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Full text of "The entomologist's useful compendium, or An introduction to the knowledge of British insects : comprising the best means of obtaining and preserving them, and a description of the apparatus generally used; together with the genera of Linné, and the modern method of arranging the classes Crustacea, Myriapoda, Spiders, Mites and Insects, from their affinities and structure, according to the views of Dr. Leach ; also an explanation of the terms used in entomology; calendar of the times of appearance and usual situations of near 3,000 species of British insects ; with instructions for collecting and fitting up objects for the microscope ; illustrated with twelve plates"

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LIBRARY OF 






ISS5_IQ56 



Printed ly R. and A, Taylor, Shoe-laiie, 



TO 

Dr. W. E. leach, F.R.S. &c. &c. 

SlJty 

I may justly dedicate the follotcing pages to you, being 
indebted for the most valuable part of their contents to your kindness and 
liberality. I am happy in thus having it in my power to acknowledge my 
sense of the many obligations uhich I lie under to you : and at the same 
time I trust the present work will be the means of aiding you in the very 
praiseworthy cause in which you are engaged. It is also to be hoped that in 
England, ere long, Entomology will stand on the same ground with Botany, 
Chemistry, or Minei'alogy ; and that your labours will eventually be as 
duly appreciated in this country as they are nofw on the Continent. 

I remain, Sir, with the greatest respect, 

Yoitr most obliged and obedient seitant, 

GEORGE SAMOUELLE. 

Blackfriars Road, 
March 1819. 



2 a 



PREFACE, 



It must be acknowledged that the veiy rapid progress Which 
every science for some years past has made in this country, 
is greatly to be attributed to Elementary works, and at the 
same time it is to be regretted that as yet none has appeared 
on the practical part of Entomology, by which I mean the 
method of collecting and preserving insects, the elements of 
the science, &c. It is true such a work is announced, and it 
is hoped will shortly appear ; I allude to the completion of 
Messrs. Kirby and Spence's Introduction to Entomology. — 
From the profound knowledge of the subject which these ex- 
cellent authors possess, we certainly may expect a most com- 
plete work ; yet its extent, and the necessary expense of at least 
four octavo volumes, must exclude many from purchasing it, 
and especially young persons to whom the study of Entomo- 
logy is paiticularly adapted. 

From this consideration I was induced more than twelve 
months ago to begin a work, the mere outline of the present, 
and which was intended to comprise little more than the 
Linnean Genera, wath a slight notice of the more natural 
Genera Avhich had been separated from tliem, with references 
to the best essays or papers that had been published on the 
subject, and directions for collecting, &c. This was to ha\e 
been published in duodecimo, and would have made but a thin 



6 PREFACE. 

voluine. On the return of Dr. Leach from the continent in 
May I consuhed him on the subject, when he most hberally 
promised me every assistance, with the free use of his books 
and manuscripts, if I would extend the work. This was a 
kindness which I certainly did not expect, although I knew 
his zeal and ardour in the promotion of science : it was also 
an offer I could not withstand, and which no lover of science 
will regret. It has been my wish in no instance to omit ac- 
knowledging what has been derived from his valuable assist- 
ance : should this however have been in any case neglected, I 
trust that Dr. L. will pardon the oversight. 

To experienced scientific Entomologists this Avork cannot 
be expected to afford much additional information: their 
good sense will however admit its necessity and utility, since 
a publication on such a plan has long been a great deside- 
ratum ; yet even to these it is presumed it will not be altoge- 
ther useless, since it contains the characters of many genera 
lately established by the most celebrated Entomologists on 
the continent, and never before printed in this country. 

The Genera of Linne T have been obliged to give according 
to my former plan, as the plates were engraved previous to the 
alteration. The Modem System is nearly the same as that 
given in the Supplement to Encyclopaedia Britannica, article 
Crustaceology, and Dr. Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclopasdia, 
article Entomology, with the exception of the foreign Genera 
and the alteration of Tribes to Families terminating in idee. 

The introduction of Objects for the Microscope may ^^y 
some be considered as rather foreign to the subject of Ento- 
mology ; but this I cannot altogether accede to, since the as- 
sistance of this instrument is so often required, and many who 
possess a microscope might be induced to extend their views 



PREFACE- 7. 

to Entomology if they were acquainted with the method of 
collecting insects, and were furnished with some work to give 
them an insight into their distribution and arrangement. 

The utility of the Calendar must be obvious to every one, 
as containing extensive and substantial information such as 
the Tyro will require. Those who reside at a distance from 
the metropolis have a great advantage, as by carefully examin- 
ing such places as are referred to in the Calendar they m^^ 
not only meet with the species enumerated, but are likely to 
capture new insects, at least undescribed, for as yet very little 
is known of the Entomology of Britain. 

I cannot omit returning my thanks to that acute and ex- 
cellent Entomologist J. F. Stephens, Esq. F.L.S. whose ex- 
tensive knowledge of the subject and the readiness with which 
he has always assisted me deserve my wamnest acknowledge- 
ment. To Mr. Sowerby also I am indebted for many per- 
sonal favours. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Introduction - - - - - - -17 

Elements of Entomology - - - - - 11> 

Definition of Insects - - - - - -21 

Parts of Insects - - - - - - ib 

Catut, the Head - - - - - " - ib. 

Eves - - - - - - - ib. " 

Antenna - - - - - - - ib. 

Os, the Mouth — Labrum, Mandibulae, Maxilke, Galece, Li- 
gula, Lingua, llostrum, Proboscis, Haustellum, Palpi, 

Frons, Clypeus, Vertex, Gula - - 27 — 30 

Truncus, the Trunk — Thorax, Pectus, Sternum, Scutellum 30, 31 

Abdomen — Cauda, Aculeus - - - - S3 

Aktus — Pedes, Coxa, Femur, Tibia, Tarsus, Unguis, Alco, 

Elytra, Ilalteres . _ , - 33—87 

CECONOMY OF INSECTS - - - . - - 38 

Of the Larva state - - - - - - 40 

Of the Pupa state - - - - - ~41 

Of the Imago or Perfect state - - - - 42 

Observations on the different Systems of Entomology - - 43 

Orders and Genera of Linne - - - - - 47 

Order I. Coleoptera - - - - - - ib. 

II. Hemiptera - - - - - - 60 

III. Lepidoptera - - - - - 63 

IV. INeuroptera - - - - - 65 

V. Hymenoptera - - - - -66 

VI. Diptera - - ■ - - - - 70 

VII. Aptera - - - - - - 72 

On the Division of Animals from their Organization - - 74 

Division of the Animal Kingdom - - - - 75 

Characters of the Annulata - - - - -76 

Class I. CUt/Sr^ICE^L— History - - - - ib. 

Subclass I. Entomostraca - - - - 82 

Subclass II. Malacostraca - - - - ib. 

Legion I. Podophthalma - - - - ib. 

Order I. BRACHYURA - - - ib. 

Order II. MACROURA - - - 91 

Legion II. Edkiophthalma - - - lOO 



CONTENTS, ;9 

Pago 

Class IT. MYRIAPODA - - - - - 112 

Order I. CIllLOGNATIIA - - - - 113 

Order II. SYNGNATHA - - - - 115 

Class III. ARACHNOIDA 117 

Order I. POLYMEROSOMATA - - - - 118 

Order II. DIMEROSOMATA - - - - 119 

Class IV. ACARI 130 

Glass V. INSECTA 134 

Subclass I. Ametabolia _ _ _ _ mo 

Order I. THYSANURA . . _ . ib. 

Order II. ANOPLURA - - - - - 141 

Subclass II. Metabolia . . - » 143 

Order III. COLEOPTERA - - - - ib. 

IV. DERMAPTERA - - - - 216 

V. ORTIIOPTERA 217 

VI. DICTYOPTERA - - - - 219 

VII. HEMIPTERA . - - - 220 
YIIl. OMOPTERA - - - - 229 

IX. APTERA 233 

X. LEPIDOPTERA - - - - 23-1 

XI. TRICHOPTERA - - - ' - 2o6 

XII. NEUROPTERA ... - 257 

XIII. HYMENOPTERA - - - - 262 

XIV. RHIPIPTERA - - - - 288 

XV. DIPTERA 289 

XVI. OMALOPTERA - - - - 302 

A RTictTLATED Animals of doubtful situation - - -305 

Apparatus used by Entomologists . _ _ - 307 

Cabinet, and Method of Corking Drawers - - 310-11 

Method of Collecting Insects - - - - -312 

Seasons for Collecting ------ 314 

Setting and Preserving Crustacea and Myriapoda - - 316 

_ Arachnoida and Acari - i - 317 

Insects - - . - - 318 

Method of Relaxing Insects, &c. to reset - _ - 321 

Method of arranging Insects in a Cabinet _ _ - 322 

Directions for the Microscope _ - > - 323 
A Tabular View of the magnifymg Powers of Convex Glasses - 325 

Method of Using the Microscope _ _ _ - 326 

Method of Dissecting Insects _ _ - - 331 

Parts of Insects for the Microscope _ _ - - 332 

Parts of Animals fur the Microscope . _ - - 333 



10 CONTENTS. 

Page 
Vegetables. — Seeds of Plants — Moss — Pollen of Plants — Mr. 

Howard's Observations on the Pollen of Plants - - 335 

Minerals -..__.. 335 

Explanation of the Terms used in Entomology - - 338 

Entomologist's Calendar for January - _ . - 358 

for February - _ _ 350 

— for March - - - - ib. 

for April - _ _ _ 364 

for May - - - - 372 

for June _ _ _ _ 387 

■ for July _ - - - 415 

for August _ - _ _ 428 

— — • for September _ _ - 433 

• for October _ _ _ - 44^- 

for November _ _ . 443 

. . for December - - - ib. 

Explanation of the Plates . _ . . . 445 

Index -_..---- 453 



AUTHORS QUOTED. 



Adams. — Essa5'S on the Microscope, by John Adams. 4to. London 17S7. 
Aldrov. — De Animalibus Insectis Libri septem, Autore Ulysse AJdrovando. foJ, 

Bonon. 160'2. 
S/oiViuJZ/e.— Prodrome d'une Nouvelle Distribution Systematique. (Bulletin 

des Sciences, &c. 1816.) 
Bonelli, — Observations Entomologiques. 4to. Turin 1809. 
Bonnet. — Traite d'Insectologie, par Ch. Bonnet. 8vo. Paris IT^S. 
Bonsdorf. — Historia Naturalis Ciirculionum Suecise, Autore Gabriel Bons- 

dorf, &c. 4to. Upsalia; 1785. 
Bosc. — Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces, faisant Suite a I'Editicmtle BufFon, 

par Castel. ISOl. 
Christius. Johann Ludivig — Naturgeschiohte, Kiassification und Noroenclatur 

der Insekten vom Bienen, Wespen und Ameisengeschiect. 4to. Frank- 
furt am Main 1791. 
Clairv. — Entomologie Helvetique, on Catalogue des Insectes de la Suisse, 

ranges d'aprcs une nouvelle Methode, avec Descriptions et Figures. 4to. 

Zurich 179S. 
Clark. — An Essay on the Bots of Horses and other Animals, by Bracy Clark, 

Veterinary Surgeon. 4to. London I8I5. 
Coqiielerl. Anton. Joann. — Illustratio Iconographica Insectorum qua; in Mc,- 

SEeis Parisinis observavit et in lucem edidit Joh. Christ, Fabricius. Tabu- 

larum decas prima, fol. Parisiis An. 7. 
Cut' ter. — Le Tableau Elementaire de I'Histoire Naturelle des Animaux, par 

G. Cuvier. 1797. 
Cnvier. — Lectures on Comparative Anatomy. Translated from the French of 

G. Cuvier by William Ross under the inspection of James Macartney., 

2 vols. 8vo. London 1802. 
Cuvier. — Le Regne Animal distribue d'apres son Organisation, par M. Le 

Chev. Cuvier, avec figures. Svo. Par. 1817. 
De Geer. — IMemoires pour servir a I'Histoire des Insectes, par Charles De 

Geer. 7 torn. 4to. Stockholme 1752. 
Donovan. — The Natural History of British Insects, explaining them in their 

several States, illustrated with coloured Figures, &c. By E. Donovan. 

16 vols. Svo. London 1792—1818. 
Donov. Inst. — Instructions for Collecting and Preserving various Subject* of 

Natural History, &.<■. by 1".. Donovan, iJd edition, Svo. London iSOa. 



12 AUTHORS QUOTED. 

Dumeril. — Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, par plusieurs Professcursdu 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle et desautres principaies Ecolesde 
Palis (I'Histoiie des Insectes, par ie Piofesseur C. Dumeril). Svo. Paris. 

Fabr, Syst. E/it. — Jo. Christ. Fabricii Systema Entomologix, sistens Insec- 
torum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, &c. Svo. Flensburgi et Lipsise 
1775. 

I^abr. Gen. Ins, — Jo. Christ. Fabricii Genera Insectorutn, &c. Svo. Kilonii 
177G. 

Fabr. Sp. Ins. — Jo. Christ. Fabricii Species Insectorum, &c. 2 torn. Svo. Ham- 
burg! et Kilonii l78l. 

Fair. Mant. — Jo. Christ. Fabricii Mantissa Insectorum, &c. 2 torn. Svo. Haf- 
nia; 1787. 

Fair. Enl. Syst. — Jo. Christ. Fabricii Entomologia Systematica emendata et 
ancla. 4 torn. Svo. Hafnia; 1792. 

Fabr. Supp. — Jo. Christ. Fabricii Supplementum Entomologiae Systematica. 
Svo. Hafnise 1798. 

Fabr. Fauna. — Oth. Fabricii Fauna Grcenlandica. Svo. Hafniae etLipsiaj 17S0. 

Forst. Cent. — Novse Species Insectorum. Centuria 1. Autore Joanne Jleinoldo 
Forstero. 8vo. Londiiii 1771. 

Fourc. Enl. Par. — Entomologia Parisiensis, sive Catalogiis Insectorum quae in 
Agro Parisiensi reperiuntur, &c. Edente A. F. Fourcroy, M.D. 2 torn. 
12mo. Parisiis 1785. 

Geoff. — Histoire abregee des Insectes, dans laquelle ces Animaux sont ranges 
suivant un Ordre Methodique, par M. Geoflroy, M.D. 2 torn. 4to. Paris 
1764. 

Oermar. — Germar'sand Zincker Sommer's Magazin der Entomologie. vol. 3. 
for 1817. 

Gruel. — Caroli a Linne, Systema Naturse per Regna Tria Naturae. Editio de- 
cima tertia, aucta, reformata, cura Jo. Frid, Gmelin. 3 tom. Svo. Lip- 
sia 1788. 

Graven. — Coleoptra microptera Brunsvicensia nee non exotigerum quotquot 
exstant in Collectionibus Entomologorum Brunsvicensium, in Genera, Fa- 
milias el Species distribuit D. I. L. C. Gravenhorst. Svo. Brunsvigjc 
1S02. 

Gyll. — Insecta Suecica descripta a Leonardo Gyllenhall. 3tom. Svo. 1808 &e. 

Harris. — Exposition of English Insects, arranged according to the Linnean Sy- 
stem on 51 coloured plates, exhibiting nearly 500 figures. 4to. London 
1782. 

Kaw. Prod. — Frodromus Lepidopterorum Britannicorum. A concise Catalogue 
of British Lepidopterous Insects, with the Times and Places of Appear- 
ance in the winged State, by a Fellow of the Linnean Societ3'. 4to. Holt 
1802. 

Jlaw. — Lepidoptera Britannica, sistens Digestionem novam Insectorum Lcpi- 
dopterorum quae in Magna Britannia reperiuntur, Larvarum Pabula,Tem- 
porequo pascendi ; Expansione Alarum ; Mensibi:sque volandi; Synony- 
mis atque Locis Observationibusque variis. Autore A. II. Haworth. Svo. 
Londir.i 1803 &c. 

Hellwig. — Fauna Etrusca, sistens Insecta quae in Provinciis Florentina et Pi- 
sana pia;?crtim coUegit Pctrus Rossius, iterum edita et Annotatis perpe- 
■ tuis aucta a D. Job. Christ. Lud. Hellwig. 8vo. Helinstadii 1795. 

Ilerbst. — NatursvNteni all* r bf kannten in und ausliindischen Insecten, &c. 
Von Carl. Guslav. Jablonsky, und fortgesetzt von Johann Friedrich Wil- 
helmHerbst. Svo. Berlin 1789. 



AUTHORS QUOTED. 13 

Hermann. — Memoire Apterologique, par Jean •Frederick Hermann, M.D. ful. 
Strasburgh 1804. 

H'tlhner. — Der Satiilunc: F.uropaischer Sebmetterlinge von Jacob Hiibner. 4to. 
Ausburg nort &<■. 

Illig. — Jilagazin tnr Insectenkunde hcrausgcgcben von Karl Illiger. 8vo. 
Braunschweig i;-(M. 

Jurine. — Nouvelle Methode de Classes les Hymenopt^res et les Dipteres, avcc 
■ Figures, par L. Jurine. Tom. 1. Hyirenopteves. 4to. Geneve 1807. 

Kirby. — Monographia Apum Anglix; or An Attimpt to divide into tlieir Na- 
tural Genera and Families such Species of the Linnean (5enus Apis as 
have been discovered in England: with Descriptions. &c 2 vols. 8vo. 
Ipswich 1802. 

Kirl-y andSpence. — An Introduction to Eniomology ; or Elements of the Na- 
tural History ol iu.-^ects, with Plates. By William Kirbv, M.A. and Wil- 
liam Spence, Esq. 2nd Edition. Vol. 1 and 2. London 1816 &c. 

Klvg. — Die Ulattwespen. Berlin jNIagazin 4to. for 1812. 

Knock. — Beitrage zur Insektengescliichte von August Wilhelm Knoch. Svo. 
Leipzig 1781. 

Laich. — Johann Nepomuk Verzeichniss von Eaicharting der Tyroler Insecten. 
Svo. Zurich 178 1-4. 

Laspeyres, — Sesiae Europseae, Iconibus depict. etDescriptionibus illustrate. 4to. 
Berol. 1801. 

Lamarck Hist. NaL — IlistoireNaturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres, presen- 
tant les Caracicres generaux et particuliers, &c. &c. Par M. le Cheva- 
lier de Lamarck. 5 torn. Svo. Paris. V. Y. 

Lamarck Extrait. — Extrait du Cours de Zoologie du Museum d'FIistoire Na- 
turelle sur les Animaux sans Vertebres, par M. de Lamarck. Par. 1812. 
Svo. 

Lamarck Syst. Anim. — Lamarck Syst&me des Animaux sansVertehres, precede 
du Discours du Cours de Zoologie. Svo. Par. 1801. 

Latr. Hist. Nat. des Cr. el des Im. — Histoire natnrelle, generale et paiiiculiere 
des Crustaces et des Insectes. Par P. A. Latreille. tom. 8vo. Paris. 

Latr. Prcc. des Caract. gen. des I'S. — Preci.s des Coraclt'res generiques des In- 
sectes. Par P. A. Latreille. Paris 179Li. 

l,alr. — Histoire Naturelle des Fnuimies, el Recueil des JMenioires et des Ob- 
servations sur les Ab;-iiles, les .Araignes, les Francheurs et autres Insectes. 
Par P. A. Latreille. Svo, Paris 1802. 

Lair. Gen. Crust, et Ins. — P. A. Latreille Genera Cru>taceor;m et Insectornm 
sccundumOrdinem Naturalern in Famili;is<!i>posita,Ic(inibus Exemplisque 
plurimisexplicata. 4 tom. Svo. Parisiis ft Arget.torati. 180()&c. 

Lfaih. — Article Entomology in Brewster's Edinljurgh Encyclo; sedia, vol. 9. 

Insects Vol. 12. 

Leach Malac. — Malacostraca Podophthalma Britannia?; or De^criptions of 
British Crabs, Lobsters, See. by Wni. I'lford Leach, M.D. Illustrated with 
highly finished Figures of all the Species bv James Sowerhy. 4to. London 
1818. ■ ■ 

Leach. — The Zoologii al Miscellany; or Descriptions of New, Rare, or high}}' 
Interesting Animals; by William Elford Leach, M.D. &c. Illustrated 
with coloured Figures, accurately drawn from Nature, by R. P. Nodder. 
Svo. Vol. 1, 2, 3. London 1814 '&c. 

Leach. — Article AnnuIo;ain Supplement to Encyclopaedia Britaimica, Vol. 1. 

Leeuwerihoek. — Anatomia sen interiora Rerum cum animafarum tum inani- 
matarum, ope el beneilcio exquisiUssimorum Microscopioruiu detecta. 
1GS7. 



14 AUTHORS Qt'OTED. 

Lekmann. — De Sensibus externis Animalium exsanguium Comaientatio, Pre- 

mio Regis ornata. Goetting. 1798. 
Lehmarm. — De Antennis Insectovum. 8vo. 1799. 
Linne. — Systema Natuix, sive Regna tria Naturje systematic^ proposita per 

Classes, Ordines, Genera et Species. 4 torn. 8 vo. 1767. 
Marsh. — Eiitomo'ogia Bvitannica, sistens Insecta Britannia iiidigena secun- 
dum Methodum Linnaeanam disposita. AuctoreThoma Marsham. Vol. 1. 

8ro. Coleoptera. Londini 1802. 
Meigan. — Klassificazion und Beschreibung derEuropiiischenZweiflugligen In- 

sekten (Diptera Linn.)Von Johann Willielm Meigan. 4to, Braunschweig 

1S04. 
Mem, TVern. Society. — Memoirs of the Weruerian Natural History Society, 

vol. 2 8vo. Edinburgh 1817. 
Mull. — Zoologiae Danicje Prodromus, seu Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae in- 

digenarum, &c, Auctore Othone Frederico Miiller. 8vo. Hafniae 1786. 
OcJisenhdmer. — Die Sclimetterling vonEuropa. Von Ferdinand Ochsenheimer. 

8vo. Leipzig 1816. 
Oliv. — Entouiologie, ou Ilistoire Naturelie des Tnsectes, avec les Caracteres 

generiques et specifiques, &c. Par M. Olivier, M.D. 4 torn. 4to. Paris 

1789. 
Ol/ers. — De vegetativis et animatis Corporibus in Corporibus animatis reperi- 

undis Commentarius. Autore I. F. M. de Olfers. 8vo. Berolinf 1816. 
Pall. Spec. ZooL — Spicilegia Zoologica, quibus novx imprimis et obscurx Ani- 
malium Species Iconibus, Descriptionibus atque Commentariis illustran- 

tur, a Petr. Sim. Pallas. 4to. Berlin 1767 — 17S0. 
Pallas. — Icones Insectorum prassertim Rossia; Sibiriasque peculiarum, qua col- 
legit et Descriptionibus illustravit Petrus Simon Pallas, M.D. 4to. Er- 

lang. 1781. 
Panz. Ent. Germ. — Georg. Wolfg. Franz. Panzeri Entomologia Germanica, 

exhibens Insecta perGermaniam indigena, &c. 12mo. Norimberga; 1795. 
Panz. Faun. Germ. — Fauna; Insectorum Gesmanicse Initia. D. Georg. Wolf- 
gang. Franz. Panzer. Nurnberg 1798 &c. 
Penn. Brit. Zool. — British Zoology, by Thomas Pennant. 4 vols. 8vo. War* 

rington 1776. 
Penn. Arc. Zool. — Arctic Zoology, by Thomas Pennant. 3 vols. 4to. London 

1784. 
Payk. — Monographia Slaphylinorum Sueciae a Gustavo de Paykull. 8vo, Up- 

salix 1789. 
Payk. — Monographia Caraborum Suecise. 1790. 
Payk. — Monographia Curculionum Sueciae. 1792. 

Payk. Faun. Suec. — Gustavi Paykull Fauna Suecica. Insecta, 3tom. Svo. 1798. 
Rees's Cyclopaedia. — Articles Entomology and Insects. 
i?fA'.— Experimenta circa Generationem Insectorum. 1671. 
Earner. — Genera Insectorum Linnsei et Fabricii Iconibus illustrata, a Joanne 

Jacobo Roemer. 4to. Vitoduri Helvetorum 1789. 
Fossi Fn. Etr. — Fauna Etrusca, sistens Insecta quae in Provinciis Florentina 

et Pisana prjEsertim coUegit Petrus Rossius, &c. 4to. Liburni 1790. 
Savigny. — ^Memoires sur les Aniraaux sans Vertfebres, par Savigny. Svo. Paris 

1816. 
Schellenl-e'-g. — Genres des Mouches Dipt^res representees en 42 Planches par 

Schelleuberg, et decrites par deux Amateurs d'Entomologie. In French 

and German. Svo. Zuric 1803. 
S.hceff. — I). Jacobi Christiani Schsefterl Icones Insectorum circa Ratisbonam 

indigenorum, &c, 3 torn. 4to. Regensburg 1769. 



ATTTHORS QUOTED. 15 

Scho?ilierr.^-Synonym\a Insectorum, &c. vonC, J. Schonherr, Sac. 8vo. Stock- 
holm 1806 & 1 SOS. 
5f^ranA:.^Francisci de Pavla Schrank Enumeratio Insectorum Austrias indi- 

genorum. 8vo. 178U 
Scopnli.—Joannlsi Antonii Scopnli Entomologia Carniolica, exhibens Insecta 

Carniolise indigena, &c. Svo. Vindobonae 1763. 
Skaiv Nat. Misc. — Vivarium Naturjc, or 'I'he Naturalist's Miscellany, by G. 

Shaw. The Figures by E. P. Nodder. Svo. London 1790 &c. 
Suwerly. — The British Miscellany, or Coloured Figures of new, rare, or little 

known Animal Subjects; many not before ascertained to be Inhabitants of 

the British Isles. Svo. vol. 1. London 1S06. 
Spinola. — Insectorum Ligurise Species novx aut rariores, qnas in Agro Ligu- 

stico nuper detexit, descripsit et Iconibus illustravit Maximil. Spinola. 

2 vols, in 4. Genus 1S06— iSOS. 
SUwart. — Elements of Natural History, being an Introduction to the Systema 

Nature of Linnseus. vol. 2. Svo. London and Edinburgh 1802. 
Swammerdam. — The Book of Nature, or History of Insects. Translated by 

Thomas Flloyd, with Notes by J. Hill, folio". London 1758, 
T/junierg-.— Dissertatio Entomologica sistens Insecta Suecica. Partes 1,2, 3, 

4. 4to. Upsalise 1784. 
Trans. Linn. Soc, — Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. 12 vols. 

4to. 1791—1818. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. — Transactions of the Entomological Societyof London, vol.1. 

8vo. 
Turton. — A General System of Nature, through the Three Grand Kingdoms 

of Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, systematically divided into their 

several Classes, Orders, Genera, Species, &c. By Sir Charles Linne : 

Translated from Gmeiin, Fabricius, &c. by William Turton, M.D. Vol. 2 

and 3. Svo. London 1806. 
Villers. — Car. Linnsei Entomologia, &c. curante et augente Carolo de Villers. 

4 torn. Svo. Lugduni 1789. 
JFalck. — Faune Parisienne (Insectes), ou Histoire abregeedes Insectes des En- 
virons de Paris, classes d'apr&s le Systeaie de Fabricius, &c. ParC. A. 

Walckaer. Paris 1S02. 
I'Veler — Observationes Entomologies, continentes novorum quaj condidit Ge- 

nerum Characteres, et nuper detectarum Specierum Descriptiones. Svo. 

Kiel 1801. 
JVvlff. — Icones Cimicum, Descriptionibus illustratae, Fascic. 1,2,3. 4to. Er- 

Jang 1800—2. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGIST'S 

dseful Compentiium^ 



INTRODUCTION 



lLNTOMOLOGY is a study which may be considered as in its infancy. 
So prone is man to look with contempt on those parts of the creation 
which are diminutive, that insects have been almost overlooked in his 
researches after knowledge. His ignorance, the consequence of this 
contemptuous neglect, has led him to consider the whole class as of 
small importance, and to arraign the Creator for forming an useless, 
and in many cases offensive and injurious tribe of beings. Such can be 
the language only of " haughty ignorance : " the modest observer of 
Nature, although he may have learned little of the habits, ceconomy, 
and uses of insects, will acknowledge that they have been created with 
design, and will not doubt but the design was benevolent. 

The insect race constitute by far the most considerable portion of 
animated beings; — in this view the science of Entomology becomes one 
of the most important and interesting that can engage the mind of the 
natural philosopher. He who neglects the study of insects, or thinks 
it beneath his notice, cannot deserve respect as a general observer of 
nature, nor be considered a scientific naturalist. The views of such a 
man will be partial, and his inquiries circumscribed : he regards only 
an inconsiderable portion of animated nature ; and he confines his re- 
marks to such as from their size and distinctness of character present 
the least obstacle to investigation. In the study of Entomology, the 
man of science will find abundant scope for the exercise of his zeal. 
The amazing number of species; their curious forms, so infinitely va- 
ried, and yet so nearly and gradually approximating through an endles? 
series of transitions from one species to another; the diversity of struc- 
ture obscrv'able in those parts which afford generic characters, added 
to the wonderful changes in form which they undergo, with their sur- 
prising ceconomy, — are circumstances which contribute to render them 
objects of most curious speculation to the philosopher. The study of 



18 lUTRODUCTION. 

every class of animals is most indisputably attended with jieculiar ad^ 
vantages : yet I will venture to affirm, that it is from a knowledge of 
the characters and metamorphoses of these little animals, and the va-^ 
rious modes of life which they are destined to pursue, that he will o\)- 
tain a more intimate acquaintance with the great laws of nature, and 
veneration for the Great Creator of all, than can be derived from the 
contemplation of any other class in nature. The beauty of insects 
in general, renders ihem engaging to many who hfive neither time nor 
inclination for studying their more complicated structure; and the 
gaiety of their colours, often combined with the most graceful forms, 
displays a beauty, splendour and vivacity, greater than that bestowed 
by the hand of Natiu'e on any of her other works. One defect in ap-r 
jfcarance must indeed be conceded; and this may be regarded, iij 
point of beauty, a material deficiency indeed, — they are not always so 
considerable in magnitude as to become, even with these embellish^ 
ments, strikingly attractive. Were they equal in size to the smallest 
birds, their elegance would render them more inviting to the eyes of 
mankind in general ; but, even amongst the minor species, when ex- 
amined with a microscope, we find their beauty and elegance far supe^ 
rior to that of any other class of anirnals in the creation, " After a mi^ 
nute and attentive examination," says Swammerdam, " of the nature 
and structure of the smaller as well as the larger animals, I cannot but 
allow an equal, if not superior, degree of dignity to the former. If, 
whilst we dissect with care the larger animals, we are filled with wonder 
at the elegant disposition of parts, to what a height is our astonishment 
raised when we discover their parts arranged in the least in the same 
regular manner ! " 

Insects may be divided into two kinds; those which are immediately 
or remotely beneficial or injurious to mankind. Many insects in^r 
deed seem not to affect us in any manner; others, and by far the 
greater number, most assuredly fall under one or the other denomi- 
nation, and on this account demand our jnost serious attention. But, 
lest the alleged utility of some insects should seem hypothetical 
to the superficial observer, whilst the noxious effects of others are 
too obvious to admit of doubt, I shall be more explicit upon this 
subject. The depredations of insects upon vegetable bodies are often 
detrimental ; but it must be remembered, that in these ravages they 
often repay the injury they commit. Locusts, the most destructive 
of all insects, whose numbers spread desolation through the vegetable 
world, are not (except on some occasions when their multiplication ex- 
ceeds all bounds) unproductive of advantage. Although they deprive 
mankind of a certain portion of vegetable food, yet, in return, their 
bodies afford nutriment of a wholesome and palatable kind, and in 
much greater abundance. The varioijs species of locusts are the com- 
mon food on which the inhabitants of' several parts of the world sub's 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

sist at particular seasons. The honey of bees, in many warm climates,' 
constitutes another primary article ot" food. The caterpillars of several 
moths furnish materials for the silken raiment so imiversally worn by 
all ranks in the eastern parts of the world ; and hence in these coun- 
tries the silky produce of these industrious little animals is of as much 
use as the fleecy coat of the sheep is to us. As an object of traffic, 
silk is one of the utmost importance in China and Tartary; and iu 
those parts paper is manufactured from the refuse of the same mate- 
rial. The extensive use of wax in all ages is well known. Some in- 
sects are used with success in medicine ; and many others (the cochi- 
neal for instance) are rendered useilil in the arts : and greater num- 
bers might perhaps be employed for the same purpose. These few, 
out of a vast many instances, are suflicient to prove the absurdity of an 
opinion very prevalent, " that insects are too insignificant to deserve 
the attention of the philosopher." But allowing these benefits to be 
unknown, and that the study of Entomology is not productive of any 
substantial advantages, how absurd would it still be to treat such an 
extensive portion of the creation with neglect ! The objection, that they 
are in nowise conducive to our interests (even if founded in truth), 
would be no evidence of the frivolity of the^ science; unless we are to 
conclude, that the only inquiries which merit our rational attention 
are those v.'hich tend to the gratification of selfishness, If this be ad- 
mitted as an objection, how many objects of philosophical investiga- 
tion must be rejected as frivolous ! From the earliest period in which 
the light of natural knowledge dawned, this class of animals has ob- 
tained a certain portion of attention : and although the study has not 
at all times been cultivated with equal ardour, yet it has not been ut- 
terly neglected, but has engaged the study of men endowed with ta- 
lents as splendid, and judgement as refined, as the most exalted of those 
who aflcct to treat it with contempt. 



II 2 



ELEMENTS 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



oO great is the number of natural bodies on the face of our earth, 
that on a general view the mind recoils at the attempt to investigate 
them as impossible. But the invention of systems has facilitated the 
task; and every natural object can be traced by certain characters to 
its place in the system, whether natural or artificial. 

Those who with a philosophical eye have contemplated the produc- 
tions of Nature, have all by common consent divided them into three 
great groups; namely, the Animal, the Vegetable, and the Mineral 
kingdoms. 

Animals are distinguished by l>eing organized bodies, which have 
life, sensation, and are capable of voluntary motion. 

Vegetables are organized bodies, which are endowed with a living 
principle but want sensation. 

Minerals are unorganized, without life or sensation. 

Zoology, or the study of Animals, is not only the amplest and most 
difficult, but the most pleasant and profitable part of Natural History. 
The following is the system of the celebrated Linne. 

Division 1. A heart with tzvo auricles and two ventricles; warm and red 
blood. 

Class I. MAMMALfA. Viviparous animals, orsuch as suckle their young. 
Class II. AvES. Oviparous animals. Birds. 

Division 2. Heart with one auricle and one ventricle; cold and red Mood. 

Class III. Amphibia. Animals breathing arbitrarily through lungs. 
Class IV. Pisces. Animals with gills. Fishes. 

Division 3. Heart with one ventricle, no auricle; white and cold Hood. 

Class V. Insecta. With antennae, and undergoing transformations. 

Insects. 
Class VI. Vermes. With tentacula, and undergoing no change. Worms, 



PARTS OF INSECTS. 21 

DEFINITION OF INSECTS. 

Insects are so called because they are divided into numerous seg- 
ments; and not from their being almost separated into two parts, which 
are merely attached to each other by a slender thread, as is generally 
supposed. 

All genuine insects have six legs; a head distinct from their body, 
and furnished with two antennae or horns; and have pores conducting 
to trachecE arranged along their sides for respiration : they are all pro- 
duced from eggs. Some imdergo no metamorphosis, others but a par- 
tial change, whilst the remainder pass through three stages of exist- 
ence, after being hatched from the egg. 



PARTS OF INSECTS. 

An insect may be divided into four parts. ^ 

1. Caput. 2. Truncus. 3. Abdomen. 4. Artus. 

CAPUT, the Head, which is distinguished in most insects, is fiifr 
nished with Fa/cs, Antenna, and a Mouth, 

Eyes. Many insects have two crescents or immoveable caps, com- 
posing the greatest part of their head, and containing a .prodigious 
number of little hexagonal protuberances, placed with the utmost re- 
gularity and exactness in lines crossing each other and resembling lat- 
tice-work : these are termed compoinid eyes. 

Leeuwenhoek reckons in each e\e of the Libellula, or Dragon-fly, 
12,54i lenses, or in both 25,088; the pictures of objects painted 
thereon must be millions of times less than the images of them pic- 
tured on the human eye. There is no doubt that insects still smaller 
have eyes adapted to discern objects some thousands of times less than 
themselves; for so the minute particles they feed on must certainly 
be. Besides these larger eyes, many insects have three small spheri- 
cal bodies placed triangularly on the crown of the head, called ocelli or 
stemmata {Fl. 10. Jig. 11. b). They are simple, and made for viewing 
large and distinct objects; the other eyes for small and near ones. 

Axtenn.e. The antennjE are two articulated moveable processes 
placed on the head : they are subject to great variety, and were the parts 
from whence Linne formed his genera : they are called 

Setaceoux, when they gradually taper towards their extremity; 

Clavated, when they grow gradually thicker from their base ; 

Filiform, of an equal thickness throughout the whole of their length ; 

MonUifoi-in, formed of a series of knots, resembling a string of 
beads; 

Capitate J when they terminate in a knob; 



5^ 



ELEMENTS OF ENTOMOLOGY. 



Fissile, with the loiob divided longitudinally into lamina or plates ; 
Perfoliate, having the knob divided horizontally; 
Pectinate, having a longitudinal series of hairs or processes project- 
ing from them in form of a comb ; 

Furcate, or forked, having the last joint divided into parts. 
Nothing has been the source of greater speculation than the iise of 
the antennte : nor is this surprising, considering the variety constantly 
exhibited in their structure, occupation, and appearance. Some insects 
seem to keep them in continual employment ; in others they are pre- 
served in a quiescent state. Those of the ichneumon show an inces- 
sant tremulous vibratory motion, anxiously searching into every cre- 
vice; while those of the carrion-fly scarcely appear endoAved with flexi- 
bility. They have successively been considered as the organs of hear- 
ing, feeling, smell, and taste, or of an unknown and indefinite sense. 

Bonnet seems to think the antennas the organ of smell. "Difterent 
insects," he observes, " have an exquisite sense of smelling, the organ 
of which is yet undiscovered. May it not reside in the antenna; ? '' 
Lehmann, from the result of experiments on this subject, denies that 
the antennae are the olfactory organ. He made an opening an inch wide 
in the side of a glass vessel, and surrounded the edge with wax, so 
that a close covering could l)e applied. An aperture was made in this 
covering, through which either the whole head, or the antenn83 only 
of an insect could be introduced. By means of a tube the glass was 
filled with penetrating odours, vapours, or heated air; but neither the 
fumes of sulphur nor burnt feathers produced the smallest effect on 
butterflies, bees, or beetles, whose antennte were exposed to them. IIo 
judges that the olfactory organ must be sought in the spiracula; " for 
what else," says he, " is the sense of the particles inspired than smell- 
ing?" 

Bonsdorf, in discussing whether the antennre may be the seat of 
hearing, mentions an experiment where a species of beetle, whose pe- 
culiar property it is to fold in the antennas when alarmed, did so on a 
loud noise being suddenly made, and fell to the ground, according to 
the nature of the species. But, notwithstanding that the animal pre- 
viously reposed in a tranquil state, his experiment cannot be consi- 
dered altogether conclusive. Butterflies are seen to erect their an- 
tennas on any sudden noise, and many Coleoptera to depress them ; 
which may equally arise from the sudden shock or vibration of the air. 
Spiders also, which want antennae, are extremely sensible of sound. 
Lehmann relates that, on observing one descend from the roof by its 
thread in quest of a female, while he was reading, he began to read 
aloud: the animal, alarmed at the noise, retreated upwards; he was 
silent, and it returned ; on again reading aloud, it testified alarm and 
ascended its thread; nor was its aj)prehension of danger dispelled, 
until familiarized with the Sound or conquered by the pbject of its 



TARTS OF INSECTS. 23 

jtursult. The same author deprived crickets, which are animals iiotfed 
tor aciiteness of hearing, of the antennae; yet they were equally sen- 
.•^iblc of sound as before. Lehmann concludes on the Avhole, that as 
the antennae are not the organs of either smell or hearing, their prin- 
cipal though not sole office is feeling. But they are also endowed 
with an unknown sense, which he denominates aeroscepshi, and con- 
jectures that in certain species they may continhute to the defence of 
the head. 

Iluber, well known for his ingenious and acute observations on 
bees, has made several most interesting experiments on the sul>- 
ject. Amputating one of the antennae of a queen he found was 
not attended with any perceptible eflect. Privation of both anten- 
na, however, produced very singular consequences. M. Iluber cut 
them from a queen w4iose fecundation had been retarded, so that 
she laid none but the eggs of males. From that moment a marked 
alteration in her conduct was seen; she traversed the combs with 
extraordinary rapidity-, scarcely had the workers time to recede be- 
fore her; and, instead of the care which a perfect queen displays in 
depositing her eggs in those places alone suitable for their exclu- 
sion, she dropped them at random without selecting proper cells : she 
retired to the most solitary parts of the hive, seeming to a\'oid the 
bees, and long remained motionless. Several workers, however, fol- 
lowed her there, and treated her with the most evident respect. She 
seldom required honey from them ; but when that was the case, she 
directed her trunk with a kind of uncertain feeling, sometimes on the 
head and sometimes on tlie limbs of the workers; and if she did reach 
their mouths it was by chance. Queens leave their hive but once in 
their whole lives, which is for the purpose of obtaining impregnation ; 
they remain voluntary prisoners ever afterwards, unless in leading out 
a swarm. This queen, however, seemed eager to escape; she rushed 
towards the opening of the hive, but finding it too small for her exit she 
returned after fruitless exertion. Notwithstanding the symptoms of 
delirium by which she was agitated, the workers never ceased to pay 
her the same attention as they invariably do their queens, though she 
received it with iudift'erence. 

Apprehensive that the queen's instinct might be impaired, from her 
organization suffering by retarded fecimdation, M. Iluber deprived 
another female of the antennae, and introduced her into the hive. She 
was quite in the natural state, and had already proved of great fertility : 
but now she exhibited exactly the same symptoms of agitation and de- 
lirium that the other had done. Perfect queens, possessing all their 
organs, testify the most violent animosity against each other; they 
fight repeatedly ; the workers seem to incite them to combat, until 
one at length falls, while the other survives to preserve and perpetuate 
the colony. Mutilated of the autennffi, however^ they testify no reci-r 



24 ELEMENTS OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

procal aversion ; in traversing the hive they meet without showing the 
smallest indications of resentment. If a perfect stranger queen is 
introduced, either when one already exists in a hi\e or within a 
few hours after she is lost, that stranger is immediately surrounded, 
and so closely hemmed in by the bees that she sometimes dies. But 
here the mutilated stranger was quite well received; her arrival cre- 
ated no discontents in the hive, and the workers paid the same ho- 
mage to her as to their own. " Was it," asks M. Iluber, " because 
after losing the antennje these queens no longer retained any cha- 
racteristic which distinguished the one from the other ? I am the more 
inclined to adopt this conjecture, from the bad reception experienced 
by a third perfect queen introduced into the same hive: it is probably 
because they observe the same sensations from those two females, and 
want the means of distinguishing them from each other." Bees ne- 
ver abandon their queen; her presence seems almost indispensable to 
their existence ; and, as before observed, the queen never forsakes her 
hive. If she does so to found a new colony, the bees accompany her in 
her flight. Here, as both the mutilated queens constantly endeavoured 
to escape, the first and third wore removed, and the entrance of the hive 
enlarged; the fertile mutilated one therelbre left it, but none of the 
workers followed her; she was allowed to depart alone. The wise pro- 
visions of nature are amply illustrated by these facts. It is fortimate 
that a queen deprived of the antennfe is thus impelled to leave the 
hive : while she remains, the bees incessantly attend her, and never 
think of procuring another. The secret which the workers possess, 
of converting a common worm into one, which will become a queen, 
must be exercised within the first three days of its existence; therefore 
if the queen remained, this limited term would elapse. Neither can 
her presence contribute to preserve the hive; for mutilation of the an- 
tenna; deprives her of the power of discriminating the different kind of 
cells adapted to receive the various species of eggs which she lays. 
M. Huber considers the antenucE as the organs of touch or smell, 
though he declines affirming which of these senses resides in them; 
and thinks it possible that they may be so organized as to fulfil both 
functions at once. 

Mr. Kirby, in speaking of the Eucera (or long-horned bee), says : 
" A singular circumstance distinguishes their antenna^, which, to 
the best of my knowledge, has never before been noticed, and which 
may possibly lead to the discovery of the use of these organs. Placed 
under a powerful magnifier, the last ten joints appear to be composed 
of innumerable hexagons, similar to those of which tlie eyes of these 
insects consist. If we reason from analogy, this remarkable cir- 
cumstance will lead us to conjecture, that the sense of which this 
part so essential to insects is the organ, may bear some relation to that 
conveyed by the eyes. As they are furnished with no instrument for 



PAnTS Of TNSECTS. 25 

receiving and communicating tlie impressions of sound, similar to the 
oar, that deficiency may be supplied by extraordinary means of vision. 
That the stcmmuta are of this description seems very probable; and 
the antennce may, in some degree, answer a similar purpose: the cir- 
cumstance just mentioned, furnishes a strong presumption that they 
i\o this, at least in the case of these males; else why do they exhil)it 
tliat pecidiar structure which distinguishes the real eyes?" 

JMr. Marsham observed the Ichneiinum JManifeslator, in Jime 1787, 
on the top of a post in Kensington Gardens. It moved rapidly along, 
having its antenna' bent in the form of an arch; and, with a strong 
vibratory motion in them, felt about until it came to a hole made by 
some insect, into which it thrust them quite to the head. It remained 
about a minute in this situation apparently very busy, and then, draw- 
ing its antenna; out, came round to the opposite side of the hole, and 
again thrust them in, and remained nearly the same time. It next 
proceeded to one side of the hole, and repeated the same operation 
there. Having now again withdrawn its antennfe it t\irned about, and, 
dexterously measuring a proper distance, threw back its abdomen over 
its head and thorax, and projected the long and delicate tube at its tail 
into the hole. After remaining near two minutes in this position, it 
drew cut the tube, turned round, and again applied its antenna to the 
hole for nearly the same time as before, and then again inserted its 
tube. This operation was repeated three times; but Mr. Marsham af)- 
pruaching too near, in order if possible to observe with a glass what 
was passing in the tube, he frightened the insect entirely away. 

About a week afterwards Mr. Marsham was in Kensington Gardens, 
and saw several of these ichneumons at work. They appeared to 
pierce the solid wood with their tubes, which they forced in even to 
half their length, constantly passing them between the hinder thighs, 
which they closed in order to keep the tubes straight, when over re- 
sistance would otherv,-ise have forced them to bend. It appeared tridy 
surprising to see an instrimient, apparently weak and slender, able, 
with the strength of so small an animal, to pierce solid wood half or 
three-quarters of an inch deep; but, on particular attention, it was dis- 
covered, that all those that appeared to pierce the solid wood, did it 
through the centre of a small white spot resembling mold or mildew, 
which on minute examination was found to be fine white sand, deli- 
cately closing up a hole made by the Apis maxillosa, and where, no 
doubt, there were yoimg bees deposited. 

In deep holes that were not closed, the insect not only thrust in the 
•whole tube, but in some cases the w-hole of the abdomen and posterior 
legs, leaving out only the two fore feet and wings, which it placed in 
contrary directions, like arms. The two cases of the tid^e were also 
.projected up the back, with the ends appearing above the head out of 
the hole. 



26 ELEMENTS OF ENTOMOLOGY, 

From Mr. Marsham's account it appears that those insects do not 
adopt any hole indiscriminately as a situation for their eggs; for in 
many instances he saw them thrust their antennae into holes and cre- 
vices from which they almost immediately withdrew them, and pro- 
ceeded in search of others. As the whole of the ichneumons deposit 
their eggs in the body of some other creature as a nidus, it appears 
probable that in these instances they found the holes empty, and that 
tliey went on in search of those hi which the young of the Apis inaxU- 
losa were deposited. 

From these remarks may wc not infer that the antennae may be the 
organs of smelling? for the antennas of the Ic/mcia/ion Manij'cstutor 
{PL S.Jig. 4.) are not so long as the tube from which the eggs are ex- 
cluded, and consequently could not have touched the animal in which 
it afterwards deposited its eggs. In many species of Lcpidopiera the 
females arc destitute of wings : the males in general have pectinated 
antennae, and are so extremely eager after the female, that they have 
been known to enter the pocket of an entomologist who had one se- 
cured in a box. 

These experiments are in some measure corroborated by the ob- 
servations of Latreille, who supposes the antennte to be the olfactory 
organs. In the tAvelfth number of the Edinburgh Review is a critique 
(on the Nouveau T)ictionnaire d'Histohc Naturelle, 24 tom. 8vo. Paris, 
1803-4.) : the following extract 1 here insert, hoping it will produce a 
further inquiry. 

" That insects possess the faculty of smelling is clearly demonstrated. 
It is the most perfect of all their senses. Beetles, of various sorts, A7- 
tidulcc, the different species of Dermestes, Si/lphff, Flies, ^c ., perceive, at a 
very considerable distance, the smell of ordure and dead bodies, and 
resort in swarms to the situations in which they occur, either ibr the 
purpose of procuring food or depositing their eggs. The blue flesh- 
fly, deceived by the cadaverous odour of a species of Arum, alights on 
its flower. But though we can thus easily prove the presence of the 
sense of smell among insects, it is much more difficult to discover the 
seat of that particular sense. Several naturalists have supposed that 
it resides in the antenna.. Dumcril, in a dissertation published in 
1799, attempts to prove that it must be situated about the entrance of 
the stigmata or respiratory organs, as Baster had previously supposed. 
His arguments, however, did not induce Latreille to relinquish the for- 
mer opinion, which places it in the antenuEe. The following are the 
reasons which he assigns for his belief 

" 1. The exercise of smell consists only in the action of air, impreg- 
nated with odoriferous particles, on the nervous or olfactory mem- 
brane, which transmits the sensation. 

" If insects be endowed with an organ furnished with similar nen-es, 
and with which air, charged with odoriferous particles, comes in con- 



PARTS or INSECTS, 27 

tact, such an organ may V>c regarded as that of smell. Should the an 
tenna present a tissue of many nerves, what inconvenience can result 
from supposhig that this tissue is capable of transmitting odour? 
Would not this hypothesis, on the contrary, be more simple and more 
consonant to anatomical principles, than that which fixes the seat of 
smell at the entrance of the stigmata? Besides, this last mode of ex- 
planation will not, I presume, suit the crustaceous animals, which so 
nearly approach to insects. 

" 2. JNIany male insects have their antennas more developed than the 
females ; a fact easily explained, if we admit that these organs are the 
seat of smell. 

" 3. It is certain that most of those insects which live or deposit 
their eggs on putrid animal or vegetable matters, stagnant waters, or 
any substance, in short, which, for a time, affects peculiar localities, 
are almost uniformly distinguished by a greater development of the an- 
tennae. Such, for example, are the Scarubaus, Dermestes, Silpha, Clerus, 
Tenebrio, T'lpida, Bibio, 4c. These require a more perfect sense of 
smell, and are organized accordingly. 

" 4. A great many insects which are entirely predaceous have simple 
antennae ; and those which are characterized by similar manners, and 
which are sedentary, have none at all ; as, for instance, the Acuri, and 
a considerable portion of Lamarck's Arachnidce. 

" 5. Insects discover their habitation and food by the sense of smell. 
I have deprived several insects of their antenna^, when they instantly 
fell into a state of stupor or derangement, and seemed to be incapable 
of recognising their haunts or their food, though just beside them. 
Such experiments deserve to be prosecuted. I would recommend, for 
example, the varnishing or covering the antenna; of dung beetles, and 
placing them near animal excrements, of which they are particularly 
fond, to observe if they would repair to them as usual. 

" 0. The nerves terminate at the antennae; and their articulations, 
though externally covered with a pretty thick membrane, are hollow, 
lined within by a soft substance, which is often of a watery consist- 
ency, and whose extremity', v.hen opposed to the air, may receive its 
impressions." 

Os, the Mouth. In order to afford some idea of the amazing dif- 
ference that prevails in the structure of the several parts or organs 
which constitute the mouth, it will be only requisite to observe, that 
the classification of all insects in the Fabrician system is founded on 
this character. There are ten principal parts of which the mouth con- 
sists ; and it is from tlie relative proportion of each, from the dissimi- 
larity in the form, position, variation in number, or occasional pecu- 
liarities, that the most permanent characters are deduced. These parts 
have one disadvantage; they are generally small, and from this cir- 
cumstance have not been so universally adopted in the arrangement 



28 ELEMENTS OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

of insects as they would otherwise have been. Without, however, be- 
stowing some little attention on these organs, it is impossible to distri- 
bute insects into their natural order with any great degree of certainty. 
In the works of Latreille, Leach, and most other modern writers on 
Entomology, the essential characters are established chietly on the pe- 
culiarities of these organs. 

The ten principal parts of which the Mouth consists are the follow- 
ing. 

Labrum, or Labium, superics, the VpperLip: a transverse, soft, 
moveable piece, of a coriaceous or membranaceous nature, known from 
its situation at the anterior or upper part of the mouch. This part is 
very distinct in many of the Coleoptera, and in Gri/llus, J pis, and some 
other genera. Linne sometimes confounds the upper lip with the c/y- 
peus or shield of the head; and similar instances occur in the works 
of Fabricius. These two parts may be distinguished by one invariable 
character; the clj/peus is fixed, and foi-ms a portion of the head; tlie 
upper lip is moveable, and is placed more forward. 

Labrlm, or Labium, ixverius, the piece which terminates the 
mouth beneath, and which is sometimes lengthened so as to form the 
instrument called ligula. It is often bifid, and has the posterior pair 
of feelers placed at the base. 

]\Iandibul.e, 'Mandibles: {PL 10. fig. l.d.) two hard pieces, in sub- 
stance resembling horn, which are placed one at each side of the mouth, 
below the upper lip. These have a lateral motion, while the upper 
and lower lip move up and down, as in other animals. These differ 
from the marilhe, with which they are sometimes confounded, by not 
having any of the palpi or feelers attached to them. In rapacious in- 
sects these are longer than in those which perforate wood; and the lat- 
ter again have stronger mandibles than insects which feed only on her- 
bage or leaves. 

Maxill.e (P/. 10. Jig. 1. e. — -fig. 2. a. the same magnified): two small 
pieces generally of a somewhat membranaceous consistency, and in 
figure different fi-om the mandibles. These are commonly indented at 
the extremity, and nearly all ciliated at the inner edge. They are 
placed under the mandibles, and above the lower lip ; their motion is la- 
teral. In those insects which have more than two pair of feelers, the pos- 
terior ones take their origin from the sides of the maxill?e. {fg. 2. b. c.) 

Gale.e, Shields of the Mouth: two membranaceous appendages, 
usually of a large size and cylindrical form, placed one on each side, 
at the exterior part of the jaw, and which cover and protect the organs 
of the mouth conjointly with the lips. The galete are inserted at the 
back of the jaws, as is well exemplified in the Gryllus trilie. 

Ligula. This is the part considered by many authors as the lower 
lip : its situation is immediately under the jaws ; and it consists of a 
single piece, which is generally of a soft texture, often bifid, and, if at- 



PARTS or INSECTS. 29 

tentively examined at the base, will be frequently found of a horny sid)- 
stance. 

In the Coleoptcra, and in some of the Jlcmiptera (as in B/ufta, Cr)/lli<s, 
S,r.), this appendage terminates at the point in a membranaceous sub- 
stance: — its form is extremely various in the different genera. The 
Hymenoptera and some Neuroptera have the ligula situated in the 
same manner; but it is in these concave, and is frequently prolong- 
ed into a sort o^ proboscis, which sometimes exceeds the length of the 
whole body. It is membranaceous, but of a soft and spongy texture, 
and well suited for receiving the impressions of taste. This kind of 
process is extremely well exeniplilied in the bee. 

Lingua, the Tongue: an involuted tubular organ, which constitutes 
the whole mouth in lepidopterous insects. This is of a setaceous form, 
and either very long, as in the Papilio and Sphinx genera; or short, as 
in most of the Bowhi/ces and other mollis. It consists of two filamen- 
tous pieces, which are externally convex, concave within, and connected 
longittidinaily by a suture along the middle above and beneath. These, 
in uniting, form a cylinder, through which the nectareous juices of the 
flowers on which these insects subsist are drawn up with facility. 
Tliese two pieces are not ver^' closely united, and may be separated by 
means of a needle point. When the insect takes its focd, this tube is 
exserted; at other times it is rolled up spirally between the palpi. 

Rostrum, or Beak : the part which forms the mouth in many of the 
hemipterous order of insects. This instrument is moveable, articu- 
lated, and bent under the breast. AVithin, this beak is hollow, and 
contains, as in a sheath, three or more very fine and delicate bristles, 
the points of which these insects introduce into the body of the ani- 
mal, or substance of the plants, from which they draw nourishmenL 
The rostrum is conspicuous in the genera Cicada, Ncpa, and Ciine.v. 

Proboscis, the Trunk: inserted in the place of the mouth in most 
dipterous insects. It is rather tieshy, retractile, of a single piece, and 
often cylindrical ; the end forming two lips, which are of a soft sub- 
stance, and from the delicacy of their teguments must possess the fa- 
culty of taste in a. very high degree. Example in the House-fly. 

Lingua, rostrum, and proboscis, are Linnean terms ; and are adopted 
according to the definition of that autlior. Ligulu is a Fabrician ex- 
pression, indicating a process of the lower lip. 

Haustellum : formed of two or more very small and delicate fila- 
ments, inclosed in a sheath of two valves. 

Palpi, Feelers. These are the small, moveable, filiform organs or 
appendages, placed at eacii side of the mouth in the generality of m- 
sects. In some respects they resemble the antenna, but are more 
distinctly articulated. They vary in number in different insects, being 
either two, four, or six, (P/. W.Jig. l.f.f. and g.) and are conunonly in- 
serted at each side the exterior part of the jaw. In those which have 



30 ELEMENTS OP EMOMuLOOY, 

only one pair, they are usually situated on the upper lip; when two 
or more, the posterior ones are generally on the lower lip; and in 
some insects furnished with a sucking trunk, they are oftentimes 
found inserted at each side of that organ. These feelers are com- 
posed of several joints, the number of which vary. Like the antenna., 
to which they bear analogy, they are endowed with powers of motion, 
but still more extensively. They also serve, like the antennte, as an 
essential character in the construction of genera ; and from their situ- 
ation, the number of joints, termination, and relative proportion and 
size, are exceedingly useful for that purpose. 

FiiONS, the Front : the anterior or fore part of the head, the space 
between the eyes and the mouth. 

Clypeiis, Shield of the head in coleopterous insects : the part cor- 
responding with the front of the head in the other orders. In the 
beetle kind it is advanced more or less uppii or over the mouth, and 
in some forms a sort of cap, the rim of which extends so far over the 
head as to conceal the mouth beneath. The anterior edge of the cly- 
peus is sometimes mistaken for the upper lip. 

Vertex, the Crown or summit of the Head. 

GuLA, that part which is opposed to the front of the head, usually 
called the Throat. 

TR UNCUS, the Trunk : the second principal division of which an 
insect consists, comprehending that portion which is situated between 
the head and the abdomen. The trunk includes the Thorax, Collar^ 
Sternum, and Scutel. 

Thorax : a term indefinitely applied sometimes to the whole trunk, 
tlie scutel excepted : in a stricter sense it implies only the dorsal part 
of the trunk, and may be considered as expressive of that portion of 
the superior surface which lies between the head and the base of the 
wings. The appropriation of suitable terms, by which a thorax con- 
sisting of one or of several pieces may be discriminated from each 
other, is desirable. In some the thorax is of a single piece, as in the 
orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera; in that of Lepidoptera it comprehends 
several segments, and a similar structure is still more conspicuous to 
view in the order Hi/menoptcra. The first or anterior segment of the 
thorax, in those consisting of several pieces, has been sometimes 
called the collar; but in admitting this, the coleopterous and hemipterous 
orders of insects can have no thorax. This will be rendered plain, 
when we consider that in the latter kinds of insects the first pair of 
legs arises from what is usually understood by the lower surface of 
the thorax ; the interior segment, in hymenopterous insects, corre- 
sponds with the whole thorax in the former, for the first pair of legs 
arises from it in exactly the same manner. In the former, the thorax 
of a single piece is immediately succeeded behind by a scutel, while m 



PARTS OF INSECTS, 31 

the Hymenoptera and Lep'uloptcra a large plane of one or more joints in- 
tervenes beUvccn the true thorax and the scutel; and it is to this last- 
mentioned dorsal space that the term Hiona- is assigned. Hence it is 
evident that the language of Entomology in this point is not altogether 
consistent; because what we denominate the collar in Hymenoptcra, 
is the thorax in Coleoptcra ; and in Colcoptera we find nothing analo- 
gous to the thorax of the other order, except the collar. 

The thorax in those insects which have that part consisting of a 
single piece, or the first segment in such as are of a compound nature, 
has the first pair of legs arising froua the lower surface, and it is in 
tills part that the muscles which move the head as well as this pair of 
legs are said to be contained. The thorax in dift'erent kinds of insects 
varies considerably in form, and affords very excellent generic and spe- 
cific distinctions. Some are armed with spines, others denticulated, 
luarginated, &c. 

Pectus, the Brcmt, is the third segment of the body, or that to which 
the four posterior feet are attached, and which is longitudinally di- 
vided at the anterior part of the sternum. The wings in lepidopterous 
and most other insects have their origin or base in the superior part 
of the breast. The wings and elytra in the Colcoptera and Hemiptera 
deviate a little from this, as they are placed more immediately on the 
back than in a lateral position; the breast contains the muscles that 
move the wings and give action to the four posterior legs. This part 
is capable of being compressed and dilated, the alternate motion of 
which is very evident in some insects of the butterfly or moth kind 
when held bet^veen the fingers. The power of compression and dila- 
tation is supposed to arise from the action of some very strong mus- 
cles, being reddish yellow, and extremely loose. It has been con- 
jectured that these muscles may assist tlie motions of tlie organs of 
flight. 

Sternum, or Breast-bone. By this term entomologists define that por- 
tion of the middle part of the breast which is situated between the 
base of the four posterior legs. This piece terminates in some insects 
anteriorly in a somewhat acute point; in others it appears rather bi- 
lobate; and in the fur greater immber ends obtusely or in an obtuse 
lobe. There are few insects in which the sternwn is remarkable, either 
from its magnitude or figure. In some of the coleopterous tribes, as 
in the Hydropln/i and Dyfici, this part is most conspicuous. 

ScuTELLUM (Linne),tlie Scutelor Escytc/ieon : the lobe-like process si- 
tuated immediately at tlie posterior part of the thorax in the scutellate 
insects. The scutel is not of tlie same form in all insects, yet its general 
tendency is towards a sub-triangular figure. In the coleopterous tribes 
it approaches nearest to this form ; its deviations incline more or less to 
heart-shaped, with the tip pointing backwards, The same figure pre- 
vails in some of the Hemiptera. In the Nmroptcru, Hymenoptera, and 



32 ELEMENTS OF EKTOMOLOGY. 

Diptera, the triangular contour is still more obser\'able under various 
modifications, and most commonly with the posterior tip rounded off. 
Sometimes, as in several of the hyinenopterous insects, the posterior 
end is armed with spines or denticulations; this is, however, not usual. 
The srufel in the far greater number of insects, whether terminating 
in a point or rounded, is commonly unarmed. In point of size the 
scutel is more variable than in figure : in some it is so small as almost 
to escape notice, merely forming a point at the extremity of the tho- 
rax, as we observe in certain kinds of the beetle tribe; in others it is 
very conspicuous, being sometimes so large as to cover the middle of 
the back; and in others, as the scutellate kinds of Cimices and a few 
of the genus Acridiuin, it expands over the back, entirely concealing 
the wings and wing-cases, and covering the margin of the abdomen. 

ABDOMEN. The third principal division, or posterior part of the 
body, is connected with the breast, either closely or at a distance, by 
means of a fillet. The abdomen is composed of annular joints or 
segments, the number of which vary in different insects. The upper 
part of the abdomen is called by entomologists, tergian ; the inferior 
or belly, venter. The opening at the posterior part of the abdomen is 
the vent; and the extremity in most insects contains the organs of ge- 
neration : there are exceptions to the latter. 

The total movement of the abdomen is not very obvious, except in 
insects which have that portion of the body pcdiculated, as in many of 
the hymenopterous genera. It has then a real joint, in which the first 
annulation is indented above, and receives a projecting process from the 
breast, on wh'ch it moves. This joint is rendered secure by elastic liga- 
ments, which have a considerable degree of force. Some muscles 
which arise within the breast are inserted into the first ring, and de- 
termine the extent of its motions. The partial motion of the ring is 
produced by very simple muscles, consisting of fibres which extend 
from the anterior edge of one ring to the posterior edge of that v.'hich 
immediately precedes it. >Vhen the dorsal fibres contract, the superior 
part of the abdomen being shortened, it turns up towards the back ; 
but when the contraction takes place in the ventral or lateral fibres, the 
abdomen is inflected iowards the belly, or directed towards one of the 
sides. The extent of the motion, however, depends .on the number of 
the rings and their mode of junction. In the Cokopiera, for example, 
the rings only touch each other by their edges, and the motion is very 
limited; but in the Hymenoptera they are so many small hoops, which 
are incased one into another like the tubes of a telescope, so that scarcely 
half, and sometimes not above one-third, of their extent appears visible 
externally. 

The form, connexion, proportion, and appearance, of the stnf.ice 
of the annulations of the abdomen, afford numberless specific distinc- 



PARTS OF INSECTS. 33 

tibfts; and so likewise do the appendices at the extremity of the ab- 
domen. 

The abdomen contains the intestines, the ovary, and part of the or- 
gans of respiration : it is affixed to the tliorax, and in most insects di- 
stinct from it, forming the posterior part of the body. 

Cauda, the Tail. An appendage of any kind terminating the abdomen 
is usnally denominated the tail. These appendages vary in fignre con- 
siderably in different insects, and many tribes are totally destitute of them. 
They are supposed to be destined to direct the motion of the insect in 
flight, to ser\^e for its defence, and for the deposition of its eggs. In some 
insects this tail is simple, and yet capable of being extended and with- 
drawn at pleasure ; in others elongated. Some are setaceous or bris- 
tle-shaped, as in the Haphidia. Those termed triseta have three bristle- 
shaped appendices, as in the Ephemera. In some it is forked, as in 
Podtoa. When it terminates in a pair of forceps it is called fordpata. 
In the Blatta and others it is folioaa, or resembling a leaf. In the 
Panorpa it is furnished with a sting, and is called tel[t'cra : this last may 
be more properly referred to the next. 

AcuLEus, the Sting : an instrument with which insects wound and in- 
stil a poison. The sting generally proceeds from tlie under part of the 
last ring of the belly : in some it is sharp and pointed, in others ser- 
rated or barbed. It is used by many insects both as an offensive and 
defensive weapon : by others it is used only to pierce wood, or the 
bodies of animals, in order to deposit their eggs. In wasps and bees 
tlie sting is known to be retractile. In some insects it exists in the male 
only, and in others nature has provided the female alone with 
this instrument: it is not frequently met with in both sexes of the 
same species, and the far greater number of insects have no such 
organ. 

ARTUS, the Members. 

Pedes, the Legs. In all insects the legs amount to six, and never 
exceed that number; and the same is observable of the true feet in the 
lar\'a; of those insects ; the latter have spurious feet to a greater amount, 
but the true feet do not exceed six. 

The leg of an insect may be divided into four, or more correctly in- 
to five, parts : Coxa, the first joint or haunch, at the base ; Femur, the 
tliigh; Tibia, the shank; Tat^sus, the foot; and Unguis, the claw. Each 
of these parts is enveloped in a hard case of a horny substance, and 
varies in shape in different insects, the form of the feet in all the kinds 
being admirably adapted to their jnode of life and convenience of their^ 
motion. From the difterent conformations of these limbs it is easy to 
recognise, even in the dead insect, the mode of life which the species is 
destined by nature to pursue. Those which have the legs adapted for 
running or walking have them long and cylindrical : the thighs of the 



34 ELEMENTS OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

leapers are remarkably large and thick^ with the shank long and com- 
monly arched, by which means they possess great strength and power 
for leaping: the legs are broad, serrated, and sharp at the edges, in 
those accustomed to dig in the earth ; and such as are of the aquatic 
kind have the legs, especially the posterior pair, long, flat, and ciliated, 
or fringed at the edge with hair. The leapers are well exemplified in 
the saltatorial kinds of Cuirtdio and Chrysomela ; and the swimmers, in 
the genera Hydrophilus and Dyticus. 

The Coxa, a small joint at the base, connects the thigh to the body, 
and moves in a corresponding cavity of the collar or thorax in the first 
pair, or breast in the two posterior ones. This part varies in form : in 
the Ceranibices, Coccinella, and other insects in which the feet serve for 
walking only, its shape is globular : such as require that the feet should 
have a lateral motion, and which is necessary to those that dig into the 
earth, have the coxa broad and flat; this is also observable in some of 
the aquatic beetles : in the Di/tici the coxa of the posterior legs is 
imbedded in the trunk, and in the Blatfa, Lephma, and others which 
walk very rapidly, it is compressed into a lamellate form. 

Femue, the Thigh. There is more diversity in the form of the thigh 
than the coxa to which it is united. The articidation of these two parts, 
is internal, and is produced in such a manner that when the animal is 
in a state of repose it is parallel to the inferior surface of the body. It is 
limited to a forward and backward motion with respect to the first piece. 
The nature and extent of the motions of the thigh appear to. determine 
its form. In those insects which walk much and fly little, as in the Ca- 
rabm, &;c. the thigh has two little prominences at the base called tro- 
chanters, which appear to be intended for removing the muscles from 
the axis of the articulation. Those which require strong muscles 
adapted for leaping, have the thigh not only thick but generally elon- 
gated ; as in the Gi-yllus and Lociista tribes, the Pulices or fleas, &c. 
And in the Aphodius, Geotrupes, SjC. {Sca7-ahcei Linn.), and also the 
mole cricket, (all which burrow in the earth,) the thigh is moved with 
much force, and has an articulated surface corresponding to the flat 
part of the coxa on which it rests. This part is sometimes spinous.. 

Tibia, or Shank, is the third joint of the legs, and moves in an an- 
gle according to the direction of the thighs. The figur,e of this part 
depends essentially on the uses to which the habits of the insect re- 
quire it to be applied : in the natatorial kinds it is usually flat and cili- 
ateil — at least the tibia of the posterior pair ; and in many others, as in a 
variety of the burrowing kinds of beetles, it is serrated. The shank is 
more frequently serrated or spinous than the thighs. 

The Tarsus, or Foot, is the fourth joint or last portion of the leg 
except the claw. This part consists in general of five joints : this is 
usually the number in the Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera. lo 
spuic of these, however, and also in the Hemiptera, there are only four 



PARTS OF INSECTS. 35 

articulations in this part of the leg, as we observe in Ceramhyx, Gryl- 
lits, and others : in Lihellula, Forficula, 4c. three : in the anterior feet 
of Nepa only one. The figure of the tarsus is more variable than any- 
other portion of the leg, and is in a most singular manner adapted 
to the insect's mode of life. The articulations in such as walk on the 
surface of the earth are slender; those which burrow have them more 
robust. Many of those which inhabit waters have them flat and cili- 
ated at the edges, as in the Hydrous. Others are furnished with 
bristly tufts or vascular fleshy tubercles, which enable them to move 
with security on smooth and slippery bodies in any direction : an ad- 
mirable example presents itself in the common house-fly, which "treads 
the ceiling, an inverted floor," with the same facility that other insects 
walk on the surface of the ground. An occasional difference in the 
number and form of the joints of the tarsus is sometimes observed in 
the two sexes of the same species. The motion of each joint of the 
tarsus is performed in a single plane, and is directed by two muscles in 
each joint, one of which is small and placed on the dorsal surface, the 
other larger and situated beneath. 

Unguis, or Claw, the termination of the tarsus. In the greater 
number of insects there are two claws attached to each tarsus : some 
have only one ; and in others furnished with two there is an interme- 
diate process, forming by this means three. An appearance similar to 
this is seen in the legs of the Lucatnis; but this on minute examina- 
tion is found to be a distinct joint also, armed with a pair of claws pre- 
cisely resembling those which more obviously, from their size, appear 
to terminate the tarsi. It is considerably smaller, but is perfectly well 
defined. 

Al^, or Wings : the organs appropriated to flight. These are 
either two or four, and are attached to the lateral part of the breast 
close to the lower margin of the thorax. They are placed to an equal 
amount and in a corresponding situation on both sides of the insect, 
whether the number be two or four. Those insects which are fur- 
nished with only one pair of wings have in these organs both an vmi- 
form appearance and size. Such as have two pair most fre(piently 
difter, the first being larger than those behind : there is also a difference 
in shape, and very connnonly a considerable variation in the spots, 
markings, and other particulars, notwithstanding the prevailing hues 
in all the wings may be the same. In general the posterior pair is 
paler, and the marks obscure. 

A skeleton of nervures, (which are considered in the light of bones 
by Dr. Leach, who has named them Pterigosiia or Wing-bones, 
and are parts more or less numerous and differing exceedingly 
in disposition,) placed between two thin and closely united mem- 
branes, constitules the true wing in insects. This conformation is very 

c 2 



36 ELEMENTS OF EKTOMOLOGY. 

clearly exemplilied in that description of wings which is usually term- 
ed transparent, as in the common house-fly and the bee. The true 
wing, by means of which the insect is enabled to fly, is always con- 
structed in this manner, whatever may be its appearance externally, 
arising from a superficial covering of down, feathers, hair, or any other 
cause. The variety in the form and structure of the wings, in the 
number, figure, and disposition of the nervures, or the colours with which 
they are adorned, is infinite. The diversity in the disposition of the 
nervure is evident from a comparison of the simply constructed wing of 
the common house-fly with the complex wing of the Panarpa or the 
Ephemera, or the wings of an earwig, which consists of a series of sin- 
gle nervure, with the elaborately ^^'rought lattice-work of the wing of the 
LihcUula. The wliole of the lepidopterous order exhibit the superficial 
coating of feathers, down, or hairs ; and upon the removal of these the 
wings are found constructed in the same manner as the transparent 
wings of the other orders. A variation in the form of the wing as well 
as its texture is manifest throughout all insects of the winged kind. 
Those of the Cokopteiyi have two membranaceous wings, which fold 
upon each other, forming a plait or double at their external margin, 
which fold is accommodated by a peculiar joint in the main rib of 
the wing, and the disposition of the nervures in the middle of the wing 
contiguous. In the Hemipfera the wings generally fold longitudinally, 
without any transverse double ; so that in expansion these parts open 
somewhat like a fan. The anterior wings of the Lepkloptera are neither 
doubled across nor folded longitudinally; they are entirely flat, and 
are but little cai)able of contraction and dilatation. In the genus Pa* 
pilio they are endowed with the power of erection, which is rarely the 
case in the Phalcencv, though occasionally observed among the Sphin- 
ges; the Phnlame have the lower wings concealed under the anterior 
pair, the latter being laid in a flat position over tiiem. The wings of 
the Lepidoptcra are downy, and often decorated with very beautiful 
colours disposed in the most pleasing and varied manner. The Nciir 
roptera in general have the wings flat; this is not invariable; they are 
constantly membranaceous, and reticulated with nei-vures. In the 
Hymenoptera the wings are membranaceous, generally flat, but some- 
times folded when the insect settles, as in the wasp genus. The Dipte- 
foui order cannot be confounded with the preceding, as they have only 
two wings : they are membranaceous as in the former. 

In all insects of the winged kind these organs present the greatest 
diversit)^, and afford characters both for genera and species less liable 
to fluctuation than common observers v/ould conceive. The number, 
figure, construction, proportion, consistence, and texture of the wings 
"have enabled naturalists to distribute insects into principal groups 
with considerable precision. Linne derived much assistance from an 



PARTS OF INSECTS. 37 

attention to these parts; later writers have in many instances regarded 
them more closely; and in the further progress of the science these 
parts will be consulted with still greater advantage. 

Elytka, or ir<«g-cflsf5, appertain to the coleopterous order. These 
are t^vo in number, of a substance resenilding leather; for the most 
part moveable, and opening by a longitudinal suture along the middle 
of the back. These wing-cases or sheaths arc often confounded 
with the wings; but they are really not wings from llunr structure or 
substance, nor do they answer the purpose of ilight; they merely open 
to afford the true wing, concealed beneath, the power of e.x])ansion and 
motion, and close down upon the wing when the insect is at rest, to 
preserve it from injury. Some Colcoptci-a have the elytra united. 

The superior surface of the elytra is more or less convex, and the 
lower surface correspondently concave: the texture in some, as in 
many of the Ciircu/iones and Ceramhijces, is so hard that it is pierced 
\\ ith difficult;\- by means of a strong pin ; in others so flexible that they 
spring into their proper form immedi;itcly after being bent double. 
The proportions of the elytra compared with the body are various; 
their form dissimilar; and the diversity of their surface — arising from 
dots raised or depressed, protuberances, flutings, colours, and other cir-^ 
cumstances — endless. These differences in the elytra furnish some ex- 
cellent generic distinctions, and are still more extensively useful in 
constituting the characters of species. 

Halteres, Poiscrs, or balancers :appendagespeculiar to insects of the 
dipterous order, and which, with suff.cient reason, are deemed an essen- 
tial character of that group. These poisers are two short, moveable, 
clavated filaments, placed one contiguous to the origin of each wing. 
They seldom exceed one-tenth the length of tlie wing, though in cer- 
tain genera they are rather longer. The capital, or head, in which the 
filament terminates, is either roundish, oval, truncated at the end, or 
compressed at the sides : in some insects its situation is directly under 
a small, arched, filmy scale, which also varies in size and form; and in 
several families is apparently wanting. 

The exact purpose to which nature has destined these organs has 
not been hitherto ascertained in a very satisfactory manner. The 
most prevalent, and perhaps in some measure the most consistent, 
oj)inion seems to be, that they balance or counterpoise with the action 
of the wings, when the insect is in flight, in the same manner as rope- 
dancers exercise a pole to preserve their equilibrium. The diminutive- 
ness of their size is a plausible objection to this idea. Others consider 
these as the organs of that vibratory sound which dipterous insects emit 
in flight: they compare the filmy scale to a kind of tambour, and liken 
the balancer to a drum-stick, which striking repeatedly upon it, they 
conceive, must occasion this noise. It is apprehended the sound they 
emit inflight cannot be traced to this cause; for the best of all possible 



38 ELEMENTS OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

reasons, that this buzzing sound is obsenable in a vast number of in-? 
sects which have no poisers or balancers, such as wasps and bees. The 
two genera Asilus and Bomhijlius have no scale, and yet the noise per- 
ceptible in their flight is louder than in must of those which have both 
scale and poisers, as in the Muscte. Nor does this noise issue from the 
poiser, either by striking on the scale or by any other means, since it 
is known that if the poisers, or both poisers and scales, be cut off, the 
same sound continues to be heard from the mutilated insects as before. 
There are many terms at present in use, to discriminate with greater 
precision the parts I have here described, and which should be underr 
stood by the sti.Klent in entomology. I have thought it therefore best 
to insert them in alphabetical order at the end of the work. 



THE CECONOMY OF INSECTS, 

Most animals retain during life the form which they receive attheiF 
birth. Insects are distinguished from these by the wonderful changes 
they undergo. The existence of an insect partakes of two, three, or 
four distinct states; and in each of these differs most essentially in ap-r 
pearance, organization, and manners of living. 

The changes through which the greater number of insects pass are 
from the Egg to the Larva, from the Larva to the Pupa, and from the 
Pupa to the Imago or perfect state. Exceptions occur to this : for 
some insects are viviparous; but the number of these is not consi- 
deralle. 

Of the EGG state. The egg, containing the insect in its smallest size, 
is expelled from the ovary as in other oviparous animals. They are con- 
tained and arranged in the body of the insect, in vessels which vary in 
number and figure in different species. The same variety is found in 
the eggs: some are round, others oval, and some cylindrical. The 
shells of some are hard and smooth, while others are soft and flexible. 

The eggs of insects are of various colours : some are found of al- 
most every shade of yellow, green, and brown, a few are red, and 
others black. Green and greenish are not unusual, and they are some- 
times speckled with darker colours, like those of birds. Some are 
smooth, and others beset in a pleasing manner with raised dots. 

Insects are instructed by nature to deposit their eggs in situations 
where their young ones will find the nourishment most convenient for 
them. Some deposit their eggs in the oak-leaf, producing there the 
red gall ; others choose the leaf of the poplar, which swells into a red 
bladder : and to a similar cause may be assigned the knob whicli is often 
seen on the leaf of the willow. The Lasiocampa neustria glues its egga^ 



(ECONOMY OF INSECTS. 39 

■with great symmetry in rings round the smaller tsvigs of trees ; others 
affix them to the surface of leaves; and again, others lodge them"inth« 
crevices of trees. 

The Epkemcra, Fhryganea, Lihellulu, and Gnat, hover over tlie water 
all the day to drop their eggs : these hatch in the water, and continue 
there while in the larva and pupa form, quitting the water only when 
they attain the winged state. The mass tbrmed by the eggs of the gnat 
resembles a little vessel, and floats on the surface. This insect is said to 
deposit only one egg at a time ; the first is retained by means of the legs, 
when dropped, till a second is deposited next to it, then a third, fotirth, and 
•further number, till the mass becomes capable, from its symmetry, to 
support itself upright. Many moths cover their eggs with a thick bed 
of hairor down, collected from their own body ; others cover them with 
a glutinous substance, which when hard protects them from the ill •ef- 
fects of moisture, rain, and cold. The solitary bees and wasps pre- 
pare nests in the earth, hollow trees, or cavities in old walls, wherein 
tliey place a quantity of food for the support of the young brood when 
they break from the egg. The ants are known to construct nests in 
the earth, in which their eggs are placed with the utmost care. Some 
deposit their eggs in the larva of other insects, chiefly those of the 
moth and butterfly kind; and having passed through all their changes 
in their bodies, become what is termed the ichneumon-fly. The 
Gasteropldlus Equi{hot-Ay) deposits its eggs on the Iwdies of horses in the 
following remarkable manner. When the female has been impregnated, 
and the eggs sufficiently matured, she seeks among the horses a sub- 
ject for her purpose; and approaching him on the wing, she carries her 
body nearly upright in the air, and her tail, which is lengthened for 
the purpose, curved inwards and upwards : in this way she approaches 
the part where she designs to deposit the egg; and suspending herself 
for a few seconds before it, suddenly darts upon it, and leaves the egg 
adhering to the hair; she hardly appears to settle, but merely touches 
the hair with the egg held out on the projected point of the abdomen. 
The egg is made to adhere by means of a glutinous liquor secreted 
with it. She then leaves the horse at a small distance and prepares a 
second egg, and, poising herself before the part, deposits it in the same 
way. The liquor dries, and the egg becomes firmly glued to the hair : 
this is repeated by these flies till four or five hundred eggs are sometimes 
placed on one horse. 

The inside of the knee is the part on which these flies are most fond 
of depositing tlieir eggs, and next to this on the side and back part of 
the shoulder, and less frequently on the extreme ends of the mane. 
But it is a fact worthy of attention, that the fly does not place them 
promiscuously about the body, but constantly on those parts which are 
most likely to be licked with the tongue ; and the ova, therefore, are 
?^lways scrupulously placed within its reach. 



40 ELEMENTS OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

Of the LARVA, or Caterpillar state. All caterpillars are hatched 
from the egg, and when they first proceed from it are generally small 
and feeble, but grow in strength as they increase in size. The body of 
the caterpillar consists of twelve rings; the head is connected with the 
first, and is hard and crustaceous. No caterpillar of the moth or butterfly 
has less than eight, or more than sixteen, feet; those which have more 
than sixteen belong to some oilier order of insects. The six anterior 
feet, or those next the head, are hard and scaly, pointed and fixed to 
the first three rings of the body, and are in number and texture the 
same in all Lepidopterous larvae. The posterior feet are soft, flexible, or 
membranaceous ; they vary both in figure and number, and are observa- 
ble only in the caterpillar state, the perfect insect having only six feet, 
the rudiments of which are the six anterior scaly feet before mentioned. 
These spurious feet are either smooth or hairy, soft to the touch, or 
hard like shagreen. On each side of the body are nine small oval 
apertures, which are the spiracles or organs of respiration. 

The caterpillar, whose life is one continued succession of changes, 
often moults its skin before it attains its full growth. These changes are 
the more singular, because when it moults it is not simply the skin that 
is changed ; for we find in the exuvias the jaws, and all the exterior parts, 
both scaly and membranaceous. 

The change in the caterpillar is effected by the creature's withdrawing 
itself from the outer skin as from a sheath, when it finds itself incom- 
moded from being confined within a narrow compass. But to accomplish 
this change is the work of some labour and time. Those caterpillars 
which live in society, and have a nest or habitation, retire there to change 
their skin, fixing the hooks of the feet, during the operation, firmly in 
the web of their nest. Some of the solitary species spin at this time a 
slender web, to which they affix themselves. A day or two before the 
critical moment approaches, the insect ceases to eat, and loses its usual 
activity; in proportion as the time of its change approaches, the colour 
of the caterpillar delines in vigour, the skin hardens and becomes 
withered, and is soon incapable of receiving those circulating juices by 
which it was heretofore nourished and supported. The insect is now 
seen at intervals with its back elevated, or with the body stretched to 
the utmost extent : sometimes raising its head, moving it from one side 
to another, and then letting it fall again. Near the change the second 
and third rings are seen considerably sv/oUen. By these internal efr 
forts the old parts are stretched and distended as much as possible, an 
operation attended with difficulty, as the new parts are all weak and 
tender. Hov/ever, by repeated exertions, all the vessels which con- 
veyed nourishment to the exterior skin are disengaged, and cease to 
act, and a slit is made on the back, generally beginning at the second 
or third ring. The new skin may now be just perceived, being distin- 
guished by its freshness and brightness of colour. The caterpillar then 



ffiCONOMY OF INSECTS. 41 

presses the body like a wedge into this opening, by which means it is 
soon torn down from the tirst to the fourth ring : this renders it large 
enough for the caterpillar to pass through. 

The caterpillar generally fasts a whole day after each moulting ; for 
it is necessary that the parts should acquire a certain degree of con- 
sistency before its organs can perform their ordinary functions. Many 
perish under this operation. The caterpillar always appears much 
larger after it has quitted the exuvis than before ; for the body had 
grown under the old skin till it had become too large for it, and the 
parts being soft they were much compressed; but as soon as this skin is 
cast oft', the parts distend, and with them the new skin, which is yet of 
a flexible and tender texture, so that their increase in size at each 
moulting is considerable. Some caterpillars in changing their skin alter 
very much in colour and appearance ; sometimes the skin from being 
smooth becomes covered with hair, spines, or tubercles; and others that 
are in one stage hairy, have the skin smooth in the next. No sex is de- 
veloped in the caterpillar state. 

Of the PUPA state. By this term, as understood in the very exten- 
sive sense Linne proposes, is signified that state of an insect which suc- 
ceeds the larva, without any regard to the particular appearance it as- 
sumes in this stage of transformation. From this latitude of meaning it 
includes therefore, with equal precision and no less propriety, states of 
the most discordant character. It alike implies the uncouth grub in- 
cased in its shelly repository and immured in the earth, sluggish, al- 
most destitute of motion or the appearance of any animal function, 
with the lively half-winged locust, or the Cicfula, animals sporting in 
the full enjoyment of life. The bot imprisoned in its oval covering, 
without the least external sign of animation, is termed a pupa. The 
moth, quiescent and absent for months, concealed in its shelly cover- 
ing in the earth, or suspended aloft in its silky envelope to the branch 
of a tree, is, a. pupa; and we denominate those 7;!</)(F also which have 
the wings only half expanded ; though, like the nimble-footed Cimex, 
thej^ are perpetually roving, and deriving sustenance from the blood of 
other animals ; and so also the restless Lihellula, which is continually 
traversing the watery element with the facility of fishes in search of 
prey. Modern writers have therefore considered this state as essential 
in the formation of Orders, and have even laid down certain rules, 
which taken in conjunction with the characters of the perfect insect, 
are often of great use in ascertaining the order to which any genus be- 
longs. In my account of the Larva I have given that of the lepido- 
pterous order, and shall therefore describe the Pupa of the same. 

The length of time an insect remains in this form varies much in dif- 
ferent species. As soon as the inclosed animal acquires sufficient strength 
to l.>reak the bonds of its confinement; it makes a powerful effort to escape. 



4^ ELEMENTS OF EKTOMOLOGY. 

Tlie opening through which they pass is ahvays at the same part of the 
skin, a httle above the trunk, between the wings and a small piece 
■which covers the head : different fissures are generally made in the 
same direction. When the operation begins, tliere seems to be a vio- 
lent agitation in the humours contained in the little animal; the fluids 
being driven with rapidity through all the vessels, the limbs and various 
parts of the body are put in niolion, and by repeated efforts it breaks 
through the brittle skin that envelopes it. Those inclosed in cones or 
cases, after bursting through the pupa covering, have another difficulty 
to overcome, that of piercing through the inclosure, which in many 
instances is of a stronger texture than the case of the pupa. For the 
accomplishment of this, most insects are provided with a liquor, which 
they discharge from the mouth upon that part of the cone through 
which they intend to escape; and this so moistens and weakens it, that 
after a short time they force their passage through with some facility. 
Some insects not provided with this fluid leave one end of their cone 
weaker than the rest, and close it only with a few threads, so that a 
slight effort of the head enables the insect to burst from its prison. 

The butterfly or moth on emerging from the pupa is moist, the ab- 
domen swollen, the antemije bent down, and the wings crumpled, 
small, and shapeless. These parts are gradually imfolded, and assume 
their destined form. The wings, which at one instant are small and 
like four little buds at the sides of the thorax, in a few miimtes after 
acquire their full size; and the fibres, which were at first flexible, be- 
come hard and rigid like bone. In proportion as the fibres lose their 
flexibility', the fluids which circulate within them extend, and the wings 
cease to act; so that, if any extraneous circumstance arrests the progress 
of this fluid through the fibres at the first instant of the moth's escape, 
the wings immediately become crippled, and never afterwards assume 
any other form. Most insects, soon after they have attained their per- 
fect state, void an excrementitious substance, which in some places, 
where the insects were abundant, has produced reports of showers of 
blood. 

Of the IMAGO or Perfect State. As the present work is not inr- 
tended to enter into all the particulars relative to the habitations, food, 
modes of life, Sfc. I must refer the student to Messrs. Kirbi/ and Spence'i 
popular Introduction, in which much information on these points wilj 
be found collected together. 



OBSERVATIONS 

ON THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF 

ENTOMOLOGY. 



1 HE simplicity of the arrangement adopted bj' Linne, the celebrity 
ot' his name, and the princely patronage under which he wrote, con- 
spired with other favourable circumstances to render this science more 
universally cidtivated, admired, and respected about his time, than it 
had probably been at any former period. The credit due to this natu- 
ralist for his labours in entomology is great. This must be allowed. 
But let us also remember, that he is not alone entitled to our commen- 
dation for the arrangement proposed in his work. We must in candour 
acknowledge the merits of many among his predecessors, who wrote 
under circumstances of less encouragement, and have nevertheless ex- 
celled in this science; men to whom the writings of Linne stand in a 
very high degree indebted, and without the aid of which it is impossible 
to imagine tbe system, which now commands our admiration, could 
have been produced, at least in its present state of purity. 

In the works of Aristotle and Pliny, in those of Agricola, Aldro- 
vandus, P'ranzius, Mouftet, Swammerdam, Ray, Willughby, Lister, 
Vallisnieri, and various others, we distinctly perceive, with some oc- 
casional variation, the outline of the superstructure raised in the 
" Systema Nature." 

These valuable sources pf information furnished him with abundant 
materials, which he selected with profound judgement, and inter- 
wove with ability, industry, and success. Linne was in this respect 
commendable : he did not suffer his mind to swerve on this oc- 
casion, from any ambitious or innovating motives; and so far as he 
deemed it consistent with his plan, he appears to have adhered to 
the examples of his predecessors. The characters of his Ordines are 
to be found in several publications earlier than his own, and so like- 
wise are most of his Genera, and the far greater number of his 
Species. But these he remoulded throughout with so much skill, that 
this " Systema" constitutes the central point in which the scattered 
rays of natural science are concentrated with more precision than 
they really appear in the original authors to whose industry he stands 
indebted. It was in the concise and very expressive style which Linne 



44 OBSEUVATIOXS ON THE DIFFEKEXT 

adopts in all his works, and which was ahnost peculiar to himself, 
that he excelled. 
The foil owing are the definitions of the several Orders established 

by this eminent natairalist. 

Order I. Coleoptera (derived from the Greek words for a sheath and 
a uing) comprise those insects which have crustaceous elytra or 
shells, which shut together and form a longitudinal suture down the 
back, as in beetles. 

Order II. Hemiptera (from Aw/^and awing). Insects having their upper 
wings half crustaceous and half membranaceous, not divided bj'- a 
longitudinal suture, but incumbent on each other, as in grasshop- 
pers, S,c. 

Order III. Lepidoptera (from a scale and a wing). Insects with four 
wings covered with fine scales in the form of powder or meal, as in 
the butterfly and moth. 

Order IV. Neuroptera (from a nerve and a wing). In this order the 
wings are four; membranaceous, transparent, and naked, reticulated 
with veins or nen'es; the tail is Avithout a sting, as in the Libellula 
or Dragon-fly. 

Order V. Hymenoptera (from a ?«em&r«?ie and a wing). The insects of 
this order have also four wings, and the tail furnished with a sting 
for various purposes, as in wasps, bees, S^c. 

Order VI. Diptera (from tzoo and a wing). Those insects with two 
wings only, and poisers or balancers, as in the common Uouse-flt/. 

Order VI. Aptera (from icithout and a wing). In this order Linne 
placed the spider, crab, scorpions, &c. As these are now universally 
rejected from insects, and referred to a class named Crustacea, I shall 
hereafter speak of them when mentioning the system proposed by 
Dr. Leach. 

Fabricius distributes all insects into thirteen Classes, the characters 
of which are as follow : 

Class I. Eleutiierata. Jwa's bare, free, and bearing feelers. 
C'lass II. Ulonata. Jaws covered by an obtuse mouth-piece. 
Class III. Synistata. Jaws elbowed near the base, and connected to 

the lower lip. 
Class IV. Piezata. Jaws horny, compressed, and usually elongated. 
Class V. Odonata. Jaa'S horny, dentated; palpi two. 
Class VI. Mitosata. Jaws horny, vaulted ; no palpi. 
Class VII. Unogata. J«r<;.s horny, unguiculated. 
Class VIII. Polygnata. Jaws several (usually two), within the lip. 
Class IX. Kleistagnatha. Jazcs several outside the lip. 
Class X. Exochnata. Jaws several, outside the lip, and covered by the 

palpi. 
Class XI. Gloss ATA. Mouth composed of a spiral tongue, situated be- 
tween two palpi. 



SYSTEMS or ENTOMOtOGY. 45 

Class XIT. RiiYNGOTA. ilfowi/icomposedof a beak or articulated sheath. 
Class XIII. A>TLiAT.\. Mouth composed of a sucker, not articulated. 

In the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, edited by Dr. Brewster, several 
valuable papers have appeared from the pen of that excellent and dis- 
tinguished naturalist. Dr. W. E. Leach, the present Zoologist to the 
British Museum. The well-knov^'n abilities of this gentleman, his 
sound judgement, his great caution, and extensive correspondence vi'ith 
the most distinguished naturalists of Europe, will, I trust, fully justify 
mc in adopting his system in the present work, as there is no doubt 
that wlicn it is duly studied it will be universally followed : yet I must 
confess much still remains incomplete, and many errors no doubt 
will require future correction. An observation of Mr. Kirby I shall 
here quote, as it is valuable, and should be strongly impressed upon 
the mind of every naturalist, and must full^' convince every liberal- 
minded entomologist how far the system proposed by Dr. Leach is 
consonant to the views of one of the first of entomologists. 

" An account of any genus, perfect and elaborate in all its part?, 
must be the work of him who is versed in the history and oeconomy of 
every individual that belongs to it; he, and he only can go upon sure 
grounds, for no other person can in all cases with certaint}^ distinguish 
tlie species from the variety, and unite each sex to its legitimate part- 
ner. But 30 much knowledge, even with respect to a single genus 
v.'here the species are numerous, is not to be expected from one man: 
nor should the naturalist attempt, like the spider, to weave his web 
from materials derived solely from within himself; but rather let him 
copy the industTious bee, and draw genuine treasures from those flowers 
of science which have been reared by other hands, and combining these 
with his own discoveries let him endeavour to concentrate all in one 
harmonious system, with parts curiously formed, arranged, and adapt- 
ed to each other, and to the whole; and calculated to preserve the 
sweets of true wisdom pure and unsophisticated." 

It would appear that the system of Dr. Leach, or at least the numerous 
genera into which it is divided, has not met with the approbation of 
every entomologist; since the Doctor in his .Zoological Miscellany, \o\. 3, 
in an account of two species of the Fabrician genus Gcotrupcs, has 
made the following obser\'ation : " I am a warm advocate for generic 
divisions (founded on the consideration of every character), being fully 
satislied that such exist in nature, and, when distinguished with judge- 
ment, tend materially to tlie advancement of science. Those entomo- 
logists of the Linnaean school, who, by dilating the characters either of 
their genera or species so as to admit of almost any thing, bend na- 
tiu-e to the artificial system of their master, would do well to consider 
whether they do not show greater veneration for it tlian for nature, 
and not upbraid those who hold a difi^erent opinion from tlieraselves." 

In the present work, the genera of Linne are given, not witli a wbh 



46 SYSTEMS OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

that tlie student should confine himself to that system, but merely to 
introduce him to a knowledge of the Families, for in this term the 
genera of Linne may certainly be applied in most cases, and which 
every entomologist will readily admit. Mr. Spence has observed, in 
his excellent Monograph of the Genus Choleva in the XTth vol. of the 
Transactions of the Linncean Society : " It is contrary both to analogy 
and experience to suppose the Creator has formed fewer of those 
groupes into which we divide the vast tribes of nature by the name of 
genera in one department than in another. Now in Botany, in which 
not more than about 20,000 species have been described,we have upwards 
of 2000 genera, In Entomology at least as many species are already de- 
scribed; and when we combine the circumstances, that in Britain not 
fewer than 8000 species of insects are to be foimd, while we have about 
3000 plants ; and these are probably not one half of the European insects, 
while we know that every other quarter of the globe is still more pro- 
lific in species wholly different; and lastly, that every kind of plant 
probably affords nutriment on the average to three or four species of 
insects, there can be little doubt that the insect is vastly more popu- 
lous than the vegetable world. Is it likely then that the number of 
genera should be much fewer than in botany ; or at any rate that it 
should not very greatly exceed its present amount.'' We need not 
fear that the science will be rendered more difficult by an augmen- 
tation of its genera. This cannot happen, if a proper system be adopt- 
ed. If two or three insects, or even a single one, be strikingly charac- 
terized by peculiarity of habit, they certainly ought in any system to 
be distinguished at least as sections of the genera under which they are 
placed. And will it increase the difficulty of investigation if they be 
established as genera upon the same characters, and distinguished by a 
name? Clearly not. On the contrary, the science can be effectually 
promoted in no other way; for names have an important influence 
upon the clearness of our ideas, and it will be impossible for us ever 
to gain correct views of the philosophy of our science while genera es- 
sentially distinct are jumbled together under one title. 

" Entomology, therefore, is under the greatest obligations to lUiger 
in Germany, Latreille in France," (Kirby, Leach, and Spence in En- 
gland) ; " who having had the good sense to reject the useless while they 
retain the valuable parts of the Fabrician system, are labouring, by the 
institution of new genera built upon firm and intelligible characters, to 
extricate the science from the chaos into which that author has un- 
wittingly reduced it. Fabricius's system has now had a fair trial of 
upwards of thirty years, and it was at one time universally followed on 
the continent; yet so far is experience from having confirmed the as- 
sertion of its author, that the Linnsan system is only calculated to 
introduce confusion into the science, that the very system professing 
to dissipate thg,t confusion is even now fast sinldng into oblivion, while 



LINNJEAN SYSTEM. 47 

the Linncean orders and generic characters, with such improvements 
as reason and analogy suggest, and as Linne himself would have ap- 
proved, are reverted to by the most acute and learned entomologists of 
the age." 



ORDERS AND GENERA OF LINNE- 

Order I. COLEOPTERA. 

The insects of this Order form a very natural division. They have 
hard cases to their wings, with a longitudinal suture; these in some 
are united, and therefore such insects can have no wings; but the 
wings in most are two. The mouth in general is furnished with 
two, four, and sometimes six palpi, hco mandibles, and tzco maxilla ; the 
mouth is covered above with the clypeus, and closed below with the- 
lips: they have all six feet in their perfect state; in the antenna; there- 
is the greatest diversity of shape and fonn, in this system the princi- 
pal character of the genera : they have a hard horny skin ; on eaclx 
side they have nine spiracula, one on the thorax, and eight on the ab- 
domeru The females lay their eggs in the earth, dung, plants, M'ood, 
&:c. and from these proceed the larva;. 

The lars'oj have six feet near the head, which differs in form and size 
in the different genera; jaws at the mouth; two eyes; often short an- 
tennae; and on each side nine spiracula. Those that feed on plants, 
and their roots move but slowly; those which live on dead animals are 
more active; others, as the Caruhidct, Di/ticidce, and Stap/ii/linida; which 
feed on living animals, are very rapid in their motions. The larva 
state, during which insects change their skins, endures in most spe- 
cies for a year; in the larger species longer, sometimes three or four 
years. When the larva arrives at its appointed tune, it draws itself 
together, and changes for the most part into a pupa incompleta, which, 
sometimes below the earth or in rotten wood, reposes for several weeks- 
or months. Afterwards the skin of the pupa bursts, and the perfect 
insect appears. It is now fit for the propagation of its species. 

Genus 1. Scarab^us. 

Antenna clavated; the club lamellated {PL 1. fg. 1. a.): palpi four: 

mandibles horny, in general without teeth : the tibice or second joint of 

the foremost pair of feet generally dentated. 
Species 1. Sc. Tj/phceus. Three horns on the thorax, the middle one the 

smallest; the other two extending forwards and of the same length 

with the head, which has no horns. {PI. 1. fg. 1.) 
Inhabits Europe. 



48 SYSTEMS OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

This species burrows in cow-dung and under the earth, digging deep 
holes ; and is found plentiful on heaths and commons during April 
and May. Mr. Marsham in his Entomologla Bi-itannka has described 
80 species of ScarabcEi found in this country. 

Genus 2. Lucanus. 

Ajitenna clavated; cluh perfoliate: maxUlcs prominent and dcntated: 

bod^ oblong : anterior tibia dentated. 
Sp. 1. L. Cervus, the Stag-beetle. With a sculelliun ; the maxillje 

projecting, bifurcated at the apex, with many teeth on the internal 

edge. {PL i.fg. 3.) 

This is the largest of the British Coleoptera ; the larva is white, and 
lives on putrid wood, particularly oak; its head and feet are of a rust 
colour. The perfect insect varies in size and colour; in general it is 
dark brown or blackish ; the jaws are very large, about one third of 
the length of the whole insect, and have a distant resemblance to the 
horns of a stag; Mr. Marsham's inermis is only the female of this 
species. 
Sp. 2. L. parallel ipipedus is considerably smaller, and may be obtained 

in June and July in the neighbourhood of willows. 
Obs. L. carahoides has not yet occurred in Britain, at least no British 

specimen is known. 

Genus 3. Deumestes. 

Antenna clsxaXed; the dub perfoliated {PI. l.Jig.4. a.); the three ter- 
minating articulations larger than the rest: thorax convex, with 
scarcely any margin: head inflected, and partly hid under the thorax. 
The larv'as of the insects of this genus feed on decayed animal sub- 
stances, and are exceedingly injurious to the meat in larders, skins, 
furs, and books. 
Sp. 1. D.murinus. Oblong; downy clouded with black and white ; abdo- 
men covered with fine white down or hair. 
Inhabits Europe ; and may frequently be found in the dead moles hung 

up on the hedges by countrymen. {PL '^--fig- 4.) 
Sp. 2. D.Scoli/tus. Elytra truncate, blackish and striate : abdomen re- 
tuse: front downy and of an ash colour. {PL l.fig. 5.) 
The insects of this genus are very prolific ; both the larvje and per- 
fect insect eat the roots and wood of trees, and are sometimes very de- 
structive to woods. The following account, from Mr. Kirby's Introduction 
to Entomology, of Bostrichus Ti/pographus Fabr., will further illustrate 
the habits and manners of this genus : " This insect in its preparatory 
state feeds upon the soft inner bark only : but it attacks this important 
f&et in such vast numbers, 80,000 being sometimes found in a single 



ORDER I. COLEOPTERA. 



49 



tree, that it is infinitely more noxious than any of those that hero into 
tlie wood : and such is its vitahty, that though the bark be battered 
and tlie trees plunged into water or laid upon the ice or snow, it re- 
mains alive and unhurt. The leaves of the trees infested by these in- 
sects first become yellow; the trees themselves then die at the top, 
and soon entirely perish. Their ravages have long been known in Ger- 
many under the name of Warm trvkniss (decay caused by worms); and 
in the old liturgies of that country the animal itself is formally men- 
tioned under its vulgar appellation of ' The Turk.' This pest was par- 
ticularly prevalent and caused incalculable mischief about the year 
1665. In the beginning of the last century it again showed itself in the 
Hartz forests ; — it reappeared in 1757, redoubled its injuries in 1709, 
and arrived at its height in 1783, when the number of trees destroyed 
by it in the above forests alone was calculated at a million and a half, 
and the inhabitants were threatened with a total suspension of the 
working of their mines, and consequent ruin. At this period these 
Bostrichi were arrived at their perfect state, and migrated in swarms like 
bees in Suabia and Franconia. At length, bet^veen the years 1784 
and 1789, in consequence of a succession of cold and moist seasons, 
the numl;iers of this scourge were sensibly diminished. It appeared 
again however in 1790, and so late as 1796 there was great reason to 
fear for the few fir-trees that were left.''^ 

Genus 4. Ptinus. 

Antenme filiform {Pl.l.Jig. 6.a.); the last articulations the largest: 
thorax nearly round, not margined, receiving the head under it. 

Sp. 1. Ft. imperialis. Brown: thorax subcarinate : elytra elegantly va- 
ried with white hair. {PL l.Jjg. 6.) 

Inhabits Europe, in decayed trees. 

Genus 5. Hister. 
Ahtcmia davated {PL 2. Jig- 1. a.); the club solid; thclowest articula- 
tion compressed and bent : head retractile within the body : eli/tra 
shorter than the body : the fore-tibia: dentated. 

The insects of this genus are generally found in dung, in spring, 
summer, and a great part of the year. Like the Dermestides and 
Bi/rrhi, they contract their antennas and legs when touched, and coun- 
terfeit death. 

Sp. 1. Hist, semiptmctatus. Brassy-black, polished: shells obliqudy 

striate at the base. {PL 2. Jig. 1.) 
Inhabits dung, and is very common in this country. 

Genus G. Gyrinus. 
Antenna cylindrical, and very short {PL 2. fig. Q. a.): niavillu horny and 
very acute: ryes divide, so as to appear as four : the four hinder feit 
compressed, and formed for swimming. {PL 2.. fig. Q. h.) 

i) 



50 LINNEAN SYSTEM. 

Sp. 1. Gj/r. Natator. Oval: elytra with punctured strke: the inflected 

margin testaceous, (P/. ^-fig. 2.) 

Inhabits stagnant waters, running swiftly in circles on the surface, 
and when it dives carrying along with it a bubble of air which appears 
like quicksilver. These insects live in society, and often in their brisk 
motions strike against one another. In the evenings they betake them- 
selves to still places vuider bridges, or under the roots of trees which 
grow at the water's edge. 

Genus 7. Byrrhus. 
Antenna a little shorter than the thorax, with the four or five terminal 
joints gradually thicker, compressed (PI. 2. Jig. 3. a.): ^)«//;/ short, 
the last joint longest; thick, somewhat ovate : bodj^ somewhat ovate, 
very convex above; scutdlum minute. 

When touched, they apply their antennre and feet so close to the 
body, remaining at the same time motionless, that they resemble a seed 
more than an animated being. They are found in sand-pits and road- 
ways in the spring months, and are very common. 
Sp. 1. Byr. Pilula. Brown; the elytra with black interruptetl striae. 
{PL 2.fg. 3.) 

Genus 8. Anthrenus, Fahricius. 
Antenna shorter than the thorax, with the club solid (PI. 2. fig. 4. a.): 
jjfl/_/ji filiform, short: toc/j/ orb iculate, ovate: sc'^feZ/tf?« very minute : 
viaxillcE and Up bifid. 

These insects are found on flowers; they are small, but in general 
prettily coloured. They contract on the appearance of danger, and ap- 
pear as if dead. Their lai-\'ce are found in carcases, skins, and dried 
animal substances. They pass nearly a year in that state before chang- 
ing into a pupa; the perfect insects are found chiefly in spring. 
Sp. 1. Anth. Scrophularia. Black; sides of the thorax and three trans- 
verse bands on the elytra, grey; suture and external margin of the 
elytra and hinder margin of the thorax, red-lutescent. {PI. 2. Jig. 4.) 

Genus 9. Silpha. 
^?i<en?t« gradually thickening towards their extremities {PI. 2. fig. 7. a,), 
or terminated by a solid or perfoliated club (Jig. 6. a.): elytra cover- 
ing the greater portion of the abdomen and marginated : head pro- 
jecting: thorax flattish and margined: body oval or parallelopiped. 
The Silpha feed on dead carcases and the excrements of animals; 
they have generally a fetid smell, and when taken they discharge by 
the mouth or the anus a drop of black liquor of a very disgusting 
odour; this liquor serves to accelerate the putrefaction of the matters 
on which they feed. The larvrelive in the earth in dung-hills and 
dead carcases; they have six short feet; the head is small, armed with 
btrong jaws; they undergo their transformations underground 



ORDER I. COLEOPTERA. 51 

Sp. 1. Silpha Vespillo. {PL Q.Jig. 6.) Oblong and black : the clypens or- 
bicular and unequal : the elytra marked with two ferruginous lasciae. 
This species is subject to great variet}- in size. It is infested with 
uicari; it Hies very swiftly with its elytra erect. The elytra are shorter 
than the abdomen. It feeds on carrion, and a small dead animal is 
soon visited by a number of this species, which join in burying it after 
they have deposited their eggs in its body. Thus a mole or a mouse is 
often buried by the industry of four or five of them in the space of 
four-and-twenty hours. They scoop out the earth all round and be- 
low the animal, which gradually sinks down; and while the agents are 
invisible, we see the effect by the disappearance of the carcase. 

Sp. Q. Si/p/ia quadripunctata. {PL '2. fig. 7 .) Black: elytra and thorax 
vellow, with two black spots on each elytron : head, antennae and legs 
black. 
Found at the roots of oak trees in the winter, and in the foliage in 

the months of JNIay, June, and July. 

Geiuis 10. NiTiDULA, Fabr. 
Anteniuc claxated: the club solid: c/y^ra marginated: Aeaf/ prominent : 

thorax dattish anil marginated. 
■ In the former editions of the Systema Nuturie the insects of this ge- 
mis were included in the genus Silpha, the habits of which they greatly 
resemble, being found in decayed animal substances, under the bark 
of trees, bones, Sec. 

Sp. 1. Kit. diacoidca. Black: the thorax marginated: the disk of the 

elytra ferruginous: length 1^ lin. {PL 2. jig. 5.). 

The species of this genus are numerous, subject to great variety, and 
require a minute examination. 

Genus 11. Opatrum, Fabr. 
Antcnntr moniliform, growing thicker at the end : tli/fra marginated : 

head prominent: ^/iora.r flattish and marginated. 

The insects of this genus are fbimd in sandy situations in May, June, 
and Jidy. — They were arranged with the Silphfc l)y Linne. 
•Sp. 1. Opat. sabulosum. Brown: thorax emarginatc: elytra dentated, 
. with three elevated lines. {PL "i.fig- 8. a. antcniuc tnagnijied.) 

Genus 12. Tkitoma, Fabr. 
Aidenmc clavated: club perfoliated {PL 'I. fig. 9. a.): Up emarginate: 

anterior palpi siicymioiiw: hod i/ iwnch elevated: thonuv^iiX. 

Of this genus we have but one species at present known in this 
country, which inhabits fungi : I once took them in profusion atCoombc 
Wood in the month of March. 
•Sp. 1. Trit. hipustulatuin. Black: the elytra wilh a scarlet spot on ihe 

shoulder, in which is a uiiall black dot. {PL 2. fig. 9.) 



52 LINNEAN SYSTEM. 

Genus 13. Cassida. 
AntcnrKz tnoniliform: thorax and elytra marginated : head concealed 

under the thorax: body above gibbous, beneath flat and margined. 

Of this genus we have several species, some of whicli are very bril- 
liant in colours, which disappear when the insect dies, but are said to 
revive when put in warm water. 

The larvffi of these insects are found under the leaves of the plants 
on which they feed: by means of the lateral spines and bristle at the 
end of the tail they form a kind of parasol with their own excrements 
to shelter themselves from the sun and rain, and probably to screen 
themselves from their enemies. 
Sp. 1. Cass, macidata. The elytra vary in colour, the young state of the 

insect being green, and as it advances in age gradually approaching 

to red spotted with black : black on the under side. C. murraa ot 

Marsham is only a variety of this. {PL l.fig- 10.) 

Genus 14. Coccineli.a. 
Ard.cnna clavated : the chib solid : maviUary palpi terminated by a large 

securiform joint : tcf/y hemispherical : thu-rax and elytra margined i 

aidonien flat. 

The insects of this genus are commonly called in England Lady- 
cows, or Lady-birds. The larvae feed chiefly on the Aphides or plant- 
lice, and are very serviceable in clearing vegetables of the myriads with 
which they are often infested. Mr. Marsham in his Entomologia Bri- 
tannica has described 50 species, two-thirds of which only are genuine. 
.So great is the variety in the species of this genus, that by a close ex- 
amination scarcely t\vo specimens will be foimd alike : this shows the 
necessity of collecting varieties, for by this means species may be de- 
cided upon; I shoiild therefore strongly recommend the young ento- 
mologist never to disregard them, as they tend greatly to the advance- 
ment of the science, and ccrtamly enrich a collection. Mr. Stepher.s 
(the author of the continuation to the ornithological part of Shaw's 
Zoology, and a most excellent entomologist,) for some years past has 
])aid great attention to this genus of insects; and it his intention to lay 
his observations before the Linnean Society. 
Sp. 1. Cocc. 14-g?/f/a/fl. Elytra red : with fourteen white dots : antennae 

and eyes black : the spots on the elytra form ibur lines; the iirstline 

c<jutains two spots, the second six, the third four, and the last two. 
Lihabits willows. {PL 2.fg. 11.) 

Genus 15. CHRVsoMfiLA. 

xintenna: moniliibrm : palpi six, thickest at their extremity: thorax mar- 
gined, but not the elytra: body for the most part ovate. 
The insects of this genus are in general adorned with shining and 

splendid colours. They live on leaves, but do not eat the nen-urcs. 



ORDER I. COLEOPTERA. 53 

Their larva? are in general of an oval shape, somewhat elongated and 
soft, with six feet near the head. The last joint of their feet or tarsi 
consists of four articulations, which in most cases serve for sexual di- 
stinctions, the tarsi of the fore feet heing considerably broader in the 
males tlian in the females. This numerous and beautiful tribe is found 
in almost every situation : their motion is slow; and some of them 
when caught emit an oily liquor of a disagreeable smell. 

In this genus of 1 Jnne we tind many insects that difter widely from 
the generic character given above, which form many natural families 
consisting of numerous genera, the characters of which will be given 
in the system proposed by Dr. Leach. 

Sp. 1. Chrijs. coriaria. Apterous, oval ; varies in colour from a dark 
blue to a black. It is a very common species, and may be lound on 
heaths from April to June in abundance. {PL 2. Jig. 12.) 

Sp. 2. Clirt/s. Tanaceti. Black and panctmed: the antenna; and feet 
black. {PL 2. fig. 13.) Galeruca Tanaceti, Geoffrey, Lat /■elite, Fahri- 
ciiis, Otiviei; and Leach. 

Sp. 3. C/iri/s. jnerdigera. {PL 2. Jig. 11.) Auchenia merdigera, Mamluini. 

Inhabits the white lily. 

Genus 10. Cryptoceph.vlus, Tabr. 

Antenna filiform : palpi four : thorax margined, but not the elytra: hody 

nearly cylindrical. 

The insects of this genus in some of the sections into which it has 
been divided by Gmelin resemble the preceding in form and manners, 
and were accordingly in the former editions of the St/stema Natura ar- 
ranged with Ctiri/so)iiet(£. Mr. Marsham's Auclienia, Crioceris, and TilluSy 
are separated from this genus. 

Sp. 1. Crypt. Lincola. Body black : elytra red, with a black line on 
each. {PL 2. Jig. 15.) 

Genus 17. Hispa. 

Antcnn^B cylindrical, approximate at the base and seated bet\veen the 
eyes: palpi fusiform: thora.v and elytra often spinous or toothed. 

Sp. 1. Hispa mutica. {PL 2. Jig. 10.) Orthocerus muticus, Latr. 
Inhabits sajidy situations. 

Genus 18. BRCciirs. 
Antenne filiform : palpi equal and filiform : lip acuminated. 
Sp. 1. Bruchus Pisi. Elytra black, with white spots; the extremity 

white, with two black dots, {PL 2. Jig. 17.) 
Ii^habits Europe, and is very destructive to fields of peas, 



54 LINNEAX SYSTEM. 

Genus 19. Curculio. 

AnIeiiiKp clavated, situated on the rostrum: palpi four, tiliromi. 

The insects of this genus are very numerous, and subject to great 
diversity in form and colours. Mr. Marsham has described 234 spe- 
cies in his Entomologia Britannica, some of which are but varieties. 
Many species have been discovered since his work was written, and 
the number is probably doubled. 

Sp. 1. Cuix.nitens. Oblong, dark-violet : thorax and elytra of a blueish 

green. {PL 2.fg. 18.) 
Inhabits Europe ; is found in England on the white-thorn in woods in 

the month of May. 
Sp. 2. Ciox. Fyri. Bronzed with a changeable colour of yellow, red, and 

green: legs rufous. {Fl. 2. fig. 19.) 
Inhabits the nut-tree, but is very local. 

Sp. 3. Cure. Nucu)?7. Grey-brown ; rostrum as long as the body. 
Inhabits the nut-tree; the larva is frequently found in the hazel nut. 

{PL '2. fg. 20.) 
Sp. 4. Cure. Scrophularia. The coleoptra with two black spots on the 

back. {PL 2. fig. 21.) 
Inhabits the Scrophularia in marshes. 

Genus 20. Attelabus. 

Antenna monWi^onw; thickest towards the apex: head inclined, and 

acuminated behind. 
Sp. 1. Att. CoryU. Black; elytra red and reticulated. {PL 2. fg. 22.) 
Inhabits Europe : is found on the hazel ; the leaves of which the lar%'a 
rolls up into a cylinder, close at both ends. The form of the head 
in this insect is remarkable : it is shaped like a long triangle ; the 
acute angle attached to the thorax, the eyes in the other two angles, 
and from the liase the rostrum arises. 

Genus 21. Notoxus, Fubr. Meloe, Linn. Lytta, Marsh. 

Antenna filiform ; palpi four, secinuform : maxilla with one dent or 

tooth. 
Sp. 1. JVb^. monoceros. The thorax projecting like a horn over the head. 

{PL 2. fig. 23. a. head, thorax, and antennae magnified.) 
Inhabits sand-pits, is rare near London. This species has been taken in 

profusion on the sandy sea shores of South Wales. 

Genus 22. CeraJmbvx. 

Antenna setaceous : palpi four : thorax spinous or gibbous : clj/li a 

linear. 
This is a numerous genus: it has therefore been divided into several 



ORDER 1. COLEOl'TERA. 56 

genera by later writers. Few of them are natives of Britain. Their 
hirvK live in wood, which, they perforate and consume. They are the 
favourite food of the woodpecker. They have shorter feet than the 
lar\'<E of most other Coleoptera. 1'he antennae are often longer than 
the whole body, being in some species four times its length. 

Sp. 1. Ce/: moschatttx. 

Inhabits Europe. In England it frequently occurs on willov-'-trees in 
June. 

Sp. 2. Ce?'. Text or. 

Inhabits Europe. This is esteemed a very rare British insect; it occurs 
on willows at the Eftbrd Mills, near Lymington in Hampshire, and 
near Bristol. (P/. 1. fg. 24.) 

Sp. 3. Cer. urcuatus. The elytra with four yellow fasciffi ; the first inter- 
rupted, the others arched backwards, {PL 'i.fig- 25.) 

Inhabits Europe. Is foiuid on the trunks of trees, but is rare in 
Britain. 

Genus 23. Lkptura. 

Antenna setaceous : palpi four, filiform : elijtra attenuated towards the 

ape.x: thorax somewhat cylindrical. 
Sp. 1. Lept. guadrifasciatu. Black ; elyti'a testaceous with four black 

fasciffi. {PL 2. fig. 26.) 
Inhabits Europe. In Britain it is found in the woods of Kent on 

umbelliferous plants. 
Sp. 2. Lept. Ni/mphtece. Hind thighs toothed : thorax and elytra coppery : 

body cinereous, downy. 
Inhabits Europe. j\lay frequently be found in ditches on the leaves 

of l^ijmphau alba in the month of May. {PL 2. fg. 27.) 

Genus 24. Necyd.\lis. 

Antenna setaceous or filiform : palpi four, filiform : eli/fra smaller than 

the wings. 
Sp. 1. Neci/d. carulea. Elytra subulate : abdomen blue : hind thighs of the 

maleclavate, arcuate; those of the female simple. {PL 2. Jig. 28.) 
Inhabits flowers in woods and chalk-pits. 

Genus 25. Lampyris. 

J?j/e««fi; filiform: {PL 3. Jig. 1. a.) palpi four: eli/tra flexible: thorax 
flat, semiorbicular, concealing and surrounding the head: the sides 
of the abdomen with papillary t'olCo: the females for the most part 
are destitute of wings and elytra, and resemble herbivorous larvse. 

Sp. 1. La/np. noctiluca, Glow-worm. Oblong and brown; the thorax 
ash-coloured. {PL 3.fg. 1. male, fg. 2. female.) 

Inhabits woods, heaths, and grassy banks in the months of June 
and July; the female alone is luminous. The light, which is phos- 



56 LINNEAN SYSTEM. 

phoric, proceeds from the last segment but one of the abdomen, and 
seems intended to attract the male. Lunipyria splendidula is said to in-t 
habit this country, but I have not yet seen any British specimen : I 
should therefore advise those entomologists residing at a distance trom 
London to collect all the specimens they can obtain, and carefully exn- 
amine them : the males may be taken in profusion in the evenings of 
the above months, if a few females be put in the entomologist's foldr 
ing-net as he Avalks in the above places of an evening. 

Genus 20. Pyrochuoa, Tahr. Gmel. 

AideniKB pectinate : thoi^ax orbicular : hocli/ elongate, depressed. The 

prevailing colour in this genus is red and black. 
Sp. 1. Pi/roch. coccinea. Black : thorax and elytra of a bright scarlet red ; 

the antennsfc strongly pectinate. 
Inhabits the woods of Kent in the months of June and July. {PL 3. 

M 3.) 
Sp. 2. Pi/roch. ruhens. Black: thorax and elytra of a duller red than 

the preceding species. 

A very common insect in the months of May and June, and may be 
found in most hedges where white-thorn gTows. 

Genus 27. Caxtharis. 

Anieantr filiform ; thorax (in most species) marginated ; eh/tra flexible ; 
the sides of the abdomen with papillary folds. 

This is an extremely rapacious genus, preying upon other insects, 
and even its own tribe. 

Sp. 1. Canth. fusca. Thorax red, with a black spot; elytra brown. 
(P/. 3. fg. 4.) 

This is a numerous tribe, and forms several natural genera of mo- 
dern authors. 

Sp. 2. Canth. biguttata. Thorax black in the middle : elytra greenish- 
bronze; red at the apex. {PI. 3. fig. 5.) 
This insect is furnished with two red obtuse vesicles at the base cf 

the abdomen, and two at the apex of the thorax, which are raised and 

depressed alternately. Common on various plants in woods in the 

months of May and June. 

Genus 28. Elater. 
AntenntE filiform : palpi four, securiform : mandihles notched, or bifid at 

their extremities. 

Many of the coleopterous insects have a great difficulty in restoring 
themselves when laid on their back; the apparatus with which the in- 
sects of this genus are provided for that purpose is singular and curi- 
ous. An elastic spring or spine projects from the hinder extremity of 
the breast, and there is a groove or cavity in the anterior part of the ab« 



ORDHR I COLEOPTKRA. S7 

dnmcn. When laid on its back, the insect raises and sustains itself on 
the anterior part of the head and the extremity of the body, by which 
means the spine is removed iVoni the groove where it is lodged when in 
its natural position ; then suddenly bending its body, the spine is struck 
with force across a small ridge or elevation, into the cavity from whence 
it was withdrawn, by which shock, the parts of the body before sus- 
tained in the air are so forcibly beat against whatever the insect is 
laid on, as to cause it to spring or reboimd to a considerable distance. 
The antenna' are lodged in a cavity scooped out of the under side of 
the head and thorax, probably to preserve them from injury when 
the insect falls, after its singular leap. The larvaj reside in decayed 
^vood. 
6p. 1. TJat. sanguineus. Black; thorax sniooth and shining: elytra of 

a blood red colour. {PI. 3. fig. 6.) 
Inhabits decayed oaks, and lias been found in abundance imder the 

bark of trees in June, in the New Forest of Hampshire, which is 

a most excellent and fertile county for insects. 
Sp. 2. FJat. ci/aneus. Blue, varying from a purple to a greenish hue : 

elytra striated and finely punctured. (P/. 2>.jig. 7.) 
Inhabits gravel-pits in tlie months of May and June, under stones, 

clods of earth and conglomerated masses, by turning up of which 

the entomologist will frequently find other insects equally rare. 

Genus 29. Cicindela. 
Antenna setaceous: palpi six, filiform; the posterior ones hairy: 7nan- 

fW'/fs projecting with many dents: eyes prominent : tliorux rounded 

and marginated. 

This is in general a very beautiful tribe of insects; they are found 
in dry sandy places, and prey with the most ravenous ferocity upon 
all weaker insects which come in their way. The larva is soft and 
white, with six feet, and two tubercles on its back which assist it in 
retreating with its prey; the head is brown and scaly, and armed with 
a pair of large jaws. It lurks in a round perpendicular hole in the 
ground, with its head at the entrance, to draw in and de\our \\ hatcver 
insects may come near or fall into it. 

.Sp. 1. Cicind. cximpestris. Green; the elytra with five white dots. 
Inhabits sand-pits and other hot and dry places from April to July. 
Sp. 2. Cicind. si/lvatica. {PL 3. Jig. 8.) 

Genus 30. Buprestis. 

Antenna filiform, serrated; the length of the thorax: palpi four, fili- 
form ; the last articulation obtuse and tnmcated : head partly re- 
tracted within the thorax. {PI. 3. fig. 9.) 
Pew of this numerous genus are natives of Britain. Many of the ex- 

^otic species are remarkable for their rich metallic colours, having fre- 



58 LINKEAN SYSTEM. 

quently the appearance of the most highly poUshed gold or copper: 

the larvfe live in wood. 

Sp. 1. Bupr. biguttafa. Green above, blue-green heneath; scutellum 
transversely impressed ; apex of the elytra serrated ; a white villose 
spot on each side of the suture, and three on the sides of the ab- 
domen. 

In England it is rather rare, but was once observed in very great 
abundance, by Dr. Latham, in Darent-wood, Kent. 

Genus 31. Hydrophilus, Fabr. Dytiscus, Linn. 
Antennae clavated, dub perfoliate : palpi four, tiliform : hinder feet cili- 
ated and formed for swimming, with minute claws. 
The insects of this genus live in water and moist places. They 
may be seen in ponds during the summer and calm mild days in 
winter, frequently rising to the surface for fresh air; they swim well, 
and when laid on their backs restore themselves by whirling roimd; 
they rest in the shade, keep in the water during the day, come abroad 
in the evening, and are sometimes found sitting on the plants by the 
edge; they fly by night; after having been long out of tlie water they 
cannot dive but with difficulty : the foremost feet of the males have a 
hemispherical appendage. The larvae always live in the water, and are 
the crocodiles of their class, killing not only aquatic insects but even 
fishes. 
Sp. \. llydroph. piceiis. Black; the' sternum channelled and spiny 

behind. 
Hydrous piceus. Leach, from the LiiDtean MSS. 

This is the largest British species of the genus. The larva lives in 
still waters and ponds; is about an inch and a half in length; black; its 
head smooth and chesnut-coloured; with six short slender feet, which 
are actually placed on the back, and a tapering tail through which it 
respires. — In the month of July it is said to attain its utmost size, and 
leaving tlie water, creeps upon the dry ground to a heap of dung, (cow- 
dung if it be near,) and makes a hole under it pretty deep, and so wide 
that it can lie in it rolled up in a circle, and there it changes into its 
pupa state. About the middle of August the perfect insect appears. 
Like most of the aquatic insects it lives through the winter, diving deep 
into the mud in the most inclement weather. 
Sp. 2. Hfjdroph. curaboides. {PL 3. Jig. 16.) 

Genus 32. Dytiscus. 

Antenna setaceous ; palpi six, filiform : hind feet villous, formed for 

swimming, with the claws very minute. {PL S.fig. 13, 14 4" 15.) 

The insects of this genus are very numerous, and are well deserving 

the attention of the entomologist. In Dr. Leach's system they are di- 

\ided into several very natural genera : they are ibund in almost every 



OUDER I. COLtOPTEHA. 59 

pond, dllch, and rivulet, but many of the species are very local : they 
may be obtained in the above-mentioned situations at all seasons of 
the year. 

Genus 33. C.4rabus. 

Antenna: filiform ; palpi six, the last articulation obtuse and truncated : 

thorax obcordate, trimcated at the apex, and marginated : eli/tru 

margined. 

Mr. ^larsham has described 109 British species of this genus : the 
generality of them arc found on the ground, under stones, in sand-pit>- 
&:c. a few are foiuid in trees, feeding on the larva; oi Lepidoptera. The 
whole of this tribe are very voracious, preying on all insects which they 
can overcome; they discharge, when taken, a brown caustic and fetid 
liquor : many of them want wings ; though their elytra in general arc 
separate and moveable : their larvte live in putrid wood, among mosses, 
in the earth, &:c. 

Fl. '^.fg. 17, 18, If), &; 20, belong to this genus of Linne. They are 
types of so many genera, the characters of which are given in the 
system of Dr. Leach. 

Genus 34. Tenebrio. 

Antcnme moniliform ; the last articidation nearly round : thorax with a 
small degree of convexity, and marginated : head standing out: elytra 
somewhat rigid. 
Sp. 1. Tench. MolUor. Brownish-black; the anterior thighs the thickest. 
(P/.4..//5. 1.) ' 

The larvae of this insect are called Meal-zcorms, and are found in 
meal, bakers' ovens, dry bread, &c. They are of a pale colour, smooth, 
with thirteen segments, soft ; and are the favourite food of nightin- 
gales, and other MotacilU. 

Genus 3.5. Blaps, Fabr., Marsh. Tenebrio, Linn. 

Antenna' filiform; palpi four: thorax with a small degree ot convexity, 

and marginated : head standing out : eli/tra somewhat rigid : zoiiigs 

(in most species) wanting. 
Sp. 1. Bl. mortinaga. Black ; coleoptra ending in a point, and smooth ; 

the antennae moniliform at the apex. 

This species wants the wings : it walks slowly, and is therefore called 
the slow-legged beetle : when taken it emits a certain colourless but 
very fetid liquor. 

Genus 36. Lytta, Fabr. Meloe, Liim. 

Antenna; fiWform: /Jf///)* four, unequal, the hind ones clavated: thora.v 
somewhat round : head inflected and gibbous : eli/tra soft and flexible. 
Sp. 1. Lytta vesicatoria. Green; the antenn2e,black. {PL 4. fg- 5.) 
Inhabits the south of Europe, and is occasionally found in Britain. 



CO LINNEAN SYSTEM. 

This is the common Spanish fly: it is found on the privet, the ash, 
the elder, the jtoplar, &cc. It is so hght when dried that fifty of them 
sccDxely weigh a dram. 

Genus 37. Meloe. 

Antenna moniHform : thorax nearly round : eliftra soft, flexible, and 
shorter than the abdomen: hcnd inflected, gibbous. {PI. 4. Jig. 7.) 

Sp. 1. Mel. Froscarahmis. Of a violet colour. 

Found in spring, particularly in open sandy fields, feeding on the 

different species of Ranuncuhis, &c.; its ova have an agreeable smell; 

when touched, there issues from it a very limpid yellowish oil, which 

is exceedingly diuretic, and when mixed with honey or oil has been 

recommended in cases of hydrophobia. 

Genus 38. Mordella. 

Antcnntt moniliform or pectinated : palpi four, the anterior ones cla- 
vated, the hinder filiform : when frightened, it hides its head be- 
neath the thorax : elytra narrower towards the apex, and slightly 
cun-ed : before the thighs a broad plate at the base of the abdomen. 
The insects of this genus inhabit flowers. 

Sp. 1. Mord.fasciata. {PL 4. Jig. 8.) 

Genus 39. Staphylinls. 

I shall omit the generic character of Linne, and refer the student to 
those genera given in Dr. Leach's system. Mr. Marsham has de- 
scribed only 87 species of this very extensive family : 500 species at least 
are found to be natives of this coimtry, many of which are exceed- 
ingly minute, but very interesting. {PI. 4. fg. 10, 11, 12, 13 4' 14.) 

Genus 40. Forficula. 

Antenna, setaceous : palpi unequal and filiform : clijtra truncated and 
shorter than the abdomen, the extremity of which is armed with 
forceps. 

Sp. 1. Forf. auricularia, Earwig. 



Order II. HEMIPTERA. 

Many of the insects of this Order are furnished with a rostrum 
which is inflected and bent inwards towards the breast. Their wing- 
cases are hemehjirata:, or of a substance less hard than those of the 
preceding order; they do not meet together and form a longitudinal 
suture, but have some part of their anterior margins crossed or laid 
one over the other. 



OUDEU II. IIEMIPTERA. 61 

Genus 41. Blatta. 

Head inflected : antenna setaceous : palpi unequal, filiform : c.I)jtra and 
zn»gs flat, and nearly coriaceous : t/iorav nearly flat, orbicular, and 
marginated : feet formed for running : tmo horns above the tail ia 
most species. {PI. 4. fig. 17.) 
Sp. 1. lit. orientalis, Black-beetle or Cock-roach. 

This insect was originally a native of South America, but is now very 
generally spread throughout Europe. It cannot be considered a British 
insect, though it frequents kitchens, ovens, and warm places, and de- 
vours meal, bread, and other provisions, shoes, &c. It conceals itself 
during the day, and comes abroad in the night; it runs quickly, and is 
very tenacious of life. They are killed by red wafers. 

Genus 42. Gryllus. 

Head inflected, furnished with maxilla? and filiform palpi : antenna: se- 
taceous or filiform: wings four, deflected and convoluted ; the imder 
ones folded: hind legs formed for leaping: t<vo chncs on all the feet. 

Sp. 1. Gr.flavipes. {Fl. 4. fg. 19.) 

Inhabits marshes, but is very local in Britain. 

Genus 43. Cicada. 

Rostrum inflected : antenna setaceous ; zcings four, membranaceous and 

deflected : /t^e^ formed for leaping. {PL Ij.jig. 1 4' 2.) 
Sp. 1. Cic. viridis. Elytra green: head yellow, with black dots. 
Inhabits aquatic plants in ditches. 

Genus 44. Notonecta. 
Rostrum inflected : antenna shorter than the thorax : wings four, folded 

together crosswise; coriaceous at the base: hinder feet ciliated, 

formed for swimming. 

The insects of this and the following genus live in water, feeding 
on aquatic animalcula; the larva and pupa have each six- feet; they 
are active, and swim like the perfect insect; the former wants wings, 
the latter has the rudiments of them. {PL 5. Jig. 3.) 

Sp. 1. Kut. minutissima. Grey; the head brown: the elytra truncated. 
Inhabits ponds. 

Genus 45. Nepa. 

Rostrum inflected : antenna short : roings four, folded crosswise, the an- 
terior part of them coriaceous: the two fore feet cheliform; the 
others formed for walking. 

Sp. 1. Nepa cinerea. Of an ash colour : the thorax unequal: the body 
oblong, ovate. {PL 5. fig. 4.) 

Inhabits ponds and ditches; is very common in Britain throughout the 
. vear. 



62 LINNEAN SYSTEM. 

Genus 46. CiMEX. 
Rvatrum iilfiected: unicnntE longer than the thorax: u'uii^s four, folded 
crosswise; the upper ones coriaceous in the anterior pari: buck tlat: 
thorax marginated: feet formed for running. {PL 5. Jig. 6, 7, 8.) 
The insects of this genus, whether as larvae or in the perfect state, 
feed for the most part on the juices of plants; some on the larvjg of 
other animals: they have in general a very disagreeable smell. The 
larvce and pupa^ have six feet ; they are active, and walk about like the 
perfect insect : the former has no wings, the latter has the rudiments 
of them. A great number of species are found in Britain. 

Sp. 1. Clmcx IccLidarias. Without wings. 
Inhabits Europe. 

This insect (the bed-bug) is unhappily but too well known, and was 
an inhabitant of Europe j)rior to the Christian tera; at least it is men- 
tioned by Aristophanes and other Greek writers. Southall says it was 
hardly known in London before 1670; but there is good authority for 
asserting that it was common enough there before the great tire in 
1666. It is a nocturnal animal, very fetid; seldom, though sometimes, 
found with wings ; easily killed when taken alive. Bugs are said to be 
expelled in a variety of ways, viz. by charcoal and oil of turpentine, soft 
soap, or hai'd pomatum. 

Genus 47. Aphis. 

Hostrum inflected ; the vagina with five articulations and a single seta : 
a)itenu(e setaceous, longer than the thorax : wingii four, erect, or none : 
feet formed for walking : the abdomen generally armed with two horns. 
\Pl.5.fg.9.) 

The insects of this genus are small and defenceless ; but very nox- 
ious animals, and most remarkable for the singularities in tlieir history 
and manners. They seldom appear before autumn, when the males im- 
pregnate their females, which soon thereafter lay eggs or rather a sort of 
capsule in which the yoimg Aphides lie already perfectly formed, but 
do not break their shell till the following spring. When they appear, 
it is very remarkable that they are almost wholly females, with hardly 
a male to be seen during the whole spring and summer. Notwith- 
standing this, all these female Aphidea without any communication 
with a male are able to propagate their species, and seem to have re- 
ceived the genial influence not merely for themselves alone but for 
their posterity to the ninth generation. During the whole summer they 
are viviparous ; and if a young Apltis be taken immediately upon ex- 
clusion from the mother, and kept apart, it will produce yoimg ; which 
young, if also kept apart, will likewise produce, and so on, without the 
presence of a male. Towards autumn, however, this singular fructifi- 
cation begins to lose its wonderful effects; the J/'/i«/fs cease to bring 



ORDEK III. I.F.PIDOPTCRA. 63 

Ibrtl) fonialos only ; males likewise are produced, which immediately 
celebrate their nuptial rite, that is to communicate fertility to the whole 
female posterity of the following summer. 

Genus 48. Chermes. 

The rost7-um rising from the breast with a vagina and three inflected 
seta>: antenna: cylindrical, longer than the thorax: rt/^gs four, de- 
Hexed; thorax gibbous: feet formed for leaping. {PI. 5. Jig. 10.) 
The larvoe of the insects of this genus are furnished with feet and 
generally covered with down. In the perfect state they greatly resem- 
ble the Ap/iidcs. 

Genus 49. Coccus, 

Antenna filiform : ubdomen furnished with two setse : rostrumxi^m^ from 
the breast with a vagina and sctfe : tico erect nings in the males ; 
none in the females. (P/. 5. Jig. 11.) 
Sp. 1. Coccus Cacti. 

This insect, so useful when properly prepared to painters and dyers, 
is a native of South America, where it is found on several species of 
Cactus, particidarly the Cactus Opuntia or Prickly-pear. The insects are 
collected in a wooden bowl, thickly spread from thence upon a flat 
dish of earthenware, and placed alive over a charcoal fire, where they are 
slowly roasted imtil the downy covering disappears and the aqueous 
juices of the animal are totally evaporated. During this operation the 
insects are continually stirred aViout with a tin ladle, and sometimes 
water is sprinkled upon them to prevent absolute torrefaction, which 
would destroy the colour and reduce the insect to a coal ; but a little 
habit teaches when to remove them from the fire. They then appear 
like so many dark, round, reddish grains, and take the name of Cochi- 
neal, preserving so little the original form of the insect that this pre- 
cious dye was long known and sought in Europe before naturalists had 
dcLermiued whether it was animal, vegetable, or a mineral substance. 

Genus 50. Thrips. 

Hustnan indistinct : antenna filiibrm, of the length of the thorax : hotlij 
linear: aWowe?? curved upwards : -wings four, straight, lying upca 
tlieback; longitudiual,narrow, and somewhat crossed. (P/. 5. Jig. 12.) 
The insects of this genus are small, and arc found on the flow^ers of 

various plants. 



Orderlll. LEPIDOPTERA. (Glos?xt.k, Fabr.) 

The insects of this order contain the butterflies, moths, and hawk- 
moths; have all four wings covered with scales or a sort of farina: 
they have a mouth (the jaws of which havclatcl) been di-scovered, de- 



64 LliS'NEAN SYSTEM. 

scribed and figured by Savigny in his Manoircs sitr ks Anunaux sum 
Verttbres, Paris, 1816.), with palpi, a spiral tongue; the body covered 
with hair. The scales resemble feathers : they lie over one another in 
an imbricated manner, the shaft towards the body of the insect and die 
expansion towards the end of the w-ing, reflecting the most brilliant co- 
lours. 

Genus 51, Papilio. 

Antenna; clavate, gradually thickening towards their extremity: uings 
when at rest erect and meeting upwards. All the insects of this ge- 
nus fly in the day-time. 

Linne in a peculiar and instructive manner divided this l)eautiful 
and numerous tribe into sections, instituted from the habit or general 
appearance, and in some degree from the distribution of the colour of 
the wings. 
Sp. 1. Pap. Mgchaon. 

This is an insect of great beauty, and maj- be considered as the only 
British species of Papilio. It is well known to collectors by the title of 
tlie Swallow-tailed butterfly, and is of a beautiful yellow, with black 
S]>ots or patches along the upper edge of the superior wings; all the 
wings are bordered with a deep edging of black, decorated by a double 
rov/ of crescent-shaped spots, of which the upper row is blue and the 
lower yellow. The under wings are tailed, and are marked at the in- 
ner angle or tip with a round red spot bordered with blue and black. 
The larva of this species feeds on fennel and other umbelliferous 
plants. It is of a green colour encircled vi'ith numerous black bands 
spotted with red, and is furnished on the top of tlie head with a pair of 
short tentacula of a red colour. In the month of July it changes into 
the chrysalis or pupa state, fixed to some part of the plant on which it 
feeds, and in the month of August the perfect insect appears. It fre- 
quently happens that two broods of this butterfly are produced in the 
same summer; one in May, having been in the pupa state all the winter, 
the other in August from the pupa of July. {PL Q.Jiii- 1.) 

Genus 52. Sphixx. 

^?i/fw«(£ attenuated at each end: tongue m most species stretched out: 

palpi two : wings deflected. 

Some of the species of this genus are tlie largest of Icpidopterous in- 
sects. They fly very swift, for tlic most part early in llie morning and 
late in the evening, some of the smaller species during the day. 
Sp. 1. Sphinx Eipcnor, ElephantHawk. {PL 6. Jig. 2.) 

Genus 53. FHAL.iiNA. 

Antenna setaceous, and gradually tapering from the base to the tip: 
tongue spiral : the wings when at rest arc generally deflected. 



ORDER IV. WtUROPTERA, 65 

Moths fly abroad only in the evening and during the night, and ob- 
tain their food from the nectar of flowers. The larva is active and quick 
in motion, and preys voraciously on the leaves of plants. 
Sp. 1. P. Quercus. Bombyx Quercus, Fabr. (P/. 6.fg. 3.) 

Order IV. NEUROPTERA. 

The insects of this Order have four membranaceous wings, generally 
transparent with strong nervures. At the tail they have often an ap- 
pendage like pincers, but no sting. 

Genus 54. Libellula, Dragon-fly. 
ilfoM^/t armed with jaws, more than t\vo: lip trifid: antenn<z shorter 

than the thorax ; very slender and filiform : wings extended : the tail 

of the male is furnished with a hooked forceps. 

The insects of this genus are well known ; they are remarkable for a 
long slender body and wings standing out at right angles. The larva? 
have six feet, and move with great activity in the water : at the mouth 
they are furnished with an articulated forceps : they are very voracious, 
and are the crocodiles of aquatic insects. The larvie and pupaj are not 
very different ; the latter have the rudiments of wings : in a fine day in 
June, a person standing by a pond may observe them approach the 
bank for the purpose of changing their element. Having crawled up 
a blade of grass or bit of dry wood, the skin of the pupa grows 
parched and splits at the upper part of the thorax. The insect issues 
forth gradually, throws oft" its slough, in a few minutes expands its 
wings, flutters, and then flies off". The sexual parts in the male are 
placed under the thorax ; in the female at the extremity of the body. 
Sp. 1. L. quadrimacidata. (PI. 7.flg. 1.) 
Inhabits the banks of ponds, but is not common. 

Genus 55. Ephemera. 
Mouth v^ithout mandibles : palpi four, very short, and filiform : miutiUa 

short, membranaceous, cylindrical, connected with the lip: antenna 

short, and subulated : two large stemmata above the eyes : wings erect, 

the hind ones very small : set£ at the tail. 
Sp. 1. E. vulgafa. {PL T.flg. 2.) 

This is the largest of the British species. In the evenings in the 
month of June it assembles in vast numbers under trees near waters, 
and seems to divert itself for hours together, ascending and descending 
in the air as if dancing. In the neighbourhood of Luz, in Carniola, 
these insects are produced in such quantities, that when they die they 
are gathered to manure the land by the country-people, who think they 
have been unsuccessful if each does not procure twenty cart-loads of 
them for that purpose. Their larvae are the favourite food of fres'i- 

£ 



66 LIXXEAN SYSTEM. 

water fisTies, as are also the flies : they are more numerous in running 
than in standing waters. 

Genus 56. Phrygaxea. 
Mouth with a horny, short, arched, acute mandible, without teeth ; and 
a membranaceous maxilla: pa!pi four: sfanmof a three : anlenna ^e- 
taceous, lonaier than the thorax : u-ings incumbent ; the hinder ones 
folded. (FU.fg.S.) 

Genus 57. Hemerobius. 

Mouth with a straight horny mandible : a cylindrical, straight, cleft 
?tiuxilla: ///) stretched forward and entire : four projecting, unequal, 
filiform j5«/jDJ : no uteinmata : wings deflected, not folded: antenna se- 
taceous, projecting, and longer than the thorax, which is convex. 
The species of this genus in all their stages feed upon small insects, 
especially the Aphicks; their larvge have six feet; in most species they 
are oval and hairy ; the pupse are inactive, and inclosed in a case. The 
eggs are deposited on leaves in the midst of Aphides; they are sup- 
ported on small pedicles and set in the form of bunches. The larvie at- 
tain their growth in fifteen or sixteen days, and the pupa incompkta re- 
mains for three weeks before the fly comes forth. 
Sp. 1. H. Ch?ysops. {PI. 7. Jig. 4.) Chrysops maculata, icacA. 

Genus 58. Panorpa. 
Mouth stretched out into a cylindrical horny rostrum : the mnndihk is 
without teeth : maxilLe bifid at the apex : lip elongated, and covering 
the whole mouth : pulpi four, nearly equal : stemmata three : antenme 
filiform : the tail of the male armed with a chela, that of the femo,le 
, unarmed. 
Sp. 1. P. communis. {Fl. 7. Jig- 5. a. chela magnified^ 

Genus 59. Raphidia. 
Mouth with an arched, dentated, horny mandible : a cylindrical, obtuse 
horny maxilla: a rounded, entire, and horny Up: palpi four, very 
short, nearly equal, and filiform : stcmmata three : zcings deflected : an- 
tenn(£ filiform, of the length of the thorax; elongated before, and 
cylindrical ; tail of the female with a lax recurved seta. {PI. 7. Jig. 6.) 

Order V. HYMENOPTERA. 

Wings four, membranaceous : mouth with maxillfe, and some of tliem 
likewise a tongue. Between the large eyes they have generally three 
stemmata. At the extremity of the abdomen the females of several of 
the genera have an aculeus or sting, that lies concealed within the ab- 
domen, which is used as a weapon, and instils into the wound an acid 
j)oibon : those which want the sting, are furnished with an oviduct, that 



ORDER V. HVMENOPTERA, 67 

is often exserted, and with which the eggs are deposited either in the 
bodies of tlie caterpillars ol" other insects, or in wood. From these eggs 
the larv;e are produced, • which in some have no feet ; in others more 
than sixteen. They change to pupa incompletcc, which are inclosed in 
cases. Some of the insects of this Order live in societies, others are 
solitary. 

Genus CO. Cynips. 
Mouth with a short membranaceous maxilla with one dent : an arched 

horny mandible cleft at the apex : a short, cylindrical, entire, horny 

Up : four short unequal palpi : antenna moniliform, aculeus spiral, and 

in general hidden within the body. 

The Cj/nipcs pierce the leaves, &:c. of plants with their sting, and de- 
posit their eggs in the wound; the extravasated juices rise round it and 
form a gall, which becomes hard, and in this the larva lives and feeds, 
and changes to a pupa. 

Sp. 1. C. Qucrcusfolii. {PI. B.fg. 1.) 

The larva is found in galls, adhering to the under side of oak leave?, 
of the size of hazel-nuts. 

Genus 61. Tenthredo. 
Mouth with a horny arched mandible, dentated within : jnaxillce obtuse at 
the apex: lip cylindrical and trifiid: palpi four, unequal, and filiform. 
The larvaj of the insects of this genus have from sixteen to twenty- 
eight feet ; a round head : when touched they roll themselves together. 
They feed on the leaves of plants. When full-grown, they make, some- 
times in the earth and sometimes between the leaves of the plant on 
•n-hich they feed, a net-work case, and within it change to a pupa in- 
compkta, which for the most part remains during the ranter in the 
earth. The species are very numerous, and consist of many natural 
genera. 

Sp. 1. T. Scropkularics. (PL 8.fg. 2.) 
Inhabits the Water Betony. 

Genus 62; Sirex. 
Mouth with a thick, horny mandible, truncated at the apex, and denti- 
culated : an incurved, acuminated, cylindrical, ciliated maxilla, and a 
lip, both of them membranaceous and entire ; the whole short: palpi 
four, the hind ones the longest, increasing towards their apex : an- 
tenna filiform, with more than twenty-four equal articulations : ovi- 
duct exserted, stiff, and serrated : abdomen sessile, terminating in a 
point or spine : wings lanceolated, and not folded. 
Sp. 1. S. Gi^as. (PL 8. Jig 3.) 

Genus 63. Ichneumon. 
Mouth with a straight membranaceous, bifid maxilla, rounded at the 
apex, dilated, ciliated, and horny : an arched, acute, horny mandible, 

e2 



68 LINNEAN SYSTEM. 

without teeth : lip cylindrical, emarginated, horny, and membrana- 
ceous at the apex : palpi four, unequal, filiform : antenntE setaceous. 
The insects of this genus lay their eggs in the bodies of caterpillars 
or pupae, which are there hatched : the larvae have no feet ; they are 
soft and cylindrical, and feed on the substance' of the caterpillar; this 
last continues to feed, and even to undergo its change into a chrysalis, 
but never turns to a perfect insect : when the larvse of the ichneumon 
are full grown they issue forth, spin themselves a silky web, and change 
into a. pupa incompleta, and in a few days the fly appears. The genus 
is very numerous, upwards of 800 species are found in this country. 
Sp. 1. I. Manife&tator. {PL 8.fg. 4.) 

Genus 64. Sphex. 

Mouth with an entire maxilla : a horny, incurved, dentated mandible : 
a horny lip, membranaceous at the apex : palpi four : anteniia; fili- 
form : the aculeus or sting concealed within the abdomen. 
The insects of this genus form their cells in sand-banks, and they 

are occasionally found on umbelliferous plants; the larva is soft, witlv 

out feet, and lives in the bodies of dead insects in which the mother had 

previously deposited her eggs. 

Sp. 1. S. sahulosa. {PI. Q.fg. 5.) 

Inhabits sand-banks : is common in Norfolk, Suffolk, and the Hamp- 
shire coast, in June and July. 

Genus 65. Chrysis. 

Mouth homy and porrected : the maxille linear, much longer than the 
Up which is emarginated : palpi four, imequal and filiform ; antenna: 
filiform, the first articulation the longest, the remainder short: hody 
shining and finely punctured, the abdomen arched underneath ; the 
extremity, in most species, dentated : the sting somewhat exserted : 
wings not folded. 
The species of this genus inhabit sand-banks, old walls, or decayed 

wood. They rarely appear but in the middle of the day, and then only 

when the sun shines. 

Sp. 1. C. bidentata. {PI. S.fg. 7.) 

Genus 66. Vespa, Wasp. 

Mouth horny ; maxillce compressed ; palpi four, unequal and filiform ; 

antennre filiform, the first articulation the longest, and cylindrical ; 

ei/es shaped like a crescent; body smooth; the sting hid within the 

abdomen ; the upper wings folded in both sexes. 

The insects of this genus live in society; they prey on insects that 
have naked wings, particularly bees and flies; the larva is soft and with- 
out feet; the pupa is motionless. Wasps make a hive of a substance 
like paper formed of wood reduced to a paste; the combs are horizontal. 



ORDER V. HYMENOPTERA. 69 

and have only one row of hexagonal cells, flat at bottom, the month 
turned downwards, which serve only lor holding the young. Every hive 
is begun by a mother, who at first deposits a few eggs, from which neu- 
ters are produced, or working wasps, who assist her in increasing her 
work and in feeding tlie young afterwards produced. Neither males 
nor females are produced till towards the month of September. Be- 
fore that time there are none in the nest but the iemaleandthe neuters 
she has engendered. The females remain in the nest. The males do 
no work. Wasps feed their larva; with insects, meat, and the frag- 
ments of fruits. Towards autumn they are said to kill such of the larva; 
and pupK as cannot come to perfection before the month of November. 
The males and neuters perish themselves during winter, and none re- 
main but a few impregnated females to perpetuate the species. 
.Sp. 1. V. Crabro, the Hornet Wasp. {PL 8. fg. 8.) 
Inhabits Europe, generally forming its nes:t in the trunks of trees. 

Some little caution is necessary in taking the insects of this species, as 
without care the entomt<!ogist is subject to be stung by them. I have 
found that the bag net(P/. 11..%. 4.) is the best means of taking them. 
The insects when secured in the net should be gently trodden upon, 
TiOt sufficiently to injure, but merely to numb them ; a pin shoidd then 
be passed through the thorax, and the insect placed in the pocket box. 

Genus 67. Apis, Bee. 

Mimth horny : maxilla and lah'mm membranaceous at the apex : tongxie 
inflected : pa/pii'our, unequal and filiform : antenna: filiform : zihigsnot 
folded: aculcits in the females and neuters concealed in the abdomen. 

Sp. 1. A. retiisa, Lirm. {kiwaXn) pennipes, (male) {PL Q- Jig. 9. male.) 
Mr. Kirby has described upwards of 200 indigenous species of this 

genus in his admirable work entitled Monograp/iia Apum Anglite, 2 vols. 

iJvo. This work is indispensable in the library of every entomologist. 

Genus 68. Formica, Ant. 
Palpi four, unequal, with cylindrical articulations, seated on a sub- 
membranaceous cylindrical lip : antenna filiform ; between the thorax 
and the abdomen a small erect scale : the stivg concealed in the ab- 
domen, and possessed only by the females and neuters. The males 
and females only have wings. 

All the species of this genus are of three sorts, males, females, and 
neuters. The neuters alone labour; they form the ant-hill, bring in 
the provisions, feed the young, bring them to the air during the day, 
carry them back at night, defend them against attacks, &c. The fe- 
males are said to be retained merely for laying eg_gs, and as soon as 
that is accomplished they are unmercifully discarded. The males f.,i:d 
females perish with the first cold; the neuters lie torpid in their nest. 
Sp. 1. F. herculanea. {PI 8. fg. 10.) 



70 LINNEAN SYSTEM. 

Genus 69. Mutilla. 

Mouth horny, without a tongue : maxilla membranaceous at the apex, 
the hp projecting, o])conical, bearing on its apex four unequal palpi 
with obconical articulations : antenna filiform . In general the males 
are winged, and the females are apterous : body pubescent ; sting 
concealed. 

Sp. 1. Mutilla europcEU. (PL 8. fg. 11. male.) 

Order VI. DIPTERA. 

This Order includes all those insects that have but two wings, and 
behind, or below them, two globular bodies, supported on slender pe- 
dicles called Halteres orpoisers. At the mouth they have a proboscis, 
sometimes contained in a vagina, and sometimes furnished at its sides 
with two palpi but no maxilla. Their eyes are reticulated and large. 
The females, in general, lay eggs, but some are viviparous; the larva 
of the insects of this order are as various in their appearance as the 
places in which they are bred. In general they do not cast their skins, 
but change into a pupa state. 

Genus 70. Oestrus, Gad-JJy. 
Hausfcllum retracted within the lips, which are tumid and grown to- 
gether with a small pore and no palpi ; the vagina is membranaceous, 
cylindrical, obtuse, including three membranaceous seta; which are 
flexible, short, and reflected; antenna: short and setaceous. 
The insects of this genus lay their eggs in the nostrils or in the skins 
of horses, oxen, rein-deer, goats, and sbeep; their larva is bred, and 
feeds on the fat of these animals, or on the matter which is generated 
in the wound. It is soft and without feet : in some species it has at the 
extremity two hooks, which it vises to assist it in walking. These hooks 
are wanting in the larvag which reside in the skins of oxen and rein- 
deer. When full grown the larvae let themselves fall on the ground, 
they enter the earth and change into an oval hard pupa. The perfect 
insect takes no food. [Mr. Bracy Clark has written an excellent paper 
on the insects of this genus, published in the third voliune of the 
Transactions of the Linnean Society ; which has been re-published with 
additional remarks, and entitled an Essay on the Bots of Horses, &c. 
4to, 1815.] 
Sp. 1. 0. Bovis. (PI. 9. Jig. 1.) 

Genus 71. Tipula. 
Mouth furnished with a very short proboscis, membranaceous, grooved 
on the back, and receiving a bristle; a short haustellum without a 
vagina; two incurved palpi, equal, filiform, and longer than the head j 
antenna in most species fililbrm. 



ORDER Vr. DIPTF.RA. 71 

The insects of this genus hve on garbage; the lan'a? ha\'e no feet, 
they are cylindrical and soft ; they feed on the roots of plants under 
which they live; the piipns are motionless and cylindrical, with two 
horns before, dentatcd behind. Some species live in the water, and 
either swim or roll themselves up in a case. 
Sp. 1. T. okracea. {PL 9. fig. 2.) 

Genus 72. Musca. 
Mouth with a fleshj' iexserted proboscis ; two equal lips and a hauslcUum 

furnished with setae, and two short jaa/yj/ ; anteiuut in most species 

short. 
Sp. 1. M. inaiiis. {PL 9. fg. 3.) 

Genus 73. TAEA^us. 

Mouth with a straight exserted membranaceous proboscis, ending in an 
ovate cajtitulum or knob; with two equal tips ; huustcUum projecting, 
exserted, and received into a groove in the back of the proboscis ; 
tagina imivalve, with five setcc and two equal palpi, the last articula- 
tion of which is thicker than the rest ; anteniKC short, approximate, 
cylindrical, with seven articulations ; the third generally largest, and 
armed with a lateral dent. 
The insects of this genus suck the blood of animals. They are of a 

dull plain appearance, but their large eyes are in general beautifidly 

coloured — these colours fade after they *are dead. 

Sp. 1. r. tropicus. {PL 9. Jig. 4.) 

Genus 74. CtaEX, the Gnat. 
With an exserted, univalve, flexible zagina; five seta; palpi t^vo, con- 
sisting of three articulations; uafennce filiform. 
Sp. 1. C. pipiens. {PL 9. Jig. 5.) 
Inhabits Europe and the northern parts of Asia and America. 

This insect is frequent in the neighbourhood of waters and marshy 
places. In southern regions there is a larger species which is knowa 
by the name of Musquetoe. Its bite is painful, raising a considerable 
degree of inflammation, and its continual p'ping note is exceedingly 
irksome where it abounds, especially dvuing the night. When it settles 
to inflict the wound and draw the blood, it raises its hind pair of feet. 
In Lapland, the injuries the inhabitants sustain from it are amply re- 
paid by tlie vast numbers of water-fowl and wild-fowl which it attracts, 
as it forms the favoarite food of their young. 

Genus 75. Empis. 
Hausfdlum inflected ; vagina univalve, with three setae and a proboscis ; 
palpi short and filiform; antenn<£ setaceous. 
The changes of these insects are unknown; they are common on 



7*2 LINNEAN SYSTEM. 

flowers and in gardens ; their head is small and round, the thorax gib- 
bous, the feet long, the proboscis small and inflected. 

Sp. 1. E.pennipes. (PL 9. fig. 6.) 

Genus 76. Conops. 
MoM^A with a porrected, geniculated rostrum; antenna clavated; thp 

clava acuminated. 
Sp. 1. C maa-ocephala. {PI. 9. fig. 8.) 

Genus 77. Asilus. 
Mouth with a straight, horny, bivalve haustelluin, which is gibbous at 

the base; antenna fiUform. 

The insects of this genus live by preying on those of the Dipterous 
and Lepidopterous orders. When they are at rest, their wings in 
general are incumbent on the abdomen, which is long and small, often 
hairy, particularly the feet, and these end in small claws. Their larvje 
feed in the earth, on the roots of plants : they change into a pvpa 
coarctata, beset with setfe. 
Sp. 1. A. crahronifoi-mis. {PI, 9. fig. 9.) 

Genus 78. Bombylius. 
il/ouM with a very long setaceous, straight, bivalve haustellum ; the 

valves unequal, with three setae; tuo short hairy palpi; antennae subu- 

lated, united at the base. 

The insects of this genus, while they fly, suck the nectareous juices 
of flowers. 
Sp. 1. B. tnajor. (P/. 9. fig. 10.) 

Genus 79. Hippobosca. 
Mouth with a short, cylindrical, bivalve haustellum ; the valves equal ; 

antenncc filiform ; feet with several claws. 

The insects of this genus live by sucking the blood of animals; and 
stick so fast to their skins, that they must be torn before they can be 
taken off". 

Sp. 1. H. equina. {PL 9. fig. 11.) 

Order VII. APTERA. 

In this Order Linne arranged (if we except tlie Flea, Louse, and Le- 
pisma,) animals widely different from genuine insects : I shall only 
enumerate the names of Lmne, and the Classes they constitute. The 
characters of the numerous tribes and genera into which they are dis- 
tributed, are fully detailed in the article "Annulosa " in the Supplement 
to Encyc. Brit. vol. 1. part 2. 

The following genera belong to the Class Insecta, the characters of 



ORDER Vir. APTERA. 73 

which will be found in Dr. Leach's System, viz. Lepisma, Podura, Pe- 
DicuLus, PuLEX, and Termes. Genera Acarus, Phalangium, Ara- 
NEA, and Scorpio, belong to the Class Arachiividea. Genera Cancer, 
MoNocuLus, and Oniscus, to the Class Crustacea: Scolopendra and 
JuLus, to the Mi/7'iapoda. The characters of the above enumerated 
Classes will be given hereafter. 

fc3" It should be observed that those of the above genera, to which 
are affixed the names of other authors, are not to be found in the writ- 
ings of Linne, but have been adopted in the various translations and 
editions since the twelfth of the Si/steina Nutwa ; and are generally re- 
ceived by those who adhere to that system. The following sj^noptical 
view from the 12th edition of the Systeina Natura, will show the extent 
of Entomology as left by Linne himself. 

Order I. COLEOPTERA. 

* Antennae clavatedor gradualltj increasing. 
ScARABa;us, LucANUs, Dermestes, Hister, Byrkhus, Gyrinvs, 
AttelabuSj Curculio, Siepiia, Coccixella. 
** Antennec filiform. 

BrUCHUS, CaSSIDA, PtINUS, ChRYSOMELA, HiSPA, MeLOE, TEXEr 

EKio, Lampyris, Mordella, Staphylinus. 
*** Antenna setaceous. 

CeRAMBYX, LePTURA, CaNTHARIS, ElaTER, CiCIJiDELA, BUPRES- 

TEs, Dytiscus, Carabus, Necydai.is, Forficula. 
Order IL HEMIPTERA. 
Bi.atta, Gryllus, Cicada, Notonecta, Nepa, Cimex, Aphis, 
Chermes, Coccus, Thrips. 

Order III. LEPIDOPTERA. 
Papilio, Sphinx, Phal^ena. 

Order IV. NEUROPTERA. 

LiBELLULA, Ephemera, Phryganea, Hemerobius, Panorpa 
Raphidia. 

Order V. HYMENOPTERA. 

Cyxips, Tenthredo, Sirex, Ichneumon, Sphex, Chrysis, Vespa, 
Apis, Formica, Mutilla. 

Order VT. DIPTERA. 
CEsTRUs, Tipula, Musca, Taeanus, Culex, Empis, Conops, 
AsiLus, Bombylius, Hippobosca. 

Order ^TI. APTERA. 
The genera of the animals of this Order are already enimierated ; 
any furtlier observation Avill therefore be unnecessarv. 



74 MOD£RN SYSTEM. 

ON THE 

DIVISION OF ANIMALS from their ORGANIZATION, 

It is the object of comparative anatomy to point out the dift'erence 
which each organ presents when considered in every animal : Vjut this 
exposition would prove very tedious and intricate, were we obliged at 
every step to enumerate all the animals in which particular organs have 
a uniform structure. It is certainly much more convenient to indicate 
them all at once under the name of a class or genus which may com- 
prehend the whole : but to enable us to form this arrangement, it is ne- 
cessary that all the animals which compose a genus or a class, should 
possess some resemblance not only in one, but in all their organs. 

Nature never oversteps the bounds v/hich the necessary conditions 
of existence prescribe to her : but whenever she is uncontined by these 
conditions, she displays all her lertility and variety. Never departing 
from the small number of combinations that are possible between the 
essential modifications of important organs, she seems to sport with in- 
finite caprice in all the accessary parts. In these there appears no ne- 
cessity for a particular form or disposition. It even frequently happens 
that particular forms and dispositions are created without any apparent 
view to utility. It seems sufficient that they should be possible; that 
is to say, that they do not destroy the harmony of the whole. 

Among these numerous combinations there are necessarily many 
which have common parts, and there are always a certain number 
which exhibit very few differences. By the comparison therefore of 
those which resemble each other, we may establish a kind of series 
which will appear to descend gradually from a primitive type. These 
considerations are the foundations of the ideas from which certain na- 
turalists have formed a scale of beings, the object of which is to exhibit 
the most perfect, and terminating with the most simple kind of organ- 
ization — v.'ith that which possesses the least numerous and most com- 
mon properties ; so that the mind passes from one link of the chain to 
the other, almost without perceiving any intei-val, and, as it were, by 
insensible shades. 

The object of system is to reduce a science to its simplest terms ; by 
reducing the propositions it comprehends to the greatest degree of ge- 
nerality of which they are susceptible. A good method in comparative 
anatomy must, therefore, be such as will enable us to assign to each 
class and to each of its subdivisions, some qualities common to the . 
greater part of the organs. This object is to be attained by two dif- 
ferent means, which may serve to prove or verify one another. The 
first, and that to which all men will naturally have recourse, is to pro- 
ceed from the observations of species to uniting them in genera, and 



DIVISION OF ANIMALS. 75 

to collecting thorn into a superior order, according as we find ourselves 
conducted to that classification hy a view of the whole of their attri- 
butes. The second, and that which the greater part of modern natu- 
ralists have employed, is to fix beforehand ui)on certain bases of divi- 
sions, agreea1)ly to which, beings, when observed, are arranged in their 
proper places. 

The first mode cannot mislead us; but it is applicable only to those 
beings of which we have a perfect knowledge : the second is more ge- 
ncrall}- practised, but it is subject to error. When the bases that have 
been adopted remain consistent with the combinations which observa- 
tion discovers, and when the same foundations are again pointed out 
bv the results deduced from observation, the two means are then in 
unison, and we may be certain that the method is good. On the ana- 
tomy of animals, science is most deeply indebted to the learned, acute, 
and indefatigable Cuvier, who has contributed more than all others, 
(save Hunter,) to our accurate knowledge of the characters on which 
the classes are founded. The whole animal kingdom is by Cuvier 
divided into four great types : — 

1st. That of the animals which have their brain and the principal 
part of their nervous system inclosed within vertebra-, and their mus- 
cles attached to a bony skeleton. - - _ _ ^'ERTEBRosA. 
2dly. Those that have no skeleton; whose niuscles are attached 
■ to their skin, and whose nervous system is irregvdar in its form and 
distribution. ________ Molhsca. 

odly. Those that have no skeleton ; whose muscles are attached to 
their skin, which is hard, or to processes proceeding from it; and whose 
nervous system consists of a series of knots or ganglia, brought into 
communication by two longitudinal nervous cords. - Annulata. 
4thly. Those whose bodies are radiated, and in whom no nervous sy- 
stem has been discovered, and who have but one opening for the recep- 
tion and rejection of their food. - - Radiata or Zoophytes. 

The animals which come under my observations in this work, be- 
long to the type Aumilata, and the classes to which they belong may 
readily be distinguished by the following characters. 

* Gills for respiration. Classes. 

Legs sixteen: antenuce two or four. - - 1. Crvstacea. 

** Sacs for respiration. 
Legs twelve: antennje none : - - - 3. Arachn(3idea, 

*** Trachea: for respiration, 

a. No antenna:. 

---4. ACARI. 

b. Two antemue. 

Six thoraciclegs : abdomen also bearing legs : - 2. Myriapoda. 
Six thoracic and no abdominal legs - - 5. Insecta. 



76 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Class I. CRUSTACEA. 

History. — "All the Crustacea, as their name imports, are covered by 
integuments composed of crustaceoiis materials, more earthy than 
those which envelope the Myriapoda, the Arachmidea, and Insecta. The 
greater portion of these animals live on puti'id or decomposing animal 
substances, and in all the sexes are distinct." 

To the kindness and liberality of my much respected friend Dr. 
Leach, I am indebted for the above passage and following review (which 
he has since published in the eleventh volume of the Blctionnaire des Sci- 
ences Naturelles) of the rise and progress of Crustacea; which is selected 
from his valuable manuscripts. 

" The ancients were well acffliainted with the Malacostraca (MaAa- 
y.dcrrpa.'KOi), M-hich they placed between the JVIollusca and Fishes. Ari- 
stotle has dedicated a chapter to the species known to him; Athena;us 
has eniunerated those used as food; and Hippocrates has made mention 
of such species as were considered to be useful in medicine. To the 
observations of Aristotle very little was added by Pliny; and from his 
time until that of Rondcletius, Belon, Gesner, Aldrovandus and John- 
son, (who likewise placed them between the Mollusca and Fishes,) lit- 
tle or nothing was done that tends in any way to illustrate their natural 
history or structure. Linne, in the first (1735) and subsequent editions 
of his Systema Natura^ placed all the Crustacea amongst the apterous 
insects, in the genera Monoculus, Cancer, and Onisciis. 

" The Crustacea were arranged by Brisson (Jiegnum Animate) along 
with the Myriapoda and Arachn'uidca, being placed between the Fishes 
and Insects, under the Class Crustacea. 

" Fabricius in his Systemn Entomologicc (1775) distributed these ani- 
mals into two Classes: 1. Synonatita, comprehending Monoculus and 
Oniscus, which he associated with Ephemera, Phryganea, Podura, Ten- 
th-cdo, and other genuine Insects: 2. Agonata, containing Cancer, Pa- 
gurus, Scylturus, Astacus, and Gammarus, to which he also added Scorpio. 
The same author in his Specks (1781) and Mantissa Insectorum (1787) 
maintained the same general distribution; adding in the former of those 
works the genus Scjuilla, and in the latter Hippa, removing in each 
work the genus Scorpio from the Agonata. In the second volume of 
his Entomologia Systematica (1793) his class Syngnatha contained only 
genuine Insects, the Onisci being rem.oved to a new division named Mi- 
tosata, where they were associated with the Myriapoda ; the rest he still 
placed with the Agonata, to which he added the genus Limulus, Cymo- 
thoa and Galathea. 

*' Latreille in his Precis des Caract'eres des Jnsectes (1796) (a work 
which commences a new fera in the science of Entomology, and in 
which, for the first lime, the distribution of Insects into families is in- 
dicated), considered the Crustacea as forming three Classes or Orders 



CLASS I. CRUSTACEA. 77 

of Insects: LLcs Eutomostracis (pfMuller): Q. Le's Crustads: 3. Les 
]\Ii/)-i(ipodcs. 

" In that excellent little work Le Tableau Elementau-e de VUhtoire 
Nutureilc des Animaui-,par G. Cuvier (1797), the Crustacea are arranged 
with the Insccfa, Arachmidea, and ^luriupoda, under a division entitled 
' Imectes pourvus de Mdchoires, et sans Ailes,' where they are placed at 
the head of the Insects, in a limited and well defined section (A.), 
which he afterwards, in his Lemons d'Anatomie Comparee, established 
on anatomical principles, as a distinct class, named Crustaccs. 

" In 1798 Fabricius published a Supplement to his last work, in 
which, by the aid of the Baron de Daldorff, he established several new 
genera, and amended the arrangement of the whole. 

"Lamarck in his Systcme des Animaux sans V€7'tebres (ISOl) adopted 
the Crustacea as a peculiar class. This system was adopted by 

" BosC; who in the same year publish-ed his Histoire Naiurelle des 
Crustaccs faisant Suite a Sedition de Buffon par Castel, in a\ hich for the 
tirst time we are made acquainted with his interesting genus Zo'ea. 

"' Latreille in his Histohe Naturelle des Crustaccs et des Insectes, torn. S. 
(1802,) adopted the class Crustacea, and distributed the genera compos- 
ing it into two subclasses; 1. Erdomostracis : 2. Malacostraccs: exclud- 
ing however the Tetraceres, {Asellidcr, and Oniscida,) which he referred 
to a sub-class of Insects. 

" Dumeril {Zoologie Analytique, 1806) arranged these animals into 
1. Eutomostracls, and 2. Asfacoides, excluding Oniscus, A.rmndillo, &c. 
which he placed with the apterous insects. 

" Latreille in the same year produced his celebrated Genera Crm- 
taceorum et Insectorum, where they are divided into Entomostraca and 
Malai:ostraca, the Tetracera being referred to the Insects. 

"The same author in his Considerations Gtwera/es, &c. (1810) fol- 
lowed the same divisions, referring however the Tetracera to the Arach- 
noidea. 

" In the seventh volume of the Edinhurgh EncT/dopcedia, article 'Crus- 
taccoiOgy,''Dr. Leach distributed the Crustacea into three Orders : 1. En- 
tomostraca: 2. Malacosfraca: 3. Myriapoda: in which the Tetracera 
v.-ere included. In the Appendix, however, he divided the Tetracera 
from the Myriapoda (which he established as a distinct Class), and 
placed them with the Malacosfracain an Order named Gasteruri, w^here 
they were associated with the Gammeridtz, and considered the Mala- 
costraca and Entomostraca as sub-classes. This opinion he has since 
maintained in a paper published in the eleventh volume of the Tram- 
actions of the Linnean Society of London, in the first volume of the Sup- 
plement to the Encyclopedia Britannica, and in the Bulletin des Siiiencei 
for 1816. 

" Blainville in his Prodrome d'une Nouvelle Distribution Si/steynnfiqur. 
(Bull, des Sciences, Sj-c. 1816) has arranged the Crustacea into tine? 
Classes: 1, Dkapodes: 2. Heteropodes: 3, Tefrcide<npode$.'' 



MODERN S\3TJt>VI. 



Class I. CRUSTACEA. 

Classification. — The Crustacea form tvvo large groups or sub- 
classes. The first of these, the Malacostraca, have a pair of mandibles 
and two pair of maxilla; bearing palpi, and eight pair of legs furnished 
with branchiffi at their bases : all the genera that do not present the 
above characters are referred to the artificial assemblage denominated 
Entoniostraca. 

Subclass 1. Entomostraca — Legs branchial, or furnished with ap- 
pendages : mandibles wanting or generally simple : ei/es sessile or pe^ 
duncuiated. 

Subclass 2. Malacostraca. — Legs simple, without appendages : 
mandibles palpigerous : fi/es pedunculated or sessile. 

Subclass 1. ENTOMOSTRACA." 

The animals of this subclass are but little known, and consequently 
their arrangement is extremely imperfect. Some of the genera are pa- 
rasitic, being found on the bodies of other animals, and some even un- 
dergo transformation during their growth. 

The following arrangement is artificial, but is well calculated to 
enable the student to discover the Genera. 

Division I. — Bodi/ covered by a horizontal shieU : eyes sessile. 

Subdivision 1. — Shell composed of but one part. 
* With jaws. 

Genus 1. APUS, Cuvier, Latr., Leach. Apos, Scopoli. 

SM/crustaceous-membranaceous,orbiculate-ovate, behind deeply emar- 
ginate: the back (with the exception of the anterior part) carinated: 
eyes two, inserted at the anterior and middle part of the back ; some- 
what prominent, slightly lunate, approaching each other, especially 
anteriorly, where they touch each otlier : antenna two, short, some- 
what filiform, biarticulated, scarcely exserted, inserted behind the 
mandibles : mandibults two, corneous, somewhat cylindric, short, hol- 
low within, points arcuated and compressed, the extreme apex straight 
and very much denticulated : legs branchial and very numerous. 

The Api inhabit stagnant waters and ponds. 

Sp. 1. Ap. Montagui. Carina of the shell produced into a point behind : 
anterior legs with articulated setee : no lamella between the caudal 
setcE. Encycl. Brit. Sup. i. P/. '20. 

Inhabits England near Christchurch in Hampshire, where it was dis- 
covered by Montagu, and was named after him by Leach. 

Apus productus of Latreille is s}'nonyraous with the Linnean Mono- 
ciilus Apus. 



CLASS r. CUUSTACEA. 79 

*f With a rostrum, but no jaws : antcnncs tzio. 
Genus 2. CALIGUS, MiilL, Lafr., Bosc, Leach. 

Shell coriaceous-membranaceoiis, bipartite ; the anterior segment in- 
versely corditbrm, very deeply notched behind (the notch receiving 
the hinder segment, which is round), the anterior part subproduced, 
notched; the laciniae at their base externally bearing antenna?: an- 
tenna biarticulatc, the first joint thickest, the second with a simple 
seta at its extremity : abdomen narrower than the thorax, with its base 
contracted and bearing the hinder legs, its extremity on each side 
with a rounded process of the-length of the body : rostrum rounded, 
rather more slender towards its apex, which is obtuse : legs fourteen, 
anterior; second and fourth pairs with a strong claw; the second 
pair short; the tliird slender, elongate, the last joint double, with 
unequal lacinia? ; the fifth, with the last joint on one side setose, the 
setcE ciliated on each side; the sixth with a double triarticulated tar- 
sas, the last joints on each side setose, the seta? ciliated on each side; 
the seventh pair with its last joint trifid : the hinder segment of the 
thorax iien'^ath, terminated by a large broad lamella, ciliated behind. 

Sp. -i. C'v/'. Malkri. Leach, Encycl. Brit Supp.,vol. 1. Fl. 20. 

Inhabits the common cod-fish. 

Genus 3. PANDARUS, Leach. Caligus, Mull, Latr., Bosc. 

Shell coriaceous-membranaceous, composed of but one part, deeply 
notched behind; the angles acute; the middle of the notch toothed ; 
anteriorly narrower, rounded, with a process on each side externally 
bearing the antennae : antenna; composed of two joints, the second 
joint terminated by several setse : abdomen somewhat narrower than 
the shell, the base above with two transverse lamellae, the first of 
which is Ibur-lobed, the second bilobate : the apex notched, with two 
filaments longer than the body, wdth a lamella at their base above : 
rostrum elongate, attenuated, inserted behind the anterior legs : legs 
fourteen; anterior pair short, terminated by a short claw, and arising 
■from beneath an ovate process ; second pair with a double, unequal 
tarsus; third pair without any determinate form, without any claw; 
fourth pair bitid ; fifth and six pairs bifid, their coxoe connected by & 
lamella; seventh pair bifid, the exterior lacinia longest, with a notch 
extei-nally towards its apex. 

Sp. 1. Fund, bicolor. Shell and the middle of the abdominal laraelbe 
black; tail with filaments double the length of the body. 

Pandarus bicolor. Leach, Encycl. Brit. Sv.pp. vol. 1. PI. 20. 

Inhabits the Squalus galeus of Linne. 

Genus 4. ANTHOSOMA, Leach. 
SAeK coriaceous-membranaceous, unipartite, rounded before and behind; 
the anterior part as if uni-lobate, the lobe higher than the shell, be- 
hiiid on each side, bearing the antennae : antennce six-jointed: ubdu- 



80 MODERN SYSTEM. 

men much narrower than the shell, on every side imbricated with 
membranaceous, foliaceous lameilfe, which surround or embrace 
it: two of the lamella; are dorsal, the one being placed over the 
other; the other lamellce are placed on the sides of the belly, three 
on each side ; apex of the abdomen terminated by two very long fila- 
ments, and with two shorter filaments below them : rostrum elongato- 
cylindric, inserted behind the anterior legs, furnished at its extremity 
with two straight ^^orneous mandibles: /fgssix; anterior pair three- 
jointed, the second joint near the apex above unidentate, the last ter- 
minated by a claw; second pair triarticulated, the last joint ovate, 
compressed; third pair biarticulate, the second joint very thick, in- 
ternally dentated, armed at its extremity by a strong claw. 
Sp. 1. Anth. Smithii. Leach, Encycl. Brit. Supp. vol. 1. Fl. 20. 

This species was discovered sticking to a shark which was thrown 
ashore on the coast of Exmouth, in Devon, by T.-Smith, esq. 

Division II. — Body covered hi/ a bivalve shell: ei/es sessile. 
Subdivision 1. — Head porrected. 
Genus 5. DAPHNIA, Midi, Latr., Bosc, Leach. 
Et/e one only : antcmuc two, branching. 
Sp. 1. Daph. Pulex. Tail infle.xed: shell mucronate behind. 
Monoculus Pulex. Linne, Fabr. 
Inhabits ponds and marshes. 

Subdivision 2. — Head concealed. 
Genus 6. CYPRIS, MvlL, Latr., Bosc, Leach. 
Antenna terminated by a brush. 

The animals of this genus inhabit pools and ditches containing 
pure water ; they swim with very great rapidity, and whilst in mo- 
tion conceal their whole body within their shell, which is truly bi- 
valve. 
Sp. 1. Cyp.conchacea. Shell ovate, tomentose. 
Monoculus conchaceus. Linn., Fabr. Cypris pubera, Midi. Cypris 

conchacea, Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits France, Germany, and England. 

Genus T. CYTHERE, Mull., Latr., Bosc, Leach. 
Antenna simply pilose. 

This genus v/as first discovered and established by Miiller, whp 
first observed all the species described in his Entomostraca. It is di- 
stinguished fi-om Cijpris by the antennae, which are not terminated by 
a pencil of hairs. The legs are eight in number, and are rarely drawn 
within the shell, which is really bivalve. 

The Cytheres have no tail, and their antennae, like thos' -^^ ^^'^e Cy- 
prides, have their articulations pilose. They have but one cj- .. All 
the species inhabit the sen. and m?.y be found among the conferva 



CLASS r. CRUSTACEA. 81 

and corallines, which fill the pools left by the tide in most of the 

rocky coasts of Europe. 
Sp. 1. Ci^th. viridis. Shell reniform, velvety, and green. 
Inhabits the European ocean. Is occasionally lound on the shores of 

Scotland amongstywc/ and conferva. 

Division III. — Body covered neither h/ a bivalve shell nor shield. Ei/c one, 

sessile. 

Genus 8. CYCLOPS. Mull., Lam., Latr., Bosc, Leach. 

Body ovate-conic, elongate : eye one, situate on the thora.x : antcnnce 
four, simple : legs eight. 

All the animals of this genus inhabit fresh waters. The females 
carry their eggs in a pouch resembling a bunch of grapes on each 
side of the tail. The organs of generation of the male are placed in 
the antennae; those of the female, beneath the belly, at the base of 
the tail, which is abruptly narrov.cr than the abdomen. The antenme 
are hairy at the base of their joints. 

Sp. 1. Cyc. Geofft-oyii. Tail straight and bifid ; colour 4)rownish. 

Monoculus quadricornis. Linni, Fuhr. Cyclops quadricornis. Mull,, 
Latr., Bosc. Cyclops Geoffroyii. Leach. 

Genus 9. POLYPHEMUS, Mull., Latr., Bosc, Leach. Ceph.\lo- 
cuLus. Lamarck. 
Eye ons, forming the head: legs ten; two bifid, elongate, and extended 

horizontally. 
Sp. 1. Pol. Oculus. Body luteous, with a few blue spots. 

The only species known of this genus. It inhabits lakes and 
marshes; and is subject to very considerable variation in size and 
colour. 

Division IV. — Body covered by neither a bivalve shell nor shield. Eyes 
pedunculated. 

Genus 10. BRANCHIOPODA. Lam., Latr., Bosc, Leach. 

Body filiform and very soft : head divided from the thorax by a very 
narrow but distinct neck : eyes two, lateral : antenna two, short, two- 
jointed, capillary, inserted behind and above the eyes -.front v>'ith two 
moveable processes (which are broader towards the apex in the male 
sex), that are notched, those of the female furnished with a papilla at 
their point. The organs of generation are situate at the base of the 
tail. 

Sp. 1. Br. stagnalis. Body transparent, of a light brown colour, slightly 
tinged with green or blue, particularly on the head and legs. 

Cancer s^-^j'-alis. LAnni,. — An interesting account of this species is 
given by (he late Dr. Shaw in the Transactions of the Linncun Socir/y 
Pt London, vol. i. 



82 



MODEHN SYSTEM. 



Subclass II. MALACOSTRACA. 

A very valuable work is now publishing by Dr. Leach, in quarto, and 
illustrated with highly finished engravings, entitled, Mal.\costraca 
PoDOPHTiiALMA Britanm/e, in which the whole of the indigenous spe- 
cies hitherto discovered of this subclass are figured. It is necessary to 
state that this gentleman has spared neither pains nor expense to ren- 
der the work comjiletc, having with unexampled zeal and perseverance 
amassed together one of the finest collections ever formed, which is, 
with the remainder of his cabinet, consisting of insects, shells, &c. de- 
posited in the British ]\IuseiuTi, and, under certain restrictions, may 
always be consulted by students of Zoology. 

Legion I. PODOPHTHALM A. 

" The Malacosfi-aca Fodophthahna include those animals which, in 
common language, are denominated Crabs, Lobsters, Cray-fish, Prawns, 
Paudals, and Shrimps, all of which have the power of reproducing their 
daws when they are lost." 

Order I. BRACHYURA. 

A. Abdomen of the male Jive-jointed, the middle joint longest ; of the 
female seven-jointed. Anterior pair of legs didactyle. {Shell trvn~ 
cate behind. Two anterior legs of' the fiiale elongate, of the female 
moderate.) 

Fam. I. CoiiYSTiD^E. Leach. 

Antenna long, ciliated on each side. 

Genus 1. COllYSTES. Latr., Leach. 
External antenna: longer than the body ; the third segment composed of 
elongate, cylindric joints : external double palpi with the external foot- 
stalk narrow; the second joint largest, having its internal side dee))ly 
emarginate : anterior pair of legs, of the male twice the length of the 
body, subcylindric, the hand gradually somewhat thicker and some- 
what compressed; of the female, of the length of the body, with a 
compressed hand : other legs with tibias and tarsi of equal length : 
ckws elongate, straight, acute, and longitudinally sulcated : abdomen, 
of the male, with the first joint linear-transverse; the second longer, 
and produced on each side; third, nearly equally quadrate; the fourth 
transverse, and narrower than the third ; the fifth narrower, nearly 
triangular, with the tip rounded ; of the female, with six joints trans- 
verse, arcuated- in front; seventh triangular, witli the apex rounded: 
iliell oblong-ovate, anteriorly slightly rostrated, behind margined ; 



CLASS I. CRUSTACEA. 83 

et/cs not thicker than their bonding-backward peduncles: orhlts above 

with one fissure. 
-Sp. 1. Cor. casshrlauntis. Shell granulated, crenulated behind; front 

bifid; the sides tridentate. 
Cancer cassivelaunus. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 6. t. 7. male and female. 

Herbsf, i. 195. t. 12. /. 72. male. Cancer personatus. Herhst, 193. 

t. 12. f. 71. iemale. Alburnea dentata. Fair. Snpp. Ent. Syst. 398. 

Bosc, Hist. Nat. dcs Crust, ii. 4. Corystes dentatus. Lntr. Corystes 

cassivelaunus. Leach, ]\lulac. Podop/i. Brit. t. 1. 
Inhabits most of the sandy shores of the European ocean, and is often 

thrown up after heavy gales of wind. 

Genus 2. ATELECYCLUS. Leach, LatreiUe. 

JLrtenuil antentue half the length of the body; the third segment com- 
posed of elongate and cyhndric joints: cvfernal double palpi w'lih the 
second joint of the internal footstalk shortest, with the internal apex 
produced, and the internal side nutched towards the joint; anterior 
legs of the male longer than the body, with a compressed hand : 
other legs with tibiie and tarsi of equal lengths, furnished with elon- 
gate, quadrate nails that are longitudinally sulcated, having their tips 
naked, rounded and sharp, the hinder ones obscurely subcompressed ; 
abdomen of the male with the first joint transverse, linear, twice the 
length of the second ; the third much elongated, narrower towards 
its extremity, the apex nearly straight; the fourth subquadrate, with 
the anterior angles produced; fifth liask-shaped, with a very sharp 
extremity; of the female, with the first five joints transverse qua- 
drate, anteriorly notched ; the last elongate, subtriangular behind, 
subproduced : shell subcircular, the sides gradually converging into 
an angle behind ; hinder part truncate and granulate-margined : eyes 
jiarrower than their footstalks; orbits behind with two fissures, be- 
low, with one. 

^^. \. At.heterodo)i. Shell granulated, the sides with seven serrulated 
teeth, and other smaller teeth between some of the other teeth : 
front with three serrulated teeth, the middle of which is the largest. 
Leach, ]\[alac. Podoph. Brit. tab. 2. 

This elegant crab was discovered by Montagu on the southern 
coast of Devon, where it is not an unconnnon species in deep water. 
•To the fishermen it is well known by the name of Old Alans Face 
Crab. 

Fam. II. Portunid.t:. Leach. 

Antenna moderaXe, simple: hinder pair of legs with compressed claws. 

Genus 3. PORTUMNUS. Leach. 
F^i/es not thicker than their peduncles : orbits entire ; anterior pair of 
tigs equal ; other legs with compressed claws, internally towards their 
base dilated ',frfili pair with a compressed, foliaceous, lanceolate daw ; 

F 2 



84 MODERN SYSTEM. 

abdomen ofilit male ivith the fourth joint elongate : shell with the 
transverse and Iciigitndinal diameters the same. 
^p. 1. For. varkgatus. Shell obscurely granulated on each side, with 
five teeth, the second and third somewhat obsolete; front with three 
teeth; wrists internally with one tooth. Leach, Maine. Fodoph. Brit. 
I. 4. male and female. Cancer latipes. Fcnn. Brit. Zool. iv.3. t. \.j\ 4. 
female. 

Plane first discovered this species on the shores of the Adriatic 
sea. It burrows beneath the sand, where it may be found by dig- 
ging?; at low water, on most of our sandy shores. 

When living it is most beautifully mottled, and the legs are 6f a 
luteous-orange colour. 

Genus 4. CARCINUS. Leach. 
£»/es narrower than their peduncles: ori/7s behind and beneath with 
one fissure : anterior pair of legs unequal, th.e hands externally 
smooth ; hinder pair compressed, and slightly fcJrmed for swimming : 
fibdonien of the male with the fourth joint transverse, and scarcely 
narrower than the third: shell with the transverse diameter greatest. 
Sp. 1. Car. Manas. Shell with five teeth on each side; front with three 

rounded teeth or lobes : hands with one tooth, wrist with a spine. 
Cancer Manas of authors. Car. Ma;nas. Leach, Malac. Fodoph. Brit, 
tab. .5. 

This most common species inhabits all the shores and estuaries of 
Britain; It burrows under the sand, or conceals itself beneath fuci 
and .atones. It is sent to London in iimnense quantities, and is eaten 
by the poor. 

Genus 5. PORTUNUS. Fabr., Latr., Base, LatJi., Leach. 
F.ifes much thicker than their peduncles ; orbits behind, with tvvo fis- 
sures, below with one fissure : abdomen of the male with the fourth 
joint transverse : anterior piizV- o/* /egs somewhat unequal, the hands 
externally with elevated lines, arms generally unarmed; hinder pair 
compressed, foliaceous, and formed for swimming : shell with the 
transverse diameter greatest; the sides with five, rarely with six, 
teeth. 

* Hinder clazos With an elevated longitudinal line ; external double 
palpi zvith the second joint of their internal footstalk truncate at their 
internal apex. 

a. Orbits at the insertion of the antenna imperfect. Wrists bi- 
dentate. 

Sp. 1. For. puber. Antennas half the length of the body: shell pu- 
bescent ; front with many teeth. 

Cancer puber. Linne. Cancer velutinus. Fenn. Bnt. Zool.iv.Q. pi A. 
fig. 8. Po/timus puber. JUach^ Mai, Fodoph. Brit, tab, (i. 



CLASS I. CRUSTACEA. 85 

Iulial)its the southern coasts of Devon, In France it is used as an ar- 
ticle of food. 

b. Orbit intcrnuUi/ sU^htli/ imperfect. Wrists unidentute. 

S'^. 2. Par. corrugatus. bheU convex, with transverse serrate-granulate 
ciliated lines, the side with five teeth on eacii side, the three hinder 
of which gre more acute; front tiiiobate, tiie lobes subgranulate-ser- 
rate^ the middle one largest; hands above, unidentate; hinder claws 
with sharji points. 

Cancer corrugatus. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. p/. 5. fig. 9. Portvmus corru- 
gatus. Ixacb, Trans. Linn. Soc. \[. 31J. — Mid. Podoph. Brit. tub. 7. 
fg.lA'9.. 

inhabits the British seas. 

** Hinder claus icithoiU the elevated line. Exter?iul double palpi 
with the intcrnalape.x of the second joint oflUe internal footstalk emur- 
ginate. Orbits inlernulh; beneath the inscr-tion of the antenncc imperfect. 

Sf. 3. Por. marmoreus. Shell convex, cbsoletely and slightly granu- 
lated, with live nearh equal teeth op. each side; front with three 
equal teeth, with rounded points; hands smooth, with one tooth 
Jibove; hinder tarsi with acute points. 

Cancer {pinnatus) marmoreus. Montagu's MSS. Portimus marmoreus. 
Leach, Mulacost. Podoph. Brit. tab. 8. 

This elegant species, which dei-ives its name from its colour, was 
discovered 1)3' G. Montagu, esq. It is very common on the sandy 
shores of southern Devon, froiu Torcross to the mouth of the river 
Ex, and is frequently found entangled in the shore-nets of the tisher- 
inen, or thrown on the shore after storms. 

Fam. III. Cance?.ii/.i;. Leaches MSS. 
Antenna simple, short: four hinder pair of legs simple. 

Genus 6. CANCER of authors. 

External antcjuus short, inserted bet^veen the internal canthus of the 
eye and the front; internal antenna placed in foveolae in the middle 
of the clypeus, with their peduncle nearly lunate : external double 
palpi with the second joint of the internal footstalk notched at the 
internal apex: shell emarginate behind; or^jY^ behind with one fis- 
sure, and externally with onefold: beneath with one fissure, and 
externally with one fold : anterior p^ir cflegs unequal. 

Sp. 1. Can. Pagurus. Shell granulated with nine iblds on each side; 
Iront with three lobes. 

This species is the com.mon crab oi Britain. It is considered to 
be in season between Christmas and Easter, and about harvest, being 
much esteemed as an article of food. Its natural history is but little 
know n. During the summer months it is very abundant on all our 
rocky coasts, especially where the water is deep. At low tide they 
are often found in holes of rocks in pair:?, male and female ; and if 



86 Modern system- 

the male be taken away, another will be found in the hole at the next 
recess of the tide. By knowing this fact, an experienced fisherman 
may twice uday take, with little trouble, a vast number of specimens, 
after having once discovered their haunts. In the winter they are 
supposed to burrow in the sand, or to retire to the deeper parts of 
the ocean. They are taken in wicker baskets, resembling mouse- 
traps, or in large nets ^vith open meshes, which are placed at the 
bottom of the ocean and baited with garbage. 

Genus 7. XAIMTHO. Leach. 
Exierruil antenna very short, inserted in the internal corner of the eye ; 

internal untenme received in a foveola imder the prominent margin 

of the clypeus, the peduncle sublincar : external douhle palpi, with the 

second joint of the internal footstalk, notched at the internal apex! 

shell submargined behind: orbits entire above, below externally with 

one fissure: anterior pair of legs unequal. 
Sp. 1. Xan.Jlorida. Wrists above, with two tubercles : shell on each side 

with four obtuse teeth, the interstices cut out: fingers black. 
Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 85. t. 2. f. 1. Cancer incisus. Leach, 

Edin. Encijcl.Vn. 391. Xantho incisa. Ixach, Edin. Enei/cl. vii. 430. 

Xantho florida. Leach,Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 320. — Suppl. to Enci/cl. Brit, 

—Mai. Podoph. Brit. tab. 11. 

B. Abdomen in both sexes seven-jointed. Txco anterior legs didactyle. 
Division I. Eight hinder legs simple, and alike infonn. 
Fam. IV. PiLUMNiD.E. Leach's MSS. 

Shell anteriorly arcuated, the sides converging to an angle : tico anterior 
legs unequal. 

Genus 8. PILUMNUS. Leach. 
External double palpi with the second joint of the internal footstalk 

with the internal apex truncate emarginatc : dazes simple, with naked 

tips. 
Sp. 1. Fil. hirtellus. Body and legs bristly: shell with five teeth on 

each side : claw somewhat muricated on the outside. 
Cancer hirtellus. Linn., Venn., Leach, Edin. Enci/cl. Pilumnus hirtellus. 

Leach, Suppl. to Encycl. Brit. Leach, Mai. Fodoph. Brit, tab, 12. 
Inhabits the south coast of Devonshire. 

Fam. V. OcYPODAiDJE. Leaches MSS. 
Shell quadrate or subquadrate : e;t/es inserted in the front, 
* Shell (juachate. Eyes with a long peduncle. 
Genus 9. PINNOTERES.Xf/;;'., jBo«f,ifrtc/(. Alph^us. Baldorff. 
Antennae very short (the first three joints largest), inserted in the inte- 
rior corner ol" the eyes: external double palpi, with the internal foot- 



CLASS I. CRUSTACEA. 87 

Stalk, one-jointed : anterior "pair of Ici'x unequal : eyes thick ; s,hcH 
ovate-orbicular, orbiculate-quailratc, or transverse subquadrate. 

All the species of this most interesting genus inhabit the bivalve 
shells of the acephalous Motluxca, and were svqiposed liv the ancients 
to be consentaneous inmate,, with the animal, bound by mutual in- 
terest. 

Aristotle supposed them to act as sentinels, and believed that they 
guarded the Pinna (the animal in whose shell they were tirst observ- 
ed) from the attacks of its enemies, llondeletius and some other 
naturalists held the same opinion. 
Sp. 1. Pin. Cranc/iii. .Shell orbiculate-subquadrate, soft, very smooth,with 
the sides dilated behind : front straiglit, obscurely subemarginate : 
hands oblong below, and the thighs a!)ove with a ciliated line: 
thumb subarcuate: abdomen very ))road; the sides of the segment 
arcuate; the second and following ones distinctly notched; the fifth 
segment somewhat broader; the last narrower than the preceding 
segment. Fanak. 
Pinnoteres Cranchii. Leach, Malacost.PodopIi. Brit. tab. 14. fig. 4. .5. 

The male of this species, which was discoveredby Mr. J. Cranch, 
whose name it bears, is unknown. It is distinguished from P. Pisiim 
(the common species) by the form of the front of the shell, which is 
straight, and slightly notched ; by the dilated hinder part of the shell, 
and by the abdomen, all the joints of which, excepting the first, are 
distinctly notched behind. 

** Shell quadrate. Eyes with a long peduncle. 

Genus 10. GONOPLAX. Leach. Ocypoda. Bosc. 
Eyes terminating their jieduncle : anterior pair of legs equal ; of the 

male very long; of the tcmale twice the length of the l)ody : antenntz 

half the length of the body, inserted at the internal canthus of the 

eyes. 

The animals of this genus inhabit the ocean, preferring such parts 

as have a slimy bottom. They burrow laterally in the clay or slime, 

making two entrances to their hole; entering by one and going out 

by the other. 
Sp. 1. Gun. hispinosa. Shell on each side with two spines : arms above, 

and wrists internally, with one spine. 
Cancer angulatus. Penn. Brit.Zool. iv.t.5.f. 10. Fair. Siippl. Entom. 

Syst. 311. Ocypoda angulata. Eo.sc, Hist. Nat. des Crust 1. 19R. 

Gonoplax hispinosa. Leach, Trans. IJnn. 6'oc. xi. 323. — Edin. Encycl. 

— Supp. to Encycl. Brit. — Mul. Podoph. Brit. tub. 13. 
Inhabits the British sea. It is not uncommon at Salcombe and in 

Plymouth sound; and likewise occurs at Weymouth, and at Red 

Wharf in Anelesea. 



88 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Division II. — Shell rostrated in front. Eight hinder legs alike, and simple, 
Fam. VI. — Maiad^. Leach. 
Subdivision 1. — Fingers dejlexed. 
Genus 11. EURYNOME. Leach. 

External antenna rather long, with the first joint shorter than the se- 
cond: s/fc// verrucated, anteriorly terminated by a bifid rostrum with 
divaricating lacinias : eyes distant, thicker than their peduncle which 
is of moderate length : external double pa/pi with the interior point of 
the second joint of their internal footstalks truncate-emarginate : an- 
terior legs equal ; of the male, three times the length of the body ; of 
the female, longer than the body. 

Sp. 1. Ei(r. aspera. Anterior legs and thighs tuberculated : shellwith 
eight tubercles on the back that are more elevated than the others, 
which are irregular and margined with hairs ; the sides with four la- 
mella? • rostrum with simple acuminate lacinifE. 

Cancer aspera. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 8. Eurynome aspera. Leach, Edin. 
Encycl, vii. 431. — Malac. Vodoph. Brit. tab. 17. — Tt'ans. Linn. Soc. xi, 
3'26. 

Inhabits the British seas, 

Suljdivision 2. — Fingers not dejlexed. External antenntz tcith the first 
joint simple. Anterior pair of legs distinctly thicker than the rest. 
Genus 12. PISA. l£nch. Blastus. Leach, Edin. Encycl, 
External antenna with clubbed hairs, the first joint longer than the se- 
cond : external double palpi with the second joint of the internal foot- 
stalk with its internal apex truncate or emarginate : claws internally 
denticulated: sj^eZ/ villose; the lacinia; of the rostrum divaricating: 
orbits behind with two, below with one fissure. 

* Shell densely villose, the sides on each side behind terminated with 
a spine. 
Sp. 1. Pisa Gibbsii. Eostrum descending: shell with a spine behind 

llie eyes on each side; arms and thighs simple. 
Cancer biaculeatus. Montagu, Trails. Linn. Soc. xi. 2. t. 1. f. 1. Pisa 
biaculeata. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 431. Pisa Gibbsii. Leach, 
Linn. Trails, xi. 327. — Mai. Podoph. Brit. tab. 19. 
Inhabits deep waters on the coasts of Devon and Cornwall. 

** Shell villose, with spiny sides. 
Sp. 2. Pisa tetraodon. Shell on each side with six spines; two small, 

the rest larger. 
Cancer tetraodon. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 7. t. 8. f. 1.5. Maja tetraodon. 

Pose, Hist. Nat. des Crust. 1. 254. Blastus tetraodon. Leach, Edin. 

Encycl. vii. 431. Pisa tetraodon. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. — Supp. tQ 

Encycl. Brit. i. 415. — Mai. Podoph. Brit. tab. 20. 
inhabits the south-west coast of England. 



CLASS I. rnrsTACEA. 89 

.Siil){Hvision 3. — Fhigcrs not deflcxed. F^rtcrnal nntcnntF nifh ihch- first, 
joint simple. Anterior pair q/' legs scarcely thicker t/ian lite others, zi-lnck 
are moderateh/ long. 

Genus 13. JMA.TA. Lam., iMtr., Base, Leach. 

H, eternal antenna with tlie two first joints thickest, and of nearly equal 
length : shell convex ovate-suLtriangular, veiv spiny : ci/es not thicker 
than their elongate peduncle : external double palpi with the second 
joint of their internal footstalk deeply notched at its internal apex: 
elates with naked sharp points. 

Sp. 1. Maj. Squinado. Shell fasciculate-pilose; orbit above, with one 
spine; the sides with five strong spines: clypeus beneath the front 
with a short spine excavated above. 

Cancer Squinado. lierbst, iii. t. 5G. (lidl grown.) Ll.'i. t. 14./. 85. 81. 
junior. Cancer iNIaja. Seopoli Entom. Cam. \\Q.Q. Sozvcrbi/'s Brit. Mis- 
cell, t. 39. Maja Squinado. Lutr. Gen. Crust, ct Insect, i. 37. Base, 
Hist. Kat. des Crust, i. 237. Leach, Edin. Enei/cl. vii. 394. 431. 
-T-Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 310. — Siipp. to Enet/cl. Brit. i. 415. — Maine. 
Podoph. Brit. tab. 18. 

Inhabits the southern coasts of Devon and Cornwall. By the fishermen 
it is named Thornback or King-crab. 

Subdivision 4. — Fingers not deflcxed. Erternal antennas tcilh the fint 
joint externally dilated. 

Genus 14. IIYAS. Leach, Siipp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 415. 
fiheU elongate-subtriangular, subtubcrculated; the sides behind the 

eyes produced into a lanceolate projection : rostrum fissured, the la- 

ciniaj approximating: extcr/ial anlennte with the first joint dilated, 

larger than the second : external double palpi with the second joint 

emarginate at the internal apex. 
Sp. 1. Hj/as araneus. The lastitbrm process behind the eyes tuberculated 

behind. 
Cancer araneus. Linn. Si/st. Nat. 1044. Cancer Bufo. Hcrbsf, i. 142, 

t. 17. _/". 39. Hyas araneus. Leach, Edin. Enci/cl. vii. 437. — Trans. 

Linn. Soc. xi. 329. — Mul. Podoph. Brit. tab. 21. a. 
Inhabits the Scottish sea in great plenty; on the English coast it is 

mure rare. 

Subdivision 5. — Second, third, fourth, and Jifth pair of legs alike and slender. 

Genus \i. INACHUS. Fabr., Leach. 
Shell slightly spined, with a spine on each side protecting the eye when 
retracted : eyes distant, scarcely thicker than their peduncles : exter- 
nal double palpi with the second joint of the internal footstalk trun- 
cate at its internal point: external anlennce with the three first joints 



90 MODERN SYST£M. 

thickest: second pair of legs thicker than the following ones: claws 
curved. 

Sp. 1. In. Dorsetlensis. Beak short, emarginate ; the clypeus beneath 
produced into a spine : slicll anteriorly, with four, little tubercles 
placed transversely ; then with three spines, the anterior one strong- 
est; behind with three strong sharp spines, the middle one gene- 
rally longest and strongest, forming a slightly recurved line; hinder 
margin witli two distinct obsolete tubercles. 

Cancer Dorsettensis. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 8. pi. 9. Jig. 18. Cancer 
Scorpio. Fabr. Sp. List. i. 504. G/nel. Si/st. Nat. i. 2078. Herbst, i. 
237. 130. Inachus Scorpio. Fabr. Ent. Si/st. Sitpp. 353. Rlacropus 
Scorpio. Lutr. Hist. Nat. dcs Crust, et des Insect, vi. 109. Maja Scor- 
pio. Bosc, Hist. Nat. des Crust, i. 252. Tnachus Dorsettensis. Leach, 
Edin. Enci/cl.vn .431. — Malac. Podoph. Brit. tab. 22. fg. 1 — 6.— Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xi. 330. 

Inliabits the British seas. 

C. Abdomen in both se.vcs six-jointed. Two anterior legs didact^/le. 

Fam. VII. Lituodiad.t:. Leach's MSS. 
Fifth pair of legs minute, spurious. 

Genus 16. LITHODES. Latreilk, Leach. 

External double palpi with narrow cylindric footstalks : ei/es approximat- 
ing at their base : s/(t'// very spiny, anteriorly rostrated. 

Sp. 1. Lith. Maja. Legs and shell with sharp spines: beak spiny, with 
the tip bifurcate : fingers with tufts of hair. 

Cancer Maja. Linn. Si/^t. Nat. 1016. Cancer horridus. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 
7. pi. 7. Jig. 14. Inachus Maja. Fabr. Ent. S^st. Supp. 358. Maja 
vulgaris. Bosc, Hist. Nat. des Crust, i. 251. Lithodes arctica. Latr. 
Gen. Crust, et Bisect, i. 40. Lithodes Maja. Leach, Edin. Enci/cl.vW. 
395. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 332. — Supp. to Encj/cl. Brit. i. 416. — Mai. 
Podoph. Brit. tab.2\. 

Inhabits the Northern sea, and in our seas is very rare, or at least very 
local ; occurring only on the rocky shores of Yorkshire and of Scot- 
land. 

. Fam. VIII. Macropodiad^. 

Second, third, fourth, and fifth pair of legs alike and slender. Eijes not 
rctniclilc. 

Genus 17. MACROPODIA. Leach. Macropus. Latr. 

Shell slightly spined ; beak long and fissured : eyes distant, subreniform, 

much thicker than their peduncles : external antenna half the length 

of the body ; the second joint three times the length of the third : 

external double palpi slender ; the internal footstalk with the two equal 



CLASS I. CRtTSTACKA. 91 

joints : palpi very hairy, the middle joint shortest, the third a little 
longer than the tirst: /«>«?■ anterior clmvs with their tips bent:/ow 
hinder ones abruptly curved at their base. 

Si>. 1. Mac. P/i(i/(inffiiim. Beak acuminate, much shorter than the an- 
tenna; : shell behind the rostrum, with three tubercles placed in a tri- 
angle, the hinder tubercle largest : arms internally subscabrous and 
hirsute. 

Cancer Phalangimn. Penn. Brit. Zool.iv.Q.pl.O.fg. 17. Macropus 
longirostris. Lcitr. Gen. Crust, et Insect. Macropodia longiroslris. 
Lcae/i, Edin. Enci/el.vn. — Zuol. Misc. ii. 18. — Trans. Linn. Sac. xi. 331. 
—Mai. Podop/i. Brit. tab. 23. 

Inhabits the moutlisof rivers, and is very common in Great Britain. 

D. Abdomen of both ."exes four-Jointed. Y'rco anterior legs diductylc. 

Fam.IX. Leucosiad.i;. 
Genus IR. EBALIA. Leach. 

Shell rhomboidal, produced in front; the sides entire: anterior pair of 
/fir-s' depressed, much larger than the rest ; arms subangulated; fin- 
gers subdeflexed : external pedipalpes with their external footstalk li- 
near: abdomen of the male with its last joint at its base furnished 
with a dentiform process. 

Sp. 1 . Eb. Pennantii. Shell granulated, with an irregular elevated cross : 
abdomen with 3 — G joints confluent. 

Cancer tuberosus. Penn. Orn. ZooL iv. 8. t. 9. A.f. 19. Ebalia Pennan- 
tii. Leach, Muluc. Podoph. Brit. t. 25. f. 1—6. cJ & Q . 

Order II. MACROURA. 

This Order contains the Families Pagurii, Palinurini, Astacini, and 
Sijuillares of Latreille. 

Division I. — Tail on each side with simple appendices, 

Fam. I. Pagurid.e. Leach. 
Legs ten ; anterior pair largest and dactyle. 

Genus 19. PAGURUS. Fabr., Latr., Bosc, Leach. 
External antennte with the second joint of their peduncle with a move- 
able spine affixed to the apex above : abdomen membranaceous : tail 
three-jointed, crustaceous; the second joint on each side appendicu- 
lated : four hinder legs spurious, short, didactyle. 

The curious economy of the genus Pagurus attracted the attention 
of the ancients. One species is well described by Aristotle. 

All the species are parasitical, and inhabit the cavities of turbi- 
nated univalves. They all change their habitation during their 
growth, first occupying the smallest shells, and latterly those of very 



€<♦ 



MODERN SYSTEM. 



tonsidcralile dimensions. The abdomen is naked and slender, being 
covered merely with a skin of a delicate texture ; but its extremity is 
furnished with appendages, by means of which it secures itself within 
the shell of which it makes choice. It is really astonishing with 
what facility these animals move, bearing at the same time the shell, 
which is destined to preserve the body from injury and to guard them 
from tiie attacks of fishes, which would otherwise devour them. All 
the species are tenned indiscriminately Soldier-crabs and Hermit- 
crabs, from the idea of their living in a tent, or retiring to a cell. 

Sp. 1. Pag. Strchlonyx (common Soldier-crab). Arms hairy, muricated, 
the left largest; hands subcordate, fingers broad. 

Cancer Bernhardus of Pennant and other English authors. Pagurus Stre- 
Llonyx. Maf. Pcdoph. Brit. tab. 'iQ.fg.llyA. 

Inhabits the European ocean, and is very abundant in the British seas, 
inhabiting various kinds of univalve shells, changing its habitation 
as it grows. Pagurus araneiformis, Edinb. Encycl.xn. 396, is merely 
the young of this species. 

Division II. — Tail on each side zvith foUac€OUS appendages, forming uith 
the middle tail-process n fan-like Jin. 
a. Interior antenna: rcith verif long footstalks. 

T^xn. II. PALij:t7BiD.i:. Leach. 
External antcnn<£ setaceous, and very long: legs ten, alike and simple. 
Genus 20. PALINURUS. Dald., Eabr., Lam., Latr., Base, Leach. 
The animals of this genus have the power of producing a sound 
by rubbing their exterior antenna; against the sides of the projecting 
clypeus. 
Sp. 1. Pal. vulgaris. 
Astacus liomarus. Pciin. Brit. Zool.iv. 'i6.pl. 11. Leach, Mai. Podoph. 

Brit. tab. SO. 
Inhabits the European ocean. It is commonly eaten in London, and is 
sometimes denominated Spiny-lobster or Sea Cray-fish. 

Fam. III. Galate.^d;e. 

External cntcnncp very long and setaceous : legs ten, anterior pair didac- 
tyle, fifth pair spurious. 

Genus 21. PORCELLANA. Lam., Latr.,Bosc, Leach. 

External double palpi with the first joint of the internal footstalk di- 
lated internally : shell orbiculate subquadrate. 

Sp. 1. Par. platychclcs. Anterior margin of the shell with three entire 
teeth : claws very large and much depressed : wrists internally den- 
ticulated; hands externally deeply ciliated. 

Cancer platycheles. Penn. Brit. Zool.iv. 6. pi. 6. & 12. Porcellana pla- 
tycheles. Latr. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 



CLASS r. CRUSTACEA. 93 

Iiiliubits the rocky shores of the southern and western coasts of Bri- 
tain, concealing itself beneath stones, to the underside of which it 
adheres closely. 

Genus 22. GALATEA. Leach. Galath£.\. Fair., Lutr., Law., 
Base, Leach. 
E.cfernal double palpi with the internal edge of the first joint not dilated : 
shell ovate. 

* Roslriim acumhiate, acute, uith four spines on each side. Anterior 
kgscompi-cssed. Abdomen with the sides of the segments obtuse. 'Lull 
with the intermediate lamella triangular, the tip emarginate, the apex 
of the lacniia: rounded. Interior antenna with the first joint of the 
peduncle trispinose> 

a. Second joint of the internal J'oot stalk of the external double palpi 
longer than the first. 

Sp. 1. Gul.squamifera. Anterior legs granulate-spinose : hands exter- 
nally subserrated : wrists and arms internally spinose. 

Galatea Fabricii. Leach, Supp. to Encj/cl. B/it.i. 419. pi. '21. Gala- 
tiiea squaniifera. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 340. — Mai. Podoph. Brit, 
tab. 28. A. 

b. Second joint of the internal footstalk of the external double palpi 
shorter than the first. 

Sp. 2. Gal.spinigera. Anterior legs subgramilate squamose; above and 
on each side spinose : arms externally without spines. 

Astacus strigosus. Penn. Brit. Zool. i\. IS. pi. 14. Cancer {Astacus) str'y- 
gosus. Herbst, tab. 26. /". 2. Galathea strigosa. Fabr., Lair., Leach. 
Galathea spinigera. Leach, Malac. Podoph. Brit. tub. 28. B. 

** Rostrum elongate, spiniform ; the base on each side bispincse. 
Anterior pair of legs subcijUndric. Abdomen with the sides of the seg~ 
inents acute. Tail uith the intermediate lamella transverse-quadrate ; 
the apex subemarghiate. Interior antenna with the frst joint of the pe- 
duncle four-spined. [External double palpi zcith the first joint oj the in^ 
temal footstalk longer than the second.) 
Sp. S. Gal. rugosa. Anterior legs spinose, especially internally-: abdo- 
men with the second segment anteriorly with six; the third with 
four spines. 
Astacus Bamffius. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 17. pi. 27, Galathea rugosa. 
Fabr., Bosr, Latr. Cancer rugosus. G7nel. St/st. Nat. i. 2985. Ga- 
lathea longipeda. Lam. Si/st. dcs Anim. sans Vert. 158. Galathea Banif- 
£a. Leach, Edin. Enci/cl. vii. 398. Galathea rugosa. Leech, Alalac, 
Podoph. Brit. tab. 29. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 341. 
Inhabits the European ocean and Mediterranean sea. It is very Ti'^fi 
in Britain, but has been found en ihc Bamffshire coa-it and in Ply. 
ijlouth sound. 



fl4 MODERN SYSTEM. 

I). Interior antenna with moderate footstalks. 

Farm. IV. Astacid.^. loach's AISS. 
Antennts inserted in the same horizontal line, interior ones with two 
setae, the exterior ones simple : legs for walking ten, anterior pair of 
these largest. 

Stirps 1. — Exterior lamella of the tail composed of one part. 

Genus 23. GEBIA. Txuch. 

Two anterior legs equal, subdidactyle, with the thumb short: interior ait- 
tenna with an elongate petluncle; the secondjoint shortest, the third 
largest and cylindric : external double palpi with the third joint of the 
internal footstalk shortest: tail with hroad lamelke; the exterior 
ones costated, the middle one quadrate. 

Sp. 1. Gieb. Delt'dura. Alxlomcn with the back membranaceous : tail with 
the apex of the exterior lamella dilated and somewhat rounded; in- 
terior one truncate, and formed like the Greek delta. 

Gebia deltaura. Lcacli, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 3-lQ. — Mul. Fodoplu Brit, 
tab. 31. fig. 9, 10. 

Inhabits beneath the sand on the southern coast of Devonshire, and is 
found by digging to the depth of two or three feet. 

Genus 24. CALLIANASSA. Leaeh. 

Four anterior legs didactyle ; anterior pair largest, very unequal ; second 
pair less; third pair monodactyle ; fourth and fifth pairs spurious: 
internal antennae witli an elongate biarticulatc peduncle, the second 
joint longest: exfcnuil double palpi with the secondjoint of the inter- 
nal footstalk largest and compressed: tail with broad lamella^; the 
middle process elongate-triangular, with the apex rounded. 

The thorax anteriorly abruptly subacuminate; the rostriform pro- 
cess divided from the shell by a suture : anterior pair of legs very 
much compressed, the hand articulated : the larger leg with the base 
of its wrist furnished with a curved process. 

Sp. 1. Cal. subterranea. Shell with the rostriform process with one lon- 
gitudinal ridge, the point rounded. 

Cancer Astacus subterraneus. Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. Callianassa 
subterranea. Leach, Edin. Enci/cl. vii. 400. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 343. 
'-Supp. to Enci/cl. Brit.'i. 420. — Malac. Podoph. Brit. tab. 32. 

This animal lives beneath the sand on the sea-shore. It was first 
described by Montagu, who found it by digging in a sand-bank in 
the estuary of Kingsbridge, on the southern coast of Devon. 
Genus 25. AXIUS. Leach. 

Four anterior legs didactyle ; anterior pair largest, and somewhat im- 
equal; third, fourth, and fifth pairs furnished with a compressed 
claw: interior antenna with a three-jointed peduncle, the first joint 
longest : external double palpi with the two first joints somewhat large 



CLASS I. CRUSTACEA. 95 

and unequal: tail broad; the intermediate lamella elongate-trian- 
gular. 

Sp. 1. Ax. Stiri/itchtis. Rostrum margined, the middle carinated : thorax be^ 
hind the rostrum, with two elevated abbreviated lines notched behind- 

Axius Stirynchus. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 343. — Siipp. to Encycl, 
Brit. i. 4'20.—Mal. Fodoph. Brit. tab. 3S. 

Inhabits the British sea. 

Stirps 2. Exterior luiuella of the tail bipartite : external antenme with a 
spine-shaped squameatthe first joint of tlie peduncle: anterior pair 
of legs didactyle. 

* Et/es subglobosc, not thicker than their peduncles. 
The coxfE of the third pair oi" legs of the female, of the fifth pair 
of the male, perforated. These perforations are lor the passage of 
the semen and of the eggs ; and although placed differently in other 
genera, yet they serve the same functions. 

Genus 26. ASTACUS. Uach's MSS. 

Abdomen with the sides of its segments obtuse : middle tail lamella com- 
posed of one piece. 

Sp. 1. Ast, Gummarus. Rosti'um on each side with four teeth, and with 
one on each side of its base. 

Cancer Gammarus. Linn. Si/st. Nat. \. 1050. AstacusGammaRis. Penn. 
Brit. Zool. iv. 9. pi. 10. Astacusmarinus. Fubr. Snpp. Eat. Si/st.406. 
Latr. Gen. Crust, et Lisect. i. 5 1. Astacus Gammarus. Leach, Edin. En- 
cycl. vii. 398. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 344. — Supp. to Enci/cl. Brit. i. 420, 
This species, which is the common lobster of our markets, inhabits 
deep clear water at the foot of rocks which hang over the sea. They 
breed during the early summer months, and are very prolific, Baxter 
having coimted no less than 12,444 eggs under the abdomen. In 
warm weather they are very active ; they have the power of spring- 
ing backward in the water to a most astonishing distance into their 
holes in the rocks, as has been frequently observed by naturalists of 
credit. Their food consists of dead animal matter, and, it is said, also 
of sea-weed. The female is stated to deposit her eggs in the sand, hvii 
tlie young state is not known. 

The common lobster inhabits the European ocean. It is found in 
very great abundance in the North of Scotland; but is much more 
common on the coast of Norway, from whence the London markets 
are for the most part supplied. 

Genus 27. POTAMOBIUS. Leach's MSS. 

Abdomen with the sides of its segments sharp : middle Jail lamella bi- 
partite. 

Sp. 1. Pot.Jiuviatilis. Rostrum laterally dentated, the base with one 
tooth on each side. 

Cancer Astacus. Linn. Si/sl. Nut. 1.1051. Astacus astucus. Penn. 



§6 



MODEKN SYbTrM. 



Brit. Zool. i •, 14. pi. 15. fig. 27. Astacus fiuviauli;:;. Fabr., Latr.^ 
Leach. 

** Eyei rcnlfoi^n, abruptlj/ shorter than tlicir peduncles. 
ITie coca of the third pair of legs of the female, of the fifth pair 
of the male, perforated. 

Genus 28. NEPIIROPS. Leach. 
External antenna: with the first joint of their peduncle furnished at its 

apex with a squama, which is produced beyond the apex of the 

peduncle. 
Sp. 1. Neph. Noz-vegkus. Abdomen with hairy areola; ; shell somewhat 

spiny in front. 
Cancer Norwegicus. Linn. S^st. IN^r/. i. 1053. Astacus Norwegicu.';. 

Fenn. Brit. Zool. iv. IT. pi. 12. fig. 21. Nephrops Norwegicus. 

Leach, Mai. Podoph. Brit. tub. 36. 
Inhabits the northern parts of Europe. It is found in the Frith of 

Forth during the summer months, often attaching itself to the line;? 

of the fishermen : colour, when living, flesh red. Fabricius, Bosc, 

and Latreille, cannot have seen this animal, since they all describe 

it as having four instead of six didactjde legs, 

Fam. V. Pal.'emoxid.e. 

External antennit with a large squama at their base. 

Stirps 1. — External antennce inserted in the same horizontal line with 
the interior ones, which have two setas : tail with the external la- 
mella composed of but one part. 

Genus 29. CRANGON. Latr., Bosc, Leach. 
Second pair of legs didactyle, of the same length with the third pair : 

pedipalpes with their last joint obtuse at its point. 
Sp. 1. Cran. vulgaris. Thorax behind the rostrum, and on each side, aj 

well as the arms beneath with a spire. 
Cancer Crangon. IJnnc. Crangon vulgaris. Fabr., Leach, Mai. Pod. Br. 

t. 37. B. Common Shrimp. 

Genus 30. PONTOPHILUS. Leach. 

Second pair of kgs didactyle, much shorter than the third pair : pedi- 
palpes with the last joint acuminated. 

Sp. 1. Pont, spinosus. Thorax with five ranges of spines, disposed 
longitudinally ; three ranges dorsal and one on each side. 

Pontophilus spinosus. Leach, Mai. Pod. Brit. t. 37. A. 

Discovered by C. Prideaux, esq., amongst some rubbish from Ply-. 
mouth Sound ; a second specimen was afterwards taken ofif Falmouth 
by the late John Cranch, Zoologist to the Congo Expedition. 

•Stirps 2. — External anteniue inserted below tlie internal ones ; interior 
ones with two setie inserted in the same horizontal line : exterior la- 
Tfiella of the tail bipartite. 



CLASS I. CRUSTACEA. 97 

Genus 31. PROCESSA. Leach. Nika. JJ/sso. 
Anterior pair of legs, with one side didactyle, the other armed with a 
simple claw : second pair unequal, didactyle, slender ; one very long, 
with the wrists and fore arm many-jointed ; the other shorter, with 
the wrists many-jointed ; other legs terminated hj' simple claws. 
Sp. 1. Pro. canalicidata. Base of the I'ostrum with one tooth; inter- 
mediate lamella of the tail longitudinally canaliculated. 
Processa canaliculata. Leach, Mai. Podoph. Brit. tab. 41. 

The thighs of the third and fourth pairs of legs are spinulose be- 
neath; at the base of the rostrum there is an elevation dividing it 
from the thorax. 

The above species, which forms the type of the genus, was dis- 
covered at Torcross, on the southern coast of Devon, by Montagu. 

Stirps 3. — External antenna: inserted below the internal ones; interior 
ones with two setje, one placed abo\e the other. {External lamella 
of the tail composed but of one part.) 

a. Internal anicnncs with the supej'ior seta excavated helozc. Claws 

spinulose. 
Genus 32. PAXDALUS. Leach. 

Anterior pair of legs adactyle; second pair didactjle, unequal. External 
double palpi with the last joint of the internal footstalk longer than 
the preceding joint. 

Sp. 1. Pan. annuUcornis. Rostrum ascending, many-toothed, apex 
notched ; inferior antenns annulated with red, and internally spinu- 
lose. 

Pandalus annulicornis. Leach, Malac. Podoph. Brit. tab. iO. — Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xi. 346. — Suppl. to Encycl. Brit. i. 421, 

Genus 33. HIPPOLYTE. Leach. 
Four anterior legs didactyle : external donhls palpi witli tlie last joint of 

the internal footstalk shorter than the preceding joint. 
Sp. 1. Hip. varians. Rostrum straight, witli two teeth above and below j 

shell above and beneath the eyes with one spine. 
Hippolyte varians. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 347. — Supp. to Encycl. 

Brit".!. 4:21.— AM. Podoph. Brii. tab. 38. fg. 6—16. 
Inhabits the rocky shores of the south of Devon. It varies much in 

colour, being often found red, green, and blueish green. 

b. Internal antennce zvith the superior seta not excavated. Claws simple. 

Genus 34. fEN^US. Fabr., Latr., Bosc, Leach. 

Six anterior legs didactyle : external double palpi witli five exserted joint?, 
the last of which is obtuse. 

Sp. 1. Pen. trisulcatus. Thorax trisulcated behind ; rostrum descend- 
ing, multidentate above. 

G 



98 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Penaeus trisulcatus. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 347. — Supp. to Eneycl. 

Brit. i. 421. — Mai. Podoph. Brit. tab. 42. 
Inhabits the Welsh Sea. 
Stirps 4. — External antenna: inserted below the internal; internal 

ones with three setae. {External lamella of the tail composed of but 

one part.) 

Genus 35. PAL^MON. Fahr., Latr., Bosc, Leach. 
Four anterior legs didactyle : anterior pair smaller than the second pair ; 

external double palpi with the last joint shorter than the preceding 

joint. 
Sp. 1. Pal. serratus {common Praicn). Rostrum ascending above, with 

from six to eight teeth, the apex emarginate ; below with from four 

to six teeth. 
Astacus serratus. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. 19. {pi. 16. fig. 28.) Cancer 

(Astacus) Squilla. Herbst, ii. 55. tab. 27. {fig. 1.) Palsemon Squilla. 

Latr. Gen. Crust, et Lisect. i. 54. Leach, Edin. Enci/cl.vii.AOl. Pa- 

Lxmon serratus. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 348. — Supp. to Encycl. 

Brif. i. 421.— iVfa/. Podoph. Brit. tab. 43. Jig. 1 — 10. 

Variety a,. Rostrum with six teeth above. 

Subvariety 1. Rostrum beneath with four teeth. 
2. five teeth. 

Variety /3. Rostrum above with seven teeth. 

Subvariety 1. Rostrum beneath with four teeth. 

2. five teeth. 

3. six teeth. 

"V^ariety y. Rostrum with eight teeth above. 

Subvariety 1. Rostrum beneath with four teeth. 

2. five teeth. 

3. ■ six teeth. 

" Although all the above varieties are common, yet j3 occurs most 
frequently. In some may be seen the upper edge of the rostrum with 
ten, the lower with five teeth ; and both edges with but three teeth. 
The apex is generally notched above, and in two specimens, which 
may be considered a rare occurrence, the point has been found en- 
tire. The situation of the teeth on the upper edge is variable, but in 
most instances the second tooth is at a greater distance from the first 
than the rest, which are generally equidistant, and rarely extend far 
beyond the middle, the rostrum from that part being edentate, witti 
the exception of the emarginate apex." 

Herbst, Latreille, and Leach, formerly considered this species 
as Cancer Squilla of Linne ; but Dr. L. has, since the publication of 
the error, met with the true C. Squilla of that author, and has d§- 



CLASS I. CRUSTACEA. 99 

scribed it in the eleventh voUiine of the Transacilons of the Llnnean 
Society, p. 348. 

"Pulamon serrutnsoi Fabrifius is distinct, and, if his description be 
correct, it is not even referable to this genus ; he having expressly 
given as its specific clvdrdctcr ' Antennis posticis bijidis,'' (hinder an- 
tennae bifid ;) whereas, in his generic character, he has stated these 
organs to be trifid (' Antenna: superiores trijida:.' ") 

Genus 36. ATHANAS. Leach. 
Four anterior legs didactyle : anterior pair larger than the second pair : 

external double palpi with the last joint longer than the preceding 

joint. 
Sp. 1. Ath. nitescens. Rostrinn straight, and simple. 
Cancer {Astacus) nitescens. Montagu's MSS. Athanas nitescens. Leach, 

T?-ans. Linn. Soc. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. — Mai. Fodoph. Brit. fab. 44. 
Inhabits the southern coast of Devonshire. 

Stirps 5. — External antenna inserted below the internal : interior ones 
with a large scale at their base. Legs for movement sixteen. 

Genus 37. MYSIS. Latr., Leach. Praunus. Leach. 

Legs bifid, the last joint of the four anterior pairs with the interior 
lucinia uniarticulatc, ovate, compressed ; of the other pairs of legs 
multiarticulate : external double palpi with the middle joint of the 
internal footstalk longest, the first very short. 

At the base of the abdomen of the female is situated the external 
uterus, composed of two valve-like membranes, in which the young 
ones, just excluded from the egg, live and grow until they become 
strong enough to take care of themselves. 

The animals of this genus swim with their head uppennost, and with 
their eyes spreading, wliicli gives them a singular and grotesque ap- 
pearance. 

* Literniediafe lamella of the tail emarginate. 

Sp. 1. Mysis spinulosa. Tail with the intermediate lamella externally 
spinulose; the apex acutely emarginate ; exterior lamellae acuminate, 
and very broadly ciliated. 

Praunus fiexuosus. Leach, Edin. Encycl. \ii. 401. Mysis spinulosa. 
Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 3.50. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 422. 

Inhabits the Frith of Forth near Leith. 

" Colour when alive, pellucid cinereous : eyes black, red at their 
base : lamince of the external antenna; with a black longitudinal line 
and spots. A clouded spot on each side of the hinder part of the 
thorax, and another above the legs. Every segment of t^.e body 
most beautifully marked with a reddish-rust coloured spot, disposed 
in an arborescent form ; tail fin spotted with the same colour, mixed 
with black : pouch of the female with two rows of fuscous-black 
spots : under side of the abdomen regularly mottled with rufous black." 

G 2 



100 MODERN SYSTEM. 

It was 6bser\'ed with young from the middle of June to the 
middle of July. The females are one-third more abundant than 
the males. 
Length an inch and a quarter. 

** Intermediate lamella of the tail entire. 
Sp. 2. Mysis Integra. 
Praunus integer. Leach, Edin. Enci/cL\n. 401. Mysis Integra. Ledch, 

Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 350. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 422. 
Inhabits brackish pools of water, left by the tide at Lock Ranza in the 

Isle of Arran. Common in the month of August with young. 
Length one third of an inch. 

Females more abundant than the males. Colour whilst living pel- 
lucid cinereous, spotted with black and reddish brown. 

Division III. — Tail with two set(?, one on each side. 

Pam. VI. Nebax.i.\d.s;, Leach. 
Genus 38. NEBALIA. Leach. 
Thorax anteriorly with a moveable rostrum : anterior pair of legs longest^ 

simple ; other pairs equal, approximate, with the last joint bifid : 

(tntennte two, inserted above the eyes, the last joint bifid and multi- 

articulatei 
Sp. 1. Neh. Herhstii. Gray or cinereous-yellowish ; eyes black. 
Cancer bipes. 0th. Fubr. En. Grim. no. 223. fg. 2. Herbst, ii. tab. 24. 

fig. 7. Mysis bipes. Latr. Hi.st. Nat. des Crust, et des Insect, vi. 285. 

JNIoiioculus rostratus. Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 14. tab. 2. fig. 5. 

Nebalia Herbstii. Leach, Zool. Miscel.'i. 100. tab. 44. — Trans. Linn. 

Soc. xi. 351. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 422. 
Inhabits the European Ocean; it is common beneath stones lying on 

black mud, on the southern coast of Devon. 

Genus of doubtful situation. 

Genus 39. 3IEGAL0PA, Leach. 

The situation of this curious genus, which is figured in Dr. Leaches 

Malacostraca Brit. (tab. 25.), is still doubtful. It however decidedly 

belongs to the Macp.oura, as Dr. L. has discovered to be the case, 

since the publication of the first volume of the Supp. to Encycl. Brit. 

LegionlL EDRI OP HTH A LM A. 

The Malacostraca Edriophthalmu, or at least a greater part of them, 
were placed amongst the Macroura by Latreille, who considered them 
as forming a particular family of that order. 

Sectwn I. 
Body laterally compressed. 



CtASS I. CP.rSTACEA. 101 

Fam. I. PiiROXVMAD.?:. Leach's MSS. 

Legs fourteen : antema: nvo, inserted one on each side of the front of 
the head. {Tail furnished with styles.) 

Genus 1. PHRONYMA. Lutr., Leach, Lamarck. 

Head large, nutant: antenna biarticulate, the first joint small : thorax 
seven-jointed, all its segments bearing legs : legs compressed, tu-o 
anterior pairs with the antepenultimate joint furnished at its point 
with a foliaceous process ; the penultimate joint with the point bifid 
and terminated with a small claw: third anOi fourth pairs simple, 
longer, somewhat thicker, terminated by a bent claw: Jifth pair 
large, very long, thicker, didactyle ; the first joint gradually thick- 
ened towards its point; the second su1)trigonate; the third ovate, 
and abruptly narrowed at its base ; the last narrowed at its base ; the 
fijigers curved, and internally furnished each with one tooth : sixth 
and seventh pairs simple, terminated with a nearly straight cla\\' : 
abdomen triarticulate, each segment, on each side, with a double ap- 
pendice, placed on a peduncle : tail biarticulate, the first joint on 
each side furnished with a biarticulate process, terminated by t\vo 
styles ; second joint with four processes, each terminated by two 
styles ; the inferior processes biarticulate, the superior triarticulate. 

Sp. 1. Fhron. sedcntaria. Fifth pair of legs with the apex of the thumb 
and base of the fingers internall}' denticulated. 

Cancer sedentarius. Forsk. Fn.Arab. 95. Phronyma sedentaria. Latr. 
Gen. Crust, et Lis. i. 57. Leach, Fdia. Fncycl. vii. 403 — 433. — Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xi. 355. Cancer (Gammarellus) sedentarius. Herlst, ii. 
136. t. '67. jig. 8. 

Inhabits the Mediterranean Sea and Zetland Sea, residing in a cell 
composed of a gelatinous substance, open at each extremity, where 
it sits in an incur\'ed posture. 

The only specimen of this most interesting, rare, and curious 
animal was taken by the Reverend Dr. J. Fleming, one of our most 
zealous naturalists, who found it on the 3u of November 1809, at 
Burray in Zetland, amongst rejectamenta of the sea, and communi- 
cated it to Dr Leach. 

Fam. II. Gammarid.e. Leach's MSS. 

Body laterally compressed : legs fourteen, with lamelliform coxs : 
antenn(£ ionr, inserted by pairs. {Tail furnished with styles.) 

Stirps 1. — Antenna four-jointed, the last segment composed of many 
little joints ; the upper ones very short. 

Genus 2. TALITRUS. Latr., Bosc, Leach. 
Four anterior legs in both sexes subequal, monodactj'le : upper antenna 
shorter than the two first joints of the undcT ones. 



102 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Sp. 1. Tal. Lociisla. Antennae subtestaceous-nifous, of the male longer 
than the body, of the female shorter ; body cinereous, varied with 
darker cinereous. 

Oniscus Locusta. Pallas? Talitrus Locusta. iMtr., Bosc, Leach. As- 
tacus Locusta. Peiin. Brit. Zool. iv. 21. Cancer (G«w»rt«r«s) Saltator. 
Montagu, Tra«.s. Linn. Soc. xi. 94. 

Inhabits the sandy shores of the European Ocean. 

The specific name Locusta is probably derived from the form of 
its protruded mouth, which has a general resemblance to the same 
part in the Gryllides.' 

It has never been observed in the water ; it burrows in the sand, 
and leaps about on the shore. Talitrus littoralis, described in the 
seventh volume of the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, is merely the fe- 
male of T. Locusta. 

The use of this animal (which is generally denominated Sand- 
hopper) in the economy of nature, appears to be that of contributing 
to the dissolution of putrid animal and vegetable matter ; servmg 
in return as food to the shore birds, who devour it with avidity. 

Genus 3. ORCHESTIA. Leach. 

Four anterior legs of the male monodactyle ; second pair with a com- 
pressed hand ; of the female, with the anterior pair monodactyle, the 
second didactyle: upper antenna not longer than the two first joints 
of the under ones. 

Sp. 1. Ore. Uttoreu. 

Cancer Gummarus littoreus. Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 9G. Orche- 
stia littorea. Leach, Edin. Enci/cl. \ii. 402. pi. 11. fig. 6. — Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xi. 356. — Supp. to Enci/cl. Brit. \. 424:. 

Inhabits many of our shores, and is found at the mouths of rivers, but 
has never been observed in the water. It resides under stones and 
fuci, and in the evening it leaps about and is devoured by birds. 

Stirps 2. — Antenna four-jointed, the last joint composed of several 
little joints ; upper ones rather shortest. 

Genus 4. DEXAMINE. Leach. 

Four anterior legs sub-equal, monodactyle, furnished with a filiform- 
subovate hand : antenna with their first joint shortest : eyes oblong, 
not prominent, inserted behind the superior antenna? : tail on each 
side with three double styles, and above on each side with one move- 
able style. 

Sp. 1. I>ex. spinosa. Segments of the abdomen behind, produced into 
spines. 

Cancer (Gammarus) spinosus. Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 3. Dex- 
amine spinosa. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 433. — Zool. Miscel. ii. 24, 
— Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 359. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 425. 

Inhabits the sea of the western coasts of Britain. 



CLASS r, CnVSTACEA, 103 

Genus 5. LEUCOTHOE. Leach. 
Anterior pair of legs didactyle; the thumb biarticulate: second pairv,'\t\i 

a dilated and compressed hand, furnished with a crooked thumb. 
Sp. 1. Leu. articulosa. 
•Cancer articulosus. Montagu, Trans. Linn.Soc. vii. 71. t. 6.f. 6. Leu- 

cothoe articulosa. Leach, Edin. Enci/cl. vii, 403. — Trans. Linn. Hoc. 

xi. 358. — Supp. to Encj/cl. Brit. i. 425. 
Inhabits the British sea, but is very rare. 

Stirps 3. — Antennae fouT-}omtcd, the last segment composed of several 
little joints; upper ones longest. 

Subdivision 1. — Four anterior legs monodactyle, second pair with a much 
diluted compressed hand. 
Genus 6. MELITA. Leach. 

Anterior pair of legs monodactyle; second pair with the thimib inflexed 
on the palm : tail on each side with an elongate foliaceous lamella. 

Sp. 1. Mel. palmata. Body blackish : antennas and legs annulated with 
pale colour. 

Cancer palmatus. Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. vii. 69. Melita palma- 
ta. Leach, Edin. Eiicycl. vii. 403. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi.358. — Supp. to 
Encj/cl. Brit. i. 425. pi. 21. 

Inhabits the sea shore on the Devonshire coast under stones. 

Genus 7. M;ERA. Leach. 
Four anterior legs didactyle ; thumb of the second pair bent on the side 

of the hand : tail with no foUaceous appendices. 
Sp. 1. Ma:. g?'ossinuina. 

Cancer Gamtnarus grossimanus. Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. 97. t, 4. 
J". 5. Mtera grossimana. Leach, Edin. Enci/cl, \n.A03. — Trans. Linn, 
Soc. xi. 359. — Supp. to Enci/cl. Brit. i. 425. 
Inhabits the southern coast of Devonshire beneath stones. 

Subdivision 2. — Tzvo anterior pair of legs monodactyle and alike. 
Genus 8. GAMMARUS. Latr., Leach. 
Superior antenna furnished at the base of the fourth joint with a little 
jointed seta: tail above with bundles of spines. 

* Tail with the superior double styles, having the upper style process 
very short. 
Sp. 1. Gam. agnaticus. Process between the antennae rounded, obtuse. 
Gammarus Pulex. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 402 — 432. Gamraarus aqua- 
ticus. Leach, Ti-ans. Linn.Soc. xi. 359. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit.i. 425. 
Inhabits ponds, ditches, and springs in great plenty. 
Sp. 2. Gam. 7nari>ius. Process between the antennae subacuminate. 
Gammarus marinus. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 359. — Supp. to Encycl, 

Brit. i. 425. 
Inhabits the sea on the southern coast of Devonshire in plenty. 



104 



MODERN 5YSTEM. 



** Tail with the superior double styles, having the style processes 
suhequal. 
Sp. 3. Gam. Locusta. Eyes lunate. 
Cancer Gammarus Locusta. Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. 92. Ganv- 

marus Locusta. Leach, Edin. Encycl.vii. 4.03.— Trans. Linn. Soc. xi, 

359. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. j. 425. 
Inhabits the British sea. 
Sp. 4. Gam. Camptolops. Eyes flexuous. 
Gammarus Camptolops. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 403, — Trans. Linn, 

S)c. xi. 360. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 425. 
Inhabits the sea about Loch Ranza, in the Isle of Arran. 

Genus 9. AMPITHOE. Leach. 

Superipr antenndE with no seta at the base of their fourth joint: tail 
simple above : hands ovate. 

Sp. 1. Am. rubricata. 

'Cancer Gammarus rubricatus. Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. 99. Gam- 
marus rubricatus. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 402. Ampithbe rubri- 
cata. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 432. — Ti-ans. Linn. Soc. xi. 360. — - 
Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 425. 

Inhabits the sea of the southern coast of Devon. 

Genus 10. PHERUSA. Leach. 

Superior antemuz with no seta at the base of their fourth joint : tail sim- 
ple above : hands filiform. 

Sp. 1. The. Eucicola. Testaceous-cinereous or gray cinereous mottled 
with reddish. 

Pherusa Fucicola. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 432. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 
360. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 426. pi. 21. 

Inhabits fuci on the southern coast of Devon. 

Stirps4. Antennce fouT-jomted; under ones longest, leg-shaped. (Fo«f» 
anterior legs monodactyle.) 

Subdivision 1. — Second pair oj" legs with a large hand. 

Genus 11, PODOCERUS. Leach. 
Eyes prominent : Jour anterior legs monodactyle. 

Sp. 1. Pod. variegatus. Body varied with red and vi'hite. 

Podocerus variegatus. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 433. — Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xi. 361. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 426. 

Inhabits the southern coast of Devonshire, amongst confervse and co- 
rallines. 

Genus 12. JASSA. Leach. 
Eyes not prominent: four anterior legs monodactjde, with oval hand'?; 
second pair with its internal edge dentated. 



CLASS r. CRUSTACEA. 105 

Sp. 1. Jus. pnkhella. Thumb of the second pah- of legs with its internal 

edge notched at the base; colour white painted with red. 
"V'ar. a. Hands of the second pair with an elongate obtuse tooth. 
Var. /3. Hands of the second pair with the internal edge tridentate. 

Jassa pidchella. Leach, Edin. Enn/cl, vii. 433. — Trans, Linn. Soc. xi. 

301. — Siipp. to Lnci/cl. Brit. i. 4'iti. 
Inhabits the sea of southern Devon amongst fuci. 

Subdivision 2. — Second pair of Ic-^x zcith a moderate-sized hand. 

Genus 13. COROPniU:\I. Latr., Leach. 

Sp. 1. Cor. longicorne. 

Cancer grossipes. Linn. Sj/st. Nat. i. 105.5. Astacus grossipes. Petm. 
Brit. Zool.'w. pi. 16. Jig. 31. Corophium longicorne. Latr. Gen. 
Crust, et Lnsect. i. 59. Leach, Edin. Enci/cl. vii. 403 — 432. — Trans. 
JJnn. Soc. xi. 662. — Siipp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 426. 

Inhabits the coast of the European ocean. At low tide it may be ob- 
served crawling amongst tlie mud. It is very common at the mouth 
of the river Medway, where it was first observed by J. Henslow, esq. 

Section IT. 
Body depressed: antennae four: legs fourteen. 
A . Tail zvithoitt appendices, 

Fam. III. Caprellad.t. Leach, 
Bodj with all the segments bearing legs, 
Stirps 1. Hoo'j/ linear. 

Genus 14. PROTO. Leach. 
Second, third, and four tit pair of legs appendiculated at their bases. 

To this genus belongs Squilla pedata, and probably also ventricosa 
of Miiller, with Cancer Gammarus pedatus of Montagu, which is pro- 
bably the same with S. pedata of Muller. See Ti-ansactions of the Lin- 
nean Society, vol. xi. p. 6. t. 11. f. 6. 

Genus 15. CAPRELLA. Lamarck, Latr., Bosc, Leach. 
Second, third, and fourth pairs of legs not appendiculated at their bases ; 
the third and fourth pairs spurious, subgelatinous, and globose. 

The animals composing this genus inhabit the sea, living amongst 
Sertularise and marine plants, moving geometrically like the larvaj of 
the Fhaltenuda. 

The specific character may be taken from the number and situ- 
ation of the spines on the head and back, form of the second pair of 
legs, &c. 
Sp. 1. Cup. Phasma. Hands of the second pair of legs narrow, their in- 
ternal edge acutely notched backwards : back anteriorly with three 
spines, turning forwards. 



106 MODERN SYSTEM- 

Cancer Phasma. Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. vii, 66. t. 6.f. 3. Leach, 

Supp. to Enct/cl. Brit. i. 426. 
Inhabits the southern coast of Devon. 
Astacus atomos of Pennant and Squillu lohata ofMiiller belong to the 

genus Caprella, of which in the British Museum there arc several 

undescribed species. 

Stirps 2. Bodtf broad. 

Genus 16. LARUNDA. Leach. Cyamus. Latr., Base. Panope. 
Leach. 
AnienntE four-jointed, upper ones longest: Zi'gs compressed, witli strong 
claws ; the third and fourth pairs elongate, spurious, cylindric, with- 
out claws ; the two anterior pairs monodactyle. 
External uterus, or pouch of the female, composed of four valves. 

\Sp. 1. Lar. Ceti. Bases of the third and fourth pairs of legs with pro- 
cesses resembling the figure 6 ; the hands of the second pair of legs 
anteriorly, with three obtuse teeth. 

Oniscus Ceti. Linn. Si/sf. Nat. i. 1060. Pall. Spec. Zool. ix. 4. /. 14. 
Squille de la Baleine. JDe Geer, Man. sitrles Insect, vn.pl. 42./. d, T. 
Pycrogonum Ceti. Fabr. Supp. Ent. S^/st. 570. Cyamus Ceti. Latr. 
Gen. Crust, et Insect, i. 60. Panope Ceti. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 
404. Larunda Ceti. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 364. — Supp. to En- 
cycl. Brit.'i. 4Q6. pi. 21. 

Inliabits whales, and according to Latreille it is also found on some 
species of the genus Scomber. 

By the Greenland fishermen it is termed the Whale-louse. 

Fam. IV. Idotead;e. Leach. 

Body with all the segments not bearing legs: (ventral appendages co- 
vered by two longitudinal plates.) 

Genus 17. IDOTEA. Fabr., Latr., Bosc, Leach. Asellus, Ohv., 
Lamarck. Entomon. Klein. 
External antcmue half the length of the body, or less; the third and 

fourtli joints equal: bud i/ ovate. 
Sp. 1. Id.pelagica. Body linear-oval: tail rounded, the middle with a 
very obsolete tooth : antenna? one third of the length of the body. 
Idotea pelagica. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 365. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 

426. 
Inhabits the Scottish seas. 

Colour when alive ash-gray or fuscous, speckled with darker co- 
lour, and often variegated or mottled with white spots : legs pale. 

The female seems to be very rare, as amongst 400 specimens of 
the animal, one only of that sex was found. 
Length one inch and a quarter. 



CLASS I. CRUSTACEA. 107 

Genus 18. STENOSOMA. Leach. 
Hxteniaf antenna as long us the body, the third joint longer than tlfe 

fourth : boilj/ linear. 
Sp. 1. Sf. lincare. Lust segment of the tail somewhat narrowed at its 

base, and dilated towards its apex, which is truncate and notched. 
Oniscus linearis. Fcnn. B7'it. Zool. iv. pi. 18. Jig. 2. Idotea hectica. 

Leach, Ellin. Enci/cl. vii. 401. Stcnosoma hecticum. Leach, Edin. 

Encycl. vii. 433. Stcnosoma lineare. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 366. 

— Sapp. to Enci/cl. Brit. i. 427. 
Inhabits the European ocean. It sometimes occurs in the Firth of 

Forth, and amongst the Hebrides. 

B. Tail on each side, 2cith one or two appendices. 

Fam. V. Anthuradx. Lj:uch. 

Antenna inserted in nearly the same horizontal line : ventral appen- 
dages closed by tw'O longitudinal plates. 

Genus 19. ANTHURA. Ltach. 

Antemut short, subequal ; inserted one after another in the same ho- 
rizontal line, the internal ones a little longest: hodif linear: tail 
with the last joint but one very short; the last elongate, narrower, 
with two elongate lamella? on each side. 

Sp. 1. An. gracilis. Lateral processes of the tail obliquely truncated. 

Oniscus gracilis. Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. tab. 5 Sf 6. Anthura 
gracilis. Leach, Edin. Enct/cl. — Trans. Linn. Soc. — Supp. to Enci/cl. 
Brit. 

Fam. VL Cymothoad.t.. Leach. 

Antenna inserted in pairs, one above the other. 

Stirps 1. Tail with one lamella on each side. 

Genus 20. CAINIPTECOPEA. Leach. 

Tail with its last segment furnished on each side with a compressed, 
curved appendage: bodj/ six-jointed, the last joint of the same size 
with the others : antenna setaceous, upper ones longest, their pe- 
duncle biarticuJate, the space between the antennae very great: an- 
terior claws bifid. 

^p. 1. Cam. hirsida. Brown; the last joint of the body with a few 
faint blueish spots. 

Oniscus hirsutus. Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. vii. t. 6.f. 8. Camptc- 
copea hirsuta. Leach, T/-ans. Linn. Soc.xi. 367. — Edin. Encijcl.v'n.AOj. 
— Supp. to Enci/cl. Brit. i. 427. 

Inhabits the southern coast of Devonshire, but is rather rare. 

Length one eighth of an inch. 



108 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Ge«us 21. NiESA. Leach. 
Tail on each side of the last segment, with a straight subcompresserl 

process attached to a peduncle : bodi/ six-jointed, the last joint largest: 

antenna setaceous, subequal ; upper ones with a very large biarticu- 

lated peduncle, the lirst joint largest: space between the antennae 

easily to be discerned : ckacs bifid. 
Sp. 1. JVV. bidentata. Last segment of the body armed with two spines 

or teeth ; colour cinereous, faintly streaked with blue, or reddish. 
Oniscus bideniatus. Adams, Trans. Linn. Soc. v. 8. t.l.f. 3. Jss'sabi- 

denta-ta. Leach, Edin. Enc7/cl. \'n. 405. — Trans. Linn. Soc.xi. 267.-^ 

Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 427. 
Inhabits the coasts of Wales and Devonshire. 

Stirps 2. Tail with two lamellae on each side. 

* Superior antennae with a t)ery large peduncle. Clazrs hijid. 

Genus 22. CYMODICE. Leach. 

Ei/es touching the anterior margin of the first segment of the body : 
bad)/ seven-jointed : tail at the base, on ^ach side with tvvo subcom- 
pressed but not foliaceous appendages, the exterior ones largest; the 
apex of the tail notched, with a lamella in the centre : claus bifid. 

Sp. 1. Ci/.trmLC<ita. Apex of the tail truncate. 

Oniscus truncatus. Montagu's MSS. Cymodice truncata. Leach, Edin. 
Enct/cl. vii. 433. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 303. — Supp. to Enci/cl. Brit. 
i. 427. 

This species is very rare, and has been found but three times on 
the southern coast of Devonshire. 

Genus 23. DYNAMENE. Leach. 
Ei/es not reaching to the anterior margin of the first segment of the 
body : body seven-jointed : fail with tsvo equal foliaceous appendages 
on each side of its base; the apex notched : claws bifid. 
Dynamene. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 433. 

There are several indigenous species of this genus, and their cha- 
racters will be given under the article Cymothoade'es, in the Dic- 
iionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, by Dr. Leach. 

Genus 24. SPILIEROMA'. Lutr., Leach. 

Eyes not reaching to the anterior margin of the first segment of the 
body: body seven-jointed: tailWi\h its apex entire; the base on each 
side with two equal foliaceous appendages: chaos bifid. 

Sp. 1. Sph. serrata. Body smooth, imarmed: tail very smooth on each 
side; obliquely truncated : lamellae elliptic, acute, the external ones 
externally serrated. 

Dniscus Globator. Tall. Spec. Zool.fasc. ix. t. 4. f. 18. Cymothea ser- 
rata. Fabr. Ent. Syst. ii. 510. Sphaeroma cinerea, Latr. Gen. Crust. 



CLASS I. ORUSTACF.A^ 109 

et insect, i. C5. Spharonia scrrata. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 405. 
— Trans. Linn. Soc.\i. 303. — Supp, to Encycl. Brit. i. 427. 

** Superior antiuna: wUh a vert/ large peduncle. Claws simple. 

Genus 25. ^GA. Leach. 

Et/es large, granulated, oblong, oblique, marginal : tail with its ap- 
pendages foliaceous. 

Sp. 1. j-Ega onarginala. Tail with the last joint acuminate; the inte- 
rior lamella internally obliquely truncated, externally emarginated. 

^ga emarginata. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 370. — Supp. to Enci/cl. 
Brit. i. 427. pi. 21. 

*** Superior antenna; with a moderate peduncle. 

Genus 26. EURYDICE. Leach. 
Et/es distinct, simple, lateral : head as broad as the first segment of the 

body. 
Sp. 1. Eu.pidchra. Tail with the last joint semioval : body cinereous, 

variegated with black. 

Genus 27. LTMNORlA. Leach. 

Head as broad as the first segment of the body : eyes granulated. 

Sp. 1. Lim. tei-ebrans. Body cinereous : eyes pitchy black. 

Limnoria terebrans. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 433 — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi, 
370. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 428. 

Inhabits the British ocean, perforating buildings of wood, piles, &c. It 
is common at the Bell-rock, and on the coasts of Suflblk and York- 
shire. It generally produces seven young ones. 
Genus 28. CYMOTHOA. Fabr., Dald., Leach. 

Head narrow and small: eyes obsolete: body with the first segmeat 
notched to receive the head. 

Sp. 1. Cym. Oestrum. 

Cyraothoa (Estruni. Fabr. Leach, Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 423. 

C. Tail furnished with two setce. 
Fam. VII. ApsEL'DiADiE. 

Genus 29. APSEUDES. icflcA. 

Body six-jointed: tcul with six segments; the last largest, armed at the 
apex with appendices : feet fourteen ; the anterior pair with a finger 
and thumb; xhc second pair compressed and dentated; the third and 
fourth alike and simple ; the fifth with a double nail ; the sixth and se- 
venth spurious : the superior antenrLa with a biarticulated peduncle 
armed at the apex with a jointed seta; the inferior antenna: bifurcate. 

Sp. 1. A. Talpa. Rostrum acute, with three excavated longitudinal 
grooves. 



110 MODEKN SVSrCM. 

Cancer Ganimariis. JMunlagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. t. L f. 6. Apseudes 
Talpa. Leach, Edin. Eniycf. vii, 404. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 372. — 
Supp. to Encjjcl. Brit. 428. vol. i. 

Inhabits the British ocean: length four lines: colour yellowish-white: 
is very rare. 

D. Tail furnished with styles. 

Fam. VIII. AsELLiD.t. 
Interior antenna: distinct. 

Stirps 1. 5(y/es of the tail exserted : anterior /egs monodactyle. 

Genus 30. JANIRA. Leach. 
Claws bitid: e?/es moderate, lateral-subvertical : internal untennd shorter 

than tlie peduncle of the external ones. 
Sp. 1. Jan. 7nacnlosa. Body cinereous, maculated with fuscous. 
Oniscusmaculosus. Montagu^ AISS. Janira maculosa. Leach, Ldin.En' 

cycl.vn. 434. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 373. — Supp. to Enci/cl. Brit.'i. 428. 
Iuhal)its the southern coast of Devonshire, amongst marine plants. 

Genus 31. ASELLUS. Geoff., Olivier, Latr., Bosc, Leach. E.vto- 
MON. Klein. 

Claws simple : eijes minute, lateral : interior antennce of the length of the 
setiferous joint of the exterior ones. 

Sp. 1. Asel. aquaticus. Colour cinereous, either spotted with gray or 
whitish. 

Oniscus aquaticus. Linn. Syst. Nat.!. 10Q\. Aselle d'eau douce. Geoff. 
Hist, dcs Lisect. xi. 672.pl. 22. /. 2. Squille Aselle. Dc Geer, Mim. 
sur Ics Lisect. vii. 496. pi. '31- Jig- 1. Aselle ordinaire. L(Ur. Hist, 
Nat. des Crust, et des Lisect. vi. 359. Asellus vulgaris. Bosc, Hist. 
Nat. des Crust, ii. 170. pi. 15. Jig. 7. Latr. Gen. Crust, et Lis. i. 63. 
Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 404. Idotea aquatica. Fahr. Supp. Eat. 
Syst.oO^. Entomon hieroglyphicum. Klein,Dub. Jig.5. Asellus aqua- 
ticus. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 373. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 428. 

Inhabits ponds and ditches, and is generally considered a sign of the 
purity of the water. 

Stirps 2. Styles of the tail notexserted. Anterior legs simple. 

Genus 32. J.^'ERA. Leach. 
Eyes modei'ately large, situated between the sides and tlie vertex of the 

head. 
Sp. 1. Ja. albifrons. Cinereous; front whitish. 
Oniscus albifrons. Montagus MSS. Jaera albifrons. Leach, Edin. Eih- 

cycl. vii. 434. — T?'ans. Linn. Soc. xi. 373. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 428. 
Inhabits maiine plants, and beneath stones on the southern coast of 

Devon. 



CLASS r. CRUSTACEA. Ill 

Fatn. IX. LiGiAD.-E. Leach's MSS. 

Interior antenna: distinct. Sl^le of the tail double, with double foot- 
stalks. 

Genus 33. LIGIA. Fubr., Lafr., Bosc, Leach. 
Lxternal a/zfe/iWdr with the last joint composed of several other joints. 

Sp. 1. Lig. occanica. Antenna? as long as the body : back subscabrose. 
Ligia oceanica. Fair. Siipp. Ent. Sj/st. 301. Leach, Edln. F^nci/cl. vii. 406. 

— Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. i'iS. Ligia Scopulorum. Leach, Edin. En- 

cycl. vii. 406. Oniscusoceanicus. Linn. Syd. Nat. i. lOGt. 
Inhabits the rocky shores of the European ocean. The last joint of 

the antennae varies much in the number of its segments, even in tlie 

two sides of the same individual. 

Fani. X. Oniscid^e. 

Antenna two. Styles of the tail four, the lateral ones biarticulate. 

* Body not capable of contracting into a ball, 
a. External antenna eight-jointed. 

Genus 34. PHILOSCIA. Latr., Leach. 

External antenna with their bases naked : tail abruptly narrower than 
the body. 

Sp. 1. Phil. Muscoriim. Body variegated; sometimes pale brick-red. 

Oniscus Muscorum. Scop. Ent. Cum. W'^b. Oniscus sylvestris. Fabr. 
Ent. Syst. iv. 397. Philoscia Muscorum. Lair. Gen. Crust, et Insect, 
i. 69. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 406. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 428. 

Inhabits France, Germany, and England, under stones and mosses. 

Genus 35. ONISCUS of authors. 

Antenna inserted beneath the anterior margin of the head, on a promi- 
nent part. 

Sp. 1. On.Asellus. Above, obscure-cinereous, rough; the sides and a se- 
ries of dorsal spots yellowish. 

Oniscus Asellus. Linni, Latr., Leach. Oniscus murarius. Fabr. Supp, 
Ent. Syst. 300. 

Inhabits rotten wood and old walls throughout the greater part of Eu- 
rope. 

It was formerly used in medicine, and was supposed to cure agues, 
consumptions, Sec. but has now, like many other medicines, deserv- 
edly grown out of fashion, and is rejected from the modern Pharma- 
copoeias. It is commonly called Pig's-lousc, Wood-louse, Millepede 
or Carpenter. 



112 MOIJtllN SV-SXtM. 

b, External antennae with seven joints. 

Genus 36. PORCELLTO. Latr., Leach. 
External antennce inserted on a prominence under the anterior margin 

of the head : tail with its lateral styles conic^ prominulous. 
Sp. 1. For. scaler. Bodj^ rough. 
Oniscus Asellus. Fabr. Supp. Ent. Si/st. SOO. Porcellio scaber. Latr, 

Gen. C?'ust. et Insect, i. 70 Leach, EJin. Encycl. vii. 40C. — Trans. 

Linn. Soc.yX. 37. — Supp. to Enci/cl. Brit. i. 429. 
Inhabits Europe. This species is found under stones, in rotten wood, 

and on old walls. It varies much in colour, being at one time blue- 

ish black, at another time yellow. In Scotland it is called Sclater. 

** Boclj/ contracted into a hall. 

Genus 37. ARMADILLO. Latr., Leach. 

External antenna seven-jointed, inserted on a prominence in a cavity 
on each side of the head : tail with tlie lateral styles not prominent. 

Sp. L Arm. vulgaris. Griseous lead-coloured; hinder margins of the 
segments whitish. 

Oniscus Armadillo. 'Linn. Si/st. Nat. i. 10C2. Armadillo vulgaris. 
Latr. Gen. Crust, et Lisect. i. 70. — Leach, Edin. Encj/cl. vii. 40G. — ■ 
Trails. Linn.Soc. xi. 37(3. — Supp.to Encj/cl. Brit. i. 429. 

Inhabits Europe amongst moss and under stones. It is commonly 
named the Pill-millepede, and paves the way to the Myriapoda : in ge- 
neral external appearance and in economy it is allied to the genus 
Glojneris, 

Class n. MYRIAPODA. 

This Class was proposed by Dr. Leach in the Edinburgh Encyclopae- 
dia, vol. vii. and has since been distinctly established, with its characters 
more decidedly shown, in a paper published in the eleventh volume of 
the Transactions of the Linnean Society, and also in the Supplement to 
Encyclopadia Br.fannica, vol. i. 

By Linne the animals composing this group were denominated Sco- 
XOPENDR^ and JuLi, and were arranged with apterous insects. His 
pupil, J. C. Fabricius, in the Supplement to his Entomologia Systeino" 
ticu, placed them in a particular Class named Mitosata, comprehend- 
ing all the species, like Linne, under the generic appellations of Julus 
and ScoLOPFNDRA. Cuvier, in his Tableau, Elemcntaire, arranged the 
Myriapoda with insects, in which he was followed by Dumeril, who has, 
however, adopted the new Genera proposed by Latrcille. 

They were arranged in the older works of Latrcille along with In- 
sect'-;; but in his last work he has placed them in a pecidiar Order of the 
Class Arachnoidea, which he had denominated Mi'KiArouAj and has 
divided them into two Families. 



CLASS ir. MVraAPODA. 



113 



T.am:irck -arrungeil thcni with the Arachnoidea in three Genera; 
1. Scolopexdra; 'J-Scutigera; 3. Julus; and in his last work he has 
adopted a fourth genus, Pollyxenus. 

Having given a slight sketch of what has heen done by systematic 
writers, I shall proceed with the arrangement proposed by Dr. Leach, 
which dift'ers from them merely in considering them as constituting a 
distinct Class, and in disposing the species under some additional ge- 
neric heads, which a minute examination of their structure has most 
fully warranted. 

Classificatiox. — All the Mj/napodaha.\e their head distinct from 
the body, furnished with two antennas. Mandibles two. MaxilU four, 
confluent and forming a lower lip. All or most of the segments of the 
lx)dy furnished with two or four legs. 

The nervous system is composed of a series of ganglia, one in each 
segment of the body; these ganglia are brought into communication 
^vitli each other by two longitudinal bundles of nerves, or, as they are 
generally but improperly denominated, by a spinal marrow. 

The Chilognatha and Syncxatha, established as Families byLa- 
rreille, are adopted as Orders by Dr. Leach. 

Order I. Chilognatha. — yl?2/e«w« seven-jointed. Legs short. Body 
generally crustac^ous. 

Order IL Syngnatha. — J7ife?in^ composed of fourteen ormore joints. 
Lt'gs elongated. Bodif depressed, coriaceous or membranaceous. 

Order I. CHILOGNATHA. 

Fam. I. Glomerid.?:. Leach. 

Body contraclile into a globe. Eyes distinct. 

Genus I. GLOMERIS. Latr., Burner., Leach. Armadillo. Cuv. 

Aiiteiini£\\i\\\t\\e two first joints shortest, the ^ixtlr largest including 
the last, which is very small : body elongate-ovate, convex above, 
arched beneath; first segment a little semicircular lamina; the se- 
cond larger than the others; the last semicircular and arched: legs 
sixteen pairs. 

Sp. 1. Glo. marginata. Black; the margins of the segments lutoous 
or orange. 

Oniscus marginatus. Villers, Entom. iv. 187. t. 11./. 15. Glomeris 
horde. Latr. Hist. Nat. des Crust, et des Insect, vii. Q6. Oniscus niar- 
ginatus. OUv. Encycl. Mctli. Hist. Nat. vi. p. 24. Julus oniscoides. 
Tumison's Tracts, y. 151. Stewaifs Elem. Nat. Hist. n. 307. Glome- 
ris marginata. Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, i. 74. Leach, Eclin. En- 
cycl. vii. 407. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 430. 
pL 22. — 2ool. Misc. iii. tab. 132. 

a. 



114 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Inhabits Britain, France, and Germany, under stones; but has gene- 
rally been considered by British naturalists as a variety of Armadillo 
vulgaris. 

Fam. II. JuLiD.i. Leach. 

Body not contractile into a globe : eyes distinct. 

Genus 2. JULUS of authors. 

Body serpentiform, cylindric : antennce with the second joint longer 
than the third : legs a great many. 

The British species of this obscure genus may be found described 
in vol. xi. of the Transactions of the Linnean Society. The follow- 
ing species, which is the most common, will best serve as an exam- 
ple of the genus. 

Sp. 1. Jul. sahulosus. Black-cinereous, with two red dorsal lines; last 
joint mucronated : legs luteous. 

Julus sabulosus of authors. 

Inhabits Europe, lurking beneath stones, especially in sandy places. 

Genus 3. CRASPEDOSOMA. Uach. 
Body linear, depressed ; the sides of the segments laterally prominent : 
antenna towards their extremities somewhat thicker, the second joint 
.shorter than the third^. 

This genus was discovered by the late R. Rawlins, esq. one of the 
most promising naturalists of this country. 

*^ Middle of the segments prominent. 
Sp. 1. Crus. Rauliusii. Back fuscous-brown, with four lines of white 

sj)ots : belly and legs reddish. 
Craspedosoma Raulinsii. Leach, Edin. Encycl.vn. 407-434. — Trans. 

Linn. Soc. xi. 380. — Stipp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 430. pi. 22. — Zool. Misc. iii. 

tab. 134. fg. 1-5. 
Inhabits the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, where it occurs in some 

plenty under stones and amongst moss. It was first noticed by 

Mr. Rawlins. 

** Hinder angles of the segments produced. 

Sp. 2. Cras. polydcsmoidcs. Body reddish gray: belly pale: legs red- 
dish, with their bases pale; produced angles of the body each fur- 
nished with a seta. 

Julus polydesmoides. Montagu's MSS. Craspedosoma polydesmoides. 
Leach, Edin. Encycl. vii. 407-434. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 380. — Supp. 
to Encycl. Brit. i. 430. pi. 22. — Zool. Misc. iii. tab. 134. fg. 6-9. 

Inhabits Devonshire, imder stones. It is common all along the borders 
of Dartmoor, and on the southern coast. It was once taken by 
Dr. Leach in the garden of the British Museum. 



CLASS rr. myriapoda. 115 

Fam. III. PoLYDESMiD.«. Leach. 
Ei/cs obsolete. 

Genus 4. POLYDESMUS. Latr., Dumtr., Leach. 
Antenna with the second joint scarcely longer than the first, and much 
shorter than the third: lodij linear; the segments laterally com- 
pressed, margined : et^es obsolete, 
Sp. 1. Pol.complanatus. Reddish cinereous; last segment of the body 

mucronated. 
Julus complanatus. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 1065, Fair. Ent. St/st. ii. 393. 
Polydesmus complanatus. Lati: Gen. Crust, et Insect, i. 76. Leach, 
Edin. Encycl. \'ii. 408. — Trans. Linn. Soc.\\. 381. — Suppl. to Encycl 
Brit. i. 430. jo/. 22.— Zool. Misp. iii. tab. 135. 
Inhabits Europe, beneath stones. 

Genus 5. POLLYXENUS. Latr., Leach. 
Body elongated, linear, and depressed; the segments on each side with 

small bundles of scales, ending in pencils : feet twelve on each side : 

antennae inserted beneath the head at the interior margin. 
Sp. 1. Pol. Lagurm. Body brown: head black: the pencils of the tail 

white. 
Scolopendra Lagura. Linn., Fabr. Pollyxenus Lagurus. Latr. Gen. 

Crust, et Lisect. i. 77. Leach, Zool. Misc. iii. p. 38. pi. 135, B. Cuv. 

Reg. An. 3. 155. 
Length of the body from 1^ to 2^ lines. 
Inhabits Europe. In Britain it is found in profusion beneath the bark 

of trees. 

Order II. SYNGNATHA. 

Fam. I. ScoLOPENDRAX)^. Leach. 

Body with each segment bearing two legs ; hinder legs distinctly longer 
than the others. 

Stirps 1. — Legs on each side fifteen. 

Genus 6. LITHOBIUS. Leach, Lamarck. 

AntenncE conic-setaceous ; joints (about forty-five) conic-setaceous, the 
two first joints largest : under lip anteriorly broadly notched ; the 
margin very much denticulated : eyes granulated. 

Sp. 1. Lith.forjicatus. Head broad : under lip entirely and deeply co- 
vered with impressed dots : legs testaceous-yellowish, 

Scolopendra forficata. Linn. Syst. Nat. \.\0Q2. Fabr. Ent. Syst. \i. 390. 
Lithobius forficatus. Leach, FjUn. Encycl. vii. 408. — Trans. Linn. 
Soc.y\. 381. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit. i. 431, pi. 22. — Zool. Misc. iii, 
tab. 137. 

Inhabits Europe, beneath stojics, 

a 2 



Ii6 MODERN SYSTEM. 

The other species are described in the eleventh volume of the 
Transactions of the Linnean Society. 

Stirps 2. — Legs on each side twenty-one. 

Genus 7. CRYPTOPS. Leach. 

AntcniKB conic-setaceous, composed of (seventeen) globose-subconic 
joints: under lip not denticulated; anterior margin scarcely emar- 
ginate: hinder legs with the first joint toothless: eyes obscure. 

Sp. 1. Cri/p. ho7-tensis. Testaceous-ferruginous: back deeper in co- 
lour : antennae and legs hairy. 

Scolopendra horteusis. l)onovan''s Brit. Ins. Cryptops hortensis. Leach, 
Edin. Enci/cl. vii. 408. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. — Supp. to Encycl. Brit.i. 
431. pi. 22. — Zool. Misc. hi. tab. 139. 

Inhabits gardens in and near Exeter. It has likewise been found near 
Plymouth in Devonshire. 

Fam. II. Geophilid.?:. Leach. 

Body with each segment bearing two legs : hinder legs not distinctly 
longer than the others : legs many, varying in number in the same 
species. 

Genus 8. GEOPHILUS. Leach. 
Ei/es obscure: {lip divided by a fissure?) mandibles strong: anter.mr 
cylindricin some, towards the apex gradually somewhat narrower iii 
others; composed of (fourteen) subcylindric joints a little narrower 
at their base. 

* Antenna with short joints. 

Sp. 1. Gcoph. carpophagus. Head, antennae, and arms fulvescent : body 
violet, anteriorly yellowish : legs pale yellowish. \'ar. /3. Body ob- 
scurely subviolet-testaeeous, anteriorly sub testaceous. 

Geophilus carpophagus. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 384. — Supp. to 
Encycl. Brit. i. 431. — Zool. Misc. iii. p. 43. 

Inhabits Devonshire, in garden fruit : it is not uncommon. 

Sp. 2. Geoph. subterraneus. Body yellow: head subferruginous. 
Scolojjendra subterranea. Shazv, Trans. Linn. Soc. ii. 7. Geophilus sub- 
terraneus. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 385. — Zool. Misc. iii. p. 44. 
Inhabits the earth. It is very common in England. 

Sp. 3. Geoph. acuminatus. Body ferruginous, anteriorly gradually nar- 
rower ; head anteriorly, and the legs paler. 

Geophilus acuminatus. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 386. — Zool. Misc. iii. 
p. 45. 

Inhabits moss and beneath the ground. It is rare. 



CLASS III. ARACHNOiDA. 



Il7 



** Antenna with elongate joints. 
Sp. 4. Geoph. longicornis. Body yellow: head ferruginous : antennae long;. 
Geophilus longicornis. Leacfi, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 386. — Supp. to En- 

cycl. Brit. i. 481./;/. 22. — Zool. Misc. iii. tab. 110. /. 3-6. 
Inhabits the earth and under stSnes. 
Obs. — Scolopendra ekcirica of Linne belongs to this genus. 



Class III. ARACH X O i DA. 
Arachxoida. Fischer. 
Arachnides. Lamarck, Latreillc, Leach. 

From apa;>;^vij, a spider, and eiSo;, i-escmhlance. A class of anhnals 
formerly arranged with Insects, but tirst shown to be distinct by the 
celebrated Lamarck, and established as such by Latreille, Cuvier, and 
Leach. 

Linnc arranged all of these animals with which he was acquainted 
with apterous insects, under the generic titles, Pualaxgium, Ara>;ea, 
AcARus, and Scorpio; and in this disposition he was followed by Cu- 
vier. 

Lamarck, in his Si/stcme des Animaiiv sans T^-rttbres, has included 
amongst the Arachnoida the Myriapoda, and certain animals which in 
the system proposed by Dr. Leach form a distinct order of insects, 
which will be mentioned hereafter. 

Dumeril, in his Zoo/ogie Anali/tique, has placed the Arachnoida with 
the apterous insects. He arranges the genus: 1. Ixodes Latr. with 
Pkdiculus and Pulex; the other genera he has placed in a peculiar 
family: 2. Aranea; 3. Mygale; 4. Piirykus; 5. Scorpio; 6. Che- 
lifer; 7. Galeodes; 8. Phalangium. 

Lamarck, in his Extrait dii Cours, 4c. has placed the Aruchioida with 
some genuine insects and Mi/riapoda ; but he has formed for them a 
separate Order, which he terms Arachnides palpatio and disposes them 
into the following little groups of Genera. 

I. PYCNOGONIDES. 

Genus 1. Nymphum: 2. Phoxichiltjs: 3. Pycnogokvm. 
II. ACARIDES. 

* Parasitic. < 

a. Six legs. 
Genus 4. Astoma: .5. Leptus: 6. Caris. 

b. Eight legs. 
Genus 7. Uropoda: 8. Argas: P^ Ixodes: 10. Acarus. 



118 



MODEllN SYSTEM- 



** Wanderers. 

a. Land. 

Genus 11. Okibata: 12. Smaris: 13. Ciieyletus: 14. Bdella; 
15. ERYTHRa;us: 16. Trombidium. 

b. Aqiiatk. 

Genus If. Elais : 18. LiMnocharis: 19. Hydrachna. 

III. PHALANGIDES. 

Genus 20. SiRO: 21. Trogulus: 22. Phalanoium: 23. GaLeodes. 

IV. SCORPIONIDES. 

Genus 24. Chelifer: 25. Scorpio: 26. Thelephonus: 27. Piirv- 

NUS. 

V. ARANEIDES. 
Genus 28. Aranea: 29. Mygale. 

Classification. — The following Classification is that lately pub- 
lished in the third volume of the Zoological Miscellany. 

Order I. Polymerosomata. — BoJi/ composed of a series of seg- 
ments : abdomen not pedunculated : mouth furnished with didactyle 
mandibles and with maxillse ; e^/es two, four, six, or eight : legs eight. 

Order II. Dimerosomata. — Bodi/ composed of two segments; the 
abdomen pedunculated: 7)ioicth furnished with mandibles and with 
maxillas : eyes six or eight. 

Order I. POLYMEROSOMATA. Leach. 
Fam. I. Sjromd^. Leach. 

Pa/pi simple. Mandibles didactyle. 

Genus 1. SIRO. Latreille, Leach. 

Mandibles two; two-jointed, cylindric, compressed; their points armed 
witji a forceps: palpi two, five-jointed; joints elongate, the second 
longest : body oval : eyes two, placed one on each side of the thorax 
on an erect peduncle : legs elongate, filiform; tibicB and taisi t^vo- 
jointed, the latter parts terminated by an arcuate claw. 

Sp. 1. Siro rubens. Pale red: legs paler. 

Siro rubens. Latr. Gen. Crust, et Lnsect. i. 143. Leach, Edin. En- 
cycl. vii. 416. — Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 390. — Supp. to Encycl, Brit, i, 
433. j)l. 23. 

Inhabits moss at the roots of trees and in woods. 



CLASS III. AR.VCIINOIDA. 119 



Fam. II. ScoRPioxiD^. Leach. 

Palpi arm-shaped. Mandibles didactyle. Legs alike. 

The animals composing this Family constitute a most natural 
groupe. 

Stirps 1. — Tail none. Et/es two, or four. Pecten none. 

" The ocelli of the animals of this division are placed on the sides 
of the anterior segment of the body or thorax. They want the tail 
and the pectinated processes near the base of the abdomen, by which 
they may very easily be distinguished from those of the second Stirps, 
with which they were formerly arranged by Fabricius under the title 
Scorpio. Two species only were known to Linne, who referred them 
to his artificial genus Phalangium. The greater number of the spe- 
cies live beneath the bark of decaying trees or under stones ; but one 
at least is parasitical, and attaches itself to the legs of flies." Leach'i 
Z'ool. Misc. vol. iii. Those genera of the second Stirps include the 
Scorpion, &c. 

Genus 2. OBISIUM. IlUger, Leach. 
Bodi/ cylindric : thorax composed of one segment : mandibles porrect 

eyes four. 
Sp. 1. Obi. trombidioides. Second joint of the arms elongate : fingers 

long and straight. 
Inhabits France and England, under stones. 

A valuable Monograph has been published on the British species 
of this and the following genus in the third volume of the Zoological 
Miscellany, and is illustrated with very accurafe figures of the whole. 

Genus 3. CHELIFER. Geoff., Leach. 
Thorax composed of three parts: mandibles short : eyes two. 

Sp. 1. Ch. fasciatus. Hands oval; segments of the abdomen bordered 

with whitish. 
Chelifer fasciatus. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. 
Inhabits beneath the bark of willow and other trees. 

Obs. — Of the second stirps there are no British genera. 

Order II. DIMEROSOMATA. Leach. 

Fam. I. Phalangice. Leach. 

Eyes two : anus simple. 

Genur, 4. PHALANGIUM of authors. 
Eyes placed in a common peduncle : mandibles corneous, subcylindric, 
compressed, biarticulate, inflexed or gcniculated at the second joint, 



120 MOLlERN SYSTEM, 

the apex of which bears a forceps wiih equal fingers : pnlpi formed 
hke legs, terminated by a hook: bodi/ more or less oval. Second 
pah- of legs almost six times the length of the body : tarsi all capil- 
lary, very slender, the first joints elongate, four times (or more) 
longer tlian broad. 

Sp. 1. Pi'i. Opllio. Lull-. — Male, Phalangium cornutum. Linn., Fahr. 
Female, Phalangium Opilio. Linn., Fabr. 

Inhabits Europe on walls and rocks. 

Genus 5. OPILIO. Leach. 

Ei/es placed on a common peduncle : viancHblcs corneous, subcylindric, 
compressed, biarticulate, inflexed or geniculated at the second joint, 
the apex of which has a forceps with equal fingers : palpi formed 
like legs, terminated by a hook : body more or less oval. Second pair 
of legs three or four times the length of the body, the fourth and fol- 
lowing joints a little elongate, twice as long as broad. 

Sp. 1. Op. Histrix. 

Inhabits France and England. 

Fam. II. Arakead.e. Leach. 

Araneides. LatreiUe. 

Eyes six or eight: anus with nipples for spinning. 

The animals composing this most natural family are familiarly 
denominated Spiders, and, as before obsened, were inchided by 
Linne, Fabrlcius, and other authors in one genus, which they called 
Aranea; but as the species are very numerous, they were obliged to 
divide them into sections, which they distinguished by the situa- 
tions of their eyes. These organs are immoveable, and consist each 
of a single lens, v,'hich deprives them of the faculty of seeing in 
every direction. 

"The Aranead.e are by far tlic most Interesting animals of that 
class of which they form the type ; and consequently their habits 
and structure excited the attention of naturalists at a very early pe- 
rio<l. Spiders frequently change their skins, and their skins are often 
found in their webs, being dry and transparent, with their mandibles 
attached to them. When about to cast their covering, they suspend 
tliemselves in some corner, and creep out of a fissure which takes 
place on their back, gradually withdrawing their legs from the skin, 
as if from a glove. They have likewise the power of reproducing 
their legs : the mode in which this tal^es place was first made known 
by that accurate observer of nature, Sir Joseph Banks." 

'^ As he was writing one evening in his study, one of the web- 
spinniiig spiders, of more than the middle size, passed over some 
papers on the table, holding a tly in its mouth. Much surprised to 
see a spider of this description walking about with its prey, and 



CLASS III. AnACilNo'lPA. 121 

being struck with somewhat unusual in its gait, he caught it, and 
placed it within a glass for examination, when, instead of eight, ho 
perceived it had but three legs, which accounted for the inability of 
the creature to spin its web; but the curious circumstance of its 
having changed its usual ccononiv, and having become a hunting 
instead of a spinning spider, as well as a wish to learn whether its 
legs would be renewed, induced him to keep the animal in the glass, 
from whence it co'.dd not escape, and to observe its conduct. 

" On the following morning the animal ate two flies given to it, 
hy sucking out the juices, but left the carcases entire. Two or three 
days afterwards it devoured the body and head of a fly, leaving only 
the wings and legs. After this time it sometimes sucked and some- 
times ate the fly given to it. At first it consumed two flies in a day, 
but afterwards not more than one in two days. Its excrement, which 
it voided, was at first of a milky-white colour, but afterwards the 
white had a black spot in the centre, of a more solid appearance than 
the surrounding fluid. 

" Soon after its confinement it attempted to form a web on the 
side of the vessel, but performed the business very slowly and clum- 
sily, from the want of the proper number of legs. In about a fort- 
night it had completed a small web, upon which it generally sat. 

" A month after having been caught, it shed its skin, leaving the 
slough on the web. After this change five new legs appeared, not 
half as long as the other three legs, and of very little use to the ani- 
mal in walking. These new members, however, extended themselves 
a little in three days, and became half as long as the old ones. The 
web was now increased, and the animal continued immoveably sit- 
ting on it in the day time, unless drawn from it, or attracted by a 
fly thrown to it as its usual provision. 

" Twenty-nine days afterwards it again lost its skin, leaving the 
slough hanging in tb.e web, opposite to a hollow cell it had woven, 
so as to prevent it from being completely seen when lodged in it. 
The legs were now larger than before the change of skin, and they 
grew somev;hat longer still in three or four days, but did not attain 
the size of the old legs. 

" The animal now increased its web, and being put into a small 
bowl as a more commodious residence, soon renewed a better web 
than the first. In this state it was left on the first of November. 
No further observations have yet been made on the subject.'' 

" The principal use of the Araneadie, in the economy of nature, 
seems to be that of preventing the too great increase of insects." 

Stirps 1. — Legs simple, hinder eyes not placed on the anterior and su- 
perior part of the thorax, nor forming an irregular hexagon. The 
two ertcrlor nipples of the anus longer than the others, and project- 



122 MODERN SYSTEM. 

ing. Lip not advancing between the maxillfe nor prominent, but as 
long as broad. 

* Eyes eight. Mandibles projecting. 

Genus 6. ATYPUS. Latr., Leach. Oleteua. Walckcnaer. 

Eyes on each side geminated : lip very small and quadrate, inserted 
under the base of the maxillae : j)alpi inserted at the external base of 
the maxillae, which are dilated at that part. 

Sp. 1. Ati/. Salzeri. Black and shining : mandibles very long and 
strong : thorax nearly quadrate ; plain behind, abruptly elevated be- 
fore : the two middle eyes placed on an eminence : back of the ab- 
domen coriaceous and more shining : joints of the legs shining. 

Oletere difforme. Walck. Tab. des Aran. 7. Atypus Sulzer. Latr., 
Leach. 

Inhabits France and England. In the latter country it was discovered 
by Dr. Leach near Exeter, and it has twice occurred near London. 

** Mandibles perpendicular. Ei/es six. 
Genus 7. SEGESTRIA. Laircille, Walckender, Leach. 

Maxilla straight, longitudinal, with the base thickened, dilated exter- 
nally, somewhat wedge-shaped, the middle longitudinally convex : 
Lip elongate-quadrate, longer than broad, the middle longitudinally 
convex or subcarinated : legs, the first pair longest, rest in propor- 
tion, the second, then the fourth, the third pair being shortest : 
eyes placed in a transverse line, the extremities somewhat recurved. 

Sp. 1. Seg. senoculata. Thorax blackish-brown : abdomen oblong, gri- 
seous, with a longitvidinal band of blackish spots : legs pale brown 
with obscure bands. 

Aranea senoculata. Fabr. Segestria senoculata. Walck., Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits rocks and old buildings. It is common in France, near Paris, 
and in England it is not rare. 

Genus 8. DYSDERA, Latreitle, Walckender, Leach. 

Maxilla straight, longitudinal, with the base thickened and externally 
dilated at the insertion of the palpi : the apex internally obliquely 
truncated, and thence externally acutely terminated : palpi with the 
first joint short and nearly obsolete : lip elongate, quadrate, gradu- 
ally narrowing towards its point : eyes forming the figure of a horse- 
shoe, the open part in front : legs with the first, then the fourth, 
then the second pair longest, the third shortest : chnvs with a little 
brush beneath. 

Sp. 1. Dys. erythrina. Mandibles and thorax sanguineous : legs lightly 
coloured : abdomen soft, grayish yellow and silky. 

Aranea erythrina. Fourcroy Fn. Paris, ii. 22 i. Dysdera erythrina. 
Latr., Walck., Leach. 



CLASS lir. ARACHNoiDA. 123 

Inhabits the south of France, and England, beneath stones. It is 
rare in this country, but has been taken in Devonshire, near Ply- 
mouth and Exeter, and near London. 

*** Mandibles perpe)idicular. E^es eight. 

Genus 9. DRASSUS. Wulck., Latr., Leach. Gnaphosa. Lutr. 

Palpi inserted under the lateral and external margin of the maxills 
towards their middle : maxilla: longitudinal, arcuated, gradually be- 
coming broader from the base towards the middle, somewhat con- 
cave internally, smooth externally, their middle impressed, the 
points bent inwards above the lip, and obliquely truncated within : 
lip elongate, ovate-quadrate, or rather oval; the base transversely 
truncated, inclosing the maxilla : legs with the first, and afterwa-rds 
the second pair longest. 

* Lip somewhat oval ; the external side of the maxillae much lent 
and arched. 

Sp. 1. Dras.nielanogaster. Mandibles blackish : thorax and legs obscure 
brown : thighs light reddish-brown : abdomen cinereous-brown and 
silky. 

Drassus melanogaster. Latr., Leach. Drassus lucifuge. Walck. 

Inhabits France and England, under stones. 

** Lip ovate quadrate. 

8p. 2. Dras. ata\ Entirely black. 

Drassus ater. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits the vicinity of Paris, and near London, under stones. 

Genus 10. CLUBIONA. Latr., Walck., Leach. 

Maxillte straight and longitudinal : the basis a little dilated externally : 
the apex rounded and obliquely truncated on the inside : lip elon- 
gate, quadrate, gradually narrowing towards the point: legs, the 
first or the fourth pair longer than the second pair. 

* The two outermost eyes on cither side neither placed very close to- 
gether, nor inserted on a distinct prominence. (The maxillte. in all 
with an inc?'assated haSB ; the fourth pair of feet (rarely the first) 
longest.) 

Sp. 1. Clu. lapidicola. Thorax and mandibles pale reddish: feet very 

light red : abdomen ash-grey coloured. 
Inhabits France and England under stones, constructing a globular 

cell of the size of a common hazel nut, in the centre of which are 

deposited a vast number of pale yellowish eggs agglutinated into a 

spherical mass. 



124 modi:riN sYsitM. 

The mandibles of the male are porrecl, and rather more than 
halt" the length of the thorax; those of the female rather vertical. 

** The two external ei/es on each side placed rathe}- close to each 
other. (Maxi/lrB not always thickened at their base; the Jirst and 
j^ then the second pair of' legs longest.) 

A. Maxilla somewhat thickened at their base, and transversely im- 

pressed before the middle. 

Sp. 2. Clu. Nutrix. Ungula; black: thorax and mandibles light red: 
legs very light red : abdomen yellowish green, with an obscure lon- 
gitudinal band. 

It has once occurred in England, near Cheltenham. 

B. Maxilla not thickened at their base ; front not transvcrseJij im- 

pressed. 

Sp. 3. Clu. atrox. Brown : legs pale: tibi;c with dark spots: middle of 
the back of the abdomen with a somewhat quadrate black spot, 
margined with yellow. 

Inhabits old walls and the fissures of rocks. It is very common in 
Britain and France. 

Genus 11. ARANEA of cmthors. Tf.generia. Walck. 

Maxilla straight and longitudinal, with their internal angle distinctly 
truncate, diameter equal, apex rounded : lip elongate, nearly qua- 
drate, longer than broad, towards the superior angles a little nar- 
rower : legs, the anterior pair about the same length with the fourth 
pair; third pair shortest: eyes disposed in two transverse lines near 
each other, and bent backwards. 

Sp. 1. Ar. domestica. Livid-cinereous ; thorax of the male immaculate ; 
of the J'cniale, on each side with a longitudinal blackish band : abdo- 
men blackish, middle of its back with a longitudinal, maculose, 
dentated band, and the lateral lineolae livid. 

Aranca domestica. Linn., Fubr., Latr., Leach. Tcgencria domestica. 
Walck. 

Inhabits houses in Europe; spinning its web in a place where there is 
a cavity, such as the corner of a room. The mode of constructing 
the web is curious. Having chosen a convenient situation, she fixes 
one end of the thread to the wall, and passes on to the other side, 
dragging the thread along with her, till she arrive at the other side, 
where she fixes the other end of it. Thus she passes and repasses 
rnilii she has made as many parallel threads as are necessary ; she 
then crosses these by other threads. This net is intended for the 
capture of her prey ; and, in addition to it, the animal prepares a 
cell for herself, where she remains concealed, and on the watch. Be- 
tween the cell and the net the spider builds a bridge of threads, which, 



CLASS III. ARACIINOiOA. 125 

by communicating with the threads of the hirge net, both gives her 
intelHgcnce -when any thing touches the web, and enables her to pass 
quickly in order to seize it. 

Genus 12. AGELENA. Wakkenlier, Leach. 

Ma.vtlla straight and longitudinal, their internal angle slightly trun- 
cate ; diameters equal, apex roiuided : lip not longer than broad, to- 
wards the superior angle a little narrower : legs moderately lung, the 
anterior and fourth pairs of nearly equal length, the third pair 
shortest : ej/es disposed in two transverse lines near to each other, 
and bent backwards. 

Sp. 1. Ag. labi/riiitlticu. Griscous pale-reddish: thorax on each side 
with a blackish longitudinal line : abdomen black, above and on 
each side with white oblique lines forming obtuse angles, running 
together anteriorly in pairs ; the weaving appendices or nipples 
conic, elongate. 

Inhabits the fields. It is very common in most parts of Europe during 
the summer months. In Britain it is most abundant in the au- 
tumn. It spins a horizontal web on the ground, in which it watches 
for its prey, consisting of tlies and other dipterous insects. The 
spider itself lives in a funnel-shaped cavity, often extending below 
the surface of the ground. 

Genus 13. ARGYRONETA. Latreilie, Wukkenutr, Leach. 

Max'Ulos short, straight, elongate quadrate, the sides of nearly equal 
diameters ; anteriorly convex ; the apex rounded : lip short, shorter 
than the maxillae; of a narrow elongate-triangular ibrm ; the ante- 
rior aspect convex; the apex obtuse or truncate : legs, the first, the 
fourth pair longest; the second pair shortest: eyes with tlie four 
middle ones forming a quadrangle, the two on each side set obliquely 
and subgeminated. 

Sp. 1. Arg. aquatica. Blackish-brown: abdomen black velvety, with 
some impressed dots on its back. 

Aranea aquatica. Linn., Fabr. Argyroneta aquatica, Latr., Watch., 
Leach. 

Inhabits Europe, frequenting slow running waters and ditches, span- 
ning a web most beautifully constructed imder the water, in which 
it lives, being surrounded with air, which shines through the water 
with a silvery lustre. The eggs are deposited in a globose silky 
bag. It is extremely common in most of the ditches round Lon- 
don, and may be observed, especially in the beginning of the sum- 
mer, building its nest beneath the water, or ruiming along the Ihies 
by which it is suspended. 

Stirps 2. — Legs sim]de: hinder eyes not placed on the anterior and 
superior of the thorax, nor forming an irregular hexagon : nipples 



126 MODERN SYSTEM. 

of the anus short and nearly equal, of a conic form : lip nearly se- 
micircular, broader than long, and projecting between the maxilla.- : 
{eyes eight.) 

* Eyes not describing the segment of a circle. Maxilla straight- 
ened towards their extreynilies, but not dilated. 

Genus 14. SYCTODES. Latreille, Walckenner, Leach. 

Maxilla oblique and longitudinal, covering the sides of the lip ; their 
bases thickened, the apex internally obliquely truncated : lip some- 
what quadrate, the base a little contracted : legs with the fourth, 
then the first pair longest; the third pair shortest. 

Sp. 1. Si/c. thoracica. Pale reddish-white, spotted with black : thorax 
large and somewhat orbicular, elevated roundly behind : abdomen 
lighter in colour, and subglobose. 

Inhabits Paris, in houses. It has twice occurred near Dover, but both 
the individuals were females. 

Genus 1.5. TIIERIDIUIM. Walcliemcr, Latreille, Leach. 

Maxilltc with an oblique direction covering the sides of the lip, con^ 
verging towards their points; of equal breadth ; the internal apex 
obtuse, or obliquely truncated : lip small, triangular, or semicircu- 
lar; the apex truncate or subrounded : legs elongate, the first, then 
the fourth pair longest ; eyes with four in the centre, forming a qua- 
drangle, the under ones placed on a common elevation; two others 
on each side geminated, and situated on a common elevation. 

Sp. 1, Th. sisiphum. Rufous : abdomen globose, with three lines. 

Theridium sisiphum. Leach. 

Inhabits Europe, in the corners of buildings, walls, and rocks. Lt is 
Jigured by Lister, t. 14:. fig. 14. 

Genus 16. PHOLCUS. Walckenaer, Latreille, Leach, 

Maxilla oblique, covering the sides of the lip, converging from the 
base to the apex : apex internally trimcated : lip transversely qua- 
drate ; the lateral angles of tlie apex rounded and somewhat mar- 
gined: Zegs very long and very slender ; the first, then the second 
and fourth (nearly equal) the longest : eyes inserted on a tubercle ; 
two geminated and placed transversely in the middle; three on each 
side amassed in a triangle, one larger than the rest. 

Sp. 1. Ph. plialangi'uides. Pale-livid : abdomen elongate, cylindric-oval, 
very soft, obscure cinereous : tip of the tibiae and thighs with a pale 
ring of a whitish colour. 

Pholcus phalangiiiides. Walck., Latr., Leach. Aranea Pluchii. Scopol. 
Aranea opilionides. Schrank. Aranea phalangioides. Foitrcroy. 

Inhabits houses in Europe ; in the western parts of England it is ex- 
tremely common. Its body vibrates like that of a tipulideous in^ 

fiCCt. 



CLASS iir. ARACUNo'inA. 1*27 

** F^i^cs not describing the segment of a circle. Maxilla straight, 
with their points dilated. 

Genus 17. TETRAGNATIIA. Latreille, Leach. 

Eyes subequal; disposed in two straight and almost parallel transverse 
lines, the four middle ones forming nearly a regular quadrangle : 
maxillce straight, elongate and narrow, almost equally broad ; the 
apex externally dilated and round : lip semicircillar and somewhat 
notched: legs very long and very slender; the first pair longest, then 
the second, afterwards the fourth. 

Sp. 1. Tct. exlcnsa. Reddish; abdomen oblong, golden green, with 
the sides and two lines below yellowish; the middle below longitu- 
dinally black. 

Aranea extensa. Linn., Fahr. Tetragnatha extensa, Latr., Walck., Leach. 

Inhabits Europe; frequenting moist places, in which it constructs a 
vertical web, sitting on it with its legs extended. 

Genus 18. EPEIRA. Wulckenucr, Latreille, Leach. 

Latreille has divided this genus into sections, most of which would 
form good genera. 

Ei/es with the four middle ones placed on an abruptly formed tubercle 
in the form of a quadrangle, the two anterior ones largest and most 
distant; the lateral eyes on each side subgeminated and placed ob- 
liquely on a tubercle: maxillce subcircular, internally membrana- 
ceous: /«/; semicircular; short, with the point membranaceous : legs 
moderately long, hispid, the thighs rather strong; the first pair 
largest, then the second, afterwards the fourth pair : thorax inversely 
elongate subcordate, anteriorly broadly truncated : abdomen subglo- 
bose, large, much broader than the thorax. 

Sp. 1. Ep.Diadcma. Reddish; abdomen globose-oval, with an elevated 
angle on each side of its base; dorsal band broad, triangular, den- 
tated, darker, with a triple cross of luteous white dots or spots, and 
with four impressed dots disposed in a quadrangle. 

Aranea Diadenia. Lifin. Araignee a croix. De Geer. Epeira Dia- 
dema. Walck., Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits Europe. It frequents the borders of woods, rocks, and gar- 
dens, and is well known in Britain by the names Sceptre or Diadem 
Spider. 

*** Ej/es describing the segment of a circle. 

Genus 19. THDMISUS. Walck., Latr., Leach. Heteropoda, 

iMtf'. MisuMENA. Latr. 

Ei/es generally subequal, placed in two transverse lines in a kind of 

semicircle: maxilla oblique, covering the side of the lip and in some 

tiegicc converging; the internal apex truncate : lip somewhat oval 



l^S IMODERN SYSTEM. 

or nearly quadrate, generally longer than broad : legx, the first and 
second pair longest: the second rather longest; the third and fourth 
pair of legs much less, sometimes one being largest, sometimes the 
other. 

The mandibles of the animals composing this genus are cither per- 
pendicular or somewhat iufiexed ; in many conical with many short 
claws. 

* Thorax convex, cortji form; the aide n, especially behind, ahrupllif 
sloping, anteriorly broad/i/ truncate; the largest legs not double the 
length of the body; the first and second pair much thicker than the 
others, sometimes one sometimes the other being longest. The first joint 
of the torsi, with several moveable little spines, in a single or in a double 
series; the claws of' the tarsi naked. Lip so)newhat ova!, the apex 
truncate or obtuse. Apex of the maxilla wedge-shaped. 

Sp. 1. Tho. citreus. Thorax at the insertion of the eyes transversely 
elevated; the sides anteriorly produced and prominent: eyes equal: 
abdomen roundish, trigonal, broader behind, with a red line on each 
side: body yellowish citron-coloured. 

Inhabits Europe, living in flowers. It is very common in Britain. The 
male is rare, smaller than the female; of a brown colour banded 
with yellowish green. 

** Thorax convex, cordiform ; the sides, especially behind, abruptly 
sloping, the anterior part broadly truncated; the lai-ger legs not twice 
the length (f the body, all of ne(rrly an equal degree of thickness ; the 
hinder Jour not much shorter; the. anterior with four little spines : the 
clazos if all the tarsi scarcely visible. Lips somewhat oval : the apex 
truncate or obtuse. MaxilUc at their points wedge-shaped. 

Sp. 2. Tho. lynceus. Lateral eyes largest, placed on an eminence, the 
tubercles of the hinder ones thickest : body pale yellowish-grey, 
variegated with punctures and spots of a blackish colour : abdomen 
very large, of a triangular-oval form, broader behind. 

Inhabits France and .Scotland. Latreille considers it to be much allied 
to Thomisus onustus of Walckeniier. 

*** Thorax depressed, somezchat oval, very obtuse before ; the larger 
legs not twice the length of the body ; all the legs of equal thickness : 
the tarsi hairy beneath, the first joint with a few little spines: the apex 
with two brushes under the dazes : abdomen oblong : the maxillce beyond 
the insertion of the palpi, nearly of equal breadth, distinctly and abruptly 
truncated: lip somewhat quadrate: hinder eyes distant. 

Sp, 3. Tho. oblongus. Pale-yellowish, with white hairs above: abdo- 
men somewhat cyliudrical, with obscure longitudinal lines. 
Inhabits France, Denmark, and England, on p!anis. 



CLASS Iir. ARACIINOIDA. 129 

Stirps 3. — Legs not formed for leaping. Hindei' eyes placed on the 
anterior and superior part of the thorax, forming an irregular hex- 
agon, {llinckr pair of legs longest.) 

Genus 20. LYCOSA. Latreille, Walckenaer, Leach. 

Mnxillte straight, anteriorly convex ; externally towards the side some- 
what arcuated; internally slightly margined, gradually narrowing 
towards the hase; the apex obliquely truncated, forming almost an 
inverted triangle: Up elongate, quadrate: legs strong, the fourth 
pair longest, then the second; the third shortest. 

Sp. 1. Lye. succata. Above smoky-black clouded with cinereous vil- 
losity ; carina of the thorax obscure, reddish, with a cinereous vil- 
lous line ; base of the abdomen with a little bundle of griseous hairs : 
legs livid-red, with blackish spots. 

Inhabits Europe. It is very common in Britain: the female may be 
observed in gardens carrying her bag of eggs, of a green colour : 
palpi, mandibles, and anterior margin of the thorax livid-red in the 
female, black in the male. 

Genus 21. DOLO^MEDES. Latreille, Walckenaer, Leach. 

JJfl.ivY/^e straight, oval-quadrate; the apex externally rounded, inter- 
nally obliquely truncated: lip somewhat square, the diameters 
nearly equal, the points of the angles rounded: legs elongate; the 
fourth pair longest, then the second ; the third shortest : claws ex- 
serted, without brushes below. 

Sp. 1. Dol. nnrahilis. Pale reddish, covered with greyish down: tho- 
rax heart-shaped, anteriorly abruptly sloping : the anterior angles 
and dorsal line whitish : abdomen conical, suboval : back darker. 

Aranea saccata. Linn. Dolomedes mirabilis. Wulck., Latr., Leach. 
Aranea Listeri. Scopoli. Aranea obscura. Fair. 

Inhabits woods. 

Stirps 4. —ifjgs formed for leaping: (Eyes eight. T/^ora.r never carinatcd.) 

Geims 22. SALTICUS. Latr., Leach. Attus. Wakk. 

MaxillcB straight, longitudinal, subrhomboidal, or inverse-cuneate- 
ovate : lip elongate, suboval, the apex obtuse : palpi clavate : thorax 
truncate-ovate or parallelogrammic : eyes disposed in the form of a 
horse-slioe, the tAvo middle ones largest : /egs thick and short ; the 
first pair thickest and not longer than the fourth pair; the second 
and the third pairs of nearly an equal length, and shorter than the 
t\vo other pairs. 

Sp. 1. Sal. sceniciis. Black; margin of the thorax covered with white 
down : abdomen short ovate ; above with a reddish-gray pubescence, 
with three transverse arcuate lines, and the anus white ; the first 
band basal and entire, the others acutely bent anteriorly, and inter- 
rupted in their middle. 



130 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Aranea scenica. Linn., Fair. Atte pare. Walck. Salticus scenicus. 

Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits walls and palings. It is found in most parts of" Europe, and is 

called in Britain the Hunting Spider. 

Genus 2.3. ATTUS. Walck., Leach's Svpp. to Encycl. Brit. Sal- 
ticus. Latr., Leach's Edin. Enctjcl. vol. vii. 

MaxilltE straight, longitudinal, sul)rhomboidal or inversely cuneate- 
ovate: /«/; elongate, suboval, with the apex obtuse: /)«//>« filiform : 
thora.v elongate, narrow, subconic : eyes disposed in the form of a 
horsc-shoe; the two middle ejes largest: legs slender, elongate, the 
first pair thickest and not longer than the fourth pair; the second 
and Uiird pairs of nearly an equal length and shorter than the other 
pairs. 

S]>. 1. Att.formicariiis. Thorax anteriorly black, behind red : abdomen 
fuscous, with a white spot on each side: legs red. 

Attus formicarius. Walck. Salticus formicarius. Lair., Leach. Arai- 
gnce fourmi. De Geer. 

Inhabits Europe, residing on pla;nts and walls. It is very rare in Scot- 
land, and has not been observed in England. 



Class IV. A CARL Leach's MSS. 

In the Supplement to Encycl. Brit. vol. i. the animals of this Class 
were arranged with the Arachnoida and formed the Order Monomero- 
somata. Since that paper was written, Dr. Leach has, from a further 
investigation of their characters, separated them from the Arachnoida 
(in which they differ essentially), and considers them as a distinct 
class ; they are for the most part parasitic, living on the bodies of 
other animals: to the lovers of the microscope these animals will af- 
ford an extensive field for their research and investigation; they are 
very numerous, highly interesting, and as yet but imperfectly known. 

Character. — Body formed but of one segment: month rostriform, 
or in some furnished with maxillae and mandibles : legs six or eight : 
trachem for respiration. 

Section I. — Legs formed for tcalking. 
A. Mouth with mandibles. 
Fam. I. Trombidiads;. Leach. 

Falpi porrect, and furnished at their extremities with a moveable ap- 
pendage. Eyes two, placed on a pillar. Body apparently divided 
into two parts by a transverse line; the anterior division bearing th« 
eyes, mouth, and four anterior legs. 



CLASS IV. ACART. 131 

Genus 1. TROMBIDIUM. Fahr., Lulr., Lcac/i. 
Legs eight. 
Sp. 1. Trom. holoscrkcum. Subquadrate, l)Iooil-rccl, tomentose; the 

down short composed of cylindric papillae, which arc rounded at 

their extremities. 
Tronibidium holosericeum. Fahr., Latr. » 

Inhabits Europe, and is abundant in the spring. 

Genus 2. OCYPETE. Leach. 
Legs six. 
Sp. 1. Ocj/. rubra. Red; back with a few long hairs, the legs with 

many short hairs of a rufous ash-colour ; eyes black brown. 
Ocypete rubra. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 

This curious little animal, which is not larger than a grain of 
small sand, is parasitic, and is frequently to be found on the largest 
tipuladous insects, adhering to their legs. No less than sixteen 
specimens have been obtained from one insect. 

Earn. II. Gammasid.^. Leach. 
Palpi porrect, simple. 

Genus 3. GAMMASUS. Latreilk, Leach. 
Bodtj depressed, the skin of the back partly or entirely coriaceous. 

* Anterior portion of the hack, and a triangular part behind, cori- 
aceous. 
Sp. 1. Gamm. Coleoptratorum. Coriaceous parts of the back fuscous ; 

anterior pair of legs a little longer than the hinder ones. 
Gammase des Coleopteres. Latr. Hist. Nat. des Crust, ct dcs Insect. 
vii. 399. Gammasus Coleoptratorum. Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, i. 
147. Leach. Acarus Coleoptratorum. Linn., Fabr. 
Inhabits the excrements of horses and oxen, often attaching itself to 
Scai-abai, Histeres, &c. in great numbers. 

"** Back entirely coriaceous. 
Sp. 2. Gamm. marginatus. Ovate, brown ; belly coriaceous, the sides 
alone membranaceous and whitish ; anterior legs nearly twice the 
length of the body. 
Inhabits dung and dead animals. 

Fam. III. AcAEiDiE. Leach. 
Moidh furnished with mandibles : palpi simple, very short, not por- 
rected. 

Genus 4. ORIBITA. Latreille, Leach. 
Bodi/ covered by a coriaceous skin ; anterior part rostrated ; the pro- 
duced part inclosing the organs of mastication : abdomen subglo- 
bose : tarsi with claws. 
Sp. 1. Or. geniculata. Fuscous-castaneous, shining, hairy : legs pale- 
fuscous ; thighs subclavate. 



132 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Acarus geniculatus. Linn. 

Inhabits trees and beneath stones. It is common in Sweden, Ger- 
many, and England. 

Genus 5. NOTASPIS. Hermann. 

Body covered by a coriaceous skin, the anterior part rostrated, the pro- 
duced part inclosing the organs of mastication : abdomen subglobose, 
the sides anteriorly with a wing-like process : tarsi with claws. 

Sp. 1. Not. humeralis. Abdomen blackish-chcsnut; the produced parts 
membranaceous. 

Mitte a rebord. De Gcer. Oribita humeralis. Lutr., Leach. 

Inhabits moss and beneath stones. It is not uncommon in the southern 
parts of Devonshire. 

Genus 6. ACARUS of authors. 

Body soft : mouth naked : tarsi with a pedunculated vesicle at their ex- 
tremities. 

Sp. 1. Aca. domesticus. White, with two bro^vn spots; body ovate, the 
middle coarctate, with very long hairs : legs equal. 

Acarus Siro. Linn., Fabr., Leach Edin. Enci/cl. vii. 415. Acarus do- 
mesticus. Latr., Leach Supp. to Enci/cl. Brit. i. 444. 

Inhabits houses, living in cheese and flour that have been kept too 
long. 

B. Mouth furnished with a rostrum. 

Fam. IV. IxoDiAD.£. Leach. 

Eyes obscure or concealed. 

Stirps. 1. — Palpi and rostrum exserted. 

Genus 7. IXODES. Latreilk, Leach. Cynorh(EStes. Hermann. 

Palpi equally broad, longer than broad. 

Sp. 1. Xr. Ricinus. Scutum rounded, smaller; with the vagina of the 
rostrum and the legs fuscous : abdomen varying in colour. 

Acarus Ricinus. Linn., Fabr. Ixodes Ricinus. Lutr., Leach. 

Inhabits Europe, attaching itself to dogs. In Britain it is called the,; 
Dog-tick. 

Dr. Leach has written a paper on the British species of this ge- 
nus, which is published in the eleventh volume of the Transactions 
of the Linnean Society. 

Stirps 2. — Palpi and rosfnan hidden. 

Genus 8. UROPODA. Latreilk, Leach. 
Body oval, orbiculate : back corneous, clypeiform, the disc being gra- 
dually convex ; beneath flat ; anus produced into a long filiform pe- 
duncle (by which it adheres to coleopterous insects) : legs very short, 
pressed close to the body, the first pair shortest, the second pah 
rather longer, the third distinctly longer, the fourth pair longest 



CLASS IV. ACARI. 133 

Sp. 1. TJi'o. vegetans. Brown, very smooth, shining. 
Mitte vegetative. Be Gcer., vii. 123.pl. 7. Jig. 15. 
Uropoda vegetans. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits France and England, attaching itself to the legs, abdomen, 
and elytra of Hhteres, Aphodii, &c. by its pedunculated anus. 

Fam. V. Cheyletidx. Leach. 
Ej/es distinct : palpi concealed. 
Stirps 1. — Palpi distinct. 

Genus 9. SARCOPTES. Latreille, Leach. 

Sp. 1. Scir. Scabiei. Subrotundate ; legs short, reddish; four hinder 
ones, with a very long seta : the plants of the four anterior ones 
terminated by a swelling. 

Mitte de la Gale. De Geer. Acarus Scabiei. Fabr. Le Ciron de la 
Gale. Geoff. Sarcopte de la Gale. Latr. Hist. Nat. des Crust, et des 
Insect, viii. 55. et vii. pi. 66. Sarcoptes Scabiei. Latr., LeacL 

Inhabits the ulcers of the itch. Acarus exulcerans of Linni, is pro- 
bably this animal, or is at least referable to the same genus. 

Section II. — Legs formed for swimming. 

Fam. Hydrachnad-e. 
Mouth with mandibles. 

Genus 10. HYDRACHXA. Mull., Oliv., Latr., Leach. 
Palpi subcylindric, porrect, arcuate inflexed, four-jointed, the last acute 

unguiform : mouth produced into a conic rostrum : body globose : 

legs fimbriated with hairs, and situated at equal distances from each 

other. 
Sp. 1. Hif. geegraphica. Black, with coccineous spots and dots. 
Ilydrachna geographica. Mull. Hi/dr. 59. tab. 8. Jig. 3-5. Latr., 

Leach. 
Inhabits waters that flow gently. It is a most beautiful animal, and 

is very common near London. 

Genus 11. LliMNOCHARES. Latr., T^ach. 

Palpi incurved, the apex acute simple : 7}iouth with a very short ro- 
strum : bodi/ depressed : legs short, the four hinder ones remote : 
ei/es two. 

Sp. 1. Lim. holosericea. Body ovate, red, rugose, soft; eyes black. 

Acarus aquaticus. Linn. La Tique rouge satinee aquatique. Geoff. 
ISIitte satinee aquatique. De Geer. Trombidium aquaticum. Fabr. 
Linonochares holosericea. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits Europe. It is very common in most of our ponds during the 
summer months. It varies much in colour, but is generally found 
of a bright red or greyish-red colour, and of all the intermedia,te 
varieties of shape. 



134 MODERN SYSTEM. 



Class V. INSECT A. 



History. — Insecta, so named from in (into) and seco (to cut). This 
term was applied to these animals hy the Latins; by the Greeks they 
were named Entoma {svtO[LoC), from Jv, into, and fsiMW, to cut. In- 
sects were so named, because their bodies are composed of many 
joints or segments ; on which account several of the ancient and older 
naturalists placed them with the classes Crustacea, Mi/riupodu, Arach- 
noida, and Vermes. 

The oldest records on this subject are to be found in the sacred 
writings, where mention is made of locusts, flies, and caterpillars ; and 
it is probable that INIoses had acquired some knowledge of insects 
from the Egyptian sages, as his writings abound with passages relating 
to insects. 

Hippocrates, as we are told by Pliny, Avrote on insects; and the 
writings of the earlier Greek and Latin philosophers, quoted by Pliny, 
afford extracts of his labours. 

Aristotle, in his Historij of Animals, has devoted a very considerable 
portion of his attention to insects, and has described their general 
external structure with great accuracy. 

Aldrovandus, in 160'2, published a very voluminous work, De Ani- 
vialibus Insectis, in which he divides insects into Terrestrial and Aqua- 
tic. 

In 1613, Wolfgang Frantzius ^\\bYii\iGA Historia Animalium Sacra, 
which contains some new observations, and a distribution of insects 
into Aerial, Aquatic, and Terrestrial. 

Swammerdam, who published his Historia Jnsectorum Ccneralis in 
1669, divided genuine insects into, 1st, Those which, after leaving the 
egg, appear under the form of the perfect insect, but have no wings, 
which parts are afterwards produced : 2dly, Those insects which ap- 
pear, when hatched from the eggs, under the form of a larva, and, 
when full grown, change into a chrysalis, where it remains until its 
parts are fit to be developed : 3dlj', Those which, having attained the 
pupa (chrysalis or nympha) state, do not divest themselves of their 
skin. His other divisions refer to animals of the classes Arachndida, 
Crustacea, and ]\Tj/riapoda; and the whole of his work contains much 
valuable observation on the structure and economy of these animals. 

In 1735, Linne published the first edition of his Stjstema Naturce, 
sive Rei^na tria Nature si/stematice proposita per Classes, Ordines, Genera, 
et Species, in which work Insects are distributed into four Orders, ac- 
cording to the number and form of their wings: 1. Coleopter.i; 
2. Angioptera; 3. He.miptep.a ; 4. Apteka. 

With the last Order he included Crustaqea, Arachnidcs, Myriapoda, 
Vermes, and certain Zoophi/tes; but in subsequent editions of this work 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 135 

lie separated the Vermes, as Aristotle had done before him, and esta- 
bhshed them as a class di.stinct from Insects. 

Schasflfer, in 1711, puulished a valuable work, under the title Icones 
Inseclurum circa liafisbonam indigenorum. The classification proposed 
by the author differs entirely from that of Linne, and approaches in 
some respects that proposed by GeoffVoy. 

In 1761, Geoftroy published his most valuable System of Insects, 
under the title Hhtoire uhrcgee des Inscctcs, &;c. in which these ani- 
mals are arranged into six sections. 

In 1770, J. C. Fabricius, a pupil of Linnc, published a new system 
of entomology, under the title Si/slcma Entomohgiir, in which the 
principles of a new mode of classification, founded on the organs of 
deglutition and mastication, is for the first time developed. This sy- 
stem, which has undergone several modifications, is named the Ciha- 
riuu Si/ston. 

Scopoli, in 1777, published his Intruductio ad Hisforiam Nafuralem, 
in which work he divides insects into five tribes, under the singular 
appellations of, 1. Sioammenlami-Lucifugd ; Q. Gcoffroy-Gs/mnoptera; 
.3. Roeselii-Lepidopfera ; 4. Reatimarii-Proboscidea ; 5. Frisc/iii-Cokoptera, 
identifying each tribe by the name of each author, who has, in his opi- 
nion, been most successful in the explanatioji of that to which his 
name is attached. 

The LuciJ'uga includes the lice; Gymnoptcra, his Imlteratu, aculcata, 
and cuialnta : Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies : Proboscidea he 
has divided into terrestrial and aquatic; and the Coleoptera he divides 
into those inhabiting water, and those the land. 

In 1780, Linne produced the twelfth edition of his Systema Nature?, 
which was the last systematic work of that illustrious naturalist. 

In 1793, P. A. Latreille published his Precis des Caracteres Gene- 
riques des hisecfes, in which he divided Insects into I. Aile's : 1. Cole- 
optera, Q. Orthoptera, 3. Hemiptera, 4. Kcuroptera, 5. Lepidoptera. 
II. Apt.e^res : 6. Suctorial, 7. T/iasynoiira. 

In 1798, J. C. Fabricius produced his last general systematic work, 
the Supplementum Entomologice Systematical, which presents an outline 
of his system in its latest state ; and which, being the result of much 
knowledge, demands a considerable portion of attention. 

In the Enlomologie Hehetique, a work published in 1798, Clairville, 
its author, has arranged Insects in the following manner: 

* PTEROPHORA; Maxdibulata. With wings and jaws. 

Section 1. Elytroptera. Wings crustaceous. 

2. Deratoptera. Wings coriaceous. 

3. Dictyoftera. Wings reticulated. 

4. PiiLEBOPTERA. Wiusfs vcincd. 



136 MODERN system! 

** PTEROPHORA; Haustellata. With wings and a haustellum. 

Section 5. Halteriptera. Wings with poisers. 

6. Lepidoptera. Wings with powder. 

7. IIemimeroptera. Wings partly obscure, partly diapha- 

nous. 

*** APTERA; Haustellata. Without wings ; with a sucker. 

8. RoPHOPTERA. Sucker sharp. 

**** APTERA; Mandibulata. Without wings, with jaws. 

9. PoDODUNERA. Lcgs formed for running. 

In 1800, Cuvier, with the assistance of Dumcril, published his 
Artcttomie Comparec, in which the organization of Insects is treated of 
at great length. 

In 1801, J. B. Lamarck produced his Systhne des Animaux sans Ver- 
tebres, i n which work he has arranged some of the genuine Insects 
with the Aradinoida • the rest he distributes into the following Orders ; 

* With mandibles and jaws. 

Order I. Coleopteea. II. Orthoptera. III. NeurOptera. 

** With mandibles, and with a kind of proboscis. 

Order IV. Hymenoptera. 

*** No mandibles. A trunk or sucker. 

Order V. Lepidoptera. VI. Hemiptera. Vll. Diptera. VIII. A- 
ptera. 

In 1806, Latreille published his Genera Crustaceorrcm et Insectorum, 
in which he has denominated the true Insects Insecta Pterodicera ; 
and has arranged them in the following manner : 

Century I. ELYTHROPTERA. 

Elytra two, covering the wings entirely. 

Cohors I. Odontota. 
Mouth with mandibles, maxillcc, and lip. Wings folded, 
Order I. Coleoptera. II. Orthoptera. 

Cohors II. Sipiionostoma, 
Order III. Hemiptera. 

Century II. GYMNOPTERA. 

Winsis naked. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 137 

Coliors I. Odontata. 
Mouth with mandibles, niaxilke, and Hp. Wings four. 

Order IV. — Neuroptera. V. IIymenoptera. 
Cohors II. Sipiionostoma. 
Mouth tubular, formed for sucking. 
Order Xl. Lepidoptera. VII. Diptera. VIII. Suctoria. 

Latreillc has retained the same general arrangement in his last work, 
C) mule rut ions Gcmrules sur COrdrc N(iturellc,d)-c. but he has rejected the 
divisions into Legions, Centuries, and Cohorts. 

'D\nwi:n\,m\\i?, Zoologie Aiinlijtkjae, arranges insects into Eight Or- 
ders, the last of which also comprehends the Classes Arachnoida and 
Mi/riupoda. 

In 1812 Lamarck published a little work, entitled Ext?^ait da Covrs de 
Zoologie dii Museum d'Histoire Natm^elle, in which he has continued the 
general arrangement published by him in 1801. 

In 1815, vol. ix. of the Edinhargh Enci/dopadia was published, in 
which Dr. Leach gave the following arrangement of Insects into Or- 
ders, and has added to them the Farasita and T/ii/sanoura, which La- 
treille placed with the Arachnoida. 

Subclass I. AMETABOLIA. 

Order I. Thysanura. II. Anoplura. 

Subclass II. METABOLIA. 

Century I. ELYTHROPTERA. 

Insects with elytra. 

Cohors I. Odontostomata. 

Mouth with mandibles. 
* Metcunorp/iosis incomplete. 
Order III. Coleoptera. 

** Metamorphosis nearly coarctate. 
Order IV. Strepsiptera. 

*** Metamorphosis semi-complete. 
Order V. Dermaptera. VI. Orthoptera. VII. Dictyoptera, 

Cohors II. SiPHONOSTOMATA. 

■ Mouth with an articulated rostrum. 



138 MODERN SYSTEM- 

Order VIII. Hemiptera. IX. Omoptera. 

Century II. MEDAMOPTERA. 
Insects without wings or elytra. 
Order X. Apteka. 

Century III. GYMNOPTERA. 

Insects with wings but no elytra. 

Cohors I. Glossostomata. 
Mouth with a spiral tongue. 
Order XI. Lepidoptera. 

Cohors II. Gnathostomata. 
INIouth with maxilL'c and lip. 
Order XII. Trichoptera. 

Cohors III. Odoktostomata. 
Mouth with mandibles, maxillae, and lip. 
Order XIII. Neuroptera. XIV. IIymenoptera. 

Cohors IV. SiPHONOSTOMATA. 

Mouth tidjular, formed for sucking. 
Order XV. Diptera. 

As the above arrangement is subject to various objections, I shall 
adopt that since given by the samp author in vol. iii. of his Zoological 
Miscellany. 

Class V. IN SECT A. 

Subclass I. AMETABOLIA. 

Insects undergoing no metamoryhosis. 
Order I. Tiiysanura. — Tail armed with setae. 
Order II. Anoplura. — Tail without sets. 

Subclass 2. METABOLIA. 
Insects undergoing rnetamorphosis. 

Order III. Coleoptera. — Wings two, transversely folded, covered 
by two crustaceous or hard coriaceous elytra, meeting (generally) with 
a straight suture. Mouth with mandibles. {l^letamorphosis'm.coxa.^\etc) 



CLASS V. IK3ECTA. 139 

Order IV. Dermaptera. — Witigs two, longitudinally and trans- 
versely folded. Eh/tra subcrustaccous, abbreviated, with the suture 
straight. Mouth with mandibles. {Alctunioj^phosis semi-complete.) 

Order Y. Orthopteua. — JI7«i;,vtwo, longitudinally folded, covered 
by tAvo coriaceous elytra, the margin of one elytron covering the same 
part of the other. Mouth with mandiljles. (^Mclcunoi-phosis semi-com- 
plete.) 

Order VI. Dictyoptera. — Wings two, longitudinally folded, twice 
or more, covered by two coriaceous elytra; one elytron decussating 
the other obliquely. Mouth with mandibles. {Metamorphosis semi- 
complete.) 

Order VII. IIemiptera. — Tf7/?^.<; two, covered by t\vo crustaceous 
or coriaceous elytra (the tips of which are generally membranaceous), 
horizontal, one decussating the other obliquely. JMouth with an arti- 
culated rostrum. {Metamorphosis semi-complete.) 

Order VIII. Omoptera. — Wings t%vo, covered by tsvo elytra which 
are entirely coriaceous or membranaceous ; meeting obliquely Avith a 
straight suture. Mouth with an articulated rostrum. {Mctamorphosts 
semi-complete or incomplete.) 

Order IX. After a. — No uings or elytra. Mouth with a tubular 
jointed sucking rostrum. {JMetamorphosis incomplete.) 

Order X. Lepidopteka. — TT7»^s four, inembranaceous, covered with 
meal-like scales. Mouth with a spiral tongue. {Metamorphosis incom- 
plete.) 

Order XI. Trichoptera. — Wings four, membranaceous; the pteri- 
gostia or wing bones hairy. Mouth with maxilke and lip. {Meiamo?- 
phosis incomplete.) 

Order XII. Neuroptera. — Wings four, membranaceous, generally 
of equal size, with numerous decussating pterigostia resembling a net- 
work. Mouth with mandibles, maxilla', and lip. {Mttumorphosis in- 
complete or semicomplete.) 

Order XIII. Hymexoptera. — Wings four, membranaceous, the 
hinder ones always smallest ; the pterigostia not decussating each other, 
so as to resemble a net-work. Mouth with mandibles, maxilla; and li}'. 
{Metamorphosis incomplete.) 

Order XIY. Riiipiptera. — Wirigs tAvo, longitudinally folded. Mouth 
with mandibles. {Metamorphosis subcoarctate.) 

Order XW Diptera. — Wings tvvo, with halteres or balancers at 
their base. 2Iouth tubular, formed for sucking. {Metamorphosis ia- 
conqilete or subcoarctate.) 

Order X\'I. Omaloptera. — Mouth furnished with mandibles and 



140 MODERN SYSTEM'. 

elongated maxillce : lip simple. Wings two or none. (Metamorphoxis 
coarctata.) 

Subclass I. IXSECTA AMETABOLIA. 

Order I. THYSAXURA. Leach. 

Thysaxoit-a. Latreille. 

Tail furnished witli setae or filaments : Jiiouth with mandibles, palpi, la- 
bnim, and labium. 

The body of the animals which compose this Order ts generally 
covered with scales or hair. Their motion is extremely rapid, or per- 
formed by leaping. 

Fam. I. Lepismadje. Leach's MSS. 

Palpi vor\" distinct and prominent, or exserted : antenne composed of a 
vast number of verj- short joints : tail with tliree exserted setas. 

Stirps 1 . — Bodii depressed, and moving with a running motion : tail 
with three nearly equal filaments. 

Genus 1. LEPISMA. Linn., De Gecr, Fabr., Latr., Leach. Se- 
TOURA. Broun. Fokbicixa. Geoff'., Lamarck. 

Antenna inserted betvseen the eyes: maxiUari/ palpi slender, composed 
of five joints, the last of which is elongate and very slender: labud 
palpi with their joints compressed, dilated, and round : er/es small and 
remote. 

Sp. 1. Lep. saccharina. Body covered with silvery scales. 

Inhabits Europe. It is very common amongst books, clothes, &c. 
and wanders about during the night. It is supposed to have been 
originally introduced into Europe from America, where it is said to 
live amongst sugar. 

Stirps 1. — Body convex, with an arched back formed for springing. 
Tail with three seta, the middle one longest. 

Genus 2. FORBICINA. Geoff., Leach. Lepisma. Linn., Olivier. 
Maciiilis. Latr. 

Antennae inserted under the eyes, shorter than the body : masillary palpi 
thick, with six joints, the last conic : labial palpi with the apex mem- 
branaceous : eyes large and contiguous. 

Sp. 1. For. poly poda. Smoky brown, with obscure rust-coloured spots. 

Lepisma polypoda. Linn. Lepisma saccharina. Fill. Ent. 4. tab. 11. 
fig. 1. Machilis polypoda. Latr. Gen. Crust, et Ins. 1. p. 165. tab. 6. 
Jig. 4. magnified La Forbicine cylindrique. Geoff. Forbicina poly- 
poda. Leach. 

Inhabits all the temperate parts of Europe, and is found in woods and 
under stones. 



CLASS V. IXSECTA. 141 

Genus S. PETROBIUS. Leach's Zoological Miscellany, vol. iii. 

tub. 145. Lepisma. Fabr.? 

Antenna longer than the body, inserted under the eyes : maxillury palpi 

six-jointed; the tifth joint inversely conic, the sixth conic: labial 

palpi with the last joint obliquely truncate, with the apex acute, and 

not membranaceous : ei/es large and contiguous. 

Sp. 1. Pet. maiitimus. Blackish, with golden scales: feet yellowish: 

sets of the tail annulated with white. 
Inhabits all tlie rocky shores of Britain. Dr. Leach first obser\Td this 
species on the Devonshire coast, and afterwards in Ireland, Scotland, 
and Wales. It is verj- active, runs fast, and leaps to a great distance. 
Dr. L. suspects that it has been confounded by Fabricius with For- 
bicina polypoda. 

Fam. II. PoDURAD^. Leach. 

Palpi not exserted nor very conspicuous : nntenniE composed of four 
joints, the last sometimes formed of several other minute articula- 
tions : tail forked, and bent beneath the abdomen. 

Genus 4. PODURA. Linn., Geoff, De Geer., Fabr., Lam., Her- 
ynann. Leach. 
Antenna, with the last joint solid, not articulated: abdomen elongate, li- 
near. 
Sp. 1. Pod. plumbea. Lead-coloured, shining, with griseous head and 

feet. 
Podura plumbea. Linn., Fabr., Latr., Leach. Podure plombee. De 

Geer. La Podure grise commune. Geoff. 
Inhabits Europe under stones. 

There are a great number of species in this and the following ge- 
nus, which are worthy of attention. Fabricius has placed these 
two genera together without the slightest distinction, and has de- 
scribed several species, which it is hoped some future zoologist will 
be induced to examine. 

Genus 5. SMYXTHURUS. Latr., Leach. Poduea. Linn., Fabr., 
De Geer, Geoff. 
Sp. 1. Smyn.fuscus. Body entirely brown. 
La Podure brun enfumee. Geoff. Podura atra. Linn. ? Fabr. Smyn- 

thurvis fuscus. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits Europe; is common on the ground and in damp hedges. 

Order II. ANOPLURA. Leach. 
Parasita. Latreille. 

Tall without seta? or filaments : mouth in some fiirnished with two 
teeth (or mandibles?) and an opening beneath; in others with a 
tubulose very short haustellum. 
'ihe animals of this Order are parasitical, and were by Latreille 



142 MODERN SYSTEM. 

placed in an order which he named Parasita. This name Dr. Leach 
has changed for the sake of harmony, and also to render the name 
more easy of retention in the memory, the characters being drawn 
from the same parts. 

Their motion is slow, and their nourishment is derived from the 
blood of mammalia, birds and insects. 

" It is almost an established fact, that every species of bird (and 
probably mammiferous animal) has its own peculiar parasite; and 
there is no instance of the same species of louse having been ob- 
served on two distinct species of birds, although some birds (as the 
raven oyster-catcher, Sec.) are infested with several species of para- 
sites." The importance of clearly ascertaining the truth is such to 
the ornithologist, that Dr. Leach has employed a considerable por- 
tion of time for the purpose of investigating and of describing the 
species with accuracy, little more than a bare catalogue of names 
and habitats having been given in the works of Linne, Fabricius, 
and Gmelin. The result of his examinations he does not consider 
himself as able to communicate at present; but it is his intention, 
when the subject has arrived at maturity, to give a paper on this Or- 
der to the Linnean Society of London. 

Fam. I. Pediculid^. Leach. 
Mouth consisting of a tubulose, very short haustellum. 

Genus 6. PHTIIIRUS. Leach. Pediculus. Linn., Redi, Latr., 

Fabr. 
Anterior pair affect simple ; two hinder pair didacty le : thorax extremely 

short, scarcely visible. 
Sp. 1. Phth. ingidnalis. Body whitish. 
Pediculus inguinalis. Kedi. Pediculus pubis. Linn., Fabr., Latr. Le 

Morpion. Geoff. Phthirus inguinalis. Leach. 
Inhabits the eyebrows, &c. of men and women, being commonly 
known under the titles Crabs, Crab-lice, See. 

Genus 7. PEDICULUS. Linn., Fabr., Be Gccr, Geoff., Redi, 
Hermann, Lam., Leach. 
Feet all armed with a finger and thumb: tlioraj: composed of three di- 
stinct equal segments. 
Sp. 1. Ped. hwnanns. Body oval, lobate, white and nearly immaculate. 
Pediculus humanus. Fabr., Linn., Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits the bodies and garments of men, and is known by the name 
of the body-louse. On the continent of Europe, especially in Spain 
and Portugal, it is very abimdant. In Britain it is of rare occur- 
rence, and may have been introduced from the neighbouring coun- 
tries. 



CLASS V, TNSECTA, 143 

9^1. 2. Ped. cervicalis. Body oval, lobed, cinereous, with a black inter- 
rupted hand on either side. 

Lc I'ou ordinaire. Geoff. Pcdiculus humanus. var. Linn. Pediculus 
cer\'icalis. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits the heads of man throughout Europe. In Britain it is ex- 
tremely common, especially in the heads and upper part of the 
necks of children, whence they are e.xtractcd hy means of a fine- 
toothed comb, or are destro^^ed by rubbing calomel mixed with a 
little fat amongst the roots of the hair. This species has been by 
many authors confounded with the precedhig species. 

Genus 8. IL'EMATOPINUS. Leacli. 
Thorax narrow and distinct from the abdomen : abdomen very broad. 

Sp. 1. Ham. Suis. 

Pediculus Suis. Linnt. Hfematopinus Suis. Leach's Zool. Misc. iii. 66. 

pi. 146. 
Inhabits swine. 

Fam. II. NiRMiD.c. Leach. 

Mouth with a cavity", and two teeth or mandibles. 

Genus 9. NIRMUS. Hermann, Leach. Ricixus. De Geer, Oliv., 
Lam., Latr. Pediculus. Linn., Geoff"., Fabr, 

The character of this genus is given in that of the tribe. All the 
species inhabit birds. The term ricinus having been used in botany 
is rejected, and that of Dr. Hermann's is adopted. 

"Sp. 1. Nir. Cornicis. Whitish: head heart-shaped; segments of the 
thorax on each side produced into a tooth: abdomen oval, trans- 
versely banded with brown. 

Ricinus Cornicis. Latr. 

Inhabits the Corvus Corni.v of Linne. 



Subclass II. INSECTA METABOLIA. 
Order III. COLEOPTERA. 

Order Coleoptera. Linn., Cuv., Lam., Latr., ^-c. 
Class Eleuterata. Fabr. 

This Order is divided into five great sections, from the general nuni- 
ber of joints in the tarsi. 

Section I. — Pentamera. 

The number of joints in the tarsi is generally five, but in some of 
the aquatic genera the number is less. 



144 



MODERN SYSTEM. 



Fam. T. Cicindeliad.e. Leach. 

Maxillari/ palpi four, the interior ones two-jointed : labial two : antennm 
filiform, never moniliforni : maxilhe furnished at their extremities 
with a distinct articidated hook : mandibka with many teeth : feet 
formed for running; hinder ones with trochanters. 
All the insects of this family live on other insects. 

Genus 10. CICINDELA. Linn., Dc Geer, Fubi:,,^x. Buprestis. 
Geof. 

T/ioiYiv short, almost as wide as the head : abdomen elongate quadrate : 
eli/t?ri flat, separate, rounded : wings two : exterior maxillari/ palpi as 
long or longer than the labial : antenme inserted into the anterior 
margin of the eye: eli/peus shorter than the labrum. 

Sp. 1. Cic. si/lva/ica. Obscure aeneous above; each elytron with an ex- 
ternal lunule at the base, with a mark at the apex, and an interme- 
diate transverse, narrow sinuated band of white ; with many im- 
pressed punctures at the suture. (^Pl.S.fg. 8.) 

Cicindela sylvatica. Linn., Oliv., Ledr. 

Inhabits Europe. Is found on JNIartlesome Heath, Suffolk, occasion- 
ally; near Christchurch in Hampshire; and near Cobham and Go- 
dalming in Surry it is very common. 

There are three other British species, viz. 2. C campestris,\\\nch is 
taken in sandy places and in highways in great plenty. 3. C. fii/bri- 
da, found on the sea-shore dear Yarmouth and Swansea. 4. C. Ger- 
meinica, which is common at a place called Black Gang-way in the 
Isle of Wight, and is occasionally found in chalk-pits near Dartford, 
Kent, in the months of June and July. 

Fam. II. Cababid.'e. 

The mandibles of the Curabida are entirely porrecled; their 
hinder legs are formed for rrmning, and they feed on other insects. 

" Professor F. A. Bonelli, of Turin, has lately written an admirable 
monograph on the European genera of this family. This is published 
under the title of Obserxwtions Entomologiques, and has been sanc- 
tioned by the Imperial Academy. From the parts studied it proves 
that Bonelli is a man of accurate judgement, and fully entitled to 
rank amongst the first entomologists of the present dav." Leach's 
MSS. 

Oes. — For the characters of most of the Genera in this extensive Fa- 
mily I am indebted to Dr. Leach, who with his usual liberality al- 
lowed me the free use of his MSS. 

I. Anterior tibia not notched tcithin. Wytra entire, covering the 
zchole abdomen. Antennce linear or setaceous. 

SxiKPS 1. — Fulpi with the fourth joint thicker than the third, the apex 



CLASS V. I.NStCTA. 1-45 

dilated ; antcnme ■with the second joint as lung or lunger than the 
fourth : uings wanting, or two incomplete ; abdomen oval or ovate. 

Genus 11. CYCIIRUS. Fah-., Paj/k., Latr., Eonelli, Leac/i, Schvn- 

liar. 

Pa/pi with the fourth joint spoon-shaped : lip with the tooth of the 

notch simple: lahnim bilobutc: elijtra dcflexcd, embracing the sides 

of the abdomen : zvbigs none, or very short. 

Dr. Leach has observed that the palpi of the male arc larger than 

those of the female. Anterior tarsi in both sexes simple. 
Sp. 1. Ci/c. rostratus. Fabr., Panz., Latr., Leach, Schonherr. 
Caralius rostratus. ]\Ia?-s/i. Ent. Brit. i. 
Inhabits pathways in woods, roots of trees, beneath stones, and under 

moss. 

Genus 12. CARABUS of authors. Taciiypus. Wcbrr. 

Palpi with their last joint securiform: lip with the tooth of its nctch 
simple : lubruni bilobate : elytra not embracing the abdomen : icings 
very short or entirely wanting. 

The males have their anterior tarsi more or less dilated, and their 
thorax is evidently narrower than that of the fem.ales. 

Sp. 1. Car. violiiceiis. Black; margins of the thorax and elytra violet- 
copper : elytra finely rugulose, somewhat smooth : abdomen elon- 
gate-oval. 

Carabus violaceus. Linn., Fair., Oliv., Marsh., Latr. 

Inhabits FAU'ope. It is frequent in Britain at the roots of trees, under 
stones, &c. 

Sp. 2. Car. catenulatus. Black: margins of thorax and elytra violet: 
thorax broader than long, deeply emarginate behind; each elytron 
with about fourteen striae; the fourth, eighth, and twelfth from the 
suture interrupted; the intervals with a distinct, somewhat rugose 
line: abdomen oval. 

Carabus catenulatus. Scop. ,Fabr., Latr. Carabus intricatus. Marsh.,OHv. 

Inhabits the south of France, Germany, and Britain. It is sometimes 
found quite black, at other times with a tinge of fine violet : and is 
very plentiful in this country. 

Sp. 3. Car. intricatus. Black violet above, black beneath : thorax nar- 
row, with nearly equal diameters: elytra with irregular stria*; the 
inter\-als punctate-rvigose; each elytron with three elevated catenu- 
lated lines. 

Carabus intricatus. Linn., Latr. Carabus cyaneus. Fabr., Panz. 

Inhabits Europe. There is but one instance of its having occurred in 
Britain. Dr. Leach took a single specimen under a stone in a wood 
opposite the \^irtuou's Lady Mine, on the river Tavy below Tavi- 
stock in Devonshire, in the last week in May. 

Sp. 4. Car. ncmoralis. Black; margin of the elytra and-sidcs of the 



145 MODERN SYSTEM. 

thorax violet : elytra obscure, copper, rugulose, with three longitu- 
dinal rows of excavated spots. 

Carabus nemoralis. IlUg., Lutr. Carabus hortensis. Oliv., Marsh., 
Fabr. 

Inhabits gardens, and is very common in this country. 

Sp. 5. Car. monilis. Brassy-green or violet-black above, black beneath ; 

each elytron with about fourteen elevated lines, two in the middle 

more distinct than the rest ; the fourth, eighth, and twelfth from the 

suture catenulated : abdomen elongate-oval. 
Carabus monilis. Fair., Lafr. Carabus catenulatus. Marsh. 
Inhabits France and Germany : in England it is found in gardens and 

pathways in June, Jlily, and August. 

Sp. 6. Car. morhillosus. Brassy or black copper above, black beneath; 
each elytron with three ribs, one at the suture ; the interstices with 
a catenulated line, and on each side of it with a less distinct smootli 
punctate-rugose line : abdomen elongate-oval. (P/. S.j^'g. 17.) 

Carabus morbillosus. Fabr., Latr. Carabus granulatus. Marsh. 

Inhabits Europe. In Britain it is found occasionally vmder stones and 
moist places, and in abundance in rotten willows in the winter. 

Stirps 2. — Palpi with the fourth joint not thicker than the other 
joints : antenna with the second joint shorter than the fourth : wings 
two, generally complete : abdomen quadrate. 

Genus 13. CALOSOMA. Web., Fabr., Latr., Clairv., Bonelli, 
Panz., Leach. 
Palpi moderate, with equal joints : lip with the tooth of its notch sim- 
ple: antenna setaceous, straight: abdomen quadrate: wings two. 
\Anterior tarsi of the male with the three first joints very much di- 
lated.) 
Sp. 1. Cal. Sycophanta. Fabr. 

Inhabits Europe; and although rare in Britain, has several times been 
taken near Dartmouth and Norwich. 

Calosoma Inquisitor of Fabricius has been taken at Norwood in 
June by Mr. D. Bydder and Mr. W. Weatherhead, and by Dr. Leach 
near Tavistock in Devonshire; but it must be esteemed a rare Bri- 
tish insect. It once occurred in great plenty near Windsor, on the 
white-thorn hedges, feeding on the larva? of lepidopterous insects. 

Genus 14. NEBRIA. Latr., Clairo., Bonel., Panz., Leach, Gyll. 
Palpi moderately long : labial with equal joints : maxillary with the 
fourth joint longer than the preceding : lip with the tooth of its notch 
bifid : antenna linear straight : abdomen elongate, quadrate : wings 
two: thorax trxijicate ; the basilar angle straight. (Anterior tarsi of 
the male with their three first joints dilated.) 
. Sp. 1. Neb. complanata. Leach. 
Carabus complanatus. Xt«Ri. {PL d.fg. 18.) Carabus arenarius. Fair. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 147 

Inhabits the sandy shores of the sea near Swansea beneatli drifted 
wood, where it was first discovered by Sir J. Banks, and twenty 
years after was Ukewise taken in great profusion by Dr. Leach. 

The other British species are N. livida, N. brevicolHs, and N. Gyl~ 
lenhalli. 

Genus 15. LEISTUS. FroL, Clairv., Bond., Patiz. Pogonopuo- 
Rus. Latr., Leach, Gijll. 

Palpi elongate : labial with the third joint very long : Up with the 
tooth of its notch bifid : antennce linear, deflexed : abdomen qua- 
drate, oblong : wings two : thorax with the base truncate, the angles 
straight : (mouth spinose : anterior tarsi of the male with the three 
first joints dilated.) 

Sp. 1. Leistus caruleus. Latr, 

Carabus spinibarbis. Marsham. 

Inhabits sandy situations, and under stones in May and June. 

II. Anterior tibi<s emarginate within, or mth an elevated internal 
spur. Elytra not truncate, most frequently covering the whole 
abdomen. 

A. Falpi elongate. Anterior tarsi of the male generally with only two 
\ dilated joints. Thorax on each side rounded. (Palpi with the 

last joint deeply truncate.) 

Genus 16. PANAG^US. Latr., Clairv., Bonel, Panz., Leach j 
Gyll. 
Mandibles acute, simple : lip with the tooth of its notch bifid : neck 
distinct : ?nouth acute : palpi with their fourth joint triangular : zvings 
t\vo : thorax suborbiculate, entire : {anterior tarsi of the male with, 
the two first joints penicillate-dilated.) 
Sp. 1. Pan. Crux-major. Latr. 

Inhabits Europe. In Britain it is rare, but is occasionally found at the 
roots of trees, and in sandy situations. 

Stir PS 3. — Mandibles obtuse or above towards their points emargi- 
nate-truncate or with a large and very obtuse tooth : neck none : 
mouth very obtuse : {body depressed.) 

Genus 17. BADISTER. Clairv., Latr., Bonel, Panz., Leach. 
Amblychus. Gyll. 
Palpi with their last joint oval : thorajc anteriorly and posteriorly 
notched : wings two. {Anterior tarsi of the male with the three first 
joints dilated.) 
Sp. 1. Bad. bipustulatus. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits Europe. In England it is found under stones, and in sandy 
situations. 

K 2 



148 MODERN StSTEM. 

B. Falpi moderately porreded. Anterior tarsi of the male with 
three or four dilated joints. (Neck none.) 

* Anterior tibia: notched on their hinder or lozcer side. 

Stirps 4. — -Wings two (habit of the Cicindelada). 

Genus 18. NOTHIOPHILUS. Dmiiril, Bond., Panz., Leach. 

Labrum quadrate, its apex rounded : labium on each side dilated round- 
ed : lingula rather Ion?, broad, corneous : thorax flat, subquadrate, 
subtransverse, as broad as the head and abdomen : eyes prominent : 
zoings two. (^Anterior tarsi of the male not distinctly dilated.) 

Sp. 1. Not. aquaticus. Panz. 

Cicindela aquatica. Marsh. 

Inhabits Europe, and is very common in Britain. 

Genus 19. ELAPIIRUS. Fahr., Latr., Bond., Ij-ach, &c. 

Labrum transverse, truncate : lip on each side obliquely subtruncate : 
lingula short, narrow, membranaceous : tliorax tnmcate-obcordate, 
convex and unequal, narrower than the head and abdomen : eyes 
very prominent. {Anterior tarsi of the male distinctly dilated.) 

Sp. 1. Elaph. riparius. Fabr. 

Inhabits the edges of ponds on Epping Forest, Coombe Wood, and 
Battersea Fields. 

Genus 20. BEMBIDTUM. Leach, Gyll. Bembidion. Latr., 
lionel., Panz. Ocydromus. Prolich, Clairv. 
Labrum transverse : thorax narrower than the abdomen, and as broad 
as the head : eyes more or less prominent : wings two, generally per- 
fect. (Anterior tarsi of the male with the first joint very much di- 
lated.) Maxillary palpi with their last joint minute, abruptly nar- 
rower than the preceding joint.' 
Sp. 1. Bemb.Jlavipcs. Latr. 
Inhabits sandy places, and roots of grass. 

Genus 21. CILLENUS. Leach's MSS. 
Labrum transverse : thorax narrower than the abdomen and as bros«l 

as the head : eyes rather prominent : wings two, imperfect. Anterior 

tarsi with the secoiid, third, and fourth joints transverse (of the 

male wider than tliose of the female : body depressed.) 
Sp. 1. cm. lateralis. Thorax purple bronze cordate with an impressed 

longitudinal line : elytra livid purple striated, with some impressed 
- discoidal punctures, the strias running together behind, margins of 

tlic elytra inflexed, base of the anlennee and legs testaceous : head 

piu'plish or greenish-bronze. 
Inhabits the sea-shore. First discovered by Dr. Leach near Porto 

Bello on the Frith of FortJi, and afterwards taken at Cvomei- iu 

Norfolk, in great prolusion. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 149 

** Anterior tibia: notched on their interior side. 

SiTiRPS 5. — Palpi with their fourtii joint -conic acute. 

Genus 22. TRECHUS. Clairv., Latr., Bond., Panz., Leach. 
IVings complete : thorax narrower behind, the hinder margin straight, 
the angles subroundcd {anterior and middle turxi of the male with 
the four first joints dilated). 
This genus is very nearly allied to the insects of the next Stirps. 
Sp. 1. Tr. mcridiumis. Clairv., Leach. 
Inhabits the roots of grass and gardens. 

Gen. 23. EPAPHIUS. Leach's MSS. 
Ej/es moderately large : ziing.'i none : thorax narrower behind, with the 

posterior margin straight, the angles acute, {/interior tarsi of the 

male with two dilated joints.) 
Sp. 1. Epa. seailis.. 
Carabus secalis. Pai/k. 
Inhabits Europe : it is rare m Britain. 

Genus 24. AEPUS. Leach's MSS. 
Ei/es very minute: icings none: thorax subtriangulate, the posterior 

apex deeply truncate. 
Sp. 1. Aep.fulvescens. Colour somewhat fulvescent; head and antennae 

slightly tinted with ferruginecus. 
Inhabits the southern coast of Devon, and is found under stones at 

the mouths of the rivers Tamar and Yalm. 

Stirps 6. — Palpi with their fourth joint truncate, never conic. {Tarsi 
anterior and intermediate of the male with four dilated joints.) 

Genus 25. HARPALUS. Latr., Bonel., Leach, Panz. 
Palpi with their fourth j^oint oval : thorax subquadrate transverse, with 

an impression on each side of its base : zvings two. 
Sp. 1. Har. ruficornis. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits Europe. Is common in Britain, under stones and in sandy 

situations. 

Stirps T, — Palpi -with their fourth joint never conic: uings two: ti- 
bice anterior, not palmate-dentated : mandibles short and simple : lip 
with the tooth of its notch simple : thorax as broad as the base of 
the abdomen : Bodj/ broad convex: antennce linear : ta7'si anterior of 
the male with three dilated joints; intermediate ones simple. 

Genus 26. ZABRUS. Clairv., Bonel., Pa?iz., Leach. 

Palpi with their fourth joint shorter than the third : labrum emargi- 
nate: anterior tibia at their extremities with a triple spur: tlnrax 
quadrate^ with its base transversely subimpressed : budi/ gibbcus 
oblong. 

Sp. 1. Zab. gibbus. 



150 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Carabus gibbus. Fabr. Carabus gibbosus. Marsh. 

Inhabits Europe. Is found at the roots of grass in Battersea Fields. 

Its natural history is given in Germar's Magazin der Eiitomologia 

for 1813. 

Genus 27. CODES. Bonelli, Panz., Leach. 

Falpi with the third and fourth joints equal in length : lahrum entire : 
anterior tibi^E at their extremity with a double spur : thorax broadest 
at its base, not transversely impressed: bodj/ slightly-convex o's^al. 

Sp. 1. Ood. helopoides. Panz. 

Inhabits Germany, and England on moist banks: it is sometimes 
found in Battersea Fields. 

Stirps 8. — Palpi with their last joint never conic : uings two : tibiie 
anterior not palmate-dentated : mandibles simple, or towards their 
bases denticulated : Up with the tooth of the notch simple : thorax 
obcordate, sessile, with the lateral impression obsolete or solitary : 
body depressed : antenmc linear : tarsi of the male with three dilated 
joints; intermediate tarsi simple. 

Genus 28. LORICERA. Latr., Clairv., Bonel., Pan%.y Leach, 
AntenneE setaceous, pilose, with the first five joints globose clavate ; 

neck distinct. 
Sp. 1. Lor. (znea. Latr., Leach. 
Carabus pilicornis. Marsh. 
Inhabits moist banks at the roots of grass. 

Stirps 9. — Palpi with their last joint never conic: -wings two: tibi(e 
anterior not palmate-dentate : mandibles simple, or towards their 
bases denticulated : Up with the tooth of its notch simple : thorax 
obcordate, sessile, with the lateral impression obsolete or solitary ; 
body depressed : antenna linear : tarsi anterior of the male with 
three dilated joints ; intermediate tarsi simple. 

Genus 29. CALLISTUS. Bonelli, Panz., Leach. 

Palpi with their last joint oval, subacuminate and of the same length 
with the third joint; labrum much notched, its base narrowed; tho- 
rax convex punctate, the basal angles straight: body convex. 

Sp. 1 . Cal. lunatus. 

Caralnis lunatus. Fabr. 

Inhabits Europe. It is very rare in Britain. 

Genus SO. AGONUM. Bonelli, Panz., Leach. 

Palpi with the last joint oval, truncate and of the same length with 
the third joint ; labrum transverse, quadrate, entire : thorax flat, 
smooth, the basal angles rounded : body depressed. 

Sp. 1. Ag. sex-punctatum. 

Carabus sex-puactatus. Fabr. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 



151 



Inhabits moist places. In Coombe Wood it has been found very abun- 
dant. {PL 3. Jig. 'M.) 

Genus 31. SYNUCHUS. Gylknhall, Leach. 

Intermediate palpi with tlieir last joint cylindric elongate, the apex trun- 
cate; hinder palpi with their last joint thickened at their extremity, 
the apex obliquely acuminated : thorax, labrwn, and body as in Agonimi. 

Sp. 1. Sj/n. -civalis. 

Carabus vivalis. Illig. 

Inhabits 

Genus 32. ANCHOMENUS. Bonelli, Panz., Leach. 

Palpi with their fourth oval, scarcely truncate, of the length of the 
third joint : lubt^um quadrate, transverse entire : thorax flat, smooth, 
the basal angles straight : body rather depressed. 

Sp. 1. Anc. prasinus. 

Harpalus prasinus. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits 

SxiRPS 10. — Pa//^i with their last joint never conic: wings t\N'0 : tihi<e 
anterior not palmate -dentate : mandibles simple, or towards their base 
denticulated : lip with its notch-tooth bifid : thorax obcordate or sub- 
orbiculate-sessile : body moderately or very much elongated : tarsi 
anterior of the male with three or four dilated joints ; intermediate 
tarsi simple. 

* Antenna compressed, narrower towards their extremities {thorax 
obsolete). 
Genus 33. PLATYSMA. Boyielli, Panz., Leach. 

Palpi with their fourth joint cylindric, its basfe attenuated ; those of 
the maxillae with their fourth joint shorter than the preceding : tho- 
rax with the base on each side with two strise, the exterior stria very 
small : basal angles straight : {body depressed.) 

Sp. 1. PL nigritum. 

Carabus nigritus. Fabr. Carabus aterrimus. Marsh. 

Inhabits damp woods. 

Genus 34. CHL^,NIUS. Bonelli, Panz., Leach. 

Palpi with the fourth joint oval, of the length of the third joint : tho- 
rax with its base on each side with one stria : {body punctulate, va- 
ried with colour; elytra generally with a pale margin.) 

Sp. 1. Chl.festivus. 

Carabus festivus. Fabr. Car. vestitus. Marsh. 

Inhabits moist banks and woods. 

Genus 35. EPOMIS. Bonelli, Panz., Leach. 
Palpi with their fourth joint triangular, compressed; maxillary ones 

with their fourth joint shorter than the third : thorax with one stria 

on each side of its base. 
Sp. 1. Ep. cincta. 



152 MODERN SI'STEM. 

Carabus rinctus. Fanz. 

Inhalils the fields near Bristol and Plymouth. 
** Antennm linear. 
Genus 36. SPHODRUS. Clairv., Bond., Panz., Lcnc/i. 
Talpi with their fourth joint cylindric : labial attenuated at their base, 
sliorter than the third : mandibles elongate : antenna with their third 
joint elongate, as long as the two first taken together : thorax obcor- 
date, the base on each side with one stria, the angles straight : {Tiings 
sometimes abbreviated -.front tarsi of the male with fom- dilatedjoints.) 
Sp. 1. Sph. planus. Clairv. 
Carabus Icucophthalmus. Limit. 
Inhabits houses. 

Genus 37. AMARA. Bonclli, Fanzer, Leach. 
Falpi with their fourth joint oval, of the length of the third : man- 
dibles short: anfenntc with their third joint shorter than the first: 
thora.i hroad, its base transversely impressed ; hinder angles straight. 
This genus contains Carabus vulgaris of Linne, and its aflinities, 
all of which have the fore tarsi of the male with three dilated joints. 

*** Antenna: compressed, thicker toaards their extremities. Falpi 
with their fourth joint elongate, oval, or subcj/lindric. 
Genus 38. BLETIIISA. Bonelli, Fanz. Helobitm. Leach. 
Max illcay palpi with the fourth shorter than the third joint: labrzim 
emarginate : mandibles with their base subdenticulated : thorax ob- 
cordate, the base on each side with one stria {elytra with large exca- 
vated dots) : -anterior tibire with their notch near the apex : anterior 
tarsi of the male with four dilated joints : uings perfect. 
Sp. 1. Bk. multipiinctata. 
Car. multipunctatus. Fabr. 
Inhabits moist places ; it occurs occasionally in Battersea Fields, 

Genus 39. CALATHUS. Bonelli, Fanz., Leach. 
Maxillary palpi with the fourth joint of the length of the third: la-,, 
brum entire : mandibles with their base multidentate : thorax trapezi- 
_/ww, rather flat, behind on each side punctulate impressed : body 
elliptic : wings generally abbreviated : anterior tarsi of the male witi^ 
three dilated joints. 
Sp. 1. Cal. cisteloides. Panz. 
Caral)us cisteloides. Lllig. 
Inhabits under stones and the bark of trees. 

Genus 40. POECILLUS. Bonelli, Fanz., Leach. 
Maxillary palpi \\i{\\ the first joint of the length of the third : labrum 
truncate entire, or scarcely notched : mandibles with their base sub- 
denticulated : thorax with its base narrower, with two strife on each 
side, the exterior stria very small, or with obliterated impressed dots : 
wings sometimes abbreviated : (anterior tarsi of the males with three 
dilated joints.) 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 153 

Sp. 1. Poe. cuprciis. 

Carabiis cupreits. Li)i>ie. 

Inliabils sund-pits and path-ways. 

Stir PS 11. — Pa/pi M'itli their last joint never conic: rc'ings two: tibia; 
anterior not pahnate-deutate : wamUbks sharp within or strongly 
unidentatc : lip with the tooth of its notch simple : thorax obcor- 
date, its base very narrow or pedunculated : hodi) convex most often 
elongate : head large : t((rsi anterior of the male with three or four 
dilated joints ; intermediate tarsi simple. 

Genus 41. STOIMIS. Clairville, BonclU, Panz., Leach. 

Mandibles very porrect without teeth internally, that of its right side 
with its middle incised : palpi with the fourth joint oval, niaxiltory 
ones with the fourth joint larger than the third: labruiii bilobatc: 
lip on each side suhrounded : antenna longer than the thorax, the 
third joint as long sts the fourth : thorax oblong : icings none: {<ndc- 
rior tarsi of the male with three dilated joints.) 

Sp. 1. Sto. pumieatus. 

Carabus pumieatus. Jllig. Car. tenuis. Marsh. 

Inhabits moist banks at the roots of grass. 

Genus 42. BROSCUS. Panzer, Leach. Cephalotes. Bonel/i. 

Mandibles moderate, their middle internally with one tooth; labial 
palpi with their fourth joint obconic; muxilla/y ones with the same 
joint of the length ot the third, cylindric : labriim transversely qua- 
drate, entire : lip rounded on each side: antennce as long as the tho- 
rax, with the third joint as long as the fourth ; thorax with equal 
diameters : wings perfect : {anterior tarsi of the male with three di- 
lated joints.) 

Sp. 1. Bros, cephalotes. 

Carabus cephalotes. Tuhr. 

Inhabits the sea shores near Swansea. 

Stirps 12. — Palpi with their last joint never conic : wings two or 
none : tibia anterior palmate dentate : thorax pedunculated : lip with 
the tooth of its notch simple. 

Genus 43. CLIVINA. JMtr., Clairv., Bond., Panz., J^cach. 

Mandibles denticulated from their base to their apex : thorax quadrate : 
anteror tibia externally and at their apex digitated : wings two, some- 
times incomplete. 

Sp. 1. Cli. Fossor. 

Tenebrio Fossor. Linnc. Clivina arenaria. Latr. Carabus distans. Marsh, 

Inhabits sandy situations. 

Genus 44. DYSCHIRIUS. Panzer, Leach. 

Mandibles denticulated at their base : thorax globose : anterior tibia 
with their extremities (rarely also externally slightly) digitated : 
wings two perfect. 

Sp. 1. Di/s. gibbus. 



154 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Clivina gibVja. Lati'., Latch. 

Inhabits moist places ; is pretty common at Battersea. 

Stirps 13. — Palpi with their last joint oval, wings none : tibue ante- 
rior not palmate-dentated : thora r sessile ; lip with the tooth of its 
notch bitid : tibice of the third pair of legs behind spinulose : (elytra 
with no impressed discoidal spots : anus in both sexes very smooth.) 

* Antenna setaceous. 
Genus 45. ABAX. Bonelli, Panzer, Leach. 

Bod^ broad, equal depressed : elj/fra united, their shoulders carinate 
pUcate : antcnnee rather longer than the thorax : thorax transversely 
quadrate, the base on each side with two striae, the basal angles 
straight : {anterior tarsi of the male with three dilated joints.) 

Sp. 1. Ahax Striola. 

Carabus Striola. Fabr. Car. depressus. Oliv. 

Inhabits beneath the bark of trees and under stones. 

Stirps 14. — Wings incomplete or none: tibix anterior simple: thorax 
sessile : lip with the tooth of its notch simple and obtuse : (elytra 
obliquely emarginate-truncate, without any larger impressed, dis- 
coidal spots.) 

Genus 46. CYMINDIS. Latr., Bond, Panz., Leach. Tarus. 
Clairv. Cymidis. Gi/ll. 

Lahrum subquadrate, emarginate : maxillary palpi with the fourth joint 
rounded oval, of the labial palpi compressed, its apex more or less 
dilated : wings none, or very imperfect. 

Sp. 1. Cyni. humerulis. 

Carabus humeralis. Fabr. 

Inhabits moist banks. 

III. Anterior tibice notched at their infernal side before the apex, Elif- 
ti'a abruptly truncated, shorter than the abdomen. Wings com- 
plete in both sexes. 
Stirps 15. — Palpi short filiform : lip with its notch simple, or with a 
bifid tooth : mandibles dentate at their base : palpi with their fourth 
joint deeply truncate : thorax oblong : body convex : wings two or 
none : neck none : labrum transverse ; tarsi with their fourth joints 
simple. 

Genus 47. BRACHINUS. Fahr., Bond., Clmrv., Latr., Pan:., 
Schonh., Leach. 
Lip with the tooth of its notch wanting : labrum not or scarcely emar- 
ginate : labial palpi with their fourth joint rounded, oval : elytra 
slightly truncated : legs moderately long : wings two. 
Sp. 1. Bra. crepitans. Fabr. 
Carabus crepitans. Linne, Marsh. 

Inhabits under stones, near Gravesend in profusion, and occasionally 
beneath clods of earth in ploughed fields in May. {PL 5. Jig. 19.) 



CLASS Y. ixsrcTA. 155 

Stirps 16. — Palpi short, filiibrni, the fourth joint truncate, with the 
tooth of its notch acute : mandibles without teeth : thorax transverse : 
bodif depressed, hroad : rcings two : neck none : labrtuii entire. 

Genus 48. LAMPRIAS. Bonelli, Pan.z. Echimltiius. J^acfi. 

Tarsi with their fourtli joint simple: antennte hnear: ztitigs short. 

Sp. 1. Lam. cyanocepliah. Intense blue-green; first joint of the an- 
tenna", thorax, thighs, and tibiae red ; elytra with punctured stria^, 
the spaces between the strise punctured ; knees black. 

Carabus cyanocephalus. Linni, Sc/wn/ier. Echimuthns cyanocophalns. 
Leach. 

Inhabits Europe: is very rare in Britain, where it was first discovered 
by Dr. Leach. 

iSp.2. Lam. chlorocephala. Intense green ; the three first joints of the 
antenniE, thorax, and legs red ; elytra with punctured stria^, the 
spaces between the striae very obsoletely and irregularly punctu- 
lated ; tarsi black. 

Carabus cyanocephalus. Mursliam. 

Inhabits the broom and under the bark of trees. It is very abundant 
occasionally in Coombe Wood, near London, and is not imcommon 
in other parts of Britain : — it has been considered as L. cijanoccphula 
by all British collectors. 

Genus 49. LEBIA. Latr., Bonelli, Panz., Leach. 
Tai'si with their fourth joint bifid : (intciuuc more slender at their base : 

wings long. The palpi of this genus arc scarcely truncate, 
Sp. 1. Leh. Crux-ininw. 
Carabus Crux-minor. Linni. 
Inhabits Europe : in Britain it is very rare. 

Stirps 17. — Palpi short, filiform : lip with the tooth of its notch 
acute : mandibles dentatcd at their bases : palpi with their fourth 
joints scarcely truncated; ^7io;-«.r with subequal diameters, or longer 
than broad ; bodij depressed, flat, narrow ; zoings t\vo : lubriun emar- 
ginate. 

Genus 50. DROMIUS. Bonelli, Leach. 
Tarsi with their fourth joint simple : head not remarkably produced 
behind : thorax obcordate, margined flat, a little broader than long, 
Sp. 1. L)ro. quadrimaculatus. 
Lebia 4-maculata. Latr. 
Inhabits beneath the bark of trees during the winter months. ' 

Genus 51. DEMETRIAS. Bonelli. Risophilus. Leach. 
Tarsi with the fourth joints bifid : head behind very much produced : 
thorax rather longer than broad, obcordate, margined, narrower than 
the head. 



156 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Sp. 1. J)era. atricapilla. Body pale yellowish : head black : mouth and 
thorax reddish : elytra very obsoletely striated : wings elongated ; 
epigastrium and base of the belly fuscous. 

Lebia atricapilla. Latr. 

Inhabits beneath the bark of trees. 

Sp, 2. Dan. monostigma. Body pale yellowish : head black : thorax 
reddish : elytra obsoletely striated, towards their tips with one fus- 
cous spot : wings abbreviated. 

Risophilus monostigma. Leach. 

Iiiliabits Europe amongst the roots of plants. It is very common near 
Swansea. 

Genus 52. ODACANTIIA. Fahr., Latr., Bond., Chiirv., Panz., 
Leach, Gyll. 
T«ra with their fourth joint simple: head hc^h\vA much produced: 

tkorar oblong, subcylindric, narrower than the head. 
Sp. 1. Odacantha nielayiura. 
Attelabus melanurus. Linnc. 
Inhabits marshes in Norfolk and near Swansea. 

Stirps 18. — Palpi very much elongated, the fourth joint with its apex 
dilated ; lip with the tooth of its notch bifid : labrnm trilobate, the 
middle lobe largest : mandibles very prominent: (jnaxilla; with a very 
thin perpendicular claw : tar&i with the fourth joint bifid : neck di- 
stinct.) 

Genus 53. DRYPTA. Latr., Fahr., Bonel, Pajiz., Leach. Cara- 
Bus. Rossi, Marsh. Cicindela. 0/(17. 
Thorax cylindric : head narrowed or lengthened behind : mandihles 
much elongated and very jirominent: exterior maxillary and labial 
palpi terminated by a large nearly obconic joint, (maxillary ones 
iiuich lengthened :) lip elongate linear, with two auricles. 
Sp. 1. Dryp.emurginata. Blue, punctate, villose : mouth, antenna^, and 
feet red: thorax with an impressed longitudinal line; elytra with 
punctured stria- ; apex of the first and middle of the third joint of 
the antennae brown. 
Drypta emargiimta. Fahr. Latr. Gen. Criist. ct Insect, i. 197. tub. 7, 
jig. 3. Leach, Edin. Fncycl. ix. 81. Carabus chrysostomus. Mursham, 
Inhabits Europe. In Britain it is rare ; but has been taken near Hast- 
ings and Favcrsham. 

Fam. III. Dyticid.e. Leach. 
Hydrocanthari. Latreille. 
Dyticus. Geoffror/. 
Dytiscus. Linnc, &c. 

All the Dyticidie inhabit the water, both in the state of lar\"6e 



CT.ASS V. INSF.CTA. 1 57 

and when perfect, living on other insects. The anterior and middle 
tarsi in some of the genera have but four joints. 

A. With a scittcUum, feet formed for zcalking: tarsi, the whole of 

ihc/ii xcitli five joints ; cUncs didactyle. 

SriRPSyl. — Hinder thighs covered at their base -with a shield-shaped plate. 

Genus 34. IIALIPLUS. Latr., Gi/IL, Leach. Cj;bmidotus. Tllig- 
IIoPLiTUS. Clairv. 

" * Bodj/ oblong oval. FJi/tra zcith elevated ridges." I^each. 

iMbial and external maxillari/ palpi subulate. 
Sp. 1. Hal. clevatus. Panz. 
Inhabits running streams. 

" ** Body oval. Elytra striated." Leach. 

Sp. 2. Hal. ferrugineus. Linne. 
Inhabits ponds and ditches- 

Stirps 2. — Hinder thighs without the shield at their base: {eyes pro- 
minent.) 

Genus 55. P7EL0BIUS. Schunherr, Leach. Hyguobia. Latredk. 
HvDRACHNA. Fabr. 

External maxillary palpi with the last joint subclavate. 

Sp. 1. Ptf/. Hernianni. Black : head, transverse band on the tlioiax, 
base and border of the elytra and feet lerrugineous. {PI. 3. fig. 14.) 

Dytiscus Ilermanni. Marsh., Oliv. 

Inhabits ponds. The last segment of the abdomen when rubbed 
against the elytra produce a noise. 

B. Scutellum none. Feet, hinder ones, for the inost jxtrt formed for 

sicinimiiig. 

Stirps 3. — ^The four anterior tarsi with four, the two posterior with 
five joints. 

Genus 5G. IIyphydrus. Latr., Gyll., IlUg-, Schmh., Leach. 
Body nearly globose ; the four anterior tarsi with the last joint short ; 

the hinder feet witli but one claw. 
Sp. 1. Hyp. ovatus. Obscure, ferrugineous, inipunctate; the base of 

the elytra with an impression at the base of the suture. 
Dytiscus ovatus. Linnc. 
Inhabits ponds. 

Genus 57. HYDROPORUS. Clairville, Leach. IIypiitdrus. 
Illig.f Sch'unh., Gyll. 
■ Body oral ; the breadth exceeding the height : the four anterior t<usi 
with four joint?, the last joint slender ; cUms didactyle. 



158 MODERN SYSTiEir, 

* 3o(ly elongated. 
Sp. 1. Hifp. 12-puslulatus. 
Inhabits ponds and ditches. 

** Bocii/ oval. 
Sp. 1. Hi/p. cnnjluens. 
Dytiscus confluens. Marsham. 
Inhabits ponds and ditches. 

Stirps 5. — All the tarsi with live articulations. 

Genus 58. NOTERUS. Cluirv., Latr., Leach. 
Antenna: with a fifth or seventh joint dilated : hinder feet but slightly 

adapted for swimming. 
Sp. 1. Not. Geerii. Oval, convex, brown : head and thorax ferrugine- 

ous : elytra sprinkled with impressed dots : antennae of the male 

thick. 
Dytiscus crassicornis of authors. Dytis clavicornis. De Gcer. 
Inliabits stagnant waters. 

Sp. 2. Not. sparsus. Elytra with impressed dots. 
Dytiscus sparsus. Marsli., i. -130. 
Inhabits stagnant waters near London. 

Genus 59. LACCOPIIILUS. Leach, Edin. Encycl. vol. ix. 
Antenna with the joints simple : hinder feet well adapted for swim- 
ming. 
Sp. 1. Lac. hyalinus. 

Inhabits canals and slowly running waters. 
Sp. 2. Lac. minutus. Greenish-testaceous : legs yellowish. 
Dytiscus minutus. Linne, Marsh., Gyll. 
Inhabits stagnant waters. 

C. With a scutellum : hinder feet compressed and formed for swim" 
ming: all the tarsi with five articulations. 

Stirps G. — Tibi(S posterior elongated : claios on the hinder feet didac- 
tyle. 

Genus 60. COLYMBETES. Clairvillc, Lair., Leach. 
External maxillary palpi Wi\h the second and tliird joint equal; fourth 

long, obtuse at the apex. 
Sp. 1. Col. striatus. 
Inhabits stagnant waters. 
Sp. 2. Col. maculatus. {PL 3. fg. 15.) 
Inhabits ditches. 

Genus 61. IIYDATICUS. Leach, Edinh. Encycl. vol. ix. 
External maxillary palpi with the second joint short, third and fourth 
long but equal and subulated : anterior tarsi of the male patelliform ; 
female with tlie thorax rough on both sides : elytra smooth. 



ei.ASS V. INSECTA, 



159 



Sp. 1. Hi/d. Hyhnerl Black; front and margin of the thorax ferrugine- 

Qus, margins of the elytra yellow witli black spots. 
Dytiscus parapleurus. Marsh. 
Inhabits ponds : is of rare occurrence near London. 

Genus 62. ACILIUS. Leach's Zool. Misc. vol. iii. 
External waxillary palpi with the second joint obconic, third elongate 

obconic, fourtli longer, nearly cylindrical, and rounded at its apex. 

Anterior tarsi of the male patelliforra : elj/tra of the female sulcated. 
Sp. 1. Ac. sulcalus. 
Dytiscus sulcatus of authors. 
Inhabits ponds and stagnant waters, and is verj' common. 

Genus G3. DYTICUS. Geoff., Illig., Leach. Dytiscus. Linnt, 
Fabr., Latr., Marsh. 

External maxillary palpi with tlie third and following joint of equal 
length ; the last gradually increasing from the middle : anterior tarsi 
of the male patelliform : {PI. 3. Jig. 13. a.) elytra of the female sul- 
cated. 

Sp. 1. Dj/t. marginalis. Ovate, olive-black above, luteous red beneath; 
tlie scutellum of the same colour with the elytra: clypeus, whole 
margin of the thorax, and border of the elytra, red clay-colour; bi- 
furcature of the sternum lanceolate. {PI. 3. Jig. 13. c.) 

Inhabits Europe, In Britain it is common in ponds at all seasons of 
the year. 

Dytiscus circumflexus of Fabricius is abundant in the ponds near 
London. It is distinguished from marginalis by its more elongate 
shape, by the bifurcate process of the sternum being spine-shaped, 
and by the colour of the scutellum, which is invariably ferruginous. 
{PI. 3. fig. 13. b. sternum) 

Fam. IV. Gyrinid.i. Leach. 

Internal maxillary palpi composed of one part: antenna very short: 
eyes divided so as to appear as four : four hinder feet compressed, fo- 
liaceous, formed for swimming. 

Genus 64. GYRINUS. Linn., Fair , Latr., Gyll, Leach. 
" * Elytra naked, zoith punctured strice." Leach. 
Sp. 1. Gyr. Natator. Oval: elytra with punctured striae; the inflexed 
margin testaceous. {PI. Q. fig. 2. a. antenna magnified, b. the hitidcr 
leg magnfied.) 
Inhabits stagnant waters. 

« *■* Elytra stnooth, viliosc." Leach, 
Sp. a. Gyr. villosus. Fabr., Gyll. 
Gyrinus Moderii. Mursham. 
Inhabits rivers and running water?. 



160 MODERN SYSTEM- 

Fam. V. BupRESTiADx. Leach. 

Mandibles with their extremities entire : antenna filiform or setaceous, 
often pectinated or serrated : bodj/ convex. 
I. Valpi filiform. 
Genus G6. BUPRESTIS. Linn., Fubr., Latr., Marsh., Leach. 

Antenna filiform, serrated in both sexes : thorax with the hinder mar- 
gin ai)plicd to the base of the elytra : bodi/ cylindric linear. 

Sp. 1. Bup. biguttata. Green above, blue-green beneath; scutellum 
transversely impressed : apex of the elytra serrated ; a white villosc 
spot on each side of the sutin-c, and three on the sides of the ab- 
domen. 

Buprestis biguttata. Fahr., Oliv., Marsh., Latr., Leach. 

inhabits France and Germany. In England it is very "rare. 

Sp. 2. Bup. viridis. (PI. 3. fig. 9. a. antenna; magnified.) 

Inhabits the birch and nut-tree. 

Genus 66. TRACIIYS. Fahr., Gi/ll, Leach. 
Antenna serrated and filiform : thoi-ax with the hinder inargin lobccl 

and applied to the base of the elytra : scutellum obsolete : bodij short, 

ovate or triangular. 
Sp. 1. Tra. minuta. Coppery-brown above; front impressed: elytra 

with slightly elevated spaces and transverse undulating bands of 

white hair. 
Buprestis mimita. Linn., Marsh.. Latr. Trachys minuta. Oi/IL, Fubr., 

Leach. 
Inhabits the birch and nut-tree in June and. July. 

Genus 67. APHANISTICUS. Lair., Leach. 
Antenna massive. 

Sp. 1. Aph. emarginatus. Latr., Leach, 
Buprestis emarginatus. Fahr. 
Inhabits France and England. 

II. Palpi terminated by a thick joint. 
Genus 68. MELASIS. Oliv., Fahr., Latr., Leach. Elater. Linn. 

Td^i with entire joints. * 

Sp. 1. Mel.flabellicornis. Obscure blackish : antenna-, tibia?, and tarsi 
red-brown : head punctate ; thorax rough, with elevated punctures, 
having an impressed dorsal line: elytra finely rugulose and striated. 

Elater buprcstoides. Linn. Melasis flabcllicornis. Oliv., Panz., Fahr., 
Leach. Melasis buprcstoides. Latr. 

Inhabits Germany and the south of France. In England it has been 
pnce taken by Mr. J. Curtis, of Norwich, an excellent artist and an 
industrious entomologist; and several times near Windsor, where i^ 
was first observed by Mr. Herschcl. 



CLASS V. INSr.CTA. 



mi 



Fam. VI. ElateridvE. Leach. 

Falpi thick at their extremities : antenna filiform : hodi/ formed for 
leaping : hinder thighs with a trochanter. 

Genus 69. CERATOPHYTUM. Leach. Cerophytum, Lutr. 
Mandibles without notch at their extremities : tarsi with their last 

joint but one bifid. 
Sp. 1. Cer. LatreiUii. Leach. 
Cerophytum Elateroides. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits Germany, Switzerland, France, and England. In the latter 

country it was discovered by Mr. Millard in the New Forest, Hants. 

Obs. — Latreille referred this genus to the preceding family (as a sec- 
tion of his family Sterroxi); but it has been referred to the Elate- 
rida by Dr. Leach in his MSS. 

Genus 70. ELATER of authors. 
Mandibles notched or bifid at tiieir extremities : tarsi with all their 
joints entire. 

This genus should be divided into several others, but the charac- 
ters have not yet been developed. They may be divided into the 
following sections, as given by Latreille in his Genera Crustaceortim 
et Insect or um. 

* The last joint of the antenna zcith the apex so ubritptly acuminated 
as to give tlte appearance of a twelfth joint. 

Sp. 1. Elat. fen-ugineus. Antennas serrated ; colour black : thorax with 
the exception of the hinder margin and elytra red, finely pimctated, 
pubescent : elytra with punctured strife. 

Elater ferrugineus. Linn., Fabr., Oliv., Panz., Marsh., Leach. 

Inhabits rotten trees, especially willows. In Britain it is very rare. It 
sometimes occurs in Kent; varies in size and colour. In Dr. Leach's 
collection (now in the British Museum) is a variety with the thorax 
entirely black. 

** Last joint of the antenna oval or oblong, not abruptlij acuminate. 

I. Body not linear, but three times as long as broad ,• abdomen oblong~ 
triangulate. 

A. Antenna {of the male at least) pectinated or serrated. 

Sp. 2. Flat, castaneus. Antennae of the male pectinated, colour black : 
head and thorax red-tomentose : elytra yellow punctate-striated : 
apex black. 

Elater castaneus. Linn., Fabr., Panz., Leach. 

Inhabits 



162 MODERN SYSTEM. 

B. Antenna simple : joints conic. 

Sp. 3. Elat. murinus. Black-fuscous, clouded with cinereous down ; tho- 
rax bituberculate : antennae and tarsi red. 
Elatcr murinus. Linii., Fahr., Marsh., Leach. 

Inhabits Europe. Is common on thistles, willows, and under stones 
in sandy situations. 

II. Body linear, nearly four times longer than broad: thorax oblong- 
qnadrate. 
Sp. 4. Hilat. marginatus. Black : front retusc : antennce, sides of the 
thorax, feet, anus, and hinder margins of the abdominal segments, 
brownish-yellow; suture and outer margin of the elytra black. 
Elatcr marginatus. Linn., Fahr., Oliv., Marsh., Leach. 
Inhabits various herbaceous plants in tields. 

Plate 3. represents fig. 7, Elater seneus, Linn., E. cyaneus, Marsh. — 
fig. 6. E. semiruber, Hoff'mannsegg's MSS. a species very common in 
the New Forest, Hampshire; and has, together with many other 
species, been confounded under the general name sangnirieiis. 

Fam. VII. Telephoeid^. Leach. 

Tarsi with the last joint but one bifid: ajitennce filiform, composed of 
ten joints : elytra soft, flexible : thorax nearly quadrate or semicir- 
cular. 

Genus 71. DASCILLUS. Latr. Atopa. Paykull, Fahr., Leach. 

CiiRYSOMELA. Linn. Crioceris. Marsh. Cistela. Olivier. 

Maxillary palpi filiform, the last joint somewhat cylindric : labial palpi 

not bifurcate : body ovate : feet simple. 
Sp. 1. Das. cervinn. Black, with cinereous down: antennae, feet and 

elytra, pale yellow. 
Chrysomela cervina. Linn. Atopa cervina. Payk., Fubr., Leach. Das- 

cillus cervinus. Latr. 
Inhabits hedges and woods. 

Genus 72. ELODES. Latr. Cyphon. Fabr., Payk., Gyll., Leach. 

Mamillary palpi filiform, the last joint somewhat cylindric: labial palpi 
bifurcate : body sub-ovate or round-ovate : feet with their tibiae sim- 
ple, and their thighs not thickened. 

Sp. 1. El. pallida. Sub-ovate, palc-rcd, punctulated, pubescent: eyes, 
antennas (with the exception of their base), apex of the elytra, and 
abdomen, blackish : thorax somewhat semicircular, transverse, lo- 
bate behind. 

Elodes pallida. Latr. Cyphon pallidus. Fabr., Leach. 

Inhabits the white-thorn and umbelliferous plants. 



CLASS V. INSF.CT/V. 163 

Genus 73. SCIRTES. Jlliger, Leach. Cyphox. Payk., Fahr. 
Elodes. Lair. Chrysomela. Linn., Mar.f/i. 
Maxillary palpi filiform, the last joint somewhat cylindric: labial palpi 

bifurcate: body ovate, inclining to round, convex : feet with their ti- 

biiB terminated with a strong spine : hinder thighs thickened and 

formed for leaping. 
Sp. 1. Scir. hcmisphtcrica. Black, smooth: thorax short, transverse, 

anterior margin somewhat concave : tibial tarsi, and base of the an- 

tenna^ pale fuscous. 
Cy])hon hemispharicus. Fabr., Fayk. Elodes hemispha:rica. Latr. 

Chrysomela hemisphterica. Marsh. 
Inhabits aquatic plants in ditches. 

Genus 74. DRTLUS. Oliv., Lam., Lair. Ptilinus. Fuhr.,G£off. 
Cantiiaris. Marsh. 

Maxillary palpi with their apex acute ; labial short, somewhat cylin- 
dric : antenna with their internal edge pectinated : muxillce with one 
process : mandibles notched at their points : body soft, anteriorly ar- 
cuate, inflexed. 

Sp. 1. Dri. Jlavescens. Black, pubescent : elytra yellowish. 

Drilus flavescens. Oliv., Latr., Leach. Cantharis serraticornis. Mar- 
sham. 

InhfAiits Europe. Is found in Darent Wood, Kent, amongst grass in 
tolerable abundance, some years. 

Genus 75. LYCUS. Fabr., Oliv., Lam., Leach. Cantiiaris. i«n«. 
Lampyris. Geojf., Marsh. 

Mandibles with their entire end pointed : antcnn(E compressed, more or 
less serrate, inserted near each other : palpi of the maxillae with the 
last joint somewhat triangular, having their points broader: head 
with the mouth produced into a kind of rostrum : maxilla with one 
process : elytra nearly of equal breadth : thorax somewhat quadrate, 
the anterior margin transverse, straight. 

Sp. 1. Ly. minutus. Elytra with four elevated lines: thorax black, with 
the margins much elevated; last joint of the antennse reddish. 

Lycus minutus. Gyll. Lampyris pusilla. Marsh. 

Inhabits oaks and hedges ; is rare in England. 

Genus 76. LAMPYRIS of authors. 

Mandibles pointed at their tips, sharp, and entire : antenna approximate, 
the joints cylindric and compressed, the third of the same length as 
the following joints, the second small : head concealed by the tho- 
rax: mouth small: maxilla with a double process : maxillary palpi 
with the last joint triangular-ovate, compressed, the apex acute : 
eyes very large : body soft, of the male with elytra and wings ; of the 
female apterous: ^/(07-«.i- semicircular. 

Sp. 1. Lam. nocliluca. Common Glow-worm. {PI. 2. Jig. 1. ^ -fig- '2. $ . 

L 2 



164 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 77. TELEPHORUS. Schaf., Be Geer, Leach, Oliv., Lam., 
Latr. Cantharis. Linn., Fabr., Marsh., Gyll. 

Mayidihles with their apex acute and entire: antenna distant: joints cy- 
lindric, elongate: maxilla bifid: body soft: palpi with their last joint 
securiform : elytra the length of the abdomen. 

Sp. 1. Tel. fuscus. Cinereous-black : mouth, base of the antenna^, 
thorax, back of the abdomen, sides of the belly and anus, red : tho- 
rax with a black spot. (PI. 3. Jig. 4.) 

Cantharis fusca. Linn., Fabr. Telephorus fuscus. Latr. 

Inhabits various plants in the spring and beginning of summer. 

Genus 78. MALTHINUS. Latr., Leach. Caxtiiaris. Linn., 
Fabr., Marsh. Telephorus. Oliv., De Geer. 

Antenna distant, joints elongate, cylindric: maxilla bifid: mandibles with 
their points entire and very sharp : body soft : palpi with their last 
joint ovate, acute : elytra shorter than the abdomen : head attenuated 
behind more or less. 

§iY.\.Mal.Jlavns. Head much attenuated behind : thorax not broader 
than long, margined all round, the middle longitudinally impressed : 
body yellowish : antennje (base excepted), vertex, and dorsal mark 
of the thorax blackish : elytra with punctured stride, yellow at their 
points. 

Telephorus minimus. Oliv. Malthinus flavus. Latr, 

Inhabits the oaks of England and France. 

Fam. VIII. Melyrid.e. Leach. 

Tai^si with the last joint but one bifid : mandibles notched : maxilla bi- 
fid: antenna filiform, composed often joints: elytra soft, flexible: 
thorax quadrate or semicircular. 

Genus 79. DASYTES. Payk., Fabr., Latr., Leach. Melyris. 
Olivier, Lam., Illig. Tillus. Marsh. 

Head somewhat transverse, retracted within the thorax, even to the 
eyes: taj-si with nails apparently bifid: antenntg with short turbi- 
nated joints nearly as broad as long: lip with the apex deeply 
notched, almost bifid : body without papillse. 

Sp. 1. Das. ater. Oblong, black, widely punctate, hairy, the hairs 
black and cinereous : head with a double impression in front, which 
is ovate and roughish. 

Dasytes ater. Latr., Fabr. Melyris ater. Olivier. 

Inhabits Europe, amongst grass and moss. 

Genus 80. MALACHIUS. Fabr., Oliv., Lam., Latr., Leach. Can- 
tharis. Linn., Marsh. Telephorus. Schaff., De Geer. 
Head somewhat transverse, retractile even to the eyes within the tho- 
rax: tarsi with apparently bifid nails: antenna with conic or cylin- 
dric-conic joints, longer than broad, in some few pecthuited : labiimi 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 165 

with apex entire or scarcely notched : body with two papillae on each 
sitle, one under the anterior angle of the thorax, the other at the 
base of the abdomen, 
l^p. 1. Mai. (Liieus. Brassy-green: head anteriorly red-yellowish : elytra 
blood-red, with the base and half the suture brassy-green. {PL 3. 

fg- 5.) 
Malachius aeneus. Fabr., Latr., Oliv., Gyll., Leach. Cantharis aenea, 

Linn., Marsh. 
Inhabits various plants. 

Fam. IX. TiLLiD.iL. Leach. 

Antenna thicker at their extremities, serrated in some, solid in others : 
elytra covering the whole abdomen : body cylindric : thorax narrov/ 
behind. 

Stirps 1. — Tarsi with first joint very distinct, longer than the pre- 
ceding joint. 

Genus 81. TILLUS. OVvo., Fabr., Marsh., Latr., Leach. Chry- 
soMELA. Linnaus. Clerus. Fabr., Oliv. 
'Maxillary palpi filiform : labial palpi securiform, nearly completely fer- 
rated : thorax cylindric or somewhat cordate. 

* Thorax cylindric. 

8p. 1. Til. clongntus. Black, villous: thorax red, black before. 

Tillus elongatus. Fabr., Oliv., Marsh., Latr. Chrysomela elongata. 

Limi. 
Inhabits oaks in June. 

T. ambidans of Marsham is a mere variety of this species. 

** Thorax subcordute. 

Sp. 2. Til. nnifasciatus. Black, pubescent : elytra red at their base, with 

a white transverse band in the middle. 
Clerus imifasciatus. Fabr., Oliv. Tillus nnifasciatus. Latr. 
Inhabits England. 

Genus 8'2. THANASIMUS. Latr., Leach. Clerus. Geof, Be 

Gccr, Fabr., Oliv. Attelabus. LJnn. Cleroides. Schaffer. 

Mavillary palpi filiform : labial palpi securiform : antenna with their 

extremities thick and not serrated : thorax somewhat cordate. 
Sp. 1. Tha. formicarius. Black: thorax and base of the elytra red: ely- 
tra with two transverse bands. 
Attelabus formicarius. Linn. Clerus formicarius. Fabr., Oliv., Marsh. 
Inhabits trees in Europe. 

Stirps "2. — Tarsi -w'wh the first joint very short, the upper part con- 
cealed by the base of the second articulation. 



166 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 83. OPILUS. Latr., Leach. Eupociis. Illiger, 

Palpi securiform: antenncE with the ninth and tenth joints obconic, the 
last oval, obUquely truncate : eyes not notched: thorax conic-cyUn- 
dric, narro\yer behind. 

Sp. 1. Op. mollis. Fuscous, villous : base and apex of the elytra and 
a middle transverse band with the under parts of the thighs yellow- 
ish gray. Abdomen red. (P/. 12. fg. 1.) 

Notoxus mollis. Fabr. Clerus mollis. Oliv., Marsh. Attelabus mollis. 
Linn. Opilus mollis. Latr. 

Inhabits Europe, under the bark of trees and in the wood of decayed 
willows, eating the larvae of other insects. 

Genus 84. NECROBIA. Lair., Oliv., Leach. Dermestes. Linn. 
Clerus. Geoff., De Geer, Marsh. Cory^etes. Paykull, Fabr. 
Palpi terminated by an obconic joint: antenna with the three last 
joints forming an oblong triangulate mass, obtuse both externally 
and internally. 
Sp. 1. Nee. rvficoUis. Blue-black: thorax and base of the elytra red. 
Dermestes ruficollis. Linn. Corynetes ruficoUis. Fabr. 
Inhabits Europe, feeding on decayed animal substances. 

Fam. X. SiLPHiAD.?;. Leach's Zool. Misc. vol. iii. ~ 

Antenna gradually thickening towards their extremities, or terminated 
by a solid or perfoliate club : eh/fra covering the greater portion of 
the abdomen: boJj/ oval or parallelopiped. 

Stirps 1. — Palpi very distinct: mandibles with their apex entire. 

Genus 85. NECIIOPHAGUS. Fabr., Oliv., Lam., Leach. Sil- 
PHA. Linn., Dc Geer, Marsh. Dermestes. Geoff. 

Antenna not much longer than the head, terminated abruptly in a per- 
foliated knob : elyt)-a truncated in a straight line, the external mar- 
gin not channelled or keeled : boclij long quadrate. 

Sp. 1. Necr. spinipes. Black: antcnns ferruginous at their points: ely- 
tra with their external margin and a double transverse undulated 
band of orange: trochanters of hinder thighs produced into a spine, 

Sp. 2. Necr. Vespillo. {PL 2. fig. 6. a. antenna magiiified.) 

Inhabits putrid fungi and dead animals. 

Genus 86. NECRODES. Wilkinss MSS. Leach. 

Bodrj elongate oval : thorax orbicular : apex of the elytra obliquely trun^ 
cate: hinder thighs of the male thicker than the rest. 

Sp. 1. Necr. littoralis. Black : antennce with the three last joints ferru- 
ginous : elytra with three elevated lines, the two external ones con- 
nected by a tubercle: hinder tibicc of the male arcuate: the thighs 
toothed. 



CLASS V. INSECTA- 167 

Silpha littoralis. Linn., Fair., Lair., Oliv., Mursh. 
Inhabits dead bodies, on the banks ol" rivers or on the shores of the 
sea. 

Genus 87. OICEOPTOINIA. Leach. 
Body oval : thorar nearly semicircular, transverse, emarginale befoijp : 
antennm with the club abrupt, distinct : eli/tra whole (female in ge- 
neral emarginale). 

* Eli/tra whole in both sexes. 
Sp. 1. Oic. thoracica. Black: thorax unequal, ferruginous, somewhat 

silky : each elytron with three elevated lines. 
Silpha thoracica. Linn., Fabr., Lcitr., Marsh. 
Inhabits Europe, in dead animals and putrid fungi. 

** Elytra of the female icith the apex emarginated. 
Genus Thanatophilus. Leach. 
Sp. 1. sinuata — Silpha sinitata. Fabr., &c. 

Genus 88. SILPHA. Linn., Leach, Fabr., Latr., Marsh. 
" * Elytra zcith elevated lines." 
Body oval : thorax nearly semicircular, truncate in front : antenna with 

a gradually formed club. 
Sp. 1. Sd. obscura. Black, dull above, finely punctate, shining beneath : 
thorax smoothly punctate, the punctures small and close. Each 
elytron with three elevated straight lines. 
Silpha obscura. Linn., Latr., Marsh. 
Inhabits Europe. Is very common under stones and on pathways in 

the spring and summer. 
Sp. '2. Sil. quudrimaculata. {PL 2.fg. 7. a. antennte magnified.) 
Inhabits oaks. 

" «* Elytra smooth:' 

Sp. 3. Silpha lavigata. Fabr. 

Inhabits pathways in sandy situations. 

Genus 89. PHOSPHUGA. Leach's Zool. Misc. vol. iii. 

Body oval or nearly rounded : thorax semicircular, anterior part trun- 
cated : elytra whole : antennce with the three last joints abruptly in- 
creasing towards their apex. 

Sp. 1. Phos.atrata, Oval and black : elytra rough and punctured, with 
three elevated lines. 

Inhabits beneath the bark of trees and under moss in winter, sandy si- 
tuations and pathways in spring. 

Sp. 2. Phos. subrotundata. Nearly round and black : elytra rough, and 
punctured with three elevated lines. 

Phosphuga subrotundata. Leach, Zool. Misc. vol. iii. 75. 

Inhabits Ireland, beneath stones; is very rare. 



168 mou£r:n system. 

Stirps 2. — Palpi very distinct: mandibles notched at their extremities. 

Genus 90. SCAPHIDIUM. Oliv., Payk., Fahr., Latr., Marsh. 
Antenne, with an abrupt club composed of live somewhat hemispheric 

joints : body acuminated at each extremity : elytra truncated : fnlpi 

filiform : scutellum distinct. 
Sp. 1. Sea. quadrimaculaturn. Body black, shining: thorax somewhat 

coarctate on each side behind : elytra widely punctured, with two 

blood-red spots on each : tibife striated. 
Inhabits Germany, France, and England, m fungi ^rvA rotten wood. 

Genus 91. SCAPHISOMA. Leach. Scaphidium. Pabr., Latr. 

Oliv. 

Antennae, with a club composed of five somewhat oval joints : body 

acuminated at each extremity : elytra truncated : palpi filiform : seiu- 

tellum none. 

Obs. — The hinder margin of the thorax at the middle is produced into 

an angle. 
Sp. 1. Sca/agnricinnm. Body black, shining, very smooth; antennae, 

apex of the elytra, and feet, pale brown. 
Inhabits the Boletus versicolor and o{\\ex fungi. 

Genus 92. CHOLEVA. Latr., Spence, Leach. Catops. Pabr., 

Payk., Gyll. Ptomophagus. llliger. Mordella. Forster, 

Marsh. Helops. Paiiz. Cistela. Oliv., Pabr. Luperus. 

Frolich. Dermestes. Rossi. 

Antenna straight, with a five-jointed club: maxillary palpi with the last 

joint subulate, conic : labial palpi with the last joint obtuse : thorax 

with the hinder angles obtuse. 

The species of this genus are numerous, and have afforded the 
subject of a learned and interesting monograph, by that excellent 
entomologist, W. Spence, esq. published by the Linnean Society in 
tlie eleventh volume of their Transactions. 
Sp. 1. Cho. oblonga. Narrow, oblong : thorax narrower behind, the 
hinder angles obtuse, the middle slightly foveolated : antennae some- 
what filiform. 
Cistela angustata. Pabr. Choleva oblonga. Latr., Spence. Catops 
elongatus. Payknll, Gyll. Ptomophagus rufescens. Illig. Mordella 
picea. Marsh. Luperus cisteloides. Frolich. 
Inhabits moss and under stones. 

Genus 93. CATOPS. Pabr., Payk., Gyll, Panz., Leach. 
Antenna straight clavate, the club five-jointed: maxillary palpi with the 
last joint subulate, conic ; labial with the last joint obtuse : thorax 
with the hinder angles acute : elyti-a more or less striated. 
Sp. 1. Cat. sericeus. Ovate, gibbous-conve.x, brown-pitch; antennse 

and legs pitchy-rust-coloured. 
Inhabits moss. 



CLASS V. IXSECTA. 169 

Genus 04. TTOMOPHAGUS. Illig., Knock, Lend,. 

AnteniKE straight clavatcd, club five-jointed : maxilhtn/ palpi with the 
last joint subulate, conic: labhd \\\x\\ the last joint obtuse : thorax 
with the hinder angles acute : cli/tra never striated. 

Sp. 1. Ptom. villosus. 

Inhabits dead ai'iinials. 

Genus 95. MYL.ECIIUS. Latr., Leadt. 
Antenna: incuned, shorter than the thorax, the basal joints distinctly 

thicker than the rest ; club five-jointed, the joints transverse : palpi 

of the maxilla with the last joint subulate : labial palpi with the 

last joint obtuse. 
Sp. 1. Myl. hrunncm. Oblong-ovate, black-brown, finely but widely 

punctate, slightly pubescent. 
Catops brevicornis. Payk. Mylffichus brunneus. Latr. Choleva 

brunnea. Spence. 
Inhabits France, Sweden, and England : in the latter country it has 

occurred but twice. 

Genus 96. CRYPTOPHAGUS. Herhst, Payh., Gyll., Leach. 

Body depressed ; back plain : taisi with elongate slender joints : an- 
tcnna with a compact three-jointed club. 

Sp. 1. Crypt, cellaris. Testaceous lerrugineous, widely punctate, pu- 
bescent: thorax finely denticulated, on each side distinctly uniden- 
tate, anterior angles dilated, rounded, ending behind in an obsolete 
tooth. 

Ips cellaris. Oliv., Latr. Dermestes cellaris. Scopoli. Cryptophagus 
cellaris. Payk., GylL, Leach. Cryptophagus crenatus. Herbst. Der- 
mestes Fungorum. Panzer. 

Inhabits damp wood, paper, &c. in cellars. 

Genus 97. ENGIS. Payk., Fabr., GylL, Leach. 
Borfy depressed, back plain: antenna; v^'lxh a tliree-jointed much per- 

foliated club: foz-s/ with the three first joints short. 
Sp. 1. Engis humeralis. Elliptic, black, shining, punctate; antennfe, 

head, thorax, humeral spot on the elytra and feet red approaching 

to blood red. 
Engis humeralis. Payk., Fabr., GylL Tps humeralis. Herbst. Dacne 

h.umeralis. Latr. 
Inhabits Europe, under the bark of trees and in boleti. 

Genus 98. THYMALUS. iMtr., Leach. Peltis. Kugellan, IIU- 
ger, Payk., Fabr. (Jstoma. Laicharting. 
Body depressed ; back plain : tar.'si with the third joint neither bifid 
nor dilated: palpi terminated by a thick joint: mandiblea promi- 
nent: antenna with a thrpc-iointfd club. 



170 MODERJSl SYSTEM. 

Sp. 1. Thym. ferriig'meus. 

Inhabits beneath the bark of trees. 

Genus 99. NITIDULA. Linn., Tuhr., Pa>jk., Olivier, Munh., 
Leach. 

Mandibles promment : hodi^ short, depressed ; back plain : thorax gene- 
rally broad : antenmc with the third joint twice as long as the second; 
club abrupt and orbicular, composed of three joints. 

Sp. 1. Nit . hipmtidata. Body elliptic, brown, blackish : thorax emargi- 
nale ; elytra with a red spot on each. 

Nitidula bipustulata. Linn., Lafr., Fabr., Marsh. 

Sp. 2. Nil. discoidea. {PL 2. Jig. 3. a. antemuB tnagnified.) 

Nit. discoidea. Marsh. 

Inhabits dead carcases, dried bones, bolcti, and under the bark of 
trees. 

Genus 100. IPS. Fabr., Herbst, Gyll., Leach. Nitidula. Latr. 

Mandibles prominent, strong, and much bent at their points : body 
elongate-quadrate ; back plain : thorax transverse-quadrate : an- 
tenna with the third joint twice as long as the second; club abrupt 
and orbicular, composed of three joints. 

Sp. 1. Tps quudripustulatus. 

Inhabits the decayed stumps of trees under the bark. 

Genus 101. BITURUS. Latr., Leach. Ips. Olivier. Dermestes. 
Geoff'., L)e Geer, Fabr. 

Ante nntc With the third joint not twice as long as the following joint ; 
club composed of three joints : mandibles prominent : body oval or 
oblong ; back plain : thorax broad behind, with the angles pointed : 
elytra covering the abdomen. 

Sp. 1. Bit. tomentosus. Antennae shorter than the thorax : thorax 
short, the posterior angles broadly depressed, reflected ; body oval, 
black, with a reddish-yellow down ; antenna and feet yellow 
red. 

Inhabits the white-thorn and umbelliferous plants in May and June. 

Genus 102. CATERETES. Herbst, Latr., Leach. Brachypte- 
Eus. Kugellan. Dermestes. Linn., Fabr. Strongylus. 
Herbst. Nitidula. Oliv. CercuS. Latr: 
AntenniE with the third and following joint scarcely differing in length ; 
club compressed, perfoliate, obconic, composed of three joints; tho- 
rax rounded, without angles behind : elytra very short : body de- 
pressed, back plain : mandibles prominent. 
Sp. 1. Cat. rvjilabris. Black, shining, with gray down* 
Cercus rufilabris. Latr. 
Inhabits junci near liviU. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 171 

Stirps 3. — Labial palpi scarcely distinct: antenna; placed in an ex- 
cavation of the thorax: mandibles with their apex arcuate and 
acute. 

Genus 103. MICROPErLUS. Lafr., Leach. 
AntenncE with the club composed of but one joint : maxUlari/ palpi with 

the last joint subulate. 
Sp. 1 Mia-, porcatits. Black ; elytra cancellated. 
Staphylinus porcatus. Tuykull. 
Inhabits sandy ground. 

Fam. XT. Stapiiylinice. 

Antenna: gradually thickening towards their extremities, or terminated 
by a perfoliated mass : elijfrn covering about \v4\i the abdomen, or 
less, but very rarely more : body long, and more or less narrow. 

Gravenhorst has written an admirable monograph on this family, 
entitled JMonogropliia Culeoplcrorum Microptei-uruni. 

I'his is a very extensive family ; several himdred species are found 
in this country. They inhabit fungi in all its states; dung, roots of 
grass, flowers, under the bark of trees; and may be found in immense 
numbers in sand pits, and in the dung of animals, from v/hich they 
may be driven by immersing the dung in water in the spring and 
bummcr months ; by this means many hundred specimens may be 
obtained in a single day : the smaller species should be placed on 
a piece of gummed paper, with the legs and antenna; carefully ex- 
tended to show their characters. It is necessary to collect great 
numbers of them, as they demand a very minute examinatioi], 
which, in many instances, requires the aid of a microscope, the 
characters being so very obscure. 

Division I. — Anterior margin of the head (bearing the mandibles) imme- 
diately behind the eyes, terminated by a ti-ansverse straight line, (or zvith 
a line slightly bent in the middle,) not i-oundcd or crooked at their sides. 
Antennce inserted below the middle part of the abovementioned line. Tho- 
rax long. Neck distinct. Body very long and narrow. Elytra covering a 
very small portion of the abdomen. 

Genus lOi. STAPHYLINUS. Linn., Tabr., Latr., Oliv., Lam., 
Grave ah., Leach. 

Palpi filiform : antenuiE towards their extremities distinctly thicker, 
moniliform, the last joint obliquely truncate or emarginate : lip 
deeply emarginate. 

Sp. 1. Staph, erythropterus. Black ; the greater part of the antenna, 
elytra, and feet red; hinder margins of the head and thorax, the 



172 MODERN SYSTLM. 

breast, and a double series of spots on each side of the abdomen, 
golden-yellow tomentose. (PL 4. fig. 10.) 
Inhabits Europe in dung, and under stones. 

Obs. — Several new genera have been formed from this genus, of which 
the following species may be considered as the tj-pes : 

Genus Creophilus. Kirh/. 

Staph, maxillosus of authors. 

Genus Velleius. Leach. 

Staph, dilatatus. PnijkulL 
Staph, concolor. Marshani. 

Genus Emus. Leach. 

Staph, hirtus iyf authors. 

Genus Staphylinus. 

Staph, erythropterus. 

Genus Ocypus. Kirbi/. 
Staph, cyaneus. 

Genus Gyrohypnus. Kirh}/. 
Staph, fulgidus. 

To my kind and valuable friend Dr. Leach I am indebted for the 
above and following notice of new genera, as lately established by 
the celebrated entomologists Avhose names are affixed. 

Genus 105. LATHROBIUM. Gravenhorst, Latr., Leach. P.ide- 
Kus. Gravcnh., Fabr., Oliv. Staphy'linus. Linn., Geoff. 

Palpi subulate, with the last joint acicular and minute : antenna nearly 
filiform, joints nearly conic, those towards the extremities more 
rounded, and somewhat globose : lip deeply notched, nearly bilo- 
bate. 

Sp. 1. Lath, elongatum. Pubescent, minutely but widely punctated, 
black, shining; with the mouth, antenna?, apex of the elytra, and 
feet, red-brown : head ovate: antenna! about the length of the tlio- 
rax, with the outermost joints nearly globose: thorax elongate-qua- 
drate, with obtuse angles, the breasts equal, the middle dorsal line 
smiooth. 

Lathrobium. elongatum. Gj'utenlt., Latr., Leach. Staphylinus elonca- 
tus. Linn. Pa;derus elongatus. Fabr. 

Inhabits putrid vegetables, and under stones. 

Obs. — Lathrobium depressum may be considered as the type of the 
Genus Achenium of Leach. 



CLASS V. IXSECTA. 173 

Division II. — Anterior margin of the head circumscribed hy a curved line, 
the antenna inserted on this side of' the level of the line. E/^tra covering 
half' the ab lomen or more. Thorax generally longer than broad, or wilk 
equal diameters. 

Subdivision 1. — Maxillary palpi longer than the labial one, with their 
extremities thickest ; the last joint obscure. Body linear. Head with a 
distinct neck. Thorax orbicular or cylindric. 

Genus 106. PiEDERUS. Fubr., Oliv., Latr., Payk., Lam., Gravenh., 
Leach. Staphylixus. Linn., Geoff., Dc Gccr. 
Antenna inserted before the eyes, insensibly thickening towards their 

extremities ; the third joint very long : eyes moderately large. 
Sp. 1. Pad. riparius. Body red, shining: head, antennae (four basal 

joints excepted), apex of the abdomen, and knees, black : elytra 

blue, with vvhite impressed dots. (PI. 4. fig. 12.) 
Paiderus riparius. Fabr., Latr., Oliv., Gravenh. Stapliylinus riparius. 

Linn. 
Inhabits banks and under stones. 

Obs. — Padei-us orbiculatiis is the type of the Genus Rugilus of 
Leach. 

Genus 107. STENUS. Latr., Cut., Lam., Fabr., Payk., Gravenh., 
Leach. 
Antenna inserted at the exterior margin of the eyes, abruptly thicker 
at their extremities, the inferior joints cylindric, the outer ones co- 
nic globose : eyes nearly globose, large. 

* Tongue long, anus withoid seta. 

Sp. 1. Stenus bigv.ttatiis. Black, with gray down, minutely punctate, 
somewhat rugulose: vertex of the head with an elevated line: tho- 
rax behind with an impressed little line; each elytron with a reddish 
round spot. {PI. 4. Jig. 13.) 

Staphylinus guttatus. Linn., Marsh. Stenus biguttatus. Fabr., Payk., 
Gra~jenh., Latr. 

** Tongue obsolete. Anus with two seta. 

Genus Dianous. Leach. 
Sp. 2. Stenus carulescens. Gyllenhall. 

Subdivision 2. — Maxillary palpi not much longer than the labial, not 
thicker at their exti-emities ; the last joint distinct. 

A. Mandibles strong, with their e.xternal edge with one or more teeth. 
LleadJ'ree. 

a. The second, third, and fourth joints of the tarsi very short; 
the last joint as long as the others united. 



174 atociRN^ySTEar. 

Genus 108. OXYPORUS. Fabr., Oliv., Lean., Leach, GrmK, Lntr. 

AntenncB scarcely longer than the head, terminated by a perfoliate^ 
mass : maxillary palpi filiform ; the labial ones ternrinated by a very 
large lunate joint : Mo/'«x semicircular: //earf broader than the tho- 
rax. 

Sp. 1. Oxt/. riifus. Red; sviture and apex of the elytra, anus and 
breast, black. {Pl.4.fg.li.) 

Oxyporus rufus. Fabr., Lair., Gravenh., Oliv. Staphylinus rufus. 
Linn. 

Inhabits bokti and other fungi. 

Genus 109. OXYTELUS. Grav., Lair., Leach. 

AntenncE somewhat broken, incurved, thicker externally, with the last 
joints foliate above ; the extreme joint globose ovate ; the basal joint 
very long conic: palpi subulate: anterior tibia, very spiny, with their 
extremities notched or narrowed externally, with their tarsi capable 
of being reflected from their sides . 

Sp. 1. 0x1/ . carinatin. Black, shining, distinctly and widely impresso- 
punctate; front unequal, somewhat inclined to be rugulose; the an- 
terior space between the eyes rather smooth : thorax impressed oa 
each side; the middle with three grooves, and four carina? ; the two 
middle ones joining together : feet blackish : tibia? with very short 
little spines. 

Oxytelus carinatus. Grav., Latr. 

Inhabits dung. 

Qbs. — The following genera have lately been formed from this genus : 

Genus Oxytelus. Latr. 
Palpi acuminate. 
Sp. 1. O.xy. carinatus : 2. Oxy. rugosus. 

Genus Bledius. Leach. 

Sp. 1. Oxy. armatus. Panz. 

Genus Carpelimus. Kirby. 
Palpi capitate. 

Genus Eristhetets. Knoch. 

Palpi with their last joint ovate. 
Erist. scaber. Knoch. 

Taken on an old oak near Plymouth by Dr. Leach. 

Genus 110. OMALIUM. Grav., Latr., Leach. Staphylinus. 

Geoff'., Fabr., Oliv. 

Palpi filiform : antenna; thicker towards their extremities, the last 

joints rounded, somewhat perfoliate :- thorax transverse-quadrate, the 

anterior angles rounded. 

Sp. 1. Omal. rivulare. Blackish, punctate; base of the antennae and 



CLASS V. IXSECTA. 17.5 

feet pale brown : hearl with two impressions between the eyes : tho- 
rax marginatcil, impressed at the hinder angles; back with two 
grooves : elytra twice as long as the thorax, ol)Scure brown. 

Oraalium rivulare, Gr-avcnh., Latr. Staphyliniis rivularis. Fci)/k. 

Inhabits dunghills. 

Obs. — The following species may be considered as types of as many 
genera : 

Genus Eloniim. Leach. 
Omalium striatum. 

Genus Omalivm. Gravcnhorst. 
Omal. depressum. 

Genus Anthobium. Leach. 
Omal. melanocephalum. 

b. Tarsi with elongate joints, the last joint shorter than the others 
united. 

Genus 111. LESTIVA. Latr. ANXHOPiiAcrs. Graven., Leach. 

Staphylixus. Fabr., Fuyk., Oliv. Cauabus. Fanz., Ma?-sh. 

Antemi(Z nearly filiform, ilie second and third following joints obconic: 

palpi filiform : thora.v elongate, somewhat cordiform, narrow, and 

truncate behind. 
Sp. 1. Lest, punctalata. Black, fuscous, somewhat smooth, minutely 

and finely punctate : antenna? and feet obscure rufous. 
Carabus dimidiatus. Fanz. Carabus staphylinoides. Marsh. Les- 

tiva punctulata. Latr. 
Inhabits France and England; in the latter it is rare. 

Genus 112. PROTEINUS. Latr., Leach. 

Antenuiz evidently thicker towards their extremities: palpi subulate: 
thorax transverse. 

Sp. 1. Prot.bracln/pterus. Depressed, flat, black, shining, smooth, silky- 
above ; mandibles, basal joint of the antenna^, and feet, brown red : 
head a little narrower than the thorax, triangular : thorax short, 
smooth, anteriorly a little narrower, the sides somewhat rounded, 
very slightly margined, the hinder margin twice as broad as long, 
the angles slightly prominent and somewhat reddish : scutelhmi 
veiy small : elytra elongate-quadrate, externally marginate, the 
hinder an^d external margins rounded :, abdomen with the four last 
joints naked. 

Proteinus brachypterus. Latr. 

InhaV)its France and England. 



176 MODERN SYSTEM. 

B. Mandibles without dent iculat ions on their internal edge. Head in- 
serted into the thorax more or less. 

a. Antennae wide apart, inserted before the eyes ; the fifth and 

following joints longer than broad : tibiae spinose. 

Genus 113. TACHINUS. Grav., Lafr., Leach. Oxyporus. Fabr. 
Stapiiyli>:us. Linn., Geoff., Oliv., Fayk. 
Palpi filiform. 

Sp. 1. Tach. riifipes. Black, shining, smooth : antennee fuscous : ely- 
tra and feet generally brown ; external apex of the elytra paler. 
Staphylinus rufipes. FaykiiU. Tachinus rufipes. Grav., Latr. Oxy- 
porus rufipes. Fabricius? 
Inhabits the dung of oxen and horses. 

Obs. — The following may be considered as types of the 

Genus Tachynus. Grav. 

Sp. 1. Tach. subterraneus. 

Genus Bolitobils. Leach. 
Tach. analis. 

Genus 114. TACHYPORUS. Gi^uv., Latr., Leach. Staphylinus. 
Limt., Oliv., Geoff., Marsh. Oxyporus. Fair. 
Palpi subulate. 

Sp. 1. Tach. chrysomelinus. Black, shining, smooth : thorax, elytra 
(base excepted), and feet, red yellow : thorax somewhat transverse : 
abdomen with the extremity truncate. 
Tachyporus chrysomelinus. Grav., I^atr., Leach. Oxyporus chryso- 
melinus. Fabr. Staphylinus chrysomelinus. Linn., Marsh. 
Inhabits flowers, the roots of grass and moss. 

b. Antennas more or less approximate, inserted at the anterior 

internal margin of the eye, fifth and following joints broader 
than long : tibite not spiny. 

Obs. — Tachyporus Granum. Gravenh. is the type of the Genus Cypha. 
Kirby. 

G6nus 115. ALEOCHARA. Enoch, Gravenh., Latr., Leach. Sta- 
phylinus. Linn., Fabr., Geoff., De Geer, Oliv., Marsh. 
Head with the hinder part received into the thorax. 
Sp. 1. Aleo. canuUculata. Red fuscous, feet paler: head and the two 
last joints (save one of the abdomen), black: elytra together trans- 
verse-quadrate ; back of the thorax excavated with an impressed 
longitudinal line in the middle. 
Alcochara canaliculata. Grav., Latr. Staphylinus canaliculatus. Fabr. 
Iniiabits sandy banks and under stones. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 177 

Oss. — Of this genus the following species may be considered as types 
of the undermentioned genera : 

Genus Aleociiaha. Grav. 
Sp. 1. Aleo. fuscipes. 

Genus Drusilla. Leach. 
Sp. 1. Aleo. canaliculata. 

Genus Falagria. Leach. 
Sp. 1. Aleo. sulcata. 

Genus Autalia. Leach. 

Sp. 1. Aleo. imprcssa. 2. Aleo. rivularis. 

Genus 116. LOMECHUSA. Grav., Lafr., Leach. 
Hcarf disengaged from the thorax behind, with an inconspicuous neck 
or none : thorax transverse, the sides rounded : antenna distinctly 
perfoliated. 

Sp. 1. Lorn, emarglnata. Brown-reddish rather opaque, minutely punc- 
tulated: elytra pale, testaceous; hinder angles of the thorax and 
elytra terminating in spinous points. 

Lom. emarginata. Grav. 

Inhabits dry sand spots under stones. 

Ob3. — Genus Dinarda. Leach. 
The tj'pe of this genus is Lomechusa dentata. Grav. 

Fam. XII. PsELAPHiDii. Leach. 

DiMERA. LatrciUe. 

Elytra abbreviated : tarsi with three articulations : claws monodactyle. 

" Latreille supposed that these animals had l)ut two joints to their 

tarsi, and therefore placed them in a pecvdiar section of the Cole- 

optera; observing, however, that they are allied to Aleochara, to 

whose family they are even referred by Kirby." 

Dr. Leach considers them as constituting a distinct famil}', whose 
situation is intermediate between the StaphylinidtB and Scydmanidfr, 
to both of which they are intimately allied; but may be distinguished 
from either by the structure of their claws, and from the latter also 
by their abbreviated elytra. 

In the third voliune of the Zoological Miscellany is given an ex- 
cellent monograph of the genera of this family, in which are enu- 
merated nineteen British species, five of which are new, and none of 
them were known to Mr. Marsham, who has not described one spe- 
cies in his Entomologia Britunnica. 

1 . Antenna with eleven joints. Maxillary palpi elongated. 
SuRps 1. — Body elongated and depressed. 



178 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 117. EUPLECTUS. Kirhi/, MSS. Leach, Zool Misc. vol. iii. 
Antenna: with the first and second joint tliick : maiilhiry palpi with the 

last joint conical. 
Sp. 1. Eup. Heichenbachii. Leach. 
Inhabits . Taken in Norfolk by Mr. J. Curtis. 

Stirps 2. — Body short and convex. 

A. Maxillart/ palpi ioith the last joint secnriform. 

Genus 118. BYTHINUS. Leach. Pselaphus, Familij II. Rcichen- 

bach. 

Antenna with the first joint round and considerably larger than the se- 
cond, which is but a little increased, of the male internally acutely 
produced ; the third and succeeding to the eighth joint round and of 
an equal size, ninth and tenth larger, eleventh oval, the last acute: 
maxillari/ palpi with the first articulation filiform, increasing towards 
the apex; second oval, third securiform, the base with a large angle. 

Sp. 1. Bi/th. Curtisii. 

Inhabits sand-pits. 

Genus 119. ARCOPAGUS. Leach. 
Antenme with the first and second joint increasing; the first elongated, 
the second round; the third and followiug to the eighth nearly glo- 
bose; ninth increasing, nearly globose and lenticular; the tenth 
larger; the eleventh and remainder increasing, oval, the apex of the 
last joint acuminated : jnaxillari/ palpi with the first joint filiform, 
gradually increasing to a club ; the second elongate-oval ; the third 
oval securiform, base angular. 

* Antenna with the fwst joint cylindi-ical. 

Sp. 1. Arc.glabricoUis. Leach. Pselaphus grabricollis. Reich. 
Inhabits woods, under moss. 

** Antenna with the first joint internally dilated. 

Sp. 2. Arc. bulbifer. Leach. Pselaphus bulbifer. Reich. 
Inhabits Norfolk. Messrs. Sims and Jos. Hooker. 

Genus 120. TYCHUS. Leach. 

Antenna with the first and second joint enlarged and nearly round, the 
first a little more lengthened and thicker than the second; third and 
following to the eighth nearly globose ; third and fourth a little 
longer than the fifth, which is somewhat larger ; ninth and tenth 
globose, increasing, and lenticular, the tenth larger than the ninth ; 
the eleventh with the others gradually increasing. 

Sp. 1. Tych. niger. 

Inhabits ? Taken near London and Bristol, as well as in the vici- 
nity of Norwich. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 179 

B. Maxillary palpi with the last joint clavate. 

Genus 121. BRYAXIS, Knoch, Leach. Pselaphus, Fam. III. A. 
Reich. 
-^/j^fHWrf- with the first and second joint enlarged and nearly cylindri- 
cal; tliird and tbl lowing to the seventh nearly cylindrical; the fifth 
the longest, eighth small and subglobose, ninth and tbllowing gra- 
dually increasing : viaxiUary palpi with the first joint clavated, nar- 
row at the base; second nearly globose; third conical. 

* Foveoht of the thorax connected by a furrow. Antenna icith the 
apex of' the last joint acute, third and four following joints, elongated, 

Sp. 1. Bry. longicornis. Leach, Zool. Misc. iii. 85. 

Inhabits the roots of grass on the sloping banks Battersea fields. 

** Thorax uith the fun-oto very conspicuous. Antennm zcith the 
last joint nearly obtuse ; the third and following to the seventh, short. 
{Ni)ilh subglobose ; tenth Icnticulatcd.) 

Sp. 2. Bry. impressa. 

Ps. impressus. Reich., i\[onog. Ps. t. 2. f. 15. 

Inhabits Norfolk. 

C. Maxillary palpi with the last joint clavated. 

Genus 122, PSELAPHUS. Herhst, Latr., Leach, <§-c. Pselaphus, 
Fam. I. Reichenbach. 

Antenn(B with tiie first and second joint elongated and nearly cylindri- 
cal ; third and following to the eighth nearly globular and equal ; 
ninth and tenth increasing, nearly equal and globular; eleventh and 
remainder gradually increasing: maxillary palpi with the first joint 
filiform, the apex almost abruptly clavated; second nearly globose; 
third with the apex gradually clavated. 

Sp. 1. Pscl. Herbstii. (PI, i-fg. 15.) magnified: the line beneath shows 
the natural size. 

Inhabits banks and river sides. 

Ob5. — The Psclaphi are obtained by seeking at the roots of grass, in 
sand-pits, Sec. but being so exceedingly minute they easily escape the 
eye of the entomologist unless he looks very close to the ground ; 
the usual practice is either to sit or lie down, and by this means 
many highly interesting and rare insects may be taketi whilst the 
entomologist rests from a more laborious mode of collecting. 

Fam, XIIL ScYOMiENiDiE. Leach. 

Palpatores. Latrcil/e. > 

Body ovoid, rounded at each extremity : palpi very long : tarsi short : 
elytra hard, covering the abdomen : antenna gradually thicker to- 
wards their extremities. 



180 MODERN SYSTEM, 

Genus 123. SCYDM.'ENUS. Illig., FaykuU, Leach. Anthicus. 

Fahr. 

Antemw gradually thickening towards their extremities : inaxUlury 
jmlpi terminated by an acicular obscure joint. 

Sp. 1. Sci/d. Hel/uigli. Last joint of the maxillary palpi obsolete; three 
last joints of the antennae forming a club : thorax ov£|te : body fus- 
cous-red-brown, pubescent: head, thorax, and abdomen darker: 
elytra smooth. 

r.sclaphus Hellwigii. Herhst, Payh., JUig., Leach. Anlhicus Ilellwi- 
gii, Fabi\ Scydmasnus Hellwigii. Latr. 

Fam. XIV. Ptixid.e. Leach. 
Ptiniokes. Latreille. 
Antenna much longer than the head, filiform, or terminated by three 

large joints not united into a mass. 
Stir PS 1. — Antenna uniform, not terminated by three joints, larger 
than the rest. 

Genus 12^. PTINUS. li««., Fair., Latr., Lam., Ollv., Leach. 
Bruchus. Geoff. 
Antenna simple filiform, approximate, inserted between the eyes : ei/es 
projecting : thorax hood-like : abdomen near!}- oval ; eh/t7-a united in 
the male. 
Sp. 1. Plin. Fur. Red-fuscous : thorax with four tubercles transversely 
striated, the tNvo middle ones highest, with tufts of hair, contracted 
and margined behind : abdomen ovate, rounded at the base : elytra 
villose, with two yellow-gray bands ; the second joint of the antennae 
shorter than the third : under part of the body with short gray-yel- 
low hairs. 
Ptinus Fur. Linn., Fubr., Latr., Oliv., Leach. 
Inhabits houses, and commits great devastation in museums. 
OhS.-^Ptinus testaceus of Marsham is merely the male of this species. 

Genus 125. GIBBIUM. Latr., Leach. 
Antenna simple, setaceous, inserted behind the eyes : ei/cs not promi- 
nent : thorax simple : abdomen nearly globular : elytra united in both 
sexes. 
Sp. 1, Gib. Scotias. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits houses. It has been three times taken in Bristol. 
Obs. — Ptinus sulcatus, ilf«ri7/fl?», forms the type of the genus MeziuMj 
LcacKs MSS., and is akin to Gibbium. 
Genus 12G. PTILINUS. Geoff., Oliv., Lam., Fabr., Latr., Leach:, 
Anobium. ^liger. SErvROCEE.us. Ktigellan. Ptinus. Linn., 
Marsh. 
Antoma inserted before the eyes, very much pectinated in the males, 
serrated in the female.5 ; body long-ovoid, nearly cylindric : thorax 
'somewhat globose. 



CLASS V. INSrCT.V. 181 

Sp. 1. Pti. pcctinkornix. Body blackish: elytra obscure brown: an- 
teuua; and feet reddish : thorax rough : elytra puncljate. 

rtilinus pectinicornis. Fabr., Oliv., Latr., Lcac/i. Ptinus pectinicornis. 
Linn., Marsh. Dcrmestes pectinicornis. Liiui. '^ 

Inhabits old trees and houses, perforating tliem to destruction. 

Oes. — Ptinus serraticoruis, Marsham, is the female of this insect. 

Stirps 2. — Antenna terminated by three joints differing from the rest 
in size. 
Genus l(2r. ANOBIUM. Fahr., Oliv., Lnmarck, Latr., Leach. 
Ptinis. Linn., DiGcer, Marsh. Bruciii'S. Geoff. 

Antenna: eleven-jointed, with the three last joints a})ruptly thicker than 
the others; the ninth and tenth joints obconic; the tenth oval. 
* Flytra not striated. 

Sp. 1. Anoh. tessellatum. Thorax bilobate behind, the lateral margins re- 
flexed : body fuscous, sprinkled with villose, obscure luteous spots : 
elytra not striated 

Anobiimi tessellatiun. Fahr., Latr., Leach. Ptinus tessellatus. Marsh. 

Inhabits the wood of rotten trees, especially willows, during the winter 
months. 

** Flytra striated. 

Sp. 3. Anoh. striatum. Fuscous, with grayish down : thorax with a gib- 
bous protuberance, unisulcate above, with the angles compressed : 
hinder margins somewhat marginated : elytra longitudinally punctate. 

Anobium striatum. Latr., OLv., Illig., Leach. Anobium pertinax. 
Fabr., Payk. 

Inhabits rotten trees. 

Fam. XV. DerMestid.^:. Leach. 

Dermestixi. Latreille. 

Antenme slender, longer than the head, and terminated by a large 
ovoid mass. 

Stirps 1. — Sternum not produced to the mouth, or over it like a neck- 
cloth : tibia spinose. 

Genus 128. DERMESTES. Linn., Fahr., Latr., Marsh., Herbst, 
Oliv., Leach. 

Antenna with an ovate club, the last joint short, not (or but little) 
longer than the preceding joint : body narrow oval : thorax with the 
hinder margin straight or obtusely lobed : pulpi very short : maxil- 
lary palpi shorter than the maxilla^ or scarcely as long. 

Sp. 1. Der.lurdarim. Black: base of the elytra with a cinereous band 
with black points. 

Dermestes lardarius. Linn., Fahr. Latr., Marsh., Leach. 

Inhabits decayed animal substances, paper, &c. is common in houses. 



182 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 129. ATTAGENUS. Latr., Leach. Megatoma. Ikrbst. 
Dermestes. Fabr., Linn., Latr., Marsh. 

AntenncE with an elongate-ovate club, the last joint longer than the 
preceding (especially in the male), triangular or conic : body broad- 
oval : thorax with the posterior margin narrowly and acutely lobcd : 
maxillary palpi exserted, longer than the maxillge; the last joint 
elongate-cylindric, very long in some. 

Sp. 1. Alt. Pellio. Black; middle of the antenna, and of the tarsi ob- 
scure red: hinder margin ot the thorax with three spots, and the 
elytra with a spot on each side of the suture villose-white : antennas 
of the male with the last joint ensiform, very long. 

Dermestes Pellio. Linn., Fabr., Marsh., Latr. Megatoma nigra. 
Herbst. (variety of the male.) 

Inhabits skins in houses, old wood, and paper. 

Stirps '^.—Si'erjn/m produced over the mouth like a neckcloth: tibia 
not or but slightly spined. 

Genus 130. MEGATOMA. Herbst., Latr., Leach. Dermestes. 
Linn., De Gecr, Fabr. 

Body narrow-oval : antenna with an oval or oblong club with the inter- 
nal edge simple. 

Sp. 1. Meg. undatian. Black; sides of the thorax and two undulated 
bands on the elytra white villose: to-s/ obscure red. 

Megatoma undulata. Herbst. Megatoma undatum. Latr. Dermestes 
undatus. Linyi., Fabr., Oliv., Panz. 

Inhabits birch trees (beneath the bark) in the months of March and 
April: the larva spins a silken web in which it changes to a pupa. 

Fam. XVI. Byrrhid.>e. Leach, 

Bykrhi. Latreille. 

Body ovoid: feet entirely or semicontractile : sternum anteriorly pro- 
duced to a mouth in the form of a neckcloth : antenna thicker to- 
wards their extremities : tarsi with five very distinct articulations : 
antenna straight, not inserted in the cavitj' of the eyes : feet perfectly 
contractile : mandibles but little or not at all prominent. 

Genus 131. ANTHRENUS. Geoff., Fabr., Oliv., Lam., Latr., 
Leach. Byrrhus. Linn., Marsh. Dermestes. Dc Gecr. 

Antenna shorter than the thorax with the club solid : ;j«//)i filiform, 
short : body orbicQlate-ovate : scidellumvery minute. 

Sp. 1. A7ith. Scrophularia. Black: sides of the thorax and three trans- 
verse bands on the elytra gray : suture and external margin of the 
elytra and hinder margin of the thorax red lutescent. 

Anthrenus Scrophularia^. Fabr., Latr., Leach, Byrrhus Scrophulariae, 
Linn., Marsh. 

Inhabits the blossoms of various plants. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 



183 



Genus 132. THROSCUS. Latr., Lrach. Elater. Lbin., Oliv., 
Geoff] Dermestes. Fiil/r., Paj/k., Illiger. 
Antenna as long as the thorax, with the three last joints large, forming 

an oval club : jxilpi short, with the last joint securiform : hodj/ elliptic, 

narrow, depressed. 
Sp. 1. T/ir. (icrnicsfoides. Brown, with gray-yellowish doAvn : elytra 

with punctated stria\ 
Elater dermestoides. Linn., Oliv. Dermestes adstrictor. Fat/k., lUig., 

Fahr. Throscus dermestoides. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits European plants; is very rare in Britain. 

Genus 133. BYRRHUS. Linn., Fahr., Oliv., Lam., Latr., Illiger, 
GylL, Leach. Cistela. Geoff., Marsh. Dermestes. De Gccr. 
AnfemicE a little shorter than the thorax, with the four or five terminal 
joints gradually thicker, compressed : palpi short, the last joint long- 
est, thick, somewhat ovate: bodi/ smewhat ovate, very convex 
above: scnfelluin minute. 
Sp. 1. Bi/r. Pilula. 
Inhabits pathways and sandy situations. 

Fam. XVII. IIisteridte. Leach. 
Genus HiSTER. Linn., Fahr., Latr., Marsh., &iC. Histeroides. 
Gyll., Pai/k. 
Antenmt geniculated, terminated by a nearly solid club of three arti- 
culations : eli/tra shorter than the abdomen, the margin of the sides 
inflexed : torsi with five joints; contractile. 

The insects of this Family are numerous : their habitation is the 
dung of animals, and some are found in rotten wood. A valuable 
paper has been published in the third volume of the Zoological Mis- 
cellany, from which the ibllowing is selected. 
Stirps 1. — Body tliick, nearly globose or quadrate: tibia elongated 
and straight : tarsi long and slender : sternum simple. 
Genus 134. ABRiEUS. Leach's Zool. Misc. vol. iii. 
Antenna with the first articulation somewhat elongated, second and 
third nearly cylindrical, straight : fourth short; fifth, sixth, and se- 
venth, nearly globose and equal ; eighth nearly globose, lenticular; 
ninth, tenth, and eleventh forming a short oval club. 
Sp. 1. Abr. pcrptisilliis. 
Hister perpusillus. Marsh. 
Inhabits the dung of animals. 

Genus 135. ONTHOPHILUS. Leach's Zool. Misc.vo\. iii. 
Antenna with the first joint long, the second cylindrical, closely joined 
at the base; tliird obconic; fourth and fifth short and obconic; 
sixth and seventh shorter and nearly globose ; eighth nearly lenti- 
cular; ninth, tenth, and eleventh forming an oval club. 



184 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Sp. 1. Ontk. striatus. Payk., Monogr. Hist. 100. t. 11. /. 1. 
Inhabits dung. 

Stirps 2. — Bodij depressed: tibia hrosA: iarsi short: stonwOT dilated, 
the fore part t'orming a cavity for the head, which is capable of be- 
ing retracted even to the mandibles. 

A. Tlhiir, the four posterior zcith two scries of spines. 

Genus 136. YUSTY-K of authois. 
Body above nearly convex : thorax with the anterior part straight. 

A. Elytra with the outer strias extending their whole length. 

a. Thorax with the sides striated, the strice extending their 
whole length. 

* Eli/t7'a tvith marginal stride. 

Sp. 1. Hist.unicolor of authors. 
Inhabits dung. 

** Elytra without the marginal stria. 

Sp. 2. Hist, sinuatus. Illiger. A-macitlatus. Marsh. 

b. Thorax with the sides not striated. 

* Elytra with no marginal strice. 

Sp. 3. Hist, parvus. Marsh., Leach. 

** Elytva with a 7narginal stria. 

Sp. 1. Hist, pujpurascens. Fabr., Leach. Hist, bipustulatus. Marsh. 

B. Elytra with the external stria; abbreviated. 

Sp. 1. Hist, nitidulus. (PL '2. fig. 1. a.antennes magnified.) Fabr., Leach, 
— Hist, semipunctutus. Marsh. 

B. Four posterior tibia with only one row of spines. 

Genus 137. DENDROPHILUS. Leach's Zool. Misc. vol. iii. 
Body with the upper part nearly convex ; thorax short, the anterior part 

straight. 
Sp. 1 . Den. punctatus. 
Hister punctatus. Ent. Heft. 

Genus 138. PLATYSOMA. Leach. 
Body with the upper part plain : thorax transverse or nearly equall 
quadrate. 

* Elytra without stria. Body finely punctured. 

Sp. 1. Plat, picipes. Leach. H. piscipes. Fabr. 

** Elytra without external stria. Body not punctured. 
Sp. 2. Plat.ftavicornis. Leach. H.fiavicornis. Ilerbst. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 185 

*** 'Elytra extcnialhj striated. Body zvithout punctures. 
Sp. 3. Plat, dcprcssum. Leach. H. depressus. Marsh. 

Subdivision 3. — Antenna straiglit, not inserted in the cavity of the eyes. 
Feet semicontractile. 

Gcmis.139. LIMNIUS. MuUer, GylL, Leach. Dytiscus. Pam, 

CiiRYSOMEi.A. Marsh. Elmis. Latr. 
Antennre nearly fiHform, the last joint largest, somewhat oval. 

Sp. 1. Lini. Volckmari. Leach. 
Dytiscus \"oickmari. Panzer. 
Chrysomela buprestoides. Marsh. 

Fam. XVIII. PARNiDyE. Leach. 

Antenna inserted in the anterior can thus of the eye : elytra not shorter 
than the abdomen. 

Genus 140. PARNUS. Fabr., Illig., Marsh., Leach. Dermestes. 
Geoff'. Elater. Rossi. Dryops. Oliv., Lam.., iMtr. 
Antenna composed of three joints, the last joint articulated : tarsi with 
five joints. 

Obs.— The insects of this genus inhabit the roots and blades of grass 
at the sides of ponds and ditches ; the method of finding them is 
to loosen the grass in those places, by which means the insects will 
be found floating on the water : we have several species in this 
country that have not yet been clearly jlefined, but have been con- 
founded with prolijlricornis. 

Sp. L Par. sericeus. Leach's MSS. (PL 3. fig. 10. a. antenna magni- 
fed.) 

Genus 141. HETEROCERUS. Bosc, Fabr., Illig., Latr., Marsh., 
Leach. 
Antenna composed of eleven joints, the seven last forming a dentate 

or serrated mass : tarsi with four joints. 
Sp. 1. Het. }na7'gi?iatiis. Blackish villose; sides of the thorax and ab- 
domen with spots on the elytra, margins of the abdomen, and feet 
pale luteous. {PL 3. fg. 11.) 
Inhabits marshy places, burrowing in the muddy and clayey banks of 
ponds. 

Fam. XIX. Helophorid.'e. Leach. 

Mandibles without teeth at their extremities : body oblong : anienna 
terminated by a club. 

Stirps 1. — Clypeus whole : fnaxillary pa/pi with the last joint thick and 
oval. 



186 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 142. IIELOPIIORUS. Leach. Elophorus. Fabr., Oliv., 
Latr., Gyll. 
Eyes sessile: thorax transverse. 

* Thorax and elytra furrowed. 
Sp. 1. Hel. stagnalis. Hydro phikis stagnalis. Marsh. 
Inhabits ponds, floating on the surface and walking on aquatic plants. 

** Thorax and elytra with elevated lines. 
Sp. 1. Hel. nuhilus. Gyll. 

Genus 143. HYDROCHUS. Germar., Leach. Elophorus. Fahr., 
Illig., S>-c. 
Eyes rather prominent: thorax elongated. 

Sp. 1. Hydr. cicindeloides. Hydrophilus cicindeloides. Marsh. 
Inhabits ponds, and may frequently be found in the mud at the sides. 

Stirps 2. — Clypeus entire. 

Genus 144. OCHTHEBIUS. Leach's Edinh. Encycl.—Zool. Misc. 
vol. iii. Elophorus. Fabr. Hydr.iina. Latr., Illig. 
Maxillary palpi with the middle and last joint slender and acute. 
Sp. 1. Och. riparius. Leach. Hydrophilus impressus. Marsh. 

Genus 145. HYDR^NA. Kugellan, Leach. 
Maxillary palpi with the last joint long and acuminated. 
Sp. 1. Hyd. Kiigellani. Leach. Hydro, longipalpus. Marsh. 

Fam. XX. Hydrophilid.?:. 

Mandibles at their points bidentate : body oval or round : antenna ter- 
minated by a club. 

Stirps 1. — Clypeus emarginate: sternum simple: untcnnic with six ar- 
ticulations. 

Genus 146. SPERCHEUS. Fabr., Latr., Leach. 

Sp. 1. Sper. sordidus. Spercheus sordidus. Fabr. Hydr. sordidus. 
Mnrsh. 

Inhabits stagnant waters. 

Stirps 2. — Clypeus whole : sternum simple. 

A. Elytra with the apex whole. Scutcllum small. 
Genus 147. BEROSUS. Leach's Zool. Misc. vol. iii. 
Bot(y narrow before : ^/(orar convex: cj/es rather prominent. 
Sp. 1. Bcr. luridus of authors. 
Inhabits ponds. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 187 

Genus 148. IIVDROBIUS. Leach. 
B(xli/ oval, convex, obtuse : ij/cn simple. 

* Elytra striated. 
Sp. 1. Hi/dr.fuscipcs. 
Inhabits ponds. 

** E/i/tra smooth. 
Sp. 1. Hifdr. melanoccphalus. 
Inhabits ponds. 

B. Elytra with the apex truncated. Sctitellum small. 

Genus 149. LIMNEBIUS. Leach. 
Body rather depressed : eyes simple. 

Sp. 1. Lim. nitidus. Ilydrophilus nitidus. Marsh. 
Inhabits ponds and ditches. 

Stirps 3. — Clypcus whole: sternum produced into a spine. 

Genus 150. HYDROUS. Linncs MSS., Leach. 
Scutellum large : anterior tarsi of the male dilated in the middle with un- 
equal claws: anienntc \\'\\h their last joint acuminated. 
Sp. 1. Hydr. piceus of authors. 
Inhabits ponds and ditches. 

Genus 151. HYDROPIIILUS of authors. 
Body with the posterior part slightly obtuse: antenna with the last 
joint obtuse : scutellum moderate : anterior tarsi in both sexes simple. 
Sp. 1 Hydr. caraboides of authors. {PI. 3. Jig. 10.) 
Inhabits ponds; is very common. 

Fam. XXI. Sph.cridiad.s;. Leach. 

Ayitenna terminated by a club : maxillary palpi very long : mentum large, 
clypeiform: /ifwrfwith the front rounded, cowl-shaped: /eeHbrmed 
for walking : tarsi with the basal joint as long or longer than the 
second joint (in the male with the last joint on the anterior tarsi 
large). The insects of this family are very nearly akin to the Hy- 
drolophii. 

Genus 152. SPH.ERIDIUM. Fahr., Oliv., Lamarck, Leach. Der- 

MESTES. Linn., De Geer, Marsh. 

£of(y somewhat hcemispheric : tj/es immersed : ^Aorajr transverse : tibia 

spinose, armed with heels : sternum behind produced into a conic 

spine, 

Sp. 1. Sph. scurabicoides. Black, shining, smooth : scutellum forming a 

long triangle : feet very spiny : each elytron at the base with a blood-i 



188 MODEKN SYSTEM. 

red spot, and a livid reddish spot at the apex. {PI. 3. fig. 12. a. an- 

teimm magnified^ 
Sphaeridium scarabseoides. Tabr., Latr. Dermestes scarabaeoides. 

Marsh., Linn. 
Inhabits dung. 

Genus 1.53. CERCYOls!. Leach's Sool. Misc. vol. iii. Dermes- 
tes. Marsh. 
Antenna with the club imbricated (P/. 5- fig. 12. b. magnified) : anterior 

tarsi in both sexes simple. 
Sp. 1. Cer. unipunctatum. 
Inhabits dung. 

Sp. 2. Cer. melanocephalum. 
Inhabits dung and tlowers. 

Fam. XXII. Coprid,!. Leach. 

CopnoPiiAGi I. Latreille. 

Labial palpi \evy hairy, the last joint smaller than the preceding : scu- 
tellmn none or very obscure : elytra taken together not longer than 
broad : posterior feet situated near the anus : antcnnce eight- or nine- 
jointed, terminated by an abrupt lamellated mass: anterior tibia 
large and dentated : vicntum not very large : mandibles membrana- 
ceous : maxill(E membranaceous : cli/pcus semicircular. 

Subdivision !.• — Labial palpi, with the last joint very 'distinct. Thorax 
much shorter than the elytra ; 7nuch broader than long. Anterior tibie 
long, arcuate. 

Genus 154. COPRIS. Geoff., Illig., Fabr., Lam., Latr., Leach. 
ScARAB^us. Linn., De Geer., Oliv., Marsh. 

Scutellum none : abdomen elevated, convex : anterior tihim longer than 
the others; externally with three strong teeth terminated by a tar- 
sus : antennce nine-jointed. 

Sp. 1. Cop. lunaris. 

Copris lunaris. Fabr., Latr., Leach. Scarabseus lunaris. Linn., Marsh, 
Scarabceiis etnarginatus of JMarsham is merely the female. 

Inhabits dung in sandy situations and lanes, entering the earth two or 
three inches beneath the surface. 

Subdivision 2. — Labial palpi with the last joint not distinct. Thorax 
longer than the elytra. Tibia all terminated by a tarsus. 

Genus 1,55. ONTIIOPHAGUS. Latr. Copris. Geoff., Illiger, 
Fabr. ScahaBjEUS. Linn., Hei-bst., Oliv., Marsh. 
Sp. 1. Onth. Vacca. 

Inhabits dung : this and many others are very abundant under dung 
in April and May. 



CLASS V. INSECT A. 189 

Fam. XXIII. Apiiodiad.'e. Loach. 

CoPROPiiAGi II. Lntreille. 

Labial palpi ncafly smooth, filiform, the joints nearly equal, cylin- 

clric : feet all separated by equal distances ; hinder ones distant from 

the anus : scidellum distinct. 

Genus 156. APHODIUS. IlUgcr, Faln\, Latr., I^uch. Scarab^us. 
Oliv., Marsh., Linn. 
Sp. 1. Aph. rrifipes. 
Inhabits dung in the spring of the year. 

This genus may be divided, for the sake of convenience, from the 
clypeus. 

1. CIt/pcus smooth, cmarginatc. 

2. Clypeus smooth, entire. 

3. Clypeus tuhcrculate. 

Fam. XXIV. Geotiiupid;e. Leach. 

Geotuupini. LatreiUe. 

Antennce eleven-jointed, terminated by a lamellatcd club : anterior tibia 

large, dentate : menlum not large : mandibles corneous, porrect ; la- 

hrum prominent : clypeus rhomboidal. 

Genus 157. GEOTRUPES. Latr., Ihmeril, Lam., Leach. Sca- 
RAB.i^us. Linn., Geoff'., Fabr., Oliv., De Geer. 
Antennae terminated by an oval lamellatcd club : thorax shorter than 
the abdomen, not horned : hinder feet distant from the anus : head 
not produced behind the eyes : scutcllum obvious. 
Sp. 1. Geo. stercorarius. 

Inhabits Europe ; boring cylindric holes beneath the dung, and flying 
about in the dusk of the evening. 

Genus 158. TYPILEUS. Leach. Scarab.'eus. Fabr., Gyll, Marsh. 

Antenmc terminated by an oval lamellated club : thorax shorter than 
the alidomen ; on each side in front with a long process which ex- 
tends along the sides of the head : hinder feet distant from the anui : 
head not produced behind the eyes : scutellum obvious. 

Sp. 1. Typ. vulgaris. {PI. 1. J%. 1.) 

Scaraba?us ts^phaius. Fabr., Gyll., Marsh. 

Inliabils the dung of horses on heaths, in the spring of the year. 

Oes. — Scarabaus mobilicornis, Marsh., forms the genus Odontevs, 
Koppe. 

Fam. XXV. Mei.olonthid;e. Leach. Scarab^ides. Latr. 

Antenna- ten-jointed (in some nine), terminated by 'a lamellated club : 
mandibles comconn in \>d\t: clypeus triangular or quadrate ; anterior 
til!/' large and dentate: menium not large. 



190 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Stirps 1. — No scale between the posterior angles of the thorax and 
the exterior base of the elytra. 

Division I. — Thorax abnost quadiatc, more or less transverse. Mandibles 
entirely corneous. 

Subdivision 1. — Lahrum prominent even bei/ond the cli/peus. MaxillcE in- 
teriorly armed with a horny hook, simple or bifid, lidy nearly globular 
or ovoid. Elytra tumid, embracing the sides of the abdomen. 

Genus 159. — j'EGIALIA. Lafr., Leach. Aphodius. Panz., Illig. 
PsAMMODirs. Gyll. 
Antemife distinctly longer than the head, composed of nine joints, the 

first of which is cylindric and a little hairy : body nearly- globular : 

zoings none. 
Sp. 1. Mgi. globosa. Black, shining : head granulated : elj'tra striated, 

impunctate. 
Aphodius globosns. Illig. Psammodius globosus. Gylknkull. iEgi- 

alia globosa. Lutr., Leach. 
Inhabits the sandy shores of the sea. 

Genus 160. PSAMMODIUS. Gyll, Leach. 
Body elongate, convex : antennce distinctly longer than the head; loings 

tvvo : thorax transversely striated. 
Sp. 1. Psam. SulcicolUs. Gyll. 
Aphodius SulcicolUs. Illig. 
Inhabits sandy places. Taken at Swansea by Mr. W. S. Millard, a 

most assiduous and successful collector of British insects. 

Genus IGl. TROX. Fabr., Oliv., Lam., Lafr., Leach. Scarab^us. 
Lin?!., Marsh., Geoff., De Geer. 
AntenncE scarcely longer than the head, composed of ten joints, the 
first obconic and very hairy : body ovoid: maxilla with a simple 
hook. 
Sp. 1. Trox sabulosus. 
Inhabits sandy places. 

Subdivision 2. — Labrum not projecting beyond the clypeus. Body not glo- 
bose. Elytra not embracing the sides of the abdomen. 

* Body subcylindric. 

Genus 162. SINODENDRON. Fabr., Latr., Don., Leach. Sca- 
RAB^EUS. Linn., Dc Geer., Oliv. Lucanus. Marsh. 
Ante^ina with a lamellated club not cajiable of being folded : the la- 
mclla very short, resembling ihe teetli of a saw: body cylindric; 
maxillcE coriaceous, bilol'ate. 
Sp. 1. Sin. cyUndricuni. Black, shining, impressed-punctate, cicatricu- • 
lose ; the punctures umbilicated, the imibilici perforate. (IMale with 
a conic-compressed horn, the female with a short horn on the head.) 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 



191 



Sinodendron cylindricum. Fair., Lafr., Don., Leach. Scarabseus cy- 
lindricus. Linn., De Geer, Oliv. Lucanus cylindricus. Marsh. 

Inhabits old trees, especially the ash. Is very abundant near Chelten- 
luini and near Plymouth. 

** Bodj/ ovoid-oblong. 

Genus 163. MELOLONTHA. Fabr., Oliv., Lam., Latr., Leach. 

Eli/tra with their external edge not sinuated, very slightly narrower at 
their base than at their points : tibia armed with very distinct heels. 
Sp. 1. Mel. vulgaris. (Common Cockchaifer.) 

Melolontha vulgaris. Latr., Fabr. Scarabasus melolontha. Linn., Marsh. 
Inhabits various trees in May and June. 

Genus 164. ANOMALA. Koppe, Leach's MSS. 

Eli/tra with the external edge not sinuated, very shghtly narrower at 
their base than at their points : tibia terminated by very distinct 
heels: antenna of both sexes nearly equal in size, with a lamellated 
club : boJj/ ovate or short ovate convfex. 

A. Frischii. Mel. Frischii. Fabr. 

Inhabits the sandy coasts of the sea. 

The following may be considered as the type of tb.e 
Genus Amaloplia, Sp. 1. Melolon. ruricola. 

Genus 165. IIOPLTA. IlUg., Latr., Leach. Scarab5:us. Linn., 
Geoff'., De Geer. Melolontha. Fabr., Oliv. 
Elytra with their external edge sinuated : tibia with very obscure spurs 

or heels. 
Sp. 1. Hopl. pulvcrulenta. 
Inhabits heaths. 

Division II. — -Thorax as long as broad, nearly orbicular, or almost ovoid 
and truncate at their exti-emities. Mandibles partly membranaceous, 
sometimes entirely corneous. Maxilla terminated by a membranaceous 
or coriaceous lobe. Labrum not prominent. 

Genus 166. TRICHIUS. Fabr., Latr., Leach. 
Antenna with the first joint very large: clypeus quadrate: palpi short, 

with their first joint very large: clypeus quadrate : tarsi with equal nails. 
Sp. 1. Tr. fasciafus. 
Trichius fasciatus. Latr., Fabr., Leach. Cetonia fasciata. Oliv. Sca- 

rabaeus fasciatus. Linn. 
Inhabits Europe on umbelliferous plants, but is rare in Britain. 
Sp. 2. Tr. nobilis. (P/. l.Jig. 2. a. antenna magnified.) 

Stieps 2.— a triangular scale interposed between the posterior angles 
of the thorax, and the exterior of the base of the elytra. 



192 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 167. CETONTA. Fabr., Latr., Oliv., Lamarcl:, Lmcft. Sca- 
RAB.EUS. Linn., Geoff'., De Geer, Marsh. 
Maxilla: almost membranaceous, or coriaceous : mentum of a moderate 
size : thorax triangular, with the anterior point truncate : elytra 
abruptly siauated at their internal side towards the base. 
Sp. 1. Cct. aurata. 
Inhabits the flowers of roses, the larvae live in decayed wood. 

Fam. XXVI. Lucaxid^. Leach. 
LucANiDES. LafrciUe. 

Anteiiiie with a pectinated club : anterior tihicE large and dentated : palpi 
four : labrian generally wanting : mandibles very strong, corneous, 
dentated, exserted : iventtim corneous. 

Genus 1G8. LUCANUS of authors. Platycerus. Gco^'. 
Palpi long: lip bifid, very hairy, the laciniiE resembling pencils. 
Sp. 1. Luc. Cei-vus. (Stag Beetle.) {Ft. l.fg„3.) 

Section II. HETEROMERA. 

Four anterior tarsi five-jointed, hinder pair four-jointed : antenna ele- 
ven-jointed, never lamellated or furnished with a pectinated head. 

Fam. XXVII. Blapsid,=e. Leach. 
Meutiim small, or moderately large, quadrate or orbicular: />«,';;« termi- 
nated by a thick joint; the last joint of the maxillary one securiform. 
Genus 169. BLAPS. Tabr., Olio., Lam., Latr., Marsh., Leach. 
Tenebrio. Linn., Geoff] 
Back flat: thorax almost quadrate : antenna with the third joint much 

longer than the fourth : eli/tra with their extremities pointed. 
Sp. 1. Blaps 7nortisaga. 
Inhabits dark cellars and damp places. 

Fam. XXVIII. Tenebrionid_t. Leach. 
Mandibles bifid at their extremiiies : head more or less ti'iangular, with- 
out a contraction behind, at its junction with the thorax : tarsi with 
entire joints : antenme moniliform, not perfoliated or serrated : 
niuxilltE unguiculated. 

Genus 170. PEDINUS. Lafr., Leach.. Tenebrio. Linn., Geoff., 
Marsh. Blaps. Fabr., Herbst. Helops. Olivier. Opatrum. 

Bodii oval : maxillary palpi terminated by a thick joint : antenna: fili- 
form; the last joint globose or turbinated. 

Sp. 1. Fed. waritimus. Leach. {Fl. 4.Jig. ^.) ^ Tenebrio femoralis. 
Marsh, q T. gemellatus. Marsh. 

Inhabits sandy places: is very abundant on the sea shore near 
Swansea, South ^Y<iles. 



CLASS V, INSECTA. 193 

Genus in. OPATRUM. Fabr., Oliv., Lam., Leach. Silpha. 
Linn. Tenebrio. Geoff., Marsh. 
Body oval : maxillary palpi with their last joint obtrigonate : anteimm 
gradually thicker towards their extremities : the last joints trans- 
verse, compressed. 
Sp. 1. Opat. sabulosum. {PI. 2. Jig. 8. a. antenna magnified.) 
Opatrum sabulosum. Fabr., Latr. Silpha sabuLosa. Linn. Tenebrio 

sabulosus. Marsh. 
Inhabits sandy places. 

Genus 172. TENEBRIO. Linn., Geoff., Be Geer, Fabr., Latr., 
Leach. 

Thorax behind as broad as the elytra : body elongate : antenna scarcely 
gradually thicker towards their extremities ; the eighth, ninth, and 
tenth joints transverse ; the last subglobose : mentum somewhat qua- 
drate ; the upper margin rounded : maxillary palpi with their last 
joint thick. 

Sp. 1. Ten. Molitor. {PL 4. Jig. 1.) 

Inhabits houses ; the larvas in meal and flour ; and is well known un- 
der the name of meal-worm. 

Fam. XXlX. DiAPERiDit. Leach. 

Mandibles bifid at their extremities : head more or less triangular, with- 
out a contraction behind, at its juncture with the thorax: tarsi with 
entire joints : antenna not moniliform, their extremities perfoliated 
or serrated. 

Stirps 1. — Body linear, or nearly so. Thorax almost quadrate. Antenna 
terminated by a club. Maxilla unguiculated. 

Genus 173. SARROTRIUM. IlUg., Fabr., Leach. Hispa. Linn., 
Marsh. Tenebrio. De Geer. Orthocerus. Latr. 
Antenna with the last six joints forming a thick, fusiform, downy 

mass. 
Sp. 1. Sarr. muticum. {PI. 2. Jig. 16. a. antenna magnijied.) 
Sarrotrium muticum. Payk., Fabr., Leach. Hispa mutica. Linn., Marsh. 

Orthocerus hirticornis. Latr. 
Inhabits sandy places. In Britain it is rare, or at least very local. It 

has been found in gravel-pits near Norwich by Mr. Joseph Hooker, 

and near Hampstead by Mr. Stephens, in th6 months of June and 

July. 
Stirps. 2. — ^n^cm?^ not moniliform. Body ovd.\, or nearly orbicular : 

a little longer than broad. 

a. Antenna not serrated at their extremities. 

Genus 174. PHALERIA. Latr., Leach. Tenebrio. Fabr. 
Anterior tibia elongate-trigonate : tarsi short : antenna gradually thick- 
ening towards their extremities, where they are perfoliated : body oval. 

N 



i"94 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Sp. 1. Thai, cadaverina. 
Tenebrio cadaverina. Fabr. 
Inhabits sandy places. 

Genus 175. DIAPERIS. Geoff., Fahr., Ollv., Lam., Leach. Ciirv- 
SOMELA. lAun., Marsh. Tenebrio. De Gee?: 
Antenna gradually enlarging towards their extremities, from the fourth 

joint perfoliated : bodi/ nearly hemispheric, very convex above. 
Sp. 1. Dia. Boleti of authors. 
Chrysomela Boleti. Linn., Marsh. 
Inhabits the boleti of trees : is rare. 

Genus 17G. TETRATOMA. Herbst, Fabr., Payk., Leach. 
Antenna: terminated by a club of four joints, the other joints very 

small : bodi/ oval : tibice not spiny. 
Sp. 1. Tetr. Fungoimm. 
Inhabits /ungj. 

Genus 177. LEIOIDES. Latr., Leach. Anisotoma. Illig., Fabr. 
SpHjEridium. Olivier. Tetratoma. Herbst. 
Antenna: abruptly terminated by a five-jointed club, the eighth joint 
(the second of the club) very small : thorax almost hemispheric : 
(ibi(E spinose. 
Sp. 1. Lei. picea. 
Anisotoma piceum. Illig. Anisotoma picea. Panz. Leoides picea. 

Latr. 
Inhabits sandy places in Europe. 

b. Antenna terminated by joints, resembling in their form the teeth 
of a saw. 

Genus 178. BOLILOPHAGUS. Illig., Fabr. Eledona. Lair., 
Leach. Opatrum. Oliv., Marsh: Diaperis. Oliv. 
Pa/pi filiform ; maxt/Zary ones with their last joint almost cylindric: ««- 
tenna arcusite: 6oc(y oval, convex, generally rough: thoi-ax transverse, 
emarginate before ; the sides often with acute margins. 
Sp. 1. Boli. Agaricola. 
Bolilophagus Agaricola. Illig,, Fabi\ Eledona Agaricola. Latr., Leach. 

Opatrum Agaricola. Oliv., Marsh. 
Inhabits boktl and other fungi. 

Stirps 3. — Antenna nearly or quite filiform,with their extremities simple . 
a. Mandibles with their extremities bifid. 

Genus 179. IIELOPS. Fabr., Oliv., Lam., Illig., Latr., Rossi, 
Leach. Tenebrio. Linn. 
Maxillary palpi terminated by a securiform joint : antenna: as long or 
longer than the thorax : thorax quadrate or semicircular : body 
convex. 
Sp. llcL lanipes. 



CLASS V. INSnCTA. 195 

Ilelops lanipes. Fabr., Latr., Olh, Tenebrio lanipes. Li?in, 
Inhabits Europe under the bark of trees. 

b. Mandibles with their points entire. Tarsi rcith denticulated mdh. 
Genus 180. CISTELA, Fabr., Latr., Lam., Oliv., Leach. Chry- 
soMELA. Linn. Moudella. Geoff. 
Bodi/ ovate : antenna serrated : feet rather long. 
Sp. 1. Cist, cei'amhoidex. 
Cistela ceramboides. Fabr., Latr., OUv. Chrysomela ceran^bojdes, 

Linn. 
Sp. 2. Cist, sidphurea. {PI. 4. fg. 6.) 
Crioceris sulphurea. Marsh. 219. 1. 

Fam. XXX. Melyandryad.'e. Leach. 

Mandibles bifid at their extremities : head more or less triangular, with^ 
out a contraction behind, at its juncture with the thorax : four aute^ 
rior tarsi with the last joint but one bilobate .: maxillary palpi with 
the last joint large, securiform, or obtrigonate, 

Stirps 1. — Hinder tarsi with entire joints. 

Genus 181. SERROPALPUS. Oliv., Pai/k., Illig., Latr., Leach, 
DiRC^A. Fabr. 
Antenna filiform : body almost cylindric, and very long. 

An insect of this genus has lately been taken in this country, 
and was first discovered in Windsor Forest. In July 1817, being in 
Hampshire in company with my friend Mr. John Chant, we took 
four specimens from a rotten oak near Lyndhurst. 

Genus 182. ORCHESIA. Latr. Dirc^a. Fabr., Leach. IIai.- 
LOMEMUS. Illig., Payk., Helhcig. Megatoma. Herbst. Mori- 
DELLA. Marsh. 
Hinder feet formed for leaping : antenna clavate : body elliptic. 
Sp. 1. Orc.micans. Fabr. 

Hallomenus micans. Paykull. Serropalpus micans. Illiger. Mega- 
toma picea. Herbst. Mordella Boleti. Marsh. Orchesia micans. 
Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits boleti. 
Stirps 2. — Tarsi altogether with their last joint but one bilobate. 

Genus 183, MELANDRYA. Fabr., Latr., Leach. Chrysomela. 
Linn. Serropalpus. Illig-, Bosc. 
Antennm simple, filiform : maxillary palpi terminated by an elongate 
securiform joint : body nearly elliptic ; thorax trapezoid, broad behind. 
Sp. 1, Md, caraboidcs. 
Chrysomela caraboides, Linn. Serropalpus caraboides. Oliv., //% 

Melandra serrata. F(d>r., Latr, Crioceris caraboides. Marsh. 
Inhabits rotten trees. 



196 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 184. LAGRIA. Fair., Oliv., Lam., Leach. CnaYSOiiELA. 
Linn. Cantharis. Geoff. Tenebrio. X)e Geer. 

Antenna simple, growing insensibly thicker towards their extremity : 
maxillary palpi double the size of the labial, with the last joint 
large, securiform ; labial palpi with the last joint ovate : body ob- 
long (generally villose). 

Sp. 1. Lag. hirta. 

Lagria hirta. Fabr., Latr. Chrysomela hirta. Linn. Auchenia hirta. 
Marsh. 

Inhabits the white-thorn in May and June. 

Fam. XXXI. Pyrochroid.€. Leach. 
Pyrochoides. Latreille. 

Head cordiform, abruptly strangulated at its junction with the thorax : 
tarsi with their penultimate joints all bilobate : body elongate, de- 
pressed, or convex and cylindric : thorax almost cordate. 
Stirps 1. — Antenna: pectinated, serrated, or branched. 

Genus 185. PYROCHROA. Fabr., Geoff., De Geer, Oliv., Lair., 
Leach. Cantharis. Linnt. 
Antenna pectinated or serrated : thorax orbicular. 

The prevailing colour in this genus is red and black. 
Sp. 1. Pyr. rubens. Fabr., Latr., Oliv- 
Inhabits white-thorn hedges in May and Jiuie. 
Sp. 2. Fyr. coccinea. {PL 3. Jig. 3.) 
Inhabits the woods of Kent. 
Stirps 2. — Antenna simple. 

Genus 186. SCRAPTIA. Latr., Leach. 
Labial palpi terminated by a semilunar, or large triangular joint : tho- 
rax almost semicircular. 
Sp. 1. Scr.fusca. 
Scraptia fusca. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits boleti. 

Genus 187. NOTOXUS. Geoff., Oliv., Illig., Latr., Leach. Me- 
LOE. Linn., Donovan. Anthicus. Payk., Fabr. 
Labial palpi terminated by a small truncate joint : thorax almost cor- 
diform, produced into a porrected horn in front : antenna simple. 
Sp. 1. Not. monoceros. {PI. 2. Jig. 23. a. antenna, head, and thorax magnified.) 
Meloe monoceros. Linne, Don. Notoxus monoceros. Oliv., Illig-, 

Latr. Anthicus monoceros. Fabr., Payk. 
Inhabits sandy situations; and has been taken in profusion on the 
sandy sea shores of Swansea. 

Genus 188. ANTHICUS. Payk., Fabr., Leach. Notoxus. Blig., 
Latr, Lytta. Marsh. 
Labial palpi terminated by a small truncate joint : thorax almost cor- 
diform, not anteriorly produced. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 197 

Sp. 1. Anth. fuica. 

J.> tta fusca. Marsh. 

Inhabits dung in the neighbourhood of stables, 

Fam. XXXII. Mordellad.?;. Leach. 

MoRDELLAN*. Latreilk. 

Head cordiform, abruptly strangulated at its junction with the thorax: 
hinder tarsi (sometimes the others) with their penultimate joint en- 
tire : bodi/ elevated, arcuate, laterally compressed, and terminated 
by a point : head very large : eli/tra very short, or very narrow and 
pointed behind : hinder feet large : tibieB with spurs. 

Genus 189. RHIPIPHORUS. Bosc, Fabr., Payk., Oliv., Lam., 
Leach. Mordella. Marsh., Linni. 
Tarsi with all the joints simple : palpi almost filiform : antenna: pec- 
tinated or flabellate : scutellum none, or concealed. 
Sp. 1. Hhip. paradoxus. 

]\Iordella paradoxa. Linn. Rhipiphorus paradoxus. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits Europe. In Britain it is extremely rare. The larvas inhabit 
the nests of Vespa Crabro (the hornet). Mordella paradoxa of Mar- 
sham, which is distinct from the Linnean species, has been found 
in the nest of a wasp. 
Genus 190. MORDELLA. Linn., Gecff., Fabr., Latr., Marsh., 
Leach. 
Tarsi with all their joints simple : maxillary palpi terminated by a se- 
curiform joint : antenna simple, or very slightly serrated : scutellum 
distinct. 
Sp. 1 . Mord. aculeata. 

Mordella aculeata. Linn., Fabr., Latr., Oliv., Marsh., Leach. 
Inhabits the blossoms of the crab-tree, white-thorn, &c. 
Sp. 2. Mord.Jhsciata. (PL 4. Jig. 8.) 

Genus 191. ANASPIS. Latr., Geoff., Leach. Mordella. Linn., 
Fabr., Oliv., Marsh. 
Penultimate joint of the four anterior tarsi bilobate : maxillary pc.lpi 

with the last joint securiform : scutellum none. 
Sp, 1. Anas, frontalis. 
Mordella frontalis. Fabr., Oliv., Payk., Marsh, Anaspis frontalis. Latr., 

Leach. 
Inhabits flowers, especially those of the umbellate plants. 

Fam. XXXIII. CANTHARiuyE. Leach. 
C.\ntharid;e. Latreille. 
Head large, cordiform : neck distinct : mandibles not notched at their 

points : thorax almost quadrate, or cordiform : elytra flexible : tarsi 

generally with entire joints. 



198 MODERN SYSTEM, 

Stirps 1. — Antenna of equal thickness, tapering towards their points^ 
or subclavate, longer than the thorax, composed of globular or ob- 
conic joints : eli/tra covering only a part of the abdomen ; short, oval, 
diverging at the suture : zvings none : tarsi with all their joints entire. 

Genus 195. MELOE of authors. 
Abdomen very large, generally soft : antenne various. 

Obs. — Dr. Leach has written an excellent monograph on this genus, 
which will be found in the eleventh volume of the Transactions of 
the Linnean Society, and is illustrated by highly finished figures of 
the species by that celebrated artist and excellent naturalist Mr. 
Sowerby. An enumeration of the species and habitats will be found 
in the calendar. 

Stirps 2. — Antenna composed of cylindric or obconic joints, longer 
than the thorax. 

Genus 193. CANTHARIS. Geoffroy, Be Geer, OUr.,Lam., Lafr,, 
Leach. Meloe. Litin. Lytta. Fahr., Marsh. 

Elytra soft, elongate, linear, with the sides somewhat inflexed, the 
back convex, rounded : maxilla with two membranaceous lacinicP, 
the external one acute within, subuncinate : antenna: with the first 
joint larger than the others ; the second very short, transverse ; the 
rest obconic, the last ovoid. 

Sp. 1. Canth. vesicatoria, (Spanish flvi) {PL 4. Jig. 5.) 

Melbe vesicatorius. Linn. Cantharis vesicatoria. De Geer, Geoff., 
Oliv., Latr. Lytta vesicatoria. Marsh., Fabr. 

Inhabits Europe : is found on the ash, but is rare in England : it is 
the common blister-fly of the shops. 

Fam. XXXIV. Qldemir.\dx. Leach. 
CEdemerites. Latreille. 

Antenna filiform or setaceous : rostrum not very flat, and dilated at its 
extremity : head produced into a kind of rostrum. 

Genus 194. CEDEMERA. Latr., Oliv., Leach. Necydalis. Linn., 
Fabr. Cantharis. Marsh. 
Antenna inserted at the anterior internal margin of the eyes : rostrum 
not elongate : eyes prominent : elytra tubulate : palpi with the last 
joint broader than the penultimate joint. 
Sp. 1. CEdem. carulca. 
Necydalis coerulea. Linn., Fabr. (Edemera ccerulea. Latr., Oliv., 

Leach. 
Inhabits Europe on the flowers of umbelliferous plants. 

Genus 195. MYCTERUS. Clairv., Oliv., Leach. Rhinomacer. 
Fabr., Latr. My^labris. Sckaffer. 
Antenna inserted before the eyes on the rostrum : rostrum elongate, 



CLASS V. lySECTA. 199 

narrow : eyes globose, prominent : elytra hard : palpi with the last 
joint compressed. 

Sp. 1. Myc. curculionidts. 

Rhinomacer curculionides. Fabr., Latr. INIycterus griseus. Claln. 
Mycterus curculionides. I^ach. 

Inhabits Europe : has been taken in South Devon by the late Mr. 
John Cranch, of Kingsbridge, zoologist in the late unfortimate ex- 
pedition to the Congo. For a most interesting biographical account 
of this indefatigable naturalist, see Cupt. Tucheys Narratm, and 
Journal of Alts, No. IX. 

Fam. XXXV. Salpingid^. Leach. 

Antenna thicker at their extremities : rostrum very flat, and dilated at 
its extremity : head produced into a rostrum. 

Genus 196. SALPINGUS. Illiger, Leach. Cvrculio. Lbm., Be 
Geer, Marsh. Axthribus. Fabr., Payk., Puuz., Clahv. 11b i- 
NOSiMCS. Latr. 
A)ifenne inserted before the eyes : elytra rigid. 
Sp. 1. Sal. Roboris. 

Khinosimus Roboris. Latr. Curculio ruficollis. Marsh. Salpingus Ro- 
boris. Leach. 
Inhabits Europe under the bark of trees. 

Section in. TETRAMERA. 
Tarsi with four joints. 

Division I. — Head anteriorly rostrated; the mouth at the apex of the 

rostrum. 

Fam. XXXVI. Bruchid^. Leach, 

BRUCHEta;. Latreille. 

Palpi obvious, filiform, not very minuter rostrum broad : labrum ex- 
serted : antenna eleven-jointed, subclavate, with the club formed of 
distinct joints, in some ; filiform, or gradually thicker towards their 
points, in others; serrated or pectinated. 

Genus 197. PLATYRHINUS. ClairvUle, Leach. Anthribcs. 
Fabr., Geoff., Payk., Latr. Macrocephalus. Oliv. 
Antenna clavate, the club elongate : eyes not emarginate : elytra cover- 
ing the anus above : body ovate, oblong : abdomen somewhat elon- 
gate-quadrate. 
Sp. 1. PI. latirostris. 
Anthribus latirostris. Fabr., Latr., Payk. Platyrhinus latirostris. 

Clairv., Leach. Macrocephalus latirostris. Oliv. 
Inhabits boleti in woods : is rare in Britain. 



200 MODERX SVSTEM. 

Genus 198. ANTHRIBUS. Pai/kull, Fair., Latr., Geoff., Leach. 
Macrocephalus. Oliv. 
Antenna clavate : the club ovate, abrupt, incrassated : eyes not ^margi- 
nate : elytra covering the anus above : body short, oval, thick : thorax 
transverse, broader behind, lobated : rostrum short. 
Sp. 1. An. scabrosus. 
Anthribus scabrosus. Pai/k., Fabr., Lair., Leach. JJruchus scabrosus. 

Marsh. Macrocephalus scabrosus. Olivier. 
Inhabits the elm and horse-chesnut. 

Genus 199. RHINOMACER. Oliv., Fabr., Leach. Anthribus. 
Payk., Latr., Leach. 

Antenne clavate : eyes not emarginate : elytra covering the anus above ; 
abdomen elongate, narrow : thorax roundish, nearly equally broad : 
rostrum at the base much narrower than the head, the longitudinal 
diameter many times exceeding the breadth : tarsi with the second 
joint not including the third. 

Sp. 1. Hid. attelaboides. 

Anthribus rhinomaccr. Payk., Latr. Rhinomacer attelaboides. Fabr., 
Leach. 

Inhabits pine-trees. 

Genus 200. BRUCHUS. Linn., De Geer, Oliv., Fabr., Latr., Marsh., 
Leach. Mylabris. Geoff. 
Antennae nearly filiform : eyes emarginate for the insertion of the an^ 
tennas : body short, oval, thick : elytra not covering the anus above. 
Sp. 1. Bru. Pisi. 

Bruchus Pisi. Linn., Fabr., Oliv., Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits the south of Europe and the north of America. The larva 
is frequently found in peas. 

Fam. XXXVII. Curculionidje. Leach, 

CuRCULiONiTES. Lutreille. 

Palpi very small, conic-subulate, scarcely discernible : rostrum round- 
ed, thick, often proboscis-shaped : labrum none; antenna with di- 
stinct joints, the eighth or ninth generally clavate, the club regular, 
the joints coriaceous : head from the eyes more or less narrowed, 
distinctly produced into a rostrum : mandibles small or minute ; 
■mention not cylindric-cordate : body rarely cylindric : ante?-ior tibia 
never triangular, 

A. Antenna straight, not geniculated at the second joint. Body of 
all, from the base of the thorax, narrower, not cylindric. 

Genus 201. ATTELABUS. Linn., Fabr., Oliv., Latr., Leach. 
CuRCULio. De Geer. 
Head behind simply elongate, produced with no neck : tibia with one 



CLASS V. IKSr.CTA. 



201 



hook at their joints : body ovate : uhdovten quadrate, rounded behind : 
labium corneous, quadrate ; the middle of the upper margin emar- 
ginate, obtusely unidentate. 

Sp. 1. Att.curcuHonoidex. 

xVttelabus curcidionoides. Linn., Lutr., Oliv., -Marsh., Txach. 

Inhabits the nut-tree and willow. 

Genus 202. APODERUS. Oliv., Lafr., Leach. Attelabus. Linn., 
Fair., Paj/k. Curculio. JMarsh. 

Head with a distinct neck: tibice with one hook at their joints: body 
ovate : abdomen (juadrate, rounded behind : luhiion corneous, qua- 
drate, the middle of the upper margin emarginate, obtusely uni- 
dentate. 

Sp. 1. Apo. Coryli. 

Attelabus Cory li. Linn.,Fabr.,Pai/k. CurcuWoCoryW. Mar sham. A])0- 
iierus Coryli. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits the nut-tree, and is very common. 

Genus 203. RllYNCHITES. Hcrbst., Latr., Leach. Curcumo. 
Linn., De Geer, Marsh. Rhinomacer. Geoff., Clairo. At- 
telabus. Fabr., Oliv. 
Head elongate behind the eyes, with no neck: ch/peus dentate: tibia 
with very short heels : abdomen quadrate, rounded behind : body 
ovate, narrowly produced before : thorax conic-cylindric, broader be- 
hind (often with a spine on each side in the male) : labium mem- 
branaceous, small, the apex rounded, villose, entire. 
Sp. 1. Khi/n. Bacchus. 

Inhabits Europe, and is found in England on the nut- and plum-tree, 
but is very rare. 

Genus 204. DEPORAUS. Leach's MSS. 
Head elongate, with no neck : cli/peus subdentatc : tibia with short 

heels : abdomen quadrate-rounded behind : hinder thiirhs thick and 

formed for leaping. 
Sp. 1. Dep. Betula. 
Rhynchites Betulae. Hei^bst. 
Inhabits the oak, birch, and hazel. 

Genus 20.5. APION. Herbst, Latr., Kirby, Leach. Ci;rculio. 
Linn., Ma?-sh. 
Eyes prominulous: head elongate behind: abdomen subovate: tibia 
v/ith obsolete heels : labium subquadrate, entire. 

The Rev. William Kirby has given an admirable paper to the 
Linncan Society of London, in which upwards of sixty species of 
this genus are described, in the ninth volume of their 'I'ransuctions. 
He has added a supplement which is published in the tenth vo- 
lume, 



202 MODERN SYSTEM. 

The whole of tlie insects of this genus are very small ; they are 
in general found at the roots of grass, on the blossoms of clover, &c. 
and in sand-pits : in the months of April, May and June, they may 
be taken in profusion. 

B. A7itenn<e geniculated, the hasal joint very viuch elongated, gene- 
7-ally received in a lateral oblique groove, {at the base at least,) or 
the sides of' the rostrum. (Antenn<E in all clavate, the club ge- . 
nerally composed ofjinnli/ connected joints, the last acute. Tarsi 
with the last joint but one bijid, or emarginate above, cordate.) 

a. Antennte inserted beyond the base of the rostrum, larger than the 
head; the club distinctly many-jointed, ovate. Mandibles generally 
obtuse. Tibia at the apex ciliated with spines, in a few terminated by 
a st/^ong hook. Body ovate or elliptic. Colours various. 

Genus 20G. CURCULIO of aidhors. Brachyrinus. Latr. 

Body ovate, convex, narrower before : thorax round or conic-cylindric, 
narrower than the base of the elytra: scutellum extremely minute : 
abdomen ovate-conic, subo\'ate, or globose : lip minute : antenna ele- 
ven-jointed : hinder feet not formed for leaping. 

Sp. 1. Cur. argentatus. 

Curculio argentatus. Gmelin, Marsh., Fabr., Leach. Brachyrinus ar- 
gentatus. Latr. 

Inhabits Europe, and is very abundant in this country on the oak in 
May and June. 

Genus 207. LIXUS. Latr., Fabr., J^each. Leptosoma. Leach. 
Curculio. Linn., Geoff., Fabr., Marsh. 

Body elongate-ovate : rostrum as broad as the head : lip small, entire, 

transverse-quadrate, corneous, narrower than the mentum. 
Sp. 1. Lix. paraplecticus. 
Lixus paraplecticus. Leach. 
Inhabits the Phellandrium aquaticum. 

Genus 208. RHYNCILENUS. Fabr., Oliv., Leach. Curculio. 
Linn., Geoff., Lam., Latr. 

Body oblong-ovate, twice as long as broad : antenna eleven-jointed, 

the club distinct : wings perfect : rostrum moderate. 
Sp. 1. Rhyn. Pini. 

Ilhynchaenus Pini. Leach. Curculio Pini. Linne. 
Inhabits the Finns sylvestris. 

Genus 209. BALANINUS. Germar. 

Body oblong, twice as long as broad : antenna; twelve-jointed : rvings 
perfect : rostrum very long and very slender. 



CLASS V. INStCTA, 203 

Sp. 1. Bat. Niiciim. 
Ilhynchamis Nucum. Fahr. 

Inhabits the nut-tree : the larva livhig on the kernel of the fruit is 
called the nut-maggot. 

Genus 210. LIPARUS. Oliv., Leach. Curculio. Linn., Latr., 
Mursh. RiiYNciLtNUs. ¥abr. 
Bodj/ oblong-ovate, twice as long as broad : antenna with the club 

three-jointed beginning at tiie ninth joint, or four-jointed beginning 

at the eighth joint : zciugs none. 
Sp. 1. Lip. GcrmuHHS. 
Curculio Germanus. Linn., Marsh. Rhjiichaenus fusco-maculatus. 

Fabr. Liparus Germanus. Leach. 
Inhabits Europe : is rare in Britain, but has been taken near Dover 

and Hastings. 

Genus 211. CRYPTORIIYXCIIUS. Wig., Leach. Curculio. 
Linn., j\Lirsh. Ruvncilcnus. Fahr. 
Bodi/ round-oval, half as long again as broad : abdomen short, triangu- 
lar-quadrate : anus naked: r(74f/vn« applied to the breast: coleoptru 
subquadrate, the diameters nearly equal : hinder feet not formed for 
leaping : mentuni corneous, sub-obtrigonate. 
Sp. 1. Crypt. Ert/simi. 

Rhynchienus Erysimi, Fabr. Cryptorhynchus Er^'simi. Illigcr, Leach. 
Inhabits 

Genus 212. CIONUS. Clairv., Latr., Leach. RnYNciiy-ENUS. Fahr. 
Curculio. Linn., Geoff., Oliv. 

Body quadrate-ovate, thick, a little longer than broad: abdomen large, 
subquadrate, a little narrower and rounded behind : anus not naked : 
rostrum applied to the breast : coleoptra convex, as broad as long, 
inflexcd behind : hinder feet not formed for leaping. 

Sp.l. Cio. ScrophularicE. 

Curculio Scrophulariee. Linn., Marsh. RhynchajnusScrophularice. Fabr. 
Clonus Scrophularise. Clairv., Leach. 

Inhabits the water be tony. 

Genus 213. ORCHESTES. Oliv., lllig.. Leach. Rhyncii^nus. 
Clairv., Fahr., Latr. Curculio. Linn., Marsh. 
Body ovate : abdomen elongate-quadrate, rounded behind : elytra in- 
flexed l)ehind, covering, or at least touching the anus : hinder feet 
formed for leaping. 
Sp. 1. Ore. Alni. 
Curculio Alni. LiHn., M«r.<!/(, Rhynch?enus Alni. Fahr. Orchestes Alni. 

Leach. 
Inhabits the alder. 



204 MODERN SYSTEM. 

b. Antenn/E inserted at the base of the rostrum. Tarsi injlectcd to 
the internal side of the tibia. 

Genus 214. CALANDRA. Clairv., Fabr., Leach. Cuucci.io. 
Linn., Geoff., Oliv. Rhynchopuorxis. Hcrbst. 
Bod)/ elliptic-oval, flat above : ei/es immersed, oblong, encircling the 
head beneath : rostrum thickened at the insertion of the antennae : 
elytra plain, not covering the anus above : anus acutely prominent : 
feet strong. 
Sp. 1. Cal. granaria. 

Calandra granaria. Fabr., Latr., Leach. Curculio granarius. Marsh. 
Inhabits 

Genus ^215. COSSONUS. Clairv., Fabr., Latr., Leach. Cur- 
culio. Payk., Herbst. 
Body very much lengthened, sublinear or subcylindric, narrow before : 
elytra covering the anus above : tibice terminated by a hook inter- 
nally : back flat, depressed. 
Sp. 1. Cos. linearis. 
Cossonus linearis. Clairv., Fabr., Latr., Leach. Curculio linearis. 

Payk., Marsh. Curculio parallelopipedos. Herbst. 
Inhabits trunks of trees in Windsor Forest. 

Obs. — In addition to the above in Germar's and Zinckcr Sommers Maga- 
zin der Entomologie, vol. iii. for 1817, notice is given of the following 
genera as lately established, (the species mentioned may be consi- 
dered the types). 

Genus Magdalis. Germar. 
Sp. 1. Cur. aterrimus. 

Genus Bagous. Germar. 

Sp. 1. Cur. binoduius. Herbst. 2. Cur. Alismatis. CyiC 

Genus SiTONA. Germar. 

Sp. 1. Cur. hispidulus. 2. Cur. linealus. 

Genus Curculio. 

Sp. 1. Cur. sulcirostris. 

Genus Grypiius. Germar. 
Sp. 1. Cur. Equiseti. 

Gemis Lepyrus. Germar. 
Sp. 1. Cur. triguttatus. 

Genus Pachygaster. Germar. 
Sp. 1. Cur. niger. 



CLASS V. INSKCTA. 205 

Genus Hypera. Germar. 
Sp. 1. Cur. uigrorostris. 

Genus Thylacites. Germar. 
Sp. 1. Cur. incanus. 

Division TI. — Head not gradually prolonged into a rostrum. Tarsi not 
spongi^ beneath. Antenna forming a solid mass, shorter or not much 
longer than the head. 

Fam. XXXVIII. Bostricid.i. Leach. 

BosTRiciNi. Latreille. 

Body cylindric or globose : head globose : tibia: compressed, the ante- 
rior ones dentated : antenna eight- or ten-jointed ; the first joint elon- 
gate, the two or three last joints formuig a large mass : palpi very 
small, generally conic, rarely filiform. 

Stirps 1. — Club of the antennee commencing before the ninth joint. 
Genus 216. HYLURGUS. Latr., Leach. Ips. De Geer, Marsh. 

SCOLYTUS. OliXK 

Tarsi with the penultimate joint bifid : antenna with the club com- 
mencing at the eighth joint, very little or not at all compressed. 
Sp. 1. Hyl. Piniperda. 

Ips Piniperda. Marsh. Hylurgus Piniperda. Latr. 
Inhabits this country, perforating the bark of the pine. 

Genus 217. TOMICUS. Latr., Leach.. Dbrmestes. Linnaus^ 
Ips. JDe Geer. Bostrichus. Fabr., Payk. Scolytus. OHv, 

Tarsi with entire short joints : antenna with the club much compress- 
ed, beginning at the seventh joint, distinctly annulated : body not 
linear. 

Sp. 1. Tom. Typographus. 

Dermestes Typographus. Linn. Ips Typographe. De Geer. Bostrichus 
Typographus. Fabr., Payk. Ips Typographus. Marsh. Scolytus Ty- 
pographus. Oliv. Tomicus Typographus. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits Europe, under the bark of trees, which it gnaws into various 
labyrinth-like passages. 

Genus 218. PLATYPUS. Herbst, Latr., Leach. Bostrichcs. Helt- 
wig., Fabr. Scolytus. Panz. 
Tarsi with entire long joints : antenna with the club much compressed, 
commencing at the sixth joint : annulations not or but slightly di- 
stinct: body linear. 
Sp. 1. Pla. cylindricm} 



206 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Platypus cylindriciis. Heibst, Lair. Bosthchus cylindiicus. Fair. 
Scolytus cylindricus. Oliv. 

Discovered to be a native of Britain by Mr. D. Bydder, who took 
it in the New Forest of Hampshire from beneath the bark of trees, 

Stirps 2. — Antenna with the club beginning at the ninth joint. 

Genus 219. SCOLYTUS. Geoff., Schcffer, Latr., Oliv., Leach. 
Tarsi with the last joint but one bifid : antennce with the club com 

pressed, obovoid, the apex rounded. 
Sp. 1. Sco. Destructor. 
Scolytus Destructor. Oliv., Latr. Ips Scolytus. Marsh. Hylesinus 

Scolytus. Fuhr. 
Inhabits beneath the bark of the elm. 

Genus 220. HYLESINUS. Fahr., Lair., Leach. 
Tarsi with their penultimate joint bifid : antenna with the club Itttlc pr 

not compressed, ovoid, the extremity pointed. 
Sp. 1. Hj/1. crenatns. 

Hylesinus crenatus. Fair., Lair. Scolytus crenatus. Oliv. 
Inhabits Europe, under the bark of trees. 

Fam. XXXIX. Cisid.?;. L^ach, 

Bocli/ ovoid or oblong ; in some depressed, in others linear : palpi fili- 
form or bent at their extremities : antenna- ten-jointed, increasing 
towards their extremities or terminated by a perfoliated mass. 

Stirps 1. — Antenna with the club three-jointed, perfoliated. 

Genus 221. CIS. Latr., Lxach. 
Antenna twice as long as the head ; boclj/ oval, depressed. 

Sp. 1. Cis Boleti. 

Dermestes Boleti. ScopolL Anobium Boleti. Fuhr., Lllig., Pai/k. AnO' 

bium bidentatum. Oliv. Ptinus Boleti. Marsh. 
Inhabits the Boletus versicolor. 

Stirps 2. — Antenna with a nearly globose two-jointed club. 
Genus 222. CERYLON. Latr., Leach. 

Bocli/ elongate : thorax quadrate, with the hinder margin straight, con» 
tiguous with the elytra : abdomen not pedunculated. 

Sp. 1. Cer. histeroides. 

Lyctus histeroides. Fahr., Pai/k., Panz. Rhyzophagus histeroides. 
Herbst. Cerylon histeroides. Latr. 

Inhabits Europe, beneath the bark of trees. 



CT.ASS V. INSFXTA. 207 

Genus 223. MONOTOMA. Herbst, Leach. Cerytox. Latr. 

Biidi/ elongate, linear: thorax quadrate, with the hinder margin 
distant from tlie base of the elytra: abdomen somewhat peduncu- 
lated. 

Sp. 1. ]\[on. Juiilandis. 

Lvctus Juglandis. Fubr., Pai/k., Pauz. Corticaria taxicornis. Marsh. 

Inhabits Europe, imdor tlie bark of the stumps of trees, particularly 
those in damp situations. 

Fam. XL. Mycetopiiagid.?:. Leach. 

Budi/ ovoid or oblong; in some depressed, in others linear: palpi fili- 
form or bent at their extremities: antenna eleven-jointed: mandibles 
little or not at all prominent. 

Stiups 1. — Antennfc gradually thickening towards their extremities. 
. Tarsi with the first joint longer than the following one. 

Genus 224. MYCETOPHAGUS. Fabr., Pai/k., Oliv., Panz., Latr., 
Leach. Tritoma. Geoff. Dermestes. Thunb. Silpiioides. 
Herbst. Boletaria. Marsh. 

BlkIi/ oval : antenna with the last joint elongate, ovate : maxillary palpi 

prominent. 
Sp. 1. J^[yc. quadripustnlafus. 
Mycetophagus quadripustulatus. Fabr., Latr., Panz., Payk. Boletaria 

quadripustulata. I\iarsh. 
Inhahhi Jungi. 

Stirps 2. — AntenncE gradually thickening towards their extremities, or 
with a three-jointed club. 

a. Tarsi with the first joint longer than tlie secoird. Palpi very 
short, the maxiUai'y ones but little or not at all prominent. Antennie 
as long as the thorax or less. 

Genus 225. LATRIDIUS. Herbst, Leach. Ips. Oliv. Corti- 
caria. Marsham. Dermestes. Fabr., Paykull. 

.Antenna with the second joint larger than the third. 

Sp. 1. Lat. porcatus. 

Latridius porcatus. Herbst, T^each. Latridius minutus. Latr. Der- 
mestes marginatus. Paykull. 
Inhabits damp paper and old wood in houses. 



20S MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 226. 8ILVANUS. Latr., Leach. Tenebrio. De Geer. 
Deumestes. Fabr., Panz. Ips. Olivier. Colydium. Fuyk., 
Herbst. CoRTiCARiA. Marsham. 
Antenna with the second and following joints to the eighth joint nearly 

equal. 
Sp. 1. Sil.frumentarius. 
Colydium friunentarium. Panzer, Corticaria frumentaria. Marsh. 

Silvanus frumentarius. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits damp cellars in old wood and paper. 

Stirps 3. — Antenna eleven-jointed. Mandibles prominent or exserted» 
* Mandibles small. Body long and linear. 
Genus 227. LYCTUS. Fabr., Pai/k., Leach. 
Antenna with a two-jointed club : thorax long and linear. 

Sp. 1. Li/c. oblongus. 

Lyctus oblongus. Latr., Leach. Lyctus canaliculatus. Fabr. Ips ob- 
longus. Oliv, Bitoma unipunctata. Herbst. Corticaria oblonga. 
Ma7'sh. 

Inhabits old wood. 

** Mandibles large. Body elongate, much depressed, nearly equally 
broad. 

Genus 228. TROGOSITA. Fabr., Oliv., Illig., Latr., Lam., Leach. 

Thorax almost quadrate, separated from the abdomen by a remarkable 
interval : antenna monilitbrm, shorter than the thorax, compressed 
towards the apex ; labrum exserted, coriaceous, small, hairy in front. 

Sp. 1. Tro. mauritnnica. 

Tenebrio mauritaniciis. Possi, Marsh. Trogosita caraboides. Fabr,, 
lUig., Payk., Herbst, Latr. Trogosita mauritanioa. Oliv., Leach. 

Inhabits Europe, under stones on the banks of rivers. 

Fam. XLT. Pryonid.^. Leach.' 

Lip much widened at its extremity, cordiform ; body elongate : antenna 
long, generally inserted in a notch in the eyes : labrum very small or 
almost none. 

Genus 229. PRIONUS. Geoff., Fabr., Oliv., Latr., Leach. 

Thorax with the sides gently sloping, dentated : antenna serrated, a lit- 
tle shorter than the body; of the male twelve, of the female eleven- 
jointed. 

Sp^ 1. Pri. coriarius. 

Cerambyx coriarius. Linn., Marsh. Prionus coriarius. Latr., Fabr., 
Oliv., I^ach. 

Inhabits old trees; flies in the evening. 



CtASS V. INSECTA. 209 

Fam. XLII. Ceramiiycid^. I^ach. 
Cerambycini II. Latr. 

Lip much widened at its extremity, cordiform : body elongate : labruip 
very apparent : antenna inserted in a notch in the eyes. 

Subdivision 1. — Head vertical. Palpi almost ^filiform. 

Genus 230. LAMIA. Latr., Fahr., Leach. 
Antenna ten-jointed, longer than the body. 
This genus is divided into sections. 

A. Body depressed, 
Sp. 1. Lam. adilis. 

Lamia sediUs. Fabr., Latr., Leach. Cerambyx sedilis. Linn., Marsh. 
Inhabits the trunks of trees, but is very rare in Britain. 

B, Body not depressed. 
Sp. 2. Lam. nebulosa. 

Cerambyx nebulosus. Fabr., Marsh. Lamia nebulosa. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits dried faggots in woods, hurdles, Sec, 
Sp. 3. Lam. Textor. {PI. 2. fg. 24,) 
Lamia Textor. Fabr., Latr. Cerambyx Textor. Marsh. 
Inhabits the wood of willow-trees in Hampshire and near Bristol. 

C. Body linear. Thorax not spined at the sides. 
Sp. 4. Lam. oculata. 
Cerambyx oculatus. Marsh. Saperda oculata. Fabr. Lamia oculati 

Latr. 
Inhabits the trunks of trees, but is very rare in England, 

Genus 231. SAPERDA. Leach. 
Antenna eleven-jointed, longer than the body : body linear: thorax with" 

out spines. 
Sp. 1. Sap. lineato-col/is. 
Cerambyx lineato-collis. Marsh. Saperda lineato-coUis. Leach's Zool. 

Misc. vol. i. 
Inhabits the trunks of trees, but is very rare. Dr. Leach suspects this 

species to be Saperda Cardui Fabr, 

Subdivision 2.—~Head nutant. Palpi with the last joint thicker than the 

others. 

Genus 232. CERAMBYX. Linn., Fabr., S,c. 
Antenna longer than the body : palpi with the last joint obconic, com- 
pressed : thorax with a spine on each side, 
Sp. 1. Cer, inoscliatus. 
Inhabits willows in Europe, emitting, whilst alive, a fine smell of musk. 

Genus 233. CLYTUS. Fabr., Leach. Cerambyx. Linn., Marsh. 
Ldbial pa/pi -with, the last joint obtrigonate: ^Aorax without spines, glo- 
bose : antenna shorter than the body : hinder thighs clavate, 

o 



210 MODERN' SYSTEM. 

Sp. 1. C/y. Arietis. {PI. 2. fig. 2o.) 

Cerainbyx Arietis. Linn., Marsh. Clytus Arietis. Fabr., Leach. Cal- 

lidium Arietis. Latr. 
Inhabits trunks of trees in sunny v.'cather. 

Genus 234. CALLIDIUM. Fair., Latr., Leach. Cerambyx. 
Linn., JMarsh. 

Labial palpi with the last joint obtrigonate : thorax orbicular, depressed 
or but little convex : antenius setaceous, as long as the body : hinder 
thighs abruptly clavate. 

Sp. 1. Cal. violaceum. 

Cerambyx violaceus. Linn., Marsh. Callidium violaceum. Fair., Latr., 
I^ach. 

Inhabits Europe. In Britain it is generally found on palings. I lately 
bred a specimen from a larva found in a Norway deal, and I am in- 
formed by an intelligent carpenter from whom I received the lar\a, 
that he has frequently met with tiiem in new wood. ^Ir. Kirby has 
given an interesting history of this species in the Transactions of the 
Linncan Societt/, vol. v. 

Genus 235. MOLORCHUS. Fair. 
Fliftra abbreviated. 
Sp. 1. Mol. major. 

Necydalis major. Linn. ]\Io!orchu3 rmbellatarum. Fabr. 
Inliabits flowers and hedges. 

Fam. XLIII. Lepturad.te. Leach. 
Lip much widened at its extremity', cordiform : body elongate : labruw 
very apparent : antenna inserted bet^veen the eyes. 

Genus 236. ULFTL'RA of authors. 
Thorax not spined on each side. 
Sp. 1. Lep. elongata. 

Leptura elongata. Fabr., Latr., Marsh., Leach. 
Inhabits various flowers in hedges, and is pretty common. 
Sp. 2. Lep. quadrifasciata. (PL 2. fig. 26.) 
Inhabits umbelliferous plants ; is rather scarce. 

Genus 237. RHA'GIUM. Fabr., Leach. Leptcra. Vvm., Latr.. 
Marsh. 
Tliorax with a spine on each side : antenna setaceous. 
Sp. 1. Rha. vulgare. Leach. 

Leptura Inquisitor. Latr., Marsh. Rhagium Inquisitor Fabr. 
Inhabits umbelliferous plants in woods, and may be found in decayed 
stumps of trees in the winter months. 

Genus 238. HARGIUM. Leach's MSS. 
Thorax v.ith a spine on each side ; antenna thickest in their middle. 
Sp. 1. Rha. Inquisitor, 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 211 

Leptiira Inquisitor. Linne. Rhagium Indagator. Fair. 
Inhabits England, but is very rare. 

Fam. XLIV. CRiocERiDiE. Leach. 
Lip not cordiform : maxilla with their external division not resembling 
a t«'o-jointed palpus : toij/ elongate : f^ora r cylindric or quadrate: 
mandibles bifid or notched at their extremities. 

Genus 239. DONACIA. Tahr., Payk., Hoppe, OUv., Latr., Leach. 
Lepttjra. Linn., Marsh. 
Antennas with elongate-cylindric joints, those of the base obconic : eyes 
not notched : abdomen elongate, triangular : hinder thighs thick. 

* Hinder thighs dentated. 
Sp. 1. Don. micans. 

Donacia micans. Hoppe, Leach. Leptura micans. ilJars/j. 
Inhabits aquatic plants. 

** Hinder thighs simple, 
Sp. 2. Don. simpler. 
Leptura simplex. Marsh. 
Iiiliabits aquatic plants. 

Ob5. — Donacia Zosteri Fabr., and Equiseti, both of which have lately 
been taken in Britain, constitute the genus Macroplea of Hoffmansegg. 

Genus 2 10. CRIOCERIS. Geof., OUv., Lam., Leach. 
Ante'nnce moniliform, with the exception of the basal joints which are 

globose : ei/es notched : neck distinct : abdomen quadrate. 
Sp. 1. Cri. mcrdigera. (PL 2. Jig. 14.) 
Crioceris merdigera. Latr., Leach. Lema merdigera. Fabr. Auche- 

nia merdigera. Marsh. Chrysomela merdigera. Li7in. 
Inhabits the white Yi\y. 

Fam. XLV. Curysomelid.?:. Leach, 

Chrysomei.tnt:. Jxitreilk. 

Lip not cordiform : maxilla with their external division resembling a 
biarticukite palpus : bodxf more or less ovoid or oval : thorax trans- 
verse, or not longer than broad. 

Stirps 1. — Palpi very small : antenna inserted near each other between 
the eyes, at a distance from the moutli: body shield-shaped : thorax 
semicircular. 

Genus 241. CASSIDA of authors. 
Antenna thicker towards their extremities, their base concealed by the 

tliorax: body nearly orbiculate. 
Sp. 1. Cass, eqmstris. 
Cassida equestris. Fabr., Payk., Panz., Latr., Leach. Cassida viridis.. 

Marsh., Illig. 
Inhabits the Mentha sylvestris. 

o3 



212 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Stirps 2. — Maxill my palpi very apparent : anlem:a inserted very near 
to each other, between the eyes, towards the middle of the face. 

Division I. — Feet not fanned for leaping. 

Genus 242. GALERUCA. Geoff'., Latr., Fabr., Oliv., Leach. 

Palpi with the tw© last joints very slightly different in size, the last co- 
nic : antenncE shorter than the body, the joints obconic ; the second 
joint half the length of the third. 

Sp. 1. Gal. Tanaceti. {PL 2. Jig. 13.) 

Chrysomela Tanaceti. Marsh, Galeruca Tanaceti. Latr., Fabr. 

Inhabits chalk-pits. 

Genus 243. ADIMONIA. Schrank, Leach. 

Palpi with the two last joints not very different in size, the last joint 
conic : antenna shorter than the body, the joint obconic, with tlie se- 
cond and third joints shorter than the fourth joint. 

Sp. 1. Ad. nigricornis. 

Crioceris nigricornis. Fahr. Galeruca nigricornis. Latr, Chrysomela 
halensis. Marsh. Adimonia nigricornis. Leach. 

Inhabits hedges. 

Genus 244. LTJPERUS. Geoff., Oliv., Latr., LeacK 
Palpi with the two last joints nearly equal in size, the last conic: an- 
tennae as long as the body, the joints cylindric, elongate. 
Sp. 1. Lup.Jiavipea. 

Luperus flavipes. Latr,, Leach. Crioceris flavipes. Fabr. 
Inhabits bushes in damp woods. 

Division II. — Hinder feet formed for leaping, the thighs being incrassated. 
Genus 245. HALTICA. Leach. Altica. Geoff., Oliv., Panz., 

Latr. Chrysomela. Linn., De Gcer, Marsh. Cmoceris. 

Fabr. Lema. Fabr. Galeruca. Fabr. 
Antennts with the second joint generally a little shorter than the first. 

* Body ovate. 
Sp. 1. Hal. oleracea. 
Altica oleracea. Latr., Panz. Chrysomela oleracea. Marsh. Haltica 

oleracea. Leach. 
Inhabits sand-pits, and nettles in hedges. 

** Body nearly orbiculafe. 
Sp. 2. Hal.testacea. 
Galeruca testacea. Fabr. Altica testacea. Latr. Chrysomela testacea. 

Marsh. Haltica testacea. Leach. 
Inhabits sand-pits, and nettles in hedges. 
Stirps 3. — Maxillary palpi -very apparent: ara^enn^c inserted before tl 

eyes, gradually thickening towards their points : head nutant, fo"- 

ing aa obtuse angle with the thorax. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 213 

Division I. — Mandibles short, obtuse, truncated or terminated bj/ a tery 
short point : antenna with the four last joints globose or turbinated. 

Subdivision l.^Antenna with the last four joints turbinated. Body 
hemispheric or oral. Thorax transverse. 

Genus 246. CHRYSOMELA. Latr., Fabr., d^c. 
Palpi terminated by two joints of nearly an equal length, the last al- 
most ovoid truncate or nearly cylindric: sternum not produced. 

* Thorax with the sides incrassatcd, as if margined : body ovate qua- 
drate. 

Sp. 1. Chry. Bayihsii. 

Chrysomela Banksii. Fabr., Latr., Marsh., Leach. 

Inhabits nettles in lanes, 

** Thorax with the sides not incrassated. Body ovate quadrate. 

Sp. 2. Chry. Litura. 

Chrysomela Litiu-a. Fabr., Latr., Marsh., Leach. 

Inhabits the broom. 

*** Body elongate-ovate quadrate. 

Sp. 3. Chry. jnarginella. 

Chrj^somela marginella. Fabr., Latr., Marsh., Leach. 

Inhabits plants growing by the side of ditches. 

Obs. — Chrysomela tenebricosa Linn, forms the Genus TiMAncnA C<)f 
Hoppe) ? 

Subdivision 2. — Antenna with the four last joints semi-globose, almost 
forming a club. Body elongate-quadrate. Thorax as long as bt^oad. 

Genus 247. IIELODES. Payk., Fabr., Oliv., Leach. 
Palpi short, thicker at their middle, the last joint short-obconic, 

Sp. 1. Hel. Phellandrii. 

Helodes Phellandrii. Payk., Fabr. Proscijris Phellandrii. LMtr. 

Inhabits flowers in meadows. 

Stibps 4. — Maxillary palpi very apparent: antenntt inserted before the 
eyes : head vertical : palpi wiih the last joint conic-cylindric : body 
short-cylindric. 

Genus 248. CRYPTOCEPHALUS. Geoff., Fabr., Oliv., Latr., 
Lam., Marsh., I^each. 
Antennm simple, filiform, about the length of the body. 
Sp. 1. Crypt, sericeus. 
Chrysomela sericea. Linn. Cryptocephaliis sericeus. Fabr., ^iv., 

Marsh., Leach. 
Inhabits the flowers of the dandelion. 



214 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 219. CLYTHRA. Lakharting, Fabr., Oliv., Latr., Leach. 
Antenna short, serrated, exserted : palpi alike. 

Sp. 1. Cly. quadripunctata. 

Clythra quadripunctata. Fabr., Latr., Leach. Cryptocephalus quadri- 

punctatus. Marsh. Chrysomela quadripunctata. Linn. 
Inhabits the oak, but is very local. 

Fam. XLVI. Erotylidje. 

Antenna moniliforni below, terminated by an ovoid club : thorax ele- 
vated at the middle : tibia elongate-triangular. 

Stirps. 1. — Palpi all terminated by large semilunar or securiform 
joints. 

Genus 250. TRITOMA. Fabr., Oliv., Latr., Leach. 
Body short-ovate, the back elevated in the middle : thorax with the 

middle of the hinder margin dilated into an angle. 
Sp. 1. Trit. bipusttdatum. {PL 2. Jig. 9.) 
Tritoma bipustulatum. Fabr., Payk., Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits boleti. 

Genus 251. TRIPLAX. Payk., Fabr., Oliv.,Leach. Silpha, Linn., 
Marsh. 
Body oval. 

Sp. 1. Tri. russica. 

Silpha russica. Linn., Mat^sh. Triplax russica. Payk., Fabr. Tritoma 

russica. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits dead trees and fungi. 

Stikps 2. — Maxillary palpi filiform, or thicker tov/ards their extremities, 

* Tarsi with the penultimate joint bilobate. Body hemispheric, but 
not contractile into a ball. 

Genus 252. PIIALACRUS. Latr^, Payk., Leach. 
Antenna with a three-jointed club. 

Sp. 1. Pha. bicolor. 

Phalacrus bicolor. Payk., Latr., Leach. Dermestes Calthae. Scopoli. 

Anisotoma bicolor. Illig., Fabr. 
Inhabits various flowers. 

** Ta?-si with the joints entire. Body nearly globose, contractile 
into a ball. 

Genus 253. AGATHIDIUM. Illig., Latr., Leach. 
Antenna with a three-jointed club. 
Sp. 1. Agath. nigripenne, > 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 215 

Agathidium nigripenne. lUlg., Latr., Leach. Spha'i'uiiL.ni ruficolle. 

Oliv, Anisotoma nigripennis. Fabr. 
Inhabits sand-pits. 

Sfciion IV. TRIMERA. 

Tarsi all three-jointed. 

Fam. XI.VII. Coccinellid.?;. Leach. 

Antenna shorter than the tliorax: maxilla?^ palpi terminated by :i large 
securiform joint: /^oi/y hemispheric: thorax transverse, liie liiinNr 
margin arcuated. 

Genus 254. COCCINELLA of authors. 
Thorax (even behind) narrower than the elytra : hodij hemisplicric, ap- 
proaching to ovate. 
Sp. 1. Coc. septcmpundata (Common Lady-cow or I.ady-ljird). 
Coccinclla septempunctata ctj' authors. 
Inhabits Europe. 

Genus 255. CIIILOCORUS. Leach. 
Thorax lunate, without hinder angles: bod^ enlinly marf^lviatrf]. 

Sp. 1. Chi. Cacti. 

Coccinella Cacti. Latr., Fabr. Chilocorus Cacti. Leach. 

Inhabits white-thorn hedges. 

Fam. XLVIII. Exdomyciiid.?:. Leach. 
u4«fen?z<E longer than the thorax: maxillary palpi i\ot icrm'mxXcA by a 
large joint: hodif more or less ovoid: thorax almost quadrate. 

Genus 256. ENDOMYCHUS. Pai/k., Fair., Leach. 

Antenn<E with the greater portion of their joints very sliort, nearly cy- 
lindric; the ninth joint longer than the one before it^ the last with 
the apex truncate or obtuse: palpi with their extremities thicker: 
thighs not abruptly clavate: bodt/ ovate : thorax short, with the bar^c 
gradually enlarging from the apex, not narrowed behind : mandibles 
with their points distinctly bifid or bidcntate. 

Sp. 1. End. coccineus. 

Chrysomela coccinea. Linn. Endomychus coccineus. Fat/h., Lair., 
Fabr., Leach. Tenebrio coccineus. Marsh. 

Inhabits beneath the bark of the stimips of trees : this is a very local in- 
sect. In Coombe Wood, Surrey, they occurred for a year or two in 
profusion in the months of May and June. The larvje resemble the 
female glow-worm, but are not more than a quarter of an inch in 
length, and are found beneath the bark of trees, particularly those in 
moist places. 



216 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 257. LYCOPERDINA. Latr., Leach. 

Antenna; moniliform, gradually thickening towards tl>eir extremities, 
the ninth joint scarcely longer than the one before it : maxillary palpi 
filiform: labial palpi with the last joint large, almost ovoid : thighi 
abruptly clavate : bodii elongate-ovate : thorax with the anterior an- 
gles a little dilated, narrowed behind : mandibles with their points 
very acute, undivided. 

Sp. 1. Lye. Bovista. 

Endomychus Bovistae. Payk., Fabr. Tenebrio Bovistse. Marsh. Ly- 
coperdina immaculata. Latr. Lycoperdina Bovistas. Leach. 

Inhabits the Lycoperdmm or puff-ball. 

Order IV. DERMAPTERA. Be Geer, Leach, Kirby. ■ 

Order Coleoptera. Linne, Marshain. 
Order Orthoptera. Latreille, Lamarck. 

Characters of the Order. 

Elytra somewhat crustaceous and abbreviated, of a square form ; the 
suture straight : wings membranaceous, externally coriaceous, large, 
folded transversely and longitudinally: anus armed with forceps, 
which is horny and moveable : body linear depressed: antenna: in- 
serted before the eyes, composed of from twelve to thirty joints; the 
first articulation largest, the second very small, the others short, ob- 
conic or nearly globose : 7nandibles with their points bidentate : palpi 
filiform, terminated with a very obscure tuberculiform little body or 
spine: tarsi three-jointed, villose beneath: eyes triangular-orbicular, 
and but little prominent. 

Obs. — The genera are founded on the number of joints in the antennas. 

Genus 258. FORFICULA of authors. 
Antenna composed of fourteen joints. 

Sp. 1. For. auricularia. Forceps at the base internally denticulated, and 
a little beneath with a tooth on each side : elytra yellowish-bro^vn, 
with the disk darker. 

Forficula auricularia of authors. 

Inhabits Europe. Mr. Marsham has considered the sexes of this in- 
sect as two species, under the names auricularia and neglccta. 

Genus 259. LABIA. Leach, 
Antenna twelve-jointed. 

Sp. 1. Lab. minor. Forceps denticulated within. {PI. 4. fg. 16.) 

Forficula minor. Fabr., Panzer, Leach. 

Inhabits dung-hills, under clods of earth, stones, &c. The forceps of 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 217 

the male arc somewhat larger than that of the female, ^hich charac- 
ter Mr. Marsham has considered as specific. 
Genus 260. LABIDURA. Leach. 

Anteniiit with about thirty joints. 

Sp. 1. Labid. gigantea. Entirely testaceous yellow. 

Forficula gigantea. Fair. 

Inhabits Europe. It was discovered to inhabit Britain by the Rev. Wil- 
liam Bindley, who observed them on the sea-coast under stones near 
Christchurch, Hampshire, where they occurred in great abundance. 

Order V. ORTHOPTERA. Leach. 

Order Orthoptera. Oliv,, Lam., Latr. 
Class Ulon ATA. Fahr. 
Order HeMiptera. Linne. 

Characters of the Order. 

Elytra coriaceous, the internal margin of one overlapping the same 
margin of the other : umgs membranaceous, the anterior margin co- 
riaceous, longitudinally folded : palpi short : bodi/ elongate, narrow : 
tarsi with three or four very rarely with five joints. 

Fam. I. AcnETiD.«:. Leach. 
Gryllides. Latreille. 

Elytra horizontal : wings longitudinally folded, often produced beyond 
the elytra: tai-si three-jointed: hinder feet formed for jumping. 

Stirps 1. — Antenna not longer than the thorax: anterior feet com- 
pressed, formed for digging ; oviduct not exserted. 

Genus 261. GRYLLOTALPA- I^ay, Latr., Leach. 

Antenn.'E setaceous, composed of a vast number of joints (beyond sixtj') ; 
antirior tibia and tarsi formed for digging; two first joints of the 
tarsi very large, dentiform : hinder feet little formed for jumping. 

Sp. 1. Gryl. vulgaris. Above fuscous, ferruginous yellowish beneath : 
anterior tibia qiiadridentate : wings twice the length of the elytra. 

Gryllus Gryllotalpa. Linn. Acheta Gryllotalpa. Fabr. Gryllotalpa vul- 
garis. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits Europe in gardens and cultivated places, especially the sides 
of ponds and banks of streams : they burrow and work underground 
like the mole, raising a ridge as they proceed, but seldom throw up 
hillocks. They sometimes destroy whole beds of cabbages, young 
legumes and flowers. At night they come abroad and make long 
excursions. In fine weather, about the middle of April, and at the 
close of day, they begin to utter a low, dull, jarring note, continued 
for a long time without interruption. About the beginning of May 



218 MODF.KN SYSTEM. 

they lay their eggs, two Imndred or more, below ground, the female 
being excessively solicitous to preserve them from cold and accidents. 
They arc said to be attracted to gardens by horse-dung, and to be 
expelled by the dung of hogs. They are common in some parts of 
Hampshire and Wiltshire. 

Stirps 2. — Tcct not formed for digging : oviduct exserted : antenna 
longer than the thorax. 

Genus 2G2. ACIIETA. Fair., Leach. Gryllus. Linn., Geoff., 
Latr., Oliv., Lam. 
Sp. 1. Ach. cainpestris. Body three times longer than broad, black, shin- 
ing. 
Gryllus campestris. Linn., Latr. Acheta campestris. Fab?-., Leach. 
Inhabits the temperate parts of Europe; is not very common in Bri- 
tain. 
The house cricket belongs to this genus. 

Fara. II. Gryllidje. Leach. 
LocusTARi^. Latreille. 

Elj/tra and nings oblique: hinder feet formed for jumping: tarsi four- 
jointed : antenna; setaceous : oviduct exserted. 

Genus 2G3. CONOCEPIIALUS. Thunb., Leach. Locusta. Geoff., 
De Gee?', Fabr., Oliv., Lam., Latr. 
Tliorux deflexed, convex, truncated : head acuminated : hinder feet twice 

the length of the body : antcnnce as long as the body. 
Sp. 1. Con. viridissimus. Green: antenna?, vertex, dorsum of the thorax, 

and suture of the elytra fuscous ferrugineous. 
Locusta viridissima. Fabr., Latr. Gryllus viridissimus. Linne. 
Inhabits Europe. In the autimin the perfect insect may be found in 
great plenty in the marshes near London. 

Fam. III. LocusTiD.t. Leach. 
AcRYDii. Latreille. 

Flytra and wings oblique: hinder feet formed for jumping: tarsi Wiih. 
three joints : antenna filiform or ensiform : oviduct not exserted. 

Stirps \. — Hinder legs as long as the body : antenna, filiform : scutellum 

short. 

Genus 264. LOCUSTA. Lf «<■/(. Gryllus. Fabr., Panz., Linn. 
Antenna filiform, or terminated in a club : hinder legs not, or scarcely, 

longer than the body. 

Obs. — Vfe have many indigenous species of this genus. 

Sp. 1. Loc. migratoria. Thorax somewhat carinated : mandibles blue. 
This species, though not a native of this country', has been occa- 
sionally taken in Britain ; in the year 1748 it appeared in several 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 219 

irregular flights in many parts of Europe, and visited England: but 
they perished in a very short time, before they did much harm. 

" Of all the insects which are capable of adding to the calamities 
of tlie human race, locusts seem to possess the most formidable 
powers of destruction. Legions of these voracious animals of various 
species are produced in Africa, where the devastation they commit 
is almost incredible. The air is darkened by their numbers ; they 
carry desolation with them wherever they pass, and in the short 
space of a few hours are said to change the most fertile provinces in- 
to a barren desert. 

" Some of the species serve as food, and are eaten fresh as well as 
salted. In the latter state they are constantly exposed to sale in the 
Levant, but the quantity of nutritious matter is said to be very small." 

Stirps 2. — Hinder legs longer than the body : antenncB capitate : scu- 
telhun short. 

Genus 2G5. GOMPIIOCERUS. LeacKs MSS. Gomphoceros. 
Thunh. 

Hinder legs longer than the body : antennas capitate; club of the anten- 
na spoon-shaped in hoth sexes : anterior tibia: simple. 

Sp. 1. Gompk. riifus. 

Gryllus rufus. Linnc. 

Inhabits England. 

Stirps 3. — Wings covered by the scutellum. 

Genus 266. ACRYDTUj\L Fahr., Geoff., Be Gccr, Oliv., Leach. 
Sp. 1. Acr. subulatum. Obscure, testaceous brown, granulose : thorax 

carinated, marginatcd. 
Gryllus subulatus. Linn. Acrydium subulatum. Fair., Oliv., Leach. 

Tetrix subulata. Latr. 
Inhabits Europe. It is found on hot and sandy banks, and is subject 

to some variation in colour. 
The species of Acrydium are but litt\o understood. We seem to 

possess three very distinct indigenous species, all varying in size, 

sculpture, and colour. 

Order VI. DICTYOPTEllA. Leack. 

Order Hemiptera. Linni. 

Class Ulonata. Fabr. 

Order Orthoptera. Latr. 

Characters of the Order. 

E!i/tra coriaceous, nervose, decussating each other : wings membra- 
naceous, with a few longitudinal folds : maxillary palpi elongate : 
body depressed, oval, or somewhat orbicular : tarsi with five joints. 



220 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 267. BLATTA. Linn., Fabr., S^x. 
Sp. 1. 

" The genus Blatta may be defined (as it now stands), to be a ge- 
neral reservoir for all insects agreeing with the character of the 
Order. The foreign species are numerous, and but little known : 
much might be done towards elucidating this hitherto neglected part 
of entomology, and it is hoped some entomographer who has time 
will devote some share of his attention to the examination of the 
genera and species." 

Order VII. HEMIPTERA. 

Order Hemiptera. Linn., Lam., Cuv., Leach. 

Class Rhyncota. Fabr. 

Order Hemiptera. Section I. Heteroptera. Latr. 

Characters of the Order. 

Rostrum attached to the anterior extremity of the head : elytra some- 
what crustaceous or coriaceous, with the apex membranaceous, 
]»laced in an horizontal direction, one decussating the other : thorax 
with the first segment (which bears the feet) larger than the follow- 
ing one : hanstelLum- with three setse : ocelli or little eyes two, one 
obsolete. {Metamorphosis semicomplete.) 

Section I. TERRESTRTA. Latr., Leach. 

The insects which compose this section are not only distinguished 
from the second section by their economy, but likewise by the struc- 
ture of some essential organs : the antenna of this division are ex- 
serted, and are very distinct. 

Fam. I. Peatatomid^. Leach. 

CoRisi.E I. Latreille. 

Antenn (S comi)Osed of five joints: rostrum with four distinct joints, the 
three first of nearly an equal length : labrum very long, striated : tarsi 
with three distinct joints, the first elongate: head trigonate, im- 
mersed even to the eyes in the thorax. 

Stirps 1. — Scutellum elongate, covering the elytra and the wings. 

Genus 268. TETYRA. Fabr., Leach. Scutellera. Latr. Ci- 
mex. Linn. 
Scutellum longer than broad, not covering the sides of the abdomen : 
thorax very narrow in front : antenna with the second joint longer 
than the third. 
Sp. 1. Tet. Maura. Fabr. 
Inhabits 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 221 

Stirps 2. — Scutcllum not covering the wings or cl^'tra. 

Genus 269. iELIA. Fabr., Leach. 

Bodi/ ovate : thorax with the anterior margin much narrower than the 
hinder: ^eflti Iqnger than broad : antenitte with tlie second joint not 
longer than llie tliird, their base covered by tlie lateral margins of 
the head. 

Sp. 1. Ml. acuminata. Pale-yellowish, longitudinally lineated with fus- 
cous, impressed-punctate ; a fuscous band running down the mid- 
dle of the back divided by a whitish line; last joint of the antennie 
red. 

Cimex acuminatus. Linn. iElia acuminata Fabr., Leach. Pentatoma 
acuminatum. Latr. 

Inhabits grassy places : is rare in Britain. 

•Genus 270. PENTATOMA. Oliv.,Lutr., Leach. Cimex. Fabr, 

Wolff. 

Body ovate : thorax with the anterior margin much narrower than tlie 

hinder : head with nearly equal diameters. 
Sp.J. Pent, bldens. Body griseous above; thorax with a lengthened 

spine on each side behind. 
Cimex bidens. Fabr. Pentatoma bidens. Lutr., Leach. 
Inhabits Europe. 

Sp. 2. Pent, prasinus. Green above; hinder angles of the thorax with- 
out spines. 
Cimex prasinus. Fabr. Pentatoma prasinus. Leach. 
Inhabits woods and ferns on heaths. 

Genus 271. CYDNUS. Fabr., Leach. Pentatoma. Latr. 

Body ovate, somewhat orbicular ; anterior margin of the thorax nar- 
rower than the hinder: ^e«f^ nearly semicircular : antenna wixh the 
second joint longer than the third : tibi(e spinulose. 

Sp. 1. Cyd. oleraceus. Brassy dark green; sides of the head and tho- 
rax with a longitudinal line, on the latter red; outer margin of tb.e 
elytra a spot on each, and the apex of the elytra red ; thighs (apex 
excepted) and the middle tibia? yellowish. 

Inhabits woods and sandy situations. 

Fam. II. CoREiD^. Leach, 
CoRiST.i: II. Latreille. 

Antenna: composed of four joints: rostrum with four distinct joints, the 
first three of nearly an equal length : labrum very long, striated : 
tarsi with three distinct joints, the first elongate: head trigonate, iai 
meised even to the eyes within the thorax. 



222 MODERN SYSTEM, 

Genus 272. COREUS. Fabr., Lam., Wolf, Lutr., Leach. Cimex. 
JJnn., Geoff. 
Antennae inserted above a line drawn from the -eyes to the base of the 

labrum ; the last joint thick: thorax with the anterior narrower than 

the posterior margin : bodi/ ovate, the sides of the abdomen dilated : 

head trigonate ; neck not apparent. 
Sp. 1. Cor. margiiiatus. Rcd-fuscous, obscure; sides of the abdomen 

elevated, acute ; antennee with their internal base unidcntate, the 

first and last joints blackish, the middle ones red; thighs beneath 

with a canal, and a few little teeth. 
Coreus marginatus. Fabr., Latr., Leuch. Cimex marginatus. Linni. 
Inhabits Europe, and is common in Britain in hedges and on the 

dock. 

Genus 273. BERYTUS. Fahr., Leach. Neides. Latr. 

Antenna inserted above a line drawn from the eyes to the base of the 
labrum ; geniculated about the middle ; the first joint very long, tlic 
last thick : body filiform : head somewhat conic : neck not apparent : 
scutellum minute, linear conic : feet elongate : fhigha clavate. 

Sp. 1. Ber. tipularius. Reddish-gray; antennoe as long as the body, 
with the last joint fuscous; clyjicus acuminate, and produced; tho- 
rax with three elevated lines, whlcli are parallel and longitudinal ; 
two of these are marginal, the other dorsal; elytia striate nervous, 
impressed-punctate, spotted with fuscous. 

Cimex tipularius. Linni. Berytus tipularius. Fubr., Leuch. Xcidfs 
tipularius. Latr. 

Inhabits grassy places. 

Genus 274. LYG.EUS. Fubr., Wolff, Latr., Leuch. Cimex. Lhm, 
2\' Geer. 
Antenna filiform, inserted beneath a line di'awn from the eyes to the 
base of the labrum : bodi/ elongate ovate : head trigonate, neck not 
apparent. 
Sp. 1. Lyg. apterus. Red with black spots: elytra abbreviated. 
Inhabits woods in the autiunn. 

Genus 275. CAPSUS. Fabr., Latr., Lench. Cimex. Lhm. 
Head trigonate, neck not apparent: antenna setaceous; the second 
joint at the apex thick, the two last when coniliined nu;ch shorter 
than the one before it. 
Sp. 1. Cap. ater. Body black. 
Inhabits grassy places, and is veiy common. 

Genus 276. MIRIS. Fabr., Latr., Leach. Cimex. Linn., Geoff., 

SfC. IvYGiEt'S. Wolff'. 

Antenna setaceous, the second and follow lug joints alike : h<.(.id trigo- 
nate : neck not apparent. 
Sp. 1. Mir. vagans. Leach. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 223 

Genus 277. MYODOCHA. Latr., Leach. Cimex. De Gcer. 
Head ovoid, with a distinct neck: antenna slightly thicker towards 

their extremities. 
Sp. 1. Ml/0, tipuhndes. 
Mvodocha tipuloides. Latr., Leach. Cimex tipiiloides. De Geer, Mem. 

sitr les Lisectes, v. 354. tab. 35. fg. 18. 
Inhabits 

Fam. III. CiMiciD.E. Leach. 

CiMiciDES I. 1. Latreille. 

Rostrum with two or three distinct joints : lahnim very short, not pro- 
jecting : feet simple : eyes not very large : feet formed for walking on 
the earth, with distinct nails. 

Genus 278. REDUVIUS. Fahr., Oliv., Lam., Latr., Leach. Ci- 
mex. Linn., Geoff., De Geer. 
Body not linear : antenna inserted above a line drawn from the eyes to 
the base of the rostrum : rostrum with the middle joint evidently 
longer than the others : thorax bilobate, abruptly elevated behind : 
tibia alike, elongate, somewhat cylindric. 
Sp. 1. Hed. personatus. Black. 
Reduvius personatus. Latr., Fabr., Leach. 
Inhabits Europe : is rare in Britain. 

Genus 279. PLOIARIA. Scopoli, Latr., Leach. Gerris. Fabr. 
Cimex. Geoff. 
Body filiform : four posterior feet very long, filiform : anterior feet rap- 

torious, \vith very long coxas. 
Sp. 1. Plo. vagabunda. 

Gerris vagabundus. Fabr. Ploiaria vagabunda. Leach. 
Inhabits 

Genus 280. CIMEX. LJnn., Latr., Leach. Acanthia. Fabr. 
Body depressed : rostrum short, setaceous : wings none. 

Sp. 1. Ciin. lectuhrius. Reddish brown, with short hair. 
Cimex lectularius. Linn., Latr., Leach. Acanthia lectularia. Fabr. 
Inhabits Europe in houses, sucking the blood of man. The common 
bed-bug. 

Genus 281. TINGIS. Fabr., Latr., Leach. Cimex. Linn., Geoff., 
De Geer. 
Body entirely depressed, reticulated : feet all simple ; antenna: termi- 
nated by an oval joint, the third joint very long. 
Sp. 1. Tin. Cardui. Body grayish. 
Tingis Cardui. Fabr., Panz., Latr. 
Inhabits thistles, and is very abundant, 



224 MODERN SYSTEM, 

Fam. IV. HydrometxdjE. Leach. 

CiMlclDES I. 2. Latreille. 

Rostrum with two or three distinct joints : labrttm very short : cyei 
moderate : feet very long, formed for walking on the water, with the 
nails very minute, inserted laterally into a fissure at the extremity 
of the last joint of the tarsi. 

Genus 282. HYDROMETRA. Latr., Lam., Tahr., Leach. Cimex, 
Linn., Geoff. Aquarius. Schellenberg. 
AntenncB setaceous, the third joint longer than the rest : anterior feet 

simple : head elongate-cylindric, apex thickened. 
Sp. 1. Hi/d. stagnoriim. Black above: feet brown reddish. 
Ilydrometra stagnorum. Fabr., Leach. Cimex stagnorum, Linn. 

Aquarius paludum. Schellenberg. 
Inhabits Europe in most places, and walks on the surface of the water. 

Genus 283. VELIA. Latr., Leach. Cimex. Rossi. Hydrome- 
TRA. Fabr. 

Antenna filiform, the first joint longest : anterior feet raptorious : ros- 
trum two-jointed : //eaci somewhat vertical. 

Sp. 1. Vel.rivulorum. Black; sides of the thorax and margins of the 
abdomen red : thorax with two anterior punctures ; each elytron 
with three and a spot of white; inferior sides ot the abdomen punc- 
tured with black. 

Hydrometra rivulorum. Fahr. Velia rivulorum. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits running waters and springs. 

Genus 284. GERRIS. Lutr., Leach. Clmex. Linn., De Geer, 
Schraiik, Geoff. 

Antennas filiform, the first joint longest, the last cylindric : anterior feet 
raptorious : rostrum three-jointed : head porrected. 

Sp. 1. Ger. paludum. Brown-olive, black above, cinereous, silky be- 
neath : abdomen nearly equally broad : trunk as long as the head, 
carinated beneath, a series of impressed lines on each side : antennae 
and feet black : thorax with an elevated line extending to the middle 
of the back : lateral margins of the thorax and abdomen with the 
anus reddish. 

Hydrometra paludum. Fahr. Gerris paludum. Latr., Leach, 

Inhabits ponds and ditches in France, England, and Sweden. 

Obs. — The species of this genus are certainly but little known; they 
are either subject to great variation, or are very numerous.j 

Fam. V. AcANTHiD^. Leach. 
CiMiciDES II. Latreille. 

Labrum very prominent : eyes very large ! feet fonned for walking and 
jumping', y 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 225 

Genus 285. ACANTIIIA. Sc/i7-ank, Latr., Leach. Cime\. Linn., 
Dc Geo; Geoff. Salda. Fabr. Lyg^us. Wolff. 

Antenna filiform : rostrum straight, long, 

Sp. 1. Acan. maculata. Black spotted with pale colour. 
Acanthia maculata. Latr., Leach. 
Inliabits grassy banks. 

Section II. AQUATICA. Leach. 

Fam. IIvDROCORisi.i;. Latreille. 

Antenna very minute, not exserted, inserted beneath the eyes. All 
the insects of this section live in the water. 

Fam. VI. Nepad^e. Leach. 
Anterior tarsi united with the tibiae : bodi/ depressed or linear. 

Stirps 1. — Anus without sette : tarsi of the four posterior feet distinctly 
biarticulate : anienna four-jointed. 

Genus 28G. NAUCORIS. Geoff., Fabr., Oliv., Latr., Leach. Ne- 
PA. Linn., De Geer. 
Four posterior feet ciliated, formed for swimming : antenna inserted 

beneath the eyes : bodi/ ovate, much depressed. 
Sp. 1. Nau. cimicoides. 
Inhabits ponds. 

Stirps 2. — Atius furnished with two seta?: tarsi of the four posterior 
feet one-jointed : antenna three-jointed. 

Genus 287. NEPA. Linn., Dc Geer, Fabr., Oliv., Lam., Latr., 
Leach. Hepa. Geoff. 
Rostrum perpendicularly inflected: body oval: anterior thighs thick: 

four hinder feet not elongate-filiform. 
Sp. 1. Nepa cinerea. Dark grayish-black. (P/. 5.fg. 4.) 
Nepa cinerea. Linn., Fabr., Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits ditches : is very common. 

Genus 288. EwVNATRA. Latr., Fabr., Schellenberg, Leach. Nepa. 
Linn., De Geer, Oliv., Lam. Hepa. Geoff, 
nostrum ^ouecteA : body linear: yb^r /ij«(^er ^ee^ very long, filiform: 

thighs of anterior feet elongate. 
Sp. 1. Ran. linearis. Grayish brown. 

Ranatra linearis. Fabr., Latr., Schell., Leach. Nepa linearis. Linn. 
Inhabits the ditches and ponds of Europe. It is very local in this 
country. It may occasionally be found near London in ponds on 
Epping Forest, Copenhagen Fields, and near Hammersmith. 

p 



226 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Fam. VII. NoTONECTiDffi. Leach. 

" Linne and all his predecessors comprehended the species under 
the generic appellation Notonecta. The accurate Geoffroy was the 
first who separated Notonecta into two genera, which have been 
adopted by most succeeding writers, excepting Linne, who in his 
last edition of the Systema Nature has merely given the synonym*' 
of that author, without taking the least notice of the important cha- 
racters which induced him to separate them." 

De Geer confounded the animals of this tribe with Nepa and Nau- 
coris, whilst Latreille and Olivier placed them in a division of their 
family Hydrocoris(B. In the Edinburgh Uncyclopisdia Dr. Leach se- 
parated them from the Hydrocorisa, and placed them in a particular 
tribe, named in that work Notonectides, and in the twelfth volume of 
the Transactions of the Linnean Society he has given an excellent ]ia- 
per, in which are described at large the whole of the British species 
hitherto discovered, which consist of four very natural genera. 

Stijrps 1. — Body cylindrical oval, or nearly square : tarsi with two arti- 
culations. {Scutellum large.) 

"All the insects of this family swim on their back, moving by means 
of their long hinder legs, which resemble oars; whence they have 
been aptly named boat-flies." 

Genus 289. NOTONECTA of authors. 

Body oval and cylindric : antenna: with the third articulation slenderer 
than the second : anterior tarsi with the first articulation long ; chms 
of the hinder feet very minute. 

Besides the above characters, the foUovnng will be useful, in order 
to enable the young entomologist to distinguish this genus from 
Plea, from which it was first separated by that close examiner of 
nature Dr. Leach. 

The thorax is hexagonal; the anterior part is much attenuated, 
and the hinder margin is straight : the head is narrower than the 
broadest part of the thorax : the eyes are oblong, and converge a lit- 
tle behind : the hinder legs are much ciliated, and the claics are so mi- 
nute as to be discovered with great difficulty : the tips of the elytra 
are notched. 

Sp. 1. Not. f areata. Elytra black, with two grayish spots at the base, 
and two larger ones at the posterior part. 

Notonecta furcata. Fabr., Oliv., Leach. 

Var. |3. Elytra with ferrugineous spots. 

Inhabits ponds and ditches in England and Scotland. 

Sp. 2. Not. rmculata. Elytra dark brown and varied with spots : back 

ferrugineous with a darker fascia. 
Notonecta maculata. Oliv., Leach. Notonecta glauca. Var. /3. Lutr. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 227 

Inhabits Fjii!;laiKl, near Bristol, Plj'moutli, and Exeter. 
Elytra with the apex of a palish black. 

Sp. .1. Not. glanca. Elytra grayish, the margin with minute blackish 

spots : back black, the apex pale brownish. {PL 5. Jig. 3.) 
Notonecta glauca of authors. 
Inhabits Britain in almost every pond. 

Genus 290. PLEA. Leach, Iraiis. of Linn. Sac. wol. x\\. 

Body of a squarish oval : antennm with the third and remainder of the 
joints largest : anterior tarsi with the articidations nearly equal : claios 
on the hinder feet large. 

The thorax is obscurely hexagonal with the hinder margin prominent 
and rounded, the head as broad as the broadest part of the thorax : 
the eyes are rather oblong, without the least tendency to converge 
behind : the hinder pair of legs not more ciliated than the others, but 
are terminated by very strong and distinct claws: tips of the elytra 
acuminated and entire. 

Sp. 1. Not.minutissima. Gray with a brownish line in the front: thorax 
and elytra deeply punctured. 

Notonecta cinerea, anelytra. Geo^\ his. Par. i. 477. 2. Notonecta 
minutissima. Fourc, Latr., Oliv., Fair. Plea minutissima. Leach. 

Length of the body li lin. 

Inhabits ponds and stagnant waters near London in profusion. 

" This species has been considered by Geoftroy, Fabricius and Oli- 
vier, as Notonecta minutissima of Linne, which reference undoubt- 
edly belongs to the tbllowing species; viz. to Sigara minutissima.^'' 

" Geoftroy has described the larvee, never having seen the perfect 
insect." 

Stirps 2. — Body roundish and depressed: tarsi, the anterior with one 
articulation ; the hinder with two ; base and margin of the elytra 
only channelled. 

Genus 291. SIGARA. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xii. 
Scutellum distinct : thorax divided by a transverse line : hody ovate, the 

posterior part acvmiinated. 
Sp. 1. Sig. minutissima. Above cinereous: elytra brownish with very 

faint spots; the under part and feet yellowish. 
Notonecta minutissima. Linne. Sigara minutissima. Leach. 
Inhabits rivers and runrung waters in England, Ireland, and Scotland. 
Length of the body 1 lin. 

Genus 292. CORIXA. Geoffroy, Leach. 
Scutellum none : thorax transverse, the posterior part produced : body 
long, the anterior and posterior part rounded. 

" The thorax is more or less produced behind in all the species of 
this genus, but is not evident in the first division of this genus until 

p 2 



228 MODERN SYSTEM. 

the elytra have been elevated. The front, the under parts of the body, 
and the legs, in all the British species are yellowish." 

* Elytra to the apex gradually decreasing and ending in a point. 

The channel on the anterior margin of the ehtra in this division 
is uninterrupted, and gradually disappears before it reaches to the 
extremity of the elytra. 

Sp. 1. Cor. coleoptrata. Thorax reddish-gray : elytra palish yellow, with 
longitudinal rows of black spots. 

Sigara coleoptrata. Elyti'a wholly coriaceous and brown : the exterior 
margin yellow. Fabr. Syst. R/iyng. 105. 4. 

Inhabits ponds and ditches near Norwich. Dr. Leach has observed, that 
although the character by Fabricius does not accord with that given 
above, yet as he drew his description from a museum specimen (which 
generally assumes the colour he mentions) the Doctor has given his 
synonym without any hesitation; but this insect is distinct from the 
Sigara coleoptrata of Panzer, which is figured with a scutellum, and 
most probably belongs to the genus Sigara as mentioned above. 

** Elytra at the apex rather rounded. 

The channel in the fore part of the elytra, at about two-thirds from 
its commencement, is internipted by an oblique, transverse, elevated 
line, and it terminates abruptly before it reaches to the apex of the 
elytron, and then it leaves the margin inclining a little inwards or 
"backwards. 

a. Elytra and. thorax rough. 
Sp. 2. Cor. striata. Thorax and elytra brown with yellow lines and 

transversely striated : back black, sides pale yellow. 
Notonecta sti-iata. Linn. Corixa striata. Leach. 
Inhabits stagnant waters. 

Sp. 3. Cor. stagnalis. Thorax with numerous transverse yellow lines : 
elytra brown, besprinkled with minute yellowish dots : anterior part 
of the margin yellowish; posterior with yellowish lines ; back brown- 
ish black. 
Corixa stagnalis. Leach, Tr. Linn. Soc. xii. 
Inhabits ponds and stagnant waters. 

This species is about half the size of C. striata. 
Sp. 4. Cor.fossarum. Brown : thorax with six transverse yellow lines : 
elytra brown, with minute yellowish dots, the anterior part yellow- 
ish, towards the base of the posterior part yellowish lines : back 
yellowish. Smaller than C. stagnalis. 
Inhabits ponds and ditches. 
Sp. 5. Cor. lateralis. White : thorax with seven black lines : elytra with 

minute black sjx)ts, anterior margin immaculate. 
C. lateralis. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xii. 



V 



CLASS V. TNSECTA. 229 

This species is considerably smaller than C.fossarum, back black, 
sides yellow. 
Sp. 6. Cor. dofsalis. Thorax with six transverse black lines on the mar- 
gin : elytra black and spotted, the anterior margin immaculate. 
C. dorsalis. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xii. 

Rather larger than C. stagnalis. Back yellow. 

b. Thorax and elytra smooth and shining. 

Sp. 7. Cor. Geoffroyi. Yellow : thorax with numerous transverse black 
lines : elytra black with minute spots : back wholly black : apex yel- 
lowish. 

La Corise. Geoff. Hist. Nat. des Insect, i. P. 478. pi. 9. fg. 7. Sigara 
striata. Panz. Faun. Ins. Germ. Ins. 50. 23. Corixa Geoffroyi. Leach. 

Length of the body half an inch. 

Inhabits stagnant waters, and is very common. 

" All authors have considered this speeies as Notonecta striata of 
Linne, although it will not agree with his character. It is figured 
by Geoffroy and Panzer, and is of the former author the species serv- 
ing as the type of the genus Corixa." 

Sp. 8. Cor. ajfinis. Yellow : thorax with numerous transverse black 
lines : elytra black with minute dots : back wholly black, sides den- 
tated and yellow. 

Cor. affinis. Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xii. 

Inhabits ponds near Plymouth, but is rare, Buthalf the size of C.Geo/^ 
J'roi/i. 

Order Vm. OMOPTERA. Leach. 

Order Hemiptera. Linn., Cuvier, Lamarck. 

Class Rhyngota. Fair. 

Order Hemiptera. Section 2. Homoptera. Latr. 
Characters of the Order. 

'Rostrum attached to the inferior part of the head : elytra coriaceous or 
membranaceous throughout; suture straight: thorax composed of 
two segments, the second as long or longer than tlie first : ocelli three. 
Metamorphosis semicomplete, or incomplete. 

Fara. I. CiCADiADa:. Leach. 
CiCADARi.i; I. Latreille. 

Antennae composed of six distinct joints : ocelli or little eyes three : tarsi 
with three joints. 

Genus 293. "CICADA. Lamarck, Geoff"., Linn., De Geer, Latr. 
■-' Tettigoxia. Fair. 
Thighs of the^anterior feet tliick, dentate. 
() Sp. 1. -l-n.ii-l±l? {PI. 5. Jig. 2. natural size.) 

The only species known to inhabit this country was lately disco- 
vered by ^Ir. Daniel Byddcr, near the New Forest in Hampshire. 



230 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Fam. 11. CEREOPiDif;. Leach. 
Cicada Ri^ II. Lafreille. 
Antenna; three-jointed : ocelli two : tarsi with three joints. 

Stirps 1. — Antenna not inserted in the internal sinus of the eyes; the 
/two first joints conjoined shorter than the head. 

^ Genus 294. FLATA. Fabr., Leacfi. "^^^lgora. Latr. 

Trout as if truncated, vertical, not rostrated : eijes globular : elytra very 
broad ; the external margin very much dilated : hudif broad, trian- 
gular. 

Sp. 1. Fla. reticulata. 

Inhabits Europe, and is common in this country in hedges during the 
summer months. 

^^ Genus 295. ISSUS. Fabr., Leach. Fulgora. Latr., OUv.'^Cica- 

DA. Villers. 
Tront as if truncated, not rostrated, vertical: elytra at their external 
'base very much dilated, with the apex narrower: fcofl'j/ short, del- 
toid: eyes globular. 
Sp. 1. Iss. coteoptratus. 
Inhabits hedges. 

Genus 296. CIXIUS. Leach. Fulgora. Latr. Flata. Fabr. 
Front as if truncated, not rostrated, vertical : clytru with the external 

margin nearly straight or scarcely arcuate ; body elongate, quadrate : 

eyes globular. 
Sp. 1. Cix. nervos2(s. 
Flata nervosa. Fabr. 
Inhabits hedges. 

Stirps 2. — Antenna inserted in the internal sinus of the eyes, the two 
first joints as long or longer than the head. 

Genus 297. ASIRACA. Latr., Leach. Delpiiax. Fabr. 
Antenna as long or longer than the thorax, the first joint very long, 

compressed, angulate. 
Sp. 1. Asi. claricornis. Body brown or obscure brown variegated : apex 

of the four anterior tibia) white : elytra semihyaline: apex with a 

fuscous band; nerves spotted with fuscous. 
i)elphax clavicornis. Fabr. Asiraca clavicornis. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits France and England in grassy places. 

Stirps 3. — Antenna inserted bet\veen the eves : thorax not transverse ; 
hinder margin more or less prominent, 

c Genus 298. CERCOPIS. Fabr., Schrank, Latr., Leach.^' Cicada, 
iinn.f-' Tettigonia. Oliv. 
Antenna inserted on the frontlet, the second longer than the first joint, 
(he third joint short-conic; thorax not dilated. 



^N, 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 231 

C> Sp. 1. Cer. Rungu'molenta. Bl9.ck, shining; each wing-case with a spot 
at the base, one in the middle, and a tiexuous band at the apex blood 
red. {PI. 5. fig. 1.) 
^ Cicada sangninolenta. Linn. Cercopis sanguinolenta. Tahr., Leach. 
Inhabits France, Germanv, and England in the woods of Kent. 
VX^ Genus 299. LEDRA. Fabr., Latr., Leach. 'Cicada. Linn., Geoff. 
^^ Membracis. Oliv., Lamarck, Schrank. 
Antenna inserted in the frontlet, the two first joints nearly equally 
long; the third elongate-conic : thorax dilated behind into an auricle. 
Wt) Sp. 1. Led. aiwata. 

Inhabits the oak and various trees in woods. ,^ 

Genus 300: MEMBRACIS. Latr., Fair., Leach. "Cicada. Linn. 
Antemue inserted in the frontlet; the t\vo iirst joints nearly equally 
^ long, the third elongate-conic : thorax dilated behind. 
^Sp. 1. Mem. corniUits. Brownish. 

©Cicada cornuta. Linn. Membracis cornuta. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits woods and hedges. 
Stiups 4. — AntemuB inserted between the eyes: thorax transverse, 

hinder margin straight. 
•^ Genus 301. lASSUS. Fahr., Leach. Tettigonia. Latr., Oliv., 

Lamarck. 
Front broad, not longer than broad, on each side above the insertion of 
the antenna; produced into an angle. 
(^Sp. 1. lass.Lunio. Fabr. 

Inhabits England and other parts of Europe. 

^ Genus 302. TETTIGONIA. Oliv., Lamarck. Cicada. Linn., 

Fabr., Latr., Leach. 
Front elongate-quadratej the apex truncate, convex, thickened. 

Sp. 1. Tet. viridis. 
Inhabits moist places. 

Fam. III. PsYLLiD^. Latreille, Leach. 
Tarsi with t^vo joints distinct: antenne with ten or eleven joints, the 
last with tsvo setas : legs formed for leaping. Both sexes with wings. 

Genus 303. PSYLLA. Geoff., Oliv., Lam., Latr., Leach. Chermes. 
Linn., De Geer, Fabr. 
Antenna: filiform or slightly setaceous, as long as the body : thorax with 

the anterior margin arcuate. 
Sp. 1. Psi/l. Alni. Green-yellowish; anterior segment of the thorax, 

squamida of the elytra, and nervures, green. 
Chermes Betulse Ahii. Linn. Chermes Alni. Fabr. Psylla Alni. Latr., 

Leach. 
Inhabits the alder. 



Y 



232 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 304. LIVIA. Latr., Leach. Diraphia. IlUger. 
Antenna shorter than the thorax, tbe base much thickened even to the 

middle : tliorax with the anterior segment transverse, straight. 
Sp. 1. Liv.juncorum. (Fl. 5. fig. 11.) viagnijied: the line beneath exhi- 
bits the natural size.) 
Livia Juncorum. Latr. 
Inhabits Junci. 

Fam. IV. Aphid.'e. Leach. 
Aphidii. LatreillC 

Tarn two-jointed, the first joint very short: rostrum m hoth sexes: 
antenniE with six, seven, or eight joints : females generally apterous : 
tarsi with the last joint vesiculous. 

Stirps 1. — Antenna eight-jointed : rostinim minute and horizontal with 
indistinct joints: head elongate-quadrate. 

Genus 30.5. TIIRIPS. Linn., Geoff., Latr., Lam., OUv., Leach. 
Elytra and wings horizontal and linear. 

Sp. 1. Thr. Physapus. Black, hairy: antennae, tibiae, and tarsi pale: 
middle of the tibiaj pale brown; elytra and wings white. {PI. 5. 
Jig. 12. magnified : the line beneath shows the natural size.) 

Inhabits the blossoms of various plants. 

Stirps 2. — Antenna; seven-jointed : elytra larger than the wings : ro&~ 
trum subperpendicular, with three very distinct joints : head trans- 
verse. 

Genus 306. APHIS. Linn., Fabr., Latr., OUv., Lam., Leach. 
Antenna setaceous or tiliform, seven-jointed: elytra larger than the 
wings; elongate triangulate: abdomen towards the apex generally 
tuberculated or horned : eyes entire. {PL 5. fig. 9.) 

The animals of this genus are very numerous, and are found on 
almost every plant. The French call them Pucerons, the English 
Plant-lice. The species require examination; the plant on v a ch 
they are found should be noticed, as it will afford specific names. 
The females are generally apterous. 

Genus 307. ERTOSOMA. Leach's MSS. 

Abdomen without tubercles or horns : antenna short and filiform : body 
tomentose. 

" The Eriosomata form what are called improperly Galls on the stalks 
of trees near their joints, and knobs, which are in fact excrescences 
caused by the efforts of nature to repair the damage done to the old 
trees by the perforation of those insects, whose bodies are covered 
witli down." Leach's MSS, 

Sp. 1. Er. Mali. 

Aphis lanigera of authors, 



CLASS V. INSF.CTA. 233 

Genus 308. ALEYRODES. Latr., Lam., Leach. Tinea. Liiin. 
Phal;ena. Geoff. 
Antenna filiform, sliort, six-jointed : elytra and wings equal in size : 

body mealy : eyes two, each divided into two. 
Sp. 1. Al. C/telidonii. Body yellowish, or rosy powdered with white: 

eyes black ; each elytron with a puncture and spot of black. 
Inhabits hedges and woods. 

Fam. V. CocciD^.. Leach. 

Galinsecta. Latreille. 

Tarsi with one joint and one nail : rostrum in the female : wings in the 
male, but no elytra : female apterous. 

Genus 309. COCCUS. Linn., Geoff., Fabr., Oliv., Latr., Lam., 
Leach. 
Antenna of the female eleven-jointed : abdomen of the males with two 

very long setce at the apex. 
Sp. 1. Coc. Cacti. 

Coccus Cacti. Linn., Dc Geer, Fabr., Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits fruit-trees. 

This genus requires a minute investigation, which should be con- 
ducted by some one possessing a great share of patience, and hav- 
ing a competent knowledge of entomology. 

Order IX. APTERA. Leach. 

Order Aptera. Linn., Lamarck, 
Order Suctoria. Latr, 

Characters of the Order. 

Body somewhat ovate, compressed, covered with a coriaceous skin, 
and composed of several segments : trunk short, consisting of three 
leg-bearing joints : head small, compressed, rounded above, and 
truncate before : eyes minute, orbicular, lateral : antenna lamelli- 
form, small, ciliated with spinules, one-jointed at their base, insert- 
ed in two excavations behind the eyes : palpi filiform (composed of 
four roiuidcd joints) scarcely longer than the head, porrect, generally 
resting on the rostrum: legs strong, and formed for jumping, espe- 
cially the hinder ones : coxa and thighs large, compressed : tarsi 
elongate, cylindric, composed of five simple joints, the last articula- 
tion furnished with two long, acute, slender nails. 

Larva witliout feet. 

Pupa follicuiate, 



ISi MODERN SYSTEM. 

Gems 310. PULEX of authors. 
Sp. 1. PiJ. irritans. Body brumieous, sometimes inclined to nist co- 
lour. 

The common bed-flea is found throughout Europe. 

" Notwithstanding the inconveniences attending this httle insect, 
tliere is something pleasing in the appearance of the flea. Its mo- 
tions are elegant, and all its postures indicate agility. The shell 
with which it is enveloped is in a state of perpetual cleanliness, 
while tlie muscular power which it is capable of exerting is so ex- 
ti'aordinarv", as to excite our wonder at so much strength confined 
and concentrated within so small a space; this species being able to 
. spring, on the most moderate computation, to the distance of at 
least two hundred times its own length, and drag a Nseight eight 
times heavier than itself. It has sometimes become a favourite with 
ladies, who have jileased themselves with keeping, taming, and 
feeding it. A golden chain has been made for it with a lock and 
key ; and being kept in a box with wool, in a warm place, and fed 
daily, it has been known to live for six yeiu-s. 

'• The Pulices of birds and of mammalia ought to be most care- 
fully examined. There are a vast number of species which have 
been confounded with P. irritans." 

Order X. LEPIDOPTERA. 

Order Lepidoptera. Linn., Cuv., Lam., Latr., Leach. 
Class Glossata. Fabr. 

Characters of the Order. 

Wiags four, covered with scales : tongue spiral, filiform. Linne di- 
vided this order into three genera ; viz. Pupiiio (butterfly), Sphin.r 
(hawk-moth), and Phalana (moth), which were characterized by the 
form of their antemiff ; and these divisions form the three great 
sections of Latreille, as follow -. 

Section I. DIURXA. 

Wings four ; all, or at least the superior ones, erect when the insect is 
at rest : antenna witli their points tliicker or capitate ; in a verj" few 
somewhat setaceous, with the extreme apex hooked. The insects 
of this section, which constituted the Linnean genus Papilio, all fly 
by day. Caterpillars with sixteen feet. Chri^salis naked, and gene- 
rally angulated. 

Fam. I. Papilioxid.i. Leach. 

Papiiioxides. Latreille. 

Hinder tibuE with heels only at their extremities : Kings all elevated 
when at rest. 



ct.ass v. issecta. 235 

In this section I shall enumerate the whole of the British species. 

Stirps 1. — Caterpillar elongate, cjlindric : chrysali elongate, angu- 
lar : tarsi of the imago with distinct nails. 

Genus 311. PAPILIO. Fabr., Lafr., Leach. 

Antenna, at their points, furnished with a conic-ovate or lengthened- 
ovate, somewhat arcua'^e, club : pnfpi very short, pressed close to the 
face, scarcely reaching the clypeus ; the two first joints of equal 
length ; the third minute, and nearly obsolete : feef in both sexes 
alike, all being formed for walking, and furnished with distinct but 
simple claws : anterior wings generally somewhat falcate ; hinder 
ones often tailed ; the internal margin excised or folded to admit of 
free play to the abdomen. 

The caterpillar is tentaculated, fleshy and furcate. The chr\salis 
angulated, with two processes before; it fastens itself V)^ a trans- 
verse thread. 

The species of this genus, which constitutes the most beautiful 
part of the creation, are found chieHy in the warmer regions, very 
few occurring in the more temperate parts of the world. Their 
flight is extremely rapid. 

Sp. 1. Pap. Machaon. Black and yellow; hinder wings tailed; etlges 
of the wings black, with yellow crescents ; the tips of the hinder 
ones witli a red spot at their inferior tips. (P/. o.ji<:. 1.) 

Papilio Machaon. Linn., Babr., Hauorth. 

Inhabits Europe ; the larva feeds on umbelliferous plants. 

In England it is called the Swallow-tailed butterfly; it is verj- lo- 
cal, but occurs near Bristol, Beverley in Yorkshire, and has been 
taken plentifully in Hampshire near the New Forest. It is the 
most superb of all the British species of this family. The cater- 
pillar is green, banded with black, marked by a row of red spots. 
It changes into the chrysalis state in July ; and the fly is found in 
August. There are two broods ; the first appears in May, having 
lain in the pupa state all the winter. 

Papilio Podalirius of Linne, which belongs to this genus, has been in- 
troduced into the British Fauna on verv^ dubious authorirv'. But 
Mr. Haworlh is yet in hopes of receiving indigenous specimens from 
Yorkshire. 

Genus 312. GOXEPTEPtYX. Leach. Colias. Fabr., Latr. Pi- 
ERis. Schrank. 
Antenna short, gradually thickening into an obconic head : palpi short, 
much compressed; the last joint %'en.' hhort: feet alike in both sexes, 
all with a bifid or unidentate nail : uings angulated, large, the hinder 
ones grooved to receive the abdomen ; chrysalis angulated with a 
thread round its middle. 



236 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Sp. I. Gon. Rhumni. Wings of the male yellow, of the female whitibh ; 

with a fulvous spot on each. 
Inhabits woods in the spring and autumn. Flight slow. 

Genus 313. COLIAS. Fabr., Lair., Leach. Papilio. Linncy 
Haworih. Pieris. Schrank. 

Antenna; short, gradually thickening into an obconic head : palpi much 
compressed; the last joint very short : ^ee^ alike in both sexes, all 
with bifid or unidentate nails : wings anterior, somewhat trigonate ; 
hinder rounded, with a groove to receive the abdomen: chrysalis 
angulated, fastened by a transverse thread. 

Sp. 1. Col. Hj/ale (clouded yellow butterfly). 

Inhabits Europe. Occurs in England once in three years, some sea- 
sons only locally, at others in the greatest profusion in every part of 
the country. There is a pale coloured variety of each sex, which 
have been considered as distinct species. 

Sp. 2. Col. Edusa. 

Genus 314. PONTIA. Fabr., Leach. Pieris. Schrank, Latr. 
Antenna elongate, with an abrupt, obconic, compressed head : palpi 
slender, somewhat cylindric ; the last joint as long as the preceding : 
wings not very narrow, or much lengthened ; hinder ones grooved 
to admit the abdomen, but not tailed : feet alike in both sexes ; 
claws unidentate or bifid : chrysalis angulated, fastened by a trans- 
verse thread. 

" * Anterior wings somewhat trigonate ; hinder ones somewhat orbicu- 
late." 

Sp. 1. Pont. Cratagi (black-veined white). Wings white, ^vith a faint 

tinge of yellowish and black nervures. 
Inhabits Europe. In England it is found in the woods near London; 

the larva feeds on the white-thorn. 

Sp. 2. Pont. Brassica (large cabbage butterfly). 
Inhabits Europe; the larva on the cabbage. 

Sp. 3. Pont. Pupa (small cabbage butterfly). 
Inhabits gardens. 

Sp. 4. Pont. Napi (green-veined white). 
Inhabits gardens and woods. 

Sp. 5. Pont. Cardamines (orange tip butterfly). 
Inhabits path-ways in woods. 

Sp. 6. Pont. Daplidice (Bath while). This has long been doubted 
whether a native of this country; but that successful and indus- 
trious entomologist Mr. Stephens has sufticiently proved the fact, 
by taking a specimen at Dover in Jidy 1818. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 237 

(I ** ]yings somezvhat oval." 

Sp. 7. Pont. Sinapis (wood white). Wings white, with blackish tips. 

Inhabits woods. 

Genus 313. MELITiEA. Fabr., Leach. Argynnis. Latr. Pa- 
piLio. Linn., Haworth. 

Antenna terminated by a short club : palps very hairy, divaricatinjr, 
with the last joint acicular, half the length of the preceding joint: 
hinder wings orbicular : anterior feet very short in both se.\es ; tarsi 
with double nails. 

Caterpillar pubescent, with fleshy tubercles. 

Chrysalis suspended by the tail. 

Sp. 1. Mel. £w/)/(?'osj/ne (pearly border). Wings indented; tawny, with 

black spots ; nine silvery spots on the under side. 
Inhabits waste grounds and heaths. 

Sp. 2. Mel. Silene (pearly border likeness). 
Inhabits woods and waste ground. 

Sp. 3. Mel. Cinxia (Glanville). 
Inhabits Europe : very rare in Britain. 

Sp. 4. Mel. Artemis (greasy). 

Inhabits Europe : seldom taken near London, but is common near 
Norwich. 

Sp. 5. Mel. Dictynna (heath). 

Inhabits heaths and marshes. 

Sp. 6. Mel. Lucina (Duke of Burgundy). 

Inhabits the borders of woods and hedges, but is local. 

Genus 316. ARGYNNIS. Fahr., Latr., Leach, 

Antenna; terminated by a short club : palpi divaricating abruptly, ter- 
minated with a minute, slender, acicular, very short joint ; the se- 
cond joint broad, hairy : hinder zoing orbicular ; anterior feet very 
short in both sexes : tarsi with double nail?. 

Chrysalis suspended by the tail. 

Caterpillars spiny. 

Sp. 1. Arg. Lathonia (Queen of Spain frilillar}), 
Inhabits Europe : is very rare in Britain. 

Sp. 2. Arg. Aglaia (dark green fritillary). 
Inhabits Europe in woods and lanes. 
Sp. 3. Arg. Adippe (high brown fritillary). 
Inhabits heaths and the borders of woods, 

Sp. 1 . Arg. Paphia (silver-washed fritillary). 

Inhabits the borders of woods,, and the New Forest in Hampshire. 



238 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 317. VANESSA. Fabr., Latr., Leach. Papilio. Linn., 
Haicorth. 

Antcnne terminated with an ahnipt short club : Tpulpi contiguous, and 
terminated gradually in a point; the two combined bearing some 
resemblance to a rostrum : anterior pair of feet in both sexes short 
and very hairy : tai^si with double nails. 

Clin/salis suspended by its tail. 

Caterpillar spiny. 

Sp. 1. Van. Atalanta (red admirable). Wings indented, black with 
white spots ; a red fascia in the upper wings, and anotlier on the 
margin of the under wings. 

Inhabits Europe : the larva feeds on the nettle. 

Sp. 2. Van. Cardui (painted lady). Wings orange, indented ; variegated 
with black and white spots : four ocelli on the under side of the 
posterior wings. 

Inhabits Europe : the lar^'^a feeds on the thistle. 

Sp. 3. Van. Antiopa (Camberwell beauty). Wings angulated and black, 
the borders whitish. 

Cynthia Cardui. Fahr., Leach. 

Inhabits Europe. This species has become exceedingly rare in this 
country. Mr. Haworth has observed (in the first part of his Lcpido- 
j)tera Britannica) " There is something very extraordinary in the peri- 
odical but irregular appearance of this species, Papilio Edusu {Culias 
Hyale of this work) and Fap. Cardui. They are plentiful all over the 
kingdom in some years ; after which Antiopa in particular will not be 
seen by any one for eight, ten, or more years, and then appear as plen- 
tiful as before. To suppose they come from the Continent, is an idle 
conjecture; because the English specimens are easily distinguished 
from all others by the superior whiteness of their borders. Perhaps 
their eggs, in this climate, like the seeds of some vegetables, may 
occasionally lie dormant for several seasons, and not hatch until 
some extraordinary but undiscovered coincidence awake them into 
active life." 

Sp. 4. Van. lo (peacock). 

Inhabits nettles. 

Sp. 5. Van. polj/chloros (large tortoise-shell). 
Inhabits Europe : the larva on the elm. 

Sp. 6. Vail. TJrtic(t (small tortoise-shell). 
Inhabits Europe : the larva feeds on nettles. 

Sp. 7. Van. C. album Ccomma). 

Inhabits woods : the larva feeds on the nettle, hop, willow, and the 
currant. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 239 

Genus 318. APATURA. Fair., Leach. Nympualis. Latr. Pa- 
pi lio. Linn., Haworth. 
Anlcima with an elongate-obconic thickened club : palpi with the se- 
cond joint not much compressed, the anterior margin broad: ante- 
rior pair of feet very short in both sexes. 

Sp. 1. Apa. Iris (purple emperor). Wings indented, brownish, shining, 
with blue or purple; on both surfaces a whitish interrupted fascia 
and a single ocellus on the under wing. 

The following account of this interesting and elegant insect is 
given by I\Ir. Haworth. 

'' In the month of July he makes his appearance in the winged 
state, and invariably fixes his throne upon the summit of a lofty oak, 
from ihc utmost sprigs of which, on sunny days, he performs his 
aerial excursions; and in these ascends to a much greater elevation 
than any other insect I have ever seen, sometimes mounting higher 
than the eye can follow, especially if he happens to quarrel with 
another emperor, the monarch of some neighbouring oak: they 
never meet without a battle, flying upwards all the while and com- 
bating witli each other as nuicli as possible, after which they will 
frequently return again to the identical sprigs from whence they 
ascended. The wings of this fine species are of a stronger texture 
than those of any other in Britain, and more calculated for that gay 
and powerful flight which is so much admired by entomologists. The 
Purple Emperor commences his aerial movements from ten to twelve 
o'clock in the morning, but does not perform his loftiest flights till 
noon, decreasing them after this hour until he quite ceases to fly 
about four in the afternoon ; thus emulating the motions of that 
source of all his strength, the sun. The females, like those of many 
other species, are very rarely seen on the wing : the reason of which 
is both interesting and but little known. It is their being destitute 
of a certain spiral socket which the males possess, near the base of 
the main tendon of their upper wings ; which socket receives and 
works a strong elastic spring arising from the base of the under 
wings, thereby enabling them to perform a stronger, longer, amA 

more easy flight than it is possible for the females to do." 

" The males usually fly very high, and are only to be taken by a 
bag-net fixed to the end of a rod twenty or thirty feet long. There 
have been instances, though very rare, of their settling on the around 
near puddles of water, and being taken there, \\hen the Purple 
Emperor is within reach, no fly is more easily taken than he; for he 
is so very bold and fearless that he will not move from his settling 
place until you quite push him oft": you may even tip the i:nds of 
his wings, and be suftered to strike again.'' 



240 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 319. LIMENITIS. Fubr., Leach. Nvmphalis. Latr. 

Antenna gradually clubbed; club slender, round obcuiiic: palpi as long 
as the head, with the second joint not very much compressed ; the 
anterior margin not remarkably broader : anterior pair of feet in 
both sexes very short and spurious ; wings not much longer than 
broad : Four hinder feet with double nails. 

Larva elongate. 

Chrysalis suspended by the tail. 

Sp. 1. Liin. Camilla (white admirable). 

Inhabits Europe. This is considered a rare insect in Britain, but t 
have observed them in certain years in Bedstile-wood near Finch- 
ley, and Birch-wood in Kent, in tolerable abundance. 

Genus 320. HIPPARCHIA. Fair., Leach. Maniola. Schrank. 
S.'iTYRUs. Latr. Papilio. Linn., Haworth. 

Antenncz with a slender somewhat fuciform, or trigonate-orbicular 
club : palpi meeting above the tongue, with the second joint very 
much compressed, and much longer than the first : anterior pair of 
legs shorter than the rest, and often very hairy; feet of the other 
legs with double nails : hinder zvings somewhat orbicular or orbicu- 
late-triangulate, with the external margin excavated to receive the 
abdomen ; the middle cell closed behind, from which part the ner- 
vures radiate ; the other margin entire, or with acute or obtuse in- 
dentations. 

Caterpillar downy, with a globular head somewhat compressed in 
front ; the abdomen bimucronate behind. 

Chrysalis angulated, with the front bimucromate suspended by tlie 
tail. Leach's Zool. Misc. vol. i. p. 27. 

Sp. 1. Hipp. Galatliea (marbled). 

Inhabits woods and fields, 

Sp. 2. Hipp. Hyperanthus (the ringlet). 
Inhabits woods and fields. 

Sp. 3. Hipp. Pamphilus (small heath). . ' _ 

Inhabits heaths. 

Sp. 4. Hipp, blandina (Scotch Argus). 
Inhabits the isles of Bute and Arran. 

Sp. 5. Hipp. Pilosella (small meadow brown). 
Inhabits fields and the borders of woods. 

Sp. 6. Hipp. Jauira (meadow brown). 
Papilio Jurtina. Haworth, Linn. 
Inhabits fields and lanes. 

Sp. 7. Hipp. Mcgttru (gate-keeper). 
Inhabits fields and the borders of woods. 



CtASS V. INSECTA. 241 

Sp. 8. Hipp. Mgcria (speckled wood, or wood Argus). 

Inhabits the borders of woods and field?. 

Sp. 9. Hipp. Semcle (grayling, or rock underwing). 

Inhabits heaths, commons, and rocky wastes. 

Stirps 2. — Larva; oval, depressed : pupa short, contracted, obtuse at 
both extremities : tarsi with very small nails. 

Genus 321. THECLA. Fahr., Leach. Polyommatus. Lutr. 

Feet in both sexes all alike : nails scarcely produced jjeyond the pul- 
villi, which arc large: «?if('«?/^ gradually clubbed; the club elon- 
gate, cylindric oval : hinder wings tailed. 

* Antenna gradually clavafcd. 
Sp. 1 . The. Bctulec (brown hair streak.) 
Inhabits the borders of woods. 

Sp. 2. The. Fruni (black hair streak). 
Inhabits the borders of woods. 

Sp. 3. The. Qucreus (purple hair streak). 

Inhabits oak woods. Hying on the highest branches of the trees. 

** Antenna abruptly clavated. 
Sp. 4. The. Rubi (green underside, or hair streak). 
Inhabits the skirts of woods. 

Genus 322. LYC/ENA. Fabr., Leach. Polyommatus. Latr. 
■Legs alike in both sexes : nails projecting beyond the pulvilli, which 
are small : antenna with an abrupt club, somewhat ovate, compressed, 
or spoon-shaped. 

* Hinder wings more or less tailed. 
Sp. 1. Li/c. dispar (large copper). 
Papilio Ilj'pothoe. Donovan. 

Inhabits the fens of Cambridgeshire, and lias been observed near 
Aberdeen in Scotland. 

Sp. 2. Li/c. Chryseis (purple-edged copper). 
Inhabits Europe : in Britain it is extremely rare. 

Sp. 3. Lye. Fir^Gz/rffz; (scarce copper). 

Inhabits Europe : very local in Britain. It is found in some parts of 

Huntingdonshire. 
Sp. 4. Lye. Phlceas (small copper). 
Inhabits woods and heaths. 

** Hinder wings with the posterior margin entire. 
Sp. 5. Lye. Cm-ydon (chalk-hill blue). 
Inhabits chalky districts. 

Sp. 6. Lye. Adonis (Clifden blue). 
Inhabits chalky districts. 



242 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Sp. 7, Lijc. Dori/lus (common blue). 
Inhabits heaths, commons, and lanes, 
Sp. 8. Li/c. Argus (studded blue); 
Inhabits fields and marshes. 

Sp. 9. Li/c. Idas (blaclc-spot brown). 
Inhabits grassy places. 

Sp. 10. Lye. Artaxerxes (white-spot, brown or Scotch Argus). 
Inhabits Arthur's Seat and the base of Kirk-hill^ (one of the Pentland 
range near Edinburgh) in great plenty, 

Sp. 11. Lye. Alms (Bedford blue). 
Inhabits clover fields, &c. 

Sp. 12. Lye. Argiolus (azure blue). 
Inhabits meadows. 

Sp. 13. Lye. Cymon. 

Inhabits Europe : in Britain it is very local. It is found near Shec- 
borne in Dorset in great abundance. 

Fam. II. Hesperidx. Leach, 

IIesperides. Latreille. 

Hinder tibia with two pair of heels or spurs, one pair at the middle, the 
other at the usual place : antenna distinctly terminated with a club, 
hooked at their extremities : palpi short, thick, and squamose m 
front : hinder wings elevated when the insect is at rest. 

Genus 323. HESPERIA. luhr., Cuv., Lam., Latr., Walck., Leach. 
Papilio. Linn., Haworth. 
Palpi with the third joint cylindric or cylindric-conic 

* Antenna ending iri an abrupt very acute hook. 
Sp. 1. Hes. Comma (pearl skipper). 
Inhabits Europe: in England, near Lewes in Sussex. 
Sp. 2. Hes. Sylvanus (wood skipper). 
Inhabits the borders of woods. 

** Antenna willi their points arcuate. 
Sp. 3. Hes. Tages (dingy skipper). 
Inhabits Europe, on dry heaths and banks. 
Sp. 4. Hes. Malva (mallow skipper). 
Inhabits dry banks. 

*** Antenna with straight points, 
Sp. 5. Hes. Linca (small skipper). 
Inhabits tlie skirto of woods. 



CLASS V. IXSECTA, 



243 



Sp. 0. lies. Pcoiiscus (scarce skipper)- 

Inhabits meadows : very rare in Britain, excepting in some parts of 
Bedlbrdshirc, where it is common. 

Section II. CREPUSCULARIA. Latreille. 

Wings horizontal in repose : antenna; prismatic or fusiform. 

The insects of this section constitute the Linncan genus Sphinx, 
which has been divided by later writers into a number of genera. 

Fam. III. Sphingid^. Leach. 
Sphingides. iMireillc. 

Palpi short, covered with very short close scales ; the last joint tubcr- 
culiform and very short. 

Stirps 1. Anus not tufted. 

Genus 324. bMERINTHUS. Latr., Leach. Laotuoe. Fair., 
Sphinx. Linn., liawurth. Spectrum. Scopoli. 
Antennae somewhat prismatic, serrated towards the middle, gradually 
thicker: tongue very short : anterior zvings angulated: J3a//;J conti- 
guous. 

Sp. 1. Sme. ocellata (eyed hawk-moth). 

Inhabits Europe. The larva on the willow and poplar. 

Sp. 2. Sme. Tdia (lime hawk-moth). 
Inhabits the lime in the larva state., 

Sp. 3. Sine. Populi (poplar hawk-moth). 

Inhabits Europe. The larva feeds on the poplar. / 

Genus 325. SPHINX. Linn., Fair., Latr., Hazcorth, Leach. Spr.c- 
TRUM. Scopoli. 
Palpi contiguous above the tongue : tongue long, very distinct, convo- 
luted : antenna prismatic, thicker towards their middle, in the males 
slightly ciliated. 
Obs. — This genus has lately been divided into the following genera : 

1. Deilophila, OcAs/jeimer. Sp. 1. Elpenor. 2. Porcellus. 3. Li- 
neata. 4. Euphorbias, o. Galii. — II. Sphinx, Och. Sp. 1. Pinastri. 

2. Ligustri. ?,. Convolvuli. — III. Acherontia, Och. Sp. 1. Atropos. 

Sp. 1. Sph. Porcf//i/.? (small elephant hawk-moth). 

Inhabits Europe : is very rare in Britain. 

Sp. 2. Sph. £//3e>«or (elephant hawk-moth). 

Inhabits Europe. The larva feeds on the ladies bed-straw, and is found 

in the autumn in drills or ditches in marshes near London. 
Sp. 3. Sph. lineata (silver line hawk-moth). 

Inhabits Europe, and is exceeding rare in this country. Sphinx lineata 

q2 



244" MODERN SYSTEM, 

of Donovan is distinct, and must be considered as a doubtful inhabi- 
tant of Britain. 

Sp. 4. Sph. Gala (scarce spotted elephant). 

Inhabits Europe : it is very rare in Britain. Two specimens have been 
taken in Cornwall near Penzance, one near Kingsbridge in Devon, 
and another near London. 

Sp. 5. Sph. Eiiphoi-bire (spotted elephant). 

Inhabits Europe : it is very rare in Britain. The larva has occurred 
near Plymouth. 

Sp. 6. Sph. Pinastri (pine hawk-moth). 

Inhabits Europe : it has been taken near London, and in Ravelston- 
wood near Edinburgh. 

Sp. 7. Sph. Convohuli (convolvulus hawk-moth). 

Inhabits Europe : it has been taken near London, and in the most re- 
mote parts of Britain, even in the Shetland Islands, but does not 
make a regular appearance., 

Sp. 8. Sph. Ligustri (privet hawk-moth). 

Inhabits Europe. The larva feeds on the privet and ash in gardens and 
woods. 

Sp. 9. Sph. Atropos (death's head hawk-moth). 

Inhabits Europe. It must be considered as a valuable acquisition to 
the British cabinet ; for altliough it occasionally occurs in the larva 
state, yet it is bred with extreme difficulty, and the fly when taken 
on the wing is generally very much mutilated and rubbed. The ca- 
terpillar feeds on the blossom of the potatoe. 

Stirps 2. — Anus tufted. 

Genus 326. MACROGLOSSUM. Scopoli, Leach. 

Palpi contiguous above the tongue : tongue very long, distinct and con- 
voluted: antenna: prismatic, thicker towards their middle, (of the 
males ciliated); winga opaque. 

Sp. 1. Macro. Stellatariun (humming-bird hawk-moth). 

Inhabits gardens. The perfect insect feeds on the wing, extracting the 
honey of stellated plants. 

Genus 327. SESIA. Fabr., Leach. Macuoglossa. Ochsheimer. 

Palpi contiguous above the tongue : tongue very long ; distinct, and 
convoluted : antenna prismatic, thicker towards their middle (of the 
males ciliated) : wings transparent. 

Sp. 1. Ses. lombyciformis (narrow-bordered bee hawk-moth). 

Inhabits open places in woods. 

Sp. 2. Ses.fmiformis (broad-bordered bee hawk-moth). 

Inhabits the borders of woods. 

Fam. IV. ZiG^NiDiE. Leach., 
ZvG^NiDES. Latreille. 
Palpi long, separate, covered with long scales or porrccted hair. 



CLASS V. insectaT 245 

Genus 328. ^GERIA. Fabr., Leach. Sesia. Lair., Laspeyres, 
Trochili'm. Scopoli. 
Antennm fusiform : abdomen with the anus bearded. 

Sp. 1. Mg. apiformis (bee hornet sphinx). 
Inhabits Europe: is rare in Britain. 

Sp. 2. JEg. crabroniformis (hornet sphinx). 

Inhabits Europe : the larva feeds on the wood of the lime-tree. 

There are several other species of this genus found in Britain, but 
their synonyms have never been satisfactorily ascertained. 

Genus 329. ZYGiENA of authors. Sphinx. Linn. 
AntenncE abruptly flexuous-clavate : palpi cylindric-conic. 

Sp. 1. Zyg. Filipendulaifw-^^othuxxiet). 
Inhabits fields. 

Genus 330. INC. Leach. Procris. Fabr., Lafr. Zyg.?;na. Panz., 
Walckenaer. Sphinx. Linn. 
Antenna of the male bipectinate, of the female simple : palpi short. 

Sp. 1. Ino Statices (forester). 

Inhabits the margins of woods in meadows. 

Section III. NOCTURNA. Latreille. 

Wings horizontal in repose : antenna setaceous^ gradually narrowing 
towards their extremities. 

Earn. V. BoMBYCiD.i. Leach. 

BoMBYciTES, Latreille. 

AntenJKE with a single series of cilire (of the male at least serrated) : 
tongue none : palpi two, short, cylindric, very hairy : thorax not crest- 
ed : wings elongate undivided. 

Stirps 1. — Wings deflexed, long and narrow ; larva naked : pupa with 
its segments laterally denticulated. 

Genus 331. HEPIALUS. Fair., Latr., Leach. Phal.ena (Noc- 
tua). Linne. 
Antenna moniliform, shorter than the thorax : palpi very small, and 

very hairy : wings elliptic, equal, long. 
Sp. 1. Hep. Humuli (ghost swift). Sp. 2. Hep. Mappa (map-winged 
swift). Sp. 3. Hep. Hectus (golden swift), &c. 

Genus 332. COSSUS. Fabr., Latr., Cuv., Leach. Phal.i:na 
(BoMBYx). Linne. 
Antenna as long as the thorax, setaceous, furnished with a single se- 
ries of short transverse obtuse teeth : palpi very distinct, thick cy- 
lindric, and squamous : anterior wings larger than the posterior. 



246 MODERN SYSTHM. 

Sp. 1. C'as. L'igniperda (goat moth), 

Phalcena (Bombyx) Cussus. Liune. 

Inhaints Europe. The larva feeds on the internal parts of the willow, 
ash, and oak. The celebrated Lyonnett has hnmortalized himself by 
his laborious work on the anatomy of the larva and perfect insect. 
The caterpillar diffuses a scent, by which its residence may frcr 
quently be made known to those passing such trees as are much in- 
f'psted by it. It remains three years in this state, when it spins a 
strong web intermixed with particles of wood, and changes into 
the chrysalis, which it does in the month of May; and in June the 
perfect insect may l)e found sticking to the trunks of trees (gene- , 
X'ally willows) early in the morning and in the evening. 

I once found the larva in an old oak near Norwood, in the month 
of January. Mr. Standish informs me, that those which feed on the 
wood of the oak are paler in colour than those which feed on the 
willow. 

Genus 333. ZEUZERA. Lutr., Leach. Bombyx. H'ubner. He- 
PIALUS. Schrank. PHAL^tNA (Noctua). Linnt. Cossus. Fabr. 
Antenna: setaceous, of the males pectinated at their base ; of the fe- 
males entirely simple, with the exception of their base, which is to- 
mentose. 
Sp. 1. Seu. JEsculi (wood leopard-moth). 

Inhabits Europe. In England it is rather rare; but may he found against 
trees in St. James's Park in July, if industriously sought after. 

Stirps 2. — Wings broad and spreading: larva more or less hairy, its 
hinder legs formed for walking : pupa with its segments simple. 
Genus 334. SATURNIA. Schrank, Leach. Phal^na (Attacus). 
LinnL Bombyx. Fabr., H'vbner, Latr. 
Wings horizontal ; antennae subcylindric : of the male doubly pecti- 
nated : hinder wings simple. 
Sp. 1. Sal. Pavonia minor {emperor moth). 

Stirps 3. — Wings deflexed : larvte more or less hairy, its hinder legs 
formed for walking: pupa, with its segments simple. 

" * Antenna in both sexes pectinated." 
Genus 335. LIPARIS. Och., Germ., Leach's MSS. Hypogymna. 

Hiib. 
Palpi porrected, hairy, composed of tvvo joints, the last of which is in- 

crassated at its extremity : tongue obsolete : antenna setaceous. 
Sp. 1. Lip. Monacha (black arches). Sp. 2, Lip. dispur (gipsy moth), 

Genus 336. LARIA. Schrank, Leach, Germar. Oroya. Och., 
Dasyciiira. H'ubner. 
Palpi very hairy, three-jointed : last joint minute linear and almost 
naked : tongue obsolete : antenna, filiform. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 



247 



^Sp. 1. Lar. pudibunda (pale tussock). Sp. 2. Lar.fascelina (dark tus- 
sock). 

Genus 337. GASTROPACIIA. OcL, Germ., Leach's MSS. 
P<ilpi porrected, three-jointed, hairy, subcyUndric, with obtuse points : 

tongue obsolete : antouuE fihform. 
Sp. 1, Gas. quercifolia (lappet moth). 

a ** Antenn{e of the male alone pectinated.^ 
Genus 338. ODENESIS. Germar, Leach's MSS. 
Palpi porrect, hairy and three-jointed, dilated in the middle, attenuated 
and reversed at their extremities : tongue very short; antenna filiibrm. 
Sp. 1. Od. potatoria. {PI. 12. Jig. 3.) 

Genus 339. LASIOCAMPA. Schrank, Leach, Germar, 
Palpi compressed, porrected, very hairy, two-jointed; the second joint 

elongate obtuse : tongue obsolete : antenna: filiform. 
Sp. 1. Las. Quercus (egger moth). Sp. 2. Las. trifoUa, &c. 

Genus 340. ERIOGASTER. Germcr, loach's MSS. 
Palpi very short and very hairy, subglobose : tongue obsolete : antcnn<£ 

filiform. 
Sp. 1. £rj. lanestris. Sp. 2 Eri. Populi. 

Genus 341. ENDROMIS. Och., Germ., Leach's MSS. Dimort- 
PHA. Hvb. 
Pa/pj compressed, recurved, very hairy; second joint obtuse: tongue 

very obsolete : antenna filiform. 
Sp. 1. £nc?. ^-ersicoZo;- (Kentish glory). 

Obs. — Bombyx rubra, &c. forms the Genus Pentiiropiiera. Germ. 
Genus 342. STAUROPUS. Germ., Leach's MSS. Harpyia. OcA. 

Pfl/p( reflexed, compressed, hairy and biarticulated ; last joint minute: 
tongue obsolete : antenna filiform (of the male naked at their extre- 
mities). 

Sp. 1. Stau. Fagi (lobster moth). 

Genus 343. NOTODONTA. Och., Germar, Leach's MSS. Pxi- 

LODONTIS. Hiib. 

Palpi short, very hairy, two-jointed; first joint very short, second com- 
pressed and truncate: tongue short: antenna filiform. 
Sp. 1. Not. Tritopus. Sp. 2. Ziczac. Sp. 3. Dromedarius. Sp. 4. Trepida. 

Genus 344. PYGiERA. Och., Germar, Leach's MSS. Melalo- 
PHA. Hub. 
Palpi very hairy, t\vo-jointed ; first joint incurved, second reversed ob- 
tuse : tongue abbreviated, but spiral : antenna setaceous. 
Sp. 1. Pyg. Bucephala (buff-tip). 

Obs. — Bombyx curtula, 2. reclusa, form the genus Clostera of Hoff- 
mansecg. 



243 SIODERN SYSTEM. 

•Stirps 4. Wings deflexed: larva with its liinder legs converted into a 
furcate tail. 

Genus345. CERURA. Schrank, Leach, Germar. Andria. Hubner. 
Palpi cylindrical, hairy obtuse, with their joints confluent: tongue spi- 
ral but abbreviated : antenna: filiform pectinated. 
Sp. 1. Cer. Vinulia (puss moth). Sp. 2. Cer. Furcula (kitten moth). 
The caterpillar of both the above feeds on leaves : the first may 
frequently be found in August and September on willows and pop- 
lars ; the latter species is not common in Britain. 

Fam. VI. Arctiad^. Leach. 

NocTuo-BoMBYciTES. Latr. 

Palpi two ; antenncE pectinated or ciliated : tongue visible, but often 
short and somewhat membranaceous : wings trigonate, deflexed, un- 
divided : caterpillar with sixteen feet. 

Genus 346. ARCTIA. Sch7'ank, Latrcille, Leach. Bombyx. Fair. 
Palpi with long scales : antennte of the males (at least) with a double 
series of pectinations : tongue often short, composed of two separate 
filaments. 

* Antennce ciliated. 

Sp. 1. Arc. villica (cream spot tyger). Sp. 2. Arc. Caja (tyger moth). 
Sp. 3. Arc. Plantaginis (wood tyger). Sp. 4. Arc. russula (clouded 
buff). Sp. 5. Arc. mendica (muslin). Sp. 6. Arc. Menthrastri (er- 
mine). Sp. 7. Arc. papyritia (water ermine). Sp. 8. Arc. lubrici- 
peda (buff ermine). 

** Antenna pectinated. 

Sp. 1. Arc. Sal ic is {satm moth). Sp. 2. Arc. chrysorrhaea (yellow- tail). 
Sp. 3. Arc. ph(corrhaa (brown-tail moth). 

Genus 347. . CALLIMORPHA. Latr., Leach. Bombyx. Fair. 

LiTHOSiA. Fahr. 
Pfl/piwith short not porrect, scales : antenna: simple or slightly cili- 
ated: tongue'long, the two filaments conjoined. 
Sp. 1. Cal. Dominida (scarlet tyger moth). 

Obs. — Bombyx; 2. Rosea (red arches). 3. JwcoJe^ (cinnabar); are re- 
ferable to this genus. 

Fam. VII. TiNEiD.i;. Leach. 
TiNEiTES. Lutreille. 

Antenn<E setaceous, simple : tongue distinct : palpi two, cylindric : zoings 
long, oblong, somewhat elliptic, incumbent or convolute : inferior 
ones much folded, all undivided. 

Stirps 1. — Antenna: distant from each other: eyes separate, divided by 
a frontlet ; tongue elongate : palpi not longer than the head. 



Cr.ASS V. IN?ECTA, 



249 



, Genus 348. LITHOSIA. Fnbr., Latr., Leach. 

Wing^s horizontal : palpi shorter than the head, last joint cylindric, di- 
stinctly shorter than the second : /wc/c much flattened : antcnucE'Am- 
ple or but slightly ciliated. 

Sp. 1. Lit. ijmd?-a (four-spotted footman). Sp. 2. Lit. complana, &c. 

Genus 349. YPONOMEUTA. Latr., Leach. Tinea. Fabr., 
H'ubner, Hazcorth. 
Wings rolled or convoluted : palpi as long as the head; the third joint 

obconic, as long or longer than the one before it: antenna: simple. 
Sp. 1. Ypo. Evoni/mella. 

Stirps 2. — Antenna- separate: eyes separate: tongue elongate : j!Jff//'i 
much longer than the head, over which they are recurved. 

Genus 350. iECOPHORA. Latr. NemaPOGon. Schrank, Leach. 
Phal.ena (Tinea). Linnc. Tinea. Fabr. Alucita. OUv. 
Wings broadly fringed, lying on the back : palpi twice as long or more 
than the body; the second joint longer than the head, the last joint 
almost naked, recurved beyond the head. 

Obs. — To this genus Tinea 1, Linneella. 2. Flavella. 3. Roese/la, 
and their congeners belong. 

Stieps 3. — Tongue not distinct, very short: front very hairy: patpl 
longer than the head, the second joint hairy. 

Genus 351, EUPLOCAMUS. Latr., Leach. Tinea. Fabr. Pv- 
RALis. Llitbner. 
Palpi tvvo ; the second joint with numerous elongate scales, the third 

joint naked and ascending: antenncs much pectinated. 
Sp. 1. Eup. Guttella. Fabr. 

Genus 352. PHYSIS. Fabr., H'ubner, Leach. Phal/ENA (Tinea). 
Linni. . 
Pa/pi four, distinct; upper ones small, inflexcd: antenna simple, or 

slightly ciliated. 
Sp. 1. Phi/. Pclionella (clothes moth). 
Inhabits houses. 

Obs. — All the cloth moths, of which there are several specie?, belong 
to this genus. 

Stirps 4. — Antenna very long, contiguous: ei/es subcontiguous : tongue 
elongate : palpi very hairy, ascending not longer than the head. 

Genus 353. ADELA. Latr., Leach. Nemopiiora. Hoffmansegg. 
Nemapogon. Schrank. Alucita. Fabr. Tinea. H'vbncr. 
Phal.€na (Tinea). Linni. 
Sp. 1. Ad. Degeerella (Japan-moth). 
Inhabits the borders of woods. 



■250 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Osii.— All the long-horned Japan moths, as they are called by Engli&h 
collectors, belong to this genus. 

Fam. VIII. NocTUAD.c. Leach. 

IS'ocTr.ELiTES. Latreille. 

Antennm setaceous m the males, sometimes pectinated or ciliated : 
tongue distinct : palpi much compressed : wings horizontal or incum- 
bent, not divided : thorax thick, oiten crested : palpi with the last 
joint much shorter than the preceding, squamose. 

Genus 354. NOCTUA. Fabr., Latr., Hiibner, Leach. Bombyx. 
Fab?-., Hub. PHALiENA (Bombyx). Limit. PiiAL-^iXA (Noc- 
tua). Linnc. P.ecilia. Schrank. Cucullia. Schrank. 
The genus Noctua requires a minute investigation. It contains seve- 
ral natural genera, as exhibited in the following divisions. 

A. Caterpillars with sixteen feet. 

* Caterpillars half loopers, their anterior feet membranaceous, evi- 
dently shorter than the others. Wings horizontal. 

Sp. 1. Noc. sponsa (crimson underwing). Sp. 2. iVoc. nitpta, Sfc. 

** Caterpillars with membi-anaccous feet of conforinabk size. 

1. Wings horizontal. 

Sp. 1. Noc. fimbria (broad-bordered yellow underwing). Sp. 2. Koc. 
pronuba. S. Noc. Orboiia. 4. Noc.janthia^S,x. 

2. Wings deflexed. 

a. Sp. 1. Noc. Ritmicis (common knot grass). 2. Noc. Psi, ^c. 

b. Sp. 1. Noc. Ligustri (coronet). 2. Noc. Pisi (broom moth), &e. 

c. Sp. 1. Noc. Verbasci. 2. A^oc. Tft^ftcf/i (shark moths), &c. 

d. Sp. 1. Noc. J?«/w (peach blossom moth). 

e. Sp. 1. iVoc. >«e</ci</os« (angle shades). 

f. Sp. 1. iVoc.^a//)t«« (pale prominent moth). 

g. Sp. 1. Noc. camelina. 

B. Caterpillar with fourteen feet. 

Sp. 1. Noc. chri/sites (burnished brass). Noc.Jestuc^e (gold spot), &c» 

Notice of the following genera has lately reached this coimtry 
from the Continent : the undermentioned indigenous species, which 
fnay be considered as types, are selected from the MSS. of Dr. Leach : 
I have added the English names, as it may enable those who have 
small collections of Lepidoptera to proceed in the natural arrange- 
ment- 
Genus CoLocASiA. Och. Jaspidia. H'ub. 

Sp. 1. Noc. bombyx coryli (nut-tree tussock). 



CLASS V. INSF.CTA, 251 

Genus PoECTLiA. Schrank^OcIi. Jaspidia. Hub. 

Sp. 1* Noc. licfwnsis (marbled green). 2. Noc. perla (marbled 
beauty). 

Genus Tetiiea. Och, 

Sp. 1. Noc. retusa (double kidney). 2. Noc. subtusa (olive). 3. Noc. 
r'ldens (the frosted green). 

Genus Aguotis. H'itb., Och. 

Sp. 1. Noc. Ruris (rufous dart). 2. Noc. Segetum (brown heart and 
club). 

Genus Graphiphora. Hi'ib., Och. 

Sp. 1. Noc. ^z/^^ii/- (double dart). Fabr. 

Genus Amphipyra. Och. Pyrophila. Hvb. 

Sp. 1. Noc. Tragopogonus (the mouse). 2. Noc. tetra{\hii maho- 
gan:) 
Genus Mormo. Ochen. Lemur. H'nb. 

Sp. 1 . Noc. mauru (great brown bar). Fabr. 

Genus Hadena. Schrank, Och. 

Sp. 1. Noc. Cucubali (campion). 2. Noc. Ptei-idis. Fabr. 

Genus Miselia. Hiib., Sck. 

Sp. 1. Noc. compta (marbled coronet). 

Genus Polia. Hub., Och. 

Sp. \.Noc. CAi (Chi moth). 2. JVoc.^wfocinda (large ranunculus). 

Genus Trachea. Och. Achatia. H'libn. 

Sp. 1. Noc. atrip/icis (arrach moth). 2. Noc. prcecox (Portland 
moth) 

Genus Apamea. Och. 

Sp. 1, Noc. basilinea (rustic shoulder knot). Fabr. 

Genus Mamestria. Ocli. 

Sp. 1. Noc. Pisi (broom). 2. Noc. Chenopod'd (nutmeg). 

Genus Thyatira. Och. 

Sp. 1. JVoc. Ba^is (peach blossom). 2. JVbc. Aras« (buff arches). 

Genus Mythimna. Och. 

Sp. 1. Noc. turcu (double line). 

Genus Caradrina. Och. 
Sp. 1. Noc. Morpheus. 

Genus Leucania. Och. IIeliopiiila. Hub. 

Sp, 1. Pha. comma (shoulder stripe wainscot). 

Genus Nonagria. Och. 

Sp. J. Noc. Ti/phce (\i\i\i.'X\x^h). 2. Noc. Arundinis. .\ 



252 MODERN SYSTEM, 

Genus GoRTVNA. Och. 

; ■- Sp. 1. Noc.Jlavago. Hiib. Ruiilago (frosted orange). Fubi: 

Genus Xanthia. Hiib., Och. 

Sp. 1. Noc. Liiteago. 2. Noc. Croceago (orange upper wing). 
Genus Cosmia. Hiib., Och. 

Sp. 1. Noc. affinis (lesser spotted pinion). 2. Noc. diffinis (white 
spotted pinion), Fabr. 

Genus Cerastis. Och. Gl^a. Hub. 

Sp. 1. Noc. Vacciuii (chcsnut). 2. SateUitia (satellite.) 
Genus Xylena. Hub., Och. 

Sp. 1. Noc. exokta (large second grass). 2. Noc. putris (flame). 
3. Noc. hepatica (clouded bordered brindle). 4. Noc. Finastfi 
(bird's wing). 
Genus CucuLLiA. Schrank, Och. Tribonophora. H'vb. 

Sp. 1. Noc. Artemisia. 2. Noc. Absinthii (wormwood). 3. Noc. 
Vmbratics (targe pale shark). 4. Noc. Scrophularia (water 
betony). 

Genus Abrostola. Och. 

Sp. 1. Noc. triplacea. 2. Noc. Asclepiades. 
Genus Anarta. Och. 

Sp. 1. Noc. Myrtilli (beautiful yellow undcrwing). 

Genus Heliothis. Och. Heliocentis. Huh. 
Sp. 1. Noc. dipsacea (marbled clover). 

Genus Erastria. Och. Erotyla. Hub. 
Sp. 1. JJnca. FijraUs unca (silver hook), 

Genus Brepha. Hub. Brephos. Och. 

Sp. 1. Noc. Parthenias (orange undcrvv^ing), 2. Noc. notlia (light 
orange underwing). 

Genus Euclidia. Hub., Och. 

Sp. 1. Noc. Mi (Shipton). 2. Noc. triquetra. 

Fam. IX. PHALa;NiD.€. Leach-. 

Pualsnites. Latreille. 

^n^ewwa; approximating at their base; those of the male often pecti- 
nated or ciliated : clypeus scarcely prominent : feet slender, rarely 
hairy : palpi two : wings undivided. 

Stirps 1. — Larva with twelve feet. 

Genus 355. PHAL.ENA. Li7ine, Fabr., Latr., Leach. Geometka. 
Haioorth, H'ubner. 
Antenna setaceous of the male pectinated. 
Sp. 1. Pha. margarituria (large emerald moth), &c. 



C1AS5 V. INSECTA7 253 

SjirpS 2. — XfuTft with ten feet. 

Genus 336. IIIPPARCIIUS. Leach. Piial.cna. Fair., Latr^ 
Linn. Geometra. Hi'ibner, Hazcorth. 
Ml)igs extended obliquely, the upper wing covering the lower ones : 
boili/ slender: palpi slightly hirsute : «n;6'?j?i<c of" the male pectinated. 
Sp. 1. Hip. papilionarius {large emerald). 2. Hip. prunata, SfC. 

Genus 357. BUPALUS. Leach. Piial^ina. Linne, Fubr., Latn. 
Geometra. Hubner, Haworth. 
Antenme pectinated in the male : body slender : palpi slightly hirsute ; 

■dings horizontally extended, not angidated or indented. 
Sp. 1. Bi^/>. j;i«anMS (the bordered white). 
Inhabits pine forests. 

Genus 358. GEOMETRA. HYibner, Hazvorih, Leach. PnAL.-EN.ft 
Fabr., Latr., Linni. 
Antenna of the male pectinated : bodtj slender : palpi but little or not at 
all hair}': rt;/«gs horizontal!}' extended; hinder margiri very angular, 
Sp. 1. Geo. lunar ia (the lunar thorn). Sp. 2. Geo. dolabraria (scorch- 
ed wing), &c. 

Genus 359. OURAPTERYX. Leach. Piial.ilna. Latr., Linn'c, 

Fabr. 
jltt^ewwd; somewhat ciliated : ?'oc(^ slender : jpa//>i but little hairy, zcings 
horizontally extended ; inferior ones prolonged, truncate, and termi- 
nated by a tail. 
Sji. 1. Our. sanibitcaria (swallow-tail moth). 

Genus 360. BISTON. Leach. Phal^ena. Linni, Fabr., Latr. 
Geometra. Hubner, Hazcorth. 
Antenna of the male much pectinated: body thick : palpi very hairy. 
Sp. 1. Bis. prodromaria (oak beaut}'). 2. £is. betidaria (the peppered). 
8. Bis. hirtaria (the brindled beauty), &c. 

Genus 361. ABRAXAS. Leach. Phaljena. Linni, Fabr., Latr., 
Hub., Haworth. 
Antenna simple, not ciliated : body slender : palpi scarcely hirsute : 

zcings extended horizontally, not angulated or indented. 
Sp. 1. Abr. grossulariata (common magpie moth). 2. Abr. uhnuria 
(scarce magpie moth), Sec. 

Stirps 3. — Caterpillars with fourteen feet; the anal ones distinct; the 
first pair of membranaceous ones wanting. 

Genus 362. HERMINIA. Latr., Leach. Phal^na (Pyrali^). 
Linni. Crambxjs. Fabr., Bosc. Pyralis. Huh. 
Wings triangulate, nearly horizontal : anterior margin of the uppfer 
. wings straight : palpi two, recurved, compressed^ often very large ; 

antenna ciliated. 
Sp. 1. Her. proboscidalis (fhe snout), &c. 



254 MODERN SYSTEM. 

$riRPS 4. — ^aterpitlars With fourteen feet, anal ones wanting j -tfefe first 
pair of membranaceous ones distinct. 

Genus 363. PLATYPTERYX. Laspet/eres, Latr., Leach. Pha- 
L^NA. Fahr. 
Anterior wings falcate : antenna of tlie male pectinate : palpi very short, 

somewhat conic : tongue short. 
Sp. 1. Flu. fakuturiu (pebble hooktip). 2. Flu. lucertanaria (the scol- 
loped hooktip), Sec. 

Oes. — The last species has the anterior wings dentate. 

Genus 364. CILTX. Leach. Bombyx. Fahr. Platypteryx. Latr. 
Anterior zoings rounded : antenna of the male pectinated : palpi very 

short, somewhat conic : tongue none. 
Sp. 1. Cil. compressa (goose-egg moth). 
Bombyx compressus. Fahr. 

Stirps 5. — Caterpillars with sixteen feet: wings With the body forrning 
a broad short triangle, dilated on each side anteriorly. 

Genus 365. TORTRIX. Hiibner, Leach. Phalxna (Tortrix). 
Linnc. Pyralis. Latr., Fahr. 
Palpi with the second joint distinctly longer than the third, and more 
squamous; third joint short, truncate or obtuse, not recurved over 
the head. 
Sp. 1. Tor. Fagana. 

Genus 366. SIMAETHIS. Leach. Tortrix. H'libner. Pyralis. 
Latr. 
Pfl//>« short, rising; the last joint not recurved over the head; witli 
the second and third joints nearly equally long and equally squa- 
mose : inferior wings not completely covered by the upper ones. 
Sp. 1. Sun. dentana. 
Tortrix dentana. H'ubner. 

Genus 367. NOLA. Leach. Pyralis. Hvb., Latr. 
Palpi short, porrect, last joint not recurved over the head ; the second 

and third joints nearly equally long and equally squamose : under 

zeings completely covered by the upper ones. 
Sp. 1. Nola palliolutis. 
P\Talis palliolatis. Hubner, Latr. 

Fam. X. PyRALiD,E. Leach. 
Crambites. Latreille. 
Palpi four: larva (as far as has been ascertained) with si.\teen feet. 

Strtips 1. — Superior toings forming with the body a nearly horizontdi 
depressed, triangle. 



CI,XSS V. TNSECTAi 255 

Genus 3(38. BOTYS. Latr., Leach. Phal.t.na (Pyralis). LbmL 
Pyralis. llvbner, Sc/iruiik, Scopoli, Haicort/t. Nymphala. 
Sc/nank. Scopvla. Sc/irank. 1*\ravsia. ISchrank. Crambus, 
Fabr. 

Tongue distinct, conspicuous : palpi exserted. 

Sp. 1. Bot. purpururia. 

Genus 369. PYRALIS. Jl'uhner, Schrank, ScldffermuUer, Lcfich. 
PiiAL.iiNA (Pyralis). Linnc. Crambus. Fubr. Aglossa, 
Latr. 
Tongiie none ; iriferior palpi largest, the second joint very squamous, 

the squamiB porrccted in biuidles. 
Sp. 1. Pi^r. jiiuguiiinlis (the large tubby). 
Cranibus piuguinalis. Fabr. 

Stxrps 1.— ^Superior zcings very long, enveloping the sides of the body. 

Genus 370. GALLEPtlA. Fabr., Latr., Leach. Phal.ena (Ti- 
nea). Linnc. Tixea. Geojfroi/, 
Timgiic very short : palpi short : inferior palpi largest, with close scales; 
upper ones concealed by the scales of the clypeus : rcings narrow,, 
covering and pressing against the sides of the body. 
Sp. 1. Gal. alvearia. 

Genus 371. CRAMBUS. Fabr., Latr., Leach. Piial^na (Ti- 
nea). Linnc. Tinea. Geoffrot/. 
Wings narrow, convoluted round the body : palpi exserted, inferior ones 

largest : head with short close-applied scales : tongue distinct. 
Sp. 1. Cram. Pineti. 

Genus 372. TINEA. IFubncr, Geoff., Scop., Leach. Alucitju 

Latr. Phal.ena (Tinea). Linn'e. Ypsolophus. Fabr. 

H'/^ir.? narrow, abruptly deHexed, behind and above ascending: infe-. 

•rior palpi with the second joint covered with numerous fasciculi of 

scales ; the last erect, conic, naked : head with a bifid crest in front. 

Sp. 1. Tin. Nemorum. 

Fain. XI. Alccitads:. Leach. 

Pterophorites. Lalreille. 

Wings divided, or formed of feathers imited at their base. 

Genus 373. PTEROPHORUS. Geof, Latr., Fabr., Lca'ch. Ai.<p- 
\ ciTA, HYibner, Schrank, Seopoli. Phal;ena (Alucita). Linm. 

Palpi small, from their base ascending, not longer than the head, 
shortly and nearly equally squamose : anterior icings composted <;*" 
two, posterior of three feathers : pupa naked, suspended by a hair. 
Pter.j>ea(aduc(i/lui. 



256 MODERN bYSTEM. 

Genus 374. ALUCITA. Hubner, Scopoli, Leach. PrEiiopnoRrs. 
Geoff'., Fabr. Piial^ina (Alucita). Linn., Villers. Orne- 
ODES. Lat?'. 
Palpi produced much longer than the head ; tlie second joint very 

squamous ; the last joint naked, erect : pupa foUiculate. 
Sp. 1. Alu. hexadacti/la. 

Order XI. TRICIIOPTERA. 
Order Trichoptera. Kirbi/, Leach. 
Order Neuroptera. Linn., Cuv., Latr., Lam., 4"C. 

Citaracters of the Order. 

" Wi?igs much deflexed, with strong nervures, hispid or hairy, the lower 
wings plicate : antenna inserted between the eyes, often very long, 
composed of an infinity of joints : _/ce^ elongate, spinulose: tarsi 
elongate, five-jointed ; the last joint with two small nails : larva 
elongate, agile, somewhat cylindric, composed of twelve joints, the 
three first harder than the rest, and each bearing a pair of feet; the 
last segment with two hooked processes. It inhabits tubes con- 
structed of sand, bits of wood, stones, or grass, glued together by a 
cement impenetrable to water : pupa somewhat resembling the per- 
fect insect, shut up in the tube it inhabited whilst a larva, but having 
the power of motion prior to its emerging from the water (in which 
it resides), for the purpose of changing into the fly-state." 

Genus 375. PHRYGANEA. Linni, Fabr., Geoff:, Latr., Leach. 

Dr. Leach has paid the greatest attention to the insects of this 

Order, having collected tliem with unexampled assiduity in various 

parts of England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The Doctor 

• will probably publish a work on this Order. When published, I 

must refer the student to it for a further account of the genera. 

Fam. I. Leptocerid^e. Leach. 
Antenna much longer than the whole body. 

Genu^ 376. LEPTOCERUS. Leach. 

■Antenna simple, not denticulated. 

Sp. 1. Lept. inttrruptus. 

Phryganea interrupta. Fahr. 

Inhabits Great Britain. It is found in great plenty near Luss, on the 
banks of Loch Lomond, on the margins of rivulets at Dreghorn 
near Edinburgh, and near Carlisle in northern England. It occurs 
during the day-time on the smaller branches of trees^ and in the a1^ 
ternoon flies about in great abundance, in flocks. 



MODERN SYSTEM. 257 

Genus 377. ODONTOCERUS. Leach. 
Antenna: with the inner edge denticulated. 
Sp. 1. Oclmi. griscus. Leach. 
Inhabits Ireland and England. 

Fam. II. Phryganid.e. Leach. 

Antenna as long as tlie body. 

Genus 378. PIIllYGANEA. Lcnch. 
Anterior wings soft, villose. 

Sp. 1. Phr. grandi.'i. 
Inhabits woods. 

Genus 379. LIMNEPIIILUS. Leach. 
Anterior ningx slightly coriaceous, nervures hi«;pid or hairv. 

Sp. 1. Lim. rhombiciis. Leach. 
Phrvganea rhombica. IJnn. 
Inhabits trees in woods and marshes. 

Order XII. NEUROPTERA. Leach, Linn., Latr., Cuv. 
Class Odoxata. Fahr. 
Class Syxistata. Fuhr. 

Wings four, naked, reticulated, and divided into a vast number of 
areolae. 

Section I. SUBULICORNES. 

Antenna: subulate, very short, the last joint setiform : 7naxilhri/ palpi 
very short: zcings extended horizontally or erect, very much reticu- 
lated : metamorphosis semicomplete : tai-va and pupa aquatic, some- 
what resembling the perfect insect. 

Fam. I. LiBELLULiD.E. Leach. 
LiBELLULix.E. LatreiUe. 

Tarsi three-jointed : mandibles strong, corneous : maxilla corneous, 
strong : icings equal, or the hinder ones a little larger at their base : 
abdomen not terminated with sette or filaments : ei/es very large. 

Stirps 1. — Tr/7?gs horizontal : head hemispheric, with a distinct vesicle 
on which the little eyes are placed in a triangle : abdomen more or 
less depressed; lip with the middle lamella smallest. 

Genus 330. LIBELLULA. Linn., Fubr., Latr., Leach. 
Posterior zcings alike in both sexes. 
Sp. 1. Lib. depressa. All the wings blacldsh at the base; the abdomen 

depressed ; of the male blueish, the female yellowish. 
Libellula depressa. Linn., Fabr., Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits gardens and woods, flying over them in pursuit of insects. 

R 



258 MODERN SYSTEM, 

Genus 381. CORDULIA. Leach. Libellula. Linn., Don., Fanz., 
Latr. 
Posterior wings of the male produced into an angle at the anal edge. 
Sp. 1. Cor. tEuea. Wings pellucid: thorax and abdomen of a brassy 

green. 
Inhabits marshy places on Epping Forest and the New Forest of 
Hampshire in June and July. 

Stirps 2. — Wings horizontal : head hemispheric, without a distinct ve- 
sicle for the little eyes, which are arranged in a straight line : ahdomen 
cylindric, sometimes cla^ate: Up with the middle lamella not much 
smaller than the others. 

Genus 382. CORDULEGASTER. Lench. Libellula. Linn., 
Don. .^SHNA. Latr. 

Hinder wings of the male angidated at their anal edge : abdomen of the 
male clavate, of the female with an acuminated process. 

Sp. 1. Cor. annulatus. Leach. 

Libellula forcipata. Harris. iEshna annulata. Latr. Libellula Bolto- 
nii. Don. 

Inhabits Yorkshire, Devonshire, Dorsetshire, Somersetshire, Hamp- 
shire, and Cornwall. It likewise occurs amongst the Lakes, in the 
North of England ; amongst the Pentland Hills, near Edhiburgh ; 
and on Loch Lomond and Lock Katrine. 

Genus 383. GOMPHUS. Leach. Libellula. Linn., Don. 

Hinder wings of the male angulated at their anal edge : ahdomen cla- 
vate in both sexes. 

Sp. 1. Gom. vulgatissimus. Leach. 

Libellula vulgatissima. Linn. Libellula forcipata. Don. 

Inhabits Europe. It occasionally occurs on Epping Forest, and at 
Coombe Wood in Surry. 

Genus 384. iESHNA. Leach, Fo.br. Libellula. Linn., Don. 

Hinder wings of the male angulated at their anal edge ; ahdomen cy- 
lindric in both sexes, not clavate. 

Sp. 1. Msh. grandis. Fabr., Leach. 

Libellula grandis. Linn., Don. 

Inhabits the fields near London ; Hackney and Plaistow Marshes • 
but is difficult to catch unless in windy weather, when it may be found 
on the water plants growing in ditches. It may also be taken at the 
dusk of fine evenings in the months of June and July, flying in pur- 
suit of various insects which appear only at these times. 

Genus 385. AN AX. Leach. 
Hinder wings of the male not angulated at their anal edge, but resem- 
bling those of the female : abdomen cylindric in both sexes ; not cla- 
vate. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 259 

Sp. 1. Ana.v Imperator. 

Inhabits England in the New Forest of Hampshire. It is necessary to 
inform the young entomologist, that the insects of the first and se- 
cond stirpes of this family require, whilst in a recent state, that the 
contents of the abdomen should be extracted, and tilled with either 
a piece of paper or cotton, rolled up as near as possible to the natu- 
ral size of the body, as without this precaution the insects will lose 
their colour and turn entirely black. For further directions see In- 
structions for Killing and Preserving. 

Stirps 3. — Wings erect: Iwad transverse: abdomeii cylindric, linear: 

ocelli or little eyes placed in a triangle. 

Genus 386. AGRION. Fabr., Latr., Leach. Libellula. Lin7i, 
Wiugs membranaceous, with a rhomboidal stigma: abdomen of the 

male not armed with a forceps-like appendage. 
Sp. 1. Agrion sanguineus. 
Inhabits marshes. 

Genus 387. LESTES. Uach. 
Wings membranaceous with an oblong-quadrate parallelopiped stig- 
ma : abdomen of the male armed with a forceps-like appendage. 
Sp. 1. Lestcs antumnalis. 
Inhabits marshy places. 

Genus 388. CALEPTERYX. Leach. Agrion. Fabr., Latr. 
Wings coriaceo-membranaceous, without a real stigma, in place of 

which is sometimes an irregular transparent spot : abdomen of the 

male furnished with a forceps-like appendage. 
Sp. 1. Cal. Virgo. 
Inhabits the banks of rivers. 

Fam. II. Ephemerid.'e. Leach. 
EpHEMEniNX. Latreille. 

Tarsi four-jointed: mouth not distinct: inferior wings much smaller 
than the others, sometimes wanting : abdomen with the extremity 
furnished with filaments. Metamorphosis quadruple. 

Stirps 1. — Tail with two fdaments. 

Genus 389. BAETIS. Leach. Ephemera. Linn., Fabr., Latr. 
Wings four. 
Sp. 1. Baetis bioculata. 
Inhabits near water. 

Genus 390. CLOEON. Leach. 
Wings two. 
Sp. 1. Clo. pallida. 
Ephemera diptera. JJnn., Fabr. 

Inhabits Norfolk and Cumberland, near. large piece? of water. 

R 2 



260 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Stirps 2. — Tail with three filaments. 

Genus 391. EPHEMERA of authors. 
Sp. 1. Eph. vu/gata. {PL 7. fig. 2.) 
Inhabits marshes, and the banks of rivers. 

Section II. FILICORNES. 

Antenna longer than the head, not subulate : wings generally deflexed? 

or incumbent. 

Fam. Ill, PAXORPiDiE. Leach. 
Panorpat^. Latreille.' 
Head anteriorly produced into a rostrum : u-ings equal, ovate-elliptic, 

lying one over the other : ocelli three, approximate, arranged in a 

triangle. 

Genus 392. PANORPA. Linn., Fahr., Lam., tatr., Leach. 
Tarsi with two bent claws, denticulated beneath, having a spongy pul- 

villus betw'een them : palpi nearly equal, filiform; the last joint cy- 

lindric-ovate : mandibles with their points distinctly bidentate : uhdo- 

men of the male with the three last joints forming a tail armed with 

a forceps. 
Sp. 1. Pan. communis. {PI. T -fig- 5. a. chela magnified.) 
Inhabits hedges, and is very abundant in this country. 

Fam. IV. HemerobiaDjE. Leach. 
Hemerobixi. Latreille. 

AntenncE filiform or setaceous : palpi four : wings equal : tarsi five- 
jointed. 
Stirps 1. — Ocelli or little eyes not distinct. 

Genus 393. CHRYSOPA. Leach. KzM-Enomvs of authors. 
Antenna (at least as long as the body) with cylindric.joints longer than 

broad. 
Sp. 1. Chrys. Pe7'la. 

Hemerobius Perla. Linnt, Fahr., Latr. Chrysopa Perla. Leach. 
Inhabits woods, and is a common species. 

Genus 394. HEMEROBIUS. Leach, 4-c, 
Antenna as long or shorter than the body, with raoniliform joints. 
Sp. 1. Hem. variegatus. 

Inhabits : is rare near London. 

Stirps 2. — Ocelli three, distinct. 

Genus 395. OSMYLUS, Latr., Leach. Hemerobius. Fabr. 
Villers, Roeiner, Don. 
Antenna moniliform. 

Sp. 1. Ostn. ?naculatus. Fuscous; head and feet testaceous : wings hairy, 
the upper ones and the costal margin of the inferior ones spotted 
with black. {PL 7. fig. i.) 



CLASS V. INSECTA." 261 

Inlial)its France, Germany, and England, in trees and hedges by the 
sides of running brooks. 

Fam. V. SialidjE. Leach. 

Megaloptera. Latreille. 

Thorax with the first segment large, not much longer than broad : tarsi 
five-jointed : wings of equal size : feet resembling each other. 

Genus 396. SIALIS. Latr., Leach. Hemerobius. Geoff., Be 
Geer, Oliv. Semblis. Fabr. 
Wings deflexed : tarsi with the last joint but one bifid : ocelli none. 
Sp. 1. Si. niger. 
Inhabits trees; the larva in water. 

Fam. VI. Raphidiad.e. Leach. 

Rhaphidin-E. Latreille. 

Wings of equal size : thorax with the first segment large : tarsi with 
four distinct joints, the last but onebilobate: antenna nearly seta- 
ceous : ocelli three, arranged in a triangle. 

Genus 397. RAPHIDIA. Linn., Geoff., Be Geer, Fabr., Oliv., 
Lam., Latr., Leach. 
Head o\'al, narrowed behind, inflexed : thorax with the first segment 
very long, narrow, and somewhat cylindric : anus of the female with 
tvvo united setce. 
Sp. 1. Raph. ophiopsis. {PI. 7. Jig. 6.) 
Inhabits trees and bushes near rivulets. 

Fam. VII. PsociDx. Leach. 

TsoQViLZM. Latreille, 

Inferior zcings smaller than the superior ones: some are apterous: 
palpi two, composed of four joints. 

Stirps 1. — Ta7-si two-jointed. 

Genus 398. PSOCUS, Latr., Leach. 
Wings four. 

Sp. 1. Pso. bipunctatus. Latr. 
Inhabits woods. 

Stirps 2. — Tarsi three-jointed. 

Genus 399. ATROPOS. Leach. Termes. Lmn., Be Geer. Pso- 
cvs. Fabr., Latr. Pediculvs. Geoff. 
Wings none. 
Sp. 1. Atr. lignaria. 

Termes pulsatorium. Linn. Atropos lignaria. Leach. 
Inhabits old books, and tlie paper on walls, often beating like a watch. 



262 MODERN SYSTEM- 

Order XIII. HYMENOPTERA, 

Order Hymenoptera. Linn., Lafr., Lam., Cuv., l^ach. 

Class PiEZATA. Fabricius. 

Characters of the Order. 

Wings nei-viired (the areolae large and unequal in size), the inferior 
ones smaller than the upper : anus of the female with an oviduct. 

Section I. TEREBRANTIA. 

Oviduct lamelliform or filiform ; in a few resembling a sting and valved ; 
the vagina bivalve, received in a canal beneath, before the anus: 
the valves compressed, in some compressed-lamelliform, in others 
clongate-cylindric, setaceous. 

Division I. — Abdomen united to the thorax along its whole breadth, without 
any distinct peduncle. 

Fam. I. TenthredinidjE. Leach. 

Tenthredinet.e. Latreille. 

Abdomen sessile : oviduct composed of two lamellae which are serrated : 
mandibles more or less long, terminated by two strong teeth : wings 
with the marginal cells complete : lah-um distinct. 

Larv.e with membranaceous feet. 

In the third volume of the Zoological Miscellany Dr. Leach has 
given an excellent essay on this very interesting family of insects. 
" The object of which is to give the external character of the genera 
of this family, to enable the student to distinguish them without ex- 
amining the parts of the mouth." 

Stirps 1. — Antenna short and clavated ; with the third joint very long : 
superior wings with two marginal and three submarginal cells. 

Genus 400. CIMBEX. Oliv., Fabr., Spinoli, Latr., Leach. Ten- 
THREDO. Limit, Jurine, Panz., De Gecr. Crabro. Geoffroy. 
Clavellaria. Lamarck. 
Body slightly hairy : abdomen with the first articulation (of the male 
especially) on the upper part emarginated : the four posterior thighs 
of the male very thick, of the female simple ; tarsi of the male with 
tlie last joint on the under part with a small horn or protuberance. 
Sp. 1. Cim. europeea. Head and thorax black : abdomen blueish-black; 
the apex only yellow or ferruginous : antennae and tarsi yellow : fe- 
mora and tiliiae blueish-black : wings brownish at the apex. 
Tenthredo femorata. Linnc, Panzer. Cimbex femorata. Fabr., Lafr. 
Crabro lunulatus. Fourc. Cimbex europeea. Leach. 



CLASS V. IN5ECTA. • 263 

Inhabits Europe : is rare in Britain, but has been taken near Dartford 
in Kent, and at Windsor. 

Genus 40t. TRICHIOSOMA. Leach, Zool. Misc. vol. iii. 
Bodj/ hairy ; abdomen with the first articulation (especially in the male) 

but slightly emarginated, the four posterior thighs dentated (in the 

male thick). 
Sp. 1, Tri. sylvaticum. Black, and slightly shining: abdomen of a dull 

yellow or brownish, the base and apex black : femora blueish-black : 

tibiffi and tari^i yellowish: wings with the apex brownish. 
Inhabits woods near London, but is rare. 

Genus 402. CLA\'ELLARIA. Lamarck, Leach. 

Bodj/ hairy or but slightly hairy : abdomen with the first articulation 
scarcely marginated : femora of the four posterior legs without denta- 
tions (of the male thickened). 

Sp. 1. Clu. murginata. Black; apex of the antenns, tibije, and tarsi 
yellow: abdomen with the margins of the posterior segments white. 

Tenthredo marginata. Linn., Panz. Cimbex marginata of autMrs. 

Inhabits woods in Europe : and has once occurred at Windsor. 

Genus 403. ZAR/EA. Leach. 
Eyes of the male joining at the posterior part. 

Sp. 1. Zar. fasci'ita. Black; tibise and tarsi yellow, the superior wings 
with a brownish band (abdomen of the female with the base white). 
Tenthredo fasciata. Linnt, Panz. Cimbex fasciata of authors. 
Inhabits woods: is rare in Britain. 

Genus 404. ABIA. Leach. 

Abdomen of the male with an elongated, silky spot on the posterior 
part : eyes of the male nearly joining. 

Sp. 1. Abia nigricornis. Antenna? black: wings from the middle to the 
apex with light brown spots : feet light red ; thighs black and shin- 
ing. 

Tenthredo nitens (female). Linn. Cimbex sericea, var. Fabr. Abia 
nigricornis. Leach. 

Inhabits woods. 

Sp. 2. Abia sericea. 

Tenthredo sericea. Linn'c. 

Inhabits woods and furze on heaths. 

Genus 405. AMASIS. Leach. 
Body without spots : abdomen with the first articulation undivided. 
Sp. 1. Am. lata. Back of the abdomen pale yellow, the first segment 

wholly black : wings at the base blackish. 
Tenthredo Iseta. Fabr., Panz. Cimbex Iceta of authors. Amasis Ista. 

Leach. 
Inhabits England and Germany. It has once occurred near Bristol. 



264 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Stirps 2. — Antenna of a moderate length, composed of three articu.a- 
tions, filiform, the last joint increasing towards the apex (in the 
males ciliated or furcated) : zeings with one marginal and three sub- 
marginal cells : boclif short, and increasing towards its apex. 

Genus 406. HYLOTOMA. Fubr., Leach. 
Zipper zi'iiigs with the marginal cell emitting a small branch : antenna 

of the male ciliated : tibice, the four hinder ones furnished with a 

spine situated near the middle on the inner side. 
Larva with fourteen spurious feet. 
Sp. 1. Hi/l. pilkornia. Body blucish-black: wings at the apex clouded: 

feet black, v/ith white Ijands : antcnnfe rather lengthened, black and 

ciliated : the third submarginal eel! increasing towards the apex. 
Length of the body 2-J- lines, expansion of the wings 6 lines. 
Found in Coombe Wood, Surry, by Mr. Stephens. 
Obs. — Of this genus we have several indigenous species. 

Genus 107. CRYPTUS. Juriue, Leach. 
Upper wings without the branch to the marginal cells : antenna of the 

male divided and ciliated : the whole of the tibia simple. 
Sp. 1. Cri)p. Vilhrsii. Bright yellow : head, antenna?, (and thorax of 

the male) black : wings brownish and transparent. 
Tenthredo furcata. ViU. Eat. 3. 86. t. l.f. 16. $ f. 17. q .—Panz. 

Faun. Liscct. Germ. 46. 1. Tenthredo Ilubi Idaei. lUig., Rossi, Fn. 

Etr. Q. 31. Hylotoma furcata. Fabr., Latr., Spinol., Klug. Cryp- 

tus furcatus. Jurine. Cryptus Villersii. Leach, Z'ool. Misc. vol. iii. 

124. — 2 Hylotoma Angelica. Fabr. S^st. Piezat. 25. — Klug, Berl. 

Mag. 1814, p. 30^. Tenthredo melanocephala. Panz. 
Inhabits France, Germany, and Italy. In England it is very rare. 

Stirfs 3. — Antenna short, with nine or ten articulations, increasing in 
thickness m the middle, but ending in a point, the third articulation 
longer than the fourth : bod^ short, and increasing towards the apex. 
Genus 408. MESSA. Leach. 

tapper wings with one marginal and four submarginal cells: antenna 
with nine joints. 

.^p. 1. jMessa hortulana. ^' 

Tenthredo hortulana. Klug. iNIessa hortulana. Leach. 

Inhabits 

Genus 409. ATIIALIA. Leach. 
Upper icings with two marginal and four submarginal ceils : antenna 

with ten joints. 
Sp. 1. Ath. spinurum. 2. Ath. Rosa. 3. Ath. annulata. 

Genus 410. SELANDRIA. Leach. Tenthredo, Fam. I. King. 
Upper wings with two marginal and four submarginal cells : antenna 

with nine joints. 
Sp. 1. Sel. scrva. 2. Sel. cincripes. 3. Sel. ovata. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 265 

Genus 411. FENUSA. Leach. Tenthredo, Tarn. 11. f. King. 
U])pcr Tciug.<i with two marginal and three subuiarginal cells : antenna 

composed of" nine joints. 
Sp. 1. Fen. piimlla. 
Tenthredo pumila. King. Fenusa pumila. Leach. 

STipa's4. — Antenna composed of nine joints, moderately long : hoch/ 
moderately long : upper rcbigs with two marginal cells. 

Genus 412. ALLANTUS. Panz.,Jurlne, Leach. Tentiiredines 
Allanti. King. 
XTpper a-i?i'^.s with four submarginal cells: antenna with the third joint 

longer than the fourth. 
Sp. 1. All. seniicincta. 2. All. notha. 3. All. zonata, ^c. 

Genus 413. TENTHREDO. Lench. Tenthredixes Allamx. 
King. 
Upper wings with four submarginal cells : antenna with the third joint 

of tlie same length with the fourth. 
Sp. 1. Tenth. Rapce. 2. Tenth, diniidiata. 3. Tenth, nasata, S^c. 

Genus 414. DOSYTHEI.tS. Leach. Tenthredines Doleri. 
King. 
Upper rcings with three submarginal cells: antenna viith the first joint 

short, the third longer than the fourth. 
Sp. 1. Dos. Elanteria. 2. Dos. Junci, ^c. 

Genus 415. DOLERUS. Jurine,Lat>-cille, Leach. Tenth redines 
Doleri. King. Dolervs. Jurinc. 
Upper uings with three submarginal cells: antenna with the first joint 

short; the third and fourth of equal length. 
Sp. 1. Dol. opacus. 2. Dvl. Gonagra, ^c. 

Genus 415. EMPIIYTUS. Leach. Tentiiredines EMPiiYTr. 

King. 
XTpper zeings wirh three submarginal cells : antenna with the first and 

second joints equal; third and fourth equal. 
Sp. 1. Eniph. cincta. 2. Eniph. cerea. 3. Eniph. tibialis, i)X. 

Stikps 5. — Superior rcings with but one marginal cell : boclj/ short; of 
the males narrower towards the apex: antenna simple, nine-jointed, 
slightly ciliated, gradually increasing in the middle, and decreasing 
towards the apex. 

Dr. Leach has observed that from the shortness of the body, the 
one marginal cell, &c. it is probable that this is nearly allied to the 
second stirps. 

Genus 417. CR.ESUS. Leach. 
Upper Ttings with four submarginal cells : antenna in both sexes longer 
than the body (especially in the females) with very short cilia- : poft- 
terior tarsi with the first joint elongated and compressed. 



266 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Sp. 1. Cr6RS. septentrionalis. 

Nematus Septentrionalis. Jurine, Latr., Leach. Crasstfs Septentrio- 
nalis. Leach, Zool. Misc. vol. iii. p. 129. 
Inhabits woods. 

Genus 418. NEMATUS. Leach. 

Superior wings with four submarginal cells: antennm simple, nine- 
jointed; longer than the body in the males, the last articulation ge- 
nerally increasing, or internally a little produced : tarsi simple. 

Sp. 1. Nein. niger. 2. Nem. luteus. 3. JVt7«. lucidus, &;c. 
Genus 419. CLADIUS. Leach. 

Tipper wings with three submarginal cells : antenna of the same length 
as the body or scarcely longer; of the males with very long cilias; 
the 3d, 4th, and 5th joints from the apex, or the 6th and 7th (espe- 
cially) a little produced; the third joint from the base with a small 
protuberance: /«?'si simple. 

Sp. 1. Cla. diffonnis. 

Inhabits England, but is rare ; it has occurred at Coombe Wood in 
Surry, and near Bristol. 

Stirps 6. — Antennee with many articulations: hodij rather depressed: 
wings with t\vo marginal and four submarginal cells. 

Genus 420. TARPA. Fabr., Kltig, Leach. Megalodontes. ia^?'., 
Spinola. Diprion. Schrank. 
Tibia, the four posterior armed on the inside with two spurs or spines. 

Obs. — Abdomen with the posterior part of the first articulation with a 
membranaceous margin; the membrane pale. 

Sp. 1. Tar. Fabricii. Black; head with tvvo spots on the inner margin 
between the eyes : thorax with the anterior part angular; tvvo stripes 
near the scutellum, and punctured ; the membrane of the abdomen 
with two fascia?, and a puncture on each side : anus with a white 
band: antenna; brown; the lirst two joints black : feet yellow; base 
of the coxa? of the four anterior feet black. 

Tarpa Fabricii. Leach. 

Length of the body 7 lines; expansion of the wings 12-1 lines. In the 
museum of Dr. Leach. 

Sp. 2. Tar. Khtgii. Black, with three spots between the eyes; those 
placed on the margin of the eyes broken : thorax with the anterior 
margin divided ; two stripes near the scutellum, and punctoired : ab- 
domen with the 1st, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7 th, and 8th joints at the poste- 
rior margins, with two yellow bands : antennae with the second and 
last joint black, the others brown ; feet reddish brown; tibia? yellow; 
thighs of the four anterior legs black at their base. 

Tenthredo cephalotes. Fabr. Ent. Sj/st. 2. 111. Tarpa cephalotes. Fabr. 
Sj/st. Piezat. 19. Tarpa plagiocephala. Khcg, Berl. Mag. 1808, 270. 
t. 8. Tarpa Klugii. Leach, Zool. Misc. iii, 131. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 267 

Length of the body j — of Unes, expansion of the wings 10 — 11 lines. 
Inhabits Germany and England : in {he latter it is very rare, and has 
only been found near Bristol. 

Genus 421. LYDA. Fair., Spinol., King., Leuch. Pamphilitts. 

Latr., Leach, Edinb. Encj/cl. vol. ix. 141. Cephaleia. Jurine . 

Tibia, the four posterior furnished on the inside with a single spine 

near the middle and a double one beneath. 
Larva with no spurious feet. 
Lydas. King. 
Sp. 1. Li/da Bctidie. 1. Lyda erythrocephala, SjC. 

Genus 422. LOPHYRUS. Latr., Leach. Pteronus. Jurine. Hv- 
LOTOMA. Fabr. Tenthredo. Linn., De Geer, Oliv., Lam., 
Panz. 
Antenna pennated in the males; serrated in the females : superior wings 
with one marginal and three submarginal cells : mandibles tridentate. 
Sp. 1. Loph. Pini. 
Inhabits Europe : is very rare in Britain. 

Fam. II. X1PHYDRIAD.E. Leach, 

Abdomen sessile : oviduct composed of two lamellce, which are serrated : 
mandibles more or less long, terminated by two strong teeth : wings 
with the three marginal cells complete : labrum obscure. 

Larva with scaly feet, or at least not membranaceous. 

Genus 423. CEPHUS. Latr., Fabr., Panz., Leach. Sirex. Linn. 
AsTATUs. Klug. Trachelus. Jurine. 
Mandibles exserted, longer than wide : 7ieck long : oviduct exserted : 
antenna inserted in the front between the eyes, gradually thicker ex- 
ternally. 
Sp. 1. Cephus pygmans. Latr. 
Inhabits flowers in iields and hedges.^ 

Genus 424. XIPHYDRIA. Latr., Fabr., Panz., Leach. Sirex. 

Linn. 
Mandibles exserted, longer than wide: neck long: oviduct exserted: 

antenna setaceous, inserted above the clypeus. 
Sp. 1. Xiph. Camelus. 
Inhabits willow grounds. 

Fam. III. Urocerid-5;. Leach. 
Abdomen sessile : oviduct filiform, exserted, or inclosed in a groove be- 
neath the abdomen : mandibles short. 

Genus 425. ORYSSUS. Latr., Fabr., Jurine, Latn., Klug, Panz,, 
Leach. Sphex. Scopoli. 
Mandibles witli their internal edge not dentated : maxillary palpi long 
and pendulous: antenna filiform, compressed, inserted under the an- 
terior margin of the clypeus : superior wings with one marginal cell, 



268 MODERN SYSTEM. 

and two submarginal, the last incomplete ; oviduct capillary, hidden 

in a longitudinal groove. 
Sp. 4. O/'j/s. coronatus. 
Oryssus coronatus. Fair., Latr., Coquebert, Leach. Oryssus Vesperti- 

lio. Klug, Pftnz. Sphex abietina. Scopoli. 
Inhabits sandy places : taken by Dr. Leach in Darent wood in July. 

Genus 42G. UROCERUS. Geoff., Oliv., Lam., Latr., Leach. Si- 
TiEX. Linn., Fabr., Jurine, Panz. 

Mandibles dentated on their internal edge : maxillary palpi very small : 
labial palpi terminated by a very thick, hairy joint: antenna gradu- 
ally narrowing externally, inserted in the front, longer than the tho- 
rax : superior wings with two marginal and two submarginal cells 
complete : abdomen terminating in a point : oviduct exserted, com- 
posed of three parts, the outer ones valviform. 

Sp. 1. Vro.Gigas. {PL 8. fig. 2.) 

Sirex Mariscus. Pa?'r.(Male). Sirex Gigas Linne. Fabr., i«^r. (Female). 

Inhabits Europe : is rare in Britain. 

Division II. — Abdomen united to the thorax bi/ a peduncle. 

Fam. IV. EvANiAD.E. Leach. 

EvANiALES. Latreiile. 

Inferior wings with very distinct nervures : antenntE with 13 or 14 joints. 

Genus 427. EVANIA. Fabr., Oliv., Lam., Jurine, Panz., Leach. 
Sphex. Linn. Ichneumon. De Geer. 
Abdomen very small, much compressed, triangvdar or ovoid ; abruptly 

pedunculated and inserted behind the metathorax. 
Sp. 1. Fv. append a gaster. Fabr., Latr. 
Found near Bristol and Swansea, but is very rare. 

Genus 428. FCENUS. Fabr., Latr., Jurine, Panz., Leach. Ich- 
neumon, Linn., Geoff., De Geer. Gastehuption. Latr. 
(obsolete). 
Neck elongate: hinder tibia: clavate: abdomen a lengthened club. 
Sp. 1. Fan. Jaculator. 
I'oenus Jaculator. Fabr., Panz., Latr., I^each. Ichneumon Jaculator. 

J. inn. 
Inhabits woods and hedges. 

Fam. V. Ichneumonid^. Leach. 

Ichneumonides. Latreiile. 

Abdomen attached to the thorax by a part of its transverse diameter : 
inferior wings with very distinct nervures: antenna with 21 joints or 
more : mandibles bidentate, or notched at their extremity. 



CLASS V. IN5ECTA. 269 

Division I. — Abdomen rcithfivc very distinct segments. 

Subdivision 1. — Superior zvings tcith tlie first suhmurgimd cell Ten/ large, 
the t?co discoidat cells situated longitudinally^ one above the other. 

Genus 429. ICHNEUMON. Latr., Leach. 
Maxillary palpi with very unequal joints; oviduct with its base not co- 
vered by a large scale, exserted. 

[This Genus consists of several natural genera; but the charac- 
ters are obscure, and are not yet fully understood. The following 
divisions are proposed by Latreille, who has submitted these in- 
sects to a scrupulous and daily investigation. 

Division A. 
Abdomen but little or not at all compressed. 

Suhdirision a. 
Extremity of the abdomen of the female compressed and obliquely trun- 
cated : oviduct exserted. 

1. * Abdomen cylindric, with a very short peduncle. 

Genus Pijipla of Fabricius. 

2. ^* Abdometi somezohat ovoid, zcith the peduncle long, slender, and 

arcuate. 

Genus Cuyptus of Fabricius. 
Subdivision b. 
Extremity of the abdomen of the female slightly compressed, not ob- 
liquely truncated: oviduct scarcely prominent or exserted. 

3. * Abdomen cylindric, almost sessile. 

Genus Metopius of Panzer. Pelastes of Illiger. 

4. ** Abdomen almost fusiform or cylindric, gradually narrozccr to- 

wards the base ; the peduncle not slender or arcuate. 
Genus Alomya of Panzer. 

5. *** Abdomen ellipsoid or ovulate, zcith the peduncle slender and 

arcuate. 
Genus Ichneumon of Fabricius. 
Division B. 
Abdomen very much compressed. 

6. * Apex truncate in the females. 

Genus Ophion of Fabricius. 

7. ** Abdomen with the apex pointed. 

Gcmis Banciius of Fabricius.] 



270 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Siil)divisioti '2.- — Supci-ior wings -with the first suhinai'ginal cell small, or 
of a moderate size ; the two discoidal cells placed in a transverse line hi/ 
the side of each other. 

Genus 430. BRACJON. Jurine, Fabr., Panz., Illiger, Spinoli, Latr., 
Leach. Ichneumon. Linn., Scopoli, Schi'ank. \'iPio. Latr, 
(rejected name.) 
Mouth produced into a rostruni .' superior u-i}igs with the two first sub- 
marginal cells nearly equal, square. 
Sp. 1. Br. Desertor. 
Bracon Desertor. Fubr., Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits woods. 

Division II. — Abdomen almost inarticulate, with but three distinct seg- 
ments. 

Genus 431. SIGALPIIUS. Latr., Spinoli, Leach. Sph^,ropvx. 
Hoffmansegg. Cryptus. Fubr. Icuneumon. Fubr, Che- 
LONUS. Jurine, Panz., Illiger. Bracon. Jurine. 
Sp. 1. Sig. hi'orator. 

Sigalphus Irrorator. Latr., Leach. Cryptus Irrorator. Fubr. 
Inhabits . 

Fam. VI. DiPLOLEPiD.E. Leach. 
DiPLOLEPARi^E. Latrcille. 

Abdomen inserted to the thorax by a part only of its transverse diame- 
ter : inferior wings without distinct nervures : hodj/ not contractile 
into a sphere : abdomen compressed or depressed, scarcely peduncvi- 
lated: oviduct fiYit'ovm : palpi very short : antenna filiform, straight, 
from 13 to 16 joints. 

Genus 432. DIPLOLEPIS. Geoff., Oliv., Panz., Illig., Leach. 
Cynips. Limit, Scopoli. 
Abdomen with the inferior part compressed, triangular-ovoid : antenna 

filiform, joints cylindric. 
Sp. 1. Dip. Qtiercus-folii. 

Cynips Quercus-folii, Linn'e. Diplolepis Quercus-folii. Latr. 
Inhabits the oak. 

Genus 433. FIGITES. Latr., Jurine, Leach. Cynips. Rossi. 
Abdomen with its inferior part compressed, triangular-ovoid : antenna: 

moniliform, thicker towards their extremities. 
Sp, 1. Fig. scutellaris. 

Figites scutellaris. Jurine, Latr, Cynips scutellaris. Rossi. 
Inhabits France and England. 

Fam, VII. Cynipsid.i;. Leach. 
Cynipsera. Latreille. 
Abdomen attached to the thorax by a part only of its transverse dia- 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 271 

meter: inferior wings without distinct nervures: hodt/ not contractile 
into a ball : abdomen compressed or depressed : oviduct filiform : 
palpi vcvy abort: a ntenriie broken, clavate, or gradually thicker ex- 
ternally, from six to twelve-jointed: /li/ider Ject formed tor leap- 
ing. 

Stirps 1. — Hinder tihiiE arcuated. 

Genus 431. CHALCIS. Tahr.,OHv., Panz., Jurine, Illig., Latr., 
Leach. Spuex. Linn'c. Vespa. Linnc. 

Abdomen ovoid-triangular, not sessile, terminated by a point : superior 
icings not folded, with the marginal and subniarginal cells none, or 
obliterated: maxillary palpi, with the last joint but one shorter than 
the one before it. 

Sp. 1. Glial, clavipes. {PL S. Jig. 6.) 

Inhabits Europe. Is found on aquatic plants in Battersea fields in the 
month of June. 

Stirps 2. — Hinder tibice straight. 

Genus 435. CYNIPS. Geof, Sch^ff., Fabr., Oliv., Walck., Latr., 
Leach. Ichneumon. Linne. 

^H^e«?2« with cylindric joints : abdomen compressed ; oviduct exserted. 
Sp. 1. Ci/n. caprcsa. 
Inhabits ? 

Fam. VIII, Chrysidid,£. Leach. 

Chrysidides. Latreille. 

Abdomen attached to the metathorax by a portion only of its trans- 
verse diameter : inferior uings without distinct nervures : body pot 
contractile into a ball. 

Stirps 1. — Abdomen semicylindric or semicircular, with five segments 
in the male, and four in the female : thorax attenuated in front, di- 
vided transversely by four segments. 

Genus 436. CLEPTES. Latr., Fabr., Panz., Jurine, LUiger, Spi~ 
noli, Leach. Sphex. Linnc, Vill. Chrysis. Oliv. Vespa. 
Geoff". Ichneumon. Rossi, Walck. 

Sp. 1. Cle. semi-aurata. Fabr., Lati'. 

Inhabits sand-banks. 

Stirps 1. — Abdomen semicylindric, truix;ated or rounded behind, often 
dentated, composed of three, sometimes of four joints: thorax se- 
micylindric, divided by three transverse sutures: metathorax v^nb 
the middle not elongated into a scutellum. 



272 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Subdivision 1. — MclatJiorax zcith the middle p^odnced into a scutcUum. 

* Abdomen with the second segment larger than the others : palpi 
many-jointed. 

Genus 43?. ELAMPUS. Spinoli, Latr., Leach. Chrysis. Fabr., 
Jitrine. Hedyciirum. Panz., Lepeletier. 
Mandibles dentated: abdomen terminated by an obtuse point; the se- 
cond segment larger than the otlicrs. 
Sp. 1. EL Panzeri. 

Elampus Panzeri. Spinoli. Chrysis Pan/eri. Fabr. 
Inhabits walls. Taken at Exeter by Dr. Leach. 

Subdivision 2. — Metathorax with the middle not elongated into a scu- 
te Hum. 

** Abdomen with tJie third^ or fourth segment larger than the others : 
palpi two-jointed {and very small). 

Genus 438. CHRYSIS of authors. Vespa. Geoff. 
Mandibles with one tooth on their internal edges : abdomen semicylin- 

dric, elongate; the last segment abruptly divided by an impression, 

with a transverse row of impressed dots. 
Sp. 1. Chr. ignita. {PL 8. fig. 7.) 
Inhabits sand-banks, posts, and walls. We have several species in this 

country that have been confounded with Chr. ignita, S,-c. 

Genus 439. HEDYCHRUM. Latr., Panz., Spin. Chrysis, 
Linn., Fabr., Illig., Lamarck. 
Mandibles bidentate on their internal edge : abdomen semicircular, with 

the extremity rounded ; all the segments united. 
Sp. 1. Hed. anratum. 

Chrysis aurata. Fabr. IIcdN'chrum auratum. Leach. 
Inhabits sand-banks. 

Section IT. ACULEATA. 

Oviduct none : sting or aculeus in the females having a communica- 
tion with poisonous glands : abdomen attached to the thorax in all by 
a part only of its transverse diameter. 

Division I. — Hinder Jeet not pollinigerous ; their tarsi with the first joint 
ct/lindric, not much larger than the others, nor much compressed. 

LARv.t omnivorous. 

Subdivision 1. — Ocelli or stemmata not distinct. Wings often wanting in 
the females and neute7'S. 

Fam. IX. Formic AD^. Leach. 
roRMiCAEi.E. Latreille. 
Abdomen with a fedunck abruptly formed, with a scale on two knots : 



CLASS V. TNSECTA. 273 

antenna thicker towards their extremities, the first joint very long, 
more so in the females and neuters : lahrum large, perpendicular, 
corneous. 

These insects live in societies consisting of vast numbers. The 
males and the females arc furnished with wings, the neuters bein» 
apterous. 

Iluber has written a work on the ccconomy of these animals. 

Genus 440. FORMICA of authors. Lasius. Fair. 
Peduncle of the abdomen formed of one simple scale: sting not puncto- 

rious : poisonous glands in the female and neuters : antenna inserted 

in the front. 
Sp. 1. For. herculanca. 
Formica herculanea. Lafr., Leach. 
Inhabits woods, building a large nest with bits of sticks. 

Fam. X. MuTiLLAD^:. Leach. 
MuTiLLARi.i. Latrcille. 

Head large : abdomen somewhat conic or ovoid : tibite spinose : maxil- 
lary palpi as long or longer than the maxillte : antenmc filiform, in- 
serted in the middle of the face, longer than the head, the first 
joint not receiving the second : superior loings with three submar- 
ginal cells. 

The insects of this family are solitary. The males are winged, 
the females apterous, and there are no neuters. 

Genus 441. MUTILLA. Linn., Fabr., Panz., Jurine, Tllig., Spi- 
nola, Leach. Sphex. De Geer. Apis. Christus, Harris. 
Abdomen (of both sexes) ovoid and convex ; the second segment large, 
somewhat campanulated : thorax of the females cubical, with no 
transverse sutures. 
Sp. 1. ]\Iut. Europcca. Linn., Fabr., Panz., Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits sandy places. 

Genus 44Q. MYRMOSA. Latr.., Jurine, Panz., Leach. Mutilla. 
Rossi. Hyl-t.us. Fabr. 
Abdomen depressed, elliptic in the males, conic in the females : thorax 

composed of two segments, the anterior segment transverse. 
Sp. 1. Myrm. melanocephala.'- 
Myrmosa melanocephala. Latr., Leach. 
Inliabits 

Subdivision 2. — Ocelli distinct, smooth : wings never wanting. 

Fam. XI. Scoliad.^. Leach. 
ScoLiET^. Lafreille. 

Thorax with the first segment transverse-quadrate, or formi^ig an arc : 
feet short, or moderately long ; the hinder ones thick, spinulose, or 



274 MODERN SYSTEM. 

strongly ciliated : anteuuce shorter than the head^fid trunk : superior 
wings with the marginal cell detached I'rom the apex, not doubled 
longitudinally : maxillarif pulpi long ; with the joints very unequal. 

Genus 443. TIPHIA. Fair., Panz., Jllig., Jurine, Spinola, Leach. 
Sphex. Scopoli, Christus. Bethyllus. Panzer. 
Mandibles without teeth: antenna shorter than the thorax. in both 

sexes, the tirst joint obconic: abdomen ovate. 
Sp. 1. Tiph. femorata. 
Inhabits Hovvcrs, and sandy situations. 

Fam. XII. Sapygid.e. Leach. 

Thorax with the first segment forming an arch, or a transverse square : 
feet moderate, or short, slender, not strongly ciliated or spined : an- 
tennce in both sexes as long as the head and trunk : superior wings 
with the marginal cell not remote, not folded longitudinally. 

Genus 444. SAPYGA. Latr., Jarine, King, Illig., Spinola, Leach. 
Aphis. Linn. Vespa. Geoff. Hellus. Fabr., Panz. Spiiex. 
rulers. 
Mandibles very strong, trigonate, many-toothed : antcnnti: thicker to- 
wards their extremities. 
Sp. 1. Sap. sexpunctata. 

Sapyga sexpunctata. Leach. Hellus sexpunctatus. Fabr. 
Inhabits palings. 

Fam. XIII. PoMPiLiD.E. Leach. 

PoMPiLii. LatreiUe. 

Thorax with the first segment forming an arch, or a transverse square : 
feet long ; the hinder ones as long as the head and trunk : antenncc 
slender, formed of elongate and slightly serrated joints : superior 
zcings not folding longitudinally. 

Stirps 1. — Superior wings with three submarginal cells complete. 
Genus 445. POMPILUS. Latr., Leach. 

Maxillary palpi longer than the labial ones, with the last joint thicker, 
conic-obovate; thethreelast joints nearly equally long: lubriim insert- 
ed under the clypeus : antenniE (of the females at least) with their 
points convoluted. 

Obs. — This is an artificial genus, and contains several natural genera. 

Sp. 1. Pom. annulatus. 

Poi^i})ilus annulatus. Latr., Fabr., Leach. 

Inhabits 

Genus 446. CEllOPALES. Latr., Fabr., Jur., Panz., Spinola, 
Leach. EvANiA. Oliv., Villers, Rossi, Cuvier. 
Maxillary palpi pendulous, longer than the labial ones; the three last 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 275 

joints equally long, the last joint thicker, conic-ohovate : lahru'm en- 
tirely exsertcd, entering to the anterior margin of the clypeus : un- 
tcntm (in both se.xes) thick, rigid, with the middle arcuated, not 
convoluted. 

Sp. 1. Cer. 7)iacidata. 

Ceropales maculata. Fabr., Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits 

Stibps 2. — Superior wings with two complete submarginal cells. 

Genus 447. APOllUS. Spinola, Latr., Leach. 
Superior wings with the second submarginal cell receiving twu recur- 
rent nervures. 
Sp. 1. Apo. unicolor. 
Aporus unicolor. Spinola, Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits ■ • 

Fam. XIV. Sphecidje. Leach. 

Thorax with, the first segment transverse-linear: feet long; the hinder 
ones as long as the head and trunk : orcW/ distinct : superior wings 
not folding longitudinally: mandibles with their internal edge denti- 
culated. 

Genus 448. AMOPHILA. Kirby, Latr., Leach. Sphex. Linn., 
De Geer, Fanz., Lamarck, Cuv., Jurine, Illig., Spinola. Pep- 
sis. Fabr., Spinola. Miscus. Jurine. 
Antennte inserted about the middle of the face : maxilla and lahrwn 
much longer than the head, bent in the middle : palpi very slender, 
with cylindric joints. 
Sp. 1. Ainoph. sabulosa. 

Sphex sabulosa. Linne. Amoph. sabulosa Kirby, S^-c. 
Inhabits sandy places. 

Genus 449. SPHEX. Linn., Fabr., Cuv., Lam.,Jur., Illig., Leach. 
IcH>Et'MON. Geo^'. A-pii. Linn. Prc-apis. De Geer. Pepsis, 
Fabr., Spinola. 
Antenna inserted about the middle of the face : maxilla; and labrnm 
scarcely longer than the head, and bent towards their extremities: 
marillary palpi with all the joints elongate and obconic. 
Sp. 1. Sphex Jiavipennis. 

Pepsis Havipennis. Fabr. Sphex flavipennis. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits sandy places. 

Genus 450. DOLICHURUS. Latr., Leach. Pison. Jwrine. Pom- 
piLUS, Spinola. . 
Antenna im^eneA at the mouth (at the base of the clypeus?): maxillarij 

palpi setaceous, longer than the labial ones, 
Sp. 1. Dot ater. 

s 2 



H6 MODERN System. 

Pompilus corniculus. Spinola. Dolichurus ater. Latr., Leach. 
Inliabits ' 

Fam. XV. Larrad^. Leach. 
LaRRAt^:. LatreiUe. 

Thorax with the first segment transverse-linear : feet short, or mode- 
rately long : lahrum entirely concealed, or but very obscure : eyes 
elongate, reaching the hinder margin : ocelli very distinct: untemue 
inserted near the mouth, the first joint obovoid or inserted in the 
middle of the face : superior wings not folding longitudinally. 

SriRPS 1. — Superior wings with two or three submarginal cells complete . 

a. Ei/es entire, not emarginate. Mandibles without an emargination 

on their infernal edge. 

* Antenna thicker externalli/ : eyes separate. 

Genus 451. GORYTES. Latr., Illig., Spin., Leach. Mellinus. 
Fabr., Walck. Vespa. Linn., Geoff". Sphex. Rossi. Ar- 
PACTtJS. Jurine, Panz. Oxybelus. Fabr. 
Antenna inserted below the middle of the face : mandibles unidentate ; 

superior wings with the second submarginal cell sessile. 
Sp. 1. Gor. quinquecinctus. 
Gorytes quinquecinctus. Latr., Leach, 
Inhabits — . 

Genus 452. PSEN. Latr., Jurine, Panz., Lllig., Leach. Trypoxv- 
roN. Fabr. 
Antenna thicker externally, inserted in the middle of the face, towards 
the front : eyes separate : abdomen with the peduncle abrupt and 
short. 
Sp. 1. Pseji ater. Latr. 
Inhabits posts and sandy places. 

** Ayitenme filiform : eyes meeting behind. 
Genus 453. ASTATA. Latr., Spinola, Leach. Sphex. Villers, Rossi. 

DiMORPHA. Jurine, Panz., Illig- 
Antenna inserted towards the mouth at the base of the clypeus. 

b. Fyes entire, 7iot emarginate : mandibles emarginate on their in- 

tcrnal edge. 

* Superior wings with three submarginal cells. 

Genus 454. LARRA. Fabr., Oliv., Jurine, Panz., Spinola, Latr., 
Leach. LiRis. Fabr., Illig. Sphex. Fillers, Rossi. 
Antenna filiform : superior wings with the third submarginal cell nar- 
row, almost lunate : mandibles without a tooth-like process on their 
internal edge. 



CLASS V. IX5ECTA. 277 

Sp. 1. Lar. ichneumon ifonuis. 

Liirra ichneumoniformis. Panz., Fabr., Latr., Leach. 

laliabits . 

Genus 4 j,j. LYROPS. Illig., Latr., Leach. Tachytes. Panz. 
Larra. Fabr., Jurine. LiRis. Fabr. Andrena. Rossi. 
Antenna filiform : superior tcings with the third submarginal cell nar- 
row, almost lunate : mandibles with a strong tooth on their internal 
edge. 
Sp. 1. Lar. tricolor. 

Larra tricolor. Fabr. Tachytes tiicolor. Panz. Lyrops tricolor. Leach. 
Inhabits . 

** Superior wings with two submarginal cells. 

Genus 4.56. DINETUS. Jurine, Panz., Illiger, Latr., Leach. 
Sphex. Schce^'er. Pomphylus. Fabr. Crabro. Rossi. 
Antenna: (of the males) moniliform, terminated by elongate, cylindric 
joints convoluted in the middle : mandibles acutely unidentate on 
their internal edge : superior wings with the marginal cell appendi- 
culated ; the two submarginal cells sessile. 
Sp. 1. Din. pictus. 

Dinetus pictus. Jurine, Panz., Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits the vicinity of Windsor, and has been taken near Swansea. 

c. Eyes notched. 

Genus 457. TRYPOXYLON. Latr., Fabr., Panz., Illig., Spinolu, 
Leach. Sphex. Linne, VilL, Cuv., Rossi. Apius. Jurine. 
Superior zcings with three submarginal perfect cells; the first distinct, 
receiving a recurrent nervure ; the second obsolete, much smallrr, 
receiving another nervure ; the third also obsolete, terminal : abdo- 
men long and gradually pedunculated. 
Sp. 1. Figulus. Latr. 
Inhabits ■ . 

Stirps 2. — Superior wings with one complete submarginal cell. 

Genus 458. OXYBELUS. Latr., Fabr., Panz., Jurine, Ill'g., 
Spinola, Leach. Vespa. Linn., Villers, Christus. Sphex. 
Schcpff. Crabko. Oliv., Rossi. 
Antenna thicker towards their extremities, longer than the head ; con- 
voluted, the second joint much shorter than the third : mandibles 
without teeth at their extremities ; tibia spinose : tarsi with large 
pulvilli. 
Sp. 1. Oxy. uniglumis. 

Vespa uniglumis. Linn. Oxybelus uniglumis. Fabr., Latr.^ Leach. 
Inhabits , 



278 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Fam. XVI. Crabronid.i:. Leach. 

Crabronites. Latrcille. 

I'horax with the first segment transverse-Unear : feet short, or mode- 
rately long : lahrum entirely concealed, or but obscure : eyes not 
reaching the hinder part of the head : ocelli very distinct : superior 
wings not folded longitudinally : antenna inserted at the mouth, with 
the first joint cylindric or conic, or towards the middle of the face. 

Stirps 1. — Superior wings -^'wh one or two complete svibmargina,l cells. 

* Mandibles with their cxt7-emitics bifid. Superior wings with but one 

recurrent nervure. 
Genus 459. CRABRO. Fubr., Oliv., Rossi, Jurine, Panz., Illig., 
Spinola, Leach. Spiiex. Linni, Villers. 
Antenna: with the first joint long and cylindric : superior wings with 

one complete sub-marginal cell. 
Sp. 1. Cra. cribarius. Fabr., Latr. 
Inhabits sand-banks. 

Genus 460, STIGMUS. Juri7ie, Panz., Illigcr, Spinola, Latr., 
Lead I. 
Antenna: with the first joint obconic : superior wings with two complete 

submarginal cells, and two discoidal cells. 
Sp. 1. Stig. ater. 

Stigmus ater. Jurine, Lair., Leach. 
Inhabits ,? 

** Mandibles strong, many-toothed : superior wings with two recur- 
rent nervures. 

Genus 461. PEMPIIEDRON. Latr., Fnbr., Spinola, Leach. Ce- 
MONUS. Jurine, Panz., Illigcr. 
Sitpcrior wings with the submarginal cell not narrower towards the 

apex ; antenna with the first joint longest, thickest. 
Sp. 1, Pern, unicolor. 

Pemphedron unicolor. I^atr., Leach. Cemonus unicolor. Jurine. 
Inhabits .'' 

Stirps 2. — Superior wings with three complete submarginal cells. 

* Antenna inserted at the mouth, Jilifonn: clypeus not trilobate. 

Genus 462. MELLINUS. Fubr., Panz., Jurine, Illig., Spinola, 
Leach. Spiiex. De Geer, Cuv., Vill. Vespa. Linnc, Rossi, 
Harris. 
Abdomen distinctly pedunculated: tarsi terminated by a thick joint 

bearing a large pulvillus. 
Sp. 1. Mel. inystaceus. 
Inhabits sand-banks. 



CLASS V. 7NSECTA, 



279 



** Antenna ihnker torcanh ilteii- extranilics, msertcd about the mid- 
die of the face : clypeus trilobate. 

Genus 463. CERCEltlS. iMtr., Illig., Spinola, Leach. Sphex. 
Schaffer, Villers, Rossi. Vespa. Geoff., Otiv., Harris. Pm- 
I.A^■THt's. Fabr., Jurine, Panz. Bembex. Rossi. Crabko. 
Rossi. 
Antenme gratlually thicker externally, very much approximating at 
their base, almost as long as the thorax, the third joint somevvliat 
cylindric : tnundiblis \s ith a tooth in their internal edge : superior 
zci7igs with the second submarginal cell petioiated. 
Sp. 1. Cer. quadricinctus. 

Philanthus quadricinctus. Fabr., Fanz. Cerceris quadricinctus. Leach. 
Inhabits ? 

Fam. XVII. Vespab.t.. Leach. 
Vespari^. Latreille. 

Superior zcings folded longitudinally: thorax with the first segment 
forming an arc, prolonged behind even to the origin of the superior 
wings : anteniKc twelve-jointed, with their extremities ]>ointed : lip 
with three glandiferous divisions, or with four long plumose seta^. 

Stirps 1. — Mandibles longer than broad, anteriorly meeting like a 
rostrum : cli/peus cordiform, with the point porrected, and more or 
less truncated : lip having four glandular points at its extremity, 
parted into three pieces, the middle one large, and bifid or notched 
at its extremity : superior wings doubled, three submarginal cells 
complete : muxillarif palpi six-jointed, not very much shorter than 
the labial ones. 

Genus 464. ODYNERUS. Latr., Leach. Vespa. Panz., Fabr. . 

Abdomen ovoid-conic, the second segment broader than the first : jniix- 
illa?y palpi with the two or three first joints extending l)eyond the 
extremity of the maxiils : luaxillce with the terminal lobe short, 
short-lance-shaped. 

.Sp. 1. Odif. parietinus. 

Vespa parietina. Fabr. 

Inhabits walls. 

Stirps 2. — Mandibles longer than broad, long quadrate, with their ex- 
tremities obliquely truncated : clypeus almost quadrate : lip with the 
intermediate division a little lengthened, cordiform. 

Genus 465. VESPA of authors. 
Mandibles (at least of the females and neuters) with the second tooth 
much broader than the two imdcr ones, the upper one olnuse : cly- 
peus with the anterior margin broadly truncate, and somewhat eniar- 



280 MODERN SYSTEM J 

giriate, with a tooth on each side : abdomen ovoid-coiiic, with the 
base abruptly truncated, and very shortly pedunculated. 

Sp. 1. Vespa Crahro (hornet). {Fl. Q.fg. 8.) 

Vespa Crabro. Linne, &,c. 

Inhabits £urope, building its nest in hollow trees. 

Sp. 2. VesporVulgaris (common wasp). 

Vespa vulgaris of mdhors. 

Inhabits Europe, building its nest in holes under ground. 

Sp. 3. Vespa Britannica. 

Vespa Brttannica. Leacli, Zool. Misccl. vol. i. 

Inhabits Britain, and builds a nest suspended from trees. 

Division II. — Hinder feet pollinigerous ; their tarsi with the first joint 
compressed, elongate-quadrate or obtrigonous. 

Fam. XVIII. Anduenip.^. Leach, 
AndrenetjE. Latreille. 
Larv^ pollinivorous. 

Lip with the apex subcordatc or subhastate, on each side with one aur 
ricle; nearly straight, or slightly incurved in some, reflexcd in others, 
shorter than the sheathing tube : palpi alike. 

Stiups 1. — Lip with the apex dilated, somewhat cordiform. 

Genus 466. COLLETES. Latr., Iltig., Spinola, Leach. Apis. 
Linne, Oliv.,. Villers. Andrena. Fabr., Juritte. H-iL.tus. 
Cuv. EvoDiA. Panz. Melitta. * a. Kirbi/. 
Hinder feet pollinigerous: superior wings with three submarginal cells : 
antennts with the third joint longer than the second : abdomen much 
elongated, more or less villose : ocelli forming a curved line : tongue 
obtuse, the apex bilobate. 
Sp. 1. Col. succincta. Latr. 

Melitta succincta. Kirbi/. Evodia calendarum. Panz. 
Inhabits • . 

Stirps 2. — Lip with the intermediate process lanceolate, acute. 
a. Lip when at 7est defexed. 
* Superior wings with two submarginal cells. 

Genus 467. DASYPODA. Latr., Fabr., Panz., Jllig., Spinola, 

Klug, Leach. Andrena. Rossi. Apis. Cliristus. Traciicsa. 
Jurine. Melitta. Kirbi/. 
Manllce inflexed at tlieir middle, or below, their terminal process tri- 
angular-lanceolate, and longer than their palpi : hinder feet with the 
first joint of their tarsi as long or longer than the tibice. 
Sp. 1. Das. phmiipes. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 261 

Dasypoda pluniipes. Panz., Leach. Molitta Svvammerdamclla. Kirh)j. 

Inhabits Europe. It was tirst noticed hy the illustrious Swammer- 
dam. I'hey burrow in sandy soil, throwing up a heap of sand with- 
out their hole. 

** Superior icings with three suhmarginal cells, the second small. 

Genus 468. AXDRENA. Fabr., Panz., Juriac, Illig., Spinola, 
Klug, Leach. Apis. Linn., Vill. Mei.itta. ** c. Kirbi/. 
^Lu.xillce bent at their extremity', their terminal lobe scarcely longer 
than broad : hi:iderfeet with the lirst joint of their tarsi shorter thaJi 
the tibiae : lubiiun or lip little elongate, shorter than its palpi. 
8p. 1. Atid. nigro-aiiea. 
Melitta nigro-aenea. Kirhf. 
Inhabits the blossoms of sallows in the spring. 

Obs. — The species of this genus are extremely numerous, and a very 
large portion of them inhabit Britain. Their proboscis is downy 
and thick. The hinder legs of the male are furnished with a floccu- 
lus at their base, the tibia^ with a thick scopa or brush, and their 
anus is covered by a fringe of hairs. They nidificate under ground 
in a light soil, some choosing banks over which bushes are scattered, 
others bare perpendicular sections, but all seem to prefer a southern 
aspect. They excavate burrows of a cylindric form, from five inches 
to nearly a foot or more in depth, of such diameter only as to ad- 
mit the insect. In making these holes they remove the earth grain 
by grain, which they throw. up on the outside of their holes in the 
form of a hillock. Some species penetrate in a horizontal, and 
others in a perpendicular direction. They construct a cell at the 
bottom of this hole, which they replenish with pollen made into a 
paste with honey, and in this they deposit their eggs. The pollen 
tliey carry in the scopa or brush of their hinder tibis, upon the fioc- 
culus at the base of the hinder thighs, and on the hairs of tlie me- 
tathorax. When the female has committed her egg to the paste, 
she very carefully stops the mouth of her hole, to prevent the in- 
gress of ants, or of other insects which might be enemies to the 
larva. 

Genus 469. CILISSA. Leach. Melitta. Kirby. Andre.va. Latr., 
Panz. 
Maxilla bent near their middle, the terminal process very much 
longer than broad : lip elongate, longer than its palpi : superior wings 
with three submarginal cells, the second small. 

Obs. — This genus is not only distinguished from Andrena by the cha- 
racters of the lip and maxilla^, but also by having a longer tongue 
with very minute auricles, and the tops of the valves cultriform. 

Sp. 1. Cil. Iricincta. 



282 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Melitta tricincta. Kirbi/. Andrena tricincta. Lair. Cilissa tricincta. 

Leach. 
Inhabits . 

Stirps 2. — Lip with tlie intermediate division incurved, or nearly- 
straight : superior zvings in all with three complete submarginal 
cells. 

* Lip with the intermediate division nearly straight, not twice the 
length of the head. 

Genus 470. SPHECODES. Latr., Leach Sphex. Linne., Villers, 

Rossi. Apis. Geoff. Proapis. De Geer. Nomoda. Fabr. 

AxDRENA. Oliv., Punz., Jurine, Spinola. Dichroa. IHig-, 

Klug. IMelitta. ** a. Kirhy. 

J^thrum. trigonate, of the male entire, of the female generally emar- 

ginate : antennae of the males long, almost moniliform, arcuated : 

ubdomen with the g-reatcr portion smooth. 

Oes. — The species of Sphecodes, at first sight, bear a near resemblance 
to Sphex. They make their nests in bare sections of banks exposed 
to the sun, and nearly vertical. According to Reaunun-, they exca- 
vate to the depth of nine or ten inches, and deposit their eggs in a 
mass of pollen mixed with honey. 

Sp. 1. Sph. gibbiis. 

]\Ielitta giblia. Kirby. 

Inhabits Europe. 

** Lip zcith the intermediate division incurved, longer than the la- 
teral ones, and twice as long or more than the head. 

Genus 471. HYL/EUS. Fabr., Illig., Spinola, Klug, Leach. Apis. 
Linne, Villers, Rossi. Andrena. Oliv., Panz., Jurine, Spi- 
nola. Melitta. ** b. Kirby. Halictus. Latr. 
Lip lanceolate, little sericeous : hinder feet in both sexes alike : amis of 
the females with a longitudinal groove above. 

The males of this genus are remarkable for an elongate cylindric 
body. The wings of many of the species are beautifully iridescent. 
They nidificate in bare banks. 
Sp. 1. Hyl. qnadri-cinctus. 
Apis 4-cincta. Linne. 
Inhabits the vichiity of London, but is rare. 

Fam. XIX. Apid.t. Leach. 

Lip witli the apex inflected, the intermediate lacinia filiform, and very 
long : labial palpi with the two first joints resembling a compressed 
seta. 



CLASS V. TNSECTA. 583 

SriRPS 1. — Hinder tarsi with the first joint nearly eqiially broad, or 
gradually narrowing from the ba«c to the apex, the second joint ori- 
ginating troui the middle ol" its apex. 

A. Falpi alike. 

Genus 472. PANURGUS. Panz., Spinola, JMtr., Leach. Apis. 
Scopuli. Dasypopa. itlig., Fabr. Apis. * a. Kirly. Eriops. 

Mandibles not dentatcd : antenmc straight in both sexes, and subcla- 
vate : superior nings with two submarginal cells : ocelli disposed in a 
triangle. 

Sp. 1. Fan. Banksia7}us. 

Apis Banksiana. Kirby. 

Inhabits . 

B. Fulpi unequal; the labial palpi set i form. 

a. Labrum nearljf quadrate, transverse, or not much longer than 
broad. Mandibles tridentute at their points. {Superior wings zciih 
three submarginal cells.) 

Genus 473. CERATINA. Latr., Jurine, Spinola, Leach. Apis. 

Villers, Rossi, Kirby ( ** d. 2 a). Megilla. Fabr., Illig. 

Prosopis. Fabr. Pitiiitis. Klug: Claviceka. Walckenacr. 

Labrum almost quadrate, perpendicular, entire: antenna gradually 

thickening towards their extremities; the scapus not large. 
Sp. 1. Ccr. cartdca. 

Apis ca^rulea. Vill. Apis cyanea. Kirby. 
Inhaljits the flowers of the Ragwort. 

b. Labrum longer than broad, inclined perpendicidarly ; porrect be- 
neath the jnandiblcs ; elongate, quadrate. Ma>idibles strong, por- 
rccted, with the apex bidentate in some ; trigonate and often multidcn- 
tate in others. 

* Labial palpi zcith the three Jirst Joints contiguous ; the fourth in- 
serted under the external apex if the third. 

Genus 474. CHELOSTOMA. Latr., Leach. Apis. Linne, Vill., 
Kirby {** c. Q y). Hyl.^^us. Fabr. Anthrophora. Illig-, 
Fabr. Anthidium. Panz. Trachusa. Jurine. 
JMandibles {of the females) arcuated; their apex bidentate or furcate, 
porrect, internally hairy: maxillary palpi three-jointed. 

The bodies of the inserts composing this genus are very long, 
slender, and cylindric. The belly of the male, near the anus, is con- 
cave, and covered with down, and at its base is a horn or prv^uiiic- 
rance. When asleep tiiey roll themselves up like an armadillo, the 
horn or protuberance fitting into tfie anal cavity. They nidificate in 
posts and rails. The inaleb uh.ually repose in the centre of a flower. 



284 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Sp. 1. Che.Jlorisomne. 

Hylseus florisomnis. Fabr., Fanz. Apis florisomnis. Linn. Chelobto- 

ma florisomne. Latr., Leac/i. 
Inhabits various flowers in hedges. 

The female is Apis maxillosa of Linne and Kirby ; Hi/laus maxillo- 

sus of Fabricius. 

** Labial palpi -with the third joint, inserted obliquely on the internal 
side of the second, near to the apex. 

Genus 475. HERIADES. Spinola, Latr., Leach. Apis. Kirbij 
(** c. 2 y). Anthophora. Fair., Illig., King. Axtuidium. 
Fanz. Trachusa. Jicrine. 
Labial palpi with the second joint longer than the first: body very long, 
cylindric. 

This genus in habit and economy resembles Chelostoma. 
Sp. 1. Her. truncorum. 
Heriades truncomm. Spinola, Latr., Leach, Anthophora truncoriun. 

Fabr., Illig. 
Inhabits 

Genus 476. STELIS. Fanz., Leach. Apis. Kirby (**c. 1 /S). 
Anthophora. lUig. Megachile. Latr., Walck. Trachusa. 
Jurine. Gyrodroma. King. 
Lutnal palpi with the second joint not longer than the first: maxillary 
palpi two-jointed, the first joint longest : mandibles strong : abdomen 
convex above, smooth below, and scarcely hirsute. 
Sp. 1. Ste. punctulatissima. 
Inhabits 

Genus 477. ANTIIIDIUM. Fabr., Fanz., King, Latr., Leach. 

Apis. Linn., Geoff., Schaff., Kirby ( ** c. 2 |S). Anthophora. 

Illig. Megachile. Walckcnaer, Spinola. Trachusa. Jurine. 

Labial palpi with their second joint not longer than the first : tnuxillary 

palpi one-jointed : abdomen of the females, below, ver^' hairy; above, 

convex, incurved, the base broadly truncate : mandibles broad, niul- 

tidentatc. The anus of the males of this genus is always armed with 

spines. 

Sp. 1. Antli. municatum. 

Anthidium manicatum. Fanz., Latr., Leach. Apis manicata. Kirby, 

Liiine. 
Inhabits Europe in gardens. 

Genus 478. OSMIA. Fanz., Spinola, Latr., Leach. Apis. Linm, 
Villcrs, Kirby ( ** c. '2S). Anthophora. Fabr., Illig., Klug. 
Labial palpi with the second joint not longer than the first : maxillary 
palpi four-jointed : abdomen convex above, hairy beneath in the fe- 
males ; mandibles broad. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 285 

Sp. 1. Osm. cornuta. 

Osinia cornula. Latr., Leach. Apis bicornis. Kirly. 
Inhabits Europe. This species selects the hollows of large stones for 
the purpose of nidificating. 

Genus 479. IMEGACHILE. Lair., Walck., Sptnola, Leach. Apis. 
Linn., Villcrs, Kirbt/ ( ** c. 2 a). Anthophora. Fabr., Illig., 
Panzer, Kliig. Tkachusa. Jurine. Xylocopa. Fabr. Cex- 
TRis. Fabr. 
Labial palpi with the second joint not longer than the first : maxillary 
palpi two-jointed, the first rather longest: ?iia)idibh's very strong: ab- 
domen triangular, Hat aboNc, very downy beneath in the females. 

" The insects of this genus are well known by the name of /cfl/" 
cutters and carpenter bees : their interesting economy having attract- 
ed tlie attention of many naturalists, so early as 1670 it was noticed 
by Ray, Dr. Lister, Wiilughby, and Sir Edward King. Linne in this 
as in many other instances (supposing the economy of a genus to 
be peculiar to one species only) has confounded several species under 
the general title of Jpis centunculuris, and denoted it by the orange- 
coloured hairs which cover the under side of the abdomen, a cha- 
racter which it possesses along with a great number of species." 
Sp. 1. ^lega. centuncularis. 
Apis centuncularis. Linn., Fourcroi/, Klug. Megachile centuncularis. 

Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits Europe. Builds its cells with the leaves of roses and of the 
MercuriaHs uiinua. 

Genus 480. CELIOXYS. Latr., Leach. Apis. Linne, Villers, 
Kirbj/ ( ** c. 1 a). 

Labial palpi with their second joint not longer than the first : tnarillary 
palpi two-jointed, the first double the length of the second : mcuidi- 
bles narrow and strong in both sexes : scute/lum spiny : abdomen co- 
nic or triangular, very little or not at all do^nly : anus of the males 
spiny. 

Sp. 1. Cezl. conica. 

Apis conica. Kirby. Caelioxys conica. Latr., Leach. 

Male 

Apis quadripunctata. I-.inv.. Anthophora qnadridentata. Fabr. 

Female 

Apis conica. Linn, 

Inhabits flowers. 



286 



MODERjj SYSTEM. 



C. Labruma I'dtlc broader than long, sub semicircular or scmioval. 
Mandibles slender, pointed, unidcntate on their internal edge. Abdo~ 
men not pollinigerous. 

* Lip with the lateral divisions shorter than the palpi. Body sim- 
ply pubescent. 

Genus 481. NOMADA. Scop., Fabr., Illig., Klug, Spinola, Ju- 
rine, Panz., Leach. Apis. Linne, Vill-ers, Kirby {^' h). 

Superior icings with three submarginal cells complete: muxil tar tj palpi 
six-jointed. 

The history, economy, and mode of nidification of the insects of 
this genus (all of which are remarkable for the gaiety of their co- 
lours) as yet remain a secret. Dr. Leach has strong reasons for su- 
■ specting them to be parasitical ; and this seems the more probable 
from their having no instrument for carrying pollen. I'heir flight 
'is silent, unattended by any hum; they frequent dry banks. Their 
eyes, whilst living, exhibit through the external reticulated covering 
a surface of hexagons, which keeps shifting with the light. 

■^vp. 1. JVo/». niftcornis. 

Apis rulicornis. Linn., Kirbi/.. Nomada ruficornis. Fabr., Latr., Leae^:. 

Inhabits dry banks and sandy situations. 

Genus 482. EPEOLUS. Latr., Fabr., Illig., Jurinc, Fanz., Spi- 
nola, Klug, Leach. Apis. Linne, Kirby (** b). 
Sw^crior zfiwgs witli three complete submarginal cells: maxillary palpi 

one-joiuted. 
Sp. 1. Epeo. variegatus. 

Bpeolus variegatus. Fabr;, Panz., Latr. Apis variegata. Linne. 
Inhabits Europe, but is very local in Britain. I once met witli this 
species in abundance in a sand-pit near Bexley, Kent. 

** Lateral divisions of the lip almost as long as the palpi. Body 
very villose in parts. Scutellum spinose. Superior zcings acith 
three submarginal cells. 

Genus 483. MELECTA. Latr., Panz., Illig., Spinola, Leach. 
Apis. Linne, Kirby (** a). 
Maxillary palpi six-jointed, with five very distinct. 

The insects of this genus are supposed to be parasitical. 
Sp. 1. Mel. punctata. Latr. 
Crocisa atra. Jurine. Apis punctata. Kirby. 
Inhabits Eifrope. Is common near Swansea in South Wales. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 287 

■Srir.ps '2. — Lij) wilh the apex generally hirsute, not inflected. 

A. Hinder Jeet of' the females, with their tibitc externally, and the 
first joint of the tarsi very hairy. 

a. Maxillary palpi zcith more than four joints. Lip with its lateral 
divisions as long or lunger than the labial palpi, Antenutt of the males 
very long. 

Genus 484. EUCERA. Scop., Fair., Lair., Panz., Spinola, Klug, 
Leach. Apis. Linnt, Kirby (^** d. 1). 
Maxillary palpi distinctly six-jointed: superior wings uith two sub- 
marginal cells complete. 
Sp. 1. Eu. longico)-nis. 
Kucera longicornis. Fair., Panz., Latr., LeacJi. Apis longicornis. 

IJnnc, Kirby. 
Inhabits banks with a southern aspect. 

* Maxillary palpi with four joints or jnore. Lip with the lateral di- 
visions shorter than the palpi. Superior wings with three submarginal 
cells complete : labial palpi set form. 

Genus 485. ANTIIOPIIORA. J^itr., Spinola, Leach. 
Mandibles iniidentated within: maxillary palpi six-jointed. 
Sp. 1. Anth. rctusa. {PI. 8. Jig. 9.) 
Apis retusa. Linni, Kirby. Liisis pilipes. Jurine. Megilla pilipes. 

Fabr. Anthophora hirsuta. Latr. Anthophora retusa. Leach. 
Inhabits sandy banks. 

Genus 48G. SAROPODA. Latr., Leach. Megilla. Illig., Paiiz.^ 
Heliophila. Klug. Apis. Kirby. 
Mandibles unidentate within : maxillary palpi five-jointed. 

Sp. 1. Saro. rotundata. 

Megilla rotundata. Panz. Saropoda rotundata. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits flowers on sandy heaths. 

B. Hinder feet with the tibia and the first joint of the tarsi shortly 

hairy. 

* Hinder tibiae terminated by two spu}'s or heels : superior irii/gswkh 
three submarginal cells in all, complete, the last neither linear nor ob- 
lique. 

Genus 487. BOMBUS. Latr., Fabr., Illig., Panz., Spinola, KLig, 
Leach. Apis. Linne, Kirby (** e. 2). Bremus. Jurine. 
Labrum transverse : pioboscis shorter than the body : ocelli disposed in 
a transverse straight line. 

The Bonibi usually nidificate in cavities beneath the ground, but 
many of the species (especially those of a fulvescent colour) con- 
s<truct their nest ot" moss on the surface. The females appear early 



288 MODERN SYSTEM. 

in the spring when the willows are in bluoiii. Ihc males are most 

abundant in the autumn. 
Sp. 1. Bom. lerrestris. 

Bombus terrestris. Fubr., Lair., Leach. Apis terrcstris. Linn. 
Inhabits Europe. 

** Hinder tibia without spurs or heels. Superior wings riith two or 
ihj-ce siibmarginal cells, the last oblique or linear. 

Genus 488. APIS of authors. 
Hinder tarsi with their first joint Ion;;: superior zcingsw'iih three suli- 

marginal cells complete, the last oblique and linear. 
.Sp. 1. Apis mcllijica (hive bee). 
Apis mellificao/'a«;/(0/-s. 
Inhabits Europe. 

Order XIV. RHIPIPTEILV. Latr., Leach. 

Order Strepsiptera. Kirbi/. 

Order Hymenoptera. Rossi. 

" Xenos, the genus serving as the tj'pe of this singular order of in- 
jects, was discovered by Rossi, who referred it without hesitation to 
the Hymenoptera, and placed it next to Ichneumon. AiHOther ge- 
nus of the same order was ibund by Kirby, and was described in his 
celebrated Monogruphia Apian Anglia under the name of Siylops, 
with expressions of doubt as to its systematic situation. Latreille 
soon after received from De Brebisson a species of Stylops, and at 
the end of his Genera Lisecloruni et Crustaceorum, observes, that it 
seems to distiu'b our entomological systems, not being referable to 
any of the established orders. Professor Peck detected a new spe- 
cies of this group in America, and communicated it to Kirby, who 
considered it to constitute with his Stylops a peculiar order of in- 
sects, on which he gave a dissertation to the Linnean Societij of Lon- 
don, which was published in the eleventh volume of their Transac- 
tions. I adopted the characters that were kiid down by this learned 
entomologist, as well as the name Strepsiptera, by which it was de- 
signated. Since then Latreille has convinced me that the supposed, 
elytra are but moveable processes attached to the anterior part of 
the thorax ; whereas true elytra arise from the second segment of 
the trunk, and always more or less cover the wings, which these 
parts do not touch. Anxious to become acquainted with all the 
characters of the order, I commenced an examination of the mouth, 
and was soon convinced that the parts of it were far from being ob- 
solete ; but fearing to undertake the dissection, I submitted the spe- 
cimen to the inspection of Savigny, from whose exact and almost 
infallible hand and eye I felt confident of gaining the desired infor- 



CLASS V. INSECT A. 289 

mation. lie ohsen'ed that the moutli contains the -whole of the 
usual parts \vhich, under various modifications, exist in all insects : 
the mandibles are perfectly distinct from and unconnected with the 
inaxilla' : the maxillai are inserted behind, and somewhat below the 
mandibles, whose base they conceal ; and the articulation of the 
lahrum is very evident from its semitransparency." Leach, ZuoL 
Misc. vol. iii. 

Mr. Kirby, in the second volume of his Monographia Apian An- 
glia:, gives the following account of Sf^/ops Melitta : " Upon this in- 
sect (^Melitta mgro-ccnca) I discovered, last spring, a very singular 
animal, which seems appropriated to the present genus. I had pre- 
viously more than once observed upon other species something that 
I took to be a kind of ^^tv/rw*-, which appeared to be immovably fixed 
just at the inosculations of the dorsal segments of the abdomen; at 
length, finding three or four upon a specimen of Melitta nigro-ama, 
I determined not to lose that opportunity of taking one off to ex- 
amine and describe; but what was my astonishment when, upon 
my attempting to disengage it with a pin, I drew forth from the 
body of the Melitta a white fleshy larva, a quarter of an inch in 
length, the head of %vhich I had mistaken for an Acarus .' After I 
had examined one specimen, I attempted to extract a second ; and 
the reader may imagine how greatly my astonishment was increased, 
when, after I had drawn it out but a little way, I saw its skin burst, 
and a head as black as ink, with large staring eyes and antennje, 
consisting of two branches, break forth, and move itself briskly 
from side to side. It looked like a little imp of darkness just emerg- 
ing from the infernal regions. My eagerness to set free from its 
confinement this extraordinary animal may be easily conjectured. 
Indeed I was impatient to become better acquainted with so singular 
a creature. When it was completely disengaged, and I had secured 
it from making its escape, I set myself to examine it as accurately 
as possible ; and I found, after a careful inquiry, that I had not only 
got a non-descript, but also an insect of a new genus, whose very- 
class seemed dubious." For further information on this Order I 
must refer the reader to the eleventh volume of the Transactions of 
the Linnean Society, Soicerhifs British Miscellany, and Lcuclis ZoolO" 
gical Miscellany, \o\. iii., all of which contain figures of the insects 
of this Order. 

Order XV. DIPTERA. Limn; Leach, Latr., ^-c, 

.Class Antliata. Fair. 

The insects composing this Order are distinguished from all other 
insects by the following characters. Wings two, naked, unprotected . 
Ublteres (poisers or balancers) placed behind, and generally beneath 



2D0 MODERN SYSTEM. 

the wings : head distinct from the thorax by an evident interval : 
proboscis (rarely wanting) univalve : tarsi with two simple nails. 

Besides these characters may be noted some others, which are 
common to almost all dipterous insects. The jnouth is for the most 
part furnished with a rostrum having no articulations. Thorax com- 
posed of but one segment, always distinct from the abdomen. 

Fam. I. TiPULiDiE. Leach. 

Tipulari.t;. Latrcille. 

Antennce \\\\h many joints, filiform or setaceous, longer than the head. 

Stirps 1. — OceWi none: a«^e««<K very hairy : e^es large; rostrwn i\x\)\x- 
lar and long. 

Genus 489. CULEX of authors. 
Sp. 1. Cut. pipiens of authors (the common gnat). {PL 9. Jig. 5.) 
Inhabits water in the larva state. 
Stxkps 2. — Oce//i none : a«toi«^ very hairy : fj/fs large : rostrum very 

short, terminated by two lips : tuo anterior legs at a distance from 

the others. 

Genus 490. CORETHRA. Meig., Illig., Latr., Leach. 
Antenna fourteen-jointed ; the basilar joints conic-ovoid; of the male 

with fasciculi of hairs ; with simple hairs on the females, the two 

last joints attenuated, elongated. 
Sp. 1. Cor. cuculiformis. Meig. 
Inhabits marshy places. 

Genus 491. TANYPUS. Meig., Illig., Latr., Leach. 
Antenna fourteen-jointed, very plumose, moniliform, their extremities 

filiform ; of the male, almost entirely moniliform, their last joint 

larger and ovoid in the female. 
Sp. 1. Ta7i. ductus. 
Inhabits marshy places. 

Genus 492. CHIRONOMUS. Meig., Latr., Illig., Fabr., Leach. 

Antenna: twelve-jointed, very plumose, moniliform, with filiform ex- 
tremities in the male, seven-jointed, the last joint elongate, cylindric 
in the female. 

Sp. 1. CMr. plumosus. Meig. 

Inhabits marshy places. 

Stirps 3. — Ocelli none: antennae \&ry Yid^vy: ft/es large: rostrum very 
short : legs at an equal distance from each other. 

Genus 493. PSYCHODA. Lntr., Fabr., Leach. Tinearia. Schell. 
Trichoptera. Meig. 
Wings deflexcd : rostrum shorter than the head . antenna with fifteen 
or sixteen joints, of a glebular form, covered with bundles of hairs. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 291 

Sp. 1 . Psi/. pJialanoides. Latr. 
Inhabits moist places. 

Genus 494. CECIDOMYIA. Latr., L'lig., Mclg., Leach. Oligo- 
TROPUUS. Lat?-. 
Wiiigx incumbent : antenna: moiiiliibrm, hairy. 
Sp. 1. Ccc. lutea. INIeig. 

Stirps 4. — Otr//Mione: antenna with short hairs: ei/es oval, entire 
palpi with their last joint very long ; lips not inclined. 

Genus 49 J. CTENOPIIORA. Meig., Illig., Latr., Fa br., Leach. 
Taniptera. Latr. 
Antenna filiform; pectinated in the males, serrated in the females; the 

second joint short, the tliird elongate. 
Sp. 1. Cte. atrata. IMeig. 
Inhabits moist places and meadows. 

Genus 496. PEDICIA. Latr., Leacli. Limoma. Meig. 

Antenna; subsetaceous, simple ; the t\vo first joints larger, elongate ; 
the three following turbinated, the three next globular, and the se- 
ven last slender, cylindric. 

Sp. 1. PeJ. rivosu. 

Tipula rivosa. Linn'c, Donovan. 

Inhabits moist places. 

Genus 497. TIPULA ofauthorii. 
Antenna subsetaceous, simple; the first joint largest, cylindric; the se- 
cond subglobose ; the next cylindric ; the third elongate. 
Sp. 1. Tip. oleracea. Linne. {PI. 9. Jig. 2.) 
Inhabits Europe : the larva feeds on the roots of vegetables. 

Fam. II. Stratiomyd.e. Latreille. 
HausteUum with two setoe. 

A. Antenna not terminated by a seta. 
Stirps 1. — Antenna with tlieir last joints having eight rings. 

Genus 498. BERIS. Latr., Leach. 

Antenna cylindric ; the last joint cylindric-oonic, elongate : scutel- 
luin with four or six spines : palpi very much shorter than the pro- 
boscis. 

Sp. 1. Beris nigritarsis. Latr., Leach. 

Inhabits palings and moist places. 

Stirps 2. — Antenna with their last joint having from four to six ring";, 
fusiform, cylindric-conic, or conic. 

Genus 499. STRATIOMYS of authors. 
Antenna very much longer than the head; the first and third joints 



292 MODERN SYSTEM. 

very long, the latter subfusiform, compressed, with five rings t tho" 

rax bispinose. 
Sp. 1. Stra. Ckamaleon. {PL 12. Jig. 4.) 
Inhabits marshy places. 

Genus 500. ODONTOMYIA. Meig., Illig., Latr., Leach. 
Antenna a little longer than the head; the last joint cylindric-conic, 

with six rings : thorax bispinose. 
Sp. 1. Odont.furcata. 
Inhabits marshy places. 

Genus 501. CLITELLARIA. Meig., Illig., Leach. Ephippium. 

Latr. 
Antenntz a little longer than the head, with their last joint conic, six- 
ringed, the two last forming a little style: thorax bispinous, the 
spines erect. 
Sp. 1. cut. Ephippium. Meig. 
Inhabits the skirts of woods: is rare in Britain. 

Genus 502. NEMOTELUS of authors. 

Antenna half the length of the head, the third joint fusiform, four- 
ringed : proboscis sheathed beneath a rostelliform process on which 
the antennse are inserted. 

Sp. 1. Nem. uliginosus. Fabr., Leach. 

Inhabits flowers in meadows. 

B. Antcnnce terminated bi/ a style or seta. 

Stirps 3. — ScuteUum spincd. 

Genus 503. OXYCERA. Meig., Illig., Latr., Leach. 
AntenniE with their first and second joints forming a subfusiform club, 

the third styliform. 
.Sp. 1. Ox. Ili/drolenn. 
Inhabits marshes and meadows. 

Stirps 4. — ScuteUum without spines. 

Genus 504. VAPPO. Latr., Fabr., Leach. Paciiygaster. Meig. 
Antenna with their two first joints transverse ; the second with the 

third joints forming a sub-hemispheric head. 
Sp. 1. Vap. ater. 
Inhabits hedges in lanes near Darent Wood in July. 

Genus 505. S ARGUS of authors. 
Antenna terminated by a seta longer than the antenna, their second 
joint elongate : abdomen generally oblong. 

Sp. 1. Sargns cupreiis. 

Inhabits umbelliferous flowers in marshes. 



^ ClASS V. INSECTA. 293 

Fam. III. Tabanid.e. Leach. 

Tabanii. LatreiUe. 

Huustellum with many seta^. 

Stirps 1. — TT7»g-s divaricating: scutdlum without spines; antenn<r a.9 
long or a httle longer than the head. 

Genus 50G. TABANUS of authors. 

Proboscis a little shorter than the head, terminated by large lips: an- 
tenna as long as the head, the second joint cup-shaped, the third 
lunate-subulate, five-ringed : ocelli obsolete or wanting. 

Sp. 1. Tab. bovinus. 

Inhabits meadows. 

Stirps 2. — H'7«i!S divaricating: scutcllum\\\&io\\t spines: a?i/c?m« con- 
siderably longer than the head. 

Genus 507. H/EMATOPOTA. Meig., Illig., Lafr., Fabr., Leach. 
Antennce with the first joint elongate, incrassate, the second very short, 
cup-shaped; the third elongate-conic (longer than the first), tubu- 
lated, four-ringed : ocelli obsolete or wanting. 
Sp. 1. Hcem. pluviaU:s. Meig. Tabanus pluvialis. LinnL 
Inhabits woods and lanes, and is excessively troublesome to travellers. 

Genus 508. CIIRYSOPS. Meig., Illig., Latr., Fabr., Leach. 
Antenna: witli the two first joints of nearly an equal length, the third 

joint as long as both the others, cylindric-conic, five-ringed : ocelli 

three. 
Sp. 1. Chrj/. cacutiens. 
Tabanus csecutiens. LinnL 
Inhabits woods, commons, and lanes. 

a. Proboscis (zvhoi at rest) entirely or partially promineni. 

* Proboscis terminated by two large lips. 

Fam. IV. Rhagionid.i. Leach. 

RiiAGiONiD.'E. LatreiUe. 

Palpi prominent, cylindric-conic: wings divaricating: antenna gene- 
rally moniliform. 

Genus 509. RHAGIO. Oliv., Rossi, Cuv., S,-c. Leptis. Fabr. 
Antenna moniliform, the third joint not ringed, but terminated by a 

seta : palpi porrect. 
Sp. 1. Rha. scolopaccus. Latr. 
Inhabits the trunks of trees. 



294 - MODERN SYSTEM. 

Genus 510. ATHERIX. Meig., Latr., Leach, 
Antenna moniliform ; the third joint not ringed, but terminated by a 

seta : palpi erect. 
Sp. 1. Ath. maculata. Meig. 
Inliabits borders of woods. 

Fam. V. DoLYCiiopoD^. Leach. 
DoLYcnoPODES. LatreUlc. 
Pa/j5i prominent, lameliilbrm: wings incumbent: antenna patelliform. 

Genus 511. DOLYCHOPUS. Lutr., Fabr., Walck., Leach. 
Antenna half the length of the headj the third joint trigonal, bearing 

a seta on its hinder part. 
Sp. 1 . Dol. nohilitatus. Fabr., Leach. 
Inhabits moist places in woods and commons. 

Fam. ^"I. Mydasid.e. Leach. 
Mydasix. Laircille. 
Palpi not prominent. 

Genus 512. THEREVA. Latr., Leach. 
Antenna as long or longer than the head; the last joint ovoid-conic, 

with a distinct style terminated by a seta. 
Sp. 1. Ther. pleheia. 
Inhabits commons and woods, 

** Proboscis terminated by very small lips, 

Fam. VII. AsiLiD.t. Leach. 
AsiLtci. Latrcille. 
Body long: zcings 'mcumhcnt : a'2tot7.'(Z' three-jointed. 

Stirps 1. — Tarsi terminated by two claws, and two pulvilli: antenna 
as long, or not much longer than the head. 

Genus 513. LAPIIIUA. Meig., Lllig., Fabr., Latr., Leach. 
Antenna with their first joint longer than the second ; the last suboval, 
without a style. 

There is a British species of this genus, but I do not know its 
specific name. 

. Genus 514. ASILUS of authors. Erax. Scopoli. 
Antenna with their first joint longer than the second; the last elon- 
gate-conic, terminated by a very distinct style. 
Sp. 1. Asi. crabronifonnis. Fabr., Leach. {PI. 9. fig. 9.) 
Inhabits commons and heaths. 

Genus 515. DASYPOGON. Meig., lllig., Latr., Leach, Fabr. 
Antenna with their two first joints nearly equal; the last sub-cylindric, 
terminated by a minute, articuliform, conic style. 



CLASS V, INSECTA. 295 

9p. 1. Das)/p. punctaliis. Meig., Leach. 
Inhabits sandy commons. 

Stirps 2. — Tarsi terminated by two claws and two piilvilli : antenna 
much longer than the head, inserted in a common footstalk. 

Genus 516. DIOCTllIA. IMeig., Illig., Lutr., Fair., Leach. 
Sp. 1. Dioc. (E/amlka. Fabr., Leach. 
Inhabits the borders of woods. 

Stirps 3. — Tarsi terminated by three claws; pulvilli wanting. 

Genus 517. GONYPES. Latr., Lctich. Leptog aster. Aleig. 
Abdomen very long, slender, thicker towards its extremity. 
Sp. 1. Gon. tipuloidcs. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits . 

Fam, VIII. Empid^. Leach. 
Empides. Latrcille. 

Bodi/ long: wings incxiinhent: antennce two-jointed: proboscis perpen- 
dicular. 

Genus 518. EMPIS of authors. 
Antennte three-jointed, the last joint terminated by a seta; palpi erect. 
Sp. 1. E/npis Borealis. Fabr. 
Inhabits . 

Fam. IX. Antiiracidx. Leach. 

Aktiiracii. LatreiUe. 

Bodi/ short : zoings divaricating : antenna distant, two or three-jointed : 
head as high as the thorax. 

Genus 519. ANTHRAX of atifhors. 
Palpi received into the cavity of the mouth : proboscis short, not por- 

rect. 
Sp. 1. Anth. Hottentoffa. 
Inhabits borders of woods on dry banks. 

Fam. X. BoMBYLiD.E. Leuch, 

BoMBYLiARiA. LatrcHle. 

Body short: wings divaricating: antenna contiguous, three-jointed: 
head lower than the thorax. 

Genus 520. BOMBYLIUS of authors. 
Proboscis longer than the head, pointed : palpi distinct : antenna: with 

their first joint much longer than the second. 
Sp. 1. Bomb, major of authors. {PL 9.Jig. 10.) 
Inhabits open places in woods in the spring of the year. 



296 MODERN SVSXKM, 

» 

Fam. XI. AcROCERiD.E. Leach. 
Inflata. Latreille. 

Body short as if intlated : wings divaricating : antenna three- or two- 
jointed. 

b. Proboscis (when at rest) jxtractile within the cnvity of the mouth. 

Genus 521. ACROCERA. Meig., Latr., Leach. 
Proboscis obscure: antennie inserted on the vertex; tvvo-jointed, the 
last joint terminated by a seta. 
There is a British species of this genus. 

Genus 522. OGCODES. Latr., Leach. Hexops. //%., Wakk., 
Meig., Fabr. 
Proboscis obscure : antenna inserted anteriorly over the cavity of the 

mouth; two-jointed, the last joint terminated by a seta. 
Sp. 1. Og. gibbosus. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits Germany and England. 

Fam. XII. Syrphid^. Leach. 
Syrphix. Latreille. 

B. Haustellum with two seta:. 

Stirps 1. — Head anteriorly conic-produced: antenna much shorten 
than the head, placed in a common elevation : oval cavity on the 
nasal prominence : wings divaricating. 

Genus 523. RHINGIA of authors. 
Head anteriorly much produced, terminated by the proboscis. 
Sp. 1. Rhin. rostrata of authors. 
Inhabits flowers. 

Genus 524. SERICOMYIA. Latr., Leach. 
Antennas with, their setee plumose, inserted at the dorsal juncture of the 

second and third joints; the last joint of the antennae suborbicular. 
Sp. 1. Ser. Lapponum. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits marshes, especially the bogs of Dartmoor, and the north of 

England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

Genus 525. VOLUCELLA. Geoff., Schaff., Latr., Leach. Pte- 
ROCERA. Meig. 
^nfe«n« with their last joint elongate; seta plumose, inserted at the 

dorsal juncture of the second and third joint. 
Sp. 1. Vol. pellucens. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits woods in June and July. 

Genus 526. ERISTALIS. Latr., Fabr., Leach. HELiopiiiLrs. 
Meig., Illig. 
Antenna contiguous at their base, their last joint broader than long ; 



CLASS V. iNsr.cTA. 297 

srfa (simple or slightly |ilumose) inserted beyond the dorsal junc- 
tion of the second and tlurd joints : /uad anteriorly distinctly rostri- 
form. 

Sp. t. Erist. Narcissi. 

Inhabits llowers in marshes. 

Genus 527. HELOPHILUS. iroc//. Elophilus. Meig., 1/%., 

Latr. 
Antenna contiguous at their base, their last joint broader than long ; 
seta (simple or slightly plumose) inserted beyond the dorsal jimcture 
of the second and third joints; head anteriorly distinctly rostriform. 
Sp. 1. Hel. tena.T. Lati"., Leach. 
Inhabits hedges, and is very common. 

Genus 5'28. SYRPHUS of authors. 
Antenna separate at their base, their last joint suborbiculate : seta in- 
serted beyond the dorsal junction of the second and third joints: 
abdomen elongate-subquadrate, gradually somewhat narrower to- 
wards its extremity. 
Sp. 1. Syr. Fyrastri. Fabr. 
Inhabits flowers. 

Genus 529. DOROS. Meig., llUg., Leach. 
Antennte separate at their base ; their last joint suborbiculate : seta in- 
serted beyond the dorsal juncture of the second and third joints : ab- 
domen subovate-trigonal ; the length double the breadth. 
Sp. 1. Doros conopseus. 
Milesia conopsea. Fabr. 
Inhabits fields, but is very rare. 

StiTvPS 2. — Head not anteriorly conic-produced : antennae much longer 
than the head, placed on a common elevation : oval cavity on the 
nasal prominence : zcings deflexed. 

Genus 530. CHRYSOTOXUM. Meig., Latr., Leach. 
Antennee subcylindric, their last joint having a seta at its base. 
Sp. 1. Chri/s. arcuatum. 
Musca arcuata. Linnl. 
Inhabits flowers. 

Genus 531. CERIA. Fabr., Latr., Illig., Meig., L^each. 
Antenna with their first and second joints forming an oval mass termi- 
nated by a style. 

There is one British species, that does not seem to have been de- 
scribed. 

Stirps 3. — Head not anteriorly produced : nasal part straight, not jiro- 
minent : antennte inserted separately, very much longer than the 
head : wings deflexed. 

Genus 532. APHRITIS. Latr., Leach. Microdon. Meig. 

Antenna with their third joint conic, elongate, its base bearing a seta. 



298 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Sp. 1. Aphr. auro-pubescens, Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits heaths. 

Stirps 4. — Head not anteriorly produced ; nasal part straight, not pro- 
minent : antennte inserted separately, very much longer than the 
head : wings deflexed. 

Genus 533. MILESIA. Lntr., Leach. 

Hinder thighs (of the males at least) large, very thick, elongate-ovato, 
denticulated beneath: unteniKE with their last joint much compress- 
ed: abdomen trigonate. 

Sp. 1. Mil. annuluta. Leach. 

Inhabits borders of woods. 

Fam. XIII. CoNOPSiDi. Leach. 

CoxoPSAnii. LatreiUc. 

Proboscis prominent, nearly cylindric or conic, v.ithout any remark- 
able dilatation : antcnnee with their second joint as long or longer 
than the third, forming with it a fusiform or subovate-compressed 
club : body elongate. 

Genus 534. CONOPS of authors. 
Proboscis porrect: ocelli none: antenna very much longer than the 

head : apex fusiform. 
Sp. 1. Con. aculeata. Fabr., Leach. 
Inhabits hedges and flowers. 

Genus 535. ZODION. Latr., Leach. 
Proboscis porrect : ocelli three : antennce shorter than the head : apex 

subovoid. 
Sp. 1 . Zo. conopsoides. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits umbelliferous plants. Taken by Dr. Leach in Darent Wood 

in July. 

Genus 536. MYOPA of authors. Stomoxoides. Schxffer. 
Proboscis very long, filiform, geniculated beneath twice. 

Sp. 1. Ml/, dorsalis. Fabr., Leach. 
Inliabits hedges and gardens. 

Genus 537. BUCENTES. Latr.^ Leach. 
Proboscis geniculated twice. 

Sp. 1. Buc. cine7'eiis. Latr., Leach. 
Isiliabits France and England. 

Genus 538. STOMOXYS of authors. 
Proboscis geniculated once. 

Sp. 1. Stom. calcitrans of authors. {PI. 0. fig. 7.) 
Inhabits commons in the autumn. 



CLASS V. INSECTA. 299 

Fam. XIV. Muscid.e. Leach. 
IMusciDES. Latrcille. 
Proboscis retractile, terminated by a very remarkable dilatation. 

Stirps 1. — Antenna inserted near the front, sctigerous : jmlpi internal : 
haltcrcs visible : anterior legs simple : liead not subglobose : hinder legs 
not larger than the rest : wings horizontal : eyes sessile. 

Genus 539. MOCILLUS. I^tr., Leach. 
Antenna shorter than the head : head hemispheric. 
Sp. 1. Moc. cellar ius. Linne, Leach. 
Inhabits wine-vaults. 

Stirps 2. — Antenna inserted near the front, setigerous : palpi internal : 
luiltcres visible: anterior legs simple: Iiead not subglobose: hinder 
legs not longer than the rest: u-ings divaricating: cj/cs simple : ver- 
tex narrow. 

Genus 510. TEPIIRITIS. Lafr., Fabr., Illig., Leach. Tuypeta. 
]\[eig. Dacds. Fabr. 
Thorax cylindric : proboscis entirely retractile, 

Sp. 1. Teph. Cardui. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits thistles. 

Stirps 3. — Antenna inserted near the upper part of the head, setige- 
rous : palpi internal : haltcres visible : anterior legs simple : head not 
often subglobose : hinder legs not larger than the rest : zei'igs deflexed : 
ei/es sessile : vertex broad. 

Genus 54L CALOBATA. Meig., Illig., Latr., Fabr., Leach. 
Antenna very much shorter than the head, the third joint longer tlian 

the second: iod'j/ long, filiform : /co-s long, filiform. 
Sp. 1. Cal. fill for mis. Latr., Leach. 
Inhabits France and England. 

Genus 542. SEPEDON. Latr., Leach. Bacca. Fabr. Mulio. 
Schellenberg. 
Antenna very much longer than the head, inserted on an elevation; the 

second joint very long, cylindric. 
Sp. 1. Sep. pulustris. Latr. 
Inhabits marshes. 

Genus 543. LOXOCEILY. Meig., Illig., Latr., Fabr., Leach. 
.^Irttoi«<e very much longer than the head; last joint linear; abdomen 

narrow, linear. 
Sp. 1. Lox. Ichncumonia. jNIcig. 
Inhabits flowers in marshes. 

Genus 544. SCATOPIIAGA. Meig., Lair., Leach. Pyropa. J%. 
Antenna shorter than the head: Act/i^ round, sub-globose: trr^ej: hori- 
zontal : body very much elongated. 



300 MODERN SYSTEM. 

Sp. 1 . Scat, merdaria. Latr., Le^ch. 
Iioliabits cow-dung. 

Genus 545. ANTIIOMYIA. Meig., Illlg., Latr., Leach. 
Antennae shorter than the head : head hemispheric, transverse : vertex 

incHned : hodif not much lengtlicned.' 
Sp. 1. Anth. pluvialis. Latr. 
Inhabits woods. 

Stirps 4. — Antenna inserted near the upper part of the head, not seti- 
gerous : palpi internal : halteres visible : anterior legs diiferiqg in form 
from the others. 

Genus 546. PIPUNCULUS; Latr., Leach. 
Antenna two-jointed, the last joint subulated at its extremity : anterior 

legs simple. 
Sp. 1. Pip. campestris. Latr. 
Inhabits meadows. 

Genus 547. SCENOPINUS. Latr., Fabr., Leach. Cona. Sckl-r 
lenberg. 
^nferente three-jointed : anterior legs simple. 

Sp. 1. Seen, niger. Latr. 
Inhabits houses near woods. 

Genus .548. OCHTHERA. Latr., Leach. Macrochira. Meig. 
Anterior legs raptorious : antcnnee terminated by a bearded seta. 
Sp. 1. Och. Mantis. Latr. 
Once taken in Devon by Dr. Leach. 

Stirps 5. — Antemue frontal, very short: palpi internal : halteres entirely 
or partly concealed : wings divaricating. 

Genus 549. PHASIA. Latr., Leach. Thereva. Fabr., Walck., 
Meig., Panz. 
Antenna distant, sub-parallel, last joint subquadrate, with abiarticulate 

seta : (body short : abdomen depressed, semicircular : wings large.) 
Sp. 1. Phas. variabilis. Leach. 
Musca hemiptera. Linni. 

Stirps 6. — Antenna frontal, as long as the face : jj«//'i internal, or 
partly concealed : wings divaricating. 

Genus 550. MUSCA of authors. 
Antenna with the third joint very much longer than the others : abd(>- 

mcn moderately long, subacuminate. 
Sp. 1. jlfHs. mw?;Yo;v'a (common blue-bottle fly). Latr. 
Inhabits every where. It is the insect that deposits its eggs on meat, 

which are commonly denominated lly-blows, 



CLASS V. INSCCTAi 



301 



Genus 551. OCYPTERYX. ie«r//. Ocyptera. If./r. Exorista. 
Altig. Eriotiiuin. Meig. 
Antenna: with their last joint longer than the others : uhdomen distinctly 

annuialed, rounded. 
Sp. 1. Oci/pt. lateralis. Leach. 
Inhabits woods. 

Genus 552. GYi^JNOSOMA. Meig., Leach. 
Antenrue with their last joint longer tlian the others : abdomen semi- 
circular, subuniarticulate. 
Sp. 1. Gym. rotundata. Meig. 

Genus 553. ECIIINOMYIA. Buin., Latr., Leach. Taciiina. 
Meig., Ful>r. 
Antenna with their second joint longer than the others : abdomen sub- 
globose, and very bristly. 
Sp. 1. Ech. grossa. Latr. 
Inhabits woods. 

Genus 554. TACHINA. Leach. 
Antenna with their second joint longer thaii the others : ubdomoi 

ovate, rather bristly. 
Sp. 1. Tach. fera. 
Inhabits the skirts and pathways in woods. 

Fam. XV. (Estrida. Leach. 
Mi^sciDES, I. LatreiUe. Astomata. Dum'cril. 

The larvffi of all the insects of this family reside in the frontal 
sinuses under the skin, or in the stomachs of graminivorous mam- 
malia. Their curious oeconomy has been admirably detailed in the 
third volume of the Tramactions of the Ijinnean Society of London 
by Mr. Bracy Clark, who has lately republished his Dissertation 
under the title An Essay on the Bots of Horses and other Animals. 
London, 1815. 

Genus 555. (ESTRUS of authors. 
Wings with the t\vo exterior cells complete, the other hinder cells ter- 
minal : thorax with its surface unequal : abdomen with its point dc- 
tlexed; of the female acuminate : tv/es distant; of the male closer 
than those of the female. 

* Thorax rovghish, zcith elevated points. 
The larvae of the species of this division of the genus inhabit the 

frontal sinuses. 
Sp. 1. CEstrus Ovis. 

Inhabits the frontal sinuses of the sheep in the larva state ; the per- 
fect insect is found on walls and stones in the vicinitv of shccji- 
folds. 



302 MODERN #¥STEM. 

** Thorax with square shining naked xpots. 

The ]ar\'a2 of tliis section reside beneath the skin of herbivorous inam- 
maha. 

Sf. 2. (Estrus Bovis. (PL 9. fig. 1.) 

" The larvjE of this species, named by the peasants Warbles, or 
Wornils, are found beneath the skin on the backs and loins of oxen, 
causing tumours as large as pullets' eggs. The perfect insect, or 
gad-fly, appears about the end of summer, and is much dreaded by 
cattle." 

Genus 556. GASTEROPHILUS. Leach. (Esmrs of anihors. 

Wings with all the hinder cells terminal : tliontx with its surfaces 
smooth : abdomen with its extremities inflexed ; of the female, very- 
much elongated and attenuated : eyes in both sexes equally distant. 
" The lar\'ai of the G asteropldli, as their name imports, inhabit 
the stomach of herbivorous quadrupeds, and are called Bots ; the 
perfect insect Bot-tlies." 

Sp. 1. Gast. Equi. Leach, Trans. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. ii. 

(Estrus Bovis. Linnt. Oestrus Equi. Clark. 

The larvae inhabit the horse. 

Order X\I. OMALOPTERA. Leach. 
DrPTEFvA of authors. 

Mouth with mandibles and maxillaj : Up simple : wings two or none 
(jMetamorphosis coarctatc). 

Fam. I. IIiPPOBosciD^. Leach. 

Head divided from the thorax by a suture at least : proboscis provided 
with two valves : nails of the tarsi double or treble. 

" The larvae are nourished within the abdomen of the mother, 
and, when full grown, are passed in the form of an oviform pupa, 
covered with the indurated skin of the larva;." In the second vo- 
lume of the Ti-ansuctions of the Weinierian Natural History Society of 
Edinburgh is given a most excellent f)aper on the insects of this 
family by Dr. Leach. The following are natives of this country: 

Stirps 1. — Wings two; the hinder cell only commenced: thorax an- 
teriorly entire, acuminated. 

Genus 557. HIPPOBOSCA of authors. Nirmomyia. Nitzsch. 
Ocelli none. 

Sp. 1. Hipp, equina. Linne, Leach (Forest-fly.) {Pl.O.fg. 11.) 
Inhabits the horse. In the New Forest of Hampshire they abound in. 
a most astonishing degree. I have obtained from the flanks of one 
horse six handfuUs, which consisted of upwards of a hundred spe- 



CLASS V. INSECIA. 303 

cimens. Mr. Bentley informs me, from ol)servations he made in 
the summer of 1810, while in Hampshire, that the Hippobosca are 
found in a considerably greater abundance on white and light-co- 
loured horses than those of a black and dark colour ; and this ob- 
servation was confirmed by the stable-keepers in the vicinity of tlie 
Forest. 

Stirps 2. — Wings tM'o; the hinder cells complete: thorax anteriorly 
notched for the reception of the head. 

* Wings of nearly an equal breadth throughout. 

Genus 558. ORNITHOMYIA. Lafr., Oliv., Leach. 
Ocelli three, situated in foveolas. 
Sp. 1. Ornith. avicularia. Leach. 
Hippobosca avicularia. Linnc. 
Inhabits the black grouse and tit-pippit. 

** Wings acuminated. 

Genus 559. CRATERINA. Olfers. Stenepteryx. Leach. 
Ocelli three, situated in foveolse. 

Sp. 1. Cr. Hirundinis. Olfers. Stenepteryx Hiruudinis. Leach. 
Hippobosca Hirundinis. Linnt. 
Inhabits the nests and bodies of the house-swallow. 

Genus 560. OXYPTERUM. Kirby, Leach. 
Ocelli none. 

Sp. 1. Oxypt. Kirhyanum. Leach. 
Inhabits England. 

S^iRPS 3. — Wings none : thorax anteriorly notched for the reception of 
the head. 

Genus 561. MELOPHAGUS. Latr., Leach, Olfers. Mei.ophil.\. 
Nitzsch. 
Ocelli none. 

Sp. 1. Mel. ovinus. Latr., Leach. 
Hippobosca ovina. Linne. 
Inhabits the sheep. 

Fam. II. Nycteribid.?:. Leach. 

Head united with the thorax : 7iails of the tarsi simple didactyle. 

Genus 562. NYCTERIBIA. Latr., Leach. Phthiribium. llcr- 

mann, Olfers. 

Thorax depressed : mouth situated on the back at the anterior part of 

tlie thorax: legs six, placed at the sides; femora with two joints, the 

second long and compressed : tibi<E with two joints, the first longest 

and compressed, the second joint slender and arcuated ; taisi with 



304 MODERN SYSTtM. 

five articulations, the first three gradually shorter, the fourth longer 
and wider, the fifth shorter, and receiving the didactyle claw: abdo- 
men 'm both sexes with eight joints: Female? with the first seg- 
ment of the hack produced, the fourth and remainder partly con- 
cealed, the last segment at its apex furnished with a setigerous 
style: Male? with the last segment largest. 

Its situation was referred to the Diptera hy Latreille, who ob- 
serves, in a note, that it may probably be found hereafter to consti- 
tute a peculiar Order of insects. From the apparent want of an- 
tennfe, and from the confluence of the head and thorax, Dr. Leach 
placed it amongst the Araclino'tda, in a division by itself Its mode 
of propagation is unknown. Hermann considered the se.vual as spe- 
cific dift'erences. 

Sp. 1. Nyct. Hermanni. 

Phthiridium biarticulatum. Herm. Mem. Apt. 12i.pl. 6.fg. 1. Olfers, 80. 
Hippobosca Vespertilionis. Sc/ir. Fn. Brit. 2587. Phthiridium Her- 
manni. Leach, Enci/cl. Brit. Siipp. vol. i. 446. pi. 23. — Zool. Misc. iii. 
55, pi. 144. 

In the plate given in the third voliune of the Miscellam/, repre- 
sentations are given of the sexes very much magnified, with one leg 
still more highly increased by the aid of the microscope. The se- 
cond joint of each tibia is longer than all the joints- of the tarsus 
taken together. 

Inhabits the greater and lesser horse-shoe bat. 



ANIMALS OF DOUBTFUL SITUATION. 306 

ARTICULATED ANIMALS 

having articulated Legs, of doubtful Situation. 

The singular animals that compose this group inhabit the sea. 
The females arc furnished with two palpiform organs inserted at the 
base of the rostrum, on which parts they carry their eggs, attached 
in globular masses. 

The legs are composed of three-jointed coxae, one-jointed thighs, 
two-jointed tibiae and tarsi, the latter part furnished with claws. 

Order PODOSOMATA, 

Bod^ four-jointed, and formed as it were of the junction of the coxae : 
7iwuth tubular: et/es four, placed on a common tubercle : legs eight. 
The natural situation of this assemblage of animals is still doubt- 
ful, as very little is known concerning them : they were referred to 
the AuACHNoiDA by Dr. Leach, in Brewster's Edin. Encycl. vol. vii. 
and also in the article Annulosa in the Supp. to Encycl. Brit. vol. i.; 
since which time, from a further examination of their characters, 
he is by no means satisfied as to their position. 

Fam. I. Pycnogonidx. Leach, 
Mandibles none. 

Genus 1. PYCNOGONUM of authors. 

Legs rather strong : coxa with subequal joints : tibia with the first joint 
largest : tarsi with the first joint very small : claws simple, strong, 
acute. 

Egg-bearing organs ten-jointed, the last joint very acute, ungui- 
form, attached to the first joint of the body at the base of the ros- 
trum. 

Sp. 1. Pyc. Balanarum. Fabr., Latr., Leach, Edin. Encycl. — Supp. to 
Encycl. Brit. vol. i. pi. 23. Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 388. 

Inhabits the European ocean. It is not uncommon in Plymouth 
Sound, where it is taken by the trawl fishers. 

Genus 2. PHOXICHILUS. Latr., Leach. 
Legs very slender : coxa with the middle joint longest, subclavate : 
tibia With the first joint shorter: tarsi with the first joint very small : 
claws double, unequal, the longer one acute. 

Egg-bearing organs seven-jointed, the last johit tuberculiform, in- 
serted at the base of the rostrum, one on each side, and attached to 
the first segment of the body. 



306 ANIMALS OF DOVliTFUL SITUATION. 

The specific characters of none of the species are yet ascertained. 
Phalangium hirsutum, Montagu, Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. tab. 5. Jig. T., 
belongs to this genus. 

Fam. II. Nymphonid^. Leach. 
Mandibles two, biarticulate, didactyle. 

Genus 3, NYMPHUM. Lam., Leach. Nymphon. Fabr., Latr, 
Pycnogonum. Muller. 

Mandibles longer than the rostrum, with equal joints, the fingers curv- 
ed, meeting along their whole length and abruptly hooked at their 
extremities : palpi six-jointed, the second joint elongate, the sixth 
very small : legs very slender: coxa with the middle joint longest : 
tibia with the second joint rather longest : tarsi with the first joint 
somewhat shortest : claws simple. 

Egg-bearing organs ten-jointed, inserted behind the rostrum almost 
under the anterior pair of legs. 

Sp. 1. Ni/m. gracile. Cinereous: thighs cylindric. 

Nymphum gracile. Leach, Sool. Misc. i. 45. tab. 19. Jjg- 1- — Supp. to 
Encycl. Brit. i. 433. pi. 23. 

" Inhabits the British seas everywhere : but as it never attains 
the size of the Phalangium, misnamed by Linne grossipes (which is 
figured by Strom in his History of Sondmor, 208. tab. 2. Jig. 16), it is 
doubtful if it be the same species : but as the Linnean name is so 
inapplicable, little fault can be found with the more appropriate 
name for which it has been exchanged." 

Sp. 2. Nymph. Jemoratum. Reddish ; thighs dilated and compressed. 

Nymphum femoratum. Leach, Zool. Misc. i. 45. tab. 19. fg. 2. — Supp. 
to Encycl. Brit. i. 433. 

Inhabits the shores on the southern coast of Devon. 



APPARATUS 



ENTOMOLOGISTS. 



-I HE apparatus iiseil for taking insects are few and simple: the fol- 
lowing are indispensable, and will be found to answer every necessary 
purpose. 

A Net, similar in its construction to a bat fowling-net; this is gene- 
rally made of tine gauze or coarse muslin, and may be either dyed 
green or remain a white; the advantage of the latter colour is, that mi- 
nute insects are sooner discovered than if the net is green, but a green 
net must be used for INIothing. The net rods should ])e made of ash, 
beech, hazel, or any tough wood ; each rod should be about five feet in 
length, perfectly roimd, smooth, and gradually tapering. PL 11. Jig. 1. 
one of the rods complete: a, the cross-piece, which should be of cane, 
and fit into the angulated ferrule : b, the rod, must be divided into 
three or four pieces for the convenience of being carried in the pocket ; 
each joint at the upper part must have a ferrule riveted on as at rf : 
the joints are best made with a notch or check, as at c, which prevents 
the upper part from twisting : when fitted together, care must be taken, 
in fitting the joints to the brass tubes, that they are made exact, or 
otherwise they will be subject to shake and continually coming to 
pieces. 

The net (Jig. 2.) must be bound entirely round with a broad welt, 
doubled to form a groove, into which the rods are to slip. In the 
centre of the upper part, beneath the Jig. 2., must be a small piece of 
wash-leather to form a hinge ; this must be sewed roiuid the welt, di- 
vided and sewed in the middle to prevent the cross pieces from slip- 
ping over each other, b, about four inches of the gauze turned up to 
form a bag. c. strings passing through the staple e, fig. 1. to draw 
the net tight on each side ; the handles are to be held one m each hand 
when the net is used. 

With this net it is intended to take insects on the wing ; and for 
that purpose it answers very effectually, as it may be instantly opened 
or folded together, and secure the insect between : even the smallest 
insects cannot escape if the net is not damaged, and the gauze is fine. 
It also answers well for collecting caterpillars, and many of the cole- 
opterous insects tliat are seldom found on the wing ; in using it for 

xj 2 



308 APPARATUS USED BY EVT0M0L0GIST5. 

this purpose, the Entomologist must hold it expanded under the trees 
or bushes, and vnth a stout stick beat the branches, by which means 
a vast number of insects will fall into the net, and many hundreds 
may be taken in a single day. 

A Hoop, or Landing-net {pi 'il-fg- 4.) — This is generally used in 
taking aquatic insects, but will be found verj- useful to sweep the grass 
and low herbage, for many coleopterous and other insects are taken in 
no other way : — the socket may be of such size that t^vo joints ot the 
net-rod will form a convenient handle, or a walking-stick may be 
used. 

The Digger (pi. 11. Jig- 5.) — This is a piece of iron or steel, of 
about six inches long, fitted into a wooden handle, and is used for col- 
lecting the pup£ of Lepuloptera at the roots of trees, also for strip- 
ping oflF the bark, under \Ahich many exceedingly rare insects are fre- 
quently found. The digger is best with an arrow-headed point, as at a. 

A Phial (fig. 6.) or tin V)Ottle, useful in collecting coleopterous in- 
sects. In this bottle a tube is introduced, which extends a little way 
down the bottle to prevent the insects from escaping : in small phials, 
a quill passed through the cork, with a cork stopper, answers extremely 
well for small insects. 

A pair of brass Pliers (Jig. 7.) for taking up small insects from roots 
of grass, &c. 

A Settixg Needle (Jig. 8 and 9.), fixed in a pencil stick, for the 
purpose of extending the parts of insects ; at the other end of the sticJc 
a camel's hair pencil is fixed, to remove any dirt or dust which may 
be on the insects ; and if the pencil is drawn through the lips, to bring 
the end to a fine point, it may be frequently useful to display the an- 
tennae, palpi, &c. of the minute species. 

A Pair of Forceps (Jig. 10.) — These are about eight or ten inches 
in length ; are made of steel. The fans are either of a circular or 
hexangular form, and are covered with fine gauze ; they are held and 
moved as a pair of scissors, and are extremely useful in taking bees, 
wasps, &c. If an insect is on a leaf, both leaf and insect may be in- 
closed in the forceps; or if lodged against the tnink of a tree, paling, 
t»r an}' flat surface, they may very conveniently be entrapped ; if of 
the Lepidoptera order, the insect should be pressed with the thumb- 
nail prett}' smartly on the thorax, but not so as to crush it; it may 
then be shaken into the hand, and a pin passed through the thorax, 
(this means is also used with moths, &c. when taken in the net ;) or 
a pin may be passed through the thorax whUe the insect is confined 
between the gauze, and then carefully taken out by the pin. 

Pocket Collectixg Box. — The Entomologist must also furnish 
himself with a chip-box, of a convenient size for the pocket, lined at 
the top and bottom with cork, to stick those insects in that would in- 
jure themselves by being loose in a box : in this some camphor, cou- 



APPARATUS USED BY ENTOMOLOGISTS. 309 

fined in a small gauze-bag, should constantly be kept, as the scent from 
it not only tends to hasten the death of the insect, but stupifies and 
prevents their fluttering. 

Pixs. — Those used for the Crustacea are generally large, some being 
four inches in length ; — the size of the pin should correspond with the 
size of the animal. Those used for insects are of t^vo sizes, small lace, 
and a much liner made only for this purpose. The pins used for set- 
ting should be longer than those used for piercing the insects, and 
will be fovmd much more convenient. 

Pill Boxes. — Of these the Entomologist should possess three or 
four dozen : — they are generally used for the smaller species of Lepi- 
doptera, such as the Tinese, Tortrices, &c. In collecting the latter, no 
more than one specimen should be inclosed; and such boxes as con- 
tiin them require some care in carrying, to prevent the insect being 
shaken, which would injure the wings: carrying them in the hat,with 
a handkerchief over them, to prevent their rolling about, is by far the 
safest way. 

QviLLs will also be found useful ; these must have one end care- 
fully stopped up with cork or cement, the mouth with a cork stopper. 
It is also advisable to tie a piece of waxed sewing silk round each end, 
to prevent them from splitting: — the Entomologist may in these se-r 
cure with safety the most minute insects. 

Pocket Larv.e Box. — This is essential in collecting for the safe 
conveyance of Caterpillars, and is merely a chip-box, with a piece cut 
out of the top and bottom, and covered with gauze, for the free ad- 
mission of air : a few leaves of the plants on which the caterpillars 
are found must be put in the box with them. Further instmction for 
the method of breeding insects is given below. 

Setting Boards. — These are simply a thin deal board of a conve- 
nient size, and covered with soft cork. The cork must be perfectly 
even on the surface, and covered with white paper. As many insects 
require much time in drying, I should recommend the Entomologist 
to have a small box of about a foot square, with slips of wood nailed 
on the inside for the boards to slide on, and at the same time at a 
sufficient distance from each other, that the pins may not be displaced 
or moved in putting the boards in, or drawing them out; this should 
be kept in a dry place, and furnished with a door covered with tine 
muslin to admit the air, and exclude the dust. 

Braces. — These are merely slips of card, used for confining the 
wings of insects whilst drying, as shown \n plate 12. 

Breeding Cages are used for rearing insects from Caterpillars, and 
may be made of wainscot, (deal is objectionable, as the scent from the 
turpentine is liable to kill the larvge,) in the form represented in pi. 11. 
Jig. 3, with the sides and front covered with gauze, b a small square 
box or tube, for tlie reception of a phial of water, in which the stalks 



310 APPARATUS USED BY ENTOMOLOGISTS. 

of the plants may be put for the caterpillars to feed on. The most 
convenient size of the cages is about eight inches in breadth, four deep, 
and one foot in height; they should never contain but one kind of ca- 
terpillar, as some species devour others ; and indeed, if left without 
food, will devour those of their own kind also. At the bottom of each 
case must be a quantity of earth, about two inches deep ; with the 
earth should be mixed a little sand, and some of the fine mould fre- 
quently found in the bodies of old trees ; this will prevent in a great 
measure the earth drying up into hard lumps or clods. The most cer- 
tain way of breeding insects is to keep the cages in a cool and moist 
place, as in a cellar or out-house ; for a great number of caterpillars 
change into the pupa state several inches beneath the surface of the 
earth, and if kept too dry, the earth about them will absorb the nutri- 
tive moisture from the animal, thereby not only weakening it, but 
hardening the shell in which it is inclosed, so that its strength will be 
insufficient to burst the case when it should come forth, and in which 
it must die, as many have done, occasioned entirely by this mis- 
management of them. 

Some years produce a greater quantity of caterpillars than others, 
and keeping each kind by themselves would require an immense 
number of cages, and much time in changing the food, and paying a 
proper attention to them. It is a common practice to have a breeding 
cage of larger dimensions, by which means a great number of cater- 
pillars may be fed in one cage, in which a variety of food may be put, 
but must be taken away and replaced with fresh plants every second 
or third day, for this tends greatly to the obtaining of fine specimens 
of the pei-fect insect. 

The larvaj of many insects that feed beneath the surface of the 
earth may be bred hi the following manner : Let any box that is about 
three or four feet square, and two or three feet deep, be lined or co- 
vered externally with tin, and bore through the sides and bottom a 
number of very minute holes : put into this box a quantity of earth 
that is replete with such vegetables as the caterpillars subsist on, and 
sink it into a bed of earth, so that the surface may be exposed to the 
different changes of the v. eather : the lid should be covered with brass 
or iron net-work, to prevent their escape. 

Cabinet. — In the present advanced state of Entomology, a collec- 
tion of British insects requires a cabinet of from 50 to 100 drawers, 
which are generally about fourteen or fifteen inches in length and 
breadth, and about two inches in depth ; the cork with which the bot- 
toms are to be lined must be chosen as free from cracks and knots as 
possible, and filed, or cut very level, and be about the sixth of an inch 
in substance. The top of every drawer must be glazed, to prevent the 
admission of dust or air ; the glass is usually fitted into a frame of the 
69.rae size as the drawer, and is made to let in on a rabbet. 



APPARATUS USED BY ENTOMOLOGISTS. 31.1 

The best method for a young Entomologist is to obtain a cabinet of 
about thirty drawers, arranged in two tiers, and covered in with fold- 
ing doors. There is a great convenience in this size, as the cabinets 
are rendered more portable; and cabinets may be added of the same 
size, as the collection increases, wiUiout injuring the uniformity, may 
be placed on each other, and carried to any extent. It is immaterial 
whether the cabinet is made of mahogany or wainscot; sometimes 
they are made of cedar wood, l)ut seldom of deal or any other wood 
that is soft ; small holes or cells must be made on the inside of the 
fronts for camphor. 

CoRKixG OF Drawers.— The readiest way is to buy the cork pre- 
pared, which may be obtained at most of the cork-cutters ; but this 
will be found expensive for large cabinets. I have generally bought it 
in the rough state, and cut it into strips about three inches wide (the 
length is immaterial if the method advised hereafter is pursued); 
these strips must be fixed in a vice, and, if the substance of the cork 
will admit, split down the middle with a fine saw, (greasing the 
saw must be avoided as much as possible, as it will stain the paper 
used for covering it afterwards ;) tlie out or black side is to be rasp- 
ed down to a certain smoothness, as well as the middle or inside. 
Having reduced the slips to about three-eighths of an inch in thick- 
ness, glue each piece (the darkest or worst side) on a sheet of brown 
or cartridge paper ; this should be laid on a deal board about three 
feet in length, and the width required for the drawer or box : a few fine 
nails or brads must be driven through each piece of cork, to keep it 
firm and in its place until the glue be dried : by this means sheets of 
cork may be formed of the size of the drawer. All the irregularities 
must be filed or rasped down quite even, and the whole surface ren- 
dered perfectly smooth by rubbing it over with pumice-stone : the 
sheet, thus formed and finished, must be glued into the drawers, to 
prevent its warping ; some weights must be equally distributed over 
the cork, that it may adhere firmly to the bottom of the drawer: when 
quite dry, the weights must be removed, and the cork covered with 
paper, which should be of the finest quality, but not very stout ; the 
paste should soak well into the paper previous to being laid over the 
cork, which, if smoothly laid on, and gently rubbed over with a clean 
cloth or soff paper, will be rendered perfectly smooth and tight when 
dry. 

It is absolutely necessary that the cabinets should be kept in a dry 
situation, otherwise the insects will become mouldy on the antenna, 
legs, &c. This evil will also occur if the insect is put in the cabinet be- 
fore it is thoroughly dry. Should an insect at any time become mouldy, 
a camel's hair pencil dipped in clean spirits of wine, in which a little 
camphor is dissolved, will soon clean it; but the insect must be dried 
in a warm place Ijefore being again placed in the cabinet. 



312 METHOD or COLLECTING INSECTS. 

If a sufficient quantity of camphor is not constantly kept in the 
drawers, the insects will soon be destroyed by mites : where these exist, 
they are easily discerned by the dust which is under the insects : cam- 
phor must be immediately put in the drawers, and the insects taken out, 
(the dust being brushed off by a fine soft camel's hair pencil) and 
baked by the fire; care must be had that too great a heat is not applied, 
as it will utterly destroy the specimen. 

Store Boxes. — The neatest method for these is to make them about 
a foot square, the top and bottom about two inches deep, on the prin- 
ciple of back-gammon boards ; the inside must be lined with cork, 
and, if with a hinge and neatly covered with paper or painted, they may 
be kept very conveniently on a shelf in an upright position like books, 
and lettered accordingly. 



METHOD OF COLLECTING INSECTS. 

Insects are so various in their habits that they may be found in 
every part of the world, at all seasons of the year, and in every situ- 
ation. As some parts are more congenial to their nature than others, 
I shall state the best methods of searching in those places which in 
general are the most profitable to the Entomologist. 

Woods, Hedges, and Lanes, — These situations produce by far the 
greatest portion of insects. In woods, the Entomologist must beat the 
branches of the trees into his folding net, and must select for this pur- 
pose open paths, the skirts, &c. The trunks of trees, gates, and felled 
timber, should be carefully examined, as many of the Lepidoptera 
and Coleopterous insects are found in no other situations. JMaiiy rare 
and very beautiful insects are found in the hedges, in lanes, as also in 
the nettles, &c. which grow under them : these should be well beat, 
especially when the white thorn is in bloom in the months of May and 
June. Should the reader collect only for the microscope, he need not 
go to the trouble or expense of a net, as an open umbrella inverted will 
answer his purpose. Hedges in dusty roads are seldom productive. — 
The principal woods near London, and the most frequented by Ento- 
mologists, are Coombe Wood and Norwood in Surrey, — Birch Wood, 
Darent Wood, and woods round Bexley in Kent. Coombe Wood has 
long been celebrated for the great variety of insects which it produces. 
Birch Wood is on the Maidstone road, and is of great extent: near the 
14-mile stone on this road is a large chalk-pit in which many rare insects 
are to be obtained. Bexley, a small village, lies between Crayford and 
Foot's Cray. In these woods I have collected with great success: near 
the village is a large sand-pit which produces an immense number of 
Coleopterous and Hymenopterous insects. There are also some very 
rural lanes round the village which produce a great variety of insects :. 
in the rivers and brooks I have taken many rare aquatics. Norwood 



METHOD or COLLECTING INSECTS. 313 

is well known, and is but a sliort distance from the metropolis nf Lon- 
don : but the inconsiderate ganic-kcepcrs will frequently interrupt and 
warn the unoffending f'ntomologist to quit the wood iaunediutely, not 
allowing that ours 

" is untax'd and undisputed game." 

Heaths and Commons. — Many insects are confined to these situ- 
ations, not only on account of plants which grow in no other places, 
but by the cattle and their dung, in the latter of which many thc)usands 
of insects may be found in a single day in the months of April and 
May ; these are principally of the Coleoptera Order. 

The principal commons near London are Wandsworth and Wimble- 
don in Surrey; Epping Forest; Lessness Heath, Erith, and Bexley in 
Kent : a great many ponds are in those places, which produce many 
very local insects. 

Sand-Pits. — The largest sand-pit I am acquainted with is at Charl- 
ton, near the seven mile-stone, on the lower road to Woolwich, In 
this pit I have met with the fullovving rare insects, Copris luuariiis, No- 
toxus nionoceros, Livus sulcirostris, cSc. Minute insects are very al)un- 
dant; the roots of grass, at which the latter are found, should be care- 
fully examined : an Entomologist may find full employment for a 
whole day at this place. There are also several sand-pits on Ilanip- 
stead Heath. 

Meadows, Marshes, and Ponds. — In meadows, when the Ranun- 
culi or butter-cups are in blossom, many Musca; and Dipterous insects 
are found: the flags or rushes are the habitations of Cossichi, Donaciu, 
t^'c. The drills in marshes should be examined, as many sjiccics of in- 
sects are found on the long grass, us also the larvse oi' several Lepidoptcra. 
Neuroptera are generally confined to these situations, especially if any 
hedges or trees are near the spot. I have collected in the marshes of 
Plaistow, West-Ham, Barking, Hackney, and Battcrsea, with nnich 
success. Ponds afford to the lover of the microscope an infinite ninn- 
ber of highly interesting olijects, that are best obtained by means of 
the landing-net, which lor tliis purpose need not be so long as repre- 
sented in pi. 11. jig. 4. and should l)e made of strong cloth, but suffi- 
ciently open to allow the v.ater to escape. The mud which is brought 
up from the bottom of the ponds should be examined, and what small 
insects are found may be put in a small phial filled with water, 
which will not only clean them but keep tliem alive ; and in many in- 
stances, upon a close examination, the Naturalist will be surprised at 
these the most wonderful productions of Mature. To the Entomologist 
this mode of collecting will be equally advantageous, as he will obtain 
many species of Di/tici(he,Nolonecti(lie, Sfc. 

Moss, Decayed Trees, Roots of Grass, &c. — Many insects will be 



314 SEASO]MS FOR COLLECTING INSECTS. 

found in moss and under it : tlie roots and wood of decayed trees af- 
ford nourishment and a habitation to a number of insects ; many of 
the lai-vffi of the Lcpidoptcrn penetrate the trunks of trees in all direc- 
tions : most of the Cerambyces feed on wood, as well as some species 
of Carabidd, Eluterida:, 4c. In seeking for these the digger is gene- 
rally used, as it is sometimes necessary to dig six or seven inches into 
the wood before they are found. 

Banks of Ponds and Hoots of Grass. — This is a nevcr-failing 
source of collecting, which may be followed at all seasons of the year, 
and in general with great success : those banks are to be preferred 
which have the morning or noon-day sun : the Entomologist may sit 
down and collect with the greatest ease an immense number of Slu- 
jthUinida:. Pselaphi are generally taken in those situations. 

Banks of Rivers, Sandy Sea Suores, &c. — These situations are 
productive of a great variety of Colcopteru, Crnstucea, S,c. The dead ani- 
mals that are thrown on the shores should be carefully examined, as 
they are the food of Silphkuhc, Stap/iUinido', S)C. May and June are the 
best times for collecting in these situations. 

Dead Animals, Dried Bones, &€. should constantly be examined, 
as these are the natural habitats of several insects. Dead moles are fre- 
quently found hung on bushes by the country people ; under these the 
Entomologist should hold his net, and shake the boughs on which they 
are hung, as a great luunber of Colcoptera generally inhabit them. 

Fungi, Boleti, and Flowers, ought constantly, when met with, 
to be examined, as many exceeding rare insects inhabit them. 



SEASONS FOR COLLECTING. 

January, February, and March. — It is not every Entomologist 
that will collect at this early season of the year, under the impression 
that but few insects can be obtained : this is true in some measin-e : 
however, I have collected throughout tlie year and in all seasons, for 
many years, and my labours have been repaid with success much 
beyond iny hopes or expectations. I have repaired to the woods when 
in some parts I have been up to my knees in snow, and, strange to sav, 
have taken insects from under the bark of trees, moss, &c. in great 
munbers, and of species which have been considered scarce even in 
the summer months. At this season the Entomologist should not 
omit to collect a quantity of moss I'rom the roots of trees, which may 
be carried home in a pocket handkerchief and examined, by shaking it 
over a sheet of paper, upon wiiich the insects will fall, and are easily 
discovered. 

At this season also, if the weather is mild, the Entomologist should 



SEASONS FOR COLLECTPNG INSECTS. 315 

flig at the roots of trees for the pupte of Lcpidoptera ; for this purpose 
the digger is used, or a small trowel : the principal places worthy at- 
tention are the roots of oaks, ehns, lime-trees, Sec. or beneath the un- 
derwood : open the earth close to the tree, and search to the depth of 
several inches. 

Such pupa> as penetrate into the wood require more care, lest they be 
destroyed when the attempt is made to extricate them ; sovmd on the 
bark with the digger, and the hollows will soon be discovered where no 
external sign is visible; tear off the bark, (and carefully examine it, 
for minute Coleoptera are frequently found adhering to it,) and with a 
knife cut away the wood that surrounds the orifice of the cavity, to 
enlarge it, and take out the pupce as carefully as possible. 

April and May. — The same genial warmth that brings forth vege- 
tation brings forth also myriads of insects into life and motion; the 
dung of animals at this season swarms with minute Coleoptera; se- 
veral species of the Lepidoptcra will also be found by looking care- 
fully garden pales, gates in lanes, &c. Many species of Bees will be 
found sucking the pollen from the sallow, which blossoms at this sea- 
son. Sand and gravel pits should be carefully examined, and under 
the stones and clods of earth many insects will be found. In May, as 
soon as the white-thorn is in leaf, the hedges should be well beat; the 
season for taking Caterpillars commences, from which most of the Lc- 
pidoptera are obtained, and this is by fai- the best method, as the in- 
sects are generally perfect, and the specimens very fine. Great atten- 
tion should be paid to the larvsc, as supplying them with fresh food, 
and keeping the earth moist at the bottoms of their cages. 

June, July, August. — In these months the Entomologist will 
find full employment in the woods. Most of the Butterfiies are taken 
in these months, tiying abroad in the day-time only : Moths will be 
found flying at break of day, and at twilight in the evening. This me- 
thod is termed Mothijsg, and should be well followed up during the 
summer season. Many of the rarer Lepidoptcra are never found but 
at these times. The males of some, if not of every species of the 
Moth tribe, and perhaps of other insects also, by a very astonishing 
faculty, are able to discover the females at a great distance, and in the 
most secret situations. The following observations by Mr. Haworth 
on Bombi/r Quercus will fully establish this fact, and at the same time 
illustrate the manner of taking theni : " It is a frequent practice with 
the London Aurelians, when they breed a female of this and some 
other day-flying species, to take her whilst yet a virgin into the vici- 
nity of woods, where, if the weather is favourable, she never fails to 
attract a numerous train of the males, whose only business appears to 
be an incessant, rapid, and undulating flight in search of their unim- 
pregnated females. One of which is no sooner perceived, than they 
become so much enamoured of their fair and chaste relation, as abso- 



316 SETTING AND PRESERVING CRUSTACEA. 

lutely to lose all kind of fear for their own personal safety, which, at 
other times, is effectually secured by the reiterated evolutions of their 
strong and rapid wings. So fearless indeed have I beheld them on 
these occasions, as to climb up and down the sides of the cage which 
contained the dear object of their eager pursuit, in exactly the same 
hurrying manner as honey bees, which have lost themselves, climb up 
and down the glasses of a window." At the latter end of August, and 
the whole of September, the second and last brood of Caterpillars are 
found : several species of Gryllus may also be taken in meadows and 
marshy lands. 

October, November, December. — At the fall of the leaf insects 
become less numerous, but many of the Ilemiptcrous insects may 
be found by beating the ferns and underwood in woods, also many very 
beautiful Tineaj and Tortrices ; the aquatic insects will be found in 
ponds pretty plentiful. Roots of grass, decayed trees, &.c. may again 
be resorted to. 

Having now given an outline of the rules which appear necessary 
for the purpose of collecting insects, I shall proceed to their preserva- 
tion, which, above all, will act as a particular incitement to the early 
collector, who, it is supposed, " would feel very little pleasure at the 
recollection that all the fruits of his toil in one season would be de- 
stpoyed in the next ; or at best, that his specimens would only retain a 
wretched vestige of their original perfection." 



SETTING AND PRESERVING. 

Crustacea. 

Method of collecting. — Most of the Crustacea inhabit the sea ; the 
few tliat are found in fresh water are generally minute, but highly in- 
teresting : ponds, ditches, and marshes produce the latter in abund- 
ance, and are common near London ; they are taken with the water- 
net, and may be preserved as directed hereafter. 

In searching for Crustacea on the sea-shore, the Entomologist must 
not omit to search diligently, by turning up stones, Sec; — Confervas 
and Corallines, thrown on the shore after storms, frequently contain 
many rare species, as also the pools left by the retiring tide on most of 
the rocky coasts. By walking on the sea-shore after heavy gales of 
wind many Crustacea will be found : he must also take every opportu- 
nity of examining the fishermen's nets, and the refuse thrown away 
by them. Empty shells should also be examined, as they frecjuently 
form a habitation for these animals. 

DiTectionsJor preserving Crustacea for Cabinets. — Those species which 
inhabit the sea should be suffered to remain for some hours in cokl 



SETTING AND PRESERVING ARACHNo'lDA AND ACARI. 317 

fresh water, to extract the salt, which would soon destroy them hy at- 
tracting moisture ; they are then to he placed in a crawling posture, 
and the parts of the mouth are to be displayed by means oi" pins un- 
til dry; they will then remain in that position. The more minute 
species must be dried, and afterwards stuck on paper with gum-water, 
in ditierent positions. Those of Mi/rkipoda are to be killed by immer- 
sion in spirits, and afterwards stuck with a jiin on the right side. 

Crustacea and Myriapoda are kept in cabinets lined with cork, to 
which they are afhxed with pins; or in boxes loose: the former me- 
thod is best, as they can then be moved from one place to another 
without trouble or risk. 

Arachnoida and Acari. 

The ha.bitations of the animals of this class are fully descril)cd in 
the account of the genera, — further observations on this jioint will 
therefore be unnecessary. 

Method of preserving. — Mr. Donovan has observed, " To determine 
whether some species of Spiders could be preserved with their natu- 
ral colours, I put several into spirits of wine ; those with gibbous bo- 
dies soon after discharged a very considerable quantiy of viscid matter, 
and therewith all their most beautiful colours ; the smallest retained 
their form, and only appeared rather paler in the colours than when 
they were living. 

" During the course of last summer, among other Spiders, I met 
with a rare species ; it was of a bright yellow colour, elegantly marked 
with black, red, green, and purple Ey some accident it was unfortu- 
nately crushed to pieces in the chip-box wherein it was confined, and 
was therefore thrown aside as useless ; a month or more after that 
time, having occasion to open the box, I observed that such parts of 
the skin as had dried against the inside of the box retained the origi- 
nal brightness of colour in a considerable degree. To further the 
experiment, I made a similar attempt, with some caution, on the body 
of another spider (Aranca Diade/na), ami though the colours were not 
perfectly preserved, they appeared distinct. 

" From other obser\'ations I find, that if you kill the spider, and 
immediately after extract the entrails, then inflate them by means of 
a blow-pipe, you may preserve them tolerably well : you must cleanse 
them on the inside no more than is sufficient to prevent mouldiness, 
lest you injure the colours, which certainly in many kinds depend on 
some substance that lies beneath the skin." 

The best preserved specimens that I have seen are those where the 
contents of the alxlomen have been taken out and filled with fine sand. 
I have preserved several in this way, and find it answer the purpose. 



318 SETTING AND PRESERVrNG INSECTS. 

INSECTS. 

Entomologists are generally satisfied if tliey can obtain the insect 
in its last or perfect state; but as a few instructions for the preserva- 
tion of the egg, larva, and pupa may induce the collector to enrich 
his cabinet with such specimens, and which is absolutely necessary in 
gaining a perfect knowledge of their nature, I shall give a few parti- 
culars for this purpose. 

The Egg. — The eggs of most insects retain their form and colour 
well if preserved in the cabinet; but those which do not promise fairly 
may be prepared after the method practised by Swannnerdam. He 
used to pierce the eggs with a very fine needle, and press all the con- 
tained juices through the aperture: he then inflated them until they 
regained their pi'oper form by means of a small glass tube; and 
lastly, filled them with oil of spike in which some resin had been dis- 
solved. 

The Larva or Caterpillar. — The preservation of insects in this state, 
is not only one of the most curious, but useful discoveries that have 
been made in this department of science. 

The readiest and quickest way of destroying the life of the cater- 
pillar is to immerse it in spirits of wine, by which means the softness 
and transparency of the parts are retained, and are preserved for a 
length of time in this liquid. 

In the cabinet of Mr. William Weatherhead are preserved many 
larvae of the Lepidoptera, which he prepares in the following way, and 
which answers extremely well — Having killed the animal in spirits of 
wine, he makes a small incision or puncture in the tail, and very gently 
pressing out all the contained humours, fills the skin with very fine 
dry sand; the insect is thus again brought to its natural shape: in the 
course of a few hours the skin dries, and the sand is gently shaken out : 
it is then gummed on a piece of card, and the preparation is ready for 
the cabinet: they may likewise be injected with coloured wax. There 
is another method which is frequently practised, and is as follows : 
After the whole of the entrails are pressed out, a glass tube drawn to 
a small point is inserted into the opening, through which the operator 
continues to blow while he turns the skin at the end slowly round a 
charcoal fire; this hardens the skin equally, and dries vip all the mois- 
ture within; a pin is then put through it to fix it in a standing posi- 
tion : it may afterwards be anointed with oil of spike in which some 
resin has been dissolved, unless it is a hairy caterpillar. 

The Pupa. — When insects have quitted the pupa state, the case will 
require only to be put into the drawers; but those which have insects 
within must be either dropped into scalding water, or inclosed in a 
small tin box and exposed to the heat of a fire, which will shortly 
kill the insect within. 



SETTING AND PRESEHVING INSECTS. 319 

ColeopterX, Orthoptera, and Hemiptera. — The preservation of 
these Orders is attended with very httle dirticiiily. 

They are easily killed by immersion in scalding water, and upon 
being withdrawn shovdd be thrown on a sheet of blossom or blotting 
paper to extract as much as possible the water : or they may be killed 
by exposing them in a tin box with a little camphor in it to the heat 
of a fire, which treatment will add greatly to their preservation. Those 
of the Mcloe and Gn/llus Genera, which have full and tender bodies, 
are sidjject to shrivel after death : to preserve them, make an incision 
on the under part of the abdomen, take out theentrails with a blunt 
pen or probe, and fill the cavity with cotton. 

Specimens of Coleoptera that are required to be set with the wings 
displayed, should have the elytra separated and the pin passed through 
the body near the thorax, as at pi. 12. Jig. 1 ; the wings are to be dis- 
posed as in the act of flying, and kept in this situation until periectly 
dry with the card braces h and f ; insects of these Orders should never 
have the pin passed through the thorax, but through the right elytron 
on the right side, as shown at j;/. 12. fig. 1 : the legs, antennae, and 
palpi should be placed out in a natural position on the setting boards, 
and kept so by pins and braces, for a longer or shorter time, according 
to the size of the insect and state of the weather. No insect must be 
placed in the cabinet until it is perfectly dry. Minute insects shoukl 
be fixed on slips of card, as ax pi. 12. fig. 5 andO, with gum, previous 
to which the legs, &;c. should be extended, for future examination : tri- 
angular slips of card are to be preferred, as no greater portion of the 
insect should be hid than what is absolutely necessary to fix it to the 
card, as s-tfig. 5. 

Lepidoptera. — Butterflies are soon killed if a pin is passed through 
the thorax; but many of the Sphinges and large Moths are difficult to 
kill, being very tenacious of life. Mr. Ilaworth in his Lepidoptera Bri- 
tannica, in his observations on Bombyx Cossus, remarks, that " the 
usual way of compressing the thorax is not sufficient : they will live 
several days after the most severe pressure has been given there, to 
the great uneasiness of any humane Entomologist. The methods of 
suffocation by tobacco or sulphur are equally inefticacious, unless conti- 
nued for a greater number of hours than is proper for the preservation 
of the specimens. Another method now in practice is better; and, 
however fraught with cruelty it may appear to the inexperienced col- 
lector, is the greatest piece of comparative mere}/ that can in this case 
be administered. When the larger Moths must be killed, destroy tiiem 
at once by the insertion of a strong red hot needle into their thickest parts, 
beginning at the front of the thorax. If this is properly done, instead of 
lingering through several days they are dead in a moment. It appears t<i 
me, however, that insects being animals of cold and sluggish juices, are 
not so susceptible of the sensations we call pain as those wluch enjoy a 



320 SETTING AND PRESERVING INSECTS. 

warmer temperature of body and a swifter circulation of the fluids; To 
the philosopiiic mind it is self-evident, that they have not such acute 
organs of feeling pain as other animals of a similar size whose juices 
are endowed with a quicker motiun, and possess a constant, regular, 
and genial warmth — such as young mice or the naked young of birds : 
if any of these have the misfortune to lose their heads or limbs from 
force, speedy death is the certain consequence : but insects under si- 
milar circumstances, it is well known, are capable of surviving a consi- 
derable time." For small IMoths, it is only necessary to put the pin 
through the thorax, and they die in a very short time. The minute spe- 
<aes of this Order shoidd be collected in chip boxes, as they are in ge- 
neral too small to be pierced when first taken ; they soon die, and the 
wings become stiti" before the Entomologist has time to set them ; but 
if brought home in separate pill-boxes they will remain alive for seve- 
ral days, and are instantly killed by being exposed near the fire, or 
placed under a tumbler with the lid of the box slightly elevated, but not 
suflicient to allow the insect to escape ; a lighted match should then be 
placed under the tumbler, which will deprive the insect of life in a few 
seconds of time. The pin, which serves to transfix the insect, should be 
Jessed through the thorax in the centre, and in an upright position, so 
that in looking on the insect no part of the wings should be obscured by 
the slope of the pin. The insects of this Order are by far the most dif- 
ficult to set, for they require great care and much practice to display 
them with that nicety which adds so much beauty to their appearance 
and uniformity in a collection. 

The method of setting the Insects )f this Order is by braces : a sin- 
gle brace should be first introduced underthe wing near the thorax, as 
in pi. 12. fig. 3. a, with a longer brace over the wings, as at b; this 
should not touch the wing, but be ready to be pressed gently down : 
when the wings are raised to their proper place by the setting needle 
c, other braces are to be applied according as they are required : the 
antennjE and feet are to be extended to their proper attitude, and kept 
so by pins or small braces. 

Some JMoths are very liable to change colour when placed in the ca- 
binet after a short time : an oily matter is common to all insects, but 
some are charged with a superabundance. It appears at first in spots 
on the body, but gradually pervades every part; in some it will even 
descend into the wings, and then an obliteration of all the beautiful 
markings is <-he least that may be expected : the method which is the 
most successful for recovering the original appearance after the insect 
has become greasy, is to powder some fine dry chalk on a piece of 
heated iron, cover the chalk with a very fine piece of hnen cloth, and 
thereto apply the under part of the body of the insect : the heat of 
the iron dissolves tlie grease while the chalk absorbs it, and the cloth 
prevents the chalk from clotting to the insecL 



METHOD OF RELAXING INSECT?! 321 

Those known species that are subject to grease, should have the 
contents of the abdomen taken out, and the cavity filled with cotton. 

Trichoptera, Neuroptera, IIyme-voptera, and Diptera. — Most 
of the Libellula require the contents of the abdomen to be taken out 
M-hen the insect is dead, as the body generally turns black witliin, a 
ii^vf da_ys after death, without this precaution: the cavity may be filled 
up with a roll of white paper or cotton : I have found Uiis method to 
answer extremely well, and the colours are as brilliant as when the in- 
sect was ali\e. The larger species are very powerful, and when col- 
lected they must be transfixed through the side and placed in the 
corked pocket-box ; a brace or two should be placed across the wings, 
to prevent their fluttering and breaking their wings or those of other 
insects which may be near them. They may be killed by being plunn'ed 
in boiling water, or by a hot needle, as directed for Moths. The other 
species of this Order not being so large soon die, as well as those of 
the Orders Trichoptera, Hymenopiera, and Diptera. They may be set by- 
braces and pins, as in j)l. 12. Jig. 4. In some species of the Diptera the 
colours of the body are very lively, but change after death; in these 
the colours may be preserved if the contents of the aljdomen be re- 
moved, and the cavity filled with a powder the colour of the living ii^- 
sect. 



METHOD OF RELAXING INSECTS. 

It frequently occurs tRat insects become dead and stiff before the 
Entomologist has an opportimity of setting or displaying their parts. 
Coleoptera are easily relaxed by immersion in hot water; and in many 
instances this way is to be preferred, as the parts become more pli- 
able and are more easily set. — The Orthoptera, Hemiptera, and Le- 
pidoptera, must be fixed on a piece of cork, and placed in a pan 
of water covered over; these, if the specimens are large, will fre- 
quently require two or three whole days before the wings will admit 
of replacing without the risk of breaking ; care must be taken not to 
force the wings, or any part in fact, until the parts are perfectly re- 
laxed, when they may be displayed and kept so by braces, as directed 
for recent specimens. Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera, may be 
relaxed according to the latter method : but those insects that require 
the contents of the abdomen to be removed, can never be altered, and 
therefore must be preserved in a recent state, or their beauty is lost for * 

ever. * 



322 



ARRANGING INSECTS IN A CABINET. 

The niodern practice, which is by far the best, is to arrange insects 
in columns, with the generic name fastened by a pin above, and the 
specific below them : the lines should be ruled with a black lead pen- 
cil, which will always admit of alteration, and look much neater than 
if ruled with ink. Males and females should be procured as far as 
possible. Coleoptera, Orthoptera, and Hemiptera, are arranged side bv 
side, with an open-winged specimen below them. Lepidopiera, of But- 
terflies ; four specimens of each species are preferred, to show the upper 
and under side of each sex : the Sphinges and Moths — the upper sides 
only are shown, as the specific characters are but seldom taken from 
the under side : in this and the following Orders the males are placed 
■ above, the females below; as they not only look much more natural, 
but save considerable room. Varieties should be procured and ex- 
tended as far as possible, as they frequently tend to decide the species : 
mutilated specimens should be rejected ; but as we cannot always rea- 
dily replace them by perfect ones, it is much better to retain them. 
-There is a vile practice in use among collectors, to mend such speci- 
mens by parts from other insects. I cannot sufficiently express my ab- 
horrence of such ways, but should hope that no Naturalist, who is a 
lover of truth and an admirer of nature, will ever disgrace his cabinet 
by such paltry specimens, as they can be of no use in a scientific view, 
and only serve to lead to errors. 

No Exotic specimen should ever be placed in a collection of Bri- 
tish Insects, however near it may approach in appearance ; for 
by this means numbers of insects have been described as natives of 
Britain, merely on account of being found in such cabinets. Species 
are distinguished in many instances by such minute characters, and 
they approach each other by such imperceptible degrees, that we can- 
not be too particular in our examination, or too curious in knowing 
tiieir habitats, as this frequently leads us to determine whether they 
are natives of this country. 

Our best Entomologists, therefore, where they cannot obtain British 
specimens of rare insects, are naturally an.xious to obtain foreign ones ; 
but tliese as well as doubtful species are always kept in a drawer by 
themselves, which answers every good purpose of reference for the 
sake of becoming acquainted with the species.: to this drawer a large 
label is affixed, as. Exotic Specimens of Rare British Insects. 
By this means a cabinet is rendered more valuable, as a dependence 
oan be placed on the specimens it contains, and will ever remain a 
credit to its possessor, as it at once distinguishes thfe man of science 
and the lover of truth. 



DIRECTIONS FOR THE MICROSCOPE HISTORY. 323 

Everj- Entomologist should keep an exact journal of the insects he 
collects; with an account, as far as possible, of the place, food, times of 
appearance, &c. and place to each insect a number corresponding with 
that of his journal ; he should also make a catalogue in which the 
names, generic and specific, arc to be expressed, as also the synonyms, 
with reference to such authors as have described them. In his jom*- 
nal he must also insert observations on their manners, oeconomy, &c. 
to illustrate as far as possible their natural history, for there is little 
doubt that many valuable discoveries are yet to be made by a proper 
attention to insects. 



DIRECTIONS FOR THE MICROSCOPE. 

Microscope — an optical instrument, by means of which very mi- 
nute objects are represented exceedingly large, and viewed very di- 
stinctly, according to the laws of refraction or reHection. 

Microscopes are properly distinguished into simple or shigle, and 
compound or double. 

Microscopes, single, zxg those which consist of a single lens or a 
single spherule. 

Microscopes, compound, consist of two or more lenses dulj' com- 
bined. As optics have been improved, other varieties have been con- 
trived in the sorts of microscopes ; hence we have jrjicciing micro- 
scopes, water microscopes, &c. Each of these two kinds has its pecu- 
liar advantage ; for a single glass shows the object nearer at hand and 
rather more distinct; and a combhiation of glasses presents a larger 
field, or, in other words, exhibits more of an object equally magnified 
at one view. As each of these has its advantages, each of them has 
its advocates, at least in practice. The celebrated Leeuwenhoek never 
used any but single microscopes; and, on the contrary, Dr. Hook made 
all his observations with double ones. 

Histori). — ^^'hen, and by whom, microscopes were first invented is 
not certainly known. Iluygens tells us that tine Drebell, a Dutch- 
man, had the first microscope in the year 1G21, and that he was re- 
puted the first inventor of it ; though F. Fontana, a Neapolitan, in 
1646, claims the invention to himself, but dates it from the year 1618. 
As a telescope inverted is a microscope, the discovery might easily 
enough have arisen from thence. 

Nothing more is certain concerning microscopes, than that they were 
first used in Germany about the year 1621. According to Borellus, 
they were invented by Zacharias Jansen, in conjunction with his son, 
who presented the first microscope they had constructed to Prince 
Mawrice, and Albert archduke of Austria. William Borcll, who 



324 DIUKCTIONS FOR THE MICROSCOPE — HISTORY. 

gives this account in a letter to his brother Peter, says, that when he 
was ambassador in England, in 1619, Cornelius Drel^ell showed yiim a 
microscope, which he said was the same that the archduke had given 
him, and had been made by Jansen himself. The limits of this work 
will not admit of a description of all the microscopes that have been 
invented, or the principle and laws by which they are regulated : for 
much useful and further information on the subject I must therefore 
refer the reader to the works of Baker, Adams, and others on the mi- 
croscope, where every information on this head will be found. 

It may not be amiss, to state clearly and distinctly the method of 
determining the magnifying powers of glasses employed in single mi- 
croscopes. 1st. If the focus of a convex lens be at one inch, and 
the natural sight at eight inches, which is the common standard, an 
object may be seen through that lens at one inch distant from the eye, 
and will appear in its diameter eight times larger than to the naked 
eye. But as the object is magnified every way equally, in length as 
well as breadth, we must square this diameter to^know really how 
much it appears enlarged, and we shall then find that its superficies is 
indeed magnified sixty-fotir times. 

2dly. Suppose a convex lens whose focus is at one-tenth of an inch 
distance from its centre ; in eight inches there are eighty such tenths 
of an inch, and therefore an object may be seen through this lens 
eighty times nearer tlvan it can distinctly by the naked eye. It will 
consequently appear eighty times longer and eighty times broader than 
it does to common sight; and as eighty multiplied by eighty makes 
six thousand and four hundred, so many times it really appears mag- 
nified. 

3dly. To go one step further : if a convex glass be so small that its 
focus is no more than one-twentieth of an inch distant, we shall find 
that eight inches, the common distance of sight, contains a- hundred 
and sixty of these twentieth parts; and, in consequence, the length 
ajid breadth of an object, when seen through such lens, will each be 
magnified a hundred and sixty times, which multiplied by a hun- 
dred and sixty to give the square, will amount to twenty-five thousand 
six hundred : and so many times, it is plain, the superficies of the ob- 
ject must appear larger than it does to the naked eye at the distance 
of eight inches. 

Tlierefore, in a single microscope, to learn the magnifying power 
of any glass, no more is necessary than to bring it to its true focus, 
the exact place of which will be knowni by an object's appearing per- 
fectly distinct and sharp when placed there. Then, with a pair of small 
compasses, measure, as nearly as you can, the distance from the centre 
of the glass to the object you were viewing, and by afterwards apply- 
ing the compasses to any ruler with a diagonal scale of the parts of an 
inch marlj.ed on it, you will easily find how many parts of au inch the 



POWERS OF GLASSES. 



325 



said distance is. When that is known, compute how many times those 
parts of an inch are contained in eight inches, the common standard 
of sight, and that will give you the numbers of times the diameter is 
magnitied : squaring the diameter will give you the superficies; and if 
it be an object whose depth or whole contents you would learn, mul- 
tiplying the superficies by the diameter will show the cube or bulk. 



A Table of the magnifying PoWers of Convex Glasses employed in 
Single Microscopes, according to the Distance of their Focus ; cal- 
culated by the Scale of an Inch divided into a Hundred Parts : 
showing how many Times the Diameter, the Superficies, or the 
Cube of an Object is magnified, when viewed through such Glasses, 
to an Eye whose natural Sight is at Eight Inches, or Eight Hundreds 
of a Hundredth Part of an Inch. 



Poeal Distance of 
the Lens or IMicro- 
scope in lOOdths of 
an Inch. 


Number of Times 
that the Diameter 
ofanObject is mag- 
nitied. 


Nmnber of Times 
that the Surface ot 
an Object is mag- 
nified. 


Number of Times 
that the Cube of an 
Object is magnifi- 
ed. 


1 or 50 
T% or 40 


16 

20 


256 
400 


4,096 
8,000 


,^ or 30 


26 


676 


17,576 


^ or 20 
15 


40 
53 


1,600 
2,806 


64,000 
148,877 


14 

13 


57 
61 


3,249 
3,721 


185,193 
226,981 


12 

11 

tSj or 10 


66 

72 
80 


4,356 
5,184 
6,400 


287,496 
373,248 
512,000 


9 


88 


7,744 


681,472 


8 

7 
6 


100 
114 
133 


10,000 
12,996 
17,689 


1,000,000 
1,481,544 
2,352,637 


^ or 5 
4 
3 

1 


160 
200 
266 
400 
800 


25,600 

40,000 

70,756 

160,000 

640,000 


4,096,000 

8,000,000 

18,821,096 

64,000,000 

512,000,000 



326 DIRECTIONS FOR THE MICROSCOPE. 

METHOD OF USING THE MICROSCOPE. 

In using the microscope there are three things necessary to be coi> 
sldered; 1st, The preparation and adjustment of the instrument it- 
self. 2dly, The proper quantity of hght, and the best method of di- 
recting it to the oljject. Sdly, The metliod of preparing the oljjects^ 
so tliat their texture may be properly understood. 

Freparatkm of the instrument. — 1st, With regard to the microscope 
itself, the first thing necessary to be examined is, whether the glasses 
are clean or not; if they are not so, they must be wiped with a piece 
of soft leather, taking care not to soil them afterwards with the fingers ; 
and, in replacing them, care must be taken not to place them in an 
oblique situation. We must likewise be careful not to let the breath 
fall upon the glasses, nor to hold that part of the body of the instru- 
ment where the glasses are placed with a warm hand ; because, thus, 
the moisture, expelled by the heat from the metal, will condense upon 
the glass, and prevent the object from being distinctly seen. The ob- 
ject should be brought as near the centre of the field of view as pos- 
sible, for there only it will be exhibited in the greatest perfection. The 
eye should be moved up and down from the eye-glass of a compound 
microscope, till the situation is foimd where the largest field and most 
distinct view of the object are to be had ; but every person ought to 
adjust the microscope to his own eye, and not depend upon the situa- 
tion it was placed in by another. A small magnifying power should 
always be begun with ; by which means the observer will best obtain 
an exact idea of the situation and connection of the whole, as well as 
the connection and use of the parts. A living animal ought to be as 
little hurt or discomposed as possible. 

Great caution is to be used in forming a judgement on what is seen 
by the microscope, if the objects are extended or contracted by force 
or dryness. 

Nothing can be determined about them without making the proper 
allowances ; and different lights and positions will often show the 
same object as very different from itself. There is no advantage in 
any greater magnifier than such as is capable of showing the object 
in view distinctly ; and the less the glass magnifies, the more plea- 
santly the object is always seen. 

The colours of objects are very little to be depended on, as seen by 
the microscope ; for their several component particles being by this 
means removed to great distances from one another, may give reflec- 
tions very different from what they would if seen by the naked eye. 
Some consideration is likewise necessary in forming a judgement of 
the motions of living creatures, or even of fluids, when seen through 
the microscope ; for as the moving body, and the space wherein it 
moves, are magnified, the motion will also be increased. 



METHOD OF USINCz TIIF. MICROSCOPE, 327 

9(1. On the management of the Hght depends in a great measure 
tlie distinctness of the vision : and as, in order to have tliis in the 
greatest perfection, we must adapt the quantity of hght to the nature 
of the ohject, and tlie focus of the magnifier, it is therefore necessary 
to view it in various degrees of light. In some objects it is difficult to 
distinguish between a prominence and a depression, a shadow or a 
dark marking; or between a reflection of light, and whiteness, which 
is particularly observable in the eyes of Libcllnla and other insects ; 
all of them appearing very difl^erent in one position from what they ck) 
in another. The brightness of an object likewise depends on the 
quantity of the light, the distinctness of vision, and on regulating the 
quantity to the object; for some will be in a manner lost in a quan- 
tity of light scarcely sufficient to render another visible. 

The light of a lamp or candle is generally better for viewing mi- 
croscopic objects than daylight, it being easier to modify the former 
than the latter, and to throw it upon the objects with difterent degrees 
of density. The best lamp that can be used for this purpose is the 
one invented by Count Ilumford, which moves on a rod, so that it 
may be easily raised or depressed. The light of a candle or lamp 
is increased, and more directly thrown upon the reflecting mirror or 
object, by means of a convex lens mounted on a semicircle and stand, 
so that its position may be easily varied. If the light thus collected 
from a lamp be too powerful, it may be lessened by placing a piece of 
thin \\Titing-paper, or a piece of fine grayed glass, between the object 
and the reflecting mirror. Thus a proper degree of light may be ob- 
tained, and diffused equally all over the surface of an object, a cir- 
cumstance which ought to be particularly attended to ; for if the light 
"be thrown irregularly upon it, no distinct view can be o])tained. 

The exj^mination of objects so as to discover truth, requires a great 
deal of attention, care, and patience ; with some skill and dexteritj", to 
be acquired cliiefl}- by practice, in the preparing, managing, and apply- 
ing them to the microscope. 

Whatever object offers itself as the subject of our examination, the 
size, contexture, and nature of it are first to be considered, in order to 
apply it to such glasses, and in such a manner, as may show it best. 
The first step should always be to view the whole together with such 
a magnifier as can take it in all at once ; and after this the several 
parts of it may the more fitly be examined, whether remaining on the 
object, or separated from it. The smaller the parts are which are to 
be examined, the more powerful should be the magnifiers employed. 
The transparency or opacity of the object must also be considered, and 
the glasses employed accordingly suited to it; for a transparent object 
will bear a much greater magnifier than one which is opaque, since 
the nearness that a glass must be placed at, unavoidably darkais an 



328 ' DIRECTIONS FOR THE MICROSCOPE. 

object in its own nature opaque, and renders it very difficult to be seen, 
unless by the help of a silver speculum. 

The nature of the object also, whether it be alive or dead, a solid 
or a fluid, an animal, a vegetable, or a mineral substance, must like- 
•wise be considered, and all the circumstances of it attended to, that 
we may apply it in the most advantageous manner. If it be a living 
object, care must be taken not to squeeze or injure it, that we may 
see it in its natural state and full perfection. If it be a fluid, and that 
too thick, it must be diluted with water ; and if too thin, we should 
let some of its watery parts evaporate. Some substances are fittest 
for observation when dry, others when moistened ; some when fresh, 
and others after they have been kept some time. 

Transparent objects. — Most objects require also some management 
in order to bring them properly before the glasses. If they are flat 
and transparent, and such as will not be injured by pressure, the usual 
way is to inclose them in sliders between talc, or, what is certainly 
preferable, between t^vo slips of glass. For this purpose thin and clear 
glass must be used. The slips should be about three inches in length 
and half an inch in width : a piece of paper, the size of the glass, 
must be placed between them, with circular or oblong holes cut a little 
larger than tlie object intended to be placed between them ; — one side 
of the paper should be washed over with a little gvmi-water, fastened 
on one of the glasses, and suff'ered to dry ; the objects are then to be 
placed on the glass where the holes are cut in the paper ; the upper 
part of tlie paper is then to be slightly touched with gum- water ; and 
the other glass may be placed on it. This plan answers well for the 
transparent wings of insects, &c. 

Opaque objects are best preserved and viewed in the following man-; 
ner : Cut card- or drawing-paper into small pieces of about a quarter 
of an inch in diameter, and wath a fine camel's hair pencil, or the 
poitit of a pen, put a little gum-water in the centre of it; if the ob- 
-ect is an insect, display the legs, antenna^, &c. by means of a fine 
needle (as in pi. l^-fig- 6.); the gum, when dry, will fix the insect ia 
this position. The seeds of plants, minerals, &c. may be presei'ved in 
this way. Paper of different colours should be chosen for different 
objects, in order to render them the more conspicuous, such as a , 
black paper for a white subject, &c. 

Objects prepared in this way are extremely convenient for viewing, 
and by means of the pliers they may be examined in every direction j 
a pin may be passed through the paper or card, and the objects kept in 
a small box lined with cork. The boxes may be made the size and 
form of an octavo or quarto volume, and kept on shelves, in the man- 
ner of books ; if made in the book form the backs should be lettered, 
and the c©llection may be continued to any extent. 



OBJECTS rOR THE MICROSCOPE. 329 

Living Objects. — These will be treated of hereafter under the head 
Ani?nalcnla. 

No part of the creation affords such an infinite variety- of subjects 
for the niicroscope as insects. "Insects," observe Messrs. Kirby and 
Spcnce, ui their Introduclory Letter to Entomology, " indeed, appear to 
have bei'n Nature's favourite productions, in which, to manifest her 
power and skill, she has comliined and concentrated almost all that 
is either beautiful and graceful, interesting and alluring, or curious 
and smgular, in every other class and order of her children. To these, 
,her valued miniatures, she has given the most delicate touch and 
highest finish of her pencil. Numbers she has armed with glittering 
mail, which reflects a lustre like that of burnished metals ; in others 
she lights up the dazzling radiance of polished gems. Some exhibit a 
rude exterior, like stones in their native state ; while otlicrs represent 
their smooth and shining face after they have been submitted to the 
tool of the polisher : others again, like so many pygmy Atlases bear- 
ing on their backs a microcosm, by the rugged and various elevations 
and depressions of their tuberculated crust, present to the eye of the 
beholder no unapt imitation of the unequal surface of the earth, now 
horrid with mis-shapen rocks, ridges, and precipices — now swellinir 
into hills and mountains — and now sinking into valleys, glens, and 
caves ; while not a few are covered with branching spines, which 
fancy may form into a forest of trees. 

" What numbers vie with the charming offspring of Flora in various 
beauties ! some in the delicacy and variety of their colours, colours 
not like those of flowers evanescent and fugitive, but fixed and du- 
rable, surviving their subject, and adorning it as much after death as 
they did when it was alive ; others, again, in the veining and texture 
of their wings; and others in the rich cottony down that clothes thera. 
To such perfection, indeed, has Nature in them carried her mimetic 
art, that you would declare, upon beholding some insects, that they 
had robbed the trees of their leaves to form for themselves artificial 
wings, so exactly do they resemble them in their form, substance, and 
vascular stmcture; some representing green leaves, and others those 
that are dry and withered. Nay, sometimes this mimicry is so ex- 
quisite, that you would mistake the whole insect for a portion of the 
branching spray of a tree. No mean beauty in some plants arises 
from the fluting and punctation of their stems and leaves, and a simi- 
lar ornament conspicuously distinguishes numerous insects, which 
also imitate with multiform variety, as may particularly be seen in the 
caterpillars of many species of the butterfly tribe {PapiUonidce), the 
spines and prickles which are given as a iV^o/j me tungere armour to se- 
veral vegetable productions. 

" In fishes the lucid scales of \aried hue that cover and defend them 



330 DIRECTIONS FOR THE MICROSCOPE. 

are universally admired, and esteemed their peculiar ornament; bvvt 
place a butterfly's wing under a microscope, that avenue to unseen 
glories in new worlds, and you vnW discover that nature has endowed 
the most numerous of the insect tribes with the same privilege, mul- 
tiplying in them the forms, and diversifying the colouring of this kind 
of clothing beyond all parallel. The rich and velvet tints of the plu- 
mage of birds are not superior to what the curious observer may disco- 
ver in a variety of Lepidoptera ; and those manj'-coloured eyes which 
deck so gloriously the peacock's tail are imitated with success by one 
of our most common butterflies. Feathers are thought to be p^uliar 
to birds ; but insects often imitate them in their antenna-, wings, and 
even sometimes in the covering of their bodies. — We admire with 
reason the coats of quadrupeds, whether their skins be covered with 
pile, or wool, or fur; yet are not perhaps aware that a vast variety of 
insects are clothed with all these kinds of hair, but infinitely finer and 
more silky in texture, more brilliant and delicate in colour, and more 
variously shaded than what any other animals can pretend to. 

" In variegation insects certainly exceed every other class of animated 
beings. Nature, in her sportive mood, when painting them, sometimes 
imitates the clouds of heaven; at others, the meandring course of the 
rivers of the earth, or the undulations of their waters : many are 
veined like beautiful marbles; others have the semblance of a robe of 
the finest net-work thrown over them : some she blazons with heral- 
dic insignia, giving them to ]}ear in fields sable — azure — vert — gides — 
argent and or, fesses — bars — bends— crosses — crescents — stars, and 
even animals. On many, taking her rule and compasses, she draws 
with precision mathematical figures: points, lines, angles, triangles, 
squares, and circles. On others she pourtrays, with mystic hand, what 
seem like hieroglyphic symbols, or inscribes them with the characters 
and letters of various languages, often very correctly formed ; and 
what is more extraordinary, she has registered in others figures which 
correspond with several dates of the Christian era. 

'^ Nor has nature been lavish only in the apparel and ornament of 
these privileged tribes; in other respects she has been equally un- 
sparing of her favours. To some she has given fins like those of fish, 
or a beak resembling that of birds ; to others horns, nearly the coun- 
terparts of those of various quadrupeds. The bull, the stag, the rhi- 
noceros, and even the hitherto vainly sought for unicorn, have in this 
respect many representatives amongst insects. One is armed with 
tusks not unlike those of the elephant ; another is bristled with spines, 
as the porcupine and hedge-hog with quills; a third is an armadillo in 
miniature ; the disproportioned hind legs of the kangaroo give a most 
grotesque appearance to a fourth ; and the threatening head of the 
s-nake is found in a fifth. It would, however, be endless to produce all 



OBjrCTS FOU THE MICROSCOPE. 33 I 

the instances which occur of such imitations; and I shall only remark 
that, generally speaking, tlicse arms and instruments in structure and 
finishing far exceed those which thev resemble.'' 



METHOD OF DISSECTING INSECTS. 

Swammerdam excelled in the preparation of insects. Neither difiV 
culty nor disappointment could make iiim abandon the pursuit of any 
object until he had obtained a satisfactory idea of it. But, unhappily, 
few of the methods he used in preparing his objects for the micro- 
scope are now known. Boerhaavc examined with the strictest atteiv 
tion all the letters and manuscripts of Swammerdam which he could 
find; but his researches were far from being successful. The follow- 
ing are all the particulars which have come to the knowledge of llie 
public. 

For dissecting small insects Swammerdam had a brass table, to 
which were affixed two brass arms move;d)le at pleasure to any part of 
it. The upper part of these vertical arms was constructed in such a 
manner as to have a slow vertical motion ; by which means the ope- 
rator could readily alter the height as he saw convenient. One of 
these arms was to hold the minute objects, and the other to apply the 
microscope. 

The lenses of Swammerdam's microscopes were of various sizes as 
well as foci ; but all of them the best that could be procured both for 
the transparency of the glass and the fineness of the workmanship. 
His observations were always begun with the smallest magnifiers, from 
which he proceeded to the greatest; but in the use of them he was so 
exceedingly dexterous, tliat he made every observation subservient to 
that which succeeded it, and all of them to the confirmation of each 
other and to the completing of the description. His chief art seems 
to have been in constructing scissars of an exquisite fineness, and 
making them very sharp. Thus he was enabled to cut very minute 
objects to much more advantage than could be done by knives and 
lancets ; for these, though ever so sharp and fine, are apt to disorder 
delicate substances by displacing some of the filaments and drawing 
them after tliem as they pass through the bodies; but the scissars cut 
them all equally. The knives, lancets, and styles he made use of in his 
dissections, were so fine that he could not see to sharpen them without 
the assistance of a magnifying glass; but with these he could dissect 
the intestines of bees with the same accuracy that the best anatomists 
can do those of large animals. He made use also of very small class 
tubes, no thicker than a bristle, and drawn to a very fine point at one 
end but thicker at the other. These were for the purpose of blowing 



3.12 DIRECTIONS rOR THE MICROSCOPE. 

up, and thus rendering visible,' the smallest vessels ^\'llich could be dis- 
co\'ered by the microscope, to trace their courses and communications^ 
or soinetuncs to inject them with coloured liquors. 



PARTS OF INSECTS FOR THE MICROSCOPE. 

The head and the parts of the mouth can seldom be examined without ■ 
the aid of a microscope ; consequently, much still remains to be done 
in this department of science : the palpi, mandibles, maxilla, S^c. (for 
their use and situation, see page 21 to 29) would form a most beauti- 
ful series of objects, which may be rendered still more interesting by 
a knowledge of the manners, economy, &c. of the animals; these parts 
can always be separated and displayed, however old the specimen may 
be, by being plunged into boiling water, and then placed on a piece of 
blotting paper to extract whatever water remains about them: the 
parts of the mouth may then be displayed by means of the setting 
needle, and when the articulations are fine and in danger of breaking, 
a camel's hair pencil will be found extremely useful. The abdomen 
and legs frequently display the most lively and brilliant colours, espe- 
cially the Chrysalida ; the minute Ichneumons are no less to be admired, 
eitlier for their beauty or the singularity of their manners. The wmgs, 
for transparent objects, form an endless variety ; the disposition of the 
nerves is frequently found essential in their generic character, as in the 
Tenthredinidee : these, no doubt, would frequently, with other parts, be 
useful in forming natural genera of many families, both of Hj/me- 
noptera and Diptera, as the parts are easy of examination : in fact, there 
is no part of an insect but what may be rendered a pleasing and in- 
teresting subject. The copious directions for collecting them that I 
have before given, will render any further directions on this head un- 
necessary. 

There is no substance in nature but what will bear an examination 
by the microscope: consequently this instrument is a never-failing 
source of rational amusement; the hair of animals, the feathers of 
birds, the scales of fish, bones, the circulation of the blood, cuttings of 
wood, seeds, vegetable infusions, the leaves of plants, and the innu- 
merable animalcula which are found in every decaying substance, will 
afford employment never to be regretted : I shall therefore close this 
part of the subject by a few brief directions for preparing, examining, 
and obtaining the above, which I trust will be foimd sufficient for the 
purpose. 



OBJECTS FOR THE MXCUOSCOPE. 333 

PARTS OF ANIMALS. 

JPores of the Skin may be examined by cutting off a thin slice from 
any soft part of the body that is not hairy, such as from between the 
fingers, with a razor or sharp penknife — this is a transparent object. 

Hair. — The hairs of different animals vary widely in their appear- 
ance, as also the hairs from the various parts of the human body, and 
will furnish a pleasing series of objects. 

Calcined Bones. — Bones should be heated red hot in a clear fire, by 
which means all the animal juices will be destroyed, and little will be 
left but pure lime of a most delicate whiteness, and highly interesting 
from the beauty of tlie cells : — this is an opaque object. Some useful 
hints on this subject will be foimd in tlie 9th volume of the Mcdico- 
Chinirgical Society Transactions, in a paper by Mr. Howship, which is 
illustrated by plates with the specimens magnified. 

Feathers of' Birds. — These afford an almost endless variety of ob- 
jects, both opake and transparent. 

Scales of Lizards, Snakes, and Fish. — These should be carefully 
cleansed from any dirt or filth; they may always be cleaned by soak- 
ing in water and brushing with a camel's hair pencil. 

Blood. — The circulation of the blood may be easiest seen in the tails 
or fins of small fish, which should be placed in a very thin glass tube. 
Crustacea. — Many animals of this Class require the aid of the mi- 
croscope; to the lovers of the microscope they are highly interestins, 
and well deser^'ing their attention, from the little that is known con- 
cerning them : a few of the species are enumerated in the first sub- 
class of the Crustacea, p. 78 to 82. 

Arachndida. — Several species of this Class are very minute ; they are 
found beneath the bark of trees, attached to the legs of insects, &c. As 
an example of the care we should take in pre])aring objects for the mi- 
croscope, as well as forming an idea of them, it is worth notice to men- 
tion, that the figureof the " Lobster insect," (a species of Obisium) given 
•in Adams's Essays on the Microscope, 4to. has a dentation on the outer 
part of the inner claw, which is in fact a fracture produced by com- 
pression; this was pointed out to me by my much respected friend 
T. Carpenter, Esq. of Tottenham, who has the identical specimen in 
his extensive collection. Many parts of the Spiders form most beau- 
tiful objects, especially the eyes. The webs of spiders in hedges, gar- 
den gates, and gates in woods, may frequently be examined with ad- 
vantage, as these are nets in which many minute and rare insects may 
be found. 

Acari. — This Class of animals have long been celebrated as objects 
lor the microscope; yet it is to be regretted that very little is yet known 
ol"them, most collectors being salislicd by possessing a specimen of the 
" cheese mitt," to exhibit one of the wonders of the little world. 



334 niRECTIONS FOR THE MICROSCOPE. 

Shells. — Minute shells ; these form most elegant subjects, and in ge- 
neral fetch a very high price ; but they may be easily oV^tained by ex- 
amining with a microscope the sand found on the sea shores ; they are 
used as opake objects, and should be placed on a coloured paper that is 
the greatest contrast to the shell. An enumeration with figures of most 
of the minute British shells will be found in Montagu's Teslacca Bri- 
tannica, and Walker's Teatacea miniita, 4to. 1784. 

Animalcula. — These animals are so exceedingly numerous that vo- 
lumes might be written on them. I shall therefore give only a few 
brief directions for the best methods of obtaining them in vegetable in- 
fusions, Sec. 

Infusions of Pepper. — Bruise as much common black pepper as will 
cover the bottom of an open jar, and lay it thereon about half an inch 
thick : pour as much soft water into the vessel as will rise about an 
inch above the pepper, shake the whole well together; after which they 
must be stirred, but be left exposed to the air for a few days, in which 
time a thin pellicle will be formed on the surface, in which innume- 
rable animals are to be discovered by the microscope. 

Eels in Paste — may be obtained by boiling a little flour and water 
into the consistence of honey, then exposing it to the air in an open 
vessel, and beating it frequently to prevent the surface from growing 
hard : in summer, after a few days, eels will be foimd in myriads visi- 
ble to the naked eye, and may be preserved for a length of time by 
keeping the paste moistened with water. 

Vegetable Infusions. — These as well as animal infusions are by far the 
best methods of procuring animalcula. Plants should be placed in a 
glass of either rain dr river water, and suffered to remain until a scum 
is observed on the surface of the water, which acquires thickness by 
standing. In this scum the greatest number of animalcules are found. 
Sometimes it is necessary to dilute the infusions ; but this ought al- 
ways to be done with water, not only distilled Ijut viewed through a 
microscope, lest it should also have animalcules in it, and thus prove 
a source of deception. 

Stagnant waters contain also immense numbers of these very mi- 
mite but interesting animals ; they are also found adhering to duck- 
weed, pieces of wood, &c. A quantity of these should be collected and 
thrown into clean water; they may then be separated and further ex- 
amined. 

Zoophi/tes and Corals. — These are only to be obtained on the sea 
shore, and are found at the recess of the tide. When an opportimity 
occurs of collecting in these places, every piece of sea weed, &c. should 
be examined, as many very rare marine animals are frequently tound 
in them, especially after a storm, 



OBJECTS FOR THE MICROSCOPE. 335 



VEGETABLES. 



iSeeds of Plants afford many pleasing objects, as well as the leaves, 
&c. : they should be gummed to paper, as directed for Insects. 

Moss. — This, in the winter mouths, should always be collected and 
carefully examined, as it not only furnishes many curious subjects 
of itself, but likewise harbours many very beautiful insects, minute 
shells, &LC. 

Farina or the Pollen, of Plants affords some curious subjects, and i-s 
well deserving of a further investigation. In the sixth volume of the 
TraJisactions of the Linncan Society is given an Account of a Micro- 
scopical investigation of several species of Pollen, with some Remarks and 
Questions on the structure and use of that part of vegetables. By Luks 
Howard, Esq. from which the following is extracted. 

" I began my observations," says Mr. Howard, " with the Hazel- 
tree {Corylus Avcllana). On a calm dry day I shook oft" some of the 
pollen from the expanded catkins upon a clean piece of writing-paper : 
I also gathered some ot' the catkins and female buds. These I viewed 
separately on a clear plate of glass, usually transmitting the light 
through them from a speculum below, and with different magnifying 
powers, preferring those which, without enormously enlarging the ob- 
jects, gave a clear view of the structure and position of several at once. 
" 1. Corylus Avcllana. — Anthers furnished with transparent horn- 
like appendages. Pollen crumbles from the surface, and is sometimes 
so abundant as to foil in a visible cloud on the slightest motion of a 
branch. To the naked eye it is a fine yellow powder, A few grains 
laid on the glass plate and viewed with the lens. No. 4; some appear 
of an irregular angular shape, opake, except in one or two parts, where 
light passing presents the appearance of a perforation ; others nearly 
spherical, the surface divided by depressed lines into a number of con- 
vex facets. The transparency of these is such, that they reflect the 
image of a small object held under them, as well as a drop of liquid. 
On repeating the examination, the former are found to come from the 
most mature anthers, and to differ from the latter only as a raisin does 
from a grape. A clear drop of distilled water being put on tlie glass, 
both kinds imbibe it with the avidity of a sponge, at the same time 
distending and spreading abroad in the water, but without any motion 
further than fhat which this expansion causes. When saturated with 
the water they remain at the bottom, clear as the liquid itself, and all 
alike distended to a bulk many times greater than their original one 
ill a dry state. They are now seen to be multilocular capsules, having 
septa in various directions within them, the union of which with tha 
external membrane appears at tlwj angles in the dry state, and at tlie 
depressed lines in the wet. 



336 DIRECTIONS FOR THE MICROSCOPE. 

" These capsules may be kept in the water for several days without 
any further perceptible change. When that is dried up they return to 
the opake state, and the same operation may be several times repeated 
on tliem. 

" In exhibiting this spectacle to some friends, pure water not being 
just at hand, a drop of brandy was substituted for it This gave rise 
to a phenomenon equally curious and unexpected. The grains expand 
as in the water ; but in the mean time they are put into rapid motion, 
each grain darting from side to side with the vivacity of a swarm of 
gnats in the air. As they approach to complete expansion the motion 
dies away, and one after another sinks to the bottom. By a small ad- 
dition of fresh brandy some few are excited a second time, but with 
fainter movements. Presently the liquid begins to he obscured, and in 
a few minutes the grains are mostly dispersed and decomposed, and the 
spirit exhaling, leaves a sort of extract on the glass mixed with many 
undissolved particles, among which sometimes appear a few unbroken 
grains, much changed, and now resembling an empty bladder lying 
Hat." 

Mr. Howard, after the same experiments on various other plants, 
observes, " The proper spirit for this purpose seems to be a mixture of 
one part of pure spirit of wine with two of water. A stronger spirit or 
spirit of wine alone may sometimes be required, when we operate 
upon a pollen which has by any means become previously saturated 
witli moisture, (or has lost, by keeping, a part of its irxitability,) but it 
does not enter the dry grain so readily as water alone. 

" It is proper here to remark, that the utmost care is requisite to 
prevent accidental mixtures of tlie subjects or menstrua in these ex- 
periments, which might greatly embarrass and mislead the observer ; 
separate pieces of clear glass for the several kinds, and separate point- 
ed glass tubes to convey the liquids, will therefore be requisite. It will 
be proper attentively to examine the pollen dry, as well as the liquids 
before they are used, in order to be satisfied of the absence of animal- 
cules and other extraneous matter vvhich might be suspected to in- 
tluenCG the appearances. 

" I do not pretend to say that the above-related experiments were 
absolutely free from optical deception ; but I may venture to affirm, 
from frequent repetition of them, that when tried with due precaution, 
they will scarcely ever be found to fail of producing the appearance re- 
lated." 



MINERALS. 

Crystals. — The name Crystal is given to those polyhedral bodies, 
produced by nature and the operations of chemistry, which possess a 
regular geometrical form ar^^l rectilineal interior structure. 



MINFRAIS. 337 

Observation has shown that every substance in crystalhzing has a 
tendency to assume a peculiar figure. Common suit crystallizes in cubes, 
t'j)som iulls in six-sided prisms, Alum in octahedrons, Sugar-cmiij/ in 
oblique four-sided prisms with wedge-shaped summits. But the cry- 
stalline form in any crystaliizable material is liable to be altered by 
circtmistances aifecting tlie crystallizing process ; and hence the geome- 
trical forms which the same identical substances present, often bear no 
such resemblance to each otlier as would seem to indicate their rela- 
tion. There are, nevertheless, a certain number of figures peculiar to 
every crj'stallizable body, and the crystals of that substance assume 
one or other of these forms, and no other. Common salt, for example, 
when it has assumed its true crystalline shape, presents itself in the 
form of cubes ; it is also met with in octahedrons, dodecahedrons, or 
some figure appertaining to these solids. Sugur-candt/ usually crystal- 
lizes in oblique four-sided prisms, and it likewise occurs in cubes and in 
six-sided prisms with wedge-shaped summits variously modified. Alum 
crystallizes in octahedrons, but it also occurs in cubes. 

Method of obtaining Cri/stuls. — The method of effectmg the crystal- 
lization of such bodies as require a previous state of solution, and 
among which the class of Salts holds a distinguished rank, consists of 
heating tlie solution so as to dissipate gradually part of the water by 
evaporation. It is thus that chemists proceed for obtaining crystals of 
sulphate of potash, muriate of potash, &c. 

The figure of crystals has very little regularity if the water be eva- 
porated too hastily, as by boiling; but by keeping the saline solution 
in a gentle heat, very beautiful and very regular crystals are obtained 
in a longer or shorter space of time; and there is scarcely any salt 
which may not be made to assume a very distinct form by this process 
if it be skilfully conducted. — Accnm. 

Crystals of Camphor. — Camphor dissolves readily in spirits of wine. 
To obtain the crystals it is only necessary to place one drop on a piece 
of glass ; the glass should be held over a candle a few seconds to ac- 
celerate the evaporation of the spirit, and then placed in the micro- 
scope, when the configuration may be seen. 

Crystals of Silver. — This forms a very beautiful and interesting 
object. In one drop of nitrate of silver put a small piece of very 
fine brass wire ; this must be immediately placed in the microscope, 
and the crystals will extend gradually till the whole quantity of fluid is 
evaporated. 

Minerals of all kinds frequently exhibit very curious objects. Sand 
also should be collected and examined, as it is subject to great variety : 
— in fact, a very good kiiowledge might be gained of Mineralogy from 
small specimens, which may be obtained at very reasonable prices, and 
which occupy but little room. 

Y 



AN EXPLANATION 



THE TERMS USED IN ENTOMOLOGY 



jt\BDOMEN, that part of the bodj^ distinct from the thorax, forming 
the hinder part of the insect, and consisting of segments or rings. 
(PL 10. fg. 7. e.) 

Mquale, when it is of the same bre?dth with the thorax. 

Barbatum, with tiifts of hair at the sides or extremity. 

Fakatum, shaped like a sickle. 

Petiolatum, attached to the thorax by means of a slender elongated 
tube. 

Planum, the under part flat. 

Sessile, sitting attached to the thorax in its whole breadth; not di- 
stant and connected by a filament. 

Suhpetiolatum, attached to the thorax by a short tube, nearly equalling 
the thorax in breadth. 
ACULEUS, the Sting, an elongated dart, often poisonous, seated in tjie 
eKtrcniity of the abdomen. 

Compositus, having two or more sharp points or darts. 

IL-xsertiis, projecting, not lying hid within the body. 

Reconditus, always concealed within the abdomen, and seldom thrust 
out. 

Retractilis, for the most part exserted, but capable of being drawn in. 

Simplex, having one dart or point. 

Vaginatus, inclosed in a bivalve sheath. 
ALj¥^ the Wings, the instalments of flight. 

Acuminata, terminating in a subulated apex. 

Angulatm, the posterior margin having prominent angles. 

Angulus ani, the posterior angle of the inferior wings. 

Angulus posticus, that extremity of tlie wing \vhich is opposite to the^ 
base and to the apex. 

Apex, the part opposite to the base, terminating the anterior mar- 
gin. (PI. 10. Jig. 8. c.) 

Basis, the part by which it is connected with the thorax. {PL 10. 
fig. 8. 6.) 



TERMS USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 339 

Bicaudatee, the hinder wings having two projecting processes. 
Cuudata, in which one or more projections in the hinder wings are 

extended into processes. 
Concolores, of the same colour botli on the upper and under surfaces. 
Connivcntes, which when at rest have the anterior margin in part 

contiguous to the inner or posterior margin, whether erect or iiv- 

cumbent. 
Convalutcc, wrapping round the body, the upper surface forming a 

convexity. 
Costa, the margin between the base and the apex. 
CrenatiE, the margin notched, but in such a way that the incisures 

are pointed to neither extremity. 
CruciatiE, incumbent, but the inner margins lying over each other. 
Cruciata complicate, folded together crosswise. 
Dejlexa, incumbent, but not horizontally, the outer edges declining 

towards the sides, 
JDentato-a-osa, hollowed, with denliculations between the hollows. 
Denticulata, with minute distinct teeth. 
DenudateE, a certain part destitute of scales, but opake. 
DigitatcE, divided nearly to the base like fingers. 
Discus, the space between the base, the apex, the margin, and the 

suture. 
Divaricate, incumbent, but diverging behind. 
Hilongata, the posterior margin longer than the interior. 
Erect<£, when at rest, standing up so as to approach each other. 
Eroscc, with minute obtuse hollows and imequal lacinige. 
Excaudata, having no projecting processes. 
Extensa, not lying upon one another, 
Falcata, the posterior margin obtusely hollowed. 
Fcnestrata, with one or more transparent spots. 
Eissa, digitated, divided into linear portions with straight margins. 
Gymnopteree, membranaceous and transparent without scales. 
Horizontaks, which when at rest are parallel to the horizon. 
Hyaline, quite transparent. 
Incumhentes, which when the insect is at rest cover the back of the 

abdomen horizontally. 
IiicurvattE, the anterior margin bent like an arch. 
Integerrime, with a margin linear and not in any wise cut. 
Integra, undivided without indentations. 
Irrorata, marked with exceedingly minute points. 
Lanceolate, oblong attenuated at both extremities. 
Macidate, marked with spots. 
Margo exterior, anticus, crassior ale, the margin between the base 

and the apex. 

V 2 



310 



AN EXPLANATION" OF 



Margo posterior, tlie margin between the apex and the angulm po- 
sticus. 

Margo interior or tenum\ the margin etsveen the base and the an- 
gidus posticus. 

Nebuhike, marked with many scattered, abrupt lines, of various 
forms. 

I>crvosa, with nerves larec for the size of the wins;. 

~\T' • 1- . • 

Jyitidissuiia, with scales exceedingly smooth and resplendent. 

Ocellatie, with one or more ocelli, or eye-like markings. 

Pagina superior, the upper surface of the wings. 

Pugina inferior, the under surface. 

Putentes, horizontal, extended when at rest, not uniting or incum- 
bent. 

Patuhe, nearly horizontal, little inclined, and not incumbent. 

Platue, extended horizontally, which cannot be folded up. 

Plicata, wings which when at rest are folded up, but expanded in ^ 
flight. 

Punctata, marked with very small dots. 

Radiated, with nerves diverging like rays from a common centre. 

Pepanda, with a waving but plain margin. 

Peticulata, with nen'cs disposed like net-work. 

Pevcrsa, dcflexed, the margin of the secondary wings projecting 
from under the primary. 

Potundatcc, the posterior margin rounded and devoid of angles. 

Subcaudata, the process in the posterior wings, hardly longer ttmn a 
serrature. 

Suberosie, s(>mewhat indented, but irregularly. 

Tessellata, marked with black spots so disposed as to resemble a che- 
quered pavement. 

Tru?icat(£, with the posterior angle straight. 

TumidcT, with elevated membranes among the veins. 

VuriegatcE, of different colours. 

Vndtdata, marked with continuous and nearly parallel waving lines. 

UnguiculatcB, with a membranaceous tooth or claw at the casta or 
exterior margin. 
ANASTOMOSIS, a spot in the upper wing, at the branching of the 
nerves, near the anterior margin. 

Striga, observing the course of the nerves. 
ANTENNiE {or Horns) For the supposed use of these organs see p. "21 . 
They are subject to the greatest variety : the number of joints, 
their form, &c. should always be considered, as they are useful in 
distinguishing genera; they are discriminated as follows. 

Aculeatte, armed with small sharp points. 

Aculeato-serrata, set with thick prickles turned towards tlie apex. 



THE TERMS USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 341 

Acukato-nncinatte-, set with hook-shaped prickles. 

Acuminato-setacea, terminated with a stiff sharp-pointed hair. 

Amphi-ophthalm(e, wholly or in part surrounded by the eyes, 

ApproximatcE, close together at their base. 

Arhtat/c, furnished with a compressed lateral knob, having attached 
to it a short beard or bristle. 

Artkulata, with distinct joints or articulations. 

Barbata, with tufts of hair at the articulations. 

Breves, shorter than the body. 

Capitata, clavated, ending in a knob. 

CatoplUhahiue, when placed behind the eyes. 

Ciliatcey fringed with parallel seta, inserted along the side of the an- 
tenna through their whole length. 

Clavata, club-shapcd, terminating in a knob; growing gradually 
thicker towards the ape.x. 

Coadunata, connected at the base. 

Dentata, set with remote spreading points in one direction. 

Distincta, not united at their base. 

Elongata, when longer than the head. 

Exarticulata, with no distinct articulations. 

Filata, simple, without a lateral hair or thread. 

FUiJbrmes, of the same thickness through their whole length, 
Hyperophthalma, placed above the eyes. 

Hypophthalma, placed under the eyes. 

Lamellata, pectinated, but with scales instead of bristles. 
LongiT, longer than the body. 
Mcdiocres, of the same length with the body. 

MonUiformes, with distinct subglobular joints or bead-like articula- 
tions. 
Mucronata, terminating in a sharp projecting point. 
Nuda, not garnished with hairs or bristles. 
Nutantes, at the points bent downwards. 
Fectmata, comb-shaped, or sending out from both sides parallel 

bristles the whole length. 
Perfoliata, the club being horizontally divided, the pieces connected 

in the middle. 
Pe?-foliato-imbricata, consisting of small concave pieces, imbricated 

and connected in the middle. 
Plumosa, like a plume of feathers. 
Porrecta, stretched straight forward. 
Prismatica, linear, with more than two flat sides. 
Pro-ophthalma, placed before the eyes. 
Pamosa, with many lateral branches. 
Remota, distant from each other. 
Rigida, not flexible. 



342 AN EXPLANATION OF 

Securiformes, shaped somewhat Uke an axe. 

Serrata, toothed Hke a saw, the incisures turned towards the extre- 
mities. 
Setacea, growing gradually more attenuated from the base to the point. 
Seticornes, in the shape of a bristle. 
Simplices, not branched. 
Spinosa, set with large subulated spines. 
Spirlformes, rolled into a spiral form. 
Subulata, linear at the base, growing more slender and pointed at 

the apex. 
Tf'uncata, the club terminated abruptly by a transverse line. 
Verticillatds, with hairs arranged in whorls at the joints. 
IJncinattE, clavated and mucronated, the point reflexed so as nearly 
to form a right angle. 
Aptera, insects without wings; many of the Coleoptera are desti- 
tute of wings, and in most of such species the elytra are close, 
not separable : the females of several species of the Lepidoptera 
are also destitute of wings ; as are also some of the Hymenoptera. 
AREOLiE, Wing-cells. In Hi/menopfera these are essential in the ge- 
neric character ; as in Tenthredinidte, S,-c. 
Marginales, those cells situated on the upper part of the wing near 

the apex. (See pi. tO. fig. 10. a. a.) 
Submarginales are beneath the above. (PI. 10. fig. 10. b. b. b.) 
AfvTus, the various instruments of motion, viz. the wings, the feet, &c, 

(See p. 33.) 
ATOMUS, a very minute dot or point. 
Body. See Corpus. 
CAPUT. The Head. 

Angulatum, the margin cornered. 

Attenuatum, lengthened, blunt at the base, growing narrower at the 

apex. 
Attenuatum postice, blunt at the apex, narrower at the base. 
Basis, the ])art connected to the thorax. 
Canaliculatum, with one or more deep hollow lines. 
Cli/peatum, covered above with a leaf-like spreading substance. 
Conicum, cylindrical, growing smaller at the apex. 
Cornutum, some part ending in a horn. 

Depressum, pressed downwards as it were, or thinner than broad. 
Emarginatwn, terminating in a notch. 
Exsertum, distinctly separated from the thorax. 
Gibbum, convex both above and below. 

Injlexum, not on the same plane with the thorax, bending inward. 
Integrum, undivided, without any furrow. 

Lunatum, roundish, divided at the base by a hollow, the hinder an- 
gles acute. 



THE TERMS USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 543 

Marginatum, with a free elevated margin. 

Muticum, not furnished with horns, spines, or tubercles. 

Nutans, fixed transversely at right angles witli the thorax. 

Porrectum, prominent and elongated. 

Prolongatum tuho, the apex running out into a tube. 

Prominens, on the same plane with the thorax, but narrower. 

Retractile, capable of being drawn at pleasure within the thorax, and 

concealed there. 
Retractum, placed within the thorax, and not to be distinguished from 

it. 
Rttgosum, wrinkled, marked with waved and elevated lines either 

longitudinally or transversely. 
Tuberculatum, rough with rigid prominent warts or tubercles. 
CAUDA, the Tail, a part affixed to the extremity of the abdomen. (See 
p. 33). 
Aristata, terminating in a bristle or slender thread. 
Biseta, having two slender attenuated setae. 
Foliacea, spreading out like a membrane. 
Rostrata, standing out like a beak. 
Setosa, elongated, slender, gradually attenuated. 
Triquetra, having three plane sides. 

Triseta, having three slender attenuated setie, as in Ephemera. 
Chela, the extreme part of the foot, with a moveable lateral toe like 

the claw of a crao. 
Chrysalis, (the pupa of those Papilionida that are often of a golden 

colour) synonymous with Pupa. 
Cicatrix, an elevated and somewhat rigid spot. 
CiNGULA, coloured bands or belts surrounding the abdomen. 
Clypeus, a horny horizontal part of the head covering the mouth. 

(See p. 30.) 
CoLEOPTRA, both elytra. 

COLOR. — The colour of insects varies greatly, and it frequently oc- 
curs that the species cannot be determined by this alone. Many 
circumstances will tend to alter the colour ; as a change of food, 
the age, &€. and such casualties should be allowed for. In study- 
ing the species and arranging varieties, the extreme of both light 
and dark specimens should always be retained. 
Mruginosus, light blueish green, like verdigrise. 
Alhus, dull white. 
Albidus, dirty dull white. 
Ater, the purest and deepest black. 

Atro-purpureus, very dark red, almost approaching to black. 
Atro-vlrens, dark green, bordering on dark blue. 
Aureus, gold-yellow, without any foreign mixture. 



344 AN EXPLANATION OP 

Aurantlaais, orange, or a mixture of yellow and red. 

Azia-eux, azure blue, nearly the same with Caruleus, but bright like 

ultramarine. 
Badius, chesnut or liver-brown bordering on dark red. 
Brunneus, the darkest pure brown. 
Casius, pale blue, verging towards gray. 
Cceruleus, sky-blue. 

Canus, hoary, with more white than gray. 
Carneus, flesh-colour, something between white and red. 
Cinereus, ash-colour, blackish gray. 
Coccineus, cinnabar-colour, with a slight tinge of blue. 
Croceus, saffron-colour, dark orange. 
Cyaneus, dark blue like Prussian blue. 
Terrugineus, brown, verging towards yellow. 
Flavo-virens, green, verging upon yellow. 
Fiiscvs, brown, running into gray. 
Griseus, lively light gray. 
Glaucus, green, bordering upon gray. 
Hepaticus, liver-brown. 
Lacteus, shining white. 
Late?-itius, brick-colour, like Minialus, but duller, and verging towards 

yellow. 
Lilacinus, lilae, like Violaceus, but duller, and verging more towards 

red. 
Lividus, dark gray running into violet. 
Luteus, yellow. 

Miniatus, high red, like red-lead. 
Niger, black, with a tinge of gray. 
Ochraceus, yellow, with a small tinge of brown. 
PaUidns, of a pale cadaverous hue. 
TalUde-Jlavens, pale or whitish yellow. 
Frasinna, grass-green without any tinge of blue. 
Puniceus, fine bright red like carmine. 
. Roseus, rose-colour, a pale blood-red. 

Sajtguiuei/s, pure red, but duller than Puniceus. 
Sidphureus, bright yellow. 
Tcstaceus, a dark red, or brick-colour. 
Violaceus, violet-colour, a mixture of blue and red. 
Vitellinus, yellow, with a slight tinge of red. 
CORPUS, the Body (and see also Abdomen). This part is frequently 

considered in the generic characters, and designated as under, 
Compressum, flattened at the sides. 
Depression, depressed, thinner than broad. 
Glabrum, of a smooth shining surface. 



THE TERMS USED IN ENTOMOLOGV. 346 

Hemisphericum, convex above, flat below, like the section of a globe. 

Lineare, oblong, equal in breadth throughout. 

Marginatwn, with a free elevated margin. 

Membranaccum, nearly of the consistence of a leaf. 

Nitidum, the surface smooth and shining. 

Nudum, not covered with either wool, hair, or bristles. 

Oblongum, the transverse diameter much less than the longitudinal. 

Obovatum, inversely ovate, the narrow end downwards. 

Obtusion, blunt, rounded at the apex. 

Orbiculatum, the transverse diameter equal to the longitudinal. 

Ovale, egg-shaped, the outline at both extremities equal. 

Ovation, the longitudinal diameter exceeding the transverse, and the 
latter broader at the base than at the apex. 

Pilosum, set with distinct long hairs. 

Planum, the imder part flat. 

Pubescens, covered with soft hair. 

Petusum, terminating in an obtuse hollow. 

Potundatum, the outline nearly circular, without comers. 

Pugosion, wrinkled, marked with waved and elevated lines, either 
longitudinally or transversely. 

Scabrum, rough, with hard raised points. 

Sericeum, covered with soft shining hairs. 

Tomcntomm, covered with a soft down or wool. 
Ckustaceus, somewhat hard, elastic, resisting the impression of tlie 

finger. 
Declaratum TxsECTfM, the insect arrived at its perfect state. 
Discus, of the wing, elytra, &c. the middle between the base, the 

apex, the margin, and the suture {PL 10. Jig. 5. a.) 
ELYTRA, two crustaceous or coriaceous wings, expanded in flight, 
when at rest covering the abdomen, and inclosing the membra- 
naceous wings. (See p. 37.) The elytra arc subject to great variety 
in Colour, Markings, Sculpture, &:c. and are distinguished by many 
terms in common with Abdomen, Ala, Thorax, i^x. They are called 

Abbrevlata, when shorter than the abdomen. 

Aculeata, armed with small sharp points. 

Angustata, narrower than the back. 

Apex, the part at the extremity of the alsdomen. (P/. 10. Jig. 5. d.) 

Attenuata, attenuated, blunt at the base, growing narrower at the 
apex. 

Basis, the part next the thorax. {PI. 10. fig. 5. c.) 

Canaliculatu, with deep hollow lines. 

^arinata, forming a ridge at the suture. 

Coadunata, undivided, joined together at the suture. 

Convexa, the surface elevated like the section of a sphere. 



346 AN EXPLANATION OF 

Coriacea, of a substance like leather. 

Dejlexa, the edges declining towards the sides. 

Dentata, the margin or apex set with sharp pointed processes. 

Denticulata, with minute distinct teeth. 

Dimidiata, covering but half of the back. 

•Emarginata, terminating in a notch. 

Fastigiata, transverse, at the apex emarginate. 

Fenestrafa, with one or more transparent spots. 

Fkxilla, capable of being bent, not crustaceous. 

Hirta, thickly covered with short hairs. 

Hisplda, set with short rigid bristles. 

Itnynarginata, without a margin or distinct rim. 

ImmobUia^haX cannot be moved,and consequently are useless for flight. 

Inaqualia, the surface not flat, but with irregular elevations and de- 
pressions. 

Integra, completely covering the back. 

Linearkt, oblong, equal in breadth throughout. 

Lineata, marked with depressed lines. 

Lineato-punctata, dotted, the dots or punctures disposed in lines. 

Marginata, with a free elevated margin. 

Margo, the outer rim next the belly, from the base to the apex. 

Murkata, rough, with rigid spines. 

Mutilata, which do not completely cover the back, whether with re- 
spect to length or breadth. 

Filosa, set with distinct hairs. 

Porcata, with elevated longitudinal lines or ridges. 

Framorsa, the apex terminating obtusely, with unequal incisures. 

Puhescentia, covered with soft hair. 

Punctata, marked with very small excavated dots or punctures. 

Rigida, not flexible. 

Motundata, the apex without angles. 

Rugosa, wrinkled, marked with waved and elevated lines, either 
longitudinally or transversely. 

Scabra, rough with hard raised points. 

Sericea, covered with soft shining hairs. 

Sinuata, a hollow, a deep furrow as if scooped out. 

Spinosa, the margins set with subulated rigid spines. 

Striata, slightly channelled with parallel lines. 

Submarginata, the margin having a distinct rim, but neither free nor 

elevated. 
Subrotunda, the outline nearly circular. 
Subulata, linear at the base, growing more slender, and pointed at 

the apex. 
Sulcata, with one or more deep hollow furrows. 



THE TERMS USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 347 

Sutura, the part where the elytra meet and form a line in the middle 
of the back from the base to the apex. 

Tomentoxa, covered with soft down or wool. 

Truncalu, abbreviated, the ape.x terminating in an abrupt line. 

TubercuUdu, roi^h, with rigid prominent warts or tubercles. 

Villosa, covered with soft hair. 
Eruca, the old word for Lama. 
Escf TELLATirs, having no scutellum. 
FASCIA, a broad transverse line or band. 

Abbreviata, not extending throughout the wing. 

Coimnunis, extended over both upper and under wings. 

Dimidiata, running only half the length of the wing. 

Hyallna, quite transparent. 

Iiiterriiptu, broken, but continued either above or below. 

Sesquiiertia, occupying the iburth part of the wing. 

Terminalis, near the apex and posterior margin. 

Undata, with waving obtuse sinuses. 
Fasciculus, a bundle or tuft of hair as on the back of many caterpillars. 
FEMUR, the thigh, that part of the limb nearest the body. {PI. 10. 
fig. 6. b.—Jlg^7. c.) 

Arcuatum, bent, like a circular arch. 

Basis, the part next the body. 

Dcntaiiwi, the margin having one or more indentations. 

Hispidiim, get with short rigid bristles. 

Ina-assatum, growing thicker in the middle. 

Muticum, without spine or tooth. 

Saltatorium, thick, formed for leaping. 

Spinosum, set with large siibulated sj»ines. 
(Femora) simpUda, equal, and without any remarkable difference in 

thickness. 
Fenestra, a clear transparent spot. 
HABITAT, the habitation, the places where insects are usually found. 

Abietis, fir-groves. 

Absinthetis, places where wormwood abounds. 

Agris, artificial grass-fields, clover. Sec. 

Alnctis, places abounding in alder. 

Animalibus putridis, dead animals in woods, sides of rivers, &c. 

Aquis, water. 

Aquisjiuentibus, running streams. 

Aquis stagnantibus, ponds and standing waters. 

Arundinetis, reedy fens. 

Betuletis, birch-trees, or woods. 

Boleto, boletaria and fi^mgi. 

Carduetis, places overgrown with thistles. 

Ckelidoniis, where celandine grows. 



348 AN EXPLAKATION OF 

CompascuU, grassy commons. 

Corylis, nut-trees. 

Cretaceis, chalky places. 

Domibus, houses or out-houses in the shade 

jynmctis, bushy places or thickets. 

Ericetis, heaths or heathy commons. 

Floribus, the blossoms of floAvers. 

Fossis, ditches full of aquatic plants. 

Fungis, funguses in all their states. 

Graminosis, grassy banks, &c. 

Hortis, gardens, the resort of many rare and interesting insects, which 

if extensive, will afford full employ at all hours oi tlie day and 

seasons of the year. 
Ixipidibus, stones. Suh lapides, under stones. 
Lappaceis, places where burdock abounds. 
Lichenosis, trees and pales abounding in lichens. 
Ligno putrido, decayed trees and wood. 
Lzicis, thick woods. 
Nemoribus, shady groves. 
Paludibus, marshy grounds. 
Parietinis, shady sides of old walls. 
Pascuis, pastures. 
Peridumetis, skirts of woods. 
Pinetis, where pines are plentiful. 
Populetis, among poplars. 
Prat is, meadows. 
Quercefis, among oaks. 
Ripis, banks of gross weeds. 
Sabulosis, sandy places. 
Salicetis, amongst willows. 
Segetibits, grassy borders, &c. of corn fields. 
Sepibus, hedges. 

Sepimentis, lanes between hedges, mostly moist. 
Septis, old shady pales and rails. 
SicciJ'oliis, withered leaves on oaks, &c. 
Spa7'tiosis, broom fields. 
Stagnis, ponds wherein water-plants grow. 
Stercore, the dung of animals, especially of horses and cat-tic. 
Sylvis, woods, open only in their paths. 
Siflvaticis, considerable open parts in woods. 
Tiliaceis, among limes. 
TrunciS) shady trunks of trees. 
Viminosis, ozier-holts. 
Ulicetig, commons abounding in furze. 
Uliginosis, bogs, fens, and moist pjaces. 



THE TERMS USBD IN r:?TOMOLOGy. 349 

TUinosk, amongst elms. 

UmbeUifa-is, on unibelliterous plants in hedges and wood sides. 
IIALTEKES (see p. 37), poisers, in the Order of Diptera; two globu- 
lar bodies placed on slender stalks behind the wings, and seated 
on the thorax; sometimes they are an arched membranaceous 
scale. 
HAMULI. These are very minute hooks or crotchets, discoverable 
under, a good magnifier, on the inferior wings of many Ilymeno- 
pterous insects, by means of which they are kept steady in flying. 
— Kirby. 
Hastata, a javelin-shaped mark that is triangular; the base and sides 

hollowed, the posterior angles spreading horizontally. 
HAUSTELLUJM, a sort of trunk at the mouth of insects, principally 
of the Diptera, consisting of seta?, which are either inclosed in a 
bivalve sheath or without one. 
Head. See Caput. 

IIiijiFLYTRA, wings either wholly or in part formed of a substance in- 
termediate between leather and membrane. 
IIexapoda insecta, having six feet, as in all genuine insects. 
Hyalina, wings, elytra, &c. quite transparent. 
IMAGO, the perfect insect after having gone through the states of 

Lai-va and Pupa. 
Imbricatus, set with scales, lying over each other like the tiles of a 

house. 
Instita, a stria of equal breadth throughout, 
La«rum. (See p. 28.) 

LARVA, caterpillar, grub or maggot ; the insect as it comes from the 
egg, slow, sterile, and voracious. 
Caudata, with a tail or horn, as in most of the Sphingida. 
Gregaria, those lar\ce that live in society-, many of them inclosed in 

a web. 
Nuda, naked, not hairy. 
Polyphaga, that will eat a variety of plants. 

Subcutanea, small caterpillars that feed within the substance of the 
leaf. 
LiNEA, a line, the twelfth part of an inch. 
LINGUA, the Tongue. (See p. 29.) 

HepUcutilk, the point capable of being tiunied hack. 
Spiralis, capable of being rolled up like the spring of a watch be- 
tween the palpi. {PI. 1iO. fig. 9.) 
LiTURA, a spot of a deeper colour in one part than another. 
LiNULA, a spot shaped like a new moon. 

MACULA, a spot, larger than punctum, of an indeterminate figure, 
and of a different colour from the ground. ( PI. 10. fg. 8. //.) 



350 AN EXPLANATION OP 

Annularis, round, the middle of the same colour with the rest of the 

wing. 
DeUoidea, nearly triangular. 
Flexuosa, irregularly waving. 
MANDIBUL.'E^ the mandibles. (See p. 28. PI. 10. fg. 1. d.) 
Manus, a foot shaped like the claw of a cralj. 
Marginatus, thorax, elytra, &c. with a free elevated margin. 
MAXILLyE, organs at the mouth, generally semicircular, pointed at 
the ends, moving transversely, that is, horizontally, not perpendi- 
cularly as in the human species, for the purpose of holding and 
comminuting the food. (See also p. 28. PL 10. fg. 2. a. — b. c. 
maxilla?^ palpi.) 
Dentat(c, the margins set with sharp pointed processes. 
Porcipata, like a pair of pincers. 
Purcata, forked, divided into two parts at the ends. 
Lunulata, thick in the middle, and smaller towards the base and the 

apex. 
Prominentes, placed straight before the head, and on the same plane. 
Mentdm, the chin. This part is most observable in the iwcunMS Cer- 

VIIS. 

METAMORPHOSIS.— The transformation of an insect from the larm 
to the pupa, and previous to its last or perfect state. The meta- 
morphosis of insects is delined as follows. 

Coarctata, of an oblong cylindrical shape with no part of the body vi- 
sible ; as in the Order Omaloptera. 

Jncompleta, with motionless feet and wings ; as in Coleoptcra, Jxpi- 
doptera, c^rc. 

Semicompleta, when the pupa moves, eats, and has wing-cases; as in 
Derinaptera, Orthoptcra, P)ictyoptera, Heniiptera, ^x. 
OCELLI (or Stemmata), little shining eyes generally placed together on 
the crown of the head, for the purpose of seeing objects at a di- 
stance and above the insect. 

Dioptraii, with a transparent pupil divided transversely by a small 
line. 

Sesquialter or Sesquiocellus, a large ocellus inclosing a smaller one. 
OCULI, the eyes (see p. 21). All insects have at least two eyes: the 
Arachnoida have six or eight, arranged for the most part on the 
vertex or summit of the head. They are subject to considerable 
variety in situation and shape, and are distinguished as under. 

Approximati, when placed close together. 

Bini, two eyes, one placed on each side of the head. 

Colorati, of a different colour from that of the head. 

Cornpositi, furnished with many and often numerous lenses, for the 
purpose of seeing near objects and those at a distance. 

Concolores, of the same colour with the head and body. 



THE TERMS USED IN ENTOMOL^TOT. 351 

Contigui, touching one another, 

Fasciati, marked with stripes of a different colour : this may be ob- 
served in several of the Dipterous insects, particularly those of the 
Tabinida; but the colours fade when the insect is dead. 
. Fenesiraii, the pupil glassy and transparent. 

Hemispherici, convex, like the section of a globe. 

Immubiks, so fixed in the head as to be incapable of motion. 

Inferi, placed on the under side of the head. 

Inlerrupti, broken, but continued either above or below, as in tho 
Gyrinid(E. 

Laterales, placed at each side of the head. 

Lunati, resembling a crescent or new moon. 

Mobiles, so situated as to be moveable. 

Obliterati, the pupil scarcely distinguishable. 

Octoni, eight distinct eyes, as in many of the Aj-achn'oida. 
, Ovaks, egg-shaped, the outline at both extremities equal. 

Pedunculati, elevated on a stalk or peduncle. 

Plani, the surface on the same plane with the head. 

Prominuli, standing far out from the head. 

Quatcrni, with four eyes. 

Remoti, distant from each other. 

Reniformes, kidney-shaped, nearly round, hollowed on one side. 

Seni, with six distinct eyes. 

Simplices, furnished with only one lens. 

Variegati, of different colours. 

Vertkales, placed on the crown of the head. 
OS, the mouth and its parts. (See p. 27.) 

Inferum, when placed on the under side of the head. 

]\Iaxillosum, with large maxillce. 

Pectorale, situated in the breast, in a tube or rostrum. 

Terminale, the apex of the head. 
Pagiita superior, the upper surface of the wing. 

' inferior, the under surface. 

Palatum, the interior part of the transterse lip. 
PALPI, organs placed at the mouth, often articulated, and geilierally 
shorter than the antennfe, and are either t-.vo, four, or six. {PL 10. 
ftg. 1. e. g. labial palpi, f.f. maxillary palpi!) 

Clavati, club-shaped, terminating in a knob; growing gradually 
thicker towards the apex. 

Elongati, longer than common, or longer than the mouth. 

E.varticulati, with no distinct articulations. 

Fixserti, projecting, not lying hid. 

Filiformes, of the same thickness tliroughout. 

Jncurvi, turning straight upwards at the ends, over the head. 

Pediformes, with a genicuiated articulation like a foot. 



352 AN EXPLANATION OF 

Porrecti, stretched straight forwards.. 
Recti, straight, without tiexure. 
Hecurvati, turned back. 
Securiformes, shaped somewhat hke an axe. 

Setacei, growing gradually more attenuated from the base to the apex, 
Simplkes, not articulated. 

Suhulati, linear at the base, growing more slender and pointed at the 
apex. 
Patella;, orbicular, elevated, moveable bodies on which the base of 

the femora rests, as in the Ichneumonidte. 
Pectin'es, in the genus Scorpio, two bodies situated between the abdo- 
men and the breast, dentated on one side, but t!ie number of teeth 
varies. 
Pectus, ihe Breast^ the under part of the thorax to which the feet are 

attached. 
PEDES, the Limhs. — This term is applied by I^nne to the whole limb, 
including the /ewm/-, tihin, tarsi, and unguis. The formation of the 
legs will generally determine the habits of insects, and are called 
Cursorii, when formed for running. 
AFutici, without claws or spines. 
Natatorii, cojnpressed, doubly ciliated and two-edged, formed for 

swimming. 
Saltatorii, with thick thighs, formed for leaping. 
Serrati, dentated or toothed like a saw. 
Spinosi, set with large subulated spines. 
l^ETioLATUM, haviug a slender elongated tube connecting the abdomen 
to the thorax : this is observable in many of the Hymenopterous in- 
sects. 
pLAXTiE, the under part of the tarsi. 

Hemisp/iericiP, concave and nearly circular : this kind of tarsus is pe- 
culiar to the aquatic Coleoptera. {PL 3. Jig. 13. a.) 
PROBOSCIS, a hollow tube at the mouth, often fleshy, and enlarging 
at the point. 
Iiifiexa, tending towards the breast. 
Plicatilis, pliable, so that it can be folded up. 
Porrecta, stretched straight forward. 
JRccurvata, turning backwards. 
PUPA, Aurdia, Chrysalis, Nj/mpha, the animal changed from a larsOf 
often motionless, destitute of mouth, &c. See Metamoi-phosis. 
ToUiculata, inclosed in a case made of hair or silk, or of leaves, 

wool, earth, &c. conglutinated together. 
Nuda, not inclosed in a case, not folliculated. 
Ohtecta, wrapped up in a crustaceous covering, the thorax and abdo- 
men obvious. 
Punctata, Elytra, fyc. sprinkled witli hollow dots or punctures. 



THE TERMS USED IN EXTOMOLOGY. 353 

PuNCTUM, a small dot of a different colour from the rest of the wing. 
Ccillosum, an elevated and somewhat rigid point. 
Gcminum, two spots near each other but separated. 
Hamosum, divided into distant parts. 

Oceltare, an orbicular spot of a different colour in the middle. 
Sesquialterum, formed of two spots that are distinct but contiguous. 
Reniformis, kidney-shaped, nearly round, hollowed on one side. 
RivuLus, a stripe running irregularly over the wing, and of a different 

colour from it. 
ROSTRUM, the mouth lengthened out into a snout or tapering beak; 
this part is subject to great variations, and mthe Curculionida, ^c. 
is essential in the generic character. 
Acutum, the apex forming an acute angle. 
Apex, the point. 

Arcuatwn, bent like a circular arch. 
Basis, the part next the head. 
Bivalve, consisting of two concave valves, united so as to form a 

tube. 
Breve, shorter than the head. 

Canaliculatum, with a deep hollow groove in the middle. 
Conicum, cylindrical, growing smaller at the apex. 
Cylindj-icum, linear and round. 

Geniculatum, bent, and making an angle at the flexure. 
Injiexum, not projecting, but bent towards the breast. 
Longim, longer than the head and thorax. 
Longum, longer than the head. 
Longissimum, longer than the body. 

Multivalve, forming a tube by means of many valves uniting. 
Nutans, transversely fixed to the head. 
Forredum, prominent and elongated. 
Rectum, produced but not bent. 

Setaceum, slender, flexible, and gradually tapering towards the apex. 
Tubidosum, perforated like a tube ; entire. 
RuGosus, with waved and elevated lines, either longitudinally or trans- 
versely. 
Saltatorii, such insects that have their legs with thick thighs strong 

and formed for leaping. 
SCUTELLUM. — This partis separated from the thorax by a transverse 
line, and lies between the wings or wing-cases ; its form is gene- 
rally triangular. 
Seta, a fine hair or bristle. 
Sexes of Insects, are distinguished in Entomological works, by (J {Mars) 

for male, and 5 ( Venus) female. 
Sinus, a hollow, an excavation as if scooped out. 

z 



354 AN EXPLANATION OF 

Spiuacula, the respiratory organs, situated on the sides of the abdo' 

men. 
SquamulajA Scale; an erect membrane placed between the thorax and 

abdomen. 
Stemmata, the Ocelli or httle eyes placed on the summit of the head : 

these are fre(|uently considered in the character of a genus. 
Sternum, the ridge running under the breast; this part is very con- 
spicuous in the Dyticidce. 
Stigma, a spot or mark generally on the upper wing. 
STRIA, a longitudinal line, and often punctured, generally extending 
from the base to the apex of the elytra. 
Obsolefa, indistinct, as if obliterated. 
Striga, a narrow transverse line. 
Sulcus, a deep hollow furrow. 

SuTURA, the part where the elytra meet and form the line in the mid- 
dle of the back, from the base to the apex. 
Tarsus, the Foot. The form and number of the joints vary according 
to the insect's mode of life: in several species of the Coleoptera the 
anterior tarsi of the male are frequently broader than those of the 
female, and consequently serve as a sexual distinction. The num- 
ber of joints in the tarsi serves as sections of the Order Coleoptera. 
Tergum, the upper part or back of the abdomen. 
Tessellata, spotted or marked with another colour chequerwise. 
THORAX, the part intermechate to the head and body. (Seep. 31.) 
This part is subject to the greatest variety in shape, sculpture, &c. 
Many of the terms used to distinguish the elytra in Coleoptera are 
also applicable to the thorax. 
Aculeatus, furnished with sharp spines. 
^qualis, when of the same breadth with the elytra. 
Angulatus, the posterior margin having prominent angles. 
Canaliculatus, with a deep longitudinal groove in the middle. 
Carinatus, the middle part of the disc raised into a straight longitu- 
dinal ridge. 
Convexus, when the surface is elevated like the section of a sphere. 
Cm'datus, heart-shaped, the base notched, without angles. 
Crenatm, the margin notched, Init in such a way that the incisures 

are pointed to neither extremity. 
Cristatiis, the carinated ridge arched, dentated, and compressed. 
Cucullatus, the carinated ridge hollowed before into a kind of hood. 
Discus, the middle of the thorax, the line from 6 to c {Jig. 4:. pi. 10). 
Gibbus, the disc elevated but not spherical. 
Immarginafus, without clypeus or distinct rim. 
Ina:quulis, the surface not flat, but with irregular elevations and de- 
pressions. 



THE TERMS USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 355 

Integer, Integerrimus, with the margin linear and not in anywise 

cut. 
Lineatus, marked longitudinally with coloured lines. 
Lohatns, divided into distinct parts. 
Marginatus, with a free elevated margin. 
Margo, the part surrounding the disc. 
Muticus, not furnished with horns, spines, or tubercles. 
Nitidus, the surface smooth and shining. 
Ohcordutus, heart-shaped, with the apex towards the abdomen. 
Oblongus, the transverse diameter much less than the longitudinal. 
Ohovatus, inversely ovate. 
Obtusus, blunt, or rounded at the apex. 

Orhicidatus, the transverse diameter equal to the longitudinal. 
Ovalis, egg-shaped, the outline at both extremities equal. 
Ovatus, the longitudinal diameter exceeding the transverse, and the 

latter broader at the base than at the apex. 
Planus, the surface on the same plane with the head. 
Punctatus, with hollow dots or punctures. 
Returns, terminating in an obtuse hollow. 
Rotitndatus, the outline nearly circular, without corners. 
Rtigosus, wrinkled, marked with waved and elevated lines, either 

longitudinally or transversely. 
Serratus, the margin toothed like a saw. 
Spinosus, the margins furnished with rigid spines. 
Squarrosus, divided into elevated laciniae. 
Striatus, slightly channelled with parallel Imes. 
Suhmarginatus, the margin having a distinct rim, but neither free 

nor elevated. 
Subrotundus, the outline nearly circular. 
Sulcatus, with one or more deep hollow fitrrows. 
Teretiuscultis, nearly cylindrical. 
Tetragonus, with four corners. 
Transversus, linear, but transverse. 

Tuberculatus, rough with rigid ]>rominent warts or tubercles. 
Villosus, covered with soft down or hair. 
Tibia, a part of the leg between the femora and tarsi. 
Trochanteres, spines fixed to the legs tp assist them in running; 

these are common to most of the Carabid(E. 
Vagina, a bivalve sheath at the mouth of many Ilymenopterous and 
Dipterous insects sometimes articulated. Mr. Kirby uses it in Jfy- 
menoptera to include every part the otfice of which is to cover, de- 
fend, or support the tongue. Vagina is sometimes used for that 
part which contains the sting of insects. 
•Valvul;e, small concave membranes inclosing the proboscis. 
VENiE, Veins; the vessels diffused throughoui the wings; theveining 

z 2 



356 TERMS USED IN ENTOMOLOGY. 

of the wings may alwaj's be considered with great advantage in 
the generic characters of insects, especially such as have them 
transparent. 
Venter, the vmder part of the abdomen. 
Vertex, the crown or summit of the head. 
ViLLOSus, covered with soft hair. 
ViTTA, a Stria with a waved or furrowed margin. 

Interrupta, not extending in a continued line but continued either 

above or below. 
Kepunda, with waving acute sinuses. 
Vnduta, with waving obtuse sinuses. 
Ungues, the Clows, subulated hook-shaped spines at the apex of the 
tarsi. 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGIST'S CALENDAR, 

EXHIBITING THE TIME OF APPEARANCE AND HABITA- 
TION OF NEAR THREE THOUSAND SPECIES OF 
BRITISH INSECTS. 



Jn forming the following Calendar, I have been anxious to render it as 
extensive as possible, and at the same time to introduce as many species 
of insects as my own knowledge of the subject, and the few works that 
have hitherto been published relative to British Entomology, could make 
it. In the times of appearance, and the situation where found, of a great 
number of species, I have been greatly assisted by my kind and much 
respected friend J. F. Stephens, Esq. F. L. S. whose rich cabinet has 
always been open to me, and who also has furnished me with nuich valu- 
able information, derived from his own observations. In many species I 
have been unable to give a reference to a description, several of them 
being new to Britain, and hitherto undescribed ; but thought it best to in- 
troduce them, as they are certainly valuable acquisitions to a cabinet. 

As many of the Linnean genera have not yet been sufficiently investi- 
gated, and the species requiring a minute examination, such genera and 
species are distinguished by italics. Of these the most extensive are the 
Lepidoptcra, the genera of which are the least known in any department 
of Entomology. Of the Hcmiptera, Neuroptera, Hi/menoptera, and Di- 
jjtera, but little is yet known of the species, consequently a very small 
number is introduced : however, they may be obtained in the course 
of collecting. I may be censured by the scientific Entomologist for in- 
troducing the English names of the Lepidnptera, but my object has been 
to render this a useful work; and many collectors are acquainted with 
them by no other name ; yet it is to be hoped that these will hereafter be 
discontinued, as the scientific name is as easily retained in the memory 
(if a person uses himself to it) as the absurd English ones in present use. 
The species marked by the asterisk (*) I am rather doubtful if found 
in the month in which they are placed in the calendar; but such is the 
time of the plants on which they feed being in blossom, which is certainly 
a good guide to the Entomologist. 

The obelisk (f) to the plant in the habitation denotes that such insects 
are generally found in the larva state, and should be sought for accord- 
ingly, the insect being rare or difficult to procure in the perfect state. 

This mark, placed in other times of appearance, denotes that they 
may be found in such situations throughout the year. 

As many of the Lepidoptcra last but a few days in the perfect state, I 
have distinguished the time of the month in which such species appear by 
the following: b. beginning: m. middle: e. end : — also, /. larva.: p. pupa. 



358 



TIIE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR, 



JANUARY. 




34 Philoscia Mnscorum Under moss 

35 Onisciis Asellus Old walls 

36 Purcellio scaber Under stones 

37 Armadillo vulgaris 

J Ciomeris marginata 

2 Jul us sabulosus 

Londinensis 

niger 

terrestris 

punctatus 

pulchellus 

pusillus 

3 Craspedosoma Raulinsli 

Polydesmoides 

4 Polydefmus complanatiis 

5 Pollyxenus Lagurus 

6 Lithobius forficatus 

variegatus 
vulgaris 

7 Cryptops hortensis 
Savignii 



sandy places 



Under moss in woods 
Under stones, Scoiland 
Sandy places in woods 
Under bark of trees and moss 
Under moss, on mountaitis of 

England and Scotland 
Under stones and roots of grass 
Edinburgh 



Under bark of trees 
Under stones 



Gardens, under stones 



8 Geophilus subterraneus Under stones 



mantiir.us 

acuminatiis 

longicornis 
Siro rubens 
Obisium trombidioides 

orthodactylum 

Musconim 

maritimum 
Chelifer Hermanni 

Uatreillii 

Geoflfroyi 
Acarus domesticus 
Cycbrus rostratus 
Nothiopbiliis aquaticus 

bigiittatiis 
Bembidium agile 
Agonum vaporariorum 
Sphodriis planus 
Dyschirins gibbus 



sea shore 



Grassy banks 
Moist gravel-pits 
Houses and cellars 
Moist places, Battersea 
DromiusquadrimaculatusUnder bark of irees 

rufescens — — 

linearis 

pusillus ■ 

punctomaculatus 

Demetrias atricapilla 

Hypbydrus ovatus Ponds 



Moss, Battersea-fields, (Dr. L.) © 

Under stones 

Moss 

Under stones O 119. [f.2. 

Z.M.iil.51,t.l4l 

Under moss © f. 3. 

Sea shore © 52. [f. 3. 

Under bark of trees © 49, t. 142, 

f. 5. 

50.t.l42.f.l. 

Old cheese © Page 132. 
Und. St., moss, roots of trees 2,3, 4,M. 470. sp. 103, 
Pathways and banks of ponds © Page 148. 
li. of ponds, r. of grass, s. pits © M. 395. sp. 10. 
© [sp.GS. 

5,6, Gyll. ii. 161. 
2,3,4,5,Page 152. 
2,3,4,5, 153, 




2to6, 155. 

2toC,Maisli. 45S.sp.7l 

2to6. 463. sp. 84 

2to6, 

Herts(Mr.Stpphens) 2to6, 460. sp.74. 

' 2,3,4, 4.62.sp.83. 

2lol2,Page 157. 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



359 



JANUARY. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Otlier 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



58 Noterus sparsus Ponds 
60 Colymbetes bipunctatus Ponds and ditches 
xdiginosus 



bipustnlatus 
62 Acilius sulcatus 
C3 Dyticus marginalis 

circumflexus 

punctiilatus 
107 Stenus cicindeloides 

biguttatus 
1 19*Arcopagus glabricollis 
1 21 *Bryaxis hamatica 
124 PtinusFnr 
150 Hydrous piceiis 
173 Sarrotrinm muliv:um 
n9 Helops striatus 
196 Salpingus Roboris 

rufiiostris 
205 Apion Ulicis 
203 Rhyuclia?nus maculatus 
225 MoHotoma Juglandis 
237 Rhagium vulgare 
254 Coccinelia 7-punctata 

variabilis 

instabilis 
' humeralis 

dispar 
262 Acbeta domestica 
287 Nepa cinerea 
289 Notonecta furcata 

giauca 
310 Pulex irritans 

Canis 
324 Smerintbus Tdiffi p. 

The Lime Hawk-moth. 



Ponds 

Ponds and stagnant waters 



O Z. M. iii. 71. 
O Mars.4l8.sp.l5 

416. sn. 9. 

O 415. sp. 7. 

2tol2,rage 159. 

2,4,10,12, 

2,4,10,12, 

2,4,10, 12,Marsb.4l2.sp.2 
Gv]I.ii.470.sp.6. 
Page 175. 

2,3, 178. 

2,3, Zool. Misc. iii. 

Marsh. S9.sp.27. 
2to6, Page ]87 



Moist banks 

Moist banks 

Woods, under moss 

Under moss 

Houses 

Ponds, under weeds 

Gi-.-pits Hampst. (Mr.Steph.)2,3, 193, 

Roots of trees and under bark Marsh. 481. sp. 5. 
Under bark of trees Page 199. 

2,3, Mar.297.sp.l70, 

Furze 2, Kirby T.L.S. ix. 

Under bark of trees 2,3, Mar.292.sp.l58. 

Stumps of trees, moist places to 5, Page 207 

"2, 210. 

O Marsh.l52.sp.lO. 

niig.i.447.sp.32 

161.sp.30. 

0Sch6n.ii.1 63.sp.35 

Illig.i.455.sp.33 

Fabr. 

Page 225, 

2tol2, 226. 

2tol2, 227. 

234. 

O N.S. 
2,3, Page 243. 



Coombe Wood 
Hedses and under bark 



Under bark of oaks 

Under bark 

Houses 

Ponds and ditches 



Houses, sucking blood of man 

Dogs 

+ Roots of lime-trees 



Geomel'-a primaria e. 


Hedges 


2, 


Haw. 305.sp.94. 


The Early Moth 








brumaria 


Pales 


11, 


sp. 93. 


The Winter Moth 








Tortrix spadiceana 


Coombe ^^'■ood 




412.sp.57 


The Bay-'^houldered Button 






440 Formica Herculanea 


Woods, &c. 





Stewart ii. 245. 


fusca 







246. 


nigra 


. 





_ 


rufa 













488 Apis mellifira 


Flowers 





K. ii, 312.sp.73 


489 C'ulex pipiens 


Houses and gardens 





Page 290, 



360 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



FEBRUARY. 




4 Pod lira plumbea 

5 Smynthurusfuscus 
Podura viridis 

36 Sphodrus coUaiis 
88 Silphaopaca 
104 Staphyliniis Morio 
110 Omalium planum 
133 Byrrhus semistriatus 
138 Platysoma picipes 
flavicornis 
depressuB 
oblorigus 
140 Pavnus sericeus 
142 Helophorus stagnalis 



Under stones Page 141, 

Damp hedges 

Buckwheat Stewart ii. 276. 

Roots of trees, Epping Forest 3,4, M. 443. sp. 29. 



Roots of trees 
Under stones and moss 
Under bark of decayed trees 
Roots of grass and banks 
Under bark 



120.sp.l5. 
3,4, Gyll.ii.288.sp.9. 

3,4, 221.sp.20. 

3,4,5, 199. sp. 7. 

3,4, Page 184. 

3,4, 

3,4, 185. 

3,4, Hist.O. Fabr. 

B. of ponds, Wandsworth Com.3,4, Page 185. 
Ponds and aquatic plants 3,4,5, 186. 

151 Hydrophilus caraboides Ponds and ditches 3,4,5, 187. 

200 Bruchus ater Furze, Coombe 6, Marsh. 236. sp.4. 

340 Eriogaster lanestris e. Bushy places 

The small Eggar 
354 Noctua croceago e. Dried leaves 

The orange Upper-icing 
Gtoynetra leucophearia E.Dry leaves and trunks of trees 
The Spring Usher 

cajsiata e. Skirts of woods, Peckham 

The February Carpel 

iiigricaria e. Trunks of trees 

The dark bordered Usher 

primaria b 
The early Moth 



4,6, 



Page 247. 
Haw. 239. 



Biston hispidarius e. 
The small B'indle 
Tinea nubilea e. 
The clouded Brown 

tortricea e. 
The clouded Lead 

Salicis E. 
The rosy Day-moth 



Hedges 

Trunks of oaks and sallows 



11, 



Oaks 



Hedges 




MARCH, 



9*Drassus melanogaster 
* ater 

10 Clubiona lai)idicola 

1 1 Aranea domestica 

13 Argyroneta aquatica 

2 Forbicina polypoda 

10 Cicindeia campestris 

12 Carabus violaccus 

catenulatus 
nemoralis 



Under stones 



4, Page 1 23. 

4,5, 124. 

4,5,12, 125. 

4, 140. 



Houses 

Ditches 

Under stones 

Sandy pL, fields, pathways 4,5,6,7,Marsh.3S9.sp.l. 

Roots of trees apd under stones4,5, Page 1 45. 

4,5, 

Gardens "^,5,6, — 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAIV. 



261 



MARCH. 



No. 

of 

Cxeii. 



Name. 



Where found. 



OtluT 

times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



U. stones, s.-pits, routs of tr. 
Routs of trees 
Moist banks 
Roots of grass 
Grassy banks ? 



14 Nebria brevicollis 

]6 Panagaeiis Crux major 

19 Elapbrus riparius 

20 Bembidium flavipes 

puncticoUe 
orucigeruni 
Ephippium 
Guttula 
rufipes 
25 Harpalus obscnrus 
apricarius 

32 Ancbomenus prasinus 

33 Platysma nigrituni 

34 Chlienius festivus 
36 Sphodrus terricola 
39 Calathiis cisteloides 

cisteloides, /3. 

melanocepbalus 
41 Stomis piimicatus 
43 Clivina Fossor 

45 Abax striola 

angiistior 

melanarius • • 

46 Cymindis humeralis Moist banks 
57 Hydroporusl'2-pustnlatusCroydon canal 

depressiis 

linnellus 

granularis 

trlGdus 

confluens 
59 Laccophilus byalinus 

minufus 
64 Gyrinus Natator 
70 Elater nitidiilns 



Under stones 
Sand-pits 

Under moss in bedge banks 
Moist places in woods 
Moist banks and woods 
Under stones 

Under bark, stones, sandy pIa.4,5,6,Car.flavipes. M 
4,5,6, — obscnrus. M 



4,5, Mars.444.sp.31- 

7, Page 147. 
4,j,6,Marsb.392.sp.4. 

4, Marsh.394.sp.9. 

4 5 

4,5, Mars. 462. sp.8]. 
4,5, Gyll.ii.27.sp.l3 
4,5, Mars.453.sp.54. 
4,5,6, 437. sp.l3 

4, Gyl.ii.104.sp.22 

4, Page 151, 
4,5, — 



4,5, Mars.443.sp.28. 



Moist banks, roots of trees 

, Baltersea 

Under stones 



Ponds, Norfolk 
Ponds and ditches 



Ponds and stagnant waters 
. and ditcbes 



Sand-pits, Hampstead 
85 Necropbagus mortnorum Dead animals, woods 
104 Stapbylinns briinnipes Hedge banks 

Erytbropterus Under stones and dung 

pubescens Under dung 

Staphylinus punctulatus Under stones and moss 



109 O.'iytelus carinatus 
HO Omalium rivulare 
1 1 1 Lestiva obscura 

113 Tachinus subterraneus 

niarginellus 
analis 

114 Tacbyporus analis 

marginatus 
nitidulns 



Dung 



4, Mars.438.sp.l5. 
4,5, Page 153. 

4,5, 

4,5, 154. 

4,5, Mars.442.sp.26. 
4,5, Pavk. 1.115. sp. 
4,5, Page 154. [24 
4,5, Mars.422.sp.23. 

4,5, 421.sp.22. 

4,5,Gyl].i.529.sp.l5 
Mars.426.sp,34. 

4,5, 423.sp.27. 

4,5, 424.sp.28. 

4,5, 420.sp.l9. 

4,5, Page 158. 
4,5,6, 159. 

6, Mars.380. sp.l2. 

6, 1 15. sp. 4. 

4,5, Gyl.ii.289.sp.lO 
4,5, Page 171. 
4,5, GyU.ii.284.sp.5. 

4,5, 353. sp 63. 

4,5, Page 174. 



Banks of rivers, flowers &, fungi 4,5, Gyll.ii.2l4.sp.14. 



Under stones in moist places 4,5-, 

Under bark of birch trees 4, 

Under stones and dung 4,5, 
Under stones,moss & bark of tr. 4,5, 

Under stones and moss 4,5, 

4,5, 

4,5, 




302 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



MARCH. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
ofap. 



Reference to 
description. 



115 

124 
130 
133 

154 

142 



146 

147 

152 

153 



Aleochara obscura 
Ptinus germanus 
Megatoma undatum 
Byrrhus Pilula 

fasciatus 
Abraeus perpnsillns 
Helophorus granulans 

griseus 

nubilus 

Fennicus 
Spcrcheus sordidus 
Berosus luridus 



Under rubbish 
Dry rotten wood 
Under bark of birch trees 
Patliways and sandy places 



Under dang 

Aquatic plants'in ponds 



15" 



159 
167 
170 

171 
179 

183 
214 

219 
^235 
226 
•224 
246 
250 
254 



286 

288 
289 
290 
£91 



-, and in flowers 



Stagnant waters, Windsor 
Ponds, Wimbledon Common 
SphEcridium scarab^oidesUnder dung 

marginatum ■ - 

Cercyon quisquilium ■ 

unipnnctatum 

melanocephaUnn 

simile 

laterale 

terminatum 

minutum 

sordidum 
Geotrupes stercorarius 

poliius 

niger 

puncticollis 
■^gialia globosa 
Cetonia aurata i,. 
Pedinus maritimus 
Opatrum tibiale 
Hefups violsceus 



Coombe 



Sandy sea shore, Swansea 
Decayed wood, Epping Forest 
Sandy sea shore, Swansea 
.(Mr. Bydder) 



4,5, Gyll.379. sp.2. 

4, Marsh. 89. sp.25. 

4, Page 182. 
4,5, Marsh. 102.sp.l 
4,5, Gyll.i. 194.jp.2. 
4,5, Page 183. 

4, Gyll.i. 127.sp.2. 

4, Hyd. affinis. M. 

4, Gyll.:.130.sp.6. 

4, — — i.l29.sp.5. 

4, Page IS 6. 

4, Marsh. 404.sp.7, 
4,5, Page 187. 

4,5, Marsh.G6.sp.l6. 

4,5, 71. sp. 29. 

4,5, 70. sp. 28. 

4,5, 68. sp. 20. 

4,5, sp. 21. 

4,5, 69. sn.23. 

4»5, 70. sp. 27. 

4,5, 75. sp. 43. 

4,5, 69. sp. 25. 

5, Marsh., 20.sp.32 
4,5, Sear.Mutator.M 
4,5, Marsh. 22.sp.36. 
4,5, 

4, Page 190. 

Mars. 4 1. sp. 73. 
192. 



U. bark of trees, sandy places 
Melandrya caraboides l. Decayed oaks 
Calandra granaria 

lignaria 
Scolvtns Destructor 



Latridius porcatus 
Silvanus frumentarius 
Mycetophngiis vaiius 
Cbrysomela Litura 
Tritoma bipustulatum 
Coccinella globosa 

22-])unctata 

18-guttata 
Naucoris cimicoides 
Ranatra linearis 
Notonecta niaculata 
Plea minntissima 
Sigara miuutissima 



Marsh. 480. sp.3. 

Page 195. 

Decayed trees 4, 204. [113 

Decayed elms 4,5, Marsh. 275. sp.. 

Bark of the elm 4,5, 53. sp. 6. 

Old wood and damp places 4,5,6, Page 207. 

Damp cellars 4,5,6, 208. 

Boleti Marsb.UO, sp.5. 

Fnizc and broom 4, l82,sp.27. 

Boleti, Coombe 4,5, Page 214. 

Banks 4,5, Illig.i.469.sp.39. 

Hedges 4,6,9, 468. sp. 37. 

Underbarkof firs 6,9, 43l.sp. 18. 

Ponds 4,5,6,Page 225. 
Ponds and ditches, Epping Fo. 4,5, 

Devon 4,5, 227. 

_ 4,5, 

Rivers and running waters 4,5, — r 



THE E-VTOMOLOGISt's CALENDAR. 



363 



MARCH. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Reference to 
description. 



Ponds and ditches, Norwich 
Ponds 



Ponds and ditches 
Ponds, Devon 
Lanes and woods 



Near elms 
Lanes, &c. 



292 Corixa coleoptrata 

Striata 

stagnalis 

fossaruni 

lateralis 

dorsalis 

Geoffroj'i 

affinis 
417 Vanessa Atalanta 
The red Admiral 

lo 
The Peacock 

Poiychioros 
The large Tortoise Shell 

Urtic3e 
The small Tortoise Shell 
320 Hipparcha .-Egeria I. Grassy banks 

The speckled Hood 
326 Macroglossa StellatarumBedstraw 

The Humming Birdf 
354 Noctua rufa e. Banks of nettles 

The red Chesnut 

miniosa e. Weedy banks 

The blossom U/iderwing 

pusilla 
The dwarf Quaker 

luteicornis e. 
The Yellow-horned 

Parthenias 
The orange Underwing 

not ha 

The light-orange Underwing 
Geometra stictaria m. Palings 
The Dutted-l-order 

^^scnlaria m. ■■ 

The March Moth 

multistrigata 
The mi/ttUd Grey 

abietaria e. 
The large Ingrailed 

luctiiaria 
The mourning TVidow 

rufifasciata e. 
The red barred Pug 
360 Biston prodromarius b. 
The Oak Beauty 

pedariiis e. 
The pale Brindle 



Trunks of oaks 

Pales and trunks of trees 

Blossoms of willows 



Heaths 



Trunks of trees 

Poplars 
Trunks of oaks 
Trunks of trees 



Page 228. 



229. 



238. 



364 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



MARCH. 




Gardens 



Oaks 

Thick woods 

Dry leaves, Darent Wood 

Furze on commons 



*Crainbus ocellea 

Thi Necklace Feneer 
ZG^^Torlrix fimbriana 

T/ie broion-bordered 

hitosa B . 
The early Nettle-tap 

Afzeliana e. 
The Afzdian 

gnnmana 
The Dial 

uuipnnctata 
The marbled Single-dot 

tetraquetrana 

The square-barred Single-dot 

ulicetana 

The light-striped Edge 

triquetrana — — ^ 

The angle-barrtd Single-dot 
Tiiiea Fagi Trunks of trees 

The March Dagger 
curvipunctosa b. 
The Curve-dhtted 
4S3 Melecla punctata 
4'78 Osinia cornuta 
485 Anthopliora retusa 
544 Scutophaga merdaria 



Hedges 

Sandy places, Swansea 
Sandy places 
Sunny sandy banks 
Cow dung 




Page 286. 
Kir.ii,271.sp.57. 

4,5, 296. sp.ey. 

Page 300. 



APRIL. 

17 Tetragnatlia estensa Moist places 
1 TrombidiumbolosericeumGrassy places 
3 Gammasus ColeoplratorumDung of horses and oxen 

maiginatns 

4*0ribita geniculata Under stones 

5*Notaspis hnmeralis 

8 Uropoda vegetans Dung beetles 

10 Hydrachna geographica Ponds 

1 Lepisma saccharina Houses, old papers, &c 

12 Carabus moibillosus 
cluthratus 

14 Nebria Gyllenlialli 

15 Leistus brunneus 

rufescens 
17 Badister bipustulatus 

19 Elaphrus uliginosus 

20 Bembidium acutum 

ustulatum 
4-guttatura 



Page 



Under stones in moist places 
Near Halvergate Marsh, Nor. 
Mountainous places, sea shore 
Sandy places 



Moist pi. Hattersea, Coombe 

Sandy places 

Moi-t places, 

■ ■ Lessness Heath 



5, 



5, 
•5, 

5, 
5,6, 

5, 
5,6, 
5,6, 
5,6, 
5,6, 
bfi, 
56, 
5,6, 



127. 
131. 



153. 

• 140. 

145- 

Tr.Ent.Soc.333. 
Gyll.ii. 40. sp.S, 

Mars.458.sp.71. 
Page 147. 
Marsh. 592. sp.5. 

461.sp.8(). 

Gyll.ii. 29.sp.l 5. 
Marsh.459.sp.73 



THE ENTOMOtOGISrS CALENDAR. 



3&5 



APRIL. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



20 Bembidium littorale 
22 Trechus meridianus 

fill V us 
25 Harpalus ruficornis 

bicolor, var. /3. 

binotatus 

aznreus 

erythropiis 

ferrugineus 

27 Oodes helopoides 

28 Lorioera aenea 

30 Agoniim caTulescens 

albipes 
sordid us 
picipes 
Simpsoni 
rufipes 

31 Synuchns rivalls 

37 Amara vulgaris 

38 Blethisa raultipunctata 
40 Pcecillus nigricornjs 

dimidiatus 
Al Ucoscus cephalotes 
43 Clivina sanguinea 
5 l*Demetrias monostigma 
34 Haliplus ferrugineus 

flavicollis 

lineatocollis 

ruficollis 

impressus 

assimilis 

obiiqiuis 

57 Hydroporus miistriatns 

lituratns 
planus 
humeralis 
fluviatilis 

58 Noterus Geerii 

60 Colj'mhctes politus 

striatus 
fil Hydaticus transrersalis 
64 Gyrinus jcneus 
70 Elater murinus 

obsourus 
83 Opilus mollis 



Moist banks 

Gardens and roots of grass 

Sandy places 

Under stones in sandy places 



Moist banks, Battersea 

Sandy places 

Grassy banks 

Sandy places 

Roots of grass, moist banks,Bat. 5, Page 150. 



5,6, Mar. 452.sp.51. 

5,6, 454. pp.58, 

5,6, 456. sp.64. 

5,6, 436. sp.ll. 

5,6, —— sp. 12. 
5,6, 

5,6,7, 450.sp.46. 

5,6, 46l.sp.78. 

5, 440.sp.21. 



Roots of grass, gardens 

Moist places 

Moist banks, Battersea 



Under stones, moist places 

Moist banks 

Sandy places, pathways 

Moist banks, Battersea 

Moist banks 

Sandy places, pathways 

Sea shore, Swansea 

Gardens, Lambeth, (Dr.Leach)5, 6, Leach's MSS. 

Roots of plants near Swansea 



5,6, Page 150, 

5,6, Mar. 446.sp.37. 

5,e, 450.sp.44. 

5,6, 457.sp.68. 

5,6, 

Gyll.ii.97.sp.l6 
Page 15I. 
5,6, Mars.433.sp.l6. 

5, Page 152. 
5,6, Mars.44l.sp.24. 

5,6, 445.sp.35. 

5, Page 153. 



Ponds and ditches 



Ponds 



(Dr. Leach) 

Ponds and ditches 

Ditches in marshes 

Ponds and ditches 

Ponds, Battersea 

Ponds and ditches 

Under stones in sandy places 5,6, 

• 5,6,7,' 



5,6, Page 157. 

5,6, Mars.430.sp.47. 

5,6, 429.sp.45. 

5,6, 428.sp.43- 

5,6, Gyll.i. 547.sp.3. 
5,6, Mars. 429. sp.44. 
5,6, Gyll.i.550.sp.5. 

5,6, 554,sp.28. 

5,6, Mars.423.sp.26. 

5,6, 425. sp.30. 

5,6^ 423. sp,24. 

5,6, 

5, Zool.Misc.iii.71. 

5, Mars.4l9.sp.l6. 

5, 414. sp. 4. 

Dyt. parapleurus. M. 

5, 

385.sp.26. 
377. sp. 4. 

4, Page 166. 



Dry rotten willows 
85 Necrophagns vestigator Sandy places, Hampstead 

88 Silpha obscura Under stones, pathways 5,6, Mars.118.sp.10. 

tristis Sandy places under stones 5,6, 117. sp, 7. 

89 Pho.sphuga atrata Pathw.iys 5,6, 116.sp. 6. 



366 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR^ 



APRIL. 




92 Choleva oblonga 

agilis 

93 Cateps sericeus 

chrysomeloides 
nigricans 

94 Ptomophagus villosus 

truncatiis 
fumatus 

95 Mylaschus brunneus 
102*Cateretes rufilabris 

bipustnlatus 
104 Staphylinus murinus 
hybrid us 
castanopterus 
stercorarius 
aeneocephalus 
tristis 
picipennis 
haemorrhous 
splendens 
politus 
decorus 
laminatus 
maculicornis 
marginatus 
marginellus 
fucicola 
lateralis 
sangiiinolentus 
Jituratus 
obscuripennis 
fimetarius 
pilipes 
semiobscurus 
varians 
nitipennis 
attenuatus 
bipiistulatus 
concinnus 
olens 
similis 
maxillosus 

105 l,atbrobium elongatum 

quadratum 
dentatum 

106 Pasderus riparius 

orbiculatus 

iinmunis 

melanocephalus 



Under moss and stones 5,6, Page 1( 

Dung on heaths 5,6, Linn.Tr.xi. 140. 

Under moss 5,6, — — 142. 

Dung on heaths 5,6, 146. 

_ 5,6, 141. 

5,6, 152. 

5,6, Illig. 42. sp. 4. 

■ 5,6, Linn.Tr.xi. 155. 

5,6, Page 169. 

Junci near Hull Page 1 70. 

Banks, Battersea, (Dr. Leach) Gyll.i.248.sp.3 

LTnder dung 5,6, ii,283. sp.4 

and stones 5,6, Marsh.5U().sp.9. 

5,6, Gyll. 295.sp.l4. 



• stones and moss 



■ and stones 
stones and moss 



. 5,6, 296.sp.l5. 

U. stones and moss moist pi aces 5,6, 29 1 .sp. 12. 

5,6, -— 301.sp.l9. 

Under dung and stones 5,6, 

5,6, 

5,6, 297.sp.16. 

5,6, 317.sp.33. 

5,6, 316. sp.32. 

5,6, 29S.sp,l7. 

5,6, 

5,6, 322. sp.58. 

5,6, 

5,6, 

5,6, 

5,6, m I 338.sp.54. 

5,6, 

5,6, 

5,6. 324.sp.40. 

5,6, 
5,6, 

5,6, 342.sp.5S. 

5,6, 

5,6, 311.sp.27. 

5,6, 339.sp.55. 

5,6, 



moist places 



Koots of trees and under stones 10, 285. sp.6. 

Under stones 5, 287. sp, 8, 

Under dung and in dead anim. 5,6, Page 172. 

Putrid vegct. and und. stones 5,6, 

Moist banks and under stones 5, Gyll.ii. 367.sp.4. 
. 5, 

5, Page 172. 

5, Gyll.ii. S74.sp.3. 

5, 

5, 



■ and under stones 

LTnder stones and moist bunks 
Sandy places 



TKE ENTOMOLOGIST S CALENDAR. 



367 



APRIL. 




lOG Pasderus angustatus 
U)7 Stenus pubescens 

Juncorum 

oculatus 

nigricornis 

* angustatus 
rufitarsis 
Havicornis 
pusillus 
brunnipes 
aceris 
rugulosus 

109 Oxytelus opacus 

angustatus 
armatus 

110 Omalium depressum 

1 11 Lestiva caraboides 

113 Tachinus rufipes 

114 Aleochara canaliculata 

fuscipes 

sulcata 

lanuginosa 

121 Bryaxii longicornis 

sanguinea 

* Juncorum 

122 Pselapbus Herbstii 

124 Ptinus ovatus 

ccrevicia? 

125 Gibbium sulcatus 

* Scotias 

126 Ptilinus pectinicornis 
127*Anobiuni Abietis 
128 Deimestes lardarius 
131 Anthrenus Museorum 
133 Bynhus murinus ? 

dorsal is 
varius 

135 Ontliophilus striatus 

136 Hister sinuatus 

4-notatiis 

parvus 

stercoraiius 

neglectus 

carbonarius 

purpurascens 

140 Parnus prolifericornis 

141 Heteroferus marginatus 
143 Hydrochus elongatus 
b48 Hydtobius fuscipes 



Under stones in sandy places 
Moist banks 



Dung and sandy places 



Cow dung 

Under stones, on palings, &c 

Dung 

Sandy places and under stones 5,6, Gyll.ii.391.sp.l4 



5, Gyll. ii.S'J5.sp.4. 

5, 

5, 

5, 471. sp. 7. 

5, 

5,6, 
5,6, 
5,6, 
5,6, 

5,6, 
5,6, 
5,6, 
5,6, 
5,6, Tr.Ent.Soc.i.97. 

5,6, 210.sp.ll 

5,6, 192. sp. 1. 

5, Page 17(1. 



Under duna 



Roots of grass, Battersea 



J unci, Norfolk 
Moist places 
Houses 



and old paper 

Bristol 

Old trees and bouses 
Trees, Norfolk 
Houses 
Museums 
Sandy places 



Roots of trees 
Dung 



Banks of ponds 

Marshy pi. and muddy banks 

Aquatic plants, Battersea 

Ponds 



5, 428.sp.50. 

' 5, 378. sp. I. 

5, 432.sp.54. 

5, Page 179. 

5, Zool. Misc. iii. 

5,6, 

5,6, Page 179. 
5,G,7,Marsh.90.sp.28. 

5,6, sp. 29. 

5,6,7,Page 180, 

5,6, 181. 

Gyll. i.297.sp.9. 
5,6, Page 181. 
5, Gyll.i. I62.sp.3. 
5, — 193. sp.5. 
5, Marsh. 104.SP.6. 
5, Gyll.i. 197.SP.4, 
5' Fabr. 
5,6, lllig.i. 57. 

5, 58. 

5, Marsh. 93.sp.3. 
5, Payk. Mon. 40. 
5, Megerle 
5, Gvll.i.82.sp.lJ. 
5, Fabr. 

Marsh. ? 
5, Page 185. 

Fabr. 
5, Page 1S7. 



368 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALEKDAK. 



APRIL. 




148 Hydrobiiis calconotus 

bipustulatus 

atricapillus 

torquatus 

melanocephalus 

orbicularis 

fulvus 

griseus 

minutus 

seminnlus 

margiuellus 

149 Limnebius nitidus 

mollis 
nigrinus 

154 Copris lunaris 

155 Onthophagiis Vacca 

nuchicornis 
Xiphias 
verticicornis 
nutans 
ovatus 
♦ Diilwynii 

156 Aphodius rufipes 

luridus 
depressus 
Sus 

merdarins 
testudinarius 
Fossor 

subterraneus 
erraticus 
unicolor 
fimetarius 
coprinus 
scutator 
conflagratus 
sordid us 
icteric us 
fcEtens 
attatninatus 
inquinatus 
fcedatus 
liaetnorrhoidalis 
terrestris 
humeralis 
pusillns 
obscurus 
granarius 
turpis 
151 Geotrupes sylvaticus 



PoikIs 



Ponds and ditches 



Under dun 



5, Mars.406.sp.l3. 

•5, 

5, 405.sp.l0. 

5, Page 187. 

5, Marsh.403.sp.4. 

b, 408.sp.20. 

5, Gyll.i.l22.sp.n 
5, Mars.406.sp.l'2. 
5, Gyll.i.ll6.sp.5. 
5, Payk.i.l86.sp.ll 
5, Page 137. 
5, Mars,407.sp.l6. 
5, 
5, Page 183. 

5, 

5, Marsli.32.sp.57. 

5, 33. sp. 59. 

5, 34. sp. fiO. 

5, 35.sp. 62, 

5, sp. 63. 

, Swansea, (Mr. Dillwyn) 5, Leach, MSS. 

5, Marsh.25.sp.42. 

5, 27. sp.45. 

5, T.Ent.Soc.i.246 
5, Mars. 29.sp.50. 



[Bexley 
Charlton: lanes 



Swansea 



-, Hampstead 



-, Bristol 



-, Norfolk 

-, Lessness Heath 



5, 


30. sp. 52. 




— ^28. sp. 49. 


5, 


16.sp. 24. 


5, 


18. sp.29 


5, 


9. sp. 5. 


5, 


ll.sp. 9. 


5, 


10. sp. 7. 


5, 


12. sp. 11. 


5, 


ll.sp. 8. 


5, 


sp. 10. 


5, 


10. sp. 6. 


5, 


Tr.Ent.Soc.i.80. 


5, 


Mars.l7.sp. 2-5. 


5, 


I3.sp.l5. 


5, 


13.sp. 14. 


5, 


14.sp. 16. 


5, 


I9.sp.30. 


5, 


17.sp.26. 


5, 


Panz. 


5, 


Mars. 18.sp.27. 


5, 


18. sp.23. 


5, 


19.sp.31. 


5, 


I5.sp.21. 


5, 


— 23.sp.38. 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



3G9 



APRIL. 




l.")" Geotrupes vernal ;s 
158 Typliaens vulgaris 
1(31 Trox i-abulnsus 
arcnarius 

1■^9 Blaps mortisaia 
172 Tencbiio molitor 
ISO Cistela nigra 
iy'2 Meloe brevicoUis 

violacpus 

proscarabxus 
205 Apioi) immune 15i-i)oni and furze 

20S Khj'ncliajnnsnisrirostrisMoist pi. & banks nf ponds 
210 Liparus squaiiiigtr Sandy p!. and nellies, llertf. 

vastator ■ 

asper 

sexstiiatus 
215*Cossriniis linearis 
'22i Latiidins tiansversus 

rugicoliis 

riificoiiis 

itnpressus 
527 TA'<"t"s oblongiis 



conaria 

gcetting-ensis 

Polygon! 

aMCta 

polita 

stapliylea 

jsangiiiuolenta 

limbata 

marsinella 



Under dnng, Lessness Heath 5, Marsh. 23. sp. 37. 

I'.pping Forest 5, PagelR9. 

Sandy jjlaces, Coombe Wtxid 3, — — 190. 
Gardens, under dry bones, 

stones, Sec. 5,6, Marsh. 25. sp. 41. 

Cellars 5to9, Page 192. 

Houses, in meal and flour 5,(3, 193. 

Hedges and lanes 5, Marsh. 221 . sp. 5. 
Meadows, Devon, (Dr. Leach) Leach T.L.S. xi. 
Meadows and snnny banks 5, 

5,C^, Kirby T.L.S. ix. 

5, Marsh. 267. sp.89. 

5, 301. sp. 182. 

5, 300. sp. ISO. 

5, 501.sp.l8l. 

5, 305. sp. 195. 

Page 204. 

5, Marsh. 109. sp.lO. 

5, 113. sp. 23. 

5, . lll.sp. 17. 

5, 110. sp. 11. 

5, 107. sp. 3. 

5, Pa;.'e208. 

Marsh. 537.sp.21. 

5,fi, 169. sp. 1, 

5,G, 1 70. sp. 2. 

5.6, 171. sp. 4. 

5, 178. sp. IP. 

5, 181. sp. 24. 

5, 188. sp.43. 

5, 186. sp. 41. 

5, 1 90. sp. 48. 

5, 191. Sp. 49. 

b, 181. sp. 25. 

162. sp. 34. 

Page 216. 



Kettles and hedges 

Hanipstead 

Trunks of trees, Windsor For. 

Hedges and sandy places 



Old wood and palings 
228 Trogosita mauritanica Under stones in moist places 
230 Lamia niinr.ta Hedges 

2-iC Chrysoineja tenebricosa Var. plants in hedg( s Sc janes 



Heaths 

Heaths and sandy places 

Knot.^Tass 

Palings 

Nettles 



Sandy places, Charlton 



Weedy banks 
254 Coceinellaoblongo-gnttata Pines, Hertford 
257 Lycopenlina B jvistas PutY-balls on commons 
261 Gryllotalpa vulgaris m. Gardens, lipids of peas, banks 



of streams 




5,6. 


217. 


Pi,unning \\aters 




5,6, 


224. 


l*oi)ds and ditches 




5,6, 


— 


fjrassy places 




5,6, 


225. 


Ribwort, plantain in mead 


JWS 




Haworth 56. 



283 Velia rivnlomm 

284 Gcrris palndum 

285 Acanthia maculat.i 
315 Melitxa Cinxia /. xf. 

TlieG'anv.lleFritilLa-y 

Artemis /. M. Devii's-bit, woods & ch. places ,36. 

Ttie greasy Fntillary 
320 Hipparchia ^Tlgeria b. Borders of woods and liclds 6,3, Pare 241. 
The speckled JVoU 



370 



THE ENTOMULOGTST S t'ALESUAR 



APRIL. 



No. 
of 


Name. 


Where found. 


Other 
times 


Reference to 
description. 


Gen. 






of a p. 


312 Lycaena Phlseas b. Grassy commons 


6,8^ Page '241. 


The common Copper 






Dorylas I. e. Grassy banks 


7, Ha worth 45. 


The common Blue 






Argus I. E. 






46. 




The studded Blue 






TfHi ( r 


6, - 




The Mack-spot Bmvn 




32G Macroglossa Stellatanim e. Gardens 


6,9, Page '244. 


The Humming-bird 






341 Endromis versicolor m. Trunks of trees 




247. 


The Kentish Glory 






340 Closteva curtula e. Trunks of poplars 


Haw. 130. sp. S?. 


The chocolate Tip 






Bomhyx Cory \\ b. Skirts of woods 


7, 


102. sp. 32. 


The nut- tree Tussock 






352 Phyois Pelionella Houses 


5,6, 


Page 249. 


354 Noctua tetra Gardens 


6, Haw. 16'2. sp. 12. 


The Mahogany 






fissina Shady pales and rails 






The iidn-tailed Shark 






Scrophularia; b. Gardens 




]67.sp. 21. 


The water Betony 






operosa e. Pales and trunks of trees 




185. sp. 69. 


The early Grey 






ridens m. Trunks of oaks 




202. sp. 117. 


The frosted Green 






seladonia m. Skirts of woods 


10,- 


199. sp. 111. 


The brindled Green 






aprilina m. 




10,- 


200. sp. 112. 




The Marvel du Jour 






gothica M. Hedges 




226. sp. 192 


The Hebrew Character 






«_^,.,..,™^ „ 


2,6, - 


238. sp. 227 


The orange Upper-wivg 


fuscata B. Oaks and sallows 




241. sp. 234 


The dark Drab 






angusta Sallows 




— sp. 236. 


The dark Drab, var. 






subsetacea b. Sallows and osier beds 




— sp. 257. 


The dark Drab, var. 






nebulosa Sallows 




— — sp. 238. 


The dark Drab, var. 






sparsa e. Sallows and osier beds 




242. sp. 239. 


The poiudered Quaker 








geminata b. 


Trunks of oaks 




sp. 240. 



The twin-spotted Drab 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



371 



APRIL. 



No. 

of Name. Where found. 

Gen. 

5j4 AToc/tta bimaculata b. Tiuiiks of oaks ? 
Tlieferrugineous Drnb 

subplumbea b. 

The lead-coloured Drab 

pallida of trees 

The pale Quaker 

Cerasi b. of willows 

The common Quaker 

jiincta B. . 

The rommon Quaker, var. 

nana b. . 

The small Quaker 

libatrix v.. Poplars and pales 

The Herald 
(7eo;ne<ra illnnaria e. Sliady groves 
The early Thirn 

badiala b- 
The Shoulder-stripe 

oervinata b. 
Scarce Tissue 

suffumata 
Ike water Carpet 

quadrimaculata 
The pinion spotted Yelluw 

congeneraria b. Trunks of trees 
Theforkfd-striped Brindle 

fiimaria b. Oaks 

The dark Brindle 

Cratasgaria b. Hedges and woods 

The Brirnstone 

dentistrigata m. Trunks of trees, Coombe W. 
The early Tooth-striped 

viretata Pathways in woods 

The hrindle-larred Yellow 

insulata v.. Woods 

The insulated Carpet 

bidentaria e. 
The scalloped Hazel 
360 Biston hirtarius 

The brindled Beauty 



Skirts of woods 
Gardens and pales 
Open places in woods 
Pathways and woods 



3Gb Turtrix Loeflingina 
The Lfgjiivgian 

subsequana — 

The faint Silver-striped 

* fraternana - 



Skirts of woods 
Trunks oftrees 
Hedges 



The cinereous Silver-barred 

perlepidana 

'I'he beautifid Crescent 



Other 
t^mes K 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



Haw, 



5, 



6,8, 

5, 
6, 

5,6, 

5, 



242, &p. 241. 

sp.242. 

sp. 243, 

■ 243. sp. 244. 

- — sp. 247. , 

- 244. sp. 249. 

- — sp. 250. 
-292. sp. 58. 
-325. sp 27. 
-318. sp. 6. 

- 323. sp. 21. 

- 343. sp, 80. 

- 273. sp, 4. 

- 273. sp, 5. 
-298. sp. 74, 

- 320, sp. 11. 

- 329, sp. 39. 

- 330. sp, 43. 
-291. sp. 55. 

- 273. sp. 3. 

- 420. sp, 82. 
-448. sp. 173. 
-449,Ep, 174. 

- 458. sp. 206. 



2 A 2 



372 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S CALENDAR. 



APRIL. 




*Tmea Pyralea 

The ye'loic-sti^maed 

Alstroemeri 
The Ahlccmer 

signora 
The red Letter 

purpurea 
The lesser Purple 
374 Alucita hexadactyia 
The s'.x-clefi Plume 
401 Trichiosoma laterale 
46S Andrena Rosa; 

pratensis 

thoracica 

uitida 

iiigro-jenea 

atriceps 

varians 

Gwynana 

spinicera 

armata 

fiilva 

Clarkella 

Smitliella 

Tiicjriceps 

chiysocclis 

Lev.inella 

parviila 
iST Boiiibus campestris 

siibinterruptus 
Stylops Melitta 
498 Beris nigritarsis 

clavipes 
520 Bombylius major 

medii'.s 
530 Musca votnitorla 

domestica 
554 Tachina fera 



Nettles ill hedges,CoombeW. 5, Haw. 499. sp. 4. 
Grey 
Hedges oOS-sp. 10. 



? Chelsea 



Houses 



Coombe Wood 
Flowers 



Blossoms of willows 



Blossoms of apple-trees 

Flowers 

Blos«)ms of willows 



Flowers in gardens 
Heaths, Hampstead 
Blossoms of willows 



Flowers 



Blossoms of sallows 
Melitta iiigro-xnea 
Palings near meadows 



Open places in woods 



Houses and hedges 

Houses 

Skirts of woods 



5,9, 



503. sp. 11. 
-511. sp. 20. 
•480. sp. 21. 



Zool.Misc. iii. 109. 
Kirby ii. 83, sp.39. 

100. sp. 43. 

101. sp. 49. 

5, 104. sp. 51. 

109. sp. 54. 

■ 1 14. sp. .55. 
117. sp. 58. 

i 20. sp. GO. 

123. sp. 63. 

124. sp. 64. 

5, '.28 sp. 68. 

130. sp. 69. 

131. sp. 70. 

I 1 34. sp. 73. 

5, 14.3. sp. 82. 

148. sp. 88. 

162. sp. 103. 

5, 335. sp. 88. 

5, 356. sp.99. 

5, i.lll. 

5, Page 291. 
5, Panz. ix. 119. 
Page 295. 
Linn. i. 1009. sp.2. 

5toS, 989. sp. 67. 

990. sp.69. 

Page 201. 



MAY. 



8 Geophilus electricus 

3 Chelifer Mnscfirum 

14*Syctodes thoracicus 

21*D(>lon)edes mirabiiis 

22 Salticiis scenious 

1 Ixodes Ricinus 



Lender stonss 

Museums 

Houses 

N^''oods 

Walls and pali 

Doas 



1 1 Limuocharcs holosericeaPoiids 



Pa -e 117. [f. 4. 
6,7,8 Z.Sl. iii.50.t.l42. 
Page 126. 

6,7, 129. 

6,7, 

6, r- 1.32. 

6. 133. 



THE EXTOMOLOCIST S CALENDAR. 



373 



MAY. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Wlicre founu. 



Oiher 
times 
of .np. 



Reftrcnce to 
dcc.'iption. 



3 Pctrobiiis maritiimis 
] 1 (^j'clirus rostratus 
12 Carabus intricalus e. 
ni'uiiiis 
ni{en5 

14 Nebria c:iinplanata 

15 Leistiis cserulciis 

Raul:iisii 
If) Panair.Tus onii niiiior 

20 Bembidiiiin flavipcs 
* pallipe? 

21 Cillenus lateralis 

22 T'lechus aquaticus 

discus 



S:'a >hiires Pa-e 141. 

Patlnvavs and woods 6,7, ]Mai=h.470.sp.l03. 

N. tlip. iiv.l'avy,Di'voii,(Dr.L.) Page 145. 

Gardens and pathways (>>'T,8 — 

Moi.-t pi. and sand-pits, Hants ti, Marsh. 435. sp. 8. 
r. wood, sandy shores, Swansea 5, Page 14C. 



147. 

New species. 
Pajre 147. 
Marsh.394. sp. 9. 



Sanuy places under stones C, 

Near Ipswich, (Mr. Stone) 9, 

Sandy places 3,7, 

Sand-piis, Hexlcy 0, 

Croonie, Norfolk 

Srasho., Port )l'cllo,(Dr.L.) G,7, Page 143. 
Moist places, lialtersea 6, Marsh. 4Gl.5p. 77. 

Gardens, Lanibeth,(l)r.Leac]i) Fabr. 

30 Agonum sexpiinctatum Moist places, Cooinbe.ficBatt. 6, Pago 151. 

vaporarioriim Sandy places 6, (5yll.ii. I tlI.sp.6S. 

40 Poecillns ciiprens Sandy places and pathways 6,7, Mars!i.439.sp. 18. 

47 Pracliinus creiiitans U.stones,Gravesend,(Mr.Steph.) Page 154. 

48 Latnprias chlorocephalaBrooin 6, 155. 

53 Drvftta emarginata Ch. places, HastingsSiFaversh. 0, 15fi. 

Running streams, Bexley 
Ponds and ditches, ilainpst. 
Ponds? Norfolk 



54 llalipliis elevatus 
57 Hydroporus flexnosns 
60 Colyinbetes collaris 

cons]>ersus 

notatns 

maciilatiis 

abbreviatus 

obscurns 
64 Gyriniis nurimis 

iiiinutus 

elongatus 

viliosus 
70 Elatertcfseliatns 

balteatus 

niger 

xneus 

holosericeus 

lineatits 

sptitator 

niinutus 

castanipes 

marginatus 

unicolor 

me.somehis 

mesomdus, var. 
72 Elodes pallida 

melanura 

molle 

iiigricaus 



Running streams 

Ponds 

Ponds and ditches 

Salt marshes 

Bristol 

Salt marshes 

Rivers and running waters 

Willows 

■ and hedges 

Hedges 

Under stones, in sand-pits 

Birch-trees, Coombe Wood 

Hedges 



e>, 157. 

6, Marsli.425.sp.3I. 
G, Gyll. i.4S5. sp. 19. 

6, 482. sp. IG. 

G, 483. sp. 17. 

Marsh.4ia.sp.l4. 

Gyll. i. 488.. sp.22, 

Mar.sh. 414. sp. 5. 
G, Gyll. i. 143. sp. 4. 
G,* Marsh. 100. sp.2, 
6, 100. sp. 4. 

Page 159. 
6, Marsh. 386. sj). 27. 
6, ■ 334. sp. 23. 

Gyll. i. 406. sp.3G. 

Linn.ii. 655. sp.31. 
6, Marsh.386.sp.28. 
6, 387. sp. 5. 



Skirts of woods 



White thorn & umbel, plants 
Hedges 



6, 


384. sp. 24. 


6, 


381. sp. 17, 


6,7 


381. sp. 15. 


G, 


379. sp. 9. 


6, 


379. sp. 8. 


6, 


378. sp. fi. 


6, 


7. 


6, 


227. sp. 20. 


G, 


Gyll. i. 366. sp. L 


6, 


Marsh. 225.sp. 15. 


6, 


226. sp. 17. 



374 



THE E;NT0M0L0GIST 3 CALEXDAR. 



IMAY. 




77 Telephonis fuscus 

obscurus 

lateralis 

nilicollis 

livid us 

rufus 

melaniirus 

testaceus 

pallidiis 

fulvicollis 

78 Mallhinus flavus 

immunis 
humeralis 

79 Dasytes ater 

aenetis 

80 Malachiiis aeneus 

bigfuttatus 
84 Necrobia ruflcollis 

violacea 
Tilh(S Quadra 
8j Necrophagus spinipes 

Immator 

* Germaiiicus 
Anglicanus 
vcspiilo 

86 Necrodeslittoralis 

87 Oiccoptoma tlioracica 

rugosa 
sinuata 

88 Silpha opaca 

4-punctata 

lasvigata 
90 Scaphidium 4-niaculat 
y7 Engis humeralis 

rutifruns 
99 Nitidula bipustulata 

rufipes 

nigrina 

aenea 

Uiiica: 

ervthropa 
lOU Ips 4-inaculata 

ferrugiuea 
101 Biturus tomeulosiis 

fumatus 
103 Micropepliis Porcatus 

staphylinoides 



Hedges in lanes 



HedEjes 



Iledcres and wood-sides 



Hedges and woods 



Moss and grass 

Pales and post^, wood- sides 

Hedges 

Hedges and woods 

Dried bones 



6,7, Page 164. 
6,7, Marsh. 365. sp. 2. 
6,7, Linn.ii. 648. sp. 6. 
6,7, Marsh. 566. sp. 5. 

6,'7,' Gyll.i.350.sp.2C. 
6,7, Marsh. 368. sp. 7. 

6,7, 367. sp. 5. 

6,7, 358. sp. 6. 

6,7, Payk. i.266.sp.l?. 
6,7, Page 164. 
6,7, Marsh. 574.sp.20. 
6,7, 374. sp. 19. 

6, Page 164. 

6, Mar»h.'230. sp. 3. 
6,7, Page 165. 

6, Marsh. 372. sp. 15. 

6, Page 166. 
6,12 Marsh. 323. sp.3. 



Fungi and dead animals 
Dead animals, banks of rivers 

Plaistow Marshes 
Dead animals and woods 

, marshes 

Fungi and dead animals 
Dead animals, river sides 
Dead animals, woods 



sp. 



1 14. sp. 2. 
1 1 4. sp. 1 . 



3. 



6, 114. sp. 

6, 116. sp. 3. 

6, Page 167. 

6, Marsh. 120. sp.]6. 

6, 120. sp. 14. 

6, 120. sp. 15. 

6, 118. sp. 9. 

6. 119. sp. 12. 

6, Page 168. 

6, Cyll. i. 203. sp. 2. 

6, 204. sp. 4. 

Diy bones on heaths & woods 6,7, Marsh. 129. sp. 1. 
Flowers in hedges & sides of 

woods 
Flowers in hedges 

, and nettles 



Inder stones in sandy places 
Oaks 

Sandy places 
um Fungi and rotten wood 
Bark of trees and boltti 



Flowers in hedges 
Und.baik.New Forest Hants 



Blossom of the white-thorn 
White thorn hedges 
Sandy places, Bexley 



6,7, 


130. sp. 4. 


6,7, 


138. sp. 27. 


6,7, 


131. sp. 8, 


6, 




6, 


132. sp. 10. 


6, 


130. sp. 2. 


6, 




6, 


Page 170. 


6, 


Marsh. 65. sp. 1 1 


6, 


Page 171. 


^, 


Marsh. 137.sp.25 



THE ENTOMOt-OCISTS CALENDAE. 



375 



MAY. 




l(i7*Stenus casrulesceiis Moist banks &l sides of rivers 6, 
108 Oxyporus rufus lioleti and other fungi 6,7, 

110 Omalium melanoceplialuniFloaers C>, 

striatum G, 

grossum Suuly places 6, 

113 Tachinus luuulatiis Fungi 6, 

1 16 Lomechusa emarginataDry sandy places und. stones C, 

dentata G, 

1 17*P,nplectusReiolienbaclui ? Norfolk(Mr. Curtis) 

1 iS'Bytliinussecuriger ? Norf.(Mr.J. Hooker) 

3 19*Arcophagus clavicoruis Sandy pi. ,Swans.(Mr. Millard) G, 



bulbiter 
l2l*Bryaxis iuipres-a 

fossulata 
122*Pselaplms Hiesii 

longicollis 

Dresdensis 
124 Ptinus Musjeorum 

Lic'iienuin 

rufipes 
l'2~ Anobiuni striatum 
]"28 Derniestes te«-cllatus 
129 Attagenus Pcllio 



■? Norfolk (Mr. Sims) (S, 
? Norfoik(Mr. Wilkin) 6, 



Bex ley 

? Norfolk 

— ^— ? Norfolk 

? Brihtol (Mr. Millar) 

Edinbiiriih 



6, 



Old paliuj^s, Wandsworth 
Hedges 
Houses 
Dead animals 
Houses 
131 Anthrenus Scrophulafia:Flowers 
Verbasci 

136 Hister iniicolor Dung and dead animals 

cadaveriuus 

]2-striatus Dung 

speculifer — - 

137 Deudrupliilus punctatusUnder bark 
158 Platysoma picipes 
l39*Limnius ValcUmari 

143 Hydrochus crenatu; 

brevis 

144 Ochthebius riparius 

pyg:maeus ■ 
m.irinus 

145 Ilydrajna Kugellani ■ 

1 j-J Onthophasus Canobita Under dung in sandy places 
160 Psammodius sulcicollii Sandy pi. S\vansea(.Vlr.Millard) 
163 Meloloutha vulgaris Various trees 

Hedges and dead animals 
Flowers of the dog-rose 
Rose-trees and umbel L plants 
Sandy places, Coombe Wood 
Hedges and woods 
Under l)ark of trees 
Hedges • 



6, 
6, 

6,7, 

6, 

6,7, 

6, 

6,7, 

6, 

6, 

5,6, 



Ro;as of ijrass, banks of rivers 6,7, 
Aquatic plauts, Norfoik 



P.mds and ditches 



brunneus 

166 Trichiu< nobilis 

167 Cetonia aurata 
171 Opatrum sabulosu'n 
180 Cistela murina 

133 Melandrya caraboidcs 

134 Lagria hirla 
183 Pvrucluoa ruben- 



Gyll. ii. 46:3. sp.l. 

Page 174. 

Marsh. r27.sp 39. 
Gyll.ji.231.sp.28. 

274. sp. 20. 

Page 177. 
Gyll. ii.44l. sp. 4. 
Page I7S. 
Zool. Misc. iii. 

Page 178. 

179. 

Zool. Misc. iii. 

87. 

Zool. Misc. iii. 



Marsh. 89. sp. 26. 

83. sp. 5. 

Page 181. 
Marsh. 61. sp. 3. 
Page 182. 

Marsh. 101. sp.2. 
Gyll. i. 74. sp. 1. 
Payk. 

— F.S.i.39.sp.6. 

Latr. 
Page 184. 

185. 

Fabr, 

Gyll.i- l.l?-5p.S. 
Page 186. 
Gyll. i. 133. sp. 9. 

134. sp. 10. 

Page 186. 
Marsh. 33. sp. 53. 
Page I9i). 

Marsh. 38. sp. 67. 
Page 191. 
Marsh. 41. sp. 73. 
Page 193. 
Marsh. 222. sp. 7. 
Page 1 95. 
J 96. 



376 



THE XNTOMOLOGISl 3 CALENDAR. 



No. 

of 

Gen, 

187 
188 

190 



191 



19, 



Name. 



MAY. 



Where found. 



Oihfr 
times 
ofap 



Reference to 
ilescription. 



Notoxu? moiioceros 

Anthiciis fuscus 
floralis 

Mordella acu^eata 
abdominalis 
bicolor 
ferruginea 

Anaspis frontalis 
rnficoUis 
obscunis 
bifasciatus 
biguttatiis 

Meloe variegatws 



Sandy pf.Charlton & Swansea 
Dmiarnear stables 
Flowers in gardens 
White-thorn Ledj^es 
and umbellate plants 



AVhiie-lhorn 
Umbellate plants 



6, Page 196. 

6, Marsh. A'i!). sp. 2. 

6, Page 197. 

6, Marsh. 489. sp. 4. 

e, 490. sp. 8. 

C, sp. G. 

r., Page 197. 

6, Mni-sh.4y|.sp.l1. 



White-thorn 



cicatricosiis 
198 Authribus scabrosus 

* varius 

200 Bruclms Pis! 

201 Attelabnsciircnlioaoi 

202 Apoderus Coryli 

203 Rbyiichiies Bacchus 

a:quatns 

cupreus 

asiieo-virens 

nanus 

Aliiarias 

piibe.-cens 

Betulaj 

204 Depoiaus Betuiae 

205 Apion melanopum 

Malvaj 
vernale 

* vorax 
caerulescens 
sulcifrons 
Malvarum 

* nigritarse 
fliivipes 
Sorbi 

subsidcatum 
flavifemoratum 

* Fagi 
virens 

* marcliiciim 
Spartii 

* Gyllenbalii 

* Meliloti 

* laevigatum 
Oxurum 



Favershani, (Mr. Crowe,) Mar- 
gale, (Mr. Mihie) 
IMargate, (Mr. Milne) 
Elm and horse-cliesnut 
Wbitc-tliorn 
Pea-fields & willov,s,Coombe 



dcsNiit-tree and willow 
Nut-tree 

Nut, plum tree and hop 
White-thorn 



0, 


492. sp. 14. 


6. 


493. sp. 18. 


G, 


492. sp. 12. 




Leach 'IV.L.Soc.xi 




Page 200. 




Panz. 


G, 


Page 200. 



— — — hedges 
White-thorn 



Nut-tree 




6, 


White-thorn hedges & a 


der 


0, 


Oak, birch and hazel 




6.7, 


Broom 




6, 


Mallow 




6, 


'J'he white archangel & m 


ttle 


6, 


Ash 






White-thorn 




6, 


Bush vetch 




r., 


Mallow 




6. 


Nut-tree 






Trefoil and sandy places 




6,7, 


Mountain ash 






Bush vetch 




0, 


Trefoil 




fi, 


Beech trees 






Hedges 







6,7, 

6,7, 201. 

6, Marsh. 240. sp. fs 

6, 238. sp. I. 

6, 239. sp. 4. 

6, — sp. 5. 

fi, 23S. sp. 3. 

6, — sp. 2. 

2^10. sp. 7. 

241. sp. 8. 

Page 201. 
6, KirbyTr.L.Soc.is. 



Broom 
Birch 
Trefoil 
Sandy places 
Mallows 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



377 



MAY. 




Mallows 
Grass near furze & sandy pi. 
Nettles and sandy places 
Oak 
Nettles 



205 Apiua ceiieuin 
* hffiinatoidps 

fninieiUaiiiini 
U06 Curciilio ars;entatus 

Mali 

cnides 

oblonp^us 

unifasciatus ■ 

sericeus .^— » 

203 Rbyncliipnns austriacusNettles and sandy places 



lled-^es 



Equiseti 

a?rator 

Ivumicis 

strnmiucus 

resinosus 

209 Balaniiuis Niicum 

Tremula; 

Tortrix 

maciilatns 

210 Liparus niger 

scabrosus 

Van 

raucus 

subglobosus 

elevatus 

obesus 

Coryli 

sulcatus 

Ligustici 

ovatus 

punctatus 

Anslicaniis 



Marsh horse-tail 

Corn spurrey 

The dock, and sandy places 

yaniiy places 



Nut-tree 
Aspin 

Sallows 

Sandy places near fhe sea 

Sandy places and nettles 



Nettles and hedges 
Hedges, Colney Platch 
Nut-trees 
Sandy places 

? Dover and Surrey 



Copenhagen fields&sandy pi. 
Roots of grass and sandy pi. 
Ciialky and sandy places 
21 1 CryptorhynchusLapathiOsier grounds 



ptinoides 

phaeorhyiichus 

pleurostigma 

leucogaster 

g/obosus 

ovalis 

dentatus 

Quercicola 

Urticae 

melanostictus 

obstrictus 

contractus 

Lythri 

sulculus 

horridiis 

viduiis 



Hedges 



Sandy places 
Hedges 



• 316. sp. 226. 



6, KirbyTr.L.Soc.ix. 

6,' Page 202. 

Marsh.3i7.sp.230, 
318. sp. 231. 

C. 

6, 

6, 

6, 302. sp. 184. 

6, . 254. sp. 48. 

fi, 2G6. sp. 87. 

6, — sp. 85. 

6, 267. sp. 88. 

r,, 268. sp. 91. 

6, Page 203. 

6, Marsh.291.sp.l56. 

e, 291. sp. 157. 

6, 292. sp. 153. 

297. sp. 172. 

6, 298. sp. 174. 

6, 299. sp. 177. 

6, 300. sp. 179. 

6, 313. sp. 219. 

6, 306. sp. 197. 

6, 304. sp. 191. 

6, 303. sp. 187. 

6, 315. sp. 224. 

313. sp. 220. 

6, 3I5.sp.223. 

6, 291. sp. 155. 

6, 290. sp. 154. 

G, 254. sp. 47, 

6,7, 258. sp. 59. 

6,7, I — sp. 5S. 

6,7, 282. sp. 131. 

6,7, 253. sp.45. 

6,7, Panz. 

6,7, Marsh.279.sp.l23. 

6,7, 280. sp. 125. 

6,7, sp. 126. 

6,7, 281. sp. 128. 

6,7, 282. sp. 132. 

6,7, 255. sp. 50. 

6,7, 250. sp. 36. 

6,7, 252. sp. 41. 

6.7, _ - 

6,7, Panz. Faun. Stiee. 



378 



-THE rXTOMOLOGISl's CALENDAR. 



MAY. 



Ko. 

pf 
Gen. 


Name. 


Where found. 


Other 
times 
ofap. 


Reference to 
description. 


211 Cryptorhynchus assimil 

caiiescens 
ruber 

melanorhynchus 
inflexus 

212 Cioniis immunis 

213 Orchestes Alni 

ferrugineus 
atricapillus 
rufus 
nipricollis 
dt^pressiis 
pilusiis 

vhodotlactylus 
Salicis 
AvellanSB 
2^18 Platypus cylindricus ? 

220 Hvlesinus varius 

221 Ci's Buloti 

239 Donacia micans 

fasciata 

S igittariae 

viitata 

Nymphaea? 

fuse a 

palustris 

simplex 

linearis 

Hydrocharis 

inelanocephala 
'240 Crioceris Asparagi 
241 Cassida eqaestris 

similis 

cruentata 


sHedges 


6,7, 
6,7, 
6,7, 
6,7, 
6,7, 

c, 

6, 
6. 
6, 
6, 

6, 
6, 
6, 
6, 

G. 

c, 

6. 
6, 

c, 

nw. 6, 
6, 
6, 
6, 
6, 
6, 
6, 
6, 
6, 


Marsh. 257.sp.55. 

259. sp. 62, 

251. sp. 39, 

253. sp. 44. 

sp. 43. 

278. sp, 120. 

260. sp. 67. 

sp. 68. 

261. sp. 71. 

sp. 69. 

sp.7(). 

262. sp. 73. 

sp. 72. 

sp, 74. 

264. sp. 79. 

263. sp. 78. 

Page 205. 
Marsh, 54. sp, 9. 
Page 206. 

21!, 

Marsh. 344. sp. 9. 

345. sp, U. 

sp. 10. 

347. sp. 15. 

349. sp. 20. 

sp. 21. 

348, sp, 19. 

347. sp. 16. 

sp. 17. 

348. sp. 18. 

214. sp. 3. 

Page 211. 
Marsh. 144. sp. 2. 

145. sp, 4, 








Sides of ponds 

Alder 

Kims 

Hedges, skirts of woods 


Hedges 


Hedges 


Sallow, skirts of woods 

Nut-trees 

Bark of trees, New Forest 

Bark of trees 

Boletus versicolor 

Rashes iu ditclies 








Aquatic pi, in ditcheSjOree 
Plants in ditches 
Rushes in ditches 






Asparagus 
Horse-mint in ditches 


Thistles 


marcida 

nobilis 

splendidula 

242 Galeruca Tanaceti 

Crataegi 
Caprax 
Nymphseae 
cahnariensis 

243 Adimonia nigricornis 
* Alni 

244 tuperiis flavipes 

rnlipcs 

245 IJaltica oleracea 

orbiculata 
Ccnlaureas 


Broom 

Oaks and hedges 

IJettles and hedges 

Chalk-pits 

White-thorn bushes 

Aquatic plants 


6, 

6, 
6to9, 

6, 
6, 

6, 
6, 

6, 

6, 
6, 
6, 
G, 

6. 


146. sp. 7. 

147, sp. 8. 

Page 212. 
Marsh .228. sp.23 

225. sp. 14. 

224. sp. 12. 

227. sp. 21, 

Page 21-2, 
Marsh. 172. sp. 7. 
Page 212. 
Marsh. 217. sp. 9. 

202. sp. 80. 

200. --.p. 72- 


Hedges near Bexley 

Alder 

Woods, Shooter's Hill 

Willows 

Birch trees 

Nettles and hedges 



THE entomologist's CAtENDAR. 



379 



MAY, 



No. 

of 

Geii. 



Name. 



M'heie found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



243 Haltica testacea 

aurata 

nitidula 

llelxines 

semixnea 

cyanca 

ruficornis 

transversa 

affinis 

fuscipes 

Hyoscyami 

nigricoilis 

atricilla 

nigroKHca 

picina 

cnncinna 

Modeeri 

striata 

£eneo-fusca 

rntipcs 

rseudacori 

testacea 

a? rata 

nodicornis 

Biassicae 

nemoriim 

flexuosa 

4-piistulata 

locliroleiica 

tabida 

femoralis 

Verbas-ci 

exoleta 

suturalis 
24G Cbrysomelafiuinquejug 

Hyperici 

hfemoptera 

clavicornis 

Betula; 

Ifypoclixridis 

pallida 

Populi 

Tremula: 

Banksii 
2i7 Helodes Phellandrii 

vioiacea 
^5G Endomychus coccineus 
25s Forficula anricularia 
259 Labia minor 



Nettles and hedges 
Willows 



Nettles and hedges 



Mallows and hedges 
Hedges and nettles 
Hedi;es 
White-thorn and nettles 



Hedges and gardens 
Hedges and nettles, Ucxiey 

, lanes, Bexley 

Hedges and nettles, Bexlej' 
Nettles and hedges 



Hedges 

Marshy places 
Hedges and nettles 
isPlants on sea shore, Hants 
Coombe 

Sandy pi. near the sea, Hants 
Birch and willows 
Birch 
Hedges 

• — ■ , Coombe 

Aspen woods 



Nettles, lanes, Bexl.&Crarf. 

Cow parsnip 

Brook lime 

Under bark, Coombe 

Gardens fit 

Dimg. hills, upder stones, &,c 



6, Marsh. 'iO'i.sp. 81. 

6, 195. sp. 39. 

t), sp. GO. 

6, 194. sp. 38. 

6, sp. 57. 

6, 196. sp. G2. 

6, 199. sp. 70. 

C, 203. sp. 83. 

]99. sp. 69. 

— - 193. sp. 33. 

-200. sp. 91. 

—— 2IH). sp. 74. 

1 97. sp. ('i4, 

205. sp. 92, 

1 96. sp. 6 ! . 

— 1 94. sp. 36. 



6, 198. sp. G8. 

1 96. sp. 63. 

6, '..'02. sp. SI. 

204. sp. 87. 

6, — sp. 8G, 

6, Fabr. Syst. Ent. 
6, Marsh.' 197. sp.65. 

6, 198.sp. 66. 

6, sp,67. 

6, 2u2, sp. 80, 

6, 203. sp. 82. 

6, 201, sp. 76. 

6, 202. sp. 78. 

6, 201. sp, 75. 

6, sp, 77. 

C, 173, sp. 9, 

6, sp. 8. 

6, 171. sp. 5. 

6, 178. sp. 20. 

6, i 1 S4. sp. 33. 

174. sp. 12. 

6, 188. sp. 44. 

6, 189. sp. 4 5. 

6, iS7.sp. 42. 

6, ll?5. sp. .'-.S. 

6, 186. sp. 59. 

6, Page 213. 
o'2 2i(,v 



TUB ENTOMOLOGISTS CALLJ^D.Vn. 



MAY. 




2l3'2 Acheta cainpestris 
267 Blalta livida ? 



27'2*Corens maiginatus 

275 C'apsus ater 

273 Rediivius personatiis 

282 Hvfliometra stagnorum Ponds 



( iar.lttis and fields 

Oaks, Chisseiiiurst, Ccxlcy 

Under stones sea sliore 

Hedges 

Cras.sy jjlaccs 

Paliii'js 



294 Plata reticulata 

295 Isssis colenptratus 

296 Cix'ms nervostis 
297*Asiraca clavicornis 

301 Jassus Lanio 

viridis 
interrupt OS 

302 Tettigonia viridis 

spumaria 

303 Psylla Aliii 
505 'I'hvips Physapus 

/Iphis urticata 

307 Eriosoma Mali 

308 Aleyrodes Chelcdonii 

309 Coccus Cacti 
311 Papilio Macbaon e. 

I Li Stcaliw-fail 
314 Pontia Brassirae m. 
7he lar^e IFInie 

Rapaj M. — 

The green-veined If 'kite 

Napi 



Hedgrs and wood-sides 
Ile.igcs 

and wood-sides 

Grassy places ? 



— and liedges 
G'ardctiSj on various plants 
Alder 

Flowers in hedges 
Nettle 
Apple-trees 
"U'hite-thorn hedges 
Fruit-trees 
Cowslip mead.? Lymin. Plants 

Gardens 



The green-veined IVhile 

Cratiegi l. White-thorn 

The black-veined f-Hiite 



Pr.th-ways in woods 
AVoods 



Carda mines 
Sinapis 
The wood JVhile 

315 Melit.-Ea Artemis m. Meadows 

Th e greasy Ftitillary 

Dictynna b. Heaths and marshes 

The pearl-lo^dered Likeness 

Liicin I E. Pathways in woods, Kent 

The Duke n/ Bi(rg,u?idy FritiUary 

316 Argynnis Lathotjia e. Open parts in woodd, &e. 

The Queen of Spain Fnlillary 

Aglaia I. m. Violet 

The dark-green Fnlillary 

Adippe /. M. ■- 

The hgh-brown Fiitillary 

Paphia I. e. 



6, 


Page '218. 


6, 


Fabr. E. S. ii. 10. 




^p.'23. 


6,7, 
6, 


Page 222. 


9/23. 


4,5, 


224. 


(i,7. 


'2-30. 


(.',7, 
'3,7, 


^~ 


6,7, 
6, 


231. 


6.7, 


Linn.ii. 7ll.sp.46 


6,7, 


Stew. ii. 96. sp. 11 


6,7, 


Page 231. 


6,7, 


Linn.ii. 708. sp.24 


6, 


Page 231. 


6,7, 


— 232. 


6, 


Stewart 


6, 


Page 232. 


6, 


233. 


C, 


-. 


8, 


235. 



8, 236. 

Haw. 6. sp. 3. 

Page 236, 



8, 



237. 




The iilver-u-ashed FriliUarij 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 

MAY. 



d$l 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 




times 
of ap. 


des 


Haw. 18. 


8, 17. 


8, 22. 


3,6, 23. 


Pa 


ge 24 J 



script ion. 



318 
320 



321 
322 



3'2: 



324 

3'25 
328 
331 

334 



iXpatiira Ins (. e. Great round-leaved willow 

The purp'e Errperur 
HipparchiaPnniphilus 7.b. Crested dog's tail grass 
The small Hfalh 

INlesaera I. b. Grassy banks 
Thfi HuU 

/Ejceria /. ■ 

The speckled JFood 
Tliecla Rubi e. Hedges 

The grei7i Hair streak 

Lycffina Adonis e. Clialky places 8, 

The Cli/den Blue 

Dorylas e. Heaths ni;d commons 8, 242. 

The comm'jti Blue 

Idas E. Clover fields 7, — 

The. Mack-spot B'uwi 

Alsns E. Clover fields 7, 

The Bedf^nd Blue 

Argiolus M. Meadows 8, 

The axif^e Bl.e 

Cymon m. Chalky places 7, — 

The Mazarine B He 
Hcsperia Sylvaniis e. Skirts of woods 7, — — — 

The ivnod Skipper 

Tages E. Dry heatlis and banks — 

The Dingy Skipper 

Malvas E. Dry banks 

The mallow Skipper 

Paniscus i- Open parts in vvoodS; Bedfordsh. 

The scarce Skipper 
Sinerinthus ocfellatns e Near willows 
The eyed Huick Moth 

T'lUcc M. Lime and elm trees 

The H'/ie Hawk Moth 
Sphinx Porreilus e. Banks of gross weeds 

The small EUphint 
.^.geria apiformi-: I. Trunks of lime and poplar tr. 

The H'.rnet 
Hc()ialiis fiiscus e. Gra^-;y places 
The l-rnicn Swift 

obliqmis e. ]MeaJows 
The silver Swift ^ 

nebiildsus e, 



243. 



The spotted sUve" Sw/l 
Saturnia Pavonia-minor m. Osier beds 
The Emperor 

Pavoiiia-minor /. Sallows in wood* 
T^-e Emperor 



Haw. 6S. 

141. sp. 4. 

• . I42.sp. K. 

143. sp. 7. 

8, Page CiS. 
Haw, 73. »p. I. 



38^ 



THE EIvTOMOLOGIST S CALLNDAR. 



MAY. 



Iv'o, 

of 
Gen. 



Name. 



Where foiiiir]. 



Oilier 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



Oaks 



Trunks of poplars? 



336 Laria fascelina L. e. Broom 

The dark Tussock 

337 Gastropachaqnercifolia Z. E. Sloe bushes 

The tappet Moth 
359 Lasiocampa Trifolii e. Grassy commons 
The grass Eggar 

Cratjpgi I. M. White-thorn 
The oak Eggar 
343 Notodonta Ziczac b. , Trunks of trees 
The pebble Prominent 

Camelinus b. Oaks in woods 
The coxcomb Prominent 

palpinus I. e. Poplars and sallows in hedges 
Pale Prominent 

Camelinus /. m. 
Coxcomb Prominent 
540 Closteva recltisa 

The small Choiolate-lip 

345 Cerura Vinula Willows and poplars 

The Puss 

346 Arctia villica I. Groundsel 

The cream- spot Tiger 

Plantaginis I. b. Plantain 
The wood Tiger 

mendica m. Marshy places 

The Muslin 

Menthrastri b. Gardens 
The Ermine 
547 Calh'morphaDominula I Hound's-tongue and nettles 
The scarlet Tiger 
Bomhyx Coryii /. m. Nut-trees 
Nut-tree Tussock 

cseruleocephala I. White-thorn 
Figure of 8. 

Cassinia I. m. Oaks 
The Sprawler 
349 Yponomenta Cribella Thistles 
354 iVTociMa cytherea Skirts of woods 

The straw Underwing 

Verbasci m. Gardens and pales 

The Mullein 

exoleta Gardens 

The large Sword-grass 

conspicillaris m. Shady pales 
The silver Clcud 

megacephala 

The poplar Grey 



Haw. 102. sp. 31. 

95. sp, 19. 

Page 247. 

Haw. 105. sp. 37. 

99. sp. 26. 

8, 08. sp. 21. 

6, sp. 20. 

sp. 21. 

131. sp. 91. 

Page 248. 

Haw. 94. sp. 17. 

sp. J8. 

Page 248. 

[56. 
Stewart ii. 158, sp. 

9, Haw. 102. sp. 39. 

• 105.sp.39. 

106. sp. 40. 

8, Haw. Prodrom. 
S, 161. sp. 6. 

167. sp. 20. 

10, 168. sp. 24. 

171. sp.32. 

177. sp. 49. 



Tlir. EKTOMOLOCrST's CALENDAR 



383 



MAY, 



of 



Name. 



^\'lu■re found. 



Otiicr 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



Lanes 



Trunks of trees 



Skirts of woods 
Trunks of trees 



Pales 

Gardens and fields 



N'lrfua Rumicis 
The Knnt-grass 

leporina 
The Miller 

oleracca p.. Gardens 

Th? bright-line Biown-eye 

Pisi /. Broom 

The Broom 

runica Trunks of trees 

The scarce Marvel du Jour 

praecox b. 

The Portland Moth 

ferrugiiia?o 
The heart Moth 

renago 
The hmrt Moth, var, 

meticulo=a 
The angle Shades 

Gamma 
The silver Y. 

Arbuti E. Meadows 

The minute yellow Undertoing 
Gi'ometra pusaria Hedges 

The common ichile Ifave 

arenosaria Moist woods 

The sandy If 'are 

striaria ■ 

The common H^ave 

rotundaria 

The round icinged IVave 

ferrugaria e. Hedges 
The red Twin-spot 

Sallcaria e. 

The striped Twin-spot 

omicromaria e. 
The Mocha 

ocellaria h. 

The false Mocha 

pendularia e. 
The birch Mocha 

punctaria r,. 

The Maidrn's Blush 

putataria e. 

The little Emerald 

vernaria e. 



Woods in Kent 



M'oods 



Birch-trees in woods 
Open places in woods 



E. Meadows, Peckham 
The small Grass Emerald 

iJlnstraria e. Skirts of woods 

The purple Thorn 



Haw. 178. sp. 50. 
182. sp. 62. 

193. sp. 93. 

— sp. 94. 

200. sp. 113. 

201. sp. 114. 

238. sp. 225. 

— sp. 226. 

fi,9, 244. sp. 251. 

9, 256. sp. 6. 

265. sp. 33. 

-290. sp. 51. 
-289. sp. 48. 
- 289. sp. 49. 

303. sp. 102. 

309. sp. 103. 

8, 312.sp. 110. 

8, — sp. 111. 

8, 311. sp. lOS. 

8, 312. sp. 112. 

300. sp. 82. 

8, 291.sp. 56. 



to 8, 
6, 



THE ENTOMOLOGTST S CALENDAR. 
MAY. 



Ho. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



Haw. S5l.sp. 111. 

- — sp. 109. 

- — sp. 110. 

- 329. sp. 40. 
-334.sp.54. 

- 353. sp. 55. 

- 277. sp. 17. 
-278. sp. 18. 
-318. sp. 7. 

- 324. sp. 24. 

- 325. sp. 2G. 
sp. 25. 

• 359. sp. 69. 

- 342. sp. 79. 

- 344. .qp. 84. 

- 352, sp. 15. 

sp. 114. 

■ 356. sp. 124. 

- 340. sp. 72. 

- 339. sp. 70. 

• 343. sp. 81. 
348. sp. 98. 
346. sp. 94. 
522. sp. 18. 



Geometra flos-lactata E.Shady groves 
The cream JFave 

lactata e. ■ 

The pale cream Wave 

sublactata e. ____ 
The broad-striped cream IVave 

sylvata e. Chalky pi. Sc wood?, Kent 

The waved Carpet 

costovata Hedges 

The short-barred Carpet 

fluctuata Gardens 

The garden Carpet 

consonaria Woods 

The brindled Grey 

punctularia m. Birch-trees 
The grey Birch 

dubitata e. Hedges and gardens 

The Tisiue 

centum-notata e. Open places in woods 
The commi.ji warbled Carpet 

comma-notata e. 



The yellow rnorlled Carpet 

perfnscata Woods ? 

The brown marbled Carpet 

Rhamnata e. Hedges near chalk-pits 
The dark Umber 

testata b. Thickets and bushes 

The Chevron 

petrata e. Fern, Coombe Wood 

The brown Silver Line 

lutcata E. Open places in woods 

The small Yellow J-Vave 

candidulata e. — — 
The small IVtiile JVave 

biniaculata e. Shady groves 
The white Pinion Spotted 

vitalbata e. Hedges near clialk 

The small waved Umber 

tersata e. 

The Fern 

maculata e. Pathways, woods 

The speckled Yellow 

clathrata e. Clover fields, Kent 

The latticed Heath 

prjenotata ^.. Birch -trees 

The sharp-angled Peacock 

rufata m. Broom fields 

The broovx Tip 



6, 
6,7, 



8, 



8, 



THE EKTOMOLOCIST S CAI.EXT)\T!. 



385 



MAY. 




Reference to 
description. 



GeomelratiUni^ma. Coombe 

The lovg-w vgfd Pug 

subfuscata e. Woods 
The brown- grey Pug 

insulata e. 

The insulated Carpet 

subtristata m. 
The common Carpet 

marginata 
The clouded Border 

Euphorbiata 
The drab Looper 

notata e. 

The Peacock Moth 

relata e. 

The netted Heath 

trigeininata e. 
The treble Twin-spot 

illustraria 
The purple Thorn 

pliuiiheolata e. 
The lead-coloured Pug 

pusillata Gardens 

The small grey Pug 

362 Herminia vittaiis m. Hedges, Chelsea 

The cream-edged Snout 

baibalis m. Pathways in woods 

The common Fan-foot 

363 Platypteryx ciirvula e. Birch trees 

The bordered Horklip 

lacertinaria e. « 

The scolloped Hook tip 

364 Ciiex compressa e. Hedges 

The gouse-egg Moth 
565*Torlrix urticana Kettles 

The barred Nettle 

Fagaiia /. Oaks 

The small green Silver-lines 

ruficiiiana e. Meadows, Yorksliire 
The red Frinse 



■ and hedges 
Bushy places 
Shady groves 
Birch trees 
Clover fields, Kent 
Hedges, chaliiy places 
Skirts of woods 
AYoods 



■ 337. sp. G'j. 



- 348. sp. 



•359. sp. 13 
• 367, sp. 5. 



11. 



Baumanniana 
The Baurnannian 

Oxvacantliaua 
The TFhxte ih'>rn 

corticaiia 
1 he mm bleu Long-cloak 

sequana b. Hedges 

The silver Blotih-baJc 



Shady groves 

Hedges 

Open parts in woods 



2 B 



TH5 ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



MAY. 




365*Tortrix composana e. Oaks 
The triple-striped Blotch-back 

* nitida e. Hedges 
The dark Silver-striped 

strobilana b. — ^— — 

The light Silver-striped 

* pauperana Fens 
The spotted Drab 

* egestana -■- 
The lesser Drab 

Botys strigulalis 



? Yorkshire 



The least Black Arches 

pupuralis e. Hedges 

The Crimson and Gold 
*Crambiis sanguinea Grassy places near chalk 
The buff-edged rosy Veneer 

376 Leptocerus interruptus Marshy places 

377 Odontocerus griseus ■ 

378 Phryganea grandis Woods 

379 Liinnephilus rhombiciis Marshy places 

uervosiis — — — 

ecliinatiis . 



Devonshire 
Ponds and woods 
Trunks of trees 
Woods and hedges, &c. 



gnseiis 

radiatus 

striola 
380 Libelliiia deprcssa 

conspurcata 

4-maciilata 
465 Vespa Crabro 

vulgaris 

Britannica 
468 Andrena albicans 
392 Panorpa communis 
403 Zaraea fasciata 
412 Allantus viridis 
468 Andrena helvola 

ovatula 

barbilabris 

fuscata 1 

* Afzeliella 
470 Sphecodes gibbus 

Geoffrella 

479*MegachilecircumcinctaStony banks, Dartford 
48 1 Nomada Goodeniana Sunny banks 

alternata 

Marshamella 

Caprea; 

Jeucophthalma 



Tansy and flowers 

Hedges 

Coonibe Wood 

Hedges and woods 

Blossoms of black currant 

Sandy places 

Flowers 



Flowers on sunny banks 



Round-rooted crowfoot 
Blos.of great round-leaved 



to 9, Fa.E.S.ii.7f 
to 9, 

6, Page 257. 
to 9, Fa,E.S.ii.77.sp.l3. 
to 9, 
to 9, 

to 9, ii. 78. sp. 14. 

to 9, 
to 9, 

6, Lin.S.N.i.902.sp.5. 
6,7, 

6,7,8, 901. sp. 1. 

6,7,8, Page 280. 

6,7, 

6,7, 

Kirby ii. 94. sp. 45. 
to 8, Page 260. 

263. 

6,7, F.E.S.ii.ll3.sp.53. 
Kirby ii. Il9.sp.59. 

149. sp. 89. 

151. sp. 91. 

167. sp. 107. 

. I70.sp. 108. 

6, 42. sp. 7. 

6, 45. sp. 8. 

246. sp. 45. 

180. sp. 4. 

182. sp. 5. 

188. sp. 10. 

willow 193. sp.l3. 

.197. sp.l6. 



THE ENTOMO;.OGIST S CALENDAR, 



387 



MAY. 




487 Boinbus pratoriiin 
490 Corethra cuciiliforinis 
49 i Tanypiis cinctus 

492 Cliironomus pluniosus 

493 Psyc'hoda phalaenoides 

494 Cecidotnyia lutea 

495 Ctenophora atrata 

496 Pedicia rivosa 

497 Tipula oleracea 
500 Odontoniyia tigrina 

microleon 

502 Nemotelus uliginosus 

503 Oxyccia Hydroleon 

tiilineata 
521 Acrocera gibbosa 
523 Rhingia rostrata 
527 Helophilus tenax 
533 Milesia pipiens 
536 Myopa dovsalis 
539 Mocillas cellaiius 
550 Musca Csesar 

Meridiana 
561 Melophagus ovinus 
562*Nycteribia Heruiaiini 



Blossoms of the currant 
Marshy places 



Moist places 



Marshy places 

Marshes 

Meadows 

Marshes, Battersea, (Dr. L.) 

Moist places 

Flowers in meadows 



Knbyii.36O.sp.l03 
6, Page 290. 

6, 

6, 

6, 291. 

6iF.E.S.iv.267.sp.l6. 

6, jv. 2G5. sp. 9. 

Page 292. 

F.E.S.iv.267.sp«19. 
Page 296. 



AVimbledon Common 

Flowers in gardens 6,7, 

Hedges 6,7,8, 297. 

Flowers in hedges & gardens 6,7,F.E.S.iv.310,sp.] 19 

Hedges 6, Page 298. 

Wine-vaults 299. 

Hedges and lanes 6, Li.S.N.i.989.sp.64. 

Trunks of trees 6, i.989. sp. 63. 

Sheep 6, Page 303. 

Horse-shoe bats 6, — — 304. 



JUNE. 



6 Atypns Sulzeri 
1 9 Thomisus citreus 

lynceus 
10 Cicindela sylvatica 

hybrida 
Germanica 

12 Carabus glabratus 

arvensis 

13 Calosoma sycophanta 
Inquisitor 



Darent wood 
Hedges 



Sandy pi., Christ-ch. Hants, 

Cobham, Surrey 7, 

Sandy pi. Yarmouth, Swansea 7, 
Chalky pi. Isle of W. Dartf. 7, 
Surrey. Ireland, (Dr.Leach) 
Near Nor\vich(Mr.Step.)Sur. 
Near Dartmouth 
W.thorn.Norw. Dev.Windsor 



20 Bembidium bipunctatum Sand-pits, Darent W. 



25 Harpalus tibialis 
auHcus 
Germanus 

45 Epomis cincta 

39 Calathus iittoralis 

40 Poecillus lepidus 



Sandy places ? 
Trees, Coombe 
Kingsbridge, Devon 
Fields, Bristol, Plymouth 
Sea shore 
Pathways, fields 



48 Lamprias cyanocephalaBroom ' Darent Wood 

49 Lebia crux-minor Under stones 

52 Odacantha melanura Moist pi. Norfolk, Swansea 

2b 2 



144. 

Linn. 

Marsh. 390. sp. 2. 

Tr.Ent.S.i.93.pl.2. 

93. 

Page 146. 

Marsh. 453. sp.55. 

445. sp. 33. 

sp. 34. 

Panzer. 
Page 151. 

Gyll ii. 94. sp. 14. 
Page 155. 

156. 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALEKDAR. 



JUNE, 




Where found. 



Other 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



57 Hydroporus doisalis 

melanocephala 

flavipes 
CO Colymbeies vitreus 

fenestratus 

colconotus 

* oblongus 
61*Hydaticus Hybnerl 

* stagnalis 

65 Buprestis biguttatus 

■viridis 

66 Trachys minuta 

pyginaa Birch ? Coombe Wood 

67*Aphanisticus emarginatiis Woods ? Devon 



Ponds, Copenhagen Fields 
Ponds 

, Coombs 

, Norfolk 

Croydon Canal 
Ponds, Coombe 

. , Norfolk 

, Ealing 

, Wiltshire 

Woods 

Birch and nut-trees 



70 Elater nectinicornis 

cupreus 

ferrugineiis 

ephippium 

lufiiiennis 

sanguineus 

pomonae 

praeustus 

inetallicus 

ripariiis 

4-pustulatus 

bipustulatus 

thoracicus 

ruficollis 

riifipes 

cylindricus 

* longicollis 
viltatus, var. 

71 Dascillus cervinus 

74 Drilus flavescens 

75 Lycus minutus 

76 l.ampyris noctiluca 

79 Dasytes fl ivipes 

caeriileus 
viridis 

80 Malachiiis ruficollis 

sanguino'entus 
fasciatus 

81 Till us elongatus 

* unifasciatus 



Woods ? Yorkshire 



? Kent 

? 



New Forest 

Highgate 

Devon 



Bristol 



Copenhagen Fields 
Windsor 
Hyde Park 
Woods 



Hedges 

Bristol 

Hedges 

Woods and Hedges, Kent 

Grass, Darent Wood 

Oak and hedges ' 

Hedges, woods and heaths 

Hedge-:. ( oombe and Darent 

Thrift, sea-shore, Hants 

Devon 

Crass and hedges 

. I^arent and Coombe 



Marsh. 421. sp.21. 

425. sp. 25. 

Tr. Ent. Soc. i. 90. 
Gyl. i.489. sp. 23. 
Marsh. 446. .-p. 10. 
Gyl. i. 504. .sp. 56. 

i. 494. sp. 27. 

Page 159. 
Gyll.i. 481.sp. 15. 
Page 58. 

160. 

7, Marsh. 393. sp. 6. 

— sp, 7. 

Paee 160. 
Marsh. 387. sp.3l. 

381. sp. 23. 

— — 382. sp. 19. 
-. 383. sp. 21. 

382. sp. 20. 

Gyll. i. 417.sp. 46. 
— — i.392.sp. 19, 

i. 402.sp. 31, 

i. 424. sp. 54. 

Marsh. 375. sp. 1. 

376. sp. 3. 

sp. 2. 

389. sp. 34. 

Gyll.i.394. sp. 22. 
— — i.4I2.sp. 41. 

i.4l0.sp. 39. 

Page 162. 

163. 




Oaks, Hants (Mr. Chant) 
Oaks ? 

82 Than-jsimiis formicariusSandy banks, Coombe 

83 Opilus mollis Hedges and woods 
88 Silpha letitulaia Corn-lields 

* nitjdiuscula Yoikshire 

89*Phosphug!asubrolundataUnder stones, Ireland 



7, Marsh. 371. sp, 12, 

7, 370. sp. 10, 

7, 37]. sp. 11. 

Page 165. 



7, 166. 

6, Marsh. 119. sp.l 1. 

S.bicolor,Tr. Ent. Suc.82. 

Zool. Misc. iii. 75. 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



389 



JUNE. 



No. 

of 

Oen. 



Name. 



Where touncl. 



Uliier 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



96 Cryptopliagiis pallens Uinbelliferoiis plants 
98 Tli3'maliij; fernigineus Under bark of trees, New 
Forest, Hants 



7, Marsh. 477. 
7, Page 170. 



sp. 9. 



99 Nitidula Boleti 
fulva 
obscura 
obsoleta 
lO-fcuttata 
niarginata 
depressa 
Krisea 



Fungi 

Dead animals 

Fungfi 

Under bark, Coombe 

Dry bones, Coombe 

Dry bon. St tin. bark, C'oombe 

and under bark of tr. 



1 14 TacliyponischrysomelimisFlowers 



118 Bythinns Curtisii 
124 Ptinits imperiabs 
127 Anobium castaneum 

rufipes 

panicium 

molle 

ptinoides 
]9S Dermestes murinns 
129 Attasenus serra 



Sand-pits, Bexley 
Hedges, Birch Wood 
Hfdgesnear Crayford, Kent 
Houses, Coombe Wood 
Houses 



Coombe 
Darent Wood 
Under bark of trees 
132 Throscus derniestoides Houses, Coombe 
135 Onthophilus striatus Under dung 

snlcalus 

135 Hister 2-maculatus 

virescens ■ 



seneus 
nitid(dus 



158 Odonteus mobilicornis Wisbeach, Norfolk 
16-2 Synodendron cylindricum Old ash-trees, Bexley 



l63*Melolontha Fullo 
solstitialis 

164 Anomala Frischii 

horticola 

• Agricola 

• Donovan t 
ruricola 

165 Hoplia pulverulenta 

166 Trichius variabilis 

168 Lucanus Cervus 

169 Blaps lethifera 
172 Tenebrio obscurus 

174 Phaieria cadaverina 

175 Diaperis Boleti 

ahenea 

176 Tetratoma Fungorum 

177 Leoides picea 

humeral is 

• polita 



Near Sandwich and Dover 

Trees 

Near the sea shore, Devon 

Skirts of woods 

Glamorgansh.(]VIr. Donovan) 



Newmarket Heath 
Heaths 

Brixton, Surrey 
Lanes 

Cellars, Hertfordshire 
Cellars 
Sandy places 
Boleti of trees 
Sandy places, Bexley 
Fungi in woods 
Sandy places 
Fungi, Darent Wood 
Sandy places ? 



Marsh 136. sp.2l. 

130. sp. 3. 

135. sp. 19. 

135. sp. 20. 

Gyll. i. 216. sj). 3. 
Marsh. 133. sp. 14. 
. 134.sp. 15. 

7, Gyll. ii.236. sp.l. 
Page 178. 
Marsh. 88. sp. 24. 
84. sp. 7. 

83. sp. 5. 

Gyll. i. 293. sp. 5. 
Marsh. 84. sp. 8. 

228. sp. 5. 

61. sp. 2. 

63. sp. 7. 

Page 183. 
—^184. 

Hister s. Pay k.M. H. 
Linn. 
Pavk. 
Fabr. 

7, Page 189. 

190. 

7, Marsh. 36. sp. 64. 
7,8, 33. sp. 66. 

40. sp. 7 1 . 

41. sp. 78. 

43. sp. 76. 

— — 44. sp. 77. 

7, 39. sp. 63. 

7, Page 191. 

Tr. Ent. Soc. i. 81. 
7, Page 192. 

Marsh. 479. sp. 2. 

Turton ii. 478. 

Page 193. 
6, 194. 

Marsh. 176. sp. 17. 
7, Page 194. 

Marsh. 67. sp. 13. 
75. sp. 45. 



390 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



JUNE. 




177 Leoides ruficollis Sandy places, Darent Wood 

1 78 Boletophagus Agaricola Boleti and finig 



Under bark of trees ? Devon 

Hedges 

Umbelliferous plants 

Hedges 

Hedges and skirls of woods 

BoletijCoombeW. (Mr. Stone) 

Hedges and woods, Darent 

Boleti 

Woods, Bexley and Darent 

Boleti 

Flowers, Hertford 

Flowers, New Forest 

Woods, Hampslead 

Ash-trees 

Umbelliferous plants 

Chatham 

Bristol 

Flowers in chalk-pits, Kent 



179 Helops lanipes 

180 Cistela ceramboides 

sulphurea 

fulvipes 

castanea 

humeralis 

fiisca 
182'Orchesia micans 
183 Pyrochroa coccinea 
186 Scraptia fnsca 
188 Anthicus aHtherinus 
190 Mordella fasciata 

192 Meloe tectus 

193 Cantharis vesicatoria 

194 CEdemera caerulea 

nigripes 

ruficollis 

viridissima 

lurida 

Podagrariae Umbelliferous plants 

195 Mycterus curcnlionides Flow. chalk-pits, South Devon 
197 Platyrhinuslatirostris Boleti in woods 

albinus Hurdles & dry wood, woods, 

Eltham 
brevirostris Hedges, Coombe 

1 99*Rhinomacer attelaboidesThistles 



200 Bruchusseminarius 
203 Rhynchites Populi 
angustatus 
cylindricus 

205 Apion vicinum 

ruficorne 
assimile 

* Astragali 
Loti 

* violaceum 

* Hydrolapathi 
Rumicis 
Carduorum 

206 Curculio Pyri 
208 Rhynchaenus Piui 

Abietis 

ebeneus 

subnebulosus 

palustris 

interruptus 

Plantaginis 



Henley 

Aspen and poplar 

Coombe 



Bird's-foot trefoil 
Nut-tree 

Sulphur-coloured trefoil 
Sweet milk-vetch 
Bird's-foot trefoil 
The dock 



The broad-leaved dock 

Thistles 

Skirts of woods 

Pine woods 

Fir woods, Scotland 

Hertford, (Mr. Stephens) 

Norfolk 

Battersea 

Banks and sandy plac«s 



Marsh. 68. sp. 19. 
Page 194. 

Marsh. 222. sp. 6. 
7, 219. sp, 1. 

223. sp. 10. 

7, '- sp. 9. 

Gyll. ii. 545. sp. 5. 

Marsh. 223. sp. 8. 

Page 195. 

196. 

Marsh. 485. sp. 3. 
Page 197, 
Leach Tr.L.S. xl. 
Page 198. 

6, Marsh, 372,sp.l4. 
6, Panz, 

Marsh. 572. sp.l3. 

360. sp. 6. 

Gyll. ii. 633. sp, 6. 

Page 199. 



Marsh.295,sp.l66. 

Page 200. 
Marsh, 236, sp. 3. 
7, 241, sp. 9, 

6, 

7, Kirby Tr.L.S. ix. 



Marsh,317.sp.229 
289. sp. 152, 



. sp.lOO. 



269. sp. 95. 

265. sp. 84. 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



391 



JUNE. 




Norfolk 
Hedges 



Oaks 
Hedges 



208 Rhynchjemis Nereis 

Sysiinbrii 
atrirostris 
Ali small s 
crassiis 
brevis 

209 Balaninus Glandium 

Cerasorum 

tenuirostris 

fasciatns 

Pomornm 

iniirinus 

longimanus 

fructuum 

maculatus 

rubellus 

atramentarius 

stygius 

semicylindriciis 

210 Liparus Germanus 

piceus 

maurus 

pilosulus 

setosiis 

iEcidii 

maritimus 

scabriculus 

subrotiindus 

2 1 1 CryptoihynchusErysimi 

312 Cionus Scrophulariae Water betony 
Thapsi ■ ? 

Hortiilanus 



Sallows in hedges 
Hedges 



Dover and Hastings 

Sandy places 

Sandy pi. and nettles, Coombe 



Coombe 

Bristol 

Coombe 



Knotty- rooted figwort? woods 
Bexley 



bipnstulatns 
21 G Hylurgus Piniperda 

niger 

ater 

obscurus 
217 Tomicus Tj'pographus 

fuscus 

219 Scolytus multistriatus 

220 Hylesinus crenatus 

221 Cis concinnus 

bidentatus 

222 Cerylon histeroides 

bipunctatum 

dermestoides 

224*Mycetophagus 4-pustulatus Fungi 
230 Lamia »di!is Trunks of trees 



Bark of the pine 



Bark of trees 



Boleti 



Bark of trees 
Under bark of trees 




i^ ^_ . 

rayk.iii.240.sp.53. 

Marsh. 253. sp.45. 

Payk.iii.227.sp.45. 

Marsh.273.sp.l08 

245. sp. 18. 

265. sp. 82. 

7, 284. sp. 137. 

7, sp. 133. 

7, sp. 139. 

7, 286. sp. 144. 

7, — 285. sp. 142. 

7, 293. sp. 161. 

7, 292. sp. 159. 

— sp. 158. 

293. sp. 162. 

— sp. 163. 

294. sp. 165. 

— sp. 164.| 
290. sp. 153. 
305. sp. 194. 
316. sp. 225. 
299, sp. 175. 
304. sp. 1 89. 
307. sp. 201. 
307. sp.202. 
304. sp. 192. 

— sp. 190. 
257. sp. 56. 
276. sp. 117. 
277. sp. 118. 
273. sp. 119. 

278. sp. 121. 

Page 205. 

Marsh. 59. sp. 24. 

— sp. 25. 

57. sp. 17. 

Page 205. 

Marsh. 53.sp. 5. 

54. sp. 8. 

Page 206. 

Marsh. 87. sp, 19. 

86. sp. 17. 

V, 

7, 103. sp. 7. 

7, 

Page 207. 
7, Page 209. 



7, 
7, 



392 



THF, ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAK. 



JUNE. 




230 Lamia nebnlosa 
Textor 
aculeata 
piliisa 
hispida 
scalaris 
populnea 
nubila 
praeusta 

232 Cerambyx moschatiis 

233 Clytus Arieris 

arcaaius 

Alni 

mysticus 

234 Callidiutn violaceum 

bajuhim 

235 INloIoichus major 

dimidiatus 
23G Leptura elongata 

rufiventris 

meridiana 

attenuata 

aiirulenta 

melanura 

nigra 

sexputtata 

laevis 

livida 

femorata 

revestiia 

afRnis 

sanguinolenta 

collaris 

6-inaculata 
23T Rhagiutn vulgare 

bil'asciatnm 

238 Hargiuin Inquisitor 

239 Donacia Zosteri 

Eqniseti 

240 Crioceris merdigera 
* 12-punctata 

cyanella 
subspinosa 
flavicollis 
242 Galleruca Vibnrni 

245 Haltica Mercurialis 

Erucaj 

246 Chrysomela Gratninis 

fastuu^a 



Dry hurdles, faggots, &c. 
Trunks of willows 
Trunks of trees 
Dry wood in hedges, hurdles 



Willows ? 

Aspen 

Trunks of trees, Coombe 

Hedges, Kent 

Willows 

'J'runks of trees 



T,8, 



Faggots and hurdles in woods 
Trunks of tr.Sc hedges, Kent 7, 
Palings 



Flowers in hedges & woods 
Umbelliferous plants 
Flowers in hedges 



Umbelliferous plants 



(Darn.) 



Aquatic plants, Hull 



White lily 

Asparagus 

Willows 

Skirts of woods and elm 

Skirts of woods 

Sandy places, Bexley 

Hedges near Darent Wood 

Henbane 

Newmarket Heath. 

Woods, Kent 



7,8. 
7, 
7, 



7, 
7, 



Page 209. 



Marsh. 327. sp. 4. 

3^26. sp. 3. 

329. sp. S. 

330. sp. 9. 

332. sp. 13. 

33:1. sp. 14. 

Page 209. 

210. 

Marsh, 33S.sp. 24. 

338. sp. 23. 

337. sp. 22. 

Page 210. 
Marsh. 334. sp.l7. 
Page 210. 
Marsh. 358. sp. 1. 
Page 210. 
Marsh. 341. sp. 2. 

340. sp. 1, 

354. sp. 32. 

356. sp. 34. 

350. sp.23. 

35 1 . sp. 25. 

357. sp. 37. 

.351. sp. 26. 

352. sp. 27. 

sp. 28.. 

350. sp. 24. 

353. sp.20. 

349. sp. 22. 

353. sp. 30. 

Page 210. 
Marsh. 342. sp. 4. 
Page 210. 
211. 



Marsh. 214. sp. 2. 

2l5.sp. 4. 

216. sp. 7. 

217. sp. 8. 

224, sp. 13. 

193. sp. 53. 

172. sp. 6. 

174. sp, 11. 



THE EKTOMOLOGIST S CALENDAU. 



393 



JUNE. 




246 ChrysomtlalO-punctataOaks, Bexley 

]0-notata Willows, Uexley 

Vitelliiia; Willows 

margiiiata Heaths, Norfolk 

* lurida Windsor 

noicolor Hedges ? 

24S Cryptocepliaiiis serpens Dandelion 



SIQ1UIS 

Coryli 

liiieola 

nitens 

6-punclatiis 

Moraji 

marsrinelliis 

pusillus 

bilituratus 
* labiatus 

flavilabi is 
249 elytra 4-piinctata 

tridentata 
2.tI Triplax bicolor 



Flowers in chalk pits, Kent 

Hedges, Darent 

Wood-sides, Kent 

Hedges 

Sallows in moist woods, Kent 

New Forest 

Hedges 

, Coombe 

Bristol 
Hedges ? 

-, Kent 



7, Marsh. 175. sp.l4. 
7, — sp. 13. 

180, sp. 23. 

— 190. sp.47. 

Marsh. 185. sp. 37. 
Page 213. 
N. S. 
7, Marsh. 208. sp. 4. 

207. sp. 3. 

209. sp. 7. 

203. sp. 5. 

212. sp. U. 

211. sp. 10. 

210. sp. 9. 



Oak, Bexley 

Sallow?, Coombe Wood 

Coombe 

253 Agathidium nigripenne Sandy places, 

rufipenne — - 

nannm ■ 

254 Coccinella 14-giittata 

bis-6-giiltata 



Firs 



ocellata 

5-piinctata 

22-punctata 

conglomerata 

14 pustulata 

Jateralis 

impiistulata 

conglobata 

1 1 -punctata 

hieroglyphica 

IS-guttata 
955 Chilocorus 4-verrucatusWhite-thorn 

bipusluiatus 
•iCiO Labidura gigautea 
Scymniis litura 

discoideus 

rigrimis 

fulvifrons 

parvulus 

analis 

bipustulatns 

bis bipuptulatus 

4''pustulatus 



Hedges 

Windsor 

Windsor and Norwich 

Hedges and Battersea fields 

Hedges 

Meadows 

Windsor 

Devon 

Coombe and Norfolk 

Cobham, Surrey 

('oombe 



21I.sp.ll. 

KirbyMS. 

Marsh. 507. sp. 2. 

206. sp. 1. 

122. sp. IS. 

7, Page 215. 

7, Gyll. li. 565. sp. 8. 

7, 

niig. 435. sp. 22. 

432. sp. 19. 

437. sp, 25. 

9, 44l.sp. 28. 

3,9, "= — 468. sp. 37. 
7,8,9, Payk. ii. 28. sp. 30. 
Illig.445. sp. 30. 



459. sp. 34. 
462. sp. 35. 



445. sp. 31- 

431.sp. 18. 

473. sp. 41. 

Oak 9, 475. sp. 43. 

Und.sto.sea-sh.Christ-ch.Hants Page 21'?. 

Hedges 7,8,9, Illig. 419. so. 10. 

. — 7,8,9, 418. sp. 9. 

7,8,9, 413. sp. 1. 

7,8,9, Marsh. 168. sp.43. 

• 7,8,9, Illig. 414. sp. 4. 

7,8,9, P.-»vk. ii. 7. sp. 3. 

7,8,9, Marsh. 164. sp. 37' 

7,8,9, Illig. 415. sp. 6. 

7,8,9, .Marsh. 164. sp. 53. 



354 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



JUNE, 




Sphsrosoma Quercus 
268 Tetyra Maura 
inuncta 

272 Coreus rhomboideus 

hirticornis 

273 Berytus tipularius 

274 Lygaeus nugax 

Hyoscyami 
micropteriis 

275 Capsus spissicornis 

ruficollis 

276 Miris vagans 

277 Myodocha tipuloides 
279*Ploiaria vagabunda 

280 Cimex lectularius 

281 Tingis Cardui 
293 Cicada Anglica f 

298 Cevcopis sanguinolenta 

299 Ledraaurita 

800 Membracis cornutus 
304 Livia Juncoium 
Aphis Ribis 

Ulmi 

Pruni 

Sambuci 

Pruni cerasi 

Rumicis lapathi 

Acetosae 

Ligustici scotici 

Lychnidfs 

Capres 

Padi 

R0S£E 

Dauci 

Tiliffi 

Juniperi 

Brassicae 

C race 33 

Lactucae 

Sonchi 

Tanaceti 

Absinthii 

Millefolii 

Avena; sativse 

Fraxini 

Jacenc 

Betulae 

Alni 

Fagi 



Oaks 

Hedges 

Sandy places, Bexley 

Hedges 

Sandy places 

Grassy places 

Hedges in woods 

Stony places, Devon 

Grassy places, Coombe 

Woody places 

Sandy places 

Hedges 



Houses 

Thistles 

Pennington Common ? Hants 

Open places in woods, Kent 

Hedges and oaks 

Hedges and woods 

J unci 

Red currant 

Elm 

Plum-trees 

Elder 

Cherry-tree 

The dock 

Wild sorrel 

Lovage 

Lychnis dioica 

Willow 

Bird-cherry 

Rose 

Carrot 

Lime-trees 

Juniper 

Cabbage 

Vicia cracca 

Lettuce 

Sow-thistle 

Tansy 

Wormwood 

Milfoil 

Oats 

Ash-tree 

Centaurea jacea 

Birch-tree 

Alder 

Beech'tree 



Page 220. 
Stew. ii. IOC 



7, 



Page 222. 

Stew. ii. 105. 
Trans. EntSoc. 73. 
Stew. ii. 104. 



Page 222, 

223. 

Stew. ii. 107, 
Page 223, 




7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 

ns, 

7,8, 

7,8, 

7,8, 

7,8, 

7,8, 

7,8, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7. 

7, 

7, 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S CALENDAR. 



39S 



JUNE. 



No. I 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
tiines 
of a p. 



Reference to 
ilescription. 



Aphis Quercus 
Pini 
Salicis 
Populi 
Tremulce 
Vibnrni 
Bursaria 



Aceris platanoides Maple 



Oak 

Scotch fir 

Willow 

The leaves of the aspen 

Younjr branches of the aspen 

Way-faring tree 

Black poplar 



Atriplicis 

Plantaginis 

Leucanthemi 

Scabios£e 

Fabae 
Coccus Quercus 

]?etula3 

Carpini 

Ulmi 

Coryli 

Tilik 

Capreae 

Salicis 

polonichus 

Fragariae 

Pilosellae 

Uva ursi 

Phalaridis 

Oxyacanthae 

Serratula; 

Persicjc 

Abietis 

Mespili 

Aceris 

AIni 

fuscus 

variegatus 

conch iformis 

catafractus 
305 Thrips minntissima 

jutiiperina 

fasciata 
310 PulexTalpse 

Hirundinis 

Sciurus ? 

312 Gonepteryx Rhamni 

The Brimslo'iie 

313 Colias Hyale 

The clouded Yellow 

314 Pontia Crataegi 



Orach 

PlantaMi 

Ox-eye daisy 

Scabious 

Bean 

Oak 

Birch 

Hornbeam 

Elm 

Hazel 

Lime 

Willow 

Salix hermaphrodita 

Scleranthus perennis 

Strawberry 

Hieracium Pilosella 

Arbutus uva ursi 

Canary grass 

White-thorn 

Serratiila arvensis 

Peach-trees 

Pinus Abies 

Medlar 

Maple 

Alder 

Oak 



7, Stewart. 
7, 

7,' 

7, 

7, 

7' 

7, 

7, . 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7, 

7', 

7', 

'7, ■ 

7, 



Elm 7, 

Mosses 7, 

Flowers,frequent in carnation 7,8, . 

Galls of the juniper 7,3, 

Compound flowers 7,8, • 

The mole (Mr.Weatherhead) N. S. 

Swallows (Mr. Stephens) 7, 

Squirrel 

Woods 7,8, Page 236. 



Gardens a:ul woods 
The blatk-veined White 



396 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



JUNE, 




315 Melitrea Eiiphrosyne b. Waste grounds and heaths 

The pearl-hoi dered Fiitillary 

Cinxia m. .Meadows 

The G anville Fniillary 
317 Vanessa Polychloros ^E. Elms 
The large Torluiseshell 

Urticffi I. B. Nettles 

The small Tortoueshell 

Urticfe b. Lanes, &c. 

The sniall TortoisesUell 

C. album I. M. Nettle, liop, willow & currant 
The whte C. 

319 Limenitis Camilla /. Honeysuckle 

The white Admiral 

320 Hipparchia Hyperanthus e. Woods and fields 

The Rwglel 

Pamphilus b. Grassy Commons 
The svnall Heath 
* Blandina 

The Scctrh Argus 

Pilosella l. b. 
The large Heath 

Janira b. 

The meadow Brown 

.(Egeria I. 

The speckled Wood 

Davtis 
Thf small Ringlet 

Polydama 
The marsh Ringlet 

Typlion 
The scarce Heath 

i^geria e. 

The sveckled JJ'ood 

321 Thecla Betulfe Z. e. 

The hrcwn Hairstreak 

Quercus I, b. Oak 

77;? purple Hairstreak 
2121 Lycsena Phlaeas b. Grassy commons 
The common Copper 

Idas I. E, Grassy banks 

The h'.ack-spot Brown 
524 Smerinthiis Populi e. Trunks of poplars 

The poplar Hawk 
S26 Sphinx Elpenor e. Gardens and marshy places 
The elephant Haivkmoth 

lineata Gardens 

The silver-line Hawkmoth 



Page 237. 







6, 



Isles of Bute and Arran 
Mouse-earHawkweed, pastures Haw. 25. 

Meadows Page 240. 

Grassy banks 3,5, Haw. 23. 

Marshes 15. sp. 

— — 16, sp, 

sp. 

Borders of woods and fields 4,8, Page 241. 
Birch 



16. 



17. 




THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



397 



JUNE. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where bund. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Eeference to 
description. 



Devonshire 



Trunks of pine-trees 
Gardens 

Bedstraw 



325 Sphinx Galii e. 

The scarce Elephant 

Euphorbia; b. 
The spoiled Elephant 

Piua^tri 
The pine Hawk Moth 

Ligustri 
Tlie privet Hawk 

326 MacroglossaStellatarum I. e 

The Humrmng-bird 

Siellatarum e. Gardens 
The Ilummtng-hird 

327 Sesia bombycitbrmis m. Flowers, marshy pi. in woods 

The narrcic- bordered Bee 

fusciformis m. Borders of woods 
The broad-hindered Bee 
323 ^^eriaapiformis e. Near lime and poplar trees 
The Hornel 
Mgeria jisiiiforinis m. Poplars 
The clear Underioing 

Cynipiformis m. Gardens 
The ydii lo-legged Clearicing 

Tipuhformis m. Currant-bushes 
The currant Clearwing 

Oestrijarmis m. Gardens and woods 
The yzl'.ow-tailed Clearwing 

Fespiformis e. Devonshire 
The six-belted Clearwing 

Sphecrjbrmis Enfield ? 

The black and wh'te-hordered Clearwing 

329 Zysaena Filipendu!^ b. Meadows 

The six-spotled Burnet 

Loti £. 

The five-spotted Burnet 

330 Ino Stalices m. 

The Fo-ester 

331 Hepialus Humuli m. 

The Ghost 

Map pa 
The beautiful Swift 

Angulum b. 

The tawny Swift 

hectus M 

The gold Swift 

332 Cossus Ligniperda e 

The g„al M'jth 
535 Liparis Monacha I. e 
The black Arches 

Monacha e, 

The black Arches 



Page 244. 



Haw. f)^. 



4,9, Page 244. 




Grassy places 

Darent Wood, (Mr. Standish) 

Open places in woods 

Trunks of willows 
Trunks of oaks 




308 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAK. 



JUNE. 



No. 

of 

Gen, 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



336 Laria pudibunda e. 


Woods 


Page 247. 


The pale Tussock 






338 Odeiiesis potatoria I. m 


fTall grass in hedges 


Haw. 84. sp. 8. 


The Drinker 






339 Lasiocampa Qnercus I. 


f Oak, long grasSj white thorn 


81.sp. 5. 


The large Eggar 






Rubi B. 


Woods 


83. sp. 7. 


The Fox 






Neustria Z. 


Fruit-trees 


129. sp. 87. 


The barr'd tree Latkey 




340 Eriogaster laneslris /. E 


• f Sloe bushes 


124. sp. 84. 


The small Eggar 






341 Endromis versicolor f.\ 


.fBirch 


80. sp. 3. 


The Kentish Glory 






S42 Stauropus Fagi m. 


Trunks of trees 


Page 247. 


The lobster Molh 






343 Notodonta palpinus b. 


Willows in hedges 


9, Haw. 98. sp. 20. 


The pale Prominent 






perfiiscus 


Oaks 


100, sp. 27. 


The dark Prominenl 






dromedaniliis 


Oaks? 


101. sp.29. 


The small iron Prominent 




Trepida b. 


Poplars 


DonovanB.1. 239.1 


The sicilloiv Prominent 




344 PvSHEra buoephala m. 


Skirts of woods 


Page 247. 


'iheh.ffTip 






345 Cerura minax ? 


Trunks of apple-trees 




» bifida 


"Darent Wood 




346 Arctia villica b. 


Open paths in woods 


248. 


The cream-spot Tyger 






Caja I. 


Nettles, &c. 


Haw. 93. sp. 16. 


The garden Tyger 






Plantasfinis b. 


Open places in woods 


Page 248. 


The wood Tyger 






Russula M. 


Furze on commons 


— . 


The clouded Buff 






papyritia m. 


Marshy jjlaces 





The water Ermine 






lubricipeda 


Gardens 


245. 


The huff Ermine 






Salicis I. 


Poplars 


Haw. 107. sp.42. 


The Satin 






chrj'sorrhoea I. 


White-thorn hedges 


108. sp. 43. 


The Yellow-tail 






phaorrhcea I, 


White-thorn 


109. sp. 45. 


The Brown-tail 






547 Callimorpha Dominula 


Lanes 


Page 248. 



The scarlet Tyger 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALEND4E. 



3S9 



JUNE. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of ap. 



Iteference to 
description. 



Oaks 

Heaths and commons 

Skirts of woods 



Callimorpha rosea 
The red Arches 

Jacobeffi 
The Cinnahar 

fuliginosa 
The ruby Tyger 

348 Lithosia quadra b. Pine-trees 

The four- spotted Footman 
Lithosia aurantia Skirts of woods 

The orayige Footman 
Bomhyx DodorijEa m. Oaks 

Marbled Brown 

Roboris Woods 

Lunar marbled Brown 
Quercea Oaks 

Dark marbled Broicn 
Nudaria fiisca Pales, Winchmore-hillWood 

The brown Muslin 

349 Yponomenta Evonymella Hedges 
* Echiella Dover 

irrorella Coombe 

Padella Hedges 

350 ^cophora Flavella Pales 

353 Adela Degeerella Thick woods 

354 Noctua Scrophularise I, Water betony 

The water Betony 

tetva Gardens 

The Mahngany 

Pronuba ■ 

The large yelloiv Underwivg , 

fimbria b. Oaks 

The Broad Border 

inlerjecta Open parts in woods 

The least Broad Border 

Myrtilli m. Heaths near Erith 

The beautiful yellow Underwing 

albirena Heaths, Norfolk 

The small yellow Undencing 



Page 24S. 



Stew. 159. sp. 57. 





Page 249. 








Haw 


. 147 


.sp 


.5. 






104. 


sp. 


34. 






— 


sp. 


35. 






- 


sp. 


36. 






157. 


sp. 


3. 


8, 




512. 


sp. 


1. 


6, 











— sp. 





167. 


4, 


162. 


7, 


160. 


8, 


161. 




162. 



combusta 
The dark Tawny 

Pinastri m. 

The Bird-ivivg 

putris M. 

The Flame 

crassicornis 
The large JVainscot 

comma b. 



— —163. 

170. 

— 172. 



The shoulder -stripe IVainscot 



Trunks of trees 

Trunks of pines & shady pales 

Weedy banks and gardens — — — 

Marshy places ? — — 173. 

Lanes,Hampsh.(Mr.Benfeley) 174. 



400 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



JUNE. 




Nortua atomina m. Marshy places 
The powdered JVainscot 

Aceris e. Sbady pales 

The Sycamore 

infuscala e, ■ 

The Sycamore, var. 

Euphorbiae Woods 

The Spurge 

Ligustri 
The Coronet 

corormla e. 

The Coronet, var. 

compta E. 

The marbled Coronet 

AIni M. 

The Alder 

Menyanthidis b. Trunks of trees 
The light Knot-grass 

similis e. ■ 

The scarce Knot-grass 

M. Coombe 



Trunks of. trees 



Pales 



Trunks of alders 



Haw. 173. 

176. 

177. 

178. 

I7y. 

180. 



auncoma 
The scarce Dagger 

Psi E 

The dark Dagger 

tridens e. — 

The light Dagger 

serena m. — 

The broadlarred ffhite 



6, 



Shady pales 



Trunks of trees 



Pales and gardens 



Trunks of trees ? 



Gardens 



grand is ] 

The grey Arches 

polyodon i 

The dark Arches 

satura 
The barred Arches 

advena i 

The pale shining Brcwn 

rectilinea m. Skirts of woods 

The light Brocade 

dives M. Trunks of trees 

The beautiful Brocade 

duplex M. 

The dark B ncnde 

Achates (Hub.) 

The pale shu:tldered Brocade 

Brassicx Pales 

The cabbage Moth 

Persicariae e. 

The Dot 



181. 

184. 
185. 

186. 
187. 

189. 



7,8, 



IPO 



191. 



THE entomoT.ooist's calexdab. 



401 



JUNE. 




Noctua nigra 

The black Rustic 

Chenopodii 
The Nutmeg 

contigua 
The large Nutmeg 

Pisi 
The Broom 

basilinea 



Pales ? Devon 



Gardens 



and pales 



M. Commons and pales 



B. Wood 
The rustic Shoulder- knot 

typica 
The Gothic 

capsincola 



Haw. 192. 



193. 
194. 



Weedy banks 
and gardens 



Gardens and hedges 
Shady pales 



The Lychnis 

Atriplicis e. 

The Arrach Moth 

glauca E. 

The glaucous Sheers 

plebeia e. — 

The glaucous Sheers^ var. 

dentina e. 

The glaucous Sheers, var. 

leucostigma e. — 
The pale Sheers 

ochracea e. i 

The tawny Sheers 

Oxyacanthje I. White-thorn 
The green-brindled Crescent 
Oaks 



9, 



near Cootnbe Wood 



Old walls, Chelsea 
Clover-fields 



ridens I. 

The frosted Green 

Lichenis e. 

The marbled Green 

denticulala b. 
The light-feathered Rustic 

cubicularis m. Willows and gardens 
The pale mottled IVillow 

lucipara e. Skirts of woods 

The small Angle-shade 

secalina e. Marshy places 

The small clouded Brindle 

scripta Woods 

The minor Shoulder-knot 

lEthiops E. Hedges 

The Blackamoor 

spinifera e. Weedy banks 

The small Sword-grass 

suffusa • 

The small Sword-grass, var. 

2c 



■ 196. 
197. 

198. 



• 199. 

■ 201. 
-202. 
•203. 

■ 205. 

• 208. 
■210. 

213. 
■215. 
217. 



402 THE entomologist's CAtEKDAK. 

JUNE, 




Noctua connexa Gardens Haw. 21 S. 

The chain-shot Dart 

venosa m. Weedy banks — — — 

The broad-veined Dart 

spinula m. Hedges _^_ ._ 

The brindled Dart 

nigricorvuta m. Skirts of woods __ 219. 

27ie black Dart 

subatraia. m. Weedy banks — 

The dark Dart 



pectmata e. 

The pectinated Dart 

cattenata m. •>••— ~a 
The brindled Heart and Club 

clavigera e. — ^— ^ 
The Heart and Club 

su h/usca 



The brown Heart and Club 

exclamationis e. i , 

The Heart and Dart 

C nigrum b. 226. 

The setaceous Hebrew Character 

plecta E. ■ ___ 

Thejlame Shoulder 

ochraceago I. Burdock 
The frosted Orange 

centrago m. Marshes 

The centre-barred Sallow 

croceago e. Hedges 

The orange Upperwitig 

meticulosa Pales 

The angle Shades 

batis M. Skirts of woods 

The Peach-blossom 

Delphinii Gardens, Windsor 

The Pease- ilossom 

trilinea e. Thickets 

The equal Treble-lines 

bilinea e. Coombe — 

The dark Treble-lines 

retusa Z. e. Great round -leaved willow ——251. 

Tlie double Kidney 

fiiluta Trunks of trees -—252, 

The lesser Lutestring 

flavicornis b. Trunks of poplars —— — 

The Poplar Lutestring 

fluctuosa M. Skirts of woods -^— — 

The satin Carpet 





234. 




236. 


2,4, 


238. 


5,9, 


244. 


7, 


245. 


7, 


^248. 


9, 


249. 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALEKDAR. 
JUNE. 



403 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where lounu. 



Other 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



Haw. 233. 

. 254. sp. 2. 

- — sp. 3. 

• 255. sp. 4. 

-256. sp.5. 

■ 257. sp. 7. 

- — sp. 8. 
. 258. sp. 9. 

■ 260. sp. 17. 

■ 26l.sp. 18. 

- — sp. 19. 

- 263. sp. 23. 

• — sp. 24. 
-264.sp. 29. 
-265.sp. 31. 

— sp. 32. 



Noctua duplaris b. Skirts of woods 
The lesser satin Carpet 

chrysitis e. Weedy banks 

The burnished Brass 

orichalcea Gardens, Crayford 

The scarce lurnished Brass 

bractea Yorkshire and Scotland 

The gold Spangle 

E. Gardens 



Mountains and heaths, Yoiks. 

Essex 

Salisbury plain 

Meadows 



Marshy places, Norfolk 
Clover-fields 



Iota I 

The gold Y. 

interrogationis 
The Yorkshire Y. 

circumflexa 
The Essex Y. 

illustris 
* The purple Shades 

arcuosa i 

The small- doited Buff 

fusca E. Woods 

The marbled IVhile-spot 

alhilinea • 

The marbled JVhite-line 

nnca 
The Silver-hook 

snlphurea e. 

The spoiled Sulphur 

luctuosa 
The Four-spotted 

glyphica b. 

The Burnet 

Mi B. 

The Shipton 

maura 
The great Brown Bar 
3G0 Biston Betularius m. Pales 
The Peppered 
Geometra Prunaria e. Shady groves 
The orange Moth 

Roboraiia e. Trunks of trees 
The great Oak Beauty 

consortaria b. Woods 
The pale Oak Beauty 

repandaria e, -■ ' 

The mottled Beauty 

consobrinaria — — — — 

The tawny Beauty 

suberaria a. Open parts in woods 

The large-waved Umber 

dolabraria e. Bushes 
The scorched JVmg 

2c 2 



Out-houses and palings 



"Ifi, 



- 269. sp. 6. 

- 2~2. sp. 2. 

• 283. sp. 34. 

- 275. sp. S. 
sp. 9. 

- — sp. 10. 
. 276. sp. 13. 

- 284. sp. 25. 
. 295. sp. 67. 



404 



THE ESTOMOLOOrST S CALENDAR. 



JUNE. 



iso. 
Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



Haw. 278. sp. 21. 
.508. sp. 101. 

- 304. sp. 92. 

-Sll.sp. 109. 
-314.sp. 114. 

- 289. sp. 46. 

- 287. sp. 41. 

- 302. sp. 88. 
-301. sp. 83. 

- 292, sp. 57. 

• 296. sp. 69. 

• 291. sp. 55. 

301. sp. 85. 

300. sp. 80. 

303. sp. 90. 

- 283. sp. 33. 
-281. sp.30. 

sp. 31, 

-317. sp. 3. 

- — sp. 5. 

- 336. sp. 62. 
■ 337. sp. 64. 

- — sp. 65. 

• 338. sp. 67. 



Geomelra Pinaria Pines, Scotland 
The bordered While 

unidentaria b. Skirts of woods 
The dark red Twin-spot 

viridaria e. Open parts in woods 

The green Carpet 

orbicularia m. Near Brockenhurst, Hants, 
The dingy Mocha (Mr. Bentley) 

linearia Woods, Kent 

The clay Triple-line 

respersaria Heaths 

The lesser Grass-wave 

plumbaria e. ■ 
The Belle 

Chenopodaria p.. 
The small Mallow 

fasciaria 
The barred Red 

lunaria m. 

The lunar Thorn 

advenaria m. 
The little Thorn 

bidentaria b. 
The scalloped Hazel 

pulveraria b. 
The barred Umler 

Thymiaria e. 
Common Emerald 

implicaria 
The silver Ground 

Vauaria 
77ie V Moth 

fuliginaria m. — — — 
The waved Black 

trepidaria e. Mountains, Scotland 

The black mountain Moth 

ulmata M. Elms 

The scarce Magpie 

dealbata b. Chalky places 

The Black-veined 

hastata a. Open places, Coombe Wood 

TTie Argent and Sable 

albioillata e. Paths in woods 
The beautiful Carpet 

adustata e. Hedges 

The scorched Carpel 

rubiginata e. Pathways, woods 
The blue-bordered Carpet 



Bushy places 

Westerham, Kent 

Paths in woods 

Colney-hatch Wood 

Skirts of woods 4, 

Paths in woods 

Open places, skirts of woods 

Open places in woods 

Gardens 7, 



TOE entomologist's calendar. 



405 



JUNE. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



Ofometra ocellata 
The purple bar 

Galiata 
Galium Carpet 

unilobata Yorkshire 

The liunl-angled Carpet 

impluviata Skirts of woods 

The May Highflyer 

berberata 

derivata b. 

The Strea mer 

spinaciata e. 
The Spinach 

Pyraliata 

bilineata e. 

The yelloic Shell 

munitata b. 

TTie rufous Carpet 

duplicata 
Ike slender Trelle-lar 

nassata m. Open parts in woods 

The small Rivulet 

rivulata e. Copenhagen F. and Norfolk 

The middle Rivulet 

Alchemillata m. Bushy places and thickets 
The Fivulet 

osseata e. Hedges 

The dwarf Cream-icave 

lividata b. — »^— 

The small dotted Wave 

punctata Chalky hedges 

iineolata Chalky pi. nearLewes, Suss. 

The Oblique-striped 

Shady groves 



Open paths in woods 
Devonshire 



Hedges, Norfolk 
Woods 

Gardens 

Hedges 

Hedges and skirts of woods 

Pine-trees 

Chalky places 



Woods 
Gardens 



Haw. 331. sp. 46. 

6, 332. sp. 47. 

6, 331. sp. 44, 

321. sp. 17, 

Fab.E.S.iv.l82.sp.l89 
Haw. 326, sp. 30. 



heparata 
The dingy Shell 

abbreviata 

venosata e. 

The netted Pug 

Centaureata e. 
The Lime-speck 

Absinthiata e. 
The wormiu'iod Pug 

vulgata 
7he common Pug 

simpliciata 
The plain Pug 

favillaciaria b. Near Ringw.Hants,(Mr.EenUey) 
The grey Scallop 

Atomaria b. Heaths 

The common Heath 



341. 


sp. 


76, 


Trans. Ent, Soc, 
Haw. 343. sp. 82, 


528. 


sp. 


34. 


318 


sp. 


8. 


335. 


sp. 


60. 


7, 


sp. 


59. 





sp. 


58. 


353. 


sp. 


116, 





sp. 


118. 


6, 

6, 341. 


sp. 


75. 


343. 


sp. 


83. 


Hiibner. 
Haw. 357 


sp. 


127. 


358. 


sp. 


131. 


359. 


sp. 


133. 


7, 


sp. 


134. 





sp. 


135. 


y) 278 


sp. 


19. 


280. 


sp. 


26. 



4o6 



TUE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



JUNE. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 

280. sp. 27. 

- — sp. 23. 
. 28l.sp. 29. 

- 283. sp. 45. 
-298. sp. 74, 
-320. sp. 13. 

sp. 14. 

-326. sp. 31. 

- 327. sp. 32. 
-328. sp. 36, 

■ 344. sp. 85. 

- 356. sp. 125. 
. 291. sp. 56. 
-362. sp. 147. 
. 360. sp. 139. 

■ 563. sp. 151. 

■ 364. sp. 153. 
sp. 154. 

■ 375. sp. 26. 

■ 366. sp. 5. 
• 365. sp. 1. 
. 366. sp. 4* 
. — sp. 3, 

■ 367. sp. 6. 



Geomelra glarearia b. Heaths 
The yellow Heath 

roseidaria b. ■■ 

The light Heath 

carhonaria m. ■ 
The Mack Heath 

inffiquaria b. Open parts in woods 

The larger Grass-wave 

Cratffgaria b. Hedges and woods 
The Brimstone 

undulata e. Pathways, woods 

The Scollop-shell 

vetulata e. Chalky places in woods 

TTie hroiun Scollop 

biangulata Pathwaj'S, woods 

The cloaked Carpet 

ruptata ■ ' 

The Iroken-harred Carpet 

decolorata 

The sandy Carpet 

Chjerophyllata b. Open places in woods 
Tlie looping Chimney-sweeper 

hexapterata [b. Birch-trees, Kent 



Haw 



The Seraphim 

illustraria 
The purple Thorn 

trimaculata 
The mottled Pug 

singiilariata 
The grey Pug 

rectangulata i 
The green Pug 

linariata 
The heautiful Pug 

rusticata 
The least Carpet 
362 Herminea flamealis 
The rosy Flounced 

vittalis I 

The cream-edge Snout 

proboscidalis e. 
The Snout 

rostralis e. 

The buttoned Snout 

crassalis 
The pinion Snout 

achatalis b. 

The leauti/ul Snoul 



4,3, 



Skirts of woods 

Hedges 

Open parts in woods 

Gardens 

Open j)arts in woods 

Thick woods 

Broom-fields, CoombeWood 

Hedges, Chelsea 

Hedges 



5, 



5, 



Shady groves, Kent 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR 



407 



JUNE. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



362 Herminia salicalis b. 


Biich-trees,»woods 


The lesser Belle 




derivialis 


Skirts of woods, Kent 


The clay Fan-foot 




tavsicrinalis 


Woods 


The Favfoct 




nemoralis 


Open parts in woods 


The small Fanfoot 




obscuialis 


Darent Wood 


The dingy Snout 




colonalis r. 


Gardens 


The green Shaded 




socia 


Darent Wood 


The pale Shoulder 




363 Platypteryxfalcataria M.Woods 


The pelhle Hooktip 




365 Tortrix chlorana m. 


Willows 


The bordered Green 




Cliristiernana 


Hedges in chalky places 


The Chriitierman 




oporana m. 


Hedges 


The great Hook-tipped 


Ribeana 


Gardens and hedges 


The common Oblique 


Bar 


Acerana 


Hedges 


The Maple 




pruniana 


Woods 


The lesser Long-cloak 


Udmanniana 


Pathways, woods 


The Udmannian 




comitana 


Pales 


The cream Short-cloak 


Mitterbachina 
The Mitterbachian 






Lecheana e. 


Open places in woods 


The Lechean 




Absiiithiana 


Wormwood 


The uormwood Tortrix 


harpana 


Hedges 


The hooked Marble 




Lundiana 


Paths in woods 


* The Lundian 




fasciana 


Hedges 


The Straight-barred 




Los;iana 


Elms 



Other 
times 
of ap 



Reference to 
description. 



The Logian 

Forsterana m. Hedges and woods 
The Forsterian 



Haw. 370. sp. IG. 
3G9. sp. 12. 
— sp. 14. 
370. sp. 15. 
367. sp. 7. 
374. sp. 21. 

151. sp. 13. 

152. sp. 1. 
397, sp. 4. 
399. sp. 13. 
427. sp. 105. 
423. sp. 89. 
425. sp. 99. 
.433. sp. 122. 

449. sp. 176. 
434. sp. 127. 

463. sp. 220. 
403, sp. 27. 
456. sp. 199. 
437. sp. 135. 
452. sp, 187. 
460. sp. 209. 

464. sp. 224. 
421. sp. 84. 



408 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



JUNE. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



365 Tortrix Rosana. m. Gardens 
The Rose 

rugosana b. Hedges 

The Rovgh-wing 

nubiferana m. ■ ■ 

The cloudy While 

tripunctana ■ ■ 

The common Long-cloak 

aurana Flowers 



Other 
times 
of ap. 
Haw, 



The double Orange-spot 



Oaks 



Pastures 



Hedges 



Woods 



atromargana 
The black Bordered 

cana 
The hoary Sealed 

Wceberiaiia Pales 

7"Ae Wceherian 

nubilana 
The smoky Grey 
368 Botys cineralis 

The cinereous Pearl 

nivealis e. 

The white Brindled 
371 Crambus Pratoriim m. Meadows 
The dark inlaid Veneer 

arborum Grassy hanks 

The yellow satin Feneer 

hortorum Epping Forest 

jThe garden Feneer 

cespitis » 

Tne straw coloured Veneer 

pineti ■ 

The pearl Feneer 

Rosea ■ 

The barred Feneer 

geniculea 



The elboioed-striped Feneer 

petrificia 

The common Feneer 

culmorum Meadows 

The large brown-edged Veneer 

carnea - 

The rosy Feneer 

Cardui 
The thistle Ermine 

consorta 
The aquatic Feneer 

gigantea 
The gigantic Feneer 



Thibtles 



Marshy places 



7, 



7, 
7, 
7, 



7, 



7, 
7, 
7, 
7, 

7, 



Reference to 
description. 

. 424. sp. 96. 

-431.sp. 114. 

sp. 117. 

. 432. sp. 120. 

-446. sp. 163. 

- — sp. 165. 
-456. sp. 197. 

- 457. sp. 201. 
-467.sp. 230. 

- 380. sp. 12. 

- 385. sp. 29. 

- 488. sp. 26. 

- 486. sp. 18. 
-490, sp. 31. 

- — sp. 32. 

- 487. sp. 23. 
-489. sp. 28. 

- — sp. 29. 
-485. sp. 13. 
-485. sp. 14. 
-484. sp. 10. 
sp. 9. 

- 483. sp. 8. 
■ 4S2. sp. 4. 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



40& 



JUNE. 




371 Crambus caiidea Woods 

The hooktip Veneer 

cultrea Marshy places 

Tlie pale hooktip Feneer 

aoinacidea 

The narrow-winged Veneer 
373 Pterophorus pentadactyliis m. Nettles 
The large white Plume 

fuscodactylus Woods 

The hrown wood Plume 

bipunctidactylus ■ 

The grey wood Plume 

monodactylus Weedy banks 

The hoary Plume 

tetradactylus . ■ 

The white-shajted Plume 

leucadactylus 

The lemon Plume 

lunaedactjlus 

Tlie crescent Plume 

megadactylus 
The chalk-pit Plume 



Chalk-pits 



trigonodactylus e. Skirtsof woods, chalky-places 
The triangle Plume 

galactodactylus Lanes and hedges 
The spotted-white Plume 



punctidactylus 
The brindled Plume 

calodactylus 
The leautiful Plume 

rhododactyhis 
The rose Plume 

tesseradactyhis 
The marbled Plume 

pallidactylus 
The pale Plume 

didactvlus 



Hedges 

Skirts of woods 
Roses in gardens 



Hedges and woods 



■? Norfolk 



The spotted rusty Plume 

heterodactylus Hedges and woods 
The spotted black Plume 

tridactyhis - 

The dingy white Plume 

microdactylus Chalk-pits, Kent 
Tlie small Plume 
Pttwiaria plumistrea m. Grassy pi. St furze on cotnm. 
The Chimney-sweeper' s Boy 
^Tinea spissicornis Dry chalky fields 

The dotted Knot-horn 



7, 
7, 
'7, 
'7, 
V, 
7, 

':, 

7, 
'7, 
7, 
7, 

'7, 
7, 
7, 
7, 
7, 



48'2. sp. 1. 



- sp. 3. 
• — sp. 2. 

- 473. sp. 1. 

■ 476. sp. 4. 

■ — sp. 5. 

- — sp. 6. 

- 477, sp. 7. 

- — sp. 9. 

sp. 10. 

. 473. sp. 12. 

- 478. sp. 13. 

- 475. sp. 2. 
-479. sp. 16. 

- 478. sp, 15. 

- — sp. 14. 

■ 479. sp. 17. 
-473. sp. 11. 
-479. sp. 18. 

- — sp. 19. 

- 477. sp. 8. 

- 480, sp, 20. 

- 474. sp, 3. 

- 492, sp. 2. 



410 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALEXDAE. 



JUNE. 




Tinea contubernea Dry chalky fields 

The mealy Knot-horn 



530 Libellula cancellata 

vuigata 

scotica 
385 Anax Imperator 
381 Cordulia a;nea 



Croydon Canal 

Ponds and ditches 

Ponds, Devon and Scotland 

Ponds and woods, Hants 

PondSjNewForest & Epp.For. 



38'2 Cordulegaster anniilatiisPonds and woods, Hants 
383 Gomphus vulgatissimus Woods 



384 .'Eshna grandis 

viatica 

Juncaea 

anglicana 

teriuscula 
386 Agrion rufescens 

corea 

sanguineum 

puella 

albicans 

annulare 

zonatus 
3S7 Lestes sponsa 

388 Caiepteryx Virgo 

liidovicia 

389 Baetisbiociilata 

390 Cleon pallida 

SIM Ephemera vuigata 

392 Panorpa affinis 
* germanica 

393 Chrysopa Perla 

capitata 

fiilvocephala 

reticulata 

alba 

perla 

394 Hemerobiiis variegatus 

Beckwithii 

Pini 

nemoralis 

decussatus 

lutescens 

punctatus 

affinis 

obscurus 

irroratus 

nervosus 

395 Osmylus maculatus 

396 Sialis niger 

397 Raphidia ophiopsis 



Marshy places 



Woods, Kent 
Marshy places 



Banks of rivers 



Marshy places 



Hedges 
Cumberland 
Hedges and woods 



Woods 
Hedge.i 



and woods 



7, 
7, 

7, 

'7, 
7, 
7, 
7, 
7, 

"l, 

7, 
7, 
7, 

7, 
7, 

7, 
7, 



Haw. 493; sp. 4. 

Fa.E.S.ii.383.sp.l8. 

ii.382.sp.l6. 

Donovan. 
Page 258. 



Fab.E.S,ii.388.sp.l. 
Sowerby Brit. Misc. 



Page 259. 
Fab,E.S.ii.387.sp.2. 



"7, 



7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 

■ 7,8, 

■ • 7,8, 

7,8, 

■ 7,8, 

7,8, 

6,8, 

7, 

. '^' 

Running brooks, skirts of woods 

Banks of rivers 

Hedges near streams 



Fab,E.S.ii.70.sp.9. 

i ii. 68. sp. 1. 

ii. 97. sp. 2. 

Page 260. 
Fab.E.S. ii.82.sp,5. 

Panz. 87. 14. 
Fab.E.S.ii.85.sp.l8. 



ii. 84. sp. 12. 



ii. 85. sp. 19, 

Page 260. 
Fa.E.S.ii.79.sp.20. 
Page 261. 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAH. 



411 



JUNE. 




397 Raphidia Londinensis 
aftinis 

maculicollis 
megacephala 

402 Clavellaria marginata 
Amerind 

404 Abia nigricornis 

sericea 

405 Amasis laeta 

406 Hylotoma pilicornis 

casrulescens 
femoral is 
ijstulata 
segmentaria 
Rosje 
Stepheniiii 
Berberidis 
violacea 
pagana 
Anglica 
enodis 
cserulea 
Kkigii 
407*Cryptus Villcrsii 
* pallipes 

408 Messa bortulana 

409 Athalia annulata 

Rosae 

centifolia 

spinarum 

410 Selandria serva 

fuliginosa 
luteiventris 

411 Fenusa pumila 

412 Allantus bicinctus 

nolha 
liajmatopus 
neglectns 
blandus 
albocinctus 
punctum 
12-punctatus 
zonatus 
lividus 
conspicnus 
. rufiventris 

lateralis 
»ter 



Hedges near streams 



Windsor 



Woods, Coombe 
Woods 
Bristol 

Coombe, (Mr. Stephens) 
Woods 



Parent Wood (Mr. Stephens) 

Woods 



-, (Mr. Stephens) 



Woods, (Mr. Standish) 

Bristol 

Coombe Wood, (Mr. J.Kins 

Hetlsres and woods 



7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7.8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,3, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,8, 
7,3, 
7,8, 
1.^^ 



Page 263. 

Zool. Misc. iii. 112. 

Page 263. 

Zool. Misc. iii. 113. 

Page 263. 

Page 2G4. 

King. sp. 13. 

^sp. 14. 

sp, 8. 

sp. 9. 

sp. 10, 

Zool. Misc. iii. 125. 
King. sp. 3. 

sp. 6. 

sp. 11, 

Zool.Misc. iii. 122. 
King. sp. 1. 

sp. 7. 

Zool.Misc. iii. 122. 
Page 264. 
Zool.Misc. iii. 125. 
Page 264. 
King. sp. 2. 
Zool.Misc. iii. 126. 




Klug. sp. 84. 

sp. 77. 

— — sp. 76. 

sp. 94. 

— ^ — sp. 85. 

sp. 91. 

Panz. 64. 9. 
Fabr. E. S. ii, 116. 
[sp. 46. 

— — ii." 118. sp.53. 
ii. 117. sp. 49. 



412 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



JUNE. 




412 AUantus punctomaculatus Hedges and woods 

413 Tenthredo Rapae 

nassata 

414 Dosj'theus Eglanteriffi 

Junci . 

415 Dolenis opacus ■■ 

Gonagra ■ 

416 Emphytus succinctus 

cinctus . 



ceria 
tibialis 



417 Croesus septentrionalis Woods, Darent 



418 Nematus uiger 

luteus 
lucidus 

419 Cladius difformis 

420 Tarpa Panzerii 

Klugii 

421 Lyda Betulae 

nemorum 
erythrocephala 

422 Lophyrus Pini 

rufus 

423 Cephus pygmaeus 

424 Xiphydria Camelus 

droniedarius 
426 Urocerus Gigas 

psyllius 
427*Evania appendigaster 
428 Fcenus Jaculator 
430 Bracon Desertor 
431*Sigalphus Tnorator 
4 



Hedfres and woods 



Coombe Wood 
Hedges and woods 



Pine woods 



Flowers in fields and hedges 

Willows 

Hedges 

Pines 



Hedges ? 

Hedges and woods 
Woods 
Hedges 
Diplolepis Quercus-foliiOaks 



434 Chalcis olavipes 

435 Cynips Capreae 

436 Cleptes semi-aurata 

ail rata 
437*Elan3pus Panzeri 

438 Clirysis ignita 

affinis 

effulgens 

fulgida 

bideutata 

cyanea 

Stroudera 

439 Hedychrum auratum 

regiiim 
441 Mutilla Europaea 



Battersea fields 
Willows 
Sandy places 



Walls, Exeter, (Dr. Leach) 
Sandy banks 



Sandy places 
Sand and sunny banks 
Sandy places 
442*Myrmosa melanocephala ? Norfolk 



7.8, 

7,8, King. sp. 96. 

7,8, Fa.E.S.ii.ll4.sp.37. 

7,8, ii. ]09.sp. 19. 

7,8, ii. 120.sp. 62. 

7,8, ii. 117. sp.48. 

7,8, 

7,8, ii. 117. sp.5l. 

7,8, 

7,8, Panz. 62. 11. 

7,8, Page 266, 

7,8, Fa.E.S.ii.l20.«p.64 

7,8, Panz. 90. 10. 

7,8, 

7,8, Page 266. 

Zool. Misc.iii. 131. 

iii. 132. 

Khig. sp. 13. 

sp. 8. 

• sp. 16. 

• sp. 3. 

Page 267. 

Fa.E.S.ii.l28.sp.l6 
Page 263. 
Fa.E.S.ii.l24.sp.2. 

ii. 192. sp. 1. 

Page 2(58. 

270. 

7, Fa.E.S.ii.l52.sp.79 
7. Page 270. 

' 271. 

Fa.E.S.ii.l02-sp.l3. 
7, Panz. 31. 2. 
7, Fa.E.S.ii.242.sp.l8. 

Page 272. 
7, Fa.E.S.ii.24l.sp.lO. 
7, 
7, 

7, ii, 240. sp. 8. 

7,8, ii.24l.sp.ll. 

7,8, ii.243. sp. 20. 

7,8, Panz, 107. 12. 
7,8, Page 272. 
7,8, Fa.E.S.Ji.243.sp.l9 
7,8, Page 273. 

Fa.E.S,ii.372.sp.27 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



413 



JUNE. 




443 Tiphia femorata 

moric) 

444 Sapyga 6-punctata 

445 Pompikis I'iahcws? 

gibbus f 
Justus ? 

exallatus ? 

hircanus ? 
44S Amophila sabulosa 
449 Sphex flavipennis 
432 Psen ater 
454*Larra ichneu-noniformi 

455 Lyrops tricolor 

456 Dinetus pictns 

457 Trypoxylon Figiilus 
45S Oxybelus uniglnmis 

459 Crabro cribai-ius 

460 Stigmiis ater 

461 Pemphredon nnicolor 

462 Melliniis mystaceus 

463 Cerceris quadricinctus 

464 Odynenis parietinus 
468*Aiidrena affinis 

fiilvago 
pilipes 

haemorrhoidalis 
Collinsonana 
albicrus 
chrysura 
470*Sphecodes monilicornis 

* picea 

* divisa 

* Sphecoidcs 

473 Ceratina caerulea 

474 Clielostoma florisomne 
481 Noinada cornigera 

* sex-cincta 

* SchasfFerella 

* connexa 

* Fabriciella 
flavo-gutta 
rufo-cincta 
Sheppardana 

* ferriiginata 
484 Encera longiconiis 
487 Botnbus Muscorutn 

Francillonana 

floralis 

Beckwitbella 



Flowers and sandy places 

Woods 

Palings 

Sandy places 



Sand banks 

Sandy places 

Posts and sandy places 

Bristol 

Windsor 
Flowers ? 
Bristol 
Sandy places 



Walls 

Stumps of trees 

Flowers 

Sandy banks 

Darent Wood 

Flowers 

Gardens 

Round-leaved bell-flower 

Flowers on sunny banks ? 



Flowers of tbe rag-wort 
Flowers in hedges 
Sunny and sandy banks 
Banks? 



Sunny banks ? 



Sandy banks 
Meadows and fields 
Flowers 




7, Page 274. 
7,8, Page 275. 

7, 276. 

Fa.E.S. ii.221.sp.4. 
7, Page 277. 

n, 278.- 

7,' 279. 

Kirby ii. 92.sp.45. 

93. sp. 44. 

96. sp. 46. 

- 141. sp. 81. 

lo3. sp. 93. 

■ 136. sp. 96. 

172. sp. 110. 

7, 47. sp. 10. 

7, 48. sp. 11. 

7, 49. sp. 12. 

7, 46. sp. 9. 

7,8, Page 283. 

7, 284, 

7, Kirbyii. 190.sp.ll. 

198. s.p. 17. 

199. sp, 18. 

sp. 19. 

7, 218. sp. 29. 

7, 215. sp. 31, 

7, 216. sp. 32. 

7, 217. sp. 33. 

7, 218. sp. 34. 

7, Page 2o7. 

7, Kirby ii.5l7.sp.74 

7, 319. sp. 75. 

7, :- 32 1 . sp. 76. 

7, . 323. sp. 78, 



414 



TH6 EKTOMOtOCrSl's GALENDAR. 



JUNE. 




487 Bombiis Curtisella Flowers 

Fosterella 

agronim 

Rossiella . 

Leeana 

Francisana _— — 

Jonella 

hortonim 

Scrimshirana 

Barbutella 

Tunstallana 

vestal is 

Sorensis 

Donovaiiella 

Burrellana 

Cullumana 

DerViamella 

lapidaria 

Raiella • 

rupestris 

subterranea 

Hanisella 

499 Stratiomys Chamafileon Marshes 

500 Odontomyia furcata ■ 

hydroleon ■ 

vulpina 

501 Clitellarium EphippiumSkirts of woods 



Flowers in gardens 
Flowers 



Com fields 
Flowers 

Flowers in gardens 
Flowers 



505 Sar;?us cupreus 

506 Tabanus bovinus 

Paganvs 

507 Hsfimatopota pluvial is 

508 Chrysops caeciitiens 

509 Rhagio scolopaceus 

510 Atherix maculata 



Flowers in meadows 

Meadows 

Kew Forest, Hants 

Hedges 

Hedges and commons 

Trunks of trees 

Darent Wd. (Mr. Stephens) 



51 ) Dolychopus nobilitatus Moist places in woods 



512 Thereva plebeia 

514 Asilus crabroniformis 

515 Dasypogon punctatus 

516 Dioctria celandica 
5 IS Empis pennipes 

borealis 
519 Anthrax Hottentotta 

Abbadon 
522 Ogcode^ ?ibbosus 



Woods and commons 
Commons and heaths 
Sand y commons 
Skirts of woods 
Hedges 



Borders of woods, Devon 
Devon 
Coombe 

524*Sericomya Lajiponum Marshes, Dartmoor 
525 Volucella pellucens Woods 

myst^ceus 

l)t)nihylans 

ina'nis Skirts of woods 




7, Kirbvii.324.sp.79. 

7, ." 325. sp. SO. 

3'2G. sp. 81. 

321. sp. 85. 

- 335. sp. 86. 

• 334. sp. 87. 

7, 338. sp. 90. 

7, 339. sp. 91. 

7, 342. sp. 92. 

7, 343. sp. 93. 

7, — sp. 94. 

7, ■ 347. sp. 95. 

7, 355. sp. 98. 

7, 357. sp. 100. 

n, 358. sp. 101- 

7, 359. sp. 102. 

7, 363. sp. 105. 

7, sp. 106. 

7, 367. sp. 107. 

■ 7, 369. sp. 108. 

7, 371. sp. 109. 

7, 373. sp. 110. 

7, Page 292. 

7, [sp.l7. 

Fabr. E. S. iv. 267. 

Panz. 58. 4. 

Fa.E.S.iv.264.sp.6. 

Page 292. 

Stewart ii. 267. 

Page 293. 



— 294. 



295. [sp.33. 

7, Fab. E.S. iv. 388, 

iv. 404. sp. 5. 

iv.403. sp. 1. 

Page 295. [sp. 23. 

Fab. E. S. iv. 262. 

iv.311.sp.l21 

Page 296. 

7, - [sp. 5. 

7, Fab. E. S. iv. 279. 
7, — — iv. 279. sp. 4. 
7, — iv.278. sp. 1, 



Tirr, ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



41S 



JUNE. 




52e, 

527 
5'23 
529 
530 
532 

533 
534 
536 
540 



542 
543 
545 
547 
54S 
549 
551 



555 
5Ji7 
559 



Eristalis Narcissi Flowers in marshes 

Helophilus pendulus Hedges 

Syrphus Pyrastri Hedges and flowers 

Doros conopseus Fields, Colney Hatch 

Chrysotoxum arcuatum Hedges 

Aphritis auro-pubescensNew Forest, (Messrs. Bentley 

and Chant) 
Milesia annulata Borders of woods 

Conops aculeata Hedges 

Myopa picta 
Tephritis piilchella 

Cardui 

vibrans 

onopordinis 

grossificationis 
Sepedon palustris 



Flowers in hedges 

Thistles 

Flowers 



Gardens 
Marshes 

Loxocera Ichnenmonea Flowers in marshes 

Anthomyia pluvialis Woods 



Scenopiniis niger 
Ochthera Mantis 
Phasia variabilis 
Ocypteryx lateralis 

Biassicaria 

puparum 

larvarum 
CEstrus ovis 
Hippobosca equina 
Craterina Hirundinis 



Houses near woods 
Devonshire, (Dr. Leach) 

, (Dr. Leach) 

Woods and pales 
Trunks of trees 
Hedges 



Sheep in pastures 

Horses, New Forest, Hants 

Swallows 



Page 297. [sp. ]7. 
7, Fabr. E.S. iv. 282. 

iv.3()5.sp.l02 

6, iv.297.sp.69. 

Pa?e 297. 



29S. 

7, Panz. 54. 22. 
F.E.S.iv.352.sp.l67 
Page 299. fl5S. 
Fa.E.S. iv. 350. sp. 

— — iv.360.sp.l9S- 

iv.35l.sp. lf)2. 

Panz. 60. 23. 

73.24. 

Page 300. 



30 1 . [sp. 63. 

Fabr. E.S. iv.327. 

iv.326.sp.5S, 

iv. — sp. 59. 
7, Clark 59. 

Page 302. 
7, 303. 



10*Clubiona Nutrix 

19 Thomisus oblongus 

20 Lycosa saccata 

16 Panagjeus crux-major 
22 Trechus humeralis 
24 Aepus tlavescens 
' €0 Colymbetes fontinalis 
68*Melasis flabellicornis 
73 Scirtes hemisphaerica 
166*Trichius fasciatus 
181 Serropalpus ■ ? 

196 Salpingus 4-pustulatus 
205 Apion Viciae 
Ervi 
Lathy ri 
Ononis 
subulatum 



JULY. 

Hedges 
Gardens 

Sand-pits, Bexley 
Meadows, Battersea 
Und. stones S. coast of Devon 
Ponds, Devon (Dr. Leach) 
Woods, Norwich, Windsor 
Aquatic plants 
Umbelliferous plants 
Rotten oaks. New. F. Hants 
Palings, Camberwell Grove 
Tufted Vetch 
Yellow Lathyrus 



e, Page 124. 

8, 128. 

129. 

147. 



3, 



149. 



8,9, 



- 160. 

- 163, 

191. 

195. 

8, Marsb.297.sp.n!. 
Kirby T.L.S. ix. 



Restharrow 
Yellow Lathyrus 



416 



TbE entomologtst's calendar. 



JULY. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



203 Apion Craccae Tufted Vetch 

207 Lixus paiaplecticus Water Hemlock 

208 Rhynchasnus Lathburii Sandy places, Hants 
2I5 Cossonus hypolencus Herts 
2'24 Mycetophagus multipunctatus Dry Boleti 



229 Prionus coriarius 

230 Lamia sutor 

231 Saperda lineato-collis 
236 Leptura 4-fasciata 

apicalis 

240 Crioceris pnncticollis 

melanopa 

241 Cassida Spergulae 
246 Chrysomela varians 

fulgida 
263 Conocephalus varius 

griscus 
266 Acrydium sabulatum 

bipunctatum 
274 Lygaens apterus 
311 Papilio Machaon I. 

The Swallow-tail. 
314 Pontia Napi 



Lanes near woods &old trees 
Trunks of trees 



Umbelliferous plants 



Sand-pits, Bexley 
Skirts of woods 
Corn-spurrey, sandy fields 
St. John's-wort,Coombe Wood 
Whittlesea Mere 
Hedges and woods 



Sandy places 
Grassy banks, Battersea 
Woods and hedges 
Umbelliferous plants 



8, KirbyT.L.S. ix. 
8, Marsh. 272,sp.l06. 

274. sp. 109. 

8, 139. sp. 3. 

Page '208. 
8, Marsh. 329. sp. 7. 

Page 209. 
8, Marsh. 354. sp. 31. 
8, Haworth's MSS. 
8,9, 
8,9, Marsh. 215. sp. 5. 

8, 144. sp. 3. 

173. sp. 10. 

Fa.S.E.i.432,sp.59. 

8,9, ii.42. sp. 35. 

8, ii. 41. sp.31. 

8, Page 219. 

8, Fa. S.E.ii.26.sp.2, ' 
8,9, 222. 

9, 235. 



Gardens and woods 
The green-veined WhiU' 

Daplidi(!e e. Dover (Mr. Stephens) 

The green- chequered IVhite 

315 Melitjea Silene b. Woods and waste ground 

The small Pearl-bordered Frilillary. 

316 Argynnis Lathonia b. Open parts in woods, &c. 

The Queen of Spain Frilillary, 

Aglaia b. ■ 

The dark-green Frilillary. 

Adippe B. 



5, 



236. 



237. 






The high-brown Frilillary. 

Paphia b. Borders of woods 

The silver-washed Frilillary. 
317 Vanessa Atalanta I.b. Nettles 
The -erf Admiral. 

Cardui /. M, Spear thistle 

The painted Lady. 

Cardui e. Meadows 

The painted Lady. 

Antiopa I. n. Birch and sallow 
The IVhite-bordered. 

lo I. B. Nettles 

The Peacock, 

lo M. Lanes, woods, &c. 

The Peacock, 

polychloros m. Near elms 
The large Torloiseshell. 



Haw. 28- 

21. 

Page 238. 
Haw. 27. 

i 18. 

Page 238. 



TUE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



417 



JULY. 



No. 

of 

Oen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



3i7 Vaiies>a C. album b. 
Th^ white C. 

318 Apafcua his m. 

The purple Emperor 

319 Limenitis Camilla b. 

Th'' ivh'te Admiral 

320 Hipviarjhia Galatea b. 

The -marbled IVhite 
Pilosellm M. 

Tlie large Heath 
Megsra b. 

The TFaU 
Semele m. 

The Grayling 

321 Thecla Pruiii /. b. 



Skirts of woods 

Oaks, Coombe ; woods, Kent 

A^'oods 

Moist woods 

Grassy commons 

Moist places and lanes 

Heaths, commons, &c. 

Plum-trees 



The black Hair-sheik 

Primi F.. Borders of woods 

The black Hair streak 

Querciis m. Oak-woods 

The purple Hair-streak 

Rubi I. B. Bramble 

The green Hair-streak 

322 Lycajna dispar e. Feus near Cambridge 

The la^ge C pper 

Arion 
The targe Blue 

Corydon b. 

The chalk-hill Blue 

Dorylas /. e. 

The common BiUe 

Argus M. 

The studded Blue 

Idas M. 

lie black spot Brown 

Artaxerxes 
The tchite-spot Brown 

Alsus B. 

The Bedford Blue 

Cymon e. 

The mazarine Blue 
S23 Hesperia Sylvanus e. Skirts of woods 
The wood Skipper 

Linea m. •^—^— 

The small Skipper 

323 Egeria Crabroniformis m. Willows 

The lunar Hornet 

Culiciformis b. Gardens 
Tiie red- belted Clearuv-g 

2d 



Chalky places 

, Darn, Dover 

Grassy banks 
Grassy commons 
Clover-fields 
Meadows, Scotland 
Clover-fields 
Chalky places 



i». Page 238. 

239. 

240. 



241. 

Haw. 38. 
Page 241. 

Haw. 39. 

Page 241. 

Haw. 43. sp. 55. 
8, Page 241. 
4, Haw. 45. 

Page 242. 

245. 

Haw. Tl.?p.26. 



418 



XHE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



JULY. 



Mo. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference tt) 
description. 



328 Egeria Formiciformis b. Gardens 

The fiame-tipped Red-belt 
333 Zeuzera ^sculi b. Trunks of trees 

The wood Leopard 

336 Laria fascelina m. Woods 

The dark Tussock 

337 Gastropacha quercifolia b. Skirts of woods 

The lappet Moth 

Pini Pine-trees, Norfolk 

The Pine Lappet 

338 Odenesis potatoria e. Grassy banks 

The Drinker 

339 Lasiocampa Quercus e. Skirts of woods 

The large Eggar 
343 Notodonta tritopha b. Trunks of trees 
The great Prominent 

Ziczac B. - 

The pehble Prominent 

cuculla E. Oaks 

The Maple Prominent 



Palings 

Willows, sallows 

Hedges 

Oaks 



345 Cerura Furcula 

The Kitten 

346 Arctia Caja e. 

The Garden Tyger 

Salicis 
The Satin 

chrysorrhcea e, 
The yellow Tail 

347 Callimorpha Rosea m 

The red Arches 

348 Lithosia rubricollis m. ■ ■ 

The Mack Footman 

eborina m. Open places in woods 

The four-spot small Footman 

irrorea Grassy commons 

The dew Moth 
Bomhyx Coryli m. Skirts of woods 
The nut-tree Tussock 

gonostigmata b. Woods 
The scarce Fapourer 
*Nudaria rotunda Hedges ? Battersea 

The round-winged Muslin 
Apoda Testudo m. Woods, Kent 
The Festoon 
354 Noctua Myrtilli e. Heaths near Erith 
The leautijul yellow Underwing 

umbratica m. Shady pales and rails 
The large Pale Shark 



Haw. 71. sp. 27. 
Page 246. 
247. 

Haw. 80. sp. 4. 
Page 247. 



Haw. 99. sp. 26. 

sp. 22. 

Page 248. 



Haw. 149. sp. 9. 

147. sp. 6. 

148. sp. 8. 

4, 102.sp.32. 

8, 132. sp. S3. 

156. sp. 2. 

137. sp. 1. 

•162. 
• 164. 



6, 



THE ENTOMOLOCIST's CALENDAR. 419 

JULY. 




354 iVoctua ChaQiomillx m. Shady pales and rails Haw. 165. 

The Chamomile Shark 

Tanaeeti • —a 

The Tansy Shark 

Lactuoae . ■ 166, 

The Lettuce Shark 

Lucifuga ■ — — 

The large dark Shark 

Verbasci /. The Mullein 167. 

The Mullein 

Asteris Gardens ■ 168. 

The Slariuorl 

Absinthii b. Places where wormwood grows — 

The IVormivood 

exoleta I. The yellow Iris, marshes — 

The large Sword-grass 

lithoxylea b. Shady pales and rails 169. 

The light Arches 

hepatica m. Skirts of woods — 

The clouded-bordered Brindle 

epomidion b, ■ ^— 170. 

The clouded Brindle 

Scolopacina e. Yorksh. (Mr. J. Chant) 

The slender-clouded Brindle 

semi-brunnea b. Shady pales 
The tawny Pinion 

fuliginosa e. 174, 

The smoky JVainscot 

punctina ■ ■ — 

The dotled-bordered Wainscot 

rufeseens e. Garden pales —— 175. 

The red IVainscot 

pallens m. — ^— ■ — 

The common IVainscot 

atomina I. e. Carex ■ — 

The poiudered Wainscot 

Ranunculina e. Gardens and pales 183. 

The small Ranunculus 

oculata Trunks of trees 186, 

The great Brocade 

argentina b. , Coombe, Darn ^— — 

The silvery Arches 

advena b. Gardens ■ 187. 

The pale shining Brown 

Dens-canis Trunks of trees, Kent 190. 

The Dog's-tooth 

BrassicaB Pales ,6,8, •^— 191, 



The Callage Moth 



2d 2 



420 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST S CAtENDAR. 



JULY. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



354 ^octMfl popiilaris Woods 

The feathered Gothic 

marginosa m. Norfolk 
The bordered Gothic 

Cucubaii Woods 

The Campion 

Upsilon Trunks of willows 

The Dismal 

fusca Coombe 

Tlie hatred-feathered Rustic 

phaea Skirts of woods 

The feathered Rustic 

xanthographa .-^_— 

The dotted Rustic 

redacta Gardens 

The lesser-dotted Rustic 



Haw. 195. 



. ]96. 

197. sp. 105. 
■ 204. 
■205. 
• 206. 



Hedges 



egens 
The garden Rustic 

Sepii 
The mottled Rustic 

obsoletissima 
The brown Rustic 

lasvis 
The grey Rustic 

sordid* 
TIfe sordid Rustic 

blanda 
The powdered Rustic 

lunina 
The Crescent 

biloba M. 

The Douhle-lobed 

literosa e. 

The rosy Minor 

praeduiicula 
The marbled Minor 

strigilis 
The minor Beauty 

lalruncula 

The tawny-marhled Minor 

humeralis — — 

The cloaked Minor 

terminalis ■— — 

The flounced Minor 

fasciuncula 



Skirts of woods 
Gardens 



Gardens, Norfolk 

Woods 

Hedges 



207. 



• 208. 
209. 



Qi: 



214. 



215. 



The middle-barred Minor 

monilea e. Weedy banks 

The necklace Dart 






21! 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



421 



JULY. 



of Name. 
Gen. 

'35i*Nucttta picej 

The pitchy Dart 

augur B. 

The duuhle Dart 

fnmosa 
The dark Rustic 

nii;ricai)s B. 

The garden Dart 

riuis 
Th' Tvfoui Dart 

obeliscata 
The square-spot Dart 
* sordida 



Where found. 



Otlier 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



Weedy banks, Surrey 



Gardens 



Woods 



Haw. 220. 



221. 



Woods, Kent 
The striped-square Spot 

valligera b. Gardens 

The u-edge-barr'd Dart 

albilinea b. ■ 

The white-line Dart. 

lineolata ? 

The lineulated Dart 

pupillata E. 

The pupilled Dart 

sag:ittifera 
The Archer's Dart 

graminis 
The Anller 

Ericae e. 

The Lover's Knot 

festiva b. 

The mgrailed Clay 

subrufa b. 

The rufous Clay 

erytbrocephala 
The barred Chesnut 

cypriaca 
The rosy Rustic 

punicea 
The small Square-spot 

grisea b. 

The bright-eyed Clay 

marginago 
The bordered Sallow 

citrina 
The dusky Sallow 

angulago e. Paths in woods 

The angle-striped Sallnw 

eonigera e. Skirts of woods 

The browri'line Bright- eye 



Grassy places ? 
Grassy commons 
Grassy banks 
Heaths, Kent 
Skirts of woods 



Weedy banks and houses 

Weedy banks 

Skirts of woods 

Woods 

Heaths 



222. 



223. 



224. 



226. 

227, 



•228. 
■229. 
•235. 

237. 

239. 



422 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 
JULY. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
tinnes 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



354 Noctua bails m. 

The peach Blossom 

triplacea 
The dark Spectacle 

Asclepiades e. 
The light Spectacle 

affinis E. 



Skirts of woods 
Gardens 
Weedy banks 

Skirts of woods 



6, 



Woods 
Trunks of trees 



Trunks of willows 



The lesser-spotted Pinion 

Delphinii Gardens, Windsor 

The pease Blossom 

turca 
The double Line 

subtusa 
The Olive 

gracilis m. 

The Slender-bodied 

rctusa E. 

The double Kidney 

Festucje I. et p. e. Meadow reed-grass, ditches 
The gold Spot 

straminea e. Clover fields 

The bordered Slraiv 

Dipsacea e. ' 8 

The marbled Clever 

Fraxini Trunks of trees 

The Nonpareil 

sponsa E. Oaks 

The dark crimson Underwing 

promissa Tr. of trees, Richmond Park 

The light crimson Underwing 

conjuga Trunks of trees 

The lesser crimson Underwing 
Ceometra margaritaria m. Bushy places f 

The light Emerald 

Papilionaria e. Woods 
The large Emerald 

rhomboidaria m. Open places in woods 
The willow Beauty 

varieta Skirts of woods, (Mr. Hatchett) 

The grey Carpet 

rubiadata b. Woods 

The Flame 

sinuata i 

TAe rcyal Mantle 

fulvata 
The barred Yellow 

Populata I 

The barred Straw 



Haw. 245. 
245. 

246. 

247. 

248. 

250. 

251. 



, near Dartford 

Thickets and bushes 
Weedy banks 



-254. sp. 1. 

- 263. sp. 25. 
. — sp. 26. 

- 267. sp. 1. 

- 268. sp. 3. 

- — sp. 4. 
-269.sp. 5. 
-299. sp. 77. 

- 298. sp. 75. 
-276. sp. 12. 

- 327. sp. 33. 

- 325. sp. 28, 

- 326. sp. 29. 

- 328. sp. 35. 

- 34l.sp, 77. 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



4SS 



JULY. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 

times 
of ap 



Reference to 
description. 



Geometra comitata e. Weedy banks 
The dark Spinach 

aversata m. Shady groves 

The ribband JFave 

strigilata b. Skirtsof woods, chalky places 

The sub angled IVave 

siibroseata e. Grassy pi. near the sea, Norf. 
The rosy IVave 

immiitata "Marshy places, Norfolk 

The lesser Crfam-wave 

subsericeatu Open places in woods 

The satiny JFaje 

emarc;inata e. Open parts, Coombe Wood 
The scolLped Double-Line 

consignata Woods 

The Pinion spotted Pug 

succenluriata Coombe Wood 

The bordered Lime-speck 

destrigaria e. Pathways, woods 
The light-mottled Beauty 

apiciaria e. Bushes and thickets 

The bordered Beauty 

costastrigata T. of trees, Westerham, Kent 

The twin-striped Pinion 

fusco-undata Skirts of woods 

The yellow-striped High/iyer 

sylvaticata e. Hedges, chalky places 
The wood Carpet 

marginata Bv.shes and thickets 

Tlie clouded Border 

inornata e. Open places in woods 

The plain IVdve 

virguJata Hedges 

The small Dusly Wave 

clathrata m. Clover-fields, Kent 

Ihe latticed Ilealh 

V. ata E. Gardens 

The V. Pug 

limbaria Broom-fields 

The frosted Yellow 

ditaria b. Open parts in woods 

The blotched Emerald " 

quadrifasciaria e. Hedges, Hertford 
The large Twin-spot 

didymaria e. Scotland and Yorkshire 

The twin-spot Carpet 

amataria Skirts of woods 

1 he large Blood-vein 



y 

Haw. 34'2. sp. 78. 

9, 349. sp. 101. 

350. sp. 107. 

351. sp. 108. 

352. sp. 112. 

sp.113. 

347. sp. 96. 

357. sp. 128. 

358.sp. 130. 

276. sp. 11. 

295. sp. 68. 

— — 319. sp. 10. 
321. sp. 16. 

332,sp. 49. 

5, 537. sp. 66. 

349. sp. 103. 

— - 354. sp. 120. 

5, 348. sp. 98. 

364. sp. 152. 

286. sp. 40. 

299. sp. 79. 

307. sp. 100. 

306. sp. 99. 

296.sp.71. 



424 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 
JULY. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
limes 
of ap. 



Referenoe to 
description. 



, 29S. sp. 76. 

■ 288. sp. 43. 

■ 303. sp. 89. 

- 280. sp. 25. 

• 299. sp. 78. 
■293. sp. 60. 

- — sp. 59. 

■ 297. sp. 72. 

' 355. sp. 122. 

■ 334. sp. 55. 

■ 277. sp. 15. 

• — sp. 16, 
2S2.sp. 32. 
297. sp. 73. 

■316. sp. I. 
317. sp. 4. 

■ 352. sp. 48. 
356. sp. 63. 

•321. sp. 15. 
. 323. sp. 22. 

• 324. sp. 23. 
368. sp. 10. 

•368. sp. S. 
371. sp. 17. 



Geometra vol ntaria e. 
The small Emerald 

citraria 
The yllmu Belle 

bipunctaria m. 
The Chalk Carpet 

Lichenaria e. 
The Brussels Lace 

prasinaria b. 

The grass Emerald 

Syriugaria b. 
The lilac Beauty 

Jiiliaria 
The July Thorn 

imitaiia e. 

The small Blocd-vein 

pahidata 
The lace Border 

propiignata m. 
The flame Carpet 

Crepuscularia 
The small Ingrailed 

extersaria b. 

The brindled White-spot 

V. nigraria 
The soo!7/ V 

samhiicaria b. 
The Swallow-tail 

Grossulariata e. 
The commfjTi Magpie 

pantaria 
The Panther 

unangulata 



Chalky places 

Clover-fields 

Chalky places 

Open parts in woods and pales 

Grassy places 

Paths in woods 

Busby places 

Chalky places 

Thick ivoods 

Skirts of woods 

Woods 
9t 
Pales ? 

Hedges 

Hedges and gardens 

Devonshire 



Haw 



Thickets and bushes 
The sharp-angled Carpet 

procellata e. Hedges in chalky places 

The chalk Carpet 

elatata Skirts of woods 

The July High/Iyer 

immanata b. Open paths in woods, Kent 

The dark-rnarhlei Carpet 

marmnrata Hedges, Westerham, Kent 

The rr.arhied Carpet 

Hedges 



362 Herminia albistrigalis 
The white-line Snout 

angustalis m. 

The small Snout 

pinguinalis e. 
The large Tabby 



1, 



Coombe Wood 
Houses 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 
JULY. 



425 



Xo. 

of 

Oen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of ap 



Kefereuce to 
ilcscription. 



362 Hermtnia barbalis b. 
The common Fanfoot 

* Bombycahs 
The long-tailed Snout 

•303 Platypteryx hamula m. 
The oak Hooktip 

Co5 Tx.rlrit viridana 
The Pea-green 

D^^generana 
7 he large Marbled 

cerusana f.. 

The while Treble-spot 

plumbeolana 
The clouded Straw 

Xylosteana 
The forked Red-bar 

Avellana b. 

The hazelTiirtrix 

Carpiniana 
The dark oblique Bar 

Pomona 
The Caiing 

Fagana 
The small green Silver 

Smeathmanniana t. 
The S mealhmanit.an 

borana i 

The crested Buff 

subocellana 
The reluse Marble 

anjrustana i 
The barred Marble 

* nana 
The barred Dwarf 

nebiilana ■ 

The clouded Iron 

J68 Bntrji stratiota]is b. Ponds 
The ringed China-mark 



Pathways in woods 
Skirts of woods ? 

Oak woods 

Oaks 

Pathways in woods 

Elm-trees 

Open places in woods 

Oaks 

Hedges and pathways, woods 

Hedges 

Apple-trees and garden pales 

Paths in woods 

-lines 

Burdock, Battersea-iields 

Hedges 



Broom-fields 
? Kent 



hybrid a lis 
The rush Feneer 

cucullatalis b. 
The Short-cluaked 

Lemnata 
'Small China-mark 

litoralis — 

The lettered ChinarrMrk 



Coombe Woods 
Hedges 
Moist places 



6, Haw. 368. sp. 11. 
sp. 9. 

- 153. sp. 2. 

- 596. sp. 3. 

- 406. sp. 38. 
-416. sp. 72. 
-420. sp. 81. 
-428.sp. 107. 
-421. sp. 85. 

- 422. sp. 83. 

- 457. sp. 200. 

- 395. sp. 2. 
-400. sp. 17. 

- 415. sp. 6S. 
-437. sp. 156, 
-438. sp. 140. 
-439. sp. 142, 

- 461. sp. 215. 

- 3S3. sp. 24. 

- 386. sp.32. 

- 387, sp. 55. 
■ 384. sp. 23. 

- — sp. 26. 



426 



THE EKT0M0L0GI5TS CALENDAR. 

JULY. 



Ko. I 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times I 
of ap 



Reference to 
description. 



Haw. 383. sp. 23. 

— 333. sp. 22. 

— 382. sp. 21, 

— — sp. 20. 

— 376. sp. I. 

— 371. sp. 2. 

— 378. sp. 5. 

— 379. sp. 8. 
— • — sp. 9, 

— 380. sp. 13. 

— 378.sp, 4. 

— 379. sp. 7. 

— 381. sp. 16. 

— — sp, 17. 

— 380. sp. 14. 
sp. 11. 

— 377. sp. 3. 

— 378. sp. 6. 
— 3Sl.sp. 15. 

— — sp. 18. 

— 382. sp. 19. 

— 386. sp. 31. 

— 3S8. sp, 36. 

— 389, sp. 33. 



3G8 Botys Sambucata Moist places 

The garden China-mark 

nymphaeata 

The beautiful China-mar k 

Potamogata . 

The large China-mark 

Urticata Hedges i 

The small Magpie 

verticalis — ^^ 

The MAher-of-pearl 

hyalinalis — — — 

The scarce Pearl 

limbalis 

The lesser Pearl 

angustalis 

The narrow -winded Pearl 

terminalis 

The bordered Pearl 

glabralis 

Tlie divgy Pearl 



palealis 
The Sulphur 

tongalis 
The long-winged Pearl 

verbascalis 
The straw China-mark 

ochrealis - 



-, Norfolk 



— , Charlton 



The small straw China-mark 

arcualis 

The rusty China-mark 

luteal is 

The pale Straw 

forficalis Gardens 

The garden Pebble 

elutalis Hedges 

The chequered Straw 

tlavalis 

The gold China-mark 

sericealis £. ■ 

The straiu Dot 

ferrugalis ■ 

27(6 rusty Dot 

nebulalis ■ 

The dusky Brindled 

atralis 

The Hliite-spotted 

pnnicealis — — 

Tht Purple and Gold 



5, 
5, 



TlfE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



4i7 



JULY. 




Where found. 



Reference to 
description. 



3C8 Bolys ostrinalis Hedges 

The scarce Purple and Gold 

Porphyrialis -■ 

The Porphyry 

cespitalis Chalky places 

The Slraw-la.rred 

sordidalis . 

The dingy Straw-barred 

anaruinalis 



The rcavy-harred Salle 

cinguhilis 
The ii'ver-harred Salle 



Devon 



369 Pyralis capreolalis Stables, &.C, 

The small Tally 

pinguinalis 

The Tabby 

glaucinalis Gardens 

The Djuble-striped 

farinalis Houses 

The meal Moth 

cos! alls Hedges 

The gold Fringe 
Tineo bistriga Skirts of woods 

The doulle-slriped red Knot-horn 
380 Libellula Donovani 

399 Atropos lignaria 

400 Cimbex Europaea 

variaiis 

10-macuIata 

maculata 

a»ni)lata 

GrifRnii 

* hameralis 

401 Trichiosoma sylvaticumWoods 

Scalesii Coombe Wood 

* unidentatum 
419 Cladius difPjrmis 
425 Oryssus coionatns 

432 Diploiepis ? 

46(3 Colletes fodiens 
468 Andrena tihialis 

Mouftetella 
Listerella 
fulvicrus 
471 HylaEus annulatus 
annularis 
dilatatus 
sisrnatus 




Ponds, N'ew Forest, Hants 

Houses 

Darent Wood and Windsor 

Coombe and Darent Wood 

Windsor 

Darent Wood 

Windsor 

Norwich 

Salisbury 



Darent Wood 
Copenhagen Fields 
Darent Wood, (Dr. Leach) 
Pales, Camberwell Grove 
Flov\ers of the ragwort 
Tansv 



Thistles, &c. 
Ragwort, &c. 
Dyers weed, &c. 



N. S. 
8,9, Page 261. 

262. 

ZooLMit-ciii. 105. 

106. 

107. 



Page 20.5. 
ZooI.Misc. iii. 111. 

Page 266. 

268. 

N. S. ? 

Kirby ii. 34. sp. 2. 

107. sp. 52. 

108. sp. 53. 

8, 137. sp. 76. 

8, 138. sp. 77. 

36. sp, 3. 

38. sp. 4. 

— 39. sp. 3. 

— 41. sp, 6. 



428 



THE rKTOMOLOGISX 5 CALEKDAR. 



JULY. 




475 HeriadesCainpanularum Bell-flowers 
477 Anthidium manicatmn Gardens 
478*Osmia leucomelana Trunks of trees ? 

cserulescens Chalky and sandy places 

* 'J'unensis Clayey banks 

bicolor Gardens 

479 MegachileWillughbiellaTrunks of willows 



* inaritima 
480 Caslioxys conica 
481*Nomada Lalbbiiriana 

* flava 

* rufiventris 

* rufo-picta 

* Hillana 

* schrostoma 

* ruficornis 

* Xanthosticta 
qiiadrinotata 

482 Epeolus variegatus 
486 Snropoda rotnndata 
487*Bombus flavicollis 

virginalis 

tcrrestris 
Stylops tenuicornis 
5(i-i Vappoater 
506 Tabanus tropicus 



Near the sea shore, Suffolk 
Flowers 
Sunny banks ? 
> 

Flowers and banks 



Coombe Wood 

Sandy places, Kent i 

FlowerSjSandy pi. Coombe Wood 
Thistles? Sheffield, (Mr.Salt) i 
Various flowers i 



Spiders webs, (Mr. Sowerby') 
Hedges, Darentand Greenhilhe 
Palings, meadows 
507 Haematopota pluvialis, var. Palings, New Forest 
.515 Dasypogon punctatus Sandy commons 
517 Gonypes tipuloides Woods 

520*riombylins minor ? Devonshire 

525 Zodion conopsoides Umbelliferous plants 

551 Ocypteryx Mortuorum Skirls of woods 

552 Gymnosoma rotundatumUmbelliferous plants 

553 Echinomyia grossa Coombe Wood 

556 Gasterophilns veterinus Horses, on commons B 

558 Ornithomyiaviridis Crows, &c. 8 



, Kirbvii.256.sp.50. 

Page 284. 

Kirbyi:.2G0.sp.5?. 

264. sp, 55. 

269. sp. 56. 

277. sp. 58. 

233. sp. 41. 

24-2. sp. 43. 

Page 285. 
, Kirby ii. 183. sp. 6. 

, 186. sp. 8. 

, 187. sp. 9. 

2t)7. sp. 24. 

208. sp. 25. 

209. sp. 26. 

210. sp. 27. 

213. sp. 28. 

215. sp. 50. 

Page 286. 

Kirby ii.291.sp.66. 

Sow.B.M. i. pi 19. 

Kirby ii. 349. sp.96. 

350. sp. 97. 

L. T. xi. 233. 

Page 292. 

Stewart ii. 267, 

Page 295. 
Stewart ii. 294. 

ii. 274. 

Page 298. 

Lin. S. N. ii. 989. 

Page 301. 

Clark 33. 

Leach Wern.Tran. 



AUGUST. 



8 Geophilus carpophagus Garden fruit 



4 Plialangium Opilio 
12 Agelena labyrinthica 
18 Epeira Diadema 

2 Ocypete rubra 
20 Pembidium flavipes 
25 Zabrus gibbus 



Walls and rocks 

Fields 

Gardens 

Insects 

Roots of grass, sandy places 4,6, Marsh. 394. sp. 9. 

Corn-fields 9, Page 149* 



9, 


Page 117. 


9, 


120. 


9, 


125. 


9, 


127. 




131. 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



429 



AUGUST. 




49 Lebia crux-minor Trees, Coombe(Mr.J.Standish) 9, Page 155. 

60 Cilymbetes agilis Ponds? Norfolk 

69*Ceratophytiim LatreilliiNew Forest, Hants, (Mr. Millard) Page 161. 



9G Cryptophagus cellaris Under bark 

Populi 

Typhaj - 

denticulatus ^— 

serratus ■ 

hirtus 

113 Tachinus subterraneus Fungi 

trimaculatiis 

114 Aleochara lanuginosa 

fiiscipes 

rivularis 



189 Rhipiphorus paradoxus Hornets nests 

humeralis ? Wasps nests 

207 Lixus productus Drills in marshes 

224 Mycetophagus atomarius Boleti 

similis 

rufus 

225 Latridius transversus Hedges 

ruficollis Sandy places 

rugicollis 

impressus 

226 Silvanus frumentarius Damp cellars 



241 Cassida maculata 

nebulosa 
25l*Triplax russica 

rufipes 
252 Phalacrus bicolor 

corticalis 

millefolii 

caricis 

seneus 

coruscus 

consimilis 

geminus 
254 Coccinella mntabills 
258 Forficula borealis 
264 Locusta flavipes 

311 Papilio Machaon b. 

The Swallow-lail 

312 Gonepteryx Rhamni 

T^ke Brimstone 
513 (Delias Hyale m, 

The clouded Yellow 
Edusa M. 



9,10, Gyll. i. 168, sp. 4. 

9,10, 165. sp. 1. 

9,10, sp. 12, 

9,10, Marsh, lll.sp.18. 

9,10, 109. sp. 9, 

9,10, Gyll.i. 184.sp.23- 

9,10, ii.252.sp.2. 

9,10, 275.sp, 21. 

9,10, 432. sp.54. 

9, 428. sp. 50. 

,10, 332. sp. 5. 

Page 197. 

JIarsb. MSS, 
Marsh. 141. sp, 7. 
— — 140. sp. 4. 

139. sp. 2. 

3to5, 109. sp, 10. 

4, lll.sp. 17. 

4, llS.sp, 25. 

4, 110. sp. 11. 

10,11, Page 208. 

Marsh. 147. sp. 9. 

145. sp. 6. 

Page 214. 

Gyll. i.207.sp. 4. 
9, lll.K.P.i.80.sp.l3. 

9, 79. sp. 11. 

9, 

• 9, 

■ 9, 

9, 79. sp. 10. 

■ . 9, Marsh. 75. sp. 46. 

• 9, 

Hedges 9, Ill.K.P.i.426.sp.l5. 

Scotland 

Marshes,Hackney&Bcrmonds.9, Don. Brit. Ins. 

Meadows 5, Page 235. 



Elecampane, sides of ditche^ 

Plaistou' 
Elecampane, Plaistow marsh 
Dpad trees and fungi 
Dead trees 
Flowers 



Woods 
Meadows 



6,7, 
6. 



236. 



The pale clouded Yellow 



430 



THE entomologist's calendak. 
AUGUST. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



314 



317 



Pontia Brassica m. Gardens 
The large White 

Rapae m. Gardens 

The green-veined IVhite 



5, Page 236. 



Woods 

Lanes in woods and open pi. 

Woods 



320 



321 

322 



^23 

S24 



325 



Sinapis 
The wood f-Vhite 
Vanessa Atalanta b. 
The red Admiral 

Antiopa b. 

The white Bordered 

Urticfe I. m. Nettles 
The small Turtoiseshell 

C. album I. m. Nettle, hop,willow & currant 
The white C 
HipparchiaPamphilus Z. b. Crested dog's-tail grass 
The small Heath 

Megaera Z. b. (Jrassy banks 
The Wall 

Megaira b, 

The Wall 

^geria b 

The speckled Wood 

Tbecla "Betulae n 

The brown Hair-streak 
Lycaena ('hryseis Marshy places 

The purpk- edged Copper 

Virgaureae e. — — 
The middle Copper 

Adonis b. 

The Clifden Blue 

Phlaeas b. 

The common Copper 

Argiohis e. 

The Azure Blue 

Dory las e. 

The common Blue 
Hesperia Comma e. 

The pearl Skipper 
Smeriiithusocellatus Z. E.f Sallow, apple-trees 
The eyed Hawkmoth 

Tilias . /. M. Lime and elm-trees 

The lime Hawkmoth 

Populi Z. E. Trunks of poplars 

The poplar Hawk 
Sphinx Elpenor I. m. f Ladies bed-straw, marshes 
The elephint Hawkmoth 

Ccleria b. Gardens, &.Wisb.(Dr.Skrimshire) 

The sharp winged Hawk 



Moist places and lanes 
Borders of woods and fields 
Birch woods 



Chalky places 

Grassy commons 

Meadows 

Heaths and commons 

Chalky places ntar Lewes 



5, 


— 


5, 


237 




233. 




Haw. 26. 


6, 


Page 238. 


5, 


Haw. 17. 


5, 


Haw. 22. 


^ 


Page 240 


>6, 


241. 



5, 





4,6, 





5, 

5, 


242. 




Haw. 64. 




Page 242 




Haw. 62. 


ire) 


61. 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 
AUGUST. 



431 



No. 
of 

Gen 

325 
326 
331 
334 
335 

339 

342 
343 



345 
346 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
description. 



Sphinx Ligiish i I. Privet hedges 

The privet Hank 
MacrogiossaSlellatarum e. Bedstraw 

The Humming -bird 
Hepiakis lupulinus Banks of gross weeds 

The orange Swift 
Saturnia Pavonia-minor b. Osier beds 

The Emperor 
Liparis Monaclia e. Trunks of oaks 

The black Arches 

dispar b. Willows 

The Gipsy 
Lasiocampa Neustria m. Gardens 

The barred-tree Lackey 
castrensa b. 



347 
348 



The ground Lackey 
Stauropus Fagi L 

The L'.biler Moth 
Notodonta Ziczac I. b. 
The pebble Prominent 

camelina b. Oaks in woods 

The coxcorrib Prominent 

trepida b. Poplars 

The swalLtv Prominent 
Cerura Vinala / 

The Pass 
Arctia papyritia I. 
The icaler Ermine 
lubricipeda I 
Tne buff Ermine 

phagorrhiea b 
The brown Tail 

V nigra m 

The black V 
Callimorpha Jacobeaj l. Ragwort 

The Cinnabar 
Lithosia lutarella Woods 

The four-spot Yellav-foolman 

complana b. Skirts of woods 

The common Footman 

griseola 

The dun Footman 

flava E. Woods 

The straw-coloured Footman 
Bombyx cneruleocephala m. Bushy places 
The figure of 8 

antiqua L Oaks 

The yapourer 



•Oak, birchwood, Darent 
Willows and poplars 



f Willows and poplars 
*Water plants 
Various plants 
Hedges 
Lime-trees, Darent 



Haw. 59. 

&6. 

—— 141. sp. 2. 
5, Page 246. 

Haw. 129. sp. 87. 

9, — — 85. sp. 9. 

99. sp, 26. 

5, 98. sp. 21. 

Donov. B. I. 239. 
9, Haw. 86. sp, 10. 

lll.sp,48. 

110. sp. 47. 

Page 248. 

Haw. 107. sp. 41. 

150. sp. 12. 

148. sp. 7. 

147, sp, 3. 

— sp, 2. 

104. .sp, 39. 

132, sp, 92. 



432 



THE EXrOMOLOCrSl S CALENDAR. 



AUGUST. 




Bomhiix gonostigmata b. Woods 

The scarce yapoiirer 
Nudaria tminda b. Hedges in Janes, Gravesend 

The MuHin 
Ap'^da Testudo /. Oaks 

The Festoon 
549 YponomentaEvonymellaHedges 

sequrlla m. 

plnmbella 

354 Noctua fimbria m. Oaks 
The broad Border 

orbona b. Gardens 

The lesser yellow Underw.ng 
siibseqiia 



Haw. 132. sp. 93. 
6. 

—— 15 sp. ], 

]57.sp. 1. 



512. sp. 
Prodr. 

161. 



The lunar yelloiv Underwrv^ 

cytlierea Skirts of woods 

The slratv Underwing 

Janthina m. Woods 

The lesse' Broad I order 

pyramidea b. Oaks 
The copper Underwing 

Tvplis M. Near bullrusbes 

The Bdlrush 

nervosa e. Weedy banks 

The lawy-veined fi^ainscot 

pygmina 
The small fVainscol 

Chi E. 

The Chi Mvth 

Brassicae 
The calb.ige MAh 

unca 
Thejiounced Rustic 

hinato-sUigata 
Tlie lesser /lnunced Rustic 

X notata ■ 

The tawny X 

prJecox E. Skirts of woods 

The Portland Moth 

peria Old walls, Greenwich 

The marbled Beauty 

tetragona Hedges 

The square-spot Rus'ic 

furca E. Weedy banks 

The flame. Furhekw 

rava b. 

The Russet 

I. niger 

The letter I. 



5, 



Skirts of woods 

Old walis,Derbysb.(Mr.J.Chant) 

Tales 6,7, 

Hedges 



1 (V2. 



163. 



173. 



1S3. 
• 191. 
194 



• -201, 
■203. 

'205. 
209. 

211.. 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



433 



AUGUST. 



No. 
. of 
Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



Gardens and banks 



Weedy banks 

Open parts in woods 

Gardens 

Grassy places and tr. of trees 



554 Noctua oculea b. 

The common Rustic 

lugens B. 

The rustic Mourner 

minima m. 

The least Minor 

crassa m. 

The stout Dart 

radia b. 

The shuttle' shaped Dart 

baja B. Skirts of woods 

The dotted Clay 

brunnea a. — — 

The purple Clay 

Sigma B. I ■ 

The double Square-spot 

umbrosa m. — — — — 

The 6-striped Rustic 

aurago e. 

The barred Sallow 

citrago b. 

The orange Sallow 

auricula b. 

The golden Ear 

libatrix e. 

The Herald 

derasa b. 

The buff Arches 

trapetzina — — 

The Dunbar 

Pyralina m. CoombeWood, (Mr. J. Chant) 

The lunar-spotted Pinion 

diffinis M. Trunks of trees 

The while-spotted Pinion 

Festncae e. Meadows 

The gold Spot 

luboria m. Moist woods 

The black Neck 

jenea e. Heaths ■ 

The small Purple-barred 

nupta B. Trunks of willows 

The red Underwing 
Geometra conversaria WarleyWood, Devon, (Dr.Leacb) 
The large Carpet 

unidentaria b. Skirts of woods 6, > 

The dark-barred Ushtr 

gilvaria Clover-fi., Dover,(Mr.Steph.) 

The straw Belle 



Haw. 



Open places in woods 
Trunks of limes 
Skirts of woods 
Poplars and pales 
Skirts of woods 



211. 
212. 
216. 
220. 
223. 
224. 
.225. 

■ 228. sp. 198. 
•235. 

'238. 
.240. 

• 244. 

■246. 
.247. 

• 254. sp. 1. 

• 259. sp. 11. 
. 266. sp. 34. 

- 268. sp. 2. 

- 502. sp. 87. 

■ 308. sp. 101. 
. 2S7.sp. 42, 



43i 



THE ENTOMOLOaiSTa CALENDAR. 



AUGUST. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
ofap. 



Reference to 

d . tion. 
escnp 



Geomelra eWnguaria M. Skirts of woods Haw, 

The scolloped Oak 

Ainiaria e. Lime-trees 

The canary shouldered Thorn 

Quercinaria ■ 

The plain August Thorn 

Tiiiaria ■ 

The freckle August Thorn 

angularia ' — — 

The clouded August Thorn 

olivaria e. Birch-trees, Kent •— 

The beech green Carpet 

pullaria Heaths, Wales and Devonsh. 

The brown Annulet 

prunata b. Skirts of woods and gardens — 

The Phoenix 

degenerata b. Kent — — 

The degenerate Carpet 

unifasciata b. Open places in woods —. — 

Xhe single barred Rivulet 

albulata b. Pastures —— 

The grass Rivulet 

dilutata E. Hedges . 

The srnall fanjoot Wave 

• incanata Mullein — - 
The mullein JVave 

lignata b 

The oblique Carpet 

dimidiata e 

The small Scollop 

liturata 
The tawny -barred Angle Kent 

subfulvala m. Skirts of woods 
The tawny Speck 

Cratsegaria a. Hedges and woods 4,6, 

The Brimstone 

• fimbriata Trunks of tree* 
The bordered November 

su'otristata b. Woods and hedges 5, 

The common Carpet 

trigonata b. Hedges, Kent 

The small blue Border 

sexalisata b. Open places in woods, Kent 
The small Seraphim 
361 rubiginata e. Pathways in woods 6, 

The blue bordered Carpet 

adustata e. Hedges 6, 

The scorched Carpet 

ocellata e. Open paths in woods 6, 

The purple Bar 



Marshy places 

Hedges 

Sliady groves near Westerham, 



291.sp. 54. 
. 294. sp. 62. 
. — sp. 64. 

— sp. 63. 

— sp. 65, 
. 304. sp. 91. 

314. sp. 115. 
322. sp. 19. 

• 333, sp. 51. 

■ 335. sp. 57. 
336. sp. 61. 
353. sp. 117. 

. 550. sp. 104. 
. 340. sp. 73. 
. 347. sp. 97. 

■ 546. sp. 92. 

- 357. sp. 129. 

■ 293. 8p,74, 
-320. sp. 12. 

• 532, sp. 50. 

• 338. «p. C8 . 

• 35G. sp. 126. 

• 338. sp. 67, 
. 337. sp. 65. 

■ 331. sp. 46. 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



435 



AUGUST. 



No. 

of 

Cen, 



Name. 



Where found. 



Oilier 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



Geo'nelTacentum-noi.ata. Open paths in woods 
The marbled Carpet 

comma notata ■ 



The yeJldiv-ma-rhltd Carpet 

omicronaiia e. Woods, Kent 
The Mo (ha 

ocellaria e. 

Thefahe Mocha 

peiidularia e. 
The birch Mocha 

piinctaria 
The maiden's Blush 

Chenopodaria b. 
The small Mallow 

fluhitata m. 

Th'. Tissue 

aiicustata b. 



Woods 

Birch-trees, Coombe 
Open places in woods 
Bushy places 
Hedsjesand crardens 



i. Hedges, Kent 
7'he narrciv icinged Pug 

laevigata b. Juniper trees & gardens, Norf. 

The Juniper Pug 
Hsrminia dimidiata b. Tea wharehouses, E. I. House 
The tea Tabby 
36'2 probnscidalis e. Hedges 

The S'.out 
3G3 Plat\pt<ryx flexuia b. Pathways in woods 

The beu.hfal Hocktip 
36-i Cilex compressa b. Hedges 
The goose-egg Moth 
Tortrix diversana b. Grassy banks 
The crossed Straw 

Zuesaila b. ■ 
The Zagian 
95i liamaiia b. 



The hiok-rnarked btraw 

caudana Pathways in woods 

The shallow Notchwijig 

afifrac^tana ■ 

The commcn Notchiving 

excavana ■- 

Tiie iron Nntchtcing 

emartraiia =» 



The chequered Notchwivg 

literana Oaks 

The black-sprigged Green 

sq'.iamana ' 

Th' s-nhj Green 

Desfcii'iana Pathways in woods 

The Desf.mtianian 

umbrana ■ 

The JurJ'.-iireaked Button . . 



5, 


Haw. 324. sp. 24. 


5, 


325. sp. 26. 


5, 


312. sp. 110. 


5, 


sp. 111. 


5, 


311. sp. 108. 


5, 


312. sp. 112. 


G, 


302.sp.88. 


5, 


318. sp. 7. 




3C2. sp. 145. 




sp. 148. 




312. sp. 19. 


6, 


365. sp. 1. 




154. sp. 7. 


5, 


110. sp.46. 




397, sp. 7. 




398. sp. 8. 




397. sp. 6. 




409. sp. 4G. 




40S. sp. 45. 




— sp. 44. 




408. sp. 43. 


«) 


, 411.sp. 53. 




410. sp. 52. 




413. sp. 62. 




-. 4l!.5p. 35. 



436 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 
AUGUST, 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



Hedges, Yorkshire 



Gardens 

Hedges in chalky places 

Open places in woods 

Willows 

Paths in woods and gardens 



365 Tortrix rufana 

The red Triangle 

Forskaliana e. Hedges 
The Forskdlian 

Bergmanniana 
The Bergmannian 

Holmiana i 

The Holmian 

costana 
The straw oblique Bar 

Solandriana 
The Solandriun 

Salicana i 

The f-niile- backed 

Quercana i 

The Long- horned 

straminea e. Pastures 
The short-barred Straw 

Ilicana b. Thick woods 

The large Holly 

asperana b. Hedges 

The fVhite-shouldered 

Schalleriana e. Woods 
The Schallerian 

semifasciana e. Hedges, Kent 
The short-barred Grey 

Betuletana m. Birch-trees, Coombe Wood 
The birch Long-cloak 

trapezana Birch 

The testaceous Diamond-back 

rusticana e. Hedges 

The tawny Blotch-back 

* sticticana ■ 

The brown Blotch-back 

Rubiaiia Open parts in woods 

The blotch-backed Grey 

cinereana e. Moss on trees 
The mottled Grey 

nigricana Hedges 

The black-striped Edge 
Botys hybridalis Chelsea 

The rush Feneer 

tetragonalis 
The diamond Spot 

S70 Galeria alvearia Bee-hives 

The Honey-moth 

cerea ' 

The honey-comb Moth 



Hedges, Dover, Coombe 



Haw. 417. sp. 74. 

420. sp. 83. 

404. sp. 32. 

427. sp. 103. 

423. sp. 91. 

— 449. sp. 175. 

430. sp. 1 1 1 . 

599. sp. 12. 

401. sp. 18. 

407. sp. 40. 

■ 414. sp. 66, 

416. sp. 73. 

431. sp. 115. 

— 432.sp, 119, 
441. sp. 150. 

— 442. sp. 154. 
■ ' — sp. 155. 
— — 450. sp. 17S. 

451. sp. 183. 

458. sp. 202, 

— 386.sp. 32, 
385. sp. 30, 

— 392. sp. 2, 

— — sp. 1. 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



437 



AUGUST. 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



371 Crambus pascuea Pastures 

The inlaid Feneer 

falsa Meadows 

The chequered Veneer 

striga Epping Forest 

The small straw-coloured Feneer 

sanguinea Grassy places near chalk 

The buff'-edged rosy Feneer 
Tinea applana e. Hedges, Kent 

The common Flat body 
387 Lestes autumnalis Marshy places 

466 Colletes succiiicta Gardens 

467 Dasypoda pluniipes Sandy banks 



463 Andrena cingulatatJ 
Schrankella 
Trimmerana 
trideiitata 
476 Stelis phsoptera 
478 Osmia spinulosa 
Leaiana 



Flowers of the Ranunculi 
Flowers 



Sandy and chalky places 
Thistles 



479 Megachile centuncularis- 

481 Nomada lineola Umbelliferous plants 

JacobasEe Ragwort 

487 Bombus sylvarum Flowers 

fragraiis 

Latreillilla 

lu coram 

Albinella 

490 Corethra culiciformis 

491 Tanypus cinctus 

492 Chironomus plumosus 

493 Psychoda phalaenoides Moist places 

494 Cecidomyia lutea 

495 Ctenophora atrata 

496 Pedicia rivosa 

497 Tipiila oleracea 
506 Tabanus autumnalis 

555 CEstrus Bovis w 

556 Gasterophilus Equi 
Hemorrhoidal is 



Thistles 

Flowers in gardens 
Flowers 
Marshy places 



Marshy places 

Marshes 

Meadows 



Cattle on commons 
Horses on commons 
i...iiiv,i I uuiuaii::. Cattle on commons 
558 Ornithomyia avicuiaria Black grouse and tit-pippit 



Haw. 488. sp. 25. 
488. sp. 27. 



5, 
11, 



• 490. sp. 33, 
•484. sp. n. 
510. sp. 17. 



9, 



Page 259. 
Kirby ii. 32. sp 1 
Page 280. 
Kirby ii. 88. sp. 41. 
90. sp. 42, 

116, sp. 57 

132, sp. 71. 

232. sp. 40, 

261. sp. 53. 

263. sp. 54. 

237. sp. 42. 

194. sp, 14. 

9, 
9, 
9, 
9, 
9, 

9, 361. sp. 104. 

9, Page 290. 

9, 291. 

Stewart ii. 267. 
Clark 44. 

20. 

Page 303, 



- 194. sp, 14. 
-201. sp, 20, 

- 326. sp. 82. 

■ 329, sp, 83. 
• 330. sp, 84. 

■ 337. sp. 89. 
-361. 



43a 



THE ETCT0M0L0GI5T S CALENDAR. 



SEPTEMBER. 




15 Leistus Raulinsii 



caeruleus 
37 Amara jeiata 

55 Paelobius Hermanni 



5, N. S. 
5,6, Page 14" 



River side, Battersea, (Mr. 

Stephens) 
Under stones 
Corn-fields, Hertford, (Mr. 

Stephens) 
Ponds 10,11,15, Page 157. 

96 CryptophagusphasorrhaeusUnderbark and damp wood 10, 11,12, 

riificnUis 10,11,12, 

100 Ips 4-piistuIatus of thestumpsof trees. 



Bexley 

115 Aleochara cinnamonea Fungi and dead trees 
192 Meloe autunnnalis Margate, (Mr. Milne) 

glabratns ? (Rev. W. Kirby) 

254 Coccinella 12-piinctata Banks 



Pase 170. 
10,n,Gyll.ii.4l2.sp.34. 
Leach T. L. S. xi. 



Brist<jl 

Banks 

Hedges and Baltersea-fields 

Hedges 



l6-guttata 

globosa 

5-punctata 

Si2-pnnctata 

l3-punctata 

19-punctata • 

155 Chilocorus 4-verrucatus Fir 

bipustulatus Oaks 

Cacti White-thorn 

263 Conocephalus viridissimusMarshes 

verrucivorus , Rochester 

265 Gomphocerus rufus Sloping banks, Battersea 
269 iElia acuminata Grassy places 

melanocephala 

273 Berytus tipularius ■ 

277 Myodocha tipuloides 

300 Membracis Genistse ' ? Commons 

311 Papilio Machaon /. Umbelliferous plants 

The Sw nil iiw -tail 
317 Vanessa Urticae b. Lanes, &c. 
The small T^rtoiseshell 

C. album Skirts of woods 

Thewh-I/-C 
320 HipparchiaPamphilus B. Grassy commons 

The im.nli Heath 
■324 SmerinthusPopuli I. m. Poplars 
The p plar Hawk 

325 Sphinx Convolvuli e. Gardens and palings 

The conooivulus Howkmolh 

Atropus /. E. Potato blossoms 

The Death' f Head 

326 MacroglossumStellatarum.E. Gardens 

The Hummivg-hird 
339 Lasiocampa Crataegi b. Woods, Bedfordshire 
The oak Eggar 



10, 



lllig.K.P.i.466.sp.36 

435. sp. 23. 

■ 469. sp. 39. 
•441. sp. 28. 



37. 



468. sp. 

6, 473. sp. 41. 

6, 475. sp. 43. 

Page 215. 

^ 218. ' [32. 

Fabr. E.S.ii.G2.sp. 

Page 219. 

Fab.E.S.ii,126. sp. 

Page 221. [179. 
6, 222. 

6, 223. 

Stewart ii. 

7, 235. 



,96. 



6, 



. 238. 



6, 240. 

Haw. 64. 

Page £44. 

Haw. 56. 

4.6, Page 244. 

Haw. 105. sp. 37. 



THK ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



439 



SEPTEMBER. 




Poplars 
Willows in hedges 



S43 Notodonta tritopha l. Oaks 
The e^eal Prominent 

dromedaria /. — — 

The iron Prominent 

palpina I. e. 

The pale P -ominent 

palpina b. 

The pale Prominent 

Camelina I. e. Oaks 
The coxcomb Prominent 

Trepida I. Poplar 

The swallow Prominent 
344 Pi/gcera bucephala Mvi. f Lime, oak, sallowi 
The buff T,p 
Ciostera curtula /. e. Poplar 
The chocolate Tip 

reclusa I. e. — — ^— 

The small chocolate Tip 

S45 Cerura Furciila I. ? 

The Kitten 
348 Lithosiapulchella e. Near Christ-ch.Hants, (Mr. 
The crimson Speckled 
Bomlyx Roboris I. m. Birch and nut-tree 
The lunar marbled Brown 

Cassinea m. Pales and trunks of treee 

The Sprawler 

Coryli I. m. Nut-trees 

The nut-tree Tussock 

antiqua Gardens 

The Vapourer 
Noctua Tragopoginis m. Gardens 
The Mouse 

geminipuncta Marshy places 

The twin-spot Wainscot 

leporina /. Birch 

Tlie Miller 

flavocincta e. Garden pales 
The large Ranunculus 
^ cataena m. Trunks of trees ? 

The Brixton Beauty ^ 

Atriplicis Gardens and hedges 

'^he arrack Moth 

Oxyacanthse e. Hedges 
The green- brindled Crescent 

rufuncula — — — 

The plain red Minor 

margarltosa e. Weedy banks 
The pearly Underwing 



440 



THE ENTOMOLOGISTS CALENDAR. 



SEPTEMBER. 



Mo. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Olher 
times 
of a p. 



Reference to 
description. 



354 Noctua majuscula Weedy banks 

The pearly Underwing, var. 

plecta B, ■ 

Thejiame Shoulder 

satellitia e. Skirts of woods 

The Satellite 

helvola m. ' 

The flounced Chesnut 

lunosa Woods, Coombe 

The lunar Underwing 

sphaerulatina e. Skirts of woods 
The bearded Chesnut 

pislacina 

The pale bearded Chesnut 

lineola -_^— — 

The dark bearded Chesnut 

ferrea ' 

The iron Chesnut 



Haw. 



6, 



venosa 

The vfiny Chesnut 

litura E. ■ 

The brown-spot Pinion 

Vaccinii m, ■ 

The Chesnut 

polita ■ 

The netted Chesnut 

spadicea m. - 

The dark Chesnut 

subnigra ■ 

The black Chesnut 

flavago E. Open places in woods 

The pink-barred Sallow 

fulvago E. — — — 

The common Sallow 

gilvago E, ' 

The lemon Sallow 

macilenta Elms 

7%e brick Moth 

^erylhrostigma Margate 

The red Dot 

ochraceago m, 
The frosted Orange 

Lota 
The red line Quaker 

meticulosa Pales 

The angle Shades 

trilinea b. Thickets 

The equal Treble-lines 



PI. where burdock abounds 
Trunks of trees 



5,6, 



2! 8. 
•226. 
229. 

250. 

231. 

■ 232. 
. 233. 



• 234. 
236. 

■ 237. 
■239. 
-240. 

• 254. 
. 242. 
■244. 
•249. 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR. 



441 



SEPTEMBER. 



No, 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Other 
times 
of ap. 



Reference to 
<lescription. 



354 Nortua apprvximans Thickets 
The eyial Trtble-Lines, var. 

semifi'scnn^ —^ 

The equal Treble-lines, v.ar. 
Gsornetra erosaria b. Lime-trees 
The September Thjrn 

Carpinaria Thickets 

The flott need Th^rn 

miatu E. Pales 

The autumn Green Carpet 

Juniperata Fir woods 

simulata - 

ericetaria Cibham and Hants 

The bordered Grey 

plagiata a. Bushy places 

The slender Treble-bar 

remutata b. Shady groves 

The false Ribband-wave 

aversata b. • 

The Ribband- leave 
363 Platypteryx lacertianaria I. e. Birch 

The scalloped Hooktip 
365 Tortrix tripunctana Pathways in woods 
The rusty Treble-spot 

conlaminana b. Hedges 
7/ie ihetfuered Pebble 

ciliana Woods 

The fVhile-frivged 

rombana ■ 

The dark Chequered 

literana Oaks 

The black-sprigged Green 

Mylleri Nettles and thistles 

Millers Nettle-tap 

tricolorana e. Oaks 
The tri-c'ilonred Green 

latifasciana 
The broad-barrei 



Hedges, Yorkshire 
Open places in woods 



gnomana 
The Dial 

bifidana 

The Fork -hatred 

incarnana m. Heaths 

The marb ed Sh'irl-ciak 

maculai';i e. Skirts of woods 

The black Do^'bU-bl tched 

piceana Heaths, Surry 

The shining Pitch 

populana Nettles 

The pigrny Y 



7, 



Haw. 249. 

293. sp. 61. 

295. sp. 66. 

— 328. sp. 37. 
Linn. S.N. ii. ST 1. 
Haw. 278. sp. 20. 

6, 318. sp. 8. 

— 349. sp. 102. 
— — — sp. 101. 

153. sp. 5. 

. 417. sp. 75. 

419. sp. 80. 

sp. 79. 

41S.sp. 78. 

411. sp. 53. 

■ 472. sp. 5. 

411. sp. 5i. 

414. sp. 65. 

417. sp. 76. 

— 418. sp. 77, 

435. sp. 128. 

— — 440. sp. 1 4.). 

447, sp. 167. 



ID, 
19, 



10, 
10, 



442 



THE ENT0M0L06IST S CALK&'CAR. 



SEPTEMP.ER. 




Other 


Refeience to 


times 


description. 


ofap. 




10, Haw. 471. sp. 2. 


Kirbyii.lfin.sp.l06 


16i.sp. 101. 


178. sp. 1. 


179. sp. 2. 


23l.sp. 39. 


242. sp.44. 


185. sp. 7. 


202. sp. 21. 


204. sp, 22. 


206. sp. 23. 


Page 298. 


Stewart ii. 271. 


Page 300. 



Tortrix Oxyacanthae Flowers 
The Autu7nn Nettle-tap 

468 Anurena Sha'vella 

* tniniitiila ___ 

472 Panurgus nrsiiia 

Linneella 
476 Stelis punctatissima 
479 Megachile ligniseca 
461 Noinada varia 

flaviipicta 

Solidaginis 

picta 
538 Stomoxys calcitrans 

irritans ' 

544 Scatophaga merdaria Cow dung 



Heaths 

Flowers ? 

Oaks, &c. 

Sunny banks ? 

Ragwort 

Heaths 

Flowers and banks 

Cattle on commont 



OCTOBER. 



20 Bembidium Spencii Grassy banks 10,12, 

36 Sphodrnscollaris Roots of trees, EppingForestlto4, 

91 Scaphisoma Agaricinum Boletus versicolor and fungi 10, 

104 Staphylinus olens Roots of trees 4, 

1 14 Aleochara impressa Fungi and decayed trees in 

woods 1 1 > 1 2, 

224 Myoetopbagus undulatusBoieti 
325 Sphinx Atropos e. Gardens 

Ths Death's Head 
328 iEgeria crabroniformis ^.Trunks of willows 
The lunar Hornet 
*Lithosia graniinicus m. Wales, (Mr. Donovan) 
The feathered Footman 
354 Noctua exoleta m. Gardens 5, 

The large Sword-grass 

Lambda £. Shady pales 

The grey Shoulder-knot 

seladonia m. Skirts of woods 4, 

The Brindled Green 



*, 



N. S. 

Marsb.443. sp.29. 

Page 168. 

Gyll. ii. 285. sp. 6. 

381. sp. 4. 

Marsh. 140. sp. C. 
Page 244. 



aprilma m. 

The Marvel dti Jour 
Geomelra connectaria m. Palings and trunks of trees 
The connecting Umber 

prosapiaria e. Trunks of trees 
The scarce Umher 

defoiiaria e. — — — . 

The mottled Umber 

clavaria Mallows 

The Mallow Moth 




Tlir, ENTOMOLOGISTS CALrNDAll. 

NOVEMBER. 



443 



No. 

of 

Gen. 



Name. 



Where found. 



Reference to 
description. 



Genmelia pennaria b. Woods 
The feathered Thnrn 

psiltacata m. Trunks of trees 
The ted Green Carpet 

S[)aitiata e. Broom- fields 

The Streak 
G73 Pterophonis pterodactylns Gardens, bushes, woods 
The citmmon Plume 
Tcrl^ix examianii Coombe Wood 

The marbled Clusnul 
Tinea gelateila Trunks of trees 

The autumnal Dagger 




NOVEMBER, 



€4 Necrohia rufipes 

Geurnetra dilntata b 
The NovemLer 

brnmaria i 

The TVmier Moth 
Tinea Novembris 

The November Dagger Gardens 

Phryganea Coombe V/ood 

The drab Day-molh 

applana e. Gardens 

The common Flat-body 



CopenhagenFields,(Mr.Gray) 12, N. S. 

Palings Haw. 319. sp. 9. 



Gardens and palings 1 , 

Trunks of trees, Kensington 



30j.sp. 95. 



■ 502. sp. 2. 

■ 503. sp. 4. 

510. sp. 17. 



DECEMBER. 



12 Carabus morbillosus Under bark and wood of wil- 
lows 
•20 Bembidium properans Grassy banks ? 

poecillum ■ ? 

60 Colymbetes fujiginosus Ponds, Copenhagen Fields 
83 Opilus mollis Dry rotten willows 

80 Phospbuga atrata Under bark of trers 

90 Scaphidiura 4-maeulatum Fungi and rotten wood 
97 Engishumeraiis Bark of trees and boleti 

rufifrons . 

ferruginea 

99 Nitidula grisea Under bark of trees 

J 14 Tachyporuscbrysomelinus Roots of grass and moss 

pubescens Under bark and trunks of de^ 

caved trees 1 

127 Anobium tesgellatum Rotten willows 1 



1,2, 


PaffS 145. 




Marsh. 457. 8p.34. 




lll.K.P.i.232.sp.l7 




Gyll. i. 495. sp.28. 


1,2, 


Page ]66. 


1,'2, 


Marsh. I 1 6 sp. 6. 




Pa-e 16S. 


5,6 


Gvll. i. '2l'3. sp. ^. 


5,6. 


204. sp. 4. 


5,6, 


212. sp,4. 




Marsh. 134.sp. 15. 


1,2, 


Gyll. ii.236. sp. 1. 


,2.3, 


243. sp. 8. 


2 S 


Page 181. 



444 



THE entomologist's CALENDAR 



■DECEMBER. 




340 Eriogaster Populi b. Trunks of trees 

The December Moth 
S54 Nortua flavilinea e. ■ ? 

The yellow-line Quaker 

Gfomet'tt incompIetariaE. , woods 

The Incomfltte 

apteria e. ■ 

Tortrix liyemalis Heaths, Sussex 

The PFinler Tortrix 
292 Panorpa hyemalis Hedges 



Page 247. 

Haw. 243. 

305. sp. 95. 

306. sp. 96. 

. 413. sp. 64. 

Panz. 22. 17 ? 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



PLATE I.— Order Coleoptera. 



Fig. 1. Scarabaeus Typhaeus, p. 47. Typhaeus vulgaris, p. 189. 

a. AntenneB magnified. 

Fig. 2. Trichius nobilis, p. 191. 

Fig. S. Lucanus Cervus, p. 48, 191. 

a. .4«^en??^ clavated : club pectinated, b. Maxillary palpi, c. Labial 
palpi, d. Lacinie. e. Mandibles, f. Head. g. Thorax, h. Scm- 
tellum. i. Elytra, k. Femur. 1. Tibia, m. Tarsi, n. Urigids. 

Fig. 4. Dermestes murinus, p. 43, 389. a. Antenna magnified. 

Fig. 5, Scolytiis Destructor, p. 206. a. Antenna magnified. 

Fig. 6. Ptinus imperialis, p. 49, 389. a. Antenna filiform. 

PLATE II. — Order Coleoptera continued. 

Fig. 1. Hister semipunctatus, p. 49. 

Fig. 2. Gyrinus Natator, p. 50, 159. a. Antenna magnified, b. Tfee 

hinder foot, compressed and formed for swimming. 
Fig. 3. Byrrhus Pilula, p. 50, 183. di. Antenna magnified. 
Fig. 4. Anthrenus Scrophularia, p. 50. 182. a. Antenna magnified. 
Fig, 5. Nitidula discoidea, p. 51, 170. a,. Antenna magnified. 
Fig. 6. Silpha Vespillo, p. 51. a. Antenna magnified. Necrophagus 

Vespillo, p. 166. 
Fig. 7. Silpha quadrimaculata, p. 51, 167. a. Antenna magnified. 
Fig. 8. Opatrum sabulosum, 51, 193. a. Antenna magnified. 
Fig. 9. Tritoma bipustulatum, p. 51, 214. a. Antenna magnified. 
Fig. 10. Cassida maculata, p. 52. 
Fig. 11. Coccinella 14-guttata. 
Fig. 12. Chrysomela coriaria, p. 53. Timarcha coriaria, p. 2.13. 

Fig. 13. Tanaceti, p. 53. Galeruca Tanaceti,p. 212. 

Fig. 14. merdigera, p. 53. Crioceris merdigera, p. 211. 

Fig. 15. Cryptocephalus lineola, p. 53,393. 

Fig. 16. Hispa mutica, p. 53. a. ..4n?era?/<e magnified. Sarrotrium mu- 

ticum, p. 193. 
Fig. 17. Bruchus Pisi, p. 53, 200. 
Fig. 18. Curculio nitcns, p. 5 t. Rliynchites nitens. 



446 EXPLANATIOJ) OF THE PLATES. 

Fig. 19. Curculio Pyri, p. 5i, 390. 

Fig. 20. Curculio Nucum, p. 54. Balaninus Nucum, p. 205. 

Fig. 21. Scrophulariffi, p. 54. Clonus Scrophularia, p. 203. 

Fig. 22. Attelabus Coryli, p. 54. Apoderus Coryli, p. 201. 

Fig. 23. Notoxus monoceros, p. 54, 196. a. A lateral view of the 

head and thorax magnified. 
Fig. 64. Cerambyx Textor, p. 55. Lamia Textor, p. 209. 

Fig. 25. arcuatus, p. 55. Clytus arcuatus, p. 392. 

Fig. 26. Leptura quadrifasciata, p. 55, 210. 

Fig. 27. Leptura Nympha'S, p. 55. Donacia Nymphasje, p. 378. 

Fig. 28. Necydalis cferulea, p. 55. OEdemera caerulea, p. 198. 



PLATE III. — Order Coleoptera continued. 



g. 1. Lampyris noctiluca, male. 

g. 2. Female, p. 55, 163. a. Antenna magnified. 

g. 3. Pyrochroa coccinea, p. 56, 196. 

g. 4. Cantharis fusca, p. 56. Telephorus fuscus, p. 164. 

g. 5. biguttata, p. 56. Malachius biguttatus, p. 374. 

g. 6. Elater sanguineus. Marshani. Elatea semiruber, p. 162. 

g. 7. c\ anaeus. Mursham. Elater aeneus, p. 162. 

g. 8. Cicindela sylvatica, p. 57, 144. 

g. 9. Buprestis viridis, p. 160. 

g. 10. Parnus sericeus, p. 185. 

g. 11. Heterocerus marginatus, p. 185. 

g. 12. Spharidium scarabseoides, p. 187. a. Antenna magnified. 

b. Antenna of the G. Cercyon (p. 188) magnified, 
g. 13. Dytiscus marginalis. Marshatn. Dyticus marginalis, p. 159- 

a. Antei'ior tarsi oi the m-a.\e patellijbrm. b. iSiern?(m of D. circum- 

c. S^o-Hi/m of D. marginalis. 
Fig. 14. Pfrlobius Hermanni, p. 157. 

Fig. 15. Hydroporus 12-pustulatus, p. 158. 
Fig. 16. Hydrophilus caraboides, p. 58, 187. 
Fig. 17. Carabus morbillosus, p. 146. 
Fig. 18. Nebra complanata, p. 146. 
Fig. 19. Brachinus crepitans, p. 154. 
Fig. 20. Agonum sex-punctatum, p. 150. 

PLATE IV. — Order Coleoptera, Sec. 

Fig. 1. Tenebrio Molitor, p. 59, 193. 

rig. 2. Pedimis maritimus, p. 192. 

Fig. 3. Endomychus coccineus, p. 215. 

Fig. 4. Ilelops violaceus, p. 362. 

Tig. 5. Lytta vesicatoria, p. 59. Cantharis vesicatorin, p. li'S. 



BXPLAXATIOX OF THE PLATES. 4J7 

Fig. 6. Cistela sulphurea, p. 196. 

Fig. 7. Meloe violaceus, p. 369- 

Fig. 8. Mordclla fasciata, p. 60, 197. 

Fig. 9. Choleva oblonga, p. 168. 

Fig. 10. Staphylinus erythropterus, p. 171. 

Fig. 11. Oxyporus rufus, p. J 74. 

Fig. 12. Pffiderus ripariiis, p. 173. 

Fig. 13. Stenus biguttatiis, p. 173. The line beneath shows the nat. 

size. 
Fig. 14. OmaUum melanocephalum, p. 175. The line beneath sho\v« 

the nat. size. 
Fig. 15. Pselaphus Herbstii, p. 179. The line beneath shows tlie nat. 

size. 

Order Dermaptera. 

Fig. 16. Labia minor, p. 216. 

Order Dictyoptera. 
Fig. 17. Blatta livida? p. 220. 

Order Orthoptera, 

Fig. 18. Acrydium bipunctatum, p. 416. 
Fig. 19. Locusta flavipes, p. 429. 

PLATE v.— Order Hemiptera. 

Fig. 1. Cercopis sangiiinolenta, p. 280, 

Fig. 2. Cicada Anglica ? p. 229. 

Fig. 3. Notonecta glauca, p. 227. 

Fig. 4. Nepa cinerea, p. 61,325. 

Fig. 5 Gerris pallidum, p. 224. 

Fig. 6. Cimex prasinus, p. 62. Pentatoma prasinus, p. 221. 

Fig. 7. ■ marginatus. Coreus marginatus, p. 222. 

Fig. 8. LygcEus apterus, p. 222. 
Fig. 9 and 10. Aphis. 

Fig. 11. Livia Juncorum, p. 232. The line beneath shows the nat size. 
Fig. 12. Thrips Physaphus, p. 232. The line beneath shows the rntt. 
size. 

PLATE VI. — Order Lepidoptera. 

Fig. 1. Papilio Machaon, p. 64, 235. 

Fig. 2. .Sphinx Elpenor,-p. 64, 243. 

Fig. 3. Phalacna(BombYx)Quercu5,p. 65. LariocampaQucrcu.?, p. "S-tZ. 



448 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



PLATE VII.— Order Neuroptera. 

Fig. 1. Lil)ellu]a 4-maculata, p. 65. 

Fig. 2. Ephemera vulgata, p. 65, 260. 

Fig. 3. Limnephilus nervosus. 

Fig. 4. Osmylus maculatus, p. 960. 

Fig. 5. Panorpa communis, p. 66, 260. a. Chela magnified. 

Fig. 6. Raphidia ophiopsis, p. 261. 

PLATE VIII. — Order Hymenoptera. 

Fig. 1 . Cynips Quercus-folii, p. 67. Diplolepis Quercus-folii, p. 270. 

Fig. 2. Tenthredo Scrophularice, p. 67. 

Fig. 3. Sirex Gigas, p. 67. Urocerus Gigas, p. 268. 

Fig. 4. Ichneumon Manifestator, p. 68. 

Fig. 5. Sphex sabulosa, p. 68. Amophila sabulosa, p. 275. 

Fig. 6. Chalcis clavipes, p. 271. 

Fig. 7. Chrysis ignita, p. 272. 

Fig. 8. Vespa Crabro, p. 69, 280. 

Fig. 9. Apis retusa, p. 69. Anthophora retusa, p. 387. 

Fig. 10. Formica herculanea, p. 69, 273. 

Fig. 11. Mutilla Europsa, p. 70, 273. 

PLATE IX.— Order Diptera, kc. 

Fig. 1. CEstrus Bovis, p. 70, 302. 

Fig. 2. Tipula oleracea, p. 71, 291. 

Fig. 3. Musca inanis. Volucella inanis, p. 414. 

Fig. 4. Tabanus tropicus, p. 71. 

Fig. 5. Culex pipiens, p. 71. 

Fig. 6. Empis pennipes, p. 72. 

Fig. 7. Stomoxys calcitrans, p. 298. 

Fig. 8. Conops macrocephala, p. 72. 

Fig. 9. Asilus crabronitbrmis, p. 72, 294. 

Fig. 10. Bombylus major, p. 72, 295. 

Order Omaloptera. 
Fig. 11. Hippobosca equina, p. 79, 302. 

PLATE X. — Parts of Insect?. 

Fig. 1. a. Front view of the head of Curabus'catenulalus magnified, 
b. Ocelli c. Antenna, d. Mandibles, e. and g. Labial palpi. 
f. f. Majcillury palpi, li. Lip. 



FLcUer. 




TubUsTud, ii/ F. Boys , j.Ludffatt Hill. 



PLaU2. 




Fub2is7ied by T Boys .j.LtjuTm ate l£ll. 



Plate 2. 




^ i^ ¥ ^ 'T ^ 



tS Iff to 21 



^i lk^*>^ * 



2S —V 2« 




PubUsJieR Tru I. Boys ,/, LiLdaate Hill. 



Plate a. 




JPublished Iry T.Boi/s.y.ludffaU Mil. 



Plate 3. 




Fublislud hj Z3oys.-j.Lud{)aU JTill. 



Plate 4. 




Ful>lLt}ied III TBoys, ^.ZzuLuUe ?IUL. 



Plate 4. 




r!^_._.._j 



FublLfhed hy TBi>ys, ^.LuJtjttteHi/l. 



Plate 6 




Hiblished hi/ I.Boys.j.LiiJnale TRIL 



Plate 6 




Hxblishcd hy I.Boysj.Liidaate IS.ll. 



Fhne6 




Fuilijhed. hv T.Boys, j.LiubjaU Hill. 



Flah-6 




H/iUsTud by I.Boys.j.LuJijatt Hill. 



Flatt 7 




Published hi/ T. Boys , -j.Ludpate HiU. 



rin.te : 




RtilisTicd ty T. Bous , ^.Ludgate KilL. 



FlaleS 




Fuhli.ihed bi/ T.Boiis.-jXitdflateHilZ. 



PltiteS 




Fiiblishfd In/ T.Spvs,TJ.udfateHilL 



rtateA 




fuilisTieA hv T.Bovs. ■j.LudqaXeHilL 



PlaUA 




Ihihlishrd T>v T.Bojis, j.LudaateliUL 



Plate fO 




Fitblished. iy T £ 01/ s ,-j, Ziulz/utc Bill. 



P/«fc ir 





g h tf f 




4 



-%M" » 







PuiUshed In/ IBpys,-],LiLdj}nteHiU. 



Plate //. 




FiibUshAd. l>y T.Boys.j.Lud^ateHlll. 



Plate II. 




Fublished ly T.Bovs.-j.Lud^ateHill. 



riate t2 




Published, hii T.Boi/s.j.LiuLjateSill. 



riate t2 




FUblished iy T. Sous ■ y.LudaateSill. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 449 

Fig. 2. a. The maxilla sepajated and magnified to show the situation of 

\he palpi b. and c. 
Fig. 3. View of the under side of the same head. a. Labial palpi. 

b. c Maxillai-y palpi, d. Antennce. e. Quia. f. Ocelli. 
Fig. 4. Thorax of the same. a. d. Sides, b. The antei-ior part. c. The 

posterior. 
Fig. 5. One of the elytra or wing-cases, a. The sutor. b. Side. c. Base. 

d. Apex. 
Fig. 6. The hind leg of the saine insect complete, a. The Trochanter. 

b. Femur, c. Tibia, d. Tarsi, e. Unguis, f. Spinula:. 

Fig. 7. View of the abdomen, &c. a. Thorax, h. Sternum, c. Femur. 

d. Margin of tlie Eli/tra, e. Abdomen. 
Fig. 8. Wing of a Lcpidopterous insect explanatory of the markings, &c. 

A. Superior zcing. a. Anterior margin or costal edge. b. JBase. 

c. Apex. B. Secondary or inferior wing. d. Posterior angle, e. Axi 
Ocellus or eye-hke marking, f. Punctum or dot. g. Stigma, h. JVio- 
c///« or spots, i. A Fascia or band, k. An angulated hne. 

Fig. 9. Head of a Lepidopttrous insect, a. Antenna:, b. Palpi, c. Spi- 
ral tongue. 

Fig. 10. Superior zcing of Trichiosoma Lucorum. a. a. Areola or marginal 
cells, h. b. b. Submarginal. 

Fig. 11. Head of Vespa Crabro. a. Vertex, b. Stemmata. c. Ocelli^ 

d. Antenna, e. Mandibles, f. Clypeus. g. X«jo. 

Fig 12. TT'iw^ o/a jBee. a. jB«.se. b. Exterior costal nerve, c. Interior 

costal nerve, d. Anastomosis, e. Areola or cells, f. Apex, 

Kirbys Monograph, tab. 1. * 6. fig. 7. t'o/. 1. 
Fig. 13. Antenna of Andrena combinata. a. Radicula. b. Scapus. 

c. Pedicellus. d. First joint of the antenna, e. The articulations. 

— Kirby. 
Fig. 14. Trunk of Nomada Goodeniana. a. Collum. h. Collare. c. r?<- 

bercida. d. Squumula. e. Thorax, f. Scutellum. g. Metathorax. 

h. Cavitas. i. Ertse o/7Ae a'/wg. — lur/)^/ Monog. tab. 5. fig. 8. vol. 1. 
Fig. 15. Posterior leg of Andrena combinata. a. Flocculus, b. Scopa. 

c. Apophysis or jirst articulation, d. Second art icidaf ion. e. Femur. 

f. Spinula. g. PUinta. — A7r6y il/o/!Og. tab. 4. fig. 10. vol. 1. 
I have taken the liberty of introducing the above fom figures from 

Mr. Kirby's excellent Monograph, as they will be useful to the 

young Entomologist, and at the same time show the valuable 

instruction which may be gained from this justly celebrated work. 
Fig. 16. Antenna magn. of Tipula oleracea, p. 291. 

Fig. 17. ofChironomus plumosus, p. 290. 

Fig. 18. of Empis livida. 

Fig. 19^. Head of Rhingia rostrata. a. Antenna, b. The /iead anteriorly 

produced, c. Proboscis. 
Fig. 20. Antenna highly magnified, p. 296, 

2 F 



450 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES, 

Fig. 21. AntewKB of Volucella pellucens, magn. p. 290. 

Fig. 22. of Nemotellus uliginosus, magn. p. 292, 

Fig. 23. of Asilus crabroniformis, magn. p. 291. 

Fig. 24. of Musca punctum, magn. 

Fig. 25. of Sargus cupreus, magn. p. 292. 

Fig. 26. of Stomoxys calcitrans, magn. p. 298. 

PLATE XI.— Apparatus. 

Fig. 1. A Net-rod, described at p. 307. a. The cross-piece, b. Tlie 
angular ferrule, c. The joint fitting into the ferrule d. e. A 
small staple for tying the band of the net. 

Fig. 2. A net complete; — for the use see p. 307. 

Fig. 3. A breeding-cage; see p. 309. 

Fig. 4. An aquatic or landing-net for taking water-insects^ &c. 

Fig. 5. A Digger, a. the point. 

Fig. 6. A phial for small insects. 

Fig. 7. A pair of brass pliers. 

Fig. 8. and 9. Setting needles. 

Fig. 10. Forceps. 

PLATE XII. — Method of Setting Insects. 

Fig. 1. Opilis mollis (p. 166). — This figure exhibits the method of set- 
ting Coleoptera with the wings closed and in a crawling position ; 
the legs are kept in the attitude designed by pins applied as ne- 
cessity requires : the tarsi are kept flat on the setting-board by 
card-braces, as at b. — Care must always be taken to introduce the 
pin which serves to transfix the insect, through the right elytron. 

Fig. 2, Callidium bajulum with the elytra extended and the wings dis- 
played ; in all specimens set in this way the pin must be passed 
through the middle of the back and near the thorax : ttie wings are 
kept extended by braces. 
The above methods are also applicable for the Orders Dermaptera, 
Orthoptera, Dictt/optera, Hemiptera and Omoptera. 

Fig. 3. Odenesis potatoria (p. 247). The method of setting the Lepi- 
doptera is fully explained at 320. 

Fig. 4. Stratiomys Chamaeleon (p. 292). Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, a* 
well as Diptera, may be set by pins alone as is here exhibited. 

Fig. 5. Such minute insects as are difficult to pierce with a pin may be 
placed on small triangular pieces of paper : this method is to be 
preferred, as almost every part may be examined, ajid is much su- 
perior to the method frequently used, as at fg. 6. 



451 



COLLECTIONS OF INSECTS AND OTHER SUBJECTS OF 
NATURAL HISTORY. 



In order to facilitate the study ol' Natural History, especially those 
departments .most suitable for young persons, it is my intention to 
form several small collections of Insects, Shells, Sfc. Each Collec- 
tion will have an accompanying catalogue of the generic and spe- 
cific names, with reference to authors by whom the species are de- 
scribed. Single specimens may also be obtanied tu jllustrate genera, 
as well as to assist those who may be forming collections. Also 
every kind of apparatus used by tlie Botanist, Conchologist, Entomo- 
logist, or Mineralogist ; such as collecting and other boxes, nets, for- 
ceps, setting-boards, pins, pocket microscopes or hand magnifiers, ca- 
binets, trays for minerals, shells. Sec. either corked or plain. Dissec- 
tions of insects to illustrate their generic characters, or as most inter- 
esting objects for the microscope. 

Mr. Sowerby intends also to re-open his very valuable and extensive 
Museum, for the use of his friends and for the benefit of students and 
lovers of natural history. The many rare and interesting specimens 
which this collection contains are highly deserving the honour which 
it has received from many of the most distinguished personages. The 
abilities and industry of its possessor are sufficiently known through 
the medium of his voluminous scientific and useful works. This gen- 
tleman has also been induced to offer for sale his duplicate specimens, 
which consist of subjects in every department of Natural History. 
These of themselves would form no mean Museum. However, he in- 
tends to dispose of them in small parcels to give the student an insight 
into the science, or in single specimens for the accommodation of those 
who may already possess collections, and to whom such species may be 
desiderata. 

Those ladies and gentlemen who reside in the country may have 
collections, or any of the apparatus sent them, through the medium of 
their booksellers, by an application to Mr. Boys the publisher, to th« 
Author, or to Mr. Sowerby, No. 2, Mead Place, Lambeth. 



2t t 



INDEX. 



Nezv Genera and Ihoae adopted are in capitals : tlie Species marked with an 
Asterisk are either st/nonymous or referable to other Genera : the En- 
glish names are in italics : 1. affixed to the Species refers to the larva. 



ABAX 

angustior 361 

nielanaiius ib. 

Striola 154,361 

Abdomen and its parts 32 

— — , discrimination 

of the 338 

ABIA 

nigricoinis 263, 411 
sericea ib. 

ABRAXAS 

grossulariata 253 

ulmaria ib. 

ABR/EUS 

peipusillus 183, 362| 

ABROSTOLA, Och. 252 

ACANTHIA 

♦lectularia 223 

maculata 225,369 

Acanthid« (Fam.) 224 

Acari, anatomical view 

ofthe '75 

, character and 

classification of 
the 130 
for the micro- 
scope 130,353 
Acaridse (Fam.) 131 
ACARUS 
*aquaticus 153 
*Coleoptratoruni 131 
domesticus 132, 358 
*exulcerans 135 
•geniculatus 132 
*Scabiei 133 



ACARUS 
*siro 
*Riciniis 
ACILIUS 
snlcatiis 
ACHETA 
campestris 
doniestica 
*Grynotalpa 
Achatia, Hul>. 



132 
132 

159,359 

218,380 

218,359 

211 

251 



ACHENIUM, Leach 172 
ACHERONTIA,0r/i. 243 
Achetidffl (Fam.) 217 

Acridii, Latr. 218 

ACROCERA 296 

gibbosa 387 

AcroceridK(Fam.) 296 
ACRYDIUM 

bipunciatum 4l6 

sabulatum 219,416 
Aculeata, (sect.) 272 

Aculeus, the sting 

discrimination of 338 

, its siluation & 

use 33 

ADELA 

Degeerelia 



\Admiral,white, 1, 396 

.ECOPHORA 

Flavelia 249, 399 

Linneeiia 249 

Roesella ib. 

^GA 

emarginata 109 

.EGERIA 

apiformis245,381,397 
asiliformis 397 

crabroniformis 245,4 17 



I. 



ADIMONIA 
Ahii 

iiigricornis 
Admiral, red 

— — , white 



249,399 

378 

212,578 

238, 3G3, 

430 

1. 416 

240, 41 7 



culiciformis 
rynipiformis 
formiciformis 
cestriformis 
spheciformis 
tipuliformis 
vespiformis 
.iEGIALlA 
globes a 

.eLia 

acuminata 

melauocepbala 
AEPUS 

fulveseens 
^SHNA 

Anglicana 

grand is 

juncxa 

teretiuscula 

viatica 
J/zelius's Tortrix 
AG.ATHIDIUM 

nanum 



442 
417 
397 
413 
397 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

190, 362 

221,438 
433 

149, 415 

410 

258,410 

410 



ib. 
ib. 

364 

393 



454 

AGATHIDIUM 

nigripeniie 214,393 
rufipenne 393 

AG ELENA 

labyrinthica 125, 428 
aglossa, Latr. 235 

AGONUM 

albipes 365 

caerulescens ib. 

picipes ib. 

Tufipes ib. 

sexpunctatum 150,373 
Simpsoni 365 

sordidum ib. 

vaporariorum 358, 373 

AGRION 

albicans 410 

antiulare ib. 

corea ib. 

puella ib. 

rufe.scens ib. 

sanguineus 259, 4 1 
zonatus 4I0 

AGROTIS, Huh. 251 

Alae, (wings) afford 
cliaracters for 
genera &, species 36 

•— — , (the wings) dis* 

crimination of 338 

• , their form 

and structure 35 

Alburnca denlata 83 

./^Ider m<th 400 

ALEOCHARA 

canaJieulata 176, 367 
cinnamomea 438 

fuscipes 177,367,429 
impressa 177, 442 

lanuginosa 367, 429 
obscura 362 

rivularis 177,429 

sulcata 177, 367 

ALEYRODES 

chelidonii 233, 380 

ALLANTUS 

albocinctus 4!l 

ater ib. 

bicinctus ib. 

blandus ib. 

conspicuus ib. 

12-punctatus ib. 

haematopus ib. 

lateralis ib. 

lividus ib. 



INDEX. 

ALLANTUS 

neglectus 411 

uotha 265,411 

punctomaculatus 412 



411 
ib. 

265 
386 
265, 41 I 
269 



372 

212 
ib. 

249 



punctum 

riifiventris 

semiciucta 

viridis 

zonata 
ALOMYA, Par,% 
/}lsi osmer's T-rtr%x 
ALTICA 

oieracea 

testacea 
Alucita, Oliv. 
ALUCITA 

he.\adactyla 256, 37-2 
Alucitadas (Fana.) 255 
/iMALUPLIA 191 

AMARA 

arata 4.'''3 

vulgaris 152,365 

AMASIS 

Iffita 263,411 

lAmblychu;:, Gy'.l. 147 
Ametabolia character 

of the subclass 158 

, classification 

of the 140 

AMOPHILA 

sahiilosa 275,413 

AMPHIPYRA, Och. 251 
AMPITHOE 

ruhricata 
ANART.A, Oih 
ANASPIS 

bifasciatus 

bigu. talus 

fi on talis 

obscurus 

ruti(ollis 
AN AX 

Inipt rator 



ANDRENA 

chrysocelis 372 

chrypura 413 

cingnlata 437 

Ci.Tikella 372 

Collinsonana 413 

fulva 372 

fiilvago 413 

falvicrus 427 

fuscata 386 

Guvnana S72 
haemorrhoidalis 413 

helvola 386 

Lewinella 372 

Listerella 427 

rniniitula 442 

MoutTetella 427 

nigriceps 572 
n gro-aenea 28], 572 

nitida 372 

ovatula 386 

parvula 372 

pilipes 413 

pratensis 372 

Rosae ib. 

Sciirankelia 437 

Shawella 442 

Smithelia 372 

?pinigera ib. 

thoracica ib.- 

tit)ialis 4iJ7 

*iric;ncta 282 

tridentata 437 

Truiimerana ib. 

vaiians 372 
Andienelse, Latr. 280 
Andienii!pE, (Fam.) ib. 

ib. Andria, //../•. 248 
197, 376'/4»g'/e, tawy barred 434 
376 Angle >h.de\ 250, 383, 



104 
252 



376 



ib 



258, 410 



ANC lOMENUS 

piasinus 151, 361 

.Andrena, Russi 'ill 

ANDRENA 

affinis 413 

, ftzelieJla 386 

albicans ib. 

albicrus 413 

armata 372 

atriceps ib. 

barbilabris 386 



402, 440 
, small 401 

Animalcula for the 
microscope, how 
obtained 334 

Animals,Ciivier's di- 

stiibution of 75 

— ,dead, the ha- 
bit atiun of many 
insects Sliji 

— , distribution 
of, froii) theiror- 
ganizatiou 74 

-,how distinguish'd 20 









INDEX. 






455 


Animosity of q 


neen 




Antennae, the, used by 




Apidar, (Fam.) 


223 


bees cease on the 




the Ichneumon 




APION 




lossoftheanteniise 24 


Manifest a tor for 




Eeneum 


377 


Anisotonia hico 


or 


2U 


discovering a ni- 




assimile 


390 


nigripeniiis 




215 


dus to deposit its 




A-iragali 


ib. 


picea 




194 


eggs in 24, 25| 


Carduorum 


ib. 


piceum 
Annulata.distrib 




ib. 


♦ U« ^.»..w^.. 




cajmlescens 
Craccas 


376 
416 


ition 


of smelling sup. 




of the 




75 


posed to be situ- 




Ervi 


415 




; 1 




ated in them 
ANTHICUS 


25 


Fagi 
flavifemoratum 


376 
ib. 


character of the 


ib. 


Annulet, brown 




434 


antherinns 


390 


flavipes 


ib. 


ANOBILTM 






florialis 


376 


frumentariutn 


377 


Abietis 




367 


fuscus 197, 


376 


Gyllenhalii 


376 


♦bideiitatiim 




206 


♦Hellwigii 


180 


haematoides 


377 


*Boleti 




ib. 


*monoceros 


196 


Hydrolapathi 


390 


castaneum 




389 


ANTHIDIUM 




immune 


360 


molle 




ib. 


manicum 284, 


428 


Lathyri 


415 


panicum 




ib. 


ANrHOBlUM,Z,ea.'^/i 175 


Ixvigalum 


376 


•pertinax 




181 


ANTHOMYIA 




Loti 


390 


ptinoides 




.-389 


pluvialis 300, 


415 


Malvarum 


376 


rufipes 




ib. 


Anthophora, Ulig. 


283 


Malvse 


ib. 


stiiatnra 


181, 


375 


ANIHOPHORA 




marchicum 


ib. 


tessellatum 


181, 


443 


*hirsuta 


287 


melanopum 


ib. 


ANOAIALA 






*quadridentata 


285 


Meliloti 


ib. 


Agricola 




389 


retusa 287, 


364 


nigritarse 


ib- 


Donovani 




ih. 


*truncornm 


284 


Ononis 


415 


Frischii 


191, 


389 


ANTHOSOMA 




Oxurum 


376 


horticola 




3S9 


bmithii 


80 


ruficorne 


390 


luricola 


191, 


589 


Anthracii, Latr. 


295 


Rumicis 


ib. 


Anoplura, character 




AotI lacidsE (Fam.) 


ib. 


Sorbi 


376 


of the Order 


138 


ANTHRAX 




Spartii 


ib. 


, classification 




Abaddon 


414 


subulatum 


415 


of 




141 


flottentotta 295, 


414 


subsulcatum 


376 


Ant 


69, 


27b 


ANTHRENUS 




sulcifrons 


ib. 


Antenna; of insects 


21 


Museorum 


367 


Ulicis 


359 


, discrimina- 




Scrophulariae 50, 


182, 


vernale 


376 


tion of the 




340 




375 


vicije 


415 






Verbasci 


375 


vicinum 
violaceum 


390 


on the, bj' Bonnet 22 


ANTHRIBUS 


ib. 






'^latirostris 


199 


virens 
vorax 


376 


on the, bv Bons- 




*rlunomacer 


200 


ib. 


dorf 




ib. 


scabrosus 20O 


376 


Apis, Harr. 


273 


— — — , experiments 




varius 


376 


* a. Kirhy 


283 


on the, by 


Huh- 




ANTHURA 




* a. Kir by 


286 


ner 




23 


gracilis 


107 


* b. Kirby 


ib. 


^..»n»:.- 


nents 




Anthuradas, (Fam.) 


ib. 


** b. Kirby 


ib. 






on the, by 


Leh- 




Antler moth 


421 


** c. 1. a. 


285 


mann 




ib. 


Antliata,Fatr. 


289 


** c. 1./3. 


284 


of the 


long- 




APAMHA, Oih. 


251 


** 0. 2, a. 


285 


horned bee 


coni- 




APATURA 




*» c. 2. /3. 


284 


posed of hexagons 2"! 


Iris 239 


,417 


** c. 2.5. 


ib. 


, on thei 


r use 


22 


I. 


381 


** c. 2. y. 


283-4 



456 



INDEX. 



69 



Apis ** d. 1. 
** (1. 2. a. 
** e. 2. 
Anis, Linne 
APIS 
*Hanksi3na 
*bicornis 
*CiErulea 
*centuncularis 
*C0Qica 
*cyanea 
*florisomnis 
*longicornis 
*manicata 

mellifica 288, 

♦piiiiotata 
•4-cincta 
•quadripunctata 
•retusa 
*ruficornis 
*terrestris 
•variegata 
Apius, Juri'ie 
APHANISTICUS 

emarginatus 160, 
Aphidii, Latr. 
Aphidaei, (Fam.) 
Aphis, Liuiic 

.NaturalHistory 

of the 
APHIS 
Absinthii 

Aceris platanoides 
Acetosac 
AIni 

Atriplicis 
Avenae sativae 
Bet 11 las 
Brassies 
Bursaria 
Capreas 
CracejE 
Dauci 
FabiB 
Fagi_ 
Traxini 
J aces 
Juniperi 
Laotucae 
*lanigera 
Lieucanthemi 
Ligustici scotici 
Lychnidis 



287 
98: 
28 
,2Sl> 

283 
285 
283 
283 
ib 
2S3 
284 
28 
284 
35 Q 
•286 
282 
28. 
28 
2S6 
288 
2«6 



388 
232 

ib. 

62 

ib. 

39 

395 

394 

ib 
395 
394 

ib. 

ib 
395 
394 

ib. 

ib 
595 
394 

ib 

ib 

ib. 

ib 
232 
395 

lb, 

ib, 



APHIS 

Miilefolii 

Padi 

Pini 

Plautaginis 

Populi 

Pruni 

Pruoi-cerasi 

Qiiercus 

Ribis 

Rosae 

Rumicis Lapathi 

Salicis 

Sambuci 

Scabiosx 

Sonchi 

'f'anaceti 

Tiliae 

Tremula; 

Clmi 

urticata 

Vibiirni 
.4j)hod4adae-, (Fam.) 
APHODIUS 

attaminatus 

conflagratus 

coprinus 

depressas 

erraticus 

fitnetarius 

fcBdatus 

foetens 

Fossor 
*globosu3 

giaiiaiixis 

lismorrhoidalis 

humeialis 

icteric lis 

inquiuatus 

lurid us 

tuerdarius 

obscurus 

pnsillus 

rufipes ISO; 

scutator 

sordidus 

subterraneus 
*suIcico]lis 

Sus 

terrestris 

testudinarius 

turpis 

unicolot 



I APHRITIS 
3951 auro-piibesceiis'298,415 
894JApodaTestudo 418 

3951 /. 432 

ib.'APODERUS 

ib.l Corvli 201, 316 

394|AP0RUS 

ib. unicolor 275 

395]Apos, Scopoli 78 

394'Apparatus used by 

ib.! 'Entomologists 307 

ib !April, calendar for 364 
395 , empktvinent for 315 

394 APSEUDES' 

395 Talpa 109 
394 Apsec.diadas, (Fam.) ib. 

ib. Aptera, Linve 72 

ib. Aptera, characters of 
595 the Order 139, 233 

394 A PUS 

380 Montagui 7S 

395 *productus ib, 
189 Aquarius paludum 224 

Aquatic insects, how 

obtained 313 

Aquatica, (Sect.) 225 

Arachnides, Lam. Lair. 1 17 
Arachnoidea,anatom. 

view of the 75 
Arachno'ida, classifi- 
cation of the 117 
for the micro- 
scope 1 18, 333 
Araignee a croix 127 
fourmi 130 



36S 

ib. 

ib 

ib. 

ib, 

ib. 

lb, 

ib, 

ib, 

190 

368 

ib 

ib. 

ib 

ib, 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

368 

368 

ib. 

ib. 

190 

368 

ib 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 



124, 



ARANEA 
*aquatica 
*Diadenia 
domestica 
*erythnna 
•extensa 
*Listeri 
*obscura 
*opilionid8s 
•phalangioides 
*Pluchii 
*saccata 
*scenica 
*senoculata 
Araneadse, (Fim.) 

, observations 

on the, by Sir J, 
Banks 



125 
127 
360 
122 
127 
129 

ib. 
126 

ib. 

ib. 
129 
130 
122 
120 



120 



INDEX. 



457 



Arches moth, larred 400 



-,«ac/t '246,397,431 
-, — I. 397 

-, Uasl black 386 

-, dark 



Aselle d'eau douce 



ordinaire 
Aseliidse (Fam.) 
Asellu?, 0/10. 
251,433 ASELLUS 
401' aquaticus 



llOATTUS 
ib.i formicarius 



130 



— , eray ib.| •vulgaris 

—, light 4i9'Asilici, 2,atr. 

-, red 243,399,41 8; Asilidse, (Fam.) 
419|ASILrS 

! crabroniformis 
1 78, 375' 

375 ASIRACA 



•, silvery 
ARCOPAGUS 
bulbifer 
clavicornis 
slabrieollis 
ARCIIA 
Caja 



ib. 
106 

110 
ib 
294 

294 

r2, 294, 
414 



ATVPUS 

•Sulzer 122 

Snlzeri 122, 3S7 

lAuchenia hirta 196 

merdia:era 211 

August, Calendar for 423 

, employment for315 

AUTALIA, Leach 177 
AXIUS 

Siirvnchus 95 



178,359, clavicornis 230, 380 Bacca, FciZr. 



lAstacidx, (Fam.) 
248,4l8|ASrACUS 
398 •astacus 
Chrysorrhu?a 248, 395. •atomos 

4l8J *I>amffias 
lubricij)eda 248, 31^81 Gammarus 

I. 431 '^rossipes 

248, 332 ♦homarus 
ib *Lucusta 
243, 593 •mariuus 
431 *Xorwe^cus 



Mendira 

Menthrastri 

papyritia 

ph3eorrhcEa248,398,451 
piantaginis 243, 393 
— — I. 382 

russula 248, 598 

salicis 243, 59S, 4lS 
V. nigra 431 

viilica 248,39s 

/. 332 

Arctiads, (Fam.) 248 
Ai'gent and Sable niolh 404 
Argus iutier fly, Scotch 240 

396 
■ v}-)od 541 

ARGYNNIS 
Adippe 237,416 

/. 330 

Ag'.aia 237,416 

I. 380 

Lathonia 237,380,416 
Paphia 237.416 

I. 330 

ARGYRONETA 

aquatica 125, 360 

ARMADILLO 

vulgaris 112, 358 

Arpactus, Jurine 276 

Arrack moth, 251,401, 

439 

Artus, the memlers 33 



9 
276 
267 
301 

83 



264,411 

411 

264,411 

ib. 



*serrati.s 
*stri?o=u3 
A STAT A 
Aitaius, Kfve:. 
Astomata, Darr.eril 
A1ELFCYCLUS 

beterodon 
ATHALLA 
aunulata 
ceutifolia 
Ro-ae 
spinarura 
ATHAXAS 
niteicens 
ATHERIX 
maculata 
Atopa cerviua 
ATROPOS 
lisnaria 
ATTAG ENUS 
Pellig 
serra 
.Atte pare 
ATFELABUS 
•Coryli 

curculionides 201,576 
•formicarius 165 

•mclanurus 156 

*aiollis 166 



94'baDIST£R 
j bipustulatus 

loelB^ETis 

ggj hioculata 

95! BAG O US, Germ. 
1(;5':BALAXINUS 

92I atramentarius 
i 02 Cerasorum 

95 fascial us 

96 fractuum 
Gladius 
Jongimaaus 
macalatus G 

murinus 
Xuoum 
Pomorum 
nibellus 

semicylindiicus 
stygius 
teauirostris 
Tortrix 
Tremulse 
'Banchi_s, Fair. 
99 Bank?, Sir Jos. obser- 
vations on the 
294, 4l4| Araneadje 
\C'Z' Barred red 

slrcic moth 

ol, 427J yslLw •nnoth 



299 

147,364 

259,410 
204 

391 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

577, 391 

391 

203, 377 

391 

ib. 

ib. 

jb. 

ib. 
377 

ib. 
269 



Baumannisn Tortrix 
182, 5~5 Beak or roitrum, 
3S9Bfa; ry, l-o-'dered 



120 
4<)4 
4-2t 

ib. 
365 

29 
423 



150,- 



54,201 



-, /■ri>.i/e<i25S, 571 
-, Br:jr/on 439 

-, Can.leiwtU 2S8 
., Lilac 424 

.,maHl€d 251,452 
-, miner 4 20 

-, meitled 4" 3 



458 

Beauly, light moll'ed 4'23 

-, oak 253,363, 403 

■ , pale oak 403 

" , lawny ib. 

-, willow 422 

62 
69 



Bed livg 

Bee (Apis) 

— — , humming hird 

, bread bordered 244, 
397 

, narrow bordered ib. 

Belle moth 404 

, lesser 407 

, straw 433 

— — , yellvw 424 

Bembidion, Z.i/r. 148 

BEMBIDIUM 

acutum 364 

agile 3.58 

bipunctatum 387 

crucigerum 361 

Ephippium ib. 

flavipes l48, 361, 373, 
428 
Guttula 361 

littorale 365 

pallipes 373 

poecilliim 443 

properans ib. 

pmicticolle 361 

4-guttatum 364 

lulipes 361 

Spencii 442 

Bergminnian Torlrix 436 

BERIS 

clavipes 372 

nigritarsis 291, 372 

BEROSUS 

luridus 186,362 

EERriTS 

tipulariiis222, 394,438 

Betliyllu.«, Panz. 274 

Belony moth, vSaler 252, 
370, 399 

Birch, gray 384 

Biids, feathers of, for 

the microscope 333 

Bird's-wingmolh 252,399 

BISTON 



INDEX. 

Bitomaunipunctata 208 
BITURUS 

I fumatiis 374 

tomentosus 1 70, 374 

Blackamoor moth 401 

Black beetle 61 

Black-neck m. 4r^3 

Black-veined m. 404 

Black ivaved h. m. ib. 
BLAP.S 

lethifera 389 

mortisaga 59, 192, 369 

Blapsids, (Fam.) 192 

Biastus 88 

tetraodon ib. 

BLATTA 220 

livida 380 

orientalis 61 

BLEDIUS, Leach 174 
BLETHISA 

miiltipunctata 152,365 
Blood, in small fish, 
an object for the 
microscope 333 

Blood-vein molh, large 424 

, small ib. 

363 
436 
3s5 
436 



Blossom Un'!erwing 
BloUhback, hi own 

, silver 

tawny 



Betularia 
hirtaria 
hispidaria 
pedaria 



253, 403 

253, 371 

360 

363 



prodromaria 253, 363 



, triple striped 386 

Blue, asiiTe242, 381, 450 
, Bedford 242, 38 J, 

417 

, ihalk-Ull 241,417 

, Clifden 241, 381, 

430 

, common ib. 

I. 370,417 

, large 4 1 7 

, mazarine 242, 381, 

417 
, studded 242,417 



BOMBUS 

BarbiiteUa 

Beckwithella 

Burrellana 

campestris 

Cullumana 

Ciirtisella 

Derhamella 

Donovanella 

flavicollis 

floralis 

Fosterella 

fragrans 

Fraiiciilonana 

Francisana 

Harrisella 

hortorum 

Jonella 

lapidaria 

Latreillilla 

Leeaiia 

lucorum 

Muscorum 

pratorum 

Raiella 

Rossiella 

rupestris 

Schrimshirana 

Sorensis 

subinterruptus 

snbterranea 

syl varum 

terrestris 288, 

'I'unstallaDa 

vestalis 

virginalis 
Bombycidae (Fam.) 
Bombycites, Lair. 
Bombyliaria, Latr, 
Bombylidae (Fam.) 



L 



370 

344 

20'; 

ib 



B'jdy (corpus) 
Boletaria, Marsh. 

quadripustulata 
BOLILOPHAGUS 

Agaricola 194, 300 

BOLITOBIUS, Z-eacA 176 

BOMBUS 
agroriim 414 

Aibinella 437 



414 
413 
414 
372 
414 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
428 
413 
414 
437 
413 
414 

ib. 

ib. 

ib, 

ib. 
437 
414 
437 
413 
387 
414 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
372 
414 
457 
423 
414 

ib. 
428 
245 
245 
295 
295 



BOMBYLIUS 

major 72,295, 572 
medius 372 

iiiinor 428 

BombyX; Hubner 246 
antiqua 431, 439 

caeriileocephala 431 

I. 382 

cassinea 439 

/. 382 

♦compressus 254 



coryli 
coryli 



250 370,418 
L 382, 439 



Bombyx 
*cartula 24^ 

L 439 

Doclona-a 399 

gonostigmata 418, 43'2 
Qiiercea 399 

♦reclusa 247 

L 439 

Roboris 399, 439 

Bombyx Quercus, cu- 
rious account of 313 

Bones, calcined, for 

the microscope 533 

Bonnet's experiments 
on the antennae 
of insects 22 

Bonsdorli's experiments 
on the antennae 
of insects ib. 

Border, small blue 434 

, clouded 385, 423 

, lace 424 

Bordered, blatk 403 

Bostrichus Typogra 
phns 
cylindriciis 

Bostricidas, (Fam.) 

Bostricini, Latr. 

Bot-fly, method of de- 
positing its eggs 

Bots of horses 



205 

206 

205 

ib. 

9 




BOTYS 

anguinalis 

angustulus 

arcualis 

atralis 

cespitalis 

cineralis 

cingulalis 

cuciillatalis 

elutalis 

ferriigalis 

flavalis 

forficalis 

glabralis 

hyliridaiis 

hyalinalis 

Lemnata 

limbalis 

literal is 

longalis 

lutealis 

tiebulalis 



427 
426 
ib. 
ib. 
427 
4C8 



INDEX. 




BOTYS 




nivealis 


408 


Nymphasata 


420 


oclireaiis 


42(1 


ostrinaiis 


427 


Porphyrialis 


ib. 


Potamogeta 


426 


pulcalis 


ib. 


puiiicealis 


ib. 


purpuralis 255, 


38 C, 


Sanibiu-ata 


426 


sericealis 


lb. 


sordiilalis 


427 


S ratiotalis 


425 


strigulalis 


386 


terminalis 


426 


tetragonalis 


436 


urticata 


426 


verbascalis 


ib. 


vemcalis 


ib. 


Box, pocket collecting 


'303 


Braces, their use 


309 


BRACHINUS 




crepitans 154, 


373 


Brachypterus, Klug. 


170 


Bracliyrinus argen- 




taius 


202 


Rrachviira, (Order) 


82 


BR AC ON 




Desertor 270, 


412 


BRANCHIOPODA 




stagnaiis 


81 


Breast, Pectus 


31 


Breeding cages 


3(>i- 


, the most con 


- 



450 

Brindle, small 360 

Brindled, dusky 426 

, white 408 

iarred yelloiv 371 



venient size of 
— , deal, olijec- 



(iunable 
AQfj'Bremus, Jurine 

425!BREPH, Huh. 252 

426'Brpplios, Oh. ib. 

i<26Bri,/c-moih 44l 

ib. iBr>ghtfy< l"ovjn line 421 

ih.'BrimstO'tt, h. 236,395,429 

ib. ! , TO . 37 1 , 406, 434 

425, ^^dB'indie, clnudrd 419 

426i , slender-ct. ib 

425 , small- 1 1. 40 1 

426: , clouded bo'- 

425| dertd 252,419 

426! ,dark 371 



Broad-barred T.,ilrix 441 
B'Otade, beautiful 400 

, dark ib. 

, £reat 419 

, hght 400 

, pa e-shouldet' 

ed 400 

Broom moth 250,251,401 

I. 283 

- Tip 384 
BROSCU.S 

ephal .tes 153,365 

Brown-bar, g eat 251 , 403 

BroU'n,buite'py, blackspot 

242,381, 417 

/. 370, 396 

, meadow 240, 396 

, srnail "endow 240 

,u'hiit"pu 242,417 

, rru'th, marbled 399 

, hinar maibled ib. 

'. ib. 

,pal.e shining 400,4 1 9 

Bioicn-eye bnght line 383 
Buiun tail mu. 248, 431 

/. 398 

BrowiTmea, clouded 360 
Br,.w b rdered Tor- 364 
r.ruchelffi, Lotr. 199 

Bnichidse, (Fam.) ib. 

■ RUCHUS 

aler 

Pisi 53, 

seminarius 
B'-ussels Lnie m 



360 

200, 376 

390 

424 



• , forked-striped ib. 
-, pale 365 



BKYAXIS 

fiissula a 

haematica 

impres.sa 

Jiincornm 

longicnrnis 

sansuinea 
l!UCE,MF.S 

ciiiereus 
B jr, cUr^ded 

, creited 

, small-dotted 

Tip 24 



375 
359 

179,375 
367 

179, 367 
367 

298 

248, 398 
425 
403 
393 

439 



4m 

Bull-rvsh moth 251, 432 
BUP.ALUS 

pinariiis 253 

BuprestiaiJa; (Fanti.) 16(1 
Btiprestis, Geff. 144 

BUPRESTIS 

bigiittata 58,160,388 

*eniarginatus 160 

*iniiuita ib. 

viridis 160,388 

Burnet,five-sj)olled 597 

, six-spulted 245, 397 

■ molk 403 

Burnished brass 250, 403 

,S(arce 403 

Button Tortrix, Bay- 

.'houldered 359 

. , dark-slreaked A3b 

Bultertiies, melhod of 

arranging 322 

— — , method of set- 
ting 321) 
Byrrlii, Lair. 182 
ByrrhidoD (Fam.) l82 

BVRRHUS 

dorsalis 367 

fasciatus 362 

inurinus 367 
Pilula 50, 182,362 

♦Scrophulaiite 132 

setnistriatiis 360 

varius 367 
BYTUINUS 

Ciirtisii 178, 3s?Q 

secuiiger ' 375 

C.ichxUyB. 417 

/. 396 

C;EL10XYS 

con'.ca 285, 428 

Callage-moth, 400, 419, 
432 

Cabinet for insects, form 
ofa 310 

Cabinet, metbod of ar- 
ranging insects in322 

— — — , number of draw- 
ers for a 310 

Cabinets must be kept 
dry 311 

— should be well 
camphoiijil 312 

— — , sn)aII,rccom- 
iriendcd 311 



INDEX 


' 








CALANDRA 






CANCER 




pranaria 


204, 


362 


*grossimanus 


103 


lignaria 




562 


*gross;pes 


105 


CALATHUS 






*hirte]lus 


86 


cisteloides 


152 


361 


*liorridus 


90 


littoralis 




387 


*incisus 


8G 


nielanocephal 


us 


361 


*!atipes 


84 


CALEPTERYX 






*littoreus 


102 


hidovicia 




410 


* Locusta 


104 


Virgo 


259, 


410 


*nitescens 


99 


CALLIANASSA 






*Norwegicus 


96 


subterranea 




94 


* Manas 


84 


CALLIDIUM 






*Maja 89, 9(» 


*Arietis 




210 


*marmoreus 


85 


bajulurn 




392 


*palmatus 


103 


violaceum 


210 


392 


Pagurus 


85 


CALLIGUS 






*pedatus 


105 


Mulleri 




13 


'personatns 


83 


CALLIMORPHA 




*Phalangiuni 


91 


Dominula 


248 


398 


*Phasma 


106 


/. 




382 


*platycheles 


92 


fuliginosa 




399 


*puber 


84 


Jacubaea 


248, 


399 


*rubricatus 


104 


I. 




431 


*rugosus 


93 


Rosea 248, 


399, 


418 


*Saltator 


102 


CALLISTUS 






*ucorpio 


90 


lunatus 




150 


*sedentarius 


101 


CALOBATA 






*spinosus 


102 


filiformis 




299 


*squilla 


98 


CAL0.50MA 






*sqainado 


89 


Inquisitor 


146 


38'7 


*stagnalis 


81 


Sycophanta 


146, 


387 


*strigosus 


93 


Camphor, crystals ol 


, for 


*subierraneus 


94 


the microscope 


337 


*tetraodon 


88 




„ fn. 


ca- 


*tuberusus 
*velutinus 


91 
84 


binets 


312 


CampioH-moth, 


251, 


420 


CancendaB (Fam.) 


85 


C'AMPTECOPEA 




Cantliaridae 


197 


birsuta 




107 


Cantbaris, Linne, 


56, 


CANCER 






163, 164, 


196 


*angulatus 




87 


CANTHARI3 




*aiaiieus 




89 


*aBnea 


165 


*articulosus 




103 


*biguttata 


5Q 


*aspera 




88 


*fusca 5& 


164 


*Astaciis 




95 


*scrraticorni3 


163 


*Bt.'rniiardus 




92 


vfsicatoria 198, 


390 


*biaculealkis 




88 


CAPRELLA 




*bipes 




100 


Phasma 


105 


*Bufo 




89 


Caprelladaj (Fam.) 


ib. 


*cassivelaunus 




83 


CAPSUS 




*corrugatus 




85 


ater 222, 


380 


*crangon 




96 


rulicoHis 


394 


* Dorsettensis 




90 


spifsicornis 


ib. 


*Gamiiiarus 


95, 


110 


Caput the head 21, 


342 



461 



Carabidae (Fam.) 


144 


CARCINUS 




Carabus, Linn. 


59 


Msenas 


84 


CARABIJS 




Carpenter, the, or mil- 


*arenarius 


146 


lipede 




arvensis 
*aterrimus 


387 
151 


CARPELLMUS, Kir 


174 


catenulatas, 'i^S, 


146, 


Carpet, Autumn 


441 




560 


, leautijul 


404 


*cephalotes 


153 


, beech-green 


434 


*chrysostomus 


156 


, hlue-hjrdered 


404. 


*cinctus 


15'2 




434 


*cistfcluides 


ib. 


, blunt-angled 


405 


clathratus 


364 


, briiken-barred 


406 


*complanatus 


146 


, chalk 


424 


^crepitans 
*Crux-tninor 


154 
155 


, clnaked 

, commnn 385 


406 
434 


*cupieus 


153 


, degenerate 


454 


*cj'ancus 


145 


— — , February 


560 


*cyanocephalus 
*deprcssus 


155 
154 


,Jlame 

, Galium 


4-24 
405 


*ditnidiatus 


175 


, garden. 


384 


*distans 


153 


—T-> Sf-ay 


422 


*festivus 


]5l 


, gree7i 


404 


*gilibus 


150 


, insulated 37] 


385 


*gibbosus 


ib. 


, large 


433 


glabratus 


387 


, least 


406 


*granulatus 


146 


■-, lesser satin 


402 


*hortensis 


ib. 


, marbled 424 


,435 


•hiimeralis 


154 


, brown-marbled 


384 


*intricatus 


145 


, common-mar hied ib.| 


intricatiis 


375 




424 


*leucopthalmus 


152 


, yellow-marbled 


584, 


*lunatus 


150 




435 


*monilis 


146 




434 


monilis 


373 


, red-green 


443 


morbillosiis, 146, 


364. 


, rufous 


405 




443 


, sandy 


406 


*multipunctatus 


152 


, scttrched 404 

, sharp- angled 


434 


nemoralis 145 


36( 


424 


nilens 


373 


, short-barred 


384 


*pi]icornis 

*pumicatus 

*rostratus 


150 


, twin-spot 


424 


155 
145 


, waved 

, ivater 


384 
371 


*secalis 


149 


, wood 


423 


*sex-punctatus 


150 


CASSIDA 




*spinibarbis 


147 


cnientata 


378 


*staphylionoides 


175 


equestris 211 


378 


*StrioIa 


154 


maculata 52) 


429 


♦tenuis 


153 


marcida 


378 


*vestitus 


15) 


*imirra:a 


52 


violaceus 145 


360 


nebulosa 


429 


*vivalis 


151 


nobilis 


378 


*vulgaris 


152 


Spergulx 


416 


CARADKINA, Ocli. 


251 


simiiis 


378 



CASSIDA 

splendidula 373 

*viridis 211 

Catalogue of insects, 

how formed 323 

CATER ETES 

bipustulatiis 566 

rufilabrisv 170,366 

Catiipilliis all hatcb- 

eil from eggs 40 
change tbeir 



colouraftermoult- 



change their 



skin 40 

— , method of 
collecting 307 

— , time for col- 
lecting 315,316 

, each kind 

should be kept 

by themselves 310 

— , method of 

518 



preserving 
CATOPS 
*brevicornis 

chrysomeloides 
*elongatus 
nigricans 

sericeus 168, 

Cauda, the tail 

; discrimination 
of the 343 

CECIDOMYIA 

Ir.tea 291, 387, 437 
Cemonus unicolor 278 
Centris, Fabr. 285 

Cephaieia, Jurine 
Cephaloculus, Lam. 
Cephalotes, Bonelli 
CEPHUS 

pygmxiis 267, 412 

Cerambycini, Latr. 

CERAMBYX 

^asdiiis 

*arcuatus 

*Arietis 

*coriariiis 

*lineato-collis 

moschatus 55, 209, 39'2 

*nebulosus 209 

*oculatus ib. 

*Textor 55, 209 

*violaceus 210 



169 
366 
168 
366 
366 
33 



267 

81 

153 



209 

ib. 

55 
210 
208 
209 



462 



CERASTIS, Ock. 252 
CERAllNA 

carulea 283,413 

CERAIOPHYTUM 

Latreillii 161,429 

CERCERIS 

quadr'K-inctiis 279, 415 
CERCOPIS 

sanguinoleiita 231, 394 
Cercus rufilafaris 170 

CERCYON 

laterale 

melanocephalum 



CHERMES 
Betulx AIni 

Chesnut jnoth 
barred 



362 

U 

362 
ib, 
ib 
ib, 
ib. 
ib 



minutum 

quisquilium 

simile 

sordidum 

terminatutn 

unipunctatiim 188,362 
Cereopidje, (Earn.) 230 
CERl A 
CEROPALES 

tnaculata 
Cerophytum 

roides 
CERURA 

bifida 

Furcula 



29' 



27o 



Elate- 



161 



I. 



Minax 
Viniilia 



I. 



CERYLON 
bipunctatiim 
dermestoides 
bisteroides 

CETONIA 
aurata 
l. 



398 
248,418 

439 

398 
24S, 382 

43 

39r 



231 

252, 440 

421 

, bearded 440 

, dark bfardfd ib. 

, pale bearded ib. 

, black ib. 

, dark ib. 

, flounced ib. 

, iron ib, 

, marbled 443 

— — , netted 440 

, red 36 

, veiny 440 

Chevron moth 384 

Cheyletidsp, (Earn.) 135 
Chi moth 251,432 

CHILOCORUS 

bipnstulatus 393, 438 
Cacti 215,438 

4-verruratus 393, 438 
Chilognatha, Order 115 
Chimney- sweeper , loop- 
ing 406 

— 's boy 409 

China-mark^ beautiful 426 
425 
426 
ib. 
425 
ib. 
426 
425 
426 
ib 



garden 
-, gold 
-, large 
-, lettered 
-, ringed 
-, rusty 
-, small 
-, straw 



*fasciata 
CHALCIS 

clavipes 
CHELIFER 

fasciatus 

Geoffrey i 

Hernianni 

Latreillii 

Mnsroriim 
CHELOSrOMA 

florisomne 284, 4l3 
Chequered, da' k 
CJiermes, Linne 

BetuliB 



ib. — , small straw 

206, .391 CHIRONOMUS 

I plumosiis290, 387, 437 
192, 375CIIL^NIUS 

362 festivus 151,561 

19V Chocolate T.p 37( 

j 1. 43y 

271,412: , small 382 

1. 439 



119CH0LEVA 



558 
ib. 
ib. 

372 



441 

63 

231 



agilis 
*brunnea 

oblonga 168, 

Chiistiernian Tortrix 
Chrysididae, (Fatn.) 
Cbrvsidides, Latr, 
CHRYSIS 

affinis 

*aurata 



566 
169 
365 
407 
271 
ib 

412 

a:i2 



CHRYSIS 
bidentata 
cyanea 
efliilgens 
fulgida 
ignita 
* Panzeri 
Stroudera 
CHRYSOMELA 
aucta 
Banksii 
Betulse 
*Boleti 
*buprestoides 
*caraboides 
*ceramboides 
*cerviiia 

clavicornis 
*coccinea 

coriaria 

10-notata 

10-punctata 
*eIongata 

fastuosa 

fulgida 

Goettingensis 

Graminis 

baenioptera 
*halensis 
*bemispliwrica 
*hirta 

Hyperici 

Hypochaeridis 

linibata 

l.itura 

lurid a 

marginella 

margiiiata 
*merdigera 
*oIeracea 

pallida 

polita 

Polygoni 

Populi 
*quadripunctata 

quinqueingis 

sanguinolenta 
*sericea 

staphylea 
*Tanaceti 

tenebricosa 
*testacea 

TremuJse 

unicolor 



68,419 

413 

ib. 

ib. 

272, 412 
272 
412 

369 

213,379 
379 
194 
185 
195 
jb. 
162 
379 
215 
53, 369 
393 
ib. 
165 
392 
416 
369 
392 
379 
212 
163 
196 
379 
ib. 
369 

213, 362 
393 

213, 369 
393 
53,211 
212 
379 
369 
ib. 
379 
214 
379 
369 
213 
369 
53, 212 
369 
312 
379 
593 



INDEX. 



463 



CFTRVSOMET.A 






vanans 




416 


Vitellinae 




393 


Chrysoineliclae 


(Fam.) 
211 


Chiysomelin^ 


,Latr.\[). 


CHRVSOPA 






alba 




410 


capitata 

fulvocephala 

Peria 


260 


ib. 
ib. 

410 


reticulata 




410 


CHRYSOPS 






csecutiens 


293, 


414 


CHRVSOTOXUM. 




arcuatuin 


297 


415 



CIMF.X I ,ru/oui 

\ *acuminatus 221 Ciear-under-wing 

*bi(leiis ib. Clearur.vg, Mack & 

lectulaiius,62, 223, 3941 white bordered 



*niarginatus 
•pi-asiiius 
•stagnorum 
♦tipularius 
*tipuloicles 
Cimicidae, (Fam.) 



222 

22ll 
224 

222 
223 
223 



421 
397 



397 
ib. 



Cimicides, 1. 1. Latr. 224 



CICADA 

Anglica ? 

*cornuta 

*5aDguinolenta 

viridis 
Cicadarise I. Lair. 
Cicadarise II. Lair. 
Cicadiadx (Fam.) 
Cicindela, Oliv. 
CICINDELA 

*aquatica 

campestris, 



229 
394 
23) 

ib. 

61 
229 
230 
229 
156 



57, 



148 

144, 

560 

144,387 

ib. 



Germanica 

hybrida 

sylvatica, 57, 144, 387 
-Cicindeliadae (Fam.) 144 
CILEX 

compressa 



CILTSSA 

tricincta 
CILLENUS 

lateralis 
CIMBEX 
annulata 
lO-macuIata 
europjea 
♦fascial a 
•femora ta 
Griffiiiii 
humeralis 
•lata 
inaculata 
*maFginala 
*sericea 
▼ariant 



254, 385, 
435 

281 

148, 373 

427 
ib. 
262, 427 
263 
262 
427 



1.2. Latr. 
II. Lair. 



Cinnabar moth 



248, 399 
431 
238 



Cinthia Cardui 
CIONUS 

bipusliilatus 

Ilortulanus 

immunis 

Scrophulariae 203, 391 

Thapsi ib. 

Ciron de laGiile 133 

CIS 

bidentatus 

Boleti 

concinnus 
Cisida, (Fam.) 206 

Cistela, Mar^A. 183 

, Oliv. 162 



391 
ib. 

378 



391 

206, 378 

391 



, currant 

, ftane-tipped 

red- bordered 418 
— -, red-belted 417 

, six-belled 397 

, yellow-legged ib. 

, yellow-tailed ib. 

CLEPTES 

aurata 413 

semi-aurata 271, 412 

Clems *formicarius 165 
*mollis 166 

CLITELLARIA 

Ephippiiim 292, 4l4 

CLIVINA 



CISTELA 
'angustata 

castanea 

ceramboides 

fnlvipes 

fuse a 

humeralis 

murina 

nigra 

sulphurea 
CIXIUS 

iiervosus 
CLADIUS 



1 

390 

195, 390 

ib 



*arenaria 753 

Fossor 153,361 

*gil)ba 154 

saiiguinea 365 

CLCEON 

pallida 259, 410 

CLOSTERA, Hnffm. 247 

curtula 370 

reclusa 382 

Cl tlhes molh 249 

Cloud, silver 382 

Clouded yellow B. 236,395 

429 

, pale 236, 429 

Clover moth, marbled 252, 
422- 



ib.lCLUBIONA 

ib.l atrox 
375 lapidicola 
369! Nutrix 



124 
123,360 
124, 415 



195, SPOClypeus, shields of the 

mouth 
230, 380;CLYTHRA 
4-punctata 



30 



difformis 266, 412, 427| tridentata 



214, 39$ 
393 



CLAVELLARIA 

Amerinas 411 

marginata 263, 41 1 
Clavicera, TValck. 
ib.|claws, Ungues 
Q63 Clay moth, bright 
4271 eyed 
863——, dotted 
ibJ ', ingrailed 

iT " 'I , purple 



42' 



CLYTUS 
Alni 

arcuatus 
283j Arietis 
35 mysticns 

iCnemidotu , Illig. 
42l'Coccida2, (Fam.) 
433COCCINELLA 
421 1 bis-6-guttata 
43Si •Cacti 



S9'2 

ib. 

210, 392 

392 
157 

2sa 

S9S 
215 



464 



COCClNF.T.L\ 

cong:Iobata 

Gonglouieiata ib. 

dispar 339 

12. punctata 438 

globosa 362, 438 

bicroglyphica 393 

humeralis 359 

impustulata 393 

■jiiscabilis 359 

lateralis 393 

mutabilis 429 

19-punctata 438 
oblongo-guttata 369 

ocellala 393 

]8-p;iittata 362,393 

5-punctata Sl'3, 438 

14-guttata 52,393 

l4-pustulata 393 

7-punctata 215, 359 

IC-guttata 438 

l3-punctata ib 

]1 -punctata S93 

22-punctata 362, 393, 
438 

variabilis 359 
Coccineliida;, (Fatn.) 215 
COCCUS 

Abietis 395 

Aceris ib. 

Alni ib. 

Betulae ib. 

Cacti 65, 233 

conchiformis 395 

CaprcK ib. 

Carpini ib. 

Coryli jb. 

catafractus ib. 

Fragarise ib 

fuscns ib, 

Mespili ib. 

Oxyacanthae ib. 

Persicse ib, 

Phalaridis ib 

Pilosellae ib. 

polonichus ib. 

Quercus ib. 

Salicis ib. 

Serratulae ib. 

TiliK ib. 

Ulmi ib. 

Uva-ursi ib. 

variegatus ib. 



]C'ick Rmch 
393 CoULin Tortrix 



61 
425 



Coleoptera, Lmn. 47, 216 

Marsh. 216 

characters of 

138 



l4i 



322 



Cochineal, how made, 63 



the order 

■ ^lass^fication 
of the order 

method of ar- 
ranging 

-—— method of pre- 
serving & setting 319 

open winged, 

specimens how 
set ib. 

COLLETES 

fodiens 42'"; 

succincta 280, 4 
COL! AS 

Ediisa 236, 429 

Hyale 236, 393, 429 
Colours 34 

COLOCASIA {Och.) 230 
Colydium frumenta 

rinm 208 

COL YM BETES 

abbreviatus 373 

agilis 429 

bipunctatns t. 359 
bipustuiatus ib 

colconatus 388 

eollaris 37C 

conspersus ib 

fenestratus 383 

fontinalis 415 

fuliginosus 44 

maculatus 158, 373 
Dotatus 373 

oblongus 388 

obscurus 373 

politus 365 

striatus 158, 365 

uliginosus 359 

vitreus 388 

Comma, B. 238 

Commons, near Lon- 
don 313 
Comparative anatomj', 



object of 
Cona, Schel. 
CONOCEPHALUS 

griseus 

varius 

verrucivorus 



CONOCEPHALUS 

viridissimiis 218,433 
CONORS 

aculeata 293,415 

maciocepbala 72 

Conopsarii, Latr, 298 

Ocinopsidse (Fam.) ib. 
Convex glasses, table 

of the powers of 325 
Copper, common 396, 430 

-, large 241, 417 

— — , middle 430 

,pMTjDZe-e<fg-ed24l ,430 

, scarce 24 1 

, small 241,370 

Cupper Underiuitig 432 
Coj ridK, (Fam.) 
COPRIS 

lunaris 1 88, 
Coprophagi, I. Lair. 
, 11. Lair. 



188 



36S 
188 
189 



COR DULEG ASTER 
CORDULIA 

senea 258,410 

annnlata 258, 410 

Ccreidffi, (Fam.) 221 

CORETHRA 

cuculiformis 290, 387, 
437 
CO REUS 

hirticornis 

marginatiis 

rhomboideus 
Corise, Geo . 
Corisix, I. Latr. 
,U.Latr. 



394 

222, 380 

394 

229 

220 

ib. 

CORIXA 

affinis 229, 363 

coleoptrata 228, 363 
dorsalis ib. 

fossarum ib. 

Geoffroyi 229, 363 

lateralis 228, 363 

stagnalis ib. 

striata ib. 

Cork for drawers, the 

finest and best 311 
Corking drawers, the 
74 method of ib. 

SOolCoronel mulh, 250, 400 

— : , marbled 25 1 , 400 

416,COROPHIUM 

416 longicorne 105 

438 Corpus, the body 344 







IKDEX. 








465 


Ccrtlcaria fiumen!aria208 CRAMBUS 




Crustacea for the m 


- 


oblotiga 


ib 


i Rosea 


408 


oroscope 


78 


,833 


taxicornis 


207 


j sanRuinea 386 


,437 


CRyPTOCEPHALUS 


Coryliis Avcllana, cu 




Rtrisja 


437 


bilituratus 




393 


rioiis experiments 


tRANGON 




Coryli 




ib. 


on the farina of 335 


1 vulgaris 


96 


flavilabris 




ib. 


CORYXETES 




'CRASPEDOSOMA 




labiatus 




ib. 


•riifioollis 


1 6(5 


l>ii!ydesmoides 114,358 


lineola 


53 


, 393 


CORYSI ES 




Ratijinsii 


ib. 


marginellus 




393 


cassivelanus 


83CRATERIXA 




Morjei 




ib. 


*dentatns 


ib.l Hiniiidinis 303 


,415 


nitens 




ib. 


^'orvsticlK, (Fam.) 


S2 Cream-wave, Ircad- 




pusillus 




ib. 


COSMIA, Huh. 


252 st'iped 


384 


*quadripunctatus 


214 


COSSONL'S 


, dwarf 


405 


sericeus 


213 


,593 


hypoleiicus 


416 , lesser 


423 


6-punctatus 




393 


linearis 204 


, 369, ,pale 


384 


similis 




ib. 


COSSUS 


CREOPHILUSjATtrZ'j/ns 


CRYPTOPHAGUS 




Ligniperda 246 


, 397,Crepiucularia, (Sect.)243 


cellaris 


169; 


429 


Coxa 


34!Creifw« 


420 


*crenatus 




169 


Crah, comrnon 


85 


, heauiifd 


371 


denticulatus 




429 


— , Hermit 


92 


, green-b.i?idled 


439 


hirtus 




ib. 


, King 


89 


, /. 


401 


pallens 




389 


, Oid Man's face 


83 


Crim'SMi and Gold 


S36 


phsorrhseus 




433 




92 


Crimson-speckled 


439 


Populi 




429 


——, Thcrnlack 


89 


Crimson t/ndenving 


250 


ruficollis 




438 


CRABRO 




, dark 


422 


serratus 




429 


cribarius 278 


413 


, lesser 


ib. 


Tvphse 




ib. 


*I unatus 


252 
278 


, light 


ib. 


CRYPTOPS 






Crabronidas, (Fam.) 
Crabronites, Latr. 


Criocerids, (Fam.) 


211 


hortensis 


116 


358 


;k 


Crioceris, Marsh. 


162 


Savisnii 




058 


CR.ESUS 

eeptentrionalis 266,412 
Crainbites, Lair. 254 


CRIOCERIS 

Asparagi 

*caraboides 

cvanella 


378 
J95 
392 


CRYPTORHYNCHUS 

assimilis 377 
canescens 378 
contractus 377 


CRAMBUS 




12 -punctata 


ib. 


dentatus 




ib. 


acinacidea 


409 


flavicollis 


ib. 


Erysimi 


203, 


391 


arbonun 


408 


*flavipes 


212 


globosus 




377 


Cardui 


ib. 


melanopa 


416 


horridus 




ib. 


carnea 


ib. 


merdigera 21 1, 


392 


inBexus 




378 


caudea 


409 


*n!gricornis 


212 


Lapathi 




377 


cespitis 


408 


puncticollis 


416 


leucogaster 




ib. 


consorta 


ib. 


subspinosa 


392 


Lythri 




ib. 


culmorum 


ib. 


Crocisa atra 


286 


melanorhynch 


us 


378 


cultrea 


409 Crustacea, anatomical ] 


melanostictus 




377 


falsa 


4371 view of the 


75 


obstrictus 




ib. 


geniculea 


408 , history 


76 


ovalis 




ib. 


gigantea 


ib.j , method of 




pleurostigma 




ib. 


hortorum 


ib.' collecting 


516 


phsorhynchus 




ib. 


ocellea 


364 






plinoides 




ib. 




pascuea 


437 preserving 


ib. 


Quercicola 




ib. 


petrificia 


408 , pins used for 309j 


rnber 




378 


Pineti 255, 


408 — i , writers on th 


e 76 


sulciilus 




377 


pinguinalis 


255 , ciassilication 


of 


Urticae 




ib. 


Pratonira 


403 


the 


78 


viduHs 




ib 



2 G 



460 



INDEX. 



dyptiis, Fabr 
CRYPT US 
*farcatus 
♦Irrorator 
pallipes 
Villersii 
Crjstals, metliod of 
obtaining, for the 
microscope 

of Camphor 

of Salt 

of Silver 



269 CYCLOPS, Geoff. 
*quadricornis 

264CYDNUS 

270 oleracens 
411 Cymindis, Gijll. 

264,41: CYMINDIS 

humeral is 154, 

[CYMODICE 
371 truni'ata 
ib. Cymothea serrata 
ib.CYMOTHOA 
ib. (Estrum 

Cymothoadie, (Fa\n.) 



81 



Dart moth,square-spoti'i\ 



CTENOPHORA 

atrata 291, 587, 437JCYNIPS 
CUCULLI A,^f /iranA:. 252 caprsea 271, 

CULEX *Qiiercus folii 67, 



pipiens 71, 


290, 


359 


*scutellaris 


CURCULIO 






Cynipsera, Latr. 


*AIismatis 




204 


Cynipsidje, (Fam.) 


*Alni 




203 


CYPHA, Ktrhtj 


argentatus 


202, 


377 


CYPRIS 


*aterrim»s 




204 


conchacea 


*binodulus 




ib. 


Cyphon hemispha?ri- 


en ides 




377 


cus 


*Coryli 




201 


pallidas 


*Equiseti 




204 


Cypris pubera 


*Germanus 




203 


CYTHERE 


*granarius 




204 


viridis 


* hispid ulus 




ib. 


Dacne humeralis 


*incanus 




205 


DacLis, Fabr, 


♦linearis 




204 


Dagger moth, autum' 


*lineatus 




ib. 


nal 


Mali 




577 


, dark 


*niger 




204 


, light 


*nigroros