 
of records of all kinds have been collected in the various articles and 
sections. There are several original articles, and some pages are 
devoted to educative notes for young naturalists. A new species of 
Neuroptera is described liy Mr. Bagnall from species taken at New- 
castle-on-Tyne, in July, 1911. He names it as Cdnitott-Ja cnjjitnHeiiris, 
and states that it is near <'. finrticola of Enderlein. May the I'asndion 
flourish and win its way as the )'(irk>ihiie Xatioalist has done before it. 

We regret to see the announcement of the death of a well-known 
illustrator of more or less popular natural history books, Mr. Thomas 
Carreras. Many of his drawings and photographs are to be found in 
Marcels of the I'nicerse and Jusect /yj/c, and he had collaborated with 
Mr. Edward Step, F.L.S., in many of his undertakings. Quite 



186 THE entomologist's record. 

recently Mr. Carreras had finished all the outline drawings for Mr. 
Donisthorpe's forthcoming monograph on British Ants. 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. 
April 1th, 1915. — Vote of Sympathy. — At the unanimous request 
of the Council, the Chairman proposed that a letter should be written 
to the President on behalf of the Society, offering condolences on the 
sudden death of his father, the late Lord Rothschild ; the resolution 
was unanimously passed, the whole meeting rising in their places. — - 
Election. — Mr. William Carr, B.Sc, Station Road, Bentham, Lan- 
caster, and Dr. A. Eland Shaw, Samarai, British New Guinea, were 
elected. Algerian Rhopalocera. — The Rev. G. Wheeler exhibited a 
box of Algerian butterflies, of species treated of by Mons. Ch. Oberthiir 
in the recently published fascicule x. of his IJ'pidofiterohxjie Cotujiaree : 
many of the species were exhibited for the first time in England. 
New Goliath Beetle.— Mr. 0. E. Janson exhibited a new species of 
Coelorrhina (family Cetoniidae) in which the cephalic male armature 
usual in this genus was entirely absent, and to which he had given the 
name uiutica. Variety of Palomena prasina. — Mr. H. Willougbby 
Ellis exhibited a British variety of the Pentatomid bug Palomena 
prasina, L., differing from the type in its larger size and dark olive 
colour. Taken on ivy at Torquay, May 25th, 1907. North American 
Papilios. — Mr. E. B. Ashby exhibited the following species: — P. 
tnrnus, P. rntulus, P. eim/tnednn, /'. trnilua, P. asterios, P. hrericonda, 
etc. Genital Armature of the Male Ant. — Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe 
showed a chart of the names applied to the genital armature of male 
ants, and read notes. Genital Armature of Aculeate Hymenoptera. 
— The Rev. F. D. Morice exhibited a series of Lantern -slides to show 
the structure of the S genital armature and the ventral segments 
adjoining it in various groups of Aculeate Hymenoptera. Paper. — 
The following paper was read: — " Hymenopterous Parasites bred from 
the Pupae of i'hortophila hrasfiicae, Bouche, and Acidia heraclei, L.," by 
J. T. Wadsworth, Research Assistant, Dept. of Entomology, University 
of Manchester; communicated bv Dr. A. D. Imms, D.Sc, B.A., 
F.L.S., F.E.S. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History Society. 
April 8th. — Dimorphic species of Lepidoptera. — Mr. Edwards, 
the seasonally dimorphic forms of Papilio ajax from North America. 
Mr. Schmassmann, specimens of P'a/iiliohonierns from Jamaica with a 
5* having J" coloration, and a series of the rare Pierid Hebomoia 
roepstor/ii of various forms from the Andamans. Paper. — Dr. Dixey, 
F.R.S., read a paper on " Seasonal Dimorphism," and gave many 
lantern and other illustrations of his remarks. 

April 22nd. '-'^EW Member. — Mr. T. B. Foster, of Addiscombe, 
was elected a member. Exhibition. — The evening was devoted to an 
Exhibition of Orders other than Lepidoptera. Society's Collec- 
tions. — The Hon. Curator, Mr. West, exhibited eight drawers of the 
Society's reference collections which had recently been re-arranged, 
and included the drawer containing the Diptera given by Mr. H. W. 



SOCIETIES. 



187 



Andrews. Rare Bkitish Coleoptera. — Mr. West also exhibited four 
drawers of his own collection of Coleoptera, includinf^ British 
examples of Cahmoiiia si/coiihanta, (aiahns nuratiiH, a series of 
Miciaspis IQ-piinctata, l^i/tixnis chriiiiirinctns 5 s, with smooth ^ -l'l<e 
elytra, and a series of forms of Xotiop/tilus i-pinu-tatns. Exotic 
Coleoptera. — Mr. Stanley Edwards, large and attractive species of 
exotic Coleoptera. Aberrant forms of F. auricularia. — Mr. Ashdown, 
;i series of aberrations of the earwig Forticiila auricularia, mostly with 
aberrant size and form of forceps. South Ajierkjan and Trinidad 
Insects. — Mr. W. J. Kaye, numerous large and conspicuous insects 
obtained by him in South America and Trinidad; Coleoptera, 
Phasniids, a Mygale, Cordiceps, &c. Pi>1e aphids. — Mr. B. Adiiin, 
I'jxamples of Clicrme^ pini, the pine aphis, on Scots pine. A Portugese 
Neukopterox. — Mr. Main, an example of the Neuropteron, Nenioptrra 
coa, brought from Cintra by Mr. Bowman, and living larvie of the 
firefly Tjiciola italica, from ova obtained by Mr. Blair and himself. 
Wasps nests in tobacco. — Mr. R. Adkin, the nests of wasps found 
rolled up in bales of tobacco from the Levant. Sicilian Insects. 
— ]\Ir. Piatt Barrett, various conspicuous insects from Sicily and South 
Africa; Mantis, ant-lion, locusts, etc. A number of non-entomological 
exhibits were also shown. 

May 13th. — Aberrations of British Lepidoptera. — Mr. Leeds 
exhibited aberrations of PolyoDniiatim icarx^; including ab. obaoU'ta, an 
asymmetrical specimen near ohsnleta, a chocolate banded underside, 
and a ? streaked with blue ; of Ai/riades t/u-tis including a ? without 
orange in margin and bluish clouded, <? s with aberrant eye-spots 
below, etc.; of A . coridon including dark suffused underside, slaty suffused 
below, $ s with khaki streaks above, and ab. seniisij)t(iraplia ; of 
('oewini/nip/ia panipliiliis including dark suffused below, and an under- 
side with additional spotting ; of Pararye aetjeria, the British form 
eyeridcs and Cornish forms much like the S. European form aeycria ; 
of ['icris brasiiicae a $ with a pale blue tmge throughout. Hybrid B. 
HiRTARiA X N. lapponaria. — Ml. Adkin, a short series of the hybrid 
liiston hirtaria^ X Xij'^sia lapponaria $ , and gave notes on the mixture 
of the two specific series of characteristics. An African Specimen of 
M. atropos. — Mr. Moore, Maiidnca atropoii from S. Africa. Swiss 
Lycaenids. — Mr. Curwen, long series of Pohjonimatus eros and Latiorina 
"rbitiiliis from Saas Graud and the Grisons respectively. Larvae of 0. 

ATRATA AND N. FLUCTUATA AB. NEAPOLISATA, — ^Mr. B. S. WilliaiUS, larViB 

of Odezia atrata on Ci/tisiis and a very varied series of Xantlior/mt; 
lliirtnata with ab. Jifapolinata from Finchley. Argentine Insects. — 
^Ir. Cowham, cases of the large Psychid, Oeketicioi platt^nsis, examples 
of the Neotropical (uliaa, C. lesbia, a large and conspicuously marked 
"skipper" Oenides /ihnenicnla and an Arctiid, Hcpant/iera inderisa. The 
Variation shewn in Sicilian Butterflies. — Mr. Barrett, a large number 
of Lepidoptera mainly from Sicily, and read notes on the variation, 
they included Tliais pnlj/.rena, Pontia daplidice, Antlmcltaris belia, 
i'.Krhlo'e cardaiiiinex, with their racial, seasonal and aberrational forms. 
A New Ant. — Mr. Dennis, photographs of the ant P'onnica pratensis, a 
species closely allied to F. mfa. An Aberration of T. (iothica. — Mr. 
Stallman, a Tafuiocainpa ijotliica 9 with right hindwing reproducing 



188 THE entomologist's record. 

the markings of the forewing on the upperside, from Holmwood. 
Loch Lomond Lepidopteka. — Mr. B. Adkin, Lepidoptera from Loch 
Lomond, dark sulfased Brenthis scleiie and Diaci isia tiannio, a white 
suffused underside of Coenonijuiplta paDijihilns, etc. Paper. — Mr. A. Sich 
read a paper, "Notes on Toitrix viridana," on which a short discussion 
took place. 

.1/(7// 21th. — MicRO-LEPiDOPTERA. — -Mr. Sich exhibited ova of Tortiix 
rii idcnia IsbiA in pairs on the bark of oak, and cases of {\, Solenabia, 
presumably N. lUhenella from Barnes. 8. African Lepidoptera. — Mr. 
Moore, Lepidoptera from near Johannesburg, Transvaal, including 
JJi/polimnas iiiinippiis, Precis sesainus, (Jolias electra and var. auricillius 
{comparable to 0. edusa and var. hdice of Europe), Papilio deuiodorus, 
Pijianieis lardni (the small ^-Ethiopian race), Hippotinn celerio, and 
Basiotliia )iiedia, a small green iSphingid. Larv^ of X. scolopacina 
AND T. polycowmata. — Mr. B. S. Williams, larvae of Xylojihasia ticido- 
pacina from Finchley, and a series of Trio>pteyijx [Lohopliura] pulycoin- 
viata from Yeovil. Aberrations of P. huntera and B. quercus. — 
Mr. Lachlan Gibb, on behalf of Mr. H. M. Simms, a fine suffused 
aberration of l^ijiameis liuntcra from near Montreal, an ab. bellia^ of 
Bit/u/s (jKercns from near Barmouth, and an aberration of Pharetra 
{Acionicta) uietiyanthidis in which the orbicular stigmata were absent, 
from near Sheflfield. A Spanish Coleopteron. — Mr. Priske, an 
example of the Tenebrionid Coleopteron Morica planata from 
Gibraltar. Paper. — Mr. Bunnett read a short paper, " The Maple 
Aphis," illustrated with drawings and lantern-slides. 

June 10th. —Bred P. escheri. — -Dr. Chapman exhibited a living 
specimen of Polyonimatus escheri bred from ova from Gavarnie, 
Pyrenees. It was of the form rondoui. A rare Book.-— Mr. Hy. J. 
Turner, the whole of the coloured plates of the first ten volumes of 
Herbst's Xatiirsystent, 1783-1804, which he had bought for a few 
shillings from a street barrow. Aberrations of Lepidoptera, and the 
"Buzzing" of H. prasinana. — Mr. B. S. Williams, aberrations of 
Selenia hilnnaria {lllunaria), a very strongly marked $ and a smoky S \ 
larvae of Anticlea badiata and aberrations of Ayrotis nigricans, a red- 
brown form from Wicken and a black form from St. Anne's. He also 
reported that he had heard Hylophila prasinana make a distinct, 
peculiar buzzing noise when in flight at night, as it came to his 
lantern light. Photographs. — Mr. Dennis, photographs with the 
stereoscope of Hispida atra and Formica pratensis, with sprays of 
laburnum and spiraea. Bred Stbymon pruni. — Mr. .7. P. Barrett, a 
living specimen of Strymoh jtrnni which had emerged on June 10th. 
It was considered an early date. ]>ucks Lepidoptera. — Mr. Dunster, 
a series of Ihenthis et(jihrosyne taken in Bucks in May. Mygale 
aviculare.- -Mr. Bunnett, examples of Myyale avicidare with photos of 
the same. Notes on R. bktul.e and P. trifolii. — Mr, B. Adkin, series 
of local forms and aberrations of liuralis betulae and Pachyyastria 
trifolii and read notes on the exhibit. Of the former species he showed 
a unique aberration with an orange border to all the wings and much 
.suflfusion. 



WATKINS & DONCASTER, 
Naturalists and Maim fact lire is of Entomological Apparatus and Cabinets. 

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Glazed Cases, 2/6 to 11/-. Cement for replacing Antennte 4d. per bottle. Steel Forceps, 
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from 1/- peiidozen. Zinc Killing Box, 9d. to 1/-. Pupa Digger, in leather sheath, 1/9. 
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2d., 3d., 6d.; ditto of Land and Fresli-water Shells, 2d. Useful Books on Insects. Eggs, etc. 

SILVER PINS for collectors of Micro-Lepidoptera, etc., as well as minute insects of 
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We stock various sizes and lengths of these Silver Pins which have certain advantages 
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SOMETHING NEW AND CHEAP. 

By special request of many of my clients, I have issued a small leaflet enlitled, 
"Valuable Hints to Collectors." This little work will be found most useful to 
the advanced collector as well as the beginner and one of the hints alone is worth more 
than the cost of the work. Amongst other matters it deals with treatment of Ova, Larvre 
and PupiB in captivity, cleaning insects for grease, killing and setting, and givts some 
very useful substitute foodplants. . I'rice 9d. only, post free. 

Write for latest price lists of Ova, Larvae, Pupa;, and Set Insects, the smallest order 
thankfully received. Don't forget I can supply all apparatus at usual prices. 

Remember my Relaxing Tins and Text-book. 
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CONTENTS. 

The Egg-laying of Phymatocera aterrima, Klug, T. A. Chapman, M.D. (two plates) 

A Day in the , Lieut. -Col. N. Manders, R.A.M.G., F.E.S 

Notes on the Micro-lepidoptera of South-West London, Alfred Sidi, F.E.S. 

The Ci-devant Genus Epincphele, P. A. H. Muschamp, F.E.S. (one plate) 

Notes on the Swiss Khopalocera, vi., the late ^. J. PisoJi 

The Upper Engadine in 1914, Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. 

Notes on Collecting in 1914, W. Rait-Smith, F.E.S 

A month among Spanish Butterflies, James A. Simes, F.E.S. 

Dysstroma concinnata, Steph., E. A. Cocliayne, M.A., M.D., F.E.S. (three plates) 

Scientific Notes. — Earliest Stages of Coleophora juncicolella, Stt., A. Sich, F.E.S. 

Notes on Coli ecting.— Collecting Records, I. — Norway, II. — Caldey Island, P. A. 
Biurtou, F.E.S. 

Cukhent Notes 

Societies. — The Entomological Society of London; The South London Entomo- 
logical Society . . 



PAGE. 

145 
149 
150 
152 
156 
163 
168 
173 
178 
182 

182 
184 

186 



Communications have been received or have been promised from Dr. Chapman, Dr. 
Verity, Rev. G. Wheeler, Messrs. R. S. Bagnall, Hy. J. Turner, C. W. Colthrup, H. E. 
Page, A. J. Fison, C. P. Pickett, Dr. Burr, A. Tetley, Parkinson Curtis, H. B. Williams, 
H. L. Earl, A. Sich, etc., with Reports of Societies and Reviews. 

All MS. and editorial matter should be sent and all proofs returned to Hy. J. Turner, 
98, Di-akefell Road, New Cross, London, S.E. 

. ;We must earnestly request our correspondents not to send us communications identical 
with' those they are sending to other magazines. 

Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata should be sent direct to Mr. H. E. Page, 
Bertrose, Gellatlv Road, New Cross, S.E. 



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British Lepidoptera, Tutt, vols. 1-5. The 5 vols, for £3 Os. Od. 
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\ 



THE 




ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION 



EuiTKD BY 



RlCHABU S. BAGNATjL, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

T. HUUSON bll-.AUK, 

B.fiO., F.k.S., I'-.lt.S.K. 

GEonoE T. BETHUNE-BAKEU, 

F.Z.S., F.L.S., F.E.S. 
M. BUKU, D.SC, F.Z.H., F.I-.'i., F.IS.S. 

(Rev.) C. R. N. BURROWS, f.e.s. 



T. A. CHAPMAN, m.d.,f.z.s., f.k..s. 

Jas. E. COLLIN, F.E.S. 

H. St. J. K. })ONlSTHORPE, 

F.Z.S., F.E.S 

Alfred SICH, f.e.s. 

J. R. le B. TOMLIN, m.a., f.e.s. 

GEOHGK WHEKLEU, M.A., F.E.S. 



and 



Henky J. TUENEll, r.K.s., 
Editorial Secretary. 



SEPTEMBEE 15th, 1915:. 

I»iice SIXPENCE (nkt). 

Sul)sciiption for Complete Volume, post fi'ei 

(Including nil DOUBLE NUMBERS, etc.) 
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TO UK lC)U\VAUliJ;U 10 

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READ THE BACK Nos. OF THE 

Entomologist's Record & Journal of Variation 

(Practical Hints, Field Work, etc. useful for every year's collecting). 
VOL. VI. 

The TITLES of some of the articles are as follows : — Notes on Butterfly Pupse, with some remarks 
on the Phylogenesis of the Rhopalocera." — Dr. T. A. Chapman, F.E.S., " Phytophagic Species." — 
Prof. A. Eadcliffe 6ro(e, M.A. " Varieties and aberrations of Noctuse from Doncaster."--if. ff. 
Cnrbett, M.R.C.S. "The frenulum of the British species of Smerinthus." — G. C. Griifiths, F.Z.S., 
F.E.S. "Endryas stse-johannis.,' — A. R.actclifle[Grote, M.A. "Parthenogenesis or Agamogenesis." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Larvre."— iJft'. G. M. A. Hewitt, M.A. "Retrospect of a Lepidopterist for 1894." 
—J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Generic Names in the Noctuidse. " — Pror. A. 11. Grote, M.A. " Pupa hunting in 
October."—!/. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Polygamy and Polyandry in Moths." "The nature of certain 
insect colours."— IF.S. Bidinn, M.D., R. Freer, M.B., J. W.'Tutt, F.E.S., Rev. C. R. N. Burrowx, J. Ander.ton, 
Jun. " The Lepidoptera of Swansea." — Major R. B. Robertson. " Caradrina ambigua in the Isle of 
Wight."— ^. J. Hodges. "The insects of' Bourg St. Maurice."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Orrhodia 
erythrooephala ab. glabra from Devonshire and comparison with C). vaccinii." — Dr. IK. ,S'. Riding, 
F.E.S. "Notes on Caradrina ambigua and C. superstes."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Entomology and 
Entomologists, being the Annual Address to the City of London Entom. Society." Notes on 
Aphomia sociella " (with plate).— W. P. Blacktiurne Maze, F.E.S. "Apterous females and Winter 
Emergence "—E. F. Studd, M.A., B.C.L., F.E.S., L. B. Prout, F.E.S. "Collecting Noctuidoe by Lake 
Erie." — A. Radclifte Grote, M.A. " Coleoptera at Ipswich." — Claude Morten, F.E.S. "Notes on 
Bombus visurgias." " Synonymic Notes on Acidalia humilata and A. dilutaria." — L. B. Prout, F.E.S. 
"The Lepidoptera of ("irisy'-sur-Aix."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Apatura iris."— iJcc G. M. A. Hewett- 
"Scheme of Classification of the Rhopalocera founded on the structure of the Puism." — X. A. 
Chapman, M.D., F.E.S. "Glimpses of American Entomology."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "The Genus 
Smerinthus." — A. Bacot. " Valuation considered biologically : Some notes suggested by the Romanes 
Lecture of 1894."— .;. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Wing structure."—/. Alston Moffatt. "On tlie development 
of sex in social insects." — J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "The British representatives of the Genus Caradrina."— 
L. B. Prout, F.E.S. " Habits and variation of Lithosia Intarella and its variety iiygmaeola." — 
J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. On the gradual disaijpearance of Lepidoptera from South-Eastern London and 
its neighbourhood." — C. Fcnn, F.E.S. "A hunt for Neuroterusaprilinus."^2'. ^4. Chapman. M.D., F.E.S. 
"On the development of pigment in Nemeobius lucina." — F. J Buckell, M.B. "The Macro-Lepi- 
doptera of Keswick." — H.A.Beadle. " Varieties of Argynnis selene " (with plate). — S. G. C. Rus.fell, 
F.E.S. " Hadennid genera with hairy eyes." — Prof. A. R. Oro'e, M..A. '• Zygnsna minos and its 
varieties." — /. Tl'. Tutt, F.E.S. "Notes on the pupee of Castnia and Anthocharis."— r. A. Chapman, 
M.D., F.E.S. Besides these articles, a large number of short notes are contained in every number under 
the follewing titles: "Scientific Notes and Observations," " Variation," " Notes on Larvse and Life- 
histories," "Notes on Collecting," "Current Notes." The reports of Societies are very carefully edited, 
and only scientific paragraphs published. The " Practical Hints " and " Field work " for each month 
are quite unique. 

The entomologist who will read carefully through the back numbers of The Entomologist's Record 
will find himself better equipped for the further study of his subject than by any other means. 
Price 7/6 per volume, of Mr. H. E. Page, " Bertrose." Gellatly Road, New Cross, S.E. 

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PUENTE DE LOS FIERBOS. - ^ 189 

Puente de los Fierros. 

By P. A. H. I.IUSCHAMP, F.E.S. 

Between my few lines about the fauna of Pajares and ]\Irs. Page's 
delightful article on the Cantabrians (pp. 121 to 129) there is a hiatus, 
a small elephant whose weight the lady author deemed meet to be 
neglected — Puente de los Fierros by name — of which I think some 
mention should be made, were it but to record the finding of Lensopis 
roboris. We rode down (I on a blind mare) from Ptijares to los Fierros 
to discover a possible lodging for Mrs. Page. The pigsties, charming 
though they were, were wanting in many little vanities considered 
indispensable by the fair sex, e.if., there happened to be no mirror, and 
then too, those unshutable doors and ventilated walls through which 
rats, mice, pigs and other small deer did freely circulate ! At Fierros 
we found really excellent accommodation at the Station Hotel. The 
food was good and almost European — only we had to wait for our 
meals till the train came in ; if we were starving and begged very 
humbly we were sometimes allowed to start on the soup, but had to 
let possible travellers catch us up ere the second course w'as placed 
before us. Fierros is charmingly situated from an artist's or an 
entomologist's poiat of view ; we were, however, too late in the season 
to do very much there, and though we followed the road down north- 
ward for thirteen miles we found nothing to encourage us to continue 
in that direction. 

On July 27th I saw a strange butterfly flying over brambles at the 
foot of a huge boulder, and I netted a torn and ragged "blue" which 
was all unknown to me. Overjoyed, I brought my catch to Mr. Page, 
and asked him if this could be L. roborix ; my joy was indeed great 
when I was answered in the negative. Later on in the morning Mrs. 
Page and I perceived a second of these strangers flying about on the 
rocks by the roadside ; a little scramble and a butterfly in pretty fair 
condition was bottled. Two days later I took a third, and was quite 
convinced that I had found a new "blue" ! All three were "hens" ; 
dark brown butterflies with violet rays at the base of wings, the under- 
side a yellow dusted brown with a broadish bright yellow marginal 
border and blue arrowheads, Alas ! here at home my picture -booka 
promptly showed me that I had but netted three L. roboria. Still, 
I am sincerely grateful to those three ladies, for they taught me to feel 
the delight of the discoverer of new worlds. Finally, it is well worth 
noting that L. roboris is to be taken at Fierros. These three were last 
survivors, evidently, and it is very probable that a few weeks earlier we 
might have taken a goodly series. I do not remember seeing anything 
resembling Fmxiitua excelsior in the neighbourhood, the nearest plant 
to the ash was the privet ; these three $ s, however, haunted a heavy 
bramble that was common all over the country. 

A pretty butterfly, of which I took but one specimen on the heather 
slopes here, was Melitaea phnebe ab. inelaitina. The " blues " taken, in 
a meadow by the stream, just a little down the north road, were Fjveres 
anjiadesi, ('elastrina arriialiis, Aricia medon var. calida, Folyoinnmtus 
icanis, a single large (ilaucopsyc/ie inelanops, Lampides boeticus, Laeosopis 
roboris, some fine aberrations of Polyoiiimatus escheri, Ayriades thetis 
(bellan/ux) ab. piincta, A. coridon var. albicans, Lycaena avion, and 

September 15th, 1915. 



190 THE entomologist's record. 

Riinricia [Chri/.<<o]ihanus) pldaeas, with var. mieffii of Heodes virgaureae. 
It was in this meadow that we spent most of our time. Through it 
runs the little torrent which we had followed right up to its source 
above Pajares; on the north side are steep slopes through which 
tunnels its way the line down to the coast ; the passing trains come 
gasping out of the hole in the hill, gather in as much sunlight and 
pure air as they can as they pass above our meadow, and then plunge 
like frightened blind-worms into a second gaping hole ; they disturb 
the absolute calm of the spot for a moment, but leave behind them 
an impression of sadness and thankfulness, thankfulness for the 
peaceful calm, of which we are now a part, sadness to think that we 
too soon must plunge into the hillside depths and roll down, slowly 
but all too fast, to a world of toil and moil. The small skipper Thi/- 
melieus acteon was common enough here, and indeed all along the road- 
side, in the ditch. Here, too, as at Pajares, I took a single Piirijus 
jtroto. KpiiiepJu'lti jiirtina (janira) var. hisjtatla was abundant in the 
meadows on the side of the stream. At a corner of the road we dis- 
turbed each time we passed a number of Callinwrpha quadriptuictaria, 
the same form that we find here in Switzerland or in England, but 
so bright and fresh that I could not resist papering a dozen or so. A 
longish series of Plusia i/utta might have been made with a little 
patience, but it was too annoying to plunge after a gutta and net a 
(jamwa twenty times in the hour. In the same meadow I took three 
Argynuis adijipe ab. deodoxa, and expect I might have taken plenty 
more. Among the moths were Dianthoecia carpophaga var. capso- 
phila"'-, Cilix glaiicata, J'^iidnisis feiiestrella, and Codona [Kphyra) orbi- 
cular ia, and C. linear ia. 



Collecting Lepidoptera in England, Spring, 1915. 

By E. B. ASHBY, F.E.S. 

One great effect that the war will naturally have upon many 
of us, who have in recent j^ears collected so much abroad, will be to 
compel us — nolens volens — to throw ourselves again into the 
study of the Entomology of our native country, with the result that 
we shall probably not only have replenished our cabinets with fresh 
specimens, but we shall have more carefully studied and differentiated 
the spring and summer broods of our British butterflies. If this idea 
has been generally carried out, the year 1915 can be said to have been 
well spent from an entomological point of view. 

It was with this purpose in view, that after a little sport with the 
males of Celastrma argialus in my own garden at Hounslow in April 
and early May, I started, on May 22nd, for a nine days' hunt after 
English spring butterflies in a part of western Surrey remote from 
trains, holiday-makers and camps, however right and proper all those 
things are at this time. Almost immediately after my arrival the 
sun went in and I was prevented from catching more than single 
specimens of Celastrina argiolas, Hesperia vialvae and an " emerald " 
moth. However, I saw one Leptosia sinapis on the wing. 

Next morning, according to the manner of entomologists on the first 
day of a holiday, I was up betimes, had an early breakfast and started 

* There is practically no difference in the genitalia of these two forms. See 
Gen. Brit. Noct., F. N. Pierce, p. 63, pit. xxii.— H.J.T. 



COLLECTING LEPIDOPTERA IN ENGLAND. 191 

on the two miles' walk to the collecting ground. The day was perfect 
and the country beautiful with the freshness of its spring verdure. 
The first brood of L. siiui/u's was well out but only a few were taken as 
English representatives of a species which is so common abroad. 
EnchltH' rardaiiiiiii's, both males and females, were fresh and abundant. 
The spring brood of I'icrh brassicae was quite fresh as was that of 
P. naiii. The males of ihoithis eii/i/inis)/ne were decidedly going over 
while the females were generally speaking in good condition. C. 
anjiohts, both males and females, were well out, and Callo])linjx rtthi 
was in very fresh condition and fairly abundant. The pretty diurnal 
geometer moth, I'Utli/pe {Mclauijijir) ho.''tata, was flying singly in the 
sunshine and recjuired more catching than one would imagine at first 
sight. //. iiialntf and Xisaniadcs tai/es were both fresh and abundant. 
Htonicia pldaeas was noticed singly and quite freshly emerged as also 
was <\jctio)v/iiipha jiaiiijiliiliis. It was too early apparently for Haiiwaris 
liicina, but I saw one or two hybernated laiu'ssa io. Amongst the 
bracken and bluebells of the woods Giniepteni.r r/uuinti was flying 
freely, and occasionally singularly well preserved specimens could be 
selected from these hybernated butterflies. 

The following day more females of Jiri'uthis eiijilinistpu^ were 
obtained and the first "cinnabar" moth, I li/iua-ita jarobaeae was met 
with. /•,'. hastata was again met with and also a few />. xiuopis were 
seen. 

May 25th was a delightfully fine day throughout. Both Brenthis 
selene and H. lacina turned up for the first time this year quite fresh 
and in excellent condition ; apparently these species were now only 
just commencing to emerge. 

The tollowing day I entrained for the North Downs area near 
Gomshall station. On the way up from Abinger Hammer ( '. nibi and C. 
anjidlns were noticed both to be in poor condition, while on the grassy 
slopes of the Downs Piib/ouniiattis icanta was quite fully out in multi- 
tudes and in splendid condition. The object of my visit was to get 
the spring brood of A(iriade>^ tlnti^ (bdlanins), but unfortunately it was 
apparently too early, for I only succeeded in getting one quite freshly 
emerged male out of the two seen in a tramp of some miles along the 
face of the Downs towards the Ranmore Common ground. 

On returning to my former haunts on May 27th the weather was 
again perfect, and I'aranje iiie(/aeia first put in an appearance. The 
males of B. eupliroaiine were now well over, while both sexes of /*-'. 
cardaminea were common and in good condition. 

The morning of May 28th broke very cold and it was quite im- 
possible to do any collecting until after the sun came out, about 
2 o'clock in the afternoon, Avhen more ll. fiiji/irdsi/nc and B. sdoie were 
selected. 

On May 29th I found that JI. lia-nui was becoming much more 
into evidence, although rather local in its habitats, as is its character- 
istic in this country. Rain came on and I spent much time in 
sheltering and in searching for larvre. 

The sun, on May 30th, was unfortunately frequently overcast and 
spoilt what should have been a successful day, from what I saw of the 
ground I was working. H. liicina was now c^uite abundant, and I 
took some fine larvio of (.'(isnintriche jiotatoria which have all since 



192 THE entomologist's RECCED. 

produced imagines. Some females of Diaphora }iu'n(Uca were taken, 
and several batches of larvje have been obtained from their ova. 

The following day, the last of my holidays among the spring batter- 
flies of 1915, produced a specimen of Ainjiadcs sylraniif:, an indication 
that summer was now upon us. The only spring brood which I failed 
to see at all was that of Parar;/e aegeria var. ei/erides for which 1 was 
probably too late, as it certainly occurs in the district. 



"A Poser," Stainton. 

{Agrotis lunigera versus Agrotis triu-.) 

By Hy. J. TUENER, F.E.S. 

A casual perusal of the pages of magazines devoted to our favourite 
study, which were issued in the prolific mid-Victorian period, often 
proves of great interest and amusement, and may even start one on a 
task, which has to the present time been strangely ignored or over- 
looked. 

The luitrniiologist's Weekbi Intelligencer, vol. vi., issued on April 
2nd, 1859, contains the above title to its opening page, and the article 
begins, "Is Agrotis Innigera a northern variety of Agrotis truxV The 
remainder of the article gives no opinion, nor any facts bearing on 
one side or the other, but simply urges collectors to place the two 
"side by side in the same cabinet." 

At once it was suggested to my mind, "Where do we stand now?" 
The Entomologist Sgnonymic List, interleaved with its many MS. altera- 
tions, additions, etc., was consulted. There I found Agrotis Innigera^ 
St., without a synonym. Meyrick gave no reference to trux and 
Barrett says, Lep. Brit. Isles., vol. iii., p. 318, " An opinion has been 
hazarded that it [hmigera) is merely a local form of A. trux, a species 
common in mountain districts of i'rance, Italy, and Spain ; but upon 
what ground such a suggestion has been made, it is difficult to judge." 
Tutt, Brit. Noct., vol. ii., p. 16, does not discuss the question but 
quotes the suggestion of Guenee, Noctiielles, vol. i. (v.), p. 280, that 
it may be recognised at some future time as a northern form of A. 
trux. In South's Moths of the Brit. Isles, 1st ser., p. 205, is found the 
definite statement, " Although its [Innigera?,) position in classification 
is that of a local form of A. trux, Hiibn., this moth may here retain 
the name that was given to it by Stephens in 1829." The italics are 
ours. The author evidently has not a sufficiently strong opinion of 
the validity of the " is " to make the necessary nomenclatorial change 
which that statement must entail if it be based on actual fact. 

Hampson, in his comprehensive work issued by the Trustees of the 
British Museum, Cat. Lep. Phalaenae in Brit. Mus., vol. iv., p. 245, 
totally ignores the question, lumps all the suggested identities together 
as simply synonyms of trux, viz., lenticulosa, terranea, hmigera, olivina, 
and amasina, giving no indication as to whether they are known as 
racial or aberrational in significance. He then sums all the ill-achieved 
results of previous authors' work in one description of trux, and adds — 

ab. olirina. Forewing with slight greenish or violaceous tinge. 

ab. terranea. Fore-wing ochreous or pale rufous. 

ab. amasina. Fore-wing fuscous grey, darker in $ with median 
shade blackish. 



A " POSER," STAINTON. 193 

ab. liiniiin-a. Fore-wing with dark brown in ^ > fnscous in 5 ; the 

claviform tilled in black, the orbicular white defined by black. 

These are easily recognised as a mutation of Standinger's Catalogue. 

So much for British custom and opinion at the present time. 

^Yhat do the continental authorities say in this matter ? In 

Staudinger's Catalof/, ed. iii., p. 151 (1901), is found the following : — • 

1401. Trux, Hb. 723-5 ; H.G. 770; Frr.B. 62; Tr. V., 2, 22; B.Ic. 

79-5 ; H.S. 525 ab. ; Gn. I., 279; Calb. Iris. I., 229, t. 12, 

f. 10 ; terranea, Frr. 34, 1; Initiciilosa, Dup., VI., 72, 5, 6. 

(a) ab. (et var. '>)oliri)ta, Stgr.; triKi; H.G., 768-769 ; B.Ic. 

79, 46, b ; tvii.r var. A., Gn. I., 279 ; (al. ant. viri- 
descenti vel violaceo-griseis). 

(b) ab. (et var. ?), tctianea, Frr., 34, 1; tni.f., var. ('. Gn. 

I., 279 (al. ant. testaceis vel. griseo-rufescentibus). 
(r) var. aiiiaxina, Stgr. (al. ant. sordide griseis, in $ ob- 
scurioribus, linea transversa vel fascia media (umbra) 
nigricante. 
('/) var. (et ab.) liiiwjp.ra, Steph., 111. p. 113, t. 20, f. 2; 
Gn. I., 280; Tutt, Biit. Xoct., II., p. 14; Barr, 
Brit, hep., III., t. 128, f. 1 (al. ant. macula sagitt. 
distincte nigra). 

Not much real evidence here. Stephens was the original describer 
of luniciera as a species. Both Tutt and Barrett dismiss the question 
with merely quoting the guarded opinion of Guenee. Staudinger 
himself evidently does not enter into the question but simply takes the 
unfounded suggestion as a fact and catalogues accordingly. 

A perusal of Seitz, Macro. Lep. of World, Paltearctic Fauna, vol. 
iii., p. 30, pit. 6, with 7 figs, of trux and its supposed forms, shows an 
equally blind acceptance of this hitherto unbased opmion. 

In my own collection I have a series of 16 beautiful, picked 
examples of limif/era (eight J s and eight ? s) from some 400 taken in 
the Isle of Wight, by Mr. A. Hodges, the first proprietor of the Jvnt. 
Record. They are absolutely distinctive in 'tone from any other 
British Agrotid, and their markings, although variable in emphasis, 
are always quite definite in position and general contour. There is a 
peculiarly soft silkiness of texture, which is possessed by no other 
Agrotid which I know, and the specimens were captured and not bred. 

The following is a sketch of the history of trx.r as a species and a 
comparison of the figures and remarks given in various authors from 
the time of its first appearance in Hiibner's great work. 

In 1826, Hiibner, Saiinn. cur. Scliiii., Xoctuae, pit. 155, tigs. 723 J , 
724 y , 725 underside, gave three figures of a Noctuid which he named 
trux. There is no reference to it in his meagre letterpress. There is 
nothing in these three figures to compare with our lunit/cra in shape, 
colour or markings. The male, tig. 723, has a pale yellow basal patch 
on the inner margin of the forewing of considerable size, and the 
outline of the wing is different from that of Inniijcra. Inside the 
fringes of the hindwings there is a sharp black line interrupted 
sharply by the veins of the wing into straight short dashes, and the 
outer margins of all the wings are in no respect comparable with those 
of hnwjera. The female, fig. 724, has a submarginal transverse line, 
which stands out as a clear feature never apparent in any 2 luniiiera 
and the outer margin of the forewing is much more convex, with the 



194 THE entomologist's record. 

result that the apex is less sharply angled. There is no trace of an 
oblong deep black blotch below the orbicular stigma which is always 
so distinctive a character of liinujera, even in the darkest males. The 
colour of the female, fig. 724, is somewhat that of Xoctna oleracea, a 
tone I have never seen even suggested by any specimen of lnni(jera, 
however aberrant. As a general remark on the figures I would say 
that they are poor in execution, probably owing to the painter's failing 
powers, as he died the following year. 

Duponchel, in the year 1826 (?), in Hist. Xat. des Lep., vol. vi., 
p. 18, pit. 72, figs. 5 and 6, S and 5 , describes and figures a Noctuid 
as lenticnlosa, which on the continent is generally taken as a form of 
the At/rotis tyu.r of Hiibner. If one compares the figures, this 
assumption is pure rubbish, and Duponchel's figure cannot in any 
respect be confused with either lunujera or tni.c of Hiibner. There is 
not a character in either fore- or hindwings which is comparable. 
Duponchel, however, in his text, says that some entomologists take 
it for the insect named by Och-enheimer as infecta, but as M. Godart 
had already finished the plates on which it was figured and named, he 
would not adopt the prior name. He further sa^'s that it should be 
placed near macia and corticea, a remark which, coupled with the 
figure, suggests an absolutely distinct species from either trux, Hiib., 
or liiniijera, Stph. 

[I have since, at the kind suggestion of Mr. J. H. Durrant, 
referred to the volumes* containing the original figures executed by 
M. Dumeril, etc., for the plates of this, work, and must acknowledge 
that the strictures written above do not hold good for these. The 
execution in the whole of the original figures is excellent, even 
beyond Hiibner, and will bear minute examination. The artist 
employed to execute the published plates must have been badly colour- 
blind. It is grievous to compare these caricatures with the delightful 
original paintings.] 

In 1829 Stephens, in his Illtts., vol. ii., p. 113, describes, and on 
plate 20, fig. 3, figures a species which he names Af/rotis Innhjera, 
a name which we still continue to use in this country, applying it to 
a very beautiful Agrotid which may or may not be the species 
intended by Stephens. He had only seen three specimens, which all 
came from near Cork. 

His description is as follows : — 

" Alis anticis fuscis, fiavescente variegatis, strigis duabus geminatis 
nigricantibus, stigma anticii interne fiavescente ; posticis luteo-albis." 

He continues : — 

•" Head deep fuscous; thorax the same, varied with yellowish, with 
a large spot of the latter colour on each side at the base of the wing ; 
anterior wings rich fuscous, varied with yellowish, with an angulated 
black streak at the base, united to an abbreviated pale striga ; behind 
this, at a distance from the anterior stigma, is a transverse yellowish- 
waved stigma, bordered on each side with dusky, and very much 
angulated towards the inner margin ; a similar striga arises from the 
costa, opposite to the posterior stigma, and, bending outwards, turns 
rather suddenly towards the inner edge, the space between the arch 
and the stigma being yellowish, or dull ochraceous brown ; near the 

* In the Walsingham Library at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 



A " POSER," STAINTON. 195 

hinder margin is a pale waved streak, and the margin itself is spotted 
with black, with a pale griseoas line at the base of the cilia ; the 
anterior stigma is dusky towards the costa, and bright tiavescent 
towards the inner margin of the wing, forming a lunule of the latter 
colour ; the posterior stigma is margined anteriorly with black and 
flavescent, and posteriorly with black ; the hody is pale fuscous, and 
the posterior wings of a creamy white, with the nervures rather 
dusky." 

Stephens' figure, by C. M. Curtis, fig. 3 (not 2, see corrigenda), 
pit. 20, is very stifi", and extraordinarily asymmetrical in markings on 
the forewings and in the venation of the hindwings, nor does it at 
all agree with the description, pp. 113-114. There is nothing 
" yellowish," nor " flavescent," nor " ochraceous brown," nor " bright 
flavescent " on the forewings, nor are the hindwings " creamy white." 
The figure is suffused over a considerable area with greenish-grey, 
and much of the remainder is suffused with reddish-brown (not 
ochj'aceous), while the hindwings are coloured variously evidently to 
pourtray a pearly appearance. With difficulty one can trace, or 
partially trace, some of the markings mentioned in the description, 
but the two sides are absolutely at variance, even when the characters 
are present, as with the stigmata. 

Equally is the description of Stephens at variance with the insect 
we now call linii;iera. Perhaps the most prominent specific characters 
in the markings of our lioiii/era are the soft silky-grey colour-texture 
of the forewings, the always present staring light-coloured orbicular 
stigma, and the ever present jet black claviform stigma beneath the 
orbicular. These characters are neither mentioned in the description 
nor included in the figure, but they are described in terms which are 
absolutely at variance with those conspicuous points of Innviera as we 
know it. Exception must be taken also to the shape of the wings. 
In the figure the apex is much too sharp, the outer margin is an 
impossible one, and in the hindwings the margin gives quite the 
opposite impression to that our limigeia gives. In this the darkened 
vem-colour extends into the ciha, and the marginal somewhat dark 
line appears thicker or wider between the veins at the base of the 
cilia, and gives a curious scalloped appearance, exactly the reverse of 
what is drawn in the figure. This is only seen in the males, as the 
dark shading of the hindwings in the female gradually intensifies 
towards the hind margin, and obscures the emphasis of the marginal 
line at the base of the cilia. There is one character of our Innifiera 
which is shewn in the markings of the figure, and that is the more or 
less conspicuous, extremely bent, double transverse line on the basal 
half of the wing inside the stigmatic area. This is given in the 
figure on one side, but shown as a narrow deep black band of nearly 
uniform width. In the insect the two lines are always separate, and 
the space between is variable in width. The lines on the other half 
of the figure are not at all comparable with those referred to above. 

In 1829 Freyer in his BcitriKjf znr Geschiclde eiiropiiischer Sclimet- 
terUniji', vol. ii., p. 44, and pit. G2 (2 figs.), gives an account as far 
as is known of the A<irotis tru.r, Hiib., and gives two figures which are 
very different from Hiibner's figs, 723, 724, in both shape and colour. 
The hindwings are pure white in Freyer's figures, the bodies are 
slender for Agrotids as a rule, the general figure is that of an insect 



196 THE entomologist's KECORD. 

much more slender than the trux as figured by Hilbner. One figure 
has short square wings and the apices of the forewings in both figures 
are much too sharp, and in one figure the anal angle is also much too 
sharply angled for the tnu- of Hiibner. Placed side by side these two 
sets of figures difier absolutely in colour and markings, the latter being 
in different positions, of difi^erent size and different in shape. These 
remarks also apply equally when the comparison is made with the 
insect we now know as Innigera. In his letterpress Freyer says that 
his trtiiv is near Hiibner's se//ctu)i>. 

After the death of Hiibner, Geyer continued the issue of plates 
Sarnmlinig, ear. Schm., and about the year 1833 issued plate 163 on 
which the figures 768, 769, 770 were labelled as Agrotis tni.r. No one 
would take these figures as representing any form of lunijiera. The 
shape of the wings in the figures are not so divergent from bnwjera 
as in the other figures we have examined. Fig. 769 is of an almost 
uniform green tint with prominent darker markings along the sub- 
marginal area of the hind margin of the forewings, and with a 
similarly coloured mark on the costa near the apex, together with a 
row of a few black dots inside the hind margin. There is a fairly 
emphasised discoidal mark or remnant of the reniform stigma, and a 
few dark costal marks, the rest of the wing area is unmistakably 
green or olive green. Fig. 768 shows a double row of dots in the area 
before the fringe of the hind margin of the forewings. The general 
coloration is of a bright brown, the reniform stigma is large and 
blackish- brown in colour. Both these figures are said to be <? insects. 
Fig. 770 is said to be $ , but has markings so varied and ground- 
colour so light as almost to preclude the suggestion that it is either 
trux or liiniciera, even if the markings were comparable. All the 
Noctuid markings, stigmata, blotches, submarginal lines, sub- basal 
lines, costal streaks, dots, etc., do not agree in size, shape, position and 
colour, with those of Innigera, nor do they agree with those of 
Hiibner's trux, as previously figured. The hindwings of all the 
figures are dirty white, to shades of brown in both sexes, darker in 
the female. As before stated, Innigera is of a soft silky grey colour, 
and there is no element of green or olive perceptible or suggestible in 
any example I have seen ; the hindwings of the males are not dirty 
white, but pure white. 

In the same year Freyer, in his Nene Beitrdge, vol. ii., pit. 84, 
p. 63, figures and describes a Noctuid, which he names terranea, and 
which subsequent authors have put down as a form of trnx. As 
regards colour, he says it is comparable to Taeniocawpa stabilis, and 
in size and shape to segetnm and exclamationis. To us the colour of 
the figure is more like that of Noctna oleracea, with a very strongly 
marked submarginal whitish transverse line, and clear white-margined 
stigmata. In no way is it comparable to Hiibner's figures, nor to 
Freyer's own figures in his Beitriige of 1829. 

About the same time Boisduval, in his Icones, gave three figures of 
Agrotis trnx, on Plate 79. Fig. 4 is named trnx, and figs. 5 and 6 
are termed varieties. In fig. 4 the orbicular is fairly conspicuous, as 
a dark spot and the reniform is also shown, but the claviform is non- 
existent. The general colour is dark grey, with a transverse brown 
shade midway between the two expressed stigmata ; the fringe of the 
outer margin is also of the same brown tinge. The hindwings are 



A " POSER," STAINTON. 197 

pure white, shaded slightly to the outer margin. There is no lighter 
.area at the base of the forewing's inner margin as in some of the 
figures I have seen and quoted. Fig. G is a very similar figure as 
regards the ground colour, but the claviform is expressed and con- 
spicuously dark, while the orbicular has to be looked closely for. 
There is no transverse band of brown tint, but the outer marginal 
fringes are brown or dull orange, perhaps. The hindwings are much 
darker marginally than in fig. 4. Fig. 5 is a brown form, the basal 
half being much darker, as is also a narrow irregular area inside the 
fringe. The fringe itself conforms to the lighter ground colour. The 
claviform is entirely absent, the orbicular represented by a dot, and 
the reniform is expressed fairly well. The hindwings are as in fig. 6. 
No varietal names are attached. None of these figures are at all 
comparable to our lioihji'ra. 

In 1835 Treitschke, in vol. 10, pt. 2, p. 22 of his Schni. Kur., states 
that he has numerous examples of a species which suggests Hubner's 
figures of tni.r, although there is much divergence. He hazards the 
remark that Hubner's figure is that of a variety and not typical, and 
that his specimens seem to fall to this species rather than to any other. 
Otherwise the resemblance is greatest to Aiirutif< ciirsoria and in size 
between that species and A. exclamationh. From these remarks it 
might seem that the author had specimens of liinigera before him, but 
his subsequent description speaks of red-brown and yellowish-brown 
markings, which colours are never present in any form of liniigera. 

Herrich-Schaefi'er in his vol. ii., p. 351, of Sijs. Bearb. Schni. I'Air., 
refers to the extreme variability of Agrotis tnix and notes the " bright 
green " example figured by Geyer (769), and a "very red" one (18) 
•figured by himself. His description commences : " Colore valde 
variabilis, gnseo-ochracea, fusco-grisea, subferruginea, viridi-mixta, 
eignaturis aut bene expressis aut obsoletissimis." This is expressively 
full and yet delightfully vague. His further description of the mark- 
ings would suit niany an Agrotid, but not any particular species, 
certainly not the liniigera of Britain. In the synonymic catalogue at 
the end of the volume he lists lunigera as quite unknown to himself. 

In Herrich-Schaeffer's copy of Guenee's yoctnelites, >'<pecies (rencral, 
which I possess and which has many MS. notes, he makes no additional 
remarks on any of the forms Guenee includes. 

Guenee's work, XuctKelitet, vol. i., dated 1852, gives as Ai/rath tnix 
type, the grey individuals strongly powdered with ferruginous- brown, 
and refers to Godart's figure of lenticidosa which he says is very inexact 
in illustration. (It is probable, from his remarks, that he had not 
seen the orij^inal paintings of Dumeril.) There is a sub-variety almost 
entirely covered with black stri;e, obliterating all the designs, which, 
he says, corresponds to the black variety of A. sti/ition. 

Guenee next refers to the greyish and greenish examples, but little 
powdered, with scarcely any markings or stigmata, as var. A, 
instancing Hubner's figs. 768, 769. Next he refers to the individuals 
of a brick-red ground-colour Avith almost all the markings obliterated, 
as var. B, referring to Boisduval's fig. 5 in his Icones. The terranea, 
Frey., is not considered by him as a distinct race, and he would also 
include here the fervida of Hiibner, fig. 711, but has not seen it in 
nature, yet is confident that it cannot be put with A. seiietum. 

He next gives an account of what he says is the Innigeia of 



198 THE entomologist's record. 

Stephens. He describes it as of a clear testaceous grey, much 
powdered, and suffused in parts with brown chocolate, with markings 
as in tri(.i-, but more obscure, the two median spots well developed and 
strongly margined with black, the orbicular round and clear, the 
reniform large and entirely filled up, except at one point inside, the 
claviform short and black. The lower wings white, somewhat 
yellowish, suft'used with clear grey with nervures of the same colour. 
That this is not a description of the Inniijera in our cabinets to-day 
will be evident to anyone. Whether Guenee had an insect before him 
at the time he made his description is not apparent. He says it 
partakes of the appearance of e.niaiiiationis and sei/etiim, a remark that 
he may have copied from Freyer (see above), although it had quite a 
different appearance from trii.r, to which it is closely related. He 
also says that he would not say that it might not in time be recognised 
as a boreal form of tru.r. A specimen which Guenee had sent him 
for identification from Scotland, which he calls var, A. of lHni<iera, he 
describes as of a cbar grey ground colour, almost so uniform that it 
renders the markings very distinct and quite clearly emphasised, and 
at first glance resembles e.rclaniationis, but belongs to Innujera. From 
these remarks I would suggest that he had at last an example of the 
insect we now know as Innitjera before him, an insect without a trace 
of red, brick-red, ferruginous, testaceous, green, chocolate, or yellow, 
etc., in its coloration. 

In 1856 Stainton, in his Manual, vol. i., p. 221 and 224, particu- 
larly mentions the " conspicuously pale orbicular stigma," but says, 
" F.w. grey shaded with reddish-brown," " the ren.st. . . . filled 
up with red-brown." 

In his Cataloi/us, ed. i., 1861, and ed. ii., 1871, Staudinger simply 
gives the trend of continental opinion, in the first edition tni.c and 
liinifU'ia as two separate species, in the second Inniijera as probably a 
Darwinian form of trnx. 

Newman, in 1872 in his III. N. H. Brit. Moths, p. 325, gives a 
short, very good, description and accurate colour discrimination of the 
present day liinijera, but his figures are too obscure to be recognisable 
(1st edition). 

In 1884 (1888), in the first volume of Iris, p. 229 Calberla gives 
an account of various insects taken in the Roman Campagna and 
among them a Noctuid which nearly resembles sef/etioii and which he 
supposes resembles the lenticnlosa of Duponchel, and therefore must be 
a form of tni.r. He gives a figure (sic) of it on pit. xii. which might 
represent a Noctuid and might, not. As to markings, it is marked all 
over with obscurities ! 

Tutt, in his British Xoctuae in 1892, vol. ii., p. 15, give an ex- 
cellent description of British ln)ii(/era (I. of Wight), having examined 
a very large number, many hundreds of examples, which 1 saw 
at the time. He says that " reddish forms are excessively rare," and 
he only knows of " two thus tinged." 

In 1894 Hoffmann in Gross Schui. Enropas, pit. 35, figs. 15, a, b, 
gives very good figures of the two sexes of British Ik itinera, and in 
figs. 14 a and 14 b figures the two sexes of trus. There seems no 
specific comparison between these two, the texture in the reproduction 
even absolutely prevents this suggestion. In the text p. 83 he treats 
the two as separate species. 



NOTES FROM THK TKENCHES. 199 

In 1901, as seen above, Staudinger in his ('atalo'iui', ed. iii., in- 
cludes Ittni'jera as a local race of trn.r. 

Barrett's description, Lcp. Brit. Isles, vol. iii., pp. 313-4, is an 
excellent one of British hiniijera, both as regards colour and wing 
markings, and there is no suggestion of the red or chocolate or flaves- 
cent brown of the continental descriptions of tnu-. 

(To be concluded.) 



Notes from the Trenches. 

By K. G. BLAIR, F.E.S. 



Life in the trenches just now is not of the most exciting nature, in 
fact it is rather the other way, a monotonous recurrence of dull un- 
interesting duties, chiefly doing sentry, varied by a few fatigues, eating 
and sleeping, and killing time, so that one is ready to make the most 
of any little item of interest that turns up. The interchange of 
courtesies between the opposing lines is by day almost confined to the 
passage of a few shells and bombs, with a little spasmodic rifle fire. 
By night the latter becomes much more lively, indulged in for the 
most part by the Germans, who have an unpleasant little habit of 
raking the top of our parapets with machine guns on the chance of 
catchmg any sentry venturesome enough to poke his head up ; but as 
this is practically all chance firing and not aimed at definite objects, 
the net result is almost negligible. By night the sentry usually has 
one hour on duty, one hour sitting beside his successor, then, with 
luck, one or two hours sleep, but if there be any trench repairing to be 
done he may have to forego some of his sleep for this purpose ; by day 
just now, 4 a.m. to 8 p.m., he gets two hours on duty and four or more 
off, according to the number working the traverse. Cooking occupies 
a good deal of one's oft' time, as all water has to be boiled before it is 
safe to drink it. It may be taken from the pump of some ruined farm 
near the lines, often approachable only by night, or more often it is 
from some shell hole. Yesterday I nearly got a fine female of Lh/tisens 
iiian/i)ialis in my canteen for tea. A thing of that size one can, of 
course, avoid, but smaller fry one pays no heed to, just boils it up with 
the tea and swallows the lot. 

The entomologist has ample leisure for noting features of interest 
around him, and some few species of insects there are which force 
themselves upon the attention of even the most unentomological of 
" Tommies." Probably most men if asked what point about the insects 
of France struck them most, would refer to the extreme abundance of 
lice. At first one is inclined to regard the insect with loathing, and to 
have the epithet "lousy" applied to one would be an insult meriting 
instant chastisement, but as usual familiarity breeds contempt, and one 
even comes to regard them as one of the minor perhaps, but none the 
less unavoidable, horrors of war. They may be to some extent kept 
down by the free use of various insecticides and frequent change of 
underclothing, but it seems impossible to avoid picking up a new 
invasion both in the trenches and in billets. 

They occur in two distinct forms known generally as " white ones" 
and " black ones," or " Scots Greys" and "Black Watches," and the 
popular belief is that the white ones are so to speak, our own domestic 



200 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



stock, while the black ones are exotics impoi'ted from oar Indian 
comrades. 

As my battalion forms a part of one of the Indian Divisions and we 
are continually using billets last occupied by some of our dusky friends, 
and as moreover the latter, v^^hen searching their persons and clothing 
for the "wee beasties," do not kill them by squeezing them between 
the thumbnails in our accepted fashion, but merely throw them down 
in the straw, there would seem to be some foundation for the belief, 
but it appears to be another of those pretty little theories quite unsup- 
ported by facts. The black ones, so far as my observations go, are the 
males and the white the females, the latter sex predominating. 

In our western theatre of war they do not seem to play any part in 
the spread of disease, but where typhus is prevalent its transference 
has been traced, at any rate in part, to lice. The infection is trans- 
mitted not directly by the bite, but indirectly by the expressed contents 
of the alimentary canal coming in contact with an abraded skin sur- 
face ; hence the importance of refraining from scratching the body 
when the irritation from the bites is experienced. 

Flies of many species also contribute a considerable menace to the 
health of the troops. They are certainly much too numerous for com- 
fort, particularly swarming around any carrion or refuse left exposed, 
but they may be combatted by proper attention to sanitation and by 
keeping all food carefully covered up. Nevertheless it is undoubtedly 
to the general inoculation against typhoid undergone by the troops, 
that the almost complete immunity from the ravages of this disease is 
to be attributed. In spite of a certain amount of hostility to the 
practice among the troops, a more ample justification of compulsory 
inoculation could scarcely be demanded. 

Apart from those insects of economic importance to the health and 
well-being of the troops, there is a good deal of collecting to be done 
in odd moments, even in the trenches themselves. Many minute 
species of beetles are to be found crawling over the sandbags, the most 
noteworthy perhaps being Anthricns sp. ?, which occurs in hundreds, 
and numerous small StaphyUnidae ; the little earwig, For/icnla 
lesnei (?), is also fairly common. 

The facilities for actual collecting are not very great, and for lack 
of accommodation the larger specimens have to be noted only. Of the 
butterflies I'arorye luenaera is probably the commonest species, and a 
single specimen of Culias hi/ale is the most out of the ordinary that I 
have seen. The country hereabouts does not seem to offer very great 
possibilities, though if one could linger in likely spots instead of 
merely picking up what chance throws in one's way during halts, it 
would be interesting to compare the fauna of this London clay area 
with the fauna of a similar area in Middlesex or Sussex. 



A note on Scolitantides orion, Parnassius apollo, Lycasna euphemus, 

L. areas, Polyommatus amandus, and Coenonympha tiphon. 

Their gradual spread in the Rhone Valley. 

By LILIAN M. FISON. 
On page 16 of this volume I stated that I had discovered Scolitantules 
orion at Charpigny on June 2nd, 1914. I also found Paniastsiiis apollo 

* I am indebted to the Rev. G. Wheeler, and to Mr. R. Temperley, for much 
of the information recorded below. — L.M.F. 



A NOTE ON SCOLITANTIDES ORION, ETC. 201 

there on June 10th, 1914. The presence of these species interested 
me as I was not certain whether they had been taken in this locality 
before. I thought it possible that my late uncle, Mr. A. J. Pison, had 
introduced them by bringing larv!T3 to Charpigny with their foodplants, 
Sedioii tele)thi)ini and Sediun albtnii, perhaps from the Southern Alps. 
However, Mr. Wheeler says (/» litf.) : " I am not aware that your uncle 
deliberately brought S. oriim larvae to Charpigny, but he may very 
possibly have brought ova in plants of Sedtiiii, either from Branson or, 
more probably, from south of the Alps .... still I had long 
entomological conversations with him the year before he died, and he 
did not mention it. 

"On the other hand, /'. cniiandiiH has become common in the 
Charpigny marshes, and L. eiipliemn.s and L. areas near the Rhone at 
Aigle, neither species having been found there at all, till some eight 
or ten years back. One may say this with certainty, since they were 
all localities that your uncle had hunted regularly for many years. 
Charpigny is quite ideal for S. orion, and it might get there from 
Branson, quite as easily as P. ainandus from Vernayaz." 

(I should add that I took /'. aniandus in the Charpigny marshes 
in June, 1914. It occurred, too, singly at Charpigny, on the road 
leading to the stables, and between St. Triphon Station and Charpigny.) 

Mr. Reginald Temperley, in a later letter, writes : " The P. ap(dlo 
and .S". u}iun found at Charpigny .... were intentionalhj intro- 
duced by your late uncle. The caterpillars were supplied by someone 
whose name I have forgotten 

" As to P. aiiiandiis, L. e}(phc)iiiiti, and L. aica>i having put in an ap- 
pearance in the localities you mention within the last ten years, this 
is a matter of opinion only, with nothing to support it apparently, 
beyond the fact that your late uncle had never found them there. I 
believe that Mr. Fison's not having reported any of these three species 
was because he had not looked well enough at the right time. 
Neither had he ever found C. tijdion, observed for the first time in 
1905 by myself, and reported to him, and whicb species swarms in 
the valley on the skating-ground and upwards for quite one mile, 
and probably in places all the way to St. Triphon quarries, as I took ar 
few there last June 

" Mr. Wheeler's views may be correct about /'. ainundus getting 
from Vernayaz. From whence comes ( '. tiphon / — Loeche? — and 
there is also L. areas and L. eujdiennis to account for. Arras occurs 
on the hills behind Clarens. Personally, I am of opinion that all 
these four species have been there for quite a long time. I could 
mention another fly that the late Mr. Fison had not seen in these parts 
which exists there." 

Finally, Mr. Wheeler writes: "With regard to P. ainandus, I can 
state quite definitely that it is not a matter of unsupported opinion. 
It occurs on ground that both your uncle and I, together and apart, 
had regularly hunted for many years. The first year it vvas found 
there very few specimens were seen ; the next year they were still in 
small numbers, but much less scarce, and from that time onwards they 
have been quite common. A single female having been let out, or 
blown, or flown there would be sufficient to account for its appearance 
in so suitable a place. As far as it is ever possible to be absolutely 
certain of any negative fact, I do not think that the previous absence 



202 THE entomologist's record. 

of p. amandus can admit of a shadow of doubt. With regard also to 
Lycaena enpheiinis and L. orccn^, Favre and Wullschlegel, in their Macro- 
lepidoptcres dn Valais, omit all mention of their occurrence, either in 
that canton or in the neighbouring parts of Vaud, though this district 
was well within the range of Wullschlegel's hunting-grounds, and was 
well-known to Chanoine Favre also. To go further back still, none of 
these three species were known from this locality to the indefatigable 
Mr. Tasker of Yilleneuve, nor is there any previous record of them 
among the almost innumerable articles which have appeared in the 
different magazines on the butterflies of the Rhone Valley. C. tiphon 
is certainly spreading — I found it last year in the St. Triphon marshes 
where I have never seen it before, though my experience of that locality 
began in 1897 or 1898. I was aware that it occurred in that end of 
the Rhone Valley, as I took one spe3imen somewhere in the Bouveret 
direction the first year I was in Switzerland, but never found another, 
though I frequentl}' searched all round those parts. With regard to 
P. apollo, it has occurred at Charpigny ever since I have known the 
place, which was before I knew your uncle, but always singly, so that 
caterpillars introduced there by him would be likely to establish them- 
selves without difficulty." 



Lepidopterology. ■' 

It would be possible to say a great deal about these volumes that 
has already been said about their predecessors, especially in regard to 
the work of M. Culot. The plates, lithographed and drawn by him, 
appear to be as near perfection as one can expect to meet with, though 
M. Oberthiir regards the figures of .J^i/eriidae already executed for the 
eleventh fascicule to be really beyond anything M. Culot has so far 
produced. 

This leads one to think over M. Oberthiir's preface, which is placed 
where prefaces ought to be, namely, at the end of Part 1, since prefaces 
like this one usually consist of something the author wishes to say to 
his readers, not before the work is begun, but after it is finished. It 
is dated March, 1915, and relates how, in the previous May (1914), the 
date "September, 1914" was printed on page 5 of the Title. The text 
was finished in June, 1914, and was printed to p. 192. M. Culot had 
dealt with the Fthopalocera and Sesiidae of Barbary, and had received 
various Arctiidae and others with which to continue the plates. M, 
Oberthiir then relates how he was at Gavarnie with various members 
of his family, and was joined there by his grandson, Henri, and Mr. 
Powell, who had been making an entomological exploration of other 
portions of the Pyrenees, not forgetting some mountaineering as not 
foreign to the supposed main object. M. Oberthur's love of the 
mountains, of such a calm and peaceful centre as Gavarnie, finds 
expression in his enthusiastic pictures of the glorious weather, the 
abundant insects, the captures at the electric lights in the evenings, 
his pleasure in seeing his old friends MM. P. Rondou and Henri 
Posset, the latter of whom he had known for 45 years. All this is 
pleasing and delightful, but, alas, there came suddenly, the sad and 

* Etudes de Lepidopterologie Comparee. Par Charles Oberthiir. Fasc. X., 
Partie 1, Texte, pp. 459. Partie 2, Planches, 177. 



LEPIDOPTEROLOGY. 203 

depressing change, which we have all suffered from in some degree. 
On July 25th, the Colonel of the 144th Infantry Regiment, =■' who had 
been making excursions and ascents with M. Henri Oberthiir, had 
started for an ascent of Mount Perdu, and guides were hurried after 
him as a despatch recalled him urgently to his regiment at Bordeaux. 
This was disquieting, and on the 28th M. Oberthur thought it wise to 
make for home. Arriving there on the 31st (by automobile) there 
seemed still a chance for peace. 

There follows a short resume of the facts of the events up to the 
war. He adds that it is not his business to become, in an Entomo- 
logical work, the historian of the most bloody and terrible war there 
has ever been. Yet one remembers at a quite recent meeting of an 
Entomological Societj', a most interesting and vivid letter from the 
front was read, bearing on the experiences and exertions of members 
of the Society, and unfortunately on the loss of some of them, but no 
one seemed to regard the time spent in listening to the letter as other- 
wise than properly and appropriately employed. M. Oberthiir's three 
sons and a grandson are engaged actively in the war. His grandson, 
aged 18, has voluntarily joined the 102nd regiment of the Infantry. 

Referring to the brutality of the Germans, he adds : — 

" In such unhappy times, when all families are constantly 
receiving the saddest news — -telling of the death, glorious, no doubt, 
but so grievous, of some relative or friend, whom we held amongst 
our dearest and most loved — one feels that all scientific labour 
becomes impossible, and that the publication of any work begun in 
more propitious circumstances must be postponed sine die. 

" Hence the date, ' September, 1914,' printed in May, 1914, has 
since elapsed. Yet the volume X. was nearly finished. 

" I decide, therefore to publish the volume, so far as it goes, that 
is, up to the point it has reached. I realise that it will require a 
supplement, yet I felt I ought to so determine before successive 
mobilisations had left our printing works without the skilled personnel 
indispensable to the production of my book. How many of our 
fellow workers, since the first days of August, have left our house to 
bravely take their place in the arms where they had in their youth 

received military training Meantime, oppressed by 

anxiety for home and country, suffering acutely the pain which so many 
deaths have caused us, in our own town and in the Breton country, 
aged by cares more than by years, I fear that the present entomological 
work, with the portion relating to the Aei/criidoe, in sight of comple- 
tion, is the last which I shall be able henceforward to produce. 

I had wished, whilst I still had the strength, to complete the 
Fanne des Lciiidopterea de V Abicvie. It was a purpose that was dear to 
me ; the war which civilised nations find themselves compelled to 
maintain, for more than seven months, against the savages, is the 
reason why the dream will probably not become the realit}." 

Thus abbreviated and (badly) translated, one loses almost all the 
apt and vivid expression, the poetic instinct and the deep feeling that 
the whole preface breathes ; but even so it tells us something of the 
attitude of our leading Lepidopterist, who, whilst he still can do so 

* M. Oberthur adds in a note that Col. Gauthier commanding the 144th 
Regiment, was killed gloriously, at the outbreak of the war. 



204 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

much, finds his opportunity snatched away. One may, however, 
reasonably hope that after a time M. Oberthiir will be able to con- 
tinue to gratify us with the results we still hope for of his prolonged 
and ripe labours. 

The text deals with the butterflies of Algeria, and one can hardly 
open the book anywhera without finding something of greater or less 
interest. Perhaps the outstanding feature is the wealth of observations 
of H. Powell on the habits and early stages of so many species. No 
less than 237 of the 860 pp. are claimed by the genus Sati/rus, much 
of it dealing with Powell's observations of eggs, larvae, habits, etc. 
56 pp. contain a paper by M, Fd. le Cerf on the morphological 
characters of the Algerian Satijri with many text figures of antennae, 
palpi, details of proboscis, scales and scaling, legs and genital armature, 
male and female. 

Of our British butterflies, there is a full discussion of the forms of 
Aricia medon (L. ai/estis); Agriades thetifi {hellan/us), also receives some 
attention as to sundry varieties. Of Colias hyale and C. cmcints (edusa), 
synonomy is discussed. Mr. Powell reports that C. edusa lays upon 
many and varied Lfnininiwsae, and cites lucern and other non-British 
plants. 

Amongst the Satyri, there is a most interesting excursus on Linne 
and the name semele. 

The portraits of Entomologists include French, Italian, Russian, 
Swiss, American, and English Lepidopterists. 

The photographs (by Powell) of localities for various butterflies 
are often good pictures apart from any special interest, such as pits. 2, 
14, 46, but are always good photographs and show well the nature of 
the country. 

The seventy-six photographs, of eggs, larvfe, &c., present some 
excellent representations of eggs, in which the difficulty of getting so 
large objects altogether in focus is overcome by presenting two or more 
of each egg at different horizons, and in most instances with much 
success, as for instance in pit. 56, eggs of Ejiinephele eudora-uiaurltanica, 
X 25, Syi icJitkus onopordi, T^hotos. (o4: d, Q4: c, Syricldh us numida, 64/", 
^S. proto, 64 j, and 64 k, etc. 

When we come to the plates by M. Culot, we find illustrated chiefly 
those Algerian species and forms that have not been illustrated in 
previous portions of the " Etudes," just in fact as we find in the text. 
Four forms of machaon are figured, three of var. feisthamelL Five 
figures of Thaix rumina show curious aberrations of the denticulation 
of the hindwings. Aporia crataegi, Antlwcharis falloiii, A. charlonia, 
A. belia (eupheno), and Calicharis nouna occupy three plates, and 
admirably illustrate both the species and M. Culot's art. Forms of 
Melitaea didyma and M. deione take the next plate. Four plates of 
Satyrus prieuri, S. ellena, S. semele, and S. nelcai follow. Melanaryia 
mes, Kpi)tephele and Coenonympha, Lycaena iolas, (Tlancopsyche cyllarus 
and Celastrina anjiolus occupy two plates. Plate 289 shows Scolitantides 
(L.) abencerrayus = batnn, S. allardi and S. martini, but especially a series 
of S. (L.) fatma, which Mr. Powell not only met with in quantity, 
though previously barely known, but of which also he very successfully 
followed out the life history as described in the text and illustrated in 
the plates of photographs, and of his excellent drawings (plate 301). 
The foodplant {Salvia argentea) is very unusual for a Lycaena. A. (L.) 



A KEWAKKABLK MAKRIAGE-FLKiH T OF ANTS. 205 

ciiiestis = )iu'(lon is very fully shown, and also various species of TlwHor 
and Cii/cu itis. Several Argynnids, some skippers, and a remarkable 
aberration of Sati/nis lidia complete the imagines, with the exception 
of three plates of Celerio t'li/i/iorhiac-iiniiirctdnica and some exotic 
Papilios. 

The fourteen plates of Powell's drawings of larva;, pupaj, &c., show 
skippers, geometers, hlariaa, Soniabracln/s, Xoctiia, Lasiocaiupa, Leinonia, 
Zi/i/aena, Sec, those illustrating S. fatiiia already alluded to, and the 
greater part of four rather full plates of Satyrids seem of especial 
interest.— T.A.C. 



A remarkable Marriage-flight of Ants and some Theories. 

By W. C. CRAWLEY, B.A., F.E.S. 

On August 8th last there took place at Weybridge, Walton-on- 
Thames, Hersham, and probably all over the county, the largest 
marriage-tlight of ants of the genus Lasius (or I hDii^t/wipea) that I 
have ever witnessed. At Walton it began at about 3.30 p.m., and 
probably in some districts was continued during the following day, as 
on the 9th I found hundreds of /.. nii/er winged $ $ on Westminstei' 
Bridge. The three species concerned were L. nvjer, L. fiavus, and L. 
Knibratiis, the first two predominating (there was also a flight of 
Mijniiica scabrinodis, but we are not directly concerned with this). 
The $ $ , both winged and deiilated, covered every road and path for 
miles around, and on a piece of waste ground about 50 yards square 
there were four to six ants on every square foot. 

In the case of La.siiis nit/er and Lasins fianis the usual procedure 
was, after the S J and y J had joined on the ground, for the 2 9 
to tiy up carrying the 3 S and circle round for a few minutes. Then 
couiiyg to the ground, where the J J released the ? $ and flew 
right away, the latter removed their ^Nings, using the legs to push 
them forward, until they dropped ofi'. The /.. nit/er $ $ on rising 
into the air make a deep buzz not unlike that of a wasp. The 
dealated 2 2 always avoided each other, and many sought out holes 
in the ground, where they disappeared, their presence being betrayed 
the next day by little craters of sand. Wherever there was a nest of 
fjusiiia nnjer the ^ ^ came out in swarms, capturing and killing the 
deiilated 2 $ of all three species, principally I ais/ks jlanis and I., niin'r, 
the latter presumably both strangers and friends (as 1 have shown 
experimentally). The stronger and more active innbratKs 2 2 more 
often ran the gauntlet in safety, and it is to the behaviour of these 
latter, whose parasitic habits on )ii(fer are well known, that I wish to 
draw attention. 

In recording the observations and experiments (1895-1912) which 
established the habits of Lasiua umbratus $2,1 repeatedly noted that 
the newly depilated 2 2 are frequently found carrying dead Lasius 
nii/fi- ^ ^ , and when one is confined with a live ^ she generally kills 
and devours it, but is friendly to any others that are subsequently 
introduced. Now out of several hundred uinbratiis 2 2 observed on 
August 8th, at least 50% carried a dead iiii/er 5 (one carried a J ). 
On many occasions I watched 2 2 capture and kill their ? ? . That 
the dead § was of importance to the 2 i« clear from the fact that 
when harried, and even when picked up with forceps, the 2 still held 



206 THE entomologist's KECOEU. 

her prey. When confined in a box the J invariably devoured the 
^ , leaving nothing but the head, legs, and part of the thorax. 

Seeing this phenomenon on such a large scale strengthened my 
theory that it is an important factor towards the successful adoption 
of the 2 by a ni(ier colony. The devouring of the ^ would serve two 
purposes ; first, it would enable the ? to exist during her search for 
a suitable colony, since she has not the supply of fat which enables the 
self-founders to exist for months without food from external sources ; 
and secondly it would cause the 2 to lose the inubratiin odour and 
acquire that of nbier, and thus favour her chance of acceptance by a 
colony of the latter. Or, looked at from another point of view, the act 
might set in motion a process transforming the 2 from her present 
condition of antagonism towards all strange ants, into one of friend- 
liness for, and attraction towards, L. nu/er. 

Though repeated experiments have shown that it is only queenless 
or small colonies that normally accept a parasitic queen, I found a 
marked difference in the behaviour of a powerful colony (queen and 
several thousand ^ ^ ) of /.. nii/cr towards L. uiiihratiis 2 2 that had 
devoured ni(fer ^ ^ , and those that had not. In the latter case the 
2 2 were killed at once, but the former were approached in a very 
different manner, and were not attacked until some time had elapsed 
and they had penetrated into the centre of the nest. Every one of 
fourteen small queenless colonies of nif/er accepted iivibrotiis 2 ? 
readily, three of them taking two each, and another three. In all but 
one of these latter four cases the 2 2 fought, only one surviving in 
each ; and numerous 2 2 put in pairs and threes always fought, the 
strongest killing the others by cutting them in two at the pedicel by 
sawing movements of the mandibles, as before described. 

It is very probable that the bodies of these parasitic 2 ? are at- 
tractive to the ants, as appears to be the case with Anenjates, which 
also sometimes captures and holds, but does not kill, a host ^ after 
impregnation ; at any rate, they have an attraction for the myrmeco- 
philous beetle Clavhjer te.staceiis not possessed by L. ni<ier or L. flaciis. 
In two nests of L. Jiavus containing two Clavitfer and one queen, and 
fourteen Claviijer and five queens repectively, and in one of niiier with 
one queen and one Clavif/er, the beetles were never observed to cling to 
the bodies of the queens, whereas in two colonies of Lasiim iiii/cr with 
a L. Hiiibratns queen and two Clavi(jc)- in each, the beetles were almost 
invariably clinging to the gasters of the queens, and often appeared 
to lick the surface of the body. 



Marriage=flights of Donisthorpea species on August Sth, etc. 

H. DONISTHORPE, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 
When recording a marriage flight of Donkthorpea (= Lfl.s///.s) nic/ra 
which took place at Folkestone on August 9th, 1911, 1 mentioned that 
marriage flights also took place at Margate and Seaview, Isle of 
Wight, on the same afternoon, and I stated : — "It is evident that the 
ants are aftected by some atmospheric influence, and it would be 
interesting to find out over how large an area they are aflfected at the 
same time." — Knt. llec, 2i, 6-7 (1912). 

The marriage flights on August Hth this year help to answer this 
question. In the newspapers vast numbers of winged ants are men- 



NOTES ON COT^LEOTINd. 207 

tioned as havinf^ been obsorved at Cardiff on that date, and I have 
been informed of flights of Ihnist/wrpea species which occurred on 
that day at Penge, Forest Tlill, Streatham, Walhngton. Woking, 
Reckenham, East Farleigh, Brockley, 8t. Helens, Isle of Wight, and 
Lynton in Devonshire. My son also informs me that he saw numbers 
of winged ants at Abbeville in France about that date. 

In my garden at Putney Jhniistlioy/icd iiiiira and IK /lava were 
swarming from about 4.30 onwards, and they occurred all over Fulham, 
Putney, and Barnes, Later in the evening I captured two deiilatod 
D. iiDihrafa 9 $ near the entrances to nests of P. nif/ra in a road 
close by. I enclosed them in a box, when the one female killed the 
other by cutting off its head. 

I should be glad if any of our readers will record marriage-flights 
from localities and counties not mentioned in the above two notes. 

In connection with the colony-founding of species of this genns I 
may mention that a large number of small imibrata ^ ? have at last 
been brought up (this year) in my captive colony of D. ah'fua obtained 
at Wevbridge on Julv 10th, 1912, which accepted a f>. mnhrota 9 on 
July 27th, 1913. 

My Ihmi^thnrjn'a fiili(iinnm ? died on August 29th last ; she had 
been accepted into a colony of />. ini.rto-ninhrata (strengthened with 
? 5 of I>. iiiiihrata) on August 11th, 1912. All the^? ? in this 
colony had gradually died oft', so on August 27th I went to Woking 
and obtained a large numbf r of fresh /). umhrata ^ ^ . The 7). 
fiilii/innxa $ was accepted by the new ^ ^ , she was very weak and 
died, as before stated, on the 29th, though not from injuries, 

[Morice and Durrant have shown that Lasiia^, Fabricius, sinks as 
a homonym of the earlier Laniiis, Jurine. a genus of bees, A new 
name being necessary for § La.<<iiiii, F., they proposed that of Donis- 
thorpea. adopting ni(ira as the type Vl'ram. Knt. Snr. Li)}td., 1914, 421- 
423 (1915)1.— H. J. T.] 



r^OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

Phryxus LivoRNicA IN Britain. — Apparently this species is quite 
established in its western habitat. For some years past now it has 
been regularly obtained and by no means as odd specimens. Man}' of 
the specimens captured are in excellent condition and evidently have 
emerged in this country. — H.J.T. 

Cklastrina ak'jIolus in London. — This species appears to be get- 
ting more abundant in the London suburbs year by year. Reports are 
continually being made of its occurrence in fresh spots as well as notes 
on its reappearance where it has previously been seen. On July 2Gth, 
'while walking up Holborn somewhat after mid-day, I saw a male of 
('. an/iolns threading its way among the trattic. Of course this was 
a second brood specimen. In the same week specimens were fre- 
quently seen Hying across my own garden at New Cross. — H.J.T. 

Kksting posirioN of Eupithecia oblongata (centaureata). — Recently 
my son found on the stem of a twig of a nut-bush in the garden, about 
the calibre of a thin pencil, a pair of /<.'. ohlontiata in cop. He was 
attracted by the appearance of a white " bird's dirt " enfolding the 
stem. The wings were stretched out in the usual "pug "attitude along 
the stem so that the two insects were "looking each other in the face" 



208 THE ENTOMOLOaiST's RKCORD. 

round the stem, and with faces so close that the costfe of the two pairs 
of forewings were overlapping. — H.J.T. [I have since seen a single 
specimen of the same species sitting on a grass stem with wings 
stretched along the stem and body transverse to it, on the bare down 
at Royston, Herts.— H.J.T.] 

Feeding of Cucullia verbasci. — As there were several plants of 
Verbascuiii tha]isi(s in the garden, and one of my visits to the chalk 
hills was on so cold a day that I did not even unfurl my net, I amused 
myself by selecting a number of larv?e of Cucullia verbasci which this 
year were extremely abundant. They were put into a conservatory 
and fed in the sun. So ravenous did they become unde^ the stimulus 
of the heat that one could clearly hear the noise of their jaws even at 
some yards distant from the cage. — H.J.T. 

CoLiAs EDusA IN 1915. — Frieuds in the Portsmouth area report 
('alias ciJiisa has appeared in some number during the past few weeks. 
— C. W. Sperring, Charlton. Aiif/itst SOth, 1915. 

I took Colias ediisa at Dorking on August 28th,— A. E. Tonge, 
Reigate. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The Pine Processionary Caterpillar. — Monsieur lltienne Rabaud 
has a short paper in the Annales of the Entomological Society of France, 
for 1915, p. 165, on certain points in the behaviour of the larvfe of 
the Pine Processionary, I'/iaufuato/Kiea piti/ocanipa, Schiff. (Read Feb- 
ruary 24th, 1915.) 

He appears to establish that temperature is a very important 
element in determining many of their habits. His observations appear 
to have been completed at Amelie-les-Bains, etc.; though he does not 
say so, one supposes they were all made in the South of France. He 
refers to the observations made by Reaumur, Fabre, and Perris. He 
cites from them and from his own observations that a temperature of 
26° Fahr. kills larviB outside the nest, of 20" kills those inside the nest 
near its surface, and at about 10° Fahr. nearly all perish. 

He finds that the nests are placed on the southern side of the trees 
and that the larvae, in feeding, when there is a choice, attack the 
branches on the southern side. Further, they eat first the terminal 
needles, but though he speculates on the matter, says nothing definitive 
in explanation of this choice. 

One may, however, reasonably suppose that the well-being of the 
larvfe is favoured by getting their food as near the nest as possible. 
By eating first the terminal needles, they clear downwards, and the 
result must be that when a larva on leading the way out to feed, finds 
the lower portion of a branch or twig cleared, he goes no further that 
way, recognizing that all beyond has been eaten, incidentally saving 
an unnecessary journey. If, however, the lower needles were often 
eaten first, it might happen that the further ones would escape alto- 
gether, with the result that branches further from the nest would have 
to be visited, whilst these more accessible leaves still existed unused. 
This would be the result if basal or terminal leaves were attacked first 
indiscriminately. Had the instinct been to eat the basal ones first, it 
must have arisen from some advantage derivable from such an instinct, 
but it is not easy to see what that could be, and in fact, if such advant- 
age does exist, it has not been definite enough to produce an effect 



SCIKNTIFIC N0TP:S. 209 

against the weight in favour of the actual habits of eating the ends 
fi'rst. 

The excursions from the nest for feeding are made at night, but 
when the nights are cold, say 23° to 41° Fahr., the larva; do not come 
out, but starvation, if the cold nights continue, has its effect, and the 
larva' will then come out and feed in daylight, if it be a little cloudy. 

M. Perris' observation referred to seems to show that starvation, 
when it results from the vast numbers of the larva; having cleared 
away all the needles of the trees occupied, compels the larva to adven- 
ture long journeys, in which a frosty night often catches them to their 
extirpation. 

When after feeding they return to the nest, they do so with great 
certainty. M. Rabaud leaves the question of how they do so uncertain, 
he recounts certain observations that demonstrate that they return 
easily when there is no silken way for them to follow, so that this 
usually accepted explanation fails. 

He ends the paper with some remarks on the processionary instinct. 
He says the origin of the instinct is certainly obscure, and even seems 
to involve a decided danger, he says other social caterpillars disperse 
over the food plant and return without any processionary procedure, 
and that individual larvae of T. iiiti/ocdiiipa find the wa}' home quite 
easily. 

lie appears to study the point entirely with reference to the feeding 
larva, and therein misses what seems to be the real advantage secured 
by the processionary instinct. 

This instinct entirely governs the larva at one very important 
point in its life, that is when it finally leaves the nest and goes to find 
a place for pupation. It is then that they may be found in procession, 
by day as well as by night, and when larvrt^ from two different nests 
readily combine in the same procession. 

That the larvie should keep together in considerable numbers is of 
the greatest importance, because they enter together some cavity under 
rubbish, or even underground, and spin their cocoons together in a 
close mass. 

It is, no doubt, for this event that natural selection has brought 
the habit to the perfection we observe. The possession of the same 
instinct in the earlier feeding stage is probably due to the tendency of 
any such habit or instinct, or for that matter colour or plumage, to 
appear earlier in the ontogeny than the point at which it developed, 
a result only restrained, if at these earlier stages it is disadvan- 
tageous. In the case of the processionary caterpillar there is nothing 
to prove that the instinct to follow a leader is injurious to the feeding 
larva, and it is probably even useful, generally, to a larva, who realises, 
may we say, knows (though the knowing is not exactly of the human, 
conscious, type of knowing), that a certain region of the tree is stripped 
of foliage and leads his fellows to new pastures. 

It will of course be evident that a larva, unaware of these circum- 
stances, unght happen to lead and might lead wrong, as there is no 
selection of a leader, but only that all follow the one that happens to 
go first. 

l>ut, specially also, there are comparatively rare, but not perhaps 
infi'oquent, occasions when a tree is completely denuded, from being 
small or from having many nests, and it becomes impei*ativc for the 



210 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S IIKCORD. 



larvf© to leave it and find another. In order to build a nest there they 
must all be together, and for the whole brood to fail to find a fresh tree 
would not be more disastrous than for all to find trees, but only two 
or three larvie to each new tree, quite unable therefore to spin a new 
nest. The habit of pupating gregariously, at a distance, often very 
great, from where they fed is, then, why the processional habit 
developed. It is a une qua miii, without which they would inevitably 
scatter helplessly. As explaining the processional procedure we accept 
the gregarious pupation as a fundamental fact, equally important in 
this regard, whatever may be its cause or object. That there is such a 
cause or object there can be no doubt, and one can speculate what it 
may be. Various habits and structures of pupre, almost always refer 
to protection from enemies, and this .g-regarious habit probably has 
that object. If so, our enquiry is narrowed to the question, How? 

They are certainly protected by the circumstance that the irritating 
hairs which make the processionary larv?e so dreaded are loosely worked 
into the outer layer of the cocoon, they retain all their irritating 
properties but are so easily disturbed and float about, that to handle the 
cocoons is a more unpleasant experience than to deal with the larvte. 

The massing of the cocoons makes it certain that any marauder 
will suffer, possibly before he has done any mischief, but unquestion- 
ably before he has injured more than a pupa or two, and the rest will 
escape, nor will a second attack by the same or another enemy be likely 
to do any further mischief. A solitary cocoon, on the other hand, 
might easily have the stinging hairs rubbed oft", or not recognised as 
injurious till the pupa had been fatally injured. 

Something of this sort will probably explain why the massing of 
the pupre has been declared by natural selection to be the correct 
procedure. — T. A. Chapman (M.D.), Betula, Reigate. Aiif/in^t dtli, 1915. 

Agriades coridon, Poda (Royston form). — It may be of interest to 
record that I received eggs of this form from Mr. Newman last autumn, 
and though, from inattention and other faults, I only reared sixteen 
specimens, they present results that possibly bear on this curious form 
of A. coridon. The two outstanding peculiarities of the Royston form 
appear to be the excess of females, and more extraordinary the 
frequency of andromorphous specimens amongst these females, for 
details of which we are indebted to Dr. Cockayne. 

The sixteen specimens I reared were one male and fifteen females, 
a remarkable preponderance of the latter, greater than any I have had 
to explain \n any other species by any hypothesis of a greater mortality 
of males in earlier stages. Though these females present several nice 
forms, I do not detect in any of them any andromorphous tendency. — 
Id. Avf/iist, 1915. 

Celastrina argiolus in AMERICA. — In the Kilt. News for July is the 
following elucidation of the multiplicity of names which have been 
ranged around the form of Cdastrina ariiiolus in America, by Prof. H. 
Skinner. He agrees with the view that pseKdanjioliin of the American 
continent is only a western form of the ayfiiclns of the European con- 
tinent, since the genitalic work of Mr. R. C. Williams confirms it. 
The list is as follows : — 

Argiolus, Linn. 

var. PSEUDARGioLus, Bdl.-Lec. (18H3). 
neijUcta, Edw. (1862). 



CUKRKNl' NOTES. 211 

var. LUCIA, Kirby (1837). 
riulacea, Edw. (186G). 
intenncdid, Streck. (1878). 
man/inata, Edw. (1883). 
riiierea, Edw. (1883). 
finnida, Scud. (1889). 
}iseii(lura, Scud. (1889). 
anient at a, Fletch. (1903). 
ijiiesnclin, Cockle. (1910;. 
vai'. NIG, Streck. (1878). 
nhn-a, Edw. (1884). 
vai'. ECHO, p]dw. (1864). Pacific Coast. 

arizommis, Edw. (1884). 
vai'. NiGKEscENS, Fletch. (1903). Pacific Coast, from wintering 

chrysalids. 
var. Go/ORA, Boisd. (1870). S. of the U.S.A. 
The writer says that each of these names represent slight differences, 
but adds, " I see no advantage in retaining so many names for slight 
differences, as they are often very confusing and often take many hours 
of patient study to find out what they mean." — H.-J.T. 



(i^JJRRENT NOTES AND SHORT NOTICES. 

Russian entomologists are suffering from a shortage of pins. The 
Caucasus Museum, however, is better oft" in this respect, since the 
Director, Colonel Kaznakov, on arriving in Lvoff, secured the entire 
stock in the town, several thousands, and sent them to Tiflis. — M.B. 

There are some valuable collections in Lvoff, which were in danger 
of being ruined by the severe winter frosts owing to shortage of fuel. 
The sympathy and influence of Colonel Kaznakov secured a supply of 
fuel, and the museum was saved. — M.B. 

The authorities at the South Kensington Natural History (British) 
Museum are much in want of a quantity of specimens of the two 
species 'J'n'ii/tariia jinDiuha and Toitiix viiidaxa. The condition of the 
specimens does not matter as to bodies, head, etc., so long as the hind- 
wings (yellow) of the former and the forewings (green) of the latter 
are intact. The specimens should be sent or given to Mr. J. H. 
])urrant, British Museum (Natural History), South Kensington. 

Dr. Cockayne has gone abroad on Admiralty business and will 
probably be away for the next few months. 

Some time ago we called attention to a very important exhibit at 
the British Museum (Natural History) dealing with the Army Biscuit 
Enquiry which Mr. .1. H. Durrant, F.E.S., and Lieut. -Col. W. W. 0. 
Beveridge, D.S.O., R.A.M.C, had been undertaking. We understand 
that the practical use which has been made of the facts elicited, and 
the results obtained in this enquiry, has proved of such enormous value 
to the government authorities that by request the materials of the 
former demonstration are being re-exhibited in the hall of the museum 
with additional items. It is significant to read the new announcement 
in comparison with the former one. The first, 1913, said : — " It is 
hoped that the researches now being carried out jointly by the War 
Ufiice and the British Museum (Natural History) uuuj ciisinr the pro- 



212 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

tecfcion of Army Biscuit from the possibility of such attacks by insects 
in the future." The second, 1915, says : — "The researches which have 
been carried out jointly by the War Office and the British Museum 
(Natural History) hai-e enstired the protection of Army Biscuit from the 
possibility of such attacks by insects in the future." The italics are 
ours. Nothing succeeds like success. 

On July 10th the Entomological Club held one of its successful 
meetings at the " Hand and Spear," Weybridge, under the presidency 
of Mr. G. T. Porritt, F.L.S., F.E.S., of Huddersfield. Four of the 
eight members of the club were present — Mr. G. T, Porritt (chair), E. 
Adkin, H. Donisthorpe, and A. Sich. The guests were Messrs. J, 
Piatt Barrett, G. C. Champion, R. W. Lloyd, W. J. Lucas, B. H. 
Smith, Hy. J. Turner, and H. Worsley-Wood. After an early supper 
an adjournment was made to the lawn of the hotel, where a very 
pleasant evening was spent. 

It is many years since we have inspected the one-time famous 
Doubleday Collections of insects which were deposited in the Bethnal 
Green Branch of the South Kesington Museum by his executors. 
These collections consist of 106 drawers of British Lepidoptera 
arranged in the exact order in which they were left by him at his 
death, a«d 31 double drawers of Extra-British European Lepidoptera, 
also arranged as regards species as left by him, but in genera according 
to the then Staudinger's List. The collections still appear in very 
good condition and the circumstances under which they are consultable 
are quite adequate. The attendance book shows that the series are 
continually being consulted, a fact which we are sure would be most 
gratifying to the famous lepidopterist could he know. The catalogues 
dealing practically with every specimen are most useful for reference. 
One can definitely state which drawer one wants and have it brought 
without delay by the courteous attendant. This is as it should be. 

[Since writing the above we were astonished to hear that the 
collections have been suddenly transferred to the British Museum, 
South Kensington. It is really too bad that so useful a local collection 
should be engulphed and lost in the immense mass of material in the 
central museum.] 

There are 30 beautiful specimens of the British Large Copper 
{( 'Ini/sophanus dispar) in the Doubleday collection, three of them being 
the types of ab. nineiiier, Tutt, J s. The total dispar in the museum 
is now made up as follows : — 

British Museum (Brit. Colin.) =26 

British Museum (Gen. Colin.) =18 and 1 Brit, rntilam. 

Walsingham Collection (4 + 2) =6 

Bankes Collection ... ... =13 

Doubleday Collection ... =80 

Buckler Collection ... ... =2 (poor) 

Total =95 + 1 rutilans. 

The sixtieth Annual Exhibition of the Royal Photographic Society 
of Great Britain is now being held at the Gallery of British Artists, 
Suffolk Street, Haymarket. Mr. Hugh Main, B.Sc, F.E.S., carries 
ofi' one of the medals for a set of eleven photographs of the " Meta- 
morphosis of the Dor Beetle, Geotnipes stercoyariuti." In addition he 



CURRENT NOTES. 213 

exhibits sets of photographs of the life histories of Hiheniia Icuropliae- 
aria, Di/tisnis inariiiiiolis, Cassida eqiicstris, Thiiarcha tenebricoaOy 
Lanipfjris noct.iliica, Pterustichiis inadidii-'i, Eryx ater, Aroniia niosc/iata, 
Mef/achile ccntiDicidan's, Veapa (leniiauica, Piwpla institiatar, (J/injsnpa 
flara, and Aarion pticlla, all of which deserve notice. Mr. C. W. 
Colthrup has a small exhibit of his favourite study of the resting^ 
attitudes of moths. Mr. A. W. Dennis also has a set of photographs 
of the Wood ant, Formica riifa. Mr. Hamm, of Oxford, has several 
autochrome slides of the resting attitudes of butterflies. There are 
many other sections of the exhibition well deserving of mention, which 
we ask our readers to see for themselves. The rooms will remain open 
until October 2nd. ; -^ 

In the Knt. Ueconl, vol. xii.,_ p. -&=6 (1900), Dr. Burr gave an 
interesting account, with portrait, of the great Orthopterist Dr. Brun- 
ner von Wattcnwyl. We have just heard of the news of his death, 
which took place at Vienna on August 24th, 1914. He was born in 
1823, and was a member of one of the oldest Swiss families. 

The Entomological Society of France at it? bi-monthly meetings 
announces news from members who are with the army. From the 
Ihdlctin of the April-May meetings we see that Dr. M. Bedel has been 
mentioned in despatches, M. Balestre is now convalescent, after being 
severely wounded at Saint Mihiel, MM. Georges de Bary and Xavier 
Roques have died of their wounds, M. Albert Lacrocq, wounded at 
Eparges, has recovered, M. Gaston Roche has been killed, and M. R. 
Decary, seriously wounded at the Marne, is now convalescent. 

In the April numbers of the Ihdletin de la Societe F/ntoDudof/ii/tte de 
la France, M. Chi'etien has a series of very interesting notes on 
( 'alloplni/.i rubi, lleailes vir;iaureae, Loiccia alcijihron var. (jordiiis, 
['lebeiiis ar(/ijro(/)Wiiio)i, Latiorina orbitidiis, P(ih/o)iniiati(s eras, P. escheri, 
and Cnpidd sebriis ; the Abbe -J. de Joannis discourses on the Law of 
Priority ; and there are several systematic articles with illustrations on 
new and little known Coleoptei'a. 

In the ]\nt. Mo. Matj. for -lune Mr. E. Ernest Green describes two 
('occids as new to science. I'sendococcits spluupn was discovered by Mr. 
Donisthdrpe in a nest of Formica picea in Matley Bog, New Forest, 
amongst njduKjiuim, and P. (jahani was found on liibex naiuniinea in 
London. In the same number Mr. R. S. Bagnall further describes a 
Neuropteron new to Britain, Coniventzia cr>/pti>nei(ris, which he an- 
nounced in the new periodical, the Vascidnm, a short time ago. 

In the Canadian Kntniiioloiiist for .June, the monthly article on 
Popular and Economic Entomology deals in a most interesting and 
living way with " Some Manitoban "Water-Beetles." There are also 
descriptions of several new genera and species of Tineina from the 
neighbourhood of Cincinnati. 

In the XatKralist for -June is found a long Report of the Cumber- 
land Nature Reserve, the Entomology of which is described by an old 
correspondent of ours, Mr. F. H. Day. He lists 15 species of Butterflies, 
122 species of Moths, and 257 speciesof Beetles. The area now preserved 
is Kingmoor Common, which was formerly a locality much frequented 
by collectors. 

The first part of the 'J'ransactions of the Fntomohujical Sucietij of 
London for 1915 was issued in June. It contams twenty plates, four 
of which are coloured, with 170 and xlviii. pages. Dr. Dixey con- 



214 THE entomologist's record. 

tributes a paper on " New Species and Subspecies of Pierinae" in the 
Hope Collection, Oxford. G. C. Champion, "Revision of the Mexican 
and Central American Telephorinae with descriptions of new Species." 
J. J. Joicey and W. F. H. Rosenberg, " Descriptions of New Species 
of the Pierine genera Catasticta and Daptoneiira." Dr. H. Eltringham, 
*' Further Observations on the Structure of the Scent Organs in certain 
male Danaine Butterflies." The Proceedini/s are even more interesting 
and important than usual. They contain (1) a valuable paper, " The 
Mimetic Theory — A Crucial Test," by Colonel N. Manders, F.Z.S., 
F.E.S. (who we are grieved to say has just been killed in the 
Dardanelles), and a very weighty reply by Mr. C. F. M. Swynnerton, 
" A brief Preliminary statement of a few of the Results of five years' 
Special Testing of the Theories of Mimicry," with the discussion 
which ensued ; (2) "Life History of Ai/rotis luceDica,'' by Mr. Lupton; 
(B) " The African Meiiajioiwra foetens and its raids upon Termites," by 
Prof. Poulton, based upon letters received from his various corres- 
pondents in Africa ; (4) " Butterflies from Biak, the largest of the 
Schouten Islands north of New Guinea," by Messrs. Joicey and Talbot; 
(5) " Brenthia pales and U. aysilache from Norway," by Mr. P. A. 
Buxton and others ; (6) " A hybernating Pupa of Pijrameis atalanta," 
by Mr. L. W. Newman ; (7) " The Gregarious Habit during Hyber- 
nation of Miisra corvina,'' by Prof. Poulton ; (b) " Records of the 
Nuptial Flight of Butterflies (British)," by Dr. F. A. Dixey ; and many 
other smaller items concerning exhibits, and communications to the 
Society. 

The Annual Pwport of tJw Kntomaloijlcal Societi/ of Ontariu for 1914 
contains, among other interesting items, (1) Photographs of the Rev. 
C. J. S. Bethune, one of the great pioneers of Entomological Work in 
the Colony, of Dr. Williams Saunders " one of the first to realize the 
practical significance of entomological work," of Henri Fabre the 
author of " Souvenirs Entomologiques," and of Hy. H. Lyman the 
great helper in all natural history work in the colony who was lost in 
the wreck of the "Empress of Ireland"; (2) An account from various 
sources and with several illustrations of the great 1914 outbreak of the 
" army worm " CnjpliHs {Heliophila) [Leucania) unipuncta and its 
devastations in pastures and fields of cereals throughout the country ; 
(3) An interesting summary of the Life and Work of the great French 
observer, Henri Fabre ; (4) An article on " Mountains and Hills " by 
that ardent lover of nature, the Rev. Dr. Fyles ; and (5) the various 
reports of the sectional societies, economic work, and Canadian records, 
complete a useful volume of 152 pages and many illustrations. 

The June quarterly part of the Journal of Entoiiwlofi;/ ami Zooloijij 
(Pomona, California, U.S.A.) is mainly filled with articles on Ento- 
mology. Perhaps one by Edna Mosher is the most important, an 
investigation into the " Homology of the Mouth Parts of the Pre- 
imago in the Lepidoptera." 



Ji^EYIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

The Proceedings of the South Londox Entomological and Natural 
History Society. — 1914. — With 10 plates and 1 map. Published 
at the Society's Rooms, Hibernia Chambers, London Bridge. Price 4s. 
— Although the matter for this admirable annual always must be 



REVIEWS. 



215 



completed by the last week in January it seems rarely that the volume 
appears before the middle of May. An earlier issue would be much 
more encouraging to the authors of papers who may wait many 
months for their publication. The annual issues of this progressive 
society for the past thirty-five years lies before us, and we can truly 
say that it is a lasting record of progress in the carrying out of the 
object of the Society, viz., " The diffusion of Biological Science by 
means of Papers and discussions and the Formation of Typical 
Collections." It is a society without vicissitudes : any changes which 
have come about have always been changes of advance. No less than 
seven of the present members were members in 1880 and of these 
three are still almost invariably present. More than fifty have been 
on the roll foi- a quarter of a century at least. 

The volume consists of three sections. The first contains all the 
official information, Council's Report, Balance Sheet, etc. The second 
part consists of the papers read during the year, concluding with the 
annual address. The third section contains full accounts of the 
proceedings at each of the twenty-three meetings with numerous short 
notes contributed by different members, and the reports of the field- 
meetings. 

Probably the most valuable paper, one of more than local interest, 
is that on " The Genus Melitaea," by the Rev. Geo. Wheeler, M.A., 
F.E.S., in which the groups of species, and the racial and local forms 
from the whole of the Pabearctic and Nearctic Regions are dealt with 
largely from a philogenetic point of view. Mr. Colthrup gives his 
interesting experiences in " Photographing Birds on a South Coast 
Beach." Mr. R. Adkin gives a summary of all that is known of the 
occurrence of " CoUas eda^a in Britain," dealing with the species from 
a historical point of view, and passing on to a consideration of its 
migratory habits, illustrating his remarks with a map of Europe on 
which suggested lines of migration are marked. Mr. K. G. Blair, 
B.Sc, contributes a paper on " Luminous Insects," summarising the 
main facts known of this subject ia the various grgups, and giving an 
account of his own experiences in North America among the 
" Hashing " or " lightning-bugs." Dr. E. J. Salisbury, D.Sc, gives 
a summary of the main facts of his lecture on " The Sea Shore and 
its Plant Life." Mr. W. J. Lucas gives a further instalment of his 
contributions towards a knowledge of "other Orders" in '-British 
Long-horned Grasshoppers," illustrating his account with three plates 
containing figuies of all the species dealt with in the paper. Mr. K. 
Adkin contributes a further paper, " Some Lepidopterous Piipal 
Habitations and some reminiscences," a most interesting summaiy of 
the varied directions of larval labour, and illustrated by four plates 
of figures of the structures and one plate of microscopical details. 

Not less interesting are the detailed accounts of the meetings. 
Among the more useful notes contributed we may mention. (1) Mr. 
A. E. Gibbs on the American species of the genera Melitaea and 
Pli)jvioiles. (2) Dr. Chapman's record with two plates of the abundance 
of mistletoe on Scots pine in the Dauphiny Alps. (3) Mr. Step's 
notes on the Aleunxles. (4) Mr. Turner's summary of the variation 
shown in the races of hUebia jironnr. (5) Notes by various members 
on the Mite, Tetrani/tliKs Untearias. (6) Mr. A. E. Gibbs, an account 
of the variation in several species of I'anunsiKs in the Palffiarctic 



216 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD. 



fauna. (7) The contributed notes and discussion on the genus 
Anthrncera by various members, which take up some twenty pages of 
the letterpress, and form a most useful and important summary. 
(8) Mr. A. E. Gibbs, " The giant sawfly and its parasite." 

Only four Field Meetings were held during the year, viz., at 
Ranmore Common, Beaconsfield, Ascot, and Byfleet, reports of which 
with records of captures, notes, etc., are included. There is also a 
Report of the Delegates to the South-Eastern Union of Scientific 
Societies, giving an interesting account of the doings at the very 
successful Bournemouth meeting. 

The volume is extremely well got up and quite worthy of the 
Society. Possibly one could find small points to improve in future, if 
one felt in carping mood, but it is not worth while to be-little what is 
generally so excellent. 



SOCIETIES. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History Society. 

.Time 24f/<. — New Member. — Mr. Fagg, of Lewisham, was elected a 
member. Aberrations of European Butterflies. — Mr. Edwards, for 
Mr. Dawson, exhibited several remarkable aberrations of European 
butterflies, including Poh/nminatiin icariis with elongated marginal 
markings on underside; ^lelitaea (lictynna with underside forewingall 
markings blurred and hindwings markings extensively radiated, the 
upperside almost wholly black' suffused ; a melsimc Brenthis jiales ; a 
a xanthic form of Epinephele jurtina ; Pnlyonviiatits Jnjlas, with very 
pale marginal area on underside; and Melitaea didynia with radiated 
undersides. He also showed nests of the humble-bee, Bomhas 
lapidarius with imagines, from Worcestershire. Coleoptera from the 
New Forest. — Mr. West (Greenwich), the principal species of 
Coleoptera taken by him in late May and early June in the New Forest 
including Leptura acutellata, Mesosa nubila, Clytiis arietis, (jrra)iviioptera 
praeti^ta, FAater saiKininolentus, E. nnniatiis, Ar/rilns riridis, Cob/diinn 
eliDiiiatiDii, Afhndiuii nif/cr, etc. Exhibition and discussion of L. 
quercus. — Messrs. B. Adkin, R. Adkin, Hy. J. Turner, A. E. Gibbs, 
and Cowham, series and specimens of Lasiocawpa qiiercuti, and Mr. B. 
Adkin subsequently read a paper on the species. Mr. Gibbs, a male 
with complete female coloration. Mr. Cowham, a female from Epsom 
which was two j^ears in pupa and had emerged in May. It was of the 
var. callunae. Another example had the discoidal on the left forewing 
duplicated. 

Jidy 8tJi. — The President, in the chair. Mr. G. B. Pearson, Russell 
Sq., W., was elected a member. There was a special exhibition of 
Malac()$o)iia neustria, M. rastiensis and Cnsuiatriche potato) ia, b}' Messrs. 
B. Adkin, R. Adkin, S. Edwards, A. E. Gibbs, Leeds, Sperring and 
Brooks, which included series of numerous local races, and many 
aberrations. Mr. B. Adkin then read a series of notes on the variation 
attainable in the three species. Mr. B. S. Williams exhibited a bred 
series of Biipalim )iiniaria from Leith Hill. Mr. West (Ashtead), 
examples of Triaena p^i and T. tn'dens and asked if members could 
point out definite markings Avhereby the imagines could be correctly 
distinguished. 



WATKINS & DONCASTER, 
Naturalists and Manufacturers of Entomological Apparatus and Cabinets. 

Plain King Nets, wire or cane, incUuling Stick. 1/3, '2/-, 2/0, 3/-. Folding Nets, 3/0, 
4/-, 4/6. Umbrella Netf? (self-acting), 7/-. Pocket 13oxes (deal), Od., Dil., 1/-, ]/0. Zinc 
Collecting Boxes, 9d., 1/-, 1/0, 2/-. Nested Chip Bo.\es, 7d. per four dozen, 1 gross, 1/6. 
Entomological Pins, 1/0 per ounce. Pocket Lanterns, 2/0 to 8/-. Sugaring Tin, with 
brush, 1/0, 2/-. Sugaring Mixture, ready for use, l/'J per tin. Store-Boxes, witli camphor 
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Houses, 9/0, 11/0; corked back, 14/-. Zinc Larva Boxes, 9d., 1/-, 1/0. Breeding Cage, 
2/0, 4/-, 5/-, 7/0. Coleopterist's Collecting Bottle, with tube, 1/0, 1/8. Botanical Cases, 
japainied double tin, 1/0 to 4/0. Botanical Paper, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, 2/2 per quire. Insect 
Glazed Cases, 2/0 to 11/-. Cement for replacing Antennte 4d. per bottle. Steel Forceps, 
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CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Puente cle los Fierros, P. A. H. Mugchamp, F.E.S 189" 

Collecting Lepidoptera in England, Spring, 1915, E. B. Ashbi/, F.E.S. .. . . 190 

A " Posei:," atd'mton, Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. .. .. .. .. .. .. 192 

Notes from the Trenches, K. G. Blair, F.E.S 199 

A note on Scolitantides orion, Parnassius apollo, Lyceena euphemus, L. areas, 
Peljommatus amandus, and Ctenonympha tiphon. Their gradual spread in 
the Pihone Valley, Lilian 21. Fison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 

Lepidopterology, T. A. Chapman, M.D. .. .. .. •• .. .... 202 

A remarkable Marriage-flight of Ants and some Theories, IF. C. Crawley, B.A., 

F.E.S. ■. .. 205 

Marriage-flights of Donisthorpea species on August 8th, etc., H. Donisthorpe, 

F.Z.S., F.E.S •• .. ., 200 

Notes on Collecting: — Phryxus li vomica in Britain, if. J. 7'.; Celastrina argiolus 

in London, Id.; Resting position of Eupithecia bblongta. Id.; Feetling of 

Cucullia verbasci. Id.: Colias edusa in 1915, C. W. Spcrring, A. E. Tonye . . 207 

Scientific Notes and Observations: — The Pine Processionary, T. A. Chapman, 

M.D. ; Agriades coridon, Poda (Royston Form), Id.: Celastrina argiolus in 

America, if.. 7. r 208 

CuHRENT Notes and Short Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 

Review : — The Proceedings of the South London Entomological Society, 191-4 . . 214 
Societies: — The South London Entomological Society .. .. .. .. 216 

Communications have been received or have been promised from Dr. Chapman, Dr. 
Verity, Rev. G. Wheeler, Messrs. R. S. Bagnall, Hy. J. Turner, C. W. Colthrup, H. E. 
Page, A. J. Fison, C. P. Pickett, Dr. Burr, A. Tetley, Parkinson Curtis, H. B. Williams, 
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All MS. and editorial matter should be sent and all proofs returned to Hy. J. Turner, 
98, Drakefoll Road, New Cross, London, S.E. 

We must earnestly request our correspondents not to send as conuniDiications identical 
with those they are sending to other magazines. 

Lists of Duplicates and Desidieata should be sent direct to Mr. H. E. Page, 
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THE 




ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Edited hy 

Richard S. BAGNALL, f.l.s., f.e.s. T. A. CHAPMAN, m.d., r.z.s., v.k.h. 



T. HUDSON BKAllK, 

B.SC, r.K.M., F.R.S.B. 

George T. BETHUNE-BAKER, 

f.z.s., f.l.s., f.e.s. 
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(Rev.) C. B. N. BURROWS, f.e.s. 



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George WHEELER, m.*., f.e.s. 



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UCTOBEB 15th, 1915. 



OCT 80 Wi^ 4ce SIXPENCE (nkt). 

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READ THE BACK Nos. OF THE 

Entomologist's Record & Journal of Variation' 

(Practical Hints, Field Work, etc. useful for every year's collecting). 
VOL. VI. 

The TITLES of some of the articles are as follows : — Notes on Butterfly Pupse, with some remarksj 
on the Phylogenesis of the Rhopalocera."— Dr. T. A. Chapman, F.E.S., "Phytophagic Species."- ' 
Prof. A. Aadclife Grote, M.A. " Varieties and aberrations of Noctuaj from Doncaster." — H. E 
Corbeti, M.R.C.'s. "The frenulum of the British species of Smerinthus."— G. C. Giiffitht, F.Z.S^ 
F.E.S. "Endrvas stfe-johannis.,' — A. Radclifle Grote, 31. A. "Parthenogenesis or Agamogenesis."- 
J. W. Ttitt, F.E.S. " Larvae." — Rer. G. :m. A'. Hewitt, 31. A. "Retrospect of a Lepidopterist for 1894.' 
— .T. W. Tiitt, F.E.S. " Generic Names in the Noctuidae."— P)0'. A. U. Grote, M.A. " Pupa hunting i^ 
October." — J. W. Tiitt, F.E.S. "Polygamy and Polyandrv in Moths." "The nature of certain 
insect colours."— Tr.S. Ridhuj, 3I.D., R. Freer, M.B., J. W. Tutt,'F.E.S., Rec. C. R. N. Burrows, J. Andersoni 
J\in. "The LexJidoptera of Swansea." — Major R. B. Robertson. " Caradrina ambigua in the Isle of 
Wight."— ^. J. Hudges. "The insects of' Bourg St. Maurice."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Orrhodiaf 
erythrooephala ab. glabra from Devonshire and comparison with O. vaccinii." — Dr. W. S. Ridinffi 
F.E.S. "Notes on Caradrina ambigua and C. superstes."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Entomology and 
Entomologists, being the Annual Address to the City of London Entom. Society." Notes oii| 
Aphomia sociella " (with plate). — W. P. BUickhurne 3Iazc, F.E.S. " Ax)terous females and AVintetJ 
Emergence "— E. F. Stiuld, 31. A., B.C.L., F.E.S., L. B. Front, F.E.S. " Collecting Noetuidte by Lake 
Erie."— ^. RodcHfie Grote, M.A. " Coleoptera at Ipswich." — Claude Morleij, F.E.S. " Notes on 
Bombus visurgite." " Synonymic Notes on Acidalia humilata and A. dilutaria." — L. B. Front, F.E.S^ 
" The Lepidoptera of Gresy-sur-Aix." — /. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Apatura iris."— iftc G. M. A. Hewett^i 
" Scheme of Classification of the Rhopalocera founded on the structure of the Pupw." — T. A^ 
Chapman, M.D., F.E.S. "Glimpses of American Entomology."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "The Genus 
Smerinthus." — A. Bacot. " Vari'ition considered biologically : Some notes suggested by the Romanei( 
Lecture of lfi94."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Wing structure."— J. Attton 3Iofa,n. "On tlie development 
of sex in social insects." — J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "The British representatives of the Genus Caradrina." — ' 
L. B. Prout, F.E.S. " Ha))its and variation of Lithosia lutarella and its variety pygmaeola." — ^^J 
J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. On the gradual disappearance of Lepidoptera from South-Eastern London and'| 
its neighbourhood." — C. Feun, F.E.S. "A hunt for Neuroterusaprilinus." — T.A. Chapman. 31. D., F.E.Sii 
"On the development of pigment in Ncmeobius Incina." — F. J. Buckell, 31. B. "The Macro-Lepi-J 
doptera of Keswick." — H. A. Beadle. " Varieties of Argynnis selene " (with xilsite). — S. G. C. Rusaell,i 
F.E.S. " Hadenoid genera with hairy eyes." — Prof. A. R. Gro'e, 31. A. '• Zygpena minos and its] 
varieties." — J. IF. Tutt, F.E.S. "Notes on the pupae of Castnia and Anthocharis."— T. J. ChapmanA 
M.D., F.E.S. Besides these articles, a large number of short notes are contained in every number underi 
the follewing titles: "Scientific Notes and Observations," " Variation," " Notes on Larvae and Lifeo 
histories," " Notes on Collecting," " Current Notes." The reports of Societies are very carefully edited,' 
and only scientific paragraphs published. The " Practical Hints " and " Field work " for each month 
are quite unique. 

The entomologist who will read carefully through the back numbers of The EntomologisVa Record 
will find himself better equipped for the further study of his subject than by any other means. 
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A BUTTKKFLY HOLIDAY IX GREAT BRITAIN. 217 

A Butterfly Holiday in Great Britain. bO ^-^-^^ 

By GEOKGE WHEELER, M.A., F.Z.S., F.E.S.". , ., .,(<>■ 



It is possible that some sense of shame ought to acconJpi 

admission of a " butterfly holiday " this year, but the combination o 
about half the \York of a Central London Parish with the Secretaryship 
of the Entomological Society (to say nothing of other occupations), 
does render a holiday, even in Avar time, a somewhat pressing necessity, 
and finding it of course impossible to spend that holiday abroad, I made 
up my mind to utilize it entomologically by seeking some of those 
forms which are peculiar to our island, in particular the Cornish 
Li/cat'iui arinn, Vlebeins art/iiK. [ai'ijon) var. i)iassei/i, and the Durham 
and Scotch forms of Aricia viedon. I hoped also to obtain the typical 
P. axjiis [ai'iion) and the var, crctacea, so as to have the opportunity of 
comparing these three forms in a fairly long series, and in addition I 
had some expectation of acquiring British forms of (_'(H'7ii>)ii/iii/)ha tiplmn 
and l\rebia i'/)iphro)i. I had not, however, with one exception, a day 
without rain, and the one exception only gave the variation of a fog so 
thick that for most of the day it was impossible to see across the road; 
whilst only once did I have as much as two hours of consecutive sun- 
shine, and, though there was a little on nearly half the days, it was 
generally confined to gleams of a few minutes' duration. 

Leaving London at 1 o'clock on Monday, July 5th, I reached Bude 
soon after 7.30 in the evening, and here through a mistake of the 
porter's T was carried oft" seven miles in the wrong direction, and landed 
at a farm in Morwenstow. This was rather unfortunate, as the farm 
for which I was bound was some two miles from another in w-hich 
Mr. A. H. Jones and Mr. Earl were staying, and I knew they were 
leaving on Wednesday morning, and further, there was a litttle sunshine 
on Tuesday morning which we had to waste in our thirteen miles' 
drive. An attempt to visit my friends on Tuesday evening was cut 
short by torrents of rain, and I was left to my own devices to find a 
ground for arion. Wednesday and Thursday were, with a short 
interval on the latter day, hopeless for hunting, but I searched about 
for likely spots. It was some time before I found any thyme at all, 
and when at last I did so, there was no sign of the necessary ant- 
hills, and I took nothing but Melanarf/ia (jalatea, Aji/iantnpus In/per- 
a)itiis, a fine dark form of E/nnephele juitina, and a single specimen 
of I lipparcliia seniele. On Friday morning a very welcome addition 
was made in the form of a single fresh specimen of the second brood 
of Lcptosia sinapi.^, my first experience of this species in England. As 
the afternoon showed a promise of more sunshine, I started at about 
l.HO p.m. for the farm in which my friends had been staying, and 
where I knew they had met with some success. Within a quarter 
of an hour of starting, however, I found myself in a steep field 
full of ant hills all covered with thyme, so felt that if orion was 
to be got anywhere in the neighbourhood I should hardly find a 
more likely spot. In a few minutes I discovered that it was by 
far the commonest thing in the field, though getting over, and I had 
to let out at least as many as I kept. I succeeded, however, in the 
hour or so that the sunshine (somewhat intermittently) lasted, in 
acquiring a short series of a dozen specimens, mostly in fair, and one 

October 15th, 1915. 



218 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

or two in excellent condition. A few Polyounnatus icanis, not in good 
condition, and a single Coenuni/mjilia jianijihilKs complete the Cornish 
bag, since Pieiis rapae and P. napi were too worn to be worth taking. 

On Saturday the 10th we left for Lyndhurst where we arrived in 
the late afternoon, our quarters at the "Crown " affording a grateful 
contrast to the roughness and rats of our late abode. A tramp through 
an open bit of the Forest on the following afternoon showed that, 
despite total absence of sun, it was possible to kick up a few fresh 
specimens of typical P. anjiis [ae(ion), and a sufficient number were 
obtained on the following daj', which was hot, though there was but 
little sun till the late afternoon. Butterflies were however very 
scarce, with the exception of E. jiirtina. A very few Jhi/as paphia 
(no var. raleaina) and still fewer Ari^i/Jinis adippe put in an appearance, 
Liinenitis slbi/lla was also very little in evidence, and such as were to 
be seen flew high until between 4 and 5.30 p.m., when the sun was 
several times out for as much as ten minutes at a time, when they 
came down as usual and sat on the moist wood-roads in some 
numbers, but were difficult to see and not in first-class condition when 
taken. 

As I had to be in London for the Tuesday and Wednesday nights 
we returned home the following day, and on the Wednesday I made 
an expedition to Cuxton in search of /'. ariius {oef/on) var. oetaeia, 
but alas! the sun went in just after I arrived at the station and the 
rest of the day was given up to cold wind and occasional rain, and I 
returned home without a single specimen of any sort. 

On Thursday, July 15th, we started for Witherslack about 1 o'clock, 
arriving at Grange-over- Sands in the early evenmg, and finding a 
very comfortable " taxi " at the station which (juicklj' took us to the 
" Derby Arms," where we remained very comfortably for the next 
eight days. Our hostess w^as most kind and attentive, and during 
part of the time we had the further advantage of the company of 
Messrs. Mansbridge, Johnson and Crabtree, to all of whom this 
locality is so well-known, and by whom, especially Mr. Johnson, 
who stayed longer than the others, I was introduced to the special 
haunts of various species, whether flying at the time or not. But the 
weather ! Kain and wind were the order of the day, with scarcely 
ever a gleam of sun ; still, I managed by hours of tramping the 
•mosses to obtain a tine series of P. aiynn (aei/oii) var. iiiassei/i, not 
however more than I could easily have got in an hour of hot 
sunshine. They were however well worth the trouble and exertion 
and nothing to compare with them is to be found out of England, or 
in England except in the northern " mosses." The ? s are all much 
suffused with blue, the hindwings often to the border, and the amount 
of orange on the upperside varies as much as in other forms of the 
species ; the dark part of the wings is nearly always black, not brown, 
as in Agriadea tlietis ab. urania. I was fortunate enough also to 
obtain three aberrations among the 3 s ; one with leaden-coloured 
hindwings on the upperside, very fresh and perfect, one with some 
coalescent spots on the underside hindwings (ab. casta- juncta), and one 
with most of the spots of the underside hindwings elongated, this 
specimen however having unfortunately lost a piece out of one of the 
hindwings. The S" s are not at all violet-blue on the upperside, but 
rather of the blue of Glauvopfniche ojUanis, with a very narrow black 



A BUTTERFLY HOLIDAY IN GREAT BRITAIN. 219 

border and a series of black spots at the edge of the hindwings : when 
q\iite fresh they are nearly white on the underside, like the second- 
brood in Central Italy, and approaching the var. hijiiochiona of the 
Pyrenees, except in size. I was too late for (\ ti/>lion, and the only 
good specimen I took was a 2 , though I found a few passable examples 
of both sexes. There was never a day when it was possible to go to 
Ambleside, and in any case I was too late for /•,'. epiphnm. T took both 
the Argynnids, but they were really over and not worth keeping, as 
was also the case with the 1st brood of /'. icatnx. and mostly with A. 
i)inln)i^ which is single brooded here. I was also between the broods 
of ' . pniuii/iiliix, of which 1 only saw one 2 . K.jnrtina was common 
anil tine, with very pronounced yellow bands on the underside, some- 
times even in the J s- //• ^enwh' was tlying but did not seem common. 
Indeed, except in the " moss" in which /'. aiyici {ae(ion) occurred, one 
might walk for hours without seeing a butterfly, and the only moths 
that were common were Kiiiatunia atouiaria and a pale ('ra)iibns 
(lifilelliis, I think). An occasional Atitiiadi'n si/lrnnua was to be seen, 
and I'ieris }ia})i was fairly common, large, and well-marked. Jlupaliis 
pinioria was pretty frequent among the pines, which also produced a 
few Schiiot/iisa Utura : on one of the the mosses there were also a few 
Srliiloseiiia ericitaria {plumaria) of both sexes. But even in such 
weather as we experienced Witherslack was a delightful place, and I 
sincerely hope to visit it again. The journey across to the Durham 
Coast, though only about 80 miles, took 8^ hours, of which ih were 
spent in waiting at stations, and necessitated 5 changes. We put up 
at the " Blackball Rocks" Hotel, which has the advantage of being 
within ten minutes of some of the best ground for the various forms of 
A. iiii'ilnit for which this coast is remarkable, and is in fact the only 
place in which it is at all possible to stay. 1 had been kindly furnished 
by Mr. J. H. Harrison with a plan of the coast, pointing out all the 
available denes and telling me which forms I might hope to find in 
each. Here again the weather was very bad, some days being hopeless 
from morning till night, but I was fortunate enough to get some very 
nice forms, almost all in the dene nearest to the hotel, some ten 
minutes' walk to the north of it. I made two expeditions to the three 
northernmost denes (about three miles ott"), of which Mr. Harrison 
spoke very highly, but on each occasion only saw one worn specimen 
in the second dene, and none at all in either of the others. These 
denes, at this time of year at any rate, contain four species of butter- 
flies only: — P. icani.s, A. tiwilon, ( '. pampliiliis, smd /•,'. ,/Nr///)rt, except 
for a very occasional Atilais uiticac. P. irarus is really magnificent 
both in size and colour, the S s reminding one, on the upperside, of 
the specimens from Central Italy, but the 2 s are all considerably 
sufi'used with blue, which I have never seen in Central Italian speci- 
mens. Stephens' definition of lut'ihin var. sabnaris is most unfortunate, 
as the white discoidal on the forewings is certainly commoner in the 
S (ab. aiiiiilis) than in the $ . Many of the specimens of this species 
here are simply small A. inedon, with a slight tendency towards 
obsolescence of the spots on the underside hindwing. White ^;cales 
around a black discoidal (so frefjuently, and (^[uite erroneously, referred 
to as var. .sN////rtr/,s, the original description of which absolutely excludes 
such specimens) did not very freq\iently appear, though it occurred in 
both sexes, but I obtained three magnificent examples of ab. rcilrae, 



220 THE entomologist's record. 

one being- of the extreme form in which the central row of spots is 
entirely wanting on the fore- as well as the hindwings, and also several 
well-marked examples of ab. xemi-reih-ae : I also took a lovely little 
example of ab. iiirlora in which both fore and hindwings are of the 
form cnsta-jinirta. 1 took two good specimens, J and $ , of Aihcita 
(jeriji^i on the 26th, but saw no more. Deneholm and Castle Eden 
Dene are entirely in possession of the military, and quite inaccessible; 
moreover, just now the inhabitants of Blackball Colliery Village — at 
any rate the boys — are spy-mad, and my sister-in-law. Miss Swaine 
(well-known to many entomologists), being taken by them for a 
German spy, was, during my absence at the far denes, stoned for 
nearly half a mile along the beach with missiles as large as one's 
fist ; fortunately, however, their aim was a bad as their manners, and 
she escaped unhit. We remained a week at Blackball, and on Friday, 
July 30th. left for Kinghorn on the coast of Fife. This is also in the 
hands oi;' the military, and admission to the shore, on the way to which 
is the best place for A. merlon var. arta.rer.rea, is only to be gained bj' a, 
pass, which I was unable to secure till 8 p.m. on Saturday, which was 
very unfortunate, as the only sunny hour was latish on Saturday after- 
noon. It Avas not till my last day there, the following Wednesday, 
that I had a chance of trying again ; on that day I took five — all I 
saw — but they were rather past their prime. This was remarkable, as 
the Fife coast is generally about a fortnight later than the Durham 
localities. Mr. Harrison, who kindly furnished me with plans of the 
Kinghorn localities also, warned me that I should be late at Durham, 
but just right at Kinghorn, whereas almost all the Durham specimens 
were absolutely fresh, while all 1 saw at Kinghorn were the worse for 
wear. At Kinghorn I also took a few^ I!i(uii<ia ji/daeas, and one or two 
other common species, but the great catch of this locality consists of 
the magnificent race of ricris nain', which was very common even on 
bad days and mostly very fresh. These are rather large and very 
heavily marked, having streaks of black from the spots of the forewings 
to the outer margin, like I', manni var. rossii, the 2 s with heavy grey 
sufi'asion, especially at the base and along the inner margin of the 
forewings, yet not resembling var. hnjoniae, since the ground colour is 
not yellow and the hindwings are without suffusion, which is also very 
slight along the nervures of the forewings when present at all. 

I returned home on August 6th and have since taken two day 
excursions. On August 11th, I managed to put in three hours at 
Royston. Here two points struck me ; the vastly greater proportion 
of S s of Agriades coridim. than I have ever seen there before, 
amounting in some spots to half the specimens, and the number of 
$ s which had little or no blue on them ; ab. seii)i>ii/)i;iraj)lia was there, 
and of course intermediates, but the proportion of the latter was much 
less than usual. Mr. G. L. Keynes, and I think Dr. J. N. Keynes also, 
have expressed an opinion that these blue forms are commoner among 
the later emergences. Judging from the condition of the J s, I should 
S3,y the species had only recently appeared ; it would be interesting to 
know whether anyone collecting there towards the end of the month 
had found the blue forms commoner. My other expedition was on 
August 13th when I went by train to Horsley and walked over the 
downs to Gomshall. The second brood of Cela.strina ar<iiulnii was 
common in the wood towards the top of the downs, P. icarus was well 



THK TYPE OF CAMPONOTUS (mYRMOTURHa) MACULATUS, F. 221 

out, the 2 s varying from quite brown to quite blue, A. cnrilnn was 
abundant, but the second brood of A. jiiedoii was only just beginning 
to emerge, and there was no sign as yet of A. thetis. (i. rhannii, H. 
xciiirle and 11. jildaeas were present but not in numbers, and (-'. 
jiauii'hilKs was common. The second brood of A. thetis is only 
following the example of the first this year, as is natural, in the 
lateness of its appearance as I saw not a single specimen of it when 
1 was in the same locality towards the middle of June, and I have 
heard of similar experiences this year on the part of other collectors. 



The Type of Camponotus (Myrmoturba) maculatus, F. 

By H. DONLSTHOIIPE, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 
Dr. F. Santschi having asked me to examine and redescribe the 
insect named by Fabricius— /''nr////V« inandata — I have now done so. 
The ant in question is in the Banks' Collection at the British Museum 
(Natural History); it is labelled " Africa," and judging from what is 
known of ihe localities whence the specimens in the Banks' collection 
came, it probably came from Sierra Leone, or near by on the West 
Coast. 

Description. 

2| Head above and below, mandibles, and scapes of antennae 
black: /»?//.■;/// ^^.s/dm-^/.s (unfortunately both tips of the antennae are 
mi.ssing). Thorax yellow beneath; pronotum, m.esonotum. scutel- 
lura, and epinotum anteriorly, blackish-brown. Legs yellow, tihiac and 
tarsi blackish hinirn. Scale yellow; gaster with first three segments 
with broad triangular blackish patches in centre of dorsum, with 
narrow yellow patches on each side ; extreme apical edges of segments 
yellow. 

The puncturation of the head and body is very fine and close, that 
of the gaster being rather finer. Towards the base and on the 
declivity of the epinotum the puncturation runs transversely in a 
circular manner. (The specimen is somewhat dirty, and dull with 
age, which makes it difiiculc to describe the puncturation very 
accurately.) 

Head broader posteriorly, without any outstanding hairs beneath ; 
clypeus a little longer than broad, strongly carinate in centre, with 
bluntly pointed side flaps, and a row of nine bristles on anterior 
border ; mandibles with seven teeth on terminal border the apical one 
being long ; frontal carinae with distinct raised ridges, gradually 
divergent, then rounded and convergent ; frontal furrow distinct ; 
cheeks without outstanding hairs. 

Thorax : pronotum with long yellow outstanding hairs; scutellum 
distinct, nearly twice as broad as long; epinotum narrow, without 
outstanding hairs, declivity not steep. Posterior tibije on apical half 
of posterior ventral surface (inner border of underside) furnished irith 
a nnr nf /ire or si.e short hristies (one anterior leg and the two inter- 
mediate legs are missing). 

Scale narrowest at apex, not as high as epinotum, furnished with 
four outstanding hairs; gaster with rows of strong yellow outstanding 
hairs on apex and base of segments. Long, about 12inm. 

Original description of hnnnira muridut.i. Fabricius 'N/'.* •. /*/.s., 1, 
491(1781)1:— 



222 THE entomologist's record. 

" F. nigra, thorace postice femoribusque ferrugineis, abdomine 
pallido maculate. 

Habitat in Africa tequinoctiali. J/».s. l),,w. Banks. 

Media. Caput magnum, atrum maxillis breuibus, multidentatis. 
Antennae apice piceae. Thorax compressus, antice niger, postice ferru- 
gineus. Abdomen ouatum, pilosum, nigrum lateribus pallido macu- 
latis. Pedes nigri femoribus ferrugineis." 

Fabricius was evidently in error when he wrote " antennae apice 
piceae," and really meant the scapes. 

The form of maculatns with yellow tibiae from Egypt was considered 
until recently to be the type, but as we now see this is not the case, 
and, as Santschi has pointed out to me, this form [i.e., the one with 
yellow tibiae) will have to be renamed. 

The niacnlatiis group (sub-genus l\h/nii<ititrba, Forel) is a very large 
one, and ranges over the greater part of the A^orld. Specimens recently 
given to me by Beck, which be captured in Madagascar, have been 
named by Forel — Caniponotas (Mi/nnutiirba) macidatus, sub-sp. radamae 
var. hecki, and others given to me by Williams, which he took at 
Guadeloupe, Forel has named Caiiiponotus [Mi/Diiotiirba) niaciihitiis, 
sub.-sp. cunsjiiciiiis var. u-illiaiiixi. 



The Upper Engadine in 1914. 

By H. J. TUKNER, F.E.S. 
{Continued from page 168.) 

The early morning of July 29th had a doubtful look, and having 
had two strenuous days, we decided to remain in the near neighbour- 
hood of St. Moritz and enjoy some of the many lovely walks in the 
pine woods, picking up whatever insects we might incidentally come 
across. The forests of the district are chiefly of larch and the more 
local stone-pine, Finns cenihrcw. The cones of the latter furnish the 
now well-known " pine-kernels," which have a pleasant flavour, an^ 
have gained some medicinal reputation. In many parts of the Aif^ 
of Europe the line of tree limit is but little above 6,000ft., but here it 
extends to over 7,000ft. 

On the south-west side of the village of St. Moritz the steep- 
wooded slopes are known as the Alpina, Upper and Lower, and are 
threaded by numerous paths giving access to various admirable spots 
for insect colonies, while at the top, the tree limit, is a small undu- 
lating area of heather-clad ground (a somewhat rare occurrence in the 
Alps), where many species of butterflies and moths are always 
obtainable. This area was our morning ramble. It was dull weather, 
with intermittent sun, and decidedly cool. In fact, one wants to be 
ready for any variation of weather and temperature in the Engadine. 
The natives say that they have " nine months winter and three 
months cold," a terse way of expressing a desire which may not be 
above possible realisation. Probably no part of the neighbourhood is 
more varied in its flora than these slopes. Possibly the most attrac- 
tive flower to meet was the Martagon Lily. There is a consider- 
able quantity of Fennel scattered over the slopes, and Pa/iiUu inachaon 
was looked for, but not met with in any stage. That it occurs here, I 
know, as in^l907 I met with it in some numbers. The beautiful 
Paniassins apollo butterfly was also very abundant on these slopes in 



THE UPPER ENGADINK IN lOU. 223 

that year, but on this occasion only one was seen. Wherever there 
were overhanging banks, plenty of Gnophids could be disturbed, they 
were also abundant on the scattered boulders and exposed cliff sur- 
faces. In a shaded watercourse hidden by the large leaves of the 
Coltsfoot (Tiissilafio farfara) was a colony of Acijitilia i/ouDilacti/la. A 
few Header hippotho'e occurred of a smaller race than those met with 
on the previous day at Alp Grum, and with no trace of discoidal spots 
in the males. F.rehia cnri/ale, so extremely abundant on the same 
date in 1907, was seen to-day for the first time, one specimen only. 
In fact, during the whole of my stay I rarely saw more than one in 
places where I had been able to sweep up at least a dozen at once on 
the previous visit. Plehciiis anijjyof/nonion here was a small race, and 
on this date mainly females, some of which had only a trace of the 
orange markings on the hind-margin of the upperside of the hind- 
wings. A few ddlias pltiromone were about, but worn. Xanthorlio'e 
iiiontanata, a remnant of earlier date, could be disturbed. Scoparia 
$ii(h'tica and Cnephasia osseana (prataua) were kicked up from the 
undergrowth. Brent/ds pales was always in evidence, as it was during 
my whole stay, and in every place visited, of course, in much variety 
as to the underside of hindwings. The beautiful little deep yellow 
Geometer Aridalia fiareolaria was everywhere. Alhnlina pheretes, the 
deep velvety blue Lyca-nid, was worn, and Poli/uimiiatiis ivarus was 
noted sparingly, the females being scarce. The walk back to the hotel 
was by a steep, and now unfrequented, path where the rock-rose 
{Ih'liantheiini.ii vnl(iare) was in profusion showing its delicate yellow 
flowers, with the Tormentil rivalling it in places. Still, this abundance 
did not remove the general impression already gained that at the time 
the dominant flowers both in number and species were Leguminous. 

The afternoon seemed to intensify in dullness, and at times became 
showery, so that the collecting resolved itself into searching flower 
heads, disturbing herbage and pine foliage, and examining tree-trunks. 
The last, a very unproductive task, as nowhere have I found things so 
wary. Before reaching even net- length distance from the trees the 
settlers invariably scattered in all directions. The upper Campfer 
road was taken, past the beautiful figure, " The Apotheosis of the 
Snow," a monument erected to the memory of the artist Segantini, 
many of whosa works are to be seen in the curious circular, tower-like 
museum on the opposite side of the road. This time, upon reaching 
the cemetery, the path to the left of the road was followed, through 
the thickly-wooded crest of the old moraine, which here crosses the 
valley, past the now deserted Villa Story to the lower Maloya road 
near the village of Campfer. In a boggy portion to the left of this 
path is a very good spot for collecting, and around here one again 
meets with heather. In the bog itself a large mass of conspicuously 
white rock has been unearthed, of quite different character to any 
rock I have met with elsewhere. Other smaller portions he around. 
They have evidently attracted some attention, as they have been 
trenched around, but I have been unable to trace any particulars as to 
their origin and purport. The seed spikes of an Orchis, (hc/iis uiant- 
lata (■?), were in abundance hereabouts. 

Upon reaching the road which leads back to St. Moritz Bad a few 
spots of rain fell and close attention was paid to the roadside flower- 
heads, which here were tenanted by large numbers of insects resting 



224 THE entomologist's record. 

or preparing to take shelter. This was particularly the case with the 
sheep's bit Scabious {Jasionc moutana) every head of which had 
hanging to its underside one or more Lyctenids. I'nlj^niiniiatiis icarns, 
A,ricia medon var. alpina, the hindwings either without or almost 
without orange lunules, Plebeius aim/ronnoxion, etc., were particularly 
noticeable. Hesperids of the Hesjien'a alveiis group were quite 
inconspicuous on the brown and darkening heads of the common 
Yarrow [Achillea willefoUion) and apparently well protected. Plenty 
of Antltrocera HUiiendulae were clustered on heads of Knapweed, etc., 
and among them a few of the high mountain form of Aihcita r/eryon, 
with an odd example of Anthrocera piirjinralis. From one head was 
taken a very fine underside aberration of Aijriades coridon, a male, in 
which there is no trace of any spots on the disc of all the wings, there 
being a diminished series of submarginal dark blotches on the fore- 
wings and very obsolescent submarginal markings on the hindwings, 
the place of the submarginal deficiencies being largely covered by 
almost white scaling ; the discoidal spot in the forewings was well 
marked, that of the hindwings was a conspicuous white blotch ; the 
white wedge mark of the hindwings was also quite conspicuous. This 
is the form called ab. corydonis by Bergstrasser and figured on Plate 
II., British Lepidojitera, vol. xi. (Brit. Butt., vol. iv.), J. W. Tutt, and 
referred to and described, loc. cit. p. 85. It differs in the forewing 
markings being somewhat less emphasised than in the figures. Mixed 
with the "blues" were several very small specimens of Krebia 
melampiifi, no larger than the C. sati/rion ab. unicolnf among which 
they were sitting, an example of Aricia einnedon, a number of A;/ rot is 
ocellina, and several Botys aerealis. On the tree trunks at the back of 
the road-slopes were plenty of the wary Blntephria fiavicinrtata and an 
odd specimen of (rnophos ylatirinaria. A tap on the branches of the 
pines showed where the Satyrid was roosting, while the grass stems 
produced Crambiis fi(rcatelliis, and one or two " plumes." I find that 
I have a specimen of Acidalia iiuihelaria taken in this spot. What 
perhaps was the most striking incident of the afternoon's walk, when 
the shower began in earnest, was the assemblage of great numbers 
of Cleoyene lutearia on the conspicuously coloured, large heads of the 
Mountain Bistort [Polyyanuin riripannii) which grew abundantly in a 
pasture, as it usually does in alpine pasture, by the road-side. Thousands 
of this brilliant yellow geometer could easily have been taken. 

On July 30th some friends were intending to go over the ridge of 
mountains facing St. Moritz, by the Fuorcla Surlej, 9,055 ft., pass 
down into the Rosegg Valley and thence to Pontresina. As the 
Haanen See, a spot we much wished to visit, was on their way up we 
decided to accompany them thus far. The morning was again doubtful 
with intermittent sun, which allowed only fair collecting as it became 
colder with more wind. There are several ways of gettmg up to the 
See, about 7,070 ft., which is just at the tree-limit. The path chosen 
was that at the back of the Protestant Church in St. Moritz Bad, 
which leads by gentle ascents in the woods to the Johannisberg, and 
thence on the left by steep zigzags to the lake and its restaurant. 

The Haanen See is a very small affair, situated curiously on a pro- 
jecting portion of the mountain with steep declivities on three sides. 
Here I expected to get arsilaclie, but found the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the lake very barren. Brenthis pales was in very small 



THE UPPER ENGADINE IN 1914. 225 

numbers and quite typical, and with one of two dragonHies were the 
only Insecta around the lake. There were several nests of the social 
larvie of l^iioi/aster arbiiscidae stretched on the surface of which were 
the inhabitants, all of them on the slightest provocation, even a 
shadow, jerking their heads and thoracic segments to and fro very 
rapidly. Presumably these inovemenis were for protection against 
possil)le attack by ichneumons, but 1 should infer that it was not 
always very efficacious, for some larvte that I took to rear all produced 
Dipterous parasites. Around this lake were a few shrubs of ArctoNta- 
p/n/llos iir.^-iirsi with the last of the Howers still remaining, and subse- 
quently 1 took several specimens of the dusky little Geometer whose 
larv;e are attached to this plant only in the highest Alps and in 
Norway and Lapland, Pijtniiaena fiinca. They were all males and from 
ignorance 1 omitted to search for the curious short-winged, long- 
bodied females. This species is closely allied to the genus I 'sodas. 

A move was made across the low rocky ridge to a piece of boggy 
ground on the southern slope of the spur and here ('(dias palucno was 
careering wildly up and down. Olie male and a white form of the 
female were captured with some difficulty. Plebeins ariiiiniiniomnn and 
Coenoni/iiipha satijrion w^ere both observed. Several Botijs alpinalis, 
one I'l/raiista rhodudend rail's, and a specimen of Mditaea aiirinia var. 
iiierttjie occurred, the last somewhat larger than usual in this form. 
Several species of the beautiful blue Gentians were still in flower here, 
including the large Gmitiana acaiiUs; and a large flowered species of 
pansy, which I have not identified, was observed. 

A short rest for refreshment gave one a chance to enjoy the glorious 
view from this coign of vantage, quite 1,100ft. above the valley below, 
and just an opposite view to that described from the Suvretta path on 
the other side of the valley. On the right the Alps on the western 
side of the Lower Engadine stretching away to the Austrian frontier, 
nearer the peaks Piz Ot and Piz Nair, in front the wild and lonely 
Suvretta Thai, Pfz Albana, and behind it Piz Julier with its snowy 
crests, then to the left the cross valley leading to the Julier Pass, and 
then the Alps leading on to the Maloya Pass with the Italian frontier 
mountains beyond. The lakes of the long valley of the Upper 
Engadine are seen from here to much better advantage than from the 
other side, St. Moritz, Campfer, Silvaplana, and Sils make Jinks in a 
chain of delightful blue, spotted here and there with reflections of the 
white clouds above and of the dark green foliage of the pines around. 
The road to the Maloya Pass can be distinguished for miles as it winds 
its way, alongside the lakes for the most part, diverging at one place 
only to cross between Silser See and Silvaplaner See to Sils Maria at 
the entrance of the famous Fex-thal. 

Before returning, a small colony of the delicate Lycaenid, Latioiina 
orbitnlus, was discovered and a short series was taken, including an 
aberrant female in which there were two rows of submarginal blotches 
on the forewings. These blotches appear as if they were suppressed 
spots of a different texture scaling to the rest of the general ground 
colour, and somew-hat lighter when seen at some angles. Some of the 
specimens were already getting worn, while others were quite fresh. 
On the way down l-'.rcbia (i/inlarns was the only insect met with and 
that one got by disturbing it from its roosting places in the pine trees. 
The undersides were mostly dusky, only one had a unifornily light 



226 THE ENTOMOl-OGIST S RECORD. 

surface beneath, and one example taken had only a single spot in the 
apex of the forewing. I took several specimens of an Krehia which at 
the time I did not identify. They are small and about the size of K. 
melaiDjnis, one appears to be a small form of incnito from what remnants 
of markings there are and from the general shape of the wings, com- 
parable to the form obtainable near Guarda, Lower Engadine, the 
others appear to be forms of K. epiphion var. nelaunia with an approach 
to the nhsoleta form of Tutt. 

The absence of sun now became complete and one felt quite chilly 
when not moving. An abundance of Afilais iirticae larvae were seen on 
the edge of the marshy ground near the lake, in number quite too 
numerous for the available quantity of nettles. It is remarkable how 
often in the Alps one meets with the larvfe of the " tortoisehell " in 
similar difficulties as to its food. At the moment one recalls to mind 
a huge colony of the larvre near the foot of the path familiar to all 
climbers of Mt. Blanc from Chamonix, where it was utterly impossible 
for all but the most ravenous few to attain the pupal stage, and 
another going up towards the little Ghedina lakes above Cortina in 
the Austrian Tyrol, where the larvae were dying in numbers with only 
an odd chrysalis or two on objects around the devastated nettle-bed. 

(To he continued.) 



Bibliography ot books and articles in which the Genitalia of the 
Lepidoptera are considered and discussed, or used as the 
basis of the subject matter. 

Compiled by Hy. J. TURNER, F.E.S. 
{Continued from page 1.37.) 

1898. Chapman, Dr. T. A. — A note on the action of the Clasps in 

Erehia. Ent. Rec, vol. x., p. 307. London. 

1898. OuDEMANs, J. H. — Over de reductie, welk'e de vrouwelijke 

geslachtsorganen der Lepidoptera ondergan. 2'?W. Ned. 

Dier. Ver., vol. xx., p. Ixix., pit. 5. Leyden. 

1898. HoFMANN, Dr. 0. — Die Orneodiden (Alucitiden) des paliiarkti- 

schen Gebietes. Iris, vol. xi., pp. 329-359., pit. 5. 

Dresden. 
1898. ScHULTz, Oskar. — tlber den anatomischen Refund des 

Geschlechtsapparates zweier gynandromorpher Lepidopteren 

{Siiwrijithiis poinili und Vcotessa (oitiopa). Jicr. Ent. Zeit., 

vol. xliii., pp. 409-414. Berlin. 

1898. Packard, Dr. A. S.— A Text-book of Entomology. (The 

Organs of Keproduction), pp. 485-513, figs. 458-481. 

New York. 
1898. Walsingham, The Right Hon. Lord [and John H. Durrant] . — 

Lozn/iera francillonana, F., compared with its allies. Pint. 

Mu. Ma;/., vol. xxxiv. (ix), pp. 70-76, pit. ii. London. 

1898. Bacot, a. [and F. N. Pierce] . — Notes on a Hybrid Siin'rint/tKs 

l>o/nili-<)cellatiifi. Knt. Jlec, vol. x., pp. 188-190, pit. iii. 

London. 
1898. Chapman, Dr. T. A. — A review of the genus Erehia, based on 

an Examination of the Male Appendages. Trans. Ent. 

Soc. Land., pp. 209-240, pits, v.-xvi. London. 



BIHLIOGRAPHY OF BOOKS, ETC. 227 

1899. Stichel, H. — Kritische Bemerkungen liber die Artberechtigung 
der hjchmett. ('atunejilielt' und Xrssaea. lieil. Hut. Zeit., 
p}). 1-48, 5 figs., pit. i. Berlin. 

1899. TiTT, J. W. [1)ATES0N, Prof. W.j — I)ritiyh Lepidoptera, 

Anthrocerid species. Vol. i., pp. 420-422. London. 

1900. Wood, Dr. J. H. — On the Larviu, Habits, and Structure of 

Lit/tocolletis concoiiiitella, Bnks., and its nearest Allies. Ivnt, 
Mo. Mo;/., vol. xxxvi. (xi.)., Male Genital Appendages, pp. 
70-75, 9 figs. ,, London. 

1900. Bastelberger, Dr. — Uber Genitalanhilnge der Maunchen uns. 
europ. Zonosoiiia — i'ormen. /;/.s., vol. xiii., pp. 78-94, 
pits. 2, B. Dresden. 

1900. Klinkhardt, ^'ICTOK. — BeitrRge zur ]\Iorphologie und Morpho- 
genie des Mimnlichen Genitalapparates der Bhopaloceren. 
82 pp., 2 pits. Leipzig. 

1900. Schroder, Dr. Chr. — Die Untersuchnng der mannlichen Geni- 
talanhilnge als Kriterium fiir die Artberechtigung iin Genus 
Kii}iitheria. III. Zeit. Hnt., Vol. v., pp. 805-807, 1 text fig. 

Neudamm. 

1900. Cholodkovsky, Prof. N. — I'ber den Geschlechtsapparat von 
Farnassiiis )inieui<ixi/)if. III. Zeit. H)it., vol. v., pp. 70-72, 
1 fig. Neudamm. 

1900. Petersen, Dr. Wilh. — ^Beitrage zur Morphologie de Lepidop- 
teren. Mem. de VAcad. St. I'etershunj, vol. ix., 144 pp., 
4 pits. St. Petersburg. 

1900. TuTT, J. W. — The connection between Primary and Secondary 
Sexual Characters in Lepidoptera. K)it. tlword, vol. xii., 
pp. 199-202. London. 

1900. Stitz, H. — Der Genitalapparat der Mikrolepidopteren. Der 

mannliche Genital apparat. . Zoo. Jahr., Vol. xiv., pp. 185- 
176. pits. 7-11. Jena. 

1901. Dyar, Harrison G. — Notes on the genitalia of Haliaidota 

hanisii. Can. Knt., vol. xxxiii., p. 80, 2 figs. Ontario. 
1901. Smith, J. B. — Contributions towards a Monograph of the North 

American Xoctiiidae : Xijlina. Trans. Am. F.nt. Soe., vol. 

xxvii., 46 pp., 5 pits. Philadelphia. 

1901. Petersen, Dr. Wilh. — Zur Morphogenese der doppelten Bursa 

copulatrix bei Schmetterlingen. All. Zeit. Knt., vol. 6, pp. 

323-325, 4 figs. Neudamm. 

1001. Pul.ianec, Leopold. — Zur Morphologie der iiusseren Geschlechts- 

organe bei den miinnlicben Lepidopteren. Arb. znol. Inst. 

Wien., vol. xiii., pp. 155-196, 8 pits., 5 figs. Vienna. 

1901. Stitz, H. — Der Genitalapparat der Microlepido[)teren. 11. 

Der weibliche Genitalapparat. Z(uji. Jahrb., vol. xv., pp. 
885-484, pits, xx.-xxiv. Jena. 

1902. Chapman, Dr. T. A. — On Asymmetry in the Males of Hemarine 

and other Sphinges. Tranx. hint. Sne. Lnnd., pp. 679-692, 

pits, xxiv.-xxv. London. 

1902. Ti-tt, J. W. [Pierce, F. N.J —British Lepidoptera, vol. iii., 

Amiji(ihinae, p. 390. London. 

1902. Stichel, H. — Kritische Bemerkungen fiber die Artberechtigung 

der Schmetterlinge. Die Gattung Pisru/i/iora. Iris, vol. 

XV., pp. 60-95, pits. i. and ii., and 2 figs. Dresden. 



228 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

1902. Schroder, Dr. Chr. — Die Untersuchung der miinnlichen Geni- 
talhiinge als Kriterium fur die Ai'fcberechtiguDg im Genus 
Kii/iithecia, Curt. AU. Zeit. Ent., vol. vii., pp. 526-529, 
figs. 1-9. Neudamm. 

1902. Grunberg, K. — Untersuchungen liberdie Keim-und Nahrzellen 
in den Hoden und Ovarien der Lei)idopteren. Zoul. 
Anzeiijer, vol. xxvi., pp. 131-142, 4 figs. Leipzic. 

1902. [Hendel, Fried. — Wird die Art durch die Form der sekundilren 
Genitalorgane abgestempelt ? Wien. Ent. Zeit.,\'o\. xxi., 
pp. 83, etc., 5 pits. Vienna.] 

1902. Smith, J. B. — Contributions towards a Monograph of the Lepi- 

dopterous Familj^ 'Soctuidae of British North America. A 
Revision of the genus Leurania, etc. Proc U.S. Xat. Mns., 
Vol. XXV., pp. 159-200, pits. 5-6. Washington. 

1903. Pierce, F. N. — Specific differences in Lithosii/Jae, as deter- 

mined by Structure of Genitalia. Ent., vol. xxxvi,, pp. 

81-86, pit. 1. London. 

1903. Stitz, H. — -Zum Genitalapparat der Lepidopteren. Zool. 

Anzeif/er., vol. 27, pp. 135-137. Leipzic. 

1903. Petersen, Wilh. — Entstehung der Arten durch physiologische 

Isolierung. Biol. Centrlb., vol. 23, pp. 468-477. Leipzig. 
1903. Smith, J. B. — A Revision of the Boreal-American species of 

Xonaj/ria, Ochs. I'mr. Ent. Soc, Wash., vol. v. pp. 311-321, 

pit. V. Washington. 

1903. Smith, J. B.— New Noctuids for 1903, etc. No. 2. Jr. Xew 

Ydik Ent. Soc, vol. xi., pp. 1-23, pit. 1. New, York. 

1903. Smith, J. B.— New Noctuids for 1903, etc. No. 8. ''an. Ent., 

vol. XXXV., pp. 127-138, pit. 4. Ontario. 

1903. Smith, J. B. — New Noctuids for 1903, etc. No. 4. Trana. 

Am. Ent. Soc, vol. xxix., pp. 191-224, pit. iii. 

Philadelphia. 
1903. Zander, E. — Beitrage zur Morphologie der miinniichen 

Geschlechtsanhiinge der Lepidopteren. Zeit. iris^. Zool., 

vol. Ixxiv. pp. 557-615, pit. xxix, Leipzic. 

1903. Rothschild and Jordan. — Bevision of the Spliinijidae (Intro- 

iliictinn), vol. i., pp. Ixsvii.-Ixxxvii., 1 fig., pits, xv.-lix. 

London. 

1904. Petersen, Wilh. — -Uber inditt'erente Charaktere als Artmerk- 

male. Biol. Cent., vol. xxiv, pp. 423-473. London. 

1904. Zander, E. — Zum Genitalapparat der Lepidopteren. Zool. 
Anz., vol. xxviii., pp. 182-186. Leipzig. 

1904. Verson, Enrico. — Di segni estern atti a rivelare nel Bombyx 
i/iori il sesso della larva. Anniiar. Sta-:. hac, vol. xxxii., 
pp. 125-130. Padue. 

1904. Grinnell, Fordyce. — A New 'Ihanaos from Southern Cali- 
fornia. Ent. Neirx., vol. xv., pp. 114-115, 3 flgs. 

Philadelphia. 

1904. Grunberg, K. — Untersuchungen fiber die Keim-und Nahrzellen 
in den Hoden und Ovarien der Lepidopteren. Zeit. /'. wiss. 
Znnl., vol. 74, pp. 327-395, 3 pits. Leipzic. 

1901. Petersen, Wilh. — Die Morphologie der Generationsorgane der 
Schmetterlinge und. ihre Bedeutung fiir die Artbildung. 
Mem. Acad. St. Peters., vol. xvi., ser. 7, 84 pp., 64 figs. 

St. Petersburg. 



NEUROPTKRA. 229 

1905. Petkrs?:n, Wilh. — I'ber die Bedentung der Generationsorgane 
fur die Entstehnng der Arten. Com. licii'l. Gth Coiui. int. 
ZnoL, pp. 213-224^ iWi-ne. 

1905. Petersen, Wilh.- Ziu- ]''rage der Geschlechtswitterung bei 
Raupen. Knt. Zcit. (Gabeii), vol. xix., pp. 20, 22-23. 

Gil ben. 
1905, -Jordan, K. — Note on a peculiar secondary sexual character 
found among Gefniiftridai' at the sensory organ .-iituated at 
the base of the abdomen. .Vor. Znol., vol. xii., pp. 506-508. 

Trmg. 
1905. Petersen, Wilh. — Ueber beginnende Art-Divergenz. ArcJi. f. 
Bass. 11)1(1 Gi'ssells.-BioL, vol. ii., pp. 641-6G2. Berlin. 

(To he concluded.) 



EUROPTERA. 

Pterodela livida, Enderlein, a Psocid new to the British Fauna. 

(./'>• 1-5). 
By RICHAUD S. BAGNALL, F.L.S., F.ES. 

Whilst I cannot pretend to have made a study of the Psnciilae I 
have taken sufficient interest in the group to tempt me to gather 
together a certain amount of literature on the European species. 

One day in July I had the opportunity of spending a couple of 
hours in Whittle Dene, near Ovmgham-on-Tyne, accompanied by 
Prof. Hudson Beare. Our visit was planned in the hopes of securing 
imagines of an unknown thrips, of which I had discovered the very 
distinctive larvte upon hazel a couple of months previously. There 
was no sign of this thrips, however, either larval or imaginal, though 
the readily recognised red and white banded larvae of Ha/dnthriiis 
obsciirijiennis, Bagnall, turned up, being previously known from the 
Oxford district, where it is not really uncommon, and widely distri- 
buted. 

I bottled an interesting Hemipteron and several Psocids, especially 
minute forms, including a light yellow I'ti'rodela, which I thought 
might be referable to Pteroilcla liiiila. The specimen was luckily a 
c? , and examination in a rough glycerine mount proved at once that 
it was undoubtedly referable to that species, described by Dr. Gunther 
Enderlein from Gohren, in Riigen Island, Prussia. 

Pterodela liviua, Enderlein. 

Zool. Ja/irb., xviii. Abth. f. Syst., 1903, p. 374, pi. 3, 4, 6 and 9. 

This species, together with /'. (jKerciis, Kolbe, differs from the well- 
known /'. pcdicidaiid, L., of which specimens are running about on 
the curtain and window-sill as I write, by the type of gonapophysis in 
the J , the latter having this organ roundly curved in the form of a 
crook, and simple at apex instead of bifurcate as in the former. 

/'. lirida is a shade smaller (length of forewiug l-5mm.-l-6mm.) 
than /'. jifdiritlaria, and_ distinctly smaller than 1'. ijucn-Ks, and differs 
from both in its light yellow coloration ; the wings are hyaline with 
light yellow veins, and from P. tjiiercits, apart from size, colour and 
general appearance, /'. livida is at once se]J)arable by the form of the 



230 THE entomologist's record. 

gonapophyses and valva, as will be seen from the accompanying rough 
figures. 

Habitat. Northumbekland, Ovingham, 1 <? from oak, Julv, 1915. 







1. P. pedicularia <j Gonapophysis. 8. P. quercfis cT Valva. 

2. P. (luercns S ,, 4. P. livida s Gonapophysis. 

5. P. livida cT Valva. 
X 160 (rtiiuili tiketchcs after Enderlein.) 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The Pine Processionary Caterpillar. — Dr. Chapman's theory as 
to the reason why the larvae of this species spin their cocoons in a 
bunch seems plausible enough, but why should the larvfe of Aphomia 
soridla and of the iliijiiynnmeuta group adopt a similar plan, although 
not protected by urticating hairs? The Aphnmia is parasitic on bees 
and wasps, but sometimes at least wanders from the nest when ready 
to pupate, and the cocoons are clustered ; see l\nt. Mo. Ma//., March, 
1895, and August, 1896, for two detailed accounts of this species ; also 
Ent. Piec, February, 1896, and October, 1896, for additional notes on 
the clustering habit. Hypnnomcuta, on the other hand, is not parasitic, 
and the larvse spin their cocoons in company in their nest. Is it pos- 
sible that the clustering habit deters mice in the former case and birds 
in the latter from attacking the cocoons ? or at least serves a useful 
purpose in making the foe too disgusted at the trouble of getting at 
the outer pup* to persevere until it reached the inner ones ? If so the 
inner and more numerous pupa? would always be preserved at the 
expense of the few outer ones which were devoured. It is noteworthy 
in this connection that the cocoons of A/ihomia are stated to be exceed- 
ingly tough, and that the larva^ appear to possess a rudimentary pro- 
cessionary habit in spinning together aicay fmiii the vest in ichich t/iet/ 
fed. — -C. Nicholson, Hale End, Chingford. 



li»^OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

Notes from S. Essex. — Although my collecting during the past 
few years has practically ceased, I cannot of course pass over Lepi- 
doptera which force themselves upon my notice. This noon I found a 
quite fresh male specimen of lunjonia autituinaria at rest low down on 



NOTES ON COLLECTING. 231 

a gate-post. It is in perfect condition and appears not to have flown. 
This is the second specimen which I have taken in my garden. The 
other was a female which tlew to my large acetylene lamp, on August 
22nd, 1911. Three times this year I have seen Pi/iameis canhii. Two 
specimens, much wasted, in the early summer, and the third a few 
weeks since, in fresh condition. A lovely female Calamia latosa flew 
in to light in my study two nights ago. — C. R. N. Burrows, Mucking 
Vicarage. September 16f/(, 1915. 

CoLiAS EDUSA AT Chichestek. — This butterfly has occurred here 
very sparingly this season. Three were seen on August 17th, and one 
of them (a male) was captured on that date in a clover field at 
Halnaker, by my friend Mr. Humphry. I'l/raineis rardiii. was flying at 
the same time, and in September. ^.Joseph Anderson, Chichester. 
September '10th, 1915. 

Eastbourne in Mid-September. — During the meeting of the 
Entomological Club, on September 18th, a ramble under the clitt's and 
over the top of Beachy Head ati'orded those on collecting bent the 
opportunity of picking up a few odds and ends. Poh/nmmatiis icdnis, 
Aiiriailes t/teti.s and A. cori^loii were in some numbers flying in the sun, 
and on the undercliff were noted as early going to rest wherever the 
sun was too low to keep them lively by its rays. Pltmia (/ammo, 
Axpilates ochrearia [citraria) and Xnmafiliila UDctneUa {/i;/bri<lalis) were 
continually being stirred up from the herbage. Of course I'ieris rapae 
was about the gardens. The only Cramhns noted was C (jenicideits. 
Belated hlpniepliele jnrtina were in some numbers, while several species 
of ant were indulging in their marriage flights, wherever there were 
stretches of underclift", which had been sheltered from the wind for 
most of the afternoon. Frass on the footpaths of the roads in the 
neighbourhood of Meads betrayed the presence of the larvse of Vipjaera 
biirrpliala, and < elastriita (iri/ioliis was flitting around the ivy in suit- 
able spots, while f^r/////a antiijiia could be noticed darting hither and 
thither in the roadways. It was reported that < 'alius ediisa had been 
seen on the front during the morning, while Mr. Adkin exhibited the 
capture of the day, a living specimen of l^aUjijonia c-albiim, which had 
been taken in the garden shortly previous to the meeting. — H. J. T. 

Notes on Lepidoptera in North Wales. — At Barmouth in 
Merioneth, in September, the reigning butterfly was Pieris brassirae, 
we saw it flying along the sea coast, on the hills above the town and 
also half-way up Cader Idris. /'. napi was once seen, and once or 
twice we thought we saw /'. rapae but P. bras.sicae was everywhere. 
Vanessa in, Pi/rameis atalanta and /f//Z«t.s »>-f/ca6' were common especially 
where there was a clump of Kujiutoriiim eannabiniim by the way-side. 
Pararrp- meijaera accompanied us along the lanes, sunning itself on the 
rocks or hedge banks. Here and there Ridiiicia phlaeas and Pnlipnn- 
matiis icariis appeared as bright spots in the herbage. At Dovey 
Junction we saw a belated ? Unjns pap/iia on September 9th. On 
the stone walls we saw several beautiful specimens of I'<dia r/ii, they 
were all of the whitish form. Larvse of the following species were also 
observed : Pharetra [Aenmieta) riimieis, Sjiilosoma )iie)ithastri, S. litbri- 
i-ipeila, and PItalera bucepJiala. 

On September 8rd, by the waterfall at Tyn-y-Groes, I found three 
mines of Septimla septniibrella on Ih/periciim piilrlirnm. In these 
small leaves the larva at first makes a slender gallery and afterwards 



232 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



consumes the whole of the parenchyma. When the mine is completed 
the leaf assumes the shape of a small bladder, and in this the larvae 
pupates without leaving the mine. One mine of Lithocolleth alniella 
was found on alder and the imago appea,red a few days later. At 
Barmouth the mines of L. coniU and L. nicellii were found on hazel 
and those of Xejiticula planicolella on sloe and M. tri)iianilella on 
poplar also occurred. An ]%lac/iista of the obscnrella group was taken 
on the summit of Cader Idris (2929 feet) on September 7th and an 
imago of ('erostonia .rj/lostella was noted some height above Arthog. 
Perhaps the most interesting species observed was Nepticida tiliaf, two 
mines of which were found in the leaves of a lime tree overhanging 
the stream in the Torrent Walk at Dolgelley, on September 11th. 
When tenanted the mines are inconspicuous. Quite by chance the 
first was noticed and the leaf obtained. The next morning when 
examining the mine a second mine was discovered in the same leaf. 
The mine is much contorted at first but becomes bolder towards its 
termination. In the Fairy Glen near Bettws-y-Coed (Carnar- 
vonshire) several old mines of this species were seen on a lime similarly 
situated to that in the torrent walk but higher above the stream. It 
would seem therefore that this species prefers a shady situation near 
water. — A. Sich, Corney House, Chiswick, W. September 25th, 1915. 

ScYMNUs ARcuATus. — Frou) July 17th to September 5th I have taken 
over a hundred specimens of Sc!piinii:< arcuatiis, including five larvae 
and five pupae on old ivy at Stoner Park, Henley-on-Thames. They 
feed on the larva? of an Alenroiles. The male is easil}' distinguished by 
its white head. — (Rev.) .J. F. Perry. 

[One specimen of this interesting beetle was taken by Wollaston 
on August 10th, 1872 at Shenton Hall in Leicestershire, by sweeping 
old ivy. As he had previously taken it in abundance in Madeira, 
unfortunately some doubt was expressed about his capture. I have 
been to Shenton Hall (some time ago), and through the kindness of 
Lord Camoys and the Rev. J. F. Perry I have been able to take a 
series of ScyinniKs arcnatHs at Stoner Park, and the old ivy is growing 
under similar conditions in both localities. — Horace Donisthorpe. 



CURRENT NOTES AND SHORT NOTICES. 

The volume, Biiti>ih Ant>i, Their Life-Histnri/, and their Classiji^-ation, 
by our colleague Mr. H. Donisthorpe, was published last week. 

On Saturday, September 10th, a meeting of the Entomological 
Club took place at Hodeslea, the residence of the late Prof. Huxle}', 
with Mr. R. Adkin as host. There were present Mr. Adkin, in the 
chair, Messrs. Donisthorpe and G. T. Porritt, members, Mr. A. H. 
Jones, honorary member, R. South, hon. secretary, and Messrs. E. J. 
Bedford, W. L. Distant, A. E. Gibbs, E. P. Sharp, A. E. Tonge, and 
Hy. J. Turner. After lunch a long walk was taken over the downs of 
Beachy Head, where some of the guests made numerous captures. 
Tea was partaken of at the top of the downs, and a return to the house 
made in time for a meeting and discussion in the study where Huxley 
worked during the latter part of his life, and where his bookshelves 
still remain. Supper was served at seven o'clock, and after a day of 
delightful weather the meeting dispersed in time to give the guests, 
from a distance a late return home. 



CURRENT NOTES. 233 

During the summer months there has been a most interesting 
exhibition at the Zoological Society's Gardens, Regents Park, in con- 
nection with the campaign against the House-fiy. The pamphlet 
published on the subject, entitled 'ihc Ihiiixr-ih/ ( 'omiiaiii)i, is by Prof. 
II. Maxwell Lefroy, M.A., and deals with the lite-history of Mnscu 
ilnnieUira (the common house-fly) as well as other allied species, flies 
as carriers of disease, with notes on specific diseases, methods of 
destruction appliinl to hospitals, barracks, houses, etc., concluding with 
a list of rofoi'ence books on the subject. The exhibition was particu- 
larly strong on the practical side ; traps of all kinds, ingenious devices 
for attacking the pests in their various stages, various methods of pro- 
tecting foodstuffs, etc., should have afforded enquirers much suggestive 
and useful information. In this connection we might refer our 
readers to the horribly realistic exhibit in the Hall of the Natural 
History Museum, South Kensington. At one end of the case a plate 
of ham set for a meal with a glass of milk beside it, at the other end a 
filthy midden heap with clustered flies and maggots. Other flies are 
passing between the two while some are sipping the milk and tasting 
the ham, plate, etc. The Museum pamphlet, The Hnuse-ji)/ as a 
Ihtmier to Fltol^h, by E. E. Austen, tells us that, " Since this fly 
[Miisca (l(n)ieKtica) is incapable of biting, its action as a disease-carrier 
is contaminative .... The germs of disease are carried on the 
exterior of its legs, wings, head or body, or, as is more usually the 
case, in the insects crop or intestine, and may subsequently be 
deposited on food or other substance," and goes on to urge every 
possible precaution against contamination. 

In the Knt. Mo. Maij. for August, Mr. D. Sharp describes a new 
species of Coleoptera, J-lcloji/ioiiis rJiamjiioni, which he has recently 
separated from its close ally, //. strii/ifrons, in the collection of Mr. G. 
C. Champion. The species was taken at Guildford and elsewhere, but 
is very rare. 

The son of our colleague, Mr. H. Donisthorpe, is now convalescent 
and will probably return shortly to his duties in France. 

Colonel Kaznakov, the Russian entomologist, whom I reported as 
severely wounded some time ago, had recovered before the summer. 
He convalesced at Geok-Tapa, and had returned to his military duties 
some time before I arrived there in July. — M. B. 

In the Scottish Naturalist for August is a short but interesting 
account of a combined excursion to the Outer Hebrides, in 1914, by a 
party of zoologists to investigate the entomological fauna. The 
following extract concerning Xi/nsia ^onaria may be interesting. " The 
larvie were present in myriads on the sandhills near Barvas. They 
were often blown into hollows in such numbers as to hide the ground. 
They were in various stages of growth. The vegetation in these places 
was extremely mixed, and included conspicuously Fetasitcs, wild carrot, 
and a species of rue. It is impossible to state what plants were 
especially attacked." 

More or less recently we have received from the Smithsonian 
Institute, Washington, the following separata from the ProceeditKjs of 
the United States Xatiotwl Miiseinn. " On a Collection of Javanese 
C^rane-flies {Ti/'iilidae, Diptera) in the U.S. Nat. Museum," with nine 
plates of figures of details ; " New Genera and Species of Gall-midges," 
with numerous figures of details ; " Flies of the Genus Agrouiyza, 



234 THE entomologist's record. 

related to Agromyza virem," with a plate of details ; " The Dipterous 
Genus Si/inphoroiiiyia in North America," with figures; "A Revision of 
the N. American Ichneumon-flies of the Sub-family Opiiiuie," with 
plates; "Notes on some Sawfly Larva' belonginn- to the genus Diiiior- 
pltojiten/.r ;" "The North American Bees of the Genus J>a//v>;r/," by 
H. L. Viereck and T. D. A. Cockerell, the latter of whom has become 
a great authority on Hymenoptera since we knew him years ago in the 
South London Society ; " Notes on the Life-history and Ecology of 
the Dragontlies {(hionata) of Washington and Oregon," with more 
than 200 figures; "Notes on Neotropical Dragonflies, or Odonata," 
with seven plates. " Lepidoptera of the Yale-i)ominican Expedition 
of 1913 ; " and descriptions of many new species of Lepidoptera, 
Odonata, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera (Aculeata, Parasitica and Tenthre- 
dinoidea) and Diptera. 

The I'vansactioHH of the Cardiff' Naturalists' Societi/ for 1914, 
recently to hand, contains a further long instalment of the excellent 
account of the " Coleoptera of Glamorgan,' by our colleague Mr. J. R. 
le B. Tomlin. It will be found that the locality records, brought 
quite up to date, and the biological notes are extremely useful, while 
the historical references aie interesting to those even who only take 
passing notice of the smaller inhabitants of their homeland area. Mr. 
Hallett gives a series of entomological notes for the year, mainly com- 
prised of additions to the county records in the Hymenoptera Aculeata. 
From the bird notes by E. Cambridge Phillips, we take the following 
extract: — "We have had this year (1914) a visitation of countless 
caterpillars of the White Butterfly, which have devastated all our 
green stuff, brussels sprouts, broccoli, etc., to an extent that must be 
seen to be believed, in many gardens not a vestige of green can be 
seen on the grim skeletons of the stalks. Various remedies were tried, 
amongst others lime, and also weak carbolic acid and water, but all to 
no purpose. Poultry would not touch them, and the only aid was 
rendered by the following kinds of Tits, viz., the Great Tit, Blue Tit, 
and Marsh Tit, which came in numbers to eat them. I daresay other 
Tits came, but these were the only ones I saw." 

We regret to hear that the youngest son of Mr. C. G. Champion, 
our honorary Librarian at the Entomological Society of London, has 
been wounded at the front. A later report says that his injury is 
not serious, and that he is progressing very favourably. 

The second part of the Transactions of the Entf)tiiolo(/ieal Societ;/ of 
London was issued early in August, and contains the following contri- 
butions : — (1) " New Butterflies and a Moth from Biak," by J. J. 
Joicey, F.L.S., and A. Noakes, F.E.S., with eight coloured plates. 
Biak is an island oft' the north coast of New Guinea, which although 
visited by W. Doherty in 1892, was not again explored until 1914, 
when the Messrs. Pratt spent more than two months there. (2) " Notes 
on the Larva and Pupa of Caligo uteiiinon," bj' Dr. Davis of Belize, 
British Honduras, with a plate of figures. (8) The Descriptions of a 
large number of new species of South American Micro-Lepidoptera, 
seventy-two of them being created from the examination of either one 
or two examples only, by E. Meyrick, F.Z.S., F.E.S. (4) A series of 
excellent biological notes made by Prof. Poulton's correspondents in 
various parts of Central Africa. 



CURRENT NOTES. 235 

The South- Eastern Naturalist has just been issued, and in its 
account of the Congress of the South-Eastern Union of Scientific 
Societies (^uite belies the somewhat pessimistic views we expressed as to 
the probable success of a meeting at Brighton in a year of war. The 
volume contains no entomological matter and very little which can be 
said to justify its title of " Naturalist," yet the matter is most interest- 
ing both locally and generally, and does great credit to the Hon. 
Secretary of the Union, Dr. William Martin, to whose efforts, so ably 
seconded by the Hon. Assist. Secretary, H. Norman Gray, the success 
of the Congress is due. The Presidential Address and papers read 
occupy nearly a hundred pages, and the reports of the various sections, 
proceedings of the Congress, and general information, take more than 
another hundred. There are seven plates. 

The Tra)isacti(»is of the Luiulou yatural Uistmi/ Soriet;/ for 1914. 
has just been issued. It consists of some 86 pages, some of which 
contain advertisements, and one plate. Much on the same lines, it is 
a continuation of the record which was formerly issued by the late City 
of London Entomological and Natural History Society. It contains 
an itinerary of the exhibits at the meetings ; the Presidential Address 
by Mr. L. B. Prout, in which he deals lightly with many entomologi- 
cal questions of the year as well as the general progress of our study ; 
some very valuable and practical " Notes on Breeding and Collecting 
the Sesia " = Ao(i('riidae, by Mr. L. W. Newman; an extremely scientific 
summary of what is known of " Gynandromorphism," by the present 
President, Dr. E, A. Cockayne, together with articles on Ornithology 
and Archaeology. One would like to have had Dr. Cockayne's article 
completed by a full bibliography and possibly by a plate or two. Mr. 
Mera, who was in the chair of the old City of London Society for some 
years, has contributed a series of interesting personal reminiscences of 
the parent society. We are glad to see from this record that ento- 
mology has not been swamped, as we feared it might be, as a result of 
the amalgamation. 

The KntotnoltKiical News for July contains three plates. The first 
illustrates an article on " Recent Work on Catocalae " from Missouri. 
The second gives detailed figures for the " Studies on Costa Rica 
Oilonata : the Waterfall Dwellers; the Transformation, External 
Features and attached Diatoms of Tluuiuiatoneuia Larvte"; and the 
third illustrates some dozen " New Species of Lepidoptera-hetero- 
cera," described by F. Haimbach of Philadelphia, mostly Py rales. 
W. Wild describes and figures a new species of Culi'djihora, C. albian- 
tennadla, the larvie of which were found feeding on dogwood at 
Buffalo. 

In the Knt. Mo. Mati. for July Mr. D. Sharp describes a new Homa- 
Inta, H. f'.rillinia belonging to the sub-genus Mcotica. It has been taken 
in sphagnum in the New Forest by several collectors. ^Ir. Jas. l^dwards 
describes several new species of llomoptfra from Britain : — Mnio/ih- 
th((liiii(s siabriiioniix from Colesbonrne and numerous other places ; 
liliorrras alhicans ah. fiixcu-cnenilrKft on white poplar at Norwich ; 
Ih-ltocrphalns thcnii, common on Norfolk coast marshes at Wells and 
Weybourne ; Liinotitti.r sattirata, in a marsh at Iloreton, Norfolk, 
Leith Hill and Gomshall; Zi/i/ina inali, on apple trees at Colesbourne ; 
and I'si/Ua subfei rwjinea, common on any coniferous tree between 
October and April. Mr. A. E. J. Carter adds three species to the 



2S6 THE entomologist's record. 

List of British Diptera : Trichopticiis niHtatiis, taken by the Rev. Jas. 
Waterston near Peebles ; Lai^iops t'liojiht/ialnia, taken in Perthshire on 
a stone wail ; and Kccoiitomera /lallearcns from Midlothian. 

The Irish Naturalist for July contains an annotated " List of the 
lehneumonidea from the North of Ireland," by the Rev. W. P. Johnson 
with the aid of Mr. Claude Morley. 



.SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. 

May 5th, 1915. — Living Pup.e of Pyrameis atalanta. — Following 
on his exhibit and notes of March 3rd last, Mr. Newman again 
exhibited these pap;o, and said he thought he might now fairly claim 
to have proved that this species can pass the winter in England in 
this condition. The Amathusiid Genus Hyades, Boisd. — Mr. Talbot 
exhibited specimens of the genera Ibjades and Taenaris, and read 
notes. New Lepidoptera from the Arfak Mountains, Dutch New 
Guinea. — Mr. Tal))ot also exhibited on behalf of Mr. J. J. Joicey some 
new Lepidoptera from the Arfak Mountains, Dutch New Guinea, 
including a local race of Oriiit/iujitera paradisea, Stgr. The Italian 
mode of exclusion of the House-fly. — The Bev. F. D. Morice drew 
attention to a paper in the Trans. Ent. Soc, vol. i (1836), by W. Spence 
on this subject. Further Notes on thk habits of the African ant, 
Megaponera foetens, F. — Prof. Poulton read a further account sent 
to him March 27th, 1915, by Mr. C. 0. Farquharson. Interesting 
butterflies from the east coast of Madagascar. — Prof. Poulton 
exhibited specimens from a collection kindly sent to the Hope Depart- 
ment by Archdeacon G. K. Kestell-Cornish, from Ambinanindrano, 
Mahanoro (about 400 ft.). A Uganda bug devouring a Lyc.enid 
butterfly. — Prof. Poulton exhibited a pair of Mononi/x iirandicollis, 
Germ. (Cryptocerata), captured in cop. on a bird-dropping on wet 
sand, Nsadzi I., W. of Kome L, N.W. Victoria Nyanza, March 30th, 
1914, by Dr. G. D. H. Carpenter. One of the two bugs was devouring 
a male Lycaenesthes larydas, Cr., also exhibited to the meeting. 
Observations on butterflies and the attacks made on them by birds, 

ABOUT 30 miles W. of THE ViCTORIA NyANZA AND ABOUT 1° S. LAT. — 

Prof. Poulton read a letter on this subject from Dr. G. D. H. Carpenter. 
Papers. — The following papers were read : — " New Lepidoptera from 
New Guinea," by J. J. Joicey, F.L.S., F.E.S., A. Noakes, F.E.S., and 
G. Talbot, F.E.S. " Descriptions of South American Micro-Lepidop- 
tera," by E. Meyrick, B.A., F.R.S., F.E.S. " Life-History of Cali;io 
iiie)imon," by F. L. Davis, M.D., F.E.S. " Some Palasarctic Species of 
Corduleyastcr,'' by Kenneth J. Morton, F.E.S. " Experiments on 
some Carnivorous Insects," by C. F. M. Swynnerton, F.E.S. 

June 2nd, 1915. — Election. — Dr. A. B. Northcote, Blenheim 
House, Moakgate, York, was elected a Fellow of the Society. Larv.t; 
of Agriades escheri. — Dr. Chapman exhibited some full-fed larvna of 
Ayriadcs escheri bred from the egg. Variation in Ornithoptera 
ALEXANDRAS. — Mr. 0. E. Jauson exhibited specimens of (hiiithojitera 
ale.randrae selected from a series to show the extreme variations in the 
wing-markings ; also a female example of Murphutenaris kenricki ; all 
from New Guinea. Method of Breeding Psocid.e, etc. — Mr. C. B. 



REVIEWS. 237 

Williams exhibited a method of breeding Psocidae and other small 
insects which feed on fungi, etc. Bee and Plant Fertilisation.- — The 
Rev. F. 1). Morice exhibited a ? of the solitary bee Aiuhcna lobialis 
taken near Woking on May 19th, 1915, having attached to the disc of 
its clypeus a vegetable substance apparently a pollinium of some orchid. 
Noteworthy Ants. —Mr. Donisthorpo exhil)ited specimens of Anatlietus 
(■aiiwniiii, Forel, a new species taken by Dr. Cameron at San Roque, 
December 1914, and ( rciiiastoiiastcr i)tj!ata, F. Smith, taken by Mr. 
Bryant at Sarawak, December 1913. The latter species has the 
thorax distended, which acts as a reservoir for honey, in the same way 
as the distended gasters of the true " Honey Ants." Further obser- 
vations ON African insects by Dr. G. D. H. Carpenter. — Prof. Poulton 
said that he had received another consiginent of insects and further 
letters from Dr. Carpenter, who had added further information to the 
notes read to the Society on May 5th last. A Family of Acraea 
joiiNsToNi. — Dr. Eltringham exhibited a family of five examples of 
Arracii jiilinstdiii, Godui.. bred by the Rev. K. St. A. Rogers at Sagalla, 
B.F.A., together with the female parent. The latter and four of the 
offspring were of the form cunfiisa, Rogenh. Living Elater sanguino- 
LENTUs. — Comm. Walker exhibited living specimens of /•-'. samjiiiiio- 
lf)ittis, beaten from I 'inns si/lrestris at Brockenhurst on the morning of 
the meeting. Paper. — ^The following paper was read : — '' What the 
larva of I.i/<ae)ia avion does during its last instar," by T. A. Chapman, 
M.D., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 



K^EYIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

British Ants. Their Life History anu Classification. — By H. 
St. J. K. Donisthorpe, F.Z.S., kc. — Wm. Brendon and Sons, Ltd., 
Plymouth. Published by subscription. 

Four things, said the ancient Semitic sage, are little upon the Earth, 
yet are exceeding wise ; and the first of these are the Ants, " a people 
not strong, yet who prepare their meat in the summer," And from the 
far-off' days when those words were written, up to the present time, the 
social Hymenoptera, more especially the Fonnicidac, have excited the 
admiration and stimulated the curiosity of mankind, because they, 
moi'e than any other creatures, have displayed the working of instincts, 
which have seemed comparable with the intelligence of Man himself. 
And so it has come to pass, that although other orders of the Lisecta 
appeal perhaps more in variety of form and beauty of coloration to 
the student of Nature, yet none have secured the interest of the 
Biologist to the same extent, or in the same manner, as the Hymen- 
optera ; and it is for this reason that we welcome the appearance of 
the first book in the English language, devoted, with any approach to 
scientific accuracy, entirely to our British Ants. 

The entomological public need no introduction to the author of the 
volume before us —least of all the readers of T/if Kntoiuohxiist'^ Urcanl. 
Mr. Donisthorpe has long been known by his writings, published here 
and elsewhere, as our chief lU'itish authority on the {''uniiiridac : and 
by his careful and patient study, extending now over many years, of 
various species of ants kept in captivity, to be singularly well fitted to 
interpret their activities to that increasing number of the public, for 
whom such things have an interest. 



238 THE entomologist's record. 

Mr. Donisthorpe's treatment of his subject is particularly exhaustive 
and the book is, in each of its parts, furnished either with woodcuts or 
reproduced photographs, which completely illustrate the subject of the 
text. 

The first portion is devoted to an explanation of the anatomy of 
the group, both external and internal. The second treats of the 
economic and physiological ant characteristics, including a specially 
interesting description of the carious polymorphism which obtains 
within the species, and which must of course be studied with reference 
to the singular arrangement implicit in the socialism of the Hymen- 
optera, and in them alone among the Arthropoda, whereby the function 
of the female has been so divided that it becomes finally expressed in 
two forms, morphologically as well as functionally distinct, with the 
result that each species appears to exist in three sexes, or at least 
separate forms. The third part of the book tells of all that is known 
of the Psychology, or as some Biologists might prefer to express it, 
the Physiology of Ants. 

Notes on collecting, and the treatment of Ants kept in captivity for 
observation follow, and the I'emainder of the volume is devoted to 
separate descriptions of every species of Ant which inhabits our 
Islands. 

These descriptions, prefaced of course by appropriate dichotomic 
tables, which should enable the most inexperienced student to name 
his captures without difficulty, ai'e exhaustively complete ; they are 
accompanied, wherever possible, by the original description of the 
species, quoted liteiatliii, and by lists of all allusions to it in Entomo- 
logical literature. Particulars of the distribution of the species in this 
country follow, with the observers name given for each record. Every 
description is illustrated by photographic reproductions from specimens 
in the author's collection, of male, female, and worker, and to say that 
these photographs are by A. W. Dennis is to guarantee their excellence. 
More fascinating perhaps to the general reader, will be the descriptions 
of the life-histories and activities of these several species, the curious 
coadaptations and relativities which exist between species and species, 
how they act as guests, on differing teiiiis, to so many other totally 
unrelated species of the x\rthropoda, or fight pitched battles among 
themselves. 

Particularly, will the interest of the reader, who perhaps may care 
nothing about the discrimination of species, be excited, by such a story 
as that describing the slave raids of Formica smvjuinca (p. 284 et fn'i/.) ; 
how this ant goes forth by companies to capture and remove to its 
own nest, there to be retained as slaves, the pupns of another species of 
ant, Foniiica ftoica, or reading (p. 248) that the workers of Formica 
rufa continue to toil without cessation from sunrise to an hour after 
sunset, all through a summer's day — be reminded of that familiar 
invitation to the " slacker " of all times to " consider her ways and be 
\yise." 

P)ut taking this book as a wholo, it seems possible that the chapter 
headed " Psychology," as it will attract the deepest interest by othei's 
than professed entomologists, may also invite their only criticism. 
The subject is, in fact, how far the activities of the F<jrmici(lae (as of 
coarse other Hymenoptera) are induced by factors comparable with 
human intelligence. Mr. Donisthorpe does not commit himself to 



OBITUARY. 239 

any decided views on this question, but from the opinions cited and 
the instances adduced, it might possibly be felt tj3at the interpretation 
of these activities is perhaps too much in terms of human conscious- 
ness. The fact that man possesses five separate avenues wliereby the 
external world may excite such apjiropriate nervous action as can be 
transmuted by the brain into distinct consciousness, does not in any 
way ])r('clude the assumption, that the Insecta, which are doubtless 
the last evolutionary phase of the Arthropoda, inay possess quite 
other, or more numerous methods, by which external influences, 
necessarily unknown to our experience, may stimulate their nervous 
system. Thus Henri Bergson, the philosopher who has supplied the 
jnodern world with a new conception of Life, as is well known, con- 
siders Instinct and Intelligence to be quite distinct vital phenomena, 
and not that the former is merelj- an incomplete or undeveloped form 
of the latter. As he says : — " These creatures (Hymenoptera) repre- 
sent the culminating point of a progressive evolution of instinct. 
Their marvellous actions can only be explained by supposing that 
instinct is a cpiite different and, in a certain manner, opposite mode of 
mental activity to that by which we apprehend reality." But it is 
obvious that anything like an adequate consideration of such a subject 
as this is quite out of place in a brief review of a book on ants, and we 
only allude to it to show into what wide fields of speculation, and even 
philosophy, a single chapter in this most excellent work might lead 
us. As a whole the work brings our knowledge of the British Ants up 
to a point which leaves nothing to be added, and we can only wish for 
it that publicity which Mr. Donisthorpe's treatment of his subject 
deserves. 



(g> BIT U AR Y. 

Colonel Neville Manders, D.D.M.S., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

It is with no conventional expression of regret that we record the 
death of Colonel Neville Manders, who, as we shortly announced in 
our last issue, was killed in the Dardanelles in August. He was well 
known to entomologists who attend the meetings of the Entomological 
Society of London, and his genial manner and attractive personality 
must make his death to many others, as it is to the writer of this 
notice, the loss of a real friend. 

He was both by birth and education a Marlburian, having been 
born at Marlborough in 1859, the youngest son of Major T. Manders, 
and educated at the College. He joined the Army i\ledical Service in 
1884, and saw active .'-ervice in Egypt the following year, and again in 
Burmah two years later. He was afterwards stationed in the Shan 
States, at Rawal Pindi, at Colombo, and in the Mauritius, as well as 
holding appointments at home, at Aldershot and at the Curragh Camp 
in Ireland amongst other places, and had also made holiday excursions 
in such widely ditl'erent localities as Switzerland and Java, and was 
finally appointed, at the end of 1918, to the Deputy-Dn-ectorship of 
the Medical Service in Egypt, a position which he held till the begin- 
of the present year, when he was appointed to the Headquarters Stafi" 
of the Australian and New Zealand forces, with whom he proceeded to 
the Dardanelles. 

His interest in Entomology began in early boyhood, and only 



240 THE entomologist's record. 

ended with his life. A proof of the former statement may be found in 
the August number of the Kntoiiinlofiist, in a note in which his entomo- 
logical reminiscences date back to his tenth year, whilst a proof of the 
latter is to be found in our own July-August issue (p. 149) in a note 
actually written from the trenches where he was so soon to meet his 
death. He joined the Entomological Hociety of London so far back 
as 1887, and in 1890 we find in their Transactions a paper from his 
pen on tbe Butterflies of the Shan States, which contains also most 
valuable notes on the country and climate. Four other papers of his 
are published in the Transactions, one on certain breeding experiments 
in Ceylon, another on the Butterflies of the Mauritius, and two on 
subjects connected with Mimicry, in which he always showed, as the 
readers of this magazine are well aware, a special interest. He was often 
regarded, quite mistakenlj^ as an opponent of the theory; in realit}' he 
was a careful student, unwilling to assent definitely to any theory with- 
out sufficient proof — a thoroughly sound (indeed, the only thoroughly 
sound) and scientific position ; he was however driven into an attitude 
towards the question, described by the present writer in this magazine 
as one of " armed neutrality," by the efforts made by some of the 
supporters of the theory to make it account for many things which 
could much more readily be accounted for in other ways — indeed, it 
seems to be the peculiarity of most specialists to imagine that their 
favourite theory accounts for evenjthiiuj. Many of his notes and short 
articles in this magazine are connected with this subject. He first 
wrote for us in 1904, and since then it is rarely indeed that his name 
did not figure in the "list of the contributors," and all that he said 
was worth saying. As a controversialist he was an ideal opponent, 
for he always kept his temper ; and this was no doubt partly because 
he had no axe of his own to grind, his aim was to get at the truth, 
not to support a theory. His last paper on the subject of Mimicry 
was published in August last in the Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society, and valuable as it was, it called forth the yet more valuable 
reply of Mr. Swynnerton, who produeed the very proofs for which 
Colonel Manders had always been asking. 

Colonel Manders leaves a widow and daughter, to whom we offer 
our deepest and most respectful sympathy. — G.W. 



Nomenclature. 



[Addendum to "Kirby, William. Monographia Apum Angliae." 
Page 132.] 




Fig. 33. a.o. Forceps. h. Phallus. 



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L. W. NEWMAN, F.E.S., Bexley, Kent. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGK. 

A Butterfly Holiday in Great Britain, G. Wheeler, M.A., F.Z.S., F.E.S 217 

Tlie Tvpe of Camponotiis (Myrmoturba) maeulatus, F., H. Donistliorpe, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 221 

The Upper Engadine in 1914 (continued), Hij. J. Turner, F.E.S 222 

Bibliography of book and articles in which the Genitalia of the Lepidoptera are 

considered, etc., if?/. '7. Tii/«e/', i^.E.S. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22(3 

Neoroptera : — Ptevodela livida, Enderlein, a Psocid new to the British Islands, 

Richard S. Baguall, F.L.S.. F.E.S 229 

Scientific Notes and Observations : — The Pine Processionary Caterpillar, G. 

Nichohon ' 230 

Notes on Collecting : — Notes from S. Essex, Rev. C. R. N. Barro)v>t ; Colias edusa 

at Chichester, Joseph Andemoii ; Eastbourne in Mid-September, H.J.T. ; Notes 

on Lepidoptera on N. Wales, A. Sich, F.E.S.; Scymnus arcuatus, iJei;. J. i*". 

Perry 23U 

Current Notes and Short Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 

Societies : — The Entomological Society of London . . . . . . . . . . 236 

Eeviews : — British Ants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 

Obituary: — Colonel Neville Manders, G. IF. .. .. .. .. .. .. 239 

Addendum : —Nomenclature .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 240 

Communications have been received or have been promised from Dr. Chapman, Dr. 
Verity, Rev. G. Wheeler, Messrs. R. S. Bagnall, Hy. J. Turner, C. W. Colthrup, H. E. 
Page, A. J. Fison, C. P. Pickett, Dr. Burr, A. Tetley, Parkinson Curtis, H. B. Williams, 
H. L. Earl, A. Sich, etc., with Reports of Societies and Reviews. 

All MS. and editorial matter should be sent and all proofs returned to Hy. J. Turner, 
98, Drakefell Road, New Cross, London, S.E. 

, We must earnestly request our correspondents not to send us comviunications identical 
with those they are sending to other magazines. 

Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata should be sent direct to Mr. H. E. Page, 
Bertrose, Gellatiy Road, New Cross, S.E. 



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THE 




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ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 



JOURNAL OF VARIATION 



Editko by 



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T. HUDSON lil'IAlil-:, Jas. E. COLLIN, f.e.s. 



u.sc, F.i:.»., i.R.s.ic. 
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II. Sr. J. K. DONISTHORPE, I 

F.7.,R., F.K.S: 
Ar.FRED SICH, F.E.S. 

J. R. le B. TOMLIN, m.a., f.e.s. 
George WHEELER, m.a., f.e.s. 



Hf.mcy J. TUEKEll, f.k.s., 
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READ THE BACK Nos. OF THE 

Entomologist's Record & Journal of Variation 

(Practical Hints, Field Work, etc. useful for every year's collecting). 
VOL. VI. 

The TITLES of some of the articles are as follows : — Notes on Butterfly Piipse, with some remarks 
on the Phylogenesis of the Ehopalocera."— X)r. T. A. Chapman, F.E.S., " Phytophagic Sprcies." — 
Prof. A. rtadcHffe Orote, M.A. "Varieties and aberrations of Nocture from Doncastei."- -i/. H. 
Corbett, 3I.li.C.'S. "The frenulum of the British species of Smerinthus."— G. G. Gripitlit, F.Z.S., 
F.E.S. "Eudryas stfe-johannis.,' — A. Raitclifle Grote, M.A. "Parthenogenesis or Agamogenesis." — 
J. W. Tiitt, F.E.S. " Larva}."— /;«)•. G. M. A'. Hewitt, M.A. "Retrospect of a Lepidopterist for 18!)4." 
—J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Generic Names in the Noctuidse." — P/or. A. II. Orote, M.A. " Pupa hunting in 
October."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Polygamy and Polyandry in Moths." "The nature of certain 
insect colours."— VF.S. nidlm,, M.D., R. Freer, M.B., J. W. Tutt,'F.E.S., Rev. C. R. N. Burrows, J. Anrlersoii, 
Jun. "The Lepidoptera of Swansea." — Major R. B. Robertson. " Caradrina ambigua in the Isle of 
Wight."— J. J. Hodges. "The instcts of Bourg St. Maurice."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Orrhodia 
erythroeephala ab. glabra from Devonshire and comparison with (). vaccinii." — Dr. W. S. Riding, 
F.E.S. "Notes on Caradrina ambigua and C. superstes."— J". W. Tutt, F.E.S. "Entomology and 
Entomologists, being the Annual Address to the City of London Entom. Society." Notes on 
Aphomia sociella " (with plate). — W. P. Blackhurne Maze, F.E.S. "Apterous females and Winter 
Emergence "—E. F. Studd, M.A., B.C.L., F.E.S., L. B. Prout, F.E.S. " Collecting Noctuidw by Lake 
Erie."— ^. EadcUfte Orote, M.A. " Coleoptera at Ipswich." — Claude Morleii, F.E.S. "Notes on 
Bombns visurgire." " Synonymic Notes on Acidalia humilata and A. dilutaria." — L. B. Prout, F.E.S. 
"The Lepidoptera of Uresy-sur-Aix." — .f. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Apatura iris." — Rev. 0. M. A. HewetV 
"Scheme of Classification of the Rhopalocera founded on the structure of the Pupa?." — 7. A. 
Chapman, M.D., F.E.S. "Glimpses of American Entomology."— J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. " Tlie Genus 
Smerinthus." — A. Bacot. " Variation considered biologically : Some notes suggested by the Romanes 
Lecture of 1H94."— J. W. Tutl, F.E.S. "Wing structure."— J. Altton Moffatt. "On the development 
of sex in social insects." — J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. "The British representatives of the Genus Caradrina." — 
L. B. Prout, F.E.S. "Habits and variation of Lithosia lutarella and its variety pygmafjola." — 
J. IF. Tutt, F.E.S. On the gradual disappearance of Lepidoptera from South-Eastern London and 
its neighbourhood." — C. Fcnn, F.E.S. " A hunt for Neuroterusaprilinus." — T.A. Chapman, ili./)., F.E.S. 
"On the development of pigment in Nemeobius lucina." — F. J. Buckell, M.B. "The Maero-Lepi- 
doptera of Keswick." — H. A. Beadle. " Varieties of Avgynnis selene " (with plate). — S. G. C. TtunseV, 
F.E.S. " Hadenoid genera with hairy eyes." — Prof. A. R. Gro'e, 31. A. '• Zygfena miuos and its 
varieties."— <7. IV. Tutt, F.E.S. "Notes on the pupre of Castnia and Anthocharis." — T. J. Chapman, 
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A BRIEF KEVIEW OK THE UIUTISII CONIOlMKRYGIDiT:. 241 

A brief review of tlie Britisli Conioptcrygidae (Neiiroptera), with 
tables of the European Genera and Species. (/ V/.s. 1-12.) 

By RICHARD S. BAGXALL, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
When the late Mr. Lachlan puhlished his Mdvoi/raji/i of tlie lUitiah 
}srHrnpte)a-l'lani}ien)i'ut (Trans. Ent. Soc, lH()S,pp. 145-224, pi. viii.-xi.) 
he remarked, "These insects are as yet ill-utKlerstood, and I regret 
that the subject can receive no elucidation from nie." 
He diagno.sed the thi'ee species, as follows : — 

Cnnidi'tcri/.i- psncifojiiiis, Curtis. " Antennfc with about forty 

joints, much longer than the body. Wings very unequal, 

the posterior pair being very small. Expanse of wings 

8|-4i lines." 

(.'onioiitenjx tiiieifonnis, Curtis. " Antennte about the length of 

the body, with about twenty-five joints. Wings sub-equal, 

slightly smoky-gray. Abdomen rather short, ochreous. 

Expanse of wings, 2^-2^ lines." 

Coniopterij.r aleiivdiUforiiiix, Stephens. " Antennte with more than 

thirty joints, longer than the l)ody. Wings sub-equal, broad, 

the neuration tolerably distinct. Abdomen thin. Expanse 

of wings, 3^-3f lines. 

These descriptions — brief as they are — admirably fit the three 

species we have known as British for so long, and, until this year, no 

addition has been made to the list. Abroad, however, 0. M. Renter, 

Loew, Klapalek, W^allengren and Enderlein, had made new discoveries, 

and in 190(3 the last-named author. Dr. Giinther Enderlein, published 

a monograph of the world's species, with tables and figures [Mono- 

(jrapliie der Coniopteri/f/iden in " Zool. Jahrb.," xxiii., Abt. f. Syst., pp» 

173-242, pits. 4-9). Herein he describes ten European species, any one 

of which might possibly occur in the British Isles. A few of these are 

separated on what some ujight regard as slight characteristics so far 

as neuration is concerned — vide Ciniinptrrt/.r tineifnruiis and (!. pi/<iiiuiei(s 

— but an examination of the S genitalia more than strongly confirms 

specific rank. 

In June of this year I described Cunicentzia cryptoufiois, found on 
sallow in the North of England [Ent. Mo. Marf. and The ]'asculin)i)^ 
and two months later Mr. J. W'. H. Harrison brought forward the 
larch species, C. pineticola, Enderlein, from North Yorkshire and South 
Durham as British {The Vaacitliiw). The former may prove to be a 
form of pineticula, and it is desirable that the genitalia of both ( '. 
crt/ptoneiiria and also C. pineticola var. tetensi be exaann'ed before 
finally settling their respective status. 

The interest that these discoveries aroused caused me to suggest to 
Professor Poulton that the species in the Daleian collection should be 
examined, and thanks to his kindness I have had the opportunity of 
doing this so far as their dried condition would permit. 

Of the bulk of the material in this collection falling into the genus 
Ciiuiopteru.r, s.s., and standing under the names ( '. alenroiiiformis^ 
Steph. (error in identification), ( '. hi/aliniift, C parndns, Vill. (= ('. 
tiueiforniix), and C. obsciinm, I have been unable to uiake any satis- 
factory report — though the study of an abundance of fresh material 
might lead to interesting results. 

Conioptf.n/.v tineifonnis, ('. pippnaenn, SepUdnii^ alenVfrei-i^yniis, S, 

NOVEMLEU' luTH, 19J5. " V ' ' '* ^^'V^ 



roEcuwi J 



242 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



cnrtisiana, and Conirentzia fsocifonnis nve all represented in this collec- 
tion, and (\ pi/f/niaeus and ,S'. ciirtisiana are now brought forward as 
British for the first time. 

I have said sufficient to show that this is a little group that might 
well repay the serious study of British entomologists, and, as a guide 
and help to any who may turn their energies in this direction, I have 
added tables of the European genera and species — to some extent 
modifications of Enderlein's tables — and rough sketches — also largely 
drawn from Enderlein's monograph. 

I may add that the names hi/alinus and obscunoi, quoted from the 
Dale collection, appear to be label or MS. names. 

Block of figures 1-8 has been kindly loaned by the Editors of The 
'i'asciditiii. 




Figs. 



1. Conwentzia psocijormis, After Curtis. 

2. C. piiieticola, forewing. 

3. C. cryptonenris, forewing. 

an. Analis ; ax. Axillaris; 1, 2, 3, Cells with light 
patches in C. cryptonenris. 



Family— CONIOPTEEYGID^. 

Enderlein divides the family into two well-marked sub-families on 
the strength of ditierences in the wing neuration as well as strong 
morphological features. 

External lobe of maxilla 1-jointed ; abdomen with- 
out ventral " sacs."... ... ... ... CoNIOPTERYGIN.E. 



A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE I3KITISH CONIOPTERYGID.'E. 243 

External lobe of maxilla 3-jointetl ; 5-6 pairs of 
small ventral " sacs," on abdominal segments 

1-6 ... ... ... ... ... ALEUROl'TERyGIN.E. 

Sub-family— CONIOPTERYGIN.E. 

Tribe — Conwentziini, Enderlein. 

Easily recognised by the very small hindwings with strongly 
reduced venation (tig. 1). Contains only the one genus. 

Conwentzia, Enderlein. 

1. Colour lighter, anteun^B 38-43 jointed; nervules 
of forewing between sub-costa and radius and 
radius and radial-ramus apart, the latter striking 

the upper arm ('o t 3) of fork ... C. iisurifunnis, Curtis. 

Colour darker, antennsB 28-34 jointed ... 2. 

2. Nervules above-named touching, running in one 

line and striking at the fork-point or the upper 
arm just above it (fig. 2). Light or semitrans- 
parent, elongated patches in distal cells marked 
1, 2 and 3(lig. 3). Pound on sallow. C. cii//>l<»i('nriK, Bagnall. 

3. Nervules apart, the latter striking the stem of the 
fork (fig. 2). Forewings apparently without 
transparent patches in the distal cells. Found 

on larch. ... ... ... ... C. innetivula, Enderlein. 

Tribe — Coniopterygini, Enderlein. 
Hind wings normal. 

Table of Genera. 

1. Media in hindwing forked (figs. 7-8).... ... 2 

Media in hindwing not forked, simple (fig. 6). 

CONIOPTERYX, S.S. 

2. Nervule connecting the fore-cubitus (<'((j^) and 

the media [tu) in fore- and hindwings striking 
the latter on the lower arm (»//^) of fork (tigs. 7 
and 8) ... ... ... ... Semidalis, Enderlein. 

8. Above-named nerviile in both wings striking the 
media on the stem of fork below the fork-point 
(lig. 9). Species dark ... ... Pakasemidalis, Enderlein. 

Genus — Coniopteryx, Curtis. 

1. Size smaller (scarcely more than 5mm. across the 

wing), antenuiu shorter and less than one-half 
the length of forewing, stouter; nervules between 
the sub-costa and radius and radius and radial- 
ramus touching or almost touching in both fore- 
and hindwings (fig. 5) ; marginal setse of wings 
more minute and sparse ... ... C. iii/ifinacns, Enderlein, 

2. Size larger (6mm. to 7"0mm. across wings) ; 
antennse longer and more slender, 25 to 26 (rarely 
more) jointed. Above-name 1 nervules well 



244 



THE entomologist's RECORD. 



apart in both fore- and hindwings (figs. 4 and 6), 
and seta) on margins, especially the hind margin, 
less sparse (fig. 6) ' ... C tineiforims, Cmtis. 




Figs. 4-6. 4. 
5. 
6. 



Coniopteryx tineiformis, end of forewing. 
Coniopteryx j)ygmaeus, ,, ,, ,, 
Coniopteryx thieiformis, ,, ,, ,, 

sc. Sub-costa ; r. Radius ; )'.2 + .j. Upper arm of fork of 

radial-ramus ; vt, media — simple in tiie hindwing in 

this genus. 



Genus — Semidalis, Enderlein. 




Fore- and hindwings of 
Semidalis aleurodiformis. 
Semidalis curtisiana. 

rr. Eadial-ramns, stem; m^ and ?».-j. Upper and lower 
arms of media which is forked In the hindwing in 
this genus; cu^. Upper arm of cubitus. 



A V.niKF REVIEW OK THE BRITISfl CONIOPTERYGID^E. 



245 



1. Nervule connecting radius and radial-ramus in 

both fore- and hind wings striking the latter in 

upper arm of fork (z^ + a. tiR- 7) ... S. aleiirodifunius, Staph. 

2. Above-named nervule in both fore- and hindwings 

striking the stem of fork balow the fork-point 

{rr fig, 8) ... ... ... ... .S, lurthiana, Enderlein. 

Genus — Parasemidalis, Enderlein. 
The following species are known on the Continent, but hixve not 
been discovered in the British Isles. 




Figs. 9, 10. 9. Fore- and hindwings of Parasemidalis annae. 
10. End of bindwing cf P. fascipennis. 

1. Nervule connecting the radius and radial-ramus 

in both fore- and hindwings striking latter on the 

stem below the fork-point (//■, fig. 9).... /'. annac, Enderlein. 

2. Above-named nervule in the hindwing striking 
the radial-ramus on the upper arm of the fork 

(^2+3, fig. 10) ... ... ... P. fiiwipennis, Renter. 




Figs. 11, 12. Fore- ;ind hindwings of 

11. Aleuroptenjx loewi. 

12. Helicoconis littea. 

cu.,. Lower arm of cubitus. 



246 THE entomologist's record. 

Sub-family— ALEUEOPTERYGINiE. 

Two European species are known, namely, Helicoconis lutea, Wall., 
and Aleurnpteriix loeiri, Klap., but neither have yet occurred in the 
British Isles. 

1. Lower arm of cubitus ( ciio, ) in fovewing normal 

(fig. 12) ; nervule connecting radius and radial- 
ramus in hindwing striking the latter on the 
upper arm of the fork (r^+s, fig. 12) 

Helicoconis, Enderlein. 

2. Lower arm of cubitus ( ni-z ) in forewing strongly 

bent towards end (fig. 11) ; nervnle connecting- 
radius and radial-ramus in hindwing striking the 
stem {)■)■) of the latter well below the fork-point 
(fig. 11) ... ... ... ... Aleuropteryx, Low. 

Notes on British Species. 
1. Comventzia pmcifiniuix, Curtis. 

1834, Brit. Ent., pit. 528 : 1836, Steph., III., x., 117. 

Common throughout the summer (McLachlan). 

Evidently widely distributed. The following are some recent 
northern records : — Quite common in the Cleveland district (Yorks.), 
especially on holly (J. W. H. Harrison) ; Gibside, Co. Durham, and 
Ovingham-on-Tyne, Northumberland (R.S.B.). Twenty-four examples 
are in the Daleian collection. 

2. C(mwentzia piiieticola, Enderlein. 

1905, Ber. Westpi: bot.-zool. Yer., pp. 26-27, figs. 10 and 11. 
Mr. Harrison brings this interesting insect forward in The Vascu- 
liim, i., p. 56, 1915* recording it as very common and widely distributed 
in the Cleveland area (Yorks.) on larch, and also records a pair from 
county Durham. The insect is very variable, and it is possible that 
the following, found on sallow, may prove to be a form of it, though 
it differs in many points from Enderlein's description. The light 
patches in the distal cells of forewing may have been overlooked in 
pineticola — they are not present in examples of piiieticola I have 
examined, but I have noticed variation in this direction in C. 
psocifoDiris. 

3. Comcentzia cr)jptonci(ris, Bagnall, 

1915, f'nt. Mn. ]\Iai/., li., 192-3, June, and T/w ]'ascitli())i, i., pp. 
22-24, figs. 1-3, June. 

Northumberland, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Three examples found on 
sallow, July, 1914. See above remarks. 

4. ('onio])tc'ri/,i- pijrpiiaeKs, Enderlein. 

1906, Zool. Jahrb., xxiii., Abt. f. Syst., p. 201, figs. 6, 86, 55, 58, 
and 61. 

This species will probably be found in British collections mixed 
with tineiformis. When fresh examples can be examined strong 
differences will be found in the form of the last abdominal segment, 
and in the structure of the genitalia in the S . 



" A POSER," STAINTON. 247 

There is at least one example of this species (labelled Coniopteii/.r 
hi/aliniis, Steph.) in the Daleian collection. 

5. Coniopten/.r tineifonnis, Curtis. 

1834, JJrif. Ent., pit. 528; 1886, Steph., ///., x., 116. 

Not uncommon in summer, especially in fir trees (McLachlan). 

Probably a widely distributed insect. Quite common on oak and 
sallow in the Cleveland district (J. W. H. Harrison) ; on oak, Gibside, 
county Durham (R.S.B.). 

A large number of the examples in the Daleian collection fall into 
Cnniopteri/.r, spp., but I am not able to deal with the bulk of them. 

6. Si'hiidali^ ali'iimdifoDiiis, Steph. 

1836, Steph., III., x., 116. 

Probably equally common witk the last {C. tineiforwh), but I 
cannot say that I have personally noticed it (McLachlan). 

Apparently rare. The following are recent northern records : — 
Cleveland district, Yorkshire, one exanaple from honeysuckle (J. W. H. 
Harrison) ; Felton, Northumberland, one from oak, 1915. (R.S.B.) 

The only two examples in the Daleian collection that I can identify 
as this species with any degree of certainty are labelled (and have been 
wrongly identified as) (\ parvnliis, Vill., —tineiformis. Other examples 
standing under that name are true Conioptery.v, spp. 

7. Semidalis ciirtisiana, Enderlein. 

1906, Zonl. Ja/nh., xxiii., Abt. f. Syst., p. 212, figs. 18, 62. 

Recognised chiefly by the position of cross-veins (nervules) in both 
fore- and hindwings, and the relative lengths of the joints of the hind 
tarsus. 

There are two undoubted examples in the Daleian collection 
labelled " Conioptenj.r aleurodiforwiii, Steph.," 124 67 and 125/67. 



" A Poser," Stainton. 

By Hy. J. TUKNER, F.E.S. 
{Continued from page 199). 

I have now made an examination of the series of tni.r-liiniiiera in 
the British Museum. There is first a set of the luninera, British, from 
the Leech collection. They are all of the well-known form only 
varying within the usual limits, orbicular and claviforui staring in 
both males and females, reniform well marked, the usual soft grey 
surface in the males and the delicate surface of the darker females, 
hindwings strongly pearly in the males, etc. Next follows a series of 
thirty-six specimen of what is called tntr. It is a series made up 
from various sources and is presumably a very good exponent of what 
many well-known authorities and collectors have recognised as tru.r 
within the last fifty years. There are six from the Zeller collection, 
six from the Frey collection, and fourteen from the Leech collection 
including two of Staudinger's and one of Gerhard's. 

The first impression, which becomes still more dominant on closer 
examination, is that the series called tru.r is a very distinct species 
from the linu'r/era of Britain. It is a bigger, bolder species and 
practically every character contrasts strongly with the delicate general 



248 THE entomologist's record. 

characters of lnni<iera. No one could have any hesitation in separating 
the two if a mixed assortment were put before them. 

The following notes are made on the individual specimens : — 
1 & 2, Are labelled ab. olivina. They are from the Leech coll. locality 
France. Both have the claviform well marked and deep black, but in 
olive tone are not comparable with the figures in the two copies of 
Hiibner's Samin. eiir. Sc/nn., with which I compared them. Possibly 
Hiibner's figures may have faded but this would be very unlikely. 

3. Islabellod ab. terranea, locality France, from