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Full text of "The Entomologist's record and journal of variation"




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Record 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 



EDITED BY 

J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT, F.R.E.S. 

AND 

P. A. SOKOLOFF,F.R.E.S. 



Vol. 97 
1985 



CONTENTS 1985 



Acherontia atropos L. and Agrius con- 

volvuli L. in Somerset. N. W. Lear, 
(s 26 

Acherontia atropos L. in Cape Town. 

H. L. 0'Heffernan,2\5 
Acherontia atropos Linn, in Hampshire. 

Death's Head Hawk: E. L. Simson, 

189 
Acherontia atropos L. in Somerset. 

The Death's Head Hawkmoth: 

B. W. Moore, 36 
Acherontia atropos L. Unusual Behaviour 

of D. A. LePard, 146 
Acrocercops cramerella (Snellen) (Lep.: 

Gracillariidae) /. D. Bradley, 29 
Aderus brevicornis (Col.) at Windsor. 

A Fourth Capture of A. A. Allen, 

34 
Aeshnia cyanea (Muller). Dragonfly 

egglaying Habits. C. F. Cowan, 

189 
Aglais urticae L.: an Unusual aberration. 

Small Tortoiseshell Butterfly; J. F. 

Burton, 168 
Agrius convolvuli L. in S. Westmorland 

in 19S4. J. Briggs, 62 
Agrodiaetus thersites Cantener: Chap- 
man's Blue in Malta. A. Valletta, 

110 
Agrotis exclamationis L. - A Rare 

Aberration of the Heart and Dart 

R. T. Lowe, 58 
Amphipoea lucens Freyer: Larger Ear 

in Cornwall A. Spalding, 67 
Anasymia interpuncta Harris (Dipt.: 

Syrphidae) in the Thames Marshes. 

A Colony of A. A. Allen, 85 
Andros. End June. Butterflies from the 

Greek Island of /. G. Coutsis, 

10 
Anthocharis cardamines L. in West 

Lothians. G. Campbell, 106 
Apatele rumicis L. Knotgrass -Voltinism 
and Melanism B. K. West, 

107 

Apion pubescens Kirby (Col.: Apionidae) 

in Cumbria R. W. J. Read, 65 
Apion semivittatum Gyllenhal (Coleop- 

tera:Apionidae) in South Essex. 

C. W. Plant, 25 
Aporophila nigra Haw. D. A. Chambers, 

117 



Archips argyrospila Walker (Lep.: Tor- 
tricidae): A Species New to Britain. 
M. J. Sterling and P. Sterling, 51 

Arenostola phragmitidis Hb. (Lep.: Noc- 
tuidae) in Somerset. C. S. H. Blath- 
wayt, 19 

Atolmis rubricollis L. in Essex. Red- 
Necked Footman /. McClenaghan, 
52 

Bankesia conspurcatella (Zell.) (Lep.: 
Psychidae) Recorded in South 
Yorkshire. H. E. Beaumont, 153 

Biston betularia L. (Lep.: Geometridae). 
Late Emergences of B. K. West, 25 

Brachinus sclopeta F. (Col.: Carabidae) 
Two Captures in the Present Cqti- 
tmy A. A. Allen, 137 

Butterflies and Moths of the Isle of Man. 
First and Second supplements to 
the K. G. M. Bond, (1) (5) and 
A. M. Emmet, (13) 

Callimorpha dominula L. Scarlet Tiger in 
Westmorland J. Briggs, 68 

Catocala elocata Esper in the Channel 
Isles jV. W. Lear, 25 

Catoptria margaritella margaritella D. & 
S. in Kent G. H. Youden, 27 

Celastrina argiolus L. Holly Blue Ovi- 
positing on Cotoneaster D. A. 
Saunders, 68 

Chloroclystis chloerata (Mabille) and the 
Marsh Pug Eupithecia pygmaeata 
(Huebner) in Bedfordshire K. F. 
Webb, 69 

Chloroclystis chloerata Mab. (Sloe Pug) 
Late Capture of A. M. Riley, 228 

Chorisops nagatomi Rock. (Diptera: 
Stratiomyidae): Further Records 
from the Metropohs C. W. Plant, 
228 

Chorisops nagatomi Rock. (Dipt.: Stra- 
tiomyidae) in Suffolk and S. E. 
London^. A. Allen, 33 

Chorosoma schillingi (Schummel) (He- 
miptera: Heteroptera) in North- 
west England S. Judd, 147 

Chorosoma schillingi (Schummel) (Hem,: 
Rhopahdae) in West Cumbria R. W. 
J. Read, 8 

Clostera anachoreta D. & S.. A Further 
Record of the Spring Brood of the 
Scarce Chocolate-tip /. P. Woiwod, 
164 



Clap-Net Become Extinct? Why did the 

G. F. LePard, 109 
Clyde Huebner Species in Europe and 

Malta. Remarks on the Reported 

Occurrance of E. P. Wiltshire, 

73 
Coleoptera in Norfolk. M. Collier, 132 
Colias croceus Geoff. A. J. Baldwin, 30 
Colias croceus Geof. in S. E. London 

\9%2> A. A. Allen, 52 
Comma and Peacock Butterflies in E. 

Kent in 1984. Late Sightings of the 

J. Plaits, 66 
Commophila aenana Hbn. in Notting- 
hamshire. M. Sterling, 29 
Cossus cossus L. (Goat Moth) in S. E. 

London 1984. A. A. Allen, 32 
Cryphon hilaris Nyholm (Col.: Scirtidae) 

New to Surrey D. A. Prance, 15 
Curate's Ovum A. A. Allen, 69 
Cydia caecana Schlag in Wiltshire. New 

Localities for S. M. Palmer, 133 
Cynthia cardui L. in February 1985. 

The Painted Lady P. G. Silver, 86 
Cynthia cardui L. in March 1985. The 

Painted Lady H. G. Phelps, 93 
Cynthia cardui L. The Painted Lady. 

A. Archer Lock, 106 
Cynthia cardui in Tuscany. Migrating 

/. L. Campbell, 202 
Danaus plexippus L. in Gloucestershire 

in 1983. A^. W.Lear, 30 
Diaphora mendica Clerck in Hertford- 
shire. An unusual Aberration of 

A. M. Riley, 36 
Deilephila elpenor L. (Lep.: Sphingidae) 

Comments on the Life History of 

the Elephant Hawk-Moth B. K. 

West, 113 
Deileptenia ribeata Clerck (Satin Beauty) 

at Blairgowrie, /I. M. Riley, 202 
Diachrysia chrysitis L. Burnished Brass 

in November. 5. A'. West, 67 
Donacia vulgaris Zsach (Col.; Chrysome- 

lidae) in Cumbria. R. W. J. Read, 

105 
Drepanepteryx phalaenoides L. (Neuro- 
tera: Hemerobiidae) in West Sussex 
R. K.A.Morris, 111 
Dromius angustus Brulle (Col.: Cara- 
bidae) under Plane Bark in Winter 
A. A. Allen, 69 
Editorial J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, 84 
Eilema pygmaeola (Doubleday) sub- 
species pallifrons (Zeller) (Lep.: 
Arctiidae) R. K. A. Morris, 149 



Elachista littoricola Le Marchand in 

1985 £".//. Wild, 153 
Elaphoria venustula Hbn. Rosy Marbled 

in Kent D. A. Chambers, 146 
Elderly Entomologist. Reminescences of 

an R. P. Demuth, 13, 46, 97 
Entomological Forays in France, 1983. 

B. Goater, 53 

Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Lep.: 
Tortricidae) in Central London 

C. W. Plant, 61 

Erebia epiphron Knoch: Mountain Ring- 
let as Irish. Confirmation of / 
Paul, 63 

Erebia euryale Esp. and the Camera 
R. F. Bretherton, 199 

Ethmia bipunctella Fab. in East Sussex 
M. Parsons, 164 

Ethmia bipunctella Fabr. (Lep.: Eth- 
miidae) in Wiltshire S. M. Palmer, 
128 

Eugraphe subrosea Stephens. Some 
Notes on the Feeding of the Rosy 
Marsh Moth /. J. L. Tillotson, 
87 

Eupithecia abietella Goeze. Two Records 
oi D.A.Barbour, 146 

Eupithecia — Delayed Emergence D. H. 
Sterling. 93 

Eupithecia distinctaria H.-S. Thyme 
Pug and Deieptenia ruberata Clerck ; 
Satin Beauty at Glentress, Peebles- 
shire /4.M. Riley, HI 

Evergestis extimalis Scop, and Sitochroa 
palealis D. & S. (Lep.: Pyrahdae) 
in Hampshire in 1984 D. H. Sterling, 
66 

Fedalmia headleyella (Stainton) (Lep.: 
Nepticulidae) in Dorset E. H. Wild, 
164 

Feminist. A Thought for the G. F. 
LePard, 105 

Festuca arundinacea, a Foodplant of 
Cosmiotes stabilella Frey and Ela- 
chista bisulcella Duponchel. R. J. 
Heck ford, 106 

Greek Island Butterflies: Dodecanes 
1983 G. Tfiomson, 154 

Hadena compta D. & S. (Lep.: Noctuidae) 
Continuing Spread in 1984 D. H. 
Sterling. 58 

Hamearis lucina L. (Duke of Burgundy). 
Large Egg-Batch of ^. M. Riley, 
190 



Hyles lineata F., ssp. livornica Esp.: 
Striped Hawk Moth in the New 
Forest A. D. A. Russwurm, 93 

Hypodryas intermedia Menetries in 
Europe: An Account of The Life 
History. C. J. Luckens, 37 

Hypsopygia cos talis F. and Pyralis fari- 
nalis L. (Lep.: Pyralidae). Some 
Observations on E. G. Smith, 109 

Idaea vulpinaria H.-S. in Hamp- 
shire. A Second Record of the 
least Carpet: T. G. Winter, 69 

Idaea vulpinaria H.-S. Least Carpet in 
November R. G. Chatetlain, 29 

Idiocerus herrichi Kbm. (Hem.: Cicadel- 
lidae) in S. E. London A. A. Allen, 
64 

Immigration of Lepidoptera into the 
United Kingdom - April 1985. 
Notes on a Remarkable P. A. Davey, 
165 

Immigration of Lepidoptera to the 
British Isles in 1981, 1982, 1983: 
A Supplementary Note R. F. 
Bretherton and J. M. Chalmers- 
Hunt, 76 

Immigration of Lepidoptera to the 
British Isles in 1984. R. F. Brether- 
ton and J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, 
140, 179,234 

Isle of Canna — a Remarkable Stranding. 
/. L. Campbell, 158 

John Abbot's London Years: Some 
Addenda. R. S. Wilkinson, 196 

Labia minor (Derm.) in E. London. 
A. A. Allen, 66 

Ladoga Camilla L. in West Kent in 1984. 
The White Admiral H. J. Wild bore, 
35 

Ladoga Camilla L. New to Breconshire. 
The White Admiral J. P. Shankey- 
Barker, 45 

Lampopteryx otregiata Mete. Metcalfe's 
Carpet in Derbyshire M. Sterling, 
19 

Lasiocampa trifolii L. Grass Eggar in 
Somerset. B. E. Slade, 111 

Lasiocephala basalts (Kolenabi) (Trich.: 
Sericostomatidae) From the Area 
administered by Welsh Water. A 
Summary of Records of S. J. 
Ormerod, 134 

Lepidochrysops Hedicke (Lep.: Lycae- 
nidae) from the South Western 
Cape Province. A New C. G. C. 
Dickson, 1 



Lepidoptera in North-Eastern England 
1983-84 P. Waterton, 65 

Leucoma salicis Linn. (Lep.: Lyman- 
triidae). Notes on a Mass Occur- 
rence of M. E. N. Majerus, 127 

Lithophane leautieri hesperica Boursin. 
Blair's Shoulderknot M. E. N. 
Majerus, 30 

Lithophane leautieri hesperica Boursin 
(Blair's Shoulder knot) Feral Food- 
plant of 5. Skinner, 185 

Lithosia quadra L.: Spotted Footman 
and Eilema complana L.: Scarce 
Footman in South Westmorland 
(VC69)in 1984 J. Briggs, 12 

Lophopteryx capucina L. Coxcombe 
Prominent. A local and Unusual 
¥oimo{ B.K. West, 121 

Luperina nickerlii Freyer: Sandhill Rustic 
in Kent B. Skinner, 28 

Lycaena phlaeas L. in December. Small 
Copper C. W. Plant, 62 

Malthinus frontalis Marsh (Col.: Can- 

tharidae) in S. E. London: and its 
Habitat. yl./4./4//e«, 33 

Megaselia rondani (Diptera: Phoridae) 
from Northern Britain. A New 
Species of R. H. L. Disney, 200 

(Mellicta athalia Rott.) in Cornwall, 
1984. Aberrations of the Heath 
FritillaryP. Bowler, 187 

Menophra abruptaria Thunb. Waved 
Umber (Lep.: Geometridae) R. K. 
A. Morris, 145 

Microlepidoptera - A Review of the 
Year 1984. D. J. L. Agassiz, 203 

Microlepidoptera from Somerset Sep- 
tember 1984. Records of A. M. 
Emmet, 171 

Migrants in South Hampshire. Early 
A. J. Pickles, 84 

Milos Island, Greec, End May 1984. 
Butterflies and Burnet Moths from. 
/. G. Coutsis, 197 

Monochroa niphognatha Gozmani 1953 
and Athrips rancidella Herrich- 
Schaffer 1854 (Lepidoptera: Gele- 
chiidae) New to the British Fauna. 
/. M. Chalmers-Hunt , 20 

Mythimna obsoleta Hbn.: Obscure Wains- 
cot in N. Lanes. (VC 60) and 
Westmorland (VC 69) in 1983-84. 
/. Briggs, 45 



Noctua orbona Hufn. (Lep.: Noctuidae) 
in North Hampshire. Occurrence of 
M. J. R. Jordan, 215 

Northern Cyprus in Early June 1981, 
Butterflies in R. C. Dening, 92 

Nymphalis polychloros (Linnaeus) in 
1985. Large Large Tortoiseshell 
C. W. Plant, 199 

Old Ladies in Wimbledon. A Home for 
Sir John Dacie, 5 9 

Papilio machaon L. feeding on the epi- 
dermal layer of Fennel Stems. 
Larvae of A F. Owen, 34 

Papilio nireus lyaeus Dbl. Pupal Dimor- 
phism. D. G. Sevastopulo, 29 

Paracystola acroxantha Meyrick (Lep.: 
Oecophoridae) at Camborne in 
Cornwall. A. M. Riley, 229 

Paradiarsea glareosa Esp. ssp. edda Stand.: 
Autumnal Rustic in Cardiganshire 
/. /. Tillotson, 86 

Pelosia obtusa (Herrish-Sheffer) (Lep.: 
Arctiidae) An Account of Rearing 
the Small Dotted Footman. C. Hart, 
193 

Peridea anceps Goeze: Great Prominent, 
in Late July. D. F. Owen, 95 

Perizoma sagittata F.: Marsh Carpet in 
Nottinghamshire M. Sterling, 27 

Polymixis flavicincta D. & S.: Large 
Ranunculus on Garden Mint. P. A. 
Cattermole , 68 

Proserpinus proserpina PaU. (Lep.: Sphin- 
gidae) New to Britain C. Pratt, 
147 

Pulicalvaria piceaella Kearfott (Lep.: 
Gelechiidae) Further Appearances 
of D.H. Sterling, 139 

Pycnomerus fuliginosus Erichson (Col.: 
Colydiidae): Its Expanding Distri- 
bution in Sussex. R. A. Jones, 159 

Red Admiral in County Durham. A late 
J. P. T. Bury, 30 

Rheumaptera undulata L. Scallop Shell 
in the Isle of Man R. F. Haynes, 130 

Rhodometra sacraria L. (Lep.: Geometri- 
dae) travelling by Ship D. F. Owen, 
26 

(Saturnia pavonia L.) in Essex. Assembing 
the Emperor R. N. Baxter, 169 

Sawflies (Hymenoptera: symphyta) from 
upper Deeside. On some A. D. 
Liston, 94 

Scopula nigropunctata Hufnagel: Sub- 
Angled Wave in Sussex C. Pratt, I3l 



Scopula rubigineata Hufn.: Tawny Wave 

in Cornwall B. K. West, 46 
Sesia apiformis Clerck: Hornet Clearwing 

D. J. Wilson, 33 
Sibinia arenariae Steph. (Col.: Curculio- 

nidae) in West Kent. A. A. Allen, 

36 
Sitotroga cerealella ^ 01. (Lep.: Gele- 
chiidae) in Herefordshire J. Cooter, 

108 
Small Tortoiseshell Butterfly. Egg Keel 

Number in the R. L. H. Dennis and 

T. Richardson, 162 
Spilosoma and Arctia Species. Semi- 
Arboreal habits of M. R. Shaw, 31 
Stick Insects Naturalised in Mainland 

Cornwall. Two New Zealand S. M. 

Turk, 129 
Strymonidia w-album Knoch, in Alder- 

ney, C. I. Possibly the First Record. 

The White Letter Hairstreak G. E. 

Higgs, 230 
Thalera fimbrialis Scop.: Sussex Emerald 

and Clostera anachoreta D. & S. 

Scarce Chocolate-tip at Dungeness 

in mAG. Senior, 29 
Thaumetopoea processionea, L. oak 

processionary Moth on Guernsey. 

A. M.Riley, IIQ 
Thera britannica Turner: Spruce Carpet 

in Kent. D. A. Chambers, 93 
Thera .. juniperata L. Juniper Carpet 

in Kent.i?. Taylor, 111 
Tipula paludosa Mg. (Diptera: TipuUdae). 

Communal Conjugation in C W. 

Plant, 35 
Triaxomasia caprimulgella Stt. in Kent 

E.S.Bradford, 184 
Trox scaber (Linnaeus) (Col.: Trogidae) 

at M. V. Light in Essex C W. Plant, 

229 
Watchmaker's Eyeglass. The C. F. Cowan, 

9 
White Mountain. A Day on the C. J. 

Luckens, 118 
Why "Wyponomeuta"? A. M. Emmet, 

63 
Vanessa atalanta L. Autumn Ovipositing. 

The Red Admiral A. Archer-Lock, 

30 
Zerynthia polyxena D. & S. and Zeryn- 

thia rumina L. a Note on Rearing 

C. J. Luckens, 64 

Current Literature: 70, 71, 72, 112, 147, 
161, 190, 230 



Agassiz, D. J. L. 203 

Allen A. A. 32, 33, 34, 36, 53, 64, 
66,69,85. 137 
Archer-Lock A. 106 

Baldwin A. J. 30 

Barbour D. A. 146 

Baxter R.N. 169 

Beaumont H. G. 153 

BlathwaytC.S.H. 19 

BondK.S.M.(l).(5) 

Bowler, P. 187 

Bradley, J. D. 29 

Bretherton R. F. 76, 140, 199, 234 

Briggs, J. 12,45,62,68 

Burton J. F. 168 

Bury J. P. T. 30 

Campbell G. 106 
Campbell J. L. 158,202 
CattermoleP. A.68 
Chambers D. A. 93, 117, 146 
Chatelain R.G. 29 
Chalmers-Hunt J. M. 20, 76, 84 
CoUierM. 132 
Cooter J. 108 
Coutsis J.G. 10, 197 
CowanC.F.9, 189 
Culpin J. 7 

DacieSir J.59 
Davey P. A. 165 
DemuthR.P. 13,46,97 
Dening R.C. 92 
Dennis R. L. H. 162 
Dickson C.G.C. 1 
Disney R.L.H. 200 

Emmet A. M. (1), (5), (13), 63, 171 

Goater S. 53 

HartC. 193 
HaynesR. F. 130 
HeckfordR. J. 106 
HiggsG.E.230 

Jones R.H. 159 
Jordan M.J. R. 215 
JuddS. 147 



Kroon D. M.6 

Lear N.W. 25,26,30 
LePardG.F. 105, 109, 146 
Liston A. D. 94 
LoweR.T.58 
LuckensC. J.37, 127 

Majerus M.E.N. 30, 127 

McClenaghan 52 

Moore B.W. 36 

Morris R.K. A. HI. 145, 149 

O'HeffernanH.L. 215,223 
OrmerodS. J. 134 
Owen D.F. 26.34,95 

Palmer S.M. 128. 133 

Parsons M. 164 

Paul J. 63, 122 

Phelps H.G. 93 

Pickles A. J. 84 

Plant G.W.25,35,62, 67, 199,228,229 

Platts J. 66 

Prance D. A. 5, 96 

Pratt C. 131, 147 

Read R. W.J. 8,65, 105 
Richman T. 162 

Riley A. M. 36, 110, 111, 190, 202 

228,229 
Russwurm A. D. A. 93 

Sankey-Barker J. P. 45 

Saunders D. A. 68 

Senior G. 29 

Sevastopulo D. G. 28 

Silver P. S. 86 

SimsonE. L. 189 

Skinner B. 28, 185 

ShawM.R. 31 

SladeB. E. Ill 

Smith E.G. 109 

Spalding A. 67 

Sterling D.H. 93. 139 

Sterling M. 19, 27,29,58,66 

Stirling M.J. 51 

Stirling, P. 51 



Taylor R. Ill 
Thomson G. 154 
Tillotsonl. J. L. 86,87 
TurkS.M. 129 

Uhthoff-Kaufmann R. R. 216 
VaUettaA. 110 



WatertonP.65 

WebbK.F.69 

West B.K. 25,46,67, 107,113,121 

WildE.H. 153, 164 

Wildbore H. 35 

Wilson D. J. 33 

Wiltshire E. P. 73 

Winter T.G.69 

Woiwod I. P. 164 



YoudenG.H.27 



Frowde & Co (Printers) Ltd London SE5 8RR 



Vol. 97NOS. 1-2 






January/February 1985 ISSN 0013-8916 



THE 



ENTOMOLOG 
RECORD 




AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Edited by J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT, f.r.e.s. 
w/r// the assistance of 
A. A. Allen, b.sc, a.r.c.s. P. J. Chandler, b.sc, f.r.e.s. 

Neville Birkett. m.a., m.b. C. A. Collingwood, b.sc. f.r.e.s. 

S. N. A. Jacobs, f.r.e.s. J. Heath, f.r.e.s., f.l.s. 

J. D. Bradley, ph.d., f.r.e.s. E. S. Bradford 

Lieut. Col. A. M. Emmet, m.b.e., t.d.. f.r.e.s. 

P. A. SoKOLOFF. M.sc. M.LBiOL., F.R.E.S. (Registrar) 

C. J. Luckens, M.B., ch.b., d.r.c.o.g. 









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5.'. 



C °1 







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ANEW LEPIDOCHR YSOPS H E DIC KE 1 

A NEW LEPIDOCHRYSOPS HEDICKE 

(LEP.: LYCAENIDAE) FROM THE SOUTH 

WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE 

By C. G.C.Dickson, M.sc* 

No. 60 

This interesting blue Lepiduchrysops was discovered by Dr. 
Jonathan B. Ball on the Kammanassie Mountains in the easterly 
portion of the South Western Cape Province, on 3rd February, 
1979. Later specimens were found on the same mountains by 
Mr. V. L. Pringle on 12th December, 1981. Up to that time males 
only had been secured. It was not until 14th November. 1982. that 
Messrs. V. L. and E. L. Pringle found a female, as well as further 
males, on these mountains. The butterfly is most closely related to 
Lepidochrysops braueri Dickson {Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 78 
(9): 189-192, PI. IX (1966)) and in the description which follows 
comparisons are made with this species. 

Lepidochrysops balli spec. nov. 

This insect is of moderate size for its genus, and of about the 
same size as L. braueri. The forewings of the male are a little, if 
noticeably, more "blunt" than in the latter taxon. 

Male. (Upperside). 

Ground-colour of all wings violaceous-blue and without the silvery tone 
which is characteristic of Z-. braueri. From specimens available for comparison, 
the broad, dark marginal bands are, on an average, slightly wider in balli than 
in braueri. From about two-thirds upwards, the marginal band becomes com- 
paratively sharply curved along its inner edge, in the hindwing, owing to the 
band conforming roughly with the wing-outline, which in balli is different 
from that of braueri through the upper angle of the wing being more promi- 
nent; whereas in braueri the curvature at this point is much more even, in- 
fluencing that of the band itself. The light bluish "surround" to the black 
spot near the margin in area 2, and the other submarginal "rings" or partly 
lunula markings are, in general, rather less prominent in balli than in braueri; 
while the more proximal portion of the inner-marginal concavity is not nearly 
as noticeably lightened in the former taxon. The light submarginal marking, 
of modified shape, in area 7 is, in balli, less distinct or may often be barely 
apparent. 

Underside. 

As a whole close to that of braueri, with the most divergent characters 
being, sometimes, individually very close, or similar, to each other in speci- 
mens of either taxon. When the combined features have, however, been taken 
into account no examples of either taxon have been found to agree fully with 
one another on the underside. Characters which predominate in balli in com- 
parison with the corresponding ones in braueri are noted hereunder. 

In balli there is normally a more pronounced double (opposed) curvature 
of the transverse series of markings in the forewing and the sub-marginal white 
"rings" are less round in form, and generally narrower than in braueri. In the 
specimens examined, none (with an exception which is noted later) have 
shown the occasional rather extreme widening of the above spots which has 
*"Blencathra"', Cambridge Avenue, St. Michael's Estate, Cape Town. 



2 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD. VOL.97 15.ii.85 

been present in braueri. In the hindwing the white sagittate markings forming 
a transverse series are, in balli, normally more clear-cut and sharper than in 
braueri, in which these markings quite often coalesce noticeably and produce 
a blurred effect. 

Length of forewing: 16.5-17.5 mm. (the latter measurement, in holo- 
type). An abnormally small specimen has a wing-measurement of only 14.5 mm. 

Female. 

As in the case of so many Lepidochrysops species the forewings are 
rather more rounded than are those of the male. There is much encroachment 
of black or blackish marking into the violaceous-blue areas of the upperside, 
and the latter are less strongly violaceous than in the male. 

Upperside. 

In the forewing a very broad costal border which becomes increasingly 
broad distally is contluent with the broad distal border, with the black mar- 
king extending down to vein 4 before the juncture with the distal border. 
The discocellular marking is much widened, being roughly quadrate, and is 
confluent with the costal border. The lowest component of a post-median 
series of three black markings, within the violaceous-blue area, occurs in area 
lb and is decidedly elongated; that in 2 is smaller and approximately oval; 
and the one in 3 is smaller still and more round in form. The inner-marginal 
area below vein la is partly dark-scaled, solidly so near the wing-base and for 
a fair distance before the distal margin. There is a very fine white edging to the 
costal margin. 

In the hindwing a very broad costal border extends down to vein 6 and 
is confluent with the distal border, which is even wider than in the male 
and with the pale blue to whitish rings therein larger and more prominent than 
in the male - and the black spot enclosed by the ring, in area 2, very con- 
spicuous. The dark discocellular marking is well developed and is distinctly 
lunular in form. An irregularly elongated dark streak extends distad from the 
discocellular marking and about half-way through the adjacent violaceous- 
blue field, the outer portion of the streak representing one of the spots of the 
(incomplete) discal series. The lowest marking of the series is discernible 
(in the right-hand wing mainly, in the allotype) in area Ic and the uppermost 
one, which coalesces with the dark costal border, is apparent in area 5. Dark 
scaling which occurs over the veins is, in all wings, heavier than in the male. 

Underside. 

All wings as in the male. 

Length of forewing: 17.25 mm. (allotype only). 

The body and ancillary parts, in both sexes, closely resemble those of 
braueri. With respect to the head, the numerous densely-set hairs on the frons 
are predominantly black (sometimes almost entirely black) in Z)fl///; but, in all 
specimens of braueri which have been examined, a high proportion of the hairs 
have been light-coloured, although bordered at least partially, on each side, by 
black hairs. 

It may be noted that in the case of certain other closely related Lepi- 
dochrysops species there is not necessarily a consistently marked difference 
in the underside characters. In a few allied species the undersides are almost 
identical. 

6 Holotype, SOUTH WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE: Kam- 
manassie Mountains (at approx. 4,900 ft. above sea-level), 3.II.1979 
(Dr. J. B. Ball). Dr. Ball has wished to present the male holotype 
to the Transvaal Museum. 

9 Allotype, S. W. CAPE PROVINCE: Kammanassie Mountains, 
14.XI.1982 (E. L. Pringle); British Museum Reg. No. Rh. 18709 

Paratype in author's collection : data as for holotype, one 6 . 

Paratypes in Coll. Dr. J. B. Ball: as holotype, three .^e . 



A NEW LEPIDOCHR YSOPS H EDICKE 3 

Paratype in Coll. British Museum (Nat. Hist.) : as holotype, 
one rf ; British Museum Reg. No. Rh. 18710. 

Paratypes in Coll. V. L. and E. L. Pringle : data as for holotype, 
12.XII.1981, three o^o^ (V. L. Pringle); 14.XI.1982, one c? (E. L. 
Pringle). 

In one male paratype, collected by Dr. Ball, the dark white- 
edged spots of the main transverse series on the forewing underside 
are, mostly, unusually elongated and nearly all the corresponding 
markings of the same series on the hindwing underside are also 
noticeably elongated, as is the dark spot in the cell. (This pheno- 
menon does occur at times in many of the species of Lepidochry- 
sops.) 

One of the male paratypes which was caught by Mr. E. L. 
Pringle, on 14th November, 1982, was a very aberrant specimen. The 
forewing upperside black or blackish border averages as much as a 
full 3.25 mm. in width. The discocellular marking of the same wing 
is much larger than normal and there is a postmedian series of black 
markings of an elongated form in areas lb - 5, with coalescence with 
the distal border in area lb. In the hindwing the black discocellular 
marking is broadened, though considerably less so than in the fore- 
wing; and elongated marking, less prominent on the whole than in 
the forewing, occurs midway across the wing in areas Ic - 5, with 
that in Ic and 2 far less distinct than that in the other areas con- 
cerned. On the underside, part of the dark discal marking tends, 
perhaps, to be slightly more elongated than in the average specimen. 

As regards the male genitalia, the aedeagiis and the valves of one paratype 
were compared with those of a single example of L. braueri from the type- 
locality -the one of which these organs were figured, with the original description 
{pp. cit.). The butterflies themselves were of virtually the same size, but both 
the aedeagus and the valves were distinctly smaller, in the case of balli. The 
aedeagiis of balli had its main proximal portion of approximately twice the 
length of the distal portion, and as in braueri as regards these proportions 
themselves. In the case of the former species the dorsal margin of the lateral 
plates was markedly concave (with a downward dip) for a considerable dis- 
tance before the small "step" preceding the rather acute extremity - as 
against an almost straight fall, dorsally, to the same point in braueri. (There 
was some slight pressure in the original mount.) 

The proximal portion of the aedeagus was, in balli, relatively straight, and 
thickest at about one-third of the distance from its base; while the same 
portion in braueri was decidedly arched, and noticeably reduced in diameter 
for approximately half the distance from the base. The "lateral flanges" (using 
Cottrell's term) at the basal end of the aedeagus appeared to be very similar in 
each of the species concerned. It may be stated that the concavity, dorsally, in 
the lateral plates of the aedeagus of balli occurred less abruptly than in the 
case of Lep. pringlei Dickson (Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 94, Nos. 11-12: 
222-224 (1982)); and other differences, too, were present in the actual ma- 
terial compared. 

In the valve of balli there was a small but definite decrease in width in a 
distal direction (the reverse occurring in the valve of braueri which was figured) 
and, to use Cottrell's term, a well-defined "callous" just before the hooked 
extremity (not present in the valve of braueri). It must, however, be noted 



4 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

that inconsistencies do occur in the valves of many of the Lepidochrysops 
species, individually, and that the above differences in the valves of the taxa 
in question might be found not to be constant in character. Although it is 
realised that some of the other components of the male genitalia, not con- 
sidered herein, may be of taxonomic value in certain species of Lepido- 
chrysops, special attention has been drawn above to the aedeagi and the lateral 
plates in particular because of useful characters perhaps more frequently, 
being found therein. 

Dr. Ball has commented on the species as follows: — 
"This is a very restless and energetic Lycaenid which I have 
found very infrequently on numerous trips to the Kammanassie 
Mountain range." 

"It has been seen by myself only within approximately 1,500 ft. 
of the summits of the range. No females were observed and the very 
steep mountainsides combined with thick vegetation make capture 
of the insect very difficult." (Specimens, including a female, were 
nevertheless found subsequently, by Messrs. V. L. and E. L. Pringle, 
at a height of about 4,000 ft. and thus further below the summit 
of these mountains (altitude about 6,540 feet above^ sea-level)). 

Very grateful thanks are due to Mr. E. L. Pringle for his most 
generous presentation of the only female specimen known to date. 

Finally, it should be stated that Professor C. B. Cottrell was 
apparently the first one to try the Kammanassie Mountains for 
butterflies, in December, 1969. Others who have followed in his 
steps have continued to increase our knowledge of the species of this 
remarkably productive range. 

Description of the female of Lepidochrysops phuglei Dickson: 

A final note. 
When the male of this species was described by the present 
writer {Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 94 (11-12) : 222-224 (1982) ; 
95 (1-2): PI. I, figs. 1,7 (1983)) the description of the female was 
left in abeyance until this sex became available. The situation was 
remedied when Mr. E. L. Pringle caught two females in the type- 
locality in November, 1982, both of them unfortunately imper- 
fect but one in sufficiently good condition to serve satisfactorily as 
the neallotype female of this species. The description follows here- 
under. 

Lepidochrysops pringlei female. 
Upperside. 

The ground-colour of all wings is of a very rich, shiny violaceous-blue, 
of a decidedly more violaceous tone than in the male, but with this colouring 
restricted by the very broad distal and costal black borders. The general 
pattern is similar to that of females of L. oreas oreas Tite, 1964, which can 
vary in detail in individual specimens, particularly with respect to the degree 
of development of the black discal spotting of the forewing - this being rather 
small, in fact, in the representative of the pyresent taxon. In this specimen, 
the black distal borders, especially in the hindwing, are broader than in many 
if not all examples of oreas oreas; while the postmedian sagittate marking, of 
a lighter violaceous-blue than the ground-colour, is particularly clear. The 
ground-colour itself is richer in tone than is usual in females of oreas oreas. 



ANEW LEPIDOCHR YSOPS H EDICKE 5 

Underside. 

All characters are much as in the male of L. prmglei. In the forewing the 
dark discal series is more remote from the folhving white, pointed martcing 
than in oreas areas, and in the hindwing the submarginal annular marking 
in areas Ic - 5 is more pointed proximally than in oreas oreas (the component 
of this series in area lb, in oreas oreas itself, is however well pointed). If not 
specially mentioned in the original description, the above two characters 
apply pretty well to the male, also, of/., pringlei. 

Length of forewing: 18.5 mm. (one specimen only). 

Neallotype female, SOUTH WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE: 
Toverwater, 13.XI.1982 (E. L. Pringle). 

A comparison with the nominate race, itself, of L. oreas has 
been considered sufficient for the present purpose. 

The writer is exceedingly grateful to Mr. E. L. Pringle for the 
very kind gift of the hard-won female specimen of the present 
species. 

Both sexes were encountered at a height of 4.860 ft. above sea- 
level, which is the altitude of the eastern extremity of the Groot 
Zwartbergen in this area. 

Just before this paper was submitted for publication, Mr. 
E. L. Pringle informed the writer that he had caught more specimens 
of Lepidochrysops balli on the Kammanassie Mountains and that 
several of the males resembled L. braiieri in the tone of the blue of 
the upperside. Some further investigation would seem desirable to 
endeavour to assess the significance of this fresh observation. It is 
known that occasional males of the two races of L. oreas do exhibit 
a lighter and more silvery -blue colouring than that of the normal, 
violaceous-blue, males of these taxa. 



Cyphon hilaris Nyholm (Col., Scirtidae) New to Surrey. 
— This scirtid was added to the British List formally by the late 
D. K. Kevan in 1963 [Entomologist's mon. Mag., 98 (1962): 114- 
121) who pointed out that Nyholm had been aware of its presence 
in this country back in 1955. My only specimen was swept from 
heather at Horsell Common (TQ0060) on 29.viii.82 in one of the 
more boggy spots of the heath. At the time I was unsure of its 
identity but have since checked it with material at the British 
Museum, wherein 1 discovered two more from Surrey — one from 
Esher 18.vi.l865 and another from Wimbledon, 6.vii.l867 (both 
J. A. Power). Kevan {loc. cit.) gives only two southern locahties, 
namely the New Forest and Charmouth. 

I should like to point out that it is advisable to heed his cau- 
tionary note on the variability of the 'slightly sinuate hind margin 
of the thorax behind the posterior angles' on p. 120 when using the 
provided key to distinguish this species from the closely allied 
ochraceus Stephens. My thanks go to the staff of the Coleoptera 
section, BM(NH) for facilities afforded. - D. A. PRANCE, 23 
Brunswick Road, Kingston Hill, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey. 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

A NEW FORM OF THE COMMON PIERID 
BUTTERFLY COLIAS ELECTO ELECTO (L.) 



By D. M. KROON, MB., Ch.B.* 
Colias electa electa, 6 form elysium ab. nov. 

This striking, beautiful colour variant of what is essentially a 
widespread and common butterfly, was collected along the banks 
of the Vaal River, near Sasolburg, during a major emergence of the 
nominate butterfly. This emergence had been preceded by a severe 
and prolonged drouglit. Another aberration, erema Vari, 1976, also 
a male, resembles this butterfly up to a point, but is virtually a plain 
melanic. The main feature of the present insect is a broad violaceous 
coloration extending outwards from the base of the upperside of 
both wings for about two-thirds of the wings' expanse. The outer- 
third is a fuscous-brown. The bright sulphurous androconial patches 
on the upperside of the hindwings contrast strongly with the ab- 
normal coloration of the specimen. The underside also differs in 
appearance from that of normal specimens. The main portion of the 
forewings is fuscous coloured, from the bases; and there is a narrow 
costal border of dull yellow, and a broad apical and subapical 
area of the same colour, which also constitutes the entire ground- 
colour of the underside of the hindwings. Length of forewing: 
21mm. The butterfly will be presented to the Transvaal Museum. 

Holotype: Vaal River, Sasolburg, O.F.S., South Africa, 9.10.83. 
D. M. Kroon (Transvaal Museum Reg. No. 1072). 

I would like to acknowledge with gratitude the kindness shown 
by Mr. C. G. Dickson, who generously insisted that this specimen 
be figured on a coloured plate together with other material he has 
dealt with (see Plate I, figs. 5, 6). 

*P.0. Box 572, Sasolburg, O. F. S., South Africa 9870. 



Synanthedon anthraciniformis Esp.: Orange-tailed 
Clearwing in Bedfordshire. - In June 1984, I success- 
fully reared three specimens of S. anthracinifarmis from sections of 
the Wayfaring Tree gathered in South Bedfordshire during the 
previous winter. Four large parasitic wasps, which are yet to be 
identified were also reared. These clearwings are apparently the 
first authenticated Bedfordshire specimens for nearly 80 years. 
- K. F. WEBB, 2 Kingsdown Avenue, Luton, Beds LU2 7BU. 

Correction. — In my review of Cleevely's World Palaean- 
tological Callectiom {Ent. Rec, 96: 292, line 28), for ". . . relates 
to fossil insects," read: ". . . relates to collections of fossil insects,". — 
J.M.C.-H. 



MYTHIMNA LOREYI DUP.: THE COSMOPOLITAN 7 

MYTHIMNA Z.6>/?£}7 DUPONCHEL : 

THE COSMOPOLITAN (LEP.: NOCTUIDAE) 

IN DERBYSHIRE AND A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF 

ITS BREEDING IN CAPTIVITY 

By John Culpin* 

A single female specimen of this relatively rare migrant was 
taken by me in my garden m.v. trap at Glapwell, North-east Derby- 
shire, on the night of 9th/ 10th September 1983. Of the twenty 
other species of moth in the trap that night, the only one of note 
was a single Phisia festucae L. 

Next day I enlisted the help of Mr. Brian Elliott, and we fed the 
moth on honey and water and transferred her to a small plastic 
box covered with netting and containing dry cocksfoot heads. 
On the 14th September, some shiny secretion sealing the cut end 
of a cocksfoot head was accidentally noticed, and on splitting the 
end of this stem, a long row of eggs was revealed, reaching 12 mm. 
down into the hollow stem. After this discovery, more small, dry, 
hollow grass stems were introduced and these were again utilised 
by the moth as laying sites. The egg is pale green, and owing pre- 
sumably to the pressure exerted within the hollow stem during 
oviposition, a number of these were flattened and misshapen as was 
noted in Bretherton et al. (1979). The eggs were kept at 70OF and 
the first larvae appeared on 20th September. 

The dull, light brown larvae fed on a variety of grasses, and 
accepted all species offered. They were voracious feeders and ex- 
tremely photophobic, and by the 5th October were already half 
grown. Full growth and preparation for pupation began on 16th 
October. The larva has been well described (Haggett, 1980). 

The first moth emerged on 4th November 1983, and in all 
some 200 insects were bred. A single pairing was obtained by Mr. 
Brian Statham, but the resulting eggs were infertile. 

Final instar larvae were photographed by the author and Mr. 
Jim Porter. The original female — somewhat worse for wear — was 
exhibited at the Annual Exhibition of the British Entomological 
and Natural History Society in October 1983, and a bred series at 
the Annual Exhibition of the Derbyshire Entomological Society in 
November that year. After having first had the apex of the left 
forewing clipped, surplus adults were released. 

My thanks are due to Messrs. B. Statham, J. Porter and B. 
Elliott for their help, and especially to the latter for his assistance in 
the preparation of this account. 



= 26 Back Lane, GlapweU, Chesterfield, Derbyshire. 



8 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RFCORD. VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

References 

Bretherton, R. F. et al. 1979. In: The Moths and Butterflies of 
Great Britain and Ireland. Ed. by Heath, J. and Emmet, A. M. 
Vol. 9, p. 272. 

Haggett, G. M. 1980. Larvae of the British Lepidoptera Not Figured 
by Buckler. /Voc. Trans. Brit. ent. not. Hist. Soc, 13 : 95. 

Myers, A. A. 1975. Temporary residence of Mythimna loreyi (Du- 
ponchel) in S. W. Ireland with a note on the occurrence of other 
migratory lepidoptera. Ent. Rec. J. Var.. 87: 302. 



CHOROSOMA SCHILLINGI (SCHUMMEL) (HEM.: RHOPALIDAE) 
IN West Cumbria. - I took one specimen of this unusual 
looking bug by sweeping along the edge of a large stand of Rosebay 
Willowherb in a dune slack on the Eskmeals Dunes Nature Reserve, 
(SD08.94), Cumbria, on 4th August, 1984. Despite further sweep- 
ing and searching in the immediate area this was the only specimen 
found. 

According to Southwood & Leston (1959, Land and water bugs 
of the British Isles, London) C. schillingi is restricted mainly to coas- 
tal sand-dunes, and has been recorded from Norfolk, Pembroke 
and Anglesey, but apart from this it seems to be almost unknown 
from the north of Britain. 

This would appear to be the first record of the bug from West 
Cumbria and it establishes a new record of vice county 70, Cumber- 
land. There is no local material of C. schillingi among the five spei- 
mens in the F. H. Day collection of Heteroptera held in the Tullie 
House Museum in Carlisle, and the individuals are from Anglesey 
and Great Yarmouth, but two are from Deal, and were collected 
by E. C. Bedwell and bear the date 22.ix.23. 

In an interesting note Mr. Peter Kirby, {Entomologist's mon. 
Mag., 120 : 177) records the species from two inland sites in England, 
Canterbury, Kent and Rauceby Warren in Lincolnshire; and this 
latter record extends the northern range of the species on the 
eastern side of Britain. 

Among some other interesting and local species of Hetero- 
ptera which I collected on the reserve during the summer of 1984 
were, Nedes tipularius (L.), Gampsocoris punctipes and Agramma 
laeta, all by sweeping in the dune slacks, and Heterotoma merioptera 
occurred in small numbers on Bittersweet growing near to some 
Sea Buckthorn bushes. 

I acknowledge the kind permission of the Cumbria Trust for 
Nature Conservation for allowing me to collect on the Eskmeals 
Reserve, and I also wish to thank Mr. David Clarke, curator of the 
Tullie House Museum for kindly allowing me to examine the F. H. 
Day collection. - R. W. J. Read, 43 Holly Terrace, Hensingham, 
Whitehaven, Cumbria, CA28 8RF. 



WATCHMAKER'S EYEGLASS 9 

THE WATCHMAKER'S EYEGLASS 

By Charles F. Cowan * 

In olden days watchmakers often plied their skills seated in 
small shop windows, advertising their craft to passers-by. They 
always wore a black eyeglass in one eye, causing me, as a very 
small boy, endless fascination. As a slightly larger lad with a nor- 
mally inquisitive mind, I had accumulated several watches which 
had successively "died". Convinced that I needed an eyeglass, I 
summoned up courage one day and asked how to obtain one. 
The man turned slowly round, dropped his optic, and gave me to 
understand that they were not for small boys but, as we would now 
say, were available to the trade only. Abashed, I suppressed but 
did not abandon my ambition. 

My first Army posting was to Bangalore in South India, where I 
arrived on 3.iii.33. Within a year I had found that eyeglasses were 
easily obtained there, and quite cheap, so I had one at last. Having 
by now resumed my main hobby, collecting butterflies, for which 
I had been using a normal pocket lens, I quickly found that my 
new toy was much more handy. Thus, when I moved to Singapore 
on 16.viii.36, I used it exclusively, to the considerable amusement 
of colleagues. 

Returning to England in early 1939, I had the good fortune to 
be introduced to the British Museum (Natural History), where I met, 
among other former correspondents. Brigadier W. H. Evans. He 
alone evinced any interest in my eyeglass. I lent it to him and he 
returned it a few days later having bought his own, which he there- 
after used continually. 

My next visit to the B.M.(N.H.) was in 1947, when I was in- 
trigued to see several watchmakers' eyeglasses in use by entomolo- 
gists, and I have since noted them in other departments. They are 
now quite readily available from opticians. 

I have recently found another use for them. Four years ago I 
had a cataract operation on my right eye, requiring the wearing of 
a "hard" contact lens which has to be removed for washing and 
soaking overnight. Then my left eye deteriorated and that also 
has had to be operated on. So for the past 2 years I have had the 
nightly problem of handling this minute lens while almost sightless. 
From my collection of eyeglasses varying in power from x3 to x6, 
the lowest powered proves an ideal solution. Immediately on 
removal of my contact lens I substitute the eyeglass for the critical 
three or four minutes while I wash it and put it away. Then I grope 
my way to bed, with a pocket lens handy in case I wish to see the 
time. 

*4 Thornfield Terrace, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria, LAll 7DR. 



10 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

BUTTERFLIES FROM THE GREEK ISLAND 
OF ANDROS, END JUNE, 1983. 

JOHNG.COUTSIS* 

The island of Andros is situated in the Aegean sea, at approxi- 
mately 38° of latitude north and is the northernmost of the Cyclades 
islands. It is located between the island of Evvia and the island of 
linos. The former lies to its north-west and is separated from it 
by a distance of about six nautical miles, while the latter lies to its 
south-east and is separated from it by a distance of about .6 nautical 
miles. Evvia is a large land mass and its closest distance from the 
mainland is less than 100 metres, a fact that rather diminishes its 
insular properties. Tinos, on the other hand, is typical of most 
Cycladic islands, being arid, well separated from the mainland 
and possessing a relatively small land mass. 

The area of Andros is about 390 square kilometres, its length 
39.5 kms and its greatest width 16 kms. 

The island is generally hilly and mountainous (highest peak 
1003m). The hills and mountains are separated by well watered 
gulleys and valleys. 

The vegetation consists mainly of garrigue, tending toward 
maquis in well watered situations. In higher places, where the 
water is more extensive, there still exist what appear to be remnants 
of Mediterranean mixed deciduous forest, which at present is much 
admixed with maquis and cultivations. The watered valleys are 
characterized by rather extensive cultivations (Orchards, olive 
groves, vineyards, cereals, etc). 

During a good part of the warm season the island is severely 
affected by strong north-east winds, known as "meltemia", and 
these, no doubt, play an important part in the island's faunal com- 
position. 

Collecting on Andros took place between 26th and 29th June 
1983 and the following sites were visited: — 

1. Fellos. This locality, situated in the north-west of Andros, 
is characterized by a narrow and fairly well watered valley, flanked 
by rather dry hills with garrigue. The valley itself has olive trees, 
carobs, fig trees, chaste trees, oleanders and vineyards. 

2. VaUey near town of Gavrion. This locality is extensively 
cultivated, primarily with cereals, and is situated a few kms south- 
east from Fellos. 

3. Coastal area near village of Varidhi. This locality, in north- 
east Andros, consists of a well watered gulley, surrounded by dry 
hills. The bottom of the gulley has plane trees, oleanders and a great 
profusion of chaste trees. The surrounding hills are mainly covered 
with garrigue. 

*4 Glykonos Street, Athens, 1 0675 , Greece. 



BUTTLRI LIES FROM THE GREEK ISLAND OF ANDROS 11 

4. Near village of Katakilos. This is a hilly place with olive 
trees, vineyards, carobs and occasional plane trees, oleanders and 
chaste trees near water courses. The locality is situated in the centre 
of the island. 

5. Arni. This is a well watered locality situated at between 
600 and 750m., on the western side of Mt. Petalo, at the very 
centre of Andros. Here are to be found dense clusters of plane trees, 
at least two species of oak, chestnut trees, arbutus trees and great 
concentrations of ferns. A most uncharacteristic biotope for a 
Cycladic island. 

A list of recorded butterfly species follows. 

Papilionidae 

1. Papilio niachaon Linnaeus. A few observed near Gavrion, 
one captured near Katakilos. 

2. Iphiclides podalirius Linnaeus. A few observed near Gavrion. 

Pieridae 

3. Pieris brassicae Linnaeus. A few recorded at Fellos and 
near Gavrion. 

4. Pontia daplidice Linnaeus. One captured at Fellos and a fair 
number observed near Gavrion and at Arni. 

5. Gonepteryx cleopatra Linnaeus. Several captured at Arni, 
neat Katakilos and near Varidhi. All females recorded of the whitish 
upperside morph. 

6. Leptidea sinapis Linnaeus. A single fresh male captured at 
Arni. No others observed. 

Nymphalidae 

7. Vanessa cardui Linnaeus. Generally recorded, but not 
numerous. 

8. Argynnis paphia Linnaeus. Common at Arni. A number 
of males captured, mostly worn. This butterfly seems well estab- 
lished there, but its discovery was rather unexpected, as it is a 
denizen of lusher situations. In Arni it probably represents an iso- 
lated population that somehow found its way there either from the 
mainland, or from the island of Ewia. 

Satyridae 

9. Hipparchia aristaeus Bonelli. Confirmed by the genitalia. 
Captured at Arni, near Katakilos and near Varidhi. Mostly taking 
to the shaded trunks of plane trees and olive trees. 

10. Maniola jurtina Linnaeus. A few recorded at Fellos, many 
captured at Arni, under the shade of plane trees. Confirmed by 
genitaha. 

11. Lasiommata megera Linnaeus. Generally distributed, but 
nowhere numerous. 

12. Pararge aegeria Linnaeus. A fair number captured at Arni 
in moist situations. 



12 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD. VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

Lycaenidae 

13. Lvcaena phlaeas Linnaeus. Generally distributed and 
common. Very numerous at Arni. 

14. Polyommatus Icarus Rottemburg. A fair number captured 
at Fellos, always associated with a species of vetch. 

Hesperiidae 

15. Carcharodus alceae Esper. A small number captured at Arni 
and at Fellos. 

16. Carcharodus orientalis Reverdin. A small number of males 
captured at Fellos. Confirmed by the genitalia. 

17. Thynielicus acteon Rottemburg. Generally distributed and 
not uncominon. 

Of all the species recorded, undoubtedly the most remarkable 
one is Argynnis papliia, a butterfly which somehow managed to 
establish itself and survive on Andros. I don't believe this species 
has ever been reported from any of the other Cycladic islands. 

References 

Coutsis, J. G., 1976. Spring Butterflies on the island of Skyros, 
Greece. Entorfiologist's Rec, 88: 33-37. 

Coutsis, J. G., 1978. Spring Butterflies on the Greek island of 
Sifnos. Entomologist 's Rec, 90: 300-301 . 

Coutsis, J. G., 1981. Spring Butterflies on the Greek islands 
of Paros and Siphnos. Entomologist's Rec, 93: 154-156. 

Polunin, O., 1980. Flowers of Greece and the Balkans. Oxford 
University Press, Oxford. 

LiTHOSIA QUADRA L.: FOUR-SPOTTED FOOTMAN AND ElLEMA 

coMPLANA L.: Scarce Footman, in South Westmorland (VC 
69) IN 1984. - Fifteen Lithosia quadra in fourni^ts: July 
28-29th (three), 29-30th (two), July 31st-Aug. 1st. (nine), Aug. 
1st. -2nd (one), appears to be the biggest migration of this species, so 
far north, as recorded on the distribution map in Heath, Moths & 
butterflies of Gt. Britain & Ireland. All were males in immaculate 
condition, and only two entered the M.V. trap which I operate every 
night, close to the white walls of my house, which act as a sheet. 
During this short period, 221 Eilema lurideola were counted, the 
normal average here. In the early hours of Aug. 2nd. before switch- 
ing the M.V. light off, with a minimum night temperature of 13c. and 
rain falling, the walls were plastered with moths, and among them 
were numerous Footmen, one with folded wings, which I instantly 
recognised as a species I have been on the lookout for, during the 
seventeen years here, Eilema complana or perhaps E. sericea Gregson. 
Comparing it with my complana specimens taken in Hampshire, it 
was identical in every detail with these. This species has been re- 
corded before in V.C. 69, but is at about its northern limit. - J. 
Briggs, 5 Deepdale Close, Beetham. Cumbria LA7 7AY. 



reminisci;nci:s of an elderly entomologist i3 

REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 

By R.P. Demuth* 

(Continued from Vol. 96 p.272) 

In the autumn of 1929 I started working in London, living in 
digs in Holland Park and I did not like it at all. No car meant very 
restricted collecting and miles of built-up suburbs in every direction 
but I got over it with my bicycle. On Friday morning I would 
bicycle to the office in the City and in the evening put it on a train 
and I would be in time for sugaring at Wicken or Castor Hanglands 
(for oo) or Bedford Purlieus (for concolor). If my destination was 
only thirty miles away 1 would bicycle all the way and thank God 
when 1 got beyond the tramlines. All roads out south of the Thames 
had trams for miles out to the outer suburbs and these trams had no 
overhead wires but collected their electricty through a slot in the 
road between the lines and this slot neatly fitted a bicycle tyre and 
off one came, killing bottle, chip boxes, treacle and all! 

On June 6 (1930) I was luckier as I met Kettlewell with his car 
at Bath and we drove together to Branscombe near Seaton in South 
Devon. The drive alone in an open Lagonda was in itself a thrill 
which the modern generation, used to going everywhere by car, 
has no conception of. Theundercliff at Branscombe has also changed 
completely. I understand that now it is a dense thicket of thorn and 
bramble but then it was cultivated in little fields growing violets, 
strawberries and new potatoes, each field separated by an evergreen 
hedge to keep the wind out. Very steep paths linked the fields to 
the top and donkeys with pannier baskets brought up the produce. 
It was a manmade sun trap and butterflies swarmed. June 7 was a 
marvellous fine day and Bernard and I made a list of the butterfly 
species we saw. Twenty -seven species in one day at one spot! Sinapis 
was the speciality and was abundant fluttering along the narrow 
donkey paths but was only in moderate condition. Bellargus was 
equally abundant, edusa and atalanta had arrived from abroad and 
the fritillaries were represented by euphrosyue, selene and auriuea. 
Muiima was also present and so were all the common southern 
butterflies that might be out at that time. 

On the Beer side of Branscombe the cliff is an outcrop of chalk 
and growing along its crest was a mixture of coarse grass and Not- 
tingham Catchfly and here we decided to dusk and caught albimacula 
and hellmanii (now Jluxa). Bernard had one of each in the net at 
the same time. I would have thought that the type of habitat and the 
emergence dates would have made this impossible. 

June 15 (1930). Very fine again and I went to Ventnor in the 
Isle of Wight. I found cinxia in just the places I imagined but most of 
*Watercombe House, Waterlane, Oakridge, Stroud, Glos. GL6 7PN. 



14 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

them were over or had been thumbed (i.e. some scales had been re- 
moved either to preserve them from collectors or by a variety 
searcher so that he need not catch the same insect twice). However 
I managed to catch a number of fresh ones. They look lovely when 
they are first out and sit about on birdsfoot trefoil with their wings 
half open and generally speaking are rather sluggish. Their favourite 
spots seem to be the sheltered lower slopes of the undercliff often 
only just above the sea. I walked all the way from Ventnor nearly 
to St. Catherines but they ware commonest nearest Ventnor. In one 
or two places they swarmed. 

On June 21 I went to West Blean Wood hoping to find athalia 
but my diary says I was too early, anyhow I found none but I was 
sorry to see small pines being planted in the clearing. On June 27 I 
went to Kenmare in County Kerry and bicycled round the Kerry 
coast. Each diary entry begins the same way: 'Tt rained most of the 
day!" I got very wet and had few insects to show for my energy 
but how energetic one was when young and enthusiastic! At dawn 
July 7, I left Cahirdaniel on the extreme western tip of Kerry and 
by bicyle, train, boat and train reached Peterborough in the evening 
of the 8th, took a bus to Wansford and walked the three miles to 
Bedford Purlieus, sugared for extrema and then walked the three 
miles back to the Haycock Inn at Wansford. My diary says that after 
putting on a lot of sugar I was too tired to look at it properly and 
I only caught a few hellmanii (fluxa). 

1930 was the year I first went to the Broads. Barton Staithe 
is today in summer full of pleasure boats and people but then it 
was an isolated hamlet spreading up a green from the water where 
the reed cutters kept their quants (a sort of glorified punt) and these 
I could borrow for my night expeditions. A sheet laid on the bottom, 
a paraffin lamp on the sheet and one had a mobile moth trap to be 
poled very slowly up the narrow waterways between the reeds, 
reedmace and buUrush. On August 16, I was there with Kettlewell 
staying in one of the cottages but the weather was foul and we got 
very little except for haworthii and a few cannae pupae. On August 
24, I was there again. My diary reads "I went to a swampy field up 
Stalham way and found urticae in amazing numbers. Quite a few 
were feeding but hundreds were to be found merely by parting 
tufts of grass when they could be seen hiding at the roots." In the 
following years I paid more visits. Across the broad from Barton 
there was an area of sallow and alder carr which fringed the wet 
land. Others had discovered that sugaring the spindly trunks could, 
on suitable nights, produce great numbers of muscerda (500 on a 
single patch must have been an exaggeration!) but I too caught a 
lot. This was all rather fun, poling ones quant across the broad at 
dusk and up a little, narrow waterway to firmer ground and then 
pushing on into the almost impenetrable carr and reversing it in the 
dark on ones return and praying ones light would not go out. On one 



RFMINISCHNCES OI' AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 15 

night a thick mist blotted out everything which when I got into the 
open broad was no fun at all but with luck I came across a landmark 
and found my way back to the staithe. 

I have previously mentioned that I found ocellaris commonly in 
the Brecks and how this had annoyed the great ocellaris expert 
Worsley-Wood. I was coming back from the Broads by train and 
beyond Brandon I noticed groups of poplars in the hedgerows and 
thought of ocellaris and returned on September 20 to try my luck. 
Unfortunately it was very windy and a heavy shower ruined every- 
thing but the only moth on sugared leaves was an ocellaris . These 
poplars being in hedgrows were difficult to work so I cast about for 
easier trees and with the help of Mr. Mallinson the schoolmaster at 
Fordham found the magnificent row on the Barton Mills to Brandon 
road. These trees have all gone now but there were huge specimens, 
about twenty of them with clear working space aound them and 
plenty of low branches to sugar but best of all they dropped big 
branches and if these had their leaves still on, they were the finest 
lure and ocellaris was the commonest moth and I got enough for 
myself and all my friends and there was considerable variation. Like 
most autumn moths, ocellaris prefers its sugar to be spread on leaves 
and twigs. 

May 10 (1931). Kettlewell and I went to Ventnor. Citixia 
larvae were extremely abundant and full fed, crawling about all over 
the cliffs. We found one or two pupae in cocoons, in crevices in the 
rocks and also one puparium, a large silk cocoon about the size of a 
plover's egg containing two pupae and three larvae about to pupate; 
it was deep in the grass. (This does not seem to square with South's 
description of the pupal state.) 

May 23. I was visiting MuUion Cove in Cornwall. I found larvae 
of trifolii along the crest of the cliff. They were of various sizes up 
to last skin, and very easy to see and I found 28 in all. While search- 
ing for them I spotted a female livornica sitting low in the herbage. 
Lots of people have found the rarer hawkmoths either on window 
sills, lamp posts and other unnatural resting places. To look down 
into the long grass and see one resting naturally was a great thrill 
and I suspect a rare experience. 

May 29. Kettlewell and I went to Wye in Kent and sugared to 
the east of the Devil's Kneading Trough. There was hardly anything 
on sugar other than leucophaea of which I cauglit 28 including 3 
on grasses and 2 in flight. And now it is extinct in England! Was I 
one of the guilty parties? I suppose so. Some of my diary entries 
make me blush with shame. For instance next day's: "We went to 
some large woods near Ham Street. Fuciformis was very common 
over the flowers of bugle and we must have caught nearly 80 between 
us, also 4 tityus. They were ludicrously easy to catch and I only 
missed one. Euphrosyne and selene were both abundant and cardui 
very common too." This was my first visit to England's most distin- 



16 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL.97 15.ii.85 

guished wood and next weekend (June 5, 1931) I went to Dungeness 
without really realizing what a collector's treasure -ground it was. 
In those days the railway line from Lydd to the lighthouse was 
complete with the double line of fencing posts all the way and of 
course I soon found albunacula at rest on them. "^Cardui was 
abundant and at one spot I came across a vast quantity of trifolii 
larvae. They were about everywhere, on the posts and wire, on the 
shingle and eating all sorts of plants; broom, viper's bugloss. sorrell 
and foxglove." Next day's entry is again embarrassing: "I collected 
approximately 130 full fed trifolii larvae leaving ten times as many 
little ones." 

June 26. I took the evening train to Peterborough and then on 
by bus to Wansford and walked to Bedford Purlieus and got one 
extrenw on sugar, 4 in flight and one pair and one single at rest on 
its grass. Heavy dew prevented the dawn flight and I myself got 
back to Wansford at 4.30 in broad daylight having walked about 
20 miles since 8. Next night I was back again and this time there was 
a dawn flight. The flight started suddenly at 1.15 and continued 
right through till daylight. In between these two all night expe- 
ditions I seemed to have got to Warboys and found pruni flying in 
hundreds but very worn. They were flying about bushes of sloe, 
privet and maple and feeding on the privet blossom. 

July 7. I was staying at Rannoch on the way to Unst in the 
Shetland Isles. Having some energy to burn off I decided that 
collecting at high level on Schiehallion was the answer. "In the 
evening I went up Schiehallion. It was trying to rain but fairly warm. 
I sugared a row of posts at 2,000 feet and I then picked bunches of 
heather and stuck them into a wall which runs up to 2,800 feet and 
sugared them and lastly I sugared crowberry at about 3,000 feet. 
I was then above the clouds and saw a most marvellous sunset. 
As soon as the sun was down it began to rain steadily and washed 
all the sugar off the crowberry and I only saw three adusta on it. 
There were many more moths on the heather stuck into the wall, 
both adusta and rectilinea. The posts were quite good in spite of 
the rain and I took a large number of rectilinea and saw countless 
adusta though nothing else. I got back to the readjust in time as the 
whole place was swallowed up in mist by 2 o'clock in the morning." 
Sticking sugared branches of heather into cracks in a dry stone wall 
was a good idea as the moths could sit on the underside of the 
branches protected from the weather. 

July 9 (1931). I left Aberdeen for Lerwick this morning accom- 
panied by Pennington and Poore, both keen collectors but probably 
not as keen as I was. Pennington was a complete Edwardian and a 
long since extinct species. I suppose he was in his late fifties and was 
getting bald and with a big black spade beard. In fact he looked very 
much like Edward VII. His father had been Liberal M.P. for Guild- 
ford and Pennington, a bachelor, though he slept near Lancaster 



REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 17 

Gate, spent all day at the Reform Club where he was very difficult 
to dislodge. (I remember telephoning some exciting entomological 
news one evening. After a long wait a club servant replied "Mr. 
Pennington does not speak on the telephone during the dinner 
hour." so he never got the news!) When he collected he carried a 
large silver hip flask which contained a mixture of marsala and soda- 
water and the trouble was that Unst was dry. Unst had until recently 
been the centre of the herring fishery where herring were cleaned, 
salted and barrelled for the Polish trade. The fishing crews got so 
horribly drunk that it was decided to make the whole island dry. 
In 1931 all the crews had gone but the dryness remained and con- 
sequently a large case of mixed drinks had preceded Pennington to 
the Nord Hotel at Baltasound, the island capital. This was permitted 
for visitors but the locals were not so lucky. The steamer "The 
Earl of Zetland', the 'Old Earl" to avoid confusion with the modern 
boat, called twice at Unst and real drinking enthusiasts would 
bicycle down to the first port of call and as soon as the boat cast off 
the ship's bar would be open and they would drink steadily for half 
an hour until Baltasound was reached when they would push their 
bicycles unsteadily ashore. Luckily the Earl did not run daily! 

I think Poore then lived in Wiltshire where his family had an 
estate {chryson would fly into the house at night) and after his 
marriage, near Aberfeldy where he became an expert on the natural 
history of the Highlands and subsequently his son more so. 

No entomologist had visited Unst since 1912 but luckily Pen- 
nington knew Bright of Bright's Stores on the south coast and he, 
a very rich man, had employed professional collectors and we 
were lent their letters to Bright which detailed all they had found. 
Apparently Briglit paid them on a tariff of so much a particular 
insect and the letters were full of complaints about the going rate 
which I too thought very low: 3d each for x, 5d for y. 

We sailed from Aberdeen in the morning and reached Lerwick 
next morning early where we had breakfast and then boarded the 
Earl of Zetland. This was the 'Old Earl', almost on its last legs and a 
very smelly old tub but the journey was one of the finest I have 
ever taken. It was dead calm. We called at most of the out islands 
often to collect sheep and as we passed near cliffs thousands and 
thousands of birds would fly out so that the sky looked like a snow 
storm and as far as the eye could see rafts of guillemot, razorbill, 
puffin and duck sat on the oily sea while gannet, great and arctic 
skua flew overhead. 

My diary is worth reading as it quotes from Bright's letters. 

"July 10 (1931). I got to Unst this evening. This is the most 
northern place in the British Isles and is about 1 1 miles from north 
to south and 4 east to west. I am staying at the Nord Hotel at 
Baltasound which is very comfortable and roughly in the middle 
of the island." (Very soon after this the Nord Hotel closed down. 



18 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

Its most prominent feature was an enormous pyramid of empty 
spirit bottles, as high as the roof, left over from the drunken fisher- 
men. With no refuse collection what does one do with several 
thousand empty bottles). "There are no trees, bushes or hedges and 
the ground is either bare or covered with coarse grass or stunted 
heather. There is crowberry and bilberry on Herma, Ness and Saxa 
Vord and some maritime campion on the cliffs and on the shingle 
at Haroldswick. Humuli in extraordinary forms is on all the low 
ground. Iixulis was worked for by Cannon and Salvage who were 
sent over by Bright in 1908, 09 and 1912. They found it on the high 
ground west of Burra Firth between July 5 and August 5. There 
were two fences which crossed the peninsular here about a mile 
apart, one starting at Fiska Wick and the other to the south of it. 
They sugared both these every night and obtained up to 20 exulis a 
night but the average was about 4, one for every mile of sugared 
fence. They found wet nights best. The most southern of these two 
fences still exists (1931) but the grass has been cut away by peat 
diggers. The Fiska Wick fence is broken off about half-a-mile from 
the liglithouse shore station and then there is a new bit a mile long 
joining it to the southern fence. There is good grass here on the high 
ground." 

It is about seven miles by road from the Nord Hotel to Fiska 
Wick and we hired the only car to take us there and the driver would 
then wait until 1 am. In early July it did not get darker than deep 
twilight and it was possible to read at midnight. All night great 
quantities of kittiwake would fly back and forth between the cliffs 
and the freshwater Loch of Cliffe and the arctic skuas which nested 
on the exulis ground would viciously dive bomb the otherwise 
absorbed entomologist. This was no laughing matter as one skua 
cut a furrow in my already slightly balding head so that the blood 
ran down the back of my neck. The noise from the sea birds never 
ceased for one moment. The great seascape spread out to the north 
and the only sign of man (apart from the posts) was the flick of 
the lighthouse on the distant rock of Muckle Flugga. Some would 
think it was the most exciting collecting ground in Britain, others 
the most terrible. Arnold Hughes who came with me on a later 
expedition, after ten nights of the mist and the skuas and the peat 
hag and loneliness never collected again and took up photography as 
an alternative interest! 

First night. Nothing. 

Second night. I got three exulis on my sugar between 1.30 and 
2.30. The others did not wait and drove off in the car leaving me to 
walk back which I reduced to five miles by cutting across the hills. 
But what did I care! I had taken my first exulis. 

Third night. Fiendish weather. Nothing. 

Fourth night. Thick sea fog. Nothing. 

Fifth night. Foggier still. \ exulis (?oore). 



REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 19 

Sixth night. Mist started to drop at 10 pm but then Hfted again. 
4 e.xulis in all. Furva. 

Seventh night. A little bit better in the evening as the wind 
had changed to N. W. and there was no mist but it was cold. I took 4 
exiiUs 2indi furva. 

Eighth night. A very strong N. W. wind and it was bitterly cold. 
My hands were so numb I could hardly hold a net. Nothing. 

Return home. 

My diary reads "The most curious thing is the lateness of insects 
on sugar. We sugared at 1 1 pm and did the first round about 12.20 
am and the earliest exiiUs taken was at 1.10 am but this was excep- 
tional and it was rare to find one before 2.15 and one one occasion 
I got 2 at 2.45 when it was almost broad daylight. All the other 
insects were the same and conflua (J'estiva) was commonest on the 
posts from 2.30 to 3 am (when the sun was up)." 

Exulis is one of those insects (C tridens is another) which look 
so much better alive than set. They seem very big on sugar and stand 
out from everything else particularly because they have little iri- 
descent specks of gold and violet along the main veins of the fore- 
wing and these shine in the torchlight. Assimilis is a smaller and 
much duller creature. 

(To be continued) 

ARENOSTOLA PHRAGMITIDIS HB. (LEP.; NOCTUIDAE ) IN 
Somerset . — A flourishing colony of this moth was discovered 
in 1984 in a marshy locality on the Mendip Hills near Cheddar. 
This would seem to be an extension of range westward for this 
species, and the first confirmed record of its occurrence in Somerset, 
since Turner {Lepidoptera of Somerset , p. 15) includes it only on the 
basis of one record of many years ago which he considered very 
doubtful. - C. S. H. Blathwayt, Amalfi, 27 South Road, Weston- 
super-Mare, Somerset. 

LAMPROPTERYX OTREGIATA METC: METCALFE'S CARPET 
IN Derbyshire. - On the night of the 5th September 1984 
Archie Braddock of Long Eaton and I led a joint Derbyshire Ento- 
mological Society/Derbyshire Naturalists Trust field meeting to a 
wood just south of Ashbourne in Derbyshire. To our very great 
surprise we took a female Lampropteryx otregiata Mete. The site 
at which it was taken consists of an unmanaged piece of mixed 
woodland on heavy soil with a sluggish stream running through it, 
next to a grazing meadow which would appear to flood each winter. 

The occurrence of this species in a small piece of woodland in 
the middle of farming country and some 150 miles from the nearest 
known site for it, which must either be Borth Bog in Wales or the 
New Forest in Hampshire, suggests that it is much more widely 
distributed in this country than the previous pattern of records 
indicated. - Mark STERLING, Department of Law, University 
Park, Nottingham. 



20 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 



15.ii.85 

MONOCHROA NIPHOGNATHA GOZMANY, 1953 

AND A THRIPS RANCIDELLA HERRICH-SCHAEFFER, 

1854 (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE), 

NEW TO THE BRITISH FAUNA 



By J. M. Chalmers-Hunt* 
Monochroa niphognatha Gozmany 

While moth hunting with Mr. R. G. Chatelain in some ex- 
tensive fresh water marshes, at Stodmarsh National Nature Reserve, 
Kent, on the night of the 26th June 1984, two males of a gelechiid 
species of unfamiliar appearance were attracted between 10.30 
and 11.00 p.m. to the Tilley lamp I was carrying. During the same 
period, about a dozen examples of the very local reed-feeding 
Brachmia inornatella Douglas (Lep.: Gelechiidae) also appeared at 
the lamp, a species seemingly new to East Kent (VC15) and only 
once before noted in the county. 




Fig. 1 (top). Monochroa niphognatha, male, Stodmarsh, Kent, 26 June 
1984, al. exp. 13 mm. Fig. 2 (bottom). M. suffusella, male, Wicken Fen, 
Cambridgeshire, 9 June 1921, al. exp. 13mm. 



*1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent BR4 9LG. 



NIPHOGNATHA AND RANCIDELLA H.-S. 



21 



Examination of the two unidentified specimens on the return 
home revealed a marked similarity \o Monochroa suffusella Douglas, 
and on submitting them to Dr. Sattler (British Museum, Natural 
History), they were compared with the specimens of M suffusella in 
the Museum and with the single example there of M niphognatha. 
They appeared to conform to the latter, and examination of the 
genitalia confirmed they were in fact this new species to the British 
fauna, and so were exhibited as M. niphognatha at the meeting of 
the British Entomological and Natural History Society on the 
12th July 1984. Having informed a friend, Mr. Norman Heal, of my 
good fortune at Stodmarsh, he proceeded to the locality on the 
8th July, and there took a further two male niphognatha at liglit. 

A description of the imago follows: Alar expanse 12-13 mm. 
Head whitish-ochreous. Forewings whitish-ochreous, becoming 
fuscous apically; discocellular stigma dark fuscous; subcostal oblong 
fuscous stigmata at 1/6 and 1/3; an indistinct, fuscous mid-plical 
mark. Hindwings pale grey. NB. M. niphognatha lacks the charac- 
teristic costal spot present in M. suffusella (see figure 2). 




Fig. 3. Monochroa nipl-iognatha , male genitalia 



The species was first described from Hungary (Gozmany, 1953), 
since when it has been found in Sweden (Svensson, 1980) and 
Denmark - dates of capture, 27th June 1981, 18th June to 9th 
July 1982 (Buhl et al., 1981). The early stages are apparently 
unknown and its foodplant has yet to be discovered. However, 
in an interesting communication to me, Mr. I. Svensson (1984) 
writes: ^'Monochroa niphognatha seems to have had a good year in 
1984, or possibly it is because of increased collecting in suitable 
localities. It was discovered in two more Swedish provinces: Blekinge 
and Oland. Most specimens were collected coming to mercury lamps. 



22 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL.97 15.ii.85 

but in 1983 I swept two worn specimens on 26.7, probably also the 
latest date in Sweden. The localities are always moist meadows with 
scattered Salix, some Carex, Lysimachia vulgaris and Polygonum, 
probably amphibium. Most Swedish collectors think Lysimachia 
vulgaris is the food-plant, but Polygommi could be considered. The 
two swept specimens were hiding in Polygonum stands". 

In the order of classification M. uiphognatha should be placed 
between M. hornigi Stdgr. and M. suffusella in Bradley, Fletcher & 
Hall-Smith (1979-83), and numbered 740a accordingly. 

Athrips rancidella H.-S. 

Since the 7th July 1971, I have collected over the years from 
my garden m.v. light trap at West Wickham, a number of specimens 
of a gelechiid that have remained unidentified until recently. These 
I submitted to Mr. E. S. Bradford, who was unable to identify them 
with any known British species. They were then shown to Dr. Sattler 
who recognised them as being referable to Athrips rancidella H.-S., a 
species new to the British list. The moth may have a fairly long 
period of emergence, since the earliest date of occurrence of my 
specimens is the 3rd June (1975), and the latest the 14th August 
(1984). 




Fig. 4 (top). Athrips rancidella. male, West Wickham, Kent, 7-19 July 
1971, al. exp. 14mm. Fig. 5 (bottom). A. rancidella, female, same data, al. 
exp. 13mm. 



NlPHOGNAl HA AND RANCIDF. LLA H.-S. 



23 



A description of the imago after Busctc (1934) is as follows; 
Alar expanse 12-14 mm. Labial palpi dark fuscous, flecked with 
ochreous, especially on inner surfaces and on terminal joint. Anten- 
nae blackish fuscous with narrow light ochreous annulations. Face 
light fuscous mixed with ochreous. Head and thorax dark fuscous 
with each scale narrowly tipped with ochreous. Forewings uni- 
formly dark fuscous, mixed with silvery white; each scale dark 
with base and extreme tip silvery; no other markings; cilia con- 
colorous. Hindwings dark fuscous, a shade lighter than the forewings; 
cilia grey. Legs dark fuscous, tarsi with narrow ochreous annulations. 




Fig. 6 Athrips rancidella, genitalia. Male (left), female (right). 



Abroad the species is local in central and southern Europe 
(where its foodplants are stated to be Pruniis spinosa and Crataegus 
monogyna), its range extending thence to Turkmeniya in Asiatic 
U.S.S.R. It is also recorded from Oregon, U.S.A., where it was 
bred from Cotoneaster horizontalis . Note: A Cotoneastcr in my 
garden shows much evidence of larval feeding, the work I suspect 
of A. rancidella. However, I hope shortly to be able to confirm this 
and to report my findings in the pages of this journal. 



24 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

A. rancidella should be placed between A. tetrapunctella Thunb. 
and A. mouffetella L. in Bradley, Fletcher & Hall-Smith (1979-83), 
and numbered 76 la accordingly. The synonymy, after Leraut (1980), 
reads: A. rancidella H.-S., 1854-jnaromaea M'uhlig, lS64;vepretella 
Zell., 1870; superfetella H. de Peyerimhoff, 1877; cotoneastri 
Busck, 1934-Jriatomea , error; cerasivorella Kuznetzov, 1960. 

Acknowledgements 

I do thank Dr. Klaus Sattler for determining my examples of 
M. niphognatha and A. rancidella, as well as for his valued advice 
in the preparation of this paper. With regard to the illustrations, I 
am much indebted to Mr. Eric Bradford for drawing the genitalia, 
and to the Photographic Unit (BMNH) for photographing the 
specimens, and offer both my grateful thanks. I also thank Mr. 
Ingvar Svensson, who kindly wrote in reply to my letter request- 
ing information, and the Nature Conservancy for permission to visit 
Stodmarsh. 

References 

Bradley, J. D., Fletcher, D. S. & Hall-Smith, D. H., 1979-83. 

Recorder's Log Book of British Butterflies and Moths, Index, 

Addenda and Corrigenda. London and Leicester. 
Buhl, 0. et al., 1981. Fund af Smasommwefugle fra Danmark i 

1979 [Records of Microlepidoptera from Denmark in 1979] . 

Ent. Meddr., 49:22. 
Busck, A., 1934. A New Genus and Species of the Family Gele- 

chiidac/'wc. ent. Soc. Wash., 36(4): 82-85, figs. 1-5. 
Gozmany, L., 1953. In Szekessy: Batorliget elovilaga:4S5, 391, f.38. 
Kuznetzov, V. I., 1960. On the Faunal Biology of Lepidoptera of 

the western Kopet-Dagh [In Russian] Trudv zool. Inst., Leningr., 

27:34. 
Leraut, P., 1980. Lisle Systematique et Synonymique des Lepidop- 

teres de France, Belgique et Corse. Paris. 
Lhomme, L., 1946-48. Catalogue des Lepidopteres de France et de 

Belgique, 2:567, 599. Douelle. 
Sattler, K., 1968. Die systematische Stellung einiger Gelechiidae. 

Dtsch. Ent.Z. N. F., 15, I-H: 111-131. 
Svensson, L, 1980. Anmarkningsvarde fynd av Microlepidoptera i 

Sverige 1979. [Remarkable finds of Microlepidoptera in Sweden 

1979] . Ent. Tidskr., 101 : 76, figs. 7, 15, 16. 
Svensson, L, 1984. Personal Communication {in litt.). 



NOTFS AND OBSERVATIONS 25 

Notes and Observations 

Late Emergences of Biston betularia L. (Lep.; Geo- 
METRIDAE). — M. N. McCrea's useful observations concerning 
B. betularia (Ent. Rec, 96. 186) call for comment. Both Barrett 
(Lepidoptera of the British Isles, 1895-1902) and South (Moths of 
the British Isles, 1908) give May and June, sometimes July, as the 
flight period of this moth, while the former states also that it has 
been taken as early as the end of March. In S. E. England it does 
in fact fly throughout July and well into August. During the decade 
1975-1984 some 1,500 betularia have been noted at my m/v light 
at Dartford; of these just over 50% were for July, 36% for June, 
10% for August and just under 4% for May. Also, in nine of the 
years from 1969 betularia was recorded at the trap as late as August 
20th, the latest date being a fresh female on August 30th, 1984. 

B. Kettlewell {The Evolution of Melanism, 1973) emphasizes 
that B. betularia in Britain is invariably univoltine, and flies from 
late May to August, and that the larvae are found from June to 
October. Here the larval period stretches into November; thus, on 
November 10th 1984 several were noted on broom, laburnum, 
Circis siliquastrum (Judas-tree) and ornamental Prunus, the first 
three of which do not appear to have been noted previously for 
Kent, which is surprising in the case of broom and laburnum, upon 
which betularia feeds regularly in N. W. Kent. 

Thus it would appear that September betularia are undoubtedly 
but late examples of an extended single brood. However, is not this 
species perhaps, in S. E. England at least, one whose peak emergence 
tends to be later than formerly? - B. K. WEST, 36 Briar Road, 
Bexley, Kent. 

CATOCALA ELOCATA ESPER in THE CHANNEL ISLES. - 
A female specimen of this moth has recently been found in the 
G. B. Coney Collection of Lepidoptera in the City of Bristol Mu- 
seum. The data on the specimen reads as follows: "On wall of house 
St. Saviours, Jersey. G. B. Coney 20.X.1903. Identified by Mr. 
Holland at the Hope Museum Oxford. 8.XI.1907." This would 
appear to be the first record of this species from Jersey (communi- 
cation with R. F. Bretherton). This species, which is widespread 
in France, may well turn up in Great Britain, perhaps there are 
specimens in collections which have been misidentified as C. nupta 
which it closely resembles. — N. W. LEAR, 178 St. John's Lane, 
Bedminster. Bristol BS3 AR. 

Apion SEMIVITTATUM GYLLENHAL(C0LE0PTERA: Apionidae) 
IN South Essex. - It would seem worthy of placing on record 
the occurrence of the weevil Apion semivittatum GyHenhal in my 
small back garden at East Ham, [London] , South Essex on 30th 
September 1984. Several specimens were found on plants of annual 
mercury Mercurialis annua which my wife, Lesley, was weeding-out 



26 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

from the flower bed. According to my colleague at the Passmore 
Edwards Museum, Dr. Paul Hyman, who was also responsible for the 
identification, this is an extremely local insect, known previously 
only from East and West Kent and East Sussex. To my South 
Essex record can be added a second, which in fact precedes my 
own by one month, at Bully Fen, Stratford, in the Lea Valley, on 
29th August 1984, this record having been made by Dr. Hyman 
himself. - COLIN W. PLANT, Assistant Curator, Natural Sciences 
(Biology), Passmore Edwards Museum, Romford Road, Stratford, 
London, El 5 4LZ. 

Rhodometra sacraria L. (Lep., Geometridae) Travell- 
ing BY Ship. - On 23 August 1984 I travelled by ship from 
Iraklion, Crete, north to the island of Thfra, a distance of 68 nautical 
miles which took about four hours. A live vestal, Rhodometra 
sacraria, spent the journey clinging to the wood-work around a port- 
hole. I do not know if the moth left the ship at Thfra, and nor do 
I know if it flew onto the ship in Crete. In August 1984 I several 
times saw specimens of R. sacraria at lights on a villa near Rethim- 
non in northern Crete, and I assume the moth is a common resident. 
It would, however, be interesting to hear of other records of this 
well-known migrant hitching a lift. - DENIS F. OWEN, 66 Scraptoft 
Lane, Leicester LE5 IHU. 

ACHERONTIA ATROPOS L. AND AGRIUS CONVOLVULI L. IN 
Somerset. - During September 1984, a total of about 45 larvae 
and three pupa of Acheroritia atropos were found at Westbury-sub- 
Mendip, nr. Wells, Somerset. Between the 3rd and the 8th Septem- 
ber about 25 larvae were found by Mr. R. Godier of 'Green Lantern' 
P. O. Stores, Westbury-sub-Mendip at the following places in and 
around the village; four at ST 492 493; about a dozen at ST 496 
489, two at ST 495 489; three at ST 497 488; four at ST 499 488 
and one at ST 495 489. The larvae were all in the last instar and 
had all gone down for pupation by the 1 1th. The larvae were found 
on potato in small potato patches in gardens and allotments. A 
visit to the village on the 9th, to collect the larvae and to search 
for more was rewarded by the discovery of two larvae at ST 495 
489 and two pupae were dug up at ST 496 488 and also it was 
heard that a pupating larva had been dug up that morning at ST 
492 493. A second visit was made on the 16th to collect yet more 
larvae; four half-grown atropos larvae found on potato in a market 
gardener's allotment at ST 505 492 on the 11th and also, found 
at the same place and date, and unidentified hawk moth larva which 
was preparing to pupate. On seeing the larva, it was easily identified 
as that of Agrius convolvuli. A quick visit to the site to look for 
atropos and convolvuli larva resulted in the discovery of a pupating 
larva of convolvuli in freshly dug earth at the end of a patch of 
strawberries which had become overgrown by Convolvulus arvensis. 
On the 18th I received news that a pupa o{ atropos had been dug up 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 27 

that morning at ST 499 489. Between the 25th and 30th October, 
about a dozen more larvae of atropos were found at ST 491 498. 
A further two couvolvuU pupae were dug up at ST 505 497 on the 
4th October followed by yet another two pupae on the 13th at the 
same place. A larva of convolvuli was also found feeding on bind- 
weed at ST 499 488 on the 28th September. - N. W. Lear, 
178 St. John's Lane, Bedminster, Bristol, Avon BS3 5AR. 

Catoptria margaritella margaritella D. &S. in Kent. 
— J. W. Leech in his book British Pyralides, page 78 published in 
1886 mentions this mainly northern and western species, as occuring 
at Deal, Kent. This note was repeated in Tlie Butterflies and Moths 
found in the Dover & Deal District, which the late Bernard Embry 
and I published in 1949. We were not then aware of any record 
of this species having been taken there and I still have not heard of 
any from Kent. However one came to the M.V. trap in my garden on 
26th July, 1984. The wind was in the North East and there was a 
heavy dew, the temperature dropping to a minimum of 47° F. 
Deal is about 5 miles from here and the area of marshy land in that 
district must have been considerably reduced since Leech's day by 
development and by-pass roads. This record, however, seems to 
confirm Leech's note, although it has taken 98 years to do so! — 
G. H. Youden, 18 Castle Avenue, Dover, Kent. 

Perizoma sagittata F.: Marsh Carpet in Nottingham- 
shire. - This moth is listed in the Red Data Book of British 
insects as a Category 2 species, signifying that it is liable to become 
endangered if factors causing its decline continue. It is therefore 
pleasing to record its presence in the floodplain of the River Idle in 
North Nottinghamshire. It was first discovered by Richard Fair- 
clough in 1960 on Misterton Carr as a lai'va, feeding on the seeds of 
Thalictrum flavum (Common Meadow Rue). It was found in the 
general area of Misterton by several entomologists in subsequent 
years and continues to have been reported until at least 1975 when 
there is a record of 19 larvae. The area around Misterton Carr has 
been more extensively improved than most areas of the floodplain 
and a search in 1981 produced no larvae and very few suitable sites 
for the foodplant. 

In 1983 and 1984 an extensive search of the floodplain was 
made and the insect was discovered in three adjacent parishes; 
200 larvae being recorded from one site in 1983, 100 in 1983 and 
70 in 1984 from a second, and 9 from a third in 1984. The last 
figure is almost certainly unrepresentative of the strength of the 
colony in this site as the date of search was the 30th August, which 
is much too late. The first site was not searched in 1984. 

The long term future of the Nottinghamshire colonies is pre- 
carious. Whereas in other parts of the country the larval foodplant 
grows in open marshland and old grazing meadows, in the River 
Idle floodplain it occurs almost exclusively on the sides of drainage 



28 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

ditches. It is unlikely that any more normal sites for the foodplant 
will be found as the last of the grazing meadows which flooded 
regularly was drained as part of an improvement scheme in the 
early 1970s and, with the exception of one small site just inside 
Lincolnshire in which the foodplant does not occur, there are no 
suitable open fenland sites left. 

The survival problem of the moth in drains is that if the drains 
are not periodically dredged, they tend to silt up and eventually 
become too dry to support the foodplant. On the other hand, when 
the drains are dredged any colonies of the species are destroyed 
unless it is an imagine. Added to this is the problem caused when 
unimportant drains are filled in to make larger and more efficient 
fields, and the insecticides intended for the edges of these agricul- 
tural fields also affect the margins of drains. The survival of the 
insect in Nottinghamshire therefore depends to a significant extent 
on the policy of the River Idle Drainage Board and that of local 
farmers. 

My experience of this insect in Nottinghamshire leads me to 
make two tentative suggestions. The first is that, given the widely 
scattered pattern of records from Cambridgeshire and Norfolk and 
the existence of this colony, the insect was once widely distributed 
in suitable areas between the River Humber and southern Cam- 
bridgeshire. It would therefore be worth searching drainage dykes 
around the margins of fields in former fens or flooded grazing 
meadows in this general area for other relic colonies. The second is 
that, the most successful method of conservation of the insect 
where it occurs in drainage dykes, would be for an appropriate 
conservation body to purchase two fields either side of a drain in 
which it occurs, and to manage the drain with a staggered pro- 
gramme of dredging. - MARK STERLING, Department of Law, 
University Park, Nottingham. 

LLiPERINA NICKERLII FREYER: SANDHILL RUSTIC IN KENT. - 
Following the discovery of several resident populations of Luperina 
mckerlii along the Essex coast, a survey of likely-looking salt-marsh 
sites on the Kent side of the Thames estuary was made on 29th 
August 1984, by my son Mark and myself; and at one locality, on 
the Isle of Sheppey, the species was found to be tolerably common 
and obviously well established. - BERNARD SKINNER, 5 Rawlins 
Close, Addington, South Croydon, Surrey CR2 8JF. 

PAPILIO NIREUS LYAEUS DBL.: PUPAL DIMORPHISM. - A 
few years ago, I published a paper (\98\, Entomologist's Record, 93: 
75-76) in which I recorded the number of each colour phase of the 
3upa of Papilio demodocus Esp. pupating in total darkness on a 
;mooth surface (glass) and a rough one (sand paper), all other 
;onditions being identical. Green pupae were in a rather larger 
proportion on the smooth surface. (23.40: 6.25). 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 29 

I have recently concluded a similar experiment with Papilio 
nireus lyaeus Dbl. As before, larvae were collected in the 1st, 2nd 
or 3rd instar and reared in full daylight in individual glass jars. Then, 
after they had produced their final, semi-liquid evacuation, they 
were transferred to rather larger glass jars, lined either inside or out, 
with a cylinder of sand paper and placed in a closed wooden box for 
thirty-six hours until pupation had been completed. Unfortunately 
far fewer nireus larvae were available, but the results were far more 
definite. On the smooth surface all the pupae (9) were of the green 
form (100%), on the rough four pupae were green and eight were 
purplish-brown {?>3 1/3: 66 2/3); nireus not having a pink pupal 
phase, unlike demodocus. - D. G. SevastOPULO, F.R E S 
P.O. Box 95617, Mombasa, Kenya. 

Thalera eembrialis Scop.: Sussex Emerald and Clos- 

TERA ANACHORETA D. & S.: SCARCE CHOCOLATE-TIP AT DUNGE- 
NESS IN 1984. - On the 21st August 1984 at Dungeness, Kent, 
I took a male T. fimbrialis, in good condition generally but a trifle 
faded. It was a good night and I also noted there four male Clostera 
anachoreta and over 40 Earias clorana L.: Cream-bordered Pea. 

- G. SENIOR, 19 Chippenham Mews, London W9 2AN. [T. fim- 
brialis has become very much scarcer during the past decade, and the 
previous record of occurrence appears to have been one at Dunge- 
ness in 1980. - J.M.C.-H.] 

IDAEA VULPINARIA H.-S.: LEAST CaRPET IN NOVEMBER. - 
On the morning of 1st November 1984, I was surprised to find a 
fresh male /. vulpinaria in the garden trap. The moth is a regular 
visitor in July but this is the first time I have met the species so late 
in the season. - R. G. Chatelain, 65 East Drive, Orpington, Kent 
BR5 2BY. 

Commophila aeneana Hbn. in Nottinghamshire. - in 
1984, a strong colony of this attractive Cochylid was discovered 
independently by Brian Elliot and myself in a railway cutting in 
South East Nottinghamshire. The first specimens were seen in mid- 
June but the peak emergence period seems to have been in the first 
week of July when as many as 50 were seen flying on a hot, sunny 
afternoon. - MARK STERLING, Department of Law, University 
Park, Nottingham. 

A Change of Generic Name for the Cocoa Moth, 

ACROCERCOPS CRAMERELLA (SNELLEN) (LEP.: GRACILLARIIDAE). 

- The cocoa moth or cocoa pod borer is an established pest in 
cocoa plantafions in many parts of S. E. Asia; the larva bores into 
the green pods. The earliest reported infestations were from Java 
around 1895, and the species was described by Snellen in 1903 
(in van Deventer, Tijdschr. Ent. 46: 84-86) and named Gracilaria 
[sic] eramerella. In 1912, Meyrick (in Wytsman, Genera Insectomm. 
fasc. 128: 18) transferred eramerella to the genus Acrocereops, and 
it has remained there up to the present time. Taxonomic studies 



30 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD. VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

have shown, however, that it does not belong in Acrocercops but is 
congeneric with the New Zealand species Conopomorpha cyanospila 
Meyrick (1886, Trans. Proc. N. Z. Inst. IS: 183) (type-species of the 
genus). It is accordingly removed from Acrocercops and assigned to 
Conopomorpha Meyrick, 1886: Conopomorpha cranierella {SneWen, 
1903), comb. n. - J. D. BRADLEY , c/o Dept. of Entomology, British 
Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD. 

A Late Red Admiral IN Co. Durham. - On the 1st No- 
vember 1984, I saw a Red Admiral in our cottage garden on the 
600 ft. contour line in Cotherstone in Teesdale, Co. Durham. I 
imagine it is unusual for this butterfly to appear at such an altitude 
so far north so late in the year. Dr. J. P. T. BURY, 71 Grange Road, 
Cambridge CB3 9AA. 

Danaus plexippus L. in Gloucestershire in 1983. - 
A female specimen of this butterfly was found by a Mrs. Haynes on 
the 18th September 1983 in Dyrham Park, Hinton, nr. Bristol 
(ST 743 766). The butterfly was taken to the City of Bristol Mu- 
seum for identification, where it now remains. - N. W. LEAR, 178 
St. John's Lane Bedminster, Bristol BS3 5AR. 

COLIAS CROCEUS Geoef. - Five Clouded Yellows were 
observed during September 1984, one on 1st September flying 
aimlessly and settling occasionally iri a field of lucerne four miles 
east of Dorchester, Dorset. On the 12th September, another was 
flying strongly south-westerly along the beach at Beer, Devon; 
and, at Seaton, Devon two were flying around and feeding on 
Valerian growing on the cliff side, and the other flying strongly 
westerly along the beach. — A. J. BALDWIN, 33 Defoe Avenue, 
Kew Gardens, Surrey. 

BLAIR'S SHOULDER-KNOT: LITHOPHANE LEAUTIERI HES- 
PERICA Boursin. - I would like to record the occurrence of 
a single example of this species on the 6th November 1983, at Bar 
Hill, Cambridgeshire (O.S.TL375634). The moth, a male, came to 
light on a cool night, when the catch was otherwise poor. 

This species which I had previously taken in 1981 and 1982 in 
Ringwood, Hants, was first recorded in Britain at Freshwater, Isle 
of Wight, in 1951 (Blair Entomologist, 85: 123: idem Ent. mon. 
Mag., 88:14) when a single specimen was taken at light. Two further 
specimens were recorded from Eastbourne in 1954 (Ellison, Ento- 
mologist, 88:9). A further two were taken in each of these localities 
in 1955 (Ellison, Proc. S. Lond. ent. not. Hist. Soc, 1955:25; Mere, 
Ent. Gaz., 7:55 Kettlewell, Entomologist, 90:1), and in 1956 the 
species was in reasonable numbers on the Isle of Wight (Kettlewell, 
loc. cit.J. Since then it has spread east and west along the south 
coast and is moving northwards. Its numbers have increased with 
this spread, so that in 1973 it was recorded as very common in 
some parts of east Sussex where its foodplant Cupressus macrocarpa 
grows (Pratt, History of the Butterflies and Moths of Sussex). This 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 31 

spread and increase in its occurrence has meant that it has become 
less noteworthy, and I have found it difficult to discover how far 
it actually has spread since it first arrived in this country, probably 
from Southern France. As far as I know, the Bar Hill male is the 
first record for Cambridgeshire, and at present it is the most nor- 
therly British record I have come across for this species. I would 
be pleased to hear of other records of leautieri, particularly those 
from counties away from the south coast. - Dr. M. E. N. MajeruS, 
University of Cambridge, Department of Genetics, Downing Street, 
Cambridge. 

Semi-arboreal Habits of Spilosoma and Arctia Species. 
- I was interested to see B. K. West's note (1984, Em. Rec. 96: 
180-181) in which he deplores the vagueness of the pubhshed food- 
plant information for Spilosoma species, even in Vol. 9 of Vie 
Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland (1979, ed. J. 
Heath and A. M. Emmet) which is supposedly a fresh compilation of 
our communal knowledge. I, too, was disappointed in the staleness 
of the information on the oviposition and feeding habits of Spilo- 
soma and Arctia species - but I concluded that "communal" is 
the operative word, and that if I had information contrary to the last 
published source it was really up to me to let the author of the 
relevant section of MBGBI know so that the written record could 
be improved. This I had failed to do, but West's comments {op. cit.) 
now prompt me to record that, over the years, I have found egg 
batches, or very densly aggregated early instar larvae, of Spilosoma 
and Arctia species on trees as follows: Spilosoma luteum (Hufnagel) 
on Quercus robur, Sorbus aria (twice). Primus spinosa (thrice), Cra- 
taegus monogyna, and Sali.x atrocinerea; Arctia caja (L.) on Sorbus 
aucuparia, Salix aurita (twice), and Salix atrocinerea (twice); and 
Arctia villica (L.) on Salix cinerea. I have never found eggs of Spilo- 
soma lubricipeda (L.), and only once have I found arctiid eggs on 
low plants (which, however, I have searched very much less): A. caja 
on Stellaria media. Bearing in mind the readiness with which these 
moths oviposit on practically any surface in captivity, the high 
mobility and seemingly genuine polyphagy of the larvae, and the 
fact that these species often abound in almost treeless areas, it 
would be unwise to make too much of these records. However, 
the strictly arboreal braconid wasp Apanteles (s. lat.) lacteicolor 
Viereck includes S. luteum in a host range comprising young hairy 
arboreal caterpillars of several families, indicating that the parasite 
probably has had a fairly regular history of contact with early 
instar S. luteum larvae on trees and bushes, and all things considered 
it seems that S. luteum, A. caja and perhaps A. villica may oviposit 
on trees fairly regularly at least. In these cases the young larvae 
seem to feed on the tree in a highly aggregated way, until eventually 
they are disturbed enough to fall off - and then, surely where 
people find them among the herb and shrub layer will to a large 



32 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

extent depend on what sort of plants and growth forms can be 
examined or sampled effectively. Methods (West, op. cit.) such as 
shaking climbing plants festooning fences, examining large leaved 
plants like docks for holes at the convenience of hedge bank height, 
or even (at least for the gardeners among us) pulling garden weeds, 
must rank as highly effective sampling techniques. The sources 
and experiences cited by West {op. cit.) and here do, however, 
suggest that S. lubricipeda may be less apt than S. luteum to oviposit 
on trees, given that both species are and were roughly comparable 
in abundance in the areas under consideration, and further infor- 
mation on this possible difference would be interesting. — M. R. 
Shaw, Royal Scottish Museum, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EHl 
IJF. 

Cossus cossus L. (Goat Moth) in S. E. London, 1984. - 
The occurrence indicated by the title of this note would not, per- 
haps, be particularly remarkable, were it not that the species has, 
I understand, suffered a very definite decline in latter years over 
much of the country which certainly includes the London and 
south-eastern districts; and further, that I had never either heard 
of its being found in my own area since the 1920s, or myself seen a 
trace of it there in any stage .Trees, usually oaks, infested by the 
larva could from time to time be found in such places as Windsor 
Great Park, but none in the last decade or two — a state of affairs 
that seems fairly typical. 

I was, therefore, astonished one day last May to come upon a 
sap-run low down on the trunk of a fair-sized and healthy oak by 
the roadside at the edge of Blackheath near Greenwich Park, exhal- 
ing the strong unmistakable beery odour associated with the larval 
stage of Cossus, and patronized by a small assemblage of sap-loving 
insects. In point of species, these were all such as might be attracted 
to flowing sap unconnected with Cossus — the lack of really charac- 
teristic 'Cossus' beetles being a result of the evidently great rarity of 
the moth in the area. The most prominent species on that and later 
occasions was the Nitidulid Soronia grisea L., which swarmed in 
crevices of bark down which sap was flowing and under debris at 
the base where it had soaked into the soil. Some of the specimens 
were unusually large for this species, thus more resembling S. punc- 
tatissima 111. - a far less common insect. A few of the small Myceto- 
phagid Litargus connexus Geof. ran rapidly in the sunshine in and 
out of cracks of bark, and were difficult to secure in good con- 
dition on account of their agility combined with their fragility. 
Earwigs too (seldom about in bright dayhght) paraded excitedly 
up and down. On a later visit, what had looked like a dried-up flow 
on the opposite side of the trunk was found to have been reacti- 
vated, whilst another, smaller, one had appeared between the other 
two. By 20th August all three were dry, which could be due to 
drought restricting the sap, cessation of larval feeding, or both. On 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 33 

that date, the largest patch (at which a trace of the Cossus odour 
Hngered) produced a male of the Muscid Phaonia trigonalis Mg. 
{=laetabilis Coll.) — no novelty to the district, but the first I had 
seen in conditions answering in all respects but locality to its classic 
habitat, viz. Cossus oaks in the New Forest. 

It would be premature, no doubt, to see this isolated incident 
as heralding any degree of reversal of the Goat Moth's long-standing 
decline in the south-east London suburbs. — A. A. ALLEN. 

Hornet Clearwing: Sesia apiformis Clerck. - On the 
27th July 1984, I noted a specimen of this moth by the river Cray 
in Foots Cray Meadows, Sidcup, Kent. It was resting on a leaf of a 
poplar sapling about four feet from the ground, and I was able to 
observe it for about 30 seconds before it flew off. — D. J. WiLSON, 
Nature Conservancy Council, 19/20 Belgrave Square, London SWIX 
SPY. 

Chorisops nagatomii Rozk. (Dipt.; Stratiomyidae) in 
Suffolk and S.E.London. - I took a female of this recent 
addition to our list, described as lately as 1979 (see Allen, 1984, 
Ent. mon. Mag. 120: 150) by sweeping various trees including 
spruce and cedar, in Brandon Park, Suffolk, on 5th August 1983. 
This appears to be the second record for the county, the first being 
for Shadwell Park (1970); in my note cited above Suffolk was 
accidentally omitted from the half-dozen or so counties for which 
the fly is recorded. 

On 27.viii.84 I swept another ? C. nagatomii from a Lombardy 
poplar, one of a long row fringing a sportsground near here, and on 
8.ix yet another off field maple about a mile further east at Shooters 
Hill. This was gratifying as up to then I had only been able to find 
its commoner congener, C. tibialis Mg., in my area (several in the 
garden here and in a park at Charlton, 1977-8). As before, their 
identity was at once evident — the lighter, brighter colouring and 
slightly greater size marking them out from the more sombre- 
looking tibialis. Apart from the far more extensively yellow abdo- 
men, the thorax is often (though not always) a brilliant pure emerald 
green such as I have not so far seen in the last-named. These finds 
of nagatomii do not constitute new records for Kent, there being 
already one from near Tonbridge, but they should be the first for 
the metropolitan area. — A. A. ALLEN. 

Malthinus frontalis Marsh. (Col.: Cantharidae) in 
S. E. LONDON; and ITS Habitat. - I met with three females 
of this very distinct species whilst beating and sweeping under oaks 
in the woods clothing the lower western portion of Shooters Hill 
(Eltham Common) on the evening of 20.vii.84. They occurred 
separately, but all within a limited area. (Males could not be expec- 
ted at so late a date.) I had worked the latter on earlier occasions 
in that and previous years, without finding the beetle; indeed I had 
only encountered it in three localities, all well outside the London 



34 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

area. The species is not common; the VCH Hst for Kent (1908) 
gives as locahties only Cobham Park and Birch Wood, and none in 
East Kent. The nearest ones to London listed by Fowler in Col. 
Brit. Isles (1890) are in Surrey - Esher, Shirley etc. 

A misconception seems to have grown up concerning the habitat 
of this Malthinus, possibly originating with Stephens whose M. 
pinicola (= frontalis) is recorded from 'pines and firs' (at Ripley, 
Surrey), whilst his M. frontalis and immaculatus (another synonym) 
are noted from simply 'trees' {\939.Man. Brit. Col: 192). Despite 
the latter datum, both Fowler (1890) and Joy (1932) connect it 
exclusively with fir trees; but I have not seen this association given 
by Continental authors. Though the idea must, of course, have some 
basis in fact, my experience tends to suggest that any such associa- 
tion is scarcely more than casual. Thus, besides one from pine in the 
Suffolk Breck, I have swept M. frontalis singly once or twice under 
spruce in Windsor Forest, but, far more often, have beaten it off 
mature and mostly ancient oaks in the area, once. in some small 
numbers, and found one walking on the trunk of a large oak. Mr. 
P.J. Hodge likewise finds it on or about old oaks in a Sussex locality, 
and does not connect it with conifers. I first took it singly off 
willow and alder along a N. Somerset stream far from any fir trees 
but close to a rotting alder. The implication seems to be that decay- 
ing wood in some form (in trunks, boughs, or twigs, or perhaps in 
rot-holes) is the basic requirement; and whether the tree happens 
to be coniferous or deciduous is likely to be a matter of chance, 
or to depend on the type dominant in a given locality. If there is 
a preference, however, it would appear often to be for oak. — 
A. A. Allen. 

Larvae oe Swallowtail, Papilio machaon L, Feeding 
ON THE Epidermal Layer of Fennel Stems. - In August 
1984, at Rethymnon in Crete, I found four nearly fully-fed larvae 
of Papilio machaon feeding on the green, outer (epidermal) layer 
of the stems of fennel, Foeniculmn vulgare. Judging from the way 
the fennel leaves had died back to the base of the plant, the larvae 
must have eaten nothing but stem epidermis, as no fresh leaves 
could have been available for at least several weeks. Three of the lar- 
vae were reared in captivity and produced butterflies about a week 
after pupating. I saw adult P. machaon throughout Crete, often in 
association with roadside clumps of fennel, but no further larvae 
were found, and nor could I detect the tell-tale pale patches where 
the epidermal layer had been chewed from stems — this looks a 
little like the "barking" of trees by rabbits or deer but, of course, 
on a small scale. - Denis F. Owen. 66 Scraptoft Lane, Leicester, 
LE5 IHU. 

A Fourth Capture of Aderus brevicornis Perris (Col.) 
AT Windsor. - Of this very scarce beetle, known as British 
on a mere handful of records from the counties of Sussex, Berks., 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 35 

Hants., and Devon, I had the good fortune to beat a specimen from a 
mature oak in Windsor Great Park on 4th July last. Accompanying it 
were Scrap tia fuscula Miill. singly and its relatively common con- 
gener A. oculatus Panz. more freely. It is the second example oi A. 
brevicomis taken by me in the locality (and the third that I have 
seen there) - making, with singletons by two other collectors, the 
fifth hitherto known form the Windsor area (see Allen, 1959, Ent. 
mon. Mag. 95: 120). As my previous specimen was taken on 11th 
September, the two captures between them probably span almost 
the whole activity-period of the species, which is a long one for such 
a rare insect. — A. A. ALLEN. 

The White Admiral: Ladoga'camilla L. in West Kent 
IN 1984. - Two observations on the terrace of my flat at Shore- 
ham during 1984 may possibly be of interest. On 14th August a very 
worn and elderly male Ladoga Camilla alighted and after being 
photographed, died. Whilst this species is not, I believe, unknown 
in this area, it does not normally visit gardens. To-day, 29th 
September, an apparently fresh female Colias crocea Geoff, settled 
on my verandah roof long enougli for positive identification before 
flying off. This species was common enougli last year, but this was 
my only sighting in 1984. - H. J. Wildbore, 2 Shoreham House, 
Shoreham, Sevenoaks, Kent TNI 4 7RY. 

Communal Conjugation in Tipula paludosa Mg. (Dip- 
TERA: TipuliDAE). - During the night of 8th-9th September 
1984, whilst running a 125watt lamp on a sheet at Great Bookham 
Common, Surrey, several Tipula paludosa very rapidly assembled, 
including several pairs in copula. To the amusement of the assembled 
company, three examples of this crane-fly were observed coupled, 
(tripled?), on the sheet, two males and a single female. One of the 
males had successfully paired with the female, and these two insects 
were aligned tail to tail at an angle of 180 degrees to each other. 
The second male was observed several times attempting to pair 
with the already attached female, by aligning itself parallel to her 
curling his abdomen around in frenzied efforts to make contact. 
After a few minutes he was apparently successful in this venture, 
having clasped the female's genitalia in such a manner that it was 
quite impossible to see which male was in fact carrying out the 
vital act. After some ten minutes I boxed the threesome, and they 
remained coupled in the pill-box until the following morning. Out 
of interest I picked up the bundle of insects holding the wings of 
each individual in turn. It was soon apparent in this manner that the 
coupling was firm, and not even a moderately sharp shake or two 
could separate any of the males from the female. Examination with 
a hand lens showed that each male was clasping an equal portion of 
the available female genitalia, and had I not always assumed such 
a feat impossible in insects, I would have been quite convinced that 
both males were actively mating with the same female at the same 



36 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD. VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

time. Following the initial frantic activity on the part of each, 
both males were at once sedate as soon as "coupling" had occurred. 

I had always assumed that pheromone production by female 
insects ceased as soon as a male had coupled, thereby avoiding the 
undesirable attentions of further males. Certainly this appears 
to be the case in that classic pheromone producer Saturnia pavonia 
Linnaeus, the emperor moth, when males instantly lose interest in the 
female as soon as she has been paired, (although they may still 
hang around the scent on adjacent objects). Perhaps then this is 
not necessarily the case! - C. W. PLANT, Assistant Curator, 
Natural Sciences (Biology), Passmore Edwards Museum, Romford 
Road, Stratford, London, El 5 4LZ. 

SIBINIA ARENARIAE STEPH . (COL.: CURCULIONIDAE) IN WEST 
Kent. — On 17th August last, while grubbing under and at the 
roots of herbage on a fairly dry track near a creek of the R. Darent 
near its confluence with the Thames in the Crayford Marshes area, 
I was pleased to come upon a fresh example of the pretty little 
weevil named above, and shortly afterwards another. Given time, 
a series could probably have been obtained. This is regarded as a 
very local coastal insect associated with 'Arenaria maritima' — a 
plant whose name I do not find given by modern authorities; I had 
previously met with only two specimens. In the present case the 
plant in question is what I believe to be the related Spergularia salina 
J. & C. Presl. Sibina arenariae would seem to be new to West Kent, 
though recorded from the extreme west of East Kent (Sheerness, 
in VCH list, 1908) and is doubtless common in suitable coastal and 
estuarine sites in the vice-county. — A. A. ALLEN . 

The DEATH'S Head Hawkmoth: Acherontia atropos L 
IN N. Somerset. - Two fully grown larvae of this moth were 
taken in a domestic garden at Hinton Charterhouse near Bath(VC.6) 
on 18th September 1984. One was feeding on patato haulm, whilst 
the other was dug up as it was beginning to pupate. — B. W. MoORE, 
F.R.E.S., Church Cottage, Church Lane, Batheaston, Bath. 

AN Unusual Aberration of Diaphora mendica Clerck 
in Hertfordshire - I would like to report the capture of a most 
unusual male specimen of D. mendica (The Muslin) which, after 
comparison with the specimens housed at the British Museum of 
Natural History and discussion with D. Carter thereof, is best des- 
cribed as approaching aberration nistica Wo. The specimen was taken 
in one of our Harpenden light traps (Geescroft II, Site No. 99, 
O.S. Grid Ref. TL 131 127) on the night of 2/3 May, 1984 and was 
the only specimen of this species present in the catch for that night. 

This pale buff-grey aberration is normally associated with Ire- 
land, and it's presence in England is therefore certainly worthy of 
note. - Adrl\N M. Riley, Rothamsted Insect Survey, Entomology 
Department, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. 



THE BUTTERI LIES AND MOTHS OF THE ISLE OF MAN (1) 

FIRST AND SECOND SUPPLEMENTS 

TO THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS 

OF THE ISLE OF MAN 

By Kenneth G. M. Bond* and 
Lt. Col. A. M.Emmet** 

FIRST SUPPLEMENT 

By K. G.M.BOND 

Since publication of the catalogue of the Lepidoptera of the Isle 
of Man by Chalmers-Hunt (1970), Smith (1978) issued a list of 
species observed in the Island during a visit in 1977. which included 
five not previously recorded from there. In addition, Hedges (1981) 
added Danaiis plexippus L. as new to Man. These and many other 
species are incorporated in the present account. 

Methods 

While the writer was resident on the Isle of Man, the Field 
Section of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society 
purchased a mercury vapour trap which was used at many different 
locations in all parts of the Island in the period 1971 to 1975. 
It was possible therefore to investigate the night-flying Lepidoptera 
of the north and centre of the Island on a fairly regular basis. As 
another m.v. trap has been in use at Ballakaighen, Castletown, 
since 1963, a comparison of the catches in various parts of the 
Island could be made. A Rothamsted trap has also been in use at 
Ballakaighen, and the availability of a further Rothamsted trap 
at Knock-e-Dhooney in the extreme north of the Island in 1974 
provided further evidence of the difference to be encountered 
between catches at the northern and southern extremities. 

In addition, many species have been added as a result of day- 
time visits to such areas as the Curraghs, characterised by willow 
carr, and the sandy northern coastal strip known as the Ayres. 

Results 

The richer fauna found in the north of the Island no doubt 
reflects the broader range of habitat found there. In particular, 
species associated with deciduous woodland, willow carr and sand 
dunes were found to be better represented in this part of the Island. 

*24 Lisiee Road, Douglas, Cork, Republic of Ireland. 

** Labrey Cottage, Victoria Gardens, Saffron Walden, Esse.x, CBll 3AF. 



(2) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RLCORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

It is therefore not surprising that most of the new records have come 
from this area. 

Chalmers-Hunt (1970) listed 597 species as accepted without 
reserve for the Isle of Man. One of these, Cnephasia octomaculana 
Curtis, is here considered a synonym (Bradley, Tremewan & Smith, 
1973). Another, Serraca punctinalis (Scopoli), is stated to have 
been based on a misidentification by Emmet below. Smith {loc. 
cit.) added five species, while Hedges {loc. cit.) added one. Fifty- 
five species are herewith added to the Manx list. In addition, 
eight which were considered by Chalmers-Hunt {loc. cit.) to be of 
doubtful status are now confirmed as Manx. Emmet below 
lists a further 50 species of microlepidoptera. This brings the total 
number of accepted species to 714. It should however be pointed 
out that no voucher specimens exist for some of the species added 
at the Rothamsted trap at Knock-e-Dhooney. 

Unless otherwise indicated, all observations quoted are those 
of the writer. 

Most of the macrolepidoptera are held at the Manx Museum, 
Douglas, Isle of Man. Voucher material of the microlepidoptera 
will also be deposited there. 

Nomenclature and Classification 

The nomenclature and classification used for the microlepido- 
ptera is that of Bradley, Fletcher & Hall-Smith (1979-83), while 
Kloet & Hincks (1972) is used for the macrolepidoptera. 

Abbreviations 

*Species which were considered by Chalmers-Hunt (1970) 
to be of doubtful status on Man are preceded by an asterisk. 

J.M.C.-H. = J. M. Chalmers-Hunt; H.N.M. = H. N. Michaelis. 

Acknowledgements 

I wish to thank the following for their invaluable and generous 
assistance with this work: The Rev. D. J. L. Agassiz, Dr. J. D. 
Bradley, Mr. A. Brindle, Mr. J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, Mr. Roy Cripps, 
Lt. Col. A. M. Emmet, Mr. D. S. Fletcher, Dr. L. S. Garrad of the 
Manx Museum, Mr. J. W. Hedges, the Martin family of Knock-e- 
Dhooney, Mr. H. N. Michaelis, and Mrs. Joan Nicklen of Rothamsted 
Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. 

I would also like to express my thanks to the members of the 
Field Section of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society for the use of their mercury vapour trap, and to the many 
members of the Society and others who allowed me to use the trap 
on their property. 



THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS OE THE ISLE OE MAN (3) 

MICROPTERIGIDAE 

Micropterix aureatella Scop. 

Dhoon Glen, 12.VI.1981, female. South Barrule, one, 16.VI. 
1981. 

NEPTICULIDAE 

Ectoedemia occultella L. 

Dhoon Glen, female, 12. VI. 1981, genitalia checked. This species 
has also been reported by Emmet. 

HELIOZELIDAE 

Heliozela hamnwniella Sorh. {betulae Staint.) 

Dhoon Glen, male, 12.VI. 1981, genitalia checked. Also reported 
by Emmet. 

PSYCHIDAE 

Diplodoma herminata Geoffr. {marginepunctella Steph.) 
Ballaugh Curraghs, 30.VI.1977 (Smith, 1977). 

TINEIDAE 

Nemapogon cloacella Haw. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, male, 10.VIII.1973, genitalia checked. 
Castletown, one, 16.VI.1981. 

GRACILLARIIDAE 

Caloptilia leucapermella Steph. 

Greeba, one, m.v. trap, 28.IV. 1972, det. H.N.M. 

YPONOMEUTIDAE 

Arg)'resthia laevigatella H.-S. 

' Tholt-y-Will Glen, 2.VII.1977 (Smith, 1977). 

A. gocdartella L. 

Andreas, one, m.v. trap, 14.VIII.1971. 

A. conjugella Zell. 

Tholt-y-Will Glen, 2.VII.1977 (Smith, 1977). 

A. pruniella Clerck 

Curraghs (Lough Dhoo), 13. VII. 1975, female, genitalia checked. 



(4) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ii.85 

Ypononieuta evonvmella L. 

Ballachurry, St Judes, one, ni.v. trap, 20.VII. 1972, det.J.M.C.-H. 
Ballaugh Curraghs, three, m.v. trap, 12.Vni.l975. Ballacross, St 
Judes, one, m.v. trap, 13.VIII.1975. 

Zelleria hepariella Staint. 

Lower Foxdale, female, m.v. trap, 21. IX. 1971. Determination 
confirmed by J. D. Bradley. 

Rhigognostis incarnatella Steud. 

Ballavolley, Curraghs, one in m.v. trap, 30.VII.1983. 

COLEOPHORIDAE 

Coleophora albidella D. & S. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, one, m.v. trap, 19.VII.1977. (Abdomen 
missing, determination based on external features). 

C. muhuipennella Dup. 

Curraghs, female, 3 l.V. 1974, genitalia checked. 

ELACHISTIDAE 

Elachista obsciirella Staint. 

Knock-e-Dhooney, male Rothamsted trap, 28.V.1974. genitalia 
checked. Slieau Whallion, male, 4.VI.1972, genitalia checked. 
The Lhen, female, 18. VI. 19 79, genitalia checked. 

E. rufocinerea Haw. 

Ronaldsway,male, 19.IV.1972, det.J.M.C.-H., genitalia checked. 

E. subalbidella Schlagv 

Ballaugh Curraghs, male, m.v. trap, 17.VI.1979, genitalia 
checked. 

OECOPHORIDAE 

Carcina quercana Fabr. 

St Judes, one, 14.VIII.1972, det. J.M.C.-H. Ballachurry, one, 
20.VIII.1972. 

GELECHIIDAE 

Xenolechia aethiops H. & W. 

Cringle Great Park, one, 30.IV. 1971, det. H.N.M. South Barrule, 
about 30, 12.VI.1974. Cregneish, one, 18.VI.1974. 



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CONTENTS 

A New Lepidochrysops Hedicke (Lep.: Lycaenidae) from the South Western 
Cape Province. C. G. C. DICKSON, 1. A New Form of the Common 
Pierid Butterfly Colias electa L. Dr. D. M. KROON, b. Mythimna loreyi 
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Gozmany and Athrips rancidella H.-S. (Lep.: Gelechiidae), New to the 
British fauna. J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT, 20. 

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 5, 6, 8, 12, 19, 25-36. 

The Butterflies and Moths of the Isle of Man, Supplements 1 & 2. K. G. M. 
BOND and Lt. Col. A. M. EMMET (serial). (l)-(4). 



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norance by encouraging naturahsts and students to carry out surveys 
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HYPODRYAS INTERMEDIA IN EUROPE 37 

HYPODRYAS INTERMEDIA MENETRIES IN EUROPE: 
AN ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE HISTORY 

By Dr. C. J.UiCKENS* 

The genus Hypodryas, part of the Euphydryine tribe, comprises 
four palaearctic and one nearctic species. A brief survey of the five 
members of this genus may demonstrate why, for various reasons, 
these are among the most interesting butterflies to be found in the 
Holarctic region. 

The far north representative is Hypodryas iduna Dalman which 
occurs in damp areas with birch scrub, and south-facing hill slopes, 
in Arctic Russia and Scandinavia. It has a mysterious, discontinuous 
distribution because it is also found thousands of miles away from 
the Arctic in isolated areas in Asia — at around 1 ,800 metres, in the 
Altai and Sajan (ssp. sajana Bang-Haas); and even higher, at 2,700 
metres, in the Caucasus — not inappropriately named ssp. inexpec- 
tata Sheljuzhko. The life history oi iduna in the high Arctic is still 
imperfectly known, but larvae have been found in webs on Veronica, 
Plantago, and Vaccinnium, and are described, with a photograph of 
a pupa case, in Henriksen and Kreutzer (1982). 

Flying well above the tree line in the western part of its range, 
Hypodryas cynthia D. and S., is a butterfly of the high Alps. In the 
Eastern Austrian and Bavarian Alps however it occurs below 1,000 
metres in a larger brighter form. Further east in the Balkans and in 
Macedonia it once again flies at higli levels. The male of this species 
is a vivid, distinctive insect, very active in sunlight, but the female 
resembles the other members oi Hypodryas. The latter in point of 
fact, could be confused with H. intermedia in the field, but where 
their ranges overlap the two species are usually separated spatially by 
at least 300 metres difference in altitude. Cynthia occasionally 
strays to lower levels and it is not inconceivable therefore that the 
two could sometimes be found flying together. The early stages of 
cynthia have been described, but I do not know of any records of 
rearing ab. ovo. In the light of the latter part of this paper it would 
be most interesting to know if anyone has actually done this. 

Hypodryas gillettii Barnes (type locality: Yellowstone, Wyo- 
ming), is the sohtary New World member of the genus. A fascinating 
relict species, it occurs locally in damp meadows and light riparian 
woodland, from Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, througli the moun- 
tains of Montana and Northern Idaho, to Alberta in Canada. Its 
food plant is a honeysuckle, twinberry (Lonicera involucrata). 

Very similar in appearance are the two palaearctic species, 
Hypodryas matiirna L. and Hypodryas intermedia Menetries. The 
former is a lowland butterfly of damp forest clearings. Always local, 
it is now rare in its western range, but perhaps still occurs in the 
*Swallowfield, Manor Road, Durley, Hants S032AF. 



38 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL.97 15Jv.85 

woods east of Paris and in the Morvan, then eastwards through 
Lowland Europe, (including southern Fennoscandia), to the Altai 
mountains and Siberia. It has an intriguing life history; the females 
deposit on Fraxinus (ash), Populus species and perhaps Lonicera. The 
larvae feed on these pabula until the onset of winter, when they are 
said to make a hibernaculum among the leaves of the bush. This 
drops to the ground when the leaves fall and on emergence in the 
spring the young larvae commence feeding on various low growing 
plants such as plantain. Scabious and Veronica. 

For many years Hypodryas intermedia was regarded as an 
Alpine sub-species of Hypodryas matiima as the two insects are 
strikingly similar. The genitalia differ however in minor but constant 
ways, and Higgins (1978) has pointed out the stability of these 
structures in each of the members of this group, in spite of their 
characteristic of localized colonies over a very wide range. Hypo- 
dryas intermedia has a remarkable disconnected distribution in the 
same fashion as iduna. It occurs in Korea and Kamchatka in the 
East, in the Altai and Sajan ranges in Mongolia and Asia, (one won- 
ders if there is an overlap with maturna and iduna in the Altai) then, 
after an incredible gap of over 4,000 miles, intermedia has a narrow, 
localized distribution in the South Eastern Alps of Switzerland and 
Italy, just reaching Savoie in France. 

This Western sub-species, wolfensbergeri Frey, the main subject 
of this paper, is perhaps most common in the Canton of Grisons in 
Switzerland and it was near Pontresina in early July 1979, in com- 
pany with J. M. Chalmers-Hunt and T. W. Tolman, that I first en- 
countered intermedia. The butterflies were found flying in sunny 
clearings within coniferous woodland, and also amongst Alnus 
scrub on sheltered hillsides near the upper limit of the trees. Colo- 
nies appeared mainly between 1 ,700 and 1 ,800 metres. The males 
flitted elusively around the bushes, occasionally settling on the sun- 
warmed rocks or bare ground. Only rarely were they seen feeding at 
flowers and then were invariably worn examples. Very few females 
were noted. One freshly emerged, was found by T. W. Tolman 
sitting in a small spruce tree. All sightings were between 1 1 a.m. 
and 3.15 p.m. (Swiss Time = BST). 

Most text books on European butterflies either state that the 
life history and food plant of intermedia are unknown or else give 
hazy and conjectural information only.l Staudinger states how- 
ever that Hypodryas intermedia intermedia larvae were found feeding 
on Lonicera at Vladivostock. This statement and also the fact that 
the closely realted H. gillettii feeds on Lonicera involucrata in the 
American West, seemed to give a clue to the possible food plant of 
H. intermedia wolfensbergeri in Europe. 

iRappaz (1979) reports "Lonicera" for intermedia wolfensbergeri in the 
Valais. Verity (1950) gives a variety of foodplants which seem to 
apply more to maturna than intermedia. 



HYPODRYAS INTERMEDIA IN EUROPE 39 

The glades and the hill slopes in the Val Roseg, Pontresina, 
where we found intermedia, had abundant growths of a bushy type 
of Lonicera - Lonicera caerulea. This was the plant I started to 
search when I returned with T. W. Tolman and my two elder sons 
to Pontresina in mid August 1980. It was an incredible piece of good 
fortune that a group of Euphydryine larvae presented itself to me 
on one of the very first of these Lonicera bushes that I investigated. 
These larvae were very small, ca.4 to 5 mm by ca. 0.5 mm, and were 
probably in their second instar. They had spun a thin web over the 
tip of the Lonicera leaf. A thorough search was made in other 
sites where intermedia had flown the previous year, but entirely 
without success. This particular glade was bounded on the north 
side by a steep rocky slope with scattered birch and alder, and on 
the south by a belt of larch and spmce. The ground cover was of 
Solidago, Geranium, and various grasses. Clumps of the aforemen- 
tioned Lonicera caendea formed rather straggly bushes among the 
rocks. The larvae themselves at this stage were light buff in colour, 
with darker brown spines, and rather indefinite lateral stripes of 
darker brown. They resembled rather pale, variegated examples of 
the larva of Euphydryas aurinia Rott. at the same stage, and moved 
in the same sort of jerky way over their web. 

The leaf spray was removed, with the web intact, andplacedm 
an air-tight plastic box. In an attempt to reduce condensation this 
was kept in a cool place in the dark until after our return to England 
a few days later. Notwithstanding the lack of sunlight the larvae 
fed freely throughout on the fresh leaves of Lonicera offered to 
them. On returning home I caged them with my usual arrangement 
of metal hoops covered with stretched nylon (ladies 'tights' material) 
over a flower pot containing the growing food plant. This plant of 
Lonicera caendea was quite small and was soon eaten up, but to 
my relief the larvae readily accepted ordinary British Lonicera 
periclymemim. During the last few days of August the larvae moul- 
ted en masse on the surface of the web. The shed larval skins were 
left in situ and the batch of caterpillars migrated to another area 
of the plant. At this stage (third instar) they had darkened in colour. 
The buff-brown colour remained and was particularly obvious on the 
centre of the dorsum, but the spines and lateral markings had 
become blackish -brown. They measured 6 mm in length by 0.7mm 
in diameter. They fed less and less, then suddenly on September 
15th, all except two or three disappeared. A careful search showed 
that they had secreted themselves about 7 cm from the surface of 
the ground in a small collection of dead Lonicera leaves, the centre 
of which was bound together by fairly robust web through which 
the larvae could just be seen. They were kept outside under the shel- 
ter of a large birch tree throughout the winter and the first larvae 
emerged to sun themselves in mid January of the following year. 



HYPODRYAS INTERMEDIA IN EUROPE 41 

There was a fairly high mortaHty at this stage. I estimated the 
original batch numbered about 50 to 60 examples and perhaps half 
of these died during the winter. Of the 30 or so that survived, some 
failed to feed and I brought two batches of six or seven individuals 
apiece inside during early February. These fed readily on Lonicera 
periclymenum and underwent ecdysis after three weeks, then enter- 
ing the fourth instar. At this stage the larvae had started to look 
even more distinctive. The spines had become a glossy black, the 
dark stripes on either side of the dorsum and lateral parts' of the 
body were also blackish. Size: Approximately 9 mm by 1.5 mm. 

They continued to feed indoors on honeysuckle and moulted 
again after another three weeks. The fifth instar caterpillar was a 
handsome black spiny creature, with bright yellow markings. Each 
segment on the dorsum had two yellow spots, then a black area, 
then posteriorly a large yellow mark. The black spines arose from 
a broad black line and below this there were rather duller yellow 
spots around the level of the spiracles. The forelegs were black 
whereas clasper and rear set of legs wete purplish brown. Size: 
15 mm by 2 mm. The batches of larvae brought inside reached this 
stage in late April and there were six in all. 

After this fourth moult these six refused all food. Room tem- 
perature was increased slightly and they were exposed to as much 
sunhght as possible and even offered different food plants, such as 
plantain and scabious, as well as the two Lonicera species they had 
formerly fed on, all to no avail. As the temperature was increased 
they became more and more restless and eventually died. 

The larvae that had been kept outside took until late May/ 
early June to reach the same stage (fifth instar) and there were 
approximately 15 in this batch. To my despair these also fed in a 
very desultory way, if at all, after the fourth moult. They con- 
gregated in httle groups of two or three in shady places, usually 
under dead leaves, or in folds of the netting, and gradually became 
more and more immobile in spite of the increasing heat and leng- 
thening days of summer. This phenomenon occasionally happens 
when Euphydryas aurinia larvae are kept in crowded conditions 
after hibernation, and in these cases the larva remain until the 
Autumn in a state of diapause and then die. I had already tried 
forcing with notable lack of success, and there was certainly no 
problem with over-crowding. I therefore transferred the cage to a 
shadier place and left the remaining larvae to their own devices. 



LEGEND TO FIGURES (OPPOSITE) 

Hypodryas intermedia Men. Fig. 1, 9 , ex larva, Val Roseg, Pontresina. 
Fig. 2, 5th instar larva, just before 2nd diapause. Fig. 3, final instar larva. 
Fig. 4, final instar larva. Fig. 5, pupa. Photos. C. J. Luckens. Scale (approx.): 
Fig. l,x0.75.Fig. 2,x 3. Figs. 3,4, x 1.75. Fig. 5, x 2.25. 



42 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

Eventually all 15 sought out rolled-up beech leaves which I had 
hastily provided, and in twos and threes, settled down in these 
tube-like shelters which they partially sealed with silken strands. 
A single larva emerged in late August and recommenced feeding for 
a day or two, but then went once again to one of the leaf hideouts. 
The rest remained immobile throughout the summer and a brief look 
in November revealed at least 1 1 healthy looking larva. 

Just before we moved house in late January 1982, I inspected 
the cage, which had been left out in the open throughout the cold 
winter of 1981/82. It was a cold but sunny day and somewhat to 
my surprise I saw that four larvae were out of their winter quarters 
and were sunning themselves on dead leaves. The small Lonicera 
caenilea plant was not in leaf, but I found some partially open 
leaf buds of Lunicera periclymemtm and inserted these twigs in the 
earthof the pot,just incase the larvae were ready to feed. I did not see 
more than four larvae at any time after their second hibernation and 
after a very rainy spell in early February this number dwindled to 
two. Their appearances were very sporadic until late February, and 
I am not altogether sure whether or not they underwent a moult 
at this time. On March 1st I noticed the first signs of feeding — on 
the leaf buds of the native food plant. Both larvae fed regularly 
during the rest of March, and one, noticeably larger than the other, 
became immobile on the last day of the month, completing its 
moult on April 2nd. Thereafter this individual grew rapidly and 
quickly stripped the small plant of Lonicera caenilea. It was trans- 
ferred to another cage with a large plant of L. periclymemim. 

The full grown larva was approximately 34 to 35 mm in length 
by 4 to 5 mm in diameter. Along the side and back were black 
markings from which four rows of glossy spines emerged. Around 
the spiracles and along the dorsum the larva was marked with heavy 
golden dots and blotches. The claspers and hind legs were pale 
purplish brown and the forelegs black. 

On April 20th one larva started spinning a pad of silk on the 
netting of the cage and by the next day had suspended for pupation. 
I was alarmed to see, that evening, that it appeared to have fallen 
from its silken pad, but the following day it apparently started the 
spinning process again (slightly to one side of the previous site), 
and this time suspended itself safely completing pupation on April 
24th. The other smaller larva underwent its final moult on the same 
day and pupated on May 1 1th. 

The pupa of intermedia is similar to that oi Euphydryas aurinia 
but is longer and sliglitly greyer in appearance. It is whitish buff in 
colour with a line of black markings along the side, spotted black 
and orange on the abdominal segments. The wing cases are slightly 
paler and have a pattern of black markings somewhat heavier than 
that of aurinia. The first pupa showed signs of darkening on May 
19th and emerged on May 22nd precisely four weeks after pupation. 



H YPODR YAS INTERMEDIA IN EUROPE 43 

The other had a much shorter period of pupation (ca Wi weeks) 
emerging on May 29th. Both were females. 

Two main points emerged from this experiment: (1) Thougli 
the larvae preferred their native Lonicera caemlea they would really 
eat Lonicera periclymeuum at all stages of their development. 
(2) Persistence of biennial life cycle. In spite of the vagaries of its 
weather, Southern England has a generally warmer climate and a 
more protracted "growing season" then that of the sub Alpine 
levels that intermedia frequents..^ In spite of these very different 
conditions compared to those of their natural habitat the larvae 
persisted in going into diapause after the 4th moult, even when 
daylight hours and warmth were increasing. Attempts to force 
development artificially resulted in death. This suggests a deeply 
ingrained biological habit of the two year life cycle. 

In view of these findings it would be most interesting to com- 
pare the life cycle of intermedia with those of its congeners, H. 
cynthia and H. iduna\ both of which are exposed to an even shorter 
"growing season". It would be surprising indeed, if these closely 
related species did not share this biennial habit also, and that is 
something I very much hope to investigate over the next few seasons. 

The closely-related lowland maturna is of primary interest 
however. By good fortune my friend Harold Short was rearing 
maturna of German origin during the two years I was engaged on 
intermedia. I was able to compare the larvae and was struck by the 
great similarity between the two species. The larval markings seemed 
virtually identical in pattern although the warm, golden-yellow 
patches in intermedia were perhaps slightly brighter than the more 
lemon-yellow shade of maturna. These maturna larvae were also 
reared throughout on Lonicera periclymenum . It was interesting to 
hear that several of Harold Short's maturna went into diapause 
at around the fourth or fifth instar, in late spring, and refused 
further food. Unfortunately these particular examples all perished 
during their second winter. Short's supplier in Germany informed 
him that these maturna lai^vae occasionally survived a second hiber- 
nation, but when this did happen the imagines nearly always proved 
to be female. As Hypodryas maturna is becoming so scarce in 
Western Europe a thorough investigation into its ecology and life 
history would seem a priority. 



2as far as I could ascertain from enquiries among the local people at Pontre- 
sina, Val Roseg is rarely free of snow before early May. Thus there are four 
clear months before the onset of autumn which the larvae could use for feed- 
ing after the first hibernation. After the second hibernation, the larvae again 
emerging from diapause after the snows melt in May, would have only IVi 
to 3 months to feed up.pupate and produce imagines in July, which is the 
usual flight period of intermedia in this area. This, in fact was almost exactly 
the time pattern followed by the intermedia when reared in S. England. 



44 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

Summary 

Probable second instar larvae of//, intermedia were found feeding 
on Lonicera caenilea in Eastern Switzerland in mid-August 1980. 
These were reared in Southern England, and took two years to 
reach the imaginal state; this biennial life cycle being maintained 
in spite of attempts at forcing. Larvae (at various stages) and pupa 
are described. Two female intermedia imagines were obtained. 

Acknowledgements 

I am indebted to the following lepidopterists for their help and 
encouragement in a variety of ways: T. Bernhard, R. F. Bretherton, 
J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, N. J. Derry, Dr. L. G. Higgins and Dr. T. W. 
Tolman. I would also like to thank my wife, Carola, who as usual 
had the task of refining the text and eliminating grammatical errors, 
and Mrs F. Moffat for once again typing the manuscript. Finally, I 
am most grateful to the Entomological Club whose generous grant 
made the colour plate possible. 

References 

Barnaby, T., 1967. European Alpine Flowers in Colour. Nelson, 
London. 

Besnoist, G., 1970. Note sur I'abondance d'Euphydryas cynthia au 
Lac d'Allos. AlexanorVl: 3 19-320. 

Bourgogne, J. and de Lesse, H., 1952. Un Rhopalocere de plus a 
inscrire au Catalogue des lepidop teres de France: Euphydryas 
ichnea Bdv. (=intermedia Men.). Rev. Franc de Lepidopterologie 
1952:143-152. 

Bretherton, R. F. and de Worms, C. G. M., 1961. Pontresena 1960. 
Ent.Rec. 73:4448. 

Ehrlich, P. R. and A. M., 1961. How to know the Butterflies. Du- 
buque, Iowa. 

Ferris, C. and Brown, F. M., 1980. Butterflies of the Rocky Moun- 
tain States. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman. 

Grey-Wilson, C. and Blamey, M., 1979. The Alpine Flowers of 
Britain and Europe. Collins, London. 

Henriksen, H. J. and Kretzer, L B., 1982. The Butterflies of Scan- 
dinavia in Nature. Skanderavisk Bogforlag, Odense. 

Higgins, L. G., 1950. A descriptive catalogue of the Palaearctic 
Euphydryas. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 101(12):437-489. 

Higgins, L. G. and Riley, N. D., 1970. A Field Guide to the Butter- 
flies of Britain and Europe. Collins, London. 

Higgins, L. G., 1978. A Revision of the Genus Euphydryas, Scudd. 
(Lep., Nymphalidae).£'«r. Gaz., 29: 109-115. 

Howe, W. H. (Ed.), 1975. The Butterflies of North America. Double- 
day & Co., New York. 



HYPODR YAS INTERMEDIA IN EUROPE 45 

Luckens, C. J., 1980. Butterflies in Eastern Switzerland 1979. 

Ent.Rec, 92:\03-lOS. 
Luckens, C. J., 1982. Butterflies in Eastern Switzerland 1980. 

Ent.Rec, 94: 173-174. 
Polunin, 0., 1972. The Concise Flowers of Europe. O. U. P., London. 
Rappaz, R., 1979. Les Papillons du Valais. Imprimerie Fillet, Mar- 

tingny. 
Verity, R., 1950. La Farfalle diurne d'ltalia, IV. Firenze. 
Wheeler, G., 1903. Butterflies of Switzerland and the Alps of Central 

Europe. London. 



The White Admiral: Lado(?a Camilla L. New to Brecon- 
shire. - Three White Admirals were recorded near Crickhowell 
last July, two of them at a spot beside the river Grwyne. Of these, 
one was noted by my daughter Sarah, on the 26th, and two by her 
and my wife on the morning of the 27th, one of which I was able 
to observe later that day and fully identify. 

The third specimen was noted, on the 22nd, at a locality be- 
tween Crickhowell and Llangynidr by the mother and sister of Mr. 
M. Porter the Breconshire Nature Trust's Botanical Recorder, who 
were able to provide conclusive proof of identity. — J. P. SaNKEY- 
BaRKER , Plas Llangattock, Crickhowell, Poweys NP8 IPA, 18.1.1985. 

Mythimna obsoleta Hbn.: Obscure Wainscot and Chi- 
lodes maritimus Tausch.: Silky Wainscot in N. Lancs (V.C. 
60) and S. Westmorland (V.C. 69) in 1983-84. - At approx. 
3.30 a.m. B.S.T. on June 21 1984 I boxed a male Mythimna obsoleta 
on my house wall near to the m.v. trap. The only other M. obsoleta 
I have taken was 27 years ago, at Skipwith Common, Yorkshire, 
where the late C. R. Haxby and myself were operating a m.v. light 
trap, and which constituted the first record of this species for 
Yorkshire. I can find no previous record oi obsoleta for Cumbria, 
nor is it shown to occur so far north on the distribution map in 
Heath et al, Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. I 
also took at Beetham a male Chilodes maritimus resting outside the 
light trap, in the early hours of July 9 1984. Two C. maritimus 
were caught in 1983 only two miles west of here (see En t. Rec. 96: 
221) in N. Lancs (V.C.60), and one was found dead in 1982 at 
Leighton Moss, and later exhibited at the Lancs. & Cheshire Ent. 
& Nat. Hist. Soc. The N. Lancs specimens were all ab. bipunctata 
Haw., whereas the Beetham specimen is a typical male. 

Despite continuous light trapping in these areas since 1970, 
with Rothamsted and other m.v. traps, neither of these two species 
have been recorded until recently . Mr. Ernest E. Emmett of Lancaster 
showed me a specimen of M. obsoleta which he took in N. Lancs 
SD47, also in 1984. - J. Briggs, 5 Deepdale Close, Slackhead, 
Beetham, nr. Milnthorpe, Cumbria LA7 7AY. 



46 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 

By R.P. Demuth* 

(Continued from Vo. 97, p.l9) 

I paid three more visits to Unst, the next two being in the period 
when my diary lapsed as I had belatedly discovered that young 
ladies were at least as interesting as moths and so I have nothing to 
go on but my memory. The first of these was the one with Arnold 
Hughes which I have already mentioned. Arnold was a keen Lanca- 
shire collector and then moved to Surrey. Unst finished him off and 
he never collected again. Next time I went, I went with a fisher- 
man and this worked very well as we would drive over together 
from Baltasound to Burra Firth and I would collect all night and he 
with his ghillie would row up and down the Firth trawling for sea 
trout. I went with him once and it was quite exciting as the difficu- 
lty was not the catching of the fish but the getting of the fish into 
the boat without a seal getting it first. The ghillie, name of Aber- 
nethy, took a shotgun with him and any seal irwvestigating with its 
head above water got a warning shot but we often landed bits of 
fish or no fish at all. All true Britons now love seals but I do not. 
My friend did however land one specimen sea trout intact and we 
waited at the Abernethy cottage for sufficient daylight to take its 
photograph but when the time was right the Abernethy cat had 
eaten off its tail! Abernethy had watched well-to-do southerners 
coming all the way to Unst to catch some rare moth and it occurred 
to him that if he could catch this moth and post it down to London 
he might be into a gold mine, anyhow more of a gold mine than 
rowing fishermen up and down the Firth all night. The only trouble 
was that of all the quantity of moths around he did not know 
which was the treasured one and he was always suggesting he should 
join me on my rounds and I, not liking the idea at all, would tell him 
I was in too much of a hurry to take him with me. In exasperation 
he shouted "Mr. Demuth is always in a hurry. He was born in a 
hurry!" Meanwhile Mrs. Abernethy would knit the most superb 
Fair Isle jerseys. 

My diary begins again in 1946 when I left the Navy and in 
1947 I paid my last Unst visit. I met Alfred Hedges at Findhorn 
for some preliminary collecting and then went on alone. (Hedges 
was a brewer and lived then in the Isle of Man. He was a fine ento- 
mologist and had a collection of the highest quality with every 
specimen in superb condition.) On August 5 we had an interesting 
night on the Culbin Sands where we sugared birch and pine. On the 
first round sugar was blank with a few moths on ragwort. It then 
began to rain hard with a strong wind from the N.W. On the next 
*Watercombe House, Waterlane, Oakridge, Stroud, Glos. GL6 7PN. 



REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 47 

round moths were on sugar in numbers in the pouring rain and they 
continued to come until 1 am. Depuncta and paleacea were just 
coming out. 

I arrived on Unst on August 8 and stayed at Ordaal, a long way 
round on the south side of the Baltasound inlet and not so con- 
veniently placed as the Nord Hotel which had been long since closed. 
I at once went to see Robbie Mouat the postman, a delightful man 
and a natural naturalist and asked him about wild parsley for templi 
larvae. He said he had plenty in his garden and in a space which 
could be covered by a large bath towel I dug up 60 pupae in 20 
minutes. They were so common that a spade full of earth might 
contain six pupae. I had hoped that the moth would be dark or 
somehow different but when they emerged they hardly differed 
from the normal. Next day I collected conspersa larvae from the 
maritime campion growing on the shingle at Haroldswick. They were 
so common that I found it difficult to find any intact campion 
heads to take back to feed them on. Unlike the templi these pro- 
duced a fine series of the dark Shetland form, many without any 
light markings. The insect that pleased me most was cursoria and for 
these I went to the sands at the head of Burra Firth. My diary: 
"Cursoria in every sort of variety was abundant on the sands though 
unfortunately almost over and only one in ten a se table insect. 
Some of the forms were as lovely as any I have ever seen. There was 
a strong wind and consequently they would not settle on the sheet 
but I find the way to get them is to walk slowly across the sands 
with the lamp shining on the ground when cursoria ^mo^xXy females 
busy egg-laying, will come running and fluttering along the sand 
towards the light. On trying to box them they roll up and half 
bury themselves in the sand and I think this is what they do in the 
daytime, hence the speed with which they remove their scales. 
I also think the eggs are probably laid in the sand."' 

Glareosa var. edda was, after graminis, the commonest insect 
and at light on a small heath near Ordaal I reckon to have attracted 
about 200 graminis and \Q0 glareosa all in prime condition and all 
edda except for one normal grey one. Later on this expedition at 
Spiggie at the extreme south of the mainland of Shetland my diary 
reads "a good few glareosa, all grey, saw no var. edda at all. Odd!" 
It was this oddness which attracted Bernard Kettlewell's attention 
and led to his expeditions to Shetland and a very detailed paper 
on edda and the conclusion that the extra light during the night 
period on Unst enabled the all night flying Common Gulls to pick 
off the grey glareosa so that only the dark edda survived through 
natural selection. 

The west coast of Unst is high precipitous cliff and quite unin- 
habited and I spent a night there with my petrol lamp and sheet 
perched on a cUff ledge and took very striking and large forms of 
xanthographa, also fwya commonly and templi just coming out on 



48 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

August 17th, six weeks earlier than one might expect it in the south. 
My diary reads "Marvellous view and endless chattering, grunting 
and mewing from sea birds, seals, otters." 

On this Unst expedition I had hired a car and the island was 
suffering an exceptional drought so that the peat hag was as hard as 
brick and I could drive the car to places which in a wet year it would 
be impossible to reach. I drove the car well off the road one night 
and parked it so that the headlights shone down on to the ground 
to see what would be attracted. Someone passing saw it and reported 
to the Island policeman "a car right off the road with its nose in a 
ditch. The driver must be dead or badly injured as he hasn't switched 
off his headliglits." Out bicycled the policeman to fmd a busy 
lepidopterist at work and we both laughed at the report. Next night 
I was at Burra Firth (the cursoria expedition) and I was seen from 
the lighthouse shore station slowly walking back and forth with my 
bright light. "Someone with a bright light poaching salmon" and out 
came the policeman on his bicycle and after a seven mile ride not so 
pleased to see me. "Please sir tell me where you are going each 
night." I followed this good advice as next night I was on the cliffs 
of the west coast and my light was seen from the neighbouring 
island of Yell where no light had ever been seen before. Our police- 
man was again alerted: "Bright light half-way down the cliff near 
Petaster. Think there must be a wreck. Shall we call out the life- 
boat?" Our policeman did not tell me his reply. For the lifeboat to 
have appeared below me crewed by eight lusty men of Shetland 
could have been an encounter I would have preferred to avoid. 
I might mention that on August 16th I collected under the aurora 
borealis which dimmed the value of my light. It was uncanny and 
impressive. Great beams of light like searchlights appearing over the 
northern horizon, getting brighter, flickering, fading, getting brighter 
again. I had no idea the aurora showed itself so early in the autumn. 

While still on the subject of the police I will mention another 
encounter. I had my light on a remote part of the Culbin Sands 
miles from anywhere. It was a pitch dark night with no stars. Never- 
theless my light was spotted. Probably a crashed aeroplane! About 
midnight two policemen arrived from Forres. They had walked a 
long way but were interested and amused by what they found. 
After about half an hour one said "It's getting cold so we will be 
off to bed." After another half hour there they were back again, 
not so cold but not so amused either. It is perfectly simple to walk 
across the Culbin Sands towards a light but equally impossible with 
no other landmarks to walk a straight course away from it. They had 
to wait with me until dawn. 

Earlier in that summer (1947) I had been to Folkestone to see 
Morley, surely the most delightful of all entomologists of that 
generation. He had been in charge of education in Palestine and had 
retired to Folkestone and there at Christchurch in Sandgate Road 



REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 49 

was the then famous "Morley's Wall". It was famous for the wide 
variety of perla which sat on it from almost black to yellow/brown. 
On July 19 I saw one blackish (but not extreme) form and three 
yellow/browns out of about 25 all told. Interesting if they still 
exist? 

I had been in contact with Morley earlier in 1947 when I had 
found ononaria in numbers at Sandwich in Kent. I had previously 
taken a single ononaria before the war on Dungeness which my 
diary refers to as 'my rarest moth'. My diary: 'June 20 (1947). 
In the evening on the stretch of sand dune just south of the Princes 
Links Club House, Sandwich. Dense drizzle all the evening but 
warm and dark. Sugared marram but all the sugar was washed off. 
A few ripae of the local brownish grey form, also albicolon and 
other common insects. First insect at light was ononaria. followed 
by about 20 others in quick succession and many more sitting on 
grass stems, in fact I began to doubt my identification, but I was 
quite right and was the discoverer of one of our rarest moths in 
great abundance. Other insects at hght were pygmaeola in some 
numbers, octogessinia and villica. I counted over 20 porcellus 
sitting on strands of barbed wire near patches of bedstraw. No 
doubt the soaking wet herbage had encouraged them to rest on 
something drier.'' 

I have no doubt that the war had caused the upsurge in ono- 
naria. In normal times this stretch of sand dunes is trodden flat by 
thousands of holidaymakers' feet. During the war it was completely 
out of bounds and a huge anti-tank defence scaffolding had been 
erected along the whole length of this coast and interwoven with 
barbed wire and the weak growth of restharrow and other plants had 
luxuriated over the backs of the sand dunes in an unbroken mass. 

Next day, I took the ononaria to show Morley and he jumped 
into my car and we returned to Sandwich. 

June 21. In the afternoon Morley and I walked about the same 
spot (Sandwich). In less than an hour we caught and examined over 
40 ononaria looking for colour variations. He kept a lovely pink one 
but we released most of them., Ononaria flies gently in the sun but 
is not so easy to disturb when the sun is in. It sits on grass blades 
in an inverted position. The correct type of locality requires rest- 
harrow growing in combination with longish grass and some shelter. 
On August 30th I was at Sandwich again and the second brood was 
out but in poor condition. My diary reads that they are much 
paler than the first brood but this may be due to their poor con- 
dition. Kettlewell and I dealt with the larvae next year. My diary 
May 30 (1948) reads "We went to Sandwich to look for ononaria 
larvae in the place where I had found the moth last year. We 
got about 60 in two hours. It was sunny and they were feeding 
on the tops of the sprays of restharrow, but they are the same 
colour as the leaves and not easy to see. They bite off the top 



50 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL.97 15.iv.85 

of the shoot and this drops off and gives the show away. They 
varied from half to full grown but we met a young fellow from 
Canterbury there and he told us that 50% had pupated and Bernard 
found one pupa. 

Easter was early in 1948 and I spent it at Rannoch. Rannoch 
was the original locality for nubeculosa but it appeared to have died 
out until a specimen was found in the power station north-west 
of the lake the previous spring. The Rannoch specimens were said 
to be lighter coloured than the Aviemore ones and I thought it 
worth investigating. I spent the first day fruitlessly e.xaming birch 
trunks on the south of the lake and the morning of the second day 
on the north side. Then as I drove along a half mile east of Killi- 
chonan I spotted a pair on a telegraph pole and that was the place 
and they were on the tree trunks all around. My diary concludes that 
this insect requires old trees with roots in dry ground and in a posi- 
tion fully exposed to the sun. 

On May 15 1 was back at Rannoch (how one did get about in 
those days and still earn one's living in London). I climbed Meall 
Dearg for alpicola and got 25, the majority of larvae on the point of 
pupating. There was a drought and the lichen under which they 
pupated was very dry and sharp and this cut and killed another 
ten. Melanopa was in some numbers flying about in the sun and 
crawling over plants and stones. Years ago, before the war, Cockayne 
had told me how to get melanopa. You collected branches of bear- 
berry in full flower from the high ground south of Loch Rannoch 
and you took them to the Rannoch to Dalchalloch road where it 
crosses the high saddle and you put them in little neat piles in the 
middle of the road when the sun was shining and melanopa would 
arrive and go to the flowers in the centre of the bunch and all you 
needed to do was to put your net over each bunch in turn. I did this 
in 1936 and it worked beautifully. The road is now B847 with in 
summer a car every few minutes. In 1936 I cannot remember a single 
car disturbed my neat little piles! 

(To be continued) 

SCOPULA RUBIGINATA HUFN.: TAWNY WAVE IN CORNWALL. - 
Two specimens of this insect were attracted to my m/v light at the 
Lizard, August 22nd., 1984. I have been unable to trace any pre- 
vious record of this moth for Cornwall, although R. South (The 
Moths of the British Isles, 1908) mentions a casual specimen taken 
in the Newton Abbot district of S. Devon, 1902. The two Lizard 
specimens, undoubtedly immigrants, arrived on a night noted for 
vast numbers of Plusia gamma L. which fortunately settled on the 
illuminated rock face rather than enter the trap. — B. K. WEST, 
36 Briar Road, Bexley, Kent. 

CORRIGENDUM. - Vol. 96 (Nov .-Dec. 1984) p. 243, line 12: 
for 'P. J. Hammond' read 'P. M. Hammond'. 



ARCHIPS ARGYROSPILA WALKER NEW TO BRITAIN 51 

ARCHIPS ARGYROSPILA WALKER 

(LEP.:TORTRICIDAE): 

A SPECIES NEW TO BRITAIN 

By M. J. Sterling * and P. Sterling ** 

On the 29th of April 1984, Mr. Brian Statham was contacted 
by the manager of a florists shop in Matlock, Derbyshire, (VC57) 
and informed of a moth which was flying round the premises. The 
specimen was captured and passed on to MJS. Being unable to do 
any better than "large foreign Tortricid", it was passed on to the 
British Museum of Natural History by MJS for identification and 
has been determined by Dr. J. D. Bradley as Archips argvrospila 
Walker. 




The following information has been given to us by Dr. Bradley. 
The species is a native of the USA where it is commonly known as 
the Fruit Tree Leaf Roller. The larva feeds predominantly on Apple 
and Cherry and sometimes causes severe foUa^e and fruit -scar damage; 
it also feeds on Hawthorn and Oak and is probably mildly poly- 
phagous. The species has various forms or "ecological" races and 
as the specimen from Matlock is a female with dark hindwings it 
probably originated from the eastern States. 

Given that the species occurs at similar latitudes to our own, it 
could perhaps be found breeding in this country as a result of 
further imports and should not necessarily be dismissed, if found, 
as an accidental introduction. We are, however, convinced that in 
the circurhstances the Matlock specimen must have been an import. 

As there seems to be no mention of this species in previous 
British literature we have made the following description of the 
Matlock specimen. Female. Wingspan 19mm. Head greyish-brown, 
collar pale ochreous; antennae and prolegs greyish-brown, palps 

*Dept. of Law, University Park, Nottingham. 

**Dept. of Agriculture and Forest Sciences, Commonwealth Forestry Institute, 
South Parks Road, Oxford. 



52 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

Straight and very short, greyish-brown. Thorax purplish -brown 
with some whitish scales on the metathoracic segment. Forewing 
ground colour whitish, densely irrorated purplish-brown except 
towards costa, giving the appearance of a broad white band run- 
ning along the costa, except where it is interrupted by fasciae (see 
below). Three more or less defined dark brown fasciae running 
obliquely and distally from costa narrowing towards but reaching 
dorsum; first towards base; second before Vi; third at %. Pre-tornal 
blotch dark brown. Forewing cilia grey. Hindwings grey, cilia pale 
ochreous. 

The specimen is to be presented, in accordance with the wishes 
of the captor, to the Derbyshire Entomological Society reference 
collection. 

Acknowledgements 

For determining the specimen we are grateful to Dr. J. D. 
Bradley. For the photograph of the specimen figured we thank 
Mr. B. Case, Dept. of Biology, Photographic Unit, University of 
Nottingham. We also wish to thank the manager of "Fleur", florists 
of Matlock, Derbyshire. 



Red-necked Footman: Atolmis rubricollis L.in Essex. - 
At Ingrave (TQ 6292) on 2.vi. 1976, my son Rory found a moth 
unfamiliar to him which .proved to be the Red-necked Footman. 
The species had not been recorded from Essex since 1952, in which 
year Mr. A. J. Dewick took it near Bradwell-on-Sea, according to 
Firmin et al., Guide to the Butterflies and Moths of Essex, p. 48. 
- I. McClenaghaN, 20 St. Nicholas Grove, Ingrave, Brentwood, 
EssexCM13 3RA. 

COLIAS CROCEUS GEOF. IN S.E.LONDON, 1983. - Although 
not myself fortunate enough to catch a glimpse of the Clouded 
Yellow in my home district (evocative of summer holidays on the 
south coast in one's youth) following its great invasion last year, I 
have since been informed that it was repeatedly seen, sometimes 
even in good numbers, in a small field of lucerne, etc., at Kidbrooke, 
owned by a Greenwich wildlife conservation group. Less surpri- 
singly, it was noted also farther east in Thamesmead. I kept a fre- 
quent look-out on Woolwich Common where clovers and other 
legumes abound but lucerne is absent. Evidently the latter exerts an 
attraction so potent as to prevent the butterflies from wandering far 
afield, even where isolated in a relatively small area. All the same, it 
does seem a little strange that in my various sorties around Charlton, 
only two miles from the field at Kidbrooke, I was not favoured with 
a single sighting. - A. A. ALLEN , 16.ix.84. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL FORAYS IN FRANCE 53 

ENTOMOLOGICAL FORAYS IN FRANCE, 1983 

By B. GOATER* 

My wife and I made our first excursion to France this year on 
8th April. Our habit is to cross to Boulogne and drive hard to a 
charming spot in the Foret de Hez (Oise), to the east of Paris, where 
we spend the first night. Early next morning we drove on to the 
Rhone valley, through warm drizzle which later gave way to hazy 
sunshine. We stopped for a picnic lunch beside a pinewood deva- 
stated by processionaries {Thawnetopoea pityocampa D. & S.). 
The snake-like processions were common on the road and we kept a 
few wliich gave us acute urticarial rash. In the same area,Nvf>iplialis 
polychloros L. was seen at blackthorn flowers; later in the day, we 
saw N. antiopa L. and Inachis io L. on the wing. The night was spent 
in a calcareous quarry above the west bank of the Rhone in the 
Ardeche, opposite the elegant town of Valence. About 50 species of 
moth were recorded at light. The commonest was the large spring 
form of Epimecia ustula Freyer in very fresh condition, a species 
I had not encountered before. Other notable captures included 
three Dasycampa nibiginea D. & S. and two D. ery throe ephala 
D. 6l S., both species giving eggs from which good series were sub- 
sequently bred, a dark female Lithophane socio Hufn. which also 
yielded a bred series, the common Orthosia spp. including the only 
O. popiileti Fabr. I have seen in France, Panolis jJammea D. & S., 
Mythimna sicula scirpi Dup., Valeria jaspidea de Vill., Aetinotia 
hyperiei D. & S., the silver grey form of Egira eonspicillaris L., 
Stegania trimaeulata de Vill., Eupithecia oxyeedrata Rambur in 
quantity, E. innotata Hufn. and Cyclophora suppunctaria Zell. 

In 1982, I took a short series of the local agrotid, Agrotis 
turatii Standfuss on the hills above la Voulte (Ardeche), and one of 
the main objectives in 1983 was to extend the series. We made two 
attempts, on 10th and 20th April, and failed both times. Judging by 
the other species present, we were too early in a season which was 
quite as retarded on the Continent as it was in Britain. Beating the 
the junipers yielded half grown larvae of Faehypasa limosa Serres: 
two were diseased, but I bred a male and a female. On spruce we 
obtained larvae of Tliera britanniea Turner, Hylaea fasciaria L. 
including f. prasinaria D. & S., and Puengeleria capreolaria D. & S. 
Larvae of Cymbalophora piidica Esp. were common at night on 
grass. 

The weather became extremely windy as we drove down into 
Provence. In 1982, at Digne, I found many workings oi Paranthrene 
tabaniformis Rott. in stems of sea buckthorn {Hippophae rhamnoides 
L.) and bred one moth. This year there were none. The nights were 
bitterly cold and we recorded nothing of note until the 13th, when 
*22 Reddings Avenue, Bushey, Hertfordshire, WD2 3PB. 



54 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

we found a strong colony of the brilliant geometer, Eunauthis plum- 
mistraha de Vill. flying by day in bright sunshine at Pic de la Gar- 
diette (Var). The speedy pyrale, Titanio pollinalis D. & S. was also 
present but difficult to catch. At night there, in clear, cool but 
reasonably still conditions Nolo subchlamydula Staud. came com- 
monly to light. Among the two dozen other species were some worn 
male Cerastis faceta Treits., Eupithecia cocciferata Mill, and Rho- 
ptria asperaria Hubn. 

The Mediterranean coast of France is all but ruined and it is 
extremely difficult to find workable habitat. We discovered a 
promising area at St. Aygulf near Frejus and were very disappointed 
when the night turned bitterly cold and almost nothing flew. We 
had to be content with some very grey Orthosia gracilis D. & S. 
and one Dicranura (Exaereta) ulmi D. & S. 

On 16th we called on M. and Mme. Dujardin in Nice who 
treated us with the utmost kindness whilst supersaturating my 
mind with French entomological lore. Afterwards we were taken 
to the limestone hills above Vence wherce we looked down on 
the twinkling lights of the conurbation along the coast, and set up 
our lamps in what was clearly a magnificent locality. By far the 
commonest moth on this occasion was Valeria oleagina D. & S., but 
it is really only in the S. E. corner of France and a most unlikely 
species to turn up in Richmond Park! The other interesting species 
was D. rubiginea, and in this locality it is very variable. Females 
were obtained and moths bred. It was astonishing to me to find it 
on these limestone hills, such a different habitat from the sandy, 
acid pine heaths of Surrey and Hampshire. We set up the next night 
lower down the hill, opposite a stone wall which is evidently known 
to all, entomologist or not, as the 'Mur de Boursin'. At last we 
enjoyed mild conditions and the number of species recorded rose 
accordingly. Dyscia lentiscaria Donzel was quite common, I took a 
fine fresh Eublernma ostrina Hubn., but probably the best insect 
was a male Endromis versicolora L. of the large, richly coloured 
subsp. meridionalis Rougeot, well south of its usual range. 

Up in the Alps at this time of year fly three interesting species, 
the arctiid Ocnogyna parasita Hubn. and the noctuids Perigrapha 
i-cinctum D. «fe S. and Dasypolia ferdinandi Ruhl. They are known to 
fly over the snow and somtimes get frozen into it. Thus we were to 
spend the next two nights in sheer misery, standing on the snow at 
1800m. beside the lamp, the first niglit in heavy rain and the second 
in paralysing cold. We failed to see any of these moths, but on the 
first night there was an extraordinary migration of thousands of 
Agrotis ipsilon Hufn., with a few Autographa gamma L., Agrotis 
segetum D. & S., Mythimna vitellina Hybn. and a cloud of Plutella 
xylostella L. The best moth was a single Hypena obesalis Treits. 

The weather was still bad as we began our journey home, and 
there was abundant evidence in the centre of France of recent 



ENTOMOLOGICAL FORAYS IN FRANCE 55 

devastating storms, with whole forests of young trees with their 
trunks smashed. We broke our journey in the Foret de Troncais 
(Alher), in which males of Aglia tail L. were disporting themselves 
among the beeches. Light produced D. erythrocephala ab. glabra 
Hubn. which duly laid, but very httle else. 

Summer was quite different. We set off on 27 July and had a 
fortnight of glorious weather, with an abundance of insect life 
wherever we went. On the first night, in the Foret de Hez, Cal- 
lopistria juventina StoU was the commonest moth, and the 68 other 
species recorded included the notodontids Drymonia ( Ochrostigma ) 
melagona Borkh., Notodonta torva Hubn. (10) and Gluphisia crenata 
Esp., several Palaeodrepana harpagida Esp., a female Hetewgenea 
asella D. & S., some of the small summer brood oi Plagodis pulveraria 
L., three Cryphia algae Fabr., Trisateles emortualis D. & S. and a 
good many worn Herminia Iwialis Scop. 

The next niglit we chose the edge of a young oak wood on 
rolhng limestone country south of Auxerre (Yonne) and had a 
spectacular catch of nearly a hundred species. Both Catocala sponsa 
L. and C. promissa D. & S. appeared at sugar and Ephesia fulminea 
Scop, came to light. So did Dendrolimus pini L., Odonestis pnini L., 
Drepam curx'atida Borkh., some more D. melagona, several Malaco- 
soma castrensis wliich one associates with salterns in Britain, Mega- 
nola albula D. & S., several Scopula nigropunctata Hufn., Scotop- 
teryx moeniata Scop., Horisme aquata Hubn. Among the noctuids 
were Acronicta strigosa D. & S., A. auricoma D. & S., A. alni 
L., several Polyphaenis sericata Esp. past their best, Heliothis viri- 
placa Hufn., Emmelia trabealis Scop, and Paracolax derivalis Hubn. 

Our next destination was the Marais de Cormaranche (Ain) 
and the particular objective Paradiarsia punicea Hubn. which we 
failed to find. However, over 75 species put in an appearance includ- 
ing Epione repandaria Hufn. and E. paralellaria D. & S.,Eilema luta- 
rella L., Herminia tarsicrinalis Knoch, Polychrisia moneta Fabr., 
Autographa bractea D. & S., dark Mamestra suasa D. & S. and many 
common English species. 

30th July quickly became hot and sunny, and soon after setting 
forth I saw my first apoUo, a grand sight. There were many species 
of butterfly in the subalpine meadows of the Ain which we enjoyed 
with out wishing to catch them or study them critically. We came 
across a colony of Zygaena carniolica Scop., most of the moths 
resting on scabious heads. We were tempted to try a night op. in 
attractive countryside at Col de la Lebe and were rewarded with a 
single fresh Amphipyra perflua Fabr., a rarity in France and re- 
corded, as far as I can gather, only in the department of the Ain. The 
Berberis bushes were evidently the source of several Paraeulype 
berberata D. & S. and our first Auchmis detersa Esp., the latter 
rather worn. Puengeleria capreolaria and Peribatodes secundaria Esp. 
came from the spruce woods. 



56 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

The next day found us in the Alps at last, and we explored the 
contry of the Savoie between Valloire and Col du Galibier. By day, 
Crocota lutearia Fabr. and Perizoma verberata Scop, were freely 
disturbed from long vegetation beside the river near Valloire, but we 
settled for the night higlier up at about 2400m. and experienced a 
foray in which almost everything was new to our eyes. Large num- 
bers of the big noctuids Apamea zeta Treits., A. lateritia Hufn. and 
Rhyacia helve tina Boisd. dominated the sheet, among them Cher- 
sotis cuprea D. & S., C ocellina D. & S., C. larixia Guen. and one 
C. andereggii Boisd., Ochropleura celsicola Bellier, Hada proximo 
Hubn., in some numbers, five Eiichalcia variabilis Pill. & Mitt., 
several Agrotis simplonia Geyer, Rhyacia grisescens Fabr., Lemonia 
taraxaci D. & S., Perizoma obsoletaria H,-S., Aplocera praeformata 
Hubn. and A. simpliciata Treits. We retired, intoxicated, to bed — 
very late. 

In the morning we walked locally amid flowery rock gardens in 
sunshine; butterflies were plentiful, including several species of 
small fritillary and Colias phicomone Esp. We netted three Pygmaena 
fusca Thunb., Scopula immorata L., Idaea flaveolaria Hubn., Setina 
aurita ramosa Fabr. and several species of Zygaena. My wife found 
a female Malacosoma alpicola Stand, at rest on vegetation, and 
shortly after midday I noticed a small dark moth flying low over the 
turf before shooting off at great speed. In a minute or so, it or 
another was back and I netted it — a male alpicola. By lying on the 
ground at this spot and pouncing as they arrived, I was able to net 
four more, but missed as many. They appeared to be assembling, 
though no female could be found. 

Our intention was to spend the next night really high, but we 
were forced down to Lautaret by a spectacular cold thunderstorm. 
The night, even here, seemed most unpropitious, so we set up the 
trap and retired. Next morning, it was full of moths, notably eiglit 
Cucullia lucifuga D. & S., Apamea rubrirena Treits., Chersotis al- 
pestris f.c, Eriopygodes imbecilla Fahr., Eurois occulta L.,Paradiar- 
sia sobrina Dup., Euchalcia variabilis, E. modesta Hubn., Hadena 
caesia D. & S. Xestia ochreago Hubn., Heliophobus reticulata Goeze, 
many H. proximo, several more O. celsicola and four of the small 
arctiid, Chelis maculosa Gerning. 

We drove by stages to Esteng (Alp. Marit.) which was to be our 
headquarters for the next three nights. This is another rich montane 
locality (1800m.) which yielded, among other things, many A. 
deterso and C. alpestris at flowers from dusk onwards, and at light 
several of the large, white Coscinio cribraria Candida Cyrillo, 
numerous Xestia ashworthii candelarum Stand., Ochropleura reni- 
gera Hubn. and Euxoa decora simulatrix Hubn., several Chersotis 
elegans Evers., Hoplodrina resperso D. & S., Caradrino selini Boisd., 
two C gilvo Donzel, Ochropleura celsicola and O. signifera D. & S., 
Opigena polygona D. & S., single A. rubrirena, Hadena tephroleuca 



ENTOMOLOGICAL FORAYS IN FRANCE 57 

Boisd., H. compta D. & S., and Syngrapha ain Hochenwarth. Among 
the geometers, there were many Eiipithecia semigraphata Bruand, 
Colostygia aptata Hubn., Eulithis prunata L., several Scotopteryx 
diniensis Neub. and P. berberata, Scapula incanata L., Idaea flaveo- 
laria, Hubn., Triphosa sabaudata Dup., Catarhoe aiailata Hufn. and 
Gnophos glaucinarius Hubn. 

On Aug. 5th we moved down to Guillaumes, 800m., and tried 
sugar beside the river. Several Catocala puerpera Giorna, one C 
promissa, one Mornio maura L. and two Lygephila craccae D. & S. 
were the principal visitors, while light attracted ^Z^rosro/a asclepiadis 
D. & S., Ochropleura nigrescens Hofner, E. occulta (2), P. sericata 
(2),Agrotis crassa Hubn. and C seliui in a total of 45 species. 

Next day we stopped for ablutions at an attractive waterfall on 
a tributary of the R. Var, and found under the bridge there many 
Ephesia nymphaea Esp. and a few Catocala nymphagoga Esp. We 
discovered that the area north of St. Martin Vesubie was heavily 
planted up with conifers and that camping was forbidden on account 
of the risk of fire, so after wandering about for some time we ended 
up at a promontory overlooking the valley near Valdeblore. This 
turned out to be another very productive spot, where we spent a 
second night. Among the many species new to us were Hyles vesper- 
tilio Esp., Ochropleura candelisequa D. & S. (3), Chersotis margari- 
tacea de Vill., Polymixis dubia Dup., Cryphia simulatricula Guen. 
(5), C. petricolor galathea Mill., Hoplodrina superstes Ochs., Eub- 
lemma parva Hubn., E. jucunda Hubn., Axia margarita Hubn., 
Eucrostis indigenata de Vill., Scopula submutata Treits., Idaea 
rufaria Hubn., /. mcmiliata D. & S.,/. calunetaria Staud.,/. vesubiata 
Mill., Cataclysnie riguata Hubn., Eu phyla frusta ta Treiis., Eupithecia 
gueneata Mab., Ecleora solieraria Rambur, and Gnophos furvatus 
D. & S., Others included Hyles lineata livornica Esp., Drymonia 
querna D. & S., Diacrisia sannio L., Nola chlamytulalis Hubn., 
O. nigrescens, Epilecta linogrisea D. & S., Cryphia raptricula D. & 
S.,P. sericata, Epimecia ustula (much smaller than the specimens seen 
in April), E. ostrina, E. purpurina D. 8l S., E. polygramma Dup., 
Chrysodeixis chalcites Esp., Catocala conjuncta Esp., Calyptra 
thalictri Borkh., several H. obesalis, Thetidia smaragdaria Fabr., 
S. diniensis, Selidosema brunnearia de Vill. and Svnopsia sociaria 
Hubn. 

Our last night in the south was at Col de Vence. Here we found 
large numbers of Ennomos quercaria Hubn. at light, and also took 
two Lophoterges millierei Staud., two Oxycesta nerx'osa D. & S., 
several of the Eublemma spp. already encountered plus one E. 
sauva Hubn., several A. crassa and Mythimna putrescens Hubn. and 
another y4. margarita. 

Retracing our steps, we spent the next night high in the Col 
du Galibier, on the Savoie side, in still, cool conditions. We did not 
expect to see many species, but were delighted with one specimen 



58 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

of that prime rarity of the high ground, Standfussiana wiskotti 
Standfuss, one S. nyctimera Boisd., four Euxoa culminicola Staud. 
and a lot of Elophos unicoloraria Staud. We also took only the 
second L. taraxaci to come our way. 

The spot south of Auxerre was out staging post on the way 
home, and this time it was less productive in spite of a distant 
thunderstorm which made conditions oppressive and humid. C. 
sponsa was common at sugar, and the light produced //a/'pj'/a (Hop- 
litis) milhauseri Fabr., a couple of Ptilodontella cucullina D. & S., 
Mythimna albipuncta D. & S., three craccae and some small speci- 
mens of Apeira syriugaria L. in a total of 74 species. 

On the Continent, there are several species complexes which 
can only be sorted out by examination of the genitalia. We kept 
about 20 caesia taken in various parts of the Alps, hoping to find 
among them H. clara Staud. Alas, they all proved to be caesia. 
Likewise, all the algae were indeed that species and not C ochsi 
Boursin or C. pallida Bethune-Baker. On the other hand, it was 
gratifying to find that two Chenotis taken at Col de Vence were 
the recently discovered C. grammiptera Rambur, which is very simi- 
lar to C. elegans. Some Peribatodes bred from Juniperus oxycedrus 
L. at la Voulte are, I think, merely rhomboidaha D. & S. and not 
P. perversaria Boisd., but pale specimens taken at Valdeblore are 
P. abstersaria Boisd. 

Several species were bred from eggs or larvae obtained in April, 
and were imported under licence No. PHF 30/126 issued by the 
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, to whom 1 express my 
thanks for their kind assistance. The heat of the summer was not 
conducive to oviposition by captured females, and I failed with the 
ones I tried. Some larvae of Hyles euphorbiae L. were brought back 
and excited the interest of H. M. Customs and Excise; three moths 
emerged during the autumn, but the remaining pupae appear to be 
overwintering. 



A Rare Aberration of the Heart and Dart: Agrotis 
EXCLAMATIONIS L. - During the summer of 1984, large numbers 
of this moth were attracted here to my moth trap, and on 21st 
July I captured the rare ab. obsoleta Tutt. The moth looked like 
a wainscot and was determined by my friend Ian Lorimer. See 
Goater, Proc. Brit. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 2(2): 64, pit. XI, fig. 9 
(11 in error). - R. T. LOWE, 61 Erskine Hill, London NWll 6E. 

HADENA COMPTA D. &. S. (LEP.: NOCTUIDAE) CONTINUING 
SPREAD IN 1984. - On 24th. July 1984,1 took a male //fli/e«a 
compta D. & S. from my garden MV trap in Winchester VC 11. 
This is the first record for the vice-county, although it was recorded 
further eastwards in North Hampshire (VC 12) in 1983 by Mr. 
A. H. Dobson {Ent. Gaz. 35 : 252). - Col. D. H. STERLING, 
"Tangmere", 2 Hampton Lane, Winchester, Hants S022 5LF. 



A HOME FOR OLD LADIES IN WIMBLEDON 59 

A HOME FOR OLD LADIES IN WIMBLEDON 

BySlRJOHNDACIE* 

On the 18th July 1983 in the day-time, 12 specimens of Mo r- 
mo maura L. (Old Lady), were found at rest in a World War II 
air-raid shelter in our garden. The shelter is partly underground 
and is approached by a flight of seven steps. Then, passing through 
an open door on the left a short passage leads to two separate 
rooms, one on the right and one on the left, into which no light 
penetrates. Their walls are of concrete and they remain cool and 
a httle damp and at a relatively constant temperature. The 12 
moths were arranged as singletons and in twos and threes on the 
side walls of the shelter just below the walls' junction with the 
ceiling. They were not disturbed but their position on the walls 
was outlined with red pencil, and the shelter was visited daily 
subsequently each morning. It soon became obvious that the moths 
were resting, for most of them remained on subsequent days in 
exactly the same position as they were when first seen. However, 
the number of moths in the shelter increased as the days passed. 
On the 22nd July there were 14, the original 12 being in the same 
positions as they were when first discovered, and later that day 
four others were found in a ventilator shaft. On the 23rd July, 
19 in all were counted. My son visited the shelter at 3 a.m. on the 
24th July and found most of them in their original positions; four, 
however, formed an overlapping group (Figure 1). On the 25th 
July, 20 were counted; on the 26th July, 19, including a group of 
six. On the 27th July, 18 were counted, including a group of eight. 
Some of the moths were still in their original positions; others 
had moved a few inches. The group of eight remained together 
until the 30th July. On the 31st July the total was the same, 
but there appeared to have been some movement and the group 
of eight was now one of six. 

On the 1st August a total of 24 was counted, and three were 
examined for their sex — all were males. The remainder were not 
disturbed. On the 3rd August the total was 21; there had been 
some rearrangement and a new group of six had formed, the ori- 
ginal group being reduced to four. On the 5th August this latter 
group had again increased to eight. The total remained at about 17 
until the 11th August, some moths seemingly not having moved 
at all since their discovery on the 18th July. On the 12th August, 
14 were present, including one pair. Subsequently, the numbers 
diminished: on the 15th August, 10 were present and on the 18th 
only eight; on the 22nd August there were five and on the 23rd 
only one. On the 28th August two were seen and on the 29th 
none. None was seen subsequently. 
*10 Alan Road, Wimbledon, London, SW19 7PT. 



60 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

In summary, specimens of M. maura used a pitch-black air-raid 
shelter as a 'rest-home' for a period of up to perhaps 40 days in 
July -August 1983, a peak total of 24 being present together on the 
1st August. Some of the moths remained in the shelter without 
moving for several weeks; groups of up to six and eight were 
formed. Througliout this period a m.v. moth trap was run in the 
garden about 20 yards from the shelter. It was not until the 14th 
August that any maura were trapped, two then being taken; one 
more was taken on the 23rd August, two more on the 1st Septem- 
ber and one on the 7th September. These late captures are consis- 
tent with the observation that the moths in the shelter in July and 
early August remained for many days in the shelter generally 
without moving and that they did not venture out into the garden. 
M. maura has been known to seek shelter in a dark environ- 
ment for many years. Edward Newman (1874), wrote "The moth 
is fond of resorting to summer-houses, boat houses, sheds, etc., 
in the interior of which it may frequently be observed in the day 
time, sitting on the inner surface of the roof. I once counted 
twenty-eight in a boat-house at Godalming. Mr. Reading says a 
marked specimen has returned to the same house after being 
repeatedly ejected". The observation of a "Home for Old Ladies" 
is therefore not new, even if the venue is different from that 
described by Newman. (In 1874, air-raid shelters had fortunately 
not been invented). The clustering together of the moths into 
groups was not, however, recorded by Newman or by Kirby 
(1903) or South (1920), both of whom refer to the moths' habit 
of flying into dwelling-houses or other buildings. The present 
observations suggest that the moths are not simply seeking a dark 
and safe resting-place in the day-time prior to flying at night, but 
that they are seeking a resting-place, presumably soon after emer- 
gence, where they may stay for an extended period of up to 
several weeks. This phenomenon, occurring in the summer time, 
can be referred to as a type of aestivation. 

Aestivation by univoltine adult noctuid moths has been the 
subject of considerable research and is of special interest as it is 
often associated with long-distance migration (see Oku (1983) 
for literature). With or without accompanying migration, aesti- 
vation appears generally to be a means by which the insects can 
shield themselves from changes in habitat conditions. In the case 
of maura, the dark and cool air-raid shelter in Wimbledon appears 
to have provided the moths with a safe environment in which they 
were able perhaps to complete their development and the males 
to await the availability of sexually mature females. July-August 
1983 was an exceptionally warm period for London with tempera- 
tures often as high as 20-22OC at dusk and 18-20OC at dawn. The 
temperature in the shelter was more constant at about 170C. 
Outside the shelter, the temperature was, however, still relatively 



A HOME FOR OLD LADIES IN WIMBLEDON 61 

high when the moths were leaving the shelter. It was 22oC at 
dusk and 180C at 6.15 a.m. on the night (14th August) when the 
first maura were cauglit in the moth trap, so it appears unlikely 
that the moths were simply waiting in the shelter for cooler 
weather. 




Fig. 1 Mormo maura L. at rest in Wimbledon in 1983 



The massing of moths together in groups is interesting. This 
has been well described for some noctuid species, and Williams 
(1958) illustrated hundreds of Agrotis infusa Boisd. (the Bogong 
Moth) aestivating in large masses on the walls of caves in Mount 
Gingera, in Australia, at a height of 5000-6000 ft. (see also Oku, 
1983). With this species aestivation is associated with migration. 



62 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

The biological explanation for, and purpose if any of, massing 
seems obscure. It could have survival value: a mass of moths 
presents a large target to a predator, but by massing the number 
of targets would be reduced. In the case of the "Home for Old 
Ladies in Wimbledon", it is possible that the moths viewed particu- 
lar sites with especial favour and that this was the reason for their 
forming small groups. If so, the relative advantages of the different 
sites chosen in the air-raid shelter are not obvious to the writer. 
That the phenomenon is simply an expression of an innate gre- 
gariousness that moths (and butterflies and other insects) share 
with many other groups of animals may be near the truth, but it 
leaves unanswered the questions as to the biological purpose of 
the massing together and what it is exactly that attracts one moth 
to another. 

References 

Kirby, W. F., 1903. The Butterflies and Moths of Europe, p. 246. 

Cassell, London. 
Newman, E., 1874. An Illustrated Natural History of British 

Moths, p. 460. Robert Hardwicke, London. 
Oku, T., 1983. Aestivation and Migration in Noctuid Moths. 

In: Diapause and Life Cycle Strategies in Insects, ed. by U.K. 

Brown and I. Hodek, pp. 219-231. W. Junk, The Hague. 
South, R., 1920. The Moths of the British Isles, series 1, p.292 

Frederick Warne, London. 



Small Copper: Lycaena phlaeas L., in December. - 
It may be of interest to record here that my colleague Miss Theresa 
Wild observed a freshly emerged example of this species at Young's 
Farm, near Hainault Forest, Essex on 7th December 1984. The 
species normally has three broods each year in southern Britain, and 
in years when the summer is particularly warm, there may be a 
fourth, resulting in adults taking the wing as late as the second week 
of November. Although 1984 could not be classed as one of the 
warmest years on record, there was clearly a late brood oi phlaeas 
in this area of Essex. I am unable to find any other records of the 
species flying in December, at least not for Essex or the London 
area. - C. W. PLANT, Assistant Curator, Natural Sciences (Biology), 
Passmore Edwards Museum, Romford Road, Stratford, London, 
E15 4LZ. 

Agrius convolvuli L. in S. Westmorland in 1984. - 
A male Convolvulus Hawk-moth appeared at my m.v. light here at 
Beetham, the night of 12th/ 13th September 1984, the sixth in three 
successive years, and prior to one in 1979, not recorded before in 
my list. - J. Briggs, 5 Deepdale Close, Slackhead, Beetham, Nr. 
Milnthorpe, Cumbria LA7 lAY-r^ 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 63 

Notes and Observations 

Confirmation of Erebia epiphron Knoch: Mountain 
Ringlet as Irish. — In the course of seeking references on 
Irish Lepidoptera and Orthoptera, I noticed a report by Kane on the 
occurrence of H. epiphron which appears to have been overlooked 
by recent authors. The reference is: Kane, W. F. de Vismes, 1912. 
Clare Island Survey — Lepidoptera. Proc. Royal Irish Acad. XXXI. 

Kane's short comment {pp. cit.) reads: "Visits to Croaghpatrick 
were made during the first half of June in 1909 and 1910 in the 
hope of again finding the alpine butterfly Erebia epiphron, recorded 
by Birchall in 1854; but though the locality indicated by him was 
carefully and exhaustively examined by Mr. Wyse and myself, no 
specimen was seen. The sunless weather and chilly wind probably 
account for our failure. My capture of a specimen on Nephin on 
9th June, 1897, however, proves its survival on the Mayo mountains, 
but it only flies in bright sunshine". 

The above is important when considering that Redway's criti- 
cism of Kane's record (see D. B. Redway, if/zr. Gaz. 32: 157-159) 
is based on the lack of knowledge of the date and capture of the 
Nephin specimen. - J. Paul, 45 Beaufort Crescent, Stoke Gifford, 
Bristol BS12 6QY. [Although Kane only took one specimen, he saw 
more (see his Cat. Lep. Ireland, 155). The date is also interesting as 
being some three weeks earlier than that of the English and Scottish 
races. Owing to lack of information on this point, attempts by 
others since at re-discovering it in Ireland may have been undertaken 
too late in the season. — J.M.C.-H.] 

Why "Wyponomeuta"? - Latreille coined the generic 
name Yponomeuta from the Greek verb "hyponomeuein", to 
undermine, drawing attention to the supposed larval habit of mining 
in roots (the only species to do so is stannella Thunberg which has 
now been placed in Euhyponomeutal). As a Frenchman, Latreille 
did not pronounce the initial "H" and dropped it on paper too. 
This shocked his contemporaries and Sodoffsky accordingly "cor- 
rected" the spelling, his amendment being adopted by subsequent 
authors (Stainton, Meyrick, etc.). Then came the rule that original 
spelling must be used even if it contains an obvious mistake, pro- 
vided, of course, that it is pronounceable. Yponomeuta is easy to 
pronounce whether you make the first syllable rhyme with hp 
(as, I suspect is nearer to Latreille's intention) or eye as is the more 
common practice today. Yet about a year ago someone started 
saying "Wyponomeuta". Like all bad habits, it caught on although 
it is etymological nonsense; before we know where we are, an idyll 
will become a widdle and a whore a wore. 

Incidentally, if original spelling has to be foUowed, why is not 
the family name Hyponomeutidae, since that is how Stainton first 



64 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

spelt it? Nepticulidae survives as a family name after the genus 
Nepticula has been sunk in synonymy, so it follows that family 
and generic names do not have to conform with each other. — 
A. M. Emmet, Labrey Cottage, Victoria Gardens, Saffron Walden, 
Essex, CBll 3AF. 

IDIOCERUS HERRICHI KBM. (HEM . C ICADELLIDAE) IN S. E. 
London. — On 8th August, 1984, a specimen of this genus of 
leaf-hoppers appeared walking on my water net after I had been 
dredging in the Princess of Wales Pond on Blackheath. The pond 
is fringed by a number of crack willows (Salix fragilis L.) of various 
sizes, from one of which the insect must have dropped, flown, or 
been dislodged as I passed. The presumption of its belonging to one 
of the two common willow-feeding species hereabouts, /. lituratus 
Fall, and /. stigmaticalis Lewis, would ordinarily have been so 
strong that I should barely have given it a second glance; but in this 
case, something subtly different in its aspect induced me to tube 
it. Upon examination at home, to my amazement it proved to be 
an undoubted /. herrichi Kbm. (^), exactly fitting the diagnosis and 
figure for this rare East Anglian species in Dr. W. J. Le Quesne's 
key (1965) and also the mental image I retained of the specimen I 
took in Norfolk in 1973 (Allen, 1978, Ent. Rec. 90: 113) - now 
in my friend Dudley Collins' collection. I twice revisited the place 
and thoroughly worked the willows around the pond (paying, of 
course, particular attention to the actual spot where the insect had 
occurred) and also another area of these trees not far off; but 
entirely without success as regards /. herrichi, though its two com- 
mon congeners named above occurred freely. 

This is indeed exceedingly odd, for the species of Idiocerus 
are markedly gregarious. However, it is interesting to note that there 
is another and fairly recent record of a sohtary specimen of her- 
richi in a new locality: one swept from Salix alba L., its normal 
host, at Broad Chalke, S. Wilts. (8.ix.76) by Sir Christopher 
Andrewes (1977, Ent. mon. Mag. 113:241) - the first British record 
outside Norfolk, where a few examples were taken at the end of 
last century at three places near Norwich (Edwards), and one by the 
writer near Swaffham in 1973, as mentioned above. Here again the 
captor failed to find another in several visits to the Wiltshire locality 
during the next two years. Perhaps, therefore, /. herrichi is less 
gregarious than the other species, or possibly prefers to live high in 
the trees so that only odd individuals turn up in normal collecting. 
The Blacklieath capture is the first to be recorded away from Salix 
alba, for clearly none of the willows round the pond are of that 
species — indeed the white willow appears very scarce here, if 
present at all. 

This higlily unexpected occurrence brings the total oi Idiocerus 
spp. from the district up to 13, or 14 if it be extended eastward to 
Abbey Wood where I took a single /. elegans Flor, as recorded in 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 65 

1978 (I.e.); in the latter case, all but three of the 17 known British 
species. — A. A. ALLEN . 

APION PUBESCENS KiRBY (COL.: APIONIDAE) IN CUMBRIA. - 
On the 31st August, 1983 while collecting coleoptera in an old 
disused limestone quarry at Dunnerholme near Askam in Furness, 
(SD21.79), Cumbria I took one specimen oi Apion pubescens by 
grubbing at the base of Wild Thyme growing on a low grassy bank 
on the seaward side of the quarry. Although I searched the im- 
mediate area for some time this was the only individual seen. 

This would appear to be a new record for the weevil from Cum- 
bria and it probably represents a new record for vice county 69, 
North Lanes, as well. According to Fowler (1891, Col. Brit. Isl. 
5: 166) A. pubescens is of local occurrence in Britain and is known 
from various localities in England and has been recorded from Kin- 
rosshire and the Forth district of Scotland. 

The hostplants of A. pubescens as recorded in the literature 
are various species of Trifolium, including T. campestre and T. 
pratense, and Dieckmann (1977, Beitr. Ent. 27:77) gives a few 
brief details on the biology, stating that the larvae develop in the 
stems and rootstocks of the various foodplants where a gall is 
usually produced. 

I wish to thank Mr. Anthony Allen for kindly identifying 
A. pubescens for me and for much useful information on the Apion 
group in general. - R. W. J. READ, 43 Holly Terrace, Hensingham, 
Whitehaven, Cumbria, CA28 8RF. 

LEPIDOPTERA IN NORTH-EASTERN ENGLAND, 1983-84. - 
Having moved from the South of England to Guisborough, Yorks 
(V.C. 62) in 1983 and studied the lepidoptera of the area, I was 
pleasantly surprised by the number of species. Many were found 
which are not recorded on the distribution maps in Heath et al, 
The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vols. 1, 9 
& 10. I suspect this is because observers have not submitted their 
records rather than any other factor although lepidopterists are 
rather thin on the ground here. The area contains a wide range of 
habitats in a relatively small region, from sand-dunes, salt-marsh and 
sea-cliffs to heather moorland via farmland, suburbia, heavy industry 
and Forestry Commission plantations, all of which contribute to 
the richness of the natural history. 

The following is a selection from the 350 species recorded so 
far, with light-trapping being the major technique used:- Lasio- 
campa quercus L. ssp. callunae Palmer, Pseudoterpna pruinata 
Hufn., Entephria caesiata D. & S., Mesoleuca albicillata L., Coenote- 
phria salicata Hbn., Eupithecia nanata Hbn., Chloroclystis debiliata 
Hbn., Venusia cambrica Curtis, Gnophos obscuratus D. & S., 
Acherontia atropos L., Parasemia plantaginis L.,Meganola confusalis 
H.-S., Agrotis vestigialis Hufn., Rhyacia simulans Hufn., Xestia 
agathina Dup., Sideridis albicolon Hbn., Lacanobia suasa D. & S., 



66 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

Parastictis suspecta Hbn., Acronicta alni L. ab. steinerti Casp., 
A. menyanthidis Esp., Mormo maura L., Apamea oblonga Haw., 
A. scolopacina Esp., A. ophiogramma Esp., Stilbia anomala Haw., 
Plusia festiicae L., P. putnami Grote ssp. gracilis Lempke (more 
common than P. festucae), Autographa bractea D. & S. (Guis- 
borough, two; Hutton, W. Yorks, one. 1983). - P. Waterton, 
'Brackenhiir, Belmangate, Guisborough, Cleveland TS14 7BB. 

lATE Sightings of the Comma and Peacock Butter- 
flies in E.Kent in 1984. - I noticed a very fresh Comma (Po/v- 
gonia c-album L.) on October 20 flying near Whitstable, and was 
able to approach to within a few inches of the butterfly as it alighted 
on the sea-wall. This is the latest date I can recall seeing this butter- 
fly. 

On November 9, a Peacock (Inachis io L.) flew around the roof 
top here before aligliting on the open door of our shed, where it 
basked for a while in the weak November sun. Then, entering the 
shed and inspecting the interior for about 10 minutes, especially 
an area close to an old chest of drawers, it finally settled down 
inside the shed against one of the sides, having apparently chosen 
its winter quarters. - J. Platts, 11 Maydowns Road, Chestfield, 
Whitstable, Kent. 

Labia minor L. (Derm.) in E. London. - This local insect, 
the Small Earwig, though often common where it occurs, has come 
under my notice probably less than half-a-dozen times in the course 
of many years' beetle hunting. I have no data for the above area, 
but never met with it there until last year, when it was present in some 
quantity in a mixture of dry horse-manure and straw at Mudchute 
Farm, Isle of Dogs, Greenwich, 18.V.84 (just north of the Thames). 
It was accompanied by the beetle Anthicus fonnicarius Goeze 
{=quisquilius Thoms.) also in some numbers. L. minor is mostly 
found in conditions such as this, but I once took several by evening 
sweeping in a lane at Cheshunt, Herts, (viii.44); and Mr. D. Collins 
had one fly to his house lights at Carshalton Beeches, Surrey, two 
years ago. These two occurrences indicate a crepuscular habit which 
I believe is well known in the species. — A. A. ALLEN . 

EVERGESTIS EXTIMALIS SCOP. AND SiTOCHROA PALEALIS 
D.&S. (LLP.: Pyralidae) IN Hampshire IN 1984. - In Hamp- 
shire, 1984 does not seem to have been a very good year for unusual 
appearances, so I was very pleased to find a single specimen of 
Evergestis extimalis Scop, on 12th Aug. 1984 and two specimens 
of Sitochroa palealis D. & S., one on 19th. July and the other on 
31st July 1984, all in my garden MV trap in Winchester VC 11. 
There are no published records of these Pyralids from mainland 
Hampshire for 22 and 30 years respectively. Both of these species 
come into the category of migrants which sometimes form tem- 
porary colonies and no doubt analysis of all migrant records for 
1984 will show in due course whether these specimens were likely 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 67 

to have been part of any general migration, but there was Httle evi- 
dence locally of such having taken place. There appears to have 
been a local colony of E. extimalis at no great distance from 
here but VC 12) between 1954 and 1960 (see Goater, Butter- 
flies and Moths of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight 1974 : 185), 
so possibly this did not die out. Regarding S. palealis, Mr. G. R. 
Else informs me that on each of the past two years, he noticed a 
single specimen on Gilkicker Point (VC 11) whilst sweeping for 
Hymenoptera, so it is possible that a colony formed there as a 
result of 1982 movements and that the two 1984 Winchester speci- 
mens had moved inland from there. The 1982 immigration report 
in Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 95 ; 143 where four specimens were 
reported in the Isle of Wight would be in line with this possibility, as 
Gilkicker Point juts out into the Solent opposite the Isle of Wight. - 
Col. D. H. Sterling, "Tangmere", 2 Hampton Lane, Winchester, 
Hants. S022 5LF. 

DIACHRYSIA CHRYSITIS L.: BURNISHED BRASS IN NOVEMBER. 
— A fresh male was noticed on a street light at Dartford, 7th 
November 1984. Most years I see a specimen or two of a token 
second brood in late August and September, although not this 
year. The time interval between the emergence of the second genera- 
tion and the date of this specimen would suggest it might be repre- 
sentative of a third brood. - B. K. WEST, 36 Briar Road, Bexley, 
Kent. 

AMPHIPOEA LUCENS FREYER: LARGE EAR IN CORNWALL. - 
On 31st August 1983, two specimens of this species came to my 
light on Bodmin Moor. Both had longer, narrower and paler wings 
than A. oailea L., and when set showed a discal mark on the under- 
side of the hindwing and the suggestion of a postmedian line. On 
dissection of the genitalia, both exhibited a sharply pointed cucullus 
with no overlap of spines, and a long clasper projecting beyond the 
cucullus. 

I believe that A. lucens has not been recorded from Cornwall 
previously, being chiefly a northern species, but Heath {The Moths 
and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 10) mentions 
records for Devon and Somerset. A. fucosa paludis Tutt has been 
recorded from Bodmin Moor, although it is chiefly a coastal species. 
It would be interesting to hear of any other records of A. lucens 
for Cornwall. — A. SPALDING, Penzephyr Farm, Trebrownbridge, 
Lizkeard, Cornwall. 

Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Lep.: Tortricidae) in 
Central London. - Amongst a number of moths captured by 
Mr. Jeremy Burge in his garden at Fulham, London SW6, and shown 
to me for identification was a very worn tortricoid taken on 26 June 
1983. I tentatively identified this as Epiphyas postvittana Walker, 
and this was subsequently confirmed by David Agassiz, to whom 
I am most grateful. This species is a native of Australia, where it is 



68 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

known as the apple leaf roller, and is a serious pest of orchards in 
some regions. It is known in Britain principally as an adventitious 
species although it was discovered to be established at Newquay, 
Cornwall in 1936 by F. C. Woodridge. The first record for south- 
east England appears to be that at Westcliffe -on-Sea, Essex in 1952, 
(vide Emmet, 1981 The Smaller Moths of Essex. Essex Field Club). 
Since then it has been reported at Charlton, West Kent by A. A. 
Allen on 1 June 1983 and 7 July 1983, (Ent. Rec. 96: 120 & 137), 
and at Grays, South Essexby David Agassiz on 27 August 1983, (£>zf. 
Rec. 96:254). Mr. Burge's capture would therefore seem to be par- 
ticularly noteworthy, and the second for the London area (Mr. 
Allen's two being the first and third records). It may be of signifi- 
cance that although the principal foodplant in Britain, Euonvmus 
japonicus, could not be located, it is a plant quite likely to be found 
in gardens in this area. Further, other Euonymus feeding Lepi- 
doptera, such as Yponomeuta cagnagella Hb. were amongst the 
specimens shown to me. - C. W. Plant, Assistant Curator, Natural 
Sciences (Biology), Passmore Edwards Museum, Romford Road, 
Stratford, London, El 5 4LZ. [In Cornwall I found the larvae on 
a variety of foodplants, but mainly on the cultivated purple vero- 
nica though never on Euonvmus (see Ent. Rec. 87 : 58). — 
J.M.C.-H.] 

Celastrina argiolus L.: Holly Blue Ovipositing on 
COTONEASTER. - D. A. Prance's Note (Ent. Rec. 96: 263) 
reminded me that on 21st May 1982, whilst at Slade Green, Kent, 
I observed a Holly Blue egglaying on the flower bud clusters of a 
deciduous low growing form of Cotoneaster. I collected one of the 
eggs to see if the larva would feed on Cotoneaster, but after a few 
days it collapsed being evidently infertile. - D. A. SAUNDERS, 
128 Loose Road, Maidstone, Kent, ME15 7UB. 

POLYMIXIS FLAVICINCTA D. & S.: LARGE RANUNCULUS ON 
Garden Mint. — I was interested to read Mr. Craske's note 
(Ent. Rec, 96:70), since I too have found larvae of this species 
feeding on a small bed of mint. That was in my father's garden near 
Chichester, where half grown larvae were noted in 1982, 1983 and 
1984, about a dozen in each year, and since I have no mint in my 
own garden, found that they fed up successfully on apple. Apart 
from these, my only acquaintance with the moth has been singletons 
at light at Chichester and Dorking. - P. A. CatTERMOLE, 13 Waver- 
leigh Road, Cranleigli, Surrey GU6 8BZ. 

Callimorpha dominula L: Scarlet Tiger in Westmor- 
land. - Early in the evening of July 19th 1984, Mr. J. Carduke 
the local Florist and greengrocer at Milnthorpe, netted a female 
Callimorpha dominula L. fluttering up the newly cream-washed 
walls of the local hostelry, only a few yards from his front door, 
around which stand buckets of cut flowers, imported from the 
Channel Isles. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 69 

Approximately 15 to 16 miles further north, there is a flourish- 
ing colony of this species, discovered, and well described, by Dr. 
N. L. Biricett (in Ent. Rec, 92; 85). Could it be a stray from this 
brood? This seems unlikely, in view of the fact, that the Milnthorpe 
specimen laid numerous infertile eggs, loosely, in the large container, 
in which fresh nettles and dock leaves were placed. The probable 
explanation being that it arrived as a cocoon among the imported 
flowers. Was it something akin to this, that began the N. Cumbrian 
colony? - J. Briggs, 5 Deepdale Close, Slackhead, Beetham, 
Milnthorpe, Cumbria LA7 7AY. 

CURATE'S Ovum. - Lt.-Col. Carter (a^?rea: 285) is right, 
and he may like to know that he was anticipated in his objection 
by no less an authority than the late P. B. M. Allan. I regret I cannot 
cite chapter and verse, but Mr. Allan drew attention to the matter 
in a note in this Journal. He made the further point that the use of 
ovum, though indeed Latin for egg, is nevertheless in this sense a 
misuse because in biology it has taken on a special meaning: i.e. a 
female gamete or sex-cell which after fertilization gives rise to a 
new individual. I agree that a desire for consistency with larva, pupa, 
and imago has probably dictated the survival of ovum as an ento- 
mological term - survival, because early scientific works were writ- 
ten in Latin. The word oviposition, on the other hand, is scarcely 
open to the same criticism, being a straight coinage like most tech- 
nical terms; though, it must be owned, the plain English egg-laying 
is generally to be preferred. - A. A. ALLEN. 

The Sloe Pug: Chloroclystis chloerata (Mabille), and 
THE Marsh Pug: Eupithecia pygmaeata (Huebner) in 
Bedfordshire. - In May 1984 I successfully reared a dozen 
C. chloerata from larvae beaten from various south and mid- 
Bedfordshire locations. On 9th June 1984 I observed an adult 
specimen of E. pygmaeata feeding at Common Vetch and sub- 
sequently saw several more in a rough field near Clophill, Bed- 
fordshire. Both the above are apparently additions to the county list. 
- K. F. Webb , 2 Kingsdown Avenue, Luton, Bedfordshire. 

A Second Record of the Least Carpet: Idaea vulpina- 
RIA H.-S. in Hampshire. - On the night of 21st - 22nd July, 
1984 a single Idaea vulpinaria was caught in the Rothamsted light 
trap at AHce Holt Lodge, Hampshire. This appears to be only the 
second record of this species in Hampshire and the first from vice 
county 12. The previous Hampshire record in 1977 was at Ashurst in 
V.C.I 1 (Craik, \91^, Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 90:7). - T.G. 
Winter, Forestry Commission, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey. 
Dromius angustus Brulle (Col.: Carabidae) under 
Plane Bark IN Winter. - To-day (2.i.85), on my way to the 
local shops, the fancy took me to Uft a piece of loose bark on the 
trunk of a roadside plane tree, when to my great surprise two 
examples of Dromius angustus Brulle' were exposed in a dormant 



70 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

state, the temperature being but a few degrees above zero. I care- 
fully replaced the piece of bark and returned later to effect their 
capture (they had not moved) and extend the search a little before 
the cold should put a stop to it. No further Dromius was discovered, 
but very many Deraeocoris lutescens Schil. (Hem.: Miridae) and two 
or three other hibernating commoners. 

D. angiistus is a recent arrival in S. E. London (see Allen, 1982, 
Ent. mon. Mag., 118:232). The present find seems notable since 
there are, I believe, few records of beetles from under plane bark in 
Britain. Yet the London Plane offers convenient overwintering sites 
by reason of the unusual nature of its bark — the outer layer 
periodically becoming separated from the inner so as to be readily 
detachable in flakes and sheets, leaving the familiar yellow patches. 
Whether the Dromius was merely making use of the tree for hiber- 
nation, or has now taken to it permanently as a breeding-site, is 
a question I hope to be able to answer later. It is already apparent, 
however, that the former association of the species with pine, pos- 
sibly never very strict, has recently become much looser with its 
spread into the London area. — A. A. ALLEN. 



Current Literature 



Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles (Macrole- 
pidoptera) by Bernard Skinner. Colour photography and text 
figures by David Wilson. Pp. i-x, 1-267 (including 42 coloured 
plates of 1558 illustrations and 57 text figures). 245 mm x 
190mm., hardback. Viking, 1984. £20. 

For the past 76 years, Richard South's Moths of the British 
Isles^ has reigned supreme as the colour identification guide to our 
macrolepidoptera. Now we have this new book by Bernard Skinner, 
who is probably the most competent and successful British field 
macrolepidopterist this century, and David Wilson, an entomolo- 
gist, artist and photographer of exceptional ability. The result of 
their combined labours is a work, the accuracy of whose coloured 
illustrations, surpasses anything so far pubUshed on this group in 
Britain. 

A pithy, dependable and remarkably informative text of 160 
pages, gives essential details of all residents and genuine migrants 
including, so far as is known, their present status, distribution and 
habits, as well as brief particulars of variation for many species. 
Identification of a number of species of similar appearance is facili- 
tated by a series of enlarged drawings in the text, finely executed 
by David Wilson, and showing the critical differences. Page 160 
has an Addendum with details of Mesapamea secalella Remm (Lesser 

The First Edition (1907-08) and subsequent printings, but not the edition of 
1961 with its inferior plates. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 71 

Common Rustic), the species only recently recognised as distinct 
from M. secalis L. (Common Rustic), but doubtless by an oversight 
the following information given is erroneous. Hence M. secalis is 
usually the slightly larger of the two, not the smaller as stated. 

The chief feature is of course the coloured plates. These com- 
prise 1558 natural size coloured photographic figures of set insects, 
mostly from the author's own collection and including many of sub- 
species and aberrations. I was privileged to see the original colour 
transparencies from which these plates were made, and to compare 
the two sets of illustrations. The former are breath-taking for their 
marvellous fideUty, and although during the process of printing the 
plates have lost some of the superb quality of the originals, they are 
still very good representations of the actual specimens. The only 
poor illustrations in the book would seem to be plate 17, figs. 18 
and 19, where the green in Hylaea fasciaria L. ah. prasinaria D. & S. 
appears much discoloured. Most of the specimens figured are British, 
although a few are of foreign origin: Drepana curvatula Borkh. for 
instance is taken from a French example. The names of the speci- 
mens shown together with the page references to the text, are 
conveniently placed opposite the plates. However the data with 
each specimen are lacking, which is a pity as that would have occupied 
little extra space and yet added so much of interest. 

Altogether 2,500 copies of the book were printed, of which we 
understand some 2,000 have already been sold up to the present 
time. For those who possess this work, it should now be possible, 
even for the most inexperienced tyro, to identify specimens with 
comparative ease, provided their condition is not too bad and except 
for certain critical species (e.g. of the difficult genus Epirrita) that 
require genitalic preparation. Our hearty congratulations to Messrs. 
Skinner and Wilson on a most worthwhile production. — J.M.C-H. 
British Hovertlies. An illustrated identification guide by Alan E. 
Stubbs and Steven J. Falk. 253 pp., 13 plates (12 coloured), 
8 text figures and many Une drawings within keys, British 
Entomological & Natural History Society, 1983. Price: hard- 
back £21 .00, softback £18.00. 

This exciting addition to the literature on British Diptera has 
already stimulated greater interest in the Syrphidae. There are useful 
introductory chapters on collecting 'and studying the flies. The 
habits and biology of adults and early stages are summarised. The 
keys are kept brief and simple to use by concentrating on easily 
discerned characters, which are illustrated by sketches. The syste- 
matic part of the text augments the keys by dealing with other 
diagnostic features and discusses variation. Comments on distri- 
bution and biology are based on the authors' wide experience and 
the new information coming out of the Hoverfly Recording Scheme. 
Wherever there is uncertainty either about specific limits or 
identity or about habits or biology, this is highHghted to draw 



72 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

attention to where further work is most needed and the Hterature 
cited was carefully chosen to assist in future studies. 

The plates by Steven Falk are a most delightful feature of this 
work; they illustrate 190 species with exceptional clarity and will 
enable many species to be identified without reference to the keys. 

A few minor textual errors were soon discovered by users and 
an errata slip was quickly issued detailing the most important of 
these. — P. J. Chandler. 
De Danske Svirrefluer (Diptera: Syrphidae) by E. Torp. 300 pp., 

4 coloured plates, 381 text figures and 262 distribution maps. 

Danmarks Dyreliv Bind 1, Fauna B^ger, Copenhagen, 1984. 

Price: 283 D. kr. 

Following recent popular works on the Syrphidae by Dutch and 
British authors, Torp has produced a comprehensive treatment of 
the Danish fauna which should encourage interest in hoverflies in 
Denmark. It provides detailed keys to all Danish species, well illu- 
strated by line drawings of diagnostic features. These are augmented 
by four plates of colour photographs of pinned specimens, depicting 
109 species and 3 varieties. Knowledge of the structure and biology 
of the early stages is summarised and a useful feature is the well 
illustrated key to known larvae. There are short sections on cyto- 
taxonomy, mimicry and various aspects of adult biology. 

The book is in Danish except for a chapter in Enghsh on the dis- 
tribution and habits of each of the 263 Danish species (of which 218 
are British, 11 of them appearing under different names to those 
used by Stubbs & Falk but this is readily apparent from the included 
check list). This is supplemented by maps showing the present and 
past distribution of all species in Denmark. Altogether a very useful 
and attractive work. - P. J. CHANDLER. 

Breeding the British and European Hawk-moths by Paul Sokoloff . 

56pp. (including 9 plates and 5 text figures), stiff wrapper. 
The Amateur Entomologist Vol. 19. 1984. Obtainable from 
AES Publications, 4 Steep Close, Green Street Green, Orping- 
ton, Kent BR6 6DS. Price £2.30 inclusive. 
The fact that this an Amateur Entomologists' Society mono- 
graph is a recommendation in itself, such is the high reputation these 
handy little publications enjoy, this one being the fifth in a series on 
the lepidoptera issued by the Society. 

The booklet consists of the following seven chapters, each of 
which is packed with practical infomiation and interesting wrinkles. 
(1) Obtaining Stocks; (2) The Larval Stage; (3) The Pupa; (4) Emer- 
gence; (5) Pairing and Egg Laying (including notes on hybridising); 
(6) Parasites and Disease; (7) Notes on the Species. 

A select but well chosen bibliography and a check-list of Euro- 
pean Hawk-moths (29 species) completes the work. - J.M.C.-H. 



THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS OF THE ISLE OF MAN (5) 

Teleiopsis diffinis Haw. 

Knock-e-Dhooney, one, Rothamsted trap, 3.VI.1974. .(Abdo- 
men missing, determination based on external features). A 
further specimen from this site, 20.VI.1974, det. H.N.M. 

Lita virgella Thunb. 

South Barrule, two, 18.V. 1971, det. H.N.M. 

MOMPHIDAE 

Blastodacna hellerella Dup. 

Maughold, male, m.v. trap, 26.VI.1974, genitalia checked. 
Knock-e-Dhooney, male, Rothamsted trap, 28.VI.1974, geni- 
talia checked, det. H.N.M. 

COCHYLIDAE 

Phalonidia vectisana H. & W. 

Langness, 21. VIII. 1984, about six on saltmarsh, female taken, 
genitalia checked. 

Aethes cnicana Westw. 

Ballaugh, 29 .VI. 1977 (Smith, 1977). 

TORTRICIDAE 

*Clepsis consimilana Hbn. 

Curraghs (Lough Dhoo), male, 24.VII.1974, det. J.M.C.-H. 

Ptvcholoma lecheana L. 

Curraghs, female, 14.VI. 1981. 

Acleris laterana Fabr. {latifasciana Haw.) 

Douglas, female, m.v. trap, 11. IX. 1971, genitalia checked. 
Onchan, male, m.v. trap, 8.IX.1975, genitaha checked. 

A. hyemana Haw. 

Sartfell, one taken at an altitude of 340m, 19.V.1972. Derby- 
haven, 15.IV.1974. Round Table, 22.IV. 1974. The Sloe, 29 .IV. 
1974. All these specimens det. J.M.C.-H. 

Olethreutes schulziana Fabr. 

Cronk-ny-arrey Laa, three on hillside 300 - 360m, one taken, 
18.VI.1970, det. H.N.M. 

Orthotaenia undulana D. &. S. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, male, 14.VI.1981. 



(6) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

Bactra furfurana Haw. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, one, m.v. trap, 25.VII.1974, det. J.M.C.-H. 

Ancylis gemmana Don. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, male, m.v. trap, 19.VI.1974, det. J.M.C.-H. 
A further male at this site at m.v. trap, 17.VI.1979. 

Epinotia subocellana Don. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, female, m.v. trap, 17.VI.1979, genitalia 
checked . Dhoon Glen , male , 1 2 .VI . 1 98 1 . 

E. ramella L. 

Curraglis, one, 1 1 .VIII. 1975, det. J.M.C.-H. 

E. nisella Clerck 

Foxdale, one beaten from Salix, 8. VI II. 19 73. Curraghs, one, 
ll.Vin.l975, det. J.M.C.-H. 

Griselda myrtillana H. & W. 

Arrasy Plantation, "abundant . . . ", male taken, 31.V.1970, 
det. A Brindle. Cronk-ny-arrey Laa, about 20, 19.VI.1979. 

Pammene regiana Zell. 

Castletown, one, July 1970, det. H.N.M. Slieau Whallion, 
female, m.v. trap, 25.VI.1974, det. J.M.C.-H. 

PYRALIDAE 

Eudonia truncicolella Staint. 

South Barrule Plantation, about six, male taken, 14.VIII.1970, 
genitalia checked. South Barrule Plantation, male taken, 8.VIII. 
1971, genitalia checked. Kirkmichael, four at m.v. trap, male 
taken, 25.VIII.1975, det. J.M.C.-H., genitalia checked. 

Parapoynx stagnata Don. 

Ballamooar, Jurby, one, m.v. trap, 26.VII.1971. 

Evergestis pallidata Hufn. 

Ballamooar, Jurby, one, m.v. trap, 17.VIII.1971. One also taken 
at Ballakaiglien (J. W. Hedges). 

*Pyrausta aurata Scop. 

Ballakaiglien, 25. VII. 1980 (J. W. Hedges). 

P. sangninalis L. 

Rue Point, two, 23. VI. 1977 (Smith, 1977). 



THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS OF THE ISLE OF MAN (7) 

Eurhodope advenella Zinck. 

Ballamooar,Jurby,at m.v.trap, 16.VIII.1971 and 19.VIII. 1971. 
St Judes, one, m.v. trap, 11. VIII. 1973. Port Soderick, one, 
m.v. trap, 3.VIII. 1975. 

Phycitodes binaevella Hbn. 

Ronaldsway, one found dead, 23.VI.1970. 

DANAIDAE 

Danaus plexippus L. 

Ballakaigl-ien.24.IX. 1981 (Hedges, 1981). 

DREPANIDAE 

Drepana falcataria L. 

Ballamooar, Jurby, one, m.v. trap, 19.VIII.1971. Lower Fox- 
dale, one, m.v. trap, 6.IX.1972. Ballaugli Curraglis, two, m.v. 
trap, 12.VIII.1975. 

GEOMETRIDAE 

*Scopula immutata L. 

Knock-e-Dhooney, one, Rothamsted trap, 1 1 .VIII. 1974. 

Epirrhoe rivata Hbn. 

Knock-e-Dhooney, one, Rothamsted trap, 6.VII.1974. 

Thera britannica Turner 

A specimen taken at Ballakaighen was found in the J. W. Hedges 
collection. A report by R. Cripps of "Tfiera variata subsp. 
britannica — H. J. Turner" at m.v. trap, Laxey, 1974, may also 
refer to this species. 

Rheumaptera undulata L. 

St Judes, one, m.v. trap, 20.VII.1972. Ballaugh Curraghs, 
one, also 20.VII. 1972. 

*Perizoma affinitatiim Steph. 

Glen Maye, one at light, 15.VI.1970. J. W. Hedges has also 
recorded this species at Ballakaighen. 

P. blandiata D. & S. 

Knock-e-Dhoooney, one, Rothamsted trap, 29.VI.1974. 

Eupithecia subumbrata D. & S. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, one, 14.VI.1972, det. J.M.C.-H. 



(8) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

*Ectropis bistortata Goeze 

South Barrule Plantation, three at hght, 29.V.1970. Slieau 
WhalHon Plantation, male at light, 18.IV. 1971, det A. Brindle. 
Greeba, one, m.v. trap, 28.IV. 1972. Ballaguh Curraghs, two, 
m.v.trap, 17.VI.1979. 

ARCTIIDAE 

*Eilema complana L. 

Knock-e-Dhooney, one, Rothamsted trap, 27.VII.1974. 
The Lhen, male, m.v. trap, 27.VII.1975, genitaHa checked. 

NOCTUIDAE 

Agrotis puta Hbn. 

Laxey, m.v. trap, 23 .VIII. 1973 (R. Cripps). This species has 
also been taken by J. W. Hedges at Ballakaighen. 

*Polia nebulosa Hufn. 

Cornaa, one, m.v. trap, 14.VII.1975. 

Lacanobia contigna D. & S. 

Laxey, one, m.v. trap, 2.VII.1973 (R. Cripps). 

Orthosia cruda D. & S. 

Ballamooar. Jurby, six, m.v. trap, one taken, 13.IV. 1972. 

Lithophane omit opus Hufn. 

Ballakaighen, m.v. trap, 29.X.1980 (J. W. Hedges). 

Agrochola helvola L. 

Bride, male, m.v. trap, 1.X.1971. 

Xanthia gilvago D. & S. 

Knock-e-Dhooney, one, Rothamsted trap, 28.VIII.1974. 

*Mesapamea unanimis Hbn. 

Douglas, one, m.v. trap, 10.VI.1972. 

M. secalella Remm 

Ramsey, female, m.v. trap, 2.VIII.1972, genitalia checked. 
Ballavolley, female, 22. VIII. 1984, genitalia checked. Note. 
Regarding Manx M. secalis L., all the males I dissected were 
of this species, also two dissected females, one, Ronaldsway, 
19.VII.1969, one. Glen Vine, 23.VIII.1984. Thus, both secalel- 
la and secalis are confirmed as Manx. 



THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS OF THE ISLE OF MAN (9) 

Amphipoea lucens Freyer 

Ballaugh Curraghs, male, m.v. trap, 6.IX.1975, genitalia checked. 

A. crinanensis Burrows 

Knock-e-Dhooney, Rothamsted trap, 22/23.VIII.1974. Glen 
Mona, male, m.v. trap, 19.VIII.1975, genitalia checked. Onchan, 
male, m.v. trap, 8.IX. 1975, genitalia checked. 

Eustrotia unciila Clerck 

Knock-e-Dhooney, one, Rothamsted trap, 14.VII.1974. 
Ballaugh Curraghs, male, 17.VI.1979. 

Plusia putnami gracilis Lempke 

Ballavolley, Curraghs, male in m.v. trap, 30.VII.1983, genitalia 
checked. 



SECOND SUPPLEMENT 

By A. M.Emmet 



A party of entomologists consisting of E. C. Pelham-Clinton, 
then of the Royal Scottish Museum, Dr. J. D. Bradley of the Com- 
monwealth Institute of Entomology, Dr. J. R. Langmaid, my wife 
and myself spent a week in the Isle of Man from the 15th to the 
22nd of September, 1979. We stayed at Ravensdale, near Ballaugh, 
and recorded and collected by day in various parts of the island. 
Light-traps were run at our hotel and several other localities men- 
tioned in the list below. In all, we recorded 109 species of micro- 
lepidoptera, of which 60 are not mentioned by Chalmers-Hunt 
(1970). Nine of these species are recorded also by Bond above, his 
records in most instances antedating ours. 

Only those species not listed by Chalmers-Hunt {loc. cit.) are 
given except for Coleophora serratella which is probably the same 
as his C. nigricella. Our concern was mainly the microlepidoptera, 
as the list below testifies; however, notes are appended on four 
species of macrolepidoptera. Two are new to the Manx list although 
also recorded by Bond; another, although accepted by Chalmers- 
Hunt, has not hitherto been unequivocally confirmed; the record 
of the fourth is cancelled, since it was found to have been based on 
misidentification. 



(10) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

NEPTICULIDAE 

Ectoedemia occultella L. {argeutipedella Zell.) 

Tenanted and vacated mines widespread and common on 
Betula. Recorded also by Bond. 

Stign 1 el la aurella F a b r . 

Widespread and very common on Rubus. Mines found on 
Geiim urbamim were probably also of this species. 

S. splendidissimella H.-S. 

Ravensdale, tenanted and vacated mines on Rubus idaeus. 

S. ulmariae Wocke 

Glenmaye, one vacated mine on Filipeiidula uUuaria. 

S. marginicolella Staint. 

Ravensdale, Ballaglass Glen and Glenmaye, single vacated mines 
on Ulmus at each locality. 

S. contiuuella Staint. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, a few vacated mines on Betula. 

S. salicis Staint. 

Tenanted and vacated mines widespread and common on Salix. 

S. auritella Skala 

Crosby and Dhoon Glen, tenanted mines on Salix aurita. Adults 
were reared from the latter locality. 

S. 171 vr till el la Staint. 

Dhoon Glen, east of the road, tenanted mines common on 
Vaccinium myrtillus. Adults reared. 

S. floslactella Haw. 

Dhoon Glen, Ballaglass and Glenmaye, vacated mines common 
on Corylus. 

S. tityrella Staint. 

Dhoon Glen and Ballaglass, vacated mines common on Fagus. 

S. perpygmaeella Doubl. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, a few vacated mines on Crataegus. 

S. hemargyrella Kollar 

Ballaglass Glen, a few vacatecl mines on Fagus. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE ISLE 01' MAN (11) 

S. athcapitella Haw. 

Ballaglass Glen, a few vacated mines on Qucrcus. I have written 
that the atricapitella group cannot be determined rehably on the 
evidence of mines alone (Emmet, 1976): it is now possible to 
do so in many instances, including also the next species. We saw 
no evidence of 5. ruficapitella Haw., which is the commonest 
oak-feeding nepticulid in many parts of Britain. 

S. svenssoni Johansson 

Churchtown, a few vacated mines on Quercus. 

S. anomalella Goeze 

Tenanted and vacated mines widespread and common on Rosa. 

S. spinosissiniae Waters 

The Ayres, tenanted and vacated mines fairly common on 
Rosa pimpinellifolia. 

S. hybnerella Hbn. 

Tenanted and vacated mines widespread and abundant on 
Crataegus. 

S. nylandhclla Tengst. (aiicupariae Frey) 

Dhoon Glen, Ravensdale and Ballaglass Glen, vacated mines 
fairly common on Sorbus aucuparia. 

S. crataegella KJimesch 

Vacated mines widespread and abundant on Crataegus. 

S. luteella Staint. 

Crosby, St John's and Ballaugli Curraglis, a few tenanted 
mines on Betula. 

S. lapponica Wocke 

Dhoon Glen, a single vacated mine on Betula. 

Stigmella sp. 

Numerous mines found on Sorbus intermedia, distinct from 
those of S. sorbi Staint., Lyonetia clerkella L. and Parornix 
scoticella Staint. which were also present, apparently belong to 
a species not yet on the British list. All but one of the mines 
were vacated. The tenanted mine contained a bright green larva 
which spun its cocoon successfully but, as is usual with late 
larvae, failed to produce an adult. Examples of the mine were 
sent to Dr. Klimesch in Austria who said that they appeared to 
belong to Stigmella ariella H.-S. He added thai there were pro- 



(12) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.iv.85 

bably two species passing under tliis name and that the Isle of 
Man mines conformed with the one having the more northerly 
distribution. I had previously found a single vacated mine of the 
same species, also on Sorhus intermedia, near Annan in Dum- 
friesshire on the 17th of September, 1976. The locality in the 
Isle of Man is above Dhoon Glen, on both sides of the road. 
Any microlepidopterist who collects there at the right season 
will have an excellent chance of adding a new species to the 
British list. 

HELIOZELIDAE 

Heliozela liammoniella Sorh. {betulae Staint.) 

Ballaugh Curraghs, vacated mines fairly common on Betiila. 
Recorded also by Bond. 

PSYCHIDAE 

Luffia ferchaultella Steph. 

Marine Drive, Douglas, cases on rocks. 

Psyche casta Pall. 

Douglas, vacated cases fairly common. 



LYONETIIDAE 

Leucoptera spartifoliella Hbn. 

Dhoon Glen and Glen Helen, vacated mines and cocoons on 
Sarothanums. 

GRACILLARIIDAE 

Aspilapteryx tringipcnnella Zell. 

Glenmaye and the roadside about one mile south of Dhoon 
Glen, tenanted mines on Plantago lanceolata. 

Parornix anglicella Staint. 

Mines and spinnings widespread and abundant on Crataegus. 

P. devoniella Staint. 

Dhoon Glen, three mines and associated spinnings on Corylus. 

P. scot ice I la Staint. 

Dhoon Glen, Ravensdale and Ballaglass Glen, mines and spin- 
nings fairly common on Sorbus aucuparia and S. intermedia. 



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CERTAIN CLYTIE SPECIES IN EUROPE AND MALTA 73 

REMARKS ON THE REPORTED OCCURRENCE OF 

CERTAIN CLYTIE HUEBNER SPECIES IN 

ENGLAND AND MALTA 

By E.P.WILTSHIRE* 

A record which has puzzled me since I read it is that of Clytie 
illunaris Hbn. found in June 1964 by D. S. Brown and H. Dudding- 
ton on the banks of the R. Trent near Scunthorpe, Lines., on horse- 
radish. J. Heath (1983:361) dignified this nice moth with a ver- 
nacular name; "The Trent Double -stripe", apt enougli as an epithet 
except for its almost implying that those wishing to find it again 
miglit look for it in the same place. Its known northern limits in 
Europe are 700 miles to the soutli, on the lower course of the R. 
Rlione. 

Recently Anthony Valletta (1984:46) mentioned the capture 
at an air-port hotel in Malta of Clytie sancta Stgr. adding "a sus- 
pected Middle East import", which was a reasonable explanation for 
a moth, described, as its name suggests, from the Holy Land and 
taken at an air-port. However, this moth's natural range in fact 
extends across the Saharan parts of Africa to the Atlantic: it occurs 
in Spain occasionally and a resident race has been described from the 
Canaries (Pinker, 1973: 7). It may therefore well have reached Malta 
by its own unaided powers, from Africa. 

Clytie illunaris Hbn. was of course recorded as not uncommon 
in Malta by A. Valletta (1973) and need not be doubted to be a 
resident there, as it is in both Italy and Spain. But according to 
C. E. E. Rungs (1981:398) this south-west European moth is at the 
most coastal in Morocco and he suspects that earlier records of it 
from southerly parts of that country refer to C sancta. He also 
mentions that the two species Clytie haifae Stgr., and C. arenosa 
Roths, occur there, and they too might be confused with illunaris 
if not checked genitalically. 

The same suspicion falls on records of C illunaris from the 
Eastern Mediterranean, which require confirmation from the male 
genitalia. How far eastwards along the N. African coast it really 
spreads is doubtful, thougli Tunis at least seems likely. 

The description of the one British larva.and pupa, and the iden- 
tity of its reported foodplant, are not the least reasons for puzzle- 
ment, as the principal, if not only, foodplant of all Clytie species is 
Tamarix. A desperate young larva, I suppose, unable to find the 
foliage of this, in Britain, usually coastal shmb, might be forced 
to feed on a herbaceous substitute, even horse-radish (as some low 
plants in France have also been mentioned); and that might account 
for its green colour, which is more usually in this genus, only the 
*Wychwood, High Road, Cookham Berks., SL6 9JF. 



74 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

colour of the younger larva, still spending the day-time high up on 
the green twigs of tamarisk; in later instars these larvae are brown 
and rest by day low down on the woody stems of the shrub, or, 
preferably, under loose bark on the tree-trunk, which I found the 
usual place selected for pupation by C. sancta on the sizeable tama- 
risk trees of the Lebanon coastal littoral. I never found these pupae 
"wrinkled" as described by the finders, but typically Catocaline, 
and glossy, except for a purplish bloom in some species. 






Qytie illunaris: fig. 1, male genitalia; fig. la, aedeagus only. 
C. sancta: fig. 2, male genitalia (uncus and anus only). 



CERTAIN CL YTIE SPECIES IN EUROPE AND MALTA 75 

I have been unable to discuss these points with either of the two 
discoverers, Messrs. D. S. Brown and H. Duddington, their names 
not being in my society directories; that is one reason why I mention 
these discrepancies now. It would be interesting to hear from them. 
Incidentally their bred example, figured in J. Heath (1983: plate 
12 fig. 7) is unusually pale and weakly marked; the more typical 
French example (ibidem fig. 6) was supplied to the editor from my 
collection. 

The tamarisk may well grow in parts of the Humber and Trent 
estuary. It is planted on cliff walks in many parts of our southern 
coast, being a halophyte, and one finds odd examples of it in the 
interior of England. I would suggest those anxious to retake the 
moth in England might rather look for it in the south, where a 
fertile female, chancing to land on our shores, might find the normal 
foodplant. I myself beat tamarisks on June 28th 1980 near Ventnor, 
I.O.W., in the hope of finding this or some other Mediterranean 
moth, but in vain. Only one lepidopterous larva fell into my tray, 
a minute Orgyia antiqua (L.); this I bred up on flowers from a 
chance garden tamarisk growing in Cookham, Berks., until big 
enough to identify, when I transferred it to Salix leaves, and a male 
duly emerged on July 28th. Residents of our southern coasts where 
immigrants land might remember that C. illunaris and various exotic 
Geometrids might one day turn up on our coastal tamarisks. 

As for the Trent, could the parent of the puzzling larva have 
been introduced with cargo, by ship or air-liner? The map suggests 
the former as possible, but those who know the area better than I 
do, might, if they know of tamarisks there, look thereon and ignore 
the horse-radishes, this summer. 

The natural distribution of the genus Clytie was a theme in a 
paper I read at the SEE Congress of 1982 at Cambridge, whose 
appearance in print is awaited. The attached figure shewing the 
genitalic difference of male C. illunaris and C. saiicta (mainly in 
uncus form) may be useful. I am indebted to Mr. S. Fletcher for 
figure 1 (and la). 

References 

Heath, J., 1983, Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain & Ireland, 

Vol. X. Harley Books. 
Pinker, R., 1973. Interessante und neue Funde und Erkenntnisse 

fur die Lepidopterenfauna der Kanaren-V. Zeits. der Arb. 

Oesterr. Entomol. 25(l/2):2-l 10 (1 Plate). 
Rungs, C. E., 1981. Catalogue raisonne des Lepidopteres du Maroc: 

inventaire et observations ecologiques, T. 2. Trav. Sc. Inst. 

Sc.s.Zool. 40. Rabat. 
Valletta, A., 1973. The mothsoftheMaltese Islands (\lSpp.,\6p\.). 
, 1984. Additions to the Known Lepidoptera (Hetero- 

cera) of the Maltese Islands. Ent. Rec. 96: 46. 



76 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA 

TO THE BRITISH ISLES IN 1 98 1 , 1 982, 1 983 : 

A SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE 

By R F. BRETHERTON * and J. M. ChalmerS-HUNT** 



1981 was a year of poverty for most immigrant species except 
for probably the largest invasion yet reported of Danaus plexippus 
L. In 1982 many were abundant, the profusion of Trichoplusia 
ni Hufn. and Heliothis peltigera D. & S. being particularly notable. 
1983 was one of the best since the Nineteen Twenties, especially 
for Colias croceus Fourc, Rhodometra sacraria L, and Agrius con- 
volvuli L. A number of additional records, and some corrections 
which arrived too late or have otherwise come to hand may now 
be added to the main reports in Ent. Rec, 94: 81-87, 141-146; 
95: 89-94, 151-152;96: 85-91, 147-159, 196-201. 

1981 

Additions to Annexe II — Scarce immigrant species. 

ORTHONAMA OBSTIPATA F. BERKS. Sunningdale, 28.7 (per 
M. Albertini). 

AGRIUS CONVOLVULI L. Co. WICKLOW Rathdrum, 13.9 
(R. F. Haynes). 

HIPPOTION CELERIO L. DEVON S. Kingsteignton, November, 
caught by Mr. William Richards in garden (The Advertiser, Decem- 
ber 4, per Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. 41:72). 

CLOSTERA ANACHORETA D. & S. ESSEX S. Bradwell- 
on-Sea, 2.6 (A. J. Dewick). Possibly immigrant. 

APLASTA ONONARIA Fuessly. ESSEX S. Bradwell-on-Sea, 2.8 
(AJD). Probably immigrant, otherwise a stray from Kentish colonies. 

Additions to Annexe III — Danaus plexippus L. 

AT SEA. Seen from m.v. Scillonian, 1.10, flying over the sea 
at about 30 feet in an easterly direction (Clive Jones, Ent. Rec. 
96:81). 

DEVON S. Prawle village, 27.10, one mid day, probably additonal 
to those seen later on Prawle Point (P. J. Hopkin). 

GLAMORGAN. Bridgend, 30.9, one watched on michaelmas 
daisies in garden (Owen Lewis, in lit. 21.9.84). Overton, Gower, 
September (Mrs. Jeffries per D. Eraser). 

WORCS. near Pershore, probably late August or September, 
brought in alive to the Birmingham Nature Centre (Pinder, per 
J. E. Green). 

*Folly Hill, Birtley Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey GU5 OLE. 
**1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent BR4 9LG. 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA IN 1981, 1982, 1983 77 

[SURREY] . Kew, on Thames tow-path and in Kew Gardens. 
For a full account of observation of several specimens, 10/15,8, 
presumed to have escaped from an exhibition at Syon Park, of the 
finding of some 40 ova on various species of Asclepias, and of the 
rearing of some of these in captivity, see J. L. S. Keesling, Bull. 
Amat.Ent. 5oc. 41:74-75. 

It may be noted that an example of D. plexippus was seen for 
several days about 9.10 at Albufera, Algarve, Portugal, and that 
the island of Madeira recieved a large invasion, with subsequent 
establishment of the species, in 1981. 

Among the common immigrants which were scarcer than usual 
in 1981, we now have about twenty further records of C crocea, 
all in August and mostly of single sightings: in Dorset from Char- 
mouth and Winspit, and inland in Surrey from Ranmore and Epsom, 
and from Merionethshire, and also of singles at Tipton, 3.8, and 
Standon, 18.8, in Staffordshire and at Swarkeston, Derbyshire, 
which may have been associated with the unexplained local breeding 
in Warwickshire, referred to in the main text. Of the diurnal Afecro- 
glossa stellatarum L. the ninth and most northerly was reported 

from Matlock, Derbyshire, 4.8. 

1982 

Additions to Annexe II. 

EUCHROMIUS OCELLEA Haw. CORNWALL E. Trebrown- 
bridge, 9.2, female in trap — the only attendant (AS, Ent. Rec. 
96: 238). 

*SITACHROA PALEALIS D. & S. SUSSEX. Ninfield, 30.7 
(MP). ISLE OF SARK, no date, 1st Channel Islands record (TNDP). 

*NYMPHALIS POLYCHLOROS L. GUERNSEY. Vale Pond, 
first record since 1947 (TNDP). 

NYMPHALIS ANTIOPA L. SHETLAND Lerwick, 4.8, by 
Mrs. M. Stevenson {Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. 43:146). 

*SCOPULA RUBIGINATA Hufn. ESSEX Great Oakley, 22.7 
(Skinner & Wilson, Moths of British Isles, 1984); Bradwell-on-Sea, 
1 .8 (AJD). 

RHODOMETRA SACRARIA L. BERKS. Faringdon, 6.9, 
two, 2.11, this uniformly dull pink with grey line and hindwings 
(M. H. V. Corley, Ent. Gaz. 35:110). YORK, 29.9 (M. R. Britton, 
Ent. Rec, 96 :2S5). 

ORTHONAMA OBSTIPATA F. BERKS. Faringdon, 3 & 4.11 
(MHVCibid.). 

*EUXOA CURSORIA Hb. KENT Newington, 3.8 (PJJ per BS). 

AGRIUS CONVOLVULI L. SUFFOLK Walberswick, 29.8; 
early October, ten; Felixstowe, 28.9 (HEC, Suffolk Naturalist, 
19:335. WORCS. Sinton Green, 2.10 (per JEG). CO. DUBLIN, 
two. CO.GALWAY,one(RFH,/A^/.. 21:187). 

LYMANTRIA DISPAR L. KENT Sevenoaks, 4.8 (Skinner & 
Wilson, op. cit. 1984). Possibly immigrant, otherwise an escape. 



78 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

MYTHIMNA VITELLINA Hb. PEMBROKESHIRE. Monorbier, 
31.7 (Mrs. D.Rees). 

MYTHIMNA UNIPUNCTA Haw. ARGYLL. Barcaldine, 
19/20.9 (Dr. J. C.R.Craik). 

*ENARGIA PALEACEA Esp. BERKS. Faringdon, 6.8 (MFVC, 
ibid.) 

SPODOPTERA EXIGUA Hb. BERKS. Faringdon, 20.7, (MHVC 
ibid). GUERNSEY. Forest, 8.7 and several to 16.9 (TNDP). 

HELIOTHIS PELTIGERA D. & S. GUERNSEY, 24.6 (TNDP). 

TRICHOPLUSIA NI Hb. BERKS. Sunningdale, 16.9 (per 
VMA). 

*AUTOGRAPHA BRACTEA D. & S. BERKS. Faringdon, 
6.8 (MFVC, ibid.) 

Among the commoner species, the records now include daily 
observations of Cynthia cardui at Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex (AJD). 
These give a total of 297 for the year, beginning on 15th May, 
with small numbers in early June, but showing sharp and probably 
mainly migratory peaks on 17th July (17), 11th (30) and 28th 
(31) August, 4th (23), 10th (40) and 15th (71) September, the last 
example being seen on 3rd October. This compares interestingly 
with the total there of 987 Vanessa atalanta: this began much more 
strongly in May and June and after late July showed only small 
daily peaks with sightings continuing until the end of November. 
This pattern clearly indicated a smaller relative importance of 
immigrants and much more local breeding than in C cardui. At 
Weston-s-Mare, Somerset it was noticed that, whereas the June 
examples of C. cardui were all pale in colour, dark forms, newly 
emerged, were seen on 21st July and were fairly numerous there- 
after until 15th October; these presumably were the result of local 
breeding (CHSB). In Ireland C. cardui was also fairly common, with 
a total of 367 reported, from 6th June until 15th October, mainly 
in the south but reaching north to co. Antrim (RFH in Irish Natu- 
ralists ' Journal 21:187). 

Of Colias crocea, among the few additional records, two were 
seen beside the Lancaster Canal in Westmorland, which were the 
northernmost of the year, in early August; in Oxfordshire singles 
at Barford St. Michael on 6th June, which was the furthest inland 
record, on 10th August by the river Thames, 10th August, and at 
Great Tew, 22nd September (GAP). At Beer, South Devon, two 
were seen as late as 20th November (TWH). Two seen at Castle- 
maine, co. Kerry, were the most westerly in Ireland, where the 
77 reported from 7th July to 31st October were mostly in southern 
areas, with the majority on Cape Clear Island, co. Cork (RFH, 
ibid.) But it remains a rather poor year for this species. 

The estimated total of over 800 Macroglossa stellatarum can be 
increased by a further 40, mostly of single examples widely spread. 
In all, it was reported from 23 English and Welsh counties and three, 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA IN 1981, 1982, 1983 79 

Perthshire, Aberdeen and Orkney, in Scotland. In Ireland, however, 
it seems to have been much less common, with only 38 reported 
between 18th June and 14th November and few from August 
onwards. It reached north as far as co. Down (RFH, ibid). In the 
British Isles as a whole, however, 1982 was probably the best year 
for the species since at least 1959, when 789 were reported, though 
its abundance did not approach that in the Nineteen Forties, when 
4,250 were noted in 1947 and high numbers in other years. 

Autographa gamma is usually the commonest British immigrant, 
and it maintained this position in 1982. The trap records at Bradwell- 
on-Sea show a remarkable total of 4,950 from 16th May to 24th 
November, and high numbers came also from a dozen other contri- 
butors who reported in detail for much or all of the season. From 
late July onwards numbers were increased by local breeding, but 
clearly migratory peaks continued, including one on 3rd November, 
when 50 were trapped at Weston-s-Mare. Real abundance was, 
however, apparently confined to coastal areas, numbers seen inland 
being not outstanding. The earliest reported was on 12th May and 
the last on 26th November. In Ireland 663 were reported, in ten 
counties the most northerly in co. Antrim; but abundance seems to 
have been confined to the south (RFH, ibid). 

1983 

Add to Annexe I - Names of Recorders 
G. Acklam, G. M. Chapman, A. R. Collins, J. F. D. Frazer, M. J. 
Goddard, Mrs. G. Green, A. S. Harmer, M. Hazell, P. Hollindale, A. 
W. G. John, N. W. Lear, J. Levene, J. R. Miller, E. Patrick, R. Pitman 
per RFH, Trevor Scott, Roger Smith (Warwickshire county re- 
corder), G. D. Trebilcock and B. K. West. 

Delete from Annexe II - Scarce Immigrant species. 
Under SPODOPTERA EXIGUA, Preston, 8.11, male, 9.11, female 
(M. Cade); under TRICHOPLUSIA NI, DORSET, Poole, 15.9 
(SCP); under RHODOMETRA SACRARIA, SOMERSET N., Berrow, 
delete 23.7, substitute 26.8, 26.9, three, 27.9. ENARGIA PALEA- 
CEA, (3) BERKS. Faringdon, 18.7, 7.8 (MHVC). 

Add to Annexe II — Additional species. 

DIASEMIOPSIS RAMBURIALIS Dup. GUERNSEY. 25.9 
(P. Costen per TNDP). 

*SITACHROA PALEALIS D. & S. DORSET. Portland B.O., 
6.8 (MR per NMH). HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT. Freshwater, 31.7 
(SAK-J). HANTS S. Hayling Island, 18.7. (JMW). HANTS N. Stock- 
bridge, 25.7, male (MJ). KENT E. Dungeness, 22.7 (ECP-C). 
SUSSEX E. Peacehaven, 15.7, two (CRP). Possibly some immi- 
grant, otherwise strays from temporary colonies. 

*OSTRINIA NUBILALIS Hb. CORNWALL W. Mawnan Smith, 
19.8, worn male (APF). SUSSEX E. Peacehaven, 12.7, two, 15.7, 
three, 22/24.8, three (CRP). CO. CORK MID. Fountainstown, 



80 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

23.8 (AAM, first Irish record). Coincidence of dates inter se and 
with other migrants suggests immigration, but the species is now 
fairly widely resident in south England. 

ISSORIA LATHONIA L. DORSET. Margaret Marsh, Shaftes- 
bury, 30.7, one clearly seen, showing underside (J. Simner per 
RDGB in lit.). 

LITHACODIA DECEPTORIA Scop. SUSSEX E. Peasmarsh, 
16.6 (TS,Anwt. Ent. Soc. exhibition, 1984, per BS). 

CHRYSODEIXIS CHALCITES Esp. DORSET. Arne, 29.9 
(Skinner & Wilson, o/!?.c/Y. 1984: 147). 

Add to Annexe II, further records 

PALPITA UNIONALIS Hb. DEVON S.Axminster 27.9 (ECP-C). 
KENT W. West Wickham, 23.9, 5. 11 (MH per JMC-H). 

NYMPHALIS ANTIOPA L. BERKS. Crowthorne, 23.9 (L. 
Chalke, Bull Amat. Ent. Soc. 43: 81). BUCKS. Beaconsfield, 12.7 
(identity checked, per MA). HUNTS. Between Monks' Wood and 
Bevill Wood, 21.7 {Report of Hunts. Fauna & Flora Society, 1983 
per JH). 

N. POLYCHLOROS L. KENT E. Stuttlesfield Down (TR/14Q), 
19.6 (P. H.Gray per E.PhUp). 

DANAUS PLEXIPPUS L. GLOS. S. Between Pucklechurch and 
Dyrham Hall, 18.9, found dead by Mr. Haynes, now in Bristol 
Museum (per NWL). GLAMORGAN. Lavernock Point near Cardiff, 

18.9 (E. Goulden per D. Eraser); Gower. September (Dr. A. Lack 
per D. Eraser). 

RHODOMETRA SACRARJA L. DORSET. Corfe, 25.8, male, 

27.8, two females, 30.8, male, all disturbed by day (ASH); Brownsea 
Island. 24.9, two, 30.9, three (ATB). HANTS S. Lymington 30.8, 
5.9 (ASH); Winchester, 12.9, f. sanguinaria (PHS). KENT W. Orping- 
ton, 21.8, female (P. Sokoloff). SUFFOLK W. Monks' Eleigh, 31.8 
(AW, Suffolk Naturalist 20:29) SUSSEX W. Selsey, 30.9 (A. Jupp, 
Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. 43:198). WILTS N. Old Basing, 3.10 (A. R. 
Dsivey, Ent. Gaz 35:152). 

ORTHONAMA OBSTIPATA F. DORSET. Preston, 8.1 1, 9.1 1 
(M. Cade). KENT W. Charlton, 4.6, female, 17.6, male (A. A. Allen, 
Ent.Rec. 96:82). 

AGRIUS CONVOLVULI L. BERKS. Reading, one early 9 (per 
MA). DORSET. Poole, August & September, two (SCP). Portland, 
8.9, two (MH). ESSEX S. Little Baddow, 19.7 (GAP). HANTS S. 
Barton-on-Sea, 26.9, male; New Milton, 27.9, on window; Sway, 

28.9, female at rest; 29.9, male, 10.10, female (ASH). KENT W. 
Dartford, 30.9, male on gate post (BKW). SUFFOLK W. Monks' 
Eleigh, 24.9 (AW, Suffolk Naturalist, 20:28). WILTS S. Wliaddon, 
28.8., battered; Clarendon, 26.9; Salisbury, 30.9; Bower Chalke, 
no date, female, {Bull. Salisbury & District Nat. Hist. Soc, 1983:9, 
R. Pitman per RFH). YORKS v.c 62. Nunthorpe, 20.9, female on 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA IN 1981, 1982, 1983 81 

shed (NH). In IRELAND, 31 reported, including those mentioned 
in Annexe II {RFH Jrish Naturalists' Journal 21:324). 

ACHERONTIA ATROPOS L. WORCS. Drakes Brougliton, 
September, one full grown larva (P. Cull per JEG). IRELAND: 
eight in all, including additionally singles from Co. ANTRIM. Co. 
CLARE, Co. WEXFORD. 

THAUMETOPEIA PROCESSIONEA L. GUERNSEY: 19.8 
(Rothamsted per BS), on the same night as in Cornwall. 

*EUPROCTIS CHRYSORRHOEA L. YORKS v.c. 61. Muston, 

25.7 (PQW). 

*PELOSIA MUSCERDA Hufn. ESSEX S. Little Baddow, 
19.7, in garden trap (GAP). 

*MEGANOLA ALBULA D. & S. DORSET. Brownsea Island, 
17.7, 22.7 (ATB). SUFFOLK E. Thorpeness, 18.7 (BS). 

*EUROIS OCCULTA L. DERBYS.Glapwell, 10.9 (J. Culpin, 
Proc. Trans. Br. Ent. nat. Hist. Soc, 17:5). 

MYTHIMNA ALBIPUNCTA D. & S. HANTS N. Burghclere 
16.9 (per MA). 

MYTHIMNA UNIPUNCTA Haw. DORSET. Portland, 8.5 
(MH). 

MYTHIMNA LOREYI Dup. SUSSEX W. Rogate, 4.9 (JACG). 
SUSSEX E. Peacehaven, 17.6, 12.9, 20.9 (CRP). 

SPODOPTERA EXIGUA Hb. SUFFOLK W. Monks' Eleigh, 
10.11 (AW,/Z)/fi?). 

HELIOTHIS PELTIGERA D. & S. CORNWALL W. Rosewarne, 

19.8 (per RIL&IW). 

CATOCALA FRAXINI L. WILTS S. Zeals, 22.9, male m.v.l., 
only the second Wilts record (Stewart Canham per GDT in lit.). 

In Annexe II stars indicating residence as well as probable or 
possible immigration should be added before EURRHYTARA PER- 
LUCIDALIS Hb., MARUCA TESTULALIS Geyer and PAPILIO 
MACHAON L. 

After the changes made above the total of scarcer immigrant 
species for 1983 is 58, of which 23 are also resident. 12 non-resident 
and usually common immigrants were also reported; a few examples 
of some of these may have survived from 1983 in an unusually mild 
winter. Of these Macroglossa stellatarum L., of which there are 
many additional records, deserves a fuller mention than already 
given. A total of about 400 were reported, with ten larvae: about 
half the number of 1982. It began with a single example, probably 
hibernated, in Sussex, 4th April, followed after a gap by 25 from 6th 
June onwards; a dozen in the last week of July; about 250 with a 
peak in late August and early September, a dozen in October, and 
the last on 1st November in West Sussex. It was reported in 31 
English and 3 Welsh vice counties, reaching up the coast to Anglesey 
and North Lincolnshire; but it was not numerous north of the 



82 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

Thames and had its northern hmits in Derbyshire and Staffordshire. 
Larvae were found in Sussex in mid July and in West Cornwall in 
early August, and local breeding probably contributed much to its 
later numbers., 

Annexe III — The Clouded Yellow (Colias crocea Fourc.) 
Since this Annexe was completed important information has 
become available both from individual recorders and from collective 
county or regional reports, which in all add about 1,700 sightings 
to the round total of about 13,000 already mentioned. Among 
the latter are detailed reports for Dorset (N. R. Webb and J. A. 
Thomas in Dorset Natural History &Archaeological Society 105: 
173-174); the Common Butterfly Sui-vey, 1983 by the Bristol 
Regional Environment Centre and associated detailed records 
covering North Somerset and part of South Gloucestershire (per 
NWL); a summary of the report for Warwickshire by Roger Smith, 
county recorder (J. M. Price, Birmingham Natural History Society 
25: 110); and Rpt. Huntingdonshire Fauna and Flora Society 
(per J. M. Heath), which contains remarkable single early records 
at Woodwalton, 20th April and St. Ives gravel pits, 12th May, fol- 
lowed by a total of "well over 100" for the year. We have also had 
a further list (unpublished) for Sussex (D. Dey), and from Here- 
fordshire (M. W. Harper) over 60 sightings from 27th July / 2nd 
August and some 20 later, with the last on 29th September. 

Most of the additional information broadly confirms the pattern 
of national distribution already mapped in the Annexe; but the 
report for Warwickshire, which gives a total of 487 sightings with 
presumed breeding colonies at Bid ford -on -Avon, Harbury and 
four other places, and also that for Herefordshire, require drastic 
up-grading of the mapped abundance for these counties and also 
suggest that penetration and local breeding in the Midland counties 
generally was greater than we had prevously supposed. The numbers 
in Warwickshire and Herefordshire, however, show the familiar 
pattern of main peaks in the last days of July and early August and 
in late September and early October: in Warwickshire 60 were seen 
at Charlecote on 2nd October. 

Among other new records from Dorset is a valuable account 
(A. S. Harmer) of breeding at the lucerne field near Corfe, already 
mentioned by others as a point of special attraction and abundance. 
One male was seen on 12th June, three males and one female on 
14th, and seven, including three females on 15th and 19th, cul- 
minating in twelve, two of which were females, on 26th June. On 
23rd July fresh specimens were just emerging, with some too limp 
to fly. On 1st August scores were seen, and on 3rd several hundreds, 
after which numbers fell until by 11th the species had almost left 
the lucerne field, although scattered in small numbers elsewhere 
on the nearby Purbeck Hills. Fresh C. crocea were however seen 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA IN 1981,1982,1983 83 

on 30th August, and ten, with worn females, on 24th September, 
A half grown larva was accidentally swept from lucerne on 30th 
August. This account serves to confirm our conclusion, previously 
stated as a probability, that offspring of the June immigrants con- 
tributed to the abundance in late July and early August. It is 
probable, however, that the sudden peak on 3rd August indicates, 
there as elsewhere, simultaneous reinforcement by immigrants. 

This timing of much of the life cycle of C crocea in the wild is 
supported by careful observations of individual larvae in situ near 
Leatherhead, Surrey by K. J. Wilmott. Eggs seen to be laid on white 
clover {Trifolium repem) on 27th July hatched on 4th August, 
were found set for their first moult on 8th August, and appeared to 
be ready for pupation on 17th and 18th; none could be found on 
19th August, 24 days after oviposition. The dates of emergence of 
the butterflies is not known. But if seven to ten days are allowed 
for the pupal period, the whole duration would be about one calen- 
dar month, in a locality which was probably less warm than that at 
Corfe, and later in the season. 

Small additions can now be made also to previous numbers 
in South Hampshire and Isle of Wight, East and West Kent, Middle- 
sex, Northamptonshire, Surrey, and Worcestershire. In Ireland only 
93l were reported, all on the eastern side from Co. Antrim to Co, 
Wicklow. (RFH, ibid). To these we can add reports of fair numbers 
in August in Murlough N.N.R., Co. Down, in the north; about eight 
seen 14th August at Tachumshin, Co. Wexford, two others in that 
county on 3rd and 6th September; and further west at Ballycotton, 
Co. Cork, 21st July (JMW) and at Cape Clear Island three 28th and 
29th July, on 27th August, and a single f. helice 13th October 
(ARC). It seems, however, that the species was nowhere abundant 
in Ireland. 

Further, we have now seen the account of The Clouded Yellow 
Migration of 1983 by E. PoUard, M. L. Hall and T. J. Biddy {Ento- 
mologist's Gazette 35: 227-231), which is based on counts made on 
weekly transect walks from April to September at 48 sites between 
the south coast and Westmorland. Detailed numbers are not stated 
for each site or in total, but the accompanying distribution maps 
and a histogram of weekly mean numbers per transect count suggest 
a total of at least 600 sightings (some of which are included in 
our own records). The histogram shows a dating picture broadly 
similar to that given by our table in Annexe III. The authors have 
concluded that from mid July onwards most of their records were 
of second or third generations locally bred from the June immi- 
grants, though they mention our view that there were considerable 
later influxes and add that, though this is not supported by their 
monitoring results, on our view augmentation of the "home bred" 
by immigrants population cannot be discounted. Since their account 
differs so greatly from our conclusion that, although local breeding 



84 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

was certainly important, it was unlikely to have contributed more 
than a minority to the years' total, we state below our reasons for 
believing that the discount needs to be large. First, we have definite 
observations of Clouded Yellows flying in from the sea or at rest 
on beaches, often in numbers, at two localities on 23rd and 25th 
July and at five others in early August, besides the influx between 
Studland and Swanage which is already described in the Annexe. 
Second, at places on or near the coast where daily monitoring 
was conducted the records show several large and short lived jumps 
in the numbers seen, both during this period and also in the last 
week of September, and on some other dates when sightings of 
actual arrivals are not available. Third, most of the dates of peak 
records of C. crocea from late July onwards correspond closely 
with those of other species which were then undoubtedly immigrant 
(see Annexe II). This cumulative evidence does strongly indicate 
that primary immigrants made a very large contribution to our 
records of C. crocea during its period of maximum abundance 
and probably also in late September. Wliether they accounted for as 
much or more than half of the year's total must, however, remain 
uncertain. 

On the Continent there are several reports of a build-up of the 
Clouded Yellow in Spain early in the year, and of later unusual 
abundance in the French Massif Central. In the Netherlands it had 
a very good season, with 253 widely reported (Lempke, Ent. Ber. 
1984); and in Norway a few were seen near Oslofjord, the only 
previous record being of two in 1977 (GKA). 



Editorial. - Mr. Paul A. Sokoloff having consented to under- 
take the duties of Editor, I have great pleasure in stating that he will 
be conducting The Record as from the next issue. He needs no 
introduction from me, for he is well known to many as one of 
our foremost amateur entomologists, and I wish him and the future 
of the magazine every success. I take this opportunity of thanking 
most cordially all those contributors and readers, members of the 
editiorial board, printers and others, for their help during my editor- 
ship, and trust that they will extend the same goodwill and support 
to my successor. - J. M. ChalmerS-Hunt. 

Early Migrants in South Hampshire. - Following news 
that Mr. Donald Russwurm had taken Hyles lineata Fabr. ssp. 
livornica Esp. in Brockenhurst on the night of the 3rd April 1985 
I was pleased to take a male Heliothis peltigera D. & S. and three 
Nomophila noctuella D. & S. on the following night in my Lymington 
garden trap, to be followed by a male H. I. livornica on the night of 
6th April. A Cynthia cardui Linn was also seen in Lymington on 6th 
April. There were strong Southerly winds on the 2nd April and a 
predominantly Southerly airstream for the next four days. — A. J. 
Pickles, 2a Park Avenue, Lymington, Hampshire S04 9GX. 



ANASIMYIA INTERPUNCTA ON THE THAMES MARSHES 85 

A COLONY OF ANASIMYIA INTERPUNCTA HARRIS 
(DIPT.: SYRPHIDAE) ON THE THAMES MARSHES 



By A. A. Allen, B.sc., a.r.cs.* 

This hoverfly. only lately (1980) separated off from ^4. lumilata 
Mg., was brought to the attention of British dipterists by Mr. A. E. 
Stubbs in the following year. So far it is one of the least-known of 
our Syrphidae, and apparently much the rarer of the two species 
although lumilata is anything but common. Confirmed British 
records of interpuncta appear to be four only to date: Wicken Fen, 
Cambs. (a few examples); Woodwalton Fen, Hunts. (1 ex.); Boston 
Manor, Middx. (2 exx.) - these given in full by Stubbs (1981:1 1), 
who later adds a Norfolk record (Stubbs & Falk, 1983). Further, 
it seems that the species was taken in West Kent many years ago, 
since Chandler (1969) gives two 19th-century records under A. 
lunulata: Old Charlton and Plumstead Marshes. However, /I. inter- 
puncta had not then been split off, and it is clear from what we 
now know that these two Kent records must almost certainly be 
referred to that species, instead of the bog-loving lunulata which 
is pxobably not Kentish. 

On 14th June. 1984, on the Erith Marshes near Slade Green 
in N. W. Kent, I caught a male Anasimyia on a buttercup flower not 
far from a drainage dike, which (to my great satisfaction) was seen 
to be a member of the above species-pair. In the course of the 
afternoon three further specimens were secured: one in the same 
way and two swept from dikeside herbage, making a total of Sddand 
1 9 . As expected, a careful study of the flies with the above works 
placed their identity beyond doubt as A. interpuncta. Returning 
to the site on the 21st I found the species not uncommon, still 
with males predominating, and accompanied this time by a pair of 
the far more familiar A. lineata F. — nearly all at buttercups. This 
was indeed a curious reversal of expectation, and something quite 
new in the hitherto fragmentary British experience of the rare 
A. interpuncta. However, all but one (9) of the eleven examples cap- 
tured on this second occasion had the wings frayed. The flies still 
seemed confined to a limited area, but some occurred as much as 
15 yards or so out into the field from the dike. Associated Syrphids 
were Chrysogaster hirtella Lw. and Eristalis sepulchralis L. in plenty, 
others fewer. 

Not the least unexpected feature of the occurrence relates to 
flight-period. All the few previous records are for May, interpuncta 
being thus considered an early species; but here we have it flying in 
fresh condition but low numbers in mid-June, and only a week later 
in worn condition but much higher numbers. This poses questions, 
*49 Montcalm Road, London SE7 8QG. 



86 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

and may necessitate a revision of our estimate of its flight-period, 
which on present evidence v^ould seem to extend to the end of 
June if not later. (The worn females caught would presumably 
have already bred.) The allies oi interpuncta usually last into August 
or September; does this indicate a second brood or a protracted 
emergence-period? Further investigation of the Erith Marshes 
colony is obviously desirable. 

Stubbs & Falk (p. 191) point out that because so little material 
is at present available, the degree of variation in this hoverfly is not 
yet known. The 14 specimens before me vary only to a trivial 
extent, and scarcely at all in the critical character of the outer hinder 
corners of the pale abdominal markings; except that in one those on 
tergite 2 are less clearly drawn away from the edge at the corner 
than in the others, much as in A. lunulata\ho'wever, the markings 
of the other tergites are typical of interpuncta. There is good agree- 
ment throughout with Stubbs & Falk's figures. The yellow thoracic 
stripes are much wider in the females than in the males, in places 
as wide as and wider than the black stripes between them. In A. 
lineata, for instance, this is not clearly the case. 

References 

Chandler, P. J. 1969. The Hoverflies of Kent. Trans. Kent Field 

Club 3(3): 190. 
Stubbs, A. E. 1981. Anasimyia contracta Torp & Claussen, 

1980 and A. interpuncta (Harris 1776) (Diptera: Syrphidae) 

in Britain. Proc. Trans. Br. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 10-11, with 

figs. 
Stubbs, A. E. & Falk, S. J. 1983. British Hoverflies. 190 (figs.), 

191, PI. 12figs. 8a, 8b. London. 

The Painted Lady: Cynthia cardui in February 1985. - 
Whilst walking along a roadside path on the Berks/Hants border 
near Tadley, Hants on February 6th, a mild day between two cold 
spells, I observed flying in my direction a C cardui. — P. G. SILVER , 
1 1 Scott Close, Emmer Green, Reading, Berks. 

Paradiarsia glareosa Esp. ssp. e dd a sI'aud.: Autumnal 
Rustic in Cardiganshire. - A single specimen of this 
unusual variety of P. glareosa was taken in a Rothamsted light 
trap at Tregaron during the night of 31st August 1984. This variety 
is normally associated with Shetland although it is reported that 
forms approaching edda have recently been taken in Orkney (Heath 
& Emmet, 1979, The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and 
Ireland). The captured specimen is in fine condition, with a uni- 
form, almost black ground colour and with the cross lines and stig- 
mata clearly outlined in a pale buff. My thanks to Mr. David Carter 
(British Museum, Nat. Hist.) for confirming the idenfification. — 
I. J. TILLOTSON, Tyloed, Tregaron, Dyfed, SY25 6JF. 



LARVAL FEEDING OF EUGRAPHE SUBROSEA 87 

SOME NOTES ON THE LARVAL FEEDING OF 

THE ROSY MARSH MOTH: 

EUGRAPHE SUBROSEA STEPHENS 

ByLJ.L.TlLLOTSON* 

Eugraphe subrosea is a former fenland species apparently quite 
abundant during the first half of last century in the fens of Hun- 
tingdonshire and Cambridgeshire. During the middle years of last 
century, extensive drainage of the fens drastically reduced its habitat 
and the insect was considered to have become extinct. In 1965 it 
was re-discovered in North Wales when a single specimen was cap- 
tured, and in 1967 it was found in quantity at Borth Bog in Cardi- 
ganshire. Studies at this location have revealed that its food plant is 
bog myrtle (Myrica gale), but little else seems to be known of its 
larval habits or development, or of alternative food plants. In 
Britain, its only recorded food plant is Myrica (Gardiner 1968), 
but suggested alternatives have been bog rosemary (Andromeda 
polifolia) and heather (Calluna vulgaris) and in captivity it is re- 
ported to have fed readily on narrow leavedspecies of willow (Salix) 
(Heath 1979). The larvae are active nocturnally, and considered 
sensitive to vibration and light, readily dropping from the food 
plant if disturbed. Little seems to have been recorded of their 
diurnal habits. 

The purpose of this exercise was to attempt to rear the insect 
from adult to adult in conditions as near natural as possible; to make 
close observations on its feeding habits and larval development; to 
attempt to identify alternative food plants, and to photograph the 
insect at every stage. In order to emulate natural conditions as 
closely as possible, the undertaking was carried out throughout in 
front of an open window in an unheated and unused room. Thus, the 
insects were maintained at the ambient temperature during their 
entire cycle. In order to simulate precipitation, water was occasionally 
introduced in the form of a fine spray, and the cage was taken out- 
side during some periods of gentle rain. The bog flora in the cage 
was maintained in a healthy state by topping up with acid water 
taken from that environment. As the larvae are nocturnal, it was 
considered of no importance that their exposure time to sunlight 
was reduced, and indeed long exposure to sunlight would have 
been unnatural and dangerous due to the 'greenhouse effect' created 
by the sides of the cage. 

A breeding cage was prepared which contained a cut section of 
peat and a representative sample of the ground flora. I will not give a 
complete list of plants in the sample, but confine my remarks to 

*Chief Warden, Nature Conservancy Council, Dyfed-Powys Region, Plas 
Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Dyfed SY23 3EE. 



88 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

those likely to be of singificance. Growing in the peat were heather 
{Calluna vulgaris), cross-leaved heath {Erica tetralix), bog rosemary 
{Andromeda polifolia) and a number of bog grasses. Introduced as 
leafed twigs were birch {Betula pubescens), common sallow {Salix 
cinerea), eared sallow {Salix aurita), and rowan {Sorbus aucuparia). 
No other shrub or tree species were considered significant and none 
were introduced. Bog myrtle {Myrica gale) was deliberately excluded 
from the experiment. 

Experience had shown that males are very readily attracted to 
light, but females were caught less frequently. However, on 4th 
August 1982, by using a mercury vapour lamp, several females were 
captured. They were introduced to the cage, and eggs were laid on 
the nights of 5 and 6 August. A few days after laying, the females 
died and were removed. Close examination of the cage contents 
revealed that eggs had been laid in five batches in the following 
locations: one batch on a leaf of common sallow, two batches on 
birch leaves and two batches on the sides of the cage. 

In order to assist location of the larvae after hatching, some of the 
twigs without eggs were removed. It was considered an unnecessary 
duplication to leave both species of willow, so the Salix aurita was 
removed, together with the rowan. All that remained were the twigs 
of common sallow and birch which carried the eggs. On the 1 9 August 
one batch of eggs on the birch was seen to hatch, followed by the 
other batch and those on the willow the following day. The eggs on 
the side of the cage failed to hatch. On hatching, the larvae ate most 
of their discarded eggshells and then began to disperse. They were 
minute, pale cream in colour with black dots each bearing a hair 
or hairs, thus giving a slightly woolly appearance. Locomotion was 
by looping. Once dispersed, the larvae were almost impossible to 
find and it was not until the 24/25 August that a few were re-located. 
A count of the discarded eggshells revealed a hatch of approximately 
52 larvae. These had changed little in appearance. Their skins had 
darkened to a greenish brown, but they were still semi-transparent 
with small dark brown spots and a dark brown head. They measured 
about 2mm. 

A supply of fresh twigs, of birch, sallow and rowan, was intro- 
duced, but the old ones now bearing dead leaves were not removed. 
Andromeda polifolia was present as a constituent of the bog flora 
throughout the feeding period. At this stage there was no evidence 
of feeding or of passing into a second instar. They remained un- 
disturbed until 3 September when a further attempt was made 
to locate them. Some were found which had grown to about 3mm. 
but they had remained greenish brown, semi-transparent, with dark 
spots and hairs. None were located on green foliage, all those found 
were resting on the dead fallen leaves of birch and willow. There was 
still no evidence of feeding and I was drawn to the conclusion that 
they spent their first instar in concealment and only begin to feed 



LARVAL FEEDING OF EUGRAPHE SUBROSEA 89 

later. In recognition of their nocturnal habits, some of these exami- 
nations were carried out by day, and some by torchlight after dark. 

By 12 September it appeared that the larvae had entered the 
second instar. They had now grown to 5mm. in length and had 
become a more uniform light brown above while they had adopted 
a pale fawn colour on the underside. Separating these two colour 
zones was a dark brown strip. They seemed marginally more active, 
locomotion was still by looping, but they were still not observed 
feeding nor was there any evidence of this on the foliage. They were 
still mostly found on dead leaves on the floor of the cage, but some 
were seen on the twigs. On 14 September new foliage was supplied 
and as the cage was now becoming congested, the old twigs, but not 
the fallen leaves, were removed. A number of larvae were dislodged 
from these twigs, by shaking them on to a sheet of white paper. 
On the 24 September this process was repeated, but little change was 
observed. There was no change in appearance, no evidence of having 
entered the third instar and growth had been extremely slow to 
about 5mm. The larvae were now adopting an attitude of camou- 
flage, aligning themselves with the twigs or with the midribs of the 
dead leaves. On the foliage removed there had still been no definable 
sign of feeding, although small patches of the lower cuticle of some 
of the sallow leaves had been removed. I had not witnessed feeding 
and was unable to say whether this had been done before the twigs 
were introduced. 

During the period up to 4 October the larvae became much 
more active and were observed feeding noctumally on the lower 
cuticle of sallow leaves. They stripped the leaf in patches leaving 
behind a network of ribs and veins and an entire upper cuticle. 
At the time of changing the foliage (4 October) the discarded leaves 
of birch and rowan were examined closely, but there was no evi- 
dence of feeding, and these species were not replaced. At this time, 
the larvae measured about 5-7mm. at full stretch, and were mid 
brown above with a slightly paler middle stripe and fawn below. 
After a period of feeding during the first half of the second instar, 
the larvae once again became immobile and for about two weeks 
remained in a resting position on dead grass stems or along the mid- 
ribs of dead leaves. During this time, immobility had been inter- 
rupted by occasional movements to other parts of the cage. These 
movements seem to have served no purpose and feeding was not 
observed again until 12 October. At this point, the three larvae 
which did begin to feed demonstrated a different mode of feeding. 
No longer confined to the lower cuticle, they extended their activi- 
ties to the upper cuticle and to the edge of the leaf, thus attacking 
its entire substance. 

By the 18 October a dozen or so larvae had become much more 
mobile and had resumed feeding. No more could be located and I 
assumed that they represented the sum total of the survivors. They 



90 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

were all feeding on sallow but it was also interesting to note that 
some of the younger shoots of purple moor grass {Molinia caerulea) 
had also been eaten, although this was never repeated. At this stage 
the larvae measured 6-7mm. The dorsal half of the body was mid 
brown in colour but also bore a broad cream central dorsal longi- 
tudinal stripe, flanked by two narrower stripes of the same colour. 
The broad stripe extended across the head which was otherwise dark 
shining brown. A broad cream stripe with a dark brown upper 
margin separated dorsal and ventral regions. The lower side of the 
body was a unifomi pale brown. When not feeding, the larvae con- 
tinued to adopt a resting attitude mainly on the dead leaves of 
Molinia. If disturbed by a sharp jerk, the larvae simply dropped from 
their perches. Minor disturbance resulted in the adoption 
of a defensive attitude which involved raising the head and for- 
ward part of the body, and then curving the head forward and down- 
ward rather in the fashion of the neck of a swan. 

On 27 October, the food supply was running out with leaf fall. 
The foliage was changed but by now the larvae showed little interest 
and remained in the resting position on leaf or grass. They showed 
no indication of hibernation or preparation for it. On 31 October 
two of the larvae were seen to be feeding. On 7 November, all of the 
larvae shed their skins and entered the third instar. For some, this 
induced a further attempt to feed but by this time the leaves were 
rather shrivelled and brown. Their appearance remained the same, 
but two or three days after ecdysis their size had increased to 9mm. 
On 13 November a few remaining leaves from their food bush were 
introduced and some of the larvae fed briefly. Despite some frosty 
nights during the second half of November the larvae continued to 
be active and occasionally fed on the remains of the sallow leaves. 
Throughout most of December night-time temperatures dropped 
below freezing and the larvae were relatively inactive. However, 
during this period one of them was observed on the leaves oi Andro- 
meda polifolia. Towards the end of the month, the minimum tem- 
peratures rose and they all became more active. Most of the vegeta- 
tion in the cage was of poor quality and fresh Andromeda, Calluna 
and Erica were introduced. At no time did they indicate any interest 
in Calluna or Erica, but at this time and throughout a milder January 
they all fed on Andromeda leaves. 

February was a colder month and for most of it there was little 
activity and almost no feeding, the larvae remaining low down on 
the grass stems or occasionally moving to rest on the willow twigs 
or on the Calluna. Early March was milder, the Andromeda began to 
grow, and the willow produced small catkins. Larval activity in- 
creased slightly, but although the larvae moved about the cage 
fairly freely, there was little sign of feeding. Towards the end of the 
month the nights became colder and frost was regular, but despite 
this, activity increased and on 23 March three larvae were feeding 



LARVAL FEEDING OF EUGRAPHE SUBROSEA 91 

quite vigorously on Andromeda leaves, and one had taken up station 
on a willow flower. Activity increased slowly throughout April but it 
was not until late in the month when vigorous feeding was resumed 
on the Andromeda. At this time there were considerable differences 
in the size of the larvae, but with renewed feeding they rapidly 
increased in size. On the 17 April some sallow twigs were introduced 
which bore opening buds. After a few days some of the larvae trans- 
ferred their attentions to the developing sallow leaves. From this 
point, growth was rapid and by early May, all seven larvae had 
entered th^ fourth instar, and were feeding voraciously on sallow 
leaves and flowers. 

Towards the end of the fourth instar the larvae measured 2 1/2 -3 cms. 
Colours had become more regularly distributed in stripes and in 
descending order they were a narrow pale cream dorsal stripe, 
followed by a pale chocolate one of greater width. Three narrow 
stripes, all of approximately equal width and fairly narrow were 
respectively cream, light brown and dark brown, and were followed 
by a broad white band, with a very dark brown lower edge. Below 
this, the entire underside was pink. On the 11 May, skin colours 
began to darken and between 12 and 15 May all seven larvae entered 
their fifth instar. During this fifth and final instar, their bodily 
colour arrangement was the same as the previous instar, but the 
stripes were bolder and more pronounced, producing a very hand- 
some caterpillar. They fed voraciously throughout the instar both 
day and night and achieved a length of 4Vi cms. On 26 May the 
larvae showed signs of pre -pupation by excavating small chambers 
m the Sphagnum or surface layer of the peat. Each larva enters its 
chamber and pupates without preparing a cocoon. At first the pupa 
is cream in colour but quickly darkens to become dark brown. 
Pupation was complete by 3 June. During pupation the vegetation in 
the cage was kept moist by leaving it occasionally in the rain. 

On the night of 16 July, the first three adults emerged, they 
being two males and one female. The night of the 18 July saw two 
more emergences, one of each sex. This was repeated on the night of 
22 July. One female was malformed with permanently crumpled 
wings and died on 27 July, and about 260 eggs were laid between 
29 July and 1 August. The death of two males and one female 
followed quickly and the remaining adults were liberated. 

References 

Gardiner, B. O. C. 1968. On Coenophila subrosea (Stephens) (Lep., 

Noctuidae). £■«?. Gaz., 19: 251-255. 
Heath, J. et al. 1979. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain 

and Ireland. Vol. 9. 



92 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

BUTTERFLIES IN NORTHERN CYPRUS 
IN EARLY JUNE, 1981 

By R. C. DENING , M.A., F.R.E.S.* 

Higgins and Riley {Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain & 
Europe) do not include Cyprus in their notes on distribution, and 
summer visitors to Cyprus may like to know what they will com- 
monly see. 

By the first week in June the whole landscape was very dry. 
Butterflies were fairly scarce in open countiy. But in a small enclave 
of a few acres at Anthos, just west of the Kyrenia Mountains, in 
the well-watered flower gardens of a number of English residents, 
very large numbers were to be found. 

Swallowtail: Papilio machaon L. To be seen everywhere, al- 
though commoner in the gardens. By this time the giant fennel has 
totally dried out. but the butterfly is still common in early July. 
Has it perhaps adopted citrus as an alternative food plant, just as has 
the related species Papilio zelicaon Lucas in Califomia ? 

Large White: Pieris brassicae L. Common, newly hatched. 

Small White: Artogeia rapae L. Very common, variable in size. 

Bath White: Pontia daplidice L. Two or three single specimens: 
also seen in the Kyrenia Mountains at the end of June on an earlier 
visit in 1971. 

Clouded Yellow: Colias crocea Geoffroy. Very common. 

Cleopatra Brimstone: Gonepteryx cleopatra L. Both sexes 
common, newly hatched. 

Painted Lady: Vanessa cardui L. Extremely common, scores 
could be seen at any one time, mainly on lavender. 

Freyer's Grayling: Hipparchia fatua Freyer. One or two freshly 
hatched specimens on the drier edges of the settlement, among 
trees. 

The Hermit: Chazara briseis L. Common, but only on the drier 
areas and in open country. 

Meadow Brown: Maniola jurtina L. Very common. 

Wail Brown: Lasiornmata megera L. Common. 

Large Wal' Brown: Lasiornmata maera L. Common. 

Lattice Brown: Kirinia roxelana Cramer. Common in shady 
bushes around a swimming pool. 

Small Copper: Lycaena phlaeas L. One or two. 

Long-tailed Blue: Lampides boeticus L. Common. 

Mazarine Blue: Cyaniris semiargus Rottemburg. Common. 

Common Blue: Polyonimatus icanis Rottemburg. Very common. 

Mallow Skipper: Carcharodus alceae Esper. Common on 
lavender. 

Lulworth Skipper: Thymelicus acteon Rottemburg. Very 
common. 
*Sunningdale, 20 Vincent Road, Selsey, West Sussex, P)20 9DQ. 



BUTTERFLIES IN NORTHERN CYPRUS, 1981 93 

Lulworth Skipper: Thymelicus acteon Rottemburg. Very 
common. 

POSTSCRIPT 

The identifications of Maniola jurtina, Hipparchia fatua and 
Cyaniris semiargus need further checking. A correction note will 
be pubHshed later if this is found to be necessary. 



Hyles lineata F. ssp. livornica Esp.: Striped Hawk- 
MOTH in the New Forest. - A fresh specimen of this 
moth was taken in my M.V. trap at Brockenhurst on April 3rd. 
Immediately prior to this date a severe south westerly gale had 
been in force for two days. It seems possible therefore that in view 
of the early date of its capture the moth may have originated from 
Spain or North Africa. - A. D. A. RUSSWURM , Coridon, Ober Road, 
Brockenhurst, Hants. S04 7ST. 

The Painted Lady: Cynthia cardui L. in March 1985. - 
On 14th March 1985, a worn C. cardui was feeding on flowers of 
the winter heather {Erica carnea) in my garden. - H. G. PHELPS, 
'Green Oak', Potters Hill, Crockerton, Warminster, Wilts,BA12 8AD. 

THERA BRITANNICA TURNER: SPUCE CARPET IN KENT. - 
In 1984, I saw this species for the first time at East Mailing when a 
single specimen came to m.vj. on 17th September, to be followed 
by two more on 15th October. Chalmers-Hunt {The Butterflies 
and Moths of Kent, Vol. 3) gives only two other records for the 
Weald Medway division of the county. There are several rows of 
Cupressus trees near the site of capture, planted as windbreaks or 
for screening, and these may have induced the moths to colonise 
the area. - D. A. Chambers, 15 Briar Close, Larkfield, Maidstone, 
Kent. 

EupiTHECiA - Delayed Emergence. - A number of 
species of Lepidoptera sometimes delay emergence from pupae until 
the second (or more) year after pupation (eg. genus Cucullia), but 
I have never before observed this in the genus Eupithecia, although 

1 have bred many Pug species. However, on 5th June 1983 I took a 
worn Eupithecia insigniata Hb. (Pinion-spotted Pug) which had 
obviously laid most of its ova, but produced about half a dozen 
more before it died. From these, four pupae resulted, two emerging 
in 1984 on 8th. and 10th. March respectively. Later examination of 
the two remaining pupae showed one dried up but the other ap- 
parently healthy. This was kept outside for the winter 1984/5, 
brought in to room temperature at the beginning of March 1985 
and emerged on 13th March. - Col. D. H. STERLING, "Tangmere", 

2 Hampton Lane, Winchester, Hants. S022 5LF. 



94 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

ON SOME SAWFLIES (HYMENOPTERA, SYMPHYTA) 
FROM UPPER DEESIDE 

By A.D.LISTON* 

Dr. M. R. Young, assisted by staff of the Nature Conservancy 
Council, organised a field meeting of entomologists which was 
held at Ballater, Aberdeenshire, during the weekend 22nd-24th 
June 1984. Most of the specimens mentioned below were obtained 
during this enjoyable gathering. They are now in the collection 
of the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. I am grateful to Dr. 
M. R. Shaw for allowing me to consult the Scottish Insect Records 
Index, housed at the Royal Scottish Museum. 

Most of the records here presented concern species which, 
at least in Scotland, were previously known only in Speyside. 
The occurrence of very local species such as Allantus basalts, Rho- 
gogaster dryas and Pristiphora groenblomi in Deeside indicates 
that a high degree of similarity may exist between the two sawfly 
faunas. If their total European distributions are considered, all 
these species seem to be characteristic of areas with a continental 
climate. 

Calameiita pallipes (Klug). One male, Bridge of Dee, 23.6.1984 
(A. E. Stubbs). Swept from an area of damp grass on the riverside. 
This is the most widespread Cephid in Europe, being the only species 
known in Scotland and Ireland. It has not previously been found 
north of the Central Lowlands of Scotland. 

Allantus basalts (Klug). 19,1 d, Bridge of Dinnet, 22.6.84 
(A.D.L.); 1 9,3d, Abergeldie Castle, 23.6.84 (A.D.L.). All swept 
from a low-growing wild rose species. Two of the male specimens 
have since unfortunately been destroyed. They have black marked 
tibiae and tarsi, thus making them very similar to specimens from 
Central Europe. A. basalts was previously known in the British 
Isles from three females and one male collected in Speyside during 
the period 1914-1944. The Speyside specimens are of the subspecies 
caledonicus (Benson), with reddish marked tibiae and tarsi. It 
would obviously be interesting if two discrete races were shown to 
occur in Scotland, but according to Hellen (1948), intergrades be- 
tween the two forms occur in Finland, as might be the case here. 
The foodplant of the Central European ssp. basalts is known to be 
Rosa, as my observations indicate, but that of ssp. caledontcus 
is unknown. 

Tenthredopsts Ittterata (Fourcroy). 1 9 , Muir of Dinnet NNR, 
24.6.84 (A.D.L.). Characteristically a southern species, it seems 
to be rare in the northerly parts of Scotland. 
*99 Clermiston Road, Edinburgh. EH12 6UU. 



SAWFLIES FROM UPPER DEESIDE 95 

Rhogogaster dryas (Benson). 1 9 , 1 d , Crathie Wood, swept 
from Populus tremula, 23.6.84 (A.D.L.). The adults of this species, 
which is monophagous on aspen, are perhaps the most vividly 
coloured of all British sawflies. R. dn'as is known from several 
English counties, but the only published Scottish records are of 
four males from Speyside (Benson, 1945; Woollatt, 1961). 

Pseudodineura eiislini (Hering). About a dozen leaf-mines were 
found on plants of TroUius europaeus growing in a meadow near 
Abergeldie Castle on 23.6.84. Although Twllius is locally common 
at other sites on the banks of the Dee, P. emlini could not be de- 
tected. The larvae were nearly full-grown when the mines were 
collected, and a few successfully spun cocoons. A single male 
emerged in August after having been "overwintered" in a re- 
fridgerator. In the British Isles, emlini has previously been recorded 
only from near Bettyhill in Sutherland, and near Grantown-on-Spey 
in Moray (Benson, 1958). 

Prist iphora groenblomi (Lindqvist). 1 9 , Morrone Birkwood 
NNR, Malaise Trap, 10.5.-1.6.84 (B. D. Batty). Previously in Britain 
only recorded from Aviemore (Benson, 1958). P. groenblomi is 
placed as a synonym of coactula (Ruthe) by Hellen (1975), but 
stronger evidence is required for such a synonymy because groen- 
blomi is rather easily distinguished from the rest of the coactula- 
breadalbanensis complex. 

References 

Benson, R. B., 1945. Emphytus basalis (Klug) and some other 

interesting British sawflies (Hym., Symphyta). Ent.mon. Mag. 

81: 101-103. 
Benson, R. B., 1958. Hymenoptera Symphyta. Handbk. Ident. Br. 

Insects, 5(2c): 139-252. 
Hellen, W., 1948. Mitteilungen uber einige Tenthredinoiden aus 

Ostfennoskandien. No tulae En t. 28: 40-46. 
Hellen, W., 1975. Die Nematinen Finnlands IV. Notulae Ent. 55- 

97-128. 
Woollatt, L. H., 1961. Sawflies (Hym., Symphyta) collected by 

Mr. J. E. Collin and Mr. E. C. M. d'Assis-Fonseca in the Scottish 

Highlands, May and June, 1959. Ent. mon. Mag. 97:87-88. 



PERIDEA ANCEPS GOEZE: GREAT PROMINENT, IN LATE JULY. - 
On 28 July 1984 I collected a male Peridea anceps at M.V. light 
at the Centre for Alternative Technology, Montgomeryshire. This 
species usually appears in spring from April to June and so a late 
July record is not only unusual but raises the question of either 
a second brood (unlikely) or of an immigrant (equally unlikely). 
Most probably the moth emerged late or somehow managed to live 
a long adult life. - DENIS F. OWEN, 66 Scraptoft Lane, Leicester 
LE5 IHU. 



96 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

ATHOUS SUBFUSCUS (MULLER) (COL.: ELATERIDAE) 
IN SOUTHERN ENGLAND 

By D. A. Prance, B.sc, f.r.e.s.* 

On 2nd July 1983 I boxed a specimen of this beetle from the 
underside of a leaf of a mountain ash tree {Sorbus aucuparia L.) 
growing on the slopes of Leith Hill in Surrey. It was retained because 
of its small size compared to the common A. haemorrhoidalis 
(F.), itself present in some numbers on the foliage of bracken 
nearby. The specimen keyed out in Joy (1932, A Practical Hand- 
book of British Beetles 1: 446-117) as this species but remained 
problematic since this author (l-C-) allocates it solely to Orkney 
and Shetland. To solve this 1 took the specimen to the British 
Museum (Natural History) where it was confirmed as indeed sub- 
fuscus. 

Quite how this (in Britain) northern species should sud- 
denly appear in southern England is a matter for conjecture. 
There is plenty of conifer planting carried out in this locality by the 
Forestry Commission and this species could have been brought here 
from the Continent with sapling trees although a parallel may be 
drawn with the case of Nudobius lentus (Grav.). After being a purely 
Scottish insect (Joy, op. cit., p. 129) this beetle suddenly turned 
up in the south and has since spread widely (Steel, 1949, Entomolo- 
gist's mon Mag. 85: 47 et seq.) . Nudobius was found to be present 
at Leith Hill in August 1983. 

Finally it may be added that other specimens of subfuscus 
have been taken recently in Surrey (P. M. Hammond pers. comm.). 
On the Continent the species is common in Central Europe (Freude, 
Harde & Lohse, 1979, Die Kafer Mitteleuropas 6: 168). 

Acknowledgement 

I am very grateful to Mr. P. M. Hammond of the British Museum 
(Natural History) for arranging for Miss C. von Hayek to see the 
Leith Hill specimen. 

*23 Brunswick Road, Kingston HilL Kingston -upon-Thames, Surrey, KT2 6SB. 



Stenoptilia SAXIFRAGAEFLETCHER(LEP.: Pterophoridae) 
New to Scotland. - On 27th August 1984 I took a male 
S. saxifragae from the window of an illuminated car showroom 
at Oldhall, Paisley. In view of the fact that this appeared to be 
the first record of occurrence of this motli in Scotland, the geni- 
talia were mounted and sent to Dr. K. P. Bland who confirmed 
they were those of this speces. - J. E. MORGAN, 35 Penilee Road, 
Oldhall, Paisley PA 1 3EU. 



REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 97 

REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 

By R. P. Demuth * 
(Concluded from Vol. 97 p. 19) 

After the war I specialised in nmralis. It is a lovely little creature 
thougli it is sad how its blues and greens fade away in the cabinet. 
It has two other merits; that it is found in the daytime and in most 
attractive places. I had it from the whole length of the south coast, 
including the yellow/brown form from Dawhsh and the strongly 
marked pale form from Cardiff and of course a long series from the 
two widely spaced inland cities of Cambridge and Gloucester where 
I found them to be identical. I often wondered why the variety 
impar should be the only form in these two places but nowhere 
else. The absence of salt in the atmosphere seemed the only common 
ground but then the inland villages of Gloucestershire have perfectly 
normal seaside type nmralis. I found that late at night it was easy 
to find nmralis by walking along shining a Colman light at the walls. 
Instead of being so difficult to see, they shone out like jewels. To the 
ignorant it was a completely mad act. I was so performing in Trinity 
Lane at Cambridge. A policeman was observing from the shadows 
and came bounding out: "Excuse me sir, what exactly are you 
doing!" On July 28 (1948) I went to Cork to try for trmralis there as 
Dudley Westropp had recorded many interesting varieties in Cork 
City, Monkstown and Passage. My diary reads, "My experience is 
now considerable. Generally speaking nmralis, though it sits on 
many walls in its haunts, only breeds on very few and these nearly 
always within a few yards of the sea. If a choice of materials is 
available, old brick is much the most popular as the brick joints 
give just the right sites for the larval web. Walls must be at least 
6 feet high, low walls however suitable never seem to have the 
insect and must not be overhung with trees or creepers. Real free- 
standing walls are much better than retaining walls with earth 
behind. It will not sit on walls covered with moss and does not 
normally like sitting on buildings. The insect emerges between 6 
and 8 pm (B.S.T.) and can easily be seen when drying its wings. In 
strong winds or heavy rain it will get what shelter it can under 
copings and projecting sills. The really good breeding walls I found 
were between the railway goods yard and the quay for the Fish- 
guard boat and along the railway and road between the station and 
Tivoli. Both these walls are quite close to the river. I could not 
find the lovely westroppi forms at Monkstown and Passage; owing 
to the destruction of the old railway wall these seemed to have gone. 
Most of mine were small, bright green nmralis type but about a 
*Watercombe House, Waterlane, Oakridge, Stroud, Glos. GL6 7PN. 



98 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

quarter were similar but var. par. I found none really approaching 
var. impar but I did get some attractive varieties." 

I was then really good. I would take a wall in strips never 
letting my eyes wander to another strip. A wall six feet high needed 
three separate searches each of a 2 ft strip. At Tivoli I just missed 
my bus back with not another for half-an-hour. With time to spare 
I could really search the wall and see how many I had missed. I 
had missed none. 

In a later year returning througli Cork from a family holiday 
in Galway I decided to give the harbour wall a quick search while my 
car was being hoisted on board. Halfway along the wall I literally 
collided with a large elderly man. Silly old fool I thought, why 
does he not look where he is going? It was Wightman (then of 
Pulborougli)! My eyes glued to wall, his eyes glued to the wall, 
collision inevitable! 

My other interest in my 1948 visit was to obtain the orange 
Irish fomi of sparganii. This I found in abundance in a small swamp 
near the sea at Fountainstown near Crosshaven, in lesser reedmace. 
They were just about to emerge (July 31). While I was collecting the 
pupae an Irish youth of about 18 came out to me and asked me 
what I was doing and I showed him the pupae and how they sat 
in the hollowed-out stem. I had spotted a closed exit hole in a stem 
in front of me and by way of illustration I cut off the stem and put- 
ting my thumb in the right place I said "There is one in here, 
directly below my thumb" and I split the stem and there it was and 
the youth crossed himself and bolted for the bank muttering. Of 
course if it had been typhae my thumb would have been in the 
wrong place and the miracle would have failed! 

In mid-September (1948) fraxini at Ham Street was all the rage 
and no collector worth his salt missed the show. The following 
appears in my diary presumably by word of mouth from Bernard 
Kettlewell himself: "Kettlewell took 20/rax/>z/here in the fortnight 
ending on September 17th. Some on sugar, some flying at night 
round the 12 foot high tops of aspen bushes, which circled down to 
lower levels in the light of a torch and three sitting on 3" thick 
aspen trunks in the daytime, on the windward side and in the sun 
and four feet above ground." I was a late comer. On September 
24, 25 and 26 three of us were there. I saw the only /raA:w/, which 
was on sugar, tried to put my killing bottle over it and rightly missed 
it. Still on the subject oi fraxini, Alfred Hedges saw one egg-laying. 
Eggs were laid on the aspen trunk only four feet from the ground. 
When Alfred disturbed it, two eggs had been laid in a crack in the 
bark. And on the subject of sponsa and promissa, Bernard had 
found them at Ham Street on oak trunks at the end of July in the 
previous year, all low down near the ground, sponsa right way up, 
promissa upside-down. It was tremendously hot, 90° in the shade 
and this may have been the reason for their peculiar behaviour 



REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 99 

for I always thought that both these insects sat high up in oaks on 
the branches, and in my youth I had spent many fruitless hours 
throwing sticks up with the hope of dislodging one. 

1949 was Annus Mirabilis! In early March I married Veronica 
Drake. In the summer the Robinson brothers ran the first m.v. 
light and it was the year of kniaris, compta and biittneri ,{\\o\x^ 
all three had been first found several years earlier. 

Veronica was an ideal entomologist's wife. She quickly picked 
up the technical jargon and learnt her species and was just as keen 
as I was. When the rain was pouring down and I would say come on 
let's pack up, she would say let's give it another half-hour and we 
were often rewarded. She was also a professional and highly skilled 
electrical engineer so when m.v. lights came along and something 
went wrong, all I needed was to wait until light was restored. 

We spent our honeymoon in the remoter West Indies such 
as St. Kitts and Dominica, sailing in native schooners from island 
to island as all the regular shipping had been destroyed in the war 
and not yet replaced. We climbed up volcanoes through layers of 
tropical rain forest and tree ferns but, except in Trinidad, saw very 
few butterflies and moths. We got back on May 24 and by May 27 
were staying at the Ferry Inn, Stone (the place of the Hungarian 
singing frogs) looking for alternative woods for lunaris. Some years 
before Dr. Bull had found larvae he did not recognize nor did any- 
one else and when the moths emerged they were this rare and 
exotic-looking insect. How exciting that must have been! When I 
find some larva I do not recognize it turns out to be pronuba\ 
I had taken lunaris at Ham Street the previous year but I wanted 
some more and to show off my skill to my newly-married wife. 
By then it was reasonably common in the southern part of Ham 
Street wood and in several other oak woods in the district provided 
that oak had been felled the previous season and young shoots 
were growing from the stools. Sugar was the easiest method but 
it was exciting to watch them in the daytime. They looked exactly 
like and rested among dead oak leaves on the ground. Dry drainage 
ditches filled with the oak leaves, and these were the places to shuf- 
fle through when lunaris would get up a few feet ahead, and if an 
immediate net stroke was unsuccessful a long and high-speed chase 
followed among the oak stools and with eyes well up, horrible 
falls were frequent. Anyhow Veronica was impressed by my speed! 
On July 16 we were back with Eric Classey to look for larvae and 
we found quite a lot both at Ham Street and at Woodchurch and of 
all sizes from 3/4 to full fed. They feed on the stool oak from the 
winter cutting, fully exposed in the hot sun and eat down the fresh 
young terminal shoots of the oak stools, a sign of their presence 
that soon is easy to notice. 

In the summer of 1949 Eric Classey told us that the Robinson 



100 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

brothers had rigged up a mercury vapour lamp and this was attrac- 
ting moths to a degree never seen before and he, I and Veronica 
decided, Veronica having the know-how, to fit up one too, which 
we tried out at Ham Street on July 15th. This we plugged in to 
Mrs. Davison's cottage on the edge of the wood and ran a long 
cable to a suitable point. The light stood suspended on a tripod 
over two sheets. It was a warm close night and the result was dra- 
matic. As a comparison we ran a Coleman petrol vapour lamp on 
a sheet in another part of the wood. We reckoned that 25 times 
as many moths came to the m.v. light, and this included species 
in numbers which we had previously only seen in ones and twos 
at the Coleman, such as derivalis, fagi and quercifolia, and gnaphalii 
which we had not yet come across. It also attracted other visiting 
entomologists who abandoned their own sheets to marvel at the 
continuous flow of insect arrivals. We were again at Ham Street 
with our m.v. light on July 29, 30 and 31 and again between Sept. 
8 and 13 and on this occasion there was a blue light deep in the 
woods and there were the Robinson brothers and I think Robin 
Mere running their light off a petrol engine and generator. We could 
not let this go unchallenged so as soon as we were back in London 
we set about getting something similar. There were no neat little 
Japanese generators on the market then but we found a firm in 
Acton who could marry a Villiers engine to a generator and fix 
them in a frame suitable for handling. The trouble was that it was 
far too heavy to move singlehanded and although I could lift it out 
of the back of my car I could not lift it back in again and Veronica's 
presence was always required. While it was being prepared, and this 
took a long time, we had to continue to plug in to friendly houses. 
And how friendly the owners were! What we wanted to do often 
took some explaining but the answer was inevitably "yes", and a 
great deal of trouble was taken in opening up outhouses or windows 
to give access to our cables and to other acts from rich or poor. 
I remember the steaming plates of sausage and bacon which came 
from a sergeant's wife when we plugged in to some barracks at Ash 
Vale near Aldershot, or "I've cooked you a little fish" from a lady 
in West Wales, well after midnight; or when we were connected to 
an expensive house on the edge of Sandwich golf course and a dinner 
party was taking place and the men came out in their dinner jackets 
(with drinks) after the ladies had retired to the drawing room, or 
the stately home in Hampshire where ffennell and I had our light 
on the lawn and the owner came out to say good night "I'm going 
to bed now. You will find whisky in the Library when you need it." 
Of course there were disasters too. We were staying near Nairn at a 
farm guest house and plugged our light into a disused turkey hut 
and on testing there was a tremendous bang and a blue flash and a 
lot of smoke. The evening meal was nearly cooked. The proprietor 
explained to the guests that a cold meal would be substituted. A 



REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 10] 

guest said that she didn't mind provided she could have a nice cup 
of tea. No tea either! The farmer husband has not yet begun milking. 
No milking either. We had blown the main fuse and only the Elec- 
tricity Board could replace it and with a considerable charge, waived 
by them when I explained the circumstances, but no tea, no milking, 
no collecting that night. On another occasion, much later as we then 
had a Robinson trap, we plugged into an Irish farmhouse. What we 
didn't notice was a tethered goat and that we were within the limits 
of its chain. The goat exploring its territory dragged its chain across 
and completely decapitated the trap. 

Youden had taken about 20 compta dusking in his garden at 
Dover in 1948 and he was getting them again this year so they 
must have been estabhshed. Cockayne, Hedges and I decided to try 
too and we located a large strip of sweet william in the Connaught 
Nurseries on the hill above Dover, grown for the flower trade. "How 
many flower heads did we want to buy? "Provided we have access 
and the plants are not disturbed we will buy the lot!" After all 
Cockayne was in charge of the Tring Collection and shades of 
Rothschild were still about. I see I visited our strip on June 17, 18, 
22, 24, 25, 26 and 28. Petrol was cheaper in those days! On most 
of these nights Cockayne came too, but the take was meagre. The 
time of flight was 9.15 to 10.15 and most could be caught without 
using a torch as the white band is quite conspicuous in flight. Females 
could be seen ovipositing into the crown of the flower head. On 
July 17 Classey, Veronica and I went again to Dover to cut off the 
seed heads and send them to Tring. This was quite a mammoth 
task and we filled a mattress cover which we tied on to the top of 
the dicky of my open car and took to Euston. Here Goodson met 
us (Goodson was Cockayne's assistant in looking after the Tring, 
later the R.C.K., collection). He had reserved a special carriage 
on the Tring train and when we had squeezed the mattress cover 
through the door it completely filled the carriage. The whole 
manoeuvre was quite unnecessary. Eric Classey quickly got about 
40 full fed larvae in a garden in the town by the simple expedient 
of shaking the dead leaves and stalks and collecting the larvae from 
the ground round the base of the plant. Only small larvae were in 
the seed heads during the day. 

Biittneri was discovered at Freshwater by Dr. Blair. The locality 
was a slightly brackish marsh of reed and sedge divided from the 
sea by a shingle bank and the coast road and continuing up a valley 
inland for about a quarter of a mile. Blair's house was conveniently 
positioned on its edge. My 1949 diary reads: — 

"Sept. 28,29,30. Three nights with the m.v. light after buttneri. 
The first night was misty and still, the second too windy and the 
third clear and cool with heavy dew. I took 5, 5 and 3 = 13, almost 
all females, mostly in good condition. The majority came to light 
about 8.30 (though the normal flight would seem to be at late dusk 



102 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

at 7.30). One came to light as late as 9.30, nothing after (Stedall 
stayed up till dawn). Biittneri flutters quietly toward the light like 
pahistris, only one reached the sheet, the remainder fluttering in 
the grass. My light was in Mrs. Elliot-Bairs garden (on her lawn 
which sloped down to the marsh) which proved better than any of 
the other spots. 70 were taken this year by about a dozen col- 
lectors. Can it stand this drain?" (We shall never know as next year 
the marsh was destroyed.) 

The reason I was more successful than the others was because I 
had my light on a lawn when any approaching moths would be seen 
and the others had their lights in or on the edge of the reed bed 
where the insect would have settled invisibly in the reeds or sedge 
some way back from the light. When wandering about in the marsh 
I found a female at rest on a dead reed leaf deep down in the litter. 
Every now and then one's eyes pick out something it is virtually 
impossible to spot and this was such an occasion. As I bent down 
to box it I remember thinking, how could I possibly have seen that? 
I take it that the dusk flight were the males as the flight when it was 
dark enough for the m.v. to be effective were almost all females and 
there probably was a predawn flight too. In 1949 we had no m.v. 
trap to test what flew after we went to bed. 

Sacraria was common at the same time in the stubble fields 
above Freshwater. Bernard Kettlewell had thought of an ingenious 
way of collecting sacraria which we tried out together in the stubble 
round Cranleigh. You take about a 30 foot length of light rope to 
which you tie four or five heavy objects like spanners and the two 
of you tow this across the stubble fileds in the manner of mine- 
sweeping and it is very effective but ideally you need a third man 
with a net behind the rope. 

In 1950 I was at Dalwhinnie and there found assimilis in an 
abundance which I think has not been seen since. My diary reads: 
"July 30. Moved to Dalwhinnie. Weather was rough with high wind 
and rain. Debated going out at night but in the end put the m.v. 
light on the edge of the Dalwhinnie-Laggan road about IVi miles 
beyond the hotel. As I always do in high winds, I had no sheet and 
put the light close down over the ground; insects then fly down on 
to the heather and hang on. otherwise they get swept away. 6 
assimilis came of which I caught 5 (4 males, 1 female). All fresh 
except one, but they got incredibly quickly damaged and even the 
fresh ones are often scratched or tom." 

"July 31. Same place. Sugared on the posts on the left of the 
road. Four monoglypha the only insects. Two assimilis at m.v. 
All to date have arrived between 11.15 and 1 1.45 B.S.T." 

"Aug. 1 . Since I came to the conclusion I did not know which 
of the grasses was the purple moor grass, the supposed food plant, 
I went to see the botanist Robert Adam, who put me wise. As the 



REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 103 

result I moved my position to the best spot for this grass and ob- 
tained 27 assimilis. The night was windy with heavy showers. Nearly 
all were fresh though even these are often damaged. They nearly 
all came 11.00 to 11.20, mostly males. At one time they were 
coming so rapidly I could not cope with them all, fluttering in the 
heather with great vigour like popularis and I imagine that up to 
fifty came to light. At first there were no monoglypha but as assi- 
milis stopped at midnight, monoglypha began to arrive in equal 
numbers. Did not sugar. A quick search of grass tufts produced no 
assimilis pairs. I think they sit on the bare peat." 

"Aug. 2 and 3. Two more nights at the same spot. Both rea- 
sonably suitable. On the first night I brought back 17 selected 
assimilis, on the second 35. About 75% are in tip-top condition 
but one is liable to damage them boxing them in the heather. (I 
used the sheet for a short time but they then fly wildly round so 
I soon gave it up.) I doubt if one in ten are females. I sugared the 
roadside posts on both nights, only monoglypha and five assimilis. 
I also looked for pairs but could find none on herbage or the fence 
but I got two pairs on the wood poles of the power hne which 
crosses the moor, also some single assimilis on the same poles inclu- 
ding three on one pole." 

Other collectors had found assimilis on this high moorland 
both before and after my visit but nothing like my numbers. These 
numbers may seem somewhat excessive but assimilis is widely 
spread over most areas of the northern Highlands and probably 
occurs in millions. My catch provided the R.C.K. collection with a 
very superior series. 

I have not written anything about my frequent visits to Ireland, 
up to three in one year, first alone, then with Veronica and our three 
Httle daughters and finally to be joined by Austin Richardson after 
the death of his wife Beryl. We selected the most obscure and out- 
of-the-way places, generally on the coast, hoping to collect where 
no-one had collected before and thus find new species but though 
we added many new localities to Baynes' list the only species new 
to Ireland was xanthomista which I took at Castle Townshend 
in County Cork in an m.v. trap in the castle garden. As well as moths 
we had to consider the Httle daughters and their requirements were 
donkeys. I remember the necessary animal being produced by a bog 
farmer. Daughter (aged 5): "Oh but what a darling, darling donkey. 
What do you call it?" "I calls it ass." Places which satisfied all re- 
quirements were Malin Head, Portsalon (fine forms of dahlii), Por- 
tnoo (caesia) all in Donegal. The Mull of Belmullet and Achill Island 
(too many tourists) in Mayo. Roundstone (A^. algae) in Connemara. 
Of course the Burren. Slea Head, Valencia, Dursey Island, Mezin 
Head in Counties Kerry and Cork and all along the south coast to 
Rosslare. The interior was not neglected in hopeless search for 
bicoloria. 



104 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

On May 28th 1954 Veronica and I stayed at Krugers Hotel 
at Dunquin on the extreme tip of the Dingle Peninsula. Dunquin 
was the Mecca of gaelic speakers and Krugers was where they stayed. 
Kruger himself was a German and the hotel flew the German flag 
but Gaelic was the only language which produced a satisfactory 
response. We had our m.v. light some two miles back from the head- 
land where the cliff is precipitous enough to keep the sheep off the 
maritirne campion which is one of their favourite foods. We left 
the generator at the top and scrambled down to a narrow ledge 
about three feet wide and surrounded with tufts of campion. Below 
the ledge the cliff fell vertically. We folded the sheet into a strip and 
shortened the legs of the m.v. tripod and ht the Coleman lamp. 
Dingle Bay spread out below us backed by the line of the Kerry 
Mountains. Great Blasket Island was to the right and the Skerries 
Stacks way out on the horizon of the open Atlantic. The next bit 
of land would be the U.S.A. As it became dark all this faded away 
but the noise of the birds and the sea reminded us of where we 
were. When it was pitch d&rk the shearwaters and the storm petrels 
would fly in to their nesting burrows making that extraordinary 
crowing and gurgling noise which is frightening in its uncannyness. 
The only thing that had not come was caesia so I decided to leave 
Veronica on the ledge and taking the Coleman make a quick dash 
to the sand dunes of Ventry Bay and see if I could find ripae. I went 
on foot. About halfway there I started to think. I had taken the 
Coleman lamp leaving Veronica with only the mercury vapour. 
Suppose it went out? She could not get up anyhow as the access 
to the ledge was on my side and the tripod blocked her off. I turned 
round and rushed back. As I crossed the field to the cliff top 
I could hear the engine; that's good! As I leant over the cHff edge 
I could see the blue glow of the light; that's good. I scrambled down. 
Veronica was busy with the pill boxes. "I've got eight caesia. They 
are even darker than you said." Earlier I wrote that I had married 
the ideal entomologist's wife: well you see what I mean! We stayed 
till the light began to show over the MacGillicuddy's Reeks. When 
we got back to Dunquin it was full daylight and the sea was silver 
blue and every field resounded to the croak of corncrakes. 

Why do I do it? No scientific paper on the structure of the 
sclerite has been produced. No insect new to science, or even to the 
British Isles has been discovered. My only claim to fame is the me- 
lanic form of the Green Arches, Anaplectoides prasina ab. demuthi 
and the possiblity that I know as much of the distribution of the 
British noctuidae as anyone else. I cannot even introduce myself as 
I once heard Austin Richardson do so to a lepidopterist in Ben- 
becula in the Hebrides: "My name is Richardson. I have the finest 
collection of British lepidoptera in private hands", and so he had. 
No it's none of those things. It is a desire, almost a passion, to be 
in remote and wild places and moths are the spur that drives me to 



REMINISCENCES OF AN ELDERLY ENTOMOLOGIST 105 

them. Who but an entomologist would have stood on the summit 
of Schiehallion watching the sun set over Rannoch Moor or on 
Herma Ness in Unst, the final northern extremity of the British 
Isles and while examining his sugar seen the aurora borealis flic- 
kering up and down over the arctic horizon? Or sleep in the car 
(our large estate car with a mattress in the back and two sleeping 
bags is very snug) in a ride in the New Forest and wake just as the 
sun is up with the shadows of the tree trunks striping the grass and 
a herd of deer browsing all around? 

My thanks to Jane Goater for so neatly doing the typing and 
correcting most of the spelling faults. 

Notes and Observations 

A Thought for the Feminist. - The value of ladies, 
suitably attired, on field trips, has long been recognised (Allan, 
1948, Moths & Memories, p. 125). A long white dress makes an 
excellent substitute for a sheet whilst collecting moths, the lamp 
being shone on the lady whilst she stands still. Though perhaps 
P.M.B. Allan's suggestion {op. cit.), that she may be persuaded to 
stand knee deep in water at the edge of a pond, in order to attract 
Nonagria typhae, is perhaps a little ungentlemanly. The same long 
dress also makes an excellent beating tray, if she can be persuaded 
to sit beneath the tree and spread her skirts out to catch the falling 
insects, a wide brimmed hat is essential!! 

As well as these useful techniques I believe I have discovered a 
new one. At a wedding I attended recently the bridesmaids were 
wearing wide hooped skirts with an over-skirt of net. As they walked 
through the grass in the church yard and at the reception, several 
small insects were disturbed by the hems of the dresses and caught 
under the net overskirts. On the one bridesmaid, which I was able to 
examine more closely, I noted three different species of diptera and 
two of hemiptera. 

This technique would probably be useful in sampling a popula- 
tion of small insects in long grass. I offer the idea to some enter- 
prising student who might like to develop it further. — G. F. Le 
Pard, Silver Crest, Silver St., Sway, Lymington, Hampshire. 

DONACIA VULGARIS ZSCHACH (COL.: CHRYSOMELIDAE) IN 
C UMBRIA . - Dotted around the small town of Egremont in West 
Cumbria are a number of old disused iron ore mines, many of which 
were worked out and abandoned long ago. These areas have re- 
mained dereUct and undisturbed and due to subsidence a number 
of the old workings have flooded and this has resulted in the crea- 
tion of large ponds. Over the years many of these ponds have been 
colonised by a good deal of aquatic vegetation which has in turn 
created some very interesting habitats for invertebrates and wildlife 
in general. 

While doing some collecting on 27th June, 1981 at one of these 



106 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

ponds at Grid Ref., (NYOl.ll) I found a specimen o{ Donacia 
vulgaris Zschach at rest on a leaf of Broad-leaved pondweed, {Pota- 
mogeton natans L.) in shallow water near the edge of the pond. 

In personal communication from Dr. Michael Cox (Common- 
wealth Institute of Entomology) apparently this is a new record 
for the beetle from Cumbria, and it also establishes a new record 
for vice county 70. D. vulgaris is known from a number of vice 
counties throughout England and Wales and from two in Scotland, 
Midlothian and Banffshire. Its distribution also extends to Ireland, 
where Johnson and Halbert (1902, Proc. R. Ir. Acad. 6: 758) re- 
corded it from the following V-C's, H21, H23, H37, H38 & H39. 
The main foodplants of D. vulgaris are Typha (Reedmace) and 
Sparganium (Bur-Reed). 

I wish to thank Dr. Cox for very kindly identifying the speci- 
men of D. vulgaris and for information concerning the vice county 
records. - R. W. J. Read, 43 Holly Terrace, Hensingham, White- 
haven, Cumbria CA28 8RF. 

The Painted Lady:' Cynthia cardui L. - On April 1st 
(after mid-day!) 1985, on a wild wet day in Plymouth, not far from 
the docks area, I watched a reasonably good specimen of this butter- 
fly wandering around the streets before coming to rest in the shel- 
tered interior of a parked car bumper-bar. - A. ARCHER-LOCK, 
4 Glen wood Road, Mannamead, Plymouth, Devon. 

The Orange-tip : Anthocharis card amines L. in West 
Lothian. — There appears to be a small colony of this butterfly 
on this estate. On May 20th 1984, I saw two males here on two 
separate occasions in the same stretch of lane, and found an egg 
on Alliaria officinalis (Garlic Mustard). I have lived on Hopetoun 
Estate since 1959, but his was the first time I have seen the butter- 
fly here or elsewhere in W. Lothian. - GEORGE CAMPBELL, 
North End House, Hopetoun Estate, South Queensferry, EH309SL, 
Scotland. 

FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA: A FOODPLANT OF COSMIOTES STA- 
BILELLA FREY AND ELACHISTA BISULCELLA DUPONCHEL. 
On 10th. September 1982 I found a yellowish larva with a light 
brown head and plate mining Festuca arundinacea at Axmouth, 
Devon. The next day at Beer, Devon I found a similar larva and 
several empty mines in the same grass. Both larvae pupated very 
soon within a slight cocoon. On emergence on 24th. and 30th. 
September 1982 respectively they proved to be Cosmiotes stabilella 

From 19th. June to 6th. July 1983 I bred the species from 
several larvae found mining F. arundinacea at Seaton, Devon on 21st. 
May and at Axmouth on 21st. June 1983. Most larvae mined to- 
wards the tip of a blade and usually there was only one mine to a 
blade but sometimes there were two. 

Emmet, A. M. (1979, A Field Guide to the Smaller British 
Lepidoptera) gives February to May for the larva and May to July 



NOTES AN OBSERVATIONS 107 

for the adult but states that the species is possibly bivoltine, which 
my observations confirm. Neither Emmet nor Traugott-Olsen, 
E. & Nielson, E. S., (1977, The Elachhtidae (Lepidoptera) of Fen- 
noscandia and Denmark) give F. arundinacea as a foodplant for 
this species. 

Another species not recorded by Emmet or Traugott-Olsen & 
Nielsen from F. arundinacea is Elachista bisulcella, but on 22nd. 
June and 12th July 1983 I bred it from larvae found mining this 
on 21st. May 1983 at Seaton, Devon. 

I am very grateful to Mr. E. C. Pelham-Clinton for identifying 
the foodplant. - R. J. Heckford, 67 Newnham Road, Plympton, 
Plymouth. 

APATELE RUMICIS L: KNOTGRASS - VOLTINISM AND ME- 
LANISM . - R. South {Moths of the British Isles, 1 907) gives the 
fliglit period as June and July, and sometimes in August and Sep- 
tember, while L. W. Newman and H. Leeds {Text Book of British 
Butterflies and Moths, 1913) writes similarly, but adding late May. 
My m/v light at Dartford, operated since 1969, indicates that here 
rumicis is always bivoltine, the first brood occurring in April, May 
and June, the second in July and August, very rarely in September. 
However the species appears to vary greatly both in numbers and in 
time of appearance. Thus, in 1979 I noted it as early as April 16th, 
while in 1976, a good year for the species here, an apparent second 
brood specimen was seen as early as June 30th (1st brood — 23 from 
May 2nd until June 9th; 2nd brood — 39 from. June 30th to August 
2nd). Since 1969 only in one year, 1977, did rumicis appear in 
September — four normal specimens, the last on Sept. 16th. 

These m/v light records also suggest that here rumicis is com- 
moner in the second brood. Thus in the nine years from 1976 
inclusive, 81 first brood specimens have appeared compared to 
290 second brood, and in all these years, except 1980 when there 
were but three specimens for each brood, the second brood was 
more in evidence, sometimes quite significantly, e.g. 1977 — 7:66, 
1983 - 12:85, 1984 - 2:30. A further interesting point is that 
in Kent the larvae from the second brood seem to be observed much 
more frequently, thus Chalmers-Hunt {Lep. of Kent, 1968) has 
larval records only for the second brood, but this may be due to dif- 
fering larval habits for the two broods; similarly, the preponderance 
of second brood imagines may reflect a difference in behaviour 
towards m/v light, but not, I think, of flight period. 

B. Kettlewell {The Evolution of Melanism, 1973) includes the 
dark forms salicis Curtis and lugubris Schultz as industrial melanics 
phenotypically identical with ancient melanic forms found in the 
Hebrides and Co. Clare, and also states that most industrial melanic 
forms are dominant. N. W. Kent is an area noted for industrial 
melanism, and here during the 1970s the dominant form carbonaria 
Jordan of Biston betularia L. fomied about 80% of this species as 



108 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

indicated by m/v light records, the figure having dechned sub- 
sequently, but melanic rumicis has remained at the comparatively 
low level of 20%, and this for both broods. Chalmers-Hunt {Lep. of 
Kent) states that the melanic form oinunicis seems not to have been 
noted in the county prior to 1892, and carbonaria was first recorded 
in Kent in 1901, so the length of time that these melanic forms 
have been known to inhabit the county is similar. In the Lepidop- 
tera of Kent an error occurs regarding the prevalance of the melanic 
form of rumicis where the author suggests that this form is confined 
to the second generation, for my Dartford records indicate it is 
equally common in the two broods. 

Rumicis has been attracted to my m/v light usually singly, 
very rarely as many as three; however on July 27th, 1983 there 
were twenty, curiously all typical specimens. 

The above observations prompt several questions:— 

(a) In what other areas is rumicis more noted in the second brood? 

(b) What is the % of melanic forms oi rumicis elsewhere? 

(c) Is industrial melanism in this species still increasing? 

(d) What % of the populations of rumicis in areas such as Co. Clare 
is melanic? - B. K. WEST, 36 Brair Road, Bexley, Kent. 

A Non-coastal Breeding Record of Calophasia 
LUNULA HUFN.: Toadflax Brocade. - This moth, especially 
as a breeding species, is usually associated with coastal areas. 
However, on 25th September 1983, I found a mature larva in my 
front garden at Larkfield, five miles north-east of Maidstone. It 
was feeding on Linaria purpurea (L.) Mill. (Purple Toadflax) and 
pupated shortly afterwards on 29th September. The imago 
emerged on 21st June 1984. A search of other plants oi Linaria in 
the garden failed to reveal more larvae or any obvious signs of 
feeding. - D. A. CHAMBERS, 15 Briar Close, Larkfield, Maidstone, 
Kent. 

iilTOTROGA CEREALELLA OL. (LEP.: GELECHIIDAE) IN 
Herefordshire. — This moth, a native and sometimes pest 
of warmer climes, has been emerging in great numbers from the 
Sandford Collection of straw work now housed at the Churchill 
Gardens Museum, Hereford. The collection came from Eye Manor 
near Leominster and includes a number of items of foreign origin. It 
is thought that the constant very warm microclimate that is a 
feature of part of the Gallery during the winter (the room being 
directly above the central heating boiler) was responsible for the 
emergence; the straw work was put on display during the summer. 
Initially a number in excess of 300 were removed from the main 
display case (floor area about 4ft sq), others were taken from the 
walls or from other free-hanging work. Several pairs were observed 
in cop. in grooves in the moulding around doors or windows. Num- 
bers continued to emerge throughout December 1984 and January 
1985, with an occasional one ot two up to the time of writing this 
note. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 109 

I thank my friend Dr. M. Harper for determining the moth and 
for pointing out that it is probably a new record for Herefordshire. 
- J. COOTER, Hereford City Museums and Art Gallery, Broad Street, 
Hereford, HR4 9AU: 20th March, 1985. 

Why did the Clap Net become Extinct? -The Clap 
Net was the standard insect net used in Britain (not on the 
Continent) from the early eighteenth century until the mid- 
dle of the nineteenth, when it was replaced by the Bag Net which we 
use today. Later generations of entomologists have looked with awe 
on the old plates illustrating this net, and wondered how anybody 
managed to catch any insects at all with such an impractical device. 

I was somewhat suspicious as to the popular belief in the clum- 
siness of the clap-net, and determined to try and make one to see 
how it would work. I soon found out, as have other modern users 
of clap-nets, that it is a very efficient tool for catching insects, 
indeed for taking an insect sitting on a bush it is infinitely better 
than the modern bag net. 

This poses the question of why did it fall out of use? The usual 
answer is that it was bulky to carry when not in use, unHke the col- 
lapsable bag net. However at least one description implies that 
the sticks of a clap-net were fitted with joints like those of a fishing 
rod, which would have made it easily portable. 

Having used a clap-net I would suggest another, more funda- 
mental, reason for its dechne. The one operation I found difficult 
with a clap-net, was boxing an insect. There is little excess material 
in which to hold the insect as you open the net to slip in a pill box. 
This would have been of little importance to an eighteenth century 
entomologist, who invariably killed his captures, either by pinching 
the thorax, or by piercing the body with a pin dipped in some 
poison such as tobacco juice. In the 1850s, the killing bottle was 
invented, and I believe that the efficient clap-net was replaced, 
by the slightly less efficient bag net because it proved virtually im- 
possible to use a killing bottle with the old net. - G. F. LE Pard , 
Silver Crest, Silver St., Sway, Lymington, Hampshire. 

Some Observations on Hypsopygia costalis F. and 
PYRALIS FARINALISL.(LEP.:PyralIDAE). - I read with interest 
M. N. McCrea's Note (in Ent. Rec, 96:186) of his taking//, costalis 
on 3rd November 1983. I too had an //. costalis in very fresh con- 
dition at a very late date. This was at m.v. light here on 13th Octo- 
ber 1984. 

Emmet {Field Guide to the Smaller British Lepidoptera) gives 
the time of appearance of the imago of P. farinalis as June-August. 
However, during the past five years, my brother and I have accu- 
mulated records of this species on our farm, of the moth appearing 
in early April right through to November, and in this connection 
the following may be of interest. 



no ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

Where the colonies of P. farinalis exist on our farm among 
old hay and straw, they are subjected from time to time to rain 
being driven in by wind, which provided enough dampness to 
generate small amounts of heat (as in a compost heap). We have 
observed that when this warmth exists the imago o{ farinalis seems 
to appear later, though of course this situation can go on con- 
tinuously as bits of hay and straw are bemg added all the time by 
the farming activities of feeding cattle, and the rain is never enough 
to make the hay and straw rotten. 

The point of interest is whether this heat is sufficient to en- 
courage the larvae to speed up their growth in the spring, and then 
for the moth to be continuously brooded through to November, and 
therefore have the ability to make use of this warmth when available, 
and thus account for the records of its late occurrence as well as for 
that of H. costalis. Although these conditions are not altogether 
natural owing to human intervention, similar situations must exist 
elsewhere and it would be interesting to hear from others on the 
subject. - E. G. SMITH , BuUen Hill Farm, Ashton Common, Trow- 
bridge, Wilts. 

AGRODIAETUS THERSITES CANTENER: CHAPMAN'S BLUE 
IN Malta. — Aricia agestis D. & S.: Brown Argus is a common 
butterfly in the Maltese Islands, where there are different forms, 
one of which has well developed large orange-red submarginal 
lunules complete up to the forewing apex and similar in appearance 
to A. cramera Eschscholtz. At Dr. Hoegh-Guldberg's suggestion I 
sent some Maltese Aricia to Prof. Dr. E. Balletto of Genova for 
examination as he was working on the Genus, and later received the 
result of his findings: all my specimens were A. agestis except one 
which turned out to be a female A. thersites. It was taken on the 
17th June 1979, at Wied il-Ghasel, Mosta, and this may be the first 
record of this species for the smaller islands of the Mediterranean. I 
am grateful to Prof. Dr. Balleto for his prompt help in identifying 
my specimens. - A. VALLETTA, 257 Msida Street, B'Kara, Malta. 

Thaumetopoea processionea L.: Oak Processionary 
Moth on Guernsey. - A single male of this species was 
taken in the Rothamsted Insect Survey light trap at St. Martin's, 
Guernsey (Site No. 252, grid ref. 49o 26.2'N 2o 34.3'W) on the 
night of 18/19-8-83. 

This capture coincided with a period of intensive immigration 
of Lepidoptera to the British Isles and particularly with the capture 
of another male of this species at Mawnen Smith, W. Cornwall on 
19.8.83 (Foster, £'«r. Rec. 95:216). The Cornish specimen was stated 
by Bretherton and Chalmers-Hunt {Ent. Rec. 96: 156) to be pro- 
bably the first genuine British record. 

Heath {M.B.G.B. &. I., vol. 9) considers the British status of 
T. processionea to be "doubtful" and refers to Allan 1943, Talking 
of Moths for an account of laiyae and pupae, supposedly of this 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 111 

species, found in Kent in 1874 (Batchelor Entomologist 6: 487). 
Until 1983 this was the only recorded incidence of this species in 
Britain. 

Abroad, processionea is widespread in central and southern 
Europe. It feeds on oak and is occasionally recorded as being a 
pest. (Foster, loc. cit.). 

Our thanks are extended to Wendy Angell who operates the 
trap at St. Martin's and identifies most of the specimens caught 
there. — A. M. RiLEY, Rothamsted Insect Survey, Entomologist 
Department, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. 

Drepanepteryx PHALAENOIDES L. (NEUROPTERA: Hemero- 
BIIDAE) in West Sussex. - Following our note reporting 
Drepanepteryx phalaenoides in Surrey (Morris and Hollier, Ent. 
Rec. 96:55), I exhibited the specimen at a meeting of the Croydon 
Natural History and Scientific Society. During the discussion that 
followed, Mr. Steve Church commented that he thought that he had 
seen this insect at his static Mercury Vapour light in Kings Park 
Wood. At that time, it was not possible to verify the report. How- 
ever, in September 1984 I visited Mr. Church at his new home near 
Lurgashall and was shown an example of D. phalaenoides which had 
been taken a few days earlier at his static MV. trap. I was informed 
that this was the same species as that reported from Kings Park 
Wood. 

There would, therefore, seem to be some evidence to support 
the suggestion that D. phalaenoides is indeed resident in southern 
England. I would like to thank Mr. Church for his records and sug- 
gesrion that I report them. - R. K. A. MORRIS, 241 Common- 
side East, Mitcham, Surrey CR4 IHB. 

Thera juniperata L: Juniper Carpet in Kent. - I took 
a specimen of this local moth here at light on 29th October 1984. — 
R. Taylor, 1 Tydeman Road, Bearsted, Maidstone. 

Eupithecia distinctaria H.-S.: Thyme Pug and Deilep- 
tenia ribeata Clerck; Satin Beauty at Glentress, Peeble- 
SHIRE. - I would like to record the capture oi Eupithecia distinc- 
taria H.-S. (one specimen on 6/7-1-83) and Deileptenia ribeata 
Clerck (one on 16/17-8-83) in the Rothamsted Insect Survey light 
trap at Glentress (Site No. 339, O.S. grid rif. N.T. 285 396). The 
identity of both specimens was confirmed by examination of the 
genitalia. So far as I know, neither of these species have previously 
been recorded for Peebleshire. 

Thanks are extended to Mr. D. Solway who operates the trap 
at Glentress and Mr. B. Skinner for his helpful comments on the 
distribution of these two species. — A. M. RiLEY, Entomology 
Department, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Hert- 
fordshire. 

Lasiocampa trifolii L. Grass Eggar in Somerset. - 
As neither R. South (1980 edition) nor B. Skinner (1984) mention 



112 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

Somerset as within the distribution of the Grass Eggar, it may be 
worth placing the following on record. In June 1983, my family 
and I found a caterpillar of this species in an area of long grass 
among the dunes at Berrow, Somerset. It was taken home and from 
it I successfully reared a female which emerged on August 1 1 . The 
moth was taken back to the dunes and released after being photo- 
graphed. - B. E. Slade, 40 Church House Road, Berrow, Somerset. 

Current Literature 

The Scythrididae (Lepidoptera) of Northern Europe by Bengt 

A. Bengtsson. 137pp., 136 illustrations (including 40 in colour). 

Decorated hard cover. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 

Vol. 13. E. J. Brill, Oude Rijn 33a, Leiden, The Netherlands. 

1984. 50 guilders (about £12.50). 

We heartily welcome this latest addition to an excellent series, 
and the third volume to be published on the Lepidoptera. Of the 
other two: The Sesiidae of Fennoscandia and Denmark by M. Fibi- 
ger and N. P. Kristensen appeared in 1974; and The Elachistidae 
of Fennoscandia and Denmark by E. Traugott-Olsen and E. Schmidt 
Nielsen in 1977. The present volume deals with the 36 species of 
Scythrididae so far recorded from Denmark, Finland, Norway, 
Sweden, Great Britain, Holland and Poland, and most of the species 
from Germany, Belgium, Czechoslovakia and western Russia north 
of latitude 50o. As in previous volumes the book is printed through- 
out in English. 

Preliminary pages (pp. 9-26) cover: (1) Abstract; (2) Intro- 
duction; (3) Morphology of adult Scythrididae; (4) Immature stages; 
(5) Bionomics; (6) Systematics and Classification; (7) Genera within 
the Scythrididae; (8) Zoogeography; and (9) Technical remarks. 
Then follows the main part of the work, beginning with a key to 
the species of Scythris and details of each of the 36 species, inclu- 
ding synonyms, references, description of imago, details of genitalia, 
distribution, biology and larval descriptions (when known), notes 
on nomenclature with some species and critical remarks on syno- 
nomy and occasional references to type locations. The figures of the 
imagines in the coloured plates drawn to an approximate 6.5x en- 
largement are exceptionally well executed, and together with the 
clear line drawings of enlarged wing venation and genitalia should 
greatly facilitate identification. 

There is a tabular catalogue indicating in which countries, and 
in the case of Scandinavia, the provinces from which each species 
has been recorded. In this, Scythris ericetella Hein. is accorded 
British status, but so far as we are aware it has never been found in 
Britain. On the other hand, the striking orange-marked S. sinensis 
Feld. & Rog. has been found in Britain, though only very recently 
recorded as such. A list of 144 bibUographical references and an 
index, completes this fine monograph. — J.M.C.-H. 



THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS OF THE ISLE OF MAN (1 3) 
P. torquillella Zell. 

Ballaglass Glen and Douglas, tenanted mines and spinnings 
on Prunus spinosa. 

Phyllonorycter quercifoliella Zell. 

Ballaglass Glen, vacated mines on Quercus. 

P. messaniella Zell. 

Churchtown, tenanted mines on Quercus ilex from which adults 
were reared; Ballaglass Glen, an adult and mines on Q. robur; 
Dhoon Glen, mines on Fagiis. 

P. trifasciella Haw. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, one tenanted mine on Lonicera. 

P. geniculella Rag. 

Ballaglass Glen, tenanted and vacated mines on Acer pseudo- 
platanus. 



YPONOMEUTIDAE 

Argyresthia goedartella L. 

Dhoon Glen, one adult. Recorded also by Bond. 

A. pmniella Clerck 

Crosby, one adult. Recorded also by Bond. 

Zelleria hepariella Staint. 

Ravensdale, one in m.v. trap. Recorded also by Bond. 

Ypsolopha vittella L. 

Ravensdale, seveial in m.v. trap. 

COLEOPHORIDAE 

Coleophora gryphipennella Hbn. 

Douglas and the Ayres, vacated cases and fresh larval feeding on 
Rosa. 

[C. serratella L. {fuscedinella Zell.) 

Ballaglass Glen, Glen Helen and Ballaugh Curraghs, vacated cases 
and old larval cases on Betula and Alnus. This is thought to be 
the species listed by Chalmers-Hunt as Coleophora nigricella 
Steph.= fuscedinella ZeU. and is therefore not new to the 
Manx list. It is included because C. nigricella is not synonymised 
with C. serratella in Kloet & Hincks (1972), but with C coraci- 



(14) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

pennella Hbn. and (as misidentification) C cerasivorella Packard, 
neither of which species is recorded from the Isle of Man.] 

C viminetella Zell. 

Crosby, tenanted cases on Salix. 

C. laricella Hbn. 

Ravensdale, one vacated case on Larix. 

C. virgaureae Staint. 

Glenmaye, tenanted cases on Solidago virgaurea. 

ELACHISTIDAE 

Elachista alpinella Staint. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, a few adults. 

OECOPHORIDAE 



Agonopterix yeatiana Fabr. 

Jurby Head, one in m.v. trap. 



GELECHflDAE 

Teleiodes fugitivella Zell . 

Ravensdale, one in m.v. trap. 

MOMPHIDAE 

Batrachedra praeangnsta Haw. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, a few in m.v. trap. 

Mompha raschkiella Zell. 

Crosby and Ballaugh Curraghs, vacated mines on Epilobium 
angustifolium. 

TORTRICIDAE 

Croesia forsskaleana L. 

Ravensdale, several in m.v. trap. 

Acleris laterana Fabr. (latifasciana Haw.) 

Ravensdale, Ballaugh Curraghs, Crosby and Glen Mona, adults 
fairly common. Recorded also by Bond. 



THE BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS OF THE ISLE OF MAN (15) 
Apotomis semifasciana Haw. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, one in m.v. trap. 

Endothenia marginana Haw. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, one adult. 

Ancylis geminana Don. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, larvae fairly common on Salix. Recorded 
from the same locality by Bond. 

A. myrtillana Treits. 

bhoon Glen, larvae at roadside on Vacciniwn myrtillus. 

Epinotia ramella L. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, one adult. Recorded from the same locality 
by Bond. 

E. nisei la Clerck 

Ballaugh Curraghs and Crosby, common. Recorded from the 
former locality by Bond. 

Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana Ratz. 
Ravensdale, one in m.v. trap. 

Z. diniana Guen. 

Ravensdale, several in m.v. trap. 

PYRALIDAE 

Phycitodes maritima Tengst. {carlinella Hein.) 

Andreas, larvae in heads of Senecio jacobaea; adults reared. 

DREPANIDAE 

Drepana falcataria L. 

Ballaugh Curraghs, larvae on Betula. Recorded also by Bond. 

GEOMETRIDAE 

Serraca piinctirmlis Scop . 

The specimen on which the record given by Chalmers-Hunt 
{loc. cit.) was based was examined and found to be female 
Aids repandata L. S. punctinalis should therefore be deleted 
from the Manx list. 



(16) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vi.85 

NOCTUIDAE 

Amphipyra pvramidea L. 

"1 have had no opportunity as yet of checking Manx Amphipyra 
for the recently separated A. berbera Rungs" (Chahners-Hunt, 
loc. cit.). It follows that A. pyramidea has not been confirmed 
either, but this we did. 

Amphipoea Ulceus Freyer 

Ballaugh Curraghs, one in m.v. trap. Recorded from the same 
locality by Bond. 

References 

Bradley, J. D., Tremewan, W. G. & Smith, A., 1973. British Tor- 
tricoid Moths. Cochylidae and Tortricidae: Tortricinae. London. 

Bradley, J. D., Fletcher, D. S. &. Hall-Smith, D. H., 1979-83. Re- 
corder's Log Book of British Butterflies and Moths, Index, 
Addenda and Corrigenda. London and Leicester. 

Chalmers-Hunt, J. M., 1970. The Butterflies and Moths of the Isle 
of Man. Trans. Soc. Br. Hnt. 19:1-171. 

Emmet, A. M., 1976. Nepticulidae in Heath et al., The moths and 
butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 1 : 171-276. 

Emmet, A. M. [Ed.], 1979. A field guide to the smaller British 
Lepidoptera. London. 

Hedges, J. W., 1981. The Monarch: Danaus plexippus L. in the 
Isle of Man. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 93: 202. 

Kloet, G. S. & Hinks, W. D., 1972. A check list of British insects 
(Edn 2): Lepidoptera. Handbk. Ident. Br. Insects 11(2), viii, 
153pp. 

Smith, F. H. N., 1978. Isle of Man Lepidoptera, \911 . Entomolo- 
gist's Rec. J. Var. 90:83. 




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mines. In addition to the microlepidoptera, a number of larger, primitive moths are described. 
These include the Cossidae (goat and leopard moths), the Zygaenidae (burnets) and the Sesiidae 
(clearwings). The section on the zygaenids is in itself an authoritative monograph by a world 
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It includes coloured illustrations not only of the imagines but also of the larvae and the cocoons. 
The introductory chapter to the volume is on the comparatively little-studied subject of 
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464 pages, including 14 colour and 2 monochrome plates; 123 text figures and 223 maps. 

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The new definitive three-volume work on the British Araneae 
This is the most important work to be written on the British and Irish arachnids since the 
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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J. W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



CONTENTS 

Remarks on the Reported Occurrence of Certain Clytie Huebner Species in 
England and Malta. E. P. WILTSHIRE, 73. The Immigration of Lepi- 
doptera to the British Isles in 1981, 1982, 1983: a Supplementary Note. 
R. F. BRETHERTON and J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT, 76. A Colony of 
Anasimyia interpuncta Harris (Diptera; Syrphidae) on the Thames 
Marshes. A. A. ALLEN, 85. Some Notes on the Larval Feeding of The 
Rosy Marsh Moth: Eugraphe subrosea Stephens. I. J. L. TILLOTSON, 
87. Butterflies in Northern Cyprus in Early June, 1981. R. C. DENING, 
92. On Some Sawflies (Hym.: Syrnphyta) from Upper Deeside. A. D. 
LISTON, 94. Athous subfusciis (MilUer) (Col.: Elateridae) in Southern 
England. D. A. PRANCE, 96. Reminiscences of an Elderly Entomologist. 
R. P. DEMUTH,97. 

EDITORIAL, 84. 

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS, 84, 86, 93, 95, 96, 105-1 12. 

CURRENT LITERATURE, 112. 

The Butterflies and Moths of the Isle of Man, Supplements 1 & 2. K. G. M. 
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LIFE HISTORY OF THE ELEPHANT HAWK-MOTH 113 

COMMENTS ON THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE 

ELEPHANT HAV^K-MOTH, DEILEPHILA ELPENOR L. 

(LEP: SPHINGIDAE) 

By B.FL West, B.Ed.* 

The earlier entomological textbooks tend to specify a pre- 
dilection by D. elpenor for wet habitats, and the larval foodplants 
listed support this. Barrett (1892-1900) gives Epilobium hirsutum 
as the main foodplant, Tutt (1902) writes "the sides of ditches are 
the favourite haunts of C. elpenor - on Galium palustre, etc." and 
"the larvae of C. elpenor appear to prefer G. palustre before all 
other foodplants," Newman (1874) states "feeds on the large 
willow herb, which is so common on the sides of ditches, also on 
ladies' bedstraw, and sometimes in gardens on fuchsias," and South 
(1906) writes "chiefly on E. hirsutum and on bedstraws especially 
the kind {G. palustre), growing by the side of brooks and streams." 
For France and Belgium Lhomme (1923-1935) lists only E. palustre 
and E. hirsutum of the willowherbs, and the drawings in Buckler 
(1891-1899) portray the larvae upon G. palustre andF. hirsutum. 

By contrast I became acquainted with elpenor larvae in the 
1930s on the gravels of Dartford Heath and the chalk around Green- 
hithe, dry habitats in the driest part of Britain, and I found them 
only upon the rose -bay willowherb {Epilobium angustifolium); 
also during several summers about 1950 Mr. C. Rivers and I fre- 
quently searched the bedstraws on Dartford Heath, finding larvae 
of D. porcellus L. and Macroglossum stellatarum L. in plenty, but 
never elpenor. 

In the early 1970s elpenor was a much commoner moth at my 
garden m.v. light than expected in view of the lack o{ E. angustifo- 
lium in the immediate vicinity, but in 1972 the problem was solved 
when I inadvertently discovered by touch a caterpillar at the base of 
a plant of E. parviflorum whilst weeding, others being found sub- 
sequently. None of those I found was readily observed, being located 
near the base of the plant and well concealed by vegetation. Now 
E. parviflorum had been noted as a larval foodplant of elpenor by 
Tutt (1902) yet rarely mentioned subsequently, and at the time of 
publication Chalmers-Hunt (1968) had no record for this food- 
plant, although K. and E. Evans (1973) state that at Mitcham 
Common and Croydon elpenor larvae have been noted on this plant 
more commonly then upon E. angustifolium. More recently, on 
September 4th 1981 and subsequently I have found the larva on the 
most recent invader of my garden, the American E. adenocaulon, 
and for this plant I can find no previous reference regarding elpenor. 

A phenomenon well pubhcised at the time was the abundance 
of elpenor larvae on the derelict bomb sites in London where they 
*36 Briar Road, Bexley, Kent. 



114 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

were dependent upon the rapid colonization of these sites by willow- 
herb, especially the rose -bay. Although usually on London Clay the 
accumulation of rubble made them essentially dry habitats in 
Summer. 

The rose-bay and some of the smaller willowherbs have under- 
gone a population explosion in recent decades, although perhaps 
surprisingly for Kent, Hanbury and Marshall (1899) list E. angusti- 
folium as occurring in all districts and frequent in most of them, 
and E. parviflonim and E. montanus as very common. However, 
elsewhere a different picture emerges. Salisbury (1961) states that 
the rose-bay was in general regarded as an uncommon plant in 
Britain until the present century, and in particular it was a scarce 
species in Hertfordshire half a century ago, although now it is an 
abundant one, and despite it being a common wild flower in London 
to-day it was infrequent at the beginning of the century. The 
American alien, E. adenocaulon, too has shown a remarkable 
increase since 1930, and Walters in Perring (1974) remarks that in 
Cambridgeshire "as an undergraduate I knew only Epilobium roseum 
as a street weed when now the American alien E. adenocaulon is 
by far the commonest willowherb." 

It is not easy to obtain an accurate assessment of the larval 
foodplant preferences of elpenor because it is much more readily 
found on some than others, and especially because we give more 
attention to some and tend to neglect others of the extensive list of 
foodplants recorded which cover about a dozen botanical families. 
Today the insect is known to be associated with a wide range of 
habitats, apparently wider than formerly, to include stream sides 
and marshes, heath and woodland, gardens, urban and rural waste- 
land, sea-cliffs, road margins and railway embankments. In N. W. 
Kent I have found the larvae on E. angustifolium and E. parviflorum, 
mainly the former, and only occasionally on other species of willow- 
herb. I have frequently searched E. hirsutum, but only once found a 
caterpillar, and the bedstraws of Dartford Heath without success, 
but unfortunately have neglected to pay attention to such plants 
as enchanter's nightshade and evening primrose. 

Chalmers-Hunt (1981) refers to the larvae feeding "commonly 
on enchanter's nightshade (C lutetiana) in the City of Canterbury" 
and "often on /. glandulifera in gardens at Tunbridge Wells" indicat- 
ing distinct local preferences within the county, but it is not clear 
if these were but transient or of a more permanent nature. Similar 
local preferences have been noted in entomological journals, thus 
for Staffordshire Clarke {Entomologist 80:68) emphasizes a decided 
preference for E. hirsutum, E. parviflorum and G. palustre, with 
very few on E. angustifolium despite intensive search, and all the 
larvae being in the vicinity of streams. 

Johnson {Ent. Rec. 65:72) writing of Derbyshire relates that he 
found 72 larvae on E. angustifolium on low-lying wasteland, but 



LIFE HISTORY OF THE ELEPHANT HAWK-MOTH 115 

none in the woods and on the moors, also suggesting a habitat 
preference. For Hampshire Goater {Ent. Rec. 67:251) states that on 
roadsides near Chandlers Ford the "small willowherb" is preferred to 
E. angustifolium , a similar trend to that noted earlier for N. E. 
Surrey. 

D. elpenor would appear to have the unusual distinction among 
our native moths of having extended its range considerably, 
especially northwards, and to have become commoner generally, 
over the past fifty years. A major factor of these trends seems to 
have been the increase and spread of one of its favourite foodplants, 
E. angustifolium, and some of the smaller species of Epilobium. 
Hulme {Ent. Rec. 69:237) states that for Derbyshire elpenor was 
rare before 1930, but was much commoner in the 1950s. For 
Berwickshire {Ent. Rec. 66:286) Long reveals that Bolam had only 
five records for over a century, whereas now the moth occurs 
throughout the county. The recent spread of elpenor into the High- 
lands of Scotland and Hebrides has been the subject of notes in this 
journal, e.g. common in Glengarry, W. Inverness-shire in 1977 by 
Howard {Ent. Rec. 90:259) and the first record for Canna in 1977 
by Campbell {Ent. Rec. 89:255). 

The time of appearance of the moth is given in the standard 
textbooks, i.e. Newman (1874), Barrett (1892-1900), South (1907), 
Newman and Leeds (1913) and Heath (1979), as June, with men- 
tion in three of the works of an occasional second brood. Now this 
is curious as June could not be described as a reasonable description 
of the moth's time of appearance to-day. During the past six- 
teen years elpenor has been noted at my garden m.v. light on 140 
occasions, usually singly - 23% in June, 69% in July, 8% in August 
and none in May. Analysis of the figures into ten (eleven) day 
periods produces the following — figures denoting the number of 
visits, and in brackets the number of nights with light operating: 

June 1-10: 0(72) June 1 1-20: 10 (69) June 21-30: 22 (74) 
July 1-10: 35 (97) July 11-20: 33 (85) July 21-31: 28 (86) 
Aug. 1-10: 10(56) Aug.11-20: 0(70) Aug. 21-31: 0(71) 

These figures indicate that here elpenor is essentially a July 
moth, but appearing from mid-June until early August. The figures 
for early August, and to a lesser extent early June, may be signifi- 
cantly depressed because of the light being operated on fewer 
favourable nights due to my more frequent absence at these periods. 
However, although these records indicate that elpenor has not been 
noted before June 12th, I possess specimens dated May 27th 1964 
and June 8th 1965 from Dartford Heath, little over a half mile 
away, and I have encountered the moth in late May elsewhere in 
Kent. Thus in N. W. Kent elpenor appears to fly from late May 
until about August 10th in one extended brood, and especially in 



116 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vm.85 

late June and throughout July, but the period will vary according to 
the weather conditions and the micro-climate of its habitat. 

When elpenor is bred the moth very occasionally emerges the 
same year, and in nature similar emergences give rise to the occa- 
sional specimen seen in September: the only examples of which I 
am aware are as follows:— 

(a) de Worms {Ent. Rec. 73:241), Sept. 13th 1961 at Woking, 
"I was surprized to find an Elephant Hawk in my trap here, most 
probably a second brood specimen as the last one I had recorded 
from here was on 12th July." 

(b) ffennell {Ent. Rec. 87:277) at Winchester Sept. 22nd 
1975, "it was a surprise to find a specimen of this species in my 
trap this morning." 

(c) Sept. 10th 1980 at Dartford, seen by myself. The moth 
was a perfect specimen at the base of a street light. 

(d) Lipscombe {Ent. Rec. 79:25) records finding a caterpillar 
beside a patch oi E. roseum at Warminster, Oct. 24th 1966, noting 
this "as an extraordinarily late date for the larva." 

Chalmers-Hunt (1968) lists three Kent records for the first 
half of August as illustration of a partial second brood; however 
these specimens occur within the normal span of the main brood. 

Duddington and Johnson (1983) states "the imago can be found 
over a long period with fresh specimens emerging from June into 
the Autumn," a statement hardly substantiated by the revelation of 
three records for late June. Records of this insect for Autumn, or 
even any time from mid-August, would have been most useful 
and interesting especially from a county as far north as Lincoln- 
shire, but without evidence the statement must be treated with 
scepticism. 

There are numerous references to the feeding habits of the 
imago, especially at honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum); in 
N. W. Kent I have most frequently found it imbibing at the flowers 
of white and bladder campion {Silene alba and S. vulgaris) and less 
frequently at those of red valerian (Centranthus ruber). 

Despite this insect having become commoner, at times the 
larvae have been found to be heavily parasitized, e.g. Owen (Ento- 
mologist 84:268) cites 70% of larvae on bomb sites in London being 
host to Diptera and Hymenoptera, including Amblyjoppa lamina- 
toria L. By contrast of the many larvae I have collected around 
Dartford over the years all have produced moths. 

Seven species of hawk-moth have appeared at my garden m.v. 
light since 1969; their relative frequency has been as follows: — 
Laothoe populi L., 250; C. elpenor L., 140; Smerinthus ocellata 
L., 56; Mimas tiliae L., 39; Sphinx ligustri L., 11; C porcellus L., 
4; Hyloicus pinastri L., 1. The low incidence of C. porcellus, com- 
mon less than a mile away on Dartford Heath, well reflects the 
greater restriction of habitat and larval foodplant of this species. 



LIFE HISTORY OF THE ELEPHANT HAWK-MOTH 117 

In conclusion, despite elpenor being a common and wide- 
spread insect, readily found as larva or imago, there is still much 
to be discovered of its natural history, especially regarding its time 
of appearance, its partial second brood, local larval foodplant 
preferences and its parasites, while any continued spread north- 
wards will doubtless be reported. 

References 

Barrett, C, 1892-1900. The Lepidoptera of the British Islands. 
Buckler, W., 1891-1899. The Larvae of the British Butterflies and 

Moths. 
Chalmers-Hunt, M., 1968. The Butterflies and Moths of Kent. 2. 
Duddington, J. and Johnson, R., 1983. The Butterflies and Larger 

Moths of Lincolnshire . 
Evans, L. and K., 1973. A Survey of the Macro-Lepidoptera of 

Croydon and N. E. Surrey. 
Goater, B., 1974. The Butterflies and Moths of Hampshire and the 

Isle of Wight. 
Hanbury, F. and Marshall, E., 1899. Flora of Kent. 
Heath, J. ed., 1979. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and 

Ireland. Vol. 9. 
Lhomme, L., 1923-1935. Catalogue des Lepidopteres de France et 

de Belgique. 
Newman, E., 1869. The Natural History of British Moths. 
Newman, L. W. and Leeds, H., 1913. Text Book of British Butter- 
flies and Moths. 
Perring, F., 1974. The Flora of a Changing Britain. 
Salisbury, E., 1961. Weeds and Aliens. 
South, R., 1939. The Moths of the British Isles. Series 1 
Tutt, J., 1902. Practical Hints for the Field Lepidopterist. 



FURTHER RECORDS OF APOROPHYLA NIGRA HAW.: BLACK 
RUSTIC. - For some time, this moth has been extending its range 
into Kent, and elsewhere (Heath and Emmet, The Moths and 
Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 10). In 1984, I saw 
the species for the first time at East Mailing when a single moth 
came to m.v. on 16th and 25th September, followed by further 
solitary specimens on 15th and 17th October. About five miles 
south of here, at West Farleigh, I found another nigra at rest on 
a pole in a hop garden on 1st October. 

Heath & Emmet (op. cit.) also give nigra as being rather rare in 
the Midlands, so I was pleased to record more specimens, again for 
the first time, at Beoley, Worcestershire, where four moths came to 
m.v. in my parent's garden on 9th October 1984. — D. A. 
Chambers, 15 Briar Close, Larkfield, Maidstone, Kent. 



118 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

A DAY ON THE WHITE MOUNTAIN 
ByDR.C.J.LUCKENS* 

Out of the forest fleece of northern New England the Wliite 
Mountains rise to their highest point among the jumbled boulders 
of Mount Washington. These ancient weathered mountains hold two 
butterflies found nowhere else in eastern U.S.A. — Oeneis melissa 
semidea Say, the White Mountain butterfly and Clossiana titania 
montinus Scudder, the White Mountain Fritillary. Though both 
insects are represented elsewhere in America, in the Rockies and the 
far north, {titania is, of course, holarctic) the populations in the 
White Mountains have been isolated for millenia and have produced 
two very distinct races. 

In early July 1981, while staying with my wife's family on 
Martha's Vineyard Island, Massachusetts, I had the opportunity to 
visit this area. Leaving early in the morning I travelled by ferry and 
coach to Portland, Maine, where I picked up a hired car and soon 
found myself driving throu^ the rolling forested country N. W. 
of the city. There had been a heat wave for several days in the 
eastern states and this continued, in the lowlands at least, through- 
out my trip. 

Just beyond Gorham I glimsed an open wooded path leading 
off from the main road towards a stream and decided to stop to see 
what might be flying in the afternoon sun. The first butterfly to 
appear was a Nymphalis antiopa L., flying around a patch of milk- 
weed at the path entrance and this was soon joined by two or three 
of the large fritillary Speyeria cybele Fab. The antiopa had probably 
developed on a neighbouring elm as the leaves of several benaches 
had been stripped to the midrib and there were remnants of shed 
larval skins. Broods of these black, spiny, crimson-spotted cater- 
pillars were a feature of our visit to the States that year and I had 
already reared a large number of imagines from colonies found on 
Salix and elm on Martha's Vineyard. On this particular elm tree I 
collected a full grown larva of one of the Comma butterflies that the 
Americans appropriately call "Angle-wings" — the largest member 
of this genus in N. America in fact — Polygonia interrogationis Fab. 
Then, as I stood searching the elm leaves, a magnificent white- 
barred butterfly floated down and settled on a bush in front of 
me. This was Limenitis arthemis Drury, a species typical of the 
northern woods, and one I had long wished to see. Unfortunately 
nearly all the specimens netted during the trip were disappointingly 
chipped and this one was no exception. 

Before leaving I took a male Celestrina argiolous pseudargiolus 
Boisd. & Le. C. from among the numerous examples present and 
also two yellowish skippers. These latter specimens turned out 
*SwallowfieId, Manor Road, Durley, Hants. 503 2AF. 



A DAY ON THE WHITE MOUNTAIN 119 

to be Atrytone delaware Edwards. The reference books state that 
the range of this skipper extends only to Massachusetts in the 
eastern states. I drove on to Cornish where I spent the night in a 
hotel otherwise empty of visitiors. 

The heat was already intense the next day as I drove in the 
bright morning sun through the Maine Woods. I inspected a 'White' 
fluttering beside the road hoping for the indigenous American 
form of Pieris napi L., but it was merely the alien P. rapae L, A 
httle further on between Brownfield and the New Hampshire border 

I stopped at a rough, bushy meadow full of Fritillaries and Colias 
with a sprinkling of N. antiopa and L. arthemis. I netted a worn 
1st brood Limenitis archippus Cram, (the butterfly that mimics the 
Monarch), and there were good numbers of Cercyonis pegala Fab. 
intermediate between the yellow-marked ssp. maritima Edw. of 
southern New England and the nearly unicolorous, northern ssp. 
nephele Kirby. This Satyrid butterfly exhibits a steep cline, as in 
Martha's Vineyard and throughout southern New England maritima 
occurs, whereas only two hundred miles north in coastal Maine it is 
entirely replaced by nephele in which the yellow patches have dis- 
appeared. 

I watched a Mourning Cloak flying in the dappled sunlight of 
the forest edge where tree-stumps jutted. Suddenly a large tawny 
butterfly flitted out in challenge and then resettled on one of the 
cut trunks. I realised I was looking at a fresh Nymphalis Vau-album 
D. & S., its foxy-brown golden haired wings spread in the sun. 
It was inevitable that I should miss this highly desirable butterfly 
on its irregular tree stump but a few minutes later another Vau- 
album settled in the road before me and was easily captured. Two 
specimens were spotted flying furtively around a shady culvert 
below the road. I descended the bank to investigate and found four 
Vau-album and two Polygonia faunus Edwards sheltering within 

the drainage pipe. 

A few hundred yards further along the forest road was a layby 
of packed earth and stones surrounded by trees on three sides and 
outposted by two large dead beeches. Settled on damp spots on this 
partially shaded area and flying aroung the trees were no less than 

II Vau-album, two antiopa and a Polygonia faunus. There is an 
indelible picture in my memory of that assembly of butterflies in 
the extraordinary heat of the northern forest — the dark, closed 
wings of the great Nymphalids, their yellow probosces extended 
for moisture under the pebbles, the silence of that still morning 
broken only by the hum of insects and the occasional drum of 
a Woodpecker or rasping screech of a Blue Jay. 

Reluctantly I left this locality, driving through the sunlit woods 
to Conway, just over the New Hampshire border. A notice outside 
a breaker's yard here stated baldly "Trespassers will be shot," but 
the tourist office was a little more friendly, and armed with a large 



120 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

scale map I drove on into the foothills of the White Mountains 
to the base of Mount Washington itself. Here a Forest Ranger told 
me that conditions at the summit were not favourable, with cloud 
and high winds — very different from those in the sun-filled valley. 
I decided to find food and lodging nearby therefore, and tackle 
the mountain the following day. 

In the moming prospects looked good and by 9.30 I was explor- 
ing the lower slopes of Mount Washington, Limenitis arthemis 
sailed among the aspens and Papilio glaucus L. and a large fritUIary, 
Speyeria atlantis Edwards were both frequent. Broods of A^. antiopa 
were noted on Salix bushes — at earlier stages of development as 
the altitude increased. 

Above the tree line I started searching for the two 'target' 
species. With startling suddeness great banks of mist rolled across 
from the north and, within minutes, enveloped the whole mountain 
above 4,000 ft. Disconsolately I made my way to the summit and sat 
in the observatory restaurant while outside swirled thick, saturating 
mist and the temperature dropped. After two hours waiting 
I decided to cut my losses and started down the mountain. 
Visibility was reduced to a few yards until just above 4,000 ft. 
where the cloud cover ended abruptly and I re-entered the 
sunlit world of the lower slopes. Gossiana titania was still 
a possibility here, just below the tree line, but a diligent 
search failed to reveal it. While talking to a worried motorist whose 
car had overheated I noticed a Nymphalis Vau-album which landed 
beside us on the ground. A careless movement, the fine butterfly 
flew off, and I reflected how chagrined I would have been if that 
had happened two days before! 

A glance at the mountain above showed the mist rolling back a 
little. With high hopes I started upward again, looking constanfly 
for titania. For another hour I searched without success and then 
a brisk N. E. breeze sprang up and the rags of cloud were swept 
away from the summit. I raced up to a plateau a few hundred feet 
below the observatory car park and in the weak sunshine suddenly 
had my first glimpse of one of the butterflies I had come so far to 
see — Oeneis melissa semidea. The pale greyish-brown butterflies 
flitted up from the tussocks and boulders on a steep S. W, facing 
slope, occasionally flying over the plateau itself. 

Every so often a trailer of cloud would obscure the sun and 
as soon as this happened they disappeared in the manner of moun- 
tain butterflies everywhere. Once or twice, after carefully marking 
the landing place of melissa among the boulders I attempted to 
capture the insect at rest. On my approach the butterfly did not 
attempt to fly but with closed wings dropped like a stone into a 
crevice, and further interference merely caused it to drop deeper 
into the jumbled rocks. This interesting evasion technique was 



A DAY ON THE WHITE MOUNTAIN 121 

described for the species by S. H, Scudder as far back as 1889. A 
total of perhaps 20 minutes sunshine allowed me to take a small 
series of these fascinating butterflies before the weather fmally 
closed in again. 

In typically friendly American fashion, a waitress at the hotel 
had taken an interest in my butterfly hunt and on my return that 
evening she enquired about my search on Mount Washington. She 
found it hard to conceal her disappointment when I brought out 
the collecting boxes containing the dullwinged but subtly mottled 
butterflies. I fear she expected an insect of shining splendour from 
the highest mountain in the eastern U.S.A. 

References 

Anon., n.d. Mount Washington - Its Environment. White Mountain 

School, St. Mary's Littleton, New Hampshire. 
Clark., Austin. H., 1935. Arctic Butterflies. Smithsonian Report 

for 1934. pp. 267-296. Smithsonian Institute, Washington 

D.C. 
Howe., W. H., 1975. The Butterflies of North America. Doubleday 

N.Y. 
Klots, A. B., 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies of North 

America East of the Great Plains. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. 



A LOCAL AND UNUSUAL FORM OF LOPHOPTERYX C APUCINA L. : 
COXCOMBE PROMINENT. - At Grantown-on Spey, Moray, on 
July 9th 1984 a number of this species were attracted to m.v. light; 
they were mainly weU marked and of a rich mahogany hue, but one 
was a pale yellowish brown with only faint markings, and was far 
paler than any capucina I had previously encountered. This specimen 
was later identified as form pallida Gillmer, of which eight specimens 
reside in the National Collection. Of considerable interest is that 
all these specimens were from the Highlands of Scotland - Aber- 
deenshire (3), Perthshire (2), Sutherland (2) and Moray - taken 
between 1893 and 1938. South was evidently aware of this form, 
for in Moths of the British Isles, (1939) he describes Scottish speci- 
mens as Varying in colour from dusky brown, through reddish to 
pale yellowish brown.' 

The most significant aspects of this pale form are its apparent 
restricted distribufion and that it is in complete contrast with the 
normal tendency towards melanism in this region, as exempUfied by 
such species as Phragmatobia fuliginosa L., Spilosoma menthastri 
Esp. and Plemyria bicolorata Hufn. On the other hand this pale 
form of capucina is perhaps paralleled by the pale Highland form 
of Drepana falcataria L. L. capucina form pallida would seem to 
be quite rare in the Highlands of Scotland, the region to which it 
is apparently restricted in Britain. - B. K. WEST, 36 Briar Road, 
Bexley,Kent. 



122 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

BRITISH ORTHOPTERA IN 1984 
By J. Paul, f.r.e.s* 

Being sun-loving insects — the British species having a more 
marked preference for the South than other orders — 1984 has 
been a very favourable year for the Orthoptera, some of the rarer 
species occuring in abundance. Furthermore, some common species 
were discovered in areas well outside their previously known ranges. 

After an unremarkable winter, the weather around Easter was 
exceptional, it being dry and sunny with temperatures rising to 
70OF. This is the time of year when our three Tetrix sp. reappear 
after hibernating as adults. 

I drove down to the New Forest on 13 April and found Tetrix 
ceperoi Bolivar to be abundant around the margins of pools at 
Crockford Bridge. T. ceperoi is a local insect, confined to localities 
close to the south coasts of England and Wales. Specimens from 
the New Forest are quite variable: many are of a monotonous grey 
tint; others are dark, ruddy or bear contrasting patterns of grey, 
white or brown; some greenish, but generally as a result of the algae 
coating them. The insects were active in the warm weather, many 
taking to the wing when disturbed or hopping into the pools to swim 
away underwater. Later in the morning, I continued to the coast to 
find fair numbers of T. ceperoi at Hordle Cliff on almost bare 
ground near damp seepages and reed beds on the cliff edge. Speci- 
mens from Hordle Cliff were not very variable, all the ones I found 
being an attractive pale, mottled grey, similar in colour to the 
ground they live on. During the afternoon I took the more bulky 
T. subulata L. on a river bank near Britford, Wilts. 

Tetrix subulata has a wider distribution than T. ceperoi. It may 
be found in a variety of damp habitats over much of southern 
England and South Wales. Recently it was reported from a site 
in North Wales, well outside its known pattern of distribution. 
I visited the locality on 28 April. Here, the habitat consists of 
sparsely vegetated gravel banks by the River Dee, which must be 
exposed to regular flooding. The insect was especially common at 
a place where rock ledges form tranquil pools by the river bank, 
contrasting with the fast flow of the river. Some specimens of 
T. subulata were taken from these pools, where they were sub- 
merged amongst mats of algae. Some large specimens of T. undulata 
Sowerby were taken from the river bank also. Specimens of T. 
subulata from the Dee were large and all that were seen were of the 
normal form with a fully developed pronotum. 

Mike Bryan, of Birmingham Museum, informed me that he had 
taken T. subulata at Monk Wood, Worcs. in 1983, although he had 
lost the specimen. This constitutes the first record for the county 

*156 Tiverton Road, Selly Oak, Birmingham 29. 



BRITISH ORTHOPTERA IN 1984 123 

north of Worcester. On 29 April I made a point of finding further 
localities. T. subulata was common on mud by a lake near Sinton 
(SO/839627) and a single example was taken from the bank of the 
River Teme near Stanford Bridge. All were of the normal form. 

On 7 May I was on the Gower peninsula. T. ceperoi was very 
abundant in a clearing amongst pines on the Whiteford Burrows 
dune system. I estimated that there was an average of 10 individuals 
per square meter and that the clearing was about a thousand square 
meters in area. Many of the T. ceperoi had delightful contrasting 
patterns of grey, brown and white, the term 'diamond-back' sug- 
gesting the appearance of the pronotum. Some nymphs of the grass- 
hopper Myrmeleotettix maculatus Thunberg were also present. I 
could not find T. ceperoi elsewhere on the dunes. 

On 6 June I was heading for the South-east. Stopping briefly 
at Ot Moor I took T. subulata. About half the specimens were of the 
form bifasciata. The following morning T. subulata was found again 
on the muddy banks of the River Arun where the dragonfly Libel- 
lula fulva Mueller was on the wing. During the late afternoon, both 
T. subulata (including bifasciata) and T. ceperoi were found on 
gravel around ponds in the Rye area, which ponds provide a home 
for the introduced marsh frog. This was the first time I had seen 
a mixed population of these two groundhoppers. On 16 June, 
T. subulata was found in Norfolk on a fen near Barton Broad and in 
dune slacks at Winterton. However, the Swallowtail was a rather 
more appeahng sight then groundhoppers that day. 

By late June the vegetation is dense making it difficult to 
locate the Tetrix app. It is at this time of year that the remaining 
British Orthoptera are beginning to make their appearance as adults. 
Whilst groundhoppers are mute, almost all the other British Ortho- 
ptera stridulate. I heard the continuous ticking song of Omocestus 
viridulus L. in Wyre Forest on 30 June, when the High-brown and 
Silver-washed fritUlaries were starting to emerge. 

Whilst out looking for Odonata on July 1 in Cheshire and 
Shropshire, I heard my first adult Myrmeleotettix maculatus Thun- 
berg of the season at Abbots Moss and Whixall Moss. Tetrix undulata 
was present at both sites in various stages of growth. Adult Ch. paral- 
lelus and O. viridulus were heard at Whixall. Unusually I did not 
notice the nymphs of the Bog bush-cricket, Metrioptera brachy- 
ptera L; it is often abundant at Whixall. I was relieved to see that 
insect Hfe had not been severely disrupted by a fire which occurred 
in April: Coenonympha tullia Mueller and Leucorrhinia dubia vander 
Linden were both on the wing. 

On July 7, I was in Warwickshire. At Stockton Cutting I saw 
my last over-wintered T. subulata (a single male f. bifasciata) for 
1984, since the majority would have died off by then. The common 
field grasshopper, Chorthippus brumieus Thunberg and meadow 
grasshopper, Ch. parallelus Zetterstedt were singing. 1 was surprised 



124 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

by an abundance of Ch. albomarginatus Degeer at Ufton Fields. 
A recent survey (Copson, 1984) has shown that this grasshopper is 
widespread in this central English county. Ch. albomarginatus is 
a species that I had previously thought of as being coastal and 
estuarine. At Ufton it is equally at home amongst sedges and on 
dry limestone grassland where bee orchids grow. 

The evening of 20 July, I drove to Bristol, my former home. 
The Dark bush-cricket was abundant amongst nettles in the Avon 
Gorge. The following day, I continued to the south coast, stopping 
on the way at Walton Hill, Somerset. Where the downland meets a 
woodland border, I saw the highly attractive Rufous grasshopper, 
Gomphocerripus rufus L. with its white-tipped, clubbed antennae. 

About mid-day I reached Sopley Common. On a heathy knoll, 
the rare Heath grasshopper, Ch. vagans Eversmann was singing. I 
have noticed that it is on the southern slopes of such dry, heathy 
knolls in Hants, and Dorset that Ch. vagans becomes the dominant 
grasshopper. Indeed, it was the only grasshopper present over 
large areas of the heather. The local tiger beetle, Cicindella 
sylvestris also seemed to be confined to the top of this knoll. 
Lower down the slope where Erica cinerea gave way to E. tetralix 
and bog plants, Ch. vagans was absent, but there was an abundance 
of M. maculatus, Ch. parallelus, and M. brachyptera. In the after- 
noon, I revisited Crockford Bridge. It was now impossible to find 
T. ceperoi here. Wood crickets, Nemobius sylvestris F. were singing 
in the thickets between the ponds. Later still, I headed for the 
Solent, where three characteristic estuarine species were in evidence 
by their song: the Lesser marsh grasshopper, Ch. albomarginatus 
Degeer, the Short-winged conehead, Conocephalus dorsalis Latreille 
and the Roesel's bush-cricket, Me rr/oprera roeselii Hagenbach. 

On 21 July I went to one of my favourite Cotswold sites, Stin- 
chcombe Hill. On the warm downland there were plenty of Ch. 
brunneus, Ch. parallelus and O.viridulus. The attractive Stripe- 
winged grasshopper, Stenobothrus lineatus Panzer was about and 
conspicuous on account of its distinctive wheezy song.M. maculatus 
was more common on the rocky slopes. Chalkhill blue, Dark-green 
fritillary. Grayling and Marbled white were flying. 

Although the Dark bush-cricket, P. griseoaptera Degeer is see- 
mingly an ubiquitous insect in some southern counties, to the 
north of Birmingham it is something of a rarity and often hard to 
find. I visited the published Leicestershire site, Owston Wood on 
29 August. A small but obvious colony was found in long grass on 
the southern edge of the wood but I could not find it in the wood- 
land rides (Cf. Evans, 1970). 

Whilst driving over Penkridge Bank, Cannock Chase on 5 August, 
I heard the song of M. brachyptera through my car window and 
stopped to find a good colony amongst grass in the roadside ditch. 
Others were found on the adjacent moorland (See Paul, in press, a). 



BRITISH ORTHOPTERA IN 1984 125 

The second annual study of the Warwickshire Orthoptera 
Survey was held on 11 August, on the Warks./Oxon. border. It 
was hoped that G. nifus and S. lineatus might be added to the 
county list, but none of the downs visited looked quite suitable for 
them. The grasshoppers, Ch. parallelus, Ch. brunneus and O. viridu- 
lus were all common. The most interesting site was Rough Hill 
near Epwell, Oxon. Four species of grasshopper were abundant on 
the top - Ch. parallelus, Ch. brunneus, O. viridulus and surprisingly, 
Ch. albomarginatus also. The habitat consisted of dry grassland 
with much gorse. At Traitor's Ford, Warks., there were nymphs 
of T. subulata and Mr. J. Hardman took the first of the new adults 
to be seen by me in 1984. Mr. Hardman showed me a grasshopper 
he had taken near Warwick in 1954, which tumed out to be Ch. 
albomarginatus - the earliest known county record. He was also 
fortunate in beating an Oak bush-cricket, Meconema thalassinum 
Degeer, from ivy at Farnborough, Warks. - the only bush-cricket 
of the day. 

Later in August, I visited a friend in Funtley, near Fareham, 
Hampshire. I was hoping to find the rare Conocephalus discolor 
Thunberg during my visit. On the morning of 18 August, both 
C. discolor and the more widespread C. dorsalis were found in plenty 
in long grass at Titchfield Haven. What was surprising was that 
C. discolor - which is usually a very scarce insect in Britain - out- 
numbered C. dorsalis by a considerable margin. Furthermore, 
whilst C. dorsalis was confined to reeds and grass at Titchfield 
Haven, C. discolor was abundant along the cliffs to the west of the 
haven for at least a mile or so and could be heard along the road- 
side when driving back to Funtley. At Funtley I heard three males 
stridulating in my friend's unremarkable garden. In wasteground 
at Funtley, C. discolor was the commonest of the Orthoptera; 
many of the all-brown form and the majority were of the very long- 
winged form mentioned by Ragge (1973). This latter form is 
usually rare and seems to be associated with periods of abundance. 
Other Orthoptera around the lake at Funtley were: Ch. brunneus, 
Ch. parallelus (including many of the macropterous form), T. subu- 
lata, T. undulata. M. thalassinum, and P. griseoaptera. I was also 
pleased to find the spectacular spider, Argiope bruenichii here. 
Other Orthoptera at Titchfiled Haven were Ch. brunneus, Ch. 
parallelus, Ch. albomarginatus, Tettigonia viridissima and P. griseoa- 
ptera. Dr. Stephen NichoUs tells me that C discolor was unusually 
abundant also in the New Forest, where it was found on heather 
near Beauheu Road Station. Leaving Funtley I went to stay with a 
friend in Surrey, visiting Thursley Common on 19 August, where as 
well as the more widespread species, the Woodland grasshopper, 
O. rufipes andM. brachyptera were seen. 

I left Surrey for a week's holiday in Scotland on 20 August. 
Whilst driving north through London I heard the characteristic 



126 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD. VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

stridulation of M. roeseli near Wormwood Scrubs. The same evening 
I discovered a colony of P. griseoaprera near Arnside (See Paul, 
in press, b). Most of my time in Scotland was spent on the Isle of 
Mull. Ch. parallelus and O. viridulus were both common and wide- 
spread on the island. On the adjacent Isle of lona I took. I/, macula- 
tus from hollows in the machair on the west coast of the island. Like 
my specimens from Barra. these Hebridean M. maculatus are dis- 
tinctly smaller than specimens from heathland in southern England. 
A visit was made to Mr. Boyd Barr. who is now resident on the 
island. He showed me some splendid Hebridean Lepidoptera. 
Leaving Mull for the South, I stopped at Ravenshall Point, Gallo- 
way where Ch. brunneus, O. viridulus and P. griseoaprera were seen. 

There is an area of sandy heathland and peat bog near Clee Hill 
in Shropshire which has tumed up some characteristic heathland 
dragontlies. Being suspicious that some corresponding Orthoptera 
might occur there. I visited the site on 2 September and was re- 
warded by finding the Bog bush-cricket, M. brachyptera , which is 
local in the Midlands. Miss H. M. Takes captured a female which has 
been deposited in the BM(NH). Other species present were Oi. 
paralleus, O. viridulus, M. niucularus and T. undulata. Later that 
night at 1 1 pm, Ch. parallelus and P. griseoaprera were heard on the 
bank of the River Severn north of Bewdley, Worcs. 

In an average year, the Orthoptera season lasts well into October 
in the Midlands: in 1981, for example, M. macularus, 0. viridulus 
and Ch. brunneus were heard on the Wrekin on the last day of 
October. The weather in September and October 1984 was cold, 
damp and overcast. The last native Orthoptera that I saw this year 
were a few Oi. brunneus in late September in Birmingham. Never- 
theless, as I write in November, House cnc\iQis, Acheta domesticus L. 
can be heard around the Birmingham hospitals. 

References 

Copson, P. J., 1984. Disrriburion Arias: Orthopteroids in Warwick- 
shire. Warwickshire Museum, Warwick. 

Evans, I. M., 1970. Pholidoprera griseoaprera (Degeer) (Orth.. Tet- 
tigoniidae) new to Leicestershire. Enr. mon. Mag., 106:66. 

Paul J. (in press, a. Mesioptera brachyptera L. in Staffordshire) 
Ent. mon. Mag-. 

Paul, J. (in press, b. Pholidoptera griseoaprera (Degeer) (Orth., Tet- 
tigoniidae) in Cumbria and Scotland. Enr. mon. Mag. 

Ragge, D.R.. 1973. The British Orthoptera: a Supplement. £«r.Gflz., 
24: 227-245. 



MASS OCCURRENCE OF LEUCOMA SALICIS 127 

NOTES ON A MASS OCCURRENCE OF 

LEUCOMA SALICIS LINN. (LEP.; 

LYMANTRIIDAE) 

By DR . M. E . N. Majerus * 

Having mn one or two moth traps regularly all year round for 
the last 17 years, it is now rare for a night to produce anything 
really surprising. I still occasionally find species or varieties new to 
me, and particularly in May and early June after the long months 
of low catches, a warm, cloudy night always persuades me to rise 
expectantly at dawn, hopefully to see the first sphingids, notodo- 
ntids and arctiids of the new high season. However, the moming of 
17th July 1984 produced a phenomenon I have not come across 
before or heard reported. 

I had been working very late, and as the night promised a good 
catch I decided to wait until dawn and retire to bed after scoring the 
catches of two traps, one a black-bulb Robinson run at my home 
at Bar Hill, some six miles N. W. of Cambridge, the other a standard 
Robinson run five mUes away at the Field Station of the E>epanment 
of Genetics. Cambridge University. The Bar Hill trap yielded a good 
catch but with nothing exceptional. However, as soon as I reached 
the Field Station trap it was obvious that something unusual had 
occurred overnight, for the ground around the trap was strewn with 
moths, of which about one fifth were Leucoma salicis (the white 
satin). In all I counted 157 of these moths in or around the trap. 

The figures themselves are not unusual, for this trap often 
produces largish catches, and several species often occur in large 
numbers. For example, on the night in question there were 94 
Agrotis exclamanonis Linn, and 87 Apamea monoglypha Hufn.. 
while the total catch was 782 moths of 65 species. But the large 
catch of Z,. salicis had a number of unusual features. 

Firstly, I have trapped in and around Cambridge for four years, 
and although present each year,Z,. salicis has never been particularly 
common. In 1981, six individuals, five males and one female, were 
recorded at the Field Station. In 1982 the count was seven male and 
one female, with two males also taken at Bar Hill and in 1983, 
again five males and one female were recorded. So the catch of 157 
in one night was in itself exceptional. More unusual though, was the 
fact that these were the first L. salicis to be recorded this year. 
Usually the flight season of this species, as with so many others is 
such that the species occurs firstly in small numbers on a few nights, 
the numbers gradually increasing to a peak before tailing off again 
slowly. But in this case, following the night of the 1 7th, the numbers 

♦Department of Genetics, Downing Street, Cambridge. 



128 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

of L. salicis at the Field Station were nightly, from the 18th July, 
5, 19,9,2, 1,2,0,0,2,0,1,2,0, 1 , 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 
0, 0, 0,0, 1, so that by 16th August the season was over. 

This initial mass occurrence at the Field Station contrasts with 
the occurrence of this species at Bar Hill where it was first present 
on 18th July (two males). Thereafter, the numbers each night were 
0, 2,0, 1,4, 1, 0, 1, 3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1 , with the last being recorded 
on 4th August. (From 21st July, a Heath Trap was used at Bar Hill, 
the black-bulbed Robinson being run by Peter Kearns in his garden 
in Cambridge, three miles S. E. of the Field Station. He recorded 
two male L. salicis on 26th July and a further male on 27th July.) 

The third unusual feature was the sex ratio. Both sexes come to 
light, but in the past I have always found more males than females. 
So, for example, over my 17 years of trapping I have recorded 1064 
individuals of L. salicis of which 841 (79.04%) have been males. 
Yet of the 157 recorded on 17th July, 104 (66.24%) were female. 

On first reflection there appeared to be two possible explana- 
tions, but neither seems to quite fit the facts. The phenomenon 
could either be explained by a mass migration, or by a co-ordinated 
mass emergence. The idea of a mass migration is plausible, but I 
feel it would have to be fairly short range and local. Firstly, because 
L. salicis did not occur on 17th July at Bar Hill, which is after all 
only five miles away, and was on the night in question downwind 
on an albeit slight breeze. Secondly, were a migration of widespread 
occurrence, other reports would have been mentioned on the grape- 
vine. 

The possibility of a co-ordinated mass emergence could also 
explain the sudden occurrence of a large number of individuals, 
but I can see no explanation of the 2:1 sex ratio in favour of females 
in the data; and again the lack of a similar catch with respect to 
L. salicis at Bar Hill makes this explanation unconvincing to me. 
If any reader has had similar experiences with this or other species, 
or has any alternative explanation of these observations, I would 
be grateful to hear of them. 



EthmiabipunctellaFabr.(Lep.: Ethmiidae)in Wiltshire. 

— A single male of this moth was taken at light at Dinton (VC8), 
on the night of 24/25 June 1984, possibly the first record of this 
species for Wiltshire. It may be worth noting that my wife had plan- 
ted a border with Echium vulgare (Viper's Bugloss), the species' 
foodplant, obtained as very young plants from a friend in Durring- 
ton (VC8), who had raised them from seed. However, inspection of 
the plants has revealed no sign of the larva, so the moth may have 
originated from elsewhere. — S. M. PALMER, The Warren, Hindon 
Road, Dinton, Wilts. 



TWO NATURALISED STICK INSECTS 129 

TWO NEW ZEALAND STICK-INSECTS 
NATURALISED IN MAINLAND CORNWALL 

By STELLA M.TURK* 

Two New Zealand species of phasmid, Acanthoxyla prasina 
(Westwood) and Qitarchus hookeri (White) are naturalised in 
Tresco Abbey Gardens, Isles of Scilly. They have been present in 
the Gardens for many years, and Uvarov (1944 and 1950) suggests 
that the colony of Acanthoxyla might have been established as 
early as 1907 when a large consignment of plants was imported 
from New Zealand by Major A. A. Dorrien^Smith. Acanthoxyla 
prasina was found at Paignton in 1908, 1950, 1962, 1975 and 1982 
(Kirby, 1910; Rivers, 1952; Ragge 1973; Kennard, 1975; Haes, 
1983) and it is recorded that plants from the Tresco 1907 importa- 
tion had also been sent to Paignton. About 1959, some examples of 
Acanthoxyla were sent from Tresco to the late Mr. V. Heath of 
Riviera Gardens, St Mawes, Cornwall, and he deliberately released 
them with the idea of their becoming naturalised. They have now 
spread to various private gardens in St. Mawes (Turk & Turk, 1977) 
and in 1969 one was found in a garden at Bar Road, Helford Passage: 
after reading the account of this in the West Briton for 2.10.1969, 
Mr. Heath stated {West Briton 9.10.1969 and in litt.) that he had 
imported some Tree Ferns (Dicksonia antarctica) direct from New 
Zealand in 1967 and that one of these had been sold to a client in 
Bar Road. 

Qitarchus hookeri has also been found in mainland Cornwall, 
first in Truro on a garden wall in 1979 (Turk & Turk, 1980) and 
since then at St. Mawes, on a few occasions, and also at Falmouth 
(Turk & Turk, 1982). In 1981 eight were found on a juniper bush 
at Mawnan Smith. The Truro record was the first for mainland 
Britain, although it was already known from the island of Ross- 
dohan in the Bay of Kenmare, S. Kerry (Ragge, 1965). At Falmouth 
it has so far been found in a single garden where the individuals 
were rounded up (as far as possible) in September 1981 after a 
Banksian Rose on which they had been feeding, was removed. 
Four females were given to Mrs. B. Watts of Penryn who had had 
experience of breeding insects for Worldwide Butterflies. She soon 
had a total 400 eggs, and with 100% survival rate, she was over- 
whelmed with young stick-insects the following spring. Those she 
could not give away to private individuals or schools, she released 
in her garden, although up to now (March 1984) she has no evi- 
dence that any survived out of doors. By contrast, Mrs. R, V. Wright 
was continuing to find stray individuals in her Falmouth garden; 
or to be more exact, they were found by her cat who brought in 

*"Shang-ri-la", Reskadinnick, Camborne, Cornwall, TR14 OBH. 



130 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

ten insects between December 27th and 30th 1983. She noted that 
eight of the ten were brown; some selective factor would seem to 
be at work, because of the 600 reared by Mrs. Watts, only three 
were brown, and they were sickly and died before maturity. In 
February 1984, an individual of Gitarchus was sent to Dr. Ragge 
for checking and he commented on the virtual absence of the 
black line on the thorax which had characterised the few speci- 
mens in the British Museum (Natural History) collections from the 
Isle of Scilly. Certainly those who have observed the many speci- 
mens originating from the Falmouth colony have noted no ob- 
vious black line. Uvarov (1950) doubted if this was a very constant 
character, but Dr. Ragge suggests that its consistent absence may 
point to a separate origin from the Tresco colony; and we now 
know that there is a distinct possibility that Mr. Heath could have 
introduced them direct from New Zealand, 

References 

Haes, E. C. M., 1983. Orthoptera Recording (Mapping) Scheme, 

Newsletter 9. Huntingdon. 
Kennard, A., 1975. Orthoptera: 27th Report of the Entomological 

Section. Rep. Trans. Devon Ass. Advmt. Sci. 107:184-186 
Kirby, W. F. 1910. An unidentified species of stick-insect found 

in Devon. Zoo/o^s/ 14: 197-198. 
Ragge, D. R., 1965. Grasshoppers, crickets and cockroaches of the 

British Isles. Wayside and Woodland Series. London : Wame . 
, 1973. The British Orthoptera, a supplement. Entomolo- 
gist's Gaz. 24: 227-245. 
Rivers, C. F., 1953. An insect mystery, Cow«/rvZ,//e for 23.1.1953. 
Turk, F. A. & S. M. 1977, 1980 & 1982. Cornish Biological Records 

Nos. 1, 3 and 5, Institute of Cornish Studies. 
Uvarov, B. P., 1944. A New Zealand phasmid (Orthoptera) estab- 

hshed in the British Isles, Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 13:94-96. 
, 1950. A second New Zealand stick-insect (Phasmat- 

odea) established in the British Isles, Proc. R. ent. Soc. 

Lond. B19: 174-175. 



RHEUMAPTERA UNDULATA L.: SCALLOP SHELL IN THE ISLE 
OF Man - On 27th August 1983, about a mile from the town 
of Peel along Glenfaba Road to the Raggatt Plantation, by the 
disused track of the Isle of Man railway I found five larvae in sprigs 
of sallow fastened together with silk. From these moths emerged 
between 23.vi. and l.vii.l984. The only previous record of occu- 
rance of this species in Man appears to have been in 1972 (Bond, 
Ent. Rec. 97:(7)). - R. F. Haynes, Little Dorking, Mill Road, 
Killarney,Eire. 



SUB-ANGLED WAVE IN SUSSEX 131 

SCOPULA NIGROPUNCTATA HUFNAGEL: 
SUB-ANGLED WAVE IN SUSSEX 

By Colin Pratt* 

Restricted to Kent and Sussex, there have been only three 
singleton records of this insect from the latter county — at Hastings 
in 1876, at Milton Street in 1970 (Pratt, 1981), and at Ninfield in 

1983 (Parsons, 1984). However, after the night of August 6th 

1984 a male was found at rest near a Robinson m.v. trap in East 
Sussex by C. Robinson. Although no further examples were noted 
at this precise spot, despite continuous trapping, a very short dis- 
tance away specimens were noted by the writer at light on August 
17th, 18th (3), 19th and 20th, indicating the presence of a breeding 
colony. The first moths observed were in reasonable condition, 
the later ones worn. The species flew early, most being seen before 
10 pm BST with none noted after 1 1 pm; they still flew with a cool 
ground temperature of 10 degrees Centigrade. No females were seen. 

The insect was distributed along more than half a mile of a 
flowery east/west ride situated within a beech and pine plantation, 
the ride varying in width from 8 to 20 yards; the moth was very 
local and seemingly prefered a small bank of broken chalk — none 
could be found in rides, or parts of rides, which did not support 
numbers of varied flowers. 

I understand that the foodplant of feral nigropunctata has 
never been unquestionably determined in this county. Gematis in 
England, and Viola, Veronica, Vicia, Origanum, and Stachys abroad, 
have been mentioned in the distant past (Barrett, 1902); Tormentil 
has also been associated with the insect (Chalmers-Hunt, 1960). 
All of these plant families are well represented within a mile of the 
site, including Tormentil, and most close by (Hall, 1980). Never- 
theless, examination of the dozen most frequent low-growing plants 
existing where the insect actually flew revealed that only one plant be- 
longed to those families previously mentioned as having supported 
the moth in parts of Europe - Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreb., the 
Smooth Tare. 

References 

Barrett, C. G., 1902. The Lepidoptera of the British Islands, 8:74. 
Chalmers-Hunt, J. M., 1968-1981. The Butterflies and Moths of 

Kent, 3:16. Arbroath. 
Hall, P. C, 1980. Sussex Plant Atlas. Borough of Brighton, Booth 

Museum of Natural History. 
Parsons, M., 1984. Some Notable Moths from Ninfield, E. Sussex 

in 19S3. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 96: 125-126. 
Pratt, C. R., 1981 . ^ History of the Butterflies and Moths of Sussex. 

Borough of Brighton, Booth Museum of Natural History. 
*5 View Road, Peacehaven, Newhaven, Sussex. 



132 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

COLEOPTERA IN NORFOLK 
By M.COLLIER* 

Although the extraction and collation of published Norfolk 
coleoptera records is still in progress, it is hoped that it will not be 
premature to detail the occurrence of some of the more interesting 
species which, as far as I am aware, have not previously been recor- 
ded from this county. 

Pterostichus angustatus (Duft.) — Roydon Common, TF 6821 
(VC 28), 30 jii.84. Under a fence post lying on the edge of a ride 
separating a coniferous plantation from heathland. The heath has 
I believe been subject to fire damage in recent years. Although 
I have yet to find a pubhshed Norfolk record for this species, Dr. 
M. Luff informs me that he has received details of two separate 
captures in the Sheringham area (VC 27) in 1979. 

Cercyon bifenestratus Kust. — Lopham Fen, TM 07 (VC 27), 
9JX.81. A single example of this rare species has been awaiting 
further examination since its capture and its identity has only re- 
cently been established. I am aware of records in only three other 
counties in recent years (Kent , Sussex and Warwickshire) although 
Joy (1932, A Practical Handbook of British Beetles) also cites 
Lincolnshire. I hope to look for further specimens in the near 
future but it would appear probable that the insect is either of rare 
occurrence or a recent colonist at this site because Pope (1969, 
Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 14: 189-207) does not list it in his fairly 
comprehensive preliminary survey of coleoptera at these fens. 

Trixagus obtusus (Curt.) - Billingford, TM 1678 (VC 27), 
14.X.84. This diminutive throscid was very nearly overlooked 
in the sievings of leaf litter from beneath a small oak on common 
land. 

Carpophilus sexpustulatus (F.) — Norwich, TG 2108 (VC 27), 
25.ix.83. Attracted to a Cossus sap run, first noticed by Dr. A. 
Irwin, on an oak in a large city cemetary. Other species present 
included Aphodius contaminatus (Hbst.) and various common 
nitiduHds. 

Ahasverus advena (Waltl) — Lopham Fen, TM 0579 (VC 27), 
23.ix.84. Althougli long considered to be largely restricted to stored 
products in this country, I believe this species is not now uncommon 
in certain outdoor situations. My Norfolk specimens came from siev- 
ing mouldy hay at the base of a stack on the edge of the fen but 
I have also found it in abundance on mouldy grain, left out to feed 
game birds, at Thomham Park, Suffolk in 1983. 

Cryptophagus schmidti Stm. — Babingley, TF 6725 (VC 28), 
28 jv.84. This apparently rare species was found on a rotting root 

*67 Church Lane, Homersfield, Haileston, Norfolk, IP20 OEU. 



COLEOPTERA IN NORFOLK 133 

vegetable at the edge of a manure heap in a farm yard. Unfortu- 
nately only a single specimen was present although sievings from 
nearby disused farm buildings have still to be sorted. Coombs and 
Woodroffe (1955, Trans. R. E. S. L. 106: 237-282) faUed to find 
this species themselves but quote references of its occurrence in 
granaries and a haystack. 

Adistemia watsoni (Woll.) - Examples of this interesting little 
lathridiid were sent to Dr. E. A. Ellis, after having been found in 
abundance in a newly built bungalow at Wymondham (VC 27) in 
January 1985 (1985, Eastern Daily Press, Jan. 19). I have also 
obtained specimens from the same source. Previous records in this 
country have been summarized by Welch (1984, Entomologist's 
mon. Mag. 120: 206) and it will be interesting to see whether the 
few recent records indicate the beginning of a spread in distribution, 
which should occur if the beetle is able to utilize the many situa- 
tions in which other mould feeding Lathridiidae abound. 

Cis alni Gyll. - West Harling Heath, TL 9883 (VC 28), 1 .vii.84. 
Surprisingly there appear to be no previous Norfolk records for 
this species although the standard reference works do not indicate 
it to be of particularly rare occurrence. 

Anthicus tobias Mars. - Foulden Common, TF 7600 (VC 28). 
First taken by Dr. A. Irwin on 24.vii.84 on a small tip consisting 
mostly of sawdust and wood chippings. The beetle was still present 
in numbers on 19.viii.84 and was surprisingly difficult to capture, 
running very rapidly and taking to flight in the hot sunshine. 

Acknowledgements 

I wish to thank A. A. Allen, G. Foster, M. Luff and H. Mendel 
for help with identification and distribution information and A. 
Irwin for valuable advice and assistance in the collation of Norfolk 
records. 



NEW LOCALITIES FOR CYDIA CAECANA SCHLAG IN WILTSHIRE. 
- At approximately 1900 hours on the 30th May 1984 while search- 
ing for microlepidoptera on the central portion of the Salisbury 
Plain, I netted a distinctive looking Cydia with which I was un- 
familiar, but later identified it as C. caecana. According to Bradley, 
Tremewan & Smith {British Tortricoid Moths) it has only been 
recorded from two other localities in Wiltshire, and is otherwise only 
known from Kent. On discussing my find with Mr. Godfrey Smith 
from near Trowbridge, he informed me he had recorded the species 
from the Imber area some five miles west of my location. It there- 
fore seems that caecana has a limited distribution over the central 
downland areas of Wiltshire. - S. M. PALMER, The Warren, Hindon 
Road, Dinton, Wilts. 



134 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

A SUMMARY OF RECORDS OF LASIOCEPHALA 

BASALIS (KOLENATI) (TRICH.: 

SERICOSTOMATIDAE) FROM THE AREA 

ADMINISTERED BY WELSH WATER 

By S. J. ORMEROD* and R. A. JENKINS* 

Lasiocephala basalts is probably scarce in the U.K. although 
there are published records of adults from scattered localities (e.g. 
Breconshire, Powys: Moseley, 1929; Staffordshire: Daltry, 1933; 
north-west England: Routledge, 1933; Yorkshire: Brown and 
Whitehead 1938; Carmarthenshire, Dy fed: Jenkins, 1979). Crichton 
et al. (1978) did not record the species between 1965 and 1971 
from any of 67 Rothamsted traps distributed throughout the U.K. 
Larvae have been previously recorded from Be re Stream, Dorset 
(Hiley, 1972 and pers. comm.), from the River Taf at Whitland, 
Carmarthenshire (Jenkins, 1975) and from a stream near Ross-on- 
Wye, Herefordshire (Dr. L D. Wallace, pers. comm.). 

Further records of larvae, pupae and adults are now available 
from the area administered by Welsh Water (formerly Welsh Water 
Authority) and were compiled, together with some ecological 
aspects of the sites, from surveys by Welsh Water (R.A.J.), from the 
Freshwater Biological Association River Communities Project (Dr. 
J. F. Wright, unpubl.), from a survey of 45 sites in the catchment of 
the River Wye (S.J.O. vouchers confirmed by Dr. D. Hiley) and from 
specimens and records held at Liverpool City Museum (Dr. I. D. 
Wallace, pers. comm.). The recent records (1974 — present) are 
summarised in Table 1 and their distribution is shown in Fig. 1. The 
records generally confirm that L. basalts is widespread, but rather 
local in Wales. Larval and pupal occurrences were generally in the 
mid to lower reaches of rivers which had total hardnesses in excess 
of 30 mg I'l (as Ca CO3). The most mature specimens generally 
occurred in March and April and at the river margins, although 
specimens were also taken from mid stream and in riffles at some of 
the sites. 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to all those who allowed access to unpublished 
information and to Welsh Water for allowing this publication. S.J.O. 
was in receipt of a N.E.R.C. studentship. 

* Department of Applied Biology, UWIST, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff, 
**Welsh Water, 19 Penyfai Lane, Furnace, Llanelli, Dyfed, SA15 5EL. 



LASIOCEPHALA BASALIS IN WALES 



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ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 



15.viii.85 







• Larvae, pupae, 
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FIGURE 1. All records since 1974 oi Lasiocephala basalis KoL Open symbols: 
adults : Closed symbols : larvae and pupae. Encircled record : pupal case only. 



References 

Brown J. M. and Whitehead, H., 1938. The Trichoptera or caddis 

flies of Yorkshire, A^flmra//sr, 260-265, 279-285, 315-319. 
Crichton, M. I., Fisher, D. and Woiwod, I. P., 1978. Life Histories 

and Hydroptilidae, based on the Rothamsted Insect Survey, 

Holarctic Ecol. ,1:3145. 
Daltry, M., 1933. List of Trichoptera from Staffordshire, Trans, a. 

Rep. N. Staffs. Fid. Club, 67: 41-46. 
Hiley, P. D., 1972. The taxonomy of the larvae of the British Serico- 

stomatidae {TxichopiQXd), Entomologist's Gaz., 23: 105—1 19. 
Jenkins, R. A. 1975. Occurrence of Lasiocephala basalis (Kolenati) 

(Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae) in a river in South West Wales. 

Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 1 10 (1974): 83. 
Jenkins, R. A. 1979. Reocrds of Trichoptera from South — West 

Wales, Entomologist's Gaz., 30:31—43. 
Moseley, M. E., 1929. Trichoptera etc. in Breconshire, Entomologist's 

Mon. Mag, 65: 208. 
Routledge, G. B., 1933. Trichoptera in Cumberland, Westmorland 

and North Lancashire, Trans. Carlisle, Nat. Hist. Soc., 5: 52—60. 



BRACHINUS SCLOPETA CAPTURES 137 

BRACHINUS SCLOPETA F. (COL.: CARABIDAE): 
TWO CAPTURES IN THE PRESENT CENTURY 

By A. A. ALLEN , B.Sc., A.R.C.S.* 

Fowler (1887:149) wrote of this small distinctive bombardier 
beetle: — 

"Doubtful as British; at all events, it has not occurred for many years; 
Devonshire (Leach); Southend (Hope); Hastings, locality doubtful (Stephens); 
Mr. Matthews tells me that his specimens came from Sowerby, who took 
a small series "near Margate, Kent", in 1830, and gave some to his father at 
the timel; he fully believes that they are quite authentic British specimens; 
the species, however, seems to have entirely disappeared from the county; 
it is, however, very common near Paris, and is spread widely over southern 
Europe, so there is no reason why it should not be found in our southern 
counties." 

As far as published records go, nothing more seems to have been 
heard of 5. sclopeta in Britain from that time to the present. It is no 
wonder, therefore, that Joy (1932) omits it from consideration, 
and that Lindroth (1974:134), whilst finding no reason to doubt at 
least some of the records, suggests that the species is probably now 
extinct. It will thus be of much interest to report two apparently 
unpublished captures of single specimens, dating from more recent 
times; which, even if they do not greatly alter its status in our fauna, 
help to justify its retention as a British insect - albeit an extreme 
rarity . 

In conversation with the late A. E. Gardener some 12 or more 
years ago, I learnt that he considered he had an example of this 
Brachinus from Eastboume and intended to publish the record; 
but in the event, his untimely death intervened. Lately, wishing to 
remedy the omission, I wrote to the National Museum of Wales, 
Cardiff, requesting to be allowed to see the specimen, whereupon 
the Curator most kindly sent not only the Eastboume one but also 
another (to which I shall return). Both are undoubted B. sclopeta, 
and had in fact been confirmed as such by the Museum staff. The 
former bears the data "Beachy Head/Eastboume, Sx/l-14jc.l928/E. 
Gardner". It is of somewhat ancient appearance, having been origi- 
nally pinned and at some time since attacked by mould; the left 
elytron had become detached, probably in cleaning, and had been 
re -fixed in position. 

^Stephens (1839) did not know of this occurrence, the only one in which a 
number of examples were definitely involved. They passed later into some of 
the old collections; 1 have a very good one purchased about 1930 from Messrs. 
W. H. Janson, with a label "supposed to have been taken at Margate" and "ex 
coU. J. C. Lewis", and others from the same source are in the BMNH. 

*49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



138 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

If Stephens was uncertain in 1828 (p.36, and cf. Fowler, supra) 
whether he had taken his specimen at Hastings or elsewhere — it 
is in his collection, without data of course — he indicates no such 
doubt in his later work (1839:9), Be that as it may, this newer 
capture enables us to delete the note of interrogation regarding the 
status ofB. sclopeta on the Sussex Hst. 

The second specimen is from J. R. le B. Tomlin's collection, 
and carries a label "Gray coU./Esher", but no date. It is thought, 
however, to have been probably taken about the turn of the century. 
Being in mint condition (without even a pinhole) it seems most 
unlikely to date from much before that, and in the absence of 
anything positive may perhaps be regarded as a 20th-century cap- 
ture — if only just. The locality, too, raises questions. Esher has 
been one of the best-worked haunts of London entomologists from 
early times, situated in an inland county (Surrey), and quite unlike 
any of the other recorded localities on or near the south or south- 
east coast where the insect's extreme northern limit seems to be 
reached. That B. sclopeta occurred naturally at Esher (while of 
course possible) appears so improbable that I am inclined to suspect 
either some confusion, e.g. a transposed label, or a chance importa- 
tion. The fact the Tomlin apparently never published the record 
suggests that he may have been of the same mind. 

Beachy Head, on the other hand, is a locality far more in 
keeping with the few that are known. A single specimen might 
admittedly have been a casual immigrant or introduction; but, 
whether it was found on the high ground at the top, or on the under- 
cUff below, there could well have been a colony somewhere on the 
inaccessible cliff-face — conceivably it might still be there. Further, 
the Margate occurrence prompts tlie thought that there must be 
potential habitats even to-day on the cliffs of Thanet where, should 
the beetle yet survive, it would be practically safe from collectors or 
other marauders! 

The old records given by Fowler are not quite complete. On the 
authority of Stephens's Manual (1839:9), which Fowler would 
appear not to have consulted, it is possible to add a second (in fact 
the first published) for Kent, namely Faversham — presumably a 
capture made in the previous decade. 

Acknowledgement 

My best thanks are due to Mr. A. F. Amsden, Curator of 
Entomology at the National Museum of Wales, for his helpful 
co-operation. 

References 

Fowler, W. W. 1887. The Coleoptera of the British Islands, 1. 
London. 



BRACHINUS SCLOPETA CAPTURES 139 

Lindroth, C. H. 1974. Coleoptera: Carabidae. Handb. Ident. Brit. 

Insects, 4 (2). 
Stephens, J. F. 1828. Illustrations of British Entomology : Mandibu- 

lata, 1. London. 
Stephens, J. F. 1839. A Manual of British Coleoptera, or Beetles. 

London. 



Further Appearances of Pulicalvaria piceaella Kear- 
FOTT(Lep.: Gelechiidae). - On 10th. July 1983 and again 
on 9th. July 1984, 1 found a small Gelechiid moth in my garden m.v. 
at Winchester, Hants (VC 11). Both were males but neither the 
external characteristics nor the genitalia could be related to any 
species described in British literature, and, in a telephone discussion, 
Mr. E. C. Pelham-Clinton suggested that they could be Pulicalvaria 
piceaella and gave reference to Canadian literature in which the male 
genitalia are illustrated and the species described. Check with this 
literature (Can. Ent. 94: 1198-1215; 1962) showed that this sugges- 
tion was correct. 

The first British specimen of this moth was taken by W. E. 
Minnion in June 1952 at Pinner in Middlesex and the second by 
A. A. Allen on 6th July 1959 at Blackheath, London {Ent. Rec. 
73: 40:41 ; 1961). at which time the species was assigned to the 
genus Recurvaria Haworth, subsequently to Eucordylea Dietz and 
currently to a new genus Pulicalvaria Freeman. I understand that 
subsequently a further one or two specimens were also taken in the 
south-east of the country. 

It would therefore appear that this species may be breeding and 
spreading in this country and search for larvae might prove reward- 
ing. According to the Can. Ent. reference quoted above, they feed 
on various species of spruce including Picea abies, but apparently 
prefer P. glauca. The larvae hibernate and then feed again for a short 
period in the spring, the feeding larvae having sclerotized areas 
bright shiny brown, with an orange-brown body, whilst in the hiber- 
nating larva the sclerotized areas are dark brown or nearly black 
with a deep pink or brick-red body. It is a needle and bud miner 
but may also be on insect of damaged cones or foliage, old staminate 
flowers, galls etc. Three other related spruce feeding species (Eucor- 
dylea blastovora McLeod; £'. ducharmei Freeman and E. atrupictella 
Dietz) which to date have not been recorded from Britain are also 
described, but P. piceaella is the only one of these which hibernates 
as a larva. — Col. D. H. STERLING, "Tangmere", 2 Hampton Lane, 
Winchester, Hants. S022 5LF. 



140 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE 
BRITISH ISLES IN 1984 

By R F. BRETHERTON* and J. M. Chalmers-HUNT** 

In extreme contrast to 1983, 1984 was a poor year for immi- 
grant Lepidoptera. Only half as many of the wholly immigrant 
species were reported; there were fewer probable or possible immi- 
grants; and the numbers of adult individuals of most of them were 
very small. All the common species occurred, but their numbers 
were mostly below average. An outstanding feature, however, was 
provided by at least 100 larvae or pupae of Acherontia atropos 
L,, which were noted from mid August to early October, although 
only half a dozen moths were reported which could have been 
their parents or their offspring. An unusual number of larvae and 
pupae but only few moths were also reported for Agnus convolvuli 
L. 

Of the rarities the first confirmed specimen of Agrotis crassa 
Huebner in the British Isles (except for the Channel Islands) was 
caught at Fountainstown, co. Cork by Dr. A. A.Myers on August 20. 
A single specimen of Iphiclides podalirius L. was closely examined 
and distinguished from Papilio machaon L. in a garden near Ross- 
on-Wye, Herefordshire on August 26 by Dr. P. Aldrich -Blake. He 
knew of no rearing of this species in captivity in the area, and it was 
probably part of the varied immigration around that date. Two 
examples of Pontia dapidice L. were also reported: a female watched 
on buddleia in a garden near the sea at Weston-super-Mare, North 
Somerset on July 7 and 8 by Mrs. K. Jones (per N. W. Lear), and 
a male flying and settling on the ground also in a garden at Fairoak, 
near Eastleigh, South Hampshire on July 16, by P. Holloway. 
F.R.E.S. 

The season began encouragingly with many records of at least 
seven immigrant species between April 4 and the first week of May. 
Some of the first to be seen, including Vanessa atalanta L., Colias 
crocea Fourc, M. stellatarum L., may have survived the unusually 
mild winter either in their earlier stages or as imagines. Against 
this, however, there is a report by fishermen of the sighting of about 
ten C crocea flying towards St. Catherines Head, Isle of Wight, 
early in the month, and there were undoubtedly large influxes from 
April 16 into early May which, besides these species, included many 
Agrotis ipsilon Hufn., which reached to Orkney on April 24, and 
examples oi Orthonama obstipata V ., Auto grapha gamma L., and a 
Nomophila noctuella surprisingly on the Isle of Canna, Inner Hebri- 
des on May 4. 

♦Folly Hill, Biitley Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey GU5 OLE. 
**1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent BR4 9LG. 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA 1 984 141 

The periods of warmth in April were succeeded by mostly 
northerly winds and low night temperatures, briefly broken from 
May 31 to June 3 but continued at least in south England with little 
further interruption through June into the first week of July. This 
made the season a very late one for resident species and also pro- 
bably prevented successful breeding by the early immigrants. The 
influxes of V. atalanta, A. gamma and other common speices which 
are usual in May and June appear to have been small, and the only 
scarce immigrants reported were three A. convolvuli L. in mid June 
and a single Daphnis nerii L. found on the beach at Worthing, West 
Sussex on June 25. 

On July 6 a shift of wind to south east and south began nine 
weeks of warmth and drought similar to those in 1983. A sizeable 
immigration brought many V. atalanta, M. stellatamm, smaller 
numbers of C. crocea, and almost the first arrivals of C cardui, 
Peridroma saucia Huebner, A^. noctuella and U. femigalis Huebner; 
but the scarcer species were represented only by single records 
of P. daplidice, Diasemia ramburialis Dup. and Palpita unionalis 
Huebner. Other influxes between July 18 and August 1 repeated 
most of the common species and added more A. convolvuli, the 
first few Rhodometra sacraria L., single specimens of Nymphalis 
antiopa L. and H. peltigera, the first few Spodoptera exiguaHuehnei, 
and T. emortualis and Enargia paleacea L. in Orlestone Forest, 
East Kent, on July 31. A single T. atriplicis was also caught in 
Guernsey on July 28. 

In the first week of August north east winds brought first 
examples of Eurois occulta L. to Orkney and South Hampshire, 
with others a few days later widely spread in the east and south 
east counties, a A^. antiopa at Gibraltar Point, North Lincolnshire on 
August 6, one at Southampton, South Hampshire on the same day 
and another at Alton, North Hampshire on August 8. The largest 
and most varied invasions of the year came from August 20 to 3 1 , 
during a very warm spell in which the winds came at first from the 
south east, later due east across south Britain, then south west 
from the Atlantic, and finally east and north east across the North 
Sea. A. crassa was trapped in co. Cork, with Discestra trifolii Hufn,, 
and on August 23 and 24 Agrotis puta Huebner and Eilema griseola 
Huebner, immigrants to Ireland, the latter two probably from main- 
land Britain. Then a small influx of Mythimna albipuncta D. & S. 
began on August 20, and a score oi R. sacraria were reported from 
August 23 into the first week of September, and also a few S. exigua, 
scattered examples of A^. antiopa, two Scopula rubiginata Hufn., 
and singles of /. podalirius, P. daplidice, Danaus plexippus L., 
Mythimna vitellina Huebner and Mythimna loreyi Dup. As the wind 
returned to the north east there were more E. occulta in Lincoln- 
shire and Yorkshire and two A. atropos on the beach and at sea off 



142 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.vm.85 

the coast. In all over 20 certainly or probably immigrant scarce 
species were seen during this period. 

In September there appears to have been a considerable immi- 
gration of commoner species, including especially V. atalanta, A. 
gamma, and U. femigalis, about the middle of the month, and 
another, rather larger, in its last week which brought also a small 
wave of A. convolvuli, a few more R. sacraria, and two D. ramburia- 
lis. October was barren except for a few arrivals of Mythimna uni- 
puncta Haw, M. vitellina and U. femigalis with a short spell of 
south west wind in the middle of the month. There was another 
wave of the same species in similar winds and unusual warmth from 
November 6 to 11; V. atalanta was also noted on the south coast 
in numbers at that time.M. unipuncta was reported in Sussex and 
South Hampshire as late as November 28, December 3 and 5, and 
last in South Essex on December 24. 

Among the scarcer species which are listed in Annexe II, the 
records of Acherontia atropos, only nine moths but about 100 larvae 
or pupae, require some comment. Tbc moths were very scattered 
both in date and place: in July four in Dorset and Sussex, three in 
August in Kent, Herefordshire and Yorkshire, and in September 
one at sea off the north Yorkshire coast, and the last near John 
O'Groats, Caithness on September 28. Except perhaps in Dorset 
these do not agree in their distribution with recorded larvae which 
might have been their off -spring, so that there must have been many 
other immigrants during the summer which were not observed. 
Of the larvae, and pupae half were found by repeated searches at 
Weston-sub-Mendip, North Somerset, and the others widely spread 
over seventeen English counties and vice counties, mostly in the 
south and east but reaching Warwickshire, Worcestershire and Here- 
fordshire and with a single larva, the first reported at Lancaster on 
August 8. A few were found later in August, but the majority, 
many already full grown, were in September, with some continua- 
tion to the end of October. Pupae were found from September 16 
onwards. Some of these produced moths in captivity, but the ab- 
sence of late records and the fact that pupae are known to require 
temperatures of 70OF. or higher suggest that none did so in the wild. 
It is interesting that, although potato was the usual food plant, larvae 
were also found on the native woody nightshade and on jasmine, 
clematis and forsythia. In Ireland two moths were caught in co. 
Kerry about September 9 and also one larva. In Guernsey four 
full-fed larvae were found in mid September, and in Alderney one 
larva on September 20. 

The records of Agnus convolvuli, v^th 29 moths, about 
30 larvae and five pupae, are also hard to interpret. There were 
three records of moths in June, one in Glamorgan and two in East 
Sussex; in July, four in South Essex, singles in South Hampshire, 
Dorset, Surrey Warwickshire and two on July 27 and 28 in Norfolk; 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA 1984 143 

in August one in North Lincolnshire and four in East and West 
Sussex; in September a second in the same place in Glamorgan and 
singles in Westmorland, East and West Sussex, North Hampshire; 
in October one at Lewes, East Sussex; and the last on November 10 
at Petworth, West Sussex, which coincided with the "red dust" 
which is believed to have come from the Sahara. One mature larva 
was found at Marsh Chapel, North Lincolnshire on July 21, almost 
all the others in the second half of September, and pupae from 
September 26 to October 13. Most of the larvae were found in the 
Vale of Pickering, Yorkshire, and three larvae and four pupae with 
those of A. atropos in North Somerset. No moths were noted in 
either of these counties. Only at Rye, East Sussex, where a moth was 
seen in mid June and a mature larva on September 28, and at Ring- 
mer, a moth on August 9 and a mature larva on September 30, 
is there any probable connection between recorded moths and 
larvae or pupae. Several of the larvae are said to have pupated suc- 
cessfully, and a pupa found at Little Comberton, Worcestershire 
on October 4, provided a moth in captivity on November 26th; 
but it is unlikely that any September or October larvae or pupae 
could have survived to do so in the wild. 

The common butterflies were reported by very many observers. 
Of Colias crocea their records cover over 350 in Britain, 30 in 
Ireland, and a few in Guernsey: vastly less than the abundance of 
1983, but rather above the numbers of other recent years. They 
began early. From April 13 to May there were a dozen sightings 
scattered along the south coast from St. Mary's, Scilly to the Isle 
of Wight, and it was said to be the commonest butterfly present at 
Easter (April 20/23) in one place between Sidmouth and Beer; 
examples were also seen in Surrey, North Somerset, and one as far 
north as Stafford on May 13. Despite claims that some were off- 
spring of arrivals in 1983, it is more probable that all were part of 
the general arrival of immigrant species in April and early May, 
which has already been mentioned. 

Thereafter two were seen on June 1 and 3 ; there appear to have 
been small invasions about mid July and at the end of the month. 
In August few were seen before the first considerable invasion 
which began about August 23. In September some were noted 
almost every day. The total of over 200 resulted mainly from a 
large influx in the middle and a smaller one at the end, but the 
scatter of dates suggests that local breeding, presumably from July 
immigrants, and probably most of 44 seen in October also had local 
origins. The last was seen near Plymouth on October 27. 

Records of C. crocea came from 25 English and Welsh counties 
and vice counties, with a clear southern and western bias. The south 
coast accounted for two thirds of the records, from Cornwall to 
Sussex, with the most, as in 1983, from Dorset; but two were seen 
on Lundy Island in the Bristol Channel and 25 in North Somerset, 



144 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

a few in Glamorgan, Carmarthen, Pembroke, Anglesey and Flint, 
and a dozen, all in September, in Westmorland and Cumberland. 
We know of no sightings in Scotland. Inland counties fared poorly: 
West Kent two in late August and September, Surrey (2 in May, 
Warwickshire (4), Worcestershire (4), Herefordshire (1), Stafford- 
shire (1). In the east there were two at Spum Point Bird Observatory 
on July 1 1 and September 30, and eight, all well inland, in Lincoln- 
shire from September 2 to October 14. 

Vanessa atalanta was widely said to be very scarce or scarcer 
than usual, but it became fairly numerous in some places from late 
July onwards; in all there were over 1000 dated records. The first 
was seen at Walton Bay, North Somerset, on March 1, and over 30 
were seen in April and early May, including one in Westmorland/ 
Furness on April 22 and one in Orkney on May 7. Arrivals later in 
May and in June seem to have been few; but a large influx in the 
second week of July reached Cape Wrath in Sutherland, Easter Ross, 
and Caithness, as well as again Orkney, where it became fairly com- 
mon locally in September. There were further invasions, though 
not very large ones, in the last weeks of July and August, in third 
and last weeks of September, and possibly even in early November. 
The records do not suggest that local breeding was important; but 
two dozen young larvae were found on pellitory-of-the-wall (Parie- 
taria judaica) on St. Anthony's Head, Comwall in late August, 
and 27 small larvae on August 18 as far north as Keiss, Caithness, 
where adults had been in July. Late butterflies were seen on Novem- 
ber 24 at Sparsholt, North Hampshire and at Reading, Berkshire, 
and on November 25 near Plymouth, South Devon. 

Cynthia cardui, with reports covering only just over 100, had 
its poorest year since at least 1967 and possibly much earlier. The 
first was seen at Knowle, North Somerset on April 20. There were 
four in the Bristol area and two near Plymouth between June 16 
and 27, about 30 in each of the months July, August and September, 
and three in October, the last being at Portland on October 14. 
Most seem to have arrived simultaneously with immigrations of 
V. atalanta. No larvae have been reported, and few of the butter- 
flies seem to have been locally bred. Distribution was nonetheless 
surprisingly wide. A total of 43 were assiduously placed and dated 
by 27 recorders in the Bristol area of North Somerset and South 
Gloucestershire. It was seen in many places along the south coast 
from the Lizard, Comwall to PegweU Bay, East Kent, with the 
highest total of 13 at Portland Bill B.O. On the west coast seven 
were recorded in Furness and Cumberland, with the most northem 
at St. Bees Head; and on the east it was seen occasionally in North 
Lincolnshire, and twice near Filey, South East Yorkshire on Sep- 
tember 11 and 19. Single inland records came from Hampstead and 
Stanmore, Middlesex on August 16 and September 13; Reading, 
Berkshire September 5 and 6; Tiddesley Wood, Worcestershire, 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA 1984 145 

August 20; and Hougli Wood, Herefordshire in early July. In Guern- 
sey four or five were reported, beginning in July. 

Macroglossa stellatamm. This mainly diurnal species disperses 
quickly and widely, and is usually seen only singly except near the 
points of arrival of immigrant swarms. The total of over 200 re- 
ported indicates a fairly good season. Several seen in early April 
in the Isle of Wight, South Devon and East Sussex may have hiber- 
nated, but a concentration at the end of tlie month indicates a 
small immigration. There was another in late June, and there was a 
large influx in mid July, when 18 were seen at Sandwich, East Kent 
on July 18 and 19, and another at the end of the month. Larvae 
were found on Lady's Bedstraw {Galium verum) in the Isle of Man 
in late August, and wide scatter of dated records in August and 
September may have been due to local emergences of moths, in 
October, however, over 50 seen in the Isles of Scilly on October 
7/10, and others at Portland, Dorset, were probably immigrants. 
The last moth was seen at Oysterhaven, Isle of Man on December 30. 
The spread of adults was wide. They were reported in 27 English and 
Welsh counties and vice counties, reaching northwards to Westmor- 
land/Fumess and Spurn Point in South East Yorkshire, and inland 
in small numbers or singly, in Surrey, Berkshire, Worcestershire, 
South Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, and North West Yorkshire. 
In Scotland they were seen in Ayrshire, the Isle of Arran and Orkney. 
In Guernsey there was a few from July to October, and in Ireland 
it was said to be very common in co. Cork and was seen in co. 
Dublin and co. Donegal. 

{To be continued) 



Notes and Observations 

A SECOND GENERATION MENOPHRA ABRUPTARIA THUNB.: 

Waved Umber (Lep.: Geometridae). - I was surprised 
to find a specimen of this normally univoltine species in my m.v. 
trap at Mitcham on August 31st 1983. This would seem to be an 
unusual record since Skinner {Colour Ident. Guide Moths Br. Isles) 
describes the species as univoltine and South {Moths Br. Isles, 1961) 
makes no mention of any records of second generation examples. 
I presume that this example resulted from the abnormally high 
temperatures during the summer of 1983. 

I also noted second generation examples of Euproctis similis 
Fuessiy and Dypterygia scabriuscula L. during the autumn of 1983. 
These records would seem to be less unusual than that of M. abrup- 
taria. - R. K. A. MORRIS , 241 Commonside East, Mitcham, Surrey 
CR4 IHB. 



146 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

ELAPHRIA VENUSTULA HBN.: ROSY MARBLED IN KENT. - 
On 26th July 1984, a single specimen of this local moth came to 
m.v. at East Mailing. This is the first time that I have seen this 
species here, and Chalmers-Hunt {Butterflies and Moths of Kent) 
gives no records of it for the relevant Weald. Medway division of the 
county. Perhaps this is further, if tenuous, evidence for an expan- 
sion of range. - D. A. CHAMBERS, 15 Briar Close, Larkfield, 
Maidstone, Kent. 

Two RECORDS OF EUPITHECIA ABIETARIA GOEZE. - Recent 
comments on the apparent rarity of this conifer-feeding pug moth 
{Ent. Rec. 91 : 220, 322, 92:25, 93:29) prompt me to put on record 
the two instances on which I have reared the species. 

1. On October 1972 collections of Sitka spruce, Picea sit- 
chensis, cones were made in five different Forestry Commission 
stands in Scotland in connection with a study of cone-infesting 
Diptera. One cone from one of the collections (Fort Augustus, 
East Inverness-shire) showed feeding damage and lepidopterous 
frass when examined that winter. From this in June 1973 I bred out 
a single male Eupithecia abietaria. 

2. In January 1984 I received from Mr. C. J. MacPhee, Chief 
Forester at Redesdale Forest, Northumberland, a sample of Norway 
spruce Picea abies cones which he had collected in the last week of 
October, from a windblown tree at grid ref NT 777014 near Cat- 
cleugh, Redesdale. Several showed damage in the form of borings 
in the basal parts of the cone-scales and destruction of the seeds 
beneath. Extrusions of lepidopterous frass were associated. Amongst 
this frass, enclosed rather loosely in the cone was a Eupithecia 
pupa. The pupa and cones were kept until June 1984 when a female 
E. abietaria emerged from the pupa and also two specimens of 
Cydia strobilella L. from the cones. On opening the damaged cones I 
found a further mummified larva which agrees with that of E. 
abietaria as figured by Escherich (1931), Die Forstinsekten Mitte- 
leuropas Vol. 3. 

These records show that E. abietaria may not be so difficult to 
breed out from collected cones as has been suggested. Col. Sterling's 
assumption {Ent. Rec. 93:29) that pupation always occurs on the 
ground away from the cone is evidently not correct. — D. A. 
Barbour, Forestry Commission, Northern Research Station, 
Roslin, Midlothian, EH25 9SY, Scotland. 

UNUSUAL Behaviour in Acherontia atropos L. - On 
the 24th November I had a female Acherontia atropos emerge from 
its pupa (continental stock). This was kept alive in the hope of ob- 
taining a pairing. On the 25th November the moth was placed in 
a cylinder cage in the bathroom, which is the warmest room in the 
house. On the morning of the 26th there was no sign of the moth in 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 147 

the cage. Closer examination revealed that the moth had buried 
itself in the dry sphagnum at the bottom of the cage. It squeaked 
violently when it was removed. There had been a frost during the 
night and the room, though heated, was cold in the morning, so 
perhaps the moth had buried itself in order to keep warm. I wonder 
if anybody else has observed this behaviour in this, or any other, 
species. — D. A. Le Pard, Silver Crest, Silver Street, Sway, Lyming- 
ton, Hants. 

PROSERPINUS PROSERPINA PALL. (l£P.: SPHINGIDAE) NEW TO 
Britain. - During the early morning of the 26th May 1985, 
a belt of thunderstorms swept into Sussex from tlie south-east, 
accompanied by a short period of wind and rain. At 2.30 am BST 
the disturbance had passed and Mr. S. Curson of Denton, near 
Newhaven, East Sussex, hung a 125 watt mercury vapour bulb at 
his first floor bedroom window. A male P. proserpina quickly arrived, 
unaccompanied by other moths. The insect is of the usual green 
form with a wingspan of 48mm. 

From the literature, this distinctive moth is locally found in the 
warmer parts of France but mainly south of central Germany into 
the Mediterranean, and I understand that it has recently been noted 
in the Ardennes. It has been proposed that its common name in this 
country be "Curson's Green Hawk". COLIN PRATT, 5 View Road, 
View Road, Newhaven, Sussex. 

Chorosoma schillingi (SCHUMMEL) (HEMIPTERA: Hetero- 
ptera) in North-west England - Further to R. W. J. 
Read's note of schillingi in West Cumbria {Ent. Rec. 97:8), I should 
like to add the following records for the bug in the north-west of 
England: Freshwater, Merseyside (SD 29-09-) coll. C. Felton 14.vii. 
1982 and coll. S. Judd ll.vii. 1984; Sandscale Hawes Warren, 
Cumbria (SD 190750) coll. N. L. Birkett 3.viii.l975 and 4.ix.l977. 
All specimens were collected on marram grass and I suspect that the 
bug might be found on other coastal sand dune systems in Lanca- 
shire and Cumbria. I should like to thank Dr. N. L. Birkett and 
Mr. C. Felton for giving the specimens to the Merseyside County 
Museums collections. — S. JUDD, Department of Invertebrate 
Zoology, Merseyside County Museums, Liverpool. 



Current Literature 

Coleoptera of Gloucestershire. By D. B. Atty, M. A. 8" x 6", 

xi + 136 pp., including appendices, index, &c., stiff paper covers. 
Published by D. B. Atty. Cheltenham, 1983. 

The appearance of a new county list of Coleoptera is always 



148 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.viii.85 

a welcome event to devotees of the Order and the present one is 
no exception, being the culmination of years of patient toil by the 
author who is also the publisher. It is clearly printed from typescript 
by photo-offset (a process which eliminates many errors including 
misprints) on good-quality paper, and is strongly bound and well 
produced. 

Much information is packed into the ample preface, the whole 
of which merits close attention if the fullest use is to be made of 
the work; it is descriptive, analytical, and explanatory. For instance, 
the many sources of records are discussed in detail, and no pains 
have been spared in verifying as many as possible. A valuable 
innovation concerns the recording of frequency and distribution 
within the county, which by means of a simple code is expressed 
more fully and far more precisely than is usual in such a work. We 
note, also with approval, that the recent rash of misspelt and man- 
gled names and of other often questionable name-changes has 
provoked the author to reject the worst instances of this irritating 
and unscholarly practice. 

Because of its position and diverse geology, Gloucestershire 
possesses a wide range of habitats, and thus a decidedly rich beetle 
fauna. 2049 species are listed, and many more will certainly be 
added. (This number however excludes some 70 recorded by 
Stephens in 1839 from "(near) Bristol" and not otherwise known 
from the county, Hsted in an appendix and of doubtful status for 
various reasons.) Some of the more interesting species which figure 
in very few local lists include Badister meridionalis, Agabus undu- 
latus (well estabhshed — otherwise a fenland beetle), Helophorus 
laticollis, Oxyporus maxillosus (unique as British, but not officially 
on our list). Emus hirtus, Aphodius sordidus (including two recent 
records, apparently the only ones anywhere in Britain for many 
years), Synaptus filiformis, Globicomis nigripes, Ptinus lichenum, 
Meloe nigosus, Apalus muralis, Leptura virens (extinct, but two old 
Dean records), Gynandrophthalma affinis, Cryptocephalus pri- 
marius, Rhyncolus gracilis. Several species of northern or north- 
western type in the Dean area are also of much interest — a good 
example is the Scolytid Dryocoetes autographus. 

A second appendix lists grid references (4pp.) for localities 
cited, and an index to genera and families follows. Finally there 
is a page of addenda, and a loose sheet gives some further records 
and a few corrections. The only thing missing which would have 
been very helpful is a simple one-page rough map of the county 
with the chief localities and major features indicated; this would 
have given a working mental picture of their relative positions and 
the area in general which no amount of rows of figures could do. 

The catalogue is sure to stimulate interest among both resident 
and visiting collectors. We congratulate Mr. Atty on the success 
of his laborious venture - A. A. A. 



The Moths and Butterflies /^^^^^ 

of Great Britain and Ireland ^HARXEY^ 

Edttors: John Heath and A. Maitland Emnnet I e^^£^?. 

Volume2 Cossidaeto Heliodinidae ^^ * 

This long-awaited volume continues the comprehensive description of the microlepidoptera 
begun in Volume 1 and to be completed in future volumes. Among the fifteen families covered 
are the Psychidae, the Tineidae, the Lyonetiidae and the Gracillariidae which contain 186 of the 
242 species treated in this volume. There are coloured illustrations of the adult insects and larval 
cases, line drawings of wing venation and genitalia and two monochrome plates of larval leaf 
mines. In addition to the microlepidoptera, a number of larger, primitive moths are described. 
These include the Cossidae (goat and leopard moths), the Zygaenidae (burnets) and the Sesiidae 
(clearwings). The section on the zygaenids is in itself an authoritative monograph by a world 
expert, W. G. Tremewan, with additional material on dispersal, predation, parasites and toxicity. 
It includes coloured illustrations not only of the imagines but also of the larvae and the cocoons. 
The introductory chapter to the volume is on the comparatively little-studied subject of 
aposematism or warning characteristics. Under the title 'British Aposematic Lepidoptera' its 
author, Dr Miriam Rothschild, makes a highly original contribution which should encourage 
further research into a fascinating field of study. 

'The series, when complete, will certainly comprise the definitive work of reference on British 
Lepidoptera.' Habitat, the newsletter of the Council for Environmental Conservation (CoEnCo), 
April 1984. 

464 pages, including 14 colour and 2 monochrome plates; 123 text figures and 223 maps. 
254 X 202mm. Clothbound. ISBN 946589 02 X Price £45.00 net 

For details of other published volumes in the series, please write to the publishers. 
Further volumes in preparation. Colour prospectus available. 
All volumes will increase in price on 1st September. 

The Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland 

written and illustrated by Michael J. Roberts M.B., Ch.B. 
The new definitive three-volume work on the British Araneae 

This is the most important work to be written on the British and Irish arachnids since the 

publication of the classic British Spiders by Locket and Millidge, begun in 1951, which it both 

supplements and complements. Volume 1 comprises an introduction to the study of spiders, 

followed by the Classification, Keys to the Families and the Description of the mainly larger 

spiders in the families from Atypidae to Theridiosomatidae — over 350 species. Volume 2 (to be 

published in 1986) will be devoted entirely to the very numerous family of 'money spiders', the 

Linyphiidae. Both volumescontain superb linedrawings of the parts, usually genitalia, which are 

needed for the identification of all the species described, and are as fine as any that have been 

published in the arachnological literature anywhere in the world. The equally fine colour 

illustrations, in Volume 3, show the spiders as they would appear in spirit under the microscope. 

They have a unique quality in that they combine scientific accuracy with artistic achievement. 

'An authoritative text-book for identification which it is a privilege to recommend to anyone 

working on this group.' G. H. Locket 

Volume 1 (text) Atypidae - Volume 3 (Colour Plates) Atypidae - 

Theridiosomatidae Linyphiidae 

230 pages, including 3 colour plates and 256 pages, including 237 pages of colour 

100 pages of textfigures. plates illustrating 307 species 

ISBN 946589 05 4 £45.00 net ISBN 946589 07 £55.00 net 

Volumes 1 and 3 together £85.00 net 

Volume 2 (text) Linyphiidae ISBN 946589 06 2, due 1986. 

All volumes 290 x 205mm. Clothbound. Colour prospectus available. 

From the same publisher, the standard work on the British Odonata; 
The Dragonflies of Great Britain and Ireland 

by the late CO. Hammond, FRES. Revised (1983) by Robert Merritt 

120 pages including 20 colour plates, 23 text figures and 44 maps. 

254 X 202mm. Clothbound. ISBN 946589 00 3 £16.95 net 

'This is an invaluable guide to identification and an essential tool for those interested inthe 
Odonata.' Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Harley Books, Martins, Great Horkesley, Colchester, Essex C06 4AH 
Telephone: Colchester (0206) 271216. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J. W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



CONTENTS 

Comments on the Life History of the Elephant Hawk-moth. B. K. WEST, 113. 
A Day on the White Mountain. Dr. C. J. LUCKENS, 1 18. British Ortho- 
ptera 1984. J. PAUL, 122. Notes on the Mass Occurrence of Lewco/na 
salicis. Dr. M. E. N. MAJERUS, 127. Two New Zealand Stick -insects 
Naturalised in Cornwall. S. M. TURK, 129. Scapula nigropunctata in 
Sussex. C. PRATT, 131. Coleoptera in Norfolk, M. COLLIER, 132., 
A Summary of Records of Lasiocephala basalts (Trichoptera) in Wajes-. 
S. J. ORMEROD and R. A. JENKINS, 134. Brachinus sclopeta (Col.) 
Two Captures in the Present Century. A. A. ALLEN, 137. The Immi- 
gration of Lepidoptera to the British Isles in 1984. R. F. BRETHERTON 
and J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT, 140. 

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS, 117, 121, 128, 130, 133, 13^;vT45-147. 

CURRENT LITERATy^E,'=}4'7:' f ' 

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LARVAL HABITS OF EILEMA PYGMAEOLA 149 

SOME NOTES ON THE LARVAL HABITS OF THE 

PIGMY FOOTMAN, EILEMA PYGMAEOLA 

(DOUBLEDAY) SUB-SPECIES /MLL/F/?0N5 (ZELLER) 

(LEP.: ARCTIIDAE) AND A DESCRIPTION OF 

THE PUPA 

By R. K. A. MORRIS * 
Introduction 

Eilema pygrnaeola is a higlily localised British species repre- 
sented by two sub-species which exhibit preferences for different 
habitat types. Eilema pygrnaeola pygrnaeola (Doubleday) frequents 
sand dunes at a small number of stations on the Kent and Norfolk 
coasts, whereas E. pygrnaeola pallifrons (Zeller) is resident only on 
the shingle at Dungeness, Kent. Little of the hfe history of either 
sub-species has been recorded although Buckler (1889) describes 
the egg and larva. Records of wild-caught larvae in Britain seem 
to be restricted to a report by Packer (1979) although many ento- 
mologists who sweep at Dungeness must be familiar with the small, 
furry, brown larvae which are often to be found in large numbers at 
night in the spring. Records of pabulum preference in captivity may 
indicate the natural pabulum of E. pygrnaeola pallifrons but until 
larvae are recorded from lichens in the wild this will be speculative. 
With the number of recorders who visit Dungeness each year, it 
should be possible to establish the natural pabulum of this insect. 

In an attempt to fill some of the gaps in our knowledge, the 
habits of sub-species pallifrons have been under investigation for the 
past two years following successful breeding of larvae taken at 
Dungeness in 1982. 

Habitat 

The description of larval breeding grounds necessitates a brief 
description of the Dungeness ecosystem. SampUng of larvae has, 
to date, been restricted to the area immediately north and east 
of the "Long Pond" (fig. 1) and it is this area which is described. 

Sallow scrub dominates much of the shingle, providing shelter 
but very little associated under-cover. Open areas between patches 
of sallow scrub are dominated by bramble {Rubus fruticosus agg.) 
with wood sage {Teucrium scorodonia) and broom {Sarothamnus 
scoparius) forming distinct patches. Elsewhere, grasses and low- 
growing herbaceous plants form a loose cover which, in places 
consolidates to form continuous cover. Lichens are a dominant 
feature of the low-growing vegetation and, in some areas, form a 
continuous mat over the shingle. Brief examination of the lichen 
mat revealed the presence of four species; Cladonia arbuscularia, 

*241 Commonside East, Mitcham, Surrey, CR4 IHB. 



150 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15ix.l985 

C. chlorophaea, C. convoluta and C. rangiformis. Concrete posts in 
the area are well covered with encrusting lichens {Xanthoria spp). 



,_, Roads 




Giavel workings (poods) 



OJNGENESS 



Figure 1. Schematic map of Dungeness, Kent. 

Larval distribution 

The higliest concentrations of larvae are to be found in areas 
where grasses and lichens are intermixed, forming a loose, often 
discontinuous, mat. Like others of the genus Eilema, pygmaeola 
is lichenivorous and it is therefore surprising that larvae can be 
swept from grasses. Careful searching revealed the reason for this: 
at night, the larvae ascend blades of grass to sit motionless for 
reasons as yet undertermined. In mid-April, larvae were swept from 
dead grasses. However, searching in mid-June revealed larvae only 
on living blades of grass. To date, it has not been possible to simu- 
late natural conditions for captive larvae and, consequently, a 
completely adequate explanation of this behaviour cannot be given. 
However, the habits of captive larvae may provide a clue. The larvae 
were reared in standard clear plastic containers whose atmosphere, 
although ventilated as often as possible, tended to become very 
humid. Under such conditions, many larvae spent a considerable 
amount of time on the under surface of the container hd. This, 
I suggest, may be an attempt to reach a less humid environment. 
If larvae exhibit this habit under such conditions, it might be that 



LARVAL HABITS OF EILEM A PYGMAEOLA 15 1 

ascending blades of grass in the wild is to escape humid conditions 
in the lichen mat. The high mortality rate of captive larvae might 
reflect adversely higli humidity. 

Choice of pabulum 

A number of pabula were offered to captive larvae, including all 
of the lichen species mentioned earlier in this text. Substitute 
pabula included decaying sallow leaves, algal growths on bark and 
various encrusting lichens (Xanthoria spp.). All were accepted but 
with varying levels of enthusiasm. Of the lichen species, Gadonia 
rangiformis appeared to be most favoured when larvae were offered 
a choice. During the breeding programme, larvae were reared success- 
fully on both C. rangiformis and decaying sallow leaves. It must be 
stressed that although breeding captive larvae is possible, the mor- 
tality rate is extremely high. Parasitism amongst wild caught larvae 
was not observed but is recorded in larvae from Sandwich (Packer 
1979). Cannibalism was not observed in my breeding stock but has 
been reported by G. Collins (pers. comm.). 

Overwintering 

Whilst sweeping in mid-April 1983, a dead grass stem with some 
thirty larvae attached to its base as a tightly packed "nest" was 
obtained. This was at a time when very few larvae were to be found 
in the survey area and suggests that larvae may overwinter as a nest, 
dispersing after hibernation. However, Buckler (1889) records that 
eggs are laid loose (confirmed by eggs laid by a captive female). 
Larval nests would not seem to be consistent with loose egg laying 
which suggests that the larval nest taken in 1983 was an abnormality. 

The larvae taken in mid-April measured between 4 and 5 mm in 
length but their exact instar was not determined because attempts 
to breed them out failed. 

Pupation 

Captive larvae offered a mixture of lichens and mosses pupated 
in a silken cocoon amongst moss. The larval skin remains partially 
attached to the pupa and larval hairs are not included in the cocoon. 

Description of the pupa 

Four pupae were obtained during the breeding programme for 
1984 (fig. 2). These had the following dimensions: 

Breadth at the 
widest point (mm) 
2.3 (pupa figured) 

2.2 
2.3 
2.7 



'up a 


Length 




(mm) 


i. 


6.5 


ii. 


6.0 


iii. 


6.0 


iv. 


8.0 



152 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

Two of the smaller pupae produced female moths and the larger 
one a male. In comparison with wild bred adults, bred specimens are 
fractionally smaller. 

Shape and feature: Head rounded, tapering outwards to about 
mid-way down the wing cases. Tapering between this point and the 
end of the wing cases is gradual. The wing cases extend beyond two- 
thirds of the length of the pupa. Tapering between the wing cases 
and the anal end is more pronounced but the anal end is rounded. 

Colour: Liglit brown initially, gradually darkening on the 
thorax and abdomen to a rich brown with darker markings. The 
head plate and wing cases remain light yellow-brown and translu- 
scent for some time but gradually darken to orange brown. The 
eyes are prominent and dark. 

Pupal lustre: Shiny. 






Figure 2. The pupa of Eilema pygmaeola pallifrons. 



Comments 

The results of this breeding programme leave a number of 
unanswered questions which require further investigation. Circum- 
stantial evidence points to larvae overwintering as a nest, a charac- 
teristic not consistent with known egg-laying habits. The reason 
for larvae ascending blades of grass at night has yet to be explained 
fully but further investigations into the hypothesis that this is 
related to humidity in the lichen mat will be made in 1985. Further 
investigation into the pabulum preferences of both sub-species 
is desirable since the sand dune and shingle ecosystems differ in 
structure and the pabula of sub-species pygmaeola may differ from 
sub-species pallifrons. It must be stressed that fatalities amongst 
captive larvae are extremely high. Consequently, it is not recom- 
mended that breeding for the cabinet be attempted, nor should it 
be encouraged. 



LARVAL HABITS OF EILEM A PYGMAEOLA 15 3 

Acknowledgements 

I am. indebted to G. A. Collins for his observations on larval 
cannibalism and to R. D. Dunn for identifying lichen species col- 
lected from Dungeness. During drafting of this note, much useful 
critiscism has been given by Dr. P. G. Morris. 

References 

Buckler, W., 1889. The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. 

3 Ray Society. London. 
Packer, L. D. M., 1979. The Larva of Eilema pygmaeola pygmaeola. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 91:9. 



Bankesia CONSPURCATELLA (ZELL.) (LEP.: psychidae) 
RECORDED IN SOUTH YORKSHIRE. - On 3 1st March 1985 at 
the edge of Thorne moors, South Yorkshire (VC63) Mr. M. Limbert 
noticed eight or ten small moths on thick sap covering a recently 
cut birch stump. He at first thought that the moths were stuck to 
the sap but closer inspection revealed that this did not seem to be 
the case. He coUected two moths which he sent to me alive through 
the post. 

I was convinced that they were Bankesia conspurcatella (Zell.) 
(staintoni (Wals.)) but as, according to the literature available to me, 
the species had occurred in Britain only in Hampshire at the end of 
the last century I prepared a genitalia slide from one of the moths 
and sent it to Rev. D. J. L. Agassiz who kindly confirmed my deter- 
mination. In his reply Rev. Agassiz mentioned that there have been 
recent records from Kent and the Channel Islands, nevertheless 
the present record represents a considerable northward extension of 
the range of this, apparantly elusive, moth. H. E. BEAUMONT, 
7 Brampton Road, West Melton, Rotherham, South Yorkshire, 
S63 6AN. 

ELACHISTA LITTORICOLA LE MARCH AND IN 1985. - The 
area where I first took this species (see Ent. Rec, 95:65) was buU- 
dozed and covered with gravel last year. On 4th June 1985, 1 visited 
the site with Mr. E. C. Pelham-Clinton and Dr. J. R. Langmaid. 
We were delighted to find a flourishing colony on the remaining 
grassy bank. We managed to catch their flight time — mid after- 
noon — and watched them climbing up grass stems of red fescue 
and flying freely. We have seen at least 40 specimens. — E. H. 
WILD, 7 Abbots Close, Highclidde, Christchurch, Dorset BH23 5BH, 
8.vi.l985. 



154 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

GREEK ISLAND BUTTERFLIES: 
DODECANES 1983 

By GEORGE Thomson * 

In 1983 I spent one week in the Dodecanes (May 27 — June 1), 
based in Rhodes, taking in day trips to Karpathos (May 29), Kos 
(May 30) and Simi (May 31). Four days were spent visiting much 
of Rhodes itself by hired car, but exploration of the other islands 
was restricted to walking distance from the embarkation point. 
The main purpose of my visit was to collect samples of Maniola 
telmessia for research and most efforts were directed to this end. 
Consequently, all other species which were recorded or collected 
were those which happened to be noticed in the habitats in which 
telmessia was sampled. No effort was made to seek out other species. 
In spite of this, an interesting group of butterflies from these islands 
was noted. 

In contrast with the experience of Bretherton (1971), butter- 
flies, in general, were conspicuously abundant in Rhodes, Kos and 
Simi: very few species were local. Througliout the week the days 
were sunny and hot, but it was cloudy and cool, with some rain, 
on Karpathos: only two butterflies were seen there. Surprisingly 
Utile has been written about the Lepidoptera of Rliodes and the 
butterfly fauna of the nearby islands is even less well documented. 
Bretherton {loc. cit.) describes a short visit to Rhodes and cites 
previous Usts of species found there (Rebel, 1916, 1924, 1936; 
Turati, 1929; Turati and Fiori, 1930; Hartig, 1940; Bender, 1963). 
Turati includes species found in Simi and Karpathos, while Reisser 
(1946) lists butterflies from this part of the Mediterranean in an 
important collection of records of Lepidoptera from the Aegean 
Islands. 

The following list includes one species new to Rhodes, Quer- 
cusia quercus, and three species apparently not so far recorded in 
the Dodecanes, Q. quercus, Norrnandia ilicis and Cupido minimus. 

My travel to the Dodecanes was funded by an award from the 
Carnegie Trust for the Universities in Scotland. 

PAPILIONIDAE 

Papilio machaon giganteus Verity. Rliodes — Faliraki, Filerimos: 
Kos — Kos Town. Common with females ovipositing. 

Papilio podalirius smymensis Finer. Rhodes — Filerimos, Lindos. 
Common at Filerimos, good numbers elsewhere. 

♦Department of Biological Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 
4LA. 



GREEK ISLAND BUTTERFLIES 155 

PIERIDAE 

Pieris brassicae f. catoleuca Rober. Rliodes — Faliraki, Lindos, 
Filerimos: Kos — Kos Town. Very common, but absent from Simi. 

Pieris rapae L. Rhodes — Filerimos: Kos - Kos Town: Kar- 
pathos — Pigathia. Common where noted. One only on Karpathos. 
Absent from Simi. 

Pontia daplidice L. Rhodes - Faliraki, Filerimos: Kos - Kos 
Town. Common. 

Gonepteryx farinosa Zeller. Rliodes — Faliraki, Filerimos, Lin- 
dos. Common. 

Gonepteryx cleopatra fiorii Turati and Fiori. Rliodes — Faliraki, 
Filerimos, Lindos. Common, but less so ihdin farinosa . 

Colias crocea Fourcroy. Rliodes — Faliraki, Filerimos: Kos: 
Kos Town. Very common, including many f. helice Hubner. 

SATYRIDAE 

Hipparchia syraica ghigii Turati. Rliodes - three kilometres 
north of Faliraki. Males and females, 10-15 individuals in lightly 
wooded crag surrounded by dry garique vegetation. The butterfly 
settles on tree trunks and branches as well as between and on rocks 
until disturbed when it flies into the higher trees. 

Kirinia roxelana Cramer. Rliodes — Filerimos: Kos — Kos 
Town. Only a few at Filerimos. Common west of Kos Town. The 
behaviour of this butterfly is similar to syra/ca, although roxelana 
is also partial to old buildings and ivy on which it settles. 

Lasiommata megera emilysa Verity. Kos — Kos Town: Simi - 
Pedi and Simi Town. Common, but not seen on Rliodes. 

Lasiommata maera adrasta Hubner. Rliodes — Faliraki: Simi — 
Pedi and Simi Town. Fairly common where seen. 

Maniola telmessia omata Turati and Fiori. (fig. 1). Rhodes — 
Faliraki, Filerimos, Lindos, Apolakia, Profitis Bias: Kos - Kos 
Town and valley to west of Kos Town: Simi - Pedi and Simi Town: 
Karpathos - Pigathia. Very common in a variety of habitats - dry 
rocky hillside at Faliraki and Simi Town, dry lightly wooded rough 
grassland at Filerimos, Lindos, Apolakia and west of Kos Town, 
gardens at Kos Town, gardens at Kos Town and Pigathia (one only) 
and open woodland at Profitis Ilias. It is to be found sparingly (sin- 
gles) amongst the dry garique vegetation. In some areas, notably 
Simi Town and Faliraki, this butterfly appears to develop similar 
habits to those of other Satyridae, settling on tree trunks, in bushes, 
on rock faces and in rock crevases. 

Hyponephele lupina lupinulus Turati and Fiori (? intermedia 
Stgr.). Kos - west of Kos Town. Four freshly emerged males only 
in 'heath garique'. 



156 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15. ix. 1985 




Figure 1. (a) Normandia ilicis Esper. 9 . Simi Town, 31. v. 1983. 

(b) Syrictus proto Esper. d . Simi Town, 31. v. 1983. 

(c) Maniola telmessia omata Turati and Fiori. 6 . 
Filerimos, Rhodes, 26.V.1983. 

(d) as(c). 9. 

NYMPHALIDAE 

Charaxes jasius L. Rhodes — Filerimos, Two only, flying around 
tops of high trees — one caught. 

Limenitis rivularis Stichel. Kos - west of Kos Town. A few 
very worn individuals. 

Vanessa atalanta L. Rhodes — Filerimos. Common. 

Cynthia cardui L. Rhodes — Filerimos: Kos Town. Common, 

Polygonia egea Cramer. Kos — Kos Town. Several in gardens. 

LYCAENIDAE 



Callophrys rubi fervida Stgr. Rhodes - Filerimos. A few very 



worn. 



Quercusia quercus L. Rhodes — Filerimos. Two or three in- 
dividuals, one caught and examined. This species has never been 
recorded from Rhodes, althougli it is found in adjacent Turkey. 

Normandia ilicis Esper. (fig. 1) Kos - west of Kos Town: Simi- 
Simi Town. A few males and females in a lightly wooded grass valley 



GREEK ISLAND BUTTERFLIES 157 

in Kos. One only (female) taken on Simi. Not recorded from 
the Mediterranean Islands except Elba and Sicily. N. acaceae 
abdominalis Gebh. is recorded from mainland Greece and Turkey 
and in a very distinct form in Crete (Bretherton, 1966), but the Kos 
and Simi butterflies are certainly ilicis. 

Lycaena phlaeas L. Rhodes — Filerimos: Kos — Kos Town. 
A few at Filerimos. Common to the west and north of Kos Town. 

Lampides boeticus L. Rhodes — Filerimos. A few only. 

Plebejus loewii robusta Turati. Kos — west of Kos Town. 
Locally common. 

Aricia agestis Schiff. Rhodes — Filerimos. A few only. 

Polyommatus icanis Rott. (?ssp.). Rliodes — Filerimos: Kos — 
Kos Town. Very common. 

Cupido minimus Fuessl. Kos — west of Kos Town. Locally 
common in grassy valley. Found in mainland Greece but new to the 
Dodecanes. 

HESPERIIDAE 

Spialia sertorius orbifer Hubner. Rhodes — Filerimos: Simi — 
Pedi and Simi Town. Locally very common. 

Syrictus proto Esper. (fig. 1). Simi — Simi Town. Locally 
common on a steep, dry, rocky hillside above the village. One male 
taken. Recorded from Karpathos (Rebel, 1935) and Kythera (Rebel, 
1938). Genitalia dissected (fig. 2) and appears to have some features 
in common with S. mohammed Oberthur (gnathos broad, valve 
costal fold tends to broaden posteriorily). 




Figure 2. Syrictus proto Esper. Male genitalia. Simi Town, 31 May 1983. 

Carcharodus alcaea australis Zeller. Kos - west of Kos Town. 
Locally common. 

Thymelicus actaeon Rott. Rhodes — Faliraki, Filerimos, Lindos: 
Kos — Kos Town. Very common. 



158 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

References 

Bender, R., 1963. Beitrage zur Lepidopterenfauna der Insel Rhodes. 

Z. Weinent. Ker 48, 11-20. 
Bretherton, R. F., 1966. A Distribution list of the Butterflies (Rho- 

palocera) of Western and Southern Europe. Trans. Soc. Brit. 

Ent. 17, part 1, 1 -94. 
Bretherton, R. F., 1971. Butterflies in the Island of Rhodes, May 

1971. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 83, 327 - 332. 
Hartig, F. 1940. Contribute alia conoscenza deUa Fauna delle Isole 

italiane deU'Egeo. 5e//. Lab. Ent. agr. Portici 3, 221 — 246. 
Rebel, H., 1916. Zur Lepidopterenfauna der Insel Rhodos. J. Wein 

ent. Ver. 24, 1 - 5. 
Rebel, H., 1924. Lepidopterologische Nachtrage zu einigen ost- 

mediterranen Insularfaunen./. Weinent. Ver. 30,37 — 49. 
Rebel, H., 1935. Lepidopteren von den Aegaischen In'^eln. Sitzungs- 

berichtd. Akad. d. Wiss. 144, 253 - 262. 
Rebel, H., 1936. Zoologische Ergibnisse einer Dodekanesreise von O. 

Wettstein, 1935. Lepidoptera. Sitzungsbericht d. Akad. d. Wiss. 

145,19-33. 
Rebel, H., 1938. Zur Lepidopterenfauna Kretas. Deutsche Ent. Z. 

Iris 52,30 -36. 
Reisser, H., 1946. Lepidopteren von den Aegaischen Inseln.Z. Wein 

ent. Ver. 31,44-59. 
Turati, E., 1929, Richerche faunistiche nelle Isole italiane dell'Egeo: 

Lepidotteri. Arch. Zool. Ital. 13, 307 — 316. 
Turati, E. and Fiori, A., 1930. Lepidotteri di Rodi. Mem. Soc. Ent. 

It. 9,196-214. 



ISLE OF CANNA - A REMARKABLE STRANDING. - In the 
middle of May the sandy beach at Tarbert, in the middle of the 
island and on the south side, w^as found to be covered along the 
watermark with what was suspected to be fragmented seaweed, 
but turned out to be millions of dead and dying heather beetles 
(Lochmaea suturalis Thoms.), later identified by Mr. A. A. Allen 
of Charlton. I was unable to visit the situation myself, but a plastic 
jar of specimens was brought to me. 

This is a unique incident in my experience, the only comparable 
one being finding the sea on the north side of Canna covered with 
flying ants one calm day a few years ago. Mr. Peter Wormell, for- 
merly Nature Conservancy warden on the Isle of Rhum, tells me that 
the Heather Beetle was abundant on the island last summer (1984), 
and it is possible these specimens may have come from Rhum. The 
Head Lighthousekeeper on the small island of Heisker about ten 
miles away tells me that no similar stranding took place there. 
Canna itself is not thickly covered with heather. — J. L. CAMPBELL. 
Isle of Canna. 



PYCNOMERUS FULIGINOSUS IN SUSSEX 159 

PYCNOMERUS FULIGINOSUS ERICHSON 

(COL.: COLYDIIDAE): 

ITS EXPANDING DISTRIBUTION IN SUSSEX 

By RICHARD A. JONES* 



Shortly after its discovery in Britain in Slapton, Devon in 1962 
(Welch, 1964), this small, dull-brown, sluggish beetle was found in 
a wood-yard in Epping Forest in 1964 (Hunter, 1966). It was flou- 
rishing there in 1968 (Allen, 1968) and in the Massee collection at 
the rooms of the British Entomological and Natural History Society 
(BENHS) there is a series of nine specimens bearing the label "dead 
birch, Epping Forest, R. D. Weal, iv,v,vi 1976". Mr. I. McClenaghan 
exhibited a specimen of Pycnomerus at the BENHS annual exhi- 
bition in 1981 (McClenaghan 1982) from "under bark outside the 
timberyard in Epping Forest", which he informs me is the same 
site from which Mr. Weal's specimens came. Hence, it appears that 
after being introduced into the wood-yard, Pycnomerus has moved 
(albeit not a great distance) out into the Forest itself. I have not 
found any other references to captures of this unusual beetle, so it 
may be of interest to report the localities in Sussex in which I have 
found it. 

I first took Pycnomerus under the bark of a fence stake at the 
entrance to Kingspark Wood, Plaistow, West Sussex on 15.viii.77. 
There were two specimens, in company with Abdera quadrifasciata 
Curtis and Melasis buprestoides (Linnaeus). Two years later on 
4.viii.79, I took another specimen from the same fence. On 27.xii.83 
I found two examples under the bark of an oak stump near Muddles 
Green, in central Sussex. Despite the cold weather, they were active 
and crawled about quite happily across the wood. Exactly one year 
later, on 27.xii.84 I collected some wet fungus-infected bark from 
the trunk of a dead but standing oak between Lurgashall and Pet- 
worth in West Sussex. Although there was only a small area of bark, 
it produced a single example oi Pycnomerus, along with Trox scaber 
(Linnaeus), Thymalus limbatus (Fabricius), Aphodius sphacelatus 
(Panzer) and A. granarius (Linnaeus). 

It is possible that the palings at Kingspark Wood had the beetle 
in them when they arrived, having come from a wood-yard nearby 
where the beetle was introduced. The Lurgashall locality is about 
AVi miles south-west from Kingspark Wood, but is nowhere near 
buildings or any recently erected fence. The likelihood of beetles 
from these localities coming from the same initial source in West 
Sussex is further supported by the fact that numerous specimens 

*Garden Flat, 131 Chadwick Rd., London, SE15 4PY. 



160 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

have been found in and around Haslemere (just inside Surrey) and 
Black Down (3H miles from Lurgashall and 4y2 miles from Kingspark 
Wood) in July of 1984 by Dr. P. Hyman (personal communication, 
1985). 

On hearing of my intention to publish my records, Mr. P. Hodge 
informed me that he had also taken Pycnomerus several times in the 
area where I had found it in central Sussex. On 24. v. 73 one example 
was found on an oak log in the wood-yard at Vert Wood, just 
Wi miles west of Muddles Green; on three other occasions (16 and 
19.ix.74 and 27.ii.77) he took three more specimens. Further, 
on 30.vii.77 he found two under the bark of an old hornbeam stump 
in Hale Green only Vz mile north-east of Muddles Green, and five 
more from the same stump on 4.x .80. Again, it seems that although 
Pycnomerus may have been introduced into the area by the actions 
of man, it has begun to spread out into the surrounding countryside. 
In Sussex now there are two centres from which this species is 
expanding (Figure 1). 

When it was first found, Pycnomerus was 'the latest recruit 
to a small but growing band of successful colonists from Australia' 
(Allen, 1968), but unlike Euophryum confine (Broun) and Aridius 
(Lathridius) bifasciatus (Reitter), has not become anywhere near 
common. {Euophryum and Aridius are now almost ubiquitous in 
Sussex and the Home Counties.) Rather, its spread more resembles 
that of Saprosites mendax Blackburn, another antipodean which 
until its recent discovery in Richmond Park (Coleopterist's News- 
letter, 1982), was restricted to Arundel Park and the neighbouring 
Rewel ^oodi. Pycnomerus will surely be found in new localities, and 
I look forward to finding it again, and seeing pubUshed records of 
its colonisation of the country. 



Grayswood Common 
Haslemere j ]_y 



Black Down 



Hants 




Figure 1 Map of Sussex showing the locaUties of Pycnomerus fuliginosus. 
These records appear to show two centres from which the beetle is spreading. 



PYCNOMERUS FULIGINOSUS IN SUSSEX 161 

References 

Allen, A. A., 1968 A note on Pycnomems fuliginosus Er. (Col., 
Colydiidae) in Epping F ovQSt, Essex. Entomologist's Mon. Mag., 
104: 160. 

Coleopterist's Newsletter 1982 Richmond Park field meeting. 
Coleopterist 's Newsletter No . 9 , July . 

Hunter, F. A. 1966 A further British record of Pycnomems fuligino- 
sus Er. (Col., Colydiidae). Entomologist's Mon. Mag., 102:144. 

McClenaghan, I. 1982 Annual Exhibition, Chelsea Old Town Hall - 
24th October 1981. Coleoptera. Proc.Trans.Br.ent.nat.Hist. 
Soc., 15:43. 

Welch, R. C. 1964 Pycnomems fuliginosus Er. (Col., Colydiidae) 
new to Britain . En tomologist 's Mon. Mag. 1 00 : 5 7 . 



Canna: The Story of a Hebridean Island by J. L. Campbell. Pp.i-xviii, 

1-323. 16 coloured and 25 black and white illustrations, 3 maps. 

Hard cover, cloth. Published for the National Trust of Scotland 

by Oxford University Press. 1984. Price £25. 

Dr. J. L. Campbell is well known for his writings on Hebridean 
butterflies and moths and on those of the Isle of Canna in particular. 
To this attractively written and well documented history of Canna, 
there is a series of Appendices, some of which deal with its natural 
history, notably its Wild Animals and Fish, Birds, Native Trees, 
Wild Flowers and Geology. However, perhaps of most interest to 
readers of the Record, is Appendix XIII: the author's "Butterflies 
and Moths of Canna", based on his list "Macro-Lepidoptera Canna" 
with additions (in Ent. Rec., 82:211-214, 235-242, 292-299; 83: 
6-12; 84:196-198; 87:10-12) and the account of the Microlepidop- 
tera by Drs. Harper and Young (in Ent. Rec, 93:150-153). 

The author touches on the interesting question of two-way 
movements of two regular migrants to Canna (a subject treated by 
him in some detail in Entomologist, 84:1-6). Practically every 
summer, Cynthia cardui L. and Vanessa atalanta L. migrate to the 
Isle, where they produce a generation of butterflies and there are 
strong indications that the latter then fly south. In 1949, approxi- 
mately 300 C. cardui and 100 V. atalanta bred from wild larvae 
collected on Canna were marked with blue cellulose paint and 
released on the Isle. Several correspondents in England and Scotland 
claimed to have observed such butterflies, but scientific proof of the 
southerly movement was lacking owing to the failure to capture 
any of the marked specimens. — J.M.C.-H. 



162 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

EGG-KEEL NUMBER IN THE SMALL 
TORTOISESHELL BUTTERFLY 

By ROGER L. H. Dennis and Tim Richman* 

In the past it was commonly believed that the peacock butter- 
fly (Inachis io L.) had eight keels or setae on its eggs, while the 
small tortoiseshell (Aglais urticae L.) had nine (Brooks and Knight 
1982). Doring (1955) stated that /. io had only seven such keels. 
In a survey of 53 egg batches in the Bollin valley, Cheshire, we found 
that in addition to both pure 8 keel and 9 keel batches, there were 
also combinations of the two with varying frequency. To investi- 
gate this further, samples of 10 to 20 eggs were taken from each 
batch, after they had been discarded by the larvae. The keels were 
then counted under x30 magnification, the results being illustrated 
in Figure 1 . 

As can be seen, most of the egg batches had a majority of 
eight keels, with a rapid fall-off to give only a few batches with a 
majority of nine keels. On the basis of Mendelian ratios for one 
gene locus, one would expect to get four combinations of pheno- 
types, assuming that eight keels are dominant to nine. 

Male Female Genotypes (Phenotypes) 

88 + 88 + 88 + 88 (100% 8 keels) 

89 + 89 + 89 + 89 (100% 8 keels) 
88 + 89 + 89 + 99 (75% 8 keels; 25% 9 keels) 

88 + 88 + 89 + 89 (100% 8 keels) 

89 + 89 + 99 + 99 (50% 8 keels; 50% 9 keels) 
99 + 99 + 99 + 99 (0% 8 keels) 

We thus have 4 combinations of phenotypes. They are 100% 
8 keels, 75% 8 keels, 50% 8 keels and 0% 8 keels (shown on Figure 1). 

Certainly the frequency of eight keels runs true to the most 
typical combinations expected. They are numbers 1, 3 and 4. But, 
intermediate frequencies occur which need to be explained. There 
are several possibilities that could effect the final outcome. They 
are: (i) two different females of the same species laying their sepa- 
rate egg batches together on the same leaf; (ii) sampling effects, 
such that 10 to 20 eggs represent an inadequate fraction; (iii) dif- 
ferent morality rates for specific keel genotypes prior to oviposition 
or during the egg stage; (iv) egg-keel number being controlled by 
more than one gene locus; (v) effects due to the environment. 

These alternatives are unlikely to be equally feasible. Recourse 
to environmental influences or polygenic solutions, in practice 
requiring carefully tliought-out experimental designs, pose usual 

*The Manchester Grammar School, Manchester Ml 3 OXT. 



1. 


88 


X 


88 


2. 


88 


X 


99 


3. 


89 


X 


89 


4. 


89 


X 


88 


5. 


89 


X 


99 


6. 


99 


X 


99 



EGG-KELL NUMBER IN SMALL TORTOISHELL 



163 



>- 



ID 
UJ 

cr 



30- 



20- 



10- 




' I I I r 

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

% 8 KEELS 

Figure 1. The frequency of A. urticae batches with different proportions of 
8 and 9 keels from the BoUin valley, Cheshire, June 1983. 

escape clauses, and can be made to 'modeF real situations easily 
enough. Yet, effective practical treatments are rarely sufficiently 
rigorous and often difficult to establish. Differential mortality 
requires that we know the direct and associated functions of keel 
numbers, which we do not. On the otlier hand joint egg batches may 
account for some aberrant frequencies from expected single locus 
Mendehan situations. Baker (1978) has observed females retum 
to oviposition sites to complete egg batches, and it is clear from the 
existence of egg clusters made up of sharply delineated adjacent 
egg masses of different ages that A. urticae has the ability to locate 
eggs on nettle beds and to add to batches (Dennis 1984). However, 
the most likely explanation of the deviant frequencies is the small 
sampling fraction used. The very nature of the small samples makes 
the calculation of the binomial standard error for these frequencies 
incorrect, but at very least some indication is given of how wide 
the confidence interval is likely to be:- for instance the 95% con- 
fidence limits for 8 keels is approximately 25 + 19.4%, n = 20 
in a batch comprising 25% eight keels to 75% nine keels. 

As far as we know, this is the first time that dimorphism in 
keel number has been reported in single egg batches, and we would 
be interested to hear of any similar reports. There is also room for 
work on the genetics of the feature for those who regularly breed 
butterflies. An interesting additional point was the discovery of 
a peacock egg batch, identified later when the larvae had grown, 
which had been laid adjacent to and overlapping a small tortoise- 



164 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

shell batch. When the two egg batches were examined under 600x 
magnification, no visible difference in the egg-shell walls between 
them could be found. The possible advantage to the peacock larvae 
of being laid next to a small tortoiseshell egg batch has been dis- 
cussed elsewhere (Dennis 1984). 

Acknowledgements 

We would like to thank Mr. John E. Pownhall for kindly letting 
us work on his land, and Mr. Gerry Peat for examining the egg- 
shells for any microscopic differences. 

References 

Baker, R. R. 1978. The Evolutionary Ecology of Animal Migration. 

Hodder and Stoughton, London. 
Brooks, M. and Knight, C. 1982. A Complete Guide to British 

Butterflies. Jonathan Cape, London. 
Dennis, R. L. H. 1984. The edge effect in butterfly oviposition; 

batch siting in Aglais urticae L. Entomologist's Gazette 35; 

157-173. 
Doring, E. 1955 . Zur Morphologic der Schmetterlingseier. Berlin. 



A FURTHER RECORD OF THE SPRING BROOD OF THE SCARCE 
CHOCOLATE TIP: CLOSTERA ANACHORETA D. & S. - A 
single male Clostera anachoreta was attracted to my m.v. trap at 
Lade, Lydd-on-Sea, Kent (TR0820) on the night of 27/28th May 
1985. From comments on the note of C. W. Plant and P. A. Soko- 
loff {Ent. Rec. 96: 211) it would appear that this is only the third 
example of a spring brood anachoreta caught in Britain. Its presence 
at Lade suggests that the species might be fairly widely distributed 
on the shingle area of Dungeness. 

On the previous night, 26/27th May, single specimens of Calo- 
phasia lunula (Hufn.) and Udea ferrugalis (Hubn.) also turned up 
at the same site. L P. WOIWOD, South Lodge, Cockayne Hatley, 
Sandy, Bedfordshire. 

FEDALMIA HEADLEYELLA (STAINTON) (LEP: NEPTICULIDAE) 
IN Dorset — I was pleased to take a specimen of this local moth 
in my garden m.v. on 7th July 1985. This would appear to be a 
new vice county record for Dorset. (VCll). The larva feeds on 
selfheal {Prunella vulgaris), a plant which is abundant in my lawn! 
E. H. Wild, 7 Abbots Close, HighcUffe, Christchurch, Dorset. 

Ethmia bipunctella Fab. in East Sussex - I would 
like to record that at around midnight of 26 May 1985 I took a 
single example of this moth at m.v. in my garden. M. PARSONS, 
The Forge, Russells Green, Ninfield, East Sussex. [The only other 
Sussex bipunctella known to me is one taken at Peacehaven 
by F. Bickerstaff in 1952, which specimen I have. - J.M.C.H.] 



REMARKABLE IMMIGRATION - 1985 165 

NOTES ON A REMARKABLE IMMIGRATION OF 

LEPIDOPTERA INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM - 

APRIL 1985 

ByP.A.DAVEY* 

At the beginning of April 1985 a notable influx of immigrant 
Lepidoptera into the U.K. occurred. Notes on some of the species 
are given in the Appendix. The principal species involved were 
Cynthia cardui (Linn.) and Hyles lineata livomica (Esp.). Although 
it is not unusual for cardui to be seen as singletons, large numbers 
are seldom recorded during the Spring months. The second species, 
livomica, is an irregular immigrant to this country and is most often 
recorded during the Summer months. 

Two distinct and separate immigration peaks are apparent from 
the infomiation available to date; the first between the 2nd and 
10th April and the second between the 16th and 21st April. The 
weather during this three week period spUt into three distinct 
types : 

a) tropical south to south-westerly (SO.iii to 6 jv) 

b) cyclonic polar south-west to north-westerly (7.iv to 14.iv) 

c) anticy clonic tropical south-west to westerly (15.iv. to 20. iv). 
As there was a significant gap between the two peaks it was 

decided to plot a backtrack for the first livomica recorded for each 
peak (the first insect recorded enables one to work the most realistic 
backtrack). 

The backtrack for the first livomica is shown in Figure 1. Both 
curves represent backtracking with respect to wind direction and 
speed, and both commence at the capture time of 2100 hours on 
the 2nd April. One curve (•-•) assumes no flight speed for the 
insect (and can also be interpreted as a random orientation coupled 
with a constant flight speed of any magnitude). The second curve 
(x-x) assumes a ten knot downwind insect flight component added 
to the ambient wind. The steplength between adjacent symbols on 
any one curve is three hours to 0000 hours on 1st April and six 
hours to the end of the curve. At the midnight points, the two 
curves are connected by a dotted line for any given date. 

The backtrack for the second livomica is shown in Figure 2. 
The constraints imposed upon the two curves are identical to those 
described for Figure 1. The capture time was 0300 hours on 17th 
April, and the steplength is three hours for the whole backtrack. 
It should be noted that this method of backtracking can only be 
used to provide a general indication of the nature of any immigration. 

*The Dell, Stallaids Lane, Tilford Road, Rushmoor, Fainham, Surrey. 



166 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 



'f^ tx^ 




Figure 1. Backtrack for livornica taken at 2100 hours on 2/4/1985 near 
Haslemere. 



In this analysis the following conditions were assumed: 

a) insect orientation and flight speed were as described above. 

b) continuous fliglit of the insect for a minimum of 90 hours 
prior to capture. 

c) flight at sea level throughout. 

From Figure 1 it appears that a likely source may have been the 
Canary Isles and/or that part of Africa adjacent to the Canaries. The 
weather in the area at that time was unusually warm, with light 
winds from the Sahara. (Midday temperatures in Tenerife between 
30th March and 2nd April were 270C, some 70C above the early 
April norm). It is interesting that the ten knot curve (x— x) passes 
quite close to north-west Iberia, and both curves pass over Brittany. 
Figure 2 is less easy to interpret, with no indication of any low lati- 
tude source. A number of possible explanations can be advanced: 

a) the insect was resident in the area of capture since the 
original influx (i.e. the second peak reflects the three distinct 
weather types previously described). 

b) the insect flew on a shorter migration route from Brittany 
or the Biscay coast following a previous migration from the 
Canaries two weeks earlier. 

c) the insect took up to two weeks to arrive via a protracted 
Atlantic route. 



REMARKABLE IMMIGRATION - 1985 



167 




Figure 2. Backtrack for livornica taken at 0300 hours on 17/4/1985 near 
Swanage. 



In conclusion it appears that the meteorological conditions were 
favourable for an influx of migrant Lepidoptera from the area of 
the Canaries or the adjacent African coast at the start of April 1985. 
It remains unclear whether there was a subsequent influx around 
the middle of the month. No meteorological evidence could be 
found to suggest an influx originating any further south than the 
north Iberian coast. 



APPENDIX 



By R. F. BRETHERTON* and J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT** 



This is the largest and most interesting immigration of Lepi- 
doptera in April which has been reported for many years. It is 
hoped to publish a fuU account in due course in the Migration 
Report for 1985. Readers who have not already done so are asked 
to let us have any records of immigrants or probable immigrants, 

* Folly Hill, Birtley Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey, GU5 OLE. 
**1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent BR4 9LG. 



168 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

as precisely dated as possible. So far, of Hyles lineata livomica we 
have received reports of over 30, of which 16 were from April 2nd 
to 10th, 10 from April 16th to 21st and several remaining to be 
exactly dated. Most were seen in light traps, but several were found 
at rest by day, and two at flowers at dusk; the range extends near 
the coast from Cornwall to east Sussex and on the west from Car- 
dinganshire to north Lancashire, and iriland to Surrey, Berkshire and 
west Kent. 

Numbers of Cynthia cardui reported approach 100, also split 
into two periods and with similar distribution, but reaching more 
widely to Worcestershire, Yorkshire and Cumbria. Other immigrant 
species already reported in April singly or in small numbers are 
Vanessa atalanta, Macroglossa stellatarum, Spodoptera exigua, 
Caradrina davipalpis, Mythimna unipuncta, Euchromius ocellea 
and Nomophila noctuella. Rather suprisingly, Autographa gamma 
appears to have been absent. Lack of warmth in late April and early 
May may have prevented successful local breeding, and we would 
be interested in receiving reports of larvae, especially for livomica, 
which in the past have been found on vine, fuschia, bedstraw and 
many other plants. 



SMALL TORTOISESHELL BUTTERFLY. AGLAIS URTICAE L.: 
AN UNUSUAL ABERRATION - On April 29th my colleague John 
Harrison received a letter from a listener to the BBC wildUfe radio 
programmes. Miss Hazel Petcher, enclosing with it a colour photo- 
graph of two Aglais urticae L. on the flowers of the ice-plant Sedum 
spectabile. One of these she had been unable to identify because of 
its strange appearance. When the photograph was passed to me for an 
opinion I concluded that this individual was intermediate between 
ab. semiichnusoides Pronin and ab. conjuncta Neuberg, although it 
had very wide whitish margins to the forewings (see Russwurm, 
A.D.A., 1978. Aberrations of British Butterflies . Classey, Farring- 
don). 

Unfortunately, Miss Petcher's photograph had been taken with 
a standard wide angle lens and does not show the insect in close- 
up. It is therefore impossible to see enough detail for a positive 
identification; even so, it is a very striking aberration. I sent it to 
J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, who considered it comes near to ab. conjuncta. 
The photograph was taken in the observer's garden at Barlestone, 
near Nuneaton, Warwickshire in the late summer of 1984. - J. F. 
BURTON , B. B. C. Natural History Unit, Broadcasting House, Bristol, 
BS8 2LR. 



ASSEMBLING THE EMPEROR MOTH 169 

ASSEMBLING THE EMPEROR MOTH 
(SATURNIA PAVONIA L.) IN ESSEX 

By R.N. BAXTER* 

I was interested in Colin Plant's notes regarding his assembling 
of two male Satumia pavonia {Ent. Rec. 96:234). My experience of 
assembling this species at Forest Gate and Ilford may be of mterest. 
Up to 1982 I lived in Forest Gate, just a few minutes walk from 
Wanstead Flats. The 'Flats' is a large area of grassland with broom, 
bramble and hawthorn. In fact, an ideal habitat for pavoyiia. How- 
ever, in all my years of living near the Flats, I have never seen a 
wild' larva nor have I ever seen a male flying, as one would expect, 
if a colony , however small, existed. 

Wanstead Park was, for me, a twenty minutes walk across the 
Flats. Although hardly a day passed without my taking a walk 
'over the park', I have never seen pavonia there either, in any stage. 
Among the numerous species of Lepidoptera I bred each year at 
Forest Gate was pavonia. Providing my stock did not emerge too 
early in the season, I could always assemble males in my garden. 
Although I have no exact dates, it is probably thirty or more years 
ago that I first assembled a male in my garden. I have had as many as 
four or five arrive together while females were 'calling' and the 
time was always between 4 pm. and 5.30pm. The males were always 
later released and were never seen again, as one would have expected 
had they originated from a local colony. 

Early in April 1982, 1 moved to South Ilford, which is approxi- 
mately three miles distant from my previous home. My stock of 
pavonia cocoons began emerging towards the end of April and, 
as an experiment, I placed a cage containing a freshly emerged 
female which was 'calling', in my garden. No males arrived, and 
after two days the female paired with a bred male. I tried assembling 
males on each day but without success. By early May most of my 
cocoons had emerged but a few were late in developing. During the 
second week of May a female emerged and by 3pm. she was 'calling'. 
At 5.35pm. a male was seen flying over the garden and was not seen 
again for several minutes. It was having difficulty in locating the 
female as the wind was very strong and since I needed a wild male, 

I netted it. 

It is certain that no colony exists in or close to Ilford and 
consequently, I am of the opinion that the males which I have as- 
sembled had travelled several miles - possibly more than five miles. 
How far though, I shall probably never know. My opinion is based 
on the time from when a calling female is taken into the garden and 
the period when the first male is noted, which has always been more 

*45 Chudleigh Crescent, Ilford, Essex 1G3 9AT. 



170 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

than one hour. This theory is bom out by the assembhng of other 
moths in my garden. The Hme hawk, Mimas tiliae L. is common in 
the liford area. I have picked up from roads larvae which were 
searching for a pupation site, a few minutes walk from my home. 
Last June, I placed calling tiliae females in my garden at 9.30pm 
and the first male arrived within fifteen minutes. On another occa- 
sion, a male arrived within five minutes. If pavonia occurred even 
three miles distant, they would arrive at my females much sooner 
than one hour. 

Last May I received a 'phone call from an aquaintance living 
near Amersham, requesting some male pupae of pavonia as all his 
cocoons had emerged and that he had now just one female imago. 
Unable to help, I suggested he tried assembling in his garden. Two 
days later, with jubilation, he informed me that he had been success- 
ful in assembling a male, although he had never seen pavonia in 
his locality before. 

It would be interesting if entomologists breeding pavonia 
carried out this simple experiment. The results, I believe, would be 
very interesting. If CoHn Plant tries assembhng pavonia in his 
garden or in the museum's ground, I believe he would be successful. 
And if he is, I will wager that no colony exists in East Ham or 
Stratford. More probable — that males would have originated from 
the east, possibly from Dagenham or Rainham. 

I have made several abortive attempts at establishing pavonia on 
Wanstead Flat in the past years. I have tied out egg rings on brambles 
which subsequently hatched successfully and made regular visits to 
observe their progress. One year, nine larvae reached maturity but 
then disappeared. Whether they pupated or not I do not know for 
no moths were seen the following year. 

References 

Allan, P. B. M. (1943) Talking of Moths. 

Allan, P. B. M. (1937) A Moth Hunters Gossip. 

Imms, A. D. (1947) Insect Natural History. 

Klots, A. B. (1959) Living Insects of the World. 

Pinhey, E. (1972) Emperor Moths of South and South-Central 

Africa. 
Laithewaite, E. R. (1960) Entomologist 93: 113-117 and 134-137. 

A Radiation Theory of the Assembhng of Moths. 
Kettlewell,H. B. D. (1961) Entomologist 94: 59-65. 

The Radiation Theory of Female Assembhng in the Lepidoptera. 
Laithewaite, E. R. (\96\) Entomologist 94: 95-99. 

A Reply to Dr. Kettlewell's Contribution on Assembling of 

Lepidoptera. 



SOMERSET MICROLEPIDOPTERA 171 

RECORDS OF MICROLEPIDOPTERA FROM SOMERSET, 
SEPTEMBER, 1984 

By A.M. Emmet* 

Somerset is predominantly a pastural county and has largely 
escaped the destruction of habitat that follows the prairie-farming 
methods of the arable east. Consequently its flora and fauna are 
rich. Nevertheless, very little recording of the Microlepidoptera has 
taken place in the present century. In an otherwise useful list, 
Tumer (1955) described many common species as rare or even 
extinct in the county because they had not been noted since the 
publication of The Victoria County History (Hudd, 1906). He did 
not incorporate unpubUshed records sent to him by Pelham-Clinton 
or those in a brief list of species new to the county (Pelham-Clinton, 
1949). Since the publication of Turner's list, two papers by Emmet 
(1967; 1973) added 24 microlepidoptera to the county list, gave 
several new vice-county records and mentioned new localities for 
many supposedly rare or vanished species. I am not aware of any 
other list. 

In view of this neglect, a party of microlepidopterists comprising 
E. C. Pelham-Clinton, Dr. J. D. Bradley, Dr. J. R. Langmaid, my 
wife and myself spent a week in the county from the 8th to the 
15th of September, 1984. From our base at Lympsham near Weston- 
super-Mare, we visited a number of localities in VC5 and VC6; 
these are listed below. We are grateful to the Nature Conservancy 
Council and the Somerset NaturaUsts' Trust for permission to 
record and collect on some of their reserves, notably Ebbor Gorge 
and Shapwick Heath. 

We recorded in all 197 species of Microlepidoptera of which 
33 do not appear at all in the lists mentioned above, and 63 seem 
to have no prior written record from either VC5 or VC6. Included 
are some exceedingly common species which have almost certainly 
been previously taken in Somerset, though perhaps not placed on 
record. This paper mentions only these "new" species and those 
which were described by Turner as rare or extinct in Somerset. 
"New" county records are indicated by two asterisks and "new" 
vice-county records by a single asterisk. The nomenclature is that 
of Bradley & Fletcher (1979) with the Addenda & Corrigenda by 
the same authors incorporated by Hall-Smith (1983). 

The localities from which records were made are listed in al- 
phabetical order by vice-counties. Each name is followed by an 
abbreviation for use in the list, the date of our visit and remarks. 

*Labrey Cottage, Victoria Gardens, Saffron Waldon, Essex. 



172 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

VC5 

Bishops Lydeard (BL). 15.ix. A hedgerow where Teleiodes scrip tella 
(Hiibner) had previously been taken by ECP-C. 

Bridgewater Bay Nature Reserve, Otterhampton (BBNR). 12.ix, 
This includes an area of salt-marsh. We are grateful to the warden 
for advice on the best ground for recording. 

Cothlestone Hill, Park End, Quantocks (CH). 15 jx. Visited by ECP-C 
and JDB only, en route to Bishops Lydeard. 

Holford (H). 12.ix. A rich area of mixed woodland. 

Langford Heathfield Nature Reserve, Langford Budville (LHNR). 
15.ix. We spent only half an hour on this fine reserve and did no 
collecting because we had not applied for a permit. 

Rexton Gorse, Crowcombe (RG). 15.ix. The woodland is coni- 
ferised but there is a fringing belt of deciduous trees. 

VC6 

Brean Down (BD). 14.ix. Limestone with scrub vegetation. 

Cheddar district (CD). 9.ix. Roadside recording along a lane at 
ST442547 and beside the Cheddar-Shipham road at ST451555. 

Ebbor Gorge Nature Reserve (EGNR). 10.ix. Mixed woodland 
with some open downland. We were most grateful to the warden, 
Mr. Tom Hodgson, for conducting our party. 

Kewstoke (K). 14 Jx. We visited the ridge of downland called Middle 
Hope which forms the northern arm of Sand Bay, and a patch of 
salt-marsh south of Swallow Cliff. 

Loxley Wood, Moorlinch, Polden Hills (LW). 9.ix. Mixed woodland. 

Lympsham (L). 8-1 5. ix. Our base. We ran MV traps every night and 
examined the local hedgerows. 

Shapwick Heath Nature Reserve (SHNR). 1 1 and 13.ix. On the first 
visit we approached the reserve from the west where the vegetation 
is mostly mixed woodland and carr. On the second occasion, after 
advice from the warden, we approached from the east, where the 
ground is more open with heather, bog-myrtle, gorse and dwarf 
sallow. 

Weston-super-Mare (WsM). 8 and 14.ix. A few records were made on 
the outskirts in transit to other localities. 



SOMERSET MICROLEPIDOPTERA 173 

LIST OF SELECTED SPECIES 

NEPTICULIDAE 

**Trifurcula cryptella (Stain ton) *VC6 SHNR. Vacated mines on 

Lotus uliginosus. 
Stigmella fragariella (Heyden) VC5 BBNR; LHNR. *VC6 BD; CD. 

Vacated and a few tenanted mines on Agrimonia. 
**S. dulcella (Heinemann) *VC6 CD. Vacated mines on Fragaria. 
**S. splendidissimella (Herrich-Schaffer) *VC6 CD. A few tenanted 

and vacated mines on Rubus caesius. 
**S. ulmariae (Wocke) *VC6 SHNR. Tenanted and vacated mines 

common on Filipendula ulmaria beside the track leading to the 

reserve from the east. 
**5. serella (Stain ton) *VC5 LHNR. *VC6 SHNR. Tenanted (Shap- 

wick only) and vacated mines on Potentilla erecta. 
S. continuella (Stain ton) *VC5 RG. VC6 SHNR. Tenanted and 

vacated mines on Betula. 
**5'. speciosa (Frey) *VC5 H. *VC6 CD; WsM. A few tenanted and 

many vacated mines on Acer pseudoplatanus . 
**5. pomella (Vauglian) *VC6 CD. Vacated mines on Malus. 
S. paradoxa (Frey) *VC CH. Vacated mines on Crataegus, 
**S. atricapitella (Haworth) *VC5 H; LHNR; RG. *VC6 EGNR; 

SHNR. Many vacated and a few tenanted mines on Quercus. 
S. ruficapitella (Haworth) *VC H; LHNR; R. VC6 RGNR; LW; 

SHNR. Many vacated mines on Quercus. 
S. suberivora (Stainton) *VC6 WsM. A vacated mine on Quercus ilex. 
S. tiliae (Frey) VC6 CD. Many tenanted and vacated mines on Tilia 

cordata. 
**S. malella (Stainton) *VC6 CD. a few vacated mines on Malus. 
**S. catharticella (Stainton) *VC6 EGNR. A few vacated mines on 

Rhamnus. 
S. nylandriella (Tengstrom) (aucupariae (Frey)) VC5 H; RG. Many 

vacated and a few tenanted mines on Sorbus aucuparia. 
S. magdalenae (Klimesch) {nylandriella auctt.) VC5 RG. A few 

vacated mines on Sorbus aucuparia. 
S. betulicola (Stainton) *VC5 H; RG. VC6 SHNR. Many tenanted 

and vacated mines on Betula. 
S. distinguenda (Heinemann) VC5 H. VC6 SHNR. A few tenanted 

and many vacated mines on Betula. I recorded this species from 

Shapwick in 1967 but withdrew the record in 1973 as it was 

supported by neither mine nor specimen in my collection. 

It is in fact the most common nepticulid on Betula in both 

localities. 
S. glutinosae (Stainton) *VC6 SHNR. Several tenanted and vacated 

mines on Alnus. 



174 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

TISCHERIIDAE 

Tischeria dodonaea Stainton *VC5 H. A single mine on Quercus 
containing a dead larva. 

HELIOZELIDAE 

Heliozela hammoniella Sorhagen (betulae Stainton) *VC5 RG. 
VC6 SHNR. Many vacated mines on Betula. 

LYONETIIDAE 

Bucculatrix maritima Stainton *VC5 BBNR. VC6 BD, on adjacent 

salt-marsh; K. Many vacated mines on Aster tripolium. 
**B. frangulella (Goeze) *VC6 EGNR; SHNR. Mines and larvae 

on Frangula alnus, abundant at the second locality. 
**B. cidarella Zeller *VC6 SHNR. Vacated mines locally common 

on Alnus. There was no trace of this species on Myrica. 
B. thoracella (Thunb.) VC6 CD. Mines, moulting cocoons and 

feeding places abundant on Tilia cordata. 
B. crataegi Zeller *VC6 K. Two vacated mines and a moulting 

cocoon on Crataegus. 
B. demaryella (Duponchel) *VC5 RG. VC6 SHNR. A few vacated 

mines and moulting cocoons on Betula. 

GRACILLARIIDAE 

Caloptilia betulicola (Hering) *VC5 H; RG. VC6 SHNR. Several 

vacated mines and rolled leaves on Betula. 
**Caly bites phasianipennella (Hubner) *VC6 SHNR. An adult 

and several tenanted mines and cones on Polygonum; adults 

reared. 
Paromix finitimella (Zeller) *VC6 EGNR; K; SHNR. A few tenanted 

mines and folds on Prunus spinosa. Old feeding of the first 

generation was very common. 
Phyllonorycter sorbi (Prey) *VC5 H. Many tenanted mines on 

Sorbus aucuparia. 
**P. viminiella (Sircom) *VC6 SHNR. A vacated mine on Salix 

viminalis determined from the pupal exuviae by Dr. M. R. 

Wilson. 
**P. cavella (Zeller) *VC6 SHNR. A few tenanted mines on Betula. 
P. quinqueguttella (Stainton) VC5 LHNR. *VC6 SHNE. Tenanted 

mines on Salix rep ens. 
P. lautella (Zeller) VC6 EGNR; SHNR. Several vacated mines on 

Quercus; also identified from pupal exuviae. "Very rare" 

(Turner, op. cit). 



SOMERSET MICROLEPIDOPTERA 175 

P. schreberella (Fabricius) VC5 BL; H. VC6 EGNR; LW. Tenanted 
and vacated mines common on Ulmus. Though described 
by Turner as "Very rare", we found it to be as plentiful as 
P. tristrigella (Haworth). 

P. ulmifoliella (Hubner) VC5 H; RG. VC6 SHNR. Mines very com- 
mon on Betula. "Reported as common in birch woods many 
years ago" (Turner, op. cit.). 

P. stettinensis (Nicelli) *VC6 SHNR. A few tenanted mines on 
Alnus. 

**P. froelichiella (Zeller) *VC6 SHNR. A few tenanted mines on 
Alnus. 

P. geniculella (Ragonot) VC5 H. VC6 CD; LW; WsM. Tenanted 
and vacated mines common on Acer pseudoplatanus; first 
recorded by Emmet (1973). 

YPONOMEUTIDAE 

**Ocnerostoma friesei Svensson *VC6 SHNR. Several tenanted 
mines on Pinus sylvestris. The larvae in the only two that were 
collected fed up rapidly and left their mines to spin cocoons 
after a few days; an adult emerged on 13.xi.l984. O. friesei 
regularly has a third generation in the autumn on the Con- 
tinent, but this has not hitherto been recorded in Britain (D. J. 
L. Agassiz, pers. comm.). Two similar mines collected in VC5 
at RG were probably the same species but the larvae they 
contained proved to be dead. 

Roeslerstammia erxlebella (Fabricius) VC6 CD, Several mines and 
larvae on Tilia cordata. Turner gives no more recent record than 
that of Hudd (1906). 

COLEOPHORIDAE 

The '"nigricella" group. ""Coleophora nigricella (Steph.) Probably 
still occurs in some of the old orchards. There are only very 
old records, however" (Turner, op. cit.). The "'nigricella'' of 
Stephens is now known to consist of three species, two of 
which we recorded; one feeds sometimes on Malus, but it is 
a secondary foodplant. 

**Coleophora cerasivorella Packard. Widespread and common on 
Crataegus. At the date of our visit most of the larvae were 
still in the mines from which they excise their first case. After 
doing so they feed little, usually making only one or two small 
blotches close to the mine before fixing to a twig for winter. 
Consequently they are rarely seen, although the pattern of 
early feeding is conspicuous and characteristic. Cases of this 
species were not retained as we did not regard the records as 
controversial. Among the localities where larvae were found 
were *VC5 BBNR. *VC6 BD; K; SHNR. 



176 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

**C. prunifoliae Doets First instar mines and small cases of the 
group were locally common on Prunus spinosa and samples were 
collected at *VC6 K and L. The cases were all excised by mid- 
September. The larvae then fed extensively for about a week 
after which they attached themselves to a twig for ecdysis. Tliis 
accomphshed, they moved again leaving the discarded head- 
capsule in the cup of silk where the case had been fixed. As far 
as could be observed, they did not resume feeding but after 
several days of wandering selected another position on a twig 
for overwintering. Although they had fed for much longer and 
reached a later instar than C cerasivorella in autumn, they 
seemed to have fed for less long than larvae of C prunifoliae 
collected in previous years in Essex. Possibly there is some 
flexibility depending on the season and condition of the food- 
plant. 

Six cases from Kewstoke and six from Lympsham were 
sleeved out for the winter; three of the former disappeared but 
the remaining nine produced adults between the 5th and 9th 
July, 1985. Dissection from each locality showed them to be 
C prunifoliae. There was no opportunity to search for cases of 
this group in VC5. The autumnal behaviour of the third member, 
C. coracipennella (Hubner), is still unknown (cf. Emmet, 1984). 

**C. milvipennis Zeller *VC RG. *VC6 SHNR. Larval cases on 
Betula. They were abundant in the western part of Shapwick 
Heath but rare elsewhere. 

C. limosipennella (Duponchel) VC6 LW, several larval cases on 
Ulmus ("Very scarce". Turner, op. cit.). 

C. viminetella Zeller VC6 SHNR, larval cases on Salix and Myrica 
("Apparently rare". Turner, op. cit.). 

C. binderella (Kollar) VC6 SHNR. a larval case on Alnus. 

**C.potentillae Elisha *VC6 SHNR, many larval cases on Filipendula 
spiraea along the eastern approach to the reserve. 

**C. lineolea (Haworth) *VC6 SHNR, larval cases locally common 
on Stachys sylvatica. Turner's entry under this name refers to 
C. striatipennella Tengstrom. 

C. albidella Herrich-Schaffer VC6 SHNR, an old larval case on a 
leaf of Salix viminalis ("Appears to be very scarce", Tumer, 
op. cit.). 

**C. anatipennella (Hubner) *VC6 K; L; Larval cases fairly common 
on Prunus spinosa. Tumer placed this species in square brackets, 
writing "The records are doubtless erroneous, and probably 
refer to C albidella"\ 

**C. ardeaepennella Scott *VC6 SHNR, an old larval case on a leaf 
of Quercus. 

C. ibipennella Zeller VC6 SHNR, an old larval case on Betula. 



SOMERSET MICROLEPIDOPTERA 177 

C troglodytella (Duponchel) VC5 BBNR. VC6 BD. Many larval 

cases on Pulicaria in each locality. 
**C. peribenanderi (Toll) *VC5 BBNR. *VC6 BD; SHNR. Many 

larval cases on Cirsium. 
**C. argentula (Stephens) *VC5 BBNR; LHNR. *VC6 BD; K; 

SHNR. Very many larval cases on heads oi Achillea millefolium; 

at Langford Heathfield Nature Reserve they were also found on 

A. ptarmica, possibly a hitherto unrecorded foodplant. 
**C. atriplicis Meyrick *VC5 BBNR, very many larval cases on 

A trip lex sp. and Suaeda. 

ELACHISTIDAE 

Elachista gangabella Zeller VC6 CD; EGNR. Larval mines on Brachy- 

podium. 
E. subalbidella Schlager VC6 SHNR, a vacated mine on Molinia. 

OECOPHORIDAE 

Hofmanophila pseudospretella (Stainton) *VC6 L, adult at MV. 
GELECHIIDAE 

**Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg) *VC5 BBNR. *VC6 SHNR. 

Larvae mining leaves oi Atriplex. 
Teleiodes scriptella (Hubner) VC5 BL, larvae locally common in 

folded leaves of Acer campestre . 
**Scrobipalpa nitentella (Fuchs) *VC5 BBNR. *VC6 K. Larvae in 

spinnings among leaves and fruits of A triplex sp. 
S. costella (Humphreys & Westwood) VC5 BBNR. VC6 L; SHNR. 

Adults and larval feeding on Solarium. ("Very rare and local", 

Turner, op. cit). 
S. acuminatella (Sircom) *VC5 LHNR. VC6 L. Larvae mining leaves 

of Cirsium. 
Aproaerema anthyllidella (Hubner) VC6 L, several adults at MV light 

("Local and uncommon". Turner, op. cit). 

MOMPHIDAE 

**Mompha langiella (Hubner) *VC6 EGNR, larvae mining leaves 

of Circaea lutetiana. 
M. terminella (Humphreys & Westwood) VC6 EGNR, larvae mining 

leaves of Circaea lutetiana ("May be no longer resident". Tumer, 

op. cit). 



178 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

M. raschkiella (Zeller *VC5 H. VC6 EGNR; SHNR. Tenanted and 
vacated mines on Epilobium angustifolium ("Very scarce", 
Turner, op. cit). 

TORTRICIDAE 

**Phalomdia affinitana (Douglas) *VC5 BBNR, many larvae in 

heads o^ Aster tripolium. 
Clepsis spectrana (Treitschke) VC6 L, an adult ("Rather scarce and 

local". Turner, op. cit). 
Acleris notana (Donovan) VC5 H. VC6 SHNR. Larvae on Betula 

("Rather uncommon". Turner, op. cit.). 
Endothenia gentianaeana (Hubner) VC5 BBNR, larvae in seedheads 

of Dipsacus ("Very local". Turner, op. cit.). 
**Eucosma tripoliana (Barrett) *VC5 BBNR, larvae in seedheads 

of Aster tripoliu m. 
Cydia janthinana (Duponchel) *VC5 BBNR. VC6 BD; EGNR; 

K. Larvae common in fruits of Crataegus ("Very scarce and 

local". Turner, op. cit). 
**C. tenebrosana (Duponchel) *VD6 BD, larvae in fruits of Rosa. 



Correction 

Lita virgella (Thunberg) (longicomis (Curtis)). The record from 
Shapwick (Emmet, 1967:105) was based on a misidentification 
and should be cancelled. 



References 

Bradley, J. D. & Fletcher, D. S, 1979. A recorder's log book or 
label list of British butterflies and moths, 136 pp. London. 

Emmet, A. M., 1967. Records of Lepidoptera in Somerset. Ento- 
mologist's Rec. J. Var. 79: 104-112. 

, 1973. New records of Microlepidoptera for the county 

of Somerset. 7Z?/d 85:62-65. 

, 1984. Coleophora prunifoliae Doets in Wiltshire. 

Ibid. 96:83. 

Hall-Smith, D. H., 1983. A recorder's log book or label list of 
British butterflies and moths; Index, 59pp. Leicester. 

Hudd, A. E., 1906. Lepidoptera, Victoria history of the county of 
Somerset, 1: 87-1 15. 

Pelham-Clinton, E. C, 1949. New Somerset Lepidoptera records. 
Entomologist 82: 69. 

Turner, A. H., 1955. Lepidoptera of Somerset, 195pp., 1 map. 
Taunton, 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA 1984 179 

THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE 
BRITISH ISLES IN 1984 

By R. F. BRETHERTON* andJ. M. ChalmerS-HUNT** 
{continued from p. 145) 

Agrotis ipsilon showed a very curious pattern. From April 17 
to May 8, 78 were found in traps in twelve places on the coast 
from Cornwall, and Sussex to Westmoriand, Yorkshire and Orkney, 
as well as several inland, indicating a large and widespread immi- 
gration. Half of these, however, were at Portland Bird Observatory, 
and the conrinuation there and in a few places elsewhere of occa- 
sional records later in May and into June suggests a possibility that 
these and some of tlie eariy total may have resulted from over- 
wintering larvae. Thereafter the numbers reported at continuously 
operated traps were very much smaller than usual, though there 
appear to have been small influxes, as with other species, in late 
July, mid August, and late in September and October. There seem 
to have been also local emergences in the later months, and the 
last was seen at Muston, South East Yorkshire, on December 8. 
But in most places for most of the year it was regarded as a rare 
species. 

Peridroma saucia, first seen at Portland B. O. on May 10, was 
also scarce until the autumn. Monthly totals of dated records are 
May (2), June (3), July (10), August (8), September (6), October (31), 
November (17). The last were at Bradwell-on-Sea, South Essex, 
on December 1 and 12. Though always few, the spread was wide: 
in 19 vice counties, reaching Westmorland and South East Yorkshire 
and Orkney on the coasts and Surrey, Middlesex, Berkshire, War- 
wickshire and Rutland inland. It seems to have been common in 
Guernsey, but only two were seen at Fountainstown, co. Cork in 
Ireland. 

Autographa gamma was as usual the commonest immigrant 
moth, but certainly in below average numbers. After the first at 
Portland B.O. on April 8, it was seen widely, but usually only 
singly until early July. There were fair numbers in mid July, when it 
reached Caithness and Orkney, and the first large invasion from 
July 26/30. An influx which consisted almost enrirely of the 
dwarf/ gammina occurred in South Devon on August 5, and peak 
totals of 212 and 138 were counted at Portland B.O. on August 1 1 
and 13, and 262 and 301 on August 21 and 24, after which numbers 
fell sharply. On September 8th there were 40 very large and dark 
specimens, probably locally bred, at Rogate, West Sussex; but there 
were further large invasions in the last days of September and again 
*FoUy Hill, Birtley Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey GU5 OLE. 
**1 Haidcourxs Close, West Wickham, Kent BR4 9LG. 



180 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

at the end of October, possibly also in the first week of November. 
It was last reported at Hayling Island, South Hampshire, on Decem- 
ber 18 and 19. 

Nomophila noctuella was first noted on May 5 in the Isle of 
Canna and last at Peacehaven, East Sussex on November 12. It 
was everywhere very scarce and usually seen only singly; only one 
of the regularly operated traps, even those on the coast, reported 
more than a dozen in the whole season. Monthly totals were May (1), 
May (1), June nil, July (45), August (44), September (31), October 
(7), November (1). The most northerly records came from Flam- 
borough Head, South East Yorkshire and Beetham, Westmorland; 
inland only from Surrey, Berkshire and a single from Ledbury, 
Herefordshire on September 7. In Ireland three were trapped in July 
at Roundwood, co. Wicklow, but at Fountarnstown, co. Cork only 
four were seen from August 16 to October 10. In Guernsey six 
were noted in the last half of July and one in August. 

Udea femigalis did considerably better than TV. noctuella. 
The first was seen at Trebrownb ridge, East Cornwall on January 6: 
a tribute to the mild winter. No more were seen until mid July, 
after which numbers rose steadily to a high level in late October 
and November, immigrants being probably supplemented by local 
emergences. The last was trapped at Wisley, Surrey on December 3. 
Monthly dated records were January (1), July (36), August (25), 
September (72), October (113), November (100), December (2). 
Most of the records came from the south coast, especially from 
Cornwall and Sussex; but 20 were disturbed by day in the Isle of 
Sheppey, north Kent, 176 in South Essex, and it was seen in small 
numbers in Lincolnshire, South East Yorkshire, Carmarthenshire and 
Westmorland. Inland, there were some at four places in Surrey, in 
some numbers in Berkshire, and singly at Hampstead, Middlesex 
and Ledbury, Herefordshire. In Ireland there were very small 
numbers at Roundstone, Riverstock and Fountainstown in co. 
Cork; in Guernsey it seems to have been plentiful. 

Plutella xylostella is often overlooked, but it was clearly not 
common. The few records, beginning with one at Ledbury, Here- 
fordshire on April 22, coincided in date with other immigrants; 
but there were no indications of any large invasion. A few were 
seen in Orkney on June 6, and in two places in the Isle of Man on 
August 23. 

Phlogophera meticulosa, which is both immigrant and resident, 
was fairly numerous and regular, except in August, throughout 
from April to late October. The regularity, which resulted from 
good larval survival during the mild winter and from later breeding, 
disguised the effects of probably several immigrations, of which at 
least those in late September and in October seem to have been 
considerable. 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA 1984 



181 



The reasons for the startUng contrast in the abundance of immi- 
grant species in 1983 and 1984 are not clear. Except for the much 
colder weather in May and June the domestic weather patterns 
for the two years were similar: mild winters, long periods of warmth 
and drought through July and August, much rain and disturbed 
weather in September and October, and a mild spell in early Novem- 
ber. But in 1984, after a false start in April, the immigrations came 
later and, thougli they were frequent, they contained much fewer 
individuals and lacked variety of species. This suggests that, except 
perhaps at the end of July, they came from western Europe, where 
the season was later even than in Britain, rather than from further 
afield. There was an almost complete absence of the scarcer Plusias 
and other tropical moths, but there were many reports of probably 
immigrant examples of resident species. The small numbers and late 
arrivals of immigrants also reduced the amount of successful local 
breeding, for which the wamith of July and August was otherwise 
favourable. 

We have been well supported by good numbers of recorders, 
both direct and indirect, to whom we offer grateful thanks. Many of 
them, perhaps because of the paucity of scarcer immigrants, have 
given more detailed observations than usual of the commoner 
species, which have therefore been treated at greater length in this 
note. 

ANNEXE I 

Names of direct recorders 

Names of recorders who have sent their records to us directly 
are hsted below. Many of them have included also records obtained 
from other observers, to whom we are grateful. It is not practicable 
to list all their names, but some of them appear in Annexe II. 



Acklam, G. 
Agassiz, Rev. D. J. A. 
Albertini, M. A. 
Aldrich-Blake,Dr. P. 
Aid ridge, J. D. 
Austen, R. 



Baker, B. R. 
Baker, P. J. 
Baldwin, A. J. 
Birchenough, R. F. 
Bond,K. G.M. 
Bowen, Mrs. D. 



Bradford, E.S. 
Bretherton, I. 
Bretherton, R. F. 
Briggs, J. 
Brown, D. C. G. 
Bury, Dr. J. P. 



Cade,M. 
Campbell, J. L. 
Chalmers-Hunt, J. M. 
Church, S. 
Classey,E.W. 
Collins, J. A. 



Corley,M.H.V. 
Costen,P. 
Craik,Dr. J.C. A. 
Cribb,P.W. 



Dewick, A. J. 
Dewick, S. 
Dey, D. 
Dobson, A. H. 
Duddington, J. 
Dyke, R. 

Easterbrook, M. A. 



182 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 



15.ix.l985 



Else, G. R. 
Emmet, A. M. 
Eveleigh, B. J. 

Fairclough, R. 
Fenn, J. L. 
Foley, M. J. Y. 
Foster, A. J. 
Fraser, J. D. 



Gardner, A. 
Gascoigne-Pees, M. R. 
Gibson, C.W.D. 
Gill, N. 
Goater, B. 
Green, J. E. 
Greenwood, J. A. C. 



Hall, N. M. 
Halsey,J.&M. 
Halstead, A. J. 
Harman, T. W. 
Harm an, A. S. 
Harper, Dr. M.W. 
Hart,C. 
Haynes, R. F. 
HollindaJe,P. 
Holloway, P. 
Hulme, D. 



Johnston, A. F. 
Jupp, C. 
Knill-Jones, S. A. 



Laidlaw, D. 
Langmaid, Dr. J. R. 
Lear,N.W. 
Lefevre, Miss H. 
LePard,D. 
Lewis, Owen 
Lindley, Dr. L. 
Lorimer, R. I. 
Lovell-Pank, R. 
Luckens, Dr. C. J. 

MacNulty,Dr.B. J. 
Melling, T. M. 
Madge, S.C. 
Melling, T. M. 
Miller, J. R. 
Morgan, I. K. 
Moore, B.W. 
Myers, Dr. A. A. 

Nash,S. 

Parsons, M. S. 
Peet,T. N.D. 
PhUp,E.G. 
PhUpott,D.W. 
PUcher, R. E.M. 
Pittis,Rev. S.P. 
Plant, C.W. 
Pollard, Dr. E. 
Pooles, S. W. 
Portland Bird 

Observatory 
Pratt, C.R. 



Revell,R. J. 

Riley, A. 

Simpson, M. S. L. 
Singleton, R. 
Skinner, B. 

Slade,B.E.,A.M.&D.J. 
Smith, E.G. 
Smith, Dr. F.H.N. 
Smith, Roger 
Softly, R. A. 
Sokoloff, P. A. 
Spalding, A. 
Spence, B. R. 
Stallwood,B.R. 
Sterling, D. H. 
Sterling, M.J. 
Sterling, P. H. 
Swanson, S. 

Tidmarsh, J. S. C. 
Torlesse, A. D. 
Tubbs, R. S. 
Tucker, V. 
Tweedie,M. W. F. 

Waring, P.M. 
Walters, J. M. 
Webb,Dr.N.R. 
West, B. K. 
Whitehead, P. 
Wilson, D.E. 
Wilson, J. 
Winter, P. Q. 
Woiwod,!. 
WooItorton,H. 



Kydd, D. W. 



Youden,G.H. 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA 1984 183 

ANNEXE II 

Records of scarce immigrant species in 1984 

Suspected immigrants of resident species are marked*. Unless 
otherwise indicated, single examples are referred to. For nocturnal 
species dates are as far as possible of the beginning of the night. 
Names of direct recorders are abbreviated to tlieir initials (see 
Annexe I), except where these are the same; names of these and of 
indirect recorders appear in full. 

*CAROPTRIA MARGARITELLUS D. & S. KENT E. Deal, 

26.7 (GHY, Ent. Rec. 97: 27). Probably immigrant. 
*SITACHROA PALEALIS D. & S. CORNWALL W. Lizard, 

1.8 (NMH). HANTS S. Winchester, 18.7, 30.7 (DHS). SUSSEX 
E. Peacehaven, 19.8 (CRP). Possibly immigrant. 

*EVERGESTIS EXTIMALIS Scop. CORNWALL W. Lizard, 

23.8 (NMH). HANTS S.Winchester, 11.8 (DHS); Sway, 21.8 (ADT). 
Perhaps immigrant. 

*OSTRINIA NUBILALIS Hb. CORNWALL E. Trebrown- 
bridge, 17.7 (AS). ESSEX S. Bradwell-on-Sea, 9.7/29.9, fifty. 
(AJD, SD). SUSSEX E. Camber, 18.6 (MSP); Ninfield, n.e.d. 
(MSP); Peacehaven, 8.7/13.8, twelve (CPR). Possibly some im- 
migrant, otherwise recent internal spread. 

DIASEMIOPSIS RAMBURIALIS Dup. CORNWALL E. Tre- 
brownbridge, 2.9, 28.10, 29.10 (AS). Essex S. Matching, 13.7 (RF). 

PALPITA UNIONALIS Hb. CORNWALL E. Sheviok, 29.10 
(SCM). SURREY South Croydon, 17.8 (GAC). 

*HETEROGRAPHIS OBLITELLA ZeU. BERKS. Wytham 
Wood, 19.8, 20.8 (PHS). DORSET. Portland, 19.8, 20.8 (NMH). 
Possibly immigrant, otherwise large extension of internal range. 

*PAPILIO MACHAON L. DORSET. Lodmoor, 20.6, 22.8, 
possibly escapes from Weymouth butterfly faim (MC); Radipole, 
12.7 (per NRW); Stoborough, dead in a greenhouse (per NRW). 
HANTS. S. Pilly Hill, twelve larvae on garden carrot {Southern 
Daily Echo, 26.8, per BG). Possibly resuhing from a female escape 
or release from nearby butterfly farm. 

IPHICLIDES PODALIRIUS L. HEREFORD S. Near Ross-on- 
Wye, in a garden, 26.8, followed closely examined, and distinguished 
from P. machaon. No local rearing of the species known (Dr. P. 
Aid rich-Blake, by phone and in litt. 17.9). Probably immigrant with 
other species at that date. 

PONTIA DAPLIDICE L.SOMERSET N. Weston-s-Mare,7 and 8. 
7, female watched and sketched on garden buddleia near the sea. 
Confirmed from sketch by RFB (Mrs K. Jones per NWL). HANTS. 
S. Fair Oak near Eastleigh, 16.7, male watched flying through garden 
(Paul Holloway, nature writer, in Southampton Echo, 12.12.84, 
confirmed in litt. 26.2.85). 



184 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL, 97 15.ix.l985 

*GONEPTERYX RHAMNI L. ISLES OF SCILLY. Pendennis 
Head, St. Mary's 24.4, male flying south east along the coast (J. 

D. Aldridge, in lift. 4.9.84). The larval foodplants, Rhamnus sp. 
are not known to occur in Scilly, and examples of C crocea and 
several continental birds were seen on the same day, so that it was 
more probably immigrant rather than straying from the Cornish 
mainland. 

[CLOSSIANA DIA L. SURREY. North Downs, 24.8, male 
in good condition caught by Philip Cribb (per PWC). Later inquiries 
have revealed that c.50 nearly full grown larvae reared from con- 
tinental stock were released on July 26 near the place of this cap- 
ture.] 

DANAUS PLEXIPPUS L. CORNWALL E. Downderry, 20.7, 
7 pjn. on garden buddleia, clearly seen (R. Carter per FHNS and 
SCM). DORSET. Lodmoor, 19.7, possibly an escape from butter- 
fly farm (MC). 

NYMPH ALIS ANTIOPA L. (8) BUCKS. Sentry Hill, Marlow, 
26.8: no evidence of local escapes or releases (O.Wedd per VMA). 
ESSEX N. West Mersea, 27.9, in garden (Dr. D. Gray per RST). 
HANTS. S. Southampton, 6.8, on buddleia (T. Bemhead per CJL). 
HANTS N. Alton, 8.8 (D. Le Pard). LINCS N. Gibraltar Point, 
6.8, seen trying to enter the bird observatory (R. Lambert, per 
J. Dudington). MIDDLESEX Grange Park, 25.9 (R. Dyke). SUSSEX 

E. Ninfield, 28/29.7, possibly a release (D. W. S. Elphick per CRP); 
Rye, 28.8, on quay side (MWFT). 

N. POLYCHLOROS L. KENT E. Orlestone Forest, 27.7. (M. 
Enfield per EGP). 

SATURNIA PYRI D. & S. HANTS. S- Swaythling, 24.8, flut- 
tering in grass beside M.27. (K. Watson per BG). Probably the first 
British record. The species is found in France near the coast from 
Finisterre to Calvados; but it is not a recognised migrant, and the 
place and circumstances of capture suggest that it arrived through 
Southampton in a car or lorry , or was an escape from captivity. 

*SCOPULA RUBIGINATA Hufn. CORNWALL W. Lizard, 
22.8, two at liglit with vast numbers of ^. gamma (B. K. West, 
identity confirmed by JMC-H). The first Cornish record; probably 
immigrant, only known to be resident in East Anglia. 

RHODOMETRA SACRARIA L. (66) BERKS. Aldermaston, 
23.8 (M. Silver per BRB); Shrivenham, 12.9 (S. Nash, Ent. Gaz. 
36:77); Faringdon, 2.11 (MFVC). BUCKS. Bernwood Forest, 5.9 
(PMW). CORNWALL W. Lizard, 14.9 (AG). CORNWALL E. Tre- 
brownbridge, 24.8, 2.9, 3.9, 7.9, the last two brown striped (AS); 
Sheviock, 24.8, two, 27.8, 1.9; Anthony, 28.9, by day on 
saltmarsh (SCM). DEVON S. Yarner Wood, 20.8. 25.8, 27.8, 2.9, 
two (per IW and AR). DORSET. Portland B.O., 24.8 (per NMH). 
DURHAM Chester-le-Street, 2.9 (per IW and AR). ESSEX S. 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA 1984 185 

Bradwell-on-Sea, 10.8 (SD). HANTS. N. Oakley, 24.8, worn female, 
eggs infertile (AHD). HANTS S. HayUng Island, 25.8, two (JMW). 
HERTS. Potters Bar, 28.9 (R-LP). KENT W. Dartford, 4.8., male 
(BKW). MIDDLESEX Hampstead 7.9 (RAS). SURREY Wisley, 
2.9 (AJH); Leigh, 8.8, very worn, 25.8, fresh 7.10 (RF). SUSSEX 
W. West Dean, 25.7 (C. Robinson per CRP); Rogate, 30.7, 1.9, 
16.10, f. sanguinaria (JACG); Walberton, 21.9, 28.9, two (J. Rad- 
ford per CRP). SUSSEX E. Ringmer, 8.8 (A. Batten per CRP); 
Peacehaven, 6.9 .(CRP). WARWICKS. Charlecote, 2.9 (DCGB); 
Pailton near Rugby, 7.9, 8.9, two (Dr. Greenwood per DCGB). 
WESTMORLAND/FURNESS South Walney, 6.9, three, 7.9, 8.9, 
13.9 (T. Dean per DWK). YORKS v.c. 61 Muston, 7.9, on lighted 
window (PQW). CARMARTHEN Rhandirmwyn, 24.8 (per IW and 
AR). CO. CORK Fountainstown, 23.8, male, 12.9, 22.9 (AAM). 
CO. WICKLOW Bray Head, 25.8, brown lined (KGMB). GUERNSEY 
Le Chene, 23.8, 26.8, 8.9 (TNDP); Clare Mare, 2.9, 9.9 (P. Costen); 
St. John, 26.8; L'Ancresse, 26.8; Icart, 27.8 (R. Austen). 

ORTHONAMA OBSTIPATA F. (9) CORNWALL E. Trebrown- 
bridge, 1.11 (AS). DEVON S. Yamer Wood, 28.7; Star Cross, 2.11 
(per IW and AR). SUSSEX W. Walberton, 2.11, two, 9.1 1, 11.11 
(J. Radford per CRP). SUSSEX E. Newhaven 21.4 (S. Curson per 
CRP). ESSEX S. BradweU-on-Sea, 8.10 (SD). 

SEMIOTHISA SIGNARIA Hb. KENT E. Orlestone Forest, 
31.7 (JLF, Ent. Rec, 96:215; idem, i^-oc. Trans. Br. ent. nat. Hist. 
Soc, 18:9). 

{to be concluded) 

Notes and Observations 

Feral Foodplants of Lithophane leautieri hesperica 
BOURSIN (BLAIR'S SHOULDER-KNOT). - Since October 1979 
when the first specimen of Z, leautieri appeared in the garden trap 
this species has steadily increased in numbers up to 1984 when over 
40 specimens were recorded between 2nd October and 12th Novem- 
ber with a maximum total for one night being 12 on 15th October. 

In view of these numbers and as the only previously recorded 
foodplant in Britain, Cupressus macrocarpa (Monterey Cypress), is 
absent from the immediate district it was logical to assume the 
species was breeding locally on other members of the Cypress family. 
This assumption was confirmed on 14th June 1985 by beating the 
well established (20-25ft high) Cypress trees in my own garden, 
made up of eight of the hybrid Cupressocyparis leylandii (Leyland 
Cypress) and seven Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Lawson's Cypress). 
A somewhat cursory beat of the lower (up to six feet) branches 
yielded a few larvae from each of the leylandii, but none from the 



186 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

lawsoniana. This was followed by a thorough beating of one of the 
largest leylandii which resulted in a further 17 larvae ranging from 
third instar (8mm) to half grown (17mm). It was not practical 
even with ladders to reach the uppermost five feet or so. A second 
attempt at the lawsoniana eventually yielded a handful of larvae 
from the higher branches, but it was very evident that as far as my 
garden was concerned leylandii was the much preferred host plant. 
It might be of interest to add here that no such preference is shown 
by Eupithecia intricata arceuthata Freyer, a common species in the 
garden, the larvae of which occur on both species of Cypress in 
equal numbers. 

In the 1950s when L. leautieri was first reared from British 
stock it was inferred by H. B. D. Kettlewell {Ent. 90: 285) and 
G. M. Raggett {Proc. Trans. Br. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 1: 73) that 
the male flowers of macrocarpa constituted an essential part of the 
young larva's diet. This is certainly not the case of larvae feeding 
on leylandii as the trees in my garden do not bear flowers, whereas 
the less preferred lawsoniana does so proliflcally. I have also in past 
years successfully reared the species from the egg entirely on the 
foUage of leylandii. - BERNARD SKINNER, 5 Rawlins Close, South 
Croydon, Surrey. 

JOHN ABBOT'S London Years : Some Addenda. - The 
following observations refer to my "John Abbot's London years," 
96: 110-123, 165-176,222-229,273-285. 

Page 172, fn. 32: Among the manuscripts of the entomologist 
William Jones of Chelsea (d. 1818) preserved in the Library, Hope 
Entomological Collections, Oxford, is a series of extracts copied 
from "Dru" Drury's joumals for 1764-1766. I have not yet been 
able to examine the extracts, but revealing quotations from them 
which illustrate Drury's. collecting activities in the field were in- 
cluded by E. B. Poulton et. al. in "English names regularly used for 
British Lepidoptera up to the end of the eighteenth century, with a 
biographical account of William Jones of Chelsea," Trans. Soc. Br. 
Ent. 1(1934), 139-184. 

Page 174, fn. 42: Since writing the footnote I have consulted 
E. B. Poulton, "The Society of Entomologists of London for the 
Study of Insects," Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 8 (1933), 97-104, which 
contains much information about Drury's society of 1780-1782, 
again taken from William Jones' materials in the Hope Collections 
library. Jones was the group's secretary. His MSS. at Oxford are 
generally described by Gavin Bridson et. al.. Natural history manu- 
script resources in the British Isles (London, 1980), 334, entries 
342.2 and 342.30. 

Page 224: "subsequent authors piled Ossa upon Pelion." The 
admittedly obscure reference is to a once well-known school joke, 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 187 

which I have heard classics masters attribute to Robert Graves al- 
though it is surely much older. It states (in various ways according 
to the the telling) that a monumental example of getting things 
backward would be to pile Ossa upon Pelion. The reason for the 
use of this reversal is evident from my preceding text. In Greek 
mythology, the giants Ephialtes and Otus made war on the gods 
and attempted an assault by piling Mt. Pelion on Mt. Ossa; more 
precisely "they strove to pile Ossa on Olympus, and on Ossa Pelion 
with the trembing forest leaves, that there might be a pathway to 
the sky" (Odyssey, XI, Butcher and Lang translation). 

Page 281: "Drury died in 1803." Authors have disagreed on the 
year of Dniry's death, some choosing a date in 1804. My source is 
the obituary in Gentleman's Mag. 84, part 1 (January 1804), 86, 
which unequivocally states that Drury died on 15 December 1803. - 
RONALD S. Wilkinson, 228 Ninth Street N. E. Washington, D.C. 
20002, U.S. A. 

ABERRATIONS OF THE HEATH FRITILLARY (MELLICTA ATHALIA 
ROTT.) IN CORNWALL 1984 -During the flight period of the 
heath fritillary in June 1984 I spent four days of a Cornish holiday 
studying and photographing this species. Two adjacent localities 
were surveyed, the first yielding only four individuals plus a pair 
dead in a spider's web. The second, more sheltered locality was 
more rewarding with athalia the most numerous butterfly. 

For obvious reasons I will not name the site, but would like to 
place on record my sightings of two aberrations of this butterfly. 
They were both encountered on 25 June, a very warm day {ca. 74'F) 
with continuous sunshine, albeit windy on exposed areas. Most 
species were found in the woodland rides and the majority of both 
sexes, including aberrations, were fresh. 

Referring to the work "Aberrations of British Butterflies" 
by A.D.A. Russwurm, the more aberrant of the two was quite 
deafly a female of the ab. cymothoe Bertolini. The forewings had 
only the marginal tawny markings left unobscured, the hindwings 
being practically similar to those of a typical female. This was the 
only difference to Russwurm's plates as far as I can tell, for the 
underside forewings displayed the cymothoe radiated discoidal 
markings. For a moment when the butterfly first settled open- 
winged in front of me, I thought I had somehow miraculously come 
across a mountain ringlet (Erebia epiphron Knoch)! 

The second aberration was unusual but not as striking. It was 
a male, totally typical except for the left upperside hindwing which 
was coloured of a paler hue, representative of the female's lighter 
ground colour. The size of the markings were however constant on 
all four wings. Even though a less striking aberration than cymothoe 
the butterfly stood out in the sunshine as he imbibed the bramble 
nectar. 



188 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15. ix. 1985 

Both these aberrations and many of the typical forms were 
sucessfully captured on sUde film to remind me of my first visit to 
the quarters of our rarest resident butterfly. P. BOWLER, 9 Bakers 
Hill, Heage, Derbyshire DE5 2BL. 

FACTORS LEADING TO A LOCAL ABUNDANCE OF EURODRYAS 
AURINIA ROTTEMBURG (MARSH FRITILLARY) IN WORCESTERSHIRE 
IN 1984 - In April 1984 larvae of Eurodryas aurinia, were so 
abundant at the only known breeding site in Worcestershire that it 
was impossible to walk along some of the rides in the private wood- 
land without treading on them. The first butterflies were seen as 
early as May 14th. and subsequently they were in profusion. It 
is worth reviewing the factors which have led to this most pleasing 
situation, especially because, as far as I can ascertain, aurinia is still 
absent from all surrounding counties except Gloucestershire. 

I reported (Ent. Rec. 89: 331) the re-appearance of this species 
in Worcestershire in 1976 after an apparent absence of 23 years. 
Studies during the poor summers of 1977 and 1978 showed that the 
colony was weak, only breeding very locally despite an abundance 
of Succisa pratensis (devil's bit scabious). 1979 saw an improvement, 
but with news of a planned clear felling of a large area followed by 
installation of deep drainage prior to replanting with conifers, it was 
decided to establish a captive stock. I sent some larvae to Dr. Keith 
Porter at Oxford University for determination of parasites, but 
surprisingly there were none, and subsequently he returned them all 
as pupae which hatched out without any losses. Work in the woods 
with heavy machinery devastated the observed breeding areas, so 
in 1980 the bred stock was released in what appeared to be the best 
adjacent area. 

The winter of 1981 was unfavourably mild and wet, followed 
by a cool spring, and the first butterflies did not appear until 6th. 
June. However, by this time the S. pratensis had begun to recover 
well and the site was much more open. In early September an 
encouraging number of larval webs were found. 1982 started with 
a hard, cold winter which may well have been a factor in reducing 
the number of predators; the spring was the sunniest since 1955 
and from late May there was a relatively large emergence. Indeed 
the summer of 1982 turned out to be the first of three successive 
good summers, and aurinia has since progressively increased in 
numbers. It will be interesting to see if the present hard winter will 
prove to be another beneficial factor. 

Last year (1984), there was clear evidence of gravid females 
spreading into the surrounding countryside, and we are hopeful 
that the species may re-appear in otlier old haunts in the West Mid- 
lands which have escaped agricultural changes. However, if this 
happens, it may not be a process of natural extension. Several 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 189 

cases have come to my notice of larval webs being taken without 
permission, and bred imagines released without reference either 
to the N.C.C. or the County Nature Conservation Trust. For exam- 
ple, a dozen or so butterflies found to the north of Evesham in 
1983 were probably the result of such action, because the habitat 
was unsuitable and there is no S. pmtensis in the area. 

I still reflect on the origin of those butterflies which re -appeared 
in 1976. Had aurinia remained there for 23 years at low density 
and escaped detection until the good summers of 1973 and 1975 
resulted in a build up of numbers? — or were they the consequence 
of a natural spread from an unknown nearby colony? — or did 
someone introduce them? We do not know, but we do have this 
excellent site for aurinia in Worcestershire today. Long may it 
continue! J. E. GREEN, 25 Knoll Lane, Poolbrook, Malvern, WR14 
3JU. 

DEATH'S HEAD HAWK: ACHERONTIA ATROPOS LiNN. IN HAMP- 
SHIRE — On 22 September 1984 two larvae of atropos were 
found in a small garden in Chilbottom, Hants. One was crawling 
down a garden path having been disturbed by the pulling of potato 
haulms. The other, much smaller, was feeding on unpulled potatoes. 
The larger larva, in its final instar, was bright yellow with light 
blue stripes, pupating on 26th September. The smaller larva, in its 
penultimate instar, was similarly coloured but moulted on 24th 
September to the rarer brown form with three bright white rings 
behind the head and a dark line down the centre of the back. It 
ceased feeding on 6th October, and went to ground. 

The two large, healthy pupae were kept in the airing cupboard 
at about 70'C throughout the winter, but failed to emerge although 
they were very much alive. In May they were transferred to the 
kitchen — they wriggled energetically whenever light fell on them — 
and two fine males emerged on 20 June 1985. Althougli this species 
is known to diapause if kept in cool, frost free conditions, it is 
unusual to find such a prolonged pupal stage at elevated tempera- 
tures. Brig. E. L. SiMSON, 4 Plowden Park, Aston Rowant, Oxford. 

DRAGONFLY EGGLAYING HABITS: AESHNACYANEA(MULLER)- 
Males of many dragonfly species participate in egglaying, either 
actively as the leading partner of a tandem pair, or passively as a 
spectator, supervisor or protector of the female. Of some, however, 
the textbooks say that the female "oviposits unattended by the male". 
One such is Aeshna cyanea (Milller), but I suspect that this male also 
is more responsible. 

Wanting photographs of this species, I frequented Savernake 
Forest ponds in late summer, 1963, but found the insects too 
active. Then, on the warm, sunny, late afternoon on 23 August, 
I again visited my favourite pond. My approach was halted by the 



190 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

abrupt aerial assault of a male cyanea, who harassed me until I 
reached the edge of the pond and stopped to adjust my camera. 
He settled in brambles beside me. I snapped him at 20 inches, then 
at 15 inches. He remained posing as I changed the lens and snapped 
again at 8 inches. When, hopelesssly entangled in the thorns, I 
accidentally hit him with the camera, he moved away about a foot. 

I could bear it no longer; had to get up and stretch. Suddenly, 
I remembered the object of my visit; the pond behind me. Turning 
slowly, I saw a female laying in a rotten log about 5 inches above the 
surface. I took a snap, then realised the light was poor. While re- 
adjusting, I glanced at the male who, in one movement flew straight 
at his mate, seized her by the neck, and lifted her away to the tree- 
tops. 

Now, no one will convince me that he was not "in attendance", 
and doing his duty most effectively. He had diverted me from his 
mate, kept me engaged while she did her job in peace, and removed 
her when he considered the situation called for it. 

Ae. cyanea males have often been recorded as aggressive to 
human presence, but I have seen no reason offered. They have also 
been reported "attacking" their own and other species of either sex, 
even carrying them away loosely "m cop"; promiscuity has been 
alleged, and worse implied. Is not the reason simply defence, either 
of his mate or of her territory? Sometimes, perhaps, combined with 
the urge to "teach him a lesson". C, F. CowAN ,4 Thorn field Terrace, 
Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria LAI 1 7DR. 

Large egg batch ofHamearislucina L. (duke of bur- 
gundy ) - On a recent visit to a locally well-known Bedfordshire 
site for lucina my wife and I discovered twelve eggs of this species 
(one batch of ten and a separate pair) on one leaf o{ Primula veris 
(cowslip). This is an unusual occurrence as they are normally laid 
either singly or in groups of two or three. ADRL\N M. RiLEY, 
9 Linmere Walk, Houghton Regis, Bedfordshire. 



Current Literature 

Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera , Volume 2, Checklist: Part I, 
Micropterigoidea — Immoidea by J. B. Heppner (editor) et al., 
140 pp., cloth. Dr. W. Junk BV Pubhshers, The Hague. 1984. 
Price approx. £25. 

The concept of an "Atlas" of the lepidopterous fauna of the 
neotropics is awe-inspiring, especially when one considers that the 
region extends from Mexico and the West Indies to Patagonia and 
the Falklands and contains many faunistically diverse areas. It en- 
compasses the super-rich tropical forest of Central America, though 
regrettably this richness may already be in serious decline because 
of excessive encroachment. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 191 

The Atlas is planned as a synoptic work, based on the latest 
classification and illustrating as far as possible all the known species 
recorded from the region, with a diagnosis and bionomic data for 
each species. An ambitious venture, it is to be welcomed as a co- 
operative project sponsored by the New World nations. It will run 
into an estimated 125 volumes, of which vols. 8-122 will comprise 
79 fascicles of illustrated text, vol. 1 will be a general introduction, 
vols, 2-7 will form the checklist, vols. 123-124 the bibhography, and 
the final volume a general index. 

Part I of the systematically arranged CheckUst is the only part 
of the series yet pubhshed. It lists 4189 species representing 41 
families of the more primitive (micro-moths) of the Lepidoptera. 
Authorship and year of description are cited for each genus and 
species, and the original genus and country of origin are given for 
the species. The introduction includes an outline of the proposed 
classification and also a short bibliography. A general plan of the 
work is given in the Preface, and also a list of the 40 contributing 
authors from the Americas and Europe who are currently engaged 
on the project. New taxonomic data have been included in the 
checklist, in terms of new synonymies, new combinations and a 
new subfamily, Attevinae. A generic synopsis precedes the check- 
list, and the latter is followed by two pages of taxonomic notes 
and separate indices to genera and species. 

The Atlas was initiated six years ago by its editor and part 
author, Dr. J. B. Heppner, of the Centre for Arthropod Systematics, 
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, and its realisation must 
be largely due to his perseverance in obtaining administrative and 
financial backing and success in forming a strong supporting team 
of Lepidoptera specialists. As envisaged the series will be unique and 
of a magnitude reflecting that of the region it is planned to cover. 
Although primarily a much needed and invaluable illustrated in- 
ventory of the neotropical Lepidoptera, it will undoubtedly have a 
worldwide interest because of the taxonomic content. 

The series is expected to take 20 years to complete, thus 
quashing any premature alarm as to the total cost of the 125 
volumes. Librarins may need to budget long-term in order to secure 
the full set of this unique and important reference work, but the 
lone lepidopterist may be content to choose only the parts that 
touch on his particular interest. — J. D. BRADLEY. 

Colour Identification Guide to the Butterflies in the British Isles 
by T. G. Howarth. 151 pp. 48 pi. 5 figs. Viking 1984. £14.95. 
This is a revised edition of a book first published in 1973, 

which was reviewed in this magazine at that time, {Ent. Rec. 86:76). 

The present book is prefaced by several introductory chapters 



192 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

dealing briefly with such subjects as elementary butterfly structure, 
variation and family divisions of British Rhopalocera. The only 
changes here are in the section on conservation where the original 
comments have been expanded slightly to include a note on the 
wildlife habitats. Information tables follow-excellent summaries 
but very little revised from the 1973 version, except in isolated 
instances where changes in distribution and abundance are recorded. 
For example the heath fritillary (but not the high brown fritillary) 
has been commented on, and the supposed extinction of the large 
blue is also noted. 

An identification key, classified list and the usual list of books, 
dealers and societies complete the text. The main part of the book, 
as the title suggests, consists of coloured plates; the adult butterflies 
are by A. D. A. Russwurm and early stages are copied from F. W. 
Frohawk's originals by R. B. Davis. A wholly justified criticism in 
the 1973 edition was of the enlargement of the adult butterfly 
figures. This has now been improved but, though the scale is stated 
as natural size for all butterfly plates, some are still clearly larger 
than life. Among the most obvious of these are the majority of the 
large heaths on Plate 22, and the first two ringlets, on Plate 23. Also 
a little doubtful are the typical pair of chequered skippers, Plate 1 
and some of the otherwise delightful chalkhill blues. By contrast, the 
figures of the scotch argus and marbled whites seem slightly smaller 
than average. However, reduction in size has resulted in some superb 
butterfly plates and the colour reproduction is also vastly superior to 
the earlier edition. Improved veracity of colour is particularly 
striking in the skippers, Plate 1 ; wood whites, Plate 2; and the blues, 
on Plate 7 and 8. Donald Russwurm 's affection for the Lycaenidae is 
particularly evident in the latter two plates, and I found myself 
turning repeatedly to Plate 7, where the illustrations of silver studded 
blue, brown argus and common blue are quite outstanding. Plates 20 
and 21 (meadow browns, gatekeepers and small heaths) are also 
excellent. The brimstones on Plate 3 do not quite hit the mark, but 
apart from the slight discrepancies in scale already mentioned this is 
the only other criticism of the butterfly Plates. 

The early stages have been reduced in a similar fashion and here 
I feel it has been less successful. Some definition of larval form and 
colour has been lost as a result and a comparison of Plate 42 of the 
current volume, with the earlier enlarged version, shows this most 
clearly. 

All in all, however, this is a book well worth having in its new 
format. The mainly tabular text is concise and invariably accurate, 
but its real achievement is its colour plates in which typical and 
aberrational forms of the British butterflies are given masterly 
treatment. C. J. LUCKENS. 



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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J. W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



CONTENTS 

Some Notes on the Larval Habits of the Pygmy Footman, Eilema pygmaeola 
sub-species pallifrons and a Description of the Pupa. R. K. A. MORRIS, 
149. Greek Island Butterflies: Dodecanes 1983. G. THOMPSON, 154. 
Pycnomerus fuliginosus (Col.: Colytidae): its Expanding Distribution in 
Sussex. R. A. JONES, 159. Egg-keel Number in the Small TortoisheU 
Butterfly. R. L. H. DENNIS and T. RICHMAN, 162. Notes of a Re- 
markable Immigration of Lepidoptera into the United Kingdom - 
April 1985, P. A. DAVEY. Assembling the Emperor Moth in Essex, 
R. N. BAXTER, 169. Records of Microlepidoptera from Somerset, 
September 1984. A. M. EMMET, 171. The Immigration of Lepidoptera 
to the British Isles in 1984, R. F. BRETHERTON and J. M. CHALMERS- 
HUNT, 179. 

CURRENT LITERATURE, 161, 190, 191. 

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS, 153, 158, 164, 168, 185-190. 

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Attractive new books from the 
leading entomological publishers 

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An inexpensive paperback edition of this highly successful identification guide to British 

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This informative illustrated handbook on rearing lepidoptera includes most of the 
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REARING PELOSIA OBTUSA 193 

AN ACCOUNT OF REARING THE SMALL DOTTED 

FOOTMAN MOTH, PELOSIA OBTUSA 

(HERRICH-SCHAFFER) LEP.: ARCTIIDAE 

By COLIN Hart* 

I have been trying to locate this elusive moth for some years in 
its only known habitat in Great Britain of the Norfolk Broads. 
The search had been unsuccessful despite my idea of using a hired 
holiday cruiser to reach otherwise inaccessible localities. Finally, 
at a site suggested by Bernard Skinner, I caught a male obtusa at 
light on the night of 25th July 1983 and a female three nights later. 
It would appear that the males are attracted to light from about 
11pm onwards, but the female was not at light, she was found 
crawling up my jeans at 10.30pm, and I assume she had been 
disturbed from amongst the reeds. 

The moth was retained in a plastic box which was kept damp 
so as to keep the humidity high in an attempt to mimic the environ- 
ment at the base of the reeds. A total of forty ova were laid during 
the following two nights. A few eggs were scattered individually 
round the box but the majority were laid in two small batches of 
thirteen and nineteen eggs, laid neatly in interlocking rows. The 
ovum is pale pinkish-buff in colour and the shape of a slightly 
flattened hemisphere of diameter 0.3mm. The surface is shiny with 
a reticulated pattern of depressions. The eggshell is translucent and 
any colour that the egg has comes from the contents within. The 
ova were kept at room temperature (about 220C in a period of hot 
weather) and hat-ched in eleven days. The curled up larvae were 
clearly visible with the aid of a lens on the day prior to eclosion. 

The newly hatched larva is about 2 mm long, light brownish 
grey and moderately hairy. They were given a choice of foodplants 
including reed, cocksfoot grass, sallow, dandelion, lettuce and 
convolvulus (a species of convolvulus occurs in the habitat). The 
larvae wandered around a great deal and nibbled the lettuce in a 
desultory manner producing a httle frass. After three days and 
growing slightly frantic I introduced a small piece of dead wood 
which had a growth of the green alga Desmococcus (=Pleuro coccus) 
on the surface. This was a popular move as within a few hours all 
the larvae had congregated on the wood surface and were feeding 
on the alga. They continued to eat the Desmococcus and I ex- 
perienced no further problems with feeding. The larvae grew slowly 
through the autumn and moulted several times, towards the end 
of October they went into hibernation. Each lai"va settled upside- 
down on the underside of a piece of bark or other object, and 
most had spun extensive silk pads to settle on. At this stage the 
larvae were about 7mm long (Figure 2) and if disturbed would 
*Fourpenny Cottage, Dungates Lane, Buckland, Surrey, RH3 7BD. 



REARING PELOSIA OBTUSA 195 

drop off and curl up in a manner typical of many arctiid larvae. 
As might be expected I experienced the greatest mortality during 
the winter with seven deaths occuring during March. As far as 
I could judge about half the larvae died of fungal infection and 
the remainder 'dried up' with no trace of fungus, only three larvae 
survived to the spring. 

The larvae did not become active again until late April when 
they resumed feeding on the alga, little progress was made how- 
ever until the begining of June when they started feeding in earnest 
and a rapid increase in size resulted. (Figure 1) The larvae were ob- 
served to feed only at night but not at all in a regular manner. When 
examined at all hours of darkness usually only one larva was feeding 
and the other two would be at rest. 

In the final moult the larvae change colour quite dramatically 
from a mid brownish grey to nearly black. The pattern and orna- 
mentation of all larvae are similar, only the colour changes. When 
fully grown the larva is 20 mm long and narrow with a slight anterior 
taper (Figure 3). The ground colour is now dark velvety grey, 
almost black. On the dorsal third of each segment is an irregular 
grey patch picked out with a lighter grey perimeter and there is 
also a round lateral spot of the same colour. The eight verrucae 
occur on these patches (six dorso-laterally and one on each lateral 
spot) and give rise to star-shaped clusters of shortish black hairs. 
These hairs are fairly sparse and vary in length up to about half 
the width of the body. There is a clear dorsal line which is thin 
and black, it is usually entire and bulges out to form a distinct 
patch on segments two and three. The underside is pale with no 
markings. The head is dark brown and glossy, there is one black 
verruca bearing short hairs low down on the side of each eye bulge. 
The head is larger than the first segment and the larva often sits 
in a characteristic attitude flattened onto the substrate with the 
top of the head tilted back so that the mandibles are thrust for- 
ward and easily visible. All the legs are a mid grey colour. 

The pupa is enclosed in a thin greyish cocoon with a distinct 
inner Hning. The larval skin remains attached to the pupa which 
is light chestnut brown, distinctly darker on the thorax and between 
the abdominal segments. The pupa is shiny and 13 mm long. This 
stage lasted for sixteen days and the first moth, a female, emerged 



LEGEND TO FIGURES (OPPOSITE) 

Pelosia obtusa (Herrich-Schaiffer). Fig. 1 larva about | grown and shed skin. 
Fig. 2 larva 3 grown just before hibernation. Fig. 3 larva final instar and 
pabulum growing on dead bark. Fig. 4 imagines, male on the left. All speci- 
mens bred ex imago, Norfolk Broads. Photographs C. Hart. Scale (approx.) 
Fig. I,x6; Fig. 2, X 7.5; Fig.3,x 3.5; Fig.4,x 1.5. 



196 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xi.l985 

on the 10th July 1984, a very early date which was probably due 
to the early stages being kept indoors for the previous two months. 
In an attempt to obtain a pairing the moth was kept cool but it 
died afted ten days when the second surviving pupa produced a 
perfect male. 

When these two bred specimens were set and compared it was 
noticed that there was a distinct difference in wing shape between 
the sexes. The male has a rather broad wing, both the costa and 
termen are strongly curved, and this gives the apex a blunt, rounded 
appearance. By contrast the female wing is much narrower, the costa 
is straighter and the apex has a distinctly square look. The exact 
shape of male moths is variable but all give the impression of a 
broad, stubby wing with a blunt apex. By comparison the wing 
colour is remarkably constant in each sex. The female specimens 
I have are slightly paler than the males and the spots are less dis- 
tinct but it is difficult to be certain with only two female specimens 
to hand (Figure 4). Looking at specimens illustrated in the past 
it would appear that Fletcher, (1963) illustrates a male and so also 
does Skinner, (1984). Heath and Emmet, (1979) show a male, 
and although the abdomen is clearly correct the narrow wings and 
angled apex are much more like that of a female than the photo- 
graphs referred to in the first two books. 

Acknowledgements 

I would like to record my thanks to Bernard Skinner for his 
help and advice, to Pr. David Carter of the British Museum (Natural 
History) for help in identifying the pabulum, and also to The Ento- 
mological Club whose generous grant made possible the colour 
plate. 

References 

Fletcher, D. S. (1963): Moths of the British Isles: A Supplement. 
Coridon Press, England. 

Heath, J. and Emmet, A. M. (eds), (1979): The Moths and Butter- 
flies of Great Britain and Ireland, 9, plate 5, Curwen Books, 
Plaistow, London. 

Skinner, B. (1984): Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the 
British Isles, plate 22, Viking, Middlesex, England. 




BUTTERFLIES AND BURNETS FROM MILOS 197 

BUTTERFLIES AND BURNET MOTHS FROM 
MILOS ISLAND, GREECE, END MAY 1984 

By John G.Coutsis* 

Milos, an island of volcanic origin, is situated in the Aegean Sea, 
at a latitude of approximately 36 degrees north and is the western- 
most of the Cyclades islands. It has an area of about 161 square 
kilometres and its highest peak reaches an altitude of 772 metres. 
The island's vegetation consists mainly of garique, which tends 
towards maquis in certain restricted areas. Cultivations are carried 
out mostly in wind-protected valleys. 

The main purpose of my visit to this island was to investigate 
the possible existence there of Pyrgus melotis Duponchel 1832, 
which was described from specimens that were reputedly collected 
on Milos; a fact that has been doubted by most subsequent writers. 
Despite thorough collecting at all altitudes and in most of the 
island's accessible localities, I found no evidence of the existence 
of melotis. It is hoped to resume the search at the end of April and 
beginning of May, 1985, in order to check upon the possibility of 
its being on the wing eadier in the year. 

In the course of my search for melotis, the following other 
species were recorded: 

Papilionidae 

Papilio machaon Linnaeus. A single larva observed feeding on par- 
snip in the town of Langadha. 

Iphiclides podalirius Linnaeus. Two specimens observed at Plakota, 
in the vicinity of orchard trees. 

Heridae 

Pieris brassicae Linnaeus. A few recorded in Langadha as adults and 
a great more as pupae. 

Pontia daplidice Linnaeus. A small number recorded from Paras 
-poros. 

Euchloe ausonia Hubner. Quite common and generally distributed in 
fields and waste places. All specimens of the so called 2nd brood. 
Colias crocea Fourcroy. Generally distributed and rather numerous. 
Gonepteryx cleopatra Linnaeus. In fair numbers in Rivari, Plakota, 
Mamas and Mikro Vouno. Four females belonging to the whitish 
upperside morph and one tending toward the yellowish upperside 
morph. 

*4 Glykonos Street, Athens 10675 , Greece. 



198 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xi.l985 

Satyridae 

Hipparchia aristaeus Bonelli. Identity confirmed by the genitalia. 
Generally distributed and not uncommon. Specimens relatively 
large and brightly coloured. 

Maniola jurtina Linnaeus. Generally distributed and common. Iden- 
tity confirmed by genitalia. Males, quite often, with traces of orange- 
brown patches on FW upperside; females profusely shot with orange- 
brown suffusion on all wings upperside, somewhat reminiscent of 
subspecies hispulla Esper. This character is also shared by popu- 
lations on Siphnos and Paros islands. 

Lasiommata megera Linnaeus. A single female captured in Rivari. 

Nymphalidae 

Vanessa cardui Linnaeus. Generally distributed and common. 
Vanessa atalanta Linnaeus. A few observed in Parasporos. 

Lycaenidae 

Callophrys rubi Linnaeus. A single male captured at about 600 
metres altitude on Mt. Mikro Vouno. 

Lycaena phlaeas Linnaeus. Quite common on Mt. Mikro Vouno. 

Glaucopsyche alexis Rottemburg. A few males and females still on 
the wing at places with bushes of Calicotome villosa Poiret, pre- 
sumably one of its larval foodplants. Recorded from Mikro Vouno, 
Rivari and Aghia Marina. The Milos population appears to be super- 
ficially similar to that of the islands of Paros and Siphnos. Females 
entirely black-brown on upperside and lacking blue basal dusting. 

Pseudophilotes vicrama Moore. A few recorded from Aghia Marina, 
Mamas, Rivari, Plakota and Mikro Vouno. 

Hesperiidae 

Thymelicus acteon Rottemburg. Quite common. Recorded from 
Rivari, Aghia Marina, Mamas, Plakota and Mikro Vouno. Appears 
similar to nominate subspecies. 

Zygaenidae 

Zygaena punctum Ochsenheimer. In fair numbers in Parasporos and 
Aghia Marina. 

Zygaena camiolica Scopoli. A thriving colony in Aghia Marina and 
occasional specimens in Parasporos. White rings surrounding red 
spots of FW upperside either absent or reduced. Abdominal red 
band in males either absent, or faint and narrow. 



BUTTERFLIES AND BURNETS FROM MILOS 199 

The Spring butterfly fauna of Milos appears to be quite similar 
to that of other islands in this area, such as Paros and Siphnos. 
It is characterized by the paucity of its species and by the lack of 
definable endemic subspecies. The poor vegetation of the island, 
as well as its small land mass and adverse weather conditions, no 
doubt play an important part on the island's restricted faunal com- 
position. 

References 
Coutsis, J. G., 1978. Spring Butterflies on the Greek island of 

Sifnos. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 90: 300-301 . 
Coutsis, J. G., 1981. Spring Butterflies on the Greek islands of 

Paros and Sifnos. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 93: 154-156. 



LARGE TORTOISESHELL, NYMPHALIS POLYCHLOROS (LIN- 
NAEUS) IN 1985 - It may be worth placing on record the recent 
observation by my friend Nick Mallet of a single female large tor- 
toiseshell butterfly at a bramble flower in Wanstead Park, South 
Essex, [London] , on 14th July 1985. 

The origin of this particular insect is open to question. Certainly 
I have seen no others here in the last ten years which rules out a 
remnant breeding colony! One is left therefore with two choices: 
either a genuine migrant or an escape/introduction. Contact with 
the local butterfly breeding fraternity seems to rule out the latter 
choice, (although one can never be one hundred percent certain). 
Colin W. Plant, Passmore Edwards Museum, Romford Road, 
Stratford, London, El 5 4LZ. 



EREBIA EURYALE ESP. AND THE CAMERA. - The reaction 
of Lepidoptera to particular sounds does not appear to be often 
described. I had a striking example in the Swiss Alps on July 28 
1985, while photographing in sunshine an assembly of about twenty 
E. euryale, all males, which appeared to be absorbing some mineral 
substance from a dried up puddle in a rough road. Human conver- 
sation nearby did not seem to upset them, and I was able to 
approach cautiously to within about six feet of them without 
causing disturbance. But the effect of the click when my Minolta 
camera was operated was dramatic: the butterflies without ex- 
ception rose simultaneously into the air and flew around locally. 
This was repeated later under the same stimulus by another assembly 
a few yards away. After about fifteen minutes, however, both had 
reformed in simUar numbers. - R. F. BRETHERTON, Folly Hill, 
Birfley Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey GU5 OLE. 



200 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xL1985 

A NEW SPECIES OF MEGASELIA RONDANI 

(DIPTERA:PHORIDAE) FROM 

NORTHERN BRITAIN 

By R. H.L.Disney* 

Megaselia eccoptomera Schmitz is readily distinguished from 
related species by the excavation of the basal quarter of the ventral 
margin of the hind femur and the comb of spines situated at the 
end of the concave length of this margin (Fig. 1). I have now found 
that I have been mixing up a second species with M. eccoptomera. 
This second species possesses a similarly modified hind femur 
(Fig. 2), but differs in details of the male hypopygium and other 
features. It has proved to be new to science and is, therefore, des- 
cribed below. 

Megaselia gartensis sp ji. 

6 Frons broader than high and dark. Upper supra-antennals 
shorter and much thinner than pre-ocellar bristles. Lower supra- 
antennals shorter and much thinner than uppers. Antials slightly 
below upper supra-antennals and antero-laterals, and clearly closer 
to latter. Third antennal segment and arista dark. Palps brownish and 
with 5-6 stout bristles. Labella somewhat expanded, densely 
spinose below and with a dark band above each side. 

Thorax entirely dark. Anterior scute liars reduced to hairs no 
larger than those on humeri. Three bristles on notopleuron. Meso- 
pleuron with 3-10 hairs (mean = 6). 

Abdomen with dark tergites and brownish venter. The latter 
with conspicuous hairs on segments 3-6. Hypopygium entirely dark 
and as in Fig. 4. 

Legs entirely dark, apart from paler fore tibia and metatarsus. 
Ratios of lengths of fore-tarsus segments 2.5:1:0.7:0.7:1, the last 
segment being wider than the preceeding four segments. Hind 
femur as Fig. 2. Hind tibia with dorsal hair pahsade strongly de- 
flected onto anterior face in distal quarter. 

Wing with costal index of 0.46 — 0.51. Costal ratios 2.8 — 3.5: 
1.9 - 2.4 : 1. Costal cilia 0.12 - 0.15 mm. Wing length 1.4 - 1.9 
(mean 1.7) mm. All veins brownish and membrane greyish. Sc 
clearly ends well before RI. Axillary ridge with 3-5 (2 with 3, 5 
with 4, 6 with 5) bristles. Vein 3 with a hair at base in all except 
one specimen (n = 13). Haltere with stem and knob dark. ^ not 
known apart from a gynandromorph specimen. This has a somewhat 
distorted male hypopygium but dissection revealed ovaries not 
testes. 

*FieId Studies Council Research Fellow, Department of Zoology, University 
of Cambridge, CB2 3EJ. 



A NEW MEGASELIA FROM BRITAIN 



201 






Figures. 1-3. Posterior face of hind femur; 1. Megaselia eccoptomera 
Schmitz. 2. Megaselia gartensis sp. n. 2). Megaselia coccyx Schmitz. Scale lines 
= 0.1mm. 

Figs 4-6. Male hypopygium viewed from left side: 4. Megaselia gartensis. 
5 . Megaselia eccoptomera. 6. Megaselia coccyx. Scale lines = 0.1mm. 



Holotype d" , Loch Garten, Inverness (Grid ref. 28/9818), May 
1981, J. A. Owen. Deposited in collection of author. 

Paratypes. 2 d" same data as holotype. 10 d 15*" MaUiam Tarn 
Estate, North Yorkshire (Grid refs. 34/889672 and 34/893672) 
May and June 1984, R. H. L. Disney. All deposited in collection of 
author. 

Affinities. In the keys of Schmitz and Beyer {\965) M . gartensis 
runs to M. eccoptomera. The latter is a slightly larger species. In 
British specimens the wing length exceeds 2mm. This size difference 
is reflected in numerous other measurements, such as the length of 
the hind femur (cf Figs 1 and 2). However the easiest means of 
separating the two species is by the form of the epandrium. In 
M. eccoptomera the dorsal-posterior region projects above the anal 
tube (Fig. 5), unlike the situation in Af. gartensis (Fig. 4).M. coccyx 
Schmitz has a similar, but more marked, modification of the epan- 
drium (Fig. 6). However it has no excavation of the base of the hind 
femur (Fig. 3). M. coccyx has only recently been added to the 
British List (Disney 1984). In M. sordida (Zetterstedt) the epan- 
drium is also somewhat developed postero-dorsally but less than in 



202 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xi.l985 

M. coccyx and M. eccoptomera. Its hind femur is similar to that of 
M. coccyx. 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to Dr. A. G. Irwin who gave me the Phoridae 
collected by Dr. J. A. Owen. 

References 

Disney, R. H. L., 1984. Seven species of scuttle fly (Diptera 
:Phoridae) from Scotland - New to British List. Glagow Nat. 
20:415419. 

Schmitz, H. and Beyer, E., 1965. In Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen 
der palaearktischen Region 33, Phoridae. Z/e/. 258: 5 13-560. 



MIGRATING Cynthia cardui in Tuscany. - My wife 
and I arrived at the Villa San Girolamo, run by La Piccola Compagna 
di Santa Maria, at Fiesole, on April 12th, 1985. The Villa has about 
15 acres of olive trees, with ground rich in wild flowers, and we 
were distressed to see the enormous damage suffered by the olive 
trees in the unprecedented cold spell in January of this year. On 
April 13th I went into the olive groves to see what butterflies were 
to be observed, and it was obvious at once that a very large migra- 
tion of painted ladies was going on. The groves were swarming with 
them. They appeared to be being held back by northerly winds, 
as soon as these dropped on April 18th they thinned out rapidly. 

Otherwise the most interesting butterflies seen were the two 
swallowtails, P. machaon (one only) and /. podalirius. The latter 
(several seen) had the habit of flying back and forth over the same 
piece of ground in a fearless and leisurely manner, making obser- 
vation easy. J. L. CAMPBELL, Isle of Canna. 

Deileptenia ribeata Clerck (Satin beauty) at Blair- 
gowrie, Perthshire - Two specimens of this moth were 
caught in the Rothamsted Insect Survey light trap at Kindrogan 
Field Centre, Blairgowrie, Perthshire (Site No. 48, O.S. ref. No. 
055 630) during 1984 (8/9 and 10/11 July). This species is very 
locally distributed in Scotland, having only been previously recorded 
from Ayrshire, Kirkcudbrightshire, Stirlingshire, Dumbartonshire 
(Skinner, pers. comm.) and Peebleshire {Ri\Qy, Ent. Rec. 97: 111). 
This record therefore constitutes an extension of it's known range. 

Thanks are extended to Bernard Skinner for his advice on this 
species and to our trap operator at Kindrogan Field Centre, Miss 
Lynette Borradaile. - ADRIAN M. RiLEY Rothamsted Insect 
Survey, Entomology Department, Rothamsted Experimental Station, 
Harpenden, Herts. 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW - 1984 203 

MICROLEPIDOPTERA - 
A REVIEW OF THE YEAR 1984 

Compiled by DAVID J. L. AGASSIZ* 

Once again in 1984 there was a long cold spring, followed 
by good weather in July and August. On balance it was not an 
exceptional year for conditions, but it was certainly so for the 
number of exciting discoveries. Seldom in recent years have there 
been so many additions to the British list; it is always hard to decide 
how many, for some of those listed were found previously but 
only determined or published in 1984, others yet have still to be 
identified and announced. 

Tischeria heinemanni has been discovered in Kent by N. F. 
Heal where it can be presumed to be resident, we await publication 
and further details. 1984 was a great year for Gelechiidae dis- 
coveries: Monochroa niphognatha was found in East Kent by J. M. 
Chalmers-Hunt and N. F. Heal; R. J. Heckford continuing his studies 
of Genista pilosa in Cornwall bred Syncopacma suecicella -,1116 new 
Scrobipalpula sp. reported last year by E. C. Pelham-Clinton has now 
been bred and the identity confirmed as tussilaginis . Among species 
taken a few years ago but only recently determined are Athrips 
rancidella which J. M. Chalmers-Hunt has been taking in his garden 
at West Wickliam and Scrobipalpa klimeschi which D. J. L. Agassiz 
took at Chippenham in 1972-3. 

The name aestuariella has now been given by Dr. J. D. Bradley 
to the new Coleophora species from the Essex and Kent saltmarshes. 
Among the Tortricidae B. R. Baker has found Cydia illutana in 
Berkshire, like other conifer feeders which have been added to our 
fauna in recent years this may well become commoner and more 
widespread. A specimen of Archips argyrospila was taken in Derby- 
shire by M. J. Sterling, who with his father also found a mystery 
Clepsis species in Lincolnshire which could be a newcomer to our 
shores. R. J. Heckford obtained an imported species in Adoxophyes 
privatana which has not previously been recorded from these Islands. 
The keen eye of Mr. Pelham-Clinton has added Nomophila nearctica 
to our list on account of a specimen in the collection of the late 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 

Other rare or long lost species continue to be found in sur- 
prising places. Paraclepsis cinctana occurring locally in Tiree is a 
remarkable discovery by Dr. M. W. Harper so far from its Kentish 
haunts. In a similar category is Acrolepiopsis betulella which was 
last seen over 100 years ago in Co. Durham, and has now been found 

*The Rectory, 10 High View Avenue, Grays, Essex RM17 6RU. 



204 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xi.l985 

by Dr. M. Young in West Ross. Bankesia douglasii (Stainton) 
(= conspurcatella Stt.) had also disappeared from its old localities 
to be found again in Kent and Guernsey. One wonders whether 
the reappearance of a species in two or three localities (there is a 
1985 record from Yorkshire) after a long absence has any explana- 
tion; if the insect had winged females we would more readily con- 
sider migration. 

Rhigognostis incamatella has always been an elusive species 
in its Scottish localities; having found it in the Isle of Man in 1983 
K. G. M. Bond has now produced a specimen for Ireland. The known 
range of Stenoptilia saxifragae is also extending with records from 
Yorkshire and Scotland to add to its Irish and Derbyshire popula- 
tions. Pulicalvaria piceaella from Hampshire is evidence of the 
continued presence of this conifer-feeding species, even if it remains 
scarce. 

The publication of distribution maps of species gives a new 
meaning to vice-county records. A number of records given were 
made by authors compiling maps for The Moths and Butterflies of 
Great Britain and Ireland and now that Volumes 1 and 2 are pub- 
lished there is perhaps more stimulus to entomologists to submit 
records for vice-counties where species have not hitherto been 
recorded. In addition to these there have been other important 
publications whose contents are not reproduced in this review: 
"Isle of Man: Supplementary Records" appeared in the Ento- 
mologist's Record 97: supplement (1) — (16). Migration records 
including eight species of microlepidoptera were published in Ent. 
Rec. 96: 149. Although it does not give any details of distribution 
within the U.K., Volume 13 of Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 
deals with the Scythrididae, and it is worth noting that of the twelve 
British species three have been added to our list in recent years. 

Once again I am most grateful to all those who have submitted 
records, without whose co-operation this review would be im- 
possible. These are identified by their initials: H. E. Beaumont, 
K. P. Bland, K. G. M. Bond, J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, M. F. V. Corley, 
A. M. Emmet, A. P. Foster, M. W. Harper, N. F. Heal, R. J. Heckford, 
J. R. Langmaid, R. I. Lorimer, E. C. Pelham-Clinton, A. N. B. 
Simpson, EH. N.Smith, P. A. Sokoloff, D.H.,M. J. & P. H.Sterling. 

Those records included in brackets were given in previous years, 
they are repeated simply for the sake of quoting the references. 
All records have been accepted uncritically, most constitute new 
vice-county records. Watsonian vice-counties are used and only 
their numbers are given for the sake of brevity. 

A longer duplicated list of all records submitted is available 
from the compiler — s.a.e. would be appreciated. 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW - 1984 205 

Systematic List 

ERIOCRANIIDAE 

Eriocrania chrysolepidella (Zell.) - nr. Bovey Tracey (3) 28.iv.1984 
- RJH. 

NEPTICULIDAE 

Etainia decentella (H.-S.) - Plympton (3) 20.vi.84 & 25.viii.84 - 

RJH; Melton Wood (63 25.vi.84 - HEB. 
Ectoedemia argyropeza (Zell.) - Kilbarry (H3) Tenanted mines 

12.xi.84- KGMB,New to Ireland. 
E. albifasciella (Hein.) - Ballater (92) 25.vi.84 - JRL. 
E. atrifrontella (Stt.) - Worcs. (37) - ANBS; Maulden Wood (30), 

Haugli Wood (36) mines - AME, most northerly & westerly 

records. 
Fomoria weaver! (Stt.) - Warwicks (38) - ANBS. 
Stigmella serrella (Stt.) - Glamorgan (41) - ANBS; Kynance Cove 

(1)- AME. 
S. speciosa (Frey) - Bedford Purlieus (32), Didbrook (33), Mon- 
mouth (35) - AME, New to Wales. 
S. assimilella (Sell.) - Hallyards Wood (83) vacated mines 27.X.84 - 

KPB Ent. Rec. 98: (in press). 
S. pomella (Vaugli.) - Worcs. (37), Warwicks (38) - ANBS. 
S. suberivora (Stt.) - Great Thurlow (26) - AME. 
S. roborella (Johan.) - Ballater (92) 23.vi.84 - ECP-C & JRL, 

most northerly record. 
S. svenssoni (Johan.) - Haugh Wood (36) - AME; Co. Durham (66), 

South Northumberland (67) - T. C. Dunn per AME. 
S. samiatella (Zell.) - East Sussex (14) - EC? -C Ent. Rec. 96: 140. 
S. basiguttella (Hein.) - Dinnet Oakwood, Ballater (92) 23.vi.84 - 

JRL & KPB; Chudleigh Knighton Heath (3) vacated mines 

16.ix.84 - RJH. 
S. tiliae (Frey) - Buckfastleigh (3) - AME. 

TISCHERIIDAE 

Tischeria heinemanni (Wocke) - Heme Bay (15) 11 .viii.84, Thornden 
Wood, Wliitstable (15) 18.viii.84 - NFH New to Britain. 

INCURVARIIDAE 

Phylloporia bistrigella (Haw.) - Doogary (H36) 10.vi.84 - KGMB. 
Lampronia capitella (Clerck) - Ballater (92) 24.vi.84 - MWH & 

MR. Young. 
L. fuscatella (Tengst.) - Burfield Common (22) - AME. 
Nematopogon metaxella (Hb.) — TuUamore (HI 8) 21.vi.84 — 

KGMB. 



206 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xL1985 

HELIOZELIDAE 

Heliozela resplendella (Stt.) - Howth (H21) bred, Glenveagh Nat. 
Park (H35) 1 l.vm.84 - KGMB. 

PSYCHIDAE 

Bankesia douglasii (Stt.) = conspurcatella sensu auctt. - Sitting- 
bourne (15) 6 - 19.iii.84 - NFH; Guernsey (113) l.iv.84 - 
T.N.D.Peet. 

TINEIDAE 

Infurcitinea argentimaculella (Stt.) — Canterbury (15) - ESB; 

Cirencester (33) -RJH. 
N. ruricolella (Stt.) - Whitstable (15) bred 27.vi.84 - ESB; Rainham 

(18) - G. S. Robinson, Ent. Gaz. 36: 22. 
Triaxomera fulvimitrella (Sodof.) - Whitstable (15) bred 16 - 

30.vi.84 - ESB. 
Triaxomasia caprimulgella (Stt.) - East Blean Wood (15) 19.vii.81 - 

ES^,Ent.Rec. 96: 184. 
Monopis laevigella (D. & S.) - Gleann Tuath, Islay (102) 18.V.84 - 

APE. 
M. weaverella (Scott.) - Edwinstowe (56) 8.vi.83 - MJS. 
Niditinea fuscella (Linn.) - TuUamore (HI 8) dead adult xii.84 - 

KGMB. 
N. piercella (Bent.) - Wo res. (37) - ANBS; Fingringhoe (19), 

Adventurers Fen (29) - R. Fairclough. 
Tinea columbariella Wocke — Sittingbourne (15) bred 1 - 2.V.84 — 

NFH. 

OCHSENHEIMERIIDAE 

Ochsenheimeria urella F.v R. - Glencree (H20) 21.viii.84, Doogary 

(H36) 10.viii.84- KGMB. 
O. mediopectinellus Stt. - Perrancoombe (1) 18.viii.84 - FHNS. 

LYONETIIDAE 

Leucoptera lotella (Stt.) - nr. Stover Park (3) 20.vi. & 25.viii.84 - 

RJH. 
L. malifoliella Costa - Edwinstowe (56) bred from bird's nest 

22.iii.84- MJS. 
Bucculatrix nigricomella Zell. - Ky nance Cove, Cocerack (1), 

Stradishall (26), Bedford Purlieus (32) - AME. 
B. thoracella (Thunb.) - Buckfastleigh (3), Cambridge (29) - AME; 

London SWl (21) 2.viii.84 - APF. Status discussed - AME, 

Ent. Rec. 96: 130f. 
B. crataegi Zell. — Monmouth (35) — AME. 
B. demaryella (Dup.) - Whittlewood Forest (32) - AME. 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW - 1984 207 

GRACILLARIIDAE 

Caloptilia betulicola (Her.) - Glenveagh Nat. Park (H35) ll.viii.84- 

KGMB. 
C. robustella Jackh - Edwinstowe (56) 28.vi.83 - MJS; Ballater 

(92) 23.vi.84 - ECP-C, most northerly record. 
Caly bites phasianipennella (Hb.) - Edwinstowe, Gleadthorpe (56) - 

MJS. 
C. auroguttella (Steph.) - Monmouth (35) - AME. 
Paromix betulae (Stt.) — Bissoe (1) — AME. 
P. devoniella (Stt.) - Clorhane (HI 8) 14.vi.84 - KGMB. 
P. scoticella (Stt.) - Feeding habits - AME, Ent. Rec. 96: 133f. 
P. finitimella (Zell.) - Helston (1), Whittlewood Forest (32), Did- 

brook (33) - AME. 
P. torquillella (Zell.) - Clorhane (HI 8) 14.vi.84 - KGMB. 
Phyllonorycter roboris (Zell.) - Clough Wood (57) mines 12jci.83 — 

MJS. 
P. sorbi (Frey) - Glenveagh Nat. Park (H35) bred from Sorbus 

aucuparia 1 1 .viii.84 — KGMB. 
P. junoniella (Zell.) - Warwicks (38) - ANBS 
P. spinicolella (Zell.) - Maulden Wood (30) - AME;Dunboyne 

(H22) bred 10.iv.84 - KGMB. 
P. corylifoliella f. betulae Zell. - East Ham (18) -C.W. Plant, 

Ent. Rec. 96: 179. 
P. dubitella (H.-S.) - Matlock (57) bred - MJS. 
P. spinolella (Dup.) - Maulden Wood (30) - AME. 
P. cavella (Zell.) - Barton Mills (26) - AME. 
{P. staintoniella (Nic.) - Life history & description - K}Y{,Ent. Gaz. 

35: 73f0. 
P. quinqueguttella (Stt.) - St. Keverne (1) - AME; Woodbury 

Common (3) bred, Braunton Burrows (4) 22.vi.84 - RJH. 
P. insignitella (Zell.) - Heme Bay (15) bred - NFH. 

PHYLLOCNISTIDAE 

Phyllocnistis xenia Her. - nr. Canterbury (15) - NFH, Ent. Rec. 
96:98. 

GLYPHIPTERIGIDAE 

Glyphipterix schoenicolella Boyd — Lough Nacung (H35) two 

12.viii.84,Pollardstown Fen (H19) two 15.viii.84 - KGMB. 
G. equitella (Scop.) - Dovedale (38) 16.viii.84 - MJS. 
G. haworthana (Steph.) - Warwicks (38) - ANBS. 

DOUGLASIIDAE 

Tinagma ocnerostomella (Stt.) - Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe NNR 
(54) f.c. 1 .vii.84 — HEB, most northerly record. 



208 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15..\i.l985 

YPONOMEUTIDAE 

Argyresthia glabratella (Zell.) - Ordie (92) 23.vi.84 - JRL. 

A. dilectella (Zell.) - Ilkeston (57) 25.vii.84 - MJS. 

Kessleria saxifragae (Stt.) - Fionchra, Rhum(104) 8.vii.84 - MFVC. 

Zelleria hepariella Stt. - Saffron Walden (18) - AME. 

Pseudoswammerdamia combinella (Hb.) — Denaby Ings (63) 31. v. 84 

-HEB. 
Cedestis gysseleniella (Zell.) - Greno Wood (63) 6.viii.84 — HEB. 
Ocnerostoma friesei Svensson — Hayburn Wyke (62) 19. v. 84 — HEB; 

Shapwick (6) reared 13.xi.84 from 1. 13.ix.84, 3rd brood - 

AME. 
Scythropia crataegella (Linn.) - Dovedale (38) 7. vii.84, Hilton (57) 

4.vi.84 - MJS. 
Ypsolopha mucronella (Scop.) — Axminster (3) v.vi.84 — ECP-C. 
Plutella ponectella (Linn.) - Orpin ton (16) 1. on Hesperis half- 
grown ii.84, suggesting overwintering as a larva — PAS. 
Rhigogfiostis incamatella (Steud.) - Pallaskenry (H8) 14.iv.- — 

Rothamsted trap per KGMB. 
Acrolepiopsis betulella (Curt.) - Inverpolly NNR (105) v.84 - 

M. R. Young, new to Scotland. Ent. Gaz. (in press). 

EPERMENIIDAE 

Cataplectica profugella (Stt.) - Grays (18) 27.vii.84 - DJLA. 
Epermenia insecurella (Stt.) - Royston (20) 23 .vii.84 - ECP-C & 
AME. 

COLEOPHORIDAE 

Coleophora lutipennella (Zell.) — West Haigh Wood, reared vii.84, 

Denaby Ings (63) 21. vii.84 - HEB. 
C. coracipennella (Hb.) — Woodthorpe (54) case on ornamental 

Prunus sp. — HEB. 
C. milvipennis Zell. - Dinnet (92) 25.vi.84 - JRL, most northerly 

record; Flanders Moss NR (87) 1 l.vi.81, Craighall Gorge SSSI 

Blairgowrie (89) a case 14.vii.81 - KPB, Ent. Rec. 98: (in press). 
C. limosipennella (Dup.) - Leckford (12) three cases on Ulmus 

9.viii.84-DHS&JRL. 
C. hydrolapathella Her. - Catfield (27) - AME. 
C. fuscocuprella H.-S. — Winchester, four cases, Emer Bog (11) 

eight cases 4.xi.84 - DHS & JRL. 
C. juncicolella (Stt.) - Budby (57) 3. v.84 - MJS. 
C. potentillae Elisha - Chudleigh Knighton Heath (3) cases x.84, 

Woodbury Common (3) cases 28.X.84 - RJH. 
C. trifolii (Curt.) - Braunton Burrows (4) 22.vii.84 - RJH. 
C. conyzae Zell. - Gwithian (1) cases on Inula conyza 27. v. 84 — 

RJH. 
C. lithargyrinella Zell. Capperleuch Hazelwood (78) cases on Stel- 

laria holostea 10.iv.84 - KPB. 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW - 1984 209 

C. lixella Zell. - Pettycur (85) cases l.iv.84 - KPB, Ent. Rec. 98: 

(in press). 
(C ochrea {Hz^ .) - Kent (15) - NFH,^^/. Rec. 96: 132f). 
C. pyrrhulipennella Zell. - Badby (57) 3.V.84 - MJS. 
(C serpylletonim Her. - Kent (15) - NFH, Ent. Rec. 96: 107). 
C. genistae Stt. - Muir of Dinnet (92) 24.vi.84 - KPB, Ent. Rec. 

98: (in press), Mount Hermon (1) cases 7.vi.84 - RJH. 
C. inulae Wocke - Heme Bay (15) 2.vii.83 - ESB. 
C. gardesanella Toll - larva on Artemisia vulgaris - JRL, Ent. Gaz. 

36:46. 
C. argentula (Steph.) - Pettycur (85) viii. 83, Longniddy & GuUane 

(88), 1 .ix.83 - KPB, Ent. Rec. 98: (in press). 
C. virgaureae Stt. - Fealer Gorge (89) 20.ix.83, Beinn Lawers NNR 

(88) l.ix.84, Pettycur (85) 30a.84 - KPB, Ent. Rec. 98: 

(in press); Laytown (H22) 22.vii.84 - KGMB. 
C. adspersella Ben. - Mornington (H22) 22.vii.84 - KGMB. 
C. versurella Zell. - Misson (57) 8. viii. 84 - MJS. 
C. deviella Zell. - Peldon (19) bred 1 - 31.vii.84, SheUness (15) 

bred - NFH, Ent. Rec. 96: 164; Southsea (1 1) 26 & 31.viii.84 

-iRL, Ent. Gaz. ^6■.A6. 
(C aestuariella Bradley - St. Osyth (19) - AME; Harty (15), Peldon 

(19) bred from Suaeda maritima - NFH, Ent. Gaz. 35: 137- 

140). 
C. tamesis Waters - Great Bendysh Wood (19) 8.vii.83 - AME; 

Lechlade (37) 5.viii.80 - MFVC. 
C. alticolella Zell. - larva on seeds of Luzula campestris — M. G. M. 

Randall, £«/. Gaz. 35: 225f. 
C. maritimella Newm. - St. Osyth (19) - AME. 
C. adjunctella Hodgk. - Bull Island (H21) 6.vii.84 - KGMB. 
C. caespititiella Zell. - Stepaside (H21) 16.vi.84 - KGMB. 
C. salicomiae Wocke - Gibraltar Point (54) 28.vii, 1 l.viii.84 - MJS. 
C. clypeiferella Hofm. - Whitstable (15) 28.vii.84 - ESB. 

ELACHISTIDAE 

Perittia obscurepunctella (Stt.) - Blean (15) l.v.77 - ESB; Chy- 

verton (1) 24.V.84 - P. N. Siddons per FHNS. 
Elachista biatomella Stt. - Braunton Burrows (4) 26.vii.84 - RJH. 
E. alpinella Stt. - Orkney (1 1 1) - RIL. 
Biselachista trapeziella (Stt.) - Arniston Mains (83) two bred: 

from Luzula sylvatica Maggie Bowies Glen (83) from Luzula 

pilosa - KPB, New to Scotland, Ent. Rec. 98: (in press). 
B. utonella (Frey) - Bull Island (H21) 6.vii.84 - KGMB. 
Cosmiotes stabilella (Stt.) - Wo res. (37) bred from Brachypodium 

pinnatum — ANBS. 

OECOPHORIDAE 

Batia lunaris (Haw.) - Braunton Burrows (4) 25.vii.84 - RJH. 



210 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.\i.l985 

Esperia oliviella (Fabr.) - Blean (15) 29.vii.84 - ESB. 
Amphisbatis incongmella (Stt.) — Kynance Cove (1) - AME, ECP-C 

etc. 
Diumea fagella (D. & S.) - Unusual pupation site - G. G. Irwin, 

Ent.Rec.9e:2^1t 
Depressaria ultimella Stt. — nr. Perranporth (1) pupae in stems of 

Apium nodiflomm — RJH & FHNS. 
D. pimpinellae Zell. — Threshfield (64) bred from Pimpinella saxi- 

fraga — JRL. 
D. pulcherrimella Stt. — Thorne Moor (14) 1. on Pimpinella saxi- 

fraga - RJH. 
D. weirella Stt. - Dovedale (38) 14.V.83 - MJS. 
D. silesiaca Hein. — 1. on Tanacetum vulgare — JRL, Ent. Gaz. 36: 

54. 
Agonopterix purpurea (Haw.) — Rathconnellwood (H19) 17.viii.84 

- KGMB. 
A. propinquella (Treits.) — Edwinstowe (56) — MJS. 
{A. kuznetzovi Lvov. — Mt. Hermon & Mullion Cove (1) — RJH; 

Description & life history - ECP-C & JRL, Ent. Gaz. 35: 

67-72). 
A. ulicetella (Stt.) - nr. Lizard (1) 1 . on Genista pilosa — RJH. 
A. carduella (Hb.) — Stockbury (15) 1. on Centaurea nigra - NFH. 
A. conterminella (ZelL) — Braunton Burrows (4) 22.vii.84 - RJH. 
A. astrantiae (Hein.) - Herefs. (36), Cranham Wood (33) - MWH. 
A. yeatiana (Fabr.) — Mount Lothian Marsh (83) 26.viii.84 - KPB, 

Ent. Rec. 98: (in press). 
A. capreolella (ZelL) - Clorhane (H18) 14.vi.84 - KGMB. 

ETHMIIDAE 

Ethmia bipunctella (Fabr.) - Dinton (8) 24.vi.84 - S. M. Palmer, 
Ent. Rec. 91 -.12^. 

GELECHIIDAE 

Metzneria aprilella (H.-S.) - Saffron Walden (19) 16.vii.84 - AME. 
Eulamprotes wilkella (Linn.) - Gibraltar Point (54) ll.viii.84 - 

MJS. 
Monochroa tetragonella (Stt.) - Gibraltar Point (54) 28.vii.84 - 

MJS. 
M. conspersella (H.-S.) - Delting Hill (15) 23.vi.81 - NFH. 
M. homigi (Staud.) - Grays (18) 14.vii.84 - DJLA. 
M. niphognatha Gozm. - Stodmarsh (15) 8.vii.84 - NFH & JMC-H, 

Ent. Rec. 97: 20-22 New to Britain. 
M. suffusella (Doug.) - Matley Bog (11) 30.vii.84 - DHS & PHS. 
M. elongella (Hein.) - Braunton Burrows (4) 26.vii.84 - RJH. 
Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunb.) - Mornington (H22) 22.vii.84, 

Langness (71) 21.viii.84 - KGMB. 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW 1984 211 

Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) — Herefs. Museum (36) 1. eating corn 

dollies! - WNW,Ent. Rec.91: 108. 
Parachronistis albiceps (Zell.) — Edwinstowe (56) vii.83 — MJS. 
Pulicalvaria piceaella (Kearf.) — Winchester (11) 10.vii.84, 9.vii.84 — 

TiWS.Ent. Rec.91: 139. 
Athrips rancidella (H.-S.) — West Wickham (16) New to Britain — 

]UQ-\\,Ent. Rec.91: 22-24. 
Teleiodes notatella (Hb.) - Steeple Bumpstead (19) - AME. 
T. wagae (Now.) - Clorhane (HI 8) 14.vi.84 - KGMB; Wye (15) 

viii.79-ESB,£«r. /?ec. 96: 125. 
T. paripunctella (Thunb.) - Edwinstowe (56) 24-30.vii.83 - MJS. 
Bryotropha basaltinella (Zell.) - Grays (18) vi.83 & 84 - DJLA. 
B. similis (Stt.) — Great Holland Pits (19) 22.vi.82, previous Essex 

record based on misidentification — AME. 
B. mundella (Doug.) - Tregirls nr. Padstow (1) 20.vi.84 - FHNS. 

B. senectella (Zell.) - Roundwood (H20) 14.vii.84, Mornington 

(H22) 22.vii.84 - KGMB; Whitstable (15) 26.viii.84 - ESB. 
Chionodes fumatella (Dougl.) — Saffron Walden, Wickham Bishops, 

Markshall Wood, Fingringhoe Wick (19) — AME. 
Lita solutella (Zell.) — Aberdeenshire (92) — R. P. Knill-Jones. 
Neofriseria singula (Stand.) - South Stifford (18), Enfield (21) - 

DJLA. 
Pexicopia mdvella (Hb.) - Canterbury (15) 1 . on Althea rosaea - 

ESB. 
Scrobipalpa nitentella (Fuchs) — Laytown (H22) 22.vii.84 — 

KGMB. 
S. klimeschi Pov. .— Chippenham Fen (29) 22.vi.72 & 6.vi.73 New 

to Britain, — DJLA, Ent. Gaz. Paper in preparation. 
Scobipalpida tussilaginis (Frey) — East Devon (3) two bred 28, 

30.V.84 from larvae on Tussilaginis New to Britain — ECPC, Ent. 

Rec. 96: 252. Further paper in preparation. 
Caryocolum mamioreum (Haw.) — Tregirls (1) 20.vi. & 16.viii.84 — 

FHNS. 

C. blandella (Dougl.) — Iron Tors (57) 1. on Stellaria holostea 

12.V.84-MJS. 
Reuttia subocellea (Steph.) — Pitt Down (11) cases 29jci.84 — 

DHS & PHS. 
Syncopacma larseniella (Gozm.) — Blean (15) 4.viii.84 — ESB; 

Ventongimps Moor (1) bred — FHNS. 
S. vinella (Bankes) - Ditchling (14) 18.vi.84 from 1.19.V.84 - 

NFH. 
S. suecicella (Wolff) — nr. Lizard (1) 1. on Genista pilosa 30.V.84, 

em. 23 .vi. — 13.vii.84 New to Britain - RJH, Publication 

awaited. 
Acanthophila alacella (Zell.) - Highcliffe (1 1) - E. H. Wild ; Wye ( 1 5) 

viii.77 -ESB,£«r. /?fc. 96: 125. 



212 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15. \i. 1985 

Anacampsis temerella (L. & Z.) - Cornaigbeg, Isle of Coll (103) 
bred 27 — 31.vii.84 from 1. 25.vii.84 on Salix repens, New to 
Scotland - KPB, Ent. Rec. 98: (in press). 

A. blattariella (Hb.) - Edwinstowe (56) 18.vii.83 - MJS. 

Telephila schmidtiellus (Heyd.) — Grays (18) bred — DJLA. 

Brachmia inomatella (Dougl.) — Stodmarsh (15) 8.vii.84 — NFH. 

Oegoconia quadripuncta (Haw.) - Wickliam Bishops (19) - AME. 

O. caradjai P-G & C. - Braunton Burrows (4) 25.vii.84 - RJH. 

MOMPHIDAE 

Mompha conturbatella (Hb.) - Bullers Hill, Haldon Hill (3) ex 1.2 - 

23.vii.84- RJH. 
M. lacteella (Steph.) - Duddenhoe End 5.vii,82, Elmdon (19) 

8.viii.83 — AME; Halstead (19) Rothanisted Research Station 

per AME. 
M. propinquella (Stt.) — Edwinstowe (56) 1 2.iii.84 — MJS. 
M. divisella (H.-S.) — Perrancoombe (1) bred from Epilobium 

montanum 19 & 22.viii.84 - FHNS. 
Cosmopterix orichalcea Stt. — Central Cornwall (2) ll.vi.84 — 

P. N.SiddonsperFHNS. 
C. lienigiella L. & Z. - Stodmarsh (15) 8.vii.84 - NFH. 
Limnoecia phragmitella Stt. — Stover Park (3) 1. in Typha heads 

29.iv.84 - RJH. 

SCYTHRIDIDAE 

Scythris fallacella (Schlag.) - Grassington (64) 29.vii.84 - ECP-C. 
{S. sinensis (Feld. & Reg.) - k?'P,Ent. Gaz. 35: 141-3). 

COCHYLIDAE 

Hysterosia sodaliana (Haw.) - Dovedale (38) 7.vii.84, Via Gellia 

(57) 1.2.ix.84-MJS. 
Commophila aeneana (Hb.) - S. E. Notts. (56) vii.84 - MJS, Ent. 

Rec. 91 -.29. 
Cochylidia implicitana (Wocke) — Wykeham Forest (62) viii.82 — 

WEB, Ent. Rec. 96: 84. 
Cochylis pallidana Zell. — nr. Lizard (1) 7.vi.84 — RJH. 

TORTRICIDAE 

Archips argyrospila (Walker) — Matlock (57) 29.iv.84 - MJS, New 

to Bni2An,Ent.Rec.91: 51. 
Choristoneura diversana (Hb.) - Wychwood (23) 21.vi.84 - PHS. 
Clepsis sp. - Gibraltar Point (54) bred 30.V.84 from 1. 2.V.84 - 

DHS & MJS; probably new to Britain, determination awaited. 
Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) - Hove (14) - R. Craske; 1. on 

Pinus muricata — T. G. Winter, Ent. Gaz. 36: 46. London 

S.W. (17) 26.vi.83. J. Burge per C. W. Plant, Ent. Rec, 97: 

67. 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW - 1984 213 

Adoxophyes privatana (Walker) - ex 1. on imported orchids from 

Marks & Spencer - RJH. 
Paraclepsis cinctana (D. & S.) - Tiree (103) - MWH, New to Scotland. 
Neosphaleroptera nubilana (Hb.) - Lindrick Common (63) 23.vii.84 

-HEB. 
Eana incanana (Steph.) - Cann Woods, Plympton (3) 8.vi.84 - 

RJH. 
Spatalistis bifasciana (Hb.) - Central Cornwall (2) 10.vii.84 - P. N. 

Siddons per FHNS. 
Celypha ntfana (Scop.) - Stodmarsh (15) 8.vii.84, Murston (15) 

16.vii.84-NFH. 
Olethreutes bifasciana (Haw.) - Denaby Ings (63) 7.vii.84 - HEB. 
Endothenia pullana (Haw.) - Blean (15) 1 .viii.84 - ESB. 
Bactra furfurana (Haw.) - Braunton Burrows (4) 25.vii.84 — RJH. 
Ancylis upupana (Treits.) - Ashdown Forest (14) 9.vi.84 - NFH. 
Crocidosema plebejana (Zell.) - Oxfordshire (22) - MFVC, Ent. 

Gaz. 35: 94. 
Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Ratz.) - Glencree (H21) 21.vii.84, 

Stepaside (H21) 15. viii.84 - KGMB. 
Epiblema turbidana (Treits.) - Saffron Walden (19) 16.vii.84 - 

AME. 
Eucosma pupillana (Clerck) — Edwinstowe (56) - MJS. 
Rhyacia buoliana (D. & S.) - 1 . on Picea breweriana in Surrey (17) 

' - T. G. Winter, Ent. Gaz. 35: 82. 
Strophedra weirana (Dougl.) - Herodsfoot (2) 25.vi.84 - FHNS. 
S. nitidana (Fabr.) - Cumbria (69) - E. F. Hancock, Ent. Rec. 

96: 185f. 
Pammene obscurana (Steph.) - Loch Rannoch (88) 19.V.84 - KPB. 
P. fasciana (Linn.) - Ballater (92) 27.vi.84 - ECP-C, most northerly 

record. 
P. germmana (Hb.) - Friday Woods (19) 10.vi.84, Boustead Grove 

(19) 24.vi.84 - J. Young per AME. 
Cydia molesta (Busck) - Kelstedge (57) bred from a peach 7. v. 83 — 

B. Elliot per MJS. 
C lunulana (D. & S.) - Elland (63) 9.vi.84 - HEB. 
C. pactolana (Zell.) - Botley Wood (1 1) 8. vi. 84 - PHS. 
C. coniferana (Ratz.) - Raven Point (HI 2) 26.vii.1984 - 
KGMB. 
C. illutana (H.-S.) - Berks. Downs (22) 15.vi.84 - B. R. Baker. 

Ent. Gaz. 36: 97-101. New to Britain. 

ALUCITIDAE 

Alucita hexadactyla (Linn.) - Orpington (16) 1. in flowerbuds of 
Lonicera xylosteum late viii.84 — PAS. 

PYRALIDAE 

Euchromia ocellea (Haw.) - Extra records - B. F. Skinner, Ent. 
Rec. 96: 9S. 



214 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xi.l985 

Crambus ericella (Hb.) - Scar Close, Ribblehead (64) 28.vi.84 - 

ECP-C. 
Catoptria margaritella (D. & S.) - Dover (15) 26.vii.84 - G. H. 

Yo\xA&n,Ent.Rec.91:21. 
Platytes alpinella (Hb.) - Whitstable (15) 13.viii.84 - ESB. 
Eudonia vandaliella (H.-S.) - Tintern (35)1 .vii.84 - MJS. 
Parapoynx obscuralis (Grote) — Enfield (21) in nurseries 1984 — 

DJLA. 
P. diminutalis (Snellen) - Holloway (57) 12.iv.74 - F. Harrison, 

det. MJS, indoors . 
Evergestis extimalis (Scop.) - Winchester (1 1) 12.viii.84 - DHS. 
Sitochroa palealis (D.& S.) - Winchester (11) 19 & 31. vii.84 -DHS. 
Eurrhypara perlucidalis (Hb.) — Murston (15) 14.vii.84, Stodmarsh 

(15) 8 - 21.vii.84 - NFH; Saffron Walden (19) 18.vii.84 - 

AME; Friday Woods (19) 17.vii.84 - J Young per AME; East 

Ham (18) 1 5. vii.84 - C. W. Plant, ^'nr. /?ec. 96: 188. 
Anania stachydalis (Germ.) - Berechurch Dyke (19) 8.viii.84 - 

J. Young per AME. 
Nascia cilialis (Hb.) - Saffron Walden (19) 8. vii.84 - AME. 
Nomophila nearctica Munroe — New to Britain - ECP-C, Ent. 

Gaz. 35: 155f. 
{Daraba laisalis (Walk.) - K. F. Webb & Sir John Dacie, Ent. Rec. 

96: 1300- 
Hypsopygia costalis (Fabr.) — 3jci.83 — M. N. McCrea, Ent. Rec. 

96: 186. 
Dioryctria mutatella (Fuchs) — Saffron Walden, Good Easter, 

Boxted (19) 1984 - AME, Berechurch Dyke (19) 1984 - 

J. Young per AME. 
(Zophodia grossulariella (Hiibn.) - Chestfield (15) 30.iv.83 — J. 

Roche, Ent. Rec. 96: 177) = convolutella auctt. 
Ancylosis oblitella (Zell.) - Wytham Woods (23) 19 & 20.viii.84 - 

PHS. 
(Euzophera bigella (Zell.) - Saffron Walden (19) - AME, Ent. Gaz. 

35: 154). 
Ephestia parasitella (Stand.) — South Stifford & Grays (18) — 

DJLA; Faringdon (22) 14.ix.84 - MFVC. 
Plodia interpunctella (Hb.) — Perrancoombe (1) — FHNS. 
Homoeosoma sinuella (Fabr.) - East Blean (15) 19.vii.84 — ESB; 

Edwinstowe (56) 12.vii.83 - MJS. 

PTEROPHORIDAE 

Crombrugghia distans (Zell.) — Lakenheath (26) over 50, 14.viii.84 

- MJS. 
Buckleria paludum (Zell.) — Bicton Common (3) 28.vii.84 — RJH. 
Platyptilia calodactyla (D. & S.) - Halstead (19) vii.84 - Rotham- 

sted Research Station per AME. Not near Solidago. 
P. isodactylus (Zell.) - Pendover (1) 16 & 17. v. 84 - FHNS. 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW - 1984 215 

Stenoptilia saxifragae Fletcher — Threshfield (64) 27.vi.84 - ECP-C; 

Knaresborough (64) 1983 - J. B. Jobe, Ent. Gaz. 35: 256. 

Paisley (76) 27.viii.84 - J. E. Morgan, Ent. Rec. 97: 96, New 

to Scotland. 
Leioptilus carphodactyla (Hb.) - St. Mary's Bay, Brixham (3) ex 1. 

on Inula conyza, three 23 — 27.viii.84 — RJH. 

Corrections to the Review for 1983 (Ent. Rec. 96 245-258) 

GRACILLARIIDAE 

Phyllonorycter staintoniella (Nic.) was not recorded from St. Agnes, 
but nr. Perranporth. 

GELECHIIDAE 

Scrobipalpula sp., now identified as tussilaginis (Hein.) was not 
recorded from Dorset (9) but from Devon as given above. 



ACHERONTIA ATROPOS L. IN Cape Town - In the interesting 
article "The Immigration of Lepidoptera to the British Isles in 
1984" {Ent. Rec. 97: 140 ff) it is stated on p. 142 that "pupae (of 
atropos) are known to require temperatures of 70° F or higher" 
to survive in Europe. I spend each English winter in Cape Town, and 
have been breeding atropos there for about 20 years. 

The moths, which overwinter in the pupal stage, emerge in 
November and there are at least two broods during the summer 
months (average pupal time is six weeks) but larvae pupating during 
the latter part of April or early May do not produce moths until 
the following November. The winter night temperatures around 
Cape Town go as low as 39° F and are regularly in the 40-50oF 
range. 

The larvae are extremely common in the Cape Town suburbs, 
yet comparatively few moths appear in my m.v. trap. Does its' 
known ability to escape from bee hives enable it to leave the m.v. 
trap at will? H. L. O'HEFFERNAN, 24 Green Park Way, Chillington, 
Kingsb ridge, Devon TQ7 2HY. 

Occurrence of Noctua orbona Hufn. (Lep.:Noctuidae) 
IN North Hampshire. - On the night of 7th September 1984 
one male Noctua orbona was caught at m.v. light at Weyhill (SU 
303461), followed by one female the next night, and another 
male on the 15th September 1984. 

Again in 1985 the species has turned up at the same locality, 
with one male specimen at m.v. on 9th July. Several of the speci- 
mens were very fresh and I think represent local breeding. This is 
as far as I am aware the only record for V.C.I 2 since the early 
1950's. - M. J. R. Jordan, Stanford House, Weyhill, Andover, 
Hants. 



216 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL.97 15.ix.l985 

THE GENUS OBRIUM (COL., CERAMBYCIDAE) 
IN GREAT BRITAIN : A RE-APPRAISAL 

By Raymond R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann* 

Three species of Obrium are recorded from central Europe 
(Freude, 1966), of which the third, Obrium bicolor Kraatz, does 
not occur in this country, being confined to the southern parts of 
the Continent, Lower Austria and Czechoslovakia. The remaining 
two species, Obrium cantharinum L. and Obrium brunneum F., 
have been found with very few exceptions in areas limited either 
to what are nowadays the suburbs of northern Outer London, in 
the case of O. cantharinum, or to a few counties south of the 
Thames in that of O. brunneum. 

Excluding Broxbourne, Herts., (Davis, 1833), which lies almost 
on the borders of the adjacent county of Essex, some 20 kilometres 
from, and on the perimeter of a circle having Wanstead as its centre; 
Great Coggleshall, well to the north-east of the latter county; a 
Kentish locality, teste Mr. A. A. Allen, where it was apparently 
found in some numbers by the late Professor Theobald; East Sussex, 
five repetitive records (Stephens, 1831, 1839;Janson, 1863; Fowler, 
1890, 1905); and a solitary specimen from Devonshire (Perkins, 
1929), O. cantharinum has only been taken in a fairly circumscribed 
region north of the Thames. That area embraces such famous col- 
lecting grounds as the Epping and Hainault Forests, besides some 
tracts of ancient woods, formerly the parklands of private estates: 
of these, for example, Wanstead Park is one and Dagnam Priory 
another. It is from the Essex localities, Wanstead House in particular, 
that numbers of O. cantharinum were once found in some quantity 
— and, it is suspected, not a few of these specimens, imagines and 
bred-out larvae, later turned up in the stock of entomological sup- 
pliers, to be sold to Coleopterists interested in the acquisition of 
what is one of our rarest Longicorns: so rare indeed, that it has not 
recurred in this country for something like sixty years. 

Assuming that our oldest records of O. cantharinum (Curtis, 
1825; Stephens, 1831; Davis, 1833) are correctly attributed to this 
species and not confounded with O. brunneum — an easily perpe- 
trated mis-identification — for the latter was unrecorded in Great 
Britain until the 1930s, witness one specimen in the E. C. Bedwell 
collection. Castle Museum, Norwich, standing under the label of 
O. cantharinum, placed alongside a genuine example, sine data, 
of the latter; it is in fact our other species, O. brunneum, captured 
by Cox near Pulborough (Harwood and Cox, 1939), the details 
of which have been kindly confirmed by Dr. A. G. Irwin of the 

*Bedfords Cottage, Pharisee Green, Dunmow, Essex, CM6 UN. 



THE GENUS OBRIUM IN BRITAIN 217 

Castle Museum in litt.: this requires the deletion of West Sussex 
from the distributional lists (Kaufmann, 1948). 

There is evidence to suggest that some dubiety exists over the 
correct determination of the two British species; O. cantharinum 
is regarded as a veiy scarce European beetle, associated with deci- 
duous growths (which include presumably fruit trees, such as the 
apple), Rosa canina and willows; O. bmnneum, on the other hand, 
is given as the commonest of the three beetles, exclusive to coni- 
ferous trees, especially pines and firs (Freude, 1966). 

Although O. cantharinum has been so very infrequently found 
in this country [''England, South of Herts.; very rare;" (Joy, 1932)], 
there is the possibility that it may still occur in one or other of the 
old copses and woods containing broad-leaved and wild fruit trees 
north of the London area; it should certainly not be written off as 
extinct; there are parallel instances, such as Strangalia revestita L., 
once regarded as a doubtfully indigenous insect (Kaufmann, 19462); 
and the highly localised Molorchus umbellatamm Schreber vis-a-vis 
M. minor L. (Kaufmann, 1947). In the state of our present know- 
ledge O. cantharinum is so scarce that it is, perhaps like Judolia 
sexmaculata L. was, successfully eluding the collector. 

Earlier evidence suggests - if it is not extinct - that O. cantha- 
rinum may yet occur in very restricted places in Essex. It is felt that 
the singleton from Bovey Tracy sent to and correctly validated by 
T. H. Edmonds (Perkins, 1929) is exceptional and insufficient a 
guide to its turning up again so far westwards, whereas O. bmnneum 
is slowly extending its limits through our southern counties (Kauf- 
mann, 1947). 

There is a wide diversity in the specific descriptions given in the 
texts consulted (Curtis, 1825) via (Fowler, 1890) to the later 20th 
century authors (Joy, 1932; Duffy, 1952) for O. cantharinum, 
and particularly the more recent works (Freude, 1966; Harde, 
1984) for O. bmnneum. The two species are referred to (Linssen, 
1959), but only O. cantharinum is described and figured. E. W. 
Janson, 1863, British Beetles, characterises and delineates O. can- 
tharinum: plate XXVII, figure 240, drawn by J. Curtis, is unques- 
tionably that species. 

O. cantharinum and O. bmnneum must be seen side-by-side 
so as to make a correct determination: it is not the good fortune 
of every private collection that contains either insect, let alone ex- 
emplars of both. 

There is a useful little dichotomous table (Harwood and Cox, 
1936) separating the two species, but the feature which really 
distinguishes cantharinum from bmnneum - size and colour are 
unreliable characters - lies in the breadth of the space between 
the lower half of the reniform eyes as seen from above; the distinc- 
tion is clearly shown in the figures accompanying Freude's 1966 
text. Harwood and Cox use a different eye-gauge in their tabu- 
lation; this could stiU lead to some confusion. 



218 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xi.l984 

What has been impHed in the paragraph supra is summarised 
in a fresh table of comparison based upon descriptions given by 
nine different authors, covering the early 19th century to 1984. 
The summary is as follows:— 



Obrium cantharinum L. 

Eyes: Black. 

Space between eyes 
smaller than vertical 
eye -length. 

Colour: Orange-red, terra cotta 
or dark brown. 



Obrium brunneum F. 

: Black. 
Space between eyes as 
broad as, or broader in ° 
than vertical eye-length. 

: Yellow-brown to dark 
brown. 



Legs & rusty -brown to blackish; 
Antennae: (?, legs black). 

Thorax: Disc shinier, lightly 
punctured. 

Elytra: Clearly and thickly, 
if irregularly 
punctured; more so 
than the thorax. 



Lighter brown. 



Disc dull, distinctly 
punctured. 

Heavily and more regularly 
punctured than 
the thorax. 



Length: 5 — 11 mm. 

Mean length: 7.96 mm. 
5 larger than 6 . 
Generally larger than 
O. brunneum. 



4 — 7 mm. 

Mean length: 5.37 mm. 

Generally smaller than 
O. cantharinum. 



Habitat: Deciduous trees. 



: Coniferous trees. 



O. cantharinum is a very rare insect which was formerly 
common in one or two places; O. brunneum is a local beetle of 
which a few rather than multiple examples have been taken at any 
one time. 

". . . this pretty species ..." (Stephens, 1831); "A very graceful 
and pretty species . . ." (Fowler, 1890): these two remarks, the one 
echoing the other, refer to O. cantharinum; they cannot in all truth 
be said of O. brunneum, which, apart from its long antennae, is a 
duller-looking Longicorn resembling superficially, say, Gracilia 
minuta F., in colour and appearance. Nevertheless, can it be 
that some if not all the specimens collected south of the Thames 
(Stephens, 1831, 1839; Fowler, 1890, 1905) were thought to be 
O. cantharinum, O. brunneum not having been 'discovered' until this 



THE GENUS OBRIUM IN BRITAIN 219 

century (Harwood and Cox, 1936)? Mr. Allen in a letter expresses 
the view that this would have been a natural enough error. It does 
not explain, however, why an example of brunneum (taken by Cox) 
should have been placed, presumably by Bedwell himself, along- 
side a genuine cantharinum in the same collection and under the 
same label of Obrium cantharinum. There is an important proviso: 
quite a number of Bedwell's specimens have been re-mounted in 
recent years and "arranged in cabinets". [See Darby, M., ^ bio- 
graphical Dictionary of British Coleopterists: page 43, (Cyclostyled 
Sheets, n.d., ca. 1984.)] . Such a re -arrangement may have led, 
understandably enough in the circumstances, to an error in the 
placement of Cox's brunneum specimen, juxtaposed to the Bedwell 
example of the real O. cantharinum. The mistake is further com- 
pounded by the presence in Bedwell's collection of two specimens 
taken by Cox, conspecific with brunneum, and correctly labelled 
as such. 

Details about the distribution of our two Obrium species were 
pubUshed nearly forty years ago (Kaufmann, 1947, 1948); since 
these may not readily come to hand they are repeated here, together 
with the somewhat meagre fresh data that have since been garnered. 

It remains to add a word about habitat: O. cantharinum has 
been recorded from crab apple trees, aspen and poplar; it may be 
associated with either oak or birch — this seems a little unclear 
(Perkins, 1929). There are no British data listing it from rose or 
willow trees. As with O. bicolor, it has not been found on conifers 
of any sort. 

O. brunneum, on the other hand, inhabits the twigs and dead 
branches of pine, various firs, spruce and the (deciduous) larch 
(Saunders, 1939; Kaufmann, 1947; Allen, 1955; Harde, 1984). 
It may also be swept from Umbellifers and flowering hawthorn, 
particularly if these are growing near the evergreens mentioned 
(Harwood and Cox, 1936; Kaufmann, 1947; Harde, 1984). 

Months of capture are usually June — July for Obrium cantha- 
rinum and May — August for O. brunneum. 

The latter species is at its commonest in the afforested moun- 
tain areas of central Europe (Harde, 1984); that hardly applies to 
this country. 

Obrium cantharinum L. 

"In the Cabinets of Mr. Sparshall and the Author." (Curtis, 1825). 
Curtis {op. cit.) adds that J. Sparshall informed him "that a male 
and female of our insect were taken by Mr. Henry Doubleday in 
a garden . . .", infra North Essex. The Curtis collection is now in the 
National Museum, Melbourne, Australia. There are three specimens, 
all without data labels, in the T, F. Stephens collection, British 
Museum (Natural History) - (BMNH). There are several data-less 
examples in BMNH, such as one collected by Weaver, purchased 



220 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15. \i. 1985 

in Rannoch; two in coll. Sharp, bought from Desvignes; one, taken 
by Dr. J. A. Power in coll. T. Wood; one in coll. Power, ex. coll. 
Pascoe; and half-a-dozen specimens, all unprovenanced. 

EAST and/or WEST KENT (?): Prior to or shortly after the 
Great War 'freely in a Kentish orchard' according to information 
supplied by Professor Theobald to the late Dr. A. M. Massee (Mr. 
Allen in lift.); East Kent is only quoted briefly (Kaufmann, 1948), 
based on a detail given by Dr. Massee. 

EAST SUSSEX: Near Brighton, taken by Mr. Raddon (Stephens, 
1831, 1839;Janson, 1863; Fowler, 1890, 1905; Kaufmann, 1947, 
1948). Hastings (F. W. Hope), ISpp. Hope Dept. Ent. 

HERTFORDSHIRE: "... Several pairs of this extremely rare insect 
have been recently taken at Broxbourne, Herts, by Mr. Bond, a 
diligent collector. Having met with one or two flying in an outhouse, 
he was induced to examine the building, when he discovered, from 
some holes in the rafters, that they were, in all probability, bred in 
the timber. On further examination, he found that the rafters were 
made either of the common poplar or the aspen, and, as is fre- 
quently the case in country buildings, had been used without strip- 
ping off the bark. On removing the bark, he procured several more 
of the perfect insect and one larva. 1 have a piece of the bark which 
shows the path of the larva and the place of exit of the imago. 
The outhouse has been erected about eighteen months, and the 
timber had been purchased from the park of J. Bosanquet, Esq." 
(Davis, 1833). The above record is reproduced in full as the first 
volume of the periodical in which it appeared is a scarce book- 
collector's item. Broxbourne (Stephens, 1839; Janson, 1863; 
Fowler, 1890; Elliman, 1902; Joy, 1932; Kaufmann, 1947, 1948). 
A Coleopterist's Handbook, 1975, 2nd ed., revised by Cooter, 
J. and Cribb, P. W., states on page 93 that Obrium cantharinum 
occurs in Populus, "in wood and under bark of aspen". This 
note on the pabulum is no doubt taken from the earlier authors' 
references. 

NORTH ESSEX: Great Coggleshall, a d and a ? taken by H. Double- 
day in a garden, 15.VII.1823, off apple tree leaves; another d "close 
to the same tree", 10.VIII.1824, on a nearby plant (Curtis, 1825; 
Kaufmann, 1947, 1948). Both sexes, resting on a twig of flowering 
Pyrus malus (Malus sylvestris) are illustrated in Curtis. 

SOUTH DEVON: Bovey Tracy, a singleton, summer 1929, emerged 
from a decayed birch stump picked up in a nearby lane and taken 
home in 1928 (Perkins, 1929), now in coll. BMNH. 



THE GENUS OBRIUM IN BRITAIN 221 

SOUTH ESSEX: a 9, VII, 1824, found by Blunt on aspen bark 
near Wanstead House. (Curtis, 1825; Stephens, 1831, 1839; Fowler, 
1890; Harwood, 1903; Kaufmann, 1947, 1948); Wanstead, one, 
bred from bark, 1860 (Power) in coll. G. C. Champion; five exam- 
ples from bark, VI. 1861 (Power); one specimen "collected for 
3rd year from aspen bark" (Power); six beetles collected by E. H. 
Robertson. All these specimens are in the BMNH collections (Fowler, 
1890; Donisthorpe, 1898; Harwood, 1903; Walker, 1932; Kauf- 
mann, 1947, 1948); a d" from the same locality, caught by E. H. 
Robertson, ex. coll. W. Janson (Kaufmann, 19461), now in coll. 
Uhthoff-Kaufmann, Manchester University Museum; Mr. Allen 
also has a Wanstead cantharinum from the same source, similar 
data; Leytonstone, no details (Stephens, 1839; Fowler, 1890; 
Harwood, 1903); near Epping, taken by Doubleday, "two of them 
on an apple-tree. . . and a third by . . . Mr. Blunt." (Stephens, 
1831, 1839; Fowler, 1890; Harwood, 1903). It is suggested that 
the Stephensian records — later repeated — are mistaken and that 
they really refer to Curtis' original ones from north Essex. Epping, 
Leytonstone and Wanstead all lie close to what remains of Epping 
Forest which, last century, must have spread over a much wider 
region. 

WEST SUSSEX: The Pulborough record is erroneous (Kaufmann, 
1947, 1948) and should be expunged. 

Ob Hum brunneum F. 

DORSET: Wimborne, a single beetle beaten from hawthorn flowers 
by P. Harwood, 27. V. 1936 (Harwood and Cox, 1936; Kaufmann, 
19462, 1948); some further examples in August, 1939, close to the 
same vicinity (Harwood and Cox, 1939); Witchampton, two speci- 
mens captured by Dr. A. M. Massee in June, 1936 (Kaufmann, 
19462); 11.VI.1939, captor Massee, in coll. BMNH; also in this 
locality, ca. 1951-52, found by P. Harwood; Badbury Rings, same 
period and collector. 

EAST KENT: Ham Street Woods, singly off spmce, 15.VI.1963 
and 11. VI. 1964 (A.A.Allan), first discovered there by Dr. Massee; 
1 1. VI. 1963 (Massee) in coll. BMNH. 

EAST SUSSEX: Laughton, beaten off oak growing near Scots 
firs, 1.VII.1939, one example (Saunders, 1939; Harwood and Cox, 
1946; Kaufmann, 1947, 1948). 

SOUTH HANTS.: New Forest, a pair on a pine log, July or August, 
1954, found by A. M. Robertson (Allen, 1955); a singleton, captor 
D. Appleton, 1974. 



222 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xi.l985 

SURREY: Dunsfold, taken by Professor J. A. Owen in June, 1982, 
by beating the dead lower branches of spruce. This is a very modern 
record confirming the continuing spread through the southern 
counties of the species. 

WEST SUSSEX: Near Storrington (=Parham Park), one swept in 
the neighbourhood of pines, 1 .VI. 1936, by L. G. Cox (Harwood and 
Cox, 1936; Kaufmann, 19462, 1947, 1948); Parham Park, on May 
blossom, 5.VI.1951 (Cox), A. M. Massee collection in coll. BMNH.; 
Pulborough (=Parham Park), in small numbers close to the original 
locality (Harwood and Cox, 1939), including a cT, dated 1. VI. 1939, 
found by Cox, now in coll. Bedwell, Norwich; two further specimens 
captured by Cox in Parham Park, 5. VI. 1939, also in the Bedwell 
collection; several taken from the Park by Cox on July 1st, 1939 
(Saunders, 1939). 

Acknowledgements 

Grateful thanks for their information and help are accorded to 
R. J. W. Aldridge, Esq., Dept. of Entomology, British Museum 
(Natural History), A. A. Allen, Esq., Dr. A. G. Irwin, Castle Museum, 
Norwich, Mrs. B. Leonard, Librarian, Royal Entomological Society 
and Professor J. A. Owen. 

References 

Allen, A. A., \955,Procraems tibialis Lac. (Col., Elateridae), Hylot- 

rupes bajulus L. and Obrium brunneum F. (Cerambycidae), 

etc, in Hants., En t.mon Mag. 91 :140. 
Curtis, J., \S,25, British Entomology, 2: 91-2, pi. 91, London. 
Davis, A. H., 1833, Obrium cantharinum, Ent. Mag., 1 :90. 
Donisthorpe, H. St. J. K., 1898, Notes on the British Longicomes, 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 10:246-9. 
Duffy, E. A. J., 1952, Handbooks for the Identification of British 

Insects, V: Part 12, Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, London. 
Elliman, E. G., 1902, Coleoptera in Vict. County Hist. Herts., 1. 
Fowler, W. W., 1890, The Coleoptera of the British Islands, 4, 

London: 

1905, Coleoptera in Vict. County Hist. Sussex, 1. 

Freude, H., Harde, K. W. and Lohse, G. A., 1966, Die KaferMittel- 

europas, 9, Krefeld. 
Harde, K. W., 1984, A Field Guide in Colour to Beetles, EngUsh ed., 
Hammond, P. M., London. 
Harwood, P. and Cox, L. G., 1936, Obrium brunneum, Fab., A 

Species of Coleoptera (Longicornia) new to the British List, 

Ent. mon. Mag. 72: 149; 
1939, Obrium brunneum Fab. (Col., Longicornia) in 

Dorset and Sussex, ibid., 75:208. 



THE GENUS OBRIUM IN BRITAIN 223 
1946, Status of Obrium brunneum Fab. (Col., Longicornia) 

in Britain, /Z)/6^., 82:303. 
Harwood, W. H., 1903, Coleoptera in Vict. County Hist. Essex, 1. 
Joy, N. H., 1932, A Practical Handbook of British Beetles, 2 vols., 

London. 
Kaufmann, R. R. Uhthoff-, 19461 , British Longicorn (Col.) Records, 

Ent. mon.Mag. 82: 103-4; 
1946.2, On some doubtful or rare Longicornia (Col.) 

included in the new Check List of British Insects, ibid., 82: 

181-5; 
1947, Obrium cantharinum L. and O. brunneum F. (Col., 

Cerambycidae) in Great Britain, /Z>/g?., 83:77-8; 
1948, Notes on the Distribution of the British Longicorn 

Coleoptera, /Zj/c?., 84:66-85. 
Kloet, G. S. and Hincks, W. D., 1977, A Check List of British 

Insects, 11 (3), Coleoptera and Strepsiptera, 2nd ed., London. 
Linssen, E.F., 1959, Beetles of the British Isles, 2 vols., London. 
Perkins,' R. C. L., 1929, Obrium cantharinum L. in Devon, Ent. mon. 

Mag. 65:261. 
Saunders, C. J., 1939, Obrium brunneum Fab. (Col., Longicornia) in 

Sussex, /Zj/c?., 75:208. 
Stephens, J. F., 1831, Illustrations of British Entomology, Mandi- 

bulata, 4, London. 

\S39,A Manual of British Coleoptera, London. 

Walker, J. J., 1932, The Dale Collection of Coleoptera, £«f. mon. 

Mag. 6S:105-S. 



DEILEPHILA ELPENOR L. (ELEPHANT HAWK-MOTH) IN S.DEVON - 
further to B. K. West's aricle on elpenor {Ent. Rec. 97: 113-117), 
my records for this species go back about 20 years. It is the com- 
monest hawk-moth in my m.v. trap, followed by Sphinx ligustri and 
Laothoe populi in about equal numbers. Warm weather in late May 
sometimes produces single specimens, but June and July are best, 
with none being recorded after the first week in August. During 
July 1983, 85 moths were recorded, with 13 the best catch on one 

night. . 

The larvae are commonly found on fuchsia {Fuchsia magellanica) 
and the moths like honeysuckle. A few years ago, on 31st May I 
obtained a few eggs from a dying moth, accidentally killed by 
insecticide. Two hatched on the same day and throughout their 
lives had identical instar periods; both pupated on the same day 
in the same container. One emerged in September, the other the 
following June. H. K. O'HeffernaN , 24 Green Park Way , Chilling- 
ton. Kingsb ridge, Devon TQ7 2HY. 



224 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xi.l985 

THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE 
BRITISH ISLES IN 1984 

By R F. BRETHERTON * and J. M. Ch ALMERS-HUNT * * 

{concluded from p. 185) 

AGRIUS CONVOLVULI L. (imagines 29, larvae c.30, pupae 5). 
BERKS. Shrivenham, 19.8, almost full grown larva (S. Nash, Ent. 
Gaz. 36: 37). DORSET Portland B. O., Larva photographed 12.9. 
ESSEX S. Bradwell-on-Sea, imagines 22.7, 25.7, 30.7 (SD), 
29.7 (AJD). HANTS S. Hayling Island, imago at buddleia 7.7 (JMW). 
HANTS N. Oakley, imago outside window 22.9 (AHD). KENT E. 
Greatstone, 19.10, dead larva (TWH). KENT W. East Mailing, 3.9, 
larva on lawn, pupated next day (MAE, Ent. Rec. 96:288); Dart- 
ford, 30.9, male imago (BKW). LINCS N. Marsh Chapel, 21.7, larva 
(JD); South Thoresby, imago 9.8, Alford, mid 9, full grown larva 
(REMP). NORFOLK E. Hickling, imagines 29.7, male, 30.7, female, 
both worn (TNDP). SOMERSET N. Western-sub-Mendip, larvae 
11.9, 16.9 found pupating, 28.9, pupae 4.10, two, 13.10, two 
(NWL, Ent. Rec. 97: 26-27). SURREY Leigli, 23.7, worn imago 
(RF). SUSSEX E. Imagines: Rye, mid June, at flowers (P. Baylis); 
Camber, 18.6 (CRP); Ringmer, 9.8 (A. Batten); Ninfield, 25.8 (MP); 
Lullington Heath, 16.9 (MP); Lewes, 3.10 (P. Newnham); larvae: 
Plumpton, 28.9 (B. Fordham); Ringmer, 30.9 (B. Edgar); Rye, 
28.9 full grown, green form (P. Baylis). SUSSEX W. Imagines: 
West Dean, 25.7 (C. Robinson); Pagham, 5.8 (R. Lord); Walberton 
(J. Radford); Petworth (S. Church). WARWICKS. Pailton, 26.7, 
female imago (Dr. Greenwood). WESTMORLAND Beetham, 12.9 
(JB). WORCS. Pupae, Little Comberton, 29.9, 4.10, imago emerged 
26.11 (C. Grove). YORKS. (V.C.61 and V.C.62). No imagines, 
but nine larvae positively identified and anotlier eight or ten repor- 
ted (PQW): Brompton-by-Sawdon, 11.9, two full grown (C. I. 
Massey); Ganton, c.19.9 (M. Robinson); Flixton, 26.9 two, 29.9, 
and c.six earlier (several recorders); Burton Fleming, 27.9, one 
diseased in garden and a few earlier (T. A. Potter); Seamar, 1.10, in 
school field (J. Childs). GLAMORGAN RhosseH, imagines c.12.6, 
2.9 very worn (BJMN). GUERNSEY 2.9, imago; late 9, four larvae, 
fuU grown (TNDP). 

ACHERONTIA ATROPOS L. (imagines 9, larvae c.ll9, pupae 
11). BERKS. Shrivenham, larva 18.9 (S. Nash, Ent. Gaz. 36: 77). 
DORSET Cheselbourne, 16.8, up to three imagines Dr. J. Norman 
(per NRW); Church Knowle, 18.9, six larvae (NRW). GLOS. N. 
Lechlade, 26.9, full grown larva on woody nightshade {Solanum 
dulcamara), 19.10, three, 21.10, (R. Singleton, E. W. Classey, 

*Folly Hill, Birtley Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey GU5 OLE. 
**1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent BR4 9LG. 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA 1984 225 

Ent. Gaz. 36: 78, 30). HANTS, N. Chilbolton, c.20.9, two larvae. 
HANTS. S. Larvae: Timsbury, 12.9 (DHS);Soberton, 18.9, full grown 
(JRL, Ent. Gaz. 36: 54). HUNTS. Wiston, 12.9, two fuU grown 
larvae (Mrs. M. S. L. Simpson, 5w//. amat. Ent. Soc. 44: 25). HERE- 
FORD S. Putley, 20.8, imago; Kingstone, 17.9, full grown on forsy- 
thia, imago emerged 21.12 (MWH). KENT E. Stone Street, Canter- 
bury, 12.8, dead on road, (H. Harris), Larvae: Kingsnorth, 27.7, 
three on potato patch (TWH); Aylesford, 29.8, eight (M RE, £'«?. 
Rec. 96: 288); Biddenden, 11.9, one on clematis, soon died (Miss 
D. Dunstan); Nonington, 21.9, brown form, 18.10 (M. Gambrell); 
Maidstone, five on potato, early 10 (BKW); Selling, 17.10 (S.Coulton); 
Preston near Wingham, 30.9, 20.10 (M. Kemp). Pupae: Snargate, 
8.10 (Mrs. Wheal); Faversham, 16.10 (Lyons). KENT. W. Larvae: 
Farnborougli, 30.7, male emerged (PAS); West Wickham, 1 1.9, two 
full grown (R. F. Birchenough); Higham, mid 9, (Mrs. Bengly); 
between Shorne and Higham, late 9, three (L Ferguson); Longfield, 
near Gravesend, 12.10 (Mrs. Crawley). Pupa: Isle of Grain (A. 
Smith). LANCS. N. Lancaster, 16.8, full grown larva (PJB). OXON. 
Larvae: Overmorton, September, two: Oxford District, one (PHS). 
LINCS. N. Somercotes, two larvae injured in potato field (per 
REMP). SOMERSET N. Westbury-sub-Mendip, larvae: 3/8.9, c.25 
on potato patches, all pupated by 1 1.9; 9.9., three, 11.9, four, 16.9, 
four half grown; 25/30.10, c.l2; pupae: 9.9., 18.9, 4.10 two, 13.10 
two (NWL, Ent. Rec. 97: 26-27); Hinton Charterhouse, 18.9, two 
full grown larvae (BWM, Ent. Rec. 97: 36). SURREY Larvae: 
Haslemere, 26.8 (JSCT); Ripley, 8.9, fuU grown (AJH). SUSSEX E. 
Larvae: Plumpton, 28.9, full grown (B. Fordham); Lewes, c.1.10, 
full grown (L. Cousens); Hailsham, early 10 ("Living World", per 
CRP). SUSSEX W. Imago: Goring, 21.7, caught by day on beach 
(DD). WARWICKS. Loxley, 10.10, one larva and two pupae by 
potato pickers, 22.10, full grown larva on jasmine (per DCGB). 
WORCS. Pershore, 19.9, on potato (P. F. Whitehead, Ent Gaz. 36: 
77); Drakes Broughton, mid. September, full grown larva; Little 
Comberton, 20.9, imago emerged 4.12 (per JEG). YORKS (v.c.62) 
Imagines: Scarborougli, 15.8, found on wall of beach chalet; 18.9, 
one on fishing boat c.80 miles north east of Scarborough (per PQW). 
CAITHNESS Huna, 28.9, "large moth stung to death by bees", 
identified from description and photo in local newspaper (S. 
Swanson). GUERNSEY mid September, four full grown larvae 
(TNDP). ALDERNEY 20.9, larva (TNDP). 

DAPHNIS NERII L. SUSSEX W. Worthing, 25.6, found 
damaged and dead, passed to Miss B. Stonier for identification 
(Worthing Naturalists' Report, 1983/1984: 37). 

LYMANTRIA DISPAR L. GUERNSEY males at light 19.8, 
24.8, 13.9. (TNDP). 

*EILEMA GRISEOLA Hb. CO. CORK Fountainstown, 23.8, 
female. First confirmed Irish record (AAM). Probable immigrant. 



226 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xi.l985 

*EILEMA COMPLANA L. WESTMORLAND Beetham, 1.8. 
Possibly immigrant, see L. quadra. 

*LITHOSIA QUADRA L. WESTMORLAND Beetham, 28.7, 
three, 29.7, two, 31.7, nine, 1.8. (JB, Ent. Rec, 97:13). The dates 
suggest immigration of the three last footmen moths; otherwise a 
massive internal migration from distant areas of residence. It was 
also reported from Trebrownbridge, East Cornwall, 26.7, 29.7; 
from West Sussex, West Dean, 6.8 (C. Robinson per CRP); and 
Wychwood, Oxon, no date (CWDG), 

*EUPLAGIA QUADRIPUNCTARIA Poda. CORNWALL E. 

Sheviock, 22.8, 25.8, at Ught (SCM); Mt. Edgecombe, 28.8, 
in garden (per SCM). DORSET Portland B. 0., 18.8, 21.8. SUSSEX 
E, Play den, 7.8, at light (MWFT). Possibly immigrants, if not spread 
from South Devon. 

*CLOSTERA ANACHORETA D. & S. KENT E. Dungeness, 
2.6 (CW?, Ent. Rec, 96:211). 

AGROTIS PUTA Hb. CO. CORK Fountainstown, 23.8, female. 
First confirmed Irish record. (AAM). Probable immigrant. 

AGROTIS CRASSA Hb. CO. CORK. Fountainstown, 20.8, 
male (AAM). First Irish record; no confirmed record for Britain, 
but resident in Channel Islands. 

*EUROIS OCCULTA L. (19) HANTS S. Winchester, 1.8, pale 
form (DHS). HERTS. Much Hadham, 14.8, very worn female (DEW). 
LINCS N. Gibraltar Point, 11.8, pale form (MJS), 27.8 (REMP); 
South Thoresby, 9.8, 11.8, 26.8, 27.8, 29.8 (REMP). NORFOLK 
E.West Somerton, 14.8, two (BG). YORKS. (V.C. 60.Rudston, 

24.7, female, 27.8, male (A. S. Ezard); Muston, 27.8, male, 28.8, 
female (PQW). YORKS. (V.C. 62) Wykeham Forest, between 20.8 
and 2.9, female (PQW). ORKNEY Sterness, 3.8 (E. R. Meek); 
Scorradale, 17.8, male, worn (RIL). 

*DISCESTRA TRIFOLII Hufn. CO. CORK Fountainstown, 
20.8 (AAM). Probably immigrant. 

MYTHIMNA ALBIPUNCTA D. & S. (17) CORNWALL W. 
Lizard, 20.8, two at sugar (RJR), 23.8, tliree (NMH); Kynance, 

25.8, five (NMH). CORNWALL E. Sheviock, 20.8; Trebrownbridge, 
21.8 (AS). DORSET Lodmoor, 26.8 (MC). ESSEX S. Bradwell-on- 
Sea, 1 .1 1 (AJD). ESSEX N. Little Oakley, 22.8 (AME). SUSSEX E. 
Peacehaven, 28.8 (CRP). SUSSEX W. Walberton, 1 .1 1 (J. Radford). 

MYTHIMNA VITELLINA Hb. (6) CORNWALL E. Trebrown- 
bridge, 21 .8 (AS). ESSEX S. Bradwell-on-Sea, 8.10 (AJD). SURREY 
Buckland, 10.11 (CH). SUSSEX W. Walberton, 9.11 (J. Radford 
per CRP); Petworth , 1 1 .1 1 , two (SC). 

MYTHIMNA UNIPUNCTA Haw. (14) CORNWALL E. Tre- 
brownbridge, 1.11 (AS). ESSEX S. BradweU-on-Sea, 27.10, 1.11, 
6.12, 24.12 (AJD, SD). HANTS S. Hayling Island, 21.10, 21.12 
(JMW). SUSSEX E. Peacehaven, 5.12 (CRP). SUSSEX W. Walberton, 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA 1984 227 

23.10, 1.11, 28.11, 3.12 (J. Radford per CRP), Petworth, 12.11 
(SC). ARGYLL Barcaldine, 14.10 (JCAC). 

MYTHIMNA LOREYI Dup. DORSET Charmouth, 29.8 (RJR). 

TRACHEA ATRIPLICIS L. GUERNSEY St. Saviour's 28.7 
(R. Austen per TNDP). First Channel Islands record. 

*ENARGIA PALEACEA Esp. KENT E. Orlestone Forest, 31.7 
(J. Fenn, Ent. Rec. 96: 215). Probably immigrant. 

*AMPHIPOEA Species not yet determined. YORKS. (V.C.61) 
Rudston, 30.8/5.9, with night peaks in trap 1.9 (17) and another of 
eleven (A. S. Ezard per PQW); Muston, 28.9, three, 30.8, three, 
31.8, thirteen (PQW). Winds on these dates were north west; this 
seems to have been an internal migration, possibly from the North 
Yorkshire moors. 

SPODOPTERAEXIGUAHb. BERKS. Uffmgton, 3.8 (E. W. 
Classey, Ent. Gaz. 35: 256). CORNWALL W. Lizard, 14.9 (DCGB); 
Coverack, 16.9 (BRB). CORNWALL E. Sheviock, 24.8 (SCM); 
Trebrownbridge, 24.8 (AS). ESSEX S. Bradwell-on-Sea, 9.7, 21.7, 
31.7, two, 7.8, 3.9 (SD). HANTS S. Ashurst, 1.8 (S. W. Pooles); 
Hayling Island, 25.7, 8.8 (JMW). SUSSEX E. Peacehaven, 30.7 
(CPR), Ninfield, 30.7 (MP). WARWICKS.Charlecote, 6.8 (AG), 13.9 
(DCGB). WILTS. S. Trowbridge, Ashton Common, 12.8 (EGS). 
GUERNSEY, 25.7, 27.8 (TNDP). 

*HELIOTHIS MARITIMA Graslin. CORNWALL S.Porthleven, 
23.7, rather worn (N. Gill). 

HELIOTHIS PELTIGERA D. & S. (3) CORNWALL E. Sheviock, 
11.9 (SCM). ESSEX N. Little Leighs, 19.7 (AME). NORFOLK W. 
Downham Market, 20.8 (JKMH). 

TRICHOPLUSIA NI Hb. ESSEX S. BradweU-on-Sea, 12.8, 
two (AJD). 

*TRISATELES EMORTUALIS D. & S. KENT E. Orlestone 
Forest, 31.7, male (JLF, Ent. Rec. 96: 215). GUERNSEY Le 
Chene, 22.7. First island record, probably immigrant (TNDP). 

Annexe II 

Late Records 

DIASEMIOPSIS RAMBURIALIS Dup. ESSEX S. Matching, 
13.7(RF). 

RHODOMETRA SACRARIA L. DEVON S. Axminster, 4.8 
(E. C. Pelham-Clinton). KENT W. East MaUing, 16.9 (D. A. Cham- 
bers). SOMERSET N. Lympsham, 10.9, 11.9, four, 13.9, two 
(E. C. Pelham-Clinton). YORKS (v.c. 63), Firbeck, 2.9; East Dean, 
27.9 (per S. M. Jackson). YORKS (v.c .65), Sharrow Grange, Ripon, 
7.9., 16.9 (per S. M. Jackson). 

AGRIUS CONVOLVULI L. KENT E. Dymchurch, 10.8 (J. 
Owen). 



228 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.ix.l985 

*EUROIS OCCULTA L. SUSSEX E. West Dean, 13.8 (C. Robin- 
son per CRP). 

MYTHIMNA UNIPUNCTA Haw. GUERNSEY 17.10 (TNDP), 
1.12 (P.'Costen per TNDP). 

SPODOPTERA EXIGUA Hbn. DEVON S. Axminster, 4.8. 
(E. C. Pelham-Clinton). KENT W. East Mailing, 6.8. (D. A. 
Chambers). 

HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA Hbn. DORSET Swanage, 30.9 
(PJB, ibid.). 

HELIOTHIS PELTIGERA D. & S. CORNWALL E. Lostwithiel, 
25.6, two (FHNS). 

Additional records have also been received of the following 
commoner immigrant species: V. atalanta: Hants. S., Woodfidley, 
21.1, two seen flying; Yorks (v.c. 61), few after slow start, but 
frequent September and October: first Knaresborough 20.4, last 
23.12. C cardui: Yorks (v.c.61), Filey, 20.9; Guernsey, 16.8; 
Herm, 18.8. C crocea: Cornwall E. & W., two ; Devon S., one; Kent 
W., one; Yorks (v.c. 62), eight. M.stellatarum: Yorks (v.c.61), 
two; Comwall W., two and larvae 25.8; Carmarthens, Ammanford 
24 and 25.7.^. ipsilon: Axminster, 10.6/28.10, only few;Comwall 
W., Coverack, 17.9,many; Yorks (v.c.63), two. 

Notes and Observations 

Chorisops nagatomii Rock. (Diptera:Stratiomyidae) : 

FURTHER records FROM THE METROPOLIS - The recent note 
by A. A. Allen on Chorisops nagatomii Rock, from south-east 
London, {Ent. Rec. 97: 33), prompts me to place on record two 
captures made during the course of field work by staff at this 
Museum. Whilst not pre-dating Mr. Allen's first record for the 
metropolitan area, they nevertheless indicate a spread of this species 
into the region. The data are as follows:— 

Hither Green N. R., Lewisham, [West Kent] : 5.ix.l984 (P. 

Kirby); Wanstead Park, [South Essex] : Sept. 1980 (C. W. 

Plant). 
Both specimens are preserved in the general reference collections 
at this Museum. - COLIN W. PLANT, Passmore Edwards Museum, 
Romford Road, Stratford, London, El 5 4LZ. 

Late capture of Chloroclystis chloerata. Mab. (Sloe 
PUG) — A female of this species was captured in one of the 
Rothamsted Insect Survey light traps which operate on the station's 
grounds in Harpenden, Hertfordshire (Site number 34, Allotments, 
O.S. ref TL 134 134) on the night of 29/30.vii.l984. The identity 
was confirmed by examination of the genitalia. This species usually 
flies in May and early June. Adrl\N M. RILEY, Entomology Dept., 
Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 229 

PAROCYSTOLA ACROXANTHA MEYRICK (LEP.: OECOPHORIDAE) 
AT Camborne IN CORNWALL - A single male of this species was 
recorded at the Rothamsted Insect Survey light trap at Rosewarne 
Experimental Horticultural Station, Camborne, Cornwall, (Site 
No. 114, O.S. ref. SW 642 411) on the night of 2/3.vi.l985 and was 
kindly identified by J. M. Chalmers-Hunt. 

This species is probably an accidental import from Australia 
or New Zealand and has only previously been recorded from Devon 
(Jacobs, S. N. A. Illustrated papers on the British Microlepidoptera 
pp 117-1 18. BENHS 1978) and Somerset (Youden, G. H. Ent. Rec. 
95: 103). This capture therefore constitutes an extension of its 
known range and a new county record for Cornwall. 

The flight period is stated to be May to September, and it is 
probably bivoltive (Anon. A Field Guide to the Smaller British 
Lepidoptera p. 106. BENHS 1979, and Youden loc. cit.). This 
record is one of the few first brood examples noted to date. The 
larva is said to feed on Eucalyptus though I understand that wild 
larvae have not yet been found in Britain. The trap operator, Mr. 
W. Herring, informs me that Eucalyptus is grown there. 

Thanks are extended to Mr. J. M. Chalmers-Hunt for identifying 
the specimen, Mr. B. Skinner for his advice and Mr. W. Herring for 
his continued and much appreciated help to the Rothampstead 
Insect Survey in operating the trap at Rosewarne. ADRIAN M. 
RiLEY, Rothampstead Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. 
[An interesting account of rearing this species in Britain is given 
by Allen, A. A. (1979) Proc. Trans. Br. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 12:58 - 
P.A.S.] . 

TROX SCABER (LINNAEUS) (COL . : TROGIDAE) AT M.V. LIGHT IN 
ESSEX.- It may be of interest to place on record the capture of two 
examples of the uncommon bettle Trox scaber (Linnaeus) at 125 
watt m.v. in my garden at East Ham, South Essex, TQ 430828, on 
the night of 30th June/ 1st July 1985. Trox is an uncommon genus 
in Britain, represented by three species, of which T. scaber is ap- 
parently the more widespread. As an alleged feeder in birds nests it 
may be reasonably expected to be quite abundant throughout its 
range, yet the only other Essex record available at this Records 
Centre is the singleton taken at Warwick Wood, Aveley, South 
Essex, also at 125 watt m.v., on the night of 18th July 1984, and 
recognised on this occasion by my friend and former colleague 
Paul Hyman. 

It is interesting to note the similarities between the general 
weather pattern on the two occasions, and that on both nights 
the trap also attracted migratory Lepidoptera such as Udea olivalis, 
Peridroma saucia and Xestia c-nigrum. Could it be that Trox scaber 
is a migrant?! - COLiN W. PLANT, Passmore Edwards Museum, 
Romford Road, Stratford, London, E15 4LZ. 



230 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.xi.l985 

The White Letter Hairstreak, strymonidia w-album 

KNOCH. IN ALDERNEY, C. I.: POSSIBLY THE FIRST RECORD - My 
wife and I, along with Mr. D. Poole, were in Alderney from July 
27th to Aug. 10th 1985 on holiday and to study the Lepidoptera 
and plant life. On July 28th while overlooking the valley Val du Sud 
I cauglit a glimpse of an insect which I felt could possibly be a 
hairstreak. I knew of no hairstreak on the island other than the 
green hairstreak which I had seen on a previous visit. 

The Val du Sud is quite a deep (by Alderney standards) wooded 
valley, the trees being mainly sycamore and elm bordered by haw- 
thorn bushes. 

We returned to the same spot on July 31st hoping to get a posi- 
tive sighting. Before long we were rewarded and apart from several 
specimens flying around the elms two w-album came down onto the 
bracken only a few feet away. One was netted and identification 
confirmed. 

Thinking that another wooded area, Val de la Bonne Terre, 
would also be a likely habitat for this insect we went there on Aug. 
1st. Within minutes we could see a number of w-album around 
the trees and others flying over, and settling on the bracken. Proba- 
bly all the suitable sites in Alderney harbour this butterfly. One 
even came into the garden of our cottage in the small township 
of St. Anne. 

I can find no previous record of this butterfly for Alderney 
which is surprising as it is apparently very well established, although 
I have to admit I failed to find it when visiting Alderney in August 
1980. 

I would like to thank those people on Alderney who were so 
very helpful and kind. For a loan of a moth trap and battery etc. 
and to those who allowed us to run the trap within their gardens 
in various parts of the island and to those who gave us free access 
to private land. - G. E. HIGGS, The Cottage, Willen, Milton Keynes, 
MK15 9AD. 



Current Literature 

Nordens Malere. Handbog over de danske og feiinoskandiske arter 
af Drepanidae og Geometridae (Lepidoptera), by Peder Skou. 

Danmarks Dyreliv, 2:1-332, 358 line drawings and half-tone 
illustrations and 24 coloured plates. 250mm. x 175 mm., 
hardback. Fauna B^iger & Apollo B0ger, 1984. Obtainable 
from Apollo B(?!ger, Lundbyvej 36, DK-5700, Svendborg, 
Denmark. Price (including postage D.Kr.433 (about £30). 
This volume on the Drepanidae and Geometridae of Denmark 
and Fennoscandia will be of much interest to British lepidopterists 



CURRENT LITERATURE 231 

because the fauna of these countries has much in common with that 
of the British Isles. The text, predominately in Danish, gives a 
description of the imago of each species, the flight and larval periods, 
distribution, habitats, foodplants etc. The black and white figures 
include many hne drawings of genitalia and half-tones of larvae, 
as well as reproductions from photographs of habitats, and illustra- 
tions clearly showing the alar characters distinguishing species of 
simUar appearance. The 988 coloured figures on the 25 plates, 
taken fiom photographs of set specimens and apparently all re- 
produced natural size, are among the most realistic we have seen of 
the moths in these groups. The relevant captions are conveniently 
placed opposite the coloured plates with, in addition to the name 
of each species figured, the essential data with every specimen 
shown, thus adding much to the interest and authenticity of the 
book. ' Incidentally, the following minor errors to the captions in 
plate 1 should be noted: fig. 24 is of Tetheella fluctuosa, fig. 26 is 
of Tethea or. A map of Denmark and Fennoscandia showing the 
provinces, is followed by a series of tables giving the distribution 
of each species in these provinces, as well as an indication of their 
recorded occurrence in the following countries: Estonia, Latvia, 
Lithuania, Poland, Holland, Great Britain and Ireland. - J.M.C.-H. 

Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland by J. Heath, E. PoUard 

and J. A. Thomas. 158 pp. numerous figs, and maps. Viking 

1984. £17.95. 

Fifteen years' work on butterfly recording at the Biological 
Records Centre at Monkswood, data from the Butterfly Monitoring 
Scheme and original contribufions from various lepidopterist have 
resulted in an excellent book. It is described as an Atlas and indeed 
the familiar 10 kilometre-square 'dot' maps form an important part 
of it, but the text accompanying these maps not only forms a 
synopsis of the ecology of each species and in many cases its history 
in Britain, but also contains many original observations never pre- 
viously published. There is more precise information on the subject 
of food plants for example: The grass feeders are shown to be far 
more particular about the species of grass chosen in nature than they 
are in captivity. Other interesting facts are included on habitat 
preferences, former ranges and current threats to survival or stability. 
The text is presented in apposition to the now well-known distri- 
bution maps based on the 10 kilometre-square grid. These maps have 
been brought up to date, (1983), and, while in general are an excel- 
lent guide to the current range of each species, they do not always 
comprehensively represent the exact distribution. The very local 
or rare butterflies are more accurately covered than the common 
widespread ones. 

There is some confusion with flie most recent records, where a 
colony which is known to have ceased to exist within the last two 



232 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 97 15.\i.l985 

or three years it is represented by a circle, even though the record 
should still come into the category of '1970 to date'. An example 
of this is the map for the supposedly extinct large blue. Previous 
maps issued by the Biological Records Centre showed two categories 
only, but these have three, ie. Pre 1940 represented by asterisks, 
1940 - 1969 by circles, and 1970 - 1982 by dots. Because of the 
rapid decline of some species in recent years, (high brown, pearl 
bordered and marsh fritillaries come most readily to mind), even 
this most recent date class does not always convey the current 
contraction in range. Sadly there are few corresponding success 
stories, and where these have occurred the maps often do not make 
this plain, as later records supercede earlier ones. Alongside the 
distribution maps, flight period charts are shown for several species. 
These originate from the Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (begun in 
1972) and mainly show short term fluctuation in numbers and the 
time of appearance within given colonies. They do not necessarily 
represent the overall abundance of that species during that year. 

Distribution maps and text have been included for all resident 
butterflies (past and present) and the three regular migrants, painted 
lady, red admiral, and clouded yellow are also included. The line 
drawings illustrating each butterfly species are something of a mixed 
bag. Some, such as the green veined white and duke of burgundy 
are delightful, whereas others, particularly the chequered skipper, 
are less satisfactory. 

The book commences with an introduction describing the 
history of the Biological Records Centre and details of other sources 
used. Immediately following the main section of maps and text 
there is a chapter entitled 'The Pattern of Change', giving a brief 
history of British Butterflies and chronicling the various ecological 
and climatic changes they have been subjected to in historical times. 
It concludes with this gloomy note, 'there seems little prospect of 
maintaining sufficient habitats for many of our butterflies within 
our highly agricultural countryside, except in areas set aside for the 
purpose'. Even on reserves, further drastic decline of our native 
butterflies is envisaged without improved knowledge of their ecology. 
Most lepidopterists, who have studied British butterflies over the last 
decade, would, I think, ruefully agree with this prediction. The 
Atlas concludes with a list of references, a check list of butterflies 
and their major food plants, and a basic index. At first glance 
£17.95 may seem rather a steep price for this somewhat slim volume. 
There are no beautiful colour plates and the general presentation of 
the book does not do it justice. Nevertheless I found it, quite frankly, 
the most informative British butterfly book since Frohawk and 
South. Not intended in any way as an identification guide, it is 
important for the fresh data it contains on butterfly behaviour, 
ecology and distribution: it can be highly recommended to both 
beginner and expert. - C. J. IXJCKENS. 



AFRICAN CHARAXES. — Many interesting specimens available for 

exchange. 

Apply to: R.S. White, Plapouta 14, Ormidhia, Cyprus. 



Subscriptions for 1986 

We regret to announce that the annual subscription for volume 
98 (1986) will rise to £15.00 for all private individuals, and £20.00 
for libraries, Societies and other institutional subscribers. This will 
enable us to meet rising costs, increase the pagination and allow 
for more illustrations to accompany articles. 

Will you please help the Journal be renewing promptly. We have 
experienced considerable difficulty with Bankers' Orders this year, 
and subscribers are urged to pay be cheque, rather than Bankers' 
Order. We look forward to your continued support for 1986. Ed. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J. W. TUTTon 15th April 1890) 



. ■ .... CONTENTS 

An Account of Rearing the Small Dotted lootman Moth, Pelosia ohtusa 

H-S. C. HART. 193. Butterflies and Burnet Moths from Milos Island, 

.... ,Greeca\ J. G. COUTIS, 197. A New Species of MegaseJia (Dipt: Phoridae) 

from •Northern Britain. R. H. L. DISNEY, 200. Microlepidoptera - a 

- Review of the Year 1984. D. J. L. AGASSIZ. 203. The Genus Obniim 

.iVVi. (Col., Ceranibycidae) in Great Britain : A Reappraisal. R. UHTHOFF- 

• \\'" KAUFMANN, 216. The Immigration of Lepidoptera into the British 

•''■ Isles in 1984. R. F. BRETHERTON & J. M. CHALMERS-HUNT, 224. 

CURRENT LITERATURE 230-232. 

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 199, 202, 215, 223, 228-230. 



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Printed by Frowde & Co (Printers) Ltd Orpheus St. London SE5 8RR 



The Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 

SPECIAL INDiXr 

COMPILED BY S. N. A. JACOBS (LEPIO^PTE^)*!:)' * ' "" 
AND A. A. ALLEN (OTHER ORCfERS) 

Newly described taxa (species, genera etc.) are distmguisheq pj^y)o!(ii type. Taxa 
new to Britain or newly recognised as British are denoted by»,an asterisk. 



Vol.97, 1985 



•/8RARiE" 




LEPIDOPTERA 
A 



PAGE 

abietaria 146 

abruptaria 145 

acteon 12.92.93. 157. 198 

acaceae abdominalis 157 

acroxantha 229 

acuminatella 177 

adjunctella 209 

adspersella 209 

advenella 16.(7) 

aegeria 11 

aenana 29. 212 

*aestuariella 203. 209 

aethiops (4) 

affinitana 178 

affinitatum (7) 

agathina 65 

agestis 110. 157 

ain 57 

albiceps 211 

albiciUata 65 

albicolon 49. 65 

albideUa (4). 176 

albifasciella 205 

albipuncta 58.81. 141.226 

albula 55. 81 

alacella 211 

alexis 198 

algae 55, 103 

alni 55. 66 

alpestris 56 

alpicola 50. 56 

alpinella (14), 209, 214 

alticolella 209 

Amphipoea sp 227 

anachoreta 29, 76, 164, 226 

anatipennella 176 

andereggii 56 

anglicella (12) 

anomala 66 

anomalella (11) 

anthylidella 177 

anthraciniformis 6 

antiopa . . . 53,77.80, 118, 119, 

120, 141. 184 

antiqua 75 

apiformis 33 

aprilella 210 



aptata 57 

aquata 55 

archippiis 119 

ardeaepennella 176 

arenosa 73 

argentimaculella 206 

argentula 177,209 

argiolus 68, 118 

argyropeza 162, 205 

*argyrospila 51,203, 212 

ariella (11) 

aristaeus 11, 198 

armigera 228 

arthemis 118.119, 120 

asclepiadis 57 

asella 55 

ashworthii candelarum 86 

asperaria 54 

assimilella 205 

assimilis 102, 103 

astrantiae 210 

atalanta . . . 13.30,78, 140.141. 

142.144. 165. 168, 198, 232 

athalia 187 

atalantis 120 

atricapitella (11), 173 

atrifrontella 205 

atriplicis 141. 177 

atropos .... 26,27,36,65,81, 
140, 141, 142, 143, 146, 

189,215, 224 

atrupictella 139 

aurata (6) 

aureatella (3) 

aurella (10) 

auricoma 55 

aurinia 13,39,41, 188. 189 

aurita ramosa 56 

auritella (10) 

auroguttella 207 

ausonia 197 

B 

*balli 1-5 

basaltinella 211 

basiguttella 205 

bellargus 13 

berberata 55. 57 

betulae 207 



u 



PAGE 

betularia 25, 107 

betiilella 203. 208 

betulicola 173, 174, 207 

biatomella 209 

bicolorata 121 

bifasciana 213 

bigella 214 

binaevella (7) 

binderella 176 

bipiincteUa 128, 164. 210 

bisortata (8) 

bistrigella 205 

bisulceUa 106. 107 

blandeUa 211 

blandiata (7) 

blastovora 138 

blattariella 212 

boeticus 92. 157 

bractea 55,66, 78 

brassicae 11,92, 155, 197 

braueri 1-5 

briseis 92 

britannica 53,93, (7) 

brunnearia 57 

buolina 213 

buttneri 99, 101, 102 

C 

caecana 133 

caesia 56,58, 103, 104 

caesiata 65 

caespetitiella 209 

caja 31 

c-album 66 

calodactyla 214 

cambrica 65 

Camilla 35, 45 

candeUsqua 57 

capitella 208 

capreolaria 53, 55 

caprimulgella 206 

capriolella 210 

capucina 212 

cardamines 106 

caradji 252 

carduella 210 

cardui 11, 15,78,84.86, 

92.93. 106, 141. 144. 156; 

165, 168, 198, 199, 232 

carniolica 55, 198 

carphodactyla 215 

casta (12) 

castrensis 55 

catharticella 173 



cavella 174, 207 

celerio 76 

celsicola 56 

cerasivorella (14), 24, 275, 276 

cerealella 108, 211 

chalcites 57, 80 

chalmytulalis 57 

chloerata 69, 228 

chrysitis 67 

chrysolepidella 205 

chryson 17 

chrysorrhoea 81 

cidaiella 174 

cilialis 214 

cinctana 203, 213 

cinxia 13, 15 

clavipalpis 168 

Cleopatra 11,92, 155, 197 

*Clepsis sp 212 

clerkella (11) 

cloaceUa (3) 

clorana 29 

clypeiferella 209 

cnicana (5) 

cocciferata 54 

columbariella 206 

coinbinella 208 

complana (8), 12, 226 

compta 57,58,99, 101 

confusa 47 

confusalis 65 

coniferana 213 

conjuncta 57 

conspersa 47 

conspersella 210 

conspiciUaris 53 

conterminella 210 

contigua (8) 

continuella (10), 173 

conturbatella 212 

convolvuli .... 26,27,62,76,77 

80, 140, 141, 142,224, 227 

conyzae 208 

coracipennella (13), 176, 208 

corylifoliella 207 

cossus 32 

costalis 109, 110, 214 

costella 177 

cotoneastri 24 

craccae 57, 58 

cramera 110 

cramerella 29, 30 

crassa 57, 140, 141, 226 

crataegi 174, 206 

crateagella (11) 

crenata 55 



PAGE 

cribraria Candida 56 

crinanensis (9) 

criptella 173 

crocea 30,35.76,77,78. 

82.83,84.92. 140.141. 

143. 155. 197, 232 

cruda (8) 

cuculata 57 

cucullina 58 

culminicola 58 

cuprea 56 

cursoria 47, 77 

curvatula 55, 71 

cyanospila 30 

cybele 118 

D 

dahlii 103 

daplidice 92. 140. 141, 

155, 183, 197 

debiliata 65 

decentella 205 

deceptoria 80 

decora simulatrix 56 

delaware 119 

demaryella 174, 206 

demodocus 28, 29 

derivalis 55, 100 

detersa 55, 56 

deviella 209 

devoniella (12), 207 

dia 184 

diffinis (5) 

dilecteUa 208 

diminutalis 214 

diniana (15) 

diniensis 57 

dispar 77, 225 

distans 214 

distinctaria Ill 

distinguenda 173 

diversana 212 

divisella 212 

dodonaea 174 

domestica 49 

dominula 68 

douglasii 204, 206 

dubia 57 

dubiteUa 207 

ducharmei 139 

dulcella 173 

E 

egea 156 



111 

PAGE 

electo 6 

elegans 56,58 

elocata 25 

elongella 210 

elpenor .... 113, 114, 116, 117. 223 

emortualis 55, 141. 227 

epiphron 63. 187 

erythrocephala 53. 55 

equitella 207 

ericella 214 

ericetella 112 

erxlebella 175 

euphorbiae 58 

euphrosyne 13, 15 

euryale 202 

evonymella (4) 

exclaniationis 58, 127 

exigua . . . 78,79.81. 141. 168. 

217. 228 

extimalis 66.67. 183. 214 

extrema 14 

exulis 18. 19 

F 

faceta 54 

fagella 210 

fagi 100 

falcataria (6). (15). 121 

fallaceUa 212 

farinalis 109, 110 

farinosa 155 

fasciaria 53, 71 

fatua 92. 93 

faunus 92.93 U9 

ferchauitella (12) 

ferdinandi 54 

ferrugalis 141. 142. 180 

festiva 19 

festucae , . . . . 7. 66 

fimbrialis 29 

finitimella 174,207 

flammea 53 

flaveolaria 56, 57 

flavicincta 68 

flaslactella (10) 

fluctuosa 231 

nuxa 13. 14 

forskaleana (14) 

fragariella 173 

frangulella 174 

fraxini 81. 98 

friesei 175, 208 

froelichieUa 175 

fuciforniis 15 

fucosa paludis 67 



IV 

PAGE 

fugitivella (14) 

fuliginosa 121 

fulminea 55 

fulvimitrella 206 

fumatella 211 

furfurana (6), 213 

furva 19, 47 

furvatus 57 

fusca 56 

fuscatella 205 

fuscocuprella 208 

fuscella 206 



gamma .... 50,54,79, 140, 141, 

142, 168,179 

gangabeUa 177 

gardesanella 209 

geminana (6), (15) 

geniculella (13), 175 

genistae 209 

gentianeana 178 

germmana 213 

giUettii 32, 38 

gilva 56 

giivago (8) 

glabratella 208 

glareosa 47, 86 

glaucinarius 57 

glaucus 120 

glutinosae 173 

gnaphalii 100 

goedartella (3), (13) 

gracilis 54 

graminis 58 

griseola 141, 225 

grisescens 56 

grossulariella 214 

gryphipennella (13) 

gysseleniella 208 

H 

haifae 73 

hammoniella (3), (12), 174 

harpagula 55 

haworthana 207 

headleyella 164 

heinemanni 203, 205 

hellereUa (5) 

helvetina 56 

helvola (8) 

hemargyrella (10) 

hepariella (4), (13), 208 



PAGE 

herminata (3) 

hexadactyia 213 

hornigi 210 

humiili 18 

hybnerella (11) 

hydroiapathella 208 

hyemana (5) 

hyperici 53 

I 

i-cinctum 54 

ibipenneUa 176 

icarus 12,92, 157 

iduna 37 

ilicis 7. 154, 156, 157 

illunaris 73, 75 

illutana 203, 213 

imbecilla 56 

immorata 56 

immutata (7) 

impUcitana 212 

incanata 57 

incarnatella (4), 204, 208 

incongruella 210 

infusa 61 

innotata 53 

inornateUa 212 

insecurella 208 

insigniata 93 

insignitella 207 

intermedia. . . . 37,38,39,41,43, 44 

interpunctella 214 

interrogationis 118 

intricata arceuthata 186 

inulae 209 

io 53,66. 162 

ipsilon 54. 140. 179 

isodactylus 214 

J 

janthinana 178 

jasius 156 

jaspidea 53 

jucunda 57 

juncicolella 208 

juniperata Ill 

junoniella 207 

jurtina 11. 92. 93. 198 

juventia 55 

K 

klimeschi 203. 211 

kuznetzovi 210 



lacteella 212 

laevigatella (3) 

laevigella 206 

laisalis 214 

landiella 177 

lapponica (11) 

lariceila (14) 

larixia 56 

larseniella 211 

laterana (5), (14) 

lateritia 56 

lathonia 80 

lautella 174 

leautieri 30.31. 185. 186 

lecheana (5) 

lentiscaria 54 

leucapennella (3) 

leucophae 15 

lienigella 212 

ligustri 116, 225 

Umonipennella 176. 208 

limosa 5 3 

lineata livornica 57,84.93. 

165. 166. 167. 168 

iineola 176 

Unogrisea 57 

iithargyrinella 153 

littoricola 153 

livornica 15 

Uxella 209 

loewii robusta 157 

loreyi 7.8,81, 141 

lotella 206 

lubricipeda 31, 32 

lucens (9), (16). 67 

lucifuga 56 

lucina 190 

lunalis 55 

lunaris 99, 209 

lunula 108, 164 

lunulana 213 

lupulina 155 

lurideola 12 

lutareUa 55 

luteella (11) 

luteum 31, 32 

lutipennella 208 



M 



machaon .... 11, 34,81.92, 140 

154, 183, 197, 202 
maculosa 56 



PAGE 

maera 92, 155 

magdaleana 173 

malella 173 

malifoliella 206 

malvella 24 

margaritacea 57 

margaritella 27, 183. 214 

marginana (5) 

marginicolella (10) 

niaritima (15). 45, 174, 227 

maritimella 209 

marmoreum 211 

maturma 37, 38. 43 

maura 57,59.61, 66 

mediopectinellus 206 

megera 11.92. 155. 198 

melagona 55 

melanopa 50 

melissa semidea 118. 120 

meiotis 197 

mendica 36 

menthastri 121 

menyanthidis 66 

messaniella (13) 

meta.xella 205 

meoniata 55 

meticulosa 180 

milhauseri 58 

miilierei 57 

milvipennis 176, 208 

minimus 13, 154, 157 

modesta 56 

mohammed 157 

molesta 213 

moneta 55 

monoglypha 102. 103. 127 

mouffetella 24 

mucronella 208 

mundella 211 

muralis 97 

murinipennelia (4) 

muscerda 14, 81 

mutatella 214 

myrtillana (6), (15) 

myrtillella (10) 

N 

nanata 65 

napi 119 

neartica 204, 214 

nebulosa (8) 

nervosa 57 

ni 76.78,79. 227 

nickerlii 28 



VI 

PAGE 

nigra 117 

nigrescens 57 

nigricella (9), (13), 175 

nigricomella 206 

nigropuncata 55, 131 

*niphognatha 20.21,22.24, 

203, 210 

nireus lyaes 28, 29 

nisella (6), (15) 

nitidana 213 

noctuella . . . 84,140,141.168. 180 

notana 178 

notatella 211 

nerii 141, 225 

nubeculosa 50 

nubilalis 79, 183 

nubilana 213 

nupta 25 

nyctiinera 58 

nylandriella (11), 173 

nymphaea 57 

nymphagoga 57 

O 

obesalis 54, 57 

obUteUa 183. 214 

oblonga 66 

obscuratus 65 

obscurella (4) 

obscurepunctella 209 

obsoleta 45 

obscuralis 214 

obscurana 213 

obsoletaria 56 

obstipata 76.77.80. 140. 185 

obtusa 193 

occulta 56.57.81, 141, 

226, 228 

occultella (3). (10) 

ocellata 116 

ocellea 77,168, 213 

ocellina 56 

ochrea 209 

ochrego 56 

ocnorestimella 217 

octogesima 49 

octomaculana (2) 

ocularis 49 

ocellaris 15 

oleagina 54 

oliviella 210 

ononaria 49. 76 

oo 13 

ophiogramma 66 



PAGE 

or 231 

orbona 215 

oreas 4, 5 

orichalcea 212 

orientalis 12 

ornitopus (8) 

ostrina 54, 57 

otregiata 19 

oxycedrata 53 



pactolana 213 

paleacea 47. 78. 79, 141 

palealis 66,67,77,79,183, 214 

pallidana 212 

pallidata (6) 

paludum 214 

palustris 102 

paphia 11, 12 

paradoxa 173 

parallelaria 55 

parasita 54 

parasitella 214 

paripunctella 211 

parva 57 

pavonia 36, 169, 170 

pegala 119 

peltigera 76,78,81, 141, 

227, 228 

pertlua 55 

peribenanderi 177 

perla 49 

perlucidalis 81, 214 

perpygmaeella (10) 

perversaria 58 

petricolor galathea 57 

phasianipennella 174, 207 

phlaeas 12.92. 157. 162. 198 

phragmitidis 212 

piceaella 139. 204 

piercella 206 

pimpinellae 210 

pinastri 116 

pini 55 

pityocampa 53 

plantaginis 65 

plebejana 213 

plexippus . . . (7). 30.76. 77.80. 

141. 184 

plummistraria 54 

podalirius ... 11, 140, 141, 154, 

183, 197 

pollinalis 54 



PACE 

polychloros 5 3,77,80, 

184, 199 

polygona 56 

polvgramma 57 

poiiiella 173, 205 

popularis 103 

populeti 53 

populi 116 

porcellus 49, 116 

porrectella 208 

postvittana 67, 212 

potentillae 176, 208 

praeangusta (14) 

praeformata 56 

prasina 104 

pringlei 3, 4 

privitana 203, 213 

processionea 81. 110, 111 

profugella 208 

promissa 55,57. 98 

pronuba 99 

propinquella 210 

"proserpina 147 

proto 156. 157 

proxima 56 

pruinata 65 

prunata 57 

pruni 16, 55 

putrescens 57 

prunieUa (3), (13) 

prunifoliae 176 

pseudospretella 177 

pudica 53 

puerpera 57 

pulcherriinella 210 

pullana 213 

pulveraria 55 

punctinalis (2). (15) 

punctum 198 

punicea 55 

pupillana 213 

purpurea 210 

purpurina 57 

puta (8). 161, 226 

putnami (9), 66 

pygmaeola 49. 149, 150, 153 

pygmeata 69 

pyri (16), 184 

pyrhulipennella 209 

Q 

quadra 12, 226 

quadripincta 212 

quadripunctaria 226 

querana 57 



vu 

PAGE 

quercana (4) 

quercaria 57 

quercifolia 100 

quercifoliella (13) 

quercus 154, 156 

quercus 65 

quinqueguttella 174, 207 



R 



^rancidella . . .20.22.23,24,203, 211 

rapae 98, 119, 155 

raptricula 57 

raschkiella (14), 178 

ratzburgiana (15), 213 

rectilinea 16 

regiana (6) 

renigera 56 

repandaria 55 

respersa 56 

resplendella 206 

reticulata 56 

rhanini 184 

rhomboidaria 58 

ribeata HI, 202 

ripae 104 

rivata (7) 

rivularis 156 

roborella 205 

roboris 207 

robu Stella 205 

roxelana 92, 155 

rubifervida 156, 198 

rubiginata 50,77. 141. 184 

rubiginea 5 3, 54 

rubricolUs 52 

rubrirana 56 

rufana 215 

ruficapitella 173 

rufocinerea (4) 

rumicis 107, 108 

ruricolella 206 

S 

sabaudata 57 

sacraria . 26,76,77,78.80,102, 

141, 142, 184, 227 

sagitata 27 

salicata 27 

salicata 65 

salicis (10), 127. 128 

salicorniae 209 

samietella 205 

sancta 73. 74, 75 



PAGE 

sanguinalis (6) 

sannio 57 

saucia 141, 179 

sauva 57 

saxifragae 96. 204. 208. 215 

scabriuscula 145 

scalella (8), 70 

schoenicolella 207 

schmidtieUus 212 

schrebereUa 175 

schulziana (5) 

scolapacina 66 

scoticella (11), (12), 207 

scriptelia 172, 177 

secalis 71 

secundaria 55 

segetum 54 

selene 13, 15 

selini 56, 57 

semiargus 92, 93 

semifasciana (15) 

semigraphata 57 

senectella 211 

serella 173 

sericata 55, 57 

sericea 12 

serpyiletorum 209 

serratella (9), (13) 

serrella 205 

sertorius 157 

sexguttella 177, 210 

sicula scirpi 53 

signaria 185 

signifera 56 

silesiaca 210 

similis 145 

simpliciata 56 

simplonia 56 

simulans 65 

simulatricula 57 

sinapis 11 

sinensis 112, 212 

singula 211 

sinuella 214 

smaragdaria 57 

sobrina 56 

socia 53 

sociaria 57 

sodaliana 212 

solutella 211 

sorbi (11). 175. 207 

sparganii 98 

spartifoliella (12) 

spectrana 178 

spinicolella 207 

spinolella 207 



PAGE 

spinosissiniae (11) 

splendidissimella (10), 173 

sponsa 55. 98 

stabilella 106. 209 

stachydalis 214 

stagnata (6) 

staintoniella 207. 215 

stanella 63 

stellatarum .... 77.78,81. 113. 

140. 141, 145, 168 

stettinensis 165 

striatipennella 176 

strigosa 55 

strobilella 146 

suasa 55. 65 

subalbidella (4), 177 

subclamydula 54 

suberivora 173. 205 

subocellana (6) 

subocellea 211 

subrosea 87 

subumbrata (7) 

suecicella 203, 211 

suffusella 21, 22, 210 

superfetella 24 

superstes 57 

suppunctaria 5 3 

suspecta 66 

svenssoni (11). 205 

syriaca ghigii 155 

syringaria 58 

T 

tamensis 209 

taraxaci 56. 58 

tarsicrinalis 55 

tau 55 

telmessia 155. 156 

temerella 212 

templi 47 

tenebrosana 178 

tephroleuca 56 

terminella 177 

testulalis 81 

tetragonella 210 

tetrapunctella 24 

thalictri 57 

thersites HO 

thoracella 174. 206 

tiliae 116. 170. 173. 205 

titania montinus 118.120 

tityrella (10) 

tityrus 15 

torquileUa (13). 207 

torva 55 



PAGE 

trabealis 55 

trapeziella 209 

triatomea 24 

tridens 19 

trifasciella (15) 

trifolii 16, 141.208. 226 

trimaculata 5 3 

tringipennella (12) 

tripoliana 178 

troglodytella 177 

truncicolella (6) 

turatii 5 3 

turbidana 213 

tussilaginis 203, 211. 215 

typhae 98, 105 



U 



PAGE 

virgella (5), 178 

vitellina 54,78,414. 

142,226 

vittella (13) 

vulpinaria 26, 69 



W 



w-album 230 

wagae 211 

weaverella 206 

weaveri 205 

weirana 213 

weirella 210 

wilkeila 210 

wiskotti 58 



ulicetella 210 

ulmaiiae (10), 173 

ulmi 54 

ulmifoliella 175 

ultimella 210 

unanimis (8) 

uncula (9) 

undulana (5) 

undulata (7), 130 

unionalis 80, 141, 183 

unipuncta 78, 142, 168, 226 

upupana 213 

ureila 206 

urticae 14, 162, 163, 168 

ustula 53, 57 

utonella 209 

V 

vandaliella 214 

variabilis 56 

vau-album 119, 120 

vectisana (5) 

venustula 146 

vepretella 24 

verberata 56 

versicolora 54 

versurella 209 

vespertilio 5 7 

vicrama 198 

villica 49 

viminiella 174 

virgaureae 209 

viminetella (14) 

viminetella 176 

vinella . . •. 211 



xanthographa 47 

xanthomista 103 

xenia 207 

xylosteila 54, 180 



yeatiana (14), 210 

Z 

zelicaon 92 

zeta 56 



COLEOPTERA 

Abdera quadrifasciata 159 

Aderiis brevicornis 34-5 

Adistemia watsoni 133 

Agabus undulatus 148 

Ahasverus advena 132 

Anthicus tobias 133 

Apalus muralis 148 

Aphodius contaminatus 132 

granaiius, sphacelatus 159 

sordidus 148 

Apion pubescens 65 

semivittatum 25-6 

Aridius bifasciatus 160 

Athous subfuscus 96 

Badister meridionalis 148 

Brachinus sclopeta 137-8 



PAGE 

Carpophilus sexpustulatus 132 

Cercyon bifenestratus 132 

Cicindela sylvatica 

(sylvestris, err.) 124 

Cis alni 133 

Cryptocephalus primarius 148 

Cryptophagus schmidti 132-3 

Cyphon hilaris 5 

Donacia vulgaris 105-6 

Dromius angustus 69-70 

Emus hirtus 148 

Euophryum confine 160 

Globicornis nigripes 148 

Gynandrophthalma affinis 148 

Helophorus laticollis 148 

Leptura virens 148 

Litargus connexus 32 

Lochmaea suturalis 158 

Malthinus frontalis 33-4 

Melasis buprestoides 159 

Meloe rugosus 148 

Nudobius lentus 96 

Obrium brunneum, 

cantharinum 216-223 

Oxyporus maxillosus 148 

Pterostichus angustatus 132 

Ptinus lichenum 148 

Pycnomerus fuliginosus .... 159-161 

Rhyncolus gracilis 148 

Saprosites mendax 160 

Sibinia arenariae 36 

Soronia grisea 32 

Synaptus filiformis 148 

Thymalus limbatus 159 

Trixagusobtusus 132 

Trox scaber 159, 229 

DERMAPTERA 

Labia minor 66 

DICTYOPTERA 

Acanthoxyia prasina 129 

Clitarchus hookeri 129-130 

DIPTERA 

Anasimyia interpuncta, lineata. 

lunulata 85-6 

Cliorisops nagatomii 33, 228 

Chrysogaster hirtella 85 

Eristalis sepulchralis 85 

Megaselia coccyx, sordida 201 

eccoptomera 200, 201 

gartensis* 200-1 



PAGE 

Phaonia trigonalis 33 

Tipula paludosa 35 

HEMIPTERA 

Agramma laeta 8 

Chorosoma schiUingi 8, 147 

Deraeocoris lutescens 70 

Gampsocoris punctipes 8 

Heterotoma merioptera 8 

Idiocerus herrichi, lituratus, 

stigmaticalis 64 

Neides tipularius 8 

HYMENOPTERA 

Ailantus basalis 94 

ss. basalis, caledonicus 94 

Calameuta pallipes 94 

Pristiphora groenblomi 94, 95 

Pseudodineura enslini 95 

Rhogogaster dryas 94, 95 

Tenthredopsis litterata 94 



NEUROPTERA 

Drepanepteryx phalaenoides 
ODONATA 



111 



Aeshna cyanea 189 

Leucorrhinia dubia 123 

Libellula fulva 123 

ORTHOPTERA 

Acheta domesticus 126 

Chorthippus albomarginatus .124, 125 

brunneus, parallelus . . 123-6 

vagans 124 

Conocephalus discolor 125 

dorsalis 124, 125 

Gomphocerippus rufus . . . .124, 125 

Meconema tiialassinum 125 

Metroptera brachyptera 123-6 

roeseli 124, 126 

MyrmeleotettLx 

maculatus 123, 124, 126 

Nemobius sylvestris 124 

Omocestus rufipes 125 

viridulus 123-6 

Pholidoptera 

griseoaptera 124, 125, 126 

Stenobothrus Uneatus 124 

Tetrix ceperoi 122, 123 

subulata .... 122, 123, 125 



PAGE 

f. bifasciata 123 

undulata 122, 126 

Tettigonia viridissima 125 



TRICHOPTERA 

Lasiocephala basalis 



XI 

PAGE 

134-6 




V 



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