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Full text of "The Entomologist's record and journal of variation"



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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 



OF THE 



Museum of Comparative Zoology 




ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 



JOURNAL OF VARIATION 



EDITED BY 



Malcolm burr, d.sc, f.r.e.s. 
E. A. Cockayne, a.m., d.m. 

F.R.E.S., F.R.C.P. 

J. E. Collin, j.p., f.r.e.s. 

H. DONISTHORPE, F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N. 

F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. 
W. FASSNIDGE, M.A., F.R.E.S. 
Rev. G. WHEELER, M.A. 

F.R.E.S., F.Z.S. 




HENEY .J. TURNER, F.R.E.S.. F.R.HS.. 
Editorial Secretary 



GOI-P. ZflOL. 
OBRARY 

JAN 16 1350 



..»■';;.'.' 'iVOi. LXI. (New Series). 



RY TO DECEMBER 1949 



PRICE 12s 6d. 

Special Index (with every Reference), Is 6d. 



X 



Mus. ceiP. 




INDEX 



111 



JAN 16 



TENTS OF VOLUME LXI. 



33 
131 

87 
69 
63 



69 
119 

25 



Ibraxes gTossulariata, I aberrations 
.4grius Gonvolvu'li in l^rgyllshire 

.4naiti|t plagiata ^^ \ 

'W^ta^Oxtiiopter^^^. 

Am. Swarming Records 

■' A People Not Strong " 13 

Aphalaia nervosa on YarroAV 113 

Argynnis latlionia, Rearing 109 

Argynnis paphia v. valezina in 

Somerset 117 

Argynnis selene, Second brood 117 

Aspen Insects in Isle of Rbum 112 

**Blastobasis pliycidella 113 

Boarmia repandata, melanic 5 

Brachionycha nubeculosa larva .... 104 

Broods of Chrysophanus phlaeas ... 1 

Butterflies of Freetov^n, Life-histories 126 

Butterflies at Wood Walton, 13; near 

Paris, Geneva and Annecy, 97; 

New Forest, 111; Var and Basses 

Alpes, 121; Sierra Leone, 124; S.E. 

Ireland 130 

Callophrys rubi, Foodplants 6 

Catalogue of French Microlepidop- 

tera 

Catocala fraxini on the Bospliorus .. 
Chrysoplianus phlaeas. Broods, 1; 

Variation 

Clytiomyia rotundiventris 118 

Colias croceus at Swanage, 94; New 

Forest 118 

Colias hyale at Swanage 43 

Congress of Entomology, Eighth In- 
ternational 3 

Current Notes 6, 20, 29, 42, 83, 95, 118, 132 

Cyprus, Lep. from 73 

Deilepliila livornica at Swanage, 95; 
at Braunton, 104, 117; Bourne- 
mouth 118 

Dianthoecia compta 93 

Dispbragis coeruleocephala on Laurel 44 
Early Emergences ... 44, 55, 56, 57, 68, 116 

Elachiptera diastema in Surrey 93 

Empis livida, Observations on 39 

Euura atra in Lewis 113 

Evetria purdeyi in Glos 18 

Formica exsecta as a Slavemaker ... 141 

Gortyna flavagO', Foodplants 81 

iTadena caesia var. manani 82 

Hadena suasa 93 

Homoeosis in Epirrhoe alternata ... 118 

Hyloicus pinastri. Spread of 98 

Iraq, Lep. from 73 

Larvae in Galls 19 

Laurel, Larvae on 44 

Leucania favicolor 94 

Limenitis Camilla in Somerset 117 

Lizards in Ants' Nests 28 

London, South, Notes 37 

Lycaena phlaeas. Brood. 1; Varia- 
tion 25 

Melanic Boarmia repandata 5 



Melitaea cinxia in Hants and Dorset 

19, 55, 68 

Migrants 44, 116 

Myrmecophilous Aphid Parasite 54 

New Forest Butterflies ill 

Xyssia zonaria in Yarrow 113 

Obituary .- L. W. Newman, 58, 80; W. 
Fassnidge, 58, 129; Sir John 
Fryer, 79; Captain Gwatkin-Wil- 
liams 92 

Ochria ochracea, Foodplants 81 

Oncodes pallipes 28 

Osymlus fulvicephalus 44 

Pairing of Scopeuma species 19 

Pararge megera, Oviposition 87 

Perrisia ulmaria in Hebrides 113 

Persia, Lep. from 73, 97 

Pieris brassicae at Orchid Flowers .. 113 

Pieris napi. Unusual Pairing 117 

Pieris rapae, Activity and Mortality, 

35, 61, 62, 112, 124 

Pigment of Orthoptera 118 

Plusia festucae, Second Brood 81 

Polyommatus coridon. Aberrations .. 110 
Polyommatus icarus. Hibernating 

Larvae 94 

Ptinus tectus 6 

Pulborough, Noctuidae of 76 

Reviews : Caterpillars of British 
Moths, 8; Mitt. Schweiz. Ges., 18, 
84; Songs of Insects, 22; Trans. S. 
Lond. Ent. Soc, 70; Guide to 
Smaller Brit. Lep., 71; Habits of 
Brit. Hunting Wasps, 72; Brit. 
Butterflies, by Vere Temple, 72; 
Zts. Wien Ent. Ges., 84; Lep. of 
Egypt, 96; Lep. of Dover and Deal, 
95; Dragonflies of Brit. Is., 96; 
Diptera, Introduction and Keys 
to Families, 195; Brit. Dermap- 

tera and Orthoptera 119, i;!2 

Rhingia campestris 44 

Rhodites rosarum us 

Sea Aster, Visitors to flowers 85 

Selenia tetralunaria. Genetics 9 

Spain, Butterflies of Sierra de Cuenca 89 

Sphinx pinastri Larvae 104 

Switzerland, Collections in 45 

Syntormon macula, male 114 

Tethea or in Lewis and Harris 112 

.Tinea arcella 44 

Tyrone, Ent. Notes 27, 67, 68 

Vanessa atalanta and cardui. Flow- 
ers visited 130 

Var and Basses Alpes, Butterflies .... 121 

"S'olucella zonaria 131 

West Africa, Butterflies 50, 102 

W. Sussex. Lepidoptera 65 

Winter Flies 42 

Ypsolophus xylostellus on Snowberry 

72, 131 



IV 



entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 



15/ XII / 1949 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Andrews, H. W (Stippl. 1-4), 57, 118 

Antram, C. B. ... 55, 68, 110, 111, 117, 118 
Bainbrigge Fletcher, T. ... 18, 44, 70, 

71, 72, 84 

Barton White, F 104 

Blathwayt, C. S. H 57 

Bretherton, C. S. H 57 

Bretherton, R. F 47, 121 

Burr, M. ... 18, 19, 20, 22, 42, 69, 118, 119 

Castle Russell, S. G 87 

Chalmers-Hunt, J. M 93 

Cockayne, E. A. ... 9, 33, 79, 80, 81, 92', 

118, 131 

Collin, J. E 105 

Darlow, H. M 126 

Donisthorpe, H 13, 28 

Easton, M. T 116, 117 

Edwards, J 20 

Fearnehough. T. D 25, 44, 109 

Fonseca, E. C. M. d'Assis- 114 

Gardiner, B. 0. C 83, 104 

Greer, T •.... 27, 67, 68 

Harrison, J. W. Heslop 6, 112 

Harper, G. W 56, 65 



Hincks, W. D 

Hobby, B. M 

Howard, J. O. T 

Jacobs, S. N. A 6, 45, 58, 105, 

Jarvis, F. V. L 



54 
129 

83 
113 

94 



Johnson, F. L 50, 102 

Kettlewell, H. B. D 9 



Leeds, H. A 13 



Murray, D 

Muspratt, V. M. 
Oliver, G. H. B. 
O'Rourke, F. J. 
Owen, D. F. .. 
Parmenter, L. 



.... 87 
.... 69 
.... 127 
.... 63 
.... 55 
85, 93 



Querci, 35, 61, 62, 89, 124 

Redgrave, A. C. R 57 

Rome!, L 35, 61, 62, 122 

Russell (see Castle-Russell) 

Siviter Smith, P 1, 82 

Smith, K. G. V 39 

Sperring, A. H 93 

Spicer, M. C 127 

Tatchell, L 43, 94, 95 

Turner, Ply. J. ... 6-8, 20, 21, 29-31, 

42-43, 70, 83, 95, 96, 120, 128 

Turner, H. J 19 

Turner, J. F 127 

Wakely, S 28, 37 

Weupherill, L 101 

Wightman, A. J 76, 81 

Williams, H. B 5 

Wiltshire, E. P 73, 97 

Worms, C. G. M. d© 3 

Wyse, L. H. Bonaparte 127 



p. 44, line 4. For ' 
p. 44, line 13. For 
p. 47, line 2. For ' 



CORRIGENDA. 

p 18, line 19. For " Durrant, 1911" read " Durrant 1911." 
p. 30, line 19. For " Aarnalen " read " Annalen." 

Mentrastri " read " menthrastri." 

' very slowly," read ' very slowly;." 

Tinaeidae " read " Tineina." 
p. 47, lines 10, 12. For " Meesia " read " Meessia." 
p. 47, line 19. For " phegaea " read " phegea." 
p. 48, line 6 from bottom. For " Chalonia " read " Phalonia." 
p. 49, line 22. For " peliodactyla " read " pelidnodactyla." 
p. 71, line 9 from bottom. For " portions " read " patches." 
p. 71, line 3 from bottom. For " pneumonantus " read " pneumonanthes." 
p. 72, line 5. For " LitticoUetis " read " Lithocolletis." 
p. 72, line 7. For " Symphoricerpus " read " Symphoricarpus." 
p. 72, line 19. For " appear " read " appeal." 
p. 72, line 30. For " from " read " for." 
p. (57), line 13 from bottom. Delete " Sam." 

p. (57), line 12 from bottom. For " Mer. (1815) " read " Meyrick 1895." 
p. 75. For " PYRAES " read " PYRALES." 
p. 83, line 10 from bottom. For " has " read " have." 
p. 96, line 6. For " Ales . . . squento ctii somelis " read " Alae . . . sequ'^nte cut 

similis." 
p. (65), line 23. For " procae " read " procax." 
p. (67), line 4, etc. For " 1786 " read " 1787." 
p. 105, line 14 from bottom. For " Lucania " read " Leucania." 
p. (73), line 2. For " Bosa " read " Boica." 



icriptlons 10/- for Vol. 61 (1949) are now due. Please Send Promptly 





tOGISTS RECORD 

AND 

OF VARIATION 



MALCOLM BURR, D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

B. A. COCKAYNE, M.A., F.R.C.P.. F.R.E.S. 

J. E. COLUN, J.P., F.R.E.S. 

H. DONISTHORPK, F.Z.S.. F.R.E.S. 



Wm. FAS8NIDQE, M.A,. F.R.E.S. 

S, N. A, JACOBS. 

H. B. WILUAMS, K.C., LL.D., F.R.E.S. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. {SUb-Editor), 
" Rodborough Fort." Stroud, Glos. 

HY. J. TURNER, F.R.E.S., F.R.H.S. {Editorial Secretary). 



CONTENTS. 



HOW MANY BROODS ARE THERE OF LYCAENA PHLAEAS, L. ? P. Sivller 
Smith 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON EN- 
TOMOLOGY, C. G. M. de Worms, M.A., Ph.D 

COLLECTING NOTES : Melanic Boarmia repandata at Rannoch. Perthshire, 
Harold B. Williams; Ptinus tectus, Boield. (Col., Ptinidae), S.N. A J.; 
The Foodplants of Callophrys rubi in the Inner Hebrides, J. W. Heslop 
Harrison 

CURRENT NOTES 

REVIEW 



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B^torti 




15th JANUARY 1949. 



No.- 1. 



ODS ARE THERE OF LYCAENA PHLAEAS, L.? 

By P. SiviTER Smith. 



When examining the various books and magazines for details of L. 
phlaeas^ L., I continually come across references to " fourth broods " 
of that butterfly in Britain, usually in October, and I find the same 
comments in correspondence lately. It is my clear impression at the 
moment that in Britain there are never more than three broods and, 
even then, any third brood is only a partial one. 

I have carefullj" examined the life-histories of L. phlaeas, as de- 
scribed by Tutt {Brit. Lep., VIII) and Frohawk (Nat. Hist, of Bnt. 
Butt.) and have drawn up charts to give a clearer picture of what 
may be expected to happen each year. From this examination I feel 
sure that we can expect only a partial third brood as a maximum in a 
very favourable year. Hot, sunny weather is what suits this species 
best, in all its stages. 

Let us assume a. year where the weather is as favourable as possible 
for L. phlaeas, with a preceding winter that has plenty of mild sunny 
periods during which the hibernating larvae will move about and even 
feed a little. Thus we can expect those most advanced in the preced- 
ing autumn (and it hibernates in various instars) will be able to take 
advantage of a fine early spring and emerge at an exceptionally'^ early 
date. Througliout this speculation we are going to assume the very 
best possible conditions. 

It is hardly likely even then that we shall find an imago before the 
first week in April, so oA^a will be deposited at that time. Now the 
shortest time before ova hatch is 5 days or thereabouts, and the summer 
larval stage lasts at its shortest about 20 days and the pupal stage about 
25 days. It will be reasonable to allow for a rapid metamorphosis o^' 
6, 23 and 28 days respectively, so that under these (imagined) best con- 
ditions, from egg to imago takes 57 days. Let us say two months. 

From the earliest emergences at the beginning of April, therefore, 
we shall expect to see the next earliest emergences at the beginning of 
June; from emergences at the lieginning of June we shall expect to 
see the earliest emergences at the beginning of August, and the next 
series will emerge at the beginning of October. Thus, in order to cram 
four emergences into one year we have to allow the finest possible 
theoretical conditions right through each brood. We have to allow for 
an exceptionally early emergence in April and then we must allow 
for these spring larvae and ]nipae to mature in the shortest (normally 
mid-summer) period, whereas they would actually take longer than 
those feeding up in mid-summer. It is scarcely to be expected that 
these o[)tinuim conditions will occur very frequently. 



2 entomologist's recobDj vol. lxi. 15/1/1949 

I have a great many refereiices collated for L. xjhlaeas and I have 
scanned these in respect of these favourable factors, to see how often 
they may be expected to occur. In respect of very early emergences, 
I find two remarkable ones in February, both in the Isle of Wight, one 
on 10th February (Fassnidge) and one at the end of February (Cornell). 
Apart from those two exceptional dates, Dale gives the next earliest 
date of 2nd April and there are about four other April records, so that 
clearly April is not normally the time even of early emergences. In 
this respect H. B. Williams appears to be correct when he says the 
usual dates when the species is first seen are between 15th and 20th of 
May. 

Thus, in respect of our optimum requirements, it seems clear that 
it is exceptional to get emergences at the beginning of April and this 
is therefore strongly against the possibility of getting four broods in 
a year. In Central Italj', under much hotter conditions, Verity says 
there are only four broods (and less in higher localities), these being in 
April, the end of June, the middle of August, and in a favourable 
autumn, another brood in October, but he says that even this is only a 
partial fourth brood. 

In respect of the latest dates on which L. phlaeas has been observed 
in Britain, Dale gives the latest of all, namely 8th November, and 
there are two other November dates, one on the 3rd (Dale), and de 
Worms records it as still on the wing in November (1944) ; tlhere are 
more records for October and that seems to be the last month in which 
one can usually expect to see it flying. 

My own opinion is that I doubt if a fourth brood has ever been 
observed in Britain and that specimens seen in September, October 
and November represent a third brood, and only a partial third brood 
at that. This opinion is supported by F. V. L. Jarvis (1944), who 
gives the result of his observations which exactly coincide with this 
view. In further support of this, I have (by the kindness of H. J. 
Turner) been able to examine the Diary kept by the Rev. C. R. N. 
Burrows from 1871-1922. He apparently entered daily every species 
he observed and although no doubt the conditions of observation altered 
frequently, it is such a long period that a reasonable average can be 
arrived at. I have tabulated the 110 observations and a graph is ob- 
tained which shows the following : May — 20 records ; June^ — 14 records ; 
July — 5 records; August — 46 records; September — 17 records; October 
— 8 records. 

The records start on 14th May and show most observations between 
the 18th of May and the 2nd of June; there are thin records from the 
4th to the 30th June, and then there is a blank until another set of 
records starts thinly on 20th July and giving the greatest series between 
the 4th. and 29th of August. There are thin records through Septem- 
ber, most frequent between the 9th and the 15th, and a few between 
the 20tJh and 2Sth. There is one record each on 3rd and 4th October, 
and a small series between the 8th and 12th of that month. 

The chief densities of these records, then, is from mid-May to mid- 
June, from early August to the end of August, and in mid-September 
and mid-October, ])ut the September and October records are mudh 
thinner and less definite than the others. 



EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON ENTOMOLOGY. 3 

When these are plotted out, it gives a picture that is exactly simi- 
lar to what I believe actually happens — in the case of each brood we 
get a lengthy emergence period, due to the variation in the speed with 
which larvae of the same brood feed up. This is carried on diiring the 
year and so in the autumn we get long extended emergences, some of 
these late ones being particularly slow or delayed second brood speci- 
mens, and others being particularly advanced third brood specimens. 
The larvae of all broods, but particularly the late broods, feed up at 
different speeds ; many authorities refer to this and I found the same 
thing when I reared the species and hibernated it. This mixture, in 
the autumn, of delayed second brood specimens and advanced third 
brood specimens would also account for the fact that " summer " (or 
suffused) forms occur in company with " autumn " (" cold," or non- 
suffused) forms. 

Naturally further north in Britain we shall expect only two broods 
in a year, and perhaps only one. There is not a great deal of accurate 
information in regard to this aspect either and detailed observations 
are much to be desired. That is the object of this note, as I am seek- 
ing all forms of information regarding L. phlaeas and this brood ques- 
tion is so obscured at present by the popular but (I believe) incorrect 
fourth brood theory. I shall be most grateful for results of careful 
observations in all parts of the British Isles that help to settle this, 
and the aspects referred to in this note may help to point to the factors 
surrounding these events — the brightness or suffusion of autumn speci- 
mens helps to point to whether they are second or third brood 
examples. I have not quoted any references in full, nor all those that 
T have, as T hope to give all these later in a more extensive review of 
this species, for which this information is required. 

21 Melville Hall, Holly Hoad, 
Edgbaston, Birmingham 16. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON 

ENTOMOLOGY, 

HELD IN STOCKHOLM FROM 9th TO 14th AUGUST 1948. 

By C. G. M. DE Worms, M.A., Ph.D. 



A big contingent set out from this country during the first days of 
August, the majority converging on Lund in the south-western corner 
of Sweden. After a long train journey through Holland, Northern 
Germany and Denmark, many of the British delegation, including my- 
self, reached Lund early on 7th August. That afternoon was spent 
visiting several scientific institutions, among which the Station of Plant 
"Research was especially interesting. The party was shown the latest 
methods of dealing with pests affecting oil-producing plants such as 
rape. 

On Sunday, the 8th, about 150 delegates met in the Zoological 
Museum to hear a speech of welcome by Prof. Hanstrom and an account 
of the many famous workers in entomology who carried out their re- 
searches and teaching in the ancient University. After conducted 



4 entomologist's record, vol. lxi, 15/1/1949 

tours of the well-known Museum of Cultural History and the renowned 
Cathedral, delegates were entertained to a dinner at the Grand Hotel 
by the Entomological (Society of Lund. Later that evening most of the 
})arty left by train for Stockholm, which was reached early on 9th 
August. 

In this fine city some five hundred delegates and guests from nearly 
every country in the world assembled for the Congress proper, which 
was officially opened that afternoon in the spacious Concert Hall by 
the Prime Minister of Sweden, Dr Erlander. After an address of 
welcome by the President (Prof. Tradgardh), Dr Karl Jordan, Per- 
manent Secretary to the Congresses on Entomology, gave a most illu- 
minating account of the history of the past Congresses and the objects 
of the present one, while Professor Jeannel, of Paris, followed with 
an amusing speech on behalf of the delegates. Later that day the 
delegates were invited to a special social evening at Hasselbacken, one 
of the leading entertainment resorts of the city. 

The main business of the Congress opened on the morning of 10th 
August at the modern High School of Ostermalms Laroverk. In all, 
six separate sessions were held. 187 papers by 163 authors were sub- 
mitted for reading under eleven sections, including Systematic Ento- 
mology, Physiology, Oecology, Morphology and Anatomy, Insects of 
Agricultural Interest, Forest Entomology, Stored Product Insects, 
Medical Entomology, Means and Methods of Fighting Insect Pests, 
Nomenclature and Historj\ Arachnidae. Many eminent authorities 
on these subjects from all over the world contributed papers of very 
great interest and importance, while the sessions in general afforded a 
means for discussing at length questions and problems of Entomology, 
both academic and economic, of great international consequence, such 
as the war against the locusts, the tsetse flies and the malaria mos>- 
quitos. The field of insecticides in the control of these and other in- 
sect pests was also a subject well to the fore in the programme, which 
also included many interesting papers on the morphology, taxonomy, 
habits and distribution of special families in the insect world. The Con- 
gress also gave opportunity of many personal contacts among leading 
entomologists of all nations. The sessions were concluded on the after- 
noon of Saturday, 14th August, by a very entertaining speech by the 
President, who thanked all who had attended for their contributions 
to the success of the Congress and recalled many of his own experi- 
ences during his entomological activities. 

During the week the entertainment of the delegates had been ar- 
ranged on a very big scale. The whole of Wednesday, the 11th, had 
been devoted to an excursion to the ancient University town of Upsala. 
En route the party were conducted round Linnaeus's famous home at 
Hammarby, which is kept exactly as it was at the time of his death. 
Everyone was most interested to see so many of the writings and posses- 
sions of this great savant. At the University many famous literary 
treasures were on view in the Museum, while the collections of Linnaeus 
and Thunberg were exhibited in the Zoological Institute. The day 
ended with a welcome from the Rector of the University and a visit to 
the Cathedral. A further delightful excursion was made on the even- 
ing of 12th August to the royal castle of Drottningholm, where the 



COLLECTING NOTES, O 

party was conducted over the famous gardens and saw a performance 
in the Court Theatre, which was the original structure built in 1762. 
On the 13th another most interesting visit was paid to the Forest Re- 
search Institute and the very modern Museum of Natural History on 
the outskirts of Stockholm. At the latter the large party had the oppor- 
tunity of seeing the very fine displays in the public galleries and also 
of studying much of the entomological material in the National collec- 
tions. Later delegates were the guests of Swedish entomologists at a 
lunch in the Museum. This function was one of nine similar enter- 
tainments culminating on Saturday the 14tli with a big reception and 
dinner in the famous Town Hall as guests of the Corporation. The 
Mayor of Stockholm welcomed the guests, while Prof. Jeannel replied 
on their behalf and Prof. Tradgardh made a speech of farewell. On 
the following day a large gathering took ]iart in a very pleasant trip 
by steamer around the islands in the direction of the Baltic. So ended 
a most delightful and interesting week of which all must bave brought 
back the happiest memories, thanks to the excellent organisation of 
the Congress Committee and the unstinted hospitality of their Swedish 
bests. Many prolonged their stay in Scandinavia by going on two 
arranged excursions, one to the Forest Research headquarters in Cen- 
tral Sweden and another lasting four days to Abisko in Northern Lap- 
land, where many sub-arctic species of insects were obtained. 



COLLECTING NOTES. 



Melanic Boarmta repandata at Rannoch, Perthshire. — Some few 
years ago T was indebted to Mr R. C. R. Crewdson for the opportunity 
of studying the incidence of the melanic form of this species, ab. nigri- 
cata, Fuchs, in a wild population at Rannocb, 

In June 1942 Mr Crewdson sent me 93 pupae which he had bred 
from larvae beaten at Rannoch. From these pupae I bred 85 moths 
during the same month, of which 37 males and 44 females were of the 
ordinary Rannoch grey form, and 3 males and 1 female w^ere black. 
The exact proportion appears to be 95.3% grey, 4.7% black, and it 
would probably be sufficiently accurate to state the proportion of the 
black form in the population as 5 % . 

The black" form breeds as a simple dominant,' and on the assumption 
that the examjiles bred wer^ heterozygous it is apparent that homozy- 
gous examples must be very rare indeed at Rannoch, forming probably 
less than one in every thousand of the population, 

I was able to obtain a jiairing between a black male and a grey 
female. L'^nfortunately, the larvae fed too rapidly in the autumn, and 
in consequence did not biliernate very well, but in 1943 I bred from 
tliis i)airing four males and two females of the black form and six males 
and two females of the grey form, i.e., 42.9% black and 57.1% grey. 
These figures, ]iarticularly having regard to the small numbers bred, 
do not depart too widely from the 50 ; 50 proportion which should 
result from jiairing a heterozygous black with a recessive grey, and it 
may be taken as establisihed that the male ]iarent was heterozygous. — 
Harold B, Williams, K.O., LL.D., F.R.E.S. 



6 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/1/1949 

Ptinus tectus, Boield. (Col., Ptinidae). — Shortly after reading the 
proof of Mr Donisthorpe's interesting note on this beetle, I came across 
an airtight tobacco box while tidying out a " glory hole " in my bug 
room. This box, was bronght to me in 1943 with some Brazilian flonr 
in which were some adnjt P. tectus beetles together with a piece of 
paper giving the data : there were possibly some six specimens and 
about a quarter of an ounce of flour. The box had not been opened 
since, but I found in it about twenty dead and dismembered P. tectus, 
eight living adults, and some small larvae in the frass within the box. 
There was no flour, and the paper was riddled with holes which had 
reduced its size to about one- tenth. Many generations of this beetle 
must have been raised on the bodies of their parents and brothers, yet 
the size of the present adults seems to be about normal. My experi- 
ence of the beetle is that its usual haunt was the place in warehouses 
where floor sweepings were kept ; larvae eat almosit anything from 
Sloya bean flour to rats' excreta, so that the cannibalistic diet of the 
present specimens does not come as a surprise. Being a domestic species 
of small size, and somewhat retiring habits, the three specimens men- 
tioned in association with the human aesophagus could well, in my 
opSnion, have been introduced afterwards. — S. N. A. J. 

The Foodplants of C'allophrys rubi in the Inner Hebrides. — In 
the Hebrides, last season, the latest example of this insect was seen on 
the wing on the south side of Loch Scresort, Isle of Rhum, on 10th 
June. This was a worn female, noted flitting around bilberry, which 
forms the insect's primary foodplant in the islands. Later, on 1st July 
and 8th August, larvae were swept from heather on the Isles of Coll 
and Rhum, respectively. In this connection, it should be noted that, 
in addition to the two foodplants named above, larvae have been swept 
in the Raasay-Scalpay group of islands from the fine-leaved heath and 
black crowberry. — J. W. Heslop-Harrison, King's College, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 



CURRENT NOTES. 



The Bull, et Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige, is issued very regularly now 
and much original work is being recorded. The September and October 
numbers contain 220 pp., with diagrams, 2 mai:»s and many text figures. 
The September issue contains Memoires and Two Sections of Arthropodes, 
viz., the Nudicoles and the Cavernicoles of Belgium, two New Cara- 
hidne from Africa. 

The Report of the 85th Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society 
of Ontario has been published. The issue has rather a spectacular cover 
with richly coloured Saturniid Moth, a C alias. It opens with a capital 
portrait of H. H. Lyman, on,e of the greatest entomologists of Canada, 
and whose tragic death by drowning was a great calamity to science. 
Other photographs and historical reminiscences make this small issue a 
very worthy historical publication. 



CUEJEtENl: NOTES. 7 

The Spanish Entomological Journal Eos conies out quite regularly 
now. Part 3 of Vol. XXIV (1948) has reached us. Herr M. Goch, of 
Dresden, contributes Pt. II of his Memoirs on the Zygaenidae of Spam 
and deals with Z. purpuralis, Z. scabiosae, Z. achilieae, Z. nevadensis., 
Z. sarpedon. and many aberrant forms are discussed, especially of the 
last species. Dr Uvarov contributes an article on the Orthoptera of 
Spain, described many years ago by Rambur. R. Agenjo discusses 3 
new subspecies of Anthrocera, of A. rhadarrw/ntha, of A. fcmsta, and of 
A. trifolii. 

The Belgian Larnbillionea, Parts 7-8, records the decease of Dr 
Arnold Pictet, the well-known and well-honoured Professor of Geneva. 
Additions to the fauna are reported, the beetle, Tenehrio iiwlitor, as a 
pest, is discussed; the continuation of the survey of Rhopalocera in the 
various Departments of Belgium. 

■ Parts 9-10 contain a discussion of the Variation of the S. African 
Papilio dardanus, particularly f. antinorii, a case of atavism in Erannis 
leiicophaearia, and a note on the Belgian Fauna. 

Another correspondent writes, " Why not publish a List of all 
Genitalic Species of Lepidoptera, including Micros, with references? 

The whole question of Genitalic Species in Zoology must be based 
on the term Species. What is our concept of the term, is it a definite 
or indefinite natural object, or is it merely a useful term to aid in our 
classification of the actual organisms by which we are surrounded? 

Dr John Adams Comstock has retired from the post of Chief in the 
Los Angeles Museum after more than 20 years' service. He had be- 
come widely known as the author of a valuable work, The Butterflies 
of Califomia^ and had, written many articles and records of local Lepi- 
doptera. 

As there were eleven sections into which the work of the Interna- 
tional Congress was divided, it was almost impossible for any member 
to attend more than tw^o and note the sectional matter discussed. If 
any member of the Congress could give us anything which was discussed 
on Nomenclature, Variation, and the abuse of the study of Genitalia 
to make Species, please send us a note. It may be a long time before 
we get the volumes which contain the papers presented to the Congress. 

In the Ent. Bericht. of the Netherlands, Mr Lempke concludes a 
very full Report on the Immigrant Lepidoptera to the country in 1946, 
The 25 species are recorded with full and interesting Notes. 

Volume XLVI (1947) of Lambillionea has made great strides to bring 
the famous little journal back to its pre-war status. Not only does it 
report on Belgian entomological matters but in the August issue (5-8) an 
educative article was begun, '* Les Papillons Mimetiques," by S. G. 
Kiriakoff. This article was completed in the December issue (11-12) 
with three plates, containing figures of five Pierid forms and 9 Papi- 
lionid forms. 

The two Entomological Magazines of Sweden Opuscula Entomologica 
and Ent. Tidskrift. both come regularly. Some of the articles are in 



8 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/1/1949 

English and some have a Summary of the text in English. Vol. XIII, 
part 2, 1948, of the former has an article, " A Few Words on Entomology 
in the University of Lund " (English). Th© next paper is on Diptera 
in German, A memoir on a new Cockroach from W. Africa is in Ger- 
man. The next article is in English, a biological discussion. Another 
article in English follows, dealing with a new species of the Odonata 
with notes on the group Anisogoniphus. The shorter contributions are 
mainly in English with an added note or two in English and German. 
— Hy. J. T. 



REVIEW. 



Caterpillars of British Moths, including Eggs, Chrysalids and 
FooDPLANTS. Compiled and arranged by W. J. Stokoe, and edited with 
Special Articles by G. H. J. Stovin, M.R.C.S., etc. 2' vols., 1488 figures, 
of which 441 are in full colour by J. C. Dollman, R.W.S. 15/- each vol. 
Messrs Frederick Warne & Co., Ltd., Chandos House, Bedford Court, 
London, W.C.2. 

These volumes are a valuable addition to the Wayside and Woodland 
Library which Messrs W^arne initiated years ago when the late Edward 
Step was at his best. Those who have the admirable volume of the 
subseries on British Lepidoptora, "' Caterpillars of British Butterflies," 
so useful, will find them necessary companion volumes to the " Moths of 
the British Isles " of South. 

Every figure of a Caterpillar is from Nature exactly as it chose its 
rest and assumes its proper natural specific posture, in accord with it-s 
protection necessity requires, aided also with the full coloration. The 
text in its descriptions of a Caterpillar uses every descriptive word 
needed. Not one figure of a Caterpillar is a blown skin on a featureless 
perch. The Caterpillar looks as if it had chosen its own perch, as it has 
done probably in every case. In identification this featuring is of the 
utmost importance even with the Caterpillars which are internal feeders. 
Special postures of hairy Caterpillars when fallen or species that rest 
on flat surfaces, bark of trees, etc., are dealt with. The Caterpillars 
of the Jersey Tiger in vol. I and of the Goat Moth in vol. II are excellent 
samples of the compilation; arrangement and execution are indicative 
of great thoroughness. 

In addition the Chrysalis Stage is figured for comparison and aid in 
identification. Also the Egg Stage is illustrated by many figures as 
laid of natural size, and enlarged to show sculpturing ; also as laid in 
Nature, scattered, in batches large and small, regular and irregular. 

Opportunity is taken to deal with the rearing of Caterpillars to 
obtain Mendelian results : a well illustrated account of experiments by 
Dr G. H. T. Stovin in vol. I. At the end of vol. II is a considerable 
supplement with figures and short descriptions of about 300 plants 
needed in the rearing of Caterpillars. These figures are just the recog- 
nizable twigs which Caterpillars favour in Nature. 

Needless to say the get up of the volumes and the arrangement of 
the matter is quite admirable. In fact every earnest student of the 
liepidoptera must acquire these volumes. 

Hy. J. T. 



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Wanted, for experimental purposes, a few pupae of Endromis versicolora, pur- 
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" Synopsis des Hemipteres-Hiteropttres de France. Badonnel, A., 1943. Faunt 
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For Disposal.— Entomjlogist's Record, Vols. 55 (1943) to 59 (1947) In parts, all In 
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Wa7ited to Purchase— Leech's British Pyrales. Coloured Plate Edition.— .4. W. 
Richards, Nether Edge, Hawley, near Camberley. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

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2iid, March Snd, at 5.30 p.m. South London Entomological and Natural 
Blstory Society, c/o Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W.l; 2nd and 
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p.m., at London School of Hygiene or Art-Workers' Guild Hall. Syllabus of 
Meetings from General Secretary, H. A. Toombs, Brit. Mus, {Nat. Hist,), Crom- 
well Road. S.W.7. Birmingham Natural History and Philosophical Society-^ 
Entomological Section -. Last Friday in month, at 7 p.m., at the Birmingham 
Museum and Art Gallery. Particulars from the Hon. Secretary, G. B. Manly, 
72 Tenbury Road, King's Heath, Birmingham, 14. 

TO OUR READERS. 
Short Goliooting Notes and Currtnt Notes. Please, Early.— Eds. 



All MS. and EDITORIAL MATTER should be sent and all PROOFS returned to 
HY. J. Turner, " Latemar," 25 West Drive, Cheam. 

W© must earnestly request our correspondents NOT TO SEND US COMMUNICA- 
TIONS IDENTICAL with those they are sending to other magazines. 

REPRINTS of articles may be obtained by authors at very reasonable cost it 
ordered at THE TIME OF SENDING IN MS, 

Articles that require ILLUSTRATIONS are inserted on condition that the 
AUTHOR DEOFRAYS THE COST of the illustrations. 

Change of Address :— The temporary address of Mr Kenneth J. Hay ward of 
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of Natural History, London, S.W.7, 

Communications received :— Thomas Greer, Fergus J. O'Rourke, O. Quercl, 
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All Communications should be addressed to the Acting Editor, Hy. J. 
TURNER. " Latemar," 25 West Drive, Cheam, 

I! you collect COrIDON, BELLARGUS, ICARVS, ARGVS, MINIMUS, AGESTIS 
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criptions 10/- for Vol. 61 (1949) are now due. Please Send Promptly 



LXI. 




V 



iNTOMOLOGISTS RECORD 

AND 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION 



MALCOLM BURR, D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

E. A. COCKAYNE, M.A., F.R.C.P., F.R.E.S. 

J. E. COLUN, J. P., F.R.E.S. 

H. DONISTHORPB. F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. 



WM. FASSNIDGE. M.A.. F.R.E.S. 

S. N. A. JACOPS. 

H B. WILLIAMS, K.C., LL.D., F.R.E.S. 



JS C(HrP/Z»FfB^ ^^^ FLETCHER. R.N., F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. (Sub-Editor), 

" Rodborough Fort," Stroud, Glos. 

TURNER. F.R.E.S., F.R.H.S. {EditoHal Secretary). 



CONTENTS. 



fflB^^SJl5fETR4LUN4RIA, HUFN., AB. NIGRESCENS, AB. NOV., WITH 
AI « T ACCOUNT OF ITS GENETICS, E. A. Cockayne, DM., F.R.C.P., and 
H. B. D. Kettlewell, M.A., M.B., B.Chir. 



'• A PEOPLE NOT STRONG," Horace Donisthorpe, ... 

BUTTERFI.Y COLLECTING IN WOOD WAI.TON, HUNTS., AREA, AND THE 
CHILTERN HILLS, DURING J 948, //. A. Leeds, 

COLLECTING NOTES : The Pigment of Orthoptera, M. B.: Evetria purdeyi, 
Durrant, 1911, T. Bainbrigge Fletcher; Mitteilungen der Schweiz. entom. 
Gesellschaft, Vol. XXI, Part 4, T.B.F.; The Occurrence of Melitaea 
cinxia In Hants and Dorset, H. J. Turner; Lepldopterous Larvae in 
Galls : An Enquiry, Malcolm Burr; Pairing of Scopeuma Species (Dip- 
tera : Cordiluridae), James Edwards 

CURRENT NOTES, 

REVIEW, 



13 



13 



18 
20 
22 



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WAYSIDE AND WOODLAND TREES. 

By EDWARD STEP, F.L.S. 

Containing 24 colour plates, 151 half-tone plates, and 58 text figures. By A. 
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JACKSON, A.L.S., Department of Botany, British Museum (Natural History). 

This edition includes as a new feature two quick identification keys fully illus- 
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Cloth gilt, round corners, size 6| ins. by 5 ins. Price 12/6 net. 
All Orders to be placed through a Bookseller. 

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A constantly changing large stock of Scientific literature in stock. Libraries fv 
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LONDON : H. K. LEWIS & CO. Ltd., 133 GOWER STREET, W.C.I 

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■) 



Strongly covered and magnificently produced with 18 plates of 408 figures. M In 
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VOL. LSI 



PLATE 










By E 



AN 



MUS. COMP. ZOOL 
LIBRARY 

MAR 14 m^ 

SELENIA TETRALUiTAIlIA, HUFN., AB, NIGRESCENS, AB. NOV. 






SELENIA HI^I^^^UNARIA, HUFN., AB. NIGRESCENS, AB. NOV., 



ACCOUNT OF ITS GENETICS. 

■ ^V . Co'ciTaotc," dm ., F.R.C.P., and H. B. D. Kettlewell, M.A., 

M.B., B.Chir. 



In the summer of 1945 Mr J. M, Jaques took a female Selenia tetra- 
lunaria at light at Coulsdon, Surrey, which appeared to him to be nor- 
mal, but must have been heterozygous for melanism. He gave some of 
the ova to Canon Edwards and kept some himself, but handed over his 
pupae to Mr Wakely, Mr Wakely put his normal and heterozygous 
moths into a cage together and allowed indiscriminate pairing to take 
place, so that his results are of no genetic value. He bred some melanic 
specimens, but lost the strain in 1947. Canon Edwards, in April 1946, 
from eggs of the wild female bred " normal " tetralunaria, though some 
were darker than usual (heterozygotes). He bred 3 (S d and 9 9 5, 
obtained two pairings, and in the summer of 1946 bred an F2 genera- 
tion consisting of three melanics, 2 (S d and 1 ? , and a number of nor- 
mal and heterozygous moths, which were not counted. He paired a 
melanic male with a heterozygous female and a normal male with a 
melanic female, but mixed the two broods, and in the spring of 1947 
bred an F3 generation consisting of 1 melanic $ , 3 heterozygous d 6 , 
and 2 normal d d • He obtained a pairing, but from the eggs laid only 
three larvae hatched and these died. 

Mr Jaques very kindly gave us 15 pupae, which he thought were 
from a pairing of two melanics, F3 generation, but the result showed 
that one parent was heterozygous. Mr C. N. Hawkins received 
(26. iv. 1947) from Mr Wakely 26 ova from a pairing of a " normal " male 
with a melanic female, but evidently the male was a heterozygote. 

The following table shows the results of subsequent breeding. 



Melanic. Heterozygous. 

6 9 6 



Kettlewell 4 3 

Kettlewell and 

Cockayne ... 5 11 

Cockayne 1 1 

Hawkins 2 1 



12 16 



28 



Cockayne 22 14 

Cockayne 2 5 

Cockayne 17 21 

1 1 



3 

4 10 
2 2 

2 3 



13 18 



31 



F3. First brood. 



F3. 



F4. 



F3. 



F4. 



r^ heterorj^gote x 9 melanic. 

Second brood. 

(5 melanic x 9 heterozygote. 

4 (1947). Second brood. 

1 c3', 1 9 (1948). First brood. 

(heterozygotes). 
d heterozygote x 9 melanic. 
Second brood. 



d melanic x 9 melanic. 
Second bi-ood. 

d melanic x 9 melanic. 
Third brood. 

d melanic x o melanic. 
38 (1947). Third brood. 

2 (1948). First brood. 



42 



41 — 



10 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/2/1949 

The four broods with one parent heterozygous and the other a homo- 
zygous melanic combined gave 28 melanic and 31 heterozygotes, the 
expected ratio being 1:1. The three broods with both parents melanic 
combined gave 42 male and 41 females, all melanic, and no heterozygotes. 
We hoped to obtain at least one pairing between a melanic and a normal 
specimen of unrelated stock, and later to obtain all the possible pairings 
in order to confirm these results and the conclusions arrived at, but the 
initial pairings were infertile and the strain was lost. There can, how- 
ever, be no doubt that the melanic form is almost completely recessive 
to the normal, and that heterozygotes are on the whole recognizably 
darker than homozygous normals. It is, however, difiicult to decide 
whether a living moth is a heterozygote or a homozygote. The moths of 
the spring brood appear to be more variable than those of the second 
and third broods, but our material is scanty. We found no difficulty in 
separating homozygous melanics from heterozygotes in the second and 
third broods, but we had no homozygous normals of the same strain to 
compare with the heterozygotes and for comparison had to rely on those 
of other strains. Melanics appear to be as hardy as heterozygotes under 
the good conditions in which they were bred, and in the broods of pure 
melanics the sexes are approximately equal. In the broods in which 
one })arent was heterozygous and the other a homozygous melanic, there 
is a deficiency of males of both forms due to one brood consisting of 9 
males and 21 females, but the brood is small and the discrepancy is not 
significant. 

Infertility was very great as the following facts show. Mr Hawkins 
took pairings from moths of the F4 generation. (1) Heterozygote X 
heterozygote — 2 or 3 fertile eggs, the rest infertile. (2) Heterozygote X 
melanic — pairing seen, 40 egg,s laid, none hatched. Later he received 
(12.vii.l947) 31 eggs, melanic X melanic, from Mr Wakely, of which 5 
were fertile but none hatched, and 41 eggs typical X typical, of which 
6 were fertile and 1 hatched, and the resulting larva pupated. Our re- 
sults were very similar. A jDairing between two melanics of the F2 gener- 
ation gave 7 fertile eggs, all of which hatched, but no moths emerged 
from the pupae. One of us (E.A.C.) took 5 pairings between moths of 
the F3 generation. The pairings were all seen and lasted the normal 
time: (1) Melanic x melanic (3.vii.l947), all the eggs infertile. (2) 
Melanic x melanic (3.vii.l947), most of the eggs infertile, 7 larvae 
hatched. (3) Melanic x melanic (5.vii.l947), 110 eggs fertile, from which 
105 larvae hatched. (4) Melanic X melanic (4.vii.l947), all the eggs in- 
fertile or became pink and then collapsed. (5) Melanic from one brood 
X heterozygous from another (ll.vii.l947), 12 eggs fertile, 8 larvae 
hatched. Of the third brood two pairings were taken and the moths 
were seen paired. (6) Melanic X melanic (2o.viii.l947), all the eggs 
infertile. (7) Melanic X melanic (27.viii.1947), no fertile eggs. In March 
1948 Mr Moody kindly sent us 15 pupae from Devon. A melanic 
(S and a Devon 9 , and a heterozygous (S and a Devon 9 emerged the 
same day, and both males were large and vigorous. Only one pairing 
was seen, but both females laid large numbers of eggs, all of which were 
infertile. A Devon (S and a feeble melanic 9 also hatched together, but 
no pairing was seen and no eggs were laid. 

The larvae from the 105 eggs separated into two portions ; the first 
grew very quickly and produced a third brood, small in size but as 



SELENIA TETRALUNARIA, HUFN., AB. NIGRESCENS, AB. NOV. 11 

melanio as the second brood; tlie second portion grew much more slowly 
and the larvae were very large, but most of them died in their cocoons 
or else failed to cast their larval skins completely, and from the eight 
normal pupae only three moths emerged in the spring of 1948. 

Hybrids. 
One of us (H.B.D.K.) obtained a pairing between a melanic male 
tetnilunaria, F3 generation, and a female hilunaria. More than 100 
fertile eggs were laid and were equally divided. All the eggs turned 
black, but none hatched. The other partner (E.A.C.) paired a hetero- 
zygous male tetralujuirla, F4 generation, with a female hilunaria, and 
obtained 110 fertile eggs, all of which turned black. Only seven larvae 
hatched, from which seven pupae were obtained. One larva fed rapidly 
and produced a male imago, 25.viii.1947. The others fed slowly and six 
moths, all males, emerged between 19. i. and 3.ii.l948, one crippled. 
With the exception of the male of the third brood all were larger and 
darker than any other hj^brids in the national collection, and one was 
decidedly darker than the others. We had hoped for a large brood in 
order to see whether the melanism of the tetralwiuivia affected the hybrid, 
for with a parent heterozygous for melanism, half the hybrids would 
receive the gene for melanism and half the gene for normal coloration. 
Half the hybrids might therefore have been darker than the rest. We 
have little doubt that one of the hybrids did show the influence of the 
gene for melanism, and possibly all those bred in the spring did so, but 
the third brood hybrid appears to be no darker than the usual hybrid 
parvilunaria. Several attempts were made to pair male hilunaria with 
female heterozygous tetralimaria, but no pairings were seen. Two 
females laid large numbers of eggs, a few of which turned pink and then 
rust colour, but all collapsed. 

There is anotlier melanic form, ab. uotahUis, Thierry Mieg. {Ann. 
Sue. ent. Beige, 1910, 54, 386), the type of which is figured by Milliere 
(Icon, 1870, PI. 116, fig. 3) from a British specimen without data in the 
Doubleday collection. Barrett gives a rather ])Oor figure of a similar 
si)ecimen, a male (PI. 295, fig. Ih), and says that several were bred from 
S.W. Yorkshire. He also says that F. Merrifiekl bred melanic speci- 
mens from Yorkshire ova, but I can find no reference to them in any 
of Merrifield's papers on this species. In the Rothschild collection there 
is a rather worn male very like Barrett's figure labelled *' Rev. P. 
Andrews coll.. 1872." It has another and much newer label in a dif- 
ferent handwriting: "Bred F. Alerriefield (sir) from strain from T. 
Bulty, Sheffield." The insect, however, is much too old to have been 
bred by Merrifield. 

Lycklama a Nijeholt (Tijdsclir. Euf., 1932, 75, Suppl. 31, PI. figs. 
3, 4) has i^ublished an account of the genetics of a melanic form prov- 
ing that it is a recessive with a hetero-zygote no darker than normal 
tetrulunaria. Mr B. J. Lem])ke kindly sent me four of Lycklama's 
specimens, which are undoubtedly ab. notahilis, Th. Mieg., though not 
so brigiht as Milliere's figure. One agrees very well with Barrett's 
figure and with the male in the Rothschild collection. Ab. notahilis is 
quite different from the melanic form described and named in this 
paper. 



12 entomologist's record, vol, lxi. 15/2/1949 

Ab. nigrescens, ab. nov. 

Male (first brood). Upper side — All the normal markings are pre- 
sent, the darker parts of the fore and hindwing are deep smoky purplish- 
brown; the areas along the costa, which are usually pinkish-white, re- 
main unaltered, but the other pinkish-white areas are more or less suf- 
fused Avith leaden grey. Under side^ — Much darker than usual, basal 
part of the hindwing dark orange more or less suffused with black scales, 
median band and terminal area dark orange heavily suffused with 
black. Thorax and abdomen dark brown without the usual orange on 
the ventral surface. Female (first brood). All the darker parts of the 
wings are smoky blacldsh-brow^i j the whitish areas on the costa and 
external to the postmedian line are very distinct and without the usual 
pinkish tint. The female has a much more black and white appearance 
than the male. Under side^ — The dark parts are blacker than those of 
the male; the basal part of the hindw^ing is orange heavily suffused with 
black scales, and the black suffusion completely hides the orange in the 
median band and terminal areas. Thorax and abdomen blackish-brown. 

Male (second and third broods). Upper side — Costal areas wlhitish 
often suft'used with grey; the darker parts ])lackish-brown, the paleT 
parts visible but mo]-e or less suffused with grey. Female similar, but 
blacker. In some third brood specimens the whole of the paler parts 
of both wings, including the costal areas, are completely suffused with 
leaden grey. Under side — The darker parts are similar in colour to 
those of the upper side; the basal area is orange, the median band and 
terminal areas are orange-brown; the paler parts are only slightly suf- 
fused with grey. 

Type— (5 (first brood), iv.l947. Coulsdon, Surrey. Bred by H. B. D. 
Kettlew^ell. 

Allotype— 9 (first brood), 28.iv.1947. Same data, 

ParatypC' — 9 (first brood), iv,1947. Same data. 

Paratypes (second brood)— c?, 17.vii.l947; S, 19.vii.l947; 9, 
14.vii.l947; 9, 17.vii.l947. Coulsdon, Surrey. Bred by E. A. Cockayne. 

Paratypes (third brood)— (5, 20.viii.l947 ; J, 25.viii.1947 ; 9, 
21.viii.l947; 9- 25.viii.1947. Coulsdon, Surrey. Bred by E, A. 
Cockayne. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

Selenia tetralmmria, ab. nigrescens. Type — (^ . First brood. 
Selenia tetralunaria, ab. nigrescens. Allotype— 9. First brood. 
Selenia tetralunaria, ab. nigrescens. Paratype^ (3* . Second brood. 
Selenia tetralunaria, ab. nigrescens. Paratype — 9. Second brood. 
Selenia tetralunaria, ab. nigrescens. Paratype- (5* . Third brood. 
Selenia tetralunaria, ab. nigrescens. Paratype— 9. Third brood. 
Selenia tetralunaria, ab. nigrescens. Paratype— 9, under side. Third 

brood. 
Selenia tetralunaria, ab. nigrescens. Paratype— 9. Third brood. 
Selenia tetralunaria. (^ , normal. First brood. 
Selenia tetralunaria. o , normal. First brood. 
Fig. 11. Hybrid parvilunaria [S. Mlunaria (^ x S. tetralunaria 9 heterozygote). 

(^ . Autumn brood. 
Fig. 12. Hybrid parvilunaria {S. Mlunaria (^ x S. tetralunaria 9 heterozygote). 

(^ . Spring brood. 
In the two normal specimens the darker areas appear much darker than they 

should appear. 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 



" A PEOPLE NOT STRONG." 13 

A PEOPLE NOT STRONG." 

By HOEACE DONISTHORPE, 



Eeoently my friend Dr Malcolm Burr, the eminent Ortbo])terist. sent 
me an article on ants, with the above heading, cnt out of the June num- 
ber of Blackwoocrs Magcizine ^ pp. 417-25. 

It is on ants in general; the Giant Pangolin, an ant eater; and 
other interesting matters. The article is written in a very pleasing 
and knowledgable style, and were it not published under the name 
" John Welman," I should have credited the authorship to Malcolm 
Burr. As I am ignorant enough not to know the name of John Welman, 
it may possibly be a " nom de plume " ! 

The article in question shows a considerable knowledge of ants, and 
is, in the main, quite correct as to their habits. There are, however, 
two grave mistakes which, as the French say, " strikes one to the 
eye." to a myrmecologist. 

The one is, when discussing some red ants it is stated — but perhaps 
it were better to quote the ])assage intact — " On the edge of a bunch 
of leaves, sewn neatly together with silk and level with my nose, a row 
of bright-red furies pranced on their hindlegs, waved their forelegs, 
and literally quivered Avith rage. Their united wrath made the whole 
nest tremble . . . One has only to touch the twig with one's finger to 
be most certainly stung. They are their own watch-dogs, these clever 
ones, who use their babies as shuttles to stitch together their homes." 

The ants thus described are, of course, species of Oecophylla, and 
this is just how they behave when disturbed; with the exception that 
they do not sting ! The tribe Oecophyllai belongs to the subfamily 
Formicinae, and none of them possess stings! 

The second is when discussing some " ants' nest beetles " : — " The 
ants would fawn on them till they brought forth their young, who then 
would slay the ants' own children. Those insinuating beetles carried 
with them no sacred immanence; their bright behinds exuded only 
sweetness, and were being licked and kissed." Ants, it is true, do ob- 
tain a sweet secretion, which is excreted from the anus, and not the 
cornicules as is sometimes stated, of Aphides, or Plant Lice ; but 
not from beetles. The beetles, referred to in this paper, belong to the 
genera Atemeles and Lomechusa, and fhey possess yellow trichomes 
which are situated on the sides of the abdomen, which cover glands 
that excrete a sweet secretion, and it is these trichomes which the ants 
lick, and not the posterior part of the body. — Entomological Depart- 
ment, British Museum (Nat. Hist.), Cromwell Road, S.W.7. 



BUTTERFLY COLLECTING IN WOOD WALTON, HUNTS., AREA, 
AND THE CHILTERN HILLS, DURING 1948. 

Bv H. A. Leeds. 



It seems best to recall that 1948 was preceded, in 1947, by a year 
which in its winter months had an extremely long period of snow and 
frost culminating with disastrous floods, afterwards producing an exces- 



14 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/2/1949 

sively hot summer siicceedecl by drought and water shortage until its 
termination. 

In 1948, January alleviated the drought with a rainfall of more than 
5 inches which included 2 inches of snow on 20th, and about the same 
depth fell on 22nd February. 

Frosts were infrequent and 6 consecutive days, 17th-22nd February, 
was the longest period ; two white frosts on 12th and 16th April somewhat 
affected plums, but they and apples yielded fair crops. 

The corn harvest commenced at the end of July, but strong winds 
with rain and hail entangled the crops sown early in the year, 
causing deterioration and loss of grain. Reaping machines in such 
cases caused greater loss than cutting with scythes and in a field near 
Abbots Ripton no less than 14 men were so employed. Even in my 
young days, when scythes were in full use, nine men in one large field 
was the maximum. In Hunts., and many counties, carting was not com- 
pleted until early October owing to the frequent showers. Flooding 
was confined to the east-side border counties of England and Scotland 
where houses were inundated, road and railway bridges demolished, and 
several thousand acres of nearly ripe corn destroyed. Despite the 
losses the over-all quantity of grain suitable for milling was estimated 
to reach an average production, which is more than can be generally 
stated for the butterflies this summer. 

March recording of 180 hours' sun was nearly 60 above average, and 
rainfall of 0.68 was about an inch below average. The hottest March 
day for a centiiry was on 9th, when, with a shade reading of well 
over 70° Fahr., T toured Monk's Wood in bright sunshine, but the only 
hibernated butterfly seen was an io. Further hot weather induced 
rJiamni and urticae to appear on 12th, and on 25th 11 urticae, 6 io, 
and 2 males and a female rhamni were noted. Although reported in 
the neighbourhood, I saw no c-alhum until the first brood began to 
emerge on 25th June. 

April possibly had less rain and more sun than average. May had 
several warm and sunny days until 23rd, when rain all day and into 
the next morning began the long period of unsettled and cool weather 
which with few sunny days extended through the summer. In autumn 
there wag much improvement and many sunny days, but it lacked the 
1947 plentiful assortment of butterflies, and their season closed with 
some sharp frosts and much fog (22nd-30tih November). 

27th March — Blackthorns in full bloom, whitethorns full of leafage, 
33 daj^s earlier than in 1947. Several plum and pear trees well flowered. 

25th April — Blossoms of may in patches, then widespread on 29th, 
when Horse-chestnut trees w^ere fully flowered, 17 davs earlier than in 
1947. 

11th May — A cardui late in the evening Avas taking short flights be- 
tween two trees and the ground ; eventually it rested on a trunk beneath 
a branch and doubtless slept there. Some years ago T saAv 7 of them 
arrive and choose a similar position, near each other, on a large oak 
in a hedgerow during dusk in the spring, at AVood Walton. On 12th 
June two others were flying in the afternoon. 



BUTTERFLY COLLECTING IN WOOD WALTON, HUNTS,, AREA. 15 

8tli June — One atalanta, and another on 14tli. 

The M. stellafarinn moth was not seen during the year. 

Appended are first appearance dates in Hunts, with scarcity, etc., 
remarks. 

11th April — C. argiohis, common in first brood, but only one later; 
F. rapne, not more than 6 on any day in spring, and 12 later; Ileodes 
(Lycaena) phlaeas, scanty, see later remarks in text. 15th — P. hrassicae, 
scarce, not exceeding: 4 on any day (on 22nd November several various 
sized larvae were feeding on some cabbages); P. napi. rather scanty. 
25th — E. cardchinines, fairly common. 

9th May — The only C. ruhi seen. 15th — A. euphr os i/ n e, iilentihil; 
P. malvae^ very scarce. 17th — E. tages and A. agestis, both scarce. 18th 
— C. ptimph'dus (at no time numerous but emerged almost continuously 
until late October) ; P . icariis, at a very low ebb and 12 in first brood and 
19 in second were most seen in a day. 21st^ — P. megera, both broods 
limited. 

12th June — 0. venata, uncommon; *S^. pruni, bad weather restricted 
observation and not more than 12 seen at any visit to Monk's Wood. 
25th — M. jurtina, plentiful, none bleached; P. c-alhnm, several wide- 
spread in both broods. 

2nd July— M. galafJiea, grass-verges cut for hay before emergence, 
several seen fresh out but soon went away. 5th- — A. urticae, see later 
remarks in text. 6th — A. paphia, fairly common; L. camiUa, only 2 
males and 1 female seen during several walks in Monk's AVood, this 
was disappointing after their 1947 increase; A. hyp^rantus, scores 
emerged that day when the sun shone after a misty morning. 20th — • 
M. tithonus and T. sylvestris, both less than usual; P. aegeria, two, not 
seen earlier (a few later up to 20th October). 23rd^ — T. quercus, one 
flying high around a roadside oak and no more seen during special 
searches of oak, aspen and ash. 28th — T. Uneola, scarce, 29th — ^A 
female T. hetidae, no other seen. 31st — N. io, 2 then and not more 
than 2 in one day afterwards; F, atalanta, 2 then (maximum 7 on 9tli 
September), 

5th August — G. rhanini, uncommon (2 males and a female on 24tli 
October finished their latest appearance). 

6th Se])tember — V . cardui, 1 perfect and another worn and torn near 
each other, afterAvards only 1 more, a perfect female taken on 30th. 
9th — The only C. croceus seen, a large fresh female caught in a field of 
potatoes. 

A. cydippe is usually fairly common in Monk's Wood, but this year 
I looked for it in vain there, but heard that it and A. aglaia were seen 
near the Eeserve in Wood Walton Fen. 

The Ohiltern Hills' fortnight commenced on 21st August and rain 
began just after my mid-day arrival at Askett, Bucks,, and continued 
until night. Hot sun the next day dried the grass and after an early 
tea r arrived at Ko]i Hill and found Messrs Gr. B. and G. H. B. Oliver 
there, but on the j^oint of leaving. G. B. stated, " You will find plenty 
of crippled coridoii,'^ and I did, especially so in obsoleta forms, and a 
male ab. caeca was too crumpled to keep. Emergence was common 



16 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/2/1949 

until dusk and as tliey much outnumbered those worn, it seemed to be 
the largest hatch of the season, nothing like it occurred later. A few 
aberrations were kept that evening. 

A sunless and violent windy day on 23rd and pouring rain on 24th 
spoiled the previous coridon, etc. Then 8 fine warm and mainly sunny 
days in succession were fully used for touring and I found coridon very 
scarce in Oxon, except at Chinnor ; the C'ement Works there have evi- 
dently used the Icknield Way for transport and a bare chalky surface 
extends for quite half-a-mile westwards, where it is tunnelled beneath 
and excavation of chalk from the hillside has commenced. Beyond this 
the Icknield Way was beautifully flowery, but butterflies almost absent 
along it and when I reached Kingston Crossing railway halt only 4 
icarus, and 3 aegeria near a bunch of trees, had been seen. 

In Bucks., coridon was fairly plentiful and I am doubtful if many 
had appeared earlier in Oxon. In both counties a few ordinary hell- 
nrgus were seen in nearly every suitable place, but the quantity of icarus 
was meagre, and evidently they have not yet populated favourably the 
large field near Pulpit Hill where the larval food-plant, Lotus cornicu- 
latus^ abounds, and plenty of high grass stems can provide resting 
accommodation. I found not more than a dozen settled there one even- 
ing. 

Other butterflies were rare, even the Pierids, and I only noticed, in 
total, 6 io, 5 urticae, 1 atnlanta, 1 c-album, and 7 phloeas. The few 
jurtina, megera^ agestis, etc., were not counted. Collecting there 
finished at dusk on 1st September, as the 2nd and 3rd were wet, and 
I returned home on 4th. 

Possiblj^ urticae increased later in the Chilterns, as, after being 
equally rare in Hunts., 25 were seen at Wood Walton on 13th Septem- 
ber; 32, 19th; 41, 25th; 44, 26th; 64, 30th. In October, 59, 2nd; 56, 
8th ; 67, 9th ; then flowers and counts of urticae diminished, but sunny 
days enticed odd ones to take a flight in November, Aberrations were 
absent until 2nd October, when I took ab. connexa, Btlr. ; eight inter- 
termediate to it were feeding on the same row of dahlia flowers and 
consisted of ab. polaris, Stand., and ab, nnhilata, Raynor; a selected 
one of each form was taken. On 9th October another connexa, un- 
caught, appeared in this evidently local brood. 

A scratched and slightly torn hibernated urticae frequented the 
garden prior to the first brood appearing on 5th July, and was so lively 
on 30th that it sported with a c-alhum at intervals; 10 other fresh 
urticae^ near by, were not interested in gambolling. This showed that a 
1947 urticae saw some of the 1948 next generation, but lack of proof of 
offspring or relationship. It was not seen after 30th July, and I won- 
dered whether it had found a mate? 

H. phlaeas. The abundance of this species during the latter part of 
the 1947 hot season animated early and continued observation in 1948. 
The winter had been mild and although early spring appeared to be 
favourable only 2 were seen in April and none in May. 

On 11th April the first one had just settled in a sheltered and sunny 
wide corner of a grass-verge when a very large Humble-bee flew near it ; 
phlaeas darted at the bee, which was so much disconcerted as to turn 
away and, mounting higher, it made clumsy, and fallacious, turns as 



BUTTERFLY COLLECTING IN WOOD WALTON, HUNTS., ABEA, 17 

phlaeas continued its rapid darting annoyances from either side until a 
tree, quite 20 yards away, liid them from sight. Many times T have seen 
2 phlaeas indulging in similarity of rapid zigzag movements in flight, but 
this prolonged recreation with a huge bee was novel to me. 

Solitary pJdaeas were seen on 11th and 18th April, 12th and 25th 
June, and 26th July; then 7 in the Chilterns, 22nd-31st August; and 
afterwards in Hunts, September 6th, 5; 9th, 8; 14th, 2; October 9th, 1. 
Total, 28, all ordinary. The environment of their 1947 best place re- 
mained unchanged in 1948, but only once could I find any there, viz., 
7 on 9th September; on the 14th they were gone and none appeared 
there later although watched. 

In Hunts, aberrations were so scarce that apart from the 3 urticae 
previouslj^ mentioned I can only add : F. c-ctlhum, male upper, post- 
transversa. A. hyperantus, female under, postcaeca, white spots un- 
ringed on hindwings. 

In the Chilterns: — P. megera^ female upper, with large pale-straw 
patches bleaching ])art of the fulvous colour and 3 of the 4 submedian 
spots, alike on both hindwings = post-partimtransformis. 

P. icarus. Female unders, arcuata ; antitransiens ; antidiscoelon- 
gata. 

P. (L.) coriflori. Male uppers, caeruleo-cincta ; ultracaeruleo ; margin- 
ata ; major. 

Male unders, I-nigrum ; T-nigrum-arcuata, and a sinis only of that 
form is devoid of the left hindwing ; costajuncta, which is rare individu- 
ally; the following 5 are somewhat deformed, 3 obsoleta ; antisinis-caeca ; 
postdex-caeca. Female unders, antialbescens-postfulvescens ; pulla ; 
flavescens; apicoextensa ; arcuata; 2 basijuncta. Oonfluentiae forms only 
jnelded arcuata-semibasijuncta ; 3 obsoleta, slightly deformed; caeca. 

Tlie female uppersides were exceptionally ]:)oor in quality; a fat 
semifiyngrnpha was picked up on Pulpit Hill and released^ no others had 
more than a few blue scales. 

As a diversion from collecting, Mr G. B. Oliver kindly fetched me 
from Askett in his car and I sjient an afternoon and evening at Hazle- 
mere, Bucks., looking through his surprisingly rich collection of aber- 
rations of many British sjiecies of 1)utterflies which he had caught, bred 
and boTight. Among them I recognized the cor'idoii ab. uUroradiafa, 
male underside, which is dei)icted, plate 17, fig. 22, in the " Monograph 
of coridon " ; he gave £22 for it at an auction sale. His son, G. H. B. 
Oliver, shares the residence, and has a separate collection, but there 
was only time to scan part of it before my departure and mainly to notice 
some very good aberrations of coridon and beUargus caught by himself 
in previous years. 

When returning along tlie High AVycombe and Princes Risborough 
road, it was deplorable to see tliat cultivation liad com]iletely destroyed 
collecting on the lengthy stretch of chalky hillsides from Bradenham to 
Saunderton ; formerly they Avere grassy and flowery undulating slojies 
well inhabited by coHdon, icarvs, ageafis and several other butterflies. 
Cattle and horses used to graze thereon. 



18 entomologist's record, vol, lxi. 15/2/1949 

COLLECTING NOTES. 



The Pigment of Orthoptera. — Some interesting work, of course oi" 
a very technical nature, on the pigment of the coloured wings of the 
Oedipodidae has been done by Salahattin Okay, of the Institute of 
Zoology of the University of Ankara. 

In one i)a])er, in French, entitled " Contribution a Tetude du pig- 
ment vert cliez les Insectes " {Rev. Fac. Sci., Univ. Istanhid, Series B., 
xii, Fasc. 2, 1946), he discusses the green colour, so common in the Or- 
thoptera, finding it a blend of a blue and a yellow comjjonent. He then 
finds the same thing in certain Rhynchota and also in CJirysopn perln . 

In a second paper, also in French, he discusses the blue, red and 
yellow pigment in the wings of the Oedipodidae. In each case it is a 
chromoproteide, " Sur les pigments des ailes ]iosterieures bleues, rouges 
et jaunes des Acridiens " (Ihid., Fasc. 1). 

In a third paper, " Sur le pigment brun des Orthopteres " (Comm. 
Fac. Sci. Univ. Ankara. I. Separatum. 1948) he regards the brown 
pigment in M. religiosa, A. tiirrifa and C. italicvs as an ommatine. — 
M. B. 

EvETRiA PURDEYI, DuRRANT, 1911. — ^On 23.viii.48 I found, inside a 
window at Angeston Grange, Uley, Glos., a specimen of Evetria pvr- 
deyi, which I take, but not commonly, in my garden at Rodborough 
Fort, where it is attached to Pinus austriaca. Search at XTley showed 
its origin in a large Pinus radiata< (Monterey Pine) from which I was 
able to beat examples in some numbers on subsequent days. As was to 
be expected, however, most were taken w^orn, as it was past the normal 
date of emergence, which is mid-August or a little earlier. 

Evetria purdeyi is probably widely distributed in S. England but 
is overlooked — or at least seldom recorded. It was described in 1911 
from Folkestone and has since been found in the Isle of Wight, to which 
I have previously added Gloucestershire. It is however, an inconspicu- 
ous species which appears late in the season. It is attached to Pinus 
austriaca and P. sylvestris, to which is now added P. radiata. This 
latest foodplant hints that it may have been introduced from N. America. 
— T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, 19.i.49. 

MiTTBTLUNGEN DER ScHWEIZ. ENTOM, GeSELLSCHAFT, Vol, Xxi, Part 4 

(27. xii. 1948) contains several articles of interest to us: — Ecological 
Studies in epigeous* C'ollembola (pp. 485-515) by H. Gisin, the Sub- 

*Epigeous (epi, upon; ge, the earth), living close to the ground. 

family Cheiropachinae of the Pteromalidae (pp. 516-530, figs.) by C. 
Ferriere, Hesperia (Pyrgus) alvens, Hb., in Ticino (pp. 531-546, figs.) 
by G. Kaufmann, the Behaviour of the larvae of Caconemvs indagatar 
in nests of Osmia nifa (pp. 547-554, figs.) by C. JuUiard, a Mymarid, 
Petiolaria anonxda, found in the Bernese Oberland and also known 
from the New Forest, Denmark and Breslau (pp. 555-556) by C. Fer- 
riere, and a note on the parasites found at Zinal in pupae of Vanessa 
urticae (pp. 557-565, figs.) by C. Julliard.— T. B. F. 



COLLECTING NOTES. 



19 



The Occuerence op Melitaba cinxia in Hants and Dorset. — I read 
with interest Mr C B. Antram's collecting experiences during 1948 and 
particularly his reference to the occurrence of M. cinxia in the Sway 
area, although, as he writes, " the larvae had been put down recently " 
— how recent he does not mention — therefore a few additional notes on 
M. cinxia in this district may be of some interest. Since coming to live 
here in Bournemouth during 1938 T have had the pleasure of meeting 
this insect from time to time and mostly in single S]iecimens almost 
every year, and anywhere in the area between the New Forest and 
Studland, Dorset, where at the latter place T saw^ a few on the wing 
near the coast in 1939. It has been seen at Holmsley, New^ Milton, 
Highcliff-on-Sea and at Christchurch. Presumably M. cinxia had flown 
over from its locality in the Isle of Wight only a few miles aw^ay, but 
the chance of a small colony existing somewhere in this area did not 
seem a remote possibility, so it is pleasing to record that I found a 
small colony of about forty insects near Bournemouth during May last 
year (1948). They were all in fine condition, having, I believe, bred on 
the spot and near where I had seen specimens flying in previous years ; 
they were, however, very much restricted to an area of a few yards, 
and its continued existence will be very precarious indeed. It will 
probabh^ survive for a time and die out — the usual fate of M. cinxia 
outside its natural habitat. I refrained from taking any specimens in 
the hope that it may continue to thrive near here. As far as I am aware 
this new locality is of entirely natural occurrence and has not been 
" introduced," but in this connection it must be stated that the Sway 
colony is onlj^ some twelve miles away, quite an easj" flight for M. cinxia. 
— H. J. Turner, 33 Pine Avenue, West Southbourne, Bournemouth, 
16.1.49. 

Lepidopterous Larvae in Galls : An Enqitiry. — A common tree on 
the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus is Pisfacia ferehinthus. In the late 
summer almost every branch carries one or more long pods, like great 
beans. When cut open, they are found to be hollow and packed with a 
yellow waxy Aphid. 

Looking through Stainton's work on the Tincina of Asia Minor, p. 
73, I find an allusion to the " unsuccessful attempts of Dr Staudinger to 
discover the larva of Stathmopofhi guerinii, which inhabits the long, 
pod-like galls formed on the twigs of Pistacia terehinthus by Aphides.'' 

Much water has flowed down the Bosphorus since Stainton wrote 
those lines and no doubt precise information is now available, but not 
to us who are out of reach of the big reference libraries. 

If some reader of The Enfonwlogisfs Be cord would be kind enough 
to give me some details, with names, I should be very much obliged, as 
it is a matter of considerable local interest. 

Curiously enough, this species of Pistacia is rare on the European 
side, where I have come across only three small trees. It is replaced hy 
the closely I'elated P. iniitica which, being far less im])i'egnated witli 
turpentine, does not seem to lie attractive to tlie A]ihides. — Malcol-M 
Burr, P.K. 2198, Istanbul. 

Pairing of Scopeuma Species (Diptera : Cordiluridae). — In October 
1948 I took two common Scatoi)hagid flies in cop. in my garden, feeling 



20 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/2/1949 

sure at the time of getting a female that conld be correctly named from 
the male. The pair were later sent to Mr H. Audcent for identification 
and returned by him as Scopeuma hitorium^ F. (c?), and Sc. inquinatum , 
Mg. (V). The question arises as to wliich is to regarded as species and 
which as variety; or are 1)oth varieties and of wliat species? It would, 
I suggest, be of considerable value both to collectors and to taxonomists 
if collectors of Diptera would publish records of pairings of what are 
currently regarded as distinct species. — James Edwards, 81 Hassam 
Parade, Newcastle, Staffs. . 



CURRENT NOTES. 



An article by d' Almeida on the subsection of the Pierid genus Appias, 
Glutophrissa, is for its thoroughness as near perfection as possible. 
From the figure of the main species driisiUa of Cramer to the date of 
the paper, every reference has been given. The same fullness of detail 
is given to the half-dozen forms which have been named by different 
authors. TwO' plates give 12 figures of driisiUci forms, the pupa and 
the larva. On another plate are figures of venation, antenna, the 3 
legs, two views of the penis and the genitalia. In fact the whole article 
is a model of completeness and the author is tO' be congratulated. 

It seems ungracious to criticise such a fine piece of work, but a 
quotation in the article reminds us of an error, A. drus'illa drusUia, 
Cramer. Cramer was never responsible for this. Of course, it should 
be drusilla, Cr., which included all possible irregularities (aberrations, 
etc.) until someone chose a form as the typical. To me the duplication 
put down to Cramer is a most obvious error. 

BoLETiM BiOLOGico is a periodical of Brazil dealing with the Zoology 
and adopted by the Entomological Society of Brazil as their official 
organ. It is published at Sao Paulo and contains general natural his- 
tories and is concerned with all orders; the economic side of zoological 
study necessarily kept in view. The series was commenced in 1933, 
each volume is well supj)lied with illustrations and diagrams ; the paper 
and printing is of very good class. The completed volume of 1939 con- 
sists of nearly 600 pp. of quarto size and is furnished with a very full 
and informative Index. The well-known entomologist, Romuald Fer- 
reira d' Almeida seems to be the guiding star, at least of the entomo- 
logical portion, if not of the Journal itself. 

The Ankara University Agricultural Faculty has published a paper 
on corn jiests in Central Anatolia, by Professor Dr Bekir Alkan. This 
is not a purely entomological work, as it includes Nematodes, Gastro- 
jiods, birds and mammals, but by far the greater part of the work deals 
with insects. A general descrii:)tion of each species is given, with a 
brief account of its occurrence, the damage it does and how it is to be 
dealt with. Entomological literature in Turkish is still in its infancy 
and such works as this are very useful to the ]:)ractical man in a country 
where agriculture is the most imjiortant industry, but zoological know- 
ledge verv restricted. — M. B. 



CURRENT NOTES.. 21 

In looking through many magazines from many countries it makes 
one sorry to see so much space filled with several illustrations of new 
species very often with no indication of what the insect is like. This 
" slipshod " work is of i^ractically no use except to one who is a good 
worker with his microscope, and where there is no other definite descrip- 
tion the species should be labelled Genitalia Species. The Nature lover 
can then bye-pass it without further struggle and waste of valuable 
time.— Hy. J. T. 

Captain Kenneth J. Hayward, a great friend of my own and a cor- 
respondent of the E.Ii. for at least three decades, after many years' 
sojourn in the Argentine, h,as been commissioned by the Governors of 
the great educational establishment at Tucuma, Instituto Miguel Lilla, 
to obtain material for a projected large work on the zoological and 
botanical resources of the Republic. 

The huge mass of material already collected in the country is now 
to be compared, collated and identified where necessary with all avail- 
able material in the vast accumulations at S. Kensington. 

From his life's experiences, Captain Hay ward is well qualified. His 
early life was spent in the loveh' county of Somerset, which induced a 
love of Natural Beauty. Later he passed on to Aswan on the Nile, 
where he Avas engineer in charge of the huge dam, which gave him 
opportunities for the studj^ of the limited fauna. From there, broken 
in health, he spent a season at my suggestion in Cyprus. From thence 
he went to the Parane River area of N.E. Argentine with an American 
Company collecting medical supply from the quebrola tree, but still 
devoting more and more of his energy to the lepidopterous fauna of 
the Republic. 

We have recently received from Kenneth J. Hay ward, of Tucuman, 
Argentine, three further separates of his articles on Argentine and 
Neotropid Hesperiidae (Act. Zool. Instit. Man. Lilla). 

The " Soc. for British Entomology " has sent out two further articles 
by E. S. Brown, B.A., F.R.E.S. : (1) a series of Records of the Aquatic 
Coleoptera of North Wales, and (2) a Contribution towards an Ecolo- 
gical Survey of the Semi-Aquatic Hemiptera-Heteroptera (Water-bugs) 
of the British Isles, dealing chiefly with the Scottish Highlands and 
East and South England. His own personal records for many years 
past. 

There are many pairs of species so much alike that the diflterences 
cannot be clearly shown by a black and white plate or a description, for 
instance, Aputele psi and tridens, and Hydraecia Juccns and crinanensis. 
They may however be distinguished easily by the genitalia, and in such 
cases figures of the genitalia are more useful than figures of the imagines. 
Such species cannot be ignored because they are difficult to recognize, 
nor is it correct to call them " genitalic species." 



22 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/2/1949 

REVIEW. 



The Songs of Insects, by George W. Pierce, Ph.D., Harvard Uni- 
versity Pressj 1948. 

The subtitle explains the scope of this remarkable work, " With re- 
lated Material on the Production, Propagation, Detection and Measure- 
ment of Sonic and Supersonic Vibrations," and its authority cannot be 
questioned, for the author is not an entomologist, but Rumiord Pro- 
fessor of Physics, Emeritus, and Gordon McKay Professor Communica- 
tion Engineering, Emeritus, Harvard University. 

With the exception of twenty pages on the sounds produced by 
Cicadas, birds and bats (with an astonishing stroboscopic photograph 
of a bat in flight), the work is devoted to the stridulation of the Orthop- 
tera and, although so highly technical that the greater part can be ap- 
preciated only by a physicist, the balance is of unusual interest to ento- 
mologists in general and to orthopterists in particular. The upper 
limit of audibility for the human ear is a frequencj^ of about 18,000 
vibrations per second. While the frequency of Gryllus assimilis (closely 
resembling G. ccunpestris) in its common song is 4900 vibrations, in its 
love song it rises to 17,000 ; with GryUulus doiaesUcus the frequency is 
respectively 3800 and 24,000, but in the Tettigoniidae he records 56,000 
for Conocephalus spartina^ and in the exotic-looking Pterophyllus camel- 
lifolia, with its enormous elytra, as high as 63,000. Many of these in- 
sects, perhaps all, can vary their song with their emotion and it is not 
too fanciful to look upon it as an elementary form of language. 

An interesting taxonomic point is made in the case of Nemobius 
fasciatiis, of which there are three subspecies; these are morphologically 
barely distinguishable, but the songs are entirely distinct. Incident- 
ally, interesting particulars are given of the courtship of these insects, 
including a photograph of the act of mating of Oecanthus, with the 
female mounted upon the male, nibbling his alluring discharge from the 
metanotal gland. Incidentally, American entomologists have succumbed 
to the charm of the song of OecanthiMS, represented in the south of 
Europe by the cricket of the vines, 0. pelluceiis, whose lovely lilt I love 
to listen to on warm autumn evenings, to the accompaniment of the 
curious whistle of the Scops' owl and the illumination of the fireflies. 
Burrouighs describes the sound as a " purring," and Thoreau as a 
" slumberous breathing " and " inner dream," while Hawthorne de- 
scribes it as an " audible stillness " and declared " if moonlight could 
be heard, it would sound like that." 

The book is profusely illustrated by photographs of the insects, of 
their musical apparatus, of records of their songs and of the complex 
and delicate apparatus employed. Outstanding is the coloured frontis- 
piece, of a full-face view of the black-horned Oecanthus with his lovely 
elytra raised in the act of chirping, M. B. 



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Wanted— Distribution Records, Notes on Abundance and Information regarding 
Local Lists of the Dipterous Families Empididae and Conopidae.— Jiennefft 
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Wanted to Purchase— l.eech's British Pyrales. Coloured Plate Edition.— i4. W. 
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Wanted— Set or in papers, Scotch and Northern England forms of the British 
butterflies; specially Coen. typhon, Erebia epiphron, Lycaena artaxerxes, 
and Lycaena salmacis. Purchase or in exchange for Southern forms of many 
species.— C/iflfs. B. Antram, F.R.E.S., Clay Copse, Sway, Lymington, Hants. 

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2nd, April 6th, at 5.30 p.m. South London Entomological and Natural 
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All MS. and EDITORIAL MATTER should be sent and all PROOFS returned to 
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We must earnestly request our correspondents NOT TO SEND US COMMUNICA- 
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Communications received :— Thomas Greer, Fergus J. O'Rourke, O. Quercl, 
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VARiMBUWgJMJREAqED liEODES (LYCAENA) PHLAKXS, T. I). Fearnehovgh v5 

iiNTOMOI/XiKJAL x^dTES FROM EAST TYRONE, 1948, T. Greer 27 

COLLECTING NOTES: Oncodes pallipes, Latreille (Dipt.), S. Wahely, Lizards 

in Ants' Nests, Horace Dordsthorpe 28 



CURRENT NOTES 



29 



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VOL. LXI. 



PLATE 2. 




HEODES PHLAEAS. 



T. D.F. 



VAIUATION IN KKAKEi) HEOUES (LYt'AKNA) PHLAEAS. 



V^ n i ATIOM IM nC^ RED HEODES (LYCAENA) PHLAEAS. 

I^V T. D. KeAHNEHOI GH. 

Plate 11. 



veiw 



MUS. COMP. ZDOL 
UBRARY 



APR 20 l%9 



;o forImll«aUserie,' 
The liatel.yili^iilinfared 



Fci' several vears lai'^;e l)atc'lies of phliiea.s luue been reared vvitli a 



covering the variation range of this species, 
from ova obtained from wild tyjncal females 
of both Spring and SUlfimer flights, and in one instance (1947) from 
females of a third (Octobei) emergence. All the females nsed for egg 
laying were collected from a colony which has shown tendencies to varia- 
tion. The locality of this colony is artificial in that it consists of a 
deei> hollow of small extent formed by the mountainous dumj^s of a 
South Yorkshire coal mine. The Small Cop|»er has inhabited this re- 
stricted lootility in good strength foi' some years, and has been happy 
in having an abundant growth of sorrel, plenty of flowering weeds, and 
unusually good shelter from jjievailing winds. Unfortunately, the 
localtiy is likely to disappear in the near future and be i>uried under 
tlie steadil\' encroaching grey mountains of colliery waste. 

In the years before 1948 my learing efforts had normal success and 
j)roduced a number of varieties which might be regarded as fair re- 
Avard. I. estimate the proportion of major varieties obtained at rather 
less than one per cent, of the total specimens reared. The best stroke 
of luck was ill 1946, when seven specimens of ab. nidiata were jeared 
from one batch. During the ijast season (1948) a special effoi't was 
made at mass learing of gliiaeus, and it is the extraordinary crop of 
colour forms obtained which has induced me to i)iepare this account. 
My objective was to rear from KKX) ova. and 1 made preparations 
l)y planting clumps of sorrel in my garden in the Autumn of 1947. The 
foodplant was encouraged by suitable applications of phosphate^ ])otasli, 
and nitrogenous material. The flowering stems were cut away as they 
a])peared and thus when the pkiaeas larvae wei'e obtained a large supply 
of luscious food was at hand. 

The fiist emergence of phUicas in early June was missed owing to 
my absence from home at the critical time, but opportunity came tlur- 
ing August bank holiday week, when the secoiid brood ai)peared m 
strength. Fourteen typical females were captured and these deposited 
ova with great enthusiasm. Each day fresh leaves were supjdied a ml 
the old leaves with their egg deposits removed. AVlien 1000 ova had 
l)een counted the females, which were all still alive, were lii)erated. It 
was later found that a miscount had occurred and actually 900 ova 
were obtained, of which about 850 hatched. The feeding of this quan- 
tity of larvae proved to be a herculean task and occupied all leisure 
time for some weeks. Eventually over 400 pupae were ol)tained and 
most of these pi'oduced pei'fect insects during October. 

COLOITE VAKIATIOX. 

The remarkable series of colour fieaks protlucetl was tlie Jiiaiii fea- 
ture of this rearing effort. Twenty-three coloui- varieties Avere ob- 
tained, and, although no two aie alike, the specimens can l)e arranged 
in four grou])s as follows : — 



26 entomolocjist's recoku, vol. IjXI. 15/3/1949 



\ 



(i) Having both forewings of creamy sliade and liindwings j 

normal. Four specimens. i 

(ii) Having one forewing creamy or silvery and tlie other wings j 

normal. Five specimens, 
(iii) Having both forewmgs and hindwings shaded with cream [ 
or gold. Two specimens. ; 

(iv) Having both t'orewings variously marked with cream or 
gold. Twelve specimens. 

Two further varieties of a different ty])e having the copper colour 

replaced by a rather dull yellow were obtained. Only one specimen j 

from the whole batch had the dusky ground colour of ab. suffusa. Jt is | 

interesting to note that among the many hundreds of pJilaeas reared j 

in previous years from the same locality only two specimens with pale i 
streaks on the forewings have occurred, 

SPOTTING VARIATION. j 

In none of the specimens reared from this l)atch of 4UU pupae was ; 
there spotting variation of extreme type. Since the pupal stage had \ 
coincided with rather cool weather conditions, the specimens were gener- 
ally of the so-called Spring form, liaving small upperside spots on the 
forewings and clear copper ground colour. Several specimens had some j 
obsolescence of the lower spots on the forewings, the most extreme ! 
example having only four spots remaining of the outer series on each ' 
wing. 

SIZE VARIATION. I 

In large scale rearing of butterflies under good conditions the range 
in size variation is usually surprisingly narrow, but rearing under ad- 
verse conditions often produces undersized and dwarf specimens. in i 
the present rearing experiment the larvae responded to the specially ' 
grown food and the resulting butterflies were mostly of good size. Seve- | 
ral abnormally large specimens ocx?urred, and the largest of these 
measured 37 mm. Four other specimens exceeded 35 mm, in expanse, 
and quite a number would qualify for Tutt's arbitrary specification of 
32 mm. for ab. major. i 

Small specimens are less worthy of notice, but one tiny example oc- I 
curred which had a wing expanse of only 21 mm. Only about twenty I 
small coppers from the whole batch were smaller than 26 mm., and of 
these I preserved half-a-dozen which, in addition to their smallness, ! 

showed other variation features, i 

j 

PLATE^ 

It is difficult to illustrate without colour the variations in such a ' 
brilliant butterfly, but an attempt has been made to show, in the ac- j 
companying photograph, the aberrational features of a few specimens. ; 
With the exception of the insect of Fig. 3, all the specimens appeared \ 
in the rearing effort described above. A descriptive key to the plate is i 
given below. i 

Fig. 1. Forewmgs of a creamy-gold colour, hindwings normal. Emerged 1.10.4S. 
Fig. 2. Similar to (l) with obsolescence of lower forewing spots. Emerged 7.10.48. I 



Fiff. 


3. 


Fig-. 


k. 


Fiff. 


5. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES I-HOM RAST TYRONE, 1948. 27 

Having left forewins creamy-wliito, otlicr winprfi normal. Capturod 

Loxlf-y 21.8.48. Rpcorded Evt. necord, ^9W. 

Siiriilar to (3). Ernorged 7.10.48. 

Asymmetrically streaked I'orcwings, copper and creamy-gold. Emerged 

2.10.48. 

Fig. 0. Forewings pale-coppery with lighter patches. Partial obsolescence of 
spotting on vipperside. In this and in (2), underside spotting is showing 
through. Etnerged 2.10.48. 

Fig. 7. Large specimen, 37 mm., of normal colour hut rather paler towards the 
base. This is exaggerated in the photograph owing to the metallic 
sheen at this position. Emerged 21.10.48. 

Fig. 8. Tiny specimen of uniform yellowish-coppery tint. The spotting shows 
unusual arrangement. Emerged 27.10.48. 

Fig. 9. Small specimen of creamy-coppery tint, having the normally black 
borders of grey shade. Emerged 10.10.48. 

Fig. 10. Showing asymmetrical pale areas in the copper ground of the fore- 
wings. Hindwings of normal colouring but " tailed." Emerged 1.10.48. 

Fig. II. Broad copriery-red hand on Jiindwings. Forewings coppery at the base 
shading symmetrically t(> creamy tint at the outer margin. Emerged 
14.10.48. 

Fig. 12. Forewings ycliowisli. riglit wing rather paler than left. Emerged 11.10.48. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES FROM EAST TYRONE, 1948. 

]i\ T. Greeh, Cookstown. Co. Tyrone, 



The Siiring in this district was fairly early after a mild winter. 
Durinc^ the year mi<i;rant lepidoptera were coiispic-nous by their almost 
complete absence; only one Vanessa cardwi and two V. atalanta were 
observed, compared witli dozens of both species during the autumn of 
1947. Eraiinis marginaria came to light on 27th February, an early 
date for this locality; followed by Orthosia munda on 16th March; the 
first Aglais urticae was observed on 13th March, when some early sal- 
lows were commencing to bloom. These produced later: 0. gracilis, 0. 
incerta and hibernated Xyleiia vefvsta, var. brunnea. Pararge aegeria 
was on the wing in a sheltered spot on 14th A])ril, and four Pieris napi 
were observed in a small wood, the next day, followed by Euchlo'd carda- 
III i lies on the 17th, and Incurvaria rnuscaieUa and Oidufyrnatophorus 
III onodactylus- were beaten out. 

Thet following came to light on 26th April : Ectropis crepuscularia, 
TAiiiipropteTijx suffumafa, Nothopteryx carpi nata, Caenotephria deri- 
vata, Xarithorhoi' ferrugata^ Eupithecia tenuiata, Gymnoscelis pumtlata, 
and Hydriomena ruberata. 

Again on 4th May H. ruherata was the most common species at light, 
quite outnumbering E, badiata, which is usually the most numerous at 
light here in the spring. 

On 5th May Safurnia pavonia females emerged and attracted seve- 
ral males; Spilosoma liibricipeda, Qonodontis hidentata, Cycnia mendica, 
rave riisfica, and many II. rvberatu came to the lamp on 13tli May. 
liight on 19th May still produced II. ruberata as w^ell as the dark form 
of Ihisina um.bratica. On 20th May Dysda fagaria were seen flying 
over heather in the evening, and Orthoiitha scotica disturbed from gorse. 



2S kxtoafolootst's record, vol.. i.xi. 15/8/1949 

On a sinall sheltered l)Oo; iieai- the town of Poineroy on 21.st ^lay, 
a fine Avnrni day, ( '(illophrys nihi were flying in numbers about the birch 
trees and feedinp; on the flowers of Vcccinivin Mi/rfillvfi, the foodplant 
here of the hirva. 

At tlie end of the month rternsfnina palpina, and numbers of ('. 
■mendicd, i-ace nisfira, emerged from local pupae; in the latest edition 
of Sonth's Moths of the British Isles the distribution given (as far as 
Ireland is concerned) is stil] the same as in the first edition, 1907, viz.. 
six Irish counties, to which can be added Armagli, Londonderry, and 
Tyrone. 

Early in Jnne Laothof popiili, a ijink suffused form, Cerura vinvlti 
and Pheosia trennilo appeared in the breeding cage. On 14th June 
Procris sfatices was abundant in a damp meadow; several of these were 
of the rare blue-gi'eeii foi'in. 

(T(l IH' CDHtih \l('(l .) 



COLLECTING NOTES. 



Oncodes pallipes, Latreille (Dipt.). — There are three species of 
Cyrtidae recorded for Britain, and the one mentioned above apj^ears to 
be least frequently recorded. I am indebted to ^Ir V. Buck who re- 
cently gave me tMo si)ecimens which he took in Epping Forest on 12th 
July 1948. My thanks are also due to Mr Coe, of the British Museum, 
who verified the name. Occasionally this fly has been met with in num- 
bers, and it has been observed walking about on spider webs. As the 
larvae of all three species are internal parasites on spiders, no doubt 
the ova are laid either in spider webs or in close proximity thereto. 
Possibly the yellow rings round the abdomen cause the spiders to kee]^ 
away from them, thinking they are a species of was]i. A good descrin- 
tion of the species, illustrated with photographs, is to be found in an 
article written by Mr H. W. Andrews which appeared in the Frocefd- 
ings of the South London Ent. and Nat. Hist. Society for 1938-9, pp. 
77-79.— S. Wakely, 88 Stradella Boad, Heme Hill, London, S.E.24. 

Lizards in Ants' Nests. — On 80th January 1949 Mr McKenny 
Hughes found a specimen of the Common Lizard (Lacerta vivipao^a) in 
a nest of the little yellow ant {Acinithomyops (Chtonolasius) flavus, F.) 
in his orchard, near Cirencestei-. This is of considerable interest and 
deserves to be recorded. As mentioned, in the Guests of Britislt Ants 
(1927, p. 223) Amphishaenn ^ a blind snake-like lizard, lives in the nests 
of the leaf-cutting ants on the Amazons. Tn Guiana, a legless lizard, 
Coerilin annulosa, also lives in the nests of the fungus-growing ants. 
Several species of snakes live with ants in Australia, and T also give a 
number of instances of the " Slow worm " (Angvis fragilis, L.) being 
found in the nest of ants. The ants do not appear to harm the rep- 
tiles, and the latter, when hungry, no doubt would feed on the ants 
and their brood. — Horace Donisthorpe, 7.2.49. 



n^KRENT NOTES. 29 

CURRENT NOTES. 



AFeathop Moss Nature Reserve. — For some years Meathop Moss 
in South Westmorland has been run as a Nature Reserve by the Societr 
for the Promotion of Nature Reserves. Recently the Society has leased 
most of Catcrag Moss — an area of mossland continuous with Meathop 
Moss. Ecologically the two mosses are a unit. Entomologists and 
others wishing to visit the Reserve are required to obtain a permit. 
Applications for these should be sent to tlie undersigned, and should 
state the date of the proposed visit. 

At the present time the extensive and unique mosslands of North 
Lancashire and South Westmorland are suffering severely from the in- 
roads of the peat-cutters. These activities completely destroy the pecu- 
liar flora and fauna, of the areas concerned. It may not be long before 
the special characteristics of these areas folloAv the fenlands of East 
Anglia to extinction. Before this happens, if it unhappily should, a 
full record of the fauna and flora of the area is desirable. With this 
end in view I should be grateful to receive any records of insects that 
readers may have from this area. Especially desirable are records of 
orders other than Le])ido])tei a. — (J)r.) Neville L. Birkett (Hon. Sec, 
AFeathop Moss Management Committee), 3 Thorny Hills, Kendal, West- 
morland. 

Hampstead He\th Survey: Recorders Wanted. — The Natural His- 
torv and Local Records Section of the Hamiistead Scientific Society is 
carrying out a complete surve.v of the Heath with a view to a publica- 
tion on the subject. Anyone who has interest in any particular branch 
of Natural History and who is prepared to work with the Society, if 
only for an occasional day, is asked to get in tovich with the Hon. 
Organising Secretary, John Hillaby, 1 Tanza Road, N.W.3 (Hampstead 
4626). Check lists from the last publication are available; naturalists 
who are resident in or who visit the area regularly will be particularly 
welcome. 

In order to keep the magazine going financially at the pre-war price 
of 10s, it is necesasry for all subscribers to pay as promptly as pos- 
sible. Subscriptions are due in advance — in January of each year — 
but if T get them in the first three months of the year T am content. 

T am always ]irepared to send a Banker's Order Payment Form, pay- 
able — at the oj)tion of the subscriber — on 1st January, February, or 
March. 1 woidd urge moie subscribers to adopt this method of pay- 
ment, which not only saves me as Treasurer time in sending receiiits, 
l^ayment reminders, etc., but also relieves the subscriber of the trouble 
of recollecting to send bis subscri]ition personally. — H. W. Andrews, 
Hon. Treasurer. 

The Annual Report of the American Smithsonian Institution for 
1947 has been distributed. There are, as usual, a numbei- of reports on 
biological matters, but between '' The Senses of Bats " and " The 
Mimicry Centres of Civilization," there is only one entomolo.gical paper, 
" Mosquito Control from the .Arctic to the Tropics." 



:3(1 entomologist's becord, vol. lxi. 15/3/1949 

The Spcanish Eos, vol. xxiv, No. 2, June 1947. This magazine seems 
to have attained a strong position among many entomologists, provid- 
ing useful records of their work and observations in *' the other orders " 
so long neglected in Spain. Most of these articles are well illustrated 
with text figures. 

An article by R. Agenjo on the rearing of a second generation of 
the 9 of the Geometer Adalhestio castUiaria is in much detail. It is 
illustrated with 2 plates and a map; 9 specimens are figured, with the 
wing venation and the genitalia. 

The Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 9-10, 1949, contains articles on the 
Psychidae, the Chalcididae of the Belgian Congo, the Reduviidae of 
Madagascar, the early stages of the Geometer Epidda stigmn, with a 
page of figures, pupae, channels in twigs of food-plants, larvae, etc. ; 
figure of a rare and beautiful J)ielrar (Pieris) from New Caledonia; and 
many short notes. 

The Bevisfd, part 3, vol. xiv, October 1948, contains an account of 
the Metamorphoses of the Geometer, Chloropteryx munda, by F. Bour- 
quin. It is illustrated by a page of figures, imago, larva, and. details. 

The Aarnnlen of the great Natural History Museum of Vienna has 
distributed six large volumes containing the full record of the work 
during the period from 1939 to 1944. Vol. 550 (1939) consists of over 
700 pages with many text figures and maps and 23 plates. The articles 
deal with groups of species mostly related to the Vienna area and its 
environs. There are fifteen memoirs; Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenop- 
tera, a botanical expedition to Iran; Geology, etc. 

I HAD an article sent me from an unknown correspondent dealing 
with the French Alps. This I posted to a colleague, with the accom- 
panying letter. It never reached him. I believe it came from Otter- 
shaw. I had intended it for March. It was very suitable. — Hy. J. T. 

Curious. — Frohawk's folio work of 2 volumes^ British Butterflies, 
published some years ago, was priced at 6 guineas. It was a failure, 
and finally disposed of at 33s. To-day a copy is for sale in a Catalogue 
at £7. 

I have a fine copy of the beautiful 3-volume work of Drury in the 
mid-17th century. Does anyone knoAV what became of the collection of 
Drury? It was for sale. Also I have, presumably in Drury's liandwrit- 
ing, a list of the collection offered for sale with an accompanying letter 
of his then financial troubles. Both these sheets are Whatman paper 
of the late i7th century. 

A FURTHER part of the Trans, of the Soci/. for Brit. Entomology 
has just been publisbed, Pt. 4, Vol. IX, 56 pp. and 2 maps of area of 
dMribution. The article published is by V. H. Chambers, B.Sc., 
Pli.D., etc., and deals with the Hymenoptera of Bedfordshire. It con- 
tains a List of all the recent records, with much biological detail. It is 
such material as this that forms the basis of our Fauna. We congratu- 



CURRENT NOTES. 31 

late tlie Society for offering opportunity for recording such scientific 
work. 

The Anuiteur Entomological Society will hold their Exhibition on 
26th March 1949 at Buckingham Gate Schools, S.W.I, 2-4.45 p.m. Dur- 
ing the Exhibition, the following members have kindly offered to give 
short lectures:— Mr E. E. Syms, F.R.E.S., " Field Crickets "; Mr 
H. R. Last, F.R.E.S., " Staphylinidae "; Mr L. Parmenter, F.R.E.S., 
" Diptera." Tea and light refreshments will be available later in the 
afternoon for those desiring them. 



Special Notice. — Will everyone please send all business matter, such 
as Exchange, Sale, Advertisements, Change of Address, direct to Mr 
Andrews. To send such to me often means delay. — Hy. J. T. 



The vat-ant space in the matter this time is due to the loss while in 
transit to a colleague, who is a specialist in the matter of the article, 
" A Recent Collecting Holiday in the French Alps." The late appear- 
ance of this month is due to the breaking open of the packet in the post 
from the printer and the abstraction of the proof sheets leaving tlie 
MSS. originals intact.— Hy. J. T. 

P. 8. — Please send us nuitter clearly typed, if possible to do so. 



EXCHANGES. 

Subscribers may have Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata inserted free of charge. 
They should be sent to Mr Hy. J. Turner, " Latemar," West Drive, Cheam. 

Wanted.— E. fuscantaria, ova and imagines. Cash or excliange,— 4. H. Sperring, 
Slindon, Fifth Avenue, Warblington, Havant, Hants. 

Desiderata — Dipterous parasites bred from Lepidopterous larvae or pupae, cr 
from any other animal.— ff. Audcent, Selwood House, Hill Road, Clevedon. 
Somerset. 

Wanted.— I need specimens of Lycaena (Heodes) phlaeas from all parts of the 
world, particularly Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia, Madeira, Canaries, N. 
Africa, Middle East counties, and E. Africa; also varieties from British Isle* 
or elsewhere. I will purchase these, or offer in exchange good vars. of 
British Lepidoptera or many sorts of foreign and exotic Lepidoptera.— 
P. Siviter Smith, 2f Melville Hall, Holly Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, 19. 

Wanted.— For the British Museum larval collection, larvae of Chrysomelld 
beetles, alive or preserved. Liberal exchange if required.— Z>r S. Maulik, 
British Museum {Natural History), Cromwell Road. London. S.W.7. 

Wanted to Purchase— Pupae in any quantity of any species of moths.— i?. M. 
Richard, Coningsby, Lincoln. 

Wanted to Purchase— The Entomologist, Vols. 1-78 (1840-1945).—/. M, Chalmers 
Hunt, 70 Chestnut Avenue, West Wichham, Kent. 

Wanted to Purchase— AtTican Section of Seitz' Macrolepidoptera of the World. 
both Butterfly and Moth Volumes, either bound or in parts.— D. G. Sevasto- 
pulo, c/o Ralli Brothers Ltd., P.O. Box 401, Kampala, Uganda. 

TFan fed— Distribution Records, Notes on Abundance and Information regarding 
Local Lists of the Dipterous Families Empididae and Conopidae. — Kenneth 
G. V. Smith, " Antiopa," S8 Barrow Street, Much Wenlock, Salop. 

Wanted to Pwrc/iase— Leech's British Pyrales, Coloured Plate Edition.— X. W. 
Richards, Nether Edge, Hawley, near Camberley. 

Wanted— Set or in papers, Scotch and Northern England forms of the British 
butterflies; specially Coen. typhon, Erebia epiphron, Lycaena artaxerxes, 
and Lycaena salmacis. Purchase or in exchange for Southern forms of many 
species.— C has. B. Antram, F.R.E.S., Clay Copse, Sway, Lymington, Hants. 

F^anfed.— Specimens of Velia currens Fahr. (Hemiptera), in any condition, from 
all parts of the British Isles or Western Eiurope, especially from the more 
remote parts of the west and north, for taxonomic study.— J?. S. Brown. 
Hailey Lodge, Hertford Heath, Hertford. 

Wanted.— l^otes of fluctuations in numbers of Rhingia campestris, Mg. (Dipt., 
Syrphidae) in 1947 and 1948. Also notes of numbers in 1949.— B. R. Laurence. 
St Sherwood Road, Luton, Beds. 

Wanted Urgently.— A few plants of Horseshoe Vetch with native soil for potting. 
Duplicates— numerous living forms during the season.— T. D. Feamehough, 
25 Ramsey Road, Sheffield, to. 



MEETINQ8 OF SOCIETIES. 

Royal Entomological Society of L(yndon, 41 Queen's Gate, S.W.7 : May 
/ith, June 1st, at 5.30 p.m. South London Entomological and Natural 
History Society, c/o Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly. W.i; 2nd and 
Ath Wednesdays; 6.0 for 6.30. London Natural History Society : Tuesdays, 6.30 
p.m., at London School of Hygiene or Art-Workers' Guild Hall. Syllabus of 
Meetings from General Secretary, H. A. Toombs, Brit. Mus. (Nat, Hist.), Crom- 
well Road, S.W.7. Birmingham Natural History and Philosovhical Society-^ 
Entomological Section. Monthly Meetings are held at Museum and Art Gallery. 
Particulars from Hon. Secretary, H. E. Hammond, F.R.E.S., 16 Elton Grove, 
Acocks Green, Birmingham. 

TO OUR READERS. 
Short Oollaoting Not«t and Currant Notes. Please, Early.— Eds. 



All MS. and EDITORIAL MATTER should be sent and all PROOFS returned to 
HY. J. Turner, '' Latemar," 25 West Drive, Cheam. 

We must earnestly request our correspondents NOT TO SEND US COMMUNICA- 
TIONS IDENTICAL with those they are sending to other magazines. 

REPRINTS of articles may be obtained by authors at very reasonable cost if 
ordered at THE TIME OF SENDING IN MS. 

Articles that require ILLUSTRATIONS are inserted on condition that the 
AUTHOR DEFRAYS THE COST of the illustrations. 



Change of Addi'ess.—T>. G. Sevastopulo, c/o Ralli Bros. Ltd., P.O. Box 401, Kam- 
pala, Uganda. 

Temporary Addresses till further notice.— Kenneth J. Hayward, c/o Dept. oli 
Entomology, British Museum (Nat. Hist.), Cromwell Road, London, S.W.7. Dr IT. 
B, D. Kettlewell, c/o Standard Bank, Cape Town, S. Africa. 



Communications received :— Thomas Greer, Fergus J. O'Rourke, O. Quercl, 
H. Donisthorpe. Malcolm Burr, Surg.-Lt. Comm. H. M. Darlow, D. G. Sevastopulo. 
D. Fearnehough, R. J. R. Levett, E. C. S. Blathwayt, E. P. Wiltshire. A. E. Wright. 

All Communications should be addressed to the Acting Editor. Hy. J. 
TURNER. " Latemar." 25 West Drive. Cheam. 

If you collect CORIDON. BELLARGVS. ICARUS. ARGUS, MINIMUS, AGBSTIB 
or PHLAEAS. you can be interested for life in their British aberrations by 

obtaining 

*'THE CORIDON MONOGRAPH AND ADDENDA," 

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Strongly covered and magnificently produced with 18 plates of 40S figures. 96 la 
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Printad by T. Bunei« * Co.. I4d.. Arbroath. 



LXI. e^'>' 



MUS. tmf. 2&0L 
LIBRARY 

I9W 




:NTOMOLOGISrs RECORD 

AND 

JOURNAL OF VARIATION 



MALCOLM BURR, D.SC, F.R.E.S. 

E A. COCKAYNE. M.A., F.R.C.P., F.R.E.S. 

J. E. COLUN. J.P., F.R.E.S. 

H. DONISTHORPB, F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. 



WM. FASSNIDGE. M.A., F.R.E.S. 

S. N. A. JACOBS. 

H B. WILLIAMS, K.C.. LL.D., F.R.E.S. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. (Sub-Editor). 
Rodliorough Fort, Stroud, Glos. 

HY. J. TURNER. F.R.E.S.. F.R.H.S. {Editorial Secretary). 



CONTENTS. 



ABERRATIONS OF ABRAXAS GROSSULARIATA, L,, E. A. Cockayne, DM., 

F.R.C.P ... .33 

ACTIVITY AND MORTALITY OF PIERIS RAPAE IN AMERICA, AFRICA, 

AND EUROPE, Orazio Querci and Lycaena Romei, M.D 35 

RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES FROM SOUTH LONDON, S. Waltely ... .'57 

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON EMPIS LIVIDA, LIN. (DIP., EMPIDIDAE), WITH 

NOTES.ON PREY, /le/mem G. y. Smif?i, F.i?. J?. S. ... ... 39 

CURRENT NOTES 42 

COLLECTING NOTES : Colias hyale at Swaiiage, Leonard TatcheU; Early 
Emergences in 1949, T. Bainhr'igge Fletcher; Disphragis coeruleocephala 
on Laurel, Id.-, Tinea arcella, Id.; Migrants, Id,; Rhingla campestrLs, 
• Id.; Osmylus fulviccplialiis, Id. '»3 

SUPPLEMENTS : 
The Briti-sli Noctuae and their Varieties, Hy. .7. Turner, F.Il.E.S., 

F.R.H.S. ... (53)-(5R) 

British Dipterological Literature (IV), H. W. Andrews, F.U.E.S (l)-(4) 

Subscription for Complete Volume, post free, 

TEN SHILLINGS. 

To be sent to 

The Hon. Treasurer, H. W. ANDREWS, F.R.E.S., 

The Rookery, Breamore, Fordlngbridge, Hants 



This Number. Price ONE SHILLING AND SIXPENCE (net). 



WAYSIDE AND WOODLAND FERNS 

A GUIDE TO THE BRITISH FERNS, HORSETAILS AND CLUB-MOSSES. 
By EDWARD STEP, F.L.S. Revised by A. BRUCE JACKSON, A.L.S. 

With 64 Colour Plates and 79 Plates from Photographs and Drawings, 
The most complete book on the subject for popular use. 

Price, 12/6 n«t. 
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LIBRARY 

t^m\J A I* loi rj ^BE-RKATIONS OF ABRAXAS CtKOSSULARIATA, L. 33 

nAY lb l34b 

ABERRIATIONS OF ABRAXAS GROSSULARI ATA, L. 
HARVARD By E. A. Cockayne, D.M., F.R.C.P. 

"^R&?ftBf^ (Enj . liecord, 1909, 21, 2) describes ab. iochalca as a form 
with the ground colour entirely suffused with bronze-violet, varj'iiig 
somewhat in intensity', and says it appeared for the first time in 1908 
with ab. chrysostrota as a result of crossing ab. lacticolor with ab. lutea . 
In the following year he bred grossulariata with the same ground colour 
as ab. iochalca^ and there is a series of thirteen of them in the National 
Collection. It was Raynor's custom to give different names to forms 
of grossularkita and dohrnii {lacticolor) with the same ground colour, 
and he had labels printed with the name chcdcostrota for the specimens 
of grossulariata with the ground colour of iochalca, but never pub- 
lished the name. 

Abraxas grossulariata, L., ab. chalcostrota, ab. nov. 

The name applies to any form of grossulariata, except ab. dol^riiU, 
Koenig, with the ground colour entirely suffused with bronze-violet. 
The violet varies in intensity in different individuals, and in those in 
which it is most intense there are frequently asymmetrical areas on the 
hindwings, which lack the orange colour of lutea. 

Type: o. Lanes., ex no, 11-15, bred 29. v. 1916, Raynor. Roths- 
child Coll. 

Allotype: ?. Peckham Rye, vii.1895, P. Richards. Rothschild 
Coll. 

Paratypes : d- Lanes., ex no. 22-18, bred 17. vi. 1919, Raynor. 
Oberthur Coll. c?- Lanes., ex no. 73-10, bred 5.vi.l911, Raj^nor. 
Levick Coll. $. Lanes., ex no. 77-10, bred 16. vi. 1911, Raynor. 9- 
Lanes., ex G.09, bred 7.vi.l910, Raynor. Oberthur Coll. 

It is difficult to believe that the violaceous or greyish lilac colour, 
which is mixed with orange, can be derived from pure lutea. Onslow 
{Journ. of Genetics, 1918, 8, 224) says that iochalca only occurs in the 
dohrnii forms and is probably recessive, but admits that the evidence 
for this is slight. At that time he was evidently not aware of the 
existence of grossulariata with the colouring of iochalca. The origin 
of iochalca and chalcostrota aj)pears to me to be due to a combination 
of homozygous lutea, which is dominant, and a violaceous form, some- 
times tinged with pale yellow, which is probably recessive. The de])th 
of the violaceous colour varies and it is likeh' that it can be increased 
by selective breeding in the same way as the depth of the orange in 
lutea. 

There are several examples of grossulariata and dohrnii of this 
violaceoiis colour in the National Collection, all of Lancashire origin, 
bred by Raynor. There are also 5 ab. aherdonicnsis, 2 ab. fulvapicata, , 
1 ab. alhispatiata, 1 ab. (dhipaUiata, and 2 ab. centralipuncfa with 
a mere trace of yellow or none at all. Since it appears to be of some 
genetic importance, I propose to name it. 

Ab. lilacina, ab. nov. 
Ground colour entirely violaceous or greyish lilac with or without 
a tinge of pale jxUow, occurring in various forms of grossulariata and 
dohrnii. 



34 entomologist's k^cobd, vol. lxi. 15 / IV / 1949 

Type: S- Lanes., ex no. 24-17, bred 24.vi.1918, Raynor. Roths- 
child Coll. 

Paratype: S- Lanes., ex no. xi-07, bred x.1907, Raynor. Cock- 
ayne Coll. (S . Lanes., ex no. L-09; bred l.vi.l910, Raj^nor. Rotlis- 
child Coll. 

In the two paratypes liladna is combined with fulvapicata. 

There is another rare form, which has not been named and which 
is probably recessive. The evidence is slight, but Onslow's specimen 
had normal parents, and one bred bj'- H. B. Williams is combined with 
another rare recessive form. 

Ab. lilacifasciata, ab. nov. 

The fascia instead of being orange is a lilac-grey colour. 

Type: d- 21 Da 30, bred by H. Onslow. Onslow obtained his stock 
from Raynor and it is probably of Lancashire origin. 

Allotype: 9- Lanes., ex no. 28-06, bred 30.vi.l907, Raynor. Roths- 
child Coll. 

Paratype: c^. Lanes., ex no. 48-13, bred 7.vi. 1914, Raynor. R. 
Adkin Coll. 

All these are combined with ab. dohrnii, Koenig. 

•In the Rothschild Collection there was a label in Lord Rothschild's 
handwriting, " ab. infraguttata^ Raynor," but the name was never 
published. 

Ab. infraguttata, ab. nov. 

On the hindwing the antemedian row of spots forms a continuous 
black band ; the spots of the postniedian row are elongated into strealvs 
running towards the antemedian and sometimes reaching it, or the 
streaks may be short and followed by a line of dots; sometimes there 
are additional dots running tow^ards the margin. 

Type: 9- Lanes., ex no. OA-17, bred 7.vi. 1918, Raynor. Roths- 
child Coll. 

Paratypes: 9- Aberdeen, bred vii.1927, L. W. Newman. Roths- 
child Coll. 9 . 19T 9 5, H. Onslow. 9 • 19T 9 7, H. Onslow. 
9 . Yorks., ex no. 9-29, bred 2.vi.l920, Raynor. Rothschild Coll. 

Onslow's specimens are probably of Lancashire origin. Most 
examples of infraguttafa are female and all occur in ab. lunulata, 
Porritt, or in the lunulata group of forms. 

Onslow (Journu.} of Genetics, 1918, 8, 222) names a form of grossu- 
lariata with black rings round the abdomen ab. nigrocincta, and says 
that appears to be associated with increased black markings on the fore- 
wings, but does not occur in ab. varleyata. No doubt at a later date 
he would have withdrawn this statement, because he bred nigrocincta 
combined with ab. dohrnii. It is commonest in combination with 
ab. hazeleighensis or forms belonging to this group, but also occurs 
in abs. nigrofasciata, infrahifasciata, infra guttata, aherdoniensis, 
varleyata, and dohrnii. 

Looking at Onslow's material, which consists of parts of broods with 
their parents, it seems fairly certain that nigrocincta is an autosomal 
recessive inherited independently of any other character. 



ACTIVITY AND MORTALITY OF PIEBIS RAPAE. 85 

ACTIVITY AND MORTALITY OF PIERIS RAPAE IN AMERICA, 
AFRICA, AND EUROPE. 

- JBy Orazio QijERCi and Lycaena Romei, M.D. 



Pieris rapae has the privilege of being the single butterfly, grow- 
ing rapidly and without summer pauses, which is widespread^ in many 
countries of the world. In a paper, printed in this magazine^, we re- 
lated what noted, day by day about this species, both in a meadow of 
Philadelphia and in our breedings. 

Fourteeii years ago, considering chiefly the effects of temperature 
and humidity, we were often unable to know the causes that either 
favour or injure the development of that insect. This deficiency in- 
duced us to continue its study in other regions. Only now, after many 
trials, we tliink we have reached a satisfactory result about rapae 
in Pennsjdvania, while we can not explain why the identical kind of 
larvae have a different behaviour in some European and African locali- 
ties in whidh we have reared them. 

As it is known, the females of rapae lay many eggs^, and this species 
would multiply its number indefinitely. Our purpose has been that 
to identify the forces that eliminate continually a percentage of pro- 
geny and re-establish the biological equilibrium. 

In the case of rapae it is easy to know on which day many larvae die 
in the field. The mortality of its pupae is smalP and they are not 
subjected to slimmer diapause. Both in the spring and summer, if the 
temperature does not drop, some pupae produce adults even in 6 to 8 
days since they were formed. Therefore, when we note that the number 
of adults on the wing either does not increase, or decrease, we infer 
that a great mortality of caterpillars occurred about a week before. 
However, it has been hard for us to identify all the different factors of 
destruction and to know in which manner eadh factor acts in concomit- 
ance with the others. 

Now we consider : (A) Degree of humidity of the ground iif our col- 
lecting place. (B) Amount of weeds in the same land. (C) Time of the 
day in which it begins and ends to rain. (D) Amount of rain. (E) 
Occurrence of thunderstorms. (F) Intensity of the solar rays. (G) 
Intensity of the radiation reflected from the ground, (H) Temperature. 
(I) Hours of sunshine. Other factors (degree of humidity of the air, 
dew, velocity: and direction Of the wind) are mentioned when they have 

some influence. 

TABLE I. 
Factors of the climate and environment acting most upon the develop- 
ment of Pieris rapae at Philadelphia in 1932. 

Signs : -|- + + + + = Highest intensity of humidity of the ground ; 
amount of weeds in the field. 4- = Low intensity. O = Very feeble 
intensity. T = Trace of rain. 

^Entom. Rec, XLVIII, pp. 14-133 (1935). 

2Wellhouse, W. H., How Insects Live, p. 156 : "A female has been observed to 
deposit her 938 eggs -. 125 were laid on the first day after matins', 75 on the 
second day, 37 on the third and fourth day, and 1 on the fifth day." 

30nly those pupae, formed by the feeblest larvae, collapse almost independently 
from climate. Parasites seem to be missing in the meadow where we col- 
lected : ants were sometimes plentiful. 



36 





entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 


15 / IV / 1949 


Date 


Soil 


Weeds 


Occurrence of rain 




May 






begins 


ends 


inch 


11-14 


+ + + + + 


+ -i--l--f + 


4.12 p.m. 


night 


1.37 


15-20 


+ + + + + 


-f-f-f + + 


early 


early 


0.03 


21-25 


+ 


+ + + 


9.35 p'^m. 


night 


0.23 


26 





+ + 








27 





+ 


4.43 p.m. 


7.08 p.m. 


1.00 


28-31 


+ + + + + 


+ 








June 












1-3 


+ 


+ 








4 





+ 


2.02 p.m. 


2.09 p.m. 


T 


5 


o 


+ 


4 15 p.m. 


4.50 p.m. 


T 


6 





+ 


8.46 p m. 


9.50 p.m. 


0.05 


7-8 


+-+■ 


+ ■ 








9-11 





+ 








12-14 


+ + + + + 


+ 


early 


6.50 p.m. 





15-17 


+ + + + + 





4,09 p.m. 


9.45 p.m. 


2.21 


18-21 


+ + + 


o 


early 


6.30 p.m. 


0.05 


22 














23-25 














26 





+ 


noon 


3.40 p.m. 


07 


27-29 


+ + + + + 


+ + 


noon 


night 


26 


30 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 








.Tuly 












1 


+ + 


+ + + + + 








2-3 





+ + + + + 








4-6 


+ + + + + 


+ + + + + 


early 


noon 


0.30 


7-8 


+ + + + 


+ + + + + 








9-10 


+ + + 


+ + + + + 








11 


+ 


+ + + + 


early 


early 


T 


12 





+ -f + 


night 


night 


T 


13 19 





-+- + 








20 


o 


o 


early 


early 


0.04 


21-23 


+ + + + + 





early 


night 


167 


2426 


++ + 











27 


+ + 





5.03 p.m. 


5.55 p.m. 


19 


28 


+ + + 


-f . 








29-31 





+ + + 


early 


early 


0.05 


Aug. 






' 






1-2 


o 


-f + + 


3.50 p.m. 


night 


0.03 


3 


+ +++ + 


+++ + 


night 


8.55 p.m. 


48 


4^5 


+ + + + -\- 


+ + + + + 








6-7 


+ + + + 


+ + + + + 


3.10 p m. 


6.50 p.m. 


03 


8-9 


+ + + 


+ + + + + 


early 


early 


T 


10 


+ 


+++ + + 


6.15p m. 


night 


1.28 


11-16 


+ + + + + 


+ + + + + 


night 


early 


0.07 


17-19 


+ +++ + 


+ +++ + 


5 52 p.m. 


night 


0.75 


20-21 


+ + + + 


+ + + + + 








22-25 


+ 


+ + + + 








26 





+ + + 








27 





+ -f 


6 22 p m. 


7,09 p.m. 


0.41 


2S 


+ + + + 


++ 








29-30 


+ 


+ 








31 





+ 


6.24 p.m. 


6.50 p.m. 


0.02 


Sept. 












1 





+ 








2 





+ 








3 














4 








5.15 p.m. 


5.25 p.m. 


T 


5 





+ 


night 


night 


0.08 


6 


+ + + + + 


+ + 


night 


early 


0.11 



RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES FROM SOUTH LONDON. 



37 





Date 




Sept. 


38 


7-8 


38 


9-10 


89 


11-15 


40 


16 


41 


17-19 


42 


20-21 


43 


22 


43 


23 


44 


24-26 


40 


27-28 


46 


29-30 




Oct. 


47 


1-3 


48 


4-6 


49 


7-8 


50 


9-14 



Soil 

-f-f-f-f 
+ + + 
+ + 

+ + + + + 
+ + + + + 
+ + + 
+ 


o 

-t-++-f-f 
+ -f-f + + 



+ H--f + 
+ H- + -f + 
+ + H- + + 
-i- + + 



Weeds 

+ + + 
+ + -f + + 
-f-f-f-f 

+ + 

+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



Occurrence of rain 
begins ( ends inch 



early 

3.27 p.m. 
early 

night 
1 35 p.m. 



noon 

4. 15 p m. 
1.12 p.m. 

night 
4,50 p.m. 



0.36 

0.05 

0.45 

1 29 
0.01 



With the support of these data, and some experiments (Entom. Bee, 
XLIX, pp. 73-76 (1937), we try, in the following Table II, to show m 
which manner the combinations! of factors of climate and environment 
might act upon the life-cycle of Pieris rapae at Philadelphia. 

(To be continued.) 



RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES FROM SOUTH LONDON. 

By S. Wakely. 

Collecting in London parks and suburban roads might not sound 
very promising, but it is surprising the numbers of good insects that 
can be taken during the season on occasional walks in parks and by 
keeping an eye on fences and trees by the roadside. 

The insects mentioned in tliese notes are those that have been of 
particular interest to me, and are not by any manner of means a com- 
plete list even of the insects taken by myself locally. 

Mimas tiliae, Linn., is a well-known London hawk-moth, and is 
frequently seen at rest on fences, but the larvae are quite conspicuous 
after dark in August and September feeding on the lower branches of 
lime trees. W^ith the aid of an electric torch and walking stick with 
suitable crook to bi'ing the branches down within reach, a few dozen 
larvae can be easily collected, particularly where the trees are pollarded 
yearly, thus giving plenty of low branches. 

SiMnx ligu^atri, Linn., larvae are not infrequent on the i)rivet, 
where their presence is betrayed by the frass on the pavement. I have 
not met with DeilepliUa elphenor, Linn., at Heme Hill, but saw two 
specimens caught at light in Fleet Street last summer. 

I suppose my greatest surprise was the sight of a freshly-emerged 
specimen of Pseud oips hicolorana, Fuessl., at r^t on an oak tree just 
insidie Brockwell Park by Heme Hill Station last summer. 

Emnnis auramfiaria, Esp., was frequently seen on the fences at 
Dulwich in late autumn — hardly an insect one would expect to find 
breeding freelv in London gardens. 



38 entomologist's EECORD, VOL. LXI. 15 /IV/ 1949 

Larvae of Gatnodontis hidentata, Clerck, were found to be common 
on the Winter-flowering Jessamine {Jasmiri'umi nudiftoriim) , together 
with a few Ourwpteryx samhucaria, Linn. Both ivy and elder are the 
usual foodplants for the Swallow-tail Moth, and the addition of Jessa- 
mine is interesting. G. hidentata larvae have a great liking for privet 
in London gardens. 

Aegeria vespiformis, Linn., larvae frequent the bark of old elms in 
Brockwell Park, Hyde Park, etc., also the large " cankerous " growths 
often seen on large oaks. Their frass is much in evidence, but oiie 
does not find the larvae as easily as one would expect from the signs 
of feeding, and digging lumps of bark off trees in London parks is not 
to be recommended ! 

Cacoecia pronuhana, Hiibn., is a most common moth, the larvae 
feeding not only on privet, but on almost every garden plant — from 
rose-buds to the Petty Spurge (Euphorbia peplus) which grows as a 
weed in our gardens. 

In June and July the freshly-emerged imagines of Pammene Juliana, 
Curt, (on oak), and P. regiana^ Zell. (on sycamore), may be taken from 
10 a.m. to 12 noon. Later in the day they gradually crawl higher up 
the trunks and disappear. The former is not at all uncommon in Brock- 
well Park and at Tooting Common. Laspeyresia splendana, Hiibn., 
larvae may be found in acorns lying in the gutters of the roads near 
the Crystal Palace in October. 

The berries of pyracantha are much liked by the larvae of Laspey- 
resia ianthinana^ Dup., and Blastodacna hellerella, Dup., together with 
the larvae of the trypetid fly Anomoia permunda, Harris. These three 
insects are normally hawthorn feeders. 

That local insect Blastodacna stephensi, Staint., swarms on old oaks 
in Dulwich Park during July and August. They look very like Mecur- 
varia nanella^ Hiibn., an occasional specimen of which is found with 
them. Collecting B. stephensi can be made amusing (or embarrassing) 
by the crowds of people at the boating lake, particularly when the 
moth has to be tickled out of a crevice with a blade of grass and guided 
into the box. This species was recorded from Tooting Common many 
years ago, and it still occurs there in numbers. Strangely enough, I 
can find no trace of it in Brockwell Park, although there are plenty of 
old oaks there. The older the tree, the more likely one is to find the 
moth present, the larvae almost certainly feeding in the bark. 

Larvae of Lithocolletis genicnlella, Pag., on sycamore are to be found 
at Dulwich, while the local X. comparella, Zell., occurs on white poplar 
near Streatham, the only locality for this species I know. ,^ 

Bedellia sommdentella, Zell., occurs at Dulwich, and the larvae on 
Avild convolvulus are frequent at Brockwell Park and even near Lough- 
borough Junction, where the foodplant grows over garden fences. 

The species of Blastohasis at present referred to as decolorella, WolL, 
occurs with its usual regularity in June and October on the fences 
in this district, but there is no evidence of it spreading further afield. 
It is not likely to be confused with its congenor^, B. lignea, Wals., which 
is rare here and is a single-brooded species occurring in July-August. 
A fuller description of this insect is to be found in the Proceedings of 
tire Soutii London Natural History Society for 1947/48. 

38 Stradella Road, Heme Hill, S.E.24. 



SOME OBSERVATIONS ON EMPIS LIVIDA, LIN. 139 

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON EMPIS LIVIDA, LIN. (DIP., 
EMPIOIDAE), WITH NOTES ON PREY. 

By Kenneth G. V. Smith, F.R.E.S. 



Tlie male of Empis lividu, Lin., takes prey which is presented to 
the female and while she feeds upon it copulation takes place, the dura- 
tion of which probably depends upon the size of the prey (see Hanim, 
1908, 9). I was able to study this sjDecies while on a week's holiday at 
Bodenham, near Hereford, during 1948. Although I was not fortunate 
in having fine weather for my activities, I did make some interesting 
observations as well as securing some specimens with prey. 

The best spot for observation was along the River Lugg, where livida 
was in fair numbers among the rushes wdiich grew along the water's 
edge. Heavy rainfall had churned the banks into mud and this ham- 
pered my activities considerably. Observations were commenced on 
31st July between 3.30 p.m. and 6 p.m. (B.S.T.), the weather being very 
dull indeed. Both sexes were at rest on the rushes and forget-me-nots. 
Several females were sitting close together and periodically one or the 
other would take to flight. This prompted the others to follow suit, 
and all would circle round several times before coming to rest again, 
most often in a different place to that previously occupied. I saw no 
pairs ill cop. but I captured a few males with dipterous and trichop- 
terous prey. 

On the evening of 1st August, at about 7- p.m., I saw a few pairs 
in cop. along a hedgerow. Unfortunately, I was without a net but i 
managed to box a pair ; the female was in possession of dipterous prey. 
Previous to capture I had watched this pair making short flights from 
one twig to another, hardly resting before they were off again. The 
landing seemed clumsy and made considerable noise, and judging by 
the short distances covered by each flight quite an effort seemed neces- 
sary to keep in the air. I did not observe if both insects made use of 
their wings, but it would be interesting to note this on some future 
occasion. The wariness of these insects in my experience makes close 
observation difficult. 

2nd August was another dull day with frequent rainj^ periods and 
livida was not very active. I only saw one pair in cop., which I secured. 
The female dropped the prey and the pair separated. On taking this 
from the net I found it to be the mutilated remains of a Chironoimd 
^y. One single male was taken with ti'ichopterous prey. 

The poor weather persisted throughout Tuesday, 3rd August, and 
the vegetation was wet, due to a heavy rainfall during the night. 1 
only saw two single males with prey, one of which I secured ; this had 
dipterous prey. The other I followed for some time, hoping to observe 
courtship and copulation. It made frequent circling flights, appar- 
ently in search of females, but eventually I lost it among the rushes. 
The prey appeared to be dipterous, but I was not close enough to be 
certain. Several individuals were at rest on flowers of forget-me-not, 
each actively moving its proboscis over the surface of the petak. On 
closer examination it could be seen that they were drinking from the 
globules of rain scattered over the surface of the flowers. 



40 entomologist's becord, vol. lxi. 15 / IV / 1949 

4th August was a much brighter and wanner day, but the sun 
did not break through the clouds until the afternoon. There was con- 
siderable activity among livida and I was soon busy collecting material. 
The prey taken was quite varied among various families of Diptera 
and I was quite satisfied with the morning's work. 

Rain came again during the night, and it continued throughout 
most of the morning of 5th August. The sun broke through once, and 
what activity this promoted I took advantage of. T took two males 
with ephemeropterous prey. I had wondered why I had not encoun- 
tered this before, as there were a number of mayflies about. I saw- 
three pairs in cop., two out of reach and one which I followed for some 
time but eventually lost. Further upstream along a sheltered back-, 
water, which was drier and more pleasant to work, I found livida in 
some numbers, at rest on thistles and nettles. Both sexes were en- 
gaged in imbibing nectar from the thistle flowers. 

6th August commenced w^arm and bright and I was filled with the 
hope of a good day's work, but by 10.30 a.m. the skies 'had clouded and 
rain commenced. Although I spent the rest of the morning observing 
from beneath a nearby tree I saw little of interest and collected very 
little material. 

Methods of Holding Prey. 

The majority of the single males employed the median pair of legs 
only in holding the prey, the anterior and posterior pairs being used 
to hold on to their plac€i of rest. A few of them were holding their 
prey with the posterior and median pairs of legs and one of the anterior 
pair, the remaining anterior leg bearing the whole weight of the 
insect as it hung suspended from the twig or leaf on which it had 
settled. The prey taken from the single males was apparently unin- 
jured, though motionless with the exception of a badly mutilated 
ephemeropteron (EphemerelUi igiiita, Pod.) devoid of its abdomen, and 
the Chironomus and Culex marked with a ? in the table. Possibly the 
male had alreadj'^ contacted a female which had fed on the prey, but it 
seems hardly likely that he would take back the prey after an attempt 
at copulation. The specimen of Mystacides nigra, L., was still feebly 
kicking when I took it from the net, but this must have taken a little 
more to kill as it was quite large compared with the other types of 
prey met with. 

Of the pairs observed' i7i cop. the male was hanging by either of the 
two anterior tarsi, or by both of them. All the remaining legs were 
used to clasp the female. The female employed all her legs in holding 
the prey and thrusting it up and down on her proboscis. 

Summary and Analysis or Prey. 
I saw no single females in possession of prey, only those in cop. Of 
all the males with prey not one appeared to be feeding on it. Mr 
A. H. Hamm gives an interesting account of the method of disabling 
the prey adopted by Empis tessellata. Fab. (Ent. Mon. Mag., 1909, 
Vol. XX, p. 159), i.e., by piercing the junction between the thorax and 
the head, apparently affecting the central nervous system and produc- 
ing a paralyzing effect. It may be that livida adopts this method also. 



SOME OBSERVATIONS ON EMl'IS LIVIUA, LIN, 



41 



Copulation apparently takes place at all hours of the day and in fine 
or wet weather. 

The folloAving table illustrates the nature of the prey taken from 35 
sets of material collected. From these results it can be seen that most 
of the prey taken l)elong to the Diptera. I can find no previous record 
of Hemi])tera being taken as prey by livida. The author w^ould wel- 
come any notes or recoi'ds of the predaceous habits of the Empididae. 









No. taken 


^ 










From 












d6 










From 


and 










single 


•99 




Order. 


Family. 


Species. 


dd 


in cop. Tot 


al. 


Epliemeroptera 


Leptophlebiidae 


PavaleptophleMa cincta, 
Retz. 


3 


— 3 








Habrophlebia fiisca. 


1 


— 1 








Curt. 










Ephenierellidae 


Ephemerella ignita, Poda 


1 


] 




Triclioptera 


Leptoceridae 


Mystacides nigra, Lin. 


1 


— ] 






PolycentropidAe 


Cyrnus trimaculatiis, 
Curt. 


1 


— 1 






Psycliomyidae 


Psychoniyia piisilla, Fab. 


8 


— g 




Heiiiiptej'a 


Miridae 


Orthotylus flavinervis, 
Kbm. 


1 


— 1 




Diptera 


Culicidae 


■'.Culex pipiens, Lin. 


1 


J 






Cliironomidap 


Pentaneuva monilis, Lin. 


1 


J 








IChlronomus spp. 


1 


J 








?Mutilated 





1 I 






Mycetoplillidae 


Mycetophila fwigorwn, 
Deg-. 


1 


— 1 






Empidldae 


Pi h amp homy la flav a . 
Fall. 


— 


1 I 






Dolichopodidae 


('(nnpsienemus scam bus, 
Fall. 


1 


— 1 






Sepsidae 


Sepsis cynipsea, Liii. 





1 1 






Spliaeroceridae 


Trichiaspis stercoro Ha . 
Mg-. 


1 


— J 






Coidyurldae 


Scopeunta sicrcorana. 
Lin. 


— 


1 1 






CallipliOTidae 


Morinia nana, Mg. 


1 


-t 








Pollenia varia, Mg. 


1 


-t 






Muscidae 


Limn oph ora Iria n gala . 
Fall. 


— 


1 1 








Limiiophora scntpulosa. 


1 


J 








Zett. 












Hebecnema iimbratica . 


1 


_ J 








Mg. 












Helina cluplicata, Mg. 


1 


-J 








Myopina reflexa, R.-D. 


1 


1 








Pogohylemyia gnava. 


1 


1 








Mg. 












Erioischia brassicae, 





1 1 








Bouche 


29 


6 35 





Acknowledgment. 
T am indebted to the following gentlemen for the determination of 
the prey, which iji some cases, due to mutilation, must have provided 
no mean task. 

Hemiptera— Mr S. K. W. Carlier, F.R.E.S. 



42 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 /IV/ 1949 

Triclioptera and Ephemeroptera — Mr D. E. Kimmins, Department of 

Entomoiogy, British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 
Diptera — Professor L. W. Grensted. 

My thanks are also due to Mr A. H. Hamni for his kindness in send- 
ing me separates of his papers and to the Royal Entomological Society 
of London for the loan of Professor E. B. Poulton's paper (1906). All 
the material has been presented to the Hope Department of Entomo- 
logy, University Museum, Oxford. 



Beferences. I 

Hamm, A. H. (1908). " Observations on Empis livida, L./' Ent. Mon. i 

Mag., Vol. XTX (181-4). I 

Hamm, A. H. (1909). " Further Observations on the Enipinae,'' Ent. ' 

Mon. Mag., Vol. XX (157-162). 
Hamm, A. H. (1909). " Observations on Em pis opaca, F.," Ent. Mon. I 

Mag., Vol. XX (132-134). I 

Hamm, A. H. (1933). " The Epigamic Behaviour and Courtship of i 

Three Species of Empididae,'' Ent. Mon. Mag., Vol. LXIX (113-7). | 
Lundbeck, W. (1910). " Diptera Danica," Part III, Empididae, Copen- I 

hagen. ! 

Poulton, E. B. (1906). " Predaceous Insects and their Prey," Trans. ■ 

Ent. Soc. Lond. (323). i 

Poulton, E. B. (1913). " Empididae and their Prey in Relation to ! 

Courtship," Ent. Mon. Mag., Vol. XXIV (177-80). \ 

" Antiopa," 38 Barrow Street, Much Wenlock, Salop. i 



CURRENT NOTES. 



Winter Flies. — Few fly fishers give much thought to their streams 
•during the winter months; yet the winter fly hatches are worth more 
thought than is usually given to them. It has been a queer winter on 
the quieter streams ; perhaps a still queerer autumn. October and Novem- 
ber last year produced hatches which were almost as good as those dur- 
ing the fishing season. One Wiltshire stream even had a distinctly good 
hatch of mayfly, of all odd happenings, in November, and from the 
number of mayfly nymphs killed in a Berkshire pollution near the end 
of October it is probable that this phenomenon took place on many 
streams where lack of grayling fishers prevented it being reported. 

AVere these autumn hatches from a spring egg laying, a good part 
of which had matured before the winter instead of the more usual course 
of growing very slowly in the cold months and hatching in the spring P 
And will this mean a poorer hatch of what is left for the spring 
months?— M. B. 

The Zoological Section of the S.E. Union of Scientific Societies, held 
at Canterbury, April 19th-22nd. Programme from Winifred Boyd 
Watt, Hon. Secretary. 

The magazine is suffering from the lack of the smaller " Collecting 
Notes." The abnormal weather must have affected many early stages 
of our Spring Lepidoptera. In such circumstances immigrant species 
will not survive unless they have already become firmly established. 



COLLECTING NOTES. 43 

For many years most of the countries of Western and Centra] Europe 
liacl sufficient entomologists to support two magazines. With these we 
have heen in exchange. It was different with the French. Rev. Bur- 
rows and 1 became Life Members of the Ent. Soc. de France, which 
gave us the A)ni. and BuUeiin. 1 then subscribed to the very excellent 
little L' Amateur de PapiUions of M. Leon L'homme. For many years 
Ij'homme has been working at a fully annotated Catalogue of the Lepi- 
(loptera of France and lielgium . 

The whole of the section of the Macro-L'epidoptera is complete and 
[iarts I and II of the Micro-Lepidoptera have appeared up to 1938-9. 
All that could be issued was a MSS. List of the names of the contents 
to be considered in the future of this. I have a copy " List of Species " 
to be dealt Avith in the succeeding parts of the work, III, IV, V, \I. 
I and II are already issued. 

In early 1938 the magazine took the title Be we Francaise de Lepi- 
ilopterologie. In 1939, after about a year's issue, it ceased. We hear 
that an attempt to cairy on is about to be made. We hope it will be 
successful . 

Belgium has the BiilJ. and Ann. of the Soc. Ent. de Beige, issued 
from Brussels, where the meetings are held; the other is the excellent 
small periodical Lainbdlionea. The two from Holland are less known, 
as so few British know the Dutch language. The Tijdscliraft, whicii 
contains the chief writings of Lemptke, and the Entonwiogische 
Berichtau. Sweden has the same difficulty, the language — the Tidslx^ft 
and Opuscula Entoniologica. And Finland, Suomi. 

AVe have great difficulty in getting Current Notes, and also tins 
>'ear short Collecting Notes have failed to reach us. Several Obituaries 
were awaiting for record, and one written and posted has failed to 
arrive. 

The mention of Drury, the famous author and collector of the 
eighteenth century, has brought us an article both informative and 
interesting. The opportunity will induce us to have the two precious 
items of Drury we possess as folding plates to illustrate the memoir, 
l^resumably these are in Drury' s own handwriting and consist of a List 
of the Contents of the Collection and the document of the circumstances 
which compel him to part with it. This article will piobably appear in 
the Mny number and the plates later. — Hy. J. T. 



COLLECTING NOTES. 

CoLiAs hyale at Swanage. — Friday, 1st April, was a warm day, 
temperature 55 to 60. At 12.30, as I was strolling over the Peveril 
DoAvns, I saw ('. hycde flying over the rough herbage. It flew round 
in short circles, and then settled a couple of yards away, and I was 
able to identify it as a female. It was in a perfectly fresh condition, 
so probably owing to the very mild winter here got through in the 
larval stage, completed its life cycle, and had just recently emerged. — 
Leonard Tatchell. 



44 entomologist's kbcokd, vol. lxi. 15 /JV/ 1949 

Eakly Emergences in 1949. — The following have been noted at Uley. 
Glos. (400 ft.): — 19.iii, Cifkma hadi'itn.-, 21.iii, rieris rapae, and con- 
tinuously since then; 22.iii, Brurnea fagella; 26.iii, Bomhylius major, 
Aisophila acsciiiai'm-, l.iv, Spilo.sonui luhricipeda (Mentrasfri), in gar- 
dener's shed, doubtless " for(-ed "; 14. iv. Opistkograptis Luteokita, 
Ewhloe cdrddinines d (v on 15. iv); 15. iv, Parorfje aegerid.—T. Bain- 
BEiGGE Fletchee, 15.iv.49. 

DisPHKAGis coerulbocephala ON Laukel. — On 27.V.48 at Uley, Glos., 
1 found several larvae of JJispliragJs cocriilt'ocephahi feeding on Laurel 
leaves, which they had evidently been eating for some time. IS' one 
were to be found on an adjacent Hawthorn hedge but ])ossibly, if any 
had been i)resent. on the Hawthorn, they had fed up earlier as larvae 
feeding on a merely tolerated foodplant often develop very slowly, for 
example; larvae of Flens hrassicae on Aruhis as compared with larvae 
on Jha^s'ica. — T. Bainbeigge Fletchek, 15.iv.49. 

Tinea akcella is a " ratlier common " species according to the text- 
books, but is one tliat has hitherto eluded me. It was, however, com- 
mon at Uley, Glos., in July and August 1948 along hedges in the late 
evening, most frequently disturbed from amongst Curulus leaves. — T- 
Bainbrig(;e Fletchek, 4.iv.49. 

Migrants in 1948 were not common, as aheacly noted by many 
others. At Uley, Glos.. Vanessa afiiUnifa was represented by 81 in- 
dividuals. Seen from 2-3. vi to 19.x, V. cardui, by only one, on 29.viii, 
a date on which I saw the " five possibles," i.e., all the species of Vanessa 
found locally, cardui, at<daiita, io, iirfieae and r-aJJjiiui. Hesia sf(dla- 
fa III III. one, not very fresh, on 22.viii. Kiiehalciii ganruia, a few, from 
24. vi to 23.x, of which three were wings of individuals devonred by 
bats; on 12.x one (jam ma was seen flying South at 1400 liours during a 
sunny interval after a heavy shower at 1200, there being a light South- 
Westerly breeze at the tim<^. One of the V. afalanfa came to Uglit on 
the night of 5.ix. — T. Bainhkigge Fletcher, 4.iv.49. 

Rhingia campestris. — With reference to the notes by Messi's 
Laurence, Andrews, Verdcourt and Parmenter {Ent. Bee. LX^ 100, 
107, 108. 119) on the scarcity of lihingia ((Miipestris in the Spring of 
1948, I would note that at Uley, Glos., this species was abundant in 
May 1948 and occurred commonly throughout the Summei- to mid-Se]>- 
tember and more sparingly into October. — T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, 
4.iv.49. 

OsMYLT^s evlvicephalus. — Au exaiiijde of Osnnjlus fuhueplndiis was 
found on 3.vii.48 near Uley, Glos., being ])eaten from vegetation over- 
growing a small roadside streamlet. This seems a late date. — T. Bain- 
brigge Fletcher, 4.iv.49. 



BRITISH DIPTEROLOGICAL LITERATURE. 

SUPPLEMENT IV. 
By H. W. Andrews, F.R.E.S. 

For previous Lists see Eiit. Becord, Vol. 43 (March 1931), Vol. 47 
(December 1935), and Vol. 55 (May 1943). 

General Works Kloet, C. S., and Hincks, W. D.: "A Cheek List of 

British Insects." [Published at Stockport in 1945 by 
Kloet and Hincks, now at 110 Sackville Street, Man- 
chester 1; price £2 12/6.] Lists of species of all Orders. 
The section dealing with Diptera gives 5199 species, and 
is the only complete list since the 2nd Edition of Verrall's 
List of Britisli Diptera was published in 1901. 

Nomenclature Smart, John: " An annotated Bibliography-Chronology 

of the Literature and Events relating to the Generic 
Names of Meigen, 1800." [Published in The Annals and 
Magazine of Nntnral History, Ser. II, Vol. XI, pp. 261- 
272, April 1944.] Tliis pamphlet, explained by its title, 
should prove most useful as a reference work to all — 
especially writers — interested in this thorny subject. 

ORTHORPHAPA. 

(Nematoceba.) 
SImuliidae. — Smart, John: " The British Simuliidae, with Keys to the 
species in the Adult, Pupal, and Larval Stages." [Pub- 
lished as Scientific Publication No. 9 of The Freshwater 
Biological Association of the British Empire, Wray 
Castle, Ambleside, Westmorland, 1944; price 2/6.] A 
very comprehensive revision of the British Species of the 
family, dealing not only with the Adults, but also with 
the earlier stages. In addition to the Analytical Keys 
• there is an introductory chapter on Structure, Life His- 
tory, Bloodsucking Habits, etc. ; also notes on Ecology 
and Distribution and a Bibliography. There are 17 text 
figures. 

ORTHORRHAPA. 

(Brachycera.) 
Asiiidae. — Hobby, B. M. : " Epitriptus cowini, a new Asilid (Dipt.) 
from the Isle of Man." [Published in E.M.M., Vol. 
LXXXII, Pt. 4, April 1946.] Detailed description with 
plate and figures of terminalia, account of locality and 
captures. Also revision of that portion of the analytical 
table in Dr Hobby's '' Key to the British species of 
Asiiidae " (vide my Annotated List, Suppt. II, p. 2) 
covering tbe genera Machimus and Epitrii:»tus. 



(2) entomologist's recoed, vol. lxi. 15/ IV / 1949 

do, Parmenter, L. : " Laphria gilva (L.) (Dipt. Asilidae) 

in Surrey, with a Key to the British Laphriinae." [Pub- 
lished in E.M.M., VoL LXXXII, Pt. 12, December 1946]. 
Notes on captures of this species and analytical table of 
the three British species of the genus. 

Therevidae. — Collin, J. E.: "British Therevidae (Diptera)" [Published 
m Proceedings of The Boyal Physical Society, Vol. 
XXIII, Pt. II, 1948.] A revision of the three British 
Genera and species. Analytical Tables and notes on 
species, 

Dolichopotfidae. — Collin, J, E.: "A revised Table of the British species 
of Argyra, Mcq, (Dipt., Dolichopodidae)," [Published 
in E.M.M., Vol, LXXIX, Pt, 5, May 1943,] Analytical 
Tables of c? d and 9 9 Avith notes on individual species. 

do. Parmenter, Capt. L. : " Suhmeditera cuneataj 'Becker. 

(Dipt., Dolichopodidae) new to Britain." [Published in 
EJI.M., Vol. LXXVI, No, 7, July 1940,] Description 
and notes. 

do, d'Assis-Fonseca, E. C. M. : " Syntormon macula, Par, 

(Dipt., Dolichopodidae), an addition to the Britisili List." 
[Published in Knt. Becord, Vol. 60, June 1948,] Notes 
on this species (9 9 only). 

do. Collin, J. E. : " Confirmation of Dolichopus plumi- 

tarsis, Fin., as a British species and. an additional re- 
cord of D. figilis, Mg. (Dipt., Dolichopodidae)." [Pub- 
lished in E.M.M., Vol. LXXX, No. 1, January 1944.] 
Descriptive notes on these two species. 

OYCLORRHAPHA. 

(Proboscidea.) 

Syrphfdae. — Wainwright, C J.: "A new British Syrphid (Diptera) 
Lasiopthicus (Catohomba) alboniaculata, Macq. (gemelarii 
Pond.), [Published in E.M.M., Vol, LXXVIII, January 
1942,] Comparative description of this and the other two 
British species of the genus, 

do, GoflFe, Capt. E. R, : Vohicella zonaria, Poda, (Dipt,, 

Syrphidae) in Britain. [Published in E.M.M., Vol. 
LXXXI, No, 7, July 1945,] Notes of recorded captures 
of V. zonaria up to 1943, and Key to the British species 
of Volucella, including zonaria. 

Tachini'dae. — d'Assis-Fonseca, E,C,M. : " Dionaea aurifrons Meig, 
(Dipt,, Larvaevoridae), a genus and species new to 
Britain," [Published in E.M.M., Vol, LXXXIII, No. 
5, May 1947.] Short description of above species. A 
fuller description by Mr Fonseca appeared in No. 12, 
December 1947, of the same volume. 

do. Day, Dr C. D. : " British Tachinid Flies " Tachinidae 

(Larvaevoridae and Calliphoridae)," [Reprinted in book 
form from The North Western Naturalist, and published 
by T. Buncle Co, Ltd,, Market Place, Arbroath, Decem- 
ber 1948; price 15/6, post free.] A Key for the identifica- 



BRITISH DIPTEROLOGICAL LITERATURE (iv). (3) 

tion of the Genera and Species, with short descriptions 
and notes on habitats, localities, etc. A very useful 
work on this group. Looks more formidable than it is 
owing to the extensive use of abbreviations by the 
author, which, however, are all explained in preliminary 
prefaces. Eleven plates and over 200 figures. The plates 
of wings (with a separate key supplementary to the gene- 
ral one) and those of genitalia, should prove a great hel]) 
to identification. 

Muscidae. — Collin, J. E.: ''The Classification of the Genera allied to 
Musca, L." [Published in Proc. B. enf. Soc. Lond., Series 
B, Vol. 17, Pts. 9-10, October 1948.] Explained by its 
title. 

Anthomyidae. — Niblett, M. : " Diptera bred from flower heads of com- 
positae." [Published in Eiit. Becord, Vol. 58, No. 10, 
October 1946.] Explained by its title, mostly species of 
Anthomyidae. 

ACALYPTERATE MUSCIDAE. 

Chamaemyiidae (Ochtlphilidae).— Coe, P. Ti. : *' The British species of 
the Genus Chamaemyia (Di])t. Chamaemyiidae)." [Pul)- 
lished in E.M.M., Vol. LXXVIII, Pt. 8, August 1942.] 
Analj'tical Tables, Notes on species and their consider- 
able variation, 5 Text figures of genitalia, and Biblio- 
graphy. 

do. Coe, R. L. : " Chamaemyia juncorum, Fall., and C. 

herbarum, R.-D. (Dipt. Chamaemyiidae): a correction 
to my recent Paper on the British Species of the Genus 
(with fig.)." [Published in E.M.M., Vol. LXXIX, Pt. 
6, June 1943]. Explained by its title. 

HeSO'myzidaie. — ^Oollm, J. E. : '' The British Species of Helomj^zidae 
(Diptera)." [Published in E.M.M., Vol. LXXIX, Nos. 
10 and 11, October and November 1943.] Analytical 
tables, descriptions of new species, and notes on species. 

Psilidae. — Collin, J. E. : " The British Species of Psilidae (Diptera)." 
[Published in E.M.M., Vol. LXXX, Nos. 9 and 10, Sep- 
tember and October 1944.] Analytical tables, descrip- 
tions of new species, and notes on species. 

M'cropezidae. — Collin, J. E. : " British Micropezidae (Diptera)." 
[Published in Ent. Becord, Vol. 57, Pt. 10, October 1945.] 
Analytical Tables of Sub-families, Genera and Species. 
Notes on distribution. 

Trypetidae. — Oollin, J. E. : '* The British Genera of Trypetidae witli 
notes on a few species." [Published as a Supi^lement in 
E)it. Becord, Vol. 59, Nos. 1 and 2. January and February 
1947.] A long wanted and up-to-date key to this attrac- 
tive group. Analytical Tables of sub-families and 
genera, with lists of species pertaining to each genus. 
No analytical tables of species. (Reprints of this valu- 
able paper can be obtained from Hon. Treasurer, Ent. 



(4) entomologist's recobDj vol. lxi. 15 / IV / 1949 

Becord, The Rookery, Breamore, Fordingbridge, Hants. ; 
price 2/6.) 

Jo Collin, J. E. : '' Tephritis separata, Rdi., an addi- 
tional British species allied to T. conjuncta, Lw. (Dip- 
tera, Trypetidae). [Published in Erit. Becord, Vol. 55, 
No. 9, September 1943.] Detailed comparison of these 
two species with critical notes on their nomenclature. 

do. Niblett, M. : " British Trypetidae, additional notes." 

[Published in Ent. Becord, Vol. 58, No. 1, January 
1946.] The fifth of Mr Niblett's useful papers dealing 
with breeding and collecting Trypetids. 

do. Collin, J. E. : " Sp^lographa virgata, sp. n. (Diptera, 

Trypetidae)." [Published in Ent. Becord, Vol. 58, No. 
2, February 1946.] Full description of a fifth species of 
this genus. 

Sapromyzidae — Collin, J. E.: "A short synopsis of the British 
Sapromyzidae (Diptera)." [Published in Trans. B. ent. 
Soc. Loud., Vol. 99, Pt. 5, 25th June 1948.] Analytical 
Tables of Genera and. Species with critical notes ; also 
notes on cei'tain species. Three text figures. 

Opomyzidae.— Collin, J. E. : " The British species of Opomyzidae 

(Diptera)." [Published in Ent. Becord, Vol. 57, No. 2, 

' February 1945.] Analytical Tables and notes on species. 

Anthomyzidae. — Collin, J. E.: "'The British species of Anthomyzidae 
(Diptera)." [Published in E.M.M., Vol. LXXX, No. 12, 
December 1944.] Analytical Tables of Genera and Species, 
with notes on species. Two text figures. 

Ephydridae. — CoUin, J. E.: ''The British species of Psilopa Fin and 
Discocerina, Mcq. (Dipt., E])liydridae).'' [Published in 
E.M.M., Vol. LXXIX, No. 7, July 1943.] Analytical 
Tables of Genera and Species, notes on individual species. 

Chloropldae. — Collin, J. E.: "The British Genera and Species of 
Oscinellinae (Diptera, Chloropidae)." [Published m 
Trans. B. ent. Soc. Land., Vol. 97, Pt. 5, 20th August 
1946.] Analytical Tables of Genera and Species, with 
notes on individual species. Six text figures. 

Note.— -In addition to Mr Collin's paper on " The British Genera of 
Trypetidae," reprints of some of his other papers published in 
The EntoniologisV s Becord are still available for purchase. 
Applications should be made to The Hon. Treasurer, The Ento- 
mologist's Becord, " The Rookery," Breamore, Fordingbridge. 
Hants. 



EXCHANGES. 



Subscribers may have Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata inserted free of charge. 
They should be sent to Mr Hy. J. Turner, " Latemar," West Drive, Cheam. 

Wanted— A. vestilialis from all parts of the British coasts except south : also 
R. simulans and S. ravida (obscura). Cash or exchange.— 4. H. Sperring, 
Slindon, Fifth Avenue, Warblington, Havant, Hants. 

Desiderata — Dipterous parasites bred from Lepidopterous larvae or pupae, cr 
from any other animal.— H. Audcent, Selwood House, Hill Road, Clevedon, 
Somerset. 

Wanted.— I need specimens of Lycaena iHeodes] phlaeas from all parts of the 
world, particularly Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia, Madeira, Canaries, N. 
Africa, Middle East counties, and E. Africa; also varieties from British Isles 
or- elsewhere. I will purchase these, or offer in exchange good vars. of 
British Lepidoptera or many sorts of foreign and exotic Lepldoptera.— 
P. Siviter Smith, ?/ Melville Hall, Holly Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, 16. 

Wanted.— Yov the British Museum larval collection, larvae of Chrysoraelld 
beetles, alive or preserved. Liberal exchange if required. — Dr S. MauUh. 
British Museum {Natural History), Cromwell Road, London, S.W.7. 

Wanted to Purchase— Piwae in any quantity of any species of moths.— JR. M. 
Richard, Coningsby, Lincoln. 

Wanted to Purchase— The Entomologist, Vols. 1-78 (1840-1945).-/. M. Chalmers 
Hunt, 70 Chestnut Avenue, JVest Wickham, Kent. 

Wanted to Purchase— .MricSin Section of Seitz' Macrolepidovtera of the World, 
both Butterfly and Moth Volumes, either bound or in parts.— Z?. G. Sevasto- 
pulo, c/o Ralli Brothers Ltd., P.O. Private Bag, Mombasa, Kenya Colonii 

Wanted— BistTihution Records, Notes on Abundance and Information regarding 
Local Lists of the Dipterous Families Empididae and CoTioviid3ie.— Kenneth 
G. V. Smith, " Antiopa," 38 Barrow Street, Much Wenloch, Salop. 

Wanted to Purchase— Leech's British Pyrales. Coloured Plate Edition.— A. W. 
Richards, Nether Edge, Hawley, near Camberley. 

Wanted— Set or in papers, Scotch and Northern England forms of the British 
butterflies; specially Coen. typhon, Erebia epiphron, Lycaena artaxerxes, 
and Lycaena salmacis. Purchase or in exchange for Southern forms of many 
species.— C^as. B. Antram, F.R.E.S., Clay Copse, Sway, Lymington, Hants. 

Wanted.- Specimens of Velia currens Fabr. (Hemiptera), in any condition, from 
all parts of the British Isles or Western Europe, especially from the more 
remote parts of the west and north, for taxonomlc study.— S". S. Brown, 
Hailey Lodge, Hertford Heath, Hertford. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Royal Entomological Society of London, 41 Queen's Gate, S.W.7 : April 
6th, May 4th, at 5.30 p.m. South London Entomological and Natural 
History Society, c/o Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W.l; 2nd and 
4tli Wednesdays; e.O for 6.30. London Natural History Society : Tuesdays. 6.30 
p.m., at London School of Hygiene or Art-Workers' Guild Hall. Syllabus ol 
Meetings from General Secretary, H. A, Toombs, Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Crom- 
well Road, S.W.7. Birmingham Natural History and Philosophical Society— 
Entomological Section. Monthly Meetings are held at Museum and Art Gallery. 
Particulars from Hon. Secretary, H. E. Hammond, F.R.E.S., 16 Elton Grove, 
Acocks Green, Birmingham. 



TO OUR READERS. 
Short Gollaoting Notes and Currant Notes. Please, Early.— Eds. 



All MS. and EDITORIAL MATTER should be sent and all PROOFS returned to 
Hy. J. Turner, " Latemar," 25 West Drive, Cheam. 

We must earnestly request our correspondents NOT TO SEND US COMMUNICA- 
TIONS IDENTICAL with those they are sending- to other magazines. 

REPRINTS of articles may be obtained by authors at very reasonable cost IX 
ordered at THE TIME OF SENDING IN MS. 

Articles that require ILLUSTRATIONS are inserted on condition that the 
AUTHOR DEFRAYS THE COST of the illustrations. 



Change of Address :— The temporary address of Mr Kenneth J. Hayward of 
Tucuman will be, as from September, c/o Dept. of Entomology, British Museum 
of Natural History, London, S.W.7. 



Communications received :— Thomas Greer, Fergus J. O'Rourke, 0. Quercl, 
H Donlsthorpe. Malcolm Burr, Surg.-Lt. Comm. H. M. Darlow, D. G. Sevastopulo, 
D. Fearnehough, R. J. R. Levett. E. C. S. Blathwayt, E. P. Wiltshire, A. E. Wright. 

All Communications should be addressed to the Acting Editor, Hy. J. 
TURNER, " Latemar " ^ West Drive, Cheam. 



IRISH- NATURALISTS' JOURNAL. 



A MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 
Published Quarterly. 

Edited by J. A. S. STENDALL, M.R.I. A., 

Assisted by Sectional Editors. 

Annual Subscription, 10/-, post free. Single Parts, 3/- 



AU communications to be addressed to : — 
THE EDITOR, 42 NORTH PARADE, BELFAST, 

Printeji by T. Buncle 4 Co.. Ltd., Arbroath. 







ENTO 



tlt^dQl 



UBRARY 

10 1949 




GISTS RECORD 

AND 



JOL|RmjOF VARIATION 



MALCOLM Burr, d.Sc, f.r.e.s. 

E. A. Cockayne, M.A., F.R.C.P., F.R.E.S. 

J. E. COLUN, J. P., F.R.E.S. 



n. DONISTHORPE. F.Z.S.. F.R.E.S, 

S. N. A. JACOBS. 

H B. WILLIAMS. K.C.. LL.D., F.R.E.S. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. {SliD-Editor), 

Rodborough Fort, Stroucl, Glos. 

HY. J. TURNER. F.R.E.S., F.R.H.S. {Editorial Secretary). 



CONTENTS. 



A FORTNIGHT'S COLLECTING IN SWITZERLAND (JUNE /JULY 1948), 
S. N. A. Jacobs 

ENTOMOLOGICAL EXPERIENCES IN WEST AFRICA, MAINLY TOGO- 
LAND, FOR THE PAST FIFTEEN YEARS, Major F. 0. Johnson, M.B.E. 

A MYRMECOPHILOUS APHID PARASITE (HYM. APHIDIIDAE), W. D. 
Hindis 

COLLECTING NOTES : Pseudolps bicolorana and Deilephila elpenor in 
S.E. London, D. F. Owen; Melltaea cinxia, Chas. B. Antram; An Early 
Season, Id.; Early Spring- Emergences. 1949, Commander G. W. Harper, 
R.N.; Hibernating Lepidoptera, 1948-49, Id.; Spring Diptera, 1949, 
H. W. A.\ Spring Records, 1949, A. C. R. Redgrave; Lepidoptera in 
January and February 1940, C. S. H. BlaUncayt 

CURRENT NOTE 

OBITUARY 



45 



50 



54 



55 
58 
58 



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The Hon. Treasurer, H. W. ANDREWS, F.R.E.S., 

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This Number. Price ONE SHILLING AND SIXPENCE (net). 



THE SPIDERS AND ALLIED ORDERS OF 
THE BRITISH ISLES 

By THEODORE H, SAVORY, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Comprising Full Descriptions of every Family of British Spiders, every Species 

of Harvestnian and False Scorpion; also the more familiar of the British Mites. 

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A fohtnight's collecting in SWITZERLAND (june/july 1948). 45 



^^FSAKbii09i.'ii COLLECTING IN SWITZERLAND (JUNE/JULY 

LIBRARY 1948). 

f By S. N. A. Jacobs. 

Mi 10 19(49 



Wi^l^^j^he im};jrovement in facilities for foreign travel, we decidetl 



tharu'rOT^Hight ill Switzerland should provide a holiday for all members 
of ^Wiwf traSili^ ; ni)uni5ain scenery, a fresh countryside, and new people 
for my wite inrtJ^aughter to investigate, not to mention the XDossibilities 
of shopping for both ladies, and microlepidoptera for me. After exam- 
ination of the various tours offered by the travel agencies, it was de- 
cided that we should take a week at Lugano and a week at Interlaken, 
and the period chosen was the last week of June and the first week of 
July. Travel facilities proved to be most comfortable with the exception 
of a rather grim jam in the customs office at Calais; supper was taken 
while still in the Pas de Calais, and the war scars of Northern France 
were shrouded by a kindly darkness, the dawn bringing us into the 
more picturesque hilly country of the West, and we arrived at Basle in 
time for breakfast at 8 a.m. ; this was a delicious meal of heavenly coffee, 
crisp rolls and such cherry jam as makes the subject of the pleasantest 
dreams. 

Here we left the French train and boarded the Swiss electric train 
for Lucerne where lunch was already ordered for us by the travel agency. 
After this meal in congenial surroundings of a roofed-in garden, we 
took a short walk across the bridge Avhich spans the narrow part of the 
lake, to the cathedral, and then joined another train for Lugano, which 
provided us with some very fine mountain scenery, including our first 
snow-capped peaks, Mount Pilatus behind Lucerne, having been hidden 
in cloud. The end of our journey was reached about 7 p.m. where we 
were met by the travel agency hostess, and escorted to our quarters, 
which proved to be close to the foot of San Salvatore, the hill to the 
western end of the town. 

After a rapid settling in, and a welcome meal, we set out to prove 
our vicinity; light was failing and only a short walk was undertaken, 
along the lake-side road away from the town, and one or two tortricid 
moths were observed flying at the roadside, Epagogc (jrotiana F. being 
the most in evidence. 

As entojnologists will remember with grief, 1948 was about as poor a 
year both for weather and insects, as can be remembered by the younger 
generation, but the net result of this collecting holiday produced some- 
thing over 300 specimens representing about L'ij species; it is not pro- 
posed to make of this account a mere catalogue of species, but some 
mention must be made of some of the more interesting captures. 

The following daj^ I had to make a business call in St Gall, on the 
north-east corner of the country, which necessitated a whole day's 
ti-avelliiiL:;, and no entomology, but on tlie Sunday, an exploratory 
visit to the top of San Salvatore was undertaken. Here, I was surprised 
to .see FapiUo machiuri) L. flying round the restaurant which occupies 
the crest of the hill, and in the short suivey of the ground at the toj), 
one of the beautiful bronzy-green Coleo)di()ra species (so far undeter- 
mined) was found in moderate nunil)ers flying over the flowers of a tall 
yellow composite, rather reminiscent of our Nipplewort. Of butterflies 
there seemed to be little variety, the solitarj' stately machaon circled 



46 EMO biologist's becouDj vol. lxi. 15/ V/ 1949 

its domain, and some black coloured Hairstreaks, probably TJiecla tv- 
alhum Kn, flirted in pairs among the bushes. My activities were fol- 
lowed with some interest from the cafe above, and when 1 released a 
pair of the hairstreaks which I had netted for inspection, the derisive 
laugh, which argued failure to appreciate the motive behind this action, 
showed that at least I had caused the onlookers some amusement. One 
of the " black " burnets, Syntomis pliegea L., was also flying but there 
was little else to take home with me on this trip. A beautiful vermilion- 
orange fiddle-bug was flying amongst the flowers. On the way up, how- 
ever, I had noted that the rich herbage of the lower slopes was a hive 
of activity, and decided that next time, I would leave the funicular at 
the first stop and work my way up. 

This proved to be the best way to work, and on leaving the railway 
I was at once in the midst of a busy colony of the beautiful Cfuiiihus 
craterellus Scop, busily flying between the grass bents; Gramhus prutel- 
I'us L. was of course, everywhere. On leaving the road, which descended 
again after reaching a farm, I took a very rough lane which struck up 
the hill to serve a few meadows, and then degenerated into a very steej) 
and stony track. At first the most noticeable inhabitants of the over- 
hanging bushes were various Argtjresthia species, chiefly A. ei)hippel!<i. 
F., but on the rough track I was delighted by the first Oecopliora brm- 
tella L. I had ever seen alive, and so taken was I with its beauty that Jt , 
escaped from the net twice before being safely lodged in the pillbox. 
This road was beset by the sAveet-scented Cyclamen, and insects were 
forsaken for a few moments while I gathered a bunch of the flowers for 
my wife. 

Up to this point I had had the road to myself since leaving the farm, 
but here I encountered a party of misguided ladies who had made the 
ascent by funicular, and who were attempting the descent in high-heeled 
shoes of very light pattern. Although my pity was aroused for their 
plight, there was little I could do for them but direct them to the funi- 
cular station a short distance below. 

The road now led out on to a small plateau, and here I came on Llin- 
graphis inopiana, Hw., Tortrix paleano, Hb., an Ancylis species, and 
other Tortrices, and also a Crambus new to me which I have since de- 
termined as C. lucellus, H.-S. As the bushes once more narrowed the 
lane, I took Agrotera nemoralis, Scop., which species 1 have yet to meet 
at home. Finally, with my pillboxes filled, I reached the summit, to 
make the return journey' by funicular. Here it might be advisable to 
impress on would-])© mountain collectors that it is much less tiring to the 
feet to climb than to descend. 

In the evenings, we made a practice of visiting the town^ I with pill- 
boxes for the removal of such moths as were found sitting on the illum- 
inated shop windows. Several interesting insects were taken in this 
way, including my first and only Aglussa caprealh. Hb. { = cupreulis, 
Hb.), which taught me a lesson by feigning death in the pillbox, resur- 
recting itself at a suita1)le moment Avhile being inspected, skipping to 
the ground, and slithering away into some dark hiding place to which 
1 was unable to follow it. 

Euxanthis zoeganu, L., was a very frequent visitor to these shop 
windows, its numbers being greatly superior to those of E. haiiiana, L., 
the commoner species in this country, in fact, I only took two specimens 



A FORTXIUHT's collecting in SAVITZEKLAND (.JUNE / JULY 194S). 47 

oi" Jiamaiia, both of which Avere of the bifasciated form which is uiicoiii- 
111011 here. The Tinaeidae Avere well represented and some interesting 
specimens, iinfortuiiatel}" not yet determined, were taken. Plutella 
macidipennella, Curt., was omnipresent at all levels in all places worked, 
and will not be mentioned again. 

Next, the eastern end of the town, Monte Bre, was investigated, and 
the first walk, round the base by the lakeside path, was not particularly 
productive of a large variety of species, but none the less much of in- 
terest was found. On the rocks, particularly under overhanging ledges, 
the larval cases of a Meesia sp. were found together with one or two 
various Psychid cases, and several ? Solowhia. inconspicuella, Stt. One 
of the Meesias emerged on my return home, but all the other cases pro- 
duced only parasites. One or two HypoTvomeuta webs were found on 
plum bushes, from which H. cogMitellus, Hb., was eventuallj' bred, and 
one or two Mesogiaplie verhascalis, Schiff., were netted. On a Genista, 
the black shiny cases of Coleophora vihiceUa, Hb., were found, and on 
Tleliaittheinuin large brown Coleo])liorid cases, i)robably C. ochrea^ Hw., 
Vv-ere taken but, regrettably, these too proved to have been parasitized. 
The S. phegaea were plentiful along this path, and at the lake level, 
Leptidia sinapis, L., was flying, and the continental large Avhite form of 
Cosciiiia crihrum, L., was also taken. At one place where a landslide 
of a previous age had given rise to a turfy slope, several blues were to 
be seen, as also one of the green hairstreaks, and the large Satyrus circe, 
F., was to be seen flying rapidly, high up, and settling occasionally on 
the precipitous rocks to display its prominent whitish bands. 

The next exj)edition was to the top of Monte Bre, by way of the 
funiculai'. The very summit proved to be private ground, but a slope 
between the head of the funicular and the road provided a fine spectacle, 
with many P. machaon, Pararge gidatliea, an occasional small Argynnid, 
and many burnets. Following the road round, the bronzy Coleophora 
noted on Salvatore, was noted here flj'ing round the flowers of the same 
composite. The path then descended through bushy scrub and the 
beautiful Ilypet'callia cJiristieniana, L., was beaten out, together witli 
Cfamhas hyrciniue, Heinemann { = myelins, Hb.) and C. lucellas. Lower 
down, near to the station for rejoining the funicular, was a colony of 
Tortrix viburnuna, with the males flying strongly, and though only two 
females were traced, others were without doubt well concealed in the 
herbage. Grambids were also in plenty here, but apparently all C. pra- 
tellus. 

An excursion to Milan hy coach was pleasant enough until the auto- 
strad was reached, but here a steady rain began to fall and was with us 
on and off along the forty dreary miles across the plain of Lombardy. 
In Milan, the beautiful cathedral, and the art treasures were inspected; 
the ladies then buried themselves in the shops. On the outward journey, 
many blues and browns were noted flying at the roadside of the hilly 
frontier land, and one was shown the ground wliere the constant war 
takes place between, the Swiss troops and the smugglers, an unpleasant 
reminder that " only man is vile." 

Our final outing in the Lugano district was a walk from the top of 
Salvatore to Morcote, which provided more fresh species, particularly a 
largish Psychid which was flying among the roadside grasses, and the 
beautiful Asopia regalis. Schifi^., of which a single specimen was taken 



48 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/V/1949 

flying strongly over the herbage. On this walk the Tortricidae were 
strongly in evidence; E. hyhridana, Hb., and E. rectlfasciana, Hw., 
were both taken, and their comparison should easily clear up the con- 
fusion of names for our species, which is indubitably rectifasciana. At 
one part of the road which was cut in the hillside, the downward slope 
was edged with stone posts about three feet high, at intervals of about 
eight feet, and on each of these sat one of the beautiful green lizards 
which were to be seen in pet shops here in pre-war days. As one reached 
the post before the occupied one, the occupant took his cue and was 
gone in a flash of blue, green and gold. 

No night work in the field was undertaken, but I have no doubt that 
the use of a petrol or paraffin incandescent lamp would have produced 
an exceedingly large bag. 

Early the following morning, we left this delightful town for Inter- 
laken, via Lucerne, and arrived in time for dinner on a wet and de- 
pressing evening. We retired early, and awoke to a magnificent view 
of the Jungf rau from our window ; we decided there and then that this 
mountain should be visited on the morrow, but heavy rain frustrated the 
project. Instead, we tried the Harder on the north side of the town; 
my wife and daughter went up by the funicular, and, walking along the 
ridge, were regaled by the sight of a large mass of the globe ranunculus. 
There was a queue for the funicular, however, and I decided to walk 
up, reaching the head of the funicular as the ladies were ready to de- 
scend. On the way up, I took the pretty little Gelechiid, JRhinosia sordi- 
della, Hb., flying in the roadside vegetation, and one or two oddments; 
the sight of a large Acer pseudoplatanus infested by a Gracilaria species 
was most striking, for at all levels a very high proportion of the leaves 
Avere rolled into loose bags to accommodate the larvae. A selection of the 
most mature looking leaves was taken, but unfortunately the leaves 
proved difficult to keep, and dried up very soon; only two adults weie 
bred. The report of the flowery ridge, given by my wife and daughter 
decided me to make another exi^edition on the morrow. 

Here again, I was to some extent frustrated, for there was a heavy 
fall of snow in the night on the high ground, and when I reached them, 
the Itanunculus were bent and bedraggled. The large grey Onephasia 
ulticolana, H.-S., was beaten out of the spruce trees which lined the 
j)ath, and where these gave place to a st-eep rough grassy slope, C. 
argentana, Clerck, and Cramhus conchellus, Schiff., were taken in fair 
numbers; there were also a few O. coulonellus, Dup., and C. luceUus, 
H.-S., various Zygaenids, and a few P. galathea, L., and Melitaea d'uhj- 
ma, 0. ?. This slope, with its wet snow, was too treacherous for much 
activity without mountaineering boots. 

The afternoon outing was to Wildersvvill, v/here a small recently cut 
n,eadow was worked. This produced nothing new to me, but the usual 
species, Fi/rnastu cespitalis, Schiff., P. itignita. Scop., 1*. purpuralis, L., 
Cramhus pratellus, Hb., C. cespitellus, Hb. {^^hortueUus, Hb.), Fancalvi 
Intrcillella^ Curt., Chalunla. aleella, Scliultze {^tesse/rana^, Schiff.), 
Eucusnui fractifasckiiia, Hw., Ancylis ungidceUa, L., and a Stomop- 
tenjx, ? taeiiiolella ^ Z.. were well in evidence. 

The final outing, which commeticed in poor rainy weather which 
cleared as we reached our objective, was to implement our decision to 
visit the Jungf rau. On arrival at Kleine Scheidegg, the terminus of 



A T-'ORTNICHT's collecting in SWITZERLAND (.TUNE / JULY 1948). 49 

tlie track railway from Lauterbruiinen, my wife and daughter boarded 
the final train which would take them to the Jungfraujoch, while I 
.started off downwards by the track, for Wengen, whence I intended to 
entrain at the end of my collecting. This proved to be the most interest- 
ing day's collecting T had enjoyed; the surroundings at this high alti- 
tude were quite new to me ; snow was lying at Scheidegg, and a little 
below it, but the sun was giving a glowing heat which made one think 
that the snow had no right to be there. My first capture was Argyvo- 
ploce schvltziana, F., which is what one might expect at this altitude, 
soon followed by Acompsia cinereUa Clerck, then, flying very rapidly 
over a mass of shale on which grew creeping masses of the bright purple 
and orange Linoiia alpina, I saw a moth which was quite new to me; 
I was able to net three specimens, which were shining sooty- brown with 
golden yellow cilia, later determined as Catastia marginea, Schiflf., a 
reasonably common species at this height. On this bank there was also 
a beautifid clump of (ientiana vernci in full bloom; unfortunately at this 
season, G. acauiis was finished, and the best blooms found were past 
their prime. As the ])ath descended, heather gave wa\^ to the Moun- 
tain Rhododendron, and here 1 took series of Pyrausta idiginoseUus, 
Steph. { = alpinal.is, Schift'.) and P. rlioclodendronalis, Dup., also Scoparia 
fiv.defica, Zell., and *S'. murann^ Curtis. Several pliuues were also taken, 
of which Sfeiioptilia peliodactyta, S.tein, and Oxyptilus encetorum, Stt. 
(? Zell.) are the only two so far determined. 8. graphoductylus, Tr., is 
])ossibly another species. Here Argyroploce rivulana, Scop., was natur- 
ally in large numbers; A. h'lpunrtana, F., and A. tnicana, Hb., were 
taken and also a single Eucosriui gran dap nana, Z. On this slope the 
butterflies began to appear; first came P. inachaon, which species seems 
to prefer high ground on the Continent, and one or more of the large 
grey skipper species. Here T saw my only Aporia crataegi, L., and on 
the banks of a small stream, where there was a brilliant green turf and 
many wild flowers were blooming, blues, coppers and small fritillaries, 
with occasional Cidarias were plentiful. Pyrausta terrealis, Tr., was 
netted on the edge of the wood a1)ove Wengen, and filled my last pill- 
box. Cramhns coulondlus, C. lucellus, C. pratellus and C. cespitellus 
were flying in ])lenty on the Rhododendron slope, and the little moun- 
tain Alder, Aluus incaiio^ gave mines which later produced Lithocol- 
Icfh strigvl-ateUa, Z. On reaching Wengen station rain once more com- 
menced to fall, and after possibly the most enjoyable day's collecting 
of my life, 1 settled down without regrets, happily tired, to take tea 
at Lauterbrunnen and then on home to Interlaken. 

This was the last outing of my holiday and the next morning we set 
out for home. The weather of the TiUgano week had been most kind, 
but the Interlaken rain and snow curtailed collecting to a disappointing 
degree. However, we returned home feeling that this had indeed been a 
holiday of note. 



50 entomologist's eecord, vol. lxi. 15/V/1949 

ENTOMOLOGICAL EXPERIENCES IN WEST AFRICA, MAINLY 
TOGOLAND, FOR THE PAST FIFTEEN YEARS. 

By Major F. 0. Johnson, M.B.E. 



I. (Received in July 1946.) 

T wish to thank yon for your letter of 17th Jnne, which 1 received 
to-day, I appreciate it very much. 
. I shall most certainly send you notes, observations, etc., which you 
can publish with pleasure if you consider them of sufficient interest. 

It must be most interesting to study local variation, aberration, etc. 
Unfortunately there are no vardvi here, and as I know very little about 
moths T do not know if niiriferd is found in Togo! and. 

T have not the time to do much collecting, but T employ an African 
who is very keen. On long runs in my car my driver keeps his eye glued 
to the road when it is sunny, even at high speed he gets very agitated 
w^hen he sees an interesting butterfly. The car stops, except when I am 
in a hurry, which is usually the case. Then the driver tells me what I 
have missed, and he is away with a net, unless T get there first. T find 
nets of about 2 ft. 6 ins. in diameter necessary. 

My district comprises Addah, Akuse both Southern and Northern 
British Mandated Togoland, and I sometimes have to go to Palime in 
French Togoland on business. Some of the country is very hilly, and 
there are passes. On the way to Palime it is 750 metres, and there is a 
fine waterfall, many ferns, etc. Many species of butterflies on hot days 
fly in the spray, and emerge very wet. They seem to enjoy it, but when 
the sun is in they all disa])pear, as it gets very cold there. The blue 
Salfimis look very fine in the sun there, but in other parts keep to the 
bush. 

In the Belgian Congo I saw the endless processions, like a blizzard, 
of Cymotho'e coenis, but in Togo there seems to be more females than 
males. 

In Congo I very much wanted ('ha raxes hodrianiis, I showed the pic- 
ture in " Seitz " to an African who had never w^orked except farming, 
and certainly never collected butterflies. He said he knew hadrianii^i, 
and as proof brought me fifteen fine males, all living. But here it is 
not so simple. 

There are a number of interesting variations and dwarf forms here, 
if you would like them, I will send you specimens I consider of interest. 
You might not have them in your collection. 

In Papilionidae, there are of course variations in P. clardanii.^, and 
the only female form I have found here — hippocoon, varies quite a bit. 
On the wing it is very like Amauris niavivs, but of course much lighter. 
There are dwarf forms of deniodociis and iiireus; and leomdas varies 
greatly in size and in colour — they seem to approach to ab. onidale (in 
Seitz) and one I have is onidale. I was amused to see late one afternoon 
a solitary leonidas busy feeding in the middle of a cluster of Ainauri.'^ 
egialea and D. petivisaria. Exact mimicry. I have a leonidas, and a 
Salamis anacardij with one forewing very much smaller than the other, 
but apart from that quite perfect. Phorcas usual female is here also 
form tihersander. Some males of pylades are quite small, some as large 
as the female. PoMcenefi, lipnnesco, a nth ens and evowharoides vary in 



ENTOMOLOGICAL EXPERIENCES IN WEST AFRICA, MAINLY TOGOLAND. 51 

size and in the green eolour. I have not seen the large clusters of Pnpilio 
and Fierh T used to see on the banks of the Kassai river in Congo, but 
it is amazing to see the immense swarms of nirevs and clemodociis, in- 
cluding their females, simply going mad and fighting on the " flame ol 
the forest " trees, they get quite red from the brilliant red (flower^;) 
pollen. They seem to get intoxicated, and too full even to fly. Pyladr-s 
sometimes joins them. Papilio afhnnasfor, agamedes, almansor, etc., 
seem almost to merge, and some are hard to distinguish. T have found 
only two menestJiPvs, although it should be common. Zenohia and 
rynorfd are uncommon, nireiis is much commoner than hromiiis. 

T have not long been released from the Army, so it may change when 
I have been in this district a whole year. I am keeping rough notes of 
the months in which the various species appear. 

PiERiDAE. — Lepfosia narica, Mi/lothrif; chloris — variation in colour 
and size both male and female. Spica, fairly constant — one female I 
have is quite yellow. Poppea varies a bit, especially in size. Creona — 
fairly constant, one female very yellow. Calypso is most interesting, \ 
have a dwarf form, the males vary in the amount of black on the fore- 
wings, but the females vary from almost white to yellow until almost 
black. The yellow on the underwing on the reverse side is much brighter 
in some newly emerged specimens. I have had a number of rhena, 
little variation really, and have just got one liedqile to-day. Teracolus 
rvippe and ab. ocale vary greatly in colour and size, some are almost 
the size of a small blue. Eronia thalassms vary, but of course argyia 
is the most astonishing. I have the following female forms — sulphurea , 
scmifl.arn, idotea, poppea, virescens and mixta. They are my favourites, 
I think. CafopsUia show the usual variations, the females deep orange. 
Terias I have not had time to sort out. 

Danaidae. — No chriii^ippuH, although the female form of HypoUmna." 
misippiis is much more common than alHppoides and. inaria. Perhaps I 
shall get chrysippus later in the year. Alrippiis varies greatly in the 
amount of brown, or brown-yellow, on the hindwing. The forewings are 
sometimes red, and often deep brown. T have dwarf forms — exceedingly 
small, some are as large as archippKs. Petiverana does not vary very 
much, nor does Amauris niavius except in size and in blackness. Egialea 
varies a lot, in size and the extent of the brown on the hindwing. It is 
much more common than Jiccafe. Egialea comes out whenever the sun 
goes in, at a^ll times of the day — sometimes in the dusk. 

Nymphalidae, — Euxanthe eurinome, not common. Charaxes epija- 
siiis, only males as yet. Castor appear very large, zinga not common, 
males, and about the same number of females. Etesipe, more females 
than males. In the Congo I found female charaxes difficult to obtain, 
but here it is much easier. Protodeci of course, and cynthia same 
amount of females as males. Lncretius — only males so far. I have a 
specimen I cannot determine, it is something like satumus, but the tails 
are very long, there is a lot of white where the orange markings taper 
oft", and the abdomen is white, tails and hind margin are very blue. It 
is not like pelias, and I am sure it is not a form of satvrnus. Niimenes 
male and female are not common, but tiridates is fairly easy tp get. I 
have quite a number of fine females. Both male and female vary, but 
I am certain none are really hipniictatits. The yellow hind margin varies 
quite a bit, some have a yellow triangular marking high up. Actually 



52 extomoloCxIst's record, vol. lxi. 15/V/1949 

it is not so t'oiuinon, but my boy collects in very thick busli and that 
is where the shy females are found. Occasionally T have caught female 
CharriTes in bright sunshine, but not often. There are varieties of 
etheocles, holkrndi and carteri. I got a very fine series of all kinds of 
efheocles in Congo, also mechoivi, which is rare. ('nndiope is fairly 
scarce. Vologeses varies enormously both in size of male and females, 
and on the underside. Quite as much as Salamis cacta. Fiilrescens—l 
have obtained one only, beautifully marked — it almost looks different. 
Eupale is not common, and although I got zelicn. and doiihJedayi female 
in Congo, the only one of this type I have found so far is a female 
laodice. Falla dechis T can find only in one small locality, but I have 
got a number of fine females, not all deciv.'i. I did not get a female 
r(dla in Congo. Ci/motlioe fheohene, females only; I have seen only 
one male. Degesfa, female ab. of egesfa, I have found. Caenis, more 
females than males to date. Snngaria — males and females. Euryphvrn 
and Biesfogynn I have a number but have not finished classifying them, 
some of the Cameroon forms mentioned in Seitz are certainly here. I 
may have some new kinds. This applies also to Euryphene, sophvH 
female is more obtainable than the male, but loves the darkness under 
the trees like Evphnedrn and Aferirn gaJene and deninphon. The males 
of Aferica gaJene seem almost to scuttle about like beetles. T have found 
that it is useful to be ready at a forest trail and get an* African to make 
a big commotion in the bush, then the Eupliripdm . etc., fly out, but still 
are not easy to catch as the net fouls the leaves and branches. One has 
to be patient. Euphaedra fitpaJvs — very large, madon — varies quite a 
bit, also form agnes, etc. Xypete is not common, nor is cyparissn. 
Themis varies enormously, the females are very fine, and some very large. 
There is janetfa also. Ceres are very variable, especially females with 
white band and yellow band. Some are very large, ravola, praetJnisa. 
etc., are found. I have not seen ianvm yet, but have got edwardsi male 
and female. Hamaniimidia meleagris very common, also Aterica galene. 
Meleagris skims on the surface of the roads, and is very wary. Cafvnn 
crithea in dark places in woods with galene, etc. Pseudonepfis coeno- 
hifa — bright sunshine. I have a few Psevdnrren, but mostly lucretja. 
I got some good ones in Congo. Neptis vary in size, have not deter- 
mined them yet. Cyrestis camillns loves skimming on the surface of 
roads in the sun, as meleagris, it is not easy to see at rest with wings 
outspread. Byhlia ilithyria- loves the sun on the grass, like Precis wesfer- 
manni, hadrope, etc. ErgoJis enotrea and Evrytela are difficult to catch, 
for no apparent reason they fly in sudden spurts into the leaves. Enotrea 
is often found torn not by lizards or by birds, but through contact with 
leaves and twigs. By the way it is amusing to see a lizard following up 
a butterfly on a road surface, the lizard is nearly there, when the butter- 
fly flies ahead and again rests. The lizard often gives up the chase in 
disgust. I found cats are very swift, and leap up and catch butterflies 
and moths. I have mentioned Hypolimnas misippus females, males and 
females fly on to grass from a cassia tree, the male especially suns himself 
and flaps his wings until he sees a female, and then they fly off at great 
speed high in the air away from the tree. Salmacis males and females 
are much finer than those of Congo, both in colour and in size. Apart 
from great differences in size of specimens, anthedon and duhia vary 
little, not as much as in Congo. Oafacropfera mixes with Precis, some 



ENTOMOLOGICAL EXrERIENCES IN WEST AFRICA, MAINLY TOGOLAND. 53 

of tlie females are brilliant and large. Precis stygia likes grass. Terea 
forms prefer open paths, Ocfnvia is rare, but very fine. Westermfmni, 
only males so far, is common on grass at sides of paths. OJelia is very 
common, and hadrope male is much more common than the female. 
Lachnopfera iole — none. AfeUa coJiimhina, great variation in size, col- 
our, etc. 

AcRAEiDAE. — Many species and variations. 

LiBYTHEiDAE. — More strongly marked than in Congo, and larger. 

Satyr.idae. — Fairly rare except the very small ones. 

Lycaenidae. — I have npicalis types, also l*enf'ila — red ones. Types like 
posthumvs, beautiful tailed blues like caesareiis, but I have not had time 
yet to identify them. 

Hbsperidae. — Not determined yet, many fine forms. Difficult to set 
perfectly. 

I have mentioned only some of the kinds I have obtained here, but 
it gives an idea of the richness of the district. I must confess that in 
the Belgian Congo I got practically all one could expect to find there, 
and very rare species. Perhaps when 1 have been collecting here for a 
year I shall find it equally interesting. Each day my collector brings in 
something new, I find it is better to have one good man than many 
amateurs. I send the collector to different localities, and when I am on 
trek and have my work to do — which takes me all my time, it certainly 
is very pleasant to see his catch always. Setting occupies my spare time 
in the evenings. I set only the species and forms I want for reference. 

My collector is careful to examine a specimen to see it is perfect lie- 
fore killing it, which is a good thing. I hope to rear some Charaxpfi 
later, but although I get living females they do not seem to like my 
idea of a suitable food plant. Obviously they do not always hover round 
the food plant. 

I do not know much about moths, but have good hawk moths, and 
interesting Satnrniadae which I sometimes find in the darkness under 
forest trees and bush, when searching for Eupliaedrd. 

At dusk, by the way, as soon as the last nereus and drniodociis stag- 
gers off from the brilliant " flame of the forest," flamboyant tree, the 
hawk moths swoop down and make a terrific noise. Large ones jostle 
small ones like humming bird hawks, and there are often beehawks, 
some quite large, battling with Hcsperidae, during the day to get nt 
flowers, as the humming bird hawks battle with Hespfridar at flowers 
at dusk. 

One day perhaps I shall tackle the moths, Init the butterflies take me 
all my time at present. To a scientist Seitz's descriptions may be plain 
reading, but I find it gives me a lieadache trying to follow some of tlic 
descriptions. 

Having been in Congo as well, T find my Cha raxes; for example are 
almost complete. I have made a special effort to get all the rare (h'ui- 
fhopteni (Troides), etc., and P<(pdu)>> from Indo-Malaya, and have con- 
centrated on Papdio^, Morplio^, and Helicon ias from America. T tliiiilc 
Pcu^assiiis fascinate me most, esjiecially forms from Thiliet and China, 
Himalayas, etc. 

I hope the foregoing has interested you, if there is anything of in- 
terest please publish it. Perhaps you would give me some idea of what 
people 7'equire, T have not tbc time to trace life histories, and although 



54 entomologist's RECOET), VOL. LXI. 15 / V / 1949 

I had some years of botany, I regret I cannot tell one tree from another ; 
also caterpillars are hard to get. 1 think Africans generally must be 
scared of them. 

Tf there are any species with variation I have mentioned which yon 
are interested in, ]^lease let me know. 

P.S. — Usually when I get a chance to go into the bush to collect, 
sometimes on Sundays, 1 find it is necessary to get up very early. Afri- 
cans tell me many '' drink the dew " at 7 a.m., or even earlier. T have 
seen th&m about at 6 a.m., which is surprising as later in the morning 
most disappear when the sun is obscured by clouds. It is disappointing 
to find on Sunday the sky overcast, and then I w^ish I were free to collect 
every day of the week. In the Congo I met the occasional snake in the 
bush which made me think twice before scrambling after a rare butterfly, 
but the next day one is as keen as ever. Fortunately I found the snake 
scared first, but some get annoyed. 

Apart from ("haraxps having the same depraved taste as Purple Em- 
perors, especially the trail left by a dog (excuse me being vulgar) they 
love places whei'e "' elaeis " palm trees are tapped for '• Palm wine." 
Where this drii)s to the ground, or is left to ferment, male CIk'toxi'.'^ 
ai'o even more keen to get at it than Africans who risk getting the result- 
ing thick head. 

(To he continupd.) 



A MYRMECOPHILOUS APHID PARASITE. (HYM. APHIDIIDAE). 

By W. T). HiNCKS (Manchester Museum). 



Myruiecohofien innncUhvlaris was described by Maneval in 1940 {Bull. 
Sor. Linn. Li/on,, 9: 9) from a single female taken with Lasivs niger 
(L.) in France. I have just sent off to Sweden a short account of a 
closely allied species which T reared from the aphid Tefraneiira iilmifolinp 
Baker, taken by Mr H. L. G. Stroyan in the runs of Lasius niger whilst 
we were collecting in Linne's garden at Hammarby during the Vlllth 
International Entomological Congress at Stockholm last August. 

It is possible that Myrmpcohnsca may be found in Britain so that a 
brief note on the little information we have regarding this remarkable 
genus may be of interest. Maneval concluded that his insect was a 
specially adapted myrmecophile, a conclusion supported by several in- 
teresting facts. His single specimen had the apical portion of the fore- 
wings beyond the stigma, and the tips of the hindwings symmetrically 
nibbled off on both sides. The apical segments of the abdomen are per- 
manently curved under the body and the long legs are carried in such a 
way as to elevate the body sufficiently from the ground whilst the insect 
is in motion. In the act of being fed by an ant, as observed by Maneval, 
the parasite is supported in a more or less vertical position by the trun- 
cated wing-tips and the curved aspect of the abdomen. The prominent 
mandibles and curiously shaped head combine to produce a kind of dew- 
lap on to which the regurgitated droplet may fall. 

The Swedish species agrees closely with Maneval's description but 
there are a few important differences which have compelled me to regard 
it as distinct. The wiiigs of all three of these reared specimens are, of 
course, complete and it is interesting and significant to notice that thev 



COLLECTING NOTES. 55 

are veinless beyond the level of the stigma and when folded across the 
back the veinless portion extends beyond the end of the curved abdomen 
providing an area particularly vulnerable to the mandibular activities 
of the ants. 

The larvae pupate inside the aphid skin in the manner of Aphidiiis 
and the adult emerges through a circular exit hole in precisely the same 
way. 

It would seem, a priori, that the radicolous aphids specially protected 
by ants are unlikely subjects for parasitic attack but the jn-oblems of 
access are simplified if the parasite is itself an accepted myrmecopliilc. 



COLLECTING NOTES. 



PSEUDOIPS BICOLOEANA AND DeILEPHTLA ELPENOR IN S.E. LoNDON. Mr 

S. Wakely's mention of Pseiidoijys hiroloratKi, Fuessl., at Herne Hill 
{Enf. liec, 61: 37), prompts me to put on record that the species exists 
as a rarity in Grenwich Park, where in 1948 a young larva and a 
single imago were noted on oak. The moth occurs commonly at 
Shooter's Hill, about 3 miles east of Greenwich Park, and in all the oak 
woods in N.W. Kent the species is considered as fairly abundant. No 
doubt there are more small isolated colonies in existence in other parts 
of S. London. 

I might also add that Deilephila elpenor, L., is common at Lewis- 
ham, Blackheath and Greenwich, where larvae feed on willow-herbs 
{Epjlohium a ngusH folium, and E. hirsiitiim) growing on waste ground. 
I well remember a hot afternoon in July 1945 when I saw about two 
hundred full-grown larvae of elpenor on a bombed site at Lewisham. — 
D. F. Owen, 3 Lockmead Road, Lewisham, S.E. 13. 

Melitaea cinxia. — In my note on the Butterflies of the New Forest 
area in the December number of the Journal, 1948, I recorded this in- 
sect as occurring in fair numbers quite close to Sway and took a few 
specimens on the 12th ]\Iay. To watch its develo]>ment, I visited the 
locality on two occasions, in late March and again in earlj- April to 
see if there were any larvae to be found. I regret to report that the 
best spot has been completely destroyed by the Railway Com])any's 
extensive repairs to the line and embankment, which has been going 
on for some months. Earth has 1)een deposited over a com]oaratively 
wide area and in addition to this fire has done more destruction else- 
where. I was not surprised, tlierefore, in finding no larvae. Further, 
1 could find very little of its food-])lant, rianfago lanceolato^ the 
narrow-leaved plantain, anywhere, but it is hoped the insect lias more 
widely distributed itself in last season and that T shall find it again 
not so far away from the old site. In due course a further report will 
be made. — CtaAS. 13. Antram, " Clav Copse," Sway, Lymington, Hants, 
29/4/49. 

An Early Season. — The recent a])pearance of certain species points 
to an early season. Besides tbe usual hibernators, the Holly Blue, 
Orange Tip and Pearl-bordered Fritillary have been taken in this dis- 
trict. A freshly-emei-ged feiiial<> of ('olhi^ IniaJe has nireadv been re- 



56 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/V/1949 ' 

coided as seen at Swaiiage on the 1st of April and I have seen a C. edusa 
here on about the same date. In T3onrnemout]i a freshly-emerged Pine 
Hawlv moth was taken at rest in a tree trunk in Easter week. These 

early a])])earanees are no doubt owing to the past mild winter and the j 

l)henomenal heat-wave round about Easter. { 

It goes without saying that weather conditions in the winter and '. 

])articularly the early months of a year greatly influence the prevalence j 

or otherwise of insect life. Except for a gloriously fine May in 1948, I 

June and July were so wet and cold without any long spells of fine i 

weather, this most certainly resulted in the scarcity, among others, of , 

many of the commoner species. It was particularly noticed that Arcf. ; 

ixipliin and Lnn , sihylhi, usually so numerous in the New Forest in ] 

July, were very scarce.* \ 

In tlie early months of this year the ordinary seasonal progression ; 

of weather has been strangely upset. For the first time since 1937, I 

^Nfarch Avas a colder month than December, January or February in j 

many Southern dis.tricts of England and over most of the country the I 

month provided less sunshine than February, a rare happening. At ! 
Easter, however, the tem])eratures on some days were well over 80°, 

))reaking all records for the ])ast 100 years. — Chas. B. Antram, " Clay \ 

Copse,'' Sway, Lymington, Hants, 29/4/49. i 

I 

Early Spring Emergences, 1949. — The alternating warm and frosty I 

s])ells of this Spring has resulted in a few species emerging earlj^ others i 
being normal or even late. 

rhigdlid pedaiin was at light on 8/1/49, but continued rather j 

scarce. ' 

Erannifi leucf)ph<ieari<i on tree trunks, 24/1/49. much rarer than , 
usual. 

Em n ins mdrriinnrid also quite rare and patchy, first seen 24/2/49 

at light. ; 

Apofheinia hispuiaria rarer than usual — first seen^ a d drj^ing its ' 

wings on 13/3/49, rather late. I 

Ortliosius were mostly in smaller numbers than usual, exceptions I 

being 0. miindn abundant at sallows on 22/3/49 in wonderful varietv i 

of forms, var. iminacidata being about 20%. Also 0. popndeti made a ' 

welcome ap]:»earance for the first time m my experience. i 

Cycnia mendica. A S came to laj light trap on 22/4/49, very 

early, together with Flieosui tremula and Notodonta zic-zac, \ 

Argj/nnis euphrasy ne. A cJ seen on 9/4/49, over a fortnight earlier i 

tlian I have ever seen it before; only one, however, seen since. — Com- i 
MANDER G. W. Harper, R.N. (Retd.), 28/4/49. 

Hibernating Lepidoptera, 1948-9. — This winter has been completely i 

without lying snow on the Sussex coast, and has consisted of alternat- j 

ing very mild and cold frosty spells. With the exception of Vcniessa ' 
(ifdlantn^ a few of which usually hibernate here, appearing on mild 
January days, all other usual hibernators have been seen this Spring 

as follows : — j 

yijiiiphalis poJi/chloros. Three individuals seen between 1/4/49 and ' 

14/4/49. One of these returned twice to bask in the sun on the white , 
woollen sleeve of my daughter's jumper! 



COLLECTING NOTES. 57 

Nyniphalis io and Folyijonia c-alhain. Cominon everywhere. 

Agkiis urticae. Rare. It was also scarce last Autumn. 

Vanessa atalanta. Not seen at all. 

Gonepterifx rJmrnin. Abundant. 

Conistra vaccinil and Eupsilia transversa' exceedingly and unusually 
abundant at sallow blossom, as at sugar also in Noveml)er 1948. 

LitJiophane soda and Graptolitha uinitliopiis. Not uncommon at 
sallows. — Commander G. W. Harper, R.N. (Retd.), 28/4/49. 

Spring Diptera, .1949. — Spring Diptera here are at last coming out. 
They were late here, due i)ossibly to lack of moisture, probably due to 
lack of rain. Certainly the wild flowers were long before the flies 1 
usually associate with them. — H. W. A., 19/4/49. 

Spring Records, 1949. — I hope all or some of the following dates of 
imagines taken near Southampton may be of sufficient interest for 
publication under " Collecting Notes " in the E.ll.: — 

Mar. 14 Dlurnea fagella (2). 

,, 17 Xylocampa areola (2). 

Achlya flavicornis (commonly). 

,, 19 Seniioscopis acellaneUu (1). 

,, 25 ; Ectropis histortata (commonly). 

,, 28 Orthosia minlosa (2). 

April25 ;... Apatele rumicis (3). 

— A. C. 11. Redgrave, 14a The Broadway, Ports wood, Southampton, 

29/4/49. 

Lepidoptera in January and February 1949. — It nuiy, perhaps, be 
of interest to mention the first dates when some of our early Lepidop- 
tera were seen by me at Weston-super-Mare during the first two months 
of this 3'ear : — 

Jan. 27 PJiigalia pedur'm. 

,, 30 AlsophlUi aescularia. 

Fel). 7 Gymnosceiis pwmHata. 

,, 10 Erantiis inarginaria. 

,,' 12 E rami is leucophaearia. 

,5 14 Colostygla in iUfistrigaria. 

,, 18 Biston strataria. 

The date for P. pedaria is not unusual but that for A. nescularla is 
early, though this species is usually out in the middle of February as 
long as the weather is mild. G. puiinlafa' on the 7th of February is 
about a month earlier than usual. E. niiri<jin<i ria and E. leucophaearia 
emerged at about the usual time. My earliest date for E. inarginaria 
in former years is the 30th of December 1945, which was, of course, 
exceptional. 

14th February for C. multistrhjdria is early, as is 18th February for 
Ji. strataria; my first date in previous years for the latter is, however, 
6th February 1943.— C. S. H. Blathwait, " Amalfi/' 27 South Road, 
Weston-super-Mare, 29/4/1949. 



58 entomologist's recokd, vol. lxi. 15/ V/ 1949 

CURRENT NOTE. 



It is with deep regret that we record the decease oi \i. W . Newman, ! 

of the " Butterfly Farm," Bexley, Kent. He was a dealer remarkable ■■ 

for his honourable and straightforward business methods. J^eliable and ! 

reasonable in exchange, he was trusted by his many schoolboy clients. ! 

He never tempted the ignorant with foreign material as was the custom I 

of the dealers in the previous generation. i 



OBITUARY. 



AViLLL\M Fassnidge, M.A., F.R.E.S., Officiek Dacauemie. — On i 
l^iesday, 19tli April 1949, William Fassnidge died at the age of 61, ! 
after a long and gallant struggle against ill health, and his very large 
circle of friends has suffered a most severe loss. 

Fassnidge's entomological interest dates back to his school days, and 
his active mind would not be cramped l)y insular boundaries, so that ' 
he spent many holidaj's in various pa its of Euro])e, collecting local 
lepidoptera, compiling an extensive collection of palaearctic lepido])- i 
tera, including the " micros " in which he had a S])ecial interest. His ! 
collections and his extensive knowledge were always at the disposal of ] 
any entomologist who had need of them, and when the enquirer came ! 
from afar, the hospitality of the house was offered as well. Such was , 
the unselfish nature of our friend that while he would rarelj' acce])t j 
more than two or three specimens of a si)ecies he required, anything I 
required by his visitor was pressed on him, even though Fassnidge's 
series Avas none too long. Very many entomologists, both foreign and ; 
British, have enjoyed his hospitality and have gone away enriched m I 
knowledge and gratified by the warmth of his welcome. | 

As a field worker he was tireless, and knew the localities around j 
Southampton so thoroughly as to be able to offer valuable assistance j 
to the visitor, and jjroviding he was satisfied that his visitor's interest ] 
passed the narrow bounds of the mere " collector," no knowledge was - 
withheld, and the visitor was made free of the locality for the insect \ 
required. j 

Fassnidge took a particular interest in the variation of Peronea j 
ciistana, and he Avas a tireless Avorker in the pursuit of this insect, ! 
which, as is known to those who hunt it, is a most strenuous occupation, ■ 
and even in his last season he w^ould overtax his strength unless re- 
strained. He was particularly generous to his friends in the matter of 
good forms of this insect, and if working with a guest, that guest had ; 
the first choice of the bag. ; 

He joined the South London Entomological and Natural History ] 
Society in 1924, and the Boyal Entomological Society in 1925, repre- 
senting that Society on the New Forest Joint Committee from 1939, : 
and he was also a member of the New Forest Association. He Avas a ; 
founder of the Society for British Entomology, and gaA^e A'aluable ser- 
vice in the compilation of local lists published by it. He also serA^ed | 
on the editorial panel of the EiitomologhV s llecprd, and his Avide knoAA-- .j 



OBITUARY. 59 

ledg€ of foreign languages made liini a most valuable colleague, especi- 
ally in the translation of descriptions of species, his translations being 
most reliable. From time to time, he communicated notes to the 
l{ecoid^ and also to L\4.inateur de Fapillons and other entomological 
journals. 

Fassnidge was educated at Dr Channer's Grammar School, Amer- 
sham, Bucks, and at St Mark's College, Chelsea, taking his London M.A. 
externally. He was honoured by the French in recognition of his 
association with the Alliance Francaise. He came to Southampton 
in 1915 as a modern language master at the King Edward VI Founda- 
tion School, where he worked for thirty years, becoming senior language 
master and eventually second master of the school. 

He served as a lieutenant in the King's Liverpool Regiment during 
the 1914/1918 war, and when evacuated with his school to Poole during 
the 1939/1945 war, he served again as a lieutenant in the Poole Home 
Guard Unit, and it was while attending a demonstration of attack by 
fighter aircraft that he was severely wounded by a spitfire whose pilot 
mistook the line of spectators for the target line of traffic set up for 
the demonstration ; he received a bullet through his lung and another 
through his arm which damaged the main arterj^ and although he was 
given but two years to live, his mental and phj^sical vitality coupled 
with the unceasing care of his wife this short period extended to 
something over six years. His activity in the field was naturally cur- 
tailed as a result of his injuries, but he carried on to the best of his 
ability, and afforded to many of his friends some unforgettable days 
in the beautiful forest- and down-land surrounding his home. 

The hospitality of Mr and Mrs Fassnidge was not confined to ento- 
mologists ; he Avas a member of the Modern Languages Association, the 
Franco-British Society, and the local Alliance Francaise of, Southamp- 
ton. His kindness did not stop at realizing the need for help, he saw 
to it that his sympathy found a practical outlet ; in the days of persecu- 
tion in Germany prior to 1939, many a refugee found two or three days' 
shelter with these hospitable hosts, while contacting friends or rela- 
tions in this country, and the same facilities were extended to foreign 
students arriving in Southampton, while they sought suitable quarters 
of a more ])erniaiieiit nature. 

That his efforts in the cause of international friendship did not i)ass 
unnoticed is evidenced by his French decoration and hy the fact that 
the consuls of both Spain and the Argentine Republic attended his 
iuneral, and together with a large gathering of friends 'and colleagues 
saw him laid to rest m South Stoneham cemeteiy, in the heart of the 
countryside he loved so well. 

He leaves a widow, one son, and two grandchildren, and to all of 
these we extend our sympathy, 1)ut most of all to the grandchildren, who 
are too young to have much recollection of the lia])piness .engendered 
by the company of their grandfather; the older ones will liave their 
memories for comfort. 

Let us hope that something of bis ]<iud nature will have been planted 
by him in his circle of friends, that his good work may not end with 
bis untimely death, for there is plenty of scope for them in the world 
as it is to-day, S. N. A. J. 



60 entomologist's llECORD, VOL. LXI. 15/V/1949 



interesting Current Notes are wanted — British and Foreign Science, i 
Contents, British and Foreign Literature of Entomological Journals. | 



EXCHANGES. 



Subscribers may have Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata inserted free of charge. 
They should be sent to H. W. Andrews, The Rookery, Breamore, Fording- 
bridge, Hants. 

Wanted.— E. fuscantaria, ova and imagines. Cash or exchange.— A. H. Sperring, 
Slindon, Fifth Avenue, Warblington, Havant, Hants. 

Desiderata — Dipterous parasites bred from Lepidopterous larvae or pupae, cr 
from any other animal.— H. Audcent, Selwood House, Hill Road, Clevedon, 
Somerset. 

Wanted.— I need specimens of Lycaena (Heodes) phlaeas from all parts of the 
world, particularly Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia, Madeira, Canaries. N. 
Africa. Middle East counties, and E. Africa; also varieties from British Islea 
or elsewhere. I will purchase these, or offer in exchange good vars. of 
British Lepidoptera or many sorts of foreign and exotic Lepidoptera.— ■ 
P. Siviter Smith, ft Melville Hall. Holly Road, Edglaston, Birmingham, 18. 

Wanted.— For the British Museum larval collection, larvae of Chrysomelld 
beetles, alive or preserved. Liberal exchange if required. — Dr S. Maulik. 
British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London. S.W.7. 

Wanted to Purchase— Pni>a.e in any quantity of any species of moths.— iJ. M. 
Richard, Coningsby, FAndoln. 

Wanted to Purchase— African Section of Seitz' Macrolepidoptera of the World. 
both Butterfly and Moth Volumes, either bound or in parts.- Z>. G, Sevasto- 
pulo, c/o Ralli Brothers Ltd., P.O. Box 401, Kampala, Uganda. 

T^an fed— Distribution Records, Notes on Abundance and Information regarding 
Local Lists of the Dipterous Families Empididae and Conopidae.— /vennef/i 
G. V. Smith, " Antiopa," 38 Barrow Street, Much WenlocU, Salop. 

Wanted to Purchase— -Leech's British Pyrales. Coloured Plate Edition.— ^4. W. 
Richards, Nether Edge, Hawley, near Camberley. 

Wanted — Set or in papers, Scotch and Northern England forms of the British 
butterflies; specially Coen. typhon, Erebia epiphron, Lycaena artaxerxes, 
and Lycaena salmacis. Purchase or in exchange for Southern forms of many 
species.— C/ias. B. Antram, F.R.E.S., Clay Copse, Sway, Lymington, Hants. 

TTanfcd.— Specimens of Velia currens Fabr. (Hemiptera), In any condition, from 
all parts of the British Isles or Western Europe, especially from the more 
remote parts of the west and north, for taxonomic study.— ff. S. Brown. 
Hailey Lodge, Hertford Heath, Hertford. 

TTanfed.- Notes of fluctuations in numbers of Rhingia campestris, Mg. (Dipt.. 
Syrphidae) in 1947 and 1948. Also notes of numbers in 1949.— B. R. Laurence, 
31 Sherwood Road, Luton, Beds. 

Now Available— RevTints of " British Dipterological Literature, Suppt. IV." .- 
price i/:— Apply to H. W. Andrews, The Rookery, Breamore, Fording bridge, 
Hants. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Royal Entomological Society of London, 41 Queen's Gate, S.W.7 : June 
1st, July 6th at 5.30 p.m. South London Entomological and Natural 
History Society, c/o Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W.i; Snd and 
4tli Wednesdays; 6.0 for 6.30. London Natural History Society : Tuesdays, 6.80 
p.m., at London School of Hygiene or Art-Workers' Guild Hall. Syllabus ol 
Meetings from General Secretary, H. A. Toombs, Brit. Mus. (Nat.' Hist.), Crom- 
well Road, S.W.7. Birmingham Natural History and Philosophical Society— 
Entomological Section. Monthly Meetings are held at Museum and Art Gallery. 
Particulars from Hon. Secretary, H. E. Hammond, F.R.E.S., 16 Elton Grove, _ 
Acocks Green, Birmingham. 

TO OUR READERS. 

Short Colleoting Notes and Current Notes. Please, Early. — Eds. 



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CONTENTS. 



ACTIVITY AND MORTALITY OF PIERIS RAPAE IN AMERICA, AFRICA, 
AND EUROPE. Orazio Querci and Lycaena Romei, M.D. Table II (l) 61 

ACTIVITY AND MORTALITY OF PIERIS RAPAE 'IN AMERICA, AFRICA, 

AND EUROPE. Orazio Querci and Lycaena Romei, M.D. Table II (2) 62 

SOME ANT SWARMING RECORDS FROM CO. DUBLIN. Fergus J. 

O'Rourke, M.Sc, M.S., B.Ch., B.A.0 63 

LEPIDOPTERA OF WEST SUSSEX, 1948. Commander G. W. Harper, R.N. 

{Retd.) 65 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES FROM EAST TYRONE, 1948. Thomas Greer ... 67 

COLLECTING NOTES : Spring Notes from East Tyrone, 1949, Thomas Greer: 

Melitaea clnxia, Chas. B. Antram 68 

CURRENT NOTES 69 

REVIEWS 70 



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ACTIVITY AND MORTALITY OF PIERIS RAPAE. 61 

ACTIVITY AND MORTALITY OF PIERIS RAPAE IN AMERICA, 

AFRICA, AND EUROPE. 

HO nnup y^„' I By Orazio Querci and Lycaena Romei, M.D. 

{Continued from p. 87.) 

UG -2" 19149: 

TABLE II (1). 

Behaviour ^f the different stages of Piens rapae in some conditions of 
climate and environment, at Philadelphia. 

HUMID GROUND. 

vegetation, sunshine. 

(a) Above 75°, if the solar raj^s are strong, eggs hatch in 4 days. Some 
caterpillars form pupae in 7-8 days, others delay a little. Some 
pupae produce adults in 7 days, others, gradually, during the fol- 
lowing week. Almost no larvae collapse. 

(b) Between 65° and 75° duration of larval stages is delayed if the 
solar rays are feeble. 

(c) Below 65° J with feeble solar rays during some days, eggs dry, 
larvae collapse, pupae fall into lethargy. 

(d) Below 60°, even one night onh^, those larvae that had remained 
long without feeding owing to scarcity of plants, die. 

sunshine, lack of vegetation, 

(e) Above 70% if the solar rays are strong, larvae resist starvation at 
least 10 days. Meeting with food, they grow and can form pupae. 

vegetation, lack of sunshine. 

(f) Below 75° during the day, and 65° the night, all stages are 
inactive. 

DRY GROUND. 

vegetation, sunshine. 

(g) Between 50° and 60° scanty activity in any stage, 
(h) Between 60° and 75° activity increases. Feeblest larvae collaitse. 
(i) Above 75° the soil becomes more or less hot according to intensity 

and continuity of the solar rays, and it emits waves of radiant 
energy. If these reflected radiations are intense they kill the larvae 
(at Philadelphia) even below 75°. Eggs hatch in 3 days, but the 
young larvae die almost at once. Some pupae produce adults in 6 
days. 

(j) In the above recorded situation, larvae in places where weeds pre- 
vent the understanding ground to l)ecome hot, survive. 

(k) Thunderstorms, scarce rain followed by intense sunshine. The 
little water above the soil evaporates rapidly while the air is elec- 
trified weeds are no more a shelter because the smell of drying 
ground ejects the caterpillars out of their hidings. The excited 
larvae, crawling across the country, are killed by the reflected radia- 
tions even at a moderately high temperature of the air. 

deficiency of solar rays. 
(1) Larvae resist high temperature as reflected radiations are feeble. 



62 entomologist's becorDj vol. lxi. 15 / VI / 1949 

HURRICANE. 

(m) Heavy laiii, strong wind. The trail stems, on wliich tiie larvae of 
rapae feed, fall iiijon tlie ground. Most larvae drown. Eggs and 
pupae little injured. Hurricane is one of the most active factors 
of destruction. 

PARASITE. 

It seems that America has not imported, it together with the 
butterfly. 



ACTIVITY AND MORTALITY OF PIERIS RAPAE IN AMERICA, 

AFRICA, AND EUROPE. 

By Orazio Querci and Lycaena Romei, M.D, 



TABLE II (2). 

Behaviour of the different stages of Pierls rapae in some conditions of 

climate and environment, at Philadelphia. 

HUMID GROUND. 
vegetation, sunshine. 

(a) Above 75°, with strong solar rays, eggs hatch after 3 or 4 days. 
Some larvae pupate in 7 to 9 days; a few delay a little. Some 
pupae emerge in 7 days ; others, graduallj^, a few days later even 
if they have been formed on the same day. Adults live about a 
week. Females always laj" eggs. 

(b) Betw^een 75" and 65° activity decreases if the solar rays are feeble. 

(c) Below 65°, and wdth feeble sunshine during a few days, eggs dry, 
larvae and adults die, pupae become lethargic. 

(d) At al^out 60° and below, also one night only, those larvae which 
have remained some days without food, owing to scarcity of food- 
plants, collapse. 

SUNSHINE, LACK OF FOOD-PLANT. 

(e) Above 70°, if solar raj's are strong, larvae resist starvation about 
10 days. With scanty sunshine they die before. 

VEGETATION, LACK OF SUNSHINE. 

(f) Above 90° larvae are very active. At lower temperatures activity 
decreases'. Below 60° all stages are inactive. 

DRY GROUND. 

VEGETATION, SUNSHINE, 

(g) Above 75° larvae living where the soil, warmed by the sun, becomes 
hot, die. Only those in places sheltered hj weeds, so that the under- 
standing soil does not become hot, resist. Mature ones form pupae 
even in 6 days only. Mortality depends upon density of vegetation 
and intensity of the sunshine. Adults, eggs and pupae seem not 
to be injured. 

(h) Between 75° and 60°, only feeblest larvae, lacking of any shelter, 
collapse. At about 60° larvae resist and are active. Activity 
decreases at lower temperatures. 



SOME ANT SWARMING llECOUDS FROM CO. DUBLIN. 63 

(i) storm with scanty rain followed by intense sunshine. The little 
amount of water;, upon the barren ground, evaporates rapidly while 
the atmosphere is electrized. Vegetation is no more a shelter be- 
cause the peculiar smell of drying land excites the larvae that 
leave their hidings and die, even at a moderately high tempera- 
ture. Eggs hatch after 2 days, but the young larvae die almost at 
once. Some pupae produce adults also in 6 days. Feeblest chry- 
salides rot. Adults have shorter life. 

LACK OF SUNSHINE, 

(j) Above 70", eggs, larvae and pupae are active. 

LACK OF FOOD-PLANT. 

(k) Larvae can resist starvation a few daj's if the solar rays remain 
feeble and the soil is tepid. 

ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY. 

(1) Insects in any stage are more active when the ground is damp. 
Mortality increases if the land is dry. 

HURRICANE. 

(m) The frail stems of C'ruci/ero us-plantS;, on wdiich the larvae of Pieris 
live, fall on the ground and most caterpillars drown. It seems 
that both eggs and pupae are little injured because, according to 
our collecting data, manj- pupae continued to produce adults, dur- 
ing a few days, in the field which had been ravaged by the storm. 

PREDATORS. 

(n) In the meadow, where we collected, ants were a very active factor 
of destruction of eggs, larvae and pupae. Sometimes we have seen 
them dragging living adults. Large outbreak of ants occur when 
it is hot and the ground is humid, that is just when the develo^D- 
meiit of Pieris rapae is favoured, by climate. 

PARASITES. 

We have reared in cages a large number of larvae taken in the field. 
None of them was affected with mites. It seems that America has not 
imported the parasites of Pieris rapae together with the butterfly. 

Note. — "With the support of these data, we try to exi)laiii the develop- 
ment of Pieris rapae at Philadelphia during the season in which 
we collected them, 

{To he continued.) 



SOME ANT SWARMING RECORDS FROM CO. DUBLIN. 

By Fergus J. O'Roueke, M.Sc, M.B., B.Ch., B.A.O. 



There is still very little information available concerning the swarm- 
ing habits of the indigenous species of ants. Until there is a consider- 
able body of such information available there is little liojie that the 
factors which control undue swarming will be elucidated. It is hoped 



64 entomologist's begokUj vol. Lxi. 15 / VI / 1949 

that those wlio observe swarms during the coming season will record 
them together with such meteorological information as may be avail- 
able. 1 will only be too pleased to receive specimens for identification. 
The following records have accumulated in the last couple of 
years : — 

Myrmica rubra (= ruginodis). 

This species swarmed in some hundreds at Castlekelly, Glenas- 
niole (800 ft.) at 2 p.m. on 29th July 1947. 

A swarm of this species numbering a few hundreds occurred at 
Donabate (sea level) at 5 p.m. on 17th August 1947. 1 took a single 
male M. scahrliiodis in this swarm. 

A mixed swarm of M. iiihra and M. laeviiiodis took place at Castle- 
kelly, Glenasmole, at 2 p.m. on 16th August 1947. The temperature, 
the highest since 30th July, was 76° ¥. while the barometric pressure 
was 30.25 inches, 

A major swarm at Castlekelly began at noon on 29th August 1948. 
M. rubra comprised 80.5% of this swarm, which numbered some hun- 
dreds of thousands. Other species represented were M. laevinodis 
(2.4%), M. laevinodis var. ruginodo-laevuiodis (7.3%), M. scahrinodis 
(9.7%). A single male Formica fusca (0.1%) was taken in the random 
sample of 759 specimens collected and was the only one of its species 
seen during the swarm, which continued until darkness fell. Of the 
759 specimens collected 94.6 % were males, which agrees well with 
tiie figures already given for the allied species M. laevinodis (O'Rourke 
1946) and for Lasius flavus (O'Kourke 1947). I have unfortunately 
mislaid some observations made on the density of the swarm. The 
maximum temperature during the period of swarming was 66° F. The 
previous day, however, was the warmest during the preceding fort- 
night — the temperature was 70° F. by 10 a.m. and reached a maximum 
of 76° F. 

Although this was undoubtedly the major swarm in the area for 
the year there is little doubt that other swarms took place, for on 
8th September my brother Aengus took a trout at the junction of 
the Slade and Cot Brooks which had a male and a winged female 
Formica fusca in its stomach. This suggests that the Formicine species 
swarmed later, as is the general rule. On 26tli September there were 
still males to be found in the nest of M. scahrinodis in the area. 

Lasius flavus, F. 
A mixed swarm of this ant and M. laevinodis took place on 22nd 
August 1947 at Castlekelly, Glenasmole, beginning at 1 p.m., Avhen 
the temperature was 64° F. The swarm was a small one and the num- 
bers never rose above a couple of hundred. 

Lasius niger, L. 
A small swarm of about 400-500 was seen on the banks of the river 
Dodder at Dartry on 18th September 1948 at dusk (9 p.m.*). This 
swarm was of interest as males were fewer in number than females, 
contrary to the usual condition. I have previously pointed out 
(O'Rourke, 1947) that after a few hours of swarming this species showed, 



LEPIDOPTERA OF WEST SUSSEX, 1948. 65 

at Cambridge the same phenomenon. This is easily explained, as the 
female Lasius take much less readily to the wing than do the males, 
who are thus more likely to get dispersed during swarming. 

REFERENCES. 

0'T?oiirke, F. J. (1946). " The occurrence of three mermithogynes at 
Roundstone, Connemara, with notes on the ants of the area." 
Ent. liec, 58, 65-70. 

O'Rourke, F. J. (1947). " Lasius spp. swarming at Cambridge." Ent, 
Mon. Mag., 83, 41-42. 

* All times given as Greenwich Mean Time, ' 



LEPrOOPTERA OF WEST SUSSEX, 1948. 

By Commander G. W. Harper, R.N. (Retd.). 



T looked forward to the 1948 season with more than ordinary in- 
terest because of the record-breaking 1947. A very mild winter suc- 
ceeded the glorious autumn of 1947, with Spring-like weather in Janu- 
ary and early February, a short spell of snow and frost the last week 
of February, and abnormally warm Spring weather in March. April 
and May. The usual " Blackthorn winter " spells were shorter and 
less severe than usual. The result was that hibernating imagines 
were helped, and more than usual were seen in these months, while 
some Spring broods hibernating as larvae were also assisted. Of the 
former, Maeroglossnm stellafarum was seen flying on four separate oc- 
casions in February and again in March and April, when they may 
perhaps have been reinforced by immigration. Vanessa atalanta was 
flying in the sunshine on 1st February, while NyniphciUs polycTiloros 
was seen on four separate occasions in March and April, a captured 
female obliging me with a fine batch of ova within an hour of asking 
her to do so ! The usual hibernated moths were unusually abundant 
at Sallow bloom in March, notably Eupsilia transversa and Conistra 
vaccinii. The only commoner conspicuously scarcer than usual was 
NympJialis io. Of the latter group the larval hibernators, Li/caena. 
(Heodes) phlaeas and Pararge aegeria were in splendid abundance, 
showing a high survival rate from the prodigious summer and autumn 
broods of the previous year. 

It was also to be expected that parasites might stage a more rapid 
recovery than insectivorous birds from the severe Spring of 1947. This 
prognostication was amply born out by the high proportion of Spring 
larvae, particularly the single brooded slowly developing species such 
as Triphaena fimhriata, which, though abundant, were found to be in- 
fested with Diptera. These pests continued in large numbers through- 
out the season. Autumn ]nipa digging being remarkably unproductive 
except of their occoons, of which T have never previously seen so many, 
boding ill for 1949. 

Few early migrants were seen: two Colias croceus in the Isle of 
Wight in April, and a few Vanessa atalanta and V. cardm only in May 
and June. As the Summer months progressed, cold sunless and wet 



66 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 / VI / 1949 

Avith but few warm spells, their chances of breeding profusely 
diminished, and the late Summer and Autumn saw few of these, or 
any other migrants, in this part of the country. I only saw three C 
rroceus in August and September, capturing two, one of which was a 
splendid 9 var. heJiee of primrose colour. 

Another dismal fact which must be recorded is one of human acti- 
vity in this county; the Forestry Commission is now showing unwel- 
come activity in one of our best forests, the policy being to substitute 
beech for ash. Having cut most of the latter, this May the woodmen 
have stripped the entire forest of its plentiful sallows, just as the 
lovely larvSe of Apatura iris, which has been increasing steadily in 
recent years, were entering their last instar. Much birch grew among 
the ash, and this too is scheduled for destruction in five years' time 
when the growing beech has been sufficiently protected. I found seve- 
ral A. iris larvae on cut-down sallows and climbing hungrily up the 
trunks of the birch trees, and the woodmen confirmed this observation. 

However, the picture is not one of unrelieved gloom, some species 
having done well, and even staged a good recovery. Among the latter, 
particularly welcome was the profusion of the Lycaenids, Lysandra hell- 
arrjus and Polyommafus i earns, the second broods of both giving much 
delight to the eye. L. corydon, however, in my local colonies, con- 
tinues to shrink, a process begun two or three years ago. Other species 
found in relative abundance included Thecla quercus, Argynnis 
puphrosyne, A. selene, A. pophia, but not A. aglaia nor A. cydippe, 
the latter continuing to be very scarce. Unusually common moths 
inciuded Wdema complana, Nola alhula and N'. confusalis (locally), 
Amathes difrapezivm, Eupsdia transversa (in profusion)^ and most of 
the usual Geometrids. One interesting fact is the undoubted increase 
in the proportion of melanic to normal individuals of Cleora rhomhoi- 
daria, Boarmia rohoraria, and Boarmia punctmalis; a brood of the 
latter bred ab. ovis from a wild pale female very surprisingly produced 
75% of dark individuals, some fully ab. humperti. Cleora riheata was 
abundant in a local spruce wood, and in this also a very dark form was 
predominant. 

The dull and cold Summer months killed oif the majority of the 
larvae of H codes phlaeas, so plentiful in the Spring brood, and only 
occasional specimens were seen in August and September. In the latter 
month the weather turned warm and sunny, continuing with a few 
breaks right to the middle of December— the 3rd of December was re- 
corded as the warmest December day for 100 years ! The absence of 
Autumn butterflies during these sunny days was most marked ; ivy 
blossom and sugar were fairly attractive, however, to the common 
species. 

To sum up, 1948 was in Sussex a poor year; promising well in a 
glorious Spring, a lack of migrants, combined with a cold sunless Sum- 
mer and a profusion of parasites resulted in reduced numbers of in- 
dividuals in most Summer and Autumn species. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES FROM EAST TYRONE, 1948. 67 

ENTOiVIOLOGICAL NOTES FROM EAST TYRONE 1948. 

By Thomas Greer. 

(Continued from page 28.) 



The hliie-green form of Procris sfatiees was also taken by Mr. H. C 
Hiiggins when he was on a visit to this district in June 1938; needless 
to state that there is no record of the moth for Co. Tyrone in the latest 
edition of South' s Moths of the British Isles, although a list of seven 
southern Irish counties is mentioned. 

In the same meadow a colony of a large form of Zygaena lonicerae 
still exists (Entom., LXXXI, page 35); this colony is remarkable in 
producing a number of blotched aberrations (rare in this species), the 
l)est being similar to the variety of Z. trifolii pictured on plate 148, 
figure 3, of Volume II of South's British Moths. 

As this meadow is close to my home, the cocoons of the moth are 
collected every year as they appear on the rushes or grass stems and 
released after emergence, otherwise the greater number would be 
destroyed by the Reed Bunting, which tears open the cocoon and eats 
the enclosed pupa. 

On the rocky moorland north-west of Cookstown, on June 17th, 
Phalonia ciliella was common among Pedicularis sylvatica, believed to 
be the food-plant here; and the spring brood of Endothenia ohlongana 
was in fine condition flying over Scabiosa succisa; Eidia pulchellaria. 
was disturbed from the heather, and on a rocky knoll nearby Platyptilia 
tesseradactyla was observed in small numbers among Antennaria ; this 
little Plume being nearly exterminated here some years ago by a heath 
fire ; in a damp spot it was a pleasant surprise to find some numbers 
of the very local little moth Adela rufimitrella at rest on the flowers of 
(Jardaniine pratensis; the Bog Myrtle growing here produced several 
Tortrix rusticana. 

At home larvae of Agonopterix angelicella were beginning to dis- 
tort the leaves of Angelica, this little species frequent enough in this 
district as larva has only been found elsewhere in Ireland in the adjoin- 
ing county of Fermanagh. Among Aquilegia several images of the 
spring brood of Platyptilia punctidactyla were observed in the evening. 

Towards the end of the month a visit was paid to Lough Fea for 
Coenonymphq tidlia; there was no sign of the butterfly, but Eucosma. 
myrtillana was flying in swarms over the Bilberry bushes, and Argyro- 
ploce atropunctana was fairly common among Bog Myrtle. Numbers 
of males of Parasemia plantagiriis were dashing about over the heather; 
these are darker than the form found in the Lough Neagh area. 

On the last day of June an excursion per motor cycle was under- 
taken to a bog near Washing Bay on the Lough Neagh shore — was al- 
most a blank; this bog was the only station for Andromeda Polifolia 
in Co. Tyrone; this bog is now nearly all intersected by wide drains 
and the heather mostly burnt off; in one small area a few Ematurga 
atomaria and Perconia strigillaria were observed. In a marshy meadow 
on the way home a number of Enstrotia vncida were netted flying over 
various sedges and Thalictrvm ffavii^n. and Evpithecia palustraria was 
taken on a roadside bank. 



68 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 /VT/ 1949 

On 5tli July Nemophora minimella was flying in little groups among 
Scabious on a dry hillside; Dr Beirne. in his list of the Microlepidop- 
icra of Ireland, says frequent locally in marshes but cites only two other 
counties beside Tyrone. 



COLLECTING NOTES. 



Spring Notes from East Tyrone, 1949. — 22nd January, Therin rnpi- 
rnpraria, common at light. 30th January, Erannis margmarm, at rest 
in hedges or flying to the lamp. 16th March, Bhirnea fagella and Xylo- 
ea.mpa. areola, at rest on tree trunks. 22nd March, Selenm hiliinaria, 
several at light. 23rd March, Alsophila aescularia and Colostygia multi- 
sfrigaria, several at light. 1st April, Orthosia munda , at sallows. These 
dates of first appearances may be of interest in comparison with those 
given in the Entom. 'Record for May from British localities. — Thomas 
Greer, Sandholes, Co. Tyrone, 30th May 1949. 

Melitaea cinxia. — Further to my report in last month's Journal of 
how the above butterfly was thriving in this district, I am glad to be 
able to say it is, this year, distributed over a much wider area and in 
greater profusion, notwithstanding the work. on the railway embank- 
ment and a fire where the insect was first observed and which must 
have wiped out all early stages of the insect. With the exception of 
where the earthwork has been thrown \\\) the butterfly was again fly- 
ing over the burnt parts now much richer in vegetation and the food- 
plant of the insect. 

At the time of writing, 28th May. the flight of the butterfly is over. 
A week or so before this date I captured a fair number of both sexes 
and put them out on a suitable sit« further afield also on my own pro- 
perty where there is plenty of the food-plant, having an acre or two 
wild and uncultivated. A few females placed in a breeding cage have 
given a few batches of eggs. If and when these hatch and the larvae 
have reached a decent size they will be put down on private property 
in likely places where they may thrive. 

I found a number of the specimens from this locality are of a minor 
aberration in that on the underside of the forewing the black narrow 
apical transverse waved line which in normal specimens is confined to 
the upper half of the wing, is extended to the anal angle, getting 
broader all the way to that point. 

I have found out that specimens were brought from the Isle of Wight 
in 1945 or 1946 and put down near New Milton, which no doubt have 
spread to my locality on their own account. Thus the species is now 
well established over a fairly wide area and as the area is well fenced 
there is no inroad of cattle to do damage. It is only to be hoped fires 
do no extensive harm. — C^as. B. Antram, " Clay Copse," Sway, 
Lymington, Hants, 2Sth May 1949. 



CURRENT NOTES. 69 

CURRENT NOTES. 



I HAVE just read in your last issue, April 1949, page 43, a note about 
the French Beviie Francaise de Lepidopterologie, and feel I must let 
you know the facts of this journal and the Catalogue of the Micro-Lepi ■ 
doptera. First about the Bcvve : it was almost quite interrupted dur- 
ing the war but Vol. IX, 1938-1939, is out, and the Vols. X and XT 
are out — that takes us to 1949. of which the first two numbers of Vol. 
XTT are published ; it is keeping its head above water and is, as it 
was before, excellent. For the Catalogue of the Micros : since '45, 180 
pages have been published, which takes it to Cosmopterygidae, num- 
ber 3173rd species of Lepidoptera, which is Stagmatophora dohrni 
Zeller. Anyone wanting to subscribe to the Bevue and or for the Cata- 
logue should write direct to Monsieur Lhomme, Le Carriol, par 
Douelle, Lot. I believe he can still supply the back numbers of Vol. 

IX and those of Vols. X and XI, which are full of interest ; also for 
those people who want their sets complete I do know the Vols. IX and 

X were printed in fewer numbers owing to the paper shortage. As 
for the Micro Catalogue I know M. Lhomme is paying quite a good 
bit out of his pocket and it would be of real service to him for all who 
take an interest to subscribe, apart from the fact that it's a service 
to science as a whole. These subscriptions to scientific journals abroad 
are allowed to go out of the country (the money); one has only to ask 
the permission of the Bank of England, saying it is necessary for one's 
scientific work. I feel I should point out to you that M. Lhomme's 
name is written Lh., not L'homme. T feel certain that my above in- 
formation may be of interest to a certain amount of lepidopterists, 
and have, therefore, ventured to write and let you know. — Vera M. 
Mfspratt, Aice Choko, St Jean-de-TiUz, Basses Pyrenees, France, 1st 

:yray 1949. 

r.S. — Since this letter was received we regret to report that 
Lhomme met with an accident, and has since died. — Hy. J. T. 

Ankara vilayeti dahilindb mevcut cekirgelein ekolojik cografi 

VE SISTEMATIK DIRUMLARI UZERIXDE ARASTIRMALAR. bv Dr TeVFIK 

Karabagh. 

This somewhat formidable title conceals what is a full and clear ac- 
count of the Orthoptera of the ri-ai/et ov county of Ankara by a keen 
young Turkish orthopterist, Dr Tevfik Karabagh. Although it re- 
mains a closed book to all but a handful of non-Turks, the names of 
species and localities and an abstract in German will enable European 
woi-kers to form a clear enough idea of the orthopterous fauna of this 
tyjtical district of the north-central jiortion of the Anatolian steppe 
plateau. 

The four Blattidae mentioned are all introduced species, so it is to 
be expected that native forms may yet be found, probably of the genus 
Jlololampra, nor have any Phasmidae been noted. Of the Mantidae. 
four familiar forms. Of the Tettigoniidae 26, of the Gryllidae 7, and 
of the Acrididae 71, making a total of 111 species of Orthoptera. Per- 
ha|)s furtliei- collectiug will i-eveal a dozen or more to add to the list. 



70 entomologist's record, vol, lxi. 15 / VI / 1949 

Among the new and restricted species there are Isophya karahagi, 
Uv., and I. nervosa, Rammei, the new Micrimon karahagi, Ramme, 
Poecilimoti uvarovi, Ramme, Saga cappadocica, Wern., Bhacocleis tur- 
cicus, Uv., Drymadiisa angorensis, Uv,, Paradrymadusa rammei, Uv., 
Scodrymadusa turcica, Ram., Silreyella bella, Uv., ail Tettigonids; 
Ereinippus angulatus, Uv., and E. gracilis, Uv., at least three sub- 
species of Tmethis heldreichi, Br. v. W., Pezotettix anatoiicus Uv., 
Paranocarodes tolunayi, Ram., and Nocarodes hodenheimeri, Uv. 

Determination tables are given, with plenty of outline drawings to 
make them clear, and a considerable amount of ecology, which is desir- 
able and practical, as several are of economic importance. 

A Query : British Noctuae. — In Brit. Noctiuie and their Varieties 
Tutt, when dealing with Toxocampa craccae, Vol. IV, p. 43, quoted the 
typical description (in Latin) published by Fabricius in the Mantissa, 
p. 121. As Fabricus issued 6 Mantissas in some 20 years, it is im- 
portant to know the particular Mantissa quoted, and certainly the 
date of its issue. — Hy. J. T. 



REVIEWS. 



Proceedings and Transactions of the South London Entomological 
AND Nat. Hist. Society, 1947-48. xviii + 241 pp., 13 plates, 58 
text figs. 1949; 30/-. 

This fine volume contains a Report of the Meetings between 
12.ii.47 and 28.i,48. The Address of the President (L. T. Ford) in- 
cluded (pp. 49-58) a List of the Microlepidoptera recorded from this 
country since the issue of Meyrick's Bevised Randhook in March 1928. 
Two plates show aberrations of Lepidoptera included in the Annual 
Exhibition on 25.x. 1947. 

*' Technique of Breeding Lepidoptera," by A. V. Hedges (pp. 74-81). 
includes remarks on wliat the author is inclined to consider possible 
good species. E. A. J. Duffey contributes (pp. 82-98) an illustrated ac- 
count of Aromia moschata. 

A Paper on the Function, Origin and Classification of Pupae, by 
Dr H. E. Hinton (pp. 111-154, 39 figs.), is full of interest but seems 
rather " strong meat " for a j)ublication of a Society of amateurs. We 
note that three previous papers on the same subject by the same author 
have been issued in as many different publications : to the Museum 
worker, Avho has all these publications accessible, this action presents 
less difficulty than to the private student who has not the same facili- 
ties. This paper, we suggest, would have been better published in the 
Trans. B. Entom. Soc. 

Dr Cockayne's paper on " Arctia caja : its variation and genetics " 
(pp. 155-191), is illustrated by two excellent coloured plates, and in- 
cludes descriptions of several new forms. 

" Adela viridella " is the subject of a short note by D. D. Murray 
(pp. 192-193, tab.) and H. Main gives us (pp. 194-195, 2 tabs.) another 
on Trap-door Spiders in Portugal, whilst (pp. 205-208) S. Wakely re- 



EEVIEWS. 



71 



cords from Heme Hill, S.W. London, a species of Blastohasis resembling 
decolorella, Woll. 

S. N. A. Jacobs has a paper (pp. 209-219), with a fine coloured plate, 
on " The British Lamproniidae and Adelidae," with brief notes on all 
our species of Incurvariadae and Adelidae. Of more local interest are 
" Some Notes on the Coleoptera of Epping Forest," by F. D. Buck 
(pp. 220-227). 

T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. 

A Guide to the Smaller British Lepidoptera, by L. T. Ford. 1949; 
15/-. 

This book is not quite what might be expected from its title, being 
really on the lines of Scorer's " Logbook " ; the species, however, are m 
systematic order and are numbered, an alphabetical index being pro- 
vided and also a list of foodplants. The entries are given under the 
headings of Ovum (mostly left blank), Larva, Pupa and Imago, but 
are necessarily very brief. The arrangement follows generally that of 
Meyrick's Bevised Handbook (1928), but takes no account of Meyrick's 
later actions: e.g., Argyresthia was referred by him to Plutellidae in 
An. Mils. Hist. Nat. Buen. Aires, XXXVI, 378 (1931), and Ocnerostoma 
was also referred by him to the Plutellidae in Exot. Micr., IV, 339 
(xii.1932). Mr Ford also uses most of Meyrick's names and, in the case 
of the European species, Meyrick blindly copied Rebel's Catalogue, to 
the perpetuation of such errors as Tischeria " angusticolella,'' which 
Duponchel named " angusticollella,''^ " I'Elachiste a col etroit," with 
reference to its narrow neck. 

Are Platyptilia pvnctidactyla, Hw., and P. acanthodactyla, Hb., 
really double-brooded, as alleged P I have found both species here dur- 
ing the last twelve years or so, but larvae only in August and moths 
from September onward into hibernation, but have failed to discover 
larvae in June. 

The eggs of Pselnophorus hrachydactyliis, Kollar, are laid at the 
end of June or in early July in groups under the leaves, scattered, but 
often twenty or more on one leaf, glistening and quite conspicuous 
when the leaf is turned over. On hatching, the young larvae feed on 
the lower epidermis, causing noticeable blotches, until about niid- 
August, . Avhen, irrespective of temperature, they begin to hibernate 
under dead leaves. They recommence feeding in April and are full- 
grown by the middle or end of May and at that stage may often be 
detected by tlieir habit of biting the midrili of the leaf so that it droops. 
Pu])ation almost invariably takes ])lace off the foodplant, but near it, 
and the moth emerges in June or early July. It is of very local occur- 
rence, and is best taken in the daytime by blind sweeping around por- 
tions of the foodplant, as the moth is almost invisible on the wing in 
the mingled sunlight and shade of its habitat. But eggs and larvae are 
easily found where they occur and are easily reared on Lactuca muraJis 
grown in pots or boxes of earth. Such is a brief resume of the life- 
history, luit even such a summary is too long for the Guide. 

No. 206. Stenoptilia graphodactijla . Tr., should read pneumoiiantus, 

Biittner. We do not get graphodactyhi in England. 
No. 262. " Evxauthvs " should read '' Euxanthis.'' 



72 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 / VI / 1949 

Nos. 598 and 604 are one sftecies, 

Nos. 628-639 are better placed in Bryotropha (with single bristle on 

antennal scape) and Nos, 640-659 in Gelechia (without 

bristle on antennal scape). 
No. 1077, Littocolletis emherizacpenneJla , Bouche, and No. 1138, Ypsnlo- 

phus xylostellus, Linn., occur also on Snowberry (Sym- 

phoricerpus). 
Most collectors of Micros, could make snch remarks and addenda. 
All will find this Guide useful and, it is hoped, will be able to fill in 
many blanks. 

T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. 

Notes on the Habits and Prey of Twenty Species of British Hunt- 
ing Wasps, by W. S. Bristowe. {Proc. TAnnean Snc. Land., 
CLX, 12-37; 26.xi.1948.) 
A very interesting series of Notes, illustrated by six text-figures. 

T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. 

British Butterflies, by Vere Temple. Collins, 1949; 5/-. Pp. 48 + 
8 col. plates + 22 figs. 

This book seems intended to appear chiefly to those with some liking 
for a knowledge of Butterflies and such readers will find as much as 
they are ready to absorb and even the regular lepidopterist will come 
across some items of interest. No detailed account of species can be 
expected in less than 48 pages of letterpress. The illustrations are a 
mixed lot, including reproductions of figures from Moufet (here called 
*' Moffett "), Wilkes, Moses Harris, Donovan and more modern authors. 
The plates and figures are not numbered. The first coloured plate 
is the most interesting, being a reproduction from the original MS. of 
Moufet's Theatr-um Insectoritm, showing figures of Papilio machaon 
and P. podalirius : these original water-colours (prepared by Gesner?) 
are much more life-like than the crude wood blocks (prepared from de 
Maj'erne?) and published in the Theatrnm : also the coloured figure of 
P. machaon is 66 mm. in expanse, as against 91 mm. for the wood block, 
and similarly for P. podalirius. The figure on p. 8 of the book under 
review is evidently the original of the fourth woodcut on p. 102 of 
Moufet's book; Werneburg does not identify it and suggests Pararge 
aefjeria, which seems unlikely; perhaps it is an exotic. 

T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. 



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Wanted— Set or in papers, Scotch and Northern England forms of the British 
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Wanted.— Notes of fluctuations in numbers of Rhingia campestris, Mg. (Dipt., 
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MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

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6th, September 7th, at 5.30 p.m. South London Entomological and Natural 
History Society, c/o Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W.l; June 
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Acocks Green, Birmingham, 

TO OUR READERS. 
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All Communications should be addressed to the Acting Editor, By. J. 
TURNER, " Latemar/' 25 West Drive, Cheam. 



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LOGISTS RECORD 

AND 

AL OF VARIATION 



H. DONISTHORPB. F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. 

S. N. A. JACOBS. 

H B. WILUAMS, K.C., LL.D., F.R.E.S. 



MALCOLM Burr, d.Sc, f.r.e.s. 

E, A. COCKAYNE, M.A.. F.R.C.P., F.R.E.S. 
J. E. COLLIN. J.P.. F.R.E.S. 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N.. F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. (Sub-Editor). 

Rodborougli Fort, Stroud, Glos. 

HY. J. TURNER. F.R.E.S., F.R.H.S. {Editorial Secretary). 
CONTENTS. 



SOME MORE NEW RECORDS OF LEPIDOPTERA FROM CYPRUS, IRAQ AND 

IRAN, E. P. Wiltshire, F.R.E.S. ... 73 

NOCTUAE OF PULBOROUOH, SUSSEX, IN J948, .4. J. Wightvuw, F.R.E.S. ... 7fi 

OBITUARY 79 

COLLECTING NOTES : Second Brood of Plusia festucae. .4. /. WigfUman; 
Correction -of Name of Hadena caesla. Sctiiff., var. manani, Gregson, 

P. Sif'iter Smith 81 

CURRENT NOTES .^3 



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lill<F^yrtii#"^lli*^^ ^ L£PIDOPT£llA I'ROM CYPKUS, IRAQ AND IRAN, 73 

SOJME IvUBURKeW flECORDS OF LEPiDOPTERA FROM CYPRUS, 

IRAQ AND IRAN. 

;f E. p. Wiltshire, F.R.E.S. 



Durii^|W:^Wast tl: ree years 1 have studied principally Arabian and 

yptitOTiltp«lIptera publishing the results in Bull. ISoc. Found la 
riein. tPKni. [Lairoj, 1947-1949. However, problems arising from other 
Middle East countries were not entirely left aside, and I can now report 
a few additions to the lepidopterous fauna of Cyprus, Iraq and Persia 
[Iran], mostW from my own collections, in continuation of my last 
articles or works on these countries.* This seems a suitable place to 
include any corrigenda, whether to my own lists or others, found to be 
necessary. 

I. CYPRUS. 
SATYRIDAE. 
Eumenis pellucida Fruhst. cypriensis Holik. 

The correct name of the Cyprian species hitherto called " Satijnis 
setnele mersina Stgr." is as above, and semele is therefore to be deleted. 
Full details of the revision of the semele group by Holik have not yet 
appeared, as far as I know, but the facts are now^ known to various 
workers. 

AGROTIDAE. 
Amephana dalmatica Rebel. 

According to Boursin, this is the correct name for No. 7 in my article 
on Cyprus, not aurita J. Specimens in the British Museum from both 
West and East Mediterranean localities are still lumped together all 
under the latter name. 

Leucania punctosa Tr. 

According to Boursin, the East Mediterranean species in this group 
is as above, not putrescens. It is punctosa, I understand, which occurs 
in Syria and Persia, and the name putrescens therefore is probably to 
be deleted in the lists of lepidoptera from Lebanon, Egj^pt, Iraq and 
Iran, and punctosa substituted. 

ARCTIIDAE, NOLINAE. 
Nola impura Mann. 

Two, 16. iv and 18. v, one mile west of Kyrenia. 

Celaina suhchlamydula Stgr. d era so Zerny. 
One, 6.iv, one mile west of Kyrenia. 

Gelania centonalis Hiibn. [=aerugula Hiibn.]. 
Two, 5.iv and 16. v, one mile west of Kyrenia. 

GEOMETRIDAE. 

Sterrha dimidiata sub sat u rata Guen. 

Four, iv, in a quarry overgrown with Jitncus and Iinda viscosa, 
Kyrenia . 

*Cyprus : MJclclle East Lepidopteia. IX: Two new foi'iiis or species and tliirty 
five new records from Cyprus. Eul. Bee, LX [15.7.48]. Iraq: Tlie Butterflies 
and Moths of Iraq. Directorate-Genoial of Agriculture. Bagdad. BuUetw 30 
[Oct. 1944]. Persia : New Records of Lepidoptera from Iran, II. Ent. Rec, 
LVIII [1.5.6.46]. 



74 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/ VII / 1949 

Selidosema tamsi Rebel. 

Mr D. S. Fletcher's examination of the genitalia of European and 
Mediterranean Selidosema has had a surprising result. There are not 
two Cyprian species, in this genus, as Rebel thought, but only one, the 
new species Rebel described. It is very variable and some examples 
closely resemble ericetaria syriacarla Stgr. which however does not ap- 
pear to inhabit Cyprus and must be deletea. It follows that the bio- 
logical notes given in my article on Cyprus [larvae on Foteriu-m'] refer 
to tamsi, not ericetaria. Fuller details of the larva and a photograph 
will be published in a later article. 

II. IBAQ. 

HESPERIDAF. 

Spialia proto Esp. 

Not having previously examined the genitalia of the species of skip- 
per of which I took three examples on 2o.viii.35 at 7-9000 ft. near Rayat, 
Iraqi Kurdistan, I referred to this species in my article in Ent. Kec, 
15.10.39, as " sp. near proto." For the same reason, in my 1944 list, 
I stated that the occurrence of proto at great heights required confirma- 
tion, though mentioning the occurrence of the species in Iraq at lower 
elevations. I have quite recently examined the genitalia of one of the 
three specimens [Prep. 413] and can now confirm the identity as cer- 
tainly proto Esp. 

AGROTIDAE. 
Cardepia albipicta Christ. 

9.V and 26.xi.43, Maagil near Basra [oasis], [pale ochreous form]. 

14.iii.37, Seleucia, near Bagdad, [olive-grey form]. 

This widely distributed Pan-Eremic species inhabits deserts and 
oases. The North African form was named afra< by Bethune-Baker. 

The species at Ahwaz [South-west Iran], whose larva I described 
with an illustration in Ent. Bee, LII, p. 72 [1940] under the name 
Discestra arenaria Hamps, is in fact this same species which can there- 
fore be added also to the Persian list. Perhaps the undetermined 
'' Scotogramma " Brandt mentioned from the extreme south of Persia 
is the same. 

I have not examined the genitalia of the type of arenaria Hamps. 
from Karachi but have compared it carefully and now consider it speci- 
ficallj^ different. The hindwing termen is distinct, whereas it is not so 
in albipicta, in which the submarginal shade is the clearest hindwing 
marking. The orbicular stigma on the forewing of the arenaria type 
is concolorous whereas in alhipicta it is often whiter: this difference is 
perhaps less important owing to variability. 

Therefore on p. 72 of Vol. LII readers of the Ent. Bee. should correct 
D. arenaria to C. albipicta Chr. Species No. 219 in my Iraqi list should 
be similarly corrected. 

Trichocha avempacei Tams [ = Calopha8ia pampaninii Kruger Syn. 
Nov.]. 
30.iii.37, Kerbela desert. 

Leucania' punctosa Tr. 

See remarks under Cyprus, above. 



XEAV RECORDS OE LEPIDOPTERA TROM CYPRUS, IRAQ AND IRAN. 75 

Plevuptera refiexa Guen. 

28 and 31.iii.43, Basra, [oasis]. A Tropical Indian species. 

ARCTIIDAE, NOLINAE. 

Celainu t uranic ci Stgr . 

Bagdad and Basra, various dates, oasis. 

GEOMETPtlDAE. 

iSterrha lllustris Brandt. 

19.ix.43, Basra, [oasis]. Previously known from South Persia. 

NycJiiodes variahiUs Brandt. 

On comparing my topotypical curlabiUs, from Ears, with my Iraqi 
series of Nychiodes from Kurdistan, I was unable to detect any super- 
ficial difference. The Iraqi species was determined by Prout for me ns 
divergaria before he saw Brandt's description of curiuhilis. It is unlike 
the plate of divergaria given in Seitz IV Siippt. I presume therefore 
that these records of divergaria from Iraq, whether from Kurdistan or 
Bagdad, should be amended to variabilis, which, I notice, has recently 
been reported from East Turkey by De Lattin. That true divergaria 
may also inhabit Northern Iraq is, however, still possible. 
Vyseia osiiianica Wagner. 

23.V.37, Amadia. Prep. 401. Species No. 432 {conspersaria) in my 
Iraqi list should be amended accordingly, this new determination being 
by genitalia. Wagner's name was until recently considered merely a 
variety of conspersaria. 

PYPAES AND MICPOS. 

A full account of these is at last ready and will appear in BM. ^oc. 
Fouad le Preni. d^Ent. [Cairo] this year, the author, to whom I am 
indebted, being Dr H. G. Amsel. The material was sent to him in 1938. 
His work will contain over a hundred figures, including the genitalia 
of Meyrick and Amsel types, and is translated into English. 

III. PERSIA [IRAN']. 
HESPERIIDAE. 

Eogenes Jesfiei Evans subsb. eJama Wilts. 

In my full description of the race elama from the desert foot-hills 
of South-west Persia {Ent. Rec, 58, 15.iii.46, )i. 27) I quoted Brig. 
Evans' opinion, given in 1938. Since then, however, he has changed 
it, and now considers elaitia, together with his Jeslici (from Afghanis- 
tan), as s])ecifically distinct from (dcides H.S. 

LASIOCAMPIDAE. 

Lasiocainpa piontLovsl^ii Shelj. 1943. 

The S])ecies recorded under the name graitdis Bog. in my Iraq list 
(sp. no. 143) is ])robably, and in my first Persian list (Ent. Rec. .17, 
15.vii.45, J). 80, sp. no. 8) is certainly, the same as that described dur- 
ing the war under the above name from Transcaucasia (Araxes). 
Readers of those lists should correct grandis to pioiifkovsJxii. 



76 entomologist' 8 RECOKD^ VOL. LXI. 15/ VII / 1949 

AGitOTiDAE. 

Cardepia albipicta Clir. and Leucania panctusa Tr. 

See remarks under Cyprus and Iraq above. 
Metaeyle pallida Stgr. 

12.vi.41, Shiraz, 5500 ft., stream-valley among dry lulls. 

15.vi.41j Muk Pass, Fars, 6500 ft., scrub-wooded limestone moun- 
tains. 

This species here flies together with Aeijle niiinetts Brandt, which 
superficially resembles it; a case of convergence. 

GEOMETRIDAE. 

Crocallis tusciaria tratiscaucasica Wehrli. 

Adults hatched 6, 7 and 8.xi.41, from larvae found in iii.41 at 8000 
ft. at Shapur Gorge, Fars, near Kazeroon. The foodplant observed 
there was wild-Fruiius, and at a higher elevation [8000 ft., Kuh Surkh, 
near Shiraz] mountain-I^'7axi/m^. 

The two following names of new species being described this year 
[1949] in Bull. Soc. Fouad le Frem. d'Ent. are also to be added under 
Geometridae to the Persian list: — Bhodostrophia dehilis Wilts., Scodi- 
unista astiugali Wilts., both inhabiting the scrub-clad mountains of Fars. 

In my previous articles on Iran I have tried to give all the recent 
publications on Iranian lepidoptera known to me. Continuing this 
policy, I can mention the two following works. They are the first cf 
their kind to have been printed in J ran: — 
Afsliar, Dj. Sept. 1946 ff. Liste des Bhopaloccres de VIran. 
Kiriukhin, G. Sept. 1946. Les insectes nuisihles au Fistacier en Iran. 

Both appeared in Ministry of Agric. Quarterly Fuh., Nos. 1 ff., 
Tehran. 

Literary References. 

References are listed in my three works mentioned in the footnote 
above. 



NOCTUAE OF PULBOROUGH, SUSSEX, IN 1948. 

Bv A. J. W^IGHTMAN, F.R.E.S. 



X strip of marshland lying alongside a public highway at Pul- 
bo rough, having been scheduled for filling and levelling for road 
straightening purposes, I decided in late June 1948 to work it inten- 
sively with a view to finding out what species of Noctuae occurred there 
and also to remove if possible any interesting species I might find to 
similar and unthreatened terrain, of which there is no lack locally. 

I did not expect to find insects very numerous, as this land is under 
floodwater most years, for weeks on end, and often this water is several 
feet deep. 

This marshy stri}) was about 3 acres in extent, very wet, even in 
summer. The chief vegetation Avas Glyceria aquatica with fair quanti- 
ties of Fhalaris arundiiuicea. J uncus effusus and larnprocarpus, a small 
area of Fhragniites cominunis. much Iris pseudocorus, with endless 
marsh plants such as Thaiictrum flavuni, Spiraea uhnaria, and Angelica 
sylvestris, making .a dense mass of vegetation. 



NOCTUAE OF PULBOROUGHj SUSSEX, IN 1948. 77 

During July and August 60 species of Noctuae were taken, includ- 
ing L. alhipuncta and straminea, C. rufa, A. ophwgramma, C. leuco- 
stignia, and H. siiasa ; it is with these two last that these notes are 
really concerned. 

C. leucostigma was abundant, its peak period being early August; 
in all, 120 insects were taken, and the bulk kept for ova, of which many 
thousands were put down among Iris this Spring, just when they were 
hatching, close to Pulborough. 

The most plentiful form was dark, almost black-brown, the only 
discernible marking being the conspicuous reniform stigma, usually 
ochreous-yellow, typical Jevcostigma, Hb., but quite commonly pure 
white, ab. nlbipinicta, Tutt. Nearly as common was the dark-brown 
ground colour form with a pale streak between the outer line and the 
submarginal line, usually called fibrosa, Hb., altliough brown, not red, 
in colour. 

In fact, this name applies not so much to an individual form as to a 
group of forms since it occurs in several different ground colours and 
the streak itself varies in different individuals from definite pale brown 
to almost pure white. 

Between these two main forms a much less plentiful form occurred 
in w^hich a red-brown ground colour (micacea colour) was clearly marked 
in darker brown but had no sign of the pale streak. This can hardly he 
lull ilia. Haw. 

This species came freely to sugared rush bloom and reed flowers and 
was also to be taken sitting about on the reeds, but I found it very much 
awake. 

Hadena suasa. 

Why this species and its near allies, ir-latinum (genistae), cnntigya 
and thalassina, are now placed in the old genus Dianthoeeia (now 
Hadena) I have no idea. 

I should have thought the form of the pupae alone would have sepa- 
rated them, without the evidence of the genitalia, which, according to 
Pierce (9 Genitalia of the Noctvidae, page 47) would place oJeracea 
(now in Bhifaraxia) in the same genus with w-latinum and keep the 
old genus Dianthoeeia separate with A. irregularis added to it. 

Such an arrangement may do violence to some modern conception 
of generic or specific relationship, but it would be more natural than the 
present classification. 

The species oleracea and suasa have almost identical life-histories, 
pupal form, larval form, and the imagines behave in the same way. 

The species irregularis feeds on the characteristic pabulum of the 
Dianthoeeia, i.e., Sileiie otites, behaves as a larva like a Dianthoeeia, 
has the characteristic Dianthoeeia pupal form, behaves as an imago 
like a Dianthoeeia, and lastly has a genitalic form agreeing with the 
Dianthoecias (Eadenas) according to Pierce (9 Genitalia of the 
Noetuidae, page 49). 

In my strip suosa was not a very plentiful species, but occurred m 
small numbers in Hants, over a period of seven weeks. 

The variation was very great and hardly any two of the insects taken 
were alike. During the period of its occurrence I selected a number 



78 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/ VII / 1949 

oi: extreme 9 s for l)reeding, one of which was definitely black, with 
snow-white subniarginal line, another deep red-brown so deep as to aj)- 
})ear black in any light but daylight, and yet another was leaden-grey 
with heavy fuscous suffusion, largely obscuring the markings. 

I must mention here that I already had a brood of s\i<im larvae feed- 
ing from a Hants. 9 given me by Mr A. H. Sperring in June. This 
9 Vi'as very dark in colour and was selected for that reason. 

These Hants, larvae were already well on the way to full grown be- 
fore the first of the Pulborough batches had hatched and indeed they 
(the Hants, brood) had ])upated by early August. 

I expected that thej'^ would emerge as a second brood, but in this 
I was mistaken, only 21 emerging in Sei)teniber. 

All these Hants, forms were pale ochreous-brown in ground colour, 
heavily marked in hepatic l)rown and agree well with Barrett's hg. 1, 
plate 157, which form Rebel has named ab. variegatn . None were dark 
like the parent 9 . 

None of my Pulboiough simsd emerged in the Autumn, but to my 
surprise they emerged in early May, a good month ahead of the re- 
maining Hants, siiasa, which had been so much longer in the pupal 
stage and had given a partial autumnal emergence. 

None of these Pulborough insects is of the variegafa form, none in 
fact are brown-marked, but a good number are unicolorous black-brown 
with only marking a white subniarginal line and a small suffused orange- 
yellow spot, representing the upper outer edge of reniform. 

Except that my fresh insects are 11 in. in expanse and too deep 
blackish-brown in colour to show markings, they are represented by 
Barrett's fig. lb, plate 157, which may not be from a fresh example. 

Rather less plentiful is another unicolorous form except for the 
white subniarginal line and an orange spot, as mentioned above, the 
ground colour of which is blackish-red or ))lack with red tone, far deeper 
in colour and without the marking detail of Barrett's fig. Ic, plate 157. 

A third form which also was far from scarce in these Pulborough in- 
sects has the ground colour purplish-grey and even in tone all over the 
wing, but all the markings can be discerned in blackish-grey. I can 
find no figure of this lovely form which in its palest manifestation is 
almost wine-dregs colour, but no doubt it is of widespread distribution. 

Outside these three main forms, there are a number of individual 
forms, some of which are very beautiful. One such has a red-brown 
ground colour Avith the usual marking indicated in paler red-brown 
colour with white subniarginal and a few whitish lines in discal area. 
Had T taken this insect wild I should have placed it to tholassina. 

The Spring emergence forms of the Hants, svasa does not differ 
from those of the Autumn emergence, but while these insects are all ab. 
variegafa they do vary a good deal, and in some ground colour is a 
definite yellow shade, in others almost blue-grey. But all are marked 
in hepatic brown and show great contrast between ground colour and 
markings. 

I fed these svasa throughout on Knotgrass and despite the large 
number reared (600 odd) had no trouble. 

I released over 400 of the Pulborough strain in a nearby marsh. 



OBITUARY. 79 

OBITUARY. 



STR JOHN FRYER, K.B.E., F.R.S., 1886-1948. 

John Cland Forteseue Fryer died suddenly after an attack ot 
pneumonia on 22nd November 1948. He was born on 13th August 1886 
at Chatteris, where he spent much of his early life acquiring an in- 
terest in farming and an intimate knowledge of the fens. He was 
educated at Rugby and Gonville and Cains College, Cambridge, where 
he took a First Class in the Natural Sciences Tripos, and soon after 
was appointed a Fellow. 

As Balfour Student he went to Ceylon and carried out his classic 
work on the genetics of Papilio polytes, L., proving that the cyrua 
form of female, which resembles the male, is recessive and the polytefi 
form, which mimics P. aristolochiae, is determined by a dominant auto- 
somal gene, and the romulus form, which mimics P. hector, is deter- 
mined by an additional dominant modifying gene. 

Later he took part in the Percy Sladen Trust expedition to Aldadra 
Island and wrote papers on the fauna and physiography. On his re- 
turn he was appointed Entomologist to the Ministry of Agriculture and 
in 1920 Director of the Laboratory of Plant Pathology at Harpenden, 
and when the Agricultural Research Council was established he became 
its first secretary. 

Throughout his life he was interested in the British Lepidoptera 
and took most of the local species found in Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cam- 
bridgeshire, including Apafele sfrigosn, Schiff., Goenotephria sagittata, 
L., and Nonagria neurica, Hb. His interest, however, was not con- 
fined to the Lepidoptera and he had a wide and accurate knowledge 
of other orders. For many years in association with H. M. Edelsten 
he looked after Wood Walton Fen on behalf of the Society for the Pro- 
motion of Nature Reserves, and together they succeeded in finding the 
larva of KydriJlida palustris, Hb., bred the moths, and obtained fer- 
tile eggs. They published a fascinating paper on its life history, show- 
ing that its favourite food is meadow-sweet, and that after hibernation 
it eats the dead leaves of this plant before pupating. 

In his later years most of his published work was concerned with 
economic entomology, but his study of Acalla com£(riana, Zell,, led to 
the publication of an important paper on its genetics showing that the 
colour of the button and the ground colour are inherited independently. 

Tall, thin, and distinguished in appearance, he had great personal 
cliarm and collecting with him for a week-end was a most enjoyable 
experience. I remember particularly well the one when we went to 
Cricksea for Leii<cania favicolor, Mathew, and both succeeded in breed- 
ing it from the egg. Later I spent a week-end with him to count its 
chromosomes, and we were both disappointed to find them 31, the same 
number as L. palleus, L. He had thought that, being more robust, 
favicolor might have a larger complement. 

Fryer's great ability was recognized by his election as President of 
the Association of Applied Biologists in 1926, and of the Royal Ento- 
mological Society of London in 1938. He was created K.B.E. in 1946, 
and elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1948. He married a 
daughter of Mr T, H. Denny-Cooke in 1919 and there were two chil- 
dren of the marriage, a son and a daughter. — E. A, O. 



80 entomologist's record^ vol. lxi. 15/ VII / 1949 

LEONATID WOODS NEWMAN. 

L. W. Newman Avas l^orii on June 7, 1873, at Singletou in 
Snssex, and died on March 11, 1949. Like most good entomologists 
he was a keen collector in his boyhood and after he had taken a posi- 
tion in a tobacco firm his talent attracted the notice of the late 
Roliert Adkin, who encouraged him to make entomology his ])rofe,s- 
sion. In 1894 at Bexley he started the business, which prospered and 
eventually became know^n all over the British Isles and the Continent. 
Unlike most dealers he confined himself to British Macrolepido])tera a;nd 
was most careful never to sell any insect of doubtful origin. His honesty 
and integrity were well repaid by the complete trust reposed in him 
by all his clients. Another cause of his success was his unremitting care 
in breeding and inbreeding very large numbers of many species coupled 
with an almost instinctive use of the right treatment for the more diffi- 
cult species. 

He was a good field naturalist and loved collecting larvae and ima- 
gines near his own home and on his holidays at Royston and Folkestone. 
He bred many wonderful aberrations singly or in some numbers, but in 
some cases he carried on a strain for many generations. For years he 
bred the yellow form of fnUimorphn flomhiiila, ab. hi fen, and later ab. 
him a cilia from a colony in Tubney Wood. He bred dozens of the melanic 
form of Ennomos mitumnaria, ab. schvlfzei,- a strain derived from a 
dozen eggs laid by a normal female taken at Dover and sent unsolicited 
by a schoolboy in the hope of an exchange. Newman, with his usual 
kindness of heart, kept the eggs and sent the boy what he wanted, and 
was richly rewarded. Year after year he bred magnificent forms of 
Mimas tiliae, one spotted, obsolete, red-brown, and very pale, and his 
strain of Laotho'p popvli besides producing beautiful pink and buff 
forms gave about one per cent, of gynandromorphs. 

The recessive aberration of Sntvrnia pavonia^ in which yellow re- 
places pink or purple, was bred for the first time in England by New- 
man from a female taken at Grays, but only in one generation, owing 
to infertility. A considerable number of Txisiocampa quercns ab. oliva- 
ceofasciafa and ab. nlivacea, formerly considered great rarities, were 
bred in successive years from cocoons sent from Caithness. 

He was less successful with Ahrnxas gros-'^iihiriafa, though he bred 
many varleyafa and by selection obtained a fine strain of the white rayed 
nrfinota, and by selecting the darkest ab. aherdoniensis he bred some 
with entirely black forewings. He bred many hybrids, including Seleniof^ 
and Cosymbias, but his greatest triumph was hybridizing Nofodonfn 
ziczac and N. dromed/irius, hybr. neivmani Tutt, which had never been 
accomplished before and has not yet been repeated. Perhaps his most 
spectacular success was the breeding of several black Papilio machnon, 
and he was unlucky not to breed more, but was defeated by their weak- 
ness and infertility. 

At Stevens's Auction Rooms he was a well-known figure. He cata- 
logued most of the big collections and was the chief buyer, either on 
commission or for himself. 

Busy as he was he found time to write in joint authorship with H. A\ 
Leeds that useful and practical work " A Textbook of British Butter- 
flies and Moths." 



COLLECTING NOTES. 81 

In his later years he lived at Woodvale, and those privileged to go 
there to inspect collections will not readily forget the hospitality of Mrs 
Newman, who did so much to help him to build up his business. After 
a stroke in 1942 he retired, but his house was damaged by a bomb in 
1944, and it was some time before he was able to return and spend his 
last years in peace. I think the best tribute I can pay him is to say 
that he won the respect and affection of all who dealt with him and 
that his clients were his friends. 



Unusual Foodplants or Gortyna flavago, Schiff. — On June 20, 
in a derelict garden near Dover Castle, T noticed a wilted shoot of 
Bvddleia variahilis, on a bush Avhich had been cut down and grown 
again sending out a number of vigorous green shoots about three or 
four feet long. The terminal six inches were bent over and flabby, but 
still green and there was a small dark spot just below the bend. 
Slitting it open I exposed a boring running up almost to the tip and 
in it a young larva of Gortyna flavogo, Schiff. A brief examina- 
tion of the bush showed another shoot in the same condition and inside 
just above the dark spot was another larva of the same age. A plant 
of mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris, grooving near had one stem* with a 
wilted extremity and a dark spot at the side situated just below the 
wilted portion, and in the boring which ran up towards the tip was a 
young larva of the same species. I think both these food-plants are 
sufficiently unusual to be worth recording. — E. A. Cockayne. 



COLLECTING NOTES. 



Second Brood of Plusia pestucae. — In June 1948 I netted a few 
P, fpstiirae at Iris flowers in Pulborough Marsh, the moths appearing 
just before dusk. T kept 2 9s for ova, which were readily forthcoming; 
they hatched in about a fortnight. 

At first T fed the newly-hatched larvae on Iris leaves in glass-topped 
boxes and this food seemed to suit them, as they eroded the leaves for 
the flat surface, leaving the leaf skeleton. I tried Iris flowers, and 
found they were attractive to the larvae, but a bad food, quickly shrivel- 
ling and becoming very sticky, trapping and killing the tiny larvae. 

A peculiarity of these larvae was that they at intervals bent the 
head round to anal orifice and seized the newly-evacuated frass. after 
which the head was jerked vigorously from side to side and the pellet 
thrown clear ; often this jerky side-to-side movement was continued after 
pellet was disposed of. 

After a month's feeding these larvae were still so small that a second 
brood emergence seemed out of the question. I tried various other 
plants as food to see if a change of food would speed up growth. Phrag- 
mites, Phalaris, Carex and Glycfria were tried, and I found Glyceria 
aqvatira was specially fancied and on the plant the larvae began at 
last to grow qiiickly. 

I now removed them from the tins and placed them in a roomy breed- 
ing cage with glass top and part zinc sides, in which the reed-like 



82 entomologist's record, vol, lxi. 15/ VII / 1949 

leaves of Glyceria were placed in a bowl of water and fresh stems added 
daily and old leaves removed. 

These larvae never showed any inclination to leave the foodplant. 
feeding high up in the leaves in full daylight and sunlight, often two 
or three close together, and by August 15th they were full fed and some 
were spinning their cocoons on the underside of foodplant leaves. Of 
.51 larvae not one left the food to spin up on side of cage, or tried to 
winter. The pupae were at first black, but before emergence had pink 
areas on wing cases. 

Emergence began on September 4th, and the moths are very high 
coloured and larger than wild taken specimens. Those I bred are very 
uniform, but from pupae I had given him Mr A. H. Sperring bred an 
example in which the 2 metallic spots are united in each wing. Var. 
conlescens, Schultz, 1905, to which Hampson's name festKceJhi must 
fall, and another with left wing normal and right wing with united 
spots. 

These insects he very generously returned to me. — A. J. Wightman, 
Pulborough, Sussex. 

f. 
Correction or Name of Hadena caesia, Schiff., var. manani, 

Gbegson. — While searching the older volumes of The Entomologist to 

obtain data in connection with Lycaena phlaeas, I noticed that since 

the variety was first described by Gregson, the name of mamani has been 

used w^rongly instead of mananii. 

The original description is in Vol. 3 of The Entomologist (1866), page 
103, there named (and described) as mananii, a form of Hadena (Dian- 
thopcia) cnes'ui, Schiff. The error appears to be Gregson's own, or at 
least he allowed it to continue, because a few pages further on (page 
128) he goes into further details about it under the name of manani. 
Since he is arguing there with W. Parry of Manchester as to his right 
to name it (Parry having wrongly contested Gregson's action), it may 
be as well to have the name he really gave to it 

Apart from this, there are one or two other items that need correc- 
tion. Tutt (British Noctuae, III, 38-39 (1892)) gives the reference to 
the original description as p. 104 instead of p. 103 and has wrongly 
transcribed it as manani. Then Mr H, J. Turner (Suppl. Brit. 
Noct., Til, 98 (1943)) has given an incorrect reference to the name manani 
in respect of its first description. Turner correctly classes it as a sub- 
species, but gives " ssp. manani, Greg. (1883), Yng. Nat., IV, 184." 
That reference is to an article by Robson, not to Gregson's description, 
and the reference ought to read instead — ssp. mananii, Greg. (1866). 
Entom., III,«103. 

Kloet and Hincks (1945) — A Check List of British Insects — do not 
treat this as a subspecies as they should do, considering it is constantly 
different from the Continental nominotj^pical form. The entry there 
ought to be amended to '' [caesia. (Schiff. 1775)] s. mananii (Gregs. 
1866)." 

It seems fairly clear that ab. dovhledayi, Mill. (1886) is a synonym 
of s. mananii, Gregson (1866). — P. Siviter Smith, 21 Melville Hall. 
Holly Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham^ 16. 



CURRENT NOTES. 83 

CURRENT NOTES. 



The Tidskrift (Stockholm) has begun its 70th volume with two hefts, 
128 pages, 2 plates and a number of page illustrations equivalent to 
plates, with a good sprinkling of text figures. It is not defaced by a 
multitude of scratchy lines, indicating genitalia of use but to the very 
few, if any. 

Drury. — In the March issue of the EntomologisV s Hecord in " Cur- 
rent Notes " you ask what became of the collection of Drury. In the 
Edinhvrgh Encyclopedia, 9, 66 (1815), Dr Leach says of the collection, 
" That it Avas one of the most extensive ever made and is said to have 
contained, in species and varieties, no less than 11,000 insects . . . 
His Museum of Entomology was disposed of in London by public auction, 
and produced about 600 pounds. One insect, viz., Scorahaeiis goliathiis, 
was purchased by Mr Donovan for 12^ guineas, who obtained also all 
the British Insects (which were very numerous) ..." 

Presumably Donovan incorporated these insects in his own collec- 
tion. 

Drury was well known to Sir Joseph Banks, and I feel that it is 
probable that part of Drury's collection may have been acquired by 
him. In which case I believe it will be found in the British Museum. 

I have the following references, which I have not seen, except the 
first, to Drury : — 
Griffin, F. J. (1942). " Henry Smeathman," Proc. B. Enf. Soe. Land. 

(A), 17, 1-9. 
Cockerell, T. D. A. (1922). '' Drury, an 18th Century Entomologist," 

Scientific Monthly, 17, 67-82. 
Griffin, F. J. (1940). Froc. B. Ent. Soc. Land. (A), 15, 51. 

I trust that this information may be of use to you. 

With regard to the note '' Curious," I should like to add one of my 
own entitled " Curiouser " — there is in a bookshop I know a copy of 
Frohawk's British Butterflies priced at £10 10s, and labelled rr?;/ rove. 
There are no less than 3 copies of this verii rare work reposing unsold 
and gathering the dust of ages upon them. — Brian O. C. Gardiner, 34a 
Storeys Way, Cambridge. 

[For nearly three months personal circumstances have been quite 
adverse to carrying on normally. This letter was not acknowledged, 
nor did I correct my stupid error to which tbe writer referred. Fur- 
ther, the Drury MSS., to which I referred, has unfortunately been mis- 
laid.— Hy. J. T.] 

May T correct what I feel sure was an inadvertant slip on \). 
30 of the March Becord. Drury's book was published not in the 17th 
century, but the ISth, being dated 1770-82. The IMS8. which are men- 
tioned must, of course, also be 18th century or later, since the famous 
Whatman paper mill near Maidstone was only founded in 1731. Inci- 
dentally, it is interesting to note that a very famous book, Moses 
Harris's Aiircl'Kni, was i)rinted on Whatman paper, and a study of its 
watermarks show that mnny copies, although dated 1766 on the title- 



84 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/VIT/1949 

pages, were printed in 1794 or 1810. This practice of putting the date 
in the watermark is a very useful one. — J. O. T. Howard, 551a Finch- 
ley Road, N.W.3, 26th March 1949. 

Inadvertantly T made the error of placing Drury in the 17th cen- 
tury, instead of the 18th. It would have been acknowledged had I not 
unfortunately mislaid or lost the material I had ready to publish. — 
Hy. J. T. 

Zts. der Wiener Ent. Ges., LX, No. 3 (March 1949), contains, inter 
alia, an article by H. Foltin (pp. 39-42) on Biston isahellae, Harrison, 
as compared with B. lapponarui', also two new forms of [01indra = '\ An/iso- 
taeiiia' ulmana, by K. Burmann (pp. 43-44, T. 2, H. 3-6), ab. criicio/na 
(Fw. band reduced to a cruciform mark) and ab. ohscu/rana (Fw. band 
reduced to costal and medial dots). — T. B. F. 

Mittetlungen der Schweiz. Entom. Gesellschaft, XXI, Heft 1 
(10.viii.l948). W. Blittiker has a long paper (pp. 1-148, 46 figs.) on the 
Biology and Distribution of some Mosquitos in Switzerland; all the 
species dealt with occur also in England. J. Mlinster (pp. 159-179, 2 
figs.) on Aphids carrying Virus Disease of Potato. 

Heft 2 (25.viii.1948). E. Fischer (pp. 201-209, 2 coloured plates). 
Hybrids with Celerio lineata-livornica. P. Weber. Wing-shape and 
Venation of the European Gelechioidea (pp. 215-232, 16 plates). W. 
Key, Migration of Lepidoptera (pp. 233-248). F. Schneider, The Biology 
of Some Syrphidae (pp. 249-285, 19 figs.). 

Heft 3 (25.x. 1948). Haller, Morphological, biological and histological 
researches on Metamorphosis in Trichoptera (Hijdropsyche) (pp. 301-360, 
39 figs.). B, L. Clausen, Chemical Warfare on the Common Cockchafaer 
(pp. 403-444, 5 figs.). H. Gaschen, Control of Mosquitos in Canton Vaud 
(pp. 445-452). V. Delucchi and M. Martignone, First results of a Study 
of lihopalosopJioninus laty siphon, Davidson (pp. 453-464, 12 figs.) [per- 
haps not the same as the species recorded in England by Theobald]. 

Vol. XXII, Heft 1 (25.iv.1949). H. A. Schaefer, The Psyllidae of 
Switz. (pp. 1-96, 41 figs.). R. Lotman, Feeding and Digestion of Stn- 
moxys calcitrons (pp. 97-115, 14 figs.). — T. B. F. 

Werneberg : Beitrage Schmett., Vol. I, pp. 38-489 (1864), catalogues 
the whole of the species in these 6 "' Mantissa " of Fabricius. 
1775 — In Systema Entomologicae. 1 Band. 
1777 — Die Genera Insectorum. 1 Band. 
1781 — Die Species Insectorum. 2 Bande. 
1787 — Die Mantissa Insectorum. 2 Bande. 
1793-4 — Die Entomologia Systematica. 3 Bande. 
1798 — Das Supplementum Entomologiae. 3 Bande. 



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CONTENTS. 



FURTHER NOTES ON INSECT VISITORS TO THE FLOWERS OF SEA 
ASTER, ASTER TRIPOLIUM, LINN., L. Parmenter, F.R.E.S., 

THE OVIPOSITION OF THE SATYRID, PARARGE MEGERA. L., S. G. Castle 

Russell, 

ANAITIS PLAGIATA, L., Rev. Desmond Murray, F.R.E.S., 

THE EMERGENCE OF A FEW SPECIES OF BUTTERFLIES IN SERRANIA 
DE CUENCA DURING THE YEAR 1928, 

OBITUARY 

COLLECTING NOTES : Elachiptera diastema, Collin (Dipt., Cliloropidae), in 
Surrey, L. Parmenter; Dianthoecia compta, J. M. Chalmers-Hunt; H 
suasa in Sussex, A. H. Sperring; A Search for H. suasa, Hayllng Island 
Id.; Hibernation of P. icarus, T. D. Fearnehaugh; C. croceus, var. pal 
lida, and C. var. helice in the Swanage District, Leonard Tatchell; D 
livornica at Swanage, Id., 

CURRENT NOTES AND SHORT REVIEWS, 



85 

87 
87 

89 
92 



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VOL. LXI. 



PLATE 5 







^. 



tjorvciy 4^. 



TRTHEB, NOTES ON INSECT VISITORS. 






MBS. COiP. u 
LIBRARY 

OCT 17 IS'^J 

'URTHER NOTEsloN INSECT VISITORS TO THE FLOWERS OF 

HARVARDsEA aster, aster tripolium linn. 

UNIVERSITY I By L. Parmenter, F.R.E.S. 



The Sea Aster occurs along almost the whole of the British coasts 
but the records of its insect visitors seem remarkably scanty. In 1942 
a list of 2 species of Coleoptera, 5 of Hymenoptera, 10 Diptera and 
Lycuena phlaeas, L., the only Lepidopteron, were recorded, J. of Ecol., 
30 : 392-3. The following year I made a point of examining some Sea 
Aster ])lants when in Cornwall in August and Avas able to add 3 species 
of Lepidoptera and 2 Diptera to the list, 1944, J. Soc. Brit. Eat. 

Much to my surprise I have not found any further notes or records 
published. Surely other entomologists have collected off, or have seen 
insects visiting Sea Asters. My next opportunity to examine some of 
these fiowerheads came in 1947 when I found two Syrphidae — Tub if era 
\_Eristalis'] tenax, L., and *Tuhifera arbustoruin, L., taking nectar 
from this flower at Stone, Kent. This added one more species to the 
list, for arbustoruin had not previously been noted. 

In 1948 I was luckier and was able to study the plant in Pembroke- 
shire and Dorset, finding a number of species taking its nectar. The 
localities were a small patch in the Gann estuary near Dale, Pembs., 
and a large area of marsh near Weymouth. About one hour was spent 
on the work on each occasion. It was sunny on both days at Dale but 
dull at Weymouth. The list is as follows : — 



3rd August. 
iridae. *Manioia 



COLEOPTERA. Cantharidae. *Rha(jonucfia fuiva Scop., Dale, 
LEPIDOPTERA. Ptendae. *PierLS napi L., *P. rapae L., Satyi 
tlthonus L., all at Dale, Srd August. 

HYMENOPTERA. Apidae. Apis meliifera L., abundant at Weymoutli, IStli 
August. 

DIPTERA. 



Ernpididae. *Empls livlda L. 
Dolichopodidae. *Doluhopus (jrisei- 
pennis Stann. 

*D. nubiliis Mg. 

*D. plumipes Scop. 
Plioridae. *Phora aterrima F. 

Syrphidae. *Paiaoopsis [Eurnerus] 
strigatas Fin. 
*Cheilosia [Pyrophaena] grandi- 

tarsa Forster 
*Episyrphus [Syrphas] baUeatus 

Deg. 
*Metasyrphus [Syrphus] conslsto 

Harr. [corollae Fab.] 
*P(iragus tibialis Fin. 

Platycheinis manicatus Mg. 
* Sphaerophoria ruppellii Wied. 
*S. scrip ta L. 
*Sulca fella metallina Fai). 
*Syntta pipiens L. 
*Tubifer-a [Erisfalis] arbvslorurn T>. 
T. [E.] lyra Harr. [abiLsirus Collinl 
T. [E.] tenax L. 



Dale. 
3rd Aug. 



Id 



Dale. 
7th Aug. 



1 J (det. C. N. 
Colyer) 



Id 



Weymouth. 
18th Aug. 

Id 



Id 19 
Id 19 
Id 



Id 19 


— 


— 


19. . 


— 


399 


Id 


— 


— 


Id 


3dd 


Id 


— 


— 


19 


Id 


2dd 


3dd 


— 


— 


19 


— 


— 


299 


— 


— 


i(Sd 109 9 



86 



3 entomologist's eecord^ vol. 


LXI. 


15 / IX / 1949 


Trypetidae. *Paroxuna plantaginis 


— 


— 


Id 


Hal. 








Coeiopidae. *Coelopa exima Stenh. 


— 


— 


19 


Cordiluridae. Scopeuma [Scatophaga] 


— 


— 


iMd 


stercorariiim L. 








*Scatomya [Scatophaga] litorea Fin. 


ic^ 19 


^dd 


— 


Larva evoiidae. *Enothrix rufomacu- 




— 


Id 


latus Deg. 








CaUiphOTidae. *Calliphora erythro- 


— 


— 


Id ^9 


cephala Mg. 








*Lucilia sericata Mg. 


— 


— 


2d 19 


*L. silvarum Mg. 


— 


IJ 


— 


*Melinda gentilis R.D. 


— 




id 


*Onesia agilis Mg. 


^6d 


^dd 




Onesia species Inclet. 


1$ 


— 


— 


*Sarcophaga cam aria L. 


ic? 


M 


Id 


Sarcophaga species inclet. 




19 


— 


Muscidae. *Caricea tigrina Fab. 


— 


— 


2dd 


*Musca autumnalis Deg. 


— 


— 


Md 699 


Orthellia caesarion Mg. 


19 


19 


47 (sexes 
about equal) 



Noanenclature is that of A Check List of British Insects by G. S. 
Kloet and W. D. Hincks with some sj^nonyms [in square brackets] to 
assist those using Verrall's List. 

Those marked * are additional to the lists previously published and 
indicate the scope for simple original work suitable for most amateur 
entomologists. 

One is tempted to* comment despite the still meagre amount of study. 
The inclusion of 3 species of DoUcliopus surprised me as I previously 
had but -one record of a Volichopus visiting a flower — Dolichopus ungu- 
latus, L., on Heracleum sphoiidylium, L. (Hogweed), 

Orthellia caesarion, Mg., w^as particularly abundant in the Wey- 
mouth salt marsh and although this would account for its preponder- 
ance in the above table it must be noted that it seems a constant visitor, 
for it was found in Cornwall in 1943 as well as in both Pembs. 
and Dorset in 1948 on this flower. 

One of the most abundant flies in the Weymouth marsh was the 
Trypetid — Paroxyna plantaginis. Curiously only one specimen was 
seen on the fiowerhead, a d taking nectar, when the species is known 
to breed in the flower heads ! 

The numbers seen of various species and their occurrence in both 
counties suggests that many of the flies visit Sea Asters regularly. 
Although I watched carefully, not once did I notice a fly leaving the 
Sea Asters for other flowers. 

REFERENCES. 

Parmenter, L. 1944. Insect Visitors to the Flowers of Sea Aster, Aster tripolium 

L. /. Soc. Brit. Ent., 2 : 213. 
Clapham, A. R., Peaisall, W. H., and Richai-ds, P. W. 1942. Aster tripolium L. 

J. of EcoL, 30 : 392-3. 
Parmenter, L. 1942. Dolichopodidae (Dipt.) associated with Flowers. Ent. Mon. 

Mag., 78 : 252. 
Parmenter, L. 1949. Eristatis abusivus Collin { = TuMfera lyra Harris) (Dipt., 

Syrphidae) visiting Flowers of Sea Aster, Aster tripolium L. Ent. Mon. 

Mag., 85 : 24. 

12th July 1949. 



THE OVIPOSITION OF THE SATYEID^ PARAUGE MEGERA, Jj. 87 

THE OVIPOSITION OF THE SATYRID PARARGE MEGERA, L. 

By S. Gr. Castle Russell. 

Although I have reared this butterfly from captive females I have 
never seen the insect depositing in its habitat and under natural con- 
ditions. On August the 5th last being on the downs near Gomshall and 
finding the butterflies on the wing in good numbers, I decided to watch 
and see if I could detect the female in the act of laying. A pair, both 
in somewhat worn condition which were indulging in the pastime of 
sitting head to head and jostling one another, attracted my attention. 
Meg era seems to be particular!}^ partial to this pastime which other 
observers record as a preliminary courtship to copulation. Other 

species also indulge in the game but in most of the instances I have met 
with the insects were not in good condition and have parted without 
pairing : in fact I have never myself seen them pair. Females of many 
species of butterflies are known to pair more than once and in the case 
of Argynnis paphia it seems to be a habit. 

Adverting to the pair that attracted my attention I watched them 
for a short time until they parted, due I thought, to alarm at my near 
vicinity. The female flew into the base of a small juniper tree, alighted, 
and appeared to be busy. After she had moved out I investigated the base 
of the tree, cutting away the small surrounding dead branches. There 
on stalks of dead grass I found five freshly laid eggs green in colour. 
Previously I had noticed manj^ females diving into the bases of juniper 
trees, and had assumed that they did so to escape from me. It seems, 
however, that their purpose was to oviposit, and I confirmed this by 
examining a number of bushes into which I had seen females dive. In 
each instance I found a few freshly laid eggs together with some that 
had evidently been laid previously as they had changed colour. 

It would appear therefore that the procedure adopted by the female 
in the wild is to lay eggs on dead grass under bushes and not on green 
grass in the open, 

I have found that the female in captivity prefers to lay on the dead 
stalks of grass at the base of a potted grass plant, although a few are 
deposited on the green blades. 

They will also lay freely on fabric in the cage, and on one occasion 
deposited rows of eggs on some worsted threads which hung from the 
top. This habit is not peculiar to inegeru as the fritillaries seem to 
prefer to lay on anything but their food-plant when in captivity, al- 
though they do deposit some. Argynnis paplua deposit on tree trunks 
in the wild, but the others are said to lay their eggs on the food-plant 
or adjacent plants and grass. 



ANAITIS PLAGIATA, L. 

By Rev. Desmond Murray, F.R.E.S. 
Plate 3. 



Special interest is attached to this insect, first because the form of 
the male genitalia show no resemblance to any other species of Geomet- 
rid, occurring in these islands, except perhaps to Cars'ia paludata, 
Thunb., in the form of the female oigan and to the other four species, 



88 entomologist's recobd^ vol. lxi. 15/ IX/ 1949 

placed under Chesiadinae, by the acicular or iieedle-sliaped aedoegus. 
Secondly, an account of another species separated from it in recent 
years, i.e. It. effurinata, Gn., which resembles it so very closely in the 
perfect insect, (in fact in all the stages), that it is often difficult to see 
any distinction, though the latter is generally smaller, yet they differ 
widely in genital structure. 

Lastly, because it was one of the insects used (without effect) in an 
experiment of biological control (1917), of a harmful weed introduced 
from Europe iiito Australia, i.e. Hypericum perforatuin, L., the food- 
plant of the larva. 

An account of this experiment will be found in Becent Advances in 
Eihtoniology, A. D. Imms (1937). The life-historj^ given here of this 
insect is from personal observation but does not claim to be exhaustive. 

(1) The Egg is laid singly, sometimes two or three together in the 
edge of the leaf or on flower-heads of the food-plant ; it is white to pale- 
yellow in colour; the young larva emerges in twelve or thirteen days, 
both in the spring and autumn broods. This time agrees with the record 
made by Mr Fenn, as far back as 1892, of the " Duration of the Geomet. 
in the Ova State " (see Tables, Ent. Becord, Vol. Ill, pp. 173 and 225). 

(2) Larva 1 mm. on emergence, greyish-white in colour, apparently 
without setae and not differing in form from the full-grown larva, which 
is reddish-brown in colour, with a dorsal band of pale-yellow ; when small 
it closely resembles the withered petals of the flower. There are two 
broods, one in May-June, the other generally in late August, varying 
slightly according to the weather. 

The autumn larvae hibernates after feeding up for sometime, but with- 
out using any form of hibernisation, commencing to feed again quickly 
about April. The early summer brood develop at once, but development 
is always slow as the larva is very sluggish. It passes through, as far as 
could be observed, four instars. 

At full growth the measurement is about 22 mm. in length. 

The hibernating larvae feed at intervals up to the end of October, if 
the weather is mild. After this as the plant withers with the receeding 
sap and effect of early frost, the larva remains stationary, stretched at 
full length on a dry stem, Avhen the cold increases, it descends to the 
base of the plant, where there are generally a few succulent leaves and 
nibbles off and on until the return of the spring months, when the food- 
plant, a perennial, sends out its new growth. The spring larvae mature 
in about two and a half months; the autumn larvae take about eight 
months to maturity. Except for the bristles on the claspers the larva 
shows no setae or only very fine hairs, which jDcrhaps is not unusual with 
a Geometrid. 

It is difficult to see how the larva of plagiata or efformata could help 
in any way in the control of a pest plant, the amount it eats of the 
shrubby, strong growing Hypericum is infinitesimal, it is also infested 
with a number of parasites, at least in this countrj^, so appears to be 
the weakest possible weapon to use, in any form of biological control. 

(3) The Pupa ; to pupate the larva falls off the food-plant, secretes 
itself amongst the debris where it changes to a pupa in less than a 
week, apparently without any form of web but works itself under the 
light soil, if there is any. 



THE EMERGENCE OF BUTTERFLIES IN SERRANIA DE CUENCA. 89 

The pupa is liglit-brown in colour, without any markings, 15 mm. in 
length, with the end of the antennae sheath projecting from the case. 
It remains in this state for three weeks or more according to tempera- 
ture; damp conditions generally hasten emergence. 

(4) The Imago: A. plagiata, Exp. 30-38 mm. — A. efformata, Exp. 
25-30 mm. is generally paler and not so definitely marked. In colour 
the perfect insect is a French grey, with three dark cross bars on the 
forewing, giving the English name Treble Bar ; the hindwing is a very 
light-brown. In newly-emerged specimens the angle of the forewing has 
a pale-crimson suffusion. The autumn brood is sometimes, (but not 
always), larger than the earlj^ summer brood and the female slightly 
larger than the male. The moth is beautifullj^ marked, if it was not 
a common insect it would probably be so considered. The sexes do not 
differ in colouring, even the antennae do not show a marked difference. 
Plagiata seems to be generally distributed over England, wherever the 
food-plant occurs in any quantity, a favourite habitat for the plant is 
on railway embankments. 

One observer found larvae recently on the Lancashire sand hills, where 
the plant has recently appeared though unknown there before ; (See 
Trans. S. Lond. Ent. Soc, Vol. 1945-46, p. 74). 

Five or six aberrations have been named j differing principally in 
the width and density of the treble-bars or the absence of these. 

Efformata seems to occur only on chalk in the south of England; the 
two species often fly together. Comparison of the male genitalia show 
how very distinct are the two species. 

(5) The food-plant is generally Hypericum perforatum, L., St 
John's-wort, but other near species are used ; in recent years the insect 
has discovered the large flowered and large leafed garden plant, II. 
calycinum., L., or Rose of Sharon, in some places. 

(6) Parasites : From a number of larvae bred during the last few 
years, four different single parasites emerged from the autumn brood. 

Mr G. J. Kerrick of B.M. kindly named them as 1. Micropotetes sp. 
2. Apanteles sp., two other small Ghalcids not yet identified. 

The author has to thank Mr S. Wakely for specimens received in 
several stages of both species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

J. Egg- X15. 

2. Larva on emergence x 15. 

3. Larva last instar X5, heart of same further enlargert. 

4. Pupa x3. 

5. Imago (^ , natural size. 

6. Male genitalia X20. 

7. Male genitalia x20. A. efformata, Gn. 



THE EMERGENCE OF A FEW SPECIES OF BUTTERFLIES IN 
SERRANIA DE CUENCA DURING THE YEAR 1928. 

EXPLANATION OF THE SIGNS. 

(Vimate ; (A) coldish, unsettled weather until June 25th. (B) mode- 
rate heat. (C) hot. (D) the heat decreases. (E) a storm occurs almost 
every day until August 24th, high temperature. (F) the temperature 



90 



entomologist's recorDj vol. lxi. 



15 / IX / 1949 



decreases. (G) very hot. (H) a wave of cold. (I) the stormy weather 
ends. (J) unsettled weather, heat. (K) moderate heat. (L) some 
showers. (M) heavy rains. (N) lovely climate. (0) frequent rains. 
(P) the temperature drops. (Q) rains and cold. (R) of fine climate, 
l)ut on November 1st it snowed. 

Orcvrrence of fresh specimens : s = scarce; f = frequent; p = plenty. 

(!) (!) (!) 



Date 



May 20-25 
„ 26-31 
June 1- 5 
,, 6-10 
,, 11-15 
„ 16-20 
„ 21-25 
„ 26-30 
July 1- 5 
„ 6-10 
„ 11-15 
„ 16-20 
,, 21-25 
,, 26-31 
1- 5 
6-10 
11-15 
16-20 
21-25 
26-31 
1- 5 
6-10 
11-15 
16-20 
21-25 
26-30 
1- 5 
6-10 
11-15 
16-20 
21-26 
26-31 



Au! 



Sept 



Oct. 



A 



d9 

t s 

s f 

s 

s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 

f 

s 

f 

s 



f f 

s 

p f 
p 



s s 



d9 
s s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 



69 
s 
s 

f s 
s s 

f f 
f 
s 

f 

s 
s 

f 

P s 



f s 
s s 
P s 
P s 



69 
s s 



f s 
f s 

f f 

f s 

f f 

s s 

f f 

s s 

f f 

s s 



69 
i s 

P p 

f p 



f 

P s 
P s 
P s 

P p 

f s 

f p 
f p 
f f 

f f 
f f 

s 
s 

s s 



5 
o 
5 
ai 

69 

s 

s s 
s 
s 

s 

s 
s 

s s 



f 

s s 

s s 

s 



69 
p f 
p p 
f f 

s f 
s f 

s s 



t/3 

69 
s 

f 

s s 
s s 
s s 





o 

?5. 




^-j 


1^ 


N 


69 


69 


69 


s 






s 


s 




s s 


f s 




P s 


P s 




P s 


p f 


s 


P s 

(+) 


p p 

f f 


P s 
P s 


P s 


p f 


P s 


s s 


p f 


P s 


P s 


p f 


P f 


f s 


s s 


p f 


p s 


s s 


p f 


f s 


(+) 


s f 


s s 


s 


s 


s s 


1 s 




s s 

f 


(+) 

s 


s 
s 


p f 


f s 


s s 


f f 


f 


s s 


p f 


s 


s s 


s s 




s 


s s 






s 




s 



69 



s 

s s 
s s 
f s 
s 

:+) 

s s 

s 
s s 



69 



s s 
P s 
s s 

p p 
p p 
P p 

f s 

f s 

s s 

s s 



1-s 

69 



s s 



(!) 



ft. 
69 



s 

f 

f s 
s s 
P s 
P s 

p p 

s s 
s 

s 
s 



( + ) See the explanatory notes. 



(!) Spialia hihiscae, Hb. = Powellia sao, Hb. ; Lysandra arqester, 
Bgstr, = Lycaena hylas, Esp.; Pyrgus fritillum, Schiff. = Hesperia 
firsi, Ramb. ; Coenonympha lyllus, Esp., the exerge of pamphihis, L., 
according to Verity. 

( + ) The first brood of org ester emerged from 30th May to 15th 
August. The lack of a sign, in the table, by the end of June, does not 
mean that specimens of that specicvS had ceased to emerge on those days. 
It was due to the fact that while making my tables at Barcelona I did 
not find in the set, at which I was looking, any specimens labelled with 
those dates because at that time we went and collected to higher places, 



THE EMERGENCE OF BUTTERFLIES IN SERRANIA DE CUENCA. 91 

above Ugna, where arg ester did not live. While coming home we were 
unable to catch at Rincon de la Laguna, where those butterflies were 
flying, owing to the daily storms in the afternoon. The second brood of 
that species was on the wing from 19th August to 16th September. 

The apparent lack, in my table, of phoehe, alhicnns and coridori, 
from 11th to the 20th August, is due to another cause. Generally, my 
wife and T caught in different places to get diverse local species on the 
same day. My wife went to Rincon de la Laguna, I walked far. At 
mid-August my wife was not well. I made some trips to Rincon del Juex 
chiefly to follow the development of P. fritillum (that I shall relate by 
a further paper). There I took L. caucasica and other species, but T 
saw neither any alhicans nor coridon. Coming back I collected some 
argester near Ugna and soon went home to nurse my wife. When on 
August 21st, and later on, we visited again the meadow and path of 
Rincon de la Laguna, where both albicans and coridon live, we found 
there many worn specimens of this kind together with some recently 
emerged ones. 

Conclusion. — From what I have related, and from what I noted in 
1924 at Albarracin, and at Ugna in 1926 and 1933, I infer that albicans, 
coridon and caaicasica are single-brooded species emerging almost at the 
same time when it is cold and rainy in the spring. In very dry seasons, 
as it happened at Albarracin, Montarco, and, in 1926, at Ugna, albicans 
emerged in June, before its two allied species, but it did not produce 
a second brood in summer. 

Instead, Jiispana. is a double-brooded species not only near Florence 
and Barcelona, but in any locality (Southern France, Riviera) where 
it has been found,. It remains double-brooded on mountains. As I have 
already recorded, we took Jiispana, both in the spring and summer, on 
Mt. Fanna, 2000 ft. In the MiTseu de Catalunya at Barcelona there are 
specimens, taken by Dr Font Quer in alpine surroundings, and in Octo- 
ber, on Sierra de Almu^ara (Southern Spain) and at Puerto de Tortosa 
(Southern Catalonia), more than 3000 ft. Perhaps we have also taken 
hispnna along the banks of Guadalaviar river in front of Albarracin, 
3300 ft. 

Sagarra and I noted that the upperside of the wings of albicans ^^ 
almost white, that of hi span a is greenish bluish suffused with grev 
scales ; the disco-cellular spots are often lorominent. the mnrginnl bandc; 
are large and deep brown. On the underside the spots are big and deop 
black: the orange lunules, around the black spots, alono: the margin rf 
the hindwinofs. are intensely coloured and often they are visible on the 
upnerside. Mr Ball, livino: at Brussels, not^d some differeuces between 
the nndroconial scales of hisvana and albicans. T.^nsandra lii.o-nn^^n 
emerge in the same manner as J^ellargns. Around the lake of 
Ueua, where the climate seems to be still more favourable to iusect-lifo 
than in manv lowlands, the first brood of bellaravs emerfred. in 192R. 
from May to the beginning of July; the second brood was more or los^; 
on the wing from mid- August to the November frost. If hi spa no would 
be co-specific with albicans it ought to em^Bge, at Ugna, like bcllargns. 
and not to be a single-brooded species. In auy place of Serrauia de 
Cuenca we never saw any specimen which might be referred to hispaiia. 
Perhaps we have not discovered where the localized room lives. 

Orazto Qferci. 



92 entomologist's record^ vol. lxi. 15 / IX / 1949 



OBITUARY. 



CAPTAIN RUPERT STANLEY GWATKJN-WILLIAMS, C.M.G., R.N. 

1875-1949. 

Captain R. S. Gwatkin-Williams had an adventurous life. He went 
to sea in the Imperieuse as a midshipman in 1891, served on the China 
Station, and was present at the taking of the Taku Forts. He served 
through the Boxer campaign, took part in the capture of Pekin, and 
witnessed the looting of the Summer Palace. After his retirement in 
1912 he was in the coastguard service in Ireland and became an arderxt 
entomologist. Stationed at Queeustown he made a collection of Irish 
Lepidoptera, which was sold some years later at Stevens's Auction Rooms. 
He bred numbers of cream-coloured males of Cycnia m.endica and a red- 
dish form of Lithophone socio, and took a fine series of Celaena leueo- 
sfigma, but his greatest prize was a Leitcania loreyi, which he found on 
ivy blossom. 

On the outbreak of war in 1914 he rejoined the Navy and was placed 
in command of H.M.S. Tara serving first off the coast of Ireland and 
Jater in the Mediterranean. Torpedoed in the Gulf of Solium he was 
taken prisoner and handed over to the Turks, who placed him in the 
iiands of the fanatical Senoussi. He spent several months of great hard- 
ship in the Libyan desert. Enduring burning heat by day and bitter 
cold at night, he and his crew, almost starving, lived for a time largely 
on snails, but eventually the survivors were rescued by the Duke of West- 
minster's armoured cars. The thrilling story appeared in his little hook, 
" In the Hands of the Senoussi," published in 1916. 

After his recovery he spent nearly two years in command of H.M.S. 
Intrepid as Senior Naval Officer at Yukanski on the Murman Coast of 
Russia. During his first season in the Arctic he made a small collection 
of Lepidoptera including Erehia disa, which he found common, but very 
local. 

Through his influence I became surgeon to the Intrepid and got to 
know him very well during his second season in the Arctic. Tall with a 
large red face, he was an imposing figure, and though he could be severe 
he was kind hearted and so popular with his crew, that almost all volun- 
teered to serve under him again. He was an entertaining raconteur, 
full of ideas, and so enthusiastic that no one could be dull in his com- 
pany even in that desolate land. The task of keeping the seaways to the 
White Sea free from mines for the convoys going to Archangel and Kem 
ended in December 1917 when the Bolshevists seized the Russian war- 
ships and the town of Murmansk. On his return he wrote the story in 
his book, " LTnder the Black. Ensign," which I have heard described as 
one of the best of the war books. 

In 1918 he became commodore of the ocean escorts of the convoys 
bringing American troops across the Atlantic. — E. A. C. 



COLLECTING NOTES. 93 

COLLECTING NOTES. 



Elachiptera diastema, Oollin (Dipt., Chloropidae) in Surrey. — 
Tn 1946, Trans. B. en,t. Soc. Land., 97: 146-7, Mr J. E. Oollin first 
described the above species and particularly compared it with the wide- 
spread Elachiptera cornnta, Fin. He recorded it from Cambs., Dorset, 
Oxford and Suffolk, and in the months of March, April, August and 
September. On 13th February, a cold, frosty day at Bookham Com- 
mon, Surrey, Messrs F. D. Buck and. R. D. Weal were industriously 
working through some grass tufts for Ooleoptera and allowed me to 
pick up the Diptera present — mostly small Sphaeroceridae and Sep- 
sidae. Amongst the 16 flies taken were 2 ^ ^ E. diastema. This early 
date suggests that diastema, like E. hrevipennis, Mg., and E. cornuta. 
Fin., overwinter as adults. I also found cornuta on the same day in 
Mr Buck's beating tray when a mass of dead Clematis draping a Holly 
was being *' dealt with." — L. Parmenter, 94 Fairlands Avenue, Thorn- 
ton Heath, Surrey, 5th April 1949. 

Dianthoecia compta. — The readers of the Entom,ological Becord and 
Journal of Variation will, I feel, be interested in the following observa- 
tions. On 23rd June 1949, at 9.55 p.m., I had the good fortune to take 
at Dover a c? example of Biantlioecia compta in perfect condition. It 
came to the bloom of Sweet William, and as far as I could see did not 
hover over the flowers, but apparently settled at once, remaining quite 
motionless on one of the heads. The night was a cold one with a mode- 
rate North-East wind (only slight at the place of capture since the exact 
location is a sheltered one), and this coldness I feel no doubt accounted 
for the insect's inactivity. On 27th June T was once more at the same 
spot and took a further example of compta — a 9 this time but not in 
quite fresh condition. On this occasion the weather was rather warm 
with no wind or cloud. I first observed this second specimen at 10.45 
p.m., hovering over the flowers of Sweet William, and it occurred to 
me that it might have been depositing; however, I was unable to make 
sure. I have kept the flower-heads over which it flew in the hope that 
they may contain ova. — J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, 70 Chestnut Avenue, 
West Wickham, Kent, 7th July 1949. 

H. suASA IN Sussex. — With reference to Mr A. J. Wightman's note 
on II. suasa in the Ent. Bee. for July-August 1949, this has been the 
commonest Noctviid I have met with this year. The first specimen I 
took on 25th May, and it was still in fresh condition on 16th July. 

Tn 1930 and 1931 I took and bred it from the Cosham Marshes, Ports- 
mouth, and never obtained anything but the .svasa, form, Bkh., de- 
scribed by Warren (Seitz, Vol. Ill) as pale leather-brown. This form 
is well shown in South' s Moths of the Br. Isles, Vol. I, PI. 121. 

I never take this form now, all my captures being much darker, 
including confiuens, Ev. • 

I took in addition this year a small grey form, which, so far, I have 
been unable to find illustrated. 

From, dark females captured this year I have about 200 pupae, and 
shall await their emergence next yenr with interest. 



94 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 / IX / 1949 

Larvae were fed" on dock, which they ate readily. — A. H. Sperring, 
Slindon, Fifth Avenue, Warblington, Hants. 

A Search for H. suasa, Hayling Island. — A friend wanting this 
species, I took him to one of its haunts on Hayling Island on the 
25th June this year. I usually take it on the long grasses on the sea 
banks, but we were unable to find it there. It was very common on 
the nearby mud flats from about 11 p.m. -1.30 a.m. (Summer Time). 
From midnight onward, one CQuld pick up as many pairs as wanted. 
These mud flats are intersfected with creeks, and at very high tides 
are covered with water, so the larvae and pupae must be submerged at 
times. Some pairs were found far out on cord grass. All the pairs 
taken were of the favicolor form with one exception, a S pallens X 9 
favicolor. This is the only case of this pairing I have ever seen, and 
I have taken many in the course of years' collecting. Unfortunately, 
the 9 escaped before ova were deposited. 

Males fly wildly to li^t, but are hardly worth taking, as pairs in 
good condition can be taken later. — A. H. Sperring, Slindon, Fifth 
Avenue, Warblington, Hants., 1st August 1949, 

Eastward Speead of Hyloicus pinastri. — On 2nd August 1949 I 
found a male of H. pinastri under a street lamp in London Road, 
Croydon. x\lthough rubbed in places on the forewings, the moth was 
obviously fresh as the body scales and fringes were in excellent condi- 
tion. Whether by natural spread or accidental means the insect ar- 
rived in Croydon there is sufficient pine scattered about the area to 
enable the species to gain a foothold. — F. V. L. Jar vis, 21 Shirley 
Avenue, Sutton, Surrey. 

Hibernation of P. icarus. — A large batch of ova was obtained from 
half-a-dozen wild icarus females captured in late June. About 250 
larvae were reared to the .hibernation stage. This species hibernates 
after some feeding following the second casting of skin. Five only of 
the larvae did not settle down for hibernation, but fed on rapidly to- 
wards a second brood. All the larvae were kept under identical con- 
ditions and the bulk of them stopped feeding during a spell of hot 
weather when the outdoor temperature exceeded 80° F. on several suc- 
cessive days. — T. D. Fearnehough, 25 Eamsey Road, Sheffield. 

C. CROCETJS, VAR. PALLIDA, AND C. VAR. HELICE IN THE SwANAGE DIS- 
TRICT. — Between August 7th and 20th, 103 C. croceus, 1 var. pallida 
and 4 var. helice were observed within a quarter of a mile of my cottage, 
which is close to the sea ; they were nearly all in fresh condition, especi- 
ally the 9 9- A few were flying along the shore, and pitching on the 
rocks, but the majority were winging over the Downs in a westerly 
direction, 

F. rardiii, V. atalanta and V. c-alhum are plentiful, the latter rather 
worn. 

It is remarkable that so few V . io are to be seen this season. Is there 
a general scarcity of this usually common species? — Leonard Tatchell. 
Swanage. 



CURRENT NOTES AND SHORT REVIEWS. 95 

D. LivoRNiCA AT SwANAGE, — A c? Specimen of D. livomica in excellent 
condition was taken at light on the evening of August 15th. — Leonard 
Tatchell, Swanage. 



CURRENT NOTES AND SHORT REVIEWS. 



The Leptdoptera or the Kingdom of Egypt, by E. P. Wiltshire, 
F.E.E.S., quarto, 100 pp., 76 pits., one coloured, and 68 text- 
figures mostly of diagrams (genitalia) with a few new species. 
This article is one of the most needed guides to a knowledge of the 
Lepidoptera in the Near East, the more useful will it be because of the 
experience, knowledge and reliability of the extremely careful author. 
Knowledge of the literature of Entomology and of the reliability of 
records increase the value of this admirable Summary. 

Under the auspices of the Royal Entomological Society a series of 
booklets are being issued entitled " Handbooks for the Identification of 
British Insects." The two lying . before us deal with (1) Dragonfiies 
and (2) the Dermaptera and Orthoptera. Of the latter volume, Dr 
Burr will doubtless give us his opinion. 

The Odonata (Dragonfiies) may illustrate all the methods used. 
Every outAvard visible character of every species are figured. These 
are classified and comparatively figured, e.g., head (eyes, bristles, 
mouth), wings (fore-, hindwing markings), legs (appendages), thorax, 
abdomen (marking, appendages), anal (marking, appendages), etc. 

The outward visible general appendages fall into their natural posi- 
tion in the classification and are a predominant feature in the classifica- 
tion. 

The Butterflies and Moths Found in the Dover and Deal. District, 
by Bernard Embry, F.R.E.S., and George H. Youden, F.R.E.S. 

This is one of those particularly useful Guides to an area in close 
proximity to the Continent, and in the past was notorious for an 
" aliens without genuine passports." In the past this area had the 
objectionable reputation as the landing place of new species to the 
country without a reliable passport. So far as we have seen, the pre- 
sent authors have omitted the doubtful records. 

Guide books like these seem always to attempt the impossible, to ar- 
range the groups into a sequence which is absolutely impossible as a 
scientific fact. 

In this case there are 8 groups of Butterflies. Danaidne are i)ut 
first followed by the Sotyridne, Nym/plicdidnp, Nevirfd)ii(J(n\ L]/C(irnid<H\ 
Popilionidae, Pieridae, and Ilesperidae. 

The relationship can only be shown by a plant or tree with 8 tul^ercles 
each of a different height from base, each re])resenting one of the above 
groups. Looked at from above the circle of the 8 scattered groujis can 
only show relationship to a very limited extent, not impossible. Then 
why not always use the early groujiing, starting with Papdionidac. 
Hence it would be advisable to the early groui)s : Pa j/dinnidae, Pipridae, 
SntyriiJoP, J}(inaidne, Nyniphaliddr. Ninncohiiddr , Li/((ienid<ie. and 
Hf'speridae. 



949 I 



96 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/ IX/ 1949 

In this case the choice of Danaidae as the first group has been 
not unfortunate. The "Monarch " is not pJexipp'Us, nor is plexippus 
(proper) the Monarch. 

Linnaeus, System a 'Naturae (1755), p. 471. 
plexippus. 

" Ales primores fascia alba ut in squento cui somelis chrysippvf^/'' 

I have had more than a hundred of the American Danaidae and i^ot 
one had a white fascia like the eastern Danaklae of Africa and S. Asia. 
(The white fascia is irremovable and not likely to be.) — Hy. J. T. 

The Dragonflies of the British Isles, by Cynthia Longfield, F.R.E.S. 

2nd edition. Messrs Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd. 260 pp., 58 

pits., 12 coloured; 17/6 net. 
This volume is one of the very excellent series of works on the natural 
history of British Insects. In detail and illustration of detail this 
volume is brought up to date quite equal to the volumes previously 
issued. Colour is not so important in the work depicting the Odonata, 
but it is used in all cases where usefully necessary. A section of some 
18 pages is entitled " Wings and Bodies of Dragonflies," and consists 
of 17 plates, each comparatively arranged. The sub-sections : Vena- 
tion, 6 plates and including costal patches (enlarged); Genitalia, 1 
plate; Bodies, 7 plates, also comparatively grouped; Shape of Pro- 
thorae in the Damsel-flies (enlarged), 1 plate; Anal Appendages 
(Caudal Lamellae) of Damsel-flies, 1 plate; Alternative Pattern on 
Bodies of Damsel-flies, 1 plate. To these should be added 4 plates of 
figures of the Nymphs of Dragonflies arranged in groups, at the end of 
the volume. 

Much of this detail work was begun and carried on by the late W, E. 
Evans about the year 1845, In fact, this volume introduces the popu- 
lation of water, of marsh, pond or lake in contrast to that of land, and 
its educational influence is of the greatest value. 



I should like to have more Collecting Notes and 
Current Notes. Are there any Collecting areas still 
closed or partly so, and are any wholly released? 



EXCHANGES. 



Subscribers may have Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata inserted free of charge. 
They should be sent to H. W. Andrews, The Rookery, Breamore, Fording- 
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Wanted.— E. fuscantaria, ova and imagines. Cash or exchange.— .1. H. Sperring, 
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Desiderata— Bl^teTOus parasites bred from Lepidopterous larvae or pupae, cr 
from any other animal.— H. Audcent, Selwood House, Hill Road, Clevedon, 
Somerset. 

Wanted.— 1 need specimens of Lycaena (Heodes) phlaeas from all parts of the 
world, particularly Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia, Madeira, Canaries, N. 
Africa. Middle East counties, and E. Africa; also varieties from British Islee 
or elsewhere. I will purchase these, or offer in exchange good vars. ol 
British Lepidoptera or many sorts of foreign and exotic Lepldoptera.— 
P. Siviter Smith, il Melville Hall, Holly Road, Edgbaston. Birmingham, 16. 

Wanted.— ¥oT the British Museum larval collection, larva© of Chrysomelld 
beetles, alive or preserved. Liberal exchange if required.— Dr S. MauliK. 
British Museum [Natural History), Cromwell Road, London. S.W.I. 

TFanfed— Distribution Records, Notes on Abundance and Information regarding 
Local Lists of the Dipterous Families Empididae and Conopidae.— A'ennetrt 
G. V. Smith, " Antiopa," 38 Barrow Street, Much WenlocH, Salop. 

Wanted to Purchase— Leech's British Pyrales. Coloured Plate Edition.— A. W, 
Richards, Nether Edge, Hawley, near Camberley. 

Wanted— Set or in papers, Scotch and Northern England forms of the British 
butterflies; specially Coen. typhon, Erebia epiphron, Lycaena artaxerxes, 
and Lycaena salmacis. Purchase or in exchange for Southern forms of many 
species.— C/ias. B. Antram, F.R.E.S., Clay Copse, Sway, Lymington. Hants. 

Wanted.— Specimens of Velia currens Fabr. (Hemiptera), in any condition, from 
all parts of the British Isles or Western Europe, especially from the more 
remote parts of the west and north, for taxonomic study.— J?. S. Brown, 
Hailey Lodge, Hertford Heath, Hertford. 

Wanted to Purchase— L.\ica,s' " Monograph of British Orthoptera."— T^'. /. Watts, 
42 Bramerton Road, Bechenham, Kent. 

Now Available— ReitTints of " British Dipterological Literature, Suppt. IV." : 
price \j:— Apply to H. W. Andreics, The Rookery, Breamore, Fordingbridge, 
Hani-. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Boyal Entomological Society of London, 41 Queen's Gate, S.W.7 : October 5tli, 
November 2nA, at 5.30 p.m. South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society, c/o Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W.l : September 28th, 
October 12th, 6.0 for 6.30. London Natural History Society -. Tuesdays, 6.30 
p.m.. at London School of Hygiene or Art-Workers' Guild Hall. Syllabus of 
Meetings from General Secretary, H. A. Toombs, Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Crom- 
well Road, S.W.7. Birmingham Natural History and PhilosopMcal Society-^ 
Entomological Section. Monthly Meetings are held at Museum and Art Callery. 
Particulars from Hon, Secretary, H. E. Hammond, F.R.E.S., 16 Elton Grove, 
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CONTENTS. 



ADDENDUM TO SOME MORE NEW RECORDS OF LEPIDOPTERA FROM 
CYPRUS, IRAQ, AND IRAN, E. P. Wiltshire, 

BUTTERFLIES NEAR PARIS, GENEVA, AND ANNECY, 1948, R. F. Brethev- 
ton , , 

FORMICA EXSECTA NYL., AS A SLAVEMAKER, Lawrie Weupherill, ... 

ENTOMOLOGICAL EXPERIENCES IN WEST AFRICA, MAINLY TOGOLAND, 
FOR THE PAST FIFTEEN YEARS, Major F. L. Johnson, M.B.E., F.R.E.S., 

COLLECTING NOTES : Drury, Brian 0. C. Gardiner; C. livornica at Braun- 
ton, N. Devon, E. Barton White, F.R.E.S.; Larvae of H. pinastri, Linn., 
/d.; Larvae of B. nebeculosa, Esp., id., ... ... ... , 

CURRENT NOTES, 

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REVIEW, 



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97 
101 

102 

104 
104 
105 
105 



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ENDUM TO 80ME MUKE NEW KEGOBUS OF LEPIUOPTEBA. 97 

Ml TO SOME MORE NEW RECORDS OF LEPIDOPTERA 
FROM CYPRUS, IRAQ, AND IRAN. 

By E. P. Wiltshire. 



ADD UNDER PERSIA (IRAN) AGROTIDAE (betoie Cardepta 

alhipicta). 
Eaxoa rohigniosa Stgr. 

13-15. X. 39, Kermanshah, c, 500U ft. (garden and enclosed wild hilh 
ground). 
Euxoa cortii Wagner. 

19.x. 40, Shiraz, c. 5000 ft. (gardens). 
Aiiiathes { — Ithyacia) iobaphes (JBoursin). 

25.x. 39, Kermanshah, c. 5000 ft. (garden and enclosed wild hilly 
ground). A very battered male, the second known example of this 
rarity, of which I took the type m Lebanon on 26.ix.33. 

... , 1 
ADD (after " Cardepia alhipicta . . . above ") : — 

Folia praedita Hubn. 

20.ix.40, Khan-i-Zinian, c. 6500 ft., scrubby hills, Fars. 
Pro c us aerata Esp. { = latriuicula). 

17.vi.39, Derband, nr. Tehran, c. 6000 ft. (oasis); 19.vi.38 (6000 ft., 
oasis), Hamadan. 

ADD after " CrocalUs . . . Fraxinus " : — 
Uiiophos chorista Wehrli. 

3.vi.40, 9000 ft., Barfkhaneh, nr. Yezd (arid mountain). 



BUTTERFLIES NEAR PARIS, GENEVA, AND ANNECY, 1948. 

By R. F. Beetherton. 



During the summer of 1948 I was obliged to pay several short visits 
to Paris and Geneva, and, though prolonged collecting was impossible, 
I was able to snatch a few useful opportunities. 

The surroundings of Paris are quite worth exploration by the Eng- 
lish collector, though a good deal of local knowledge is no doubt neces- 
sary to track down the more local species. In the late afternoon of 
22nd May I went out to St Germain-en-Laye. The extensive forest 
seemed too dense to be suitable for many butterflies, and even on the 
mile-long Terrasse and sloping bank above the Seine, they were not 
very numerous. However, some worn Papilio machaoii were seen, the 
three common Whites, a couple of Leptidea sinapis, Vanessa atalanta 
and V. cardui (both worn), Pararge aegeria, Coenonympha pamphilus, 
with one C. arcania, and many Polyommatus icarus. A number of 
Haemorrhagia fuciformis were about, and Euclidia glyplnca abounded. 

A more profitable " near-in " locality is the Bois de Meudon, which 
can be reached in twenty minutes by electric train from the Invaiides. 
Here the woods are more open, with some heather and broom, and there 
are marshy spots where the hemp agrimony and other insect-attracting 
flowers abound. A warm afternoon there on 24th July yielded about 



98 entomologist's recouBj vol. lxi. 15/X/1949 

twenty species of butterflies. The mosii notable was Araschnia levana 
prorsa, which was flying not uncommonly to bramble blossoms, though 
beginning to get worn. I had not before seen the second generation of 
this insect at large, and was mucli struck by its resemblance on the wing 
to a diminutive Limenitis sibilla, L. The second broods of Argyiuiis 
selene and L. sinapis were beginning to emerge, and those of Heodes 
dorilis and Lycaenopsis argiolus were already common. The former 
almost replaced H. pJiloeas, which seems relatively scarce round Paris. 
Goiiepteryx rhamni, Aphantopus hyperanthus, and P. egeria were all 
common, and Epinephele tithoiius was the dominant butterfly every- 
where. 

Further out of Paris there are, of course, many famous localities. 
I paid three visits to the Forest of Fontainebleau. There butterflies 
seem to be very localised, and the forest has one great weakness in the 
total absence of water or even of damp ground. On my first visit, for 
a couple of hours only on 25th May, I worked an overgrown quarry and 
the adjacent heath, where butterflies were very numerous. Captures 
included several Melitaea cinxla, a few late Argynnis euphrosyne, and 
fine series of the first broods of C. arcaiua, H. dorilis, and Plebeius 
medon. Among the Skippers, Hesperia serratidae, H. malvae and K. 
sao were all flying together, rather worn, together with a few fresh 
Augiades sylvanus. This insect seems to have a much more prolonged 
period of emergence here than in England, as it was still about and 
in good condition at the beginning of August. A fine Euprepia cribraria 
was also taken. 

My second and third visits to Fontainebleau were on the blazing 
Sundays of 25th July and 1st August, which spanned the only heat 
wave of the summer. 1 made wide detoures through the forest, on the 
first occasion leaving the train at Bois-le-Roi and crossing the forest 
as far as Barbizon before returning to Fontainbleau, and on the second 
going as far as the Gorges de Franchard and returning through an 
open, grassy region called the Plaine des Puits. These two expedi- 
tions yielded thirty-three species of butterflies. Papilio podalirius, 
already taken in May as it circled with several V. atalanta round the 
top of a rocky hill, was again secured. L. sinapis and G. rhamni were 
common everywhere. All the three large Fritillaries were about, and 
a single A. selene was seen. Among the Satyrines, Satyrus hermione 
was notable. It occurred singly in many places, but in one spot it was 
really abundant, flying to and settling on the trunks of oaks and firs, 
where it was perfectly camouflaged unless approached in silhouette. In 
this habit it was accompanied by many *S'. seniele — a large dark race — 
and by two or three Euvanessu antwpa. One Pararge maera was 
taken, but I was disappointed in the search for ^S^. briseis, 8. statilinus 
and S. dryas, for which I may have been a few daj^s too early. H. 
dorilis was locally abundant, and there were some nice smoky forms of 
//. phlaeus. Among the " Blues," Polyoinrnatus coridon swarmed in 
certain places — a very large race with chalky white undersides, but 
apparently not much given to variation. An interesting find was Hes- 
peria cirsH, Rambur, which on 1st August was flying, fresh, but in 
small numbers, in the old quarry. 

The Forest of Chantilly Avas also visited. The part near the town 
is dense and rather flowerless ; but further in, near the chain of sirti- 



BUTTEBJbLIES NEAll PAlilS, GENEVA, AND ANNEOY, 1948. 99 

licial lakes, felling during the war has produced a more scrubby type 
of vegetation. My first visit there, on 30th May, was disappointing, 
as the afternoon turned overcast just as I approached the better ground. 
C. arcania was common, .4. cwphrosyne and A. selene were numerous, 
with one early A. aglaia, and I took single specimens of Melitaea 
athalia, M. dictyniia, and P. moera. Among the moths, Diacrisia 
sannio, Siona lineata, and Minoa inurinata were all easily disturbed 
and common. Late in the season, on the sunny afternoon of 26th Sep- 
tember, I was again at Chantilly, walking through the forest from the 
previous railway station at Coye. Early frosts had disposed of most of 
the butterflies, and onlj- Fararge megaera and C. pamphilus were about 
in any numbers, w^ith the moths Pliisia confusa and Anaitis efformata. 
There were a few individuals of the common Whites and Vanessids, and 
the race course at Chantilly yielded single worn Hesperia armoricanus 
and /y'oZias hyale — the only one I saAv in 1948. 

The surroundings of Geneva naturally provided more variety than 
those of Paris. On 27tli June an overgrown garden sloping towards 
the lake at Pregny gave a couple of hours good sport in brilliant sun- 
shine. P. niachaon, in fine condition, sailed among the flowers, and a 
few Colias croceus were egg-laying on a patch of lucerne. Argynnis dia 
swarmed, presumably in its second generation, and with it were a few 
strongly marked Melitaea didyma. There were strong broods of Melan- 
argia galatea, Epinephele jaihira, and Polyommatus icarus, with some 
worn P. hellargus. BuraUs quercus was taken at rest on an oak leaf, 
and several Hesperia carthami were seen, of large size and showing 
abnormally big white markings on the upper side hindwmgs. Macro- 
glossuin stellatarum, E. glyphica, and other day-flying moths were com- 
mon. Unfortunately, the weather broke that night, and no further 
opportunity for day-time collecting occurred during the remaining four 
days of our stay, though an Eustrotia trabealis came in to light. 

A later visit to this garden, on 14th September, showed a smaller 
but still interesting butterfly population. A. adippe was still in fair 
condition, and one female of A. dia was taken — presumably part of a 
third emergence. I was pleased to take two small specimens of Melitaea 
parthenie and several E. argiades. F. icarus, P. coridon, and P. hell- 
argus were all common, though mostly worn; and there were also a 
few examples of H. arinoricaniis, both fresh and worn, flying along with 
many Augiades comma. Bat the commonest insect at that date was 
Flusia gamma, which swarmed among the lucerne, with a few second 
brood E. glyphica and Chiasmia clathrata. 

On 3rd July my wife and 1 left Geneva, still in rain, for the little 
village of Talloires, on the east side of the Lac d'Annecy. The Hotel 
de I'Abbaye is on the edge of the lake, sheltered from the north by the 
outjutting Roc de Chere. and immediately adjoining a steep bank which 
was prolific in " Blues." Behind this there are steep woods, a terrace 
of cultivated ground, and then forest, alp, and rock to the mountain 
tops at over 2000 metres, less than two miles away as the crow flies. 
The weather improved in the afternoon after our arrival, and I col- 
lected on the bank. Besides F. icarus, P. hellargus, P. medon, L. 
argiolus and Cupido muiimus, the males of Everes coretas were abun- 
dant, and there were smaller numbers of Polyommatus thersites, 



ICKJ entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 /X/ 1949 

Fleheius argus, L. {argyrognonian, Berg.), Everes argiades, and Poly- 
omnuitus semiargus. A pile of damp and decaying hay was a great 
attraction, on wliich were to be seen at one time a dozen or more E. 
cor etas and many of the other species. On this day and the next this 
bank also produced M. galatea, P. moera, Satyrus circe (two newly- 
emerged males), C. pamphilus and C. croceus, besides the Skippers 
Adopaea lineola, A. thaumas and Augiades sylvanus. On the stony 
and wooded Roc de Chere Melitaea pseudathalia, Rev., was just emerg- 
ing in large numbers — a larger and more lightly marked race than L 
have seen elsewhere. A. dia, A. paph^a and A. hyperantus were also 
present. On the morning of the second day we walked in bright sun- 
shine along the lake and up the slopes to the deep ravine of the Cascade 
d'Angon. On the lower ground the dominant butterflies were L. 
sinapis, P. moera, and that beautiful Fritillary, Argynnis daphne, 
which was abundant on flowers of bramble and wild mint. In the 
woods many specimens of Polygorda c-alhum f. hutchinsoni and a single 
Strymon ilicis were taken, and in a damp meadow there was an early 
ErehiQ: ligea and several M. didyma. S. hermtone was caught with 
some difficulty from its resting place on the rocks above the waterfall, 
and a full-fed larva was picked up which subsequently produced a fine 
female Lymantria dispar. 

On the third day we set out earlj^ to climb La Tournette (2357 
metres), reaching the top about one o'clock and returning in the even- 
ing. We did not delay in the pine forest, which extends up to about 
1350 metres, but on the way a few fresh Argynnis amathusia, a single 
Limenitis Camilla, Schiff., and some very rubbed Aporia crataegi were 
taken. On the flowery alps above Erehia oeme was plentiful but very 
weather-worn^ Erehia ceto was just emerging, and there were a few 
Erehia sty give, Ochs., with innumerable little Geometers, mainly Psodos 
qaadrifaria. Between 1600 and 2000 metres butterflies were scarcer, but 
included Nisoniades tages, Hesperia malvoides, Pieris rapae, P. napi, 
E. cardamines, Y . cardui and a stray P. machaon, besides these truly 
high-level species Pieris calUdice, Colias phicomene, and Melitaea 
aurinia f. merope. A fast-flying Colias, chased but not ca,ptured, was 
probably C. palaeno. Above 2000 metres the rocks were still covered 
with fresh snow from the storms of two days before, but Aglais urticae 
nonetheless sunned itself on the highest point. 

The weather during this day remained fine, despite some threatening 
clouds. But in the evening the storms broke again, and for the last 
thirty-six hours before our departure at midday on 6th July rain was 
almost incessant and collecting impossible. Even so, our week-end had 
yielded a round fifty species of butterflies and we had reconnoitred a 
locality which, for its combination of variety, beauty, and ease of access, 
will be well worth more attention in another season. We left Talloires 
after lunch, travelling by air from Geneva; we had supper at home in 
Surrey. 

Ottershaw Oottaige, Ottershaw, Surrey. 

Note. — The nomenclature followed in this article is that of Leon 
L'Homme, " Catalogue des lepidopteres de France et de 
Belgique," Volume I, 1923-35. 



FORMICA EXSECTA, NYL., AS A SLAVEMAKER. 101 

FORMICA EXSECTA NYL. AS A SLAVEMAKER. 

By Lawrie Weupherill. 



In late Angiist and early September 1948 I was on holiday at Avie- 
more. The season was exceptionally wet in what is normally rather 
a dry part of the country. 

Though I searched hard for Formica exsecta and Formica sanguinea 
round A\demore in most directions I was completely unsuccessful until 
the last day or two. Strangely enough, the only place where I found 
exsecta was hy the track in the Einich Valley, which runs South into 
the Cairngorms. There in the late afternoon of 7th September, at about 
1400 ft., I found a colony. 

The next day I returned and spent several hours watching the un- 
usual conduct of some of the exsecta workers. 

The colony lived partly under a large flattish stone and partly to 
the side of it; and the size was about the normal for this ant. 

After a time I noticed that some of the exsecta workers were coming 
up a steep slope to their own colony from a tiny nest of Formica fusca 
some three or four feet below. While I watched, they carried a small 
number of fusca pupae to their nest and also a few live fusca workers. 
At first three or four fusca stood round the entrance — a small hole going 
vertically into the ground — to their colony and one of them showed its 
resentment at the presence of the exsecta by occasionally nudging one 
of the latter as it entered. This fusca also attempted on several occa- 
sions to enter its home. The exsecta did not seem to mind much, but 
eventually one of them picked up the fusca and carried it off to its 
own colony. 

All the other fusca captives that I saw were brought out of their 
nest and carried up to that of the exsecta. I intercepted four or hve 
of the captives and found that none seemed to be much injured. Pro- 
bably only those fusca which made themselves a nuisance were taken 
to the exsecta colony. 

Just before I left I pulled up the stone from the exsecta nest and 
was astonished to see two or three fusca workers assisting in the usual 
scramble to remove pupae. One which was rather apart from the other 
ants was most certainly acting energetically on its own initiative, in 
fact, the fusca behaved just as though they were in a Formica sanguinea 
colony. 

Presumahly an exsecta female had founded her colony under the 
stone in a fusca nest; but the community, though not of orthodox 
shape, was of normal exsecta size and it was very doubtful if any of the 
original fusca. workers could have survived to this stage. 

The slave raid was very much like those I have seen Formica san- 
gviiien making. There were the following differences, however: — 

(1) The removal of the live fusca workers to the exsecta. nest 
Avas strange, especially as they did not seem to be ill-treated. 

(2) The fusca workers were not afraid of the exsecta, as they 
certainly would have been of sanguinea. 

(3) T did not see any fusca workers on grass stems holding pupae; 
this is, in my experience, an invariable feature of sanguinea 
raids on fusca. 



102 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/X/1949 

A little further down the track I found two more colonies of exsecta, 
both of which were of normal size and shape; neither had any fusca 
among the inhabitants. Much farther down I found one small colony 
of sanguinea in a log. The dreadful weather, of course, made it un- 
likely that I should readily find this ant and I have no doubt there were 
other communities near. 

I understand from Donisthorpe that 35 years before he had no diffi- 
culty in finding both exsecta and sanguinea close to Aviemore. The 
extensive felling of trees during the two Great Wars has no doubt re- 
duced their numbers in the meantime, just as it has caused Formica 
TV. fa to live almost entirely in small or very small colonies. In the 
undisturbed parts of the Abernethy Forest, incidentally, there are still 
many very large nests of this species. In several other parts of the 
surrounding district I looked most assiduously, but vainly, for Formica 
sanguinea. in verj^ favourable places, some of which were thickly popu- 
lated by Formica fusca. I feel sure that both exsecta and sanguinea 
are now very rare in this part of Scotland. 

12 Raeside Avenue, Newton Mearns, Renfrewshire. 



ENTOMOLOGBCAL EXPERIENCES IN WEST AFRICA, MAINLY 
TOGOLAND, FOR THE PAST FIFTEEN YEARS. 

By Major F. L. Johnson, M.B.E., F.R.E.S., The United Africa Co. 

Ltd., Akuse, Gold Coast. 



I sent Mr Hy. J. Turner some notes on Charaxes, but I plead guilty 
of making a bad mistake^ — of course I have not got Ch. jasius here — some 
variations of Cli. epijasius confused me. However, when Messrs Wat- 
kins and Doncaster obtained for me Seitz' Palaearctic butterflies, which 
made my series complete, I felt embarrassed. 

Before I add to the notes on Togoland Pa.pilionidae, etc., I must 
mention something which I think is amusing. An R.C. Father, a Dutch- 
man, who volunteered to work with U.S. forward troops when Holland 
was being liberated, and is a very keen entomologist stationed in Togo- 
land, was rather envious when I told him I had captured PapHio anti- 
machus in Belgian Congo, and before he left my bungalow on a hundred 
mile trip back to his mission on a motor cycle, vowed P. antimachus was 
as good as captured should he find one. 

I have not seen one in Togoland. On his return journey apart from 
concentrating on riding on a bad bush road, and using the extra eyes 
entomologists are fitted with, saw a magnificent specimen of P. anti- 
machus sitting by the side of the road very close. 

After a combined operation worthy of F.-M. Montgomery, he dis- 
mounted smartly, seized his net and the butterfly had gone. 

Then he was tempted to climb another 1500 foot to the top of Amed- 
zofe mountain, the highest point in Togoland under U.K. Trusteeship. 
At the very top there is a cross of iron, erected by Germans years ago. 
He knew this was a favourite haunt of Charaxes — for some reason they 
loved the highest point of mountains (as well as the plains proper) flying 
around the Cross were many Charaxes lactitinctus — a splendid insect ! 
Tliese perched on the cross, perched on his helmet, perched on the top 
of his net, explored his face, and perched on his clothes — they were all 



ENTOMOLOGICAL EXPERIENCES IN WEST AFRICA. 103 

very inquisitive. When it came to trying to net one, it was a different 
story. There seemed to be combined operations, and in the end when 
he had to leave he had one damaged one — and the others chased him 
away when he mounted his motor cycle. Even Charaxes lactitinctus 
cannot get away with that ! I might add they were not interested in 
rotten fruit-mangoes, or a tin of stuff from a helpful dog, but plans are 
being laid. 

In Seitz, comparing the habits of Agrias and Charaxes, volume of 
American Rhopalocera, it is stated that Charaxes never settle on leaves 
of trees with their wings outspread — the Togoland Charaxes evidently 
do not know the rules — both Ch. zing a and Ch. cynthia^ indulge in this, 
and of course have a fatal habit of returning to the same place like 
Agrias. This refers to males only, to get the rare females means making 
excursions into thick bush and to certain favoured trees. 

Although I have got many Charaxes, this R.C. Father has been lucky 
with both males and females of Ch. houeti. However, he was very glad 
to get males and females of Ch. imperialis from me, and very envious 
to get my female forms of Ch. etheocles — which mimic all kinds of 
females of other Charaxes. 

At the Natural History Museum, Mr Gabriel kindly showed me a 
s])ecimen of Papilio zalinoxis labelled '' from Togoland "; although I got 
this in Belgian Congo up the Kuilu River, I have never seen it in Togo- 
land, or Gold Coast. 

I showed Mr Gabriel a specimen I had obtained on the Volta River 
of Papilio demodocus (so similar to P. demoleus familiar to collectors in 
India, etc.) my find was P. demodocus, ab. carye. In the Museum were 
two only from Ivory Coast. On the 8th and 9th of May this year I ob- 
tained four more — each varying from all black except the yellow trans- 
verse band, to one more like the usual P. demodocus except much darker 
plus the distinctive enlarged giant yellow marking in the cell of the 
forewing. Mr Gabriel suggested this aberration was trying to " start 
up," but it has not been very successful — because my African collector 
has haunted the only place where these have been found, and has seen 
no more. Neither have I — these specimens were found flying round the 
very brilliant blossoms of the red " Flame of the Forest " tree, with a 
few P. demodocus it is true, but the many hundreds of P. demodocus 
were drinking at" Bourganvillea, and similar flowering shrubs. 

These must be as elusive as Pyrameis cardui, the '' Painted Lady," 
which only appears here some years for a day or two and then is gone. 

Rains were late this year, and butterflies scarce until May, when 
there were swarms of all the beautiful Eronia forms of Argia, and thalas- 
sinn (many ab. verulana females — as well as the usual female form). To 
see these flowering shrubs covered with Eronias, Papilios phorcas, demo- 
docus, etc., is a wonderful sight. Two weeks later, and only the odd one ! 

Papilio dardanus is as we all know a fascinating butterfly — the usual 
females — form hippocoon are fairly common, these vary a lot. I have 
two with extended white on the forewings, and yellow hindwings (like 
P. thalassina, ab. verulana., or female of P. theora, etc.) aud one with 
practically white forewings — almost complete lack of black markings. 
Have found this with female Euxanthe eurinome, " albinism. ^^ and the 
R.C. Father has a Hypolimnas dinnrcha the same, 

(To hr cnurtuded.) 



104 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 /X/ 1949 

COLLECTING NOTES. 



Drury. — In the March issue of the Entomologists Becord, in '' Cur- 
rent Notes " you ask what became of the collection of Drury. 

In the Edinhurgh Encyclopedia, p. 66 (1815), Dr Leach says of the 
collection " That it was one of the most extensive ever made and is said 
to have contained, in species and varieties, no less than 11,000 insects." 

His Museum of Entomology was disposed of in London by public 
auction and produced about £600. 

One insect, viz. Scarahaeus goliathus, was purchased by Mr Donovan 
for 12^ guineas, who obtained also all the British Insects (which were 
very numerous). 

Presumably Donovan incorporated these insects in his own collection. 

Drury was well known to Sir Joseph Banks, and I feel that it is 
probable that part of Drury' s collection may have been acquired by him, 
in which case I believe it will be found in the British Museum. 

I have the following references, which I have not seen except the first 
to Drury. 

Griffin, F. J. (1942). " Henry Smeathman." Froc. B. Ent. Soc. Lon- 
don. (A). 17. 1-9. 
Cockerell, T. D. A. (1922). ''Dru Drury an 18th Century Entomologist." 

Scientific Monthly. 17. 67-82. 
Griffin, F. J. (1940). Proc. B. Ent. Soc. London. (A). 15. 51.— 
Brian O. C. Gardiner, 34a Storeys Way, Cambridge, 10.4.49. 

C. livornica at Bratjnton, N. Devon. — On 2nd September, at 11.45 
p.m. (B.S.T.) a C. livornica, Esp., came to an electric light on the loggia 
here and was netted with difficlty. It proved to be a large female in 
very good condition. — E. Barton White, F.R.E.S,, Braunton, N. Devon. 

Larvae op H. pinastri, Linn. — Larvae of ET, pinastri, Linn., from 
Bournemouth ova laid in the Spring of 1948 fed up and pupated nor- 
mally. The pupae were undisturbed until 25th May 1949, when they 
were placed in moist loose peat mould in a flower pot in the greenhouse. 
Though alive and active, none has emerged to date — 10th September 
1949. — E. Barton White, Braunton, N. Devon. 

Larvae op B. nubectjlosa, Esp. — Larvae of B. nuheculosa, Esp., from 
Scottish ova laid on Birch twigs, were, when one-third of an inch in 
length, placed in perforated zinc cylinders inserted in flower pots. They 
fed up rather unevenly, but, with one fatality, pupated normally during 
July 1949. — E. Baeton White, Braunton, N. Devon. 



CURRENT NOTES. 



We have just learned that the International Congress of Entomo- 
logy will be held in Amsterdam, 17th-21st August 1951. 

We are pleased to state that the admirable Dover List of Lepidoptera 
can be obtained from the Buckland Press, Dover, Kent, at the price 
of 5/6, post free. 



CORRECTION. 105 

We understand that that excellent journal for Lepidopterists, Tm 
Itevue Mensuelle de Lepidopieres, successor to L^ Amateur de Papillons, 
is about to reappear under the direction of Monsieur Lre Charles, a 
colleague of the late editor, Monsieur Leon Lhomme. 

We would suggest that all interested in receiving this magazine 
should write M. Le Charles, 22 Avenue des Gobelins, Paris, Venne., to 
ensure that their names are on the subscribers' list, and we need hardly 
add that new subscribers would be welcome. 

Now that Continental travel is open to so many, we feel sure that 
lepidopterists visiting the Continent will find one of their wants filled 
]>y this magazine, and another want will be satisfied by the splendid 
•catalogue on which Monsieur Lhomme worked for so many years, 
and which, it is hoped, will be completed under the direction of his 
colleagues in due season as a fitting memorial to this man, who was not 
only a very sound lepidopterist, but also a delightful companion and 
correspondent. So far, the Macro-Lepidoptera portions are complete, 
as also are the " Pyrales," " Plumes," and " Tortrices," while the 
" Tineina " have appeared as far as Bepressaria. The whole manu- 
script is complete and only awaits the funds for publication, which 
takes place Avhenever possible. It would be the greatest of pities were 
this work to fail through lack of support, for it is of great value to 
those whose interest is limited to British Lepidoptera as well as to 
those with a wider outlook. M. Le Charles will doubtless be in a posi- 
tion to give details of cost to all who are interested, and we may add 
that we have found this very moderate in the past. — S. N. A. J., 20.ix.49. 



CORRECTION. 



Ent. lirinrd, p. 94, Sept. No. Mr Sperring states that the species 
which he referred to was Lvrania favicolnr, and not siiasa. 



REVIEW. 



DiPTERA. Introduction, and Keys to Families, by H. Oldroyd, being 
Part 1 of Volume IX of the Handbooks for the identification ot 
British Insects, published by the Royal Entomological Society of 
London. Price Seven Shillings and Sixpence. 

This is the first part to be published on the Diptera in connection 
with a very desirable, if somewhat ambitious, scheme for the production 
of a series of Handbooks on British Insects. Conciseness and cheapness 
are stated to be the main objectives, and this part of only 49 i^agevS, one 
coloured plate, and 97 text figures, which includes not only explanations 
and illustrations of most of the technical terms used in Dipterology, but 
also indicates the main lines of classification, as well as variations in 
structure, in the Order, and provides a Key to all the Families, can 
rightly claim to have attained at least the first of these objectives. 



106 entomologist's record,, vol. lxi. 15 /X/ 1949 

The figures on the coloured plate (of a Blow-fly and a Bot-fly) are 
copies of two of Mr A. J. E. Terzi's well-known masterpieces, but these 
and the twelve other black-and-white figures of complete' insects, all lack 
one important detail, viz., an indication of the natural size of each. A 
beginner studying this part is left with the false impression that the 
Hippoboscid Stenopteryx hirundinis, L., is far and away the largest 
insect of those figured. 

The introductory portion of 36 pages gives practically all the infor- 
mation a beginner need know about the morphology of the Diptera in 
order to use the Table of Families, and should prove of considerable 
value, a value in no way diminished by the fact that it is open to a 
certain amount of criticism. 

In fig. 8 the front part of the frons of one of the Clusiidae is incor- 
rectly called the " median frontal plate," such a sclerite is not present 
in the Clusiidae, the term is sometimes used for the " interfrontalia," 
forming a chitinized projection forwards of the ocellar triangle, in fact 
the "much enlarged frontal triangle" of fig. 9 is actually the much de- 
veloped interfrontalia, and examples of less developed ones are often 
found in the Tetnocerinae, as well as elsewhere. 

In fig. 26 the sutural depression causing a definition of the post-alar 
callus, though mentioned in the Table of Families, is not indicated. 

In fig. 33 mention might have been made of the "stigmatical bristles" 
as distinct from the " propleural bristles," and of the " metasternum " 
lying between C'x2 and Cx3, all of which are indicated in the figure. 

In Table 1 on page 21 the abbreviation " im " for a crossvein should 
be replaced by " rn " or " m-m," further it is the base of M4 (not M3) 
which represents the " lower (small) " crossvein of both Verrall and 
Comstock-Needham . 

The figures of " breaks " in the wing costa will be referred to later, 
but fig. 73 gives the false impression that the mediastinal (or SC) vein 
is absent. 

On page 25 the emended spelling of GastropJiilus is used, though the 
original spelling of GasteropJiihis is employed elsewhere. 

In the " List of Families " on page 35, an "i" should replace ^'z" in 
Chiromyzidae, and " Asteidae " should read either Asteiidae or the 
possibly more correct Astiidae. The order of families in the Acalypterae 
is very far from being a natural arrangement. 

Finally the fact has been overlooked that the true position of the 
Phoridae Cas near the Platypezidae) was established by the discovery of 
the Sciadoceridae. 

The compilation of this introductory portion must have resolved it- 
self mainly into deciding what might safely be omitted for the sake 
of brevity, but the production of a satisfactory Key to Families was 
inevitably a much more difficult matter, because no really satisfactory 
Key has yet been compiled. No one, for instance, who has worked at 
the Acalypterae could fail to realize the difficulties of adapting to the 
requirements of British Dipterists these previous attempts at the pro- 
duction of a Key, which is what Mr Oldroyd has attempted. He was 
warned that previous Tables in which use was made of the costal 
" breaks " were probably unworkable, but he has endeavoured to get 



REVIEW. 107 

over the difficulty by extending tlie repetition of doubtful cases under 
both headings, and by giving figures of some of them. It is certain 
that he might have carried these processes further with advantage. 
Further, whereas Hendel, who first made use of these costal break 
characters, appears to have adopted the point of contact of the ujjper 
margin of Rl with the costa, as the point where that vein joins the 
costa, Mr Oldroyd has adopted the point of contact of the lower margin 
of Rl with the costa (v. arrow-heads in figs. 71 and 72), without mak- 
ing corresponding alterations in the position of families in the Key. 
Moreover, his figures 71 and 72 are not absolutely accurate in their re- 
presentation of vein Rl, or in details of costal chaetotaxy. There 
are usually some faint indications of a continuation of vein Rl in norrnxd 
vidth along the underside of its apparently thickened part, and though 
there may be an indistinctness of the upper margin of this vein immedi- 
ately beyond the junction of vein SC with costa, this is due to the 
presence of the fold in the wing shown in fig. 73. This fold is not dis- 
tinctive of the Psilidae as stated in couplet 65 of the Key (where "discal 
cell (1st M2)" should read "second basal cell (M)"), but is more or less 
distinctly indicated in a large number of the Cyclorrhapha, occasionally 
even simulating a cross-vein between Rl and costa, in other cases an 
apparent fusion of the two. This constitutes one of the reasons why 
the character of the position of the costal break in relation to the end 
of vein Rl is so difficult of application, a difficulty not overcome by Mr 
Oldroyd's adoption of another point of junction of Rl with costa be- 
cause these veins often merge so very gradually into one another. Any- 
one in any doubt about the correctness of his own interpretation of these 
costal break characters when using the Key, should invariably try the 
alternative division. 

It may be useful to indicate one or two mistakes which have crept 
into the Key, and call attention to some statements which should not 
be taken too literally. 

Couplet 14, first line, for (fig. 1) 5 read (fig. 15). 

Couplet 16, after " Dolichopodidae " add " and Empididae." 

Couplet 18. A few Tabanidae have unicolorous eyes, and some 
Stratiomyidae have banded eyes. In the latter family Xylomyia is an 
exception in regard to spurs to the tibiae; also " tip " of wing is pre- 
sumably a lapsus for " margin." 

Couplet 28. The " s " should be struck out of " cells." The pro- 
boscis of Dolichopodidae is certainly not always " soft and fleshy." 

Couplet 29. There are exceptions in the case of all the distinctions 
given for the S.yrphidae except that of the closed first posterior cell. 

Couplet 30. The head of no Pipunculid is actually " spherical " in 
profile, and some are no more than hemispherical. 

Couplet 33. See earlier note of the fact that fig. 27 does not show 
the sutural depression mentioned in the couplet. 

Couplet 35. " SC " should be inserted between the words " at " and 
" or," and " vien " should read '" vein." 

Couplet 55. The second character given for the Clusiidae is not n 
family distinction. 

Couplet 58. For " face " towards end of first line read " frons." 



108 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 /X/ 1949 

Couplet 60. Figs. 72 and 76 represent part of the wings, not the 
palpij and these latter while shorter and broader in Chiromyiidae are 
scarcely " abbreviated." 

Couplet 61. The frons of Chloropidae does occasionally (e.g. Diplo- 
foxa) bear conspicuous bristles. 

Couplet 63. Instead of " first antennal segment (scape) conical " 
read " first segment of ovipositor large and conical," and in place of 
the last character for Anthomyzidae read " Female with normal incon- 
spicuous ovipositor . ' ' 

Couplet 64. The record of the genus Selachops as British was based 
upon a misidentification (v. Ent. Mon. Mag., 1911, 254). 

Couplet 65. The reference under Psilidae to the " discal cell (1st 
M2) " is a mistake for " second basal cell (M)," and the statement that 
the r-m crossvein is " very near " the second basal and anal cells is some- 
what misleading. 

Couplet 68. Instead of " eyes " at end of first line in second para- 
graph read " frons." 

Couplet 72. See note under couplet 61. 

Couplet 78. There are some species in the Phasiinae of the Tachini- 
dae, and the Rhinophorinae of the Calliphoridae which cannot be satis- 
factorily placed by the single character adopted in the Key. 

It should be remembered that it is not easy for anyone capable of 
" placing " a British species in its correct family or genus, without re- 
ference to any Key, to recognize and meet the difficulties experienced 
by a beginner when using one, so that such people when drafting Keys 
work at a disadvantage. Probably really satisfactory Keys to the 
Families and genera of British Diptera (or any other Order) could be 
more quickly produced if all beginners would make public the difficul- 
ties they experience in working with existing Keys. 

To those commencing the study of the Diptera this part is the most 
important one of the series, and we have no doubt the demand for it 
will be great. 

J. E. C. 



EXCHANGES. 



Subscribers may have Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata inserted free of charge. 
They should be sent to H. W. Andrews, The Rookery, Breamore, Fording- 
bridge, Hants. 

Wanted.— E. fuscantaria, ova and imagines. Cash or exchange.— 4. H. Sperring. 
Slindon, Fifth Avenue, Warblington, Havant, Hants. 

ZJcstderafa— Dipterous parasites bred from Lepidopterous larvae or pupae, cr 
from any other animal.— H. Audcent, Selwood House, Hill Road, Clevedon, 
Somerset. 

Wanted.— I need specimens of Lycaena (Heodes) phlaeas from all parts of the 
world, particularly Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia, Madeira, Canaries, N. 
Africa, Middle East counties, and E. Africa; also varieties from British Islea 
or elsewhere. I will purchase these, or offer in exchange good vars. of 
British Lepidoptera or many sorts of foreign and exotic Lepidoptera.— 
P. Siviter Smith, ii Melville Hall, Holly Road, Edghaston, Birmingham, fS. 

Wanted.— For the British Museum larval collection, larvae of Chrysomelld 
beetles, alive or preserved. Liberal exchange if required.— Dr S. MauliH, 
British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London, S.W.7. 

Wanted— Distribution Records, Notes on Abundance and Information regarding 
Local Lists of the Dipterous Families Empididae and Conopidae .—/vcnnet/» 
G. V. Smith, " Antiopa," 38 Barrow Street, Much Wenloch, Salop. 

Wanted to Purchase— Ijeech's British Pyrales. Coloured Plate Edition.— 4, W. 
Richards, Nether Edge, Hawley, near Camberley. 

I have available a large num.ber of good and minor aberrational forms of Lysan- 
dra coridon, which I can offer in exchange for other vars. of the same species. 
—Chas. B. Antram, F.R.E.S., Clay Copse, Sioay, Lymington, Hants. 

Wanted.—Speclmejis of Velia currens Fabr. (Hemiptexa), in any condition, from 
all parts of the British Isles or Western Europe, especially from the more 
remote parts of the west and north, for taxonomic stiidy.— £^. S. Brown, 
Hailey Lodge, Hertford Heath, Hertford. 

Wanted to Purchase— L.uca.s' " Monograph of British Orthoptera."— W. J. Watts, 
42 Bramerton Road, Bechenham, Kent. 

Now Available— Rei>Tints of " British Dipterological Literature, Suppt. IV." : 
price I/-.— Apply to H. W. Andrews, The Rookery, Breamore, Fordingbridge, 
Hant-H. 

For Disposal— Stainton's " Natural History of Tineina." 13 Vols.; about 110 
coloured plates, in excellent condition. Wanted to Purchase— Joy's Beetles, 
3 Vols.— TT. /. Watts, 42 Bramerton Road, Beckenham, Kent. 

Duplicates.— Ivish -. Napi, Cardamines, Sinapis, Phlaeas, Icarus, Egerides, 
Megera, Jurtina, Tithonus, Hyperanthus— all this season (1949). Desiderata. 
—Numerous to renew.— I. H. Bonaparte Wyse, Corballymore, Co. Waterford. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Royal Entomological Society of London, 41 Queen's Gate, S.W.7 : November 
2ncl, December 7th, at 5.30 p.m. South London Entomological and Natural His- 
tory Society, c/o Royal Society, Burjington House, Piccadilly, W.l : Saturday, 
October 29th (Annual Exhibition) : open from 11 a.m. London Natural History 
Society : Tuesdays, 6.30 p.m., at London School of Hygiene or Art-Workers' Guild 
Hall. Syllabus of Meetings from General Secretary, H. A. Toombs, Brit. Mus. 
(Nat. Hist.), Cromwell Road, S.W.7. Birmingham Natural History and Philoso- 
phical Society— Entomological Section. Monthly Meetings are held at Museum 
and Art Gallery. Particulars from Hon. Secretary, H. E. Hammond, F.R.E.S., 
16 Elton Grove, Acocks Green, Birmingham. 



TO OUR READERS. 
Short Oolltotlng Notts and Curront Notts. Pltast, Early. — Eds. 



All MS. ana EDITORIAl. MATTER should be sent and all PROOFS returned to 
Hy. J. Turner, " Latemar," 25 West Drive, Cheam. 

Wt must earnestly request our correspondents NOT TO SEND US COMMUNICA- 
TIONS IDENTICAL with tliose they are sendinflr to other magazines. 

REPRINTS of articles may be obtained by authors at very reasonable cost It 
ordered at THE TIME OF SENDING IN MS. 

Articles that require ILLUSTRATIONS are inserted on condition that tht 
AUTHOR DEFRAYS THE COST of the illustrations. 



Temporary Addresses till further notice.— Br H. B, D. Kettlewell, c/o Standard 
Bank, Cape Town, S. Africa. Capt. K. J, Hayward has returned to his previous 
Argentine address. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.E.S., Wood- 
fold, Down Hatherley, Gloucester, 



Communications received :— Thomas Greer, Fergus J. O'Rourke, O. Querci, 
H Donisthorpe, Malcolm Burr, Surg.-Lt. Comm. H. M. Darlow, D. G. Seyastopulo. 
D. Fearnehough, R. J. R. Levett, E. C. S. Blathwayt, E. P. Wiltshire. A. E. Wright. 

All Communications should be addressed to the Acting^ Editor. Ht. J. 
TURNER, " Latemar," 25 West Drive, Cheam. 



It you collect CORIDON, BSLLARGVS, ICARVS, AROUS, minimus, AGBSTIM 
or PHLAEAS, you can be interested for life in their British aberrations by 

obtaining ■ 

''THE CORIDON MONOGRAPH AND ADDENDA," 

PRICE £2 10s, pott frte, 

direct from :— 

THE RICHMOND HILL PRINTING WORKS. LTD.. Yelverton Road. 
Bournemouth, Hampshire. 



Strongly covered and magnificently produced with 18 plates of 409 figures, M In 
colour. Letterpress 144 large pages of superior paper. 



PrlnUil by T. Bunele * Co., 144.. Arbroath. 



E. V. 



»1. LXI. 




ENiOMQLOGISTS RECORD 

UBftSSY 

DEC 16 m'.\ ^^^ 

jiPfL OF VARIMION 



MALCOLM BURR, D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

B. A. COCKAYNE, M.A., F.R.C.P., F.R.E.S. 

J. E. COLUN, J.P., F.R.E.S. 



TI. DONISTHORPE. F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. 

S. N. A. JACOBS. 

H B. VVILUAMS, K.C., LL.D., F.R.E.S. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S.. F.Z.S.. F.R.E.S. [Sub-Editor), 
Rodborough Fort, Stroud, Glos. 

HY. J. TURNER, F.R.E.S., F.R.H.S. {Editorial Secretary). 



OONTENTS. 



REARING ARGYNNIS (ISSORIA) LATHONIA, T. D. Fearnehough .... ... 109 

POLYOMMATUS (LYSANDRA) CORIDON ABERRATIONS, Chas. B. Antram 110 
NOTE ON THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE NEW FOREST IN 1949, Chas. B. 

Antram Ill 

MORE VALUABLE RECORDS, /. W. Heslop Hcmnson 112 

BLASTOBASIS PHYCICELLA, ZEIA.ER (1839) (LEP., BLASTOBASIDAE) : A 

SPECIES HITHERTO UNRECORDED FROM BRITAIN, S. iV. A. Jacobs 113 
THE MALE OF SYNTORMON MACULA, PAR. (DIPT. DOLICHOPODIDAE) 

FROM BLAIZE WOODS, NEAR BRISTOL, E. C. M. d'Assis-Fonseca ... 114 
COLLECTING NOTES : Early Appearance of Satyrus galathea in Somerset, 
Nigel T. Easton; Immigrants in Somerset, Id.; Pieris napi : An Unusual 
Pairing, Id.; Limenitis Camilla in Somerset, Id.; Argynnis papliia var. 
valezina, Frohawk, in Somerset, Id.; Argynnis selene : Second Brood, 
Id.; Deilephila livornix^a taken at Swanage, Chas. B. Antram; Colias 
croceus (edusa), Id.; Clytiomyia rotundiventris, Fall. (Dipt. Tachinidae) 

at Breamore, Hants., H. W. Andrews 116 

CURRENT NOTES 118 

REVIEWS 119 



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REARING ARGYNNIS (iSSORIA) LATHONIA. 109 



EC 16 19^' 

{EARING ARGYNNIS (ISSORIA) LATHONIA. 

lks,.Lii...iy I By T. D. Fearnehough. 



When on September Uh of this year Mr O. G. Watkins captured a 
female Queen of Spain Fritillary at Plymouth, he very bravely refrained 
from setting a good insect and kept it alive, hoping tor ova. He got 
eggs all right, and will, no doubt, tell his story of them, and relate his 
own rearing experience in due course. 

A dozen of the ova were sent to^ me, and when the package anived 
it was found that eight eggs had hatched during the journey. Three 
more hatched the following day, but the twelfth egg proved infertile. 
The lathonia larva on hatching makes a meal of the empty shell, leaving 
only that part of the base glued to the leaf. Since the normal food- 
plant. Heartsease {Viola tricolor), is a rarity in my immediate neighbour- 
hood, the larvae were offered flowers and leaves of garden violas. They 
ignored the petals but tackled the leaves with enthusiasm, eating out 
scallops from the leaves edges. 

At this time the weather was hot and sunny, and the glass-topped 
tins in which the larvae were contained were kept in an attic where the 
temperature rose to 90 °F. on several successive days. According to text 
books, lathonia is double brooded, the larvae from the second brood 
hibernating at an early stage. My main concern, therefore, was to 
force the larvae past any hibernation stage, and to this end they were 
given artificial warmth at night. They grew remarkably rapidly and 
moulted three times in as many days. The weather then turned cooler, 
so artificial warmth was given day and night. A max./min. thermo- 
meter, kept adjacent to the larvae tins during the whole period 
registered highest and lowest temperature of 92 °F. and 75 °F. respec- 
tively. The larvae were entering their fifth and final instar in five to 
six days after hatching. 

Lathonia caterpillars have been well described several times, and 
they are, indeed, attractive creatures. They fed in short bursts at 
terrific speed, and after each spasm of eating retired to the walls of 
their container and remained motionless for considerable intervals, 
usually taking up vertical positions. The larvae, when young, hunted 
over the leaves supplied and chose the tenderest one on which to feed. 
After each rest they returned to their chosen leaves and often resumed 
feeding just where they left ofi. It was amusing to see several larvae 
tearing away at one leaf whilst other adjacent leaves were left un- 
touched. As the caterpillars became larger they were less critical of 
their food and often attacked juicy stalks of untouched leaves. They 
had a habit in all stages of seizing in their jaws pellets of frass and 
hurling them away with a toss of the head. 

When full fed the larvae ran about their containers spinning large 
amounts of silk in a most haphazard manner. The glass top and sides 
of one container were covered with silk by three larvae. Finally, they 
settled down and, having spun small pads, hung by the rear claspers in 
the manner of their tribe. The first larva pupated at 3 p.m. on 
October 1st, having taken but seven days from hatching to pupation. 1 
was lucky enough to observe the happening. About one hour before 
pupation the white band, with which the pupa is adorned, becomes 



110 entomologist's record^ vol. lxi. 15/XI/1949 

visible through the larval skin and, taking advantage of this indication, 
I was able to witness four other larvae make the change. 

It was at pupation that first losses occurred. Five of the larvae 
failed to pass this trial, and ruptured themselves at the wing cases or 
thorax. The other six larvae formed apparently healthy pupae^ but one 
of these died later. The pupa of lathonia is beautiful, being at first 
dark brown with a white band across the back and merging on the 
wing cases, but it soon becomes paler and very shiny all over. A double 
row of metallic spots glistens along the back. 

On October 4th one of the pupae coloured up, and after I had been 
watching it continuously for an hour and a half, the great moment 
arrived at 9.25 p.m. I saw a fine male struggle from its pupal case and 
quickly unfold its wings. This specimen had thus taken only ten days 
to mature from hatching. The others were not far behind, and a second 
specinion, a female, emerged on October 5th at 9.0 p.m. The following 
day brought the emergences of a male at 7.10 a.m., and two females at 
about noon. 

The five specimens were of normal size and showed considerable 
variation in markings. One of the males had the black markings 
generally enlarged, the three spots at the base of th© forewings being 
large enough to touch one another. In contrast a female was but 
lightly marked with a paler ground. 



POLYOIVilViALUS (LYSANDRA) CORIDON ABERRATIONS. 

By Chas. B. Antram. 



I and two others had ten days collecting at Worth Matravers, Dorset, 
specially for aberrational forms of the Chalk Hill Blue this year but we 
were too late for the first emergence of the butterfly. In these difficult 
times one has to fix up accommodation months ahead specially in the 
August Bank Holiday, and not being able to forecast weather conditions 
for the first week in August, which is about the usual time for ap- 
pearance of this insect, we found we were nearly three weeks late to 
catch them just out. We put up at a farm from the 30th July until 
the 8th August, and by that time found many of the si3ecimens badly 
worn and tattered. However, we did quite well and obtained a nice 
lot of rare and minor vars. in perfect condition. On the first day we got 
a very perfect fowleri male, and before the end of our trip three more, 
one being a female. Our best catch perhaps was a female combining 
several forms. On the upperside atrescens — fuscofimbriata — mixtacae- 
rucinta — postradiosa; the underside having a large white patch nearly 
covering the whole of cne hindwing. In addition to its being a very 
black atrescens, the hind wings have well marked white border circles 
standing out most vividly on. the black background making it also cincta 
and further to this the hindwing, bearing on the underside the bleached 
patch, has on the ux)perside a broad pale greyish-blue streak filling the 
interspace along the inner border. A most beautiful and perhaps unique 
sijecimen. 



NOTE ON THE BUTTEEFLIES OF THE NEW FOREST IN 1949. Ill 

Of races, besides the four fowleri we took: — • 

Many obsoieta. 1 subelongata. 

10 postcaeca. 2 antistriata. 

4 partimtransformis. 3 glomerata. 

3 atrescens. 1 tri-I- nigrum 

1 postimpar. 1 sessilis. 

1 flavescens. 3 triswavis. 

2 albomaculae. 3 fuscofimbriata. 
1 retrojuncta. 1 infralavindula. 

3 puUa. 

Ajnd of uncommons or scarce (several of each) : — basijiiUcta^ costa- 
juncta, discreta crassipuncta, addenda^ arcuata, nigrescensj lunaextensa, 
major, fuscamargo, parvipuncta, antipluripuncta, albonogrofimbriata, 
alternafimbriata, etc. 

I have not given a list of the commoner vars., as being so numerous 
are of little interest. The commonest were of the punctata-margino 
forms ,a,nd some of the slightly better ultrapunctata-margino closely 
approaching fowle.ri. 

The scarcity of radio forms was very noticeable this year, but I do 
not know if this is the case every year in this particular locality. It is 
well known that Dorset does not produce the syngrapha forms. 

" Clay Copse," Sway, 
Lymington, Hants., 23rd October 1949. 

[Each of the above Latin descriptive terms stands for a single charac- 
ter only; it is from these that combines are used to describe siDecies, 
forms, races and aberrations are described. — H. J. T.] 



NOTE ON THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE NEW FOREST IN 1949. 

By Chas. B. Anbram. 



One would have supposed the past wonderful Summer with its long 
dry spells would have been most favourable to all varieties of our com- 
mon butterflies but it is hard to recall any year when there have been 
so few on view. On the contrary, with some exceptions, of course, this 
has not been the case; the long droughts were too much and must have 
dried up not only chrysalids but food-plants, and it was noticed that 
there have been a large number of dwarfed specimens, resultant probably 
of unsucculent and poor feeding. In this area of the New Forest, at all 
events, very few, indeed, have been seen of such species as the small 
tortoiseshell, peacock, red admiral, comma, whites, etc. The painted 
lady is the exception, as a great many have been about in September 
and October. The commonest butterfly in those months has been the 
clouded yellow with a very high proportion of the helice forms of the 
female. Although throughout the year, they were somewhat thinly 
distributed in all districts, a large brood appeared in late September and 
October without, however, making a "Clouded Yellow year" as in 
1947. If I had wanted them, I could have taken a very large number 
of helice, and saw one or two as recently as the 21st October. 



112 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 / XI / 1949 

Locally, there were very few of the fritillaries with the exception of 
eyiiphrosyne, very few indeed of tiie white admiral and other common 
species usually found in the New Forest. The brimstone, orange tip, 
meadow brown^ grayling, ringlet, etc., were in fair number, but perhaps 
not so many as usual. The purple hairstreak was in its usual abundance 
while the brown hairstreak in its few well known localities was very 
scarce. Icarus, phlaeas, minimus and argus have not been really com- 
mon but aegoii very plentiful on all the heaths here. 

Mel. cin-xia appeared in plenty in the Sway locality and as pre- 
viously recorded is extending its area most satisfactorily. 

Going over into Dorset, at Worth Matravers the long dry summer 
made no difference to the prevalence of the Chalk hill blue and the 
marbled white, both of which were swarming. Weather conditions, 
however, had brought them out more than a fortnight earlier than their 
usual time to appear, and there were a large number of badly worn 
specimens of the chalk hill blue by the 1st of August. However, fresh 
emergences of this continued until the last days of August. 
" Clay Copse," Sway, 
nr. Lymington, Hants., 23rd October 1949. 



iVIORE VALUABLE RECORDS. 

By J. W. Heslop Harrison, 
King's College, University of Durham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



AsrEN Insects in Glen Shellesder, Isle of Rhum. — ^Although the 
usual foodplants of Notodoivta ziczac in the Hebrides are Salix atro- 
cinerea and S. aurita, the insect is not uncommon on aspen in the Isle 
of Raasay. This season, as I was leaving the main colony of EntepJiria 
flavocinctata on llhum, I followed the Shellesder Burn down the slopes 
of Fionchra and was surprised to find a small isolated colony of well- 
grown aspens in a tinj^ ravine. These supported colonies of larvae of 
Laothoe popuU, Cerura vinida and Notodonta ziczac. 

Ehodites rosarum, Gir., on a Hybrid Rose. — In view of the fact 
that members of the Cynipid genus Rhodites generally adhere to one 
species of rose in any particular colony, it seems worthy of record that 
on a pit heap at Birtley, Co. Durham, where the chosen substitute is 
Bosa mollis, the galls of Hhodites rosarmn abounded this year on a rose 
of parentage Bosa ruhiginosa X B. spinosissima. 

Tethea or, Fab., in the Isles op Lewis and Harris. — This season 
T. or swarmed as larvae on cliffs in the Meodale ravine, S. Harris, to 
such an extent that the aspens looked black owing to the spun leaves 
of the larval shelters. Not all of these contained living larvae, for 
many of the latter had been drowned by caisual rain showers in early 
August. The same insect was common on aspen at an elevation of 700 
feet on Bulavel, S. Harris, as well as on Ben Bragor, Lewis. The moth 
was also i^lentiful on aspen at Dalemore and Carloway on sea and other 
cliffs. 



BLASTOBASIS PHYCIDELLA, ZELLEB, (1839) (lEP,, BLASTOBASIDAE). 113 

The Gall-gnat Perrisia ulmariae, Brem., in the Outer Hebrides, 
— This gnat, although the commonest of those attached to meadow- 
sweet on the mainland of Great Britain, is unaccountably rare both in 
the Inner and Outer Hebrides, its place being taken by Perrisia pustu- 
lans. In August, however, a strong colony was discovered on the west 
side of S. Harris at the mouth of Glen Seilebost. 

Bombus smithianus, White, on the Isle of Stromay. — This season 
we explored Stromay, one of the smaller islands lying in the Sound of 
Harris between the Isles of Harris and North Uist. Careful search for 
bees revealed the presence of this species only, two queens being ob- 
served. Of these, one was noted probing flowers whilst the second was 
picked up dead. 

Larvae of Nyssia zonaria, Schiff, Beaten with the Psyllid 
Aphalara nervosa, Forst., Out of Yarrow on the Isles of Benbecula 
and Lewis. — In June and early July, advantage was taken of the visits 
to these two islands to determine the extent covered by the colonies of 
the newly-detected Hebridean race of Aphalara nervosa. Almost im- 
mediately the yarrow on the dunes at Balevanich, Benbecula, was beaten 
the desired insect was obtained in company with larvae of Nyssia 
zonana. A few days later, when we proceeded to Barvas on Lewis, the 
same pair of insects was beaten from yarrow along a path side fully a 
mile inland. 

EUURA ATRA, JuR., ON SaLIX AURITA AT DaLEMORE, IsLE OF LeWIS. 

This gall-making sawfly, although now known to be widely distributed 
in the Hebrides, has not previously been recorded from Lewis. It is 
now reported from Salix aurita growing at Dalemore, Lewis. 

PlERIS BRASSICAE AT THE FlOWERS OF THE OrCHID OrCHIS FuCHSH. — 

Considering the abundance of the spotted orchid in some of its colonies, 
it is very remarkable that insect visitors are very rarely seen at its 
flowers. In particular, it seems almost wholly neglected by butterflies. 
However, on 9th July I observed a Large White probing its flowers in 
a clay pit at Birtley, Co. Durham. 



BLASTOBASIS PHYCIDELLA, ZELLER (1839) (LEP., 
BLASTOBASIDAE): A SPECIES HITHERTO UNRECORDED FROM 

BRITAIN. 

By S. N. A. Jacobs. 

Having acquired the Microlepidoptera portion of the collection oE 
our late colleague, W. Fassnidge, my attention naturally turned towards 
the " treasures," and one of the first things I examined was his series 
of three specimens of Auximohasis normalis, Meyr. These specimens 
are labelled from Southampton and dated 7.iv.30, 14.iv.30, and l.v.30. 
Fassnidge had told me that he found these three specimens, together 
with a fourth which he had presented to the Natural History Museum, 
on the outside of a warehouse in Southampton Docks, and he had sent 
them to the late Edward Meyrick for determination. 



114 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 / XI / 1949 

I was at once struck by the similarity of wing-pattern between these 
three insects and a series of four insects dated from various localities in 
South France, and bearing Lhomme's MS. label '' Blastohasis phyci- 
della,'' situated in the same drawer. I at once called the attention of 
Mr Bradley of the B.M. to this and he has kindly gone to considerable 
trouble to investigate the matter, and has proved beyond doubt that the 
British specimens are Blastohasis phyddella, Zell. 

How the mistake occurred is difficult to say; the insects have been 
compared with Meyrick's very fair series of Auximohasis normalis, and 
there is no superficial resemblance whatever between them. 

Meyrick's record in his Revised Handbook of Brit. Lep. is of a single 
specimen from Liverpool Docks, and it would be interesting to knov/ 
whether this specimen is still in existence; it was recorded as taken in 
1921. 

About a year ago, I was taking advantage of Fassnidge's hospitality 
and kindness, to make a figure of "A. normalis " from one of his speci- 
mens, and as my attention was fixed on the one specimen I was drawing, 
I did not then notice its neighbours in the drawer. This drawing is to 
appear in the Trans. South Lond. Ent. and N.H. Soc. for 1948-49, and 
it is indeed fortunate that this mistake has been discovered before pub 
lication of the paper, which includes British Blastohasidae and Avximo- 
hasidae. The necessary correction has of course been made. 

B. phycidella; Zell., is distributed over Central and South Europe 
to Asia Minor : Lhomme (Cat. Microlep. Fee. and Belg:, No. 3215) 
states : " The biology of the larva is still unknown but it has been found 
in some numbers in dried fungus in a forest (Schiitze) from Autumn to 
Spring, being found in winter on the bark of trees, in the hollows of 
galls on peach trees, acorns of Quercus ilex, L., etc." He gives records 
from Ostend and Saint-Idesbald in Belgium, the former record being in 
keeping with the occurrence of the insect in this country. The mention 
of dried fungus brings to- my mind the possibility that it may have been 
imported with ergot of rye from Portugal or other Southern European 
place, which commodity I have known to be heavily infested by Tinea 
graneUa, L., and by Stegohium panacaeum.. 
54 Hayes Lane, Bromley, Kent, 5.ix.49. 



THE MALE OF SYNTORMON MACULA, PAR. 
(DIPT., DOLICHOPODIDAE) FROM BLAIZE WOODS, NEAR 

BRISTOL. 

By E. C M. d'Assis-Fonseca. 



A single male specimen of Syntormon macula. Par., was obtained 
on 1st August this year (1949) by sweeping ivy growing on the banks of 
a dried-up stream in Blaize Woods, near Bristol (Glos.). As this is 
the first male of the species ever to be recorded, further specimens for 
distribution to other dipterists would have been of value and consider- 
able efforts were made between 1st August and 21st to find more of them, 
unfortunately without success. 

This solitary specimen, which, to judge from the contraction which 
has taken place in drying, was rather immature, was examined in detail 



THE MALE OP SYNTORMON MACULA, PAR. 115 

and fully descri]:)ed a few minutes after killing. It is, of course, 
realised that the description of a species made from an immature speci- 
men may require some adjustment when ai mature specimen is available 
for examination, and the description given below is published with this 
possibility in view. 

(S . Frons and face with greenish ground covered by whitish pruino- 
sity, thinly on frons, thickly on face. Face, immediately under 
antennae, nearly as broad as third antennal segment, narrowing sharply 
at first; then more gradually to the clypeus, where it is about two-thirds 
the width of the front meta-tarsus. Postocular ciliation, lateral and 
lower, white. Antennae entirely black, slightly longer than the head, 
basal segment with a dorsal seta, apical segment about two-and-a-half 
times as long as broad, with fairly long pale pubescence. Arista sub- 
apical, very slightly shorter than third antennal segment. Dorsum 
and scutellum coppery-green, the colour partially hidden by whitish 
pruinosity, more coppery-red along the lines of d.c. bristles. Acro- 
stichal bristles uniserial, short but fairly strong. Six d.c. bristles, with 
a black spot at the base of each. Pleura coppery-green with thick 
whitish pruinosity, unicolorous right up to the hind-margins. One 
pair of strong scutellar bristles. Abdomen mainly transparent yellow, 
the coppery-green colour covering the first tergite entirely, forming a 
somewhat faint, narrow triangular patch on the second tergite, a 
rather broader triangular patch on the third tergite, and covering the 
greater part of the dorsal surface of the remaining tergites. Whitish 
pruinosity on abdomen very thin, hairs and setae black. Hypopygium 
darker yellow, with a shining black apex. Fore-coxae entirely pale 
yellow, with short pale hairs, apical bristles black. Mid- and hind-coxae 
black, yellowish at extreme apex, thinly whitish pruinose, with ai strong 
black bristle on each, that on the mid-coxae lying towards the front, 
directed downwards, and with a row of 2 or 3 short fine black setae 
above it. Legs pale yellow, an indefinite dark ring at apex of hind- 
femora, all tarsi brownish. Fore-tibiae with a short dorsal bristle at 
middle; fore-tarsi simple, segments of normal length. Mid-femora 
with one each anterior and posterior pre-apical bristle, a fine ventral 
bristle a little before the middle and between this bristle and the base of 
femur a row of short black ventral setae which are much shorter than 
the femur is thick ; mid-tibiae with one postero-dorsal bristle at basal 
quarter and 3 antero-dorsal bristles. Hind-femora with one pre-apical 
bristle on anterior face only ; hind-tibiae with 3 antero-dorsal, 4 postero- 
dorsal bristles, and a double line of short ventral setae ; hind-tarsi 
simple, meta-tarsus about the same length as the next segment. Wings 
hyaline, with a faint brownish spot about one-third of the way along 
the apical section of V.4. V.3 somewhat arched forward at middle a,nd 
very slightly divergent from V.4 at apex. Basal and apical sections 
of V.4 equal. Hinder cross-vein straight, at right-angles to V.4, shorter 
than apical section of V.5. Halteres pale yellow, squamae yellow, with 
a narrow black edge and black fringe. Length 3.25 mm. 

I wish to express my thanks to Mr J. E. Collin for kindly examining 
the specimen and for his valuable advice and help in the preparation 
of this note. 

18 Grange Park, Henleaze, Bristol. 
8th September 1949. 



116 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 / XI / 1949 

COLLECTING NOTES. 



Early Appearance of Satyrus galathea in Somerset. — I captured, 
in fresh condition, a male 8. galathea at a locality seven miles distant 
from Wells, Somerset, on lltli June. I cannot remember ever having 
seen this species so early on the wing. Males were common by 26th 
June and females by 2nd July this year in this district. — Nigel T. 
Easton, Milton Lodge School, Wells, Somerset, 22nd September 1949. 

Immigrants in Somerset. — These have been plentiful this year on 
the whole, though there have been a few absentees. I cull the follow- 
ing from my diary : — 

Vanessa cardui. 

Several were on the move and flying in a Northerly direction at an 
altitude of 1000 ft. on the Mendips neair Wells on 17th April. This is 
my earliest record of this species, which has appeared in fair numbers 
— there is a fresh emergence as I write this letter — throughout the 
Summer. A worn specimen was noted on 11th June and this may have 
been an immigrant. 

Colias croceus. 

I can never remember a year in which this species was so abundant. 
I received an unconfirmed report that two males had been seen in a 
garden in Shepton Mallet on 31st March. Fresh males, presumably 
from the Spring immigrants, appeared on 11th June, a freshly-emerged 
female was taken on 12th June, and the species was in evidence spar- 
ingly and fairly continuously from that date until 26th July, when a 
new hatch appeared, reaching a climax on 29th July, on which day 1 
must have caught and examined between 70 and 100 freshly-emerged 
specimens, mostly males. Ab. heUce appeared on this date and, of the 
females subsequently examined, a very high proportion were of this 
form. This approached between 30% and 50% of the females seen and 
examined. 

Emergence has been continuous and, whenever the weather has been 
suitable, C. croceus could always be seen, some fresh and some worn, 
the broods being " staggered." In this respect, emergence has dif- 
fered from 1947, when the several broods were " cut and dried," so to 
speak, and did not overlap to any extent. The numbers, which have 
been steadily increasing since 9th vSeptember, suffered a serious setback 
on 21st September, when heavy rain fell and a decided drop in tempera- 
ture took place. It is to be hoped that this change will not result in 
the annihilation of what promises to be a; record year for this species. 

Macroglossum stellatarum. 

This species has, this year, been commoner than I can ever remem- 
ber. I noticed it, freshly emerged, in the garden on 8th August, since 
when I have recorded its presence on every single day, sunny or cloudy, 
feeding at tubular flowers in the garden, reaching a peak during the 
first week in September, when it was no exaggeration to say that it 
was our commonest moth. It was in splendid condition and when not 
feeding on the wing it delighted to bask in the sun in our walled 
garden. 



COLLECTING NOTES. 117 

Plusia gamma, 

P. gamma has been common throughout August and is now (22nd 
September) reaching a peak of abundance. 

Hhodometra sacraria. 

A fresh male was found at rest low down in a wheatfield at Wells on 
12th September by my colleague, Mr J. Anthony Thompson, since which 
date he has noted two other c? examples, both worn, in the same loca- 
lity. 

I have not yet met with either CoUas hyale or C. lineata livornica 
in this district. — Id. 

PiERis NAPi : An Unusual Pairing. — I was surprised to see, in one 
of my large breeding cages, on 25th May, a white male P. napi of 
typical form " in cop." with a var. hihernica, Schmidt,, male. In 
spite of handling and subsequent killing in cyanide they remained 
so coupled. 

They were successfully set, back to back, but I regret to say that 
I found it impossible to remove both insects from the setting-board 
without separation, owing to the brittleness of their bodies and the 
extreme difficulty of lifting them both at once. 

I have bred many thousands of Pieris napi and, though I have seve- 
ral times observed one male trying to pair with another of the same 
sex, I have never before viewed the " fait accompli." — Id. 

LiMENiTis CAMILLA IN SOMERSET. — On 13th July one of our boys re- 
ported having seen a White Admiral in our garden. As there are no 
woods of any size in the neighbourhood, and the boy is a beginner, this 
report was not taken seriously at the time. However, on 19th July, 
during a momentary lull in a cricket match, I had opportunity to verify 
his report, for within two yards of me I chanced to see a fine example 
of this handsome butterfly settled on a flower head. It appeared to 
be quite fresh. 

One was seen by me near Street, Somerset, on 2nd July in a locality 
where there was little more than a copse. 

X understand that this butterfly is not at all frequent in this part 
of the country, at least, and appears to eke out a precarious existence 
here in somewhat unsuitable surroundings. — Id. 

Argynnis paphia var. valezina, erohawk, est Somerset. — A worn 
example of this butterfly was taken in this garden on 26th July by Mr 
J. Anthony Thompson. Owing to unsuitable conditions here even the 
type is scarce, so this capture is all the more remarkable. — Id. 

Argynnis selene : second brood. — The abnormally fine summer has 
apparently produced a partial second brood of this species. In a quarry 
within a mile of Wells on 11th August I captured a rather worn under- 
sized female. — Id. 

Deilephila livornica Taken at Swanage. — Reference the record, 
in the September number of the Journal, of a single specimen of Deile- 
phila livornica taken at Swanage on 15th August, it will be of great 



118 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 / XI / 1949 

interest to note that this good Hawk Moth must have been in large 
numbers ranging over the Southern counties of England during August 
last, as I am able to record the taking of as many as 52 specimens in 
the Bournemouth area alone. 

These were taken with the net at dusk at the flowers of petunia and 
tobacco in private and public gardens by Entomologists of my acquaint- 
ance. In The Field of 24th September are also recorded the taking of 
single specimens of this insect in widely-separated districts, namely, 
Lannacombe in Devon to Godalming and Woking in Surrey. 

As a large number of these 52 were absolutely perfect and ap- 
parently just emerged, it would be of interest if we can be sure these 
bred here. Being double brooded, visitants from the Continent in May 
have probably accounted for those taken in August here, being the off- 
spring of the early immigrants. The food-plants being vine, fuchsia 
and dock, of which latter there is plenty and much fuchsia in gardens. 
— Chas. B. Antram, 1st October 1949. 

Coltas croceus (edusa). — Throughout September and at the present 
time, early October, this insect has been in large numbers in the New 
Forest area, but nothing like so numerous as in the " Clouded Yellow " 
year of 1947. 

However, just now^ it is very plentiful and the forms helice and 
pallida in good proportion. — C. B. Antram, October 1949. 

Clytiomyia rotundiventris, Fall. (Dipt. Tachinidae) at Breamore, 
Hants. — On 10th September this year I had the good fortune to catch 
a single male of this rare fly on wild parsnip in Kiln Wood, close by 
Breamore. Several subsequent visits failed to produce any more speci- 
mens. — H. W. Andrews, The Rookery, Breamore. 

Homoeosis in Epirrhoe alternata, Muller. — On 31st May Mr A. L. 
Goodson took a female of Epirrhoe alternata. near Brigstock, and as the 
form in this part of Northants is stated by Mr Alfred Hedges to be 
single brooded, I decided to test this. From the eggs obtained I bred 
10 specimens as a second brood, but the weather Avas unusually hot and 
many single-brooded species iDroduced abnormal second broods. Eighteen 
more emerged in 1948 between 1st May and 17th June, and amongst 
them one shows homoeosis. On the apex of the right hindwing the mark- 
ings of the apex of the right forewing are reproduced on the upper 
side, and just anterior to the discal spot there is a black streak corres- 
ponding in length and position with part of the median band of the 
forewing. The under-side is normal and though a little altered in shape 
the wing is not reduced in size. — E. A. Cockayne, 8 High Street, Tring, 
Herts. 



CURRENT NOTES. 



We find the following in the September issue of The Mosquito, which, 
in spite of its name, has nothing to do with Entomology. It is the 
organ of the Salonika Eeunion Association and thus perpetuates the 
memory of the characteristic of Macedonia that left the most vivid 
memory upon those who took part in the campaign. 



REVIEWS. 119 

Under the heading of Identified, we read: " While gathering straw- 
berries in the sand dunes at Porthcawl, Glam., on 18th July, Mr Percy 
House, a baker, captured a green locust. As he had served in Salonika 
in the 1914-1918 war, he recognised it at once. The police, who con- 
firmed that it was a locust, informed the Ministry of Agriculture." 

It is difficult to find the logic in the statement that the gentleman 
in question had served in the Salonika expedition, ergo he recognised 
the insect as a locust and it is surprising that the identification of 
Orthoptera is added to the existing burdens of the police force. True 
locusts occur from time to time in England and are duly recorded by 
the competent authority. One may hazard the guess that it was Tetti- 
gonia viridissmia, L., which has already been recorded for Glamorgan- 
shire.— M. B. 

Catocala fraxini Commits Suicide. — An odd incident happened on 
3rd October on the Bosphorus, when my wife called my attention to a 
big moth sitting on the other side of a window pane in the waiting- 
room of the boat station at Kanlica on the Bosphorus. I saw that it 
was a Olifton Nonpareil and persuaded the ticket collector to let me 
outside on to the raft before the crowd broke. But my shadow fell upon 
it and disturbed it. It flew round, dazzled by the afternoon sun^ in a 
couple of wide circles and then suddenly, instead of flying ashore, a 
distance of a yard or two, it suddenly crashed down to the water. After 
a few struggles, it seemed resigned to its helpless position and lay quiet 
on the surface, where an obliging Turk in a row-boat at my request 
picked it up and put it on a dry seat. He misinterpreted my motives, 
however, thinking them humanitarian and looked startled when I put 
it in a killing-bottle, for the Turks are averse to taking life. The police- 
man was very interested and also sympathetic. He was very impressed 
by the magnificent insect and gingerly smelt the bottle, but made no 
attempt at a rescue. — M. B. 



REVIEWS 



" Handbooks fob, the Identification of British Insects : Dermap- 
TERA AND Orthoptera," by W. D. Hincks. Price, 3/6. 29th July 1949. 

This little booklet is Part 5 of Vol. I of this most useful series pub- 
lished by the Royal Society of London. The name of the author is 
guarantee of accuracy. 

It is clearly presented and illustrated, so nobody should now have 
any difficulty in identifying any British member of the two orders, 
and a number of the more frequent casual visitors as well. It is also 
up to date. It is interesting to see the inclusion of the New Zealand 
Stick Insect, Acanthoxyla prasina, Westw., established in several locali- 
ties on the south coast, Chorthippiis vagans, Ev., and Tetrix cepero}, 
Bol. It is a relief to see that the generic name Tetrix is restored, which 
avoids the confusion betAveen Acrudinm, Acrida and Acridium, which 
was sometimes troublesome. The revival of de Geer's name griseoap- 
tern for nioUdoptera cinereus is apparently a disagreeable necessity. 
Conocephalus discolor, Thunb., replaces the long-used C. fuscus, Fabr. 



120 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 / XI / 1949 

The introduction of some American names can no doubt be justi- 
fied, but the name Camel Crickets strikes a note unfamiliar to English- 
men and the English name Groundhoppers is much more appropriate 
and less exotic than the American Grouse Locusts, which is an unfor- 
tunate name, for these little creatures have only very remote connec- 
tion with the locusts and none at all with grouse. — M. B. 

" British Moths amd their Haunts," by L. Hugh Newman. Small 
quarto, 150 pp., 130 figs., 130 illustrations. Produced by Messrs Edmund 
Ward, 16 New Street, Leicester. 

This is an excellent work dealing with the British Moths by the 
gifted author, L. Hugh Newman, who produced a similar volume re- 
cently on the butterflies of Britain. A selection of moths has been 
chosen from varied families. The left-hand page of each opening 
has a picture of a moth just as it has completed its emergence and rest- 
ing fully developed. The right-hand page contains a picture of the 
haunt and surround, which the species is known to be its haunt. Many 
of these latter are strongly suggestive of protective resemblance. The 
skill of the author in selection and arrangement of the material is well 
seconded by the good, useful presentation of the whole. — Hy, J. T. 



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—Chas. B. Antram, F.R.E.S., Clay Copse, Sway, Lymington, Hants. 

V 
TTanfed.- Specimens of Velia currens Fabr. (Hemiptera), in any condition, from 

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For Disposal— Sta.mioii's " Natural History of Tineina." 13 Vols.; about 110 
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Duplicates.— Irish -. Napi, Cardamines, Sinapis, Phlaeas, Icarus, Egerides, 
Megera, Jurtina, Tithonus, Hyperanthus— all this season (1949). Desiderata. 
—Numerous to renew.— i. H. Bonaparte Wyse, Corballymore, Co. Waterford. 

Wantedr—Segnj', Etudes les Mouches Parasites, tome l, Conopides, Oestrides et 
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If you collect CORIDON, BELLARGVS, ICARUS. ARGUS, MINIMUS. AGSSTIS 
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ENffiMQLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND 



m.mf 

JAN 16 B 



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MALCOLM Burr, D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

E A. Cockayne, M.A., F.R.C.P., F.R.E.S. 

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H. DONISTHOBPE. F.Z.S.. F.R.E.S. 

S. N. A. JACOBS. 

H B. WILLIAMS, K.C., LL.D., F.R.E.S. 



T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, R.N., F.L.S.. F.Z.S., F.R.E.S. {Sub-Edltor), 
Rodborough Fort, Stroud, Glos. 

HY. J. TURNER, F.R.E.S., F.R.H.S. {Editorial Secretary). 



CONTENTS. 



BUTTERFLIES IN VAR AND BASSES ALPES, FRANCE, R. F. Bretherton 121 

AN ATTEMPT TO EXPLAIN THE DEVELOPMENT OF FIERI S RAPAE AT 

PHILADELPHIA DURING THE YEAR 1932, O. Querci 124 

OBSERVATIONS OF THE LIFE HISTORIES OF CERTAIN BUTTERFLIES 

OF FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE, H. M. Darlow, F.R.E.S., R.N 126 

OBITUARY 129 

COLLECTING NOTES : Butterflies from S.E. Ireland, L. H. Bonaparte Wijse-. 
Choice of Flower of Vanessa cardui, L., and V. atalanta, L., G. H. B. 
Oliver: Cerastoma xylostella on Snowberry, Id.; Volucella zonaria, Poda, 
/. Fincham Turner; Herse convolvuli in Scotland, (Mrs) M. C. Spicer; 
Rhyacia simulans, Hufn., in Herts, and Bucks, E. A. Cockayne 130 

CURRENT NOTES '32 

REVIEW 132 



INDEX. 



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BUTTERFLIES 



Mm. m^. zooL 

umm 

JAN 16 1350 

IN VAK, AND BASSE^ ALPES, EUANCE. 121 



BUTTERFLIES IM VAR AND BASSES ALPES, FRANCE. 

By Ri- B^. BEWrHERlroN. 

ll8«B if LIliiBTi H j 



My wife and I spent a fortnight in May and June 1949 in Soutlieni 
France, mainly in the Var and Basses Alpes. These districts seem to 
be little visited by English collectors nowadays at that season, and some 
record of the collecting done may be of interest. 

We left London on the morning of 20th May, and travelled direct to 
C'avalaire, arriving at 11 a.m. on the following day. The last two hours 
of the journey were made by bus from Toulon, through Hyeres and along 
the very fine Corniche des Maures. Cavalaire proved to be an excellent 
centre, quiet, and off the main track of foreign visitors. The village 
lies at the point where the steep, rocky coast breaks down into a magni- 
ficent sweep of sand, behind which the open slopes are cut by several 
sheltered valleys which provide cover from the prevailing w^esterly 
breeze. On both sides of the village a fine collecting ground is also 
provided by the light railway track, now disused, which winds at easy 
gradients along the coast with a number of flowery cuttings and em- 
bankments. The stretch between La Croix and Pardigon, a couple of 
miles east of Cavalaire, proved particularly fruitful. 

There was no rain, though a fair amount of cloud and wind, during 
our week's stay; but before our arrival the weather had been poor, and 
the number of butterflies was at first small. It increased steadily 
throughout our stay, and certain species became abundant ; but the 
variety was never great, and only some 37 species were seen. PapUio 
podalirius and P. macliaon were about in small numbers, mostly' rather 
tattered and tail-less. Apor'ia crataegi was just emerging. The three 
common Whites were plentiful, but Pieris manni, which I had hoped 
for, was not seen. A few Leucochloe daplidice were taken among much 
larger numbers of Euchloe crdmeri. This attractive insect frequented 
vineyards and open ground, flying fast and proving difficult to take. 
It was very variable both in size and in the extent and shape of the 
green markings on the underside. Anthocharis carda mines was still 
about, and the females were in good condition. There were ])lenty of 
Gonepteryx cieopatra, very worn, among the maquis on the hill-sides; 
and Colias croceus was not uncommon. 

The Satyridae were poorly represented. ISlelanargia syllius occurred 
sparingly along the beach and behind Pardigon, but was difiicult to 
capture, especially in a wind. In sheltered lanes Pararge aegeria — the 
typical southern form with the spots a warm brown — was common 
enough, and there were a fair number of P. wegera and a very few 
P. maera. A large and richly marked form of Epinepheh jm-tiiui was 
emerging in numbers, and there were a few Coenonymplui pa in pit il us. 
Among the Nymxjhalidae, I was lucky to take one Cliaraxes jasiiis—- 
a magnificeat female measuring 48 mm. from thorax to wing-tip — as it 
circled round some bushes of its food-plant, Arltutus iincdo. Another, 
a male, was Avatched for some time as it sunned itself fifteen feet up on 
the branches of a cherry tree, but it would not come within reach of 
the net; and a distant glimpse was had of a third. Probably a week 
later they would have been more numerous. 

LinienAtis Camilla (rivtdaris) was common along the railway track 
but, though fresh, was hard to get in good condition, as it knocks its 
wings about very quickly. Vanessa cardui was abundant, though worn; 



122 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/ XII / 1949 

but only one stray example of V atalanta was seen. Of the Fritillaries, 
Melitaea cinxia was common behind Pardigon; a single M. phoehe, the 
largest and palest female which I have ever seen, was taken in the same 
place; M. didyma was common in every suitable spot; and a fine race 
of M. pseu-dathalia was just emerging. These specimens were consider- 
ably blacker than those which I have taken in Haute Savoie and in 
Switzerland, and come closer in appearance to our own M. athalia. 
M. dejone is supposed to occur near St Tropez, but I did not find it. A 
single female of Argynnis euphrosyne was taken on the top of the 
mountain behind Cavalaire, but unfortunately the day on which we 
climbed it was cloudy, and no doubt other species present there were 
missed. Issoria lathonia, though not common, was widespread. 

No Hairstreaks were seen, CaUophrys rubi being presumably over 
and C. avis perhaps not yet out; and the only Copper was Heodes 
plilaeas, distinctly scarce. The dominant Blues were Glaucopsyche cyl- 
larus, Polyommatus liispana, and Lycaenopsis argiolus, all abundant 
respectively in flowery places, among rough herbage on the slopes, and 
in the rnaquis. P. hispana was in every condition from rags to newly- 
emerged. The upper sides of the males are of a paler blue than in our 
F. coridon but the under sides are of a warmer grey-brown, and also 
appear to be more constant in marking : I saw no variation worth 
noticing. Apart from these three " Blues " only a few worn P. icarus 
were seen. 

The Skippers were interesting. It was a surprise to find Adopaea 
uctaeon well out and the commonest of the family : it frequented especi- 
ally the grass slopes beside the railway. Hesperia sao was also fairly 
common, though worn; and Aiujiades sylvanus was just coming out. A 
single magnificent Carcharudus lavaterae was caught flying over sun- 
baked rocks near Le Hayol, to the west of Cavalaire; and a very large 
female C. alceae was also taken. 

From Cavalaire we moved on for three days at Agay, in the Estorel. 
The coastal strip there is very narrow and the slopes of the hills, even 
below their summit ridges of red rock, are exposed and have suffered 
much from fire and deforestation. The range of butterflies was accord- 
ingly small. The only species added to those seen at Cavalaire were 
Satyrus circe — a single early male — and Strymon spini, which was 
locally common among scrub on the slopes behind Antheor. M. syllius 
and L. daplidice were, however, plentiful in some overgrown vineyards, 
and V. cardui simiDly swarmed, mostly in fresh condition. C. croceus 
was also commoner than at Cavalaire, more than half of the females 
being of the helice form. A fine male C. jasiiis was stupidly missed in 
the wood behind Cap Dramont. Another interesting find was a well- 
grown larva of Deilephila euphorhiae , which had almost defoliated a 
group of plants of the Sea Spurge. Its black and red markings made 
it a striking object on the bare stem. 

Beyond Agay we turned inland to Digne, making an impressive four 
hour journey by bus from Cannes. The road — Napoleon's route on the 
return from Elba — crosses the bare limestone ranges which lie west of 
the Provencal Alps, much of it above 3,000 feet; and the occasional 
meadows were white with wild Narcissus. A promising collecting ground 
was noted for future use beside the winding road out of Castellane, and 
a small inn at Seranon looked a likely headquarters if one were working 
this country with the help of a car. 



BUTTERFLIES IN VAE AND BASSES ALPES, FRANCE. 123 

We spent tliree nights (1st /3rd June) at Digne. The famous baths 
were still being renovated and the town itself gave an impression of 
decay : its chief occupation seemed to be the provision of dejeuner to 
the travellers in the long-distance buses which stop there for an hour 
at mid-day, but this was consistent with the absence of any local bus 
service whatever. This and rather poor weather made for very scrappy 
collecting. Even so, the abundance of butterflies was obvious and nearly 
60 species were recorded. These included all but about ten of those 
seen at Cavalaire, the principal absentees being P. machaon, G. cleo- 
patfa, G. jasius and M. sylliiis. P. podalirius was fairly common and 
1*. alexanor was seen three times, but it w-as flj^ing at a great pace ovei 
rough ground and gave no chance to the net. It was probably not yet 
fully out; certainly we saw no sign of the " groups settling on thistles " 
which have been described by some collectors w^ho have visited Digne 
later in June. A few Leptidea duponcheli were taken, but it was un- 
fortunately both less common and less fresh than L. sinapis. Both sexes 
of Anthocharis euphenoides were common, but only in one spot, at about 
2,500 feet on the road up to Courbons. GoUas hyale was rather com- 
moner than G. croceus; and Gonepteryx rhamni replaced G. cleopatra. 
A. crataegi was numerous. 

Notable Fritillaries were Melitaea aurinia — locally common near 
Courbon — M. cinxia, M. phoehe, M. parthenie, and M. dejone, which 
occurred sparingly along with great numbers of M. pspud-atJudia . 
Argyiinis dia, A. euphrosyne and I. latlionia w^ere alsO' in evidence. V. 
car did was less common than on the coast, but there were some very 
bright Aglais urticae. L. Camilla (rivularis) w^as abundant. The 
" Jirowns " were rather poor. Only one Erehia was seen, E. evias; and 
that was scarce and in tatters. P. maera was common, and a nice race 
of Goenonympha arcania, smaller and darker than those from Northern 
France, was just emerging. 

The onlj'' Hairstreak was Gallophrys ruhi, still in fair condition. 
Among the Coppers, I was pleased to find the brilliant Hcodes alciphroii 
ssp. fjordius in fair numbers on a stony hillside alcove the Barles road; 
and IL. dorilis and II. pliloeas were also about. But the most striking 
feature was the abundance of " Blues." P. liispana occurred locallj^, 
though it was less common and more worn than at Cavalaire. P. hcllur- 
gus was common, and with it were a few beautifully fresh P. liylas in- 
cluding a very small male with the spots on the under wings elongated 
into bars — a most striking variety. There were also some P. thcrsitfs. 
G. cyllaru^ was nearly over : a smaller and more heavily spotted form 
than on the coast. Lycaena ar'wn was just coming out along the Barles 
road. Gujjido iinnimiis was abundant, and with it were many G . zchrus 
and Everps corefas, besides the inevitable L. argiolus. Both Plehcivs 
argus and P. aegon were present, though not very common. Most of 
these " Blues " were flying together on a hillside just north-east of the 
town, and one might have four or five species in the net at once. 

Nemeohius lucina was common, though very worn, on the sauie 
ground around patches of cowslip. H. sao was plentiful, and a couple 
of H. serrafyJae were taken. G. Ifivnterae was seen in several places, 
usually dashing about in rocky gullies; and there were ]:)lenty of A. 
sylvanifs and Nisoniades tages. With better weather and more time for 



124 entomologist's recobUj vol. lxi. 15/Xii/iy4y 

exploring beyond tlie outskirts of Digne, the list of species would cer- 
tainly have been longer still. 

We left Digne after lunch on 4th June, and made a four hour 
journey to Grenoble by rail-car. The railway climbs to nearly 4,000 feet 
at the Col de la Croix-Haute, and gives magnificent views of the snows 
of the Pelvoux Massif. Incidentally, the high pastures round the Col 
look a promising collecting ground. We spent the next day, Whit Sun- 
day, in Grenoble; but there was a fine rain and collecting was impossible. 
I was, however, interested to watch Macroglossum stellatarimt flying and 
ovipositing in numbers on the hill above the citadel, despite rain which 
was heavy enough to driA'e us to shelter. We caught the night train 
to Paris, and so the next day to England to end a very interesting and 
varied holiday. 

My two sons, Michael and Francis Bretherton, were at Cavalaire 
later on, from 10th to 23rd August. They reported that butterflies were 
then mostly scarce and in very poor condition. They did, however, 
bring back some of the second broods of P. podalmus, L. daplidice, L. 
Camilla, M. didyma, M. pseud-cithalia, P. hispuna and P. icarus. Ex- 
cept for P. hispuna these were all of very small size, no doubt owing to 
the summer drought. They also obtained a set of Satyrus statilinus, 
some worn S. circe, a few Epinepliele ida, Euralis qtiercws, and a single 
fine Hesperia onopordi, and saw several 0. jasius. But Cavalaire is a 
hot place in August. 

R. F. Bretherton. 
Ottershaw Cottage, Ottershaw, Surrey. 



AN ATTEMPT TO EXPLAIN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PIERIS 
RAPAE AT PHILADELPHIA DURING THE YEAR 1932. 

By 0. QuERCi. 



Signs: Temp. = Maximum temperature. S.R. = Solar rays. R.R.= 
Radiation reflected from the ground. Mort.= Mortality of larvae. A = 
Number of specimens taken by us in the meadow. B = Collecting days. 
C = Daily average. 

(1) May 15-20. Pupae survived to winter produce adults. Females 
mate at once and lay gradually eggs during about a week. Eggs hatch 
in 4 or 5 days (b). 

(2) May 21-25. On the 21st it rains. Humid ground, weeds, sun- 
shine, feeble R.R. as most S.R. are absorbed both by moisture and 
plants. Temp. 76°. A few pupae formed (b). After the 25th we see 
no fresh rapae on the wing until the emergence of those of the second 
brood on June 2nd 

(3) May 26. After 4 sunny days the land dries. Scarce weeds. A 
few more or less old adults continue to fly laying eggs. Intense S.R. 
strongly reflected from the arid and hot soil. Those larvae, which are 
not sheltered by weeds, are killed by the radiant energy raising from 
the soil. Temp. 87° (i, j). 

(4) May 27. Unsettled weather in the morning, temp. 70° to 80°. 
The larvae that have survived and those hatching now are not injured 
(1). In the afternoon the temp, rises up to 87°, however it rains. Very 
active larvae; only a few pupae are formed (a) because most caterpillars 
died. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OP PIERIS RAPAE AT PHILADELPHIA, 1932. 125 

(5) May 28-31. Moist ground, intense S.R., feeble R.R., temp. 72°. 
The climate is suitable, but most larvae can not get food owing to the 
scarcity of weeds (e, b). Only a few larvae form pupae; many others 
spread all over the country. (On June 2nd we see a few fresh rapae. 
From the 3rd to the 7th we take: — A = 47, B = 5, C = 9. Scarcity due to 
drouth.) 

(6) June 1-4. Aridity increases, temp. 83°. Until the S.R. are 
absorbed by the remnant moisture (so that the soil does not become 
hot) the larvae resist (e) and the mature ones form pupae (a). In the 
afternoon of the 4th : thunderstorm and drizzle. Afterwards : violent 
S.R. and R.R., temp. 86°. The air is electrized; peculiar smell of 
drying ground. High mortality of larvae of any size (k). Pupae not 
injured. (After a week the butterflies are scarce: June 8-11: A = 53, 
B = 4, C=13.) 

(7) June 5. Strong S.R. and R.R., temp. 90°. The larvae that 
might have survived, and those hatching now, should die if they are 
not in sheltered places (i, j). Adults on the wing lay hundred eggs, 
though they are in a small number. 

(8) June 6. Further massacre of larvae lacking of shelter (i, j). 
(Looking at the data at Table I, one sees that the smell of drying ground 
did not occur because when it ended to rain it was night). (June 12-14: 
A = 13, B = 2, C=7. On the 13th it was cloudy and we did not catch.) 

(9) June 7-11. Moderate radiations, temp. 73° to 78°^ but scanty 
weeds (b, e). Some larvae, in moist and still verdant places, pupat-e. 
Others resist starvation. In spite of the drouth and harmful climate 
of the past days, we see some larvae in the platband around the foun- 
tains of the monument to General Washington at the Parkway, where 
there are some weeds. (June 15-17 : several adults are on the wing : 
A = 123, B=3, 0=41.) 

(10) June 12-14. Cloudy, rainy, temp. max. 70°, min. 60°. Those 
larvae in the meadow, that had become feeble for long starvation, 
collapse (d). The others are little active (b). (June 18-21: A = 49. 
B = 4, C=12.) 

(11) June 15-17. Heavy rains, wind 30 miles per hour in the after- 
noon of the 15th. Further destruction of larvae (m). Eggs and pupae 
little injured. (June 22-24: A = 27, B = 3, C = 9.) 

(12) June 18-21. The torrent rains of June 15th penetrated scan- 
tily into the ground that now is drying. Feeble S.R., temp. 60° dur- 
ing the nights. If in the meadow there are still some starving larvae 
they must die (d). (June 25-28: A = 24, B = 4, C=6.) 

(13) June 22. Intense S.R. and R.R., temp. 90°, lack of food- 
plants and shelters. Perhaps no larvae remain alive in the not shaded 
land in which we collect (i). Adults lay eggs. (June 29-30: A = 14, 
B = 2, 0=7.) 

(14) June 23-25. Temp, drops: min. 60°. Larvae hatching now 
survive owing to plenty of sunshine (e), as one sees at Table T. 

(15) June 26. Violent waves of radiations, temp. 92°, scanty rain 
followed by intense S.R., electrized air, smell of drying ground (k). 
At the Park Way we see no rapae. We take 5 specimens in a damp 
and shaded locality, near Germantown, where we go and get plants 
having at home some eggs. Many eggs, not yet hatched, are also in 
the meadow where we daily collect. 



126 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/ XII / 1949 

(16) June 27-29. It rains during the night. Our collecting place 
becomes verdant. After the rain the solar radiation is intense, but 
the humidity absorbs it. Temp. 86°. Active larvae (a). (July 1-3: 
A = 26, B=3, C=9; July 5: A = 14, B = l, = 14. Most specimens are 
worn. Likely they emerged in some damp and shaded localities : like 
that of Germantown, and came at the Park Way where the field is 
flourished.) 

(17) June 30. Moisture, temp. 89°, many blossomed weeds. Lar- 
vae active (a). 

{To he continued.) 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE LIFE HISTORIES OF CERTAIN BUTTER- 
FLIES OF FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE. 

By Surgeon Lieutenant-Commander H. M. Darlow, F.R.E.S., R.N. 



Mycalesis vulgaris, Butl. 

Ovum : — Globular ; greenish-white ; deposited singly on grass blades. 

Larva : — First instar dull white with a black head ; consumes the 
egg shell for its first meal. 

Third instar pale green speckled with white ; lateral line bright 
green ; head black with four short black posteriorly directed horns, the 
outer pair being very short. 

Fourth instar pale green with dark green mid-dorsal line and white 
lateral line- generalised fine dark green speckling; each segment ringed 
with five raised annular wrinkles; head black with two small black 
horns posteriorly directed; anal horns pale brown; thoracic legs green. 

Fifth instar brown finely speckled with white ; dark green dorsal 
line, flanked on either side with an undulating darkish line ; very faint 
dark dorso-lateral line; lateral line white; cream dorso-lateral spot on 
the posterior edges of abdominal segments two to five inclusive ; gener- 
ally distributed fine hairs, white at bases; head brown with paler median 
line; horns brown; well marked neck; legs and ventral surface brown. 

Pre-pupal stage green with dark green dorsal line. 

Pupa light green ; pale green dorso-lateral spots on the abdominal 
segments ; few fine diffuse mottles on the wing-cases ; the costal edges 
of the wing cases slightly raised to form low ridges, the surface other- 
wise being featureless. Suspended by the cremaster low down on grass 
blades. 

The larva feeds in captivity on a variety of grasses. The species is 
common all the year round, and occurs especially, but by no means 
always, in shaded places. 

(Jharaxes houeti, Feisth. 

This species is rare in Freetown, and I only possess two spOcimens, 
both bred from larvae found on the same day on the same bamboo 
plant in the Wellington Gorge. The two larvae were possibly of the 
same brood, as they pupated and produced imagines more or less 
simultaneously. Aurivillius in Seitz, Macrolepidoptera of the WorJd, 
Vol. 13, states that the female is unknown Three years ago, however, 
I had the pleasure of examining the specimens of this species in the 
British Museum. There were, T think, seven specimens, two or three 



LIFE HISTORIES OF CERTAIN BUTTERFLIES, FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE, 127 

of which were females. My specimens represent both sexes, though the ' 
female is hopelessly crippled except for one forewing. The male is very 
small and much less heavily marked than any of the B.M. specimens 
that I examined. 

Larvae : — Mature larva bright green above with buff, black bor- 
dered, longitudinal, oval markings dorsally on abdominal segments three 
and five ] lateral line brown, bordered below with cream ; ventral sur- 
face dull white; head green above and buff below with three pairs of 
posteriorly directed horns on the hinder edge, the outer pair of medium 
length, middle pair long and the inner pair very short and close to- 
gether ] pair of short green anal horns. 

Pupa : — Cream, pinkish on the dorsum of the thorax ; diffuse longi- 
tudinal olive-grey markings. Attached by the cremaster only. 

In the wild state the larva appears to feed on bamboo, but in cap- 
tivity also fed on various grasses and on the leaves of the oil palm. 

Acraea zetes, Linn. 

Larva : — Ground colour buff ; each segment ringed with a black band 
from which arises a series of brownish-black branched spines, two on 
the first thoracic segment, four on the second and third, six on each 
of abdominal segments one to eight inclusive, and two each on the 
ninth and tenth; head brown; legs and spiracles black. 

Pupa: — Ground colour pinkish-white; wing nuration, legs, mouth 
parts and thorax outlined in black; black ventral, spiracular and dorso- 
lateral lines with orange centered nodes on each segment. Suspended 
by cremaster only. Very active. 

The larva was found on Modeca palmata, but there was some reason 
to suspect that it fed on other plants also. 

Acmen terpsichore, Linn. 

Larvae: — Young larva pale yellowish-cream; spines as in the above 
species but buff, those on the thoracic and anal segments being tipped 
with black. 

Final instar larva pale green; head light brown; spines all black 
and arising from small buff tubercles. 

Pupa: — Buff; dorso-lateral and spiracular segmentally arranged 
rows of black rings representing the segmental nodes of the longitudinal 
lines of the pattern of the larva of the above species. Cremaster black. 

The food-plant was not identified. 

Pupilio demodocus, Esp. 

This species was very common in Freetown all the year round in the 
neighbourhood of habitations, where it is much attracted to flowers and 
oviposits on Ditrus trees, Lime being the most popular. In the bush it 
was, however, quite scarce, and I once saw a female ovipositing on a 
sapling tree with spines and glandular compound leaves, which I took 
to be Gitropsis sp. 

Having bred large numbers of the related species, P. denial eus, in 
Ceylon (Eiitom. : LXXVIII, p. 70), I set out to make a comparative 
study of the larvae of the two species. They are extraordinarily simi- 
lar, but differ in the following respects: — 

(1) In demodocus the osmaterium is light brown tip])ed with 
magenta, whilst in demoleua it is always pink. 



128 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/ XII / 1949 

(2) The oblique stripe on the fourth and fifth abdominal segments 
of demodocus is black bordered with cream and speckled with blue, and 
the contra-lateral stripes occasionally meet dorsall3^ In demoleus the 
stripes never meet dorsally and are occasionally absent altogether. They 
are grey, brown or black, but when black are never bordered with cream, 
whereas the grey and brown forms are usually so bordered. 

(3) On the sixth abdominal segment there is a single grey, brown 
or black dorso-lateral spot in demoleus, bordered in the same way as the 
stripe on segments four and five. It is not always present. In demo- 
docus the spot is always present and is always black bordered with 
cream. It is often produced anteriorly to the hind border of segment 
five as a thin streak. Furthermore, there is always a second more later- 
ally placed, but similarly coloured spot, which is never present in demo- 
leus in Ceylon. 

(4) In demoleus there may be dorso-lateral spots on any or all of 
abdominal segments 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, or 9. I never found such spots in 
demod'ocus. 

(5) In demoleus the third thoracic segment is bordered anteriorly 
and posteriorly by a grey, or occasionally brown or black band. In 
demodocua these bands are always black and unite laterally to form a 
large black patch. Furthermore, in demodocus along the posterior edge 
of the anterior band and the anterior edge of the posterior band there 
are two rows of brown slightly raised tubercles, which are conspicuously 
bordered with light blue. 

(6) In demodocus the first thoracic segment is bordered " fore and 
aft " with black. 

Apart from the difference in colour of the osmateria, these differ- 
ences are more or less a matter of degree. In every other respect the 
larvae appear indistinguishable. It would be interesting to study the 
differences in areas where the two species overlap. 

The pupae of demodocus vary in the same way as those of demoleus, 
though I rather gained the impression that the anterior horns were 
longer in the former species. 

Papilio pylades, Fabr. 

Ovum: — Globular, 0.75 mm. in diameter; greenish-white when first 
laid, but later honey-yellow. Laid singly on the uppersides of leaves. 

Larva : — First instar silver-grey, each segment ringed with black 
tubercles, each bearing a black, branched, white. tipped spine ; dorso- 
laterally on the thoracic and anal segments a pair of buff fleshy horns 
bearing numerous buff spines ; head and anal segment buff. 

Second instar buff below, creamy-white above except for dorsum of 
T2, Al, 7 and 8 which are black; apart from these each segment bears 
a broader anterior and a narrower posterior yellow ring bordered with 
black, on the anterior segments the yellow tending to be obscured by 
extensions of the black borders, from which the spines arise ; first 
thoracic and anal segments are bright orange above and buff below; 
horns on thoracic and anal segments are buff with black spines ; head 
black and buff; spiracles buff; supra-spiracular line brown. 

Third instar greenish except for T2, Al and 3 which are almost 
entirely black above ; other segments bear two greenish-yellow rings 



OBITUARY^ 129 

with black borders between which is a faint whitish ring ; yellow un- 
b ranched spines on Tl and anal segments, other spines black. 

Fourth instar green, each segment ringed with two pinkish 
rings; supra-spiracular line white; bordered above narrowly with yellow 
and below broadly with pinkish-green; a single pair of short black horns 
on thoracic segments and yellowish-green on the anal segment; spiracles 
black; T2 and 3 swollen. 

Fifth instar green with yellow supra-spiracular line; horns on Tl 
black with yellow bases, those on T2 and 3 bright orange with black tips, 
and those on the anal segment yellowish-green; spiraclesi dark green. 

Pupa : — Pale green mottled with darker and pinkish in such a way 
as to mimic the venation of the leaf to which the pupa is attached. A 
large horn extends anteriorly from the middle of the thorax to a point 
beyond the anterior end of the pupa. There are pale lateral and dorso- 
lateral lines extending from the cremaster to the tip of this horn. 

The larva moved with a peculiar jerking gait. It fed on a common 
shrub, which I was unable to identify. It rested along the mid-rib of 
the upper side of the leaf. The butterfly was very common all the year 
round, especially during the wet season, and was much attracted to 
flowers. 

Platylesches picamni, Holl. 

Larva: — The young larva whitish with a black head. Older larva 
slug shaped with a large head and narrow neck. Ground colour green 
finely speckled with minute yellow dots ; head black, ringed round its 
broadest diameter with brown, and bearing a radially arranged pattern 
of white patches anteriorly. 

Pupa: — Thorax transparent; abdomen buff. Spun up in a rolled 
leaf. 

The larva lived in a leaf tube by day, emerging at night to feed. 
The food plant was a small tree, unidentified, but resembling a beech. 
Both larva and pupa covered with a protective layer of white powdery 
wax. The larva turned bright pink before pupation. 
Coeliades forestan, Cram. 

Unfortunately my notes on the life history of this interesting species 
have been lost during my travels, but it had one interesting character 
which sticks in my memory. The larva, which was typically hesperid 
in shape, was brightly coloured and was distinctly reminiscent of the 
larva of Papilio machaon. Despite this it lived concealed by day in a 
leaf tent, from which it only protruded its anterior segments at night 
to feed. The food plants were various species of beans, both cultivated 
and wild. 



OBITUARY. 



WILLIAM FASSNIDGE, M.A., F.K.E.S. 

William Fassnidge died at Southampton on 19th April 1949, aged 
61. He was born at Chesham in 1888 and was educated at Amersham 
and London University. He taught for a few years at Chippenham, 
aud came to King Edward VI Grammar School, Southampton, as Modern 
I^anguage master in 1915. There he served for more than 33 years. 



130 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/ XII / 1949 

becoming in due course senior modern language master and latterly 
second master. 

A chance encounter in the field in my school-boy days about thirty 
years ago began a long and valued friendship, in the course of which 
I picked up many useful tips, e.g., how to find the larvae of the white 
admiral, hairstreaks and clearwings, and that strange gall on the sallow 
which ultimately produced Aegeria flaviventris, Stand., a species new 
to Britain. 

He spent most of his vacations on the Continent, collecting in little- 
known districts and recording his captures chiefly in this Journal, of 
which he was one of the editors, but also in French periodicals. In- 
deed, my first visit to France was made in his company. He was associ- 
ated with various international organizations and was Treasurer and a 
former President of the Southampton Branch of L' Alliance Frangaise, 
where I often heard him speak in the vernacular. 

I do not know if he played much Bridge in recent years, but I still 
remember being introduced to the game at his house and failing to take 
a single trick after a rash bid of three no trumps. That lesson, and the 
need for a guard in every suit, was well learnt. Another of his hobbies, 
shared by his wife, was philately, and this led to his founding a Stamp 
Club at his school. 

It is as one of the Founders of the Hampshire Entomological Society, 
which was subsequently to develop into the Society for British Entomo- 
logy, that he will be best remembered by readers of this Magazine. 
Early meetings of this organization were held at his house on Satur- 
day afternoons, Mrs Fassnidge generously providing excellent teas. 
I.ater meetings were held at the University College, Southampton, but 
members were always invited to Tennyson Road, where they chatted 
round the tea tables and subsequently consulted his extensive collections 
and library. 

He became a Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society of London 
in 1925 and for many years was their representative on the New Forest 
Joint Committee. The first w^orld war found him as an ofiicer in the 
Kings Liverpools and the second with the Poole Home Guard. While 
on duty on Salisbury Plain in 1942 he was seriously injured in a shoot- 
ing accident, from which he never fully recovered. 

Mr S. N. A, Jacobs has acquired his fine collection of Microlepidop- 
tera, and the remainder of the insects will pass to the British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.). 

He leaves a widow and one son, to whom we ofter our warmest sym- 
pathy. — B. M. Hobby. 

[See also pp. 58-59 ante. — Ed.] 



COLLECTING NOTES. 



Butterflies prom S.E. Ireland. — The following fifteen species of 
butterflies occurred within a radius of two miles of this property (Cor- 
ballymore), and were more or less common: — Pieris hrassicae, P. napi, 
Lpptidea sinapis, Euchloe cardaniines, Vanessa atalanta, V. cardui, 
Pararge meg era, P. egerides, Maniola jurtina, M. tithonus, Aphantopus 
hyperatifiis, Coenonyrripha pamphilus, Aglais urticae, Lycaena phlaeas. 



COLLECTESTG NOTES. 



131 



Folyommatus icarus; seven others were scarce, viz.: Pieris rapae, 
Colias croceus (one c?, 17tli October), Nyjaphalis io, Argynms paphia, 
A. aglaia, Lycaenopsis argiolus, Eurnenis semele. The abundance here 
of Vanessa atalanta and V. cardui is worthy of mention. — L. H. 
Bonaparte Wyse, Corballymore, Co. Waterford. 

Choice op Flower of Vanessa cardui, L., and V. atalanta, L. — When 
at Newquay in September last, I was interested to note a marked pre- 
ference of blossom between Vanessa cardui, L., and V. atalanta, L. 
Cardui was in abundance along the cliffs and a brood of atalanta emerged 
about the 5th, and joined them. 

On one patch of A'-alerian I observed some 40 cardui and but 2 
atalanta, while nearby, on a large patch of overhanging ivy in full 
blossom, were probably 80 or more atalanta, but only 3 or 4 cardui. 
The numbers of insects on the ivy were more difficult to assess as many 
were hidden, but a stick thrown into any part of the bush brought out 
a shower of atalanta which turned and quickly dived back into it. 

A few Fieris brassicae, L., also seemed to enjoj^ ivy, also a rather 
late, solitary (S Celastrina argiolus, L., was noted. On the valerian, 
Macroglossum stellatarum, L., was in fair numbers. — G. H. B. Oliver, 
Hazlemere, High Wycombe, Bucks. 

Cerostoma xylostella on Snowberry. — In June last year I found 
a larva of Cerostoma xylostella, Linn., feeding in the wild state on 
Snowberry in my garden. Along with the well-known Limenitis Camilla, 
L., and Euphydryas aurinia, Rott., it appears that another honeysuckle 
feeder will also eat snowberry. — G. H. B. Oliver, Hazlemere, High 
Wycombe, Bucks. [See p. 72 ante. — Ed.] 

Volucella zonaria, Poda. — On 28.vi.49 I saw V. zonaria settle on 
the garden fence at 8.30 a.m., another was seen on 20.vii.49, while a 
third was seen at Sutton Green at the bottom of this road on 4.x. 49. 
I have, however, only seen two Hornets near here during the Summer. 
— J. Fincham Turner, 68 Oakhill Road, Sutton, Surrey. 

Herse convolvuli in Scotland. — I caught a perfect specimen of a 
convolvulus Hawk moth (Herse convolvuli) at Ardtur, Appin, Argyll, 
on October 14th — and as I am told that this moth does not often occur 
in Scotland I am writing to report its capture. The length of the wing 
from the shoulder is 21 ins. — (Mrs) M. C. Spicer. 

Rhyacia simulans, Hufn., in Herts, and Bucks. — Mr A. L. Good- 
son took two specimens of Bhyacia simulans, both in very fresh condi- 
tion, in his light trap in Tring, 26. vi and 28. vi. 1947, and Mr G. H. E. 
Hopkins took another at Aston Clinton, Bucks., 7.viii.l948. I found, 
30. vi. 1949, the head, front part of the thorax with both forewings, and 
one hindwing of a very fresh specimen in my porch in Tring, Herts. 
It had been killed by a bat. 

In all the years during which the late Mr A. T. Goodson collected Jn 
this neighbourhood he never obtained this species. It has been much 
commoner than usual in the Cotswolds in recent years, but I do not 
think the species has spread from there to this district, because two of 
the Tring specimens are darker than any I have seen from the Cotswolds. 
— E. A. Cockayne, 8 High Street, Tring. 



132 entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/ XII / 1949 

CURRENT NOTES. 



It is with much gratitude that I have to acknowledge from my good 
friend, B. J. Lempke, of Amsterdam, the receipt of Part VIII of his 
Catalogue of the 'Netlierland Macro-Lepidoptera. This is a vohime 
made up of reprints from the Tijdschrift, XC. Under name Agrotidae 
it inchides all those species hitherto known as Noctuidae. 

The best thanks of the Ent. Hecord are due to B. J, Lempke for his 
many contributions of many items for the Noctuae Supplement for 
many years past. "We thank him. 

In the 18th century the XII ed. of Linn Sys. Nat. was issued in 
1766. The following year a verbatim edition was issued. As both are 
identical, it would be advisable to write the date (1766-67). — Hy. J. T. 

We have recently received Part 9 of the List of Generic Names of 
British Insects. This part deals with the Staphylinidae ; a check list of 
the British species is added. There are about 120 pages and reference 
for each genus. This part concludes Vol. I (1934-1949). The sections 
considered are Rhopalocera, Odonata, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, 
Carabidae, Hydradephaga, Hemiptera-Heteroptera, and Staphylinidae. 
In addition, there is an Index of the whole of the generic names in the 
volume and their synonyms. 

Part I of Volume X of the Transactions of the Society of British 
Entomology, recently published, contains a valuable paper on the 
Ecology of Aquatic Hemiptera-Heteroptera, by E. J, Popham, D.Sc, 
Ph.D., A.R.C.S. Such papers are most useful for the disclosure of 
the real natural history.- — Hy J. Turner. 



REVIEW. 



The Ebcording in a Biological Survey (Irish Ordnance Department 
Survey). — Students of Biological Science usually choose an area of 
limited size to obtain their facts. When such facts have been obtained 
there seems to be no general method of recording. Each student has 
his own method and all are most difficult to follow, much less to use. 

We have just received a map from the Irish Ordnance Survey, 
Phoenix Park, Dublin, which seems in plan to suffice for a successful 
result. 

The plan is applied to the whole of the country ; each of the innumer- 
able small areas are located and filled with reference markings indicat- 
ing data and the biological facts. 

The larger map would cover the surface of a table 3 ft. by 4 ft. It 
can be obtained for 3/- from the Ordnance Department, Phoenix Park, 
Dublin, and all booksellers. It is admirably produced, divided into 
small areas of which each have reference marks indicating the existence 
of records for that section. 



VOL. LXI. 



PLATE 4. 



BIOLOGICAL SUBDIVISIONS 



WD 

(85). 



ED 
(3*1 



LD 

140) 



TY 

(36) 



AN 

(39) 



^; 



WM 

127) 



(16) 



? 



EM 

(26) 



SL 

(28) 



s 



NG 
(17) 



FE 

(33) 



ILE^ 

(29) 



RO 

(25) 



LF 

(84) 



CV 

(30) 



WH 

(23) 



/^ 



AR 

(37) 



MO 

(32) 



LH' 

(31) 



ME 

(22) 



(33) 



"^^^^ 



SG 

(IS) 



CL 

(9) 



LK 

(8) 



NT 

(10) 



OF 




ST 



CW 

(13), 



KK 

(11) 



Wl 

(20) 



WX 

. (12) 



NK 



WA 



MC 



EC 



SK 



WC 
(3) 



Price 3d. Net 



Scale - 50 Miles to 1 inch. 

50 

■ ' ■ I 1 1 



50 Miles 

_2 



SP 



. mm. zooL 

UBRARY 

APR 20 1550 

VOL. LXI., 1949. 



The Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 



The names in this Index are placed alphabetically under speciiic 
names. 

* indicates a new name. 
** indicates an addition to the British List under an old name. 



PAGE 

COLEOPTERA. 

tectus, Ptinus 6 

DIPTERA. 

rampestris, Rhingia 44 

diastema, Elachiptera 93 

iiiquinatum, Scopeuma 20 

livida, Elmpis 39 

lutarium, Scopeuma 20 

macula, Syntormon 114 

major, Bombylius 44 

Pcillipes, Oncodes 28 

permunda, Anomoia 38 

rotundiventris, Clytiomyia 118 

ulmariae, Perrisia 113 

zonaria, Volucella 131 

HEMIPTERA. 

nervosa. Aphalara 113 

HYMENOPTERA. 

atra, Euura 113 

exsecta. Formica lOl 

ftavus. Lasius 04 

fusca. Formica f)4. lo; 

Inevinodis. llyrmica 64 

nic^-f']-, Lasius -. fi4 

r;.sarum, Rliodites Ii2 

irl»ra, Myimua 6') 

smithlamis. Bombus 113 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

acanthodactyla. Platyptilia 71 

actaeon. Paniphila 122 

adippe, Argynnis (see Cydippe) 
aegeria, Pararpe ... 15. 10, 27, 44. nr., 

97. 98, 121. 130 

aeg'on. Polyommatns 123 

acrata. Procus 97 

aeriipula (contonalis). Oelama 

aescularia, Alsophila 44, 57. fi8 

agestis, Polyommatus 15, 98 

aglala. Argynnis (.see Charlotta) 



PAGE 

ali)icans, Polyommatus 91 

albipicta, Cardepia 74, 76 

alhipuncta, Leucanla 77 

albula, Nola 66 

alceae, Carcharodus 122 

alciphron gordius, Chrysophanus ... 123 

aleella, Phalonia 48 

alexanor, Papilio 123 

alternata, Cidaria 118 

alticolana, Cnephasia 4S 

amatliusla, Argynnis 100 

argelicella, Depressaria 67 

antiopa, Vanessa 98 

arcania, Coenonympha 97, 98, 123 

aicella. Tinea 44 

areola, Xylocampa 57, 68 

argentana, Cnephasia. 48 

argester, Polyommatus 90 

argiades, Polyommatus 99, 100 

argiolus, Cyaniris ... 15, 98, 122, 123, 131 

argns. Polyommatus 100, 123 

orion. Polyommatus 123 

aimoricana, Hesperia 99 

atalanta, Vanessa ... 15, 16, 27, 44, 56, 

57, 65, 97, 122, 130, 131 

athalia. Melitaea 99 

atomaria, Ematurga 67 

atropunctana. Argyroploce 67 

aurantiaria. Erannls 37 

aurinia. Melitaea 100, 123 

avellanella, Semioscopis 57 

avempacei. Trichoclea 74 

badiata. ridaria 27, 44 

itellargus. Polyommatus 16. 66, 123 

betulae, Thecla 15 

lucolorana. "Pseudoips " (see Hylo- 
pbila prasinana Linn.) 

bidentata. Gonodontis 27, 38 

bilunaria. Selenia 6? 

liipiiTictana. Argyroploce 49 

bistoitata. Boarmia 57 

l>racl)ydacty]us. Pselnophorns 71 

bractella, Oecopbora 46 

biassirao. Pieris 15, 113, 130 

caesia. TIadena 82 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

c-album, Vanessa 14, 15, 16, 17, 44, 57, 100 

callidice, Pieris 100 

Camilla, Liinenitis 15, 56, 117 

" Camilla," see rivularis 

cardamines, Euchloe 15, 27, 44, 130 

cardiii, Vanessa ... 14, 15, 27, 44, 65, 

97, 116, 121, 123, 130, 131 

carpinata, Notliopteryx 27 

carthami, Hesperia 99 

centonalis, see aerugula 

cespitalis. Pyrausta 48 

cespitellus, Crambus 48 

ceto, EreMa 109 

'clialcostrota. Abraxas, grossulariata 

ab :53 

charlotta ("aglaia"). Argynnis ... 15, 

66, 13L 

cborista, Gnophos 97 

christiernana (see citrinalis) 

ciliella, Phalonia 67 

cinerella, Acompsia 49 

cinxia. Melitaea ... 19, 55. 68, 98, 122, 123 

Circe, Satyrus 47. 100, 122, J24 

cirsil, Hesperia 98 

citrinalis, Hypercallia 47 

€lathrata, Chiasmia 99 

Cleopatra, Gonepteryx 121 

coeruleocephala, Displiragis M 

cognatella, Yponomeuta 47 

comma, Pamphila 99 

comparella, LithocoUetis 38 

complana, Eilema 66 

compta, Dianthoecia 93 

conchellus, Crambus 48 

confusa, Euchalcia ('Plusia") 99 

confusalis, Nola 66 

convolvuli, Agrius 131 

coretas, Everes 99, 123 

coridon, Polyommatus 15, 66, 98 

cortli, Euxoa 97 

coulonellus, Crambns 48 

crameri, Euchloe 121 

crataegi, Aporia 49, 100, 121 

craterellus, Crambus 46 

crepuscularia, Boarmia 27 

cribraria, Euprepia 98 

cribrum, Coscinia 47 

croceus, Colias ... 15, 56, 65, 66, 94, 

99, 116, 118. 121, 123. 131 

cuprealis, .\glossa 46 

cydippe, .^rgynnis 15. 06 

cyllarus, I^)lyommatu& 122. 123 

dalmatlca, Amephana 73 

flanbne, Argynnis 100 

daplidice, Pieris 121 

decolorella. Blastobasis 38 

deione, Melitaea 123 

derivata. Cidaria 27 

dia, Argynnis 99, 100, 123 

dictynna, Melitaea 99 

dif]yma, Melitaea 48, 99, 100, 122 

dimidiata, Sterrba 73 

dispar, Lymantria 100 

<litrapezium, Noctua 66 



PAGE 

dorilis, Chrysophanus 98, 123 

duponcheli, Leptosia 123 

efformata. Anaitis 89, 99 

elpenor, Deilepliila 37, 55 

emberizaepennella, LithocoUetis .... 72 

erhippella, Argyresthia 46 

ericetorum, Oxyptilus 49 

euplienoides, Anthocliaris 123 

euphorbiae, Deilephila 122 

ouphrosyne, Argynnis ... 15, 56, 66, 

98, 122, 123 

evias, Erebia 123 

fagaria, Dyscia 27 

fagella, Diurnea 44, 57, 6S 

fasciana. Pammenc* 38 

favicolor, Leucania 94 

ferrugata, Cidaria 27 

festucae, Euchalcia ("Plusia") 81 

flmbriata. Noctua 65 

flava ("sylvestris"), Pamphila ... 15, 100 

flavicornis, Polyploca 57 

fractifasciana. Eucosma 48 

fraxini, Catocala 119 

fucilormis. Haemorrhagia 97 

galathea, Melanargia ... 15, 47, 48, 99, 116 
gamma, Euchalcia ("Plusia") 44, 99, 117 

geniculella, LithocoUetis 38 

glyphica, Euclidia 97, 99 

gracilis, E^isema (Taeniocampa) .... 27 

grandaevana, Eucosma 49 

graphodactyla, Stenoptilia 49, 71 

grossulariata, Abraxas 33 

hamana, Eluxanthis 46 

hellerella. Blastodacna 38 

liermione. Satyrus 98, 100 

hispana, Polyommatus 91. 122, 123 

hispidaria, Apocheima 56 

hyale, Colias 43. 55, 99, 123 

hybridana (see trifasciana) 

liylas. Polyommatus 123 

hyperantus. Epinepliele ... 15, 17, 98, 

100, 130 

hyrciniae, Crambus 47 

icarus. Polyommatus 15. 16. 66, 94, 97, 131 

ida, Et)inephele 124 

ilicis, Thecla 100 

illustris, Sterrba 75 

impura, Nola 73 

incerta, Episema (Taeniocampa) .... 27 

inconspicuella, Solenobia 47 

*infraguttata. Abraxas grossulariata 

ab 34 

inopiana, Idiographis 46 

1o. Vanessa 14. 15. 16. 44, 57, 65, 131 

iobaphes, Rliyacia 97 

iris, Apatuia 66 

irregularis, Dianthoecia 77 

janira. see .iurtina 

.ianthinana. Enarmonia 38 

jasius, Charaxes 121, 124 

Juliana, Pammene, see fasciana 

.iurtina, Epinephele 15, 99, 121, 130 

lathonia. Argynnis 109, 122, 123 

latreillella, Pancalia 48 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

latruncula, see aerata, Procus 

lavaterae, Carcharodus 122, 123 

lesliei, Eogenes 75 

leucophaearia, Erannls 50, 57 

leucostigma, C 77 

levana, Araschnia 98 

ligea, Erebia 100 

ligustri, Sphinx 37 

•lilacifaseiata. .\braxas grossulariata 

Rh 34 

'lilacina, Abraxas grossulariata ab. 33 

lineata, Slone 99 

lineola, Pamphila 15, 100 

livornica. Deilephila 95, 104. 117 

lonicerae, Zygaena 67 

lubricipeda. Spilosnma 27, 44 

lucellus, Crambus 46, 47, 48 

Incina, Hamearis 123 

luteolata, Opistliograptis 44 

niachaon. Papilio ... 45, 47, 49. 97, 99. 

100. 121 

riiaculipeniiis. Plutella 46 

raaera, Pararge 98, 100, 121, 123 

malvae, Hesperia 15, 98 

malvoides, Hesperia 100 

marginaria, Erannis 27, 56, 57. 68 

niarginea. Catastia 49 

raedon. Polyommatus, see agestis 

megera, Pararge 15, 17, 87, 121, 130 

mendica, Cycnia 27, 28, 56 

micana, .\rgyroploce 49 

mimetes, Aegle 76 

minimella, Nemophora 68 

minimus, Ctipido 99, 123 

rainiosa, Episema (Taeniocampa) ... 57 
monodactylus, Oidaematophorus .... 27 

multistrigaria, Cidaria 57, 68 

r.'unda. Episema (Taeniocampa), 27, 

56, 68 

murana, Scoparia 49 

nuirinata. Mirioa 99 

muscalella, Tncurvaria 27 

myrtillana, Eucosma 67 

nanella, Recurvaria 38 

napi, Pieris 15, 27, 117. 180 

nemoralis, Agrotera 46 

nigrata, Pyrausta '.S 

nubeculosa, Bracliionyclia 104 

oblongana. Endothenia 07 

ocbrea, Eupista 47 

oeme, Erebia 100 

riiiopordi, Hesperia 124 

(ipliiogrnmma, Parastichtis 71 

or. Tethea 112 

(irnitliopus, Litliopbane (Graptolitha) 57 

paleana, Tortrix 4(i 

palpina. Plerostoma 28 

palustraria, Eupithecia 67 

pamphilus, Coenonympha 15, 47. 121, 130 
paphia. Argynnis 15. 56. 66, 100. 117, 131 

partbeniae. Melitaea 99. 123 

pavonia-minor. Saturn i a 27 

pedaria. Phigalia 56. 57 

pelidnodactyla, Stenoptilia 49 



P.4GE 

pelJucida cypriensis. Eumenis 73 

pbegea, Syntomis 46, 47 

phicomene, Colias 100 

phlaeas, Cbrysophanus (Lycaena : 
Heodes) ... 1. 15, 16, 25, 65, 66, 98, 

122, 130 

phoebe, Meliiaea 122, 123 

**pliycidella, Blastobasis 113 

piantlcovskii, Lasiocampa 75 

pinastri, Sphinx 94, 104 

plagiata, Anaitis 87 

plantaginis, Parasemia 67 

podalirius, Papilio 98, 121, 123 

polychloros, Vanessa 56, 65 

populeti, Episema (Taeniocampa) ... 50 

populi, Smerinthus 28, 112 

praedita, Polia 97 

prasinana, Linn., Hylophila 37, 55 

pratellus, Crambus 47, 48 

pronubana, Cacoecia 38 

proto. Spialla 74 

pruni, Tbecla 15 

pseudatballa, Melitaea 100, 122. 123 

pulchellana, Eulia 67 

puniilata, Gynmoscelis 27, 57 

punctidactyla, Platyptilia 67. 71 

punctinalis, Boarmia 60 

punctosa, Leucania 73, I't, 76 

purdeyi, Evetria 18 

purpuralis, Pyrausta iS 

quadrilaria, Psodos 100 

ciuercus, Tbecla 15, 66. 99. 124 

rapae. Pieris ... 15, 35, 44, 61, m, 124. 131 
rectifasciana (see trifasciana) 

reflexa, Plecoptera 75 

regalis. .\sopia 47 

regiana, Pammene 38 

repandata, Boarmia 5 

rliamni, Gonepteryx ... 14, 15, 57. 98. 12! 

rliododendronalis. Pyrausta 49 

rbomljoidaria. Boarmia 00 

ribeata, Boarmia 00 

rivulana, Argyroploce 'i9 

rivularis, Limenitis 100. 121. 123 

robiginosa. Euxoa 97 

roboraria. Boarmia 0() 

ruberata. Cidaria 27 

rubi. Callophrys 6. 15. 28. 123 

rufa, Coenobia 77 

rufimitrella, Adela 67 

rum! c is. Hyboma (.\cronycta) 57 

rupicapraria, Tlieria OS 

rusticana. Tortrix 07 

sacraria, Rhodometra 117 

sambucaria, Ourapteryx 3=> 

sannio, Diacrisia 99 

sao, Hesperia 98. 122. 123 

scotica, Ortholitha 27 

selene, Argynnis 60, 98, 117 

semele. Satyrus 98. 131 

semiargus. Polyommatus 100 

serratnlae, Hesperia 98. 123 

" Sibylla," see Camilla 

s\llius. Melanargia 121 



4 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

sjmulaiis, Rliyacia 131 

sinapis, Leptosia 47, 97, 98, 100, 130 

socia, Litliopliane 57 

somnulentella, Bedellia 38 

sordidella, Rhinosia 4S 

splendana, Enarmonia 38 

statices, Procris 28, 67 

statiiinus, Satyrus 124 

stellatarum, Sesia ... 15, 44, 65, 99, 116, 

123, 131 

stepliensi, Blastodacna 38 

straminea, Leucania 77 

stratarius, Bistori 57 

strigillaria, Perconia 67 

strigulatella, Lithocolletis 49 

stygne, Ereljia 100 

suasa. Hadena 77, 93 

subclilamydula, Celania 73 

sudetica, Scoparia 49 

suffumata, Cidaiia 27 

sylvanus, Pamphila (sec sylvestris) 
sylvestris ("venata"), Pamphila ... 15, 

98, 100, 122. 123 

'■ sylvestris," Pamphila (see flava) 

taeniolella, Stomopteryx 48 

tages, Nisoniades 15, 100, 123 

tamsi, Selidosema 74 

temiiata, Eupitliecia 27 

thei'sites, Polyommatus 99, 123 

terrealis, Pyrausta 49 

tesseradactyla, Platyptilia 67 

tetralunarla, Selenia 9 

thaumas, see flava, Pamphila 

thersites, Polyommatus 99, 123 



PAGK 

tiliae, Mimas 37 

tithonus, Epinephele 15, 98, 130 

tiabealis, Emmelia (Eustrotia) 99 

transversa, Eupsilia 57, 65, 66 

tremula, Pheosia 28, 56 

tiifasciana, Isotrias 48 

tiillia, Coenonyrapha 67 

turanica, Celama 75 

tusciaria, Crocallis 76 

uliginosella, Pyrausta 49 

umbratica, Rusina 27 

UDCula, Eustrotia 67 

uiiguicella, Ancylis 48 

urticae, Vanessa ... 14, 15, 16, 27, 44, 

57, 100, 123, 130 

vaccinii, Conistra 57, 65 

valezina, Argynnis paphia 117 

variabilis. Nychindes 75 

venata, Ochlodes (see sylvestris, Pam- 
phila) 

veibascalis, Mesographe 47 

vespiformis, Conopia 38 

vetusta, Calocampa 27 

vibicella, Eupista 47 

viburnana, Tortrix 47 

vinula, Cerura 28, 112 

xylostellus, Ypsolophus 72, 131 

zebrus, Cupido 123 

ziczac, Notodonta 56, 112 

zoegana, Euxanthis 46 

zonaria, Nyssia 113 

NEUROPTERA. 

fulvicephalus, Osmylus 44 



THE BlilTlSH XOCTUAE AND THEIR VARIETIEiS. IV. (45) 

S!jn(ji<ti)h((, Hb., iiiterrogationis, L. 

rUtski, Ochs. & Tr. (1816-26). Very many authors. [Fhytoinctra. 
Haw. (180'9) : a few authors: StjiKjiapha, Hb. (1806), Stz. works.] 

Hufii., Berl. Mag., liJ, 212, No. 15 (1766), said that interrogatiunts 
was similar to gumma only that the silvery coloured spot was a frag- 
mentary charactei". 

Schiff., Verz., 93 (1775), Z. 3: intenugationis, L. Larvae semi- 
geometrae. Phal. Noctuae Metallicae. Larvae on the common nettle, 
l- i'ou])ed with festucae, chrt/sitis^ clrcumflexa and guiiiina. 

Illiger, Bevised Verz., V, 347, (93), Z. 3 (1801), named it ^' The 
Nettle Noctua." He cited Linn., Syst. Nat. and Fn. Suec; Esper ; 
Fab. ; Bork., etc. 

Fab., Syst. Ent., 607 (1775), cited Linn, as the author. His descrip- 
tion: " anticis fusco cinereoque variis signo. albo inscriptis," was most 
inadequate. 

Goez€, Beitrage, III (3), 126 (1781), cited Berlin Mag. (1766); Fab., 
S.jsf. Ent. (1775); Fuess., ScJur. Ins. (1775); Schiff., Verz. (1775). 

Bork., Schmett. Nocf., IV, 792 (1792), cited Linn., ,Syst. Nut.. 
Xlled., 884 (1767) and gave the description. Also he cited Linn., Fn. 
Suec; Miiller, Ueber ; de Vill., Ent. Linn:; Fuess., Schw. Ins.; Hufn.,. 
Bi'vl. Mag.; Esper, Scluncft. Noct.; Goze, Beifr., etc. 

Ernst & Engram., Pap. cVEiir. (1792), VIII, 132, fig. 593 a, b (and 
c, d), gave 3 figures, very good illustrations of 3 different forms. On 
p. 124 they discuss the conscripta, Hb., of the Beitrage, II (2), 52, pit. 
IV, fig. U. The authors remark on Hb., " The individual example 
which served him as a model was, doubtless, incorrectly drawn, for his 
colours are much too pale for this species. He described his species as 
the Noct. aemula. Fab., Mant., 162. Perhaps it is the same species 
that this author has described under two names." 

The omission of recording the rosy suffusion in all the earlier de- 
scriptions has been the cause of the withdrawal of several aberrational 
names. The action of Tutt in 1892 of naming a form ab. rosea made 
the following names to fall as Synonyms: — ab. horcalis, Rent., Act. 
Finn. (1893); ab. aurosigiiata., Don., English Ins. (1808); ab. aeuiula. 
Fab., Mant., I (1787). 

Hh., Sanunl. Noct., 281 (1800-1803) gave a very good figure, some- 
what darker than that of Dup. Hb. had already figured this species 
in his Beitr., II (2), p. 52, pit. 4, U (1791), under the name conscripta. 

Haworth, Lep. Brit., 257 (1809), described it " alis cinereo fusco 
loseo-que variis, in medio littera V puncto-que contiguo., argenteis." 

" Praecedentibus diftert statura minore ; alis anticis roseo cinereo 
fuscoque perpulchre variegatis et potissimum charactere argenteo Cilia 
rosea fusco maculata." 

This species was known to Moses Harris as above cited, where he 
remarks that it " is a different species from the Phalena i)iterrogationis 
of Linnaeus." In this, however, probably mistaken, as there are hardly 
any doubts about this being N. interrogationis of Fauna Suecica, 
although Linnaeus makes no kind of mention of its beautiful purple 
tints. It is not the interrogationis of Hiibner, nor does it exactly ac- 
cord with his Noctua ni ; although closely allied to both. 



(46) entomologist's kecord, vol. Lxi. 15/111/1949 

Dup., Hist. Nat, VII (2) (1829), 47, pit. 137 (not 136 as printed), 
fig. 2. The figure is a good one but somewhat lighter than the average 
examples, and chequered fringes of the forewings are very clear and 
distinct. If it were tinted with rose colour that has vanished with time. 
Ihe transverse shades are well in evidence. He has cited the double, i.e. 
Donavan and his Tortrix. He described this species a grey-brown like 
gamma and with the same marking ; with the same silver characters as 
r. ni, only smaller, and the underside of all wings is " exactly " like 
that of P. gatriTRa. 

Treit., Schmett. Noct., V (3), 190 (1826), said that Linne's species 
was the species called aemula by Fab. and Bork., but recognized as the 
true uiterrogationis by Schiff. in the Verz. in the gamma group. He 
cited about 20 works in which this species had been dealt with ; several 
of which are not often referred to. Illiger in the Neu. Magazine, II, 
146 (1822) (1803); Harris, English Ins., pit. 3 (1782); Rossi, Faun. 
Etruse., II, 183 (1795); 1st ed. Laspeyres, Brit. Bevis., 145 (1803); 
Goeze, Ent. Beitr., Ill (3), 126 (1781); Fuess., Schw. Ins., 38 (1775); 
in error he quoted Donavan, Nat. Hist., II, pit. LXVI (1903), interro- 
gationana, diagnosed, described, figured and named as a Tortrix. [Mr 
Fassnidge has determined this figure as Eucosma foenella.'] 

Freyer, Beitr., Ill, 116, pit. 130, fig. 1 (1830), gave an excellent 
figure of a dark continental form with fairly distinct light main char- 
acters. 

Gn., Hist. Nat., VI (2), Noct., 354 (1852), said that since Haworth 
described this species as being much sufi^used with rose he could not 
discuss this species. 

H.-S., Sys. Bearh., II, 339, 5 (1845+)?, gave no figure, nor did he 
comment on the figures of authors, especially Hb., he cited. But he 
gave a description noting most of the characters, a selection of which 
might be found on any specimen. He recognized the unstable nature 
of any character and would not describe a " type." 

Splr., Schmett. Eur., I, 305, pit. 50, 11 (1907), gave a very good 
figure, dark with a considerable amount of lighter marking fairly dis- 
tributed but not strong. The silvery metallic character was well em- 
phasized. He adds ab. flamniifera., Huene, ss]). trunshaicalensis, Stdgr. ; 
ah. rosea, Tutt. He refers to its extreme variation and its extensive 
area of distribution. 

South, Moths B. Is., II, 73, pit. 26, f. 4-5 (1908), gave two very good 
figures, one very "dark and the other light ; he referred to the violet 
purple tinge " when first emerged," and that some have even an amount 
of blackish suft'usion. 

Warr.-Stz., Pal. Noct., Ill, 346 (1913), gave aemula, Fb. (nee 
Schiff.), aurosignata, Don., and horealis, Rent., as Syns. They gave 6 
figures: typical, orhata, flammifera, ignifeixi, cinerea and ganimifera. 
Warr. described ab. orhata 64 b; ab. ignifera, 64 c; ab. cinerea, 64 c; 
and ab. gammifera, 64 c ; and figured and described flammifera, Huene, 
64 b. In Stz. work this species was taken from Plusia, Ochs. (Pliyto- 
metra, Haw.) and placed in Syngrapha, Hb., p. 345. 

Tutt had referred (1892) to the endless varieties of this species, a 
remark which appears to have attracted attention of entomologists in- 
terested in Variation. It will be noted that the recorded aberrations 
are practically all dated subsequent to 1892. 



THE BRITISH NOCTUAE AND THEIR VARIETIES. IV. (47) 

Culot, N. et G. cVEur., I (2), 176, pit. 72, f. 4 (1916), gave a very 
good but very dark Swiss specimen. He gave a condensed but lucid 
account of the lines of variation and the clear differences from resemb- 
lance to P. gamma, which latter was dominated by its grey suffusion 
while it never had the bronze reflection always so dominant in the inter- 
rogationis. 

Meyrick, Handhh., used Phisia in both editions (1928) 7? 

Drdt.-Stz., Pal. Noct. Supp., Ill, 220 (1936), separated cinerea, 
Warr., and its form gammifera, Warr., as a true species: said that 
a,nnidata, (Hamp.) Strand, was a Syn. of orhata, Warr., and that con- 
fluens, (Hamp.) Strand, is a Syn. of flammifera, Huene. Drdt. said 
that the aureomacnlata, Vorb., had a golden mark instead of a silvery 
one; that in arireoviridis, Wgnr., the forewing is largely suffused with 
golden-green . 

Drdt.-Stz., I.e., p. 266 (1937), reported ab. magriifica, Rang., an 
ab. with an unusually large and prominent silver character on a rich 
brown velvety area of forewing. 

Of the Variation Barrett said : — 

Usually only variable in the depth of the black clouding, and in the 
shape of the Y, which is very irregular. In a specimen in the collection 
of Mr A. C. Vine it is produced into a long attenuated and enlarged 
stripe of rich gold colour toward the base of the wing. Those taken 
in Londonderry by Mr Milne have a beautiful flush of purple over the 
forewings. 

Tutt dealt with the (1) early descriptions, Linnaeus, Zetterstedt, 
Guenee, Oberthur, and (2) named the colour, not before emphasized, ps 
rosea. 

The Names and Forms to be considered : — 
interrogationis, L. (1758), Sys. Nat., Xed., 513. 
aem.ula, Fab. (1787), Mont. Ins., II, 162. Syn. 
awreosignata, Don. (1808), N. Hist. Brit. Is., XIII, 43, pit. 459. 
ab. rosea, Tutt (1892), Brit. Noct., IV, 36. 
ab. horealis, Rent. (1893), Act. Fenn., IX, 97. Syn. 
ssp. transhaicatetms, Stdgr. (1892), Ins, V, 371 (Stdgr., Cat., Tiled., 

139). 
ab. aureomacidata, Vorb. (1911), Schmett. Schw., I, 426. 
ab. orhata, Warr.-Stz. (1913), Pal. Noct., Ill, 346, pit. 64 b. 
ab. flammifera, Huene (1913), I.e. 
ab. ignifera, Warr.-Stz. (1913), I.e. 
ab. cinerea. I.e., sp., see Drdt.-Stz. 
ab. gam^mifera. I.e., sp., see Drdt.-Stz. 
ab. annulata, (Hamp.) Strand (1913) (1916), Lep. PhaJ., XIII, 431; 

Arch. Noct., LXXII, A. 2, 71. 
ab. confluens. I.e. 
ab. simplex. I.e. 

ab. aureoviridis, Wagnr. (1926), Zt. Oest. Ent. Wien, XI, 26. 
ab. magnifiea. Rang. (1935), Ent. Bvnd., LII, 22 (1935). 

ab. auTosign<ita, Don., Nat. Hist. Brit. Ins., XIII, 43, pit. 459, 1 
(1808), figured and named a Noctuid alhosignata. Wrnbg., Beitr., II, 
287 (1864), said it was interrogationis. 



(48) entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/111/1949 

ab. transhaicalensis, Stdgr., Iris, Y, 371 (1892). 

DESCRiP.^Crr^., Tiled., 239 (1901)^" al. ant. magis grisescentibiis, 
ill. y)Ost. dilutioribus vix nominanda." 

ab. aureomaciilata, Vrbt., Sclnnett. Schveis., I, 426 (1911). 
Orig. Descrip. — " A rarely occurring form in which the nsnally 
silvery- white character is bright shining golden." 

ab. orhata, Warr.-Stz., Fal. Nod., Ill, 46, pit. 64 b (1913). 

Orig. Descrip. — '' The silvery mark is highly variable, either form- 
ing a simple loop with fine silvery edge, or as ab. orhafn followed by a 
small silvery dot as in the type form." 

ab. flrnnwifera, Huene, Warr.-Stz., Fal. Nocf., Ill, 346, pit. 64 b 
(1913). 

Desorip. — " A large round spot conjoined to it, nearly separate, a 
development of orhnta.'' 

ab. chnmikiia, Hamps., Strand, Cfd. Lep. Pluil. Nocf., XllT, 431 
(1913): Arch. Nocf.. LXXII, A. 2, 471 (1916). 

Orig. Descrip.—" Forewings with a small annulus confluent with 
the outer edge of the stigma at inside." 

ab. confliiens, Hamps., Strand, I.e., I.e. 

Orig. Descrip. — " Forewing with a small spot confluent with the 
stigma below." 

ab. simplex, Hamps., Strand, I.e., I.e. 

Orig. Descrip. — " Forewing without spot or annulus. 

ab. ignifera, Warr.-Stz., Pal. Nocf., Ill, 346, pit. 64c (1913). 

Orig. Descrip. — " Has the usual silveiy or pale yellow mark as in 
some examples of flam mi f era shaped like a tadpole with deep fiery red 
scaling before the outer line beyond the inner and along the submedian 
fold." 

ab. cinerea, Warr.-Stz., Pal. Nocf., Ill, 346, pit. 64 c (1913), was de- 
scribed and figured as a form of interrogafionis, but now Drdt.-Stz., 
Pal. Nocf. Supp., Ill, 220 (1936), is declared a true species and that 
form pyrenaica , Hamp., is a syn. 

ab. gammifera, Warr.Stz., I.e., " is certainly a form of citieren.-' 

ab. aureovirielis, Wagnr., Zeif. Oesf. Enf. Ver., XI, 26 (1926). 

Orig. Descrip. — " It had all the characteristic marking of the nor- 
mal forcAving but was a very striking variety. As regards the whole of 
the costal margin area of the forewings u^i to the gamma-mark, as also 
tlie basal, the surrounding areas are strongly bedecked with golden- 
green scales, which colour gives the whole creature a brilliant and quite 
distinct appearance. Of the normal ground colour there is left only a 
small portion of the lower-half of the forewing's gamma marking." 

ab. magniflcci, Rangn., Enf. Punch, LIII, 22, fig. (1935). The refer- 
ence in Drdt.-Stz., Ill (1937), is wrongly given as 1936. This class of 
error occurs frequently in quoting from inagazines which do not run 
concurrently with the annual calendar, e.g., Euf. Piiud., LIII, was pub- 
lished from October 1935 to September 1936, and the volume labelled 
" 1936." 



THE BEITISH NOf'TFAE AND THEIR VARIETIES. IV. (49) 

A. Aittpliipjirit, Ochs. & Tr., m/rainided, Linn. 
Amphimjra, Ochs. & Treit. (1816) (1825). Most authors. 

Hufn., Berl yiag., Ill, 288, No. 32 (1766), pyramidea, gave the fol- 
lowing Description: — ''Dark brown, with part black-brown, partly 
yellowish marking; the lower wings red-brown." 

Roesel, Belust., I (II), pit. XI, 4-5 (1746?), gave 2 very good figures, 
4 spread, 5 at rest, very dark European forms with markings clear but 
not emphasized to produce a light submarginal area as in many British 
forms. 

Schiff., Verz., 71, G. 1 (1775), classified purainidea on the larval 
characters and proclivities. It is recognized as a Linn, species. 

Illiger, in his revised Verz., I, p. 201, G. 1 (1801), cited the descrip- 
tion of Fab., Ent. Syst., Ill, 2, p. 98. He also cites excerpts at con- 
siderable length on the larva from the well-known Kalender of Brahm. 

Goeze, Beitr. Lep., Ill (3), p. 175, No. 181 (1781). This work usually 
records descriptions of species which are almost unobtainable. In this 
case we are able to quote from Hufn., Berlin Mag.; Rosel, Behist.; 
Reaum., Mem.; Schiff., Verz.; Fab., Sljsi. Ent.; Geoffroy, Ins., etc. 

Esp., Ahhild. Noef., IV, 632, pit. CLXXI, 1-3 (1790+?), gave a 
figure fairly recognizable, especially as the good figure of a larva is on 
the same plate. Teste Wernebg. 

Ernst & Engram., Pap. d'Eiir., VIII, 96, f. 337 d, c, e, f (1789) and 
its underside. All four are pyramidea. Two other figures on the plate 
are livida, a species. Teste Wernbg., Beifr., II, 111, fig. e, has normal 
marking and outer marginal area lighter but the markings are all of a 
light reddy-brown ; fig c is a less marked specimen ; fig. e is the darkest. 

Don., Nat. Hist, of Br. Is., 193 (1798), gave an excellent figure, suf- 
fused with blackish, the light markings definite and clear. 

Hb., SammJ. Noct., 36 (1802), gave an excellent figure with the 
lighter markings very clear and definite, with dark ground. 

Steph., Illus., II, 164 (1829), said " This beautiful insect varies ex- 
ceedingly : in some specimens the general colour is pale griseous-yellow, 
with the usual markings ; in others of a deep fuscous, with the posterior 
wings of a dingy copper colour." 

Dup. (Godt.), ij;.sf. Nat., V, 136, pit. 56 (136), 4 (1824), gave an ex- 
cellent figure normal in ground, shading and marking, one may call it 
typical. 

Ochs; & Treit., Schmett. Noet.. IV (1), 285 (1825), gave a most use- 
ful List of works consulted by them, copies of nearly all of which are m 
my Library. In fact only 2 authors are wanting. liist : Linne ; Roesel ; 
Schifi'ermuller ; Illiger; Hiibner ; Fabricius ; Esper ; Borkhausen ; de 
Villers; Goze ; Geoftroy ; Hufnagel ; Schrank ; Fuessly; Langs; Brahm; 
Ernst & Engrammelle; Madam Merian ; Schwarz; Admiral; Rossi. 
Only Schrank is wanting and of Hufnagel (Berlin Mag.) I have Rot- 
tenburg's revision in Naturforschen ^ of which I have a complete run. 

Gn., Hist. Nat. Nort.. VT, 413 (1852), cited Schiff., Verz.; Esp.; 
Fab.; Don.; Geoff.; Ernst. & Engr. ; Godart ; Haw.; Hb. ; Steph. gave 
a detailed description of imago and larva. He described as species 
pyramido'ides forms from the United States and another race. I.e.. 414, 
inonolitha, from Silhet. Both are now treated as species. 

H.-S., Beurh. Noet.. II. 326 (1849), makes no comment, but gave 
a rather full description. 



(50) entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 /hi/ 1949 

Stdgr., Cat., Hied., 200 (1901), included the far Eastern representa- 
tive monolitha, Gn., and ohscura, Obthr., from E. Asia and Algeria re- 
spectively, both of which are now treated as specifically distinct. The 
surriia, Feld., he placed as a Syn. of monolitha. 

South, M.B.L, I, 323, pit. 154, figs. 1, 2, 3 (1907), gave 3 excellent 
figures with the following useful description, iinder the name " the 
Copper Underwing." " Varies somewhat in the tint of its brown col- 
oured forewings, and in the greater or lesser amount of blackish shad- 
ing on the central area : the latter is sometimes quite absent and not 
infrequently the outer marginal area is pale ochreous-brown. The 
hindwings, normally of a coppery colour, are occasionally paler, and 
sometimes of a reddish hue." The figures give three grades of colour, 
shade and marking. 

Hampson, Lep. Phal., VII, 48 (1908), cited Linn.; Hb.; Esp.; Don., 
etc., and as Syns. monolitha, Gn. ; surnia, Feld.; ohscura, Obth. ; alhi- 
quHimhnta, Graes. He recognized monolitha, Gn., as an aberration, 
and described another from Murree, which Strand subsequently named 
ab. miirreensis. 

Splr., Schmett. Eur., I, p. 238, pit. 44, fig. 28 (1907), gave a very 
dark figure with more light outer area ; the white marking thin and 
scrappy. Even the hindwings were much deeper in shade. He gave ab. 
virgata, Tutt, the moTiolitha, Gn., and ohscura, Obthr. ; the N. American 
ab. pyramidoides, Gn., was also mentioned. 

The name was given from the larva having a conical hump on the 
back of segment II. 

Warr.-Stz., Pal. Noct., HI, 158, pit. 38 a (1911), described this 
species with 4 figures and two new forms, ab. alhisquama, 38 a, and ab. 
variegata, 38 b, and included ab. virgata, Tutt, 38 b. A typical figure 
was also given. Ab. monolitha, Gn., with ab. surnia, Feld., as a Syn. 
and ab. ohscnra, Obthr., were described as good species. Not only did 
they refer to the United States representative pyramidoides, Gn., but 
to the extreme distribution of typical pyramidea and its closely allied 
species throughout Europe, the mid East, Siberia, the far East, Corea 
and Japan. 

Culot, N. et. a., I (2), 60, pit. 49, f. 9 (1914), gave an excellent 
figure. He dismisses this species, imago and larva in five lines of text. 

Drdt.-Stz., Pal. Noct. Supp., HI, 3, 154 (1934), added the following: 
ab. fusca, Rocei ; ab. ohscura, Obthr.; ab. m,elaleuca<, Lenz. (compare 
ab. alhisquama, Warr.); and ab. pallida, Lamb. 

Of the Variation Barrett said : — 

" Usually only variable in the depth of the brown ground colour of. 
the forewings especially in that portion which lies immediately beyond 
the second line, which is sometimes of a whitish-brown, and in the depth 
of the dark band, which in some of the paler individuals is scarcely 
existent. Sometimes the hindwings are a little paler; indeed, Mr W. 
H. B. Fletcher possesses a specimen which is almost devoid of the usual 
copper colour; and Mr Percy Richards has one in which these wings are 
of a pale bronzy-red quite different from the usual tint. A specimen 
taken many years ago in the New Forest by the late Mr Baker is Cif 
extraordinary and striking beauty; in the forewings its ground 
colour is intensely dark umbreous, velvety, and glossy, but the orbicular 
stigma, the margins of the first and second lines and a row of short 



THE BRITISH NOCTUAE AND THEIU VAIIIETIES. IV. (51) 

streaks along the hind margin are all of a brilliant silvery-white : the 
hmcUvings are of the normal colouring." 

Tutt gave in Brit. Noct., JV, 37 (1892) (A) a note on all 
the characters of the species which have been and are available for 
Variation. (B) He quoted the description by Linn, and (4) 
described ab. virguta, in which the central area of the forewings was 
beautifully filled with darker colour. (5) He then quoted ab. ohscura, 
Obthr., now treated as a var. of the species rnonohtha. (6) Finally he 
refers to pyramidoides fi'om the United States. 

The Names and Forms to be considered : — 
pymmidea, L. (1758), Sys. Nat. Nod., Xth edn., 518. 
pyramidoides, Gn. (1852), Hist. Nat., VI, 413. Sp. 
monolitha, Gn. (1852), Hist. Nat., VJ, 414. Sp. 
magna, Walk. (1865), Cat. li.M. Sp. or Syn. 
surma, Feld. (1874). Syn. of monolitha. 
ohscura, Obthr. (1887), Et., V. Ab. of monoUtha. 
albiquilim.hata, Graes. (1888), Berl. e. Zt. Syn. of ohscura, Obthr. 
ab. virgata, Tutt (1892), Brit. Noct., IV, 38. 
ab. pallida Lamb, Lenz. (1908), Bev. Men., VIII, 48. 
ab. alhisquama, Warr.-Stz. (1910), Pal. Noct., Ill, 158. 
ab. vnriegata, Warr.-Stz. (1910), I.e. 

surnia, Feld. (1914), Beise. Novar, pit. 162, 17. Syn. of moiiolitlKr. 
ab. murreeivsis, Hamp. (1908) [Strand (1915), Arch. Noct., LXXXI, 

A. 11, 158], Lep. Fhal., 29. 
ab. melaleuca, Lenz. (1927), Ostheld. Schm., Sud. Bayn., II (2), 311, 

pit. XI, 1. 
ab. hitesceiis, Cockyne. (1946), Ent. Becord, LVIII. 
ab. in.^igiiis, Cockyne. (1946), I.e. 
ab. inelanostigwa, Cockyne. (1946), I.e. 

ab. pallida, Lamb, Bev. Mens., VIII, 48 (1908). 

OuiG. Desorip.— " Ground of the forewings of a pale burnt-grey, 
with the ordinary lines well marked in delicate white. The median 
band not more dark than the ground. Orbicular stigma large, largely 
bordered with grey-white, a longitudinal black character covering the 
reniform completely." 

ab. alhisqwinia, Warr.-Stz., Pal. Noct., Ill, 158, pit. 38 a (1910). 

Orig. Descrip. — " Has the pale ring of the orbicular, the submav- 
ginal line, and the terminal spots brightly white and the outer line 
more broadly filled up with distinct cream-white ; the ground colour 
uniformly dark brownish-fuscous, obscuring all the horizontal pale 
markings in the pale vein so that only the transverse lines are visible ; 
thus it resembles the much larger eastern species monolitha.''' Hercules- 
bad, Hungary. 

ab. variegafa, Warr.-Stz., P<U. Noct., Ill, 158, i)lt. 38 b (1911). 

Omg. Dbscrip. — " Has basal half of forewing and the terminal area 
sprinkled with pale scales and the annulus of the orbicular stigma 
broadly white." Algeria. 

ab. inurreensis, Hamj). (1908), Strand (1915), Lep. Vhal.^ VTI, 29; 
Areh. Noct., LXXXI, A. 11, 158. 



(52) entomologist's kecokd, vol. lxi. 15/111/1949 

Oeig. Descrip. — " Head, thorax and forewiiigs much redder, the 
last with the reniform represented by a whitish point, the black suf- 
fusion in and beyond cell only prominent and extending to subterminal 
line." Murree. 

ab. melaleuca, Lenz., O-sth. Sdnn. Sudhay, 11 (2), 311 (1927). 

Fig.— Lc, pit. XI, 1. 

Orig. Descrip. — " Forewing grey-black up to the narrow transverse 
line; the line before the marginal area shows particularly brighter than 
that one." 

ab. lutescens Ckyne., Ent. Becord, LVIII, 75 (1946). 

Orig. Descrip. — " The forewings and thorax are paler than usual, 
and the copper colour of the hindwings is replaced by shining creamy 
yellow." 

Type: d, Tremaine, Cornwall, 23.viii.1932; C.W.W.H., H. B. D. 
Kettlewell Coll. 

ab. iiisignis, Ckyne., I.e. 

Fig.— pit. I, f. 9. 

Orig. Descrip. — " The ground colour of the forewing is bone col- 
oured and the only markings are the black postmedian line bordered 
internally by blackish-brown to form a dark transverse band, the black 
stripe joining the postmedian to the inner half of the reniform, the 
blackish-brown ring and central dot of the orbicular, the line joining it 
to the antemedian, and the antemedian line itself." 

Type: d , Lydart, Monmouth, 1941. At sugar; Sir Beckwith White- 
house. 

ab. melano stigma, Ckyne., I.e. 

Orig. Descrip. — " Thorax paler than usual, the ground colour of 
the forewing as far out as the sagittate marks, which lie just internal 
to the subterminal line, is very pale ochreous-brown ; the light transverse 
lines are lost in the ground colour. The antemedian is represented by 
three blackish-brown dots, the postmedian by a row of blackish dots, 
and the orbicular by a black dot. The discoidal spot and the dark streak 
running from it to the postmedian are blackish-brown and very con- 
spicuous." 

Type: (5, Brampton, Hants. Bred l.ix.l925; G. Raynor. 

Figured Proc. South Land. Ent. and N.H. Soc, 1937-1938. PI. 2, 
fig. 4. 

jyyramid aides, Gn., Hist. Nat., 11, 113 (1852). 

Original Description: — It is extremely near our pyramidea ^ from 
which it differs by very slight but constant characters, which are as 
follows : The elbowed line, instead of taking a turn at the top end and 
so causing a sinus in the cell, is a straight course and runs off 
obliquely ; it bounds a median space which is almost uniformly darker 
and in which the black median shade is absorbed. The clear lines are 
generally straighter and the subterminal more continuous to the toj), 
there bounding a clear external area." (The third joint of the palpus is 
longer and more pointed.) U.S.A. Seitz figure has much too bright 
an orange-red lower wing. 

Fig.— Seitz, VII, Fn. Am., Ill, pit. 30 a. 

All the marking more decided and definite in fig. 



THE BRITISH NOCTUAE AND THEIR VARIETIES. IV. (53) 

Amphypyra tragcpoginh (onis), L. 
Amphipyra, Ochs. & Treit (1816). Most authors. 

Clerck's, Icones, I, No 5 (1759), is a figure of tragopogonis, and at 
that period was treated as their type, i.e. before the 1758 issue of Linii.'s 
S.N. Sys. Naturae was taken as. the date of the type. 

Hufn., Berl. Mag., Ill, 294, No. 40 (1766), luciola, of which he gave 
the Description : ' ' Glossy grey-brown with 3 small blackish spots on 
each fore wing." 

Rottenbg., Naturfr., IX, 155 (1776), said it was undoubtedly the 
tragopogoms, Linn. 

Ernst & Engram., Pap. cFEur., VI, 99, f. 338 a, b, c (1789), gave 3 
good figures: a and c upper, c under. They called it the Tragopogoa. 
They cite Fab., Syst. Ent., 65; Sp. Ins., II, 337; Mant., II, 177; de 
Geer, Mem-., II (1), 418; Frisch., Ins., II, 33. 

E-sp., Ahhild. Noct., IV, 622, pit. 170, f. 1-2 (1791+?), gave 2 recog- 
nizable figures of tragopogonis. Teste Wernbg., Beitr. (1864). 

Hb., Noct., pit. 8, f, 40 (1800), gave a good very dark figure, under 
the mis-spelt name tragopognis. 

Haw., Lep. Brit., 164 (1809), described a British example " Murina 
lata. Alae anticae punctis tribus fuscis contiguis ut in praecedente 
primo in loco signatis antici duobus aliis transversis loco stigmatis 
postici. Alae posticae ut in priore ut multo pallidiores." 

Godt., Hist. Nat., V, 145, pit. LVII, f. 3 (1824), gave 2 good figures, 
one of tetra, Fb. (nee Haw.). 

Treit., Schmett. Noct., V (1), 27 (1825), cited Ernst & Engram., 
Pap. d'Eur., VI, f. 338; Hufn., Berl. Mag., Ill, 294, No. 40, luciola; 
Rott., Naturf., IX; Schiff., Verz., 95, Q. 14; lUig., Bev. Verz., I, 295, 
and Mag., II, 118; Goze, Beitr., Ill (3), 173; de Geer, II; Esp., Ahhild., 
IV; Bork., IV; de VilL, II; Fuessl. ; Rossi; Clerck ; Linn.; Hb., etc. 
[Hb. wrote the name Tragopognis. ~\ 

Steph., Ill, II, 164-5 (1829), created the genus Pyrophila for the 2 
species tragopogonis, L., and tetra, Haw., the latter the form taken 
in the S.W. of England and so described by Haw. and not to be con- 
fused with the Southern European tetra, Fb. 

An idea arose among early entomologists that tragopogonis, L., was 
a form of pyramidea no doubt on account of the description of the many 
allied forms and species obtained over the northern hemisphere. But 
Avith the discovery of the larvae it was proved that the two species were 
quite distinct and the more recent investigation of the genitalia has 
helped, to complete the clearing of all the allied forms and species. 

The larvae (full-fed) were figured on plate CHI, f. 2, 2a, 2b, pyra- 
midea, and 3, 3a, 3b, tragopogonis, in the Ray Society's Larvae (1895). 

Stdgr., Oat., 200 (1901), included Grote's repressiis from Canada as 
a Syn., and quoted his own ssp. tuicomana, Stett. e. Zt. (1888), ]). 32 
(pallidior, al. ant plumbeon [lutescente] grisescentibus). He corrected 
gins to gonis of Tragopogon. 

Splr., Schmett. Eur. Baupen. (1903-8), gave equally good and dis- 
tinctive figure on pit. XXX, f. 12, tragopogonis, and f. 14, pyramid f<i. 

Splr., Schmett. Eur., J, 237 (1906), pointed out that the name tetn 
had been applied to two separate but very closely allied forms or s]iecies : 
(1) tetra, Fab., a southern, larger species described as blackish-grey; 



(54) entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 / IV / 1949 

(2) tetra, Haw., also blackish-grey. The former having a reddish tinge. 
Splr. substituted the name nigrescens for the tragopoginis British form. 

Spuler also pointed out the spelling tragopoginis was an error. Tra- 
gopogon was the foodplant of the larva and therefore the name should 
end with onis and not inis, tragopogonis. 

Hamp., Lep. PhaL, VII, 35, f. 6 (b. & w.) (1908), referred to Clerck, 
Icones; Godart, Hist. Nat., V, 145; Smith, Cat. N. Am. Noct. He 
cited luciola, Hufn. ; repr^ssus, Grote; and turcomana, Stdgr. He quotes 
ab. turcorrmna, Stdgr., '' Paler, forewing leaden-grey with a yellowish 
tinge." 

Warr.-Stz., Pal. Noct, III, 159, pit. 38 d (1911), gave good figures 
of the type ssp. turcomana, 38 e. They treated tetra, F. (nee Haw.), 
as a sp., with its ab. pallida; ab. luciola, Hufn., as a Syn. ; form repres- 
sus, Grote, as a Syn. ab. tetra, Haw. nee F.), is a Syn. of ab. nigrescens, 
Splr. 

Pierce says, Genit. Noct., 78 (1909), A. pyramidea — Harpe simple, 
without armature, the apex thickly clothed with strong hairs ; uncus 
broadens to a pointed bulb at the tip ; vesica with a bunch of long teeth 
or spines. 

A. tragopogonis — Har])e with an undivided cucullus broader and 
rounded, thickly clothed with hairs, clasper a short bulbed arm; clavus 
just raised; uncus broad; vesica with a bunch of long teeth or spines 
of irregular thickness. 

Culot, N. et. G., I (2), 59, pit. 49, f. 5 (1914), gave a very good typical 
figure. He wrote, " Very near to^ the next species {tetra, F., nee Haw.) 
but always larger, almost always more distinct, with the ordinary spots 
present, while they are lost in the deep colour of tetra, F. The hind- 
wings are also less coppery in tragopogonis than in tetra, although 
some examples of tetra have them less red." 

Drdt.-Stz., Pal. Noct. Supp., Ill, 155 (1934), reported ab. hraiji, 
Lamb, a melanic form; ab. grisea, Vorb. ; ssp. distincta, Roths., large 
and very distinctly marked. Algeria. 

Tutt dealt with the possible variation, the depth of the ground 
colour, the renif orm represented by two unstable dots, and the orbi- 
cular represented generally by a short oblong dot. The form which was 
slightly darker was called tetra by Haw., possibly confused with the 
Continental species of that name. Tutt gave the description by Linn., 
Fn. Suec. He discussed this form at some length, quoting the remarks 
of Humph. & Westwd., Guenee, and Doubleday. 

Of the Variation Barrett said : — 

" Variation in this species is but slight — a small degree of darkening 
of the ground colour or of its being paler; specimens of a pale silvery- 
grey are in the collections of Mr Sydney Wel)b and Mr P. M. Bright; 
and one very nearly black was taken by Major Still on Dartmoor." 

The Names and Forms to be considered : — 
tragopogonis (ginis), Linn. (1761), Fn.. Suec, 316. 
ab. luciola, Hufn. (1766), Berl. Mag., Ill, 294, No. 40. Syn. 
tetra, Haw. (1809), Lep. Brit., 164. Syn. 
race repressus, Grote (1871), Can. Ent., 192. 



THE BRITISH NOCTTJAB AND THEIR VARIETIES. IV. (55) 

ssp. turcomana, Stdgr. (1888), Cat., 200. 

ab. nigrescens, Splr. (1906), Schm. Eur., 1, 237. 

ab. hraaji, Lamb (1907), Bev. Mens., 29. 

ab. distincta, Roths. (1921), Nov. ZooJ., XXVII, 90. 

ab. grisea, Vorbrt. (1921), Mitt. Schw. Ent. Gess., XIII, 190. 

ab. demaculata, Nordstr. (1939), Svens. Fjarl., 167. 

ab. luciola, Hufn., Berlin Mag., Ill, 294, No. 40 (1766). 

Orig, Desorip. — " Glossj'^ grey-brown, with 3 small blackish spots on 
each fore wing." 

Eottenbg., Natiirfrchn., IX, 115 (1776), said it was tragopogonis, 
Linn, [tragopoginis, L^'nn.]. 

race represses, Grote, Can. Ent., Ill, 192 (1871). 

Orig. Descrip. — " Unicolorous pale testaceous or greyish-brown. 
Forewings and thorax concolorous ; the first are without markings ex- 
cept a short dark dash on the cell in place of the orbicular, and two 
similarly superposed marks at the extremity of the cell, in place of the 
reniform spot. Three pale ante-apical dots on costa. Veins sub-obso- 
letely marked with darker scales. Secondaries pale with a testaceous 
tinge, darker shaded outwardly. Beneath paler, powdered with greyish 
and brownish scales; faint traces of discal marks. Squamation lustrous, 
silky." Canada. 

race turcomana, Stdgr., Stett. e. Zeit., 32 (1888). 

Orig. Descrip. — " The tragopoginis, found about the end of May, 
obtained in great numbers in the province of Samarkand, as well as 
specimens agreeing with them from Margelan and Tekke, differ so not- 
ably from typical specimens by a far lighter colour, that they deserve 
a varietal name. The forewings are shining light blue-grey instead (;f 
dark brown- (blackish) grey ; the three dark points in and at the end of 
the middle cell appear quite obsolescent, while the dark obsolescent 
shaded 'band before the outer margin is only slightly apparent in odd 
specimens. The hindwings of this var. are also far lighter, with white- 
yellowish fringes which carry a darker lining." 

ab, nigrescens, Splr., Schm. Eur., I, 237 (1906). 

Orig. Descrip. — " Blackish-grey ground," with no tint of gold and 
it was somewhat smaller. 

ab. hrayi. Lamb, 'Rev. Mens., 29 (1907). 

Orig. Descrip. — " It is a melanic form of much beauty suggesting 
the colour of A. Iv/rida; the forewings are of a deep black, evenly allow- 
ing the ordinary spot to show, as they are lost in the ground colour. 
The hindwings are also sensibly darker than in the typical form." 
Virton, Belgium. 

subsp. distincta, Roths., Nov. Zool., XXVII, 90 (1921). 

Obig. Descrip. — "Larger and more brightly coloured. Head and 
thorax deep black-brown ; abdomen smoky wood-brown ; palpi and an- 
tennae black. Forewings basal three-fourths deep black-brown, pow- 
dered with dark grey, orbicular represented by a black spot or streak 
and reniform by two black spots ; outer one-fourth sooty blackish-grey. 
Hindwings rusty wood-brown washed with sooty-grey." Algeria. 



(56) entomologist's R.ECORJ), VOL. LXI. 15/IV/1949 

ab. Vrisea, Vorbr., Mitt. Schw. Ent. Gessl., XIII, 190 (1921). 
[Drdt., Pal. Noct. Supp., Ill, 155 (1934). Descript. — " A pure grey 
form from Switzerland."] 

ab. demaculata, Nordstr., Svens. Fjarl., 167 (1939). 
Obig. Descelp. — " With the three stigmata wholly wanting." 
Sweden. 



ADDITIONS TO VOL. I. 



To E. matura, p. 284, add: 

ab. wahlgreni, Nordstr., Sveu. Fjarl., 180 (1940). 
Descrip. — " Ground colour light brownish, lighter than in the typi- 
cal form.'" 

An ab. of var. radiata, Welgm. 

To .4, runiicis, p. 74, add: 

ab. lepkla, Wherli., Scott. Nat., II, 178 (1873). 

Orig. Descrip.^ — " Usually rather smaller than the typical form; 
wing darker; usually nearly unicolorous." Sfainioris Man., I, 183, as 
A. salicis; the description of the larva is that oi menijanthis, Newman. 
Brit. Moths figured it p. 255. 

To M. strigilis, p. 228, add: 

ab. amoena, Krlkvski., Soc. Ent., 21, 11 (1908). 

Orig. Descrip. — " The waved band shows a greenish tint." 

To L. elymi, p. 127, add: 

ab. renifera, Nordstr., Sven. Fjarl., 192 (1940). 

Descrip. — " Forewings have a recognizable reniform stigmata." 

To I.e., add: 

ab. defundata, Nordstrm., Sven. Fjarl., 192 (1940). 

Descrip. — " With the two lines of black points absent." 



THE BBITISH NOOTUAE AND THEIR VARIETIES. IV. (57) 

CORBECTIONS (to p. 56). 



APPENDIX TO VOL. I. 



To E. niatuia; p. 284, add: 

ab. wahlgretii, Nordstr., Sveii. Fjard., 180 (1940). 
Descrip. — " Ground colour light brownisli, lighter than in the typi- 
cal form." 

An ab. of var. radiuta, Welgn. 



To A. rumicis, p. 74, add: 

ab. lepida, White, Scott. Nat., 11, 178 (1873). 

Orig. Deiscrip. — "Usually rather smaller than the typical form; 
wing darker; usually nearly unicolorous." Stamtoii^s Man., I, 183, as 
.1. salicls; the description of the larva is that of inenyantJilidid, Newman. 
Brit. Moths figured it p. 255. 



To M. strigilis, p. 228, add: 

ab. ainoerui, Krlkvski., Soc. Ent., 21, 11 (1908). 

Orig. Descrip. — " The waved band shows a greenish tint.' 



To T. elymi, p. 127, add: 

ab. rewifera, Nordstr., Sven. Fjaii., 192 (1940). 

Descrip. — " Forewings have a recognizable reniform stigmata. 



To T. elymi, add : 

ab. defundata, Nordstrm., Svcu. FjarL, 192 (1940). 

Descrip. — '' With the two lines of black points absent.'' 



Mania maura, Linn. 



MauM, Tr. (1825). Most authors. [Mormo, Sam. (1829) Stephens 
(Kb., Verz.,'275)', Hadena, Treit. (1802), Mer. (1815)], maura, Linn. 

The two species, maura and tijpica, have apparently no direct asso- 
ciation together and are a constant enigma to all our systematists. 

Schiff., Verp:., 90, X, 1 (1775). The dark olive-brown Noct., N. maura, 
L. 

Illiger, Newer Gegend Verz., I, 333, 1 (1801), cited Lin., Fab., Bork., 
and Esper. 

Moses Harris, English Insects, p. 1, pit. I, I'. 1-2 (1782), gave 2 b. and 
w. figures, dark British form, quite good, with a note of its life history. 

Bsper, Ahhild. Noct., IV, 165, pit. CVII, 1 (1789+?), gave a figure 
of the Jemitr (Naturfr.) type, but differing in the placing of the mark- 
ings. The black veins were very complete on all four wings, and con- 



(58) entomologist's record, vol. lxi.. 15 / VI / 1949 

spicuous on the brown-black ground, i.e. the whitish band is continuous 
across both fore and hindwings. 

On the costa of the forewings the 6 deep black blotches show clearly 
with lighter grey ground between. So often they are almost or wholly 
swallowed by the depth of the black ground. The apical blotch is fairly 
strong; the marginal narrow band is also lighter on all four wings; 
of the irregular surface scratching, there is neither so much or so ap- 
parent as in usual specimens. 

Ernst & Engram., Fap. d'Eur., VIII, 60, f. 561 c-h (1792), gave 6 
excellent figures. 

c is grey-black. It is lighter on the forewings near the body and 
along the border of costa wing, as far as the middle; these parts are 
marked with black spots; the remainder is traversed by waved black 
lines and blackish bands, some detached from others by intervening 
clear areas. The hindwings have in the centre a small grey streak; 
their outer margin is less dark than the rest of the wings. 

d, an underside, is blackish. The grey wings are traversed by a 
small grey ray and their outer margin is of the same colour. 

e is a male variety of less colour tone and more uniform, in which 
all the spots are very slightly indicated. 

/ has the ground less suffused with black and the light portions are 
more extensive. The margin of the lower wing is whitish, having for 
each segment, spots largely formed by the black points (specks) near a 
chevron upon a grey ground. 

g. The underside is much paler than that of the male. The ad- 
joining band and the outer margin are more whitish. Each wing bears 
a black crescentic character which is equally indicative of a male, but 
of which there is less apparently, because of the deeper blackish 
ground, that of the hindwing is double. 

h is the figure of a female variety remarkable for the fulvous-red 
of all the paler portions of the forewings which make it very prominent. 
Its upper side is like that of g. 

Hiibner, Noct., 326 (1800-03), was a very good figure of a light form, 
a female, with all the markings of the species in light grey, not em- 
phasised, except the thin white scratchy lines. The central area of the 
forewing was deep black rather contracted in area. 

Godart. (Duponchel), Hist. Nat., V, 108, pit. LIV, f. 1-2 (1824), 
gave two very good figures, large, good and very dark. The ground of 
the forewings was largely deep black; the usual lighter areas, outer 
margin, apex, were irregularly marked with mottling of greyish-black, 
the stronger feature, stigmata remnants, hindwing band were whitish- 
grey. The small thin scratchy markings were in part white on the dark 
ground. He stated that Linn, received the species from Mauretania. 
He cited the genus Mormo, Ochs., and lemur, Naturfr. ; Moses Harris. 

Treit., Schmett., V (1), 295 (1825), gave a long description and life- 
history. He referred to Schiff., Verz., 90, X, 1 (1775): Illiger, Bev. 
Verz. (N. Ausg.), I, 333 (1801): Esper, Schem. Ahhild., IV, 165, pit. 
CVTI, 1: De Vill., Ent Linn., II, 211: Goze, Ent. Beitr., Ill, 120: 
Ernst & Engram., Bap. d'Eur., VIII, 59, fig. 561: Bork., Nat., IV": 
Schaffer., lermr.^; I, .5-6, pit. 1: Harris, Eng. Ins.: Rossi, Mant., II: 
etc. 



THE BRITISH NOCTUAfi AND THEIR VARIETIES. IV. (59) 

Fit., Beitrag., II, 24, pit. LIII (1829), gave a figure of the lemur 
form of maura in general appearance but with variation of the rela- 
tive position of the markings. The white markings were not so pure 
as in the typical figure lemur, Naturf., but contrast with the black 
ground. The black veins are very strong against the brown-black 
ground on all four wings. The whitish marking around the stigmata 
are squared up between two parallel longitudinal white lines. 

Stephens, Illust., Ill, 130 (1830), could not associate Mawiu with 
the other drab species in the genus Mania, Ochs., adopted the Mormo, 
Ochs. He objected to both Mania, Ochs., and to Naenia, Ochs. The 
characteristics of maura seemed to be the least in the scratch marking. 

Newman, Brit. Moths, 460 (1869), gave 2 good b. and w. figures, 
one an average British d , the other lighter called " ab." is probably 
a 9. The latter shows the veins quite clearly. The Edition is the 
original and not the reprint with worn wood blocks. 

Meyr., Handh., 129 (1895), used the genus Eadena, and well dis- 
sociated from typica. 

In his Bevised Eandhk., 78 (1927), he used the genus Mania, Treit., 
for this species alone and followed immediately by Hadena, and pre- 
ceded by the genus Caradiina. 

Spuler, Schmett. Eur., I, 212, pit. XLI, 28 (1917), gave a good 
figure, (S . He said that there were two forms, one with either sulphur- 
yellow-ochre marking or suffused reddish-yellow-brown with dark cen- 
tral area of forewings shining clearly. 

This latter is Gn.'s Var. A; Tutt names this rosea., and states that 
he has never seen it; since this Var. A is so common as Gn. states, then 
I must suppose that Tutt has put forward another form than the com- 
mon one among Gn.'s Var. A, as I understand it here; that the name 
rosea, Tutt, is put forward for a non-existing form. If it has no valid- 
ity one may none the less apply the name rosea mihi with the above- 
mentioned characteristics. 

The ab. striata, Tutt, represents a sharply ochre-yellow marked ex- 
treme of the type, which occurs only rarely. 

South, M.B.I. , I, 292, pit. 142, f. 1, (5 ; f. 2, 9 (1907), gave two ex- 
cellent figures of average British forms, but specimen marked female 
is rather lighter than usual. 

Hamp., Lep. Phal., VII, 50, fig. 11 (1908), gave a good fig. (b. and 
w.). He recorded lemur, Meinecke (1775), Naturfr., VI, 112 (1775). 

Culot, N.-et. G., I (1), 203, pit. XXXVII, f. 9, 9 (1913), said the 
cT was more or less invariable in the deep brown colour, while the 9 
was subject to considerable variation, generally lighter, and recognised 
the ab. striata, Tutt. Culot gave two excellent figures. 

Warr.-Stz., Pal. Noct., Ill, 126, pit. 39 b (1911), treated of the ty])i- 
cal form with lemur, Meineck., and virgata, Tutt, as Syn. They ac- 
cepted the ab. striata, Tutt, 39 b. A lighter form. 

Of the Variation Barrett said : 

Not very variable, though some examples have the black portion of 
the central band very velvety-hlack, contrasting well with the paler 
lines and shades; and these usually have the apical patch of the fore- 
wings and the marginal stripe of the hind more yellow-brown, and the 
latter expanded into dashes on the nervures. On the other hand, sonif 



(60) entomologist's begokd, vol. lxi.. 15 / VI / 1949 

specimens are extremely dull and uniform in colour. In South York- 
shire the blackening effect observable in so many species is conspicuous 
in this, the other half of the hindwings being usually black, some ex- 
amples furnished hj Mr G. T. Porrit are extremely sombre, on the 
other hand, has all the paler markings of a really bright yellow-brown, 
strongly contrasting with the black ground, and is a magnificent speci- 
men. 

Tutt quoted the diagnosis of niaura, L., from the Syst. Nat., Xed. 
(1758). This was a short and insufficient description. The species did 
not occur in Sweden. In the XII th and Xlllth edns. the diagnosis 
was amplified — " Alis depressis dentatis, fasciis duabus nigris; inferiori- 
bus nigris fascia alba." + " Alae postice dentatae, superiores luridae, 
costae margine sexies nigro ; inferiores & superiores subtus fascia trans- 
versa angusta pallida ; praetereanmargo posticus terminatus subtus fas- 
cia lata albida." 

Linn, now cited 2 figures of maura published in Schaeffer's Icones 
(1764), plate I, f. 5-6. Thus we get a definite type figure that can be 
compared with other suggested type figures. These figures are not good 
and are small and dark. 

These two figures of Schaeffer's Icones are before me and show all 
the marking noted in the later Linn, description. Besides the trans- 
verse lines and fasciae, which are indefinite, there are many additional 
whitish or almost white fine lines along the venation and both figures 
have the dark central area black on a black ground spreading to the 
base. I have inau'ia from many British sources, but none of the type 
shown by Linn, and Shaeff. 

In Tutt's summary of the forms, he writes that the Linn, type is 
" Almost unicolorous." A very misleading statement. He quotes New- 
man figures, British Moths (1870), p. 460 (1st edition). Nor is the 
ground colour unicolorous. 

The Forms and Names to be considei'ed : 
mawa, L. (1758), Syst, Nat., Xth, 512. 
ab. lemur, Meine. (1775 ?), Naturfr., VJ, 112, pit. V, 1. 
ab. virgata, Tutt (1892), Brit. Noct., 40. 
ab. striata, Tutt (1892), I.e. 
ab. rosea, Tutt (1892), I.e. 

ab. ohscura, Splr. (1906), Schmett. Eur., 1, 212. 
ab. oicoviensis, Brezanko (1924), Arch. Natg., XC, A. 5, 241, fig. 1. 
ab. maurisca, Stdgr. (1928), Bdsch. Wien, 2. 

Tutt dealt (1) with the *' almost unicolorous " maura, Linn., (2) 
named the form " with the central area banded," ab. virgata, (3) named 
the form " with pale (whitish) transverse and longitudinal lines," var. 
striata, (4) named the form " tinted with rosy or violet," ab. rosea. 
Surely quite definitely non-related colours. 

In Naturfr., VI, 112 (1775), Mein. described this (?) species under 
the name lemur and gave a very good fig. in pit. V, fig. 1, showing what 
is the usual ? continental form. 

Showing the white colour basis as very clear markings. This fig. 
looks as if all the brown-black colour has been laid on a clean white 
ground and then been scratched over by a sharp pencil in great con- 
trast to the form with all but a few " scratches " and definite and wide- 
ly suffused with indefinite grey. 



THE BRITISH NOCTUAE AND THEIR VARIETIES. IV, (61) 

ab. lemur, Meiiie., Natwrfr., VI, 112, pit. V. f. 1 (1775) — Descrip. 
of fig. — The general remark on this form is the striking contrast be- 
tween the purity of the white marking however slender and the extent 
of black (not brown) ground. It would seem that deep black colour 
had been spread on a pure white basal surface, that the black was then 
scratched over by sharp pointed instruments of various sizes producing 
the various markings with very definite edges; that the usual lighter 
band like areas are run over by a small cut down paint brush in an 
irregular manner producing a grey surface just appreciable. 

The most conspicuous feature is a very prominent medial white 
narrow band on the hindwing, in no way suggestive of continuance on 
the forewing. The outer marginal transverse line in much narrower 
but not followed by such a line on the hind wing. The orbicular 
and reniform are both present, the former much fattened with a nar- 
row black centre, the latter more shapely with a dark grey centre : 
both outlines in clear white. Costal blotches not developed. Transverse 
black lines swallowed by the deep black ground. 

ab. obscura, Splr., Schmett, Eur., I, 212 (1906) (referred to the two 
main forms, described the characters of the type form, and after the 
word " order " gave the characters of the other form which he sub- 
sequently called ubsciira in a footnote). 

Descrip. — This is a reddish-yellow-brown suffused form, with the 
dark central area of the forewing extending back to the body distinctly 
glossy. 

ab. oicovi&nsis, Brezanko, Arch. Natg., XC, A. 5, 241, fig. (1924). 

Description. — " Has only a very pale apical spot, the pale trans- 
verse lines are almost obsolete, there is a pale band anteriorly with a 
dark band parallel outwardly in central area." Poland. ^Pal. Noct. 
Swpp., Ill, 158, Drdt.] 

ab. riiauriscn, Stauder., Lep. Ihindsh., II, 115 (1928), Wieii. 

Description: — "Is a mountainous dark black form without any 
brownish sheen. All pale markings are absent except the margin of 
hindwings and the narrow discal band." Sicily. \_Fal. Noct. Supp., 
Ill, 155, Drdt. J 



Naenia, Steph., typica, L. 



Naenia, Steph. Many authors. lAgrotis, Ochs., Meyr. (1): Graphi- 
pliora, Ochs., Meyr. (2) : Mania, Tr. (1825), a few authors] typica, 
Linn. (1758). 

Hufn., Berlm Mag., Ill, 290, No. 34 (1766), typica. 

Descrip. — " Graubraun, met unen nierenformigen dunkeln Fleck, 
und netzgormigen blass-geli)en strichen." 

In 1895 Meyr. dissociated typica from maura, placing it the last of 
a long list of Agrotis species. In 1928 (2) Meyr. used the Genus name 
Giuphiphurd, Ochs. No doubt ntaiira and typica were early classified 
in close association from the extreme similarity of the markings and 
ground colour. (Hy. J. T.) 



(62) entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/VII/1949 

Goze, Beitr., Ill (3), 180, No. 186 (1781). He gave descriptions from 
the Fn. S. of Liiin and from Hufn., Beri. Mag. 

Rosel., Ins. Belust, 1, pit. LVI (1746), gave two very good figures 
in which the net-like white scratchy markings were somewhat more 
pronounced than usual. It was quoted by Linn, in Fn. S. 

Schiff., Verz., p. 82, 0.4(1775), typica. 

Illiger., Neu: Ausg., 210. He cited Fn. Suec; Fb., Ent. Sys., Ill; 
Brahm, Ins. Kalend.; Esp., Ahhild. Noct., TV, and described the larva, 

Ernst & Engram., Pap. d'Eur., VII, 461 c, d, e, p. 77 (1791), gave 
three very good figures. An underside of both (^ and 9 , c and d are 
two upper sides. Upperside c? and 9 differing very slightly. They 
cite Linn., Sys. Nat., XII (XIII) as usual on p. 857 (1767); Fn. Saec. : 
Schiff.; Rosel. ; Fab.; Miillen. ; Fuessly. ; Hufn.; Goze. Harris 
(wrongly). 

The markings of typica^ vary so slightly that the variation lies in 
the ground shades expressed in the named aberrations, and the mark- 
ings are of the net-like general characters of inauru, but rarely is 
prominent. 

Treit., Schniett. Eur., V (1), p. 298 (1825), gave a good description 
and cited more than 20 authors works, including Hb., Samml. Noct., 
fig. 61 (1800-1803), under the name venosa; Schiff., Verz., 82, 0.4 (1775); 
Fab., Ent. Sys., Ill, 2; Bork., Eur. Schmett., IV, 402; Esper, Ahhild., 
IV, pit. CLXXIII, 1-3, p. 448; De VilL, Ent. Linn., II, 244; Hufn., 
Bed. Mag., III., p. 290, No. 54; Mull.; Rosel. ; Fuessl. ; Goze; Ernst & 
Engram., Pap. d'Eur., VII, pit. CCLXXXI, fig. 461, p. 477; Schwarts. 

Dup., Hist. Nat. Lep., VI, 269, pit. 90, 1 (1826), gave a figure with 
two intensely black areas, one inside the reniform, the other, the 
smaller, between the two stigmata. 

Gn., Hist. Nat., VI, 417 (1852), used the Genus Mania for typica, 
but no descrii^tion. He cited de Geer, II, 441, pit. 7 ; Schiff. ; Haw. ; 
Treit.; Bork., Rossi; Dup.; Ernst & Engr.; Steph.; Bdv. ; and venosa, 
Hb. 

Hamp., Lep. Phal. Nat., IV, 619, 111 (1903), gave a good figure 
somewhat too conspicuous marking. Noted excusa, Esp.; vena, Hb., 
and issyka, Pung. (altered c to A). In his description of which he 
used c. 

Splr., Schmett. Eur., I, 212, pit. 21, f. 28, gave a figure of which 
he said the markings were not distinctly brought out. He described 
a new form ohscura; and reported the ab. hrunnea, Tutt. 

The S is more uniform than the 9 , which is more usually darkened 
red-brown. Rarely with us, more frequently in the North do the trans- 
verse lines of the ground colour of the S , as well as the orbicular and 
reniform, become dusted with violet suffused black scales. 

Warr.-Stz., Pal. Noct., Ill, 62, pit. 149 (1909), treated excusa, Esp., 
and venosa, Hb., a Syn. ; included race issyca, Pung., from Issj'kkul ; 
and ab. hrunnea, Tutt. The c? figure is very dark with thin marking; 
the 9 figure is unusually light generally. 

Culot, N. et G., I, 203, pit. 37, fig. 10, S , good. 9 " similar." He 
notes that this species varies considerably as does iV. maura, in colour, 
shade and marking. He recognized venosa, Hb. 



THE BRITISH NOCTDAE AND THEIR VARIETIES. IV. (63) 

Drdt.-Stz., Pal. Nuct. Supp., Ill, 89 (1934), reported two forms, ab. 
claiicoloib>, Schaw., a very pale ochreous, and ab. vontamiitatuideii, 
Scliaw., finely coloured with pale yellow, very similar to a species A^. 
cuntaminata, Vol. Ill, pit. 14 g. 

Of the Variation Barrett said : 

Variable in size and also in the blackness of the interspaces in the 
middle basal area of the forewings, beyond this usually pretty constant ; 
but in S. Yorkshire Mr G. T. Porritt has obtained two very curious 
forms ; otherwise, sharply marked, has black blotches on the inner edge 
of the subterminal line, and the first and second lines altered into broad 
stripes of a rich pinkish-white colour united on the dorsal margin ; the 
other, of which several were reared, is quite abnormal, yet not in any 
way crippled, the forewing being broadened and shortened in a most 
extraordinary manner, until the breadth from the apex to the anal 
angle very nearly equals the length ; the pattern of markings is also 
broadened, and in some specimens very sharp and distinct, in others 
obscured by smoky-brown colour ; the hindwings are shortened and ex- 
panded in the same proportion. Another singular specimen, in the cabi- 
net of the Rev. Joseph Greene, has the white lines on the nervures of 
the left wing obliterated except two short pieces near the apex, the white 
margins of the stigmata and transverse lines being also absent, and the 
greater portion of the wing dull brown ; but the right wing has the white 
markings of the dorsal portion beyond the middle alone obliterated. 

Tutt had very little to say about this species. He quoted the initial 
description in Linn., 8ys. Nat., Xtli, p. 518 (1758), and Linn's second 
description in Fri. Suae. (1761), p. 317, and then he named the form 
with a deep ochreous ground ab. hrwnnea. 

List of Names and Forms to be considered : 
typica, Linn., Sys. Nat., Xth, 518 (1758). 
Syn. excusa, Esp. (1790+?), Abbild Nuct., IV (2), p.7U, pit. CXCVII, 

1-3. 
venom, Hb., Saml. (1800-1808). Syn. 
ab. hrunnea, Tutt (1892), Bri. Noct., IV, 40. 
race issyca, Pung. (1891) (1900) (1903), Iris, XIII, 119. 
ah. ohscura, Sph. (Wm), Schm. Eur., I, 212. 
ab. clausa, Lempke (1939), Tijds., 232. 
ab. confluens, Lempke (1937), I.e., 233. 
ab. albilinea, Ckyne. (1942), Ent. Bee., LIV, 14, pit. II. 
ab. elaricolor (1934), Pal. Noct. Supp., Ill, 89. 
ab. coittuininatoides (1934), I.e. 

ab. excusa, Esp., Ahhdd Noct., IV (2), p. 70, pit. CXCVII, 1-3 (1789?). 

Description — Wernebg., Beit v. Schmett. Kiinde., II, 53 (1864). A 
rare variety with coppery-brown ground colour, almost as in N. triaii- 
galwm but not to be mistaken, for in fig. 1 between the outer line of 
the reniform and the marginal bands of the forewing there stands a 
black spot that is not present in triangiduin. Typica, fig. 2, lacks the 
black marking in the centre of the upper forewing of triangulum. 



(64) entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15/ VII / 1949 

ab. issyva, Pung., Iris, XIII, p. 119 (1892) [Warr.-Stz., Pal. Nuct., 
Ill, 62]. 

Descrip. — " Redder, and has the terinen less cienulate." Issykkul. 

ab. ohscura, Splr,, Schmett. Eur., I, 212 (1904), referred to two 
basic forms. 

Orig. Descrip. — (1) Rare; is more frequently in the North form, 
with transverse lines of the ground colour of the (S , (2) as well as the 
form with the orbicular and reniform have become dusted with violet 
suffused scaling. 

ab. clausa, Lempke, Tijds. (1939), 233. 

Orig. Descrip. — " The first and second transverse lines converge to 
a point on the inner margin." Holland. 

ab. semicojifluens, Lempke, Tijds. (1939), 233. 

Orig. Descrip. — " The two stigmata are united by a double line, 
the encirclement of both being broken." Holland. 

ab. alhilinea, Ckyne., Ent. Becord, LIV, 14, pit. II (1942). 

Fig.— Lc, pit. II, 10. 

Original Descrip. — " There is a great increase in the white in the 
median band, external to the antemedian and internal to the post- 
median from nervure 4 to the inner margin where these two white 
stripes unite and also along its costa. In others respects the moth is 
normal." 

Type, female. Chelford, Cheshire, 26.vii.30. E. Aubrook. Crabtree 
Collection (fig. 10). There is a similar specimen taken in S. Yorkshire 
by G. T. Porritt, figure in Barrett, Brit. Lepidoptera, Vol. V, pit. 217, 
fig. 1 c. 

ab. claricolor, Schaw., Drdt.-Stz., Pal. Noct. Supp., Ill, p. 89 (1934). 

Descrip. — '' A very pale ochreous-yellow form, and surrounds to 
stigmata heavily marked with pale yellow. Only the triangular mark 
in basal area, patches each side of the stigmata and in front of the 
apex are darker." 

ab. cotitaininaioides, Schaw., I.e. 

Description — '^ Colour is with blackish marking. Stigmata finely 
outlined with pale yellow, very similar to a previous species, N. con- 
taniinata, Wlkr. {Pal. Noct., Ill, 62, pit. 14). Described from Mostar. 



THE BlilTlSH MOCTUAE AND THEIR VARIETIES. IV. (65) 

Tlie Genus Asticta, Hb. 

A. pastinum, Treit. 

A. craccae, Fab. 

Tlie two species pantiituni and the purely English and very local 
ciaccae seem to have caused a deal of trouble to all our systematists. 

Tutt gave a few lines of introduction to the purely English and very 
local species craccae. In his notes on pastiiiwm he stated that it was 
very common {Brit. Noct., p. 42). This statement does not agree with 
the experience of other entomologists. 

So far as Tutt and myself were concerned pastinum was a species met 
with in a chalk district. My series was taken in a valley at the rear of 
Box Hill on various visits. Tutt lived at Srood in Kent in the midst 
of a small area where they were found in plenty hiding in rough grass. 
Such areas are full of cracks giving additional shelter. 

Hampson, in his 13 volumes of Lep. Phal., made no reference to 
either of them, but in 1926, in a Supp. to Lep. Plial., there were printed 
a few lines he had containing references leading up to pastinmii, of which 
the following is a copy : 

Genus Asticta, Hb. 
Ophiusa, Ochs., ScJunett. Eur., IV, 93 (1816), non-descrip. Treit., 
Schmett. Eur., V, (3), 288 (1826), nee L., 1818, lusoiia, L. 
Asticta, Hb., Verz., 266 (1827). procae, Hb. 
Ophiasa, Hb., Verz., Hb., 266 (1827). lusoria, Hb. 
Tuxocampu, Gn., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1841, p. 75. pastinutn, Treit. 



Toxocampa, Gn., pustinum, Tr. 
Toxucainpa, Gn. (1852). Most authors. \_Ophiusa, Hb. (82) : Eccrita, 
Led. (1857), Splr.] pastinum, Tr. (1825). 

The specific nomenclature of this species is in doubt. Treit gave 
no remark or suggestion although his knowledge of author and species 
was profound. Warr.-Stz. omitted all research and Drdt.-Stz. did not 
even mention the species. It was my intention to omit this and to give 
full references and omit details and discussion. 



Warr.-Stz., Pal. Nuct., Ill, 373, pit. 68 f. (1913), in recording the 
genus Opliiusa, Hb., described ab. lusoria of Hb. (nee I^.), pit. 65,' 
fig. 318 (1800-03). After giving a summary of the variation of the 
ground colour of this almost markingless species he cited the forms (2) 
ab. astragali, Ramb., from Spain, " more densely covered with dark 
striae on the forewing, of which the terminal spots are hardly visible " ; 
(3) ab. dilutior, Stdgr., from the Kentei Mts., has paler less marked 
forewings; (4) ab. decolor, Warr., 68 f., is much paler and without any 
brown tinge in the Engadine. 

Tutt dealt in some detail with this species, which he called the 
'' commonest of the genus." He gave a translation of the description by 



(66) entomologist's becord, vol. lxi. 15 / IX / 1949 

the author, Tr. (1) Next he dealt with Haworth's lusoria, a Syn. ; (2) 
the ab. ludicra, Haw., " a rather dark form of pastinum " ; (3) he names 
a pale form ab. pallida. Neither of these two abs. were referred to by 
Warr.-Stz. They are attached to British pa^tinwni. 

Of the Variation Barrett said : 

There is some variation, in the degree of ashy-grey dusting of the 
forewings and in the distinctness of the transverse lines, but much 
more in the form of the curious mark which indicates the reniform 
stigma; this is often triangular at the base with the apex produced, or 
frequently almost crescent shaped, or with any intermediate variation, 
and the succeeding black-brown dots are frequently reduced to one, or 
even totally absent. In the collection of Mr S. J. Capper is a specimen 
in which the stigmatic marking is laid prostrate and formed into a 
broad black wedge pointing towards the base of the wing, outside it is 
a narrow black streak, replacing the two dots. 

The Names and Forms to be considered : 
pastinum, Tr. (1826), Schmett., V (8), 297 [Tutt, B.N., IV, 42 (1892)]. 
lusoria, Haw. (1809), 259 (Phytometra) [Fab., Ent. Sys., II, 64, 1791?] 
ab. ludicra. Haw. (1809), I.e., and Tutt, Brit. Noct., IV, 42 (1892) [Hb., 

Noct., 65, 319]. 
ab. astragali, H.-S. (1847)?, Bearheitr. : Bomhyces, p. 415, 219?, fig. 269 

(-Noctuae) [Warr -Stz., Pal. Noctuae, 111, 273, 373 (1913)]. 
ab. dihitior, Stdgr. (1891), Iris, V, 372 [Cat., 252 (1901)]. 
ab. pallida, Tutt (1892), Brit. Noct., II, 42. 
ab. decolor, Warr.-Stz. (1913), Pal. Noct., Ill, 372, pit. 68. 
ab. elongata, Berlin, ent Cosmos, I, 9. 

ab. lusoria. Haw., Lep. Brit., pt. 2, p. 259 (1809). 
Grig. Desceip. — " Alis cineras-centibus in medio litura nigra, niar- 
gine postico fimbria fusconente collari nigro." 

ab. asifragali, H.-S. (Bomb.), Bearh. Schmett Eur., pi. 269, 219 
(1847). 

Desceip. — '' From Spain is more dusky covered with dark striae on 
the forewing, of which the terminal spots are hardly visible." {Pal. 
Noct., Ill, 373 (1913). 

ab. diluUor, Stdgr., Iris, V, 372 (1891). 

Desceip. — [Stdgr., Cat., 252 (1901)] " al. ant. cinesascent min 
minus signatis." 

ab. decolor, Warr.-Stz., Pal. Noct., Ill, 372, pit. 68 f. (1913). 

Oeig. Desceip. — "Is much paler and without any brown tinge: 
nearly a score of this form were taken in July and August 1901-1903, 
at Tarasp in the Engadine, by Mr Rothschild and Mr Hartert. They 
may be identical with ab. dilutior, Stdgr., from Kentei." 

Placed as definite sp. by Drdt.-Stz. Supp., Ill, 228. 



THE BRITISH NOCTUAE AND THEIR VARIETIES. IV. (67) 

Toxocanipa, Gn., craccae, Fab. 

Toxocampa, Gn. (852). Most authors. [Ophiusa, Hb. (1821). 
Ecciita, Led. (1857), Splr.] craccae, Fb. 



Fab. published his Mantissa in 1786. Hubii. began to publish his 
Beitrage in 1781, but did not finish Vol. I until 1789, producing 4 parts, 
one each year, and it was not until 1789 that he describes craccae and 
adopted the name used by Fab. 

Treit., Sclbinett. Eur. Noct., V, (3), 405, cited nine authors includ- 
ing the Italian Rossi, an unusual referee. The other authors 
were Hb., Beitrage, 1, pt. IV (1789), and Noct., t 520; Scliiff., Verz., 
p. 94, A, a, No. 5 (1775); liliger, N. Ausg., I, 555, No. 3 (1801); Fab., 
Ent. Sys., Ill, (2), p. 64 (179 ); Bork., Eur. Schmet., IV, 803 (1792); 
Ernst & Engr., Pap. d'Eur., VII, 148, fig. 601 (1793); De Vill., Ent. 
Lifvn., IV, p. 465 (1780); G5ze, Beitr., Ill, (3), 224 (1781). Additional 
references may be found in some of these. 

Warr.-Stz., Pal. Noct., Ill, 373, pit. 68 f (1913), placed this species 
in the genus Ophiusa, Hb., next to pastvaum, Tr., as closely allied. 
They describe the forewing as a darker grey than that of pastinurn, and 
with a " dirty white " tinge, striated and dusted with darker, the 
veins pale. They deal with ab. invmaculata, Stdgr., and describe three 
new subsp. : laevigata, from the S. Tyrol, 68 g; grisea, from Uralsk, 
68 g; lutosa, S. Europe, 68 h; and ab. hrwivnea, 68 h. All were figured. 

Drdt.-Stz., Pal. Noct. Supp., Ill, 227 (1936), discarded the genus 
Ophiusa, Hb., and returns to Toxocampa. He records perstrigata, 
Rebel, a form from Transylvania; ssp. caliginosa, Schwrd., from Vez- 
zavona, Corsica; and spp. plumhea, Bankes, from Britain. 

Tutt had nothing to say about this extremely local and rare drab 
insect. He gave the Latin description of the typical form given by 
Fabricius in the Mantissa, p. 154 (1786), but he did not say in which 
Mantissa of the six Fab. published at various times. 

Of the Variation Barrett said : 

Hardly variable, except in the degree of ashy-white dusting. Some- 
times this is -almost absent, leaving the forewings of the pale umbreous 
ground colour, or even with a tinge of purple in the brown. A con- 
siderable number of such specimens were reared in 1896 by Mr Percy 
Bright. 

The Names and Forms to be considered : 
Crarcae, Fab. (1786), Mantissa, 154. 

ab. caliginosa, Schward. (1931), Zeit. Ost. Ent. Ver. Wien, XVI, 54. 
ab. plumhea, Bankes (1906), Ent. Pec, XVIII, 68, 345. 
ab. perstrigata, Rbl. (1911), Ann. Ilofnius TT'ieM, XXV, 345. 
ssp. laevigata, AVarr.-Stz. (1913), Pal. Noct., Ill, 375, pit. 65 f. 
ssp. grisea, Warr.-Stz., I.e., pit. 65 g. 
ab. hrun<nea, Warr.-Stz., I.e., pit. 65 h. 
ssp. lutosa, Warr.-Stz., I.e. 



(68) entomologist's becord, vol. lxi. 15 / IX / 1949 

. ab. yitinmcalata, Stdgr., Cat., Ill, p. 252 (1901). 

Grig. Deisghip. — '' Al. ant. macula reniforme non sufiiuUa (iion 
iiigro maculata)." 

ab. plumhea, Bankes, Ent. liecord, XVIII, 68 (1906). 

Obig. Descbip. — " Head anteriorly, and thorax (with tegulae) 
bluish-grey; head posteriorly, and collar, velvety brownish-black. Fore- 
wings bluish-grey, more or less mixed with chocolate-brown, and with 
the terminal third much obscured by it. The costal black spots and 
triangular subterminal shade are proportionately darker than in the 
type, Reniform stigma chocolate-brown, partly black margined, orbi- 
cular represented either by a black dot, sometimes white-ringed, or 
only a minute white spot. Hindwings brownish-grey, more dusky pos- 
teriorly. Abdomen brownish-grey." 

ab. persti'igata, Rbl., Ann. Hofmus. Wien, XXV, 345 (1911). 
Descbip.— [Drdt., Pal. Noct. Supp., Ill, 227 (1936). " From Tran- 
sylvania, it has very prominent transverse stripes."]. 

subsp. laevigata, Warr.-Stz., Pal. Noct., Ill, 373, pit. 68 f. (1913). 
Obig. Descbip. — " From the South Tyrol, is large, with forewings 
slate coloured and without darker dusting." 

subsp. g7'isea, Warr.-Stz., I.e., pit. 68 g. 

Obig. Descbip. — " The forewing has the costal spots prominently 
black, the inner and outer lines dark fuscous and distinct, the space 
between them and the terminal area both dark grey, contrasting 
strongly with the paler basal area and pale outward edging of the outer 
line; reniform stigma has the inner edge finely black, but is filled up 
with the dark grey of the median area, its outer edge being represented 
by two or three black points only; the pale veins show up distinctly in 
the dark grey suffusion; the hindwing is wholly dark fuscous." 

ab. hrwnriea, Warr.-Stz., I.e., pit. 68 h. 

Obig. Descbip. — " Instead of the typical grey ground colour, is 
brown, sometimes with a rufous tinge." 

subsp. lutosa, Warr.-Stz., I.e. 

Obig. Descbip. — " Have, from the South of France, luteous grey hi 
the forewings, luteous ochreous in the hindwing." 

ab. caliginosa, Schward;, Zeit. Ost. Ent. Ver. Wien, XVI, 54 (1931), 
Obig. Descbip. — " Two small pairs from the Col. de Vizzavona, 
are striking. The fore and hindwings are much darker than in our 
forms. In one 9 the forewing in the basa land median areas blackish- 
grey. The pale veining is scarcely to be seen. In two examples, S and 
c?." 



THE BRITISH NUCTUAE AND THEIK VAilIEl?IES. IV. (69) 

Stilbia, Stepliens, aiiomala, Haw. 

tStllbia, Stephens (183U). Nearly all authors. lOphalsa, Bdv.] 
This is another of the drab species, all of which are unsatisfactory 
from a nomenclature point of view. 

Warr.-Stz., Fal. Noct., Ill, 204, fig. 42 c (1911), listed these 3 as 
syn. : hybridata, 111., stag nicula, Tr., and anvmalata, Steph. He dealt 
with (1) philopulis, Graslin, S. of France, smaller, paler markings more 
prominent; (2) aiidulasica, Stdgr., smaller, less distinct marking; (3) 
syriac, Stdgr., Asia Minor, wings broader, hindwings very dark; (4) 
ab. calberiae, Failla, from Sicily, is certainly a good aberration; the 
males are blacker in the forewings than the females of the typical form; 
and the hindwings brightly whit«. 

["A somewhat local sjjecies found in England, France, Germany, 
Spain and Sicily, and in Syria."] 

Drdt.-Stz., Fal. Noct. Supp., Ill, Noct., Ill, 178, gave a better fig. 
Fig. 42 and the material in the species gathered for the main edition 
was of such poor condition that the figures could not be sa.tisfaotary. 
Drdt. said that philopalis was a genuine species with the Spanish an- 
dalusica, Stdgr., as a form of it; and that the calberlae of Sicily was 
another genuine species. 

The new figures given were 42 e, (S , 9 • 

Of the Variation Barrett said : 

Not very variable, except that the female is sometimes blackish- 
slate with hardly any marking. On the other hand, in western dis- 
tricts, and especially in Ireland, both sexes are occasionally large in 
size, with unusually distinct markings. 

Tutt called attention to the remarkable sexual variation. The 9 
was considerably smaller and of an almost uniform blackish-brown and 
devoid of all markings. He discussed the habitat especially : Aber- 
deen and Sligo. He cited the remarks of Treit., Guen. and Wheeler, 
and reported too the description of the typical form described by Haw. 
Treit., Ent. »S'oc., London, 1812 Tutt ended by recording (1) ab. 
stagrdcola, Tr., and the brightest of the forms ever to leaden-blue; (2) 
■'•b. philopalis, Gras. (later considered a species). 

The Names and Forms to be considered : 

anoiiKila, Haw. (1812), Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud., 336. 

Injbrulata, Hb. (1800-3), " Geom," 497-8. Syn. 

stagnitola, Tr. (1825), Fur. Schm., V (2), 268. 

aiwinalata, Steph. (1829), Curtis Brit. Entoniohx/ij, Vol. XIV, ])lt. 631. 

Syn. 
plnlopalis, Gras. (1852), Ann. Soc. Ent. France. 413, pit. 8. 3. 
calberlae, Failla (1890), Ted. Sp. 
andalusica, Stdgr. (1891), Iris, VI, 290. Sp. 
syriaca., Stdgr. (1892), Fvis, VI, 290. 
insulaHs, Fuch. (1903), Soc. Ent., XXlll, 4. 



(7U) entomologist's KEUOHi), VOL. LXI. 15/X/l94^ , 

ab. insLilaris, Fuchs., Soc. Ent., XVIII, 9 (1903). 

Orig. DeIsckip. — '" Smaller, forewing elongate, glossy iron-black, \ 
brownish suffused on tlie inner margin, with smaller, rounder, less ob- 
lique orbicular and indistinct reniform stigmata, with black darkening i 
between the stigmata, the first-cross line twice slightly toothed; hind- j 
wing broad and bellied, very light . white-grey, yellowish tinted, with 
washed-out curved streak-like darkening before the margin. <S . 14 mm. , 
Sicily." ! 

i 

var. si/rlaca, Stdgr., Iris, IV, 290 (1891). j 

Orig. Dbscrip. — " A quite fresh male, but with the R. hindwing j 
much rubbed, forms a strong contrast to var. andalusica ; this I name 

var. syriaca, and compared with var. andalusica one might take it for ; 
quite a different species. It is 25 mm. in expanse, has much broader 

forewings, which are somewhat darker coloured than in the typical ! 

form, but are quite similarly obsolescently marked. The hindwings are • 
quite unicolorous dark blackish-grey, much darker than in the typical 

form. The dark fringes have a dark, wide basal line." \ 

Stilhia anomala. .' 

') 

ab. philopalis. Smaller and paler; forewing with the markings more i 

prominent. S.E. France. j 



ab. andalusica . Small; forewing with the markings indistinct. An- 
dalusia, 

ab syriaca. Wings broader; hindwing darker. Syria. 



THE BillTlSH KUCTUAE AND THEIK. VARIETIES. IV. (7l) 

Catocala, Schrnk., fraxini, L. 

Catocala, Schrnk. (1802), practically all authors. [Ochs. & Treit. 
(1826)]. 

Hb., Verz. (1816), No. 2713, '^ Catocala^ 

Warr.-Stz., Fal. Noct., Ill, 304, pit. 54 d (1913), dealt with the 
species form in a condensed and very good description. He cited (1) 
ab. riioerens, 54 d, forewing more or less suffused with blackish scales 
obscuring the markings; (2) ab. gaiidens, 54 d, very pale with most cf 
the black scaling obsolete, from Central Asia; (3) ab. contigua, 54 e, has 
the pale spot below the reniform elongated outward to touch the outer 
line, often as well as the outer line itself ; strongly yellow-tinged, par- 
ticularly noticeable in examples especially with the ground colour dark; 
(4) ab. angustata : narrowness of the blue band of the hindwing; (5) ab. 
macidata : a white mark at lower angle of the cell of the hindwing. 
Strong development of grey scales produces rare cases of albinism. 

Drdt.-Stz., Pal. Noct. Supp., Ill, 212 (1935), reviewed the earlier 
names and then cited the later ones : (1) ab. atra, an extreme tnoerens, 
completely blackened forewing and thorax; (2) ab. caerulescems, dis- 
tinctly suffused with bluish, a transition to Dioerens ?; (3) contigua 
(long imaculata, is a Syn.) ; (4) ab. caeruleornaculata, a blue patch in the 
black basal area of the hindwing, otherwise it may be moerens; (5) ab. 
argillacea, forewings grey-white, markings faintly indicated, transverse 
lines pale yellow, edged with black, the spot below the reniform is also 
yellow; (6) ab. latefasciata, from Amur, blue bands of the hind- 
wings are strikingly wider; (7) ab. 2 mm. wider than normal 
European specimens. Assuri. sternecla, the blue band of the hind- 
wing is double as wide. Bal. Prague. 

Tutt, in Brit. Noct. (1892), saw but little variation in fraxini and 
quoted the statement of Gn. in support. Noctuelles, Vol. VII, 8, 8 
(1852). But he gave a long detailed description from Treit., Schnictf. 
Noct., V (3), where the variation of each feature of the markings was 
described. 

Barrett does not refer to any Variation. 
References to the Names and Forms : 

fnix.im, L. (1758), >S'//s. Nat., Xed., 512. 

ab. moerens, Fuch. (1889), Jahr, Nass. Ver. Nat., XIII, 210. 

ab. gaudens, Stdgr. (1901), Cat., Illed., 247. 

r. maculata, Kusenov (1901), Bev. Bvss. Eut.. I, 230. 

<nb. contigua, Schultz. (1906), Fnt. Zeit., XX, 86. 

ab. angustata, Schultz. (1906), I.e. 

all. alUna, Scliultz. (1906), Ent. Zeit., XX, 86. 

ab. atra, Spul. (1908), Schmett. Eur., I, 367. 

ab. argillacea, Vincent. (1910), Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., 316. 

ab. latefasciata. Warn. (1911), Tnt. Ent. Zeit., XITT, 25. 

r. sternechi, Harockke (1911), Jalirl. Wien, XXI, 94. 

ab. caeruleocens, Gloss. (1918), Int. Ent. Zeit., XII, 34-35. 



(72) teN'roMOL()UisT*s recobDj vol. lxi. 15/ X/ 1949 

ab. longhiiaculata, Closs. (1918), I.e. =Schultz., cf. Syii. of contigua. 
ab. caerulesrnacuUita, Closs. (1918), Int. Ent. Zeit., XII., 35. 

P.S. — The Original Descriptions are omitted. They are mostly reduu- 
dant, and the species is of rare occurrence in Britain, 

('. fraxini is not a British species but only a rare immigrant. I have 
not given the descriptions of the various al)errations. But I am in- 
formed that ab. contigua and ab. gaudens have been bred here recently. 
I have included the descriptions. 

ab. contigua, Schultz., Ent. Zeit., XX, 86 (1906). 

Orig. Descrip. — " Distinguished from the typical form, in that the 
light spot below the reniform stigma of the forevi^ing, which in the type 
form is found of a roundish or irregular quadrangular shape, is pro- 
duced in length very considerably towards the margin ; it reaches up to 
the double toothed line in which it runs. Sometimes the characteristic 
marking of this aberration is that the double zigzag line is strongly 
yellowish powdered. Particularly fine are the examples of this aberra- 
tion in which the ground colour on the forewings is strongly dusted, in 
which case the light longitudinal streak stands out especially distinct 
from the colour of the rest of the wing." 

race gaudens, Stdgr., Cat. Lep. Pal., 247 (1901). 
Orig. Descrip. — " Multo dilutior, al. ant. albido-cinereis." 
Hamp., Oat. Lep. Ph., XII, 67 (1913). Much paler; forewing grey- 
white. — W. Turkestan. 



THE BRITISH NOCTUAE AND THEIR VARIETIES. IV. (73) 

Catocala, Schranck, nupta^ L. 

Catocala, Schranck (1802), Fii. Bosa, most authors (Hb., Verz. (1817, 
No. 2716).] 

nupta, Linn. (1766-67), Sys. Nat. (Xlled.), p. 841. 



Bork., Eur. Schmett., IV, Noct., 17, No. 6 (1792), gave a very use- 
ful series of extracts from earlier authors, pp. 19-23. (1) Linn., Sys. 
Nat., Ed. XII, p. 841, sp. 19 (1767), is the typical description recog- 
nized until it was replaced by Ed. X (1758); (2) De Vill., Ent. Linn., 
II, 207 (1775), No. 181 (1789); (3) Fabricius, Sys. Ent., p. 602, No. 52 
(1773). Species Insect., II, 221, No. 70 (1781), Mantissa Ins., II, 142, No. 
110 (1787); (17a) (4) Esper., Eulen (Noctua), IV, p. 119, pit. 97, noct. IS, 
(1787); (17a) (4) Esper., Culen (Noctua), IV, p. 119, pit. 97, noct. 18, 
fig. 1 (1786); (5) (Schiff.) Syst. Verz. Wien., Fam., X. 90, No. 5 (1775); 
(6) Sepp., Nederland Ins., IV, 33, pit. 7 (17 ); he also cited Mtlller, 
Uehersets (1776); Goeze, Beitr., Ill (3) and III, No. 119 (1781); Lang., 
Verz. Papillons d' Europe. 

Treit., Schmett. Eur. Noct., V (3), 337 (1826), described the species 
and gave its life-history with reference to a closelj^-allied species^ elocata, 
and cited (1) Hb., Noct., 350 (1803); (2) Illiger, Verz. (Neu. Ausgang), I, 
336, No. 4 (1801), N. Magazine, II, 143, No. 4 (1803); (3) Ernst. & 
Engram, Fap. d'Eur., VIII, 71, fig. 565 (1792); (4) View., Tab. Verz., 
II, 34, No. 47 (1790); (5) Hufn., Berl. Mag., Ill (2), p. 210 (1766); (6) 
Naturfor, Rottembg., 18, 112, No. 10 (12), pacta. (1776); (7) Laspey- 
res, Ent. Eev., p. Ill (1803); (8) Borkh., Eur. Schmett., IV, 17, No. 6 
(1792). List of early authors also given by Treit. 

Warr.-Stz., Pal. Noct., Ill, 304, pit. 55 a, gave a rather long de- 
tailed description. He cited (1) ab. concuhina, Hb., 55 a. The red of 
the hindwing is brighter and the black median band more developed, 
being broader throughout and continued to inner margin; the lines 
of forewing blacker and the pale areas generally more developed; (2) 
the subs.p. nuptialis, Stdgr., from Thibet, Issykul and the Altai Mts. 
has the forewing paler, more gaily marked, the submarginal line white, 
sharply edged with black; (3) subsp. ohscurata, Obthr., Amurland and 
Askold Is., is a much blacker form than the average European 
examples, though specimens from several localities in Europe are also 
dark; (7) ab. coerulescens, Ckrll., named from a single specimen taken 
in Essex, has the hindwing blue instead of red; (5) ab. hrunnescens, 
W'arr., 55 b, represented by 3 rather small (S d , captured near London, 
has the hindwing dark olive brown; (6) ab. languescens, nov. Warr., 
55 a, the hindwing is yellowish-white with a faint pmk Hush; (7) ab. 
flava, Schaltz., in which the hindwing is yellow; (8) ab. mutilata, 
Schultz., the black ventral base of hindwing is abbreviated and becomes 
obsolete a little beloAv costa ; (9) ab. fida, Schultz., differs from typical 
examples in having between the submarginal line and the ternien a con- 
spicuous dentated white line strongly edged with black, Spain; (10) 
ab. dilutior, Schultz., ground colour generally paler, either brownish- 



(^4) Entomologist's record, vol. lxi. 15 / XI / 1949 

yellow with the dark markings slightly darker or whitish-grey with a 
faint yellowish intermixture; (11) ab. alterata, Warr. nov. = (ab. 6, 
Hamps.), has the black band of the hindwing altered to grey; (12) ab. 
ruhrideiis, Warr. nov., 55 a, shows the red ground colour of the hind- 
wing running out along the veins 2 and 1 in the shape of sharp wedge- 
shaped teeth almost interrupting the black median band, which is 
swollen between them like a horseshoe-shaped blotch; (13) ab. confusa, 
Obthr., has the whole forewing blurred dark grey, with the inner and 
other lines and the reniform stigma, but diffuse on a slightly paler 
median area, the median band of hindwing strongly curved, its outer 
edge diffuse, etc., etc. N. and Central Asia and Amurland. 

Hamp., Lep. Phal., XII, 85. 

ab. 1 (1), unicuha : " Forewing suffused with fuscous." 

Hamp., Lep. PhaL, XII, 85. 

ab. (2), nuptialis : " Forewing paler grey." 

Hamp., Lep. Phal., XII, 85. 

ab. (3)c, fida: " Forewing with the terminal area whitish." 

Hamp., Lep. Phal., XII, 85. 

ab. (4), *' mutilata " : " Hindwing with the medial band shorter." 

Hamp., Lep. Phal., XII, 85. 

ab. (5), flava: '' Hindwing with the costal half orange yellow." 

Hamp., Lep. Phal., XII, 85. 

ab. (6) : " HindAving with the bands pale grey instead of black." 

Gulot, Noct. et G., I (8), 194, pit. 76, 1 (1916), stated that nupta 
was the commonest species of the genus in the countries included in the 
area (Swiss) of Central Europe. He then discussed the specimens in 
his own collection from the Eastern area of Central Europe, Russia 
in Europe, one from the Sarepta district (The Volga), the other from 
the Caspian area, the former the nupta of Central Europe, while the 
latter was an approach to adultera. Men., of Arctic Russia. 

After stating that there was no possible confusion of nupta, he went 
on to the wing markings and the variation, and then cites flava, 
Schultz.; languescens, Warr.; brunnescens, Warr.; and confusa, Warr. 
Culot did not possess adultera, but in 1916, while he was writing his 
work, he obtained the species and numerous other examples were taken 
in Europe. 

Dxdt.-Stz., Pal. Noct. Supp., Ill, 213 (1935), cited (1) ab. grisescens, 
Hannemann, monotonously brownish-grey specimens with diffuse mark- 
ings; (2) ab. nigrescens, Hanne., darker grey-black specimens, with 
darker markings and no j)ale patches. Both Berlin; (3) ab. xanthophaea, 
Schaw., has brownish-yellow hindwings (while flava has pure yellow, 
languescens whitish-yellow with rosy suffusion. Klosterneuberg, near 
Vienna; (4) ab. guiastii is probably very similar to coeridescens, iJl^rli., 
it has hindwings suffused with bluish-black, while in coerulescens they 
are dark brown with violet sheen. Belgium; (5) ab. kansuensis, O. 
Bng.-Hs., has pale grey forewings with very indistinct markings, in 
the 9 blue-grey with white patch below the reniform stigma, which is 
connected to the other transverse stripe by a ribboned band. Hind- 
wings pale red with abbreviated narrower central band. Richthofen 
Mts. ; (6) ab. clara, Obthr., is a larger form with much paler pure pale 
grey forewings that are more faintly dusted, so that the two black trans- 



IHE BRITISH NOCTUAE; AKD THfelE VAEIE'riES. IV. (fB) 

verse lines stand out sharply. The central area around the reniform 
towards the costa is more heavily dusky blackish; the whitish patch be- 
fore the reniform is remarkably large, pale and prominent. 

Tutt dealt first with the variation in his own collection and gave the 
description of the typical form. He described the figure of connuhma, 
Hb., and discussed the remark of Treit. {Schmett. Eur., V (3)). Finally 
he cited the three aberrations: (1) ab. caerulescens, Ckrll., a dichroic 
form; (2) ab. conuhiiia, Bork. ; and (3) ab. ohscurata, Obthr. 

Of the Variation Barrett said : 

Usually very constant in colour and markings, occasionally a remark- 
able exception is met with; one now in the collection of Dr P. B. Mason 
at Burton-on-Trent is magnificent, the forewings being suffused with 
bluish-slate, the hindwings almost black, the usual red areas being wholly 
suffused with smoky red-black, while the bands are almost blue-black. 
This specimen was reared by Mr J. H. Smart, of Plumstead, Kent, from 
a larva found in that neighbourhood. An example in which the red colour 
of the hindwings was replaced by blue — as in the last species — appears to 
have been taken at Colchester in 1889. Another taken at Mitcham, 
Surrey, in 1888 by Mr M. Winckley has the forewings much darkened, 
and the hind with the usual red colour replaced by a warm brown, the 
black bands shot w^ith purple, and a purplish glow over the entire sur- 
face. Occasional specimens have the hindwings of a dull brick red; 
and Mr W. West, of Streatham, has one in which they are shot with 
yellow. 

Tutt, after his introductory remarks, gave the Linn.'s Later 
Description in the Xllth edn., Sys. Nat., p. 841 (1767). He then dis- 
cussed the remarks of Treit., the figure in Esper and Hubner's figure. 
He again gives further notes from Triet. Only three forms were re- 
corded : (1) caerulescens of Ckrll., a form considered a synonym of ab. 
hrunnea by some: (2) form coticuhina, Bork., figured by Hb. and dis- 
cussed and figured by Sepp. (Nederland Ins.) treated now as a Syn. ; 
(3) obscurata, Obthr., a form found throughout the whole of the central 
area of the Palaearctic Region. 

The -Names and Forms to be considered : 

nupta, L. (1767), Sys. Nat., Xlled., 841. 

ab. coiicubina, Hb. (1800-3), Noct., 329. Syn. 

ab. imcuba, Walk. (1857), Cat. Noct., XIII, 1210. Sp. 

ab. obscurata, Obthr. (1880), Etudes., V, 86. 

ab. confusu, Obthr. (1881) [Warr.-Stz., Pal. Noct., II, 304 (1913)]. 

ab. caerulescens, Ckrll. (1889), Ent., XXII, 127 [Tutt, Brit. Noct., IV, 

51 (1892)]. 
ab. nuptialis, Stdgr. (1901), Cat., Hied., 248. 
ab. guiartii. Lamb. (1905), Beva Namuroise, p. 2. 

ab. fiava, Schultz. (1906), Ent. Zt., XX, 86 [Stz., Pal. Noct., Ill, 304]. 
ab. mutnata, Schultz. (1906), Ent. Zt., X, 194 [Stz., Pal. Noct., Ill, 

304]. 
ab. ficla, Schultz. (1909), Ent. Zt., XXII, 169 [Stz., Pal. Noct., Ill, 

304]. 



(76) entomologist's recobd, vol. lxi. 15 / XI / 1949 

ab. dilutior, Schultz. (1909), Ent. Zt., XXII, 169 [Stz., Pal. Noct., 

Ill, 304]. 
ab. hrwiinescens, Wiarr.-Stz. (1913), Pal. Noct., Ill, 305. 
ab. languescens, Warr. (1913), I.e. 
ab. alterata, Warr. (1913), I.e. 
ab. rubridens, Warr.-Stz. (1913), I.e. 
ab. griseseens, Hannem. (1917) [(1935), Drdt.-Stz., Pal. Noct. Supp., 

Ill, 212]. 
ab. nigrescens, Hannem. (1917) [(1935), I.e.]. 

ab. xanthophaea, Schaw. (1925), Zeit. Ost. Ent. Ver. Wien, X, 47. 
ab. clara, Obthr. [Drdt.-Stz., Supp. Pal. Noct., Ill, 212 (1935). 
siibsp. kansuensi, O.-B., Horae. Macrolep., p. 88. 
ab. salmonea, Ckyne. (1946), Ent. Beeord, LVIII, 75. 
ab. nigra, Lempke. (1948), Ent. Tids., XC (VIII), p. 104. 
ab. variegata, Lempke. (1948), I.e. 
ab. sanguinea, Lempke. (1948), I.e. 



EXCHANGES. 



Subscribers may have Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata inserted free ot charge. 
They should be sent to H. W. Andrews, The Rookery, Breamore. Fording- 
bridge, Hants. 

Desiderata— DipteTous parasites bred from Lepidopterous larvae or pupae, cr 
from any other animal.— H. Audcent, Selwood House, Hill Road, Clevedon, 
Somerset. 

Wanted.— I need specimens of Lycaena (Heodes) phlaeas from all parts of the 
world, particularly Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia, Madeira. Canaries, N. 
Africa, Middle East counties, and E. Africa; also varieties from British Islea 
or elsewhere. I will purchase these, or offer in exchange good vars. of 
British Lepidoptera or many sorts of foreign and exotic Lepidoptera.— 
P. Siviter Smith. St Melville Hall, Holly Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, IS, 

Wanted.— YoT the British Museum larval collection, larvae of Chrysomelld 
beetles, alive or preserved. Liberal exchange if required.— Dr S. MaullH. 
British Museum {Natural History), Cromwell Road, London. S.W.7. 

TKan fed— Distribution Records, Notes on Abundance and Information regarding 
Local Lists of the Dipterous Families Empididae and Conopidae.— /lennet/i 
G. V. Smith, " Antiopa," 38 Barrow Street, Much Wenlock, Salop. 

Wanted to Purchase— 'Leech's British Pyrales. Coloured Plate Edition.— A. W. 
Richards, Nether Edge, Hawley, near Camherley. 

I have available a large number of good and minor aberrational forms of Lysan- 
dra coridon, which I can offer in exchange for other vars. of the same species, 
—Chas. B. Antram, F.R.E.S., Clay Copse, Sivay, Lymington, Hants. 

Wanted.— Specimens of Velia currens Fabr. (Hemiptera), in any condition, from 
all parts of the British Isles or Western Europe, especially from the more 
remote parts of the west and north, for taxonomic study.— E. S. Brown, 
Hailey Lodge, Hertford Heath, Hertford. 

For Disposal— Staintoii's " Natural History of Tineina." 13 Vols.; about 110 
coloured plates, in excellent condition. Wanted to Purchase— Lucas' " Mono- 
graph of British Orthoptera " : Joys' Beetles, 3 Vols.— TF. /. Watts, 42 
Bramerton Road, Beckenham, Kent. 

Duplicates.— Irish -. Napi, Cardamines, Sinapis, Phlaeas, Icarus, Egerides, 
Megera, Jurtina, Tithonus, Hyperanthus— all this season (1949). Desiderata. 
—Numerous to renew.— i. H. Bonaparte Wyse, Corballymore, Co. Waterford. 

Wanted—Seguj; Etudes les Mouches Parasites, tome 1, Conopides, Oestrides et 
Calliphorines de I'Europe occidentale, 1928. Melin; A contribution to the 
knowledge of the Biology, Metamorphoses and Distribution of the Swedish 
Asilids, 1923, and the single part of the Ent. Mon. Mag. for April 1938,— 
Kenneth G. V. Smith, 38 Barrow Street, Much Wenlock, Salop. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Royal Entomological Society of London, 41 Queen's Gate, S.W.7 : January 
18th, 1950 (Annual Meeting); February 1st, at 5.30 p.m. South London Entomo- 
logical and Natural History Society, c/o Royal Society, Burlington House, Picca- 
dilly, W.l : Jany. 11th; Jany. 25th (Annual Meeting). London Natural History 
Society -. Tuesdays, 6.30 p.m., at London School of Hygiene or Art-Workers' Guild 
Hall, Syllabus of Meetings from General Secretary, H. A. Toombs, Brit. Mus. 
(Nat, Hist.), Cromwell Road, S.W.7. Birmingham Natural History and Philoso- 
phical Society— Entomological Section. Monthly Meetings are held at Museum 
and Art Gallery. Particulars from Hon. Secretary, H. E. Hammond, F.R.E.S., 
16 Elton Grove, Acocks Green, Birmingham. 



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II you collect CORIDON. BELLARGUS, ICARUS, ARGVS, minimus. AGBSTIS 
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obtaining 

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