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Full text of "The Entomologist's record and journal of variation"

Tv.S='ctS 




ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION. 



Edited by 

J. V^. TUTT, F.E.S. 



PRICE 7s. 6d, 
Special Index, Is. 



LONDON: 
ELLIOT STOCK, 62, Paternoster Row, E.C. 

BERLIN: 
R. FRIEDLANDER & SOHN, 11, Carlstrasse, 



AMERICA: 

PH. HEINSBERGER, 9, First Avenue, 

New York, U.S.A. 



PREFACE TO VOL. V. 

At the conclusion of our fifth vohnne, we beg to thank our now 
large circle of subscribers, both for their kind personal support, and for 
the help and sympathy which tliey have shown us by introducing 
The Entomologist's Record to their friends. 

We have attempted to make the magazine a real desideratum 
to entomologists, by discussing such subjects as are from time to 
time brought under their notice ; by publishing collecting notes, which 
shall give a fair idea of what is being done from month to month in 
various parts of the country ; by informing our readers of the important 
articles and records in other magazines, attempting thereby to separate 
in some measure the wheat from the chaff ; by attempting to lead those 
who have but little opportunity and time, to take a scientific interest 
in their work. In doing this, it has been somewhat difficult to steer 
safely between Scylla and Charybdis, to avoid falling into the drivel 
which so often goes by the name of popular science, or, on the other 
hand, rising to those ethereal heights, where abstruse subjects are 
wrapped in mystifying verbiage, and are not understanded by the 
multitude. 

When The Entomologist'' s Record was started, it was felt that de- 
scriptive monogi-aphs of foreign insects and of little known British 
Orders, were not altogether suital)le for a monthly magazine ; that 
entomologists wanted a monthly fillip, the material composing which 
should be such that any fairly educated man or woman with a bent for 
natural history could understand it, and possibly learn something from 
it. This we venture to say we have provided. The readers of The 
Entomologist's Record have nothing presented to them that does not bear 
directly on their own work, and are kept au conrant with what is going 
on in the entomological world. 

The fact that we wish to make the magazine as far as possible in- 
structive and its contents scientifically accurate explains our position, 
where the editorial lash has perhaps fallen somewhat heavily. If we 
have injured the personal feelings of anyone we are sincerely sorry, but 
there are times when ignorance must be exposed. When a man mis- 
states facts and mis-leads his readers, he is doing he knows not what 
harm. The essence of good work in any branch of science is, that the 
writer should collect and digest his facts for himself first, and not write 
on a subject until he has mastered it. A writer is a teacher. If the 
subject we profess to study is to advance, the youngsters must begin 
where we leave off, and we are doing the younger generation of natural- 
ists a serious wrong, when those whom they look up to as their 
masters to-day, teach them error for truth. Ignorance is no excuse 
for this, and we shall expose it wherever we see that it is doing harm. 

In our younger days, it was our greatest trouble to find out the most 
recent views and facts connected with entomological work. The 
material we want is scattered over perhaps three or four sets of magazines, 
and as many sets of Transactions, which in our young days we can ill- 
afford to buy. Our Chapters on the Life-history of a Lepidopterous 
Insect have been compiled, with a view to meet this want. If our col- 
lector readers think them dry, they must consider what a large share of the 
magazine they usu;illy get. We can only make them as readable as jDossible, 
without altering the facts of the science. We all began by collecting. 
In old days, the collector rarely developed into a scientist ; probably not 
one per cent, became imbued with a desire to know anything of the 



PREFACE. 



insects tliey collected. But tlie spread of education has changed that 
entirely ; many of the papers read before the various societies scattered 
over the country show a knowledge and insight into our science which 
would have been imi^ossible a few years ago, when the scientific side of 
the study was rarely presented and when men collected for years 
probably, before the necessity of thinking came home to them. It is 
work of this kind that The Entomologist's Record sets itself to encourage 
and to foster. 

We are anxious to keep British entomologists in touch with those 
of similar tastes in various parts of the world. We do not think this 
is best done by publishing articles on work done, or descriptions of 
species from clistant parts of the world ; these must be studied by the 
specialist who will buy the books he needs. But among the large amount 
of material which passes through our hands (and for the purpose of en- 
larging our knowledge of what is being done in different parts of the 
world, and thus giving ourselves a broader view of the subject, we 
exchange with all foreign magazines that will exchange with us), there 
are often articles or books which contain information with which the 
British collector should be acquainted. These we discuss as occasion 
demands from our own British standpoint, and we feel satisfied that in 
so doing, we interest all our readers. Glowing accounts of how to catch 
Purple Emperors and Jersey Tigers may interest us occasionally, but 
we cannot contini;ally get up an excitement on such subjects. 

One other matter we would mention, and in this we ask for the aid 
of all right-thinking entomologists. Britishers have been described as 
peculiar in their tastes and insular in their habits, with regard to matters 
entomological, and not without good reason. We have no sympathy 
with the man who prefers to remain ignorant because he is afraid to 
have foreign insects in his possession for comparison with British, lest 
he should be thought a cheat. Those men who study entomology as a 
science are well-known ; they are above susjncion. At the same time, 
our insular prejudices have placed a high (if artificial) money value on 
rare and local British species. Why should they not have this value if 
they are thought worth it ? That this is the case is proved by the 
fact that the value is fixed in British sale-rooms. But this artificial 
money value has led often to wholesale fraud, and we shall continue to 
protect our science by exposing such fraud wherever we find it existent, 
not so much from a sympathy with the victims, who sometimes appear 
to be pleased when victimised and extremely cross when a dirty piece 
of work is exposed, but on account of the fact that the introduction of 
foreign sj)ecimens as British, falsifies the data on which our scientific 
work is based, and disseminates error where we want to disseminate 
truth. Ignorance and error are the two greatest enemies of Science. 
Science is the well of absolute truth — all her devotees must seek to drink 
from it. 

We are now on the threshold of another year, at the commence- 
ment of another volume. To our subscribers and well-wishers we would 
say, the success of the Magazine simply means a better article for your 
money, for we wish to put into the Magazine the whole of the funds 
received for it. To our friends Dr. Chapman and Dr. Buckell our best 
thanks are due, for kindly help and often valualtle guidance. That the 
Sixth Volume will find a general welcome from all classes of Entomo- 
logists is the most earnest wish of 

YOUE EDITOR. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME V 



FAOB 

Current Notes 24,44,71,100,149,176,199,217,247,268 

Notes ON Collecting 14,48,74,102,153,180,204,224,252,268,296 

Notices, Reviews, etc 22,75,200,221,276,306 

Obituary 103,209,248 

Practical Hints 45,71,200,275,305 

Scientific Notes and Observations ... 12, 70, 95, 146, 172, 195, 218, 249, 294 

Societies 19,55,80,105,133,156,182,204,229,254,276,307 

Variation 12,45,98,152,175 220 

Aberrations of various Butterflies .. ... . . ... ... 12 

Additions to the British List: — Argyresthia illuminatella, 73; Cataplectica 
farreni, 217 : Sesia conopiformis, 217 ; Aleurodes avellanae, 178 ; A. spiraeae, 
100; Anisolahis annulipes, 177; Degeeria dalii, 178; Diastata hasalis, 74 • 
D. fumipennis, 73 ; D. ohscurella, 74 ; Mallota eristaloides, 278 ; Nemoraca 
quadraticornis, 178; Trioza centranthi ... ... ... ... ... ... 248 

Addresses, Abstract of the, of the President of the Entomological Society 55 
„ „ „ South London Entomo- 

logical and Natural History Society ... ... ... ... ... .. 46 

Advancing Backward : A Note on Melanism, etc. ... ... ... ... 175 

Agrotis agathina, Contribution, A, to the Knowledge of the Earlier Stages in 

the Life-history of ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 169 

American Entomology, Glimpses at ... ... ... ... 75 

Among the Ancients ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 123 

A New Method of Relaxing Insects 305 

Antiques, Two Entomological ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 190 

Apterous Females and Winter Emergence 96, 147 

Autumn Season in the Isle of Wight, The 268 

Blight 14, 218 

Burnej' and St. John Sales, The ... ... 74 

Butterfly Catching in the Neighbourhood of Mont Blanc ,. 233 

Capture and Habits of Cafaplecftca /a?Te7ii, Notes on the ... ... ... 249 

Classical Names, The Pronunciation and Accentuation of ... 60 

Classification, Notes on Dr. Buckell's Paper on 6 

Coleoptera ... 20,52,156; at Ipswich in 1893 52 

Collecting at Cromer 252 

Continental Lepidoptera sold as British 28 

Coremia ferrugaria (liA-w.) And C. unidentaria (Haw.) ... ... ... m^ 115 

Corrections (see Errata) 

Danais archippus, Anosia plexippus, or What? ... i 

Dealers and Stealers ... 92 

Descriptionof plates: I, 35; II, 132; E, 87; F, 103; G 257 

Determining Species, On an Additional Method for 8 

Distribution of 2'mea msfnjjwnctelja, Notes on the 219 

"Ditty, A" 22 

Double-brooded Species : Clielonia plantaginis ... ... 14 

Early Appearances ... ... ... ... 74 

Easter in Connemara 224 

Eggs, On, as helping to determine Natural Affinities ... 142, 195, 196, 250 

Eggs, Ichneumoned, of Bo»i%« rti6i ... ... ... ... ... ... 253 

Entomological Trip to Forres, An ... 270 



CONTENTS. V. 

PAGE 

Entomology at Eainham, Essex, in 1894 281 

Erebia epiphron and its named varieties 161 

Errata 48,111,146,218,297,294 

Euchloc, A probably New Species 97,146,172,219 

Evolution, The, of The Lepidopterous Pupa 25 

Exhibits of 1893 at The York and District Field-Naturalists' Society ... 13 

Fen Notes 180, 302 

Glimpses at American Entomology 75 

Gratuitous Offer, The Kesult of a 48 

Hair-tufts and Androconia in jBwsiroma reficittato ... 5 

Have we Two Indigenous Species of Ewc/aoe? 97,146,172,219 

Hybernate ? Does Cucullia chamomillae ... .. ... ... ... ... 95 

Ichneumons, Exhibit of 19 

Irish Lepidoptera, Variation in ... 47 

Larva of ^rctia caja. On the (with chromo plates) 11,32,131 

" Lead us not into Temptation." Pt. 11 36 

Lepidopterous Pupa, Evolution of ... ... ... 25 

Life History, The, of a Lepidopterous Insect, etc., 65, 89, 113, 137, 165, 192, 

210, 241, 289 
Life-Histories, Notes on the, etc: Agrotis agathina, 169; Melanippe rivata and 

M. sociata, 294:; Nyssia hispidaria, 80, 96 ; Ocneria dispar ... ... ... 236 

Melanism in Greenland ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 153 

New (?) Method of Relaxing Insects 305 

New Style of Butterfly Net 71 

Night Work, An Idyll 30 

Notes of tlie Season ... (1893) 15, 51; Spring Notes, 102, 153; Season, 182, 

204, 297 ; From the Books of the Exchange Club Baskets ... 224, 272, 297 
Notes: — On Nyssia hispidaria, 80, 96; Some varieties of British Rhopalocera, 
98; the Breeding of Lyclopides palaemon, etc., 174; the variation of 
Spilosoma mendica, etc. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 185 

Notices of Papers, vide also " List of Papers read before Societies " 

Hessian Fly, On the, F. V. Theobald, M.A., F.E.S 217 

On the Earlier Stages of the Nepticulse, Dr. Wood 199 

Notices and Eeviews: — 

Abstract of Proceedings of the South London Entomological and Natural 

History Society, for the years 1892 and 1893 203 

Effect, The, of External Influences upon Development, Aug. Weismann, 

M.D., Ph. D., D.C.L 222 

European Butterflies and Moths, W. F. Kirby, F.E.S 149 

Forteckning ofver Macrolepidoptera fauna i Finland efter iir, 1869, by 

EnzioReuter 276 

Genus Acronycta, The, and its Allies, T. A. Chapman ,M.D., F.E.S. ... 149 
Hero of Esthonia, The, and other Studies, etc., W. F. Kirby, F.E.S. ... 248 

Kentish Notebook, The ... ... ... 150 

New Mexico College of Agriculture, Bulletin 10, September, 1893 ... 79 

New Mexico Entomologist, The ... 150 

Eandom Eecollections of Woodland, Fen and Hill, J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. 22 

Ee-issue of Hiibner's " Sammlung exotischer Schmetterlinge " 149 

Eeport of The Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society 178 

Social Progress, 1894 306 

Species des Hymenopteres d' Europe et d' Algerie, Moiis. E. Andre ... 221 
The International Journal of Microscopic and Natural Science, 1894 ... 307 
Transactions of the City of London Entomological and Natural History 

Society, 1893 79 

Transactions of the Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society, vol. iii., 

pt. viii., 1894 306 

Twenty-Fourth Annual Eeport of the Entomological Society of 

Ontario, 1893 75 

Victorian Butterflies and how to Collect them, E. Anderson and F. P. 

Spiy 221 

Woodside, Burnside, Hillside and Marsh, J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. ... 101, 200 
Obituary: — T. Henderson, 44: Wm. Machin, 209; Prof. G. J. Eomanes, 

176 ; J. Jenner Weir, F.Z.S., F.L.S., F.E.S. (with plate) 103 

" Our Photugraph," PL G 257 

Pairing Moths in Captivity, On 275 



vi. CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

PoETEY :— A Ditty, 22 ; Song of the Seasons, 232 ; Spring, 130; To A. E. G. 70 

Probable New Species of Euchloe, A 97,146,172,219 

Queries ••• •■ ••• 297 

Random Notes on Zi/3aewa exuZans and its Variations 258 

'Rare iorm oi l-ATV a oi Achei-ontia atropos 220 

Earities, Captures and Eecords of, Argyresthia illwminateUa, 73 ; Callimorpha 
hera, 254; Caradrina cumbigiui, 268, 274, 303; Catapledica farreni, 217; 
Catocala fraxini, '2i8 ; Deilephila Uvornica, 224 ; Deiopeia pulchella (1892), 
156; Heliothis armiger, 268, 274; Heliothis peltiger, 268, 274; Laphygma, 
exigua, 229, 268, 297; Leucania albipuncta, 224, 229, 268, 274, 303; 
Pachetra leucophaea 217 ; Pieris daplidice, 217 ; Plusia nioneta, 217 ; Sesia 
conopiformis, 217; Sphinx pinastri, 217 ; Stiqmonota ravulana ... ... 217 

Eeference Summary to Plates in "The Genus Aci-onyda &nd its Allies" ... 308 

Eelaxing Insects, New Method of 305 

Eemarks, Some, having Special Eeference to ^rji/nnis jjop/iia 46 

Eeminiscences of the late Wm. Machin 248 

Eetrospections and Forecasts 41,68, 127 

Eeviews, See Notices and Eeviews 

Sales, The, " Burney " and " St. John," 74 ; Sale Notes 152 

Season, Notes of the ... (1893) 15, 51; Spring, 102, 153; Seasons, 182, 204, 

224, 272, 297 
Short Notes from the Books of the Exchange Club Baskets ... 224, 272, 297 

RoCIETIES ' 

, Birmingham Entomological Society 20, 57, 106, 136, 205, 255, 279 

Cambridge Entomological and Natural History Society 107 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society, 21, 58, 80, 

109, 159, 184, 206, 230, 255, 280 
Entomological Society of London ... 19, 55, 87, 105, 133, 156, 183, 277 

Herts Natural History Society and Field Club 158 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society 21,108,279,307 

Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society; Entomological Section, 

88, 136 

Penarth. Entomological and Natural History Society 58 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society, 19, 56, 105, 

135, 157, 204, 229, 254, 279 

York and District Field Naturalists' Society 13,307 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union (Entomological Section) 307 

Sound produced by J^eiM-owia popaZari's 148 

Specific Distinctness of Euchlo'6 cardamines and E. turritis (97), 146 (172, 219) 

Ten Days at Wicken Fen 180 

Two Entomological Antiques 190 

Whitsuntide on the Cotswolds 155 



INDEX TO LOCALITIES. 

Aberdeenshire 74,96,182,273 

Bucks 51 

Cambs :— Wicken 180, 302 

Courmayeur 233 

Cumberland :— Keswick 102,226,301 

Derbyshire :—Bakewell 74, 299 

Devon :— North, 17; South, 254; Honitou, 225, 272; Horrabridge, 224; 

Plymouth 16 

Dorset!— Portland, 301; Weymouth 228,298,300 

Durham:— 273; Hartlepool 297 

Essex:— Eainham, 155, 204, 226, 281; Southend 227,298 

Gloucestershire: — Cheltenham, 102, 154; Cotswolds, 155; Lj'dney, 153, 182: 

Tewkesbury 154, 225, 273 

Hants :— 102, 304, 305 ; Isle of Wight, 224, 227, 229, 268, 274, 297, 303 ; New 

Forest, 154, 226, 227, 301 ; Southampton, 52, 301 ; Winchester 204 

Hereford 102 

Herts 156 

Ireland:— 204; Connemara, 224; Dublin, 299 ; Enniskillen, 226; Galwaj', 

154; Kingstown, 154; JMonaghan, 154; Sligo, 298; Waterford... .'.. 153 
Isle of Wight :— Freshwater, 229, 268, 297, 303; Sandowu ... 224, 227, 274 



CONTENTS. vii. 

PAGE 

Kent :— Deal, 273, 300 ; Dover, 272 ; Folkestone, 272 ; Lee, 224, 226 ; Roches- 
ter and Bheerness ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 51 

Lancashire: — Liverpool ... 297 

London District ... 296 

Norfolk :— Cromer, 252, 297 ; King's Lynn 52,1.55,225,272,299 

Northumberland :— Morpeth 155,226,273,301 

Oxon ... ... ... .. 51 

Scotland :— 272, 273 ; Forres, 270 : Glasgow District, 272 ; Linlithgow, 300 ; 

Montrose 301 

Somerset :— 51 ; Bath, 153, 182, 225 ; Clevedon 155, 224, 225, 299 

Staffs:— Cannock Chase, 153; Hugeley 102,225,273 

Suffolk :— Coast, 225 ; Ipswich, 52 ; Tuddenham 181,303 

Surrey: — Dorking, 52; Weybridge... ... 74 

Sussex :— Brighton, 304, 156 

Wales:— Llangollen, 224; Tenby, 299; Swansea 154,225 

Yorkshire;— 15, 300; Doncaster 225,298 



PAPERS BEAD BEFORE SOCIETIES, NOTICED AND RE i' IE WED 

DURING 1894. 

BlEMINGHAM ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY : — 

Notes on the Migration of Insects, G. H. Kenrick, F.E.S 136 

On the Genus Hadena, P. W. Abbott 205 

Wayside Notes of a Naturalist, Mr. Urich 21 

Cambridge Entomological and Natural History Society : — 

Hair-tufts and Androconia in Eustromia reticulata, T. A. Chapman, 

M.D.. F.E.S 5,108 

Parthenogenesis in Insects, F. V. Theobald, M.A., F.E.S 108 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society : — 

Butterfly-catching in the Neighbourhood of Mont Blanc, J. W. 

Tutt, F.E.S 233 

Coremia, ferrugaria (Haw.) and C. unidentaria (Haw.), Louis B. Prout, 

F.E.S Ill 

Further Notes on Selenia tetralanaria, A. W. Bacot ... ... ... 231 

Life-history of Ocnerm citspar, C. Nicholson, F.E.S. 236 

Notes on iVi/ssia /mpidaria, A. F. Bayne ... ... ... ... ... 80 

Notes on the Habits of Brephos notha, A. U. Battley ... ... ... 159 

Notes on the Ova of Selenia tetralunaria, A. W. Bacot ... ... 207, 231 

Notes on the Parallelism in the Earlier Stages between Eugonia 

querdnaria Sind E. autumnaria, F. J. Bvlc^qU, M.'B. ... ... ... 231 

On Assembling SeZema tetraZuwaria, A. W. Bacot ... ... ... ... 160 

On Butterfly-Pupae and the lines of Evolution which they suggest, 

T. A. Chapman, MD., F.E.S 160 

Pronunciation and Accentuation of Classical Names, Capt. B. Blaydes 

Thompson 60 

Random Notes on Collecting Lepidoptera in Scotland, Henry A. 

Hill, F.E.S 58 

Entomological Society of London : — 

Further Observations on the Tea-Bugs (Helopeltis) of India, C. O. Water- 
house, F.E.S., etc 20 

Notes on some Lepidoptera received from the Neighbourhood of 

Alexandria, G.T. Bethune- Baker, F.E.S 20 

On the Phylogeny of the Pierinae, etc., Dr. F. A. Dixey, F.E.S. ... 20, 87 
Rhyncophorus Coleoptera of Japan, Part III, Scolytidae, W. F. H. Bland- 
ford, F.E.S 20 

Some Notes on those Species of Micro-lepidoptera allied to Micropteryx, 

etc., T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.E.S 87 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society: — 

Correlations of Plants and Insects, R. Newstead, F.E.S 108 

Introductory Remarks on the Genus Vanessa and its Allies, C. H. Schill 21 

The New Entomology, W. E. Sharp 109 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society: — 

Notes on Common Insects, F. Enoch 157 



CONTENTS. 



INDEX TO CONTRIBUTORS. 



PAGE 

Abbott, P. W 303 

Allen, J. E. R 224 

Anon... ... ... 36 

Atmore, E. A., F.E.S 52 

Bankes, E. R., M.A., F.E.S. 218, 219 
Basden-Smith, H. W., M.A. ... 16 

Battley, A. U 21 

Bayne, A. F 80, 200 

Beales, J. H. D 14 

Bedford, F. P 195, 250 

Brown, E. W., Capt. ... 47 

Brown, H. R., M. A., F.E.S. ... 92 

Buckell, F. J., M.B., 1,22,45,74, 

111, 152, 161, 172, 190, 200, 

221, 276 
Burrows, C. R. N. Rev. 200, 204, 

220, 275, 281 
Chapman, T. A., M.D., F.E.S. 5, 

11, 25, 32, 131, 174 

Cowie, W 14 

Crass, 0. H 100 

Cross, W.J 224 

Esam, W. W 156 

Farren, W., F.E.S 249 

Fenn, C, F.E.S 226, 273 

Finlay, J 45 

Fowler, W. W. Rev., M.A., F.E.S. 19 
Gibbs, A.E., F.L.S., F.E.S. ...156 

Goss, H., F.L.S., F.E.S 19 

Greer, T 182 

Gunning M., M.D 301 

Hewett, G. M. A. Rev., M.A. 

22, 30, 130, 204, 232 

Hewett, W 13, 15, 297 

Higgs, M. Stanger, F.E.S. ...182 

Hodges, Albert J. 41, 68, 127, 180, 

229, 268, 297 

Home, A., F.E.S., 96, 182 

Johnson, A. J 14, 198 

Johnson, J. Gilbert ... 304,305 

Kane, W. F. de V., M.A., M.R.I.A., 

F.E.S 148 

Keays, A. Lovell, F.E.S 48 

King, Thos, W 52 

Kipping, S 51 

Kirby, W. F., F.L.S., F.E.S. 6, 146 

Mason, J 45 

Moberley, J. C, M.A. ... 52, 302 
Morley, Claude 52 



PAGE 

Mutch, J. P., F.E.S. ... 270, 305 

Nesbitt, A 146 

Newnham, F.B., M.A. 12, 14, 97, 

146, 148, 219 
lSricholson,C.,F.E.S. 21, 236, 252, 253, 297 

Page, H. E 79 

Pickard-Cambridge, O. Rev., M.A. 74 
Pierce, F. N., F.E.S. ... 21, 198 

Porritt, G. T., F.L.S., F.E S. ... 254 

Porter, W. E. H 204 

Pratt, J. 198 

Prout, L. B., F.E.S. Ill, 115, 147, 

224, 227, 274, 294 

Quail, Ambrose 296,308 

Richardson, N. M., B.A., F.E.S. ... 228 
Riding, W. S., M.D., F.E.S. 8, 169, 

198 221 

Russell, S. G. C, F.E.S .'253 

Scarfe, B 15 

Sequeira, J. S. M.R.C.S 248 

Sheldon, W. G 17 

Shipp, J.W 98 

Smith, W. W 149 

Spiller, A. J. 51 

Still, J. N. Major, F.E.S. ... 95 

Stones, Wilfrid 14 

Studd, E. F 96 

Tait, R., Jun 274 

Thompson, B. Blaydes, Capt. 60, 148 
Thornewill, C. F. Rev., M.A., 

F.E.S 48 

ThurnalJ, A. 303 

Turner, H. J., F.E.S 19 

Tutt, J. W., F.E.S., 24, 28, 44, 45, 
46, 49, 65, 71, 75, 89, 100, 102, 
103, 113, 123, 137, 146, 149, 
153, 165, 173, 175, 176, 182, 
185, 192, 196, 199, 203, 209, 
210, 217, 221, 233, 241, 247, 

250, 257, 258, 268, 289, 306 

Vivian, H. W., F.E.S 70 

Wainwright, Colbran J. ... 20, 155 
Whittle, F, G 227 



[N.B. — The names of the contributors to 
the " Short collecting notes from the Exchange 
club books " have not been indexed, nor have 
those of Secretaries who send reports of Societies] . 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plate 1. — Varieties of Larvae of Arctia caja; description of plate. No. 2, page 35- 
Plate 2.— „ „ „ „ No. 5 „ 132. 

Plate E. — Photo-plate of pupae of Microjsteryo!; „ No. 3 „ 87. y 

Plate F. — Photograph of tlie late J. Jenner Weir, F.Z.S., F.L.8., F.E.S. ; de- ^ 

scriptioii of plate. No. 4, 103. 
Plate G. — Photographof group of Entomologists, taken in Liverpool; description t^ 

of plate, No. 11, page 257. 



SPECIAL INDEX. 

(Lepidoptera by G. B. Routledge, F.E.S. ; other Orders by 
G. A. Lewcock.) 






o-*-/ 



The Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation. 



VOL. V. 



SPECIAL INDEX, 

Arranged in order of Species. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


ARACHNIDA. 




Apion difforme 


..53, 54, 55 


Atypus piceus 


... 87 


bookeri 

immune 


... 55 
5.5 






Isevicolle 


54, 55 


COLEOPTERA. 




virens 55 

Aspidio-morpha sante-crucis ... 107 


Achenium depressum 


... 55 


Atlious lisemorrhoidalis 


.54 


Acilius sulcatus 


53, 136 


vittatus 


54 


Adimonia caprsea 


... 54 


Attelabus curculionoides 


207 


sanguinea 


... 54 






Agabus striolatus 


... 54 


Badister bipustulatus 


53 


sturmi 


... 54 


sodalis 


156 


uliginosus ... 


... 54 


Bagous argillaceus ... 


218 


Agathidium marginatum ... 


... 1.^)6 


Barynotus obscurus ... 


136 


Agriotes lineatus 


... .53 


sclioaiierri ... 


.. 110, 136 


pallidus 


... 54 


Bembidium litorale ... 


55 


Amara acuminata 


.53 


lampros 


53 


bifrona 


... .53 


4-maculatum 


53 


communis 


... 53 


4-guttatum ... 


53 


curta 


... 53 


Blaps mucronata 


54 


familiaris 


... 53 


Bledius atricapillus ... 


156 


ovata 


... 110 


opacus 


156 


plebeia 


... 53 


tricornis 


156 


spinipes 


... 156 


unicornis 


156 


Anchomenus albipes.. 


... 53 


Bolitobius exoletus ... 


.55 


micans 


... .53 


liygmteus 


50 


oblongus 


53, 156 


trinotatus . . 


55 


prasinus 


... 53 


Brachinus crepitans ... 


53, 156 


Anthonomus pedicularius ... 


... .53 


Brenthidte 


183 


Aphodius contaminatus 


... 55 


Broscus cephalotes . . . 


53 


depressus 


... .54 






erraticus 


... 53 


Calathus cisteloides ... 


53 


fimetarius 


... .54 


melanocephalus ... 


. . 53 


foetens 


... 53 


Callidium violaceum 


... 54 


fossor 


... 53 


Callipogon friediinderi 


105 


granarius 


... 53 


Calosoma inquisitor ... 


108 


hsemorrhoidalis 


... 54 


Carabus catenulatus... 


55 


inquinatus 


53, 55 


granulatus 


53 


lividu.s 


... 55 


nemoralis ... 


... 53 


prodromus 


... 54 


violaceus 


53 


rufipes ... 


... 54 


Cardiopborus equiseti 


183 


sordidus 


... 54 


Cercyon hsemorrhoidalis 


. . 54 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PACK 

. 54 
. 156 
. 156 
, 55 
, 54 
55 



Ceuthorrhynchus poUinarius 
Choleva agilis... 
angustata ... 

chrysomeloide.s 

grandicollis 

sericea ... 

watsoni ... ... ... ... 55 

Clirysomela fastuosa... ... ... 54 

polita ... ... ... ... 54 

varians ... ... 53 

Cistela muriiia ... 54 

Clivina fossoi-,.. ... 53 

Coccinella bi punctata ... 54, 55 

Egg of 229 

22-punctata 53, 184 

14-punctata ... 54, 110, 184 

7-punctata ... ... ... 53, 55 

variabilis ... 55, 230 

Coeliodes 4-maculatiis ... ... 54 

Ccenopsis waltoni ... 156 

Colymbetes fuscus ... ... ... 54 

pulverosus ... ... 54 

Coptomia mutabilis 20 

opalina ... ... 20 

Coi'ynetes ... ... ... ... 21 

Gossonidae ... ... 183 

Creophilus maxillosus 53 

Cryptarcha strigata .. 156 

Cryptocephaliis coryli 205 

nitidulus 205 

Cryptorrhynchus lapathi 231 

Detnetrias atricapillus ... 53, 55 

Dermestes murinus ... ... ... 53 

vulpinus ... 184 

Donacia dentipes ... 54 

lemnfe ... ... 54 

linearis ... ... ... ... 54 

Dorcus parallelopipedus ... ... 54 

Dromius linearis ... ... ... 54 

nigriventris ... ... ... 156 

4-maculatus ... 54 

4-notatus 55 

Dy.schirius thoracicus 

Dy tiscus marginalis 

Elaphrus cupreus 

Enochrus bicolor 
Erirrhinus validirostris 



Gas trophy sa polygoni 

rhaphani 
Geotrupes mutator ... 

stercurarius ,5.3, 

sylvatica 

typhcBus ... 

vernalis 
Gonioctena litura 

Gronops lunatus 

Gyrinus marinus 

opacus 

Haliplus Havicoliis 

obliquus 



... 156 

... .54 

... 1.56 

... 53 

... 53 

... 53 

... 54 

... 241 

... 53 

54, 55 

... 53 

... 108 

... 108 

... 54 

... 156 

... 53 

... 54 

... .53 

... 53 



Haltica consobrina ... 
Harpalus attenuatus... 

proteus 

rotundicollis 

ruficornis ... 
Helodes marginatus ... 
Helops striatus 
Heterocerus tevigatus 

obsoletus 

sericans 
Hister cadavei'inus ... 

neglectus 

liurpurascens 
Hydrobius fuscipes ... 
Hydroporus dor.salis .. 

ferrugineus 

palustris 

reticulatus ... 
Hylastes obscurus 
Hypera fasciculata ... 

punctata 

Hyphydrus ovatus . . . 

Ilybius ater 

fuliginosus .., 

obscurus 

Ips 4-guttatus 

4-pustulatus 

Lasia globosa ... 
Lathrobium longulum 

terminatum 
Labia clilorocephala ... 

cyanocei)hala 
Leistus ferrugineus ... 

spinibarbis ... 
Lema cyanella 

nielanopa 
Leptura livida 
Limobius mi.xtus 
Limonius cylindricus 
Lina senea 

Loricera pilicornis ... 
Lucanus cervus 

Malachius bipustulatus 

marginellus... 
Malthinus punctatus 
Mantura matthewsi ... 

Meligethes 

Meloe violaceus 
Melolontha vulgaris ... 
Mohammus sartor . . . 
Myllsena kraatzi 

Nebria brevicollis 
Necrophorus humat or 

mortuorum 

ruspator 

vespillo 

vestigator ... 
Nitidula bipustulata... 
Notiophilus aquaticus 

biguttatus 

Notoxus monocerus ... 



PAGE 

... 156 

... 53 

... 53 

... 156 

... 53 

... 156 

... 55 

... 156 

... 156 

... 156 

... 54 

... 54 

... 64 

... 53 

... 53 

... 156 

... 53 

... 53 

... 156 

... 54 

... 53 

... 53 

54, 136 

... 54 

... 136 

... 136 

... 136 

... 53 
... 156 

... 156 
... 254 
... 2.:4 
... 53 
... 53 
... 53 
... 54 
... 54 

55 
... 110 

55 
... 53 
... 53 

... 54 

... 54 

... 54 

54, 55 

... 53 

... 54 

... 54 

... 136 

... 156 

. . 53 

... 62 

... 54 

... 54 

... 55 

... 54 

... 53 

... 55 

... 53 

... 54 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Ocypus olens 

similis 

Olibrus corticalis 

geminatus ... 
Onthophagus fracticornis ... 
Otiorrhynchus ovatus 

picipes 

scabrosus 

tenebricosus 
Oxytelus nitidulus ... 

rugosus 

Pachyta collaris 
Pelobius hermanni ... 
Philonthus politus ... 

tbermarum ... 

Phratora vitellinse ... 

Pbytobius velatus 

Plectroscelis subccerulea 
Plinthus caliginosus... 
Pogonus luridipennis 

Polydrusus micans 

Polystichus vittatus 

Prasocuris marginella 

phellandrii ... 

Prionus coriarius 

Pristonychus subcyaneus ... 
Psylliodes napi 
Pterostichus gracilis... 

inaequalis ... 

madidus 

nigrita 

stiiola 

versicolor ... 

vulgaris 

Ptinus fur 

Pyrochroa serraticornis 

Quedius picipes 

Ehagium bifasciatum 

inquisitor ... 
Rhina barbirostris ... 
Rhinosomus jilanirostris 
Rhizophagus bipustulatus .. 

dispar 

Rhizotrogus solstitialis 
Rhynchites germanicus 

megacephalus 

Rhyncbophorous coleoptera 
Japan (Scolytidse) 

Saprinus metallicus 

virescens 
Scarabseus 

Serica brunnea 

Silpha atomaria 

atrata 

laevigata 

nigrita 

opaca 

4-punctata ... 

rugosa 

sinuata 

subrotundata 

thoracica 



of 



PAGE 
... 53 

... 53 

... 53 

... 20 

... 54 

... 54 

... ."^4 

... 54 

... 156 

... 55 

... 53 

... '231 

... 53 

... 54 

... 156 

... 54 

... 156 

... 156 

... 156 

... 51 

... 54 

... i.'.e 

55 

... 54 

54, 55 

... 53 

... 54 

... 156 

... 53 

... 53 

... 53 

... 54 

... 110 

... 53 

... 54 

... 207 

... 53 

... 156 
136, 156 
... 183 
... 136 
... 136 
... 136 
... 54 
... 54 
... 54 

20 



... 156 

... 54 

... 75 

... 54 

... 20 

.53, 55, 159 

... 156 

... 110 

... 109 

... 184 

... 53 

... 53 

... 159 

... 53 



Sinodendron cylindricum ., 
Sitones lineatus 

puncticollis... 

Spbseridium bipustulatum ., 
Staphylinus stercorarius ., 
Stenus pubescens 

speculator ... 
Strangalia armata ... 

melanura ... 
Strophosomus cor j'li ... 

obesus 

retusus 

Stylops 

Sunius intermedins ... 

Tachyporus cbrysomelinus. 

humerosus ... 

hypnorum 

obtusus 
Telephorus bicolor ... 

fulvus 

lividus 

pellucidus ... 
Thiasophila angulata 
Thyamis lycopi 

lurida 
Tribolium ferrugineum 
Triplax russica 
Trogopliloeus halopbilus 
Tropiphorus carinatus 



CRUSTACEA. 

Apus canceriformis ... 

Gonoplex angulata ... 

Lininadia gigas 

Polyphemus oculus 



DERM AFTER A. 

Anisolabis annulipes 

DIPTERA. 

Alophora hemiptera... 

Blepharoptera inscripta 
Bombilius major 





PAGE 




136 


53, 


55 




55 




54 




54 




156 


53, 


55 




54 




54 




54 


54, 


156 




156 




107 




156 




55 




55 


53' 


55 




55 




54 




54 




54 




54 




156 




54 




55 




55 




55 




156 




156 



.. 290 

.. 254 

.. 290 

.. 290 



177, 178 



279 



158 
157 



Callomyia amsena 158 

Cecidomyia, larval parthenogenesis 108 

destructor ... ... 217 

Chironomus ... 108 

Cheilosia chrysocana 206 

flavicornis ... ... 136 

grossa 136 

Chortophila setaria 158 

Cliniocera lamellata... ... ... 57 



Dactyolabis gracilipes 
Degeeria dalii... 
pulchella 



57 
178 
157 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

Didea fasciata .. ... ... 57 

Dioctria flavipes ... ... ... 279 

reinhardi ... ... 279 

Driastata basalis ... ... 19, 73 

fumipennis ... ... ... ... 73 

obscurella . ... 73 

Echinoyia grossa 279 

lurida . ... 279 

ursina ... ... ... ... 136 

Ephelia verinervis ... ... ... 57 

Goniomyia jecunda ... ... ... 57 

Heteromyza atricornis ... ... 158 

Hypostena medorina ... ... 158 

Hystricopsylla talpse 278 

Laphria marginata ... ... ... 279 

Lepsis punctuin ... ... ... 158 

Limnobia bifasciata... ... ... 279 

Mallota eristaloides 278 

Meigenia majuscula ... 157 

Melanostoma 4-maculata ... ... 136 

Merodon equestris ... ... ... 255 

Myolepta luteola 279 

Nemorsea quadraticornis 178 

Phytomyza aquilegia 19 

Sarcopsylla penetrans ... ... 278 

Sciomyza rufiventris ... ... 157 

Stratiomys potamida ... ... 255 

Syrphus annulipes 155, 206 

lasiophthalmus ... ... ... 136 

triangulifer 155, 206 

Tachina 77 

Tachinidse ... ... ... ... 83 

Tricholyga 79 

Urellia elutata 157 



HEMIPTERA-HOMOPTERA 

Aleurodes avellanae 178 



Centrotus cornutus ... 
Lecanium prunatri . . . 

Hemiptera 

Serinetha augur 
Trioza centranthi 



... 158 

... 183 

... 25 

... 135 

... 248 



HYMENOPTERA. 



Agenia variegata 
Ammophila lutaria 
sabulosa 



... 57 
... 21 
21, 279 



Andrena bucephala ... 

cineraria 

fulva 

trimmerana 
Anomala cervinops ... 

Bombus cognatus 

latreillus 

muscorum 

sj'l varum 

Caniponotus ... 
Chalcididae 
Chirocera 
Coelioxys vectis 
Colas dispar ... 
Cremastogaster 
Crabro cribrarius 

interruptus 

unicolor 

vagus 

Dryophanta divisa ... 

Euryproctus nemoralis 

Formica nigra 

Glypta bicornis 

Halictus smeathmanella 
Haperacmus crassicornis 
Hymenoptera aculeata 

Ichneumon fuscipes ... 

pyrrhopus 

Ichneumonidse 

Lissonota sulphurifera 

Microgaster russatus... 
Miniesa dahlbomi 

Myrmica rufa 

sanguinea ... 

Nomada alternata ... 
ochroctana 

Osmia bicolor... 
xanthomelana 

Rhizarcha CErolaris ... 

Sirex gigas 

Synergus albipes 

Telenomus 
graptae 

Thalessa 

Trichogramma 

Vespa crabro 

vulgaris 

Zarsea f aciata 



PAQB 

... 206 

... 106 

106, 136 

... 57 

... 19 

... 21 
... 136 
21, 206 
... 21 

... 135 

... 108 

... 108 

... 57 

... 19 

... 135 

... 279 

.. 57 

... 57 

... 279 

... 157 

... 135 

... 255 

... 19 

... 57 
... 135 
.. 21 

... 19 
... 19 
... 83 

... 19 

... 135 

... 57 

... 107 

... 107 

... 57 
... 206 

... 57 
... 206 

... 19 

... 157 
... 157 

... 145 

... 145 

... 77 

... 145 

21, 57 
21, 134 

... 216 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



LEPIDOPTERA. 

abbreviata, Eupithecia 103, 154, 224 
abietaria, Boarmia ... ... 155, 167 

abjecta, Mamestra ... 52, 297, 305 

abruptaria, Hemerophila 153, 167, 

182, 304 
absinthiata, Eupithecia ... 18, 230 
absinthii, Cucullia ... ... ... 125 

acanthodactyla, Amblyptilia ... 280 

aceriana, Hedya ... 228 

aceris, Acronycta (Ciispidia) 141, 

142, 305, 308 
acbatana, Sideria ... ... ... 228 

Acidalia . . ... ... ... 142 

acis, Lyc^ena 29, 37, 235 

Acrpeidse ... ... ... 7 

Acronycta 57, 133, 139, 142, 143, 

144, 149, 198, 242, 24.3, 251 
actseon, Pamphila ... ... 235, 273 

Adela 26 

Adelidae 144 

adippe, Argynnis ...99, 202, 226, 234 

rar. chlorodippe ... 19 

rar. cleodoxa ... ...19, 99, 276 

adusta, Hadeiia 182, 183, 301, 302 

adustata, Ligdia ... ... 155, 182 

advena, Aplecta ... 52, 129, 305 

JEchmia 249 

Eegeria, Pararge vide egeria, P. 

segon, Lycpena ...62, 167, 235, 279 

aemulana, Catoptria 228, 298 

aescularia, Anisopterj'x 81, 97, 110, 

145, 147, 148, 153 
sesculi, Zeuzera vide pyrina, Z. 
cethiops, Erebia 58', 62, 235, 254, 

270, 271, .307 
affinis, Calymnia (Cosmia) ... 274, 305 
affinitana, Eupcecilia ... ... 227 

aflfinitata, Emmelesia ...18, 21, 182 

agathina, Agrotis 169, 171, 172, 

279, 286, 299, 301, 307 
agestis, Lycyena vide astrarche, L. 
aglaia, Argynnis ... 17, 106, 202, 231 

rar. charlotta 106, 156 

agnes, Cidaria ... ... ... 134 

Agrotides 181, 284 

Agrotis 18, 202 

ahenella, Oncocera 254 

ajax, Papilio 144 

alberta, Ghionobas 278 

albicillata, Melanthia ... 110,300 

albicolon, Mamestra 301 

albimacula, Dianthoecia 255 

albipuncta, Leiicania 52, 224, 229, 
268, 269, 274, 275, 290, 

303, 304, 305 

albistrigalis, Hypenodes 227 

albovenosa, Arsilonche (Viminia) 

129, 140, 142, 181, 193, 230, 308 

albulalis, Nola 128 

rar. karelica 276 

alcese, Spilotbyrus 20 

alchemillata. Emmelesia 18, 21, 274 
alchymista, Catephia ...38, 40, 217 

alexia, Lycaena vide icarus, L. 



alni, Acronycta (Cuspidia) 17, 125, 

141, 226, 308 

alniaria (tiliaria), Eugonia 168, 273, 300 

alope, Cercyonis ... 139 

alpinellus, Crambus ... 36, 38 

alsines, Caradrina ... 18, 228, 252 
alstrcemeriana (alstrcBmeriella), De- 

pressaria 298, 304 

alternata, Macaria ... ... ... 279 

Alucita 114, 125 

alveus, Syrictlms ... 75 

amataria, Timandra.. ... 126, 167 

ambigua, Caradrina 269, 274, 280, 

303, 304 

ambigualis, Scoparia ... ... 183 

ambiguella, Eupcecilia ... ... 109 

Amphidasydae ... 85, 86, 97, 148 
anceps, Mamestra vide sordida, M. 

andreniformis, Sesia ... 38, 40 

andromacbe, Ornithoptera ... ... 135 

annulata (omicronaria), Zonosoma 

(Ephyra) 182, 221 

anomala, Stilbia 17, 59, 273, 298, 299 

Anosia ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Anthocaris ... ... ... ... 7 

antiopa, Vanessa 29, 37, 38, 39, 40, 

78, 106, 107, 12.5, 126, 1.34, 152, 

191, 205, 214, 234, 235, 288 
antiqua, Orgyia 140, 143, 167, 168, 

179, 191, 240 

Apamea ... ... ... ... 205 

Apatura 7 

Apbantopus ... ... ... ... 7 

Aphnaeus ... ... ... ... 115 

apiciaria, Epione ... 21, 128, 168 

apiformis, I'rochilium ... ... 159 

apoUina, Doritis ... ... . . 73 

apollo, Parnassius 167, 168, 233, 

2.S4, 235 

Aporia ... ... ... ... ... 7 

applana, Depressaria ... ... 298 

aprilina, Agriopis ... ...48, 62, 301 

aquilina rar., Agrotis ... ... 302 

arbuti, Heliacaride tenebrata, H. 
archippus, Aiiosia 1, 74, 75 76, 

106, 136 

Arctia 88, 131, 133, 139 

arctica, Nola ... ... ... ... 276 

Arctiida- 256 

arcuana, Roxana ... ... 126, 305 

arcuatella, Bcardia ... ... 37, 39 

arcuosa, Miana ... ... 15, 301 

areola, Xylocampa 103, 154, 224, 304 

argentula, Bankia ... ... ... 231 

argiades, Lycaena 38, 40, 74, 75, 235 
argiolus, Lycajna 62, 102, 126, 158, 

159, 23.5, 299 

argus, Lycaena ... ... ... 235 

Argynnis ... ... ... ... 7 

argyrana. Coccyx ... ... ... 153 

Arhopala ... ... ... ... 115 

arion, Lycaena ... 125, 134, 235 

armiger, Heliothis ...78, 268, 269, 275 
artemis, Melitrta vide aurinia, M, 
arundinis, Macrogaster ridecastaneae,M. 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



anindinis (typhse), Nonagria 59, 280 

ashworthii, Agrotis ... ... ... 285 

asinalis, Botys ... ... ... 18 

assimilata, p]upithecia ... ... 230 

assimilella, Depressaria ... ... 304 

associata, Cidaria ... ... ... 5 

Asteroscopus ... 142, 143 

astrarche, Lycsena 17, 62, 228, 229, 

235, 272 

var. artaxerxes ... 272 

atalanta, Vanessa 12, 15, 17, 24, 

47, 100, 101, 106, 107, 109, 134, 

144, 153, 191, 234, 269, 299 

athalia, Melitsea ... 17, 191, 234, 276 

ran feimica ... ... ... 276 

atra, Laveriia ... ... ... ... 125 

atricapitana, Eupoecilia ... ... 19 

atriplicis, Hadena ... ... ... 302 

atropos, Acheroiitia 15, 126, 136, 

159, 191, 205, 220, 2S7 

augur, Noctua 284,301 

aurago, Xanthia ... 168, 198, 301 

auraua, (mediana) Trycheris ... 19 

aurantiaria, Hybernia ... 15, 85 

aurelia, Melita?a 234 

auricoma, Acronycta (Viniinia) 140, 

142, 308 

var. pepli ... ... ... ... 277 

I'ar. pylisevaarse ... ... ... 277 

auriflua, Liparis vide similis, L. 
aurinia, Melitaea 19, 52, 136, 153, 

182, 224, 234 
auromaculata, Cataplectica (Hey- 

denia) 217, 248 

australis, Aporophyla 229, 269, 273, 

274, 300, 303, 304 
autumnaria (alniaria), Eugonia 

(Ennomos) 168, 231 

avellanella, Semioscopus 304 

aversata, Acidalia ... 52 



badiata, Anticlea ... 102, 153, 
baia, Noctua 63, 286, 301, 

var. punctata 

baiulai'ia, Phorodesma 

baliodactyla, Aciptilia 

basilinea, Apamea ... 80, 301, 

basistrigalis, Scoparia 
batis, Thyatyra 17, 47, 126, 183, 

270, 
baumanniana, Argyrolepia vide 

hartmanniana, A. 
belgiaria, Scodiona ... 
bellargus,Lyc8ena98, 153, 160, 205, 

235, 

bennetii, Agdistis 227, 

berberata, Anticlea ... ... 231, 

berenice, Danais 

suh-species, janiaicensis, Danais 

(Tasitia) 

bertrami, Platyptilia ... 176, 

bbtulae, Thecla ... 52, 159, 

betularia, Amphidasys 80, 86, 87, 

97, 126, 148, 156, 175, 191, 286, 
300, 

var. doubledayaria 



224 
305 
276 
63 
305 
302 
298 

301 



255 

272 

298 

275 

74 

74 
228 
167 



306 
187 



bicolorata, Melanthia 45, 59, 110, 271 
var. plumbata ... ... 13, 271 

bicolor, Notodonta ... ... ... 42 

bicoloria, Hierophanta ... ... 248 

bicoloria, Miana ... 18, 206, 227, 301 
bicostella, PJeurota ... ... ... 255 

bicuspis, Dicranura ... ... ... 69 

bidentata, Odontopera ... 13, 126 

bifida, Dicranura 21, 255 

bilineata, Camptogramma 231 

bilunaria, Selenia 135, 154, 167, 

168, 224, 226, 304 

binaevella, Homceosoma 228 

binaria, Drepana 182 

bipunctaria, Eubolia 228, 280, 299, .300 
bipunctella, Anesychia ... 38, 39, 40 
biundularia, Tephrosia 16, 154, 175 

var. delamerensis ... 13, 16 

blandina, Erebia vide aethiops, E. 
blomeri, Asthena ... 16, 279, 300 

boeticus, Lampides ... ... ... 222 

Bombyces 18, 26, 64, 84, 124, 142, 

143, 146, 167 
Bombycidae ... ... ... 7, 62 

Bombycoidae 142, 143 

bombyliformis, Macroglossa 182, 226 
bondii, Tapinostola (Ghortodes) ... 128 
boreata, Clieimatobia 15, 158, 168 

Botys 241 

brachydactylus, Leioptilus (Ptero- 

phorus) ... ... ... ,_, 37 

branderiana, Orthotaenia ... ... 227 

brassicae, Mamestra 182, 301 

brassicae, Pieris 15, 17, 47, 71, 153, 234 

Brassolidae ... ... 7 

Brephides ... ... ... ... 57 

Brephinae ... 57 

Brephos ... ... ... ... 114 

bruceata, Clieimatobia ... ... 44 

brumata, Cheimatobia 15, 59, 97, 

140, 168 
brunnea, Noctua ... 182, 183, 301 
brunnichiana, Epliippiphora ... 19 
bucephala, Phalera (Pygaera) ... 271 
Butales 39 

caenobita, Panthea ... ... ... 143 

caeruleocephala,Diloba63, 109, 142, 

143, 292, 308 
caesia, Dianthoecia ... ... ... 43 

caesiata, Larentia ... 59, 110, 167 

caia, Arctia 11, 13, 32, 63, 131, 

132, 133, 156, 228, 

288, 304 
c-album, Vanessa 12, 13, 47, 58, 

103, 134, 141, 154] 299 
ab. iota-album ... ... ... 22 

callirhoe, Vanessa ... ... ... ^34 

callunae, Bombyx ... ... 226 273 

calthella, JVIici-opteryx (Erio- 

cephala) ... ... ... .. 37 

cambrica (cambricaria), Venusia 15, 

16, 300 
camelina, Lophopteryx (Notodonta) 

125, 271, 300 
Camilla, Limenitis 235 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



cana, Catoptria 
candidulana, Catoptria 
canella, Gymnancycla 
caniola. Lithosia 
cannae, Nonaejria 
capsincola, Dianthoecia 
capsophila, Dianthoecia 
carbonaria, Fidonia ... 



PAGE 

... 228 
228, 298 
... 305 
.. 43 
... 42 
... 18 
... 276 
... 70 



cardamines, Euchloe 97, 98, 139, 
146, 147, 153, 158, 159, 172, 173, 

205, '219, 220 
var. minor ... ... ... 172 

cardui, Vanessa 17, 109, 136, 144, 
178, 226, 228, 234, 254, 269, 272, 

273, 299 

carnella, Phalaena ... 125 

carpinata, Lobophora 15, 16, 69, 

80, 148, 154 
carpini, Saturnia vide pavonia, 

Saturn ia 
carpophaga, Dianthoecia 18, 225, 277 
cassinea, Asteroscopus vide sphinx, A. 
cassiope, Erebia ... ... ... 62 

castaneie, Macrogasterl29, 181, 230, 302 
castanea, Noctua .. 171, 172, 301 
castigata, Eupithecia ... 21, 183 

Castnia ... ... ■•• ••• 27 

castrensis, Bombyx . 126, 158, 228 

Cataplectica .. 217, 218, 248, 249 

cecropia, Platysamia (Samia) 106, 246 

celerio, ChfBrocampa 40 

cembrse, Scoparia 18 

centaureata, Eupithecia 181 

centonalis, Nola 17, 62 

certata, Eucosmia 154 

Cerura vide Dicranura 

cerussellus, Platytes (Crambus) 104, 228 

cespitalis, Herbula ... 18,228,304 

cespitana, Sericoris 183 

cespitis, Luperina 14, 273, 299, 300, 304 
chamomillae, Cucullia ...21, 95, 224 

chaonia, Notodonta 17, 57 

Chauliodus ••• 248 

chenopodii, Hadena vide trifolii, H. 
Chi, Polia ... 125, 168, 273, 301 

Chionobas ... 7 

Chlcephoridfe •. 27 

chlorana, Halias 27 

christ.ianana, Tinea 126 

chrysidiformis, Sesia 227,255 

chrVsippus, Papilio 1 

chrysitis, Plusia 52, 96, 126, 191, 272 

Chrysophanidi 167, 222 

Chrysopbanus 7 

chrysorrboea, Porthesia ... 128, 191 

chrvsozona, Hecatera 302 

cilialis, Nascia ... 129, 181, 230 

ciliella, Eupoecilia 19 

cinctaria, Boarmia 157, 1.58 

cinerea, Agrotis 104, 305 

ciniflonella, Depressaria 39 

cinxia, Melitaea 12,234 

circellaris (ferruginea), Mellinia 59, 

269, 300, 301 
circumflexa, Phalaena 125 



PAGB 

cirsiana, Ephippiphora 227 

citrago, Xanthia ... ... ... 126 

citraria, Aspilates vide ochrearia, A. 

clathrata, Strenia 228 

Cleodora 248 

Cleopatra, Gonepteryx ...38, 40, 234 

cleophile, Danais ... ... ... 74 

clerckella, Lyonetia ... 103, 125, 305 
cloaoella, Scardia ... ... ... 305 

clothera, Danais ... ... ... 74 

c-nigrum, Noctua 16, 227, 229, 252, 

269, 274, 298, 300, 301 

cojnosa, Laelia 127, 128 

Coenonympha 7, 62 

Colias 7, 137, 174 

Coleophora; 37, 209 

Coleophoridse ... ... ... ... 39 

comariana, Peronea ... ... ... 279 

comes (orbona), Triphcena 18, 182, 

252, 274, 301 

comitata, Pelurga 228 

comma, Hesperia (Pamphila) 52, 

106, 167, 2.35 
comma, Leucania ... ... 301, 305 

comparana, Peronea ... ... ... 279 

complana, Lithosia 272 

compta, Dianthcecia... ... ... 40 

comptana, Phoxopteryx ... ... 304 

comyntas, Lycaina .. ... ... 106 

concolor (extrema), Tapinostola 43, 

1U6, 303 
conflua, Noctua ... ... ... 301 

conformis, Xylina vide furcifera, X. 
confusalis, Nola ... ... ... 17 

conigera, Leucania ... 252, 272, 301 
conjunctaria, Phibalapteryx vide 

polygrammata, P. 
conspersa, Dianthcecia vid£ nana, D. 
conspicuata, Fidonia vide lim- 

baria, F. 
conopiformis, Sesia ... 
contaminellus, Crambus 
conterminana, Catoptria 
contigua, Hadena 
convolvuli, Sphinx ... 
conwayana, Argyrotoxa 
coracina (tiepidaria), Psodos 
cordigera, Anarta ... 



corticea, Agrotis 
corylata, Cidaria 
coryli, Demas 
coryli, Phalaena 



... 217 

36 

227 

20, 205, 273 

..15, 17, 126 

126 

58 

70 

.301 

... 182, 183 
141, 142, 143, 308 
125 



corydon, Lycsena 153 159, 160, 235, 

272, 279 



var. albicans 
var. apennina 
Cossus ... 
costalis, Pyralis 
oostana, Tortrix 
craccse, Toxocampa 
Crambi 
Crambus 



160 

98, 160 

26, 91 

305 

39, 227, 305 

279 

...27, 36, 39 
226 



crataegata, Rumia vide luteolata, R. 
cratsegi, Aporia ... ... 62, 234 

crataegi, Trichiura 168 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

42 

145, 154, 155 
129, 181, 230 

102 

298 

88 

39 
227 
103 
106 
227 



36, 
17, 



crenata, Glyphisia ... 
crepuscularia, Tephrusia 
cribralis, Herminia ... 
cribruin, Emydia 
cribrella, Myelopliila 
crispata, Las^oa 
cristana, Peronea 
cristatella, Bacculatrix 
croceago, Oporina 

crowleyi, Caduga ... 

cruciferarum, Plutella 
cubiculai'is, Caradrina vide quadri- 

punctata, C. 
cucubali, Dianthoecia ... 18, 225 

cucuUa (cuculliiia), Lophopteiyx ... 227 
culiciforinis, Sesia ... ... ... 69 

culmellus, Crambus ... ... ... 228 

cuprella, Adela . . ... 155 

cursoria, Agrotis 105, 271, 276, 298, 299 

vars. brunnea and sagitta 2 76, 301 
curtisellus, Prays ... ... ... 230 

curtula, Pygpera ... .. 125, 204 

Cuspidia ... ... 57, 141, 144 

Cuspidiae 133 

cytherea, Cerigo vide matura, C. 
cytisella, Cleodora ... 248 



dahlii, Noctua 
damone, Euchloti 
Danai ... 
Danai candidi 
Danai festivi ... 
Danaida 

Danaidae 

Danais ... 
Danaus 

daplidice, Pieris 24, 29, 38, 
152, 
daucellus, Chauliodus 
decemguttella, Anesytdiia 
decolorata, Kmmelesia 
decrepitalis, Scopala .. 
decretaiia, Tortrix ... 
defoliaria, Hy hernia 15, 2 
80, 85, 102, 
degreyana, Eupoecilia 
delicia, Hypochrysojis 
delius, Parnassius 
delphinii, Phalaena 
Demas ... 
dentelJa, ^']chmia 
dentina, Hadena 52, 62, 
183, 205, 
Depressarise ... 
depuncta, Noctua 
derasa, Thyatira 
devotella, Heydenia ... 
dia, Argynnis ... 
Dicranura 
dictsea, Notodonta 17, 21, 



dictseoides, Notudonta 17, 
var. frigida 



256, 


297, 


301 
146 




% 


190 
6 
6 

4 

7 




1, 


74 
6 


■93, 


125, 




217, 


234, 


235 

228 
305 




18, 


182 




137, 


272 
39 


1, 44 


, 58, 




1U9, 


125, 


126 
36 
222 
307 
126 




142, 


143 
249 


107, 


182, 




206, 


301, 


305 
39 




270, 


271 
305 
218 




234', 


235 

287 


136, 


206, 






207, 


300 


153, 


154, 




225, 


298, 


300 
276 



didyma, A])amea 18, 227, 228, 277, 

301, 302 
didymata, Larentia ... ... 59, 154 

diffinis, Galymnia (Cosmia) 298, 305 

Diloba 142, 143 

diluta, As[)halia 

dilutaria (interjectaria) Acidalia 

dilutata, Oporabia 



13 

228 

15 

183 
302 

278 
56 



dimidiata, Acidalia ... 

dipsacea, HelioMiis ... 19, 181, 226, 

discoidalis, Erebia ... 

disippus, Limentis ... 

dispar, Ocneria 109, 110, 128, 218, 

230, 236, 237. 238, 239, 240, 

255, 256, 294 
dispar, Polyommatus (Chryso- 

phanus) 37, 39, 93, 152 

dissimiiis, Hadena 16, 70, 158, 205, 

228, 276, 288, 305, 307 



distans (Isetus), Oxyptilus 
ditrapezium, Noctua... 
Diurni ... 

diversana, Tortrix ... 

dodonea, Notodonta vide trimacula, 

N. 
dominula, Callimoi-pha 
Doritis ( = Parnassius) 
dorylas, Lycaena 
dotata (associata), Cidaria ... 
douri, Euchloe 
dromedarius, Notodonta 12,' 

vars. ijolaris and perfusca 
dubi talis, Scoparia ... 

dubitata, Triphosa 

dumetana, Tortrix 

dumetellus, Crambus 
dunningiella, LitliocoUetis ... 
duplai'is, Cymatophora 
dysodea, Hecatera vide chrysozona, 

H. 



303 
252 
269 
227 



155, 238 

7 

12, 13 

52, 134 

... 220 

271, 300 
... 276 
... 227 

280, 287 
... 305 
... 106 
... 151 
... 301 



edusa, Colias 17, 52, 72, 110, 13.3, 

158, 234, 253 254, 269, 272, 273, 

276, 298 

var. helice 110, 272 

edwardsii, Lycaena ... ... ... 106 

egea, Papilio 161, 164 

egea, Vanessa ab I-album ... ... 12 

egeria, Pararge 17, 59, 99, 134, 153, 

157, 207, 299 

iwr. egerides ... 2u7 

Elachista 209, 250 

elinguaria, Crocallis ... 18 

elpenor, Clioerocampa ... 129, 300 

elutata, Hypsi petes vide sordidata, 

H. 

elutella, Ephestia 305 

elynii, Nonagria 230, 301 

emarginata, Acidalia ... 227, 228 

Ennomos (Eugonia) ... ... 114, 142 

Epermenia ... ... ... ... 248 

epilobiella, Lavenia ... 228 

Epigraphiidyu 148 

Epinepliele ... ... 7 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

epiphron, Erebia 62, 13.% 1(51, 162, 

163, 164, 16.5, 226, 2.S.5 
var. bernensis ... ... ... 163 

wr. cassiope 162, 163, 164, 165 

var. melampus ... ... 162, 164 

var. nelanius ... 163, 164, 165 
var. pyrenaica ... ... 164, 165 

Equites 6, 190 

erate, Colias 133 

Erebia 7, 235 

ericellus, Crambus ... 57, 106, 226 

ericetana, Orthotaenia ... 19 

erigerana, Euptecilia ... ... 303 

Eriocephala ... ... ... ... 88 

Eriocephalse 87 

eriosoma, Plusia ... ... ... 217 

erippus, Danais ... ... ... 74 

erosaria, Eugonia ... ... ... 17 

Erycinidse ... 7 

Erycinides ... ... ... ... 7 

erythrocephala, Cerastis 37, 38, 39, 

40, 68 
var. glabra ... ... 37, 39 

escheri, Lycsena ... ... 12, 48 

Euchloe 97, 138, 146, 172, 173, 220 

Euchromia 88 

eupheno (euphenoides), Euchloe ... 220 
euphorbise, Deilephila 38, 40, 41, 152 
euphrosyne, Argynnis 15, 9<l, 106, 234 

Eupithecia ... ... 50 

Euplaea ... ... ... ... 4 

Euplfeinae 106 

Eurema 113 

Eur3'mus = Colias 137 

euryta, Planema ... ... ... 19 

Eustroma 5, 6 

exclamationis, Agrotis 182, 183, 

204, 228, 252, 284, 301 
exigua, Laphygma 38, 40, 62, 229, 

268, 269, 297 
exoleta, Calocampa 155, 224, 301, 305 
extersaria, Tephrosia ... ... 159 

extrema, Tapinostola vide concolor, T. 
exulans, Zyga^na 43, 255, 258, 259, 
260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 

267, 268, 278, 279, 280 

var. clara... 266, 267 

var. flavilinea 261, 267 

var. starvata ... ... ... 266 

var. subochracea 259, 264, 266 

var. vanadis 260, 263, 264, 265, 

266, 280 

fagella, Diurnea 13, 15, 153 

fagi, Stauropus 62, 109, 125, 136, 143 
faginella, Lithocolletis ... ... 45 

falcataria, Drepana 125, 126, 127, 

182, 287 

falsellus, Ciambus 228 

farrella, Episclinia (Anerastia) 36, 39 
farreni, Cataplectica... 217, 249, 250 

fascelina, Dasychira ... 27ft 

fasciana (fuscula),Erastria204, 279, 287 

ferrugalis, Scopula 298 

ferrugana, Peronea (Tortrix) 215, 216 



PAGE 

ferrugata, Coremia 110, 111, 112, 

115, 117, 1«2, 299 

ra»'. corculata ... ... 116, 117 

var. linariata ... ... ... 117 

ferruginea, Xanthia vide circellaris, 

X. 
festaliella, Chrj'socorys . . ... 18 
festiva, Noctua ... 15, 183, 301 

festucae, Piusia ... 15,208,229,268 
fibrosa, Apamea vide leucostigma, 

A. 
filigramniaria, Oporabia ... ... 168 

filipendulas, Zygasna 18, 107, 228, 

264, 265, 272, 280, 288 

var. cerinus ... ... ... 280 

fimbria, Triphfena 17, 21, 143, 301, .305 
fimbriana, Heusimene ... ... 155 

fixreni, Cidaria ... 134 

flammans, Phauda ... ... ... 135 

flammatra, Noctua ... ... 38, 40 

flammea, Meliana 129, 181, 230, 231 
riammealis, Endotricha ... ••■ 298 

flavago, Xanthia 301,305 

flavata, Gaudaritis ... 134 

fiavicincta, Polia ... ... ... 107 

flavicornis, Asphalia 17, 69, 96, 97, 

111, 136, 147, 276, 304 
fluctuata, Melanippe... 

rar. incanata ... ... ... 277 

var. neapolisata ... ... ... 230 

rar. virgata ... 277 

fluctuosa, Cymatophora 279 

tluviata, Camptogramma 21, 167, 225 
foenella, Ephippiphora ... ... 229 

forticalis, Pionea 228, 298 

fonniciformis, Sesia ... ... 182 

fraiicillana, Conchylis ... 298,304 

fraxini, Catocala 126,248 

fugitivella, Teleia 305 

fuliginosa, Spilosoma 129, 153, 

181, 300 

fulva, Tapinostola 273, 301 

fulvago (cerago), -Xanthia 125, 127, 

229, 271, 274, 300, 301, 305 

rar. flavescens ... 229, 274, 301 

fulvata, Cidaria 228 

fulviguttella, Cataplectica (Hey- 

denia) 217, 248 

fumata, Acidalia ... ... ... 277 

rar. perfumata ... ... ... 277 

rar. simplaria ... 277 

furcatellus, Crambus .. 57, 106, 280 

furcifera, Xylina ... ... ... 38 

furcula, Dicranura (Cerura) 21, 59, 300 

rar. borealis ... ... ... 276 

furfurana, Bactra ...218 

furuncula, Miana ride bicoloria, M. 
turva, Mamestra ... ... ... 300 

fusca, Laodama ... ... ... 153 

fuscantaria, Eugonia ... ... 17 



galactodactyla, Aciptilia 
galatea, Melanargia ... 

rar. procida 
gaJiata, Melanippe ... 



182 

..52, 62, 235 

99 

18, 295, 299 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

galii, Deilephila 38,40,152 

gamma, Plusia 125,179,254,269, 

272, 273, 297, 298, 300, 301 

Gelechia 73 

Gelechiida? 37, 39 

gemina, Apamea 80, 182, 183, 272, 301 
gemma ria, Boarmia ... ... ... 167 

var. perfumaria ... ... ... 13 

geniculeus, Crambus... 298 

genistse, Hadena ... ... ... 205 

genistella. Nephopterj'x ... ... 305 

genutia, Papilio ... ... 3, 4 

geoffrella, Harpella ... ... ... 126 

Geometrae 5, 16, 18, 26, 57, 59, 64, 

84, 114, 144, 147, 167, 168, 277 
Geometridae ... ... ... ... 7 

geryon, Ino (Procris) 52, 104, 225, 299 
gilippus, Danais ... ... ... 74 

gilvago, Xaiithia 178, 287, 301, 305 

gilvaria, Aspilates ... ... ... 272 

gilvicomana, Eupcecilia ... ... 40 

glabraria, Cleora 273, 279 

Gla?a 138 

glareosa, No'^tua 17, 268, 273, 274, 

279, 280, 301, 302 

var. suffasa ... ... ... 301 

glauca, Hadena 153, 154, 205, 206, 273 

glyphica, Euclidia 228 

gnomana (costana), Tortrix 36, 39 

Gonepteryx ... ... ... ... 7 

gonostigma, Orgyia... 127, 160, 228 

gothica, Ta^niocampa 13, 19, 59, 
109, 125, 135, 155, 224, 

272, 301 

var. gothicina 59, 109, 135, 301 

Gracilaria 26, 27, 39, 219 

gracilis, Tajniocampa 69, 103, 136, 

153, 154, 224 
graminis, Chara;as ... 17, 199, 252 

var. rufa ... ... 301 

grevillana, Penthina 39 

griseata, Lithostege 181, 302 

griseola, Lithosia 158,302 

grossulariata. Abraxas 13, 38, 41, 

59, 80, 253, 279, 288 
gruneri, Eiichloe ... 97, 146, 220 

Hadena 181, 205 

hamana, Xanthosetia ... 228, 305 

Hamearis ... 7 

hartmanniana, Argyrolepia ... 182 

hastata, Melanippe, rar. hastulata... 279 

hastiana, Peronea 36, 39, 279 

haworthii, Cela?na 273, 301 

hectus, Hepialus 182, 191 

Heliconidfe ... ... ... ... 7 

Heliconides ... ... ... ... 7 

Heliconii 190 

helix. Psyche 293 

hellmanni, Tapinostola 303 

helveticaria, Eupithecia 19 

Heodes... ... 114 

heparana, Tortrix 228 

hepatica, Xylophasia 126 

Hepialidse 27 



PAGE 

Hepialus 26, 139, 144 

liera, Callimorpha ... ... 152, 254 

herbariata, Acidalia... 29,30,37, 40 

hero, Coenonympha ... 126 

Hesperia ... ... 7 

hesperidis, Euchloe ...97, 146, 219, 220 

Hesperidse 7, 221 

Hesperioidse ... ... ... ... 7 

Heterocera 93, 159 

Heteropodes 7 

Heteroi^terus ... ... 7 

Hexapodes ... 7 

hexapterata, Lobophora ... ... 159 

Hierophanta ... ... ... ... 248 

Hipparchia ... ... ... ... 7 

hippocastanaria, Pachycnemia ... 74 
hirtaria, Biston 80, 83, 84, 86, 96, 

157, 167, 184, 304 
hispidaria, Nyssia 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 

86, 96, 97, 109, 136, 154, 159, 306 

rar. tauaria ... ... 84, 85 

hispidus, Heliophobus 229, 268, 300 

hortuellus, Crambus... ... ... 228 

humiliata, Acidalia ... ... ... 107 

numuli, Hepialus 109, 139, 183, 

191, 218, 227, 228 
huntera, Pyrameis ... ... ... 106 

hyale, Colias 15, 137, 234 

hyalinalis, Botys .. 242,243,244 

Hybernia 97 

HyberniidsB ... ... 97 

hybridana, Sciaphila 227 

hyemana, Tortricodes ... 97, 148 

hylas, Lycaena ... ... ... 12 

hyperanthus, Epinephele ... ... 17 

raj-, lauceolata ... ... ... 99 

Hyponomeuta 39 

Hyponomeutidae ... ... ... 27 

hypophlaeas, Chrysophanus... ... 19 



ianira, Epinephele 17, 44, 58, 63, 

99, 101, 225, 228, 229, 235, 252 
ianthe, Papilio ... ... ... 164 

ianthina, Triphaena ... 18, 63, 301, 305 
icarus, Lycfena 12, 17, 19, 100, 184, 

191, 235, 271, 272, 276, 299 

rar. ccerulea ... 276 

rar. icarinus ... ... ... 12 

ichneumiformis, Sesia 305 

icterana, Tortrix vide palleana, T. 
ilicifolia, Lasiocampa ...38, 42, 152 

illuminatella, Argyresthia ... ... 73 

illustraria, Selenia vide tetralu- 

naria. S. 

illustris, Plusia 37, 49 

imitaria, Acidalia ... 52 

immanata, Cidaria ... ... 9, 23, 50 

rar. marmorata ... 9 

immutata, Acidalia 15,228 

impluviata, Hypsipites ride trifas- 

ciata, H. 

impudens, Leucania 129, 302 

impura, Leucania ... 228, 268, 301 
incerta, Enome 240 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



iiicerta (instabilis), Tseiiiocampa 

103, 155, 224, 272, 301, 304 
Incompletse ... ... ... ... 152 

indigata, Eupithecia... ... ... 154 

inornata, Acidalia ... 272 

instabilella, Lita ... ... ... 101 

interinediella, Puinea 227, 228, 231 

interrogationis, Gi'apta (Polygonia) 

106, 141, 144 
interrogationis, Plusia ... 225, 301 
interruptana, Stigmonota ... 3-*, 39 
io, Vanessa 17, 47, ]03, lOf., 134, 

153, 158, 167, 23+ 
iole, Nathalis ... ... ... .. 19 

iris, Apatura 125, 126, 127, 154, 

205, 207, 256, 283 
var. iole ... ... ... ... 205 

irriguata, Eupitliecia ... ... 102 

irrorella, Setina ... ... ... 158 

jacobsefe, Euclielia ... ... 21, 106 

jamaicensis-major, Papilio ... ... 2 

japonica, Enome ... ... ... 240 

jasioneata, Eupithecia ... 18, 279 

juniperata, Thei-a ... ... 19, 21 

kuhniella, Ephestia ... 



lacertiuai'ia, Drepana 125, 126, 127, 

lafauryana, Tortrix .. 

lambdella, CEcophora 

lancealis, Perinepliele 

lanceolana, Bactra 

lanestris, Eriojrasttr 125, 182, 20?, 

var. aavasaksae ... 
lapella, Phalaena 
lapponaria, Nyssia ... 
Larentiidae 

lariciata, Eupithecia ... 21, 

laserpitiella, Cataplectica (Hey- 

deuia) 
Lasiogma 

latona, Argynnis 29, 40, 93, 126, 
152, 234, 
lemuata, Cataclysta ... 
leporina, Acronycta (Cuspidia) 15, 

17, 125, 141, 142, 175, 225, 271, 

300, 

Leucania ... ... ... 50, 

leucographa, Pachnobia ...15, 69, 
leucomelas, Phalaena 
leucophsea, Pachetra 38, 56, 174, 175, 

205, 
Leucophasia ... 

leucophearia, Hybernia 102, 109, 

110, 135, 153, 

leucostigma, Apamea 13, 302, 

levana, Araschnia ... ... 134, 

var. prorsa . ... 1.34, 

leuwenhoeckella, Pancalia 

libatrix, Gonoptera ... 191, 274, 

Libytheidse 

lichenaria, Cleora 

lichenea, Epunda 143, 27.3, 300, 

lichenella, Solenobia ... 292, 



96 

191 
39 
305 
225 
218 
228 
276 
191 
85 
296 
154 

217 



235 
298 



308 
194 
103 
126 

217 
7 

167 
305 
223 
223 
305 
301 
7 
1.54 
301 
293 



PAGE 

lienigianus, Leioptilus 228 

lignata, Phibalapter3'X. ... ... 15 

ligniperda, Cossus ... ... 136, 225 

ligula, Cerastis (Orrhodia) 8, 102, 155 

var. ochrea ... ... ... 8 

var. subnigra ... ... ... 155 

ligustri, Bisulcia (Acronycta) 141, 308 

var. olivacea ... ... ■.. 13 

ligustri. Sphinx 75, 228 

Limacodida? ... ... ... ... 88 

liniacodes, Heterogenea 88, 114, 242 
Liniacodes ... ... ... 88, 242 

limbaria, Fidonia ... ... ... 62 

Limenitis ... ... 7 

limitata, Eubolia ... 18, 204, 228 

linea, Hesperia vide thaumas. H. 
linearia, Ephyra vide trilinearia, E. 
lineata, vide li vomica, D. ... 
lineola, Hesperia (Pamphila) 97, 

228, 235, 298 
lineolata, Mesotype vide virgata, 

M. 
lineolea, Scoparia ... ... ... 18 

Liparidaj 128, 142, 143, 146, 240 

literosa, Miana 227, 301 

lithargyria, Leucania 62, 2^8, 252, 301 
Lithocolletis 26, 27, 39, 155, 199 

Lithosia ... ... ... •• 64 

lithoxylea, Xylophasia ... 228, 301 
littoralis, Leucania ... ...18, 70, 301 

littoralis (littorana), Sericoris 19, 228 
litura, Anchocelis ...15, 269, 301, 302 
liturata, Macaria 
li vomica, Deilephila 



17, 182, 183, 300 
29, 126,127, 

15V, 224 
148 



Lobophora 

lobulata, Lobophora vide carpinata, 

L. 
lonicerse, Zj'gaena ... 15, 264, 267 

var. semi-lutescens ... ... 13 

lore j'i, Leucania ... ... ... 29^ 

lota, Orthosia 268, 301 

lotella, Anei'astia ... ... ... 18 

Loxura ... ... ... ...115 

lubricipeda, Arctia 13, 15, 24, 56, 

106, 143, 187, 188, 307 
var. eboraci ... 106, 152, :-!07 
var. fasciata ... 56, 106, 152, 307 
var. radiata ... ... 13, 307 

var. zatinia 24, 106 

lucemea, Agrotis 228,298 

lucina, Nemeobius 21, 44, 98, 155, 

159, 191, 211, 231, 235 



lucipara, Euplexia 
luctuosa, Acontia 
luctuosa, Spilosoma .. 
ludifica, Diphthera .. 
luna, Attacus 
lunaria, Selenia 
1 
var. delunaria 
lunaris, (Ecophora 



1-26 
181, 231, 302 

189 

143 

135 

17, 59, 71, 167, 

, 208, 210, 225, 230' 

184, 226- 

305 



lunigera, AgrotLs 18, 38, 227, 228, 298: 
lunosa, Anchocelis 269, 273, 286, 

288, 300, 301, 305. 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Xlll 



luteolata (crataegata), Rumia 216, 

227, 229, 230, 241 

lutosa, Calamia 268,305 

lutulenta, Epunda 107, 135, 268, 

274, 298, 300, 304 
var. liineburgensis ... ... 135 

var. sedi ... ... ... ... 135 



Lycsena 
Lycaenidae 
Lycaenides 
Lycaeninae 
lychnitis, Cucullia 



7, 62, 114, 235 
19, 11.5, 221 

7 

114 

71 



maccana, Peronea 
machaon, Papilio 



:i6, 

181, 191, 2.33, 
255, 

macnlaria, Venilia 

niaculea, Lita ... 
inaja, Papilio 

nialva?, Syricthus (Pyrgus) 100, 

153, 191, 230, 235, 

var. taras (lavaterae) ... 19, 
manniana, EupcBcilia 
margaritaria, Metrocampa... 288, 

margaritellus. Cram bus 

marginaria (progemmaria), Hyber- 

nia 81, 97, 102, 109, 148, 153, 

var. fuscata ... ... 13, 

marginata, Heliothis ... 15, 

marginata, Lomaspilis 

maritima, Senta ... ... 107, 

maritimella, Coleophora 

marmorea, Lita 

matura (cytherea), Cerigo 58, 62, 

227, 252, 25fi, 

matunia, Melitaea ... ... 12, 

maura, Mania... 

mediana, Trycheris inde aurana, T. 
medon (astrarche), Lycaena 
megacephala, Acronycta ... 141, 
megaera, Pararge 7, 17, 62, 135, 
153, 191, 211, 235, 
melampus, Erebia ... ... 162, 

Melargus (galatea) 

Melitaea 

meliloti, Zygaena 

mellonella, Galleria 

mendica, Spilosoma 185, 187, 188, 

var. standfussi ... 
mensuraria, Eubolia vide limi- 

tata, E. 
mtnthastri, Spilosoma 186, 187, 
188, 271, 280, 

var. ochracea 
menyanthidis, Acronycta 133, 140, 
183, 273, 300, 
mercurella, Scoparia 
merope, Heteronympha 
mesomella, Lithosia 15, 17, 225, 
meticulosa, Phlogophora 15, 71, 

164, 155, 229, 269, 272, 275, 
298, 

miata, Cidaria 

micacea, Hydrcecia 301, 



157 

273 

87 

305 

125 

280 
100 
36 
298 
106 

306 
15 
16 
13 

228 
209 
305 

302 
126 
126 

300 
308 

299 
165 
7 
234 
264 
228 
189 
189 



289 
187 

308 
228 
135 
279 



300 
126 
305 



PAGE 

Microdonta ... ... 248 

Micropterygidje ... ... 87, 144 

Micropteryx 25, 26, 87, 88, 91, 155 

migadactyla, Platyptilia rida ochro- 

dacty'a, P. 
miniata, Calligenia ... ... ... 279 

minima, Lycaena 12, 52, 159, 229, 235 
miniosa, Tseniocampa 17, 69, 103, 154 
minutata, Eupithecia ... ... 158 

mirabilis, Oenetus ... ... ... 135 

modestella, Asychna ... ... 305 

moeniata, Eubolia ... ... ... 29 

monacha, Psilura 17, 56, 111, 125, 

143, 239, 240, 280 

var. eremita ... 187 

moneta, Plusia 42, 56, 87, 217, 230, 254 
monodactylus, Pterophorus 18, 103, 

153, 228, 280, 298 
monoglypha, Xylophasia 47, 228, 

252, 271, 286, 300 

var. aethiops ... ... ... 301 

montanata, Melanippe ... 110, 183 
mori,Bombyx 108, 168, 244, 245, 

290, 293 

Morphidae ... ... 7 

multistrigaria, Larentia 97, 147, 

153, 154, 224, 304 
munda, Taeniocampa 59, 69, 85, 96, 

102, 103, 111, 136, 154, 155, 

159, 224 

var. immaculata ... 157, 159 

munitata, Coremia ... ... ... 272 

muralis, Bryophila ... ... ... 299 

murinata, Minoa ... ... ... 182 

musculana, Cnephasia ... ... 227 

musculosa, Leucania ... ... 29 

myellus, Crambus 36, 38, 106 

myricae, Acronycta ... 19, 139, 140, 308 
myrinna, Pyrameis ... ... ... 254 

myrtilli, Anarta ... 17, 126, 154, 281 



nana (conspersa), Diant.hoecia 
nanata, Eupithecia ... 154, 
napi, Pieris 17, 47, 98, 153, 
203, 

ah. sulphurea 

ab. sulphureotincta 

var. bryonia? 

var. sabellicae 
Nectropidae 

neglecta, Noctua vide castanea, 
Nemeobius 
Nepticula 
nerii, Sphinx ... 
neustria, Eombyx 
ni, Plusia 

nicellii, Litliocolletis 
nicippe, Terias 
nictitans, Hydrcecia . 

nigra, Epunda 

nigricana, Endopisa 

nigricans, Agrotis 182, 227, 
271, 284, 285, 286, 

var. fuliginea 

nigripunctella, Tinea 73, 



26. 39, 



300, 



18, 229 

183, 255 

157, 

234, 276 
... 276 
... 276 
98, 276 
... 98 
7 

N. 

... 114 

155, 199 
... 126 
... 18 
... 279 
... 151 
... 19 

301, 305 
17, 301 
... 228 

252, 

299, 302 
... 301 

219, 305 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

nigrofasciaria, Anticlea ... 153, 154 
nigroinaculana, Grapholitha 19, 255 
nimbella, HomcBosoma ... ... 18 

niobe, Argynnis ... ... 40, 234 

nitidella, Argj'resthia ... ... 228 

nitidella, Fumea vide interme- 
diella, F. 

nivea, Pcpcilia ... 248 

niveus, Acentropus ... 204 

Noc.tua 292 

Nocture 16, 18, 26, 57, 64, 77, 114, 
124, 139, 142, 143, 144, 168, 
181, 182, 225, 252, 266, 276, 

277, 301 
noctuella (hybridalis), Nomophila 

228, 298 

NoctuidcB ... ... 7 

Noctuiiise ... ... ... ... 57 

noeviferella, Gelechia 249 

notata, Macaria ... ... ... 182 

notha, Brephos 69, 103, 138, 159, 184 
Notodontidse ... ... ... ... 142 

nubeculosa, Asteroscopus 142, 143, 205 
nupta, Catocala ... 126, 274, 305 

Nycteolidse ... ... ... ... 143 

Nyinphales 6, 190 

JSIymphalidfp 7, 20, 114 

Nymphalides ... ... ... ... 7 

Nyssia ... ... ... ... ■•. 85 



obductella, Phycis 36, 

obelisca, Agrotis 229, 269, 303, 

obliquaria, Chesias vide rufata, C. 

oblongata, Eupithecia ... 18, 

obscura (ravida), Agrotis 51, 106, 

107, 204, 284, 285, 286, 298, 302, 

303, 

var. ravida 

obscuraria (obscurata), Gnopbos 18, 

227, 272, 273, 280, 

obscurepunctella, Perittia . 

obsoleta, Leucania ... 

obsoletella, Lita 

Obtectse 

occulta, Aplecta 

ocellana, Hedya 

ocellatus, Smerinthus ... 17, 

ocellaris, Xanthia, var. lineago 

ocellea, Eromene 36, 

ochracea (ttavago), Gortyna 
ochrearia, Aspilates ... 269, 298, 

ochrodactyla, Platyptilia 

octogesima (ocularis), Cymatophora 
129, 279, 

octomaculana, Sciaphila 

ocularis, Uj'uiatopbora vide octo- 
gesima, C. 
oculea, Apamea vide didyma, A. 
CEcophorse 



298 



307 

284 

299 
155 
107 
298 
152 
125 
228 
300 
178 
39 
256 
299 
176 

302 
272 



oleagina, Valeria 
oleracea, Hadena 

olivata, Larentia 
ononaria. Aplasia 
00, Dicycla 



16, 52, 182, 183, 

205, 

231, 270, 



39 



301 

271 

29 

287 



ophiogramma, Apamea 231, 287, 

288, 296 
opima, Tfeniocampa 69, 154, 155, 224 
or, Cymatophora ... ... 59, 276 

orbona, Triphaena vide comes, T. 

Orgyia 86, 96 

orion, Moma 17, 141, 308 

ornata, Hesperia ... ... ... 222 

Ornithoptera ... ... 88 

ornithopus (rhizolitha), Xylina 17, 

154, 155 

Orthosidas 143 

ostrina, Micra ... ... 38, 40 

oxyacantbffi, Miselia... 191, 286, 301 
oxyacaiithella (fabriciana), Symae- 

this ... ... ... ... 305 



padellus, Hyponomeuta 

padifoliella, Lyonetia ... 37, 

palsemon (paniscus),Carterocephalus 
(Cyclopides) 

paleacea (fulvago), Cosmia ... 

palleana (icterana), Tortrix 19, 

pallens, Leucania 16, 52, 252, 300, 

pallidactyla, Platyptilia vide ochro- 
dactyla, P. 

palpina, Notodonta ... ... 21, 

Paltodora 

palustrana, Mixodia (Sericoris) 59, 

palustris, Hydrilla 129, 181, 230, 

Pamphilidi 

pamphilus, Coenonympba 12, 17, 
47, 99, 228, 
var. lyllus 

paphia, Argyuuis 17, 45, 46, 80, 99, 

234, 
var. valezina ... ... 46, 

Papilio 7, 159, 161, 

papilionaria, Geometra 17, 205, 
206, 227, 230, 256, 

Papilionidse 

Papiliont5s 

Papilioninise ... 

paradisea, Ornithoptera 

paralellaria, Epione ... ...13, 15, 

Pararge 

pariaua, Syma^this (Hylopoda) 

Parnassidi ... ... ... 114, 

Parnassii 

Parnassius 

parthenias, Brepbos 68, 103, 111, 
136, 154, 159, 184, 

pai'thenie, Melitsea 

parva, Micra ... ... ... 38, 

pascuellus, Crambus... 

pavonia, Saturnia 105, lu9, llu, 
126, 127, 226, 273, 

pectinea, Incur varia... 

pectinitaria, Larentia vide viridaria, 
L. 

pedaria (pilosaria), Phigalia 17, 74, 
80, 81, 84, 8.3, 102, 106, 109, 160, 

pedella, Stathmopoda 

pellionella. Tinea 



150 
39 

174 

298 
228 
301 



125 
248 
73 
302 
114 

235 
99 

299 

99 

174 

287 

7 

7 

114 

134 

3U0 

7 

103 

167 

7 

159 

304 

234 

40 

228 

288 
154 



306 

39 

228 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



XV 



peltigera, Heliothis 21, 205, 268, 

269, 275 
pendularia, Ephj'ra ... ... 13, 182 

pennaria, Himera ... ...15, 21, 168 

peregrina, Hadena ... ... ... 28 

perla, Bryophila 18, 228, 252, 253, 

299, .301, 308 
ror. flavescens ... ... ... 253 

vcw. suffusa ... ... ... 253 

perlellus, Crambus ... 228 

var. warringtonellus ... ... 109 

permutana, Peronea... ... ... 19 

perornata, Hesperia ... ... ... 222 

persephone, Prodryas 20 

persicariae, Mamestra ... ... 305 

perterana, Sciaphila... ... ... 39 

petraria, Panagra ... ... ... 182 

petrificata, Xylina vide socia, X. 
phaeton, Eupliydryas ... ... 139 

Phalenaj 125 

phicomone, Colias ... ... ... 234 

philodice, Oolias ... ... 19, 139 

phloeas, Polj'ommatus (Chrysopha- 
nus) 17, 58, 98, 100, 191, 203, 

223, 235, 271, .304 

var. schmidtii ... 98 

phragmitellus, Chilo... ... ... 181 

phragmitidis, Calamia ... ... 302 

Phycidae 27, 39 

piceana, Tortrix 36, 39, 280 

pictaria, Aleucis ...69, 110, 155, 206 

Pieridse ... ... 7 

Pierinae ... 20, 87, 106, 114, 257 

Pieris 7, 138 

pigra, Pygaera 158, 273, 300 

pilosellae, Oxyptilus (Pterophorus)... 37 
pilosellae, Zygaena ... ... ... 217 

pimpinelJata, Eupithecia ... ... 274 

pinastri, Dipterygia vide scabriu- 

scula, D. 
pinastri. Sphinx ... 29, 126, 217 

l)inellus (pinetellus), Crambus 106, 160 
pinguinalis, Aglossa... ... ... 299 

pini, Gastropacha ... ... ... 216 

piniaria, Bupalus (Fidonia) 16, 153 

182, 231 

pinicolana, Eetinia 109, 305 

piniperda, Panolis 17, 110, 154, 

155, 301 

pirce, Pseudacrcea ... 19 

pisi, fladena ... 125, 126, 191, 205, 273 
pistacina. Anchocelis 13, 59, 62, 

286, 300, 301 
plagiata, Anaitis ... ... ... 182 

plantagiiiis, Nemeophila 14, 21, 5S, 

71, 126, 155, 182, 238 

Plebeii 190 

plecta, Noctua 16, 182, 183, 252, 

301, 305 

plexippus, Anosia 1, 76 

archippus 1, 5, 74, 75, 76, 106, 136 

erippus 1, 74 

megalippe ... ... ... 5 

plumbagana, Uicrorampha ... 228 
plumbeolata, Eupithecia 18 



PAGE 

plumigera, Ptilophora 168 

podana, Cacoecia ... ... ... 183 

podalirius, Papilio 233 

PcBcilia 248 

politana, Dicrorampha ... ... 228 

polychloros, Vanessa 52, 107, 114, 

115, 134, 141, 158, 182, 299 
polygonalis, Mecyna... ... 38, 40 

polygrammata, Phibalapteiyx ... 152 
polyodon, Xyiophasia vide mono- 

glypha, X. 
Poly(immatus... ... ... ... 7 

polyphenuis, Antherea 88 

polyphemus, Boniby.x .., ... 293 

polyphemus, Telea 106,246 

polyxena, Thais 159 

pomonella, CarpocHpsa ... 78, 126 
Pontia ... ... ... ... ... 7 

popularis, Neuronia 148, 149, 207, 

248, 269, 274, 299, 305 
populata, Cidaria 5, 6, 59, 126, 231 

populeti, Tteniocampa 15, 103, 111, 

153, 155, 157, 159 
populi, Poecilocampa ... 97, 147 

populi, Smerinthus 13, 58, 105, 

138, 166, 205, 216, 221, 244, 

254, 276, 294, 300 

var. roseotincta 276 

Poritia .. ... ... 114 

porcellus, Choerocampa ... 14, 2O6 
porphyrea, Agrotis vide strigula, A. 
porphyrea, Hadena ... 15, 29, 302 

liotatoria, Odonestis 109, 110, 224, 

255, 305 
pra3Cox, Agrotis 125, 126, 271, 298, 

299, 301 

prasina (herbida), Aplecta 301 

prasinana, Hj'lophila ... ... 27 

pratellus, Crambus 106, 228 

prodromaria, Aniphidasys vide 

strataria, A. 
profugella, Cataplectica (Heydenia) 

217, 248 

profundana, Paedisca 109 

progemmaria, Hybernia vide mar- 

ginaria, H. 
pronuba, Triphaena 126, 14.3, 182, 

183, 227, 252, 274, 301 
prosapiaria (fasciaria), Ellopia 207, 230 
protea, Hadena 13, 15, 20, 205, 268, 301 
pruinata (cytisaria), Pseudoterpna 207 

prunalis, Scopula 242 

prunata, Cidaria 5, 126, 127 

pruni, Thecia 126,167 

pseudargiolus, Lyca?na ... 106, 223 
psi, Acron3^cta 10, 16, 57, 141, 142, 

174, 175, 194, 301, 303, 308 
Psyche ... ... ... ... ... 292 

Psycliida? ... 26, 37, 39, 108, 248 

pterodactj'lus, Mimaeseoptilus ... 228 
Pterophoridae ... ... ... 7^ 278 

Pterophorina ... ... ... ... 27 

pudibunda, Dasychira 21, 109, 110, 

143, 287, 300, 308 
pudorina (impudens), Leucania ... 225 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

pulchella, Deiopeia ... 29, 106, 156 

pulchellata, Eupithecia 17, 18, 183 

pulchrina, Plusia ... 270, 272, 277 

var. percontatrix ... ... 277 

pulveraria, Numeraria 125 

pulverulenta (cruda), Tteniocampa 

97, 103, 111, 155, 224 
pumilata, Eupithecia 52, 153, 183, 

224, 228 

punctaria, Ephyra 182 

puncticostaiia, Stigmonota ... 227 

punctularia (punctulata), Tephrosia 

16, 182 

purpuralis, Pyrausta 18 

purpuraria, Lythria ... 29 

purpurella, Micropteryx ... 87, 155 

pusaria, Cabera 226,289 

puta, Agrotis 13, 158, 227, 269, 

274, 298, 299, 300 
putrescens, Leucania ... ... 18 

putris, Axylia 252 

pygnifeana. Coccyx (Steganop- 

tycha) 155, 184 

pygmpeata, Eupithecia 299 

pygnipeus, Crambus vide cerussellus, 

P. 

Pyrales 27 

Pyralides 18, 64, 114, 144, 214, 242 

Pyralites 306 

pyralina, Calymnia 225 

Pyralioidai ... ... ... ... 7 

pyramidea, Amphipyra 299 

pyrina, Zeuzera 126, 127, 143, 160, 191 
pyrophila, Agrotis vide simulans, A. 

quadri punctata, Caradrina 52, 287, 

297, 300, 301 
quercifolia, Lasiocampa 62, 109, 

156, 245, 256, 292 
quercinaria (angularia), Eugonia 

144, 168, 206, 231, 255 
quercus, Bombyx 62, 109, 110, 126, 
191, 198, 199, 228, 230, 238, 

253, 271, 297, 299, 306, 307 
quercus, Thecla 17, 167 

radiatella, Cerostoma 109 

i-adiella, Epischnopteryx 227 

raiella, Phalaena .. 125 

rapse, Pieris 15, 17, 19, 47, 103, 

153, 201, 234 
ravulana, Stigmonota (Halonota) 

52, 217 
reclusa, Clostera ride pigra, C. 

recticella, Epichnopteryx 227 

rectiliiiea, Hadena 183,301 

regalis, Citlieronia ... ... ... 135 

repandata, Boarmia 18, 183 

rar. conversaria ... ... 45, 46 

reticulata, Cidaria 5 

reticulata (saponarise), Neuria 129, 136 
rhamni, Gonepteryx 98, 138, 234, 

255, 287, 298, 299 
rhizolitha, Xyliua vide ornithopus, 

X. 



PAGE 

Rhodoceridi 113 

rhomboidaria, Boarmia vide gem- 

maria, B. 
Rhopalocera 17, 64, 98, 114, 124, 

174, 203, 255 

ribeana, Tortrix 228 

ridens, Asphalia ... 17, 102, 155, 160 

ripae, Agrotis 269,304 

rivata, Melanippe ... 294, 295, 296 
roborana, Spilonota ... ... ... 19 

roboraria, Boarmia ... ... ... 155 

rorellus, Crambus 36, 38, 40 

rostralis, Hypena 182, 300 

rubi, Bombyx 107,205,2.17,253, 

273, 300 

rubi, Noctua 15, 299 

rubi, Thecla ... 19, 126, 153, 159, 191 

rubidata, Anticlea ... 182 

rubiginata, Acidalia... ... 302, 303 

rubiginata, Melanthia vide bicolo- 

rata, M. 
rubiginea, Dasycampa 19, 68, 143, 155 
rubricata, Acidalia ... ... ... 181 

rubricollis, Gnophria ... 17, 109 

rubricosa, Pachnobia (Tajniocampa) 

103, 153, 154, 155, 224, 301 

rufa, CcEuobia 225 

i-ufata, Chesias ... ... 52, 183 

ruficinctata, Larentia ... ... 59 

rufocinerea, Elachista ... ... 304 

rugosana, Phtheochroa ... ... 227 

rumicis, Acronycta 16, 133, 140, 

193, 271, 279, 298, 308 
rupicapraria, Hybernia 74, 102, 153, 304 
rurea, Xylophasia ...182, 18.3, 301, 305 

rar. combusta ... ... ... 183 

russata, Cidaria vide truncata, C. 
rusticata, Acidalia ... 249 

sacraria, Sterrha 38, 40, 278 

sagittata, Cidaria 128, 302 

salicella, Lemnatophila ... ... 1(3 

salicis, Leucoma ... 125, 143, 146 

salinellus, Crambus ... ... ... 36 

sambucaria, Uropteryx ... ... 228 

saponarise, Neuria vide reticulata, 

N. 
satellitia, Scopelosoma 15, 102, 103, 

125, 155, 224, 269, 302 
satura, Hadena vide porphj'rea, H. 

satyrata, Eupithecia 15, 183 

Satyridae 7 

Satyrinse 114 

Satyroidae ... ... .. ... 7 

Satyrus ... ... ... ... 7 

saucia, Agrotis 143, 227, 269, 288, 

301, 305 

scabriuscula, Diptcrygia ... ... 255 

schalleriana, Peronea ... ... 279 

Sciaphila ... ... 174 

scintillans, Hypochrysops 87 

scoliiformis, Sesia 19, 21, 70, 255, 280 

scolopacina, Xylophasia 20 

scopariana. Coccyx ... ... ... 304 

scutosa, Heliothis 38, 40 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

aegetum, Agrotis 16, 18, 59, 182 

252, 254, 285, 300 

selasellus, Crambus ... ... 228, 298 

selene, Argynnis ... ... ... 234 

semele, Satyrus (Hipparchia) 17, 99, 

107, 191, 235, 271, 299 



var. aristaeus 






99 


semialbana, Tortrix ... 




36, 


39 


semipurpurella, Micropteryx 




155 


senex, Nudaria 




15, 


228 


Serena, Hecatera 




17, 


52 


sericea, Lithosia 






279 


sericealis, Rivula 






228 


serratella, Phalfena ... 






191 


servella, Xystophora 






73 


Sesia 




64, 


202 


Sesiidae 






50 


sexalisata, Lobophora 




128, 


225 


Sibylla, Limenitis 


72, 


127, 


191 


silaceata, Cidaria 


134, 


182, 


207 


silerinella, Cataplectica (Heydenia) 


217 


similis, Porthesia (Liparis) .. 




191 


simplicella, Tinea 






39 


simulans, Agrotia 


228, 


255, 


298 


sinapis, Leucophasia 59, 


102, 


153, 








234, 


255 


sinuana, Sciaphila ... 






298 


sinuella, Homoesoma. . . 






228 


smaragdaria, Phorodesma 


210, 


228, 




229, 


254, 


275, 


298 



smintheus, Parnassius 
sobrina, Noctua 
sobrinata, Eupithecia 

socia, Xylina 

socialis, Eucheira 
sociata, Melanippe 

sociella, Aphomia 
solandriana, Poedisca 
Solaris, Acontia 
var. lucida 

Solenobia 

solidaginis, Calocampa 
sommaria, E 

sordida (anceps), Mamestra.. 
sordidana, Psedisca ... 
sordidata, Hyi)sipetes 

sparganii, Nonagria ., 
sparsata, Collix 
spartiata, Chesias 
spbegiformis, Sesia . 
Sphinges 
Sphingidse 
sphinx, Asteroscopus 
spilodactj'la, Aciptilia 



... 307 

62 

271 

103, 273, 300 

106 

208, 294, 295, 

296, 298 

18 

13, 109 

40 

38 

108, 292 

48, 58, 301 

... 44 

80, 302 

279 

15, 21, 229, 
231, 270, 279 

38 

15 

168 

42, 304 

...18, 26, 124 

7, 50, 57, 152 

17, 142, 143, 248 

102, 176, 280 



splendidulana. Coccyx ... ... 153 

sponsa, Catocala 59, 126 

stabilis, Tseniocainpa 103, 155, 207, 

224, 272, 301 

stachydalis, Ebulea 305 

statariella, Cataplectica (Heydenia) 217 

statices, Ino 182,265 

steinkellneriana (steinkellneriella), 

Epigraphia 103, 304 



stellatarum, Macroglossa 14, 15, 18 

159 

Stenolechia ... 

sticticalis, Spilodes 230 

stigmatica, Noctua ... ... 227 

straminata, Acidalia 

straminea, Leucania 

strataria, Amphidasys 17, 97, 102 
110, 111, 148, 167 

striana, Orthotsenia 

strigata, Hemithea 

strigilis, Miana 18, 206, 231, 252 

a;ar. sethiops 
strigillaria, Aspilates 
strigosa, Acronycta 141, 242, 302 
strigula, Agrotis ... ... 231 

strigula, Nola 

strobilella. Coccyx ... 

suasa, Hadena vide dissimilis, H. 

subbimaculelia, Nepticula ... 

subfulvata, Eupithecia 252, 274 

subgothica, Agrotis ... ... 37 

subjectana, Sciaphila 
subnotata, Eupithecia ... 230 

subpurpurella, Micropteryx 
subrosea, Agrotis (Noctua). ..37, 39 

127 

subsequa, Triphsena 107, 204, 227 

269, 271, 274, 279, 280 

303 
subsericeata, Acidalia 
succenturiata, Eupithecia ... 
suffumata, Cidaria ... ... 155 

suffusa, Agrotis 16, 183, 227, 298 

300 
sulphuralis, Agrophila vide trabea 
lis, A. 

sulphurella, Dasycera 

superstes, Caradrina 

suspecta, Orthosia 1.3, 15, 204, 284 

287 
sylvanus, Hesperia 
sylvata, Abraxas 



sylvata, Asthena 
sylvestrana, Retinia... 
sylvinus, HepiaUis ... 

Syntomis 

Syricthus 

syringaria, Pericallia 



17, 222, 228 

13, 15, 16, 126 

127, 182 

17 

... 209 

140, 225 



Taeniocampa ... 
tages, Nisoniades 
tapetzella. Tinea 
taraxaci, Caradrina 
tarquinius, Feniseca 
temerata, Bapta 
templi, Dasypolia 
tenebrata, Heliaca . 
tenebrosa, Kusina 

testacea, Luperina 

va/r. x-notata 



16, 17, 


153, 


207 
235 
305 


18, 227, 


272, 


305 
106 
182 
300 
182 


182, 183, 


280, 






288, 


301 


13, 274, 


298, 






299, 


300 
301 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



testata, Cidaria 5, 168, 

testudo, Limacodes vide limacodes, 

Heterogenea 

Tethea 

tetradactyla, Aciptilia 
tetralunaria, Seleiiia 158, 160, 167, 
IfiS, 169, 184, 207, 231, 

Tetrapodes 

teucrii, Oxyptilus 

thalassina, Hadena 182, 183, 205, 

288, 

Thanaos 

thaumas, Hesperia Pamphila 17, 
222, 228, 

Thecla 7, 

Theclidi 

Thyatyra 

ThyatyriiiEe 

thymiai-ia, Hemithea vide strigata, 

H. 
tili», Smerinthus 155, 

rar. centripuncta (maculata) ... 
tiliaria, Eugonia vide alniaria, E. 

tiucta, Aplecta 20, 

Tinea? 26, 64, 

Tineidse 7, 151, 

Tineina 27, 36, 148, 152, 209, 210, 

249, 
tipuliformis, Sesia ... 
tithonus, Epinephele 1' 



PAGE 

301 



149, 182, 

191, 228, 

255, 

togata, Eupithtcia 270, 

Tortrices 18, 26, 36, 64, 114, 210, 

214, 227, 242, 
Tortricidse ... . ... 7, 

Tortrix 109, 202, 

torvalis, Pyrausta 

Toxocampa (Ophiusa) 

trabealii', Agrophila 181, 

Trachea 

tragopogonis, Amphipyra 18, 126, 

227, 298, 300, 

trapezina, Calymnia 

trauniana, Stigmonota ... 36, 

tremula, Phalaena 

trepida, Notodonta 17, 

trevotiiii, Bombyx 

triangulum, Noctua 

trideiis, Acronycta 10, 57, 139, 141, 
142, 174, 175, 194, 305, 

trifasciata, Hypsipetes 

Irifolii, Hadena 52, 

trifolii, Zygsena 19, 80, 107, 217, 

264, 267, 273, 
trigeminana, Ephippiphora 
trigeminata, Acidalia 
trigrammica, Grammesia ... 182, 
row. bilinea 

triguttella, Lithocolletis 

trilinearia, Ephyra 

trimacula, Notodonta ... 159, 

tripartita, Habrostola 

Triphsena ••• 271, 

triplacia, Habrostola 



143 
280 

255 

7 
280 

301 

7 

235 
115 
167 
114 
57 



230 
276 

305 
306 

278 

306 

228 

299 
271 

257 
278 
211 
153 
277 



302 
143 

301 
301 
39 
125 
148 
293 
182 

308 
183 
205 

280 
19 
204 
305 
305 
45 
182 
228 
272 
274 
125 



tripoliana, Catoptria ride semulana, 
C. 

triquetrella, Solenobia 292 

tristata, Melanippe 299 

tritici, Agrotis 18, 105, 227, 255, 

271, 280, 288, 298, 299, 300, 305 

tritophus, Notodonta 29 

trojana, Ornithoptera ... ... 135 

triincata (russata), Cidaria ... 9, 182 

var. centum-notata ... ... 9 

var. comma-notata ... .... 9 

var. perfuscata ... ... ... 9 

turnus, Papilio ,. ... ... 56 

turritis, Euchloe ... ...97, 98, 146 

typhon, Ccenonympha ... ... 58 

var. laidion ... ... ... 276 

typica, Mania ... 126, 272, 301 

nhleri, Chionobas var. varuna ... 278 
uhnata, Abraxas vide sylvata, A. 
umbra (marginata), Chariclea 271, 

274, 301 
umbrana, Peronea ... ... ... 36 

umbratica, Cucullia 21, 52, 287 

umbrosa, Enome ... ... ... 240 

umbrosa, Noctna ... 252 

iinangulata, Melanippe ... 18, 252 

unauimis, Apamea 80, 129, 158, 

181, 302 
unca (uncula), Hydrelia ... 15, 225 
undulata, Eucosmia... ... 225, 277 

var. subfasciata ... ... ... 277 

unidentaria, Coremia 52, 110, 111, 

112, 115, 116, 182 

unifasciana, Tortrix 228 

unifasciata, Emmelesia 274 

unimaculella, Micropteryx ... 155 

unipiincta, Leucania .. ... 79 

upupana, Phoxopterj-x ... 209, 227 
ursiilana, Phalasna ... ... ... 84 

urticse, Habrostola vide tripartita, 

H. 

urticse, Spilosoma 181, 188 

urtica^, Vanessa 13, 15, 17, 47, 58, 

62, 100, 103, 107, 114, 153, 
157, 158, 234, 238, 255, 270, 299 

vaccinii, Cerastis (Orrhodia) 8, 15, 

19, 21, 102, 103, 155, 224, 302 

var. rufa ... ... ... ... 8 

va?'. spadicea ... ... ... 8 

valligera, Agrotis vide vestigialis, A. 
Vanessa ... 7, 17, 21, 114, 158 

Vanessidi .. ... ... ... 113 

variata, Thera 15,16,182 

variegana, Peronea ... 19 

vectisana, Eupujcilia ... ... 227 

velleda, Hepialus 272,279 

ra?-. earn us ... ... ... 47 

velleda, Tolype ... ... ... 145 

veuosa, Viminia (Arsilonche) ride 

albovenosa, A. 

venosata, Eupithecia 18 

verbasci, Cucullia ... ...18, 95, 303 

verellus, Crambus 36, 38, 40 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

vernaria, Geometra 145, 225 

versicolor, Endromis 102, 126, 139, 

148, 207, 270 
verticalis, Botys ... ... ... 242 

verticillata, Plusia 217 

vespertaria, Epione vide paralel- 
laria, E. 



vestigialis, Agrotis 

vetulata, Scotosia 
vetusta, Calocampa 



18, 298, 299, 

300, 301, 305 

168 

110, 274, 300, 

301, 302 
3C5 
126 



v-flava, Oenophila 

vibiciaria, Phalsena 

vibicigerella, Coleophora ... ... 209 

viburniana, Tortrix... ... ... 228 

viduaria, Cleora ... ... ... 152 

villica, Arctia... 126, 227, 304, 305 

viminalis, Cleoceris (Epunda) 17, 

229, 302 
Viminia 
•vinula, Dicranura 



133, 144 
109, 126, 139, 

140, 287 

277 

... 107, 273 
154 



var. phantoma 
viretata, Lobophora 

virgata, Mesotype 

virgaurese, Polyommatus 126, 208, 

230, 235 
virgaureana, Sciaphila 
virgularia, Acidalia . 
viridana, Tortrix 
viridaria, Larentia . 
viridella, Adela 
vitalbata, Phibalapter 
vitellina, Leucania 
vulgata, Eupithecia 



yx 



228 
... 167 
85, 224 
... 274 
... 305 
228, 287 
38, 40, 269 
... 227 



w-album, Thecla 



107, 167, 182 



Xanthia 79, 114 

xanthographa, Noctua 13, 269, 273, 

286, 287, 299, 300, 301 

xerampelina, Cirrhoedia ... 298 299 

Xylinidse 68 



PAGE 

xylosteana, Tortrix ... 229 

xylostella (harpella), Harpipteryx 

109, 305 



yeatiana, (yeatiella), Depressaria .. 
ypsilon, Agrotis vide suffusa, A. 



298 



zepbyrana, Argyrolepia 

Zephyrus 

zetterstedtii, Platyi^tilia 

Zeuzei'a 

ziczac, Notodonta 12,' 

zoegana, Xanthosetia 

zonaria, Nyssia 

Zygsena 

Zygsenidae 



... 228, 304 

7 

280 

202 

136, 271, 300 

228 

85, 148, 154 

88, 150, 261 

...27, 57, 88 



MOLLUSCA. 

Helix aspersa ... 
caperata 
ericetorum ... 
lapicida 
pomatia 
virgata 

NEUROPTERA. 

Termites 

ORTHOPTERA. 

Acridium 

Aedipoda tartarica ... 

Decticus albifrons 



... 2.54 
... 254 
... 254 
... 158 
106, 254 
... 254 



133 



Orthoptera 



THYSANURA. 



Lepisma 
Podura 



278 
135 



278 



25 



66 
66 




WARNE & SON, 

pkintkrs, 

127, Upper Grange Road, S.E. 




'4JCy^ AND ^^^^ 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION. 

No, 1. Vol. V. January 15th, 1894. 

Daiiais archippus, /Inosia pleXippus, op Wliat? 

By F. J. BUCKELL, M.B. 

By what name ought we to call the butterfly which, as regards its 
generic designation, sometimes figures as Anosia, sometimes as Danais, 
whilst for its trivial name some use arcMpjms, others erippus, and still 
others plexippiis ? Dealing first with the trivial nomenclature, it will 
be necessary, before an answer to the above question can be given, to 
determine what insect it was that Linnaeus described under the name 
of Papllio plexippiis. Two rival claimants for this honour are in the 
field ; one, which we may call the American butterfly, is widely 
distributed in America, has been recorded from some of the islands of 
the Pacific, and occurred sparingly in southern and western England 
in 1885, but is not found in India and China ; the other, which may be 
distinguished as the Indian butterfly, is found in India and China but 
not in America. The rivals are sharply differentiated by the presence 
in the Indian species of a white fascia, made up of five blotches of 
varying size and shape, which crosses from the costa to about the 
middle of the hind margin of the fore- wings ; otherwise the general 
facies is much the same in both. 

The first published description (as will be seen hereafter, there is 
reason to suppose that there was an earlier MS. description) by 
Linnseus of the insect which he named P. plexippus is to be found in 
Systcma Naturae, Ed. X., p. 471, No. 80 (1758) a translation of which 
is as follows : — " Wings entire, fulvous ; with dilated black veins and 
a black margin with white dots. Habitat, North America. Fore- wings 
with a white fascia as in the next species (P. chrysippus) which it 
resembles." In the Museum Ludovicce tJlricce (which is a description of 
the contents of the Royal Museum), p. 262, No. 81 (1764), China is 
added to North America as the habitat of the species, and the following 
more extended description given : — " Body black, it as well as the head 
and neck being spotted with white on the sides and beneath. Antennas 
black, clubbed. Feet bluish black. All the wings fulvous, rounded, 
hardly manifestly toothed, with the surfaces concolorous. Margin 
black, with white dots arranged in a double row. Black veins, very 
broad, run through the area of the wings, by which characteristic it is 
easily to be distinguished from the rest. Fore-wings with broad black 
apices, in which part, near the white dots, is also a white fascia broken 



Z THE ENTOMOLOGIST S EECORD. 

up into five blotches. Beneath, all the wings are concolorous, but 
more faintly black." The entry in the 12th edition of the Sy sterna, 
p. 767, No. 177 (1767) is exactly a duplicate of that in the 10th edition. 
In all these descriptions there is the most explicit reference to the 
white fascia which the Indian insect has, but which the American has 
not ; moreover, the statement that plexipims is like clirysippus is true of 
the Indian, but not of the American species. When we turn to the 
references given by Linnaeus to other authors, it will be seen that they 
relate to the American species ; but there are so many discrepancies 
between Linnaeus' descriptions and his references that the latter cannot 
be assigned a very high value as evidence in any particular instance. 
Besides references to Petiver's Museum, 58, 527, and to Ray, 138, 3, we 
find '* Sloan. Jam. 2, p. 214, t. 239, fig. 5, 6," and " Catesb. Car. 2, 
t. 88." The first of these is to " A voyage to the Islands Madeira, 
Barbadoes, .... and Jamaica, ivith the Natural History . ... of the 
last of these Islands, by Hans Sloane, M.D. ; in the second volume of 
this work (1725) is a description and a cojDper-jDlate uncoloured figure, 
under the name of Papilio Jaemaicensis major, of a butterfly that is 
certainly not the typical American species, but agrees with it in not 
possessing any white fascia. The other reference is to a work by 
Mark Catesby entitled The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and 
the Bahama Islands; in the second volume of this (1743) is a typical 
coloured figure of the American butterfly. The description and the 
references being at variance then, it seems more reasonable to give the 
former the greater evidential value, and by its aid to arrive at the 
conclusion that it was the Indian insect Avhich Linnaeus described under 
the name P. plexippus, although it is impossible to determine what led 
him into the error of giving it a North American habitat. This 
conclusion is confirmed by the evidence of Aurivillius, who in 1882 
published, in Komjl. Sv. Vet. Ahad. Handl., a paper entitled " Eecensio 
critica Lepidopterorum Musci Ludovic(T Ulricie qua? descripsit Carolus 
A. LinnS. In this he states that the two specimens now remaining in 
that Museum are of the Indian insect, and that Clerck's figure (in 
Icones Lis. III. (inedit) t. 5, f. 1, 1764) is also of the same. It must 
be remembered that all Clerck's figures are said to have been made 
from specimens in that Museum ; the copy of Clerck's Icones in the 
British Museum Library does not contain the third part mentioned by 
Aurivillius, and it has therefore been impossible to verify his statement. 
On the other hand, Aurivillius states that in what he calls Schedula, 
and which he sjieaks of as older than the 10th edition of the Systema, 
there is a description of the insect by Linnaeus which contains no 
allusion to the white fascia nor any mention of China as a habitat. If 
this Schedula be, as I imagine, a MS. document preserved in the archives 
of the Museum, it cannot be allowed to militate against the conclusion 
arrived at on the evidence afi'orded by the first published description in 
the 10th edition of the Systema. 

In the cabinet of Linnaeus, at present in the possession of the 
Linnsean Society, we find in one drawer a specimen of the American 
butterfly labelled " Archippus, Fab., Marsham," and immediately under- 
neath it, four specimens of the Indian ])utterfly labelled plexippus ; in 
another drawer is another specimen of the former labelled " Archipjms, 
Abbot t. 6. Georgia." This evidence is of no value quoad Linnanis, as 
it is clear that the American si^ecijuens could not have been labelled, 



DAKAIS ARCiriPPUS, ANOSIA PLEXIPPUS, OR WHAT ! 6 

probably were not placed in the drawer, until after the cabinet reached 
this country in 1788 ; it is, however, important as indicating the opinion 
of Dr. Smith, who purchased the cabinet and who himself wrote on the 
lepidoptera of Georgia, that it was the Indian species that Linnasus 
called plexippus. 

The testimony of Fabricius also leads in the same direction. To 
estimate its value aright we must bear in mind that, according to a 
letter written by him to Eev. W. Kirby, dated March 28th, 1803, and 
quoted in Zoologist, 1852, p. 3544, Fabricius had lived two whole years 
in the gi-eatest intimacy with Linna3us, and, we must further remember, 
that the latter spoke of the former as a gi-eater entomologist than him- 
self. It is reasonable therefore to conclude that the disciple was well 
acquainted with the specimens of his great master. Fabricius in 
Entomologia Systematica, Vol. III., p. 49, No. 150 (1793) describes the 
American species under the name P. arcMppus and says that it differs 
from P. plexippus, Linn, by being rather larger and by lacking the 
fascia on the fore-wings, in place of which it has somewhat fulvous 
blotches. He gives plexippus, however, an American habitat and says 
nothing about Asia in connection with it. 

Cramer, however, in Papillons Exotiques, Vol. I., p. 4., pi. 3., fig. a-b, 
had, as early as 1779, described and figured a butterfly from Brazil 
under the name of P. erippus, which is now universally recognised as a 
variety of the American insect ; Cramer himself speaks of a species 
from New York which differs but little from his erippus, and in his 
3rd volume (1782) figures it under the name of P.plexippris, remarking 
that this is probably the insect Linnteus indicated by the name on 
account of the habitat he mentions. In the same volume Cramer 
describes and figures the Indian species under the name of P. genntia. 

The name erippus has never come into general use ; for three- 
quarters of a century, archippus was the trivial name by which the 
American species was most frequently designated, although pJexippus 
had a few adherents scattered over that period, notably amongst 
American authors. 

Hiibner's action is interesting. In Sammlung exotischer Schmetter- 
linge, Bd. I, pi. 20, fig. 1, 2 (1806?), he figured the American butterfly 
under the name Limnas ferrugineaplexippe ; in the Verzeichniss helcannter 
Schmetterlinge (1816) he placed plexippus, which he then specifically 
identified as the genutia of Cramer, together with chrysippus in one 
genus ; and in another, a species to which he gave the name menippe and 
which, by his synonymic references, we ascertain that he identified 
with erippus. Cram, and archippus, Fb. ; finally in the 2nd volume of the 
Sammlung exotischer Schmetterlinge, pi. 7, fig. 1, 2 (1820-1?) he figured 
another form of the American species under the name of Anosia 
megalippe. The absence of letterpress, relating to the species, fi'om the 
copy of this latter work which is in the British Museum Library, 
deprives us of all chance of ascertaining the reasons which led to these 
frequent changes of trivial name, but it is clear that though at the 
outset lliibner supposed plexippus, Linn, to be the American, he sub- 
sequently came to the conclusion that it was the Indian species. 

The revival in modern times of the claim, on behalf of the Ameri- 
can butterfly, for the name j^lcxipjyus dates, as far as I can discover, from 
1875 ; in that year, Scudder, in " A Synonymic List of the Butterflies 
of North America " published in the Bulletin of the Bujfalo Society of 



4 THE ENTOMOLOGIST 8 RECORD. 

Natural Sciences, Vol. II., p. 245, adopts the name. He was followed 
by Godman and Salvin in their Biologia Centrali Americana — Bhopa- 
locera, Vol. I., p. 1 (1879) ; these authors base their action on the 
habitat given by Linnaeus and upon his reference to Catesby. Moore 
in " A Monograph of Limnaina and Enploeina" published in the Proc. 
Zool. Soc. pt. 51, p. 201-252 (1883) also adopts the same course. In his 
" Bntterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada," p. 720 (1889) 
Scudder discusses the proper name of the butterfly and declares that 
there can be no doubt whatever that the American species was first 
described by Linnaeus under the name of plexippus. None of these 
authors, however, attempt to grapple with what is really the crucial 
difficulty in the way of accepting this conclusion, viz. : — the occurrence 
in all his published descriptions of the unmistakable reference to the 
white fascia ; nor have I anywhere met with such an attempt. 

After taking into consideration the various evidence that has been 
adduced, the following propositions are submitted as an answer to the 
question with which this paper of)ens, so far as concerns the trivial 
name. 

1. — The balance of argument is against the claim that the American 
insect is the plexippus of Linneeus. 

2. — The earliest name given to that species was erippus, Cram, 
and, if the " law of priority " is to be pedantically adhered to, this is 
the trivial name that must be adopted. 

3. — The Fabrician name, archippus, is that by which the species has 
been most widely known, and as changes in accustomed nomenclature 
are to be deprecated, and as, moreover, erippus. Cram, is a varietal form 
found in Brazil, archippus should be retained as the trivial name of the 
species, and erippus used as the name of the variety. 

With regard to the generic name, the course of events has been as 
follows : — Latreille in his Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces et des Insectes, 
Tom. 14, p. 108 (1805), created the genus Danaida ; the only species 
which he included in it was plexippus; in Genera Crustaceorum et 
Insectorum, p. 201 (1809), he altered the name of the genus to Danaus ; 
he gives no reason for the change, but it has been suggested that it was 
made because the earlier name was already pre-occupied in Botany ; in 
Encyclopedie Methodique, vol. ix., p. 10 (1816), he again changes the 
name, whether intentionally or accidentally does not appear, to Danais 
which is the form it has since retained ; Moore, in the monograph to 
which allusion has already been made, states that Latreille altered 
Danaida to Danais in 1807, and gives a reference to Illiger's Magazine, 
vol. 6, p. 292 ; a careful search has not, however, enabled me to verify 
the statement. Under all the variations of the name the type species 
given is always p)lexippus ; that by this name Latreille meant the Indian 
butterfly, although he gave it an American habitat (therein probably 
following Fabricius), is cleai', because in the description he emphasizes 
the presence of a white band on the fore-wings ; moreover, Godart, 
whose work in the Encycl. Method, was done under Latreille's super- 
vision, gives the name plexippus as synonymous with genutia. Cram. 
This being so, and it being now held that the Indian butterfly is not 
congeneric with the American, it follows that if any form of Latreille's 
name be retained it must be for the genus to whicli the former belongs. 

Fabricius in his Sy sterna Glossatorum (1807) created the genus 
Eupl(ea, of which plexippus is given as a type in the abstract in Illiger's 



HAIR-TUFTS AND ANDROCONIA IN EUSTROMA RETICULATA. 5 

Magazine ; this name therefore can have no application to the American 
species. 

Hiibner in the Tentamen (1810 ?) gave the same species as the type 
of his genus Limnas ; in the Verzeichniss (1816), the family Ferruginece 
of the stirps Limnades is divided into two genera, (1) Eupl(xa, including 
plexippe, chrysippe, &c , (2) Anosia, including menippe which we have 
already seen to be synonymous in Hiibner's mind with archippus, Fb. 
He uses Anosia as the generic name for the American insect, when 
later he figures it under the trivial name megalippe. It is not sur- 
prising, considering the political history of the time, that Hiibner 
should show no sign of any acquaintance with Latreille's works. 

The name Anosia seems therefore clearly marked out as the right 
generic designation of archippus, and the graceful alliteration of Anosia 
archippus will furnish the full answer to the question with which we 
started. 



fiair-tufts and ^Iiidrocoriia in Eustroma reticulata. 

By T. a. chapman, M.D., F.E.S. 
Bead before the Cambridge Entmnological Society, Dec. 1st, 1893. 

Mr. Farren has called my attention to a tuft or brush of hairs on 
the fore- wings of Cidaria reticulata, and has afforded me the opportunity 
of examining a specimen — I fear to its considerable injury ; I have 
since obtained some additional material from Mr. Hodgkinson. 

The precise disposition and relations of this brush were quite new 
to me, but, as I knew very little about the matter beyond the fact that 
such brushes occur in various situations (legs, wings, body, &g.), I 
referred to Mr. Meyrick's paper, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., March, 1892, 
which contains an immense fund of information relative to the external 
structural anatomy of the Geometr^e. From this source I gather that 
such brushes are rarely found on the fore- wings of Geometers. 

Mr. Meyrick places reticidata in the genus Eustroma, Hb., one of 
the characters of which he thus describes : — " Fore- wings in ^ with 
strong hair pencil lying near inner margin from base beneath, some- 
times partially clothing lb." The other species of this genus which 
I have examined are prunata, associata, populata, testata ; the description 
is fairly applicable to them, the tuft forming a dense pencil which 
arises in mass from near the base of lb, its root sometimes extending 
along a portion of that nervure, and which (in cabinet specimens) lies in 
the form of a dense brush nearly parallel with the neuration. C. reticidata 
does not agree at all with the above-mentioned species ; it comes nearer, 
perhaps, to the genus Lasiogma, Meyr., in which the hairs spring from 
the whole length of the submedian fold. I have had no opjDortunity 
of examining the species comprised in this genus ; it may, therefore, be 
worth while describing the arrangement which obtains in reticulata, 
although it seems improbable that this has not been done already. 

In popidata, which may be taken as a type of the other species 
that I have examined, the hairs arise from a triangular area, situated 
on the costal side of nervure lb. almost at its extreme base, between 
this nervure and the nervure above. In reticidata, the area from which 
the hairs arise is situated between lb. and the inner margin ; it is 
quadrangular in shape, its basal margin being rather farther from the 
base of the wing than is the apical margin of the area (on the costal 



b THE ENTOMOLOGIST 8 BEOORD. 

side of the nervure) in populata ; it extends from the nervure to the 
inner margin, and its length is rather greater than its breadth ; by 
measure it begins 2-mm. from the base of the wing and extends along 
the inner margin for 2-mm. The hairs do not proceed radially from 
the base, as in populata, but form a fringe or flat brush which lies 
closely appressed to the under surface of the wing, passing in a direction 
parallel with the costa ; they are about 3-mm. in length, and are pale at 
their bases but become nearly black at their tips, where they are a 
little expanded and flattened, and end in a sharp lancet-shaped point. 

Associated with this brush is another and more distinctive feature 
that is not represented in any way in the other species of Eustroma, 
Hb., Meyr., which I have examined. When the brushes are pushed 
aside and the under surface of the fore- wing, which they cover, is thus 
exposed, a circular patch of about 1-5-mm. in diameter is seen, lying 
between lb and 2 ; this patch forms an opaque orange mark, very 
different from the strawy-fuscous colour and semi-transjjarent texture 
of the rest of the under surface. At a point on the upper surface of 
the hind- wing, that is exactly opjiosite this when the wings are partially 
extended is an almost identical patch ; this is circular, about I'Ji-mm. 
in diameter, and its centre is about at the centre of the transverse 
nervure terminating the discoidal cell ; it is orange in colour, but at its 
very centre is decidedly darker and denser. 

These patches, when placed under the microscope (dried specimens 
be it understood), present scales of a long ovoid or fusiform shape which 
look as if they were not flat, but solid ; these are perhaps a trifle shorter 
than the surrounding scales, which latter have square ends and from 
six to eight terminal teeth and are nearly twice the breadth of those 
on the yellow patches. These broader scales are striated longitudinally; 
those on the patches, however, are of a netted granular texture, 
suggestive rather of contents than of surface markings, and many of 
them are loaded with black material which is probably air unexpelled 
by the medium of preparation. 

These two patches (of androconia ?) then are opjDOsite each other, 
with the brush-fan lying between them ; if they are the real scent- 
organs, we may suppose the brush to be of use in keeping them 
sufficiently apart to ensure the passing over them of a current of air. 



]\[otes ori Dp. Bucl^ell's Paper on Glassificatioii. 

By W. F. KIRBY, F.L.S., F.E.S., 

Assistant in Zool. Dept., Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), South Kensington. 

Linne appears to have been guided largely by size and general 
appearance in the arrangement of his groups, as he placed many 
Nymphalids (e.g. Morpho) among his Eqidtes, and certain Papilionids 
among his Nymphales. Such errors, of course, were unavoidable in the 
infancy of Entomology. 

Fabricius treated the Danai candidi and the Danai festivi as two 
gi'oups, and restricted the name Danai to the Whites ; Danaus was 
subsequently used by Esper almost in a generic sense. Unless we 
hold that Ave must have male mythological names to agree with the 
masculine Daaans, which would be most convenient on the score of 
expediency, we should probably have to recognise brassiae as the type 
of Danaus, 



NOTES ON DR. BUCKELl's PAPER ON 0LAS81FI0AT10N, 7 

Dr. Buckell makes no allusion to Hiibner's Tentamen. This is a 
mere two-jjage list of genera with types, but is useful as fixing types. 
It appears to me to have been issued about 1810, for it contains one 
name, apparently adopted from the Systema Glossatorum of Fabricius, 
published in 1807. It is more likely that Hiibner copied the name 
from Fabricius than that Fabricius co})ied it from Hiibner. 

No difficulty can exist in determining the type of Latreille's Satyrus, 
as Satynis or le Satyre is used as the name of megcera by many of the 
old authors. 

I am a little doubtful about the date of publication of the ninth 
volume of the Edinlmrgh Encyrloj)(edia, in which Leach's important 
article appeared. The date usually given is 1815, but the volume is 
dated 1819, a discrepancy which I have not as yet been able to clear 
up. The book may have been issued in parts. 

One or two works not noticed by Dr. Buckell may be named. In 
1857 Wallengren, in his Lepidoptera Scandinavue Bhopalocera, divided 
the Swedish butterflies as follows : — 

PAPILIONES. 

Tetrapodes. 
Satyroidai : — Ccenonymplia, Pararye, Aphantopus ( hyjjeranthus ), 
Epinephele, Safyims, [^Chionohas, not Brit.], Erebia. 

Nymphalides : — Limenitis, Melitcea, Argynnis, Vanessa. 

Hexapodes. 
Heliconidcs : — Colias, Goniopteryx, Leucophasia, Anthocharis, Pieris, 
Aporia. 

Parnasii: — Doritis (=; Parnassius). 
Equites : — Papilio. 

Lyccenides : — Zephyrus ( quercus, betulai ), Thecla, Polyommatus, 
Lyccena. 

Heteropodes. 
Erycinides : — Hamearis (luctna). 

HESPEEIOID^. 

Heteropteriis, Hespena, Syrichtus, Tlianaos. 

In 1860 Zebrawski, in a work on the Lepidoptera of Cracow, 
proposed the following arrangement, which, so far as I know, is quite 
unique: — SphingidcK, Noctuidce, Boinhycidie, Papilionidd;, Geometridce, 
Pyralioidce, TortricidcB, Pterophoridce, Tineidce. The Papilionidie are not 
sub-divided except into genera as. follows : — Doritis (= Parnassius), 
Pontia (= Pieris), Melargus (galathea), Pararga, Hipparchia, Erebia, 
Satyrus, Apatura, Limenitis, Vanessa, Argynnis (includes the Melitseas), 
Hesperia, Chrysophanus, Lyccnna, Thecla, Colias, Gonepteryx, Papilio. 
As 1 cannot read his Polish, I cannot explain his reasons for this 
arrangement. 

Finally, Schatz and Rober, in their comjianion volume on genera to the 
great work on Exotic Butterflies by Dr. Staudinger (1885-92) distribute 
the families as follows : — Papilionidce, Pieridce, Danaidce, \_Nectropida;'],* 
\_Acr0eida3'], [Ileliconidie^, Nyrnphalidce, [_3Iorphida;^, [^Brassolidce'}, 
Satyridce, \_L%bytheidce], Erycinidce, Lyccenidce, Hesperidce. 

* The families within brackets have no British representatives. 



8 THE ENTOMOLOGIST S BECOBD. 

On an yidditioiial JVIetliod for Determining the Species of 
certain Lepidoptera. 

By W. S. RIDING, M. D. 

It has frequently occurred to me that the structure of the scales of 
Lepidoptera might be a helj) in the classification of certain species, 
which, at present, afford considerable difficulty. Some time ago I 
examined the subject cursorily with reference to the closely allied 
varieties of Orrhodia vaccinii and 0. ligula, especially vars. rtifa (Tutt) 
and spadicea (Hb.) of the former, which have the characteristic 
apex and hind- margin of ligula, a good many of which are taken here. 
I have long considered these as vars. of ligula, but the general feeling 
of lepidopterists seems to be against this view and such specimens 
have, I believe, been accepted for the most part as varieties of vaccinii. 
Kecentlyl have again gone into the question, with the result of confirm- 
ing my previous imi^ression. I find the scales of the upper surface of 
the forewings of the types of vaccinii and ligula jDresent a constant 
difference, and that the special varieties alluded to should be placed, from 
this point of view, under the species ligula and not under vaccinii. 

In the first place, I examined with a microscope a tyj^e specimen 
of 0. vaccinii (ochreous, with brown markings and pale wing rays), 
taking some scales from the base, middle and hind margin of the upj^er 
surface of both fore-wings. These I found to vary in the number of 
teeth, some having 3, others 4, 5, or 6. I added together those having 
a similar number and took the percentage, with the following result — 

Scales with 3 teeth formed 15 per cent, of the whole. 

55 ^ 55 55 ■'-■^ 55 » 

fi 4 

55 'J 55 55 ^ 55 55 

100 

or, 84 per cent, of the scales of typical vaccinii were found to have 3 or 
4 teeth. I then took the scales of a typical 0. ligula (var. ochrea, Tutt), 
our common form here, which has a yellowish band before the hind 
margin, and found that there were no scales with 3 teeth but that — 

Scales with 4 teeth formed 15 per cent, of the Avhole. 
^ 44 

55 " 55 55 ^^ 55 55 

55 " 55 55 ^^ 55 »> 

7 ^ 

55 • 55 55 " 55 55 

100 

or, 85 per cent, of the scales of typical ligula had 5, 6, or 7 teeth. 
These data were confirmed by a general examination of many other sjieci- 
mens, with an approximately similar result. We may thus, apparently, 
distinguish typical 0. vaccinii from 0. ligula by the large predominance 
of scales with 3 or 4 teeth (about 84 per cent.) in the former, and 
of scales with 5, 6, or 7 teeth (about 85 per cent.) in the latter. A 
glance at the field under the microscope is sufficient to do this. 

My attention was next directed to ascertaining whether this fact 
would help us in determining the species of the varieties (hitherto 
classed as vaccinii), rufa (Tutt) and spadicea (Hb.), having a pointed apex 



METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE SPECIES. 9 

and a more or less concave hind margin. An examination of a specimen 
of this form ( = var. spadicea, Hb. but approaching rufa) gave the 
following result — 

Scales with 4 teeth formed 10 per cent, of the whole. 

jj b „ „ o_i ,, „ 



100 
a few with 3 teeth only, amounting to less than ^ per cent., were left 
out of the calculation. This gave 90 per cent, of the scales as having 
5, 6, or 7 teeth (89 per cent, of these having 5 or 6) and clearly 
placed the insect, as to its scales, in the ligula group. A second speci- 
men, similar to the above but still more approaching var. rufa, showed 
a like result — 

Scales with 4 teeth formed 3 per cent, of the whole. 

jj S )> }) "* }> }> 

!) b „ „ oA ,, „ 



100 
or, 97 per cent, of the scales had 5, 6, or 7 teeth and 86 per cent. 5 or 6. 
On the other hand, similar insects which differed only in having the 
blunt apex and rounded margin of vaccinii — the true var. spadicea (Hb.) 
and rufa (Tutt) — showed in one specimen — 

Scales with 3 teeth formed 8 per cent, of the whole. 
5) 4 ,, „ bU ,, „ 

j> 5 „ „ oi „ „ 

,» t) ,, ,, J- 5, }> 



100 



and in another specimen, 

Scales with 3 teeth formed 8 per cent, of the whole. 
)j 4 „ „ bo „ „ 

100 

or, 69-5 per cent, of the scales had 3 or 4 teeth only — allying the 
specimens in this respect to the type of vaccinii. These data tallied with 
a previous examination of similar specimens some months ago. 

The difficulty frequently experienced in separating C. russata and 
C. immanata led me to examine a few of both these species, to ascei'tain 
if any similar differentiation seemed possible. Some six specimens of 
C. russata and vars. perfnscata, comma-notata and centum-notnta showed 
a large predominance of scales with 4 teeth, which formed 60 to 80 
per cent, of the whole, a few only having 3 and 5 teeth. This pro- 
portion seemed approximately constant. One specimen of C. immanata 
var. marmorata on the other hand, showed an average of 97 per cent, 
of scales with 4, 5, or 6 teeth (43 per cent, had 4 only), the remainder 
having 3 ; but one of the type of C. immanata, with the nearly black 
median area, showed a preclominance of the scales with 4 teeth to the 



10 THE entomologist's KECORD. 

extent of 70 per cent., the majority of the remainder having 5 teeth 
and the rest 3 or 6. The latter, then, as regards scales, showed a 
similarity to russata, and no differentiation seems possible. These two 
last results, based on single specimens, require confirmation or other- 
wise, but it would appear as though only the one form, marmorata, can 
be differentiated by its scales. 

Experiments were also made with the two Cuspidia, tridens and pst. 
I have only as yet been able to examine two specimens of tridens, not 
caring to sacrifice more of my series of the bred insect. The average 
of the two gives — 

Scales with 4 teeth formed 35 per cent, of the whole.* 

}) '-' )f }} '-" J5 5) 



100 



or, 65 per cent, were scales with 5 or 6 teeth. One had fewer scales 
with 6 teeth and more with 4 than the other, but there was the pre- 
dominance of those with 5, in both. Psi on the other hand showed — 

Scales with 3 teeth formed 6 per cent, of the whole.* 
4 74 



100 
or, the scales with 3 or 4 teeth formed 80 per cent. 

Not only is there this difference between the two, but the scales of 
tridens have also unequal and irregular teeth with projection of the 
middle ones, giving a ragged appearance, in a very considerable pro- 
portion, especially of those from the centre and hind margin of the 
wings, whilst the teeth of the scales of jysi are comparatively equal and 
regular, and show less tendency to projection of the middle ones. 
This difference is very noticeable. Of course these points remain oj^en 
for confirmation or otherwise when more bred sjjecimens of tridens 
and the darker varieties of psi have been examined. As regards any 
connection between colour and intensity of colour and the number of 
teeth of scales, I think, for the most part, the darker insects have their 
scales with the most teeth, but this is far from invariable, as is seen 
above, those from the white centre of var. marmorata having more teeth 
than those from the true dark imvianata or the var. per/uscata of russata, 
and I have noticed other similar cases. 

I wish these notes to be taken as suggestive for the most part, 
though I have endeavoured to some extent to guard against the fallacy 
of too few data by examining the scales from three different parts of 
each wing and from a considerable number of specimens (except in the 
cases of immanata and tridens), still I am quite aware of the fact that 
many more examinations, corroborative or otherwise, are needed before 
attempting to generalize, but I think, at all events, I have made out a 
case for further investigation. — Buckerell Lodge, near Honiton. 
November 2Uh, 1893. 

*0n the other hand, the total of scales with 4 and 5 teeth comhined give 
respectively 91 and 92 percent., a very close result. — Ed. 



ON THE LARVA OF AECTIA CAIA. 11 

'With special reference to its correlated variations in Plumage, 
Moulting and Hybernation. 

By T. A. CHAPMAN, M. D. 

(Continued from Vol. IV., page 290). 

I have mentioned that there are at least two varieties of Forwards, 
those that attain their full growth in the 6th skin, and those that do 
not do so until the 7th, It so happened, that in my first brood, which was 
apparently a very normal one, there was quite a sharp line dividing the 
Forwards from the Normal larvte ; six larvae altogether were Forwards, 
and I noted that these, in the 4th skin, lacked the dorsal and lateral pale 
lines. In later broods this was not always the case, but in the 4th skin 
the Forwards were if anything paler than the Normals at that stage, 
and at the same time distinctly larger than Normals in 5th skin. 

In after broods there were frequently some larvee that appeared in 
doubt as to whether they would be Forwards or Normals, assuming to 
a slight extent the caia plumage in the 5th skin, without being larger 
than the usual hybernating form in that skin ; others passing through 
a normal 5th skin, nevertheless went on slowly into the 6th skin, with 
some amount of caia plumage, without hybernating. All these com- 
pleted their transformations without hybernation, but were always a 
very long way behind the genuine Forwards in point of time. I have 
since met with these forms, though very sparingly, in broods from wild 
eggs. 

In this first normal brood the whole of the Normals acquired/?t?/(7mosa 
plumage in the 5th skin, and there occurred only one decided but 
also important variety, represented by four larvte which grew 
rather larger than the others, appeared to have denser hair than the 
usual form, had fewer of the long hairs that exist freely, though not 
conspicuously (usually two on each tubercle), in that form, and were all 
four of a uniform rich ruddy hue, very like the brightest form of 
fuliginosa ; probably these, more than the normal hybernators, suggested 
this name for the plumage of that stage. These four larvte were found 
to differ also in another important respect from the ordinary Normals. 
It was recognised on September 11th that they had all ceased feeding 
and desired to hybernate, and they were accordingly placed in a cool 
cellar. On November 23rd a number of Normals together with these 
four special larvae were brought up into a warm room. At the end of 
a week all the Normals had commenced to feed, but it was fourteen days 
before these red larvae did so. It appeared therefore as if these larvae 
were not only better nourished and more warmly clad than their 
neighbours, but had also entered into a more profound winter sleep, 
and it seemed natural to conclude that they were specially prepared to 
stand a longer and more severe winter than their brethren. 

It is curious that, among the many hundreds of larvae which I 
reared after this, I never met with one that presented jjrecisely this 
combination of characters, not even among the progeny of these very 
individuals. It may perhaps be going too far to suggest that, as I was 
breeding exclusively from Forwards, the idea of a warmer climate was 
sufficiently impressed on the race to prevent such a preparation for 
unusual cold being made, and that the tendency to make such prepara- 



12 THE ENTOMOLOGIST 8 RECORD. 

tion was eliminated even from the offspring of these larvae themselves 
(I only reared one brood), by the forcing process to which the parents 
were subjected ; inasmuch, however, as similar conclusions are pointed 
to by other results, the suggestion is, perhaps, not inadmissible. 

i did not get a figure of either of these four larvaj, the nearest 
approach to them, and it was very close in appearance, is represented 
in Plate I., fi"-. 2. The larva there figured was hybernating in this 
form in its fith skin, and was one of the varieties in the hybernating 
forms that occurred in later broods but were unrepresented in the first, 
in which all hybernators assumed fuligiaosa plumage in the 5th skin, 
and then hybernated. 

CTo be contimied.) 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES & OBSERVATIONS. 



^>^ 



Pupa of Melitaea biaturna. — Tlie pu]3a of M. matiirna is very 
different from that of M. cinxia. It is larger and longer in proportion, 
and, in place of being greyish-brown, is of a creamy-white, spotted with 
intense black, the spots on the thorax and wing cases being especially 
large ; in some specimens the abdomen is more or less brownish. I 
have often reared this species from the beautiful larva. — F. B. Newnham. 
December Gth, 1893. 



Sariation. 

Aberrations of Various Butterflies. — Coenonymplia pamphilus. — 

I caught this summer a very strange ab. of C. pampkUm, in which there 

is a row of six ocelli down the centre of the underside of the hind-wings. 

The pupils of these ocelli are silvery-white, the rings being light 

brown. Vanessa c-alhum. — I bred, among man}'^ others this season, a 

small 3 c-albuvi, in which what is usually the (7-like mark, which 

gives the trivial name to the species, is reduced to a mere straight line. 

I propose to call this ab. iota-album, partly because the name of I-album 

is already employed by Esper to denote an ab. of the European V. egea, 

Cram, and partly because my specimen has no dot. V. atalanta. — I, 

this autumn, reared two specimens of V. atalanta, in which the outer 

row of white spots, usually five in number, exhibits a sixth, this being 

placed within the red band of the upper wings. Lijccena icarus ab. 

icarinus, Scriba. — This aberration, which is devoid of the basal dots on 

the underside of the upper wings, occurs rather commonly here in a 

rough pasture on the S.W. slope of the Ragleth ; I have caught many 

specimens of both sexes. This aberration is generally scarce, at least 

on the Continent. L. icarus varies much in size, my smallest measures 

13/16 of an inch, being much smaller tlian ray smallest minima, while 

my largest expands to 1 9/16 inch. These are both females. Thissuiall 

form, which appears about July and is very local, might almost be a 

distinct species, approaching to the continental L. esehari, Hubn. 

Another aberration is found here, in which the upper side is of a bright 

blue without any trace of purple. This I take to be the L. dorylas of 

the older British authors, but it is very distinct from the Alpine hylas 



VARIATION. 13 

of Esper, or the dori/las of Hiibner, — F. B, Newnham, Church Stretton, 
Salop. December 6th, 1893. 

Varieties of Lepidoptera exhibited at the York and District 
Field Naturalists' Society. — The following exhibits of varieties and 
local forms have been made during the past year : — The President, 
Mr. G. C. Dennis, F.E.S. : a living specimen (bred) of Arctia lubricipeda 
var. radlata from Barnsley. Mr. R. Dutton : Vars. of Ahraxaii nhaata 
and Arctia lubricipeda ; dark var. of Abraxas grossulariata and her- 
maphrodite specimen of Epione vesj)ertaria from York ; forms of 
Asphalia diluta and Hadena protea, also from York. Mr. J, Hawkins : 
Hi/beruia progemmaria var. fuscata ; Tephrosia biundnlaria var. 
delamerensis (bred), and Zijgaena lonicerce var. semi-lutescens (bred) from 
York. Mr. S. Walker : Vars. of Orthosia suspecta from York ; also 
Boarmia rhomboidaria var. perfiimaria. Mr. G. Jackson : a number of 
exceptionally fine vars. of Arctia lubricipeda, bred from larvaj obtained 
in the neighbourhood of York during the past few years ; amono-st 
these were many thickly blotched specimens, known as the " York 
form," but none of them approached " k beaucoup pres " the now well- 
known var. radiata, and Mr. Jackson stated that he had never suc- 
ceeded in breeding this variety nor any form nearly resembling it, 
although he had bred the species for a number of successive years. 
Mr. W. Hewett : Bisulcia ligustri var. olivacea from Driffield ; dark 
forms of Luperina testacea from Hartlepool ; vars. of Arctia lubricirjeda 
from Driffield and other localities, that from Driffield having the fore 
wings typical, but the hind wings of the same colour as var. radiata 
viz., smoky black, the base, wing-rays and fringe alone being cream- 
coloured ; the head and thorax were cream-coloured, the body yellow, 
with six black sj)ots down the middle and on each side ; the anteniiEe 
simple ; also a fine var. of Arctia caia from Hull, in which the fore 
wings were of an almost uniform brown colour, the hind wino-s beino- 
black excej^t at the base and fringe ; forms of Anchocelis pistacina from 
Hull and Beverley, numerous forms of Taeniocarnpa gothica selected 
from more than 300 specimens ; vars. of Paedisca solandriana from 
Darlington ; a beautiful melanic form of Smerinthus popidi (bred) from 
Beverley, and a pale form from Hull ; a var. of Vanessa c-albnm with 
the hind wings of a uniform chocolate colour ; Hybernia progemmaria 
var. fuscata and Tephrosia biundularia var. delamerensis, with inter- 
mediate forms of both sj^ecies, from York ; melanic forms of Diurnea 
fagella from Sledmere ; a var. of Abraxas grossulariata having the fore 
wings almost entirely black, from Beverley, and a similar var., bred 
this season, from York ; a long and variable series of Lomaspilis 
marginnta from York ; two suffused examples of Ephyra pendnlaria 
from York ; pale forms of Abraxas ulmata from Sledmere, as well as 
an almost white specimen and another lead coloured of the same sjiecies 
from Drewton Dale, Yorkshire ; two dark specimens of Odontopera 
bidentata from Hull ; very dark Noctua xanthographa from Hull : vars, 
of Orthosia suspecta from York ; Zygcena lonicerce var. semi-httesceus 
from York ; a variable series of Apamea fibrosa from Wicken Fen ; a 
fine var. (bred) of Vanessa urtica} ; Melanthia rubiginata var. plumbata 
from the North of Scotland ; light, dark, and intermediate forms of 
Agrotis puta from Kent ; several tine dark and liglit varieties of 
Abraxas grossulariata, bred this season at York. — Wm. Hewett. 



14 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

Chelonia plantaginis double brooded. — On the lOtli of November 
the pupa of C. plantaginis, of which I spoke in the November issue of the 
Record, yielded its imago, a 3 , which is quite typical. The ova hatched 
on the 4th, 5th, and 6th of June ; the larvae were kept throughout in 
a very damp room, near a window facing east which got but a very 
small modicum of sun. — F. B. Newniiam. December Qth, 1893. 

Larv^ of Macroglossa stellatarum. — The larva3 of M. stellatarmn 
were rather common here in August, and kept feeding on Galium verum. 
We all know the full-fed larva ; when young it is dark olive green, 
the head and horn of a still darker shade, while the sub-dorsal and 
spiracular lines are faintly indicated by a shade lighter than that of the 
body. It feeds in the same localities as C. porcellus, of which, strange 
to say, I have not seen a single specimen in the larval state this season, 
though it is usually common here on the same food-plant. — F. B. 
Newnham. December 6th, 1893. 

Time of Flight of Luperina cespitis. — During September I twice 
noticed L. cespitis on the wing between 4 and 5 p.m. I have seldom 
taken it at light before 11 p.m., so that it seems probable that there are 
two distinct times of flight. — J. H. D. Beales, West Woodhay Eectory, 
Newbury. 

Macroglossa stellatarum near Manchester. — On June 20th I 
took a specimen of Macroglossa stellatarum in one of our greenhouses, 
and heard that others had been seen in the neighbourhood. — Wilfrid 
Stones, Northwood, Seymour Grove, Old Trafford, Manchester. 
November 25th, 1893. 

Second brood op Nemeophila plantaginis. — In looking over the 
" Notes on Collecting " in this month's Record, I notice that the Rev. 
F. B. Newnham mentions an instance of a larva of N. plantaginis spinning 
up in September. That does not appear very strange to me, as I have 
found no difficulty in rearing a second brood of N. plantaginis ; in fact, 
I have reared a second brood every year for several years, and last year 
tried to get a third but was unsuccessful. I obtained larvae at Scotstown 
Moor in the beginning of May. The first imago emerged on June 18th. 
On June 21st I got eggs from a female which hatched on June 28th, 
and the larvae began to spin up on August 14th. The first imago of the 
second brood emerged on August 27th. I had then some difficulty in 
getting a pairing, and it was September 4th before I got eggs from the 
second brood. These hatched on September 11th and fed up with 
little trouble until the middle of October, when, unfortunately, 1 could 
not attend to them as they required, so they hybernated. A friend of 
mine, Mr. J. Duncan, successfully reared a number of a third brood, 
but he had to put them on their food every day to keep them from 
hybernating. He fed the larvfe on cabbage. — Wm. Cowie, 5, Canal 
Street, Aberdeen. November 26th, 1893. 

Blight. — We have in this part of the country a very extraordinary 
superstition with regard to what goes by the name of " blight." 
Frequently during the summer, after a spell of hot weather, there 
follow two or three close and " thundery " days when the sky is com- 
pletely overcast, though without any sign of immediate rain, the effect 
being to make everything dark and dismal. If at such a time a 



NOTES ON COLLECTING, ETC. 15 

countryman is asked his ojoinion of the weather, he will, in all 
probability, say that he doesn't think we shall have any rain, it looks 
to him more like " blight," and here his knowledge ends. What is 
meant I have never yet been able to discover, but the general imj^ression 
seems to be that the air is so densely packed with flies as to obstruct 
the light, and that it may remain so for several days together — a highly 
probable event ! Another entirely new and interesting fact which 1 
learnt the other day from a gentleman was, " that, after a succession of 
easterly winds, all trees and plants are found to be covered with 
thousands of grubs which have been brought by the wind " — perhajjs 
from the depths of the German Ocean ? 1 should like to know if any 
similar phenomena have been observed by entomologists in other 
parts of the country, — Alfred J, Johnson, Boldmere, Erdington. 
October Idth, 1893. 

Late occurrence of Argynnis euphrosyne. — I took a fine fresh 
specimen of this butterfly at Darenth on September 6th. Is this not 
unusually late ? — B. Scarfe, Dartford, Kent. 

CoLiAS HYALE. — This spccics seems to have been scarce in this 
locality during the past season. I only saw one specimen, which I 
captured near Darenth Wood on August 13th. — B. Scarfe, Dartford, 
Kent. 

NOTES OF THE SEASON 1893. 

York. — The season which is now rapidly drawing to a close, and 
which will long be remembered meteorologically on account of the 
marvellous weather experienced, has not been (here at least) equally 
memorable for the quantity or quality of the lepidoj)tera noticed. Many 
generally common insects have been either very rare, or else entirely 
conspicuous by their absence ; the only species which have been more 
than usually common at York this season are the following ; — Pieris 
brassicce, P. rapce, Vanessa urticce, V. atalanta, Acherontia atrojws, 
Sjyhinx conoolvuli, Macroglossa stellatarum, Orthosia suspecta, Anchocelis 
litura, Phlogophora meticidosa, Hadena protea, Abraxas syloata, Venusia 
camhricaria, Lobophora lobulata, Collix sparsata, H. marginata, Thera 
variata, Diurnea fagella ; whilst of those which have not occurred in 
anything like their usual numbers the following, amongst many others, 
may be quoted : — Zygaena lonicerce, Lithosia raesomella, Arctia lubricipeda, 
Acronycta leporina, Noctua festiva, N. rubi, Hadena porphyrea (? Ed.), 
Taeniocampa pjopideti, Pachnobia leucographa. Epione vesjjertaria, Asrnlates 
strigillaria, Eupithecia satyrata, Acidalia immutata, Hypsipetes elutata 
PhibalapAeryx lignata, &g. Of those species which have entirely failed 
to put in an appearance, and which we generally take each season in 
some numbers are : — Nndaria senex, Hydrelia unca, Plusia festucoi and 
Chortodes arcuosa. My first outing took place on the 14th February in 
quest of the variety fuscata of Hybernia progemmaria, of which I took 
six; my last on the 3rd November, when sugar produced but a 
few Scopelosoma satellitia and Orrhodia vaccinii; H. aurantiaria II. 
defoliaria, Cheimatobia boreata and C. brumata were very scarce, whilst 
Oporabia ddidaria and Hiinera ptennaria were not seen. I have noticed 
the gradual diminution in point of numbers of these species for tlie 
past ten years ; each year they become scarcer in this neighbourhood • 
why, I know not. Owing to the almost tropical weather, instances 
of early appearances have been far too numerous to mention here; 



16 The entoMologist*s record. 

on the whole, species have appeared fully a fortnight earlier than 
usual, in many instances three weeks, and in some exceptional cases 
even a month in advance of ordinary seasons. Melanism. — Instances of 
melanism in specimens captured this season have not been i;p to the 
average. A very large number of the Noctu^ and Geobietr.e (especially 
of the former) which occur in the neighbourhood of York, are more or 
less subject to melanism. A full list of the species which show this 
tendency and have come under my observation will be given at some 
future date. SaUoics were very unproductive, being out by the 10th 
of March, and doubtless on this account the generally seductive 
blossoms failed to attract the Taeniocampae in anything like the 
usual numbers. Sugar — Whilst we have had very few poor nights at 
sugar, the quantity has rarely been gi-eat, and the quality invariably 
poor ; the reason for this has been in my opinion, not the counter 
attraction of honeydew at which I have noticed very few moths, but 
the general scarcity of NocTU^. Ivy-hlossoni — On the 30th September 
I had my first night at ivy-blossom in the Westwood Beverley, where 
the ivy is esjiecially abundant, cUnging in wild luxuriance around the 
line old hawthorn trees which here form such a conspicuous feature of 
the landscape, but although the night was favourable from a meteoro- 
logical point of view, the blossom fine, large, and plentiful, and the 
odour perceptible even to human nostrils, our would-be guests failed to 
put in appearance, except by ones and twos ; it was a very different night 
at ivy-blossom from those one often reads about. A friend of mine, who 
has worked ivy on numerous occasions this season, informs me that he 
has had almost uniform bad luck. Scarcity of Lepidoptera. — Geometry 
have been on the whole very scarce, and " mothing " at, and after dusk 
vmiformly unproductive. In the day time at rest on tree trunks, 
palings, &c., but especially the former, Teplirosia himidularia and its 
variety delamerensis, Venusia camhricaria, Asthena hlomcri, Lohophora 
lobulata, Tephrosia punctulata, A. ulmata, &c., have been fairly common, 
whilst H, marginata, Thera variata, Fidonia piniaria, could be obtained in 
abundance by means of the " beating stick." I think this scarcity has 
been due in a great measure to the extraordinary abundance of their 
natural enemies — Ichneumons, Wasps, Dragon-flies, and Bats, which 
together with Swifts, Nightjars and other insectivorous birds have, 
thanks to the fine weather, been enabled better to follow their work of 
destruction, and lastly and by no means least, to the great drought 
which has prevailed ; these causes have also undoubtedly tended to 
minimise the number of larvae, which have been unusually scarce. 
Double-brooded Sjjecies. — The following sjDecies of Noctu-^, which are 
not usually double-brooded with us, have this year been either wholly 
or partially, double-brooded : — Leucania pallens,^ Cuspidia psi, 
Viminia rumicis* NoctuapAecta* N. c-nigrum* Agrotis segetum* A. suffusa* 
Hadena suasa* and H. oleracea. — Williabi Hewett, 12, Howard 
Street, York. November 11th, 1893. 

Plymouth. — The collecting season here began early, and continued 
excellent till June ; larvEe were plentiful, and imagines appeared in 
abundance in our breeding cages and out of doors ; unfortunately, our 



* We are inclined to doubt whether in most English localities, Leucania pall ens, 

Viminia rumicis, Noctua plecta, N. c.-nigrwm, Agrotis segetum, A. suffusa and Hadena 
suasa are not always partially double-brooded. — Ed. 



NOTES ON COLLECTING, ETC. 17 

opportunities were few whilst this state of things lasted, and when wo 
had more leisure after midsummer, lepidoptera were over, and hard work 
resulted only in a few solitary additions to our captures. In the spring 
our breeding cages produced Ampliidasys j^i'oclromaria, Asphalia ridens, 
Eupithecia pidcheUata, Selenia Innaria, Smerinthus ocellatns, Acronycfa 
leporina, Acronycfa alni, Moma orion, Anai'ta myrtiUi, Thyntyra hath, and 
Geometra papdlonaria ; the Taeniocampae were plentiful at the sallows ; 
Notodonta chaonia and other species came to light ; Nola confmalis and 
N. centonalis* were found at rest on trees ; Melitoia athalia was plentiful 
in one locality, and among other captures may be mentioned : — Maciiria 
lihirata, Moma orion, Liihosia tnesoineUa, Gnophria rubricolUs, Asthcna 
sylvata, Hecatera serena, and Cleoceris viminalls ; the following were 
some of the larvaj taken: — Tripluena fimbria, Geometra papilionaria, 
Asphalia flavicornis and A. ridens, Phigalia pedaria, Taeniocampa miniosa, 
Asteroscopus sphinx, Notodonta chaonia, Panolis piniperda, Euijonia ero- 
saria, Amphidasys prodromaria, Ojwrina croceago, and Psilura monacha. 
After midsummer we took Geometra papilionaria $ and ^ at sugar; 
Anarta inyrtilii, Charaeas graminis, Eugonia ftiscantaria, Stilbia anomala, 
Sphinx convolvuli, Noctua glareosa, Epimda nigra, and Xylina rhizolitha, 
the last three at ivy-bloom ; also a few larvae including Notodonta dictam, 
N. dictceoides, and N. trepida, Acronycfa leporina, A. alni, and Geometra 
papilionaria. Our experience is that the dry season has prevented the 
abundant spring larvse from getting through the pupal stage and 
producing imagines. — H. W. Basden-Smith, 6, Hillsborough, Plymouth. 
November 30th, 1893. 

North Devon. — I was staying at Morthoe, not far from llfracombe, 
from June 24th to July lUth, 1893, and was able to note certain of the 
lepidoptera which occur there and in the surrounding district. I may 
mention that an interesting article on the same locality at a somewhat 
later period of the year, from the pen of Dr. W. S. Eiding, is to be 
found in Entom., Vol. xvi., p. 246 (1883). Amongst the Ehopalocera, 
Pieris brassicce, P. rapcB and P. najn occurred in some abundance ; 
Argynnis aglaia flew wildly along the hillsides, and A. paphia fre- 
quented the more woody districts, especially near Clovelly. The genus 
Va7iessa was well represented ; V. io and V. atalanta were common, V. 
cardiii turned w^ occasionally, while V. urticce swarmed everywhere, 
and was found in all stages from young larvge to battered imagines. 
Pararge cegeria and P. megcera were occasionally seen ; Satyrus semele 
was very abundant ; Epinephele ianira was, of course, everywhere, and 
bleached forms were occasionally met with ; E. tithonus and E. hyper- 
anfhus, as well as Ccenonympha pamphilm, were plentiful ; Thecla quercus 
flew over the oaks near Clovelly and Lynton in great numbers; 
Polyommatus phlceas was not abundant ; Lycaena icarus was common, 
but interesting, both sexes were large, the J s were dark and the J s had 
black spots on the upper side of the hind-wings, a character which I do 
not remember to have noticed except in Irish or Scotch sj^ecimens ; L. 
astrarche was rejiresented, so far as my caj^tures were concerned, by a 
single specimen ; probably I was there between the two broods ; 
Ilesperia sylvanus and H. thaiuaas occurred ; Colias ednsa was not seen. 

*Can this be possible ? The only known British localities for N. centonalis, 
are, Deal sandhills, Folkestone, Hastings (one specimen), and Isle of Wight (one 
specimen). — Ed. 



18 THE EKTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 

With the Sphinges and Bombyces very little could be done. Macro- 
glossa stcllatarum occurred frequeutl}'^ ; of Zygaena filipenduhe I only saw- 
one pupa ; a solitary Bombyx neustria was netted at dusk on the sand- 
hills. Sugar, on the few occasions on which it was tried, proved a 
failure ; consequently one could not get much of an idea of the local 
NocTU^, but the following came under my notice : — Bryophila perla, 
one or two specimens at rest ; of Leucania littoralis I procured a good 
series flying wildly at dusk and at rest on flowers afterwards ; some- 
thing very much like L. putrescens was taken out of a spider's web, but 
the occupant of the web had treated it too roughly for me to determine 
its identity with certainty ; Ajyamea didyma occurred in the usual 
variety of forms, and the same remark applies to Minna strigilis and M. 
bicoloria ; one or two specimens of the last species were unicolorous and 
of a bright brick-red tint ; Caradrina alsines and C. taraxaci were 
common, but worn ; of the genus Agrotis I noted A. vestigialis, A. 
segctum, A. hmigera and A tritici, all of which were taken on the sand- 
hills ; of Triphoina comes some good forms were taken ; one, which was 
strongly barred, reminded me when at rest of T. ianthina ; another was 
a very pale clay-coloured form with straw-tinted hind-wings ; a few 
Amphipjyra tragopoginis were seen ; one or two Dianthcecia conspersa 
were netted flying over flowers of Silene maritivia, and in the capsules 
of the same plant were numbers of larvaj of this genus, amongst whicli 
I recognised D. conspersa, D. capsincola, D. carpophaga and D. cucuhali ; 
the imagines of D. conspersa were of the usual light southern form, not 
ochreous as is, I believe, usually the case with the Devonshire variety ; 
a number of D. capsincola have since emerged from the above-mentioned 
larvse, but the other species appear to be lying over till next year; 
larvse of Cuctdlia verhasci had been abundant, but were nearly over. 
Amongst the GEOMETR^as observed were the following : — Crocallis 
elinguaria, not common ; Boarmia repandata, frequent ; Gnophos 
obscuraria, a rather dark form almost identical with that found in the 
Clevedon district in Somerset ; worn Eminelesia affinitata, E. alchemillata 
and E. decolorata flew at dusk in the lanes, and larva3 of the first and 
last of these si^ecies were common in capsules of Lychnis dioica in 
company with those of Eiqnthecia venosata ; larva3 of E. pidchcUata were 
exceedingly common in foxglove flowers, but, as usual, about 90 per 
cent, were ichneumoned ; single specimens of E. oblongata and E. 
absynthiata occurred here and there ; I gathered a large bag full of the 
flowers of Melampyrum pratense at Lynton, and obtained from it about 
a dozen pupa3 of E. plunibeolata ; special search was made for larvae of 
E. jasioneata, its food plant (Jasione montana) occurs generally, but as I 
was some 25 miles from the reputed headquarters of the species, I was 
not sanguine ; however, I managed to find a few larvte ; in this part of 
Devon it is a scarce and very local insect. Melanippe unangulata and 
M. galiata occurred sparingly, while Enbolia mensuraria was common. 
Of the Pyralides I saw single specimens of Scoparia cembrce and 
S. lineolea, and plenty of Fyrausta purpuralis and Herbula cesjritalis ; 
Botys asinalis was not rare at dusk amongst its food-plant on the sand- 
hills. The Plumes were represented by a few^ specimens of Pterophorus 
monodactylns and Chrysocorys festaliclla only. Anerastia loteUa was 
common on the sandhills at dusk ; specimens of Homceosoma nimbella 
were found at rest on the ragwort heads at the same time, and Aphomia 
sociella was frequent. Among the Tortriues which I noticed, Peronea 



SOOlETlfiS. Id 

variegana was common and variable ; larvas were in evidence on the 
Bosa sphiosissima, and from a bag full I bred a nice series of F . 2)ermid(ma 
which were small but very brightly coloured ; over the same plant 
Spilonota roborana abounded at dusk ; specimens of Orthotcenia striana 
and 0. erlcetana were netted ; GrapholitJia nigromaculana was abundant 
flying over ragwort ; Sericoris Jitforana was frequent amongst its food- 
plant on the cliffs ; E2)liq>piplwra hnmnichiana and E. trigeviinana 
abounded ; Eiipoecilia atrlcapntana and E. ctliella were frequent ; I found 
Trycheris mediana common on heads of Heracleum sphondylkmi, half a 
dozen specimens or so on every head. — W. G. Sheldon. December 
26th, 1893. 



gOCIETIES. 

The South London Entomological and Natural History Society. 
— December lith, 1893. — Exhibits :— Mr. South; specimens from South 
Europe of A. adippe vars. cleodoxa and chlorodippe ; a var. of T. rubi 
from Ireland, the upper side of which was very dark, whilst there was 
no green on the under side, but the white spots were strongly 
developed ; also S. malvce var. taras from Exeter, in which locality it 
was said to be not uncommon. Mr. Pearce ; a long series of Cliryso- 
phantis hypophlceas, series of Colias jMlodice including pale form of ? , 
Terias nicippe with yellow form of 5 , P. rapcB and various species of 
Lycaenidce, all from Alleghany Co., U.S.A. ; also Nathalis iole from 
Colorado. A discussion ensued as to whether C. liypopldctias should be 
considered a distinct species. Mr. J. J. Weir ; Planema euryta, an 
Acrajine butterfly from the Cameroons, in which the sexes differed 
materially both in colour and shape, and which was mimicked in each 
of these respects by the corresponding sexes of Pseudacroea jrirce, a 
Nymphaline species. Mr. Turner ; a long series (bred) of T. juniperata, 
arranged to show the varied interruption of the band on fore-wings. 
Mr. Billups; Driastata basilis, a rare Dipteron from Bromley, Kent, which 
had not hitherto been recorded as British ; also the following species 
of Ichneumouidai, bred by members : — Ichneumon fuscipes from larvee 
of A. myricce (Mr. Short) : Bhizarcha oerolaris from larvee of the 
Dipteron Phytomyza aqHilegia (Mr. Billups); Co?as tl/spar from larvEB 
of M. aurinia (Mr. Frohawk) ; Ichneumon pyrrhopus from Eupithecia 
helveticaria, GlypAa bicornis from Tortrix palleana, Anomala cervinops 
from H. dipsacea, and Lissonota sulphurifcra from S. scoliiformis (Mr. 
Adkin). Mr. Adkiu ; a varied series of T. gothica from Rannoch. and 
yellow forms of Z. trifoUi from Cambridge. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. 
Beport Sec. 

Entomological Society of London. — December 6th, 1893. — Mr. W. 
E. Kirby exhibited, for Dr. Livett, a series of specimens taken at Wells, 
which L)r. Livett considered to be varieties of Dasycampa rubiginca, but 
which many entomologists present thought were varieties of Cerastis 
vaccina. Mr. Kirby added that specimens similar in appearance to those 
exhibited had been taken rather freely during the past autumn in 
Berkshire, and it was suggested that they might be hybrids between D. 
rubiginea and C. vaccinii. Mr. Lovell Keays exhibited, for Mr. A. L. 
Keays, a series of Lycaena alcxis with confluent spots on the under sides 
of the front wings. He drew attention to the fact that the insects were 



^0 I'Hte Entomologist's record. 

all taken within a short radius, and probably were in the proportion of 
about one to forty of the ordinary form. All, with one exception, were 
females. Mr. Lovell Keays remarked that he had some years ago met 
with a similar brood near Weymouth in which the confluent spots were 
entirely confined to females, but in that instance the proportion was 
much higher. Professor S. H. Scudder, of Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., 
stated that he had observed the occurrence of broods with suffused spots 
in America, but they were not confined to any special locality. Mr. C. 
0. Waterhouse exhibited the type-specimen of Coptomia opalina of 
Gory, from the Hope Collection at Oxford, and pointed out that it was 
quite distinct from C. mntahilis, W ; the distinct punctuation of the whole 
insect and its striolate pygidium were sufificient to distinguish it at once. 
Mr. Waterhouse called attention to this because some French entomo- 
logists maintain that these insects are the same species. He also called 
attention to Siljiha atomaria, Linn. (Syst. Nat., xii., i., p. 574), a Swedish 
sjiecies which aj)peared to have escaped notice and was not included in 
any catalogue. The type is still extant in the Linneean cabinet, and 
Mr. Waterhouse said he was of opinion that it is Olibrus gernhms of our 
collections, but he had not had an opportunity of making a critical 
examination. He also exhibited male and female specimens of a 
HelopeUis (Tea-Bug) which he considered a distinct species, and stated 
that it had occurred only in Assam. Mr. M. Jacoby exhibited certain 
species and varieties of the genus Ceroglossus from Chili, and Dr. D. 
Sharp, Mr. J. J. Walker, and Mr. Champion made remarks on their 
geogi'aphical distribution. Prof. Scudder exhibited the type-s]oecimen 
of a fossil butterfly — Prodryas persephone — found in beds of Tertiary 
Age (Oligocene), at Florissant, Colorado. He said the species belonged to 
the Nyvij^halidce, and the specimen was remarkable as being in more 
perfect condition than any fossil butterfly from the European Tertiaries ; 
he also stated that he had found a bed near the White River on the 
borders of Utah, in which insects were even more abundant than in the 
Florissant beds. Dr. Sharp, Mr. Kirby, Mr. H. Goss and the President 
took part in the discussion which ensued. Mr. Goss exhibited hyl)er- 
nating larva3 of Sjrilothyuis alcece, which had been sent to him by Mr. 
F. Bromilow from St. Maurice, Nice. Mr. W. F. H. Blandford read a 
paper entitled " The Ehynchophorous Coleoptera of Japan. Part HI. 
Scolytidai." The President, Dr. Sharp, Mr. Champion, Mr. McLachlan, 
and Mr. J. J. Walker took part in a discussion concerning the distribu- 
tion of the group ; and the admixture of Pahearctic and Oriental forms 
in Japan. Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker read " Notes on some Lejiidoptera 
received from the neighbourhood of Alexandria," and exhibited the 
specimens. Mr. McLachlan suggested that the scarcity of insects in 
Lower Egypt was possibly to be accounted for by the fact that much of 
the country was under water for a portion of the year, and Dr. Sharp 
said that another cause of the scarcity was the cultivation of every 
available piece of land for centuries jiast. Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse read 
" Further Observations on the Tea-Bugs {HeJopeltis) of India." Dr. F. 
A. Dixey communicated a paper " On the Phylogeny of the 
Fiennce, as illustrated by their wing-markings and geographical distri- 
bution." — H. Goss and W. W. Fowler, Eon Sees. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — November 20th, 1893. — 
Exhibits : — Mr. Rossiter ; A. tincta, H. contigua and H. protea from 
Arley ; also a specimen of X. scolopacina from Shut Mill. Mr. 



SOCIETIES. 21 

Martineau ; Bombus muscorum, B. sylvarum and B. eognatus, and pointed 
out that these three bees, though remarkably alike in appearance, might 
easily be distinguished from one another by the arrangement of the 
hairs. Mr. Bradley; males, females and neuters of Vespa crahro from 
Astwood Bank ; also Ammophila sahulosa from Cannock Chase, and 
remarked that Mr. Saunders in his Hymenoptera Aculeata gives no 
Midland localities for the latter species. Mr. Harrison; a nest of 
B. eognatus from Harl)orne with males, females and neuters ; also 
lepidoptera taken during the Society's trip to the Cotswolds in June, 
among them being N. lacina, E. jacohaece and N. plantaginis. Mr. 
Urich, of Trinidad, communicated " Wayside Notes of a Naturalist," in 
which he described a walk in the neighbourhood of Port-of-Spain. A 
number of photographs of the district were shown, also a boxful of 
insects which had all been captured during a single walk. It contained 
about 50 dragon-flies and 130 lepidoptera. — C. J. Wainwright, 
Hon. Sec. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — December 
llih, 1893. — Exhibits: — Mr. Harker; living specimens of a Corynetes 
feeding in Copra, from Singapore, and S. scoliiformis from the North 
of Scotland. Mr. Newstead ; a nest of Vespa vulgaris which had been 
built to a rafter inside an outhouse. Mr. Gregson ; a specimen of 
H. peltigera captured at Wallasey in 1887. Mr. Schill read " A Few 
Introductory Eemarks on the genus Vanessa and its allies." He 
insisted upon the importance of studying single groups rather than of 
attempting to form gigantic collections of whole orders, and pointed 
out the chief characters by which the genera and species could be 
differentiated. Mr. C. G. Barrett contributed some remarks on Mr. 
Merrifield's recent experiments upon the effect of temperature on the 
genus Vanessa. Mr. C. E. Stott showed a specimen of Ammophila 
lutaria, Fb. caj^tured near Blackpool in July, 1892, and read some notes 
on the species. — F. N. Pierce, Hon. Sec. 

City of London Entobiological and Natural History Society. — 
Tuesday, December l^th, 1893. — Exhibits : — Mr. Battley ; a short series 
of Hiviera pennaria from Epping Forest and bred specimens of 
Eiqnthecia lariciata, also several doubtful " Pugs " from Hale End, most 
of which were thought to be E. castigata. Mr. Prout ; bred Emmelesia 
alchemillata from Sandown, also E. affinitata from various localities ; 
there was no appreciable difference between the specimens, excejjt the 
slightly superior size of the afjimtata. Mr. Riches ; Orrhodia vaccinii 
from Salisbury. Mr. Clark ; a series of Thera jtiniperata (bred) from 
Perth, concerning which he remarked that they were paler than the 
southern form, as is usually the case with this insect. Mr. Gurney ; 
Hybernia defoliaria from Hale End, including some pretty varieties. 
Mr. Nicholson ; one of the new opera glasses brought out Mr. Aitchison 
of Poultry ; this instrument is particularly suitable for field work on 
account of its extreme lightness (being made of aluminium), its com- 
pressibility, and the power and beautiful definition of its lenses. Dr. 
Sequeira ; a short series of TripJuena fimbria, including a magnificent 
red specimen, also Dasychira pudibunda and Hybernia defoliaria. Mr. 
Southey ; Dicranura bifida and D. furcula, Notodonta palpina and N. 
dictoea, Cucullia chamomillue and C. uinbratica, Epione apiciaria, Hypsipetes 
elutata and Camptogramma Jluiriata, all from Highgate and mostly bred. 
— C. Nicholson and A. U. Battley, Hon. Sees. 



22 



THE entomologist's RECORD. 



ITTY. 



'ippWAS one p.m.: I sorely wished 
^ My appetite were blunter ; 
Five hours since my last meal was 
dished ! 
I met a bad bug-hunter. 

He gave me food, he gave me drink : 
His air was gay and frisky : 

The food was sandwiches, 1 think : 
The drink, I know, was whisky. 

I liked his commissariat : 
I did not like his manner : 

He woi"e a large and airy hat : 
He waved a red bandana. 

The dust it blew : his coat so brown 
Was powdered like a miller: 

I took my cap and brushed him down : 
He'd caught a black Sibylla. 



I smoothed his hair: I tied his tie : 
His boots with treacle painted : 

I asked him for his butterfly : 
He gave it up — and fainted. 

His nose I smote : his nose it bled : 
My ears with joy were ringing : 

He oped his eyes, and as I fled 
I heard him softly singing. 

" I creep all day along the down : 
I crawl through copses shady : 

Take liere a dusky Meadow-Brown, 
And there a Painted-Lady." 

'Twas five p.m. : I sipped my tea : 
My appetite grew blunter : 

" Sibylla black belongs to me ! 

Bless, bless that bad bug-hunter.'' 

G. M. A. Hewett. 



:OTICES AND REVIEWS. 

Random Recollections of Woodland, Fen and Hill, by J, W. Tutt, 
F.B.S. — This is a book that should be in the hands of every lover of 
nature ; whosoever delights in the sights and sounds of God's earth, and 
for whom the breezy down, the leafy wood, the flower-clad fields, the 
country lane, possess more of interest than the garish city, will read it 
with enjoyment, and will find that its perusal has given an increased 
zest to his communion with nature. It is of the type with wliich we 
have been made familiar by the writings of the lamented Jeffreys, and 
of the talented author whom we know as " A. son of the marshes," and 
if the subtle artistic flavour be less manifest than in the works of 
those authors, the deficiency is amply atoned for by the more jDrofound 
scientific insight displayed. 

The book consists of nine chapters, each dealing with a specified 
locality and each, as is evident from the incidents, humorous and 
otherwise, introduced, containing a reminiscence of visits of longer or 
shorter duration paid to the locality by the author. The localities are 
very various both in kind and in their geographical situation ; Wicken, 
Chattenden, Deal, the Western Highlands, the South Foreland, Strood, 
Guxton, Paris and Freshwater, are each in turn the subject of a chapter ; 
the reader is made the companion of the keenly observant author in his 
rambles, and not only learns something of the occupants of each locality 
and their habits, but is introduced to many of the scientific j^roblems 
which occupy the mind of the thoughtful student of nature. These are, 
however, dealt with in untechnical language, and in a manner easy of 
comprehension. 

As might be exjDected from the well-known proclivities of the 
author, the insect world comes in for a large share of attention, but the 
oljservations on birds, rej)tiles and plants, with here and there a glance 
at the forces at work upon tlie solid earth itself, reveal a many- 
sidedness not so evident in the writings of the authors before 



NOTICES AKD REVIEWS. 23 

alluded to. Many passages tempt to quotation. As the readers of the 
Record will probably be chiefly interested in the entomological portions 
of the work, these will be selected as the source of one or two extracts. 
Frequent reference is made to the marvellous resemblance of the 
Lepidoptera to the plants, &c., among which they occur and to the way 
in which nature has brought this about, thus leading to their protection 
from their enemies, and securing the perpetuation of the species. Here 
is one such taken from the chapter on the Western Highlands : — 

" All ! there is a specimen of a " carjDet " moth as it is called (Cidaria 
immanata), black with faint wavy lines on it, and there is another and 
yet another. Why ! is not that the same kind of moth that we found 
so abundant on the birches by the Donich Burn ? but those were all 
pale, of a beautiful silvery grey tint, and were difiicult to detect on the 
bark of the birches. Yes, it is the same kind, the very same, but how 
different in appearance, how variable in hue ! What has caused 
the difference ? This is not far to seek. The birds in these Alpine 
regions have to search keenly for food. A pale moth on this black 
rock would be conspicuous and would fall a ready prey, but we have 
noticed how difficult the dark ones are to see. The dark ones are best 
protected, therefore most of them escape, and the dark race has become 
permanent here. On the birch trunks the dark ones would be con- 
spicuous, the pale ones jirotected ; hence the dark ones are eaten, the 
pale ones left ; a pale race would be favoured under these conditions 
and would establish itself there." 

The following account of the " Love-making of the Ghost " is a good 
example of the author's descriptive powers : " See yonder ! away on 
that open piece of grass land, a large white moth swings to and fro with 
pendulous motion. Its sheeny white colour is striking and remarkable ; 
it attracts your attention. It looks as if it were tied to a string, so 
regularly does it oscillate. Mark another and yet another, all oscillat- 
ing in the same regular fashion. What does it mean ? Have they a 
purpose in their oscillation ? Watch ! Whilst you wait you perceive a 
faint but pleasant odour as of almonds ; as you wonder whence it comes 
a dark-coloured moth suddenly passes before your eyes ; you see it 
strike the white moth you are watching, and they disappear as if by 
magic. Where are they ? Gone, absolutely vanished into the mists of 
these marshes, perhaps flying now a mile away in different directions. 
Perhaps it was an accident. Perhaps the white eerie-looking pendulum 
was disturbed by the sudden collision with that dark moth and took 
fright. Let us watch another. The same scent, another rush of a dark 
moth, a similar collision, a similar sudden and absolute disappearance. 
You watch again and again always with the same result. Light your 
lantern, if you have one ! Look on the herbage at your feet I There, 
scattered all over the grass and hanging from it in every direction, are 
large yellow moths, whilst attached to each is a white one such as you 
watched. Did it not fly away then into the misty distance ? No ! the 
dark moth that flashed across your eyes is the yellow one below. The 
scent which you noticed had attracted her from afar. She had come to 
seek her mate, consjiicuous by his sheeny whiteness. The sudden 
knock against him was simply to inform him of her i:)resence and of 
her readiness to receive his love embx'ace, and there are those hap^^y 
moths, which had disappeared so suddenly from sight, hanging from 
the gi-ass culms at your very feet." 



24 THE entomologist's record. 

Another point to wliicli attention is frequently directed is the life- 
history of insects and the changes through which they pass in their 
progress from the egg to the perfect state, with a glance from time to time 
at the anatomical and physiological facts involved in these changes. 
The process of changing its skin which the caterpillar of every butterfly 
and moth goes through more or less frequently in the course of its 
existence, is thus described in connection with the Swallow-tail 
butterfly. " A plant of wild carrot at our feet is next examined. A 
little spiny black caterpillar with a white saddle on its back sits in the 
centre of a leaf, and represents this magnificent butterfly in an early 
stage, and there, higher up on the same plant, is a magnificent fellow 
in brilliant green with velvety black rings and orange-golden buttons. 

It is still the same species but of older growth But how does 

the small, black, spiny caterj^illar become changed into a smooth brilliant 
green one ? Perhaps in the course of our morning's walk we shall be 
able to learn. Yes ! there is a caterpillar quite at rest in the centre of 
that wild carrot leaf. Look carefully I You will see that it has spun 
some white silk on the surface of the leaf, and has firmly fixed the 
hooks at the end of its feet into the silk to get a firm foothold. It 
appears sickly and is quite immovable, but presently it jerks itself from 
side to side, and as we look, the skin splits at the back of tlie head, and 
a gentle swaying from side to side increases the slit. Then a new head 
is withdrawn from the old one, put up through the first oj)ening, and the 
l^reviously immovable caterpillar is now full of life. It struggles and 
wriggles from side to side, and first one segment and then another is 
pulled out of the old skin until it is finally free and the emjjty skin is 
left, sometimes so perfect as to be quite deceptive, whilst the caterj^illar 
rests after its exertion till its soft skin gets tougher by exposure." 

These must suffice, but it would be easy to fill a very considerable 
space with equally interesting quotations. — F. J. Buckell, M.B. 



EURRENT NOTES. 

The British Naturalist, we are glad to hear, is not to be allowed to 
collapse. It will in future be located at Warrington. 

A fine exhibit of Sjrilosoriia zatima was made at the South London 
Entomological Society's Meeting on Jan. lltli by Mr. W. H. Tugwell, 
side by side with some picked York varieties. The latter, of course, 
bear no resemblance to the extreme vars., and it is jieculiar that in 
those specimens (obtained by crossing zatima with luhriclpeda), which 
nearest approach the York vars., there is gi'eat difference between the 
York forms and the hybrids both in the transverse band of dark spots 
on the fore-wings and the arrangement of the dark spots on the hind- 
wings. Many correspondents still ask whether zatima and luhricipeda 
are really the same or closely allied species. 

The Pieris daplidice recorded ante Vol. IV., p. 299, is offered for sale 
in a contemporary with reference to notice in our pages. Verbum sap. 

We have living larvae of Vanessa ntalanta received from Mr. Wolfe, 
Skibbereen, Co. Cork. Kather unusual for Jan. 11th. 

Mr. J. A. Clark, F. R.S., has again been re-elected President of the 
City of London Entomological Society. The members evidently know 
when they have a good man. 



f^^ AND ^^^^ 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION. 



No. 2. Vol. V. February 15th, 1894. 

I'fiE EVOLlJ'flOJM OF tjiE LEPIDOPl'EI^Ol/^ T\JFJ1. 

A SKETCH. 
By T. a. chapman, M.D., F.E.S. 

The earliest insects did not possess a j^iipa proper. It may be 
doubted whether the term can be rightfully applied to any stage 
of some of the Orthoptera, or even of some Hemiptera and Neurop- 
TERA, the transition from larva to imago being gradual, and extending 
over several moults, and the habits of the insects differing little in the 
larval condition from what they are in the imaginal. As the imago 
came to differ in form and habits from the larva, so there appeared to 
arise a necessity for a quiescent intermediate stage, which became more 
and more pronounced as the difference became greater, the change 
})r(»I)ahly taking place along several different lines of evolution. 

As we are concerned only with the Lepidoptera, it is not necessary 
to allude to the illustrations of this furnished by other orders, nor to 
refer to the systems of classification which may be and have been founded 
upon this circumstance, and which agree with and confirm those based 
on other and wider considerations. It would follow, hoAvever, from 
the broad consideration of all orders of insects, that those which possess 
the most quiescent pupje have lieen the most recently evolved, and in 
that sense, are the highest. 

When we come to the Lepidoptera, and, applying this principle, 
look for the species or family which has the least inactive pupa, we find 
it in Micropferyx, which has been by common consent, im other grounds, 
regarded as a ver}- low, if not the lowest, lepidopterous type, and pre- 
sents strong ]ioints of affinity with the Trichoptera. In it the segments 
of the pupa are distinct, and preserve a certain amount of independent 
movement, all the appendages (palpi, legs, wings, itc), are se])arateand 
distinct from each other, and the whole pupa is rather soft. 

When W(i go to the other extreme, to seek the most inat-tive pupa, we 
fiiul, in eaclj family of tlie Butterfiies, pupre possessing no movement 
whatever, and which consist of a smootli, rounded, hard case, witli the 
several segments and appendages represented only by obscure lines on 
the surface. A few species, classed amongst tlie Tineina, appear to 
have reached a similar point by an independent route. 

Looking for intermediate stages l)etween these two extremes, we 
find many of them represented, not perhaps always, nor even often, 



20 THE entomologist's record. 

by a form in the exact genealogical line, but by forms which have 
branched off at different stages, and which have gone longer or shorter 
distances on their own paths. The great mass of our larger moths 
(Macros), Sphinges, Bombyces, Noctuje, Geojietr.e, quite independently 
of the Butterflies, have reached a very advanced point on this line, and 
seem quite satisfied that it is as advanced as is necessary ; they liave 
evolved a tolerably uniform and apparently very fixed type of pupa, iir 
which the appendage-cases are firmly incorporated with the general 
mass of the pupa, and in which complete solidity and rotundity are 
wanting only in so far as that the 5th and 6tli abdominal segments 
still retain the power of movement on those next to them. 

When we examine these piqiaB of the large moths, and those of the 
Butterflies, more closely, we find that they agree throughout in certain 
characteristics. Of these, the most notable are, that the wings and leg- 
cases are fused into a mass which always includes the 4th abdominal 
segment, neither more nor less, the margins of the wings and the ex- 
tremities of the antenna? and of the third pair of legs usually reaching 
to its hind margin ; whilst the next incision, that between the 4th and 
5th abdominal segments possesses movement, except in those Butterflies 
where mobility is entirely lost. We find also sundry other points of 
importance. Firstly and chiefly, the appendages represented on the 
surface are the Avings, antenna?, portions of the two anterior pairs 
of legs, and rarely more than the extreme tips, and these often 
wanting, of the hind pair ; but there is no sign of any mouth-part except 
the maxilla? (proboscis) which are usually well developed ; true, tliere 
are points representing the mandibles, and the labrum may be 
identified with a portion of the head, but the labium with its palpi, as 
well as the maxillary palpi, such marked features in 3Ticropteryx, are 
entirely wanting. There is also wanting a part which we should not 
perhaps think of looking for, until we had examined other forms of pupte 
in which it is present, and that is the dorsal jjlate of the head segment. 
Beginning at the bottom of the scale and tracing our way up to 
these, we find a wide gap betAveen Micropteryx and the form that we 
can at all regard as next lowest and the nearest to it. We may take 
Nejjticida or Adela as representing such a form, though I do not wish 
to suggest that these are very closely allied; rather, indeed, that 
they (and possibly' others), though low in the line of evolution from 
the primary form represented by Mlcropteryx, have already diverged 
considerably from each other. Here we find head, thorax and ap- 
pendages fused together into one mass with one or more of the 
abdominal segments, but only loosely, so that they are easily separated 
by a trifling amount of force and separate from each other, more or 
less, when the imago emerges. At the hinder extremity we find the 
last three segments, the 8th, 9th and 10th abdominal, fused into one 
mass in the male pupa, whilst in the female the 7th is added. This 
difference is no doul)t related to tlie difference in the number of seg- 
ments wliich become hiddt'U in the imago within the then terminal 
segment. 

The advance from this form seems to take the shape of an increase 
in the number of abdominal segments that are incorporated in the 
thoracic mass. Two segments are so incorporated in Adela and Nep- 
ticula, throe in many Tine,e, PsYCHiDiE, Tortrices, as also in Cossus, 
liepkilm, 6cq., and four in GracUaria and LithocoUetes. 



TIIK KV(i[.rTr<)N OF TFIK I.Fl'I noI'TEItms ni'S. L'( 

Evolution did not, however, proceed along a single line, and at some 
point there branched off the Pterophorina, which have only three 
abdominal segments in the thoracic mass, but differ from all the species 
we have hitherto considered, in rarely having a cocoon, and in being 
fixed by the tail and not possessing any longer the jiower of locomotion 
shown in other " Micros " by forcing themselves out of their cocoons 
when the moth emerges. 

Another line, starting off from the main trunk very early in the 
evolutionary process, since all its forms have still only two al)dominal 
segments involved m the thoracic mass and all force themselves out of 
their cocoons for emergence, differs in that tlie larva? feed more or less 
exposed, the larvaj of all the others so far (except of some Pterophcrina) 
feeding under webs, witliin leaves, stems, seeds, A'c. ; this line, how- 
ever, reaches a very advanced point in the Zijijnenidae. 

It is a very curious circumstance, and one that has a deeper mean- 
ing than I have yet been able to fathom, that, with the exception of 
Lithocolhtes and Gradlaria, all the forms in which the first four 
abdominal segments are included in the thoracic mass, also differ in a 
very important particular from those so far considered ; they lose the 
7th abdominal segment as a free one in the male, the 5th and 6th alone 
remaining so, and in some cases these also become fixed. It seems very 
probable that this step was taken in several different lines of develop- 
ment, or if not, that divergence began immediately after it had been 
taken. 

'J'he Butterflies originated ver}^ low down, probably as low as the 
Ilepialidae, probably having Castnia as a stage, or rather as a side branch 
from a low and extinct portion of the butterfly stem. (This is usually 
what is meant when speaking of a lower form as representing a stage 
of a higher, and not that it is at all a lineal ancestor). The Macros cer- 
tainly had a separate origin, and represent the highest point on another 
hne of development ; I have already alluded to their chief charac- 
teristics. The CIdoephon'fJae {prasiaana, chlorana, Sec), have reached a 
high stage of development, l)ut probably along a separate line. Their 
pupal characters are almost identical with Macros. Then there are 
a large number of families that have a pupa largely of the Macro 
type ; the thoracic mass is solid and includes four abdominal 
segments, and only the oth and 6th are free ; these are to a large 
extent no doubt side branches from the main stem supporting the 
Macros, though some may have had a separate origin. They are all 
separable from the true Macros, by their larvae possessing prolegs with 
complete circles of hooks ; but they also differ as pupaa in that almost 
every family has one or more characters which the Macros have lost, but 
which the eaidier forms possess ; many have the dorsal head-plate, 
others have some trace of the maxillary palpus, some dehisce after the 
manner of the earlier forms, the head- and antenn!i3-pieces separating 
together, whilst a few even retain the eye-cover attached to tlu' dorsal 
head-plate. Tliese are represented by the Pvrales and their allies tlu; 
Crambt, Phycid.*;, ttc., as well as by families hitherto jjlaced with 
TiNEiNA, such as Hi/poiiomentidnf', Szc. 

The lowest Putterllies, the Skippers, are very parallel with this last 
section. The mass of true butterflies differ but little essentially from 
the Macros, but, unlike them, do not settle down in that form in a fixed 
manner, but proceed in various ways to higher points, until what we 



28 THE entomologist's record. 

must fegard as tlie terminus of perfection for a lepidopterous pupa, 
marked by complete fixity of all parts, and roughly speaking, Ijy 
complete rotundity, is reached. 



eOjI'l'iplEpI'l'yiL LEPID0P1'EI^£ ^OLD £^ Bl^Il'l^ji. 

Bt J. W. TUTT, F.E.S. 

Probably never since the sale of the late Dr. Harper's collection, has 
a collection been brought to the hammer which, nominally purely 
British, yet contained so many distinctly non-British specimens, as that 
of the late Eev. Henry Burney. 

In the sarcastic article on part of this sale, from the pen of a corres- 
pondent adopting the now de plume of " A Country Cousin," which 
ap})eared in the December number of this magazine and of which there 
is a continuation in the present issue, the facts are gi-aplucally dealt 
with, but I should like to let a little more daylight into some of tlie dark 
problems Avhich this sale has opened up. 

First, how were this and similar collections formed ? On the same 
lines as those which were made in " the good old times," when the 
correct naming of the specimens was the ultimate aim of the individual 
forming the collection, and the possession of a larger number of species 
than his friends and correspondents, his main object in doing so. Only 
as necessary for the first purj)Ose would the older entomologists, Avitli 
a few notable exceptions, ever invest a few shillings in a book, and only 
as subserving the second, would they subscribe to a magazine. 
Stainton's Manual was their salvation in the one direction, and The 
Entomologist's Annual (a yearly magazine showing the additions to the 
British fauna) in the otlier. Everything else was outside their province ; 
they could do nothing to advance scientific knowledge, save within 
these very limited boundaries, and possibly thought that only lunatics 
could imagine that there was an}^ science outside such limits. 

Such were the lepidopterists of the old school until tlie new and 
philosophical method of treating natural science involved entomologists 
along with other naturalists in its vortex. When this took jilace, the 
old school became divided into two sections, the broader-minded men 
being ready and willing to adapt themselves to the changing conditions 
of study, whilst the narrow-minded, and frequently ill-educated, section 
kept in the old ruts, lifting up their voices from time to time, now in 
a chorus of discontent, then in a Avail of despair, as they beheld the de- 
struction of "science," as they knew it. Gradually this latter section 
became more and moi-e fossilized ; they still added to their collections, 
occasionally made a stir by naming a variety as a new species after the 
manner of the heroes of old, spent enormous sums of money on any 
specimen that added a species to fill up a blank in their cabinets, but 
beyond this, became perfectly indifferent to the advance of science 
Avhich was going on around them. 

That this is no overdrawn picture, every advanced lepidopterist well 
knows. To this da}^ I have two correspondents who, once or twice a 
year, write and tell me of the additions which they have made to their 
collection, and how near they have got to a complete representation of 
the lepidopterous fauna of Britain by obtaining typical specimens. One 
gentleman writes me that he has added pereyrina from Burney 's collec- 



OONTlNENTAL hkl'lliOVTtillA SOLD AS BKITISH. 29 

tion, satiira from Canterbury, find so on ; it is liis science, all that lie 
lives for, and the poor fellow enjoys it in his way. 

It will be no insult to the late reverend gentleman to say that he 
belonged emphatically to the old school of collectors. For years he has 
taken practically no interest in entomology beyond the amassing of a 
large collection, which probably not half-a-dozen men have seen during 
the last quarter of a century. Out of touch with the newer entomology, 
ignorant as to what species had been foisted on the British 2)ublic as 
natives which had no claim to that position, as well as of the swindlers 
who live and thrive on the gullibility of collection-makers and rare- 
sjiecies-seekers, he spent vast sums of money upon insects which were 
foisted u^jon him as British, by gentlemen (?) who found him an easy 
prey, and whose specimens, with the warranty of the " Eev. H. 
Burney's collection " attached to them, are now dispersed to all parts of 
the British Islands, to crop up as British at some future time to puzzle 
scientific workers and to throw doubt upon conclusions and deductions 
that they may have made. Who believes that a single specimen of the 
Leucania tausculosa, the L. loreyi, the Notodonta tritoplms, in short of 
nine-tenths of those species mentioned by "A Country Cousin," had a 
really British origin ? Some do, you say, or they would not have 
bought them. Just so, but these buyers knew that the specimens are 
worth their money as an investment, and buy them as such to sell to 
other collectors either now, or at some future time when their own col- 
lections go to the hammer. But, ajjart from the buyer, who does believe 
in their British origin ? Well, I will leave it to each individual's own 
common sense to hnd an answer to the question. 

Now tliere are two kinds of people who arc involved in this fraudu- 
lent sale of British specimens. Kent has for many years had an unenvi- 
able notoriety. Canterbury and its neighbourliood have Ijeen, and perhaj^s 
still are, a by-Avord in entomological circles. London perhaps comes 
next, unless indeed it has to yield to Aberdeen, which, during the last 
few years has out-Heroded Herod, whilst the Isle of Wight has increased 
in shadiness in recent years. But this is due to individuals who outdo 
themselves, whom the older collectors know too well, and who have to 
find a fresh coterie of buyers among the" younger additions to our ranks 
on whom to try their charms. These persons send out their sjjecimens of 
A. lathonia, P. daplidire, L. acis, V. antiopa, Sphinx j^iii^ustri, Deileplida 
livornica, Deiopeia pulchella^ Lytliria purpuraria, Apjlaata ononaria, Eubolla 
moeninta, Leucautu miisculosa, and so on, on their own account, trusting to 
their cheek to help them through. But there is another class of rogues 
who use the names of well-known lepidopterists to conjure with. An 
illustration referring to m^'self will sutfice. In the Burney collection 
was a specimen mai'ked in the Catalogue as "Cerastis eri/tJirocephala var. 
glabra (Mr. Tutt)." This was Lot 169. Then Lot 184 reads :— " Eerba- 
riuta (Mr. Tutt) 2." Now I have never seen a living specimen nor 
have I exchanged a specimen living or dead of either of these insects in 
my life ; nor had I ever seen these specimens until they were exhibited 
for sale in the Eev. H. Burney's collection. Some rogue therefore, 
either in my name, or in his own with a forged guarantee, sold these to 
Mr. Burney, and thus a clue is obtained as to the way in which that 
gentleman became possessed of his rarities. A space to fill was 
sufficient, money did the rest. I never Avrote to Mr. Burney in my life. 
I wonder whether anyone would pass oif these species on any of our 



30 THE entomologist's RECOUn. 

younger men so easily ; I fancy that such would make enquiry of me 
before they bought them. All I would say to future workers concern- 
ing the specimens from this collection is, *' If at any time you are posed 
l)y apparent facts deduced from specimens obtained from Mr. Burney's 
collection, and if such facts are contrary to conclusions that you would 
otherwise have drawn, stick to your common-sense conclusions, and 
suggest that the owners of the specimens should in the cause of Science, 
place them in the fire at the earliest opjiortunity. 

This subject has long been before the public. Tn my jjosition as 
Editor of this magazine, I have learned facts which have long since 
carried me past the stage of disgust. During the last two months ma- 
terial has l)een put into my hands concerning two men from Aberdeen, 
that woTild keep them from imjjosing on entomologists for a long time 
if one of the victims took proceedings against them. Our own note 
at the head of the Exchange column explains itself, Imt whilst collectors 
show so much anxiety to make up their collections at the ([uickcst 
]iossible rate, they must expect to get a lilteral education — and to pay 
for it. Of course Science is not always the aim of those who advertise 
in the Exchange column ; in the pages of the magazine these exchange 
swindles have no place, and I only incidentally refer to the matter here, 
as indirectly bearing on the swindling which distorts, distracts and 
muddles our science. 

I would give something to know who sold the hcrhariatu and var. 
glabra to Mr. Burney. Not a dozen men knew tliat I possessed 
Coverdale's herhariata, iintil the Decemljer numl)er of the Bccord was 
issued, so that evidently the originator of this con.]) knew me well. The 
var. ijlahra is of a particular style of setting, which I Ijelieve I have 
seen exhilnted at one of our London Entomological Societies. If so, it 
should be traceable, and perhaps the near future will bring us some 
further information. 



By Rev. G. M. A. HEWETT, M.A. 

All who Avander in the night will acknowledge the strange fascination 
which holds them during that mystic season. It is not eas}', however, 
to say exactly wherein lies the weird s])ell. Sometimes, as I am walk- 
ing in a sunken, high-hedged lane, and the wind goes Availing over- 
head, trailing along tlic ]ialf-visil)le cloud-drift, I can almost see the 
s})irits of the air, and long to comprehend the strange songs tliat they 
sing as they fly. From the unknown tliey come, and to the unknown 
they sweep away, and wliat is it to them if a longing wiinderer sees 
their trailing garments and listens t(i their music as they pass. So 
different are they too, and so manifold the feelings that they evoke. 
To-night you will see a strong spirit, who calls on 3-ou to be up and 
away with him, to shout aloud and lift up your voice mightil}^ in unison 
with his. He has the strong face of a man, so far as 3'ou may beliold 
it. One alone is he and he rules the whole expanse of sky. On 
another night numl)ers will not count them ; the air is full of them, 
and every song that you have ever heard makes a strange patch-work 
of melody in your brain ; on some evenings they sing of hope and 
much possibility of living and doing, and on other evenings of despair, 



NIGHT WOKK. 



n 



and that nothing has been or ever shall be. iVnd there is pleasure of a 
kind even then. Best of all my haunts do I love that sunken 
lane, with the winds overhead and the stillness of its sheltered 
banks, where the light-winged moths flit across the ray of my lantern, 
and the hedgehogs creep after the beetles, wliile the plovers and the 
partridges call to their mates over tlie fields around. Sometimes again 
I am on the hills, with a breeze coming uji along the slopes of the 
valley. This lireezc only comes ; it never j/oex like the others. Ever- 
lastingly up and up the slopes it runs and stops and vanishes. And it 
too sings its song, but what the song is I cannot hear, although the 
breeze comes and comes, again and again, and whispers it in my ear. 
I think I cannot hear it because the breeze never seems to pass beyond 
me. There is no time for it to echo in the brain. But there is a 
suggestion in it of health and freshness, of dewy-scented flowers at 
daybreak before the sun is high. Perhaps it is like the songs of the 
birds, only to be felt, and not to be translated into notes and words. 
Like the birds' songs, I can recognise its variations, and that now it sings 
of this and now of that, but its meaning and its message are too deep, and 
come from too far off in the future. Perhaps its meaning is hidden 
because it comes from that chamber of mysteries — the Sea. 

And besides all these older and immortal spirits of the breeze, there 
are the little earth-born fairy zephyrs, some haunting for days the 
same hill-top and the same dell, and others, born for a moment in any 
corner, whicli touch the cheek and die. Voiceless little elves are these, 
but still presences to increase the sense of wonderment and awe. Men 
talk of Ijeing alone at night, I am never less alone. What does it 
matter that I laugh at myself and my fancies in the broad sunlight ? 
Night comes again and I know them to be true. 

Such are some of the mysteries of the air. And the mysteries of 
the earth are not less manifold. First come the perfumes — the fresh 
clean smell of the earth that makes the heart strong, the elder-flowers, 
the wild rose, the thyme, and, best loved of all b}^ me, the honeysuckle ; 
all unmistakeable in themselves, but suggesting somehow in the darkness 
all the host of flowers as well ; lilies of the valley where none can be, lilac, 
jasmine, and many an aristocrat of the conservatory. Then the sounds 
of the earth and its inhabitants. The creaking of the boughs as they 
sway in the breeze ; the rustle of the mice in the wayside grass ; the 
fox's bark; the clamorous good-night of the pheasant as he flies up 
to his roost ; the owls that cry like lost souls ; the goat-suckers that 
cla}) their wings overhead, and ventrilocpxise along the bough. Until 
the nervous system is well trained to all these, there is more than 
mystery in them, there is terror as well ; sometimes terror so abject 
that the knees give way, and a faint shock creeps iip the nerves from 
the heels even to the hair. I never quite get rid of this creep of the 
nerves, nor do I greatly care to. It has become a refined sort of 
pleasure to me — tluit ultimum of pleasure which is on the borderland 
of pain. 

Loolv, too, how all the little stunted bushes become gnomes and dwarfs 
and dull impisli figures ready to spring out from the holes and corners. 
I am never sure whether a pei'fectly still night is the more awesonae, 
or one wliereon a breeze makes the gnomes and dwarfs nod tlieir shape- 
less heads and beckon with a weird and uncoutli finger, and sends the 
shadows of the branches in the fitful moonlight, flitting like ghosts, 



32 THE ENTuMuLUUISt's KKOOKI). 

backwards and forwards across the path. Sometimes even the strongest 
nerves must get a shock. The frightened wood-j^igeon clattering from 
his roost is hard to bear witliout a start. A cow, frightened by the 
light of the lantern and blowing across the hedge, seldom fails to thrill 
the nerves. But I liave had Avorse surprises even than these. I had to 
stand and wait while a badger came burrowing through the underwood 
to look at my light. What a size he looked I Unsi)eakable ferocity 
glared from his eyes. I must have sat down, resigned to the worst, if 
he had not Hed. Again in the Forest, after my system had got well 
drenched with mystery and ex2)ectant of anything, while wa:idering 
through aisles and aisles of gigantic trunks, where the darkness shut me 
in like a wall outside the rays of my lantern and massed itself like 
storm-clouds, layer u2)on layer up among the towering branches, 1 have 
shaken a bush to disturb the motlis, and with the moths have roused 
from his woodland lair, — oh, horror ! — with a savage snort, the Forest- 
ing. More frightened than I ? No, a tliousand times, no I And yet 
once more. Wending my midnight way from Cral)lje Wood, and gazing 
from the hill-top over the sleeping valley, with a half-moon low in tlic 
west and streaks of light cloud far away in the south, have I not sto})i)ed 
in sudden wonderment, to see, darting up from the horizon, in and out 
among the clouds, up to the very zenith of the heavens, a pale and 
restless ray of light? 1 could have endurc'd it l)c'tter had it remained 
there, but it vanished and came again, slanting now to east and now 
to west, and then executing a kind of dizzy dance in tlie lieavuns. I 
suppose it was the search-light from an ironclad in the Solent, but it 
took me many minutes of anxious thought ))efore 1 was far enough 
recovered to proceed. 

Such, in brief, are some of the charms and fancies of a night- 
wanderer. Pages Avould fail to tell of them all, and pages more might 
be added to describe some of tlie discomforts and catastrophes. But 
how far the ever-present charms outweigh the occasional troubles and 
disappointments, is a question Avhich no true son of the night will care 
to discuss. Good Night 1 Yes. Better than day, even as expectation 
is better than certainty. Good Night ! Who would live by «lay, were 
it not for the day's Avork that must be done in the day. Good Night. 



With special reference to its correlated variations in Plumage, 
Moulting and Hybernation. 

By T. A. CHAPMAN, M. D. 

(Continued from page I'i). 

It may shorten the description of the further results observed, if 1 
say at once that the subsequent broods I reared diifered from the first 
by showing an increase in the number of Laggards and much A'ariety as 
t(3 habit and plumage of the Nornuds ; they also presented very varied 
forms, intermediate both betAveen Forwards and Normals and IjctAveen 
Normals and Laggards, and this nniltiplication of forms was, on the whole, 
more marked in eacli successive l)rood. So much was this the case, 
that though 1 began to arrange in a tabular form the different varieties 
that occurred, and had reached about fifteen headings ; yet after raising 
another brood or tAvo, I found that each of these headings Avould have 



uN TUK I,A1{\A (»F AK(JtiA CAIA. 33 

lo be subiliviik'd four or live times, tiud that several additional headings 
would have to be supplied, so tliat I concluded that a tabular arrange- 
ment in any detail would make my results less, instead of more 
intelligible. 

The first and largest variation among tlie Normals was that a large 
section reached the falnjiitom (hybernating) stage only in the 6th in- 
stead of in the 5th skin, and there were some that did not do so till 
the 7th skin. Then of these some would tend towards being Forwards : 
that is, though jmssing tlirough a fiiHginosa stage they would go on, 
after a very short and formal hybernation, to cnia plumage and ma- 
turity ; others, tending towards Laggards, would do much the same, 
but very slowly. 

The greatest interest attaches, liowever, I think to the Laggards ; 
various types of these were luxmerous in the later broods, but only a 
few a}:)peared in the first brood or in any brood from wild ova. By the 
time Laggards were sufficiently numerous to be studied, they, like the 
Normals, had assumed a variety of different types. 

In all cases they fed more slowly and made less growth at eacli 
moult than the Normals, so that a Laggard would be onl}' in its ord 
skin, when a Normal was already prepared to hybernate in its 5tli skin ; 
the former also would in its oth skin be no further advanced as re- 
gards size and plumage than a Normal in its 3rd or 4th skin (see I'l. ii., 
tigs. 1, '2, and 3). In one case a Laggard did not reach its last skin 
until after 13 moults. Others would jjuss on to cuia plumage, and pid- 
gress more rapidly after reaching a certain stage. Though they all 
seemed willing to perform a modified hybernation at any stage (that is, 
to eat very rarely and gxow very slowly), they were unable fully to 
hybernate, if takei? so to speak unawares, even when they had reached 
fulttjiiio.^d plumage. But many individuals would begin hybernation at 
very uncertain stages, some in spilosoma, some in/HZ/j///ios«, and some in 
caia plumage, but were ixsually easily forced. It also happened that 
some aljerrant Normals in the later broods jirepared to hybernate in 
distinctly caia plumage. 

Some figures showing the proportions of different forms may be 
interesting. Thus, of the second brood ; at a })articular date there 
were 4 Forwards in 2'upa ; 4 Intermediates in 6tli skin and caia 
plumage ; 8 intermediates in (Jth skin, but apjaarently hybernators ; 
(three jars) say 120 Normals hybernating in 5th skin ; 30 Laggards 
with 4th plumage but in 5th skin ; one Laggard in 6th skin with 4th 
] ilumage. Twenty-live days later these 30 Laggards were thus accounted 
for ; 10 still feeding in 6tli skin, 5 laid up for 6th moult, 14 in 7th 
skin ; of these 14, 1 was still in 4th plumage, 3 in ordinary 5th skin 
plumage, while 10 were similar but tended to Ije ruddy in front, and 4 
of them Avere almost in adult plumage. 

Third Generation. — Brood A was composed of 19 Forwards, 547 
Normals, and 130 Laggards. Brood B contained, in tlie portion wliich 
I reared myself, 4 Forwai'ds, 7 Doiditfuls, and 136 Normals; the 
otlier portion, which I sent to Mr. Merrifield and which he reared, as 
already noted, at a temperatui'c of 80^, yielded 150 Forwards, and 50 
Normals. It ought perhaps to be stated that Mr. ]\Ierritield expressed 
his inability to say whether the 50 that Avere not Forwards were Nor- 
mals or Ijaggards, as they liecame very unhealthy owing to the high 
temperature, and to their monotonous diet of cabbage. 



34 THE entomologist's uecord. 

A second brood raised from eggs laid by the moths produced from 
the four larvie of the first brood, to which alhxsion has ah-eady been 
made (the grand fnlighiosa form), yiekled 1 Forward, several Uoubtfuls, 
o30 Normals, but no Laggards. 

A fourth brood, raised in June, was the only one that formed any 
exception to the rule that Forwards were as rare as in earlier l)roods. 
When the brood was four weeks old, a census showed that it was then 
composed of 7G Forwards: 12 in 6th, 51 in 6th, and 18 in 7th skin ; 85 
Normals : 35 in 4th, 46 in 5th, and four in 6th skin ; 49 Laggards : 
three in 2nd, two in 3rd, and 44 in 4th skin. In this brood it was very 
difficult to divide the larvae into groui)s, for there was a regular grada- 
tion of forms between the 3 Laggards in 2nd skin at one extreme, 
and the 13 Forwards in adult plumage at the other. The brood no 
doubt liad the benefit of a slightly higher temperature. 

Of a sixtli l)rood, some were kept warmer than the rest and yielded 
15 Forwards and 34 Normals ; of which 14 were larger and 20 smaller 
hybernators ; the remainder, 232 in numljer, presented 15 Forwards, 
79 Intermediates, 44 larger and 85 smaller Normals, and 9 Ijaggards. 
Many of them became unhealthy, either from inbreeding, domesticaticm, 
or want of care, and the experiment was allowed to terminate. The 
differentiation of the liybernators into a larger and a smaller form was 
very marked in the later broods, and was usuall}', but not always, 
associated with the hybernation of the larger form in 6th skin. 

Althougli a tabulation of forms is, owing to their great numl)er and 
to their frequently passing into one another, difficult to make either 
complete or intelligible, yet a tabulation of the princi})al and most 
distinct forms may be useful. 

Forwards. — 1. Passes from 4tli (Sjyilosoma) to 5tli (cain), omitting 
fuh'ginosa i)lumage, feeds up rapidly, and does not 
hybernate. 

a. Adult in 6th skin. 

b. Adult in 7th skin. 

Normals. — 2. Fullyinosa plumage in 5th skin, in which it hybernates ; 
cam plumage in 6th skin. 
II. Adult in 7th skin. 
h. Adult in 8th skin. 

3. Larger Form ; more profound hybernation. 

4. Assumes /«//;//« os« plumage in 6th skin after hyber- 

nation ; adult in 8th and 9th skins. 

5. Assumes fMliijiuona plumage and hyl)ernates in 6th 

skin. 
Laggards. — 6. Feeds slowly, never assumes distinct /«//;///( os(/ 2'hiii^<^ge; 
reaches caia i:)lumage in 8th and 9th skins. 
7. j\Iany variations, in which hybernation takes place in 
6th, 7th, 8th, or 9th skins, and either in Jhliyiuosa 
or in caia plumage. 

I liave several times taken " Laggards " at large ; i.e., larvae ap- 
parently in the plumage of the 3rd or 4t]i skin, found in Sej)tend)er or 
October, and that feed on slowly and do not go into fulii/inosa plumage, 
nor attempt to hybernate. It is therefore certain that, though in 
England the gi*eat mass of caia larvte is of what I liave called the Nor- 
mal form, that is, the form whicli is speciallj' well clothed in the 5th 



Plate, T. 




EKaei. 



"We3t,"Newman, ChrOTno. 



Varieties of Larvae of Arctia Caia. 



Fig. 


1 


Fig. 


2 


Fig. 


3 


Fig. 


4 






Fig. 





Fig. 


f) 


Fig. 


7 


Fig. 


8 



ON THE LARVA UV AKCTlA (AIA. 35 

skin, in wliicli skin the larvfe liybernate, nevertheless, both the Forward 
and Laggard forms do occur not uncommonly, and it is not perhaps 
unfair to assume that the various intermediate forms met with in my 
exj)eriments also occur, though very rarely. 

DESCKIPTION OF PLATE I. 

All Figures amplified x 2. 
Hybernating form in oth skin ; resembles Laggards. 
Hybernating form in (Uh skin ; plumage resembles red form 

met with in Brood 1. 
Laggard in 5th skin. 
Ordinary form, 6th skin ; caia plumage. 
Hybernating form, 6tli skin, long whitish hairs; raia-liko 

jilumage. 
Laggard, in Gth skin. 
Forward, 4th skin. 
Normal, 4th skin. 

NOTES ON PLATE I. 

1 may remark, in connection with the jilates, that perhaps of all 
larva?, that of caia is the most difficult to figure satisfactorily. Buckler's 
attempts to do so were far from successful ; these, however, were made 
in the earlier years of his work on larvaa, and he would, no doulit, had 
he attempted it, have l)een more successful later. In view of this 
difficulty, acknowledged by such a master as Buckler, and of the further 
fact, that wliat have to be shown on my plates are variations in length, 
colour and density oi plumage without any structural difference, I 
think Mr. Knight is to be congratulated on his successful delineations 
and on their reproductions in the plates, which are not so far behind 
the original drawings as sometimes happens. Fig. 8 represents a 
Normal larva in the 4th skin, i.e., the last stage with Spilosotiid 
plumage ; whilst fig. 7 represents the same stage, 4th skin, of 
a Forward larva, but an unusually dark form, in Avhicli the lateral 
yellow line is reduced to one set only of the diagonal daslies, of 
which in its most definite development it consists ; frecpiently in tliis 
stage the Forward is even })aler than the Normal form. Tliese two 
are from larvaj of the 4th brood. Fig. 4 is a Normal in Gth skin that 
in which it assumes caid plumage. 

Figs. 1, 2 and 5 (with fig. 4, Plate II.) represent various forms of 
hybernating larvae (Normals) ; I have already commented on fig. 2. 
Fig. 1 is in 5th skin, and is a variety that, by its smaller size, shorter 
liairs, and very definite lateral line, more resembles some forms of Lag- 
gards than Normal hybernators. Fig. 5, on the other hand, lias various 
long white hairs, and is of a darker colour ; it makes a distinct approacli 
to caia plumage, and is in Gth skin. Fig. 4, Plate II., exce})t tliat it is 
rather dark, or rather that tlie dark skin is too distinctly represented in 
the drawing, and overpowers the effect of the ^^aler ])lumage, is a Nor- 
mal h3d3ernating larva in 5th skin. 

Fig. 3 is a Laggard in 5th skin ; compare for size with Normal in 
4th skin (Fig. 8). 

Fig. G is a Laggard in Gth skin, smaller tlian a normal liybernator 
in 5th skin ; it is rather larger and darker than most Laggards at this 
stage, and has no lateral line. 

{To be continued). 



36 TUE p:NTOMUi.O(;iST's KK(JUKi>. 

"LE£D iJ^ r^OI' IjitO I'EJVIP'l'yil'lOri." 

(part II). 
By a country COUSIN. 

Having recovered from the shock vvliich my first appearance in a 
sale-room ])roduced, I feU- 1 should like to see the rest of the sj^ecimens 
in the late Kev. H. Barney's collection and witness their sale. I started 
for the place early, so that I might have time for a good look at the 
insects, and here I am. 

The first thing that strikes me is that there are nothing like so 
many people patronising this part of the sale as were jjresent when the 
Macro-lepido})tera Avere sold. I at once set to work to inspect the 
specimens, but find that if anything their origin is more difficult to 
trace than was the case with the jn-evious lot. Crainhux alpiuellus and 
C iiiyellus, without data, keej^ company with a single C. verellus, 
similarly situated. The latter is so very rare in Britain that this 
specimen is useless Avithout a clue to its origin. A long series of C. 
coiitaiiiliu'lhts are all salinellus : there isn't one of the real Simon Pure 
among them ; then come ten C. rorelln», without any indi(;ation as to 
who captured these s})ecimens of a species which, though very abundant 
on the ('(jntinent, is exceedingly rare in this country. Then comes 
rhi/cts ohdiirtelht, only six, witliout a hint of their origin and probably 
from till' moon, as 1 think only about three British sjjccimens have 
been properly recorded ; whilst one Eronienc occlJea may have come 
from the Equator or the Pole. Here are twenty-one Anerastia farreUn, 
including two of the original type sijecimeus from New Yarmouth 
described by Curtis. But which are these types ? "Without labels, 
there is no clue to guide anyone as to which is which ; the twenty-one 
specimens here have been moved and mixed, and Curtis's types are 
now a douljtful (piantity to be guessed at, imless indeed some wiseacre 
will come forward and swear which specimens Mr. Burney pointed out 
to him as he glanced through the collection some years ago. This may 
be science, but I fail to see it. Nothing wonderful appears until the 
ToKTRicES are reached. Here are some very fine bred T. piceana and four 
T. qnoviiuw, with an excellent series of T. scmialhana, and then wc 
reach a marvellous series of Peronea cristana and P. Itastiana ; some of 
tlic special vars. are really grand specimens. Then some fine P. 
ninbrana and P. maccana appear ; these, of course, although without 
labels, are British and no question arises in the mind as in the case of 
the Ckajibi — obductella, rorelhia, etc. Ah 1 here is Penthina greviUana, 
hardly a distinct sjjecies I should think ; whilst these are followed by 
long series of what are generally considered rare species. Then in the 
middle of the Toktkioes the true character of this collection comes out. 
C'rammed higgeldy-piggcldy into store boxes, pushed in here, tliere and 
everywhere, mixed up in almost inextricable confusion, utterly useless 
fur scientific purposes, are the remainder of the Toktkices and the 
whole of the Tixeina, half of which must have been utterly unknown 
to the owner as to whether they were in his possession or not. 

Here is a lovely series of St/(jmonota frauniana, there some fine Sti]/- 
iiionota interru'pfd'iKt, yonder some Eupacilla rnanniana and E. diujreijana. 
No wonder the catalogue-maker had given up liis work in disgust and 
'•roiiped together whole boxes full of good insects as single lots, some 



"leap ns NOT INTO TE^frTATION." 37 

of wliieli contain 450 or even 500 specimens. Ah ! .among tlie mass of 
muddle the Psychid^ have been re-arranged ; most of the known 
British species are represented, and there are twelve s}>ecimens of 
Scardia arciiatella, a sight for sore eyes now-a-days. Then the glorious 
muddle begins again. Hundreds of moths ! Thousands of moths I 
Ay, very many thousands too, huddled together, not only without data 
as to whence they came or by whom they were taken, but even without 
names, are mixed in utter confusion. Two or three men, though, are 
eagerly scanning these heterogeneous masses ! There is a young 
fellow who carefully jots down notes as he goes along. He has a happy 
look on his face, and one feels certain tliat he has discovered some hidden 
rarity that he sincerely hopes will not be detected by anyone else. There 
is another earnest watcher ! A much older man, who seems very keen, 
though witli only one eye I He is very alert, watches evex\y change on 
the young fellow's face, makes a mental note of tlie drawers and l)oxes over 
which tlie most complacent smiles of self-satisfaction are made, and then, 
later on, dives into the mysterious depths of those same drawers and boxes, 
looks radiant as he detects the cause of happiness in his predecessor's 
face and makes a note, which augurs ill for the facility with which 
either of them will buy cheap, despite the muddle. I go on. Lovely 
Coleopliorae, rare Gelechudae one comes across at every glance. Ah ! 
there is a Lyonetia padifoliella mixed up in the same lot with 900 other 
specimens. Then we come to the Plumes, mostly in very bad con- 
dition. What a muddle I Four species mixed up in the series of 
Pterophorus pilof^elhie, and yes I there is the historical P. brachydadylm. 
Knocked down with a liroomstick, jumped on Avitli hob-nailed boots, 
set out with a jioker, and you have a fair notion of this historical 
hr achy dactyl m. It may be a distinct species, but if it were in good 
condition it might probably be easily referred, as a variety, to one of 
our commoner species. Well, this appears to lie the end of the 
collection. No, not quite the end, for now we come across the " un- 
arranged and duplicate specimens." '' Unarranged " must be meant 
" sarcastic," as if any of these small things ever had been arranged, 
but these remainder specimens must be those which the reverend 
gentleman bought diiring the last few j-ears and did not add to the 
previous confusion. Here is a box of Macros and they look interesting. 
There are four Chrysopha/miH dispar and some Lycaena acis, whilst we 
meet four Vanessa anfiopa and the catalogue- maker has put against one 
'' proI)ah1y from Tunl^ridge Wells." Then there are sixteen remnants 
of Atjrofis sifhrosea and some mure Cerasfis erythrocephala with a var. 
i/lahra. The latter has a little label on it " ]Mr. Tutt," and — j^es I there 
are two specimens of Acidcdia lierhariata with a similar label. 

But let us go on — Plusia ilhistris ! What does the catalogue say ? 
" f'rohahly one of the original specimens said to have been taken on 
Salislmry Plain by j\Ir. S])ratt in 1810, ride Westwood's Brit. Moths 
and E.lil.M.. xxv.j p. 228 et p. 24r,." What a nice Httle liistory to 
build u]) on the word " J'robably '" I What is tlic muney value of that 
one little word? Then comes an American specimen of Atjrotis 
svhgotliica .' What does the catalogue say al)out this ? " Probably the 
type specimen from Mr. Paddon, said to have lieen taken near 
]iarnsta|)le, ride Stephen's III. Brit. Ent., II., p. 126, and E.M.M., xxv., 
]). 224 et ]». 246." Another nice little liistory based on the word 
" Probably." Surely " Probably " is not science, and if the owner of 



.'•18 THK entomolooist's ueoord. 

the specimen is not sure where it came from such histories as these are 
disgusting. Here is Acontia solaria var. liicida, and here Heliothis 
scutoaa I There is Goneptenjx chojjatra ; and now we come to a remark- 
able little history as told concerning Mr. Kogers of the Isle of Wight. 
Now, ye workers! mark! In the year 1892 Mr. Rogers sent to Mr. 
Burney — " Four SterrJia sacraria, two Leucania vitelUna, two Catephia 
idchyinista, two Noctna Jiammatra, four Lajjhygma exigtia, with one 
specimen ' doubtful ' sent therewith, one Micra ostrina and one M. jjarva." 
Where was that Mr. Hodges in 1892 ? What is the use of getting 
Agrotis lunigera year after year, when Laphygma exigua, and Caiepliin 
aJchi/misia are obtainable ? After this Mecyna polygonalis, Anesychia 
hipnnctcUa and Sesia andreni/orniis are likely to pall, and even another 
Cranihm rorcUus fails to evoke much interest. But I have got to the 
end of this most wonderful collection at last, a real collection, a 
collection in Avhich the insects have been brought from the four winds 
of heaven and by the age of their settlement here have become 
naturalised British specimens, some people may consider sans penr et 
sans reproche. 

There is still a short time before the sale begins, and so I turn over 
the Catalogue. Nothing except some poor specimens of Vanessa 
antiopa and Lycaena argiades appear among the Rev. Mr. St. John's 
butterflies ! Ah ! There are some of the Deilephila euphorhiae, the larva? 
of which have been stated to have come from New Quay, Cornwall. The 
remainder of this collection appears to be much like what most jijcople 
get together by exchange during a few years' work. Ah ! Two speci- 
mens of Nonagria sparganii, vouched for by Mr. Hanbury and with the 
highly specialised information '* taken with others in a south-east 
county." Poor old Hythe canal ! How mysterious you have grown in 
common with the Deal marshes ; and here is a Pachefra hucophaea 
" taken with others by Mr. F. J. Hanbury, Southdown, 1892.' 
" Southdown " means " South Downs " I suppose, but are not the 
Ashford and Wye clialkhills part of the North Downs ? Xylina conformis, 
one of the dark Welsh, the other of the ordinary German type, next 
attracts attention together with a strange Abraxas grossnlariata, in which 
a malformed or reduplicated nervure has produced the development of 
the central portion of a wing on the costa. 

But here are some odds and ends, the seller's name not marked in the 
Catalogue. Deilephila galii six, " Eton Marshes, 1898," Lasiocatnpa 
ilicif alia two, " Ascot, 1891-2 taken by A. Edmonds " are remarkable 
" odds," whilst a vast niimber of bred Pieris dapUdice, C. erythrocephala, 
ifec, l)red in Britain and set in British style, figure among the " ends." A 
wonderful lot of insects certainly are in the room to-day. Very 
wonderful ! Almost remarkable ! 

And now the auctioneer mounts the rostrum and the sale begins. — 
Cramhus alpinellus, 9s. for six, is not much of a start, and then some one 
o-ives 7s. for a dataless C. verellus. " They don't think much of it " 
whispers a voice at my elbow, or " it would have fetched a good deal 
more than that if they believed it to be Bi-itish." C. myellus also must 
be under a cloud, for two specimens go, with a number of other insects, 
for 14s. and another, with a large lot, for Gs. Well ! what will the 
bidders do with C. rorellus ? only 10s. for nine, and another with 
thirtv-six other specimens goes for 4s. The public isn't keen on these 
yet ; it appears to be suspicious. But then comes 10s. for a badly set 



•' I.KAn rS NOT INTO TElMl'TATION." 89 

Eromene ocellea. " It looks as if it has been reset and the wings have 
slipped back," says the voice at my elbow, and then the buying public 
shows how suspicious it is by letting a lot with four Pliyciti olxlnctcUa go 
for lis. Here a little life is infused at the sale over Curtis's t3q)es of 
A. farreUa. One feels pleased to see the buyers waken up at the first 
scientitic atom that has appeared in the collection, though how they will 
know which are the original specimens is (piestionable. Things get 
shaky again until a tine pair of T. piceana, with a very long series of each 
of T. lafanridua and T. decretana go for 80s., and then some vars of T. 
costana with a pair of T. gnomana fetch almost as much. Tortrix 
semialbana, produces a guinea for six, twice over, the third and fourth 
lots being sold for 18s. and 16s. respectively. The series of Peronea 
cristana is sold for £8 12s. 6d., one specimen being bought for 28s., but 
the P. hastiana although equally fine go for 22s. No one apjjears to 
believe in Peathina greoiUana and it goes in a cheap lot, and then there 
is a complete breakdown in the prices until some white vars of Sciaphila 
perterana are reached. Stiymonota trauniana brings the prices up 
again, as also does S. inter ruptana, but the lots now consist of some 300 
to 400 specimens and, as may be expected, the prices get a little 
higher. The Psychidoi fetch good prices, £2 5s. ; £2 15s. ; £2 ; 
£ I 10s. ; £2 1 6s. being paid for almost successive lots whilst the twelve 
specimens of Scard/n arcnaielln, in three lots of four each, produce Kis., 
8s., and 12s. respectively. A lot with two T. simpliciella produces £1, 
and then the (Ecophorae go for £2, and the Putales for £2 5s. A lot 
consisting of 100 Gracilaria produce 24s., whilst the following lot of 
500 containing fifteen Stathmopoda pcdella produce only 6s. Then 
come 800 specimens of Lithocolletis for 22s., and 350 Hyponomeatas and 
Dcpressariae for 26s., among the latter no less than seventeen D. 
cinijiondla. The Gelechlidae and Coleophoridae are all in equally large 
lots and most of them fetch good prices, 45s. being the highest, except a 
lot of yOO moths containing most of the Nepticidae and a specimen of 
Lyonetia padi/ulieJIa, which commands £4. The whole of the Plumes, 
about 700 specimens, produce only £3 10s. 

By this time the end of this grand muddle lias been almost reached 
and the specimens appear to have been, witli the exception of a few 
very noticeable Cuambi and PiiYciD.i:, chiefly bond fide British, but 
certainly valueless from a scientific point of view. There were some 
Anesychia bipunctella though which were bought cheap for British 
sjjccimens, considering that the insect is not yet certainly known to 
occur in this country. 

When the remainder of the Macros are reached more life is infused 
into the business. A pair of Chrysopihanus dinpar minus body and 
antenna? are brought for £2 10s., whilst another luoderate pair of the 
same produce six guineas. V. antiopa (even when lalielled " Coles, 
Senr.") produces only 7s. per pair (I wonder liow this can hapjien in a 
British collection), and anotlier pair of them recorded in the E.M.M., 
go for the same price. Then comes some remnants of N. mhronca. 
Keninants indeed, for they are mere rags, but even remnants })roduce 
24s., 35s., and 26s. for lots of four eacli. Then come three C. 
erythrocephaJa one var. glabra ornamented with a label on which " Mr. 
Tutt " has been written. The auctioneer explains that Mr. Tutt lias dis- 
owned any knowledge of the moth, and then someone gives 8s. for tliese 
undoubtedly foreign specimens. Can human gullibility farther go ? Now 



40 THE kntomolooirt's reoord. 

to " proba1)ly." Tlie '' prol)abl3^ " in connection witli Phma iUustris is 
valued at 12s., but in connection with Agrotis subgothiaa at 21s. The 
vahie of the American " jji-obably " therefore exceeds that of the 
German or French " prol)ably " by 9s. What a scientific value these 
specimens must have, when even their late owner did not know that 
they were what they were supposed to be ! What ! No one believes in 
this Acontia Solaris after its " probabilities " have been discussed ? Yes I 
Its " probability " is worth 10s., but the discussion on HeliotJds seldom 
has raised its value from 4d. to £5 10s. Fourpence, I think that is the 
money value of all specimens of scutosa but this one. I suppose this 
one was born or made differently. Of course I am very ignorant and 
these buyers very wise. They would not buy it unless it was Avorth 
the money, and yet it don't look very different from dozens of otliers 
that I have seen. Then comes 13s. for a Goncpteryx cleojyatra. What 
a fauna we are getting in Britain now. Then come Mr. Rogers' 
wonderful 1892 specimens. Now we shall see the price of real British 
rarities. Four S. sacraria, 8s. I Three Leucania vifellinn, 14s. ! One C. 
aJchi/tnista, 14s. 1 Two Noctua flaininatra, 14s. I Four Tyaphi/gvia exigua 
with one doubtful, 7s. ! One Micra oslrina and one M. parca, 7s. ! 
Well ! how can we fathom this ? If these are British, they are worth 
ten times this sum according to the wiseacres here. If not, why do 
people give about six times their continental value for them ? Do these 
honest looking people really buy them hoping that some day the 
" ( )pen Sesame " of " Burney's collection " will repay them tenfold ? If 
so — Ugh ! I'm getting giddy. Again the auctioneer gives forth that 
Mr. Tutt disowns the two AcidaJia herhariata to which his name is 
attached, and then a non-British species A. hipmicteUa and a Mccymi 
jjolygonalis go with the outsiders for 7s. These four " bugs " could 
surely be bought at the dealer's whence they evidently came for less 
tlian ]s. But I feel revived as some good honest-looking EnpoeciJia 
giln'comaim produce about 15s. per jiair. Then comes Sesia amlreniformis, 
its value just doubled by its position, 15s. Ah ! here are some />. 
galii and C. celerio included with 320 other specimens going for 7s. I 
Gone I without the buyers of similar lots attempting to stay their 
disgrace. Here's D. compta going with 450 other moths for 18s. ; 
this is the way to extend your collection ; and there are many more 
wonderful things. "• Beg pardon," says a voice as an attendant nearly 
knocks me down. I soon waken u}) and find the next collection on the 
iapls. The sale of the great liurney collection is over. HerlKiriata, 
jjoh/gonalis, hiptinctella, enpltorlyiac, gaJli, celerio, erytliroccpilialu, iiiohe, 
Idthoiiid, and every other reputed si)ecies in the British list have been 
scattered broadcast over the country, and the words " Burney's 
collection" will in tlie course of the next few days be ticketed to 
liundreds of specimens, to wliich no label was ever attached by their 
owner. Vercllns or erythrocfii/nihi, rorcllnx or erlerio, label-less and 
data-less from Mr. Hurncy's collection cannot [)Ossil)ly liavc ;iiiy 
scientific value, wli;it will be their \alue in otlier collections witli the 
charmed label attached to them ? 

But the day's sale is not over yet. The Eev. J. Seymour St. John's 
insects are to be sold. Three Vanessa antiopa from " Dr. Marsh, Nor- 
folk," only produce ()S. each. How is this ? Did not V. antiopa from 
iMessrs. Wigan and Parry ])roduce about a pound apiece ? Tlien a pair of 
Lycaena argiadcs (again '* received from J)r. iMarsh "j produce £4 10s., 



RETROSPECTIONS AND FORE-OASTS. 41 

whilst three of the specimens of D. eiiphorbiae referred to recently in 
the Record, only fetch £2 15s., £2, and £2 2s. respectively. How is 
this ? Did not two specimens, only " probably " from Mr. Raddon, and 
with I dare not say how much of the mists of antiquity surrounding 
them, produce £G l(?s. 6d. and £(> 6s. per specimen? "Comparisons 
are odorous," says a smelly individual near me. At any rate, " eu- 
phorbiae " evidently improves with age, and when I'm properly 
tempted, as I'm getting very likely to be, I'll make mine as musty as 
possible. The strange abortion of Abraxas (jrosstdariata jjroduces 22s., 
but as there are no other rarities in the collection no other high j^rices 
are obtained. Well, this is very sleepy work ! Does it pay to make a 
collection of British insects where almost every lot j^roduces on an 
average from Id. to 2d. a bug? I must make a collection for the 
purpose of selling it soon, but shall I make it of rarities or good honest 
British insects ? What am I thinking about ? " Lead me not into 
temptation " is my cry again, as I discover the train of thought into 
which I am falling. '' Lead me not into temptation," I mutter again, 
as I pass out into the pleasant afternoon sunshine. The sun and fresh 
air revive me. I'll make no collection at all. I'll just do as I always 
have done, watch the fruits of Nature's handiwork, as exemplified in 
these the most beautiful of her creatures, enough to know that there 
is more joy therein than in the greedy striving of the sale-room world. 
Never again will I so unsettle my mind, never again come in contact 
with those who cheat and those who delight in being cheated. Absence 
is certainly the best way to avoid being led into temptation. I have 
received a liberal education in these two visits, and as some wise man 
says that "Enough is as good as a feast," I'll take great care that I 
receive no more. Truly this is collecting of a kind. Who are the 
worse ? Those who struggle against temptation and fall, or those who 
lead their poorer brethren into temptation ? I do not know : both 
l)erhaps are e(j[ually bad, and one feels almost tem2:)ted to imagine, from 
the keen delight that the gulled ones take in being gulled, that after 
all less blame should fall on those who gull. 



Bv A. J. HODGES. 

A bright and clear morning ushers in the month of February, and as I 
sit in my stud}' the genial rays of the thrice welcome sun awake, from 
their hybernation, tlu)se j)leasurable anticipations of the approaching 
season, in which one is apt to let fancy run wild amid the scenes of the 
])ast, gilding them with a halo of the unknown possibilities of the future. 
Who would say that in the indulgence of these healthy and excusable 
anticipations, we have not ample justification in the immediate past, as 
in tlie glorious annals of tlie early days, of the pursuit of that most 
practical aspect of our favourite science of Entomology, "tlie mere 
collecting " ? 

And while the natural instincts of every Englishman for that active 
exercise, which is so prominent a feature in successful collecting, retain 
their present pre-eminence, so long will " field-work " (a modern 
euphemism for " collecting ") command the hearty support of that 
immense majority of more or less leisured collectors, whose enthusiasm 



42 'THE KNTOIMOLOOISt's T5K00RD. 

is the backbone of all entomological enteri^rise, and will awake, I doubt 
not, the secret sympath,y of even our most advanced Scientists (a 
Capital S, Mr. Printer, plense.J 

Who would have dared predict, when the first captures of single 
specimens of Flmia monefa were recorded in 1890 from Emsworth 
(Hants), Tunbridge Wells and Reading, with scanty additional records 
the next year from the same and neighbouring localities, that in 1893, 
as many as thirty-three specimens would be bred from larvae collected 
off monkshood (Aconitum naj^ellm) in May by one gentleman alone ? 
Who would give up hopes that any of our earlier prizes may not again 
occur when in the pages of an esteemed contemporary the opinion is 
expressed, bj' a writer whose bond fides and knowledge are alike beyond 
criticism; that the long lost Gli/phifiia crenata needs but " careful, 
persevering and intelligent search" to be again added to our list of 
modern captures, even after the interval (in this instance) of forty 
years. A collector, of the past generation, now resident in Liverpool, 
and Avell-known for his capabilities of sincerity in friendship and 
bitterness in hatred, the latter occasionally finding relief in verse (I 
had ahnost said, poetry) expresses in his usual energetic manner that 
the only reason why Lasiocamjm ilicifolla does not figure now in the 
captures from Cannock Chase, is the sad decadence exhibited by the 
" so-called collectors " of to-day. A touching compliment to the con- 
fidence in this gentleman's sincerity was paid by the joint owner of the 
writer's " Edd^'stone," when arrangements were almost completed for 
the transference of that powerful illuminant to the wilds of Cannock. 
A possibly more convincing case in point may be found in Notodonta 
hicolor, which has undoubtedly been re-discovered in Kerry, in S.W. 
Ireland, its claims to a residence in the British Islands having been 
dormant for over a quarter of a century, since it had last been captured 
at Burnt Wood, in Staffs, (a spot now a household Avord in the mouths 
of all collectors through this one species alone) or since last reported 
from that lovely country, where it has presumably survived in retire- 
ment during this long interval. We might multiply instances, but 
the sun is shining, the season advancing, and the swelling Ijuds of the 
sallows announce to us the near approach of that period when the 
faithful lantern, the companion of many a dark night's excursions, the 
trusty net, worth many a more modern " improvement," and the 
thousand and one off-shoots from these main stays of the lepidopteriat, 
must be l)rought out and prepared for action. 

Before we leave the comparative leisure of the winter season, we 
Avould linger awhile among the many pleasant recollections of the 
past few months, for when the active season commences, meditation 
and di>!cursiveness are l)oth alike at a discount, and the i)leasant and 
chatty letters from correspondents innumerable, which have brightened 
many a l)usy morning, will have dwindled to that cold formality in 
which " brevity " is certainly the only " Avit." Who can not recall 
the pleasant evenings Avhen, in friendly discussion Avith some congenial 
spirit, the open cabinet becomes seemingly a magic chamber, and tlie 
series after series of " specimens " become, as it Avere, instinct witli 
life ; hoAv these feAv, too few, Nonaijria cannae recall the sunny Norfolk 
Broads Avith their waving beds of the great Heed Mace {Tuphalatifolia) 
and the Aveary hunting for stems in Avliich the larva had made its last 
home ; hoAV that fine series of Semi .«i/^//f^<///'or»i/s Ijrings back vividly the 



llETROSl'EOTS ANb FORECASTS. 43 

long days spent at Til*i,ate Forest, with the tedioixs searching in the 
thick bushy suckers at the foot of the akiers for traces of the ravages 
of the larva ; whilst those fine Nonagria concolor can only recall the 
generosity of a well-known entomologist, together with a feeling of 
surprise at the way in which its locality and successful working can 
for so long past have been preserved a mystery. 

How many are the friendships, commenced with the most casunl 
acquaintance in the field, that are cemented during these winter months 
and that bear fruit in due season, in the true desire to be of mutual 
assistance in promoting both the growth of the collection and the 
pleasure of collecting, and that act as the only check ujDon tlie vast 
and elaborate systems of exchange that grow up around us. It is 
worth recollecting too, the anticipations with which a precious parcel 
from some friend whom it were treason to call a "correspondent" 
merely, is unswathed from its ample packing ; anticipations, the pleasure 
of whose fulfilment can only be excelled by that of being in the proud 
position of knovving some " desideratum " which will gladden the heart 
of the owner of the box on its safe return. Surely this experience will 
survive the rude shock of the disappointment sometimes caused by the 
greed or incapacity, or even worse, of those whose advertisements 
sometimes tinwittingl}^ obtain publicit}', whilst it is those who, un- 
fortified by these pleasant recollections, can only be pitied for offering 
gratuitous insult to those whose true assistance in promoting the best 
interests of entomology, is unavoidably occasionally abused by design. 

It is during such social moments, when friend opens his heart to 
friend, that the secret of some locality concealed, jDossibly for j-ears, is 
revealed, and arrangements are made it may be, for a midsummer trip 
to Braemar, for Zi/gaena exulans, in its elevated home, necessitating a 
2,500-ft. climb, or to the Isle of Man, where, along its jDrettily indented 
rocky coasts, in more or less inaccessible spots, among the flowering 
bladder-camjiion (Sileiie intlata), the quick-flying Diantlioecia caesia 
may be netted in June, and the still rarer Lithosia cauiola occurs a few 
weeks later. In this pleasant chat, with which the long winter 
evenings are beguiled, many a hint lias l)een given and taken, the 
recollection of which, when the advancing season has given a chance 
for its trial, has awakened a feeling of gratitude to the more advanced 
collector who thus kindly places his exi^erience at the dis]30sal of the 
tyro. 

When at last the cabinets are closed and the dujjlicates freely over- 
hauled, who is there that cannot afford a hearty laugh, whilst the fire 
blazes cheerfully and the chairs are drawn closer, at those undoubtedly 
trying exjjeriences, of which the past season is sure to have contributed 
its share, to the most experienced and fortunate collector ? We recol- 
lect with a momentary shudder, that early, too early, fortnight during 
May and June, in Fen Land, when the N.E. wind blew with a keenness 
worthy of January, or when on stiller evenings the fog rose, white and 
opaque, damping everything l)ut the spirits (animal not ardent), when 
the sheet, soaked to transparency, Aveighed its poles so heavily into 
the yielding soil as to gradually sink to earth, leaving tlie light aloft, 
sole illuminant of the marshy and weird wastes. 

What merriment is provoked by the visions of two drenched 
figures battling with a " South- Wester " on cliffs 600-ft. above the 
sea, the scud flying wildly, l)ut the moths, alas I more deterred by the 



44 'tub ENTOMOtiOGlST^S RECdlili. 

weather than their would-be captors, who succeed in lighting their 
lanterns only to see them, like their hopes, suddenly extinguished. 

Again, it is the perfection of summer weather, hot and glaring, 
whilst in the depths of a forest far from any hostelry, a part}' have been 
engaged for hours, netting Neineohins Iticina, and other irritatingly actiA'e 
day-fliers. The inner man has not been forgotten, and a hamper con- 
tains li(piid and solid refreshment ; the halt is called, and the parched 
throats revert instinctively to the " liquids," when alas, a stumble I and 
ale, sherry, water and milk, mingle their streams and " run to earth." 
We can laugh now, with our tumblers at our elbows, but it was no 
laughing matter then. In such reminiscences we lose our too aggressive 
individualism, and learn to respect in one another those little persoii- 
alities which oft-times bristle upon us l)rothers of the net, as *' spines 
on fi-etful caterpillar." 

(To he continued.) 



guRRENT NOTES. 

Many of our su1)scribers will learn wntli regret that Mr. T. Henderson, 
of Glasgow, died on December 11th, 1893. As a generous correspon- 
dent and keen tield-naturalist, he will be missed by many, and it is with 
genuine regret and a remembrance of many jiast kindnesses, that we 
ourselves mourn his loss. 

Dr. Knaggs recommends methylated ether as a cure for grease in 
moths. He suggests the subjection of greasy insects to repeated baths 
until the grease is soaked out. It is a cheaper fluid than benzine and, 
according to those who have since tried it, much more effectual. We 
always, after soaking our specimens, bed them on magTiesia ; then, 
whilst wet, we put more magnesia on them, and leave them there a 
short time, when most of the magnesia falls or nuiy be bloAvn from the 
scales. A camel-hair brush will at once remove refractory particles. 

The January number of The Canadian Entomoluyint, gives a first- 
class portrait of the Editor, the liev. C. J. S. Bethune, whilst an ode by 
our valued contributor Mr. A. K. Grote, is printed in honour of the 
quarter-centenary of our excellent contem^torary. 

There is a very old and quaint saying which shows a certain con- 
nection between one's maternal grandparent and the power -of sucking- 
eggs. Of course, this is a very rude saying, l)ut we were reminded of 
its triteness when we saw in a contemporary that Mr. Frohawk Avas 
giving lessons to Dr. Chapman on " IIow Epiiwphele ianira pupates." 
Such a teacher I Such a scholar ! 

Hybernia de/oJiaria was very abundant in the autumn of 1893, at 
Victoria, in Vancouver Island. It is really marvellous what a vast 
range some of our species with apterous females have. Mr. Danby 
writes of the moths in Vancouver Island : — " The markings of the males 
vary vei'y much ; I have a series of six which are wonderfully unlike 
each other ; in fact, H. defoliaria varies in its markings just as much as 
C. bruceata or E. soniinaria do, and some are beautiful by the very 
reason of their wonderful contrast to the type. While one has the 
bauds nearly Idack. another has apparently no median band, but is 
thoroughly suffused." Mr. J. Fletcher, of Ottawa, adds to Mr. Danby's 
note : — " I believe the British Columbian insect to be identical with the 



PRACTICAL HINTS. 



is 



English, as I can Unci no difference between eitlier the moths or the 
caterpillars." 

Mr. Eustace Bankes, with his eagle eye, has determined that Litho- 
coUetis trigiitti'lla is only a variety of L. fai/ineUa. 'J^he original 
description was based on a siiKjle specimen taken by Mr. J. W. Douglas 
at Sandei'stead. No one regretted more than did Mr. Stainton in his 
later years these early descriptions made from single specimens, and 
vet, even now, we find collectors, who are field-naturalists and not 
students, occasionally naming species from two or three specimens, 
without reference even to the Continental figures and descriptions of 
tlie allied non-Britisli species in the same genus. 

The cheap three-penny edition of " The Accentuated List " to 
which Capt. Thompson alludes in his paper, can still be obtained of 
Messrs^. Gurney and Jackson, 1, Paternoster Kow. Will not our 
present-day University entomologists prepare a new edition, in which 
the mail}' additional names, both generic and trivial, which have ob- 
tained currency since 1859, should l)e included, and from which we 
might obtain guidance, as to the correct accentuation of the sub-family 
(inn) and tribe {idi) names ? 

One of the most amusing incidents that has occurred at our London 
Ent. Societies lately, took place at the City of London meeting on 
Fel). 6th. It was practically a vote on Mr. Erohawk's power of eye- 
sight, as to whctlier certain male varieties of Argyunis jxiphki, belonging 
to Mr. J. A. Clark, had, or had not, a green tint round the pale spots 
present on the hind wings. Nineteen members were present, and voted 
with perfect unanimity against Mr. Erohawk, everyone being able to 
.see the colour. We condole most sincerely with Mr. Erohawk on this 
adverse judgment. 



Practical hints. 

Hoartnia repaaddta is a very interesting species to breed; the lai'vse 
may be found, on mild evenings in early spring, feeding on all sorts of 
low-growing plants; ivy, honeysuckle and bramble seem to be the 
favourite food-plants hereabouts. — J. Mason, Clevedon. January 12th, 
1894. 

The best time to capture Mehmthid rnhiijinata {hicolurata) is about 
an hour before sunset, when I find it on the wing in this neighbourhood 
among alders. — J. Einlay, Meldon Park, Morpeth. January 2d(h, 1894. 

In Epping Eorest 31. bicolorafa does not fiy until sunset, l)ut may 
be beaten out of blackthorn in crowds during the afternoon. — E. J. 
BucKELL, Canonbury. 



ARIATION. 



BoAKMiA ifEPANDATA var. coNVEKSAKTA. — Thc Specimens of this 
variety taken at liglit on June 10th, 1893, by Mr. Vivian at (41anafon, 
Port Talbot in Soutli Wales, are remarkable in that their grouiul colour 
is of a much purer white than is the case with specimens from any other 
district which 1 have seen. Mr. Moberly writing of these specimens 



46 THE ENTOBIOLOGIST S KECOUl). 

says : — " 1 have in my collection New Forest specimens of that variety 
and also one which I took near Totnes, but none of them have the white 
colour so distinct as in his specimen." Mr. Mason, of Clevedon, 
writes : — " I take var. conversaria similar to Mr. Vivian's specimens in 
this locality, in fact I bred a nice series last summer from larvag 
collected in the early spring, the average proportion of conversaria 
being about one in twenty-. I believe those larva^ which were fed 
exclusively on ivy produced the largest percentage. At the same time 
I bred two specimens much darker than the ordinary type form, and 
very similar to examples received from the Raunoch district." Mr. 
Sydney Webb writes :— "The concersaria from the West always seem 
to be of a purer white and black than those from other places, tlie dark 
hind margin of one of Mr. Vivian's specimens makes it in particular a 
lovely example." — J. W. Tutt, Westcombe Hill. January 31sf, 1894. 

SOiME KEMAKIvS HAVING SPECIAL REFERENCE TO VARIETIES OF ArGYNNIS 

I'APHiA. — Mr. Frohawk occasionally delights in running his head against 
a brick wall, although unfortunately the operation does not seem to 
hurt him ; tliis time he has run amuck at an off-hand statement of mine 
concerning Ar(j>innis paphia. From the warmth lie exhibits, one would 
think that he alone has any personal interest in A. paplda, and that no one 
Itul himself and Mr. ('arpenter ought to have any of its varieties. 
Taking the matters at issue seriatim let us see what they amount to : — 
(1). Mr. Frohawk states that at a meeting of the South London 
Entomological Society on October 12th, " Mr. J. H. Carpenter exhibited 
a very fine series of white-spotted forms of A. paphia. numbering some 
three dozen specimens ; Mr. Tutt then alluded to Mr. Clark's ' remark- 
ably fine series ' of white-spotted forms, stating that many of them 
had patches of the green colouring of tlie var. calesina rej^resented in 
both sexes " (Entom., p. 69). I find on turning to the South London 
Entom. Society's report for October 12th, that I am reported by Mr. 
Williams as follows : — " Mr. Tutt remarked that this pale-spotted form 
was frecpiently tinted Avith green as in var. valezina, more especially the 
females " (Record, iv., p. 3Uo). Turning to the original report of the City 
of London Entomological Society's meeting, at which the exhibition was 
made, Mr. Battley's report reads : — "Mr. Clark exhibited . . . Aryi/nnis 
paphia witli its var. valezina and intermediate forms. With regard to 
tlie vars. of .4. paphia, Mr. Tutt remarked that several of the males 
were distinctly green on certain portions of the hind wings, and that 
frequently these specimens were those which developed j^ale spots both 
on the fore and hind wings, thus showing a double tendency towards 
var. calezina, the area around the pale spot being the first to become 
green " (Eut. Becord, iv., p. 259). These remarks were made with a very 
long series of Argijnnis pajjhia before me, occupying one side (at least) of 
a very large store box and I believe a part of the other side ; they were 
hona fide conclusions drawn from the specimens before my eyes when 
being exhibited at a full meeting of the Society, and can be vouched 
for l)y every lepidojjterist in the room ; and because Mr. Chirk has been 
kind enough to show Mr. Frohawk eight specimens, six males and two 
females, and these did not happen to show the particular phase of varia- 
tion to which I carefully and at length drew attention at the meeting, 
Mr. Frohawk wants to know wliat reason I have for making " such an 
erroneous assertion " as he styles it. He is entirely at fault. Mr. 
Clark exhibited a long series of such forms and of the accuracy of my 



VAKIATTOK. 47 

conclusion, undoubtedly Dr. Buckell, Mr. Battley and others could 
speak if there were need (which indeed there is not) ; what has become 
of the remainder of the exhibit is Mr. Clark's business, but Mr. 
Frohawk must not lose his head nor make himself childishly ridiculous 
over my bona fides. I do not suppose that, Avith sucli a series as Mr. 
Clark had, he would keep the whole for himself, and I su])pose that 
some of the specimens have been distributed. j\ly statement is beyond 
cavil, and I do not feel inclined to pry into Mr. Clark's business as he 
evidently showed Messrs. Frohawk and Carpenter all he cared to, and if 
they went to him in the same spirit as Mr. Frohawk has shoAvn in his 
note, I am not surprised that they did not see the series even if Mr. 
Clark should have happened to have kept them. With Mr. Clark's 
series vividly in my mind when I ins]iected Mr. Carjienter's, the latter 
looked a most uninteresting lot. 

(2). Mr. Frohawk further writes : — " When I exhibited the speci- 
mens of a second emergence of A. paphia .... Mr. Tutt stated that 
he had lately seen examples of a second brood of A. paphia in the 
collection of Mr. J. A. Clark, who had obtained tliem from the New 
Forest during the autumn." This is nearly but not (piite the truth. 
In the report of the meeting {Ent. Record, vol. iv., p. 306) Mr. Turner 
reports : — " Mr. Tutt remarked that he had seen specimens of a second 
brood of A. papltia and had bred second broods of Vanefisa urticae, V. 
atalanta, V. in and V. c-album." Now this very fairly states what I 
did say, l)ut in a desiiltory conversation canned on across pai't of the 
room and when I was busy talking with a friend, Mr. Frohawk asked 
me where I had seen them and I immediately told him "at a recent 
City of London uieeting," and in answer to another query I remarked 
that they might have been, or most probably were, Mr. Clark's. This is 
all I rememlier. Some small specimens of .1. paphia were exhibited 
and these were in some way connected with remarks about a second 
brood. Mr. Frohawk seeks to bind me down to an oif-hand statement 
that was only given as such and simply as an attempt to give a courteous 
reply to a (question qn which I had given l)ut a passing thought, and 
which to me has no real scientific value. To be the first to bi'eed 
an odd autumnal specimen seems to be quite an important scientific 
feat. Well ! So be it ! Mr. Frohawk should not leave his " painting " 
for " mud throwing " as it does not add eclat to his artistic powers, nor 
should he set himself up as an authority on my statements or on my 
jDOwer of eyesight. — J. W. Tutt. [Since the above was in type, the 
specimens shown to Mr. Frohawk by Mr. Clark have Ijeen exhibited at 
the City of London Entomological Society's meeting, and it appears 
that he really did see the green-tinted specimens. Owing to Mr. Fro- 
hawk's serious statements a vote (as to whether the males showed a 
green tint or not) was taken. As tlae vote was unanimous against Mr. 
Frohawk, perhaps it will b(> more charital)le to say that Mr. P^-ohawk 
Avould not see what ever}^ one else can see. 'J'hough why ? — Eu.J 

VARi.vnoN IN Irish Lepiuoptkra. — The following are the only 
noticeable variations which I have met with here : — Pieris brassicae, J 
of spring lirood very large ; P. rapae, 4 $ of a yellow tint ; P. napi, 
some (J s spotless, some Js very dark; Coenoni/mpha pamphilns, some 
almost spotless ; Hepialm relleda var. carnnn and intermediates ; Thya- 
ti/ra baiiK, 3 sjiecimens with tlie s])ots ]>rown instead of rosy, the t3'pe 
also occurs here ; Xylophat^ia pulyudon, some quite black, others as 



48 THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 

lio-ht as any that I have seen in the South of England, others inter- 
mediate ; Agriopis aprilina, 6 specimens (from 100 dug pupje) with the 
space between the base of the wing and the 1st line almost clear. — 
(Cai'T.) E. W. Brown, Enniskillen. 

Variation in Lithomia solidaginis — I spent two or three days early 
in Auo-ust in the wild district near Kindnocout, and observed that the 
specimens of Lithoiiiin solidaginis which occur there closely resemble 
the Yorksliire form, but are quite distinct from the form that I take on 
Cannock Chase. — (Rkv.) C. F. Thornewill, Burton-on-Trent. 

Errata. — Page 12, line 41. — For "females" read "males" and for 
"small" read "large." Page 12, line 43. For " eschari '' read 



es( 



hcrij 



OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

I'he result of a " Qratuitous Offer." 

I was induced recently to try the experiment of making a gratuitous 
distribution of my s]iare duplicates for two reasons ; firstly, because of 
my dislike of the bargaining and huckstering inseparable from the ex- 
change system ; and secondly, from a desire to adopt a method wliich 
was not uncommon in the days of the old masters in entomology, a race 
now i)assed away "to that bourne whence no traveller returns" (I 
allude to such men as Stainton, Newman, Westwood, Doubleday, 
Shepherd, Janson, and a host of others, for whose successors we look in 
vain) ; it may be of interest to readers of this journal to learn the 
result of my experience. 

My main idea was to offer an opportunity of filling blanks in their 
cabinets, to those younger lepidopterists who lived in districts where 
chalk insects are not found, by placing them in possession of 
examples of those insects ; and, in order to prevent disappointments, I 
requested that written applications should precede the despatch of boxes. 
I may here parenthetically state, that I had several hundreds of dupli- 
cates' which I desired to place in the cabinets of others. 

Before I had even seen the notice in the Journal, I received several 
applications ; one from a gentleman with a particularly Hebrew-sounding 
patronymic resident near London, who sent me a post-card informing 
me that a box was coming by the next post in order that he might 
secure a " fair share of my superfluities." This gentleman evidently 
considered that I was holding a sort of entomological scramble, and that it 
was a case of " first come, first served." It appeared from his letter 
that he required the insects to add to a collection already made by liis 
son. Why did he not collect them for himself? 

There followed, during the next few days, a perfect storm of letters, 
post-cards, and even boxes. One gentleman incpiired if he should send 
a store box (he obligingly gave me the precise dimensions), into 
which, 1 could with ease, have packed three or four hundred insects ; 
while several applicants asked for 20 or 30 of a species, to renew, or 
increase their series. It occurs to me that these gentlemen should have 
endeavoured to obtain a supply of such dimensions through the medium 
of exchange ; a gratuitous offer could hardly be intended to apply 
to them. Some, forgetful of the proverbial gift horse, stipulated that 



NOTES ON L'OLliECTlN(i, ETC. 49 

the insects should be on pins of a particular size or on black pins. 
Some, I am sorry to say only a very few, offered to make some return ; in 
the majority of instances the species offered were those described in the 
Dfannnl as " common everywhere." Nevertheless, I was greatly obliged 
by their offers, and in one or two instances was glad to avail myself 
of them. 

And now a word as to the boxes sent. These were a very mixed 
lot, the " common or garden " cigar box occupying a prominent position. 
It will not be out of place, perhaps, for me to remind your younger 
readers, that such a vehicle, with an address laliel stuck on the top, and 
without a shred of packing, offers an opportunity too good to be lost, 
to the Post Office officials, to " punch the l)ag." lu several instances, the in- 
tegrity of the boxes had suffered from their treatment, they being more or 
less smashed in ; in one case, the whole concern was broken up ; in 
another, some insects, which were being sent to me, were reduced to such 
a condition, that I was half inclined to suppose that the sender, having a 
laudable desire to prevent their receiving any farther injury whilst 
jjassing through the post, treated them to a few turns in a coffee mill 
before despatching them ; the insects, wings, thoraces, abdomens, legs, 
etc., being reduced to a fine powder. 

And now for the moral. Whilst some of the letters received came 
undoubtedly from gentlemen of education, with whose modest require- 
ments I had great pleasure in complying, I am, with regret, compelled 
to say, that 1 fear the majority of those who wrote to me, were of the 
genus "grab." Some of the former I hope to be able to supply with 
additional insects in the autumn of 1894 ; for even my long rows of 
duplicates were, in several cases, too short to enable me to supjjly 
every one. To the latter I would say, " Amend your ways, and re- 
member the saying relative to the assistance rendered to those who 
help themselves. 

My boxes are now practically empty, but after my recent experience, 
I shall hesitate before I undertake to collect and preserve any consider- 
able number of insects for another year's indiscriminate and gratuitous 
distribution. — Arthur Lovell Keays, Upwood Tower, Caterham 
Valley. 

Note by the Editor. — The results of our correspondent's " gra- 
tuitous offer " do not come as a surprise to me, although, in themselves, 
unsatisfactory enough. For half-a-century or more, those who have 
tried the effects of indiscriminate gratuitous distribution have told the 
same sorry story, and have, more or less, deduced the same moral. 
Further, the lesson which they have learned they have applied to their 
practice, and have ventured no more in the same direction. But some of 
our correspondent's generalisations will not hold water. Probably two of 
the " old school " to which our correspondent refers, " Stainton and 
Doubleday," were of so entirely generous a natui'e, that many un- 
deserving appeals met with a ready response from them but I doubt 
whether even they, after a little experience, ever went in f(U- indiscri- 
minate distribution, although, to get an introduction through a mutual 
friend, was sufficient for them to become willing benefactors. But it is 
to tlie phrase "a race now passed away," that I take most exception. 
This shows that our correspondent is not at all an fait with British 
entomologists, for I could mention half-a-dozen living lepidopterists 
who give away freely year by year a greater number of insects than 



50 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S KECORl). 



did any of those gciitlumuii lueutioiiud by Lim at uuy time iii tlieir 
careers ; and tins, in spite of the fact that in the " good okl days " books 
were scarce, and there was a class of people who Avere really thankful 
to these benevolent gentlemen for their charity (in the form of named 
'*■ tj^pes "), but who would now scorn to be recipients of their bounty. 
I refer here to the better educated collectors Avho, Avith the text-books 
now published, can name their own captures, but avIio, before tlie days 
of The Manual and '* NeAvman," were entirely at the mercy of loosely- 
worded Latin descriptions, unless they could afford Humphrey and 
Westwood's expensiA-e Avork. Tlie adA-ent of books has made such 
Avholesale generosity less necessary, and the particular phase of it to 
which I have just alluded, al)Solutely unnecessary; but this does not 
show that the generous-minded lepidoi)terist is not as keen as ever in 
helping those Avho really want material for scientific study and investi- 
gation. As for giving types of butterflies to those people Avho pretend 
to study entomology but are too mean to l)uy a shilling text-l)Ook and find 
out the names of their captures for themseh-es, well, we are tliankful that 
the good old times are altered, and that people have to look up the matter 
for themselves. To Avant types of well-defined species such as exist among 
Sphiixjidae and Sesiklar, is ridiculous ; the species are clearly defined in 
the A'ery cheapest text-books, and such an application only shoAvs the 
peeping out of " grab " referred to below. Let beginners show that they 
have some grit in them, b}^ Avorking the si)ecies up for themselves, and 
let them possess their souls in patience until their zeal leads them to 
success. Tlie use of " types" of a fcAv of the species of Leucania and 
Eupithecia, or of some of the smaller fry, is permissilile, as there is a 
real difiiculty in identifying some of these with certainty from de- 
scriptions. That the generosity, which gaA-e aAvay so-called " types " 
and encouraged laziness, has died out, is a cause for much thankfulness. 
We may certainly have fewer so-called entomologists, but those Ave 
ha\'e are a better lot. That generosit}^ in lepidopterists has not abated 
one iota, I can affirm from my own knoAvledge. ProbalJy no one, 
during the last fcAv years, has attempted more Avork re([uiring abundant 
material than myself. The British Noctnae and their Varieties is enough 
to proA'e my point. Dui'ing the three years Avhich T spent over that 
work, I had some two thousand s})eciniens in the finest condition, some of 
great rarity, and all of tlie utmost service as representing species from 
localities Avhich I had not Avoi'ked, giA'en me freely, Avithout ho|)e oi a 
return. Three or four thousand more were sent to me in exchange for 
what I could spare ; I did my best, Avhich I am afraid Avas only a bad 
"best," but no one complained of it. Last year I asked for material 
connected Avith Ih'itish Imtterfiies, my aim being to get out some 
scientific j^articulars relating to this group, Avith the stated intention of 
publication. One-half the BritisJi butterfiies Avere sent to me in one or 
other of the earlier stages, and some gentlemen must Iuiac spent a con- 
siderable sum of money, as avcII as putting themselves to inconvenience, 
in supplying my Avants. I maintain, therefore, that the generous race 
of entomologists has not passed aAvay. The adA'anco of education has 
directed their generosity into other channels, through Avhicli it has 
aided in the ju'oduction of scientific Avork, rather than in encouraging 
another feather-bed collector or tAvo to make a collection, which he will 
inspect through £. s. d. spectacles, and at Avhich he will onl}' glance 
with satisfaction, Avhen he can determine that he has made it at a i)rofit 
based on the gidlibility of his friends (?) and correspondents. 



NOTES ON COLLECTING, ETC. 61 

There is only one other ])oint iu uur eurrcfspoudeiit's letter which I 
would discuss, ;uid that is, his "genus 'grab.'" I have touched on it 
above, but is it not really the natural outcome of the misiilaced generosity 
which our friend so much dejilores, or has it not a still deeper origin 
situated deep down in our national life ? Education, so-called, has the 
tendency at the present time to resolve itself into a })rocess of driving 
into students the greatest ijossible amount of information in the shortest 
possible time. The digestion and assimilation of the mental food are 
of no consequence ; superficial results are the only things aimed at. 
Everything is to be made easy ; our teachers have to simplify, dilute 
and pour in knowledge ready for use ; we, the students, have only to 
imbibe as mucli of it as possible. Not an effort do we put forth. The 
student leaves school ; he becomes say, a lejiidopterist ; immediately he 
goes off to some well-known man, taking his bugs to be named, because, 
forsooth, it Avould take too long to search out their names for himself. 
The mental training thus given is nil. There is a short cut, and the 
young student (?) takes it as a matter of course, thinking little and 
caring less Avhat trouble he is putting his mentor to. Besides, why 
should he get a book? It is sixpence or a shilling saved if he can 
borrow it, and this leads ns straight to the '' grab " development. The 
first part of our education is a sort of sucking-in or rather soaking-up 
l)rocess, in which the student, more or less, resembles a sponge. When 
this has reached a certain point the second begins, and may be summarised 
in the one word "grab." (.)ur social system demands" gTab." Those 
who get the largest amount of this world's goods, " grab." Englishmen 
are noted the wide world over for their pushing capacity ; in other Avords, 
for their " grab." Why, then, should our correspondent complain at 
what has ])een elevated into a national virtue, or su])pose, that wliat are 
the exigencies of one situation, will bo altered by the individual when 
his energy is directed into another channel. The man who never buys a 
Avork because he can Ijorrow it, he, who never takes in a magazine because 
a friend will lend it, he, who never subscribes to a Society because he can- 
not regularly attend the meetings, he, who Avill help in no movement 
having the general advance of our science as its object because he is 
not an active participator, are all equally governed by " grab." But to 
suppose that such men are naturalists or liave even the instinct of one. 
Ugh ! It makes one Avho revels in the sunshine, who delights in fields 
and flowers, shudder. Poverty is their excuse but it is a lame one, as 
those can vouch who know Avhat Avork s(jme really })00r men do. 

With the rest of our correspondent's article I (cordially agree, l)ut to 
suppose that generosity is dead amongst entomologists, Avill not do. 
My Avider experience teaches me a A'ery different lesson. Xature still 
has her devotees, ricli and poor, Avho loA-e her for her oAvn sake, and 
Avho attempt to read her secrets, in spite of the parody on tlie students 
of Nature, Avhich the genus " grab " represents. — J. W. Tutt. 

Notes Relating to the Past Season. 

Sheeriie.ss and Rochester. — A. nice series of Poijonus Inridipenni's Avas 
taken at Sheerness in August. Coleo})tera were, on the Avhole, scarce 
in the neighbourhood of Rochester, — S. Kipping, HolsAvorthy, Devon, 
Jamiary 20th, 1894. 

Oxon, Bucks (ind Somerset. — Ayrolia obxcnra (rartda) first appeared 



56 tHE tei^TOMOLOGIST^S KECO&fi. 

on May 28tb, and on June 3rd was quite common. Altogether I and 
my two lads captured 200 fine specimens. A second brood api^eared 
in the middle of iVugust but was less numerous than the earlier brood. 
I captured Vanessa jjoh/cMoros at sugar in my garden, and met with 
Meh'taea artemis in small uumbei's on the top of the chalk hills, a strange 
place for this butterfly ; I presume, however, that it feeds on the scabious, 
which is plentiful there. I met with single specimens of Melananfia 
(jalafhaea near Wendover, and on several occasions at Chinnor ; the 
capture of solitary specimens of gregarious species seems to me worth 
recording. Pantphila comma was more abundant that I had ever previously 
noticed it ; it evidently has a wide range in both Oxon and Bucks. In 
the latter county I observed Tno geri/on in thousands during May ; they 
were accomjjanied by Lijcaena minima, which in one place was in 
immense profusion. Mameslra ahjecta, occurred sparingly at sugar ; I 
captured it in my own garden. Colias ednsa was very common at 
Orchard Woods, Taunton, in August, and at tlie same place I took 
several Thechi betnlae at rest upon blackthorn hedges. — A. J. Spili-er, 
Helston. 

Soutliampton. — After a still, hot day in June, at 10.45 p.m., I 
placed an ordinary duplex lamp in a room on the first floor of a liouse 
in the outskirts of this town, which was a long Ava^' from any wood or 
real country, and then threw up the window. Returning at 11. lo 
p.m. I found that moths had already begun to arrive, and for the next 
two hours the}^ gave me plenty of employment. I captured 36 speci- 
mens, representing the following species : — Lcmania 2>allens, Caradrina, 
cubicularis (qiiadripiinctata), Hccatera serena, ApJecta adoena (1), Hadena 
denfina, H. chenopodii (trifolii), H. oleracea, Cncullia uinbratica, rinsia 
chri/sitis, Acididia imitaria, A. aversata, Enpitliexia pumilata, Coremia 
unidentaria, Cidaria dotata (associata), CJiesias ohliquaria (rufata) 1. — J. 
C. MoBEULY, 9, Rockstone Place, Southampton. Jannanj 2dth, 1894. 

Dorking. — On Oct. 2nd, 1893, I was fortunate enough to ca})ture a 
good specimen of Lencaiiia alhipuacta at ivy ; the date is noteworthy, 
as it is six to eight weeks later than those of the captures recorded by 
Mr. Hodges and Mr. Prout {Eat. Bee, vol. iv., pp. 253 and 279). I 
may say that Mr. Hodges has seen and identified my specimen. — Thos. 
W. King, Dorking. 

Kings Lynn. — I took 4 sjDecimens of Halonota ravulana last year, 
as against 3 in 1892. — E. A. Atmore, King's Lynn. Januarij, 1894. 

CoLEoPTERA AT IpswiuH IN 1893. — The drought of tlie past season 
affected Coleo})tera to a much less extent than was the case with Lepi- 
doptera. Seeing this would probably be the case, I decided to collect 
the latter during the hours of darkness only and so devote the whole 
of the daylight to the pursuit of the former. There is little doubt 
that the number of British coleopterists is scarcelj' half* that of our 
lepidopterists, but why this should be the case is not easy to determine. 
I have never in any one year taken more than 950 specimens (254 
species) of Lepidoptera, and that was many years ago, Avhen I was a 
beginner and '• everything was rare ; " whilst in 1893, 1 captured 1,352 
specimens (350 s^jecies) of Coleoptera. The following record of my 

* This appears to be a very high estimate, if we may judge from the 
proportionate number of records made respectively by coleopterists and 
lepidopterists. — Ed. 



NOTES ON COTiLEOTING, ETC. 53- 

"battles" will give some idea of the facilities with which beetles may 
be obtained, and of the situations in which they may be found by the 
merest tyro and novice at the art. 

Commencing operations about Jan. 28th, I took, within a ten-mile 
radius of Ipswich (wliich locality is to be understood as indicated 
tliroughout this paper when no other is mentioned), chiefly at the base 
of large poplars, oaks and elms, where they may readily be turned up 
at the roots of the grass by the ever-useful garden trowel, the follow- 
ing : — Carahus violacem, Nehria brevicolh's, Calathm melanocephahis, 
Fferostichns madidus, P. nigrita, Amaru bifrons, Oci/pus olens, and the 
remains of Lucaims cerims ^ . 

February was, for the most part, wet and foggy ; conditions not 
favourable to pupa-digging, nor early coleopterising which involves 
much the same kind of work ; however, still working the " unconscious " 
trees, as Rev. Joseph Greene terms them, I met with very fair success, 
turning ujj : —Carahus granvlatus, Clivina fosHor, Pristonydms suhcijaneus, 
Fterostifihis vnhiaris, F. inaequalis, Amara curta, Harpalus atenuattis, 
Bemhidium quadriiuaculatwn , Hydroporuii palnstris, Hydrohius fuscipes, 
Creophilus maxUlosui^ ; Silpha atrata and Olibriis corticalis were found 
under bark ; Aphodins fosnor, Erirhinus vorax, E. vaUdirostris, Anfho- 
nomns pedicnJarius, Lema cyanella ; the last four were obtained from 
under bark on asjien and willow. 

March was a grand month, when beetles were galore ; among those 
taken were : — Notiophilm biguttatus, one under a stone at Epsom ; 
Carahus nemoralis, Amara pleheia and A. co?HmM(i/s, running in sunshine ; 
Anchomenns ohlongits (?), A. alhipes, A. prasiniis ; Tachyp)orus hypnorum, 
Oxytehs rugosus and Stcnm i^peculaior, from sods ; Quedius picipes ; Geo- 
tnipcs stercoran'iis and G. mutator, flying at dusk ; Aphndins granarms, 
under stones at Epsom : Agriotcs lineatns, Apion difforme, from sods ; 
Hypera punctata and Sitorifs lineatus in plenty liy searching grass-stems 
with the aid of a lantern at night ; Chrysomela varians, at Epsom. The 
26tli was a red letter day so far as Adephaga were concerned, and 
on that day I took, on the cultivated downs behind Brighton, from 
under pieces of matting : — Fterostichus vulgaris, F. madidus, Calathus 
cisteloides, Leistis ferrugineus, L. spiniharhis, Badister bipustulatus, 
Anchomenus prasinus, Brachinus crepitans; Agriotes lineatus, Ocyjms similis 
and hiindreds of Stenus (})robably speculator) on the uiider side of an 
uprooted, rotten turnip. 

Prolific as March may appear to have been, April, Avith its almor- 
mally fine, sunny dry days, on which insects of all kinds simply 
swarmed, far surpassed it, as regards both the quantity and (quality 
of its Coleoptera. Broscus cephalotes was obtained from sand-pits ; 
Ancliomenus micans, Loricera pilicovnis, Demetrius atricapiUus, Harpalus 
proteus commonly, H. ruficornis under stones, sods, &c. ; Amara fami- 
liaris and ^4. acuminata " snnshiners ; " Bemhidium quadriguttatuin and 
B. lampros ; Felohius hermanni, Haliplus obliquus, II. flaricoUis, 
Hydroporus reticnlatus (?), H. dorsalis and II. jialustris, from jjonds ; 
AciliuK sidcatus, Hyphydrus ovatus, Gyrinus marinus, Enochrus hicolor ? 
Ocypus similis ; Necrophorns Immator, Silpha rugosa, S. sinuata and S. 
thoracica from dead rabbits ; Coccinella septempunctata, C. 22-p)unctata, 
Lasia glohosa ; Dermestes murinus and Nitidula bipustulata from dead 
moles, weasels, haAvks, itc. ; Meligethes (sp. ?) froni dandelion ; Geo- 
trupes sylvaticus, Aphodins inquinatus from dead heron ; A. erraticus and 



54: THE entomologist's record. 

A. haemorrJioidalis from horse dung ; Athons vittatus under stones ; 
Coellodes qiiadrimaculatns, Cenihorhynchus pollinarius, Apion difforme, A. 
laecicolle, Otiorhi/ncJiHS ovatus, O.piripes, 0. scabrosns, Poh/drosns micans — 
all the Rhynchophora were beaten — Phratora vlteUinae, Chrysomela 
polita beaten ; Frasocuris jjheUandrii and Gastroj)hi/sa poh/goni from 
reeds over ponds ; Meloi' riolacens walking along a path in the wood ; 
Blaps imicronata from a cellar ; Adimonia caprene lioaten from bushes. 
Truly a pretty list, and one that contrasts very favourably ^vith that of 
Lepidoptera for tlie same month. 

In May few new species were met with ; tlie most notal)le were : — 
Di/tiscus viarginah's $ ; Coh/mhefes jmloerosiis from a pond ; Lema iiiela- 
nopa; Melolontha vulgaris; Telephorus lifidus, heaten; Aphodius dejtressus. 
On the 13th, a very fine specimen of Callidinm violaceum was found 
crawling in our Museum here ; it had evidently just emerged from some 
wooden relic. 

The list was further augmented in June, by the addition of Malachius 
bipustulatus, Philonthns politus, TelepJiorus peUucidus, T. fulvas, Athons 
haemorrlioidalis, which fell with every stroke of the beating-stick ; 
CoccineUa hipimctata, C. l^-pimctata and Telephoriis bicolor in abundance ; 
Donacia dentipes ; Rhizotrogus solstitmlis gyrated i"0und young trees 
during the middle of the montla ; at the same time Strangalia armnta 
and *S'. melnnura occurred on umbellifera^ ; Cisiehi mvrinn, Gyriiius opaciis, 
Necrophoriis ruspntor, N. restiglator, N. mortxornm, Hixfer miicolor (?), 
n. cadaver iuus, H. neglectiis, H. virescens (?), H. pnrpurasccns (?), from 
dead rats, moles, &:c. ; MaUhinus punctatns, Malachias marginelliis. 
Cholera grandicollis, Dorcus paralJelopipedus, a bad specimen of Prionm 
coriarius, Pterostichus striola, Cerci/on haemorrhoidalis and Sphaeridium 
hipnsfniatum end the list, together with a host of Aphodii, including A. 
foetens, A. firnetarius, A. pn'odroinns, .1. sordidus and A. rvfipes, from 
horse dung. 

July was less productive of ( 'oleoptera than of Lepidoptera : the 
latter came freely to light, and the woods swarmed with (tp^ojietk.?':. 
I however secured : — Strophosomtis cori/li and S. ohesns in great numbers ; 
one fine specimen of Lepdnra livida from umbellifera?, about 8 p.m. ; 
Onthophagus fracticorni's. On the 10th, various Hydradepuaga were 
secured by means of a Avatei'-net, including : — Ih/hius ater and I. 
fnliginosHs, Colymbetus fuscus, Agabus striolatus, A, stiaini, A. nligiiwsus, 
whilst Sertca lirunnea and Donacia linearis occurred commonly ; Goni- 
octena litura and Agriotes pallidnlm were taken flying about in the heat 
of the da}'. 

The very remembrance of the beginning of August causes a thrill 
through my veins. On the 1st, I did the very best thing possible, 
viz. : — Got inside a suit of flannels, and strolled to ni}' favourite hunting- 
ground some five miles out. I was rewarded by a A'ery tine specimen 
of Hypera fascicnlata, as well as Staphylinm stevcorariiis, and a box full 
of common species. Two Nofoxus vionoceros next fell to my net, and 
were followed by Rhynchites megacepihalus (or R. geriaanicus), Dromius 
qnadrimaculatus, Adimonia sanguinea, Mantura inatthewsi ; two Chrysoinela 
fastuosa, and one Donacia lemnae, from the banks of the Wavenej', 
near Beccles ; Ptinus fur from the suburbs of London ; fifty Geotrupes 
stercorarius, in one evening, near Brighton ; Dromius linearis, Thyamis 
lycopi, and PsyUiodes napi, concluded the month at home. 

September was redolent with new species of the smaller Brachelytra 



NOTKS ON COLLFXTrNC, I;T(\ r)f) 

and RfiYNCopHORA, which were rudely disturbed iu their dreams of 
winter quietness and warmth, at tlie root of this poplar, or under the 
soft bark of that willow, by finding themselves scattered indiscrimi- 
nately over the surface of an inverted umbrella. Sept. 1 st, was pro- 
ductive of : — NecropJiorm i-esjnllo, Sitones jmncticoUis, Limobms mixtus, 
Thyamis hirida, Cholecn waisoni, C. sericea, Apion difforme, A. laevt'coUe, 
A. immune, and A. hooker! \ followed later by: — Lina uenea, Triholinm 
fen-iujineiim, Cholevo rhriitiomeUldesi ; a dozen ,S'/7j>//a a/ra/a from Maldon, 
Essex ; Notioplulm aquatirus, Helops striatus, Triplnx rusfiiea, DromiiiK 
qnadrinotatns ; and Comhiis cnfennJains, at sugar. 

After September, beetles, together with other insects, fall off rapidly 
in number ; Oct. 28th is perhaps the only day worthy of notice, but 
that was exceptionally good and yielded the following : — Geotrupes 
stercorarhis ; SiJpha atrata under bark and at roots of oak ; Coccinella 
septempundata, unusually common this year, beaten ; Coccinella 
hipunctnta and Beiuhidiam Jittorale under bark ; Aphodius inqainatus, A. 
rontaminatnfi and A. liridus from manure ; Apian difforme, A. immune, A. 
rirens. A. hooker i (?), Sitones Jinenttis, Prasoeuris marginella, Demetrim 
atricapHlns, Mantura inaftheirsi, Stenus speculator, and another of the 
genus, Oxytelus nitidulus, Tachyporus hypnorum, T. chrysomelinns and T. 
obtusus ; four other Bkachelytra and three Palpicornia. In addition 
to the above, October yielded Boletobins trinotatus, B. exoletus and B. 
pygmaeus from fungi. In November few fresh species were added : — 
Achenium depressnm, Tachyporus hnmerosns, an unidentified weevil from 
oak bark, and several tiny Brachelytra. In December I wound uj) 
the season by taking sixteen Helops striatus from one sod, the debris of 
Prionus coriarins, Coccinella rariabilis, and several common species. — 
Claude Morley, High Street, Ipswich. 



gOCIETIES. 

The Entomological Society of London held its 61st Annual 
Meeting on January 17th ; Mr. H. J. Elwes, F.L.S., was elected 
President ; Mr. H. Goss, F.L.S., and the Rev. Canon Fowler, M.A., F.L.S., 
Secretaries for the ensuing 3^ear. The balance sheet showed a balance 
in the Society's favour. In the absence of the President, his address 
was read by Mr. Merrifield. IVIr. Elwes commenced, by insisting upon 
the shai'e in furthering the progress of the science of entomology, which 
might be taken by the collector who, if he be but careful and orderly 
in his collection, and exact and accurate in his observation and in the 
records which he keeps, " has it in his power to observe and place on 
record, facts wdiich must be of greater eventual importance than they 
now seem," and thus to provide solid material for the use of the few 
men of far-seeing intellect, who can exi)lain the phenomena of nature 
in a way that all can follow them. Having noticed the appointment 
of ^[r. Warbvirton to succeed Miss Ormerod as consulting entomologist 
to the Royal AgTicultural Society, Mr. Elwes, from his experience as a 
practical farmer, as a gardener and as a planter, exjiresses doubt 
" whether, even when the life-histories of noxious insects have been 
thoroughly worked out, we shall be able in nine cases out of ten to fipply 
that knowledge economically to their destruction," although he admits 
that in the United States '' the measures which have been adopted by 



56 THE entomologist's record. 

Prof. Riley, aud his numerous assistants and followers, have often been 
highly successful." The bibliogi'aphy of the past year is then glanced 
at ; the barbarous trivial names given by M. Oberthiir are alluded to, 
and the announcement, interesting to students of synonymy, is made, 
that Dr. Staudinger is preparing a new edition of his celebrated 
Catalogue. It is to be hoped that in this, the veteran author will show 
a wider acquaintance with British authors than was the case in the 2nd 
edition. Mr. Elwes then passes on to call attention to the difficulty 
which is occasioned to the student of entomological literature, by *' the 
rapid increase of the number of sliort notes, descriptions, and pa})ers, 
and the great number of periodicals in which they are published," aud 
suggests the appointment b^^ the Eoyal Society, of a committee to con- 
sider the subject. His own idea is, that a description of a new species 
should not be recognised by scientific men, unless it is either in Latin, 
English, French or German (it is suggested by him that Spanish might 
be added) and is published in some journal, either already existing or 
to be created, which shall have been determined upon by international 
agreement as the recognised medium in each country for such publi- 
cation. The importance of attaching good locality-labels to specimens 
is emphasised, and the deatli-roll of the year is then passed in review. 
It is noticealjle how many of the nauies were those of veterans ; Hagen, 
Blomefield (former^ Jenyns), Pascoe, Burney, Bo\vring, Morris and 
Speyer were all over seventy years of age, and some of them had passed 
four-score years. 

At the meeting of The South London Entojiological and Natural 
History Society, on Jan. 11th, Mr. J. J. Weir mentioned, in connection 
with an exliibit of American Butterflies by Mr. W. A. Pearce, that the 
female of Papilio turnus was dimor})liic, and that Limeuitis disippuK was 
mimic of Anonia archipjms. Mr. Tugwcll, in some notes on Spilosoina 
lnhricipeda, described the York City form under the name of var. 
fasciata ; he also exhibited a pair of Plusia moneta, which had been bred 
by Mr. Matthews ; also a long series of Psilnra monacha bred from 
New Forest ova, some of the specimens being very dark ; also a pair of 
Pachetra leucophaea, taken hj Mr. Hanbury on the North Downs. The 
twenty-first annual meeting was held on Jan. 25th. Mr. Edward Step 
was elected President ; Messrs. Jenner Weir and C. G. Barrett, Vice- 
Presidents ; Mr. H. J. Turner, 13, Drakefell Road, Hatcham, S.E., 
Reporting Secretary ; and Mr. S. Edwards, Kidbrooke Lodge, Black- 
heath, Correspondence Secretary for the ensuing year. The retiring- 
President, the genial veteran Mr. J. Jenner Weir, delivered the 
Presidential address, of which we subjoin an abstract. 

Before commencing, Mr. Weir made the Society a present of a 
beautiful album, and trusted that members by inserting their photo- 
gTaphs therein would enable their successors to see the men who were 
their predecessors in the Society's early days. ]\Ir. AVeir's vast 
experience, and fund of information based on liis knowledge both of 
British and Exotic insects, always make his generalizations of value. 
He first referred to the pleasurable excitement of collecting, and the 
fact that as an out-of-door exercise, the occupation of the field-naturalist 
tended to longevity. Turning then to tlie scientific aspect of the year's 
work, he pointed out that the great feature of the work of the South 
London Entomological Society, was the skill exliibited by its members 
in rearing lepidoptera from the egg. He deplored the .paucity of 



SOCIETIES. 57 

observations made by those Avho indulged in this interesting occupation, 

and showed how the ontogeny and phylogeny of insects could only be 
studied by such as bred them, and that exact observation by careful 
men would elucidate many entomological puzzles. He then passed a 
high and well-deserved eulogium on the scientific work of I )r. C/hapman, 
which was undoubtedly never better deserved, especially referring to 
his work relating to the genus Acroiiycta and the ontogeny of Cuspidid 
psi and C. tridens and also to his work on classification. Mr. Weir 
quoted some remarks made by Professor Westwood many years ago 
relative to the position of the Zi/yaenidae near the Sphinijidae, and 
pointed out the way in which Dr. Chapman had discovered their real 
aflinities. He then discussed the experiments of Mr. Merrifield, and 
pointed out how valuable were the results obtained, both from the 
phylogenetic and the ontogenetic points of view. Touching on colour 
variation in general, Mr. Weir took the more advanced view as to its 
being often due to physiological causes, the result of the unsettlement 
of the normal constitution ttc. of the larvae. The direction of the 
attention of entomologists to these and kindred subjects, Mr. Weir 
observed, broke down the exclusiveness of British collectors who were 
obliged to get material from abroad for their generalizations. He was 
astonished that, in Dr. Smith's recent classification of the Noctu^ the 
learned Professor sub-divided them into only three groups, of which 
the Tlii/ati/riaat' and Brephinae bore no comparison with the large and 
comprehensive Noctninae ; but here we are rather at issue with the Ex- 
President, for the Thyatyrinae and Brephinae are such distinct connecting 
gi'oups that we can well understand the Professor preferring to regard 
them as of equal value with the compact mass of moths which are 
evidently very closely allied, and sub-dividing this latter group into 
families of more or less equal value. The Ukephides too, Mr. Weir 
remarked, had been by Mr. Meyrick supposed to be Geometrae, but 
here too we would point out that the consideration of the early stages 
at once showed Mr. Meyrick's position to be untenable. Some interest- 
ing notes followed on hybridisation, but in a short resume like this it is 
impossible to do even approximate justice to a really valuable 
addition to our scientific knowledge. We offer the Ex- President our 
hearty thanks for his address, and await its publication with some 
amount of impatience in the Proceedinys of the Society. 

At the meeting of The Birmingham Entomological Society on 
Dec. 18th, 1893, Mr. Bradley exhibited the following Diptera, all of 
which were additions to the British list : — Dactyolabis gvacilipes, Lw. ; 
Goniomyia jecunda, Lw. ; Ephelia rarinercis, Ztt. ; Cliuocera lamellata, 
Lw. ; and Didea fasciata, Maccp Mr. Harrison exhibited three boxes 
of Hymenoptera, taken during the past year, including: — Andrenn 
trimmcniiia, from a spot in Edgbaston, where he has seen it for several 
years ; in 181)3, the parasite Nonuida alleriuila, which Mr. Harrison saw for 
the first time, was commoner tlian its liost: JIalirtu.s sine<i(liinanell<t, Miiaesa 
dahlbomi, Crabro unicolor, Coelioxys cedin, Osmia bicolvr, Sec. Mr. A. H. 
Martineau also exhibited Hymenopiera taken in 1893 : — Cnibro inter- 
nipttis from Middleton Woods ; Mimcsd dnhlbomi from Wyre Forest ; 
and Arjenia ruriegata fi'om Selsley, Glos. j\Ir. H. T. Sands showed 
Vetipa crabro from Alvechurch, where it has been unusually abundant. 
Lei'Idoptera : — Mr, G. W. Wynn exhibited Notodonta chaonia from 
Wyre Forest ; Mr. Bethuue-Baker, Crambus ericellus, C. furcateUus and 



58 TFiE entomologist's rkcord. 

Psodos coracina (trepidaria) from Eannoch ; Mr. G. H. Kenrick, Calo- 

campa solidatjinis from Sutherlaudshire, which were lighter and greyer 
than the Cannock Chase form ; Mr. Bradley showed a variable series of 
Chrysophnmis jMoeas. Mr. Belhune-Baker alluded to Mr. Merrifield's 
experimental breeding of the species, which led that gentlemen to the 
conclusion that, larvaj reared at a high temperature, produced imagines 
of dnrk and dull colours, whilst those reared at a low temperature, pro- 
duced paler and In-igliter imagines. Mr. Bradley said that he had taken 
some very light forms in Septemlier and (October, and these must have 
fed u]» during tlie hot months. 

In South Wales, The Penartu Entomoi.ogical Society seems, 
judging from the report presented at the annual meeting on Jan. 20th, 
to be doing good work. The j^apers read during the past year cover a 
wider held than is usual in such societies, and show that the members 
are interested in the scientific problems that confront the thoughtful 
naturalist. Sir J. T. D. Llewellyn, J. P., is the President, and Mr. 
John Wallis, Kendrick House, Penarth, the Secretary for the coming 
year. It is to be lioped that the regretful reiH'oach which is levelled at 
them in the report, will induce those members who have hitherto only 
been " ornamental " to join the ranks of the " useful ones." 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society*. — 
January 2*id, 1894. — Exhibits : — Mr. Stillwell ; a variable series 
of Ilyhernia defoliaria from Epping Eorest. Mr. Lane ; a series 
of Clu'lonia plantaglnis. Mr. Bacot ; a bred series of Vanessa c-album, 
one of which had white triangular marks on the underside of the hind 
wings in place of the usual " comma " marks ; he stated that this 
species rested with its fore wings much further forward than is usual 
among butterflies, so that there was a larger interval between them and 
the hind Avings, the habit serving to intensify its resemblance to a dead 
leaf. Mr. Bell; a specimen of a Noctua taken on sugar at Tooting 
Common, its peculiarity being that a semi-circular patch at the outer 
side of each fore wing was entirely devoid of scales ; the patches were 
remarkably symmetrical ; the specimen was considered by most of those 
])resent to be a ? of CWigo eytherea. Messrs. Clark, Hill, Prout, 
Battley and Dr. Sequeira exhilnted Scotch lepidoptera. Mr. Oldham ; 
dragon-flies and bees from Cambridgeshire. Mr. Hill read a paper 
entitled " Random Notes on Collecting Lepidoptera in Scotland," which 
lie illustrated by the contents of three cases. The paper was based on 
the writer's exi)eriences at Eannoch, in August, 1891, and in the 
Orkney and Slietland Islands in August, 1892. Having described the 
locality, Mr. Hill passed in review the insects he had captured. Two 
specimens of Vanessa urticae were very strongly marked and larger than 
those met with in the South of England. Erebia hlandina was met Avith 
abundantly in one particular sjiot on the banks of the Tummell ; any 
numlier might be taken l)y simply Avalking about in the grass and net- 
ting tliose that flew up ; the species was however extremely local; its 
flight was very similar to that of Epinephele ianira, but it always 
disa})peared entirely and refused to be kicked out, as soon as the sun 
Avent in ; the species Avas also noticed in the Pass of Killiecrankie. It 
Avas too late for Coenonymplia typ)hon, and only three si:)ecimens Avere 
secured ; these Avere flying over the heather on the mountain sides at 
a considerable elcA-ation. Two larvjv of Smcrinthus populi, found on 
aspen, yielded in the folloAving season two ? imagines Avhich Avere much 



SOCIETIES. 59 

paler than tlie ordinary pale form, and were suffused with pink. Di- 
cranura fiircula was bred from one of two larvae found on the same 
aspens, by Mr. Salvage ; this was the first time Mr. Salvage had seen 
this species at Eannoch, altliougli he had worked the locality for 15 or 
20 years. Cymatopliorn or was bred from larvae found on aspen ; they 
spend the day between two leaves spun together, coming out to feed at 
night ; the imagines are much smaller than those received from Win- 
chester, and their fore wings are suffused with a pink or pale mauve 
tint. One female Stilbia anomala, was taken on the wing in the 
afternoon ; it seemed to have a tendency to fly round in a circle, and 
its movements Avere exceedingly rapid. Pupte of Taeniocampa (jothica, 
yielded in tlie following spring, an interesting series of imagines, which 
vary considerably^ both in colovir and in the usually dark central mark ; 
in some of tlie specimens the mark is practically unicolorous with the 
rest of the wing. Are these the true var. gothicina ? * Sugar was an 
entire failure. Of GEOMKTRiE : Larentia didymata swarmed in every 
locality visited, the specimens being smaller and darker than the ordi- 
nary southern type. Larentia caesiaia was also common, both at 
Eannoch and in the Shetlands ; it Avas very diflficult to discover, owing 
to its perfect resemblance to the rocks and stones on which it rested ; 
the Shetland specimens are much more strongly marked, and have a 
much darker median band than those from Rannoch. Larentia riifi- 
rinctata, of which a fair numlier were taken, also rests on the rocks at 
considerable elevations on the mountain sides, and is so exactly like a 
yellow lichen which grows freely on the rocks, that the practised eye 
is necessary to detect it. The variation of Melanthia ridiiginata in 
Scotland is considerable ; a form occurs not infrequently in which 
the fore wings, and to a less extent the hind Avings, are suffused Avith 
black. Cidaria populata Av^as fairly common on the mountain sides 
flying over the heather ; in some of the specimens the Aving-markings 
were almost obliterated by a dark suffusion. Cidaria immanata Avas 
perhaps the most A-ariable insect met Avith, in fact, no two specimens 
Avere exactly alike ; the median area A^aried in colour from jet black to 
pure Avhite ; in the Shetland Isles a form is taken wliich is entirely 
different from any of those met Avith at Eannoch. 

Jan. IGth, 1894. — Exhil)its : — Mr. Hill; a specimen of Catocala 
sponsa, haA'ing a suffusion of black scales near the apical angle of the 
left hind Aving. Mr. Battley ; Cheiinatohia hrnmata, of both sexes, the 
Avings of the males shoAving considerable variation in the distinctness 
of the transA'erse lines. Mr. Clark ; Mixodia palustrana from Perth ; 
also a specimen of Selenia hmaria, bred on Christmas Day. Mr. 
Nicholson ; two larvfe of Pararge aegeria, about half-an-inch long, from 
a brood which is now hybernating indoors, on grass groAving in a 
floAver-pot. Mr. Bacot ; living pupa? of Taeniocampa luuada. Mr. 
Eiches ; Agrotis segetnm, Mellinia circellaris and Anchocelin ]>istacina, irom. 
Salisbury ; the circellaris Avere rather dark. Mr. Soutliey ; a fine series 
of Nonagria arundinitt (typhae) from Norfolk. Mr. Lane ; Leucophasia 
sinapis from Eeading, and Abraxax grossnlariata. Mr. E. II. Taylor, 
of 52, Mimosa Street, Fiilham, was elected a member of the Society. 



* For account of var. gothicina see Britisli Nor.tuce and their Varieties, vol. ii. 
pp. 148-151.— Ed. 



60 THE entomologist's record. 

Caj^t. B. Blaydes Thompson then read the following paper on : — 

The PEOXUNCIATION and ACCENTUATION of 
CLASSICAL NAMES. 

There is nothing in what follows which can in any way lay claim 
to novelty. I have no new theory to propound, and the statements 
which I am abont to make are neither new, nor do they in any way 
rest npon my authority. I do not, however, intend yon to infer from 
this that they will not be new to you ; on the contrary, I have no doiibt 
that you will be as much surprised as I was, at some of the discoveries 
which I have made during the prejiaration of this paper, especially as 
regards the accentuation of both generic and trivial names. I apjoroach 
the subject with considerable diffidence ; my object has been simply to 
compile and summarise, to the best of my ability, some of the leading 
points in this rather thorny subject, and to endeavour to make them 
sufficiently explicit to interest you. 

About thirty-five years ago numerous complaints appeared in the 
Entomologtsfs Wecl'li/ InteUigencer, from Lej^idopterists as well as 
Coleopterists, of tlie difficulties with which they had to contend botli 
in pronouncing and in accentuating the Latin names of insects, and, 
notwithstanding the gigantic progTess which has been made in educa- 
tion since ISoU, such difficulties are still felt by many. There are not 
a few well-educated and intelligent men, whose classical education has 
not been very extensive ; when such are tempted out of the beaten 
track of commerce by the allurements of science, and find tliemselves 
forced to cope with scientific nomenclature, the difficulties attending 
the study of whatever brancli they may select are greatly increased. 

In consetpience of tlie numerous synonyms in use amongst Lepi- 
doptensts, there is considerable confusion and uncertainty with regard 
to the names of many species, and I venture to think that, by jn'o- 
nouncing or accentuating the name of an insect in such a manner as to 
make it sound like some other name, that confusion and uncertainty 
are increased. 

As regards the term " pronunciation," it may be used as referring 
either to the two methods which exist in this countiy, to accentuation, 
or to quantity. Of the two methods of pronouncing Latin, one is 
called the " English," the other the " Italian," or more generally the 
" Continental." The difPerence between the two consists in the vowels 
being sounded differently, and in the letters c and (j being invariably 
hard in the Continental method, whereas in the English method 
they are hard or soft, according to the vowel which follows them ; 
hard before a, o and », soft before e, i, //, and the diptliongs ae and oe. 
Into the question as to which of these methods is the better, I am not 
going to enter, Init will simply say that each is riglit, viewed from its 
own standpoint, and that each is looked uj)on with favour by its 
patrons in the United Kingdom. At Oxford the English metliod is 
adhered to, whilst at Cambridge tlie Continental is ado])ted to some 
extent ; nor is there uniformity of practice among the large Public 
Schools of the Metropolis, Clirist's Hospital adopting tlie Continental 
metliod. Merchant Taylors' the English. Amongst Lepidojiterists in 
(irreat Britain, the P]nglish method of sounding the vowels in pro- 
nouncing Latin words is almost universal, and although certain Cam- 



SOCIETIES. 6l 

bridge scientists hold to the Continental pronunciation the latter does 
not gain ground ; we may accordingly set it down as ttii fait accompli 
that naturalists throughout the United Kingdom give the vowels the 
same sound when speaking Latin words that they do when speaking 
Englisli. It is sometimes maintained that the adoption by us of the 
Continental method would secure uniformity of pronunciation amongst 
Europeans, and that tlms an ideal '' International pronunciation " would 
Ijecome a reality. Strictly speaking, however, tliere is no " Conti- 
nental " method, for, as a matter of fact, each nation 2)ronounces Latin 
after the analogy of its own tongue. In the sound of the vowels, it is 
true, there is a general sort of agreement, but as regards the consonants 
there is the greatest diversity of usage. If the Continental nations had 
attained to an approxiuiate uniformity among themselves there would 
be reason in the suggestion, but as the matter stands it cannot be 
logically supported. As an example of the diversity in Continental 
pronunciation we will take the word Cicero ; the French pronounce 
this Seeaaijro, the Grermans Tseesai/ro, the Italians Tcheechai/ro, and 
the Spaniards Theethai/ro. 

The result of the correspondence in the laielliijeacer, to which I 
have already referred, was that the task of compiling, editing and 
publishing an Accentuated List of the names of the British licpidoptera 
was undertaken jointly l)y the Councils of the Entomological Societies 
of the two Universities ; the President of the Cambridge Society at 
that time was Cliarles Cardale Babington, and of the Oxford Society 
Kev. H. Adair Picard. In tliis work, which was published in 1^59, 
every name then in use for Species or Genus is dealt with both as 
regards pronunciation and accentuation, and its derivation given. 

The first fact that is patent on looking through the work is that 
the generic names are mostly derived from Greek words, the trivial 
names from Latin. In the preface the following table of vowel sounds 
is given, with tlie intimation that " every vowel in the List is to be 
pronounced short, unless marked long, thus e " : 

" a, is to be pronounced as in 
^ f} )) » 

'■ >) }) jj 

^ )5 JJ 5) 

"' „ ^, „ ■ . ■■ . 

nr and oc arc to be pronounced as long e, ei as long /, and 
au as in naiighti/." 

From this it will be seen that the sounds are to be exactly tlie 
same as they are in English. The mind of the student need not be 
unduly exercised as to whether a name is derived from a Greek root or 
from a Latin one, because from whatever language it has been derived, 
it becomes a Latin word when inserted in a list of Lepidoptera as 
applied to an insect. Having adopted the English method of i)ro- 
nouncing Latin words, the vowels and consonants whicli they contain 
must be sounded as they are in our own language. Tlie English arc 
accused not only of dei)artiiig from the genuine sound of the (rreek 
and Latin vowels, but also of violating tlie qnantiticn of these lan- 
guages more than any other nation in Europe ; but if the quautit// be 
violated, it is not as chance may direct, but regularly and in accordance 
with the analogy of the English tongue, which, if not so well adaptcil 
to the pronunciation of Greek and Latin as some other modern tongues, 



hat ; 


a as in hate. 


met ; 


e „ mete. 


hid ; 
hop ; 
daclc ; 


i „ high. 
„ hope, 
il „ duke. 



62 THE entomologist's IlECORD. 

lias. iicvi'i'tliL-less, as tixt'il and settled rules for ijroiiouucing tbciu as 
any other. I have so far discussed the two methods of pronouncing 
Latin as contrasted Avith each other, but wish now to call attention to 
the confusion of them which is not unfrequently heard in the pro- 
nouncing of a word partly in accordance with one method and partly 
with the other. The errors most common are sounding the / like our 
e, and the consonants c and g hard irrespective of the vowel that 
follows tliem ; for example, dentin<i and hlandina are pronounced as if 
wiitten denteena and hlandeena, but the error is not consistently per- 
})etuated in aprdina, sohrina and pit^tacina, the latter names apparently 
not lending themselves so easily to the practice. Again, take Lycaena ; 
according to the English method the y is long, the c is soft, and the 
dipthong is sounded like a long c ; in the Continental method the y is 
also long, but the c is hard, and the sound of the dipthong is like our 
long a. In the one case the pronunciation would be li.seena, in the 
other Ukayna, but by pronouncing the Avord likeena, as is often done, 
the two methods are mixed, and this pronunciation is incorrect. 
Another instance is the familiar /«j// ; in the English method the j/ is 
soft and the pi'ojier pi'onunciation rhymes Avith magi ; in the Conti- 
nental method the g is hard and the word is pronounced fdhgee ; but 
if the English vowel sounds are retained, whilst at the same time the 
g is sounded hard, the two methods are mixed, and the rules of the 
English method violated. The cause of this, in a great measure, is the 
inference that is improperly drawn that, because the g is hard in the 
nominative case, fngits, it must continue hard throughout the declension, 
irrespective of the vowel that folloAvs it ; but this is erroneous. 

To the best of my belief, the causes of a great deal of this confusion 
are to be found in these facts : — 1. There is no letter c nor j in Greek ; 
2. There is no k in Ijatin ; '3. The Greek letters k and y are invariably 
sounded hard in that language ; 4. When a name (Latinised of course) 
which comes from a Greek root is given to an insect and contains the 
Greek k, the letter c has to be substituted for the latter ; 5. The letters 
c and g in English, have both a hard and a soft sound, and which of 
the tAvo is to he used depends upon the A'OAvel that folloAvs them. Re- 
fei'ence to an English dictionary will rcA'cal the fact, that Avhene\'er the 
consonant c is immediately followed by either of the a'oavcIs a, o or », 
the r is hard ; but Avhen c is followed by e, i, y, en or o?, it is soft. Good 
illustrations of the hard and soft sounds of c are to be found in our 
Catalogues of Lepidoj^tera. Among the Bomhycidae Ave find B. qnercm 
and L. querci/olia ; in the former the consonant is hard, because followed 
by H ; in the latter soft, because folloAved by /, although the latter name 
is deri\'ed from the former Other exami)les of the hard c are found in 
cassiope and conspicnata, of the soft in ccntoaalix, cytherea, nrticac and 
Coenonyinplta. 

The letter g is in the same categor}^, and is sounded hard or soft in 
accordance Avitli the same rules. There are several exceptions to the 
rule in the English language, Avhen g is folloAved by e or /, as for 
example, get and give ; I)ut in Latin there are none — the rule nnist be 
observed strictly. Examples of the hard and soft g are also numerous, 
especially among the Khopalocera. In gidatca, aegoii and exigua, tlie g 
is hard ; in agestis, crataegi, argiolus, Jithargyria and megaera, it is soft. 

These tAvo consonants seem to me to be the chief stumbling-blocks 
in the pronunciation of Latin, by persons Avho have not had efficient 
instruction in the language. Such persons do not seem to realise the 



SOCIETIES. 63 

fact that wlicu a Latin name is formed from a (Ireek root, ov, as in the 
name cdcrnJeocepliaJn, from a eoml)ination of Latin and Greek roots, it 
becomes de facto a Latin word, and that the sound of the Greek conso- 
nants is consequently inadmissiljle. Lactometer is the Enghsh term for 
an instrument used in determining tlie ([uality of milk ; it is derived 
from the Latin lac (milk), and the Greek metron (a measure), but it is 
a purely English word notwithstanding its derivation. 

The only other consonant which seems to require notice is j. I 
supi)ose that if I said there was no j in Latin, I should l)e confronted 
with [)i"oof to the contrary from a Latin dictionary, and should be asked 
how 1 got rid of the j in Jupiter and Jmw. I, however, must maintain 
that there is no Latin letter which has the sound of the English j, and, 
in proof of my statement, I produce a school-book called First Latin 
Primer ; in the vocabulary at the end of this no words will be found 
under _/, and the names which I suggested might be produced to confute 
me will be found printed Inp'tter, Iimo. In fact, in none of the Latin 
educational works now being printed for the use of schools, is the letter 
j to be found; / being substituted throughout. There is no doubt that 
the rounded j is the modern form of /, as c is of ii, both being used in- 
differently with vowel or consonantal power. In the Century English 
Dictionarij, the following passage occurs ; — " J {•a only another form of 
I, the two forms having formerly been used indifferently, or, .7 preferred 
when final. In Latin, for example, / was written where we write 
both *' and _/, and had, now the vowel value of /, and now the consonant 
value of j, being pronounced as //, where we now write and pronounce ,/ ; 
e.g. — Hallelujah. As a numeral / is a A'ariant form of /, used generally 
at the end of a scries of numerals, and now only in medical prescriptions ; 
as rj, six riij. eight." The trivial names caja, haja, bajidaria, arc to be 
found thus spelt in Stainton's Maanal, Doubleday's Catalogne, and 
Xewman's British Moths, and accordingly we often hear them pro- 
nounced l-ai/dga, bai/dga, and badgidaria ; when we turn to the 
Accentuated List, however, or to South's Synonymic List, we find them 
spelt caia, baia, and baitdaria, and in addition we find, that the same 
change has taken place with ianira and ianthina. With regard to 
Jupiter and Jmw, these are the English names of the Eoman deities 
lapiter and Jnno, the / taking the sound of the English Y. 

I trust that I have now succeeded in showing you that the analogy 
of our own language being tlie rule for pronouncing Ijatin, there is not 
much need for any other directions than such as are given for the pro- 
nunciation of English words. The general rules are followed almost 
without exception, and there is little difficulty until we come to the 
[losition of the accent. We have still two points to deal witli, accent 
and quantity, and both are complex and ditficult ; I i)roposc to confine 
myself to a few general remarks on each of the two jjoints, and to offer 
some practical suggestions. 

The word accent is not much used now in the classical sense. In 
modern parlance, accent is much the same as stress, or emphasis. If we 
say that the first syllable of honest bears tlie accent, we merely mean 
that we lay a greater stress on tliat syllable in pronouncing the word. 
As a matter of fact, accent, in the proper sense of the term, and stress, 
can exist in the same word independently of each other. The same 
holds good with respect to quantity — the length of time during which 
a vowel sound is prolonged. In Ijatin, there are no accentual marks 
to guide us, l)ut the main rules for accentuation arc very simple. With 



64 THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 

some trifling exceptions, every dissyllable has its accent on the penul- 
timate, independently of the quantity of either syllable ; every word of 
three or more syllables, has the accent on the penultimate if the vowel of 
that syllable be long, on the antepenultimate if the vowel of the 
penultimate Ije short. 

The other point is quantity ; in other words, whether the vowel 
which gives the sound to a syllal)le is long or short. Quantity and accent 
arve the two component parts of Proaody, but, as this is about the most 
abstruse part of grammar, 1 shall not weary you with a dissertation 
upon it, and it would be manifestly superfluous to suggest a close study 
of the subject. liet us look at it in a practical manner. The two 
(juestions which require solution seem to l)c : — 1. How can an entomo- 
logist be apprised of the fact, that it is possible that his pronunciation 
of a Latin word is wrong, either in accent or in quantity ? 2. How can 
he ascertain what the correct pronunciation is ? I may observe that 
the first (question can hardly arise in connection with the trivial names 
of any of the Geometrje, Pyralides, Tortrices, or TiNEiE, because, 
all these have a distinguishing afiix, the penultimate of which is in- 
variably accentuated ; it is, therefore, only in regard to the trivial 
names of the Khopalocera, Bombyces, and Nocture, and in generic 
names that error is possible. 

When a lepidopterist hears the name of an insect pronounced 
differently, either as regards accent or quantity, from the manner to 
which he has been accustomed, he may safely infer, provided that the 
word be not a quadrisyllal)le, that either he or the speaker is in error ; 
it depends a good deal upon whether the hearer is of an enquiring tarn 
of mind or not, whether, with the ulterior object of being accurate, he 
endeavours to ascertain which is the correct pronunciation, or does not. 
If he had a Lithosia or a Sesia concerning whose identity he had some 
doubt, he would probabl}^ take the earliest opportunity of consulting 
some trustworthy book or cabinet, with a view to the resolution of his 
doubt. I would suggest that, in the case of a doubt about accent or 
quantity, the Accentuated List should take the place of the cabinet. Two 
editions of this work are published, one costing only three-i^ence, and 
containing only the names, with indications„of their accent and quantity ; 
the other, costing five shillings, and containing in addition, some ac- 
count of the derivations of the names, with the reasons, where practicable, 
for the application of such names. Looking at the derivations as a 
whole, we do not find that they assist the student of pronunciation 
to the extent that might have been expected ; the cheap edition of the 
List is quite sufficient to furnish the enquirer with all that he needs to 
know, in order to accent and pronounce classical names correctly. 

In conclusion, while it is too much to hope that our elders will 
abandon any errors into which they ma}' have fallen, I would appeal 
to young entomologists to make an attempt to cope Avith this somewhat 
difficult niatter and to surmount it. I venture to tliink that it would 
bo difficult to find any one who Avould maintain that correctness of 
promxnciation and accent is immaterial, even in private, for is tliere 
not the possibility of the propagation of errors, especially among the 
rising generation ? We are all, however, in the habit of exhibiting 
our captures in a quasi-public manner, and this necessitates the airing 
of our Latin pronunciation in public ; and I think it will be generally 
admit t<.^d that every effort should be made, not only to avcia errors, 
but to attain accuracy as far as possible. 't . 



^V AND ^^^^ 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION. 



No. 3. Vol. Y. March 15th, 1894. 

1'lie Life-plistory of a Lepidopterous Insect;, 

Comprising some account of its Morphology and Physiology. 
By J. W. TUTT, F.E.S. 



Chap. I. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

1. On the position of the Insecta in relation to allied 
Classes. — The Sub-Kingdom Annulosa (annulus : a ring) is charac- 
terised essentially by the fact that the bodies of the animals belonging 
to the several classes of which it is composed are made uj) of rings or 
segments arranged along a longitudinal axis. It is usually divided into 
seven Classes, of which Insecta is one. Five of these Classes are 
grouped together to form the Section Arthropoda, and the classification 
of this section may be tabulated as follows : — 

AETHROPODA. — Animals having a body composed of segments 
and jointed ; segmental apj^endages articulated to the body. 
Division I. — Branchiata. — Breathing by means of branchias or gills. 

Class 1. — Crustacea. — Head and thorax united into a cephalo- 
thorax ; abdomen distinct ; two pairs of antennae — called 
respectively antennaa and antennules. 
Division II. — Tracheata. — Breathing by means of tracheee. 
Sub-division 1 : — Chelicerata. — No true antennee. 

Class 2. — Arachnida. — No distinct head, the head and thorax 
being united to form the cephalo-thorax ; body divided 
generally into cephalo-thorax and abdomen ; four pairs of 
thoracic legs ; no abdominal legs. 
Sub-division 2 : — Antennata. — With one pair of antennfe. 

Class 3. — Onychopora (Prototracheata). — Body not divided into 

distinct regions ; legs numerous, but variable in number. 

Class 4. — Mijriapoda. — Head distinct; little or no distinction 

between thorax and abdomen ; legs very numerous. 
Class 5. — Insecta {Kexapoda). — Body divided into head, thorax 
and abdomen ; six legs (attached to thoracic segments) ; 
usually two pairs of wings. 
In a very recent paper " On the nervous system and sense organs of 



66 THE entomologist's record. 

articulated animals " (Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. (7), xiv., pp. 404-456), M. H, 
Killanes concludes that the sub-division of Arthropods into Branchiata 
and Tracheata cannot be preserved, and suggests the following table, 
as expressing better than any other, the affinities of the groups : — 

I Myrinpoda 

TBiantennata ... -<f IVripatus 

( Antennata < (_Insecta 

. ,T 1 J I Qi;adriantennata Crustacea 

Arthropoda < ^ ^ ^ t • i 

^ ] rn T . ( Limulus 

/ Chelicerata ... ... ... ■{ . ^ ^^ 

[ I Arachnida 

2. On the Sub-divisions of the Class Insecta. — The Class 
Insecta is divided into Orders; the number of these is differently esti- 
mated ])y different authors ; Packard {Entoiiiolo<ji/ for Beginners, 1889), 
establishes sixteen. These Orders are generally arranged in three 
gi'oujis, termed respectivel}^ A-metahola, Eemi-metahola, Kolo-metahola. 

A-metahola (without change). — The insects composing this grouj) 
are such as undergo no distinct or regular metamorphoses. Each stage, 
from the ovum to the perfect insect, resembles the previous one, except 
that at eveiy change of skin the insect gets larger until maturity is 
reached. The members of this group have no wings, and hence 
are often called Aptera, although tlie Order is usually known in 
scientitic works as Thysanura. Exam})les of this grouji are Sjjring-tails 
(Poditra), Lepisma, A;c. 

Herni-metabola (half-change). — This grouj) contains those insects 
which have their metamorphoses divided into three stages (or four, 
reckoning the egg), but which do not differ much in a})pearance in the 
several stages (excluding the egg). The stages are: — 1. The egg; 2. 
The larva, which is smaller than the perfect insect and differs from it 
in having no wings ; after several changes of skin the larva becomes : 
3. The jDujoa ; this is active, has considerable powers of locomotion, and 
possesses rudimentary wings. The larval and pupal conditions are often 
now considered as constituting only a single stage, which is called the 
" Nymph " stage. The pujja or (nymph) undergoes several ecdyses 
(changes of skin) before the final stage is reached, which is : 4. The 
mature imago ; characterised by the possession of wings, but otherwise 
showing but little advance on the condition of the pupa. The Orders 
included in this group are: — Dermaptera (Earwigs), Orthoptera 
(Cockroach, Locust, Grassliopper, &c.), Blatyptera (Stone-flies, 
Termites, etc.), Odonata (Dragon- flies), Bleotopteka (May-llies), 
Thysanoptera (Thrips), IIemiptera (Bugs, Aphides, Coccida3). 

Holo-metabula (whole change). — The insects in this group have the 
metamorphoses divided into four distinct stages, and present a very 
different appearance at each stage. These stages are : — 1. Tlie ovum ; 
2. The larva; this is sometimes jn-ovided with claspers as well as with three 
pairs of true legs (which are usually ill-developed), and undergoes several 
changes of skin ; o. The pu})a ; this is a quiescent form, incapable of 
movement (except to the most limited extent), and incajjable of taking 
nutriment, it undergoes no change of skin from the time that it is formed 
until the imago emerges ; 4. The imago ; this differs exceedingl}^ from 
both larva and i^upa ; the claspers of the former have disajjpeared, only 
true legs are present ; the wings are usually remarkably well-de- 
velojied. Neuroptera (Lace-wings, Ant-lion), Mecopjera (Scorpion- 



THE LlFE-HISTORY OF A LErlDOl'TfiKOUS INSECT. 67 

fly), Trichopteua (Caddis-flies), Coleoptera (Beetles), Siphonaptera 
(Flea), Drpi-ERA (House-fly), Lei'iduptera (Moths and Butterflies), 
Hymenoi'tera (Bees, Ants, Icbneunion-flies, &c.), are the Orders into 
which the Holo-metahola are usually divided, but the number of these 
will vary, according as the weight given to certain characters by different 
authors varies. 

3. On the relationship of the various stages in an insect's 
life. —If we consider the characters of the various stages in each of 
the three groups, we are at once struck by the fact that in the Rolo- 
metabola, to which the Lepidoptera belong and in which we are 
therefore more particularly interested, there is an immense gap between 
the larva and the pupa, much greater than that between the pupa 
and the imago. Now we may fairly assume that the original tendency 
of all insects was to have, not widely separated changes, but rather a 
sequence of comparatively closely related ones, and that the features 
which characterise the metamorphoses of the Lepidoptera point to the 
probability of differentiation in very opposite directions between the 
adult larva and the pupa, resulting in the quiescent condition now 
characteristic of the latter. As a matter of fact, we find that the earliest 
stages of the lepidopterous larva show a development often termed 
lower, but in my opinion simply more divergent, than that of the larva 
of the Hemi-metahola, so that several stages are apparently missed be- 
tween larva and pupa ; at the same time, the imago has undergone so 
much gTcater a progressive development, than have those of the other 
group, that the gap becomes still more striking. 

The study of the metamorphoses of the Lepidoptera has led Mr. 
Poulton to conclude, that " the suppression of intervening stages has 
left the first or larval stage in an extremely ancestral condition, so that 
the larva in Lepidoptera is far more ancient than the first stage of those 
insects (Orthoptera, etc.) which still retain the more ancestral method 
of metamorjihosis. These, therefore, have lost the early stages, whilst, 
Lepidoptera, etc. have lost all the stages intervening between the 
ancient and a very late stage" (Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 1889, p. 190). 
I do not agree with this. My own impression is, that the whole 
of the metamorphoses of the earliest modifications of the ancestral type, 
were confined within very narrow limits, and that the slight changes 
characteristic of the A-metahola at the present time represent this con- 
dition much more correctly than any other, and that their larvas are 
the more ancestral, whilst at the same time the needs, habits, etc. of 
those insects which are supposed to have attained to the most advanced 
development in the imago state, and which differ profoundly from those 
more ancestral forms, have also undergone great modification in the form 
of their larvae, such modification tending towards a condition of inactive 
helplessness in that stage. But this does not necessarily show a more 
ancestral form, but rather a modification in response to environment. 
That is to say, if these larvaa are all essentially the outcome of the 
ancestral form, those of Lepidoptera (and the assumed higher groups), 
must be distinctly more specialised and farther removed from the 
assumed primitive type, and instead of having reverted towards such, 
they are, in reality, much more specialised, when compared with the 
primitive Thysanuran standard which we set up. Instead of approaching 
the primitive tyjje, then the lejiidopterous larva undoubtedly differs 
very greatly from it, and shows, in reality, a very high standard of 
specialisation. 



68 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S KECOKD. 



Perhaps a reference to the helplessness of our own young is hardly 
admissible. Certainly development in two opposite directions at the 
same time, one taken by tlie larva, the other by the pupa and imago, 
greatly enhances the difference between the larval form on the one hand, 
and the pupal and imaginal forms on the other. This idea is borne out 
by Mr. Jackson, Avho states that the genital ducts of lepidoptera pass 
through an Ephemerid stage and an Orthopteran stage before reaching 
that point characteristic of the Lepidoptera. The former (Ephemerid) 
stage, he states, ends at about the close of the larval life, i.e. (I presume) 
the genital organs of Lepidoptera are as highly developed (although 
not functionally active) at this stage, as are those of the Ephemerid 
adult ; this fact does not, therefore, particularly suggest that such 
larvae represent a more ancestral type than the Ephemerid larva, as 
may be assumed from Mr. Poulton's remarks, since the Lepidopterous 
larva has apparently at this early stage of development reached a 
point which characterises the Ei^hemerid imago. The Orthopteran 
stage, Mr. Jackson tells us, is reached in the quiescent larval stage 
immediately preceding pupation, which suggests that in this structural 
feature at least, the Lepidopterous larva is as highly developed as tlie 
Orthopteran imago. I see clearly, of course, the great gap which exists 
between the larva and pupa of Lepidoptera, but I think it is brought 
about, not so much by the reversion of the larva to a more ancestral 
type than that exhibited by the larvas of most other Orders of insects, 
as by the special development of the larva in a direction opposite to 
that afterwards assumed by the imago. 

(To he continued.) 



i^Ei'i^o^PEei'io]^^ Aj^D poi^E-eyi^'i'^, 

By A. J. HODGES. 

(Continued from p. 44.) 

We must break up our evening gatherings and get to work ; 
one month is gone, and the little we have done Avith the " winter " 
moths can hardly be called a start ; as we go home, cast a glance at the 
out-lying gas-lamps ; a few Geometers will visit them on suitably warm 
dark evenings. It will require a very propitious night to attract the 
hybernating Noctu.i; to "sugar;" but for females, to obtain ova for 
breeding, it is worth trying. Kecollect Cerastis erythrocephala and 
Daaycampa ruhiijinea are among the h3d3ernators, also all the Xylinidae ; 
we will not waste much treacle over this "off-chance," but will pay 
more attention to the " sallows " when the catkins are more generally 
in bloom. 

A fortnight later, and a day's tri}) to that good old locality, Epping 
Forest, draws us from our winter shell in earnest. A lovely morning, 
all nature rejoicing in its awakening from its winter sleep, and the 
earliest wind-tiowers (Anemone nemorosa) are peeping shyly up among 
last year's dead leaves. The flocks of hungry blue-tits (Parus caerulevs) 
have found out the favourite corner near Theydon Bois, where we take 
long series of Brephos parthenias, and vie in quickness with the most 
skilful wielder of the long-handled nets, in the avidity with which they 
seize the wildly-flying moths. An early sun and Ave get our series fly- 
ing lower, and can afford to pity the exertions of the later comers, and 



RETROSPECTIONS AND FORE-CASTS. 69 

adjourn to the " Wake Anns " Inn, of convenient proximity. Who can 
this be, armed with net and boxes, just sallying forth ? We greet one 
another warml}^ a friend from the Midlands, staying in town. A few 
words, captures examined, one Asphalia jlavicornis is the sum of that 
species in my bottle, and a warm invitation to run down Cannock Chase, 
any number of flankornis on the birches there. Eegretfully declining 
the kind offer, we jiart company at the station after having glanced on 
the way at the spot near Chingford, where a month later, the very local 
Aleucis inctaria can be found, by searching tlie sloe-bushes after dark. 

The scent of the sallow-catkins greets our nostrils on our next visit, 
and so recalls the pleasurable expeditions of the preceding spring, that 
a night is soon arranged ; Crohamhurst, near Croydon, being the 
spot selected, and the results, fine series of Taeniocampa graciJis and 
munda, but the following morning brings an eager letter from far-distant 
Hereford, " Season just on, leucoijrapha plentiful." This is a chance 
we cannot miss, and a few hours later we are in the lovely woods of the 
distant county. The evening is all that could be desired, warm, still, 
and with the sallows in their prime, and beginning with the very 
earliest dusk after sunset we are fully rewarded with long series of 
Pachnobia lencographa and Taeniocampa ininiosa, with line forms of each 
of the allied species, excepting opima, which we promise ourselves to- 
morrow. The opivia woods are equidistant from Hereford, in the 
opposite direction, but we must take all the species to complete the genus 
locally. What does my companion say ! we can get opima at home, on 
Wanstead Flats ? Yes, but we shan't much longer, the " northern " 
quaker is not at home so far south, and strange irony ! it is the 
favourite game, football, of opima's chosen counties, that is fast trampl- 
ing it out, in its metropolitan home. We will stay a day, and return 
to our last night's woods, well-known for Dicranura hicuspis, probably 
a day's search will find one last year's cocoon, empty ; undoubtedly 
good practice, but how much more exciting is the chase of Brep)hos 
notha, which is plentiful here amongst the asj^ens {Populus trenuda). 
No matter if the sun goes in, we will shake them from the slender 
trees, and try our skill in netting them, ere they can regain shelter. 
Too tiring ! then let us resume trunk-searching, Lohophora lohulata 
is not yet over, and is plentiful, and those old birch stumps show frass 
between the wood and the bark, evidently of Sesia cidiciformis, and 
are worth working; let us get them out carefully, a small, pale, 
fleshy gi-ub, that's right ; don't put them in chip-boxes, or they may 
share the fate of the notha, and get into the ammonia jar instead of 
the breeding cage. 

To those of us whose arrangements are not already mapped out, what 
can appeal more strongly than an early Easter, welcome harbinger of 
the longer holidays of the later season, and certainly this year of grace 
has done its utmost in this direction to shorten the hibernation, which 
the energies of many of us undergo. The persuasive, though silent 
eloquence of the " posters " of the Railway Companies is commencing 
to have its effect, and the rival attractions of the various well-known 
haunts of lepidopterists, will soon be the subject of earnest consultation. 
An unwelcome doubt crosses the mind of the older and more staid col- 
lector, as to the real advantages which the tyro derives from the modern 
facilities afforded him, by the numerous cheap excursions to such an 
ancient " idtima thrde " as even the New Forest, and which tempt him 



70 THE entomologist's record, 

to an ambition to begin his career of collecting where the older genera- 
tion left off. The unbidden thought arises as to whether it will not be 
the case, in the near future, that familiarity Avith the distant and 
mysterious " localities " over which a glamour has been thrown Ijy the 
records and the results of the doughty pioneers coeval with Doubleday, 
may not lireed an undesirable contempt for a pursuit of fame. Perish 
the thought ! If the reapers are more and their work lightened, yet the 
results of tlieir labours have an ever-widening and more appreciative 
public. 

In regard to the above possible drawbacks, our energetic friends 
across the Border, have in some measure compensation for their isolation 
from the more active and populous centres of entomological activity. 
No enterprising " Field-Day " })arty, even though "personally conducted " 
from our flourishing MetroiDolitan Societies, can ever hope to penetrate 
the Highland haunts of Anarta cordigcra, or Fklonia carhonarid, nor to 
ply the busy chisel to the detriment of the birch plantations, in search 
of the slow-feeding larva of the rare Sesia scoUaeformis. 



To A. R. G. 

OVER of Night, in other lands ; Call forth thy spectres robed in 



than mine, gauzy light, 

Of night made mystical by many , Thy shadowy Indians and thy old- 

a sprite world fays. 

And bashful woodland fancies, made I So shall the Old World and the New 

divine unite 

By the moon's shining and the : On Natuie's bye-paths and Night's 

still starlight. | silent ways. 

I greet thee, my twin Spirit. Tell ' And when one day the still pro- 

thy tale cession moves 

More often to thy listeners over To seek those realms that men call 

seas : Heaven and Hell, 

Tell how the shadows brood o'er hill We twain may steal an hour, if none 

and vale : reproves, 

Tell how the voices whisper on the To watch the Moths in meads of 

breeze. asphodel. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES & OBSERVATIONS. 

Protracted Periods of Emergence. — From my experience it would 
appear that Leucnnia littoraJis continues to emerge over a long period. 
On May 8th, 1893, larvje were plentiful on the sand-grass right among 
the sand-hills, and appeared mostly to be full-fed. Only a few of those 
which I took rewarded me with imagines, as many of them bit holes 
through the muslin covering of the breeding cage in Avhieh I kept them, 
and escaped. Of the few that did go on unto perfection, imagines were 
still emerging on July 16th. I captured the imago plentifully on sugar 
towards the end of May. The insect is said to remain in pupa only for 
about fifteen days. Hadena suasa (ditisimilis) is another species that 
seems to have a very extended period of emergence. I took a couple 
on May 2nd ; two or three more during the first week of May ; some more 
during the last week of that month, from which I obtained ova ; two at 
sugar on June 13th ; one at light on July 21st. In September I bred 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 71 

seven or eight from the ova laid in May ; the breeding cage was kept 
out of doors and there were others which did not emerge then ; one or 
two have done so lately, the pup!« having been placed in a hot-house. — 
H. W. Vivian, Port Talbot, S. Wales. December 8th, 1893. 

Kecokds of emergences at unusual periods. — Mr. J. A. Clark 
reports the emergence of a female Selenia limaria on Christmas Day 
1893, and of a male on January 28th, 1894, in a breeding cage kept 
out of doors and not in any way protected from the cold. Mr. J. C. 
Moberly bred a CucuUia h/chnitis from a pupa of 1892 in November last. 
Eev. C. F. Thornewill reports that larvae of Nemeophila plantaginis 
which were nearly full-fed in July, yielded imagines about the middle 
of August, and that a few pupa^ appear to be standing over till next 
season. Captain E. W. Brown took thirty full-fed larvae of Pieris 
brassicae at Enniskillen on July 12th, 1893. From these, ten imagines 
(eight ^ s and two 2 s) emerged on August 3rd and 4th, the rest are 
going over the winter as pupai. He asks what is the explanation of 
this, and suggests that it may be due to the nortlierly situation of 
Enniskillen or that possibly, considering the abnormal season, the ten 
that emerged were a partial third brood. Mr. Claude Morley whites 
that on the evening of Feb. 27th a ^ Phloijophora meticulosa emerged 
from a pupa taken on Feb. Gth under a felled pine. He assumes it to 
be from ova of a third brood in 1893. — Ed. 



Hractical hints. 

New Style of Butterfly Net. — I have received from Mr. Graf- 
Kriisi a net, which folds by means of joints into a very small compass. 
The ring is made of steel and the joints finished off with brass rings, to 
prevent friction between the steel parts and the joints. Its peculiar 
feature, however, is that by means of a simple screw arrangement in 
the frame that supplants the ordinary ferrule, the net is made to fit any 
stick whatever. The silk net seems to be a very serviceable material. 
To those that are particular about their paraphernalia, nothing more 
useful could be recommended. — J. W. Tutt. 



Current notes. 

We have received a letter from Mr. C. S. Coles, of Brixton, which 
is too long to insert in full, but probably some among our readers will 
"be interested in the following extracts therefrom. We thank our cor- 
respondent for his kindly expressions concerning the Magazine, and 
shall alwaj's be glad to publisli suitable articles on the other orders of 
insects ; the difficulty is to get such. — " 1 should be glad to see other 
orders of Insects, besides Lepidoptera, dealt with more frequently in 
the pages of the EntomoIo(jist's Record. There must be many entomo- 
logists woi'king amongst the Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, etc., who would 
be able and willing to contribute articles or notes on their favoui'ite 
insects ; these would be very welcome to tliose who, like myself, take 
interest in other orders than the ever-popular Lepidoptera. There 
are many things in connection with these other orders upon which I, 
for one, should be glad of information and advice. For example : some 



72 THE kntomologist's record. 

Mnts on " The Arrangement of our Cabinets," from the pen of Mr. 
Hodges, appeared in the last vohime. These were limited to the Lepi- 
doptera ; but if some Coleopterist, Hymenopterist, etc., would perform 
the same sei'vice for his own special order, the information would 
probably.be of great value to many incipients, whose inclinations may 
lead them towards Beetles, Bees, Bugs or Blue-bottles. Again : what 
is the most useful size pin for the smaller bees and other Hymenoptera, 
and are black or white pins preferable for the whole ? I have used 
Messrs. Kirby, Beard & Go's. No. 5 for the Bomhi, and for insects larger 
than, say, Colletes succincta, but think that these would be too large for 
the smaller species. Again : what is the best mode of collecting and 
killing ants for the cabinet ? I have used the laurel bottle, but do not 
consider it entirely satisfactory. Of course, a box for each specimen, 
as with bees, is out of the question. Are they usually killed on the 
spot, or brought home alive to be treated with sulphur ? Any informa- 
tion on points like these would be exceedingly acceiDtable. I have 
noticed that the subject of verdigris crops up from time to time. Probably 
no perfect preventive has yet l)een discovered ; it may therefore be of 
interest to note that I have two butterflies, the remains of a collection 
Avhich I formed more than 20 years ago but which has long been 
dispersed. These two specimens have been for many years, unknown 
to me, lying by in a small postal box. About a year ago, I turned the 
box out for examination, and was smprised to find the two insects in a 
perfect state of preservation, with no sign of mites or verdigris, each 
apparently as good as if only just captured. One is a ^ Colias edusa, 
taken by myself in the month of Maj^, the other a Limeuitis sih/lla, also 
taken by myself in, I believe, the same year (1869 or 1870). Both 
are on white pins (black were unknown in those days), maker now 
unknown, but they are still in such good condition that I have placed 
them in my j^resent collection, and, but for the pins, they cannot be 
distinguished from those I took last summer ; in fact, the latter insect 
is far superior to some individuals of the same species which I have re- 
ceived in exchange as ' good specimens.' Can any explanation be 
given of this, to me remarkable, preservation of these insects? In 
conclusion, allow me to thank you for having introduced your magazine 
to my notice, and to express the hope that you may be able to extend 
its usefulness in the direction I have suggested above." 

"Without entering into the discussion between Dr. Freer and Dr. 
Knaggs, on the relative " energy " in male and female moths, we would 
call the attention of the latter to a recent article in the American Nntn- 
ralist, vol. xxvi., p. 653, which bears somewhat on tlie paragraph in 
which he refers in a mildly sarcastic manner to the experiments of Mrs, 
Treat, The paragraph referred to runs thus : — " It is just about twenty 
years ago that I* penned a few lines on a similar theory. Speaking of 
the more noticeable papers of the season ( 1874), I wrote as follows : — 
' I^ut, as Alice would say, the ' curiousest ' paper of all, is devoted to the 
subject of controlling the sexes, by a process of starvation (the starve- 
lings being males, and the healthy well-fed examples, females). When 
it is taken into consideration that the writer is a lady, the whole affair 
looks very like a satire on the male sex generally.' This article, by 
Mrs. Mary Treat, which was published in the American Naturalist, vol. 
viii.,"p. 129, is endorsed by Messrs. Geddes and Thompson." Now, 
ridicule is a very useful thing in its proper place, but facts are stubborn 



CtJRRENT NOTES. 73 

things, and Dr. Knaggs will hardly ridicule people nowadays into any 
particular line of belief, as to whether energy is required more by male 
or female products. Geddes and Thompson only quote Mrs. Treat's 
experiments as un fait accompli, they can scarcely " endorse " them. We 
have ourselves criticised some of these authors' conclusions in Secondary 
Sexual Characters in Lepidoptera. But to return to facts. In one of 
the Cartwright lectures for 18'J2, by Henry Fairfield Osborn, on '' Here- 
dity and the Germ-cells," we find : — " The causes finally determining 
sex may come surprisingly late in development, and, according to the 
investigations of Diising, and the experiments of Yung and of Giron, 
are directly related to nutrition. High feeding favours an increase of the 
percentage of females, while conversely, low feeding increases the 
males, in Yung's experiments with tadi^oles, the following results 
were obtained : — 

Normal percentage ... 57 females ... 43 males 
High nutrition 92 females ... 8 males." 

There are arguments on the original neutrality of ova and other 
matters of general biological interest, and so far as they have a general 
bearing, directly interesting to the entomological student, and these 
arguments backed up by experiments, go far to prove that the ultimate 
development of a male or female product, has more to do with nutri- 
tion than the Doctor would appear to think. The following part of 
Dr. Knaggs' paper appears to us as illogical as the fii'st part is 
imscientific. 

An interesting paper on certain Micro-lepidoptera is published in the 
current number of the E. M. M., by Lord Walsingham . Tinea nigripunctella, 
taken by Mr. Atmore, at King's Lynn, found hitherto in Britain, only at 
Bristol and Folkestone. Sericoris palustrana, which was originally de- 
scribed by Zeller, and has long been recorded as occurring among pines in 
Scotland and the North of England, was beaten from a fir-tree on the edge 
of a marsh near King's Lynn. But much more important is the addition 
of Argyresthria illuminatella, to the British list, from specimens taken at 
Forres, by Salvage, among larch, and the capture of a series of very 
similar specimens at King's Lynn, which Lord Walsingham thinks will 
prove distinct from illuminatella, to which the Scotch specimens are 
referred without hesitation. Two Gelechias " of a uniform purplish- 
brown colour, with a few pale specklings around the apex and apical 
margin, and a single obscure dark spot at the end of the cell, the 
antennae with a series of three pale spots on the outer third, the outer 
one of which is a little before the apex ; the cilia somewhat paler than 
the wings, especially about the anal angle, and the hind wings shining 
slaty-gTey, with pale cilia, tending to brownish-ochreous, the abdomen 
inclining also to brownish-ochreous ; legs pale, apparently unspotted. 
Exp. al. 14 m.m," are indistinguishable from Xystophora servella, Z., in 
the Zeller collection. 

Dr. Chapman records the emergence of a Doritis apollina, at 2 a.m., 
on Jan. lyth, in a warm room at 74°. It was then removed to a room 
at 51°. Next morning, at 9 a.m., the wings were unexpanded, taken 
back to warm room, and within five minutes, the wings were well on 
the way to development. 

Mr. Beaumont {E. M. M.), adds Diastata fnmipennis (beaten from 



74 THE EKTOMOLOGIST S RECORD 

Coniferae, at Albrighton) and D. hasalis (from heather thatch), also D, 
obscnrella, from Deal, to the list of British Diptera. 



SOTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 



Early appearances. — Mr. W. Reid reports that Phujalia pedaria 
(pilosaria) was out in the neighl)Ourhood of Pitcaple on December 27th, 
1893. Eev. C. F. Thornewill took Hyhernia rnpicdpraria on Jan. 16th 
and P. pedaria on Feb. Jtird, 1894, at Bakewell, and remarks that these 
are in each case the earliest dates at which he has observed the insect. 
Rev. J. E. Tarbat found a specimen of Pachycnemia hippocastanaria at 
rest on a pine trunk at Weybridge on January 29th, 1894. 

Anosia archippus in Jamaica. — Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell writes me 
from Las Cruces that this sj)ecies certainly does occur in Jamaica. He 
also gives the following list of the known Jamaican species of Danais : — 
D. archippus, '? D. here-nice var., D. cleophile, D. clothera, D. erippns, 
D. (jdippns, D. jamaicensis. The commonest Danais in Jamaica, says 
Mr. Cockerell, is D. (Tasitia) jamaicensis, which is a sub-species of 
D. herenice and belongs to a different group from D. archippus. This 
was probably the form which Sloan figured. — ¥. J. Buckell. 

The Burney and St. John Sales. — The thanks of everyone interested 
in the morality and well-being of entomology are due to Mr. Tutt, for 
what has been published lately in the EntomohMjist's Record, relative to the 
sale of the late Rev. Hy. Burney's and other collections of Lepidoptera. 
It appears to me, that in every case where possible, it is important to 
hunt up records, and to contribute towards the clearing up of errors 
and confusion, and, if there be dishonest dealing, to assist in its detection. 
With these views, I would ask from those concerned, some explanation 
with regard to the pair of Lycaena argiades, sold from the Rev. Sej'mour 
St. John's collection. In the Entomologist'' s Becord, vol. v., No. 2, p. 4U, 
I read " Then a pair of Lycaena argiades (again ' received from Dr. 
Marsh ') produce £4 10s." Dr. Marsh's name had occcurred just before 
in connection with " Norfolk." What, I would ask then, is the exact 
history of this pair of L. argiades ? Is it the pair which Mr. St. John 
recorded in the Entomologist, vol. xviii, p. 292 (1885) ? He there men- 
tions having discovered two specimens (both males), in the collection of 
a friend living near Frome, and that his friend told him that " he took 
them with several others, eleven years ago, not two miles from this 
house " (Whatley Rectory, Frome), "close by a small quarry.' W^as 
this friend " Dr. Marsh " ? From the price paid for the " pair " (quei-y 
(J and 5 ), it would appear that the purchaser believed them to be 
authentic British specimens, for the price of Continental specimens is, 
I believe, sixpence each. It is very likely that the questions I have 
asked can be satisfactorily answered, and, if so, those concerned will no 
doubt be much obliged for having an opportunity given them of — so 
far— clearing up the history of a small fraction of the insects, lately 
dispersed among British collectors. I say "so far" because the 
authenticity of Mr. St. John's two Somerset L. argiades is still some- 
what uncertain ; their record did not appear till eleven years after the 
time of their capture, and their captor was only given to the world as 
Mr. St. John's "friend." — (Rev.) 0. Pickard-Cambridge, Bloxworth 
Rectory, Wareham. Feb. Idth, 1894. (There can be no doubt we 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 75 

should say that the specimens of L. argiades sold were the same as those 
referred to by our con-espondent, for the Catalogue of sale states 
distinctly : — " L. argiades 2, taken in Somerset, in 1874 by Dr. Marsh 
(see Ent., vols, xviii., 292 and xxv., 21)." The word " pair " may have 
been used for " two " by our correspondent. We would also ask whether 
Dr. Marsh is the same as the Rev. T. Marsh (Record, vol. iii., p. 195) 
who captured the specimens of Si/ricthas alveas reported by Mr. C. G. 
Barrett some time since as from Norfolk. — Ed.). 



SOTICES AND REVIEWS. 



Qlimpses at yimerican Entomology. 

The Tiventy-fourth Annual Report of the Entomoloyical Society of 
Ontario, 1893, contains, as usual, much to interest British entomologists. 
First among the papers is a critique entitled Entomological mistakes of 
Authors, by the Eev. T. W. Fyles, F.L.S., of South Quebec. Commencing 
with the school books relating to natural history authorised by Govern- 
ment, he shows that the lesson relating to the butterfly's metamorphoses 
is made up of a great many errors, or rather, gross blunders, of which 
the following appear to form a summary. The butterfly is flgured as a 
Papilio. The larva and pupa are caricatures of those of Anosia archipp^is, 
but the larva in the lesson is said to feed on willow, whilst that of 
archipptis feeds on Asclepias. The reverend gentleman, himself a first- 
class entomologist, is unable to determine what species is meant, and 
comjilains that error should thus be disseminated broadcast in the 
minds of the young. The Natural History Beaders, I may add, in use 
in our own British schools similarly bristle with glaring inaccuracies, 
copied from obsolete text-books or made up from imaginary obser- 
vations. Tlie author of the paper then criticises a large number 
of allusions in Avell-known works (poetical and prose), to entomological- 
matters, and even Charles Kingsley and our old friend Isaak Walton 
are brought to book. Kingsley, it appears, makes the dragon-fly 
emerge from its nymph under water, whilst in The Complete Angler, an 
accurate description of a larva of Sphinx lignstri, which ultimatel}- died, 
is followed by the wonderful guess that " if it had lived, it had doubt- 
less turned to one of those flies that some call flies of prey, which those 
that walk by the rivers may, in summer, see fasten on smaller flies, and 
I think, make them their food." The author gives many other inter- 
esting and amusing references. He says that Edgar Allen Poe, in one 
of his highly sensational tales, tells of ' a gold bug.' This bug, he 
informs us, was a Scarabaeiis ; but we are not to conclude that it was a 
right down honest ' tumble-bug.' The term. Scarabaeiis, was formerly 
used for beetles, generally. It may have been a sort of Cotalpha, but 
it had some peculiar qualities ; ponderosity was one — it was so heavy 
that it was used as a plumb ; but notwithstanding its gTeat weight, it 
was very active — it flew on before. Then, too, its pugnacity was re- 
markable — it bit its captor's hand ; and it was not without suspicion of 
exercising poisonous qualities, like the centipede and the Tarantula." 
The reverend gentleman further adds : — " 1 need hardly say that the 
species has become extinct." Tlie author further points out the way in 
which men of letters are disposed to under- value " those benevolent, 



76 THE entomologist's RECORrt. 

amiable, and altogether worthy gentlemen, who have been good enough to 
pursue the study of entomology for the benefit of mankind." He sa3^s : — 
" Does Fenimore Cooper wish to portray an entomologist ! He does 
so in Dr. Obed Batt, and the crowning scene in which this personage is 
presented is that in which he is brought forward by the Indians, seated 
upon the Vespertilio horribilis americanus, with his butterflies and other 
' specimens ' disposed about his person — converting him into a sort of 
perambulating museum ; " and then our author adds : — "Yet Fenimore 
Cooper was considered a decent sort of man ! I am told he was a 
churchwarden ! ! " This most amusing paper is completed by a reference 
to " Sir Thomas," Barham's (the well-known author of the Ingoldshy 
Legends) worthy entomologist who, seeking for nymphs, tumbles in the 
water and is drowned. His wife, is consoled for his loss, by the atten- 
tions of Captain McBride, and some time afterwards " Sir Thomas " is 
fished from the depths " in a dilapidated condition," whilst " from the 
pockets and other i-ecesses of his clothing, a number of fat eels are 
taken." The grief of the lady was so great, that she had some of the 
eels cooked for her supper. And this is what she says of them : — 

" Eels a many I've ate : but any 

So good ne'er tasted before ! 
They're a fish, too, of which I'm remarkably fond ! 
So pop Sir Thomas again in the pond — 

Poor dear ! He'll catch us some more." 

Another paper interesting to Britishers is Dr. Holland's " Notes and 
Queries." We have not space to do more than quote one note, which 
is as follows : — " The banana merchants in our town (Alleghany, Pa.), 
have proved themselves possessed of curious entomological stores. I 
have received from them a couple of living Tarantulas, and not long ago 
a living specimen of Caligo fencer, which had emerged from a chrysalis, 
hidden in a bunch of bananas. The insect had been transported l3y sea 
and land, either from Honduras or from some port in the northern portion 
of South America, a journey of several thousand miles. This reminds 
me that in several consignments of eastern lepidoptera, I have found one 
Danais plexippns, Linn." (? Anosia archipjms, Ed.). " One of the send- 
ings was from Borneo, the other from Java. We shall soon hear of its 
domestication on the mainland of Asia, and it will probably spread all 
over China and Japan. The insects taken by the U. S. Eclipse 
Expedition of 1889, at the Azores, numbered among them two specimens 
of this butterfly. There were only about a dozen specimens of insects 
taken at the Azores, by the industrious (?) naturalists of the jiarty, and 
I judge that it must be common there. Why we have not yet beard of 
its domiciliation on the African continent is a mystery to me. It will 
no doubt get there before long." 

In a paper on " The Dragon-fly," by T. J. MacLaughlin, of Ottawa, 
we notice that he quotes Duncan's description of the breathing of the 
larvaj and nymphs, as follows : — " The larvae and nymphs, although 
living under water, must respire, and j^et have no external organs by 
which they can breathe. Their method of respiration is unique ; they 
breathe with their intestines. The large intestine is covered with 
numerous trachete, and when the animal wishes to breathe, it opens the 
orifice of the intestine and admits a quantity of water. This, of course, 
contains air mechanically suspended which is taken up by the tracheae 
just mentioned." Mr. McLaughlin adds : — " In expelling the water 



I 



NOTICKS AND REVIKWS. 77 

just taken into the intestine, it is sent out with considerable force, which 
propels the animal forward with a jerk, several times the length of its 
own body ; by this means, it keeps out of the way of its enemies." 

In the address of the President (W. Hague Harrington, of Ottawa), 
mention is made, among many other interesting things, of " Parasitism 
in Insects." He refers to Professor Riley's work, and divides parasitic 
forms into three groups : — (I) Pdra'^ites Proper, including insects whose 
whole life is passed upon, and is dependent upon, their host, and which 
may be sub-divided into external, as lice, and internal (or sub-cutaneous) 
as the itch-mite. (2) Fatal Parasites, which, in the larval stage, live 
at the expense of the members of their own class. These are also 
sub-divided into internal, where the larva is nourished within the host 
upon the surrounding fluids, as are the majority of Hymenopterous 
parasites, and exlp.rnal, where the larva attaches itself to the host (as in 
Thalessa), and sucks its juices. To this sub-division belong many Hy- 
menopterous, Diptei'ous and Coleopterous parasites. (3) Inqailiiiom 
parasites, which include the numerous forms which live upon the 
provision made by other species, for the sustenance of their offspring, 
or which are found habitually associated with otlier insects, but not 
injurious to them. This class is sub-divided into Fatal inqnilines, where 
the guest's living means starvation and death to the host, and Cominen- 
sals, where association is mutually harmless, as where beetles are found 
living in the nests of bees and ants. On the same subject is another 
article '' The economic value of parasites, and predaceous insects," by 
Prof. J. B. Smith, but, although interesting enough, the argument 
throughout is weak, and the logic unsound. The Professor begins with 
an apparent paradox : " No one can realise more than I do, how much 
parasites maintain the balance and check the increase of injurious 
species. I am peifectly aware, that were it not for parasites, many 
an insect would become so abundant that certain crops could not 
be satisfactorily grown," and yet he goes on to say: — "In fact I am 
almost ready to say that parasites have no real economic value to the 
agriculturist." There is a certain amount of "heroics" about the 
article that is hardly scientific, and Professor Smith only refers to well- 
knovvn facts, when he says that " parasites do not exterminate their 
hosts in any instance ; their mission is merely to interj)ose a check to 
undue increase." But he goes on to say that the farmer "must depend 
upon his own exertions to save his crop. There are, however, many 
insects which are very commonly parasitised, and among them may be 
mentioned the various species of cut- worms (Noctua larvae). It is 
nothing uncommon to find in an infested field, that fully one-half, and 
sometimes as many as three-(piarters of the specimens, will have eggs of 
the Tachina flies attached to the skin, and probably others have parasites 
which are not externally visible." Now mark I The writer continues 
" yet the fact that these cut- worms are infested by parasites, is of 
absolutely no value to the farmer." And this is the reason for such a 
conclusion : — " They eat just as much as if they were not parasitised, and 
it is really a matter of little importance to the agriculturist, wlicther the 
food that is stolen from him makes a moth or a fly. The caterpillar 
feeds all the same until it is full-grown. Next year, in the same 
field, there will be just as many cut- worms as tliere were in the previous 
year." Just so! "As many," not more. Then this strange logic 
continues : — " The parasites have kept the number within the same 



78 THE entomologist's record. 

limit, and the farmer has not been benefitted. If he desires to save his 
crop, he must himself adopt measures for the destruction of these 
insects: parasites will not helj) him in the least." With this wise and 
logical deduction we will leave the paper. 

Another paper, on " Mosquitoes," by J. Alston Moffat, of Loudon, 
Ontario, is most interesting and instructive. He says in the course of 
it : — " Travellers have recorded their experience with mosquitoes in all 
parts of the world ; some declaring that those of the Arctic regions are 
the worst they ever encountered, but South America, from its climatic 
condition and its low-lying lands, which are frequently flooded, is in a 
position to carry off the prize against the world for its crop of mosquitoes 
and that the early travellers there were duly impressed with this fact 
is evidenced by the names given to places, such as Mosquito Coast, 
Mosquito Bay and Mosquito Town. In ancient history we read of 
armies on the march being arrested on the way and made to beat a 
hasty retreat from the attack of these tiny warriors, which is quite 
believable ; for if we take into consideration tlie scant and loose cover- 
ing which they probably wore, which gave the wearers so much more 
space to defend, they were not in a condition to jjursue human foes, 
when every man of them was engaged in a double-handed conflict witli 
such pertinacious insect enemies." 

We had almost overlooked one of the most important papers. It is 
on piire entomology, and entitled "A contrasted summary of the main 
external Characters of Butterflies in their different stages of life," by 
Dr. Scudder. It is in tabular form, and were it not for want of space, 
we would reproduce it here, but we have no doubt most of our more 
advanced readers will get it for themselves. 

It is impossible to go further into this readable volume, but there is 
one thing we should like to })oint out and that is that of 1,761 dollars 
received by the Society, no less than 1,000 dollars was in the shape of 
Government grant. Our colony is, therefore, far ahead of us as regards 
the public interest taken by the Government in entomological work. 
Many of the articles are purely economic, others are descrij^tive ; but 
the advantage to agriculturists of such an annual volume which, we 
believe, the Government distributes broadcast, must be incalculable, as 
much in leading their powers of observation in the right direction as in 
the direct information given in its pages. We have no doubt that the 
secretaries of our Societies could get copies annually in return for their 
own Tranmctions ; at any rate it should be considered a part of the duty 
of the larger Societies to provide their members with a copy. J. Alston 
Moffat, Es(i., Ent. Soc. of Ontario, Victoria Hall, London, Ontario, would, 
no doubt, arrange such an exchange. 

New Mexico College of Agricidtnre, Bulletin 10, Sei)tember, 1893.— 
Las Cruces, whither Prof. Cockerell has recently gone as one of the 
State Entomologists, gives us this, and the insect portion is written by 
our esteemed correspondent. Four of our British si)ecies of lepidoptera 
come in for notice: — Vanessa antiojia, an imago seen on August 5th, 
whilst a brood of larvse were taken on the same day feeding on willow. 
Carpocupsa pomonella ; apples offered for sale in Las Cruces were 
observed to be badly infested. HeJiothis armiyer (the corn-worm), the 
larvfBof which were found on August IGth, living in the sheaths of tlie 
young leaves of corn at the College Farm. It is yellowish-grey with 
short almost invisible hairs springing from small blackish tubercles ; 



KOTiCES AND REVIEWS, 7^ 

the head is pale ochreous, shiny and sjwtless. Leucania nnipnncta (the 
army worm). Of this IMr. Oockerell writes : — " Early in August I was 
informed hy Mr. Lohman that there was a terrible ])lague of cater- 
pillars or worms down at the mill, and so went to investigate the matter. 
Mr. Schaublin conducted me to the field infested and the sight there was 
sufficientl}' astonishing: thousands of army worms crawling over the 
phtnts and on the ground, and the alfalfa so denuded of its leaves as to 
be hardly recognizable. They had appeared suddenly, as is usual, and 
the work of destruction had been rapid. Besides the alfalfa, I noticed 
they were very fond of eating apples fallen from the trees, and many 
even ascended the apple trees and fed u}ion the leaves. They also ate 
some corn plants, leaving only the mid-ribs of the leaves; they attacked 
the leaves of sweet potato, and seemed very fond of capsicum pepper, 
devouring the leaves and excavating the fruits. A wild Solanum and 
Amaranthiis were also attacked, but though many took shelter under 
the grape vines they did not attack them. This avoidance of vine 
leaves for food was noted years ago by Dr. C. V. Eiley. I found they 
were eating the beans, which is noteworthy, as Dr. Eiley found tliat 
some army worms which he experimented with would not eat this 
plant, although they would accept peas. On the gi-ound was a piece of 
cut water-melon on which many of the w^orms were feeding, and I found 
they took readily to cucumber. Later I found them eating the leaves 
of sunflower, and two or three worms were noticed on asparagus." 
" Mr. Schaublin remarked on the number of toads about ; these were 
undoubtedly feeding on the worms. There were also parasitic flies — 
flies not unlike a common meat-fly, which produce grubs, whose lives 
are spent in the inside of caterpillars, feeding on their juices. These 
grubs eventually kill their hosts and turn into flies (Tricholyga, sp.) like 
their })arents. The fly places her eggs on the skin of the caterpillar, 
and from these the grulj hatches. I found one such egg on one of the 
army worms." " The army worm, when fully grown, burrows into the 
earth and turns into a pupa, from which emerges the army worm moth, 
known to naturalists as Leucania imipiincta. I caught one of these moths 
in Las Cruces some weeks ago ; it is of moderate size, jDale brownish in 
colour, with no conspicuous marks." — Ed. 

The Transactions of the City of London Emtomologic.^l Society, 
1893. — This Society is to be congratulated on having just issued its trans- 
actions, for this, the third successive year. Small and unpretentious as the 
volume is, it contains a vast amount of useful scientific information, all 
comprised within some eighty pages of closely printed matter. Nor 
are its contents calculated to interest members only. We heartily and 
emphatically recommend its perusal to all entomologists worthy of the 
name. We may even go further, and say, that if the papers read at 
future meetings of the above Society continue up to the present level 
(and we have reason to suppose that they will), no scientific entomolo- 
gist — we use the qualification advisedly — wishing to be ' up to date,' 
dare be without a copy. The volume contains the best efforts of 
competent men. 

Among numerous other useful items may be mentioned, a paper read 
by Mr. Tutt, on the " Genus Xanthia," and the scholarly productions 
of Dr. Buckell, entitled respectively " Specific Nomenclature, Past, 
Present, and Future " and " History of Butterfly Classification," givino- 
evidence of gi-eat research ; also " Notes on certain Coleopterous Insects, 
found in City Warehouses," by Mr. G. A. Lewcock. 



so THE entomologist's RECORD. 

Altogether, it is to be hoped, that the Society will receive a larger 
amount of financial support than hitherto, in order that it may extend 
its meritorious labours. It is suggested that a wider circulation of this 
volume would assist in this direction, and that copies, price 2s., can be 
obtained of Mr. C E. Nicholson, 202, Evering Koad, Upper Clapton, 
N.E.— H. E. P. 



] 



gOCIETIES. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
February 2nd, 1894. — Exhibits : Mr. Battley ; the jaw-bones of a fish 
called the Thornback Kay, which feeds on crabs, &c. ; the bones were 
each provided with a set of flattened, tooth-like plates, which slightly 
overlapped and seemed to be of very hard material. He also showed a 
spine of the same fish, and called the attention of the members to the 
fact that this spine Avas hollow and very hard. Mr. Clai'k ; Biston 
hirtaria. Lobophora lobulata, Zyyaena trifolii (a yellow var.) and Abraxas 
grossidariata (dark var.), all from Perth. He also exhibited, at Mr. 
Tutt's request, the fine series of Aryi/nnis paphia, taken in the New 
Forest last year. In consequence of some remarks by Mr. Froliawk 
{Entomoloijist, Feb. 1894) relative to these sjiecimens, the opinion of the 
meeting was taken as to whether any of the male specimens showed 
traces of greenish coloration ; th.e members were unanimous that such 
was the case with two of the males. The whole series consisted of 
twenty-four butterflies, of which the spotted specimens were as follows : 
Six males with straw-coloured spots, two of them having also distinct 
greenish blotches on the hind wings ; six females with greenish blotches, 
two of them having also bleached looking markings on the fore-wings. 
Mr. Prout ; 3Iamestra sordida (anceps) bred last January. He stated 
that he found this larva at Culver Down, Isle of Wight, feeding on grass 
at night ; it strongly resembled the larva of Apamea basilinea ; as it 
seemed disposed to hybernate, he kept it feeding in a warm room, with 
the result that it pupated in December. He also showed a specimen of 
A. basilinea reared under somewhat similar conditions in 1892. He 
was inclined to think that sordida should be removed from the genus 
Maviestra and placed before Apamea gemina, A. unanimis and A. basi- 
linea, as in Kirby's " European Butterflies and Moths," with which 
insects he considered it had more affinities tlian with the genus Mamestra. 
Mr. Bacot ; ova of Ni/ssia hispidaria, laid in captivity. Dr. Buckell 
remarked that they very much resembled those of its ally Amphidasys 
betularia. 

Mr. Bayne, who exhibited a good series of the insect, which included 
brown, greenish, light grey, melanic and white-margined forms of the 
^ and gi-een and brown forms of the 5 , then read the following 
paper : — 

NOTES ON NYSSIA HISPIDARIA. 

On February 1st, 1893, two apterous ? s emerged in my breeding 
cage from pujoas dug in Epping Forest in the late autumn of 1892. The 
preceding week or ten days had been very mild for the time of year. 
J'higalia pedaria {pilosaria) had been observed in the open on January 
22nd and eight Hybernia de/oliaria had been bred indoors between the 



snriKTiES. 81 

25th and 29tli of that mouth. Of course, as these ? s were certainly 
not P. pednria, they were at once noted as Nyssia hispidaria and Feb. 
5th being tine and bright, was devoted to searching for this species, the 
said search being rewarded, after five hours, hy a single ^ taken on a 
" spear " oalc. Hijhernla mar<jinaria (progemiaaria), both sexes, and 
Anisopterijx aeseularia put in a first appearance on the same day. The 
emergence of two 3's and a $ N. hispidaria during the night of Feb. 
7th, which was warm, gave the impression that there was a possibility 
that the species might be found more commonly than is usual in the 
Forest, Avhei-e three years' searching had resulted in the discovery of 
about *75 of a male. The next expedition, on the 12th of the same 
month, was, however, hardly a success ; the wind was fresh, in fact 
blew a gale from the N.W., the weather was dull with passing showers 
of hail and rain, and the shade temperature ranged (in London) from 
44° to 34"^. Only one crippled g" and a ? with five legs turned up, 
and Lepidoptera generally were very scarce. The morning of Feb. 19th 
however, had a very different aspect ; the wind was S.E., light, and 
during the day the temperature ranged from 59° to 46° ; a shower fell 
about 9 a.m. ; the weather was splendid for February — mild with bright 
sunshine, and the clan turned out in force f(3r a grand effort. The 
first hispidaria was quickl}^ found, and before many trees had been 
searched, it became evident that the moth was in overwhelming abun- 
dance. At lU.30 many were seen drying their wings and some with 
wings quite unexpanded. The general time for emergence seems to be 
from early morning to about 2 p.m. The height at which they usually 
sat was four to five feet, but a fair proportion were very much higher. 
Some were running rapidly uji the trunks, while one or two were rest- 
ing, apparently unconcernedly, with the sun shining brightly upon them. 
They press themselves very closety into crevices in the bark and are 
not by any means eas}^ to find. Individuals were noticed on hornbeam, 
beech, &c. as well as on oak, and even on trailing creepers. Very few 
cripples were met with. The species must, as would be expected from 
the apterous condition of the ? and the structure of the antennae in 
the 3 , assemble, and it was remarked that where a J was discovered 
one male, if not more, was jDractically certain to be on the same trunk. 
To give an idea of the abundance of the insect on this day, I may say 
that in one favoured spot thirteen were resting on a large oak — nine ^ s 
and four J s. The other s^jring insects were seen on the same day but 
were none of them present in more than their usual numbers. On the 
25th no searching was done — the entry in the diary reads simply thus : 
" Went to Chingford, weather awful, swore, and went home." On the 
27th a single J emerged indoors. On March 5th a good deal of ground 
was covered and about a score of specimens turned up ; the morning 
was fine Init the sky clouded over gradually as the day went on ; the 
weather was mild, wind N.W. but sport generally was not very good. 
On the 12th of the same month two ^ s and one J were noticed and 
the season, so far as this species was concei'ned, closed at 12.30 on 
March 26th with the capture of a single (? drying its wings. Thus a 
period of seven weeks had elapsed since the first appearance. 

The insect is, I should think, an easy one to pair in captivity. I 
13laced a ^ which had been out a day or two with a freshly emerged 
? , in a fairly large wooden box, on Feb. 8th, but, though I looked at 
them morning and evening, I did not witness the pairing ; however, on 
the 11th, the $ deposited a number of fertile ova. 



82 THE entomologist's record, 

I have never seen the male in the act of flyinpj spontaneously, but 
we caused several to take the air by throwing them up. These flew 
rai)idly and turned very sharplj^ — darting forward and doul;)ling back 
suddenly, so that they would be difficult to catcli on the wing. 

In considering the possible causes of this aljnormal al)undance of 
the species in 1893, I will first deal with an important factor in the 
situation — the weather, beginning at the point when we commenced our 
search for the species, February, 1890. In 1890 one imago was found. 
Spring probably moderately favourable for larvEe. In 1890-91, winter 
unusually rigorous ; 1891, February very favourable for appearance of 
imago, none however found. March, April, and May cold, spring- 
very backward, and perhaps unfavourable to larvae ; 1891-92, winter 
again severe ; 1892, spring rather favourable to larvae ; October, a wet 
month ; November, fairly dry, temperature, average ; December dry, 
the first week cold, with low night temperature ; then a fortnight of 
warm weather ; the last week exceedingly coLl, 17 to 18 degrees of frost ; 
1893, January, rather dry but cold, es[)ecially the early part of the 
month ; Feljruary, a wet month, with temperature above the average ; 
March, April, and May, extremely dry; larvae (I am told) plentiful. 
The probable effect of the cold winters of 1890-91 and 1891-92, would 
be to keejD down the depredations of the moles, mice, beetles, earwigs, 
&c., by extending the length of time which they spend in a state of 
tor})idity, and possibly to reduce the numbers of these enemies to pupte. 
No imagines were found by us in either 1891 or 1892, though February 
of the first-named year appeared to be eminently suited for emergence, 
but the cold dreary spring months of 1891 may have checked any 
increase by retarding or stopping the due development of the larva\ I 
{jm sorry, however, that I am unable to speak as to the frequent occur- 
rence or otherwise, of the larvae in those years, for this would give a 
truer idea of the relative abundance ; searching for the imago being 
often obstructed by the available days happening to be cold or Avet. J 
do not know whether the heavy rainfall of October, 1892, may have 
favoured the pupo3. Are they liable to dry up ? As they usually, I 
believe, bury themselves to a depth of several inches, moisture, dryness 
or cold would not be so likely to affect them, as would be the case with 
pujDaB lying nearer the surface. Many, however, do not inter themselves 
so deeply, as we have found pup^e just under the roots of the grass. 
Any advantage, too, gained by a very wet and mild season, would 
probably be more than counterbalanced by the extra activity of the mole, 
and other lovers of fat pupfe. 

Some other ideas suggest themselves. Immigration can scarcely be 
an imjiortant factor in a species Avith a wingless J . It has, indeed, 
been su})})osed, that a reinforcement of (J s might increase the fertility 
of a species, but it seems unlikely that hispidaria should have benefitted 
in this way, although, from its robust appearance, a long flight would 
appear quite possible. The sudden augmentation of numbers, it will be 
noticed, took place in a well-known locality, where the insect is found 
in greater or less numbers, (generally the latter) every year. An 
alteration in the fertility or irregular fertility of a species in different 
seasons, has been suggested, but I do not know whether there are any 
facts in support of this theory recorded in relation to the macro-lepi- 
doptera. It might be that an unfavourable change in the weather 
might retard oviposition by the ? , or even destroy her, and this may 



SOCIETIES. 



83 



possibly exert a certain influence in some seasons. The day on which 
we found the single <? in 189U, was an example of such a change, the 
afternoon turning very cold, snow and hail falling fast, and benig driven 
by a strong N.W. wind into the crevices of the bark. I have been told 
by friends who have reared the species, that tlie larva is very subject to 
the attacks of Ichneamonidae, Tachinidae, etc., but we know so lit,tle as to 
the relative abundance or scarcity of these parasites, that their influence 
must, I am afraid, remain an undetermined factor. 

Eispidaria is, I am given to understand, a very prolific insect, but 
it seems no marvel, when we consider the perils through which it has 
to pass, that so few reach maturity. The ova have to withstand the 
attacks of tits, creepers, spiders, &c.— By the way, the Faridae seem to 
find the forest tree-trunks a prime feeding ground in the winter months ; 
they rove through the woods in large flocks. — The larvae have to run the 
gauntlet of the inclemency of our springs, of lehneumonidae, Tachinidne, 
birds, and other enemies ; the pupa? are beloved by the mole ; the imago 
emerges in a month so cheerless as is our customary February, and in a 
very dry or frosty season might even be unable to reach the surface. 
Our friends (or enemies) the tits may often be observed during the 
winter months searching on the ground and about the roots of the 
trees, and no doubt many a $ falls to their lot. But the prolificness of 
the species would render probable its appearance in unusual numbers, 
whenever the attentions of its numerous enemies was in any degree 
relaxed, or meteorological conditions were unusually favourable. It 
may be interesting to note in passing that another moth, Taeniocampa 
munda, was much more, abundant than usual in the early part of 1893. 
Since 1890, this moth has been far from common, but last spring it 
might have been captured by hundreds at the sallows. Its larva feeds 
on oak, and undergoes pupation at the base of the tree, favouring 
similar situations to N. Mspidaria. I fear, however, that we cannot 
arrive at any very definite conclusions as to the causes of the pheno- 
menal abundance of the last-named species last year. The only really 
determinable among the, perhaps, many determining causes, appears to 
be the favourable spring of 1892 for the development of the larva}, and 
the equally favourable February of 1893, for the emergence of the 
perfect insect. 

Uispidaria is a Vienna Catalogue, name but, as that work contains no de- 
scription of the insect, we take the following, made from Schiifermiiller's 
specimens by Fabricius {Mant. Insect., ii, p. 191, no. 59), as the type, 
" Phalaena pectinicornis alis cinereo-fuscis : striga undata obscuriore, 
margine alba punctate, antennis flavis. Nimis aifinis P. hirtariae at 
paullo minor. Corpus hirtum griseo-fuscum. Antennas flav;e.' Ala? 
obscuraj striga media undata obscuriore. Margo albo punctatus." 
Iliilmer (Sariiml. europ. Schmett., iv., fig. 177), figures the insect as pale 
brown (not greenish), the fore wings with three and the hind wings 
with two transverse lines. Inferior wings, pale ; outer margin of fore 
wings, yellowish-white. Treitsclike {Srlnuet. v. Enrnp., vi., 1, -547), 
seems to have been the first author to mention the 2 ; to a diagnosis 
similar to that of Fabricius he adds " foemina aptera." Duponchel 
{Hist. Nat., vii., 154, 3), describes the fore wings as being of a rather 
dark bistre, with a band of a clearer tint at the outer margin, traversed 
by three blackish diverging lines, of which two are curved and the 
third is sinuous and toothed ; and the hind wings as being pale bistre. 



fi4 THE entomologist's recorp. 

with two blackish lines, one being faintly marked. The figures agree 
well with this description. Herrich-Schaeffer. in 1844: (St/st. Bearheit., 
iii, fig. 14), figures the $ . 

']\irning now to British authors : — Donovan (Brit. Insects, xiii, pi. 
447), in 1808, figures and minutely describes the species under the name 
of Phalaena ursiilaria (the thick-haired moth). Both sexes are said to 
be represented in the plate, but the figures are all of males. Donovan 
would have referred it to the Bombyces " without scruple .... Init for 
the authority of Mr. Drury, who was so fortunate as to rear it from the 
caterpillar, and which, being of the looper kind, decidedly proves it to 
l)e of the Geometr.^, instead of Bombvx family." Donovan thought 
the specimens bred from these larvaa and preserved in Drury's cabinet 
(which Donovan possessed) were unique. It seems rather curious that 
he should have thus re-named the insect, as he was acquainted with the 
Mantitisa, and especially as he says " our present insect has some re- 
semljlance . . to the sp. hirtaria, but is smaller," while Fabricius writes 
" Ximis aifinis P. hirtariae at paullo minor." Newman, in the Entomo- 
loijicdl Miujazine for 1833 (vol. i, 413), described the pale form as a new 
species, under the name of Nyss'ia tanaria . His description is as follows : — ■ 
" Fusco grisea, metathoracis margine anteriori, lineaque centrali longi- 
tudinal! nigris, ^ ," and he mentions as specific characters by which to 
distinguish it from hispidaria and jjilosnria, " its superiority in size to 
the former of these ; the T on the mesothoi-ax, formed by the transverse 
and longitudinal black lines ; the broad pale margins of the front wings, 
and lastly, tlie fact that the specimen emerged at such a different time 
of the year from other members of the genus (which, Guene'e states, all 
appear in March, or earlier), it having been taken by Newman's father, 
in June, 1832, at Leominster, in a perfectly recent state, and had 
apparently never flown." 

Wood (Index Entomologicus, fig. 1G75) figures this specimen as Nyssia 
tanaria, but there is a note by Westwood, " hispidaria var." Wood 
gives reference to Entom. Mag. and to Stephens (lU. Hand., iv., p. 391). 
He also delineated hispidaria (No. 466), his figure being of a dirty 
brownish-grey colour, the inner margin clouded with a darker shade, 
the outer margin pale and the transverse lines indistinct. Guenee 
(Hist. Nat. des Insedes., Geom. i., 202) referring to the tauaria of 
Newman, as figured by Wood, says " it does not appear to me even a 
variety. It is a fairly good figure of the type, wliilst No. 466 is inexact 
and much too dark." He adds that he had, however, received from 
England " an individual much more sombre than the French form." 
Newman in his British 3Ioths omits all mention of tanaria, but gives a 
very good description of our usual form of hispidaria. 

The varieties of Nyssia his2ridaria may be roughly classified as 
follows : — (a) Pale greenish-grey, lines distinct : (b) pale reddish-brown, 
lines distinct (Hb. 177) : (c) ashy-brown, w-ith darker band ; this may 
be divided into two sub- varieties (cl) ashy, with a brownish tendency 
(the type) and (c2) ashy, with a greenish tendency : (d) similar to the 
type, iaut with the outer margin of fore-wings nearly white : (e) melanic. 
The first form might well be called var. tauaria, Newm., though it does 
not always show plainly the black T on the meso-thorax. This is the 
form to which Guenee refers as the type. Examples of this pale form 
are, according to our experience, rare ; their proportion being about 2 
or 3 per cent. I have seen no specimens that agree with Hiibner's 



SOCIETIES. 85 

figure, though it seems probable that such exist. It would have a 
similar relation to tauaria to that which the ashy-brown type has to the 
gi'eyer sub- variety. The form Avith the pale outer margin is also, 
unfortunately, far from common ; it is perhaps the most beautiful form 
of the species ; in the specimen which I exhibit it will be noticed that 
the pale band is continued across the hind-wings, dividing these into a 
dai'k basal area and an outer nearly white area. Melanic specimens are 
likewise scarce ; they usually show traces of the outer marginal band. 
I exhibit also a few other variations ; two specimens show a tendency 
to the development of a solid black median band ; another is a very 
dull brown diffused example ; a third is more thinly scaled than usual. 
The decidedly paler and more clearly marked character of Continental 
(especiall}' French) specimens is very evident, both from the figures of 
Hiibner and Duponchel and from the remarks of Guenee. The figures, 
too, represent the insect as having two lines across the hind-wings; I 
have no specimens in which these are present but, in a few, there are 
slight indications of them. The great majority of my examples from 
Ep2:)ing Forest are tyjjical, sombre-looking and indistinctly marked. 

And now a few words about the ? . As has been more than once 
pointed out, there is a pale greenish-grey form and a dark reddish-black 
form. It is most easily distinguished from the female of P. pedarid 
by the legs, which are nearly smooth in pedaria but very hairy (at least 
the basal joints are) in hkpklaria. The antennje of the latter, too, are 
more pectinated and she is stouter structurally, 

Guenee writing of the genus Nyssia, Dup. remarks on the strong 
build and hairiness of the thorax, the semi-transparency of the wings 
in the ^ (this transparency is rather noticeable in some examples of 
hispidaria) and the apterous character of the J s. He states that all 
the species are more or less rare ; and that he knew only Euroj^ean 
species. Guene'e divided the genus into two groujDS — the first having 
the rings of the abdomen in the $ s adorned by circles of colours often 
rather bright. This first gToup includes our zonaria, lapponaria and 
hispidaria belonging to the second. Our two species (omitting lappon- 
aria, of which I know nothing) differ widely in form and in habits, 
hispidaria resting on tree trunks and its coloration assimilating itself 
to the trees on which it rests, while zonaria frequents sandhills, its 
coloration protecting it among the grasses, &c. of its habitat. 

Dr. Buckell remarked that the Aniphidasi/dae consisted so far as this 
country was concerned of six species, three of which had apterous 
females and the other three females with fully-developed wings. He 
did not know whether there were any Continental species which 
occupied an intermediate position as regarded this characteristic. 

Mr. Tutt, in rising to jjropose a vote of thanks to Mr. Bayne, 
congratulated him on the interesting paper he had fiu-nished, and then 
went on to say that he quite agreed with Mr. Bayne on the improba- 
bility of hispidaria having been affected by immigration, although it 
was remarkable how widely distributed some si)ecies with apterous 
females were, and the males of two species with a2)terous females, 
Hybcruia defoliaria and H. aarantiaria Avere known to migrate. The 
abundance he considered due to local causes, one important feature tliat 
struck him being that the previous year the oaks had been less deh)liated 
than usual by the ravages of Tortrix viridaaa, and it was remarkable 
that Taeniocainpa munda, another oak feeder, was abundant the same 



86 THE entomologist's RECOKl). 

year. The effect of the utter defoliation of the oak trees in some years 
must often act detrimentally on other larvfe which are feeding at the 
time, and of these Nyssia liispidnria would suffer greatly. It was an 
off-hand suggestion certainly but seemed probahle. 

Mr. Bacot, who seconded the vote of thanks, observed that he 
understood that jDupa^ had been dug in considerable numbers during 
the past winter, and that the imagines emerging from these had been 
in the proportion of twelve or fifteen females to one male. From fifty 
pupa3 which he had received from Epping Forest he had not, as yet, 
bred a single male. Thinking it probable that " assembling " Avould 
occur, he, on February 3rd, took six or seven females to Chingford and 
placed them in a small gauze cage about five feet from the ground. 
The evening was favourable, warm and windy though clear. The first 
g- turned up at about 6.45 ; others followed, in twos and threes at first 
but afterwards singly and at longer intervals until 7.30, when the last 
was cai:)tured. The total "bag" was seventeen and one or two others 
were missed. Mr. Bacot watched the cage in order to try and get a 
sight of the males as they came up, but it was too dark to see them 
i;ntil they w^ere quite close ; their flight then seemed to be very rapid 
and their buzzing against the cage audible some feet away ; two of 
them flew against his face and the IjIow was more like that given by a 
beetle than by a moth, (^n reaching home tAvo males were put into 
the cage with the females; they co|)ulated about 10.30 but only 
remained in copulation about fifteen minutes, herein differing from 
Biston hirtarta and Ampliidasys hetnlaria, which remain joined for some 
hours. After seixaration the two males and the virgin females were 
removed to separate chip boxes for the night ; the next evening the 
males began to get restive about 6.30, and were placed in the cage with 
the females that had not commenced to lay, to which wei'e added two 
that had emerged that morning. One of the males, a rather large one 
with a piece torn out of one of his fore-wings, went in copulation 
within a few minutes and the pair remained together about fifteen 
minutes ; after they had separated the 2 was removed and shortly 
afterwards the same $ was found in copulation with another $ . Mr. 
Bacot kept this last 5 apart from the rest, in order that special note 
might be taken as to whether her ova prove fertile or not, it having been 
the third time that same $ had paired witliin twenty-four liours. 
Mr. Bacot thinks that there is probably a second flight, as the males in 
his cage again began to get lively about 10.30 to 11 p.m. 

Mr. Prout considered it probable that the abundance of N. hispularia 
in 1893, was due rather to meteorological or local causes, than to immi- 
gration. He had done a good deal of larva-beating during the last few 
years, at the spot Avhere Mr. Bayne found the moths most abundant, and 
the larva seem to have been steadily increasing in numbers, having 
been specially plentiful in 1892. The larva is not exclusively an oak 
feeder ; it will thrive Avell on hawthorn, and hornbeam. As hawthorn 
is obtainable at least a month earlier than oak, a knowledge of its bemg 
accepted by the larvte may be useful to those breeding the species from 
ova. Mr. Prout was disposed to doubt whether it was safe to assume 
that the coloration of figures, even of those of Hiibner, was always 
accurate. He had long thought that there must be some kind of con- 
nection between winter emergence and the occurrence of apterous 
females, Orrjyio, etc., being merely casual exceptions due to some 
different cause. It was certainly interesting to note that in the Ainphi^ 




1. Head of the 
Pupa-skin of 
Micropteryx 
j)ur2inreUa, 
si lowing the 
jaws partly 
opened. 

X y5 diameters. 




2. —The same, 
showing the 
jaws closed. 

X 85 diameters. 




8. — Portion of 
a preserA'ed 
specimen of 
a half-grown 
larva of En'o- 
ccjilidhi ral- 
thelUi, show- 
ing the spicu- 
latcd globular 
appendages. 
X 14:0 diameters. 



3 



From photographs taken by Alfred Watkins, Esq., Hereford 
of Dr. 

Entom. Record, etc 



By the courtesy of Dr. Chapman we are able to give the above representations in illustration 
■' of his paper (pp. 87—88). 

Plate E. 



SOOIETiES. 8f 

dasydae, the earliest species have apterous females, while those that 
emerge later on, are winged in both sexes, the solitary summer species, 
A. betulan'a, alone having the wings of the $ really well-develoijed. 

Mr. Clark mentioned birch as another plant on which the larvse 
readily feed, and remarked that, in pupating, the larva frequently 
descends as much as eighteen inches below the surface of the ground. 

At the meeting of the Entomological Society of London on Feb. 
7th, 1894:, Mr. Jenner Weir exhibited, on behalf of Mr. J. M. Adye, a 
specimen of Plusia moneta, which had been captured at Christchurch, 
Hants, and remai'ked that this species was apparently becoming a 
permanent resident here ; the food-plant, Aconitum napellus, though 
rare in England as a wild plant, was very common in gardens. Mr. 
Weir also exhibited a nearly black specimen of Venilia macidaria, the 
yellow markings being reduced to a few small dots. Mr. Hamilton 
Druce exhibited a female specimen of HypQchrysops scintdlans, lately 
received by him from Mioko, New Ireland. He said that only the 
male of this species had been as yet described, and read a description 
of the female. Mr. F. Enock exhibited a nest of the British Trap- 
door Spider, Atypus picens, recently found near Hastings by Mrs. Enock. 
Mr. W. F. H. Blandford stated that he had recently o!)tained an 
additional species of Scolyto-platy pas from Japan, Avhicli, though closely 
allied to the species he had formerly described, showed a veiy distinct 
modification of the male pro-sternum. Mr. M. Jacoby exhibited and 
remarked on a specimen of LepAispa jrygamea, Baly, which was doing 
much injury to sugar-cane in the Bombay Presidency of India. Mr. 
G. C. Gliampion stated that he had found an allied species on bamboo. 
Dr. F. A. Dixey read a paper — which was illustrated by the oxy- 
hydrogen lantern — " On the Phylogeny of the Pierinae as illustrated 
by their wing-markings and geographical distribution." Dr. Dixey 
considers that the wing-markings in Pierinae are reducible to a common 
plan, the chief features of Avhich are : — (1) two dark bands or series of 
spots, one marginal and the other sub-marginal : (2) a dark discoidal 
patch or patches : (3) various yellow or red patches in pre-costal region 
and at the base of the underside of the hind-wing. The dark series 
represent, most probably, the remains of an original dark or dusky 
ground-colour, which has given way, more or less comjDletely, before 
an invasion of the white or yellow that characterises most of the 
present-day Pierinae. A consideration of all the evidence attainable 
seems to bear out the conclusion that the darker colour is, in most cases, 
the older, and the present geographical distribution of the sub-family 
confirms, on the whole, the phylogenetic results obtained from the 
wing- markings as well as from the more specially structural features. 
Dr. T. A. Chapman read a paper entitled " Some notes on those species 
of Micro-Lepidoptera, allied to Micropte.ryx, whose larvfB are external 
feeders, and chiefly on the early stages of Eriocephala calthella," of this 
we are enabled, by the kindness of the author, to give the following- 
epitome : 

The family Micro pie vygidae is divisible into two distinct sul)-faniilies 
which have little in common. The Micropteryges proper (purpurella, itc.) 
have footless mining larvtvj, pu})£e of a very low type and possessing im- 
mense active jaws (Plate E, figs. 1 e*e 2), the imagines being without jaws. 
The Eriocephalae (calthella, &c.) have larva3 that feed externally and tliat 
are furnisliod with three pairs of true legs and eight pairs of abdominal 
pro-legs ; their imagines have strong useful jaws, with which they eat 



88 THE entomologist's RECORt>. 

pollen. The metamorphoses of Mlcropteryx have long been known, 
those of Eriocephala are now described for the first time. The eggs 
are spherical and have a covering of minute vertical rods, Avhich gives 
them a snowy appearance ; they are laid, several together, in moss 
{Hypnum). The larvae are most extraordinary creatures and in general 
outline are not unlike the larvje of Ornithoptera or of Antherea poly- 
phenms ; they are short, square, angular and truncate, with eight rows 
of curious knobbed appendages (Plate E, fig. 8), eight pairs of aljdominal 
pro-legs of a jointed structure, an anal sucker and remarkably long 
antenna3. The larva feeds on Hypnwn, is very sluggish in its movements 
but rarely quiescent, and requires a very moist habitat ; it spins an oval 
cocoon amongst moss. 

The other external-feeding Micros are the Limacodidac and 
Zygaenidae. This relationship of families is further supported by 
observations made on the newly-hatched larva of Limacodes tedudo 
whose spines have, at that period, an arrangement and structure more 
resembling Eriocephala than any other form. The sucker of Eriocephala 
and the mode of progression of Limacodes (almost unique amongst 
Lepidoptera) furnish another strong suggestion of the alliance. The 
extra abdominal pro-legs present in the larvae of Lmjoa cri^pata (a 
Limacodid), which the author hoj^es to investigate further, seem a 
reminiscence of the extra abdominal i)ro-legs of Eriocephala. The 
points suggesting the alliance with the Zygaenidae need further study. 
It is noted that Syntomis, Euchromia and other forms often associated 
with Zygaena are very distinct from it ; they are Arctiids and there 
is no near relationship between Zygaena and Arctia. Eriocephala, 
Limacodes and Zygaena, though more nearly related to each other than 
to anything else, are nevertheless widely separated and may be likened 
to the islets which still remain above the surface to indicate the moun- 
tain peaks of a submerged continent ; there must, in the course of their 
developmental history, have been many intermediate families. The 
persistence of s^'stematists in associating Arctiid forms with Zygaena, 
and the Micro patterns of wing-marking common in Arctiids are 
probably results of some alliances which are at present obscure. The 
larvaj and pupa? show them to be now widely separated. 

The erstwhile Leicester Ento3iologioal Club has become the 
Entomological Section of the Leicester Literary and Philosophical 
iSociETV. Its first meeting under the new conditions was held on 
Jan. 25th, 1894, when W. A. Vice, M.B., was elected Chairman, Kev. 
C. T. Crutwell, M.A., Vice-chairman, and F. Bouskell, F.E.S., Hon. 
Secretary. It was resolved to hold meetings on the fourth Tuesday of 
each month. Ur. W. S. Kiding's paper (Ent. Bee, Jan., 1894), " On 
an additional method for determining the species of certain Lepido})- 
tera," was discussed ; Mr. Bates considered that, although the number 
of teeth in the scales might aid in the differentiation of species, yet that 
more obvious characters were necessary for general use, and it was 
generally agreed, that if the scales were relied upon, extremely accurate 
observations of them would be imperative. A new list of the Lepidop- 
tera of the county is in course of in-c})aration* and a list of the Coleoptera 
is contemplated ; Mr. Bouskell Avill be glad to receive notes relative to 
the occurrence of Lepidoptera, whilst similar notes concerning Coleoptera 
should be sent to Mr. F. Bates. 

* W lial has become of the much talked of City of London Society's List ? — Ed. 



(^^ AND ^^^ 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION. 



No. 4. Vol. V. April ISth, 1894. 



1'lie Life-jJistory of a Lepidopterous Iiisect, 

Comprising some account of its Morphology and Physiology. 
By J. W. TUTT, F.E.S. 

(Coutinned from page 68). 



Chap. I. 
CLASSIFICATION. 



4. On the kelationship which exists between the 
SEVERAL Orders cojiposing the Class Insecta. — Oue of the most 
recent attempts to show cliagTammatically the evolutionary relations of 
the various Orders of insects to each other, is that made by A. Hyatt 
and J. M. Arms (Guides to Science Teaching, No. viii.) and reprinted in 
Fsyche, vol. vi., pp. 12-13, diag. 1, 2, 3. Tliese authors conclude 
that, of the higher (winged) forms which may be assumed to have 
arisen from a common stem, the Neuroptera, Mecoptera and Trielioptera 
may be considered as forming a sub-group, passing off from the common 
stem in different directions ; the Lepidoptera, Hymeno2)tera and Diptera, 
as forming another radiating off in other directions, whilst tlie Coleoptera 
have no relations to the others save through the purely imaginary 
ancestral l)ase. Estimating approximately the degree of specialization 
attained by the adults (imagines) and taking it as the basis of their con- 
elusions, these authors consider tlie Diptera, Hymenoj^tera, Coleoptera 
and Lepidoptera, to be the highest in the scale of evolution, their 
relative order being as here set down. The relationshiji of existin"- 
larval forms to a primitive type and to each other is fully discussed, as 
well as the moditications Avhich particular groujis have undergone in 
their relationship to the primitive type {Psyche, vol. vi., pp. 37, 44). 

It is, of course, absolutely necessary, that in using the terms hio-her 
a,nd lower, we consider as the highest grou}) that which has under- 
gone the greatest degree of specialisation from the ancestral type, and 
then, undoubtedly the clioice lies between the Hymenoptera and Diptera. 
Lowne says : — "The Diptera are far more remarkable in tlieir dcveloi)- 
ment history, and in the modification of structure wliicli they present 
in the adult or imago form. In this relation, the strong tendency of 
many to produce their young alive, and the fact that some have a 



90 THE entomologist's kecoku. 

capacious matrix or uterus, iu wliicli tlic larvae are liatched, or even 
attain the pupa form before birth, is not without interest, presenting as 
it does, some analogy with the viviparous cliaracter of the mammalia 
among vertebrates — whilst the nest-building instincts are more manifest 
in Hymenoptera and in birds. It is triie that the flies and more 
especialty the heavy forms, with a comparatively tardy flight like the 
blowfly, have been regarded as stupid — Sprengel call tliem ' die dummcn 
Fliegen ' — and do not excite our sympathy and curiosity to the same 
extent, as the social Hymeno})tera ; but it is iuq^ossible to judge of the 
intellectual functions of an insect. The manner in which the l)low- 
flies, and their near allies, the horse-flies, have made themselves at home 
Avith man, speaks for their power of adapting themselves to new and 
varied conditions. They are cunning, wary, and easily alarmed, and 
except when benumbed with cold, or heavy with eggs, know well how 
to avoid danger. They appear to me far more clever in this respect, 
than the bees and wasps." 

On the other hand Lubbock writes : — " liees are intelligi'ut insects 
and would soon cease to visit flowers Avhich did not supply tliem with 
food. Flies, however, are more stupid and are often deceived. Thus 
in our lovely Parnassia, five of the ten stamens have ceased to produce 
2)ollen, but are prolonged into fingers, each terminating in a shining 
yellow knob, which looks exactly like a drop of honey, and by which 
flies are continually deceived. Paris qiuidrifoJia also takes them in 
with a deceptive jn'omise of the same kiiul. Some foivign plants lia\c 
livid yellow and reddish flowers with a most oft'ensive smell and arc 
constantly visited l)y flies, which appai'cntly take them for }»ieces oi 
decaying meat." 

It must be granted that in one particular the modification under- 
gone by certain Diptera, is very great. The power which the 8arco])haga 
have of bringing forth their young alive, is an exceptionally strong 
})oint in favour of giving them the highest position, but in many other 
directions, especially with regard to high instinctive faculties, I feel 
perfectly satisfied that the Hymenoptera are more highly specialised as a 
group than the Uiptera, and I believe that this opinion is very generally 
held. I should, therefore, place the Hymeno2)tera before the Diptera in 
a table of this kind. The anatomy shows very advanced conditions in 
both groups, but the Avell-known habits of ants and liees may readily 
be shown to far transcend any habits of the Diptera., wliilst many 
structural points relating to othei" members of the Hymenojttera are 
but little inferior to the special structural pccidiarities in certain 
Diptera. 

5. On the origin of insects. — 1 sliall not attempt to discuss tlie 
different vicAVs which have been put forward as to the origin oi insects. 
Packard suiiposes them to have been developed from an ancestral form 
resembling Venues ; Miiller and Dohrn, that they sprung from forms 
resemliling the ZiJea or larval condition of tlie Crustacea ; Jjubbock and 
lirauer consider that the ancestral form closely resembled the existing 
genus Campodca, one of the Podnrulae, which they suppose to be the 
nearest re2)resentative of the i)rimitive form of insect at present in 
existence ; Hiiekel considers ProthehiuA as the ancestral form from 
which Echinodermata, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Vertebrata have been 
evolved. M. Cholodkovsky l)elieves that insects were derived from 
ScolojicndrcUa-Vxkc ancestors, and fui'thcr adds "even Cralier considers 



TUK IJFE-IIISTOKY OF A LEl'IDOl'TEUOUS INSKl'T. 91 

it probable that the ancestors of insects were myriapod-like. If, 
however, we weigh the great difference lietween the Crustacea on the 
one hand and the rest of Arthropods on tlie other, a close relationship l)e- 
tween Insecta and Ci'ustaceans appears simjily impossible. The Naupliw^- 
form of larva, an exclusively Crustacean jtossessiou, the reniarkal)lc 
resemblance in eniliryonic development between Insecta and Perijxitns, 
and the constitution of the respiratory and excretory organs, are facts 
wliich all compel us to conclude that the Arthi'opods are at least 
diphyletic in origin. The Crustacea, indeed, are to be derived from 
marine Annelids, which in the course of their develojjment passed 
through the Trochosphere stage (which in the Crustacean development 
became transformed into that of Naujih'us), while for the ancestors of 
the Tracheata we must look to terrestrial or freshwater Annelids, more 
of the Oligochtete ty2)e." All these theories are necessarily of an 
extremely speculative nature ; the present state of our knowledge on 
the subject, and the disconnected and scrap2)y information hitherto 
yielded by geological research, do not, at present, furnish the materials 
for any confident conclusions. 

G. Cn the antiquity of inse(;ts. — The fragmentarj' information 
furnished by geology is sufficient to show that the Mammals, and in fact 
the Vertebrates in general, of the j^resent day had no exact counterparts 
in ancient geological times. The Eocene and Miocene Mammalia bore 
but little resemblance to those now in existence ; the Saurians and flying 
reptiles of the Oolitic period differ entirely from any existing animals ; 
even the fishes of the Devonian and Old Ked Sandstone ages, have 
scarcely representatives in our fauna of to-day. But this is not so 
with regard to insects ; not only do the fossil insects which have been 
found belong without doid)t to the well-defined Orders of Coleoptera, 
Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Lepidoptera, etc., with which we are familiar, 
l)ut palaeontologists refer the dragon-flies and beetles which evidently 
existed in Mesozoic and Palaeozoic times even to the genera of to-day. 
The great antiquity of insects has Ijeen proved most conclusively therefore 
by geological research, but the various Orders are not equally abundant 
in the oldest rocks ; the remains tend to show that whilst Neuroptera 
and Orthoptera are probably the most ancient Orders of insects, Lepi- 
doptera is among the newest, and it is supposed that this Order branched 
off from the Neurojjtera about the commencement of the Tertiary period. 
What the original stem form of the Lepidoptera was like has long been 
a matter of speculation. Oppenheim refers certain fossils, found by 
Hieberlein in the Solenhofer slate to an Order connecting Neuroptera 
and Lepidoptera, and this has sometimes l^een looked upon as a probably 
primeval ty})e, ])ut of Lejndojitera proper he considers Consuls to be 
probably the oldest existing family. Dr. Walter looks upon Micropteryx 
as the original lepidopteron, and Dr. Chapman has recently discovered 
that this genus has species wliicli in the j)upa have functionally active 
mandibles. Brandt, by a different process of reasoning, supports 
Oppenheim's view, that Cossm is the oldest form. But the further 
consideration of the various arguments which have led uj) to these 
views would be out of place here, and I will only repeat again that 
lepidopterists are mainly agreed that the Lepidoptera originated from 
the Neuroptera, and that the early part of the Tertiary epoch saw the 
first beginning of the Order. 

7. On fossil inskcts with i-iiotiiouacic wings. — It would be 



"J2 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

impossible to give even a brief resumt'. of the work wliich has been done 
in connection with the study of fossil insects ; those interested can refer 
to special authors such as Scudder (Fossil Butterflies, Salem, 1875 ; Four 
Memoirs on Tertiaries, and of Fossil Insects of the United States and Canada, 
Washington, 1878), or to the series of papers written b}^ (loss, in the 
F/nt. Mo. Mag., vols. xv. et seq., entitled " Introductory Tapers on Fossil 
Entomology." The following note is, however, worth recording here. 
As is well known, the wings of the imago are carried on the mesotho- 
racic and metathoracic segments, but the follo\ving would appear to 
prove that insects have been known with three pairs of Avings, the third 
pair being developed on the first or prothoracic segment. The 
occurrence of tliese most remarkable fossil insects is recorded Ijy Mr. 
(.'harles Brongniart in the Bulletin de la SociiHr Fheloinafhiqiie (with 
two i)lates). These three insects " differing considerably in structure, 
AV'ere found in tlie rich carljoniferous l)eds of ( 'ommentry, France ; two 
of them show, besides fullj^ developed mesothoracic and metathoracic 
wings, a pair of prothoracic wings bearing much the same relation to 
tlie others as the mesothoracic tegmina of tropical Phasmida3 bear to 
their metathoracic wings. They are short sub-triangular lobes, having a 
well-defined basis which is narrower, sometimes mucli narrower, than 
the parts behind, and from which course three or four radiating 
nervules. Although in these individuals these parts spread laterally 
like the wings l)ehind them, and are sometimes so broad at the base as 
to appear at first sight more like lateral lobes of the prothorax (es})ccially 
in an English Carljoniferous insect described l)y Woodward, which 
Brongniart also places here), M. Brongniart believes that they were 
movable, and could be extended backward along the body so as to 
cover the Imse of the mesothoracic wings. As to the question which 
naturally arises, whether these members are to be regarded as atro}>hied 
organs, and therefore pre-suppose a progenitor e(|uipped with three 
pairs of fully-developed and similar thoracic wings, JM. Brongniart 
prefers to wait for further pala3ontological facts. One recalls in this 
connection the discussion between Haase and Cholodkovsky, in tlie 
Zoologischer Anzeiger, Nos. 235, 239 and 24i " (Fsi/che, vi., i)p. 31-32). 

(To be continued.) 



DEALERS AND STEALERS. 

By H. ROWLAND BROWN, M.A., F.E.S. 

Entomology is a science ; it is also a holjby, a pastime. Pro- 
fessionalism, which has crept into most of our pastimes, has not let tlic 
pastime, entomology, go scot free. The reason for this is ()l)vious. 
The amateur, who has either no leisure or lacks the inclination to work 
for himself, looks to the purveyors of insects Avho exist all the world 
over to provide him with specimens for wliich he is willing enough to 
pay. This fact is as noticeable in America as ui^on the Continent, and 
I, for one, should be the last to throw a stone at tlie professional 
naturalist, who has probably contributed as much to our scientific 
knowledge as the amateur who stays at home and confines his opera- 
tions to the neighbourhood in which he lives, or to such localities as 
may tempt him to make holiday visits to them. The i"eal evil which 
the entomologist objects to and views with dislike and susjDicion, is the 
existence of the " carpet-bagger." By this term I don't mean the 



DRAI.KItS AND STEALERS. 93 

collector of certain interesting Geometers, but the man who invades 
the ranks of the amateur sportsmen and turns their wants and their 
generosity to his own profit. 

The communication made by Mr. Keays to the February number of 
the Record and Mr. Tutt's comments thereupon, bear ample testimony 
to the fact, not only that the " carjDet-bagger " exists, but that he exists 
to such an extent as to be a positive nuisance. Sometimes he conducts 
his exchange business from a suburban address, operating on the 
credulity of correspondents with a drawer or two full of reputed 
" Britishers " picked uji at a mixed sale. More often he does not even 
trouble to buy liis l)ogus rarities at all, ]iut sends his cigar-boxes 
(empty) to too confiding distributors, .and converts wliatever he may 
receive to his own commercial uses. It is quite conceivable that a very 
decent caliinetful might be got together in this way, and then handed 
over to the auctioneer spiced with innocent little locality labels and 
augmented with reset " foreigners "" selected from a dubious miscellany 
of Continental envelopes. I do not say that this has lieen done, I hope 
it has not ; but that such a thing is possible, the curious " Tutt " 
la])els in tlie Burney collection testify ; and, as the older generation of 
entomologists i)asses away, the possibiHt}' of similar frauds will, unless 
some safeguard is devised, be augmented a hundred-fold. What could 
be easier, for instance, than for an unscrupulous vendor to dujae the 
unsuspecting purchaser by aflfixing to his precious insects such labels 
as " from Mr. Doubleday," or " froni Mr. Stainton," with further data 
of the captui'e of the specimens in this or that locality where the rarity 
has been known to exist ? 

So far as I am aware, we have only one solitary macro tliat defies 
reproduction ad libitum — the one-time indigenous Chn/sophanus disjjar. 
This beautiful butterfly may consequently be bought or exchanged 
with impunity. But it stands alone, and all the liost of Continental 
Heterocera, to say nothing of " Kentisli "' P. daplidice, A. Jatlionia, et 
hoc genna omne, afford ample consolation to the " carpet-bagger " in 
search of i)ence and specimens. It may be objected that the maxim, 
caveat emjitor, applies to entomological as much as to any other com- 
mercial transactions. Very well I Init how is a purchaser living, say 
in Limerick, to ascertain the bona-fides of a correspondent in Canter- 
bury, especially when the said correspondent has gone to the trouble 
of sending a circumstantial account of his captures to a recognized 
entomological magazine ? Such proceedings break down the safe-guard 
of published records, on which, in ray opinion, too much reliance is 
Avont to l)e placed. My reason for this opinion is as follows : — Numbers 
of reports appear in our newsimpers every year ; some of these are sent 
l)y gentlemen who write, as unversed in entomological lore, to local 
papers to annoiuice that tliey are convinced that tliey have (any time 
betAveen March and ( )ctober) seen the celebrated Camberwell Beauty 
in tlieir Ijack garden ; others come from experienced observers Avho 
have compiled careful lists of captures and observations in some chosen 
sj)0t. BctAveen tliese extremes, there are uncpiestionably a number of 
Avell-meaning collectors wliose knowledge of identity is about on a par 
with their scientific information ; in their eyes certain common species 
often do duty for allied l)ut much rarer members of the same genera ; 
whilst, rice rersa, the rarity may fail to be differentiated from its 
common congener — a mistake, by the way, to which many advanced 



94 THE entomologist's reoord. 

students have sometimes to plead guilt3^ Herein, therefore, lies the 
danger of placing too much faith in records. A. (an incipient) sends 
to his favourite organ a long list of nice captures. B. (the bogus 
amateur aforesaid) spots A.'s interesting notes and, on the strength of 
them, tickets his miscellaneous department according!}^ ; he may, as I 
said before, even go so far as to publish a supplementarj'^ notice on his 
own account corroborating the all-unconscious A. And so the evil 
continues, encouraged by the sublime indifference manifested b}'' those 
collectors who are (piite satisfied witli the purchase or exchange of 
rarities " on simple note of hand " (Cf. any numlier of insects in the 
Burney collection). 

How is this kind of thing to l)e stamped out ? I can only suggest 
one way, and perhaps that will only " scotch the snake, not kill it." 
.We cannot have entomological Ins})ectors, like a college of heralds, 
making "a view " of the counties and overhauling the store boxes of 
the young gentlemen who send lists to the magazines. But we have 
energetic entomological societies in many j^arts of the country, as well 
as field clubs which in some degree turn their attention to this par- 
ticular branch of natural history. Perhaps it would not be too much 
to ask that, in addition to the official note taken of the exhibits of the 
members of these societies and clubs and duly recorded in their 
Transactions, each such society or club should undertake the dut_v of 
requesting from correspondents to the magazines, who are not members, 
further ])articulars relative to any capti;res recorded within the area 
covered by the institution, and the transmission of any important 
specimens to the society for exhibition. It would only be necessary to 
adopt this course when any very striking announcement was made. 
and, while it would be entirely satisfactory to a houa-fide captor to 
have his record thus substantiated, the bogus collector Avould have 
some difficulty in maintaining his claim. A whole crop of theoretical 
objections may be raised to such a proposition, but I think that, in 
actual practice, the plan Avould, in discreet hands, be found to answer 
to some extent the purpose for which it is intended. The great 
majority of collectors are known to some at least of their fellow- 
entomologists ; a ver}' large proportion are themselves members of 
some society interested in science, or are known to some of its mem- 
bers ; only a very few are so far isolated as to stand apart from all 
entomological intercourse, and the names and achievements of many of 
these are a sufficient guarantee of their good faith. Among this last 
class, however, the black sheep are unquestionably included, and in the 
best interests of tlie entomological fraternity tliey sliould be singled 
out for judgment. 

The system suggested above would chiefly operate in respect of 
contemporary records ; the difficulty still remains Avith regard to the 
cabinet and other labels of professedly old standing, which set out, 
often circumstantially, the reputed time and place at which the specimen 
was taken, with very often a series of names of previous possessors, 
which still further lend an air of veracity to the guarantee. How are 
we to discover the truth or otherwise of these statenients ? There is 
no test sav(! that of documentary evidence, and this must be sub- 
stantiated, as being in the hand^Titing of tjiose whose signatures or 
names are attached to it, by men who were acquainted with them. 
But even in the earlier days of "the Aurelians " (the golden days of 



St'IRNTTFrC NOTrOS AND OBSKUVATTON'S. 9o 

collecting, if we are to l^eliove half we hear) there were records ami 
" Proceedings," and very few captures of extreme rarities failed to 1)0 
noted either in print or in manuscript, wliich notes may possibly still 
be extant. It is the duty, therefore, of purchasers to insist on being 
furnished ]\v dealers with full and convincing evidence of the nationality 
of specimens reputed to be British, and auction-room rarities unac- 
companied by such evidence should be regarded as doubtful, or better 
still, be severely left alone. 



Scientific notes & observations. 

Does Cucullia ciiamomill^ hybernate ? — Merrin, in his Calendar, 
includes this moth among the hybernated species which have been found 
in February, and, in the following month, mentions it as having been 
taken at rest on various materials, adding '' probably hyl)ernated." Does 
it hyljernate ? Neither W. F. Kirby {Enrojx-cui Butterflies and Moths), 
Stainton nor Newman, mentions the fact (Is it a fact ? — Ed.), but the 
dates of appearance given by the three auth(3rs vary, both as regards 
imago and larva. Kirby, speaking for Europe, gives April to June for 
the imago, and Jiine to August for the larva. Newman says that the 
imago appears on the wing in April and May, and that the larva? emerge 
at the end of May or beginning of June, and are usually full-fed at the 
end of June, although stragglers may be occasionally met with as late as 
the third week in July. Stainton gives later dates than the others — the 
end of May and June for imago, July and August for larva^. During 
the last season or two, I have taken the handsome larva? feeding on 
Fyrethrvm marltimnm, the earliest date Ijeing April 27th, and the latest, 
July 7tli. (On July lyth I faih'd to find a single larva). Whilst small, 
the}^ recjuire to be carefully searched for, owing to their resemblance to 
the flower-buds and to their habit of curling themselves round the stems 
of the food-plant. On several occasions I have found half-grown larva? 
on a plant of ryrethnun, \\'\\\q\\, ten days beft)re, I had searched carefully 
without finding any. The larvje prefer low-growing flat plants, rather 
than the more robust ones ; fre(iuently, on the same jolant, are some 
nearly full-fed and others very small ; they feed up very rapidly. 
Kirby {I.e., p. xvi) says " larvae of C. charnomiUae, Ijred from eggs, have 
l)een known to reach their full growth in 14 days. Considering their 
size, and their habit of feeding exposed in the sunshine, they are 
singularly free from the attacks of parasites ; the percentage of imagines 
reared, is much larger than is the case with C. verbasci. The earliest 
date at which I have known imagines to emerge from pupa? which were 
found in Ma}^, is Feb. 2nd ; from July })upfe, the earliest emergence 
was on March loth. Out of many pupa? which I had in 1892 and 1898 
(in the latter year nearly lUO), nt)t one imago appeared in the autunui, 
though Merrin mentions the species, in November, as hybernating in 
tliat stage. If the moth does hybernate in a state of nature, sm-ely some 
s])('(amens would emerge during the autumn, when ai'tificially reai'ed 
and to a certain extent forced. I have never taken tlie imago in the 
autumn, and my experience leads me to supjjose that the species does 
not hybernate regularly in this state, but I should like to hear the 
opinion of others. — (Major) J. N. Still, Seaton, Devon. Feb., 1894. 



90 THE entomologist's UErORT). 

(We believe that Merrin's error lias previously been discussed in tbe ento- 
mological magazines. The moth has a long period of emergence when 
the meteorological vagaries of different years are taken into account, 
although not specially prolonged for any given season. The imago may 
occur from February to May, the larva^ from May to August, according 
to the season in which they are found. It alwaj's, we believe, passes tlie 
Avinter in the pu})al state and sometimes goes over two seasons. — En.) 

Ephestia iviiiiNiELLA IN Aberdeensuike. — Last autumn, a baker, 
in the little village of Monymusk, Aberdeenshire, complained to me 
that " maggots " liad got among his Hour. On examination, 1 discovered 
that they were the larva? of E. huhnieUu, which were swarming both 
outside and inside some of the sacks. Many of them were in the act 
of pupating, and I noticed that they always attached their cocoons to 
the sides of the bags, and never spun them loosely among the flour. — 
A. H. HoKNE, Aberdeen. Feb. 1894. 

NvssiA HisrinARiA. — The paper by Mr. Bajme, published in tliis 
month's Record, has induced me to send you the following notes on this 
species. The first thing that strikes an angler, is the Avonderful 
resemblance of tlie ^ to tlie large-winged artificial fly, called " the 
Alder ; " the thorax and body resemble in a remarkable degree, 
botli in colour and texture, the fuzzy body of the fly. Again, no 
description that I have read, does justice to the extreme beauty of 
the fringe of the wings, which, if held to the light, will be seen to be 
of a most beautiful sheeny gold, veiy much the colour of I'lmin 
chrydtis, only lighter and brigliter. So far as I am aware, the moth 
has not been taken in this neighbourhood till this year, and I was mucli 
surprised to find, on the morning of Jan. 31st, a freshly-emerged $ in 
my breeding cage, from a ^jupa which I had dug here a week previously, 
at the root of a poplar. On Fel). 8th, I found another ^ in my illumi- 
nated trap, and between that date and March 6th, took eight more in 
the trap. It is curious that, though I have dug here regularly, and 
have found hundreds of pupa% 1 never before came across one of this 
species; and that, though during the Avhole of January, February and 
March of last year, my trap was set nightly in the same spot as this 
year, I never took a specimen of it. i\.ll my ten specimens have abroad 
band towards the hind margin, lighter tlian the rest of the wings, 
which extends over about one-fourth of the fore wings, and one-half of 
the hind-Avings. In one sjiecimen this band is (|uite Avhite, the re- 
mainder of the fore Avings being greenish-broAvn, and of the hind Avings 
very light ashy-grey. Some of the specimens are of a very light 
ochreous- green, others are verj- dark, Avhile still others are intermediate 
in shade ; in fact, the series shows much the same range of colour, as I 
find in my series of Biston liiriaria. I have also taken this year, for the 
first time in this neighbourhood, A><j)hiili(i ^fiairicornis ; one specimen in 
my trap, anotlier bred from a dug pupa. Taeniocnmpn tiimuhi is plentiful 
here this year, as it Avas also last year. ^Ir. Prout suggests that there 
must be some kind of connection betAveen Avinter emergence, and the 
occurrence of ai)terous J s, and considers Orgyia a casual exception, due 
to some different cause ; I had myself been struck by the coincidence, 
and am inclined to think there may be more than mere coincidence in 
it, but still the vicAV is not free from difficulties. Can Mr. Prout tell 
us Avhat is the " different cause " Av^hich accounts for the apterous J s of 
Or(jyi(i, and Avhy the same cause should not also account for those of the 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 97 

Geometei's ? Why are Geometers alone affected in this way by winter 
emergence, and not other groups ? Poecilocampa jmpuli coincides in 
point of time with Chematohia hrumata, AsphiiJ/a flavicornis witli Ni/si^ia 
h/'s}>i(larin, Taeniocampa p>nlverulenta and Tortrieodes hyemana with the 
Hiihernias, and the last two, in this district, jirecede Anisopteryx 
aescnlarla. Again, all Geometers are not so affected, for Larentia mnlti- 
striiiaria, which emerges at the same time as A. aescidaria, has a J with 
fully-developed wings. Mr. Front's remarks in relation to the 
Amphidasydae, if well founded and if the same state of things obtains 
in the other families in which species with a|)terous J s occur, would 
be most important as indicating, at all events, some seasonal influence. 
But is it a fact that, as a general rule, the wings of the $ A. hetidaria 
are better developed than those of A. strataria ? Stainton, in his 
Manual, says, speaking of the two species indifferently, " wings ample, 
alike in both sexes ; " and Newman figures the 2 of the latter species, 
with ample wings, and gives no indication in his description of any 
lack of development in them ; nor can I see any sucb difference in the 
specimens I possess ; possibly the wings of A. strataria are more rounded 
than those of A. hetidaria, but is this sign, a sign of defective develop- 
ment ? Turning now to the HyheriiUdae, we find H. marginaria, which 
emerges in February, with the wings of the 9 to a considerable extent 
developed, whereas Anisopteryx aescidaria, which does not emerge till 
a month later, has an absolutely apterous 5 ; this seems to be retro- 
gression with the advancing season, rather than jn'Ogression. — E. F. 
Studd, Oxton, Exeter. March SOth, 1894. 

A PROBABLE NEW SPECIES OF EuciiLOE. — For some time I have been 
of opinion that we have two species of this genus in England. The 
insect Avhich I now take to be a species new to our fauna, is much 
smaller than E. cardamines, measuring, on an average, only about an 
inch and a quarter from tip to tip of the fore-wings. The discoidal 
spot is placed, as in E. tnrritis and E. griineri, at the juncture of the 
orange and white sjiaces, not, as in E. cardamines, well within the orange 
tip. When viewed under the microscope, the wing-scales appear very 
different from those of E. cardamines. This insect differs from the 
true E. turritis (which is now, I think, very generally looked upon as a 
distinct sijecies*) by its smaller size, which appears constant, and by the 
costa of the fore-wings being dotted with black. I should be glad if 
collectors will look out for this insect during the coming season, and 
also examine their series of E. cardamines for any specimens answering 
to the above description ; if they jiossess any they will be able to see 
the specific differences for themselves. It is much rarer here than E. 
cardamines, and is restricted, so far as I know, to a small area. I have 
collected lepidojitera for many years, both in this country and on the 
Continent, and, after studying the various European sjiecies of the 
genus, have personally no doubt that this smaller insect constitutes a 
distinct species which has hitherto been overlooked, in the same way 
that Pamp)hila lineola was for a long time overlooked. I propose to 
call tliis new species, EncJdolJ hesperidies. — F. B. Newnhabi, Church 
Stretton, Salop. A^ml 4:th, 1894. 



*We should be glad of references to authorities upon this point. — Ed. 



98 THE entomologist's record. 

Sariation. 

Notes on some varieties of British R[iopalooera. — During 1893, 
whilst looking- over various collections, I was struck by the general 
resemblance of some of the varieties of the Tlhopaloccra contained 
therein to Continental forms. Mr. Barrett (Lep. Brit. Isl., vol. I.) gives 
many notices of vai'ieties which resemble Continental varieties, and I 
can quite agree with him in every instance. Appended I give a list of 
varietal forms from notes made from the examination of sundry 
collections. 

Pieris napi. — I saw a $ captured in Oxfordshire, which bears a 
strong resemblance to var. hryoniae, Och., an Alpine form ; it is a little 
smaller than the average napi, and is, perhaps, not quite so dark as the 
the typical hryoniae ; the wings are of a decidedly yellowish gi-ound 
colour with the nervures very dark, and the whole of the wings are 
suffused with greyish scales, thus giving the insect a very dusky 
appearance. [Is not this var. sabellicae, Stph. ? — Ed.]. 

EucMoe cardamines. — A very small <? was taken by myself at 
Kennington, near Oxford, in April, 1893, which measured l^g in. from 
tip to tip ; other small examples were netted at the same place, so that, 
apparently, a small-sized brood had been produced there ; a ? taken 
with the above has the blackish markings at the apex of the fore-wings 
almost obsolete. I believe that the small var. figured b}^ Mr. Barrett (I.e., 
pi. 4, fig. 2 b, c) is called turritis, Och. on the Continent. [See p. 97. — Ed.]. 
Gonepteryx rhamni. — A J taken at Oxford appeared to me at first 
to be an hermaphrodite ; the fore-wings were yellowish, the spots at 
their margins being l)right reddish-brown ; the hind- wings were of the 
usual colour, but the orange spots in their centre were much smaller 
than the average. 

Chrysopliamis pliloeas. — Mr. Holland took var. schmidtii, Gerli. near 
Oxford in the autumn of 1893, and other specimens very closely 
resembling this var. have been met with in various places. I possess 
two examples from the Cotswold Hills, in which the glossy coppery 
colour has faded almost to white ; this is a form intermediate between 
var. schmidtii and the type. I have met with the recurrent variety 
with the smoky wings at Hawkesbury on the Cotswolds. 

Lycaena hellargus. — I have a gynandromorphous example, which 
was captured at Ventnor in 1893, in which the left side is that of a J 
and the right that of a c? . I have only come across stray specimens 
of this species round Oxford, where it is very rarely seen, but it occurs 
abundantly on the Cotswolds; on August 11th, 1893, the second brood 
was already nearly over. 

Lycaena corydon. — A singular var. of this species, approaching in 
colour the Continental var. apennina, ZelL, was shown to me from 
Bournemouth ; the light bluish colour has altogether faded to a whitish 
tint; the markings on the underside, though very indistinct, are 
nevertheless well defined. 

Nemeohim lucina. — Some specimens taken in Bagley Wood, Oxford, 
vary from a light brown to a dark brownish black ; in some examples 
the black transverse bands are very broad, and absorb nearly the wliole 
of the tawny spots, making the wings appear quite black ; in another 
larger example the black bands are very thin, being broken in many 



VAKIATION. 99 

places, so that the whole area of the wings aj^pears reddish tawny ; 
there are other forms intermediate between these two. [Is not this to 
a large extent sexual ? — Ed.]. 

An/i/nnis papliia. — The type occurs abundantly at times on the 
outskirts of Bagley Wood, but var. valezina has not yet been taken at 
Oxford. A large <? was taken there early in 1893, which is almost 
I in. wider in expanse than any other specimen which I have seen. 

Arr/i/nnis adippc. — Out of a very long series of this butterfly taken 
at Bagley Wood, at Sj)latts and Lower Woods, Gloucestershire, and in 
other localities, only one specimen differs from the rest ; this approaches 
var. clcodoxa, Och. and in it the spots, although they are distinct on the 
hind-wings, yet lack the silvery colour which characterises them in the 
remaining specimens being, instead, of a dullish tawny colour. The 
var. clcodoxa is totally devoid of the silvery spots, 

Argijnnis euphrosync. — A beautiful example of this species was 
captured by me in Bagley Wood in 1893, in which the upper sides are 
smeared with black blotches that cover the whole of the Avings, the 
bi'ownish colour only showing itself in small triangular-shaped spots, 
at the extreme edges of the wings ; it resembles the variety figured liy 
Mr. Barrett (/. c, pi. 25, fig. 2b) but is more suffused with black than 
that. 

Melanargia galathea. — A specimen referable to var. procida, Hbst. 
was taken in August, 1893, at Change Cliff, Cotswold Hills, which 
appeared to have just emerged ; it must have been a late individual, as 
another specimen captured a few days before was very much worn 
and seemed to have been on the wing for a considerable time. Proct'da 
is found in Turkey, Armenia, Syria and the Mediterranean region, 
Spain excepted (Stgr. Cat., II., p. 27). The species is very rare in the 
vicinity of Oxford, being found only, so far as I have ascertained, at 
Holton Stone Pits, near Wheatley ; in 1891 it was unusually abundant 
on the hills between Wantage and Farringdon and at Childrey, Berks. 

Satyrns semele. — Amongst a number of specimens taken at Bourne- 
mouth, in 1892-3, I notice one which closely approaches var. aristaens, 
Bon., whilst a number of others incline to this form. According to 
Staudinger, var. aristaem is found in Corsica, Sardinia, and on some 
parts of the coast of the Mediterranean. 

Pararge egeria. — This species occurs on the oiitskirts of Bagley 
Wood, and in a few secluded spots on Shotover Hill ; it is not so com- 
mon at Bagley as it was formerly, but is still to be met with in its old 
haunts ; individual specimens differ considerably in the colour and 
markings of the wings, but I have not seen any striking varieties. 

Epinephele ianira. — Several specimens with bleached patches on the 
wings were taken in various parts of Oxfordshire, the occurrence of 
which I attribute to the great heat that prevailed last year. 

Epinephele hyperanthns. — One specimen taken by me, in July, 1893, 
at Oxford, exactly tallies with the figure in the Entomologist, vol. xxvi, 
p. 281 ; for it I projjose the provisional name lanceolata. 

Coenoiu/mpha pamphiln^. — Varieties of this species are not common 
in the Oxford district. I quite agree with Mr. Barrett, that the var. 
lyllus, of British entomologists, is an error. Lyllm, Esp., is a larger 
insect, and as Mr. Barrett, cpioting Lang's Uhopalocera Europar, says 
" has the hind margins often with a narrow ante-marginal black line 
(which is invariably jjresent) ; the undersides of the wings are of a light 



100 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

yellow colour, with a central reddish streak descending from the costa, 
about two-thirds across the wing ; the fore wings have the apical spots 
more distinct than in the type." I have not seen Mr. Lang's figure, 
but the description given by Mr. Barrett is quite correct. Up to the 
present I have not seen a true British lyUus, but I have no doubt that 
it may have occurred on our south coasts. 

Syrichtns malvae. — A specimen of var. iara.s, ]\Ieig. (htrdfcrac, 
Haw.), was taken by myself in 1892 in a field opposite the barracks 
at Cowley. Several other specimens were taken at the same place in 
1893, but I was unable to find any larva3, nor did I see a 5 in the act 
of oviposition. They only occurred in a small spot, a few yards in 
circumference. Out of a large series of /S. malvae, cajDtured at Dor- 
chester in 1893, not one differed from the type. 

Vanessa urticae. — A specimen was taken, drying its wings on some 
palings near Dorchester Mill, on July 6th, 1893, which has a peculiar 
gxeasy or semi-transparent appearance, and in which the reddish colour 
has quite faded. — John W. Shipp, Oxford, Jan. 1894. 

I have noticed the following varieties and aberrations among the 
Rhopalocera. — Vanessa atalanta. — A number of specimens showed a 
distinct Avhite spot in the scarlet band*; some sjoecimens bred by a 
friend, from larvae taken near here, are of a very dull colour, tlie band 
being of a brownish-red hue, instead of the usual brilliant vermilion ; 
in this strange brood were two sjDCcimens in which the wings are much 
shorter on one side than the other (see Ent. Ber. [{., pp. 95, 119, Ed.), 
Chr)/sophanus pldoeas, captured at Prestwich Carr, by Mr. Dunn of 
Wylam, has several of the black spots on the fore Avings suppressed. 
Lycaena Icarus. Several ? s of this species are of a very brilliant l)lue, 
almost as gay as the <? s. — Chas. H. Crass, South Shields, Feb., 189-4. 



©URRENT NOTES. 

Those who have read Mr. Elwes' "Revision of the genus (Eneis " 
published in the Trans. Ent. Soc., London, will be interested in the 
criticism thereof by W. H. Edwards in The Canadian Entomolorjist for 
March. It would appear therefrom, that the paper, so far as it relates 
to the American species, is a most unsatisfactory production, and we 
quite agree with the critic in his concluding remarks, that " there 
never will be a final authoritative revision of any genus of butterflies 
till the preparatory stages in every species of it are known. Species 
are as clearly distinguished by the form and sculpture of their eggs, by 
the forms and appendages of the caterpillars, and by the peculiarities 
of the pupfXi, as by the facies of the imago. This feature has been the 
occasion of the endless and irreconcilable differences that prevail m 
nearly all genera up to this day. To proceed further in the same 
direction is plainly a waste of time. It is a case of the blind leading 
the blind, to undertake to bring order out of the confessed confusion by 
appealing to facies." 

Mr. J. W. Douglas has described (E.M.M.) another new species of 
Aleurodes under the name of A. sjriraeae, with excellent drawings of the 
larva by Mr. E. F. Tugwell. 

*Tliis is very common. See Ent. Rcc. iii., p. 247. — Ed. 



CURRENT NOTES, 101 

Dr. Knaggs tells us that the corrosion which ruins many of our 
entomological specimens, and which we have hitherto called " verdigris," 
is in reality oleate of copper. 

An excellent article by Mr. Eustace R. Bankes, on " Lifa infitdbilella 
and its nearest British allies," has been commenced in the current 
No. of the EJLM. 

A very interesting paper on an " Aberration of Epinephelc lanlra,'" 
with incidental notes on the variation of many other l)utterflies, a})pears 
in the April number of Socieias Entomoloyica. 

A new book by Mr. J. W. Tutt, entitled Woodmle, Bar aside, 
Hillside, and Marsh, is in the press. It will consist of a series of 
illustrated literary sketches on somewhat similar lines to Random Recol- 
lections of Woodland, Fen and Hill, the publication of which has 
proved so successful. The new volume will be published at 2s. ()d., 
and will be illustrated by many plates. It will api)eal alike to 
entomologists, botanists, geologists and ornithologists. The essays are 
written in popular and untechnical language, but yet from the stand- 
point of the most recent scientific knowledge. 

At the South London Entomological Society's meeting on March 8th, 
an amusing scene occurred which shows our scientific (?) studies m the 
light in which they are understood by some people. A remarkable 
arrangement, by means of which a dummy Red Admiral butterfly was 
made to move its wings, and a comprehensive contrivance for capturing 
butterflies by decoy, after the most approved method of the White- 
chapel birdcatcher, were set up for exhibition. The unscientific nature 
of the whole affair, and the obvious want of taste which led to its 
exhibition at a so-called scientific meeting, impressed many of the 
members, who sarcastically asked whether a patent had been taken out 
for the apparatus. These remarks appear to have annoyed at least one 
of the members present, who made quite a stirring speech to the effect 
that this was not a subject for ridicule but a really scientific discovery, 
which might be put to good use in the Tropics, although it might not 
do for use in England. It strikes us that, whether in tlie Tropics or 
in England, the business of jiggling one's leg up and down to move 
the wings of a Vanessa atalanta, and the pulling of a string at some 
thirty yards distance, is not a form of entomology that the intelligent 
scientist or even collector wants to have anything to do with. It may 
be an interesting discovery to aid in the extermination of rare insects, 
and is of about as much interest to science as a thumbscrew. Men who 
collect for information we understand ; men who collect for " sport " 
as they call it, and because they must kill something, wo have re- 
peatedly met ; but from the man who catches his bugs with an 
intelligence (?) excelling that of the Whitechapel bird-catcher who 
Avrings the necks of all his hen victims because they are not cocks, 
may we be delivered. We suppose the reference to its use in the 
Tropics when it would not do in England is on the lines that an 
ignorant white man is able to do in front of intelligent ])lack men 
wliat he dai"e not face l>efore the sensible farm laljourers of his own 
nation. Floreat Entomologia a la Whitechapel. 

Lepidopterists are proceeding apace. Only last moutli we chron- 
icled the hope of a well-known correspondent that he might be able, 
with a friend of similar tastes, to do a little bug-catching after he had 
shaken off this mortal coil, and now in the British Naturalist we have 



1G2 THE entomologist's record. 

still more advanced views promulgated. Mr. Dale therein states, in 
no measured terms, — " Moreover he (Haworth) did not possess 
spilodactijlus, Curt." Now if this lie meant for a joke, we must con- 
gratulate Mr. Dale on the excessive profundity of his wit, but if it be 
meant as a real solid statement, it really behoves us to ask Mr. Dale in 
what part of the Shades he meets the spirit of the late Mr. Haworth, 
to discuss with the latter what he had in his collection at the beginning 
of the century. When our poetical friend last month suggested that 
the depai'ted might do a little bug-collecting on their own account, we 
little knew that Mr. Dale had already solved the mystery by being in 
sjiiritual communication with the late Mr. Haworth. 

Dr. T. A. Chapman Avill read a paper " On Butterfly pupa? and the 
lines of evolution they suggest,' 'at the London Institution, on April 17th, 
The Council of the City of London Entomological Society give a hearty 
invitation to all entomologists to be present, and trust that as many as 
possible will attend. 

We would ask those gentlemen who get eggs, larva? or pupa? of any 
British butterflies to spare, to send them direct to Dr. T. A. Chapman, 
Firbank, Hereford. It is intended to publish a scientific work on our 
British Rhopalocera as soon as the material can be collected. Eggs and 
larva? of Leucophasia sina/pis, and the Skippers are particularly desider- 
ated at present, but those of other species are required. 



OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

SiMUNG Notes. — Mr, Beadle of Keswick, reported as follows on 
January 24tli : — " Insects are out early so far ; I took a specimen of 
Hybernia leucophearla as early as December 31st, and it has been 
plentiful during the past week with Phigalia pedaria and Hybernia 
def'oliaria." Mr. Freer (Rugeley) reports, on March 6th:— "I have 
had one Endromis versicolor out, but lack of sunshine probably will keej) 
most of them back. All the early spring Geometers have l)een earlier 
than usual, though not common." Capt. Robertson (Cheltenham), on 
March 13th, reports: — "I tried my moth trap on February 28th, but 
only took a few Hybernia proijemmaria, H. rupicapraria and Anticlea 
badiata (one specimen), I took, however, two more A. badiata on 
March 8th, a month earlier tlian last year. On March 7th I tried 
sugar, and captured Scopelosoma sateUitia, Orrhodia vaccinii, 0. spadicea 
and one Taeniocampa munda, with more of the last-named since." Mr. 
Robinson reports : — " Insects are beginning to emerge in my breeding 
cage. To-day (March 19th) Ampliidasys prodromaria, Asphalia ridens, 
and Eujiithecia irriyuata have come out all from New Forest larva? 
beaten last year. I find A. prodromaria ajjt to be deformed, and the 
larva? of which I had a large number were very much ichneumoned, 
with the result that I got but few pupsB, E. irrignata is a pretty little 
s})ecies when bred, and I feel well repaid for the trouble of searching 
them out from the chaos of the beating-tray. Last year one could 
hardly beat an oak in the New Forest Avithout getting larva? of A. 
ridens, and of many other sjiecies too," Mr. Hooker (Winton, Hants), 
reports the capture of " Lycaena argiolus, on April 2nd," and "■ the larva? 
of Kiiiydia cribrnm, taken very freely since the beginning of March, 
some of which have since pujjated." AL Hereford insects were 




JOHN JENNER WEIR, F.Z.S., F.L.S., F.E.S., 

Reproduced from the British Naturalist, by the kind permission of j. E. Robson, Esq., F.E.S. 

Plate f. 



OBITUARY. 103 

abundant at sallows during the last fortnight of March. Hoporina 
croceago, Sco2:)elosoma satellitia, Xylina socia, Orrhodia vaccinii among the 
hyl'Ornators ; Taeniocampa pnlvervlenta and T. mimda in abundance ; 
rarhnohia rnhricosa, T. mhuosa, T. mNtahilis and T. stahiliti common ; 
raclmohia lencoijraphn, T. popideti and T. (jraeilis rare ; rterojihornti 
vionodacti/lm and Eupithccin ahhreriata also came to sallows ; Brcphos 
notha was common roinid the aspens, and jB. pmrthenias over the 
birches, but the fine weather kept them oiit of reach of the net. and 
they were not to be captured. Hybernated specimens of Poh/i/onia 
c-albnm, Vanessa io and F. urticae were observed, with fresh sj)ecimens 
of Pieris rnpae, Xylocampa areola, and several Lemnatophila saliceUa, 
and one Epiijraphia steinkcUner/eUa flitting about a hawthorn hedge. 
Lyomtia clerckella and HyJopoda pariana Were seen in a similar 
situation. — J. W. Tutt. April 2nd, 1894. 



©BITUARY. 



I JOHN JENNER WEIR, F.Z.S., F.L.S., F.E.S. I 
(Eol-n August yth, 1822. Died March 2or(l, 18'J+.) I 

One by one the human links in the chain which connects the old 
science with the new droji out, and entomologists have recently had to 
bear more than their fair percentage of loss. The loss is more severely 
felt in some cases than in others, dejjending largely upon whether or 
not the departed one has kept in touch with the younger generation in 
the onward progressive march of science Avhich the last few decades 
have witnessed. 

Such a man we have to mourn now. The death of Mr. J. Jenner 
Weir has removed from our midst a man of keen and vigorous intellect, 
whose life has been one long devotion to the study of the natui-al 
objects everywhere around him, and to the advancement of science so 
far as in him lay. He brought to the consideration of every problem 
an open and unbiassed mind, and formed his opinions on the facts at his 
disposal at once free from narrowness, and without a tinge of personal 
bitterness. He was essentially a modest man, retiring and diffident, 
and yet, when necessary, lie acted with decision, forming quickly sound 
and accurate judgments, and although he published but little his mind 
was a storehouse of information that was always at the disjDosal of his 
numerous friends. 

His gTcatest pride was his knowledge that in a modest way he liad 
helped the two great naturalists of the time, Darwin and Wallace. It 
is well known that many of the entomological references in the works 
of the former were due to Mr. Weir, and for the latter he undertook, 
in 1868, a series of experiments on the relation between insects and 
insectivorous birds, more especially on the relation which existed 
between the latter and the colour and edibility of Lepidoptera and 
their larvae. The conclusions based on these experiments were 
formulated in a paper read before the Entomological Society of London 
on March 1st, 1869, and puldished in the Transactions for tliat voar, 
followed by a second paper read on July 4th, 1870, and also published 
in the Transactions. 



104 THK entomologist's RECORD. 

Entomology was uot his first love. In conjunction with his brother, 
Harrison Weir, the well known painter, he first formed a collection of 
a large number of living Vertebrata. An unbroken interest in 
vertebrates was kept up, as the brothers' labours connected with many 
of our great exhibitions at various places testif3^ British birds' eggs 
and botanical specimens both attracted his attention before, in the 
summer of 1843, the study of entomology seriously took a hold on him. 
At that time he was 22 years of age and resided at Camberwell, which, 
in his own words, was " within an easy walk of Dulwich Wood of SO 
acres, to which access was to be had without difficulty. London, in 
those days, broke off abruptly, and at four miles from London Bridge 
one was as much in the country as if fifty miles distant. There were 
rookeries at the Tower, in St. Dunstan's Churchyard, and one nest in 
Wood Street, Cheapside. Swallows had their nests in the Custom 
House, and I have often seen falcons on the spire of St. Dunstan's 
Church. One Peregrine Falcon took up its residence in the spire of 
Shoreditch Church, and committed sad havoc among the pigeons in 
Spitalfields, and it was no unusual thing for my own pigeons at 
Camberwell to be suddenly swooped upon lay a falcon." 

In 1844 Mr. Weir became friendly with Messrs. Douglas and 
George Bedell, and soon afterwards with Mr. Stainton. These friend- 
ships soon led him to become as ardent, if not so well-known, a micro- 
lepidopterist as themselves. At the end of the year he attended a 
meeting of the Entomological Society, and was elected a member in 
January, 1845. This led to his acquaintance with most of the leading 
entomologists of that time, such as Spence, Stephens, Westwood, 
Doubleday, Newman and many others. 

In June, 1845, we find him chronicling the capture of Ino geryon 
(mitil then only a reputed British species), Agrotin cinerea and Cramhis 
pygmaem (ccruscJlMs) at Lewes, and from that time onwards various 
notes from his pen are to be found scattered over the pages of the 
Entomological magazines. 

His connection with Darwin and Wallace led him to take more 
than ordinary interest in the pliilosophical aspects of science, and 
whilst most of his contemporaries continued on in their species-making 
lines, he ranged himself at once with the younger men, and fought 
manfully in their ranks. An accident in 1870, by which he lost the 
top of his left thumb, and was thus incapacitated from manipulating 
small and delicate insects, led him to give a much greater portion of 
his time to the study and consideration of the larger species, and 
butterflies attracted his attention, the subject of mimicry having an 
immense fascination for him. In furtherance of his studies in this 
interesting subject, he made a very large collection of the Danaine 
Rhopalocera and the families of butterflies that mimic them. He made 
a number of exhibits of these specimens at the South London Ent. 
and Nat. History Society, and the Entom. Society of London, and 
read most carefully prepared notes thereon, but at the former Society 
lie oft-times felt a want of sympathy with his more advanced ideas, 
for very recently he said in a letter to the writer, — " I do hope you 
will be present to-night. I have some notes to read which will interest 
vou, and I want your support. It is difticult for a man at my age to 
understand that comparatively young men publicly delight in expressing 
their disbelief in evolution, and almost in the same breath inform you 



SnCIETIKS. lO") 

that tliey have never read the main works thereon, whilst at the same 
time pretending to do scientific work." Old views die hard, and in 
talking the matter over afterwards we agi'eed that it was good so much 
liad been accomplished in such a short time. 

He was on the Council of the Entomological Society of London inter- 
mittently since 1849. For seven years lie was Treasurer and twice 
Vice-President. Why sixch an able man was never President is most 
inexplicable. Probably it was due to his natural modesty, but for all 
that it remains one of those things that " very few Fellows can under- 
stand." He has been Vice-President of the South London Entoino- 
logical Society for many years in succession, and only last year (1S93) 
at the age of 71, the Society honoured itself by electing him I'resident. 
His solicitude for the welfare of this Society was almost on a level Avitli 
that shown by Mr. Capper for the Lancashire, and Mr. Clark for the 
City of London Societies, the three men standing out as public 
benefactors in their anxiety to further the interests of Science and the 
progressive welfare of all. 

With the writer, many will feel that they have lost a respected and 
honoured friend. Manv of us, too. will feel that we have lost a teacher, 
a man of extensive erudition and knowledge, a generous jiatron of our 
studies to whom we might turn for lielp, for information, for symjjathy 
and be certain that we should obtain either or all, so far as was in the 
giver's juiwer. Through many a younger man, Avho has learned at his 
feet, it may bo well said that he being dead yet speaketh, and the 
imprint that lie has made will show the futility of belief in annihilation. 
He has done his work ; his successors will say lie has done it humbly 
but well. — .]. W. TuTT. 



gOCIETIES. 

At the meeting of The Entomological Society of London, on 
Feb. 28th, 1894, Professor August Forel, M.D., of the University of 
Ziirich, was elected an Honorar}' Fellow of the Society, to fill tlie 
vacancy caused by the death of the late Professor H. A. Hagen, M.D. 
Mr. G. C. Champion called attention to a supposed new Tjongicorn 
beetle, described and figured by Herr A. F. Nonfried, of Kacknitz, 
Jiohemia, under the name of CaUipogon friedUinderi, in the Berl. Ent. 
Zeitsrhr., 1S92, p. 22. He said that the supposed characters of the 
insect were tlue to the fact, that the head had been gummed on upside 
down I The Rev. Theodore Wood exhibited Saturnia carpini, with semi- 
transparent wings, a large proportion of the scales being a])parently 
absent, l)red Avith several examples of the type-form at Baldock, Herts ; 
also a pale variety of Sinerinfhm popidi, which was said to have been 
bred, with several similar specimens, from larvjB marked with rows of 
red spots on both sides. 

At the meeting of the South London Entomological and Natikal 
HiSTOKY Society, on Feb. Btli, 1894, the following among dtlier 
exhibits, Avere made: — Mr. Carpenter ; a form of Agrotis cursor ia from 
Aberdeen, which was not distinguishal)le from a southern form of A. 
tritici. Mr. AV. F. Warne ; about two dozen species of Lcpidoptera 
taken near Rockhampton, Queenslaiul, in a single moi'iiing ; among them 



ICCi TTIK KNTOMOT.fX; tint's KKCOKO. 

were Anosla <ireJN'}>2)ns and De/'opeia piilchella. Mr. Dennis; a specimen 
of Vanessa lo, with a small additional ocellus on eacli hind wing, and a 
smaller dark blotch below the central blotch on the fore wings. Mr. 
Jenner Weir : Encheira socialis, Westwd., perhaps the most archaic 
form of the Pierinae extant. Mr. Frohawk ; a l)red series of Argynnrs 
eaphrosi/ne, which were nearly eleven months in the larval stage. Mr. 
Manger; a land crab (Ocypoda cursor) iroin Lagos, which was so nimble, 
that it conld only be obtained by sliooting it. Mr. Carrington ; the 
eggs of a snail {Bulimns oblongus) from Trinidad ; these were so exceed- 
ingly calcareous, that they might easily be mistaken for the eggs of a 
bird. Mr. Adkin pointed out, and ilh;strated l)y examples of the several 
species, the characters by Avhicli the closely allied sj^ecies miglit easily 
be distinguished: — CramJuis t'ricelhis, C. dniuefellns, C. pratclJns, C. 
iiii/ellus, C. pinellus, C fnrcatelli(s and C. marijariteUns. Mr. W. A. Pearce 
exhibited the folloAving insects taken by himself in Alleghany, U.S.A., 
in ly'J2-o : — Fi/raineis atalanta, P. hnnfera, Vanessa anfiopa, Poli/ijoiiia 
/nfcrrotjafionis, P. romnia (both broods) ; also bred series of Tclca poli/- 
}>lieinns and Samia cecropia. A discussion ensued Avith regard to the 
gregariousness of the larvae of V. antiopa, the imagines being seldom 
met with in company. — At the meeting on Feb. 22nd, j\[r. Jenner Weir 
exliibited a new butterfly, belonging to the sub-family Enj)laeinae, which 
h(^ liad described under the name of Cadttga erowlei/t. Mr. Carrington ; 
a shell of Helix pomatia, cut to show the spiral and the smooth in- 
ternal surface, Avhicli latter, he stated, was siliceous. Mr. Auld (for Mr. 
Tngwell, in order to correct an error in the report of the meeting htdd 
on .Ian. 11th) ; a series of the York City form of Sjrilosoina Inbricipeda. 
fin- which Mr. Tugwell suggests the name var. ehoraci, also series of var. 
znfinia, and of the selected brood originating fi'om Yorkshire, for whicli 
he suggests the name var. fasciata. Mr. Fearce : Feniseca tarquinins ; 
spring and summer l)roods of Li/caena psendargiohis ; L. roini/ntas and 
Thecla edmardsii, all h-on\ Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Mr. South ; a specimen 
of Argyunis aglaia, from Hamjishirc, which was a modification of x-av. 
rharlotta, the silvery spots being converted into long streaks ; also f(n" 
Mr. Rose, of Barnsloj', a bred series of Phygali'a j>edaria, of whicli some 
were uniformly l)lack, without a trace of markings; for Mr. Fowler, of 
Hingwood, a specimen of Euchelia jacobaeae, in which the costal stripe 
Avas carried round the hind margin to meet the spot ; for Mr. Allis, of 
York, a photograph of three s})ecinrens of S. Inbricipeda, in the Allis 
collection at York, two of which were undoubtedly the zatima form, 
although not extreme examjiles. 

At the meeting of the P>ii{jiingham Entomological Society on 
January 15th, 1894, Mr. G. T. J>ethune-Baker exhibited Agrotis obsciira 
i^r<ivida) from Wicken; three specimens of Tapinosiola C(yiicolor 
taken near Wicken by AHiei't Houghton ; also a collection of 
lepidoptera from the neighbourhood of Alexandria; these showed a 
mingling of ^Mediterranean with Indo-Persian forms but there were no 
true Ethiopian forms amongst them ; the collection contained twenty- 
two species new to science and is probably the largest hitherto received 
from Egypt. Mr. Bradley exhibited specimens of Andrena fnlva and 
.1. cineraria, which had been dug up at Sutton Deeeml)er 2Sth, 1893, a 
date at which they should liave been in the pu})al stage ; Mr. E. Saunders 
had informed him that Mr. F. Enock had on one occasion dug up an 
Andrena with a parasitic Nontada in December, but that he knew of no 



SOriETIES. l(i( 

other similar case. — The annual meeting of the Society was held on 
February iith, Mr. G. H. Kenrick Avas elected President ; Mr. G. T. 
Bethuue-Baker, Vice- President, and Mr. 0. J. Wainwriglit, 147, Hall 
Koad, Handsworth, Secretary for the ensuing year. Mr. P. W. Al)bott 
exhiliited Aciddlid hnniiUata from the Isle of Wiglit, one specimen taken 
by himself in 1891, others ca})tured by j\Ir. A. J. Hodges ; an unusually 
dark specimen of Hadoui nana (dentina) from Sutton, and a pale chalk- 
cliff form from the Isle of Wight; these were utterly unlike in 
appearance ; a specimen of Lohophora virefata from Sutton, which was 
small and pale and lacked the usual median bands. Mr. A. H. Martineau 
exhibited workers of 3L/rmica rnfa and M. savguinea, and stated that 
he had found a nest of the latter species at Wyre Forest last year. — ( hi 
March 19th, Mr. Martineau exhibited a small collection of Lepidoptcra, 
mainly Butterflies, taken on Lundy Island liy j\Ir. R. W. (.'base, many 
of the specimens being distinctly below the average size. It included 
Sntyrns semele, Vanessa atahintd, V.urticae, V. jJoIi/cJilnros, Bomhyx rnhl, 
Zi/gaena trifolU, Z. fiUpondidae, etc. Mr. P. W. Abbott exhil)ited single 
specimens of LcKcania obsnlpfa and Senta maritima, from tlie neighl)our- 
hood of Ely. 

No notice of the doings of the Ua:mbkidge ENTo:\i()i.o(;[(Arj Society 
has appeared in this magazine since April last ; the Society, however, 
has not been idle. Since our last report eight meetings have heew held. 
At these the following among other exhibits have been made. Mr. 
Theobald, who during the winter lectures in North Kent on insects 
injurious to cro])s, kc. showed several cases illustrative of the life- 
histories of suc-Ii insects ; also specimens of the Tortoise l)eetle, Aspidlo- 
morp/iu sanie-cnicis from the Elephanta caves of Bombay ; also Stylojiiscd 
bees and mounted specimens of both ^ and $ Stylo2)s. INIr. Jones ; a 
speciuien of Vanessa antiopa taken at Cambridge in 1S7G and Triphaeim 
suhseqna, taken at Chippenhaui Fen in 1891. Mr. Kickards ; Thecla 
lo-album, Agrofis ohsciira (rav/'d(<) (md Epnnda luhtJenta, taken at Oaiu- 
bridge ; also some parasites lired from larva\ of wliicli he gave tlu^ 
following history : — 

'' Earl}- in June I found scA'eral green larvae, presumably those of 
Folia flamdncla; on or about the 17th I noticed on one of them some 
small objects which resembled green Aphides, but M'hich, on examining 
them through a lens, I discovered to be parasites ; they were attached 
at the junction of the several segments of the larva, or, in some instances 
were found where the false-legs or claspers joined on to tlie bodv. In 
appearance they resembled small flask-sha2)ed vesicles, filled Avitli a 
very bright-green solution of chlorophyll, and showed no traces of 
either internal or external organs : by the 20th they had increased in 
size, and began to assume a milky or clouded appearance and to exl libit 
some slight indication of structure : up to this date I l)elieved that they 
were external parasites : their develojnnent was now rapid ; on the 21st 
most of them had freed themselves from any connection with their 
host, were whitish-grey in colour, and in two individuals a small black 
rounded mass (much like the head of a small fly) made its appearance 
at one end : on the morning of the 22nd all of them were j^rovided 
with these black masses, which I could now see were of an excre- 
mentitious nature. Towards night several of them had assumed a more 
or less sooty-gi'ey appearance, one being very nearly black ; the legs 
were now plainly visi))le through the skin of the nymph ur jjupa ; on 



lOS THE rONTOMOT-OOTST's KErORn. 

tlie morning of the 23rci most of them had become black, and by night 
all were Idack excepting four. They left their host tail foremost, their 
tail ends all pointing away from the body of their late host, and 
changed to nymphs with the ventral surface upjjermost. Some ten or 
twelve emerged on the 6th of July and by the next morning there 
were about forty of them out : the antennfe of the ^ s were branched, 
and the branches kept opening and closing as the insect walked about. 
I l)elieve they belong to the genus Chirocera of the family Chalrididdc, 
which follows next to the IrJineinnouhhic in Westwood's classification. 
I found Iavo larvae infested ; the one I kept under observation had 
forty-four of these parasites." On J)ccendier 1st Dr. Chapman read 
tlie paper published on page o of the current volume of the Utrovd, 
and in connection therewith Mr. Farren exhibited Swifts, Noctuas, 
Geometers and Deltoids having hair-tufts either on their A\ings, 
bodies, or legs, &c. On May 12th Mr. F. Y. Theobald, M.A., F.E S. 
read a paper on " Parthenogenesis in Insects," of which the following 
is a short epitome. Having ])riefly alluded to the usual methods of 
reproduction, a short account Avas given of exceptional cases. The 
C'oelenterata were instanced as sliowing metagenesh, which is an alter- 
nation of sexual and a-sexual forms, while ixirthenogenesis is an alter- 
nation of two sexual forms and not, as is often supposed, of sexual 
and a-sexual forms. Partlienogenesis occurs amongst the Hemijitera- 
liomoptera, Diptera, Le2)idoptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. The 
Aphides were dealt with at considerable length and the differences 
betAveen the oviparous and viviparous generations pointed oxit ; reference 
was also made to the Coca'dae and iJierines. In Dij)tera tAvo remarkable 
cases of larval parthenogenesis or j^aedogftiesis occurring in Cecldotiiyia 
and Chiroiiomiis were mentioned. Coming to Hymenoptera, allusion was 
made to the Hive-bee. Tlie queen apparently is only fertilized once in 
four or live years, but goes on laying eggs that pi-oduce ^ a and ?s 
until the spermatic influence is exhausted, after Avhich she produces 
drones only. Examples are not numerous among I.epidoptera, partheno- 
genesis only occurring in the Fsi/rhiddc, in Solenohia and in Bondiyx 
mori; in the latter it is probal)ly a recently acquired habit. In 
Coleoptera Stylops Avas instanced. In concluding Mr. Theobald descrilied 
the structure and development of the true OA^a and ovaries of insects, 
and shoAved that pseud-OA-a arise from the pseud-ovaries in the same 
Avay, and that the pseud-ovary is not a germ gland but a rudimentary 
OA'ary, haA'ing the poAver of precocious and spontaneous dcA-elopment. 
IVIr. Eickard is the President and ]\Ir. W. Farren the Hon. Secretary 
for the j)i"esent year. 

At the meeting of the Lancashire anh Cueshike Entojiolouicai, 
Society, on Feb. 12th, 1894, I\Ir. Stott exhibited Calosoma inquisitor, 
Geotrnpes typhoens and G. reritah's, taken in Carmarthenshire, in 1893. 
Mr. Kobert NeAvstead, F.E.S., read a paper on " Correlations of Plants 
and Insects," in which he discussed tlie fertilization of the j'ucca, and 
explained the process as described by Prof. C. V. Rilej', in Insect Life, 
adding notes from his own observations, on the insects Avhich frequent 
the floAvers in this country. He also alluded to the gall-making Bra- 
rltyscelidue of Australia, a group of Corcidac jDeculiar to that country, 
and to the galls of Di2)Josis rnniicis, suggesting it as quite possible that 
botanists have described malformed " tubercles " of some species of 
Rninex, as he had found a great number of " tubercles " sAvollen by this 



SOCIETIES. 109 

Species. On Marcli 12tli, Mr. W. E. Sliarpe, whose interesting paper 
on "■ The New EntomologN" " in the Entomolotjitit, should be read by all 
students, gave a brief description of the Britisli species of the coleopter- 
ous genus Silpha, particularly of those which occurred locally, and 
exhibited illustrative s]iecimens. He (|Uoted some remarks l^y Prof. 
A. Giard, on Silpha opucd, which is very destructive to the French 
beet-root crops. 

City of London Entojiological .\ni) Natural History Society. — 
Feb. 20th, 1894. — ^[r. Heasler having sent in his resignation of the 
curatorshi}), Mr. Bayne was unanimously elected in his stead. 

Exhibits : — Mr. Battley ; ova of Diloba caerideocephnla. Mr. Clark ; 
a short series of Gnopliria rahricoWnf from the New Forest, and a curious 
pad of felt-like materi;il, resembling a pancake in appearance ; this had 
been spun in a pill-box l)y parasitic larvaj, which emerged from a larva 
of Hepkdus hamuli ; the disintegrated remains of the latter were attached 
to the pad. Dr. Sequeira ; the following " Micros " from the New 
Forest : — Cramhns perlclhis, var. ivarringtonelbis, Harpipteryx xi/lostclld 
(harpella), Cerostotiia radiatella, Retinid pinicolana, Etipoecilia nmbitju^lla, 
Paedisca solandridua and F. p>rofuudand. There were six specimens of 
the latter species, three of them having an inner-marginal white spot 
on the fore wings, and the other three no white spot, l)ut a distinct 
oblicpie dark fascia, which gave them a strong reseuil)lance to the genus 
Tortrix. Mr. Lane; Stanrojtns faiji and Ldsiocdinj)a qncrcifolia from 
Reading. Mr. Bayne ; Hyberuia defoliaria from E})ping Forest ; most 
of these were of the pale cream variety, with dark l)ars. 

March Gfh, 1894. — Exhibits : Mr. Oldhani ; a short but very varialde 
series of Hybcrnia leucophearia from Epping Forest. Mr. Clark ; 
some freshly emerged specimens of Taeniocattipn </othica, reared from 
eggs of var. (jofhicina ; the specimens were richly suffused with red but 
were in other resjjccts of the normal tjqie. Dr. Secpieira ; the Indian 
form of Vanessa atalduUi and V. cardni, which did not appreciably 
differ from those found in this country ; also a sort of spur from the 
thorax of Dicranura rinula with which, he stated, the moth cut its Avay 
out of the cocoon. Mr. Bayne ; four eggs of the Willow Wren 
{Fhylloscopm trocMlm), two of which were rather long and s])eckled 
with very small reddish dots, while the other two were roundish and 
marked with reddish blotches. Mr. Battley reported that he had 
recently taken Nyssia hispidaria in Ep})ing Foi'est l)y " asseml)ling " ; 
on a frosty evening he secured about 20 males, but on a warm evening 
nearl}' 70 rewarded his exertions ; he also stated that he had found a 
^ Hybcrnia inanjinarid. paired with a $ Fhir/alia pedaiia and that he 
liad obtained ova from the latter. Mr. Tutt, in connection with an 
exhibit of some South African flowers and of insects caught by them 
which had been sent to Mr. Hope Alderson of F;irnborough, said that 
the local name of the plant is the " moth-catcher " and that the flowers 
close on any insect settling on them and hold it fast till it dies. Mr. 
Alderson lioped to receive some seed of the plant, which he would try 
and rear. Mr. Tutt also passed round an auctioneer's catalogue of a 
sale of the Duchess of Portland's collection in 1786. Mr. Bacot 
exhi))ited jjupa-cases of Saturnia pavonia, Bonibyx quercm, Odonestis 
potdtorid, Ddsychira pudibandd and Ocneria dispar, and made the 
following remarks: — "It occurred to me that, as many apterous Js 
have the wing-cases well-developed in the pupa, possibly the J s of 



110 THE entomologist's KECORU. 

other species niiglit have specially male characters developed in the 
pupa. An examination of the pupa-cases of the species exhibited 
to-night yielded the following results : In ;S'. pavonia, I), pudihimda and 
0. dispar the antennae- cases are nearly as well developed in the female 
as in the male pupa, whilst in the imagines the antenna} are only very 
slightly pectinated in the J and only occupy a small portion of the 
space covered by the pupal cases. In li. querent there is no develop- 
ment suggestive of })ectinated antenn;e in the pu])a, though the antennje- 
cases arc ratlier more raised in the male than iu the female pupa ; in 
(). potatoria the development is hardly noticealile ; in the imagines ol 
lioth species the pectinations are strongly marked in the J s, slightly 
so in the 2 s, the latter species being rather the more favoured in this 
respect. From these facts I am inclined to think that tlie first group 
have evolved from a type or types that had the pectinations of the 
antennai well-developed in both sexes and in which, probabl^^, either 
sex would be attracted by and fly to the other, that the J s subsequently 
lost the pectinations through disuse, whilst in the ^ s of S. paiwuia 
they have been still further developed. In the second group the 
evolution would seem to have been from simple to })ectinated antemue, 
the (J s having advanced farthest in this respect, whilst the puptB have 
not yet fully res])onded to the change." Mr. Koutledge exhibited a 
collection of Coleoptera taken l)y him near Carlisle, auiong them being 
Silplia ni(/rit(i, Cocclnclhi \A-pnnctat(i, Pterostichns versicolor, Aviara 
ontt(t, Limoiiiiis cijIlndyicnH and liavynotus schimhcrrl. Mr. Tutt read a 
})ai)er on " Nature's Scents," in which he pointed out that, as a rule, it 
was the inconspicuous flowers which had the richest perfume, blue and 
reil flowers being mostly devoid of odour ; that this development oi 
})erfume subserved the purpose of attracting insects to the blossoms and 
so ensured cross-fertilization ; other scents, both in the animal and 
vegetable kingdom, were disgusting and jirobably subserved a jDrotective 
function. Mr. J. A. Skertchley mentioned the case of a South American 
flower which was of a dee}) red colour ; it was perfectly sc(;ntless by 
day l)ut during the night, when its colour rendered it practically 
invisible, it gave off a very powerful })crfnme ; the plant was visited in 
large uumliers liy a species of a Hawk-moth. 

March, 20tJi, 18<J4.— Exhibits :— Mr. Prout ; a large number of 
specimens of Coreniia feyriujarin, Haw., to illustrate his paper. Mr. 
l)attley ; a living J and ova of Anisoptcri/x ncscuhiria, in Kiln, on a twig 
of birch ; the eggs were deposited in a necklace-like ring, encircling 
tlie twig just beyond a small shoot ; there were about 24 eggs, counting- 
round the twig, and the band varied from 4 to 9 eggs in width, so that 
in all there were 150-200 eggs. They were covered with down from 
the anal tuft, and appeared to l)e ovoid in shape, and attached by their 
smaller end. I )r. Secpieira ; Aiaphidasi/s strataria, FdnoJis piniperda, 
lli/beriiid Iciicojiliedvia, Alencix piciaria, all ])red, from the New Forest; 
also several beautiful varieties of Larcntiacaesiata, Mclanippe montanata, 
Mclanthia (dhicillatd, and 31. bicolorata. Mr. Goldthwait ; Colias edusa, 
with var. heJicc, and intermediate forms ; one of the C. edusa had the 
marginal pale spots so strongly developed on the hind wings, as almost 
to form a band. Mr. Lane ; CaJocaiupa vetiisfa from Aberdeen. Mr. 
('. Fenn ; C. ferrugata and C. unidentaria, including a Scotch form of 
the latter, and a specimen with tlie median liand extremely narrow. 
Tiiese two species were also exhibited l)y other members. Mr. Bayiie ex- 



SOCIETIES. Ill 

liibited Psilnra monacha from the New Forest, and made the following- 
remark s : — "This species seem to liave shown— at least in our experi- 
ence — a greater tendency to the production of banded forms in 1893, 
tlian in the preceding season ; and the more frequent occurrence of dark 
varieties in certain seasons has previously l)een commented on l»y ]\Ir. 
Tutt. At least five, including exannjles of both sexes, of those cajjturcd 
in 18'Jo, show this condition, and one 5 in particular lias an almost 
solid black median band across the fore wings. It will be noticed, too, 
tliat this si)ecimen is much below the normal size. Now, amongst those 
taken in 1892, only one or two show a deviation from the type in that 
direction, a,nd the deviation is slight. All those exhibited were taken 
cither as imagines or as pui)a\ In 1893, the larvie were sul>jected to 
the long drought which had been almost total for four months previous 
to the appearance of the perfect insect. They must also liave experi- 
enced, both as larva^ and pu}>a', great alternations of temi)eratui-e — hot 
sunny days and cold nights. The date of appearance varies considerably 
in different years; in 1892 and 1893, the species .was well out at the 
end of June, whilst in 1891, several fresh examples were taken at tlic 
beginning of September. The $ appears to be very we.dv winged — 
a condition Avhicli seems often to obtain in families containing species 
Avith a[)terous J s." — Mr. Smith said that he had bred AmphidiiHiin 
slrataria on the 1 8th inst. from New Forest larva. Mr. liattley reported 
that Brephos partlienins was just coming out at Theydon, and that 
A.^jjlKilia fiariconiis was getting worn. lie had also found TdeniocaiiijHi 
viimdfi, common, and T. rriuhi swarming on tlie sallows in the same 
locality, and had taken one T. popidfti. Mr. Frout tlien I'ead a paper 
on '' Coreiiita ferrafjaria, ILuv., and Coreiuia nnidpnt<iria. Haw." 

A coKKECTioN. — Mr. Jenuer Weir, who Avas a personal friend of tljc 
late J. F. Ste})hens, informed me, shortly before liis death, that tlie 
latter lived not at Eltham, but at Fltham Cottage, Kennington. — F. 
.1. BucKErj.. 



Goremia perrugaria, jlaaf. and C. iTiiideiitaria, jiaw-* 

By LOUIS B, PROUT, F.E.S. 

All tlirough the history (^f entomological nomenclature there lias 
been a recurring tendency, on account of their great su})erticial similarity, 
to unite these two as oiie species, and it was the desire to obtain inde- 
pendent evidence on the (piestion of their identity or distinctness, liy 
breeding Ijoth forms from the egg, Avhich tirst led me intcj the study of 
them. After breeding each species several times, and communicating 
Avitli several entomologists avIio had information to impart on the 
subject, I Avrote a somewliat tentative article, Avhieh a|i[)eared in the 
Ent. Bee. of July, 1892 (vol. iii., p. 150). jNIy own personal opinion 
Avas at that time, wliat Jiasj since been jiroved correct, that Ave had two 
quite distinct species to deal Avith, and that the seeming contradictions 
Avere to be reconciled thnuigh the existence of a red form of nnidentdnd, 
HaAV. so like fernKjuriii, Haw. as readily to be mistaken for tliat, 
species. 



* Abstract, of paper read before City of London Eiiiomological and Natural 
History Society, March '20th, 1894. 



112 THE entomologist's RECORD, 

As one of my principal objects in preparing this paper is to bring 
before your notice and that of entomologists generally, the absolutely 
certain fact of the distinctness of the two, and the equally' certain fact of 
the existence of red forms of miideiitaria, Haw., and thus to leave no 
possible excuse for going over the same ground again in the future 
liistory of entomology, my first point must l)e to demonstrate their 
structural distinctness, after which I sliall group my other remarks under 
the following heads — Synonymy, DiflFerentiation by Wing-markings, 
Variation, Geograi)liical Distribution, Habits, Early Stages. 

Structural chakacteristics. — With regard to structural distinct- 
ness, mv article in the Eecord, referred to above, called forth a response 
from that careful and accurate observer, Mr. F. N. Pierce, to the effect 
that the male genitalia differed more widely even than might have been 
expected in two such close allies, and in the Record, vol. iii., p. 177, he 
<>-ave rough figures of the forms of the " harpes," in each of the two, 
th()U<'h unfortunately the names were reversed in the appended note. 

Thanks to the great kindness of Mr. Fierce, who stands })rominent 
;uuonf the many entomologists who have rendered me willing assist- 
ance, a number of specimens have been investigated from this jjoint of 
view, and he has further oldigingly sent me his preparations for study 
and for exhibition this evening, so that I hope to be able to convince 
the most scej)tical of the invariability of the form of the genitalia, and 
the consequent confirmation of the view arrived at by breeding and by 
superficial comparisons. I am indebted to the kindness of Messrs. 
liattley, Nicholson and Jackson in lending microscopes for this evening, 
and I trust you will all avail yourselves of the 
>>^s^\ "^^ opportunity of verifying Mr. Pierce's oljser- 

vations on the genitalia. It may be of interest 
to mention that Aurivillius in his new work on 
the Scandinavian lepidoptera {Nordeus Fjiirilar, 
18Ul)also differentiates /ercHj/a /a and nnidcntaria 
in this way. 

c. iinidentai ia. c. ferrugaria. My attention lias also been called to one 
other structural difference, and that is in the matter of scale structure, 
\vhich has Ijeeu so zealously and with such interesting results taken in 
hand l\v Dr. W. S. Riding. He has rendered me most willing assistance 
in examining specimens and tabulating the results as regards the pro- 
portion of scales with different numbers of teeth. Without going very fully 
into details, the general result of investigations along these lines, by 
Dr. Riding and Messrs. A. U. Battley and A. Bacot, seems to be that 
however much the scale structure of individuals of a species may vary 
inter se, yet ferriujaria, Haw. has always a considerab!^ larger number 
of many-teethed scales than unidenfaria. To sum up, femujarid gave 
4;-! per cent, of scales with 2, 3 or 4 teeth, and 57 per cent, with 5, 6 
or 7 ; while in unidentarid 82'6 per cent, had but 2, 3 or 4 teeth, only 
17'4 per cent, having 5 or 6, the ])ercentage of G-toothed, indeed, being 
but '2. I shall hope to pursue this subject further at some future time, 
as 1 have already some very interesting notes and observations from the 
gentlemen whom I have mentioned. But I introduced the subject here 
in order to throw a little additional light on the s])ecific distinctness of 
the two insects, and need only add that a purple variety of im/dnifaria 
examined by Dr. Riding agreed with the black forms. 
{To be coidiiincd). 




(0!^ AND ^^^^ 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION. 

No. 5. Vol. V. May 15th, 1894. 

I'lie Life-jJistopy of a Lepidopterous Iiisect, 

Gomprising some account of its Morphology and Physiology. 

By J. W. TUTT, F.E.S. 

(Continued from page 92). 



Chap. II. 
THE OVUM OR EGG. 

1. On the external structure of the egg. — The egg of a 
lepiclopterous insect consists of an outside shell, enclosing protoplasm 
which is at first homogeneous. The outside shell, which forms a thin 
pellicle, is usually divisible into a base, walls and an aj)ex, the latter 
being termed the " micropyle." By its base, which is usually flat and 
devoid of characteristic markings, the egg is attached to the surface of 
the food-j^lant or other object on which it is deposited by the parent. 
The walls are generally sculptured in some form or other, although they 
are sometimes quite smooth. The micropyle, wliich is situated at the 
summit of the egg, is composed of delicate microsco})ic canals ; these 
vary in number but there are rarely less than four or more than six ; 
they radiate from a small depression in the centre of the summit and 
round this depression is a rosette or circle of tiny cells, which are 
usually of gi'eat delicacy. The micropyle is always excessively 
minute ; in some eggs, even when viewed under a powerful lens, no 
alteration of the ordinary outline is caused by it ; in others, however, 
where it is more depressed it is more readily distinguished. It is through 
the canals of the micropyle that the sperm-cell of the male passes to 
fertilise the egg. 

The number of longitudinal ribs running from the base to the 
micropyle varies ; in the Vanes.- kli there may be as few as eight, whilst 
among the Ithodoceridi, in the genus Eurema, there are, according to 
Scudder, from thirty to forty. The space between the ribs is broken 
up into fine reticulations which are due to the existence of transverse 
ribs of a much more delicate nature than the longitudinal ones. These 
latter, however, vary considerably, sometimes being coarse and at others 
very delicate, sometimes so delicate indeed, that the surface of the egg 
appears smooth until it is examined through a lens of high magnifying 



114 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

power ; the transverse ribs show a similar variation. The variation in 
the elevation or compression of the ribs is another striking character. 

Viewed in cross-section, the egg usually appears to be circular, but 
sometimes the prominence of the ribs gives it a polyhedral appearance : 
Doherty says that in the Lycaenid genus Poritia, it is hexahedral. In 
shape eggs vary a good deal ; those of butterflies are classihed by 
Scudder as " barrel-shaped, globular, hemispherical and tiarate." There 
is a general similarity of shape among those of each of the main 
divisions although this rule is not without notable exceptions. The 
egg of the NocTU.'E is usually of a hemispherical shape, somewhat 
flattened at the base ; but that of Xanthia has raised ribs rising above 
the central point or apex and curving down thereto and it is not unlike, 
in a general way, the egg of a Vanessa. The egg of the Geojietrje is 
usually oval or ovoid, but assumes the form of a rather square-based 
parallelopii^ed in Ennomos (Enyonia) ; the eggs of BrepTios, Alucita and 
Thyatyra also have the usual Geometrid shape. The egg of the 
ToRTKiCES has the ajDpearance of a flat scale, but so has that of Lirnacodes 
testudo and of many Pyralides and other Micros. These examples are 
sufficient to show that although some general forms hold fairly well, 
yet that there are striking exceptions. 

The primeval egg was probably ovoid, colourless and transparent 
and with no sculpturing on the cell wall. This would soon undergo 
modifications in many directions under need of protection and con- 
cealment, and it is possible under these conditions that one may find 
isolated examples of almost any form in any of the families, although 
the simplest form of egg must generally be found in the lowest families, 
and no highly-developed structure can occur except among the most 
highly elaborated families. 

Among the Rhopalocera, the eggs of the various large sub-families 
are very characteristic ; as, for example, the globular egg of the Papi- 
lioninae, the nine-pin or spindle-shaped one of the Pierinae, the hemi- 
spherical one of the Pamphilidi and the echinus-like one of the 
Lycaeninae. It is also noteworthy that the egg of the Parnassidi is of 
a somewhat tiarate shape. Superficially, the globular eggs of the 
Safyrinae are not very unlike those of some PapHioninae ; and one 
cannot but be struck with the general resemblance between those of 
certain Nymphalidae and those of the Pierinae; the former indeed 
appear to form a rough connecting link between those of the 
Papilioninae and Satyrinae on the one hand and the very tall eggs of 
the Pierinae on the other. This would appear to indicate a much more 
intimate relationship between the Pierinae and the Nymphalinae than 
has hitherto been admitted by systematists. Speaking of Heodes, a 
Lycaenid genus, Scudder says : — " The base of the egg is broadened to 
such an extent, that it is only by sufferance that it can be classed as a 
tiarate egg ; it is rather demi-echinoid." 

The egg-shell appears to vary a good deal in thickness, but this is 
probably due in part to the thickness of the ridges and ribs with which 
it is covered. It is thinnest in Vanessa ; delicate in Neineobiiis, in the 
Pierinae and in some genera of the Satyrinae ; whilst in Lycaena and in 
the Pampjkilidi it is particularly tough and opaque. 

It may be generally assumed that the eggs of closely allied species 
are very much alike both in shape and markings. A striking illustration 
of this is furnished by Vanessa polychloros and V. urticae, the eggs of 



CORRMIA FERBUGARIA, HAW. AND O. UNIDENTARIA, HAW. 115 

which are almost identical in shape. In Sepp's great work (Nederlandsche 
Inselden), the illustrations in which are, as a rule, remarkably good, an 
egg is erroneously figured as that of the former species which certainly 
does not belong to it. This figure has been handed down from 
generation to generation by naturalists, as affording a striking example 
of the difference which may exist l)etween the eggs of otherwise 
closely allied sj^ecies ; Newman (British Butterflies, p. 8,) grows quite 
eloquent over a difference which he certainly had never observed, and in 
Dale's British Butterflies, one of the latest systematic works jDublished in 
this country, the error is still perpetuated, although it had been shown to 
be an error years before, Ijoth in this country (E. M. M., vol. viii., p. 52) 
and in America {Psyche, vol. v., p. 152). Mr. Dale thus writes {Brit. Butt., 
p. xxxi) ; *' One of the most curious and striking facts is the extreme 
difference in the eggs of some species which, in the perfect state, closely 
resemble each other. Thus, the egg of the large Tortoise-shell is pear- 
shaped and smooth, whilst that of the small Tortoise-shell is oblong, with 
eight very conspicuous ribs. The characters of each egg are, however, 
so constant in each species of butterfly, that anyone who has paid 
attention to the subject, can immediately say to what butterfly any 
particular egg belongs." This passage, although there are no marks to 
show that such is the case, is copied verbatim from Newman ; it is found 
in the Introduction to Mr. Dale's work, which did not appear until the 
work itself was completed, and the curious fact is, that in the body of 
the work (p. 166), Mr. Dale had already given a first-class description 
of the real egg of V. polychloros, which he evidently copied from 
Buckler but had entirely forgotten by the time he came to pen his 
Introduction. 

The intimate resemblance between the eggs of allied species be- 
longing to the same genus, while they differ widely from those of 
species belonging to neighbouring genera, has suggested the use of this 
character for purposes of classification. Mr. Doherty {Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1889), has divided the Lycaenidae as 
follows : — 

1. Aphnaeus group. — Egg large, tubercular, indentations obscurely 

hexagonal. 

2. Loxura group. — Egg similar, but not tubercular. 

3. Thecla group. — Egg small, tubercular, indentations sharply cut, 

usually trigonal. 
4. — Arhopala group. — Egg small, spiny, indentations sharply cut, 
tetragonal. 



Gopemia peppugaria. jlaia/". and G. iJiiideiitapia, jiaw-* 

By LOUIS B. PROUT, F.E.S. 

(Continued from page 112). 

Synonymy - Since then, we have two perfectly distinct species to 
deal with, the next question which arises is the very difficult one of 
their synonymy. When I tell you with regard to the two red forms 
which cause all our trouble, that in Germany and America, our red 
unidentaria is known as ferrugata, and in Scandinavia as var. (or ab.) 

* Abstract of paper read before City of London Entomological and Natural 
History Society, March 20th, 1894. 



116 THE entomologist's recoed. 

corctilata, while in Germany, our ferrugaria passes as spddicearia, I think 

some at least of you will agree with me, that it is time something was done 
towards bringing about a common understanding ; for, however little 
value we may attach to the " law of priority," surely nothing but con- 
fusion can arise, if Ave go on applying German notices of ferrugata to 
our British species of that name, when they really belong to our red 
unidentaria. 

We owe the name ferrugata, to Clerck, who in his Icones, 1759, 
(pi. 6, fig. 14), figures one of our two species under that appellation ; 
Linnajus following with a brief diagnosis in the Fauna Suecica, Ed. 
Alt., 17G1 (p. 338, No. 1292); "alls purpurascentibus ; strigis tribus 
albidis, postice cmereis ; macula didyma fusca." The next name in the 
field was Hufnagel's corculata (Berl. Mag., 1769, p. 616, No. 94) ; there 
can be no doubt that this belongs to unidentaria. Haw., rather than to 
ferrugaria. Haw., for though Hufnagel describes it as " reddish-brown," 
yet Kottemburg distinctly says that the transverse band is " broad, and 
almost entirely black." 

In 1776, the Vienna Catalogue gave us spadicearia, "the ochre- 
brownish red-striped geometer," which Fabricius, Illiger, and Treitschke, 
take for a variety ol ferrugaria, W. V. Borkhausen's spadicearia (Eur. 
Schmet., V. 190, 1794), is no doubt identical with this, and is certainly 
the extreme form oi ferrugaria, Haw., of which I have examples from 
Dr. Staudinger, at the top of my second drawer. 

Esper Hgnres ferrugaria, Haw. (Die Schmett. in Ahhild., pi. 40, fig. 5) 
under the name of alchemillaria, which must be due to some misunder- 
standing, for he quotes De Geer, whose alchemiUata is quite another 
species, namely didymata, L. 

Next Haworth (Lep. Brit. II., p. 308), not knowing Hufnagel's 
name corculata, rechristens the black species unidentaria ; he had ap- 
parently seen red forms of that species, but took them for varieties of 
ferrugaria, for he seems to describe such under his ferrugaria var. j3. 

But the most difficult question still remains. Which of the red 
species did Clerck figure as ferrugata ? I have spent a great deal of 
time in studying his figure, and yet I am afraid to express any positive 
opinion on the question. The figure is very poor, with whitish ground 
colour, pale red central band traversed with distinct lines, and large 
didymated spot, coalescing in heart form. On account of the colour 
of the band and the distinctness of the lines, Zeller, Guenee, and the 
Scandinavian lepidoj^terists have accepted it as representing spa cZ/cearm, 
Bkh. (= ferrugaria. Haw.), and Prof. Aurivillius (to whose courtesy I 
am indebted for some Swedish specimens sent to assist in clearing up 
the synonymy) sent me this species as " the true ferrugata, CI." On the 
other hand, the whitish outer area in Clerck's figure is quite irrecon- 
cilable with any representative of this species I have ever seen, but 
agi-ees well with my " var. corculata " from Sweden, and with the Lin- 
Ucean type of "ferrugata ;" both these latter are certainly of the species 
known here as unidentaria. On the whole I am rather inclined to be- 
lieve that the entire absence of an outer ochreous band shows that 
Clerck had red unidentaria before him, and that therefore, as Ereyer, 
Herrich-Schaffer, and probably Staudinger (all having access to Clerck's 
work) admit, the name ferrugata rightly belongs to the darker-banded 
of the two species, and that the ferrugaria of Haworth should be called 
spadicearia, W.V. or spadicearia, Bkh. 

But, such conflicting views obtaining about the identity of 



COREMIA FEKUUGAHIA, HAW. AND 0. UMDENTARIA, UAW. Il7 

ferrugata, CI., it seems that the synonymy can only be cleared np by 
ignoring it altogether, and either accepting the ferrugata of the Fauna 
Suecica, which is universally acknowledged to be the darker-banded 
species, as the type, or by calling that species corcidata, Ilfn. and adopt- 
ing the spadicearia of the Vienna Catalogue as the name of the lighter 
red species {ferrugaria, Haw.). 

I have drawn out the following synonymic table, bracketing the 
name ferrugata, CI. as doubtful. 

1. {Ferrugata, ? CI., 6. 14; Linn., F. S., 1292). 
Corculata, Hfn., 94 ; Naturf., xi., p. 87. 
Linariata, Bkh., V., {nee. Fb.), p. 381. 

Ferrugata (aria) ? Hb., 285 ; II.-S. ; Frr. ; Bdv. ; Gn. ; Packard 
(and German authors generally). 
la. Ab. unidentaria. Haw., Lep. Brit., II., p. 308. 

2. Spadicearia (W.V., Earn. M., No. 12) Bkh., V., p. 389 ; H.-S. ; 

Frr. 
Alchemillaria, Esp., 40,5 (& 6 ?). 
Ferrugata (aria) Hb., 460 ; Haw. ; Wd. ; Lampa ; Aurivillius 

(? CI.). 
Freyeraria, Stgr., 1861. Cat., No. 524. 
In order to complete our studies of the nomenclature of the two 
species, it may be well to say that there can be no doubt that their 
generic name should be Ochjria, Hb. — already resuscitated by Packard 
in his Monograph of the Geometrid Moths of the United States. In 
Staudinger's Catalogue the group forms part of the gi'eat genus, Cidaria, 
Tr. according to Lederer's classification. 

DiFFEKENTiATioN — Mr. C. Fcnu, with a considerable portion of my 
series of purple forms of unidentaria before him, as well as his own 
material, drew me up an admirable comparative table of the two, 
which I cannot do better than give in extenso. 

" Unidentaria. Ferrugaria. 

Black. Bed. 

(None of the characters of distinction seem absolute.) 

FORE- WING. 

A. — Median band black. A. — Median band red. 

B. — Median band followed by a B. — Median band followed by 

generally interrupted band an uninterrupted band 

or a band becoming obso- continued in full intensity 

lete below the middle. to the inner margin. 

BB. — The second band of an BB. — The second band similar to 

ochreous colour edged with unidentaria, but the space 

grey and divided by a between the first and 

similar gi'ey line ; the second lines often white 

space between the first and or whitish, 
second lines often paler, 
and sometimes with a few 
scattered white scales. 

C. — The two submarginal spots C. — The two submarginal spots 
very conspicuous, black, black or blackish but not 
distinctly margined on very conspicuous, faintly 
their outer edges with margined on their outer 
whitish or the pale sub- edges by the paler sub- 
terminal line. terminal line. 



118 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 8 EBCOHD. 



D. — A sei'ies of about four black 
daslies follows the sub- 
marginal spots on the ex- 
treme edge of the wing. 

E. — A distinct vandyke almost 
invariably occurs in the 
front edge of the median 
band on the subcostal 
nervure. 



D. — A row of black dots follows 
the submarginal sjoots on 
the extreme edge of the 
wing. 

E. — An indistinct vandyke some- 
times occurs in the front 
edge of the median band 
on the subcostal nervure. 



HIND-WING. 



F. — The band following the 
median (B) is rarely con- 
tinued, and never con- 
spicuously so at its hinder 
edge. 

G. — The lower part of the wing- 
paler than the upper. 

H. — Xo dark grey shade below 

the middle of the wing. 
I. — Four gi'ey threads start 
from the inner margin but 
gradually become obsolete ; 
the edge of the wing where 
they arise is clouded with 
dark grey and contains 
four black spots. 



F. — The band following the 
median (B) is almost in- 
varialily continued dis- 
tinctly, more especially at 
its hinder edge. 

G. — The upper part of the wing 
paler than the lower. 

H. — A dark grey shade below 
the pale band. 
I. — Four grey threads above 
the pale band continued 
across the wing in equal 
intensity, commencing on 
the inner margin as black 
sjjots. 



UNDER SIDE. 



K. — An apical dark cloud is 
sometimes present on fore- 
wing, but no cloud or shade 
on hind-wing. 



K. — A dark apical cloud is al- 
ways present on fore-wing, 
and a distinct grey cloud 
is conspicuous at the outer 
margin of hind-wing. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Except that unidentaria is slightly the larger insect, I see no 
structural differences except in the genitalia as already recorded. All t he 
markings are prone to considerable variation, esijecially the size and 
shape of the median band, which is often bisected by a broad paler 
shade. The best character for distinction appears to be the dark shade 
on the hind wing, as it seems jjretty constant both on the upper and 
under sides (H. and K.)." 

I have very little to add to this ; 1 would remark that the median 
band oi ferrugaria, Haw., is never black, though sometimes very dull 
brownish or greyish-red ; that a stronger point might perhaps be made 
of the paler outer area of the fore wings in unidentaria ; that the fringes 
oi ferrufjaria are much more distinctly spotted than ihosGoi unidentaria ; 
that the contour of the outer margin of the central fascia, and of the 
corresponding line on the hind wings, though very prone to vary, is 
nearly always distinguishable in the two species ; ferrugaria seeming 
never to be so deeply bent inwards below the middle, or the band so 
attenuated on the inner margin, as is general in unidentaria ; and that 



COREMIA PEKHUGARIA, llAW. ANU C. tKlDENTAtllA, HAW. IID 

the dark mark on the underside of unidentaria, near the base of the costa, 
generally so conspicuous, is either weak or wanting in ferrugaria. It 
is also tolerably certain that no form of unidentaria corresponds at all 
to the extreme striated forms oi ferrugaria, indicated by Staudinger as 
ab. spadicearia (" fascia media in strigis dissoluta "') or by Haworth as 
salicaria (" obsolete strigata?, nee fasciataj "). 

Variation. — Both s^Decies are extremely variable, and it would not 
be difificult to occupy a whole paper with studies of their variation. A 
few general observations under this head seem worthy of being first 
brought into prominence : — 

1. — As is usual in closely-allied species, the variation is largely on 
parallel lines. 

2. — The variation of ferrugaria, Haw., is largely geographical ; that 
of unidentaria, much less so. 

3. — On the other hand, the influence of heredity, exceedingly strong 
in both species, is shown even more strongly in unidentaria ; so that 
while the red and black forms exist together in most localities, yet the 
black forms hardly ever throw red in their progeny. 

I will next deal, as well as time permits, with the variation of each 
species separately. 

As I have ah-eady shown under the head of synonymy, I regard 
the red forms as furnishing the type of what we call unidentaria. 
Avoiding the doubtful name ferrugata, we may call this type corculata 
Hfn., when unidentaria Haw., from its general constancy, is well worthy 
to be dealt with as ab. unidentaria, in which light, rather than as a 
distinct species. Dr. Staudinger is now inclined to regard it. Packard, 
the American entomologist, speaks of it as " a good example of 
melanism." 

Hufnagel's description of corculata, is as follows : — " Eeddish-brown, 
on the outer margin a black C, at the base yellowish-grey." This of 
course is so vague as to be practically useless, but "reddish-brown" 
agi'ees well enough with some of the "purple " forms, to allow of our 
uniting this name with ferrugata, Linn., and leaving the well-known 
name of unidentaria, to the black forms. The American red specimens 
(ferrugata, Packard), certainly belong to this species, and seem to have 
the central fascia generally narrower than is common in European 
forms ; my warmest thanks are due to Mr. H. F. Wickham, of Iowa 
City, for my examples, which he took great trouble to procure, at very 
short notice. 

There is a somewhat rare variety of ab. unidentaria, unknown to 
Haworth, which deserves notice, namely the var. coarctata, WaiTcn. 
This has the central fascia very much attenuated throughout, sometimes 
reduced to hardly more than a thread ; there are two in the British 
Museum collection, Captain Kobertson has one, Mr. Fenn another, Mr. 
Machiii a very beautiful example, and two others have recently been 
exhibited at our London Societies. 

Borkhausen's spadicearia was described from a single specimen, and 
that apparently a somewhat rare form of spadicearia, W. V. We must 
therefore take the type of spadicearia (z^ ferrugaria. Haw.), to be (as 
Borkhausen describes it) a form with a mingled ochre and pale brown 
ground colour, a broad brownish-red band lighter in the middle, 
mixed with whitish and traversed with brown lines, the discoidal spot 
distinct. As it appears to be the earliest name not otherwise pre- 



120 THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECOtll). 

occupied lor fer rug aria, Haw., it must now stand for the type of the 
species, and the commoner forms will be the varieties. 

Forms with the band more entire, and frequently of brighter colour, 
such as we get so commonly in the South of England, agree rather with 
ferrugaria, Haw. ; his diagnosis is : " alls cinereis fascia parva basi, 
aliaque lata repanda medio rufescentibus ; punctoque postico didymo 
fusco." It will be noticed that he does not mention anj' conspicuous 
ochreous shade in the ground colour, and this agrees fairl}^ well with 
some of our southern forms, but it has resulted in leading Continental 
entomologists, e.g., Guene'e and Staudinger, to connect his ferrugaria 
with theirs. This is certainly an error ; Haworth's type, which I have 
seen, is an ordinary English form of the species we are now considering, 
the spadicearia of Germany. 

Confixaria, H.-S. (334), appears to be, as Bohatsch reports (Wien. 
Ent. Zeit., iv., p. 177), an aberration of this species "in which the 
many wavy lines have vanished, so that of the pattern of the fore wings 
the red-brown central area alone remains ; the outer dentated line, 
with the two blackish spots in the upper third, is also indicated, etc." 
The band is also reduced in width, and the variation is in some degree 
parallel to unidentaria var. coarctata. 

Many interesting casual varieties of this species have come under my 
notice, on which I would fain have commented had time permitted ; but 
I must content myself with summing u}) its general topomorphic vari- 
ation in the British Isles. The dark-banded, non-striated forms, and 
those with but little ochreous in the ground colour and on the border 
of the hind wings, (in brief, those which bear so great superficial 
resemblance to " red unidentaria "), seem to be confined to the South of 
England. The Yorkshire moorland form, of which Mr. Porritt very 
kindly sent his bred series for my inspection, differs from our ordinary 
southern forms in 

1. — The uniform brightness of the ochreous colouring. 
2. — A general tendency to an increase of its quantity, e.g., in the 
marginal area, and on the under surface. 

3. — The well-marked hind wings, with more or less ochreous-tinted 
outer band. 

4. — A general difference in the tone of the colouring ; the central 
band never very dark nor distinctly purplish, but rather inclining to 
ferruginous. 

Scotch forms are similar in their general characters to the York- 
shire forms, though with an increasing tendency towards the genuine 
^'spadicearia " type — band paler than in southern examples, sometimes 
almost unicolorous with the ground colour, and often more or less " in 
strigis dissoluta." Also, as Mr. Keid, of Pitcaple, writes me : — "The 
band is a little narrower, and, if I may use the term, the whole insect 
has a looser appearance. I mean the scales are not so firmly attaclied 
as in the southern forms, hence it has not such a sleek aj^pearance," &c. 
The Eannoch form is known among some collectors as var. salicaria, 
Haw., and probably his type of that supposed " species " may have 
been an extreme striated form hereof ; I have failed in my endeavours 
to trace either Haworth's type specimen or the one from Bentley's 
collection figured by Wood (555), which seems to be a very obscure, 
nearly unicolorous form. 

The Irish forms of this species are very interesting ; I am indebted 



COREMIA FEKEUGARIA, UAW. AND C. UNIDEKTARlA, HAW. 121 

to Mr. M. Fitz-Gibbon for the few which I possess ; also to Mr. W. F. 
de V. Kane for interesting information on the distribution, &c., and for 
opportunity of inspecting some of his series. These strongly striated 
forms, sometimes with remarkably bright ochreous outer area, are, he 
tells me, abundant in certain localities in Co. Tyrone, Sligo, West- 
meath and Monaghan. The variegated ai^pearance due to striation, 
&c., seems to have become fixed in parts of Ireland as forming a local 
race, whereas in England it is generally only aberrational. 

Geographical distribution. — I have been somewhat surprised to 
find that the range of our common /err?^(/arm. Haw., appears to be much 
more restricted than that of its ally. 1 have no certain information of 
its occurrence beyond the confines of Europe, though it is very probable 
that it may extend into Siberia. It is common in Scandinavia ; fairly 
so in Germany and Austria, though generally more local than unidentaria ; 
probably common throughout France ; and Eversmann, in his Fauna 
Vohjo-UralensiSy describes varieties which must belong to this species. 
Staudinger's " Europe (except Andalusia, Sardinia and Greece) ; 
Bithynia ; Altai ; Amur," is entirely unreliable, as he treats all the 
red forms as one species. 

Unidentaria, as we call it, has, on the other hand, a very wide 
range throughout the Pala^arctic and Nearctic regions ; the range of 
the black aberration is probably co-extensive with that of the red form. 
We may perhaps safely give this species the same list of localities that 
Staudinger has given to his ferriujata, with the addition of a great part 
of North America, where, as in Europe, it is dimorphic in respect of 
colouring, so that American entomologists have supposed that they 
obtain both the fernujaria and unidentaria of Haworth. There is some 
ground for believing the range of the species is also extended southward 
to Java. Its general representative in Australasia is cymaria, Gn., 
which comes so near some forms of unidentaria that it is just possible 
it may prove not to be specifically distinct. 

In the British Isles this species is less abundant and more local than 
ferrugaria, Haw., and it seems that our climatic conditions are more than 
ordinarily favourable to the production of the black race. The red 
form, however, is not infrequent, though a good deal overlooked. I 
have seen examples from the North Loudon district. Deal, Worthing, 
Isle of Wight, Weymouth, Exeter, Swansea, Eugby, Wicken, York and 
from Co. Tyrone in Ireland. Concerning the range of the black form, 
it will be simplest to enumerate the districts where it does not occur or 
is not common, Mr. Bankes reports that he has met with but very few 
in his district (Isle of Purbeck, &g.) ; Mr. Harwood that it "does not 
seem generally common here " (Colchester) ; Mr. Porritt that it " does 
not occur in the Huddersfield district at all so far as I know " ; Mr. Keid 
that he has never seen the insect alive and thinks, " if it occurs in the 
North of Scotland, it must be either very local or very rare " ; and Mr. 
de V. Kane that his opinion is " that unidentaria is much more restricted 
in Ireland than ferruyaria." 

Habits. — Both species are generally double-brooded, but they (or at 
least ferrugaria, Haw.) are probably normally single-brooded in the 
North. Both nearly always hybernate in the pupal state, but Mr. 
South had a curious experience with a brood of unidentaria in 
1890-91, when four laggards of a brood from August ova hybernated 
as larvee {Ent., xxiv., pp. 172-3). 



122 THE entomologist's record. 

In many localities the two species occur freely together, but both 
Mr. Fletcher and Mr. Bankes have independently observed that uniden- 
tarta seems to have a preference for somewhat moist localities. Mr. 
Harrison of Barnsley informs me that, while both occur together in 
the Doncaster district on wooded and low-lying limestone ground, on 
the " cold northern moorland about ten miles away, with scarcely any- 
thing but fir trees," ferrngafa occurs alone and plentifully. 

Dr. Riding remarks that ferrugata (as we know it here) is more 
frequently disturbed by the beating-stick than nnidentaria, but that 
unidentaria comes the more frequently to light; also that the latter con- 
tinues later into the autumn. 

Early Stages. — Mr. Fenn, whose experience in describing larva?, 
&c. is too well known to require comment, has most kindly given me 
permission to utilize his careful descriptions, made in 1875, which. I 
present exactly as he gave them to me : — 

Ferrugarid (English Form). — Description made 16th June, 1875, 
Eltham, Kent : — 

Larva. — Elongate, slightly attenuated anteriorly : head rounded, 
face shining. Yellowish brown, dull ochreous brown or greenish gi'ey, 
mottled and shaded with dark gi'ey on the middle segments. A series of 
large pale dorsal diamonds, each containing a conspicuous black spot 
from 5th to lUth segments ; on the remaining segments a dark gTey dorsal 
line. The anterior sides of each of these diamonds most strongly defined. 
Subdorsal line Avaved, distinct, paler than the gi'ound colour, and a 
waved thread between it and the spiracles. Belly and sides below the 
spiracles prominently pale reddish ochreous. Spiracular line dark 
brown, sometimes absent. Usual spots whitish, spiracles black. A 
paler ventral band, margined on each side with a grey band, between 
which and the spiracles is a row of black spots or dots. Head dull 
whitish, the outside of each lobe black, and two grey bars down the face. 

Pupa. — Highly polished, moderately stout. Anal extremity with a 
short strong spike. Bright red brown, wing cases and dorsal shade 
darker brown. 

Unidentaria (English Form). — Description 25th September, 1875, 
Eltham, Kent : — 

Larva. — Elongate, slightly attenuated anteriorly ; head rounded, 
face shining. Dark blackish brown on the back and sides ; the last four 
segments jialer, often whitish. An orange or reddish ochreous dorsal 
triangle outlined with black, and often filled up with dark brown on 
each segment from the 5th to the 9th (or 10th), the apex in front, and 
enclosing a consjncuous black spot. On the other segments a blackish 
ill-defined and inteiTupted dorsal band. Subdorsal line jiale ochreous, 
broad from the 10th to the 13th segments., threadlike on the remainder. 
Spiracles black ; below them the sides are very prominently reddish 
ochreous and paler. Between the subdorsal line and the spiracles is a 
pale waved thread. Belly brownish, with a broad, pale, ochreous 
central band enclosing a brown thread and edged with two broAvn 
threads, between which and the spiracles a row of black dots is usually 
situated, or a broad, blackish, much-interrupted band. Head pale 
brown, dusted with darker, and with a broad, black dash on the outside 
of each lobe. A conspicuous black dash in front of the first pair of 
prolegs. 

Pupa, — Highly polished, moderately stout. Anal extremity with a 



AMONG THE ANClEKTS. 123 

short strong spike. Dark red brown, wing cases and dorsal shade ill- 
defined, often not indicated by colour. 

Ferrugaria var. salicaria (Scotch form from Eannoch), described 
19th July, 1875. This form is, I believe, single-brooded. 

Larva. — Elongate (stouter than the English form), slightly attenu- 
ated anteriorly : head rounded, face shining, spots raised. Ochreous 
with a pink tinge, mottled and shaded with grey on the anterior segments 
A series of large pale dorsal diamonds, each containing a conspicuous 
black spot, from 5th to 10th segments ; on the remaining segments is 
often a dark grey dorsal line. The anterior half of each of these 
diamonds is outlined with black and filled up with pinkish, thus form- 
ing a triangle with blunt apex, having a black spot below the base. 
Sub-dorsal and a line below it waved, thread-like, of a jjaler shade than 
the gTOund colour. Sjiiracular line dark grey, spiracles black. Belly 
and sides below the spiracles pale pinkish-ochreous, sometimes ochreous 
or reddish. A pale ventral band, edged with a brown shade, containing 
two black lines, and with a row of prominent marginal black sjjots, 
one on each segment, from the 4th to the 10th. 

Piqm. — Highly polished, moderately stout. Anal extremity with a 
short strong spike. Bright red brown, wing cases and dorsal shade 
darker brown. 

" From these descriptions you will observe that there is really more 
difference between the form sa licaria hndferriu/aria than between the latter 
and unidentaria. In the one, mention is made of dorsal diamonds and 
in the other, of triangles, but the variety supplies the connecting link 

and explains the reason The three larvee are practically 

identical, the exaggeration or obliteration of the markings of the one 
would make the description of the other apply. Here again we have 
the colour difficulty ; they are (I allude to our English species) so 
excessively variable that mere colour is no guide. Of the Scotch form 
I had only some eighteen or twenty larvje and they did not vary much, 
but this is too small a number on which to base an oj^inion. 

" The pupce again seem the same, allowing for the colour question " 
(C. Fenn. in litt., 4th March, 1893). 

The larva3 of both species are very general feeders; as already 
communicated to some meml)ers of this Society, I generally breed mine 
when at home on the common garden marigold. 

In conclusion, I have only to tender my best thanks collectively to 
the very many entomologists (too numerous to mention individually) 
who have freely given me all the information and assistance in their 
power in these, to me, most interesting investigations and studies. 



By J. W. TUTT, F.E.S. 

I HAD often wondered when it was that insects first began to have 
fancy values put on them simply because they were British. In my 
own mind I had settled that it was not till after the days of Hawortli, 
and might probably date from the time Avhen Curtis and Stephens o-ave 
such a mighty lift to British entomology. That there were dealers in 
insects long before this time I did not imagine, and it was with some- 
thing of a shock that I found Ha worth apologising for a blunder which 



124 THE entomologist's RECORD, 

lie had made because of a dealer supplying liim with a specimen com- 
jiounded of the head of one species stuck on to the body of another. 
Kecently however I have discovered that the dealer fraternity and fancy 
prices for British insects existed at least twenty years earlier than 
Haworth's time. Through the kindness of Mr. Davies of Kington I 
have had an opportunity of examining A Catalocjiie of the Portland 
Museum Sale, which is dated 1786, and in which the prices realised are 
attached to every lot ; possibly it was the auctioneer's catalogue. 

Before j)roceeding to give some account of this interesting relic and 
its contents, it may be not unprofitable to make an attempt to realise 
the condition of things entomological in this said year of grace, 1786. 
On the continent the new binomial system of nomenclature invented 
by Linneeus had been generally adopted, and his classification was 
almost universally followed. The Vienna Catalogue was little known ; 
it was not till Fabricius called the attention of entomologists to it in his 
Mantissa (1787) that it began to emerge from obscurity, and it was not 
till 1793 that Hiibner began the work {Sammlung europdischer Schmetter- 
linge) which elevated it into that position of suj)reme authority as re- 
gards nomenclature which it for long occupied. Fabricius had produced 
Si/stcma Eatomologiae, Genera Insectorum and Species Insectorum, and by 
these, and still more by his personal influence exerted in his numerous 
wanderings, had come to be a power in the entomological world. The 
main bulk of those parts of Esper's great work,which relate to Ehopalocer a , 
Sphinges, Bombyces and Noctu^, had been given to the world, and 
four volumes of Cramer's Papillons Exotiques were published. Probably 
the works which were in most general use at that time, in addition to 
the 12th edition of the Systeina Naturae, were those of De Geer and 
Geoff roi and the published volumes, five in number, of Papillons d' 
Europe which generally go by the names of Ernst and Engramelle. 
Hiibner was just coming into note, the first part of his Beitrdge having 
made its appearance in the year of which we are speaking. In our own 
country Berkenhout had introduced the Linnjean nomenclature in his 
Outlines, which was probably the " Manual " of the entomologists of the 
day, and Harris and Wilkes had brought out second editions of their 
works in which the new names were more or less accurately attached to 
indigenous species. Barbut, five years earlier, had illustrated the 
Linna^an genera of the class Insecta by figures of a representative species 
of each, drawn from nature. Drury's magnificent work on exotic 
insects was in the hands of those who could afford to obtain it. The 
Linneean cabinet had probably not yet readied this country, but nego- 
tiations were rapidly a^jproaching comjiletion, if not already completed, 
for its transfer here. Fabricius had visited England once at least, and 
was in communication with some of our entomologists, specially with 
Sir Joseph Banks. From the Species Insectorum we learn that many 
notable collections existed in this country. Fabricius mentions those of 
Banks, Hunter, Drury and Bloinfield in London ; of Lee at Hammer- 
smith, and of Blackburn at Oxford. The jiatron saint of Entomology 
was undoubtedly Sir Joseph Banks, who had been elected President of 
the Koyal Society eight years previously, and who retained that post 
till his death in 182U. To his industry in acquiring continental litera- 
ture and to his generosity in making arrangements for the transfer of 
his library to the nation after his death, the students of to-day are 
gi'eatly indebted, for most of the cojjies of the works of " the Ancients " 
which are now in the British Museum are from his librai'y. 



AMONG THE ANCIENTS. 125 

But revenons d nos motitons. The Catalogue itself is a fine bit of 
work with an engi-aved Fi'ontispiece, and cost each would-be buyer five 
shillings. The sale occupied 39 days (one day beyond the time esti- 
mated) and the objects sold realised some £1 1,523. Insects formed but 
a small part of the collection, but it is they alone that interest us here. 

At the outset I find a note in the book, evidently written at the time 
of the sale, to this effect : — " The name of Humphry occurs so often 
in this Catalogue and, as it is well known that he bought almost all on 
commission for others, to save time, as well as hereafter to fix the proper 
names of those wlio(m) he bought for, the initial H. only is added. 
J. L." These initials are those of Jno. Laskoy, Crediton, the original 
owner of the Catalogiie. 

It would appear that, besides Humphry, men named Dennis, Allan- 
son, Bailey, Francillon, Money, Hunter, Forster, Eoper, Seaton, 
Marsham, Tennant and Pownall jiurchased the greater part of the 
Exotics in the collection, but with the exception of Drury, Francillon 
and Marsham, no one had a chance against Humphry in buying the 
British insects. Many lots however contained British and Exotic in- 
sects mixed, and in some cases no attempt to subdivide them is apparent. 

As samples of the prices realised the following are interesting : — 
" Lot 268. Eight species of very rare Phalenfe, viz., gonostigma, curttda, 
solids, cori/li, monacha, atra, L. and 2 undescribed," £1 3s. " Lot 275. 
Five rare species of Phalenee, viz., absinthii, aim, gamma, circumflexa, L., 
and a nondescript," £1 10s. "Lot 277. Eighteen ditto, such as 
dromedarius, palpina, leporina, eamelina, &g. all labelled," £'J, Is. "Lot 
280, Ten rare sj^ecies of Phalence, viz., fulvago, occulta, L., &c." £1 12s. 
"Lot 282. Twenty species of small Phalense, chiefly Alucitae," £1 10s. 
" Lot 283. Ten rare species of Phalenee, viz., pisi, chi, gothica, satelUtia, 
triplacia, &c." £1 13s. " Lot 287. Various lepidoptera, many of them 
very rare, such as Phalena proicox, L., of which there are no less than 
12 pairs," £3 13s. 6d. With the exception of this last Lot, which was 
bought by Drury, all the above Lots were bouglit by Humphry. 
This was in the Third day's sale. In the Sixth day's sale, a mixed lot, 
chiefly without names, were bought by Humphry. The important 
items appear to have been : " Lot 585. Nineteen specimens of English 
Phaleuce, among which is a pair oi prcecox, L." £2 5s. "Lot 588. Six 
species of rare English Papiliones, viz., aiiiiopa, ins, avion, L., &c. all 
fine," £1 13s. " Lot 590. Four species of English Phalense, viz., 
tremula, dromedarius, curtula and ziczac," £2 18s. " Lot 595. Four 
species of English Phalense, viz., fagi, or the lobster, lanestris. Spotted 
Ermine of Harris, &c." £2 3s. Among this, too, was " Lot 593. 
Fourteen beautiful Paj)iliones, viz., a pair of dapUdice, sometimes found 
in England, maja, L. &c." 16s. ; these dapUdice therefore were 
not sold as British. All the important Lots in this day's sale also went 
to Humjjhry. In the Eighth day's sale there are none designated as 
British ; many appear in fact without the slightest data. In the Tenth 
day's sale however we find a mixture of British and Exotic species. 
Lots 1020-1ij33 were all bought by Humphry. " Lot 1021. Nine rare 
species of English Phalena^, among which are falcataria, lacertinaria, 
defoliaria, pulveruria, and others." £1. " Lot 1033. Twenty species of 
English Tinese, all rare, among which are carnella, raiella, clerckella," 
lis. The Thirteenth day's sale contained: — "Lot 1271. Seventeen 
species of English Phalenge, most of them rare, and some nondescript," 



12f> THK entomologist's RECORD, 

£2 6s. "Lot 1272. Twelve ditto, some new, all rare," £2 7s. "Lot 
1277. Seven species of rai*e British Phalenfe, among which are leuco- 
melas and pisi," £1 Is. These again were all bought by Humjihry. 
In the Fifteenth day's sale but little of importance is noticeable, except 
that aniiopa and lineata figure among the Exotic sales, and that many 
of the lots consisted of a mixture of British and Exotic species. In 
the Eighteenth day's sale the same mixture occurs. In the Nineteenth 
day's sale we find among others: "Lot 1977. Eight rare species of 
British Papiliones, viz., lathonia, iris, primi, argiohis, rnhi, and 2 nonde- 
script," £1 5s. "Lot 1990. Nineteen various species of rare English 
Phalena3," £1 lis. "Lot 1995. Twelve curious and rare species of 
English Phalena3, among which are hepattca, mijrtiUi, miata, jjrmiata,'" 
£1 19s., all bought by Humphry ; whilst on the same day "11 curious 
Exotic Sphinges," producecl 3s. 6d., and "11 beautiful Exotic Papi- 
liones," 5s. On the Twentieth day we find " Lot 2091. Seven rare species 
of English Phalen^, among which are trngopoginis, ciirago, typica, liicipara 
and prcecox, L." £1 5s. " Lot 1092. Twenty-two curious and rare si^ecies 
of British Phalenaj, amongst which are geoffrella, pomoneUa, conwai/ana," 
£1, (both bought by Humphry) whilst "Two of Phakena fraxini," with- 
out data, and " Two pairs of Sjjhinx nerii," ditto, were sold. The 
Thirtieth day's sale is a striking one as in the face of the prices realised 
both earlier and later ; some of its lots must have been very doubtful. 
Thus we have " Lot 3171. Five sj)ecies of very scarce British Papi- 
liones, viz., two pair of virgaurece, three maturna, one hero,'' &c., 3s. Gd., 
whilst for "Lot 3178. Eight species, including falcataria, betularia, 
laceriinaria, vihicaria, amataria, and defoliaria," 13s. " Lot 3180. Twelve 
beautiful and rare Tineae, such as arcuana, christianana," £1 2s. " Lot 
3182. A very fine pair of Sphinx atropos, and a new Sphinx related to 
cohi'oZi'hZ/, lately discovered in Yorkshire," £2 4s. "Lot 3184. Eleven 
species of British Phalena3, iduiata, pojmlata, bidentata, &c." 18s. "Lot 
3186, Three extremely curious and rare English Phalena3, among which 
is that very uncommon one, delphinii ov the Pease-blossom moth, jnnastri, 
L. &c." £1 12s. " Lot 3187. Two very curious species, viz., castrensis 
or the scarce Lacky Moth, and versicolor or Glory of Kent," £1 3s. 
" Lot 3188. Four species of British Phalente, viz., cesadi, batis, etc." 
14s. "Lot 3189. Three species of the larger British Phalenas, viz., 
sponsa, maura, and 3 pairs of a new species related to pronuba," 14s. 
"Lot 3193. Various duplicates, including j:>}YPcox-," £1 lis. 6d. "Lot 
3194. Twelve species of the larger British Phalense, ^at'onm, quercus, 
chrysitis, villica, nupta, plantaginis, vinida," 16s. 6d. All these were 
bought by Humphry. 

These are a few of the notes made on rapidly running through the 
Catalogue. The number of lepidoptera (both large and small) from 
America is remarkable, and although, generally speaking, British speci- 
mens are sold in separate lots from the Exotics, yet many are mixed, 
and after studying the Catalogue a short time, one need no longer 
wonder that British collections in the early part of the century contained 
large numbers of species which have since been proved to have no locus 
standi in the British fauna. If, as may be su2:)posed from this, most of 
the earliest collections consisted of lepidoptera from many countries, it 
is no wonder that doubtful species were introduced when British 
collections began to be the rage. The Catalogue would certainly lead 
any student to understand that every American and most European 



RETROSPECTIONS AND FORECASTS. 127 

species mentioned by the old authors as British but which are now 
generally not accepted as such, were of undoubted foreign origin. 

The second point that strikes one is the existence of professional 
dealers and buyers in these early days, but it would appear that such 
were rather curio dealers in general than dealers in lepidoptera in par- 
ticular. 

The third matter of interest is the difference existing even in these 
early times between the values of British and foreign insects. Rare 
indeed is it to find a " Lot " of the former valued at less than lOs., or a 
'• Lot " of the latter at more. The fancy value for Britishers therefore 
dates back a long way, and it is evident that the gentlemen who now 
supply the gullible British public had predecessors in existence at least 
110 years ago. 

A fourth point on which the Catalogue throws an interesting light 
is the nomenclature in vogue at the time ; this will be an instructive 
study to Anti-Staudingerists. Of the macro names given above, all but 
three are Linneean ; those three, gonostigma, lineata, and nlmata, are 
Fabrician. The following, which were again revived by Staudinger 
after an interval of disuse, were in use in this country in 1786 : fulvago 
(= cerago) falcataria, lacertinaria, prunata (^^ rihesiaria), pavonia. On 
the other hand aesculi held the ground, and was not then known as 
pyrina. 

By albert J. HODGES. 

(Continued from page 70). 

As every advantage has its attendant drawbacks, so doubtless the 
distant Northern resident collectors will allow their practical monopoly 
of the many rare species and fine local forms to be a fitting compensa- 
tion for the frequent absence of those opportunities of congenial society 
which would so shorten the weary return from many a successful 
expedition. 

How different is the case with the equally rich but more accessible 
famous hunting grounds in the South and the Midlands ; " sugaring " in 
the New Forest, when the " crimsons " are out, is almost as good an 
introduction to entomological circles as membership with one of the 
societies ; certain of the " enclosures " with names too well known to 
need mention, are almost over- run during July with collectors, who 
meet one another season after season, with unvarying regularity, in 
pursuit of the graceful sibylla and the lordly iris, whilst the dank and 
gloomy Fen, foimerly only mentioned with bated breath as a mystery 
not to be approached by the dilettante and frivolous collector of Macros 
only, is now studded in the mist and darkness with innumerable 
" lights, like gipsy camp-fires," each with the concomitant weird sheet, 
whilst the sound of voices, more or less cheerful as the sport waxes 
and wanes, is borne through the fast-falling darkness, and the most 
treasured Fenland species are fast becoming " household words " in 
every cabinet. 

Whilst mourning the apparently inexplicable extinction in recent 
years of some typically Fen species, as Laelia coenosa, and of more 
distant years, Noctna suhrosea, yet the eager jiursuit of equally local 
species is being carried on with the same avidity, and it seems likely 



128 THE entomologist's record. 

ah'eacly that we may have to add Cidaria sagittata to the' same black 
list, although hope still lingers on and the pretty larva is searched for, 
season after season, with perseverance by amateitr and dealer alike, 
upon its common food-plant, the meadow-rue (Thalictrum flavum), which 
is so abundant throughout the Fen. 

In tliis connection, a fertile subject for discussion may be found in 
the gradually increasing rarity of some species of our Macro-lepidoptera, 
e.g. Porthesia chrysorrhoea, whicli within very recent years was generally 
recorded, but has been of late increasingly difficult to obtain, although 
occurring within the strictly Metropolitan area (vide, Ent, Bee, Vol. I., 
p. 349, Vol. II., p. 140, etc.) and the series in many cabinets are either 
of a more or less ancient api^earance or very incomplete. The some- 
what allied species, Ocneria disjjar is, of course, too well-known an 
instance of this to need comment, and the series of all of the younger 
collectors of the day are filled with in-bred specimens, which differ 
widely in appearance from the genuine old captured examples. The 
gradual extinction of these si^ecies of Liparidae, as with L. coenosa 
referred to above, bears quite a different aspect from the prosjiective 
destruction of other miscellaneous species through over-collecting to 
the point of extermination, by dealers and others, of which a case in 
point is the jiretty little Nola albtdah's of Chattenden fame, and were it 
not that the Folkestone local Chortodes bondii has been discovered in 
other spots along our Southern coast, towards Dorsetshire, it is to be 
feJired that the day is not far distant when this species would have 
ceased to claim its place in our lists. 

Let us turn from these forebodings to the more congenial anticipa- 
tions of the season which is so rapidly oi^ening, and do not let us forget 
that " records " for early api^earance of many of our May and June 
species are being broken season after season, a result possibly due to 
more energetic and scientific observation, as well as to the grand 
seasons with which we are being favoured. Now is the time for the 
le2)idopterist whilst held back from the active pursuit of his favourite 
hobby by those numerous ties and duties (which doubtless act as a most 
viseful curb to the too great devotion of many of us), to cherish that 
dormant enthusiasm which will surge within until oitportunity gives 
the signal for the incei^tion of some arduous expedition to more or less 
distant and inaccessible sj^ots, where can be accomjilished the wild 
desire, " To scorn delights and live laborious days." Had Milton ever 
foreseen the devoted perseverance of the average collector, he would 
surely have immortalized Lycidas with a lamp and net and for " days " 
have substituted " nights," but we will forbear, and for a few moments 
will endeavour to picture the keen delights of a " go^d night " in early 
summer on the Fens. 

The setting sun is fast disappearing behind a bank of clouds, which 
impelled slowly upwards by the gentle westerly breeze, meeting us as 
we leave the village to wend our way laden Avith the implements for 
our night's work, gradually overspread the whole sky and confirm our 
anticipations of that dark warm night in which Fen-Avorkers so delight. 
As we hasten down the " drove " to our favourite spot we exchange the 
cheeriest of greetings with a brother of the net, who has already begun 
work and reports that the early flying Geometers are flitting around 
the stunted bushes in plenty, and we net short series of Lobophora 
sexalisata and Epione apiciaria before the rapidly increasing twilight 



RETROSPECTIONS AND FORECASTS. 129 

warns us that the lamp should be already throwing its seducing radiance 
around. What is that large pale moth with long drooping body flying 
heavily on the skirts of yonder reed-bed ? A good beginning, as the 
lucky captor announces a female M. amndinis, surely a very early 
emergence and confirming our anticipations of some sport with the 
males of the same species at the lamp. 

Hardly is the sheet fixed than a " wainscot " emerges from the 
surrounding gloom and circles once or twice round the lantern, M. 
flammea as expected, and fortunately the precursor of others, which 
settling on the sheet and on grass stems within the circle of light are 
soon prisoners. DisajDjiointment is exjjressed that we have not netted 
Viminia venosa before darkness set in, but we are soon relieved by the 
rapid dash of a very white-looking Noctua into the bright rays in 
which we are standing ; it is too quick for us, but a second momentary 
apjiearance within the verge of the lighted area gives a rapid net the 
opportunity required. Hardly is this boxed than a sudden rush against 
the sheet is felt and the first ^ arundinis is seen settled low down and 
is boxed before he can begin to get lively. For an hour or so we are 
busy, the first to disa2Diiear is Herminia cribralis, which had been early 
and frequent in its visits, and for a while the slackening sport gives us 
the necessary opportunity for a visit to the numerous sugared " knots " 
of reeds which we had prepared as an experiment, it being rather early 
in the season for the usual luck with these. Not much on the Fen 
itself. An occasional A. nnanimis, with an early L. imjmdens and a few 
of the usual "free lances," but as we gain the higher ground just off 
the fen-level our forethought is better rewarded ; a few posts and 
saplings yield A. advena and N. saponariae, whilst by good fortune we 
succeed in boxing a very skittish C. ocularis, but we have still another 
string to our bow, in the lane above, we have prepared numerous baits 
with sugared flower heads and more knots. Ah ! advena prefers these 
and tliis preference is shared by another fine fellow ; C. elpenor cannot 
resist them, especially so near his head-quarters and evident birth-place, 
he needs a raj^id and sure hand to secure and a speedy quietus but is worth 
it all. We must not linger, the witching hour of midnight is past and 
the distant liglit on the Fen recalls us and none too soon ; A. fuliginosa 
has begun its wild flight and seems to have re-started the more staid 
Noctuaj, and for another hour we are too busy to heed the busy flight 
of time and forget all in the glamour of the mouient. The weird 
appearance of our shadows, thrown as within a small illuminated islet 
in a sea of dense darkness which seemingly surrounds us, adds to the 
loneliness and novelty of our position, which in its utter contrast to 
our usual haunts, constitutes that charm which will ever enthral the 
ardent nature-lover and which will find its votaries year after year, 
ready to illumine the darkness of night to pursue their loved investi- 
gations into the many problems of Nature. 

We find fresh incentives to overcome these meditative tendencies in 
action and whilst the records of the past are recalled and the rarities 
of former years discussed, a sharp outlook is kept on the lamp for the 
pretty little Nascia cilialis, formerly such a rarity, to-night fortunately 
added to our captures, whilst hopes of that greatest prize, HydriUa 
palustris, although doomed to disappointment again, yet tend to the 
heightening of the weird fascination of the hour. 

A little longer and at last even our enthusiasm for Nature begins to 



130 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 



wane before the demands of Nature in a more personal relation, and 
even now lingeringly and witli reluctance, we lower down and extin- 
guish our lamps and fold the sheet which has done such yeoman service. 
Hiding the heaviest of our paraphernalia in the thick rank growth 
around, we return to ourselves, home, supper and bed. 

Who is he, pent-up in crowded city, that does not feel a chord 
vibrate in sympathy with such recollections and long for the moment 
when, in healthy and exhilarating sport, the lassitude of the winter 
may be cast off and a store of health and pleasant reminiscences be 
acquired for the future ; whilst in such recollections lies much of the 
subtle charm that invariably retains the active sympathies of every 
individual, who may have been fortunate enough to come within the 
magic spell of attraction of our favourite hobby. 



PRING. 



^HITE and blue in the sky this 
morn: 

Shadows creeping along the hill : 
Spring's young life in the hud new- 
born : 
Tinkle of music in river and rill. 

Cast off sorrow and cares that kill : 

Hie thee forth and be glad to-day. 
What ai-e thy years to thee ? Youth 
lives still 
In many a heart when flowers the 
May. 

Youth in the heart, though the hair 
be grey, 
Calls us forth to be boys again. 
Calls us forth to see Nature play 
With her old, old playthings — Joy 
and Pain. 

Joy to the plant, as it drinks the 
rain : 

Pain to the dripping beggar's child : 
Joy to the child, as it links the chain : 

Pain to the daisy for flowers defiled. 

Joy to the hawk in the woodland 
wild : 
Pain to the dove as the claws sink 
deep. 
Over her playthings hath Nature 
smiled 
Since the world and its wonders 
awoke from sleep. 

Lips may smile, when the eyes would 
weep: 
Eyes may smile though the heart 
be sore. 
Nature, must thou thy secret keep ? 
Lovest thou sorrow or joy the 
m^re ? 



Let me enter thy open door : 

Let me dream on thy bounteous 
breast : 
Lay me down on thy flower-strewn 
floor : 
In thy presence is only rest. 

Rest to the hawk in its thorn-built 

nest: 

Rest in death to the dove that died : 

Rest to the day in the twilight blest : 

Rest to the sands when ebbs the 

tide. 

Must then May and the spring's 
young pride 
Sink like this through a minor key ? 
Shall a man weep as he weds his 
bride ? 
Shall a boy's young thoughts as an 
old man's be ? 

Fie on thee, Nature ; river and lea, 
Sparkle of waters and whisper of 
leaves 
Weave no riddles 'twixt thee and me. 
Keep thy pain for the heart that 
grieves. 

Time in Autumn to bind the sheaves 
Reaped from thy deeper wisdom's 
store. 

Chatter of swallows beneath the eaves 
Bids us sorrow in spring no more. 

Up then! Out! to the shell-decked 
shore, 
To the still green woods, to the 
wind-swept heath. 
The storms in winter may one day 
roar, 
But better in May is Life than 
Death. 

G. M. A, Hewktt. 



ON 1?afc LARVA 0^ ARCl*IA CAIA. 131 

"With special reference to its correlated variations in Plumage, 
Moulting and Hybernation. 

By T. A. CHAPMAN, M. D. 

{Continued from page 35). 

In considering the relations which these variations in plumage, 
moulting and hybernation bear to one another and to the history and 
habits of the species, some very interesting conclusions present them- 
selves, not indeed as proved, but as highly probable. 

In the first place, it is very interesting to find that of a single l)rood 
of larvEe treated identically, some should reach maturity in five moults, 
whilst others take thirteen, and this as a matter of simple variation, and 
quite apart from any disease. Such a gi-eat range of variation may, 
probably does, exist in other hybernating Arctiae, but in no other hyber- 
nating larvae, that I have reared or heard of, is it met with. Mr. 
Hellins records frequent and continuous moulting in some few instances, 
but these were always, in his opinion, pathological. 

As to the use of these variations to the species ; we find in the first 
place that the Forward forms are decidedly favoured, if not caused, by 
a high temperature. Now, if only the Normal form existed, it is 
evident that in a very warm and early season these would be ready to 
hybernate at midsummer, and would jDrobably largely, if not entirely, 
perish in consequence ; whilst a second brood from the Forward moths 
would reach the hybernating stage at a fairly favoiirable date. In an 
ordinary English summer, no doubt the Forwards themselves or their 
jirogeny Avould perish ; hence, no doubt also, the rarity of Forwards in 
England. It is olivious again, that the fine large hybernating form of 
larva, noted as appearing in Brood I, from its larger store of nutriment, 
its denser clothing, and greater resistance to change of temperature, was 
well adapted for carrying the species through a long and severe winter, 
that might be fatal to the ordinary hybernating form. 

Then the Laggards may be supposed to take up precisely the opposite 
role, and to be suitable to a very mild winter, in which hybernating 
would be very difficult, although feeding up would be impossible. 

These four forms obviously exist, freely commingled in our English, 
race of caia, but with the Normals largely predominating, though ready 
to give way to the Forwards under the influence of a high temperature. 

My experiments amounted to an attempt to produce a race which 
shoiild be entirely Forwards, but in this, broadly stated in this form, 
they entirel}'^ failed. They did apjtear, however, to produce a certain 
effect on the form assumed by the larvfe. They did, most esjiecially, 
j)roduce an increase of the Laggards, and not only an increase in their 
numbers, but an increase in their variety, and in their constitutional 
stamina. I deduced from this, tliat there was a closer relationship be- 
tween the Forwards and the Laggards, than between either of tliem and 
the Normals, probably to be explained by the supposition that a warm 
summer, favouring the production of Forwards, belonged to a climate 
where the winter was also warm, which would favour Laggards ; so 
that the existence of a race of caia consisting entirely of Laggards or 
entirely of Forwards, was extremely unlikely ; one that alternated 
between Forwards and Laggards was probably not infrequent, and may 



132 THE entomologist's record, 

indeed very conceivably liave existed at some time or place as a pure 
race, and would have been quite parallel to the many instances with 
which we are familiar, of winter and summer (or spring and autumn) 
broods. 

This conclusion is assisted by the further fact, that the later broods 
showed gi'eat variation in the Normals, as though they were so crossed 
with Laggards and Forwards, that there were comparatively few that 
did not partake more or less of the characters of one or other of these 
forms, whilst the converse of this is strikingly illustrated in the brood 
reared from profound hybernators, in which there appeared among 530 
larvfe, only one Forward and no Laggards. 

Pedigree breeding of caia obtained from the extreme northern limits 
of its distribution, as well as from the southern, to jjut this conclusion 
to a further test Avould be of much interest, and might throw consider- 
able light on the action of climate. Especiall}^ it might in some degree 
elucidate such facts as that caia, through many successive Normal 
broods, can perpetuate the capacity to take on a double brooded habit, 
with a rapid feeding summer brood and a winter brood hybernating as 
larvse. 

The conclusions actually ascertained or suggested by the experiments 
which are the subject of this paper, appear to be : — 1. That the larva 
of caia presents three types, each with subsidiary varieties. 2. That 
each of these types, and indeed each subsidiary variety, is characterised 
by a series of moults, a succession of plumage, and habits as to hyber- 
nation, in which it differs from the others. 3. That caia, as we meet 
with it, may be regarded as a mongrel race, consisting of these three 
types closely mixed and intercrossed, but capalile of separation by 
appropriate breeding and selection, or more probably of two races, one 
with hybernating larvae and a single brood annually, the other, consist- 
ing of an alternating summer and winter form. 4. That though these 
two races may conceivably, under certain climatic conditions, have 
existed as separate and pure races, (they may do so now in some parts 
of the world for ought I know), yet that at present in England the 
hybernating form is most largely represented with a small intermixture 
of the digoneutic form, which persists, as it enables the species to be 
continued in exceptional seasons that would be destructiA'e to the 
dominant monogoneutic type. 

DESCEIPTION OF PLATE 11. 

(All Figures of Larvae are amplified two diameters.) 

Fig. 1. Laggard of 2nd brood, hybernating in 8th skin. 

Fig. 2. Laggard of 4th brood, in 4th skin. 

Fig. 3. Laggard of 2nd Ijrood, hybernating in 7th skin. 

Fig. 4. Normal, hybernating in 5th skin. 

Fig. 5. Normal, hybernating in Gth skin ; large ca/a-like form. 

Fig. 6. Dorsal view of anal armature of caia pupa, x 6 diameters. 

Fig. 7. Lateral view of anal armature of caia pupa, x 6 diameters. 

NOTES ON PLATE IL 

Li Plate II, Fig. 1, we have a form that is very much the same as 
a Normal hyljcrnator, and the figure gives, perhaps, a Ijetter idea of a 
Normal hybernator than does fig. 4, taken from a Normal hybernating 



Plojte. 2. 





-^ 




U:M^ii''^' 



'^m^^ 









Varieties of Larvae of Arctia Caia. 



West, Newman, CVrromo . 



SOCIETIES. 133 

specimen. Fig. 1 is, however, a hybernating form, assumed by a 
Laggard at the 8th skin. Fig. 2 is a Laggard in 4th skin ; compare 
with Normal in 4th skin (Plate I, fig. 8). Fig. 3 is a Laggard 
hybernating in 7th skin. 

Fig. 5 is a hybernating form that is rather rare, and is remarkable 
for its large size and cam-like plumage ; several of these occurred in 
later broods ; the one figured Avas in its 6th skin, and was descended 
from the large red hybernating larvae already referred to, as the only 
definite variety of hybernation that occurred in the first brood. 

Figs. 6 and 7 represent the anal armature of coia pupa ; beyond 
the opportunity afforded for having the drawings made, they have no 
connection with the subject of this paper, but they interested me as 
having, more than any other pupa that I have met with, certain features 
very similar to those of Acronycta pupte. The two definite dorsal 
spines and the numerous ventral set, being of the same pattern as pre- 
vails amongst the Cuspidiae, whilst the texture of the pupa reminds one 
a good deal of Viminia. These facts make one suspect that the 
resemblance of the larvae of Viminia to those of Arctia may indicate 
relationship, extending as it does to an identity of the lateral strii^e in 
menyanthidis and rumicis with that found in some varieties of young 
caid larvfe. 



gOCIETIES. 

Three meetings of The Entomological Society of London have 
been held since our last note. — On March 14th, Dr. D. Sharp exhibited 
a collection of White Ants (Termites), comprising about a dozen species, 
which had been taken by Mr. G. D. Haviland, in Singapore ; he stated 
that Mr. Haviland had found in one nest eleven neoteinic queens, — 
that is, individuals having in some respects the appearance of queens, 
while in other respects they were still immature ; these neoteinic 
queens were accomj^anied by kings in a corresj^onding condition. Dr. 
Sharp alluded to the opinion expressed by Mr. Herbert Spencer, in his 
recent discussion with Prof. Weissman, that the different forms of social 
insects were produced by nutrition, and said that the observations made 
by Prof. Grassi, showed the correctness of this view. Mr. Haviland 
stated that two of the species exhibited, certainly grow fungus for their 
use, as described by Mr. Smeathman many years ago, in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions. Mr. Goss remarked that Virgil (Gcorgics, Book 
iv.), referred to the fact that the different forms of social insects were 
produced by nutrition, and also to parthenogenesis in Bees. Mr. 
0. E. Janson exibited specimens of Dicranocephalus adamsi, Pascoe, from 
Sze-chuen, Western China, and D. dahryi, Auz., recently received from 
the neighbourhood of Meupin, in the same district ; he observed that, 
although the latter had been quoted by Lucas, Bates, and others, as a 
synonym of adamsi, the two species were perfectly distinct ; the females 
of both were unknown to the authors, and presented a remarkable 
difference, for whilst in dahryi this sex is similar to the male in colour 
and sculpture, in adamsi it is entirely dull black, with the upi)er surface 
minutely and densely punctate. Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse exhibited, for 
Mr. E. A. Waterhouse, a specimen of Colias ednsa, closely resembling 
C. erate (a Continental species), which was taken on Wimbledon Common, 



134 tHE entomologist's RECOftb. 

and a series of Lycacna arion, from Cornwall. Mr. F. Merrifield read 
a paper describing further experiments on pupa3 of Lepidoptera, with 
comments on them by Dr. Dixey. In Pararge egeria, heat produced no 
approach to the South European form ; those at temperatures of 56° 
and under, gave the most strongly- marked imagines. In Cidaria slla- 
ceata, the principal eifect of forcing was to reduce the size. In 
Araschnia levana, adequate cooling of the pupse caused a comjilete con- 
version from the prorsa to the levana form. In Vanessa polychloros, 
forcing tends to yellow, refrigeration to darkness ; in this species, as 
well as in V. io, cooling produced marked reversion to ancestral forms. 
Vanessa atalanta, subjected to a very high forcing temperature, 
developed several additional scarlet spots and groups of scales, corres- 
ponding with more conspicuous colouring of the same kind in V. 
caUirrhoii. Grapta c-alhum was remarkable for the much greater 
sensitiveness to temperature of the first (or early summer) emergence, 
than of the late autumn emergence ; the effects on this species are much 
more strongly marked on the under side. From V. antlopa no results 
were obtained, but this may have been due to the fact that the pupte 
were several days old when they reached Mr. Merrifield. Dr. Dixey 
followed Avith a paper, indicating the relation of the results obtained by 
Mr. Merrifield, to the phylogenesis of the species experimented on ; he 
also discussed the theories of Weismann, and the question of acquired 
qualities in connection with heredity, on which he considered that they 

threw some light. On March 28th, sympathetic reference was 

made to tlie sudden death of Mr. J. Jenner Weir. Mr. W. Borrer, jun., 
exhibited a wasp's nest, which had been built in such a way as to conceal 
the entrance thereto, and to protect the whole nest from observation ; 
he believed the nest to be that of Vespa vuhjaris (c.f. Proc. Ent. Soc. 
London, 1892, pp. xx and xxi). Mr. G. F. Hampson exhibited a speci- 
men of Gandnritis Jiavata, Moore, from the Khari Hills, and called 
attention to the existence in the males of this S23ecies, in the closely 
allied British species Cidaria dotata, Linn,, and also in two Jaj^anese 
species (C. agnes, Butl., and an undescribed species), of an organ on the 
underside of the fore wing, which he suggested might be for stridula- 
tion ; this organ consists of a small scar of hyaline membrane, situated 
just below the middle of vein 2, which is much curved ; this scar is 
fringed with long hair, and has, running down its middle, a row of 
sharp spines situated on the aborted remains of vein 1, and which is 
cui'ved up close to vein 2 ; the spines would naturally rub against j^art 
of the costa of the hind wing, but no spines or imusual roughening 
seems to exist on that or on any of the veins on the upper side of hind 
wing against which they could strike ; below the scar is situated a large 
shallow fovea or pit in the membrane, slightly developed in dotata and 
Jiavata, but much more prominent in the two Jajxanese species which, 
should the organ prove to be for stridulation, would probably act as a 
sounding board. Mr. Hampson said that in the Japanese species C. 
fixreni of Brem, closely allied to Jiavata, the males have no trace of this 
organ, and he hoped that entomologists, who have an opportunity of 
observing dotata in life, would make some experiments on living 
specimens during the ensuing summer ; probably confining males and 
females together would lead to some results. 

On April 11th, the Hon. Walter Kothschild exhibited male and 
female specimens of Ornilhoptera paradisea, Stdgr., from Finisterre 



SOCIETIES. 135 

Mountains, New Guinea ; 0. trojana, Stdgr., from Palawan ; 0. andro- 
mache, Stdgr., from Kina Balu, Borneo; Oenetns mirahilis, Itotliscli., 
from Cedar Bay, Queensland ; and a few other splendid species from 
the Upper Amazons. Mr. H. Goss exhibited, for Mr. G. A. J. Rothney, 
several specimens of a Heniipteron (Serinetha augur, Fab.), and of a 
Lepidopteron (Phauda flammans, Walk.), the latter of which closely 
resembled and mimicked the former. He said that Mr. Rothney had 
found both species abundantly on the roots and trunks of trees in 
Mj^sore, in November last, in company with Ants (several species of 
Camponotus and Or emastog aster). The Hemipteron appeared to be 
distasteful to the Ants, as it was never molested by them, and he 
thought that the Lepidopteron was undoubtedly protected from attack 
by its close imitation of the Hemipteron. 

At the South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society, on March 8tli, Mr. Adkin exhibited specimens of Erehia 
epiphron from Inverness, which were said to be the type and not var. 
cassiope. It is generally stated in recent Avorks that the difference 
between the two forms consists in the presence of white pupils in the 
ocelli in the tyj^e and their absence in var. cassiope. Knoch, however, 
in his description of the type, distinctly says that the occurrence of 
white pupils is not a constant character. They were not present in 
Mr. Adkin's specimens and Mr. Weir said they never occurred in the 
forms found in Britain. Mr. Routledge showed specimens of Selenia 
bilunaria, which had lain over the summer of 1892, emerging in Aj^ril, 
1893; also the progeny of a pair of these "lazy-landers," which had 
emerged at intervals from August, 1893, to February, 1894, and were 
all moderately small, althougli in some the pigment was fairly well 
developed ; he also brought a series of Epunda luttdenta from Cumber- 
land, which included both var. lunehurgensis, Frr. and var. sedi, Gn. 
Mr. Fi'ohawk exhibited ten ^ and ten J Pararge megaera, bred by 
himself from ova deposited on August 2nd, 1893. Mr. Billups had 
three rare Ichneumons ; Microgaster russatus, taken at High Beach in 
1884 ; Haperacrims crassicornis, of which only one recorded specimen 
was known, taken at Oxshot in 1892 ; Euryproctus nemoralis, taken at 
Oxshot in July, 1893. Mr. W. A. Pearce ; Attacus lima and Citheronia 
rcgalis from Wilkinsburg, U.S.A. Mr. Jenner Weir showed <? and ? 
Hcteronympha merope ; the two sexes are so totally unlike that, until 
quite recently, they have been sujiposed to be distinct species ; the 
chrysalis is said to be contained in a frail network on the ground. The 
latter part of the Society's name was justified by the exhibition, by 
Mr. Williams, of a local snake, CoroneUa laevis, taken at Camberley, in 
Surrey, in 1883. Mr. Step had found that the flowers of the Butcher's 
Broom (Riiscus acideatus) were i)roduced in pairs on the phylloclade, but 
that only one bud opened at a time. 

On March 22nd, two series of Hybernia leucophearia Avere forth- 
coming ; one, taken by Mr. Turner at Richmond Park, West Wickham 
and South London, contained a large number of melanic forms ; in the 
other, from the New Forest, shown by Mr. Adkin, the white-banded 
was the predominant form. Mr. South had a long bred series of 
Taeniocampa gothica, including many var. gothicina, which he had 
received from Mr. Rose, of Barnsley ; all were large and of a deep red 
shade. A locust {Aedipoda tartarica), captured at Brixton among 
vegetables imjjorted from Italy, was shown by Mr. Sauze. 



136 THE entomologist's record. 

The meeting of the Birmingham Entomological Society on April 
1 Gth, appears to have been a more than usually interesting one. Mr. G. H. 
Kenrick, in some " Notes on the Migration of Insects," suggested that, 
in some cases at least, the migration might possibly be similar to what 
was observed in birds ; that in the case of Pyrameis cardui, for example, 
which occurs during the winter in North Africa, Egypt, &c., there 
might be a migration northwards to moister climates for the production 
of the summer brood, and a return south again for the winter brood.* 
Exact information was desirable as to the actual hybernation of this and 
other species in this country. Exhibits : Mr. W. Harrison ; living larvae 
of Melitaea anrinia, taken in considerable number on devil's bit scabious 
(Scahiosa succisa) at Arley. Mr. P. W. Abbot ; three specimens of 
Stauropus fagi, bred from larvae obtained in Wyre Forest last year ; also 
Neuria reticulata from Wicken. Mr. C. J. Wainwright ; the following 
Diptera taken in Wyre Forest at Easter : a long series of an Ech'nomyia 
(perhaps ursina), which was extremely abundant, especially on the 
sallows ; Cheilosia grossa, C. flamcornis, Syrphus lasiophthabnus and 
Melanostoma quadvimaculata, all taken on sallow blossom : he remarked 
on the bee-like appearance of the Echinomyia and Cheilosia, the latter 
resembling Andrena fulva so closely that he had had much difficulty in 
recognising them. Mr. K. C. Bradley ; Bomhus latreillus from Sutton. 

Records have reached us of meetings of the Leicester Literary 
AND Philosophical Society (Entomological Section), on Feb. 27th 
and April 2nd. Mr. Bouskell recommended, and the recommendation 
is well Avorthy of being acted upon, the formation by the Section of 
collections of local and of British insects with life-histories. Economic 
entomology received attention. As the result of an enquiry as to the best 
means of dealing with the Onion grub, which is very prevalent in the 
district, it was recommended that cultivation in trenches and the 
covering up of the bulbs should be adopted. As the result of excur- 
sions to Charnwood Forest at Easter, the following captures, amongst 
others, were announced : — Brephos j^dt'thenias in good condition (out 
fourteen days earlier than last year) ; Asphalia flavicornis, one at rest 
and one on the wing in the bright sunshine ; two Taeniocampa mnnda 
and one T. gracilis. Of Coleoptera : Rhagium inquisitor (8) and a number 
of larvae out of an old stump ; Ips 4:-guttatus, plentiful under bark ; 
Ips ^-pustulatus at sap ; Rhizophagus dispar, R. bipustulatus, Rhinosoiuus 
planirostris, Ilybius ater, I. ohscuris and Aclius sulcatus. The following 
among other exhibits were made : Mr. Moss ; Sinondedron cylindricnm, 
Dorcas paraUelopipedus, Barynotus ohscurus and B. schunherri, all from 
near Loughborough : larva? of Acherontia atropos, Cossus ligniperda, 
Notodonta ziczac, N. dictea, &c. from the same district. Mr. Bouskell ; 
a series of Nyssia hispidaria from oak trunks in Budden Wood ; none 
were found at a gi-eater height from the gi-ound than one foot. Mr. 
Headley ; Monohammus sartor, taken in Leicester on a willow trunk. 

* We should like to hear whether the author of this paper has collected 
any information hearing on the return to the South of this or any other 
migrating species of insect. Information relating to the possibility of Anosia 
archippus doing so has been collected in America, but beyond the fact that the 
latter are known to " swarm " in the autumn nothing further seems to have been 
proved. There is, we believe at present, no shadow of reason even for the 
supposition that they return South. If there be any material or observations 
on the subject, we should be glad to have references. — Ed. 



^^ AND ^^^^ 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION. 

No. 6. Vol. V. June 15th, 1894. 

I'lie Life-jJistory of a Lepidopterous Iiisect, 

Comprising some account of its Morphology and Physiology. 
By J. W. TUTT. F.E.S. 

(Continued from page 115). 



Chap. II. 
THE OVUM OR EGG. 

2. — On variation in eggs. — Everything in nature varies, and there 
can be little doubt that there is as much variation in tlie eggs of Lepi- 
doptera as there is in their larva3, pupa3 or imagines ; comparatively 
little attention has however as yet been devoted to the subject. So far 
as observations have been made, they show that not only do the eggs of 
diffei'ent species differ from one another, but also that there is variation 
in the eggs of the same species ; this may affect either shape, size, 
colour or ornamentation. 

a. Shape. — Eggs do not always retain the shajDC which characterises 
them when tirst laid. Scudder figures the eggs of two species of Eurymns 
( =: Colias) with flattened bases, whereas the egg of CuUas is really remark- 
ably spindle-shaped, tapering rapidly to both ends. Buckler gives two 
descriptions of the egg of Colias hyale ; in one he says " the egg is 
like a canary-seed in miniature ; " in the other, " the egg is of a long 
f usif(jrm shape, one end conical, the other knobbed, or like a bag tied 
round the neck ; " both of these are probably correct. When first laid 
the egg is very soft, and in some cases, looks as if it were almost fluid. 
Eggs laid on glass apply themselves to it, and have a very regular and 
almost perfectly circular or oval outline, but if laid on a leaf or other 
irregular surface, they apply themselves to its irregularities and become 
themselves irregular, both in relation to the surface to which they are 
applied and also as regards their disturbed outlines. Dr. Chapman in- 
forms me that this irregularity was very evident in eggs laid l)y a Sropnla 
decrepitali)^, which he forced to lay on the deeply furrowed leaves of Ten- 
crium. The egg of Colias has distinctly, as has just been observed, a very 
spindle-shaped outline, and is usually very slender, and very j)ointed at 
the summit. There would appear to be a tendency when the egg is ap- 
plied to a leaf under exceptional circumstances, for its }»asal part to spread 



138 THE entomologist's record. 

out when soft, and an extreme spreading of the basal tip would produce 
the exact appearance that Buckler describes as being " knobbed, or like 
a bag tied round the neck." This semi-fluid condition of the egg when 
first laid, may explain an obsei'vation mentioned to me by a lepidopterist 
who remarked that eggs of Gonepteryx rhamni varied immensely, and 
that sometimes one side was flatter than the other. Very slight pressure, 
or other slight external causes, might bring about such a variation. The 
eggs of Piens and Enchloi' appear to show a slight basal flattening, which, 
would probably not occur if they were laid quite free from attachment 
at the base. Dr. Chapman remarks that in Glaea, the egg may be 
pushed into a chink and become so altered by pressure, that its typical 
shape and ribbing are entirely lost. 

There is frequently a certain amount of variation in the eggs of 
individual species. When I was at Hereford in Easter week 1893, I 
examined some eggs of Brephos notha under a lens ; among them was 
one which was very different in appearance from the usual form of that 
species ; it was oval in shape, and very much smaller than the others. 
Dr. Chapman remarked at the time that this was not unusual. The 
altered shape could not have arisen from jjressure, or from any peculi- 
arity in the environment, as the eggs were laid quite open on a twig. 

b. Size. — With regard to variations in size, the Kev. John Hellins 
writes as follows: — "Some time ago I corresponded with Mr. W. H. 
Harwood on the (Question as to the eggs of Macro-Lepidoptera varying 
in size, and he mentioned instances, chiefly among the " Prominents," 
where he had observed some difference in the size of eggs laid by the 
same female ; this difference he had been accustomed to associate with 
the sex of the future imago, the larger eggs being expected to result in 
female moths, the smaller in male, but I am not aware that he had 
tested this theory very exactly : he also furnished me with the experi- 
ence of another entomologist, who liad noticed that the first-laid eggs 
of Hawk-moths are larger than those which follow. These observations 
interested me much, and I meant to jnii'sue them with some care, but 
so far, I have not done what I wished, and all I can now add is this — 
Last June, I captured an impregnated female of Smerinthus populi, and, 
by shutting her up in a large paper-lined box, managed to secure all her 
eggs to the number of 230 or thereabouts ; I had removed and given 
away most of tliem before she had <piite finished laying, but luckily 
retained a few of the earliest, and when I came to compare these with 
the last half-dozen that left the ovipositor, the difference in size was 
immediately apparent, and on measuring them with the micrometer, I 
found the last were just two-thirds of the size of the first. To have 
made this observation of more value, I ought to have measured the eggs 
as they came each day (I think she was about five days in getting rid 
of all her bui-den), but I did not think of this in time ; neither shall I 
be able to know which sex of the moth these small eggs would have 
produced, for having to leave home before the larvaj were full-fed, I 
was obliged to commit them to the care of a youngster, whose conscience 
was not tender on the point of feeding them, so that on my return I 
found them all dead. There is another question that lias occurred to 
me, but which I cannot answer for certain ; does a female moth, which 
from any cause has not reached the usual size of the species, lay the 
same number of eggs as a full-sized moth, lier eggs, being like herself, 
under full size ? or does she lay a smaller number of full-sized eggs ? 



THE LIfE-UlSTORY OF A LEPlDOPTEROUS iNSECT. l3'J 

I believe Mr. Harwood and myself both inclined to the latter view" 
{Ent. Mo. Mag., xix., pp. 208-209). Dr. Chapman has recorded that 
there is considerable variation in the size of eggs laid by the various 
species of Acronycta. Jn Cnspidia tridens, there are, apparently, at least 
two races which lay differently sized and differently ril)bed eggs, whilst 
the eggs of Viminia mijricae also vary very much in size. On the other 
hand, in the Arctias and many NocTU-ii, the eggs laid are of remarkably 
uniform size. 

c. Colour. — Eggs do not differ very much in colour when laid, 
whitish, pale yellow or pale gi'eenish being the most usual tints, but they 
change very quickly, and the colour of each kind j^robably then becomes 
that which will most exactly harmonize with the surroundings amid 
which the eggs are laid. They usually appear to make their first change 
within 24 to 72 lioui'S of being laid. Besides this first change, almost 
all eggs undergo a change or series of changes of colour during their 
development ; this is generally due to the colour of the embryonic larva 
becoming visible through the transparent egg-shell. In some species, 
however, no change in colour takes place, notwithstanding that the egg 
is fertile. 

The first change, however, seems to be probably due to some other 
cause. Mr. Kobson states that " the eggs of all the species of Hepudns 
are white, or nearly so, when first extruded, but in a very few hours 
tliey turn to bluish-black. Mr. Hellins thinks it curious that the eggs 
of humnli should turn black, as the young larva is white. If there was 
anything in this remark, it would apply with equal force to all the 
species, but the fact is, that the change of colours is of the shell only, 
and has no connection at all with the larva within, for unim])regnated 
eggs change in exactly the same way." This change, probably, is de- 
pendent on the egg-contents, although it is a change of colour of the 
shell itself, and is possibly due to the separation of the cell-contents 
from the cell wall in the very earliest stages of change in the laid egg, 
which probably takes place as much in an unimpregnated as in an im- 
pregnated egg, but does not go beyond this condition in tlie former case. 
Thus, again, the egg of Euchloe cardamines is yellow when laid, but 
becomes deep orange in about 24 hours, and undergoes no further 
colour-change until the larvaj hatch some days later. 

With regard to other individual species, Dr. Scudder mentions that 
in Cercyonis alope, the colour changes from honey-yellow to pale pink ; 
that in Eiihydryas phaeton, the original yellow becomes strongly tinged 
with l)ro\vn, and that in Eurymus philodice, the yellow gives place to a 
pale salmon. 

On the other hand the egg of Endromis versicolor, which is jjale 
green when laid, rapidly becomes yellow in colour, and then, if fertile, 
gradually changes through orange to purple, whilst the infertile egg 
remains yellow. The first change, from green to yellow would a])pear 
to be somewliat akin to that which takes place in E. cardamines, and is, 
perhaps, not dependent on embryonic development ; the later changes, 
however, are certainly due to such development. 

Dr. Jordan (E. 31. M., vii., p. 117) records the following ol)serva- 
tion : — "The well-known chocolate-coloured egg of Centra vinida is 
common enough ; but, at the latter end of June, 1 found an egg of 
similar shape, only opaque white ; it was on a leaf of Salix frayilin. It 
produced a ' puss ' genuine enough in appearance, though it unfortu- 
nately died in early kittenhood." 



i40 • iMfe entomologist's KEcokb. 

Mr. Hellins, in the article from which we have already quoted, 
makes the following remarks anent colour changes : — " A third question 
witli regard to eggs is this — Do eggs of the same species vary in colour ? 
or do they always go through tlie same changes of colour in approaching 
maturity ? Mr. Buckler and myself have noted a most decided variation 
in the eggs of Ornyia antiqua ; often they are of a dirty whitish hue, 
with central brown spot, but sometimes we have met with batches which 
were ([uite reddish-brown all over ; I believe, too, the eggs of Dicrannra 
vinula vary considerably in the depth of their brown colouring. I have 
notes of a few eggs of Hepialm sylchms, which I once secured ; when 
laid they were all of a dull white, and most of them remained so, with 
the exception of a tinge of yellow, wliich came over one side ; but one 
egg became deep j^ellow all over, and the larva from it when hatched, 
was of a much deeper yellow than the rest, but I did not manage to rear 
it so as to see wliether this difference remained throughout its growth. 
I have also notes of various batches of eggs of Cheimatohia brumafa, 
which did not all seem to go through the same changes of colour, some 
of them not showing the dark hue which others j^ut on at the last." 

That most of the clianges in colour are very closely connected with tlie 
developmental clianges taking place within, will be manifest, if the egg 
be kept inider microscopic observation. The first change, which occurs 
very soon after the egg is laid, probably represents the transition of the 
contents of the egg from their primal homogeneous condition, to the 
condition which obtains at that period when the blastoderm layer is 
developed. There is sometimes a distinct change of tint, at others, the 
whole surface becomes completely covered with black dots ; this change 
would appear to correspond with the separation of the contents from 
the cell- wall. 

The second change appears to accompany the formation of the germ- 
inal band, and appears to be intensified as the growth of the embryo 
continues. This probably accounts for the general darkness of the tint 
assumed in this stage, dark brown, red, purple, lead, and other tints 
being frequent, and lasting sometimes for a considerable space of time. 

The third change generally exhibits an intensification of the colour 
in the jjrevious stage, except that the apex and frequently the base of 
some eggs become pale again. This is an external sign that the embryo 
is a2)in-oaching maturity. 

These three changes in colour, therefore, are the naked eye appear- 
ances of the egg during the condition of eml)ryonic development, and 
may be said to separate the four periods into which embryonic life may 
be divided. 

Dr. Chapman, in his papers " On the genus Acronj'cta and its 
allies," mentions the following facts. The egg of Viviinia auricoma, 
which is pale creamy when first laid, passes into a rich reddish chocolate- 
brown, with numerous white or creamy spots. That of V. myricae, is 
at first yellow, but soon becomes of a pale salmon-pink, and finally, of a 
purplish-brown, with paler reddish-brown spots. In V. menyanfhid/K, 
the egg, at first yellowish, soon becomes red, and at full colour is 2)erliaps 
brown rather than red, getting nearly black as the young larva 
apjuoaches hatching. That of V. rcnosa, from sulphur yellow, becomes 
reddish-) irown, with paler markings. In V. rumicis, tlie egg, Avhen first 
laid, is white, or faintly greenish in tint, and soon becomes yellowisli, 
•with a net-work of red streaks ; there is a central red or brown dot on 



THJ; Lii'E-UiSTokY OF A LEpiD0i'*fEk0US iNHECf. 141 

the apex, surrounded by a pale zone, and the rest of the egg is finely 
dotted with yellow or orange dots, on a reddish-brown base ; this 
colouring is assumed in two days in warm weather, but in cool weather 
the change occiipies not less tlian a week. Coming to Cmjiidin, the egg 
of C. tridcns is nearly colourless, almost glassy, when first laid, but 
ac(|uires a certain whitish opalescence as the larval development })ro- 
ceeds ; that of C. ps/ is very similar. That of C. uini is, when first laid, 
nearly as colourless as the two preceding, but soon assumes some 
coloration, and in about three days reaches its proper tint, which 
is colourless on the margin but within of a rich chocolate-brown, 
marked with creamy- white nearly circular patches, which tend to be 
arranged in two circles, round a central one ; for twenty-four hours 
before hatching, the egg becomes much darker, with the black head of 
the larva occupying the summit. The egg of C. megacephala when first 
laid, is of a pale greenish colour, uniform throughout ; when fully 
matured in colour, the colourless margin, due to the shrinking of the 
inner egg, is wider than in any other species ; the inner egg presents a 
series of brown spots, which are not round, but angular, usually 2)enta- 
gonal, and Avhich differ in size in different specimens, being sometimes 
mere dots, and at others so large, as to occupy nearly as large an area 
as do the pale spots in C. ahii. In C. striijosa, the inner egg shrinks 
away from the outer, leaving a clear margin, but as the inner egg re- 
mains colourless, the margin is not so evident as in the coloured species. 
In C. leporina, the egg, of a pale straw colour at first, develops a 
cliocolate dot at the apex, surrounded by a small circular reddish jjatch 
which is gradually invaded by the chocolate colour ; then round the 
margin of the inner egg appear five to eight reddish sjjots, towards 
which the chocolate area extends angularly, leaving for a brief interval 
a circle of pale blotches between them ; finally, the dark colour sjJi'eads 
over the whole of the inner egg. The egg of C. aceris, when first laid, 
looks very like that of C. pd or C. trklens, but is a little more opaque ; 
as the inner egg shrinks and leaves a colourless margin, it assumes a 
rich chocolate colour, with pale straw-coloured spots, which often 
coalesce and form streaks and blotches. In Bisxdcia ligustri, the egg is 
of a pale pearly green, almost colourless, and very translucent ; the 
inner egg shrinks from tlie cell, but does not undergo any coloration. 
In Moma orion the egg is extremely delicate and transparent ; it acquires 
a pale sti-aw tint, but no deeper coloration nor markings ; nor does any 
change occur as the contained larva l)ecomes ready to hatcli, except a 
slight increase of opacity, the young larva itself being very transparent. 
The colour of the egg of Demas corijli, is pale greenish when laid, and 
then becomes yellowish, with a circle of small red dots just above the 
widest part. 

d. Ornamentation. — The number of the ribs with whicli lepidopterous 
eggs are frequently ornamented, often varies very considerably. Dr. 
Cliapman re})orts that as a rule the egg of Vanessa pohjchloros has eight, 
but that in a small projjortiou there are only seven ; also, that of thirty 
eggs laid on the same day by GrapAa c-albnm, thirteen had ten, and 
seventeen eleven ribs. Edwards, writing of the closely allied species 
Grapta interrogationis, which, like G. c-albnm, lays its eggs in little 
columns, five or six eggs being placed on each other, says that the number 
of ribs does not vary in the same column, but that the number of ribs 
which is commonly ten, may be sometimes eleven. He thinks it probable 



142 tUE entomologist's RECOtlb. 

that the number of ribs is the same for all the eggs laid by one individual. 
This, however, in the light of Dr. Chapman's observation, is improbable. 
Mrs. Peart made an observation on the same s^^ecies, in which she found 
that the final egg of a chain had eleven ribs, while all the others had 
nine. Scudder says the number varies from eight to eleven. In the 
various species of Acronycta, it would appear, from Dr. Chapman's ob- 
servations, that there is no constancy in the number of ribs. In V. 
auricoma, it varies from 57 to 60, in V. venosa, from 41 to 45 ; in Cus- 
pidia tridens, the average number is 38, and there are rarely more than 
44, whilst in C. psi, the number is rarely fewer than 45, and some 
specimens have as many as 54 ; Dr. Chaj^man, however, met with a case 
in which the eggs of C. tridens had from 40 to 52 ribs ; these were laid 
by a very dark moth, and produced large and dark imagines, so that 
Dr. Chapman thinks that there may be two distinct races of C. tridens. 
The eggs of C. leporina are very variable in the number of ribs, two 
specimens having respectively 41 and 63, but the lesser numbers are 
the more common. In C. aceris there are usually 70 to 75, but some- 
times as few as 50. 

3. — On eggs as helping to ueterjiine natural affinities. — The 
eggs of Lepidoptera are now much more generally taken into account in 
attempting to determine the natural position of species. It has been 
made a great point of by Dr. Chapman, in his researches into the affi- 
nity of JDemas coryli, Biloha caerideocephala, and others {Ent. Rec, 
vol. iii., pp. 249, et. seq.). Anent this Dr. Buchanan White writes 
(E. M. M., vol. vii., pp. 230-1) : — " Lepidopterologists are not, as a rule, 
guilty of laying too much stress upon little things ; indeed, it may be 
said with truth, that they have altogether neglected to avail themselves 
of almost any characters but those afforded by colour of wings, streaks, 
spots, &c. It thus happens, I suppose, that, till within a very recent 
period, no attempt has been made to turn to account the characters pre- 
sented by the form of the eggs, and these beautiful objects have been 
altogether neglected. The pajjers upon the ova of certain species of 
Acidalla and Ennomos, published by Mr. Hellins in this Journal, prove 
what good characters are afforded, in some cases at least, by the form 
and size of the eggs. That the differences of form should give some 
assistance in determining the position or family of certain species, it is 
my object in this note to suggest ; and as instances, I will select the 
cases of Asteroscopus nuhectdosa, A. cassinea, Diloha caeruleocephala and 
JDemas coryli. The majority of, if not all, British authors, have con- 
sidered that these species should be placed among the true or false 
BoMBYCES, but Herrich-Schiiffer and some other Eurojjean entomologists 
have thought their true position is among the Noctu^. What aid then 
does the form of the eggs of these moths give us in trying to determine 
the question ? The Notodontid^e, in which family Asteroscopus and 
Diloha are generally placed, have smooth eggs, with scarcely any 
sculpture, and not at all resembling the usual Noctua-tj'pe of egg, but 
those two genera have ribbed eggs (as have the majority of the Noctu^), 
that of Diloha especially resembling in shape the eggs of some of the 
Boinhycoidae. With the egg of Demas I am not acquainted, but it 
probably differs in form from the eggs of the Liparidae, and resembles 
the Noctua-type. There is nothing, 1 l)elieve, in the structure of the 
larva? of these three genera which would forbid their being placed 
among the NocTUiE, while the perfect insects resemble NocTuai far more 



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A LEPIDOPTEROUS INSECT. 143 

than they do Bombyces, the stigmata and some of the lines — so charac- 
teristic of the Nocture — being, except in A. cassinea, well defined. Why, 
therefore, these four species should be retained in the position they at 
present hold in the list of British Lepidoptera, I cannot, for my own 
part, see, Herrich-Schiiffer places Demas and Diloba in the Bomhyeoklae, 
and Asteroscopus in the Orthosidae, between Trachea and Tethea." 

Dr. White's guess, like, I am afraid, so many other guesses, con- 
cerning Demas coryli did not prove to be correct, Dr, Chajjman states 
that "the larva of Demas coryli is clearly a Liparid ; Diloba caeruleo- 
cephala, although more closely allied to the Nootu^, is rather a 
Notodontid," 

With regard to the eggs of these and certain other species of 
uncertain position, Dr, Chapman wi-ites : — " The only ground for placing 
certain species among the Noctu.e would apj^ear to be the sculpturing 
of the egg, which is unquestionably of the pattern nowhere common 
except among the Noctu.?<: ; such species are D. caeruleocephala, D. 
coryli, Panthea caenobita, DipJdhera ludifica, Petasia cassinea, and P. 
mibecidosa. The Nycteolidae have, however, never been placed among 
the NocTU.B, yet have a very Noctuid egg, and one that in flatness even 
exceeds that of Acronycta. D. coryli, P. caenobita, and D. hidijica are 
certainly very close to, if not in, the Liparidae, in which group we 
already have a very great variation in the characters of the ova — Orgyia 
antiqua and Dasychira pudibunda with a hai'd smooth egg, not unlike a 
Notodont, except the flattening or hollow at the micropyle ; Leucoma 
salicis with eggs glued together in a spumous material ; Liparis monacha 
with quite a delicate egg, smooth, but with traces of sculpturing not 
very remote from the Noctuid character of ludifica " (Ent. Record, etc., 
vol, iii., p. 274). This note forms a very satisfactory supplement to 
and criticism of Dr. White's note above. 

4. — On the number of eggs laid. — The number of eggs laid by 
various species differs very gi^eatly, and even among different individuals 
of the same species there is great variation. Mr. Hellins writes : — " The 
average number of eggs laid by each species is a matter not always to 
be ascertained easily ; I once counted 1,200 as the number laid by 
Triphaena fimbria, and about the same number in a batch laid by T. 
pronuba, and these are the highest figures I ever knew ; something over 
200 is, I fancy, a very general number " (Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. xix., pp. 
208-209). Mr. Hollis (Ent. Rec, vol. iii., p. 173) records some obser- 
vations made on Spilosoma lubricipeda, from whicli it appears, that in 
that species, the number laid is about 400 to 500. Dr. Riding (Ent. 
Rec , vol. iv., p. 1) obtained 123 from a female Dasycampa rubiginea, 
and Mr. Bayne {ib., p. 36) about 70 from a female Stauropns fagi. Mr. 
W. E. Nicholson, writing of Agrotis saucia (//>., p. IIG) says: — " Three 
females Avhich were taken, the first on the 27tli September, and the two 
otliers on the 29th September, laid freely in chip boxes in the course of 
tlie next few days. The batches of ova did not look very large, but I 
subsequently calculated tliat they must have laid over a thousand ova 
between them. I have reason to believe, as the specimens were worn, 
and one only laid comparatively few ova, that this is only a fraction of 
the number that miglit be laid in a state of nature." In Insect Life, vi., 
p. 40, the number of an entire batch of ova of Zenzera pyrina, is re})orted 
as between 1,000 and 1,100. Capt. Brown (Eat. Rec, vol, i., p. 107) 
obtained about 200 eggs from each of two females of Epunda lichenea. 



144 tflE entomologist's RECORf). 

5. — On the arrangement of the eggs when laid. — The methods 
adopted by the parent moths in the disposition and arrangement of the 
eggs when laying them are very various ; some lay their eggs side by 
side in clusters ; others lay them also in clusters, but with one egg 
partially overlapping another ; others again deposit them solitarily, 
either scattering them loosely on the ground as is the habit of Hcpialus, 
or attaching them to the bark, to a twig, to a leaf, or on a leaf-bud ; 
whilst the Micropterygidae and Adelidae are provided with a cutting 
apparatus, with which they cut out pockets in the leaf and deposit the 
egg within. There is the same resemblance between closely allied 
species in the manner in which they deposit their eggs, which we found 
to obtain in regard to shape. The eggs of the Pyralides almost always 
have their edges overlapping, imbricated as it is called ; this imbrication 
is almost unknown in the Noctu.*: and Geometr.b, although among the 
former it occurs in the sub-genus Viminia of the genus Acronycta, the 
allied sub-genus Cuspidia having the eggs laid solitarily, whilst among 
the Geojietr.« the imbricated arrangement obtains in the case of 
Eiujonia quercinaria. The imbricated method of egg-laying must, to a 
certain extent, depend upon the shape and general flatness of the egg. 

G. — On the perils of eocj-life. — It is generally supposed, although 
perhaps not altogether correctly, that a greater destruction of insect life 
takes place in the egg stage than in any other. Of the great number of 
fertile eggs laid by insects, only a small percentage come to maturity. 
Some females, as we have seen, lay considerably more than a tliousand 
eggs apiece, and yet, year by year, save under very exceptional condi- 
tions, only about the same average number of imagines is met with. 
The destruction takes place in all the stages, and it is hard to say in 
which stage it is the most complete. It may be that natural selection 
protects one species moi'e perfectly in one stage, another sjjecies in 
another stage, Init, so far, young larva? appear to be the particular form 
against wliich destructive agencies are most active. It must, however, 
be admitted, especially in the case of eggs laid in large batches in the 
same spot, that, if an attack thereon is made by some voracious ento- 
mophagous enemy, the destruction is absolutely complete. Scudder 
records on one occasion leaving a Pyrameis cnrtiw/ entrapped on a thistle, 
and in a brief time she laid several eggs ; but when he went a second 
day to see if there were others, he found only the bases of tlie eggs 
which had been laid by her, with a single exception ; this egg presented 
a peculiar a})})earance, for a pair of ants were tugging at it, and had 
just succeeded in piercing it aljove, so that the egg was spoiled for him. 
Tlie same author says, " The chief offenders are mites and spiders of 
different kinds, and ants, who seem as fond of animal as of the sweeter 
vegetable juices." Mr. Edwards writes : — " Tliere is a monstrous waste 
of eggs in Grapta inten-ogationis ; out of the tliousands which must have 
been laid by, say, thirty females, hardly twenty butterflies resulted. I 
have watched the eggs, and they are caiTied off and no trace left, I sujipose 
by spiders. I liad a lot of PapiUo ajax eggs laid in a keg, over paper, and 
had left them there to hatch, though I usually cut off the stem and hatch 
the eggs in the house. I took off the cloth one evening to let the eggs get 
the night air, and in the morning, there was no trace of an egg on the 
plant. So it happened with atalanta. Nor are tliese mimite objects 
by any means free from tlie attacks of parasites, which pass their entire 
existence within this narrow comijass. Witness the not inconsiderable 



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A LEPIDOPTKROtTS INStiCT. 145 

list of tlie excessively minute Hymenoptera of the genera Trichogranima 
and Telenomas, all of which have been raised by tlie merest accident 
from eggs collected in the field. The five known kinds have always 
been found on the eggs of twelve different species of American butter- 
flies. Were this mode of collection more commonly and authentically 
employed, doubtless the list would be vastly extended. It is a curious 
fact, that there are no cases known to us of parasitic attack ujDon those 
eggs which winter, and are therefore subjected for the longest period 
to such chalices. I am inclined to believe that on the whole the 
greatest destruction of lepidopterous life takes place in the egg-stage.'' 
Certainly, if the very first larval stage be added to it, the statement 
would be unquestionably true, but scarcely otherwise in iny opinion. 
The escape of the more fortunate must be put down to (1) The minute- 
ness of the objects ; (2) Their extreme numbers ; (3) The brevity of 
their existence as eggs. 

Mr. Woodworth writes : — " I watched an Euvanessa antiopa while she 
was laying perhaps one-third of the egg-mass ; at first, she seemed to pay 
no attention to me although I was so close, but finally, probably on account 
of my moving, she seemed to become restless, laid quite a number of 
eggs on tojj of the others, and then, without warning, was off. I cut 
the stem at once, and noticed on the mass of eggs a little hymenopterous 
parasite (Telenomus graptae), which seemed to be depositing eggs also. 
It would run across the egg mass, then pause a moment or two over two 
or three eggs in succession, and then be off to another part of the egg- 
mass and repeat the performance. The specimen was preserved, and 
some of the eggs allowed to hatch, but no trace of parasitism appeared 
in them." 

7. — On the way in which eggs are protected. — The eggs are almost 
always laid on the food-j^lant in a state of nature although, if the species 
be grass or root feeders, they may be sprinkled loosely on the gi-ound 
among the roots of the plants on which the larvae feed. In the case of 
eggs which are laid on the food-plant, those which belong to species 
that will hatch and feed up the same year are usually laid on the 
leaves, the colour being generally such as will harmonize with the colour 
of the leaves on which they are placed. Those that will hybernate, are 
usually of a dark colour, corresponding to the colour of the twig or stem 
on which the egg is then most frequently deposited. Those that are 
scattered on the ground, are usually of a dirt-coloured or pearly apjjear- 
ance. In fact, the general colour is such as to protect the eggs from 
spiders, birds, predaceous insects and other creatures that would feed 
on them, and from parasites that would lay their eggs on them. 

Frequently jDcculiar developments are noticed. Thus, Geometra 
vernaria lays its eggs one upon the other (to the number of about a dozen), 
on the stems of Clematis vitalba, the rouleaux thus formed having every 
appearance of a broken twig or leaf-stalk. The eggs of Tohjpe velleda 
(an American species) are laid in strings, and are covered by hairs 
from the tuft at the end of the abdomen of the female moth, so that the 
whole closely resembles a hairy caterpillar. The female of Anisopteryx 
aescularia, lays its eggs round and round a twig, covering them with the 
scales from its anal tuft, until they fairly look like a slight thickening 
of the twig. Sometimes the eggs are squeezed into crevices, the female 
being provided with a long ovipositor, as in Tephrosia crepuscular ia, to 
put them into deep crannies, quite out of sight. 



146 THE entomologist's record. 

For the general protection of the eggs, we find them frequently 
covered thickly with hairs from the abdomen of the female. This is 
especially the case with the Bombyces, in which many species, such as 
the Lipnridae, cover their eggs with a large quantit}-^ of fluffy scales. 
The coating of Leucoma salicis has a saliva-like appearance. Placed, 
however, on the underside of a poplar leaf, it is difficult to detect at a 
little distance. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES & OBSERVATIONS. 

Erkatum. — Page 97, line 48. — For " hesperidies " read " hesperidis." 

Specific Distinctness of Euchloe cardamines and E. tukkitis. — 
In answer to the Editor's note, asking for references to authorities on 
this ])oint, I may say that Mr. W. F. Kirby treats E. turritis as a distinct 
species (Europ. Butt, and M., p. 6), a view held too by Mr. J. Watson, 
whom he quotes. Three friends of my own, one of whom is no mean 
scientist, as well as myself, have, after carefully examining this species 
under an excellent microscope, unanimously come to the conclusion that 
E. cardamines and E. turritis are two very distinct species. Dr. 
Staudinger, on the other hand, makes the latter merely a var. of the 
former ; but I very much doubt if he would do so in his next catalogue, 
if his attention were once called to the matter. — F. B. Newnham, 
Church Stretton, Salop. May 2nd, 1894. 

We have submitted the foregoing to Mr. Kirby, and have received 
the following note from him on the subject : 

I believe that I am the first author who treated E. tnrrttis as a distinct 
species, as Mr. Newnham has correctly stated. Later on, however, the 
late Mr. B. B. Labrey told me that Mr. Watson had wrongly identified 
his specimens, and had called gruencri or datnonc by the name of turritis. 
If Mr. Newnham has an opportunity of examining the 2:)lumules of 
cardamines and turritis, and can establish a distinction between them, or 
if he has any other evidence to offer in favour of the two being distinct 
species, it will be a matter of considerable interest. We have still 
much to learn even about British butterflies. The Americans have 
suggested that the various forms of Pohjijonia c-album may be distinct 
species ; this I think unlikely, but who has bred the insect with suffi- 
cient care to prove that they may not be right ? Wm. F. Kirby, Brit. 
Mus. (Nat. Hist.). May 10th, 1894. 

A PROBABLE NEW SPECIES OF EucHLOE. — I was much interested in 
Mr. Newnham's note under this heading in the April number. Here, 
I first came across the diminutive form he mentions three years ago, but 
did not pay much attention to it at that time, because, as I only met 
with three or four specimens, I put them down as probably the results 
of a few half-starved larvae. Last year, however, I saw a much larger 
number, and on several occasions this year I have actually seen a greater 
number of the small form than of the large. The specimens I have 
cajitured appear fully to bear out Mr. Newnham's observations, except 
that the form does not seem to Ije limited here to a restricted area. I 
ramble over a good many miles of country, and I come across it wherever 
I go. — A. Nesbitt, Llandugo. May, 1894. 

In The I'roreedings of the South London Entomological Society for 
1888 are quite a number of papers on the genus Euchloii, which should 



SOIENTIFIO NOTES AND 0BSEEVATI0N8. 147 

prove of great interest during this discussion. As members will have 
such and non-membei"S can buy Tlie Proceedings for a trifle from the 
Secretary, I Avill only refer to one of these. It is by the late Mr. J. 
Jenner Weir, and was read in connection with an exhibit made by that 
gentleman of British and French specimens of Euchloii cardamines. It 
is as follows : — " I have observed for some years that there is a differ- 
ence between the Continental specimens of Euchloi- cardamines, so far as 
I have been able to examine them, and those captured by myself in 
Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Hampshire. I have a series of twenty-four 
males of this insect captured in the above counties ; these have the 
orange spot on the upper wings reaching but slightly beyond the dis- 
coidal black spot. The inner edge curves outward, not extending be- 
yond the first median nervure, thus leaving the hinder angle white. 
This disposition of marking I find perfectly constant in those I have 
captured. In the Continental specimens I find the orange sjjot extends 
considerably beyond the discoidal spot, and is continued to the inner 
edge of the wing, causing the hinder angle of the wing to be orange. 
Lang, in his Bhopalocera Europae, figures this species with the hinder 
angle orange, as though the drawing had been taken from a Continental 
specimen, but the orange of the wing extends only in relation to the 
discoidal spot to the extent usually seen in British specimens. Newman 
in his British Butterflies, figures the species with the shading in lieu of 
colour extending to the inner edge of the wing, as usual in Continental 
but not British specimens. The distinction pointed out is very small, 
but if it be constant our Euchloii cardamines is an insular variety easily 
separable from Continental specimens of the species " (pp. 40-41). — 

J. W. TUTT. 

Apterous Females and Winter Emergence. — I have read with 
interest Mr. Studd's comments {Eat. Record, v., p. 1)6) on the opinion 
expressed by me at the City of London Entomological and Natural 
History Society, and although the whole question is, I fear, more or 
less a matter of mere speculation, yet I would venture to offer one or 
two remarks in reply. First and foremost, I would refer Mr. Studd to 
some thoughtful observations and suggestions by Mr. Tutt, which he 
will find in that gentleman's " Secondary Sexual Characters of Lepi- 
doptera" (Brit. Noct., HI., pp. viii.-ix.). It is there pointed out that 
of species with apterous females, " there are two distinct groups which 
require separate consideration." The first group includes the (relatively 
few) summer examples, wherein the unusually large size of the body of 
the female would render adequate wings a disadvantage and where, 
indeed, the energy usually expended on wing develoi^ment may be 
devoted to the production of additional fecundity. In the second 
group (the winter examples) the scarcity, at that season of the year, of 
appropriate hiding places about the trees on which the larvte feed ', 
would, I think, have great influence upon the females ; and this would 
tell more on the Geometrve than on Poecilocampa popnli or Asphalia 
flavicornis (also tree-feeders) for at least two reasons: — \. The greater 
general exposure of the Geometraj by day. 2. The greater in-oportional 
wing area which they present when at rest. It is hard to see how a 
fair-sized Geometer could protect itself, as A. flavicornis does, by clasj)- 
ing small twigs, unless it were an exceptional species like Anisopteryx 
aescularia. Lureniia multistrigaria has no need to resort to the trees, 
and may be well protected among dry leaves. But what I had in my 



14^ THE entomologist's RECORD. 

mind was rather that meteorological causes themselves might have some 
influence, and that, at any rate in the depth of winter, the full vitality 
and fertility of the females in certain groups might perhaps only be 
maintainable at the expense of some of the not-indispensable organs of 
locomotion, and I still think that the Amphidasydae, all of which, with 
the excejjtion of Nyssia zonaria, have similar resting habits, lend some 
colour to this view, Mr. Studd seems to doubt whether the wings of 
the female ^4. hetidaria are, as a rule, better develoj^ed than those of A. 
strataria. I may be mistaken, but I am certainly under the impression 
that the latter species is far weaker-winged than the former, although 
the size of the wings is not greatly diminished ; it is also very liable to 
malformation and I suspect that it is almost entirely unfitted foe flight. 
My experience of Hyhernia marginaria and A. aeactdaria has always been 
that they are practically contemporaneous, not, as appears to be Mr. 
Studd's experience, that the latter is a month later than the former. I 
am not sure that I know the female of Tortricodes hyemana; Mr. Tutt 
(/.c, J}, viii.) cites it as apterous, but this may be only a lapsus calami* 
Among the Tineina the Epiyraphiidae show an interesting parallelism 
with the Amphidasydae. — Louis B. Prout, 12, Greenwood Road, 
Dalston. April ISth, 1894. 

Endromis versicolor. — I had for the first time this sjiring the 
opportunity of noticing that this si^ecies breaks oi^en one end of its cocoon, 
and forces the anterior part of the jjupa well out, many days before the 
emergence of the imago. Knowledge of this fact may be of use to those 
looking for pupa3 of the species, as the dark colour makes them very 
conspicuous objects. — F. B. Newnham, Church .Stretton, Salop. May 
2nd, 1894. 

NoTODONTA TREPiDA. — I have a few pupffi of this moth, reared from 
ova laid in May, 1892, which are only now ])ro(lucing imagines ; not a 
single imago from this brood emerged in 1893. — lb. 

Eggs of Lobophora carpinata. — These are remarkable, being very 
flat and in outline an irregular oval, much the shape of a small acacia bean ; 
their colour is red with a yellow band round the side margin. Has 
anyone seen the eggs of other species of Lobophora ? Are they also 
ornamented with a stripe round the circumference ? — W. F. de V. . 
Kane, Kingstown. Ajjril 25th, 1894, 

Sound produced by Neukonia popularis. — The following extract 
from a letter recently received by me from Mr. J. T. Fountain of Bir- 
mingham, relates a curious observation on the above subject, made by 
that gentleman last year, when sugaring on the borders of Epping 
Forest, not far from Ponders End. " Whilst visiting the sugar, Ave had 
to keep crossing the corner of a meadow. I carried the lamp, and my 
son the net ; suddenly I heard a slight sound near my feet — ' nick,' 
' nick ' — as if someone had touched the edges of two knives together. 
Turning the light in the direction of the sound, I saw a moth flying 
over the grass, which my son captured, and which proved to be N. popu- 
laris. During the two evenings we spent there, this incident recurred 
23 times ; on every occasion l)ut one, whenever we heard the sound, we 
netted a moth ; on the exceptional occasion, not seeing any insect flying, 

• Not exactly a lapsus calami. Although the female is not fully apterous, 
the females in my collection have the win^s very much less developed than are 
those of the males. — Ed, 



CURUENT NOTES. 149 

we went flown on our knees, and discovered a freshly-emerged specimen 
sitting on a gi'ass stem. I do not know how the motli could jiroduce 
the sound, but every time Ave heard the latter, the moth was in evidence. 
Not a single N. popularis came to sugar, but they were more numerous 
near two gate posts that were sugared, as if the scent had attracted 
them." It will be interesting to learn whether any other entomologist 
has observed the same jihenomenon. (Capt.) B. Blaydes Thompson, 
1, Mylne Street, E.G. May 25(h, 1894. 

Sesia tipuliformis in New Zealand. — In the Record for September 
last (Vol. iv., p. 247), some remarks are quoted from a pajier by Mr. 
Lachlan Gibb, on the occurrence of S. tipuliformis in Montreal. The 
species was first observed in New Zealand about eleven years ago, and 
two years later, was identified by Mr. Meyrick. It is now extremely 
common in the South Island, where it is working considerable havoc 
among the currant bushes. It could be observed on any day during 
the present month, in dozens, resting on the leaves of these bushes and 
of other plants in gardens. Considering the extreme mildness of the 
climate, the insect would be certain to increase more rajjidly in this 
colony than in the more rigorous region of Canada. It is very interest- 
ing to observe the progress of exotic insects in countries now being 
colonized. — W. W. Smith, Ashburton, N. Z. Bee. 1893. 



gURRENT NOTES. 

We have already called attention to the fact that an enterprising 
publisher in Brussels, Mons. P. Wytsman, has undertaken the re-issue of 
Hiibner's Snmmlung exotischer Schmetterlinge. The first part (livraison) 
has just appeared, and contains ten finely-coloured plates. The re-issue 
is a timely one, for the original work is very rare, and, considering the 
more profound, and at the same time more world-wide view of ento- 
mology which is increasingly characteristic of the entomologists of 
to-day, even in Great Britain, it is of great advantage to be afforded 
readier means of access to plates and descriptions, from such a hand as 
that of Jacob Hiibner. The usefulness of the book will be greatly 
increased by the fact, that M. Wytsman has secured the co-operation of 
Mr. W. F. Kirby, than whom probably no man living has a more 
thorough acquaintance with synonymy, and who seems to have all sorts 
and conditions of entomological literature literally at his finger ends. 
Mr. Kirby will contribute additional notes, and a synonymic index, and 
by this means, Hiibner's gi'and old book will be brought thoroughly up 
to date. All societies that can possibly manage it, should secure a 
copy. 

The valuable series of papers that appeared in the earlier volumes of 
this magazine, on " The genus Acroni/cta and its allies," from the pen of 
Dr. Chapman, have now been published separately, and may be obtained 
of Mr. Porter, Princes Street, Cavendish Square, W. 

The South London Entomological Society advertises a Field Meetino- 
for July 7th, at Wisley, Surrey, conducted by Messrs. Briggs and Step. 

Messrs. Cassell & Co. have just commenced the re-issue in monthly 
parts, of Mr. W. F. Kirby's European Butterflies and Moths ; the first 
part appeared on the 2oth ult. This will afford an excellent oppor- 
tunity to those who desire to extend their knowledge beyond the 



^150 THE ektomologist's record. 

lepidopterous fauna of Great Britain, to become possessed of this valuable 
work. The only subject for regret is that, so far as appears from the 
prospectus, there is not to be a supplement bringing the book ujd to 
date. 

We have received from Mr. Cockerell No. 1 of The Neio Mexico 
Entomohgist, a three-page pamplilet pre^^ared by himself and issued by 
the Entomological Department of tlie New Mexico Agi-icultural Experi- 
ment Station. It deals in a simple practical way with agricultural 
pests, and must be of much use to farmers and others. The Codlin Moth, 
of which in all its stages drawings by Prof. Eiley are given, forms the 
piece de resistance. " In the spring," says the writer, " the moths lay 
their eggs on the small apples, mostly in the cup at the top formed by 
the calyx. This is done soon after the flowers fall, while the little 
fruits are still upright. The caterpillar, or worm, hatches out of the 
egg, and burrows into the apple : once it is inside the fruit, there is no 
satisfactory way of killing it. Therefore, it must be poisoned at the 
very beginning of its life, by means of an arsenical compound. Paris 
Green is the compound to be used. It must be sprayed on the trees, 
mixed with water, so that some falls on ever^'^ forming apple. The 
worm will then be vuiable to burrow without encountering some of the 
poison." Instructions are then given as to the method of using the 
insecticide, which is pronounced to be quite devoid of danger if only 
applied to young fruit. Probably our local authorities who have charge 
of open si^aces, might find the same compound useful to protect their 
hawthorns from the ravages of Hi/pomonenta padellus. 

The very latest thing in entomological science is to be found in The 
Entomologist, p. 172. It may be divided into two portions. (1) Specu- 
lation ; (2) Discovery. It occurs in a paper or heterogeneous collection 
of statements by Mr. C. W. Dale, on " The Melanism Controversy." 
The " Speculative " i^ortion reads as follows : — " The yellow varieties of 
Zygaena, 1 think, may be cited as another instance of occasional pale 
varieties occurring on chalk soils. Perhaps some of the pale varieties 
are owing to their emergence during brilliant moonlight." We dare not 
give our fancy free play, so will only say that this is the most exquisi- 
tely funny of all the funny things that Mr. Dale has written, and that 
is saying a great deal. At first we wondered whether the editor of our 
contemporary was away for a holiday, but second thoughts enabled us 
to understand his position. We would even have printed this jeu 
d'esprit from Mr. Dale's facile pen ourselves. The second part, relating 
to " Discovery," has a bearing on physical research : — " Leaves frozen 
on to the ice will also absorb the sun's vays, the ice melting beneath and 
around them." Eatlier late in the day for this ; we would suggest that 
even ice itself absorbs the rays of the sun, and that this is the reason 
why it melts when there are no leaves on it. There is another paragraph 
which contains a faint suggestion that the study of the process of etio- 
lation of celery, might throw considerable light on the occurrence of 
pale varieties of lepidoptera, but we must forbear ! 

We are pleased to recommend to nature lovers, archteologists, and 
persons interested in folk-lore and kindred subjects, I'he Kentish Note- 
book : A Record of Men, Manners, Things and Events, connected icith the 
County of Kent, Edited by G. (). Howell, 210, Eglinton Eoad, Plum- 
stead, Kent. The contents of this handsomely bound volume appeal to 
all educated men and women, but more especially to Kentish men and 



CURRfiNT NOTES. 151 

men of Kent, who will find matters of interest connected with their own 
immediate neighbourhoods dealt with in a manner at once interesting 
and attractive. Paragraphs, with an old-world flavoui-, about those 
charming old-world towns and cities which Dickens so dearly loved ; 
quaint sayings and old-time records ; accounts of some of the strange 
ai'chajological remains wliicli still occur among the glades and hills 
we love so well ; these are mixed together in a charming hotch-potch. 
Many a jjleasant hour may be spent looking over these odd remnants, 
and it is well that in most of our counties there are to be found a few 
disinterested men and women who delight in collecting these stray 
records for our delectation. We cannot suppose that such work ever 
pays ; probably the pleasure of doing it is as gTeat to the writer as is 
the i^leasure of reading it when done to the reader. But at any rate 
such productions as that under review should not leave the author out- 
of-pocket, and we trust that many nature lovers in general, and Kentish 
naturalists in particular, will get their interest raised to a sufficiently 
high pitch, to lead them to send Mr. Howell a postal order for 10/-, for 
The Kentish Note-book, at which price the book is issued. 

It would appear to be the opinion of many of our Micro-lepidopterists 
that LithocoUetis dunningieUa is only a form of L. nirellii. A well-known 
lepidopterist says : — " The series in the collections of Messrs. Sang, 
Gregson, Shields, Bond and Shej^pard shoAved an insect darker, smaller, 
and perhaps with the fore wings narrower, which naturally appeared to 
make two of the opposite spots unite into a thii'd fascia, but Stainton, 
in the Manual, describes the larger as dimningieUa, the smaller moth as 
niceUii, evidently an anachroism ! " Here, then, is something for our 
energetic Micro-lepidopterists to clear up. 

It is with a certain amount of pleasure that we learn that Prof. 
C. V. Riley has resigned his office of Entomologist of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, although we regret to find that considerations of 
health and peace of mind are among the reasons that have induced him 
to take this step. Prof. Riley stands out 2^^'' excellence as the practical 
entomologist among the officials in the service of the United States, as 
the man who knows the subject from personal observation and is not 
content to regard the naming of insects as the be-all and end-all of 
entomology. The almost entire absence in the United States of work 
in the more scientific branches of entomology done by the professional 
entomologists, is really remarkable. We rejoice to think that, set free 
from the unnecessary red tape and the needless restrictions, which 
seem to characterise departmental life in the United States as well as in 
this country, Prof. Riley hopes, in connection with his honorary cura- 
torship of the Department of Insects in the U. S. National Museum, 
to do some long contemplated work of a purely scientific character. 

Of what does the family Tineid.e consist in America ? Prof. 
Fernald (Eat. Neics, p. 138) writes : — " The family Tineidaj or Leaf- 
miners, is one of the largest of the Lepidoptera The members 

of this family are principally vegetable feeders, yet a few of them feed 
on hair, feathers and woollen fabrics, often causing great injury. Many 
of those living on vegetable matter are of economic importance, since 
they feed on such plants as are of direct value to man, while a large 
number of the species feed on plants that arc of little or no value. The 
larvaj of the larger species feed under ground, on the roots of plants ; 
between leaves rolled or drawn together ; or burrow in stems, fungi or 



152 THE entomologist's record. 

decayed wood. Some of the larvEe of the smaller species live in pecu- 
liarly-shaped cases, which they form from portions of the leaves on 
which they feed. The great majority of the smaller sjiecies mine 
between the cuticles of the leaves. These mines are very plainly visible, 
and their peculiar form is characteristic of the species." This group, 
with a simple " idae " or family termination, would appear, according 
to Prof. Fernald, to comprise everything which we in our ignorance 
used to include in the Tineina, viz : part of Dr. Chapman's Pyraloids in 
the Obtect.e, and a number of the main gi'oups of iNCOMPLETiE. If this 
were the ordinary stjde of studies in Elementary Entomology offered to 
our brothers of the net in American Magazines, we should pitj' them. 
Why do not their teachers level themselves up to modern ideas first, and 
then teach afterwards ? We would recommend a careful working out of 
the classification of the American moths, on the lines of Dr. Chapman's 
paper. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lowd., 1893, pp. 97-119. We would also suggest 
that it is high time that some intelligent American entomologist broke 
away from a classification based on some particular imaginal feature 
(neuration, palpi, &c.), and attempted something more worthy the name 
of science. Such a lesson in elementary entomology as this, is some- 
thing like one on geological science, based only on the Biblical account 
of the Flood. 

Two specimens of Chrysophamis dispar sold at Stevens' sale-rooms 
on May 22nd, realised £10. Jn the same collection, seven Pieris dapli- 
dice with 78 other specimens, produced 3s. ; five Vanessa antiopa with 
49 others, 6s. ; four Argynnis lathonia with 88 others, 3s. ; whilst four 
DcilephUa etijihorbiae, six D. galii, one D. h'vornica, and many other 
Sphingidce produced but 7s. ; a pair of Agrotis snbrosea -produced £1 8s. ; 
another pair £1 2s. ; and three females of the same species 16s. Lot 
85, containing four Cleora vidnaria, produced £3, and five Phiholapteryx 
polygrammata £1 12s. 6d. — On the same day, Lots 418, 419, 420, con- 
sisting of 15 Callimorjjha hera, " bred from parents captured in South 
Devon, 1892 ; " DeilepMla gain, " 10, very fine, Eton, March, 1892 ; " 
Lasiocampa ilicifolia, two, "captured by Mr. A. Edmond, Ascot, 1891-2," 
were brought to the hammer, but we do not know what they produced. 
This was followed on May 29th, by Lots 301-306 ; in which were 10 C. 
hera, "bred from parents captured in South Devon, 1892.;" four L. 
ilicifolia, " captured by Mr. A. Edmond, Ascot, 1894 ; " six Phihalapteryx 
conjunctaria, " taken by Mr. A. Edmond in neighbourhood of Windsor, 
1894." This last is strange reading ; 10 galii at Eton, in March 1892, 
P. conjunctaria " in neighbourhood of Windsor, 1894" (the jiresent year, 
mark !). Who is Mr. A. Edmond who captures these insects ? " 



WARIATION. 

Spilosoma lubricipeda vars. eboraci and fasciata. — I would 
venture to appeal to Mr. Tugwell to publish a description of each of 
these varieties and so enable those lepidopterists, who have no chance 
of seeing his specimens, to identify the forms should the}^ ever come 
across them. If to this Mr. Tugwell would add a diagnosis of the 
other named forms, he would confer a great boon on entomological 
students, and as the Becord is par excellence the student's magazine, 



NOTES ON COLLECTING, ETC. 153 

probably the description, &c. would most advantageously find a place 
in its pages. — F. J. Buckell, Canonbury. April 28th, 1894. 

Melanism IN Greenland. — In a paper on the "North Greenland 
Microlepidoptera" (Ent. News) Prof. Fernald writes : — " One of tlie most 
interesting features of this small collection is the very dark colour of 
the insects. The specimens of Laodama fusca and also of Pyrausta 
torvalis are much darker than any I have ever seen before, either of 
those taken in New England or in Labrador, but Avheii we recall that 
Mr. Mengel states that they rest on the lichen-coloured rocks we have 
not far to seek for the cause of this dark colour. The lichens, which 
almost entirely cover the rocks in northern regions, are very dark 
brown or black, and when insects habitually rest on such places the 
lighter-coloured varieties are more easily seen and destroyed by their 
enemies, and the dark forms are left to proj^agate the species, and as a 
result a dark race is formed in time." The specimens referred to were 
taken at McCormick Bay, North Greenland, in lat. 77° 42' N., between 
July 25th and August 1st, 1891.— J. W. Tutt. 



OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

Spring Notes. — Mr. M. Stanger Higgs of Lydney, Gloucestershire, 
reports that sallow has attracted nothing but the common Taeniocampae, 
and that beating and ordinary mothing have yielded Anticlea hadiata, 
A. nigrofasciaria, Larentia nmltistrigaria, Hybernia rupicapraria, II. 
leiicophearia, H. marginaria, Anisopteryx aescularia, Eupithecia pnmilata, 
Taeniocampa gracilis, T. populeti, and of Micros, Pterophorus mono- 
dactyla, Coccyx splendidtdana, C. argyrana and Diurnen fag clla. He also 
states that larvae of Melitaea aurinia are abundant, and nearly full-fed. 

Mr. T. Greer reports from Bath the capture of Euchloe cardamines 

on April 2nd, of Pyrgtis malrae on April 20th, and of Hemcroplula 
ahrnptaria at a gas-lamp, on April 21st. He also notes the capture in 
August last, of Lycaena bellargus and L. corydon on the ground above 
Box Tunnel, where the formation is not chalk, but oolitic lime-stone, 
and of Bupalus piniaria, which latter he suggests must have been a 

second brood. Mr. L. H. Bonaparte Wyse, Co. Waterford, Ireland, 

writes : — " On April 23rd I captured a tine ? Leucophasia sinapis, not 
in or near a wood but in an open tield ; although I have searclied care- 
fully whenever the weather permitted, I have not come across another 
specimen ; I had no idea that the insect was found in this part of Ire- 
land. Most of the sjjring butterflies are now out. Pararge egeria, P. 
megaera, Pieris rapae and P. napi are very common, and occasional 
specimens of Euchloii cardamines are to be met with. I have not yet 
seen P. brassicae on the wing, but I always find it later than the other 
two. Hybernated sjDccimens of Vanessa urticae are every Avhere ; a few 
V. to are met with ; of V. atalanta, which swarmed in our garden last 

autumn, I have seen no hybernated specimen." Dr. Freer, Avriting 

on May 2yth of the insects of Cannock Chase, says : — " On April 3Uth 
I took a specimen of Notodouta dictaeoides, which I sliould think is a 
record emergence ; on the same day odd specimens of Spibsoma fnligi- 
nosa, Pachnobia rnbricosa and Iladena glauca were taken, with an 
asymmetrical var. of Thecla rubi. The right wings were normal, but the 
upper left wing had a patch of lighter brown than the rest of the wing, 



154 fnH tiNtoMOLOGlST's RECOtlt). 

apparently occupying the area over the discoidal cell. The lower left 
wing is grey as contrasted with the right brown wing, and the undei'- 
side of this wing is a distinctly blue green, and contrasts sti-ongly with 
the three other wings ; insect apparently a female, and not a herma- 
phrodite. Incurvaria pectinea was very abundant. May 6th : H. glauca 
and a worn specimen of Anarfa myrtiUi. May 13th: A fine H. glauca, 
Eupithccia indigata, and E. lariciata. May 18th : N. didaeoides $ and 
<y on some palings near a village some way from the Chase. May 
20th : Most of the above with the addition of Eupithecia nanata and 
Tephrosia biundularia (usual dark form) ; E. indigata is much commoner 

than usual, but insects are very late." Mr. Stones writes May 

29th : — " I took a very fine specimen of Vanessa c-alhum at rest on 
the 26th of April, at Llandudno, Carnarvon, North Wales ; and on 

April 14th I took Nyssia zonaria at Black^jool, Lancashire." 

The Rev. E. C. Dobree Fox (Castle Moreton) reports on March 30th, 
that Taeniocampa munda was more plentiful than usual, whilst four 
specimens of T. miniosa occurred in the district for the first time. Day 
work produced only two Brephos parthenias and two Larentia multi- 

strigaria. Capt. Robertson writes, under date of Ajjril 14th, " I 

have just returned from Swansea after an unsuccessful expedition for 
black Tephrosia crepuscidaria, of which I only captured three specimens, 
two of which were typical. The only other insects captured were 
Eupithecia abhreviata, Xylocampa areola, Lobojjhora carpinata, Mesotype 
virgata. At my moth traj5 last night (at Coxhorne) I took Anticlea 
nigrofasciaria, Selenia bilunaria, Larentia didymata. I captured a specimen 
of Eucosmia certata in the garden on the 11th. Vanessa c-albmn apj^ears to 
be common ; a female, captured March 30th, laid a few eggs on nettles 
on April 2nd, which hatched April 11th. I have larvse of Nyssia hisjii- 

daria feeding on hawthorn and willow." Mr. W. F. de V. Kane 

(Kingstown) writes on April 24th : — " The season has been suitable for 
sallow collecting, but the results as to quantity rather disappointing 
both at Monaghan and Galway, where I spent a week collecting. 
Taeniocampa munda, however, seems to have been more abundant than 
usual, as hitherto I have rarely met with it ; but at Drumreaske, one 
night's beating produced some twenty specimens to myself and a 
friend, and I have records of the species from several new localities. 
The ten specimens which fell to my share are extraordinarily varied in 
colour and pattern, from a rich buff to grey-brown, with the spots 
sometimes obsolete, at other times very distinct, and many of them 
have a very dark band across mid- wing. T. opima occurred again in 
Galway, also Panolis piniperda. Lobojjhora carpinata was scarce, but 
one female laid some ova. T. gracilis was abundant, but I noticed that 
a great many were more or less crippled both in hind and fore wings. 
The season undoubtedly in some way affected the pupa3 of this species 
adversely. Brotolomia meticulosa emerged early in April. Xylina 
ornithopus occurred occasion all}'^ on the white bark of birch trees. 
How is it that Fachnobia rubricosa, which occurs but sparsely in Ireland, 
is sometimes very abundant on sallows growing on the edge of a bog ? 
I have taken a couple of dozen thus more than once, but ordinarily it 
occurs singly and rarely all over Ireland."' Mr. Moberly on April 

30th writes : — " At the New Forest last Saturday, three or four hours hard 
work only produced six larvae of Apatura iris. The scarcity of common 
larva3 was very noticeable during our beating. Larvai of Cleora liche- 



iJOTteS O^ COLLteC*lNG, feTt). 166 

naria are also scarce, as are those of Boarmia roboraria. The exceptions 
to this rule of scarcity in larvse seem to be B. abtetaria, and in imagines, 

Asphalia ridens"- The Eev. C. R. N. Burrows (Rainham, Essex), 

reports on May 3rcl, that Suiermthus tilue was captured on May 1st, 
Ligdia adnstata on April 25th, Cidaria suffumata and Alencis ptctaria on 

April 11th. Mr. Mason (Clevedon), on April 12th, reports: — " The 

emci-gence of T. viunda and T. ptdverulcnta in my breeding cage during 
the first week of March, the continued mild weather and the absence 
of sallow bloom, induced me to try sugar. The evening of the 8th was 
gusty, with south-west wind, and rain at intervals ; but not to be dis- 
appointed, just before dusk, a line of trees just inside a large wood was 
sugared, and about 7 o'clock I sallied forth. As I turned my lantern on the 
first patch of sugar, I saw that moths were literally in dozens. Taeniocampa 
munda, T. pulverulenta, T. gothica, T. stabilis, T. instabUis, Orrhodia Itgula, 
0. vaccinii, Scopelosoma satellitia and one fine specimen of Dasycampa 
rubiginea, perhaps a shade lighter than specimens taken last November, 
but otherwise, in excellent condition ; T. munda was in splendid condition 
and endless variety, some specimens being beautifully banded, others of 
a dark reddish-brown colour. This first patch was but a sample of all 
the other patches, except that I got no more jD. rubiginea on this evening. 
The next evening another Z). rubiginea txnd S. satellitia were the only species 
seen, as there was the suspicion of a frost. The following evening was 
dull and warm, and insects were even more numerous, than on the first 
night ; Calocampa exoleta, B. meticidosa, and A', ornithopus coming, in 
addition to the species seen the first evening, whilst two more D. rubi- 
ginea were captured, with specimens of 0. ligula var. subnigra. The 
D. rubiginea were all males, and I had never yet before seen var. subnigra 
after hybernation. The following evenings were wet, and the sallows 
were coming into flower, so I gave up sugaring for a time, although on 
a subsequent evening 1 took another £>. rubiginea, missing a second on 
the same evening, whilst yet another fell to my share from the sallows, 
late in March, and a friend took another. I find larvfe both late and 
scarce ; Tephrosia crepuscnlaria, too, has been very rare this spring." 

Mr. E. A. Atmore (Kings Lynn), on April 17th, records that: — 

•' Micros are coming on apace. I have already taken several species of 
Lithocolletis and Nepticula, Adela cuprella, Perittia obscurepunctella, 
Steganoptycha pygnueana, Heusiniene jimbriana, and the early species of 
Micropteryx — semipurpurella, purpurella, unimaculella and stdtpurpurella." 

Mr. Finlay (Morpeth), writes on April 24th : — " During the time 

that the sallows were in blossom I only had one good night, when I 
captured several P. piuiperda, T. opima, T. popnleti, T. gothica, T. 
instabilis, P. rnbricosa, whilst T. stabilis were very plentiful and T. 
pulverulenta a nuisance." 

Whitsuntide on the Cotswolus. — A small party of members of 
the Birmingham Entomological Society spent May 12th to loth in the 
neighbourhood of Selsley. The weather was not all that could be 
desired, and as a consequence the captures did not come up to expecta- 
tion. Larva3 of Nudaria mundana, Callimorpha dominula, Nemeophila 
plantaginis, &c. were obtained and imagines of Nemeobim lucina, etc. 
The hymenopterists were well satisfied with their cajjtures, and the 
dipterists rejoiced in adding two new species of Syrj^hns to the British 
list, Mr. li. 0. Bradley taking a specimen of Syrphns triangulifer, Zett. 
and myself one of S. annuUpcs, Zett. — Colbban J. Wainwkight, 
Birmingham. 



166 THE entomologist's RECORD. 

CoLEOnERA IN THE HASTINGS AND EaSTBOURNE DISTRICTS. The 

following species, together with many of less note, have been taken in 
the above districts since October, 1893 : Agathidhnn marginatum, Amaru 
spinipes, Anchomenus oftlongus, Badistcr sodalis, Bledius atricaj)illus, B. 
tricornis, B. unicornis, Brachinus crepitans, CJioIeva angustatn, C. agilis, 
Coenopsis waltoni, Cryptarchia strigata, Dromius nigriveniris, Dyschirius 
thoracicns, Elaphroiis cupreus, Gronops lunatns, Haltica consobrina, 
Harpalns rotundicoHis, Helodes marginatus, Heterocerus laevigatus, H. 
obsoletns, H. sericans, Hydroporus ferrugineus, Hylastes obscurtis, Lathro- 
binm longuhm, L. terminatum, MyUoena Icraatzii (?), Philonthus therrnarum, 
riectroscelis subcaertdea, Plinthns caliginosus, Phytobius velatus, Polystichus 
vitiatus, Pterostichus gracilis, Rhagium bifasciaiwn, B. inquisitor, Saprinus 
metallicus, Stenus jmbescens, Strophosomus obesus, S. retusus, Sunius 
intermedins, Tkiasophila angulata, Trogophloeus halophilus, Tropiphorus 
carinatus. The following were taken in the neighbourhood of 
Chatham : Bledius opacus, Otiorrhynchus tenebricosus, Plinthus caliginosus, 
Silpha laevigata. — W. W. Esam, St. Leonard's. May 21st, 1894. 

Ueiopeia pulchella in Hertfordshire. — I have recently seen, in 
the collection belonging to the Boys' Farm Home at East Barnet, a 
specimen of this moth, which was captured by Mr. Riihl, the school- 
master, in May, 1892, on the bank of the G. N. Ky. near Oakley Park 
Station. Although a search has been made, no other specimens have 
been seen. — A. E. Gibbs, St. Alban's. May, 1894. 



SOCIETIES. 

At the meeting of the Entomological Society of London on May 
2nd, Mr. vS. Stevens exhibited a specimen of Argynnis aglaia var. char- 
lotfa, taken ]>y the late Eev. James Watson in the New Forest in 1870. 
Mr. J. A. Clark exhibited a curious variety of xirctia caia, having an 
extraordinary wedge-shaped marking extending from the outer margin 
to: the base of the left hind wing, and also, on the same wing, a small 
spot which was brown and white in colour, and had the appearance of 
having been taken from the fore wing and inserted in the hind wing. 
The specimen was said to have been taken at Abbott's Wood, in July, 
1892. Prof. E. B. Poulton exhibited living specimens of the larvje of 
Lasiocampa qtiercifolia, which had been surrounded respectively during 
the early stages of growth, by black twigs and lichen-coloured twigs, 
.the food being the same in both cases. All the larvai were shown upon 
a Avhite paper back-ground, but examples of the surrounding twigs 
which i)roduced the change of colour, were shown beside each batch. 
The presence of darker or lighter twigs and spills of paper of various 
colours, was found to cause very great modification in the colour of the 
larvse. When lichen-covered twigs were used, the larvaj assumed a 
mottled appearance, which caused them greatly to resemble their 
surroundings. Mr. A. E. Gibbs has found that larvee of Amphidasys 
hetnlaria, fed on birch, assumed a shining brown tint resembling the 
twi<'"s of the food-plant ; others, however, that were fed on the leaves 
of the garden acacia, which have a bright green petiole, were green in 
colour. The latter, however, is not uniformly the case ; Ur. Buckell 
reared a brood exclusively on acacia, and these contained both browu 
and green forms, the brown predominating. 



SOCIETIES. 157 

At the South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society, on Apx'il 12tli, the President referred to the great loss which 
the Society had sustained by the deatli of Mr. J. Jenner Weir, who had 
always taken such an active interest in its welfare, and it was unani- 
mously resolved that a letter of condolence should be sent to Mrs. Weir. 
Exhibits :— Mr. Adkin for Mr. Billups, the following rare Diptera ; 
Meigenia majmcula, from Dulwich, new to Britain ; Scioniijza rnfiveutris, 
from Ireland ; Degeeria pulchdla, bred by Mr. Adkin from Feronea 
maccana ; Urellia eluta, from Lewisham, and an unknown species of 
Phorbia : also galls of Dri/ophaiita divisa and their maker, with Si/nergus 
albipes, one of its Inquilines and five parasites, viz. : Mesopolobns fasci- 
veulris, Syntomaspis caudatiis, Upelnms urozoniis, Decatoma biguttala and 
a Chalcid. Mr. Step ; a specimen of a fungus (MorcheUa aescidenta) 
from Wootton under Edge. Mr. Jiiger stated that he had met with a 
considerable number of cripples of Bistoii hirtaria, all of which were 
malformed on the right side. The President gave an interesting account 
of the curious habit indulged in by some ducks, of killing toads during 
the breeding season, by dexterously slitting their abdomens. — On April 
26th, the following among other exhibits were made. Mr. Dennis ; a 
bred Pararge egeria, in which all tlie light markings were much ex- 
tended. Mr. Auld ; a series of Taeniocampa mnnda, with sevei'al 
examples of var. immaculata, from West Wickham ; T. popnleti from 
Westerham. Mr. Enoch read some " Notes on common insects," and 
illustrated the paper with about fifty lantern slides. The paper dealt 
largely witli common pests and their parasites, such as the sycamore 
aphis, with its numerous enemies, the currant mite, the sawiiy of the 
willow with the insects which attack its larva, the flies whose larvai 
mine the marguerite plant, the parasites of the Hessian Fly, and last, 
but not least beautiful, the minute Fairy Flies, of which Mr. Enoch 
stated that he possessed at least one hundred and fifty species. He laid 
considerable stress upon the economic side of the subject, and strongly 
advocated following the example set by the United States Government, 
in having an entomological section attached to the Agricultural Depart- 
ment. Most of the information given was the result of original obser- 
vations, and unobtainable in any book.* The admirable manner in which 
the interesting and peculiar life-histories of these minute creatures were 
pourtrayed upon the screen and described, excited the greatest admiration 
among the large number of members and friends present. — On May 
l(Jth, Mr. South exhibited a bred series of Boarmia cinctaria, together 
with the female parent which was from Glengariff, Ireland ; the speci- 
mens were pale, like the parent, but not so pale as those captured by 
Mr. Kane some time ago. Mr. Frohawk exhibited a sjjecimen of 
Vanessa urticae in which the blue marginal spots were exaggerated and 
extended about twice as far as usual into the black border. Mr. 
Williams showed a bred specimen of Pieris napi in which only the 
hind-wings had developed. Mr. Turner exhibited Sirex gigas from 
Box Hill and Chichester, and BombijUus major from Box Hill. 
— On May 2-lth, the following, among other exhibits, were made : — 

* This being so, it would be well if the South London Entomological 
Society printed the paper in their Proceedings as soon as possible. We under- 
stood in January last, that the Proceedings for 1892 and 1893 were then quite 
reddy for the printer. When will members get this volume ? — Ed. 



158 THE entomologist's record. 

Mr. C. A. Briggs ; a specimen of Lycaend argiolus, in which some of 
the sjwts on the underside were lengthened into streaks ; also, a speci- 
men of Vanessa io in which the eye was only partially developed. Mr. 
Dennis ; one specimen of Vanessa urticae with a perfect and others 
with an imjierfect band on the upper wing. Mr. Adkin ; a long and 
variable series of Boarmia cinctaria bred from ova obtained from County 
Cork ; an extreme variety had only a broad marginal dark band, a 
central light band and basal dark patch. Mr. Hamm ; a striking form 
of Ajiarnea unnnimis, in which there was a light grey cloud extending 
from the apex of the fore-wings along the hind and inner margins to 
the base ; also a sj^ecimen of Lithosia griseola of a brown instead of a 
leaden hue. Mr. BillujDS ; the following new and rare Diptera : — 
Chortophila setaria, Mg., from Dulwich ; Blepharoptera inscripta, Mg., 
from Oxshott and Bromley ; Heteromyza atricornis, Mg., and Hypostena 
medorina, Schnr., from Oxshott ; Lepsis punctiim, F., and Callomyia 
amaena, Mg., from Bromley. Mr. Turner ; two specimens of the rare 
Homopteron, Centrotus cornntus, taken by Mr. Lewcock at Seal Chart; 
also Helix lapirida, from Box Hill. 

We are glad to introduce to our readers the Herts Natural History 
Society and Field Club, which has its head-quarters at Watford, but 
which is to some extent peripatetic, meeting frequently at St. Alban's, 
and occasionally at Hertford and other places. The President of the 
Society is Dr. Stradling, F.Z.S., and its Secretaries Messrs. John 
Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., of The Grange, St. Albans, and F. M. 
Campbell, F.L.S., F.Z.S., of Eose Hill, Hoddesdon. Owing to the 
fortunate circumstance that one of its most active members, Mr. A. E. 
Gibbs, F.L.S., F.E.S., is one of the proprietors of The Herts Advertiser 
and St. Alban's Times, its proceedings are very fully reported in this 
county paper (in a copy before us the report occupies four columns), 
and thus its educational influence as regards Natural History matters, 
is very widely diffused. The 181st meeting of the Society was held on 
April 17th, and was devoted to the readings of carefully compiled sum- 
maries of the observations of a great many naturalists in various parts 
of the county during 1893. Mr. A. E. Gibbs dealt with the Lepidoptera. 
Sugar during the early j^art of the year was generally unattractive, but 
yielded better results in the autumn. Larvse were very abundant, but 
pupa-digging was unproductive. One member reported that old sacks, 
boxes, &c. placed about the garden, j^roved fertile traps ; several good 
things being taken by their means. As elsewhere, the season was an 
early one, many species emerging about a month before their usual time. 
The following species, which had not previously appeared in any of the 
county lists, were reported : Setina irrorella, by Mr. John Bowden from 
East Barnet ; Bomhyx castrensis and Pygaera pigra by Col. Gillum, from 
the same place ; Agrotis puta, Hadena dissimilis, Selenia tetralunaria, 
Cheimatobia boreata and Eupithecia minutata, by Mr. S. H. Spencer, jun., 
from Watford. Butterflies were plentiful, especially in the early 
summer months ; of Colias edusa, whose abundance was one of the great 
entomological features of 1892, there is only a single record in 1893, and 
that from Harpenden, where a few specimens were seen ; the Vanessas 
were more abundant in the larval than in the imaginal stage, while 
exactly the reverse was the case with the Whites. Euchloe cardamines 
was more abundant than usual ; one member stated that all the specimens 
he captured were of a small size ; Vanessa polychloros was getting 



SOCIETIES. 159 

scarcer ; Lycaena corydon was reported from Lilley Hoo, and L. minima 
from a railway-cutting on the Cambridge and Hitchin line. Among 
the Heterocera : two larvfe of Acherontia atropos were found in tlie 
middle of July, at St. Alban's ; these pupated successfully, and the 
imagines emerged at the end of September or beginning of October ; 
Macroglossa stellatarum was everywhere much more abundant than usual ; 
one member reported that a specimen visited a piece of honeysuckle that 
he was wearing as a button-hole ; Trochilium apiforme was netted at 
Colney Heath. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
Ajrril 3rd, 1894. — It was unanimously resolved to send a letter of con- 
dolence to Mrs. Weir, expressive of the great regret with wliich the 
Society had heard of the sudden death of Mr. J. Jenner Weir. Ex- 
hibits : — Mr. Tremayne ; Nemeobins lucina, Lobophora hexapterata, 
Tliecla rubi, Tephrosia extersaria, Notodonta dodonea, and others taken by 
him in the New Forest, at Whitsuntide 1893. Mr. Battley ; Nyssia 
hispidaria from Epping Forest. Mr. Nicholson ; a $ Enchloe carda- 
mines, bred from ova found in the New Forest. Mr. Southey ; Cidaria 
suffamata from Hendon, where it seemed to have become almost extinct. 
Mr. Lewcock ; Silpha sid>rotundata from Ireland ; he believed this to be 
quite distinct from Silpha atrata, although it was considered by many 
as merely a variety of that species. Mr. Tutt ; pupte of Thais 
polyxena ; these pupse appeared to form a connecting link between 
Parnassius and PapiUo ; they were attached to twigs by the tail, and 
also by a belt, which, however, did not pass round the waist as in Pa- 
piUo, &c., but was held by two hooked processes on the head of the 
pupa ; these hooks were probably evolved from the two ear-like 
points found in PapiUo : he also exhibited drawings of a typical pupa 
of PapiUo, to illustrate some remarks which he made on some apparently 
insignificant, but really important points, in the structure of pupje. 
Mr. Battley had found Taeuiocampa popideti fairly common near 
Broxbourne ; it was found chiefly on sallows which were in close 
proximity to aspens, but could also be obtained by searching the aspen 
twigs after dark ; in the same locality he met with the following species 
and read : — 

Notes on the habits of Brephos notha. — This species occurred on 
the outskirts of a wood near Broxbourne, in which were a few aspens. 
The moths began to fly soon after 10 a.m., at which time they were, 
like B, parthenias, very sluggish and easy to capture. About mid-day 
they retreated into tlie thicker ])arts of the wood, but at 2.15 p.m. they 
suddenly ajjpeared in large numbers on the sheltered side ; after five 
minutes' flight they went back again into the wood for about ten 
minutes, when they again re-apj^eared ; this was re^jeated several 
times. 

Mr. Tutt said that B. notha was to be obtained in some numbers by 
shaking the aspens at dusk. 

Aprd nth, 1894.— Exhibits : — Mr. Smith ; Thecia betnlae and Ly- 
caena aryiolns from Epping Forest. Mr. Bacot ; Nyssia hispidaria and 
Taeniocampa munda from Chingford ; the latter, which were bred, 
consisted mainly of the var. iiamaaddla. Dr. Chapman remarked that 
in years when this species was plentiful the specimens showed no great 
variation, Jiut when it was scarce, those specimens which did occur, 
usually varied considerably, both from the type and inter se. Mr. 



160. THE entomologist's record. 

Goldtliwait ; Asphalia ridens, bred, from the New Forest, and one dark 
specimen from Ongar Park Wood, Essex ; also a fine specimen of Va- 
nessa antiopa taken in Monk's Wood, Essex, on April 7th, by Mr. 
Whittingham of Walthamstovv. Mr. Mera ; several hybernated larva3 
of Orijyia ijonostlgma, part of a brood hatched last June, the majority of 
the brood having fed up and emerged in the autumn. Mr. Clark ; a 
black specimen of Phigah'a pedaria from Barnsley, and two specimens 
of Crambus j)i)ietellus from Scotland. Capt. Thompson ; a larva of 
Zeuzera jri/riiia found in his garden in Myddelton Sq., E.G. ; it was 
comfortably ensconced in a piece of stick only slightly larger in diameter 
than that of its own body. Mr. Tutt : (1) a typical Lycaena corydon, 
ca23tured in July 1893 ; (2) a hybrid between L. corydon and L. hellanjus, 
taken in copula with a typical ? L. beUargus, on May 20th, 1893, at 
which time the latter species was very abundant, L. corydon not being 
on the wing till some weeks later ; the specimen retained the external 
features of L. corydon, but had assumed to a great extent the coloration 
of L. hellargus ; (3) a typical ^ L. bellargus captured on the same day ; 

(4) a 5 X. bellargus, in which the pigment had failed in one hind wing ; 

(5) a pale var. of L. corydon, captured in July, 1886, which was 
probably to be referred either to var. apennina, Zell., usually met with 
in Italian mountain districts, or to var. albicans, H.-S., usually met with 
in Andalusia; Staudinger says of the former " pallidior," of the latter 
" albicans," (Cat. p. 12). Mr. Bacot then read the following note: — 

On Assembling Selenia tetralunaria. — On April 7th, 1894, 1 took 
a freshly-emerged J to Epping Forest, to see if she would attract any 
S s for me. The night seemed a favourable one, being warm, with a 
light breeze from the E. I hung up the ? in a small cage about 
6.30 p.m., and she commenced calling shortly after 7. The first <? 
flew up about 7.30, and others continued to come until 8.15. They 
generally came up singly, and at intervals of five or six minutes ; but 
about 8, I found three on the cage together. I found I could box them 
without difficulity if I did not use the lantern, but the light seemed to 
frighten them. On reaching home about 10, I placed one of the <? s in 
the cage with the $ ; he was lively for a few minutes, but then quieted 
down till midnight, when he began to fly again ; the $ then commenced 
to call, and they paired at 12.15, remaining together till 9.30 a.m. 
Some of the J s were of a light ochreous tint ; I thought this was a 
characteristic of the summer brood only. 

Dr. T. A. Chapman, of Hereford, read a very interesting jiaj^er 
" On Butterfly pupce and the lines of evolution which they suggest."* 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



Will correspondents please be careful to write generic and 
trivial names as distinctly as possible? By so doing they will 
greatly assist us in avoiding errors. — Ed. 

* This paper will be published, in this magazine later in the year. — Ed. 



^^ AND ^^^^^ 



^^J 



JOURNAL OF VARIATION. 



No. 7. Vol. V. 



July 15th, 1894. 



EI^EBIJI EPIPjJl^Orl JiplD nfg r(yl]VIEB Vyil^IE'l'lEg. 

4 Study in Synonymy. 
By FRAS. J. BUCKELL, M.B. 

llie tiipe. — The butterfly which Knoch described and figured in 
1783 (Beitriige z. Inseliieiujeschichte, Stuck iii., p. 131, pi. 6, fig, 7) under 
tlie name of Papilio epiphron, was met with by him in abundance near 
the Brocken, in the Harz Mountains. From his description and figure 
we learn that it possessed the following characteristics : — Wings rounded, 
not pointed at the apex, their upper surface of a dark brown colour ; 
there is an orange band near the hind margin of the fore-wings 
somewhat narrower towards the inner margin, but not reaching either 
this margin or the costa ; this band is divided by the nervures into six 
compartments, and in from two to four of these are black sjjots, which 
sometimes have white pupils but more often have not. Near the hind 
margin of the hind-wings are three good-sized, more or less circular-, 
orange blotches, in each of which is a black spot which, like those on 
the fore- wings, is sometimes white-pupilled but more frequently blind ; 
tliese three blotches touch one another and so produce a certain band- 
like appearance ; at either end of the three is a faint orange blotch, 
smalle;.- and without a black centre. The under surface is not re23re- 
sented in the figure and the description of it is very meagre. It may 
be inferred, however, that it is very similar (in both wings) to the 
upper surface, save that the ocelli or spots are often more numerous ; 
Knoch says that he has taken specimens with six ocelli. It is evident 
that he was not basing his description on a limited number of specimens, 
as was sometimes the case with the earlier authors, for he says that 
" variations are found in this PapUio in large numbers if the eye-points 
and spots are taken into consideration." 

Fabricius notices the species under the same name in 1787 (Mantissa 
Ins., vol. ii., p. 40, No. 411), having seen specimens in Boeber's cabinet ; 
these evidently all had the ocelli white-pupilled. 

Borkhausen, who seems to have been very fond of re-naming species, 
describes it in 1788 (Natnrgcschichte der Europ. Schmett., Th. i., p. 77, 
No. 16b) under the name of Pap. eyea. He adds nothing to our 
knowledge of its characters, and one is inclined to think that he was 
describing not from nature but from Knoch. Next year (I.e., Th. ii., 
p. 202,) he says that the specimens with white pupils are females, and 



162 THE entomologist's record. 

inclines to the opinion that the insect is identical with P. melampns, 
Fviessly. 

Ochsenheimcr (1807) is an authority of considerable importance 
inasmuch as he deals with both cpiphron and cassiope, Treitschke says 
that Ochsenheimer's specimens of epiphron came from Knoch himself, 
so that there conld be no doubt about their identity. Ochsenheimer 
says (Schmett. v. Europ., Bd. I., Abtheil. i., p. 258, No. 41) that, so far as 
he knows, this butterfly is only met with in the Harz Mountains ; his 
diagnosis and description are worth quoting in full. Diagnosis : " Alis 
integi'is fuscis viridi nitentibus, fascia rufa, utrinque ocellis nigris pro 
individuis numero diversis." Description : " The untoothed wings are, on 
the upper surface, black-brown with a greenish gloss ; on the fore- 
wings, near the hind margin, is a yellowish-red transverse band, which 
is divided by the nervures into several blotches and in which are 
found two, three or four black eyes, which in the female are larger and 
have white centres, but mostly appear only as black spots of varying 
size, although in none of the many specimens before me are they 
entirely wanting. The hind-wings are oval and have in the middle of 
the hind margin a projecting point ; along the margin are three or four 
yellowish-red blotches, which often run together into a band only 
divided by the nervures, and therein, as in the fore-wings, are black 
spots or eyes, sometimes with white pupils. The underside is coloured 
like the upper but is without the gloss. On the fore-wings the 
yellowish-red band is only sharply defined along its outer margin, 
passing inwards into the ground colour, so that often the whole area 
to the base appears, more or less, yellowish-red. The spots or eyes 
are as on the upper surface, and the same is the case with the hind- 
wings." 

It will be noticed that three new characters ajjpear in this de- 
scription : (1), a greenish gloss on the upper surface ; (2), a projection 
from the centre of the hind margin of the hind-wings ; (3), the occurrence 
of a reddish coloration over the disc of the fore-wings on the under 
surface. 

We may then define the type as a butterfly in which, on the fore- 
wings the band is on both surfaces continuous, and on the hind wings 
consists of more or less coalescing blotches ; in which the ocelli are 
sometimes, especially in the female, white-pupilled ; in which the disc 
of the under surface of the fore- wings often has a more or less coppery 
hue, and in which the red surroundings of the lilack spots are Avell in 
evidence on the underside of the hind-wings. 

a. Var. melampus, Esp. — The first variety to get a name was that 
which Esper between 1780 and 1786, described and figured {Europ. 
Schmet., Th. 1, Bd. 2, p. 131, pi. 78, fig. 2). under the name of Pajnlio 
melampns, supposing it to be identical with the butterfly to which 
Fuessly had given that name in 1775. This form had alread}^ been 
figured by Ernst and described by Engramelle in 1779 (Pap. d' Europe, 
Tom. 1, p. 85, pi. 24, fig. 45), under the vernacular name of Le petit 
nijgre d handes faiives, from Styrian specimens in Gerning's collection. 
Esper speaks of it as found very commonly on the mountains of Pro- 
vence, and as occurring also in Hungary and Styria, and notes tliat 
Gerning had found it in 1766, in the Bernese AIjds. 

The characteristics of this form are to be found in the hind-wings, 
which, on the upper surface, have only two tiny orange dots, and on 



EEEBIA EPIPHRON AND ITS NAMED VARIETIES. 163 

the under surface are without markings. Meyer-Diir( iVo?<«. Mi'm. Soc. 
Ilehet., ]5d. xii., p. L51, pi. 2, fig. 3) describes and iigures a variety 
from the higher Bernese Alps, which he calls var. berncnsis, which in 
some respects resembles the form figured by Esper, It is very i)Ossible 
that var. nelamus, Boisd., to which reference will be made in its turn, 
is identical Avith this form, in which case, it would be better to sink 
Esper's name as being already the name of a si^ecies, and to adopt 
Boisduval's name for this form. 

j3. Var. cassiope, Eb. — The name cassiope, by which the species has 
been most generally known, was given by Fabricius m 1787 (Mant. Ins., 
vol. ii., p. 42, No. 417), to a butterfly which he saw in Schiffermiiller's 
cabinet, and for which he gives Austria as a habitat, and grass as the 
food-plant. There is no indication that he recognised any close affinity 
between it and the epiphron of Knoch, which he had already described 
(No. 411). As there is some uncertainty about the exact meaning of 
some of the words, I give the original Latin. Diagn. : " Alis integris 
fuscis : fascia rufa ; punctis tribus ocellaribus nigris, posticis subtus 
punctis solis." Description : " Alje omnes supra nigrsB fascia marginis 
hand attingente, in posticis imprimis maculari rufa et in hac puncta tria 
nigra. Subtus anticte concolores, postic^e punctis tribus at absque fascia 
rufa." Borkhausen, in 1789 {I.e., Th. ii., p. 204, No. 16e), gives what 
appears to be a free translation of this, as follows : — " All wings above 
black-brown with an orange band, which on the fore-wings is undi- 
vided and does not reach the margins, but which on the hind-wings 
consists of separate blotches and has three black points. On the 
imderside the fore- wings are marked as above ; the hind-wings lack 
the orange band, but the three black points are present." 

Ochsenheimer gives the following diagnosis {I.e., p. 261, No. 44): 
" Alis integris fuscis fascia rufa, punctis tribus nigris ; posticis supi'a 
maculis rufis nigro punctatis, subtus foeminaa cinerascentibus, punctis 
solis ; " and he goes on to say : " The ground colour is, in fresh speci- 
mens, dark black-brown ; in those that have flown, paler. A rust- 
coloured or orange band, divided by the nervures, is found on the fore- 
wings near the hind margin ; it is uniform in breadth, and two to four 
black spots are found in it. The hind-wings are oval, with a short 
projection in the middle of the hind margin ; they usually show three 
or four orange blotches, of which some, rarely all, have black spots in 
them. In varieties, there are only one or two of these blotches, and 
the black spots are hardly, or not at all, perceptible. On the underside, 
the fore-wings are somewhat paler, the orange band is sliarpl}'^ defined 
on both margins and contains two or three black spots. The hind- 
wings are black-brown, and not markedly darker from the base to the 
middle ; near the hind margin are one or several black dots in hardly 
perceptible delicate reddish-yellow circles. In varieties, they are some- 
times entirely wanting. The female is larger, has a paler ground colour, 
and its spots are more numerous and larger on both fore-wings and hind- 
wings. The underside of the fore-wings is orange, with the costal and 
hind margins grey-brown ; the band is distinct, sharply defined, 
and somewhat brighter than the disc. The hind-wings are brownish- 
grey beneath, darker from the base outwards, and three or four black 
dots stand in hardly- percei^tible orange circles, near the hind margin. 
I have received this butterfly from Styria and Switzerland." 
Ochsenheimer does not seenx to liave recognised any intimate connection 



1G4 THK entomologist's record. 

between epijyJiron and cassiope, but Treitschke, in vol. x. of the same 
work (1834), expresses the decided opinion that they are specifically 
identical. 

Freyer, in 1831 (Neu. Beitrilge, Bd. i., p. 37, pi. 20, fig. 1-2), adds 
that the band of the upper surface of the fore-wings is much fainter in 
the male than in the female, and that whilst in the male there is little 
trace of any eyes on the under surface of the hind-wings, in the female, 
the three eyes of the upper surface appear through and are black- 
kernelled. 

We may, I think, define this Alj^ine form, as possessed of the 
following distinguishing characteristics : — Ocelli never white-pupilled 
on the upper surface ; band entire on the fore-wings, but broken up 
on the hind- wings into three or four orange spots with black centres ; 
on the under surface of the hind- wings the black dots very small, and 
either not at all or only very obscurely encircled with orange. 

y. Var. ninemon, Haw. — In that rare volume of Transactions of the 
Entomological Societij of London (i., p. 332), Ha worth, in 1812, described 
under this name a butterfly that he had seen in Francillon's cabinet, 
and that had been captured in Scotland, by Stoddart. In this, the band 
of the fore-wings was broken up into four saffron rings, of which the 
third was the least and slightly exterior to the others ; on the hind- 
wings were only two rings. Beneath, the wings were coppery-brown ; 
the fore-wings had three brown points which were very indistinct, and 
obscurely surrounded with fulvous ; the hind-wings were almost entirely 
unspotted. This comes very near to var. melampus, Esj)., but there, the 
band of the fore-wings was not broken up. 

8, Var. nelamus, Boisd. — Boisduval, in 1840 (Gen. et. Index Meth., 
p. 26, No. 195), establishes this form with only two words " Snb-coeca 
(Alp. Delph.)." Meyer-Diir thought it might be the same as his feebly- 
marked specimens from high altitudes in the Bernese Alps ; and Frey, 
in 1880 (Die Lepid. Schweiz, p. 35), accepts this opinion. Lederer, in 
1852 (Verhandl. zool.-bot. Vereins in Wien, p. 40), gives its habitat as 
Mont Dore, in Auvergne, and says that it " has above very little, on 
the hind wings sometimes no red ; on the underside the eyes are want- 
ing, or very obsolete. Lang (Tlhop. Enro-p., p. 241) says: "An alpine 
form in Switzerland. It has the black spots absent from the fulvous 
bands on all the wings." As already stated, it is quite possible that 
this form may be identical with that called melampus, by Esper. 

€. YsiV. pyrenaica, H.-S. — Whether this form, Avhich Herrich-Schiiffer 
(Syst. Bearheit., i., fig. 535-8, vi., p. 11) received from the Pyrenees, 
but which Lederer says also occurs in the Styrian mountains, is worthy 
of a distinct varietal name, is perhaps doubtful. The red band of the 
fore wings has become a series of longitudinal blotches, and on the 
tmder surface of the hind wings, are four hardly -perceptible black dots 
without irides. Lang (I.e.) says of it : " Larger than cassiope, with large 
ocelli on all the fulvous bands." This, however, is hardly in accord 
with Herrich-Schaffer's figures. 

One or two other names must be glanced at. Hiibner (Samml. 
Europ., vol. i., figs. 202) figures what he calls Pap. ianthe, which he 
supposes to be identical with epipliron, Kn., melampus, Fuessl. and eyea, 
Bork. It is very diflicult to determine whether this is the type or var. 
cassiope ; our two groat synonymists differ on the point, Staudinger 
inclining to the former view, Kirby to the latter. Newman in 1844 



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A LEPIDOPTEROUS INSECT. IfiS 

(Zool., vol. ii., p. 729) describes and figures as Erehia melampvs a 
butterfly taken by INIr. Weaver in the neighbourhood of Eannocli, 
which differed from the form which he was accustomed to call E. 
cassio2}e and to obtain from Cumberland. In his British Butterflies 
(p. 80) however, he admits that he was mistaken in supposing it not to 
be identical with that, and it is not, I think, possible to make any 
varietal separation of the two. 

Staudinger, in his famous Catalog, thus distinguishes and locates the 
several forms, but it must not be forgotten that, at the time of the 
l)reparation of that work at all events, he was largely ignorant of 
British authors : — 

Epiphron. — An outer red fascia or maculge ; tlie female with white- 
pupilled ocelli. Hab. — Hercyn. Mountains, Silesian 
Mountains. 

Cassiopc. — Red obsolete macular ; black blind ocelli. Hab. — 
Germany (south), Switzerland, Franco, Piedmont, 
Hungarian Mountains et Alps, England (north), Scotch 
Mountains. 

Nelamus. — Hardly ocellated with black. Hab. — Alps. 

Pyrenaica. — Larger ; with large ocelli. Hab. — Pyrenees. 

It will be seen that the species is localised in two distinct centres 
(leaving this country out of the question for the moment). The type 
form is found in the more northerly area of distribution, its chief centre 
being the Harz Mountains, although it is also reported from the Riesen 
Gebirge on the east, and the Vosges on the west ; cassiope, on the other 
hand, is an Alpine butterfly. It may be contended that only these two 
forms should be recognised as named varieties, and it must be admitted 
that the other forms seem rather to be sub- varieties of cassiope, than 
to be entitled to varietal rank. This question must be settled according 
to the opinion of the individual student. In this country, both in the 
Lake District and Scottish habitats of the species, cassiope is the pre- 
vailing form ; the type does occur occasionally in Scotland, but rarely 
with white pupils, although, according to Dr. Buchanan White, even 
such are occasionally met with. It is a curious and suggestive fact that 
Morris, who only knew the Lake District as a locality for the sjjccies, 
nevertheless figures it with well-developed white pupils. 



1'lie Life-jJistopy of a Lcpidoptepous Iiisect, 

Comprising some account of its Morphology and Physiology. 

By J. W. TUTT, F.E.S. 

{Cmitimied from page 146). 

Chav. II. 

THE OVUM OR EGG. 

8. — On the probable existence of sex in eo(;s. — It lias been 
suggested that the sex of imagines bred from eggs will be determined 
l)y the conditions in regard to abundance of food or the reverse, under 
whicli the larva? are reared ; that under a specially nutritious diet, lepi- 
dojjtcrous larvjB tend to })roduce female imagines, Avhilst a starvation 
diet tends to the jiruductiou of males. This pre-su}iposes a condition 



lG(j ttiE entomologist's REdOUD. 

of neutrality as regards sex in the newly-laid egg, but I do not know 
that this has ever been proved, even in the slightest degree. The idea 
of this sex-determining influence of nutrition has probably arisen from 
the well-known fact that bees and ants govern the sex of their offspring 
within certain limits, by special feeding ; i.e. that larvte, which would 
under ordinary circumstance produce neuters, can be made to produce 
queens if a special course of ntitritious diet be commenced in the flrst two 
or three days of larval life. But so-called neuters are essentially females, 
not fully developed it is true, but of whose sex there can be no doubt, 
and I would suggest that what hap})ens in these cases is, that the sexual 
neutrality of the ovum ceases on fertilisation, and that the special feed- 
ing only causes the production of a well-developed instead of an 
ill-developed female. 

That neutrality of the ovum ever exists in insects after the egg has 
been laid is not pi-obable, for in comparatively early stages of some 
lepidopterous larvae, the sexual organs are clearly distinguishalde. To 
supjiose, therefore, that any course of feeding of the larva will alter 
the sex of the resulting imago, is to assume more than scientific ento- 
mologists are able to grant. Probabl}^ there is a point in its development 
at which the oval cell is sexually neutral, but this point may be a long 
way back in its history, possibly as far back as the embryonic stages of 
the parent. If a process of experimental feeding could be carried 
out through several successive generations, probably some influence 
might he exerted ; but that any influence upon the sex of the resulting 
imagines can be exerted by such a process in a single generation, is in 
the highest degree doubtful. If it should happen that an experiment 
seems to yield an affirmative result, it is probably only a fortuitous 
coincidence. Experiments, to be worth anything, must be begun at a 
time when the ovum is certainly neutral, and then perhaps some 
definite impression might be made on the progeny. 

It is of course quite possible, that the sexual neutrality of the ovum 
may be continued to a much later jDeriod of development in some species of 
the same class than in others, and in some classes of animals than in 
others. Further experiments as to the effect of food on sex arc needed, 
but all Avho have bred large numbers of moths from eggs, know that 
no amount of nutritious food will ensure a preponderance of females, nor 
will a strictly starvation diet ensure a preponderance of males, from eggs 
laid in the ordinary course. 

9. — On the sex of imagines bred fkom successively-laid eggs. — 
It has often been suggested that there was some general law connecting 
the succession of the eggs laid by the same moth with the sex of the 
imagines resulting therefrom, and that this took the form of a regular 
alternation of sex in successive eggs. It has more than once been 
asserted that, of two isolated larvae found on the same bush, one would 
produce a male, the other a female, the assumption being that the two 
isolated larvae were the progeny of successively-laid eggs, and that their 
contiguity was due to an attempt to facilitate the operation of pairing. 
This would, of course, lead to the most complete in-breeding, a result 
which nature usually abhors, and, as was to be expected, experiment 
does not bear out the assumption. To test the assumption, however. 
Professor Poulton undertook some experiments, to dctermiue the sex 
of the larvrB resultiug from successivelj^-laid eggs of Smerinthm j'Opnh'. 
The experiment is detailed at length in the Trans. Ent. Sue. London, 



'THi; LlFE-UiSTOilY OF A LEl'IDOl'tEllOtJS iNSECf. l^f 

1893, pp. 451-6, but the conclusion at which Professor Poulton arrived 
did away with the notion that there Avas any regularity in the pro- 
duction of the sexes from successively-laid eggs. On the contrary, " it 
was found that the relative proportion of the sexes was subject to 
immense fluctuation on the separate dates on which eggs were laid. As 
regards eggs laid on any one day, the sexes generally succeeded each 
other in little groups of irregular size. No law of succession of the 
sexes could be established." 

Bearing on this, is another observation recorded in the Trans. Linn. 
Soc. of London, vol. v., 1890, p. 156, in which Messrs. Jackson and 
Salter found that the pupaj obtained from different batches of Vanessa io, 
had a large proportion of a certain sex, some batches producing almost 
entirely males, others consisting almost entirely of females. Such 
batches, of course, would greatly aid the inter-crossing of the species, 
and tliis state of things is much more probable than that the sexes 
alternate in successively-laid eggs with anything like regularity. 

10. — On the duration of tue egg stage. — This varies very greatly 
but depends to a considerable extent upon whether the eggs hatch the 
same year they are laid, or whether hybernation takes place in the egg- 
state, and in the latter case upon the time of year at which the eggs 
are laid. Mr. Fenn (Eat. Rec, vol. iii., pp. 175-76), Dr. Buckell (I.e., 
p. 255) and Mr. Prout (I.e., vol. iv., p. 292) have recorded some obser- 
vations bearing upon the question as regards the Gteojietr.e. Of those 
species whose eggs hatched the same year in which they were laid, the 
gi'eater number remained in the egg stage from a week to a fortnight. 
The shortest period recorded by JMr. Fenn is two days in the case of 
Acidalia vm/nlaria ; by Dr. Buckell, four days in the case of Timandra 
amataria, and many species have a period of only five days. On the 
other hand, some species have a much longer period, as will be seen by 
the following instances from the above-mentioned articles : Selenm 
telralanaria, 23 days ; Biston hirtaria, 17 to 37 days ; Ampliidasys 
strataria, 30 days ; Hemerophila abruptaria, 14 to 26 days ; Boarmia 
ahietaria, 19 days; B. geminaria, 20 days; Hyhernia leucophearm, 38 
days ; Larentia caesiata, 24 days, &c. The period varies for the same 
species in different years, possibly depending on meterological con- 
ditions. Selenia hilunaria has the following record : — 1860, 1st brood, 
16 days ; 1883, 1st brood, 28 days, 2nd brood, 16 days ; 1890 and 1891, 
2nd brood, 15 days. Selenia limaria took 7 days in 1865, 12 in 1861, 
and 15 in 1886 — all 1st brood. Of Carnptogramnia Jinviata in 1865, 
one batch took 5 days, another 10 days and a third 21 days. 

11. — On hybernation in the egg stage. — As indicated in the 
preceding paragraph, some sj^ecies are known to hybernate in the egg- 
stage. To what extent this obtains among insects is, perhaps, hardly 
as yet ascertained with any degree of certainty, but among Lepidoptera 
there would appear to be scarcely any large group in which some of 
the species do not pass the winter in this state. Of our British butter- 
flies Lycaena aegon and Pamphila coiiDiia arc reported to ^J'lss the winter 
as ova, whilst several of the Thcclidi certainly do so — among our species, 
ThecJa, quercns, T. betulae, T. w.-alhum and T. prnni — whilst allied species 
do so in America. Scudder says that some of tlie Clirysojilninidi winter 
in this state ; tlie Paruassidi also do so, at least Fariiassias apoUo does. 
Among the Bujibyces a large number of s})ecies, as Orgyia antiqna, 
liybernatt,' in this stage, so also do a large number of Geojietu.i}, 



168 THE entomologist's record. 

NocTU^, &c. Many of the species that follow this course remain in 
the egg for a very long period. Among the observations anent the 
Geometr.*;, already referred to, will be found the following instances : 
— Epione apiclaria, 9| months; Eugonia antmitnaria, 7| to .10 months; 
Himera pennaria, 5 months ; Oporahia filigrammaria, 4| months ; 
Cidaria testata, 8 months ; Chesias spartiatn, 4^ months. 

The condition of the egg during the hybernating period is much 
more interesting. It is possible that some remain almost in the initial 
condition as laid all the winter. Buckler records that eggs of Bombyx 
mori, Trichiura crataegi, Engonia tiliaria, E. angnlaria {qnercinarui), 
Cheimatohia hrumata, G. boreata, Scotosia vetulata, Vtilophora plnmlgera, 
Xanthia aurngo and Pol/a chi have been examined from time to time 
until the middle of January, and nothing but the faintest traces of the 
future larvae have been detected by a microscopic examination of their 
still fluid contents, except in the case of A', aurago, the egg of which 
on January 14th was found to contain a partially developed larva. 
Some species, on the other hand, hybernate with the larva fully-formed 
inside the egg-shell, and only waiting for the spring to eat its way out 
and commence larval life. This appears to be a very similar condition 
to that of many larvaj which hatch from the egg, bvjj: hybernate at once 
without feeding ; only in the one case the larva? hybernate inside, in the 
latter outside, the egg-shell: in both cases the larva is equally well- 
formed. Thus in Parnassius apoUo the larva is fully formed in the egg 
in autumn, but it does not hatch till early spring. 

12. — On the period over which the hatching process may extend. 
— One of the most imjjortant facts in connection with the preservation 
of a species, is, that in many species of more or less wandering habit, 
the eggs do not all hatch at one time. I have frequently noticed that 
of a batch of Orgyia antiqua eggs laid in August a few Avill hatch at 
once and produce autumnal larvae, the remainder going over the winter ; 
of these a few will hatch in May and after\vards at irregular j^eriods, 
until when the last hatch they will have been in the egg state almost 
twelve months. It is very clear that by this means many insects which 
would, if the eggs all hatched simultaneously and under unsatisfactory 
conditions, rapidly become extinct or suffer very considerably, are 
much aided in their struggle for existence. 

13. — On the effects of exposing eggs to extreme tempera- 
tures. — Mr. Merrifield, whose researches into the effects upon the 
various stages of Lei^idoptera of varying degi'ees of temperature have 
interested us so much of late years, has made some of his experiments 
on the eggs of certain species. In The Transactions of ihe Entomological 
Society of London, 1890, pp. 132-133, he reports that spring-laid eggs 
of Selenia bilunaria began to have their vitality affected after being 
" iced " (at a temi^erature of 33°) in the central red stage 28 days, and 
none hatched after 60 days' icing. The case " Avas worse with spring- 
laid eggs of S. tetralunarin, none of "udiich survived 42 days' icing, and 
some summer-laid eggs of the same species fared no better. In all the 
experiments up to 60 days' exposure, and I think beyond that period, 
nearly all the eggs, after being removed from the ice, matured so far as 
to admit of the formation of the young larva, which could be seen 
through the transparent shell. Tlic failure was a failure to hatch." 

Mr. Merrifield makes the folloAving remark (which, in the face of 
the rest of the experiments, almost suggests an error of observation) : — 



LIFE-HISTOKY OF AGROTIS AGATHINA. 169 

"A curious result happened with some spring-laid iUnstrarid (ictrtilmiarid) 
eggs, iced before they had turned red ; two of them Ijccame l)lackish 
while in the ice (where the eggs were kept for 17 days), and hatched 
the day they were taken out of the ice, or the next day, the rest 
remaining red for several days, and hatching in from 11 to 13 days 
after removal from the ice. These are strong examples of individual 
character manifested at a very early age." This would, indeed, be so, 
but it is remarkable that two eggs of a batch should exhilnt such a 
decided difference from the remainder. 

With regard to high temperatures, ]\Ir. Merriiield reports that the 
eggs of these two species seemed in all cases uninjured by a tem])erature 
of 80° to 90'^, their development being on the contrary accelerated by it. 

14. On the fertilization of the ovum. — The eggs are developed 
in the ovaries of the parent, whence they jmss down the oviduct into 
the vagina. In connection with the vagina are one or more })ouches 
called receptacnla seminis, in which the semen is stored after coiiulation ; 
from these it passes into the vagina as the egg passes along it to the 
ovipositor, and sperm-cells enter the egg through the micropylar tubes, 
one of which fertilizes the egg, so that fertilization of the egg takes 
place at the time it is being laid, by the spermatozoa passing througli 
the microp3'lar pores as the egg leaves the opening of the receptacnla 
seminis. It is sometimes noticed that the latest-laid eggs of a batch 
are infertile ; this is probably due to the supply of sperm-cells being 
exhausted before all the eggs are laid. Mr. Bacot, however {Ent. 
Record, vol. v.) records a case where only eight eggs of E. fetralunaria 
out of a batch of 146 proved fertile, and these were laid about half- 
way through the batch. In some insects the sperm fluid retains its 
fertilising properties for a very long time. For exam])le, the queen 
bee and ant pair but once, yet they continue to lay fertile eggs for 
years. In lepidoptera the sperm can only last from autumn until the 
following spring, and then only in such species as copulate before 
hybernation. Usually, of course, it lasts a much shorter time. 



£ contribution to tlie l(noWledgc of tlie Earlier stages in tlie 
Life-piistopy of Hgrotis agathina. 

By W. S. RIDING, M.D., F. E.S. 

On August 26th, 1893, several A. agathina were taken on the 
heather at Gittisham by my son. One ? was kept for eggs. She 
began scattering these on the stems and leaves of the heather on the 
29th, and laid, during the following week, close upon 100. By Sept. 
15th some, previously of a dirty-white colour, had become mottled 
with purj)le and, in a few days more, many were leaden-coloured and 
the young larvae were ready to emerge. A few broke their shells on 
the 22nd. The eggs are nearly s})herical, slightly flattened at the base 
of attachment and somewhat less so at the apex, about -875 mm. in 
diameter, with 26 to 32 rather prominent ribs, each alternate one 
reaching nearer to the apex which is reticulated round the micro})yle. 
There are faint transverse striations. The young larvic emerge at the 
side of the apex and do not eat the shell. The body is bluish-leaden in 
colour and scattered all over with a few short hairs; the head is l»rown 



170 THE entomologist's reookd. 

and very large. The abdominal legs on the 7th and 8th segments are 
rudimentary. The larva loops and assumes a sphinx-like attitude at 
rest : it falls in a double curve, the anterior coil larger than, and in a 
different plane from, the posterior. 

During the second week of October some of the larvfB moulted and 
became glaucous or pale olive-green, with a brown head which was 
smaller than the 2nd segment. The latter bore a small chitinous plate. 
Each division now became swollen in the centre, making the insect 
a2)pear moniliform. Length 3 to 4 mm. The trapezoidal tubercles 
were distinguishable as faintly marked black sjjots, each with a short 
hair. The abdominal legs on the 8th segment had become much 
developed, but not lit for use. 

By the end of October and early in November many had passed 
through a second moult ; these were 5 to 7 mm. long, and in shape 
moniliform ; their ground colour was dark glaucous to olive-gi'cen, with 
a brownish shade in some ; the under surface was almost as dark as the 
upper. The plate on the 2nd segment had disappeared, but the 
tubercles were well marked as approximate trapezoidals, two anterior 
and two posterior to the spiracle. The latter had two hairs, the 

former one. On segments 4 to 11, the lateral tubercles were posterior 
and inferior to the spiracles, and had each two hairs. The spiracles 
were })laced at the upper part of the white spiracular line, which was 
broad and very conspicuous. The dorsal and sub-dorsal lines were pale 
and distinct, especially the former. The head was pale brown, with 
darker cheeks and paler central line. The true legs were brown, the 
abdominal legs pale translucent green with brown extremities, and 
furnished with many hooks ; all the latter were now fully developed and 
used for progression. Many rested in a straight line, a few only retaining 
the sphinx attitude. They held on to the food-plant tenaciously, lying 
prone along the stem and, when they fell, coiled themselves in two 
different planes as before. They fed indifferently on Erica vulgaris 
and Erica cinerea. 

Towards the third and last weeks of November a large proportion 
had moulted a third time and were about 8 mm. in length. The larvte 
were now moniliforin and somewhat wrinkled transversely, olive or 
grass-green in colour, and darker on the lateral area than on the dorsal. 
The dorsal line was almost pure white, the sul)-dorsal less conspicuous 
and tinged faintly with yellowish-green. The spiracular line was a 
little less consi^icuous than before, with a pale yellow blotch in the 
centre of each segmental section below the spiracles. The post- 
spiracular tubercles and hairs were distinct — there were no anterior 
ones. The trapezoidals were much larger on the 2nd segment than 
elsewhere. The head was pale brown with an olive tint and three pale 
lines (in one green) with about twenty short hairs scattered over it. 
The larva, on falling, coiled in a loose flat ring, with its head directed to 
the abdominal legs, or else rested more or less straight. 

By the middle of December, several had passed through their -Ith 
moult, and were 1"1 to 1"5 cm. in length. The larva — moniliform — 
tapered gradually from the 5th segment to the head. The ground colour 
was brown, with a reddish tinge, most marked on the dorsum, and darkest 
just above and below tlie spiracular line ; the underside, brownish and 
paler. The dorsal and sub-dorsal lines were white and very distinct ; 
the former was widest opposite the centre of each segment, and darkened 



LIFE-llISTOilY 08* ACUiOTlS AGf AtUlffA. 171 

at each division. The spiracular line was white, broad and very con- 
spicuous, Avrinkled, and with a rusty-coloured blotch shading off to 
yellow in the centre of each segmental division. The trapezoidals were 
black, distinct, Avith a single hair, and the anterior ones were placed in a 
small paler circle. The head was pale brown, translucent with a darker 
line on each side. 

By the middle of January, many had moulted a 5th time, and the 
larva3 varied in length between 2 and 2'5 cm. (very nearly one inch). 
At this stage the ground colour was rich velvety reddish-brown, 
mottled with pale spots on the dorsum, and with a tinge of purplish 
or olive-green in the sub-dorsal area. Below the spiracular line, the 
colour was similar to that of the dorsum, becoming underneath paler 
and more translucent. The larva was moniliform, tapering from the 
5th segment forwards ; the 12tli segment was larger than the 13th. On 
the 2nd segment the three dorsal lines were white and distinctly mai'ked, 
though less so than in the younger larvai. Elsewhere, the dorsal line 
was white, very narrow and inconspicuous, and clouded with black at the 
segmental divisions, so as to appear broken. The sub-dorsal lines were 
white, much more distinct than the dorsal, and broken in a similar way ; 
they were edged above, on each segment from the .3rd to the 12tli, with 
a thick, black, velvety streak, which, with the pure white of the line, 
gave a characteristic appearance. The spiracular line was white, broad, 
and wrinkled, with a rusty-coloured blotch, paler towards its circum- 
ference, filling up a large portion of each segmental division. The 
spiracles were oval, edged with black, and were placed close to the upper 
edge of the spiracular line on the 5th to the 1 Ith segments. The 
tubercles on the dorsum and sides were black in pale surroundings, with 
hairs very inconspicuous and only visible under a magnifying glass. The 
head was small, partly retractile into the 2nd segment, of a pale trans- 
lucent brown, Avith mottled cheeks and two dark brown curved lines 
on each side (convexity inwards). The true and abdominal legs were of 
a pale translucent brown ; the latter had, at the proximal end of each, 
a conspicuous black tubercle with a single hair. The larva3 now rested 
prone, close against the stems of the heather, holding on by both true 
and abdominal legs. Their colour admirably mimicked the reds and 
browns of the dead and living twigs with their lights and shades, and 
made the larvee very difficult to find. In confinement, they seemed to 
keep to the thickest parts of the food-plant during the day, in ])reference 
to other places of concealment. Some of the smaller larvai fell in aring, 
but relaxed at once. My larvas preferred Erica cinerea at this stage, 
and devoured the leaves regularly downwards, beginning at the upper 
parts of each twig, whicli they completely cleared. 

Early in February, the larvte, though apparently healthy, began to 
die off rapidly, so at last, I determined to keep them in confinement no 
longer, and placed those left on a couple of small patches of E. vulgaris 
and E. cinerea, which I had planted in a corner of the garden. I have 
not noticed them feeding since, but having been awa}^ from home part 
of the time, they may have done so, or some may have jjupated soon 
after settling amidst their new environment. Nous verrons. 

During the winter, the larvai were kept in a cool conservatory, 
wlierc the temperature was rarely below 40"". I reared some Noctua 
najlecla from the egg at the same time, and was very much struck by 
the great similarity of the young larvai to those of A. aijathina up to 



172 THE entomologist's recokd. 

the 2ik1 moult. Tndeefl, had tliey become mixed, it -would have been 
almost impossible to separate them, as the only noticeable differences 
were matters of degree — those of shades of colour— N. negleda, becoming 
sooner grass-green, and the white of the sjiiracular line being less 
intense in it. Their structure and habits seemed identical up to the 
time mentioned. The larva3 of N. negleda died off in a similar manner 
to those of A. agathina, without any apparent cause. I may have kept 
both too long in the conservatory, which, in the early part of the year, 
often became excessively hot diiring the day, and the shelter I gave 
them may have been insufficient. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES & OBSERVATIONS. 

Have we two indigenous species of Euohloe ? — Mr. Newnham 
bases his differentiation of his suggested new sjiecies E. hesperidis, 
entirely on characters presented by the imago ; his claim, however, can 
only be admitted when he has proved by breeding exi)eriments that the 
form to which he gives this name always breeds true and never pro- 
duces the ordinary E. eardamines. Probably, all collectors have met 
with small specimens of this latter species. Newman, in his British 
Butterflies, p. 158, quotes the following passage from I'he Northuiuherland 
and Durham Catalogue, by Mr. Wailes : — " The usual expansion of the 
wings is one inch and eight lines to one inch and eleven lines, but in 
the year 1832 none exceeded one inch and three lines ; and so marked 
was the difference all over the country, that many were inclined to 
consider the specimens as those of a distinct species. The following 
season there was no departure from the normal size." Newman then 
adds: -" In Gloucestershire this variation in size has been noticed by 
Mr. V. K. Perkins both in male and female." Mr. C. G. Barrett 
{E.M.M., vol. XXV., p. 81), thus writes: — " When living at Haslemere, 
in Surrey, I used every year to meet with perfect dwarf specimens — 
about one-half the normal size— in both sexes, and the males of this 
variety were invariably the earliest sjiecimens seen, the normal males 
appearing two or three days later. fSimilar specimens occurred casually 
in Pembrokeshire, but were not noticed to be earlier than the rest. In 
a marshy valley near Pembroke, in one season, I found several males of 
ordinary size, in which the black apical crescent was more or less 
suffused inwards, and in one specimen so much so, that the suffusion 
affected one-third of the orange blotch, being blackest on the nervures. 
This form was searched for in succeeding years without success." Mr. 
T. D. A. Cockerell in an article on " The Variation of Insects " (Entovi., 
vol. xxii., J). 176), calls this small form EucMoiJ eardamines var. minor. 
With regard to the position of the discoidal spot at the juncture of the 
orange and white spaces, it would be interesting if every reader of this 
magazine would examine his series of normal-sized E. eardamines, and 
let us know whether there is any tendency to vary, as regards the 
position of this spot. The value of the wing-scales in determining 
specific difference is at present very indeterminate, although it would 
not seem unreasonable to regard constant and Avell-niarked differences 
in their shape, as a character of consideralile importance. If, as has 
generally been sujjposed up to the present time, the small specimens of 
Euchloc are in reality a race of eardamines, which has probably been 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSKRVATIONS. 



173 



produced by defective nutrition, it may be exjiected tliat some 
difference will be manifest in the scaling. So far, Mr. Newnham has 
only told us in the most general terms tliat " viewed under the 
microscope, the wing-scales appear very different from those of E. 
cardamines.''' This one would expect on [)hysiological grounds, even if 
the small form consists of ill-fed specimens of canlniainea, for it is very 
clear that the scales, being structural and built up from the material in 
the pupa, must suffer in common with the other organs of the imago. 
Unless, therefore, there is a strongly marked and definite difference 
between the scales of the two forms, a general difference is not likely 
to be of much value. Mr, Newnham does not mention the females, 
but, of course, if this be a true species, they occur with the males. 
After all, as I have already observed, breeding is the one test to which 
now-a-days every suggested new species must be subjected, and it is 
greatly to be hoped that Mr. Newnham has succeeded in getting some 
eggs, or will succeed in getting some larvae, and by the results of their 
breeding confirm, or disprove, his present opinion. — F. J. Buckell. 
June, 1894 

I have carefully looked through my series of E. cardamines, and am 
unable to differentiate the specimens in the way suggested by Mr, 
Newnham. In size, the specimens vary imperceptibly from the smallest 
to the largest, except in the case of one female which is (piite a monster, 
compared with any other cardamines 1 have ever seen. 

The following table will illustrate the connection between the " Size 
of specimen," the " Position of the central black spot," and " The size 
of orange blotch " in the males at present in my cabinet. I liave a 
much larger number which I must work out later on : — 



Locality, 

and Year of 

Capture. 


Size of 
Specimen. 


Size of Central 
Black Spot. 


Position of 

Central 
Black Spot. 


Size of 
Orange Blotch. 


Cuxton, 4.vi.'8S 


Large 


Large 


Just within Orange 
Blotch 




Large 


Chattenden, v. '88 


Small 


Small 
Moderate 


Almost in Border 


Small, and very 

Yellow 
Small, and very 

Y'ellow 


•• 


Large 


Very Small, and 
Linear 


Well in Orange 
Blotch 


Large 


vi.'Dl 


Large 


Very Small 


Well in Orange 
Blotch 


Large 


11 !> 


Small 


Large 


Not far in 


Intermediate 


I> 1. 


Small 


Large 


,, 


Intermediate 


II 'I 


Intermediate 


Large 


Well in 


Intermediate 


2G.v.'90 


,, 


Large 


On Margin 


Small 


v.'88 


Small 
Small 


Small 
Large 




" 


.1 


Intermediate 


Moderate 


Just within 


Large 
Intermediate 


M M 


Large 


Large 


On Margin 


Intermediate 


West Ireland, '80 


Very Small 


Tiny 


Well in Blotch 


Large (for Size of 
Specimens) 


„ 


Very Small 


Tiny 


Well in Blotch 


Large (for Size of 
Specimens) 


Chattenden, 


Small 


Large 


Almost on Margin 


Small 


28.v.'92 










II 11 


Small 


Intermediate 


Almost on Margin 


,, 


11 11 


Large 


Large 




„ 


II 11 


Large 


Large 


Well within 


Large 


6.vi.'92 


Large 


Large 


,, 


Large 


v.'88 


Large 


Very Large 


Just in 


Large 



N.B.— By comparing Colunms 4 and 5. it will be seen that the position of the black spot with 
regard to the orange blotch, is due almost directly to the size of the latter, compared with the 
size of the insect. 



174 



THE ENTOJIOLOGIST S RECORD, 



There are, I find, two rather distinct forms of the females, one with 
the apical margin black, the other with it pale grey, although some of 
the specimens which might be classed as pale, are darker than the 
others. I had strong hopes that these would work out according to 
size and give me two distinct sections, but I find there is no tendency 
in that direction. 

The following table will illustrate roughly the variation in size, &c., 
of the females in my cabinet at the present time : — 



Locality, and Year of 
Capture. 


Size of Specimen. 


Size of Central 
Black Spot. 


Apical Tip. 


Chattenden, v.88 


Small 


Large 


Intermediate 


vi.91 


Small 
Small 


Large 


•; 


n t) 


Large 


,, 


Dark 


2.vi.88 


Small 


Small 


Pale 


II 11 


Very Large indeed 


Large 


Dark 


28.V.92 


Very Small 


Large 


Pale 


6.vi.92 


Large 


Large 


Intermediate 


v.88 


Intermediate 


Small 


Pale 


v.88 


Intermediate 


Small 


Pale 


v.88 


Intermediate 


Intermediate 


Pale 


18.vi.90 


Large 


Large 


Dark 


9.V.88 


Small 


Large 


Pale 


9.V.88 


Intermediate 


Large 


Pale 


9.V.88 


Large 


Large 


Pale 


Willington (bred) 17.V.88 


Large 


Large 


Pale 


Chattenden, 19.vi.90 


Intermediate 


Large 


Dark 


vi.92 


Large 


Large 


Dark 


V.88 


Large 


Large 


Dark 



I find, too, on examination of the male sj^ecimens, that the orange 
blotch varies indefinitely ; the least well-dcvclojied blotches extending 
only to the discoidal cell, and falling considerably short of the anal angle 
of the fore-wings. This, however, is followed by slow and almost im- 
perceptible increase in various specimens, until the blotch is found 
extending very considerably beyond the external edge of the discoidal 
cell, and continued downward to and filling up the anal angle, so that 
the supposed diiferentiation between British and Continental specimens 
(ante, p. 147), scarcely holds good. It would appear from Mr. Weir's 
remarks that these variations do not occur in some localities, but they 
appear to vary between their extreme limits in many others. — J. W. 
TuTT. June 2Sth, 1894. 

NoTKS ON THE BREEDING OF CyCLOPIDES PALiEMON, AcRONYCTA PSI 

AND Pacuetka LEUcoPHiEA. — I liavc bred this sj^ring three specimens of 
Lepidoptera that have been of interest to me. (1). I bred a specimen 
of Cyclopides palaemon from a larva kindly sent me last autumn by the 
Eev. C. R. N. Burrows. For pupation, the larva suspended itself exactly 
like a Fapilio, except that the girth was loose, instead of being fixed by 
sinking into the chitin of the dorsum. The larva jDOssesses an " anal 
comb," essentially, no doubt, the same appendage as that described by 
Hofmann (Ent. Annual, 1873, p. 61) as existing in certain Sciaph'Ia 
larvae. I have seen it in other Skijjpers and also in Colias. It would 
be interesting to know in what other Kuopalocera it occurs. I find a 
figure of it in a species of Colias in Scudder (Butterflies of New Enyland, 

&c.) but cannot discover any reference to it in the text. 2. I 

have bred a specimen of Aeronycta (Cuspidia) jjsi that had been two 
years in pupa, i.e. it was a larva in 1892 and emerged in May, 1894. 
Though I have reared hundreds both of this species and of C. tridens, 



VARIATION. 175 

and have several times had individuals that tried to go over into a 
second year, this is the first time that one has done so successfully. 
Such cases have been recorded, but the occurrence is a rare one, as is 
shown by its having only now presented itself in ray experience after 
long-continued breeding of the species. In this particular, C. })si and 
C. tridens contrast markedly with C. leporina, wliich rather prefers to go 
over into a second j^ear, and often takes a third or a fourth year in jDupa. 

3. A number of eggs of Pachetra leucophaea were sent to me 

from Kent last spring by my friend, Mr. Jeffreys, and in the summer 
I had twenty-four larvcB, of Avhich I sent away sixteen and kept eight. 
These I treated in the same manner as those which I had in the year 
1891, but for various reasons they did not receive so much attention 
as those ; as a consequence, instead of obtaining three moths from five 
larvaj, or the equally good results achieved in the following year by 
Mrs. Hutchinson, I only succeeded in rearing one moth, which is now 
in the collection of my friend, Mr. E. R. Bankes. So far as I can learn, 
however, this is the only motli that has been bred from an unusual 
number of eggs distributed last spring. — T. A. Chai'MAN, Firbank, 
Hereford. June, 1894. 



WARIATION. 

Advancing backward : A note on melanism in manufacturing 
DISTRICTS. — A marvellous case of advancing backwards occurs in a 
paragraph written in an unsigned criticism in The British Nuturalist, 
p. 152. It reads: — "With regard to the alleged increase of darker 
insects in our manufacturing districts, we take leave to doubt the fact. 
When the fact has been demonstrated we shall accept the theory 
without hesitation ; we feel that it ought to be so, but think it is not." 
Either the critic is entirely ignorant of Entomology, or he has studied 
the subject such a short time that he has not yet informed himself of 

what is known about it, or But we must forbear ! The British 

Naturalist is published at Warrington. Some seventeen years ago 
Mr. N. Cooke wrote: — "The most interesting case of melanism that 
has come under my observation — and my friend, Mr. Greening of 
Warrington, can say if I exaggerate the facts — is the total change in 
the colour of Tephrosia hiundularia in Delamere Forest. Some thirty 
years since, when he and 1 visited Petty Pool Wood, this species was 
very abundant, but all were of a creamy-white ground colour ; dark 
varieties were so scarce that they were considered a great prize. Now 
it is the reverse, all are dark smoky-brown — approaching black ; a light 
variety is very rare. The same change, and nearly to the same extent 
as regards numbers, has come over Ainphidasys hettdaria. Throughout 
the district from Petty Pool, including Warrington, to Manchester, the 
black form is now usually found. I am inclined to suspect that climate 
and manufactures have done more to bring about tliis change than 
anything else. During the past thirty years what large towns have 
sprung up to the west of this district ! Runcorn, Widnes, St. Helen's, 
Earlstown, Wigan, etc., all pouring forth from their tall chimneys 
chemical fumes and coal smoke, which emanations are carried over our 
collecting grounds by every westerly wind." A number of similar 



X76 THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 

observations, chiefly from Lancashire, are (juoteil in Melanism and 
Melanochroism in Britifih Lepidnptera. A new race of entomologists 
appears to have sprang up in Lancashii-e, wlio commence tlieir studies by 
doubtiu"' the accuracy of tlie records made by their direct predecessors 
less than twenty years ago. We can understand a difference of oi)inion 
as to the causes which have produced the change so often described, but 
to question the facts is beyond our comprehension. The writer in our 
contemporary is probably a genuine Rip Van Winkle. During the last 
ten years we have been attempting to unravel why these things are so ; 
now we are told that the things do not exist, but when we have proved 
" the fact, then " the writer in question " will accept the theory without 
hesitation." 



gURRENT NOTES. 

It is with extreme regi-et that we record the death at the early age 
of 46, of Prof. G. J. Romanes. His was one of those master minds, 
which can take the facts and observations recorded by the humbler 
follower of science, and weave them into a philosophical theory which 
correlates and expounds them. Science has suffered a very severe loss 
by his untimely but not wholly unexpected death. 

In July, 1890, a paper entitled "Notes on the Synonymy of 
Haworth's plumes," was published In this magazine (Vol. I., pp. 1)0-95J 
which brought a very flattering letter from Mr. Stainton, who expressed 
himself well-satisfied with tlie conclusions there enunciated. One of 
the subjects discussed was Haworth's migadactyla, and the conclusion 
there arrived at was that migadadyla, Haw. = spilodactyla, Curt. After 
four years Mr. C. W. Dale discovers that the sale of Haworth's insects 
took place in 1833 and that, according to a sale catalogue in his 
possession, his father bought the lot of "plumes" "containing Haworth's 
miqadactyliis " {sic). It is well-known that Wood erroneoush' considered 
our herirami to be Haworth's migadactyJa, whilst it is equally well 
known that Haworth's paUidadyla = our hertrami. Mr. Dale appears 
to have known the fact relating to Wood, and immediately inferred 
that Haworth's usage was the same. He then appears to have referred 
to such of Haworth's " plumes " as are still in his collection, finds that 
he does not possess among them spilodactyla, and at once jumps to the 
conclusion that Haworth did not know a species which he describes 
and locates, perfectly unmindful that (1) Haworth's migadactyla type 
may not have been in the sale at all ; (2) That his father (even if he 
boiu'-ht all the " plumes ") had the specimens many years before his son 
C. W. was born, and during the time that he was in nuhibus and in statu 
pupillaris ; (3) That his father may have broken, shifted labels, given 
away, &c. many specimens before Mr. Dale knew anything of entomology, 
and before the collection came into his possession. Practically, 
Mr. Dale begins by saying that his father bought the specimen (or 
specimens), then that he does not possess any specimen agreeing with 
Haworth's description of it and concludes, therefore, that Haworth 
must have described a worn ochrodactyla as this species, although it is 
known that Haworth's ochrodactyla were called palUdactyla, and then, to 
clinch the matter, becomes scientifically heroic, declares that he " has, 
at least, one advantage over Mr. Tutt in having had an entomological 



CURRENT NOTES. 177 

father, who was well acquainted with Ha worth, Curtis, Leach and 
other entomologists of former years " and, in spite of all the recent 
information on the subject, further wi-ites : — " When moths have been 
on the wing for some time, they fade and become paler than fresh 
specimens ; hence, in olden times, they were often described as distinct 
species.'" Now we would ask Mr. Dale a question. If those " entomo- 
logists of former years " whom his father knew, " often described in 
olden times " faded moths that had " become paler than fresh specimens 
as distinct species," what entomological " advantage " has the present 
Mr. Dale over Mr. Tutt, because " his father was well acquainted " with 
a number of men who did such ridiculously stujnd things ? Not that 
we consider that these authors did the stupid things Avhich Mr. Dale lays 
at the door of his father's friends, any more than we consider that Mr. 
Dale knows anything about the subject Avhich he discusses (?) so glibly. 
This is nearly as good as the Dale theory of the formation of varieties 
by moonlight and caudle-light ! We have heard that editors keep a 
waste-paper basket ! ! And this, my masters, is the science of one of 
our would-be teachers I 

We have before called attention to the strange freaks of certain 
people of Wicken, who anxiously look out for the arrival of the inno- 
cent entomologist, visiting the weird Fens for the first time. The 
following is a verbatim copy of some writing on a slip of tea (?) paper 
addressed to : — 

" Mess. Hodges & Another 
Maids Head 
Inn 

Wicken. 
Messrs. Hodge & another 

Gentmu 

^Ijt €\jtstmts 

Public Notice any person or persons found 
trespassing on Lands of Messrs I. A & R Aspland 
and N Fuller in Wicken Fen Avell be prosecuted 

Tickets to Entomologists are issued for going on the above Lands the 
charge per day being 6d each person, they can be obtained at the Post 
Office Wicken. Mr. I A Aspland has not given permission to any 
one to go in the Fen " 

Now a " Public Notice " on a slip of tea-paper, addressed to " Mess. 
Hodges and another " is good I Considering that the " droves " in the 
Fen are public property, and that these are the best collecting grounds ; 
that Mr. Isaac Aspland, the chief owner, had previously given " Mess. 
Hodges & another " permission to go on his part of the ground ; and 
that one of our l)est-known lepidopterists, Mr. Moberly, recently bouglit 
a piece of the Fen to which they had access ; we do not know what 
term is strictly applicaljle to the writer of the above " Public Notice 1 " 
nor to the person who affixed to such a " Notice " the official staiu]) of 
the Post Office of the district ! 

Mr. H. Swale, M.B., records (E.M.M.) that he found whilst examin- 
ing a bakehouse at Tavistock, a large nuuibcr of an earwig [Au/.'jol<iliis 




178 THE entomologist's record. 

annuh'pes), liitlierto unrecorded for Britain. Tt is easily distinguished 
from its allies " by the twelfth and thirteenth antennal joints being 
white, the rest brown, and by the dark ring round the femora of the 
otherwise testaceous legs." 

A hard-working entomologist is most likely to make his mark, by 
researches among the Diptera. Mr. J. H. Verrall is now jMiblishing in 
the E.M.M., " A second hundred of new British species of Diptera." 
Mr. Y. V. Theobald, M.A., of Cambridge, has recently pul)lished the 
first volume of An Illustrated Account of British Flies {Diptera). 

Mr. J. W. Douglas adds Aleurodes avellanae to the British list, from 
specimens captured on nut bushes at Glanville's Wootton, Ijy Mr. C. W. 
Dale, whilst Mr. K. H. Meade describes two new Tachinids under the 
names of Degeeria dalii and Nemoraea quadraticornis. 

Mr. E. H. Taylor of Fulham, recorded (^.ilf.ilf., p. Ill) the capture 
of a specimen of the form of Xanthia oceUaris, known as var. lineago, 
at Wimbledon, on sugar. Prof. Meldola now (I.e., p. 161) mentions 
the capture of two specimens last autumn, at Twickenham, one by Mr. 
Boscher, the other by himself, in the garden of the former gentleman. 
Professor Meldola's specimen (teste Mr. C G. Barrett) is also var. 
lineago. The species is much like A', gilcago, but can readily be told by 
the more pointed aj^ex of the fore-wings. Will captors of X. gilcago 
please inspect their captures carefully ? 

We have to thank the Lancashire and Cheshii'e Entomological 
Society for a copy of their Report. It contains nothing of scientific 
value, except Mr. W. E. Sharp's address, but this is a most valuable 
addition to our scientific literature, being a thoroughly intelligent ex- 
position of entomology as a science. Slowly, but surely, the scientific 
entomologist is becoming a force in the wider science of biology. 'J'his 
naturally reacts on us, and we are all slowly learning that naming 
insects, although very necessary, is hardly science in itself, and that the 
entomologists of to-day must read the essays of such men as Professor 
Weissmann and Mr. Herbert Spencer, if they are to understand their 
own branch of biology on its scientific side, and that the Lamarckian 
and Weissmannian principles of heredity must be understood by them, 
if they are to do their work scientifically. 

In the Ent. 3Io. Mag., pp. 98-99, the Rev. A. E. Eaton writes that 
in The Ziban, Algeria, towards the end of Mai'ch, Pyrameis cardui (\v\niAi 
hitherto had not been commoner in the winter than Tortoise- shells in 
England are apt to be in spring) became vei*y abundant ; some of them 
were bred in the district, and otliers were supposed to have migrated 
from southern districts. So abundant were the}', that Maha parciflora, 
M. sylvestris, Filagos parthulata, and Plantago ovata, were utilised for 
egg-laying. He further reports that during the week ending April 11th, 
1894, their numbers had diminished, probably from dispersion or emi- 
gTation. A later record by the same gentleman, gives them as still 
abundant, and probably Avaiting for a favourable chance to be off to 
pastures new. A day or two before and after June 1 7th, large numbers 
of this s^jccies suddenly appeared in this country, in districts where it was 
totally absent last summer and autunni, and during the present spring 
until the date named. The absence of colour and their ragged con- 
dition, i^oints to their being by no means re(!ently emerged, and there 
can be no doubt that they were immigrants. One feels puzzled though 
to explain why it is that a certain individual, after having probably 



CURRENT NOTES. 179 

travelled from the Mediterranean sliores to Kent, takes up a given 
position on the roadside, and continues on flight in a space of some 6U 
yards until it has laid its eggs, when deatli ensues, but so it apjiears to 
be. Plusia (jamiita, in very poor condition, pallid, and of a very different 
type to our bred British specimens of the autumn, has also abounded 
since the commencement of June. 

In our March number (p. 72) we called attention to a note by Dr. 
Knaggs, ridiculing the notion that sex might be in some degree 
controlled by food. Considering the amount of time that is being 
expended on the subjects of " Heredity " and " Germ cells," it seems 
to us rather ridiculous that a man should go out of his way in argument 
to bring forward an ex23eriment which had no very direct bearing on 
the question at issue, and which was shown at the time by Professor 
Kiley to be based on an entirely fortuitous coincidence, and not on 
results capable of generalisation. Messrs. Geddes and Thompson 
unfortunately quote this experiment, and hence have given widespread 
distribution to an erroneous deduction. It is well known now, thanks 
to the researches of Professor Poidton and others, what was not 
generally known at the time of Mrs. Treat's experiments, that the sex 
of an insect is determined at a comparatively early stage of the larva 
and, probably, even as soon as fertilisation is effected. But to throw 
cold water on experiment, and to suppose that there is no connection 
between nutrition and sex, when experiments by noted biologists tend 
to prove the contrary, only illustrates the fact that the science of 
entomology is in some entomologists' minds a thing ajiart from the 
general subject of biology. A note by Dr. Knaggs in the current 
number of the E. M. M. is, therefore, interesting. He states in one 
place — what is now well-known — that larvje have sex, and speaks of 
" female larva3 when their ovaries are generally supposed to be furnished 
with eggs," and yet takes a page to ask innocent experimenters to waste 
their time on larvje of Orgyia antiqna, to prove that such sexed larvee 
can have their sex changed by nutrition. No doubt this is interesting, 
but the young experimenter will probably assert that this is only one 
person's work. What we had to complain of before was the ridicule 
thrown on the general principle, but things are now changed. The 
doctor now writes : — " The effect of nutrition, or deficient nutrition to 
shape the future sex of the hermaphrodite or sex-less embryo one can 
comjirehend ; the rearing of males, and the failure to rear females by 
semi-starvation, is by no means difficult to explain." This is all we ask 
for. So much scientific men have proved or attempted to prove and so 
much they present for acceptation, and if Dr. Knaggs had gone back to 
this point in his previous arguments, we should not have found ourselves 
compelled to disagree with him. Having granted so much, would it 
not be better for Dr. Knaggs himself to experiment on the embryonic 
cell or ovum when in a neutral state and give his results, rather than 
to set our young recruits, who know no better, to rear " hundreds " of 
Orgyia antiqna larvas when " their ovaries are generally supposed to be 
furnished with eggs," in order to get male moths from female larvjB ? 
The following information in a foot-note is quite news to xxs and we 
thank the Doctor heartily for it : — " Malpighi (de Bomhyce, 29) dis- 
covered eggs in the silkworm larva, and Reaumur {Mem. In., 359) 
discovered eggs in the larva of the Gipsy moth." 



180 THE entomologist's record. 

OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

By albert J. HODGES. 

Tempted by the few warm days and nights that set in with the 
beginning of June, and anxious to inaugurate a season which, as far as 
I was concerned, had not yet commenced, I made hasty arrangements 
for a short campaign in Fenland and, accompanied by Mr. Battley, left 
Liverpool Street on June 6th for Soham, via Ely. Our " Eddystone," 
which has found previous mention in these pages, was, through the 
kindness of a friend, carefully packed and consigned from Freshwater 
to Soham ; a somewhat circuitous journey but one which was safely 
accomplished, and the first object that met our view upon changing 
from the main line at Ely was the familiar post and iron framework, 
invariably arousing the curiosity of porters and railway officials to the 
highest pitch, the latest sapient suggestion being as to its problematic 
uses in " land-surveying." 

As is usual when starting on specially hazardous or early season 
trips, the weather turned cold and the wind " Xorthered " on the very 
morning of our departure, justifying the enthusiasm — chilling query of 
a brother of the net, resident in Ely, as to what we had come for, 
together with dubious suggestions as to the results of our trip. These 
prognostications found conlirmation from the lips of the local worthies. 
We heard with dismay that " one gentleman had been down, but he 
only stoj^ped one night," and the gloom culminated with the assurance 
that we were in for a regular " North-easter." However, it was too 
late to turn back, and we hoped for the best and watched, with ghastly 
interest, the clouds that persistently gathered during the day to dissolve 
at dusk " like the baseless fabric of a vision." From laborious and 
persevering observations of the small amount of smoke from cottage 
chimneys, that had to do duty in our case for weather-vanes, we felt 
almost qualified to offer our services to the Meteorological Department 
as prophets, but" fearing our jeremiads might arouse the ire of the 
agricultural as Avell as the entomological sections of the public, we 
reserved our opinion. 

The first night was certainly a bad beginning, and calculated to 
crush any but the elastic spirits of the Hon. Sec. of the City of London 
Entomological Society, but strong in anticipation, we spent the follow- 
ing day in perfecting our arrangements for the following night, which 
proved much more satisfactory, whilst during our subsequent stay we 
had the usual very occasional suitable evening, which seems the maxi- 
mum average allotted to the persevering Fen-worker. With our ears 
deaf to the charms of the sixpenny tickets issued by the " land-owners " 
of the Fen (or rather by a " minority of two " of them), and strong in 
the courteous permission of Mr. Isaac Aspland (which I here have 
great pleasure in acknowledging, as well as that of a well-known 
lepidopterist, who has recently acquired a freehold j^lot in the heart of 
the Fen), and safe in the knowledge of the mysteries of " rights of 
way, &c." we fixed our sheet nightly and made the best of siich weather 
as we had ; and never can we reproach ourselves upon leaving the field 
to others, for upon but one solitary occasion was the " Eddystone " 



NOTES ON OOLLEnTINr,, ETC 181 

extinguished before its local rivals, and this was when a fen-fog liegan 
to rise — a sure sign of a blank evening. First and foremost among our 
cajitures were three sjiecimens of Ili/drilJa pahistrii^, all males of course, 
and mostly in good condition — a very welcome sight after the eight or 
nine years which have elapsed since this species Avas last captured, not- 
withstanding that the spot is annually worked most perseveringly by 
amateurs and professionals alike. A fourth specimen fell, I believe, to 
the lot of one of the local professionals and was at once secured for the 
collection of a well-known lepidopterist. Our sheet was also honoured 
by the attentions of Macrogastcr arundinis, but of which we only secured 
four specimens, owing, doubtless, to the intense cold that usually set in 
with sunset. Meliana flammea occurred sparingly but with fair 
regularitj^ whereas Viminia venosa only appeared to be attracted on one 
occasion for a few minutes, during a momentary respite from the 
heaviest downfall of rain it was ever my fate to encounter in the Fens, 
and which we endured untlinchingly for over three hours. 

The Prominents and the Hawk-moths sent an occasional represent- 
ative to the scene, Arctia fnJiijinosa cheering us on several nights, and of 
A. nriicae two fine specimens were secured, whilst among Geometers, 
Enpifhecia centanrenta was the most numerous visitor, and in Micros, the 
ever-present ChiJo phrriijmiielJnH deserted us not, whilst the delicate little 
Nascin cilialis afforded us about two dozen specimens on our best night, 
which occasion will ever stand in our recollection as another " Ked- 
letter" night, from the above-mentioned capture of the H. palnstris, 
when, needless to relate, we only abated our efforts as the flush of dawn 
aroused the distant " Chanticleer," and the song of the larks soaring 
from the corn-fields surrounding the Fen, broke the silence which had 
reigned since the cessation of the " calling " of the snipe, and the harsh 
rattle of the corn-crakes. Upon this occasion, common Noctile con- 
tinued to visit the " sugar " at intervals, all night, but there was little 
variet\', Apmnea unaniniis being in ' fine ' condition, with an occasional 
'fine ' Hadena, of varying species, and the usual ever-present A<jrotides. 
For the more aljundant Fen Nocture, we were of course too earl}-, as 
also for Herminia ciibrah's, of which we only secured a single sjjccimen. 

Day-work was not neglected, but in our case, Wicken Fen wore too 
hackneyed an air by day, and the first wild enthusiasm for Fapilio 
macliiwa had long since departed. Arduous trijjs to Tuddenham 
(Suffolk) and Chippenham, helped to save us from ennui by day, and 
although the " takes " were diminished by absence of sun, yet we were 
fortunate in securing series of HeJiothis dipsacea and Acidalia rnhricata, 
with representatives of Agrophila snlj^htiralis, Acontia luctnosa and 
Lithostege grheata. 

The pleasure of these trips was greatly enhanced by the society of 
the ever -popular President of the City of London Society, who was 
making a short stay with another ardent entomologist, at Wicken, and 
who proved to be as genial an acquisition to the social side of village- 
life, as to the graver scientific circles of which he is more often a centre. 

Owing to the ill-health of our courteous hostess of 1893, we were 
com})elled to stay at the '• Maid's Head " Inn, which, with the limited 
accommodation at its disposal, is mostly occupied during the collecting 
season, and possibly on this account manages at the close of one's stay, to 
completely dispel any pleasing illusions which may have been indulged, 
of rural chai'ges, commensurate with truly rural accommodation, by the 



182 THE entomoi.ooist's reoorp. 

uublnsliiiig- preseii tilt ion of an acconni M'liicli would jiossiMy not 1 e out 
of place at a fasbionaLle watering-place during the season, but which 
is certainly someAvhat of a surprise to many of the visitors to this 
hostelry. It is with pleasure we learn that some of the more enter- 
prising villagers are now offering accommodation to entomologists, and 
I would recommend sjieciall}^ the small and comfortable rooms of Mr. 
W. 0. Bullman, where ever}' attention is lavished on the fortunate 
visitor. 

A visit, replete with pleasant adventure, genial society, and gratify- 
ing success, closed on Saturday the 1 Gth June, and will, I trust, be the 
means of inducing many who have not yet been introduced to Fenland, to 
spend a few days in scenes which are a complete and pleasant change 
from the better-known woodland haunts of the active lepidojjterist. 

NOTES OF THE SEASON 1894. 

Vanessa pohjcldoros was exceedingly abundant again this spring in 
the New Forest, from the middle of March until about the 20th of 
April.— Ed. 

Lydney, Gloucestershire. — Collecting here has been very intermittent 
owing to unsettled weather. Sesia formic if ormis turned up, but I only 
had one day at it, taking eleven specimens. Larvae of Thecla w-alhum 
were very scarce both here and at Gloucester, but those of Melifaea 
anrinia, Nemeophila plantaginis and Aciptilia galactodactyJa were abun- 
dant. Amongst other captures have been the following : — Macroglossa 
homhyliformis (rare), hio sUdices, HepiaJns hecttts (rare), Drepana 
faJcataria and D. binaria, Hypena rosiralis, Tephrosia ptinctidaria, 
Ejjhyra punctaria, E. linearia and E. pendnlaria, Asthena sylvata, Ihipta 
temerata, Macaria vidata, Fanagra pjetraria, Minoa rnurinata, Abraxas 
sylcata, Ligdia adnstata, Emmelesia decoJorata (rare), Thera variata, 
Aidicha rnbidata, Oidaria corylata and C. trnncata, Anaitis jdagiata, 
Aniyrolepia baiimawniana. Siigar has not been successfiil, the NocTU^ 
being evidently behind time. The only sj^ecies taken at it have been : 
— Graiinnesia trigrainvtica, Agrotis segetnm, A. exclamationis, A. nigricans, 
Nocina triangiduin, N. brimnea, Triphaena orbona, T. pronuba and 
Mamestra brassicae. — M. Stanger Higgs. Jtine 20th, 1894. 

J^ath. — The weather here has been rather unpropitious for collect- 
ing, but 1 have managed to pick up the following among other insects. 
May tith : Heliaca tenebraia, Hemerophila abriqdaria, Ephyra anmdata, 

Ligdia adnstata and Cidaria silaceata. May 14th: Coremia ferrvgata, 

C miidentaria and Abraxas sylvata. May 17th: Emmelesia affinitata, 

E. decolorata and Anadis plagiata. June 3rd: Sesia tipulif ormis and 

Grammesia trigrammica. June 15th : Ephyra linearia, Macaria 

litnrata, Btipahs piniaria and Thera variata. Larvae have not been very 
abundant, but nests of Eriogaster lanestris are fairly common in haw- 
thorn hedges. — T. Greer. June 11th, 1894. 

Aberdeen, etc. — The weather is very unfavourable for day-collecting, 
but sugar is fairly successful when the early summer frosts are absent. 
The following are some of my captures. Sand Hills, Tain, Eoss-shire, 
June 14th (wind W., cloudy, very warm). At sugar: Hadena dentina, 
abundant ; I boxed about lOU sjiecimens and left probably double that 
number ; H. oleracea, H. adnsta, Btisina tenebrosa and Xylophasia rurea 
(the latter all of the typical form) abundant ; Hadena thalassina, Apamea 
gemina and Noctua plecta, common ; several hybernated (? Ed.) Agrotis 



SOCIETIES. 183 

snff'nfia. I netted Chcsias rufata, Scoparia ambiguah's and Srricoris 

cemjitnna. June loth, Conntess Wells Wood, Aberdeenshire (wind N., 

clear sky, bright moon). At sugar: 12 Hi/ppa rectiliuea, 3 Acronijcta 
meiii/anfhidis, I Thijalyra balls ; a few each of B. tenebrosa, H. adasta, 
H. thalassiiia, X. riirea and var. coinbiista, N. plecta and A. gemiaa ; 1 
Macaria h'turata and 1 Gidaria cori/laia. At rest : 2 A. meayaiithidis, 
several Enpithecia nanafa and E. safyrata. Netted : Hi/psipetes tri- 
fasciata.^^ June 16th, same place (wind S.W., cloudy). At sugar: 13 
H. rectiliuea, 2 A. ineni/anthidis, 2 T. batis and others, as on the loth. 

At rest : Enpithecia pulchellata, E. puiiiilata and E. castigata. June 

18th, Sand Hills, Peterhead, East Aberdeenshire (wind W., sky clear, 

frosty) only 2 H. dentina and 4 H. oleracea. June 19th, Conntess Wells 

Wood (wind S.W., raining heavily). At sugar : 28 H. rcctilinea, 5 A. 

menyanthidis, other species taken on 15th. and 16tli abundant. June 

22nd, Qnantarness Moor, Orkney (wind VV., rather strong, sky clear). At 
sugar : Nothing. Netted : Hepialns hninnli, Acidalia diinidiata, E. satyrata 

and Melanippe montanata. June 23rd, Countess Wells Wood (wind 

S.W., rather cloudy). At sugar : 20 H. recfilinea, 2 A. menyanthidis, 2 
Noctna brunnea, 1 Agrotis exclaiaationis, 1 Triphaena pronnba, B Noctua 
/estiva, 3 Boarmia repandata, etc. — A. Horne. June '25th, 1894. [Is 
our correspondent quite sure that it was the typical form of X. rnrea 
which was found so aljundantly ? In our experience the typical form 
is very rare. — Ed.] 



gOCIETIES. 

The Entomological Society of London ajstivates ; we are not sure 
that other kindred societies would not do well to follow its example. 
The last meeting till the autumn was held on June 6th, 1894, and was 
a very interesting one. Mr. W. F. H. Blandford exhibited a series of 
eleven male specimens of Rhina barbirostris from British Honduras, of 
which the largest and smallest examples measured respectively 60 and 
17 mm. The diffei'ence in bulk, supposing the j^roportions to be 
identical, is as 43 to 1. He remarked that this variation of size is 
es2:)ecially common in the Brenthidae, Cossonidae, and other wood-boring 
Coleoptera. Mr. A. J. Chitty exhibited specimens of Cardiophorns 
equiseti taken near Braunton, on the north coast of Devon, in May, 1891. 
Mr. McLachlan exhibited for Mr. J. W. Douglas, male specimens of a 
Coccid (Lecanium prunastri), bred from scales attached to shoots of 
blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) received from Herr Kael ISulo, of Prague. 
Mr. Douglas communicated notes on the subject, in which he stated tiiat 
the species was common on blackthorn in France and Germany, and 
should be found in Britain. Lord Walsingham exhibited a series of 
Cacoecia podana, Scop., reared from larvas feeding on Lapageria and 
palms in Messrs. Veitch's conservatories in King's Koad, Chelsea, in- 
cluding some very dark varieties. The Hon. Walter Kothschild stated 
that he had taken the species on lime. Mr. C. Fenn exhibited a long 
series of Selenia lunaria, part of one brood from eggs laid in May, 1893, 
by a $ taken at Bexley. In all, Mr. Fenn bred about 80 specimens ; 
of these, 17 emerged in August, 1893, one in October or November, 
1893, and one in January, 1894 ; all the foregoing were females with 
one exception : after Jaiiuiuy (lie rest of the Ijrood emerged, the first 



184 THE entomologist's record. 

dozen or so being all females, and then males and females emerging in 
equal numbers. Among that portion of the brood which emerged in May 
were one or two moths which pi'esented the characters of the usual 
August brood (var. dehinaria), and one or two others Avere intermediate 
between the spring and summer forms. Mr. F. Lovell Keays exhibited 
a variety of L. icarns (female), in which the marginal ocelli on the hind- 
wings were entirely without the usual orange-coloured lunules. The 
specimen was ca])tured at Caterham, on May 22nd, 1894, and was the 
first individual of the species observed liy the captor this season. Mr. 
J. H. Durrant exhibited a series of Stccjanoptu ch a p niimaeana, Hb., taken 
at Merton, Norfolk, between the 2oth March and the middle of April 
last. Mr H. Goss read an extract from a report by Mr. J. E. Preece, 
H.M. Consul at Isjoahan, to the Foreign Office, on the subject of damage 
caused to the wheat crop in the district of Eafsinjan, 1 )y an insect which 
was called " Sen " by the natives, and which he described as " like a 
flying bug, reddish-olive in colour, with heavy broad shoulders." Mr. 
Goss said he had been asked by Mr. W. H. Preece, C.B., to ascertain, 
if possible, the name of the species known to the natives as •' Sen." 
])r. Sharpe said that in the alisence of a specimen of tlie insect, it was 
impossible to express an opinion as to the identity of the species. The 
Kev. Canon Fowler exhibited for Miss Ormerod, specimens of Diloho- 
derus ahderus, Sturm, Encranium arachnoides, Brull., and Mcijathopa 
vlolacea, Blanch., from the La Plata district of the Argentine Territories, 
where they were said to be damaging the grass crops. Mr. Hampson 
raised the important point as to what was the legal " date of publication " 
of Part I. of the Transactions of the Society, 1894. He pointed out 
that the question of the priority of the names of certain new species 
described therein, would depend upon the date of publication. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
Mai/ 1st, 1894. — The following gentlemen were elected members : 
H. H. May of Balham, P. R. Eichards of Peckham Eye, G. H. Shields 
and D. C. Bate of Dulwich. Exhibits : — Mr. Battley ; a series of 
Brephos notha from near Broxbourne, with specimens of J5. partlienias 
for comparison. He remarked that the cream-coloured Idotches so con- 
spicuous in parthenias were practically wanting in notha, and tlie orange 
band on the hind wings in notha was not so direct as in parthenias ; the 
antenucG of male notha Avere most decidedly pectinated. ( )ne of the 
specimens of notha had the left fore wing of a dirty- whitish colour, and 
the hind wings were much suffused with black. Mr. Bacot ; a series of 
Selenia tetralunaria captured by " assembling " at Epping Forest. Mr, 
Gurney; Sdjyhaquadripunctata, CoccineUa l^-pmndata, and C.22-punctata 
from the New Forest ; also Dermestes vidphms from the dead body of a 
jay in Ongar Park Wood. Mr. Lewcock ; a small but perfect specimen 
of Biston hirtaria from which a parasitic (dipterous) larva had emerged 
and since pupated. Yonng hirtaria, larvae had also come forth from the 
opening made by the parasite ; these had of course been hatched in 
their parent's body from imdeposited ova. Mr. S. J. Bell ; some curious 
ova laid on a primrose flower taken from a bought bunch. In shajie 
they resembled l)utter tubs and Avere of a pale grey colour with a dark 
brown ring round the to]) and another round the base ; there wei'c also 
two brown spots between the rings. The eggs were laid in a row. Mr. 
Battley remarked that queen wasps were extremely plentiful at South- 
end, and recommended members to kill all they came across in order to 
lessen the probability uf another pLigue like that of last year. 



^^ AND ^^/^jjt 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION. 



No. 8, Vol. V. August 15th, 1894. 

JNfotes on the Variatioii of ^pilosoma mendica 

With some thoughts on the Ancestral Type of the Genus. 
By J. W. TUTT, F.E.S. 

A few years ago (1885), British entomologists were startled by the 
capture of a pale form of the male of Spilosoma mendica, in Co. Cork, 
Ireland, by Mr. H. McDowall. Tlie species, as is well-known, is usually 
in this country very distinctly sexually dimorphic, the males being of a 
deep sooty-brown colour, whilst the females are white with a few 
scattered black spots, and are much less thickly scaled than the males. 
When Mr. McDowall discovered this pale form in Ireland, he captured 
a male and a female, and from the latter was fortunate enough to obtain 
eggs which he distributed to many English collectors, among others to 
Mr. R. Adkin of Lewisham. That gentleman took special pains in 
rearing the larv?e which hatched from these eggs, and made many 
observations on their habits and economy ; he was, however, unable to 
detect any difference between them and those of our ordinary form, and 
they puj^ated in a similar manner. 

Many specimens, the outcome of these eggs, were distributed 
throughout our collections, but comparatively few individuals have since 
been taken at large. Three specimens were taken at light in Antrim 
in 1886, and five in the following year, one of which was almost jnire 
white. Mr. W. F. de V. Kane is responsible for the statement tliat 
another specimen was taken in Co. Cork in (or before) 1885. Females 
have been taken in Dublin and Waterford, but what form of male occurs 
there has not yet been determined. It would appear, however, that no 
very dark male has as yet been taken in Ireland. 

In England, the species does not, as a rule, tend to vary, but a few 
remarkable cases of variation have been recorded. From eggs obtained 
from a female taken at Eltham, by Mr. C. Fenn, 21 males and 22 females 
were bred. The females varied little from the ordinary tyjje, except in 
the case of one specimen which was curiously blotched with dark grey 
on the left fore- wing. The males varied from specimens of the usual 
English type, to others of a dull pale yellowish-grey, and quite 50 per 
cent, diverged more or less from the usual blackish-grey form. The 
pupaj were exposed to the weather in a very cold and damp spot, and 
it has been suggested by Mr. Fenn, that these conditions upset them so 
as to produce this large amount of variation. Another very similar 



186 THE entomologist's record. 

brood, obtained from eggs laid by a 2 from North Kent, is in my own 
collection. It is remarkable that both these broods showed females 
tending to be darker than usual, whilst the general tendency of the 
males was to be jialer — an approach to uniformity in the sexes it would 
ajjpear. 

Under some conditions therefore, probably pathological and consti- 
tutional, (in the brood I have, some specimens were crippled), it would 
appear that there is a tendency in our usually strongly-marked 
dimorphic English form, to i^roduce an insect approaching the Irish 
race. 

Mr. Adkin afterwards crossed the Irish form ( ? ), with a male of 
the English form. From the ova thus obtained, two males were bred, 
and they differed from both the Irish and English forms. 

Another remarkable race of this sj)ecies has been bred by Mr. G. T. 
Porritt, but in this the variation is in the direction of the females be- 
coming streaked with black as sometimes occurs in the allied S .menthastri 
and S. luhricipeda. The females here had a great excess of black mark- 
ings. Some of the most important aberrations are figured and described 
(Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1889, pp. 441-43). It is, perhaps, worthy of 
note that at Barnsley (not far from Huddersfield), the ordinary English 
form only is obtained, in fact, it has there, if anything, rather paler 
males than usual, and less strongly- spotted females. 

The variety with white males is known as var. rustica, Hb., and is 
the subject of an interesting article by Mons. A. Caradja, who is de- 
voting himself to the study of the Eoumanian fauna ; this article 
appears in Societas entomologica for June. 

In Koumania M. Caradja met with S. mendica var. rustica from the 
middle of May to the end of June, and in some years, he says, there is 
a partial second brood in August. Basing his statement upon a collec- 
tion of 200 males, the author says that the form is very little subject to 
variation ; the chief point of difference is in the number of black spots 
which in the fore-wings ranges from 2 to 8 and in the hind- wings from 
to 3. In eight of the captured specimens there was a slightly smoky 
tint, which the author siiggests may have been the result of a cross 
with the tyjie. The males tiy freely to light, but hide away very well 
during the day, so that, whilst M. Caradja had no difficulty in netting 
females in the day-time, inasmuch as that sex flies in the sunshine with 
a short heavy flight, soon settling again in the grass, he had only once 
taken a male in that way. The larva? hatch on the sixth day after the 
eggs are laid, and pupate before the beginning of August. The larvee 
in all their stages resemble those of the tyi^e. From some 200 pupa3 
which the author reared in 1892 no moth emerged until the following 
spring ; but from the fact that he beat several half-grown larva? from a 
hedge at the end of September or beginning of October, 1891, he con- 
cludes that there is sometimes an incomplete second brood. The article 
then proceeds to deal Avith the geographical distribution of the variety. 
Several localities in the north of Moldavia are mentioned, and it is 
suggested that it was from the neighbourhood of Foscani in this district 
that Iliibner received the specimens which he named rustica ; the 
variety appears to replace the type in the whole of Moldavia, and the 
same is true of Bucovina, an Austrian province lying immediately to 
the north of Moldavia ; but all round these two districts the ordinary 
type alone occurs, and the variety is not found. The author mentions 



NOTES ON THE VARIATION OF SPILOSOMA MENDICA. 187 

an isolated spot in one of the southern Alpine valleys where the white- 
nialed variety is also found, although its habitat is there confined to a 
few square kilometers ; he does not seem to be aware of its occurrence 
in Ireland. The true home of var. rmtica is stated to be the Caucasus, 
and the author suggests that its centre of distribution may hereafter 
turn out to lie farther east or south of the Caspian. M. Caradja sug- 
gests that, according to the law which holds good in the geographical 
distribution of plants, this island-like occurrence of var. rustica in the 
middle of districts inhabited by the ty^je points to the conclusion that 
in the past it was the predominating or even the sole existing form, 
and that its more limited distribution to-day is due to the type being 
better jorotected by its darker colour. Further, seeing that on the 
margins of the districts which it now inhabits there must be frequent 
crossings between it and the type, he thinks that its entire disajDjjear- 
ance from Europe is only a question of time. In support of the 
opinion that the dark-maled type has developed from the white-maled 
form, he refers to the cases of Amphklasys betularia var. double day aria 
and Psdnra monacha var. eremita. The author seems, however, to think 
that, where the white form still holds its own, white may really be the 
best protective colour for it, seeing that it occurs at a time when the 
ground is littered with the white petals from the fruit trees. On one 
occasion a specimen settled at his feet in the garden, but he was entirely 
unable to discern it among the fallen petals, and was actually going to 
remove it with the petals, which he was clearing away in order to find 
the moth. He concludes that the white variety is better adapted to the 
dry (or cold) Continental climate of Moldavia, Bucovina, and the 
Caucasus than the type, which seems to have sprung up in ocean- 
bordering districts. 

It may be well here to glance at our common species of this genus 
as a whole. Spilosoma menthastri shows but little colour variation in 
southern Britain, being almost pure white with black dots in both 
sexes. As, however, we travel north and west colour variation sets 
in, and distributed over northern England, Scotland, and Ireland (so 
far as I have obtained specimens) is a buff race known as var. ochracea, 
White, which has, moreover, as I have noticed in my bred si^ecimens, a 
tendency to become smoky coloured if ever so slightly crippled. Both 
sexes, however, thus become yellower, and the variation does not tend 
in the direction of sexual dimorphism. 

S. luhricipeda is an interesting species, inasmuch as even in our 
southern English counties it keeps the buff colour which S. menthastri 
only takes up in Scotland and Ireland, and locally in northern England. 
But even then the colour is higher and deeper in the damper districts, 
as in the western Highlands and certain parts of Ireland. In spite of 
this, however, there is a distinct sexual difference of tint, the yellow 
aiid buff of the males being mucli brighter than is that of the females, 
but this sexual difference is less marked in southern and eastern England 
than elsewhere. 

Now, it is very remarkable that it is just in those areas where the 
sexual difference of S. luhricipeda is least marked that the sexual 
difference of S. mendica is most strongly accentuated, the latter occur- 
ring, however, and showing but little difference from our southern 
specimens, in Aberdeenshire. The tendency in this latter species has 
been to produce a wliite female, less pigmented probably, certainly 



188 THE entomologist's record. 

more transparent, and perhaps of a purer white than even S. menthastri 
shows in its southern haunts, whilst the male is of a brown so deep 
that it is sometimes termed black, and quite unapproached by the 
gTound colour of any S. luhricipeda ; nevertheless, in Ireland under 
ordinary and in England under pathological conditions, there is a partial 
assumption of the normal buff coloration of the group. 

From these facts a simple deduction or two may be drawn. I am 
of opinion that the ancestral type of this group was buff-coloured, be- 
cause this is the coloration to which under special conditions of environ- 
ment, &c. all the species revert. I take it also that this ancestral type 
was accustomed to a damp and moist climate, for it is in such a climate 
that the buff coloration appears in all the species ; the white S. men- 
thastri of southern, eastern, and middle England becomes buff in the 
moister districts of Ireland, Scotland and northern England ; the pale 
buff of the S. luhricipeda that we meet witli in our drier areas becomes 
deeper in tint in the same areas ; whilst in the more isolated and moister 
jjarts of our islands where S. mendica is found the deep brown of 
British specimens retains the ancestral coloration ; even the white S. 
urticae tends there to become cream-coloured in many specimens. 

The facts, that in S. menthastri both sexes assume a buff coloration in 
these moist areas, that in S. hihricipeda the sexual difference of colours 
is less strongly accentuated there, whilst in S. mendica, though the 
males become buff, the females are often much less white than those 
from England, all tend in the same direction, and point to a time when 
the immediate progenitor of these species had a buff male and female 
which were suited to its then environment ; and after the differentiation 
of our present species we see how possible it is for natural selection and 
climatic changes to have produced the differences we now know so Avell. 
One other thought suggests itself. This extreme sexual differenti- 
ation in S. mendica is probably of very recent origin. That it is recent 
(as such things go) is certain from the occurrence of the ancestral form 
in local areas distributed from Ireland to the Caucasian mountains ; but 
the recent development of the " Huddersfield " race renders it highly 
probable that the climatic changes in Britain and Central Europe, due 
to the advance of civilization and forest clearing, may have been an 
important factor in evolving the present forms. 

Without seeing the specimens and knowing the locality mentioned 
by Mons. A. Caradja, it is impossible to say how near they are to Irish 
specimens, but his reference to them as the " milchweisse form," and 
his special mention of the fact that " eight of the specimens are of a 
smoky tint " remind us that one of the Antrim specimens was nearly 
white. Strange, too, the specimens recorded by Mons. Caradja appear 
to be entirely restricted to the valleys of the Pruth and Danube or to 
isolated mountainous valleys, at Tirgu Neamtu, Kloster Neamtu (in 
Carpathians), Costisa (in the Bistrita valley), Husi (a small town 
south of Jassy), Jassy, Dorohoi, Comanesti, the whole of Moldavia, 
Bucovina, Czernowitz, Kadanti, the Bergell (a southern Alpine valley) ; 
yet he refers to these comparatively low-lying districts as possessing a 
Continental climate. It would be interesting to get records of the 
climate and meteorological conditions of the localities where the variety 
is found, so that we might compare them with our Irish conditions. I 
am inclined to think, however, that the assumption of the extreme 
tints both paler (whiter), and darker than the buff-coloured ancestral 



NOTES ON TUE VAKIATION OF Sl'ILOSOMA MENDICA. 189 

form, have been obtained and retained for protective purposes, and that 
the pure white males are as much a development in a special direction 
suited to special localities and conditions, as are the dark males of oiir 
central Eurojjean hedgerows, coppices, and woodsides. 

Since the above was written, Mons. A. von Caradja has published 
in Soeietas entomologica, vol. ix., p. 49, another article on this interesting 
subject. His article is called " Sjnlosotaa mendica, CI. var. (et. ab. ?) 
(? Standfussi, Caradja," and he writes : — " By this name I denote tlie 
hybrid form, obtained by crossing the female of S. mendica, with the 
male of its variety, rustica. The female of this hybrid naturally does 
not differ from the females of the type ; the male, however, is exactly 
intermediate in colour between the dark smoky-brown male of mendica, 
and the milk-white male of var. rustica ; the wings, thorax and ab- 
domen, both on the upper and under sides, are of a ver^^ peculiar grey- 
brown tint, which appears something like a faint pearl-grey cloud 
spread over the white ground colour. The ordinary black spots on the 
fore and hind- wings contrast strongly with the gi'ound colour. This 
new and interesting form, which occurs in nature, I name in honour of 
my highly-respected friend Dr. Max Standfuss of Zurich. All my last 
year's broods were unfortunately largely decimated by " pebrine," so 
that I only obtained a single pair of this crossing from 250 larvas. 
This year I hope to obtain better results." 

" I may here mention some extremely important facts. The crossing 
of males of var. rustica with females of mendica, is at all events fruitful ; 
every egg yields a larva. On the contrary, of females of var. rustica 
crossed with males of mendica, only 0"15 per cent, produced larvse, and 
all of the first crossing failed." 

" With regard to the hybrid copulation between females of S. 
luctuosa, H.-G., and males of var. rustica, reported upon last year, I have 
to report that this year I have obtained entirely different results, which 
]3roves that the results of a single experiment are not always to be relied 
upon. From five crossings I did not obtain a single larva ; but from 
the sixth I obtained 141 larvae, which developed vigorously, the first-laid 
eggs being those which yielded the larvae, whereas the remaining 194 
eggs proved infertile. The reversion of the sexes in this crossing, viz., 
the pairing of male luctuosa with female var. rustica, and also male 
luctuosa with female mendica, were entirely unfruitful." 

The pairing of S. mendica with its variety rustica was carried to a 
successful issue some years ago in Britain by Mr. Adkin. It would 
appear that the single male cross obtained by Mons. Caradja (he only 
bred two moths, and describes both sexes) is not unlike many of our 
purely-bred Irish males. IIow far Ireland is an area where the type 
and var. rustica overlap has not yet been determined, dark males not 
having yet, I believe, been recorded from Ireland. 

The rearing of true hybrids between S. mendica and *S'. luctuosa, adds 
another to our already long list of hyln'ids obtained from allied species. 
It would he interesting to know whether S. luctuosa will cross success- 
fully with typical S. mendica, or only with var. rustica. If only witli 
the latter, the fact would have a strong bearing on the ancestral furin 
of the genus. 



190 THE entomologist's record. 

Wo EJ^l'OJVIOLOQie^L ^r^l'lQlJE^. 

By F. J. BUCKELL, M.B. 

In a volume of oddments, mostly of a scientific nature, whicli some 
worthy of a century ago had had bound together and which recently 
came under my notice, were two entomological " antiques." The first 
of these was the English translation of Fundamenta Fjntomologiae, a work 
which, although usually bearing the name of Linneeus and published 
in the seventh volume of that author's Amocnitates Academicae, was 
really written by one of his pupils, Andrew John Bladh. The trans- 
lation is by W. Curtis, Apothecary, and bears date 1772. The work is 
in the nature of an " Introduction to Entomology," and may be taken 
to represent the scientific knowledge of the time. There were evidently 
scoffers in existence then as now, for the author thus opens the third 
section :— " As insects furnish but few of the necessaries of life, the 
ignorant and uncivilised part of mankind have not scrupled to stigmatise 
the ingenious enquirers after them with the name of fools, as these 
animals apjjeared to them altogether contemptible, and deserved to be 
considered only as jDunishment inflicted on jjarticular countries for the 
sins of its inhabitants." The author farther on suggests that "if we 
tmderstood how to apjDly insects properly, we might use them as we do 
cats against mice, and by attending to the design of Nature, prevent 
much damage." The importance of method and the advantage of 
accurate synonymy are insisted ujjon. Next follows a catalogue of the 
principal authors that have written on insects, in which our countrymen 
receive dvie recognition. This is succeeded by a descrij)tion of the 
several parts of an insect, after which the Linna?an classification is 
explained. Lastly, the sources of the mythological names so largely 
used by Linnaeus for butterflies are indicated : those apjDlied to the 
Equites are taken from Trojan historj^, the sable butterflies with red or 
bloody spots at the basis of tlieir wings receiving the names of the 
Trojan nobles, while those ornamented with a variety of gay colours 
were distinguished by the names of the Grecian heroes. The Hdiconii 
derive their names from the Muses. The names of the sons and 
daughters of Danaus are bestowed on the JDnnai, " and as these species 
are sub-divided into two sections, viz. the wliite and parti-coloured, the 
metaphor is so conducted that the white ones j^reserve the names of the 
daughters of Danaus, and the j^arti-coloured ones those of the sons of 
Egyptus," "The names of the fourth section, Nymphales, are taken 
from various nymjihs of antiquity ; and those of the fifth section, Fleheii, 
are selected from different men among the ancients, whose names are 
worthy of remembrance ; so that by this means a knowledge of the 
ancients may be interspersed, and this agreeable science be made doubly 
pleasing." The author concludes by earnestly recommending those 
gentlemen, whose summer residence is in the country, to devote their 
leisure moments to " the bringing up of the larva? of insects and atten- 
tively observing their various transformations, their oeconomy in 2>rocur- 
ing food, their dexterity in preparing lial)itations, and every other thing 
they are engaged in. By this means many insects and their wonderful 
properties, M'liich have remained in obscurity from the beginning of 
time, would be brought to light, more especially if these gentlemen 
would themselves describe or communicate their discoveries to some 



TWO ENTOMOLOGICAL ANTIQUES. 191 

academy of sciences. Thus would they at one and the same time 
enrich the science of natural history, and transmit their names to 
posterity with honour." 

The other " antique " is The Aurelian''s Vade Mecim, by Matthew 
Martin of Exeter, in which city it was printed, the date of publication 
being 1785. This is a list of plants, arranged in the alphabetical order 
of their vernacular names, with the Linntean names appended . Under 
each plant are arranged the species of Lepidoptera whose larvfB are 
stated to feed upon it. Of these the Linnasan name is given in one 
column, the vernacular (where such exists) in another, and in a third 
the initial of the author from whom the information has been derived ; 
for the work is a compilation, and does not embody the results of the 
compiler's own experience. He tells us that he has consulted the 
writings of Linnajus, Ray, Reaumur, Geoffroy, Berkenhout, Withering 
(botanical), Harris and Engramelle. There are some interesting ver- 
nacular names of plants, which seem to have been lost in the century that 
has since elapsed. Chenopodium is Elite ; Chaeropliyllum si/lvestre, Cicely ; 
Lemna, Duckmeat ; Triticum repens, Quich-grass. There are, too, some 
interesting vernacular names of insects : Phalena antiqua, is the White- 
spot Tussock moth ; Ph. chrysitis, the Green Brazen moth ; Ph. qucrcus, 
the Great Egger moth ; Ph. lacertinaria, the Wild Rose moth ; Ph. 
hctnlaria, the Spotted Elm moth ; Pap. ruhi, the Green butterfly ; Ph. 
oxyacanthae, the Ealing moth ; Sph. atropos, the Bee Tiger Hawk 
moth ; Pap. semele, the Black-eyed Marble butterfly ; Pap. liicina, the 
Small Fritillary butterfly; Ph. libatrix, the Furbelow moth; Pap. 
Camilla, the White Admirable butterfly ; Pap. atalanta, the Admirable 
butterfly ; Ph. hmnuli, the Otter moth ; Ph. syringaria, the Richmond 
moth ; Pap. malcae, the Brown March butterfly ; Pap. antiopa, the 
Willow butterfly. As regards the identification of the Linna3an names, 
the author followed the usage of his time, and seems to have taken 
Harris as his guide. The following are instances of mistaken identity : — 
Butterflies: argus is used for (=:) what we now know as teams; 
virgaureae = phloeas ; maera = megaera ; inegaera = tithonus ; ma- 
turna = athalia ; Camilla =^ sybilla. There was at that time no doubt 
about the identity of Pap. malvae, Linn ; the history of the subsequent 
confusion of that identity is an interesting chapter which, some day, 
may be worth elucidating. My knowledge of moth-synonymy is not 
suliicient to enable me to trace the identity of the moths. It seems, 
however, from its vernacular name of the Yellow-tail moth, that 
our auriflua was then supjjosed to be chrysorrhoea, Linn. With 
regard to food-plants : Ph. aesculi is to be found in alder, ajij^le 
(within the branches), ash (within the bodies in nurseries), horse- 
chestnut, jDcar (inside of branches ?), and jDrivet (do.) ; for Paj). 
machaon, the following are mentioned : — Angelica, buruet saxifrage, 
carrot, fennel, hemlock, milky parsley, rue and wild si^igncl ; Pajj. 
ruhi is said to feed on the buds of bramble ; Ph. lapella, within the seeds 
of burdock ; on the authority of Linnaeus, Ph. pisi is allotted cucumber 
as a food-plant, but there is evidently a doubt about the accuracy of 
this, as it is added in brackets (caciimere, L., Fruit ?) ; Ph. hecta, is said 
to feed on the roots of grass, and Ph. serratella, within the leaves of 
pear, in a tufted covering. 



192 THE entomologist's record. 

Tl^c Life-jiistopy of a Lepidopterous Insect, 

Comprising some account of its Morphology and Physiology. 

By J. W. TUTT, F.E.S. 

{Continued from page 169). 



Chap. IV.* '. 
EMBKYOLOGY. 

1. — General remarks on the study of embryology. — Embryology 
concerns itself with the cycle of changes that take place in the fertilized 
ovum, and that have as their result the production of an individual 
resembling its parents. Biologists are agreed as to the supreme im- 
portance of the subject, for many of the profounder mysteries of living 
creatures can only be interpreted by its aid. More and more, therefore, 
of late years has its study engaged the attention of scientific men, and 
entomology, like other branches of natviral history, has received illumi- 
nation from their labours. It is now well known that all animals 
during their embryonic life undergo a series of remarkable changes 
both in form and structure. Sir John Lubbock tells us that ChVoeon 
(an Ephemerid insect) moults some twenty times before reaching its 
final stage of development, whilst every entomologist has watched the 
more or less sharply defined metamorphoses that other insects undergo. 
I may remark that for the present I give the word Embryology a wider 
meaning than, strictly speaking, is warranted, and include all the con- 
ditions through which the young pass before reaching actual maturity 
as simply extensions of the embryological condition. How great are 
the changes which various animals and plants undergo during develop- 
ment, we all know. In the case of a fern there is first the spore ; this 
gives rise to the prothallium, which in its turn produces antheridia and 
archegonia ; the latter undergo fertilization, and it is not till the con- 
sequent development of the germ-cell is comj^leted that the cycle of 
change is ended by the reproduction of a fern. Again, we may take 
a branching coralline ; this gives off a vast number of huge, free-floating 
jelly-fishes, which in their turn produce cells from which free-swim- 
ming ciliated animalcules are developed ; these after a time become 
attached to rocks and reproduce the coralline. Or, taking an example 
from an insect, the larva of a Dipteron (Cecidomyia) produces asexually 
other larvae ; these pupate, and from the pupae male and female 
imagines emerge ; pairing ensues, and eggs are laid from which larvae 
hatch, and the cycle begins again. In some cases the greater part of 
embryonic life is got through before the embryo has a separate existence 
from the parent, in others after it has such separate existence ; so that 
although the embryonic condition is often spoken of as if it were 
limited to the development of the young within the egg, the term 
really has a much wider application. 

2, — On the similarity between the earliest embkyonk; stages 
OF WIDELY DIFFERING CREATURES.— In their earliest embryonic stages 
the various divisions of the largest classes of the Animal Kingdom 
present a remarkable similarity as regards their structural features. 



* ChaiJ. III. on Parthenogenesis uill follow this chapter. The material for 
it is not yet complete. 



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A LEPIDOPTEROUS INSECT. 193 

Between the early embryos of mammals, birds and reptiles there is such 
a strong likeness, that Von Baer tells us that, of two embryos in his 
collection which were unlabelled, he could not say even to what class 
they belonged ; they might be lizards, birds or mammals, " so com- 
plete is the similarity in the mode of formation of the head and trunk 
in these animals." Again, many of the Crustacea are exceedingly alike 
in their early stages, although they become very different in the adult 
stage. When we come, however, to genera and species, we find that 
the similarity of their early stages is much more pronounced, the 
similarity extending even to small matters of detail. Thus the furze 
which when mature bears prickly leaves, has in its early stages the 
ordinary trifoliate leaves of its leguminous allies ; the young of the 
lion is striped like so many other carnivora ; the young blackbirds are 
spotted after the characteristic manner of the thrush family — and so on. 
It must be noticed that these similarities in embryonic characters do 
not usually bear any relation to the conditions of existence. Young 
mammals, birds and reptiles, passing through their earlier stages under 
such different conditions, alike have a peculiar development of the 
branchial arteries. It cannot be supposed that, in the womb of the 
mother or in the egg of a bird, these have any functional value or any 
relation to their then mode of existence, and we can only look upon 
the peculiarity as a survival of a common ancestral feature, which at 
one point in the line of descent had a fundamental value. 

3. — On the effect of the differing conditions of EMBRYONIC 

LIFE. — I have already intimated that embryonic life cannot be held to be 
limited to the egg-stage, and the proportion thereof that is completed 
in that stage differs greatly in the different classes of the Animal 
Kingdom. The embryonic changes in the egg of a bird bring the 
young bird very much farther on towards the adult, both in form and 
development, than those in the egg of an insect, in which the larval 
and pupal condition are also distinctly embryonic. 

It will be readily understood that when an animal embryo completes 
its development to a great extent within the body of its parent (animal), 
or is entirely dependent on its parents for nourishment (bird), there is 
less need for it to take on any special characters for its own protection 
than when it becomes actively indejjendent early in life (crustaceans and 
insects, &c.). When, too, the method of life, the habits, environment, 
&c. of the active embryonic form are entirely different from those of 
the adult, it is evident that the difference between them must be 
correspondingly great if the adaptation of the two forms to their 
different conditions of life is to be equally perfect. We may find, 
therefore (and the Lepidoi)tera give us a number of instances) that the 
larvas of allied species differ very greatly owing to the diffei-ence of 
their habits, &c., whilst the imagines are very similar ; conversely the 
larvae may show a close relationshijj, though tlie imagines may be very 
different ; the larvfe and imagines Avith similar habits may both bear a 
strong resemblance to each other. Thus the larva? and pupaj of Viminia 
venosa and V. rumicis show throughout a very strong resemblance, 
which rejiresents a real relationship, whilst their imagines are as 
different as can well be supposed, indeed, until (piite recently, Viminia 
venosa was, on the strength of its imaginal appearance, separated 
generically from rumicis, and its superficial resemblance in the imago 
state led to a general belief among entomologists that it was allied to 



194 TSfi entomologist's recohd. 

the genus Lencania (a jDurely Agrotid genvis). Then there is the 
remarkable brotherhood of Cvsjmlia tridens and ps/, whose larvae, 
under very similar methods of life, are much alike, and their imagines 
(with the same habits) scarcely distinguishable. Under such conditions 
therefore, it is evident that the actual relationship of allied larvai on 
the one hand, of imagines on the other hand may, among Lepidoptera, 
be very much obscured. Where, however, their conditions of life are 
similar, the larva?, although active, will obey more or less perfectly the 
law of embrj^onic resemblance. 

4. — On embryology as indicatinCx lines of descent. — The student 
in dealing with this cpiestion hns two great points to keep in mind ; (1) 
whether the similarities which he sees are phylogenetic, that is, whether 
they are due to the transitory reappearance of the characters of a 
bygone epoch in the ancestral history, or (2) whether they are oecological 
in their origin and due to similar relationship of the animals to their 
organic and inorganic environment. The characters manifested in the 
egg-state must almost of necessity belong to the first division ; those in 
the active larval (considered as an embryonic) condition may belong to 
the first or second. 

As Darwin says : " We are so much accustomed to see a difference in 
structure between the embryo and the adult, that we are tempted to look 
at this difference as in some necessary manner contingent on growth," 
but it must be agreed that there is no reason, if such were the case, why 
the whole adult system should not be sketched out in the earliest stage, 
and development proceed continuoiisly along these lines to perfection 
instead of the transitory appearance of certain structures wliich raj^idly 
disappear. That the latter hajjpens, therefore, shows that such a 
supposition as the above is wrong in princijile, and that the changes 
have a real phylogenetic significance. 

We must also bear in mind that it is almost imjDossible for the same 
individual to show all the stages of development in the long line of 
descent through which it has passed ; one will leave out some (perhaps 
inany) stages, which may be shown in others. The complete study of 
embryology must, in time, give us much more correct notions of actual 
relationships than any other line of enquiry ; for it is highly probable 
that the embryonic stages show us, more or less complete^, the line 
through which the ancestral form has been developed, to produce the 
present condition of its offspring. It is to embryology, therefore, that 
we must look, to furnish us with the clue to the true relationships 
which exist between animals, and a true genealogical classification can 
only be formulated by the aid of the knowledge which it contributes. 
W^e aim at obtaining a " natural system." What is this but an indica- 
tion of the line of descent of the various sj)ecies we study and their 
connection with each other ? Can we wonder, therefore, that, in the 
eyes of most naturalists, the structure of the embryo is of more importance 
than that of the adult ? Darwin says : — " In two or more gTOups of 
animals, however much they may differ from each other in structure and 
habits in their adult condition, if they pass through closely similar em- 
bryonic stages, we may feel assured that all are descended from one 
parent-form, and are, therefore, closely related. Thus, community in 
embryonic structure, reveals community of descent ; but dissimilarity 
in embryonic development does not prove discommunity of descent ; 
for in one of two groups the developmental stages may have been 



THE LlPE-HlSTOllY OF A LEPIDOPTeHOUS liJSECT. 195 

suppressed, or may have been so greatly modified through adaptation 
to new habits of Hfe, as to be no longer recognisable. Even in groups, 
in Avhich the adults have been modified to an extreme degree, community 

of origin is often revealed by the structure of the larva3 As 

the embryo often shows us more or less plainly the structure of the less 
modified and ancient progenitor of the group, we can see why ancient 
and extinct forms so often resemble in their adult state, the embryos of 

existing species of the same classes Entomology rises greatly 

in interest, when we look at the embryo as a picture, more or less 
obscured, of the progenitor, either in its adult or larval state, of all the 
members of the same great class." 

In this slender outline of the subject, I can only hope to have said 
enough to convince my readers of the importance of the study of em- 
bryology. I trust, too, that it will be evident to entomologists, why it 
is no longer possible to rest content with systems of classification, based 
upon imaginal features (palpi, wing-markings, neuration, &g.) and why, 
more and more, scientific men are demanding that classification shall 
take into account the whole life-history. 



gCIENTIFIC NOTES & OBSERVATIONS. 

On eggs as helping to determine natural affinities. — With 
reference to that portion of Mr. Tutt's paper (Ent. Bee, vol. v., p. 142) 
which deals with this subject, I should like to be allowed to make a 
few remarks. As far as I am aware, entomology is the only branch of 
zoology which has clung tenaciously to the doctrine, well expressed by 
Haeckel's terse phrase (GenercUe Morphologic, 1866), " ontogeny recapi- 
tulates phylogeny," in an approximately literal sense, and although I 
will not accuse Mr. Tutt or any other thoughtful entomologist of enter- 
taining the notion that all moths at present existing have sprung from 
ancestors, each of which resembled the egg that the imago now develops 
from, yet, nevertheless, there seems to be an undercurrent of feeling 
pervading entomological literature, the tendency of which is to consider 
Le])idoptera with similar ova as more closely allied than those with 
dissimilar ones ; this I hold to be quite unsupported by facts, and cpiite 
at variance with the conclusions to be drawn from other developmental 
histories. Anyone who has glanced at the rudiments of general 
embryology must be aware of the extremely diverse embryonic types 
of many families, genera, or even species ; e.g. in the well-known case 
of BalanogJossns Jioioalcwshn and B. kilpfferi, the latter closely resembles 
in its Tornaria stage a free-swimming star-fish larva, and was in fact 
originally mistaken for one, while the former has an opaque larva 
which burrows in mud. These facts, and many others which could be 
brought forward indicative of a completely difi"erent fundamental 
organization in the larva of undoubtedly allied genera, show, I think, 
the absurdity of basing any classification on such points of similarity 
in ova as number of ribs or external outline, wlxich seems to me like 
trying to classify birds b}"- the number of spots on their egg-shells. In 
fact, in general, I think, entomologists are far too apt to rely on 
embryonic peculiarities for purposes of classification ; e.g. if a new 
caterpillar were discovered to-morrow with foin* claspers, whatever its 



196 THE entomologist's record. 

internal structure or wliatever peculiar characteristics the imago might 
possess, it would almost certainly be placed among the Geometers, and 
from this it follows that a heterogeneous mixture becomes packed 
together into one group ; in fact, a similar mistake was originally made 
by Swammerdam, and subsequently l)y Lamarck and Newman, in 
employing the degi'ee of metamorphosis as the sole ground for their 
primary divisions of insects, and in these cases it was soon found that 
closely allied forms, such as LihelluUdae and Neuroptera Avere separated, 
while other cpiite remote forms, e.cj. Rhyncota and Orthoptera were 
brought together, and although insect classification is even now in a 
very undecided condition, the tendency seems to be not towards a system 
based on any one particular set of characters like those already men- 
tioned, or that of Fabricius based on the structure and function of the 
mouth parts, or that of Linnaeus based on the comparative development 
and form of the wings, but towards a system which has for its foundation 
a combination of all these characters and others besides, such as that of 
Latreille or of Westwood. In consequence of this, naturally related 
forms are now brought closer together, and the groups now recognised 
are more uniform and more homogeneous than in the past; but, 
nevertheless, even now too little attention seems to be bestowed on the 
internal organisation of insects and, perhaps, especially of Lepidoptera, 
and I need hardly remind any of the readers of this magazine that 
perhaps the most dangerous maxim for a scientific man to follow is 
that of resting on the laurels won for him by his forefathers. — F. P. 
Bedford, 326, Camden Koad, N. July 7th, ] 894. 

I print the above because it purports to be a criticism of what 
I myself have written, and I do not wish to appear to act unfairly by 
suppressing such criticism ; but I must own that I have not the slightest 
conception of the way in which the criticism cuts, or how it is sujiposed 
to touch the facts that I dealt with. It is interesting to learn that 
" entomology is the only branch of zoology which has clung tenaciously " 
to Haeckel's famous phrase ; as a matter of fact, entomological writings 
as a rule, are wonderfully lacking in even the simjjlest rudiments of such 
scientific assumptions, and I should be pleased to have references to 
articles in which this '* tenacious clinging " is expressly shown. Is 
there any entomologist, thoughtful or otherwise, who believes that 
" moths have sprung from ancestors each of which resembled the egg 
that the imago now developes from " ? The suggestion that some do, 
shows that the person who could imagine that any entomologists believe 
such a thing, either denies the possession of common sense by entomo- 
logists, or else is stating his own peculiar views on Haeckel's biological 
principle. 

" Nevertheless, there seems to be an undercurrent to consider 

Lepidoptera, with similar ova, as more closely allied than those with dis- 
similar ones ; this I hold to be unsupported by ' facts.' " I am pleased to 
hear that there is such an undercurrent, for there can be no doubt of 
its general truth ; of this, a suigle season's observation in the field would 
convince anyone with average powers of observation. 

" These facts indicative of a completely different fundamental 

organisation in tlic larva? of undoubtedl^r allied genera, etc." If there 
is a completely different fundamental organisation in the larvas of two 
undoul )tedly allied genera, I should be interested to know why they are 
so " undoubtedly allied." My notion of relationship or alhance has 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 197 

always been that it is indicated by a connection, similarity or resemblance 
in fundamental organisation. 

'' Tliese .... show, I think, the absurdity of basing any classification 
on such points of similarity in ova, as the number of the ribs, &c." 
Will Mr. Bedford kindly give us the name of any entomologist who 
has based a system of classification on the number of ribs in ova. 

" In fact, entomologists are far too apt to rely on embryonic peculi- 
arities for purpose of classification." This is refreshing. I have been 
working for a long time at entomology now, but have never come 
across any writings (at least, in Britain) in which this has been done. 
I may have overlooked them, in spite of a very strong desire to read 
such, and shall be very glad to be furnished with the names of a few. 
With regard to the assertion that if a larva were found to-morrow with 
four claspers, &c., it would certainly be placed in the Grcometers, I 
would recommend that Mr. Bedford should write to Dr. Chapman or to 
Professor Poulton, or even to a few less-well-known giants, and propound 
to them the following conundrum : — " If a larva were found to-morrow 
with four prolegs : In spite of its internal economy, where would you 
place it ? " I have no doubt the final destination of that larva would 
be a matter of profound interest to many. 

The next phrase " that a heterogeneous mixture is placed in one 
group " based on such assumptions as these is very ingenuous. Does 
Mr. Bedford mean to say that the Geometers are such, and if so, will he 
kindly give us the exi^erimental evidence from their " internal struc- 
ture " which separates them, and tell us how they should be separated. 
We are willing to learn, but we cannot pick up much from such bald 
statements as these. 

I am quite willing to believe that Swammerdam, Lamarck, and 
Newman were very naughty men, and did much to trouble the minds 
of those who should follow after them, but I am pleased to hear from 
Mr. Bedford that something has been done, and I am not even much 
alarmed to find that " insect classification " is now in a very undecided 
condition. 

How joyfully I subscribe to the next sentence need hardly be said. 
" The tendency seems to be not towards a system based on any one 

particular set of characters but towards a system wliich has for 

its foundation a combination of all these characters." Such a statement 
as this, I welcome from any and every source. I have proclaimed the 
same truth in season and out of season, wherever and whenever I have 
had the cliance, and so have a number of other entomologists as well. 

How Mr. Bedford can consider that the class of people, who would 
put any caterpillar with four prolegs into the Geometers in spite of 
internal peculiarities, who have learned from observation that certain 
great resemblances are to be found in the early stages (eggs, larva? and 
pupa?) and give broad clues for classification, and who have hammered 
away at these points, can possibly have produced a system in which 
" naturally related forms are now brought closer together," so that " the 
groups now recognised are more uniform and more homogeneous than 
in the past," is beyond my comprehension, considering the general 
contempt he shows for them in the first part of his article ; I would add 
that when Mr. Bedford (whose work I am sorry to say I do not know) 
has worked out and publislied an account of the " internal organisation " 
of one small genus of insects that will bear even a remote comparison 



198 THE entomologist's record. 

with Dr. Chapman's essay on " The genus Acronycta and its allies," 
based on their external structure, then we shall be able to judge how 
far we are all Avrong in our methods of work, and how much reason 
there is for considering Mr. Bedford as a " Projohet in Israel." — J. W. 
TuTT. July 10th, 1894. 

On hybernation in the egg stage. — Last autumn I took on ivy 
a female Xanthia aurago, which laid a few eggs shortly afterwards. 
Tlie majority of these began to change within a week or two, and were 
leaden-coloured, with the young larva3 ready to emerge, before the end 
of November. They remained in this condition till the spring, hatch- 
ing at the end of March or beginning of April. (As I sleeved them on 
beech I cannot give the exact date of hatching). The remaining eggs, 
that did not change, shrivelled up after a time, showing that they were 
infertile. I found the larvae nearly full-fed in the sleeve towards the 
end of May, and they soon afterwards began to pupate. This ex- 
perience of the larva hybernating in the shell is similar to that which 
I recorded in this Magazine last year (vol. iv., p. 172), and it seems 
probable that it is the usual occurrence with this species, and that Mr. 
Buckler's (Mr. Hellins' ?) description of the larva being undeveloped 
in the egg till early in the year, which Mr. Tutt quotes in the July 
number (p. 168) as a constant condition, is exceptional. — W. S. Eiding, 
M.l)., Buckerell, Honiton. Jult/ 20th, 1894. 

On immunity from grease. — Mr. C. S. Coles asks in your issue for 
March (p. 72) if any explanation can be given why specimens set more 
than twenty years ago are perfectly free from grease, verdigris and 
mites. For some years past I have received many specimens from 
Southern India, and have been struck with the perfect immunity from 
grease of them all, not a single one out of hundreds being affected, not 
even the thick-bodied moths. On the other hand, my own captures in 
England have suffered from the common enemy. In both cases I use 
white pins, and the treatment generally is the same, but there is this 
difference : — the Indians are not pinned or relaxed imtil they are bone 
dry and brittle, being sent home in papers, whereas the Britishers have 
been pinned and set as soon as possible. Is this a likely explanation ? 
Perhaps other collectors of troi^ical specimens will give us the benefit 
of their observations. I am subjecting all this year's captures, by way 
of experiment, to a thorough drying before pinning, as I conceive this 
must have an apjjreciable effect on the ultimate condition. — Jno. Pratt, 
The Cedars, New Barnet. 

A remarkable incident. — Last night, upon going into my larval 
room, I found that during the day several imagines of Bombyx quercns 
had emerged and developed. I put three of these (two males and a 
female) into a cardboard box. Upon lifting the lid about ten minutes 
afterwards, I was astonished to find the two males in copulation (if I 
may be allowed the term), the spinster being quite deserted. These 
two males remained paired for about an hour and a half before sepa- 
rating. On the surface, neither of them appears to me to bear any 
marking distinctive from ordinary males, with the excejjtion, perhaps, 
of the abdomen of one of them, which has a slightly feminine look 
about it. I have never previously met with a similar incident, and 
think that one of these " males " may perhaps be hermaphroditic in its 
internal structure. — Alfred J. Johnson, Erdington. July 16th, 189-4. 

The two males mentioned in the preceding paragraph were sent to 



CUBBENT NOTES. 199 

me by the Editor foi* examination. To all appearance they were both 
normal specimens of male B. quercus, and in no way approximated to 
the structure of the female. I concluded, from my examination of 
them with the naked eye, that the circumstances in which they were 
placed had caused their genital structures to become accidentally en- 
tangled ; nevertheless, I at once i)repared them for the microscope, only 
to lind, as I expected, that both were typical males. Taking into con- 
sideration the curious structure of the genitalia, which consist of a pair 
of backward hooks that appear to be a modification of the Harpes, and 
a single, very strong hook, almost at the extreme apex of the abdomen 
(the Uncus), and all exserted, one is not surprised that some entangle- 
ment of the ancillary organs took place under the conditions in which 
these individuals were placed. It is well known that tlie females of 
this si^ecies have the power of producing extraordinary sexual excite- 
ment in the males, as is evidenced by what is termed " assembling." — 
F. N. PiEucE, 7, The Elms, Dingle, Liverpool. Juli/ 27th, 1894. 



gURRENT NOTES. 



In concluding his paper on the Nepticulas {E.M.M., pp. 150-4) Dr. 
Wood discusses the power of the larva? of this genus and of Lithocolletis, 
to delay the ripening and death of the part of the leaf they are occupy- 
ing. The leaf " shall have put on its red or yellow autumnal tint, it 
shall even have dropped from the tree, have died and turned brown, but 
the area in which the larva is feeding will remain alive and green, not 
merely for days, but for weeks, provided it be not exposed to excessive 
dryness." It has been suggested that the afflux of sap brought about 
by the larva is the cause of this, but Dr. Wood considers that " looking 
at one of these green patches, with its margins fading gradually into 
the surrounding brown area, it is almost impossible to escape the con- 
viction that, it is produced by some substance we may call a poison, or 
a preservative, which, taken up by the sap is carried to the cells, and 
being appropriated in its progress, gets more diluted and attenuated the 
further it travels." Dr. Wood cannot tell us what the substance is, or 
how it is excreted, but " the whole of its singular influence over the 
leaf is exercised " when the larva is very young, and making its pre- 
liminary gallery, and that some substance is then produced which beino- 
absorbed by the vascular bundles, among which the creature is burro win<>-, 
gets distributed to the jDarts of the leaf they supply, where it is talven 
up and appropriated by the cells. The remarks bearing on gall-forma- 
tion are also most interesting. The independent life of that part of the 
oak-leaf in which the larva of N. suhbimacnlella is, long after the leaf 
has fallen from the tree and is dried, shrunken and dead, must make as 
great an impression on others as it did on Dr. Wood. But the essay 
is too good to be treated like this ; those who are interested in Nature's 
wonderful methods of work, must read the original. 

From the Daily Chronicle of July 16th, 1894, we learn that " the 
effect of a hot summer, followed by a mild, dry winter, is ah-eady 
beginning to be felt in Scotland in the presence of a plague of cater- 
pillars. The pest, which is for the moment devastating various 
districts, is the larva of the antler moth (Charaeas graminis), wliose 



200 THE entomologist's record. 

special weakness is grass. Miss Ormerod tells us that in 1884 these 
caterpillars devastated an area of about ten miles in extent of the 
mountainous parts of Glamorganshire, and next year spread over a 
tract of about seven by five miles in Selkirkshire. The district at 
present infested is that in which the voles have been doing so much 
damage ; only the mischief done by the caterpillars is so great that the 
graziers are looking back almost with affection to the more merciful 
plague of mice. It is possible that the drenching rains of the past 
week may check the increase of the larv^. Tor it is noticed that a 
sudden wetting or raj^id change in the state of their food induces 
violent purging, which soon reduces the grub to a mere empty skin." 



Iractical hints. 



I want to recommend the use of methylated spirit instead of rum 
for mixing with the sugar ; the attracting power seems to be greatly 
increased thereby. —(Rev.) C. R. N. Burrows, Rainham. July 23rd!, 
1894. 

Flies always pester me to infuriation. I have found that a liberal 
sprinkling of Eucalyptus oil on the coat collar and face deters them 
from annoying me. — F. J. Buckell, M.B. 



.^loTICES AND REVIEWS. 

Woodside, Burnside, HiUside and Marsh, by J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. — In 
his new volume Mr. Tutt gives us a second series of sympathetic pic- 
tures of rustic scenery, of birds, flowers, and insects ; and these sketches 
are even more idyllic, and perhaps also more matured, tlian tliose which 
were presented to us in Random Recollections of Woodland, Fen and Hill. 
An eminent Canadian has recently urged the desirability, in this age of 
science, of the cultivation of the humanities. Such a pleasant blending 
of these two — surely not absolutely oj^posing elements — as Mr. Tutt's 
work displays, is unfortunately, however, rarely met with. We open a 
book full of profound learning : it appals and reiiels us by its techni- 
calities, its dry and frigid style. We pick uj) a volume written by a 
master of charming language, and perha2:)s find therein much that will 
scarcely stand the test of close and sober reasoning. Here, however, we 
have a work which, if not of the highest literary merit, is at least clearly 
and intelligently written, and the scientific information contained in 
whose pages has been compiled in the full light of the latest discoveries 
and speculations. It is eminently a book which urges us to throw off the 
" old Adam " of the collector, and to attempt to penetrate farther and 
yet farther still into the arcana natwne. The author carries us in spirit 
through some of the scenes in which Mr. Pickwick and his satellites 
displayed their many-sided abilities. The first chapter, giving a glimpse 
of the Kentish Woods with their thickets and flower-bestrewn clear- 
ings, introduces us to the famous Inn at Cobham with its memories of 
Dickens, and we almost sight in passing the home of the great novelist 
at Gads Hill. The third describes the chalk hills and downs in the 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 201 

neiglibourbood of Kochester on a brilliant day in July ; the fourtb, tbe 
mysterious and, to a mind not attuned to tbe minor key of nature, tlie 
rather dreary marshes and meadows on the banks of the Medway and 
the Thames. But though these may appear monotonous to tbe super- 
ficial observer, how wonderful are the inhabitants of tlieir pools and 
swamps. Tbe second chapter, however, leads us far away from Kent, 
and we are wandering over the glorious hills and valleys of the High- 
lands, where we see, midst other sights strange to southern eyes, water- 
falls, burns, lochs, precipices, rocky crags and towering mountains. 
But whilst we are all nature-lovers, it is the entomological portions of 
the book which will appeal most strongly to readers of the Entomologists' 
Record ; and here, revelling in his own pet subject, our author is tread- 
ing on firm ground — be is on the chalky hillside, not on tbe yielding 
marsh. Many are the references to the close and important connection 
between plants and insects ; we are shown the Bee-hawk moth extract- 
ing the honey, Avbilst on tlie wing, from the masses of bloom of the 
rhododendrons ; the little Tortrix in its myriads and the Plume, in 
company with the bees, visiting the heather, and taking from its 
abundant nectar for their sustenance. We are led to examine more 
closely and to observe bow fertilisation is accomplished by these means ; 
to dive deeper still into the mysteries of nature, and to perceive that 
tbe flowers which are most inconspicuous and those whose colours are 
lowest in genetic sequence are frequently provided with delicate odours, 
as if in compensation for their meek humility, and it dawns upon us 
that the plants are really bidding for the bees. But here we must 
quote Mr. Tutt's own words, linking this attractiveness of flowers for 
insects with the difficult and complex question of tbe relative develop- 
ment of the different senses of the latter. He says : — 

" Let us see whether we can discover at least some of the uses of 
scents in flowers. Have you ever heard of the wonderful keenness of 
tbe sense of smell in insects ? Watch yon white butterfly ! It is flit- 
ting along the hedge, but suddenly leaves it, as a piece of white paper is 
gently blown by the passing breeze along the road. The butterfly flies 
to the paper, toys with it, leaving it only to return again and again. 
Catch it carefully ! Do not injure it ! It is tbe Small White Butterfly 
(Pier is rapae). Whatever did it mean by fluttering so lovingly around 
a moving piece of white paper ? Ah ! there are two other butterflies 
of the same species really love-making. Tbe male butterfly flutters al)out 
and postures himself, evidently to make himself agreeable to bis lady- 
love ; but the piece of white paper is gently blown along the road again, 
and he leaves the lady to toy around the piece of paper as his predecesspr 
bad done. He flutters and postures around tbe piece of paper as he did 
about the lady, and appears to detect no difference between the shadow 
and the reality. Once or twice he approaches the paper with his 
antenucB, and then in a very short time he satisfies himself tliat tbe 
paper is a fraud and delusion, and flies off. The female butterfly still 
lingers on the hedgeside yonder, and soon the reci-eant and fickle knight 
spies her, and love-making recommences. Strange, you say, that tbe 
white butterfly cannot distinguish between a piece of white ])aper and 
a lady of its own kind ; but so, at first, it really was, and only a close 
inspection with its antennae enabled it to discern the difference." 

" If you examine carefully the butterfly which you captured, you 
will find that its eyes are large and well-developed ; each consists really 



202 THE entomologist's record. 

of quite a mass of eyes, all bound together, each of which has a separate 
hexagonal facet, the surface of the compound eye being strongly convex. 
Yet with such an apparently well-developed eye, the organ as an optical 
instrument is very defective ; practical experiment has proved that with 
the exception of a remarkable power to discriminate masses of colour, 
of a keen appreciation of slight differences of light and shade, and of 
an ability to recognise objects in motion, the eyes of most insects are 
practically useless, and so far as the sight of the white butterfly is con- 
cerned, we have seen that it is attracted by anything of its own colour 
as quickly as l)y a female of its own kind." What an overturning of 
many of our old ideas ! 

Mr. Tutt's great subject, " Variation," too, is once more in evidence. 
The vagaries of the Carpet moths are glanced at. These are discovered 
both in the wood and on the mountain side, now as patches and 
scars on the tree-trunks, now as lepidopterous cracks and crannies of 
the rocks. The blackening of the resting-places of moths by the vast 
and continuous eruptions of smoke in manufacturing centres is ex- 
plained, and the great axiom is driven home that nothing in nature is 
fixed, everything is variable and capable of adaptation to its surround- 
ings, this adaptation ensuring the continued existence of the species. 
Besides, of course, the form and origin of markings which are pro- 
tective are speculated upon, and, speaking of the metallic spots and 
blotches displayed on the underside of the larger Fritillaries (Argi/miis 
aglakt being the species particularly referred to), Mr. Tutt writes : — 

" We may obtain a clue to the manner in whicli these silver spots 
have been developed from the relatives of this butterfly. Very many 
of these have sjiots somewhat similar in shape and position to those we 
see liere, but in some species they are pale yellow, in others white, 
whilst in many the spots are more or less of this metallic character. Is 
there any connection between the three colours ? Yes, it would appear 
from what we know that one is derived from the other ; probably the 
yellow gives rise to white, and this in turn to the metallic silveiy white. 
In a vei'y near relation, the High Brown Fritillary (Argi/nnis adippe), 
we find specimens which shows every possible gradation of size and 
development, as regards the spots, from entire absence of silver when 
the spots are pale yellow or whitish, until the spots unite to form silvery 
streaks. Here, then, the transition is very evident, and when we turn 
to those species in which the silver markings are now so fixed and con- 
stant, there can be but little doubt in our minds that the development 
has been a result of natural selection, and is of the greatest possible 
service to the insect. The insect before us closes its wings. How in- 
conspicuous it at once becomes, for, as it clings closely to a thistle-head, 
the shiny spots resemble very distinctly the shiny bracts around the 
capitulum on which the sun is shining." 

But the other orders of insects are not neglected, nor is the economic 
side of our science forgotten. We have discpiisitions on galls, and on 
the damage caused by Sesia, Zeuzera, Agrotis, Torlrix and many others 
whose habits of living are so destructive to trees, roots and grain. The 
varying metamorphoses of the dragon flies ond grasshoi:)pers, and the 
economies of the social Hymenoptera, are described and commented on, 
and while dealing with the last, Mr. Tutt gives the following explana- 
tion of the origin of the system of slavery prevalent in the nests of 
certain ants : — 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 203 

" How this slave-making instinct originated is doubtful. It is well 
known that ants which are not slave-makers will carry off pupaj of 
other s^Decies, to be used for food. If these pupte hatched before they 
w^ere requii-ed for that purpose, they would naturally do such work as 
they would have done in their own nest, and their presence proving 
useful to those in whose nests they found themselves, the collection of 
pupai would probably be persevered in, and in time such collection may 
have become the sole aim of certain species, their household duties in 
the same manner becoming gradually and at last entirely delegated to 
their prisoners." 

And now, when the evening is fast drawing on, and whilst the air ' 
is perfumed with the sweet scent of the " Wood-mother," as the 
Spaniards poetically term the honeysuckle, we j^art company with our 
Mentor. He leads us out of the marsh and leaves us beneath a haw- 
thorn bush, looking out over the weird flat country, and we are alone 
with Nature — alone, but with a feeling of gladness and peace, for are we 
not in the presence of the Great Mother whose manifold and wondrous 
works he has been endeavouring to make us more rightly and more 
clearly understand. We have only lightly skimmed this charming 
book, whose attractiveness is greatly heightened by copious illustrations ; 
it is a volume which will and must be read by every reasoning, right- 
thinking entomologist. — A. F. Bayne. 

Abstract of Proceedings of the South London Entomological and Natural 
History Society, for the Years 1S92 and 1S93. — We are pleased to ac- 
knowledge the receipt of this volume, and to bear witness to the libe- 
rality of some of the members of the Society, which enables the Council 
to publish such an interesting volume. There are at least two jDapers 
within its covers which would raise it far above the level of the common- 
place, even if there were no other matter of interest on its pages. These 
are the Presidential addresses delivered in 1892 by Mr. C. Gr. Barrett, 
and in 1893 by the late lamented Mr. J. Jenner Weir. The former is 
essentially an essay on Mimicry as exhibited in our native lepidoptera, 
written by a keen, observant and enthusiastic naturalist, who sees more 
than most people, remembers what he sees, and conveys clearly to his 
readers his own ideas of the bearing of the observations which he 
makes. It is an address, to overlook which is a serious loss to the 
lepidopterist who misses it ; an address which every student will re- 
quire for reference in the years to come. The other address is equally 
valuable. Thoughtful, closely-reasoned, and scientific is the criticism 
which Mr. Weir offers on Science as it is. Sympathetic and genial are 
his references to those whom we are pleased to own as our mastei's in 
the philosophical natural history of to-day. Intelligent and scientific 
are the remarks he makes on those points of the subject which he 
touches. It is a remarkable paper, which will long live in the memory of 
those of us who were privileged to know him. But these papers are 
by no means all. The notes accompanying the exhibits made by Messrs. 
Adkin, Weir, South, Tugwell, Hawes and others, are worthy of all 
praise. Three other papers, "Kemarks on Pieris napi and allied forms," 
"Notes on the Wet and Dry Season forms of certain species of 
Bhopidoccra " and " Isochromatous Lepidoptera," by Mr. Weir ; " Notes 
on the Cocoons of Erlogaster laneslris," ])y Mr. R. Adkin ; " On the un- 
usual abundance of Polyoinmatus phloeas in 1893," by Mr. Hawes, to- 
gether with other papers of perhaps equal interest, show that this is a 



204 THE entomologist's record. 

volume wliicli, from a scientific point of view, is of the utmost value, 
and which will have to iind a place on the book-shelves of all entom- 
ologists who wish to keep their knowledge of matters entomological up 
to date, and who wish to keep au courant with the members of this 
Society. The work is inxblished at the Society's rooms, Hiliernia 
Chambers, London Bridge, S.E., and its price is three shillings. — Ed. 



OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

Winchester. — The weather is too bad for words. The only thing 
worthy of note that I have done is to capture seven splendid Trlphaaia 
suhsequa, one of which woke me in my bedroom at two in the morning 
by settling on my face. I got uj) and boxed it on the window (most of 
which was open), being too sleepy to look what it was — purely out of 
revenge for being woken — meaning to slay it in the morning for rousing 
me from my slumbers. I did slay it — blessing and not cursing. — (liev.) 
G. M. A. Hewett. July 1894. 

Ireland. — Stainton's account of the larva of Eubolia mensnraria is: — 
" Hardly known, feeds on grass." Between the loth and 25th of June 
I found several larvae feeding exclusively on vetch by night. The 
ground colour is dull flesh-colour with rather darker linear stripes on 
the back and a row of black lateral stripes. On July 14th, along the 
shores of L. Erne I took a hundred and fifty Acentrojms niiwns flying 
about the flowers of P. pecthiatum. During this month I have found 
larvaj of Pygaera curtula on almost every sallow bush. — W. E. H. 
Porter, Belleisle, Lisbellaw, Co. Fermanagh. Jtily 24:th, 1894. 

Bainham, Essex. — Agrotis ohscura (rivnda) swarms here this year. 
From July 5th, when I captured the first specimen, up to the present 
time I have taken in all 96 specimens. Many of them are very finely 
marked. They begin to come to the sugar almost as soon as it is put 
on. My two best nights were July 21st and July 24th. On the former 
I secured 27 and on the latter 17 specimens. All the specimens but 
one were taken in my own garden ; that one was taken about a mile 
away, but sugar applied in several directions around here failed to yield 
any more. I have also noticed tliis year an extraordinary amount of 
variation in A. exclamationis, and have taken several specimens with tlie 
stigmata more or less united. My experience is too limited to enable 
me to say whether the variation is out of the common, but I cannot 
help thinking that many of the common species are given, here on the 
marshy ground, to considerable deviation ; there is no doubt that some 
are very different from the forms found on more elevated localities. I 
have had some strange catches this year. I took Dyschorista snspecfa 
(which, however, is fairly frequent at Brentwood) and also Erafitria 
fnf<cmn(i (fmcnia) in my garden. I thought the latter was a wood insect 

we have no woods at all. Acidalia trigeminata also is not rare. — 

(Rev.) C. K. N. Burrows. July 31s/', 1894. 



SOCIETIES. 

At the meeting of The South London Entomological and Natural 
History Society on June 14th, Mr. Adkin exhibited a very variable 



SOCIETIES. 2u5 

series of Cydostoma elegans, Miill. taken at Eeigate on June 9tli ; three 
hybernated specimens of Vanessa «/ih'o2?a from Montreal ; also a series 
(bred from Kannocli eggs) of Asteroscopus nubecnlot-a, some of which 
had been three years in pupa. Mr. Frohawk (on behalf of Mr. 
Fremlin) exhibited a specimen of Apatnra iris that was intermediate 
between the type and var. iole ; also (on behalf of Mr. South) a dwarf 
captured specimen of EiicMo'6 cardamines, measuring only 1\ inches in 
exjianse, and another specimen in which the apical j^atch was of two 
shades of yellow. Mr. Manger showed a specimen of Acherontia 
atrojjos from Shanghai. Mr. West (Greenwich) exhibited specimens of 
Cryptocephalus nitidulus, Gyll. and C. coryli, Linn, from Box Hill; 
also two very rosy males of Snierinthus popidi, which had been 
" assembled " by a bred female. Among a bred series of the same 
species brought by Mr. Filer was a male with the colouration of the 
female, and a specimen in which, the discoidal sjDot on the fore- wings 
was much smaller than in the rest of the brood, this sijecimen having 
emerged in A\;gust last. Mr. Step exhibited Helix rufescens and 
LymiKiea peregra var. acuminata from Epsom; also a side-blown egf of 

Helix pomatia, of which many were found at Eeigate. On June 28th 

the following exhibits, among others, were made : — Mr. C. Fenn : a 
bred series of Geometra p)tipHionaria, being jjart of a brood of which 
some of the remaining larvt\3 were not yet fully fed ; also a specimen 
of Heliothis peltigera, having the blotch in the dark border of the hind- 
wing very lai-ge. Mr. Dennis : eggs and young larva3 of Bomhyx rtibi 
from Eeigate. Mr. Turner: Lycaena bellargiis from Box Hill, some of 
the females having a consideral)le amount of the male colouration. 
Mr. Adkin : a specimen of Pachetra leucophaea, taken on a bank-side 
at Eeigate on the occasion of the Society's Field Meeting at that place 
on June 9th. Mr. Manger : a specimen of " British Coral " (Lepralis 
foliacea) taken from a portion of the French Atlantic cable, about sixty 
miles from Brest. 

The Birmingham Entomological Society met on May 21st, 1894, 
when Mr. A. H. Martineau exhibited pupas of Crabro intcrruptus which 
he had dug from a rotten stump at Middleton, in which locality he had 
previously met with the perfect insect. Mr. P. W. Abbott read a i)aper, 
of which, through the kindness of the author, we are enabled to <nve 
the following abstract : — 

On the Genus Hadena. — The author considered that the correct 
position of the genus would be next after Apamea; he only knew of 
the occurrence of nine species {p>rotea, glatica, dentina, dissimilis, oleracea, 
2>isi, thalassina, contigua, genistae), in the Birmingham district, but 
thought it probable that H. trifolii (chenopodii), might occur there. 
Tui-ning next to the subject of variation, Mr. Abbott said : — " So far 
as one is able to judge from a local race, it seems to me that Hadena 
glauca shows a large amount of ordinary variation ; but upon local 
races it is hardly safe to form an opinion ; however, the fact remains 
that this species exhibits in our district a large amount of variation. 
The feature that first strikes the eye, upon examining the series of this 
insect placed before you to-night (bred from this district), is the variety 
of the shades of colour, ranging from ashy-grey to smoky blue-black ; 
with (he darkening of the ground colour comes the intensifyino- of the 
orbicular and renitorm, and sometimes of the claviform — 1 say some- 
times, because the claviform is more often ochreous. I think I may 



206 THE entomologist's record. 

say that in this race the claviform is seldom constant, sometimes being 
so large as to almost obliterate the black bar-like mark beneath the 
orbicular and reniform, whilst occasionall}'^ it is entirely absent, and 
every degi'ee may be observed between these two extremes. In other 
cases you observe that the orbicular and reniform are only outlined in 
black on the hind-marginal side, and almost unite on the inner side, 
giving the appearance of a whitish-grey splash on the costal margin. 
When the fore- wings have a deep ground-colour, I usually find the 
hind-wings follow suit. I think I need say no more to show how 
variable this species is with us. In H. dentina, variation seems confined 
to the depth of colour, and our almost black local form presents a strong 
contrast to specimens from the South Coast." The i^aper concluded 
with the following notes on "the life-history of H. ylanca.'" — " The eggs 
are laid in batches on sallow in May, and are spherical and indented on 
the top, with a number of ribs from top to bottom ; they are of a pure 
white when first laid, changing to cream, and finally to a deep brown. 
The young larva emerges in about fourteen days, and rests on its food- 
plant in a sphinx-like attitude; it is of a pale green colour, changing with 
the several changes of skin, first to a darker tint of sap-green with a pale 
green stripe in the region of the spiracles, then to a rich velvety bistre 
brown, indeed almost black. When the larva is full-fed, the head is 
joale shining brown and is narrower than the second segment, and the 
body gradually thickens towards the end ; the larva is then hairless, 
and in colour a pale umber brown, with an indistinct medio-dorsal 
stripe and a dirty- white line in the region of the spiracles ; the back 
is reticulated with darker shades of brown, and the spiracles are 
pure white. If annoyed, it is extremely irritable, and falls to the 
ground, lashing out in all directions. It pupates just below the surface 
of the ground in a loose cocoon of silk and earth. The puj^a has a 
squarish tail with four spines, and every segment is armed with a ring 
of spines ; it is very active, moving at the slightest touch ; its colour is 

pale mahogany-brown, turning to black before emergence." On 

June ISth, Diptera and Hymenoptera were to the front. Of the former, 
Mr. Bradley exhibited Syrphm trianguJifer (new to Britain), Cheilosia 
clirysocana, etc., and Mr. Wainwright, Si/rphns annulipes (new to Britain). 
Of the latter, Mr. H. Martineau showed Osiiu'a xauthoniclana, Andrena 
hucephala, Noiiiada ochroctana, a remarkably dark form of Bomhus 
mmcarum, etc. All the foregoing were captured at Selsley, at Whit- 
suntide. Of Lepidoptera, Mr. Bradley showed a specimen of Thecla 
ruhi, which had no trace of white markings on the underside. Mr. 
Kossitcr : Chacrocampa porcellus, Notodonta dictaea, etc., from Wyre 
Forest. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
May loth, 1894.— Mr. T. L. Bix, of 20, Hartham Koad, Tottenham, 
was elected a member of the Society. Exhibits : — Mr. Battley ; 
preserved larvaj of Miana striijiUs showing two distinct forms of color- 
ation, viz. grass-green and dirty cream colour, and a third form inter- 
mediate between these two. Mr. Clark ; a bred series of Aleucis 
pictaria from the New Forest. Mr. May ; larviB of Geometra papilion- 
aria from Hayes, Kent. Dr. Sequeira ; varieties of Ennomos quercinaria, 
including a fine dark-banded form. Mr. Prout remarked that some 
larvae of Miava fwrmicula, which he had once bred, were very similar 
to those of M. atriyilis exhibited by Mr. Battley. Mr. Battley stated 



SOCIETIES. r.,,. l,! -..1 207 

that, during a visit to the New Forest at Whitsuntide, lie had taken a 
larva (nearly half-grown) of Apatnra iris from the same branch of 
sallow from wliich he took one in 1892. Captain Thompson said that 
he had received a letter from a Birmingham correspondent, who wrote 
that he had captured about twenty specimens of Neuronia pojmlaris, 
flying low over the grass in Epping Forest, and that they had revealed 
their whereabouts by a slight clicking noise. Mr. Trout, Mr. Nicholson 
and others referred to other instances of clicking noises produced by 
butterflies and moths. 

June 5th, 1894 — Exhibits: Dr. Buckell; two eggs of the common 
fowl, connected at the small ends by an albuminous band ; they had 
separate yolks and the shells were quite soft. Mr. Clark ; three female 
specimens of Endromis versicolor, bi'ed from Monmouthshire ova. 
Mr. S. J. Bell ; three pupa3 of Pseudoterpna pruinnta. One of these 
was of a greenish tint, the larva having spun up in a leaf; one was 
suffused with very dark grey, the larva having pupated in a cocoon on 
the surface of the earth ; the third was normal, although the larva had 
mingled particles of earth in its cocoon. Mr. May ; a blackish suffused 
male specimen of Ellopia prosapiaria from Weybridge. Mr. Bayne ; a 
specimen of Notodonfa dictaea from Wood Green. Mr. Mera ; a bred 
series of Cidaria silaceata from Morpeth ; they were similar to southern 
specimens. Mr. Nicholson ; two specimens of Atelahus curculiouoides 
from Epping Forest. Mr. Battley ; Pyrrochroa serraticornis from 
Loughton. Mr. Bacot read the following : — 

" Notes on tue Ova of Selenia tetkalunaria. — On April 7th I 
paired a bred ? of this species with a perfectly sound ^ captured in 
Epping Forest; they remained together from 12.15 p.m. to 9.30 a.m. 
and were in no way interfered with. Both were rather large speci- 
mens ; the 2 was very dark and the c? very light in colour. The J 
commenced laying the next night, and continued to lay a few eggs each 
night for eight or ten days. The eggs, bright green in colour, were 
generally laid singly and attached by their side to the box. On April 
13th I noticed two or three bright red eggs in the chip-box, and there 
were a few more observed on subsequent days. Altogether the batch 
consisted of 8 of these red eggs and 13G green ones. The first larva? 
hatched on May 8th, and a few more appeared during the next few 
days, but onli/ the red eggs were fertile. My impression is that these 
were not laid until the 12th, as I could see no change or difference of 
colour in any of the eggs up to that day. I examined them every 
morning, and am qiiite sure that while there were no red ones in the 
box on the morning of the 12th, there were two or three present on 
the 13th. It is strange that such a small number should have been 
fertilised, seeing that copulation was in no way interfered with. It 
would appear to have been a few of the eggs fi'om the middle of the 
batch that proved fertile, and not those first laid, as might have been 
expected." 

June Idth, 1894. — Exhibits : Dr. F. J. Buckell : a specimen of 
Pararge cgeria, sent by Mr. Hodges from Guernsey, which was very 
nearly identical with the Linntean type (egeria), which diffei-s from the 
ordinary British form (really var. egerides, Stdgr.) in having the spots 
dark brownish-orange instead of straw-coloured. Mr. Battley : various 
species of Taeniocampa from Broxbourne, including a specimen of T. 
stabilis with the stigmata confluent on both fore-wings, a single line 



208 THE entomologist's record. 

sniTouncIing both ; Mr. Bate said he had bred a similar specimen tliis 
year. Mr. Clark : several specimens of Selenia Innarid, forming part 
of a brood which had been gradually emerging since Christmas last. 
Capt. Thompson : cocoons of Plmia festucae, sent by Mr. Arkle from 
Chester, witli an accompanying letter to the effect that he had taken 
them on the 13th of June spun up in leaves of sedge ; the leaves were 
bent downwards at an obtuse angle by the contraction of the silk of 
which the cocoons were made ; this bending did not take jilace with 
the yellow iris on which they were occasionaUi/ found, but on which 
the larva readily feeds. Mr. Prout : a bred specimen of Melanippe 
sociata of a yellowish tinge ; this specimen had lain over in pupa 
throughout the winter, the remainder of the brood having emerged in 
the previous autumn. Mr. Bate : a specimen of Polyoinmatus virgaureae, 
which was given to him by the son of the Rev. S. Fellowes of Pulham 
St. Mary Magdalene, Norfolk, at which place he believes it was taken 
about ten years ago. Mr. Francis Buckell of Romsey, Hampshire, who 
was present as a visitor, exhibited drawings, made by himself, of the 
microscopic appearance (under a magnifying power of about 3U0 
diameters) tf the Pollen-gkains of many species of plants. He said 
that he was not aware of any record of observations on this subject. 
He had already examined and sketched the pollen-grains of nearly 700 
species of plants, and found that there was considerable diversity as 
regards their shape, size, colour and density. The usual colour was 
yellow, but some were purplish-black and others of a beautiful red, 
whilst those of the grasses were transparent like glass. The prevalent 
shape was some form of oval, and the species composing each Natural 
Order presented broadly (with a few singular exceptions) a general 
similarity as regards their pollen. Thus in the Compositae the grains 
were round or oval, and furnished with a large number of projections ; 
the UmheUiferae had smooth narrow spindle-shaped grains ; those of 
OiKKjraceae were mostly veiy large and triangular, and often with 
marked ])rojections at the angles ; the jiollen of the Boragineae was 
somewhat like a short dumb-bell, and one of the genei'a in this order, 
Mi/osotis, presented grains of excessive minuteness, although curiously 
the species with the smallest flower (M. versicolor) had the largest 
pollen of any in the genus. In the Geraniaceae the grains of the 
species with the smallest flowers were quite as large as of those with 
the largest. A very curious shape characterised the pollen of Liiananthcs 
douglasii, each grain being somewhat like a two-legged stool. The 
grains of some species of the genus Sahna presented tlie most beautiful 
and elaborate surface-markings. Mr. Buckell suggested that the 
explanation of the varied forms of the pollen-grains would have to be 
sought, partly in the stigmatic exigencies of the flowers and partly in 
the structure of the organs of the different insects engaged in fertilising 
the ovules by carrying the pollen from one flower to another ; doiibtless 
a process of evolution with regard to the grains might be discovered by 
careful investigation of the various orders, genera and species. 
Amongst the drawings exhibited was one showing the results of an 
examination of the pollen from the leg of a humble-bee ; there were 
grains from five or six diffei'ent species, and it was evident that this 
humble-bee, at all events, had not limited its visits to a single species 
of flower, as is alleged to be the case with the honey-l^ee. 



<^^ AND ^^^4 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION- 



No. 9. Vol. V. Septejiber 15th, 1894. 

©BITUARY. 

WILLIAM MACHIN. 

Born 1822. Died August 13tb, 1894. 

Another veteran entomologist lias passed from among us. A 
kind-hearted genial friend, an upright and conscientious man, a keen 
and enthusiastic le^jidopterist, an observant and diligent student of 
nature was William Machin whose loss we deplore to-day. Born in 
Bristol in 1822 and brought up as a compositor, he is to be numbered 
among that large band of entomologists in whom an innate love of nature 
has developed itself in spite of the drawbacks attendant upon want of 
leisure and of a first-class education. From the first his entomology 
was not carried out on a collection-making basis, although he has 
always been an ardent and diligent field-worker, and his very earliest 
records of captures made in the entomological magazines are accompanied 
by notes of their habits and life-histories. One of that jjioneer 
band who aided Mr. Stainton in the •' fifties " to collect the material 
relating to the life-histories of the Tineina, he achieved remarkable 
success in the rearing of the members of this heterogeneous 
group, and the remarkably fine setting resulting from the 
careful manipulation of his insects soon made his duplicate specimens 
of the smaller species much desired by his bi'other entomologists, 
especially those of the old Haggerstone society, of which I believe 
he was an original member. Many were the communications he 
made to the old Weekly InteUiycncer and to the early volumes of 
The Entomologist. In 1856 we find his name mentioned in the 
" List of British Entomologists " which Mr. Stainton compiled for 
the Entomologist's Annual of that year, whilst a glance through the 
lists of rare species captured and published in each year in those 
interesting volumes reveals his name over and over again, far too 
many times to be repeated here. Pkoxopteryx upujmna at West 
Wickham, the breeding of Betinia sylvestrana from rinns picea, 
with rare Etachistas and Coleophorae are mentioned among his 
discoveries. From these we find that the genus Coleophora was 
an especial favourite with him, and to his keenness and discrimination 
we first owe Coleophora vibicigcrella and C. maritiinella as British 



210 THE entomologist's record. 

species, whilst the marshes on both banks of the Thames, especially 
towards its mouth, were among his favom-ite hunting grounds. 
But he did not neglect the Macros, and the careful notes and 
dates which he kept of the species he bred often proved of the 
greatest value, and he published a considerable quantity of data 
at the time of a furious discussion on " The prior emergence of 
male and female Lepidoptera " in The Entomologist, vol. iii. As 
an example of the number of species he frequently bred in a 
season, we find a very long list in 1868 (Id., pp. 12G and 154). 
Latterly his health has been very unsatisfactory and more than 
one serious attack of illness has prostrated him, but breeding insects 
still kept all its old charm for him, and to his kindness many 
of us owe our lovely specimens of Phorodesma smaragdaria. So 
recently as April 17th last it was my i)leasure to have a chat witli 
my old friend, and although I expressed the hope that his health 
would improve, suffering was evidently written on his features 
and the disease (cancer) from which he died had left a serious mark 
on him. To the end his active interest in Entomology was maintained, 
and he was perfectly an fait with every addition to the British 
fauna. Even so lately as in the July number of The Entomologists 
Record an exchange notice appeared offering one of his earliest 
loves — SeJenia lunaria. He has exceeded the three score years and ten 
allotted to man, he has led a hai)py and useful if unobtrusive life, 
opened up for us some of the many bye-ways to Nature's secrets, 
endeared himself to many friends who will not blot out readily the 
memory of liiui from their minds. His collection is a very fine one, 
being especially rich in Tortuices and Tineina and the whole are in 
the most perfect condition. It is one of those reliable collections 
composed entirely of British species which represent a labour of love 
spread over a man's whole life. — J. W. Tui't. 



1'lie Life-fJistory of a Lepidopterous Ii^sect, 

Comprising some account of its Morphology and Physiology. 

By J W. TUTT, F.E.S. 

(Continued from page 195). 



Chap. IV. 
EMBEYOLOGY. 

5. — On the limitation of the subject in the present paper. — 
As I have already stated, the embryonic life of an insect must be held 
to include all the stages between the fertilization of the ovum and the 
emergence of the imago. The following notes, however, only deal with 
that portion of the embryonic development which takes place within 
the egg, and it must be understood that hereafter I use the term embryo 
with that limitation. 

6. — On the method of observing the changes that take place 
in the egg. — This can only be done by the aid of a microscope. In 
examining eggs with a microscope, very little in the way of apparatus 
is necessary. My own instrument is a very simple one with no 



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A LEPIDOPTEROUS INSECT. 211 

accessories, and I do my work with two lenses, a 2^3 and i/s, which I 
find sufficient for all practical purposes. Should anyone wish to go 
more deeply into the subject, his requirements will teach him what he 
must get in addition, but, for the simple observation of development in 
the egg, this is sufficient. When we have placed a suitable egg under 
the microscope, and watched the various changes which it undergoes, 
we are compelled to admit that — 

•' There is a wondrous workshop here, 
E'en in this dainty little pod, 
Here that mj'sterious workman Life, 
Builds matchless temples to his God." 

To get eggs for this purpose, take an ordinary glass tube and enclose 
a few females of some common Tortrix moths. They will usually lay 
eggs on the glass, and their egg-shells are so transparent, that the 
changes may be most readily observed. The eggs of Pararge megaera, 
Nemeobius lucina, and many others, are also good objects for this 
purpose. 

7. — On killing eggs in which the embryo is developing for 
FUTURE observation. — It is sometimes inconvenient to study the em- 
bryological changes which go on in an egg under a microscope at the time 
that they actually occur, and in Insect life (vol. i., p. 316) a very good 
method is described, by which the eggs may be killed and preserved for 
future observation, although it is one which requires a considerable 
amount of care in manipulation. The eggs are obtained in the ordinary 
course, and as soon as a batch is laid, the eggs are distributed in a 
number of homceopathic phials, each about one inch high, with data, 
etc., on the cork. At the end of the first day one phial is filled with 
carbolic acid, another on the second day, and so on, until on the last 
day a bottle is filled containing newly-hatched larvte. It is found that 
the acid renders the eggs perfectly transparent, so that the embryo can 
be observed in various stages of development. The recorder states that 
he mounts in benzole balsam direct from the carbolic acid. Of coui'se 
there are many insects whose eggs cannot be served in this way ; at 
the same time there are hundreds of species whose eggs can be thus 
manipulated. Mr. Woodvvorth describes another method of attainino- 
this end: — "The method of preparation which seems to have given 
the best results, is to kill by heating in water at 8U"C, which fixes the 
tissues very well. Eggs must now be punctured with a sharp needle. 
This is essential in order that the reagents used may j^enetrate. The 
most satisfactory stains are Grenachar's borax carmine, and Czochar's 

cochineal. The latter is especially good. It is prepared as follows : 

Place 1 gramme each of cochineal and burnt alum in a mortar, and 
reduce to a powder; add lOU cc. of distilled water, and boil until there 
are but 60 cc, cool and filter ; a few drops of carbolic acid should be added 
as a preservative. The hardness of the egg-shell makes the egg very 
difficult to section, but if removed, it is so delicate as to be almost certain 
to go to pieces during the further manipulation. The parafin metliod 
of imbedding was employed, and the sections cut on the rockino- 
microtome made by the Cambridge Instrument Co." 

8. — On the formation of the egg. — The evolution of every livino- 
being from a single unicellular germ is an established fact of science. 
The egg in insects is not quite the earliest condition of the creature 
because the primitive ovule can be traced back to the ovuriole or even 
to the primitive ovary before the ovariole is developed. 



212 THE entomologist's record. 

The primitive ovary is composed of a mass of cells, which after a 
time become covered with a coating of connective tissue. The cells 
are then said to fuse to form what is called a syncytium. To learn the 
earliest condition of the egg, it is almost certainly necessary to examine 
the structures forming the ovaries present in the pupal or even larval 
stage. 

In the ovaries of butterflies there would appear to be, besides the 
cells that form the syncytium, three other kinds of cells — the egg- 
cells proper, epithelial cells, and nutritive cells. At the time of 
emergence of the butterfly from the chrysalis, the ovarioles are well 
developed, and consist of long slender filaments made up of divisions 
which have been called " oval units " or " egg-chambers." Those egg- 
chambers nearest the external portion of the ovary are larger than those 
which are more interior, and the egg^-cells in them can be distinguished 
from the epithelial and nutritive cells by their better-developed nucleus 
and nucleoli. 

An egg-chamber is formed by the rapid multiplication of epithelial 
cells, forming columnar stnictures surrounding the egg - cell. 
When the egg-chamber has increased to almost the size of a fully- 
formed egg, the egg-cell commences to grow rapidly at the expense of 
the epithelial cells, Avhich surround it and form the egg-chamber, the 
latter being finally reduced to a ]iractically infinitesimal quantity of 
waste. The ni;cleus in the egg-cell also grows rapidly, and occupies a 
position on one side and near the upper end of the cell ; it has a dis- 
tinct nucleolus. As the egg approaches maturity tlie nucleolus dis- 
ajDpears in the nucleus, the latter also afterwards disappearing and 
apparently diffusing itself in the yelk. 

The egg is now really a mass of yelk, surrounded and embedded in 
living protoplasm ; then another nucleus is developed and forms the 
female pronucleus, which also is surrounded liy protoplasm. This at 
the time of fertilisation sinks into the yelk. The pronucleus and the 
protoplasm subdivide into cells each with a nucleiis and plasma, and 
the surrounding yelk is used as food. The increase and development 
of these cells continue Avith the consequent degeneration and absorption 
of the yelk. There appears to be a certain amount of analogy between 
the breaking up of the yelk and its consequent destruction as such, 
together with the building up of nucleated cells therefrom, and the 
histolysis of the pupal tissues. 

9. — On the development of the embryo in the egg. — At the time 
that the egg is laid the main mass of it is made up of yelk-spherules. 
These spherules become granular, and the granules gradually replace 
the spherules and are themselves again changed into yelk-cells, the 
probability being that they are thus changed in order to form suitable 
nourishment for the young embryo. At this time the newly-formed 
blastoderm-cells begin to pass towards the circumference, leaving the 
degenerated yelk-cells in the centre. In addition to these yelk- 
spherules, the egg contains a homogeneous fluid which has the ordinary 
composition of proto])lasm, and consists essentially of the chemical 
elements — carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The great charac- 
teristic of this protoplasmic fluid is its vitality, its abilit}^ to break up 
and sub-divide, to develop cellular structure, and to build up tissue from 
the cells produced by cell-division. After fertilisation the protoplasmic 
fluid inside the ovum remains in a homogeneous condition for a certain 



THE LIFK-HISTORY OF A LEPIDOPTEROUS INSECT. 213 

tmie ; this varies for different species, biit is comparatively constant in tlie 
same species. The lirst change that the protoplasm undergoes is that of 
the ordinary yelk-segmentation, but, once this is set up, development con- 
tinues generally with more or less rapidit3\ The segmentation starts at 
a point on the surface of the yelk called the " first segmentation nucleus," 
and this nucleus undergoes cell-division in such a manner as to form 
a superficial blastodermic layer ; side by side with this process of 
segmentation, the yelk sejijarates from the outside cell- wall and appears 
to become enveloped in a sac. The blastodermic layer (or layer of 
segmentation cells) has an elongated ventral plate formed in it, and in 
tliis the development of the embryo commences. This ventral plate 
broadens anteriorly, but the posterior part is divided transversely into 
segments. This development is at once followed up by the formation 
of a longitudinal depression, the outer sac gradually enclosing this 
depression on either side until at last the opposite sides of the epiblast, 
or outside layer of cells undergoing segmentation, unite over the de- 
pression, leaving it as a longitudinal tube. This becomes detached as a 
solid cellular mass, which splits into two longitudinal (mesoblastic) bands. 
At this period it would appear that the amnion is formed. Dr. Osborne 
writes: — (Science Gossij), \ol. xxi.) "After the yelk has become sur- 
rounded by the growth of cells called the blastoderm and after the germinal 
stripe, or foundation of the embryo has been differentiated along one side 
of this blastoderm, a double fold of the latter grows up all round the cir- 
cumference of the germinal stripe and finally closes in over it, the edges 
of the fold fixing together and the two layers (of blastoderm) of which it 
is composed, at the same tinle separating from one another. The inner 
of these continuous with the embryo itself, and lying immediately over 
it, is the amnion ; the outer, continuous with the blastoderm surround- 
ing the yelk, is the serous membrane. Two sacs are thus formed, the 
one within the other, and between them lies the yelk. In the lejji- 
dopterous egg the yelk next finds its way into the space between the 
amnion and the serous membrane, flowing over the former and depressing 
it and the embryo beneath it till both are completely submerged in yelk, 
and consequently hidden from view." After this the mesoblastic bands 
become divided into somites, and the first traces of the ventral segments 
may be noticed, followed by the appearance of the three thoracic seg- 
ments. The somites coalesce and the common body- cavity thus enclosed 
is called the coelom. The three thoracic segments bear legs. The head, 
which appears to be formed of four segments, and the eye-spots (of 
which there are two clusters of six, placed at the base of the 3rd seg- 
ment, reckoning from behind forwards) are then developed, followed in 
turn by the ventral prolegs. The inner part of the hypoblast is ab- 
sorbed to form the alimentary canal. The cells now contained between 
the outside egg-wall and the newly-formed alimentary canal divide 
up into clusters, which are gradually dift'erentiated into the various 
internal organs. The first of these to be formed is the dorsal vessel, 
which is so called because it is placed in the dorsal part of the larva ; 
this corresponds with the heart of the higher animals. The otlier 
organs gradually undergo differentiation, and the mouth organs also 
become developed. At this period of development faint pulsations of 
the dorsal vessel are discernible. The separation of the alimentary 
canal into an oesophagus, a widened sac or stomach, and another con- 
tracted tube or intestine is clearly discernible, whilst the outer proteid 



214 THE entomologist's record. 

part of the egg-contents is probably absorbed by cutaneous endosmosis. 
The trachefe are developed from the spiracles inwards, but do not 
become visible until injected with air. Such are the broad outlines of 
the larval development in the egg. From a tiny mass of protoplasm 
in the yelk of the egg we get a larva produced such as we know it 
when newly hatched. The egg-shell of most of our larger species is 
too opaque to allow these changes to be seen, but they can be readily 
observed in the eggs of Tortrices or Pyralides, owing to the thinness 
of the walls of the eggs in these gToups. 

10. — On the early changes observed in the eggs of Vanessa anti- 
OPA. — Mr. Woodworth (Butt, of New England) gives the following account 
of these : — " The earliest stage known in the development of the egg 
is when there are about twenty cells present. These are about uniform 
in size, and all at (juite a distance from each other, for at this stage as 
soon as a cell divides the resultant cells separate. This is facilitated 
by the degenerated condition of the yelk-spherules in this region ; the 
cells are amoeboid in shape, and the nucleus very indistinct but of con- 
siderable size ; after dividing several times the cells arrange themselves 
in line and commence a migTation towards the circumference. In going 
through the degenerated yolk they sometimes leave, trailing out behind 
them, a long j^rocess of protoj^lasm ; on reaching the edge of this region 
they pause, gather themselves together and plunge into the mass of 
undifferentiated yolk. While in transit, the cells divide so as to keep 
about the same distance apart ; the}'^ do not all reach the edge at the 
same time, but those on one side take their station long before the 
others. On reaching the protoplasmic laj^er, the cells at once appro- 
priate that immediately before them and so increase rapidly in size. 
Owing to the granular material in the absorbed jDrotoplasm, the cell- 
plasma becomes darker and the still unaltered nucleus becomes very 
distinct. On the outside of the protoplasmic layer there was a layer of 
greyish material ; this now forms a cap over each cell and extends 
down each side for a considerable distance. When all these cells have 
reached the circumference of the egg the blastoderm may be sujijiosed 
to be fully formed, though at no time do all the cells that form it 
resemble each other ; some commence their further development before 
the others reach their proper position ; the blastoderm is complete aboi;t 
twenty-four hours after dejiosition. Besides the blastoderm-cells there 
are in the centre of the egg a large number of other cells, mostly yolk- 
cells ; they have no definite arrangement, but are j)retty evenly distri- 
buted over the whole egg." 

" The blastoderm-cells on one side of the egg continue to divide, so 
that when the blastoderm is complete, the cells on one side are much 
smaller in diameter than on the other ; they have, however, increased 
in thickness, and so made a thicker and more compact layer ; this is the 
beginning of the ventral j)late. The cells which make up this structure 
are at the bottom of the egg, and extend half-way up one side. The 
transition between this area is quite abrupt. In the farther develop- 
ment, the ventral ]ilate sinks deejier into the yelk. This is accomplished 
within three days after deposition. The first indication of the process, 
is a slight infolding of tlie upper end ; the blastoderm-cells begin to 
grow over the ventral plate from this point, and extend down the sides ; 
the edge of the ventral plate sinks down at the same time. During this 
process of infolding, the whole ventral plate begins an upward move- 



THE LIFE-HISTOKY OF A LEl'lDOl'TEKOUS JlSSEcT. 215 

ment, and increases somewhat in size ; when the infolding is complete, 
that is, when the outfolded edges of the blastoderm cells have met and 
closed over the whole ventral plate, the latter is about as long as the 
egg, but so curved as only to reach about three-fourths way to the to}). 
It will be seen that the embryo has now two layers of cells outside of it, 
one extending all around, and the other only across the outside face of 
the ventral plate ; between these two layers the yolk penetrates freely. 
Great confusion exists as to the nomenclature of the membranes, but I 
prefer to follow Balfour in this matter, and designate the inner as the 
amnion, and the outer as the serous membrane, though the reverse is 
perha^DS the more common practice. From this history of their forma- 
tion it is evident, that both layers and the ventral plate are modified 
blastoderm-cells, and that the membranes can in no sense be called 
moultings of the ventral plate." 

11. On THE EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF ToKTKIX FERRUGANA. — I 

have recently been studying the embryonic development of Tortrix ferrn- 
gana. It appears certain that there are in its embryo four distinct cephalic 
segments, which in the early stages of embryonic development are large, 
(compared with the other segments which are developed later), and are 
made still more distinct by the possession of buds or processes. As 
development goes on, these four segments get welded together, and 
become not only proportionately, but absolutely smaller than at first. 
When the abdominal segments are in course of development, there 
certainly appear to be eleven of them. The three thoracic segments are, 
in the early stages of development, large and almost circular, and the 
next segment (1st abdominal) is of the same character, looking at this 
time much more like a thoracic than an abdominal segment, though it 
has, of course, no appendages. The eye-sj^ots in this species are re- 
markably conspicuous as two reddish jjatches, and become apparent at 
about the same time that the abdominal segments first show. As 
development proceeds, the cells of the develo2)ing T. ferrugana appear 
to be stained here and there with red patches, esj)ecially along the 
ventral area of the alimentary canal, but differently distributed in 
different examples ; these afterwards spread over the whole of the 
embryo. Dr. Chapman suggests that this colour is 23robably connected 
with the larval skin. "When the embryo begins to show traces of 
segmentation, the thoracic segments are seen to develop three pairs of 
jointed buds or legs. At this time the embryo occujjies a soiuewhat 
curved position, with the head slightly bent round towards the anal 
extremity, but with the legs outside, i.e., the larva is bent back on itself 
so as to form a curve agreeing roughly with the curvature of the shell, 
with what afterwards becomes the ventral surface of the larva outside, 
and the dorsum towards the centre. The embryo then gradually 
changes its position, the anal segment curling round and being })us]ied 
by the growth of the preceding abdominal segments, slowly up tlic 
ventral surface of the larva, whilst the dorsum gets j)ushed out, as it 
were, towards the centre of the egg. During this process the embryo 
becomes shaped something like the letter S, the movement continuing 
until a complete reversal of the embryo has been effected ; the next 
stage is that in which the head and anus are in contact, each half run- 
ning almost parallel, and this again is followed by an almost circular 
position, in which the dorsal area is outside, and the ventral surface 
(with the legs) on the inside. The head diuing all this time scarcely 



216 THE entomologist's record. 

changes its position. Very little further change in position takes place, 
the embryo by this time occuj^j'ing all the available space in the egg. 

12. — Keversal of position of embryo in EGfis. — In dealing with 
the embryonic development of Toririx ferrugana, I have shown that, 
during the first stages of development, the ventral side of the embryo 
is external, or lies along the convex side of the egg, development 
commencing (as is usual in the Ai'ticulata and Vertebrata) on the 
ventral side of the insect, and that, as development and the growth of 
the segments proceed, the embryo, on account of the turning of the 
anal segment and its gradual upward movement, and that of the grow- 
ing segments behind it along the venter, changes its position, the ventral 
part of the embryo gets turned towards the centre of the egg, whilst 
the dorsal part is turned towards the outside. 

Dr. Osborne (E.M.M., vol. xix., pp. 99-100), writing upon the way 
in which this reversal of position is brought about, says : — " How it 
gets into this position, if it develops in the usual Arthropod way, is a 
point which I have only seen adverted to by Kowalevski. Speaking 
of the development of Sphiiix popnli and Gasiropaclia pini, he says 
(" Embryolog. Studien an Wiirmern und Arthropoden." Memoires dc 
V Acad. Imp. des Sciences de St. Petersburg, Series vii., Tom. xvi.. No. 12, 
p. 56) : — ' Wenn der Eiicken schon gebildet ist, biegt sich das Schwan- 
zende des Embryo auf die Bauchseite und zwar so, wie wir schon beini 
Hydrophihts gesehen haben. Dem Hinterende folgend, dreht sich der 
ganze Embryo so, dass er jetzt der ihn noch bedeckenden serijsen Hiille den 
Kiicken zuwendet, und die Extremitiiten erscheinen nach innen gerichtet. 
In diesem Zustande, mit fast vollstiindig ausgebildeten Organen, 
bleibt der Embryo vollstiindig in dcm ihn umgebenden Dotter, den er nun 
vermittelst der unterdessen voUstandig ausgebildeten Mundorgane zu 
verschlucken beginnt * * * die * Larve liegt [jetzt] schraubenfurmig 
auf der Bauchseite Zusammengerollt bis sie das Chorion zerreisst und 
ins Freie gelangt.' The embryo of the sawfly, Zaraea fasciata, does not, 
at any rate, get into the loop position by any molar movement of this sort. 
When the })Osterior end of the growing embryo has reached the remote 
end of the egg, it is bent ventrally on itself, and so grows forAvards till 
the tail comes in contact with the head. As the length of the embryo 
still continues to increase, the head is withdrawn to about the middle 
of the straight or upjDcr side of the egg, and the larva about to hatch 
lies in a spiral, Avith the tail opposite the head on the other side of the 
body. It turns its sharp mandibles towards the shell, bites at it and 
draAvs it in till it is pierced and, by means of a foot thrust through the 
ojiening, draAvs the flexible chorion still more Avithin the power of the 
mandibles, Avhich soon eifect an opening large enough for its escape. 
This ingroAvth A^entrally of the caudal end of the embryo appears to be 
not uncommon in the Arthropoda, Avhere the length of the embryo 
exceeds that of the shell, and occurs even in the case of the globular 
egg of Astncus, as described by Huxley {The Cray-fish, p. 2U3). In 
the case of an embryo making such a rcA'olution in the egg as that 
described by KoAvalevski, the head Avould occuijy two different positions 
in the same end of the egg, relativel}^ to two 02:)iD0site sides before and 
after the revolution. The egg of Rumia crataegata would be specially 
favourable for making this obserA'ation ; the shell at the cej^halic end 
being distinguished by an ellii)Soidal ridge : the pointed end of the 
ellipsoid corresponds Avith the position of the head of the larva just 



CURRENT NOTES. 



217 



before hatching ; and, of course, the rounded end to tliat of the tail. 
While the embryonic venter is still external, the relative positions of 
these parts, on Kowalevski's principles, should be just the reverse." 



guRRENT NOTES. 

i\lr. Butler refers our Plusia verticillata, Gn. to Pliisia eriosoma, 
Doubleday, Bieff. New Zeal, i., p. 285, n. 114 (1843). It would be 
well if this were thoroughly investigated. 

Mr. Hodgkinson reports a specimen of Stigmonota ravulana caught in 
May at Grange-over-Sands. Mr. Dale adds Sesia coyiopiformis to the 
British fauna, but it would be well if this were confirmed by some other 
authoritative entomologist. Pieris dapUdice is recorded from Addington 
(Croydon) by Mr. N. H. Joy, and from Margate by Mr. S. Cooper. 
Mr. G. Kichardson of Beckham records five P. leucophaea from Wye, 
Kent, and it is also recorded from the same locality by Mr. Chittenden ; 
Plusia moneta from Dover, Tonbridge, Tunbridge Wells, W^eybridge, 
Merrow (Guildford), and Sprowston (Norwich), whilst Mr. Waller 
records the breeding of two specimens of S2)hin.v pinastri from larva? 
captured in Suffolk. The most startling record of the year thus far, 
however, is the capture of two larvae of Catephia alchymista in Abbot's 
Wood on July 5th, by Mr. H. W. Sheplieard-Welwyn. These larva? 
would undoubtedly have been objects of interest had they been 
exhibited at one of the London Societies' meetings, but they s]jun up 
next day. One would hardly have expected that any resident British 
entomologist would have been able to identify larv?B of C. alchymista 
off-hand, and probably the record is erroneous. It would also be well 
to enquire whether July 5th is at all a likely date for the pupation of 
the larv£e of this species. 

A strange example of Zygaena trifolii with two normal fore-wings, 
the left hind-wing replaced b}^ another wing exactly similar to the 
fore- wing and the right hind-wing absent was taken by Mr. Christy on 
June 18th in W'est Sussex. Mr. J. E. K. Allen records the capture of 
a specimen of Zygcena piloselke with the usual red on all the wings 
rei^laced by pale yellow. 

The British Naturalist for August contains an important contribution 
to economic entomology in the shape of a comprehensive paper 
(illustrated) on " The Hessian Fly " (Cecidomya destructor) by Mr. F. 
V. Theobald, M.A. If our Government were alive to their duties, they 
would reprint this paper and circulate it widely among farmers. Mr. 
Dale propounds further conundrums, but his inability to apprehend a 
joke almost suggests that he must have Scotch blood in his veins. 

Micro-lepidopterists have just added another species to the British 
fauna. It was discovered by that keen observer Mr. W. Farren at the 
end of June, 1893, and during the first fortnight of July, 1894, by 
sweeping herbage near Cambridge. The species is described and 
figured by Lord Walsingham in tlie current Ko. of the Ent. Mo. Mag. 
under the name of Cataplectica farreni. Cataplectica is a new genus, 
created by Lord Walsingham for the reception of profugella, anro- 
maculata, fulvrguttella, statariellu, laserpjiticlla, silerinella and farreni, the 



218 THE ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD. 

genus Heydenia, in which these species have been previously placed, 
being retained for devotella, which has the " veins 7 and 8 of the fore 
wings separate," whilst Catcqjhctica has "veins 7 and 8 of the fore 
wings stalked," 

IJr. H. Guard Knaggs, discussing the value of various moth-grease 
solvents, says : — "Methylated chloroform docs its work more quickly, 
with less waste than ether, and without the slightest danger of causing 
a conflagration ; either of the ethers (methylated ether, pure ether, 
petroleum ether) mentioned, on the other hand, turns out a better 
finish, besides being less powerfully ana?sthetic than chloroform, while 
the price of the methylated preparation is comparatively insignificant. 
On the whole, I still consider methylated ether to be the most serviceable 
for entomological purposes, especially at the price " (E. M. 31.). 

Mr, K, J, Morton records the yellow male of Hepialus huinnli, as 
captured in South Lanarkshire. 

Mr. J. J. Walker writing of the beetle Bayous anjillaceus, captured 
in July, at Sheppey, writes : — " So acciirately was the colour of the 
beetle adapted to its surroundings (the mud in the bed of a nearly 
dried-up ditch), that it could only be detected when in motion, becoming 
to all intents and juirposes invisible as soon as it stopped." 

Mr, A. Thurnall, with his usual perseverance, has at last discovered 
the larva of liactru furfurana. The larvae were discovered on May 12th, 
in stems of Eleocharis palnstrls (not Scirpus lacnsiris as mentioned in the 
E.M.M. p. 164), ejecting green frass, and finally pupated in the stem 
in a light silken cocoon. Six specimens emerged between June 23rd 
and July 2nd. A description of the larva, with another of the allied 
B. hinceolaiHi for comparison, is published. 

jNlr. C. Nicholson, 202, Everiug Road, N.E, will read a paj^er on 
" Ocneria dispar " at the next meeting of the City of London 
Entomological Society to which all entomologists (members or not) are 
cordiailj' invited, Mr. Nicholson is desirous of borrowing a few types 
of the original British race of this species, and Avould be pleased to hear 
from anyone willing to lend him specimens for exhibition of which, it 
is needless to say, the utmost care would be taken. 



Scientific notes & observations. 

Erratum. — On p. 195, line 13 from bottom, before "families, 
genera, etc.," insert the word " allied." 

Blight. — I think that the " very extraordinary superstition " 
described in detail by Mr. A, J, Johnson under the above heading 
(aii/c, pp, 14-15), is by no means confined to his neighbourhood, but 
prevails very generally throughout the country : it is certainly an 
article of faith among the gardeners and natives of this district, and 
although when cross-examined about the matter they are unable to 
give any very lucid explanation, their idea apparently is that the dark 
clouds are mainly due to the presence in the air of vast multitudes of 
winged aphides, which pass across the country and settle on the fruit 
trees, etc., in their lines of flight. The belief doubtless originates in the 
fact, that such weather is especially favourable to the migration of Avinged 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 219 

aphides, and under those conditions I once, in rather open country, 
with neither trees nor hedges very close though at no great distance, 
drove through a flight, out of which numbers settled on the coats of 
all our party. This superstition is referred to by Mr. Tlieodore Wood, 
in The Farmer's Friends and Foes, p. 66 (1888), where in the course of 
his explanation he says :— " The easterly wind, acting upon the young 
and tender plants tenanted Ijy the progenitors of the swarm, has 
checked their growth and rendered their sap unhealthy. Wing-bearing 
young have been immediately produced, borne along by the self-same 
wind which caused its appearance, and deposited in more or less distant 
localities, and so the easterly wind has really " brought the blight," al- 
though not at the time or in the manner usually supposed by the farmer. 
Thus it is, that easterly winds in the early part of the year damage 
vegetation so extensively, not only by checking and weakening the young 
and delicate plants, but by bringing a host of mischievous creatures 
to feed upon them while still in an unhealthy and debilitated condition." 
He adds : " Aphides migrate merely by rising from their food-plants 
and allowing the wind to carry them whithersoever it will ; and in no 
other manner can they possibly travel to any appreciable distance." 
Surely the latter part of Mr. Johnson's note refers to this same pheno- 
menon, for if in place of the word " grubs " in his informant's narrative, 
we substitute " winged aphides," we have a passable account of what 
actually happens. — Eustace E. Bankes, The Kectory, Corfe Castle, 
Dorset. July lUh, 1894. 

Note on the distribution of Tinea nigripunctella. — In his 
restmw {ante, p. 73) of a paper on certain Micro-lepidoptera, by Lord 
Walsingham, in the Ent. Mo. Ma(j. for March last, Mr. Tutt says : — 
" Tinea niyrijniiideUa, taken by Mr. Atmore at King's Lynn, found 
hitherto in Britain, only at Bristol and Folkestone. " The words that I 
have emphasized by italics are not used by Lord Walsingham, who 
merely says "a species of rare occurrence, formerly taken near Bristol," 
and are — Mr. Tutt will, I know well, forgive me for saying so— certainly 
erroneous, for T. nigripunctella has already been recorded from five 
localities in this county (Proc. Dorset N. H. and A. F. C, vi., p. 166 
(1885); Entom., xix., p. 120 (1886) ; Lep. of Dorsetshire, p. 48 (1886); 
Entom., xxvi., p. 88 (1893), and from one locality in Sussex (Trans. 
Chichester and W. Sussex N. H. Soc, No. 5, 1886). In three of these 
six localities it, to my knowledge, occurs regidarly though sjmringly, and 
it is highly probable that it would be found in many other parts of the 
country, if carefully searched for at the right time in old out-houses, 
stables, &c. In such places, it may be found sitting about on the walls, 
reminding one strongly of a Gracillaria by its attitude, and may be 
readily boxed, for although it shows, by waving about its extremely 
long antennte, that it is well aware of one's approach, it does not, ac- 
cording to my experience, see fit to take any steps to avoid capture. — 
Eustace E. Bankes, The Eectory, Corfe Castle, Dorset. Jtdy llth, 
1894. [We are much obliged to Mr. Bankes for this correction. Ed.]. 

Further notes on Euculoe hesperidis. — Out of twenty-two males 
of E. cardainines, taken by myself in Oxfordshire, Cheshire, Shro2)shire, 
and Montgomeryshire, which range in size from Vji^-in. to l^^/ig-in., 
not a single specimen exhibits the discoidal spot in any position other 
than well within the orange " tip." On the other hand, out of seven 
males of the insect which I call E. hesperidis, which vary in expanse 



220 THE entomologist's record. 

from l^/ic in. to l^/ie in., (tU have the discoidal spot placed at the 
juncture of the white and orange. The females of this latter, of which 
I have four specimens, resemble small females of E. cardamines ; mine 
vary from P/ie-in. to l^/ie-in. Both sexes appear much more slender 
than E. cardamines, even allowing for difference of size. Under a 
powerful microscoj^e, the plumules of E. hesperidis are narrower and 
proportionately much longer than those of E. cardamines, while the 
whole appearance of the wing is much more even and not nearly so 
rough as is the case in the latter species. Among those species of the 
genus Eucidoe, in which the males, at least, are tipped with orange, 
cardamines and damone have the discoidal spot placed within the orange 
tip, while in gnmeri, eupheno {euphenoides) and douri {eupheno), the 
discoidal spot is situated at the juncture of the yellow and orange. I 
regret to say that I have been unable to get any larvas of E. cardamines — 
far less of E. hesperidis — though I have both searched and swept for 
them in localities in which the former are usually abundant. I quite 
agree with Dr. Buckell, that it would be a very good tiling to obtain, 
if possible, the larvee of E. hesperidis, but I emphatically differ from 
him when he seems to infer that without this knowledge the differenti- 
ation of species is imj^jossible. Every entomologist must be aware, that 
even now there are many Avell-established species, whose larv^ are as 
yet unknown, but which nevertheless are distinct species. In thej)ast, 
this was the case in very many more instances, but how often did the 
subsequent discovery of the la'rva tend only to ratify the prior suppo- 
sition ! Before finally coming to a conclusion on this j)oint, it would 
be well to compare as many species of the genus Euchloc as possible, as 
some of them will be found to offer differences which are but slight, at 
least to the uninitiated. — F. B. Newnham, Church Stretton, Salop. 
August 2nd, 1894. 



Sariation. 

A RARE FORM OF THE LARVA OF AcHERONTIA ATROPOS. On AugUSt 

11th, 181)4, Mr. Lewcock found in my garden here two larvse of this 
species, one of which was a full-grown si^ecimen of the very rare dark 
olive-red variety, mentioned by Stainton (Man., vol. i., p. 89). The 
following description of it may be of interest. General colour : dull 
reddish-brown. Face : pale, with three tine black lines on each side of 
the anterior surface ; these incline towards the centre, Avhere the inner- 
most pair meet. Body: the first three segments whiiish, but much 
mottled with reddish-brown at the sides, and with a fine jjale dorsal 
line, which passes through the very dark brown, well-defined, sub- 
dorsal area ; the remaining segments reddish-brown, and marked on the 
upper surface with rounded whitish spots, in place of the black spots of 
the normal larva. The stripes, which in the ordinary form are yellow 
and violet, are here replaced by dark, almost black, broadish crossed 
lines, which form a regular series of St. Andrew's crosses, the widest 
part being at the junction of the segments. These dark crossed lines 
appear to replace tliose which are usually violet, which latter, however, 
do not cross, but end in a point at the back of each segment. Tail : 
black, with whitish nodules. Spiracles : deep black, circular. Legs, 
and proieijs: ])laekish-brown. — (liev.) C li. N. Burrows, Eainham, 
Essex. August 14//<, 1894. 



VARIATION. 221 

Vaeietiks of the larva op Smerinthus populi. — In a brood of 
larvae of this species from a batch of eggs laid by a 5 captured in the 
heart of Islington, there are three distinct forms. (1). The majority 
are of the usual form, with bright green bodies, and yellow spots and 
lines. (2). Two specimens resemble the foregoing in colour, but in 
addition to purple blotches round the spiracles, have a sub-dorsal row 
of the same colour. (3). Three specimens are grey-green or sage-green 
in general colour, and the lines are much fainter. I am keeping the 
three forms separate, in the hope of determining whether there is any 
difference in the resulting imagines. — F. J. Buckell. August 24:th, 
1894. 

Variation in Ephyra annulata. — I have bred a good many Epliyra 
annulafa (omi'cronaria) this year. They are decidedly darker in their 
markings and larger than those I bred and captured last year. The 
moister, colder weather, certainly seems to have produced finer forms. 
Again, I have found the smoke-coloured ring in the centre of the fore- 
wings absent from several ; is this variation common in other parts of 
the country ? I have also bred another interesting variety, in which 
the smoke-coloured lines and rings are replaced by ochreous ones. — 
W. S. KiDiNCx, M.D., Buckerell, Honiton. Jime 14i'th, 1891. [In our 
Kent woods, this species is jxartially double-brooded, the early brood 
being much larger and less orange than the later specimens. Ed.]. 



OTICES AND REVIEWS. 

Species des Hi/mmopteres cVEurope et d'Algerie, by Mons. E. Andre. 
— We have to acknowledge the receipt of the July part of this well- 
known work, which is being published m quarterly parts by M. 
Dubosclard, 78 Boulevard St. Michel, Paris, the annual subscription 
being 16 francs. The part just to hand comiDrises pp. 337-400, and 
contains descriptions of some of the genera of the Opiidae, and of the 
species in nine genera of the Alysiidae, together with three beautifully 
executed plates. As an inducement to such hymeno])terists as have not 
yet subscribed for the work to do so, the publishers offer to forward the 
complete work to would-be subscribers, to be paid for at the rate of 
lOfr monthly, or 30 fr. quarterly. Four volumes have already ap- 
peared, and the fifth and sixth (dealing with the Braconides and 
Chrysides) are now in course of publication. 

Victorian Butterflies, and how to collect them, by E. Anderson and F. P. 
Spry. — We are pleased to acknowledge the receipt of the second and last 
part of this work. This part contains an account of the Lycaenidae 
and B.esperiidae,vfh.\c\\, considering how little has hitherto been done in 
the way of systematic work on the butterflies of any of the Australian 
colonies, reflects great credit on the authors. The fauna of Australia 
will always have a great fascination for naturalists. The great anti(iuity 
of its isolation as a zoological region, and the traces everywhere 
apparent of an old Antarctic fauna and flora, have made Australia of 
special interest to palaeontologists, botanists and naturalists in general. 
When we come to study the insects of such a district we have to con- 
sider them from two points of view: — (1). Those that belong to 
dominant types, that have spread widely in comparatively recent times. 



222 THE entomologist's record. 

The present volvtme gives us an example of these in Lampides boeticns, 
which has been taken in Britain, and extends throughout the South of 
Europe and North Africa, into India, and almost continuously to 
Australia. (2). The antique forms which are remnants of a very 
ancient type, preserved by isolation through vast periods of time, and 
from which we may learn many pregnant lessons. The Chrysophanidi 
have traces of small tails to the hind-wings, suggesting this character 
as a very ancient and withal a very persistent one. Sexual dimorphism 
is frequent throughout the group, a highly interesting fact in face of 
Doherty's statement (which is probably correct) that it is very rare in 
the tro})ics. The ocellation of the undersides, too, teaches many an 
important lesson, and shows that it also is a very ancient and persisting 
character. As is, perhaps, to be expected, the life-histories of very few 
species have been worked out, but there is no doubt that the production 
of this book will teach local workers what is still desiderated, and lead 
to a more complete knowledge of the early stages. The life-histories 
of one or two species, notably Hypochri/sops ddicia and Ogyris olane, 
have been worked out in considerable detail, although it is to be hoped 
that a future edition will give us a much more detailed account of the 
structure of the larvae and also of the pupa?. Of H. delicia the authors 
wi-ite : — " The larvse are invarialjly attended by a number of small black 
ants ; indeed, watching the ants is one of the best ways of detecting 
the larvae." In the description of the eggs, too, it is to be hoped we 
shall be told the peculiar shapes, &c. of the micropylar cells, the number 
of ribs, the peculiarity of any reticulations there may be, ifec. The 
wandering habits of the larvae of 0. olane and the consequent pro- 
duction of a starved race are most interesting. In the Hesperids it is 
rather interesting to note that the androconia are placed in a sac which 
runs, as in our species, from the lower exterior tip of the discoidal cell, 
but instead of running obliquely towards the base of the wing, as in 
R. sylvanus, H. thaumds, &c., it runs transversely to the inner margin, 
ending not far from the centre. We quite agree with the authors that 
H. perornata is a female form of H. ornata, unless, indeed, a male form 
of perornata obtains ; the androconia of li. ornata are highly suggestive 
that a similar adornment should be found in males of perornata if it be 
a distiiict species. We have but little doubt that the issue of this 
welcome volume will soon reduce the noticeable blanks in the life- 
histories so strikingly manifest, and that they will be worked out in a 
complete and satisfactory manner by such competent observers as 
Messrs. Anderson and Spry in the course of time is, we venture to 
think, quite certain. We are pleased to see that the authors have sub- 
mitted, through Mr. J. A. Clark, to Mr. W. F. Kirby the doubtful 
material described for comparison with the British Museum collection, 
an example which might be followed with advantage in many other 
cases. The complete work is to be obtained from Mr. J. A. Clark, The 
Broadway, London Fields, N.E. for five shillings. 

The Effect of External Influences upon Decelopment, by August 
Weismann, M.D., Ph.D., D.C.L. (Henry JVowde, Amen Corner, E.C, 
Price 2s.). — Quite a pathetic interest attaches to the publication of this 
volume — The Romanes Lecture for 1894 — owing to the recent death of 
Professor George Romanes, the founder of tlie Lectureship, who Avas 
present at the delivery of this lecture by the talented author. The 
name of the author is a sufficient guarantee that the scientific public are 



NOTICES AND KEVIEWS. 223 

to have a mental treat, food for reflection, something to learn and 
unlearn, something to add and much to subtract from their previous 
tenets. Commencing with a statement of Nageli's conception that 
the evolution of the organic world originated in virtue of inherent 
internal forces, he states that there are probably few naturalists who 
now adhere to it, and then plunges at once into the potency of external 
influences, which one sees invariably to bring about ultimately all the 
vital manifestations of animals and plants as reactions to such influences 
and at the same time owns that we are " not yet quite clear " as to the 
way in whicli external influences have formed and transformed 
organisms. The remarks on hibernation (p. 9) will be of particular 
interest to our readers, and after discussing the phenomenon of adapta- 
tion by applying the principle of selection not only to the organism as a 
whole, but also to its constituent parts (intra-selection), he illustrates 
his farther arguments largely from the insect- world. The change in 
coloration of the imagines of Polyommains jyJiloeas under varying tem- 
peratures, and the dimorphism of Vanessa levana-prorsa are discussed as 
also the protective resemblance of the larvae of the two broods of Lyccena 
psendargiohs which vary in colour, the caterjiillars of the summer brood 
being well protected on the white flower buds of Citnicifuga racernosa, 
whilst those of the later brood are yellow or olive-green in colour, and live 
on the flower buds of Acfiiiomeris squamosa, which, bears yellow flowers. 
Reference is made to the variation of larva? under differing colour sur- 
roundings, and the conclusion is arrived at that " in these and similar in- 
stances, tlie dimorphism is not consequent on double sets of primary 
constituents of which only one or the otlier can attain to development," but 
that it " depends on tbe different susceptibilities of the histological elements 
which in exquisite combination make up the skin." The " differentiation 
of sex " next occupies attention, and the remarks on the neuters or workers 
of state-forming insects — bees, ants and termites — must be read to be ap- 
preciated. The conclusion, that poor feeding is not " the causa efficiens of 
sterility, but merely the stimulus which not only results in the formation 
of rudimentai-y ovaries, but at the same time calls forth all the other 
distinctive characters of the workers," appears to be based on ju-etty safe 
ground. The experiment detailed, too (p. 31), on Mnsca vomitoria, 
could be supplemented by every British lepidoi^terist who pays attention 
to the rearing of his specimens. The bearing of a starvation diet on 
larvae and the resultant imagines is discussed, and the author states 
that " the disappearance of a typical organ is not an ontogenetic but 
phylogenetic i)rocess ; it never in any case depends on mere influences of 
nutrition such as affect the development of each individual, but is always 
due to the variations of the primary constituents of the germ, which to 
all appearance can only come about in the course of numerous o-enera- 
tions." Having given a definition of " ids " the secondary units, each 
of which contains within itself all the primary constituents that are 
necessary for the develoj^ment of an individual, contained in the o-erm- 
plasm, the author discusses the production and development of workers 
males and queens among the state-forming insects, and concludes that 
" selection is the all-sufficient principle on which the development of 
the organic world has been guided on its course." A brochure for every 
scientific man to read, mark, learn and inwardly digest, it appeals with 
especial force to those naturalists who are first and foremost entomologists. 
— Ed. 



224 THE entomologist's kecord. 



HOTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

Leucania. albipuncta at Sandown. — I have much pleasure in re- 
cording the re-occurrence of this insect here ; a fine specimen, 
apparently fresh from the pujDa, visited my sugar on August ISth. As 
this was on the same ground where I took one of my two specimens 
last year, I hope the species has been breeding here, and that others 
may yet fall to my lot. — Louis B, Pkout, Sandown. August 21st, 1894. 

Easter in Connemara. — I had a pleasant trip into Connemara 
during the Easter holidays. The weather was beautifully fine, but too 
dry in the evenings for moths to be very plentiful. Still I had very 
fair sport at the sallows. The hotels at two places. Recess and Leenane, 
are in the midst of sallow trees, which were at their best during my 
visit (March 28th, to April 1st.). Taeniocampa gothica was plentiful, 
and in great variety ; of T. gracilis only two or three came each even- 
ing, with a few reddish forms ; T. stahilis (dark-banded), T. instahilis, 
Pacliuohia rnhricosa, Xylocarnpa areola, Larentia multistrigaria, Eupithecia 
pumilata, and E. abbreviata, all occurred sparingly. Larvje of Odonestis 
potatoria were in great al)inidance. Since the beginning of April, the 
weather has been very unfavourable, and I have taken little. I have 
almost completely missed the larv^ of Melitaea anrinia, which were 
common last year. — J. E. E. Allen, Galway. June Qth, 1894. 

Taeniocampa stab i lis in July. — As I was sugaring in the New 
Forest on July 10th, I was surprised to take a fresh specimen of T. 
stabilis. Is this not a very unusual occurrence ? Was it ever recorded 
before, or was the sioecies known to be double-brooded ? I could at 
the same time have beaten many larvae of the same insect. I took 
Aqrotis obscura near here, on August 7tli. — W. J. Cross, Ely. August 
dill, 1894. 

NOTES OF THE SEASON 1894. 

Short Notes from the Books of the Exchange Baskets. — 
Major Still reports the capture of Deilephila livornica at rhododendron 

flowers, in the second week of June, at Horrabridge. Mr. 

Eenn writes from Lee on June 12th : — " Except the miserable weather 
there is little to record ; whether insects are really scarce or not I can- 
not say. They are not to be beaten out in the day-time, nor will they 
fly at dusk, and such of my friends as have tried sugaring, have had 
no result whatever. Some larvae are abundant, Tortrix viridana, for 
instance, most of the oak trees in the woods near here being utterly 

defoliated." Mr. Mason, writing from Clevedon on June 22ncl, 

says : — " I have been fortunate enough to take two fine specimens of 
CucuJlia charnoviillae at Lychnis dioica within the last week ; the only 
previous capture that I know of in this locality was made in 1892." 

On June 23rd, Mr. H. Bickert on Jones reports from Liverpool : — 

" I have done little or no collecting since Easter, when (at Llangollen), 
there were any quantity of Taeniocampa gothica, T. pulverulenta, T. 
stahilis, T. instahilis, Pachnohia ruhricosa, T. mnnda, Orrhodia vaccinii, 
Scopelosoma satellitia and Calocampa exoleta on the sallows. Anticlea 
hadiata in fine condition and a few Selenia hilnnarin and Larentia multistri- 
garia, were also ca})tured, and I managed to get a few specimens of 
Taeniocampa opima." On June 3Uth, Kev. E. C. Dobree Fox writes 



NOTES UN COLLECTING, ETC. 225 

from Tewkesbury : — " We all seem to agree that the season is a very bad 
one. Sugar is a total failure, but as I have often foiind this to be the 
case until the elder is out of bloom, we may do better presently. Still, 

undoubtedly, things are very scarce." On July 2nd, Mr. Corbett 

writes from Doncaster: — "This season is a woefully bad one for 
imagines. I have sugared on all sorts of nights — wet and fine, warm 
and cold, calm and windy, dark and bright — and all have been alike 

bad. Beating produces a few common geometers and micros." 

On July 7th, Mr. E. A. Atmore writes from King's Lynn: — "Of late, 
there has been considerable improvement in the weather, and insects 
have been very abundant. Macro-lepidoptera seem to be more plentiful 
here than they have been for several years. Sugar has recently attracted 
swarms of common species, but very few species worth taking. The 
outlook just now is not promising — heavy rain last night and again this 
morning, with a low barometer, and the mercury, alas ! still sinking." 

On July KJth, Mr. Freer reports from Kugeley : — " Matters are 

a little better. I got about thirty Lithosia raesomeUa the other day, and 
four Notodontii dictaeolAes ; I also saw Plnsla interroyationis fLyhigvonnd 

honeysuckle. Light seems a complete failure this year." On 

July 17th, Mr. Mason writes from Clevedon : — " Collecting has certainly 
improved this last fortnight, but sugar is still a failure, possibly owing 
to the quantity of limes in flower. My row of lavender will soon be at 
its best, but it is not so attractive as usual. I have turned up Peri- 
nephele lancealis this season, in some numbers, in a marshy plantation, 
but though the locality has been regularly worked by myself and others 
for the last ten years, I have never seen or heard of a sj)ecimen bein^)- 

taken before. I beat the insects from Eupatormm cannabinum." 

On July 26th, Dr. Riding writes : — " The season here is as bad as an}'- 
I remember. All methods of capture fail —even light, which is geuei'ally 
more or less successful here. I hear from friends in Scotland that they 

have been having a good time." On July 26th, Capt. Eobertson 

writes from Cheltenham : — " I have just returned from Sw^ansea, where 
I went after Calymnia pyralina, but did not see a single sj^ecimen. I 
also tried my trap every night with the same result. I never remember 
having such a bad season. About the only thing I took at sugar was 
a veiy unusual visitor to the sweets, Cossus Ugniperda, which was un- 
doubtedly either sucking or smelling it. I also took Acronycta {Cmpidia) 
leporina, which is new to my list of Swansea insects. Day-hunting, 
only periodical, yielded a couple of Ilydrelia imcula, and a var. of 
Epinephele ianira, with a white patch on the right fore- wing. I tried 

larva-beating but got nothing." On July 29th, Mr. Greer reports 

from Bath : — " Insects seem to be scarcer than usual this year. 
Amongst others, I have taken the following : — Hepialus fiyhmii.-^, rrocris 
geryon, Nndaria mundana, Hdetiia luiuiria, Geoiuetra vernaria, Lohophi>ra 
sexalisata, Cainptoijrainma Jiaridta, Scotosia uadidata, Leucania pudoriiKi 
Coeaobia rnfa, Didntlioecia carpophiKja, and D. cucubali. Tlie majority 

of the Nocture were taken at light, sugar proving a total failure." — 

On August 2nd, Mr. A. W. Mera writes : — " I have just returned from 
a visit to the Suffolk coast, and like most of my brctlireu, have found 
insects much less abundant than usual. Sugar was no good ; nearly all 
the NoctuEe I took were attracted to some flowering grass growing by 
the shore. On one or two nights common things were reftlh^ abundant, 
but the weather was generally too boisterous to do much. The only 



226 TUB entomologist's record. 

things I noticed more plentiful than usual, were the larvae of Pyrameis 

cardui." On August 11th, Mr. E. A. Bowles writes : — " I have but 

little to report of my two visits to the New Forest. The earlier one, 
in May, was rather successful, as I got a few nice Macroglossa homhyli- 
formis, and larva? were fairly plentiful ; the oaks were stripped by 
common geometer larvge, and the beating-tray revealed a mass of such 
plebeian customers after each beat. Last month's visit was spoiled by 
the weather. Argi/nnix adippe, Heliothis dipsacea, and AcidaJia stramr- 
nata, wei'e fairly plentiful, but larvas were absolutely wanting, and the 
fresh green foliage of the oaks was utterly unattached. Nothing came 

to sugar, and no geometers flew at dusk in the woods." On 

August 13th, Capt. Brown writes from Enniskillen : — " The season here 
has been very wet, sugar has been entirely useless, and, as I have not 
the conscience to tramp about the mowing-grass, of which the country 
round here mostly consists, and a great deal of which is even yet not 

cut, my movements have been hampered." On August 15th, Mr. 

Beadle writes from Keswick : — " Sugar has little attraction, or else moths 
are very scarce. The only good day I have had was amongst Erehia 
epiphron, which I think came out all at once during the sudden burst of 
hot weather at the end of June. I went up Skiddaw for Saturnta carpini 
but only got one larva and two late larva? of Bomhyx caJlnnne. I was 
glad also to get a series of a Cramhits, which Mr. Tutt has determined 
to be C. ericellus. The time of its appearance, so far as I know, is from 
the middle to the end of June ; it flies, or is easily disturbed, in the 
day time, and the only place where I have found it is in Green Crag, 
Borrowdale, near Keswick. I succeeded in hatching forty or fifty 
larvse of E. epiphron, and fed them till they were about a quarter of an 
inch long when they died. The eggs are at first j^ellow, changing to 
pink and darkening just before hatching. The larva? are dull yellow 
at first but change to greenish after commencing to feed. I fed them 
on a common species of grass of which they ate the edges of the blades." 

On August 17tli, Mr. Finlay reports from Morpeth : — " I'he 

weather here at jiresent is so wet that collecting is impossible, and 

insects are not plentiful." On August 20th, Eev. C. K. N. 

Burrows Avrites from Kainham, Essex : — " Things entomological have 
undoubtedly improved since the end of June. I, at least, have found 
it so in my part of the world. My collecting, however, is chiefly con- 
fined to the use of sugar ; it is but rarely that I get a chance of using 
the net or in fact collecting in the day time." 

Lee, Kent. — I am afraid I must add my testimony to that of otliers, 
that this is really a bad year. There have been worse lately, but, after 
tlie promise of tlae early spring, it is rather disheartening. Micros are 
getting a little more jilentiful, but I think I have known days when 
Macros seemed entirely absent, not even Cabera 'puf^aria appearing on 
the ai)plication of the beating stick. Sugar is entirely useless here. I 
have turned most of my time and attention to rearing larva?, and have 
done pretty well in this way, as indoors the weather has little effect. 
I have just got a nice brood of Acromjcta alni into j^^pfe? ^^^d out of a 
big Ijrood of Seleuia Innnria the few I kept for myself turned out nearly 
all of the summer l)rood (delunarta). I have just set out the last specimen 
of the 2nd summer brood of Selenia bihmaria, i.e. the 3rd emergence this 
year, and have got eggs which I hope will not produce a fourth, for 
they are the result of a cross between Yorkshire and Sutherland 



NOTES ON COLLECTING, ETC. 227 

imagines, and I hope they will produce a dark race. Tlie summer 
broods are very rich in colour. Geometra papilionaria has not been rare 
here but, unfortunately, all I took were males. They fly late, about 
11 p.m. I have a small brood of Lophopteryx cncuUind feeding, thanks to 
the kindness of the Kev. B. Smith of Great Marlow, They are very 
interesting larvc^. The egg is laid simply on the underside of the 
maple leaves in shady woods. In confinement they will eat sycamore. 
Acidalia emarginata is a desideratum with many people but it is really 
very generally distributed. It may be beaten out of the long grass in 
woody places in the day time, but flies commonly at 11 p.m. and later. 
It may often be found at rest at dusk, on the long grasses under 
bushes and hedges. The weather was so utterly bad at the time 
many of our local Tortrices appear, that I failed with nearly all 
of them ; even of Phoxopteri/x uptipana and S. puncticostana, usually not 
scarce, I did not see an example, and the same may be said of 
Tortrix diversana, but Orthotaenki hrandenana and Catoptria conter- 
minana were rather common. — 0. Fenn, Aiujust 8th, 189-1. 

Sandoicn and Lyndhurst. — From July 11th to August 4th I was at 
Lyndhurst, and managed, despite rather poor sugaring, to obtain one 
Triphaena suhsequa, one fine Nocttia stigmatica, good series of the 
" Crimsons," short series of Nola strigula, Rypenodes aJbistrigalis, &c., 
&c. As I did not commence working at Sandown until August 6th, I 
was of course too late to report on some of the summer species. Only 
two poor Agrotis Innigera ( <? and ? ), two or three Lencanta conigera, 
six Caradrina taraxaci (absent since the first two nights, thouo-h not 
then worn), and one Agrotis tritici were taken by me. Sugar has never 
been quite a blank, and one or two nights have been very decent. 
Cerigo matiira and Amphipyra tragopoginis have been commoner than 
usual ; Agrotis pnta, Miana literosa and Apnmea didyma nearl\% biit 
perhaps not quite so common as usual; Miana bicoloria and A(/rotis 
nigricans have been decidedly scarce (for them). Only three Agrotis 
suffusa have turned up at present, and no A. saucia. Noctua c-nigrnm 
is just coming out but is apparently going to be common. Gnophos 

obscuraria has been jjlentiful, but the " blues " are deplorably scarce. 

Louis B. Prout, August 21st, 1894. 

Southend. — I have taken or bred the following insects since the end 
of May. On the 3rd of June I took Agdistis bennetii, Epichnopleryx 
radieUa and E. reticella, Ephlppiphora cirsiana, Eupoecilia afinituna, E. 
vectisana, Bacculatrix cristatella, and Dasycera sidphurtella. Much time 
was spent in hunting for cases of E. reticella, cases of Fumea nitidella 
and E. radieUa were easily found, but those of E. reticella, althouo-h 
the (? s were not uncommon, must have been hidden away, for a close 
search did not yield a single case. Bombyx rubi emerged ; the larvae 
had been successfully hibernated for the first time. 5th June. Tried 
'sembling with Bombyx rubi, and attracted one <? . Dug up many roots 
for larvaj of Sesia chrysidiformis, wliicii used to occur in this nei^libour- 
hood, and found plenty of larva of Hepiulus humuli. Eupithecia culgata 
Ciiephasia musculana, Sciaphila snbjectana, were netted. On June 7th 
Riiinia luteolata, Scoparia dubitalis, Fhthcochroa rngosana, and Plutella 
cruciferarum were netted, Acidalia viarginepunctata taken at lio-]it. 9th 
June : Triphaena pronuba emerged, and a pair of Arctia villica taken. 
10th June : Tortrix costana was bred from Epilobium angiistifolium. 
Sciaphila hybridana was abundant on the salt marshes. 1 1th June 



228 THE entomologist's record. 

Hadena snasa emerging ; I found the ova in May of last year, attached 
to dead stems of Aster tripoleum. On ] 2th June : H. linmuli, Cramhiis 
2>rateUiis, Xnnthosetia hamana were taken. On liJth June : Hejnalus 
lapnlinus was abundant. On 14th June : Sericoris littornlis and eggs of 
n. suasa were obtained at Shoel)uryness, and a few young broods of 
larvai of Boiahyx eastrensis oljserved. On Kith June : Cramhus hortueUus, 
Flatytes cenissellns, ^ ,? Craiiibns falsellus. 17th June : Lycnena astrarche, 
ArgijroJep'ut zeplii/rana, Dichrorharnpha plmnh(i<jana, Cramhus pniscueUns, 
Endopiiia nigricana (?), Pionea forfical/s, Sciaphila rirganreana bred from 
sea lavender, lyth June: Orgyia gonostigiiin emerged. 24th June: 
Fnmea nitideUa, 3' bred. 25th June : Euclidia ghjphlca and Xylop)hasia 
lithoxylea. Two or three broods of Eriogaster lanestris seen. 26th 
June : Phorodf^sma smaragdaria emerging. 27tli June : Sesia iipidi- 
formis bred. 28tli June : Xylopltasia polyodon everywhere. 2'Jth June : 
JJropteryx sambiicaria and C. maritiina bred. 30th June : Tortrix vibur- 
niana bred from sea wormwood. Hemithea strigain netted. 1st July : 
Leioptihis lienighnius emerging. On 3rd July : Nndaria senex, and 
Crambns ctdinelhis taken. Fresh females of P. smaragdaria, exposed by 
the river wall until 11 p.m., failed to attract liiales. 5th July: 
Tischerki dodonaea bred. Cramhus jjerlcUus, Catopfria cana, Tortrix 
nnifasciana, Leucania impura. On 8th July: Arctia caia emerging. 
Pampliila sylvanns, P. thaumas, Coenomjmpha parnphihts, Nomophila 
noctueUa taken, but no P. lineola. July 9th : Cidaria fulvata, Rivida 
sericealis, Eupithecia pyumilata, Hedya ocellana, Tortrix heparana, Euholia 
limiiata, GaUeria mellonella netted ; at sugar, Apamra didyma, Leucania 
lilhargyria, Agrotis exclamationis and Carudrina <dsines. 10th July : 
Tortrix icterirana taken, lltli Jul}^: Bornbyx quercus emerging. Argy- 
resthia nitideUa, Tortrix ribeana, Scoparia mercurella, Acidalia dUutaria, 
and A. emarginata. Sphinx ligustri. 13t]i July: Pyrameis c.ardui larva? 
on the tliistles, and a fine fresh H. hinereUa. 14th July: Larvfe of 
Larerna epilobiella abundant ; Dichrorharnpha politana and Homocsomn 
sinneUa netted. 15th July : Pterophorus mnnodactylns, Hedya aceriana, 
Euholia hipmictaria, Strenia clathrafa, Dlimoeseoptihs pterodactylvs, 
HerhnJa cespitalis taken. July 19th: Tinea pell ionella and L. epilobiella 
emerging. July 20th : Xanthosetiazoegana at light. July 21st: Sideria 
achatana bred ; Bryophda perla. July 22nd : Pelurga comitata bred. 
Cocoons of Zygaena fHipendulae everywhere. Pamphihi lineola, Pla- 
typtilia hertrami, Acidalia imninfata, Cramhus selasellus, Epinepjhele ianira 
and E. titlionus, Cramhus cnhiiellus, Catoptria candidnlana and C. trijioliana 
taken. July 23rd: Phibalapteryx vitalhatae\\\e\gii\g. The wet weather 
during the i^ast week has quite upset my out-door work.— F. G. 
Whittle. July 2m, 1894. 

Weymouth. — I cannot say that I have found the season so bad as 
have many entomologists. The weather has certainly greatly hindered 
collecting, but moths have been fairly common and of good quality at 
Portland where I do most of my collecting. It has been a good year 
for Agrotis ])yrophila, and a moderately good one for A. Incernea, 
whilst A. lunigera, which is sometimes abundant at Portland, 
has been very scarce. Chauliodes daucellus, of which I have before 
only taken odd specimens, has been abundant in the larva state in the 
wild carrot. I have often looked out for this larva but never before 
came across it. I understand that it is usual for this species, like many 
others, to have an occasional year of ])lenty and at other times to l)e 
almost absent. (!f wasjisl have not yet seen a single worker. The 



NOTES ON COLLECTING, ETC. 229 

5 s were abundant in tlie sirring as might be expected from the extreme 
abundance of wasps hxst summer. I hope they may take a few years 
now to get up their numbers again, for though they are doubtless very 
useful insects they are never welcome when in great numbers. — 
Nelson M. Richakdson. July 30th, 1894. 

Freshwater. — During my temporary absence in Guernsey upon 
business, my brother was fortunate, with the assistance of my nephew, 
in capturing a very richly mottled s[)ecimen of Laphi/gnia exujua at 
sugar on Aug. 31st, and promjjtly followed up the success by taking an 
equally tine Leucania alhipuncta on Sept. 4th, also at sugar. Common 
species are coming very freely, Noctua c-nigrum and I'Mogophora 
meticulosa being especially a nuisance, whilst Agrotis ohelisca and 
Aporophyla australis are occasional visitors. I have also to record single 
specimens of Pbma festncae (query, second brood,) and Heliophohus 
hispidus, neither of which I have ever taken here before, although the 
latter was reputed to occur in numbers formerly near Totland Bay, 
where I have frequently searched by day without success. A second 
specimen of L. albipuncta was captured at sugar last night within a few 
feet of the spot at which the former was captured. — Albert J. Hodges, 
Sept. 8th, 1894. 



Societies. 



At the meeting of the South London Entomologic.'^l and Natural 
HisTOKY Society on July 12th, Mr. R. Adkin exhibited a bred series of 
Diaiithoecia nana, all of which were very very dark and some unicolorous. 
• Mr. Oldham; a specimen of linmia luteolata with a well-developed 
waved line on all the wings. Mr. Auld ; a bred specimen of Phoro- 
desma smaragdaria, in which only the discoidal sjjots were present. 
Mr. C. A. Briggs ; a specimen of the rare Lacewing Fly, Nothochrysa 
capitata, taken at Wisley. Mr. Perks ; the egg of a CocciueUa, deposited 
on the point of a thorn. Mr. Turner ; Lycaena minima from Galway, 
showing gradual diminution of spots on the underside, and a brown- 
suffused specimen of L. astrarche from Reigate. Mr. Hall ; Drosera 

rotundifolia and I>. intermedia, from Wisley. On July 26th, Mr. 

Carpenter exhibited a bleached Epinephele ianira from the New Forest 
which he said was the only insect captured worth recording durino- a 
fortnight's hard work ; sugar was an absolute failure. Mr. R. Adkin ; 
Coccyx strohiklla together with the spruce cones from which they had 
been reared. Mr. Auld ; a series of Ephippiphora foeneUa, bred from 
roots of mugwort ; the roots were shown with the pu})a-cases in silu. 
]\Ir. Mooro ; a number of fossil shark's teeth, taken out of a cargo of 
guano from Bull River, South America. Mr. Frohawk said that black- 
birds and thrushes were still in full song, and remarked that it was 
unusually late for this to be the case. Mr. Step reported the a])pear- 
ance on a ceiling in his house of a rare fungus (Peziza haemasti(/ma). 

On August 9th, Mr. Hall, in exhibiting bred series of Xanthia 

fnlvago from Derby and Croydon, stated that it was usual to obtain a 
greater proportion of var flavescens from the north than from the south. 
Mr. Adkin (on behalf of Mr. South) exhibited a bred series of Hyj)si- 
petes sordidata from North wood, having a very dai"k ground colour ; 
bred series of Cleoceris viminalis from Blatchworth, some of which were 
melanic while others were very pale ; a specimen of Tortrix xylosteana 
which had jet black markings instead of rich reddish-brown ; a series 



230 THE entomologist's record. 

of Prays cnrtiselhis collected round Macclesfield, which included both 
the normal and tlie uniformly fuscous forms. Mr. Turner showed a 
dark specimen of Melanippe fluctuata taken at Brockley, referable to 

var. neapolimta. The meeting on August 23rd does not seem to have 

produced anything worthy of record. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society. 
— July 3rd, 1894. — Exhibits: — Mr. Clark: a large number of Aus- 
tralian Lepidoptera received from Mr. Anderson ; also living larvae of 
Selenia limaria. Mr. May : an empty cocoon of Phisia moneta from 
Weybridge. He stated that the moth had emerged from this a few 
days previously. Mr. Hollis : bred specimens of Ocneria dispar. Mr, 
Prout : bred series of Eupithecia assimilata, upon which he made the 
following remarks : — " These specimens were reared from five different 
females taken in 1893. Brood No. 2 was a failure, but the others 
showed a decided tendency to heredity. Brood 1 was composed of 
small specimens, inclining to a dull unicolorous form ; Brood 3, similar, 
but larger ; Brood 4, fine large reddish specimens, well marked, 
especially behind the central spot ; Brood o, delicate greyish tone, 
recalling the tint of E. suhnotata. This species is only partially double 
brooded. Brood 1, from a female taken 11th June, 1893, produced 
three at the end of Jul}^ 1893, the remainder emerging in May, 1894; 
Brood 5, from a female taken 11th August, 1893, fed up during the 
autumn, the imagines appearing in May. They fed either on currant 
or hop, but refused flowers, while the allied E. absynthiata feeds on 
ragwort flowers, and refuses hop." Dr. Secpieira : Meliana flamrnea, 
Viminia venosa and Macrogaster arundinis, all from Wicken Fen. Dr. 
Buckell : Nisoniades tages. He called attention to the presence in the 
males of a fold along the basal half of the costal margin of the fore 
wings. The same character is also present in Pyrgns lualvae, and is 
probably a scent organ. Mr. Bacot : full-grown larvae of Amphidasys 
prodromaria feeding on cherry. Mr. Battley : flowers of Orchis 
jiyramidaJis, Ophrys apifera (Bee orchis), and Gyninadenid conopsrn 
(Scented orcliis) all from Keigate. Mr. Bate said that he had made 
further enquiries as to the specimen of Polyomruatus virganreae 
exhibited by him at the last meeting, and that no doubt seemed to exist 
as to the authenticity of the capture, which took place in July or 
August, 1880. 

July 17th, 1894.— Exhibits: — Mr. Oldham : a specimen of Rumia 
cratnegata with very distinct transverse lines ; also some rats killed by 
poison. Mr. liattley : Macrogaster arundinis, Hydrilla p>alnstris, Her- 
minia crihralis and Nascia cilialis, all from Wicken, and Spilodes sticticalis 
from Tuddenham. Mr. May : bred specimens of Plnsia moneta, Geometra 
papilionaria and Ellopia fasciaria. Dr. Buckell ; living specimens of 
Bomhyx quercus received from Mr. A. J. Johnson of Erdington, near 
Birmingham. He read a letter from that gentleman, in which he stated 
that he had placed three bred S])ecimens (two males and a female) in a 
box, and shortly afterwards noticed that the two males were in cop. He 
further suggested that one of them might be hermaphroditic, although 
they appeared to be typical males. Capt. Thompson : pupa^ of Nonagria 
eiymi in stems of Elymns areuarius. 

August 1th, 1894. — Exhibits: — Mr. Sauze : a long series of Coccinella 
variabilis from Sydenham and other localities. Mr. Lewcock : a nearly 
fidl-fed larva of Smerinthus tiliae. The meeting was very small, many 
of the members being away for their holidays. 



SOCIETIES. 23 1 

Angnst 2 Is/, 1894. — Mr. Clark, in referring to the death of Mr. 
William Machin, formerly a member of the Society, proposed that a 
vote of sympath}^ be sent to his relatives ; this was accordingly done. 
Exhibits : — Mr. Gregor : Acidalia manjinepunctnta, Agrotia strignla (dark), 
Cidaria populata, Lurentia olivata, Hypsipefes sordiddta (some tine forms) 
and a suffused banded form of Camptogramma bih'neata, all from North 
Wales. Mr. Gates : a number of microlepidoptera, mostly bi'cd, from 
the Hammersmith neighbourhood, including Furnea mtenuediella ; the 
females of this species never leave the larval case. Mr. Clark : Meh'ana 
fiarnmea, Bankia argentula, Acontia hictuosa and others from Wicken. 
Mr. Lewcock : Pachyta collaris, Cryptorhynclms lapathi and many other 
coleoptera ; the larva of C. lapathi feeds in the stems of willow and 
sallow. Dr. Buckell : Bupalns phiiaria ( S s) from Oxshott and West 
Wickham, with a Scotch specimen for comparison ; one of the Oxshott 
specimens had those portions of the wings which are usually yellow as 
white as in the Scotch specimen, whilst in another specimen the black 
had encroached much more than usual on the yellow, and on the hind- 
wings had almost entirely obliterated it ; also two pupa? of Nemeohins 
lucina attached to a withered primrose leaf ; the larvae hatched on June 
12th, and jjupated on July 23rd ; during their earlier stages the larvae 
remained on the fresh leaf all day, but in their later stages they left it 
during the day and rested on the bottom of the glass in which they 
were being reared ; this facts suggests that the larv^ might be looked 
for during the day under leaves resting on the ground or on the ground 
close to the plant ; when the time for pupation came neither attached 
itself to the fresh leaf, but both retired to the withered leaf on which 
they now are, and which happened to be in the jar ; also a specimen of 
Miana strigilis from Highgate, with a reddish band near the hind 
margin of the fore-wings. Dr. Buckell also read : — 

Notes on the parallelism, in their earijest stages, between 
EuGONiA quercinaria AND E. AUTUMNARiA. — I obtained a batch of eggs 
last year from a bred ? E. quercinaria paired with a bred ^ , both of 
them from larvje taken in Kensington Gardens. In April last Capt. 
Thompson brought me some eggs of E. aidiimnaria to rear for him. 
Eearing the two species side by side, I was struck with tlie following 
points of parallelism between them. 1. The eggs were (to the naked 
eye) indistinguishable, their shape is jjeculiar (vide Ent. Bee, vol. iv., 
J). 23(3) ; Mr. Tutt describes it {Ent. Bee, v., p. 1 14) as " a rather square- 
based parallelepiped." 2. In both cases the eggs were laid overlapping 
one another (imbricated)). 3. In both alike the hatching 2:)rocess ex- 
tended over very nearly a month. 4. For pupation both spun leaves 
together, E. quercinaria very loosely, E. antumnaria somewhat more 
firmly. 

Mr. Riches announced that he had bred several specimens of Apamea 
ophiogramma from " Ribbon-grass;" a discussion ensued as to the proper 
food of this larva when in a wild state ; Dr. Buckell said that the Rev. 
C. R. N. Burrows of Rainham had bred 3 (? and 3 $ Anticlea berberata, 
which he placed together in a glass-topped box with a spray of the food 
plant ; on the first night each 5 found a mate ; on the following night 
some were paired again, and the same thing happened on the third 
night. Mr. Bacot read : — 

Further notes on Selenia tetkali'nahia. — From the fertile ova of 
the batch upon which I communicated some notes to the Society on 



232 THE entomologist's record. 

June 5tli, I bred 6 imagines, Avhicli emerged during the first week of 
July. I tried " assembling " with them on two occasions, but without 
success ; jirobably it was too early for the 2nd brood in a state of 
nature. I, however, paired two of those I bred, and, with a view of 
following up my former observations, removed the female to a fresh 
chip box each day. The pairing took place on the night of July 4th. 
On the night of July 5th 97 eggs were laid ; these Avere deposited in 
one large loose patch and several smaller ones (the female of the spring 
brood laid her eggs in twos and threes only), they had not turned red 
on the night of the 6th, but were all red next morning (Tlh). On the 
night of the 6th 34 were laid ; they were more scattered than on the 
previous night, but there was one loose patch of 18; at 1 p.m. on the 
8th these were darkening but not yet red ; by 7 a.m. on the 9th they 
had turned red. On the niglit of the 7th 11 were laid; at 7 a.m. on 
the 9th one of these had turned red, the rest were only flesh-coloured ; 
by 9 a.m. on the 10th all were red. On the night of the 8th 11 were 
laid ; at 7 a.m. on the 9th all these were of a dull orange except one, 
which was red ; on the morning of the 10th two more had become red, 
and on the evening of the same .day all were pale red — one very dark 
red or purple. On the night of the 9th 4 were laid, which were all 
pale orange the next morning, and all red on the 12th. On the night 
of the 11th two were laid; next morning one of these was })ale red, 
the other dirty yellow ; on the 15th both were dark red. These obser- 
vations seem to confirm the o^nnion I expressed in my notes on the 
spring batch to the effect that the few fertile eggs of that batch were 
laid in the middle of the period of de})Osition. I did not take note of 
the exact tint of the freshly-laid eggs for the first two or three days, 
but I do not think that they differed much from the infertile ones of 
the former batch. Some of the later ones, however, if not orange- 
coloured when laid, must have changed very rapidly, as they were 
already of that tint when I examined them onlj^ nine or ten liou.rs 
after their deposition, and it will be noticed that one egg turned red in 
this short space of time. 



pONG OF THE SEASONS. 

Come forth : come forth : the spring to j Come forth : come foith : the autumn 
thee is calling : ; inists are creeping 



The plover cries his love o'er moor 

and hill ; 
The skjiark's notes from heaven to 

earth are falling : 
And in the hedgerows nods the 

daffodil. 

Come forth : come forth : the summer's 

fier^' glances 
Bid thee come dream heneath the 

greenwood's shade : 
Near where the streamlet mid the 

bracken dances : 



About the garden where the robin 

sings : 
The spider in his dewv net is sleeping: 
And to his hoard his nuts the squirrel 

brings. 

Lie still and rest : the winter winds 
are wailing: 
The sparrow puffs his featliers on 
the tree : 
And sullen clouds o'er sullen skies go 
trailing. 
What can the dead earth tell to thee 



And the tall foxglove blushes in the i or me ? 

glade. G. M. A. H. 



<^^ AND ^^^^ 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION. 



No. 10. Vol, V. October 15th, 1894. 



BiIf'i'Ei^PLy-e^i'eiJir^Q Iji fplE plEigj^lBOl/l^jiOOD OF 

]V[0]^1' BhRjlZ* 

By J. W. TUTT, F.E.S. 

Overhead the sky is of a lovely blue. The suu's rays jjass throuo-h 
the larches and fall upon a sloping hollow that is filled knee-deep with 
scabious and thyme, marjoram and gentians, umbellifers and trefoils, 
barberry and juniper. Two lazy fellows are lounging idly in the shade 
at a little distance from each other, each trusting that the other believes 
him to be working as hard as possible while he is really glorying in his 
own laziness as he feasts his eyes on the snowy dome of Mont Blanc, 
or on the necklet of cloud from out of which stands up, black and o-vim, 
the sharp jioint of the Aiguille Noire de Peteret. Yonder the Glacier 
de Brenva shows its white ne've, glistening in the brilliant sunli(>-ht ; 
whilst The Grammont and Clietif smile grimly across the JJora Valley 
at the two make-believes on the opposite side. Lovely is the Dora 
Valley, with its turlud glacial streams, its emerald green, its snow- 
capped mountains, and its beautiful flowers. Kound this delightful spot, 
in favourable localities, butterflies and moths don't simply exist — they 
swarm. 

Let us glance at some of the butterflies that may be captured round 
about Courmaj^eur on a morning in early August. 

In the valley below there Papilio podalirim flies lazily but gracefully 
about, sipping from every muddy spot. The few P. machaon we see 
are worn and broken, and a half-fed larva, picked up on the bank, tells 
us that we have hit on a time between the two broods or else that the 
summer brood is past. But the butterfly of these slopes is Parnassius 
apollo. A lazy, high-living chap is he, sucking away greedily at the 
nectar of knapweed or scabious, too intent to mind the fingers that 
pick him tenderly from his food, simply throwing out his fore le^s in 
a wondering sort of way as much as to say. Where am I now ? As 
we put him back he goes on sucking again, flaps his wings once 
or twice to satisfy himself that he has discovered where he is and then 
after a time, spreads his wings and launches himself in the air so 
lightly and easily that you fail to see his wings vibrate to keep him in 
motion. A really fine fellow it is,with its crimson spots varying in size and 
number, dependent, my companion says, on sex ; but this fliglit makes one 
* Kead before the City of London Jintomological Society, bept. 4tb, 1894. ^ 



234 THE entomologist's record. 

think that, in sj^ite of the neiiration being so different, the osmaterium 
of the larva is a better guide, and shows that it has closer affinities to 
the Swallow-tails than one would otherwise be inclined to suppose. 
Leticophasia shidpis threads its way slowly through bush and grass and 
occasionally settles as lazily as it flies, in spite of the fact that some of 
our English collectors think that this species has solved the problem of 
perpetual motion. In yonder lucerne fields Aporia crakegi disports 
itself, the almost diaphanous females reminding one of P. apoUo and 
giving one the notion that the most perfect specimens are but in poor 
condition. With it are Pieris brassicae and P. rapae, but P. napi 
does not put in an appearance, although we met with it later on at 
Aix-les-Bains. Pieris dajiJidice flits easily along, but a regular "artful 
dodger " it is. It flies slowly, and you cannot help distinguishing it at 
once on the wing, notwithstanding all that has been said to the con- 
trary. But for all its slow flight you often miss it ; it dodges just as 
you strike, changes its mind perhaps when the shadow of the net falls 
on it ; at any rate you miss about as many as you catch. Gonopteryx 
rhamni is just coming out, but no G. deopatra are seen. The " Yellows " 
are in fine condition and in the humour to hunt a fellow on the hill- 
side. You may talk about hunting butterflies but I have quite made 
up my mind that these Clouded Yellows hunt me. One took me a 
pretty dance, I nearly broke my neck — and got a peep at him ; had 
after him again — and got a telescopic view at about six yards ; then he 
beamed on me as he turned suddenly and jDassed within an inch of my 
nose, just as I was calculating whether I was to sink gracefully on my 
back on the bank or roll with the loose stones I had incautiously stepped 
on and thus end my existence ; then, when I recovered, I saw him hover- 
ing over a flower at the ver}^ spot whence I had started ; but when I 
got there he was just sailing away over the larch trees. I didn't give 
them much chance of hunting me though, for we soon arranged matters 
satisfactorily, and whilst C. edusa, C. liyale and C. phicomone flew 
peacefully about the bank I lay in the shade and watched them. Ar- 
gynnids were in thousands, A. aglaia and A. niohe in dozens ; and what 
grand fellows some of the latter are ! what marvellous variations they 
show in their silvery undersides — and in their upjiersides, too, for the 
matter of that. A. adiptpe and an occasional A.paphia, together with a 
much larger but closely- allied species, with a really grand underside of 
green and red, were mingled with such lovely A. latona. Just out of 
pupa, they waved their Avings airily, now on a flower, then on the rock 
at one's feet. A. selene I saw once, I believe, but A. eiiphrosyne was not. 
A half-dozen other species besides perhaps fell in our way here, but 
their names are not on British lists, except perhaps A. dia, which some- 
times is and ought not to be. All our British Melita?as occurred and 
many others besides — M. cinxia on the hill-side, M. mtrinia high on the 
mountains, probably long over in the lower regions, and M. athalia here 
and there,with ]\l.partheme, M.mirelia and many other species. The larvse 
of Vaneaaa urticae occurred high on the mountains, where nine-tenths 
must starve before they come to maturity, and })lenty of images a})peared 
as well. V. antiopa, fine strong-winged fellow, was only once seen here, 
but others appeared in the Cogne Valley, where a pupa and evi- 
dences of some hundreds of larvas in the shape of their cast skins were 
found ujjon the willows. Vanessa io and Pyrameis aialanta were in 
no great abundance, but P. cardui and its larvae were everywhere. 



BUTTERFLY-OATOHING IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF MONT BLANC. 235 

This species was found up to the highest points we reached, sailing over 
the top of Mont de la Saxe and the Glacier du Miage, free and unre 
strained. Lime ait is Camilla occasionally haunted a shrubby honeysuckle, 
and Melananjia galatea kept company with P. apoUo almost everywhere 
on suitable slopes. We made a special hunt for Erehias, and got some, 
although Erehia aethiops occurred but twice and both times at low 
levels (at Bourg St. Maurice and Gresy near Aix les Bains), but some 
allied species swarmed. Erehia epiphron in varied conditions of dotting 
and spotting was sometimes not uncommon. Pararge megaera and 
some allied non-British species occurred, but rarely in the higlier levels, 
although the species was abundant in the Val d' Aosta, whilst H. semele, 
fine grand fellows some of them, were met with in many places. 
Epinephele ianira, with a double-spotted relation, and Coenonympha 
pamphilns were not uncommon. Of the Hair-streaks only one, and that 
a non-British species, occurred, but the lovely Coppers made up for 
them. Brilliant little gems are the males of Chrysophanus virgaurece, and 
abundantly they skipj^ed from flower to flower, whilst C. pJiIoeas gave 
us here a bright form, lower down the dark form which Mr. Merrifield 
has proved to accompany a high temperature and wliich has helped to 
prove that melanism is often the result of a physical (pathological) process 
which may be engendered in a variety of ways. But Lycaenas are the in- 
sects jjar excellence of the banks here. L. corydon and L.bellargns, L. aegon 
and L. argus, L. astrarche and L. icarus, L. acis and L. minima, L. argiolus 
and L. argiades, with fine dark L. avion sport here, and quite a dozen 
non-British species besides : the thyme and marjoram teem with these 
strange little creatures, which make their wings appear to rotate by a 
process of moving those on opposite sides in different directions. No 
Nemeobius lucina were observed here, although a second brood turned up 
at Aix, but malvae-like Skippers were in dozens. How many species 
there were I dare not say ; whether Pyrgus malvae was in fact one of 
them it is equally unsafe to assert. Nisoniades tages and some butter- 
flies which resembled but were not it occurred, not here but at Aosta ; 
but here, with the Yellows and Fritillaries, thousands of Pamphila 
comma dart about diving their probosces deep into thistle and scabious, 
hustling tlie Burnet moths, the apollox, and even the bees. P. linea and 
P. lineola, P. sylvanus and P. actaeon all occur here, P. lineola much the 
most frequently. 

Thus much for some of the butterflies round Courmayeur. Those 
species which are not found in England find so little favour in the eyes 
of British collectors that this must be my excuse for not naming them ; 
but when three-fourths of our British species and as many other 
non-British species besides, can l^e seen in one or two morning walks 
among some of the most beautiful scenery in the Alps, with the Sovran 
Dome of Mont Blanc keeping silent and watchful guard, where, when 
butterflies and Burnet moths pall, one can turn to lovely flowers, glacial 
torrents, glistening snow, sparkling cascades, silent and majestic moun- 
tains or deep deep blue sky, can watch the filmy haze weave itself into 
fanciful shapes around the aiguilles yonder and float off a wraith so 
fairy-like and light that the blue of the sky ap])ears to pierce it, whilst 
the sound of the cow-bells comes peacefully from the pastures above 
and woos the sleepy dream-god, then I feel it safe to assert that tliere 
are many worse occupations than catching "Hampstead Heath" antiopas, 
" Dover " latonas, " Folkestone " daplidices, and jNIidland dias, on the 
breezy slopes of the mountains around Courmayeur. 



236 THE entomologist's record. 

1'fiE LIFE-jilgfORy OF Oe^[EI^I£ DI^P^]^.* 
By C. NICHOLSON. 

I have chosen this insect as the subject of a paper because, having 
reared it repeatedly through all its stages, I have noticed several 
features in its history which led me to think that it would prove 
specially interesting, and furnish food for thought and discussion. 

I will deal first of all with its nomenclature. Why the moth 
received its English name, " The Gipsy moth," I do not know, but the 
female is figured under that name in 1742 by Wilkes, (Bowies' New 
Collection of English Moths and Butterflies in 12 prints, all draivn from 
life, pi. X., fig 2.), who seems to have been the first British author to 
notice it. Scientifically it is probably best known to entomologists as 
Liparis dispar, though it is now called by the name which appears in 
the title of this paper. It seems to have had no specific synonyms 
worthy of mention, although generically it has experienced numerous 
vicissitudes. Linnajus called it Phalaena (Bomhi/x) dispar ; Haworth, 
Bomhyx dispariis ; then we have Hiibner with Porthetria dispar, and 
Ochsenheimer with Liparis dispar ; then Stephens and Curtis with 
Hypogymna dispar, and finally Herrich-Schaeffer with Ocneria dispar. 
The generic name, Ocneria, is probably derived from the Greek 
ohieiros — "sluggish"; if this be the origin of the word, it is par- 
ticularly applicable to the female Gipsy moth. The trivial name dispar, 
meaning " unlike," is most appropriately besto\ved on this species 
because of the striking dissimilarity between the SL'xes. 

As most of you are doubtless aware, this moth is remarkable from 
the fact that it has ceased to exist in a wild state in Britain and has 
degenerated into a purely domestic article of produce. On the 
Continent, however, it is anything but extinct ; in fact, it occasionally 
becomes so excessively abundant as to strip large tracts of trees of their 
leaves. It is also unpleasantly in evidence on the other side of the 
Atlantic, in the State of Massachusetts, where Brother Jonathan 
employs many men whose sole business it is to keep the numbers of 
this insect in check, with a view to ultimate extermination. I wrote 
to Prof. Eiley for information concerning the ravages caused by this 
species in the aforementioned State, and received in reply the three 
Reports now on the table ; each of these, as you will observe, is 
entitled : " Special Eeport of the State Board of Agriculture on the 
work of extermination of the Gypsy Moth." The Moth seems to have 
been accidentally introduced into America about 35 years ago, and it 
gradually increased and sjjread to such an extent that, in 1890, £10,000 
was voted by the Legislature to be expended in efforts to get rid of it. 
Those efforts are still going on merrily, and you will see, by the map in 
the Eeport for 1894, that about half the infested district (that is about 
100 sq. miles) lias been cleared of the pest. The expenditure last year 
amounted to about £15,000. One of the reasons given, in the Eeport 
for 1893, for its great destructiveness in America is, that it was 
introduced without its natui'al enemies ; and this is the reason why 
those " insect pests which are of European origin have been far more 
injurious " in Anierica " than they were ever known to be in their 

* Bead before The City of London Entomological Society, Sept. 18th, 1894. 



THE LIFE-HISTOKY OF OCNKKIA DISPAK. 237 

native homes." lu the same Report twenty-four species of American 
birds (inchiding the famous Bhie Jay, immortalized by Mark Twain) 
are mentioned as feeding on tlie insect in three of its stages ; there are 
are also four species of insects which have been found to destro}?^ the 
ova, and seven true parasites which live in the larvae. I cannot give 
you any information as to its parasitical enemies in Europe, but I do 
know that the audacious British sparrow alights on the scullery I'oof 
just outside my sitting-room window, and greedily snaps up the female 
moths which I discliarge when I have a superfluity of them. 

It has been suggested by more than one author that tlie species was 
originally introduced into this country artificially, and the following 
remarks by Wilkes, in the 1st edition of his English Moths and Bidlerfiies 
(1746-60) lend some support to the suggestion. He says: — "This moth 
is very common in Germany, and was produced [in England jire- 
sumably — C.N.'] from a nest of eggs, that were sent to Mr. Peter 
Collinson, who gave them to Charles Lockyer, Esq. He bred moths 

from them and having turned numbers of them wild (as 

I have been informed) about Ealing, near Brentford in Middlesex, they 
are to be found there, but not anywhere else that J have heard of." 
However that may be, there does not seem much doubt that it became 
extinct somewhere about 1855, although it is reported to have swarmed 
at Horning Fen in Norfolk about 1830, where it seems to have fed on 
sweet gale (see Ent., vol. xxv., p. 259). All efforts to re-establish it 
appear to have been crowned with failure. 

It is a remarkable coincidence that the other British lepidopteron 
Avhich bore the name dispar is now also extinct in this country ; both 
having been found in the same locality, and both becoming extinct 
within a very few years of each other. 

The eggs of the Gipsy Moth are laid during the months of Jidy, 
August and Sejitember in America, and I presume the time is about the 
same wherever the insect occurs. They are usually deposited on the 
trunks or branches of trees and not on the leaves, since they have to 
pass the winter in the egg state and would be carried away with the fall- 
ing leaves, thus making it difficult for the young larvfB to obtain food in 
the spring. While the female is depositing her eggs she remains qui- 
escent on one spot, no part of the insect moving except the extremity of 
the abdomen. The eggs are about i/ie in. in diameter, and are shaped like 
a rather flat orange. They are laid in large patches of one or more 
layers, each patch containing from 150 to 300 eggs thatched over with a 
kind of fur, which is in reality the dark, velvety scales so conspicuous at 
the end of the abdomen of the female. This furry substance is plucked 
out by means of an apparatus specially formed for the purpose, and 
resembling a pair of forceps in miniature. When newly laid, the egg 
is of a pale and somewhat watery chocolate colour ; bxit in a week or 
two this changes to a dark smoky grey, and it remains of this tint 
throughout the winter until spring arrives, when it becomes almost 
black a few days before hatching. 

The hatching of all the eggs in any one batch is not simultaneous, 
which is contrary to the usual rule in such cases, but the young larvae 
continue to come forth, a few at a time, for three or four Aveeks, in 
fact throughout April. The result of this arrangement is that larvae in 
all stages of growth, pupte, and even imagines are found at the same 
time. 



238 / THE entomologist's kecord. 

When first hatched the juvenile larvfe are of a light brown colour, 
but they soon become a very dark greyish black, the liead being quite 
black and shining. They are then about | in. long, and rather hairy. 
The hairs are black, and spring from small black tubercles ; some of 
them are nearly as long as the larva itself. The larva moults, or casts 
its skin, four times, at intervals of from 7 to 14 days. After the first 
moult the colour is not appreciably altered. After the second moult the 
head becomes ditU black, and the body is adorned with a dorsal series 
of about six orange spots. The casting of the third skin reveals a more 
elaborate coat, the tubercles now becoming coloured and the whole body 
of a paler tint ; the head is also marked with yellow. The only change 
after the last moult is that the head is much more suffused with yellow. 
When full-grown, the male larva is about 1| in. in length ; the female 
about 2^ in. They are similarly marked. The head is of a rich 
orange colour, delicately mottled and irrorated with black and having 
two black stripes down the face. The body is black or grey, varying 
with the individual. On the back of each segment of the body are 
two tubercles, which emit short bristly hairs ; and along each side 
of the larva are two rows of warts from which spring longer and 
softer hairs curving downwards. All the hairs are golden brown. 
The dorsal tubercles are dark blue on the first five segments, and 
blood-red on the remaining seven. Mr. Bacot drew my attention to 
some small tubercles situated between the large red dorsal tubercles 
on the 9th and lUth segments. These have been mentioned by Mr. 
Poulton, who, if I have heard rightly, was unable to determine 
their use. 

Anyone who has had the somewhat doubtful pleasure of rearing a large 
number of these larvtB will probably have marvelled at their wonder- 
ful capacity for eating. They never seem to need the aid of the dainty 
little " lieecham " or " Pepper's Quinine and Iron Tonic " to improve 
their appetites. The only preparation of iron that would be of an^'^ 
service would be the woodcutter's axe, so that one could fell a few oaks 
and beeches, with whose leaves the perpetual cravings of the larvae 
could be appeased. When engaged in the, to them, pleasant business 
of getting outside the maximum of greenstuff in the minimum of time, 
the noise made by the jaws of some 2UU larvte resembles the gentle 
pattering of a shower of rain, as it falls on the leaves of trees and 
bushes. I have heard it repeatedly myself. 

I have noticed a peculiar trait in the character of these larvfe, viz : 
their sensitiveness to certain sounds. When I have been talking while 
leaning over the aquarium-glass in which they were feeding, I have 
frequently seen them kick up their tails in a most initated way, as 
if they were annoyed at the sound, which was probably intensified 
by the vibration of the glass. Similar results may be produced with 
other larvaj, as was mentioned in the Ent. Uec. for Sept. 1893, pages 
240-241, where Vanessa urticae, Bonthyx qnercas, Nemeophila plantaginis 
and CaUimorpha dominida are referred to as being affected in a similar 
way. 

The larvae of Ocneria dispar rest in a straight position on the stems 
and branches of their food-plant. If annoyed they fall from their 
resting-place, spasmodically jerking their heads and tails up and down. 
This is more particularly the case \vhen they are young and frisky ; as 
they become older and more staid they seem to take life more smoothly, 



THE LIFE-HISTOKY OF OCNEUIA DISPAH. 239 

and are not easily worried. These remarks apply equally to the larvre 
of Fsilnra monacha, to which species 0. disjicir is very closely allied in 
every stage of its existence. 

Although the larvae are moderately hairy, I have not found that the 
hairs possess any " urticating " j^roperties ; but the short bristly ones on 
the back ax'e capable of giving a sharp prick when brought into contact 
with the tender parts of the hand. 

The larva attains full growth in about eight weeks after leaving the 
egg ; it is a rapid crawler and does not roll into a ring on the approach 
of real or fancied danger. It spins a very rough, open network of silk 
in some convenient corner, or between leaves, and therein becomes a 
jiupa. This network in no way hides the enclosed pupa, but is only 
just sufficient to restrain it from rolling about or falling out. 

The pujife of both sexes are of a dark brown colour, and are 
besprinkled with little tufts of short hair of a lighter shade of brown. 
The male pupa is only about half as large as that of the female ; it is 
rather squarer at the head and decidedly more pointed towards the tail. 
Both sexes rotate the tail segments very actively when touched. 

The moths appear in July and August, about a month after the 
pupation of the larvee. 

In the early stages of this moth there is not a very striking 
difference between the sexes ; but as soon as they arrive at the imago 
stage they present very few points of similarity. The male differs very 
materially from the female in size, colour and shape, as is evident on 
the most cursory glance. The antennae of the male are beautifully 
plumose ; those of the female pectinated. The fore- wings of the male 
are of a rather greyish-brown colour (either shade occasionally 
predominating) with darker transverse wavy lines ; the hind-wings are 
always of a lighter brown than the fore- wings, and, as a rule, aj)pear to 
be destitute of markings, with the exception of a central dark lunule : 
there is, however, sometimes an indication of a line parallel with the hind 
margin ; though this is rather more distinct in the female. The fringe is 
alternately light and dark on all the wings. The female agrees with 
the male in the style of the markings, but the ground colour of all the 
wings is creamy-white. Both sexes have a blackish dot and a 
V-shajDcd mark rather above the middle of the fore-wing. The 
distinctness of the transverse lines varies in both sexes, but especially 
in the female, and a variety of that sex occasionally occurs in wliich 
the V-shaped mark alone is present. 

I am indebted to Mr. Samuel Stevens of Norwood for the loan of 
2 males and 2 females of an original British race. You will notice 
that the second male is a very strikingly banded variety ; otherwise 
there is no particular individuality about our old fen form. 

You will see in my boxes a number of small males very mucli 
lighter than usual, and having a good deal of buff colour on the fore 
wings ; many of them also have the thorax greyish. They are the 
produce of several generations, and were bred in the first instance from 
ova received from Mr. Bacot, who got them from Mr. Wade-Gery of 
Winchester College. 

It was by means of a score of larvae, which I ol»tained in 1886 
from Mr. J. Potts of Hull, that I first made acquaintance with the 
species ; and the acquaintance had ripened into friendshi}) with suc- 
ceeding generations, when I unfortunately lost the race iu 1891. 



240 THE entomologist's recced. 

The male Gipsy moth is extremely excitable, and flies wildly in a 
zigzagging manner during the day in jirecisely the same way as its 
humbler relative Oryyia antiqiui, which, in many ways, it closely re- 
sembles. The female, on the contrary, is very lethargic, usually sitting 
quietly within a few inches of the pupa shell from which she has 
emerged. In one of the Keports above referred to the following re- 
mark occurs: " The female does not fly, except diagonally downwards." 
Those which I have bred did not seem to fly at all, but they occasion- 
ally fluttered about in the box in a manner remarkably like that of the 
female Silkworm moth. It is probable that in a state of nature the 
female flies late at night. 

The males, in common with those of the other species in the family 
Liparidce, " assemble " very freely. In connection with this I tried an 
experiment with the present species in my sitting-room, which is about 
1 1 feet square. One day I found that three females had emerged in 
my l)ox, and I put them close together on the mantel-board, and let a 
small male loose in the room. The window and the door were wide 
open, but he made no attempt to escape, and it was very interesting to 
observe the steady business-like Avay in which he searched about, care- 
fully investigating the corners of the floor and the ceiling, and working 
up and down the Avails. The whole proceeding was in most striking 
contrast to the wild zigzagging flight above referred to. It took him 
about half an hour to find the females ; I suppose this was because 
there was no breeze to assist him in localizing their position. I paid 
a brief visit to the Natural History Museum some time ago, for the 
purpose of looking up this species and its foreign allies, and was much 
struck with the very great similarity which man 3^ of the latter bear to 
0. dispar and Psilura monacha, several of them forming connecting links 
between the two. For instance, the male of Enome incerta — an Indian 
species — has Avings almost identical with those of 0. dispar in colour 
and marking, but it has a pink body like that of P. monacha. E. 
japonica (from Japan) is simply a larger edition of 0. dispar, except 
that the female is more suffused Avith broAvn, and has only the V-shaped 
mark distinct. E. umhrosa — likewise a native of Japan — is also, in 
api^earance, very closely related to dispar. The scourge of Massachu- 
setts is figured in the Eeports on the table, and seems to be A'ery near 
to the ordinary forms which we noAv breed, Avhich I sujjpose are 
Continental. 

In conclusion, I regret that I haA^e not any foreign tj^pes to sIioav 
you, but I desire to thank those members avIio have brought their series 
here this CA'ening to help to illustrate the paper. If I may A-enture to 
suggest some points for discussion, I think these tAvo may be productive 
of some interesting opinions: — Why did Ocneria dhpjar become ex- 
tinct in this country ? and. Why are the wings of the female so Avell 
developed, supposing that they are not used for flight ? 



Photography is making entomologists more closely knoAvn to each 
other. In the Entomological News for September, 1894, is a photo of 
tAventy-scA'en American entomologists, including some Avell-knoAvn 
names. We are also indebted to Mr. Capper for a photograph of many 
valued correspondents, Avho make Liverpool their entomological home, 
and look u]) to the respected President of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Society as their entomological jKirent. The latter photograph Avill be 
reproduced in an early number of The Entomologist'' s Record. 



THE LIFE-HISTORY Of A LEPlDOPTEROUS INSECT. 241 

I'lie Life-jiistory of a Lepidopterous Irisect, 

Comprising some account of its Morphology and Physiology. 
By J W. TUTT, F.E.S. 

(Continued from page 217). 



Chap. IV. 
EMBEYOLOGY. 

12. — Eeversal OF POSITION OF EMBRYO IN EGGS. — (Continued). — 
With regard to the development of the embryo in the egg of Rmnia 
lateolata (crafacgata) and the position of its head in the ovum, Dr. 
Osborne writes (E. M. 3L, vol. xx., p. 147) : — " The earliest eggs were 
laid on or about the 15th of June. On the 28th I noticed the first 
appeai'ance of the e3^e- spots, and the first hatching took place on 2nd 
July. My note on 30th June runs as follows: — 'The eye-sjwts from 
their earliest api^earance occupy the same position relatively to the 
sharjD end of the polar oval as they do in these advanced embryos (and 
which is their position up till hatching) : consequently the aspect and 
orientation of the dorsal and ventral surfaces is constantly the same.' 
That is, unless the embryo makes, more than four days before hatching, 
that revolution in the shell asserted by Kowalevski for the lepidoj^terous 
embryo in general, and which would necessarily bring its head from 
one side of the shell to the other. The presumption then would be that 
the embryo of R. crataegata gets into the loop form by such a ventral 
incurvature and forward growth of the tail-end, as Ave have seen already 
in Zavaea, and as is described by Huxley in Astaciisy 

To this (in Science Gossip, vol. xxi.) Dr. Osborne adds : — " Perhaps 
the subject may be made clearer by a brief consideration of the 
different kinds of motion which may be observed in eggs. These may 
be classed under four heads ; 1st, Movements due to gravitation. The 
ventral or developing side of the yelk in the egg of Gastrophi/sa 
raphina, e.g. turns always towards the upjDer surface, though this 
change takes j^lace so slowly that it may occuj)y several days in 
completion. 2nd, Movements of growth : strikingly illustrated in the 
egg of Calopteryx, in which the embiyo becomes inverted in the shell 
(Balfour, Comp. EmhryoL, i., 334). 3rd, Embryonic movements ; by 
which limbs or parts show movements without any change in the 
whole ; and lastly, 4th, Larval movements ; when the jjerfectly formed 
embryo changes its position in the shell or acts in any other way as if 
it were independent of it. The loop form of the lepidopterous em- 
bryo Kowalevski sujiposed to be due to the latter class of movements, 
whilst in reality it is only a movement of growth. When in its final 
stages, as stated by Kowalevski and as observed in these eggs by 
Mr. Jeffrey, the embiyo of Botys devours the remainder of the yolk 
and cuts its way out of the shell, these actions may be fairly described 
as larval movements." 

As there was here a decided discrepancy between Dr. Osborne's and 
Kowalevski's observations, and as my OAvn yiews agreed with tliose of 
Dr. Osborne, viz. that the change in 2iosition Avas due to the groAvth of the 
embryo pushing up the anal segment Ijetween tlie A^enter (placed out- 
side) and the sliell avuU, tlie body being gradually pushed back into the 



242 THE entomologist's record. 

egg as the anal segment was driven forward by the growing segments 
towards the head, which remained comparatively fixed in position, I 
asked Dr. Chapman, whose experience is so wide, to look through my 
own notes and these, and to be kind enough to formulate his own 
observations for me to use. This he has very courteously done, and 
now writes : — 

" Mr. Tutt asks me to describe the phenomena associated with the 
change of position that occurs in the young lepidopterous larva within 
the shell before hatching. I must, in the first place, disclaim all idea 
of being an authority on the subject, and can merely endeavour to make 
clear what others have described, so far as my own observations have 
enabled me to understand the subject. I have followed the develop- 
ment of the young larva in sundry Fyralides, of which Botys hyaUnalis 
is quite as good as any ; B. verticalis has larger eggs ; ScopuJa pnmalis 
is fairly satisfactory for the purpose ; the transparent- egged Acronydas, 
especially A. strigosa, afford good subjects for observation, but the rib- 
bing of the shell somewhat obscures details ; Limacodes testudo also 
gives a very satisfactory egg for the purpose. 

" In all cases the larva first appears on the surface of the yelk-mass 
as a flat plate, of which the central line is the middle of the ventral 
surface, and the margins are the two sides of the dorsum still far apart. 
These mai-gins however rapidly curd in and, at the head and tail, the 
young embryo soon has the cylindrical form we associate with a larva, 
but centrally there remains a wide opening through which the mass of 
the yelk is continuous with that portion of it contained in a central 
cavity of the larva ; this central cavity is the future alimentary canal, 
not yet j^rovided, however, with any opening towards either the head 
or the tail. The communication between the intestinal cavity and the 
yelk-sac gradually becomes smaller, and portions of yelk leave the sac 
and pass into the intestine, and contribute to the growth of the embrj'O. 
During this period, it is easy in flat eggs like those of the Pyralides, 
Tortrices, Limacodes, &c., to see the embryo curled round a greater or 
less portion of the yelk-sac, with its ventral surface towards the margin 
of the egg, and its dorsal surface (aspect rather than surface, as the 
surface is still broken by the umbilical opening) applied to the yelk-sac. 
There is a little variation in the degree to which the yelk disappears 
before the umbilical opening closes, but when this takes place the larva 
forms a horse-shoe or circle, with the venter towards the shell-wall 
and its anterior and posterior extremities in contact. At this period, 
also, there are a varying number of globules of yelk free in the egg- 
cavity around the larva ; whether these are set free by the movement 
of the larva that now takes place, or still later by the jaw action of 
the larva I am not sure, but after the movement has taken place the 
young larva swallows these ; this swallowing of the remaining yelk may 
indeed be regarded as a first step towards eating its way out of the egg. 
Before the closing of the umbilical opening, the embrj'^o may be regarded 
as an a})pendage to the yelk-sac, attached thereto by its dorsal aspect. 
As soon as the opening closes, however, the young larva is truly a young 
larva, possessing no organic connection with the other egg structures. 
The first use it makes of this liberty is, to bend the tail forwards, and, 
as it were, creep up its own ventral siirface, assuming in this process 
an S or pot-hook shape, until at length its position is reversed, the 
dorsum being now along the circumference of the egg, and the venter 



THE LlPE-TIISTOKY OP A LEPlDOl'TKliOUS INSECT. 243 

being central. The head and tail sometimes merely meet (in the flattest 
eggs), sometimes slightly over-lap, whilst, in the dome-shaped eggs, the 
head so over-lajjs, as to take very often a central position in the vertex 
of the egg, forming a dark spot there, as in Acronycta, Skippers, and 
many others. 

"The essential importance of tliis observation is, thnt it shows that 
the embr^'onic position of the nervous system is the same in insects as 
in vertebrates, and since it must therefore be identical also in the mature 
animal, it follows that the venter of insects corresponds anatomically 
with the dorsum of vertebi'ates, and vice versa. 

" As regards the actual change of position itself, and the position 
afterwards taken by the larva, it seems to me that the important point 
is, that the larva whilst still truly an embryo, that is, whilst still 
attached to the yelk and egg structures, has the venter outwards, and 
the dorsum towards the centre of the yelk or egg; but when it becomes 
free it is no longer an embryo, it moves how it likes, and though the 
position it takes up seems to be very uniform throughout each species and 
even throughout whole families, still this has little, if any, embryological 
significance. I have frequently seen larvae making this S-movement, 
and though I have called it " creeping up its own ventral surface," it 
goes on slowly, without any apparent voluntary or even muscular move- 
ments, and appears to be due to the mere force of the growth and develop- 
ment of the larva. Sometimes it seems as if the lengthening of the 
larva led to the extremity of the tail impinging against the side of the egg- 
shell and, instead of sliding onwards, being caught and bent up. It is 
associated no doubt with the completion of the growth of the dorsal 
surface previously defective by the large umbilical opening, and now 
more abundant in proportion to the ventral surface. I should class it 
therefore under Dr. Osborne's second heading rather than under his 
fourth. It proceeds slowly and steadily, so that usually some progress 
may be noted in five or ten minutes. 

" Very shortly after, what appear to be voluntary movements of 
swallowing take place, the remainder of the yelk disappears, and 
the remaining fluid is either absorbed by the larva through the skin, 
or evaporates through the shell ; the trachea become visible by getting 
filled with air, and the larva begins the process of eating through the 
shell." 

Of the forward movement of the anal segment after its curvature, and 
at the time when it is pushing back as it were the ventral surface of the 
larva from its previous contact with the eggshell, Mr. Jeffrey (E.M.M., 
xxiii., p. 173)* writes oi Bofya hyalinalis that on the seventh day at 5.20 
a.m. the terminal segment had become ventrally incurved, gradually 
increasing in length ; that in two hours more the incurvature had 
perceptibly increased, and that soon after noon the anal segment had 
reached to the first pair of thoracic legs and he " could plainly see it 
advancing towards these legs and actually push them forwards in its 
course," whilst at G p.m. tlie anal segment had reached quite to a level 
with the eye-spots — pressing all the thoracic legs down in its course. 

* This reference is to one of the most complete accounts of the embryonic 
development of a lepidopterous insect published in the British magazines. It 
is impossible to quote it at length, and as it is easily available to all our readers 
there is no real need. Dr. Osborne's article in Science Gossip for 1885 is also 
well worth reading. 



244 THE entomologist's reooed. 

13. — On the first appearance of the trachea. — Mr. Jeffrey 
E.M.M., vol. xxiii.) thus writes on the first ajDpearance of the 
tracheas in the embryo of Botys hjalinalis : — " On the tenth day, at 
4.30-4.35 p.m., the first tracheaj came suddenly into view. As the 
tracheae were almost invisible in some of the other larvte, I watched 
one closely with the view of noting the cause of their appearing so 
suddenly, and saw them injected as I suppose with air for the first time. 
At 5.15 p.m. the filling of the trachea} commenced in the posterior 
segments, a sort of cloud gathering at the band where it is close to the 
head and in a line with the eye ; I saw an apparently dark flood start 
from this spot, and creeping along with a sort of spasmodic effort, fill- 
ing the branches in its course till it reached the head and the whole 
tracheae became consjoicuously visible on that side of the body." 

14. — On the eakliest traces of pulsation in the embryo. — Of 
the earliest traces of pulsation in the embryo of B. hyalinalis Mr. 
Jeffrey {E.M.M., vol. xxii., pp. 126-7) writes :—" From the 5th to the 
17th of last August (1885) I was engaged in watching the develojj- 
ment of the embryo in some eggs of Botys hyalinaJis, which I had been 
so fortunate as to secure, laid upon slips of glass, thus affording a good 
opportunity for observing them under the microscope. The early 
stages, interesting as they were, may be passed over here, but by the 
1 nth being the tenth day after incubation, the young larva was well 
formed, and most of the organs could be made out. That morning the 
dorsal vessel became visible, and at 8 a.m. I noticed the first traces of 
circulation in it. The pulsations at first were very faint and feeble, 
taking place somewhat irregularly at long intervals of twenty and even 
thirty seconds; at 2 p m., they had become more distinct, with shorter 
intervals between each beat, and became still more accelerated by the 
evening. At this time the beautiful ramifications of the tracheae came 
rather suddenly into view. The oral organs were well-developed, and 
conspicuous from their brown colour. The aasophagus also could be 
distinctly traced, especially when, by a sucking action, a bolus of yelk- 
granides was drawn down, and seen to pass into the alimentar}' canal, 
which effort was continued at intervals on the 16th, till all the remain- 
ing yelk-granules had been ingested. Then a period of rest took place 
during part of the 17th, when a beautifully clear view of the heart 
and its action was obtained, the pulsations being timed at 40 per 
minute, increasing to 60 at 8 jj.m., the larva escaping from the egg at 
8.10. Thus, it will be seen some sixty hours had elapsed from the time 
I was first able to detect a circulatory movement in the dorsal vessel." 

15. — Hints from the embryo as to the number of abdominal 
SEGMENTS IN THE LEPiDOPTEROus LARVA. — Considerable difference of 
opinion exists between the older entomological authorities and those of 
to-day as to the number of abdominal segments in the lepidoptera. 
Packard was the first to draw attention to the fact that there were ten 
somites in the larval abdomen, the old authors only giving nine. Jack- 
son (Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 1889, p. 151) refers to the fact that 
Kowalevski found ten somites in the embiyo of Sincrintlius pojmli, all 
ten somites bearing feet (Mem. Acad. Imp. St. Peters., xvi., 1871, p. 53 ; 
Taf. xii., figs. 8-10), whilst in an abstract of Tichomiroff's paper " On 
the development of Bomhyx nwri," it is stated that he found eleven ab- 
dominal somites in the embryo, all provided with feet exce2)t the 
first (Najjles Jahreshertchtes, 1882, p. 142) ; Graber records that the 



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A LEPIDOPTEEOUS INSECT. 245 

abdominal segments of the embryo of GasteropacTia quercifolia were at 
first devoid of appendages, and that when they did appear they de- 
veloped only on those segments on which they persist in the adult 
(Morp. Jahrhuch, xiii., 1888, pp. 609-610). This last author also finds 
the abdomen of the embryo insect to consist of eleven true segments, 
and he believes that he has found distinct traces of coelomic cavities in 
the eleventh segment. 

16. On TfiE ORIGIN OF THE BLOOD-TISSUE (BlUTGEWEBe). — The 

important part played by the blood-tissue in larval nutrition, together 
with the supposition, for many years entertained by certain eminent 
scientists, that circulation of the blood did not take place in insects, 
has led to considerable attention being devoted to the subject. The 
origin of this "blood-tissue " was worked out at consideraljle length in 
1891 by Graber (" Ueber die embryouale Anlage des Blut- und Fett- 
gewebes der Insekten." Biol. Centralbl., Bd. ii., Nos. 7-8., pp. 212- 
221:) and by Wielowiejski. The latter, who approaches the matter from 
an anatomical point of view, at the same time expresses some general 
opinions as to the origin of the structures included under this term. 
He is very careful not to postulate a common origin for all the com- 
ponent structures of his " Blutgewebe," but includes them under this 
common term ; Avhilst Graber does not hesitate to conclude that the 
different tissues comprising Wielowiejski's " Blutgewebe " are genetic- 
ally related, and from the study of insect embryos, Graber arrives at 
the following conclusions: — 1. That oenocytes (certain cell-masses) are 
derived from the ectoderm. 2. That they are metamorphosed into the fat 
body. 3. Thatthe blood corpuscles arise from the fat body (and also directly 
from the oenocytes ?). According to Graber therefore all these — oenocytes, 
fat body, blood-corpuscles, are ectodermic structures, a very bold con- 
clusion when, as Wheeler says, " we are accustomed to derive the cor- 
puscles and the connective tissue from the middle germ-layer." 
Tichomiroff, a Kussian embryologist, described in 1882 (" The em- 
bryonic development of the Silk-worm {B. mori).'" Pnbl. Labor. Zool. 
Mas. MoscoH, vol. i.) segmental masses of cells originating from the 
ectoderm near the stigmata ; whilst Korotneff, another Russian embry- 
ologist, in 1885 (" Die Embryologie der Gryllotalpa," Zeitsch. f. Wiss. 
Zool., Bd. xli.) also described these cells. Wheeler, in discussing these 
articles {Psyche, vol. vi., p. 255 et seq.) considers Graber to be correct in 
referring the cells described in them to the oenocytes of Wielowiejski, 
but ascribes the development of the " fat-body " to an entirely different 
source from that indicated by Graber. The fat-body, according to 
Wheeler, is a " thickened part of the inner coelomic wall, due to an 
accumulation of fat-vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the mesoderm-cells." 
According to Graber it is (as we have said) an accumulation of the 
embryonic oenocyte cells or those cells which become oenocytes in the 
larva. Wheeler gives reasons for supposing that there is no connection 
between these oenocytes and the blood corpuscles, except in so far as 
they are both " blood-tissue," and concludes that the fat-body (as we 
have seen above) is not derived from the oenocytes, but is of meso- 
dermal not ectodermal origin, as indeed has generally been supposed, 
and that there is no evidence for the origin of the blood from the 
oenocytes. His final conclusions on the origin of the blood-tissue are 
fully summarised in Psyche, vol. vi., p. 257. 

Wheeler calls attention to the fact that, whereas most insect em- 
bryos develop and possess these large oenocytic cells, only " the winged 



246 TUE entomologist'cj KECOKU. 

Orders of Hexapoda " ajopear to possess oenocytes in their larval and 
adult forms. He then goes on to say that the oenocytes are of very 
general perhaps universal occurrence among the Ptery(jota, Lepidoptera 
being one of the Orders in which they are found. Of their occurrence 
in this Order he writes : — " Few insects appear to be better adapted for 
tracing out the origin of the oenocytes than the Lepidoptera. This is 
especially true of the larger Bombycid moths. That the segmental 
cell clusters arise by delamination from the ectoderm was conclusively 
made out in the embryos of PJatysamia cecropia and Telea polyphemns. 
Each cluster is several cell-layers in thickness and lies just behind and 
a little ventral to an abdominal stigma. The succulent cells constituting 
the cluster are at first polygonal from mutual pressure, but as the time 
for hatching apj^roaches they become rounder and more loosely united. 
I have not traced them through the larval stages and merely record 
these fragmentary observations because they completely confirm Tich- 
omiroff's and Graber's observation on the origin of the oenocytes from 
the ectoderm." 

17. — On the origin of the reproductive cells. — The earliest de- 
velopment of the ovum and spermatozoon in the embryo of insects is 
very obscure, but it would appear that the primitive ovaries are com- 
posed of a mass of cells, produced by an infolding of the ectoderm ; but 
whilst some writers assert that they arise from the ectoderm, others con- 
sider them to be derived from the mesoderm, whilst still others trace 
their origin back to certain so-called pole cells, which originate even 
before the blastoderm is formed. However this may be, it would appear 
that they are in that early stage quite indistinguishable from the other 
blastoderm cells. 

Therefore it would ajDpear that whilst the great mass of cells become 
differentiated into various structures which subserve a special purpose, 
or perform their several functions, certain cells in the ovary retain their 
primitive condition, and with it the power, under suitable conditions, of 
forming another individual of the same species. On this subject Mr. 
Woodworth writes {loc. cit.) : — "About the time of the completion of the 
blastoderm, the already differentiated ventral plate infolds at a point on 
the median line about two-thirds from the upper end, and forms a very 
narrow pocket. The cells composing it look like the rest of the cells of 
the ventral plate at this time ; they are almost round, and have a lining 
on one side made of the grey matter which originally bordered the whole 
egg, but which became a part of the blastoderm-cells. The pocket re- 
mains open but a short time, but there is a long depression at the upper 
end of the bunch of cells ; the mass of cells is soon cut off from the ventral 
plate and they are then free in the body cavity, but remain in contact 
with the ventral plate at the point where they were produced. Later 
stages show that these cells produce the generative organs ; the generative 
organs thus appear to be produced by an infolding of the ectoderm, or 
possibly of the blastoderm, before the ectoderm is produced, but from 
a portion which is later to become ectoderm. The general idea has 
been that the generative organs in insects are produced from the 
mesoderm, although Metschnikow, as early as 18G6, showed for certain 
insects a different origin." 

18. — On the homologies of certain organs and appendages. — 
There is a remarkable pajier by Mons. N. Cholodkovsky " On the 
Embryonal Development of FhyUodromia germanka," published in 
the Mem. de VAcad. de St. Petershourg, 7th series, v., p. 38 (1891), and 



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A LEIPOPTEKOUS INSECT. 247 

translated in The Annals and Magazine of Natural History for Dec. 1892. 
It is much too extensive to notice in full, but the following conclusions 
are particularly interesting. The author considers that: — "1. The 
head of insects contains more than four ])rotozonites, probably six, of 
which one is pre-oral, but the rest are post-oral. 2. The antennae of 
insects belong to the first post-oral segment, and are entirely homolo- 
gous with the remaining ventral extremities. They do not correspond 
to the antennae of Peripatus, but probably to the chelicerae of spiders, 
and perhaps to the second pair of antenna? of Crustacea. 3. Since the 
possibility that a number of segments in the germinal streak of different 
Arthropods have disappeared is not excluded, a homology of the mouth- 
parts of the different classes of Arthropoda cannot at present be set up. 
4. The abdominal appendages of the Insectan germinal streak (including 
the cerci) are homologous with the thoracic legs. Herein it makes no 
difference whether these appendages are attached to the middle, at the 
side, at the front or hind margin (are meso-, pleuro-, pro-, or opistho- 
static in the terminology of Graber), provided only that their cavity is 
immediately continuous with that of the somite to which they belong. 
The fact that the abdominal appendages usually remain unsegmented 
in nowise tends to show that they are not of the nature of limbs, since, 
for instance, the mandibles also are unsegmented. 5. Many of the ab- 
dominal appendages of larvae and perfect insects are homologous with 
the thoracic legs, even when they are secondary in ontogeny. 6. The 
primitive function of the first pair of the abdominal appendages was 
ambulatory, as also that of the remaining appendages. The ancestors 
of the insects were therefore undoubtedly homopod, not heteropod. 
7. The many-legged insect larvae are to be derived from the six-legged 
just as little as are, conversely, the hexapod larva? from the polypod ; 
both forms developed independently of one another. 8. The em- 
bryonic envelopes of the insects probably corresjDond to the remains of 
a trochospere." 

It may be added that in Graber's " Vergleichende studien am 
keimstreif der insekten," the antenna? are shown to be decidedly post- 
oral in their origin," and it is highly probable that they " corresj^ond to 
the second pair of antenna? in Crustacea," a conclusion jjractically 
reached by Cholodkovsky in No. 2 above. 



URRENT NOTES. 



Mr. Harrison G. Dyar offers some very useful criticisms on 
Hampson's Moths of India in the current number of the Entomological 
Neios, which should not be lost sight of by British lepidopterists. 
Some of the suggestions relate to the genera of many of our common 
British moths. There is a very suggestive note comparing some of 
Hampson's generic nomenclature with Kirby's ; it appears to us remark- 
able that, in the search for truth, men working in the same room and 
with the chance of continually exchanging opinions and discussing 
points of difference, cannot agi-ee as to the correct names to use. 

Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., the editor of The Naturalist, has 
given us already a Bibliography of the records of Lepidoptera published 
with regard to the north of England for the years 1884—1890. The 



248 THE entomologist's record. 

current number of The Naturalist contains the first instalment for the 
year 1891. We notice that under Dr. Buckell's name (p. 3U9) the 
compiler has confounded Leigh in Essex with Leigh in Yorkshire. 
Some marvellous records, too, liave appeared on Mr. Arkle's authority. 
— Asieroscopiis sphinx for example, captured between Jan. 23rd and Feb. 
lOtli. We would suggest that Mr. Arkle was rather mixed either as to 
nomenclature or dates when he recorded this. 

" If you want work done give it to a busy man," is an old proverb, 
well illustrated by our indefatigable friend, Mr. W. F. Kirby. Not 
content with being the authority on entomological nomenclature, we 
observe that he has written an excellent literary and scholarly treatise, 
entitled, " The Hero of Esthonia and other Studies in the Romantic 
Literature of that country" (J. C. Nimmo, 14, King William St., Strand.). 

Professor Carlier records the capture of a specimen of Catocala 
fraxini, at rest on the stump of a small alder tree on the banks of the 
river Wensum, souie two miles above the city of Norwich, on the 
morning of September 18th. 

The larvj\3 of Nenronia popularis have occurred in great abund- 
ance in the north of France this year, and have caused great consterna- 
tion among agricxilturists. 

13r. Mason records the addition of the Psyllid, Trioza centranthi, 
Vallot (= neilreichi, Frfld.), to the English fauna. The insects were bred 
from a corn stalk gathered near Bretby in Derbyshire ; the plant was 
deformed, the iiowers being crowded together and the bracts broadened. 
The larva? were found within the upper reflexed portions of the bracts. 

Mr. Meyrick has discovered another entomological pickle. He 
affirms that Heydenia is preoccupied in Hymenoptera ; Microdonia in 
Coleoptera, and suggests the substiti;tion of Hierophanta (type bicoloria, 
Schiff .) ; Cleodora pre-occupied in Mollusca, and substitutes Paltodora 
(type cytiseUa, Curtis) ; PoeciHa in Pisces, and substitutes Stenolechia 
(type nivea, Haw.) ; Chaidiodus is three times i)re-occupied — in Pisces, 
Neuroptera, and Aves, and substitutes Epermenia, Hb. He further 
points out that some of the species referred to the genus CatapJcctica, 
Wlsm., by Lord Walsingham, have veins 6 and 7 clearly separate, in- 
stancing profiKjelhi, auromacnJata and fuleiijutteUa, but thinks that the 
character may be variable. 

Dr. Sharp and Mr. Cham})ion regret that some of our more interest- 
ing British beetles are disappearing from the New Forest. The supposition 
appears to be based on the fact that they did not find them in a month's 
visit there this year. If this be the only reason, the lepidopterists 
might also raise a wail over losing almost the entire fauna in that 
locality. But we do not lose our fauna even piecemeal without some 
explanation. 

" Hope deferred," etc. We have long looked for Mr. Briggs' 
Monograjih of the Psychidae, and now we find Mr. C G. Barrett 
actually publishing one on these interesting insects in the Eni. Mo. Maj. 



Eeminiscences of Wm, Machin. — It is with mingled feelings of 
pleasure and sorrow that I string together a few reminiscences of our 
recently departed friend William Machin, whom I have known more 
or less intimately for nearly fifty years. He was reminding me, only 
a few weeks ago, of our firsst meeting in Darenth (or Darn) Wood, 
which took place somewhere about the year 1846. As usual, each one 



J 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 249 

showed his captures ; I had taken several Acidalia rusticata, an insect 
at that time comparatively rare and which he had never taken. I told 
him the locality and from that time he was always able to get it. 
Many a time have we dined together on Sunday at the old Fox and 
Hounds Inn at Darenth, wliere, during the season, there was sure to be a 
good sprinkling of the old-time entomologists, and where an excellent 
dinner was served at the very moderate charge of three shillings, and a 
bed with the wliitest of sheets could be obtained for sixpence. Among 
the brethren of the net whom we used to meet there were the two 
Standishes, kind, genial and generous ; cautious Henry Harding 
with the big appetite ; Peter Bouchard, lively and impetuous ; the 
elder Norman, quizzical and cynical ; Eandolph Oxley, full of fun and 
practical jokes ; Holmes, refined and courteous ; and many others, 
whose names I have forgotten, now, alas ! all gone. Some few still 
remain, among them S. Stevens and Oldham. 

Never shall I forget those jolly dinners, seasoned with smart 
sayings, jokes, repeated and playful badinage. Our old friend Machin, 
though not a boa vicant, used to enjoy them, though, like many 
Englishmen, he took his pleasures seriously. After those old times 
when we used to meet frequently tliere was a long interval during 
wliich we only saw each other occasionally, Imt whenever we met there 
was always something to be learned from him, and wliat I have always 
admired in liis character was the readiness with which he gave any 
information that was asked of him. Of late years we have again been 
much more intimate, and I have abundant reason to remember him 
gratefully for his kindness in assisting me in arranging and naming 
my Macro-lepidoptera. His memory was surprising and his knowledge 
of larva? and their habits something marvellous. — J. S. Sequeira, 
M.R.C.S., Crescent House, Cassland Road, South Hackney, N E. 
Se2)t. -ith, 1894. 



gciENTIFIC NOTES & OBSERVATIONS. 

Notes on the capture and habits of Cataplectica farueni, a 
Lepidopteron new to Science. — Sweeping on the side of a road, 
about a mile and a half south of Cambridge on June 26th, 1893, I took 
the first specimen of Tineina, whicli turned out to be new to Science, 
and wliich has been described and named as above by Lord 
Walsingham in the E. 31.31. for September of this year. 

When I netted the first one, I had just taken a specimen of Gelechia 
noevifercUd, which species I imagined it to be until I had had a closer 
look at it through the glass bottom of the box, I then saw it was 
something I had not taken before ; and failing to determine it by the 
usual methods, viz : " Stainton " and comparing types in the cabinet, I 
put it aside for a less busy time. — On the 1st of July following I swept 
three more in a locality about a mile from the first, and on July 9th two 
more about another mile still farther removed. Its sliape while at 
rest in the net, caused me to look particularly for it among the odd genera 
coming near ^chmia dentella ; this was not taking me far from the 
proper place in the list, as it apppears Cataplectica is not far removed 
from JEchmia. Working for the s}iecies this year, I took the first on 
July 3rd, and it Avas in fairly good condition on the 12th and even later. 



250 THE entomologist's record. 

I took them entirely l^y sweeping and did not find one part of the day 
particularly better than another, the end of the afternoon being perhaps 
slightly the best. It is a very sluggish insect at any time and although 
I took a goodly series, I only saw a single specimen before it was in 
the net, and then only by carefully searching among the herbage on 
hands and knees ; to its retired habits I should attribute its haviug been 
overlooked prior to last year, not by any means, as suggested by Lord 
Walsingham in the E.M.M., to its resemblance to some of the obscure 
species of Eldchlsta. It never struck me at all as being like any 
Elachista, and I don't think it could have been overlooked for such — in 
fact I think any micro-lepidopterist boxing it would not i)ass it over 
or overlook it at all. 

The herbage, among which 1 swept it, was fairly mixed, but I 
formed an opinion at first that it was most profitable to confine my 
attention chiefly to Centaurea niyra ; Lord Walsingham, however, wrote 
me that all the known larvas of the genus and its near allies, fed 
exclusively on the seeds of various Umhellifene, and acting on his 
suggestion I was taking them more freely by paying particular 
attention to a spot where there was a lot of Pastinica saliva. During 
the month of August I kept a close look out for spun-up seeds on these 
plants of Pastinica, and in the last week detected small holes in many 
of the seeds, I found two seeds spun together and a small lepidopterous 
larva inside. I then gathered all the seeds with holes in I could find, 
and after a day or so saw larvae crawling about in the bag ; if not 
C. farreni they are something very nearly allied, but as I found them 
feeding on the only plants from which I swept the imagines, I feel 
fairly sanguine that I have only to wait till next July to breed 
CatapJectica farreni. Lord Walsingham has made a note of the 
description, and had figures made of the larva to publish as soon as it is 
proved that they are correct. The larvee appear to enter the seeds at the 
base, and eating the contents pass out at the side, slightly spinning the 
eaten seed to another which it continues to feed on, and so on. There 
appears however to be very little sign of spinning, it being always very 
slight. I trust any of my old micro correspondents who do not hear 
from me, and who would like types, will write. — W. Farren, Union 
Eoad, Cambridge. Oct. 2nd, 189L 

On eggs as helping to determine natural affinities {vide, ante 
pp. 195-198). — Mr. Bedford has sent me a further communication 
bearing on this subject, the greater part of which, however, has no re- 
ference whatever to Insecta. As I do not think that a long (and 
probably fruitless) discussion on the general subject would be of the 
sli"htest interest to most of the readers of this Magazine, nor that it 
would properly find a place in a purely entomological magazine, I 
therefore only print such parts of the letter as refer to insects. Mr. 
Bedford writes: — 

(1). " Mr. Tutt seems still to hold the ojunion that there can be no 
doubt of the general truth that Lepidoptera with similar ova are more 
closely allied than those with dissimilar ones. In another place {Ent. 
Eec, vol. v., p. 191) he says that "developmental changes have a real 
phylogenetic significance." 

(2). " Mr. Tutt in his remarks on my letter says, ' as a matter of 
fact entomological writings, as a rule, are wonderfully lacking in even 
ihe simplest rudiments of such scientific assumptions' (viz., such as 
those implied in ' ilaeckel's famous phrase'). Would that they were I 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 251 

But how does this statement tally witli the following : — ' The eggs of 
lepido})tera are now much more generally taken into account in at- 
tempting to determine the natural position of species ' (Ent. Rec, vol. 
v., p. 143) ? If this is true (and 1 have no reason to doubt it), I can- 
not imagine a better instance of that ' tenacious clinging ' to which I 
alluded in my letter." 

(3). " Why am I expected to give the name of any entomologist wlio 
has based a si/stem (italics mine) of classification on the number of ril)S 
in ova '' ? 

(4). " Why is it incumbent on me to give ' experimental evidence ' 
which separates the Geometers ? I am not aware that anything is known 
of the internal organisation of more than the commonest of the group, 
and until section-cutting and staining are preferred to tlie drying up or 
blowing out to which the best imagines are too often subject, any classi- 
fication adopted merely blinds our eyes to our own ignorance of the 
most important features we classify." — F. P. Bedford, 326, Camden 
Eoad, N. August ISfh, 1891. 

With regard to the four points enumerated above, I would answer : 
— (I). Certainly I still hold the opinion. It is impossil)le for a man to 
inspect the eggs of the species in any well-defined genus of butterflies 
or moths and come to any other conchision. A microscojie increases the 
conviction that the conclusion is a right one. 

(2). Mr. Bedford's quotation of a statement of mine in no way 
helps him. My statement is an assertion that when difficulties of classi- 
fication arise entomologists do consider now, more frequently than used 
to be the case (when they do not apjDcar to have considered anything 
except the general ajjpearance and markings of the imago) the earlier 
stages of the insect. Dr. Chapman's " Acronycta and its allies " is a 
case in point. But that is a new departure (not a " tenacious clinging ") 
and a very good one. Mr. Bedford says, " entomology is the only 
branch of zoology which has clung tenaciously to the doctrine well 
expressed by Haeckel's terse phrase, ' ontogeny recapitulates phylo- 
geny ' " (ante, p. 195), I asked for references to " articles in whicli this 
'tenacious clinging' was expressly shown." Mr. Bedford gives me 
none, because (and I am sui'e all entomologists who are an fait witli 
their subject will agree with me) there are none. 

(3). Because when a man suggests the infei'ence (and a very strong 
one) that entomologists do go in for the " absurdity of basing a classifi- 
cation on such points of similarity in ova, as number of ribs or external 
outline," he should be ready to prove up to the hilt that entomologists 
are as absurd as he infers them to be. 

(4). Because when a man states that entomologists are crassly 
stupid, for that is what it amounts to when he says that, " if a new 
caterpillar were discovered to-morrow with four claspers, whatever its 
internal structure, or whatever peculiar characteristics the imago might 
possess, it would almost certainly be placed among the Geometers, and 
from this it follows that a heterogeneous mixture becomes packed to- 
gether into one group," he should be ready with the proof that they 
are such. Mr. Bedford now not only appears to have no knowledge of 
the " heterogeneous mixture that he says the Geometers form, nor to be 
able to give any experimental evidence even that they are a " heteroge- 
neoLis mixture " at all, but he owns that he is " not aware that anything 
is known of " that " internal organisation " on which he led us to as- 
sume he came to the conclusion that the Geometers were a " hetero- 



262 THE entomologist's record. 

geneous mixture." I do not imderstand what is meant by the " drying 
up or blowing out to which the best imagines are too often subject;" 
we dry imagines and some collectors blow out larvae, and I am inclined 
to consider that blown larvae are of very little value, except for 
collectors to name their captures by. I should be delighted if more 
entomologists did their work with microscope and pencil, but these are 
not altogether unknown even in the entomological world. — J. W. Tutt, 
Oct. 10th, 1S94. — [We must ask any contributors wlio join in this dis- 
cussion, if tliere be any further discussion, to limit their facts and 
arguments to insects, and not to travel over the whole field of zoology. 
—Ed.] 

^"OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

Collecting at CrC)3ier. — 1 spent twelve days at the end of July 
with my friend, Mr. R. W. Kobbins of Clapton, at Sidestrand, three 
miles east of Cromer, on the top of the cliff. We were within a mile 
of the famous " Garden of Sleep," and there was no mistake about the 
" poppyland ;" there were fields full of poppies everywhere ; we found 
all the four British species with red flowers. We had fairly good 
weather, but it was decidedly mixed — generally damp and muggy, Avith 
white mists ; at no time during our stay was it cold enough for an over- 
coat. We could have done with more sunshine, and were not 
surprised to find butterflies practically absent, the ubiquitous 
Epinephele ianira being the only species at all common. Among the 
moths, Geometrae were very scarce. The only ones of any note were 
Eupithea'a suhfulcata (1 sp.) and 3IeJanij)j:)e imaiKjulata (common; rather 
worn), both of which we took on bramble-flowers. We tried treacling 
heads of ragwort, dock, hogweed, (fee. on the cliff's on one night. Noctuae 
were numerous, but not select ; Ayrotis exdamationis principally, with 
A. segetum, Axylia pntris, Xi/lophasia monoglypha, Triphaena pronuha, 
Caradrina ahines, Miana strigilis, Leucania jiaUens, L. Jithargyria, L. 
conigera, Noctua c-nigrum and N. plecta. But undoubtedly the best 
insect we took was Noctua ditrapezimi ; seven very decent specimens on 
treacle on ragwort heads. We were surprised to see that the strigilis 
were mostly dark, many being almost as black as var. aethiops. Bramble 
flowers produced, besides many of the above, Cerigo matura (I), Noctua 
umhrosa (I), Triphaena comes (5 or 6, varying from pale jDinkish buff to 
dark grey-brown), Charaeas graminis (1). We also took several fine 
specimens of Agrotis nigricans on treacle, all dark. We found the 
flowers of bladder campion very attractive to Nocti^.e, especially Leu- 
cania patlens, which was a nuisance everywhere, though there were 
some nice reddish forms to be had. iJaywork resolved itself into 
searching for Bryophila pjerJa on the flint and cement walls which are 
a feature of this part of the countiy. In the majority of cases the 
flints were of the " cobble " type, and were stuck endways into the 
cement, thus leaving projecting round knobs under which pevla was 
fond of sitting ; on one occasion I found a fine specimen of Macroglossa 
steUatarum at rest (in the daytime) on the to}) of one of the round knobs. 
The age of the wall and the quantity of the lichen thereon were no 
criteria as to the presence or absence of perla ; many most eligible 
walls (in appearance) were destitute of occupants, while the most pro- 
ductive of all was comparatively new, and not at all thickly "licliened." 
On this wall, which was near Trimingham, we found a fine sandy 



NOTES ON COLLECTING, ETC. 253 

form (var. flavescens, Tutt) ; it was common on this, the only wall 
where we foixnd it. On this wall we also took the type and some dark 
forms, evidently near var. suffusa, Tutt. There was, too, a very jjretty 
form, apparently a combination of var. suj^usa and var. flavescens. In 
several of the var. flavescens the stigmata seem to be pale blue, pro- 
bably from contrast. As far as we could see, there was no reason why 
var. flavescens should have been (seemingly) confined to this wall ; there 
were yellow lichens on it, certainly, but not to a greater extent than on 
other walls in the neighbourhood. Query : Does perla feed on one sjoecies 
of lichen only, or on any species ? By means of a newly-emerged J 
Bomhyx quercus (found on a gate jjost), we obtained eight males in good 
condition by "assembling," and we were able to divide about 100 ova 
between us ; the young larvaj are being fed on willow and jjlum, and 
are now in their fourth skin and an inch and one-eighth in length. 
The garden of the farmhouse where we stayed was very productive as 
regards Abraxas grossulariata, and the specimens were very fine. I 
took one of a pale cream colour with the usual markings ; the ex- 
panded wings measure just two inches across. Larva-beating was not 
a success, because there seemed to be no larvae, and very few suitable 
places to beat for them if there had been ; the east side of Cromer being 
very sparsely wooded, and the trees mostly sycamores ; what oaks 
we did see had an unjjleasantly fresh and " uneaten " appearance. 
Speaking generally, however, I should think the locality (especially 
west of Cromer) would be a good collecting ground in a favourable 
year, as soon as one got used to the country. — C. Nicholson, 202, 
Evering Road, N.E. 1st October, 1894. 

Eggs of Bombyx kubi " ichneumoned." — During the annual visit 
of the North London Natural History Society to the New Eorest at 
Whitsuntide last, Mr. C. B. Smith caj)tured a female of this sjDecies 
and placed it alive in a large glass-bottomed pill-box, in which it laid 
two patches of eggs. He left the eggs in the box, which he used oc- 
casionally with his other boxes in the ordinary way. Some days subse- 
quently he kindly presented me with some of the eggs (about 38), and 
gave the rest to Mr. L. B. Front. In due course mine commenced to 
hatch, and all yielded up their larvae except about eight. I kept these 
for some time, wondering why they did not hatch, and was one day 
surprised to see several very minute ichneumon-flies in the box. I 
examined the eggs, and found in one or two of them the holes made 
by the flies in emerging. The whole of the eggs which did not hatch 
eventually proved to be tenanted by these little ichneumons, of Avhicli 
I bred about 30 ; that is, an allowance of three or four flies to each 
egg ! The question is, how did they get there ? I saw the moth in 
the box with the eggs, and there was no sign of the fly there then. 
Mr. Smith assures me that he had not noticed any insect in the box other 
than lepidopterous from the time the rnbi was jjut in until he handed the 
eggs over to me, and, curiously enough, none of Mr. Front's eggs were 
" stung." xVlthough eggs are occasionally " stung," this is the first 
instance which has come under my notice ; and, if any hymenoptcra- 
loving correspondent would like a specimen or two of the ichneumon, I 
shall be pleased to forward some. They seem closely akin to Micro- 
gaster. — C. Nicholson, 202, Evering Foad, N.E. 1st October, 18U4. 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN SuKREY. — Last Saturday, whilst in the train, I saw 
a fine fresh specimen of Colias edusa — female — flying on the railway 
bank between Weybridge and Byfleet stations. The train was travel- 



254 THE entomologist's record. 

ling very slowly at the time, and I was able to have a good view of the 
insect. This is the only one I have seen this year, and in fact since 
1892, when they were fairly plentiful in this district as they were in 
most parts of the country. I am sorry to say I have found this season 
a most unprofitable one, and I have scarcely added to my collection at 
all— S. G. KussELL, Priory Villa, Woking. Oct. lird, 1894. 

Callisiorpha uera in South Devon. — I had a very enjoyable 
time in South Devon with Mr. Jiiger hunting for Calliinorpha hera 
and obtained twenty specimens, but only some half-dozen were line 
enough for cabinet purposes. I kept the damaged females for eggs 
and have some from all three forms, viz : those with red, orange, and 
yellow under-wings. We took the species over miles of ground, and 
1 should say it has been there for many more years than most people 
imagine and has not been taken because the district has been practically 
un worked, whilst from the nature of the ground there is no fear of its 
extermination. Fyrameis cardui and Plusia gamma were both common 
and several Colias edusa occurred. As elsewhere sugar was of no use 
whatever and indeed it was quite an event to see a Noctua at all. — G. 
T. PoKRiTT, Iluddersfield. Sejjt. Uh, 1894. 



OCIETIES. 



The September meetings of the South London Entomological and 
Natural History Society were marked by many interesting exhibits, 
among which were the following. — Sept. Vith : — Mr. Step: several 
specimens of Fohjponis j^ercnnus from Oxshott. Mi'. E. Adkin : a branch 
of the rare Star-thistle {Centaurea culcitrap a, Ij.) from Eastbourne. Mr. 
Manger: a specimen of the rare Stalk-eyed crustacean {Gonoplex 
aiKjuhita) which had been dredged off Weymouth. Mr. West of Green- 
wich : a specimen of the rare beetle, Lehia cyanocephala, from Bookham, 
and specimens of the two races of L. cJilorocephala for comparison. 
Mr. A. Hall : a splendid var. of Fyrameis myrinna from Bogota, South 
America, with the type form for comparison. Mr. C. G. Barrett : a 
specimen of Plusia moneta, taken at Norwich by Mr. Tillett ; also a 
beautiful red var. of Ocnocera ahenella, taken at Folkestone by Mr. 
Purdey. Mr. Murray (per Mr. E. Adkin) : a bleached var. of Erchia 
acthiops from the neighbourhood of Carnforth. Mr. W. F. de V. Kane 
(per Sir. R. Adkin) : a pale grey form of Agrotis seyefiun from the north 

of Ireland. Sept. 27th. — Mr. Winkley : four clutches of young 

of the mollusc. Helix jjomatia which had recently hatclied. Mr. R. A. 
Adkin (per Mr. Adkin) : the following molluscs from Eastbourne : — 
Helix aspersa, H. ericetorum, an unusually large H. virgata, H. caperata, 
the first three species having abnormally high spines. Mr. Perks : a 
photograph of the Fox shark {Alopecias vidpes), recently caj)tured off 
the coast of Devonshire. Mr. Williams : a specimen of the intestinal 
worm, Gordius aqiiaticus, which had emerged from the body of a water 
spider. Mr. Auld : a larva of Fhorodesma smaragdaria which had been 
feeding for fourteen months. Mr. Jiiger : a series of CaUimorplia hera 
taken by him in S. Devon this year ; the red, yellow, and terra-cotta 
forms were all represented. Mr. Winkley : two specimens of a second 
brood of Siiterinihus popnli, bred this year. Mr. Filer : a bred series of 



SOCIETIES. 255 

Papilio macliaon, from Cambridge, among which was a specimen in 
which the marginal band of the hing wings was so extended as to 
unite with the discoidal spot. Mr. H. Moore : a specimen of 
Vanessa urticae from Vienne, in which the two spots were only re- 
presented by a few dark scales. Mr. A. Hall : about twenty species of 
Khopalocera from Japan, identical or almost so with British species, 
and including P. machaon, Lencophasia sinapis, Gonepteryx rJiamni, &c. 
Mr. Adkin : Zi/gaena exidans from Braemar ; Sesia scoU'/forriiis from 
Eannoch. Mr. Tugwell (per Mr. West) also exhibited Zipjaena exulans 
taken this year at Braemar, with cocoons in situ on crowberry. 

At the meeting of the Birmingham Entomological Society on 
August 2Uth, Mr. C. J. Wainwright showed Stratiomys potamida taken 
in Sutton Park ; it is the first Stratiomys which has been taken in the 
Birmingham district. Mr. R. C. Bradley read some notes upon Merodon 
eqnestris which he had been breeding from larvae sent to him by Mr. 
McLachlan ; he said that they took a very long time to dry their 
wings — 24 hours after emergence some of them were still quite limp — 
this he attributed to want of sun ; the sjjecies was getting not at all 
uncommon round Birmingham, and he had taken a number at Sutton, 
though probably a few years ago it did not occur here. Mr. A. H. 
Martineau had been making a series of experiments upon different kill- 
ing substances in order to ascertain their effect on the colours of in- 
sects ; the fumes of sulphur seemed to preserve and even heighten the 
colours of Diptera and Hymenoptera ; yellows and reds, if affected at 
all, seemed to become more brilliant and never turned black, as was the 
case when cyanide of potassium or ammonia was used. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
Sept. Uh, 1894. — Exhibits: — Dr. Buckell : Epinephele tithonus (3's) 
from Leigh, Essex, showing extra ocelli. Mr. C. G.Jia.iTett (Lepidoptera 
of the British Islands) remarks, that this species is liable to develop 
extra ocelli in maritime localities. Mr. Nicholson : Eugonia quercinaria, 
bred from ova laid by a female, which was bred from a larva beaten in 
the New Forest in 18^*3 ; many of the specimens were strongly suffused 
with brown at the base, and hind margins of the fore wings, although 
neither parent was specially cons})icuous in that respect. Mr. Clark : 
Dicranura bifida from Monmouthshire ova ; he stated that he found it 
impossible to obtain eggs from this species in captivit}^. Mr. Mera : a 
very beautiful and variable, though short, series of Agrotis tritici from 
the East Coast. Mr. Sauze : a series of Formica nigra, showing males, 
females and neuters, also a female after the wings had been snapped 
off. Mr. Bacot : young larvje of Dipterygia scahriuscula ; also a short 
series of SeJenia tetralunaria, V)red from the ova on which he read a note 
at the meeting on June 5th. Dr. Sequeira : a specimen of At/rotis 
pyrophila among other insects taken at Ilfracombe. Mr. Huckett : 
Dianthoecia albimacuJa and Sesia chrysidlformis from Folkestone. Capt. 
Tliompson : Enpithecia nanata, Scodiona belgiaria and Pleuronota bicos- 
teUa from the West Riding of Yorshire, and Grapholitha nlgroinacuhina 
from Rainham. Mr. Tutt then read some interesting notes of a holi- 
day spent with Dr. Chapman in the Alps.* 

Sept. ISth, 1894.— Exhibits :— Mr. Oldham: males of Odonestis 
potatoria from Wisbech ; one of them was of a buff colour, except the 
usual obli(jue dark streak whi(;h was somewhat faint. Mr. Riches: 
Ocneria dispar, and some " Ribbon-grass " (Phalaris ariindinacea varie- 

*See ante p. 233 



256 THE entomologist's record. 

gata, also called Digraph's arundinacea) . Mr. Gates: among other in- 
sects, Gortyna ochracea, and the stems of burdock from which they had 
emerged. Mr. Battley : '2 bred males of Lasiocampa quercifoUa from 
Wicken ; also Apatura iris (2) and Geometra papilionaria from the New 
Forest. Mr. Bayne : Noctua dahlii from the New Forest and Aberdeen. 
Mr. Tutt remarked that this species is sexually dimorphic at Aberdeen, 
the males being chestnut broAvn and mottled, the females, dark purplish 
in tint, and that a similar phase of sexual dimorphism occurred at York 
and in Essex. In Sligo, on the contrary, both males and females were of 
the dark purplish tint, and the mottled chestnut males a})peared un- 
known, whilst at Morpeth in Northumberland the females were of the 
iisual purplish coloration, but the males were sometimes chestnut coloured, 
at other times dark purple like the females. He further remarked that it 
was a species well worth studying, both from the points of geograpliical 
and of sexual variation. The red form exhibited by Mr. Bayne he con- 
sidered very peculiar and certainly very rare. Mr. Bell : young larvaj 
of Cerigo matura, which Mr. Tutt stated fed throughout the winter on 
grass. Mr. Nicholson then read a paper on " The Life-history of 
Ocneria dispar.''f Mr. Tutt, in rising to propose a vote of thanks, said 
that he would take the queries suggested by Mr. Nicholson seriatim. 
He considered that the reason why the species was extinct in this 
country was because it was not a native. Its whole history proved it to 
be an imported species even when it first became known. Thousands of 
specimens in all stages had been set loose in various parts of the country, 
but with the exception of an odd specimen here and there, no specimens 
were taken wild. Its abundance in the Fens for a year or two simply 
pointed to the care with which it was put out, and to the temporary exis- 
tence of favourable conditions. There were thousands of acres of land, to 
all intents and purposes fitted for its establishment here, but it — possibly 
the agriculturists would say fortunately — will not establish itself. With 
regard to the second point, he doubted the statements that the females 
of this species did not fly in the ordinary way. Many moths were 
known to pair and lay some eggs in the immediate vicinity of their 
emergence, before flying away to lay the remainder of their eggs at a 
distance from their place of birth. This was particularly noticeable 
among the Arctiidte, and probably some similar habit prevailed here. 
In looking over the mapsattached to the reports dealing with the 
spread of this insect in America, one had to bear in mind that it 
dealt with thousands of square miles, with an area much 
larger than the British Islands, and presenting great variation 
in physical features, and it was impossible to suppose that, how- 
ever energetic the larvae were, they could surmount rivers or moun- 
tains, or even spread over continuous large districts if their own special 
food plants did not exist. For himself, he felt satisfied that their supposed 
inability to fly was an error of (or rather want of) observation, and that 
at present it simply meant that they had not been observed at the right 
time, probably very late at night. The discussion was continued by 
Mr. Clark, Mr. Gates and others. Mr. Nicholson in reply said, that 
it certainly would seem diflicult for the species to have spread without 
fli"-ht on the part of the female, until one was acquainted with the 
crawling powers of the larvae. As would be seen from the Eeports on 
the table, they travelled considerable distances, clearing the trees and 
bushes of their leaves, and even devouring low plants when arboreal 

vegetation failed. 

tSee ante p. 236 



^"^ AND ^^l-^ 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION. 



No. 11. Vol. V. November ISth, 1894. 



©UR PHOTOGRAPH. 

The genial and kind-hearted President of the Lancashire and 
Cheshire Entomological Society apjDears never so happy as when he has 
around him the naturalists of his own immediate neighbourhood or 
when he is entertaining entomologists from other districts who are 
making a stay for business or pleasure in the vicinit3^ I*- ^^^ become 
an annual institution for him to invite a few entomological friends to 
spend a few days with him, and then to ask the celebrities of the 
entomological world in and about Liverpool to meet them. 

At such a gathering as this "Our photograph" was taken l)y Miss 
Annie CapjDer, and its reproduction will, we hope, give pleasure to many 
readers at a time when almost every local Society both in England and 
abroad has, thanks to the kindness of some member or other, an album 
in which to keep the portraits of those with whom they have become 
intiuiate by coi-respondence. " Our photograph " contains the portraits 
of the following gentlemen, commencing witli the left-hand corner of 
the back row : — 

1. —0. F. Johnson of Stockport, a student of our British Lepidoptera. 
2. —J. Watson of Manchester, who has a wonderful collection of the 
Pierinaeoi the world. 3. — C. G. Barrett, F.E.S., the late President and 
present Vice-President of the South London Entomological Society, one 
of the Editors of the Ent. Monthly Mag., and one of our best authorities 
(m British Tortrices. 4. — E. Newstead, F.E.S., the Curator of the 
Grosvenor Museum, Chester, who is becoming well-known for his 
excellent work with the Coccids. 6. — Eev. A. W. Carter of Pluyton, 
who claims only a general interest in our pursuit. (3. — J. W. Ellis 
M.B., F.E.S., of Liverpool, a diligent student of British Coleoptera. 
7. — H. Capper, the eldest son of the President of the Lancashire 
Society. 8. — Linn^us Greening, F.L.S., one of the Editors of The 
Britkli Naturalist, with a strong liking for Eeptiles. \). — Isaac C. 
Thompson, F.E.M.S., F.L.S. who goes in more especially for Micro- 
scopic studies. In the second row we have : — 10. — E. Wilding, another 
student of British Lepidoptera and ColeojDtera. 11. — C. S. Greo'son 
an entomologist of the old school, a keen and enthusiastic collector in 
days gone by, a thorough Britisher with a penchant for " Gooseberry 
moths " and " Tigers " ; wlio once believed that anything would do for 



258 THE ENTf MOLOOIST's RKCORD. 

a name, and now sings the virtues of his friends in verse. 12. — B. H, 
Crabtree of Manchester, another student of British Lepidoptera. 13. — 
S. J. Capper, F.L.S., F.E.S., the host and worthy President of the Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire Entomological Society, who for 17 years has kept 
together a verj' powerful and happy band of naturalists, and whose 
home is the haunt of the entomologists of the neighbourhood, as is his 
collection the reference library (as it were) for the younger members, 
and the varieties it contains the cause of breaking the 10th 
Commandment to most of his visitors. 14. — G. C. Bignell, F.E.S., of 
Plymouth, well-known for his researches in Ichneumonidae. 15. — W. 
Johnson of Aspull, near Wigan, another lepidopterist of the old school, 
(whose kindness some 15 years ago is not forgotten by the writer). 
Now we come to the row who occupy the front: — IB. — W. E. Sharp 
of Ledsham, an able and philoso})hical naturalist, Avith an interesting 
style of writing, besides being an excellent student of Coleoptera. 17. 
— C. H. H. AValker, interested in Insect microscopy, and whose papers 
on the " Wings of insects " are an educational treat, and show that the 
observer can explain what he sees. 18. — J. Collins of Warrington, 
well-known to all our readers as an ardent and successful lepidopterist. 
19.— H. H. Corbett, M.R.C.S., of Doncaster, a micro-lepidopterist, a 
skilful collector and observer, who ought to put a great deal more 
of his work into permanent form than his modesty will at present 
permit him. 20. — W. Webster of St. Helen's, another student of 
British Lepidoptera. 

Some faces are missing that ought to be here- notably F. N. Pierce, 
F.E.S., the Secretary, to whom the Society owes a great deal. The 
dictum that a society depends almost entirely on its I 'resident and Secre- 
tary was never better exemplified than in this flourishing proA'incial 
society. — Ed. 



By J. W. TUTT, F.E.S. 

Zygaena exnlans has been j)robably one of the most interesting of 
British lepidopterous insects for the past few j'ears, not so much from 
the fact that there has been any very great interest in its scientific 
claims to recognition, Imt because the regulation three inches or half- 
row in the box or cabinet has been a blank (with a label at the bottom) 
waiting for its occupants who have been so tardy in arriving. We are 
always most interested in the insects we have not got ; we advertise 
for them ; we speculate on what they will look like when Ave get them ; 
and then, when Ave ha\'e got them, we fortliAvith forget all about them, 
and are on the look out for other desiderata. No tangible result in the 
Avay of information is forthcoming from that loving look we gaA-ethem, 
and so, Avhilst the blank spaces in many cabinets haA'e been slowly filling 
up, and Avhilst the excitement of many of our friends has been at boil- 
ing point, some of us, devoid of this keen and intense desire merely to 
possess, have been looking out for some scientific remarks, some ob- 
servations, some lengthened notice of the habits of the species from 
those who have captured it, or some notes at any rate on its variation 



RANDOM NOTES ON ZYGAENA EXULANS AND ITS VARIETIES. 259 

from tliose who have filled up that ])lank which causes a shock to some 
fellows when they show another fellow their cabinet drawers. This 
experience has been mine before now, so I only describe wliat I know 
to be a fact. Perhaps some of my readers will say •' sour grapes ; " 
may-be tliat is so — although I do not quite believe it. But though 
Zygaena exulans has been so rare a British insect in the jDast, we have 
changed all that now. Exhibitions galore of the species — nearly a 
liundred in one exhibit — show that it has been obtained in gi-eat 
abundance, and that everyone who wants to fill up that wretched 
" blank " will soon be able to do so, if indeed, the consummation has 
not already been reached. 

But whilst our friends at Braemar were catching and setting their 
hundreds of Zi/<jaena exulans in this year of grace 1894, I myself had 
the pleasure of seeing this fine interesting motli hurtling along the 
high rocky slopes with its booming flight, or greedily fighting its friends 
on the bright-tinted flowers of a clear-air'd Alpine mountain-side. I 
do not know whether there was anj^thing in my personal appearance, 
but it must be owned that Zygaena exulans would never discover itself 
to me in the almost incredible niimbers, which, on two occasions, were 
met with by my friend Dr. Chapman. 

The specimens obtained or observed, however, were very interesting, 
and it is of these I would speak; and if my Scotch friends do not like 
my comparing their wonderful Braemar specimens with the more vari- 
able and sometimes much more beautiful specimens which exist on the 
Dauphiny Aljis, or those of Savoy and Piedmont, they must neither put 
it down to a one-sidedness on my j^art in drawing conclusions, nor to 
a supcrfluit}^ of that natural modesty of which I possess so large a share, 
but to the fact that I still have a great Iflank (which still causes a great 
shock) in my cal^inet, waiting for those fine forms which evidentlv do 
not occur at Braemar, but are probably waiting to be discovered else- 
where on the heathery braes of the Scotch Highlands. 

The first British specimens of Zygaena exulans which I possessed, 
were kindly given to me by my friend Mr. W. H. Tugwell in (I believe) 
1886. The insect was at that time a great desideratum, and even 
specimens not in the finest condition were eagerly welcomed. How much 
we were indebted for a share in the results of the labour of those gentle- 
men who first captured this species, and what trouble they liad to obtain 
those early specimens, only those who have collected in outlying Alpine 
districts know. The specimens which were given to me by j\Ir. Tugwell 
were a little ruljbed, and corresponded excellently with Dr. White's 
definition of what a Scotch Z. exidans (a somewhat dia])hanous form) 
should be. They evidently belonged to the variety which Dr. White 
created specially for these rather rubbed specimens, and which he called 
var. suhochracea. But since then, Messrs. Eeid, Home and others have 
put up on the ground for three or four years in succession and for a 
considerable length of time, whilst Mr. Tugwell has also received con- 
siderable consignments, and as a result, a great change has gradually 
come over our notions of how a really fine Scotch Z. exulans ouglit to 
look. 

My next experience in connection with the species was the receipt 
of some specimens from the Swiss Alps, sent to me by Dr. Staudinger 
and Professor Blachier of Geneva. These were comparatively finely 
scaled insects, and, so far as I could judge, were largely females, altliougli 
without the pale nerviires that the females of tlie Scotcli speciiurus 



200 THK ENTOMOLOfiTST's RKCORD. 

(even in mucli poorer condition) exhibited. With this amount of 
material, in the possession of wliich I suppose I was better off than 
ninety-nine per cent, of British entomologists, who, for some unknown 
reason, will not (whether on account of their moral character, or for 
fear the specimens might bite them, I have never quite discovered) 
have a Swiss specimen in their possession, I considered that I had 
reached the ultiina Thule of the information, &c. to be obtained from 
the study of the dried bodies of Zygaena exulans. However, to prove 
that this was so, I tried one resource, Staudinger's Catalog. There it 
said : — 

Zj/gaena exdans, Hochenwarth and Eeiner, Bot. 

Beisen, 1792, p. oo, T. vi., I*; Esp., 41, Sumnife Alpes; 

1-2 ; Hb. 12, 101 ; B., Mon. Z., 3, 3 ; Ic, 54, Pyrenees. 

4-5 ; Frr., 200, 2; 500, 1 ; Dup. ii., 5, oa.b. 

a. var. vanadis, Dalman, Zi/g. Saec, 223, 6, f Lap. ; Scand. 

(parcissime squamata, albo non mixta). Mont. 

* This should be Zygaena (Sphin,>-) exulans, Hohen- 
warth. Reiner und Hohenwarth's B<it. Reisen, p. 265 ; 
PL fi; fig. 2 (1792). 

t This should be Zygaena vanadis, Dalman, Kongl. 1 
Vetensk-Ak. Handl., 1816, p. 223. 

Was I not happy ? " Sparsely scaled and not mixed with white," 
was the diagnosis of var. vanadis ; by assumption or inference therefore 
the type must be well scaled and mixed with ^\'llite. There I was. 
My Swiss specimens were well-scaled and not mixed with white, whilst 
my Scotch specimens were poorly scaled (probably rubbed, as they were 
bald-headed), but two s])ecimens had traces of pale nervures and pale 
thoracic patches, which I thought might be considered as being " mixed 
with white." 

Now all this was delightfully clear, because everything appeai^ed to 
be exactly as it ought not to be, and when at last, about two 3fears ago, 
I saw some really good male Scotch specimens, which were almost or 
quite as thickly scaled as, but far less brightly tinted than the Swiss 
specimens which I possessed, and observed that the thoraces of the 
female Scotch specimens were always mixed (sometimes strongly so) 
with pale yellowish or whitish, i.e., the Scotch specimens presented a 
clear and defined sexual dimorphism, of which the main characteristics 
were that the females were more thinly clothed with scales, and possessed 
pale nervures extending from the base to beyond the discal cell, as well 
as a pale inner margin to the fore-wings, I began to feel doubtful 
where I was in the matter. On the material I then had, leaving out 
the ephemeral difference of scaling, I knew two forms only — a very 
brightly coloured form, the females without white nervures, and a 
darker (Scotch) form, showing fairly defined sexual dimorphism. 

I was in this clear and definite condition of mind when Dr. Chapman, 
Avho had gone on ahead of me into Savoy, picked me up at Chambery 
towards the end of July, 1894, and, although I had l)een travelling some 
24 hours and was exceedingly hungry, insisted on my glancing through 
some glass-topped boxes (which he had ready for my inspection in his 
coat pocket) whilst I vainly tried to dispose of breakfast, and gave me 
glowing accounts of what he had seen in the La Grave district, espe- 
cially in the neighbourhood of Lauteret. 



RANDOM NOTES ON ZYfiAKNA EXtTLANS AND ITS VARIETIES, 261 

Among other specimens exhibited to my admiring gaze was a grand 
fat female Zijgaena. I had never seen anything hke it before, and 
although the Dr. insisted that it was a local form of Zygaena exidans 
(which ultimately i)roved correct), I preferred to doubt the fact — a pro- 
ceeding that will not be wondered at by those who know me — and to 
appear exceedingly wise in my utter ignorance. However, they (there 
were two or three others) were grand specimens, large, broad-winged, 
with orange nervures (extending from the base of the wing to the outer 
spot), and an orange inner margin to the fore-wings, orange patches on 
each side of the thorax, and somewhat similarly tinted fore-legs. One had 
laid a batch of eggs, and these were forwarded to a well-known authority 
on Burnets in the South of England, who, if he has nothing to record 
anent those eggs, I, for one, shall consider to have forfeited a great 
share of his reputation as an authority on these interesting insects. 
This was the first local form met with ; suppose Ave call it for short, var. 
flavilinea. [I don't much like the look of that name though, it puts me 
in mind of the classics which used to emanate from a well-known city 
in the north-west of England some years ago, as the production of an ex- 
cellent observer who sometimes now writes verse about his friends, 
and who always says something funny about me when he gets the 
chance, but to whom I bear no ill-will — teste this parenthesis]. 

The next time the species was met with was above Gimilian, on a 
hillside that slopes down towards Cogne, on the north side of the valley. 
Here only two or three specimens were taken; these were all males, and 
identical with the Scotch form in good condition ; so identical that, mixed 
with Scotch specimens, more than one good lepidopterist has picked them 
out as Scotch, in preference to real natives. They were moderately 
well-scaled, and were without traces of paler markings. 

The species was met with again high up in the Lauzon Valley, on 
the zig-zag path which leads to the King of Italy's shooting-box, well 
up on the way to the Col leading over to Val Savaranche. The weather 
was dull, and insects would not fly in the afternoon when we were on 
the spot where they occurred, some 8,000 feet above sea-level. The 
form, however, that occurred there was a good one ; the insect was 
brightly tinted and closely scaled, and the marks, which in the 
specimens from the La Grave district were orange, were somewhat 
paler — of a pale yellow rather than of an orange tint. The nervures 
and inner margin were both strongly lined with the paler colour, but 
in size the specimens were less than those from La Grave. It is, however, 
only a modification of var. flavilinea. Up to this time, we either possessed 
no males of the flaviUuea form, or the males are ornamented like the 
females, as ap])ears to be the case with some of the Val Grauson 
specimens. 

High up the Grauson Valley, Dr. C'luipman once more met with the 
species in large numbers. He captured a good many, almost all those taken 
being in copula. Most of these I put on our limited suppl}^ of settingboards 
and they turned out a very fine series of more than seventy specimens. 
About one-fourth of them are dark, strongly-scaled specimens, with no 
trace of paler markings either on the thorax or wings. These appear 
to be entirely males, and there is no difference Avhatever in the scaling, 
tint of colour or red spots, between these and Scotch si^ecimens. ]>ut 
a most important cliaracter, however, does jiresent itself. One of the 
supposed distinguishing sexual characters in the Scotch specimens, viz., 
the pale collar of the females, is here more or less developed in the males ; 



262 THfi entomologist's record. 

some few are without it as in the Scotch specimens, others have it but faintly 
marked, whilst others have it very distinctly marked. But whilst some 
of these Val Grauson specimens are thus identical with the Scotch form, 
the remainder grade off into specimens of a somewhat paler green tint, 
with an access of white mottling, not only on the tlioraces, but also on the 
nervures, the white scales appearing even as a })ale dusting on the wings. 
It would be possible to grade the series off from darkest to palest without 
a break, and yet the two extremes are as different as possible, whilst 
the strongest marked '' lined " (pale nervure) forms compare more than 
favourably with the bright specimens from the Lauzon Valley. These 
latter (the " lined " forms) are characterised by the varying amount of pale 
mottling on the thorax (some specimens have it entirely covered 
with pale grey scales), whilst the nervures and inner margin are also 
pale, differing however, inter se, from an almost inconspicvious 
pale condition, to well-marked and clearly-defined pale lines. These 
specimens are not only as a rule brighter and yet paler in tint, but 
more thinly scaled. The extreme forms in scaling show an almost 
total want of pigment, approaching a Scotch specimen in my own 
collection, and others which I have seen exhibited, in which the scale 
coloration has almost entirely disappeared botli in the groiuid colour and 
in the red spots, leaving the whole insect almost transparent. This 
condition is, without doubt, due to the hard struggle that these partici;lar 
individuals have had to come to maturity, which has necessitated the 
use of all their energy for the formation of their vital organs, and has 
left no surplus to l^estow on such a non-vital part of the organism as 
colotir, for there can be no doubt that these hard}' fellows have, if they 
happen to be placed under unsatisfactory conditions as young larv^, a 
A^ery hard struggle to exist in the Aljiine solitudes wliich they beautify. 
This want of colour must not be confounded with a want of scales 
due to rubl")ing, for the abdomina and thoraces of the specimens are 
perfectly scaled, a very good test of general condition. In size, these 
s])ecimens vary from '76 to l*2o inches. 

It follows, therefore, from these notes, that, as a general rule, tlie 
specimens of the Grauson Valley exhibit considerable variation inter se ; 
that the better scaled and darker coloured specimens are usually (but 
not solely) males, and belong absoluteh^ to the Scotch form of the insect, 
whilst the brighter and paler specimens represent more nearly than 
any other form yet seen by me, the type of Zyyaena exulans, as described 
by Hohenwarth (not Hochenwarth as Staudinger has it) and exhibited 
by the specimens from Glockner in the British ]\Iuseum collection. It 
also shows that what is a general dimor]diic condition in one locality, 
may cease to be so in another. 

Now let lis turn to the Scotch specimens. 1 liave exaiuined a con- 
sideral)]e number of these, and large exhibits of them have recently 
l)een made at the meetings of the various Entomological Societies. The 
males of the Scotcli form have a dark ground colour, and fairly Avell 
developed red spots ; in some specimens these spots are really strongly 
developed ; the females are less sti-ongh' scaled ; their coloration, both 
in ground colour and sj^otting, is less marked, and rarely so bright ; 
whilst the pale shoulder marks (not entirely a sexual character as Ave 
have seen in the Grauson Valley specimens) and pale nervures are 
u.sually present, even if not well-defined and clear. The legs, too. are 
l)aler in colour. There is thus a fair amount of sexual dimorphism 
exliibited in the Braemar specimens. 



RANDOM NOTES ON ZYGAENA EXDLANS AND ITS VARIETIES. 263 

Although I had recently had the pleasure of seeing so many speci- 
mens, I thought it advisable for the purpose of this paper to write to 
Mr. Home, who had obtained a number of specimens this year, to 
substantiate the views I held or to contradict them. He writes : — " I 
think all the female Z. exulnns have more or less whitish (or rather yellow- 
ish) nervures to the fore-wings. I never, however, saw a male with any 
trace of the same." This bears out my own observations on the Braemar 
specimens. 

The Scotch form, or race, being practically identical then with part 
of that found in the Grauson Valley (although without the range 
of variation exhibited in the latter) but entirely different from 
tlie specimens which I have from other localities excepting Cogne 
and Lapland, it becomes necessary to compare the specimens obtained, 
and to enquire as to the extent of minor variation exhibited by 
this particular race. Some of the males from the Grauson Valley 
and Braemar are so completely identical that they are, as before stated, 
inseparable, lepidopterists picking out Swiss for Scotch, and vice versa. 
The same dark ground colour and the same tint of red characterises 
both in their s^jotting, although an occasional Val Grauson male 
is, perhaps, slightly brighter than any Scotch specimens I have yet 
seen, but the difference is really immaterial in so well-defined a local 
race. Males with pale collars, however, do not appear to occur in 
Scotland. In the latter country this appears to be exclusively a female 
character. In the Val Grauson, on the contrary, the males often appear 
to have it. But it is chieiiy among the females that the greatest range of 
variation exists. The least well-marked of the Grauson Valley female 
specimens present no difference from the Scotch, but others of them are 
so strongly marked with Avhitish nervui'es, etc., that they form a very 
decided range of variation beyond their Braemar relatives. Their red 
spots, too, are often altogether brighter, and the ground colour paler. 
These extreme forms of the female can as readily be separated from ordi- 
nary Scotch specimens, as could those from the Lauzon Valley or 
Lauteret. The heathery environment in Scotland is altogether different 
from the high Alpine pastures or the rocky mountain sides of the Grauson 
Valley, and the usually wet cloudy weather of the Scotch mountains 
gives place to the clear air, bright sunshine, dry atmosphere, and 
high day temperature of the Alps. Perhaps herein lies part of the 
reason for this tendency to a brighter coloration. 

But these Cogne, Grauson (in part) and Braemar si^ecimens form a 
very distinct race, and deserve a distinctive name, if they are not indeed 
the type form This, from the definition of the ground colour and pale 
markings mentioned in the type description is rather improbal^le, l)ut at 
the same time, the study of Scandinavian authors makes it certain that 
their form is identical with ours, and it is very clear that Dalman. as far 
back as 1816, described the female Scandinavian specimens as <^. exalans, 
and the male as Z. ranadis. 

It will now lie interesting to encpiire into what Dalman sa3^s. In 
a paper entitled " Forsok till Systematisk Ui)stallning af Sveriges 
Fjiirillar," by J. W. Dalman (Fortsiittning), publislied in the Koiujl. 
Vetcnshaps Academieni^ Handlinijar, 1816, pp. 222-223, Dalman 
writes : — " Zijgaena exulnns. Alls anticis fusco-virescentibus, subdiaphanis, 
sul)tus concoloribus, maculis quinque rubris infequalibus (venis albidis) ; 
posticis rubris margine f usco-virescenti ; antennis vix clavatis ; pedibus 
luteis. Och., ii., p. 40, No. 9 ,; Hb., fig. 12 and 101. Specimen nieum e 



264 THE entomologist's keookd. 

Lapponia Dom. Ha^ffner. debeo. Aiiteiina3 quam in pi';ecedentibus (fili- 
pendulae, hmicerae, trIfoUi, meliloti) breviores minusque incrassatfe. 
Pedes distincte lutei ; collare lutescens. Alas latiores et magis rotundata^ 
quam in Z. Jonicerae, cui etiam semper minor." Then on the following- 
page (223) we read : — " Zygaena vanadis. Alis anticis fusco-virescentibus 
siibdiaplianis, maculis quinque rubris, basali exteriori elongata, posticis 
rubris margine fusco-diaphano latiore ; corpora pedibusque nigris pilosis; 
antennis brevibus clava crassa. Habitat in Lapponia. Species ut 
mihi videtur distincta, apud Auctores vix invenienda, magnitudine et 
statura Z. exulantis, sed collare pedibusque nigris, nee venas alarum un- 
quam albido-squamatas in hac specie inveni, nee macularum forma 
omninu eadem. Antenna? nigrfe subtus atrse, minima c^rulescentes, 
clava crassa, multo breviores quam in Z. lonicerae, apica obtusiusculae. 
Thorax niger hirsutus, liaud virescens. Abdomen et pedes thorace 
concoloria, valde pilosa. Ak>? antica? latiuscula? s(pAamulis parum niti- 
dulis fusco-cyaneis tenere et parcius adsjiersje, unde aliB sub-hyahna? 
ap})arent. Maculas quinque rubra?, colore et ordine ut in Z. lonicerae ; 
basalis interior brevis ovata, exterior elongata, usque ad maculam an- 
teriorem medii paris parvam ovatam jjroducta ; discoidea media, et 
apicalis singula, subquadrato-rotundata?. Posteriores rubric margine 
lato hyalino-fusco." — " Var. (3. Alis anticis fusco-cyaneis maculis o 
sanguineis, aiiicali majori extus indaterminata." " Diflfert non nisi colore 
saturatiore, et macula apicali majori subrotundata extus indeterminate 
evanescanti. Corpus et pedes, immaculata, et de cataro omnia cum 
var. a. (vanadis) conveniunt. Sjiacimen hnjus varietatis unicum, bene 
consarvatum, e Lapponia, vidi in Mus. Dom. Schonherri." 

The desci-iption " fusco-virescantibus " applies to no Alpine speci- 
mens that I have yet seen, except those from the Cogne Valley and 
part of those from the Val Grauson, and the whole description 
of Z. exnlans is an excellent one of a female Braamar specimen 
— " sub-diaphanis, venis albidis, j^edibus luteis," are very characteristic 
terms, inde])endent of the colour definition which very certainly fixes 
the form. From the description, var. ranndis, which Dalman states 
appears to him to be a distinct species, is of the size and build of Z. 
exnlans and differs from it as wa see from the above description 
only in tlic points which we have learned to look upon as 
belonging to the mala specimens of exnlans. It is vary evident 
that Dalman had never looked into the little matters which saem 
important to us and that from our point of view all his specimens 
formed a local race differing from the Alpine type. His var. (S. 
" fusco-cyaneis," shows that he observed the colour dimorphism of 
green and purple (blue) so common in almost all Zyga?nas. Here evi- 
dently then is the earliest description of that race Avhich occurs in 
Lapponia, Scotia, Cogne and Val Grauson,, and its name must clearly be 
vanadis, whilst the var. snbochracea of White, must sink. 

To make this as conq)lete as possible, 1 looked over the specimens from 
Lapland in the British ]\hiseum collection. They appear to be all males, 
and are distinctly of the dark Scotch form, probably a shade larger than 
the ordinary examjtles captured, altliough differing in no way from 
selected specimens of the Scotch race. They are all labelled var. ranadis, 
and compare very accm-ately with Dalman 's description. Two Lap- 
land specimens received from Mr. Maddison (one an excei)tionally large 
one) are also of this dark form. These two are both males. 



KANDOM NOTES ON ZYGAENA EXULANS AND ITS VAHtETlES. 2H5 

We have now to consider the type, and to see what Sigmund von 
Hohenwarth says in the Botanische Reisen nncli einigen Oberkdrntnerischcn 
benachharten Alpen of Joseph Keiner. In the Preface, p. iii., we read : — 
'" In the Appendix, Herr von Hohenwarth furnishes descriptions and accu- 
rate figures of some hitherto luiknown, and other still very rare insects." 
The insect is figured PI. vi., tig. 2, and on p. 2*i5 we read: — " Sphinx 
exulans (Der verwiesener Demmerungsvogel). Sphinx. Alis superioribus 
hyalino-virescentibus, albido nervosis, maculis quinque rubris utrinque 
conspicuis ; inferioribus, prseter marginem apicis hyalino-virescentem, 
rubris immaculatis." Then follows a long German description : — " This 
moth has the size of <S'. statices or *§. filipendulae. Head, thorax, abdo- 
men, and the whole body are above and below dark black, covered 
thickly with similarly coloured scales. The head small, almost globular, 
somewhat narrower and stumpily pointed below, and bent downwards. 
The two palpi are curved upwards, round, black-haired ; the tongue 
lying between them wound spirall}^ and glittering black-brown in 
colour. The eyes beneath the antennae raised, naked and black. Tlie 
antenna? moderately long, black, not transparent, thread-like, roundish, 
tliickish towards the end, awl-shaped at the point, in front marked Avith 
many ring-shaped incisions. The thorax cushion-shaped, with a whitish 
hair}' band, interrupted in the middle. The abdomen longish, almost 
uniformly thick, stumpy. The six feet whitish or light yellowish. The 
four wings longer than the abdomen. U'ore-wings somewhat oval, of a 
watery-greenish colour, almost semi-transparent, with four raised whitish 
ribs, running longitTidinally from the base to beyond the middle of the 
wing, and live red spots apparent both on the upper and under sides." 
Then comes a description of the shape, size and position of the live spots, 
which it is not worth while to translate here. He then adds : — " The 
hind-wings have a watery-greenish coloured margin, with a white outer 
margin, the remainder of the wings being entirely red, unspotted, 
almost semi-transiiarent. This moth lives on the extreme Alpine sum- 
mits of the Eis-geliirge at Glockner, on the so-called Pasterze, and lives 
probably on the " Eis-" or " iihrengetragenden Beifuss " (Arfcinisia ijla- 
cialis'f) which are almost the only plants of this perpetual winter land." 

It appears very evident from the "hyalino-virescentibus," of the 
diagnosis, that the " water-green " specimens of the Alpine heights were 
characteristically inclined to be diaphanous, whilst "albido nervosis" 
shows that the description was probably, but not certainly, made from fe- 
male specimens. This latter fact, however, makes it clear that the 
type is not the insect usually sent out by the Continental dealers as 
such, and which we usually receive from Switzerland, but is another 
local race, in which the females are brightly tinted and have distinct 
white nervures, agreeing in fact only with the extreme females Avhich I 
have already mentioned as occurring in the Grauson Valley, with and 
as an extreme female (and more rarely male) form of var. van<idii^. 

The unsatisfactory nature of description apart from specimens was 
partly obviated by the satisfactory discovery of specimens of Zyijaena 
exulans from Gr. Glockner in the British Museum collection, and as 
the original description was made from specimens from this locality, we 
get some idea of the form. Hardly any brighter than the Scotch form, 
the males show, so far as may be judged from half-a-dozen s})ecimens, 
scarcely any difference from that, but the female is identical with my 
best " lined " Grauson specimens. I have no doubt therefore that the 
Grauson specimens exhibit in their l)rightest phase an absolute identity 



266 THE entomologist's record. 

with the Glockner specimens. The important fact to remember is that 
the very bright specimens usually sent out as typical Swiss specimens do 
not represent the type form. It is clear, since the type occurs in the 
Grauson Valley with var. vanadis, that the latter is in that locality 
simply an aberration, wliilst in Scotland it forms a true variety or local 
race, and thus adds another to the similar examples mentioned in the 
pamphlet Strai/ Notes on the Noduae. 

We have still the known Swiss valley specimens to consider. Those 
I have came (as I have before stated) from Dr. Staudinger and Prof. 
Blachier. They are altogether brighter green in the ground colour, and 
the red spots, too, are brighter ; the wings appear to be actually broader 
compared with their width, and all the specimens that I have, both 
males and females, have traces of a pale collar ; the females, too, have 
no distinct whitish nervures or pale inner margin. I only write of 
what I have, but what I know of the species from the Alps of Piedmont 
and Savoy, makes me diffident in drawing conclusions from so small a 
series as a dozen specimens. Nothing is so utterly absurd in the study 
of variation, as to attemj^t to build up generalisations about the local 
forms of various districts, or even countries, on the knowledge obtained 
from two or three or even half a dozen specimens. 

The princi})al forms known to me, therefore, are as follows: — 

1. — Well scaled, brightly coloured, with short, broad wings, some- 
what clearly defined dark margin to hind wings. Females almost as 
bright and well scaled as the males, with piale collar, but with no 
whitish markings on thorax, nor whitish nervures. Specimens from 
the Swiss Alps =i^ var. darn, n. var. 

2. — Well-scaled, dark-green ground colour, less brightly coloured, 
males usually without pale collar, or mottling on thorax or pale nervures ; 
females with pale collar and pale mottling to thoi-ax, and pale nervures 
to fore-wings ; the dark margin to hind-wing variable, but broader 
and sometimes merging indistinctly into the red ; females more thinly 
scaled than males = specimens from neighbourhood of Cogne (above 
Gimilian) ; Braemar; some specimens captured Avitli ty})e in Grauson 
Valley. This variety (in Scotland), or aberration (Grauson Valley), 
was named snbodiracea by Dr. Buchanan White. It had, however, been 
descril)ed in 1816, as var. randdis, ])y Dalman. In fine condition, the 
males particularly are neither so thinly scaled nor devoid of red colour, as 
has geuerall}' been supposed by British collectors, who, usually possessed 
only poor specimens ; the scaling of the males being well-developed, and 
the coloring often moderately bright, yet they are on the whole, perhaps, 
rather more diaphanous than var. dara. As a local race, however, its 
chief character is the much darker ground colour of the fore-wings. 
This variety as diagnosed l)y Staudinger " parcissime squamata, albo 
non mixta," reminds one strongly of ral)l)L'd males of the Scotch type, 
or even of the starved aberration (starrata would make a good name) 
which I have previously mentioned, in which health and colour alike are 
gone. The orignial description however makes us understand that 
Dalman's vanadis was not this starved form, but represents really good 
males of the Scotch form of wliicli \n^ called the females — exulans — 
var. ranadis. 

3. — The gTound colour of the males dark green, the females very 
strongly marked with pale thoraces and pale nervures. Specimens in 
the British ]\Iuseum collection from Glockner, whence the original types 
came. The males close to var. vanadk, the females to 4Z/. Taken in 
abundance with var. vanadis in the Val Grauson = exulans. 



RANDOM NOTES ON ZYGAENA EXULANS AND ITS VAKIETIES. 267 

4. a. — This is by far the finest form of all those I have yet seen. 
The specimens I have of these are all apparently females (picked per- 
haps on account of size and beauty, before I thought of writing any 
notes on the species). They are well-scaled and very large, with bright 
orange nervures, and oi'ange mottled thorax =: the specimens from 
Lauteret in the La Grave district = var. JiaviUnea, n. var. b. A sub- 
variety, closely resembling above (4a), slightly smaller, with pale 
nervures, and thoracic mottling yellow, rather than orange. Thes})eci- 
mens I have of these are also apparently selected females. How stupidly 
we often do these things ? A few of the most brightly coloured and 
strongly marked Grauson Valley specimens would also come in here. 

Such are the variations of Z. exulans which have come under my 
notice. The above notes are not drawn up from a few specimens, but 
from the examination of some two hundred Scotch, and almost as many 
Alpine specimens. To look at the female insect in a cabinet, gives no 
idea of its exquisite beauty when alive. Then its wings are sprinkled 
with the finest, palest scales, which makes it look as if it had just tumbled 
out of a flour-bag. The Lauteret females, with their orange peppering, 
looked perfectly lovely whilst alive, and suggested a bag of gold-dust, 
rather than a flour-bag, as their last resting place. 

In the description used in this paper, I have used the term " well- 
scaled " and " poorly scaled " in a comparative sense. With the 
exception of vars. clara and flavilinea, tlie species never exhibits any 
scaling comparable say witli Z. trifolii or Z. lonicerae. 

Anyone who has once seen Z. exulans in its mountain homes, on the 
Ijorders of the region of perpetual snow (none of the places I have 
mentioned in the Alps are less than 6,00U, and it is most abundant from 
8,0UU to 9, (JOG feet) will cease to wonder why so many rubbed specimens 
used to be obtained. The insect is, of course, a sun-lover, and on dull 
days gets well down among the grass and herbage, jjrobably as a pro- 
tection from the ground frosts, which are frequent even in summer at 
a high elevation. Add to this that in Scotland, the Braemar locality is 
heathery, and one has a full explanation of the matter. A fine day, 
when the insect is just emerging, will give good specimens ; an 
occasional fine day with several intervening wet ones will give an 
abundance of specimens, but in poor condition, their beauty having l)een 
damaged probably b}'- their scuttling about in the herbage, or by the 
wet itself. 

In this paper I have tried to comjjare my summer ca})tures with 
our Scotch race, but we have yet much to learn about Zi/gaena exulans 
and its variations. When will one of those collectors who get hundreds 
of Scotch exulans attempt to get some Scandinavian and Lai)land examples, 
and increase onr knowledge, by telling us whether these show the same 
local variation and differences that I have shown to exist in the Alpine 
races ? I am sure this would be more interesting than filling up blanks 
in one's ealjinet with (piestionable British rarities. But to those wlio 
enter into the woi'k, my experience offers a word of warning, and that 
is, that com})arison is not only useless, but absolutely misleading, when 
based on narrow lines and worked out on insufficient material. 
( 'ompared with the Continental races which I have seen, the amount of 
variation in Scotch specimens inter se may be put down as practically 
nil, but they want comparing (as a race), very closely with other races. 



268 THE entomologist's record. 

^URRENT NOTES. 

Prof. Poult.on wishes it to be known among entomologists who may 
desire to study tlie material in the Hope Collection at Oxford, that 
greater convenience and comfort exist for students than has hitherto 
been the case. One large room has been fitted up as the library, what 
was Prof. West wood's room has been thrown into the large insect room, 
a room has been set apart for jjhotography, and another has been fitted 
tip as a biological laboratory. Prof. Poulton states that there is a large 
([uantity of material which wants working through, and invites entomo- 
logists to do it. 

The copy of the ninth volume of L' Encyclopedie Methodique, in the 
library of the Zoological Department of the Natural History Museum, 
is still preserved in two parts, as originally issued. Part I. comprises 
pp. 1-328 ; Part II., pp. 329-828. The latter part contains no indi- 
cation of the date at which it was published, but Hummel, writing at 
St. Petersburg in 1825 (Essais Enfotuologiques, Tom. I., No. 5, p. 48), 
says that it did not appear till 1824. Much of it must, however, liave 
been written some years before that date. — F. J. B. 

As the trivial name exulans seems likely to be a good deal in men's 
mouths just now, it may be useful to point out that the correct way to 
pronounce it is to accent the syllable ex, and to make the n short. — 
B. B. T. 



OTES ON COLLECTING, Etc. 

The autumn season (1894) in the Isle of Wight. — An unusually 
bad June and July in my usual haunts had combined to drive me to 
"fresh fields and pastures new," with results very gratifying both as 
regards an increased number of species " not known " at Freshwater, 
and with respect to increased knowledge of some of those rich 
collecting grounds, wliich, as the Norfolk Broads and the Cambridge 
Fens, present so marked a contrast to the breezy cliffs of my headquarters. 
Towards the end of August, the reports from a brother, who was 
energetically maintaining the campaign during my absence, grew 
gradually more encouraging, and I returned to the old spots in the first 
week of September. I was agreeably welcomed by a sight of the L. 
cxiyita, recorded last month (ante p. 229), and by an already captured 
L. albipnncta, and at once commenced operations by promptly securing 
a second. Encouraging reports from Sandown raised fresh hopes 
which have found due gratification during the whole of the month, and 
the pleasure of success has been considerably enbanced by being shared 
with several friends who were aljle to embrace the o]ii)ortunity offered. 
(_)f species which, during the long time I have worked the western end 
of the island, I had never previously met with are the following : 
Noctua (jlareosa (I), Sept. "15th ; IlcJIophohvi^ hixpida (1), about Sept. 1st; 
Cahwiia hdosa (1), Sept. 25th (]\Ir. Tait) ; Phsia fcstucae (1), end of 
.\ugust ; Hadena protea, several, Sept. 20-27 ; whilst of others, which 
fi-om their lateness or comparative scarcity I have only met with 
singly are, Epnudd IntuJenta, Orthonid Iota, Ileliothis peUi^ier (1), (sugar, 
Sept. 26th, Mr. Tait), and U. armiger, (2) (sugar, Sept. 27th, Mr. Tait), 
and, in addition, I must not fail to record a very fine female Hcliophohus 



r 



NOTES ON OOLLKCTING, ETC, 2C9 

popularis, knocked down by Mr, Abbott, whilst sugaring. The regular 
autumn species have hitherto but rarely put in an appearance before 
the early frosts have di-iven their would-be captor into metropolitan 
hibernation, but this year I liave been pleased to meet with even such 
common species as Xanthia ferrugiiiea, Scopelosoma satcUitia, Anchoreh's 
litura, A. lunosa, etc. The features of the season have been, firstl3% tlie 
capture of two dozen specimens of the rare and little-known (Jdrddrhid 
ambigua ; next, the comparative abundance (and lateness) of Triphnena 
subseqna, of which over two dozen specimens fell to the lot of Mr. 
Abbott, myself, and friends, but which were, unfortunately, mostly 
very worn ; farther, the comparative abundance of two good local species, 
viz. Agrotis obelisca and Apornphyla amtralis ; and lastly, the agreeable 
diversification of the usual monotony by the occasional appearance of 
such rarities as Lapliygma exigna (2), Leucania alhipuncta (6), Heliothis 
armiger and H. peltiger. I must hei'e express my indebtedness to the 
Rev. C. E. X. Burrows for his valuable hint as to the use of methylated 
spirit instead of rum, my experience going to prove that it is a most 
effective as well as cheap substitute. It has during the month past met 
with a A'-ery fair trial, as it has competed over and over again with rum 
on level terms, and proved its equal if not superior merits, evidently a 
proof that the Noctuid palate is not a refined one. The weather has 
been most unsettled, and, from the farmers' and visitors' point of view, 
most unsatisfactory, but in so far as the absence of the usually early 
frosty nights goes, the entomologist has much cause for gratitude. 
Light has not been worked owing to the proximity to the sea, or the 
captures would have been largely increased, but A. lunosa has been 
unusually plentiful at sugar, but as is usually the case with the males, 
in very poor condition ; a few females have on the contrary proved 
exceptionally fine. Agrotk puta has not been the feature that it was 
last year but it has been amply revenged by Noctua c-nigrum and 
Phlogophora meticulosa, which have been in great numbers on some 
nights, whilst N. xantliograpjha has been but in normal quantity. 
Among the occasionally common things, Agrotis sancia has occurred but 
very sparingly and seems unusually late in its appearance, whilst 
Leucania viteUlna, evidently exhausted by its efforts in 1893, has been a 
much-mourned absentee. —In Diurni very little has been done, as 
'•setting" has proved amjjle occupation for the shortening daylight 
hours, but when sunshine has tempted an expedition Culias edma has 
been found in twos and threes in its old haunts, from the middle of 
August to the end of September, and Vanessa atalanta appeared very 
freely towards the latter date. Pi/rameis cardui has proved most 
disappointing, the anticipations of plenty indulged in on the strength 
of reports of numerous larvae and of the early appearance of tine 
imagines, Ijeing doomed to partial disapponitment. Plusia gamma, at 
the last only, appeared suddenly in numbers and imparted extra 
vivacity to the sugared patches at night and to the Downs by day, 
whilst in Geometers AspUates citraria was early and soon over, although 
plentiful for a few days. In larva3, nothing was attempted worth}- of 
mention but Agrotis ripae again proved scarce in its very limited 
quarters, although not so much so as in 189::!, two visits producing 
about 50 and 1 -") respectively ; possibly the second (upon Sept. 27th) 
was too late. Wasps have been extremely scarce, but myriads of tiny 
flies of two species have on several occasions absolutely crowded the 
" sugar," making one wish for the society of an enthusiastic Dipterist. 



270 THE entomologist's UECOlin. 

Various Tipvlidae and Trichoptern have also been in considera])le 
nunbers. — A. J. Hodges, 2, Highbury Place, London, N. 

An ENTOMOLOGICAL TRIP TO FoRKES, N.B. — Notwithstanding 
the fact that Forres is considered one of the driest localities in 
Scotland, the miserable atmospheric conditions that prevailed over 
the greater part of the kingdom this year penetrated even there, 
rendering each day during our visit more or less moist and un- 
pleasant. Having had a foretaste of what we might expect before leaving 
London, we arrived on Thursday, Aug. 2nd. at 11 a.m., in the midst of 
a miserable drizzle, accompanied by a cold N.E. wind, armed with family 
" gamps " and waterproofs. Arrangements had been made with Mr. 
Eeid, of ritcaplo, to meet us on our arrival, but through a misunder- 
standing as to the dates, he was not there, so we had to drive 
disconsolately to our lodgings. Finding, however, that everything had 
been arranged for our comfort, our spirits considerably revived, 
and, after a substantial luncheon, the rain having cleared off pro. tern., 
we determined to have a look round our new ground and plan where 
we should commence operations. Our ardour was considerably damped 
by the general outlook, every likely hunting ground appearing to be 
at a considerable distance from the town of Forres. We therefore 
determined to rest until the following day, and to make enquiries as to 
the whereabouts of already published localities, such as Altyre Woods, 
Culbin Sands, etc. I will now put our experiences in diary form : — 
Aiuj. Srd. — Bright morning, sunshiny and warm, started for Altyre 
Woods, about 2 Scotch miles from Forres. On arrival there, we got 
about half-an-hour's searching and secured about 2 doz. Erehia atJiiops, 
when down came the rain, and we had to beat a hasty retreat, kill our 
first captures, and " wait till the clouds rolled by." Went out again 
after dinner, saw Vanessa urticce on the wing and larvae on the nettles. 
Went to station to meet our friend Mr. Arthur Home of Aberdeen, 
from whom I knew I should get all particulars as to where to work 
until Mr. Keid's arrival. Tea over, we trimmed our lamps and filled 
our "sugaring" tins, fully expecting to do grand work. Alas! our 
expectations were sadly disappointed, as when we had well sugared 
the trees over the Noctna depmncta ground, we sat down to have a happy 
chat over the pros and cons of the season, when down came the rain 
in torrents which we faced for a considerable time until it was dark 
enough for us to examine our " sugar." Not a single insect, and in 
most instances our swe