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Full text of "The Entomologist's record and journal of variation"

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^L. 93, No. 1 January, 1981 ISSN 0013 8916 

a (A tA tXH cA tA (A'^I *j!^ 

THE I 

ENTOMOLOGIST'S g 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION ^ 

Edited by J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT, f.r.e.s. ^ 

with the assistance of t^ 

A. A. Allen, b.sc, a.r.c.s. P. J. Chandler, b.sc, f.r.e.s. ^ 

Neville Birkett, m.a., m.b. C. A. Collingwood, b.sc, f.r.e.s. r^ 

S. N. A. Jacobs, f.r.e.s. J. Heath, f.r.e.s., f.l.s. -^ 

Lieut. Col. A. M. Emmet, m.b.e., t.d., f.r.e.s. ^ 

P. A. Sokoloff, m.sc, m.lbiol., f.r.e.s. (Registrar) pM 

F. S. Bradford f3 



NOTICE ^ 

Owing to printing difficulties we much regret delay in publication of g^ 
the magazine. ^ 

&^ 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION FOR THIS VOLUME No. 93 ^ 

£9.50 for overseas subscribers. ^ 

£8.50 for all U.K. subscribers. ^ 

Hon. Treasurer: ^ 

P. J. RENSHAW, 8 Fenshurst Green, Hayesford Park, Bromley, Kent, ^ 

BR2 9DG &^ 

V* vr* vr* V up vn tr* "sr^ up bp vt* up up up up up bp up up up up up up up up v^ 




EXOTIC ENTOMOLOGICAL SPECIMENS 

Lepidoptera — Coleoptera — Miscellaneous Insects 
Livestock of Saturniidae, etc. 

Please write for details of our Lists, etc. 

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1 
THE B.C.S. WARREN COLLECTION AND ITS 
TYPE MATERIAL 

By R. I. Vane-Wright and P. R. Ackery* 

Introduction 

The entire collection of butterflies formed by the late 
B. C. S. Warren (E. Warren, 1979; de Worms, 1979; Chalmers- 
Hunt, 1979) has now passed to the British Museum (Natural 
History), London, in accordance with an agreement drawn 
up between Mr. Warren and the Trustees of the Museum on 
20th May, 1935. The purpose of this note is to give a brief 
account of the Warren Collection and list the type-material 
that is included. 

The Warren Collection 

The collection (register no. B. M. 1979-101) contained a 
total of nearly 21000 pinned adults housed in some 190 double- 
sided insect store boxes, and just over 2000 microscope slide 
preparations. The material is mostly from the Western Palae- 
arctic, and includes good representation of many of the 
Papilionoid species (Papihonidae, 450 specimens; Pieridae, 
2000; Lycaenidae, 4500; Nymphalidae, less Satyrinae, 3400; 
Satyrinae, less Erebia, 2550; and Erebia, 6200). The Hesperi- 
idae almost all belong to the Pyrginae (1800 specimens). Not 
surprisingly, the collection is richest in those genera which 
Warren made the subject of major studies: Pyrgus, Erebia, 
Boloria, and Pieris (Artogeia); in these groups there is signifi- 
cant eastern Palaearctic representation and some Nearctic 
material. 

The largest proportion of the specimens were collected 
by Warren, Mrs. Warren, or his daughter Elizabeth, from 
the British Isles, Switzerland, Germany, southern France and 
Corsica. The second largest source of material is the western 
Palaearctic collection of R. Temperley. Other material was 
collected or obtained by dozens of 20th century Lepidopterists, 
including E. B. Ashby, A. Avinoff, O. Bang-Haas, M. Bartel, 
G. T. Bethune-Baker, A. Biener, S. R. Bowden, G. S. Brooks, 
I. Buresch, T. A. Chapman, B. H. Cooke, F. Dannehl, A. J. 
Dennis, H. J. Elwes, B. Embry, W. Forbes, T. Fukai, A. E. 
Gibbs, F. T. Gilliat, P. P. Graves, J. Haase, A. F. Hemming, 
G. Hesselbarth, L. G. Higgins, C. Hofer, O. Holik, A. 
Jakobson, A. H. Jones, F. Konig, J. A. Kusche, A. Lauck, 
G. Leonhard, W. & M. Manley, L. Muller, H. E. Page, C. F. 
dos Passos, O. Querci, J. L. Reverdin, A. Rudkowski, L. 
Sheljuzhko, T. Shirozu, A. Simmons, J. Soffner, A. Stecker, 
I. Sugitani, P. Haig Thomas, F. Wagner, N. A. Weber, T. 
Weidinger, F. B. & A. E. Welch, G. Wheeler, C. G. M. de 
Worms and C. Wyatt. 

The collection of 2000 slides, mostly genitalic and andro- 
conial preparations, is related to the pinned material by a 
system of unique serial numbers, running in a notional series 

* Department of Entomology, British Museum (Natural History), 
London, SW7 5B'D. 



2 entomologist's record 1/1/ 81 

from 1 to 2850. The 800 or so 'gaps' in the numbers are 
scattered throughout; many, if not all these gaps relate to 
preparations made by Warren from material sent to him on 
loan (certainly including much BMNH material), but as there 
is no slide register (or any other form of catalogue) associated 
with the collection it is not possible to be sure in every case. 
The Warren slides have been allocated a place in the BMNH 
Rhopalocera Slide Collection, from numbers 14001 to 16850; 
in all case the Warren number can be related to the BMNH 
number merely by the addition of 14000 (i.e. Warren slide 
no. 114 is BMNH Rhop. Slide 14114; Warren no. 2147 is 
BMNH 16147, etc. etc). 



Warren's type-material 

The type-material is mostly of taxa described by Warren, 
but a few names erected by other authors are represented by 
(mostly) syntypes or paratypes. Warren's collection was in 
outstanding condition, largely consisting of perfect specimens 
well labelled and documented. The only significant damage 
was the rusting of the pins into some of the boxes, such that 
the points have decayed in a number of cases. The only other 
shortcoming was the labelling of types, insofar as the great 
majority did not carry the name of the taxon concerned. In 
all cases we have rectified this by adding a determination label 
giving the precise original status and combination. The type- 
specimens have all been added to the BMNH Rhopalocera 
Type Collection; the rest of the collection, having been trans- 
ferred to standard glazed drawers, will eventually be incor- 
porated into the National Collection (the Parnasiinae having 
already been dealt with). 

In the detailed list of type-material that is appended, each 
taxon is given in alphabetical order, followed by author, date, 
reference, the precise original status and combination (in 
parentheses), country of origin, and details of the type 
specimens. Bold italics indicate taxa we consider to have been 
available as names of the species group from the date of their 
original description; names listed in bold roman are considered 
to have been infrasubspecific at the time of their original 
description, or are invahd names. However, some of these 
judgements are subjective, as Warren employed a complex 
polynominal nomenclature, not always consistently. Through- 
out our list quadrinominals are treated as unavailable, but in 
many cases these taxa were evidently proposed for geographic 
forms or populations; some of these, no doubt, have sub- 
sequently been treated as available, both by Warren, and 
other workers. 

The evaluation of Warren's type-material with respect 
to the status of individual specimens has caused some difficulty. 
Although most series of his own taxa include a labelled 
"holotype", often an "allotype" and "paratypes", in a 



THE B.S.C. WARREN COLLECTION AND ITS TYPE MATERIAL 3 

majority of cases no indication of a selected holotype or 
otherwise unique type is given in the original description; 
these type-series must be regarded as syntypic. For example, 
the description of Erebia medusa dolomidca Warren (1936: 
192) gives no indication of the type status of any specimens, 
or the numbers involved; all that can be inferred is that the 
taxon is based on two or more males and two or more females 
from 'Prossliner Hut' and 'Karer Pass'. The Warren Collection 
included 12 c? and 69 of this subspecies, one male labelled 
"holotype", one female as "allotype", and the remainder as 
'paratypes". Despite being clearly labelled, we have rigidly 
adhered to the principles put forward by Vane-Wright (1975: 
26), and treated all such specimens as syntypes, as there is no 
indication of type status in the original description. However, 
future revisers should fix the "holotypes" so-labelled as lecto- 
types, whenever possible. A further complication arises in the 
case of taxa which Warren himself considered to be synony- 
mous, from which it appears he removed all type labels. For 
example, consider Erebia euryale boehmerwaldensis Warren 
(1930: 147) which Warren (1936: 58) later considered to be 
a synonym of Erebia euryale euryale f. isarica Heyne, 1895. 
Warren apparently removed the type labels from this series on 
realising that it was a synonym. The cases of Boloria pales 
pyrenesmiscens and Erebia gavarniensis are similar. 

Finally, it may be noted that in a few cases Warren 
subsequently published "Holotye" fixations for certain taxa 
(e.g. Erebia disa f estiva Warren; Erebia lefebvrei rowlandi 
Warren); these are treated, for the sake of consistency, as 
lectotype designations, and have been so indicated. Each 
example must, in fact, be treated individually, as Warren, 
along with most taxonomists, was not entirely consistent — 
we may only hope that our list is as error free as was most 
of B. C. S. Warren's work (of which a bibliography is given 
by Warren (1978) himself — note that the paper listed under 
1913 in the reference given here is omitted from that biblio- 
graphy). 

In the list the following contractions are used: Ht, 
holotype; Pt/Pts, paratype/s; Lt, Lectotype; Plt/s, paralecto- 
type/s; St/s, syntype/s; des., designated by; Prep./s, slide 
preparation/s. 

Acknowledgements 

The authors would like to thank Mrs. Warren, and Miss 
Elizabeth J. M. Warren, for their kindness and help in the 
task of transporting the Warren Collection safely to London, 
and our colleagues at the BMNH, Mrs. R. Arora, J .Huxley 
and R. L. Smiles, for their assistance in curating and re-housing 
the collection. Miss Warren (as did Dr. L. G. Higgins) also 
read the M/S, and suggested a number of corrections or 
improvements, many of which we have gratefully adopted. 
Miss Vera Dick kindly re-typed the final manuscript. 

(ro be continued) 



4 

THE FIRST RECORDS OF PAPILIO MACHAON 

L. IN ENGLAND 

By Dr. Ronald S. Wilkinson* 

While arranging the diverse and extensive data about 
early entomological observations in England discovered in 
James Petiver's papers (Sloane MSS., British Library), I have 
been able to record a number of obvious 'first' captures of 
British Lepidoptera. However, some cases have been more 
difficult, and have led to the investigation of sources far afield 
from the correspondence and notes of the gentle London 
apothecary-naturalist. 

The matter of the butterfly v^hich would be named 
machaon is one of these problems. The insect was well known 
to British naturalists of the seventeenth century as a Conti- 
nental species, because accounts of it were published, ac- 
companied by illustrations, in a number of European works. 
The first British imprint to 'describe' and figure machaon was 
the accretion last edited by Thomas Moffet and finally published 
as Insectorvm sive minimorum animalium theatrvm (London, 
1634), where machaon appears on pp. 98 (catchword)-99. But 
few of the insects in the book are mentioned as English, and 
machaon is not among these. 

John Ray, the earliest of the seventeenth-century workers 
usually regarded as the 'fathers' of scientific entomology in 
Britain, travelled on the Continent, and knew machaon from 
specimens collected in Europe. His posthumous Historia 
insectorum (London, 1710) contained an account of the butter- 
fly; he noted (pp. 110-111) that he had seen [the imago] in 
Sussex and Essex ("inque Sussexia & Essexia provinciis banc 
observavi") and the larva in Sussex. These data are hardly 
sufficient to establish first records, as they were presumably 
written after machaon was known by others to be a British 
species. But Ray's correspondence furnishes more evidence. 
In a letter of 17th July 1670 to his friend and Continental 
travelling companion John Willughby, Ray wrote from 
Middleton Hall, south of Tamworth, Warwickshire, that "This 
summer we found here the same horned Eruca [larva] , which 
you and I observed about Montpelier, feeding onFoeniculum 
tortuosum. Here it was found on common Fennel. It hath 
already undergone the first change into a chrysalis, and we 
hope it will come out a butterfly before winter" (Ray, 1848). 
Of course this was the larva of machaon, and the Montpelier 
observation is substantiated by the later account (Ray, 1710). 
The Warwickshire record of the larva found by Ray in 1670 
is thus the earliest precise one for machaon in Britain. 

But subsequent accounts are so unclear that we must 
look to a later period for a documented capture of the imago. 
Here enter two more 'fathers', James Petiver and the Braintree 
apothecary and friend of Ray, Samuel Dale. In the 1690's, 
these two and Ray were collecting simultaneously and, as 

♦The American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York 
10024. 



FIRST RECORDS OF PAPILIO MACHAON L. IN ENGLAND 5 

Petiver's manuscript remains show, were all familiar with each 
other's cabinets of insects. Thus it is possible that Dale was the 
first actually to capture the adult machaon, for when writing 
to him on 11th July 1696 (Sloane MS. 3332, f. 218), Petiver 
was surprised that Dale had taken the insect (his reference 
was to the obvious description in Mofifet, 1634). He commented 
that "I should be glad to see it being as yet a Stranger to me 
& as I thought to England." (It should be noted that recently 
Petiver had become acquainted with John Ray's cabinet, which 
suggests that Ray could not yet have captured the adult 
machaon, and perhaps that his Warwickshire specimen had 
not emerged. Of course Dale was familiar with Ray's collec- 
tion, which he helped to augment.) Dale probably took his 
adult machaon during one of his collecting rambles in Essex. 
As it turned out in the next few years, when naturalists were 
combing southern England for new records, machaon was 
captured again and again. But we must remember that its 
distribution was then considerably wider than it is now; in the 
seventeenth century it probably could have been found over 
a great part of the island. Printed and manuscript sources 
indicate that machaon was even captured in and about London 
in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. 

Curiously enough, when James Petiver published his first 
account of machaon in Musei Petiveriani centuria quarta & 
quinta (London, 1699), giving it the name of "The Royal 
William," he seems to have ignored Dale's capture, for after 
giving many citations from the literature he noted that "Mr. 
Ray tells me he hath observed this in the North of England, 
and the only one I have yet seen about London, was caught 
by my ingenious Friend Mr. Tilleman Bobart, in the Royal 
Garden at St. James's (p. 35). Ray's northern record has not 
been further verified, unless the Warwickshire larva was meant. 
Tilleman Bobart was among the more accomplished among 
seventeenth-century British entomologists, but little is known 
about him. He worked in the 'physic garden' at Oxford with 
his brother Jacob, and sent Ray his collections of insects. 
In 1703 Ray wrote to Hans Sloane that Tilleman Bobart was 
among others "more able and skilful" in the subject than 
himself (Raven, 1950). The origin of the common name 
"Royal William," which seems to have been in regular usage 
in the 1690's, is unknown, but machaon must have been, as 
the most splendid British butterfly yet discovered, honoured 
with the name of the monarch reigning at the time of the 
christening, William III (1689-1702). 

Machaon was the first butterfly named in Samuel Dale's 
manuscript "Cataloge of English Butterflies Reduced to Mr. 
Ray's Method 1704," but Dale, who again called the insect 
the "Royal William," furnished no details about his earlier 
capture (Dale, 1704). Petiver, who also used the common 
name in his Papilionum Britannioe (London, 1717) commented 
that "This has been caught about London and divers Countries 



6 entomologist's record I/I/81 

in England, yet rarely" (p. 1). Machaon does not appear at 
all in the first extensive colour-plate work on British ento- 
mology, Eleazar Albin's A natural history of English insects 
(London, 1720). The omission is strange, as Albin was ac- 
quainted with the early entomologists who knew machaon, 
and he was certainly familiar with the literature. Benjamin 
Wilkes, in the set of plates first published in 1742 and usually 
called the "Twelve new designs of English butterflies," first 
named machaon as "The Swallow-tail Butterfly" in print, and 
we must suppose that after several reigns William's charisma 
had faded. In Wilkes' later publication. The English moths 
and butterflies (London, [1747 or 48?-49]) he gave evidence 
of the already diminishing range of machaon. Although Petiver 
could take the butterjQy in London forty years before, Wilkes 
now had to go as far as "the Meadows and Clover Fields 
about Cookham, near Westram, in Kent," where with reason- 
able diligence the butterfly could be captured "without much 
Difficulty." Machaon had already been subjected to the rapid 
restriction of distribution which can be traced so dramatically 
in the records of the later eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

References 

Albin, E. 1720. A natural history of English insects. London. 

British Librar>-, Sloane MS. 3332. 

Dale, S., 1704. "Cataloge of English butterflies." MS. Royal Ento- 
mological Society of London. 

Moffet, T., 1634. Insectorvm sire minmorum animalium theatrvm. 
London. 

Petiver, J., 1699. Musei Petiveriani centuria guar (a & quinta. London. 

., 1717. Papilionutn Britanniae. London. 

Raven, C. E., 1950. John Ray, naturalist. 2nd ed. Cambridge. 

Ray, J., 1710. Historia insectorum. London. 

1848. The correspondence of John Ray. Ed. E. Lankester. 

Wilkes, B., 1742. "Twelve new designs of English butterflies." London. 

. [1747 or 48?-49]. The English moths and butterflies. 

London. 



A Report of the Black-veined White (Aporia crat- 
AEGi L.) near Eastbourne, Sussex in 1980. — Mrs. K. Piatt 
{Country Life, 16.x. 1980, 108 (4339): 1350; and in litt.) states 
that she and her husband saw three or four of this butterfly 
on the 15th July 1980, as they were walking across the downs 
from Eastbourne to Beachy Head. She writes me that the 
butterflies were at rest on Meadow Sweet in an open piece 
of ground by the low path as one approaches the Head, and 
that they watched them closely for about 15 minutes. 

During a conversation which I had with Mrs. Piatt, she 
remarked that the butterflies were resting with their wings 
open, that they were very attractive and that there was a 
lot of black in the markings. I suggested to her that it was 
perhaps more likely they were Marbled Whites (Melanargia 
galatea L.), upon which she agreed that they might have been 
that. The butterflies .were not photographed, and no specimen 
was taken. — J. M. Chalmers-Hunt. 



BRITISH PUGS 

By Brig. E. C. L. Simson* 
(Continued from Volume 92, page 266) 

20. E. succenturiata Linn. In my view this is far and 
away the most luxurious of the pugs. The contrast of white 
thorax and dark abdomen; the ample wings with their broad, 
dark edging surrounding a bright, white centre; itself covered 
with most delicate striae and set off with a large, black discal 
dot. So elegant! Larvae on Yarrow. Aug. & Sept. Note that 
they feed on the feathery leaves in preference to the flowers. 

21. E. millefoliata Rossi. Through the kindness of Dr. 
John Langmaid, who guided me, in person, to a choice site 
for this moth on the South Coast, I have bred a perfect series 
of this comparatively recent discovery. (First found in Hamp- 
shire in 1951). It is one of our largest pugs and, when bred, 
shows some warm, brown markings to relieve the rather drab, 
grey, general effect. Until shown how to find the larvae by 
Dr. Langmaid I had made a couple of abortive trips to the 
coast in previous years. I had always looked on the white 
flower-heads of the Yarrow and returned, each time, empty- 
handed. Dr. Langmaid said the larvae were only to be found 
on the brown, withered-looking seed-heads. Here the dark 
brown larvae achieve complete camouflage. I believe this to 
be the most perfectly adapted of all our pug larvae and, at 
first, had considerable difficulty in spotting them amongst the 
tightly packed seed-heads. Unfortunately, this concealment 
from human and, probably, birds' eyes had no effect on the 
parasitic Apantales which prey on all pug larvae. The losses 
amongst millefoliata larvae can be heavy, as the little, yellow 
cocoons of the parasite proliferate in the breeding box. 
However, a visit in a subsequent year enabled me to complete 
the series shown. 

22. E. castigata Hiibn. Rather a nondescript moth when 
caught in the wild. When bred, however, certain character- 
istics show up well; the chief one being the well marked 
double striae on the centre of the forewings. The larvae come 
to hand in fair numbers when sweeping for subumbrata larvae 
on the downland in August. This species occasionally produces 
an unusual, unmarked, dark-grey type, very similar to vir- 
gaureata. However, the lateral series of small, black spots on 
the abdomen distinguish it. 

23. E. lariciata Freyer. A fine pug, being larger and more 
boldly marked than castigata. It also bears a white spot at the 
base of the thorax ,which is the sure sign of the species. The 
larvae are often difficult to reach, because the favourite haunt 
of this species is thick-planted stands of Larch (Lari.x decidua.) 
40-50 ft high, with all the lower branches dead. This means 
the larvae are feeding over 30 ft from the ground. Further- 
more, the imagos also pass the day high up amongst the 

* Durnford Close, Chilbolton, Stockbridge, Hants SO20 6AP 



8 entomologist's record I/I/81 

larches and can not readily be flushed. However, an M.V. 
light, placed on the edge of the plantation in late June, will 
bring lariciata swarming to the sheet. Many will be in 
immaculate condition, indistinguishable from bred ones. 
Females can, of course, be kept for ova. 

24. E. virgaureata Doubl. In 1979 I was indebted to John 
Fenn for the receipt of a few larvae from Derbyshire. They 
did well enough on the ragwort I supplied them, until the 
time came for pupation, when 70% died. However, four pupae 
were made and to date one imago has emerged. The moth is 
uniformly dark grey with very pointed wings. Black, lateral 
veins on the forewings are conspicuous. In size it is equal 
to the average castigata. As regards the larva, I have nothing 
to add to G. M. Haggett's fine illustrations in Proc. Br. Ent. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 1, pit. Ill and his comments, except to 
say that, when disturbed, the larva assumes a corkscrew 
position and throws back its head and first three segments 
with its feet in the air, and have not noticed this extra- 
ordinary behaviour in any other pug larvae.^ 

25. E. plumbeolata Haw. Of this species B. Goater writes 
in The Butterflies and Moths of Hampshire and the Isle of 
Wight (1974): "The food plant, Melampyrum pratense is very 
local, and colonies exist on which I am sure the moth is 
absent". This is only too true and even when the moth has 
been proved to exist it may be only in very small numbers. 

I am thinking, particularly, of Pamber Forest in Hamp- 
shire. There the Cow Wheat covers large areas of the Forest 
and yet, work it as I may, with M.V. light and beating through 
the undergrowth, I have taken but four imagos; two on 
29.5.77 (one by beating, one to light) and two on 3.6.80, both 
by beating. At such a low density I have made no effort to 
collect the larvae. Where, in such a mass of pabulum, is one 
to start? 

The moth itself is entirely unexciting and, in a worn 
condition, can be distinguished from tenuiata by the fact that 
the abdomen is without markings. In a series, it is also larger. 

26. E. haworthiata Doubl. Wherever Clematis vitalba 
grows in the southern half of Britain there, I would opine, 
this small pug will be found. On the Hampshire chalk its 
numbers must be vast: every clump of vitalba is infested with 

' In rearing pugs I have become increasingly interested in the behaviour 
of larvae when disturbed. There is by no means an universal pattern: 
natural selection must have been at work! For instance, some larvae 
adopt an upright stance like a small stick; pimpinellata is a good 
example. Some fall to the ground and curl up; subnotata is such a 
one. Succenturiata freezes into a very good imitation of a question 
mark; but sparsaria flattens itself along the leaf's midrib and lies low. 
Tripunctaria does a bit of a corkscrew, like virgaureata, but does not 
throw its head and feet backwards. Millefoliata relies on its marvellous 
procrypsis and does nothing. 

Of course, many pug larvae pass their lives hidden in a bud or 
seed-capsule. When disturbed, and shown the light of day, they take up 
no extravagant posture. They are, after all, what Shakespeare called 
"a worm i' the bud" and that is, precisely, what they look like! 



BRITISH PUGS y 

the larvae, which disclose their presence by making a neat, 
round hole in the skin of the flower bud. Early August is a 
good time for the larvae. The imago, when bred, is dark grey 
with quite clear markings. The fact that the abdomen is suf- 
fused reddish towards the base is conclusive indentification. 

27. E. pygmeafa Hubn. This species shares with haworth- 
iata and inturbata the distinction of being Britain's smallest 
pug, but it is very much more handsome. When bred it appears 
quite glossy black, set off by a well pronounced subterminal 
line of white dots. Really very attractive. Once again I am 
indebted to John Fenn for my series. On the day after our 
success with valerianata we set off to find some growth of 
Mouse-ear Chickweed (Cerastium vulgatum-). My companion 
said that, because the whole water-table in the area had been 
lowered by persistent drainage, many of the marshy spots, 
where he had previously found the plant, had dried out and so 
had become unsuitable. We went to quite a few fenny places 
and searched without success. At last, in quite a small, wettish 
place amongst some fields we found the plant in small 
quantities. No flowers were present and the dried up plant, 
with its small seed cases, looked nothing like the illustration 
in my book. John was of the opinion that we might be too 
late for the larvae, the date being 28. 7. This was ideal for 
valerianata but latish for pygmeata, which was a month ahead. 

However, we picked bits from here and there till we had 
a bunch to fill one of my cellophane bags. No signs whatever 
of larvae. With little hope, therefore, I returned home and 
a few days later looked in the bag, preparatory to throwing 
away the rather unsavoury, and already slightly mildewed, 
mess. Then, to my joy, I saw frass on the cellophane. No frass 
has been greeted with more joy! I put the whole mass back 
in a clean bag and a week later took it out and shook it over 
a large newspaper. Scarcely believing my good fortune, I 
counted ten pygmeata pupae on the paper. The pupa of this 
pug is unlike any other pug that I have seen; being bright, 
yellowish brown all over. From these ten pupae emerged the 
nine imagos in the collection. 

28. E. tenuiata HUbn. In the Test valley, where I live, 
Salix caprea grows in uninhibited plenty. The catkins can be 
obtained, in early April, in enormous quantities, either by 
picking them from the tree or sweeping up those that have 
fallen. As the catkins of Salix caprea is the pabulum of 
tenuiata one might suppose that pug-hunters in the Test valley 
would be well supplied with the imago. Such is not the case. 
I do not know the reason why. Goater, in his book already 
quoted, states: "I have been unable to find a locality from 
which larvae may be bred in numbers from catkins". 

Personally, I have found it difficult to find localities in 
which it may even be bred in ones! Once, in the New Forest 

' Whereas both Meyrick and South give Stellaria holostea as the pabulum, 
John Fenn has never found pygmeata on this plant; always in the 
seed case of C. vulgatum. 



10 entomologist's record 1/1/ 81 

(17.4.76), while waiting for the light to fade so that Aleucis 
distinctata might flit about the little stunted sloes out on the 
lawn, I picked a bag of caprea catkins and the next morning 
found one full grown tenuiata larva, which promptly pupated 
(emerging 23.6.76). Next spring I returned to this favoured 
area and obtained another singleton larva from catkins taken 
from many sallow bushes. 

From time to time the moth appears at light, usually 
rather worn, and so serves to show up the rather drab beauties 
of the bred specimens. Altogether, an enigmatic species. 

29. E. trisignaria H.-S. Fortunately the larva of this pug 
is readily identifiable by its black head, because the imago is 
not at all easy to tell at a glance. It is only very thinly scattered 
over most southern counties and, even if the odd specimen is 
taken at light, a careful examination of the local Angelica in 
the following September seldom produces a larva. 

However, it is more plentiful in the West Midlands and 
I am indebted to Philip Sterling for the gift of some pupae 
from Herefordshire with which to augment my previous very 
small series. 

{To be continued) 

Falseuncaria ruficiliana Haw. (Lep.: Cochilidae) 
Biology. — Imagines of this species were first noted on Teg 
Down (V. C. 11) (Royal Winchester Golf Course) on 15th 
and 18th May 1979, flying in quite large numbers over 
Primula veris. When this area was next visited on 30th May, 
none were seen. However, on 24th July, it was again flying 
and specimens appeared quite fresh. The biology as given in 
Meyrick, Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera; Bradley, 
Tremewan and Smith,, British Tortricoid Moths; and Emmet, 
Smaller British Lepidoptera, is ova June and July, larva July 
to April, hibernating full-fed, and imago May and June. As 
the observations on Teg Down did not appear to fit this 
pattern, I visited the area with Dr. J. R. Langmaid on 8th 
June 1980, and we each gathered a dozen or so seed-heads of 
Primula veris at random. I had earlier noted imagines flying 
on 19th May. One or two of the seed-heads were opened a 
few days later and contained fairly mature larvae. Imagines 
started to appear from my batch on 4th July and over 30 
emerged over the following three weeks. The batch kept by 
Dr. Langmaid was kept indoors and emergences took place 
a few days earlier than mine. As both 1979 and 1980 were 
cool summers, the July emergence cannot be put down to 
abnormally warm weather conditions, and so it must be con- 
cluded that the species is bivoltine, at least in this part of 
the country, and not univoltine as has been accepted previously. 
It seems unlikely that the larvae resulting from the July moths 
would feed on Primula veris, as the heads which are still left 
are hard and dry by this time. However, Pedicularis sylvatica 
has been recorded as an alternative food-plant in England, 
and numerous other plants on the Continent. — Col. D. H. 
Sterling, "Tangmer^" 2 Hampton Lane, Winchester, Hamp- 
shire. 



11 

NOTES ON BREEDING LEPTIDEA SINAPIS 

AB. BRUNNEOMACULATA STAUDER: THE 

WOOD WHITE 

By John Payne* 
The male of this aberration is well-known to collectors 
of aberrant forms, since a number have been taken over the 
years, and the earliest record is that of Frohawk (1924), who 
refers to one taken in 1914. The female on the other hand 
is less frequent, though the late Alan Collier mentioned (in 
litt.) one taken in recent years by Mr. K. N. Bascomb, but 1 
do not know the details and cannot find any reference to it 
in the literature. However, when in June 1978, Mr. Alan 
Sharman brought me a female brunneomaculata, I thought 
it too good an opportunity to miss to try and breed this genetic 
character. Accordingly, the butterfly was caged with a large 
bunch of Bird's-foot Trefoil {Lotus corniculatus) in flower 
and fed rain water, and before she died she had laid 23 ova 
which resulted in 23 overwintered pupae. 

The emergence of L. sinapis in the wild is sometimes 
strange — first a general pattern of males with the odd female, 
going on to a peak of males and female, and often a 'tail' of 
mostly, and in some seasons only, females. So that I think 
that it happens that a goodly number of females are not 
found by males. This was evident on the occasion of this 
breeding: a strong 'tail' of females with no males still alive 
(the latter sex being notorious for not living long out of their 
environment, especially when boxed). 

All the Fl generation were typical. Four matings were 
seen, taking place at various times of the day. The females 
had a choice of foodplant, mostly from gathered seeds (the 
gathering of seeds should be done early, as they are later 
eaten by weevils). Besides Bird's-foot Trefoil, the flowers of 
Bush Vetch (Vicia sepium L.) and the Yellow Meadow Vetch- 
ling {Lotus pratensis L.) are useful as nectar sources, though 
Bird's-foot Trefoil was found to be the best lasting cut 
foodplant. The larvae also fed readily on the cultivated form 
{L. corniculatus flore-plena). 

White paper was put on the cage bottom so that one 
might detect feeding by the larvae, since they were extremely 
well camouflaged when very small and consequently very 
difficult to find. Later they were divided. No. 1 cage being 
kept indoors with a temperature range from 60° to 80°F plus, 
in an attempt to produce a second brood, and an impatience 
to see results (which could have been most interesting, bearing 
in mind the forms ab. erysimi Borkhausen and ab. lathyri 
Hbn.). 

No. 2 cage was kept out of doors in normal temperatures. 
The only difference resulted in some imagines from the 'hot' 
cage being smaller, and a female from the No. 2 cage which 
emerged on 2nd August 1979 was ab. brunneomaculata. (Note: 
* 10 Ranelagh Road, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire. 



12 entomologist's record 1/1/ 81 

The bivoltine tendency puzzles me, and it would be interesting 
to find what, if anything, triggers it oflf. A second brood does 
occur in the Silverstone area in some seasons around the 6th 
August). The total resuUs from the original female brunne- 
omaculata w&xt all typical males and females in the Fl 1979, 
plus only one in August, a female brunneomaculata as stated 
above. 

From matings from the type males and females, pupae 
were overwintered out of doors, and the F2 insects began to 
emerge in May 1980, with slightly above 25% being aberrant. 
The colour in the males varied greatly, few having the strong 
bright colour of the wild ab. and variously described as "pale 
sandy brown" (Russwurm, 1978), or "ochreus-buff" (Frohawk, 
1934), and both a much stronger, stable colour than that of 
the bred specimens (perhaps the foodplant has an influence 
on colour?). 

The colour in the females was the same as in the males, 
that is to say varied, but the underside identifies the aberration 
more certainly, and shows in some a greenish shade. One 
specimen had the underside lemon yellow. From the F2, 
further breeding was most difficult, butterflies showing little 
interest in mating, and when wild males were introduced, the 
copulation period lasted only minutes compared with a few 
hours in the wild. Only a few ova were laid, and these proved 
infertile. 

References 
Frohawk, F. W., 1924. Natural History of British Butterflies. 
Frohawk, F. W.. 1934. Complete Book of British Butterflies. 
Howarth, T. G., 1973. South's British Butterflies. 
Russwurm, A. D. A., 1978. Aberrations of British Butterflies. 



A Halved Gynandromorph of the Purple Hairstreak: 
QuERCUsiA QUERCUS L. — I wish to record, though rather 
belatedly, that from six full grown larvae of this butterfly, 
which I beat out at Pamber Forest, Hampshire on June 9th 

1979, on the occasion of the Croydon Natural History Society 
Field Meeting, I bred five normal examples and one that is 
a halved gynandromorph. This specimen has tlje right side ? 
and was exhibited at the 1979 Annual Exhibition of the 
British Entomological and Natural History Society. — W. 
LocKYER, 74, Frant Road, Thornton Heath, Surrey, CR4 7JR 
[So far as we know, this is only the second British example 
of a halved gynandromorph in this species. The first, with right 
side c? , formed part of lot 75 at the sale of the Samuel Stevens 
collection on 27.iii.1900, but no particulars of locality or 
other data were given. — J. M. C.-H.] 

CosMiOTES CONSORTELLA (Stt.) IN Devon. — Following 
Emmet's call for records of this species {Ent. Rec, 91: 13), 
I took two specimens of Cosmiotes consort ella (Stt.), both 
males, at Plympton, Devon on 11th April and 13th August 

1980. The area was wasteland and not on calcareous soil. Both 
were flying in the late afternoon. — R. J. Heckford, 67, 
Newnham Rd., Plympton, Plymouth, Devon. 



13 
INSECTS AND OIL PLATFORMS 

By M. R. Young* 

It is often difficult to decide on the origin and flight paths 
of migrating insects, but these days oil platforms can be used 
to help. Ornithologists realised this some years ago and there 
are several schemes, one, for example, funded by several oil 
companies and run by G. M. Dunnet, another run by the 
Nature Conservancy Council, which use amateur recorders 
amongst platforms workers to provide records of birds seen 
on migration. These are successful because there are many 
such ornithologists, but there are even a few entomologists 
on the platforms and I have been provided with records by 
several. The records are very scarce but nevertheless are 
interesting and obviously reflect real situations. For example, 
my regular helper, Alan Morley, found only two insects on 
platforms in 1979, but found many in 1980. 

All my records come from the Forties field which is about 
110 miles east of Aberdeen, the three platforms mentioned 
being a mile or so apart, but there is scope for records from 
platforms throughout the North Sea and I would like to 
encourage others with contacts on these platforms to start 
collecting such records. They could provide crucial evidence 
on migration routes. 

I would like to thank A. Morley particularly, but also 
C. Frost, D. Merrie and A. Douse for records, and E. C. 
Pelham-Clinton and K. Watt for identifying the Trichoptera 
and Diptera respectively. 

Records of insects from Forties field platforms in 1979 and 

1980 

17. 7.79 Forties Bravo 1 male Eurrhypara hortulata (L.) 

18. 8.79 Forties Bravo 1 ma\e Limnephilus a ffinis Curiis 
24. 8.79 Forties Bravo 1 female Fieri s rapae (L.) 

4. 6.80 Forties Bravo Several Trypetidae (Diptera) 
21. 7.80 Forties Bravo 1 male, 1 female Syrphus torvus 

Osten-Sacken, 1 male S. vitri- 

pennis Meigen 
24. 7.80 Forties Bravo 1 male 5. torvus 

27. 7.80 Forties Bravo Many Plutella xylostella (L.) 

1 Vanesse atalanta (L.) 

28. 7.80 Forties Bravo Many Autographa gamma (L.) 
9.10.80 Forties Alpha 1 Acheronda atropos (L.) 

12.10.80 Forties Charlie 1 male Agrochola circellaris... 

(Hufn.) 

* Department of Zoology, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Ave., 
Aberdeen, AB9 2TN. 



DiGITIVALVA PERLEPIDELLA (StT.) IN SuSSEX. — On 17th 

June 1980 during the middle of a thunderstorm I took at 
Arundel, Sussex a specimen of Digitivalva perlepidella (Stt.) 
sitting on the underside of a leaf of Inula conyza. I understand 
that this is probably the first record for Sussex. — R. J. 
Heckford, 67, Newnham Rd., Plympton, Plymouth, Devon. 



14 

THE TYPES OF DERMAPTERA DESCRIBED 
BY FABRICIUS 

By A. Brindle* 
The London types of Dermaptera described by Fabricius, 
which are in the British Museum (NH) were listed in Brindle 
(1970), together with the holotypes of the only two species 
described by Linnaeus, which are held by the Linnaean Society. 
The remaining Fabrician types are now in the Zoological 
Museum of Copenhagen University, and the identity of some 
of these has not been previously clarified. I am indebted to 
Dr. Henrik Enghoff for the recent loan of these types, and 
a summary of all Fabrician types is given in the present paper 
together with their present status. 

Two types are still unidentifiable: that of Forficula flex- 
uosa, which is lost, and that of Forficula pygmaea, which is 
in two parts which do not appear to be conspecific. Only one 
nomenclatorial change is necessary from the present study, 
which involves the species named as Forficula annulate. This 
species was listed as Labia annulata in Burr 1911) and this 
placing has been followed in recent papers, but the type is 
clearly identical to the species known as Euborellia stall 
(Dohrn 1864). This species thus becomes Euborellia annulata 
(Fabricius 1793). 

The following summary follows the list of Fabrician types 
given in Zimsen 1964, numbers 84-100, pp. 613-614), and the 
types examined are indicated by an asterisk. Most types were 
correctly placed in Burr (1911) but any names which have been 
subsequently placed in other genera, or where the names were 
incorrectly used, are noted. 
Summary of the Fabrician types of Dermaptera. 

1. Forficula fiexuosa 1775, Syst. Ent. 269 (Cayenne = 
French Guiana). Lost. The original description does not 
clearly indicate any one known species. Burr (1911) lists 
this as "species incerta sedis". 

* 2. F. dentata 1775, Syst. Ent. 270 (Madeira). British Museum 

(NH) Holotype c? — Forficula auricularia L. J*. 

* 3. F. parallela 1775, Syst. Ent. 270 (Madeira). British 

Museum (NH), 2 $ syntypes; Copenhagen Museum, 2 
5 syntypes = Forficula auricularia L. ?. 

* 4. F. morio 1775, Syst. Ent. 270 (Tahiti). British Museum 

(NH), 1 c?, 1 2, syntypes; Copenhagen Museum, 1 (^ , 
1 9 syntypes = Chelisoches morio (F.) cf, $. 

* 5. F. pallipes 1775, Syst. Ent. 270 (locality uncertain). 

British Museum (NH), 1 cf, 1 2, syntypes = Chelisoches 
morio (¥.). See Brindle (1970) for comments on these 
types. Given as synonym of Labidura riparia (Pallas) in 
Burr (1911). 
6. F. bipunctata 1781, Spec. Ins. 340 (Italy). Copenhagen 
Museum, 2 9 syntypes = Anechura bipunctata (F.). 2. 

* Entomology Dept., Manchester Museum University of Manchester, 
Manchester HI 3 9PL. 



THE TYPES OF DERMAPTERA DESCRIBED BY FABRICIUS 15 



7. F. gigantea llSl, Mant. Ins. I : 224 (Europe). Copen- 
hagen Museum, 3 svntypes = Labidura riparia (Pallas). 
■■ 8. F. albipes llSl, Mant. Ins. I : 224 (West Indies). 
Copenhagen Museum, holotype ? = Doru albipes {¥.) 
5. Type has head missing, and has a small written label 
"albipes". Listed as Phaulex albipes in Burr (1911). 
9. F. biguttata 1793, Ent. Syst. II : 2 (Hungary). Lost. 
Original description is good = Anechwa bipunctata (F.) 

= 10. F. flavipes 1793, Ent. Syst. II : 2 (Guinea). Copenhagen 
Museum, holotype ? = Labidura riparia (Pallas) ?. 

= 11. F. pygmaea 1793, Ent. Syst. II : 3 (Guinea). Copenhagen 
Museum, holotype. This is two pieces, the head, pro- 
notum, and an abdomen attached to a small card on a 
second pin. This last is darker than the other and has 
a spine on the pygidium suggesting it is an abdomen 
from a male Doru. The head, pronotum, and elytra 
suggest a Labiid but it is impossible to identify it satis- 
factorily. It is not Labia curvicauda (Motschulsky) as 
suggested in Burr (1911). 

= 12. F. annulata 1793, Ent. Syst. II : 4 (West Indies). Copen- 
hagen Museum, cf type = Euborellia stall (Dohrn) cf. 
Zimsen (1964) records three specimens but that seen has 
a small written label "annulata" and may be the only 
remaining specimen. Listed as Labia annulata in Burr 
(1911) and in recent papers, but there is no doubt of 
the identity of the type, and this has the annulate anten- 
nae, with some distal segments white, which explains 
the specific name. Euborellia stall (Dohrn) thus becomes 
Euborellia annulata (Fabricius). 

'13. F. erythrocephala 1793, Ent. Syst. II : 4 (West Indies). 
Copenhagen Museum, 9 type = Labidura riparia (Pallas) 
?. Zimsen (1964) records three specimens. 

44. F. elongata 1793, Ent. Syst. II : 4 (West Indies). Copen- 
hagen Museum, 2 c? syntypes = Forficula auricularia L. 
cf. These have rather long forceps, and a lectotype has 
been chosen as the smaller specimen, body length 10 mm., 
forceps 7 mm. The second specimen, body length 10.5 
mm., forceps 6.5 mm., has been labelled as a paralecto- 
type. This species is listed as uncertain in Burr (1911). 

15. F. flavipennis 1793, Ent. Syst. II : 5 (Senegal). Lost. 
Original description leaves no doubt about its identity 
= Chelisoches flavipennis (F.). Listed as Enkrates flavi- 
pennis in Burr (1911). 

16. F. herculeana 1793, Ent. Syst. Suppl. : 185 (St. Helena). 
Copenhagen Museum, holotype = Labidura herculeana 
(F.) .The type has been compared to specimens in the 
British Museum (NH) and elsewhere. Listed as synonym 
of Labidura riparia (Pallas) in Burr (1911). 

17. F. ruflcollis 1793, Ent. Syst. Suppl. : 185 (Tangier). 
Copenhagen Museum, holotype = Forficula ruficollis (F.). 



16 entomologist's record I/I/81 



References 

Brindle, A., 1970. Notes on the London types of Dermaptera described 

by Linnaeus and Fabricius. Entomologist's Rec, 82: 176-179. 
Burr, M., 1911. Genera Insectorum 122: 1-112. Bruxelles. 
Fabricius, I. C, 1715, Systema Entomologicae. Felsenberg-Lipsiae. 

, 1781. Species Insectorum. Hamburg. 

— , 1787. Mantissa Insectorum. Hafniae. 

— , 1793. Entomologia sytematica. Hafniae. 

Zimsen, E., 1964. The type material of I. C. Fabricius. Copenhagen. 



Current Literature 

Liste systematique et synonymique des Lepidopteres de France, 
Belgique et Corse by Patrice Leraut. 334 pp. Supplement 
to Alexanor and the Bulletin de la Societe entomologique 
de France, Paris, 1980. Price not stated. 

A check list of British insects (Part 2), Lepidoptera by 
Kloet & Hincks (1972) led to the virtual standardisation of 
nomenclature and taxonomy in this country. No comparable 
work was available in France and as a result for "several 
decades the most complete anarchy has reigned in France in 
the lepidopteran nomenclature" (p. 15). To remedy this, Patrice 
Leraut, an amateur entomologist, undertook in 1974 the 
arduous task of compiling a comprehensive check list, with 
synonyms, of the French Lepidoptera. This work has ensued 
after over five years of research. 

Taxonomy is not an exact science. Biologists are not 
agreed even over the definition of a species, and genera, 
subfamilies, families and superfamilies are groupings of con- 
venience, liable to modification in the hands of successive 
researchers. Systematic arrangement has to be linear and the 
taxonomist would like it to resemble a ladder leading up from 
the most primitive to the most advanced, with the genera as 
its successive rungs. Instead he is faced by a tree with series 
of more or less parallel branches, and a problem of priorities. 
Leraut has sought the advice of leading authorities but it is 
aware that whatever choices he makes will displease one 
section of his readers. He modestly writes, " There is no doubt 
that after its publication this list will soon be out of date. 
It would be an illusion to think one can permanently establish 
the nomenclature. If nevertheless this work stimulates a little 
criticism, bringing about revision of the groups, I will be 
thoroughly convinced of its usefulness" (p. 35). 

A full comparison of his taxonomic arrangement with 
that of Kloet & Hincks is impossible within the compass of 
a review, nor is it easy to predict his influence on British 
thinking. But since his work is bound to have an impact. I 
shall draw attention to some of the main discrepancies. These 
are to be found chiefly in the Microlepidoptera. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 17 

The Monotrysia of Kloet & Hincks gives place to three 
new suborders, the Exoporia (Hepalioidea), Nannolepidoptera 
(Nepticuloidea) and Incurvariina (Incurvarioidea). Two super- 
families appear which were not utilised by Kloet & Hincks, the 
Copromorphoidea, comprising the Epermeniidae, Schrecken- 
steiniidae and Glyphipterigidae; and the Sesioidea, embracing 
the Sesiidae and Choreutidae (strange bedfellows! ). It is 
interesting that the Choreutidae and Glyphipterigidae, which 
were formerly grouped together in one family of the Ypono- 
meutoidea, now find themselves separated and reassigned each 
to a different superfamily. 

As far as families are concerned, the Saturniidae are 
designated Attacidae in accordance with French tradition, 
and that vexed species Diloba caeruleocephala (Linnaeus) is 
given a family all its own, the Dilobidae. The changes in the 
Microlepidoptera are too many to list in entirety. They are 
greatest in the Gelechioidea and the following comparative 
table of the families and relevant subfamilies found in Britain 
will show how sweeping they are, both in concept of family 
status and the sequence in which they are presented. As far 
as I can tell, Leraut's arrangement differs from that of all 
previous authorities (see, for example, Hodges, 1978: 7). 

Leraut (1980) Kloet & Hincks (1972) 

Ethmiidae Coleophoridae 

Stathmopodidae Elachistidae 

Oecophoridae Oecophoridae 

Elachistidae Ethmiidae 

Coleophoridae Gelechiidae 
Blastodacnidae Symmocinae 

Blastobasidae Blastobasidae 

Symmocidae Stathmopodidae 

Momphidae Momphidae 
Batrachedridae Batrachedrinae 

Scythrididae Momphinae 

Cosmopterigidae Cosmopteriginae 

Gelechiidae Blastodacninae 

Scythrididae 

Leraut treats the Chrysopeleiinae as a subfamily of the 
Cosmopterigidae. He divides the Gelechiidae into five sub- 
families, the Anomologinae, Gelechiinae, Anacampsinae, 
Chelariinae and Dichomerinae and moves the genera Sitroga, 
Platyedra and Pexicopia to the Chelariinae. Kloet & Hincks 
gave no subfamilies and the three of Heslop (1964) were 
differently conceived. 

Tribal names are introduced (termination "-ini"), but 
only in certain families; for example, the Geometridae are 
divided into 38 tribes whereas there are none in the Noctuidae. 



18 entomologist's record I/I/81 

As for species, there is very little difference in nomen- 
clature from Kloet & Hincks, though their sequence within 
genera is sometimes different. A few single taxa in the British 
list are split, e.g. Parornix fagivora (Frey) and P. carpinella 
(Frey); Coleophora suaedivora Meyrick and C. salinella Stain- 
ton. In other instances, two of our species are synonymised, 
e.g. Sdgmella luteella (Stainton) and S. distinguenda (Heine- 
mann) — wrongly for certain. One or two names on our list 
are synonymised with species considered not to occur in 
Britain, for example Antispila petryi Martini with A. treit- 
schkiella (Fischer von Roslerstamm), and Phyllocnistis xenia 
Hering with P. labyrinthella (Bjerkander), this being against 
the evidence of the mines in the Hering herbarium. Depres- 
saria brunneella Ragonot is treated as a subspecies of D. 
badiella (Hubner). A few names are changed: Leucoptera 
scitella (Zeller, 1839) becomes L. malifoliella (O. G. Costa, 
[1836]); Coleophora benanderi Kanerva, 1941 (not in Kloet 
and Hincks but no. 565 in Bradley & Fletcher, 1979) becomes 
C. saxicolella (Duponchel, 1843); and C. ardeaepennella Scott, 
1861 is tentatively synonymised with C. betulella Heinemann, 
[1875], although Scott's name has priority if the synonymy is 
established. Occasionally an author's name differs from that 
in Kloet & Hincks. For example, Leraut ascribes Stigmella 
(Johanssonia) acetosae to Shield instead of to Stainton. The 
first mention of the name is as follows, "Nepticula acetosae 
(Stainton), n.sp., larvae in leaves of Rumex acetosella; July, 
October and November" (Shield, 1853); if this can be inter- 
preted as a description, Leraut is right. 

The supporting text is in four languages, French, Dutch, 
German and English; page references given in this review are 
to the English sections. There is a Foreword by C. C. Luquet, 
Assistant at the Entomological Laboratory, National Museum 
of Natural History, Paris ((pp. 15-16). This is followed by an 
Introduction by the author, in which he states the principles 
he has observed, how the list is to be used and his principal 
sources; it ends with a list of acknowledgements (pp. 35-39). 
Next comes a list of Suborders, Families and Subfamilies 
(pp. 42-43). The list itself, to be considered below, occupies 
pp. 47-174. Addenda and Corrigenda, which are up-to-date 
almost to within days of publication, are on pp. 187-189. 
Explanations, which justify the inclusion of species not given 
in Lhomme (1923- [1963]) or explain controversial nomen- 
clature, appear on pp. 227-237. References are on pp. 239-250. 
Three Indices end the work — Abbreviations of author's 
names (pp. 253-254); Suborders, family-group taxa and genus- 
group taxa (pp. 255-273); and Species-group taxa (pp. 275-334). 

The list itself closely resembles Kloet & Hincks but has 
certain differences. Each species is given a serial number as 
in Bradley & Fletcher (1979); these run to 4677 and as there 
are additions, indicated by the suffix "a" to the preceding 
number, the total probably exceeds 4700. nearly double the 
British list. Subspecies and late additions are both designated 



CURRENT LITERATURE 19 

by adding "a", "b", etc. to the previous number. The adoption 
of the same convention for two quite different purposes 
causes little confusion in practice. All specific names are 
preceded by the generic initial or initials, since the French 
abreviate Phyllonorycter to "Ph.", etc. Where applicable, 
subgeneric in'itals follow in parentheses. Authors' names are 
given in full, but are not placed in brackets as in Kloet & 
Hincks When the rules of the International Code of Nomen- 
clature so require. Leraut says the additional research would 
have delayed publication, but I suspect the real reason was 
frustration with What is regarded in some quarters as an un- 
necessary rule. An improvement on Kloet & Hincks is the 
addition of initials where there are two or more nomenclators 
of the same name, e.g. M. Hering and O. Hering. The author's 
name is followed by the date, in square brackets when the 
rules so require. After that comes the number of the species 
in Lhomme's Catalogue in round brackets; this cross-reference 
is useful since Lhomme gives details of foodplants, distribution, 
etc. and so is not superseded. In the case of most species not 
listed by Lhomme, a number in square brackets is given, 
referring to a note in Explanations. The further qualification 
(B) or (C) indicates that the species is found only in Belgium 
or Corsica. Synonyms are given below, indented and in italics. 
Many subspecies are listed, especially in the butterflies and 
burnets, and some of these may prove to be controversial. 

As in Kloet & Hincks, adjectival specific names are given 
their original gender, not that of the genus in which they 
now stand. Personally, I not only find the false concord dis- 
tasteful but also a burden on my memory. In Meyrick (1929) 
or Beirne (1952), for example, one knows that all adjectival 
specific names in the genus Crambus or compounded genera 
will have masculine terminations. Now, all but four are femi- 
nine. Can you remember which four those are? 

Two classes of entry appear which are not found in 
Kloet & Hincks. Fossil species are included, their names being 
preceded by the symbol t- Also current species which have 
not yet been determined are listed; thus on p. 68 entries 
816-818 read "E.sp." {Elachista sp.). 

The list is printed in clear type on good quality paper. 
In common with so many modern books, it does not stay 
open, a serious disadvantage in a work of reference. No price 
is cited in acordance with a French law desgned to encourage 
firms to sell at competitive prices. I am told it will sell at 
about £25. 

I am overwhelmed by the merits of this work. Although 
no doubt help was freely given, it is essentially the product 
of the industry of a single amateur. In a review one tends 
to dwell on supposed defects, leaving virtues unsung. The degree 
of accuracy is phenomenal. Species no. 56 is misspelt ''dorsi- 
gutella" and no. 553 ""distendella". No. 61 Trifurcula (Levar- 
chamd) dorycniella (Suire) is wrongly placed in Stigmella. 
No. 2028 is still given as Rhopobota unipunctana (Haworth) 



20 entomologist's record 1/1/ 81 

although the name naevana (Hiibner) has been reinstated. 
The wrong type-face is used for Semiothisini on p. 144. There 
are one or two slips of no significance in the Enghsh section 
of the text. No doubt there are other errata but they are very, 
very few. The whole work reflects meticulous scholarship. 
It will be of inestimable value to the French lepidopterist 
and the Englishman who collects in western Europe. As the 
author himself recognises, not everyone will accept his sys- 
tematics in foto. but they are bound to influence future 
thought. It is for others to decide whether modifications will 
need to be made to the British list, steering one hopes, a 
wise course between the natural yearning for stability and 
an open-minded readiness to accept soundly reasoned new 
ideas; we may well have to make changes in our cabinets. 
I recommend this list without reservations to the lepidopterist 
who collects abroad and the student of taxonomy. 

A. M. Emmet, 15.X.1980 

References 

Beirne, B. P., 1954. British pyralid and plume moths, 208 pp., 16 col. 

pis, 189 text figs. Lx)ndon. 
Bradley, J. D. & Fletcher, D. S. 1979. A recorder's log book or label 

list of British butterflies and moths, 136 pp. London. 
Heslop, I. R. P., \96A.Revised indexed check-list of the British Lepi- 

doptera, vi, 145 pp. London. 
Hodges, R. W., 1978. The motifs of America north of Mexico, fascicle 

6.1 Gelechioidea: Cosmopterigidae, 166, x pp., 6 col. pis, 53 text- 
figs. London. 
Kloet, G. S. & Hincks, W. D., 1972. A check list of British Insects 

(Edn 2): Lepidoptera. Handbk Ident. Br. Insects. 11 (2): viii, 153 

pp. London. 
Lhomme, L.. 1923-1963. Catalogue des Lepidopteres de France et de 

Belgigue, 1 and 2, 800, 1253 pp. Le Carriol, par Doulle (Lot). 
Meyrick, E., 1928. A revised handbook of British Lepidoptera, 914 pp. 

London. 
Shield, R., 1853. Note, Zoologist. 1853: 4153. 

Notes and Observations 

Cataplectica FARRENi Walsingham (Lep. : Epermeniidae) 
IN England. — I am happy to be able to tell Dr. Hulme 
(supra, p. 171) that this species is not extinct in England. 
Farren's original specimens were taken in Cambridgeshire. 
The Faircloughs took two adults at Freckenham, just over 
the Suffolk border, on 3. viii. 1974. Last sumer I took one at 
the Bartlow Hills, about 100 yards on the Essex side of the 
border with Cambridgeshire and less than two miles from 
Linton, one of Farren's Localities. 

The life history is still unknown and in The Field Guide 
I did no more than echo Meyrick and Ford, who in turn were 
repeating Farren's own conjecture. My specimen, which I 
netted on 12.vii.l980, was a worn female flying amongst 
Chenopodium album, but there is no reason to think that this 
is the foodplant; Heracleum, on the other hand, is very likely. 
As far as I am aware, this species is still known only from 
Britain. — A. M. Emmet, Labrey Cottage, Victoria Gardens, 
Saffron Walden, Essex, CBll 3AF. 16. .xii.1980. 



notes and observations 21 

The Death's-head Hawkmoth and other Immigrants 
IN Warwickshire in 1980. — Singletons of the Hummingbird 
Hawkmoth, Macroglossum stellatarum L., appeared at Charle- 
cote on June 15th, 17th, 22nd, 25th, 27th, 29th, July 2nd and 
25th, mainly at valerian flowers; a male of the Vestal, Rhodo- 
metra sacraria L. was taken at Charlecote at m.v.l., by Mr. 
D. Brown on September 20th; at Marton, a female Scarce 
Bordered Straw, Heliothis armigera Hbn. occurred at Mr. G. 
Robson's m.v.l. on Septemeber 21st; and a male Gem, Ortho- 
nama obstipata F. appeared in my m.v. trap here at Charlecote 
on October 26th. Finally, on September 28th, Mr. J. Beards 
noted his cat playing with a large moth in his drive at 
Southam, which he rescued and gave to me; it is a female 
Death's-Head Hawkmoth, Acheronda atropos L., in remark- 
ably good condition considering. — A. F. J. Gardner, Willows 
End, 29, Charlecote, nr. Warwick. 

A Further Note on Donacia versicolorea (Brahm) 
(Col.: Chrysomelidae). — Following the note by A. A. 
Allen {Ent. Record 92: 152) on the later occurrence in the 
year of this species, than most other members of the genus, 
I can add a further sighting for September; on 14.ix.l980 at 
Goonhilly Downs, Cornwall, I saw both sexes of D. versi- 
colorea in abundance, on the leaves of Potamogeton natans, 
in a shallow pool on the moorland. Other sightings were single 
specimens on 18.viii.80 and 20.viii.80, in the same area though 
in different pools. 

In addition, one of the specimens taken on 14.ix.80, a 
male, has an unusual deformation of the left meso-thoracic 
leg, in having a split or double tibia forming a 'V shape; a 
malformation no doubt rare in the group. — A. P. Foster, 
Ladn Vean, Mawnan Smith, Falmouth, Cornwall, TRll 5ES. 

Coleophora lassella Staud. in Cornwall. — In June 
1977 I took part in a Nature Conservancy Council survey of 
the Lizard, Cornwall, On 15th June at Predannack Airfield 
I took a specimen of a Coleophora which I could not identify 
at the time. I disturbed it on a dull morning from an area 
which to the best of my recollection consisted mainly of long 
grass with some Pulicaria dysenterica. 

It is only now that I have identified this as female Coleo- 
phora lassella Staud. This appears to be the first Cornish 
record of a species which has been found in only a few 
localities in England. — R. J. Heckford, 67, Newnham Rd., 
Plympton, Plymouth, Devon. 

Observations on Dr. Horton's Note. — I read Dr. 
Neil Horton's note in the June issue of the Record with 
interest, particularly his reference to his finding Apamea 
oblonga Haw. in a reed bed near the Severn in Monmouth- 
shire. This same insect occurs fairly commonly round a reed 
bed much further up the Severn at Frampton on Severn in 
Gloucestershire. All the specimens are of the smooth un- 
marked form. I presume that the reed bed plays no part in 



22 entomologist's record I/I/81 

its distribution, but was the attraction to the entomologist 
to place his MV light here and so draw oblonga from its 
habitat among the grasses at the edge of the tidal estuary. 
The Frampton on Severn isolated reed bed of li acres is a 
good spot for Wainscotes and carries populations of Leucania 
straminea Treit., Nonagria dissoluta Treit. and Chilodes 
maritima Tausch. 

The author is not right about Magor Reserve being the 
only locality to the west of Offa's Dyke for the Water Ermine 
(Spilosoma urdcae Esp.). I took it commonly in Borth Bog 
on June 18th 1960. Not in the southern sweet gale section 
known for Eurgraphe subrosea Stephens, but in the northern 
part which is dense reed bed. Panaxia dominula Linn, occurs 
at the same time, Mythimna turca Linn, a few weeks later. 
Incidentally, I noted in my diary for that date "This marsh 
may well contain rarities". Little did I know that if, instead 
of putting an MV light among the reeds I had examined the 
sweet gale with a Tilly lamp, I might have spotted the first 
subrosea larvae seen for a hundred years. — R. P. Demuth, 
Watercombe House, Oakridge, Glos. GL6 7PN. 

Immigrant Lepidoptera in 1980 in South Westmor- 
land AND North Lancashire. — The first sign of migrants 
here was 8th June, when in showery weather two Cynthia 
cardui L. and several Autographa gamma L. appeared in my 
garden, and the following morning the number of gamma at 
m.v.l. had escalated to 22 from the past week's nightly average 
of three. On 10th June, five Nomophila noctuella D. & S. 
sudenly appeared in the trap, and the same night four Udea 
ferrugalis Hbn. entered Mr. C. Scott's moth trap at Arnside, 
two miles away. A single A gratis ipsilon Hufn. on the 14th, 
followed by a reliable report of a Colias croceus Geoff, seen 
at Sunderland Point near Lancaster that week, and the small 
spate of migrants appeared to have passed by. The indications 
of a cardui year were fulfilled in August and September when, 
despite bad weather, it was far more plentiful than for many 
years past. On 31st August Mr. John Wilson, warden of the 
R.S.P.B. Reserve at Leighton Moss, Silverdale, counted 138 
on the Reserve, which were not seen to be moving in any 
particular direction. That some of the species had bred in the 
district was proved by the finding of pupae on Arnside Knott 
in September, by a Research student working for the National 
Trust. 

Mr. W. Kydd informed me of the sighting of three C. 
croceus near Ulverston, N. Cumbria in late August. This 
prompted us to look out for the species in this district, and 
sure enough on 1st September, Mr. J. Leedal photographed 
one at rest on a flower head, on a disused railway embankment 
in Lancaster, and three more were seen in the same locality 
on 2nd September and one on the 4th, all by the same observer. 
On 26th September, Mr. J. Whitehouse boxed a large female 
croceus at rest on a roadside hedge at Hoghton near Black- 
burn. It is more than twenty years since so many croceus 
were recorded in these parts. Vanessa atalanta L. was also fairly 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 23 

common in September and early October, and on three 
separate occasions in September, a specimen was found in a 
light trap at Arnside among the moths. 

In 12 years of consistently operating an m.v. light trap 
here, Udea ferrugalis Hbn. has never exceeded six specimens 
in one year, but this year there were 161. These did not 
suddenly appear in numbers overnight, and just as quickly 
pass by as migrants usualy do, but slowly built up in numbers 
from late August until mid-September, and were about until 
5th October. I mentioned this to the now late Mr. Arthur 
Watson, at the Lancashire & Cheshire Entomological & Natural 
History Society's Annual Evhibition on 25th October, when he 
informed me that the species was abundant in September on 
the St. Annes-on-Sea Nature Reserve, where he was warden, 
and that they were in his opinion locally bred. 

I also had more Nomophila noctuella D. & S. in 1980 
than ever before in one year, mostly spread over the whole 
of September, and totalling 31 compared to an average of six 
in former years. The 38 A gratis ipsilon Hufn., slightly above 
the average annual total, were spread out in ones and twos in 
August, September and October, but there was only one 
Peridroma saucia Hbn. this year. On the other hand, a total 
of 489 Autographa gamma L. at light in 1980 was above 
average. After the Spring movement, gamma was almost absent 
until August, when there were three separate upsurges in 
numbers and rapid declines in that month. There were two 
similar fluctuations in September, not paralelled by other 
species coming in to light. Contrary to our experience during 
the last few years, gamma was scarce here in October. — J. 
Briggs, 5, Deepdale Close, Slackhead, Beetham, Nr. Miln- 
thorpe, Cumbria LA7 7AY. 

On the Recent Occurrence in Britain of Caryocolum 
BLANDULELLA TuTT. — At about mid-day on the 20th of 
August 1978, I netted a small gelechiid on the sandhills that 
border the Reserve of the Kent Trust for Nature Conser- 
vation at Sandwich Bay, Kent. After setting the insect, a 
rather worn female, it was put on one side for further 
examination. Recently, I submitted the moth to Mr. E. S. 
Bradford who, after preparing a slide of the genitalia pro- 
nounced it as probably referable to Carycolum blandulella 
Tutt, and the specimen was later confirmed by Dr. K. Sattler 
as belonging to this species. The life history of C. blandulella 
is unknown so far as I am aware, and apparently this is the 
first time since 1891 that the species has been taken in Britain. 

C. blandulella was first described from Kent by J. W. 
Tutt in 1887 (in Ent. mon. Mag., 24: 105) on the basis of 
specimens which he took on the Deal sandhills. Although 
Meyrick (1928, Rev. Handbook Br. Lep., 635) stated the 
species had not ben recorded from abroad and moreover was 
only known from Kent, the moth had already been cited 
from Hampshire by Goss and Fletcher (1900, Lepidoptera in 
Victoria County History of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, 



24 entomologist's record 1/1/ 81 

1: 151), who noted it from the sandhills on Hayling Island. 
Goater (1974, Butterflies and Moths of Hampshire and the 
Isle of Wight, 105) in the absence of available corroboration, 
rightly placed the latter within square brackets, but the 
V.C.H. record is in fact correct, and blandulella is a good 
Hampshire species. In the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) are 
four of W. B. Fletcher's blandulella from Hayling dated 1891, 
and one suspects there are others from there in the Fletcher 
collection at Cambridge. There is also in the BMNH, a series 
of about 30 blandulella from Deal and Sandwich taken during 
the 1880's, including the lectotype. In conclusion, I wish to 
thank both Mr. Bradford and Dr. Sattler for kindly deter- 
mining my example of blandulella. — J. M. Chalmers-Hunt. 

The Swallow-tail Moth in October. — I must record 
with surprise the arrival on the night of October 22nd 1980 
at my m.v. trap here of a male Ourapteryx sambucaria L. 
(Swallow-tail Moth) in very good condition. It seems an 
exceptionally late date although South reports in The Moths 
of the British Isles a 1904 record from Gravesend, Kent also 
on October 22nd. — K. G. W. Evans, 31, Havelock Rd., 
Croydon, Surrey CRO 6QQ. 

Cynthia cardui (L.). — Whilst walking along a ride in 
the Halwili Forest, four miles east south east of Holsworthy, 
Devon on June 7th 1980, two C. cardui were seen flying over 
their "territories". Close examination showed that one was 
in pristine condition and appeared freshly emerged. — A. J. 
Baldwin, 33, Defoe Ave., Kew Gardens, Surrey. 

Courtship Behaviour by a Wood White: Leptidea 
siNAPis L. — On Sunday, 10th August, 1980, whilst in Kings- 
park Wood, West Sussex, I happened to meet Miss D. Ashby 
who later pointed out to me the courtship behaviour of this 
butterfly of which I had no previous knowledge. A male had 
flown to a sitting female and settled facing her. He was soon 
seen to be striking her across the base of her antennae with 
his extended proboscis. After a little while, perhaps because 
of our close observation, he flew away. I wonder if this could 
be a means of establishing whether she had paired? — S. L. 
Meredith, 5, Rutlish Road, Merton Park, London SW19 3AL. 

Request for Recording Releases of Clostera ana- 
CHORETA D. & S. — In view of the large numbers of larvae 
of this species which were distributed around the country 
during 1980 I feel that some sort of record should be kept of 
the areas where surplus specimens have been released. If this 
is not done future records of the ocurrence of the moth as an 
immigrant will have little value. I will therefore make a start 
by giving districts where I released specimens. These are larvae 
at Slindon Park Woods, West Sussex; New Forest (Denny 
Wood and Lady Cross); and imagines at Walberswick, Suffolk. 
If the insect manages to establish itself it will not matter 
anyway, but if it largely dies out, such records may help to 
establish which are new immigrants and which are the result 
of releases. — H. E. Chipperfield, The Shieling, Walberswick, 
Suffolk. 



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CONTENTS 



The B. C. S. Warren Collection and its Type Material. R. I. VANE- 
WRIGHT and P. R. ACKERY 

The First Records of Papilio machaon L. in England. Dr. R. S. WIL- 
KINSON 

British Pugs. Brig. E. C. L. SIMSON 

Notes on Breeding Leptidea sinapis ab. brunneomaciilata Stauder: 
the Wood White. J. PAYNE 

Insects and Oil Platforms. Dr. M. R. YOUNG 

The Types of Dermaptera described by Fabricius. A. BRINDLE 

Notes and Observations: 

A Report of the Black-veined White (Aporia crataegi L.) near 
Eastbourne, Sussex in 1980. J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT .. 

Falseuncaria ruficiliana Haw. (Lep.: Cochilidae) Biology. Col 
D. H. STERLING 

A Halved Gynandromorph of the Purple Hairstreak: Quercu 
quercus L. W. LOCKYER 

Cosmiotes consortella (Stt.) in Devon. R. J. HECKFORD 

Digitivaha perlepidella (Stt.) in Sussex. R. J. HECKFORD 

Cataplectica farreni Walsingham (Lep.: Ei>ermeniidae) in Eng- 
land. Lt. Col. A. M. EMMET 

The Death's-head Hawkmoth and other Immigrants in Warwick 
shire in 1980. A. F. J. GARDNER 

A Further Note on Donacia versicolorea (Brahm) (Col.: Chrysv 
melidae). A. P. FOSTER 

Coleophora lassella Stand, in Cornwall. R. J. HECKFORD . 

Observations on Dr. Horton's Note. R. P. DEMUTH 

Immigrant Lepldoptera in 1980 in South Westmorland and 
North Lancashire. J. BRIGGS 

On the Recent Occurrence in Britain of Caryocolum blandulella 
Tutt. J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT 

The Swallow-tail Moth in October. K. G. W. EVANS 

Cynthia cardui aO- A. J. BALDWIN 

Courtship Behaviour by a Wood White: Leptidea sinapis L. 
S. L. MEREDITH 

Request for Recording Releases of Clostera anachoreta D. & S. 
H. E. CHIPPERFIELD 

Current Literature 

The Butterflies and Moths of Kent, Volume 3. J. M. CHALMERS- 
HUNT 



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25 

A KEY TO THE XYLOTINI (SENSU HIPP A) 
KNOWN IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, 
PLUS XYLOTA IGNAVA (DIPT., SYRPHIDAE). 

By Martin C. D. Speight* 

Since the key to Xylota species incorporated into Coe 
(1953) appeared in print Hippa's outstanding revisionary 
work on the Xylotini of the world has been published (Hippa, 
1978). As a result of Hippa's research, generic concepts in 
this hoverfly tribe have altered considerably, as has the 
concept of the tribe itself. In addition, Alan Stubbs has added 
another Xylota species, X. coeruleiventris Zett., to the British 
list. This species has also subsequently been found in Ireland. 
There is thus an evident need for a revised key to the Xylotini 
known in Great Britain and Ireland. The key which follows 
includes all of the species involved, together with X. ignava 
Panz. The latter hoverfly occurs locally over most of Western 
Europe, including Channel coast countries from France North- 
wards. I have found it in mixed beech (F<2^w5)/spruce (Picea 
abies) woods. It is included in the key because, due to its 
strong general resemblance to X. segnis L., it could otherwise 
be overlooked were it to occur in the British Isles. A further 
continental Xylota, X. meigeniana (Stack.), also demands 
mention. This species is known as far West as Scandinavia 
and according to Hippa (1968) can only be separated from 
X. florum (Fab.) on genitalic characters. Its close similarity 
to X. ^orum and its recent date of description (1964) would 
suggest that its known distribution quite possibly in no way 
reflects the limits of its range in Europe. All the males of 
British and Irish X. florum I have seen conform in their 
genitalia with the illustration of X. florum genitalia given by 
Hippa (1968), who also depicts the genitalia of X. meigeniana. 
In X. florum the outer margin of each cercus is distinctly 
concave, so that the cercus appears bluntly bilobed, while in 
X. meigeniana each cercus has a simple convex outer margin. 

Apart from X. ignava all of the species keyed out below 
are known from Great Britain and apart from C. eunotus 
(Lw.), X. ignava and X. xanthocnema Coll. all are also 
recorded from Ireland However, the solitary sight record of 
a female X. abiens Mg. from Ireland reported by Coe (1953) 
could well have been based on a misdetermination, since the 
presence in Ireland of X. coeruleiventris Zett. was not then 
known and these two species are virtually indistinguishable 
in the fiield, at least in the female sex. Where relevant, 
generic distinctions cited by Hippa (1978) have been used in 
the key, so that if species unsuspected in the British Isles 
should turn up they can at least be consigned to the correct 
genus. All of the known European genera of the tribe Xylotini 
are already recorded in both Great Britain and Ireland. 

* Research Branch, Forest and Wildlife Service, 2 Sidmonton Place, 
Bray, Co. Wicklow, Eire. 



26 entomologist's record I/II/81 

KEY 

1. Metasternum with hairs as long as those on ventral area 
of mesopleura 2 

- metasternum almost bare (hairs much shorter than those 
on ventral area of mesopleura) 3 

2. Mesonotum shining, almost entirely undusted (a pair of 
vague longitudinal stripes can be discerned anteriorly); 
abdominal tergite 3 (and usually t.2) with orange/pinkish 
marks Chalcosyrhus nemorum (Fab.) 

- mesonotum dull and with three dull, black, longditudinal 
stripes, the median one forking at the transverse suture, 

the other two lateral; abdomen unmarked 

C. eunotus (Lw.) 

3. Hind femora with median spinose ridge apicoventrally; 

frontal prominence unusually produced Brachy- 

palpoides lenta (Mg.) 

- hind femora with lateral spinose ridges or rows of spines 
apicoventrally; frontal area normal 4 

4. Head strongly triangular in front view; arista about as 

long as maximum width of face Brachypalpus 

laphriformis (Fal.) 

- head cordate, arista very much longer than maximum 
width of face 5 

5. Basoventral ridge on hind tibiae covered in short, black 
spines Xylota segnis L. 

- basoventral ridge (when present) on hind tibiae bare 
6 

6. Abdominal tergite 4 entirely covered with adpressed 
golden hairs 7 

- tergite 4 with black and/or whitish hairs (golden hairs 
may also be present) 8 

7. Hind tibiae black for apical third X. sylvarum (L.) 

- hind tibiae entirely yellow X. xanthocnema Coll. 

8. d* d* (eyes meeting above antennae) 9 

- 9$ (eyes not meeting above antennae) 13 

9. Hind tibiae widely yellow at both ends; hind basitarsi (and 
two succeeding segments) yellow; tergite 2 and tergite 3 
with orange bands X. ignava (Panz.) d 

- hind tibiae yellow only at base; hind basitarsi dark brown/ 
black; t.2 and t.3 with or without orange bands 10 

10. Tergite 2 longer than wide 11 

- tergite 2 wider than long 12 

11. Fore basitarsi apically with a very long, outstanding, white 
hair (as long as succeeding tarsal segment) on the inner 
side, above; none of the hairs on upper part of outer side 

of hind femora as long as femur is deep X. tarda 

Mg. cT _ _ 

- fore basitarsi apically without any long, outstanding white 
hairs, none of apical hairs extending forward as far as tip 
of next tarsal segment; hairs on upper part of basal half 
of outer side of hind femora including many longer than 
hind femur is deep X. florum (Fab.) d 



KEY TO (SENSU HIPPA) AND (DIPT., SYRPHIDAE) 27 

12. Genital capsule black-haired; hind femora with hairs as 
long as more than i depth of hind femur clustered in a 
clump in basal i of femur, on the outer side of its upper 
surface X. coeruleiventris Zett. c? 

- genital capsule whitish-haired; hind femora with few hairs 
as long as i depth of hind femur and these scattered along 

outer side of more than half of the upper surface 

X. abiens Mg. cf 

13. At least second segment of hind tarsi orange/yellow above; 
tergites 2 and 3 each usually with a wide orange band, 
though this may be reduced to a pair of orange markings 
14 

- all segments of hind tarsi dark brown/black above; t.2 and 
t. 3 each usually with a pair of small yellowish or pinkish 
marks, though these marks may be reduced or absent 
15 

14. Face entirely black X. tarda 9 

- face with central area of upper mouth-edge broadly yellow 
X. ignava 9 

15. Hairs on outer (anterior) side of dorsal surface of hind 
femora all shorter than one third depth of hind femur, 
except in basal i of femur, where a cluster of longer hairs 
occurs X. coeruleventris 9 

- hairs on outer (anterior) side of dorsal surface of hind 
femora including some longer than one third depth of hind 
femur, scattered along more than basal i of the femora 
16 

16. Mesonotal disc brightly shining; fore coxae dull on outer 
surface; metasternum, hind coxae and hind trochanters 
dull X. abiens $ 

- mesonotal disc dull; fore coxae brightly shining on outer 
surface; metasternum, hind coxae and hind trochanters 
brightly shining on most of surface X. florum $ 

Acknowledgements 

I am most grateful to W. F. Dean (Somerset), Dr. R. L. H. 
Disney (Yorkshire), Dr. T. Nielsen (Sandnes, Norway) and 
P. Withers (Norfolk) for testing the key against their Xylota 
material. 

References 

Coe, R. L., 1953. Syrphidae, Diptera. Handbooks for the identification 

of British Insects, 10, (1), 98 pp. R. ent. Soc, London. 
Hippa, H., 1968. Classification of the palearctic species of the genera 

Xylota Meigen and Xylotomima Shannon (Diptera, Syrohidae) 

Ann. Ent. Fenn., 34, (4), 179-97. 
, 1978. Qassification of Xylotini (Diptera, Syrphidae). Acta 

Zool. Fenn., (156), 153 pp. 



FooDPLANT OF Chrysolina polita (Col.: Chrysomeli- 
dae). — Adults and larvae of Chrysolina polita were observed 
to be locally abundant on Gipsy wort (Lycopus europeaus) at 
Kmgsbury, Warkwickshire, and were not observed on other 
plants. — John Robbins, 123b Parkgate Road, Coventry 



28 entomologist's record I/II/81 

THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA 

TO THE BRITISH ISLES IN 1979: 

A SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE 

By R. F. Bretherton* and J. M. Chalmers-Hunt** 
The following corrections and additions should be made 
to the main report (in Ent. Rec. 92: 89-97): — 
Corrections 

RHODOMETRA SACRARIA L. The record "YORKS v.c. 
61. Filey, 1.10, infertile female" should be deleted. Mr. 
P. Q. Winter has informed us that this should apply to 
an example of Peridroma saucia Hubn. 
ORTHONAMA OBSTIPATA F. the record "DENBIGH- 
SHIRE. In May one" should be dated 16.5 
Additions 

RHODOMETRA SACRARIA L. S. ESSEX. Rainham, 9.9., 
one after 00.15 hrs (G. S. Robinson, Ent. Gaz., 31: 228). 
LITHOSIA QUADRA L. DENBIGHSHIRE. Abergele, 16/ 

17.8 (S. Coxey). 
MYTHIMNA UNIPUNCTA Haw. W. SUSSEX. Arundel, 

25.10(J. T.Radford). 
MYTHIMNA ALBIPUNCTA D. & S. Dungeness 31.8 (P. 

Jewess^ 
CHRYSODEIXIS CHALCITES Esp. N. ESSEX. Dovercourt, 
25.9.78, 2.10.79. Mr. P. Smith has helpfully given further 
detail about these captures, which were only barely 
recorded Ent. Rec, 92: 62, 97). The first was caught before 
mid-night in a trap witha 20 watt U.V. lamp. Unlike the 
example figured by South (1961, I, pi. 141), it had the 
forewing silver spots joined, but was worn: it was identified 
at the BM (Nat. Hist). The second, a fresh specimen with 
the spots separate, was caught in the same trap, also 
before mid-night. The trap faces south and, though sur- 
rounded on three sides by houses, is open to the sea, 
about a mile distant. In answer to our inquiry whether 
these examples might have resulted from local breeding 
in nurseries or gardens, Mr. Smith says that the nearest 
chrysanthemum nursery known to him is ten miles away, 
and that there are few plants in neighbouring gardens. 
This supports the view that both his captures were 
primary immigrants. 
AGRIUS CONVOLVULI L. Co. KERRY S. Bull Rock 
lighthouse, 12.9. (J. P. Hillis and R. F. Haynes, Irish 
Migrant Insects, 1979, I.N.J. , 20: 122-124). 
Their report also contains information about some com- 
moner species. Of Colias crocea Fourc. four were seen at 
Cape Clear, co. Cork West, 9.9 (2), 9.10 (2). Of C. cardui in 
all 181 were reported, mostly at Cape Clear, but also at the 
Aran Is., co. Galway and elsewhere. The first was seen at 

* Folly Hill, Birtley Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey GU5 OLE 
** 1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent BR4 9LG. 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO B. ISLES 1979 29 

Lakyle, co. Clare, 16.5, the last at Cape Clear, 28.10, the 
northernmost on Rathlin Is., co. Antrim, 3.7. Vanessa atalanta 
was scarce early in the year, with the first at Great Saltee Is., 
CO. Wexford, 14.5, but abundant in late August and September, 
ending at Cape Clear 28.10, and with the most northerly at 
Fintra, co. Donegal. There were also records of nine Macro- 
glossa stellatarum L., beginning on Macgillicuddy's Reeks, 
15.7 and ending at Cape Clear 13.10. 



The Cloaked Pug: Eupithecia abietaria Goeze. — 
Further to previous notes on this moth (in Ent. Rec, 91: 
220 and 92: 25), I took a specimen this year ( as exhibited at 
the British Entomological & Natural History Society Annual 
Exhibition 1980). A female in perfect condition was sitting 
on the inside wall of my garden MV moth trap in Winchester 
(V.C. 11) on the morning of 19th June 1980. My initial 
presumption was that it had been introduced accidently into 
the garden with some Picea abies cones collected from an 
area some five or six miles away from Winchester (still in 
V.C. 11) in hope of breeding out Cydia strobilella Linn. I now 
consider this unlikely, as the cones were collected on 23rd 
February 1980, when the moth would have been a pupa, and 
all authors state that the larvae feed on the immature seeds 
in the cones until September, after which they leave them to 
pupate on the ground, so there appears little chance that it 
could have been in the cones when they were collected. The 
previous records of this species as quoted in the reference at 
the beginning of this note indicate that this is the 10th recorded 
specimen since the war, the others being three from Scotland, 
two from the North of England, three from Surrey or SW 
London and one from Gloucester. Such random records hardly 
seem to fit in with these moths being migrants, but perhaps 
rather that it is breeding locality, but the most recent Hamp- 
shire record in 1897, and it seems unlikely that it could have 
been present in a County popular with entomologists and 
remained undetected for 93 years. 

If my specimen had bred locally, as its condition would 
seem to indicate, there are a number of scattered Picea abies 
in various near-by Winchester gardens, but none of those that 
I have been able to examine appear to be producing any cones. 
There ish a Forestry Commission plantation containing an 
area of mature trees, some of which bear cones, at a distance 
of some three miles, which could be a possible local source. 
Perhaps, when migration records for 1980 are put together, 
it may become clear whether there was any migration in 
progress at the time that it was taken. If not, there is hope 
that this species may still be resident in Hampshire. — Col. 
D. H. Sterling, "Tangmere" 2 Hampton Lane, Winchester,, 
Hampshire. 



30 entomologist's record I/II/81 

BRITISH PUGS 

By Brig. E. C. L. Simson* 

(Concluded from page 10) 

30. E. indigata Hubn. Considering the prevalence of 
Pinus sylvestris and P. abies this pug is by no means easily 
obtained. My small series was made at my study window, 
which looks out onto a grove of pines. Unfortunately, only 
males appear, in the engaging way pugs have of lying flat- 
tened on the window pane. The branches of the trees are far 
too high for me to reach and so I leave the collecting of 
indigata larvae to my local Coal Tits (Parus ater). 

31. E. distinctaria H.-S. In the marvellous summer of 
1976 one male member of this species came to a light in my 
garden in N. W. Hampshire on the 14th of July. Previously 
only twice recorded from the vice-county, and that twenty- 
five years before, its presence was a complete enigma. I can 
only say that in that wonderful year many things turned up in 
my garden, never previously seen there by me. None as rare 
as distinctaria, but it showed that there were more than normal 
moth movements going on. I have searched, with care, the 
massive thyme banks on the West Coast of Scotland, and in 
Mull and Skye, without seeing any sign of this very local little 
moth. 

32. E. inturbata Hubn. Seldom does one see so many 
assorted larvae as when beating the branches of well grown 
Maples {A. campestre) in mid-May. Every now and then a little 
green larva, with purple patches on its back, shows up. It 
stands, looking like a minute croquet-hoop, and so you have 
inturbata. The moth will use quite isolated trees, provided 
they are well-grown and flowering. 

Satisfactorily, the imago emerge only six weeks after 
pupating and so one's bred series is rapidly attained. As in 
most pugs, bred specimens are far darker than the illustrations 
in South show or, indeed, the descriptions in Meyrick, who 
says of inturbata: "Forewings pale greyish-ochreous". In 
reality they are a warm, dark brown. I thing both South and 
Meyrick often based their descriptions on either worn or 
long-kept, faded specimens, as far as the pugs went. 

33. E. pusillata Fabr. I once, in Hampshire, went into 
a plantation of spruce {Pinus abies) looking for Thera variata. 
The trees were only about 15ft high and had not been thinned. 
The date was 25th May and at once moths exploded in all 
directions. They made for the clear ground outside the dark- 
ness of the plantation and because the trees were so thickly 
planted, and due to the massive barrier of dead branches, I 
had no hope of catching any. So I made my way out and was 

* Dumford Qose, Chilbolton, Stockbridge, Hants SO20 6AP 



BRITISH PUGS 31 



hoping to pick up a few specimens, which might have settled, 
when two urchins appeared. In the uninhibited way of such, 
one asked, "Wot yer doin' Mister?" I asked, in return, if 
they were interested in money. They were. And so, for a 
suitable reward, they scuttled about the plantation like terriers, 
while I stood in the sunshine netting E. pusillata and T. variata. 
Both species were in great quantities (the late Dr. de Worms 
would have said "in spate"), and I was able to select a good 
series of both species, indistinguishable from bred specimens. 
One final note. In the vernacular, pusillata is called "The 
Dwarf Pug". Not a good name; there are five pugs on the 
British list very much more dwarfish. 

34. E. abbreviata Steph. One of the earliest pugs and, as 
in my part of the world many specimens are spectacularly 
melanistic, very welcome on a chill April night. 

35. E. dodoneata Guenee Another early season pug, 
which I find most plentiful amongst old, well-grown hedge 
Hawthorns {Crataegus monogyna.). From these the handsome 
orange and black larvae can readily be beaten; 7th July being 
a good date. This is an attractively marked pug, made more 
attractive by breeding. 

36. E. exiguata Hiibn. A very common pug, turning up at 
the M.V. light in all sorts of situations. 25th May is a good 
date for procuring newly emerged specimens, which are 
readily identifiable. 

37. E. irriguata Hiibn. In late April or early May, if the 
M.V light is placed under one of the massive oaks of the New 
Forest, this pretty little pug will come fluttering down as if 
it had been watching all your preparations with interest. In a 
good year a dozen perfect specimens can be seen in the first 
hour after dark. If specimens are required for ova, then 5th 
May is a good date. 

38. E. insigniata Hiibn. I have only one specimen of this 
fine pug. I have beaten the Hawthorns near where friends 
have taken this moth; I have put my lisht where advised by 
friends. In short, I have done my best. This, obviously, is not 
good enough, and, in the words of the schoolmaster, I must 
try harder. That I will. 

39. E. fraxinata Crewe I am in some doubt about nomen- 
clature here. Goater {Ibid) writes: "The evidence for the 
specific distinction of E. innotata (Hufn.) and fraxinata is 
reviewed by G. Haggett (1963, Ent. Gaz.. 14: 13), who concludes 
that all British records of innotata (Hufn.) are referrable to 
fraxinata or to error". 

The series in my collection, shown under this heading, 
was bred from larvae kindly sent me by a Past-President of 
B.E.N.H.S, G. Prior. They were F2 larvae from larvae orig- 
inally taken in September 1977 in the Romney Marsh, Sussex, 
feeding on Sea-Buckthorn {H. rhamnoides) Being somewhat 
short of this pabulum in my parish, I fed them Ash (F. 
excelsior), for which they showed a great liking. The relevant 



32 ENTOMOLOGIST S RECORD I/II/81 

dates are: Larvae received 11.7.78; pupation 21-27/7; imago 
emerged at intervals between 28.8. - 20.12.78. The imagines 
are large and very dark and the angulated striae look like 
those of either of South's illustrations of innotata or jraxinata. 
Mr. Prior is of the opinion that the Romney Marsh larvae 
may be referrable to innotata for reasons of dates; of gener- 
ations; and of food-plant. I can only re-state my gratitude 
to Mr. Prior, and place my bred series before the experts. 

40. E. sobrinata Hiibn. Wherever Juniperus grows in 
plenty, from the South Coast to the Highlands, there will this 
somewhat variable pug be found. Catching the imago is a 
sport for two people; one to beat a juniper bush and the 
other to stand down wind, where he can often score a right 
and left as the moths dash out. 21st July is a good date for 
perfect specimens. 

41. E. helveticaria Boisd. Another juniper feeder. I took 
a c? and 9 in the Isle of Skye one summer, and have beaten 
juniper in the Highlands in late July for the larvae. I only 
found juniperata larvae and wonder if, as Meyrick says, the 
moth is out April/May what happens to ova laid in April 
until, as he says, the larvae can be found July to October. 
I have a feeling the moth is probably continuously brooded 
during the summer. 

42. E. nanata Hiibn. A very prevalent species, with a 
second brood, flying in July, consisting of very small indi- 
viduals. These, presumably, are the parents of the fine progeny 
to be seen next May. 

43. E. extensaria Freyer. I set aside two days to getting 
the larvae of this very local moth. In effect, I needed only 
twenty minutes! I motored to the North Norfolk coast, 
through a village and down a track to the saltings. I stopped 
at the high tide mark and stepped out onto the fragrant marsh. 
The date was 15th September. At once I saw a big clump 
of Sea Wormwood {A. maritima) waving silvery in the wind. 
There I saw ten extensaria larvae of varying sizes and took 
a few of the largest. On to the next clump and one more 
and I had eighteen larvae. 

I was surprised how big they were. Picking a bundle of 
the pabulum I left the Wash and returned home; thankful 
that I had planted a bush of Lad's Love in my garden. In 
the event the lasting qualities of Sea Wormwood proved so 
great that the bush was not used and all the larvae pupated 
amongst the original pabulum. I had eighteen pupae and, 
between 12 - 25th May the following year, eighteen perfect 
imagos emerged. No parasitism and no casualities. How I wish 
this were the usual outcome of breeding pugs. It is a handsome 
moth and well worth all the trouble. 

44. E. subnotata Hiibn. A pug which should be bred. 
To do this go to the sea-side and, where A triplex grows on a 
bank, search for the larvae as follows. Very gently lift up 
the trailing stems of A triplex and, equally gently, pass a 



BRITISH PUGS 33 

beating-tray along the ground under the stems. Now shake 
the stems vigourously. If the date is 24th September then a 
dozen or so subnotata larvae will soon be collected. The 
reason for this method is two-fold. First, the larvae pass the 
day deeply hiden in the mass of A triplex; secondly, they fall 
to the ground at the least disturbance and are then hard to 
find among the debris. Much parasitised. Of seventeen pupae 
formed in the autumn of 1979 five subnotata emerged, 
together with eleven chalcid parasites. A 69% loss through 
parasitism. 

45. E. subumbrata Guenee. On downland, especially, the 
larvae can be obtained in fair numbers by sweeping Scabiosa, 
Centaurea and Gentiana in late August. Other pug larvae 
will be found in the sweeper, but subumbrata is readily 
separated by being long, slender and without diamonds or 
Y markings on the back. 

46. C. sparsaria Hiibn. I include this species because it 
is called a "pug" in the vernacular. In the Test Valley I have 
found eggs and larvae on the underside of the leaves of 
Lysimachia vulgaris growing amongst reeds and close to trees. 
The larvae are usually very heavily parasitised. Date for small 
larvae (best) 23 - 27th August. 

Now I come to four species of pugs not recorded by 
Meyrick. 

47. E. arceuthata Freyer. Variously known as the Cypress 
Pug or Freyer's Pug, this species has undoubtedly spread since 
the early 1940's, helped by the popularity of the Macrocarpa 
as an ornamental tree in gardens etc. It is now a common 
species throughout most of the Southern Counties. 

48. E. phoeniceata Rambur. A recent arrival in Britain, 
first found at Penzance by de Worms and Messenger in 1959. 
It slowly spread eastward and was first found in Hampshire, 
at Southsea, on 23.9.65 by Langmaid. The pabulum is also 
C. macrocarpa; the larvae being confined to mature trees. 
Best date 20th November. 

I took my first specimen at Freshwater in the Isle of 
Wight; but since then have seen many more through the 
kindness of R. R. Pickering of Bognor Regis, West Sussex. 
Mr. Pickering finds that one or two emerge in July and gradu- 
ally build up to a peak about 16th August. After this, numbers 
slowly decline; but the moth can still be seen in late Septmeber. 
A long season! 

49. E. egeneria H.-S. Only discovered as a British species 
in 1962, when specimens were recorded by Mere in the Wye 
Valley, where its pabulum is the flowers of the Small-leaved 
Lime i^Tilia cordata). G. M. Haggett, writing in Vol. I p. 106 
of Proc. Trans. Br. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc. (what a mouthful! ) 
suggests that the limes were encouraged by the monks of 
Tintern in order to provide flowers for their bees over an 
extended season. Would it not be a possibility that the monks 
also brought T. cordata from France and planted saplings 



34 entomologist's record I/II/81 

round the Abbey? In the earth enclosing the roots of these 
saplings etc. the pupae of egeneria might also be transported 
to the Wye Valley. If this is true then the moth remained 
undiscovered in Britain for six centuries. 

On 4th June, a few years back, I put my M.V beneath 
a tall cordata at Tintern and, conditions being ideal, freshly 
emerged egeneria appeared in numbers upon my sheet. I was 
thus able to select a small series of the moth in "as bred" 
condition. A very drab species; even "as bred". To Haggett 
it most closely resembles a pale lariciata; to me it seems more 
closely to resemble, especially in size and shape, a pale, poorly 
marked E. millejoliata. 

50. C. chloerata Mab. Why it was that the Victorians, 
who beat everything in sight, including their children, failed 
to beat the larva of this pug from sloe (Prunus) I do not 
understand. The larva is very distinctive, being remarkably 
procryptic amongst the sloe-bloom on which it feeds. It is 
white, except for its head and segments 1-3, which are pink. 
Thus it is very difficult to see, with its head buried in the pink 
centre of a sloe flower and its body laid along the white petals. 

This was the strange larva so admirably beaten from 
flowering Blackthorn on 16th April 1971 by E. C. Pelham- 
Clinton. In fact, he found two larvae and bred the moths. 
The moths are easily distinguished from E. rectangulata by 
the following: (a) Chloerata has a less notched line bordering 
the outer edge of the forewings' central band, (b) The central 
black line on the under side of the hind wing in chloerata is 
much less acutely angled. 

As soon as the news got round, collectors started exam- 
ining their series of rectangulata and many found they pos- 
sessed chloerata; some even claiming to have bred it. As the 
larva is quite easily distinguished from that of rectangulata I 
wonder why they did not begin to suspect a stranger in their 
midst long before 1971! One thing, however, explains a lot: 
this moth is a reluctant visitor to the moth-trap, on which so 
many collections seem solely to rely. 

Told by Denzil fifennell to beat the topmost boughs of 
old sloe bushes on the Downs, I obtained larvae, in North 
Hampshire, on 24.4.75 and bred a nice series in late May 
following. 

This concludes the account of pugs in my collection. But 
there is one fine pug, E. abietaria (Goeze) (= pini (Retzius)) 
of great rarity, which I have little hope of obtaining, about 
the recent capture of which in Hampshire I must relate. But 
some day luck may come my way. And here I quote the 
admirable Allan {A Moth Hunter's Gossip): " I don't mean 
the ordinary good luck which Dame Fortune metes out to us 
all at times, but the extraordinary luck of which one hears 
now and then - such as walking aside to a grassy hillock for 
lunch and finding two Mazarine Blues in cop upon it". 

Now how about this for luck? A friend, who lives in my 
part of Hampshire, went, with a companion, in the autumn 



BRITISH PUGS 35 

of 1979 looking for the larvae of a Micro which feeds in 
Spruce {P. abies) cones. They visited five places in Hampshire 
where well-grown spruces grow, and collected cones from each 
place. The sacks of cones were carefully inspected for signs of 
micro-larva and, showing none, they were eventually emptied 
in a pile in a corner of my friend's garden. One cone must 
have contained a healthy larvae of E. pint which, as is its wont, 
left the cone and pupated in the ground. In mid- June 1980 
the imago emerged, dried its wings and eagerly awaited the 
coming of dusk. But at dusk my friend lit his moth trap 
which, being only twelve yards from the pile of cones, proved 
a fatal attraction to our abietaria which took its first, and 
last, flight into the trap. So at 8 o'clock next morning my 
friend saw the first pint to be seen alive in Hampshire for at 
least twenty-five years. Not surprisingly, it was immaculate. 
My friend is now faced with the task of collecting spruce 
cones annually from five different places, and keeping them 
entirely separate until he obtains, if ever, another abietaria. 
Thus it may be proved that there is, after all, at least one 
small colony ol abietaria left in Hampshire. 



Further Records of the Dotted Rustic: Rhyacia 
siMULANS (Hufnagel) (Lep.: Noctuidae). — A short note 
by R. E. Scott in Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. (1979) 91: 260 
noted the first record of Rhyacia simulans for the old county 
of Huntingdon (V.C. 31). This year I have taken, or had 
notice of, a further 18 specimens. 

The first was a female, partly damaged (presumably by 
a passing vehicle), picked up from a road in St. Ives on July 
9th. On July 16th four specimens were found under half- 
empty black plastic sack of compost in a greenhouse at 
Monks Wood Experimental Station. Three were males, but 
the other escaped before its sex could be determined. I saw 
another specimen fluttering in a minibus used regularly for 
journeys between Monks Wood and St. Ives as I was driving 
it through Huntingdon on July 25th, but it escaped through 
a half open window. Mr. John Heath took two specimens in 
a light trap in his garden in St. Ives on the night of July 
25th-26th. Another specimen came to light at a Rothamsted 
trap in Monks Wood National Nature Reserve in late August. 

On August th Mr. E. John collected up the remains, 
mostly wings, of a variety of moths at the roost of a long- 
eared bat at his home in Bluntisham, near St. Ives. Among 
them were the wings of eight Rhyacia simulans. Thereafter 
he made daily collections of moth wings from the roost and 
on August 18th another pair of R. simulans wings was 
collected. — J. N. Greatorex-Davies, The Institute of terres- 
trial Ecology, Monks Wood Experimental Statiion, Abbots 
Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambs. 



36 entomologist's record I/II/81 

SOME TECHNIQUES FOR MINIMISING THE 

DIFFICULTIES IN EGG COUNTING IN TRI- 

BOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST) 

By A. R. Khan* and B. J. Selman** 

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) is 
one of the commonest laboratory insects. It is cosmopolitan 
and a major pest of several stored commodities. 

Research workers often need to determine the intrinsic 
rate of increase of T. castaneum. This can be estimated if a 
lifetable and the fertility data are available. For stored pro- 
ducts pests, an approximate value may be obtained if the 
developmental period and oviposition rate can be obtained 
experimentally and estimates made of adult and developmental 
mortality and sex-ratio (Howe, 1953). Unfortunately it is very 
difficult to get a good estimate of the oviposition rate of many 
stored products beetles including T. castaneum. T. castaneum 
lays eggs steadily over a long period, belonging to the second 
group of the four types of egg laying found in Coleoptera 
(Dick, 1937). There is much interference in any one group 
of beetles and because of density effects the oviposition rate 
is depressed. Alternatively isolated females may show a low 
oviposition rate because of need for further matings. If a male 
is placed permanently with the female then he may interfere 
with egg laying (Howe, 1962). A further complication is that 
adults frequently eat the newly laid eggs (Rich, 1956). 

In the present paper some simple techniques are described 
which will minimise the difficulties in egg counting in T. 
castaneum. 

Sexing the adult is difficult and depends on the presence 
or absence of a hair-lined pit on the interior face of the fore 
femur (Hinton, 1942). Although the method is excellent, 
unfortunately it requires minute microscopic observations and 
much time. Fortunately pupae are readily distinguished by 
microscopic examination of the exogenital processes of the 
female (Halstead, 1963). This method of sexing is easy and 
rapid, without any risk of injury. Sexed pupae are placed in 
separate 9 cm Petri dishes with a thin film of wholemeal 
flour in an incubator at 30°C. After emergence females are 
marked with a permanent white paint. White nail polish is 
excellent for this. Pairs of adults of different sexes are placed 
individually in 50 x 25 mm flat bottom glass tubes containing 
a mixture of wholemeal flour and yeast (19: 1) and covered 
at the top with cotton wool. 

The preoviposition period in T. castaneum varies with 
temperature. It is 6.9±0.1, 4±0, and 3.9 ±0.1 days at 25, 29, 
and 32°C respectively (Erdman, 1964,1965). Before the onset 
of oviposition males are separated from females and are re- 
introduced for short periods for refertilization. Adults are 
easily separated by sieving the contents of the tubes through 

* & ** Dept. of AgricuJtural Biology, Univ. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne NEl 7RU. 



TECHNIQUES FOR MINIMISING EGG COUNTING 37 

a sieve of 500 micrometre aperture. Eggs are obtained by 
passing the contents through a 60-mesh sieve. 

These techniques save time and minimise both the inter- 
ference with egg laying and the egg predation. These tech- 
niques may also be applied to many other stored products 
Coleoptera. 

Acknowledgements 
We are grateful to the Commonwealth Scholarship 
Commission in the U.K. for financial support. One of us, 
A. R. Khan, thanks the Universtity of Rajshahi for granting 
him study leave. We deeply appreciate the interest of Professor 
G. E. Russell (Head of the Dept. of Agricultural Biology, 
University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne) in our work. 

References 
Dick, J., 1937. Oviposition in certain Coleoptera. Ann. appl. Biol. 24: 

762-796. 
Erdman, H. E., 1964. Age and temperature effects on reproductive onset 

and productivity of flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. 

Tribolium Inf. Bull. 7: 58-59. 
, 1965. Modifications of productivity in flour beetles, 

Tribolium castaneum Herbst, due to X-ray dose, hypothermia, 

and the sex exposed. Rediat. Res. 25: 341-351. 
Halstead, A. G. tl., 1963. External sex differences in stored products 

Coleoptera. Bull. ent. Res. 54: 119-134. 
Hinton, H. E., 1942. Secondary sexual characters of Tribolium. Nature 

(London) 149: 500-501. 
Howe, R. W., 1963. The rapid determination of the intrinsic rate of 

increase of an insect population. Ann. appl. Biol. 40: 134-151. 
, 1962. The effects of temperature and humidity on the 

oviposition rate of Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) (Coleoptera, 

Tenebrionidae). Bull. ent. Res. 53: 301-310. 
Rich, E. R., 1956. Egg cannibalism and fecundity in Tribolium. Ecology 

37: 109-120. 



An Early Usher: Agriopis leucophaearia D. & S. — 
On the 2nd January 1981 whilst walking through Park Wood, 
Hailsham in East Sussex I discovered an extremely early 
emergant of this species. — Mark Hadley, Nature Conservancy 
Council, 19/20 Belgrave Square, London. 

An Example of Interspecific Copulation in the Genus 
Cerylon Latrielle (Col.: Cerylonidae). — Whilst collecting 
on the edge of Burnt Ground Wood, near Hamptworth, 
Wiltshire (SU 222170), on May 31, 1974 I took a small testa- 
ceous Cerylon securely in coilu with a larger black example 
of the genus from beneath the bark of an oak log. Recent 
examination and dissection have confirmed my original 
supposition that the smaller specimen was a male Cerylon 
ferrugineum S. and the larger, dark specimen a female C. 
histeroides (F.). 

It would be interesting to ascertain if the apparently few 
published references to interspecific copulation in Coleoptera 
is attributable to the true rarity of the occurrence of such 
couplings, or if it is because such events are observed in- 
frequently and even then are not considered worthy of note. — 
David Ridley Nash, 266 Colchester Road, Lawford, Essex, 
COl 1 2BU. 



38 entomologist's record I/II/81 

Notes and Observations 

Some Observations on the Heath Fritillary (Mel- 
LiCTA athalia Rott.) IN Kent. — I fitst encountcred this 
butterfly in 1974, after moving to London from the Midlands. 
At the first opportunity, on the 12th July, I left work in 
Central London a bit early and sped to Blean Woods. Although 
I had no idea where to look it did not take long to find three 
sites: (1) A small clearing beside a road where scrub and 
brambles were beginning to encroach though there were one 
or two grassy areas where some athalia were seen. (2) An 
area where the regularly planted sweet chestnut bushes had 
grown to about 8 to 10ft., with narrow grassy walks in between. 
Here again there were a reasonable number. (3) Small areas 
of grass and a small field beside the main cinder road through 
West Blean Wood supporting a quite healthy population. 

The second encounter in Kent was on the 9th July, 1978 
when, with a walking party I had crossed the A2 near Dunkirk 
and had climbed a fence on the south side of the road when 
I saw a single athalia in a small clearing. However, by far 
the largest sighting was in 1980. On 20th June, I had business 
in Canterbury and finishing soon after lunch, decided to go 
and check on the latest situation. Sites (1) and (2) had 
completely grown up and could not even be identified, 
although I did find another road-side site similar to (2) but 
with more regeneration and with a fair sprinkling of Heath 
Fritillaries. I then took the same walk as (3) but only saw 
three individuals. I did note though, a very extensive area 
that had been clear felled which looked promising. It was 
already getting late so I decided to return over the week-end. 
Saturday the 21st, was dull and cool and Sunday was even 
worse with rain in London but the forecast was for some sun 
in eastern England. I therefore decided, as it was my birthday, 
to take a chance and hope for the best. Most of the journey 
was under black clouds and heavy rain, and I was beginning 
to think that I must be mad, but about 10 miles from Canterbury 
the end of the cloud was reached and I was in sunshine. I 
went straight to the area that had caught my eye and soon 
had the pleasure of having athalia flying all around me. The 
ground cover was no more than about a foot high with lots 
of cow-wheat. At almost any time one could see from 3 to 5 
athalia at once and they were over a very extensive area; 
I would estimate a rough population of a few thousand. An 
adjoining area where the grass looked greener and with more 
bushes was devoid of cow-wheat and athalia. It was interesting 
to note how closely the butterflies were confined to the cow- 
wheat areas even within the same open space. I spent 2 to 3 
hours in perfect weather watching this unforgettable spectacle, 
a most welcome birthday treat. I was pleased to note extensive 
coppicing elsewhere, so for some time at least, as long as this 
continues, this butterfly should be reasonably safe. — S. L. 
Meredith, 5, Rutlish'Road, Merton Park, London SW19 3AL. 



notes and observations 39 

Overwintering Wasp-beetle: Some Comments on Mr. 
Wootton's Record. — Mr. Anthony Wootton asks {antea: 
19) whether it is usual for Cerambycids to hibernate as adults. 
iMy answer is: it depends on what exactly one means by 
hibernation. In that connexion we commonly think of the 
retirement of an already active imago into winter quarters, 
to be followed by renewed activity in the spring; in other 
words, active adult life is broken by a period of dormancy 
(seasonal diapause). This type is familiar in certain Lepidop- 
tera, many ground insects, etc. But there is another type of 
hibernation — occurring among species that develop in 
enclosed environments, such as soil or wood — in which the 
perfect insect eclodes from the pupa in late summer or early 
autumn and remains, torpid but fully mature, in the pupal 
cell until the following spring or early summer when it 
emerges into the open. Here, then, hibernation is not an 
interruption of adult activity, but its precursor. This type, 
best known in the Coleoptera, I have referred to as pre- 
emergent hibernation (Allen, 1958, Ent. Rec, 70: 16-17). 

A number of our Cerambycidae belong to the second class, 
including no doubt Clytus arietis L. whose larva lives in solid 
dead wood. In the first, only the large Prionus coriarius L. 
sometimes passes a mild winter buried at the foot of a tree, 
but seldom if ever survives long enough to resume activity in 
spring. Mr. Wootton's precocious wasp-beetle (found indoors, 
March 16th) may thus have emerged from woodwork* in his 
house, or more likely from firewood if present; in either case 
stimulated, as he suggests, by warmth. (Normal emergence- 
time for C. arietis is late May or early June). If from firewood, 
it is also possible that the pupal cell chanced to be exposed 
in the process of chopping-up; which, with or without the 
warmth of the house, would most likely suffice to rouse the 
insect from its slumbers. — A. A. Allen. 

• The drying-out of the timber would tend to slow down larval growth 
and might delay its completion by several years. 

Records of Two Uncommon Crane-flies from Cum- 
bria. — Ctenophora pectinicornis (Linn.). I took a female of 
this striking looking species on my study window here in New 
Hutton, near Kendal (V.C. 69) on 10th June 1980. The only 
other record of this species in V.C. 69, so far as I am aware, 
is that of P. Skidmore who took a female specimen at the 
entrance to Roudset Wood National Nature Reserve on 14th 
June 1959. {Ent. mon. Mag., 98: 182). Crypteria limno- 
philoides Bergroth. A male of this species was taken in my 
light trap here in New Hutton on 5th September 1978. Coe 
(Handbooks for the identification of British Insects, R. ent. 
Soc. London 10 (1): 48) states: — "Frequent. Herts, north- 
wards. 8-10" but the species seems to be scarce in this district 
and I do not know of any other records for V.C. 69. I am 
grateful to Mr. Alan E. Stubbs for confirming my identi- 
fication of this insect. — Dr. N. L. Birkett, Kendal Wood, 
New Hutton, Cumbria LA8 OAQ. 



40 entomologist's record I/II/81 

The Red Swordgrass: Xylena vetusta Hbn. at Kintail, 
Wester Ross. — In my paper on Pontania crassipes (Thom- 
son) in Ent. Record, 92: 250, I mentioned a "Sword Grass 
moth". At the time I thought it was Xylena exsoleta L. 
(The Sword Grass), but further examination of the specimen 
shows it to be X. vetusta Hbn. — A .D. Liston, 99 Clermiston 
Road, Edinburgh, EH 12 6UU. 

Croesia forskaleana L., Gypsonoma aceriana Dup. 
and eucosma obumbratana l. & z. in county cork. — on 
the evening of August 17 1980, I caught a specimen of C. 
forskaleana at m.v. trap at Douglas, Cork City (V.C. H4). 
Beirne (1941, List of the Microlepidoptera of Ireland, Proc. 
R. Ir. Acad. XLVII (B) No. 4) considered the occurrence of 
this species in Ireland to be "doubtful". 

At the same location, on August 23rd, I obtained a cf 
G. aceriana, also at m.v. trap. Beirne {op. cit.) refers to an 
old record of this species from Co. Sligo, but he states that 
the record should refer to G. sociana Haw. 

Another record of interest is that of E. obumbratana at 
m.v. trap at Ballymaloe near Cloyne (V.C. H5) on August 9th. 
This species was first recorded from Ireland by Bradley and 
Pelham-CIinton (1967, The Lepidoptera of the Burren, Co., 
Clare, W. Ireland, Ent. Gaz., 18:115-153). A further Irish 
record is from Lispopple, Co. Dublin, at m.v. trap on July 
26 1973. All four specimens were seen by Mr. Chalmers-Hunt, 
who kindly confirmed the determination. — K. G. M. Bond, 
24, Lislee Road, Douglas, Cork, Eire. 

Melanthia procellata (D. & S.) in North Wales. — 
After taking two worn specimens at the North Wales Natu- 
ralists' Trust Reserve at Bryn Pydew (V-C 49), in early 
September 1979, I found the species to be well established 
there in August 1980 among Clematis vitalba. A distribution 
map kindly supplied by Biological Records shows it to occur 
mainly south and east of a line drawn from north Lincolnshire 
to Pembrokeshire with two dots in Shropshire and two rather 
surprising records from Islay and Galway; does Clematis 
vitalba grow in west Scotland? I have seen a specimen which 
was found in the Beetham - Silverdale district of north 
Lancashire where the plant is now established. — H. N. 
MicHAELis, 5 Glan y Mor, Glan Conwy, Colwyn Bay, Clywd. 

A Late Larva of Pieris brassicae (L.). — On 31st 
December 1980, I found a larva crawling up the wall of my 
garage with a view to pupating and had probably fed on 
nearby spring cauliflower. On being brought indoors, it saw 
in the New Year by pupating on 2nd January 1981. — H. N. 
MiCHAELis, 5 Glan y Mor, Glan Conwy, Colwyn Bay, Clwyd. 

Melanic Scalloped Hazel: Odontopera bidentata 
Clerck. — A melanic female was taken on a doorstep in the 
Viewlands area of Perth, Tayside on May 20th 1980. This is 
the first melanic specimen of this moth from this area to come 
to our notice. — R. W. Boyne and M. A. Taylor, Perth 
Museum and Art Gallery, George Street, Perth. 



notes and observations 41 

The Camberwell Beauty in North Yorkshire in 1980. 
At about 1330 on the 12th October 1980, whilst returning 
from Roundhill Reservoir, having counted the ducks and geese 
there for the national counts, I was crossing the dam when I 
noticed a very large butterfly flying leisurely from Leighton 
Reservoir. It flew near to me and then continued purpose- 
fully along Roundhill Reservoir up into the hills. It seemed to 
be on a strong migration route. Weather: light cloud, bright, 
clear, sunny, warm with light north east breeze. 

The butterfly's identity, I readily and amazingly noticed 
was a Camberwell Beauty, Nymphalis antiopa L. I was both 
surprised by the late date and the high place for it. It was the 
first I had seen in England, although I had seen them in the 
Massif Central of France in May. — Peter Carlton, 19, 
Peckfield Close, Hampsthwaite, Harrogate, N. Yorks. 

Oxycera FORMOSA Mg. (Dipt.: Stratiomyidae) in S. E. 
London. — In 1979, Ent. mon. Mag., 115: 154, I noted the 
uncommon Oxycera morrisii Curt, from Maryon Wilson Park, 
Charlton, where a single male was taken that year. I can now 
report the occurrence of a second uncommon species of the 
genus in the same locality, namely O. formosa Mg. — an 
equally unexpected find, both species tending to be very local 
and chiefly known from further north and west. The present 
one has been taken in Surrey and Sussex (Verrall) but I am 
unaware of any previous record for Kent, or for the London 
suburbs. Two females were swept from ground vegetation 
near one of the streams flowing through the park (derived 
from springs arising on Shooters Hill, the local eminence) 
on 28th July last. The species is one of those with extensive 
yellow markings in the female, more restricted in the male. 
As mentioned in the note cited above, I took one of the latter 
sex in Norfolk in 1979 at the edge of a swamp, where water 
can sometimes be seen welling up from the ground. It thus 
seems possible that O. formosa favours fresh running water 
or spring water for its development, which would explain its 
apparent absence from the rather well worked Thames Marshes 
area (where the handsome black and green O. trilineata L. 
occurs very sparingly). — A .A. Allen. 

Stiphrosoma sabulosum Hal. (Dipt.: Anthomyzidae) 
IN THE London Suburbs. — This curious little subapterous 
fly is, I think, rarely recorded, and then mostly as an inhabitant 
of coastal sand-dunes. Its trivial name may suggest exclusive 
attachment to this habitat, but in fact any such idea is er- 
roneous. I have met with it three times in the south-eastern 
environs of London, as follows: — Blackheath, one at edge 
of small garden pond, 2.vi.63; Charlton, one sifted from 
vegetable litter in garden, 4.vi.78; and finally again at Charlton, 
a pair in cop. and a male, by grubbing at the foot of a willow 
in Maryon Wilson Park, 25.vii.80. In no case was the soil 
appreciably sandy. With only tiny strap-shaped vestiges of 
wings, S. sabulosum is clearly one of those species liable to 
be passed over by dipterists not in the habit of sometimes 



42 entomologist's record I/II/81 

forsaking the net and working close to the ground, and is 
probably therefore much more common than it seems. I am 
indebted to Dr. J. W. Ismay for the identification. — A. A. 
Allen. 

A Half Melanic Peacock Butterfly: Inachis io L. — 
On Bank Holiday Monday 25th August, 1980, I was in the 
Shabbington Wood area on the Oxfordshire/Buckinghamshire 
border. Upon returning to my car, I disturbed a Peacock 
butterfly which flew to a fir tree and perched about 9ft. up 
with wings open. Although the forewings were slightly drawn 
back across the hind wings, the whole of the upper surface 
of the hind wings appeared to be an even velvety black with 
no eye spots. The effect was even more marked by the fore 
wings being quite normal. The sight was so remarkable that 
I had to look again to make sure that I was not imagining it. 
After about a minute it flew off at about the same height as 
its perch and disappeared. Despite returning the next day and 
the following week-end, I did not see it again, although there 
were plenty of normal Peacocks around. — S. L. Meredith, 
5, Rutlish Road, Merton Park, London SW19 SAL. 

Further Spread of Lithophane leautieri Boisd. — 
On 30th September, 1980 Mr. Arthur Watchman of Monks 
Eleigh, Suffolk took a specimen of Blair's Shoulder-knot in 
his garden trap, and another appeared on 26th October. These 
are believed to be the first records for Suffolk and are an 
extension of the spread of this species eastwards. — H. E. 
Chipperfield, The Shielding, Walberswick, Southwold, Suf- 
folk. 

Emergence of Biorrhiza pallida (Hymenoptera: Cyni- 
pidae). — Early in June 1980 I collected an Oak Apple gall 
and put the sprig of Oak in water to keep fresh. Some 21 
weeks later the insects started appearing, and what was 
surprising was the degree of synchronization of the emergence: 
95 insects appeared in the first 24 hours; about 65 during the 
following day, and an uncertain, but smaller, number there- 
after. Such synchronization is of obvious biological advantage 
since it enables such weak-flying insects to find mates in a 
short time. Locality: Lea Marston, Warwickshire. — John 
RoBBiNS, 123b Parkgate Road, Coventry CV6 4GF. 

Unusual Behaviour of the Black Ant, Lasius fuli- 
GiNOSUs (Hym.: Formicidae). — On the evening of July 19th 
numbers of these ants were discovered in an airing cupboard, 
and they included alated adults as well as numbers of pupae, 
which had been stored beneath a bucket. The most interesting 
features of this occurrence are:— (i) All these ants had 
arrived since mid-morning; (ii) All the adults and pupae, and 
about 80% of the workers, had disappeared by 6.30 a.m. BST 
the next day; (iii) This was the first time in 16 years that ants 
had entered the dwelling; (iv) The dwelling was a first-floor 
flat, and the insects had apparently entered via the flat 
beneath, but without staying in the latter; (v) There were 
about 15% of the Yellow Ant, Lasius mixtus, amongst the 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 43 

workers; (vi) There was a further minor invasion of workers 
(no alated adults or pupae) on July 28th, and a few individuals 
were seen on subsequent days; but not after about Aug. 3rd. 
Locality: Coventry. W. Midlands. — John Robbins, 123b 
Parkgate Road, Coventry CV6 4GF. 

A Recent Essex Find of Procraerus tibialis Lac. 
(Col.: Elateridae). — On 24th March 1973 I discovered two 
larvae and remains of an imago of this scarce click-beetle 
in a large fallen beech in Hatfield Forest, South Essex; one 
larva was duly reared to maturity. All were near together in 
decayed (but fairly h ard) 'worm-eaten' wood adjoining a 
cavity in the split-open trunk filled with wood-mould, which 
appeared totally barren of insects. 

The sole published record of P. tibialis for Essex that I 
know of is an old one given by Fowler (1890, Col. Brit, hi., 
4: 94): 'Wanstead (Janson)', without date. It might be expected 
to have occurred in Epping Forest (as has its still rarer 
relative Megapenthes lugens Redt.), but appears never to have 
been found there. Hatfield Forest, near Bishop's Stortford, 
must not be confused with Hatfield, near St. Albans, in the 
adjacent county of Herts.: coincidentally, Procraerus was 
taken at the latter place only a few years before (see Allen. 
1971, Ent. mon. Mag., 107: 12). — A. A. Allen. 

StRATIOMYS POTAMIDA Mg. (DiPT.), ETC., IN N. W. KeNT. 

— On 13th June last I had the pleasure of encountering for 
the first time this impressive and uncommon fly — a very 
fine male — by sweeping lakeside vegetation at Danson Park, 
Welling, not far from here. It was perched almost on the rim 
of my net, probably about to take off, but I just managed to 
get a hand over it in the nick of time; which was fortunate, 
as no other turned up. This could perhaps be due to the fact 
that 13th June is the earliest date noted by Verrall {Brit. Flies, 
5) for the species, whilst 1980 was not a forward season here. 
After 15th June, the lakeside is so choked with anglers that 
collecting is practically impossible. 

I have not seen a definite Kent record of S. potamida, 
though it has occurred on the fringes of London — e.g., on 
the north side at Wood Green, Middlesex, with S. longicornis 
Scop. (Colyer & Hammond), and on the south side at Mitcham, 
Surrey (2 exx. with several S. f areata F., near the sewage 
works, G. Shephard, 30.vii.69). It is usually more of an 
inland and freshwater species like 5. chamaeleon L., whereas 
the other two are equally at home in the brackish waters of 
estuarine areas. 

Strangely, the late Dr. Oldroyd (1969, Handb. Ident. Brit. 
Ins., 9(4): 28) seemed unaware of the occurrence of f areata 
in Kent, noting it as "generally a more northern species" and 
giving for the south an Essex record only. It is certainly the 
least scarce of our Stratiomys spp. in North Kent, having been 
taken, for instance, in the Thames Valley [county?] by Col. 
Yerbury (teste Verrall) and in the Thames Marshes by H. W. 
Andrews (Woolwich Surveys). I caught two females at hem- 



44 entomologist's record I/II/81 

lock umbels in the brackish marshes near Higham in 1951, 
and not far away a male of the equally large and very local 
Odontomyia ornata Mg. By sweeping dikeside herbage nearer 
the village of Higham, Mr. Shephard took a cf 5. longicornis 
(det. BMNH) in 1966 or 7, and on 26.vi.66 a d O. tigrina 
F. at the same spot; of the last-named, I swept a $ from reeds 
by a marsh dike at Lewes, Sussex, 15.vi. 74. Finally I may 
mention a ? 5. furcata brought to me by Mr. D. Collins from 
the sea wall at Leigh, Essex, in July 1964. — A. A. Allen, 49 
Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

Winter and Early Spring Moths in January. — An 
extremely mild spell of weather during the last week in 
January this year, prompted me to visit a private wood near 
Ashford, Kent on the 24th of the month. I operated two M.V. 
lights, and by 7.30 p.m. approximately 300 Apocheima pilosaria 
D. & S. and 70 Agriopis leucophaearia D. & S. had arrived, 
along with half a dozen Erannis defoliaria Clerck. An 
extremely early example of A. marginaria Fab. also came to 
the sheet, but none were found at rest along the adjacent 
hedges, where they are fairly plentiful later in the year. Both 
Theria rupicapraria D. & S. and Operophtera brumata L. 
were sitting about on the roadside hedges. 

Another similar dry warm evening three nights later 
found pilosaria again abundant, with over a hundred leuco- 
phaearia in many variable forms. Several specimens of Also- 
phila aescularia D. & S. also appeared, and two examples of 
the late autumn noctuid Eupsilia transversa Hufn. made a 
pleasant surprise, obviously tempted out of hibernation by 
the remarkably mild conditions. However no Conistra vaccinii 
L. were seen, which is usually to be noticed on the wing in 
February. In stark contrast, the night of the 29th saw clear 
cold skies, and only two leucophaearia managed to struggle 
onto the sheet with no other moths of any species to be seen. 

— J. Platts, 11 Maydowns Road, Whitstable, Kent. 

Observations on the Egg-laying Habits of Gortyna 
borelii lunata Freyer in the Wild. — I made several visits 
to a locality for this species on the Essex coast during October 
1980, and found a female ovipositing on a dead grass stem, 
about eighteen inches above ground. Some eggs were tucked 
inside the outer sheathing, but most were laid on the outside 
of th stem. About a dozen were laid in a batch, but proved 
infertile a day or two later. A few nights later another female 
was found at rest low down on a dead grass stem, apparently 
in preference to the higher plants of its food plant the Sea 
Hog's Fennel, although a male was found amongst the old 
flower heads. No eggs were present, but at home many were 
laid over the next few nights, all on dead grass stems. Various 
other stems were left in the cage including Peucedanum 
officinale, but no eggs were deposited on these. Some hundred 
eggs were laid, most of which turned pink several days later. 

— J. Platts, 1 1 Maydowns Road, Chestfield, Whitstable, Kent. 



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CONTENTS 

A Key to the Xylotini (sensu Hippa) known in Great Britain and 
Ireland, plus Xylota ignava (Dipt.: Syrphidae). Dr. M. C. D. 
SPEIGHT 25 

The Immigration of Lepidoptera to the British Isles in 1979: a Sup- 
plementary Note. R. F. BRETHERTON and J. M. CHALMERS- 
HUNT 28 

British Pugs. Brig. E. C. L. SIMSON 30 

Some Techniques for Minimising the Difficulties in Egg Counting 
in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Dr. A. R. KHAN and Dr. 
B. J. SELMAN 36 

Notes and Observations: 

Foodplant of Chrysolina polita (Col.: Chrysomelidae). J. ROB- 
BINS 27 

The Cloaked Pug: Eupithecia abietaria Goeze. Col. D. H. 

STERLING 29 

Further Records of the Dotted Rustic: Rhyacia simulans (Huf- 

nagel). J. N. GREATOREX-DAVIES 35 

An Early Usher: Agriopis leucophaearia D. & S. M. HADLEY 37 

An Example of Interspecific Copulation in the Genus Cerylon 

Latrielle (Col.: Cerylonidae). D. R. NASH 37 

Some Observations on the Heath Fritillary (Mellicta athalia 

Rott). in Kent. S. L. MEREDITH 38 

Overwintering Wasp-beetle: Some Comments on Mr. Wootton's 

Record. A. A. ALLEN 39 

Records of Two Uncommon Crane-flies from Cumbria. Dr. N. 

L. BIRKETT 39 

The Red Swordgrass: XvJena vetusta Hbn. at Kintail, Wester 

Ross. A. D. LISTON 40 

Croesia jorskaleana L., Gypsonoma aceriana Dup. and Eucosma 

obumbratana L. & Z. in County Cork. K. G. M. BOND 40 

Melanthia procellata (D. & S.) in North Wales. H. N. MICH- 

AELIS 40 

A Late Larva of Pieris brassicae (L.). H. N. MICHAELIS ... 40 

Melanic Scalloped Hazel: Odontopera bidentata Clerck. R. W. 

BOYNE and M. A. TAYLOR 40 

The Camberwell Beauty in North Yorkshire in 1980. P. CARL- 
TON 41 

Oxycera formosa Mg. (Dipt.: Stratiomyidae) in S. E. London. 

A. A. ALLEN 41 

Stiphrosoma sabulosum Hal. (Dipt.: Anthomvzidae) in the 

London Suburbs. A. A. ALLEN ... ' 41 

A Half Melanic Peacock Butterfly: Inachis io L. S. L. MERE- 
DITH 42 

Further Spread of Lithophane leautieri Boisd. H. E. CHIPPER- 
FIELD 42 

Emergence of Biorrhiza pallida (Hym.: Cynipidae). J. ROB- 
BINS 42 

Unusual Behaviour of the Black Ant, Lasius fuliginosus (Hym.: 

Formicidae). J. ROBBINS 42 

A Recent Essex Find of Procraerus tibialis Lac. (Col.: Elater- 

idae). A. A. ALLEN 43 

Stratiomys potamida Mg. (Dipt.), etc., in Kent. A. A. ALLEN 43 

Winter and Early Spring Moths in January. J. PLATTS ... 44 

Observations on the Egg-laying Habits of Gortyna borelii lunata 

Freyer in the Wild. J. PLATTS 44 

The Butterflies and Motha of Kent, Volume 3. J. M. CHALMERS- 

HUNT (261) 

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MONOPIS FENESTRATELLA (HEYD.) IN WARWICK- 
SHIRE. - In the Autumn of 1979, through the good offices of 
the local B.T.O. Representative, Mr. G. H. Green, I obtained the 
contents of a Kestrel's nest collected for me at Loxley, Warwick- 
shire, by Mr. J. Hardman of Stratford-upon-Avon. The nest was 
about 15 ft. up an oak tree, in a hedgerow on agricultural land, 
in a semi-natural nest box made from a hollowed walnut log. The 
contents were mostly bird wings and feathers and some mammal 
remains. In June, 1980, I bred out from this, a large number of 
micro moths (seven species in all), including Niditinea piercella 
(Bent.) and threee examples of a striking Monopis species which 
keyed out in Meyrick to Monopis fenestratella (Heyd.). Dr. J. D. 
Bradley kindly confirmed the identification at the British Museum. 
I beheve this species has not been observed in recent years. 

Meyrick has "Surrey, Cambridge, local. . . . Larva in decayed 
wood". Ford (1949) repeats this; and the new Field Guide gives 
on continental authority: "In dead wood and fungus, on plant- 
refuse and in hornets' nests". - DR. A N. B. SIMPSON, 29, The 
Greenway, Collets Green, Powick, Worcs. [This is a most interesting 
record, and the only confirmed occurrence of fenestratella in this 
country to our knowledge since 1877, in which year Harold Ruston 
(Ent. mon. Mag., 15 : 239) took five specimens in his garden at 
Chatteris, Cambridgeshire on June 24-25. Mey rick's "Surrey", which 
dates from the 1 895 edition of his Handbook, is repeated in the 
1928 revised edition, but does not appear to be confirmed from any 
other source. Moreover; the species is not included in the hst of 
lepidoptera of the Victoria County History of Surrey, whose main 
author was none other than C. G. Barrett. Lhomme (1963, Cata- 
logue des Lepidopteres de France et de Belgique, 2 : 1106) states 
that the larva occurs mostly in the detritus, seeds and excrement of 
birds. -J. M. C. -H.l 



46 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

A SECOND KENT CAPTURE OF MALTHODES 
FIBULATUS KIES. (COL.: CANTHARIDAE). - In 1966, 
Ent. mon. Mag., 102 : 231, I published the first Kent record of this 
rarity, having taken a single male at m.v. Ught at Blackheath. I can 
now report a second male captured in the same manner here at 
Charlton {l-lVi miles distant) on the morning of 6th June last. It was 
found on the lamp board after dawn, apparently just arrived, when a 
decided breeze was getting up. (I find that the individuals of 
Malthodes — with an occasional Mz/f/zmws — that come to the lamp, 
all of them males, tend to arrive early (e.g. around midnight) and to 
resort to the ceiling.) M. fuscus Waltl is not very infrequent here 
at the lamp, as at Blackheath. It is strange that I have never seen 
either this species or fibulatus anywhere in the district, except 
at m.v. hght; for there seems nothing specially obscure about their 
(adult) habits further out from London. The same applies to 
Malthinus balteatus Suff., which I have twice had at Blacklieath. - 
A. A. ALLEN. 

RECENT ABUNDANCE OF CHEILOSIA VELUTINA 
LW. (DIPT. : SYRPHIDAE) IN THE LONDON AREA. 

— From early times this Syrpliid has been regarded as uncommon, 
or even rare; but it seems to be one of those species that have for 
some few decades been undergoing a marked increase in certain 
areas if not generally. Not only has velutina been one of the more com- 
mon Cheilosiae to me since I recommenced collecting hover-flies 20 
years ago, but also I can positively declare that in the last two years at 
least it has been far more plentiful than any other of the genus 
here at Charlton, if sought at the right place and time. TTiis is 
notably the case on an expanse of waste ground near the Thames, 
where it abounds at flowers of hogweed in August; a few C. pagana 
Mg. and C. vemalis Fall, may occur with it, but velutina heavily 
outnumbers them and indeed was the only species noted there 
last year. For my earlier captures see Chandler, 1969, The Hover- 
flies of Kent, Trans. Kent Field Club, 3 (3) : 180. The only com- 
parable observation I have seen pubUshed is by Mr. R. W. J. Uffen, 
who found that velutina was the sole species of Cheilosia to occur 
on a piece of waste ground, also near the Thames, near Chiswick 
Bridge (1959, London Nahiralist, 38 : 56). He noted the species 
there in 1957-8, between July and September, in some numbers, 
and remarked that he had yet to meet v^th it elsewhere. 

The fly occurs at Heracleum flowers so much oftener than at 
any others as to make it quite likely that this may prove to be the 
larval foodplant. The one recorded larval host for this species is 
Scrophularia nodosa (a Continental record of 1880 — see K. G. V. 
Smith, 1979, Ent. Rec., 91 : 192), but I think it safe to assert that 
it cannot be the sole one, for the figwort is almost non-existent in 
the Blackheath-Charlton area where C. velutina is so frequent. 
(This fact may not improbably account for the total absence up to 
now of C. variabilis Panz., always reckoned one of our commonest 
species, from this district.) - A. A. ALLEN. 



THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE 

BRITISH ISLES IN 1980, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE 

INVASION OF THE PAINTED LADY: 

CYNTHIA CARDUI L. 

By R. F. Bretherton* and J. M. Chalmers-Hunt** 

1980 was generally an even poorer year for immigrants than 
1979. There were, however, interesting features: early arrivals in 
April and in June, spectacular invasions of some common species, 
especially of the butterfly Cynthia cardui L, the Pyrale Udea 
ferrugalis Hbn., and the Tineid Plutella xylostella L. (maculipennis 
Curtis), and records of Scopula rubiginata Hufn., Nola aemgula 
Hbn., Enargia paleacea Esp., Photedes extrema Hbn., Deltote 
bankiana Hbn., wliich are local residents in Britain but wliich also 
appear as occasional immigrants. Of the scarcer species in almost 
all cases numbers of individuals reported were woefully low. The 
numbers arriving may not, indeed, have been quite as poor as the 
records suggest, because the persistently poor weather discouraged 
field work and to some extent the operation of static liglit traps, 
although the prevalence of cloudy niglits with fairly higli average 
temperatures may have favoured the attendance of such nocturnal 
immifrants as were present. 

Tlie season began with a small immigration noted in Sussex in 
early April (Ent. Rec, 92 : 144), and another, coinciding with three 
days of warm south east and south winds about May 11/14. This 
consisted mainly of Vanessa atalanta L., wliich reached as far north 
as the Trossachs, Perthshire and Handa Island, West Sutherland by 
May 16 and 19; there was also a surprising capture of a single 
Trichoplusia ni Hbn. at Portland, Dorset, which perhaps arrived 
also with this movement (Ent. Rec, 92 : 196). The first big invasion, 
including that of C cardui, began after June 2, when the wind 
sources shifted suddenly from the North Atlantic to the south west 
and then to south and south east, brining a current of warm air 
from north Africa and the Mediterranean. This was interrupted from 
June 7 to 11, but immigrant species became more numerous when 
southerly winds were resumed until about June 18. 

Most of July was almost barren of arrivals, but towards its 
end an anti-cyclone became established over Scandinavia and north 
central Europe, with warm south east and south winds blowing 
round it across the North Sea mainly to northern Britain. These 
produced, after some forerunner species, the second great invasion 
of C cardui and its fellow travellers up the east coast from Yorkshire 
to Orkney, from July 29 to 31. Rather later an area of high pressure 
also developed from the Azores to Spain, and as this moved east- 
wards south west and south winds brought probably the most varied 
immigration of the year to southern England in the first fortnight of 
August. Thereafter weather conditions again became very unsettled 
through the rest of August and in September, with alternating short 
periods of favourable and unfavourable air streams; but further 
*FoUy HiU, Biitley Green, Bramley, Guilford, Surrey GU5 OLE. 
**1, Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent BR4 9LG. 



48 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

immigrations can be fairly clearly distinguished from August 24 into 
early September and again from September 15 to 28. Tliis almost 
ended the migration season, as througliout October winds were 
northerly and temperatures low, with records of immigrant species 
extremely few. 

Tlie species whose main arrivals can be attributed to each of 
these periods are set out below, in the order of the first records: 

April 2/7 C. cardui, A. ipsilon, H. peltigera, N. noctuella; 

V. atalanta, 14 and later. 
May 1/18 V. atalanta, C. cardui, A. gamma, ? T. ni {2A.5). 

June 2/6 M. Stella tarum, A. gamma, C. cardui, V. atalanta, 

N. noctuella, P. xylostella, H. peltigera, U. ferru- 

galis. 
June 12/16 M. albipuncta, D. bankiana, H. peltigera, O. 

obstipata, A. gamma, P. extrema, P. saucia. 
July 26/31 (N.England and Scotland) E. occulta, N. aerugula, V. 

atalanta, C. cardui, A. gamma, P. xylostella, N. 

noctuella 
August 1/15 (South England) R. sacraria, P. unionalis, N. noctuella, 

A. gamma, V. atalanta, H. peltigera, E. parva, M. 

albipuncta, M. stellatarum, C. crocea, O. obstipata, 

S. rubiginata 
August 26/September 9 R. sacraria, V. atalanta, C. cardui, C. crocea, 

M. stellatarum, U. ferrugalis, M. vitellina, H. 

armigera, A. convolvuli, A. gamma, D. orichalcea, 

P. unionalis, O. obstipata, A. atropos, D. nerii 
September 1 5/28 P. saucia, M. unipuncta, D. ramburialis, U. pulchella, 

S. exigua, H. celerio, U. ferrugalis, H. arr?iigera, 

M. albipuncta, C. croceus. 

In October and November no additional species were reported, 
and the only noteworthy influx was of a dozen M. unipuncta between 
October 22 and November 2 in south west Ireland. 

Among the common immigrants, the great invasions of C cardui 
are fully discussed and recorded in Annexe III. They were all 
accompanied by much smaller numbers of Vanessa atalanta; but this 
also arrived independently at other times and probably had more 
northerly points of origin. Several observers noted that its larvae 
survived better than those of C. cardui; but even so local breeding 
seems to have been reduced by the poor summer, and its total 
numbers in Britain may have been below average. In Dumbarton- 
shire some were seen definitely migrating southwards on September 
20 and 22, and the account of more than 100, with some C. cardui 
and a single C. crocea, on the coast at Girdleness and Newtonhill, 
in south Aberdeen and Kincardinesliire on September 28 may have 
represented a southward movement rather than a fresh immigration. 
A presumably over-wintering example was seen in south Hampshire 
on January 24, and the first immigrants arrived in April and May; 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE BRITISH ISLES IN 1980 49 

there are few records for October, and the last was reported at 
Peacehaven, Sussex, on November 2. 

Of C. crocea about 60 were reported, mostly very widely 
scattered. One was seen at Padstow, Cornwall on June 13, and 
another at Wistow, Hunts., on June 15. Most of the others were 
in a well defined group between August 27 and early September. 
These arrived at Lands End in some numbers, and were noted 
later up the west coast of England and in Scotland as far as Loch 
Lomond and StirUngshire. Tlie last example reported was on 
St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly, on October 4. In Ireland, one was seen 
at Old Liglithouse Is., Co. Down, on June 21, and another in Co. 
Wexford, on September 28. Tliere was no sign of local breeding, 
and the species remains, as for many years, almost a scarce 
immigrant. 

Plutella xylostella L. and Autographa gamma also came with 
C. cardui, especially in late July, when the former was said to be 
"in millions" at Spurn Point and in Orkney, and an estimated 
1,000 A. gamma were seen at Spurn. Nomophila noctuella and 
Udea ferrugalis also accompanied them in smaller numbers, and the 
latter had a very large independent influx in mid September, noted 
especially in Essex, Westmorland and south west Ireland. There 
were also many separate influxes, beginning in May, oi A. gamma 
on the south coast, and 160 were counted on August 27 in Cardigan- 
shire and 650 on August 13 at Beachy Head, E. Sussex. Its inland 
spread and local breeding, however seem to have been poor. 

The resident immigrant Phlogophora meticulosa bred freely 
in the south through the mild winter, and was commoner than 
usual in May and June; but it was not generally much in evidence 
as an immigrant either then or later, although there was a definite 
influx to Dncolnsliire where 159 were trapped at South Tlioresby 
between September 16 and 22. Agrotis ipsilon began strongly in 
Sussex and elsewhere in April, and almost daily records of small 
numbers through July probably reflect local breeding; but it was 
not notably abundant as an iminigrant in the autumn, apart from 
a large number reported at liglit at Swanage, mth Peridroma saucia, 
on October 5. Elsewhere that species was certainly scarcer than 
usual. It was noticed at Hampstead, Middlesex on June 15 and 22, 
but the later records in September and througli October were almost 
all of single examples and did not extend northwards beyond 
Abergele in Denbighshire and Blanchpeth in co. Durham. The 
last was at Leigh, Surrey, on October 28. Macroglossa stellatarum 
came in with the June immigrations in some numbers, getting as 
far north as the Isle of May, Fifeshire, Caerlaverock, Dumfriesshire, 
and Abergele, Denbighshire, from June 6 to 8, and being numerous 
in Warwicksliire from June 15 to the end of the month. It was 
also recorded in south Devon througfi much of July and singly on 
August 10 and 28. It may be relevant that this was the only 
migratory species seen commonly in the French Pyrenees in late July 
and early August. 



50 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 



15.IV.81 



Records of the scarcer species are given in full in Annexe II; 
except for Rhodometra sacraria and Heliothis peltigera, all species 
were in very small numbers. Of R. sacraria some 20 were reported, 
almost all as singles except in Essex. Tlie first on July 2, was fresh 
and was reliably said to have exuded meconium. This is an unusually 
early date for the species in England, and it is not clear how, or 
when, its parent may have arrived . Most of the remainder came as 
immigrants during the first half of August; it is possible that the 
few noted in Essex and Cornwall in late September and October 
were locally bred from the August arrivals. The total recorded was, 
however, below average. 

Heliothis peltigera, with about 30 feral moths reported and 
over 100 larvae in various places along the south coast, had its 
best year since 1968. Tlie first was at Ninfield, East Sussex on 
April 10. There was another at Wormley, Surrey on June 5, and 
eight more in various places from June 13 to 21, reaching as far 
north as Derby and Abergele, Denbighshire. A further immigration 
probably accounted for all of the ten moths seen from Kent to 
Dorset from August 2 to 18; but in some cases larvae were found 
at the same time, and there is clear indication that three moths 
found on Looe Bar, E. Cornwall on August 22 and 23 were locally 
bred, and so perhaps were the few scattered moths reported between 
September 6 and 18. Larvae were very numerous on the coast of 
Kent and Sussex in late September and early October, presumably 
from August parents; but there is no evidence that any of these 
survived to produce moths in the wild. 

Mention has already been made of the occurrence in 1980 of 
several examples, almost certainly short distance immigrants from 
across the North Sea, of resident British species. Others which may 
be suspected of having the same status are two Meganola albula 
trapped at Bradwell-on-Sea, South Essex on August 8 and 9, and also 
two specimens of Euproctis chrysorrhoea cauglit at the Spurn 
Observatory on July 30, and wliich if they were not immigrant, 
must have come a long way from their coastal haunts in Suffolk, 
Essex and Kent. In addition, in the invasions of early June and late 
July Mr. R. I. Lorimer trapped in Orkney examples of Blepharita 
adusta and Papestra biren of forms differing greatly from those 
found locally, and also several species previously unknown there, 
thougli resident on the Scottish mainland at varying distances to the 
south. A full note on these wih appear elsewhere. 

ANNEXE I 
Recorders and localities 

(The names of recorders who gave information about C. cardiii are starred) 



Agassiz, Rev. D., Heyshott, Sussex, 

Bridport, Dorset. 
*AUen, A. A., Woolwich, W. Kent. 
*Archer-Lock, A. S., Padstow, W. 

Cornwall; S. Devon. 



Elliott, B., Portland, Dorset; Derbys. 
*Elliott, R., St. Andrews. Fife. 
Evans, K. A. G., Croydon, Addis- 
combe, Surrey. 
*Ezard, S., Rudston, S. E. Yorks. 



ANNEXE I - RECORDERS AND LOCALITIES 



51 



*Bainbridge, I., Spindlestone Haugh, 

S. Northumberland, per A. 

Long. 
*Baker, B. R., Near Lands End, W. 

Cornwall; Caversham, Berks. 
*Baldwin, A. J., Halwell Forest, N. 

Devon. 
*BartIett, J., Banchory, Kinc, per 

MRY. 
*Birkett, N. L., Grange, Sedbergh, 

Westmld. 
Braddock, A. Derby, per CRP. 
*Bretherton, R.F., Bramley, Surrey. 
*Briggs, J., Westmld; N. Lanes. 
Brown, D. C, Lizard, W. Cornwall; 

Dungeness, E. Kent ; Charlecote. 

Warwicks. 
*Burrows, D. S., Malham; Ilkley 

Moor, Central Yorks. 
Burton, G. N., Sheppey, E. Kent. 
*CampbeIl, J. L., I. of Canna, Inner 

Hebrides. 
Carlton, P. Roundhill Reservoir, N. 

Yorks. 
*Chalmers-Hunt, J. M.,E.Curthwaite, 

Bowness-on-Solway, Cumber- 
land; W. Wickham, W. Kent; 

Nagden, E. Kent; Alnmouth, 

Craster, N. Northumberland; 

Tatsfield, Surrey. 
Chambers, D. A., E. Kent. 
*Christie, I. C, Dumbartons.; N. 

Berwick; Isle of CoU., Argyll. 
*Classey, E. W., Southrop, Lechlade, 

N. Glos (Ent. Gaz., 31 : 228). 
*Clarke, W. A., Scarborough, Filey, 

etc., N. E. Yorks, per P.Q.W. 
Convey, P., Winchester, per BS. 
Coster, W.L., Portland, Dorset; 

Dungeness, E. Kent. 
*Coxey, S. Abergele, Llandulas, 

Denbighshire. 
*Cramp, R. A., W. Blean, E. Kent; 

Reigate, Surrey. 
*Dewick, A. J. & S. F., Bradwell- 

on-Sea, S. Essex. 
*Dickinson, J., Blackburn, Lytham 

St. Annes, N. Lanes. 
*Down, D. G., Canvey Is., S. Essex. 
*Dyson, R., Brighton, Shoreham, 

Sussex. 
*EIey, Lady, Suffolk; Lock Ness, 

Inverness. 
*Jackson, S. M., Tadcaster, Selby, 

S. E. Yorks. 
Jewess, P., Newington, E. Kent. 
*Johnston, A. F., Isle of May, 

Fife. 
*Kitchen, Rev. T. B., Scarborough, 

N. E. Yorks per PQW. 
''Largen, R. Worthing, W. Sussex, 

per CRP. 



Elvidge, M., Godalming, Surrey. 
*Fairclough, R., Leigh, Surrey. 
Fisher, J. B., Beaumont-cum-Moze, 

S. Essex. 
*Fletcher, D. S., Cumbrian Fells, 

Ent. Gaz., 31 : 246. 
Foster, A. P., Kingsdown, E. Kent; 

Mawnan Smith, Looe Bar, etc., 

Cornwall. 
*Gandy, M., Cardigans., Middsx., 

etc. 
Gardner, A. F. J., Southam, Mar- 
ton, Charlcote. Warwicks. 
*Gibson, K., Mallaig; Shinat Is.; 

North Rona, per F.H. 
Goater, B., Branscombe, S. Devon; 

Portland, Dorset; Caerlaverock, 

Dumfriesshire. 
Gregory, J., Par, E. Cornwall, per 

CRP. 
Greenwood, J. A. C, Rogate, W. 

Sussex. 
Halstead, A. J., Wisley, Surrey. 
*Hancock, E.E., Do Igelly Merioneth; 

Dumfriesshire. 
*Harman, T.W., Sandwich Bay, 

Canterbury, Westbere, E. Kent. 
Harmer, A. S., Lymington, S. Hants. 
Hadley, M. Beachy Head, E. Sussex, 

per CRP. 
*Harrison, F., Derbyshire; S. Yorks; 

Notts. 
Heal, N. F., Detling Hill, E. Kent. 
*Hedges, J. Ballakeighan, Isle of 

Man. 
Heckford, R. .L, Beaulieu Rd., S. 

Hants. 
*Hare, L. H., West Pentire, W. Corn- 
well, per J. Heath. 
*Hillis, Dr. P. , co. Down. 
*Hobbs, R. N., Kent; Sussex; Nor- 
folk. 
Homer, T.G., Land's End, W. Corn- 
wall, per BRB. 
*Houlston, R., S. E. Yorks, per 

PQW. 
*Hulme, D. C, Muir of Ord, 

Rosshire; E. Sutherland. 
♦Humphreys, Col. R. B., Usk, Mon.; 

Brancepath, co. Durham; 

Smardale, Westmorland. 
*Horton, Dr. G. A. N., Usk, Mon.; 

W. Sutherland; Caithness. 
Pilcher, R. E. M., South Thoresby, 

E. Lines. 
Pooles, S., Eastbourne, E. Sussex. 
Porter, J. Dungeness, E. Kent, per 

BENHS. 
*Pratt, C. R., Peacehaven, Pevensey, 

Normans Bay, E. Sussex. 
Pyman, G. A., Essex. 
Radford, J. T., Arundel, W. Sussex, 

per CRP. 



52 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 



15.IV.81 



Langmaid, Dr. J. R., Southsea, S. 

Hants, per BS. 
*Laidlaw, J.,Teignmouth, S. Devon. 
*Leece, J., Handa Is., W. Sutherland 

per DCH. 
*Leedal, A. Lancaster, per JB. 
*Lewis, I. T., Hod Hill, Dorset. 
Long, A. G., Whitley Bay, S. 

Northumberland. 
*Longdon, M. R., Dumpton Gap, 

Ramsgate, Joss Bay, E. Kent. 
*Lorimer, R. 1., Ophir, Orkney; 

Totteridge, Herts. 
*McAughton, J., Ring Point, Loch 

Lomond, per JB. 
*Marren, P., Banffshire; N. Aber- 

deens. 
*Megginson, K., Scarborough, Robin 

Hood's Bay, N. E. Yorks, per 

PQW. 
*Miller, J. R.Crieff, S.Perths; ArgyU; 

Inverness; St. Andrews, Fife. 
*Mitts, P., Girdlestone Ness, S. 

Aberdeens; Newtonhill, Kinc, 

per MRY. 
*Morrison, R.C., Troutsdale, N. E. 

Yorks, per PQW. 
*Morton, A. C. C, Folkestone, E. 

Kent. 
Messenger, J. L., Wormley, Surrey. 
*Muggleton, J. C, Cape Wrath, W. 

Sutherland. 
Notton, J. H. F., Berks, per BRB. 
O'Connor, Dr. J. co. We.xford, 

Ireland. 
*0'Heffernan, H. L., Chillington, 

Slapton, S. Devon. 
Owen, J, E., Dymchurch, E. Kent. 
*Parnaby, Mrs. E. M. I., Scarborough, 

N. E. Yorks, per PQW. 
*Palmer, S. and B., Aberdeens., per 

MRY. 
*Parsons, M. Ninfield, etc., E. 

Susse.x, per CRP. 
*Pelham-Clinton, E.C.,Winchburgh, 

W. Lothian; Porlock.W. Somer- 
set. 
*Peers, M.,Breconshire, per J. P. S.-B. 
Pickering, R. R., Aldwick Bay, 

Pagham, W. Sussex, per BS, 

CRP and CJ. 
Pickles, A. J., Lymington, S. Hants; 

Swanage, Dorset, per BENHS 

exhibition and BS. 
*West, B. K., Freswick, Caithness. 
*Wild, E. H., Selsdon, Surrey; 

Swanage, Dorset; St. Lawrence, 

Isle of Wight; Dungeness, E.Kent 
*Winter, P. Q., Muston, etc., S. E. 

Yorks. 



Rees. D., Eversley, N. Hants., Bull. 

A.E.S., 39: 172. 
* Robertson, A. S., Truro, Roseland, 

W. Cornwall, Ent. Gaz., 31 : 

253. 
*Sankey-Barker, J. P., Brecons.; 

Radnors. 
*Scott, R. E.. St. Agnes, Isles of 

SiUy. 
Senior, G., Dungeness, E. Kent, per 

RGC. 
Simpson, M. S. L., Wistow, Hunt, 

Bull. A. E. S. 39: 172. 
*Skinner, Mrs. P., Newton Abbot, 

S. Devon. 
Skinner, B.. Dungeness, E. Kent; 

Swanage, Dorset; Pagham, W. 

Sussex. 
*Smith, D. J., Aberystwyth, Cards.; 

Shropshire. 
*Smith, P. Fingringhoe, N. Essex, 

per GAP. 
*Softly, R. A.. Hampstead, Middsx; 

Swanage. 
Sokoloff, P., Orpington, W. Kent; 

Heme Hill, Surrey; Northum- 
berland. 
*Spencer, B. R., Spurn Bird Obser- 
vatory, S. E. Yorks. 
*Summers, P., Hawick, Roxburghs; 

Ranmore, Surrey; Verwood, 

Cranborne, Dorset; Black 

Torrington, N. Devon. 
*Sutton, S. R., Leeds, Yorks. 
Sterling, D. H., Leckford, N. Hants; 

Winchester, S. Hants. 
Tapp, A. E., Dungeness, E. Kent. 
*Thomas, R. J., Boat of Garten, 

Inverness. 
Thomson, G., co. Cork, W. Ireland. 
*Titcombe, C, Bulwark, etc., Mon., 

per GANH. 
Tynan, A. K., Mull of Galloway, 

Wigtons., per AGE. 
Walley, P. F., Dallington, E. Sussex. 
*Wallis, A. P., Scarborough, etc., 

N. E. Yorks, per PQW. 
*WardeU, W. R., Scarborough, N. E. 

Yorks, per PQW. 
*Waring, R, Arnside, N. Lanes, per JB. 
Watson, A. St. Annes-on-Sea, N. 

Lanes per JB. 
Weir, Miss J., near Guilford, Surrey. 

*Wykes, N. G., Uploders, Eggardon 

Hill, Dorset. 
Youden, G., Dover, E. Kent. 
*Young, M. R., Forties oil rigs, 

North Sea; Aberdeenshire; 

Kincardineshire. 



ANNEXE II 53 

Records of Scarcer Immigrant Species in 1980 

DIASEMIOPSIS RAMBURIALIS Dup. (2) S. HANTS: Beaulieu Road station, 
19.8 (HJH). W. SUSSEX: Aldwick Bay, 17.9 (RRP). 

PALPITA UNIONALIS Hbn. (5) S. ESSEX: Bradwell-on-Sea, 14.8 (AJD). 
S. HANTS: Lymington, 1.8 (AJP). SURREY: Bramley, 6/7.8, worn 
female, eggs, 21.10, worn male, possibly bred on garden jasmine; Heme 
Hill, 4.9., very worn male in a train (PS). 

NYMPH ALIS ANTIOPA L. (2) S. NORTHUMBERLAND: Whitley Bay, 
6.8 (AGL). N. YORKS: Roundhill Reservoir, 12.10 (P.C). 

NYMPHALIS POLYCHLOROS L. (1) SURREY: Near GuUdford, 13.9., 
sitting on a kitchen window ledge (probably immigrant) (JW) 

SCOPULA RUBIGINATA Hufn. (1) E. KENT: Sandwich Bay, 15.8. 

RHODOMETRA SACRARIA L. (22) W. CORNWALL; Mawnan Smith, 
28.10, male (APF). S. ESSEX:BradweU-on-Sea, 5.8., 6.8(2), 22.9., 23.9., 
26.9., 3.10 (AJD, CFD). N. ESSEX: Fingringhoe, n.d. N. HANTS: 
Leckford, 15/16.8, male (DHS). E. KENT: East Blean, 2.7., male, which 
ejected meconium (ESB); Detling Hill, 10.8, male (NFH); Dymchurch, 
14.8 (JAO). W. KENT: Tonbridge, 1.8., male (AET). SURREY: Croydon, 

13.8 (KAGE); Selsdon, 15.8, male (EHW). E. SUSSEX: DaUington, 8.8 
(PFW); Peacehaven, 7.9 (CRP); Crumbles, 21.9., at dusk (CRP). W. 
SUSSEX: Heyshott, 8.8 (DA); Worthing, 29.8 (RL). WARWICKS: 
Charlecote, 26.9., male (DCGB). 

ORTHONAMA OBSTIPATA F. (6) BERKS: Caversham, 3/4.9 (BRB). E. 

CORNWALL:. Par, 1.8 (JG). DORSET: Swanage, 3.9., female (AJP). 

ORKNEY, 27.8., female (RIL). E. SUSSEX: Pevensey, 13.6 (CRP). 

WARWICKS: Charlecote, 26.9 (AFJG). 
AGRIUS CONVOLVULI L. (6) MID CORK: Fountainstown, 30.9 (AAM). 

S. E. LINCS: South Thoresby, 20.9 (REMP). MONMOUTHS: Bulwark, 

28.9 (CT). W. SUSSEX: Aldwick Bay, 26.6, female at rest on door 
(RRP). WEXFORD: Old Head of Kinsale, 17.9 (GT). N. E. YORKS: 
Robin Hood's Bay, 9.9 (SRS). 

ACHERONTIA ATROPOS L. (4) DERBYS: Chesterfield, 25.9, one female 

brought in (BE). SURREY: Thorpe, male, 31.8 (Boon Bull. Amat. ent. 

Soc, 40 : 15). WARWICKS: Southam, 28.9, female at outside light 

(AFJG). AT SEA: Forties Oil Platform, 110 miles east of Aberdeen, 

9.10 (MRY). 
DAPHNIS NERH L. (1) BUCKS: High Wycombe, worn male, 11.9 (Cave, 

Bull. Amat, ent. Soc, 40 : 15). 
HYLES GALLIl Rott. (1) E. KENT: Dungeness, 25.7, in trap (GBS). 
HYLES LINEATA LIVORNICA Esp. (2) S. DEVON: ChUlington, 11.6, 

large and fresh (HLO'H). E. KENT: Dymchurch, 26.6, in trap (JEO). 
HIPPOTION CELERIO L. (1) S. E. YORKS: Rudston, 19.9 (ASE). 
UTETHEISA PULCHELLA L. (1) W. SUSSEX: Arundel, 19.9 (ASE). 
NOLA AERUGULA Hbn. (1) S. E. YORKS: Spurn Bird Observatory, 26 

& 27.7, inm.v. trap (BRS). 
EUROIS OCCULTA L. (3) N. ABERDEEN: Old Meldrum, 26.7 (RDY). 

DUNBARTONS: Loch Lomondside, 26.7, of continental form (ICC). 

W. LOTHIAN: Winchburgh, 26.7, of continental form (ECP-C). 
MYTHIMNA ALBIPUNCTA D. & S. (8) DORSET: Swanage, 5.10, one 

male, one female (AJP). S. HANTS: Southsea, 23.9 (JRL). E. KENT 

Kingsdown, 12.6, worn male at light (APF); Dungeness, 6.9 (JP); 

21 .9., female (WLC). E. SUSSEX: Pevensey, 7.8 (CRP). ISLE OF WIGHT 

St. Lawrence, 10.9 (EHW). 
MYTHIMNA VITELLINA Hbn. (3) W. CORNWALL: Lizard, 29.8 (DCGB) 

Kennack Sands, 20.9, worn male (APF). DORSET: Swanage, 20.9, 

male (RGC). 
MYTHIMNA UNIPUNCTA Haw. (18) MID CORK: Fountainstown, 17.9., 

24.9., 22.10/2.11 (twelve) (AAM). W. CORNWALL: Mawnan Smith, 

30.10, two worn males, 11.12, worn male (APF). E. SUSSEX: Eastbourne, 

1.9 (CRP). 
ENARGIA PALEACEA Esp. (2) S. HANTS: Winchester, 10/1 1.8., very worn 

(DHS). W. SOMERSET: Porlock, 31.7, very large, pale (ECP-C). 
PHOTEDES EXTREMA Hbn. (1) S. ESSEX: BradweU-on-Sea, 14.6 (AJD). 



54 ANNEX II 

SPODOPTERA EXIGUA Hbn. (3) S. ESSEX: BradweU-on-Sea, 20.9 (AJD). 
SURREY: Leigh, 19.9 (RF); Addiscombe, 21.9 (KAGE). 

HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA Hbn. (5) DORSET: Swanage, 5/6.10 (EHW). 
S. HANTS: Lymington, 30.9 (AJP). E. KENT: Newington, 20/21.9 
(PJJ). SURREY: Bramley, 29/30.8 (RFB). 
WARWICKS: Marton, 21.9, female (AFJG). 

HELIOTHIS PELTIGERA D & S. (about 30, over 100 larvae and 2 pupae) 
BERKS: Emmer Green, Caversham, 2.6., 7.6. (JHFN). W. CORNWALL: 
Near Land's End, 24/31.8, two pupae dug near rest harrow patches 
(TGH). E. CORNWALL: Looe Bar, 22.8., male at Silene maritima, 
female drying wings, 23.8., male (APE). DENBIGHS: Abergele, 11/12. 
6., fresh male (SC). DERBYS: Derby, 18.6 (AB). S. DEVON: Branscombe, 

3.8 (BG). DORSET: Portland, 18.6., worn male, 21., female (RGC); 
Swanage, 3/4.8., two, 3.9 (AJP); Studland, 6.9 (DCGB). S. HANTS: 
Lymington, 13/14.6 (AJP). E. KENT: Dungeness, 3 & 10.8, also larvae 
on S. viscosa 21 & 22.9 (EHW); Sandwich Bay, 15.8 (TWH); Boughton 
Aluph, 11/12.9 (ME). MIDDSX: Islington, 15.6 (MG). SURREY: Worm- 
ley, 5/6.6, in trap (JLM); Wisley Gardens, 18/19.6 (AHH), Addiscombe, 
18.9, male (KAGE). W. SUSSEX: Rogate, 14/15.6, fairly fresh (JACG); 
Pagham, 7.8, two on ragwort, also larvae (DA); Aldwick Bay, 12.9, and 
larvae on S. viscosa 12 & 16.9 (DGS). E. SUSSEX: Ninfield, 10.4. in trap 
before midnight (MP); Eastbourne, 9.8 (SWP); Pevensey, 12.8., Crumbles, 
larvae 12.8, six, 4.10, 50 in an hour on S. viscosa (CRP). 

EUBLEMMA PARVA Hbn. (2) S. HANTS: Southsea, 7.8 (JRL). W. SUSSEX: 

Heyshott, 6.8 (DA). 
DELTOTE BANKIANA Hbn. (2) N. ESSEX: Beaumont-cum-Moze, 14.6, in 

trap (JBF). E. KENT: Kingsdown, 12.6, male at light (APF). 
TRICHOPLUSIA NI Hbn. (3) MID CORK: Fountainstown, 3.9, male (AAM). 

DORSET: Portland, 24.5, male at light (WLC). E. KENT: Dungeness, 

22.7, one identified but escaped (EHW). 
DIACHRYSIA ORICHALCEA F. (2) S. HANTS: Lymington, 1/2.9 (AJP), 

5.9 (ASH). 

(To be continued) 

HESPERIID LARVAE AS PREY FOR A SPHECID WASP. - 

During a visit to Nigeria in December 1980, I happened across the 
larva of Spialia ploetzi Aurivillius in a Lagos hotel garden. It was 
feeding on the weed, Triumfetta (Tiliaceae) which looks rather 
Uke European Malva. 

As is usual in the Hesperiidae, the caterpillars were living singly 
inside an envelope made by folding the leaf across so that underside 
of the leaf can be seen from above. I was studying one of these 
envelopes when a large sphecid wasp landed on the leaf and im- 
mediately chewed a hole in the leaf, extracted the larva and flew off. 
It must be assumed that the Hesperiidae larvae live in envelopes 
for protective reasons and I was curious as to how the wasp had 
managed to locate the larva with such speed and precision. Ten 
minutes later the wasp came back and provided the answer: visual 
predation once removed. The underside of the Triumfetta leaf is 
lighter than the upperside and the wasp was systematically investi- 
gating all leaves where the upperside could be seen from above. A 
fair proportion of such leaves were Hesperiid envelopes. Knowing 
how Sphecid wasps can navigate through acquired topograpliical 
knowledge, there is little doubt that its hunting behaviour in tliis 
case was acquired rather than intrinsic. When Hesperiid larvae 
become scarce, another visual search pattern will be adopted. I 



PLATE I 







'":«i'..--^rm. 



Hypolycaeiw learei spec. nov. 
Fig I. : Hnlotype (upperside) Fig. 2. ^ Allotype (upperside) 

Fig. 3. ^' Holotype (underside) Fig. 4. v Allotype (underside) 



Photo by S. F. Henning. 



HESPERIID LARVAE AS PREY FOR A SPHECID WASP 55 

found a few Spialia larvae which had folded their leaves the other 
way round and they were obviously safe from this particular wasp 
individual. If there was consistent, heavy predation of the nature 
I saw, this way of folding the leaf would undoubtedly be selected 
in favour of. Unfortunately the wasp was not caught, nor its nest 
found. I spent the next 24 hours waiting for a plane at Murtala 
Mohammed Airport. How I would have preferred to get to 
the bottom of that issue instead! - TORBEN B. LARSEN, 
23, Jackson's La., London, N.6. 

A NEW SPECIES OF HYPOL YCAENA FEEDER 

FROM SOUTHERN AFRICA 

(LEPIDOPTERA : LYCAENIDAE) 

By G. A. Henning* 

Abstract 

A description of a new species of Hypolycaena Felder pre- 
viously thouglit to be Hypolycaena amanica Stempffer, 1951. 

Introduction 

The females of this species have been known for some con- 
siderable time but as no males were available it was presumed to be 
a form of H. phillippus (Fab.). The first two males were captured 
by Mr. W. Teare in the Amatongas forest, Mozambique, in March 
1969. He later captured six males and a female in the Chirinda 
forest, Zimbabwe-Rhodesia, but this female does not show the 
extensive white coloration on the upperside wliich is so charac- 
teristic of the earlier females. The Chirinda forest males are also, 
on the whole, paler on the underside than the Amatongas specimens. 
This species was mistakenly identified as H. amanica, which is an 
inhabitant of the forests of the Usambara range in northern Tanzania. 
The holotype and a paratype of H. amanica was kindly loaned by 
the British Museum (Natural History) for study and on comparison 
it was immediately evident that the two were not conspecific. 
This species is identified and pictured as H. amanica in "Pen- 
nington's Butterflies of Southern Africa" edited by C. G. C. 
Dickson, 1978. 

Hypolycaena tearei spec. nov. 

DIAGNOSIS. The male is similar to H amanica on the upper- 
side and to H. philippus on the underside. The female is sirnilar 
to that of H. philippus, but with the upperside white markings 
more extensive and the ground-colour paler brown. This species 
is also slightly smaller than either H. amanica or H philippus. The 
undersides of male and female are very similar to those of//, philip- 
pus but the ground-colour is paler. The underside of H. amanica is 
closer to that of//, buxtoni Hew. and not the philippus-gr oup. 

* 1 Lawrence Street, Florida Park, Florida 1710, South Africa. 



56 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

DESCRIPTION. Holotyped Forewing length 14.4 mm. 
Antenna: club black with ochreous tip; shaft black with white 
rings. Head: black above, wliitish beneath. Eyes: ochreous-brown. 
Palpi: black above, white beneath. Tliorax: Black above, white 
beneath. Legs: white with black spots. Abdomen: black above, wliite 
beneath with black lateral stripes. 

Wings. Forewing. Shglitly more rounded than in either 
H. amanica or H. philippus: cilia grey. Upperside. Ground-colour 
bluish-purple; a black border, broadest at apex and tapering to- 
wards tornus. The border is twice as broad as that of//, amanica 
and the ground-colour is more bluish. Hindwing. Slightly more 
rounded than in eitlier H. philippus or H. amanica. Upperside. 
Ground-colour bluish-purple. CiHa white, tipped with grey and black 
at end of veins. White admarginal line from vein 6 to anal angle. 
Black submarginal spots in areas Ic and 2 and a small spot in the 
anal lobe. The upper spot bordered proximally with orange. The 
spot in anal lobe almost obscured proximally with ochreous. The 
tails are black, tipped and edged with wliite. Anal fold dark grey. 
Underside. Forewing. Very similar to that of H. philippus but with 
the ground-colour a paler grey. The median, discal and postdiscal 
Unes similar to those of//, philippus, but darker in colour. Cilia grey 
with pinkish-brown along the outer margin. Hindwing. Similar to 
that of H. philippus but with the ground-colour as in forewing and 
hnes darker. The ground-colour of the distal half of the wing paler 
than that of the proximal half. Cilia and wliite admarginal line as on 
upperside, with a dark brown edge to the outer margin. Black spots 
only in area 2 and in anal lobe. Spot in 2 strongly ochreous bordered 
proximally, while spot in anal lobe is less so. 

Allotype + . Forewing length 15.3 mm. Antenna: as in male. 
Head: brownish above, wliite beneath. Eyes: ochreous-brown. 
Palpi: black above, white beneath. Thorax: dark brown above, 
white beneath. Legs: as in male. Abdomen: dark brown above, 
white beneath; lateral stripes brown and not as pronounced as in 
the male. Wings. Forewing. Sliglitly more rounded than in male. 
Upperside. Ground-colour pale brown, not ochreous-brown as in 
H. philippus. Ciha grey. There is a postmedial white band 2 mm 
wide at the costa broadening down to area lb, in wliich it extends 
inwardly and then merges into the ground-colour before the base of 
the wmg. The veins are pale brown where they run througli the 
band. Hindwing. Sliglitly more rounded than in the male. Upper- 
side. Ground-colour pale brown. CiHa wliite, tipped with pale brown 
at the vein ends. There is a wliite admarginal line from vein 7 to the 
anal angle, and there are black submarginal spots in Ic and 2, and 
a small spot in the anal lobe. Tlie upper black spot is bordered 
proximally with orange. The spot in the anal lobe is almost obscured 
proximally with ochreous. There is also a submarginal series of 
rather lunular wliite marks in areas 4 and 6, with small dark brown 
or black markings between them and the wliite admarginal line. 
The discal band on the forewing is, in effect, continued on to the 
hindwing tapering from area 6, where it is 2 mm broad, to vein lb. 



ANEW SPECIES 01 HYPOLYCAENA FELDER FROM S. AFRICA 57 

The veins running through the band are pale brown. Tlie tails are 
dark brown, tipped and edged with wliite. The anal fold is brownish- 
grey, edged with wliite hairs. Underside. Forewing. Similar to that 
of the male, but with the general ground-colour paler and the 
median, discal and postdiscal lines pale pinkish-brown. Hindwing. 
Similar to that of the male, but with the ground-colour paler and the 
median, discal and postdiscal lines pale pinkish-brown. CiUa as on 
upperside and outer margin edged with dark brown. 

TYPE MATERIAL. Holotype cT, Chirinda forest, Melsetter 
District, Zimbabwe- Rliodesia, 22.11.1972, W. Teare. Allotype ? , 
Chirinda forest, Melsetter District, 15.III.1945, E. C. G. Pinhey. 
Both in the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. Paratypes: as Holotype, 
4(^1? (W. Teare Collection) and 1 d' (Henning Collection) : 2 c? 
Amatongas forest, Mozambique, 30.III.1969, W. Teare, (W. Teare 
Collection); M Amatongas forest, 27.L1970; I5 Amatongas forest, 
IX. 1944, B. C. Cox; 1° Vumba, Zimbabwe-Rliodesia, 28.V.1942, 
B. D. Barnes, (all in National Museum, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe- 
Rliodesia) 1$ Chirinda forest, Zimbabwe-Rliodesia, 5.IV.1961, 
J. C. 0. Chitty, (Chitty Collection). 

Tlie life history is unknown. Habitat: evergreen forest. Habits. 
Tlie type-series of males was cauglit early in the morning, playing 
around the forest edge. Tlie males of this species apparently spend 
most of the day on the tree tops. The females spend their time 
looking for males or foodplants on which to lay their eggs. 

DISTRIBUTION. Tlie Amatongas forest of Mozambique, the 
Chirinda and Vumba forests of eastern Zimbabwe-Rliodesia. 

FLIGHT PERIOD. Probably througliout the warmer months, 
the best months appearing to be February and March. 

I have pleasure in naming tliis species after Mr. W. Teare of 
Benoni who not only caught the first males, but whose great know- 
ledge of our butterflies and friendship has inspired me for many 
years. 

Acknowledgements 

I wish to express my gratitude to my father, Mr. W. H. Henning, 
and my brother, Mr. S. F. Henning for their support and encourage- 
ment througliout the preparation of tliis paper; to Mr. I. Bampton, 
whose comments are always welcome; to Mr. W. Teare for providing 
liis specimens for description and for information supphed by him; 
to Dr. E. C. G. Pinhey of the National Museum Zimbabwe-Rliodesia, 
whose specimens were also made available for study; and to the 
British Museum (Natural History) for loan of the types of//, amanica 
for purposes of comparison. Finally to Mr. C. G. C. Dickson whose 
encouragement is always appreciated, and who kindly read and 
gave advice on this paper. 

References 

Pennington, K. M. \91%. Pennington's Butterflies of Southern Africa. Edited 
by C. G. C. Dickson with the collaboration of Dr. D. M. Kroon. Ad. 
Donker, Johannesburg. 

Stempffer, H. 1951. Contribution a I'etude des Lycaenidae de la faune ethio- 
pienne. Bull. Soc. ent. Fr., 56 : 123. 



CO 

SOME ADDITIONS TO THE IRISH 
MICROLEPIDOPTERA, 1978-1980 

By K. G. M. Bond * 

On 3. VIII. 1978 two Geiechiids were cauglit by me on sandliills 
at Inchydoney near Clonakility, Co. Cork(V. C. H3). As the genitalia 
of the specimens, one 9 and one d", did not match anything illustrated 
by Pierce & Metcalfe (1935), reference was made to Gozmany (1955) 
and Sattler (1960). Both moths seemed to refer to Chionodes 
fumatella (Douglas), and in September 1980 I was able to show 
the 9 and its genitaha slide to Dr. Klaus Sattler of the British Museum 
(Natural History) who kindly confirmed this determination. 

A (f Mompha cauglit at M. V. trap at Rochestown, Co., Cork 
(V. C. H4) on 3. VI. 1979 was found on dissection to be a specimen 
of Af. subbistrigella (Haworth). The key provided by Bradley (1951) 
was used to determine the insect. Beirne (1941) mentions an old 
record of tliis species from Co. Galway, but he considers the record 
unreliable. 

A Gelecliiid cf cauglit at M. V. trap at Killiney, Co. Dublin on 
1. VIII. 1980 was found to be an example o{ Exoteleia dodecella 
(Linnaeus). Beirne (1941) also Usts an old record of this species 
from Co. Antrim, but adds "confirmation is desirable". Two 
Coleophorid cT cT cauglit at M. V. trap at Ballymaloe, Co. Cork 
(V. C. H5) on 9.VIII.1980 were found by reference to Bradley &. 
Fletcher (1959), PeDiam-Qinton (1959), and Patzak (1974) to 
be specimens of Coleophora versurella Zeller. Tliis species was 
recorded by Bradley from the Burren in 1952. 

On 5.x. 1980 I found an 8mm long Coleophorid case on 
Halimione portidacoides at Rogerstown Wildfowl Sanctuary, Co. 
Dublin. The dimensions of the case combined with the date of 
occurrence would indicate that this is a specimen of Coleophora 
adspersella Benander, a species not hitherto recorded from Ireland. 

References 

Beirne, B. P., 1941. A list of the Microlepidoptera of Ireland. Proc. R. Ir. 

Acad. XLVII (B) No. 4. 
Bradley, J. D., 1951. A comparative study of four European species, including 

one new species from Britain, belonging to the genus Mompha Huebner 

(Lepidoptera: hzvexnidat). Entomologist's Gaz. 2: 173 - 182. 
Bradley. J. D. & Fletcher, D. S., 1959. Lepidoptera records from the Isle 

of Portland and Chesil Beach, including a description of Coleophora 

versurella Zeller, a species new to the British list. Entomologist 92 : 

27 - 33. 
Gozmany, L. A., 1955. Notes on some Hungarian Gelechioidea and Coleo- 

phoridae.y4««. Hist.-Nat. Mas. Hung. VI: 307-320. 
Patzak, H., 1974. Beitraege zur Insektenfauna der DDR: Lepidoptera - Coleo- 

phoridae. Beitr. Ent. 24: 153-278. 
Pelham-Clinton, E. C, 1959. Coleophora sternipennella (Zetterstedt) (Lep., 

Coleophoridae), a new British species: with a key to the British Coleo- 
phora on Chenopodium and Atriplex. Entomologist 92: 120 - 124. 

Pierce, F. N. & Metcalfe, J. W., 1935; 1968 [facsimile] . The genitaUa of the 
Tineid families of the Lepidoptera of the British Islands. Oundle [1968 - 
Faringdon] . 

*24 Lislee Road, Douglas, Cork, Eire. 



SOME ADDITIONS TO THE IRISH MICROLEPIDOPTERA, 1 978-80 59 

Sattler. K., 1960. Generische Gruppierung der europaeischen Arten der Sam- 
melgattung Gelechia (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Dt. ent. Zeitschr. N. F. 
7 Heft I/II: 10-118. ^^^^^^^_ 

LEPIDOPTERA NOTED BY MEMBERS OF THE RUI- 
SLIP AND DISTRICT NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

- Tlie following local records for 1980 were new to entomologists 
of tliis society, and seemed worth reporting. (1) Mr. M. J. Hougli 
took a male Maple Prominent (Lophopteryx cucullina D. & S.) at 
m.v. light in Eastcote on July 6th (2) Two males of the Brown-tail 
(Euproctis chrysorrhoea L.) appeared at m.v. on July 25th; one seen 
by Mr. W. E. Minnion in Pinner and the other about 1 Vi miles away 
by Mr. B. S. Goodban in Eastcote. (3) In consequence of a dis- 
cussion in May with Mr. M. R. Britton of Cippenham, Slougli, a site 
in the Colne Valley was explored on September 22nd for the Pale- 
lemon Swallow (Cirrhia ocellaris Borkliausen). Within an hour after 
dusk Martin Hougli and I had netted three specimens, two of wliich 
were aUghted on blackberries. (4) A single Haworth's Pug 
(Eupithecia haworthiata Doubleday) was attracted to Mr. Minnion's 
light in Pinner on July 10th. (5) Finally, a male Tawny Pinion 
(Lithophane seniibrunnea Haworth) seldom recorded in the past, 
was again taken by Mr. Minnion on April 14th. — A.M. 
GEORGE, 67, Potter Street, Northwood, Middlesex. 

OUSIPALIA CAESULA ER. (COL: STAPHYLINIDAE) 
TWICE FOUND IN ROTTEN WOOD. - I first drew 
attention in 1960 (Ent. mon. Mag., 96 : 272) to the presence of 
this distinctive and seldom-recorded httle species in the S. E. 
London area - it was previously known only from sandy coasts — 
and since then it has proved not uncommon very locally in heathy 
places in my district, notably at BlackJieath and Charlton. On 26. 
viii.77 I found a specimen in rotten wood in a stump of felled 
beech here in Charlton Park, and on 3. ix a second in the same 
spot. This appears to be the first record of O. caesula from such a 
habitat, the beetle being usually taken at roots of herbage. Tlie 
surroundings, too, were untypical, — neither heathy nor sandy, 
but grass parkland, partly open and partly treed, with some bare 
paths. - A. A. ALLEN. 

ALEOCHARA DISCIPENNIS M. & R. (COL.: STA- 
PHYLINIDAE) FROM CARRION IN N. W. KENT. - This 
species is in general very scarce, but it underwent some temporary 
increase in the late 1930s and 40s (Uke so many other insects), 
reverting more or less to its customary rarity thereafter. Both for 
that reason and because of the exceptional habitat, it is worth 
committing to print the capture of a male from part of the dis- 
membered carcass of a frog lying amongst marsh htter at Qiislehurst, 
on 26th March 1964. Moreover, this is quite probably the first 
record of the beetle (wliich I have not seen since) on the outer fringe 
of the metropolis. The normal habitat of A. discipennis is fresh 
dung (horse or cow), in wliich I found it at Hereford Beacon, 
Windsor Forest and Park, Hoddesdon (Herts.), and Westhumble 
(Surrey), between 1935 and 1949. - A. A. ALLEN. 



^° OECOPHORIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA) 

IN CHESHIRE AND NORTH WALES 

By H. N. MICHAELIS* 

In Cheshire, species of this family are well recorded but this 
is not so in the counties of north Wales. Tlie writer has lived on the 
Lancashire /Cheshire border for many years and has also Uved in 
Wales from time to time, eventually setthng in the Conwy valley 
in 1964. Watsonian vice-county numbers are used and some bio- 
logical detail is included; months are shown as i-xii. Tlie county 
numbers are: Cheshire (58); Flintsliire (51); Denbighshire (50); 
Caernarvonsliire (49); Anglesey (52) and Merioneth (48). Records 
for the southern part of the latter are sparse. 

Oecophorinae. 

Of the seventeen species Usted, the larvae of ten are associated 
with dead or decaying wood, decaying or dried vegetable matter, 
wool, skins and dead insects and the two common house or clothes 
moths are among these. Of the remaining six species, two feed on 
heathers and four on deciduous trees and shrubs. The food of one 
is unknown. 

Schiffermuelleria subaquilea (Staint.). Locally common in 58 and 
scarce in 49 and 50, the moth favours high heathy ground in vi - vii 
resting on walls and rocks and may be "smoked" from herbage. Tlie 
food is unknown and efforts to breed it from vegetable debris from 
the base of walls were unsuccessful. 

S. similella (Hubn.). Occasional in east 58 resting on bark oi Pinus 
sylvestris in vii. 

S. tinctella (Hbn.). One record from Delamere (58); locally common 
in 49, 50 and 51 flying at sunset and dawn from late v - vii. Two 
moths were bred from a decayed oak branch taken in iii which also 
produced Esperia sulphurella. 

Batia lambdella (Don .). Once in 58 and occasional in 49 and 50 
flying at sunset in vi - vii and also at Ught; the larva feeds in dead 
wood of Ulex. 

Borkhausenia fuscescens (Haw.) Occurs throughout from late vii - ix. 
Occasionally disturbed from trees and hedges, it is mainly found on 
the windows of outhouses. Larvae brushed from crevices in wood 
and brickwork in old cobwebs suggests a diet of dead insects. 

Telechrysis tripuncta (Haw.) Scarce in 58 but fairly common in 
mixed hedgerows in 49 and 50. The moth flies in the evening sun 
from late v - vii. Have associated this moth with Corylus and have 
bred a moth from a rotten piece of hazel gathered in the winter. 

* 5 Glan y Mor, Glan Conwy, Colwyn Bay, LL28 51 A. 



OECOPHORIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA) IN CHESHIRE AND N. WALES 6 1 

Hoffmannophila pseudospretella (Staint.) Plentiful througliout, 
mainly indoors from spring to autumn. Tlie larva feeds on a great 
variety of organic matter. 

Endrosis sarcitrella (L.) Known as the "white-headed clothes moth" 
and is plentiful througliout the year in houses, sheds, etc., where 
the larva feeds on a wide range of organic matter and refuse. Tlie 
moth is also found out of doors on tree trunks and lichen covered 
walls. 

Esperia sulphurella (Fabr.). Flies in sun and is plentiful among 
hedges and woods througliout from late iv - vi. The larva feeds in 
dead wood over winter. 

Alabonia geoffrella (Fabr.) Lx)cal throughout in mature hedgerows, 
V - vi. Larvae found in ii in dead wood of hazel and sallow, pupating 
in iv in a yellowish wliite cocoon among flakes of wood. It is advisible 
to keep the dead wood out of doors exposed to the weather. 

Pleurota bicostella (Clerck). Plentiful on heaths througliout in vi - 
vii where the larva feeds on heather. 

Amphisbatis incongmella (Staint.). A secretive moth which flies 
only in warm sunshine in iv - early v on still days and rests on 
shoots of ling (Calluna) when it is difficult to find. Found only 
in 58 and 50 as yet. 

Carcina quercana (Fabr.) Plentiful througliout, vii - ix. Larva in 
a wliite web under leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs 
usually in v - vii; may possibly overwinter as a larva as I found 
two on Hypericum hidecote, an evergreen shrub, in iii. 

Diumea fagella (D & S). The male is plentiful on tree trunks during 
daytime wliile the semi-apterous female is more easily found at 
niglit, late iii - v. The larvae of tliis and the next two species have 
a characteristic club-footed appearance due to swelling of the 3rd 
pair of thoracic legs; all three species feed very slowly, v - ix/x. 
D. fagella feeds in spun leaves of many trees and shrubs. 

D. phryganella (Hbn.). Is locally common in oakwoods in 58 but 
uncommon in the Welsh counties, flying in sun, x-xi. Ova are laid 
separately on twigs and bark of oak and hatch in v. 

Cheimophila salicella (Hbn.) Local and uncommon in iv- early v 
in 58 and 50. Have found larvae in spun shoots of bilberry 
(Vaccinium myrtillus) growing in woods in ix, ova from the moths 
resulting were easily reared when left in a sleeve on sallow, v - ix. 

Depressariinae 

The larvae of all listed species are phytophagous found mainly 



62 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

in spun or rolled leaves or in spun flowers and shoots of Umbel- 
liferae and Compositae; an ability to wriggle rapidly backwards or 
forwards is characteristic of many species. Many species liibernate 
as imagines and fly on warm winter evenings and well on into the 
spring. A few will come to Ught but the majority are more readily 
found by searching flowers of Senecio, Centaurea, Daucus etc., 
or by the use of a bee smoker. 

Semioscopsis avellanella (Hiibn.) Is local in 58 and in the Maelor 
district of 51. The moth rests low down on birch trunks in iv. 

S. steinkellneriana (D & S.) Local and uncommon in aU vice-counties; 
the moth is difficult to disturb, is usually among sloe (Prunus 
spinosa) and will occasionally come to Ught, iv - v. 

Exaeretia allisella Staint. Locally common as larvae in young shoots 
of Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) in 58 and less so in 50, 51 and 49. 
Drooping young shoots in the crown of the plant indicate larvae 
in iv-v and these will move to new shoots as required. Larvae should 
be reared on a potted plant which should be kept until late August 
as it is Ukely to produce the Tortricids Epiblema foenella (L.) 
and Dichrorampha simpliciana (Haw.) during the summer. £'. allisella 
is not easily disturbed by day and may be found on leaves of 
Mugwort after dusk, vii - ix. 

Depressaria daucella (D. & S.) Plentiful throughout, viii - v. Larvae 
are gregarious on flowers of Hemlock Water-dropwort (Oenanthe 
crocata), v - vii. 

D. pastinacella (Dup.) (heracliana sensu auctt.) Plentiful, viii - V; 
Larvae are gregarious on flowers of Hogweed (Heracleum) in v - vi. 

D. ultimella Staint. Single records from Delamere and Wirral in 58, ix. 

D. pulcherimella Staint. Occasional in 58 and 52, locally common in 
49, 50 and 51. The larva is found singly in spun flower heads of 
Earthnut (Conopodium) in vi. 

Agonopterix heracliana (L.) (applana Fabr.). Plentiful throughout 
from vii - iv. Larvae in rolled leaves of many UmbeUiferae during 
the summer and is the only Oecophorid larva found on Alexanders 
(Smymium olusatrum). 

A. ciliella (Staint.) Widespreadbut never common in all vice-counties, 
vii - iv. Larvae feed on lower leaves of Heracleum making a fold or 
turning down the edge of a leaf and are occasionally found on 
Angelica, vi - vii. 

A. subpropinquella (Staint.) Local throughout mainly on coastal 
sandhills vii - iv; form rhodochrella (H. - S.) having a dark brown 
thorax occurs sparingly in 50 and 51. Larvae feed in rolled leaves 
of Hardheads (Centaurea nigra), v - vii. 



OECOPHORIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA) IN CHESHIRE AND N. WALES 63 



A. propinquella (Treits.). Lx)cal near the coast in all vice-counties, 
viii - iv. Larvae feed in a web on the underside of leaves of Carduus 
making a window-feeding pattern of brown blotches; Nodding 
Thistle (C. nutans). Seaside Thistle (C. tenuiflorus) and very occa- 
sionally Carline Thistle (Carlina vulgaris) are favoured on the north 
Wales limestone. 

A. arenella (D. & S.). Plentiful throughout, ix - v. Larvae in spun 
shoots and leaves of Carduus, Centaurea and Burdock (Arctium sp.). 
vi - vii. 

A. liturella (D. & S.). Occurs locally throughout, vii - viii. Larvae 
in spun shoots and rolled leaves of Centaurea nigra, v - vi. 

A. bipunctosa Curtis. Two moths found in September 1980 at 
Cors Goch (52) where Sawwort (Serratula tinctoria) is well estab- 
lished. I understand that the only previous records are from Cornwall 
(I or 2), Dorset (9), Hampshire (11 or 12) and Isle of Wight (10). 

A. ocellana (Fabr.) Plentiful among Salix, the food-plant, ix - iv. 

A. pulverella (Hubn.) An unconfirmed record in 1917 for 58. 

A. assimilella (Treits.). Local throughout where Broom (Sarrotha- 
mnus) is established, vii - ix. Larvae in a long spinning to join two 
shoots together. 

A. scopariella (Hein.) As yet, was found only after hibernation 
among Sarrothamnus at Mochdre (50), iv. 

A. nervosa (Haw.) (costosa Haw.) Plentiful throughout, vii - ix. 
Larvae feed in spun shoots of Ulex and Sarrothamnus, v - vi. 

A. carduella (Hlibn.) A record by the late C. M. Jones at Hoylake 
(58) in 1953. Two bred by J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, 25. vii.1971, from 
larvae taken by him on Carduus, Great Orme (49), 2.vii.l971. 

A. ulicetella Staint. (umbellana sensu auctt.) Local throughout, 
viii - iv. Larvae live in a silk tube among the needles of Ulex euro- 
paeus and U. gallica, vi - viii, found at 2000 feet on the latter. 

A. conterminella (Zell.) Plentiful as a larva in spun shoots of 
Salix throughout during v - vi. The moth comes to light and rag- 
wort flowers vii - ix. 

A. liturosa (Haw.) Plentiful as larvae in top shoots of various 
herbaceous Hypericum, v - vii. The moth often rests on the leaves, 
vii. 



64 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

A. astrantiae (Hein.) In August 1949, the late B. B. Snell took five' 
specimens at Uanarmon yn lal (50) mainly by searcliing with a 
Tilley lamp and at same the time in the following year, Snell took 
me to the locahty and we found four specimens. As I remember, 

B. B. S. sent two specimens to the British Museum and the others 
will be in the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society 
collection at Liverpool; my specimens are in Manchester Museum. 
The ground was a Umestone ridge with poor woodland on the lower 
slope, a search for larvae on Wood Sanicle (Sanicula) in late June 
1951 was not sucessful. In 1970, I found a possible larva in the 
folded edge of a leaf of Sanicula in a wood on limestone near Llan- 
dudno (49); this fed on Astrantia major growing in my garden but 
later turned flacid and died so I cannot claim tliis as a record. At 
an exliibition meeting of the Raven Entomological Society 
(Formby) in 1952, I saw a specimen exliibited by a Mr. or Dr. 
Greenwood wliich was contained in a series oi A. ocellana taken at 
Grassington in north-west Yorkshire; this is also a hmestone area. 

A. angelicella (Hubn.) Occurs in wetlands in all vice counties vii - ix. 
The larvae feed on Angelica sylvestris in v - vi and is gregarious 
when young. 

A. yeatiana (Fabr.). Occurs sparingly on coasts of 50, 51, 52 and 58 
in viii - ix on flowers of Senecio jacobaea and Daucus carota. Tlie 
last named is probably the foodplant. 

A. rotundella (Doug.) A single unconfirmed record from the Ueyn 
(49) in the 1950s; as the foodplant is Daucus carota, this is a hkely 
occurrence. 

Wliile the foregoing notes are derived mainly from personal 
observations, I have taken some records for Chesliire (58) from 
"Tlie Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire" by J. W. 
Elhs, 1890 revised by WilUain Mansbridge in 1940. Tliere are records 
prior to 1890 which have not been confirmed since and as these 
were communicated to EUis by C. S. Gregson, J. B. Hodgkinson 
and J. H. Tlirelfall, all well known northern collectors, I feel these 
should be included: 

Depressaria chaerophylli (Zell.); D. badiella (Hubn.);Z). pimpinellae 
Zell.; D. albifrontella Zell., Agonopterix pallorella (ZeU.); 
A. capreolella (Zell.); /I. purpurea (Haw.). 

Mrs M. J. Morgan has kindly supplied a Ust of records from 
North Wales taken from the files in the Department of Applied 
Zoology, University College of North Wales, Bangor which are 
included. Additionally there are old records of Shiffennuelleria 



OECOPHORIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA) IN CHESHIRE AND N. WALES 65 

grandis (Des.) from Langollen (50); v, vi 1855, J. S. Ashworth 
(Zoologist, 1855); vii 1860, C. S. Gregson (Ent. Weekly Intellegencer 
1880); 1862, N. Greening (Zoologist, 1862). It is unlikely that this 
handsome moth associated with rotten wood was mis-identified 
though the late Wm. Mansbridge in the 1920's searched at Llangollen 
for moth and larva without success. 



BUTTERFLIES ON MARTHA'S VINEYARD ISLAND 

By Dr. C.J. LucKENS* 

My family and I spent the month of August 1979 on Martha's 
Vineyard, a small island off the coast of Massachusetts about three 
miles from the nearest point of the Cape Cod mainland. This island 
has a land area of approximatly 100 square miles and encompasses 
diverse habitats including saltmarsh, dune, meadowland, extensive 
scrub and woodland and a few freshwater bogs. The lepidoptera 
of Martha's Vineyard and its neighbouring island of Nantucket 
has been surveyed by F. M. Jones and C. P. Kimball (1943), and 
they were able to record 1227 species from the former island. 

My wife's family have had their home on Martha's Vineyard 
for many years and this was my second visit to the island, the 
previous occasion being in 1968. Rather surprisingly during these 
two short visits I was able to add a butterfly species unrecorded iri 
the Jones and Kimball Ust. Tliis was the distinctive httle skipper 
Pholisora catullus Fab., Tlie Common Qoudywing, wliich I took 
once only in 1968 but wliich appeared to have become quite com- 
mon 1 1 years later. A parallel seemed to have occured among the 
birds — the splendid scarlet and black Cardinal, either rare or absent 
in 1968, had become in the interim a frequent visitor to my father- 
in-law's garden just outside Vineyard Haven. 

This garden proved to be a harbour for many butterfly species. 
Between the lawns and the sea was a strip of grass and scrub where 
wild flowers grew in plenty and around the property were various 
trees and shrubs such as sassafras and wild cherry, foodplants of 
several butterflies. Tlie Swallowtails, in particular, were much in 
evidence, two black species being quite common. One of these, 
Papilio troilus L., was frequent in the larval stage on the aromatic 
sassafras where the spectacular 'eyed' caterpillars, (superficially 
Uke a green version of an Elephant Hawkmoth larva), make 'tents' 
by turning over the irregular leaves. These dwelUngs were very easy 
to spot. In 1968 I had found many of the very similar larvae of 
Papilio glaucus L. on wild cherry but this year failed to find any 
though I saw several of the magnificent yellow imagines and 
searched persistently for the early stages. 

Tlie commonest Swallowtail was the black Papilio polyxenes 
Fab. Drinking coffee on the veranda before breakfast was especially 
pleasurable as I could watch the velvety females ovipositing on my 
father-in-law's carrot plants! 
*52 Thorold Rd, Bitterne Park, Southampton S02 4JG. 



66 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

There are 23 skipper species recorded for the island, the genus 
Erynnis Schr. comprising more than any other. I found two of these 
'Duskywings'; the widespread Erynnis horatius Scudd. & Berg, 
and the rather local E. baptisiae Fbs., the latter being confined 
to areas where its sole pabulum, wild Indigo, occurs. Tliree frequent 
Hesperids were the tiny Ancyloxpha numitor Fab., Polites corns 
Cram, and the large dashing Epagyreus darns Cram. Tlirougliout 
the island the last was common in the larval stage within leaf 'tents' 
on wild Acacia trees. Tlie least common of the skippers we 
encountered was Polites themistocles Latr., and tliis species was 
found mainly on the grassland adjoining Martha's Vineyard State 
Forest. 

Tlie State Forest, a misleading title to a European, is, in fact, 
an extensive wild area of scrubby woodland covering much of the 
centre of the island. It was the last refuge in North America of the 
now extinct Heath Hen, an eastern close relative of the Prairie 
Cliicken. In 1916, a devastating fire at incubation time decimated 
the population of this bird and from then on it dechned gradually 
until the last male was seen here in the 1940's. Tlie State Forest 
remains a fine insect locaUty however, and, as it is criss-crossed by 
paved trails for cychsts, my mother-in-law's bicycle was quickly 
pressed into service. The clearings and rougli grassland at the edge 
of the woods were especially rewarding. Large numbers of Everes 
comyntas Godt., flew among the spiky nafive clovers (Lespedeza sp.) 
and the little Melitaeine butterfly Phyciodes thaws Dru. swarmed 
everywhere. Cercyonis pegala ssp. maritima Edw. (type locaUty 
Martha's Vineyard) flew around like an enormous Meadow Brown, 
but in spite of its loping fliglit it was a wary insect and deceptively 
difficult to net. A few Vanessa virginiensis Dru. were encountered 
but mostly in poor condition. 

The deep parts of the forest were less rich but one fine species 
was not uncommon: Limenitis ast)'anax Fab., the Red Spotted 
Purple, a large dark butterfly with iridescent turquoise liindwings. 
Tliese particularly favoured the half-shaded crossroads in the forest 
and had a habit of settling on the track in the latter part of the 
afternoon. 

Tliey were also to be seen in several other places on the island 
including the delectable little unmetalled road called Tea Lane. 
Tills curves througli the woods near Chilmark and got its name 
from the contraband tea that was smuggled in tliis area in the 
eighteenth century when Massachussetts was a British colony. Tea Lane 
became a favourite collecting ground of mine, being rich in butter- 
flies, birds and wild flowers. At the northwest entrance were large 
stands of Joe Pye weed (Eupatorium) wliich attracted dozens of 
Danaus plexippus L. (a common butterfly all over the island), a 
few Vanessa cardui L. and the two black Swallowtails polyxenes and 
troilus. The httle diurnal American Bee Hawk Moths were also 
present in fair numbers. Further in was the domain of L. astyanax 
but on one occasion I took, with some difficulty, a superb 
Polygonia interrogationis Fab. Tlie lane was a favourite patrolling 



BUTTERFLIES ON MARTHA'S VINEYARD ISLAND 67 

ground for Lycaena phlaeas americana Harr. — a Nearctic subspecies 
of the Small Copper. 

Along Tea Lane, I found a sallow bush that had evidently once 
been the home of a larval colony of Nymphalis antiopa L. — the 
cast skins were plain to see. During our previous visit we had seen 
several 'Mourning Cloaks' and it was disappointing not to find the 
imagines tliis time. 

A feature of entomology on the island was the variety of insect 
predators, some of wliich attacked the adult butterflies. 'Ambush 
Bugs' (Phymatidae) for example, no more than 12 mms. long, 
lurked in the Goldenrod flowers and it was amazing to see how they 
attacked large butterflies up to the size of P. troilus. Their victims 
often remained in lifelike positions and several times I stalked a 
Swallowtail, apparently sunning itself, only to find it, motionless in 
death, in the clutches of one of these little predators. Spider hunting 
wasps (Pompilidae) were also not uncommon. Tliese did not attack 
lepidoptera but homed in on roving spiders, hovering around them 
and stinging them repeatedly before carrying them off. Robber 
Flies, ( Asilidne), -voxdiCioxx?, carnivores wliich pounce on their victims, 
could also be found, but they usually preyed on other Diptera. 

In the same area as Tea Lane, between Chilmark and West 
Tisbury, I found a good-sized clover field of around 6 acres. Tliis 
was swarming with the two widespread North American Colias 
species. Much the commoner was the lemon-yellow Colias philodice 
Godt., and almost 30% of the females of this species were of the 
wliite form. Tliere were also good numbers of the orange Colias 
eurytheme Boisd., and several examples showing evidence of 
hybridisation were also taken. A rather beautiful deep butter-yellow 
form of what I assume is a eurytheme female with mixed ancestry 
was taken in the State Forest later on. 

One other example of island habitat was also sampled — a 
Cranberry bog beside the Lamberts Cove road. I hoped to find the 
little Copper, Lycaena epixanthe Boisd. & LeConte, but its fliglit 
period may well have been over and I saw no sign of it. 

In mid-August my wife and I travelled up to Maine to stay for 
a few days with her relatives at Blue Hill. Tlie first northern butter- 
fly we encountered was Hesperia comma L. (ssp. laurentina Lym.) 
wliich occurred around her uncle's garden. Here also I took a single 
specimen o{ Limenitis archippus Cram., the Nymphalid that mimics 
the Monarch very closely. Tlie northern race of Cercyonis pegala 
(ssp nephele Kirby) was widespread. Tliis butterfly resembles the 
dark Palaearctic Satyrus actaea L. and is of quite different aspect to 
the form of pegala found on Martha's Vineyard, which has large 
yellow patches on both sides of the forewing. 

C pegala nephele was also noted during a days outing to Mount 
Desert Island, part of which comprises the Acadia National Park. 
Throughout tliis island there are fine areas of mixed Canadian 
forest and a rocky coastUne with the characteristic Jack Pines 
marching down almost to the tideUne. We drove up Mount Cadillac, 
(1500 ft), on the eastern side of the island behind Bar Harbor 



68 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

and stopped near the top to explore. Hesperia comma laurentina 
was about with several fresh Vanessa virginienses but I was 
especially pleased to see a butterfly completely new to me — 
Aglais milberti Godt., which was fairly frequent on Compositae. 
This New World relative of the Small Tortoiseshell also feeds on 
nettle, apparently, but I saw no sign of tliis plant anywhere on 
Mount Desert. Driving along the coast south of Bar Harbor we 
spotted a smalhsh sulphur-coloured Colias beside the road, and I 
quickly stopped to net another personal 'first' — Colias interior 
Scudd. This male specimen was in less than good condition but 
nevertheless an exciting capture. Tlie generally fine weather broke 
on our third day in Maine and we saw no further butterflies of note 
until after our return to Martha's Vineyard. 

There follows a list of the butterflies noted in these two areas 
of New England, compared where relevant, to the Jones and Kimball 
list of 1 943. (Hereafter abbreviated to J & K). 

Danaidae 

Danaus plexippus L.: Common througliout Martha's Vineyard 1968 
and 1979. 

Satyridae 

Cercyonis pegala Fab.: Fairly common in grassy places throughout 
M. V. as ssp. maritima. Edw. 1968 and 1979. 

Widespread in a different form — ssp nephele Kirby, around Blue 
Hill and on Mount Desert Island, Maine. 

Euptychia cymela Cram, (eurytus Fab.): Seen only as worn 
examples on M. V. in July 1968. (J & K record it as 'not rare, June 
and July') 

Nymphalidae 

Limenitis astyanax Fab. wooded areas on M. V. Infrequent 1968. 
Common 1979. Occasionally visited buddleia in the garden at Vine- 
yard Haven, otherwise not usually attracted to flowers. J & K 
state that it is partially double-brooded on M. V. Fresh specimens 
were certainly seen from mid-July to August in 1968 and through- 
out August 1979. 

Phyciodes tharos Dru.: Comnon nearly everywhere on M. V. 1968 
and 1979. Even noted inside a taxi that we took in Vineyard Haven 
in September 1968!. Very worn single specimens seen at Blue Hill, 
Maine 1979. 

Polygonia interrogationis Fab.: Single specimens seen in July 1968 — 
one inside a shop in Vineyard Haven, another two outside the local 
Ubrary. In 1979 several were noted in the garden near Vineyard 
Haven — all rather worn. 1 fresh specimen taken in Tea Lane. 
(J & K state 'resident but never abundant'). 



BUTTERFLIES ON MARTHA'S VINEYARD ISLAND 69 

Polygonia comma Harr.: One seen sitting on a cypress bush July, 
1968, near West Tisbury, M.V. J & K give only two records and re- 
mark that it is rarely seen. 

Vanessa atalanta L.: Single specimens seen all over M. V. Several 
along one ride in the State Forest 1979. 

Vanessa cardui L.: Fairly common in both woodland and gardens 
througliout M. V. 1979. Less prevalent in 1968. 

Vanessa virginiensis Dru.; In contrast, this butterfly was common 
on M. V. in 1968 and rather scarce in 1979. Attracted to the clover 
fields and garden buddleia. Several fresh examples seen near the top 
of Mount Caddillac, Mount Desert Island, Maine, 1979. 

Aglais milberti Godt.; Only seen near the top of Mount Cadillac. 

Nymphalis antiopa. L.: Several seen around Vineyard Haven and 
West Tisbury in 1968. Evidence of a brood of larvae on sallow in 
Tea Lane 1979. 

Speyeria (Argynnis) cybele Fab.: A very worn male noted on 
buddleia in Vineyard Haven after a northerly gale (August 15th 
1979) J & K comment 'unaccountably rare [Tliough in late June, 
early July 1942 it was present in small numbers at Vineyard Haven, 
The remaining records suggest that it is usually a vagrant from the 
mainland.] 

Clossiana selene D. & S. ssp myrina Cram.; Single specimens taken 
near Vineyard Haven July 1968. Not seen 1979. 

Lycaenidae 

Strymon melinus Hiib.; On M. V. Single examples taken July 1968. 
Not seen 1979. 

Euristnmion Liparops Boisd & LeConte. One taken at Lamberts 
Cove, M. v., 1968. 

Lycaena phlaeas ssp. americana. Harr. Widespread on M.V. One or 
two at Blue HUl, Maine 1979. 

Everes comyntas Godt.; Widespread on M. V., but especially com- 
mon around patches of Lespedeza near the State Forest, 1979. 
Large numbers seen on damp mud near Lamberts Cove, 1968. 



Pieridae 

Pieris rapae L. Common nearly everywhere, on M. V. Pehaps sliglitly 
less frequent further north at Blue Hill. 



70 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

Colias philodice Godt. Abundant in clover fields M. V. Single speci- 
mens all over the island, 1968 and 1979. Several netted on Mount 
Desert Island in a search for C. interior. 

Colias eury theme Bdv.; Less common than its congener on M. V. 
but found in all suitable places. Fairly common in the clover fields. 
J & K point out that tliis butterfly was once a rare straggler to M.V. 
and "its present status of an abundant resident dates from 1930". 

Colias interior Scudd.; One specimen taken near Bar Harbor, 
Mount Desert, Maine. A northern species. 



Papilionidae 

Papilio polyxenes Fab.: Common on M. V. The larvae look identical 
to those of P. machaon L. and could be found on various Umbel- 
liferae all over the island. 

Papilio troilus L.; Most frequent in wooded areas on M. V. but 
present also at gardens in Vineyard Haven. Larvae common on sas- 
safras bushes. 

Papilio glaucus L.; Common all over M.V. in both larval and 
imaginal stages in 1968. A few imagines seen at Vineyard Haven 
and one in Tea Lane 1979. 



Hesperidae 

Epargyreus clams Cram.; Widespread and common on M.V. wherever 
Wild Acacia (Locust) trees grew, 1968 and 1979. 

Erynnis horatius Scudd. & Berg. Fairly common and widespread, on 
M.V. 1979. One or two only, 1968. 

Erynnis baptisiae Fbs. 2 specimens taken around Wild Indigo along 
Tea Lane. The foodplant grows abundantly beside the tracks in the 
State Forest but no larvae were found in spite of prolonged searches 
and no imagines of tliis species were seen there either. (J & K 
specifies the 'Plains area' ie. near the State Forest, as the best 
locality). 

Pholisora catullus Fab. One taken at Vineyard Haven 1968. Not 
uncommon around Vineyard Haven 1979. (J & K record this very 
doubtfully in a supplementary Ust for Nantucket but not for M. V.) 

Ancyloxypha numitor Fab. Widespread and common throughout 
August on M. V. 1968 and 1979. 



BUTTERFLIES ON MARTHA'S VINEYARD ISLAND 71 

Hesperia leonardus Harr.; Two taken near Vineyard Haven in early 
September 1968. A late season species. 

Hesperia comma L. ssp. laurentina Lym. Several noted at Blue Hill 
and on Mount Cadillac, Maine 1979. 

Polites coras Cram, (peckius Kby.); Common around Vineyard 
Haven. Occasional elsewhere on M. V. 1968 and 1979. 

Polites themistocles Latr. Rather scarce around Vineyard Haven, Tea 
Lane and M. V. State Forest. 1979. (J & K - "occasional"). 



Acknowledgements 

I should like to thank my wife's parents and relatives for their warm 
hospitahty and in particular for tolerating my often abberrant 
behaviour while 'entomologjsing'. 



References 

Borror, D. J. and White R. E., 1970. A Field Guide to the Insects of America 
North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co. (H. M. Co.) Boston. 

Holland W. J., 1910. Tlie Butterfly Book. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. 

Hough, Henry Beetle., 1970 Martha's Vineyard. The Viking Press, New York. 

Howe W. H. et al. 1975. Tlie Butterflies of North America. Doubleday & Co., 
New York. 

Jones, Frank Morton, and Kimball, Charles P. 1943. Tlte Lepidoptera of 
Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard Islands. The Nantucket Maria Mitchell 
Association. Massachusetts. 

Klots A. B. 1951. /I Field Guide to the Butterflies of North America, East 
of the Great Plains. H. M. Co., Boston . 

Peterson, Roger Tory and McKenny, Margaret. 1968. A Field Guide to Wild- 
flowers of Northeastern and Northcentral North America. H. M. Co., 
Boston. 



HERINGOCRANIA CHRYSOLEPIDELLA (ZELL.) IN 
KENT. — I wish to record the finding of vacant inines of this 
species on hazel at Hoads Wood, Bethersden on 24th May 1980 and 
Steps Wood, Stockbury on 26th May 1980, identification kindly 
confirmed by Lt. Col. A. M. Emmet. It is surprising to note this 
species is not recorded from Kent in Volume 1 of The Moths and 
Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, yet I understand that in the 
1960's both the late Stan Wakely and the Editor noted the species, 
also on hazel, from TrottiscUffe. - N. F. HEAL, "Fosters", 
Detling Hill, Maidstone, Kent. 



72 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 



Practical Hints for Collecting and Studying Microlepidoptera by 
Paul Sokoloff. Pp. 1-40, 11 text figures. Amateur Entomologist, 
volume 16. 1980. Price £3 (plus 15p. postage), available from 
AES Publications, 4 Steep Qose, Green Street Green, Orpington, 
Kent BR6 6DS. 



Tliis latest AES guide may be regarded as a companion to 
Dickson's A Lepidopterist's Handbook (Pub. AES, 1976), which 
treats principally of the macrolepidoptera. 

The work comprises five short chapters, the subjects of which 
are: (1) Collecting adults (pp. 3-5) (2) Collecting early stages 
(pp. 6-13) (3) Breeding (pp. 14-21) (4) Killing, setting and mount- 
ing (pp. 22-32) and (5) Identification, reference books (with 
notes), lists of suppliers, etc. The usefulness of these liints is 
increased by an accompanying series of figures of examples of larval 
mines, larval cases, feeding places, apparatus, etc. from drawings 
by the author. 

This httle pubhcation gives an outUne introduction to the study 
of the microlepidoptera, with guideUnes for further study. It will be 
of considerable value to the beginner, and doubtless many an old 
hand will benefit from its use. Mr. Sokoloff is to be congratulated 
on its production. — J. M. C. -H. 



Adult and immature Tabanidae (Diptera) of California by Woodrow 
W. Middlekauff and Robert S. Lane. 1980. BuUetin of the 
California Insect Survey. Volume 22. 99 pp. University of 
California Press. Price $ 10.50. 



This is a thorough revision of the Horse FUes of California, 
updating the previous work by Middlekauff (1950). It includes 73 
species and 7 subspecies in 11 genera. All species dealt with are 
endemic to north America, many confined to the western part 
and the work is therefore of Umited application to the European 
fauna (already well covered by the Horse Flies of Europe). 

Tlie systematic part includes keys to species, brief notes on 
distinctions from allied species, notes on seasonal occurrence, 
detailed information on the biology where known and maps in- 
dicating the distribution within California. It is well illustrated by 
15 plates, including line drawings of diagnostic features, photo- 
graphs of wings where patterns are important and of egg masses. 

A useful account is given of the early stages and development 
of Tabanidae. The known immatures of CaUfornian species are 
keyed to genus and references are given to the original descriptions 
of the early stages of the 33 species of which they have been 
described. -P.J. CHANDLER. 



notaris scirpi {¥ .) (col.: curculionidae) ^^ 
in'cumbria with notes on three other 
species of the genus 

By R. W. J. Read* 

On October 21st 1979 I visited Rainsbarrow Wood (NGR 
SD 19/93) near the village of Ulpha in South Cumbria and collected 
samples of leaf litter and moss in the hope of finding Acalles 
ptinoides (Marsham). Tliese samples were taken home and were 
later hand sorted and one adult Notaris scirpi (Fabricius) was found. 
The specimen was in good condition and well marked and may have 
been a newly emerged adult. In personal communication from 
Dr. M. G. Morris this is a new record for Cumbria and vice county 
70 Cumberland. Rainsbarrow wood is composed mainly of sessile 
oak with silver birch, mountain ash, hazel and a few scattered pines. 
It is situated on the side of a steep and rocky limestone ridge below 
Pike Fell and extends from 125 metres to about 218 metres on the 
fell side. The wood is part of an extensive area of mixed woodland 
in the picturesque Ulpha Park valley througli which the River 
Duddon flows South to the estuary above Foxfield. Among other 
weevils extracted from the leaf litter was one Trachodes hispidus 
(Linnaeus), six Acalles ptinoides (Marsham) and a number of 
Coeliodes dryados (Gmelin in Linnaeus). A'^ scirpi appears to be 
locally distributed in England and Fowler (1891, Coleoptera of the 
British. Islands, 5 : 269) records it from Kent, East Sussex, West 
Sussex, Hampsliire, Dorset, Worcestersliire and Lancashire and it 
was recorded from Ireland by Jolmson, W. F. and Halbert, J. N. 
(1902: A hst of the beetles of Ireland. Proc. R. Ir Acad. (ser. 3), 
6 : 804). It appears to be absent from Scotland. The weevil is 
associated with various species of Typhaceae and Cyperaceae 
and Hoffmann, A (1954, Fauna de France, 62, Coleopteres, 
Curculionides, 3: 1434) gives Carex acutifomiis Ehrhart as the host 
plant in France and he states that the larvae develop in the roots. 
Fowler (loc. cit.) notes that the weevil can be found overwintering 
in the stems of Typha latifolia Linnaeus, and N. scirpi was also 
found in the stems of this plant at Higham saltings, Kent in May, 
(1960-1961): Proc. S. Lond. ent nat Hist Soc: 91). Wlien kept 
alive in captivity for a short time at home I observed N. scirpi to 
have an interesting feining posture. When disturbed the weevil 
crossed the prothoracic legs over the reflexed rostrum and the 
tarsal claws were locked tightly together and held just below the 
eyes. Tlie mesothoracic and metathoracic legs were held against the 
body in a normal feining position. All the four British species of 
Notaris Germar have now been recorded from Cumbria and vice 
county 70 Cumberland. 

Notaris acridulus (Linnaeus) appears to be the most common 
and widespread species and I have taken specimens mainly by 
sweeping riverside vegetation and general herbage in damp meadows. 
My localities are, Hensingham, NX98/17,6.vi.69, Beckermet, 

* 43 Holly Terrace, Hensingham, Whitehaven, Cumbria, CA28 8RF. 



74 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 



15.IV.81 



NYOl/04, Seascale, NY03/03, 21.V.77, Hallsenna Moor, NY06/00, 
24.viii.79, Holmrook, NY08/00, 2.vii.78, Frizington, NY02/17, 
27.V.73, Loweswater, NYl l/22,3.vi.78, Ravenjass, SD07/97, 
25.vi.78, Drigg, SD06/98, 30.iv.77, Silecroft, SD13/81, 6.vi.78, 
Shaw Moss, SD18/85, 8.vii. 78, Fellgate Gill, Muncaster, SDll/97, 
13.V.78. The local specimens of A^. acridulus in the F. H. Day 
collection in Tullie House, Museum, CarUsle are from Orton and 
Salkeld. 

A'^. aethiops (Fabricius). Tliis distinct rare Northern species 
was first recorded from the county by Britten (1907, Ent. Rec, 
19 : 115), who took specimens in flood refuse at Borrowdale and 
this record is also given in Fowler & Donisthorpe (1913, Coleoptera 
of the British Islands, 6 : 310) where tliis locaUty has been misspelt. 
One specimen in the Day collection is from Borrowdale and bears 
the data 26, vi.37, F.H.D. In an interesting paper by Pearson, (1962, 
/. Ecology, 31: 129-150) the remains of A^. aethiops were found 
along with certain other species of Curcuhonidae in a late-glacial 
deposit at St. Bees. 

A'^, bimaculatus Fabricius. I have found this species at only two 
sites in West Cumbria and specimens have usually been taken in 
association with species of Typha and Phragmites growing around 
the edge of the saltmarsh areas of the River Irt and Esk estuaries 
near Ravenglass, SD06/97 and SDlO/95. I also took two specimens 
from a species of Carex growing on the edge of mud flats near 
to the railway line south of Kirby in Furness station, SD22/81. 
Local specimens in the Day collection are from Burgh and Silloth 
(NYl 5 and NY35 respectively). 

From a review of the hterature on the biology and ecology of 
Notaris I have been able to draw up prehminary lists of the host 
plants and larval feeding sites for the four British species, and 
this information is summarised in table 1 . I was unable to find any 
published details on the early stages of TV. aethiops. 



Table 1 . Hostplants and larval feeding sites of Notaris. 



Species 


Hostplant 


FamUy 


Larval feeding site 


acridulus 


Glyceria aquatica 


Gramineae 


roots and stems 


aethiops 


Sparganium erectum 


Sparganiaceae 


9 


bimaculatus 


Phalaris arundinacea 


Gramineae 


stems 




Phragmites communis 


Gramineae 


stems 




Typha la ti folia 


Typhaceae 


stems 


scinpi 


Carex acutiformis 


Cyperaceae 


roots 




Typha latifolia 


Typhaceae 


roots 



Acknowledgements 

I wish to thank Dr. M. G. Morris for information concerning the 
vice county distribution of TV. scirpi. I also than'-k Mr. D. J. Qarke, 
curator, Tullie House, Museum, Carhsle for allowing me to examine 
specimens in the F. H. Day collection. 



75 
DIMORPHISM IN PAPILIO PUPAE. 

D. G. Sevastopulo, F.R.E.S.* 

In a previous paper (Sevastopulo, 1974/5) I described an 
experiment with the pupae of Papilio de?nodocus Esp. Unfortunately 
the rate of brown to green/pink pupae was seriously distorted by 
the inclusion of a considerable number of pupae from larvae reared 
in crowded cultures of a dozen or so per container, instead of singly. 
All the pupae from the crowded larvae were, without exception, 
brown even when formed among leaves in the jars in which they 
had fed up. 

For the benefit of those to whom the previous paper is not 
available, the following is a brief description of my modus operandi. 
Tlie larvae were collected from Citrus trees growing in my garden 
at Mombasa, either as ova or in their 1st, 2nd or 3rd instars, and 
reared to maturity in individual clear glass jars of about 2" in heiglit 
and 1 /d" in diameter. As soon as they had passed their final evacua- 
tion, they were transferred to the pupation chambers, glass jars of 
about 4" in heiglit and IW in diameter, either hned inside with 
sand-paper or with sand-paper wrapped round the outside, the jars 
being capped either with a square of sand-paper under a weight to 
keep the larva from escaping, or by a piece of glass covered by 
sand-paper. These jars were then placed in a closed wooden box and 
left for thirty-six hours, by which time the larva had pupated and 
the pupa had dried and hardened. The last evacuation was usually 
passed about 8 p.m., the larva had hung up in its chosen pupation 
site some twelve hours after wandering had commenced and had 
pupated some twelve hours later. It will be seen that the only 
variable was the texture of the surface on wliich the larva pupated, 
all other conditions being the same. 

Results were as follows, and I have added the previous percen- 
tages in brackets: — 

Rough Smooth 

Brown 27 - 84.38% (94.34%) 11 - 37.93% (53.20%) 

Green 2 - 6.25% ( 1.89%) 10 - 34.48% (23.40%) 

Pink J^ - 9.37% ( 3.77%) _8 - 27.59% (23.40%) 

Total 32 29 

Ten larvae, either by accident or design, were allowed to pupate 
in the jars in wliich they fed up, and these produced 6 (60%) green 
pupae and 4 (40%) pink. In the previous experiment all the larvae 
from the crowded larvae were brown, but none from the individually 
reared larvae. 

It appears, therefore, that crowding the larvae produces 100% 
brown pupae, and that pupation on a rougli surface produces a 
considerably liiglier proportion of brown pupae than pupation on a 
smooth one. These are facts, but I can make no suggestion as to 
the reason. One factor can be ruled out entirely, not a single pupa 
went into diapause. Diapause is often considered an important 
factor in temperate cHmates. 
*P.O. Bo.x 95617, Mombasa (Nyali) 



76 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

In nature the larvae usually pupate in the Citrus tree on which 
they have fed up, and remain green throughout the wandering 
phase. 

Two recent papers concern pupal dimorpliism in two American 
papihonids, Battus philenor (L.) and Papilio polyxenes F. 

The first (West & Hazel, 1979) describes the natural pupation 
sites of the two species, philenor on exposed surfaces of tree trunks 
and chffs well off the ground, and polyxenes on thin weeds and 
grass stems or on stumps and fence posts. It was noticed that 
autumn pupae, i.e. diapausing, chose broader supports than summer 
ones. 

The second (Hazel & West, 1979) describes experiments with 
the two species using pupating substrates differing in both colour 
and texture. It was found that on a rougli surface philenor produced 
100% brown pupae irrespective of the colour — red, blue, green or 
yellow — but on a smooth substrate (the coloured paper wrapped 
outside a plastic container) there was a difference, blue producing 
94% brown, red 57%, green 55% and yellow only 18%. With 
polyxenes there were differences on both surfaces, rougli red pro- 
ducing 97% brown, rougli blue 94% and rougli green 2%, whilst 
smooth red produced 2%, smooth blue 29% and smooth green 6%, 
yellow both rough and smooth produced no brown pupae. Unlike 
my demodocus larvae, most of the American larvae were ready to 
start wandering about midday, so that their wandering took place 
during the hours of dayUglit, or at any rate partially, so that their 
choice of pupation site could have been influenced by both colour 
and texture. In the case oi demodocus, where the wandering starts 
well after niglitfall and the larva has suspended itself well before 
dawn, choice of site can only be affected by texture, and colour 
can only come into play during the pharate stage. 

It is difficult to see what advantage the pink form affords as 
it is fairly conspicuous both among leaves and on tree trunks. 

References 

D. G. Sevastopulo, 1974/5, Dimorphism in Papilio Pupae, Ent. Rec, 86: 
269 & 87 : 109. 

D. A. West & W. N. Hazel, 1979, Natural pupation sites of swallowtail butter- 
flies (Lepidoptera, Papilioninae) : Papilio polyxenes Fahv.,P. glaucus L. 
md Battus philenor iL.), Ecological Entomology , 4 : 387-392. 

W. N. Hazel & D. A. West, 1979, Environmental control of pupal colour in 
Swallowtail butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilioninae), Ecological Ento- 
mology, 4 : 393-400 



HAPLOTINEA INSECTELLA F. IN KENT - A visit 
to Steps Hill Wood, Stockbury on 25th August 1979 produced a 
single female in fine condition of this local tineid, wliich I beat from 
dense roadside thicket of dry, dead branches and brambles. The 
specimen was submitted to Dr. J. D. Bradley, who kindly deter- 
mined it from the genitalia. - N.F. HEAL, "Fosters", Detling Hill, 
Maidstone, Kent. [This appears to be the first record for Kent of//. 
insectella. — J. M. C. - H.l 



77 
A SURVEY OF THE SALTATORIA 
OF THE BRISTOL AREA AND NORTH SOMERSET 

By J. F. Burton, F.R.E.S., F.Z.S.* 

The main purpose of this paper is to provide a basis for future, 
more detailed, studies of the status and distribution of the Saltatoria 
(bush-crickets, crickets, grasshoppers and ground-hoppers) of the 
region comprising the vice-county of North Somerset (V.C.6) and 
the old county of Bristol, most of v/hich is incorporated in V.C.34 
(East Gloucester). Tliis is largely a personal study, derived cliiefly 
from my own records collected since I took up residence in the 
Bristol district in May, 1960. However, in 1963 the late Mr. J. 
Cowley gave me a large number of records of Orthoptera made by 
himself and others, including many species of Saltatoria, from a 
wide range of English locaUties, including the area reviewed in this 
paper. In addition, I am most grateful to Dr. D. R. Ragge and Mr. 
Richard Savage who have also supplied records or other information. 

Saltatoria are warmth-loving insects; therefore because of its 
southern position aUied to a wide variety of habitats, from fenland 
to high downland and moorland, tliis region is home to a respectable 
proportion of the British species - 19 out of 29. It is quite possible 
that a few more species may yet be added to the hst. Only as 
recently as 1977 the Grey Bush-cnckei Platycleis denticulata (Panz.) 
was discovered by Mr. R. S. Cropper in some abundance on Brean 
Down, the first record for the old county of Somerset. Even the 
largest species are easily overlooked. Tliis was true of the large and 
bulky Wart-biter Decticus vemicivoms (L.) wliich was not seen 
anywhere in Britain for almost 30 years until it was rediscovered 
simultaneously in Dorset and Sussex in 1955. Since then, due to 
an increased interest in Saltatoria amongst British entomologists, 
new sites in Kent, Sussex and North Wiltsliire have been found. 
So its presence in the latter county suggests that it may well be 
worth searching the southern slopes of the Polden, Mendip and 
Cotswold Hills on hot, sunny days in August and early September 
when the loud, characteristic song of the male is likely to be heard. 

In 1966 the Mole-cricket Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (L.) was also 
rediscovered in Wiltshire and seems Ukely to be surviving in tliis 
locaUty, one of its few remaining sites in Britain, althougli Dr. 
David Ragge and I have failed to fmd it there on three visits this 
year (1980). However, tlus once widespread insect, now apparently 
almost extinct in Britain, may yet exist undetected in the extensive 
wet fenlands and water meadows of Somerset and Avon. 

As suggested by Haes (1979), it may well be worth looking for 
Roesel's Bush-cricket Metrioptera roeselii (Hagen.) in the estuaries 
and coastal marshes of this part of England, since this east coast 
species has recently and surprisingly been discovered beside the 
Dovey Estuary in west Wales. I am very familiar with tliis insect as 
it is common on the Thames-side marshes near my former home and 
am therefore confident that I have not overlooked it in the 

*11, Rockside Drive, Henleaze. Bristol, BS9 4NW. 



'78 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

possible west country localities wliich I have visited frequently. 

Finally, there is a strong possibility that Cepero's Ground- 
hopper Tetrix ceperoi (Boliv.) may yet be found along the south 
side of the Bristol Qiannel and Severn Estuary as it has been seen 
in the past on the Welsh side and there is plenty of marshy ground 
near water along the costs of the area covered by this paper. 

Of the species present only two seem in danger of extinction: 
the Large Marsh Grasshopper Stethophyma grossum (L.) and the 
Woodland Grasshopper Omocestus rufipes (Zett.). The former is 
suffering from the effects of the extremely rapid and large-scale 
extraction of peat from the Somerset bogs since the Second World 
War which has destroyed or rendered much of its specialised habitat 
unsuitable, and is in need of a thorougli and up-to-date survey of 
its present status; the latter appears to be endangered because so 
far it is known to me from only one Somerset wood, fortunately 
a nature reserve of the Somerset Trust for Nature Conservation, but 
may well be discovered in other parts of the extensive woodlands 
surrounding its present site. 

Tlie Bog Bush-cricket Metrioptera brachyptera (L.) is very 
localised, but its existence in a well-maintained Somerset nature 
reserve should ensure the survival of healthy colonies. 

BUSH-CRICKETS (Family Tettigoniidae) 
Oak Bush-cricket Meconema thalassinum (Degeer) 

Tliis delicate-looking, pale green bush-cricket is not, as its 
English name suggests, confined to oak trees; in fact it is found 
on a wide range of broad-leaved trees, though mature oaks are the 
most favoured. As in the rest of southern England, it seems to be 
common in most, if not all, wooded areas of Bristol and North 
Somerset. Being fully winged and therefore capable of short flights, 
it most often comes under notice when attracted indoors after dark 
by artificial Uglit. Adult males caught in this way have been brought 
to me by persons living in Stoke Bishop, Bristol (1964) and Pill, 
North Somerset (1964 and 1966). 

If it were not for its strictly nocturnal habits, the Oak Bush- 
cricket would be recorded more often. Wlien searching especially 
for it, I have found it with ease by day on oaks in Ashton Park 
(1977) and Leigh Woods (1978 and 1980) on the outskirts of 
Bristol, and in Alexandra Park in the middle of Qevedon (1967). 
There is an early record of its occurrence at Batheaston (Blathwayt, 
1906) wliile, J. Cowley (1949) recorded it at Edington on the 
northern slopes of the Polden Hills in September, 1947 and 
mentions in liis ms Ust of records a record of one in August 1953 
taken at Chariton Mackrell by W. D. Colthurst. Li the C. Bartlett 
collection in the Bristol City Museum there is a male which was 
collected at Portishead, presumably in the early 1900s. 

Great Green Bush-cricket Tettigonia viridissima L. 

This large and magnificent bright green species is locally com- 
mon in North Somerset where its loud, penetrating and continuous 



A SURVEY OF THE SALTATORIA 79 

stridulation is a familiar sound in late summer and early autumn 
from early evening until late into the night. On hot days they often 
begin to 'sing' around mid-day. So loud is the stridulation of this 
species that I have found it easy to hear them stridulating from the 
roadside hedgerows and verges wliile driving in spite of the noise 
of the car engine. On such drives in September 1963 and July 1975, 
for instance, across the Mendips from Cheddar to Winscombe I 
heard males stridulating every hundred yards or so, and also on 
drives along the coast road from Qevedon to Portishead every year 
between 1964 and the present. 

The calcareous hill ranges of North Somerset are the chief 
strongliolds of viridissima, but it is also locally common on the 
Central Somerset Levels and Peat Moors in luxuriant patches of 
coarse vegetation and brambles in such places as Ashcott, Catcott, 
Edington, Shapwick and Walton Heath. However, it seems to be 
curiously scarce or absent on the levels to the north, such as Allerton, 
Cheddar and Kenn Moors, although numerous on the adjacent hills. 
Nevertheless, I have heard soUtary males stridulating from hedgerows 
on the coast by. Qevedon Pill, wliile further south it was recorded in 
1953 and 1954 by the late J. Cowley in the sand dunes at Berrow, 
and doubtless still occurs there. 

Tlie following hst of known localities and years recorded are 
extracted from my journal, unless otherwise stated in parentheses: 
Portishead: 2 females in C. Bartlett collection, Bristol City Museum, 
no date; Burnham-on-Sea (Blathwayt, 1906); Walton and Weston 
Downs, Portishead, 1964 - 70. Qevedon: 1967 - 1976 (East 
Qevedon, Qevedon Pill, Qiurch Hill, Court Hill). Tickenham: 1964 
- 1975. Cadbury Camp and Westpark Wood, nr. Tickenham: 1964. 
Weston-super-Mare: ca. 1900 (H. J. Charbonnier per J. Cowley). 
Berrow sand dunes 1953 and 1954 (J. Cowley). Mendip Hills 1960 - 
1975 (Bleadon Hill, Crook Peak, Winscombe, Churcliill, Shipham, 
Cheddar Wood, Cheddar, Westbury-sub-Mendip and Ebbor). Central 
Somerset Peat Moors: Walton Heath, 1948 (E. G. Neal); Edington 
Heath, 1950 (J. Cowley); Catcott Heath, 1950 (J. Cowley, D. G. 
Brown and J. H. P. Sankey), 1951 (A. H. Turner); Shapwick Heath, 
1963; Buscott, 1963; Ashcott Heath, 1963 - 1967. Polden Hills: 
Moorlinch, 1953 (J. Cowley); Edington, 1955 (J. Westcott det. J. 
Cowley); Loxley Wood, Shapwick, 1951 (J. Cowley); Walton, 1949 
(J. Cowley); Walton Hill 1971 ; Street, 1953 (F. R. Underwood det. J. 
Cowley). 

Dark Bush-cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera (Degeer) 

Tlie choruses of chirps from large colonies of this rather spidery, 
dark-brown, wingless bush -cricket are the most prevalent of all 
nocturnal insect sounds in tliis region during the late summer and 
autumn. The males also often stridulate during the day, especially 
from mid-afternoon, but are rarely mature enougli to do so before 
the beginning of August; thereafter a few may still be heard as late as 
the first week in November. 



80 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

A bush-cricket of the nettle-beds, wayside scrub and woodland 
borders and rides, griseoaptera is to be found in abundance in 
almost all suitable places throughout this region. It is one of the 
only two species of bush-crickets known on the island of Steep 
Holm in the Bristol Channel, where it was described as "common 
and widespread, often entering the barracks in autumn" (Parsons, 
1978). Incidentally, this author stated that he was unable to find 
any previous record of this species for the island; in fact, the late 
J. Cowley (pers. comm.) collected a nymph there on the 10th June, 
1956 and another on 14th May, 1961. 

My Hst of localities is very extensive: Bristol: Qifton and 
Durdham Downs, 1960 - 79; Henleaze, 1977 - 78; King's Weston 
Down, 1970; Wliiteshill and Hambrook, 1978; Shirehampton, 1963; 
Ashton Park, 1963; Leigh Woods, 1962 - 79. North Somerset: Pill, 
1960 - 67; Lodway, 1966; Portishead 1960 - 76; Portishead- 
Qevedon coast road, 1964 - 70; Weston Down. Portishead, 1970; 
Qevedon 1967 - 76; Walton Common, Walton-in-Gordano, 1976; 
Qevedon-Failand road, 1967; Tickenham Hill, 1964; Westpark 
Wood and Cadbury Camp, near Tickenham, 1964; Wraxall 
(Battleaxes Hotel), 1967; Barrow Gurney Reservoir, 1962; Brockley 
Combe, 1973; Goblin Combe, 1964; Mendips: Bleadon Hill, 1960; 
Crook Peak, 1960; Cheddar to Churchill via Shipham, 1963; 
Batheaston, near Bath (Blathwayt, 1906); Central Peat Moors: 
Ashcott Heath, 1963 - 67; Buscott, 1963 - 67; Shapwick Heath, 
1963 - 79; Meare Heath, 1964 - 79; Polden Hills: Cock Hill, 1950 
(J. Cowley); Edington 1948 - 50 (J. Cowley); Moorlinch, 1953 
(J. Cowley); Loxley Wood, Shapwick, 1947 (J. Cowley, 1949); 
Priest Hill, near Ashcott, 1951 (W. D. Colthurst, det. J. Cowley); 
Walton Hill, 1948 (J. Cowley), still there 1971 - 74; Great Breach 
Wood, near Compton Dundon, 1971-74; Charlton Mackrell, 1953 (C. 
Avent, det. J. Cowley). Swell Wood, Fivehead, 1961; Muchelney, 
1961; Langport, 1961; Steep Holm, 1956 and 1961 (J. Cowley) and 
1975 -76, (Parsons, 1978). 

(To be continued) 

Memoir of the Life and Works of Edward Newman by his Son 
(Thomas Prichard Newman) 1876. A facsimile with a new 
Introduction by E. W. Classey. Portrait, 5 wood engravings, [iii] 
+ 32pp., stiff wrapper, 1980. Price £2. 

For devotees of Edward Newman this facsimile of a curious 
and interesting old pamphlet marks a memorable event, since very 
few copies of the original appear to have survived. Much additional 
information to that found in the obituary notice (which appeared in 
the Entomologist for December 1876) is contained herein, and the 
identity of the author of the ?inonymo\xs> Letters of Rusticus (1849) 
is confirmed. A particularly interesting feature of the Memoir is 
the woodcut on page 10, which shows the Bull Inn, at Birch Wood, 
Kent (reproduced from a vignette in the Entomological Magazine 
of 1837), famous as a venue of 19th century entomologists, and 



A SURVEY OF THE SALTATORIA 81 

where for many years members of the Entomological Qub (in- 
stituted in 1826 with eight original members, of which Edward 
Newman was one) held their annual festivities. 

This forms no.6 of Qassica Entomologica in the series of 
facsimile reprints issued by the firm of E. W. Qassey Ltd., Park 
Road, Faringdon, Oxon. It is printed on good paper, has an 
attractive cover and is similar in format to no. 5 (Rev. Greene's 
Pupa Digger) in the series. — J. M. C. -H. 



SOME RECORDS OF SPHAEROPHORIA (DIPTERA, 
SYRPHIDAE) FROM NORTH-WEST ENGLAND 

By Dr. Neville L. Birkett* 

Recent papers by Speiglit (1973) and Kidd (1973) have directed 
the attention of dipterists to tills genus. On the basis of the obser- 
vations of these authors records of two species of Sphaerophoria 
seem worth noting. 

Sphaerophoria loewii Zetterstedt. One male and two females 
of this species were taken by me at Leighton Moss, North Lancashire 
(V. C. 60.) on 5 July 1959. Tlie determination has recently been 
confirmed by Dr. Martin C. D. Speiglit. Dr. Speight also suggested 
that the species seems to be associated, in the few locahties from 
wliich it has been recorded, with Scirpus maritimus L. (Sea Club- 
rush). Dr. Geoffrey Halliday, of Lancaster University Botany Depart- 
ment, confirms that tliis species of rush is common along the 
southern boundary of Leigliton Moss. Leigliton Moss is a reserve 
for birds managed by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds 
and the only pubUc access is across a central causeway. Tliat was 
where the presently recorded flies were taken. 

S. loewii does not appear to have been recorded previously 
in the north of England. Coe (1953) gives Kent, Hampslure and 
Dorset only. Dr. Speight, in litt., tells me he had taken it in Ireland. 

Sphaerophoria philanthus (Meigen). Tliis species is apparently 
quite widespread but is considered uncommon. Kidd (1973) gives 
records of two specimens taken in the Grange-over-Sands area 
contained in the A. E. Wriglit coUecfion housed in Oldham Museum. 
I have three males of this in my collection taken as follows: 

VC 69. Sandscale Hawes Warren, 28 July 1978; Grange-over- 
Sands 8 August 1980. 

VC 70. Armboth (on the west side of Thirlmere), 21 July 1980. 

Tliese localities offer widely different habitats — at Grange-over- 
Sands the locality is low-lying brackish marsh, Sandscale Hawes 
is sand-dune with Uttle in the way of damp slacks, while at Armboth 
the specimen was caught in a small road-side clearing by the side 
of a conifer plantation. In his distribution records Speight 1. c. 
notes records by Wainwriglit from Walney Island (VC69) and Drigg 
(VC70) — both habitats not dis-similar to the Sandscale Hawes 
locality. 
*Kendal Wood, New Hutton, Cumbria, LAS OAQ 



82 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to Dr. Martin C. D. Speight and Dr. Geoffrey 
Halliday for their help as indicated. 

References 

Coe, R. L. 1953. Diptera. Family Syrphidae Hanbk. Ident. Br. Insects, 10 

(1) : 98 pp. R. ent. Soc, London. 
Kidd, L. N., 1973. On the Occurrence of Sphaerophoria philanthus (Meigen) 

(Diptera, Syrphidae) in Britain. Entomologist, 106 : 223 - 224. 
Speight, Martin C. D. 1973. British Species of Sphaerophoria (Diptera, 

Syrphidae) confused with S. menthastri (L.) including a Key to the 

Males of the Seven species of Sphaerophoria found in the British Isles. 

Ibid.: 228 - 233. 



FURTHER OCCURRENCE OF STIGMELLA ACERIS 
(FREY) IN KENT. — One of my frequent brief roadside pauses 
produced a single vacated mine of this species on Acer campestre 
at Tilden Road, Ulcombe, near Maidstone on 9th September 1980, 
and apparently a new record for vice county 15. Up until 1976, 
this species was only known in Britain from two Kentish records, 
but I believe that of late it has been recorded from elsewhere in 
Britain. - N. F. HEAL , "Fosters", Detling Hill, near Maidstone, 
Kent. 

APION SIMILE KBY. (COL. : APIONIDAE) IN S. 
E. LONDON. — For some obscure reason this birch-feeding Apion, 
not normally regarded as uncommon or even especially local, has 
always been very rare to me. I am incUned to think it must have 
become scarcer than formerly in at any rate the south-east, though 
in the 1950s or thereabouts Mr. J. A. Parry used to find it general 
in the Canterbury district. I had met with it, always singly, only 
at Mickleham (Surrey), Bricket and Knebworth Woods (Herts.), 
and Fleet (Hants.), and once swept one from a privet hedge in my 
former garden at Blackheath wliich must have come from some 
birches in the next garden. Finally, I was agreeably surprised to 
beat a female A. simile from a birch in my present garden at 
Charlton on 12.V.80, and a male from the same tree on 3.ix.80; 
the two captures together practically prove it to be breeding there. 
The host tree is plentiful in the district, but the same clearly 
cannot be said of the weevil. It might be expected, for instance, 
in the woods at Shooters Hill, but I could never find it there. 
-A. A. ALLEN. 

RECENT INCREASE OF SPHAEROPHORIA RUEP- 
PELLII WILD. (DIPT. : SYRPHIDAE) IN N. W. KENT. 
— This small hover-fly is riglitly accounted uncommon or rare as a 
rule; in the course of rather intensive collecting in my Blackheath 
garden from 1961 to 1973 it occurred only very sporadically, and in 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 83 

fact I saw none during the last six years or so of that period. But in 
1977, four years after moving to Charlton, I met with it repeatedly 
in that district — but principally at Abbey Wood (just east of 
Humstead). Tliough most of my captures were of single specimens, 
it turned up in some numbers at the latter place on 15th July by 
sweeping flowers of Oxford ragwort along the base of a temporary 
wall in what could best be caUed an 'industrial wilderness', together 
with its common congener S. scripta L. Each year since then it has 
been noted, but sparsely and always singly, in my Charlton garden, 
at Kidbrooke, Shooters Hill, Woolwich Common, Charlton Reach, 
etc. It may be recalled that the second half of the summer preceding 
the sudden 'outbreak' was intensely hot and dry, a fact perhaps 
not unconnected with the remarkable (temporary?) increase of 
S. meppellii in these parts. — A. A. ALLEN. 



THE PRESENT STATUS OF LITHOPHANE LEAUTIERI 
(BOISD.) IN BRITAIN 

By D. F. OWEN** 

In the thirty years following the original discovery in 1951 of 
Blair's shoulder-knot, Lithophane leautieri (Noctuidae), at Fresh- 
water, Isle of Wight (Blair 1952), the moth has colonised much 
of southern England and is rapidly penetrating northwards. The 
accompanying map is based on pubUshed reports, records held by 
the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology and Rothamsted Experimental 
Station, and letters from collectors and observers resulting from an 
appeal for information pubUshed in the Record. 

As shown. L. leautieri is known from 81 10 km squares in 
England and Wales. The northernmost record is Leicester (1979) 
and the moth now occurs, in some places as the commonest October 
species, from Cornwall to Kent, a truly remarkable example of 
colonisation, reminiscent of what happened to the golden plusia, 
Polychrisia moneta (Fab.) earUer this century, and the varied 
coronet, Hadena compta (D. & S.) from 1948 onwards. There is 
every reason to suppose that L./ecwrien will continue to expand its 
range in Britain and increase in numbers in localities where it is 
already estabUshed. Tlie map can therefore be regarded as a thirty- 
year progress report of a moth recently added to the British Ust. 

The only known larval food-plant in Britain is the Monterey 
cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, introduced in 1838 and now com- 
mon in low-lying areas, especially in parks and gardens along the 
south coast. Such evidence as there is suggests that the larvae require 



'=66 Scraptoft Lane, Leicester LE5 IHU. 



84 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 



15.IV.81 



new leaves and flowerbuds high up on the taller trees (Haggett 1957, 
Kettlewell 1957a, 1957b, Wakely 1961). It has not been recorded 
from wild juniper, Juniperus communis, whose associated fauna has 
been well studied (Ward 1977), but is known horn Juniperus spp. 
and occasionally Cupressus spp. from continental Europe. It would 
be worth examining introduced species of juniper in gardens for 
larvae. 





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A more detailed account of the colonisation of Britain by this 
species will be pubUshed later. My intention in this communication 
is to pubhsh an up-to-date map in the hope that readers will fill 
in gaps and report further range extensions. I shall be glad to receive 
additional records, including those from locaUties where the moth is 
already estabhshed, and especially of the discovery of wild larvae 
and their food-plants. 

I thank the numerous correspondents who have sent me records, 
John Heath for access to the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology records, 
Rothamsted Experimental Station for information, and J. M. 
Chalmers-Hunt for much encouragement. 



References 

Blair, K. G. 1952. Lithophane (Graptolitha) lapidea Hubner (Lep., Cara- 
drinidae) in the Isle of Wight, a new British record. Entomologist, 85: 
123-124. 



PRESENT STATUS OF LITHOPHANELEUTIERI {BOSD.) IN BRITAIN 85 

Haggett, G. 1957. An account of rearing Lithophane lapidea Hiibner, with 

descriptions of the egg, larva and pupa. Entomologist, 90: 287-295. 
Kettlewell, H. B. D. 1957a. Lithophane lapidea Hiibner (Lap. Noctudae) 

breeding in Britain. £'«?omo/o^sr, 90: 1-8. 
Kettlewell, H. B. D. 1957b. Lithophane lapidea Hiibner (Lep. Noctuidae) 

breedine in Britain: a foreward. Entomologist, 90 : 285-286. 
Wakely, S. 1961. Wild larvae of Lithophane leautieri Boisd. Ent. Rec, 

73 : 9. 
Ward, L. K. 1977. The conservation of juniper: the associated fauna with 

special reference to southern England. /. Appl. EcoL, 14 : 81-120. 



TWO NOTABLE DUNG FLIES IN GREENWICH 
PARK. — From a puparium found in horse dung in Greenwich 
Park last July, a ? Gymnodia humilis Zett. (Muscidae) emerged 
a few weeks later; there are no breeding records for this species 
in Fonseca (1968, Handb. Ident. Brit. Ins., 10 : (4b) : 15). In 
the same locahty on fresh horse dung I caught single examples 
of Calythea nigricans Dsv. (Anthomyiidae) - cfS. viii, 9 7. ix - 
a species wliich Mr. Fonseca (who kindly named all three flies) 
says appears rather infrequent but that he once found the males 
hovering in a vast swarm in EastUng Wood (E. Kent) and later 
hovering in small numbers in parts of the New Forest. He swept 
some 59 in the former place off vegetation under the aerial swarm, 
but does not connect the species particularly with dung. The male 
has a striking pattern of white markings on the abdomen, wliich 
shows up in frontal lighting, but the female has no trace of it and in 
fact looks quite different. — A. A. ALLEN. 

CALOPTILIA HEMIDACTYLELLA D. & S. (LEP.: 
GRACILLARIIDAE) IN GLOUCESTERSHIRE. - Whilst 
re-examining some old genitaUa shdes recently, I noted one I made 
in 1954 for Mr. L. Price and labelled C. hemidactydella 9 . In 
November of that year we had beaten out one or two specimens 
from bracken etc. in a wood near Cirencester. I labelled the speci- 
men hemidactylella at the time because in Pierce & Metcalfe (1935, 
Genitalia of the Tineina ), for the females of the Caloptilia, all other 
species were quite different from the one I was examining. Pierce & 
Metcalfe, however, do not figure the female of hemidactylella so I 
assumed that this must be what I had. Furthermore, the foodplant 
of this species, sycamore, was quite plentiful at this site. Meyrick 
(1928, Rev. Handbook Br. Lep.) gives several locaUties in Britain 
for hemidactylella, but recent research by Col. A. M. Emmet reveals 
that there is no actual proof that any of them are correct. So that it 
would appear that the few specimens taken by Price and myself in 
Gloucestershire in 1954, and also in 1955, constitute the only 
confirmed records of the species in Britain. 

I am indebted to Dr. J. D. Bradley for kindly confirming my 
mount of the female, and also for preparing another of a male. 
Thanks also to Col. Emmet, who has seen the genitaUa mount of 
the male and added his confirmation. -J.NEWTON,!, Oxleaze 
Qose, Tetbury, Glos GL 8JS. [This is a most interesting discovery, 
and we hope to hear further from Mr. Newton of his finding in due 
course of the early stages of this elusive species. — J. M. C. -H.] 



^^ Obituary 

AUSTIN RICHARDSON 

Austin died on January 14th. He was born in 1904 and his 
father was the headmaster of Beaudesert Park School which was 
then in Warwickshire. He was educated at liis father's prep-school, 
Eton and Oxford. He returned to teach at Beaudesert and sub- 
sequently became headmaster. In 1938 he married Beryl Jones, 
the under-matron, who died in 1964. Beryl, besides being an ideal 
headmaster's wife was magnificent as the wife of an entomologist 
and however arduous some of Austin's collecting expeditions were. 
Beryl was always at his side. 

Austin had what he himself called "the finest collection of 
British Lepidoptera in private hands" and this was certainly true 
in regard to numbers and rareties, but the collection had overflowed 
the cabinet space and many insects were lodged in store boxes 
and if the collection is kept together and goes to a Museum, as 
it certainly should, there is a years work for someone in complete 
rearrangement. 

It was a pity that Austin with his enormous experience did not 
put this down in writing. However, he produced numerous supple- 
ments to the Gloucestersliire County list and with Robin Mere 
wrote up the lepidoptera of the Scilly Isles and named several sub- 
species from those islands, which he visited at least once a year. 
He was always very keen on species new to Britain and could be 
relied on to lead the rush. He was a first class breeder and among 
Iris many successes were Drepana harpagula Esp., Cosymbia 
puppillaria Hiibn, and Eupithecia phoeniceata Rambur, of which he 
took the second British specimen. 

None of the above really describes Austin. He was an extra- 
ordinary person. He had a liiglily developed competitive collecting 
instinct. Cigarette cards, British lepidoptera, postage stamps, sighting 
of rare birds, all were pursued with a rutliless determination, to 
achieve his object and to excell all others. This was combined 
with devotion to the opera and ballet and his favourite casts would 
be followed from Covent Garden to Manchester to Bristol to any- 
where where they were performing. 

Apart from the fact that we were friends and neighbours, I had 
ample opportunity to appreciate this as after Beryl's death, he used 
to join us on our family hoUdays in the remote places we and the 
children used to visit. First to Inch in Kerry and Slvne Head in 
Connemara, then next year to Harris in the Hebrides and then to Port- 
salon on the north Donegal coast and the MuU of Belmullet on the 
coast of Mayo. His energy never flagged for one minute nor his 
determination to catch more than I. At Slyne Head there is a marvel- 
lously remote bog where the Irish form of Nonagria algae Esp. 
occurs. We selected positions for our Colman lamps (which for this 
insect are more effective than M. V.), he on a dry spit on one side of 
the bog and I on a high rock on the other. In due course I had 
cauglit six algae and Austin had caught none and was boiling with 



OBITUARY 87 

rage. "I am coming over to join you" he shouted and lifting his lamp 
above his head proceeded to wade into the water. Not untU he was 
submerged up to his thighs did he relent! 

Austin aged 76 and in spite of a bad heart, never gave up. He 
was in the Fame Isles bird watching before Qiristmas. After Qirist- 
mas he had dinner with us and he looked so ill I tried to persuade 
him to stay. No, he could drive home and would. Next day he 
went to Cheltenham races and in a few days he was dead. What 
a trouncing the older generation of lepidopterists have recently 
taken. Bernard Kettlewell, Charles de Worms, Timothy Tams and 
now Austin Richarson. I suspect I shall miss Austin most. Who 
now am I to crow over when at last nerii arrives in my moth trap? 
- R. P. DEMUTH. 

Current Literature 

The Butterflies of Scotland — a Natural History by G. Thompson, 

xvii + 267pp., 33 pi (inc. 8 col.), 97 text fig. (inc. 68 distrib. 
and 12 habitat maps). Croom Helm, London, 1980. £19.95. 

The work is divided into three parts, each of two chapters, 
plus appendices. An introductory chapter dealing with geology, 
landscape and climate is followed by a chapter on Scotland's flora, 
its development and organization to form the various habitats of 
butterflies. These chapters form the foundation for the foUov^ng 
two concerned directly with the butterfly fauna — its dispersal, 
origin and estabUshment, recent changes in distribution and the 
future outlook — and occupying the bulk of the book a critical 
analysis of the butterfly species. The first of the two chapters of 
Part III is concerned with the history of interest in butterflies in 
Scotland, and the second with a history of relevant societies and 
journals. This is followed by appendices on nature reserves, a 
collecting code, a check Ust of species, a glossary of entomological 
terms and a very comprehensive bibUography. 

This is a scientific work based largely upon the author's con- 
siderable knowledge and practical experience of the subject and his 
extremely thorougli research into the contents of journals, society 
proceedings and museum collections; throughout it makes interest- 
ing reading and is without superfluous technical jargon. The nomen- 
clature used is that of Kloet and Hincks (1972). A commendable 
feature is that temperatures and altitudes are given in degrees Cen- 
tigrade and Fahrenheit, and metres and feet respectively. 

Tlie butterfly species are dealt with in the fourth chapter 
under the headings 'status, history, habits, form, distribution, 
appearance', and for each species there is a distribution map based 
upon 10 km squares. Unfortunately, the symbols used in these are 
not consistent; thus, a black dot may either represent a record, 
or a record since 1900, or a record since 1931: it would have been 
more satisfactory to have adopted the same procedure as the Bio- 
logical Records Centre. In the section on each species labelled 



88 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

'habits', it is frequently not clear whether the larval foodplants 
Hsted refer to Scotland, and there is also a lack of authenticity on 
tliis subject. 

All recorded species are illustrated, mostly by excellent Ufe size 
photographic reproductions in colour, although those of specimens 
in natural surroundings are not all true to size, nor is this indicated. 
It would have been more helpful if such species as Hipparchia 
semele L. and Maniola jurtina L. were illustrated in colour in place 
of Melitaea didyma Esp. and others unlikely to be met with in 
Britain. 

A few printing errors occur, and some loose expressions of 
geography were noted, such as the inclusion of the Channel Islands 
in the British Isles on page 15, and reference to the Gulf Stream 
when the North Atlantic Drift is indicated. 

In general tliis book, well bound and in an attractive dust 
cover, was a pleasure to read; at £19.95 it represents excellent 
value for a beautifully presented, informative and interestingly 
written work, profusely illustrated, and deserving of a place on the 
book shelves of all interested in the natural history, and especially 
the butterflies, of Britain; it must surely encourage further inves- 
tigation and interest in Scotland's butterfly fauna. — B. K. W. 



Love among the Butterflies: The Travels and Adventures of a 
Victorian Lady by Margaret E. Fountaine edited by W. F. Cater 

(Collins £8.50). 

The name of Margaret EUzabeth Fountaine (1862-1940) will be 
famihar to many lepidopterists as a collector who travelled much 
of the world then difficult of access in search of specimens which 
ultimately she left to the Castle Museum, Norwich, with the proviso 
that it should be called the Fountaine-Neimy Collection. Her con- 
tributions to entomological magazines will also be known to many. 
Fewer lepidopterists would know of her reputation for eccentricity, 
and hardly any are Ukely to know of those aspects of her private Hfe 
which are revealed in this book. 

The book itself has its genesis in Miss Fountaine 's bequest to 
the Castle Museum of a locked black metal box with instructions 
that it was not to be opened until April, 1978. Duly opened at the 
appointed time at the Castle Museum and with attendant pubUcity, 
the box disclosed twelve large neatly hand-written volumes of her 
diaries dating from 1 878 (the opening thus celebrating the centenary 
of her first entry) containing much about butterflies as expected but 
also a personal record of an intimate nature of her Ufe and loves. 
Subsequently the Sunday Times acquired the right of pubHcation 
and the diaries have been pubUshed in a very much abridged form 
edited by Mr W. F. Cater. 

In her pursuit of butterflies she was indefatigable, travelling 
in her early years over Southern Europe, the Middle East and the 
Balkans when traveUing conditions were very different to what 



CURRENT LITERATURE 89 

they are now and with less concern than most people nowadays 
take over a cross channel trip. Frequently she travelled by mule, 
and by bicycle. For very many years her constant companion 
was KliaUl Neimy her Syrian Dragoman, initially hired as a guide 
and courier and who seems to have fallen in love with her at first 
sight. 

Although this book deals at considerable length with Miss 
Fountaine's amorous adventures which were far from being at 
an end after her first unhappy affair, and later association with 
Neimy, there is still a great deal of entomological interest extracted 
from her diaries and in these passages Miss Fountaine shows the 
gift evident in her contributions to entomological journals of bring- 
ing to Ufe the geography and atmosphere of the places she visitied. 
As a posthumous publication and in the context of her strong per- 
sonality and the social background her narrative takes on an added 
interest. 

Especially enjoyable is the account of her excursion with a 
group of Hungarian entomologists from Budapest — there is a char- 
ming photograph of these gentlemen — and her search for psyloria - 
the httle Cretan Blue. 

The book itself is well produced with good quality paper and 
illustrations at a very reasonable price and although it must be seen 
for what it is — one aimed at a higli circulation and the popular 
market — it should nevertheless be of considerable interest to 
all lepidopterists and provides thanks to Mr Cater's skilled editing a 
human and fascinating picture of this self-willed, indomitable 
lady and her travels in an age which now seems far away. — 
D. S. BURROWS. 

The Heyday of Natural History (1820-1870) by Lynn Barber. 

Pp. 320 with 16 colour plates and over 100 black and wliite 
illustrations. J. Cape. Price £9.50. 

During the period covered by this book the Victorians were 
subject to a series of collecting manias, of Algae, mosses, ferns, 
fossils, insects and other branches of Natural History. Lynn Barber 
suggests the reasons behind this phenomenon, which had 
"Aristocrats turning their parks over to elands, beavers and 
kangeroos, and artisans hoarding their pennies to buy the 'Ento- 
mologist's Weekly InteUigencer'," or "When it was impossible to visit 
the sea-side without tripping over parties of earnest young ladies 
and gentlemen, armed with a book by Mr. Gosse and a collection 
of jam jars, standing knee deep in rock pools and prodding at sea 
anemones." 

The style is light and witty with a rich store of amusing quota- 
tions and cartoons from the periodicals of the time and fine colour 
reproductions from some of the rarer Natural History books. 

Why were the clergy all anxious to emulate Gilbert Wliite? 
Why did the anthropromorphic and anthroprocentric attitudes of 
the Victorians depend on "theological" Natural History as ex- 



90 ENTOMOLIGIST'S RECORD 15.IV.81 

pounded by the Rev. J. G. Wood and his ilk? How did the rise of 
Darwinism and the introduction of Biology into schools help to end 
the craze, for the majority? What was the relationsliip between the 
field worker and the "cabinet men" in the museums? Answers 
to these and many other questions are developed in an entertaining 
way, while the main characters involved are brilliantly sketched in. 

The one weakness of the book is in the absence of a full bibhog- 
raphy. This makes it impossible to know what the author has 
selected and what she has not seen. Too much time is devoted to 
Audubon and Agassiz, who can have had little influence on the 
masses. ManteU, whose books were a great stimulus to Geologising 
and Stainton who inspired many to Entomology, are dismissed in 
two lines. Mantell's Journal is a fine source for the theme of the 
book. Was it overlooked? 

Nevertheless, this is a most readable and beautifully produced 
book which should be a source of pleasure to all interested in any 
branch of Natural History - E. H. W. 

Notes and Observations 

BIPHYLLUS LUNATUS F. (COL. : BIPHYLLIDAE) IN 
S. E. LONDON. — Of this local and well-marked species (formerly 
classed as a Cryptophagid but now assigned to a separate family 
along with its ally Diplocoelus) I swept an example off grass under a 
good-sized ash tree in Mary on Wilson Park, Charlton, on 15th 
August 1980. The beetle is exclusively attached to the black 
fungus Daldinia (Sphaeria) concentrica, which affects various trees, 
but above all, old ashes; it is seldom seen in this district, and the tree 
in question (Ukewise other ashes round about) do not visibly 
harbour it, but the presence of the beetle suffices to show that it 
must be there. I have not been able to find another record of 
Biphyllus from the immediate environs of London, apart from an 
old one for Coombe Wood (presumably Wimbledon) in Fowler, 
1889, Col. Brit. Isl, 3 : 308. - A. A. ALLEN. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J. W. TUTTon 15th April, 1890) 



The following gentlmen act as Honorary Consultants to the magazine. 
Orthoptera: D. K. Mc. E. KEVAN, Ph.D., B.Sc, F.R.E.S.; Coleoptera: 
A. A. Allen, B.Sc; Diptera: E. C. M. d'ASSIS-FONSECA, F.R.E.S. 



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CONTENTS 

Editorial ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 45 

The Immigration of Lepidoptera to the British Isles in 1980, with an 
Account of the Invasion of the Painted Lady: Cynthia cardui 
(L.) R.F. BRETHERTON and J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT ... 47 

A new Species of Hypolycaena Felder from Southern Africa (Lep.: 

Lycaenidae). G. A. HENNING 55 

Some Additions to the Irish Microlepidoptera, 1978-80. K.G.M. 

BOND 58 

Oecophoridae (Lepidoptera) in Cheshire and North Wales H. N. 

MICHAELIS 60 

Butterflies on Martha's Vinyard Island. Dr. C. J. LUCKEN& 65 

Notaris scirpi (F.) (Col.: Curculionidae) in Cumbria with Notes on 

three other species of the genus. R. W. J. READ 73 

Dimorphism in PapiUo Pupae. D. G. STEVASTOPULO 75 

A Survey of the Saltatoria of the Bristol Area and North Somerset. 

J. F. BURTON 77 

Some Records of Sphaerophoria (Diptera: Syrphidae) from North- 
west England. Dr. N. L. BIRKETT 81 

The Present Status of Lithophane leautieri (Boisd.) in Britain 

Dr. D.F.OWEN 83 

Notes and Observations: 

Monopis fenestratella Heyd. in Warwickshire. Dr. A. N. B. 
SIMPSON 45 

A Second Kent Capture of Malthodes fibulatus Kies. (Col.: 

Cantharidae). A. A. ALLEN 46 

Recent Abundance of Cheilosia velutina Lw.(Dipt.: Syrphidae) 

in the London Area. A. A. ALLEN 46 

Hesperiid Larvae as Prey for a Sphecid Wasp. T. B. LARSEN 54 

Lepidoptera noted by Members of the Ruislip and District 

Natural History Society. A. M. GEORGE 59 

Ousipalia caesula Er. (Col.: Staphylinidae) twice found in 

rotten wood. A. A. ALLEN 59 

Aleochara discipennis M. & R. (Col.; Staphylinidae) from 

carrion in N. W. Kent. A. A. ALLEN ... 59 

Heringocrania chrysolepidella Z. in Kent. N. F. HEAL 71 

Haplotinea insectella F. in Kent. N. F. HEAL 76 

Further Occurrence of Stigmella aceris (Frey) in Kent. 

N. F. HEAL 82 

Apion simile Kby. (Col.: Apionidae) in S. E. London. 

A.A.ALLEN 82 

Recent Increase of Sphaerophoria rueppelUi Wied (Diptera: 

Syrphidae) in N. W. Kent. A. A. ALLEN 82 

Two Notable Dung Flies in Greenwich Park. A. A. ALLEN. 85 

Caloptilia hemidactylella D & S. (Lepidoptera:Gracillariidae) 

in Gloucestershire. J. NEWTON 85 

Biphyllus lunatus F. (Col.: Biphyllidae) in S. E. London. 

A.A.ALLEN 90 

Current Literature 72,80,87,88,89 

Obituary: Austin Richardson 86 



Printed by Frowde & Co (Printers) Ltd Orpheus St. London SE5 8RR 



VOL. 93, Nos. 5-6 May/June, 1981 ISSN 0013-8916 

g I 

I THE I 

g ENTOMOLOGIST'S § 

I RECORD g 

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^ J. D. Bradley, PH.D.. f.r.e.s. E. S. Bradford ^ 

^ ^ 

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PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA: A REVIEW FOR 
THE YEAR 1980 

By the Rev. D. J. Agassi z * 

Despite a year when the weather was not encouraging, many 
interesting species of Microlepidoptera were found. Three species 
were discovered new to Britain, others Uttie known were redis- 
covered or their known range extended. 

These advances must be largely due to the increase of interest 
in the smaller moths. There is now a larger and abler band of 'micro- 
men' than for many years. Added to this much has been contributed 
by the specialisation undertaken by those researching into families 
in preparation for writing their respective parts of 'The Moths & 
Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland.' 

To comment on individual species I will consider those of note 
in the order in which they appear in 'A Check List of British Insects' 
byKloet&Hincks(1972) 

INCURVARIIDAE 

A second British specimen of Lampronia flavimitrella (Hiibner) 
was taken in Kent by J. M. Chalmers-Hunt on 24.V.80, the first 
specimen was taken in Hampshire by the late D.W.H. Ffennell in 
1974; but the life history remains a matter of speculation. 

TEMEIDAE 

The breeding of three specimens of Monopis fenestratella 
(Heyd.) from a Kestrel's nest by Dr. A. N. B. Simpson, is a remark- 
able discovery of a species not seen for many years. It has never been 
common in this country and very encouraging is the knowledge that 
it is still resident. 

LYONETIIDAE 

As in 1979 mines of Ly one tia clerkella (Linn.) were particularly 
abundant. 

Combined field excursions by groups of speciaUsts are always 
liable to produce new discoveries and we await with interest the 
outcome of Bucculatrix mines on Myrica gale found on Anglesey 
by J. D. Bradley, A. M. Emmet, J. R. Langmaid and E. C. Pelham- 
Clinton. They correspond to no known British species (These have 
now yielded B. cidarella Zell. So only the foodplant is new) 

GRACILLARIIDAE 

I am not aware of any significant discoveries in this family, but 
the comparative scarcity of Phyllorycter mines is worthy of 
comment. 



"The Vicarage, High View Avenue, Grays, Essex RM17 6RU. 



92 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

YPONOMEUTIDAE 

The emergence of a long series of Swammerdamia passerella 
(Zett.) from larvae I collected in Scotland in 1979, confirms the 
existence of the species as a good species, and reinstated it on the 
British list where it once stood bearing the name S. nanivora 
Stainton. The abundance of such a species in the mountains of 
the Scottish Highlands suggests tliat many more species might 
remain tiiere undiscovered. One tliinics of several species recently 
discovered in the boreo-alpine regions of Scandinavia. 

Digitivalva perlepidella (Staint.), which used to be regarded as 
very scarce and local m Kent and the Gloucestersliire area, is being 
found to have a wider distribution. The capture of one in West 
Sussex during a British Entomological & Natural History Society 
field meeting fills in a big gap in its distribution. 

Acrolepia assectella (Zell.) was reported in a newspaper to be 
a pest in South Devon; when the species was first found it was 
stated how this was a potential pest, but after an initial spread it 
seems to have withdrawn and maintained a foothold only in a 
few coastal localities in Kent and Suffolk — until this record. 

COLEOPHORIDAE 

The newly recognised Coleophora pnmifoliae Doets was found 
not uncommonly in Devon, Cornwall and Essex, usually near the 
coast; there were also more records of C adjectella H.-S. Cases of 
both these species are to be found on blackthorn. 

C. linosyridella Fuchs was bred by N.F. Heal from Aster tipolium 
growing in the Thames Estuary, both in Kent and Essex, this is an 
interesting addition to our fauna especially in view of the unusual 
foodplant. Again in the Thames Estuary it was encouraging to hear 
that cases of C machinella Bradley were found on Artemisia 
maritima, this was the biology given by Macliin, but it had not been 
found since early in this century. Recently Dr. J. R. Langmaid 
found the species feeding on Achillea ptarmica in Hampshire. 
Another long lost species was C. vibicigerella Zell. rediscovered in 
Kent by R. W. J. Uffen. 

OECOPHORIDAE 

Depressaria weirella Staint. in recent years has been found 
elusive, but one was bred from Arthriscus sylvestris from Worcs. by 
Dr. A. N. B. Simpson, while several others were bred from S. E. 
Essex. Agonopterix astrantiae (Hein.), another extremely elusive 
species, was bred from W. Sussex by R. J. Heckford; the foodplant 
was Sanicula europaeus which confirms earlier speculation that this 
might be a host plant for the species in Britain. 

GELECHIIDAE 

The sharp eye of Dr. K. Sattler at the Annual Exhibidon of the 
British Entomological & Natural History Society detected a speci- 
men of Metzneria aprilella H.-S. (new to Britain) which was taken in 
Wiltshire by Dr. K. Bknd; until then this was wrongly identified as 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA: A REVIEW FOR THE YEAR 1980 93 

M. neuropterella (Zell.). It has been subsequently found that many 
supposed specimens of M. neuropterella from Hampshire are in 
fact M. aprilella. 

Caryocolum viscariella (Staint.) was found to have greatly 
increased its range during 1980, being found especially in many 
parts of Essex by A. M. Emmet. 

SCYTHRIDIDAE 

Another remarkable species new to Britain was Scythris insper- 
sella (Hubn.) found independently by both Dr. K. Sattler and J. L. 
Fenn to be breeding in Norfolk. The species seems to be locally well 
established, feeding on Epilobium angusti folium. 

TORTRICIDAE 

It is surprising that the pubUcation by the Ray Society of the 
second volume dealing with tliis family has not yet led to increased 
interest and more hew discoveries. However it is encouraging to note 
that Celypha woodiana (Barrett) has been bred in the West Country 
by both Dr. A. N. B. Simpson and Dr. M. W. Harper. Until it was 
bred in 1979 by E. C. Pelham-Clinton, no search for it had been 
successful for a very long time. 

Of similar importance is the capture near Selkirk by Dr. Bland 
of Apotomis infida Hein. 

PYRALIDAE 

Records of migration details are the subject of another paper, 
but it is worth noting that Diasemia ramburialis (Dup.) was taken 
in a few scattered localities. 



Pseudoscorpiones: Provisional Atlas of the Archnida of the British 
Isles (European Invertebrate Survey) part 1, edited by P. E. 
Jones (1980) for the Biological Records Centre, Institute of 
Terrestrial Ecology. Price £2.00. 

Arachnologists and students of terrestrial microfaunas will 
certainly welcoiTle this publication of all known records of the 
distribution of British and Irish pseudoscorpions. Maps for all 
25 species which make up the accepted list are presented on 10 km 
sq format together with notes describing their particular occurrence 
and habitat. The division of the records into: pre 1960 and post 
1960 is undoubtedly of interest in this group as the accuracy of 
identification has evidently improved in recent years. The maps 
give a good impression of our pseudoscorpion biogeography and 
I do not share the editor's misgivings that few of the maps show 
any distinct patterns of distribution. Indeed, for aside from rarities, 
one species is clearly western, six are southern, four are coastal and 
eleven are generally distributed. - P. D. HiLLYARD. 



^"^ NOTES ON THE LEPIDOPTERA 

OF CORNWALL 

By Dr. F. H. N. Smith* 



Though acknowledged as a botanical mecca, Cornwall is prob- 
ably too far west to compete entomologically with the more eastern 
southern counties. However, during several years of increasing 
concentration on micros there have been some surprises, which 
indicate that within the geological Hmitations — mainly absence 
of chalk — the fauna is richer than suspected. According to a very 
useful list drawn up recently by Mr. R. J. Heckford, nearly 150 
species have not been seen again since they were included in the 
Victoria County History. A few, at least, of these have been redis- 
covered alive and well, and some not previously recorded at all 
have turned up, suggesting that there is a lot of scope for micro- 
lepidopterists here. I think it may be worthwhile to put on record 
those of these two groups that have come my way, bearing in mind 
that others may also have seen them, and also some otlier species 
which may be of interest. 

The VCH species are: Callisto denticulella Thunb., Teleiodes 
luculella Hb., Phalonidia vectisana H. & W. (this was flying in 
numbers on the evening of June 24th, 1979, at the only Cornish 
salting I have been able to discover which is not covered by the sea 
at liigh tide), Cydia fagiglandana Zell. and Leioptilus tephradactyla 
Hb. 

New to the Ust are: Phylloporia bistrigella Haw. and Roessler- 
stammia erxlebella Fabr. Mr. P. N. Siddons has taken both of these 
at different localities. Coleophora ardeaepennella Scott, bred from 
cases found on oak at a wood near here. Pseudatemelia flavifrontella 
D. & S., at MVL near St. Austell. Scrobipalpa obsoletella F. v R. 
at Devoran Creek, and I beheve RJH has bred this from larvae 
found at a different locaUty. Blastodacna atra Haw., one at my 
kitchen Ught. Ancylis mitterbacheriana D. & S. on the Fowey 
estuary. Pammene obscurana Steph., one specimen at MVL on June 
14th, 1980, at a wood where there is some birch. This is a male, 
with the hindwing costal black scaling referred to in Bradley Tre- 
mewan & Smith, British Tortricoid Moths, Vol 2., clearly defined. 
In view of their remarks on the Ufe liistory, it will obviously be a 
priority next year to try to find early stages. 

During the past few years the micros found in the garden here 
have repaid much closer study. Namapogon schwarziellus Zell. 
was flying in a small swarm on June 3rd, 1979. On 22nd June I 
boxed a single "Longhorn". The forewings were fuller with more 
rounded apices, antennae longer, and colour more ochreous than 
schwarziellus, and I am sure it is A^. metaxella Hb. Psychoides 
filicivora Meyr. is established on Hartstongue Fern growing just 
outside my den window. Swammerdamia pyrella Vill., Phyllono- 
rycter coryfoliella Hb., Trifurcula immundella Zell. and Acrolepia 

^Turnstones, Perrancoombe, Perranporth, Cornwall. 



NOTES ON THE LEPIDOPTERA OF CORNWALL 95 

pygmeana Haw. have appeared at the kitchen light, the last two 
being explained by Broom and Woody Niglitshade close by. On 
26th May, 1979, I took a tiny moth on the wing, which proved 
to be Phyllonorycter geniculella Rag. Later that year I searched 
sycamore for mines without success, but last autumn came across 
a number of occupied blotches on some sycamore suckers which 
I was pruning off, all within 3 feet of the ground, and think they 
may well be of this species. A sallow in the garden may have pro- 
duced a single Caloptilia stigma tella Fabr. on July 13th, 1974, 
but it has not yielded to a search for larvae. The Illustrated Papers 
on British Microlepidoptera, published in book form in 1978, 
kindled a strong desire for Momphas, and there seemed no reason 
for not starting on my own Hpilobium montanum. On 4th August, 
1979, I found four occupied mines, all in the small top leaves, and, 
thus encouraged, started splitting seedpods. To my surprise, a fat 
Uttle pink larva was soon revealed, followed by three more. After 
a few days these left the pods and settled down to pupation in a 
mixture of peat and coarse sand. The larvae from the mines spun 
cocoons in folded leaves on the same sprigs as the mines, and 
proved to be M. . locupletella D. & S. when the first emerged on 
22nd August - a most beautiful and flawless moth. After a fort- 
niglit none more had appeared, and close inspection revealed that 
the others had hatched, but were trapped by the leaf fold, which 
had dried too much. This tauglit me a lesson, that simply seaUng 
in an airtight plastic box does not guarantee enough moisture. The 
pod larvae had been put two in a box for pupation, and on 1st 
September I found two hymenopterons in one of these, which I 
took to mean that both larvae had been parasitised; but tliis was not 
so, as on the 4th a M. subbistrigella haw. also emerged. Each 
wasp was about the size of the moth, but one larva had been enougli 
to feed them. This lesson was about the folly of presuming any- 
thing. 

Among Tortrices found in the garden are Lobesia reliquana 
Hb., Rhopobota naevana Hb. and Pammene regiana Zell., the 
last found freshly out on a sycamore seeding. From further afield, 
a few other species may be worth a mention. A single Aristotelia 
ericinella Zell. was taken on 5th August, 1978, in the coombe here. 
I don't think it is common in Cornwall. Spinnings in elm shoots 
near Padstow on 24th May, 1979, produced some variable £> wo ftc 
abbreviana Fabr. about a month later. I have found Agriphila sela- 
sella Hb. in heath, woodland and estuary locaUties, and A. latistria 
Haw. occurs in two heathy places, to my knowledge. Late in August 
1978, Catoptria margaritella D. & S. was flushed in small numbers 
from a wet bog on Bodmin moor. Since Mr. W. G. Tremewan's 
List was published in 1961 {Ent. Gaz. 12: 127). I have kept an 
eye out for Platytes cerussella D. & S. at Falmouth, without seeing 
it, but it also occurs at a spot further inside the Fal estuary, and 
along a stretch of cHff path on the Lizard, in late June. Phycita 
roborella D. & S. turned up in the Camel river valley on 4th August 
1977. Returning for a moment to Tortrices, Acleris literana L. 
seems very elusive, in spite of beating a lot of oak trees, but it must 



96 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

be somewhere as one came to MVL here on 6th May, 1960. By 
all accounts Acleris cristana D. & S. also has to be worked for, 
and this may be why I have only ever seen two, which most con- 
siderately came into the house on 8th April, 1960, and 10th March 
1974. 

Regarding Macros, 1 had never heard of the Beautiful Brocade, 
Lacanobia contigua D. & S. in Cornwall until last year, when several 
came to MVL in mid-July at a mainly heathy locality. These were 
reported by Mr. Stephen Jackson, and 1 have seen specimens to con- 
firm. They look a little paler than others I have seen from elsewhere. 
A Pale Eggar, Trichiura crataegi L. at MVL in the Camel valley 
in September last year came as a surprise to me, but I have since 
heard that PNS has seen it occasionally over the years in roughly the 
same area. The Slender Brindle, Apamea scolopacina Esp. and Fern, 
Hydriomena tersata D. & S. also occur in this valley. We have bred 
the Black Banded, Polymixis xanthomista Hb., from eggs, laid by 
a captured female, which overwintered easily in a plastic box, and 
hatched during the last week of April. Provided they have really 
fresh Thrift all the time, the larvae do well, they began to pupate 
about mid-June, mainly choosing the roots for this. My son, David, 
discovered Brown-veined Wainscot, Archanara dissoluta Treit. and 
Twin-spotted Wainscot A. geminipuncta Haw. in our local reedbeds 
about 1970, both in the pupal stage, and entirely unsuspected by 
me as they had not come to my lamp. There is a moral to this. The 
Brick, Agrochola circellaris Hufn., was another species never seen at 
the lamp, but which we found abundant at ivy bloom at the top of 
this coombe. On one occasion it was very satisfying to see American 
Wainscot, Mythimna unipuncta Haw., at the ivy. The Cypress Pug, 
Eupithecia phoeniceata Ramb., is now resident here in Perranporth. 

The foregoing is "all very interesting", but how long can it last? 
I strongly recommend anyone who has not done so to get a copy of 
the New Scientist for January 22nd, 1981, and read carefully an 
article entitled "The threat to Wildlife Habitats", by Dr. David 
Goode, assistant chief scientist at the Nature Conservancy Council. 
One of the several headings reads: "Deciduous woods: four centuries' 
loss in 30 years." - which is the very nasty truth, applying in much 
the same vein to heathland, mosses, bogs and chalk downs, all of 
which are dealt with in detail. Legislation to protect individual 
species is spurious if by the end of the century there are no habitats 
left, and unless Governments wake up and put an end to the Up- 
service they have so far paid to conservation the outlook is sombre 
indeed. 

In conclusion, may I urge any reader not yet an actively sup- 
porting member of his or her County Naturalists' Trust to become 
one without delay. No part in this conflict is too small to be worth- 
while. 



Correction. - In the title of the Note by Dr. R. S. 
Wilkinson on page 225 of volume 92, "Thadeus" should read 
"Thaddeus", and this correction should similarly apply to the 
entry in the table of contents. - EDITOR. 



PLATE II 







4 m miijifif Dtijiiij lit 

Hi 



6 




9 



The Pupation of Anthocharis 



97 
THE PUPATION OF ANTHOCHARIS 

By Charles F. Cowan* 

Has no one yet described the pupation o{ Anthocharis? I can 
find no reference to it in any of our butterfly books. Every hair on 
the larva may be recorded for each instar, yet the pupa gets little 
more notice than detail of its colour and size. The process of pupa- 
tion is probably the most traumatic, and one of the most dramatic 
times in the insect's Hfe, and surely has a bearing on evolution and 
classification. 

I first became interested in this in 1969 when, looking at the 
pupa, I wondered what on earth the long beak or snout above the 
eyes was for. It is reminiscent of Libythea, yet the Anthocharis 
butterfly has no vestige of a snout or beak (and conversely the 
Libythea pupa has little trace of one). I watched the emergence of 
the butterfly and was no wiser; the beak was quite empty. So I 
had to wait another year to watch pupation, and found that the 
thing was neither a beak nor a snout, but a horn! I did get one snap 
then, but had to wait until 1980 to secure a series covering the event 
(see Plate II). 

Our little Orange Tip A. cardamines (L.) has its larval existence 
on a Crucifer plar/ living first on the flower where the eggs are 
laid, and eating down to m.ature on the older seed capsules. Then it 
wanders away to search fo*- a sound pupation site. This v^ll usually 
be about 30cm above ground on a sturdy, nearly vertical, stem of 
about 6 or 7 mm diameter. In captivity I find the strong urge to 
wander at this stage is overcome by supplying one of the green 
quarter-inch stakes sold for supporting bulbs growing in bowls, 
which the larva will adopt at once if the stake is firmly set, even 
if it is cut down to only 1 5 cm long. 

Head-down, the larva prepares a silk platform and then, head- 
up, slings its girdle. Then it rests for probably two days (fig. 1 ), 
awaiting a reasonably warm morning for its ordeal. Occasionally it 
gives a couple of twitches, and near the end of its wait a few minute 
drops of brown, viscous hquid fall from its mouth. Then, without 
warning, the drama begins. As the skin splits dorsally and, assisted 
by vigorous writhings, slips down the front of the head and feet, it 
reveals a small horn folded down the front of the face (fig. 2). The writh- 
ings are so energetic that the horn often hits the stick quite hard. 
The horn quickly grows, and rises erect (figs. 3-6). Five minutes 
from the commencement of the skin spUtting, it is heaped at the 
lower end of the abdomen and tlie pupa starts a fresh series of 
writhing contortions to disengage the exuviae (fig.6). They continue 
for some time after the skin drops; an instinctive act to ''ensure" 
their disca/d, although not always successful. There follow some 
twists to adjust the girdle as the pupa adopts its familiar pose (figs. 
7, 8) before it gradually loses all trace of suppleness. Unhke the pupa 
of, say, Pieris or Artogeia, that of Anthocharis cannot wriggle its 
abdomen; it is soUd from horn to tail. 

*4 Thornfield Terrace, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria LAI 1 7DR 



98 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

The Plate shows the scale for figures 1-8, photographed in 
Cumbria in July 1980, the date and timings being:- 



Fig 1 , 


17th. 0740 


Note droplet oozing from mouth 


Fig 2 -5, 


1045-1050 


Skin sphts and sUdes down as horn rises 


Fig 6, 


1051 


Instant of skin drop 


Fig 7, 


1130 


Home, and 


Fig 8, 


19th. pm 


— nearly dry 


Fig 9, 


— 


Duponchel, 1832 (see text, at end). 



The pupa is bright green at first, but after about two days it 
usually fades slowly to a pale dull brown. A very few (?5 percent) 
remain green throughout. I have known four such; two found in the 
wild and both very conspicuous; one among dry stems in a Hert- 
fordshire garden in the winter of 1970 and the other on a quarter- 
inch twig low down on an Ivy clad waU, in the lane only 100 yards 
from my back-door here in Cumbria in August 1980. I have also had 
two among reared examples in the past. None of these in any way 
"blended with their surroundings" as they are popularly supposed 
to do. I suspect that the green pupae, if not genetically controlled, 
may be "throw-back" relics of the past when, perhaps, the species 
may have been bivoltine; when the summer brood may have worn 
the green. I wonder how often this character occurs in South Europe 
and elsewhere in Palaearctica. 

So what is the pupa horn for? It must serve a purpose or it 
would long since have been lost. The only solution I can yet offer is 
that it is a protective device against the hazards of its ten-month 
pupal period. Other Pierids spend far less time as pupae, they are 
supple, and they have heavy, blunt heads with much shorter horns 
or spikes. The long, slender Anthocharis pupa is rigid and arched 
in a beautiful cantilever. Its horn will fend off and deflect nearby 
waving vegetation and falling debris, and miglit even break up snow 
or ice sliding down the support. A remote possibility is that, in its 
early, downcurved moments, it acts as a buffer to protect the for- 
mative face from bumping the stem while the pupa writhes to shed 
its skin. But it is hard to beheve that it was evolved solely for that 
purpose. 

"Protective resemblance" has been suggested. Frohawk was so 
obsessed with the notion that he said, no less than three times, 
on three successive pages, of his great and beautiful 2-volume 
^^Natural History" (1924: 1: 37-39) that the pupa resembled a 
"seed-pod", once going so far as to say "in both form and coloration 
it so closely resembles a seed-pod that it almost defies detection". 
But the pupa is seldom slung among seedheads; it deUberately 
deserts them. They will not survive the winter. Protective resem- 
blance can only be invoked by saying that the pupa resembles the 
stump of a twig; and the horn adds little or nothing to that resem- 
blance. The mystery remains. 

One minor mystery is noted. The habits in Europe were queried 
above. In (Godart &) Duponchel * (\S32, Iconogr. des Chenilles des 
Lepid. de France 1: 54, pi. 3, fig. 10b) is shown an extraordinary 



THE PUPATION OF ANTHOCHARIS 99 

example of a green pupa (reproduced here at fig. 9.). Uf it, Dupon- 
chel only says that it overwinters as a pupa, and that the horn is 
often bent over (souvent recourbee). Is it? Tlie plate is vouched for 
by that experienced artist Paul Dumenil, but Duponchel's footnote 
on his page 6 suggests that there was some muddle over his earlier 
artists, and Dumenil's signature may merely indicate a faithful 
engraving from an unidentified original. My first reaction was that 
the figure represented a half-way stage in the transformation, but 
that cannot be since the wing-cases are quite mature. In Boisduval's 
contemporary work (with Rambur & Graslin, when the name 
Anthocharis was introduced) a fuller and more accurate account 
is given, and a normal pupa is well figured by the artist Blanchard. 

* Godart's name is on the title page, out of deference, and the work is always 
catalogued against his name, although he died in 1825 and Duponchel alone 
was responsible for publishing volume 1. Guenee assisted in completing 
volume 2 (Moths), and his name was added to the replacement title pages 
issued for each volume in 1849, three years after Duponchel's death. 



The Dark Swordgrass: agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel 
IN March. - Although Bretherton, Goater & Lorimer (Moths 
& Butterflies of Great Britain & Ireland, Vol. 9) say tliis species 
has been recorded in every month of the year save January and 
February (South says one at least in February), I see that Evans 
& Evans (Macrolepidoptera of Croydon) regarded 12th May 1971 
as a date early enough to be worthy of mention. So two in 1981 
on March 10 in my actinic Ught trap here seem to be worthy of 
record. Tliey were accompanied by a single Eupsilia transversa 
Hufnagel, a species frequent here last autumn at ivy bloom. Since 
starting the trap in 1978, I recorded several v4. ipsilon in the autumn 
of that year and of 1979. In 1980, two came in June and six in 
August/September, all singletons. 

The three nights previous to March 10 this year had produced 
nil results, thougli the same weather had continued during this 
period — a moderate SW wind bringing persistent cloud with rain 
on and off and temperatures steady between about 10 and 11 
degrees C. throughout. I assume that such a record would be 
regarded as immigrant and not native emergence. Tlie London 
Weather Centre informed me today that these winds derive from 
the area of the west coasts of Spain and North Africa and the Canary 
Islands. 

Incidentally, I noted that the antennae of these two moths 
had male bipectination wliich very noticeably tapered abruptly 
halfway leaving the distal half filiform. Bretherton et al. above 
do not mention this but merely describe the male antenna as 
"strongly bipectinate", although filiform tips are described for 
some other Agrotis species. — R. A. Softly, 12, ParUament Court, 
ParUament Hill, London N.W.3 2TS, ll.iii.l981. 



DISCOVERY OF THE LARVA OF AGONOPTERIX 
ASTRANTIAE (HEINEMANN) IN BRITAIN' 

By R. J. Heckford* and J. R. Langmaid** 

The first British specimen of Agonopterix astrantiae (Heine- 
mann) was talcen by Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher (1935) on 29th July 
1933 in a wood in the Stroud district of Gloucestersliire. Tliis is 
in the "British" collection of microlepidoptera in the British Museum 
(Natural History). 

Ford (1949), m his Presidential Address on 28th January 1948, 
to the South London Entomological and Natural History Society 
reviewing the microlepidoptera added to the British list since 
Meyrick (1928), included astrantiae and mentioned the specimen 
taken by Fletcher. He also stated that Mr. B.B. Snell "took three 
examples in the North of England last year." In the same volume of 
the Proceedings is a hst of lepidoptera shown at the Annual Exhi- 
bition of the Society on 25th October 1947. Tliis Ust refers to an 
exhibit by Mr. B. B. Snell of astrantiae "from North Wales". No 
mention is made of how many specimens Mr. Snell exhibited nor 
when the specimens were taken, but these must be the same as those 
referred to by Ford. 

The Ford collection in the British Museum (Natural History) 
contains three specimens all taken by Mr. B. B. Snell. Two are 
labeUed "Uanarmon, N. Wales. 11.8.1947. B. B. Snell light". The 
third has a label wliich is difficult to read but the locality appears 
to be Uanarmon again. The date looks hke "8.8.1948". Therefore 
Ford's reference to "North of England" appears erroneous. 

Mr. H. N. MichaeUs tells that in August 1950 he went with 
Mr. B. B. Snell to Uanarmon where they found four specimens. 
He also tells us that a Dr. or Mr. Greenwood has taken an example at 
Grassington, Yorkshire. 

Jacobs (1956) states that "odd specimens have been recorded 
from the southern half of England principally in m.v. light traps". 
Mr. Jacobs tells us that these records were from one or two people 
who mentioned the species at meetings of the South London Ento- 
mological and Natural History Society. We have not been able to 
trace any published records between 1948 and 1955, and therefore 
do not know when and where these specimens were found. 

The next and, until now, last recorded specimens were two 
males and one female taken by Dr. E. Scott (1961) at Westwell, 
Kent at m.v. light on 2nd, 3rd and 4th August 1961, one of which is 
in the "British" collection of microlepidoptera in the British Museum 
Also, until now, it appears that astrantiae has not been taken in the 
laryal stage in Britain. On the continent it feeds on As trantia major and 
Sanicula europaeus in June, the imago appearing in late July and 
August, and not hibernating. It occurs in Sweden, Denmark and is 
fairly widely distributed in Central Europe, where it appears to be 

*67 Newnham Road, Plympton, Plymouth, Devon. 

** 38 Cumberland Court, Festing Road, Southsea, Hants. 



DISCOVERY OF THE LARVA OY AGONOPTERIX ASTRANTIAE 101 

confined to hilly and mountainous regions (Palm 1973 and Toll 
1964). 

On 20th June 1980 we visited a wood in Sussex, which for the 
time being will not be more precisely identified. The ground flora 
consisted almost entirely of Sanicula europaeus with some ivy and 
bramble. The trees were oaks with some hazel bushes. 

One hour's close searching of the Sanicula produced several 
Tortrix pupae spun up in the leaves and three larvae. We also found 
a few empty spinnings but no more than half a dozen. 

Two of the larvae appeared to be the same. Our description of 
them is as follows: larva duU green with the gut showing through as 
a darker green dorsal line; head and pro thoracic plate black, in one 
larva the plate was bisected longitudinally by a fine white line; 
pinacula black; anal plate dull green. This appeared to fit the des- 
cription oi astrantiae made by Meess (Spuler 1913). 

One of these larvae had roUed the edge of a leaf upwards and 
spun this to another leaf. The other had spun one leaf on top of 
another. Both were nearly fuU grown. Unfortunately one produced a 
parasite. The other pupated on 28th June 1980 and on 17th 1980 
astrantiae emerged. 

The third larva produced Pandemis corylana Fab. Aleimma 
loeflingiana (Linn.), Tortrix viridana (Linn.) and Gypsonoma deal- 
bana (Frol.) emerged from the Tortrix pupae. Presumably these had 
not been feeding on the Sanicula but had simply pupated there 
after descending from the oaks. 

While it is impossible to say what had been feeding in the 
empty spinnings, it is likely that some had been tenanted by astran- 
tiae. However it seems that it must occur at low density, at least in 
this locahty. Perpaps this is true wherever the moth occurs in this 
country. Nevertheless any area where Sanicula flourishes may well 
produce this species. 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to Mr. H. N. MichaeUs and Mr. S. N. A. Jacobs 
for their assistance. 

References 

Fletcher, T. Bainbrigge, 1935, Depressaria astrantiae, Heinemann 

1870, an Oecophorid moth new to England. Ent. Rec, 47: 

57-58. 
Ford, L. T., 1949. President's Address. /Voc. S. Lond. ent nat Hist 

Soc, 194748: 54. 
Jacobs, S. N. A., 1956. President's Address. Proc. S. Lond. ent nat 

Hist Soc, 1954-55: 50 - 76, pi. VI, fig. 17. 
Meyrick, E. 1928. A Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera. 

vi+914pp. London. 
Palm, E., 1973. De Danske "Depressarier", Lepidopterological 

Society of Copenhagen, pp. 19-20, Map p. 50, Plate 2, Genitalia 

figs. 18,71-72. 
Snell, B. B., 1949. Annual Exhibition 25th October \ 941 Proc. S. 

Lond. ent nat Hist Soc, 1947-48: 37. 



102 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15. VI. 81 

Spuler, A. 1913. Die Sogenannten Kleinschmetterlinge Europas. 

Stuttgart, p.337. 
Toll, S., 1964. Lepidoptera-Oecophoridae in Klucze do Oznaczania 

Owado Polski Ser. 43, part 27, no 35, p. 1-1 74. 



Territorial, Behaviour in British Butterflies - 

I have been following the articles on territorial behaviour patterns 
of certain butterflies with interest. The recent article by W. G. 
Shreeves (Ent. Rec, 92: 267-269) contains a reference to the 
Purple Hairstreak (Querciisia querciis L.) being a "percher" which 
would also intimate that it also adopted territory, or the male at 
least. In this country quercus is hardly gregarious and in the locali- 
ties of which I know, is rarely seen in numbers exceeding 5-10. 
In an attempt to stimulate discussion, is it possible that species 
behave differently in different climatic conditions? 

On returning from S. W. France in 1979 we turned off the 
motorway at Bollene, north of Orange, in the Department of 
Vaucluse and stopped at about mid-day for lunch. The air tem- 
perature was about 75°F. and there was very little breeze. During 
a short search to see what was about I disturbed a colony of 
Q. quercus inhabiting an oUve tree and took a short series of five 
males and five females from about 50-60 seen. The numbers of 
males and females were fairly equally distributed. Only single 
specimens were seen on other surrounding trees in the neiglibour- 
hood. The specimens were fairly fresh althougli some damaged 
insects were seen, probably as a result of flying in and out of the 
tree. 

The date was the 5th of August, and I understand the weather 
had been good so that emergence had not been delayed. Tlie time of 
appearance would thus be the same as in the U.K. but the gregarious 
behaviour was a new phenomenon to me. Could this behaviour 
pattern be in any way connected with the pre-migratory tendencies 
of some of the Vanessids or was it just the hot weather? -MS. 
HARVEY, Highfields House, Highfields, Ashtead, Surrey. 

The Larva of Eupithecia trisignaria Herrich- 
SCHAFFER. - Brigadier Simson's interesting notes on the British 
Pugs refer (antea, p. 10) to the larva of £'. trisisnaria as being readily 
identifiable by its black head. I had always thought that this was 
so until finding on 5 Sep. 1976 at Durris, Kincardineshire a single 
larva on Angelica with a green head. Its head remained green until 
the larva pupated and a normal moth appeared the following July. 

Last September at Ceinws, Montgomeryshire, Dr. J. R. Lang- 
maid and I found larvae on Angelica some of which had pale brown 
heads, mottled with darker markings. Normally the dark green 
longitudinal dorsal and sub-dorsal stripes are characteristic, but some 
of these larvae had stripes scarcely darker than the ground colour. 
In this locahty a few (normal) larvae were also found on Heracleum. 
- E. C. Pelham- Clinton, Royal Scotfish Museum, Chambers St., 
Edinburgh. 



103 

THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE 

BRITISH ISLES IN 1980, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF 

THE INVASION OF THE PAINTED LADY: 

CYNTHIA CARDUI L. 

By R.F.Bretherton* and J.M.Chalmers-Hunt** 

(Concluded from page 54} 

ANNEXE III 
The Painted Lady (Cynthia cardui L.) in 1980 

The invasions of the Painted Lady were the most spectacular 
features of lepidoptera migration in Britain in 1980. Observers 
from Cornwall to Orkney wrote of it in terms of "hundreds", 
"a plague", "great abundance", "the flowers taken over by them". 
This was, however, for short periods near the arrival points and main 
tracks of the invaders, and it contrasts with a great number of 
records of singletons or small numbers, wliich indicate only a thin 
spread over most of the country. South west and north England, 
central Wales, and much of Scotland saw most of it. Numbers in 
south east England were relatively small, and from many midland 
and eastern counties we have received no reports of it at all. Eggs, 
larvae of various si/es on thistles, and a few pupae were seen in many 
places, also up to the far north; but it seems that, except perhaps 
near the south coast, in a cold and sunless summer only a very 
small proportion survived to add to the numbers of immigrant 
butterflies. Nevertheless, thougli no close estimate is possible, the 
records we have received certainly covered several thousand butter- 
flies, and the Painted Lady probably had its best year since 1969 
or 1966 and possibly even since 1952 or 1948, for wliich the Annual 
Migration Records gave estimates of 6,700 and 30,000 butterflies 
observed. 

Single examples of C cardui were seen on the coast of Sussex 
on April 2 and 4 and another somewhat inland on May 14; three 
were seen near Eversley, North Hampshire on May 12. But the 
first large invasion came with the warm south westerly air stream 
wliich reached Britain on June 2. Mr. Mr. L. H. Hare has given a 
grapliic account of their arrival near Newquay, West Cornwall on 
June 4. The first examples were seen in the morning; but from 8.15 
to 9 p.m. hundreds were flying wildly up and down a narrow ride 
leading to the sea at West Pentire. Fourteen paired couples were 
counted within ten yards, and the canopy of moving butterflies 
above the ride darkened the evening sky. On the same day they were 
abundant round Padstow, a Uttle further north. Reports of 500 on 
the beach near Start Point, south Devon, ascribed to the end of May 
or early June, and of abundance round Truro and in the Roseland 
peninsula, on the south Cornish coast, in the first week of June, 
may also refer to June 4 or a day or so earlier. On June 4, also, 



* Folly Hill, Birtley Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey. 
**1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent. 



104 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

hundreds were seen at Aberysiwytn, Cardiganshire, especially on 
flowers of cotoneaster; three were noted in the Isle of Man, one at 
Boat of Garten, East Invernesshire, and the first of many at Handa 
Island, West Sutherland. On June 7 over 300 were sighted at Old 
Lighthouse Island, co. Down, across the Irish Sea. 

In Cornwall and Devon many butterflies seem to have settled 
down near their arrival points, and only a shght spread can be 
traced eastwards along the south coast, indicated by reports of 
one to three specimens in various scattered places from Dorset 
to East Kent and South Essex, and inland in Surrey and Middlesex, 
from June 5 to 9 and later; those which were fairly frequent in the 
upper Thames valley round Lechlade from June 8 to 16 may also 
have come from the south west. At Aberystwyth none were seen to 
remain by June 6, but in the next few days small numbers were 
seen, mainly on liigh ground, in Breconshire and across central 
Wales to Shropshire. It seems that a large swarm passed quickly east 
and north across Derbyshire and south Yorkshire to the east coast in 
Northumberland, and also through North Lancashire and Westmor- 
land into south west Scotland at Gartlea, Dumbartonshire, where 
the first of many was seen on June 5, and Hawick, Roxburghshire 
on June 6, and later on to the western islands of Coll and Canna. 
In eastern Scotland C. cardui was first seen in Fife, South Perthshire, 
Kincardine and Aberdeenshire on June 5 and 6, becoming abundant 
later; in Orkney it was already numerous by the evening of June 5. 
These dates, together with the large numbers involved, suggest 
that there were separate invasions of eastern Scotland, coming in 
winds which had shifted by June 5 from the initial south west to 
south east. There does not, appear, however, to have been any 
large influx to the east coast of England at tliis time. 

These warm air streams, which gave temperatures on June 4 
at 84° F. in London and almost as high far up both the east and 
west coasts, gave place on June 6 to some days of much cooler 
northerly winds, which presumably prevented fresh arrivals in 
Britain. Lesser warmth was resumed from about June 11 to 18. 
Fresh immigrant species appeared and others became more nume- 
rous in this period, but there seem to have been no further influxes 
of C. cardui, unless a small one is represented by over 20 reported in 
South Essex on June 13 and a further 27 on June 18, with two in 
West Suffolk on June 13. 

The first instinct of the June arrivals on the coast was to feed on 
almost any available kinds of flowers, before setthng down nearby 
or moving on in swarms which dispersed more or less gradually 
elsewhere. After dispersal they became territorial, individually or 
in smaU groups, often occupying the tops of hills and sand dunes 
in south, hills up to at least 1,100 feet in mid Wales, and even 
the 4,000 feet summits of the Cairn Gorms in Scotland. In a Medi- 
terranean cUmate natural Ufe of adult C. cardui is said to be 20 to 
30 days; but here this seems to be often prolonged by inactivity due 
to cold or lack of sunshine. In south England the number of records 
fell off sharply after the middle of June, and the last survivors were 



THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE BRITISH ISLES 1980 105 

probably those reported in Sussex on July 7 and 1 1 ; but in central 
Scotland and Orkney a few worn ones almost overlapped fresh 
specimens of the second invasion in the last days of that month. 

This second invasion came in very clearly from the east or 
south east. On the evening of July 29 Mr. P. Q. Winter (Ent Rec, 
92 : 303-304), returning at mid-niglit to his home at Muston, near 
the coast of south east Yorkshire, found four C cardui settled on or 
flying round his mercury vapour moth trap, and on the morning of 
July 30 there were ten more inside it. There were none in a second 
trap /4 mile away, and only one in another at Rudston, a little 
further south and inland. On that day he saw 50/60 which, after 
feeding at thistles, all flew off heading between west and north 
west. On July 31 there were 12/15 on most tlustle patches, where 
they remained numerous until cooler weather began on August 6, 
a few lasting until late in the month. Nearby, around Scarborough 
about 30 were reported from 29 July to mid August, with some in 
September and several even from October 1 to 7; and at Robin's 
Hood Bay, near Whitby 50 were seen on August 4/7, and at 
Brancepeth, co. Durham the species was common on garden bud- 
dleia and elsewhere at the end of July and in early August. At Spurn 
Head Bird Observatory, further south, on July 30 43 C. cardui 
arrived suddenly, one of them in the mercury vapour trap; on 
July 31 there were 100. Small numbers were seen there through 
August, dwindUng in September to the last on October 13, after 
some southward flight along with V. atalanta had been noticed 
on October 2. Some internal spread into various parts of Yorksliire 
was noticed on high ground at Malham Tarn on July 31, Buckden 
and Arnside in mid August, and in Trout^dale on August 16. In 
North Lancashire and Westmorland a few records in the first half 
of the month may have represented further westward spread from 
the late July immigration; but later the numbers in that area rose 
sharply, with many sightings in Westmorland from August 22 
onwards, 138 counted by the warden at Leigliton Moss N. N. R., 
North Lancashire on August 3 1 , and two in Cumberland on August 
31 and September 3. These are strongly suggestive of a further influx 
from the south west, parallel to one in Cornwall and Devon at the 
time. 

There were also simultaneous invasions at the end of July 
further north. Many fresh C. cardui appeared at Gartlea, Dumbarton- 
shire on July 30, and on the following days a few were seen migrating 
further westwards; many others settled locally among the thistles, 
dwindUng in number until September 5. The species reappeared 
at Aberdeen on July 29, and from July 31 onwards it was common 
widely, both near the coast and inland, with V. atalanta in Kin- 
cardineshire and Aberdeenshire; numbers fell througli September, 
and the last singles were seen at Banchory on October 2 and 13. 
On September 28, however, about 20 C cardui, many more V. 
atalanta, and a single C. crocea were seen to arrive by sea at Girdle- 
stone Ness, south of Aberdeen, and also at Newtonliill, Kincardine- 
shire. It is not clear whether these represented a southward flight, 



106 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

possibly of locally bred butterflies, or a small further invasion from 
the east, hi Orkney, C. cardui was well distributed on July 30 and 
lasted well into August; and on October 4 six were seen arriving 
over the sea in a south west wind. On Handa Island, West Sutherland 
some were seen from August 1 to 7; but we have no other records 
from the west coast of Scotland then or later. 

In the south no large influx noticed at the end of July or in 
most of August. All of the many records scattered near the coast 
from South Essex to Devon, inland in Surrey and Middlesex, and in 
west Wales, are of singles or very small numbers; these were probably 
off-spring of the June arrivals. But in the last week of August and 
the first of September a large rise, to 20 to 30 a day, in adults 
counted at Slapton Sands, south Devon, and also in Dorset, strongly 
suggest immigration, along with other species, in the prevailing south 
westerly winds. This is supported by a reference to "hundreds seen 
in September coming in from the sea in West Cornwall, sailing 
against the wind, high up, and floating down like autumn leaves." 
But the records became few again after the middle of September, 
and C. cardui in all its stages was probably killed off by the cold 
spell which began on October 1. The latest record received from 
southern England is of two butterflies seen on samphire blossom 
in the Isle of Sheppey, East Kent, on October 4. In south west 
Ireland, however, they lasted longer, several being seen on garden 
flowers at Killarney on October 12/14. 

Local breeding from the early June invaders was well started 
in fairly warm and sunny weather during most of that month; but 
larval development was set back in most places by abnormal cloud 
and cold in the first three weeks of July, before a short-lived heat 
wave at its end. In most of August and September sunshine and 
warmth were generally below average in the south and were es- 
pecially lacking in the west and north of Scotland. The first mention 
of partly grown larvae of C. cardui was at Swanage, Dorset, on 
July 15, and, as already noticed, it seems that adults began to 
emerge on the south coast from early August onwards, though 
not in great numbers, probably some 55 to 70 days after the laying 
of the eggs. In the north the process certainly took much longer 
and was less successful. On the island of Canna, Inner Hebrides, 
many larvae of very varying sizes were seen on July 27. Other 
observers have commented on this feature of size differences among 
larvae even on the same or adjacent thistle plants, which appears 
to be due to some inherent tendency rather than to any large dif- 
ferences in the dates at which eggs can have been laid. In Orkney, 
larvae were abundant in July and August, and some were noticed to 
have survived a week of cold gales before August 23; but no butter- 
flies were seen from these later. At Muston, South East Yorkshire, a 
few larvae were first seen from July 31 to August 6, and a very 
small, fresh adult seen on buddleia on September 2 and 3 probably 
resulted from them; larvae from the second invasion were "literally 
everywhere" in webs on spear thistles in late August and September, 
and a few were still left on October 9. M. I. C. Christie, who has 
watched C. cardui in all its stages both in 1980 and in 1969 on his 



THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE BRITISH ISLES 1980 107 
sheep farm at Gartlea and by Loch Lomondside in Dumbartonshire, 
saw on August 5 several hundred half grown to nearly full grown 
larvae on Scottish spear thistle (Cirsium Icmceolatum); but at the end 
of the month not a single larva or pupa could be found. He 
attributes this sweeping mortahty not only to the severe weather, 
but also to the fact that the foliage of this early flowering thistle 
had withered before the larvae could complete their growth. At 
Gartlea itself, where plenty of Marsh thistle (C. palustre) and Cre- 
eping thistle (C. arvense) were available though apparently less 
attractive to egg-laying females, there were fewer larvae but some 
survival to produce perhaps ten distinctively small, dark and very 
pink butterflies wliich were seen between September 5 and October 4. 
The last survivors of the July butterflies had by then disappeared; 
and no larvae from these were found, despite search. This period 
of around 90 days from eggs to butterflies is amazingly long for an 
insect which can be reared in sheltered captivity in half that time, 
and in the wild in Africa often in less. It shows, however, that the 
species has considerable power of adjusting its development to 
weather, wliich must help it to extend its area of permanent colo- 
nisation, even though not in the British Isles. 

Both the main invasions of C.cardui were accompanied by much 
smaller numbers of Vanessa atalanta and Nomophila noctuella 
and also by swarms of the Yponomeutid Plutella xylostella. The 
first two of these fellow travellers, however, certainly came in at 
other times also and need not have had the same points of origin 
as C. cardui even thougli for arrival they shared the same air streams. 
Tlie first influx of C. cardui came from the south west or south, 
and both date and direction point to a probable origin in north west 
Africa, thougli there is at present no direction evidence for tliis. 
"Hundreds upon hundreds" were seen about May 25 in Majorca, 
which must also have been immigrants; but the date seems too early 
for them to have come on to Britain. Tlie second invasion, at the 
end of July, certainly came across the North Sea from the east or 
south east, probably in winds which blew clock-wise round the south 
side of the high pressure area wliich had been estabUshed for some 
time over south Scandinavia and northern Europe. Tliis, together 
with the large numbers clearly involved, suggests a very distant 
origin, possibly in south west Russia; but, again, there is at present 
no supporting evidence for this. In the French Pyrenees one of the 
authors saw only a dozen, mostly worn, at this time. 

Tliis account is based on observations received, directly or 
through intermediaries, from some 80 observers, to all of whom the 
authors are very grateful. Even so, it is clearly far from complete, 
and we should be glad to receive supplementary records, especially 
and which fill gaps in the areas of record or refer to the finding of 
larvae or pupa and to successful breeding in the wild. 

The Record 

CORNWALL, E. Roseland Peninsula, first week June, abundant. 

CORNWALL, W. West Pentire, 4. 6, first in a.m.; 8.15 to 9p.m., 

hundreds in lane from the sea; Padstow, 4.6, abundant, and a 



108 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15. VI. 81 

plague elsewhere later; Truro area. 4.6., abundant; W. Cornwall, 

September, hundreds sailing in from the sea. 
CUMBERLAND. Cumbrian Fells, last week June/ early July, several 

singles; E. Curthwaite, 31.8; Bowness-on-Solway, 3.9. 
DERBYSHIRE. Holloway, Matlock Moor, Ashbourne, Darley Park, 

6.6; Cotmanhey, 7.6; Strakholmes, 8.6; Elvaston, 12.6. 
DEVON, N. Halwell Forest, 7.6 (2); Lucket Lydeford and Black 

Torrington, 12.6 (3). 
DEVON, S. Lannacombe Beach, end May or early June, c. 500; 

Slapton Sands, 6.6 (10); Teignmouth, c.10.6; Slapton Sands, 

24. 8 (1 6), 3 1 .8 ( 1 7), 1 / 1 4.9 ( 1 28 on six days). 
DORSET. Uploders, 7.6; Eggardon Hill, 7.6, 8.6 (2); Hod Hill, 

7.6; Verwood, Cranborne Chase, 11.6 (2); Swanage Head, 12.7, 

one larva, small; St. Albans Head, 23.8; Studland. 3.9(c.l5). 
DURHAM. Brancepeth, end 8, early 9, many on buddleia, and 

common generally. 
ESSEX, N. Fingringlioe. one at light, n.e.d. 
ESSEX, S. Bradwell-on-Sea, 5.6. 12.6 (4), 13.6 (21), 18.6 (27); 

4.8(2), 5.8, 7.8, 10.8 (24), 16.8 (25), 20.8 (3), 25.8. 26.8 (13), 

27.8 (28), 30.8, 31.8. 6.9, 14.9, 24.9 (3) - 185 in all; Fam- 

bridge, c.10.6. on valerian; Canvey Is., 8.6. 
GLOUCESTERSHIRE, N. Lechlade, 8.6, fairly frequent to 16.6, 

none after. 
HAMPSHIRE, N. Eversley, 12.5 (3). 
KENT, E. Canterbury, 6.6; West Blean Woods, 12.6; Folkestone. 

Middle Hill. 7.6 (three, 7.30 p.m., tlying inland); Hawkliurst, 

5.8; Dumpton Gap, 7.8 (two at 7.50 a.m.); Ramsgate, frequently 

later. 
KENT, W. Knockmill nr. Swanley, 7.6; Woolwich Common. 12.6; 

West Wickiiam, 23.8. 
LANCASHIRE. N. v.c. 60. Lytham St. Arines, 8.6(7 or 8 on dunes); 

St. Annes-on-Sea, 8. and 9.6 (20 on dunes); Hogliton, 8.6(4), 1.8; 

Lancaster, 15.6; Silverdale, 22/31.8 (18 seen); Leighton Moss, 

31.8 (131 counted by warden, some also earUer); nr. Lancaster, 

2/9.9 (5 on disused railway). 
LANCASHIRE, S. Blackburn, 6.6 (3). 

ISLE OF MAN. Ballakaighen, 4.6 (3), 6.6 (2), 8.6 (4), 9.6 (2), 12.6. 
MIDDLESEX. Hampstead, 6.6, 3.8, 21.8, 7.9; Broad Street station, 

20.8 
NORFOLK, E. Foxley Wood. 24.8 (very worn); Hickling, 24.8. 
NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. Duddington, 28.8 (in a lay-by). 
NORTHUMBERLAND, N. Alnmouth, 7.9 (several); Craster. 1 1.9. 
NORTHUMBERLAND. S. Spindlestone Haugli. Budle Bay, 10.6 

(c.lOO). 
NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. Attenborougli N. R.. 15.6. 
SUFFOLK. W. Lakenheath, 13.6 (2). 
SHROPSHIRE. Pontesbury, c.8.6; Cressage, c.8.6. 
SURREY. Reigate, 8.6; Ranmore Common, 9.6; Dunsfold, 25.8; 

Tatsfield, 15.8; Bramley, 27.8, 29.9, very worn; Leigli, August/ 

September, regular in garden; Selsdon. 1/8.9, several daily in 

garden. 



THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERATO THE BRITISH ISLES 1980 109 

SUSSEX, E. Seaford, 2.4, 4.4; Ninfield, 14.5, 8.6, 7.7, 11.7, 9.8, 
15.8. 25.8, 26.8, 31.8/6.9 (11 in six days); Peacehaven, 27.7, 
3., 7, 2.8, 3.8(5), 7.8, 16.8(2), 21.8 (2), 27.9; Brighton, 4.8, 
16.8, 15.9, 20.9, 27.9; Westfield, 7.8; Crumbles, 15.8(5), 30.8(6); 
Hastings Cliffs. 19.8 (5 on hemp agrimony), Pett Level, 21.8; 
Lewes, 30.8; Wilmington, 2.9. 

SUSSEX, W. Shoreham, 15.8(2), 26.8(2). 

WESTMORLAND/FURNESS, v.c. 69. Beetham, 8 and 9.6(4), 
22.6, 8.8(2), 16.8, 23.8, 12.10; Underbarrow, 8.6(4); Milnthorp, 
8/22.6(6); Grange-over-Sands, 17.6; Sedbergli, June; Smardale, 
14.8(2); Arnside Knott, 3/10.7 (4 worn); 6/8.8 (9); 22/27.8(14); 
10.9; Ulverstone area, 22/30.8 ("a fair number"); Arnside Knott, 
late 8, several pupae. 

YORKSHIRE, N. E., v.c. 62, Scalby, 7.6 ; Pickering, 9.6, fresh looking 
examples; Clougliton and Staintondale, 22.6(2); Scarborougli 
environs, 29.7/26.8 (c. 30), 1/7.10 (several singles); Troutsdale, 
16.8(4). 

YORKSHIRE, S.E., v.c. 61, Spurn Bird Observatory, 6.6 (4, and 
occasionally later in 6); Muston, 7.6, 28.6; Humanby Gap, 
13.7 (very tattered); Tadcaster and Selby, June/July, generally 
common, also in August; Muston, 29/30.7 (5 around m.v. light 
trap at mid-niglit and 10 more inside in a.m.; 30.7 (50/60 feeding 
at thistles, then flying N. and NW, 31.7, abundant on thistles. 
Larvae, in varying sizes, first found 31.7, more later, small ima- 
gines 1 and 10.9); larvae from July influx abundant September, 
pupating indoors early October. Rudston, 29/30.7 (one at light); 
Filey, 2.8 (2), 16.8. Spurn, 30.7 (43, one in m.v. trap), 31.7 
(100), 13.8(4), 14.8(42); Scarborough coast, 6.6 (3), 28.9(9), 
fewer in 9, last 13.10. 

YORKSHIRE, S.W., v.c. 63, Potteries Carr, 7.6; Leeds, 7.6 ("the 
big day"); Old Rossington, mid 6; llkley Moor, 1 .8, on sedum. 

YORKSHIRE, CENTRAL, v.c. 64, Fountain Fell nr. MaDiam, 
31.7(4); Buckden and Arncliffe, mid. 8, a few on the highest 
ground. 

Ireland 

DOWN. Old Uglithouse Island, Copeland Group, 7.6, over 300 

sighted. 
KERRY, N., v.c. 2, Killarney, 12/14.10, a few at michaelmas daisies. 

Scotland 

ABERDEENSHIRE, N. Loch of Strathbeg, 5.6; Old Meldrum, 
6.6; by 9.6 at Bullers of Buchan, Ellon, etc., many; Strathbeg, 
Old Meldrum, 3 1 .7, also in 9. 

ABERDEENSHIRE, S. Aberdeen, 6.6; Tillyfourie, 6.6; by 9.6 many 
at Staloch, Benacliie, Scolt, and throughout the area; Cairn 
Gorm tops, 4,000 ft., 16.6. Aberdeen, reappeared 29. 7; reported 
in 8 at Torry, Auchleven, Benachie, becoming scattered in 9; 
Girdelstoneness, 28.9, c.20, very tired, arriving from the sea, with 
moreK atalanta. 



110 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

ARGYLL, S., v.c. 97, Easdale, 11.6; Glen Lonan, 11.6, 2.8; Tayal- 

lich, 29.7, "last of first invasion". 
BANFFSHIRE, c. 10.6. 
CAITHNESS. Freswick, 11.6. 
DUMBARTONSHIRE. Gartlea, 5.6, 6.6 (4), 10/15.6, 10/15 daily 

on tliistles on few fine days, tailing off before 20.7. Gartlea, 30.7, 

second invasion, 31.7, 2.8, many seen flying off W., thereafter 

20/25 settled among marsh thistles, last seen 5.9. Lomondside 

and Gartles, many eggs in 6 and larvae 8, but few survivors: c.lO 

native adults at Gartlea, 5.9/4.10. 
DUMFREISSHIRE/KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE. Between Dumfries 

and Gatehouse of Fleet, numbers in many places, up to four 

together, before 20.6. 
EAST LOTHIAN. N. Berwick, 1.8 (c.l5). 
EASTER ROSS, v.c. 106, and SUTHERLAND, S.E., v.c. 107, 

Muir of Ord, 16.6, not again until 3.9/3.10, one to five on bud- 

dleia on 13 days (41 in all). 
FIFE. St. Andrews, 6.6, in abundance in gardens, lilac the main 

attraction; 8.8; Saline, 6.6, "everywhere, mixed with V. atalanta"; 

Tentsmuir, 8.8. 
INNER HEBRIDES, v.c. 104. Isle of Canna, 9.6 (2), 10.6, 11.6 (5), 

12.6, common; 26.7, many larvae of differing sizes; North Rona, 
23.6. 

INVERNESS-SHIRE, E., v.c. 96. Boat of Garden, 4.6; Loch Ness, 9.6. 
INVERNESS-SHIRE, W., v.c. 97. Appin, 11.6; Loch Arkaig, 12.6; 

Mallaig, 17.6. 
KINCARDINESHIRE. Banchory, 6.6, a few, and until 23.6; 31.7 

(c.20), and common along the coast; in September, daily, last 2 

13.10; Durris, 6.6; Newtonhill, 28.9 (6 on sedum). 
MULL and COLL, v.c. 103. Isle of CoU, 7/14.6, c. 12 daUy, apparently 

well settled. 
ORKNEY. Orphir, 5.6, by evening numerous throughout the islands; 

31.7, well distributed; larvae common on thistles in 8, some 
surviving 28.8 after cold spell, but no adults seen later; Mull 
Head, 4.10 (6 seen arriving over sea in SW wind). 

OUTER HEBRIDES, v.c. 110. Shiant Is., 21.6, 22.6. 
PERTHSHIRE, S. Crieff, 5.6 (1 or 2); 6.6, "wherever something on 

which to feed, in particular aubretia, valerian, lilac"; 7.6, "the 

bugle patches taken over"; 31.7, "a mass emergence, continuing 

in profusion until mid August, last straggler 27.8; 14.9 to 12.10, 

a further brood, in vastly reduced numbers. 
ROXBURGHSHIRE. Hawick, 6.6 (6); June, widely spread in good 

numbers, many eggs found. 
SUTHERLAND, S.W., v.c. 108. Handa Is., 4.6, 12.6 (15 plus), 

14.6 (14 plus); mid 6/1.8, one/five on 23 days, last 6.8; Tongue, 

10.6; Airdtorrisdale, 10.6; Cape Wrath, 16.6 (3). 
WESTER ROSS, v.c. 105. Torridon, 8.6. 
WEST LOTHIAN. Winchburgh, 12.6, 16.8, only two seen. 

Wales 
BRECONSHIRE. Ffowydogg Common, 650 ft., 5.6; Treflys, 



THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE BRITISH ISLES 1980 HI 

8.6 (6 on bluebells), Garth near Llan gammarch; Gorse Bank, 8.6 

(two on clover), 13.6 (2), 16.6; Cym-gn Fawr, 600 ft., 12.6. 
CARDIGANSHIRE. Aberystwyth, 4.6, hundreds on flowers, none 

left by 6.6; Coedmore, 9.8, 13.8, 16.8, 26.8, 28.8. 
DENBIGHSHIRE. Abergele, 6.6(2), 9.8(4), 15.8(3); Uandulas 

beach, 15.6(2). 
MERIONETHSHIRE. Dolgelly, 8.6 (6 seen over two acres). 
MONMOUTHSHIRE. Peterstone sea wall, 7.6; Wentwood, 10.6; 

Newport docks, 20.8; Usk, 2.9 (2 on buddleia). 
PEMBROKESHIRE. Moylgrove, 26.8 (2), 28.8; Martingrove and 

Marloes, 11.10(2). 
RADNORSHIRE. Coles Hill nr. Presteigne. 1097 ft., 12.6. 



Some Notes on Ereaatophyes aleatrix Diakonoff 
(LEP.: OECOPHORIDAE) - In May 1973, a Dutch coUector 
cauglit a specimen of the family Oecophoridae along a road south of 
the town of Nijmegen (Province of Gelderland), which appeared to 
be new to science, and which Dr. A. Diakonoff described (in Ent. 
Ber., Amst., 35:. 187-189) as Eratophyes aleatrix. For several years 
after no other specimen was observed and the biology of the species 
remained unknown, until by pure chance this gap in our knowledge 
was filled. Brother V. Lefeber, a keen hymenopterist, had collected 
in Limburg for several years dead wood from wliich to breed Hy- 
menoptera, and from old birch wood not only did these insects 
appear, but also a number off. aleatrix (cf. Diakonoff and Lefeber, 
Ent. Ber, Amst., 40: 3840). It became clear, therefore, that the 
E. aleatrix has the same biology as many other species of the family, 
and in later years aleatrix was also hxe^^ from willow branches, so 
that it is not restricted in its choice of wood. 

In April 1980, accompanied by Mr. L. I. P. van Aartsen, I 
collected pieces of decaying wood from dead birch trees with a 
diameter of 10-1 5cm., taking care not to collect wood inhabited 
by ants as they eat everything alive they meet. I selected pieces 
with the bark still attached, althougli this was sometimes as thin as 
paper, owing to the long time the wood had lain on the ground. I 
kept the wood in a bag with a net on top and closed by a zip- 
fastener, and placed it in a wheelbarrow in the shed. During sunny 
periods, the wheelbarrow was placed outside to expose the bag 
to the sun. I was very lucky, for in the latter part of May and in 
June a number oi aleatrix appeared; also some Oecophora bractella 
(L.) and Nemapogon personella (Pierce & Metcalfe) made their 
appearance, as well as of course numbers of beetles, flies and wasps. 

The species must lead a very concealed hfe, which is no doubt 
the reason for its late discovery. Therefore, I should recommend 
British lepidopterists to try their luck by collecting dead wood 
in the spring, and even if they do not obtain Eratophyes aleatrix, 
there is of course always a real chance of other good species. The 
moth is very beautiful, and its discovery in Britain would be well 
worth attempting. - J. B. WOLSCHRYN, Beatrixweg 8c , 8181 
Le Heerde, Holland. 



^ ^^ THE B.C.S. WARREN COLLECTION AND 
ITS TYPE-MATERIAL 

By R. I. Vane-Wright and P. R. Ackery* 
( Continued from page 3) 

List of type-material in B. C. S. Warren Collection 

aequalis Warren, 1936: 239, pi. 83, figs 1152, 1153, 1159, 1160 
(as f. of Erebia theano pawloskii). USSR: Ht cf , 1 (5* Pt, Sajan Mts. 
[Preps 14909 (Ht), 14911 (Pt)] falcmenides Sheljuzhko, 1919: 126 
(as ssp. oV Erebia sedakovic [sic] ); Warren, 1936: 145, pi. 31, fig. 
302. CHINA: 2d'Sts, Mandzhuria or., Pogranitschana. [Preps 15015, 
15016] .*alpestris Warren, 1936: 192, pi. 78, figs 1033, 1034, 1039, 
1040 (as nom. nov. for Erebia medusa altissima Warren, 1931, a 
primary homonym of Erebia pronoe altissima Goltz, 1930). See 
altissima Warren, altissima Warren, 1931: 98 (as race o{ Erebia 
medusa); 1936: 192 (homonym; name replaced by alpestris Warren). 
SWITZERLAND: 2 d Sis, Pontresina, Engadine; IcT St., Schafberg, 
Grisons. [Prep. 14416]. approximata Warren, 1930: 56 (as race of 
Erebia pawloskii theano). USSR: Ht cT , Altai, Korgon Mts. [Prep. 
14924] .*approximata Warren, 1931a: 171 (as ssp. of Erebia theano); 
1936: 237, pi. 83, figs 1149, 1156. See approximata, above .*arctica 
Poppius, 1906: 5, pi., upper fig. (as var. of Erebia eurvale); V^anen, 
1936: 73, pi. 62, figs, 630, 631, 634, pi. 26, fig. 256. USSR: l^Plt, 
Kannin. [Prep. 15108]. Lt. des. Warren, 1936: pi. 62*balcanica 
Warren, 1926: 97, pi. 29, figs 7 - 12 (as ssp. of Hesperia serratulae). 
YUGOSLAVIA: 2 d' , 2 9 Sts, Cetinje, Montenegro. [Prep. 14051] . 
bedei Loritz, 1951: 231 (as ab. of Erebia eury ale adyte). FRANCE: 
Ht c? , Col-Colombart. benacensis Warren, 1933: 40 (as ssp. of 
Erebia o t to mana). ITALY: 1 c? Sts, Monte Baldo. [Preps 15167, 
15168] . Primary homonym and synonym of E. tyndarus benacensis 
Dannelil, 1 933. *beminae Warren, 1939: 96 {dL?. s's.p. of Erebia pluto). 
SWITZERLAND: Htd", 12 d , 3 9 Pts, Val Minor, Grisons; 5 6^ , 
1 9 Pts, Schafberg. Grisons; Id*, 19 , Languard Tal, Grisons. 
*boehmerwaldensis Warren, 1930a: 147 (as race of Erebia eury ale); 
1936: 58. W. GERMANY: 2 d . \ / Sts, Mader, Bohmerwald. 
[Prep. 15142] .*bureschi Warren, 1933: 40 (as ssp. of Erebia 
ottomana); 1936: 282, pi. 89, figs 1296, 1297, 1302. BULGARIA: 
5 d , 19 Sts, Ali Botusch, Macedonia, S. Perim Mts.*campestris 
Warren, 1955: 231 (as ssp. of Erebia cassioides). AUSTRIA: Ht S 
9 d , 3 9 Pts, Path to HochalmbUck Hut, Carintliia; 8 c?, 2 9 Pts 
Jamnig Alp, Carinthia. [Preps 15894, 16036, 16041, 16044, 16045 
16046, 16058]. cebennica de Lesse, 1947: 105 (as race of Erebia 
epiphron pyrenaica). FRANCE 1 cf Pt, Gard, Mt Aigoual.*chapmani 
Warren, 1926: 41, pi. 11, figs 5-10 (as sp. of/Zespma). USSR: Id" 
1 9 Sts. Sajan Mts. [Preps 14191, 16136] . churchillensis Warren 
1936: 388 (as 9 f. of Erebia theano canadensis). CANADA: Ht 9 
Ft Churchill, Manitoba. *clorinda Warren. 1927: 81 (as ssp. of 
Hesperia cinarae). SPAIN: 1 d St, Tragacete; Id St, Huelamo; 1 9 

* Department of Entomology, British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London. 



THE B. C. S. WARREN COLLECTION AND ITS TYPE-MATERIAL 113 

St, Villacabras. [Prep. 14150] . confusa Warren, 1930b: 27 (as ab. of 
Erebia dabanensis): 1936: 246, pi. 84, figs 1179, 1185. USSR: 
Ht 9 , Mondy, Sajan Mts.*connexa Warren, 1930b: 28 (as ssp. of 
Erebia pawloskii)\ 1936: 233, pi. 82, figs 1139, 1140, 1145, pi. 
40, fig. 372. MONGOLIA: Ht d" , 1 cT Pt. Schawyr, Tannuola Mts. 
[Preps 14908 (Ht), 14912] .*coreanus Warren, 1957: 371, pi. 2, fig. 
23 (as ssp. ofPvrgus malvae). KOREA: Ht 6, 2d", 3 9 Pts, Hakugan; 

1 9 Pt,Kantairi. [Preps 16154-16159 (Pts), 16160 (Ht)]. cribelloides 
Warren, 1926: 156, pi. 58, figs 1,4, 8 (as ab. of Tut tia tessellum). 
USSR: Id", 1 9 Sts, Uralsk; 1 cf St, Sarepta. [Preps 14075, 14188] . 
croilensis de Lesse, 1947: 110 (as race of Erebia gorge gorge). 
FRANCE: 1 c^ , 1 9 Pts, Dent de Crolles.*demmia Warren, 1936: 
235 (as ssp. of Erebia theano). USA: 1 d' , 1 9 Pts, Colorado, N. 
Ridge Chicago Bas. Tr., Laplata Co.*dissimulata Warren, 1931a: 
169 (as ssp. of Erebia embla): 1936: 167, pi. 75, fig. 962, pi. 34, 
fig. 320. USSR: 1 d" , 1 9 Sts, Sajan Mts. [Prep. 15150] .*dolomitica 
Warren, 1936: 192 (sls ssp. of Erebia medusa). ITALY: 8d^, 5 9 Sts, 
Dolomites, Prossliner Hut, Seiser Alp; 4 d" . 19 Sts, Karer Pass, 
Ostertag Hut.Murmitorensis Warren, 1932: 166 (as race of Erebia 
ottomana): 1936: 283. YUGOSLAVIA: 5 d" . 1 9 Sts, Montenegro, 
Durmitor. elisabethae Warren, 1936: 267 (as f. of Erebia gorge gorge). 
ITALY: 16 d Sts, south-western end of the Rosengarten range in 
the Dolomites, exannulata Warren, 1936: 288 [footnote] (as ab. 
of Erebia tyndarus). SWITZERLAND: 1 9 St, Simplon Pass. 
extensa Warren, 1920: 51 (as ab. of Hesperia alveus); 1926: 122, pl. 
38, figs 7-12. SWITZERLAND: 1 d St, Tanay; 1 d' St, Gemmi Pass; 

2 d" Sts, Lenzerheide; 1 d* St, Albula Pass; Id" St, Zermatt. extensa 
Warren. 1920: 51 (as ab. of Hesperia amoricanus): 1926: 127. 
SWITZERLAND: 1 d St, Follaterre. extensa Warren, 1920: 51 (as 
ab. of Hesperia carlinae)\ 1926: 105, pl. 35, figs 7-11. SWITZER- 
LAND: 1 o" St, Kandersteg; 1 St, Simplon; 1 S St, Val d'Hcrens. 
1 c" , 1 9 Sts, no locality, extensa Warren, 1920: 51 (as ab. of 
Hesperia serratulae); 1926: 100, pi. 30, fig. 4. SWITZERLAND: Id 
St, Kandersteg. fasciata Warren, 1926: 106, pl. 35, fig. 12 (as ab. of 
Hesperia carlinae). 1 9 St. no locaUty. fasciata Warren, 1926: 48. 
pl. 13, fig. 8 (as ab. of Hesperia centaureae). USSR: 1 9 St, Altai. 
[Prep. 16131] .*festiva Warren, 1931a: 170 (as ssp. of Erebia disa); 
1936: 171, pl. 37, figs 975, 976, 981, 982, pl. 34, fig. 322. USSR: 
Ltd, 19 Pit, Yablonoi Mts. [Prep. 15151]. Lt.des Warren, 1936: 
pl. 75. *fogarasica Warren, 1931: 99 (as race of Erebia aethiops); 
1936: 143, pl. 71, figs 868, 874. HUNGARY: 1 c? St, Fogaras Mts. 
[Prep. 15120] .*freija Warren, 1924: Ivi (as sp. of Hesperia): 1926: 
52, pl. 14, figs 5, 6. SWEDEN: 1 9 St, Lapland. [Prep. 16086]. 
frigida Warren, 1944: 46, pl. 32, figs 168-177, pl. 14, figs 52, 54-56, 
pl. 15, figs 57-59 (as f. of Boloria napaea napaea). NORWAY. Ht d- 

3 d Pts, Maalselven. [Preps 15469 (Ht), 15470-15472] .*gavamiensis 
Warren, 1913: 276 (as sp. of Erebia). FRANCE: 7 d", 6 9 Sts, Val 
d'Ossue, Gavarnie.*gavamiensis Warren, 1926: 139, pl. 49, figs 6-8 
(as race of Powellia sertorius). FRANCE: 14 d" , 1 9 Sts, Gavarnie. 
[Preps 14225, 14226] .*guadarramensis Warren, 1925: 77 (as race 
of Powellia sao); 1926: 139,pl.50,figs 1-8. SPAIN: 1 d'St, La Granja. 



114 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

*herculeana Warren. 1931b: 49 (as race of Erebia ligea)\ 1936: 47, 
pi. 58, figs 538, 539, 544-548, 55 1,552, pi. 24, fig. 243. HUNGARY: 
2 cTSts, Herkiilesfiir do. ignotoides Warren, 1937: 14 (asab.of JFreZ^/a 
alcmena minschani f. szetschwand). CHINA: Wi <S , Id Pts, Kansu 
mer. or., lihsien, Peilingschan. [Prep. 15281 (Ft)], immaculata 
Warren, 1926: 70, pi. 23, fig. 1 (as ab. of Hesperia carthami). 
SWITZERLAND: 1 9 St, Follaterrefinalpina Warren, 1949: 103 (as 
ssp. of Erebia sudetica ). SWITZERLAND: Ht d" , 1 <^ , 1 9 Pts, 
Grindelwald; 1 cTPt, Bern. Alp; 1 d Pt, Gt Scheidegg. [Preps 15647, 
15652, 15669] .*ioan Warren, 1926: 42, pi. 12, figs 3, 4 (as sp. of 
Sloperia). TURKEY: 2 d Sts, Mardin, Taurus Mts. SYRIA: 1 9 St. 
Id" St, no locality. [Preps 14076, 14189, 14190] .*jurassica Warren, 
1926: 121, pi. 42, figs 9-12 (as race oi Hesperia alveus). SWITZER- 
LAND: 1 cT, 1 9 Sts, Geneva; 1 d', 2 9 Sts, Eclepens. [Preps 15811, 
15812] . lanceolata Warren, 1933a: 23 (as ab. of Erebia dabanensis); 
1936: 247, pi. 84, fig. 1180. USSR: Ht 9 , Sajan Mts.*lozerica 
Warren, 1932: 165 (as ssp. of Erebia neoridas)\ 1936: 345, pi. 96, 
fig. 1476. FRANCE: 2 d" , 1 9 Sts, Mende, Causse, Lozere. [Preps 
15105, 15106] .*mediterranea Warren, 1933a: 23 (as ssp. of ^re^w 
aethiopellus): 1936: 275, pi. 88, figs 1271, 1272, 1277. ITALY- 
FRANCE: 5 d Sts, Limone Pass. FRANCE: 3 d Sts, St Martin, 
Vesubie. [Preps 14714-14716, 15096] .*microcarthami Verity, 1928: 
140 (as nom. nov. for Hesperia carthami pyrenaica Warren, 1926, a 
primary homonym of Hesperia malvae pryrenaica Tutt, 1906). See 
pyrenaica '^?ixxen. novaki Moucha, 1956: 64 (as f. Pieris bryoniae 
marani). CZECHOSLOVAKIA: 1 d" , 2 9 Pts, Belanske Tatry. 
obliterata Warren, 1931a: 168 (as ab. of Erebia jeniseiensis); 1936: 
75, pi. 63, figs 668, 674, pi. 26, fig. 258. USSR: Ht o" , Sajan Mts. 
[Prep. 15149] . passosi Warren, 1968: 63, pi. 4, figs 3-6 (as sp. of 
Pieris [hybrid P. oleracea x P. hulda]). USA: 2 d" , 1 9 Sts, 
Alaska, Palmer, penultima Warren, 1936: 239 {2iS 2i\). of Erebia 
theano pawloskii). USSR: 1 d St, Sajan Mts. punctata Warren, 
1913: 277 (as ab. of Erebia manto)\ 1936: 89, pi. 65, fig. 706. 
SWITZERLAND: 1 9 St, Rochers de Naye.*pyrenaica Tutt, 1906: 
225, 296 (as var. of Hesperia malvae); Warren, 1926: 81. FRANCE: 
1 9 St, Vemet-les-Bains. pyrenaica Warren, 1926: 69, pi. 23, figs 9, 
10 (as race of Hesperia carthami) (homonym; name replaced by 
microcarthami Verity, 1928). FRANCE: 6 d" , 1 9 Sts, Gavarnie. 
pyrenesmiscens Warren, 1944: 79, pi. 44, figs 296, 297, pi. 45, figs 
298-301, pi. 27, figs 134, 135, pl.28, figs 136-141 (as ssp. of 
Boloria pales). FRANCE: Ht d" , 8 d" , 10 9 Pts, Gavarnie; 1 d' Pt, 
Eaux Bonnes. [Preps 15467 (Ht), 15421, 15423-15426, 15464- 
15466, 15468]. Junior homonym and subjective synonym of Boloria 
pales pyrenesmiscens Ven\.y,\932.xedviCt2i'^2iXXQn, 1920: 51 (as ab. 
of Hesperia andromedae); 1926: 54, pi 17, figs 10-12. SWITZER- 
LAND: 1 d" St, Lenzerheide; 2 d Sts, Kandersteg. reducta Warren, 
1920: 51 (as ab. of Hesperia cacaliae)\ 1926: 59, pi. 19, figs 3-5, 9, 
10. SWITZERLAND: Id' St, Lenzerheide; 1 c? St, Parpaner-Ro thorn; 
1 d St, Upper Engadine; 2 9 Sts, Statzerhorn. reducta Warren, 1920: 
51 (as ab. of Hesperia carthami); 1926: 70, pi. 23, fig. 7. SWITZER- 



THE B.C.S. WARREN COLLECTION AND ITS TYPE-MATERIAL 1 1 5 

LAND: Ic? St, Branson, reducta Warren, 1920: 51 (as ab. of Hesperia 
onopordi); 1926: 90, pi. 27, fig. 5. \^ St, no locality, retyezatensis 
Warren. 1931b: 51 (as race of Erebia epiphron transsylvanica); 

(To be concluded) 

Undue Alarm Over Parasitism (Hym.) of Clos- 
TERA ANACHORETA (D. & S.). — With reference to K. G. W. 
Evans' speculation (Ent. Rec. 92: 253) that the hymenopterous 
parasites which attack young larvae of Leucoma salicis (L.) and 
Euproctis species at Dungeness, Kent, may turn their attentions 
to Clostera anachoreta (D. & S.). I wish to point out that because 
most of the parasites of these economically important and therefore 
well-studied lymantriids are higl4y restricted in host range, this 
interesting possibiHty is unhkely to come to much. On my only 
visit to Dungeness (2.vii.l979) 1 saw £'. chrysonhoea (L.) only as 
pupae, but I collected large samples of Z. salicis (L.) and E. similis 
(Fuessly) larvae purely to investigate their parasites. From L. salicis 
I reared two species of Braconidae: Apanteles melanoscelus 
(Ratzeburg), known to be confined to certain Lymantriidae, and 
Aleiodes pallidator (Thunberg) which is completely host-specific 
to L. salicis. (A. pallidator was previously known in Britain only 
from the Lancasliire coast (Shaw, Ent. mon. Mag. 113: 81) but in 
1979 I reared it from L. salicis at Portsmouth as well as Dungeness, 
and it now seems likely that it will prove to be widespread among 
long-established populations of its host). From E. similis I reared 
two different braconids: Apanteles inclusus (Ratzeburg) and Pro- 
tomicroplitis connexus (Nees), which are both restricted to Euproctis 
species. There are undoubtedly other Braconidae (Apanteles 
lacteicolor Viereck and Meteorus versicolor (Wesmael) spring 
to mind) and Ichneumonidae that attack Lymantriidae among a 
range of more or less hairy arboreal caterpillars wliich may (or not) 
include C. anachoreta, but I found no evidence that these rather 
less host-specialised parasites occur at Dungeness. Just as the good 
Mr. Evans smarts when collectors are blamed by the ignorant for 
despoiling animal life, I feel bound to wince on behalf of parasitic 
Hymenoptera when they are unfairly accused of causing real or, 
as in this case, imaginary dechnes of Lepidoptera. May I just add 
that I would be extremely pleased to be sent any parasites reared 
from C. anachoreta or, indeed, any other host. - Dr. M. R Shaw, 
Department of Natural History, Royal Scotfish Museum, Edinburgli 
EHl IJF. 

UNUSUAL Feeding of Coleophora ibipennnella 
Zeller. - On 10th April 1981 at Keston Common, N. W. Kent, 
I noticed a small case of Coleophora ibipennella Zell. on a male 
catkin of birch (Betula pendula Rott.). The tree was in leaf, but 
there were no obvious signs of feeding on the adjacent leaves. 
Subsequent examination under a microscope showed that the 
larva was feeding on the catkin, but consuming only the stamens. 
Feeding continued in this manner for two days, by which time the 
poUon had ripened, and the larva moved on to a leaf. — PAUL 
SOKOLOFF, 4 Steep Close, Orpington, Kent. 



^ ^^ LEPIDOPTERA OF ABERDEENSHIRE 

AND KINCARDINESHIRE 

By Dr. M. R. Young * R. M. Palmer ** and 
Dr. P. D. HuLME *** 

3rd Appendix 

The following list is intended to bring up to date the list of 
lepidoptera in Vice Counties 91-93. The main list contains details 
of 26 spp. which are recorded for this first time and 17 rediscovered 
species which are mentioned in the old lists of William Reid and 
others (these old records are included). Three corrections to pre- 
viously pubhshed data have also been made. Additional information 
has been provided on some of the macrolepidoptera which were 
included in previous parts of the hst but which are rare or extremely 
local. A supplementary list contains species which, whilst not new 
to the area as a whole are previously unrecorded from one or more 
of the Vice-counties therein. All the records have been gathered 
since the publication of the previous appendices (Ent. Rec. 89, 239 
(1977) and Ent. Rec. 90, 237 (1978)) and are those of the authors 
unless otherwise indicated. In addition to thanking those whose 
names appear in the text for their records the authors acknowledge 
with much thanks the continued help of E. C. Pelham-Qinton who 
has identified many of the species. 

(1) NEW OR RE-DISCOVERED SPECIES 

[Eriocrania haworthi Bradl. Mis-identification, there are no recent 

records of this species] 

-substitute: 

E. unimaculella Zett. S. A. Skene. 
Lampronia praelatella D. & S. S. A. Recorded from Newburgh by 

D. Hockin (Ent. Rec. 91, 285). 
Buccidatrix nigricomella Zell. K. Muchalls. 
Calybites auroguttella Steph. Braemar (Cruttwell, 1907) K. St. 

Cyrus N. N. R., bred from larvae on Hypericum perfoliatum. 
Phy Honor}' cter messaniella Zell. S. A. Aberdeen, bred from mines 

on Quercus ilex. 
P. emberizaepenella Bouche N. A. Woodliead nr. Fyvie, bred from 

mines on Lonicera periclymenum. 
P. geniculella Rag. K. St. Cyrus N. N. R., bred from mines on Acer 

pseudoplatanus. 
Argyresthia semitestacella Curt. S. A. Inverurie (The old record of 

Reid (1893) — not uncommon among birch — suggests a mis- 
identification). 
Cedestis gysseleniella Zell. S. A. Near Aberdeen (Reid 1893); Dinnet 

Muir N. N. R., bred from spinnings on Pinus sylvestris. 



* Department of Zoology, University of Aberdeen. 

**2 Glenholme Gardens, Dyce, Aberdeen. 

***10 Nethermains Road, Muchalls, Kincardineshire. 



LEPIDOPTERA OF ABERDEENSHIRE AND KINCARDINESHIRE 1 1 7 

Ocnerostoma piniariella Zell. S. A. Braemar (Cruttwell, 1907); 

Dinnet Muir N. N. R., bred from mines on Pinus sylvestris. 
Coleophora gryphipennella Hb. K. St. Cyrus N. N. R., cases on Rosa 

sp.. 
C. idaeella Hofm. K. Powlair, nr. Strachan bred from cases on 

Vaccinuim vitis-idaea. 

C. juncicolella Stt. S. A. Dinnet Muir, Tyrebagger Forest, Elrick Hill; 

cases common on Calluna vulgaris. 
[C.frischella Linn. Delete this speciesj 
substitute: 

C. paripennella Zell. S. A. Aberarder; bred from cases on 
Cirsium heterophyllum, 

N. A. Ellon; bred from cases on 
Centaiirea nigra. 
Elachista subocellea Steph. K. St. Cyrus N. N. R.. 
Biselachista eleochariella Stt. N. A. Wartle Moss. 
Esperia sulphurella Fabr. N. A. Loch of Strathbeg (S. Palmer). 
Diumea phry'ganella Hb. S. A. Dinnet oakwood N. N. R.. 
Depressaria badiella Hb. K. St. Cyrus N. N. R. (M. Harper). 

D. weirella Stt. K. St. Cyrus N. N. R.. 

Monochroa tenebrella Hb. N. A. Clashindarroch Forest. 
Teleiodes notatella Hb. S. A. near Kemnay, 

N. A. Wartle Moss. 
T. sequax Haw. Near Aberdeen (Reid, 1893). K. Muchalls and 
Dunnotar; bred from larvae on Helianthemum chamaecistus. 
Reuttia subocellea Steph. K. St. Cyrus N. N. R.. 
Capua vulgana Frol. S. A. Drum Castle woods and nr. Monymusk. 
Olethreutes olivana Treits. Aberdeen links (Reid, 1893), 

N. A. Wartle Moss. 
Hedya nubiferana Haw. K. St. Cyrus N. N. R.. 

S. A. Udny. 
lEndothenia oblongana Haw. - delete] the inclusion of this species 
was tlie result of mis-interpretation of the old nomenclature — 
substitute: 

E. marginana Haw. S. A. Dinnet Muir N. N. R., one, 1971 
(E. C. P.- C). 
Anclyis uncella D. & S. S. A. Near Aberdeen (Reid, 1893); Dinnet 

Muir N.N.R.. 
Epinotia immundana F. v R. Braemar (Reid, 1893), 

N. A. Loch of Strathbeg. 

E. fratemana Haw. S. A. near Kemnay. 

Epiblema farfarae Fletch. Near Aberdeen; Pitcaple, common among 
Tussilago farfara (Reid, 1893), 

K. S. Cyrus N. N. R.. 
Cydia intemana Couen. K. Forest of Birse. 
Eudonia pallida Curt. N. A. Loch of Strathbeg (S. Palmer); Wartle 

Moss. 
E. lineola Curt. Near the mouth of the River Don (Reid, 1893), 

K. St. Cyrus N. N. R.. 



118 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

Nomophila noctuella D. & S. Generally rare (Reid, 1893b), 

S.A. Aberdeen 9.6.80 one, 
N.A. Loch of Strathbeg 8.79, 
8.80 (S. Palmer). 
Ephestia cautella Walk. S.A. Aberdeen, one, 18.1 1.79. 
Amblyptilia punctidactyla Haw. Braemar (Reid, 1893), 

N. A. Woodhead nr. Fyvie. 
Idaea dimidiata Hufn. K. near Stonehaven (Dalglish, 1894); St. 

Cyrus N. N. R.. 
Xanthorhoe ferrugata CI. Kintore (Cowie, 1902), 

N. A. Wartle Moss. 
Eupithecia valerianata Hb. S. A. Near Monymusk, bred from larvae 

on Valeriana officinalis. 
Clostera curtida Linn. S.A. Muir of Dinnet N.N.R., (P. Marren, 

Ent. Rec. 92,154). 
Diaphora mendica CI. K. Common in Kincardineshire (Reid, 1893); 
Cove Bay, larvae not common, usually on Plantago lanceolata. 
Ochropleura fennica Tausch. N. A. Barthol chapel, one, 20.8.77 

(Marsden, C. & Young, M. R. Ent. Rec. 90, 84). 
Sideridis albicolon Hb. Aberdeen links (Reid, 1893), 

K. St. Cyrus N. N. R. (N.C.C. survey), 
N.A. Cruden Bay (N.C.C. survey). 
Lacanobia contigua Rare, Banchory (Reid, 1893), 

S.A. Dinnet Muir N. N. R. (P. Marren, 
Ent. Rec. 92, 154). 

(2) ADDITIONAL RECORDS OF SCARCE OR MIGRATORY 

SPECIES 

Colias croceus Geoffr. S. A. Bay of Nigg, one, 28.9.80 (P. Mills). 

Erebia aethiops Esp. Althougli this butterfly is much scarcer 

here than in the neighbouring counties of Banffshire and In- 
verness, two further colonies are now known in western parts 
of Aberdeenshire. Near Braemar where it was recorded by Trail 
(1878) the butterfly was seen again in 1978, and it is also 
found at New Aberdour. 

Orthonama vittata Borkh. N. A. Loch of Strathbeg (S. Palmer). 

Eupithecia centaureata D. & S. K. St. Cyrus N. N. R. (D. Carstairs). 

Cleorodes lichenaria Hufn. S. A. Near Monymusk, 

N. A. Loch of Strathbeg (S. Palmer). 

Omphaloscelis lunosa Haw. N. A. Sands of Forvie N.N.R. (R. 
Davies). 

Morrno maura Linn. N. A. Sands of Forvie N. N. R. (R. Davies). 

Apamea exulis Le Feb. S. A. Udny, one, 26.8.77. 

Plusia putnami gracilis Lempke. N. A. Loch of Strathbeg (S. Palmer). 

(3) SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF NEW VICE-COUNTY RECORDS 

(a) New to Kincardineshire {9\. Elachista luticomella Ze\l.,Scro- 
bipalpa samadensis plantaginella Stt., Dichrorampha acuminatana 
L.&Z. 



LEPIDOPTERA OF ABERDEENSHIRE AND KINCARDINESHIRE 1 1 9 

(b) New to S. Aberdeenshire (92): Stigmella floslactella Haw., 
Phyllonorycter kleemannella Fabr., Philedone gemingana D. & S., 
Epinotia nisella CL, Eudonia angnstea Curt.. 

(c) New to N. Aberdeenshire (93): Incurvaria pectinea Haw., 
Paromix loganella Stt., P. torquilella Zell., Phyllonorycter querci- 
foliella Zell., P. corylifoliella Hb., Elachista kilmunella Stt., E. 
alpinella Stt., E. pulchella Haw., E. bisulcella Dup., Schiffer- 
muellena similella Hb., Agonopterix angelicella Hb., Exoteleia 
dodecella Linn., Caryocolum mamioreum Haw., Mompha locu- 
pletella D. & S., Pancalia latreillella Curtis., Clepsis spectrana Treits., 
Acleris sparsana D. & S., ^4. rhombana D. & S., Olethreutes my- 
gindiana D. & S., Eudonia tnincicolella Stt.. 

(d) Species now recorded from all three Vice-counties: Trifur- 
cula immundella Zell., Stigtnella anomalella Goeze, S. hybnerella 
Hb., S. magdalenae Klim., Aspilapteryx tringipennella Zell., Paror- 
nix scoticella Stt., Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae Frey, Argyresthia 
curx'ella Linn., Pseudoswammerdamia combinella Hb.. Ypsolopha 
dentella Fabr.. Plutella porrectella Linn., Eperrnenia chaerophyl- 
lella Goez, Coleophora albicosta Haw., C rnurinipennella Dup.. 
C alticolella Zell., Elachista apicipimctella Stt., iT. rufocinerea 
Haw., Depressaria daucella D. & S., Agonopterix ciliella Stt.. ^ryo- 
tropha similis Stt., Scobipalpa acuminatella Sire, Acompsia 
cinerella Hb., Ypsolopha dentella Fabr., Plutella porrectella Linn., 
Eperrnenia chaerophyllella Goeze, Coleophora albicosta Haw., 
C rnurinipennella Dup., C alticolella Zell.. Elachista apicipunctella 
Stt., £. rufocinerea Haw., Depressaria daucella D. & S., Agonopterix 
ciliella Stt., Bryotopha similis Stt., Scrobipalpa acuminatella Sire, 
Acompsia cinerella CL, Hypatima rhomboidella Linn., Clepsis 
senecionana Hb., Acleris variegana D. & S., Apotomis betuletana 
Haw., Lobesia litoralis H. & W., Epinotia subocellea Don., Rhopo- 
bota naevana Hb., Dichrorampha plumbana Scop., Pyla fusca Haw.. 



Helops caeruleus L. (Col.): Corrigendum and 
Addenda — There is a misprint in the last line of my recent 
notes on this species (footnote, antea: 276): for melanus read 

When writing these notes I unfortunately omitted to consult 
a relevant work - Brendell, M. J. D., 1975, Handb. Ident. Brit. Ins., 
5(10) — in which (p. 8) further records are given appearing to extend 
the range of H. caeruleus beyond that generally recognized earlier. 
Tlie farthest north is for CarUsle (before 1907) - possibly origina- 
ting from introduced pit-props? — and another, more remarkable 
perhaps, for the Isle of Man. However, these two far-north occur- 
rences, with no others on the west side between them and South 
Wales, suggest casual introductions outside the natural range. Mr. 
Brendell gives also a record for S. Lines., probably the north-eastern 
Umit; and for two more inland counties, Cambs. and Herts. — 
A. A. Allen. 



^^° THE CANARY ISLANDS REVISITED IN 1979 

By H. G. Allcard. F.R.E.S.* and 
Anthony Valletta, F.R.E.S.** 

As early as the last week in February we planned a two-week 
holiday in the Canary Islands for the last week of August and the 
first of September. This time we left together from Manchester on 
the morning of the 23rd August. At 8.40 we were already in the air 
and at 13.15 we landed at Los Rodeo airport in Tenerife where we 
intended to spend our hohday and observe the insect fauna. 

We stayed at the same hotel as in 1977 because it was easier 
for us to visit the wooded mountains in the north of the island. 
By 2.15 we were in the hotel at Santa Cruz, and while enjoying a 
cup of tea on the lawn of the hotel and drawing up the programme 
for the next day, we noticed a slow moving shadow on the turf, 
and looking up saw the first butterfly which happened to be Danaus 
plexippus (L.). It was flying in the direction of the huge African 
TuUp Tree (Spathodea campanulata) which was covered with beauti- 
ful, red flowers and adorned a secfion of the hotel gardens. Not 
much later, we also saw another butterfly, this time the African 
migrant Catopsila florella Fab., sipping the flowers of the bougain- 
villea. Later inthe afternoon we visited the nearby park and there, 
on almost every Cassia bush, we saw several empty cases of pupae 
of this butterfly on the defoUated branches. Tliis butterfly was first 
recorded in Tenerife in November of 1966 with the introduction of 
a species of Cassia from Ethiopia, and since then it has settled also 
in the Gran Canaria and La Palma. It gives several broods and it 
is interesting to note that the female may be whitish or yellowish. 
In Tenerife, wherever there is a Cassia, one may find the eggs or the 
larva quite easily. 

Later in the evening we had a call from our friend Sgnor 
Morales, who told us that the Director of the Natural History 
Museum, Dr. Josef M. Fernandez was seriously ill and that there 
was no hope of seeing him again at the Museum, in fact at 8.30 a.m. 
of the following day, we had a telephone call and he informed us 
that Dr. Fernandez passed away during the night. This was not at 
all good news, as we were always welcomed at his office whenever 
we called. 

Friday the 24th. We tried to visit Monte de las Mercedes 900m. 
and some 20 km. away, the habitat of the endemic and most beaufi- 
ful butterfly Gonepteryx cleobule Huebner, but as we overpassed 
the old city of La Laguna and were half way up the mountain, 
we noticed, as in 1977, that clouds were moving in and very soon 
we found ourselves enveloped in thick mist. Tlius we had to go back 
and try another locaHty. We decided to take the road which leads 
to Teide the higliest mountain in the island which is about 12,000ft 
higli, and reaching a heiglit of about 2000m, we found ourselves 



* Gainsborough, Park Drive, Hale, Altrincham, WA 15 9DH. 
** 257, Msida Street, B'Kara, Malta. 



THE CANARY ISLANDS REVISITED IN 1969 j2i 

above the clouds in bright sunshine surrounded by the greenery ot 
Pinus insignis and P. canariensis. It was very hot and being some- 
what thirsty we walked to the popular fountain but hardly had we 
turned on the tap than hundreds of bees and wasps, coming as if 
from nowhere, swarmed to the flowing water which made it impos- 
sible for us to open our mouths unless we risked swallowing a couple 
of these stinging insects! In 1977, this locality was the best place for 
the other endemic butterfly Pseudotergiimia wyssii Christ., but this 
time only two worn females were seen. On the bushes we noticed a 
good number of the lycaenid Cyclyhus webbianiis Brulle. and now 
and again, Colias crocea Fourc. crossed the road at a reasonable 
speed, but no more butterflies were seen that day. 

Saturday the 25th. We took the coach to Puerto de la Cruz 
some 38 km. away, as the mountains were still covered by clouds. 
It was an enjoyable drive, as one could admire the ever changing 
views of the countryside and the sea, and the extensive plantations 
of banana trees, especially in the valley of Orotava. It soon became 
cloudy when we reached our destination. We walked towards Taoro 
Park, passing by so many villas with the front gardens nicely planted 
with all sorts of flowering bushes and climbers. Danaus plexippus 
was flying slowly from garden to garden as if choosing the best 
flower to get the best drink. Projecting from the railings of one of 
these gardens, we noticed the flowers of the milkweed (Asclepias 
curassmnca) and strange enougli, we counted nine larvae of different 
sizes feeding lavishly on the leaves and dropping their excreta on 
the pavement. Further on, flying a few centimetres above the ground 
on some rubbish dumped in a secluded corner, we noticed several 
restless Ziziera knysna Trimen flying from one place to another as 
if they were after a mate. When we reached the park we just stared 
at each other! What a change! What was an attraction to so many 
insects is now a parking place, and several pitches for different 
kinds of sport; but still the flowering climbers of bougainvillea 
and plantago which cover the wire-netting of the tennis courts, 
and the bushes of the lantana and liibiscus along the pathways 
still attract a few butterflies; in fact we saw odd specimens of 
C. florella, P. rapae, P. daplidice, L. phlaeas, A. cramera and D. 
plexippus. Tlie micros, Hymemia recurvalis Fab. and Duponchelia 
fovealis Zeller were very common on the lantana. The huge fly 
Promachus vexator Beck (Diptera: Asiliidae) was seen resting on 
dry branches. Very few butterflies were seen this time and only 
one species of hymenoptera — Bombus terrestris canariensis. As 
regards other insects, the grasshoppers Aiolopus strepens (Latr.) 
and Acrotylus patnielis (H.-S.) could not be missed. 

We wondered why P. cheiranthi Huebner was so rare on this 
occasion and after some time looking for eggs on Nasturtium — 
(Tropaeolum majus) we still could not find any. 

Sunday the 26th. A sunny day with a clear sky. We left the 
hotel at 10.30 a.m. and drove to Monte de las Mercedes. One could 
see La Palma in the distance. As the day got warmer the beautiful 
G. cleobide Huebner started to fly about, resting now and again 
on the flowers of the endemic Cedronella canariensis and on those 



122 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

of Rubus ulmifolius Schott. As this mountain is one mass of Rham- 
nus glandulosa, the foodplants of this species, this is the best habitat. 
Other species seen that day were C. crocea, P. rapae. P. xiphioides, 
L. phlaeas and C webbianus. The inicros Agriphila trabeatellus 
canadensis Rebel and Uresiphita polygonalis Hubn. were quite 
common. Other commoh insects were Bombus terrestris canariensis 
and the Sand Wasp. Podalonia tydei Guill. (Hym. Sphecidae); whilst 
the former was after the flowers available, the latter, in various 
sizes, was hopping or walking on the bare ground looking for its 
prey. Flying at a reasonable height, we also came across the small 
endemic long-horn beetle, Leptura palmi (Col. Cerambycidae). 

Monday the 27th. The weather kept fine so we visited another 
localhty north of the Las Mercedes, Las Carboneros. As we arrived 
there close to noon, the sun was fairly hot though at an altitude 
of 800 m. and the butterflies seemed quite thirsty as they tried to 
visit every flower that came their way, especially Cedronella and 
Hypericum. Again G. cleobule was seen quite often especially 
females. P. xiphioides was emerging and perfect males flew about 
short distances to return to the same place as we walked on. Here we 
came across Maniola jurtina fortunata Alph., all females which had 
already passed their best and a single Lampides boeticus., also, a 
female C. webbianus patronised certain bushes and C crocea and 
P. rapae kept flying from one direction to another always at a 
good speed. At 16.00 we returned to the hotel. 

Tuesday the 28th. Prof. J. Bacallado of the University of La 
Laguna took us for a drive to different locaUties. The first stop was 
at Lagunetas 1400 m.: unfortunately it was very windy there and no 
butterflies were on the wing except odd specimens of C. webbianus 
in a cosy spot. We noticed a few species of Orthoptera: Mantis 
religiosa L., Oedalus decorus (Germ.), A. strepens (Latr.) and 
Calliptamus plebeius (Walk.). The next visit was to Cumbe de 
Arafo 1700 m. We could hardly recognise the locaUty, as a wide 
road had been constructed since our last visit in 1977 through a 
good part of it, which when visited then produced a lot of wild 
flowers and plenty of Lycaenids. Tliis time there were more grass- 
hoppers about than butterflies. We saw only a couple of yl. cramera 
(Ersch.) and a few L. phlaeas. Missing were the endemic beetle 
Heteger transversus Brulle, and the large earwig Annisolatus maxima 
Brulle. As we were close to the fountain we visited on the 24th, 
we tried to have another look for/*, wyssii but not a single specimen 
was seen; however, the bees and the wasps were still there waiting 
for somebody to open the tap! 

Wednesday the 29th. Though the mountains were clear, a strong 
fresh breeze was blowing making it difficult for the butterflies to 
fly. We tried a further locahty on the other side of Pico del Inglis, 
but only fresh P. xiphioides, C. crocea and P. rapae were flymg, all 
close to the ground. At a point, we saw a donkey on a long lead 
grazing; as soon as he saw us he sniffed heavily making a queer 
sound and all of a sudden a boy came out from a nearby cave and 
seeing two men he retired. We went back not to disturb the donkey. 



THE CANARY ISLANDS REVISITED IN 1969 123 

After half-an-hour we returned to the same place and again as the 
donkey saw us he emitted the same noise; the boy looked out and 
went in again. This time we proceeded as we had to take that way; 
in the meantime a car appeared coming from behind and as soon as 
the donkey saw it he lustily brayed a cacophonic serenade. Tliis time 
the boy jumped out and ran down the bUnd corner of the road. 
We noticed later that a cow was grazing down the road and the boy 
ran out to drive her aside .... an excellent watch-dog of a donkey, 
and a clever one too, using two different codes to give the alarm! 

Thursday the 30th. Qoudy and windy; we stayed at Santa 
Cruz and in the afternoon visited the Museum of Natural History, 
where we were shown a few butterflies, which a member of an 
expidition patronised by the Museum to Cape Verde Islands that 
month had brought back with him; these included Danaus chrysippus 
L. and the form alcippus, Hypolimnas misippus male and female, 
V. cardui, L. boeticus and Papilio demodocus (one fresh and two 
worn. 

Friday the 31st. We wanted to spend at least two days on the 
nearby island of, Gomera, but unfortunately the only hotel at San 
Sebastian was all booked up, so the only alternative, was to go there 
for the day. This was somewhat risky, as so much depended on the 
weather. It was a tiresome venture too, as we had to get up at least 
at 6.00 a.m., take a liglit breakfast in our rooms, hire a taxi to drive 
us to the coach terminus to catch the 7.30 a.m. coach to Los 
Cristianos, a distance of 74 km. and take the 9.00 a.m. ferry-boat 
to San Sebastian, Gomera. The coach journey down south took 
over one hour and as all this area is very arid there was httle to see 
of interest. We reached San Sebastian just after 1 1 a.m. Tlie first 
thing was to hire a taxi and luckily enough, the driver understood 
quickly the purpose of our mission when we mentioned to him 
"El Cedro". Tlie first impressions one forms of this island is a mass 
of high, barren mountain, but on penetrating further inland, one 
discovers that it is an island of contrast with varied relief and deep 
ravines. The drive up to El Cedro took us over 1 Vi hrs, going up and 
down along the only winding and narrow bends and tunnels. All the 
way the sky was overcast and we had Uttle hope of seeing any insect 
on the wing; however, by 13.30, the clouds drifted away and the 
sun cheered us up. It was quite hot at 14.00. On the favourite 
flowers of the Cedronella, G. cleobule and P. xiphioides were en- 
joying a drink. We came across very few insects; Bombus tenestris 
was very common on the ubiquitous Rubus ulmifolius as well as 
Cerceris concinna Brulle ; Podalonia tydei was seen several times. 
At 16.30 we had to leave El Cedro to be in time for the return ferry- 
trip at 18.00. By 20.30 we were back at Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 
tired but looking forward to a good dinner and a long rest. 

Saturday the 1st September, turned out to be an exceptionally 
nice day. We were accompanied by Senor M. Morales and his son 
who is studying botany. The mountains were very clear, so we had 
an 8 km. walk from Monte de las Mercedes to Las Yedras and 
Carboneras, which we did in four hours stopping now and again to 



124 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

observe the different flora and fauna that we came across. G. 

cleobule was out in great numbers resting on every available flower, 

mostly on the Cedronella; we counted up to five specimens sipping 

on a single plant, and one could have taken any by the fingers 

had one wanted to. M. jurtina fortunata was still on the wing but all 

females and very worn, P. xiphioides was on the increase and females 

started emerging; C. webbianus and C. crocea were on the move as 

well. Here, besides the Bombus, we came across as singtons several 

species of hymenoptera, such as Amegilla qiiadrifasciata (ViUiers), 

Anthidium manicatum (L.) and Cerceris concinna BruUe, all of 

which were visiting Mentha pulegium and in large number, P. tydei. 

The Diptera were represented by the Sirphids Chrysotoxum 

triarcuatum (May) and Eristalis tenax L.; the Tachinids by 

Pseudogonia fasciata Wied, Gonia bimaculata Wied and other 

species were Villa nigrifrons Macq. (Bombilidae) and Chrysomyia 

albifrons Wied (Calliphoridae). One could not escape the Orthoptera 

represented by Aiolopus strepens (Latr.), Acrotylus patruelis 

(H-S.) and Ariagona margaritae Kr. Sunday the 2nd. a day of rest. 

We had a late breakfast and later a walk down town. 

Monday the 3rd. Once more we took the coach to Puerto de 
la Cruz. We roamed about the beautiful villas admiring the various 
climbers and bushes wliich at this time of the year were in full 
bloom. Aristolochia with flowers as big as a bread plate, Tecomas, 
Plumbagoes, Bougainvilleas of various shades, Poinsettias, Strehtzia, 
and Cassia which attracted D. plexippus and C florella. However, 
P. cheiranthi was still conspicuous by its absence. We had a drink 
in the garden of one of the hotels and admired the paradise of 
flowers, the gigantic Cannas and Asters, the hanging Wisteria and the 
white flowers of the Datura, the foodplant o( Acherontia atropos, 
but no larvae were seen as it was still too early. 

Tuesday the 4th. As the day of our departure was getting nearer 
and nearer we could not resist the temptation to have another go 
on the mountains. Once more we visited the north side of the 
Mercedes. It was very hot and unfortunately A. V. forgot his hat 
at the hotel. Tliere was nothing to do but to tie knots to the corners 
of the hankerchief and use it as a cap; still that was not enough. 
The hot rays of the sun forced him to find some shade but the only 
little space available out of the sun, was that provided by a notice- 
board wliich warned the hoUday-makers "No tire cerillas, peligro 
de incendio". Wliilst having a rest on a stone which other persons 
had used as an improvised seat to shelter from the sun, he felt 
something touching his wet hankerchief. . . believe it or not . . . 
it was a G. cleobule . . . was the the butterfly thirsty or inquisitive? 
Tlie only butterfly not seen before was C. crocea var. helicina. 
Beating the vegetation we disturbed a few micros: Agriphila 
trabeatellus canariensis Rebel, Pyrausta aurata ScopoU, Psara 
bipunctalis Fab. and Endotricha rogenhoferi Rebel another endemic 
species. 

Wednesday the 5th. . . the last day. As the following day we had 
to be at the airport by noon, we did not want to miss the last chance 



THE CANARY ISLANDS REVISITED IN 1969 1 25 

of a clear day. Again we visited a part of the locality we explored 
on the 1st Sept. with Senor Morales. We came across the same 
species of butterflies but more females of G. deobule were flying 
slowly in search of flowers. We also came across L. boeticus. Tlie 
endemic long-horn Leptura pahni was more common and P. 
xiphioides was at its best. As clouds were moving in we decided to 
return to the hotel. Tlius a restful and enjoyable hoUday on the 
peaceful mountains of Tenerife came to an end, but as usual we had 
a delay in leaving Tenerife, though by 14.30 we were in the air and 
after a stop of 45 minutes at Santiago, we reached Manchester at 
19.45. 

Acknowledgements 

Our thanks are due to Senor M. Morales Martin, Prof. J. J. 
Bacallado Aranega, Prof. A. Machado, Dr. G. Oretega and Dr. 
M. Baez for their help given to us during our short stay in their 
interesting island. 

References 

Allcard H. G. and Valletta A. 1978. A Week collecting in Tenerife, Canary 

Islands; September 1971. Ent. Rec, 90: 91-94 
Baynes, E.S.A., 1961. Canary Island Butterflies. Entomologist, 94: 260-262 
Baez, M. and Ortega G. 1978. Lista Preliminar de los Himenopteros de las 

Islas Canarias. Bol. Asoc. esp. Entom. Vol. 2: 185-199 Salamanca. 
Bacallado Aranega, J. J., 1976. Biologia de Cyclyrius webbianus (Brulle) (Lep. 

Lycaenidae) especie endemica de las Islas Canarias. Vieraea. Vol. 6: 

139-150. 
Bramwells, David and BramweUs, Zoe, 1974. Wild Flowers of the Canary 

Islands. Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd. London and Burford. 
Bretherton R. F. 1966. A Distribution List of the Butterflies (Rhopalocera) of 

the Western and Southern Europe. Transactions of the Society for 

British Entomology , 17, Part 1. 
Chandler, Peter J. 1979. Flies, Bees and Butterflies on La Palma, Canary 

Islands in \91 6. Entomologist's Record, 91: 103-107. 
Fernandez, Jose M. 1970. Los Lepidopteros diumos de las Islas Canarias 

Enciclopedia Canaria Aula De Cultura de Tenerife. 
Derry N. J. & A. C. 1979. Tenerife and Gomera. July 1978. Ent. Rec. 91: 

275-278. 
Gangwere, S. K., Morales Martin, M. and Agacino E. 1972. The Distribution of 

the Orthoptroides in Tenerife. Contribution of the American Entomolo- 
gical Institute. Vol. 8 no. 1 
Gaydon, A. C. 1972. April Butterflies in Tenerife. A. E. S. Bulletin, 31: 106 
Guichard, K. M. 1965. Butterflies in the Canary Islands. Entomologist, 98: 

194-195. 
1967. Butterflies of the Canary \%\diV\d%, Entomologist, 100: 293-299. 
Higgins, L. G. and Riley, N. D. 1970. A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain 

and Europe. Collins. 
Manley, W. B. L. and AUacard, H. G. 1970. A Field Guide to the Butterflies 

and Burnets of Spain. E. W. Classey Ltd. 

THE DOTTED' RUSTIC: RhYACIA SIMULANS HUFNAGEL 
IN London a single specimen of this moth appeared at my 
trap here on the 30th July 1980. - R A SOFTLY, 12, Parliament 
Court, ParUament Hill, London N.W.3 2TS. [Our correspondent 
enclosed a coloured photograph of the specimen in question. The 
species appears to have increased its range in south-east England 
during the past few years, and we wonder if this is the first record 
of its occurrence in London. — J. M. C. -H.] 



^^^ A FURTHER SYNONYM IN THE GENUS CONICERA 

MEIGEN WITH A REVISED LIST OF 

THE BRITISH SPECIES 

(Diptera: Phoridae) 

By R. H. L. Disney* 

I have recently (Disney, 1980a, 1980b), reported new synony- 
mies in th genus Conicera Meigen. The purpose of the present note 
is to report a further synonym and to provide a revised check list 
of the British species. Borgmeier (1963) remarks of the genus 
Conicera "mistakes are comprehensible in such a difficult genus". 
The findings of the present paper futher confirm my experience 
that the difficulties encountered in this genus have largely been 
created by taxonomists! 

What is Conicera fallens Schmitz? 

Schmitz (1953) separates the coffin fly, C. tibialis Schmitz, 
from C. fallens (and three other species) by the couplet "Vorder- 
tarsen d" nicht oder ganz unbedeutend langer als tl. Die Conicera 

der mensclilichen Leichen und sarge, auch im Freien 

tibialis Schmitz. — Vordertarsen langer als tl, mindestens im 
Verh'altnis 5:4 " 

Borgmeier (1963) hkewise distingushes C tibialis from C 
fallens (and other species) on the relative lengths of the foretarsus 

and tibia thus "Fore tarsus subequal to tibia (9:8; cT ?) 

tibialis Schmitz. 

—Fore tarsus longer than tibia " 

In the descriptions given by these authors the ratio of the 
foretarsus to the tibia is given as 1.12 — 1.13:1 in the male and 
1.14:1 in the female for C. tibialis. In C fallens the figure for the 
males is 1.25:1, and for the females 1.38:1. 

In my collections I have a pair of this section of the genus 
Conicera caught in copula (at Chilmark, Wiltshire, 8 August 1977). 
The front leg ratios are 1.12:1 for the male and 1.24:1 for the 
female. Thus on the information given by Schmitz and Borgmeier 
the male is C. tibialis and the female is intermediate between 
C. tibialis and C fallens. 

In two males, indistinguishable from the above male in terms 
of genitaha and other features, from Germany (from Rhineland, 
sent to tlie author by Dr. M. Boness) the ratios are 1.22:1 and 
1.12:1. That is to say the first is closer to C fallens and the latter 
is in agreement with C. tibialis. 

In view of this unsatisfactory situation I have recorded the 
ratios for a series of 48 males cauglit in a single day (3 June 1980) 
in one water trap set on the Tarn Close (Malham Tarn, North York- 
shire, Grid ref. 34/894671). The ratios varied from 1.02 - 1.29, 
with a mean of 1.14 (S.D. = 0.06). These flies were clearly a single 
species in terms of their genitaha and the sensory organ on the 

*Malham Tarn Field Centre, Settle, North Yorkshire, BD24 9PU. 



A FURTHER SYNONYM IN THE GENUS CONICERA MEIGEN 1 27 

middle leg. The only other Conicera in the water trap were a single 
female of the same species and a single male of Conicera similis 
(Haliday). The observations on the males of the first species are 
plotted in Fig. 1. On the horizontal axis the fore-leg ratios for C. 
tibialis and C. fallens, according to the Uterature, are indicated. In 
the sample examined it is evident that the mean is just within the 
definition of C. tibialis. The definition for C. fallens is within the 
expected distribution about this mean but outside the Hmits of its 
standard deviation. This would account for the rarity of C fallens 
in collections, and the data suggest, therefore, the C. fallens rep- 
resents one extreme of a range of variation in C tibialis. 

In the light of the above observations I have examined (througli 
the co-operation of Dr. H. Ulrich, Zoologisches Forschugsinstitut 
und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn) the holotype, a paratype 
and other specimens o^ C. fallens determined by the late Fr.Schmitz. 
I can detect no consistent difference between these and specimens of 
C. tibialis. I conclude, therefore, that C. fallens is a synonym of C 
tibialis. 



10 



5- 



100 104 108 



tib 
TA/TI 



1-16 1-20 



fal 



1 — \ — I 

1-28 1-32 1-36 



Fig. 1. Frequency histogram for ratio of foretarsus to foretibia (TA/TI) of the 
right forelegs of a sample of 48 Conicera tibialis procured in a water trap on 
3 June 1980. tib = ratio for C. tibialis according to literature, fal = ratio for 
'C: fallens' according to literature. 

Revised Check List of British Conicera 

The latest Check List (Colyer and Smith, 1976) gives 9 species 
of Conicera for Britain. The following amended Hst gives 6 species 
as follows; 

CONICERA Meigen, 1830 
S. CONICERA S. S. 
dauci Meigen, 1830) 
atra (Meigen, 1830) 



128 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

S. HYPOCERINA Malloch, 1913 
/7on<7o/fl Schmitz, 1938 

similis auctt.. nee. Haliday, 1833 

minuscula Schmitz, 1953; 
schnittmanni Selimitz. 1926; 
tarsalis Sehmitz, 1920; 
S. TRITOCONICERA Schmitz, 1952; 
s/>»///s (Haliday, 1833); 

pauxilla Schmitz, 1920; 
tibialis Schmitz, 1925; 

fallens Schmitz, 1948. syn nov. 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to the Shell International Petroleum Co. Ltd for 
a grant to aid my study of Phoridae. 

References 

Borgmeier, T., 1963. Revision of the North American Phorid flies. 

Part I. Studia Ent. 6: 1 - 256. 
Colyer, C. N. and Smith, K. G. V., 1976. In Kloet, G. S. and Hincks, 

W.D. A check Hst of British Insects. 2nd Edition. Part 5: Diptera 

and Siphonoptera. 

Handbks. Ident. Brit. Insects. 9 (5). 57-61. 
Disney, R. H. L., 1980a. Conicera pauxilla Schmitz is a synonym of 

Conicera similis (Haliday) (Diptera: Phoridae). Entomologist's 

Gaz. 31: 2. 
Disney, R. H. L., 1980b. What is Conicera minuscula Schmitz 

(Diptera: ?\\on<\2iey. Entomologist's Gaz. 31: 202. 
Schmitz, H., 1953. In Lindner, E. (Ed). Die Fliegen der palaeark- 
tischen Region 3 3 Phoridae Lief. 171: 273 -320. 

The Frosted Green: polyploca ridens Fabricius 
AB. FUMOSA Warnecke - While trunk-hunting at Brickett 
Wood, Hertfordshire on 16th April 1981, I was delighted to find at 
rest on a birch, an extreme melanic form of this local thyatirid in 
excellent condition. Reference to the R.C.K. collection in the 
BMNH showed it to conform to ab. fumosa Warnecke, which is 
represented there by four examples, three of which are also from 
Hertfordsliire (Tring, two, 1965; Harpenden, one, 1952), and a 
single specimen from Woking, Surrey, 1976. Ab. fumosa appears 
nearest to ab. unicolor Cockayne (cf. original description in Ent. 
Rec, 63: 31, pit. 2, fig. 7), but is more extreme. The fact that it 
may not have been recorded prior to 1952, and its apparently rather 
restricted distribution, may indicate that fumosa is of only rela- 
tively recent occurrence in Britain. - J. M. Chalmers-HUNT. 

The large Tortoiseshell: Nymphalis polych- 
LOROS L. IN Kent. - I captured a male Large Tortoiseshell at 
St. Margaret's Bay, Kent on the 28th of August 1980, and exhibited 
it at a meeting of the Kent Lepidopterists' Group at Maidstone 
Museum on 21st March 1981 -AD. HoWELL, 12, Harrow Dene, 
St. Peters, Broadstairs, Kent. 



129 
FURTHER SCOTTISH RECORDS OF CONIFER- 
FEEDING PACHYNEMA TUS 
(HYM., TENTHREDINIDAE) 

By A. D. LiSTON * 

Summary 

All three British conifer-feeding Pachynematus Konow are now 
known to occur in Scotland. P. imperfectus (Zaddach & Brischke) is 
recorded in North Britain for tlie first time. New Scottish areas 
are recorded for the other two species. 



Three introduced Pachynematus feeding on Coniferae are 
recorded as occurring in Britain by Benson (1958). Larvae of 
Pachynematus montanus (Zaddach & Brischke) and scutellatus 
(Hartig). species which are both recorded as Scottish in Liston 
(1980), feed on Picea and Abies. Tlie third known British species, 
P. imperfectus (Zaddach & Brischke), attacks Larix. Only the first 
two species have been recorded as pests in Europe: imperfectus 
is normally too scarce to prove troublesome. All species are spring 
fliers with a single generation per year. 

In addition to tlie records already pubHshed. I can now add 
the following. 

P. imperfectus (Z. & B.) 

2 9?, 19.V.1980, Cademuir Plantation, Glentress Forest, 
Peebleshire. Larvae have also been found at this locaUty. Previously 
only from Devon, Gloucestershire, Surrey and Hertfordshire (Benson, 
I.e.). In the collection of the Forestry Commission (Alice Holt 
Research Station) there are specimens from the following additional 
areas: Radnor (Wales) and Mortimer Forest (Hereford) (Dr. D. J. 
Billany, pers. comm.J. P. imperfectus probably has a much wider 
British distribution than previously thought. It is native to the 
Central European Alps (see Pschorn-Walcher & Zinnert, 1971) and 
should be able to adapt well to conditions in North Britain. On the 
Continent it has been introduced to North Germany, Denmark 
and Sweden. It is apparently also present in East Siberia on Siberian 
Larch (Vershutskij 1 966). 

P. scutellatus (Hart.) 

My record (Liston, I.e.) of male scutellatus "beaten from 
Larix'' should read "Picea" The specimen recorded from Corstor- 
phine Hill, Edinburgh, I now think to have originated in my garden 
on Corstorphine Hill. Males were common from 14.v. to 20.V.1980 
around a single Norway Spruce. On the first day I estimated 14 
specimens to be present, and about 20 on the 18th. No females 
were found, though pVotandry was allowed for. Cocoons were pre- 
sumably present in the soil around the roots when the tree was 

*99 Clermiston Road, Edinburgh EH12 6UU. 



130 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

brought from Bolton Muir Wood, East Lothian, in the winter several 
years ago. 

P. montanus (Z. & B.) 

2 males found on same tree in garden on 15. v. 1980 and single 
males on every day up to and including 21. v. No females of this 
species could be found. Males of scutellatus invariably flew between 
ground level and 2 metres above ground. P. montanus flew from 
above this level to the leader of the tree. A ladder had to be used 
to obtain specimens of the latter species. If similar separation of 
flight activity occurs under natural conditions, tliis might explain 
why montanus is usually recorded as scarcer. 

3 r-TcT, K , 19.V.1980, Cademuir Plantation, Glentress Forest, 
Peebleshire. P. scutellatus does not appear to occur at this locaUty. 
It is of interest to note that the first Scottish record of Cephalcia 
lariciphila Wachtl (Hym., Pamphiliidae), an important pest of larch 
elsewhere in Britain (Billany & Brown, 1980), was made at Cademuir 
Plantation (Liston, I.e.). In my experience, this locality has an 
unusually rich fauna of conifer-sawflies for Scotland. It is to be 
hoped that C. lariciphila does not prove to be well estabHshed here, 
for these pamphiliids have good dispersal abiUty. 

Acknowledgement 

I am most grateful to Dr. D. J. Billany for information on the 
distribution of Pachynematus imperfectus. 

References 

Benson, R. B. 1958. Hymenoptera Symphyta. Handb Ident. Br. 

Insects 6 {2c): 232-233. 
Billany, D.J. and Brown, R.M. 1980. The Web-spinning Larch 

Sawfly, Cephalcia lariciphila Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Pam- 

pliiliidae) A New Pest of Larix in England and Wales. Forestry 

53: 71-80. 
Liston, A. D. 1980. Notes on SawfUes (Hym., Symphyta) collected 

in Scotland. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 1 15: 239-243. 
Pschorn-Walcher, H. and Zinnert, K. D. 1971. Zur Larvalsyste- 

matik, Verbreitung und Okologie der europaischen Larchen- 

Blattwespen.Z. angew. Ent. 68: 345-366 
Vershutskij, B. N. 1966. Pilil 'shchiki Pribaikal' ya. "Nauka", 

Moscow. 164 pages. 



The Grayling: Hipparchia Semele L in Kent 
IN 1980. - I noted a single specimen of this butterfly at Cretway 
Down, Folkestone on the 21st of August 1980. It was a large exam- 
ple and appeared to be female. - R. N. HOBBS, 15, Greenacres, 
Westfield, Hastings, East Sussex TN35 4QT. [The Grayling has 
become exceedingly scarce in Kent, and this is only the second 
report of its occurrence in the country since 1976. - J.M.C.-H.] 



Practical Hints — June 

On a solitary Rhamnus bush in a wood near here (Bushey, 
Herts), the larvae of Philereme vetidata D & S. (Brown Scallop) and 
P. transversata Hufn. (Dark Umber) are to be found in early June. 
The former spins a leaf into a pod, and the latter feed exposed, rest- 
ing on a twig among the leaves by day and are very procryptic. 
In 1979 I could find neither, but instead found green, stripy geo- 
meter larvae resting along the midribs of the leaves, on the under 
sides. My suspicions were confirmed when I bred a series of Triphosa 
dubitata L. (Tissue), which I had never seen in the district before 
(Goater). 

The early part of June is tlie best time to search for larvae 
of Archer's Dart (Agrotis vestigialis Hufn.). Patches of Yellow 
Bedstraw growing behind sandhills on the coast should be examined. 
Look between the plants for small circular holes in the sand I" 
diameter, then scoop down to about 2", and the larva will pop out. 
On being disturbed it wUl roll into a semicircle, but then im- 
mediately attempts to rebury itself, usually pushing itself between 
ones fingers with, considerable vigour. The larva is a rather oily 
greenish grey, with a dark dorsal line and dark prothoracic plate 
and has black spiracles. It is important to locate the riglit type of 
holes in the sand. Large squarish holes usually harbour small sand 
ants nests, and very small holes, beetles. Tlie larva, like most of 
those of this group, appears to be entirely subterranean and 
probably feeds on the roots of sandhill plants. Despite the 
"entrance'' hole, I have not found the larva at night, even when 
searching the same area where I uncovered them by day. Keep the 
larvae in several inches of sand in the breeding container, and do not 
disturb. A few roots of bedstraw etc. should be buried in the sand 
(Platts). 

If you are in a locahty for the Welsh Clearwing (Conopia scoliae- 
fonnis Bork.) during the second half of June or early July, and the 
morning is warm, examine the trees carefully for freslily emerged 
specimens. The presence of empty pupa cases is a sure sign the moth 
is around, as they soon disintergrate. At 1345 hrs. on 22nd July, 
1979 ( a very late season), we found a tree with three freshly 
emerged moths on it, together with two males which had assembled 
to one of the females; a little later there was another female on the 
same tree (Goater). 

Imagines of Discoloxia blomeri may be found on beech trunks 
in woods where there is a good growth of wych elm. Tliey can be 
very lively (Richardson). 

On the Lincolnshire coast, Eupithecia pygtnaeata Hbn. (Marsh 
Pug) is associated with Cerastium arvense. It flies over the plants 
by day, alighting on the flowers to feed, and is difficult to follow. 
The best plan is to walk very slowly among patches of foodplant, 
watching carefully for the moths to move (Goater). 

In late June and early July, examine sallow bushes at night for 
larvae of Epione repandaria Hufn. (Bordered Beauty), which you 
may find suspended by a short silken thread from leaf or stem, 



132 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

and by gently tapping the bush others may appear in similar fashion 
(B.K. West). 

The Lunar Hornet (Sphecia bembecifonnis Hbn.) must be a very 
common moth, for I am always finding the old exit holes inthe 
boles of sallows; often they have been ravaged by woodpeckers. 
However, I can only find occupied burrows in stems less than 
10cm. diameter, on which the bark is smooth. On these, the 'caps' 
are just visible. The pupa is above the cap, so cut a good length 
above it, place the stem in damp sand and the moths will emerge: 
up to half a dozen per stem, if you are lucky (Goater). 

The pale reddish brown form of Lasiocampa trifoUi D & S. 
(Grass Eggar), which is native to Hayling Island, may be found as 
larvae on the Sea Lupins there in early June (Wild). 

Adults of the long-horn moth, Adela mfimitrella Scop., should 
be searched for in the flowerheads of Lady's Smock or Hedge 
Mustard. In mid-June, the well camouflaged larvae of the plume 
moth Marasmarcha lunaedactyla Haw. may be located on the shoot 
tips and upper surface of leaves of Rest Harrow; plants growing on 
the Downs or on coastal sandliills are often productive, but patience 
is needed. Acleris sphepherdana Steph. larvae spin together the 
shoots of Meadowsweet (Spiraea), and if such spinnings are collec- 
ted in mid-June this and other species may be reared (Watkinson). 

Flower heads of garden thrift showing signs of larval spinnings 
may, if picked in early June, produce many adults of Lobesia 
littoralis H. & W. a few weeks later. Also in early June, spun shoots 
o{ Lohis should be gathered since these might contain larvae of the 
pretty gelechiid Syncopacma cinctella Clerck i=vorticella Scop.). 
In late June, the large inflated blotch mines of Aspilapteryx tringi- 
pennella Z. can be found on the upper surface of leaves of plantain 
Plantago lanceolata, even in plants well covered by surrounding 
grass (Watkinson). 



Current Literature 



The World of the Tent-Makers by V. G. Dethier, illustrated by 
A. Rorer. 148pp, 14 illustradons. University of Massachusetts 
Press 1980. $ 12.50 (boards) ; ?5.95 (limp). 

A natural history, written for the lay reader, of the Eastern 
tent-maker caterpi^er, Malacosoma americanum Fab., a Lasiocampid 
related to our own lackey moth. The text describes the hfe history 
of the moth, taking the reader througli the seasons and examining 
the various problems that confront the insect. These include such 
diverse topics as the weather, growth and development, disease, 
parasites and predators. Speculation also occurs on the problems 
of navigation, colour perception, biological clocks and many other 
phenomena. The text is narrative in style - sometimes philosophical 
and often lyrical. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 133 

The volume concludes with a glossary defining the most basic 
terms, a detailed bibliography with references to original papers 
and a hst of recorded foodplants and parasites. The concluding 
detail is a little suprising in a volume that makes no mention at all of 
the scientific name of the subject! However, for those that can 
ignore the irritations of antliropomorpliism, so often found in popu- 
lar works, this volume makes interesting and often entertaining 
reading. - PAUL SOKOLOFF. 

Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects, Vol. X, Part 5(c): 
SEPSIDAE (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha, Acalyptrata). By A. C. Pont. 

Royal Entomological Society, London 1979. [Price not indicated] 

Cohectors and students of British Diptera will unreservedly 
welcome this latest addition to the series, both for its intrinsic 
excellence and for its being the first work to deal at all fully with 
our species of this small and previously much neglected family. 
Dipterists have for some time reaUzed that the available keys for 
Sepsid identification are unsatisfactory, in large measure because of 
the failure to grasp certain deceptive kinds of intraspecific variation 
occurring in the family. Thanks to Mr. Pont's fruitful labours, these 
difficulties (and any others) are now cleared away; and with the 
detailed keys and the wealth of clear figures of critical structures, 
it will be found a straightforward matter to arrive at secure deter- 
minations. The plurality of characters given in the keys is higlily 
commendable. Ten pages of prehminary matter amply cover biology 
and immature stages, habits and behaviour, and morphology. The 
remaining 23 i comprise the keys, bibliography etc., and ten plates 
of figures. 

(The transfer by Hennig of the robust, strongly-built kelp-fly 
Orygnia from the Coelopidae (where it would seem naturally located) 
to the present family of much smaller, slender, ant-like flies (where 
it appears utterly out of place), adopted here, is not accepted by 
all recent authorities, as Mr. Pont points out — and no wonder. 
The reviewer feels tliat such an extraordinary re-location is only 
acceptable if the grounds upon which it is proposed are firm and 
convincing beyond reasonable doubt. Unfortunately they are not 
stated here, but the author allows that Orygtna is anomalous within 
the Sepsidae, and in defining the characters of the family exceptions 
have continually to be made for it. This does nothing to allay one's 
doubts; and meanwhile some of us will remain sceptical! It is all very 
well to try to account for such a case by "convergent evolution", 
but pushed beyond a certain point this becomes implausible.) 

Any faults are very few and minor. The term sympatric is twice 
used where the context makes it quite clear that syntopic is required 
(pp. 8, 20).* In the description of Saltella (p. 11) it might have 
been helpful to mention the unusual variation in colour of scutellum 
- which could puzzle a novice - or at least to refer to p. 8 where 
it is briefly noted. Perhaps also the dark copper colour of the tergites 

*Sympatric ("sharing the same fatherland") = having a similar world dis- 
tribution; syntopic = sharing the same habitat or biotope. 



134 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 15.VI.81 

in Sepsis, contrasting with the matt black thorax, could with advan- 
tage have been included among the more readily seen features of the 
genus. Though development-media are listed in some detail (p.3), 
one of some importance is omitted, viz. heaps of cut grass, garden 
compost, etc., which must replace cowdung as the source of the con- 
siderable populations of Sepsidae in tlie suburbs of London and 
other towns where there are no cattle but many gardens; common 
species of Sepsis and Nemopoda nitidula often abound in the 
vicinity of such heaps in the ammoniacal stage of decomposition. 
- A. A. A. 

Notes and Observations 

Apropos Mr Evans' Note. - Mr K. G. W. Evans is to be 
congratulated on the stand he has taken on behalf of collectors 
(Ent. Record, 92: 253). The days are gone when collectors took 
huge series of any one particular species in the field. The great 
majority of collectors want only perfect insects for their cabinets, 
which means that bred specimens are much preferred to wild ones, 
and from one female caught in the wild a very large number of 
insects can often be bred. Nearly all collector-entomologists are 
conservation-minded, and will often return bred material surplus to 
their requirements to their original locality. When this is a long 
distance from home, I know that they will often contact an ento- 
mologist from that area and ask him to return it to a particular 
site. In this way, many collectors are putting more back 'into the 
pot' than the anti-collectors. 

I find the carping of some anti-collectors very wearisome. Their 
arguments against collecting are often illogical and never convincing. 
- Robert a. Cramp, "Lea Hurst", 1 1, Wray Park Road, Reigate, 
Surrey RH2 ODG. 

Comment ON THE Note ON Halved Gynandro- 
MORPH OF THE PURPLE Hairstreak. - Following W. 
Lockyer's note {Ent. Record, 93 (1), 12) on rearing a halved gynan- 
dromorph of the Purple Hairstreak, Quercusia quercus (L.), from 
a larva taken at Pamber Forest, Hampshire, on 9th June 1979, 
Mr. Chalmers-Hunt comments that this is probably only the second 
British example. I would hke to draw attention to an example 
from north of the border, which was beautifully illustrated in 1855 
in J. O. Westwood's The Butterflies of Great Britain with their 
Transformations Delineated and Described. Taken in Scotland by 
Mr. Weaver in 1854, this specimen had the two wings on the right 
masculine and those on the left feminine. Apparently it was not 
absolutely symmetrical for, according to Westwood, the antennae 
and forelegs on both sides were decidedly feminine. This specimen 
could possibly have been in the Samuel Stevens Collection by 
1899 but is more probably a third example. - K. P. BLAND, 
35, Charterhall Road, Edinburgh, EH9 5HS. 



notes and observations 135 

The Date of Thomas Martyn's the English Ento- 
mologist. 1792 or 1793? - S. C. S. Brown (91 : 64), commenting 
on my bibliograpliical description of Martyn's book (90: 263-264), 
is the latest to call attention to a significant anomaly. Although the 
engraved titles (English and French) bear 1792 dates, the English 
dedication is dated 21st March 1793. My study of many copies of 
the English and French editions and their combinations led me to 
summarize a tangled problem in short space by suggesting that the 
work had a "complex printing history." In fact I was unable to 
determine precisely when each of the various Ungual editions was 
issued, althougli we know from watermark dates that copies of 
Martyn's book were still being printed (with the "1792" engraved 
titles unchanged) early in the nineteenth century. Since Mr. Brown's 
query I have conducted a much wider search in eigliteenth-century 
newspapers and other contemporary sources, but I still have not 
found a precise date of first appearance of any of the Martyn 
editions. 

There is, however, a Ukely explanation. The copperplates for 
Martyn's title-pages were certainly finished and dated in 1792, 
but at least some of the components were not completed and ready 
for publication until the following year. We know that tliis was true 
in the case of the English material because of the 1 793 dedication 
date. Tlie French preface contains some evidence; althougli it is 
undated, it includes a discussion of Martyn's pubUcation plans 
"dans le cours de I'annee 1793," which, significantly, did not 
materialize. Martyn, who was no more concerned about absolute 
bibhograpliical precision than most other eighteenth-century 
authors, may not have been incUned to 'redo' his title-pages, which 
saw service with unamended date for at least a decade. (In copies 
printed at a later time, the 1792 titles are sometimes printed on 
paper with later watermark dates.) 

At least at present, there appears to be no evidence that the 
Ungual editions of Martyn's book were issued in parts or fascicles. 
So, in citations to whoUy English copies, or to copies with English 
and French components combined, bibUographers may wish to 
follow the 1792 title date with a bracketed [1793] , reflecting what 
seems to have been the date of first pubUcation of such copies. 
In deference to the absence of evidence about the French edition, 
with its undated dedication and differing preface, the more cautious 
student might choose to retain the 1 792 date alone until more data 
are at hand. 

The English Entomologist is not the only one of Martyn's 
works to have provided scholars with headaches; it was preceded 
by the once notoriously difficult The Universal Conchologist, 
frequently cited as (London, 1784 [-92]) but now interpreted to 
have had its first edition completed by 1787; and some of the 
questions raised by tJie bibUographicaUy fascinating ft vc/^e.- Figures 
of Non descript Lepidopterous Insects (London, 1797) are still 
unanswered. - R. S. WILKINSON, The American Museum of 
Natural History, New York City, New York 10024. 



136 entomologist's record 15.vi.81 

Sembidion quinquestriatum Gyll. (Col.: Carabl 
DAE) Again at Blackheath; With Two Further 
Records. - While stripping loose bark off lopped branches of 
dead elm in the front garden of a deserted house on the Charlton 
side of Blacklieath, S.E. London, on 4th October last, I was pleased 
to come upon a specimen of this interesting little ground-beetle. I 
had previously taken it but few times, always singly; and in a good 
many years' collecting in the district only two others had occurred 
to me, one beaten out of ivy on a wall of my former garden (1952, 
Ent. mon. Mag., 88: 147) and another some years later in the house 
(of obscure provenance). I regard the species as rare in general, 
though occasionally numerous at a particular spot. Its true biotope 
is somewhat problematic, and its frequent association with old 
walls (attested by the records) often remarked upon. The single 
examples usually met with are doubtless for the most part casuals, 
away from their proper habitat. In June 1960 my mother caught 
and passed to me a specimen running on a table-cloth in a hotel at 
Marlborough, Wilts — possibly a new county record; and on 5.X.64 
one was found under bark of a large fallen elm in Windsor Great 
Park, constituting an addition to the list of Windsor Forest Coleop- 
tera. - A. A. Allen. 

Obituary 

Captain A P. Gainsford 

Peter Gainsford died on July 29th 1980 after a protracted 
illness which he bore with great fortitude. The calmness and courage 
which characterised the latter years of his life, and which arose 
out of his strongly held Christian beUefs, could not fail to impress 
all who knew him during that time. 

Peter was born in Sheffield on May 28th 1915 and was educated 
at Kelly College, Tavistock, where he first started collecting butter- 
flies. His army career was with the 43rd Wessex and 1 1th Armoured 
Division in Europe and he was awarded the Croix de Guerre during 
the B.L.A. advance from the Seine to Antwerp. A chartered archi- 
tect for 32 years he had private practices in Plymouth, Winchester 
and Kenya. 

The British butterflies were Peter's main entomological interest 
and he built up a magnificent collection which included Venessa 
virginiensis Dru., a unique aberration of Anthocharis cardamines 
L. and a series of extreme vars. of Mellicta a thalia Rott. All of these 
he took himself The remarkable ab. berviniensis of the Small 
Copper which he took at Wembury Point in 1969 is in the British 
Museum (Natural History) but the remainder of this collection was 
sold in 1975 and is in the National Butterfly Museum at Bramber 
Sussex. Afterwards he formed another collection of butterflies, 
all beautifully set and arranged and containing some fine vars. taken 
during the last few years of his life. 

All who knew Peter Gainsford will want to extend their sym- 
pathy to Pamela his wife and his three sons. — C. J. LUCKENS 



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CONTENTS 

Microlepidoptera: A Review for the Year 1980. Rev. D. J. AGASSIZ 91 

Notes on the Lepidoptera of Cornwall. Dr. F. H. N. SMITH 94 

The Pupation o( Anthocharis. Lt. Col. C. F. COWAN 97 

Discovery of the Larva of Agonopterix astrantiae (Heinemann) in 

Britain. R. J. HECKFORD and Dr. J. R. LANGMAID 100 

The Immigration of Lepidoptera to the British Isles in 1980, with an 
Account of the Invasion of the Painted Lady (Cynthia cardui 
L.)R.F. BRETHERTON and J. M.CHALMERS-HUNT ... 103 

The B.C.S. Warren Collection and its Type-Material. R.I. VANE- 
WRIGHT and P. R. ACKERY 112 

Lepidoptera of Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire. Dr. M. R. YOUNG, 

R. M. PALMER and Dr. P. D. HULME 116 

The Canary Islands Revisited in 1979. H. G. ALLCARD and A. 

VALLETTA 120 

A Further Synonym in the Genus Conicera Meigen with a Revised 

List of the British Species (Dipt.: Phoridae). R. H. L. DISNEY 126 

Further Scottish Records of Conifer-Feeding Pachynematus (Hym. 

Tenthredinidae). A. D. LISTON 129 

Practical Hints - June 131 

Notes and Observations: 

The Dark Swordgrass: Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel in March. 

R. A. SOFTLY 99 

Territorial Behaviour in British Butterflies. M. S. HARVEY ... 102 

The Larva of Eupithecia trisignaria Herrich-Schaffer. 

E. C. PELHAM-CLINTON 102 

Some Notes on Eratophyes aleatrix Diakonoff (Lep.: Oeco- 

phoridae). J. B. WOLSCHRYN Ill 

Undue Alarm over Parasitism (Hym.) of Gostera anachoreta 

(D. & S). Dr. M. R. SHAW 115 

Unusual Feeding of Coleophora ibipennella Z. P. SOKOLOFF 115 

Helops caeruleus L. (Col.): Corrigendum and Addenda. 

A.A.ALLEN 119 

The Dotted Rustic: Ryacia simulam Hufnagel in London. 

R. A. SOFTLY 125 

The Frosted Green: Polvploca ridens F. ab. fumosa Warnecke. 
J.M.CHALMERS-HUNT 128 

The Large Tortoiseshell: Nymphalis polychloros L. in Kent. 

A. D. HOWELL 128 

The Grayling: Hipparchia semele L. in Kent. R. N. HOBBS ... 130 

Apropos Mr. Evans' Note. R. A. CRAMP 134 

Comment on the Note on Halved Gynandromorph of the 

Purple Hairstreak. Dr. K. P. BLAND 134 

The Date pf Thomas Martyn's The English Entomologist: 

1792or 1793? Dr. R.S.WILKINSON 135 

Bembidion quinquestriatum Gyll. (Col.: Carabidae) again at 

Blackheath with Two Further Records. A. A. ALLEN. 136 

Current Literature 93,132,133 

Obituary: Captain A. P. Gainsford ... ... ... 136 



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^ Neville Birkett, m.a., m.b. C. A. Collingwood, b.sc, f.r.e.s. ^ 

^ S. N. A. Jacobs, f.r.e.s. J. Heath, f.r.e.s., f.l.s. ^ 

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PIIRI TgHFn Rf-rV4r>MTHI V 



137 

THE FATE OF HELIOTHIS PELTIGERA D. & S. 
IN SUSSEX. 

By Colin Pratt* 

From the earliest of times this migratory moth has been 
known in England, although it was usually rare. Records came 
mainly from along the south coast, but when larvae were found 
they often occurred in abundance on a variety of different 
foodplants - probably largely on Ononis repens and Senecio 
viscosus (Restharrow and Sticky Groundsel). Nevertheless, 
despite the profusion of larvae when found, the adult insect was 
even during the halcyon days of the 19th century "for some 
unexplained reason .... rarely seen" (Barrett). Breeders soon 
found that an enhanced temperature, compared to the British 
Isles, of about 30 degrees Centrigrade sometimes yielded good 
results, and during the second world war Kettlewell (1944) 
conducted the still famous series of experiments, using this 
temperature to investigate the effects on pigmentation in 
imagines and the preceding pupal reactions. Nevertheless, the 
successful breeding of H.peltigera has far from consistently been 
achieved, even in recent times - the reason being 
undetermined. 

On August 12th 1980, larvae were again discovered near 
Eastbourne, by Bernard Skinner, this always being a favoured 
area. As previously, local enthusiasts encountered varying 
degrees of success when breeding through to the adult stage; 
whilst some lepidopterists bred fine series by raising the 
temperature to 26 or 38 degrees Centigrade, others, using a more 
British Ufestyle, experienced a high mortality rate with many 
cripples - and some failed completely. The success rate for 
larvae bred indoors with a temperature of 12 to 15 degrees 
Centigrade was up to 15%. 

The larvae found in mid August were almost full grown and 
the previous stage had therefore been deposited, presumably by 
a primary immigrant, during June - although an adult was 
noted seven miles away at Ninfield on April 10th. All being well, 
it was expected that adults would emerge from the shingle in 
early October, but several visits with mercury vapour light were 
to prove fruitless. Nevertheless, according to Bretherton and 
Chalmers-Hunt (1981), there is evidence to suggest that at least 
one adult successfully completed its life-cycle on English soil 
during this summer - at Looe Bar in East Cornwall. At the time 
he wrote his article, Kettelewell thought the species estabhshed 
in southwestern England but at the present, despite some 
sequential records in Sussex (Pratt, 1981) and elsewhere, the 
insect is thought unable to withstand our winter climate. 
Therefore it was expected that when larvae encountered our 
winter weather death would be the result - but not in the 
manner described later. 

*5 View Road, Peacehaven, Newhaven, Sussex. 



138 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

During the autumn, larvae were again found very 
commonly in the same place as previously, and to my 
knowledge a total of almost 250 caterpillars were taken by 
various collectors from this one spot at this time. On October 
4th 1980, my wife and I collected 51 variable larvae during an 
hour, from a band of Sticky Groundsel growing on the sea-shore 
at the soon to be built upon area near Eastbourne. Buckler 
(1895) illustrates six larval forms (Vol. 6:Plate 99:2 to 2e) of 
which only one was not noted on that day - 2b. One parasite 
cocoon was soon discovered, with its hosts skin, attached to the 
foodplant; this emerged on October 17th into a fine Ichneumonid 
of the subfamily Campopleginae. 

The caterpillars collected were in various stages of growth; 
17 were in their final instar, 18 at the penultimate, and 15 were 
only one centimetre in length. Ten larvae in the penultimate 
instar were replaced outside at my home address, under net, on 
Marigold and Sticky Groundsel. All commenced feeding on the 
leaves, flowers, and seed heads. After two weeks had elapsed, 
five had apparently pupated, but by the time another similar 
time period had elapsed, the remaining half had died. These 
larvae were found hanging from a pair of abdominal legs and 
exhibited brownish/black discoloured blotches on their bodies, 
giving the appearance of small localised burns and singes. This 
syndrome was also present on the hairs and feet and could be 
seen a few days before death. No odour was discernable at this 
stage, although later an offensive smell was present; this was 
probably due to a secondary bacteriological attack and was 
determined as a gram negative rod type bacteria. Other obvious 
characteristics of the syndrome included a fragile skin and 
liquified contents. 

A month later, on November 29th, the earth was carefully 
investigated for the remaining insects. Of the five larvae to go 
below ground only one had attained the pupal stage; this pupa 
was shiny black, very fragile, and contained myriads of pale 
white nematode worms, 0.55 mm in length. The other four 
larvae had died before pupation and had succumbed to the 
symptoms describled earlier. Thus, none of this group survived 
outside, although all apparently continued to feed and live 
normally for some time after experiencing a night temperature of 
minus two degrees Centigrade six days after collection. 
According to Sacharov (1930), larval death in lepidoptera due to 
cold (as opposed to starvation due to prolonged immobilisation) 
is largely dependant upon the amount of fat present in 
individuals; this, and body salts, considerably lowering the freezing 
point of skin contents. 

From the 51 larvae brought home, the remaining 40 were 
kept indoors and placed in an environment at a steady 19 to 20 
degrees Centigrade. Sufficient water was added to the potted 
Marigold and Sticky Groundsel to ensure plant health but, that 
apart, a dry environment was aimed for. Two early instar larvae 
died after a week had elapsed, but by the 19th October, all the 



THE FATE OF HELIOTHIS PELTIGERA D. & S. IN SUSSEX 139 

rest had apparently pupated. Emergences commenced four 
weeks later on the 17th November, and continued through until 
1st December, by which time 10 adults had been noted. Of 
these, three dark males and three dark females emerged 
successfully, whilst four failed to inflate their hindwings. 

The earth from which these adults had emerged was then 
investigated for the remainder of the brood. All had attained the 
pupal stage, but 16 suffered from similar symptoms as those 
larvae placed outside - namely a liquifying of body contents. 
However, the insects had been well advanced to emergence as 
post mortems revealed several recognisable features, including 
antennae and wing scales. All 12 remaining pupae were still 
quite green, aUve, and seemingly healthy at this stage. 

Once these rather distinctive larval and pupal mortahties 
commenced, after consulting the illuminating section dealing 
with insect diseases, in volume 1 of British Moths and Butterflies 
by Rivers (1976), a virus disease was suspected. For confirmation, 
samples were forwarded to the National Environment Research 
Council's Institute of Virology at Oxford where Mr. C. Rivers 
kindly arranged for their examination. His report confirmed that 
a nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) was responsible for the deaths 
and perhaps dso the high proportion of cripples - certainly, accor- 
ding to Neilson in Canada, the effects of a virus infection on adults 
can include wing cripples as experienced by the author and by 
Kettelewell nearly 40 years ago. 

The virus was very similar to that used in America as a pest 
control measure for Heliothis species, it being extremely infectious, 
and was thought may be present as an attenuated infection in 
many individuals within a species but that a lowering of resistence 
is needed to allow multiplication and therefore to incur overt, and 
life -affecting, symptoms. This lowering of resistence would be 
precipitated by any adverse conditions met with and in the case of 
H. peltigera, as the species is at a speculative best at the edge of its 
range in England (failure to survive our winter being much more 
likely), our climate would surely provide just such a set of unsuitable 
circumstances. 

Over the weeks following the adult emergences, three 
pupae dried up and another became distended with liquified 
contents; also, at the end of January, a white fungus started to 
attack three further pupae, sending up vertical columns of 
excrescence quite a centimetre in height. By the middle of 
February, although five pupae were still healthy, it seem Ukely 
that no further emergences would be forthcoming in the short 
term, unless a different approach was made. Kettlewell 
encountered this in his experiments, and stated that some pupae 
derived from Kent, had to experience a previous period of cold 
before the application of heat became successful - this being 
attributed to a hibernatory phase. The remaining five pupae 
were therefore placed in a domestic refrigerator at 7 to 8 degrees 
Centigrade for 5 weeks, and then incubated at 26 to 28 degrees 
Centigrade over damp sand. All pupae survived the artificial 



140 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

winter, and after just over a month had elapsed at the higher 
temperature, these five final survivors suddenly coloured up. 
Two very light coloured females emerged on April 26th, but the 
last three pupae died containing millions of microscopic 
polyhedra characteristic of a NPV. Even these two final 
emergences were not completely free of the crippled hindwing 
symptoms noted earlier, although this was now minimal. 



Summary 

Inconsistency has always dogged the breeding of 
H.peltigera in Britain, both in the wild and by collectors, with 
often unexplained high mortality rates; having regard to the 
causes of death found in feral larvae from Sussex in 1980, it is 
postulated that in addition to the more usual hazards 
encountered, NPV's have always accounted heavily for this 
phenomenon - especially as traces of some pathogenic micro- 
organisms can remain infectious for many years under certain 
conditions. 

Attempts by others to breed the species through, using the 
same stock, at temperatures of 26 and 38 degrees Centigrade 
enjoyed a near perfect success rate. However, of 40 larvae 
placed in an artificial environment at 19 to 20 degrees 
Centigrade, 65% showed severe symptoms of, or eventually 
died from, the presence of a NPV; 15% either dried up or 
succumbed to fungal attack in the pupal stage; whilst 20% 
attained the adult state successfully. Total lethality was 
experienced by collected larvae, which continued to be exposed 
to the "normal" autumn conditions encountered on the Sussex 
coast in 1980; excluding a single mortality due to the presence of 
nemotodes, all died from the symptoms of a NPV. 

Thermal inhibition of NPV's, on a very similar temperature 
range, in some insects was noted more than 25 years ago by Bird 
(1954), and later by Tanada and Tanabe (1965), and others. 
Whilst larvae survived temperatures below the freezing point of 
water, low temperature seemed to be the main factor allowing 
virus multiplication. 

Acknowledgements 

As the author is not an expert in the highly specialised field 
of insect pathogens, recourse was made to Mr. C. F. Rivers, of 
the Institute of Virology at Oxford, whose disease identification 
and advice on some virological aspects of this paper was 
invaluable. My thanks are also due to Mr. Bernard Skinner who 
kindly supplied details of his temperature experiments. 

References 

Barrett, C. G., 1900 The Lepidoptera of the British 
Islands. Reeve, London, VI: 157-160. 



THE FATE OF HELIOTHIS PELTIGERA D. & S. IN SUSSEX 141 

Bird, F. T., 1954. The use of a virus disease in the biological 

control of the European Spruce Sawfly, Diprion hercyniae 

(Htg.). Bi-monthly Prog. Rpt, Div. Forest Biol, Canada Dept 

Agr., 10 (1) : 2-3. 
Bretherton, R. F., and Chalmers-Hunt, J. M., 1981. The 

Immigration of Lepidoptera to the British Isles in 1980, with 

an Account of the Invasion of the Painted Lady : Cynthia 

cardui (L.). Ent. Rec, 93:47-54. 
Buckler, W., 1895. The Larvae of the British Butterflies and 

Moths., Vl:Plate99. 
Kettlewell, H. B. D., 1944. Temperature Experiments on the 

Pupae oi Heliothis peltigera Schiff. Proc. S. Lond. ent. nat. 

Hist. Soc, 1943-44: 69-79. 
Neilson, M. M., 1965. Effects of a Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis on 

Adult Lepidoptera./. Inver Pathol, 7:306-314. 
Pratt, C. R., \9%\. A History of the Butterflies and Moths of 

Sussex.ln press. 
Rivers, C. F., 1976. Diseases. In British Moths and Butterflies {i . 

Heath, ed.), Vol.1, 57-70. 
Sacharov, N. L., 1930. Studies in Cold Resistence of Insects. 

Ecology, 11:3:505-517. 
Tanada, Y., and Tanabe, A.M., 1965. Resistance of Galleria 

mellonella (Linnaeus) to the Tipula Tridescent Virus at 

High Temperatures. /. Inver. Pathol., 7:184-188. 



Ceuthorhynchidius rufulus Duf., ETC., (Col.: Curcu- 
LIONIDAE) IN S. E. London. - As this little weevil is considered 
very local, and I have always found it to be so (occurring as a rule 
by odd specimens only), it may be worth noting that it belongs to 
the fauna of this suburban part of N. W. Kent; especially as the four 
localities given in the VCH Hst for that county (Fowler, 1908) 
are far east of here. 1 have taken solitary examples at roots of low 
herbage at Upper Charlton (my garden), Lower Charlton (Thames- 
side), and Kidbrooke (on a field bank). Its foodplant — species of 
Plantago — was not noticed at any of the places, but was probably 
present in all. Elsewhere I have met with C rufulus at Mickleham 
Downs (Surrey) and Clayton Downs (Sussex), by sweeping. I may 
mention further that C bamevillei Bris., the prettiest of the group, 
also occurs in my district but extremely sparingly, despite the 
abundance of its foodplant {Achillea millefolium L.); the localities 
are Blackheath (twice) and Charlton, at roots of yarrow. East of 
here I have taken it singly at Erith Marshes and Faversham Creek; 
and once swept several from its host-plant in a very restricted spot 
in the Lea Valley at Cheshunt, Herts. - A. A. ALLEN. 

Orange-tips in Peebleshire. - Two specimens ofAntho- 
charis cardamines L. were seen by Mr. David G. Long of the Royal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, on 12th May 1981 at Dawyck Garden, 
by a stream in the Tweed valley south of Stobo, VC78, and NT13. 
Both sexes were seen. This observation confirms the recent spread 
and establishment of this butterfly in Scotland. — A. G. LONG, 33, 
Windsor Crescent, Berwick upon Tweed, TD15. 



^^^PUPAL SPINES OF PIERIS BRASSICAE (L.) 

By Dr. John Feltwell f.r.e.s., f.l.s., MiBioi.* 

Abstract 

Pupal spines of P.brassicae do not appear to have been 
witnessed very often and have been described only a handful of 
times from England, India, Morocco and Sweden. They occur as 
a pair of spines on the dorsolateral side of the third abdominal 
segment. Here fresh observations of spines, this time from 
French specimens, are presented and weighed up in light of the 
scanty information recorded previously. Unpublished 
observations by Allcard and Feltwell make it likely that 
predators influence spine development. 

New Observations 

In September 1978 larvae of P.brassicae feeding on cabbage 
were brought back to England from the Cevennes mountains in 
France (Gard, 30440). From a total of 251 pupae, 239 developed 
spines, thus making a high percentage of 95.2% with spines. The 
distinctive spines measured up to 2mm in length, were uniform 
in structure throughout the batch and the distal half was always 
black (Figure 1). 

Previous Accounts 

The first account of pupal spines in P.brassicae is that of 
William Buckler (1886) who stated that 'there is a variety in 
which this second prominence becomes quite a spike'. He also 
stated that a Dr. (R.C.R. ?) Jordon sent him some similar 
specimens in 1874. The phenomenon has also been seen in India 
as Ghosh (1914) says of P.brassicae pupae that 'at the spiracular 
region on each side of the second, third and fourth abdominal 
segments there is a ridge which protrudes into a spine on the 
third abdominal ridge.' 

Two short accounts of P.brassicae spines were published 
by Green (1927) who noted a single specimen found 'attached to 
a bramble leaf, in a country lane, far from any cabbage patch,' 
and Main (1937) who collected 16 out of 46 pupae with spines 
from a garden 'in the Epping Forest district.' 

A more detailed study of P.brassicae spines was made by 
Johansson (1959) who also attempted to explain their function. 
Using a sample of 603 pupae collected in Oslo and Copenhagen 
between 1950 and 1953„ he found that there was a greater 
tendency for non-diapausing pupae to possess a spine. However, 
he admitted that his results were not clear cut, and that the 
presence or absence of spines could not be relied upon to 
separate non-diapausing pupae. 



*Marlham, Henley Down, Catsfield, East Sussex TN33 9BN 



PUPAL SPINES OF PIERIS BRASSICAE (L.) 
DORSAL VIEW LATERAL VIEW 



143 





2 mm 



Fig. 1 Pupal spines of P. brassicae drawn from exuviae. 



Factors Affecting 

A number of observations or apparent correlations have 
been made between the occurrence of spines and various 
physiological features, but little has been written on the extrinsic 
or intrinsic factors affecting spine development. 

(a) Diapause 

It was the belief of Johansson (1959) that non-diapausing 
pupae of P. brassicae would be more likely to have spines than 
diapausing ones. He pointed out that the reason why textbooks 
on European butterflies never illustrate P. brassicae wiht spines 
is because they always depict the readily available diapausing 
ones. Further south in Europe he argues, there is a chance that 
spines may be found on non-diapausing pupae and draws 
attention to observations made in India by Ghosh (1914) that the 
pupae have 'a ridge which protrudes into a spine on the third 
abdominal segment'. 

Certainlv the spines found by AUcard in Morocco (April) 
and Feltwell in France (September) were non-diapausing and would 
support Johansson's views. However, experience has shown that 
non-diapausing pupae reared in continuous culture do not have 
noticeably larger spines compared with diapausing pupae. There 
is the possibility though that various characteristics of the wild 
forms of P. brassicae may have been bred out during the last 20 
years of inbreeding in the laboratory. 

(b) Sexual differences 

There appears to be no corrrelation between sexes and 
presence or absence of pupal spines (Johansson, 1959). Equal 



144 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

numbers of each sex were hatched from spiny pupae by Main 
(8:8 hatched end of September) and by Felt well (83:83 hatched 
9th October onwards). 

(c) Larval characteristics and diseases 

No correlation could be made between non-spiny and spiny 
pupae and their setal arrangement or colour of the fifth instar 
larvae. Some of the larvae and pupae suffered from virus disease 
and were later found to have microsporidia and a granulosis 
virus, both in high concentrations, by the Unit of Invertebrate 
Virology at Oxford. 

(d) Foodplants 

In the French specimens the larvae had been eating cabbage. 
This is particularly interesting as the larvae were collected from 
different gardens but they were all reared on the same cabbage. 
It is not thought likely that rearing techniques influenced spine 
development. The spiny pupae from Morocco had been eating 
the very large leaved Nasturtium (Tropaeolum sp.). 

(e) Genetic similarities 

The pupae of the subspecies Pieris brassicae cheiranthi, 
which live on the Canary Islands, have pupal spines (Gardiner, 
1979 pers. comm.). The isolation and speciation of this 
subspecies on these islands has evoked considerable attention, 
but is does not appear that evidence of a mainland origin has 
ever been found. 

(f) Predators 

It has been proposed by AUcard (1979, pers. comm.) that 
the pupal spines of P. brassicae may have been evolved for 
protection against predators, and that they occur only in areas 
where there are many lizards. This is also in accordance with 
observations made by Feltwell in France. Here there are many 
lizards, the most numerous being the Common Wall Lizard 
(Podarcis muralis) followed by the large and impressive Green 
Lizard (Lacerta viridis). These lizards frequent the stony 
countryside and find ample refuge in the rock walls of the hill- 
terracing, as well as being found in the small gardens from which 
the larvae were collected. Another influence on larvae on wild 
crucifers may also be from chickens which roam free-range 
around the garden area but outside the growing crops. These 
birds have eyes like eagles for anything which moves, for they 
have literally to scratch an existence from the life in and on the 
soil and plants. Outside the terrace gardens, every^yhere is 
constantly nibbled down by goats and sheep, so it is possible that 
general grazing as well as feeding stimuli from reptiles and birds 
is involved in spine determination. 

As AUcard points out, there is little spine formation in 



PUPAL SPINES OF PIERIS BRASSICAE (L.) 145 

Madeira where P.brassicae feeds on cabbage grown at 2,000 
-2,500 ft (609-762 m) on northern slopes where fewer lizards are 
found. He also mentions that small birds may be involved and 
that there are a 'number of small birds on the Canaries and many 
more in Morocco'. 

Acknowledgments 

I would like to thank Mr. H. G. Allcard for sharing his 
observations and ideas about spines in P.brassicae and Linda 
Spencer of the Unit of Invertebrate Virology at Oxford for 
supplying details about virus infections. 

References 

Buckler, W. 1886. The Larvae of British Butterflies and Moths 

Vol 1. The Butterflies. Ray Society, London 202pp. 
Ghosh, C. C., 1914. Life histories of Indian insects V 

Lepidoptera (Butterflies) Mem. Dep. Agr. Ind. Ent. 5: 1-72 
Green, E. E., 1927. An abnormal pupa oi P. brassicae. Proc. ent. 

sac. London. 2: 86. 
Johnansson, A. S., 1959. Diapause and pupal morphology and 

colour in Pieris brassicae L. (Lepid., Pieridae) Norsk ent. Tid. 

9: 79-85. 
Main, H., 1937. Some points on the pupae of the Large White 

Butterfly. /Imflf. ent. soc. 2: (17)45 



The Brimstone Butterfly Ovipositing on Dock. - 
On the 15th April 1981, I was walking about my local gravel pit 
here, when I saw a female Brimstone (Qonepteryx rhamni L) flying 
along a large hedge of buckthorn (Rhamnus catharticus) and haw- 
thorn (Crataegus monogyna), and shortly after noticed she had 
begun ovipositing in characteristic manner. She also seemed quite 
interested in the hawthorn, and was seen three or four times, 
through binoculars, curling her abdomen on its leaves, but it was 
too high up for me to find any eggs, if laid. 

After I had collected two eggs from the buckthorn, I lost sight 
of the butterfly for two or three minutes, and when re-sighted it was 
about 20 yards away flying along a similar habitat but lacking 
buckthom. I then followed her for a short distance and to my 
amazement she began to oviposit on a species of dock (later identi- 
fied as Broad-leaved dock: Rumex obtusifolius). Although it curved 
its abdomen three times on separate leaves, only one egg was found, 
in the typical place along the mid-rib and near the tip of the leaf. 
The early date of ovipositing is also exceptional I believe, since most 
books give the normal time for this as occurring in May. — D. 
Frost, "Yelkonan", 14, Chauncer Way, St. Ives, Huntingdon, 
CambsPE17 4TY. 



146 A VISIT TO CLONBROCK, 1976 

By J. P. O'Connor* 

In August 1976, I received a letter from Mr. Luke Dillon- 
Mahon concerning his late uncle's (R. E. Dillon) entomological 
collection at Clonbrock House, Ahascragh, Co. Galway. In it, 
Mr. Dillon-Mahon informed me that the house and its contents 
were shortly to be auctioned. He invited me to examine the 
insects before the sale. 

R. E. Dillon, later Lord Clonbrock, was the centre of a 
major entomological controversy in Ireland. He recorded, or 
Kane recorded on his behalf, the capture of a very large number 
of species of Lepidoptera new or rare to this country. Many of 
these have been found since to be quite unreliable and have been 
omitted from the Irish list (Baynes, 1964). Beirne (1953) states 
that P.P. Graves wrote for permission to see Dillon's collection 
and was refused, and on visiting Clonbrock was refused entry to 
the house. The material does not appear to have been inspected 
since the beginning of the controversy. During my visit in 1976, 1 
made some brief notes concerning the composition and 
arrangement of the collection. In view of the mystery sur- 
rounding it, these may be of some interest. 

I arrived at Clonbrock House on the 25 August. Mr. Dillon- 
Mahon brought me upstairs to a room where the collection was 
housed. He allowed me to study it at my leisure; a pleasant 
experience enhanced by the Dillon-Mahon family's hospitality 
which included dinner and later tea and buttered scones. 

The collection was housed in four cabinets as follows:- 

(1) a cabinet of mainly tropical Lepidoptera of which only a 
few carried data labels. It is likely that they were purchased. 
There was also a mixed assemblage of British or/and Irish moths 
in a few drawers but they were unnamed and disorganised. A 
few bore green printed labels with "Clonbrock". The bottom 
drawer contained scorpions and a Customs' declaration form. 
All the specimens were in good condition. 

(2) The second cabinet was a double one with a Watkins and 
Doncaster plate. It held Irish and other Lepidoptera. The 
specimens were neatly arranged with printed labels cut from a 
label list. A variety of pins had been used including white, black. 
Continental, English, cut etc. The only extensive data labelUng 
was of "Clonbrock" specimens. These labels were mainly 
printed on green paper. In several drawers, unused 
"Clonbrock" labels were lying loose. In a few instances, 
handwritten labels were evident. Other labels (e.g. Kerry and a 
few other localities) were present but they were very sparse. A 
large proportion of the specimens in the cabinet had no labels. 
Specimens with labels were often mixed in the same row with 
ones without labels. All the material seemed to be well preserved 
undoubtedly because of well-fitting lids. It did not appear to 

♦National Museum of Ireland, Dublin 2. 



A VISIT TO CLONBROCK, 1976 147 

have been disturbed for a long time possibly not since Lord 
Clonbrock's death in 1926. In some drawers, dead Australian 
Spider Beetles (Ptinus tectus Boieldieu) were evident but they 
had caused no obvious damage. There was a little mite and 
mould damage. 

(3) This cabinet held a mixture of insect groups including 
Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Trichoptera and 
Odonata. Nearly all the specimens had been named but few had 
data labels. The species appeared to be mostly ones which are 
widely distributed. 

(4) The fourth cabinet contained Lepidoptera which were 
probably collected on the Continent. They were also named but 
lacked data. 

There are various views as to why Dillon was responsible 
for so many discredited records (Beirne, 1953; Muggins, 1953). 
However, after over fifty years since his death, it is now unlikely 
that the truth will be ever ascertained. Nevertheless, my 
examination of his collection does indicate that careless labelling 
may have been responsible for some erroneous records. Whether 
it contributed to a significent degree must remain unknown. 

There are voucher specimens representing most of Dillon's 
doubtful records preserved in the National Museum of Ireland. 

Acknowledgement 

I am very grateful to Mr. Luke Dillon-Mahon for giving me the 
opportunity to examine the R. E. Dillon collection and for 
making my visit such a pleasant one. 

References 

Baynes, E. S. A. 1964. A revised catalogue of Irish 

Macrolepidoptera. Classey, Middlesex. 
Beirne, B. P. 1953. The curious entomological activities of the 

Hon. R. E. Dillon. Entomologists's Gaz. 4: 67-72. 
Huggins, H. C 1953. The Dillon enigma. Entomologists's Gaz. 

4: 305-307. 



ACLYPEAOPACA L (COL.: SiLPHIDAE) IN WEST KENT — 
To judge from the records (or rather, the lack of them), this phyto- 
phagous Silphid has become decidedly rare with us during the latter 
half or more of the present century, though formerly it seems to 
have been less uncommon. In the course of some 50 years I have met 
with it but three times; one of these finds (of several on beet and 
goosefoot at Burwell Fen, Cambs.) was briefly mentioned in 1950, 
Ent. man. Mag., 86 : 43. In June 1943 I took an example by 
sweeping at Byfleet, Surrey, the locality being next door to Woking 
whence Fowler (1889, Col. Brit, hi, 3: 50) records it. My first 
capture however was as long ago as August 1930, when a pair occur- 
red in a rotten stump on Seal Common in the Sevenoaks district. I 
have seen no published record of A. opaca for West Kent; Fowler 
(1908, VCH list) gives only Whitstable and Deal, both in the eastern 
vice-county. — A. A. ALLEN. 



THE NORTHERLY DISTRIBUTION OF 

CALOPTILIA RUFIPENNELLA (HUBNER) 

(LEPIDOPTERA: GRACILLARIIDAE) IN 

BRITAIN. 

By M. R. Shaw 

The discovery of the sycamore-feeding Gracillariid 
Caloptilia rufipennella (Hiibner) in vice-counties 19, 25, 26, 29 
and 54 in East Anglia (Emmet 1971, 1972, 1975) was soon 
followed by the detection of a possibly independent population 
of the moth around the Scottish borders (Emmet 1979). In both 
areas it is evidently well-established and appears to be expanding 
its range, and the purpose of these notes is to record the present 
known distribution of the northern population to provide a basis 
for monitoring future changes. 

During 1980 rufipennella was found to be widespread and 
generally abundant in the "new" VCs 82 (East Lothian) and 83 
(Midlothian), and also in VCs 68, 78, 79, 81 from which (with 
VC 72, which I did not visit during 1980) Emmet (1979) had 
already recorded it. Indeed, in these vice-countries it was easily 
found wherever there was a good, searchable growth of Acer 
pseudoplatanus. Other new VC records were 84 (West Lothian), 
where it was found to be locally abundant but patchy (E. C. 
Pelham-Clinton), and cones were found with difficulty at single 
sites in 88 (Mid Perthshire: Methven Wood, NN 0526) and 99 
(Dunbartonshire: Endrick Mouth N.R., Loch Lomond, NX 
4388) by K. P. Bland. During a journey south from Edinburgh I 
searched for it in VC 67 (South Northumberland) and found a 
very few cones (R. Blythe, NZ 2178) after two failures in 
promising places further north, but I was unable to find it 
during single stops further south, in VCs 66 and 65. After this 
failure to link the two populations in Britain I paid it no more 
attention on the journey. It should be added that, apart from a 
brief and unsuccessful search in VC 85 (Fife) by E. C. Pelham- 
Clinton, and a more detailed but equally unsuccessful search 
between Moffat and the Devil's Beef Tub in the already- 
recorded VC 72 by K. P. Bland, it has not been sought in further 
vice-counties in northern Britain in 1980 as far as I am aware. 
Thus the above summary includes all we know of its current 
negative distribution. 

As a result of his initial discovery in VC 29, Emmet (1971) 
obtained 14 larvae, none of which was parasitised. He 
interpreted this as suggesting that the moth was a recent arrival. 
During 1980 my interest in rufipennella chiefly concerned its 
hymenopterous parasites, and samples, each of about 30 
penultimate and final instar larvae, were collected at Stenton 
(VC 82), Port Seaton (VC 82), Blackford Hill (VC 83) and 
Newington cemetary (VC 83) for rearing. Although about 10% 

*Royal ScoUish Museum, Edinburgh EHl IJF 



NORTHERLY DIS. OF CALOPTILIA RUFIPENNELLA IN BRITAIN 149 

died as larvae (and a few more as pharate imagines) none appeared 
to be parasitised, and I similarly failed to detect parasitism in over 
200 final and nearly 1 50 smaller cones examined at these and other 
sites. Concurrent collections of the cones of other species of Calo- 
ptilia at Blackford Hill and Stenton revealed high levels of parasitism 
by a range of both monophagous and more-or-less genus-specific 
parasites. I have little doubt that Emmet (1971) is correct that the 
arrival of nifipennella in its present areas of abundance is relatively 
recent, and that this may account for its apparently not being 
attacked by the more polyphagous of the specialist parasites of 
Caloptilia. However, I was surprised to find no parasitism at all, and 
it will be of interest to note how quickly, or if, a parasite complex 
develops. The only record of parasitism in Britain is of one cocoon 
from VC 25 recorded by Emmet (1972) to yield an unnamed 
parasite, but this could have been one of the highly polyphagous 
parasites of small cocoons that would be expected to include rufi- 
pennellaas a facultative host. 

It is worth adding that predators appear to have adapted to 
the new resource rather better. Although cones pecked by birds 
were few, very many cones had one or more nymphs of the 
predatory cimicid bug Anthocoris nemorum (L.) lying in wait 
outside and, although a proportion may have been merely 
seeking shelter before moulting, these were seen to have killed 
many rufipennella larvae as they emerged from their cones. 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to Dr. K. P. Bland and Mr. E. C. Pelham-Clinton 
for allowing me to use their unpublished records. 

References 

Emmet, A. M. 1971. Caloptilia rufipenella (Lep. 

Gracillariidae), a species new to Britain. Entomologist's 

Rec. J. Var., 83: 291-295. 
Emmet, A. M. 1972. Caloptilia rufipennella Hiibner. 

Entomologists's Rec. J. Var., 84: 286-287. 
Emmet, A. M. 1975. Notes on two species of 

microlepidoptera recently added to the British List. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 87: 59-60. 
Emmet, A. M. 1979. Microlepidoptera in Scotland, 1978. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 91: 92-96, 122-125. 



Phyllonorycter geniculella Rag. in Cornwall. - 
With reference to the blotches found in sycamore suckers here in 
October 1980, which I mentioned in my article and thought might be 
those of P. geniculella (see Ent. Rec, 93: 95), this can now be 
confirmed as one of this species has hatched. Dr. F. H. N. SMITH, 
Turnstones, Perrancoombe, Parranporth, Cornwall TR6 OHX. 



ADDITIONS TO THE MICROLEPIDOPTEROUS 

FAUNA OF THE ISLES OF CANNA AND SANDAY, 

INNER HEBRIDES 

BY M. W. Harper* AND M. R. Young** 



In July 1979 we were able to visit Canna and Sanday with the 
kind invitation of John L. Campbell, in order to record micro- 
'lepidoptera. J. D. Bradley has already assembled a good list (Bradley 
1958) following a visit to the Island in 1956, and John Campbell 
himself has very adequately covered the macrolepidoptera (Campbell 
1970, 1972, 1975 and several short notes). As well as this there 
are various other records available, all of which were kindly provided 
for us by E. C. Pelham-Qinton, and the purpose of this article is 
to bring all these additional records together, so as to update fuUy 
the list of microlepidoptera. 

For our visit the weather was predictably poor, most of the 
days being dominated by a fine, drenching rain and mist. However, 
two days were fine and the scene was transformed to the vivid 
colours for which these verdant, basaltic islands are so justly re- 
nowned. 

The additional records provided by E. C. Pelham-Qinton 
fall into several categories. There are those recorded by E. C. Pelham- 
Qinton during a visit in September 1969; those sent as specimens 
or records by J. L. Campbell to E. C. Pelham-Qinton; those from 
J. L. Campbell's coUection which were mostly identified by E. C. 
Pelham-Qinton and a few recorded in a letter from J. D. Bradley 
to J. L. Campbell in 1956. These sources are indicated in the list of 
species as: 1969 (E.C. P-C); (J.L.C. to E.C. P-C); (J.L.C.) and 
(J. D. B. to J. L. C.) respectively. All other records are our own. 

None of the species recorded here are especially rare, except 
perhaps Scobipalpa clintoni, which may be greatly under-recorded, 
but a very interesting feature is the many species associated with 
trees. Many of these may be recent arrivals as the island had few 
trees until J. L. CampbeU began to plant more in the 1940's and 
1950's. The vegetation of the islands is well described by Campbell 
(1970). 

It is clear that many species which must certainly be present 
have not yet been found. Some families, such as the NepticuUdae or 
Coleophoridae, are very underworked and there remains much scope 
for useful work on the moths of these charming and interesting 
islands. 

Species List (Nomenclature after Bradley and Fletcher 1979). 



*Cherry Orchard, Bullen, Ledbury, Herefordshire. 

**Department of Zoology, Aberdeen University, Tiliydrone Avenue, Aberdeen. 



151 
MICROLEPIDOPTEROUS FAUNA OF THE ISLES OF CANNA & SANDAY 

Nepticulidae 
Stigmella salicis Stt. One mine on Salix atrocinerea 8.9.1969 (E.C. 
P-C). 

Tineidae 
Nemapogon cloacella Haw. 7.1979 A singleton near Tighard. 
Tinea semifulvella Haw. 1969 (J. L. C. to E. C. P-C). 

GracUlariidae 
Caloptilia elongella L. Mines on Alnus glutinosa leaves in plantation 

near Tighard. Moths reared in September 1979. 
C. syringella Fabr.: A few mines on Fraxinus 7.9.1969 (E.C.P-C). 

Yponomeutidae 
Yponomeuta evonymella L.: 1970 (J.L.C.). 
Ypsolopha vittella L.: 1970 (J.L.C.). 
Prays fraxinella Bjerk: Moths near Tighard disturbed itova Fraxinus 

7.1979. 
Argyresthia conjugella Zell.: A few moths near Tighard. 

Coleophoridae 
Coleophora potentillae Elisha: A few cases on Potentilla erecta 
7.9.1969 (E.C.P-C). 

C. striatipennella Tengstrom: A single moth taken (7.1979) con- 

firmed by genitahc examination. 

Oecophoridae 
Depressaria daucella D & S. A few larvae present in flower heads of 
Oenanthe crocata 7.1979, Sanday. Moths subsequently reared 
9.1979. 

D. pastinacella Dup. 1970 (J.L.C): larvae found in flower heads of 

Heracleum. 7.1979. 
Agonopterix heracliana L.: Larvae in Anthriscus leaves (7.1979). 
A. ciliella Stt. 1969 (J. L. C to E.CP.-C): Larvae found locally in 

leaves of Angelica sylvestris on the far western shore of Canna 

(7.1979). 
A. subpropinquella Stt. Larvae on leaves of Cirsium vulgare on 

Canna and Sanday 7.1979. A few moths reared in 8.1979. 
A. nervosa Haw. Single moth 7.9.1969 (E.CP.-C): 1975 (J.L.C. to 

E.CP.-C): Larvae found in some numbers on Ulex 8.1979. 
A. yeatiana Fabr. 1956 (J.B.D. to J. L. C): We searched Daucus 

carota but failed to find any larvae of this species or other 

Oecophoridae. 

Gelechiidae 
Scrobilpalpa clintoni Pov. 2 pupae in stems of Rumex crispus 
Sanday 8.9.1969 (E.C. P-C). 

Momphidae 
Blastodacna hellerella Dup. Single moth in light trap. 6.1971 (J.L.C. 
to E. C P-C). 



152 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Cochylidae 
Aethes piercei Obraz. 1969 (J.L.C. to E.C. P-C). This species is 
now recorded for the first time. J. D. Bradley recorded A. 
hartmanniana (Clerck) in 1958, but subsequently noted that 
all Scottish records are unconfirmed and may refer to A. piercei 
(Bradley, Tremewan and Smith 1973). 

Tortricidae 
Pandemis cerasana Hb. 1969 (J.L.C. to E.C.P-C). 
P. heparana D. & S. 1969 (J.L.C. to E.C.P-C). 
Archips rosana L. 1975 (J.L.C. to E.C.P-C): Larvae abundant near 

Tighard on Rosa andMalus 7.1979. 
Pseudargyrotoza conwagana Fabr.: 1969 (J.L.C. to E.C.P-C). 
Tortrix viridana L. 1 969 (J. L. C to E.C. P-C): 2 moths in light trap 

18.7.1956(J. L. C toE. C P-C). 
Acleris laterana Fabr. 1969 (J. L. C to E. C P-C). 
A sparsana D. & S. 1956 (J. B. D. to J. L. C): 1969 (J. L. C to 

E. C P-C). Larvae common in spun leaves of Acer pseudo- 

plantanus around Tighard 7.1979. 
A. rhombana D. & S. 1975 (J. L. C to E. C P-C). 
A. aspersana Hb.: 1975 (J. L. C to E. C P-C). Moths were bred 

from larvae found on Salix repens on Sanday 7.1979. 
A. variegana D. & S.: 1975 (J.L.C to E.C.P-C). Moths were bred 

{xomMalus 7.1979 at Tighard. 
Bactra furfurana Haw.: A few moths seen on Sanday 7.1979 

amongst its foodplant Eleocharis. 
Epinotia tenerana D. & S.: A few moths disturbed from alder 

plantation near Tighard 7.1979. 
E. immundana F. v. R. One moth 7.9.1969 (E.C.P-C). Larvae 

common on Alnus glutinosa and a single moth bred from Rosa, 

Tighard 7.1979. 
Zeiraphera diniana Guen. 1973 (J. L. C to E.C.P.C). 
Epiblema uddmanniana L. 1970 (J. L. C). 
E. scutulana D. & S. 1969 (J. L. C to E.C. P-C). 
E. costipunctana Haw.: Single moth seen on Sanday 7.1979. 
Pammene regiana Zell.: 1969 (J.L.C. to E.C.P-C). 
Cydia gallicana Guen.: A single moth at rest on flower of Daucus 

carota on the western shore of Canna and one similarly on 

Sanday. 
C. aurana Fabr.: A few moths on Sanday 7.1979. 
Dichrorampha petiverella L.: Seen on Sanday 7.1979. 

Alucitidae 
Alucita hexadactyla L.: 1956 (J.D.B. to J.L.C). 

Pyralidae 
Crambus nemorella Hb.: 1969 (J.L.C. to E.C.P-C): Also 7.1979 on 

Sandy and Canna. 
C geniculea Haw.: 1975 (J.L.C to E.C.P-C). 
Catoptria margaritella D. & S.: 1970 (J.L.C). 



153 
MICROLEPIDOPTEROUS FAUNA OF THE ISLES OF CANNA & SANDAY 

Scoparia pyralella D. & S.: Single moth at rest on a wall in Canna 

7.1979. 
Eudonia mercurella L.: 1975 (J.L.C. to E.C.P-C). 
Evergestis forficalis L.: 1969 (J.L.C. to E.C.P-C). 
Eunhypara hortulata L.: One moth 13.7.1971 (J. L.C. to E.C.P-C). 
Udea fermgalis Hb.: 13 moths in light trap 20.10.1969 (J.L.C. to 

E.C.P-C). 
Nomophila noctuella D. & S.: 40 moths in trap 20.10.1969 (J.L.C 

to E.C.P-C): one 1975 (J.L.C. to E.C.P-C). These last two 

species are migratory, and have no residential status. 
Aphomia sociella L.: 1970 (J.L.C). 
Pv/a/MScaHaw.: 1970 (J.L.C). 
Dioryctria abietella D. & S.: 1969 (J.L.C. to E.C.P-C). 

Pterophoridae 
Platyptilia gonodactyla D. & S.: 1970 (J.L.C). 
Stenoptilia pterodactyla L.: 1975 (J.L.C to E.C.P-C). 

This Ust of fifty seven species of microlepidoptera can now be 
added to the sixty five recorded by J. D. Bradley, bringing the total 
to one hundred and twenty two. 

Acknowledgements 

We are very grateful to Mr. J. L. Campbell for entertaining us so 
hospitably on Canna and to Mr. E. C Pelham-Clinton without whose 
generous help with additional records this paper would have been 
greatly diminished. 

References 

Bradley, J. D. 1958. Microlepidoptera from the Islands of Canna 

and Sanday, Inner Hebrides. Entomologist, 91: 9-14. 
Bradley, J. D., Tremewan, W. G. and Smith, A. 1913. British Tortri- 

coid Moths. The Ray Society. 
Bradley, J. D. and Fletcher, D. S. 1979. A Recorder's Log Book or 

Label List of British Butterflies and Moths. Curwen Books. 
Campbell, J. L. 1970. Macrolepidoptera Cannae, The Butterflies and 

Moths of Canna. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var, 82: 211 onwards. 
Campbell, J. L. 1972. Isle of Canna Notes for 1970 and 197L 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var, 84: 196-198. 
Campbell, J. L. 1975. Isle of Canna Report, 1972-74. Entomologist's 

Rec. J. Var, 87: 10-12. 



SATURNIA PAVONIA (L.) ON POTENTILLA PALUSTRIS (L.) 

Scop. — In response to the query raised by K. Porter concerning 
foodplants of Saturnia pavonia {Ent. Rec. 92, 175) I would like 
to report finding final instar larvae of S. pavonia feeding on 
Potentilla palustris (marsh cinquefoil) near New Galloway, 
Kirkcudbrightshire in the summer of 1979. At home I 
successfully transferred the larvae on to garden rose. — Dr. P, D. 
HULME, 10 Nethermains Rd.,, Muchalls, Kincardineshire. 



SPRING BUTTERFLIES FROM THE 
GREEK ISLANDS OF PAROS AND SIPHNOS 

By John G. Coutsis* 

The island of Paros is situated in the Aegean sea, at a lati- 
tude of about 25 degrees North and belongs to a group of islands 
known as the Cyclades. Its area is approximately 195 square 
kilometres and its highest peak, known by the name of Aghios 
Ilias, has an altitude of 746 metres. Its distance from Mainland 
Greece is close to 120 kilometres, whilst its distance from the two 
islands closest to it, Naxos and Antiparos, is about seven and one 
and a half kilometres respectively. 

Paros is rather dry and rocky, with a low rainfall and very 
little running water. Only certain areas in the north of the island 
are fairly flat and somewhat intensely cultivated, the rest being 
mainly characterized by the presence of garrigue (phrygana), 
which tends towards maquis along the lower reaches of ravines 
and guUeys. Sizeable olive groves are also present in more or less 
wind-protected areas. 

The butterflies recorded on Paros were, as expected, few in 
species, but surprisingly many in individuals, quite in contrast 
with the island of Siphnos (Coutsis, 1978), where butterflies 
were found to be rather a rare sight. 

Collecting was carried out between 22nd and 28th April 
1981 and the following butterflies were recorded: 

Papilionidae 

1 . Papilio machon Linnaeus 

In fair numbers and generally distributed. 

2. Iphiclides podalirius Linnaeus 

Quite common and generally distributed, 

Pieridae 

3. Pieris brassicae Linnaeus 
Very common everywhere. 

4. Euchloe ausonia Huebner 

Generally distributed, but most common near Aghios 
Minas. All specimens were of the so called first brood. Some 
individuals quite large and with extensive yellow suffusion on 
HW underside, but with nacreous spots. A single aberrant 
female with large black, fuzzy-edged, blotch, in place of usual 
FW discoidal spot. 



*4, Glykonos Street, Athens 139, Greece. 



SPRING BUTTERFLIES FROM THE GREEK ISLANDS 155 

5 . Colias crocea Fourcroy 
Generally distributed and common. 

6. Gonepteryx cleopatra Linnaeus 

In fair numbers, near Aghios Minas and near Lefkes. All 
specimens worn and almost without doubt from hibernation. All 
the females recorded were of the greenish-white morph. 

Lycaenidae 

7. Callophrys rubi Linnaeus 

Locally in fair numbers. Recorded from Voutakou and 
from near Aghios Minas. 

8. Lycaena phlaeas hmnaLQWS 

Local but quite common. Recorded from Voutakou and 
both from near Lefkes and Aghios Minas. 

9. Celastrina argiolus Linnaeus 

A single specimen recorded from near Lefkes. 

10. Glaucopsyche alexis Poda 

Found in fair numbers in places where Calicotome villosa 
Poiret (Spiny broom) grows; perhaps this association denotes 
that this is a larval food-plant for alexis. 

The recorded specimens were never as large as some of the 
larger individuals captured on Mainland Greece. Males 
upperside with relatively narrow black marginal borders, 
females entirely black. Underside of both sexes very often 
without postdiscal black spots on HW. 

1 1 . Pseudophilotes vicrama schiffermuelleri Hemming 
Locally in fair numbers. Mostly near Aghios Minas. 

12. Polyommatus icarus Rottemburg 

Locally quite common. Recorded fom Voutakou and both 
from near Lefkes and Aghios Minas. 

Nymphalidae 

13. Vanesa atalanta Linnaeus 

A few recorded from near Lefkes. 

14. Cynthia cardui Linnaeus 

Very common in all localities visited. 

15. Polygonia egea Cramer 

One recorded from near Lefkes and another from Parikia. 



156 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Satyridae 

16. Maniola jurtina LinnsiQus 

Generally distributed and common. Large specimens; males 
most often with orange-brown markings on FW upperside. 
Females near form fortunata Alpheraky, brightly coloured and 
with much extended orange-brown markings above. 

17. Lasiommata megera Linnaeus 

A single specimen recorded from near Parikia. 

Hesperiidae 

18. Carcharodus alceae Esper 

In fair numbers near Lefkes and near Aghios Minas. 

19. Thymelicus acteon Rottemburg 

A single male captured in Voutakou, at sea level. 

20. Gegenes pumilio Hof fmannsegg 

A few males captured on the stony bottom of a ravine, near 
Lefkes. Identification confirmed by the genitalia. 

During a second visit to the island of Siphnos in April 1979 
the following two species were recorded that had not been 
included in my previous list of 1978: Papilio machaon and 
Gegenes pumilio, both captured near Chrysopighi. 

References 

Coutsis, J. G. 1978. Spring butterflies on the Greek island of 

Siphnos. Entomologists's Rec. 90: 300-301. 
Higgins, L. G. and Riley, N. D. 1980. A Field Guide to the 

Butterflies of Britain and Europe. Collins, London. 
Polunin, O. 1969. Flowers of Europe. Oxford University Press, 

London. 
Polunin, O. 1980. Flowers of Greece and the Balkans. Oxford 

University Press, Oxford. 



The Pale Form of the Pearl Bordered Fritillary: 

BOLORIA EUPHROSYNE L. AB. PALLIDA SPULER.— During a 

short stroll through Parkhurst Forest, Isle of Wight, on May 27 
1981, I came upon a clearing where B. euphrosyne was flying 
plentifully, some of which were in fresh condition. After a few 
minutes I noticed a very pale example which immediately flew 
away rapidly. But it was then getting late so I resolved to return 
the following day. The next morning, having located the 
clearing, by a curious coincidence the first euphrosyne noted was 
the pale form and after netting it I saw it was a male ab. 
pallida.— Y. H. Clouter, Helice, Glendale Road, Minster-in- 
Sheppey, Kent. 



157 

A FEW THOUGHTS ON AN ASPECT OF THE 
DISPERSAL PROBLEM 

By A. A. Allen, B.Sc, A.R.C.S.* 

Mr. A. J. Showier {antea: 199-200) raises a fascinating and 
baffling question: how does a butterfly - or, in principle, any 
insect - in the case of a species of relatively sedentary habits 
and restricted or specialised habitat, expand its range from time 
to time into previously uncolonized areas, often over quite long 
distances? I do not know the answer; but as Mr. Showier invites 
suggestions, here is one line of approach that appears to me 
plausible, 

I think I am right in saying that we know, or at any rate 
strongly suspect, that the large migrations which take place at 
irregular intervals are the response to an environmental pressure 
- a build-up of population putting a strain on the equilibrium 
or balance of biological forces within that population. The most 
obvious factors will include overcrowding and food-shortage 
causing ultimately acute competition-pressure, weakening of 
the stock, perhaps disease, etc. Here the causal factors are fairly 
clear and apparent response to them a natural and 'logical' one, 
even if the exact mechanism by which it occurs is obscure or 
conjectural. 

But now suppose that essentially similar responses are 
capable of being initiated by other unfavourable stimuli, besides 
those provided by overcrowding and its attendant ills. It may 
even be that any such produces, within a few generations, a 
corresponding degree of restlessness on the part of at least the 
gravid females, or a proportion of them - a tendency, weaker 
or stronger depending on the power of the stimulus, to wander 
(far if necessary) in search of "fresh woods and pastures new". 
One envisages the stress or stresses as in some way directly acting 
on the genetic material - a Lamarckian thesis, doubtless, but 
there are many instances in which something of the sort is now 
believed to occur. The stressful stimuli would, on this view, 
include such things as a severe reduction in living-space, and 
with it, of the foodplant; changes in the local microclimate, 
slight pollution, etc. It is not hard to imagine how such stresses 
might develop - all too easy, in fact! When they do so too 
rapidly, the colony is of course unable to develop the 
appropriate responses in time. 

Something very similar is thought to happen periodically 
with certain species of beetle which are normally flightless (often 
with aborted or useless wings). From time to time, either odd 
individuals or groups develop functional wings - an apparent 
adaptive means to enable the species to disperse and effect re- 
colonization whenever this becomes requisite for survival. 

The cases of expansion of range over wide fronts seem 
somewhat different, for there it should rather be a matter of 
accumulation of factors favourable to the species with 
*49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



158 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

consequent access of vigour and dispersive power. The end 
result is not dissimilar but of course on a greatly magnified scale. 



Re-appearance of the Emperor Moth in Epping Forest. 

— An Emperor Moth (Satumia pavonia L.), the first in Epping 
Forest this century, was recorded at Epping Forest Conservation 
Centre (TQ 413981) on 8th May 1981. The specimen is a female, 
in perfect condition and once captured it proceeded to lay 24 eggs 
which are now being reared, de Worms (Lond. Nat., 1953: 129) 
described the Emperor as fairly numerous on the outskirts of 
London, but refers to the Victoria County of Essex (1903) as the 
last record for Epping Forest. Emmet (1979, The Lepidoptera - 
a historical perspective, in Corke, D., edit.. The Wildlife of Epping 
Forest) carried out a review of the literature concerning the moths 
of Epping Forest and found no records at all of the Emperor Moth 
between 1950 and 1977, and also stated that 'it is surprising that 
the Emperor has not been recorded lately because it is not uncom- 
mon elsewhere in the county'. 

On checking with the Biological Records Centre at Monks 
Wood, it appears that although the moth has been recorded in areas 
surrounding the Forest (Chigwell in 1964-67, Roydon in 1968), 
in the last 10 years, there are no such records for Epping Forest 
itself. Apparently therefore, I have to report the first Epping Forest 
record of the Emperior Moth since 1903. 

The insect was caught in a Robinson MV trap (125 W) which 
has been used to record moths in the Epping Forest Conservation 
Centre grounds for the last six years, the results of which survey 
are soon to be published. The light trap is set up on a mound sur- 
rounded by sallow and Scots pine. The grounds themselves contain 
approximately two acres of rough grassland, a pond, and gardens, 
within a border of lime trees interspersed with silver birch. Epping 
Forest Conservation Centre is well situated in the middle of Epping 
Forest, the surrounding forest consisting mainly of pollarded beech 
trees and small areas of open heath. — Miss L. Palframan, 
Epping Forest Conservation Centre, High Beech Loughton, Essex. 

Larval Habits of Carcina quercana Fabr. - I was 
interested in the Note by H. N. Michaehs (in Ent. Rec, 93: 61) 
on this species that it might possibly overwinter as a larva, and in 
which he states that he had found larvae on Hypericum hidecote 
in March. 

For three years now, I have bred this moth from spinnings 
collected from a species of garden Pyrracantha, in Eastbourne. 
The larvae in their silken spinnings occur on the underside, or in 
very rare instances, on the topside of the leaves feeding on new 
growth as it sprouts in the spring. The larvae have been collected 
from January to May in most years. I have never looked earlier as 
the larvae are very small in the early months. As Pyrracantha is a 
species of so-called 'semi-evergreen', I would think it quite hkely 
that the species could overwinter as a larva, at least in the south. 

- M. Hadley, Nature Conservancy Council, 19-20, Belgrave 
Square, London SWIX 8PY. 



SCANDINAVIAN ORTHOPTERA 1^9 

By John Paul* 



During July 1980 I visited Scandinavia where I observed and 
collected the Orthoptera. Many of the species found are also known 
from Britain. Mr. E. C. M. Haes (pers. comm.) beUeves that a study 
of the Scandinavian Orthoptera is of importance when considering 
the origin of the British fauna: the land now submerged by the 
North Sea may have provided an important link after the retreat 
of the ice about 8-9,000 years ago when the warm Boreal Phase 
dominated the climate of northern Europe. 

I visited first Abisko in Swedish Lapland. Abisko has the dryest 
chmate in Sweden with an annual precipitation of 298mm. Tetrix 
undulata (Sowerby) was present in good numbers on the bogs of the 
Abisko National Park. A single male Ectobius lapponicus (Linnaeus) 
(Dictyoptera) was taken on gravel by the railway track. The boreal 
species Melanoplus frigidus (Boheman) occured on dry heath at 
about 2000ft. Most specimens were adult. I found colonies on Mt. 
Nuolja and above Jieprenjakk on the north side of Tometrcisk: 
these sites closely coincided with colonies of the arctic butterflies 
Colias nastes and C. hecla. No Orthoptera were found further 
west in the rather damp Vadvetjakko National Park. Melanoplus 
frigidus was taken later, but mostly as nymphs, at Hjerkinn in the 
DovrfjeU mountains of Norway where its habitat extended down 
to the bogs at valley levels. 

Coastal marshes at Helsinki yielded Metrioptera roeselii (Hagen- 
bach) and Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt). The weather was 
perfect for collecting when I reached Mariehamn in Aland. Tetti- 
gonia viridissima (Linnaeus) was singing in and around the corn- 
fields where a single Tetrix undulata was taken. Chorthippus brun- 
neus (Thunberg) was common in heathland clearings in pine woods. 
In grassy clearings in deciduous woods I found good colonies of 
Pholidoptera griseoaptera (De Geer) and Omocestus viridulus 
(Linnaeus). Stethophyma grossum (linnaeus) and Chorthippus 
albomarginatus (De Geer) abounded in the coastal marshes to- 
gether with a single female Decticus verrucivorus (Linnaeus). In 
Britain Stethophyma grossum is confined to acid peat bogs: the 
low salinity of the Baltic may account for its tolerance of coastal 
marshland, which judging from the thick silty deposits on the reed 
stems is subject to inundation by the sea. 

Stethophyma grossum was later recorded at Nelaug in southern 
Norway. Here its habitat was lush grass by a lake. Metrioptera 
brachyptera (Linnaeus), Chorthippus brunneus and Ectobius lap- 
ponicus were also present. A single Podisma pedestris (Linnaeus) 
was found on the railway track at Nelaug. 

In clearings in the deciduous woods around Hassleholm in 
southern Sweden I found Metrioptera brachyptera, Chorthippus 

*73 Cambridge Road, Clevedon, Avon, BS21. 



160 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

bninneus, Chorthippus parallelus and large numbers of a dark 
form of Ectobius lapponicus. A continental element in the fauna 
was provided by Chorthippus apricarius. 

Specimens were sent to Dr. D. R. Ragge at the British Museum 
of Natural History. I thank Mr. James Reynolds (B. M. (N.H.)) for 
identifiying them. 



Another British Specimen of Ochropleura fennica 
(Tauscher), EversmanN'S Rustic. - A female O. fennica was 
captured inside the Armstrong Building of the University of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne (NZ 246 652) on the evening of 15th August, 
1972. The specimen was in good condition and subsequent examina- 
tion revealed it to be full of eggs and without spermathecae in the 
bursa. This appears to be one of only five British specimens of this 
migrant circumpolar species. Two others were captured in eastern 
England during August 1972 (Bretherton et al, in Heath & Emmet, 
eds., The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 9, 
page 151). 

This specimen was recently discovered among some examples 
of other species, as a result of critical examination of some difficult 
moths prior to submitting a final batch of records to the B. R. C. 
recording scheme. We are grateful to Dr. M. Hull and to Mr. M. 
Honey of the British Museum (Natural History) for assistance 
with identification. The specimen is now in Merseyside County 
Museum, Liverpool. - I. D. and B. WALLACE, Merseyside County 
Museum, William Brown Street, Liverpool, L3 SEN. 

Northumberland and Cumberland Nepticulidae. - 
While entomologising in the north of England in August and Septem- 
ber 1980, I collected many nep mines, including those of a number 
of species that appear to constitute new county records (starred) 
and new vice-county records as hereunder, and which Col. Emmet 
has kindly determined. 

Cumberland (VC70): *Stigmella magdalenae Klim. = nylan- 
driella sensu auctt., W. bank of Ullswater, on rowan; *S. luteella Stt., 
Thirlspot, on birch; *S. mficapitella Haw., East Curthwaite, on 
oak; *S. perpygmaeella Doubl., East Curthwaite, on hawthorn; 
*S. ulmivora Fol., East Curthwaite, on wych elm. N. Northumber- 
land (VC 68): *S. lapponica Wocke, Chillingham, on birch; S. 
crataegella Klim., Bilton, on hawthorn, S. sorbi Stt., Longhaughton, 
on rowan; S. marginicolella Stt., Swinhoe, on elm; S. hybnerella 
Hb., Bilton, on hawthorn; *S. mficapitella Haw., Chillingham, 
on oak; *S. nylandriella Teng. = aucupariae Frey, Chillingham, 
on rowan; S. luteella, Stt., Chillingham, on birch. — J. M. 
Charlmers-Hunt. 



TYCHIUS CRASSIROSTRIS KIRSCH, ^^^ 

A WEEVIL NEW TO BRITAIN; WITH SOME 
REMARKS ON THE PROBLEM OF THE BRITISH 
"T. HAEMATOPUS" 

By A. A. Allen, B.Sc, A.R.C.S.* 

Some years ago Mr. D. M. Ackland, when working on parts 
of the P. Harwood collection of British beetles at the Hope Depart- 
ment of Entomology, Oxford University Museum, informed me 
that he doubted the identity of the species standing therein over 
the name of Tychius haematopus GyU. and in fact made it, ten- 
tatively, T. crassirostris Kirsch — a species not recorded from this 
country. At my suggestion he sent an example for confirmation 
to Dr. L. Dieckmann in Germany, who duly returned it as that 
species. The name consequently appears in the new Check List 
(Kloet & Hincks, 1977), but the insect has not been brought for- 
ward as British until now. Mr. Ackland, who is not a coleopterist, 
thus deserves most of the credit for this novelty to our list and 
its correct recognition. 

T. crassirostris comes in our fauna between T. flavicollis Steph. 
{=squamulatus Gyll.) and T. junceus Reich, and shows similarities 
to both. According to Hansen (1965) it has a small tooth under 
the hind femora, like the former of these; however, Reitter (1916) 
says nothing of this character for either species, though the tooth 
is actually very distinct in flavicollis at all events. My single cras- 
sirostris has no such tooth but only a shallow excavation as in the 
mid femora. It would appear therefore that the post-femoral tooth, 
if present, can be very indistinct or easily overlooked; it is evidently 
unreliable as a character, and in what follows will be left out of 
account. 

The present species is known from its allies (in Britain, the 
two above named) by a number of features, which lend themselves 
fairly readily to expression in tabular form. As I have seen no male 
of crassirostris I am relying entirely on Hansen (1965) for the male 
leg-characters; and with only a single female on which to assess 
them, it is possible that certain differences given here may not be 
fully dependable. A few of those mentioned by Hansen are not 
clear in my specimen. These I omit (the most considerable is the 
hind femoral tooth — see above). With these reservations, T. cras- 
sirostris should be easy to recognize from the table which follows. 
It is, if anything, a trifle longer on an average than the other two 
species. 

The elytral scaling is probably the most important and least 
comparative character in these species. 

The sole locality in Britain that can yet be given for T. crassiro- 
stris is Charmouth, on the west coast of Dorset, from which place a 
series was found in coll. P. Harwood as above. My specimen, from 



*49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



162 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 



his duplicates, on which (together with data culled from Hansen) the 
above diagnosis has been drawn up, was also labelled haematopus 
and was taken there on 6.vi.26. Others from his collection which I 
saw briefly were dated l.v.27. Most hkely they were taken on or 
under the chffs at the locality stated. The species occurs in central 
and southern Europe, but is generally rare. Reitter and Hansen agree 
in giving the foodplant as Melilotus, especially M. albus, whilst the 





flavicollis 


crassirostris 


junceus 


Rostrum 


Long & slender 


Short & unusually 


Intermediate, about 






thick 


usual for the genus 


Its apical 
portion in 
side view 


Not tapered 


Strongly narrowed 


Somewhat tapered 




& pointed 


& pointed 


Antennal 


Strongly dilating 


Strongly dilating 


Gradually & rather 


scape 


from well 
beyond middle 


from about middle 


feebly dilating 


Pronotum 


Transverse 


About as broad as 
long 


Transverse 


Elytral humeri 


Rather square & 


Little marked, 


As flavicollis ( 




well marked 


sloping, almost 


elytra noticeably 






effaced 


short, cordiform) 


Individual 


Short-oblong; on 


Elongate, widest 


Linear & more 


elytral scales 


sutural interval 


near base, 


hair-like 




still shorter, 


attenuate behind 






squarish 






Covering of 


A thick crust 


Dense, conceaUng 


Less dense; uniform, 


scales on 


along each inter- 


the striae; some 


even on suture & 


elytra 


val, striae marked 


groups of shorter 


striae, the latter 




by a very small 


paler scales on 


indistinctly visible 




scale in each 


suture behind 






puncture 






Fore & mid 


Inner margin 


cT : inner margin 


cf : about as 


tibiae 


incurved towards 


incurved towards 


flavicollis. 9 -about 




apex & ending in 


apex & set with a 


intermediate be- 




a strong tooth. 


row of white out- 


tween 9 flavicollis 




especially in c? 


standing hairs. 5 : 
simple, straight, 
apical tooth very 
small, hardly visible 
from above 


& 9 crassirostris 


Underside of 


Simple 


With a fringe of 


Simple or (teste A. 


fore femora 




white, pointed. 


Hoffmann) with a 


incT 




erect scales 


few setae, not a 
definite fringe 



A WEEVIL NEW TO BRITAIN 163 

latter author notes its occurrence in June and August in Denmark 
and that the larvae live in galls on the leaves. Collectors should look 
out for it on the south coast on white melilot, etc. 

The problem of Tychius haematopus auct. Brit. - Since T. cras- 
sirostris has been found in a major British collection doing duty 
for T. haematopus Gyll. (introduced into out list in 1910), that 
could well be the case with others formed during the same period. 
Some reference should therefore be made to the vexed question 
of what species was understood by British authors under that 
name, now the true haematopus of Gyllenhal is synonymized with 
the rather common T. junceus Reich (testibus A. Hoffmann, L. 
Dieckmann; cf. Kloet & Hincks, 1977). Yet under these two names, 
James Edwards (1910) characterized in some detail what would 
appear to be two distinct species (cf. also Fowler & Donisthorpe, 
1913). In this he was followed by Donisthorpe (1910), Joy (1932), 
and Kloet & Hincks (1945); but challenged by Newbery (1920), who 
thought there were indeed two species involved (confirmed for him 
by Bedel and Deville) but that only one of them, junceus, was 
British, and that Edwards had probably been misled by its variation. 
This drew a prompt rejoinder from Edwards (1920), emphatically 
restating his view of the matter, and mentioning that his haematopus 
had been named for him by Dr. Everts [in Holland] . 

I have examined a specimen in the Power collection (BMNH) 
purporting to be one of Bennett's original batch of "haematopus" 
from near Hastings, on which Edwards based his diagnosis; and 
another, separated as that species by Blair from Power's series of 
junceus. Both appear to me to be indistinguishable from the last- 
named, and the same appUes to two others labelled haematopus 
by Joy but junceus by Blair. Up to now I have seen nothing to 
suggest that we have more than one species under these names. 
(The haematopus Gyll. of Reitter (1916), for which he gives as 
synonyms junceus Boh., Bris., non Reich, must be some other 
species.) 

Perhaps the confusion stems in the first place from the fact 
(pointed out by Hoffmann, 1954) that Bedel was mistaken in attri- 
buting to junceus a fringe of hair-scales beneath the front femora 
of the male — in which he was followed by Edwards, whereas 
Joy assigns this character to haematopus. EHfferences of shape 
and scaUng were also alleged to exist. I have yet to see a male 
junceus possessing such a fringe, whilst the species that does have 
this character is crassirostris! It would indeed be a neat solution of 
the puzzle were our so-called haematopus found to be that species, 
but, despite one or two pointers towards it, the idea is untenable. 
It looks as though Edwards and other competent coleopterists of 
his time, both here and abroad, must have been led astray in some 
way — unless there really is a species next to junceus unaccounted 
for. 

As "very fine outstanding pubescence". Presumably, the transposition of 
this character (thus contradicting Edwards) is but one of the many errors of 
this sort in Joy's book. 



164 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

References 

Donisthorpe, H. St. J. K., 1910. A note on Tychius haematopus, 

Gyll., &c. Ent. mon. Mag. , 46: 118. 
Edwards, J., 1910. On the British species of Tychius, Germar. 

Ibid., 80-3. 
Edwards, J., 1920. Tychius junceus Reiche {sic\ and T. haematopus 

GyW. Ibid., 56: 163. 
Fowler, W. W. & Donisthorpe, H. St. J. K., 1913. The Coleoptera 

of the British Islands,^: 192-3. London. 
Hansen, V., 1965. Biller XXI (Snudebiller). Danmarks Fauna 69: 

325, 330-1. K^benhavn. 
Hoffmann, A., 1954. Faune de France, 62 (Col. Curculionidae 2): 

1187-8. Paris. 
Joy, N. H., 1932. A practical handbook of British beetles, 1: 220, 

2:62, figs. 9,10. London. 
Kloet, G. S. & Hincks, W. D., 1945. A check list of British insects 

(ed. 1) : 213. Stockport. 
Kloet, G. S. & Hincks, W. D., 1977. A check list of British insects 

(ed.2): 87. London. 
Newbery, E. A., 1920. Is Tychius haematopus Gyll. a British beetle? 

Ent. mon. Mag., 56: 130-1. 
Reitter, E., 1916. Fauna Germanica: die K'dfer des deutschen 

Reiches, 5: 216-7. Stuttgart. 



Death of Hymenoptera in Moth Traps. - I was 
interested to read J. C. A. Craik's comments on the. rather rapid 
exhaustion and death of hornets in his New Forest moth trap 
(Ent. Rec. 92: 244-245). Most operators of MV traps must have 
noticed the same phenomenon affecting trapped wasps, and perhaps 
less obviously males (at least) of parasitic Hymenoptera. ITie sub- 
order Apocrita, to which all these insects belong, feed on protein- 
rich media as larvae but as adults are dependent on very frequent 
ingestion of sugars (eg. nectar, honeydew, sap, ripe fruit) in order to 
remain alive, let alone active, at normal summer temperatures. 
If worker wasps are kept unfed in pill boxes they often die overnight 
and almost invariably do so within 24 hours, unless their activity 
and metabolism is slowed down by refrigeration. Males of parasitic 
Hymenoptera generally do little better, although females of very 
many species are able to resorb maturing eggs, hberating sufficient 
nutrients to get them through temporarily hard times by this rever- 
sible suspension of their reproductive abilities. Males, and worker 
vespids, do not in general have access to a substantial food reser- 
voir and their rapid demise in moth traps is probably a combination 
of their isolation from sugars and the relatively high, activity- 
inducing temperatures which prevail inside moth traps owing to the 
"glasshouse effect". - Dr. M R. SHAW, Dept. of Natural History, 
Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh EHl IJF. 



165 
NOTES ON THE COLEOPHORIDAE: A SEQUEL 

By J. Newton * 

This extension to my notes (in Ent. Rec. 91: 234) concerns 
two species of Coleophoridae only - C. milvipennis Z. and C. 
alnifoliae Barasche. 

My appeal to anyone who has bred a specimen of alnifoliae 
from birch and had it confirmed by genitalia examination, has so 
far produced no response. 

From six cases on alder which I over-wintered from August 
1978, five moths emerged, June 24th - July 2nd 1979. An examina- 
tion of the genitaha confirmed that they were indeed alnifoliae. 
Until I get further evidence to the contrary, I believe this species 
feeds only on alder, and has a one-year cycle only in this country 
as it is reported to have in other countries. 

C. milvipennis Z. My experience shows this species to have a 
complicated Ufe-history. In May 1979, 1 collected in Surrey 12 more 
cases from birch, two of which just after they had been constructed, 
as they were still quite limp. I was fascinated by the method of 
construction which was done by the larva mining a strip along the 
edge of the leaf from the base, in outline the same shape and size 
of the final adult case. I transferred these to a potted birch plant 
in my greenhouse and from them nine moths emerged, July 6th — 
15th. The three remaining cases I left undisturbed and put out- 
of-doors for the winter, where they remained exposed to the ele- 
ments until April 1980, when I returned them to the greenhouse. 
No further feeding took place and two moths emerged on May 5th. 

It would appear then that the majority spend their first winter 
hibernating in a juvenile case, developing in the spring, and produc- 
ing moths in July, while a minority hibernate in an adult case for 
a second winter. 

A further compUcation occurred in Surrey when I visited my 
site on September 19th 1979, and found to my surprise, five adult 
cases on birch. Moreover, they had obviously just been constructed, 
but by a method quite different from that previously described. On 
this occasion quite a large area of parenchyma had been removed 
from half a leaf, leaving a thin membranous cuticle. From this 
membrane a large rounded portion had been removed to form the 
case. Alongside, on the remaining half of the leaf was the completed 
case still quite soft. The thought immediately sprang to mind, could 
these be of alnifoliae after all? However, I kept the cases on a 
separate potted birch out-of-doors for the winter and having re- 
moved them to the greenhouse in the spring, all five cases produced 
moths, May 9th — 12th. A genitalia examination of one of these 
proved the species to be milvipennis. 

In Britain, I imagine milvipennis to be on the northerly fringe 
of its European range, and still struggling to adapt itself here. No 
doubt some time in the distant future, natural selection will work it 



*1 1 Oxlease Close, Tetbury, Glos. 



166 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

all out and a fixed pattern of behaviour will emerge. Meanwhile, 
I would hke to see the job of sorting out the tangle to be under- 
taken by a lepidopterist scientifically better qualified than I, and to 
whom I would willingly give all the help I could from information at 
my disposal. 

Acknowledgement 

I am grateful to Dr. J. D. Bradley for checking a genitalia sUde 
which I made of a female milvipennis. 



Arhopalus rusticus l. (Col.: Cerambycidae) in Kent and 
Essex. - Dr. G. a. Neil Morton's record of this longicorn 
beetle (as Criocephalus) from Monmouthshire (antea: 52) reminds 
me that my friend the late G. Shephard obtained the species in the 
vicinity of St. Margaret's and West Langdon, near Dover, and at 
Hatfield Forest, near Bishop's Storford, in the 1970s — both occur- 
rences, as far as I know, being new county records. In the former 
area it was found repeatedly in their house (having presumably 
flown to light) by relatives of Mr. Shephard, and passed to him; 
one of these, dated 16.viii.68, he kindly presented to me. At 
Hatfield Forest he took a single example on a Scots pine log (July 
or August). 

This insect, formerly confined with us as a native to the old 
pine forests of Strathspey, has within the last 34 decades colonized 
parts of southern England*, where it appears to have been first 
found at Canford Heath, Dorset, in 1958, by Mr. F. A. Hunter. 
The Dover record shows it to have now reached the extreme south- 
east. A. rusticus is said to be now more frequent than the very 
similar A. tristis F. (=Criocephalus ferns Muls.) in some southern 
districts, but I understand that they do not normally occur in the 
same locahties. 

Arhopalus rusticus requires careful differentiation from its 
congener A. tristis. The shorter tarsi of the former is generally the 
first thing to strike the eye when similar-sized individuals of the 
two species are placed together; but perhaps the most reUable 
character and the least dependent on comparison lies in the hairy 
eyes of rusticus. Duffy (1952, Handb. Ident Brit Ins., 5 (12):9) 
gives size as one of the differences, assigning to rusticus a length of 
only 12-16 mm. This however must be a mistake (overlooked in 
my review of this work, Ent Rec. 64: 363), for in fact both species 
have a size-range up to 30 mm.; cf. Fowler & Donisthorpe, 1913, 
Col Brit Isl, 6: 152-3. - A. A. ALLEN. 

*In this it is closely paralleled by an allied Cerambycid, Asemum striatum 
L., and by the Staphylinid Nudobius lentus Grav., both likewise exclu- 
sively Highland insects in earlier days. Further, it seems extraordinary that 
the two Arhopalus spp., Tetropium gabrieli Weise, and Melanophila acuminata 
Deg. - all conspicuous beetles of coniferous woodland - were entirely 
unknown in Britain until about the turn of the century. 



167 
A SURVEY OF THE SALTATORIA OF THE BRISTOL 
AREA AND NORTH SOMERSET 

By J. F. Burton, F.R.E.s. f.z.s.* 
(Continued from page 80) 

Grey Bush-cricket Platycleis denticulata (Panz.) 

This fully winged, grey-brown coastal Tettigoniid is very local 
indeed in this area, but in spite of its largish size has probably been 
much overlooked. In fact, there were no recent reports of its occur- 
rence until 2nd September 1977 when Mr. R.S. Cropper (Miller, 
1979) discovered a flourishing colony on the southern slopes of 
Brean Down and established the first record of the species for the 
North Somerset vice-county (V.C.6). There are several other suitable 
habitats along the Somerset coast and a search of these may well 
reveal its presence. Sand Point is one such Ukely place which I 
must confess to never having found time to visit. However, I have 
looked for it along the foot of south-facing cliffs at Qevedon with- 
out success. 

Some years ago I discovered two female Grey Bush-crickets 
labelled "Bristol" in the C. Bartlett collection in the Bristol City 
Museum which were evidently collected early this century. I sus- 
pect that these were obtained somewhere along the north side of 
the Avon Gorge, but so far my searches there have been un- 
succcessful. 

Bog Bush-cricket Mefnopfera brachyptera (L.) 

The Bog Bush-cricket is another extremely local species in this 
area which ought to be more widespread and has probably been 
overlooked. The late Mr. J. Cowley (1949) discovered it in the 
Charity Field on Street Heath in the Somerset Peat Moors in August 
1945 and recorded it there again in the two foUowang years, and 
also in 1949. In 1954 (pers. comm.) he also discovered a colony 
on Westhay Moor, not very far away, which was still flourishing 
in August, 1957. Then, in late July 1965, while on a visit to the 
then newly established nature reserve of the Somerset Trust for 
Nature Conservation on Westhay Moor, I found a very strong colony 
(mostly the brown form); possibly the same one that Cowley knew. 
This colony was in good shape when I paid a further visit to the 
reserve in 1976. It is interesting to note that Conocephalus dorsalis is 
common in the same place. 

On the Mendips I have looked for brachyptera in vain on the 
bogs at Blackdown and Priddy. 

Short-winged Conehead Conocephalus dorsalis (Latreille) 

Marshy country is the haunt of this engaging, extremely agile, 
shiny emerald-green httle bush-cricket and since Somerset is well 



11, Rockside Drive, Henleaze, Bristol, BS9 4NW. 



168 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

endowed with such country it is commoner there than in most 
English counties. In fact it is abundant in many parts of the peat 
moors, levels and coastal salt-marshes of Somerset. 

Near Bristol dorsalis occurs in plenty on Walton and Weston 
Moors in the Gordano Valley where I have noted it between 1970 
and 1975. One of its sites forms part of the Somerset Trust for 
Nature Conservation's reserve on Weston Moor. I have also recorded 
a fairly strong population on the Spartina saltings of Clevedon Pill 
in most years between 1973 and 1976 inclusive, though part of 
its habitat there has recently been destroyed by the dumping of 
soil excavated in connection with the construction of the new 
sluice. It was first found there in July 1952. In August, 1949 the late 
J. Cowley (1963, in lift.) noted the presence of dorsalis on the salt- 
marsh at Berrow, but I have not yet visited this locality at the right 
time of the year to confirm its continued survival. However, in Sep- 
tember, 1979 Mr. Richard Savage (in lift.) reported it as very com- 
mon at Bridgwater Bay. 

On 15th October 1962 a BBC colleague brought me a live 
male which she found in her garden in Stoke Bishop, Bristol — 
apparently the first record of this species in the West Gloucestershire 
vice-county. She caught a second specimen a day or two later, but it 
escaped. 

In the Central Somerset Peat Moors I have records of it from 
the following localities: Sedge Drove, Edington, 1950 (J. Cowley); 
Catcott Heath, 1947 and 1950 (J. Cowley et ai), 1979 (R. Savage); 
Shapwick Heath, 1952 (J. Cowley), 1963 (J. F. Burton); Meare 
Heath, 1963 - 65 (J. F. Burton); Oxenpill, near Meare, 1964 (J. F. 
Burton); Westhay Moor, 1954 (J. Cowley), 1965 - on the S.T.N.C.'s 
reserve (J. F. Burton); Street Heath, 1948 (J. Cowley); and Walton 
Heath, 1948 (E. G. Neal), 1955 (J. Cowley). 

I have several times found the rare fully winged form (f. bum 
Ebner) on Meare Heath. 

Speckled Bush-cricket Leptophyes punctatissima (Bosc) 

Of all the British bush-crickets, this green medium-sized, wing- 
less species is the one that probably most often comes under the 
notice of the average person since it often inhabits herbaceous 
borders in gardens, even those of town suburbs. I frequently found 
them on Dwarf Michaelmas Daisies, Wild Raspberry, Canterbury 
Bells and Stinging Nettles in my garden when I lived at Pill (Burton, 
1964, 1965) and subsequently at Clevedon, but not so far in the 
Bristol suburb of Henleaze where I have been living since 1977. 
Incidentally, Payne (1957) stated that he had received a number of 
records of Speckled Bush-crickets in gardens in the London area in 
which Michaelmas Daisies and Lupins were mentioned. 

As elsewhere in southern England, punctatissima appears to be 
widely distributed and common in this area, especially on nettles. 
Wild Hop, brambles, and such hedgerow vegetation. On Church Hill, 
Clevedon I found a specimen on St. John's Wort in 1971. I have 
records of it from the following localities (my observations unless 



169 
SURVEY OF THE SALTATORIA OF THE BRISTOL AREA & N. SOMERSET 

Otherwise stated): Batheaston (Blathwayt, 1906); Edington 1945 - 
48 (J. Cowley); Great Breach Wood, near Compton Dr.ndon, 1971; 
Brown's Folly, Bathford, 1971; Clevedon (several places, including 
the seafront and gardens in the town, and on Court, Church and 
Wain's Hills), 1971 - 76; Pill, 1962 - 67; Leigh Woods, 1976 - 78; 
Clifton and Durdham Downs, Bristol, 1963 - 77 and Henleaze, 
Bristol, 1977. 

In his recent paper on the invertebrates of Steep Holm, A. J. 
Parsons (1978) reported that he found punctatissima "moderately 
common and widespread" and, as with Pholidoptera griseoaptera, 
beheved that this was the first pubUshed record of the species on 
this island in the Bristol Channel. In fact, the late J. Cowley found 
a nymph there on 10th June, 1956. Incidentally, the species has 
also been recorded in the Bristol Channel from Lundy Island (Kevan, 
1961;Ragge, 1965). 

CRICKETS (Family GryUidae). 
House-cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) 

Although npt a native species, the House-cricket has long been 
naturaUsed in Britain and is the only cricket known to occur in the 
area covered by this paper. It is much less frequently reported than 
formerly because of improved hygiene. I have only encountered it 
at the Ashton Court Country Club, near Failand in North Somerset, 
where it used to be quite plentiful in the walls surrounding the 
indoor heated swimming pool from 1963 to 1970 and may still be 
there, but I have not visited this building since; and also in piles of 
excavated earth near the new sewage outfall works on the seawall 
just south of Clevedon in May, 1976. 

Also in North Somerset, the late J. Cowley (in lift.) recorded 
domesticus "in numbers" in a smouldering rubbish dump between 
Midford and Monkton Combe in July, 1950 and invading houses 
near a rubbish dump at Street in July, 1953. The House-cricket can 
usually only live out-of-doors in this country in rubbish dumps. 
In the early 1950s there was a serious infestation of House-crickets 
in refuse in Feeder Road, Bristol. 

As well as his records referred to above, J. Cowley heard one 
singing behind his Aga cooker in his house, Holywell House, 
Edington, near Bridgwater, on 22nd September, 1949, but did not 
hear any others there during his residence from 1941 to 1963 
(J. Cowley, 1963 in lift.). 

Blathwayt (1906) recorded Acheta domesticus from Batheaston. 

GRASSHOPPERS (Family Acrididae) 

Large Marsh Grasshopper Stethophyma grossum (L.) 

This magnificent and beautiful grasshopper, the largest of the 
native British Acridids, was not apparently noticed in its Somerset 
haunts until 23rd August, 1942 when Dr. G. A. Walton took a 
single last instar nymph in a peat bog near Shapwick (Walton, 1944). 



170 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

The late J. Cowley (1949) subsequently discovered it in abundance 
in 1947 on Catcott Heath and Street Heath, not far from Shapwick, 
but failed to find it in apparently suitable habitat on Edington Moor, 
near his home. Each year, up to and including 1949, however, he 
noted (Cowley, 1963 pers. comm.) its continued presence on Street 
Heath: "in rough areas between peat cuttings" (Map ref. ST460397) 
and in the Charity Field (ST464394), a disused area of peat pools 
with a flora which included Bog Myrtle, Bog Asphodel, Fine-leaved 
Heath and Cross-leaved Heath. Cowley also refound it on Catcott 
Heath in 1950 and again in 1958. His precise localities were a "wet 
hay meadow" (map ref. ST398406), "a nine-acre neglected fen" 
(ST405414) and "wet rushy pasture" (ST408412). 

In 1950, with D. G. Brown and J. H. P. Sankey, he discovered 
grossum at the west end of Shapwick Heath, mostly north of Canada 
Drove in an area of rough grazing with open Bog Myrtle (ST408410), 
and noted its continued presence there in 1952. In 1963, I also 
found it to be quite common at the western end of Shapwick Heath 
amongst Bog Myrtle on a rather dry area of bog on the east side of 
the road from Shapwick to Westhay. Unfortunately, as I noted at 
the time (Burton, 1964), its habitat here was being invaded by Alder 
carr and in recent years I have failed to refind it. 

To the north-east of Shapwick Heath I discovered grossum in 
considerable numbers on Meare Heath in September, 1963 and to 
the east a single adult male on Ashcott Heath (Burton, 1964). The 
following year, this species was still numerous in scattered colonies 
on Meare Heath, especially in boggy areas with plenty of the Great 
Tussock Sedge Carex paniculata L, but two of the best sites had 
already been destroyed: one through conversion into a rubbish 
tip and the other because of clearance preparatory for peat-cutting. 
Nevertheless, grossum was still plentiful on some parts of Meare 
Heath when I visited the locality in 1965, 1967 and 1969, but 
I failed to find any during a search on 24th September, 1979; it 
may have been too late and the weather was not propitious, but all 
my known sites had been destroyed by peat-cutting operations 
or had become too dry. Neither could I find any at my 1963 Shap- 
wick Heath site or at Cowley's and I fear that grossum is close to 
extinction in the Central Somerset Peat Moors. However, I am 
glad to report that Mr. Richard Savage (pers, comm.) found it in 
small numbers on roadside verges at Catcott Heath in September, 
1979 along with Conocephalus dorsalis. Although it is gratify- 
ing to know that grossum still survives in Somerset, it is clearly 
endangered and every effort should now be made to locate and 
safeguard all other remaining colonies. 

Stripe-winged Grasshopper Stenobothrus lineatus (Panz.) 

Although, when mature, this grasshopper is easily detected by 
its distinctive and continuous song which is quite unlike that of 
any other British species, it appears to have been much overlooked 
in Avon and North Somerset until recently. This is quite surprising 
as there is much apparently suitable calcareous habitat, yet I have 
searched for it in many hkely locaUties without success. In fact, the 



171 
SURVEY OF THE S ALTATORIA OF THE BRISTOL AREA & N. SOMERSET 

only colony I have found so far was at Woodchester Park, near 
Nympsfield, Gloucestershire in 1965. However, Mr. R.S. Cropper 
informed Dr. D. R. Ragge in November, 1979 that he knew of 
seven sites from North Somerset (Vice-county 6), but had not been 
able to refind it in two of them, one of which was on boggy heath- 
land in the Peat Moors. He considered that the latter site, being such 
an untypical one, may have been the result of a deliberate intro- 
duction. However, such calcicolous species as the Silver-spotted 
Skipper butterfly Hesperia comma, L. have been taken in these 
peat moors, so the presence of lineatus there may be quite natural. 

Woodland Grasshopper Omocestus rufipes (Zett.) 

The only Somerset haunt of this rare and local grasshopper 
(although often common where it occurs) so far as I know is Great 
Breach Wood, near Street, at the eastern end of the Polden Hills 
(Vice-county 6), where I discovered it in considerable abundance on 
17th August, 1971 in almost all the clearings I examined and also 
along the grassy margins of some of the woodlands rides. On my 
next visit to this locality on 6th August, 1974, however, I failed to 
find any at all. The glades and rides where it had flourished only 
three years previously were almost completely overgrown and 
the habitat had thus become unsuitable. I did not have time enough 
to visit all other parts of Great Breach Wood, so it may well survive 
elsewhere or perhaps in other woods in the district such as Butleigh 
Wood. Unfortunately, I have not been able to visit these woods at 
the right season since 1974. Much of Great Breach Wood is nowa- 
days a reserve of the Somerset Trust for Nature Conservation and it 
is to be hoped therefore that the Trust will take steps to locate and 
protect any surviving colonies of this nationally rare and attractive 
grasshopper. 

There is an old record of the Woodland Grasshopper from 
Batheaston, near Bath (Blathwayt, 1906), but as this species has 
often been confused in the past with the very similar Common 
Green Grasshopper Omocestus viridulus, in the absence of any 
details, I believe this report should be treated with caution, although 
rufipes may well occur in the woods around Bath. An adult male in 
his striking black and red livery, and white palps is, however, quite 
unmistakable. 

Incidentally, on the Continent rufipes is by no means confined 
to woodland glades and edges, being common on roadside verges, 
canal banks and in open country generally. Its speciaUzed habitat in 
England is no doubt connected with the fact that it is on the north- 
western limit of its range here. 

(To be continued) 

The Early Grey: xylocampa areola Esper in February 

1981. — Following a very mild January, a specimen 
of this moth appeared here at a Ughted window on the 18th of 
February. - H. N. MicHAELIS, 5, Glan y Mor, Glan Conway, 
Denbighshire. 



^^^ THE B. C. S. WARREN COLLECTION AND 
ITS TYPE MATERIAL 



BY R. I. Vane-Wright and P. R.Ackery* 

(Concluded //"om page 115) 

1936: 112, pi. 68, figs 795-797, 802-804. HUNGARY: 4 d Sts, 
Retyezat. [Preps 15097, 15098]. *rowlandi Warren, 1930: 57 
(as race of Erebia kfebvrei); 1936: 320, pi. 93, figs 1405-1407, 
1411-1413. FRANCE: Lt d" , 7 cT ,59 Pits, Eaux Bonnes, Bs 
Pyrenees. [Prep. 14923 (Pit)]. Lt. des. Warren, 1936: pi. 93. 
nibescens Warren, 1930b: 27 (as ab. of Erebia kozhantschikovi 
[sic]); 1936: 246, pi. 84, figs 1176, 1182, pi. 42, fig. 384. USSR: 
Ht d , Sajan Mts. [Prep. 14904] . *rudkowdskii Bang-Haas, 1933: 97 
(as ssp. of Erebia gorgeJ.'W^nen, 1936: 264. 2crSts, Giewont; ld*St, 
Sarnia Skata; 1 9 St, Sioala (these localities have not been traced but 
are apparently all in the 'Tatry' region near the Czech-Poland bor- 
der). *sajanensis Warren, 1931b: 52 (as race of Erebia sedakovii); 
1936:147, pi. 72, figs 892, 897, 898, pi. 31, figs 300, 301. USSR: 
2d',l9'Sts, Sajan Mts. [Preps 14913, 15087]. *semirurina Warren, 
1936 : 288 (as ssp. of Erebia tyndarus). SWITZERLAND: 4rf ,1 9 
Sts, Kandersteg; 1 cT St, Gemmi Pass. [Preps 15205, 15206, 15208- 
15210] . serratulaeformis Warren, 1926: 122, pi. 38, figs 4-6 (as ab. 
of Hesperia alveus). SWITZERLAND: 1 cf , 2 9 Sts, Lenzerheide. 
♦sheljuzhkoi Warren, 1935: 4 (as ssp. oi Erebia callias); 1936: 307, 
pi. 104, figs 1645A, B. USSR: 7 0" , 2 9 Sts, Caucasus, Teberda 
dist., Mt Chatipara. [Preps 15218, 15219, 15221-15224]. simulans 
Warren, 1931a: 171 (as ab. oi Erebia theano approximata); 1936; 
237, pi. 83, figs 1150, 1157. USSR: Ht <S , Altai, Usst-Kansk. 
[Prep. 15146] simulata Warren, 1933: 41 (as f. of Erebia callias 
sibirica); 1936: 305, pi. 104, figs 1644, 1646, 1648. USSR: 7d", 
1 9 Sts, Sajan Mts. MONGOLIA: 2 cT Sts, Schawyr, Tannuola. 
[Preps 15185, 15188, 15195, 15197, 15200]. slovakiana Warren, 
1936: 189, pi. 78, fig. 1031 (as f. of Erebia medusa brigobanna). 
HUNGARY: Ht d" , Kaschau. [Prep. 14415]. splendens Warren, 
1936: 68, pi. 62, fig. 633 (as ab. of Erebia euryale adyte). SWITZER- 
LAND: Ht d", Laquintal. *steckeri Holland, 1930: 153 (as sp. of 
Erebia); Warren, 1936: 170, pi. 75, figs 971, 973, 977-979, pi. 
34, fig. 324. USA: 1 d" , 1 9 Pts, Alaska, Kuskokwim River. [Prep. 
15160] . sylvatica Warren, 1936: 193 (as f. of Erebia medusa dolo- 
mitica) . ITALY: 9 a" , 1 ? Sts, Hauenstein Forest; 4 cf , 2 9 Sts, 
Schlern path W. of Ratzes; 2 o", 1 9 Sts, Seiser Alp path; 2 d", 1 9 Sts, 
Ratzes-Prosslinger. *thomsoni Warren, 1968a: 301 (as ssp. of Pieris 
adalwinda). UK: 4 d" , 6 9 Pts, Stirlingshire; 1 9 Pt, Fifeshire.trame- 
laha Reverdin, 1918: 33, pi. 1, figs 4, 5 (as var. of Erebia euryale); 



♦Department of Entomology, British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London. 



THE B. C. S. WARREN COLLECTION AND ITS TYPE MATERIAL 173 

Warren, 1936: 62, pi. 61, figs 606, 61 1, 612. SWITZERLAND: 2d, 
2 9 Sts, Tramelan, Jura Bernois. *transcaucasica Warren, 1950: 
229 (as ssp. of Ere bia cassioides). USSR: Ht d". Id" Pt, Borzham; 
1 d'Pt, Bajburet. [Preps 15287 (Ht), 15286, 15288] . *transsylvanica 
Rebel, 1908: (77) (as var. of Ere bia epiphron); Warren 1936: III, 
pi. 68, figs. 784-787, 790-794. RUMANIA: 1 St, Bucsecs. [Prep. 
15067]. ultima Warren, 1931a: 171 (as ab. of Ere bia theano paw- 
loskii); 1936: 239, pi. 83, figs 1154, 1155, 1161, 1162, p. 41, 
fig. 376. USSR: Ht cf , Gouv. Irkutsk, Sajan Mts. [Prep. 14910]. 
*uralensis Warren, 1926: 98, pi. 29, figs 1-6 (as ssp. of Hesperia 
serratulae). USSR: 2 c' , 1 9 Sts, Uralsk. [Prep. 14054] . *varia 
Warren, 1932: 165 (as race of Ere bia pronoe); 1936: 312. W. GER- 
MANY: 15 cf ,69 Sts, nr. Krunn, S. of Isar Tal, Bavarian High- 
lands. [Preps 16417, 16419]. *warrenensis Verity, 1928: 140 
(as race of Hesperia alveus). SWITZERLAND: 1 d" , 1 9 Sts, Alp 
Scharmoin. [Prep. 14111]. *waiTeni Verity, 1923: 136 (as race 
of Erebia flavofasciata ); Warren, 1936: 101, pi. 66, figs 735-738. 
SWITZERLAND: 7c)" , 1 5 Sts, Piz Tschierva. *yablonoica Warren, 
1931a: 171 (as ssp. of Erebia discoidalis); 1936: 216, pi. 80, figs 
1093, 1094, 1099, 1100. USSR: Lt , 19 Ht, Yablonoi Mts. [Prep. 
15159] . Lt. des. Warren, 1936: pi. 80. 

Postscript 

In the above list, contrary to the statement in the introductory 
section, names available from the time of description are indicated 
in bold preceded by an asterisk, not by bold italics. 

References 

Bang-Haas, O. 1933. Neuebeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der 

Palaearktischen Macrolepidopterenfauna VI. Ent. Z., Frankf. 

a.M. 47: 97-100. 
Chalmers-Hunt , J. M. 1979. In memoriam. Brisbane Charles Som- 

merville Warren, F.R.E.S. Linn. belg. 7: 399-400. 
de Lesse, H. 1947. Contribution a I'^tude du genre Erebia. Revue 

fr.Lepidopt. 11: 97-118. 
de Worms, C. G. M. 1979. Brisbane Charles Sommerville Warren 

(18S7-1919). Entomologist's Rec. J. Var 91: 111-112, 1 pi. 
Holland, W. J. 1930. New species of Erebia (Lepidoptera: Satyridae). 

Trans, Am. ent. Soc. 56: 149-153. 
Loritz, J. 1951. Supplementary remarks on Erebia in the French 

Hautes Alpes and Alpes Maritimes. Entomologist 84: 230-231. 
Moucha, J. 1956. Sur la systematique de Pieris bryoniae O. (Lep. 

Pieridae) des Carpathes. 5m//. Soc. ent Mulhouse 1956: 61-67. 
Poppius, B. 1906. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Lepidopteren-Fauna 

der Halbinsel Kanin. Acta Soc. Fauna Flora fenn. 28: 3-11. 
Rebel, H. 1908. Bericht der Sektion fur Lepidopterologie. Ver- 

sammlung am 7. Februar 1908. Verh. zool. -bot. Ges. Wien 58: 

(67)-(80). 
Reverdin, J. -L. 1918. Erebia euryale Esp., quelques-unes de ses 

varietes et aberrations. Bull. Soc. lepidopt. Geneve 4: 23-34. 



174 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Sheljuzhko, L. 1919. Neue palaearktische Lepidopteren-Formen. 
Neue Beitr. syst. Insektenk. 1: 123-128. 

Tutt, J. W. 1906. A natural history of the British butterflies, their 
world-wide variation and geographical distribution . 1: [iv] 
+ 479pp., 20 pis. [pubUshed 1905-1906] . Lx)ndon. 

Vane-Wright, R. I. 1975. The butterflies named by J. F. Gmelin. 
Bull. Br. Mus. nat Hist (Ent.) 32: 17-64, 6 pis. 

Verity, R. 1923. On some Italian races of Erebia aethiops Esp., 
and of E. pirene Hlib. (= stygne 0.) , and on E. flavofasciata 
Ruhl-Heyne. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 35: 134-136. 

Verity R. 1928. Races palearctiques de Grypoceres et du Rho- 
paloceres a distinguer et homonymes a remplacer (Lep.) Bull 
Soc. ent Fr. 1928: 140-144. 

Warren, B, C. S. 1913. Notes on Erebia gavamiensis n. sp., and some 
forms of Erebia manto. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 25: 273-277. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1920. The Swiss soecies of the genus Hesperia. 
Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 32: 45-52, 78-83, 85-88, 117-121, 
125-130, 3 pis. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1924. A new European skipper. Hesperia freija 
sp. n.Proc. ent Soc. Lond. 1924: Ivi-lvii, 1 pi. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1925. Preliminary description of a new Spanish 
race of Powellia sao. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var 37: 77. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1926. Monograph of the tribe Hesperiidi (European 
species) with revised classification of the subfamily Hesperiinae 
(Palaearctic speices) based on the genital armature of the males. 
Trans, ent Soc. Lond. 74: 1-170, 60 pis. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1927. Notes on the Spanish form of Hesperia 
cinarae Rhr. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 39: 81-82. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1930. Stray notes on Erebiid species. Entomolo- 
gist's Rec. J. Var. 42: 56-58. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1930a. Stray notes on Erebiid species. Entomolo- 
gist's Rec. J. Var. 42: 145-148. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1930b. Stray notes on Erebiid species. Entomolo- 
gist's Rec. J. Var. 42: 26-29. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1931. Stray notes on Erebiid species. Entomolo- 
gist's Rec. J. Var 43: 97-100. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1931a. Stray notes on Erebiid species. Entomolo- 
gist's Rec. J. Var. 43: 167-172. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1931b. Stray notes on Erebiid species. Entomo- 
logist's Rec. J. Var. 43: 49-53. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1932. Notes on Erebiid species. Entomologist's 
Rec. J. Var. 44: 165-167. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1933. Notes on Erebiid species. Entomologist's 
Rec. J. Var 45:4041. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1933a. Notes on Erebiid species. Entomologist's 
Rec. J. Var 45: 22-23. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1935. Notes on a new subspecies of Erebia callias. 
Entomologist's Rec J. Var. 47: 3-4. 

Warren, B. C. S. 1936. Monograph of the genus Erebia. 407pp., 
104 pis. London: British Museum (Natural History). 



THE B. C. S. WARREN COLLECTION AND ITS TYPE MATERIAL 175 

Warren, B. C. S. 1937. Notes on Staudinger's Erebia aethiops var. 

aethiopella and a recently discovered analogous form. Ento- 
mologist 's R ec. J. Var. 49 : 13-14. 
Warren, B. C. S. 1939. An unrecognised race of Erebia pluto, 

hitherto confused with the ssp. anteborus Frhst. Entomologist 

72: 94-99. 
Warren, B. C. S. 1944. Review of the classification of the Argynnidi: 

with a systematic revision of the genus Boloria. Trans. R. ent. 

Soc.Lond. 94: 1-101,46 pis. 
Warren, B. C. S. 1949. Three hitherto unrecognised European species 

oi Erebia. Entomologist %2: 97-104. 
Warren, B. C. S. 1950. Supplementary data on problems relating to 

Erebiid butterflies. Entomologist 83: 225-230. 
Warren, B. C. S. 1955. Erebia tyndarus and allied species: the 

solution of some long-outstanding problems. Entomologist 

88:227-231,252-259. 
Warren, B. C. S. 1957. Hitherto overlooked anatomical data concern- 
ing genital structure in Rhopalocera. Trans. R. ent Soc. Lond. 

109: 361-377, 3 pis. 
Warren, B. C. S. 1968. On the Nearctic species of the bryoninae- 

and o/eracea-groups of the genus Pieris. Entomologist's Rec. 

J. Var 80: 61-66, 1 pi. 
Warren, B. C. S. 1968a. On an instable race of P. adalwinda, located 

in Scotland. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var 80: 299-302. 
Warren, B. C. S. 1978. Autobibliography with autobiographical note. 

Notalepid. 1: 77-81. 
Warren, E. J. M. 1979. Obituary: Brisbane C. S. Warren, 29.iii.1887- 

22.11919. Notalepid. 2: 119-120. 



The Portland Moth: Ochropleura praecox l. in Sussex 
- On 18th August 1980, Mr. Dyson and I set up our M. V. lamps in 
a wood 9 miles north of Brighton; when, to our surprise, a somewhat 
worn O. praecox alighted on my sheet. Mr. CoUn Pratt tells me 
that this is the third record only of this moth in Sussex apart from 
two larvae found in West Sussex. - Dr. J. V. BANNER, 41, Varn- 
dean Gardens, Brighton BNI 6WJ. 

Thecla Quercus L. (Purple Hairstreak): an Un- 
usual Visitor to MV. - On August 15th 1980, MV at Brox- 
bourne Wood, Hertfordshire, attracted, sharp on 11 p.m., a male 
T. quercus. - RODERICK LOVELL -Pank, 33 The Highlands, 
Hatfield Road, Potters Bar, Herts EN6 4HU. 

ADDITIONAL Kent Records of Heringocrania chryso- 
LEPIDELLA Z. - Further to my note on this moth (in Ent. Rec, 
93 : 71), I found tenanted mines of//, chrysolepidella in 1981 on 
hazel on 12th May at Longton Wood, Thumham, Kent; and on 
hornbeam on 21st May at Finch Wood, Bonnington, Kent. — N. F. 
Heal, 'Fosters', Detling Hill, Nr. Maidstone, Kent. 



176 



Practical Hints — July 



Light is all very well, but the merits of sugar should not be 
forgotten. Sugar a line of fence posts running through patches of 
bog myrtle in Scotland in July and you will see lovely forms of 
Eurois occulta L. (Great Brocade) on nearly every patch, with few 
if any at hght. Similarly, in the New Forest, the Crimson Under- 
wings, Catocala promissa D. & S. and C. sponsa L. often come 
more freely to sugar than to hght (Goater). 

The larger Wainscots Nonagria typhae Thunberg (Bulrush 
Wainscot), N. sparganii Esper (Webb's Wainscot) and A^. algae Esper 
(Reed Wainscot) are best obtained by searching for the pupae in 
reed beds containing Great and Lesser Reed Mace. Look for reeds 
without seed heads, in which the two centre leaves have turned 
yellow. Cut off at ground or just below water level, and peel off 
outer leaves, when exit hole will become visible. A^. typhae pupates 
head downwards above exit hole. A^. sparganii and N. algae pupate 
head upwards below exit hole. Cut reeds down to about a foot 
and stand in a jar of water in breeding cage. If pupae fall out of 
stem, place on damp sand. Usually many are stung (Pooles). 

In early July, Plusia putnami gracilis Lempke (Lempke's Gold 
Spot) comes freely to Ught in the Norfolk Broads. It is a more 
dehcate insect than P. festucae L. (Gold Spot); among other dif- 
ferences, the first cross line makes an angle with the anterior edge of 
the first silver spot, whereas in festucae the line is continuous with 
the line of the edge of the spot. It is time someone worked out the 
hfe history (Goater). 

In a normal year, a visit to North Wales can be highly reward- 
ing. Ashworth's Rustic (Xestia ashworthii Doubleday) is often a 
common visitor to mv. Hght, although caught specimens seldom 
compare with bred ones. Larvae are easily reared on sallow and will 
produce a second brood in the autumn. Weaver's Wave (Idaea conti- 
guaria Hbn.) flies over the same ground though far less commonly, 
but a captured female lays freely and the larvae take readily to 
knotgrass and will feed up the same year. Day work should not be 
neglected. Flowerheads of foxglove may be searched for larvae 
of the western form of the Foxglove Pug (Eupithecia pulchellata 
s.sp. hebudium Sheldon); and, the Silky Wave (Idaea dilutaria 
Hbn.) which flies by day over parts of the Great Orme, can some- 
times be taken. Larvae of the Belted Beauty (Lycia zonaria D & S.) 
have been found in numbers early in the month on low vegetation 
on the Conway golfcourse, although there do not appear to be any 
recent records (Chatelain). 

In July, the Northern Rustic ( Stand fussiana lucemea L.) dashes 
madly about rocks and scree in mid-afternoon, and is extremely 
difficult to net. At night, however, it flies much more gently, dis- 
playing the strongly banded underside of the hindwing in the light 
of a paraffin lantern. If you can get a net under the tufts of wood 
sage which sometimes grow among the rocks, shake the tufts an 
hour after dark, and lucemea will fall into the net (Goater). 



Notes and Observations 



177 



EUPITHECIA EGENARIA H.-S. - AN ANCIENT RELIC? - Briga- 
dier E. C. L. Simpson (antea pp. 33-34) suggests that the monks 
of Tintern Abbey imported saplings of small-leaved lime (Tilia 
cordata) from France for the benefit of their bees and brought in 
the pauper pug (Eupithecia egenaria Herrich-Schaffer) as a pupa 
in the soil surrounding the roots. For the monks to have introduced 
this tree would have been to take coals to Newcastle, for smaU- 
leaved Ume is one of our most ancient trees and seems to have 
been dominant in our primeval forests (see OUver Rackham, Trees 
and Woodland and in the British Landscape, 1976, etc.; Richard 
Mabey (The Common Ground, 1980, p. 70) says of it, "This Uttle- 
known tree may have been the commonest in lowland climax 
forest") E. egenaria, Ukewise, is probably an indigenous species 
which was once widespread but has been made scarce by the felling 
of the foodplant which is not a tree of economic importance. 
However, pockets of small-leaved lime survive in many localities 
throughout Britain and its presence is often indicative of ancient 
woodlands {e.g. Bedford PurUeus) and of entomological diversity 
of species. 

Until recently the leaf-miners of small- leaved lime (Stigmella 
tiliae (Frey) and Bucculatrix thoracella (Thunberg)) were regarded as 
west-country species (see Meyrick, 1928, pp. 851 and 816). In 1976 
I wrote of T. tiliae, "like its foodplant, it has a western distribution" 
(MBGBI 1:245) — nonsense bom of ignorance. Since then the 
number of vice-counties in which it has been reported has increased 
from seven to eighteen, including, in the east, all the seven com- 
prising Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire and Essex. I know of 
fourteen localities for it in Essex alone. B. thoracella tells much 
the same story, but it is more local and I have only seven localities 
in Essex. The point is that if conspicuous species such as the leaf- 
miners were so long overlooked, the less obvious pugs (and hook- 
tips) are even more likely to have been missed. E. egenaria occurs in 
Suffolk: it may turn up in other counties, too, if ancient stands 
of the "little-known" small-leaved Ume are located and searched. — 
A. M. Emmet, Labrey Cottage, Victoria Gardens, Saffron Walden, 
Essex, CBl 1 3 AF. [Does the Scarce Hook-tip (Palaeodrepana harpa- 
gula Esper) still occur in East Anglia? One was recorded from Suffolk 
as having been taken many years ago at Stowmarket by Dr. Bree (see 
1937, Morley, The Lepidoptera of Suffolk, 98-99) - J. M. C.-H.] 

A Second Lampronia flavimitrella Hbn. in Kent. - 
Following the capture of the second specimen in Britain of 
Lampronia flavimitrella Hbn. at Hoads Wood on 24th May 1980 
by J. M. Chalmers-Hunt (see Ent. Rec, 92: 195), I planned a return 
visit for 1981, the first available opportunity being 21st May. The 
day was stormy and overcast with the sun trying very hard to break 
through. After an hours intensive search between about 1600 and 
1700 hours at a time when concentration and anticipation were 
beginning to waver, a small moth was disturbed from the masses of 



178 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Rubus deep in the wood during a brief appearance of the sun. After 
a weak short flight it settled on what must be one of the most 
frustrating of places - in the middle of a bramble patch on the 
far side of a barbed wire fence - the quarry at last. Fortunately 
the sun disappeared at that moment, and with shaking hand I was 
able to cover the moth with a tube and with finger stabbed with 
thorns recover the moth and leaf together - the third record for 
Britain. It is a female in slightly worn condirion and when seen 
at rest has a distinctly silvery -grey overall appearance. A further 
hour's search with renewed enthusiasm proved uneventful. This 
second record for this locaUty is surely an indication that it is resi- 
dent albeit with a very low status level. — N. F. HEAL, 'Fosters', 
Detling Hill, Nr. Maidstone, Kent. 

MiLTOCHRISTA MINIATA FORST. (ROSY FOOTMAN) 
AND Bats. - Can M. miniata tune in to bats? Many people will 
have noticed the tendency of miniata to spiral straight upwards 
above the M.V. lamp: on three different evenings in Devonshire 
in August 1980 I had the unappreciated assistance of a bat: and on 
four separate occasions a spiraUing miniata dropped like a stone 
into the herbage as the bat approached. It is not possible to esti- 
mate the distance since the moths' nosedives and the bat's arrival 
were almost simultaneous, so that there was no time to glance at 
the bat's usual approach path. - RODERICK LOVELL-Pank, 
33 The Highlands, Hatfield Road, Potters Bar, Herts EN6 IHU. 

The Spread and Increase of Enicmus brevicornis Mann. 
(Col.: Lathridiidae). - It is probably known by now 
to a number of coleopterists in at all events southern England that 
this beetle, formerly rare and recorded from few localities, has 
become comparatively frequent in the last 30 years or so — though I 
have seen no reference to the fact in print. Not the least notable 
feature of this increase is the insect's evident spread, presumably 
from its headquarters in some of our old forest areas, to places of a 
wholly different character, e.g. the London suburbs, where it was 
previously unknown but now occurs regularly. In my own district 
the first specimen turned up in 1951 (see Allen, 1951 Ent. mon. 
Mag., 87: 254) by sweeping long grass in my former garden at Black- 
heath. Ten years later another was taken, and thereafter one or two 
in most years; in varied situations, but always by sweeping. One was 
in a less unlikely locahty — a few miles away in the Shooters Hill 
woods, under oaks. 

Soon after moving to Charlton in 1973 I began to encounter 
it in my garden there, still at a very low rate of incidence, usually 
on the foliage of a birch; this has continued to the present time. 
On 15.vii.77 three examples were swept from willow foliage at 
Abbey Wood near Plumstead, two of the rare Scydmaenid Eutheia 
schaumi Kies. occurring with them. Finally at Downe, W. Kent, last 
June, I swept a solitary specimen in beech woodland; a situation 
far more congruous with its habits as know in the past, especially 
as there were fungus-infested logs and stumps nearby. However, 
in none of the above instances has it proved possible to trace the 
insect to a breeding-source. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 179 

The pabulum of the present-day E. brevicomis of the suburbs 
etc. was thus a mystery to me until, some years ago, Mrs. K. 
Southern (n6e Paviour-Smith) mentioned in the course of con- 
versation that this Enicmus has been found freely (I beUeve, in 
several places around Oxford) in association with the sooty mould of 
sycamore. She suggested that the beetle's increase might well have 
been in response to a widespread outbreak of the fungus, which 
appears likely to be the truth of the matter. As I understand that 
other coleopterists have observed this association in latter years, 
we shall doubtless be hearing more about it before long. It is curious, 
however, that the sycamores in this district seem remarkably free 
from the sooty mould and I have yet to find the Lathridiid on any 
of them. 

To answer the question whether the spread experienced here 
is part of a larger movement or not, one would of course have to 
know whether anything similar had been observed on those parts of 
the Continent nearest to us. If so, the E. brevicomis that we are 
finding here to-day in such unaccustomed numbers may well not 
be descendants of our native stock, but have a Continental ancestry. 
- A A. Allen. 

RORIPPA SYLVESTRIS [CRUCIFERAE] AS A LARVAL FOOD- 

PLANT OF PIERIS NAPI L -AtDartford, on 29th July 1979, 

several of these butterflies, mainly males, were seen feeding at the 

conspicuous, yellow flowers of R. sylvestris which grows in small 

patches within a hospital grounds. However, I also noted a 9 laying 

eggs singly upon the plants, and on subsequent occasions in 1979 

and 1980 butterflies were observed feeding at the flowers and 

9 9 engaged in egg laying, and I also discovered two medium sized 

larvae. 

R. sylvestris is a somewhat local plant usually associated with 

wet conditions; the situation referred to is not particularly wet 

although it lies on the clay outcrop of the Tertiary Thanet Sand 

of the Joyden Wood area. 

R. sylvestris appears not to have been recorded previously 
as a foodplant of the larvae of P. napi, even under its former name 
of Nasturtium sylvestre. In the locality noted this plant is certainly 
a regular foodplant, although probably for larvae of the second 
generation only, for in May and June the plants are small and may 
be obscured by taller vegetation, nor have they reached the flower- 
ing stage which is an attraction to butterflies of the summer brood; 
also, in May and June there are relatively few flowers of other 
plant species in the immediate vicinity of these patches of R. syl- 
vestris, and butterflies are conspicuous by their absence. 

The adults of P. napi probably play some part in the pol- 
lination of the flowers which are apparently self-incompatible and 
do not produce much fertile seed. — B. K. WEST 36 Briar Road. 
Bexley, Kent. 

Catopsilia florella f., Larval Coloration - 
Reverting to my recent short note under this title (1980, Ent. 
Record, 92: 166), I have now been able to rear larvae of this species 
on the flowers of one of the pink-flowered Cassia spp. Green larvae 



180 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

were transferred from the leaves of a yellow-flowered Cassia sp. 
in their 2nd instar and turned yellow after the moult, exactly the 
same colour as larvae fed ab ovo on flowers of yellow Cassia sp. 
without any trace of pink, and this colour was maintained until 
pupation. The pupae were green, similar to pupae reared on leaves or 
yellow flowers. - D. G. SevastopulO, F.R.E.S., Mombasa, 
27.iii, 1981. 



Henry J. Turner's Correspondence at the American 
Museum of Natural History. - a small but interesting collec- 
tion (ca. 75 items) of the papers of H. J. Turner (1856-1950), 
lepidopterist and second editor of The Entomologist's Record, has 
been donated to the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York City. Among the correspondents represented are Lionel 
Walter Rothschild, F. W. Frohawk, Karl Jordan, Edward Step, T. A. 
Chapman, J. Herbert Tutt, Louis B. Prout, E. B. Purefoy, Evelyn 
Cheesman, Roger Verity, Ezra T. Cresson, Charles Oberthiir, George 
Wheeler, A. F. Page, G. A. Boulenger, W. Egmont Kirby, G. T. 
Bethune-Baker, W. G. Sheldon, Alfred Sich, W. Junk and Rowland 
E. Turner. 

The papers (1904-25) are most numerous from that transitional 
period in the Record's history when Turner had taken the editor- 
ship after the death of founder James W. Tutt, and some of the 
letters elucidate the problems encountered. Sich wrote to Turner 
on 9 February 1911 about the journal's fmancial condition, offering 
to contribute up to £10 immediately to help defray expenses, but 
cautioning that "the assistant editors will have to do a Uttle of the 
work and not sit still behind the cover of the Record, like a con- 
sulting doctor behind his brass plate." The near collapse of the 
journal is illustrated by letters such as that of 6 June 1912 from 
J. Herbert Tutt, apologizing to Turner for recent events and ex- 
plaining that he could not post the May issue as he had to pay 
his rent instead. From January to April he had received no money 
for postage, and had to conduct the mailing himself with his Umited 
funds; he could no longer purchase the stamps unless financial 
conditions improved. 

There is ample editorial correspondence from Turner's assump- 
tion through 1925 (in that year, an excellent letter from Verity), 
and other subjects are documented, such as Turner's exchange of 
specimens, his collections of current and antiquarian publications, 
the Verrall Suppers, the Entomological Qub, the Wicken Fen Fund, 
and further concerns. Included in the papers is one lengthy letter 
to J. W. Tutt, a 1909 account by Oberthur's collector Harold Powell 
of a season's work in France, including his search for the Large 
Copper in Aisne. 

Tbese letters and ephemera were given to me in 1966 by E. W. 
Qassey, Esq., and have been conveyed to the Museum as part of my 
personal papers and historical collections. — Dr. R. S. WILKINSON, 
The American Museum of Natural History, New York City, New 
York 10024. 



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THE BUTTERFLIES AND 
MOTHS OF KENT 

VOLUME 3 

by J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, FRES 



Comprising the families Geometridae, Hepialidae, 
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CONTENTS 

The Fate of Heliothis peltigera D. & S. in Sussex. C.PRATT 137 

Pupal Spines oi Pieris brassicae (L.). Dr. J. FELTWELL 142 

A VisittoClonbrock, 1976. Dr. J. P. O'CONNOR 146 

The Northern Distribution of Caloptilia refipennella (Hbn.) (Lep.: 

Gracillariidae) in Britain. Dr. M. R. SHAW 148 

Additions to the Microlepidopterous Fauna of the Isles of Canna 
and Sanday, Inner Hebrides. Dr. M. W. HARPER and Dr. M. R. 

YOUNG 150 

Spring Butterflies from the Greek Islands of Paros and Siphnos. 

J.G. COUTSIS 154 

A Few Thoughts on an Aspect of the Dispersal Problem. A. A. 

ALLEN 157 

Scandinavian Orthoptera. J.PAUL ... ... ... ... ... 159 

Tychius crassirostris Kirsch, a Weevil New to Britain; with some 
Remarks on the Problem of the British "T. HAEMATOPUS". 

A.A.ALLEN 161 

Notes on the Coleophoridae: a Sequel. A.NEWTON... 165 

A Survey of the Saltatoria of the Bristol Area and North Somerset. 

J. F. BURTON 167 

The B. C. S. Warren Collection and its Type Material. R. I. VANE- 
WRIGHT and P. R. ACKERY 172 

Practical Hints - July 176 

Notes and Observations: 

Ceuthorhynchidius nifulus Duf., etc. in S.E. London. A. A. 

ALLEN 141 

Orange-tips in Peebleshire. Dr. A. G. LONG 141 

The Brimstone Butterfly Ovipositing on Dock. D. FROST ... 145 

Aclypea opaca L. (Col., Silphidae) in West Kent. A. A. ALLEN 147 

Phyllonorycter geniculella Rag. in Cornwall. Dr. F.H.N. SMITH 149 

Satumia pavonia L. on Potentilla palustris. Dr. P. D. HULME ... 153 

The Pale Form of the Pearl Bordered Fritillary: Boloria 

euphrosyne L. ah. pallida Spulei. F. H. CLOUTER ... 156 

Re-appearance of the Emperor Moth in Epping Forest Miss L. 

PALFRAMAN 158 

Larval Habits of Carcina quercana F. M. HADLEY ... ... 158 

Another British Specimen of Ochropleura fennica Tauscher, 

Eversmann's Rustic. Drs. I. D. and B.WALLACE 160 

Northumberland and Cumberland Nepticulidae. J. M. 

CHALMERS-HUNT 160 

Death of Hymenoptera in Moth Traps. Dr. M. R. SHAW ... 164 

Arhopalus rusticus L. in Kent and Essex. A. A. ALLEN ... 166 

The Early Grey in February 1981. H. N. MICHAELIS 171 

The Portland Moth in Sussex. Dr. J. V. BANNER 175 

The Purple Hairstreak at MV. R. LOVELL-PANK 175 

Additional Kent Record of Heringocrania chrysolepidella Z. 

N. F. HEAL 175 

Eupithecia egenaria H.-S. - an Ancient Relic? Lt. Col. 

A.M.EMMET 177 

A Second Lampronia flavimitrella Hbn. in Kent. N. F. HEAL ... 177 

Miltochrista miniata Forst. and Bats. R. LOVELL-PANK ... 178 

The Spread and Increase of Enicmus brevicomis Mann. (Col.: 

Lathridiidae). A. A. ALLEN 178 

Rorippa sylvestris (Cruciferae) as a Larval Foodplant of Pieris 

napih. B. K.WEST 179 

Catopsilia florella F., Larval Coloration. D. G. SEVASTOPULO 1 79 

Hemy J. Turner's Correspondence at the American Museum of 

Natural History. Dr. R. S. WILKINSON 180 



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AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Edited by J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT, f.r.e.S. 
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Neville Birkett, m.a., m.b. C. A. Collingwood, b.sc, f.r.e.s. 

S. N. A. Jacobs, f.r.e.s. J. Heath, f.r.e.s., f.l.s. 

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^ 
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PLATE III 







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-v^wCS fit , . ^ 



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11 



10 






12 



Perihatodes secundaria D. & S. Figs 1-8 (upperside) ; 

Fig. 1 1 (underside). P. rliomboidaria D. & S. Figs. 9-10 (upperside) 

Fig. 12 (underside). 



1 81 

PERIBATODES SECUNDARIA 

DENIS & SCHIFFERMULLER IN KENT: 

A SPECIES OF GEOMETRID MOTH NEW TO 

GREAT BRITAIN 

By Bernard Skinner* 

A single male of this species was taken at m.v.l. during the 
latter half of July 1981 in an area of coniferous woodland 
supporting mature stands of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 
Norway Spruce {Picea abies L.) and Douglas Fir {Pseudotsuga 
menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Subsequent visits to the same locality 
saw the species in good numbers, tentatively suggesting that it is 
most Hkely resident. 

P. secundaria is at first glance not unlike a small well 
marked and ochreous example of P. rhomboidaria D. & S., 
however a closer examination will reveal several characters 
which will enable the two species to be positively separated:- 

P. secundaria D. & S. P. rhomboidaria D. & S. 

Wirtg size 

30-35mm 35-42mm. 

Male antenna 

Pectinations extend almost to tip and Pectinations shorter and more 

those of the middle segments are con- uniform, tapering away towards the 

siderably longer. tip leaving the end 2-3mm. simple. 

Body Markings 

Abdominal band below thorax is Abdominal band is light brown and 

greyish white and fairly conspicuous. rather indistinct. 

Forewing markings upperside 

Whitish square spot halfway down Square spot usually indistinct or 

between terminal and subterminal absent. Postmedian line slopes 

fascias often conspicuous in typical inwards at dorsum. 

specimens. Postmedian line curves 

sharply outwards at the dorsum. 

Hindwing markings underside 

Postmedian line unangulated, a useful Postmedian line angulated. 

character when examing very dark or 

melanic specimens. 

Forewing markings underside 

Apical patch indistinct. Apical patch conspicuous and much 

darker than ground colour except for 
a small pale patch at apex. 

Abroad P. secundaria is known from Central and Southern 
Europe including Denmark and Sweden. The adult flies from 
early July to late August. It overwinters as a larva and the 
foodplants listed by various authors are Pine, Spruce, Juniper 
and Thuya sps. Several local races have been described from 
France and Denmark and the melanic form has been named ab. 
nigra ta Sterneck. Fertile eggs have been obtained from both 
typical and melanic females of the English race and it is hoped 



*5 Rawlins Close, Addington, Surrey CR2 8JS. 



182 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

that notes on both its taxonomy and hfe history will be 
published at a later date. In the meantime and in a less scientific 
vein I would like to suggest The Feathered Beauty as a 
vernacular name, being consistent with the English name of 
allied genera as well as describing a diagnostic feature. 

Acknowledgements 

My thanks are due to D. S. Fletcher of the British Museum 
(Natural History) for confirming my determination of P. 
secundaria and to David Wilson who spared neither effort nor 
expense to produce in record time the photographic plate. 

References 

Culot, J., 1917-1919. Noctuelles et Geometres d'EuropeZ: 99 pi. 

55, fig 1126. 
Hoffmeyer, S., 1966. De Danske Mdlere 3\6, pi. 17, figs 9 & 10. 
Seitz, A., 1912. The Macrolepidoptera of the World 4: 369, 

pi. 20h. 



Phytomyza spoliata Strobe (Diptera: Agromy- 
ZIDAE) New to Britain. - During the afternoon of 

27th July 1980 I visited the Anglesey fen Cors Bodeilio (grid ref. 
SH 505 774) and among the flies swept from the field layer vege- 
tation was a single male Phytomyza species unfamiliar to me. 
Using the key of Spencer (1972, Diptera: Agromyzidae. R.E. S. 
Handbk. Ident. Br. Insects X (5g).) the specimen ran down to 
P. silai Hering, but differs from this species in lacking acrostichals, 
possessing two upper orbital bristles, having all knees yellow and 
notopleura grey. Turning to Spencer (1976, Tlie Agromyzidae of 
Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna ent. Scand. 5) the specimen 
ran to Phytomyza spoliata Strobl, and comparison with the des- 
cription of external characters and with the illustration of the 
lateral view of the aedeagus confirmed the identification. Spencer 
(1976, op. cit.) records tliis species from Denmark, Sweden, Finland, 
Austria, Germany and the Mediterranean area, and gives the larval 
host plants as Centaurea spp. and possibly also Cirsium heterophyllum 
(L.) Hill. I thank Tim Blackstock (NCC Bangor) for arranging access 
permission to Cors Bodeilio. — Dr. I. F. G. McLEAN, Nature Con- 
servancy Council, 19/20, Belgrave Square, London SWIX SPY. 
Some Interesting Moths from Chattenden Wood, 
Kent.— On the night of 19th September 1980, Norman Heal 
and I visited this historic old locality. Amongst the 71 moths of 
22 species that came to our lights was a specimen of the Tawny 
Pinion: Lithophane semibrunnea Haworth, and a single 
example of the Large Marbled Tortrix: Nycteola revayana 
Scopoli. On 3rd October, I returned alone and was rewarded 
with the sight of a very fresh Merveille du Jour: Dichonia 
aprilina L, at light. — D. Dey, 9, Monmouth Close, Rainham, 
Gillingham, Kent ME8 7BQ. 



183 

THE DIPTERA (CALYPTRATAE) OF THE 
SANDWELL VALLEY, WEST BROMWICH 

By M. G. Bloxham* 



Perusal of the steadily increasing number of Royal Entomolo- 
gical Society Handbooks on Diptera inevitably leads the reader to 
the conclusion that large areas of the British Isles have had scant 
attention paid to their fly population. While certain localities have 
been extensively investigated, the majority remain virtually unswept 
by the dipterist's net, large tracts of Staffordshire falling into the 
latter category. It was with this in mind that the present survey 
was conducted and this is intended to be the first of a short series 
of papers on the Diptera of the Sandwell Valley, West Bromwich. 
which was considered to possess a number of interesting features 
as a dipterous habitat and was easily accessible for regular collect- 
ing visits. Some introductory comments on the area, collecting 
methods and relevant hterature precede the species lists and main 
discussion. 

Situated in the West Midlands within the 10 km grid square 
SP09 of the Ordnance Survey National Grid, the Sandwell Valley 
is an area of some 1700 acres containing two farms, reclaimed 
industrial land and recreational areas. It lies between West Brom- 
wich Birmingliam and Walsall, being unusual in that it is completely 
surrounded by the buUt-up area. The potential ecological interest 
of the valley is therefore considerable. 

Geologically, Triassic sandstone deposits cover the West Brom- 
wich area and underlying these are coal measures which have in 
recent history been most ijnportant to the economy of the area. 
The soils are a product of the surface rocks and glacial drift material, 
the characteristic soil being a leached brown soil, the texture of 
which varies from a silty loam to a sandy clay loam with some 
pockets of almost pure sand. 

Tlie vegetation of the valley is very varied. Changes of land use 
and reclamation policies mean that many open spaces consist of 
improved pasture with local authority plantings of a wide variety 
of trees and shrubs, but stretches of bent/fescue grassland of some 
antiquity are stiU to be found in places. Tlie woodlands are of 
considerable interest; large tracts of hawthorn scrub, mature birch- 
wood and oakwood are present, the latter including some magni- 
ficent trees of great age. The mixed woodlands are rich in tree 
species, grey poplar, ash, alder, Salix species, sycamore and horse 
chestnut being dominant, wliile the occasional exotic species 
reminds one that much of the area once formed the estate of the 
Earl of Dartmouth. 

Over thirty pools are to be found, varying in area from a few 
square yards to 17 acres. These are often connected by streams, 



'1 St. Johns Close, Sandwell Valley, W. Bromwich, W. Midlands. 



184 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

the resultant water systems providing a wide variety of habitats 
for the abundant water life of the locality. 

Various studies of flora and fauna of the valley have in recent 
years been undertaken by the West Bromwich Field Society and the 
National History Department of the City of Birmingham Museum 
and Art Gallery, but these do not seem to have included work on 
Diptera. Whilst there seems to be a lack of background information 
on the flies of West Bromwich, this is not the case for Staffordshire 
as a whole and it seems pertinent briefly to review contributions 
made to the knowledge of Diptera in the county, for there is some 
evidence that such information may not previously have had the 
publicity it deserves and it may also enable the reader to compare 
other findings with those here. The earliest records were those of 
Edwin Brown in 'The Natural History of Tutbury' and they formed 
the basis of the species list pubhshed in the Victoria County History 
of Staffordshire, Vol. 10. The list consists of names of some 300 
species found and draws attention to the fact that several eminent 
dipterists, notably Verrall, Wainwright and Bradley collected Diptera 
in the area on an occasional basis during the earlier part of the cen- 
tury. Of the more recent surveys, the list published in the Trans- 
actions of the North Staffordsliire Field Club (1951-52) is the most 
comprehensive, details of over 500 species collected by Mr. E. 
Britten being contained therein. The editor of that paper, Mr. J. 
Edwards, also notable as a collector of Staffordshire Diptera, con- 
tributed his own list of additional county records in various sub- 
sequent volumes of the Transactions. These publications will provide 
the reader with details of some 200 Diptera Calyptratae found in 
the county. 

The flies Hsted in this paper were collected predominantly by 
net and tube, sweeping and pooting being scarcely used. It is pro- 
bable therefore, that many of the smaller and less obtrusive species 
await detection. Visits have taken place on a large number of dif- 
ferent dates, but the number of insects taken on each occasion has 
been small, owing to shortage of time available for identification 
and collection management. The data given for each species includes 
assessment of abundance, given by the following declining sequence; 
very common, common, frequent and several specimens. For species 
captured only once, the date of capture is given; for those in the 
other four categories, the month(s) of occurrence is indicated. 
Additional background information on many of the species together 
with other observations is provided in the discussion. The arrange- 
ment and nomenclature follows Kloet and Hincks (1976) except 
as modified by the supplements in 'Antenna' (1977). 

Species List 

Family TACHINIDAE 

Subfamily DEXIINAE 
Tribe DEXIINI 

Trixa oestroidea (R.-D.) Several specimens 7,8. 
SubfamUy TACHININAE 



DIPTERA OF THE SANDWELL VALLEY, W. BROMWICH 



185 



Tribe VORIINI 

Periscepsia spathulata (Fall.) Frequent. 5. 

Wagneria gagatea (R.-D.) 25-6-79. 

Eriothrix nifomaculata (Deg.) v. dimano (Harris) Very 

common 6-10. 
Tribe MACQUARTIINl 

Pelatachina tibialis (Fall.) Common 5,6. 
Tribe LESKIINI 

Solieria vacua (Rond.) Several specimens 8, 9. 
Tribe LINNAEMYINI 

Lypha dubia (Fall.) Common 4,5. 

Lydina aenea (Mg.) Frequent 8. 
Tribe ERNESTIINI 

Gymnocheta viridis (Fall.) Frequent 5-8. 

Ernestia rudis (Fall.) Several specimens 5. 

E. tmncata (Zett.) 28-5-78. 

Eurithia anthophila (R.-D.) Frequent 8. 

E. consobrina (Mg.) Common 7, 8. 
Tribe TACHININI 

Servillia ursina (Mg.) 54-80. 
Tribe ELOCERIINI 

Elfia cingulata (R.-D.) Several specimens 9. 

Triarthria spinipennis (Mg.) 1 0-7-80. 
Subfamily GONIINAE 
Tribe SIPHONINI 

Actio pilipennis (Fall.) 27-6-80. 

Siphona cristata (Fabr.) Frequent 7,8,9. 

S. geniculata (Deg.) Frequent 7, 8, 9. 

S. maculata (Staeg.) Frequent 5. 
Tribe BLONDELIINI 

Blondelia nigripes (Fall.) 8-7-80. 

Medina luctixosa (Mg.) 1 5-6-80. 

Meigenia mutabilis (Fall.) 30-5-80. 
Tribe WINTHEMIINI 

Nemorialla floralis (Fall.) Common 5-8. 

Winthemia quadripustiilata (Fabr.) 1-^-16. 
Tribe GONIINI 

Allophorocera femiginea (Mg.) 10-9-78. 

Cyzenis albicans (Fall.) Frequent 5. 

Eumea westermanni (Zett.) Several specimens 7, 8. 

Ocytata pallipes (Fall.) Frequent 7, 8. 

Pales Pavida (Mg.) Frequent 6-9. 

Platymya fimbriata (Mg.) Common 6-8. 
Tribe ERYCIINI 

Carcelia lucorum (Mg.) 4-8-80. 

Epicampocera succincta (Mg.) Several specimens 8. 

Lydella grisescens (R.-D.) Frequent 7. 

L. stabulans (Mg.) Frequent 8. 

Nilea hortulana (Mg.) 6-7-80. 

Phryxe nemea (Mg.) Common 6-8. 



186 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 



Family 



Family 
Subfamily 



Subfamily 
Subfamily 



Family 



Subfamily 



Family 
Subfamily 



P. vulgaris (Fall.) Frequent 6-9. 
Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata (Walker) Several 

specimes 8. 
RHINOPHORIDAE 

Melanomya nana (Mg.) Several specimens 6-8. 
Phyto discrepans / (Pand.) sensu stricto / Several 

specimens 7,8. 
Rhinophora lepida (Mg.) 1 7-8-78. 
Paykullia macidata (Fall.) Several specimens 8. 
SARCOPHAGIDAE 
MILTOGRAMMINAE 
Amobia signata (Mg.) Several specimens 7. 
Miltogramma punctatum (Mg.) Frequent 7,8. 
Metopia argyrocephala (Mg.) Several specimens 6. 
Ptychoneura cvlindrica (Fall.) 22-6-80. 
MACRONYCHIINAE 
Macronychia ungulans (Pand.) 28-8-78 
Brachicoma devia (Fall.) Common 5-8. 
SARCOPHAGINAE 

Sarcophaga carnaria (L.) Very common 5-10. 
S. crassimargo (Pand.) Several specimens 8. 
S. dissimilis (Mg.) Several specimens 6. 
S. haemorrhoa (Mg.) Several specimens 6. 
S. incisilobata (Pand.) Connnon 7-9. 
S. subvincina (Rohdendorf) Common 1 0. 
CALLIPHORIDAE 

Calliphora subalpina (Ringd.) Frequent 6-8. 
C. vicina (R.-D.) Common 5-10. 
C vomitoria (L.) Frequent 5-10. 
Bellardia agilis (Mg.) 27-7-76. 
B. unxia (Walker) 8-7-78. 

B. pusilla (Mg.) Frequent 7. 

Cynomya mortuorum (L.) Several specimens 6-8. 

Lucilia caesar (L.) Common 5-1 1 . 

L. illustris (Mg.) Common 7. 

L. sericata (Mg.) Common 5-11. 

Pollenia nidis nidis (Fabr.) Very common 4-11. 

P. varia (Mg.) 16-8-80 

PHORMIINAE 

Phormia tenaenovae (R.-D.) Several specimens 7-10. 

Pro to calliphora azurea (Fall.) Common 4-10. 

SCATHOPHAGIDAE 

SCATHOPHAGINAE 

Norellisoma spinimanum (Fall.) Common 5-8. 

Cordilura impudica (Rond.) Frequent 6. 

C. pudica (Mg.) Frequent 9. 
Cordilurina albipes (Fall.) Frequent 6. 
Nanna fasciata (Mg.) Common 5-7. 
Cleigastra apicalis (Mg.) Frequent 6,7. 
Scathophaga furcata (Say.) Common 8. 



DIPTERA OF THE SANDWELL VALLEY, W. BROMWICH 



187 



S. inquinata (Mg.) Common 6. 
S. lutaria (Fabr.) Frequent 8-10. 
S. stercoraria (L.) Common 4-10. 
Family ANTHOMYIIDAE 

Chirosia albitarsis (Zett.) Several specimens 5,6. 
C flavipennis (Fall.) Several specimens 7, 8. 
C. panncomis (Zett.) Several specimens 5,6. 
Pegohylemyia bninneilinea (Zett.) Several specimens 
P. fugax (Mg.) Very common 6-10. 
P. obscura (Zett.) Several specimens 5. 
P. striolata (Fall.) Frequent 5. 




-^ 



Fig. 1. Delia criniventris (Zett.) d" 
Wing length 6mm. 

Lasiomma meadei (Kowartz) Frequent 3-5. 

L. nitidicauda (Zett.) Common 4-10. 

Hydrophoria ambigua (Fall.) 2-7-80. 

H. annulata (pand.) Frequent 8. 

H. caudata (Zett.) 27-5-80 

H. conica (Weied.) Common 6, 7. 

H. linogrisea (Mg.) Frequent 5, 6. 

Craspedochoeta pullula (Zett.) Very common 6-9. 

Anthomyia imbrida (Rond.) Very common 5-9. 



188 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Phorbia curvicauda (Zett.) 1-5-80. 

P. securis (Tiens.) Common 5. 

P. sepia (Mg.) Common 5. 

Leucophora cinerea (R.-D.) Several specimens 6. 

L. grisella (Hennig.) 8-7-80. 

L. obtusa (Zett.) Frequent 5. 

L. personata (Collin) Frequent 5. 

Eustalomyia festiva (Zett.) Frequent 6-9. 

E. histrio (Zett.) Frequent 6-9. 

Delia brassicae (Hoff.) Common 5. 

D. coarctata (Fall.) Common 7. 

D. criniventris (Zett.) 23-9-79. 

D. florilega (Zett.) Common 5. 

D. lamelliseta (Stein) 16-8-80. 

D. platura (Mg.) Common 5,6. 

Hylemya latifrons (Schnabl & Dziedzicki) Common 5,6. 

H. partita (Mg.) Frequent 8. 

H. strenua (R.-D.) Common 6-9. 

Heterostylodes pratensis (Mg.) 15-8-80. 

Paregle cinerella (Fall.) 19-8-80. 

P. radicum (L.) Very common 4-10. 

Egle minuta (Mg.) Several specimens 3,4. 

E. muscaria (Fabr.) Frequent 3,4. 

E. rhinotmeta (Pand.) 24-8 . 
Nupedia infirma (Mg.) Common 4-8. 
Pseudonpedia intersecta (Mg.) Common 4-8. 
Emmesomyia villica (Mg.) Several specimens 5. 
Pegomyza praepotens (Wied.) Frequent 6-8. 
Pegomya haemorrhoa (Zett.) Several specimens 5. 
P. nigritarsis (Zett.) Common 6. 

Family FANNIIDAE 

Piezura graminicola (Zett.) 12-7-80. 

Fannia aequilineata (Ringd.) 5 (ex breeding experiment). 

F. armata (Mg.) Common 7,8. 

F. canicularis (L.) Very common 4-9. 

F. coracina (Loew) Common 5-7. 

F. fuscula (Fall.) Common 7-9. 

F. genualis (Stein) 29-5-79. 

F. hamata (Macq.) Common 6-8. 

F. mollissima (Hal.) Frequent 5. 

F. monilis (Hal.) Several specimens 6. 

F. pallitibia (Rond.) 6-1 1-77. 

F. postica (Stein) Frequent 6. 

F. rondanii (Strobl) Common 5,6. 

F. scalaris (Fabr.) Common 5-7. 

F. Serena (Fall.) Common 5-6. 

F. sociella (Zett.) Common 5,6. 

F. vesparia (Meade) Several specimens 6. 

{To be continued) 



PLATE IV 






Figs. 1-8. Poecilmitis henniiigi spec. nov. and P. lysander lysander Pennington. 
1-4. Upperside. 1. P. henningi cf holotype. 2. P. henningi ? allotype. 
3. P. lysander d" • 4. P. lysander* 5-8. Underside. 5. P. henningi (5holo- 
type. 6. P. henningi 9 allotype. 7. P. lysander cT. 8. P. lysander ? . 



Photograph: S. F. Henning 



1 89 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES 

OF POECILMITIS BUTLER 

(LEPIDOPTERA: LYCAENIDAE) FROM THE 

S.WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF 

SOUTH AFRICA 

By Ivan Bampton* 

Abstract. Poecilmitis henningi spec. nov. is described and 
notes on its known habits and distribution are given. 

Introduction. Early in 1975 Mr. G. A. Henning while 
looking over the lycaenid collection in the Transvaal Museum, 
Pretoria, noticed some unusual specimens placed under 
Poecilmitis lysander Pennington. He made a note of the locality 
where these specimens were caught and in December 1975 Mr. 
Henning and I visited the locality and captured a further 5 o" and 
2 9 . These additional specimens confirmed the suspicion that we 
were in fact dealing with an undescribed species. 

Poecilmitis henningi spec. nov. 

Diagnosis. Male: closest to P. lysander Pennington, 1962, 
on the upperside, but differs in having the marginal border 
broader, the spotting on the forewing larger and the cilia 
greyish-ochre; it is also smaller and the outer margin of the 
forewing is more rounded. The underside comes closest to that 
of P. beulah Quickelberge, 1966. Female: closest to P. lysander 
on the upperside, but differs in having the spotting larger and 
the cilia greyish-ochre. The underside as in the male comes 
closest to P. beulah. 

Description, cf -Holotype. Forewing length: 12.5mm; 
antenna-wing ratio: 0.5. Body black, clothed with bluish hairs 
above and pale tawny-yellow ones below. Antennae black above 
and pale yellowish-white below, with the club dark reddish- 
brown. 

Wings. Upperside. Forewing: orange, with the basal area 
blue. The basal blue extends up the costa as far as the large black 
discocellular mark along the inner margin to the postdiscal line. 
The postdiscal spots are large and the upper three are confluent, 
while the spots in lb and 3 are more proximad than the others. 
The black marginal border is broad and of even width. The cilia 
are greyish-ochre with dark brown at the ends of the veins. 
Hindwing: orange with the basal area up the median line blue 
and a strong bluish-violet sheen up to the postdiscal area. There 
are three faint postdiscal spots in 3, 6 and 7. Subcostally in area 
8 the orange ground colour is suffused with black scaling. There 
is a narrow black marginal border in areas 5-8. The cilia are 
orange becoming black at the ends of the veins. 

Underside. Forewing: orange, with apex, distal area and the 
inner margin buff-coloured; the black spotting as in other 
members of the thysbe-grouxi- The spots are well developed, 

*c/o 1 Lawrence Street, Florida Park, Florida 1710, South Africa 



190 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

those towards the costa being centred with shiny-gold. There is a 
brownish-black submarginal line running from lb to 3. 

Hindwing: pale tawny-ochreous with only a faint indication 
of darker marks in the median and postdiscal areas. 

d'-Paratypes. Upperside; the forewing is essentially the 
same as that of the Holotype but the spotting is larger in some 
specimens. In the hindwing several specimens differ from the 
Holotype in having an irregular series of small postdiscal spots, 
while other specimens have the spots lacking entirely. 
Subcostally in area 8 the orange ground colour is not suffused 
with black scaling in some specimens. Underside: As in the 
Holotype. 

9 -Allotype. Forewing length: 13.0mm; antenna-wing 
ratio: 0.49. Body black, clothed with bluish-grey hairs above 
and pale tawny-yellow ones below. Antennae black above, 
yellowish-white below with the club dark reddish-brown. 

Wings. Upperside. Forewing: orange with the basal greyish- 
blue extending to the mid-point of the inner margin and along 
the costa to a point halfway along the cell. There is a large black 
discocellular spot and a smaller spot at the mid-point of the cell. 
The six postdiscal spots are large with the upper three confluent. 
The spots in 2 and 4 are displaced distad with respect to the 
others. The black marginal border is of even width. The cilia are 
greyish-ochre becoming slightly darker at the ends of the veins. 

Hindwing:orange, with the basal blue extending to the 
median area. There are six black postdiscal spots with those in Ic 
and 3 more proximad than the others. The marginal border is 
widest near the costa, tapering to the anal angle. The cilia are 
greyish-ochre, becoming slightly darker in the areas at the ends 
of the veins. 

Underside: as in the Holotype but with the tawny-ochreous 
areas paler. 

9 Paratypes: Upperside: as in the Allotype but with one 
specimen having the black spotting slightly smaller. 

Underside: as in the Allotype. 

The forewing length varies from 13. 0-13. 7mm. 

Type Material, cf -Holotype: SOUTH AFRICA: Huis River 
Pass, near Calitzdorp, Cape Province, 2. XII. 1975 (G.A. 
Henning). 

9 -Allotype: Idem, (G.A. Henning). 

Paratypes: 2 d Idem, (G.A. Henning); 2 cT 1 9 Idem, (I. 
Hampton); 1 cT 1 9 Idem, 30.XI.1957 (K.M. Pennington); Sd 
Calitzdorp, Cape Province, 6. X. 1967 (K.M. Pennington); IcT 
1 9 Idem, 5. XI. 1969 (D.A. Swanepoel); la" Idem, 3. XI. 1969 
(D.A. Swanepoel). The holotype and allotype are deposited in 
the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, South Africa, paratypes are in 
the collections of W.H., S.F. & G.A. Henning, the Transvaal 
Museum and the Durban Museum. 

Distribution and Habits. This species was collected by Mr. 
G.A. Henning and myself on the Huis River Pass above 
Calitzdorp, Cape Province. It was flying along the steep sides of 



NEW POECILMITIS FROM S.W. CAPE PROVINCE S. AFRICA 191 
a rocky gully running horizontal to the main road in arid 
country composed of thick Karroo type vegetation. Most 
specimens were secured when disturbed while feeding on a tiny 
insignificant flower appearing in the leaf axils of a small shrub, 
while the odd specimen was seen to settle on the stony ground. 
Their flight at this time was not very swift but this could perhaps 
be attributed to the fact that they were intent on feeding and 
were reluctant to leave the food source after being disturbed. It 
may have also been due to the windy conditions prevailing at the 
time. Despite an intensive search of the locality they were 
observed only in the gully, no specimens being found in the 
neighbouring areas. 

Acknowledgements 

I name this species for my friend Graham Henning, and 
wish to thank his brother Stephen Henning for advice and 
encouragement in preparing this paper. 

References 
Pennington, K.M. 1962. Descriptions of a new Neptis, new 

Lycaenidae, and records of rare species and additions to the 

list of Southern African Rhopalocera (Lepidoptera). 

J. ent. Soc. sth. Afr., 16 (2): 94-111. 
Pennington, K.M. 1978. Pennington's Butterflies of Southern 

Africa. Edited by C.G.C. Dickson, with the collaboration 

of Dr. D.M. Kroon. Ad. Donker, Johannesburg. 
Quickelberge, CD. 1966. A new species of Poecilmitis Butler 

(Rhopalocera) from the eastern Cape. Novas Taxa ent., 47: 

3 - 7 . ==_ 

The Larva of Oncocera Formosa (Haworth) (Lep.: 
Pyralidae). — This is described by Beirne {British Pyralid and 
Plume Moths, pp. 94-95) as "deep green with the dorsal and 
subdorsal lines darker and edged greyish-yellowish. The 
spiracular and subspiracular lines are greenish-white and there is 
an oval black-centred white spot on each side of the second 
thoracic segment. The head is deep green, freckled darker". 

At Foulness, Essex, on the 28th of August, 1980, larvae 
feeding in the manner described for O. formosa were common 
on elm; I took four. Their ground colour, including the head, 
was rather dark green, harmonising exactly with the elm leaves. 
The pattern consisted solely of a series of interrupted, fine white 
lines extending from the head inclusive to the anus. The larvae 
were seen, but not recognised, by several microlepidopterists. 
One larvae died at ecdysis; the remainder produced adults from 
6-13 June, 1981. 

Beirne' s account probably came via Meyrick and has the 
stamp of a careful description made by an entomologist with a 
larva before him. It seems likely, therefore, that the larva is 
dimorphic. That two similar species are being confused is 
possible, but unlikely. It would be useful if collectors who come 
across larvae of this species would make a note of their 
coloration.— A. M. Emmet, Labrey Cottage, Victoria Gardens, 
Saffron Walden, Essex. 15 June 1981. 



DISCOVERY OF LARVAL CASE OF 

PROTEROSPASTIS MERDELLA (ZELLER) 

(LEPIDOPTERA, TINEIDAE) IN ASSOCIATION 

WITH SPIDER'S WEB AT GHAR DALAM (CAVE), 

MALTA 

By G. Zammit-Maempel M.D.* 

Abstract 

The larval case of Proterospastis merdella (Lepidoptera, 
Tineidae), found attached to a spider's web in a Maltese cave (Ghar 
Dalam, S.E. Malta) is described for the first time. 
Case, moth and genitalia are figured. 



In August 1979 the writer initiated a one-year study of the 
biology of Ghar Dalam based on monthly surveys. During one of 
these visits to the Cave, a larval case (ZM/Gh.D.6) was found 
suspended from a spider's web attached to the cave wall close to 
the floor and about 3 metres from the cave entrance. At some time 
between collection (ll/X/79) and re-examination of the collected 
items eiglit months later (2/VI/80), the adult had emerged and 
died. The larva was never seen. Tlie moth was subsequently identi- 
fied by Dr. Gaden S. Robinson of the British Museum (Natural 
History) as Proterospastis merdella (Zeller) 9 , a microlepidopteron 
whose larval case was hitherto unknown to science. 

The aim of this short note is to give the first record and 
description of this larval case and to record also its association with 
a spider's web in a Maltese cave. 

The Cave. Ghar Dalam is a natural waterworn cave, a 160m 
long phraeatic tube on the south east side of the Island, situated 
about 250m from the coast (St. George's Bay, Birzebbuga). Only 
the outermost 80m are accessible to visitors. The cave's entrance 
faces southwest and overlooks the valley. It stands 6.1m above 
the valley bed and is 15.24m above sea level. Except for the outer- 
most few metres and the innermost part (inaccessible to the public), 
the cave is artificially ht by bulbs. 

The larval case. The case of P. merdella is a lead grey, dorsoven- 
trally flattened, long ovoid structure with an embayment on either 
side just above the equator. Maximum width of embayment under 
review is 3.5mm. The ends are blunt, of unequal width (2.1mm and 
1.9mm respectively) and with fluffy edges. Low magnification 
microscopy reveals a surface that is irregularly knobby and pitted. 
Total length of case is 10.65mm, maximum depth 1.5mm and 
maxmium width 4mm, but only 3mm at the constriction. 



*53, Main Street, Birkirkara, Malta. 



PLATE V 




Proterospastis merdella (Zeller) Larval case and moth. 
Spider's web, Ghar Dalam, Malta. (Scale bar = 1mm). 




Fig. 2 

Genitalia of above 9 moth. 
(Scale bar = 0.5mm). 



PROTEROSPASTIS MERDELLA (ZELLER) 1 93 

Systematics Lepidoptera 

Tineidae 
Tineinae 
Proterospastis 
P. merdella (Zeller) 

Proterospastis is a senior synonym of Paratinea Peterson 1957: 
159) (synonymized by Gozmany & Vari 1973). 

Distribution. The genus Proterospastis has 22 species distributed 
in the Palaearctic and Ethiopian regions eastward to Fiji. One of the 
species has been recorded from rodent excrement and two others 
from bat guano (Robinson 1980). P. merdella has been recorded 
from Egypt, Israel, Turkey, Malta, Sicily, Spain and Algeria. 

Local records. In Malta, Proterospastis merdella (Zeller) was 
first recorded by De Lucca (1969:140) who, using the conventional 
methods of light traps and sugaring, captured "one specimen at 
Gharghur on June 1957". Valletta (1973:94) could add no further 
records. This is, therefore, only the second Maltese record of P. 
merdella. On August 13th, 1980, two further empty larval cases 
(ZM/Gh. D.26 and 27), identical in all respects to that of /*. 
merdella (Zeller) were collected by the present writer from Ghar 
Dalam. Both cases were found in adjacent spiders' webs lying half a 
metre within the Cave entrance and about 3 cms above floor level. 

Acknowledgements 

Gratitude is expressed to Dr. G. S. Robinson, British Museum 
(Natural History) for his identification of the moth and for critically 
reading the paper, Dr. P. Schembri and Mr. J. P. Testaferrata-Bonici 
for the diagram and the photography respectively. 

References 

De Lucca, C, 1969. Lepidoptera from the Maltese Islands Ento- 
mologist's Rec. J. Var. 81: 137-140 

Gozmany, L. A. & Vari, L., 1973. The Tineidae of the Ethiopian 
region Trans. Mus. Mem. 18: i-vi, 1-238, figs. 1-570. 

Petersen, G., 1957, 1958. Die Genitalien der palaarktischen Tineiden 
Beitr. Ent. 7:55-176, 338-379, 557-595; 8:111-118, 398-430. 

Robinson, G. S. 1980. Cave-Dwelling Tineid Moths: A taxonomic 
review of the World species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae). Trans. 
Br. Cave Res. Ass. 7 (2): 83-120, 51 figs. June 1980 

Valletta, A. 1973. The Moths of the Maltese Islands Progress Press, 
Malta. 118pp., 16 pis. 

An Early Large White: Pieris brassicae L.— Here, I 
am afraid as elsewhere, it has been the worst butterfly year on 
record. Practically nothing about, but my first sighting was a 
female P. brassicae in mid-April - surely a rather curious start 
to the season? I observed it closely settled on some flowers of 
Malus floribunda, and a very pretty picture it made. — N. G. 
Wykes, Uploders House, Bridport, Dorset. 10 June 1981. 



''' Current Literature 



Butterflies of the Afro tropical Region. By Bernard D'Abrera, 

F.R.E.S. XX + 593 pp. (embracing colour plates, in most 
cases), 11 half-tone figures. 2 maps. Publishers: Lansdown 
Editions in association with E. W. Classey, 1980. Price £60. 

In an assessment of this book it must be borne in mind that the 
work purports to cover the butterflies of an enormous and most 
important Region and that one would therefore expect it to have 
been compiled with great care and an effort made to include all 
known species and at least more of the recognised subspecies of 
the Region. Considering the immense number of taxa which have 
been recorded from this Region, fully detailed references to each 
of tliese could not have been expected in a single volume which 
combines the colour plates with the text. However, the omission 
of a number of well known species (certainly, from the Southern 
African Sub-Region) and the most incomplete actual figuring of 
subspecies, combined with tlie absence of citations to original 
descriptions, are disappointing features of this work. Furthermore, 
the recognised practice of placing authors' names in brackets when 
a genus other than the original one is used, has not been followed. 
Had due consideration been given to the foregoing points and an 
attempt made to avoid misstatements of various types in the text, 
including matters pertaining to distribution, through enHsting the 
help of others with a speciahsed knowledge of African butterflies, 
to check the manuscript before pubUcation, the value of this big, 
and in many respects, admirable, work would have been increased 
greatly. Attention is paid to the imagines alone, with virtually 
no reference even to larval food-plants, in the text. 

While one does fully realise the immensity of such a task and 
that to have produced such a book, with its impressive presentation, 
was in itself of much credit to the author, the inevitable impres- 
sion is that the entire work was rushed, with far too short a time 
and too little attention given to its completion; also that the author 
was over-confident of his own ability, as is shown by the approach, 
for instance, to the views of certain South African workers and his 
unjustified action in actually sinking some taxa which had been 
described originally on thorouglily vaUd grounds. 

The colour reproductions vary much in quahty; many are 
excellent, including views of habitats taken in tropical Africa by the 
author; others are mediocre, with unsatisfactory colour values; 
while some are decidedly poor. A few of those representing, mainly, 
South African Lycaenid butterflies, unfortunately fall into the 
last-named category. A grave defect is the interchanging of the 
names of species in some of the plates, in relation to the relevant 
legends to these plates; one example being on p. 491, where Poecil- 
mitis palmus is given as P. pyroeis pyroeis, and vice versa. 

Limited space precludes a more comprehensive assessment of 
this book; but it may be stated finally that the BibUography is in 



CURRENT LITERATURE 195 

no way worthy of a work of this size, with many important, and 
even recent, works on African butterflies omitted altogether — 
even Pennington's Butterflies of Southern Africa (1978). There is 
a good, clearly compiled index to the taxa which are covered in the 
book. 

The essential manuscript of this book was based on a Synono- 
myic Catalogue of the Butterflies of the Ethiopian Region by 
Dr. R. H. Carcasson, as yet unpubHshed, and which certainly appeared 
in itself to be an accurately compiled, and fully trustworthy work. It 
is only fair to add that Mr. D'Abrera himself has not subsequently 
retained this view. Tlie mounted specimens used in the plates were 
from the collection of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.), and were 
photographed by the author. 

It is pleasing to be able to state that Mr. D'Abrera intends 
to bring out a second edition of his book, in which earher short 
comings will be rectified as far as possible; and which one trusts will 
be a fine work which does do adequate justice to its subject. — 
C. G. C. D. 

An Identification Guide to the British Pugs (Lepidoptera: 
Geometridae. The Genera Eupithecia Curtis, Chloroclystis 
Huebner, Gymnoscelis Mabille and Anticollix Prout). By 
the Rev. D. J. Agassiz and other Members of the British 
Entomological and Natural History Society. 44pp., 
4 coloured plates (of 86 figures) and 12 black and white 
plates (of 245 figures). Published by the Society, 1981. 
Obtainable from R. F. Bretherton, Folly Hill, Birtley 
Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey, GU5 OLE. Soft back 
£6 (£4 to members), hard back £9 (£6 to members), plus 
postage. 

Two monographs of this group have been published. 
Dietze's Die Biologie der Eupithecien (Berlin, 1913), an 
expensive two volume folio of cumbersome proportions with 
text in German, the adults figured in black and white but with 
good coloured illustrations of the early stages; and, Juul's 
Nordens Eupithecier {Aarhus, 1948), handy, in Danish but with 
English summary and good coloured illustrations, especially of 
the larvae. And now, this little English production with much to 
be said in its favour. 

The Guide consists of a key (5pp.), followed by the main 
text (24pp.) describing the 50 admitted species on the British list, 
and including briefly their Ufe histories, early stages and 
distribution. An appendix details species of doubtful status in 
Britain, and a further appendix those which might occur in the 
British Isles. A list of 29 bibliographical references, a short 
explanation of the black and white figures, and an index of 
generic, specific, sub-specific and vernacular names complete 
the text. A fault on page 37 regarding the first paragraph 
referring to Eupithecia actaeata, has been corrected on an 
adhesive printed slip which is obtainable on application from the 
Society. 



196 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

The black and white illustrations show clearly the 
abdominal plates as well as both male and female genitalia of 49 
of the 50 species (those of Anticollix sparsata being omitted as 
having no anal plate and the genitalia being unlike those of other 
species under consideration). The genitalia of Eupithecia 
egenaria, E. millefoliata, E. phoeniceata and Chloroclystis 
chloerata are figured here for the first time in the British 
literature. Of exceptional interest are the coloured plates. These 
were produced from photographs of set specimens and figure 
natural size all 50 species, most sub-species and many 
aberrations, and are among the truest representations we have 
seen in any book on the British lepidoptera. Paper and printing 
are good, and the book is apparently free from mis-prints. 

This is an outstanding publication, particularly in regard to 
the quality of the coloured illustrations, and is the forerunner we 
hope of further similar illustrated monographs by this famous 
Society.— J. M.C.-H. 

Notes and Observations 

Hazards of Butterfly Collecting, India 1961.— The 
population problem in most of the world is serious indeed and 
many good natural habitats are being whittled away by 
population pressure, but normally people as such do not pose a 
direct problem to entomological field work. In most of East 
Asia encounters with the local population will invariably be 
courteous and as brief as the collector may wish. In the Middle 
East and eastern Europe an entomologist may need some 
resourcefulness to evade well-meant but time consuming 
hospitality. However, on the Indian subcontinent people, and 
especially kids, may make collecting nearly impossible. Take for 
instance a collecting trip to scrub-land near New Delhi, very 
good for tropical Pieridae and certain species of Lycaenidae. 

You stop your car in a spot so remote that no-one can 
possibly be around except an occasional goat-herd and the 
ubiquitous jackals. But no! Within ten minutes there are a dozen 
interested and totally dedicated onlookers. Within half an hour 
you are surrounded by anywhere up to a hundred. At this point 
collecting becomes, to put it mildly, difficult. The term 
surrounded should be taken quite literally, i.e. a solid wall of 
interested and good humoured humanity, at a radius of about 
three net lengths. Viewed from above it all resembles a gigantic 
cell with the entomologist as the nucleus. However, an amoeba 
may be a more fruitful analogy since the whole cumbersome 
structure is able to move. Slowly, perhaps, but definitely. And 
the movement is like that of an amoeba. The outer wall adjusts 
to environmental contraints and even splits to encapsulate a tree 
or a rock which is in the way, only to disgorge it again at the 
other end. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 1 97 

Even readers with little knowledge of butterfly collecting 
can understand this is bad for collecting (or in more modern 
parlance "constitutes a sub-optimal entomological field 
situation"). Yet things get worse. The brightest kids will equip 
themselves with switches made from twigs and proceed to cut 
down any butterfly stupid enough to approach the advancing 
amoeba. Soon the bravest of the brightest will be approaching 
you with the horribly mangled remains of a Danaus chrysippus. 
The only viable course of action now is to give up. They will not 
tire; you will not catch a worthwhile butterfly. 

But can you not reason with them? No! You may try, it 
won't help, though it might be amusing to do so. The sequence 
goes somewhat along the following lines. You sit down; 
everyone sits down. Smiles are exchanged. Soon the brightest of 
the brightest of the kids is pushed to the fore. He struggles 
visibly to overcome a level of stress which would provoke an 
immediate coronary attack in an older person, before exclaiming 
bravely: "What is yourrr name and from wherrre do you 
come?" and retreating to the relative safety of the wall of the 
amoeba. More often than not this will have exhausted the entire 
vocabulary available for dialogue. Audience response at such 
audacity is rapt. Grandfathers think that, but for one of the 
innumerable curses afflicting the Indian countryside, this could 
have been one of his own sons twenty years ago. The younger 
fathers' resolve to secure an education for their sons is visibly 
strengthened. And the horde of younger and more timid kids 
have an instant hero. 

Try to explain - even with the help of a decent Hindi 
phrase-book - that you are in this godforsaken spot collecting 
butterflies for scientific reasons and that you prefer to be alone. 
No way! Even in the unlikely case that you could communicate 
the message it would be insufficient reason to abandon the 
enjoyment engendered by what could be the most exciting thing 
that has happened in the area since they chased away a 
government tax-collector three years ago. 

Lesson. Try again, somewhere else. But be prepared for the 
same scenario. — Torben B, Larsen, 23 Jackson's Lane, 
London N.6. 

Extra Instars in Lymantriid Larvae. -With reference to 
Mrs. Reese's query (1981, Ent. Rec, 92: 234), whilst I cannot say 
whether the extra larval instar in females of Orgyia andqua L. has 
been noted previously, quite a number of Lymantriid species do 
have an extra larval instar in the female. I have records of this 
with the following species from my own breeding experiences: — 
Pteredea monsticta Btlr., Porthesia producta Wlk., P. dewitzi 
Grunbg., Euproctis fasciata Wlk., E. geminata Collnt., E. molun- 
diana Auriv., E. discupuncta Holl., Area discalis Wlk., Dasychira ila 
Swinh., Nemerophanes libyra Druce, N. enos Druce, Orgyia basalts 
Wlk., O. mixta Snell. 



198 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Oddly enough, Lasiocampid larvae do not appear to have this 
extra instar in female larvae, although the size disparity between 
the sexes in the imago is often even greater than in the Lymantriidae. 
-D.G.SevasTOPULO,F.R.E.S., P.O. Box 95617, Mombasa (Nyali), 
Kenya. 

Early Appearances of the Red Admiral, Vanessa 
ATALANTA LiNN. IN S. E. KENT. - On 28th March 1981 I watched 
a rather worn Vanessa atalanta flying among the bushes lining a 
ride in Longrope Wood, Orlestone. Its behaviour was somewhat 
similar to that of Polygonia c-album, several of which were flying 
and basking in the rides at the same time. Warm southerly winds 
were rather common during March, thougli the weather was fre- 
quently dull and wet, so it seems quite possible that this butterfly 
was an early migrant. 

On the other hand, I have a record of an atalanta being seen 
by Mr. E. M. R. Jago at Lympne, Kent on 10th February 1980, 
flying in sunshine in his garden when the temperature was about 
10°C. It seems more likely that this was a hibernator though 
whether it can be considered a "successful" hibernator or not I 
would not Uke to say. It still had to survive the typical Kentish 
spring of recent years, something which a number of species of 
butterfly are apparently unable to do — M. ENFIELD, New Cottage, 
Warren Farm, Bougliton Aluph, Ashford, Kent TN25 4HW. 

Larvae of the Yellow Shell: Camptogramma 

BILINEATA L. FEEDING IN NATURE ON CARDAMINE FLEXUOSA 

With. (Cruciferae). — During the evening of May 7th, 1981, a 
green geometric! larva was noticed on this plant during weeding 
operations, and search after dark revealed two more, all of 
which were bred. The C. flexuosa had formed a dense patch to 
the exclusion of other plant species since the previous summer, 
and was of several square feet in extent in my garden at 
Dartford, Kent, thus making it likely that this was also the larval 
foodplant before hibernation. 

It seems that larvae of C. bilineata are rarely found. E. 
Newman {The Natural History of British Moths, 1869) states 
"The caterpillar appears to have been seldom observed until M. 
Guenee gave us the clue to its discovery; it feeds on different 
grasses by night, secreting itself during the day on the underside 
of stones, under clods of earth, or at the roots of the herbage." 
C. Barrett [The Lepidoptera of the British Islands, 
1895-1902] lists chickweed, dock, sorrel, strawberry, 
dandelion, rest harrow and various grasses. R. South {The 
Moths of the British Isles, 1939 ed.) after listing grass, dock, 
chickweed, and various low-growing plants as foodplants states 
that the larvae are often abundant in hay fields. More recently 
horse chestnut is given as foodplant in Surrey by L. Evans (L. 
and K. Evans, A Survey of the Macro-Lepidoptera of Croydon 
and N.E. Surrey, 1973), this apparently by a single larva. 

The Dartford record is interesting in that this seems to be 
the first time C. bilineata larvae have been observed on a 
cruciferous plant.— B. K. West, 36 Briar Road, Bexley, Kent. 



THE BUTTERFLIES AND 
MOTHS OF KENT 

VOLUME 3 

by J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, FRES 



Comprising the families Geometridae, Hepialidae, 
Cossidae, Zygaenidae, Limacodidae and Sesiidae, 
together with Supplements to Volumes 1 and 2 
incorporating up-to-date information on the 
butterflies of Kent and many of the larger moths 
covered in Volume 2. 



The work is supplied in printed wrappers: 296 pp, 
coloured frontispiece, folding map and 16 black 
and white illustrations. Published 1969-1981. 



A limited number of copies are available, price £15.65 
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FOR SALE 

A collection of British Butterflies formed by the late Capt. A. P. 
Gainsford. Ml native species are represented and included are many 
aberrations. All are well-set and labelled and neatly arranged in a 
fine Grange and Griffiths 10 drawer cabinet. A detailed list of 
specimens is available on request. 

Enquiries please, to Mrs. P. Gainsford, 2 Grenville Park, Yelverton, 

Devon. Tel. Yelverton 3810. 



THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS' SOCIETY 

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CONTENTS 

Peribatodes secundaria D. & S. in Kent: a Species of Geometrid 

Moth New to Great Britain. B. SKINNER 181 

The Diptera (Calyptratae) of the Sandwell Valley, West Bromwich. 

M. G. BLOXHAM 183 

Description of a New Specits oi Poecilmitis Butler (Lep.: Lycaenidae) 
from the S. Western Cape Province of South Africa. 
I.BAMPTON 189 

Discovery of Larval Case of Pro terospastis merdella (Zeller) (Lep.: 
Tineidae) in Association with Spider's Web at Ghar Dalam 
(Cave), Malta. Dr. G. ZAMMIT-MAEMPEL 192 

Notes and Observations: 

Phytomyza spoliata Strobl (Dipt.: Agromyzidae) New to 

Britain. Dr. I. F. G. McLEAN 182 

Some Interesting Moths from Chattenden Wood, Kent. D.DEY. 1 82 

The Larva of Oncocera formosa (Haw.) (Lep.: Pyralidae). 

Lt. Col. A. M. EMMET 191 

An Early Large White: Aem 6ra5s/cae L. N. G. WYKES 193 

Hazards of Butterfly Collecting, India 1961. T. B. LARSEN ... 196 

Extra Instars in Lymantriid Larvae. D. G. SEVASTOPULO ... 197 

Early Appearances of the Red Admiral, Vanessa atalanta L. in 

S. E. Kent. M. ENFIELD 198 

Larvae of the Yellow Shell: Camptogramma hilineata L. Feeding 

in Nature on Cardamine flexuosa (Cruciferae). B. K. WEST.. 198 

Current Literature ' 194-196 

The Butterflies and Moths of Kent, Volume 3. Title-page, Preface, 

Introduction and Index (i-xix) and (i-vii) 



Printed by Frowde & Co (Printers) Ltd Orpheus St. London SE5 8RR 



VOL.93. Nos. 11-12 November/December 1981 ISSN 0013-8916 



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Neville Birkett, m.a.. m.b. C. A. Collingwood, b.sc, f.r.e.s. 

S. N. A. Jacobs, f.r.e.s. J. Heath, f.r.e.s., f.l.s. 

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199 
THE MONARCH: DANAUS PLEXIPPUS LINN. 

IN ENGLAND, 1981 
By Anthony Archer-Lock* 



Early in the last week of September 1981, a depression crossed 
the Atlantic rapidly, tracking north-east across Wales and Northern 
England, accompanied by very strong circulatory winds. By the 
26th of the month, siglitings in the Isles of Scilly area, of American 
Wigeon and other species from that continent, were accompanied 
by reports of not less than five Monarch butterflies, the tally rapidly 
rising to nine, althougli one can never discount duphcation. Another 
was seen by a friend, Mr. Robert Burridge, to land on the cruise 
liner "Cambera", 80 miles west of these Islands. 

September 27th brought reports of one Monarch seen fluttering 
briefly around Michaelmas Daisies at Kingsbridge, in South Devon, 
and the same observer found another at Slapton Ley, a little further 
up the coast. This butterfly was exhausted, and was captured, trans- 
ported to Plymouth, revived on buddleia, shown to numerous 
admirers, and finally put on show with food in a case at Plymouth 
Museum where it died shortly afterwards. Tlie specimen was in 
good condition structurally. 

On this same date, a Monarch was watched late in the afternoon 
by several observers, all lamenting the lack of their cameras, flut- 
tering and basking amongst bracken in a sheltered spot between 
high lime stone out crops at Prawle Point, between Kingsbridge and 
Slapton Ley, and some fifty metres inshore. Tliis butterfly several 
times walked over a bracken frond to hang, wings closed, upon the 
underside, but eventually flew off. Tlie condition was excellent. 

Monday, September 28th was a briglit, sunny, but very breezy 
day. Upon my arrival at 12.30 p.m. the information was that no 
Monarchs had been seen. Tliere remained one Red-eyed Vireo 
(a Warbler) from America, which had convenienfly set up resi- 
dence in the little car park for the past two days, attracting a prodi- 
gious number of tripods and telescopes without losing any sense of 
modesty! 

Urged on by previous experience which many will have shared, 
I set out along the coast, eyes on stalks. After less than half a mile of 
walking, I watched a Monarch rise from a clump of Mayweed in a 
cabbage field. Following some moments of aerial hesitation, the 
butterfly flapped away with a casual air, low across the field, re- 
vealing a beautiful fox colouring of reddish-brown, veined and 
bordered in black. Again, a specimen in excellent condition. The 
butterfly turned and floated towards me with the breeze, wings 
held half aloft, before dropping below the cUff line. Twenty minutes 
later, apparently the same insect re-appeared on a similar route, 
ignoring the flowers this time, and still keeping very low as if to 
minimise the fairly strong wind, althougli never deflected by it. 
*4 Glenwood Road, Mannamead, Plymouth, Devon PL3 5NH. 



200 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Two hours passed before a further sighting was gained, this 
time coming up the coast with the wind, dropping lazily over the 
hedge into the field where once more there was a brief sense of 
indecision. The Monarch then rose over my head, affording a truly 
magnificient view of all the markings against a briUiant blue sky 
before again dropping over the low cliff, and making straight 
towards the glistening sea where yachts fouglit the elements, and 
great ships pUed the horizon. 

Walking back along the foot of the inner bluff, I flushed a 
Monarch which flew over the bracken against the rising wind, and 
apparently dropped into the growth. At this stage, a passer-by 
told me that while eating his lunch on the village green a mile 
away, a Monarch, travelling at speed, had almost flown into his 
face - this had been at the same time as my first sighting. Soon 
after leaving me, he had two good views of a Monarch exactly 
where the first one had been found and watched for two hours 
on the previous afternoon. Had this butterfly returned to roost 
one wondered, or had it been there for over twenty four hours. 

Strangly, only one land record had been reported for Cornwall, 
at Nare Head, but Dorset was more fortunate with three coastal 
reports. One of these was in a private garden where the Monarch 
remained on michaelmas daisies for half an hour. By comparison 
with my just passable flying shots, this observer, until then mildly 
interested in butterflies, gained some magnificent pictures, and is 
now dedicated! 

If these Monarchs came over in the eye of the storm, they must 
have left the centre of the low at some stage, but it would seem 
more probable that they were caught up in the northerly winds 
and swept round to the south of the low travelling eastwards. The 
observations certainly suggest that the South Devon butterflies 
reached land close to the points where they were seen. Prawle 
Point, with its white coastguard station above a see-through cave, is 
a prominent landmark offering a hint of shelter beyond, and well 
known as a dropping-in point for migrant birds. At this time, the 
Red Admirals on some clumps of ivy were in near swarming 
numbers, while Qouded Yellows and Y moths were also present. 
The majesty of the Milkweed made them all appear midgets. One 
more point of interest was that the white spotting, including the 
normally yellowish large spots towards the outer tips of the fore- 
wings, was all very prominent, a possible clue to origin. 

Dr. Jeremy Thomas, and Messrs. E. Griffiths and V. Tucker 
kindly provided some of this information. 

Postscript 

One specimen was captured at Dfracombe and another seen in 
the area of Barnstaple, both in North Devon. One was noted at 
St. Austell in South Cornwall which however, could possibly have 
been the Nare Head record, having travelled further eastwards along 
the coast. 

A further butterfly was watched by Mr. I. Hamilton at Slapton 
Ley on October 6th - this conceivably was the same one which 



201 
THE MONARCH; DANAUS PLEXIPPUS LINN. IN ENGLAND. 1981 

I described as flying seawards late during the afternoon at Prawle 
Point on September 28th. 

At Prawle Point, there was atrocious weather througliout 
September 29th and 30th which must have prevented any move- 
ment, but many observers have failed to gain any sightings since. 
This rather suggests that any remaining specimens perished. By 
contrast, in the Isles of Scilly, some specimens remained for many 
days, three in particular being reported as favouring a certain lane 
verged by some American nectar-bearing flowers; here, the but- 
terflies were to be seen flying to and fro quite frequently. 
Finally, on October 13th near St. Mary's Airport, Isles of 
Scilly, a Mr. John Randell watched a Monarch cHnging to a 
pine tree where it was imbibing resin. Several observers have since 
told me that this group of Monterey pines became a roost for the 
Monarchs, where they took up hanging positions, but embarked 
on flights during bright days. [This suggests similar behaviour to 
that of the butterfly in Central America, and it would be interesting 
to hear of any reports of it being seen in the Scilly Isles the fol- 
lowing spring. — Editor.] 

The Milkweed Butterfly (Monarch): Danaus plexippus 
L and Other Migrants in Cornwall in 1981.- The Milkweed 
butterfly was seen at Nancledra, near Penzance, on September 25. 
It was feeding on the flowers of wild fuschia. Tliis was reported to 
me by Mr. E. M. R. Stimpson, of Ludgvan. Tlie weather has been 
bad in Cornwall recently, with several storm-force S-SW gales, per- 
haps indicating an unaided Atlantic crossing? 

Tire Silver Y, Autographa gamma L. has been conspicuous by 
its absence so far. I have seen one Pearly Underwing, Peridroma 
saucia Hbn., and two Dark Swordgrass, ^^oft's ipsilon Hufn. One of 
the latter came to m.v.l. on April 10, the other on August 29. About 
ten Painted Ladies, Cynthia cardui L. and a single female Clouded 
Yellow, Colias croceus Geoff, were seen at Penhale near here on 
August 29. 

Since writing the above, there have been various other siglitings 
of the Milkweed in September 1981, details of wliich have been 
passed on to me. One or two may have been duphcated, but having 
taken these into account the following list is probably accurate. 
25th: Kynance. Mr. & Mrs. Merrifield. 
26th: St. Levan, Nr. Land's End. Mr. Garceau. 
27th: Mylor Harbour. ?Mr. Hillier. 
28th: Nr. Gorran Haven. Miss Dunn. 

Kennack, The Lizard. Miss Crompton. 
Loe Pool, Nr. Porthleven. 
30th: Duchy Nurseries, Lostwithiel. 
?exact date: Ashton, Nr. Helston. Mr. Fairbrass. 
?exact date: Scilly Isles. Five reported, whether all were dif- 
ferent insects is difficult to ascertain. These evidently coincided 
with several exciting ornithological rarities. 
Flowers noted on which some of these were feeding were 
montbretia, clover, buddleia and hydrangea. I am grateful to Mrs. 



202 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Stella Turk, of the Institute of Cornish Studies, Mr. R. D. Pen- 
hallurick, of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, and Mrs. Barbara 
Garratt, for letting me know about some of these reports. — Dr. F. 
H. N. Smith, Turnstones, Perrancoombe, Perranporth, Cornwall 
TR6 OHX. 

The MONARCH: Danaus plexippus L. in the Isle of Man. - 
Yesterday morning wliile I was working in my garden, a very large 
butterfly appeared and hovered briefly over a clump of golden rod. 
A few minutes later it settled on a willow tree before moving north- 
wards over open farmland. I am fairly sure that it was a male. I 
saw the insect at 10.45 am, and the weather was sunny with a 
brisk SW wind blowing. Tlie previous niglit, September 23rd, we 
had a severe southwesterly gale. — J. HEDGES, Ballakaighen, 
Castletown, Isle of Man, 25.ix.1981. 

Danaus plexippus L. in Sussex. - A specimen of this 
migrant butterfly was sighted by Colonel Searle, at Kingston Gorse, 
Worthing, W. Sussex, on the 30th September 1981. It apparently 
settled on some nettles where he watched it for about 2!^ minutes. 
- S. H. Church, 1 Ashpark Cottages, Plaistow, Nr. Billinghurst, 
W. Sussex. 

Danaus plexippus L in the Scilly Isles in 1981. -I had 
the great pleasure of finding a Monarch (D. plexippus) on St. Marys 
on October 27th. It appeared in good sunshine gliding along a row 
of young pines — settled, sunning itself for some moments in ex- 
cellent view — before flying inside a belt of mature 30 foot pines. 
There was a tear on one hindwing. 

I was told of four flying round an apple tree on St. Agnes, 
on September 26th/27th. This same tree contained a North 
American Magnolia Warbler at the same time. Tliere were also 
reports of 'several' flying round pine trees on St. Marys near the 
airport in early October. - G. T. FOGGITT, Oakdene, Brackenth- 
waite Lane, Pannal, Harrogate, HG IPQ. 

Migrants at Highcliffe on the Hants/Dorset Border, 
1981 .— Two m.v. traps are operated here, one in the garden which 
is a quarter of a mile from the sea in a sheltered position, and the 
other on the open cliff top exposed to the South West. So far aU 
the scarcer migrants have been in the garden. A worn male Rhodo- 
metra sacraria L. on 14.ix.81; single specimens oi Mythimna 
unipuncta Haw. on 20.ix, 23.ix, 26.ix, 27.ix, 3.x; and a single 
M. vitellina Hbn. on 3.x. 

The numbers for the common migrants have been very small 
with a maximum of 17 Autographa gamma L. on 28.ix, and nine 
and 11 Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel on 27 and 28. ix. Only two Peri- 
droma saucia Hb. on 28.ix and one on 29.ix. The only migrant 
butterfly has been Vanessa atalanta L. which first appeared on 
11 .ix, with small numbers coming in from the sea on most days since 
with no real peak. — E. H. Wild, 7 Abbots Qose, Highcliffe, 
Christchurch, Dorset, 4jc.l981. 



203 
THE SCARLET TIGER: CALLIMORPHA DOMINULA (L.) 
IN THE COUNTY OF AVON 

By Bryan W. Moore, f.r.e.s.* 



It is always a pleasure to record a new insect in an area, particu- 
larly if it is as exotic in appearance as the Scarlet Tiger, a dayliglit 
flying moth which certainly Hves up to its generic name being of 
'beautiful shape' and colour. I can imagine no more thrilling siglit 
than that of tliis gorgeous moth flying over an area of its principal 
foodplant, Symphytum officinale (Comfrey) in full July sunshine, 
its crimson wings flashing in contrast to the blue and pink comfrey 
flowers. 

This moth has recently been noted in a heavily wooded and 
marshy valley about 6 miles NE of Bath. Tlie valley is deep and in 
the higlier reaches planted with conifers and various deciduous 
trees. Many springs and small streams spread over the valley floor 
and here the ground is marshy, supporting sallow and willow 
thickets, besides several acres of comfrey. This whole area is in a 
sense an 'island' as it is completely surrounded by farms and cul- 
tivated land, and there is no similar habitat for very many miles. 

This moth was referred to me in 1980 by Mr. B. S. Harper 
of the Bristol Natural History Society, and I was able to confirm 
its identity, but despite careful enquiries I could not find any 
previous records. In 'Lepidoptera of Somerset' by Turner (1955), 
the author gives no modern records and says 'Probably now extinct 
in the County', and more recently Mr. John Heath of the Biological 
Records Centre kindly informs me that the Centre has no recent 
records for this area. 

This colony appears to be a very small one and completely 
confined to the area which is marshy and abounds with comfrey. 
In April 1981 a search was made for larvae, and these (about 50) 
were seen feeding on the underside of the comfrey leaves on the 
sunny days. Like the imago the larvae seem to appreciate the 
sunshine and warmth because on cloudy or cold days they were 
nowhere to be seen. Later in June a pupa was found of reddish 
brown colour and lying in the debris at the foot of a comfrey 
plant. If this was in a typical position the pupa doubtless must 
suffer heavily from foraging birds and small mammals as they appear 
to be fairly easy to rake out of the surface debris. 

I beat the first moth out of comfrey on 7th July 1981, and was 
surprised at its strong flight as it flashed into the air, a splash of 
crimson, suddenly to disappear as it closed its wings. A further 
moth was flushed out of a small bush on 9th July, again a powerful 
flyer, dipping over the comfrey eventually to disappear into a 
Poplar tree at the height of about 50 ft. On 14th July after much 
searching I found a moth sitting on the underside of a comfrey 
leaf, this I boxed as I wished to examine it closely and was sur- 

* Church Cottage, Church Lane, Batheaston, Bath. 



204 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

prised that it suddenly commenced to oviposit, the eggs having 
a hard smooth shell like small yellow pearls and being about .75 mm 
diameter. 

According to 'The Moths & Butterflies of Great Britain & 
Ireland' (Heath) Vo. 9, the female Scarlet Tiger flies over the food- 
plant, scattering the eggs willy nilly after the fashion I imagine of the 
Marbled White Butterfly, and this I can well accept after examining 
the eggs and noting their shape and hardness. It did occur to me 
however, that the female I boxed could have been ovipositing in 
the position in which I found her, and not whilst on the wing in the 
supposed manner. 

Could she have been sitting on the edge of the comfrey leaf 
and depositing eggs into space where they would fall and roll to 
the ground at the base of the foodplant, or was she merely resting 
on the leaf or during an ovipositing fliglit? 

It is hoped that it will be possible to strengthen the colony of 
this most attractive and interesting moth by adequate conservation 
both of foodplant and habitat. 



The SILVER-BARRED: DELTOTE BANKIANA F. and OTHER 

Interesting Lepidoptera in East Kent in 1981 - On the 
afternoon of 4th July, near Sandwich, I netted a moth which I 
thouglit at first was a Crambid. I was overjoyed to find it was a 
specimen of Deltote bankiana F. Tliis was shortly followed by the 
finding of tlie Dotted Fanfoot: Macrochilo cribrumalis Hbn., a 
strong colony of the Rest Harrow: Aplasta ononaria Fuessly, and 
from the same tussock of grass, two Kent Black Arches: Meganola 
albula D. & S. That niglit, Mr. N. F. Heal operated an m.v. light 
there, and among some 60 different species of macrolepidoptera 
were the Starwort. Cucullia asteris D. & S., together with several 
more D. bankiana and M. albula. — T. W. Harman, Field Study 
Centre, Ex Broadoak Sub-Station, Broadoak Road, Canterbury, 
Kent. [From the time it was first noted in Kent in 1965, only four 
bankiana had until this year been recorded for the county. Tliese 
specimens were suspected immigrants, but the occurrence now of 
the moth in numbers in a restricted area here strongly suggests the 
presence of a breeding colony. J. M. C-H.] 

Aderus populneus (Panzer) (Col.: Aderidae) on Sallow 
Catkins in Mid-April. -On April 16th, 1980 I beat a single cf 
Aderus populneus (Pz.) from male catkins of a Salix sp. growing in 
a hedge near Sycamore Farm, Witnesham, near Ipswich, Suffolk 
(TM 2051). The bushes were growing beside a main road and were 
overhung by quite mature oaks, some of which had rotten branches 
in their crowns. The latter had no doubt provided the developmental 
site for the beetle. Although I would expect to find adults of this 
species awaiting emergence within red-rotten wood etc. in early 
Spring, this is, in my experience an unusually early date for the 
species to be taken in the open. — David R. Nash, 266 Colchester 
Road, Lawford, Essex COl 1 2BU. 



205 
THE HISTORY OF ACROLEPIOPIS MARCIDELLA 
(CURTIS, 1850) (LEP.: ACROLEPIINAE) 
IN BRITAIN 

By S. C.S.Brown* 



Concerning this species Meyrick says: "Surrey to Dorset, about 
six examples, all hibernated, not known elsewhere, 10 - 5." Curtis 
described it in 1850, and added: "A pair of this moth was given 
to me by Mr. Robertson I think: the specimens have a worn or 
faded appearance." Wlio was this Mr. Robertson, and where did he 
take them? In 1837 Curtis had named a species of Anarsia after 
him: robertsonella. Tliis was subsequently shown to be a synonym 
of spartiella (Schrank 1802). His name is not included in the Usts of 
entomologists wliich appeared from time to time in the Entomolo- 
gist's Annual between the years 1855 to 1874. He most probably 
lived in North London, for he was known to have collected on 
Wanstead Flats and in Hainault Forest. In 1861 Stainton writes: 
"Mr. Bond has a specimen, and I understand Mr. Mitford has recently 
taken the insect." Bond was of course the well-known Lepidopterist 
of that time, and resided in St. John's Wood. On his death u\ 1889 
his collection was purchased by Sydney Webb. Robert Mitford 
lived in Hampstead. His collection was sold at Stevens in 1887. 

In 1871 the Rev. F. O. Morris writes: "Lx)calities for this species 
are at St. John's Wood. Tlie perfect insect appears in September." 
Wliy does the author say "Localities"? Bond possessed one specimen, 
and it is higlily improbable that he took it in a London suburb. 
Morris does not give a description of the insect, and his slightly 
enlarged coloured figure is crude. 

On June 23rd 1886, the Rev. C. R. Digby beat out of an old 
hawthorn hedge at Studland, Dorset, one worn specimen. Tliis 
was examined by H. T. Stainton. On July 3rd 1891, he took another, 
a very worn one, close to the same spot. He said that nearby was a 
thatched shed. A still further example was taken there on June 
15th 1892. Recently I asked the Rev. David Agassiz if he would 
look at the British Collection in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) 
and see if any marcidella were there. He kindly did so, and wrote to 
say that there are two specimens, one bears the data: "Studland, 
3.7.91." and the other: "Studland, Redrock 7p.m. 15.VI.92, 
C. R. Digby." 

Mr. Chalmers-Hunt has informed me {in litt.) that he has in 
his possession the MS. Diary of the Rev. C. R. Digby. On page 32 
under June 15th. 1892 is the following entry: "When mothing 
at early dusk by the bathing sheds below the Manor House I took 
my third Acrolepia marcidella as it flew from grass to grass; it 
was a good spec, and I took it within 30 yards of where I took 
the other two." Studland Manor, now a hotel, is situated about 



158 Harewood Ave., Bournemouth, Dorset. 



206 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

500 yards from the shore, from which it is separated by some 
cultivated land. The Rev. C. R. Digby was the vicar of Studland 
between 1878 and 1892. He was a close friend of E. R. Bankes. 

A note by E. R. Bankes concerning the capture of the first 
specimen in Dorset, together with a beautiful coloured figure by 
Mrs. H. M. Richardson, appeared in the Proceedings of the Dorset 
Natural History and Archaeological Field Club for 1889. 

I wrote to Dr. A. Neboiss of the National Museum of Victoria, 
Melbourne, to enquire if there are any marcidella still in the 
Curtis collection. His reply {in litt.), was that there are two 
specimens present, both females, and without data. In 1968 they 
were examined by Dr. Reinhard Gaedike. He designated one as the 
lectotype, and has labelled it No. 794. He states i\\2ii Roester- 
stammia fumociliella described by Mann in 1855 is a synonym of 
marcidella. As there are no fumociliella in the Mann collection in 
Vienna, he says that it must be ascertained by description as regards 
the species identified as Roesterstammia fumociliella. Stainton 
(1869) says that Mann took it at Leghorn in Italy in May 1846, 
and a pair at Ajaccio in Corsica. Mr. Chalmers-Hunt has pointed 
out to me {in litt.) that this species has been recorded from widely 
scattered localities in Southern Europe. It appears to be rare. 

The relevant entry in the Curtis notebook reads: "X2 
marcidella Curt. Ann. & M.N.H. 5. 120 desc. "Hainault forest I 
believe, Robertson." "in June, 53. Whitethorn fence, Wallace's 
enclosure \Vi miles from Lynd'h to Brock. F. Bond." Following 
on this information, I wrote to Mr. Don. Small, The Deputy 
Surveyor of the New Forest, and enquired if he could give me any 
information as regards to the location of "Wallace's enclosure". 
His reply was, {in litt.), that by 1853 a small enclosure known as 
Willis's Plantation of oak had been planted on the south eastern 
side of the road to Bolderford Bridge; M. R. 284033. It would 
appear therefore, tliat this is the location mentioned by Curtis, 
as the distance between Lyndliurst and Brockenhurst as given by 
him is correct. 

As previously mentioned, Meyrick states that about six 
examples of marcidella are known in Britain. Tliis sums up to two 
in the Curtis collection from Essex, three from Dorset, and one 
from the New Forest, Hants. The whereabouts of the specimen 
said to have been taken by Mitford appears to be unknown. 

I have been unable to trace the reference to Surrey as given by 
Meyrick. In the Victoria County History for Surrey , Vol. 1., there is 
a list of insects edited by Herbert Goss, but marcidella is not 
included. Tlie Victoria County History for Dorset, Vol. 1., which 
was to include the insects, was never published. 

I wish to thank for their assistance the Rev. David Agassiz, 
Mr. Chalmers-Hunt, Dr. A. Neboiss, Mr. Don. Small, and Mr. C. 
Kesselburg. 

References 

Bankes, E. R., 1889. First Supplement to the Lepidoptera of the Isle 



207 
HISTORY OF ACROLEPIOPIS MARCIDELLA (CURTIS, 1850) IN BRITAIN 

of Purbeck. Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist, and Arch. Field Club, 10 

(13): 209, fig. 3. 
Bankes, E. R., 1891. Acrolepia marcidella in the Isle of Purbeck. 

Ent. mon. Mag., 21: 274. 
Chalmers-Hunt, J.M., 1976. Natural History Auctions, 1700-1972. 

Sotheby, London. 
Curtis, J., 1850. "Mr. Curtis on some new species of British Moths". 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 5: 120. 
Digby, C. R. Rev., 1887. Acrolepia marcidella in Dorsetshire. Ent 

mon. Mag., 24: 42. 
Gaedike, Reinhard, 1970. Revision der palaarktischen Acrolepiidae. 

Entom. Abh. Tierk. Dresden, 38, nr. 1: 1-54. 
Meyrick, E. 1928. Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera, 

pp. 804-05. 
Morris, F. 0. Rev., 1871. A Natural History of British Moths, 

vol.iv, p. 135, pit. cxiv, fig. 8. 
Stainton, H. T., \%5 A. Lepidoptera Tineina, p. 170. 
Stainton, H. T., 1861. New British Species in 1860. Ent. Ann., 

1861: 88. 
Stainton, H. T., 1869. The Tineina of Southern Europe, p.l 19. 



COCOON-SPINNING BY CALOPTILIA (LEP.: GRACILLARIIDAE). - 
Tliis genus makes a slight trough on the surface of a leaf by means 
of contracting silk and spins its cocoon therein. It is shaped like the 
letter "D" with the straight component outermost. The texture 
of the silk is unusual, taking the form of a shining, papery, pale 
yellow-green membrane which is sUghtly transparent, allowing one 
to see when the transformation within takes place and later the 
general colour of the pupa, though obscuring detail. 

I have been observing the habits of the Gracillariidae for Volume 
2 of MBGBI and on the 1st of August I watched a larva of Caloptilia 
nifipennella (Ha worth) as it spun its cocoon. When the process 
seemed to have been completed, it rubbed the flat surface vigorously 
with its anus, exerting sufficient pressure to cause the anal segment 
to look greener and darker than the rest of its body. I could not 
see whether any excretion was being applied to the silk. 

Three days later we were staying with a former President of the 
linnaean Society and our hostess served nuts with the sherry in a 
bowl of Roman glass, dating from the 1st century A.D. As I admired 
it, two thoughts passed through my inind: the first was St. Paul's 
"For now we see through a glass darkly" and the second was of my 
Caloptilia cocoons, since the glass and the silk shared just the same 
measure of shine and translucence. 

I wonder if any readers have observed similar behaviour in other 
members of the genus. It is possible that this is a necessary process 
to give the silk its specialised texture. On the other hand, the ir- 
reverent may say that the larva was expressing vulgar disapproval 
at my intrusion into its private affairs. — A. M. Emmet, Labrey 
Cottage, Victoria Gardens, Saffron Walden, Essex, CBll 3AF. 
9.viii.l981. 



208 

ADERUS POPULNEUS PANZ. (COL.: ADERIDAE): 

A PROBLEM OF BIONOMICS 

By A. A. Allen, b.Sc, a.r.c.s.* 



Mr. D. R. Nash's note on this rather uncommon beetle (93: 204) 
gives me occasion to raise the question of its true biotope and Ufe- 
history; which, to judge from the available information, and from 
what is known of its two congeners in Britain, presents certain 
puzzling features. Anong these is the curious diversity of habitats 
from which it is recorded, coupled with the fact that the dates of 
capture extend to every month of the year. Moreover, two obser- 
vations (one of them published) regarding larval and adult feeding 
habits are hard to reconcile with the rest. In contrast, our other 
two species of Aderidae, A. oculatus Payk. and A. brevicomis 
Perris, are typical for the family — developing only in decayed 
wood, with an adult activity-period of some 8-10 weeks in late 
summer. Tlie following short list of situations in wliich A. populneus 
has been taken, from data in my possession, will provide some idea 
of the range concerned. Months of capture are given where known. 

Old trees, dead hedges, flowers (I-owler); beaten out of old oaks 
(S. Stevens); off oak in August and swept under elm in May, singly (Allen); 
beaten from dead lime boughs (Hansen); in mould under oak bark in March, 
one in wood-dust of a hollow plane tree in December, bred from wood in May 
and September, off Salix in May (cf. Mr. Nash's capture above), and once 
swarming about manure mixed with bark (all Danish records, Hansen); in 
September (Harwood, and Bookham Common List); in manure heap (Butler); 
one in a grass heap in January (Hammond); one in 'rubbish' in November 
(Dinnage coll.); habitually and commonly in cobwebs, indoors and out, 
apparently feeding on them (R.D. DumhitW, pers. comm.); larvae 'constantly' 
found feeding in seeds of ash, adult flying to light in February, and on 
windows mid-July to late October, March and April (Morley). 

The last record is sufficiently interesting to be worth quoting 
in full, especially as the original may not be readily accessible to 
many readers.^ The author is writing of certain hibernating insects: — 

"Perhaps the most interesting instance. . . is that of . . . Xylophilus 
populneus Fabr., whose hibernation seems hitherto to be unknown. This 
species is usually said to be beaten from old hedges, and its economy appears 
hitherto unrecorded. Actually the larvae feed in the seeds of ash trees, where 
I have constantly found them and whence the imagines are frequently beaten 
in my paddock and garden at Monks Soham [Suffolk], where they were 
especially common in July 1915; but elsewhere I know of it from only Swale- 
cliff in Kent and Twyford Abbey in Middlesex, where our Hon. Treasurer 
and I swept it in late June 1897. It takes to wing with great freedom and so 
is constantly found on my windows here, which enables me to state it perfect 
from 14 July to at least late in October, and again throughout March and 
April. I have long suspected its hibernation, which was confirmed on 
18 February last when a female flew at 10 p.m. to the lamplight of a warm 
room, that previously had been little warmed that winter, evidently from 
some secure winter retreat indoors." (Claude Morley, 1934, Trans. Suffolk 
Nat. Soc, 2(3): 299.) 

"I I am indebted to Mr. Nash for drawing my attention to this very remarkable 
statement. 

*49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



ADERUS POPULNEUS PANZ. A PROBLEM OF BIONOMICS 209 

Unfortunately, the strange habitat and pabulum claimed here 
to be that of the A. populneus larva, unsupported as it appears to 
be by other observers, can hardly be accepted at face value. For it 
is not evident from what is said that any of the larvae were actually 
reared for confirmation of their identity — a most necessary proce- 
dure that should not have been difficult; or if they were, we are not 
told of it. Rather does it seem as thougli Morley might simply have 
inferred their identity from his having beaten adults from the same 
ash trees in whose seeds he found the supposed larvae. Yet if the 
latter were not those of A. populneus, what in fact were they? 
No other known British beetle has a larva with this habit, and 
Morley was surely too competent an entomologist to have mistaken 
the larva of e.g. a moth for that of a beetle. But, because of the 
tantalizing lack of proof, this observation must remain in doubt 
until someone can repeat and verify it. 

If Morley 's claim is hard to swallow, the idea of a larva that 
feeds in ash seeds producing an imago that eats cobwebs (see above) 
is so bizarre a combination as to strain creduHty to breaking-point. 
Spider-silk is such an unlikely pabulum for an Aderid that one has 
to ask oneself whether the observations of Mr. Dumbrell (for whose 
good faith I can vouch) could bear another interpretation. May it 
not rather have been that the beetles found in the webs had been 
ensnared by them during fliglit, as many insects are, and were 
eating them — if they really were — either because in the circum- 
stances there was nothing else to eat, or in attempts to free 
themselves? (One wonders whether anything is known of the adult 
feeding habits of Aderidae.) 

Tlie data of Morley and others show beyond doubt that here we 
have a species whose Hfe-cycle differs from that of its British allies, 
in that the adults — or at least some of them — hibernate, reap- 
pearing in spring; further, it seems to affect a wider range of 
situations. Tlie possibility of more than one annual brood is sug- 
gested by Hansen's breeding records above (v, ix), and by the long 
imaginal period reminiscent of that typically found in the allied 
family Anthicidae. Tlie species appears often to select overwintering 
sites where either fermentation or a building affords a little warmth. 



Carcinops pumilio (Erichson)(Col., Histeridae) At- 
tracted TO Cat Food. - On 20 September 1970, at my home 
in Lawford, I was surprised to see a small Histerid beetle crawHng 
in a saucer upon which was an open tin of cat food. Subsequent exami- 
nation showed that the beetle was Carcinops pumilio. The insect 
had probably been attracted by the smell of the cat food and had 
flown in througli the large, open window. Its presence could, of 
course, have been purely fortuitous as I have taken singletons of this 
species away from carrion etc. on two occasions in the last decade — 
one crawling up a hornbeam trunk in Bentley Long Wood, Suffolk, 
and another in a bath in a house in SaUsbury, Wilts. - D. R. Nash, 
266 Colchester Road, Lawford, Essex COU 2BU: March 24th, 1981. 



210 

DANAUS CHRYSIPPUS L. REVISITING MALTA 

By Anthony Valletta F.R.E.S.* 

After a lapse of 26 years this migratory butterfly was taken 
again in Malta by Guido Bonett on the 14th October 1978; but 
whilst in 1952 and in 1923 the var. alcippus Cram, was taken, 
this time it was the type (See Ento.Rec. 91: 142-143). The 
following year 1979 will, however, be long remembered as the 
year of the D.chrysippus, as no less than 23 times this butterfly 
was seen flying about in different localities of the islands and on 
different dates. 

It is a well known fact that this butterfly is a strong and fast 
flier and that it has a longer span of life than most of the 
butterflies; thus it does not mean that because it was seen 23 
times there were that many butterflies flying about; there could 
have been many more which were not recorded or fewer. The 
Maltese Islands being so small, only 122 sq. miles, the same 
specimen could have been seen and recorded several times in 
different localities. 



6 
5 

X 
I 




J. fHC^rnJ J»f^S rr 1> 

Number of records per month in 1979. 

There is a span of 167 days from the first one seen on the 
5th April and the last one on the 19th October; only three 
specimens were taken, all males, two in September taken on the 
12th and 29th at Wied Blandun, Paola, and Swieqi, St. Julian's 
respectively; the third was taken on 2nd September at Wied Iz- 
Zurrieq, and 1 1 more were recorded after the last taking, which 
means that several specimens were present. 

* 257, Msida Street, B'kara, Malta. 



211 

DANAUS CHRYSIPPUS L. REVISITING MALTA 

During this period, several migrations of Cynthia cardui 
took place, and it is possible that the chrysippus had joined the 
exodus, possibly from Libya, N. Africa, as the prevaihng wind 
was South, South West. 

In 1980 we had only one record, when two specimens, a 
male and a female flying together were taken by me on the 15th 
October at 10.10 a.m. at Wardija, St. Paul's Bay; during that 
week thousands of C. cardui were again on migration. 

All these records could not be available were it not for the 
interest taken by my brother-of-the-net, Guido Bonett, who 
besides recording several himself (when the net was not 
available), has several contacts with ornithologists, who are 
quite often out in the country either ringing or watching the 
migratory^ birds. My thanks also go to all my other friends who 
rang me up whenever they came across this rare butterfly, and 
especially to Mr. N. A. McGregory, Mr. S. Healy and Mr. P. 
Sammut, who took the trouble to call on me to show me their 
finds. 

When one considers that this butterfly has visited the 
islands for three consecutive years, there may be the hope of its 
becoming a regular migrant. Or possibly, of its finding a plant to 
its liking to breed on the islands, as it has done in the Canaries 
and lately near Alicante in Spain, where it is said it may be feeding 
on cotton. We shall wait and see! 

Records of Danaus chrysippus Lin. in the Maltese Islands 

in 1979. 







Corresponding 


Date 


Locality 


number on map 


5.4.1979 


Hal-Farrug 


1 


6.4 


Wied Il-Kbir 


2 


8.4 


Wied Rini 


3 


2.5 


Ghajn Barrani, Gozo 


4 


5.5 


Bugibba 


4a 


12.5 


Ghajn Rihana 


5 


12.5 


Wied Blandun 


6 


16.6 


Ramla 1-Hamra, Gozo 


7 


20.6 


M'Skala 


8 


21.6 


Bahar ic-Caghaq 


9 


29.6 


Swieqi 


10 


4.7 


Bidnija 


11 


6.7 


Gozo Channel 


12 


6.7 


Ta'Qali 


13 


6.7 


Bugibba 


14 


10.7 


Manoel Island 


15 


22.7 


Comino 


16 


24.7 


Mistra 


17 


2.9 


Wied iz-Zurrieq 


18 


12.9 


Marina, Marsa 


19 


29.9 


Ghadira 


20 


30.9 


Ghadira 


21 


19.10 


Ghadira 


22 



212 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 




References 

Bonnett, G., 1979. Danaus chrysippus Lin. in Malta. Ent. Record, 

91: 142-143. 
Bretherton, R. F., 1966. A Distribution List of the Butterflies 

(Rhopalocera) of Western and Southern Europe. Tram. Soc. 

Brit. Ent. 17(1): 1-94. 
Caruana, Gatto A., 1925. Di alcune specie di farfalle erratiche 

catturate o osservate in Malta. Archivium Melitense Vol. VI. 

No. 4, 155-157. 
De Lucca, C, 1950. Casual immigrant Rhopalocera in Malta. 

Entomologist 83: 64-65 
Fernandez, Jos. M. 1970. Los Lepidopteros diumos de las Islas 

Canarias. Enciclopedia Canaria Aula De Cultura de Tenerife. 
Higgins, L. G. and Riley N. D., 1970. A Field Guide to the But- 
terflies of Britain and Europe. Collins. 
Lopez, F. G., Rico F. A. and Gutierrez F. L., 1970. Un Nuevo 

Lepidoptero para la. Fauna Iberica: Danaus chrysippus 

Lin. Shilap. Revt. Lepid. Vol. 8, No. 31 (suplemento) 
Manley, W. B. L. and Allcard H. G., 1970. A Field Guide to the 

Butterflies and Bumets of Spain. E. W. Classey Ltd. 
Valletta, A., 1972. The Butterflies of the Maltese Islands. Giov. 

Muscat. Malta. 
Valletta, A., 1953. Danaus chrysippus Lin. var. alcippus Cram. 

re -visits Malta. Entomologist 86: 57. 
Verity, Ruggero, 1950. Le Farfalle Diume d'ltalia Vol. IV. Casa 

Editrice Marzocco S. A. Firenze. 



213 

SMITH AND ABBOT, THE NATURAL 

HISTOR Y OF THE RARER LEPIDOPTEROUS 

INSECTS OF GEORGIA (1797): ITS 

AUTHORSHIP AND LATER HISTORY 

By Ronald S. Wilkinson* 
I. The problem of authorship 

The first extensive monograph entirely devoted to North 
American entomology was a collaboration of Sir James Edward 
Smith and John Abbot, published at London in two sumptuous 
volumes with 104 coloured plates. The book, which is of con- 
siderable importance to taxonomists because of the number of 
species described, was based on materials sent to England by 
Abbot (1751-1840 or early 1841), a London naturalist skilled in 
entomology and ornithology who emigrated to the American 
colonies in 1773. His sponsors were "Dru" Drury and other 
leading English collectors, and he had the official sanction of the 
Royal Society of London, which approved of the young man's 
purpose of making "researches and collections in Virginia" 
(Drury Papers; Abbot, "Notes on my Life"; Legge to Murray, 
4th August 1773). Abbot eventually settled in Georgia, and 
began to send well-set specimens and superior watercolours, 
chiefly of insects and related arthropods but also of birds, to 
naturalists in Britain and Europe. His early efforts reached 
Drury, Swederus, Hiibner, Fabricius and many others, and 
figured extensively in Thomas Martyn's Psyche. But his best 
known contributions were to the Georgia book, edited by Smith 
(1759-1828), president of the Linnean Society of London. 

The precise nature of this collaboration has been im- 
perfectly understood by many authors, who have ascribed 
species named in the 1797 book variously to Abbot and Smith, 
Smith and Abbot, Abbot, and Smith. In brief. Smith received 
rough notes and coloured drawings, probably through the 
agency of John Francillon, the London jeweller and 
entomological collector who was managing Abbot's British and 
Continental affairs at the time. The transaction must have 
occurred in 1793 or earHer, as the dated copperplates for the 
1797 volumes (less than one- fourth of the plates are dated) were 
prepared in 1793, 1794 and 1795. Smith edited Abbot's notes, 
deleting and amending in the interest of economy and style. 
Abbot had furnished no scientific names or descriptions of new 
species, so that Smith had to identify the insects as well as he 
could by reference to printed works and actual Georgia 
specimens furnished by Abbot to the London cabinets, 
especially Francillon's, where Smith found examples of all of the 
Lepidoptera depicted on the drawings and mentioned in the 
notes. In the printed book, Smith was careful to set Abbot's 

*The American Museum of Natural History, New York City, New York 10024 



214 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

edited notes apart from his own original contributions, which 
included the identifications and the descriptions of new species. 
He explained what he had done in the Preface: 

"The materials of the following work have been collected 
on the spot by a faithful observer, Mr. John Abbot, many years 
resident in Georgia, who, after having previously studied the 
metamorphoses of Enghsh insects, pursued his enquiries among 
those of Georgia and the neighbouring parts of North America. 
The result of his observations he has dehneated in a style of 
beauty and accuracy which can scarcely be excelled, and has 
accompanied his figures with an account, as well as a represen- 
tation, of the plants on which each insect chiefly feeds, together 
with many circumstances of its manners, times of the different 
metamorphoses, and other interesting particulars. For all such 
facts recorded in these pages the public are entirely obliged to 
Mr. Abbot. His memorandums, not methodized by himself for 
publication, have merely been digested into some sort of style and 
order by the editor, who has generally added remarks of his own, in a 
separate paragraph and different type from the rest; and who 
has entirely to answer for the systematic names and definitions; 
that department having been left altogether unattempted by Mr. 
Abbot" (Smith and Abbot, 1797, ii). 

Although he did not have access to Abbot's rough notes, 
dos Passos (1958) accurately assessed the case for Smith's sole 
authorship of the names. Calling attention to Smith's statements 
in the book, dos Passos concluded that "both Abbot and Smith 
were responsible for parts of this work, the Hne dividing their re- 
spective responsibilities being sharply drawn and defined. Smith 
was an editor, insofar as editorial work was necessary," and he 
was also "author of the scientific names when he '. • ■ generally 
added remarks of his own . . . [and was] entirely to answer for 
the systematic names and definitions'," left altogether unat- 
tempted by Abbot. According to dos Passos, "this language 
brings the case completely within Article 21 of the Regies 
(Article 22 of the Bradley Draft), and results in ascribing all the 
scientific names to Smith, which in a check Ust would read 
'Smith, 1797' but in a synonymy could properly be followed by 
'in Smith and Abbot, 1797.' " 

My examination of Abbot's notes, which are among 
Smith's papers at the Linnean Society of London, has revealed 
new evidence to substantiate Dr. dos Passos' arguments. The 
manuscript, titled "A Natural History of North American 
Insects. Particularly those of the State of Georgia," is exactly as 
characterized by Smith. Scientific description was indeed "unat- 
tempted," and Abbot's introductory statements make this quite 
clear: "As I intended the following, I think you may still pubHsh 
it as a separate Work from any other you are at present engaged 
in. However if you think otherwise you may only mention my 
Name now & then .... You may therefore prune and trim what 
you please of the following rude Notes, I shall therefore not 
marshall them in any Order, take them as they occur. I have not 



NATURALHISTORYOFRARERLEPIDOPTEROUSINSECTS 215 

pretended to describe them in any scientific manner, leaving that 
for you [r] superior Abilities" (f. 88r). Smith did indeed "prune 
and trim," his editorial worlc being easily traced on the 
manuscript and in the printed result. There can no longer be any 
question about Smith's sole responsibility for the names, and 
according to Article 50 of the Code he is the author. Article 51 
(c) directs citation as "Smith, in Smith and Abbot." 

II. The later history of "Smith and Abbot" 

Until the end of his very long life, John Abbot continued to 
execute coloured drawings of the insects of Georgia, and there 
were attempts to expand or continue the 1797 book by publish- 
ing additional notes and plates. The first, in 1802 or 1803, was 
surely wrecked on the shoals of economics. John Francillon 
wrote to the Manchester silk and cotton manufacturer John 
Leigh Philips, an amateur entomologist who had been a 
recipient of Abbot's insects and watercolours, that "Mr 
Edward [s]" (J. Edwards, the principal publisher of the 1797 
book), "is determined never to publish any addition, as I of- 
fered Him my Drawings three Years ago to publish an addition 
without any fee or reward, which He refused, saying He had lost 
money by the first, and would not undertake a Second part" 
(Francillon to Philips, 13th January 1806). The Abbot drawings 
once owned by Francillon are now preserved at the British 
Museum (Natural History). 

Another of Abbot's correspondents and customers, the 
naturalist William Swainson, wished to publish a continuation 
of the 1797 work. In his Taxidermy; with the Biography of 
Zoologists (1840), Swainson praised Abbot's work, remarking 
that "Another series of 103 subjects, not included in that which 
has been published, was executed for us, with the intention of 
forming two additional volumes to those edited by Dr. Smith: 
but the design is now abandoned" (pp. 99-100). The history of 
this transaction can at least be partially traced in the surviving 
Abbot-Swainson correspondence. On the 20th December 1816 
Abbot wrote that "I have commenced making a set of Quarto 
(large size) Drawings of the changes of Insects with notes, of 
such Insects that are not figured in Smiths Lepidoptera Insects 
of Georgia, indeed it is a continuation of that Work [footnote: 
'Except that I shall draw among them some of the other Genera 
of Insects']. I shall, I expect, be able to complete about 100 by the 
time I shall have your Collections of Insects ready to send You. 
I have always not have had less than 7s 6d sterling apiece for 
such Drawings, but I am willing to take 6s apiece for these. As I 
still continue to make new discoveries, I can very readily make at 
least 200 such Drawings not figured in Smiths work, among 
them is many of the principal Insects both for size & beauty." 

Swainson replied on the 25th October 1 817 that he would 
take a series of drawings of "all the species of Papilio and 
Sphinx which are not figured in Smiths work," provided that 



216 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Abbot could also furnish drawings of their metamorphoses and 
foodplants. Abbot executed the commission, and in the 
following spring was able to report, when conveying a collection 
of insects, that "I have likewise sent You under the Cork at the 
bottom of the box (being a false bottom) 104 Q [uarto] Drawings 
of the changes of the Insects of Georgia, making a 2d. Vol. to 
Smith" (Abbot to Swainson, 1st May 1818). But Swainson was 
dissatisfied with the results, replying on the 28th January 1819 
that the drawings were not as highly finished as those used in the 
book; "but the greatest objection is that they are much smaller 
in size so that they can never be bound uniformly with that 
work." 

Abbot promised a set in a larger format, but because of the 
loss of much of the later correspondence it is uncertain when 
these drawings were actually sent (or, indeed, how many sets of 
Abbot's drawings Swainson later received). For example, in his 
last known letter to Swainson, dated 10th June 1835, Abbot 
again reported shipment of a collection of insects, "and my 
book of Drawings of Insects, and about 650 Drawings of single 
Insects on small papers being all the Drawings of Insects at this 
time in my possession." Parkinson (1978) claimed that the set 
Swainson intended to publish was the "book of Drawings" 
mentioned in 1835, but he seems to have known only of Abbot's 
1835 letter when interpreting the statement, and not the earlier 
correspondence and the long history of transactions between 
Abbot and Swainson. Parkinson reported a set of 103 drawings 
(originally 104, but one is lost) and Abbot's accompanying 
"Notes to the drawings of insects" in the Turnbull Library, 
Wellington, New Zealand, which is also the repository of the 
1835 letter. He identified the set as the "book of Drawings," but 
the accuracy of his suggestion has not been determined. At any 
rate it is certain that no drawings sent to Francillon, Swainson or 
other known recipients were ever published as supplementary 
volumes to "Smith and Abbot." 

But the copperplates used for the illustrations in the 1797 
book did have a later history. A bound volume of a partial set of 
plates, now in the library of Dr. dos Passos, Mendham, New 
Jersey, U.S.A., provides evidence that at least some of the plates 
were altered and reprinted, and that others were reprinted with- 
out alteration, well into the nineteenth century. Evidently the 
dos Passos set, purchased some years ago from Wheldon & 
Wesley, represents examples of plates which had been reissued 
and were available in 1828 or shortly afterward, approximately 
three decades after original publication. The volume, which has 
no text, includes 73 of the 104 numbered plates, with one 
duplicate. The following notations describe those plates in the 
dos Passos set which have new imprints, dated watermarks, and 
other obvious differences: 

Plate 1. New imprint at base, "Sold by R. Martin. Book & 
Printseller, 47. Great Queen Strt: Lincolns Inn Fields." Plate 6: 



NATURALHISTORYOF RARER LEPIDOPTEROUS INSECTS 217 

Martin imprint. Plate 9: as in 1797, but [Whatman] watermark, 
1820. Plate 12: Martin imprint. Plate 13: as in 1797, but 
Whatman watermark, 1822. Plate 17: as in 1797, but Whatman 
watermark, 1821. Plate 18: Martin imprint. Plate 19: as in 1797, 
but Whatman watermark, 1822. Plate 20: as in 1797, but 
[Whatman] watermark, 1820. Plate 25: Martin imprint. Plate 32: 
Martin imprint. Plate 33: Martin imprint; [Whatman] watermark 
partially visible, apparently 1824. Plate 45: Martin imprint; 
[Whatman] watermark, 1828. Plate 46: Martin imprint. Plate 55: 
as in 1797, but Whatman watermark, 1822. Plate 61: Martin 
imprint. Plate 65: as in 1797, but [Whatman] watermark, 1820. 
Plate 84: as in 1797, but Whatman watermark, 1822. Plate 87: as 
in 1797, but Whatman watermark, 1821. Plate 98: as in 1797, 
but Whatman watermark, 1822. Plate 104: as in 1797, but 
Whatman watermark, 1821. Plates 40, 62 and 69 lack various 
words or numbers present on the 1797 plates; others differ in les- 
ser degree; and some dos Passos plates are so severely trimmed 
that one cannot determine whether legends are deleted or merely 
cropped. 

The remaining plates in the dos Passos set are unwater- 
marked or bear watermarks which are not complete enough to 
be dated. These plates are similar to those issued in 1797, but 
may well be printed on later paper as this differs from readily 
available copies of the 1797 publication, including Dr. dos 
Passos' complete copy of "Smith and Abbot." No further data 
have been discovered about the R. Martin reprints. 

Acknowledgments 

Tlie Linnean Society of London has kindly granted me permis- 
sion to reproduce John Abbot's "rough notes" in facsimile, to 
enable scholarly assessment of his precise contribution to the 
book. I am grateful to Dr. Cyril F. dos Passos for permission to 
examine and describe plates in his library, and to him and to Dr. 
F. Martin Brown and Dr. G. Scott Wilson for their advice 
during the course of my research. 

References 

Abbot, J. A natural history of North American insects. MS. 
edited by J. E. Smith. James E. Smith Papers, Linnean 
Society of London. 

— Notes on my life. MS. IMuseuni of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard University, Cambridge. (An edition was published 
in Lepid. News 2: 28-30, 1948). 

— Correspondence with W. Swainson, 1816-1820. William Swainson 
Papers, Linnean Society of London. 

— To W. Swainson, 10th June 1835. Turnbull Library, Wellington, 
New Zealand. 

dos Passos, C. F. 1958. Tlie authorship of the names proposed 
in the Natural history of the rarer lepidopterous insects of 
Georgia. Lepid. News 12: 191-192. 



21 8 

ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Drury, D. Papers. Department of Entomology Library, British 

Museum (Natural History), London. 
Francillon, J. To J. L. Philips, 13th January 1806. Add. MSS. 

29533, British Library, London. 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1961. 

International code of zoological nomenclature. London. 
Legge, W., Earl of Dartmouth. To J. Murray, Earl of 

Dunmore, 4th August, 1773. C. O. Class 5, Vol. 74: 283. 

Public Record Office, Kew. 
Parkinson, P. G. 1978. Natural history drawings and water- 
colours by John Abbot, "the aurelian," naturalist of 

Georgia, in the Alexander TurnbuU Library. Turnbull 

Library Record 1 1 : 26-36. 
Smith, J. E., and J. Abbot. 1797. The natural history of the 

rarer lepidopterous insects of Georgia. 2 vols. London. 
Swainson, W. 1840. Taxidermy; with the biography of 

zoologists. London. 



Report of a Pale Clouded Yellow: Colias hyale L. 
AND other Migrant Lepidoptera in Ireland in 1980. - I 
received a list of observations of Dutch migrants from one of 
our collaborators, Th. J. Blokland, Jagersstraat 4, 2266 AT 
Leidschendam, Holland, and at the end he had added a few 
which he had seen during a trip through the south of Ireland in 
August 1980, and among them was hyale\ They are: Vanessa 
atalanta, L., Lemlara, Co. Cork, 17. viii(l), 31. viii(2); Avoca, 
Co. Wicklow, 19. viii(2); Ashford, Co. Wicklow, 21. viii(8); 
Glendalough, Co. Wicklow, 21, viii(2). Cynthia cardui L,, 
Lemlara, 7. viii(l), 10. viii(l). Colias hyale L., Lemlara, 31. 
viii(l). Scotia ipsilon Hufn., Lemlara, 31. viii (1 at light). — B. J. 
Lempke, Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, Plantage 
Middenlaan 64, 1018 DH Amsterdam, Holland. IBaynes 
Revised Catalogue of Irish Macrolepidoptera (1964) states there 
have been no reliable records of C. hyale in Ireland since 1868, so 
it occurred to us that Mr. Blokland's Colias might have been a 
pale form of C.croceus Geoff., which species was reported from 
Ireland in 1980. We wrote to Mr. Lempke accordingly, and his 
reply contains the following translation of a letter to him from 
Mr. Blokland: "I am very sorry, but I do not possess the 
specimen. At that moment I had no net at my disposal. It is 
however certain, that it was not the helice form of croceus, as 
this form only occurs with the much more robust female, and 
which moreover has a much paler ground colour than hyale. I 
could clearly see that at the moment when the butterfly settled 
on the flowers of Hieracium. The resemblance to australis is of 
course much closer, but I think I am quite certain it was hyale, 
because of the rather small round spot on the underside of the 
hind wing".— Editor.] 



219 
FOUR NEW SOUTH AFRICAN BUTTERFLIES 

By C. G. C. Dickson, m.sc* 
Nos. 53 - 56. 

SATYRIDAE 

The first specimen of this new species, a female, was found by 
Mr. C. W. Wykeham on the Camdeboo Mountains to the north- 
west of Aberdeen, in the Eastern Cape Province, on 3rd December, 
1969. The species is most closely related to Pseudonympha detecta 
Trimen {Entomologist's mon. Mag. 50: 281 (1914)), which has a 
more westerly distribution in much of the Cape Province, but occurs 
at least as far to the east as Toverwater (V. L. Pringle). While the 
present writer felt that tlie above specimen did represent a pre- 
viously unknown species, full confirmation of this being so was 
needed and, most fortunately, Messrs. V. L. and E. L. Pringle pro- 
vided such proof when a number of similar specimens, of both 
sexes, was discovered by them near Aberdeen on 29th November, 
1979; and it has been due to their kindness that specimens have 
been available for study. Decisive differences have also been found 
in the male genitalia of these taxa. Comparisons are made with 
Ps. detecta, in the following description. 

Pseudonympha camdeboo spec. nov. 

The hindwing is less produced towards the anal-angle, being of 
a more rounded shape as a whole than in Ps. detecta. 

Upperside. 

Forewing. Fulvous-red area of consistent depth of colouring 
througliout its extent, without intrusion of the dark brown ground- 
colour of the wing in the vicinity of the end of the cell, as in Ps. 
detecta. Black ocellate, subapical, spot and its two bluish-white 
pupils lying at a smaller angle to the horizontal than in the case of 
detecta; the short dark streak basad of the golden-yellow ring of the 
ocellus outwardly concave instead of being approximately straight. 
The dark streak parallel with the distal margin wdder and darker than 
in detecta, and tending to be slightly closer to the margin itself. 

Hindwing. Fulvous-red patch rather larger than is usual in 
detecta and more triangular in form owing to an acute, if not 
sharply defined, extension towards wing-base. 

Underside. 

Apical portion of forewing and entire surface of hindwing 
noticeably more granular than in detecta. 

Forewing. Angle of ocellate spot the same as on upperside. 
An increase in width of dark streak along at least lower-half of its 
length, in comparison with that of detecta, is apparent; also the 
presence of dark suffusion distad of lower portion of streak and 
near lower angle of wing. 

* "Blencathra", Cambridge Avenue, St. Michael's Estate, Cape Town. 



220 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Hindwing. The small (sometimes decidedly minute or partly so) 
ocellate spots which are normally present in detecta in areas 2, 3 and 
6 and some distance from the wing-margin, have been absent in 
specimens of the present species which have been seen up to the 
present. 

Length of forewing: 17.5-1 8.25 mm. (the former measurement, 
in holotype). 

Female (Upperside). 

Forewing. Characters much as in male; fulvous-red area more 
prominent and broader than in detecta and with its lower margin 
closer to wing-margin (as far down as vein 1) than is normally the 
case in the allied species. Dark streak parallel with distal-margin 
not necessarily wider than in the female oi detecta. 

Hindwing. As in the male. 

Underside. 

Granular effect in apical portion of forewing and hindwing 
as a whole less pronounced than in the male. 

Forewing. Dark streak parallel with the distal-margin not 
necessarily broader than in detecta; while there is little or no ad- 
ditional dark suffusion towards the lower angle of the wing in 
the female of the present insect. 

Hindwing. As in the male, apart from the less pronounced 
granulation. 

Length of forewing: 18.5 - 18.75 mm. (the former measure- 
ment, in allotype). 

The body and ancillary parts closely resemble, in both sexes, 
those of Ps. detecta. 

d Holotype, EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE: Aberdeen, 
29.XL1979 (E.L. Pringle); British Museum Reg. No. Rh. 18695. 

9 Allotype, E. CAPE PROVINCE: date as for holotype; 
British Museum Reg. No. Rh. 18696. 

Paratype in author's collection: data as for holotype, one male 
(E. L. and V. L. Pringle). 

Paratypes in Pringle Collection: data as for holotype, nine <^ cT, 
one 9 (E.L. and V. L. Pringle). 

Paratype in Coll. C. W. Wykeham: Camdeboo Mountains, C.P., 
3. XII. 1969, one 9 (C.W. Wykeham). 

Paratypes in Coll. Transvaal Museum, data as for holotype, 
two d* d'. 

A preparation of the male genitalia of this species has been 
compared with the description and the carefully executed figure 
of the male genitalia of Ps. detecta in the late Dr. G. van Son's 
The Butterflies of Southern Africa 2: 133, fig. 147 (on p. 128) 
(1955). The differences, or the most obvious ones, which appear 
on this basis to be present in the genitalia of Ps. camdeboo are as 
follows: Uncus not strictly in Une with tegumen, but both it and the 
tegumen well arched dorsally, and the uncus much thicker mid- 
way along its length (i.e., in the lateral view) and curving down 



FOUR NEW SOUTH AFRICAN BUTTERFLIES 221 

to a sharp tip. It is thus not "gradually tapered from base", as 
stated in the case of detecta. Fakes. Shorter than in detecta and 
thus less, not "more" than half the length of tegumen. Valve. 
Tliougli broadened basally, it is not (for this group) "very broad", 
being decidedly less broad than in the figure with the valve of 
detecta. Dorsal margin more than one-third longer than base, and 
not dentate in the "apical one-third". Tlie relatively narrow, more 
distal portion of the valve appears to be broader than in detecta 
and its somewhat truncate distal end bears a small pointed pro- 
jection at its upper "corner", the lower part being rounded. 
Aedeagiis. Longer and more slender than in detecta (judging by 
van Son's figure) and straiglit, not "slightly arched", but with its 
much narrower (in comparison with the figure) basal end strongly 
up-turned. 

Specimens of Ps. detecta which were compared with examples 
of the present insect were mainly ones from fairly close to Cape 
Town; but the species seems to show httle if any variation througli- 
out its range. Ps. camdeboo appears to have been found at an 
altitude of between 4,500 ft. and 5.000 ft. above sea-level. The 
vegetation of the Camdeboo Mountains consists of typical Karroo 
bushes and smaller shrubs, succulents and species of grass. 

{To be continued) 

A Species of megaselia New to Britain from 
Norwich (Diptera: Phoridae).— Among a collection of 
scuttle flies collected in water traps (set under birch trees from 
18-28 June 1976) at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, by 
Dr. I. F. G. McLean, are a male and a female of a species of 
Megaselia not met with before by the author. In the Keys of 
Lundbeck (1922, Diptera Danica, Part VI, Pipunculidae, 
Phoridae, Gad, Copenhagen), they readily run to "M. giraudii 
Egger". However, Schmitz (1952, Uber W. Lundbecks 
Sammlung und Beschreibung Danischer Phoriden. Ent. Meddr., 
26: 350-379) showed that Lundbeck's specimens in fact belonged 
to the species M. plurispinulosa (Zetterstedt). While Dr. 
McLean's specimens seemed in general agreement with 
Lundbeck's description there remained some doubt as to their 
correct identity. Having just received the latest part of the 
revision of the palaearctic Phoridae by Schmitz and Delage 
(1981, in Lindner (ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 
33 Phoridae Lief. 325: 665-712), that covers M. plurispinulosa 
and related species, I have re-examined the specimens from 
Norwich. It is evident that these belong to the species M. nigrans 
Schmitz (1935, Neue europaische Phoriden (Diptera). Tijds. 
Entomol. 78: 79-94). The hypopygium of the male immediately 
distinguishes M . nigrans from M. plurispinulosa (cf. Smitz & 
Delage, op.cit., figs 449 & 451). 

The specimens of M. nigrans from Norwich represent the 
first records of the species in Britain. It has previously been 
recorded in Austria, Silesia and France. — R. H. J. DiSNEY, 
Malham Tarn Field Centre, Settle, North Yorkshire, BD24 9PU. 



LODERUS GIL VIPES (KLUG) IN SCOTLAND. 
WITH SECOND BRITISH RECORDS OF 
PRISTIPHORA BIFIDA HELLEN AND 

NEMA TUS F REN A LIS THOMSON 
(HYMENOPTERA, TENTHREDINIDAE) 

By A. D. LiSTON* 



Loderus gilvipes (Klug) 

1 9 , Queen's Park, Duddingston, Edinburgh, 2.vi.l979. 1? , 
Cademuir, Peebleshire, 12.vi.l979 (both collected by writer). 

Previous British records are from the River Brock in Lancashire 
and Upper Teesdale in Yorkshire (Benson, 1945). Because of new 
information on their distributions in Europe, L. gilvipes can no 
longer be considered a subspecies of L. pratorum (Fallen) as Benson 
(1952) treated it. Most recent European taxonomists give gilvipes 
specific status. 

L. gilvipes is a boreo-subalpine, Eurosiberian species found in 
Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Switzerland, Austria and Northern Siberia 
to Kamchatka. Tlie Queen's Park, near sea-level, does not support 
any other relict boreal insect species as far as I know. 

Pristiphora bifida Helleh 

1 2 . Leadhills, Lanarkshire, 18.V.1980, ca. 320m. from bushes 
of Salix phylicifolia L. (coU. Liston). 

Only other British record is from Kincraig. Invernesshire, 
Scotland (Benson, 1958). Status of this species is uncertain (Benson, 
1958, Hellen, 1975). May not be distinct from certain otlier species 
belonging to this very difficult complex (eg. P. confusa Lindqvist, 
which I have also recorded at this locality). One of the main distin- 
guishing characters for bifida is the bifid tarsal claw, but other 
species in the melanocarpa group have variable forms of claw. 

P. bifida has been thought of as a boreal species, occurring in 
Finnish Lapland, Scotland and the Austrian Tirol (at over 2000m: 
Schedl, 1976). Records from lowland France (Cote d'Or: Chevin, 
1977) and lowland Czechoslovakia (Central Bohemia: Benes, 1975) 
indicate that allowing for its association with Salix, it is ecologically 
versatile. 

Nematus frenalis Thomson (=fastosus Konow) 

1 cT, data as for P. bifida (above). Previous British record is based 
on a female from Nethybridge. Invernesshire (Benson, 1958). 

Larva on Salix. Boreo-alpine, Eurosiberian species occurring 
in Northern Siberia, Russia, Finnish and Swedish Lapland (Kon- 
tuniemi, 1965; Malaise, 1921), Thuringian Mts. of East Germany 
(Muche, 1968), High Tatra Mts. of Czechoslovakia (at 1800m: 
Benes, 1962) and the Austrian Tirol (1900-2000m: Schedl, 1976). 
This is one of many boreo-montane Nematine sawflies occurring on 
the small group of Salix phylicifolia bushes at Leadhills. 

*99 Clermiston Road, Edinburgh EH 12 6UU. 



LODERUS GILVIPES (KLUG) IN SCOTLAND 223 

Acknowledgements 

I thank Dr. Veli Vikberg (Turenki, SF) for comparative material 
of the genus Lodenis. Univ.-Doz. Dr. Wolfgang Schedl (Innsbruck, A) 
generously sent me a copy of his pubUcation. 

References 

Benes, K., 1962. Notes on some Nematinae from Czechoslovakia 

(Hy., Tenthredinidae). Cas. Cs. Spol. ent. 59: 38-41. 
BeneS", K., 1975. Sawflies new to fauna of Czechoslovakia (Hymenop- 

tera, Symphyta). /lc?fl e«r. bohemoslov. 72: 121-126. 
Benson, R. B., 1945. Sawflies represented in the mainland of Britain 

by two races (Hym., Symphyta). Entomologist's mon. Mag. 

81: 103-105. 
Benson, R.B., 1952. Hymenoptera Symphyta. Handbk. Ident. 

Br. Insects V\{2h): 51-138. 
Benson, R.B., 1958. Hymenoptera Symphyta. Handbk. Ident. 

Br. Insects TV (2cy. 139-252. 
Chevin, H., 1977. Notes sur les Hymenopteres Tenthredoides. 

Bull. mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 46: 368-373. 
HeUen, W., 1975. Die Nemtinen Finnlands IV (Hymenoptera, 

Tenthredinidae) Gattung Pristiphora Latreille. Notulae Ent. 

55:97-128. 
Kontuniemi, T., 1965. Die SSgewespen des 6'stlichsten Fennoskan- 

diens und einiges uber ihre Chorologje. (In Finnish with German 

summary). Ann. Ent Fenn. 31: 246-263. 
Malaise, R., 1921. Beitrage zur Kenntnis schwedischer Blattwespen. 

Ent. Tidskr. 41: 1-20. 
Muche, W. H., 1968. 2. Beitrag zur Blattwespenfauna Thuringens. 

Das Kyffhausergebiet. (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Faun. 

Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 2: 117-119. 
Schedl, W., 1976. Untersuchungen an Pflanzenwespen (Hymenop- 
tera: ^mphyta) in der subalpinen bis alpinen Stufe der zen- 

tralen Otztaler Alpen (Tirol, Osterreich). Ver5ffentlichungen 

der Universitat Innsbruck 103, Alpin-Biologische Studien 

VIII, 85pp. 



Paromalus flavicornis (Herbst) (Col., Histeridae) at 
Roots of Glaucium flavum Crantz. - Whilst grubbing at roots 
of Yellow Horned Poppy beside Barthorp's Creek, Hollesley, Suffolk 
(TM 378448) on 3 January, 1975 I took a single example oi Paro- 
malus flavicornis, an Histerid which, as far as I am aware, usually 
only occurs beneath bark. 

The only explanation which I can offer for its presence in this 
atypical situation is that the beetle was originally carried into the 
saltmarsh on floating timber and that it subsequently moved to the 
habitat cited for hibernation. The beetle has occurred to me in the 
nearby Tunstall Forest as well as in several other Suffolk localities. 
- D. R. Nash, 266 Colchester Road, Lawford, Essex, COl 1 2BU: 
March 24th, 1981. 



224 

Notes from the Breeding Cage 

Tliis is the first of an occasional series of notes on all aspects of 
breeding and rearing in captivity. Readers are invited to contribute 
short notes for possible inclusion - Editor. 

I was surprised to see that a female Cyclophora linearia Hbn. 
kept for egg-laying, had laid some eggs on a hair which had fallen 
into the container. On mentioning this circumstance to Mr. J. Porter, 
he replied that many of the smaller Geometridae v^ll readily lay 
eggs on human hair. Accordingly, I put just three or four hairs 
(freshly plucked) with each female, and my experience this summer 
has been that many moths, including C. punctaria L., Idaea 
vulpinaria H.-S., Timandra griseata Petersen, Xanthorhoe quadri- 
fasiata Clerck, X. designata Hufn., X. spadicearia D. & S. diWdEupi- 
thecia succenturiata L. laid on the hair as well as on tissue or net, 
but that /. aversata L. and /. seriata Schrank laid solely on the 
hair (J. Halsey). 

Tliere is an additional pleasure for the lepidopterist who grows 
his soft fruit in a cage, for as well as increased fruit yield he has 
colonies of geometers protected from birds. Within the shelter 
of the cage, Semiothisa wauaria L. on currant and gooseberry, 
and Eupithecia assimilata Dbdy. and Eulithis mellinata F. on 
currants, will display large larval broods subject only to control by 
parasites. I have found that aphid attack can be controlled by 
discrete application of systemic insecticides well before the fruit 
is formed and this does not injure caterpillars. Defoliation by 
sawfly larvae still must be prevented by hand-picking however 
(G. M. Haggett). 

A simple and inexpensive method of rearing lepidopterous 
larvae in captivity where, for example, photography and cost are 
the two main concerns: this system, which incorporates a removable 
cover, facilitates photography without disturbing the larvae. The 
complete system consists mainly of a cover and base which can 
be bought cheaply from most garden centres. The cover is a flower 
pot propagator which is stood inside a pot base, which has been 
drilled centrally with a Vi" hole, the pot base is glued to the lid 
of the jar so that the holes are in-line. The food plant must be passed 
througli the hole and plugged with cotton wool to prevent the 
larvae falling into the reservoir. Tlie cover is stood on the base over 
the plant, and has two holes in the top covered with mushn. A 
vent should be cut in the lower end of the cover and a piece of 
muslin glued over the opening to prevent misting, and in conjunction 
with the upper vent holes, this provides a good air flow. Because the 
base and cover are made of plastic, these can be cleaned very easily, 
removal of frass etc. is achieved without disturbing the larvae, and 
observation facilitated by the clear cover. For rearing difficult 
species, the cover may be placed over a standard plastic flower pot 
containing growing food plant, and overwintering can also be carried 
out in this way. Some species will require a httle moss laid inside the 
container in which to retire, but this should first be scalded to 
destroy any predators and dried, after which it may be used several 



225 
NOTES FROM THE BREEDING CAGE 

times. For rearing pupae, an intact pot base is desirable, on to 
which a small cube of "oasis'" (procurable from florists) is placed. 
The "oasis" is damped to keep the correct humidity, and the pupae 
placed under the cover on the scalded moss. A twig is then inserted 
to allow the emerged adult to crawl free and dry its wings (P. Kirby). 

Current Literature 

Leaves from a Moth Hunter's Notebooks. By P. B. M. Allan 

Edited and with an Introduction by R. S. Wilkinson. 281pp., 
boards. E. W. Classey Ltd., P.O. Box 93, Faringdon, Oxon. 
SN7 7DR. Price £9. 

This is the fourth and last of P. B. M. Allan's books on Ento- 
mology; I enjoyed it every bit as much as I did the previous three 
and we must be grateful to Mr. Eric Classey who evidently inspired 
Allan to write it and to whom the book is dedicated. 

Althougli written in the 1950's the book was not pubhshed 
until 1980, some seven years after the author's death. It contains 
articles which Allan had already contributed to the Entomologist's 
Record under the pen-name "An Old Moth -hunter", but there 
are also chapters deahng with some of our 'lost' species of butterflies. 
As with his previous books, part of this one is in a more light- 
hearted vein about such things as Keeping a Diary , Wishful Tliinking 
and Tiger-moths and Tarts. 

The text was edited by Dr. R. S. Wilkinson who has been at 
pains to retain as much of the original as possible. For example, 
he has deliberately not corrected some of the names used by Allan 
although they are now out of date. In my view, this is as it should 
be but it would have been helpful to include, as an Appendix per- 
haps, a brief synonomy rather than to invite the baffled reader to 
refer to Kloet & Hincks. Tlie book should appeal to younger ento- 
mologists who may be unfamiliar with names used a generation ago 
and not hkely to have ready access to the check-list. Dr. Wilkinson's 
introduction gives brief details of Allan's Ufe and is of interest in 
showing the wide variety of his literary output and the pseudonyms 
under which he wrote. Allan was a considerable entomologist who 
had an enormous and detailed knowledge of entomological history, 
a fact wliich is apparent on nearly every page of the book. There 
is no formal bibhography but the references given in the text make 
this hardly necessary. 

Tlie book begins with a discussion on the occurrence in Britain 
of the Middle Copper (Heodes virgaureae L.) with particular refe- 
rence to the "Large Coppers" seen by S. G. Castle Russell's wife 
and his friend W. G. Mills in Devonshire in June, 1917. Tlie author 
discounts the notion that these butterflies were mistaken for either 
Mellicta athalia Rott. or Euphydryas aurinia Rott. There is ample 
evidence that virgaureae was once a truly British insect and the 
author points out that, even today, there are large areas which 
have still not been fully explored entomologically and that it is 
at least possible that Mrs. Castle Russell and Mr. Mills had stumbled 



226 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

upon a still-surviving colony of the insect. He goes further and 
speculates on the possibility that the insect may still exist in some 
remote area of the west or north-west of England. The author also 
discusses the decline and disappearance of Lycaena dispar Haw. 
both in Britain and in France. Tliis part of the chapter is a little 
confusing since it is not always clear which insect he is referring 
to. Tliere is a particularly obscure passage describing Ha worth's 
reference to "Hippothoe". 

Chapter II is devoted to the one-time existence in Britain of the 
Mazarine Blue (Cyaniris semiargus Rott.) its distribution and the 
possible causes of its decline and eventual disappearance. From an 
analysis of reported captures in the ninetheenth century the author 
suggests that there were two, possibly three, separate races of 
semiargus: a "lowland" race in the eastern counties; a "highland" 
race in the west and, possibly, a third race in the extreme south 
of Hampshire. Tliere is some interesting speculation on the possible 
origin of these races. The author argues convincingly against the 
theory that the harvesting of clover was responsible for the extinc- 
tion of the butterfly; he points out that it 'was always exceedingly 
local and suggests that the colonies were at such low density that 
they were unable to adapt to a gradual change of cUmate during 
the nineteenth century. 

In Chapter III the author examins the authenticity and origin 
of the Iphiclides podalirius Scop, said to have been found in Shrop- 
shire, both imago and larva, between 1807 and 1828. All the evi- 
dence seems to be against the natural occurrence of the butterfly 
and how the butterfly came to be there is still a mystery which the 
most painstaking investigation has failed to resolve. 

Tlie following three chapters are devoted to moths. The first 
deals with the oak-feeding Prominents (Peridea anceps Goeze, 
Drymonia dodonaea D. & S. and D. nificomis Hufn.) and the 
second with larva-hunting in the Spring. Both contain much useful 
information and practical advice. In the third, the author gives an 
account of a swarm of moths seen in the beam of a searchHght 
during the war and discusses the movement (not migration) of 
insects from the Continent to this country and vice versa. Typically, 
this leads him to speculate on the true nationaUty of many of 
even tlie commonest insects tliat are in collections and labelled 
as "British". 

There follows the interlude of informal chat which, though 
light-hearted, is usually much to the point. Tliis is followed by a 
Chapter on "Some possible Settlers". Nine insects are mentioned 
but I found the chapter rather disappointing and not altogether 
convincing. Tlie recent movement of some of the insects on the 
Continent is described in rather tedious detail and many of the 
places mentioned must be quite unfamiliar to most people without 
the aid of a map. The reader is left to deduce that this movement 
might spread to this country and that the insects might, in due 
course, become residents here. This may be so with those that have 
extended their range in recent years, e.g. Polyomrtiatus amandus 
Schn., Dendrolimus pini L. and Panthea coenobita Esper, but 



CURRENT LITERATURE 227 

does not seem to apply to Issoria lathonia L. Coscinia striata L. 
Hadena blenna Hubn. ox Drepana curvatula Borkli.;theonly grounds 
for these becoming "settlers" appear to be that they may once 
have been resident here and that they occur commonly on the 
Continent not far away. 

The book ends with an Appendix devoted to the identity of 
the "Lady" Glanville whose name is associated with Melitaea cinxia 
L. The information is not complete and, as is explained in a post- 
script, has since been added to by Dr. Wilkinson. 

The book is well presented and there are few missprints. My 
one criticism is the multitude of footnotes. These are nearly always 
interesting and relevant but continual reference to the bottom of the 
page can be very distracting and tends to break the thread of a 
sometimes rather difficult argument. It miglit have been better to 
collect all the notes together at the end of each chapter. 

I can strongly recommend this book; Allan would be the last to 
claim that it is "scientific" but it contains an immense amount of 
information that is not readily available elsewhere. Not everyone 
will agree with his theories but no one can deny that they provoke 
thought if not argument. This, I believe, is exactly what the author 
set out to do. — S.C. 

A History of the Butterflies and Moths of Sussex by Colin Pratt. 

356 pp., numerous maps and half tone plates (inc. 8 col.) Booth 
Museum of Natural History, Brighton Council, 1981. £9.95. 

Tliis latest extremely well produced county hst of lepidoptera 
(Macrolepidoptera only) will be a most welcome addition to the 
shelves of naturalists, lepidopterists and 'local-hst' addicts every- 
where. 

The book receives full marks for production with a large easily 
read typeface on high quahty paper, and beautifully illustrated. 
The author has shown what can be achieved within a tight schedule 
at what must be considered nowadays, a giveaway price. 

The text strikes a precarious balance. It will appeal to the 
specialists whilst remaining eminently readable by the amateur 
or local naturalist who may perhaps be only superficially interested 
in entomology. This has lent wide appeal outside what might have 
been a rather restricted readership. Seventy -five years have elapsed 
since publication of the last comprehensive county hst, the Victoria 
County History of 1905. In the intervening years a prodigious 
amount of material has accumulated providing the author with the 
Sisyphean task of putting it together. This has been dealt with by 
giving authoritative, and in my opinion extremely accurate accounts 
of the status of each species at present, as well as in the past. Much 
of the species comment has been assisted by distribution maps 
and by drawing a fine distinction between the east and west halves 
of the county. The text does not give away the exact localities for 
species which will please conservationists, although this may dis- 
appoint the purists amongst us (myself included) who Uke to be 
led to the exact spot where an insect was last recorded. There are 
useful notes on geology and habitat of the county including detailed 



228 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

appendices of migration records, dates and localities with com- 
plementary meteorological data. 

I have no doubt that this informative and well researched book 
will rapidly establish itself with our readers and as a trend setter 
in its own riglit. - M. Hadley. 

The Backgarden Wildlife Sanctuary Book by R. Wilson. 152pp. 

plus numerous line drawings. Penguin Books Ltd. 1981. £2.95. 

The object of this book is to encourage the 'lay' reader to 
make some provision for wildlife within his garden. Coverage is 
broad, ranging from discussion of the use of pesticides to the 
importance of logs and hedges within the garden. Other chapters 
give specific instructions on the encouragement of birds, 
mammals, butterflies, moths, bees and wasps. The garden pond 
is also discussed. Information on life histories, foods and 
attractants, is provided together with soures of further 
information. Useful features include practical hints on the 
construction of such diverse devices as compost bins, nest boxes, 
hedgehog houses, bat boxes etc. 

The suggestion that one may readily turn ones garden into a 
"wildlife sanctuary" may be viewed as a little optimistic, but the 
idea behind the book is sound. Anything that encourages an 
awareness and interest amongst the masses in our flora and 
fauna must be welcome.— PAUL SOKOLOFF. 

Fleas. R. Traub and H. Starcke (Eds.) 420pp. plus numerous 

illustrations. Boards. Pub. A. A. Balkema, P.O. Box 1675, 

Rotterdam. 1980 £18.50 

(An edited version of the first international conference on 
fleas held at Ashton Wold, June 1977.) 

The volume commences with a brief biographical sketch of 
Nathaniel Rothschild and a comprehensive bibliography of his 
published works on the Siphonaptera compiled, as one has come 
to expect, by Miriam Rothschild. Thirty-six papers (two in 
French), of varying length, comprise the remainder of the work. 
These papers are classified under the headings of Evolution and 
Zoogeography; Medical and Veterinary; Physiology and 
Morphology; and Ecology and Faunistics. Apart from an 
important revisional chapter on pygiopsyllid fleas there is very 
little taxonomic material. It is refereshing to see such a wide- 
ranging coverage of the biology of fleas in one volume, although 
as a result many of the papers are tantalisingly brief. However a 
reasonable bibliography is given with each paper. 

Although such a volume of "Proceedings" is usually 
welcomed only by the cognoscenti, there is much in this work to 
interest the general reader - from folklore and fable through 
adaptations of fleas to their environment to ecological aspects of 
plague, tularemia and myxomatosis. The reviewer was drawn, 
with some apprehension, to a chapter entitled "Missing and 
Floating Genitalia in Male Fleas"! On the whole well produced, 
and reasonably priced for such a specialised work. — PAUL 
SOKOLOFF. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 229 

The Butterflies of the Table Mountain Range, with Comprehensive 
Observations on their Habits, Times of Appearance and Life- 
histories. By A. J. M. Claassens and C. G. C. Dickson. 160pp., 
numerous line drawings by the authors, maps, tables and 24 
coloured plates (of 355 figures). Edition limited to 1000 
numbered copies. C. Struik, Cape Town, 1980. Price about 
£11. 

The Table Mountain Range extends about a dozen miles in 
a south westerly direction from the outskirts of Cape Town to 
form part of the Cape Peninsula. It is the home of 53 species of 
butterfly, at least another three are regular visitors, and a few others 
are on record as having been taken here but their status in the area 
is uncertain. 

This book particularises with each of the 53 resident species, 
their habitats, times of appearance, behaviour, variation and early 
stages. The latter receive especially full treatment. However, 
although the foodplants are noticed in fair detail, it is not always 
made clear whether these are the natural foodplants, or are sub- 
stitute foodplants (a failing all to common in textbooks); nor 
whether a foodplant cited is that upon which a species is known 
to feed on the Table Mountain Range, or that based on information 
on a species' occurrence elsewhere. 

Much interesting information is given on the times of ap- 
pearance of the imago, with a special chapter that includes a table 
of flight periods, though that for Cynthia cardui should have a 
thin solid line between June and September and not be blank as 
shown. Tlie text concludes with a number of appendices, including 
descriptions of some larvae and pupae, an alphabetical list of scien- 
tific and vernacular names, additional species recorded from the 
Cape Peninsula, conservation measures, and finally, a glossary, 
bibliography and an index of scientific names arranged aplhabe- 
tically under genera. 

The black and white illustrations mainly of early stages, and 
the coloured plates of photographs of habitats, foodplants, living 
and set insects, are on the whole extremely well done and form 
an outstanding feature of the book. Those of the set insects number 
261 figures in all and are taken from specimens in the authors' own 
collections, but as there is no scale with any, one wonders if these 
figures are produced natural size or not (though the average wing- 
span is given in the text). Moreover, no data appears with these 
examples, and as presumably some illustrations are those of speci- 
mens from the area under consideration, and others from elsewhere 
in Africa, it would have been interesting at least to have known 
which. 

Apart from the above few criticisms, this is a most attractive 
book, beautifully produced in strong boards, finely printed on a 
good quality paper, and offered at an absurdly low price, which 
has no doubt contributed to the fact that the book is already nearly 
out of print. - J.M.C.-H. 



Editorial 

Early in 1982 we shall begin publication of a series of articles 
of topical interest on the British lepidoptera. These will review the 
past year for (1) Butterflies (by Dr. C. J. Luckens, 52 Thorold Road, 
Bitterne Park, Southampton, Hants S02 3PG); (2) Macro moths 
(by P. A. Sokoloff, 4 Steep Close, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS); and 
(3) Micros (by Rev. D. J. Agassiz, Tlie Vicarage, Higliview Avenue, 
Grays, Essex RM12 6RU).Readersare requested to communicate infor- 
mation of interest on lepidoptera noted in 1981 to the above 
authors (but not migration records, as these should be sent to 
R. F. Bretherton, Folly Hill, Birtley Green, Bramley, Surrey, or 
to the Editor). 

We should be grateful if subscribers who have not already sent 
their subscriptions for 1982 (this remains at £8.50 for UK, £9.50 
for overseas), would do so without delay and thus save us the 
trouble and expense of sending statements. Please help, if you can, 
to enrol at least one new subscriber to the Record. Tlie larger our 
circulation, the higher the standard of the magazine. 



Notes and Observations 

Antichloris eriphia (Fab.)(Lep.: CTENUCHIDAE). - 1 am 

pleased to report the appearance in Addiscombe, Surrey of a fine 
specimen of Antichloris eriphia . This striking adult moth emerged 
from a crate of bananas from Ecuador on 19.i.81 and is the first 
British record. 

Apparently, it is usual for bananas from this source to go 
through a ripening process and with some difficulty the firm re- 
sponsible for this batch was traced in Erith, Kent. It was established 
that the fruit had been subjected for several days to a high concentra- 
tion of ethylene. It seems that this had no ill effect on the insect 
which presumably was then in the pupal state, and it would appear 
likely that the cocoon offered adequate protection from the alien 
atmosphere. I am indebted to Dr. J. D. Bradley for kindly arranging 
the identificafion. - K. G. W. EVANS, 31, Havelock Road, 
Croydon, Surrey CRO 6QQ. 

COLEOPHORA MACHINELLA BRADLEY IN SURREY. - In 1980, 
I found on Ashtead Common, one Coleophora case on Achillea 
ptarmica (Sneezewort) which I hoped was this species. Unfortu- 
nately the moth did not emerge. This year the search was resumed 
on the 16th June when over a dozen cases were collected in about 
two hours. Having developed entomological cold feet after bringing 
them home, I sent some to Mr. R. W. J. Uffen who kindly confirmed 
the identity. He reported that the larvae were the same as those 
feeding on Artemisia maritima (Sea Wormwood). The moths have 
just emerged at the end of July and beginning of August. This is 
probably the first record for the county. - R. FaircloUGH, 
Blencathra, Deanoak Lane, Leigh, Surrey, 5.viii.81. 



231 
NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS ^-^ 

Book Talk Four. — There are only three complete mono- 
graphs on the larvae of the British macrolepidoptera. Tlie earliest 
of these is Wilson's The Larvae of the British Lepidoptera and their 
Foodplants, whose title page bears the date 1880, thougli in fact 
the work was originally issued in five parts totalling 20 numbers, 
the first of which appeared in 1877 and the last in 1879. The book 
consists of 40 Uthograph plates of several hundred "life-sized 
Figures, Drawn and Coloured from Nature" by Eleanora WUson, 
with accompanying text by Owen S.Wilson, and depicts the larvae 
on their known or supposed foodplants. Notv^thstanding some of 
the figures are rather too coarse for accurate identification, the 
plates have a certain charm and the book has now become a collec- 
tors' piece. 

By far the finest larval monograph is William Buckler's The 
Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. Pubhshed in 9 volumes 
by the Ray Society from 1886-1899, with 164 superb coloured 
plates comprising 2815 figures, this work also includes the Pyra- 
loidea and a few species of Tortricoidea and Tineoidea. Buckler's 
originals from which these illustrations were reproduced belonged 
to the late Dr. H. B. D. KettleweU, after whose death they were 
offered for sale by pubhc auction but failed to reach the reserve 
price and so remain the property of his widow. G. M. Haggett 
compiled and illustrated a supplement to Buckler, consisting of 
35 coloured plates of 347 figures with accompanying text, entitled 
Larvae of the British Lepidoptera not Figured by Buckler. This 
was issued from 1955-1980, in the Proceedings and Transactions of 
the South London Entomological and Natural History Society (now 
Brifish Entomological and Natural History Society), and is at present 
available in a collected limited edition. 

Finally, there are tlie three out-of-print W. J. Stokoe books 
in Warne's "Wayside and Woodland" series. The Caterpillars of the 
British Butterflies (1944), and The Caterpillars of British Moths 
(2 vols., 1948). These contain altogether 1836 illustrafions, of 
which 509 are coloured reproductions from water colour drawings by 
J. W. DoUman, and numerous black and white figures of the eggs, 
chrysalids and foodplants, together with an interesting text. Tliough 
in no way comparable with Buckler, these serviceable pocket size 
volumes have become remarkably scarce and are much sought 
after. - J. M. Chalmers-Hunt. 

Hybomitra bimaculata Mg. f. collini Lyn. (Dipt.: 
Tabanidae) Bred from an Open Situation in Dorset. - 
In the course of collecting with my friends Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Gould 
and their grandson at Shell Bay, Studland, Dorset (4. v. 77), an 
unusual-looking pupa was found buried in the damp sand beside a 
dune-slack and handed to me. On 26 .v. a male Tabanid fly was seen 
to have emerged from it, clearly a Hybomitra. Using Oldroyd (1969) 
I was uncertain whether to refer it to the reddish-marked form of 
H. bimaculata Mg. known as collini Lyneborg, or to the much more 
local and rare H. muehlfeldi Brauer. The doubt was later resolved 
by Mr. J. E. Chainey at the BMNH, who kindly examined the 
specimen and pronounced it to be the former. 



232 

ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

Although H. bimaculata is one of our commoner large Tabanids, 
breeding records appear to be few, and this probably applies througli- 
out the family. Tliere is, besides, a further point of interest here: 
the species is essentially a woodland one, while the situation in 
which the pupa was found was quite open and unshaded for a long 
distance around; the nearest woodland (of a rather scrubby and 
fragmentary nature) lay some way to the west. Sexual differences 
apart, this male agrees well with a female f. collini that I took in 
Ham Street Wood. Kent (1 l.vi.64), but is darker overall. Tlie form 
is stated by Oldroyd (p.6I) to be rare in Britain; he records it from 
only four counties, none of them south-western. The pupa case 
has been placed in the BM collection. - A. A. ALLEN. 

Early Appearances of Spring Moths.— A number of 
contributors have recently written on this subject to which the 
following might be added. On the evening of 28th December, 
1980 I was searching for females of Erannis defoliaria Clerck in 
Fence Wood, Berkshire. In this I was unsuccessful, although 
males were plentiful along the rides, but a female which was 
noted was of Agriopis tnarginaria {¥.). A male of this species 
was noted later in the evening. Late December seems very early 
for Dotted Borders. As for female E. defoliaria, I had to wait 
until 1 1th January when two were noted on an ash trunk at the 
B.B.O.N.T. Moor Copse Reserve near Tidmarsh, Berkshire. 
Another early appearance was that of Cucullia verbasci (L.) 
which appeared in the Caversham trap on the night of 9th/ 10th 
April.— B. R. Baker, Reading Museum and Art Gallery, 
Reading, Berks. 

Another Probable Instance of Attempted Dispersal 
— Further to the theme of insect dispersal (A. J. Showier, vol. 92 
199-200 and A. A. Allen, vol. 93, 157-158) I can cite a very interes- 
ting case of the normally flightless meadow grasshopper, Chorthip- 
pus parallelus (Zetterstedt) producing substantial numbers of the 
normally rare macropterous form explicatus, de Selys, as a pro- 
bable consequence of a huge population build-up after the two 
hot summers of 1975 and 1976. Tlie location is the well-known 
picnic area of Fairmile Bottom in West Sussex by the A29, grid 
reference 41 (SU) 9809. 

Althougli facing north-west the site has an overall southerly 
slope and is warm and sheltered. A thin layer of clay overlies chalk 
and an extensive area of species — rich grassland is maintained by 
West Sussex County Council, by gang-mowing in Autumn. Tliis has 
successfully prevented the invasion of scrub for the past six years. 

Fairmile Bottom is noteworthy for its grasshopper fauna which 
includes Chorthippus brunneus (Thunberg), C. parallelus (Zetter- 
stedt), Gomphocerippus rufus (L.), Omocestus rufipes (Zett.) 
O. viridulus (L.) and Stenobothrus lineatus (Panzer). By the end 
of August 1976 all species were present in exceptionally higli num- 
bers. In aggregate the grasshopper population at Fairmile Bottom 
must have totalled many thousands - so many indeed that the 
turf was visibly grazed by the buzzing swarms. At a rougli estimate 
C. parellelus seemed to comprise about half the total population. 



233 
NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 

In the following September (1977) I made the autumn check 
here on what is one of my regular sites for keeping Sussex ortho- 
ptera under observation. I was astonished to see what I first took 
to be a number of C. albomarginatus (Degeer) but quickly realized 
were in fact examples of the macropterous form of C. parallelus. 
I recorded fifty individuals (thirty three females) in an hour and a 
half before I ceased counting. Tliere were obviously many more. In 
September 1978 eleven examples were seen (seven female), but in 
September 1979 only a single fully winged example - female, 
could be found after a long search. No further examples were seen 
in September 1980, nor in September 1981. Population sizes were 
substantially down in the cool summer of 1977 and have not been 
exceptionally high since. 

Tlie macropterous form of the meadow grasshopper appeared 
to fly easily. The stridulation of the macropterous males appeared 
to be the same as that of normal individuals. - E. C. M. Haes, 
45, Grove Road, Worthing, W. Sussex, BN14 9DQ. 

Dasysyrphus friuliensis v. D. Groot (Dipt., Syrphidae) 
New to Britain.— On 26 May 1980 I collected a male syrphid 
at Timble Ings, North Yorkshire, (SE/15), which I identified as 
Dasysyrphus venustus (Meigen) using the key in Coe, R. L., 
1953, Diptera: Syrphidae, Handb. Ident. Br. Insects 10 (1). 
However, the specimen exhibits several characters which are 
clearly different from those of typical examples of this species, 
including blackish third antennal segments, relatively short dark 
brownish hairs on the thorax, and blackish scutellar hairs. The 
most striking difference is the shape of the yellow lunules on 
tergites three and four; the rear edges of the lunules are straight 
but the anterior margins are strongly concave and both the outer 
and inner extremities almost reach the front of the tergites. 

In view of these differences the specimen was submitted to 
Dr. M. C. D. Speight who identified it as Dasysyrphus friuliensis 
v.d. Groot, a species hitherto unrecorded in Britain. 

The conifer forest at Trimble Ings is briefly described in the 
note recording the occurrence of Eriozona syrphoides (Fallen) in 
Yorkshire, (Crossley, R., 1980, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 115, 
(1979): 200). 

I thank Dr. Speight for his kind assistance and I am obliged 
to Mr. K. Welsh of the Yorkshire Water Authority for 
permission to collect at Trimble Ings.— Roy Crossley, 46 St 
David's Road, Otley, West Yorkshire, LS21 2AW. 

The Distribution of Caloptilia rufipennella(Hubner) 

(LEP.: GRACILLARIIDAE) IN NORTHERN ENGLAND. - Dr. M. R. 
Shaw raises the point of whether the East Anglian and northern 
British populations are hnked or independent (antea, pp. 148-149). 
I had shared his view that they were independent until the 5th of 
August, 1981, when I found vacated cones in the Qeveland Hills 
(VC 62, NZ 4500). Tliis suggests that the distribution may, after all, 
be more or less continuously close to the east coast. — A. M. 
Emmet, Labrey Cottage, Victoria Gardens, Saffron Walden, Essex, 
CBll 3AF. 13.ix.l981. 



234 entomologist's record 

Notes, Mainly Diagnostic, on Ceuthorhynchus pul- 
VINATUSGyll. (Col.: CurculionidaE). -When Canon WW. Fowler 
wrote his magnum opus towards the end of last century, this species 
was exceedingly poorly known as British and regarded as very rare. 
Even as late as the 1960s it appeared to be unrepresented in the 
National (Power) Collection at the BMNH, althougli one of the 
three records given by Fowler (for Hastings) was due to Power 
Rather surprisingly, no further ones appeared in the Supplement 
(1913); and it was only considerably later that C pulvinatus be- 
came known as an inhabitant of the Breck district of East Anglia, 
and that its foodplant was flixweed, Sisymbrium sophia L. (now 
placed in a genus Descurainia). Tlie weevil was present in large num- 
bers on this plant near Mildenhall, Suffolk, on 21-22 June 1981, 
but only a minority had the clothing of scales quite intact. Mixed 
with them were 3 or 4 of the very closely similar C.pyrrhorhynchus 
Marsh, and 2 C. floralis Payk.; but at least one of the former came 
off a plant of S. officinale L. (its normal host), and the others may 
well have done, so it would appear that at least to a great extent 
the species keep to their respective hosts. 

Tlie characters that distinguish pulvinatus from pyrrhorhynchus 
are higlily comparative, apart from a sexual one not given in British 
works. Tliis last concerns the tooth at the inner apex of the middle 
and hind tibiae of the male, wliich in pyrrhorhynchus is of normal 
form (i.e. tapering to a point), but in pulvinatus is almost peg-like 
and quite blunt. Tlie difference is very plain, and decisive for males; 
it is figured by Dieckmann (1972, Beitr. Ent., 22 (1-2): 111, figs. 
129, 131). On the other hand my males scarcely show any percep- 
tible difference in the form of the corbel (apical area bearing ex- 
ternally a comb of spines) of these tibiae, such as the above figures 
indicate for the two species. Fowler's "large straight hook" (re- 
ferring to the d" of pyrrhorhynchus) is something of an overstate- 
ment (1891, Col. Brit. Isl, 5: 362), besides being oddly self- 
contradictory. 

Unfortunately, females seem to predominate in these species, 
and in that sex close comparison of the two is necessary for certain 
discrimination, unless the foodplant (practically diagnostic) happens 
to be known. Unfortunately, again, the characters based upon colour 
given in all the keys are not fully dependable. Thus, ?? oi pyr- 
rhorhynchus with rostrum, front of pronotum, and tibiae almost or 
quite as dark as in pulvinatus appear to be common; whilst, conver- 
sely, one of my series of the last-named has the rostrum (except 
basally) and tibiae reddish, yet is not otherwise immaturely coloured 
and is undoubted pulvinatus on the criteria of body-form etc. In 
Fowler's description of that species, the character attributed to 
Thomson of thicker scaling is barely perceptible, whereas those he 
attributes to Bedel are valid — with the reservation already expres- 
sed regarding colour. Thus, pulvinatus is of sUghtly more rounded 
form with sliglitly shorter elytra and more transverse thorax more 
strongly and smoothly curved at sides (hence the name: pulvinate= 
cushioned), more constricted in front and more closely embracing 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 235 

the sides of the head. These differences are small, but evident when 
the insects are side by side. Finally, the rarer species has the anten- 
nae, especially the first two funicular segments, distinctly shorter; 
the tarsi slenderer, notably the claw-joint, and the lobes of the 
preceding one smaller. 

Tlie characters given by Joy (1932, Pract. Handb. Brit. Beet., 
1: 199-200) to separate these two species are quite unusable. Since 
he places C palustris Edm. between them, I should perhaps add that 
this 'species' (of wliich I have examined a specimen from the type 
material) is only a dwarf form of the common and variable C. floralis 
with the scales of the upper surface incompletely developed and 
hair-like. - A. A. ALLEN, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London 
SE7 8QG. 

The Biology of Isotrias rectifasciana 
(Haworth). — Although this is a common species, its life 
history is still unknown. A pupa was once beaten from 
hawthorn, giving rise to the belief that that was the foodplant. 
Mr. J. M. Chalmers-Hunt obtained ova from a captured female 
and gave the resultant larvae the foliage of hawthorn and elm. 
This they accepted with apparent reluctance, for casualties were 
high and the survivors disappeared during the winter. The adults 
frequent lanes and hedgerows and are usually encountered singly 
or in small numbers. 

It therefore came as a surprise during a visit to the ranges at 
Foulness, Essex on the 22nd of June to encounter a vigorous 
colony on a sea-wall overlooking salt-marsh; there was not a tree 
or bush in sight. The moths were flying freely around, and 
settling on, sea-beet {Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima) and golden 
samphire (inula crithmoides), the tallest plants present, at about 
7.30pm. I probably saw as many moths in five minutes as one 
normally sees in as many seasons and they had certainly bred on 
the spot. 

The inference is that the larvae are polyphagous on 
herbaceous plants or, perhaps more probably, that they feed on 
decaying vegetation. If I can obtain the necessary permit, I 
should like to collect leaf-litter from the sea-wall in late autumn 
or early spring to see if it contains larvae. — A. M. Emmet, 
Labrey Cottage, Victoria Gardens, Saffron Walden, Essex, 
CBll 3AF. 25 June 1981. 

BLAIR'S SHOULDER-KNOT: LITHOPHANE LEAUTIERI BOISD. 

IN THE Isle of Sheppey, Kent.— This moth, new to Sheppey, 
appeared regularly in my garden m.v. trap in 1980. It first 
appeared on September 6 continuing till October 12, and on 
September 20 over 30 were noted. — F. H. Clouter, HeUce, 
Glendale Road, Minster-in-Sheppey, Kent. 

The Painted Lady: Cynthia cardui L. in 1981.— In 
spite of indifferent weather, I saw one Painted Lady in Newton 
Dale (north of Pickering) on 12th June 1981, which may be a 
good omen for the species in Yorkshire. — S. M. Jackson, 22 
Armoury Road, Selby, N. Yorkshire Y08 OAY. 



236 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

EUPITHECIA EGENARIA H.-S. - A RECENT ARRIVAL? - Tliere 
is of course the completely opposite possibility to Col. Emmet's 
suggestion {Ent. Rec. 93: 177) that egenaria is an ancient relic, 
namely that it may be a very recent arrival! At least this is more 
likely for the Tlietford (Norfolk and Suffolk) colonies which inhabit 
limes that were planted as avenue and park trees only at the end of 
the last century. And so far as can be deduced there are no primary 
woodland relics in the Breck, which was principally sheeprun and 
rabbit warren before estates of the nouveau riche and then the pine 
plantations that date from 1921. There was no indigenous lime. 

Larvae at Tlietford have now been beaten from all three limes, 
T. cordata, T. platyphyllos and the hybrid eiiropea, but the first- 
named is much less common there. It is arguable that these Thet- 
ford populations originated from Tilia cordata of adjoining counties 
but the extensive primary woodlands of central Lincolnshire were 
worked especially for egenaria during the seventies using both MV 
light and blossom beating, with conspicuous lack of success. In 
Lines. T. cordata flowers late, rarely before mid July at which date 
egenaria larvae are fully fed, and at Tlietford so far larvae were 
found in quantity on T. cordata only in 1979 when it flowered 
early. Tlie biological clock of egenaria may be a little more critical 
than that of the leaf eaters or miners and parallel assumptions of 
their distribution may not apply. 

So far as the beekeeping monks are concerned it is more likely 
they introduced T. platyphyllos rather than the indigenous cordata 
in order to extend the following time and abundance of a food 
source. A further possibility therefore is that egenaria was in some 
way introduced not with cordata but with platyphyllos and maybe 
at different historical times. In the Wye valley egenaria could then 
have adapted itself to the earlier flowering and more plentiful 
wild cordata, whereas at Thetford there is no wild lime so the moth 
has remained associated with introduced trees. So far those Thet- 
ford moths I have reared appear uniformly much more dusky than 
the paler, clearer marked Wye valley insects, and separate introduc- 
tion could explain the difference. 

Rather than seek egenaria exclusively in relic woods of 
T. cordata therefore, I would urge it be souglit also in old avenues or 
parkland of the other limes as long as they are well sheltered. 

Suffolk P. harpagula is a very different matter that can fairly be 
described as an editorial red -herring. If we read the detail given in 
Morley's 1937 List we see that the careful collector in whose col- 
lection this unique insect resided had not identified it as harpagula, 
and it was not until after the redoubtable Mr. Meek detected it 
following purchase of the collection that the species extended its 
distribution to Suffolk! - G. M. Haggett, Northacre, Caston, 
Norfolk. 

LITHOPHANE LEAUTIERI BOISD.: BLAIR'S SHOULDER -KNOT 
IN Warwickshire. - Only the second recorded Warwickshire 
leautieri was found in my m.v. trap here on the cold night of 10th 
October 1981. - D. C. G. BROWN, Jacksons Farmhouse, 25 
Charlecote, Nr. Warwick. 



notes and observations 237 

The Large Tortoiseshell: Nymphalis polychloros 
(L.) IN East Sussex. - Further to the accounts of TV. po/yc/z/oras 
in East Kent and Surrey in 1980 reported in this journal, I would 
like to put on record that an immaculate specimen was seen for 
most of the morning and afternoon in the parish of Catsfield on 
4th April in 1981. Tlie temperature reached 16^0 and.4^/fl/s urticae 
and Gonepteryx rhamni were also flying. Tlie N. polychloros spent 
most of its time basking on walls or high up in an apple tree (at 
least two hours) and occasionally flew off for forays along hedge- 
rows and into meadows, never going very far and returning to pre- 
vious positions after a while. It was successfully photographed for 
future reference. Elm is common locally both in the form of elderly 
trees showing various degrees of disease and as younger healthier 
growth in hedgerows. - JOHN Feltwell, Catsfield, Sussex. 

The Large Tortoiseshell: Nymphalis polychloros 
L IN East Kent. - On the 8th July 1981, 1 observed at Bogshole 
Farm, Whitstable, what at first siglit I thouglit was a large fritullary, 
as it flew fast up and down a country lane before settling nearby. 
Tlie butterfly, almost certainly a female, then revealed itself as 
Nymphalis polychloros when it opened its wings fully for a few 
seconds, closed them as I approached, and took off at high speed 
again not to return. C. J. RANDALL, "Driftwood", Tlie Old 
Coastguards, Pegwell Bay, Ramsgate, Kent CTl 1 ONH. 

Red ADMIRAL: Vanessa atalanta L. Feeding in Rain. - 
On September 26th 1981, a Red Admiral was feeding on our bud- 
dleia during an overcast morning. By noon, continuous heavy rain 
was falling, lashed by a strong wind. In these very gloomy conditions, 
the butterfly returned to feed, althougli briefly, during the early 
afternoon. - A. Archer-LOCK, 4 Mannamead, Plymouth, 
Devon. 

Dimorphism in Papilio Pupae: a Correction. ~ I would 
be grateful if you could insert tlie following correction to my 
recent paper in vo. 93: pp. 75-6, the result of careless proof-reading 
on my part, I am afraid. P. 75, line 5 — for 'rate' read 'ratio'. P. 75, 
line 10 from bottom - for 'larvae' read 'pupae'. — D. G. 
Sevastopulo. 

Adela cuprella D. & S. (Lep.: Incurvariidae) in Three 
Irish Counties. - On 29th March 1981, 1 observed about 10 
moths hovering about Salix bushes at Kilkishen, 16km ESE of 
Ennis, Co. Clare. One 3_ and one 9 were captured and determined as 
specimens of Adela cuprella D. & S. On 4th April 1981, further 
specimens of A. cuprella were observed at Allenwood, Co. Kildare, 
and a c? captured. Yet more specimens of cuprella were observed 
at Ballivor, Co. Meath on 17th April 1981. Beirne (1941, ^ List of 
the Microlepidoptera of Ireland), considers three records of this 
species from Co. Westmeath to be unreliable. However, Ballivor is 
very close to the Co. Westmeath boundary. In all three instances 
the moths were flying at a heiglit of about three metres. The S from 
Kilkishen has been presented to the zoological collection at the 
National Museum of Ireland, Dublin (Reg. No. N.M.I. 72: 1981). - 
K. G. M. Bond, 24, Lislee Road, Douglas, Cork, Eire. 



238 entomologist's record 

Sex-ratio in Ypsolopha lucella (Fabricius) (I^p.: Ypo- 
NOMEUTIDAE). - In his Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera 
Meyrick writes "Tlie male of this species appears to be very rare in 
collections, an unexplained pecuUarity". Tlie moth is rare and local 
and thus little known. I took two specimens at Rowney Wood, near 
Saffron Walden, in 1965 and three at Barton Mills, Suffolk, in 
1978; these were all females. In July of this year I again came across 
it at Barton Mills, where it was common in a restricted area. I beat 
eight from the oaks, only one of which was a male. Thus 12 of my 
13 specimens are female. 

It is possible that the sexes really occur in equal numbers but 
only the female can readily be disturbed by day ; if this is the case, it 
is the reverse of normal behaviour. It is perhaps more hkely that 
it is on the way to becoming parthenogenetic. Larvae of this genus 
are easily obtained by beating and it would be interesting to rear 
Y. lucella in some numbers and record the sex-ratio. If, as with 
captured specimens, females predominate, one could then see 
whether virgins produce fertile ova and whether they retain suf- 
ficient Ubido to accept a male in copulation. On the other hand, 
one miglit find that males are necessary and being in short supply 
are polygynous. 

Such experiments will have to wait until 1982; meanwhile, 
it would be interesting to hear the experiences of other collectors. 
— A. M. Emmet, Labrey Cottage, Victoria Gardens, Saffron 
Walden, Essex, CBl 1 3AF. 9.viii. 1981. 

Helops caeruleus L. (Col., Tenebrionidae) in Numbers 
UNDER Bark. — Mr. A. A. Allen in his recent notes on this species 
(1980, £"«?. Rec. 92: 21S-6;\9U,ibid93: 1 19) commented that, in 
his experience, only the odd specimen was found under bark, the 
beetles apparently hiding themselves by day deep in the wood in 
which they develop, or else conceaUng themselves in some other way. 

It is interesting that my very hmited experience of the beetle 
is precisely the opposite of Mr. Allen's. My only encounter with 
the species has been in the marshes at Wrabness, Essex (TM 166315) 
in May, 1968 and 1969 (vide 1976, Ent. Rec., 88: 41). The beetles 
were breeding in several dead willows and, on both occasions, strip- 
ping the bark almost anywhere on these revealed dozens of adults 
and some full-fed larvae clustered on the hard wood underneath. 
Mr. Allen's observations also indicate that the larvae develop in 
well-rotted wood, whereas the conditions under which I found 
mature larvae where almost identical to those under which one 
finds, for example, the larva oi Pyrochroa coccinea (L.) viz. at the 
bark/cambium interface. — D. R. Nash, 266, Colchester Road, 
Lawford, Essex, COl 1 2BU. 

[This seems a curious discrepancy, but might possibly be due to 
local differences in the microclimate, e.g. of humidity. I think, 
however, that it is more Ukely a matter of chance, in that loose 
bark is by no means always available in the beetles' habitats, but 
that when it does happen to be present it doubtless acts as a natural 
trap — apparently for larvae as well as adults. Actually the few 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 239 

larvae I have met with have generally been in wood which though 
decaying was inclined to be rather hard and dryish, and it would 
appear that they may tolerate a fair range of conditions. Helopine 
larvae are seldom, in my experience, to be found directly under 
bark. - A. A. A.] 

The Probable First Record of Occurrence in Britain 
OF COLEOPHORA CLYPEIFERELLA HOFMANN. - Recently, while 
examining the Coleophoridae in the L. T. Ford collection in the 
BMNH, I noticed a specimen that appeared to conform to C. 
clypeiferella. It was labelled in Ford's handwriting "Dymchurch, 
6.8.34, L. T. Ford", and bore a second label in the same hand 
inscribed "salicorniae at hght". I drew the attention of Dr. K. 
Sattler to it, and he kindly confirmed my determination. 

Until now, the earliest known British clypeiferella seems to have 
been the one taken by S. Wakely at Camberwell in 1953 (cf. Wakely, 
Ent. Rec., 66: 272). However, Ford's Dymchurch example now 
shows that the species was present in Britain nearly 20 years earlier. 
- J. M. Chalmers-Hunt. 

POLYPLOCA RIDENS F. AB. FLAVASUFFUSA AB. NOV. - Fore- 
wings: ground colour pale yellow with cross markings indistinct 
and suffused with black; patches of chrome yellow scahng on 
tornus and in basal areas. Hindwings: colour normal with marginal 
band reduced. Holotype (?': Sandy Down, Boldre, Hampshire, taken at 
m.v.l., 21 4v. 1980. The specimen was exhibited at the British Ento- 
mological and Natural History Society in October 1980. — R. W. 
Watson, F.R.E.S., Watson Trust for Entomology, Porcorum, Sandy 
Down, Boldre, L/mington, Hampshire. 

Migrant Lepidoptera in S. Devon in 1981 -At the north 
end of Slapton Sands, a single Clouded Yellow. Colias croceus Geoff, 
was seen on 12th August; three more on 14th August, single siglit- 
ings again on 15th, 17th and 18th, three specimens on 27th, two 
again on 28th August and one on 12th, 21st and 23rd September. 
This species is rarely seen here. At the same place, a single Macro- 
glossum stellatarum L. was observed feeding on valerian on 18th, 
21st and 25th August; also feeding at valerian, 28 Small Tortoise- 
shells, Aglais urticae L. were counted on 12th September and a 
further 12 the next day. Only single examples oi urticae had been 
observed till then. 

For Autographa gamma L. and Nomophila noctuella D. &. S., 
totals here for the usual period, May to 21st September, using a 
125 watt M.V. light trap were: A. gamma AO\N. noctuella 1. These 
are the lowest totals for these two species ever recorded here. — 
H. L. O'heffERNAN, ^/o 15 Green Park Way, Chillington, Kings- 
bridge, TQ72Hy, S. Devon. 

The Bedstraw Hawkmoth: Hyles gallii Rottemburg 
IN THE Isle of Wight. - I positively identified a single Hyles 
gallii at rest on some low herbage in Great Coombe Wood, Isle of 
Wight, about 2.30 pm on August 3rd 1981. I observed it for at 
least a full minute, but was unable to capture it as it flew off rapidly 
before I could net it. - F. H. Clouter, Helice, Glendale Road, 
Minster-in-Sheppey, Kent. 



240 entomologist's record 

The White-letter Hairstreak: Strymonidia w-album 
KnOCH in the Isle of Wight. - I discovered a small colony of 
this butterfly on the cliffs of W. Wight in the last week of July 
1981. I boxed six of the insects in an hour, and four or five others 
were still flying around the tops of some young wych elm. All six 
were released at the end of the day, two of them were females. 
Although this was a small colony, the amount of young wych elm 
in the area was encouraging. I believe it is many years since w-album 
was last seen in the Isle of Wiglit, and that this is a new locality for 
it on the Island. - F. H. Clouter, Helice, Glendale Road, 
Minster-in-Sheppey, Kent. 

The White-letter Hairstreak: Strymonidea w-album 
Knoch in the Isle of ThanET. -I noted a single example of this 
butterfly at Watchester Lane, Minster, East Kent, on the Uth 
August 1981. No others were seen despite a thorough search on 
several occasions. Mr. M. Harman, the game keeper at Quex Park, 
tells me the butterfly has appeared in the park in varying numbers 
most seasons, and that he first became aware of it there in 1976 
when a hedge of bramble blossom was seen to be swarming with 
them, though none was seen in 1981. - C. J. Randell, "Drift- 
wood", The Old Coastguards, Pegwell Bay, Ramsgate, Kent CTl 1 
ONH. 

Exceptional Numbers of the Clouded Yellow: Colias 
CROCEus Geoff, in Warwickshire in 1981 - On August 2, 1 
walked along the banks of the River Avon between the villages of 
Charlecote and Wasperton. To my surprise a male croceus shot 
quickly over a hawthorn hedge from some steep flowery slopes 
created from old gravel pit workings. On entering this area I im- 
mediately saw several more croceus flying rapidly up and down 
the rougli slopes. Proceeding further, the butterfly became even 
more abundant. It was in mint condition, having obviously just 
emerged in the hot sun. After two hours I had seen over 70 indi- 
viduals including three ab. helice. A very fresh Cynthia cardui L.: 
Painted Lady was also seen. 

Tlie locality was visited several times during the summer and 
autumn with the following results. August 3: 10 observed in 
morning; 22 in afternoon, including one helice. August 4: 50 in 
afternoon (A. Gardner). August 10: Over 50 observed in one hour 
during the afternoon, including one helice; also, two cardui and one 
Vanessa atalanta L.: Red Admiral. August 11: Over 70 observed in 
one hour during afternoon, including one helice and one cardui. 
August 12: Over 40 observed in one hour during morning; one 
male was found drying its wings on a clover stem above its empty 
pupa case. August 16: over 50 seen in afternoon. August 17: Over 
30 seen in afternoon. August 23: 12 seen, mainly worn (A.Gardner). 
August 24: One male croceus in my garden at Charlecote, and the 
only one seen in the village, wliich is only a mile from the gravel 
pits. September 6: Only one worn male seen. September 13: Only 
one worn male seen. After this the weather deteriorated, becoming 
cold and unsettled with rain and so proved fatal for any chance of 
another brood. October 4: Sunny afternoon, no croceus, however, 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 241 

one atalanta seen; also, one perfect male Rhodometra sacraria 
L.: Vestal and one Heliothis peltigera D. & S.: Bordered Straw were 
flushed from the thick clover. Several m.v. Uglits at this locality 
that niglit produced no further migrants. I feel it is strange that 
these migrant species arrived within a mile of my home, confined 
themselves to this small area and that relatively few siglitings were 
recorded in more southerly parts of England. — D. C. G. BROWN, 
Jacksons Farmhouse, 25 Charlecote Nr. Warwick. 

The Camberwell Beauty: Nymphalis antiopa L. in 1981. 
— Tlie Rev. David Agassiz suggested that it might be of interest to 
record that I observed a Camberwell Beauty in my garden here on 
the 15th August 1981. - R. SMITH, 41, South Park Hill Road, 
South Croydon, Surrey. 

Scottish Dragonelies: A Correction. - In volume 92, 
p. 282, I made some smug remarks about photographing female 
Aeshna caerulea in various places in Scotland in 1968. I regret to 
say that re-examination of the prints shows that all were Aeshna 
juncea, and apologise for the error. I have notified the organiser of 
the National Recording Scheme for Odonata in detail. 

My little story was further spoilt by a neat misprint. "It was not 
quite cool" subtly suggests that the episode was almost passionate. 
The text should have read "It was now quite cool" (with the cloud- 
ing of the sun), emphasising the susceptibility of the insects to 
temperature change. — C. F. C0WAN,4 Thornfield Terrace, Grange- 
over-Sands, Cumbria LAI 1 7DR. 

BOMOLOCHA FONTIS THUNB. AND SCHRANKIA COSTAEST- 
RIGALIS STEPH. (LEP.: PLUSIIDAE) IN N. W. KENT. - Single 
specimens of these two species were unnexpected visitors to the 
m/v liglit trap in my garden at Dartford on July 8th and July 13th, 
1981, respectively. B.fontis has not been recorded previously from 
N. W. Kent. Chalmers-Hunt {Lep. of Kent) stated that the species is 
scarce and local in Kent, and has undoubtedly decreased in those 
areas where there has been a reduction of bilberry. However, recen- 
tly the insect has been noted on several occasions in the woods of 
S.E. Kent where bilberry is absent, and here it is presumed attached 
to an alternative larval foodplant. Tlie origin of the Dartford speci- 
men is at present a matter for conjecture; bilberry is not present 
in the area. 

S. costaestrigalis was a resident of N. W. Kent, the last record 
being of fourteen specimens seen at Chislehurst in 1910, althougli 
not far to the east of the area it was not uncommon at Springliead, 
near Northfleet, in 1912 and 1913 (Chalmers-Hunt, Lep. of Kent). 
However, it is interesting to note that six specimens have been seen 
in recent years in N. E. Surrey (L. and K. Evans A Survey of the 
Macro-lepidoptera of Croydon and N. E. Surrey). Despite N. W. 
Kent being a very well-worked district, S. costaestrigalis is an insect 
easily overlooked, and with apparently suitable habitats still existing 
in the area, it seems probable that the Dartford specimen might 
have originated locally. - B. K. West, 36 Briar Road, Bexley, 
Kent. 



242 entomologist's record 

The American Painted Lady: Cynthia virginiensis 
Drury, a Very Rare Migrant. - On September 28 my wife 
and I visited Gower Peninsular in South Wales. For once in this wet 
autumn it was a warm sunny day and a few belated butterflies were 
still about. We had lunch at Penrice Castle and afterwards were taken 
on a tour of the very extensive grounds by our host. In a warm 
corner a few valerian flowers were still out, and were being patro- 
nised by what I took to be a rather undersized C. cardui which flew 
restlessly about, occasionally settling on the ground between visits to 
the flowers. From the start I felt there was something unusual about 
the butterfly, so when eventually it settled on a flower head and 
basked in the sun with expanded wings I was able to examine it in 
detail at very close quarters. It was then that I noticed that the 
ground colour on the upper side lacked the rosy flush of cardui, 
having more of an orange tint. Tlie hind wings were devoid of black 
markings but had a row of submarginal eye spots. One of these near 
the apex of the wing was particularly large and with a prominent 
white ocellus. I never saw the underside. 

Even then the penny didn't drop and I thought I was looking at 
a rather unusual variety of cardui. I had no net or other means of 
capture, and it was not till we got home, when I was able to refer 
to an illustration in Humphreys and Westwood and another in 
Higgins and Riley, that I realised I had been looking without any 
doubt, at a fine specimen of that very rare migrant, Cynthia 
virginiensis, the American Painted Lady. 

The butterfly is not figured in the great majority of our national 
entomological Uterature. I think this omission is a pity, as it could 
so easily be overlooked as nearly happened in my own case. — 
Major Gen. C. G. LiPSCOMB, The Riding, Knook, Nr. Warminster, 
Wiltshire, 2.x 1981. 

Empria longicornis (Thomson) (Hym: Symphyta)near 
Edinburgh. - While collecting with Mr. A. D. Leslie on the 
edges of Redmoss Nature Reserve, Balerno, nr. Edinburgh, Mid- 
lothian (NT1663) on 22.5.1981 we each swept a male of 
Empria longicornis Thomson. The foodplant oi longicornis is said to 
be Rubus, so the specimens probably originated from a small patch 
o{ R. idaeus on the roadside verge near the place of capture. 

R. B. Benson (1952, Handbks. Ident. Brit. Insects, 6(2b): 90) 
recorded longicornis as rare in Britain, occurring in Cornwall, Devon, 
Herts., Glamorgan, Lanarks. and very locally in Ireland. The Euro- 
pean hterature suggests that it is local and scarce throughout its 
range, but perhaps more widespread in northern and mountainous 
regions. - A. D. LiSTON, 99 Clermiston Road, Edinburgh, EH12 
6UU. 

COLEOPHORA ALBITARSELLA ZELLER ON PRUNELLA VUL- 
GARIS. — I found a case of this species on selfheal in Grays Chalk 
Pit on the 25th September, 1981. This species feeds on a number 
of other Labiatae but as far as I am aware it has not hitherto been 
recorded on this foodplant. - A. M. Emmet. Labrey Cottage, 
Victoria Gardens, Saffron Walden, Essex, CBl 1 3AF. 26.ix.1981. 



THE BUHERFUES AND 
MOTHS OF KENT 

VOLUME 3 

by J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, FRES 



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CONTENTS (continued) 

Dimorphism in Papilio Pupae: a Correction 

Adela cuprella D. & S. (Lep.: Incurvariidae) in Three Irish 

Counties. K. G. M. BOND 237 

Sex-ratio in Ypsolopha lucella F. (Lep.: Yponomeutidae) A. M. 

EMMET 238 

Helops caeruleus L. (Col.: Tenebrionidae) in Numbers under 

Bark. .D. R. NASH 238 

The Probable First Record of Occurrence in Britain of Coleo- 

phoraclypeiferellaHofmann.i.M.CHALMERS-HVNJ . 239 

PolyplocaridensF.ah.flavasuffusa ab. nov. R. W. WATSON . 239 

Migrant Lepidoptera in S. Devon, 1981. H. L. O'HEFFERNAN 239 

The Bedstraw Hawkmoth in the Isle of Wight. F. H. CLOUTER 239 

The White-letter Hairstreak in the Isle of Wight F. H. CLOUTER . 240 

The White-letter Hairstreak in the Isle of Thanet. C.J. RANDALL 240 

Exceptional Numbers of the Clouded Yellow: Colias croceus 

Geoff, in Warwickshire in 1981. D. C. G. BROWN 240 

The Camberwell Beauty in 1981. R.SMITH 241 

Scottish Dragonflies: a Correction. Lt. Col. C. F. COWAN ... 241 

Bomolocha fontis Thunb. and Schrankia costaestrigalis Steph. 

(Lep.: Plusiidae) in N. W. Kent. B. K. WEST 241 

The American Painted Lady: Cynthia virginiensis Drury, a Very 

Rare Migrant. Major-Gen. C. G. LIPSCOMB 242 

Empria longicornis Thomson (Hym.:Symphyta) near Edinburgh. 

A. D. LISTON 242 

Coleophora albitarsella Z. on Prunella vulgaris Lt. Col. A. M. 

EMMET 242 



CONTENTS 

The Monarch: Danaus plexippus L. in England, 1981. 

A. ARCHER-LOCK 199 

The Scarlet Tiger: Callimorpha dominula L. in the County of Avon. 

B. W. MOORE 203 

The History of Acrolepiopis marcidella Curtis, 1850 (Lep.: 

Acrolepiinae) in Britain. S. C. S. BROWN 205 

Adenis populneus Panz. (Col.: Aderidae): a Problem of Bionomics. 

A. A. ALLEN 208 

Danaus chrysippus L. Revisiting Malta. A. VALLETTA 210 

Smith and Abbot, The Natural History of the Rarer Lepidopterous 
Insects of Georgia (1797): its Authorship and Later History. 

Dr. R. S. WILKINSON 213 

Four New South African Butterflies. C. G. C. DICKSON 219 

Loderus gilvipes (Klug) in Scotland, with Second British Records of 
Pristiphora bifida Hellen and Nematus frenalis Thomson 

(Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). A. D. LISTON 222 

Notes from the Breeding Cage 224 

Editorial 230 

Notes and Observations: 

The Milkweed Butterfly (Monarch): Danaus plexippus L. and 

Other Migrants in Cornwall in 1981. Dr. F. H. N. SMITH . 202 

The Monarch: Danaus plexippus L. in the Isle of Man. J. 

HEDGES 202 

Danaus plexippus L. in Sussex. S. H. CHURCH 202 

Danaus plexippus L. in the Scilly Isles. Dr. G. T. FOGGITT . . 202 

Migrants at Highcliffe on the Hants/Dorset Border in 1981 . E. H. 

WILD 202 

The Silver-barred: Deltote bankiana F. and other Interesting 

Lepidoptera in East Kent in 1981. T. W. HARMAN .... 204 

Aderus populneus (Panzer) (Col.:Aseridae) on Sallow Catkins in 

Mid-April. D. R. NASH 204 

Cocoon-spinning by Caloptilia (Lep.: Gracillariidae). Lt. Col. 

A. M. EMMET 207 

Carcinops pumilio Erichson (Col., Histeridae) Attracted to Cat 

Food. D. R. NASH 209 

Report of a Pale Clouded Yellow: Colias hyale L. and other 

Migrant Lepidoptera in Ireland in 1980. B. J. LEMPKE . . 218 

A Species of Megaselia New to Britain from Norwich (Diptera: 

Phoridae). Dr. R. H. J. DISNEY 221 

Paromalus flavicomis Herbst (Col., Histeridae) at Roots of 

Glaucium flavum Crantz. D. R. NASH 223 

Antichloris eriphia F. (Lep.: Ctenuchidae) K. G. W. EVANS . . 230 

Coleophora machinella Bradley in Surrey. R. FAIRCLOUGH . 230 

Book Talk Four. J.M.CHALMERS-HUNT 231 

Hybomitra bimaculata Mg.f. collini Lyn. (Dipt.: Tabanidae) 

Bred from Open Situation in Dorset. A. A. ALLEN .... 231 

Early Appearances of Spring Moths. B. R. BAKER 232 

Another Probable Instance of Attempted Dispersal. E. C. M. 

HAES 232 

Dasysyrphus friuliensis V. D. Groot (Dipt.: Syrphidae) New to 

Britain. R. CROSSLEY 233 

The Distribution of Caloptilia rufipennella Hb. (Lep.: Gracil- 
lariidae) in Northern England. Lt. Col. A. M. EMMET ... 233 
Notes Mainly Diagnostic on Ceuthorhynchus pulvinatus (Col.: 

Curculionidae). A. A. ALLEN 234 

The Biology of /so^nflsrecfi/flsdawa Haw. A. M. EMMET . . . . 235 

Blair's Shoulder-knot: Lithophane leautieri Boisd. in the Isle 

of Sheppey, Kent. F. H.CLOUTER 235 

The Painted Lady: Cynthia cardui L. in 1 981 . S. M. JACKSON . 235 

Eupithecia egenaria H.-S. - a Recent Arrival? G. M. H AGGETT 236 

Lithophane leautieri Boisd. in Warwickshire. D. C. G. BROWN 236 

The Large Tortoiseshell in East Sussex. Dr. J. FELTWELL ... 237 

The Large Tortiseshell in East Kent. C. J. RANDALL 237 

Red Admiral Feeding in Rain. A. ARCHER-LOCK 237 

(Continued overleaf) 



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