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Full text of "An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants"

AN ENUMERATION OF 
PHILIPPINE FLOWERING PLANTS 



BY 



ELMER D. MERRILL 

DIRECTOR AND BOTANIST. BUREAU OF SCIENCE 



VOLUME 




on**** 

, v i»E^ 



200823 



MANILA 

BUREAU OF PRINTING 

1925 



4/x. 



Government of the Philippine Islands 

Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources 

Bureau of Science 

Manila 

PUBLICATION No. 18, VOLUME 1 

DATES OF ISSUE 

Fascicle 1, pages 1 to 128, January 3, 1923. 

2, pages 129 to 240, January 3, 1923. 

3, pages 241 to 368, December 29, 1924. 

4, pages 369 to 463, April 7, 1925. 



PREFACE 

The object of the present work is to enumerate the known 
species of flowering plants occurring in the Philippines; to ad- 
just the synonymy; to account for all binomials accredited to 
the Philippines in botanical literature; to give the most im- 
portant literature references, especially to the special Philippine 
publications and to the important extra-Philippine ones; to re- 
cord the numerous local names for the various species; to give 
the habitat, occurrence, altitudinal range, Philippine distribu- 
tions, and approximate extra-Philippine distribution of each 
species admitted; to cite illustrative specimens when necessary 
or expedient, especially in critical groups; in brief, to sum- 
marize in convenient form for consultation our present knowl- 
edge of the Philippine flora. 

When publication of this work was commenced in 1921, it 
was planned to issue it in three volumes, of four or five fascicles 
each. As publication progressed, it was found necessary to 
abandon the plan of issuing the work in three volumes and the 
inclusion of the extensive introductory data in the prefatory part 
of the present volume and to add a fourth volume to contain the 
general introduction, bibliography, and indices to local and 
scientific names. In the individual volumes of the actual enu- 
meration merely brief indices have been included covering the 
family and generic names that appear in each volume. Complete 
indices to the entire work form a part of volume 4. 

In the arrangement of families and of genera the sequence in 
general follows the Engler and Prantl system, but for con- 
venience in indexing and in consulting the species have been 
arranged alphabetically under their respective genera. While 
an attempt has been made to compare the very numerous species 
within each genus with each other and also with extra-Philippine 
representatives of the same genera, so far as material has been 
available, much critical work remains to be done; and future 
studies must of necessity modify the enumeration, not only as 
to the validity of numerous admitted species but also as to ques- 
tions of synonymy and geographic distribution. It should be 
remembered that most of the actual work has been accomplished 
on the basis of the material and the literature available in Manila, 

iii 



iv PREFACE 

and that the local botanical library and the herbarium date only 
from 1902. While the library is a very excellent working unit, 
especially for the Indo-Malaysian region, it is far from complete, 
although practically all the publications appertaining especially 
to the Philippine flora are represented. The herbarium, con- 
taining upward of 250,000 mounted specimens, is especially 
rich in Philippine material, and contains few local collections 
made previous to 1902, except a series of approximately 1,200 
numbers from Cuming's collections, made between 1836 and 
1840, and a fairly large set of duplicates representing War- 
burg's collections. However, nearly all species described from 
the Philippines of which the types are extant are represented 
in the herbarium by types, cotypes, fragments of authentic speci- 
mens, photographs or sketches of types, or by critically com- 
pared specimens. Types of none of the species described by 
Blanco in his Flora de Filipinas, few of those described by 
Llanos, or the few described by F.-Villar and Naves are extant. 
The Blanco and Llanos species have been critically considered 
in a special publication.* 

The extra-Philippine collections are relatively extensive, the 
herbarium being rich in material from surrounding regions, 
received in exchange and by collection, from Formosa, China, 
Indo-China, India, Ceylon, Burma, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas, New Guinea, New 
Caledonia, Australia, the Marianne and the Caroline Islands, and 
Polynesia. 

Some idea of the extent and the value of the extra-Philippine 
botanical material available in the herbarium of the Bureau 
of Science may be had from the following data: From India, 
Burma, Siam, Indo-China, and the Malay Peninsula, more or 
less extensive collections are available from material secured by 
the following collectors and botanists: Burkill, Buchanan-Ham- 
ilton, Burn-Murdoch, Balansa, Bon, Cave, Clarke, Craib, Curtis, 
Debeaux, Foxworthy, Eberhardt, 'Harmand, Gamble, Godefroy, 
Hole, Hooker f . and Thomson, Jacquemont, Kurz, Kunstler, King, 
King's collectors, Kerr, Kloss, Meebold, Petelot, Pierre, Prazer, 
Rock, Robinson, Ridley, Shaik Mokim, Talmy, Thorel, Thwaites, 
Walker, Wallich, Wight, and Wray. The flora of China, Japan, 
and Formosa is well represented by collections made by the fol- 
lowing individuals: Bodinier, Callery, Cavalerie, Chun, Chung, 

* Merrill, E. D., Species Blancoanae: A critical revision of the Phil- 
ippine species of plants described by Blanco and by Llanos, Bur. Sci. Publ. 
12 (1918) 1-423, map. 



PREFACE V 

Clemens, Dunn, Ducloux, Delavay, Farges, Faurie, Ford, Groff, 
Henry, Hu, Ito, Kanehira, Katsumacla, Kawakami, Levine, Na- 
kahira, Merrill, McClure, Maire, Steward, Sasaki, Taquet, 
Ts'oong, Tutcher, Wilson, and Wichura. The flora of some parts 
of the Malay Archipelago is particularly well represented by 
botanical material from the following collectors and botanists : 
Achmad, Agama, Amdjah, Backer, Backhuizen, Blume, Beguin, 
Beccari, Bartlett, Bunnenmeyer, Clemens, Elmer, Forbes, Fox- 
worthy, Gjellerup, Hallier, Haniff, Hose, Kloss, Koorders, Kor- 
thals, C. King, La Rue, Lorzing, Mousset, Moulton, Nieuwenhuis, 
Ramos, Robinson, Raciborski, Schlechter, Teysmann, Topping, 
Versteeg, Villamil, Warburg, Winkler, Wood, and Yates. The 
flora of some parts of Polynesia is fairly well represented by 
collections made by the following individuals : Heller, Hombron, 
Le Batard, Le Guillou, McGregor, Nelson, Setchell, Thompson, 
Vaupel, Vesco, and Volkens. The flora of New Caledonia is 
particularly well represented by an extensive series of collec- 
tions made by the following individuals : Balansa, Cribs, De- 
planche, Franc, Germain, Lecard, Le Rat, Pancher, and Vieillard. 
The duplicates of botanical material secured by the older 
collectors have in large part been obtained in exchange from 
European botanical institutions, notably the British Museum 
(Natural History), the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, the Paris 
Museum of Natural History, the Berlin Botanic Garden, and the 
Rijks Herbarium, Leyden; thus, from the Berlin institution 
more than 8,000 specimens have been secured; from the Paris 
Museum, more than 12,000 specimens; from the British Museum, 
about 6,000 specimens; and from the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, 
3,500 specimens. An extensive series of exchanges has been 
carried on with botanic institutions in different parts of India, 
Malaysia, and Australia; more than 12,000 specimens from the 
Malay Archipelago have been received from the Buitenzorg 
Botanic Garden in Java, about 5,000 specimens from the Malay 
Peninsula have been received from the Botanic Garden at Sin- 
gapore, and the Australian flora is represented by somewhat over 
10,000 specimens secured in exchange with various botanic insti- 
tutions in Australia. The large exchanges received from the 
Paris Museum have been particularly rich in material from Indo- 
China, China, and New Caledonia ; the material from the British 
Museum has been largely from British India, with miscellaneous 
collections from China and New Guinea; the material received 
from the Edinburgh Botanic Garden has been largely from India 
and China. The large amount of extra-Philippine material from 



Vi PREFACE 

regions surrounding the Philippines has been invaluable for pur- 
poses of direct comparison in the prosecution of our work on the 
Philippine flora. 

Botanical exploration under the auspices of the Bureau of 
Science has been confined largely to the Philippines, but members 
of our staff have prosecuted field work in China (Merrill), Indo- 
China (Robinson), Borneo (Foxworthy, Ramos), Amboina (Rob- 
inson), and Guam (McGregor). Large collections have been 
submitted for identification from various parts of China, For- 
mosa, Hainan, Indo-China, Burma, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Java, Borneo, New Guinea, Guam, Samoa, and Tahiti. 

No attempt has been made to cite all the collections and 
numbers, as this procedure would have added enormously to 
the extent of the present publication and would have added 
very little to its value. In general, well-known and widely 
distributed species are merely enumerated with their synonyms, 
occurrence, distribution, etc., without the citation of specimens. 
In critical groups selected representative specimens only are 
cited. Generally speaking, when only one or two collections 
are cited under a species these represent the only collections 
extant. It should be noted that in approximately 1,800 cases 
Philippine records for individual species are based solely on 
single collections, while in about 900 additional cases individual 
species records are based on two collections only. This will 
give some idea of the great amount of work still remaining 
to be done before we can hope to have a reasonably complete 
knowledge of the very rich Philippine flora. Collections cited 
in parentheses — for example, (Warburg 14231) , (Loher 4-250) — 
indicate specimens not examined by me during the actual prep- 
aration of this work, although most of these were seen by me 
in various European herbaria in 1907 and 1908. 

While most of the identifications on which this enumeration 
is based have been made by me, in certain groups much of 
this work in earlier years was done by former botanists con- 
nected with the Bureau of Science; notably, the late Dr. C. B. 
Robinson (Myrtaceae, Urticaceae, and certain groups of Euphor- 
biaceae, especially) and Dr. F. W. Foxworthy (Dipterocarpa- 
ceae and Taxaceae) . Mr. Oakes Ames has made practically all 
of the identifications of the Orchidaceae since 1903. Many of 
the Pandanaceae have been determined by Dr. U. Martelli, while 
most of the Palmae were identified by the late Dr. O. Beccari. 
Many identifications in the Gramineae were made by Dr. E. 
Hackel, especially previous to 1907 ; while in the Cyperaceae the 
Bureau of Science has had the benefit of the extensive knowledge 



PREFACE Vll 

of the late Mr. C. B. Clarke and of the Rev. G. Kukenthal. The 
Araceae have been largely identified by Dr. A. Engler, and the 
Dioscoreaeeae by Sir David Prain and Mr. I. H. Burkill. The 
Piperaceae have largely been identified by the late Dr. C. de Can- 
dolle. Dr. L. Diels has named many of the Menispermaceae. 
Dr. J. Perkins in addition to her general work on earlier collec- 
tions in various families has identified many of the Monimiaceae. 
The late Mr. 0. Focke has named or examined many of the 
Rubus specimens. Practically all of the Sapindaceae have been 
named or examined by Dr. L. Radlkofer. The Impatiens mate- 
rial was named by the late Sir J. D. Hooker. Many of the Sym- 
plocaceae were determined by Dr. A. Brand. Dr. R. Schlechter 
has identified or examined most of the species of Asclepiadaceae. 
Dr. F. Kranzlin accomplished considerable work on the Ges- 
neriaceae. The late Mr. C. B. Clarke identified numerous 
representatives of the Acanthaceae. Numerous individual iden- 
tifications and comparisons with type material have been made 
by other botanists in various European countries, the United 
States, Japan, Java, Singapore, India, and Australia. 



NEW YORK BOTANICAL 

GARDEN, LIBRARY, 
Given by N, L. BRIJTON, 

AN ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE 
FLOWERING PLANTS 

By Elmer D. Merrill 
Director and Botanist, Bureau of Science 

GYMNOSPERMAE 

CYCADACEAE 

1. CYCAS Linnaeus 

CYCAS CAIRNSIANA F.-Muell. Fragm. 10 (1876-77) 63? 

Cycas sp. Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 151. 
Culion, Merrill 657. In open grasslands at low altitudes. A curious 
species, of which only the leaves are known, perhaps representing the above 
Australian species. 

CYCAS REVOLUTA Thunb. PL Jap. (1784) 229; A. DC. Prodr. 16 2 
(1868) 526; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 212; Vidal Cat. PI. Prov. 
Manila (1880) 46; Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 151; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 65. 

A native of China and Japan, introduced into the Philippines for orna- 
mental purposes and now occasionally cultivated in Manila and in other 
large towns in the Archipelago. It never produces flowers or fruits in 
the Philippines so far as our records show. 

Local name: Oliva (Sp.). 

CYCAS RUMPHM Miq. in Bull. Soc. Phys. Nat. Neerl. (1839) 45; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1880) 212; Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 74, 

Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 52. 
Cycas circinculis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 745, ed. 2 (1845) 513, ed. 3, 3 

(1879) 146; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 212; Vidal Sinopsis Atlas 

(1883) 43, t. 99; Warb. Monsunia (1900) 178; Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 24, 3 (1908) Bot. 394, Fl. Manila 

(1912) 65; Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 151 (non 

Linn.?). 
Cycas riuminiana Porte ex Regel in Gartenflora 12 (1863) 16, fig., 

111. Hort. 28 (1881) 32; A. DC. Prodr. 16 2 (1868) 528; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1880) 212. 

Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Chiefly 
along or near the seashore, sometimes in forests ; of rather local occurrence. 
Malaya to Polynesia. 

.The common coastal form may not be specifically distinct from C. circi- 
nalis Linn. A form from the forests of Mt. Mariveles {Merrill 3257, Whit- 
ford 269, 1325, etc.), with small <$ cones and small fruits may be specifically 
distinct. A second form from Mindoro and Batangas with small fruits 
may also be distinct (B. S. 22391 Ramos). 

183036 1 



2 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Local names: Bait (Sul.) ; bayit (Yak.); bitogo (Tag.); oliva (Sp.) ; 
patubo (Tag.) ;, patugo (Tag.); pitogo (Tag.); pitugo (P. Bis.); sauang 
(Ilk.); uliba (Tag.). 

CYCAS sp. Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 152, t. 27. 

Palawan, F. B. 3842 Curran. Leaves like those of C. rumphii Miq., but 
the J 1 cones are entirely different. Probably an undescribed species. 

TAXACEAE 

1. PODOCARPUS L'Heritier 

PODOCARPUS AMARUS Blume Enum. PL Jav. (1827) 88, Rumphia 3 
(1847) 213, 1. 170; Pilger in Engl. Pflanzenreich 18 (1903) 68, /. B, 
A-D, Warb. Monsunia (1900) 192; Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 
(1911) Bot. 159. 
Podocarpus euryncha Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1859) 1074; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1880) 211. 

Luzon (Benguet, Lepanto), Mindoro, Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11682, 
Merrill 5703,, F. B. 10895, 10951 Curran, 18356 Alvarez, 18029 Merritt. In 
the mossy forest, altitude 1,600 to 2,400 m. Java, Sumatra, Lombok; also 
reported from tropical Australia. 

Local names: Pasuig (Ig.) ; tumpis (Bag.). 

PODOCARPUS BLUMEI Endl. Syn. (1847) 208; Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 J 
(1868) 508; Pilger in Engl. Pflanzenreich 18 (1903) 60; Merr. in 
Govt. Lab. (Philip.) Publ. 17 (1904) 5, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 24, 2 (1907) Bot. 258; Foxw. op. cit. 6 (1911) Bot. 158. 
Podocarpus latifolius Blume Enum. PL Jav. (1827) 89; C. B. Rob. in 
Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 35 (1908) 63, non R. Br. (1825). 

Luzon (Cagayan, Apayao, Bataan), Mindoro, Sibuyan, Panay, Samar. 
Whitford 1353, Williams 399, 753, 1035, Merrill 5728, Elmer 12360, B. S. 
28348 Fenix, F. B. 23937, 23918, 23940 Cortes & Knapp, 25949 Knapp, 16738, 
17200, 17616 Curran, 20888 Hinoban, 194, 147 Barnes. In primary forests, 
altitude 300 to 1,800 m. Java, Moluccas, Celebes, New Guinea. 

Local name: Makopula (P. Bis.). 

PODOCARPUS BREVIFOLIUS (Stapf) Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 
(1911) Bot. 160, t. 29, f. 2. 
Podocarpus neriifolius Don var. brevifolia Stapf in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
Bot. 4 (1894) 249; Pilger in Engl. Pflanzenreich 18 (1903) 93. 

Luzon (Zambales),, Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 5002 Ramos, 38500 
Ramos & Edano, F. B. 9511 Curran & Merritt. In elfinwood on exposed 
ridges, altitude 2,000 m. Borneo. 

PODOCARPUS COSTAL IS Presl. Epim. (1849) 236, p.p. quoad spec. Haenke; 
Walp. Ann. 3 (1852-53) 448; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 211; Miq. 
FL Ind. Bat. 2 (1859) 1074; Ceron Cat. PL Herb. (1892) 187; Warb. 
Monsunia (1900) 193; Pilger in Engl. Pflanzenreich 18 (1903) 161; 
Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 161. 
Podocarpus sp. Vidal Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 43, t. 97, f. D. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Haenke, Merrill 7506, Loher 2140, 7128, B. S. t ■ 
19581 Ramos, 2393, 2423 Foxworthy, F. B. 7913 Curran & Merritt. In 
the mossy forest on Mt. Banahao, altitude 1,700 to 2,200 m. Endemic. \ 



Vol. i TAX ACE AE 3 

PODOCARPUS GLAUCUS Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 258, 
6 (1911) Bot. 159, t. 29, f. 1. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5672. Border of an open heath on Mt. Halcon, altitude 
about 2,400 m. Endemic. 

PODOCARPUS JAVANICUS (Burm. f.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 19 
(1921) 338. 
Thuja ? javanica Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 202, t. 64, f. 8. 
Podocarpus imbricatus Blume Enum. PI. Jav. (1827) 89; Pilger in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich 18 (1903) 56; Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 
(1911) Bot. 157; W. H. Br. op. cit. 12 (1917) Bot. 317, t. 17. 
Podocarpus cupressina R. Br. ex Mirb. in Mem. Mus. Paris 13 (1825) 
75, nomen nudum; Benn. PL Jav. Rar. (1838) 35, t. 10; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 2 (1859) 1074; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 211; Vidal Sinopsia 
Atlas (1883) 43, t. 97, f. B, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 160, Rev. 
PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 295; Warb. Monsunia (1900) 191. 
Podocarpus cumingii Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 (1868) 521. 
Nageia cumingii O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 800. 
Podocarpus imbricatus Blume var. cumingii Pilger in Engl. Pflanzen- 
reich 18 (1903) 56, Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 44; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 324. 
Luzon (Abra, Lepanto, Bontoc, Benguet, Zambales, Tayabas), Mindoro, 
Negros, Panay, Mindanao. Common on the higher mountains in the mossy 
forest, altitude 1,300 to 2,500 m. Burma to Indo-China, Sumatra, Java, 
Borneo, Celebes, Timor, and New Guinea. 

Local names: Apilum (Buk.) ; baginsoloi (Ting.); banyas (Mang.) ; 
dionai (Sub.) ; haluko (Ig.) ; iguem (Ig.) ; igum (Ig.) ; rorogongon (Lan.) ; 
sar ambrum (Bag.). 

PODOCARPUS NERIIFOLIUS Don in Lamb. Pin. (1824) 21; Pari, in DC 
Prodr. 16 2 (1868) 514; Pilger in Engl. Pflanzenreich 18 (1903) 80, 
Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 44; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 
(1906) Suppl. 24, 2 (1907) Bot. 258; Foxw. op. cit. 6 (1911) Bot. 
162 (incl. var. brevipes Blume). 

Luzon (Abra, Benguet, Tayabas), Polillo, Mindoro, Sibuyan, Mindanao, 
Jolo, Merrill 1992, 5768, 5615, F. B. 25285 Somonte, 26834 Hirro, 10894., 
10826 Curran, 14422 Darling, B. S. 25522 Yates, 10779 McGregor. In 
primary forests at low and medium altitudes. India to southern China 
through Malaya to New Guinea. 

Local names: Dilang-butiki (Tag.); pasuik (Ig.). 

PODOCARPUS PHILIPPINENSIS Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 
Bot. 163, t. SO. 
Podocarpus rumphii Foxw. op. cit. 6 (1911) Bot. 164, non Blume. 
Luzon (Ilocos Sur, Bataan, Pampanga), Mindoro, B. S. 1660, 5174, 10844 
' Foxworthy, F. B. 27786, 13253 Paraiso, 17523; 17594, 6326, 6325, 6537, 
7512, 8987, 17664, 17723 Curran, 2743 Borden, Merrill 5553, 3917. In 
primary forests, altitude 400 to 800 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Kasirai (Ilk.). 

PODOCARPUS PILGERI Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 259, 
6 (1911) Bot. 160. 
Podocarpus celebicus Warb. Monsunia (1900) 192; Pilger in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 18 (1903) 78, non HemsL. (1896). 



4 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Mindoro, Negros, Mindanao (Agusan, Misamis), Merrill 5754, Phil. PL 
241, Elmer 14086, F. B. 4673 Mearns & Hutchinson. In the mossy forest 
on the higher mountains, altitude 1,400 to 2,500 m. Celebes. 

Local names: Lubang-lubang (Mbo.) ; tambiayang (Bag.). 

PODOCARPUS POLYSTACHYUS R. Br. ex Mirb. in Mem. Mus, Paris 13 
(1825) 75; Endl. Syn. (1847) 215; Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 (1868) 
515; Pilger in Engl. Pflanzenreich 18 (1903) 79;, Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 394; Foxw. op. cit. 6 (1911) Bot. 161. 
Batan Islands, Luzon (Ilocos Norte), Palawan, Bueas, B. S. 27146 Ramos, 
26902 Edano, 3586 Fenix, 20771 Escritor, 13202 Foxworthy & Ramos, 904 
Foxworthy, F. B. 24264 Bernardo,, 3854 Curran, Merrill 5268. In forests 
at low and medium altitudes, sometimes along the seashore. Malay Penin- 
sula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo. 
Local name: Bantigi (Neg.). 

2. DACRYDIUM Solander 

DACRYDIUM ELATUM (Roxb.) Wall, in Hook. Journ. Bot. 2 (1843) 144, 
t. 2; Blume Rumphia 3 (1847) 221, t. 172 B, f. 1, t. 172 C, f. 2; de 
Boer Conif. Archip. Ind. (1868) 29; Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 
(1868) 494; Rendle in Journ. Bot. 34 (1896) 355; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 257; Pilger in Engl. Pflanzenreich 18 
(1903) 51; Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 154. 
Juniperus elata Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 838. 

Luzon (Nueva Ecija), Mindoro, Negros, Panay, Mindanao, B. S. 26510, 
34497 Ramos & Pascasio, F. B. 4547, 4548, 4731 Mearns & Hutchinson, 
4227 Everett, 4419, 8527 Merritt, 13612, 13621 Curran & Foxworthy, Mer- 
rill 5789. Chiefly in the mossy forest, altitude 1,200 to 2,400 m. on the east 
coast of Mindanao occurring as low as 200 m. Indo-China, Malay Penin- 
sula, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes. 

Local names: Hamo-hamo (Neg.); hinubayan (Buk.) ; lokinai (Sub.); 
magliging ( Mbo. ) . 

DACRYDIUM FALCIFORME (Pari.) Pilger in Engl. Pflanzenreich 18 
(1903) 45; 'Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 257; Foxw. 
op. cit. 6 (1911) Bot. 153, t. 28, f. 1. 
Podocarpus falciformis Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 (1868) 685; Rendle in 

Journ. Bot. 34 (1896) 355;, Warb. Monsunia (1900) 193. 
Nageia falciformis O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 800. 

Luzon (Nueva Ecija), Mindoro, Panay, Mindanao (Davao, Surigao), 
F. B. 27746 Cruz, 4425 Merritt, 26478 Mallonga, 26394 Ramos & Edano, 
Merrill 5744. Chiefly in the mossy forest, altitude 1,000 to 2,000 m. Bor- 
neo, Malay Peninsula, Lingga. 

Local name: Binaton (Mbo.); magibus (C. Bis.); maradayonit (Neg.). 

3. PHYLLOCLADUS L. C. and A. Richard 

PHYLLOCLADUS HYPOPHYLLUS Hook. f. Ic. 9 (1852) t. 889; Carr. 
Conif. (1867) 706; Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 (1868) 499; Pilger in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich 18 (1903) 99. 
Phyllocladus protractus Pilger in Engl. Pflanzenreich 18 (1903) 99, 
Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 44; Foxw. ex Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 259, 6 (1911) Bot. 165, t. 31. 



VoL x PINACEAE 5 

Phyllocladus hypophyllus Hook. f. var. protracta Warb. Monsunia 
(1911) 194. 

Luzon (Isabela, Abra, Ifugao, Lepanto, Bontoc, Benguet), Mindoro, 
Mindanao (Bukidnon, Lanao, Misamis, Davao), Merrill 4753, 5788, Loher 
5203, Elmer 1U63, F. B. 27235 Niebert, 18364, 18567 Alvarez, 10.957 Cur- 
ran, 14587 Darling, 4679 Mearns & Hutchinson, B. S. 37757, 38738 Ramos & 
Edano. In the mossy forest on the higher mountains, altitude 1,200 to 
2,400 m. Borneo. 

The supposed differences between P. protractus Pilger and P. hypophyllus 
Hook. f. break down entirely on comparison of a large series of Kinabalu 
and Philippine specimens. 

Local names: Aransisingit (Ig.) ; dalung (Ting.); galingkinga (Sub.); 
salumayag (Bag.)". 

4. TAX US Linnaeus 

TAXUS WALLICHIANA Zucc. in Abh. Bayr. Akad. Wiss. 3 (1843) 803, 
t. 5; Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bbt. 166. 

Taxus baccata Linn, subsp. wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilger in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 18 (1903) 112, Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 44. 

Taxus baccata, Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 324, non 
Linn. 

Cephalotaxus mannii Rendle 1 in Journ. Bot. 34 (1896) 355, non Hook. f. 

Luzon (Benguet, Lepanto, Laguna, Tayabas). In the mossy forest, 
altitude 2,000 to 2,600 m; south of the Mountain Province known in the 
Philippines only from Mt. Banahao; represented by numerous collections. 
India to Burma, Sumatra and Celebes. 

Local name: Amugauen (Ig.). 

PINACEAE 
1. AGATHIS Salisbury 

AGATHIS ALBA (Lam.) Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Gen. Sci. 173, 

6 (1911) Bot. 167; Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 76, Sp. 

Blancoanae (1918) 52. 
Dammara alba Lam. Encycl. 2 (1786) 259; Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 a 

(1868) 374. 
Agathis loranthifolia Salisb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 8 (1807) 311; 

Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 528, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 170; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1880) 211; Vidal Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 43, t. 98, 

/. A, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 160, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 

295. 
Dammara rumphii Presl Epim. (1851) 236. 
Podocarpus philippeanus Benth. ex Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 (1868) 

375, in syn. 
Agathis philippinensis Warb. Monsunia (1900) 185, Perk. Frag. Fl. 

Filip. (1904) 36; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 24, 2 

(1907) Bot. 257. 
Agathis borneensis Warb., beccarii Warb., celebica Warb. et macros- 

tachys Warb. Monsunia (1900) 184, 185. 

Babuyan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in 
most islands and provinces. Always in the primary forest, chiefly at 
medium and higher altitudes ; represented by over 60 individual collections. 
Indo-China through the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago to the Moluccas. 



6 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Local names: Adiangau (Bik.) ; alinsago (Ig.) ; almaciga (Sp.) ; alin- 
tagau (Ig.) ; aninga (Ig.) ; anano (S. L. Bis.); anting (Neg.) ; aringa 
(Klg.); bagtik (Kuy.) ; balau (C. Bis.); baltik (Tagb.) ; bidiangau (P. 
Bis.) ; badiangau (P. Bis.) ; biayo (Bis.) ; bunsog (Ig.) ; buntog (Ig.) ; 
dadiangau (C. Bis., Tag.) ; dadungoi (Bik.) ; dinar (Bag.) ; gala-gala (Tag., 
Tagb.) ; ladiangau (Bik., Tag.) ; makau (C. Bis.) ; olinsago (Ig.) ; salang 
(Neg.) ; saleng (Neg.) ; salong (Tag., Bik.) ; titau (Ting.) ; uli (Sbl.) ; 
uningat (Ilk.). 

2. PIN US Linnaeus 

PINUS INSULARIS Endl. Syn. Conif. (1847) 157; Presl Epim. (1851) 
37; Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 (1868) 390; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 
212; Vidal Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 43, t. 98, f. C, Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 160, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 296; Merr. in For"est. 
Bur. (Philip.) Bull. 1 (1903) 15, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 
(1904) 6, Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 325, Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 53;, Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot 170; Shaw 
Gen. Pinus (1914) 60, t. 23, f. 208-210. 
Pinus taeda Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 767, ed. 2 (1845) 528, ed. 3, 3 

(1879) 169, t. 453, non Linn. 
Pinus insularis X merkusii Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 35. 
Pinus kasya Royle ex Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 (1868) 390; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1880) 212; Merr. in Forest. Bur. (Philip.) Bull. 1 
(1903) ; 15 (khasya). 
Luzon (Ifugao, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija) . 
The dominant species in the Mountain Province, its altitudinal range being 
from about 1,000 to 2,700 m. Burma and Indo-China. 

Local names: Alal (Ig.) ; balibo (Ig.) ; bariat (Bon.); bata (Bon.); 
batang (Bon.) ; bebe (Bon.) ; bolbol (Ig.) ; bubu (Ig.) ; bulbul (Ig.) ; olol 
(Ig.) ; parua (Ilk.) ; sahing (Tag.) ; saleng (Bon., Ilk., Ig., Ting.) ; salit 
(Sbl.); talang (Gad.); tapulau (Sbl.). 

PINUS MERKUSII Jungh. & DeVr. in PL Nov. Ind. Bat. Orient. 5 (1845) 
t. 2, Bot. Zeit. 4 (1846) 13; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1859) 1069; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1880) 211; Vidal Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 43, t. 98, f. B, 
Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 296; Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 35; 
Merr. in Forest. Bur. (Philip.) Bull. 1 (1903) 15, Govt. Lab. Publ. 
(Philip.) 6 (1904) 6; Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 
169; Shaw Gen. Pinus (1914) 58, t. 23, f. 198-200. 

Luzon (Zambales), Mindoro. Very similar to P. insularis Endl. but with 
only two leaves in a fascicle instead of three; in places it occurs as low as 
100 m altitude. Burma, Indo-China, Sumatra, ? Borneo. 

Local names: Agu (Mang.) ; aguu (Mang.) ; salit (Sbl.) ; salong (Sbl.) ; 
tapulau (Sbl.). * 

The following species of Pinaceae have been credited 'to the Philippines, 
but are all introduced and but rarely cultivated and have no claims to be 
considered as representatives of the Philippine flora: 

Araucaria Excelsa R. Br.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 211. 

This does not thrive in the Philippines and never reaches maturity here. 

Cupressus torulosa Don; F.-Vill. 1. c. 

This is rarely cultivated and is commonly known by its Spanish name 
cipres. 



Vi >V GNETACEAE 7 

Juniperus OCCIDENTALIS Hook. ; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 134. 
Cultivated according to Usteri; I have seen no specimens. 

GNETACEAE 
1. GNETUM Linnaeus 

GNETUM ARBOREUM Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 174, t. 32. 

Luzon (Rizal, Nueva Ecija, Tayabas), B. S. 9439 Robinson, 29635, 26388 
Ramos & Edano. In the mossy forest, altitude about 900 m. Endemic. 

"■ Additional collections show this to> be a vine, not a tree, as Robinson 
and Foxworthy supposed. 

^ Local name: Lapihgat (Neg.). 

GNETUM GNEMON Linn. Mant. 1 (1867) 125; Blume Rumphia 4 (1848) 

3, t. 176, 178 B, f. 5; Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 (1868) 349; Blanco 

Fl. Filip. (1837) 747, ed. 2 (1845) 514, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 147; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1880) 210; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 160, 

'Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 295; Karsten in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 

11 (1893) 203; Merr. Forestry Bur. (Philip.) Bull. 1 (1903) 16, 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 24, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 53; 

Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 173. 

Gnetum vinosum Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 7 (1915) 2673. 

Luzon (Uocos Norte, Bataan, Batangas, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines) , 

Mindoro, Palawan, Sibuyan, Panay, Samar, Leyte, Siargao, Bucas Grande, 

Mindanao. In forests at low and medium altitudes. Tropical Africa and 

Asia through Malaya to New Guinea. 

Local names: Babayong (Sub.); bago (Buk., Bik., Bag., C. Bis., Mbo., 

Tag.) ; bago-sili (C. Bis.) ; banago (Bis.) ; kugitis (Mbo.) ; kuman (Mand.) ; 

lamparan (Tag.); magatungal (Mag.); nabo (Bik.). 

GNETUM GNEMONOIDES Brongn. in Duperry Voy. Bot. (1829) 12; Merr. 
Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 78. 
Gnetum rumphianum Becc. Malesia 1 (1877) 182. 
Gnetum verrucosum Karst. in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 11 (1893) 216. 
Funis gnemoniformis Rumph. Herb. Amb. 5 (1747) 12, t. 8. 

Luzon (Tayabas, east coast), Basilan, B. S. 154.96 Reillo, 29096 Ramos 
& Edano. In forests at low or medium altitudes. Moluccas, New Guinea. 

GNETUM INDICUM (Lour.) Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 77, Sp. 

Blancoanae (1918) 53. 
Abutua indica Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 630. 
Gnetum funicular e Brongn. in Duperry Voy. Bot. (1829) 12; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 2 (1859) 1068; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 211. 
Gnetum latifolium Blume Fam. Nov. (1833) 30, Rumphia 4 (1848) 5, 

t. 174; Presl Epim. (1851) 236; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1859) 1067; 

Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 (1868) 350; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 

210*; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 160, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 295, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 42, t. 97, f. A; Warb. Monsunia 

(1900) 195; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 25; Foxw. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 174. 
Thoa pendula Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 746. 
Thoa edulis Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 514, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 146, 

non Willd. 



/ 



8 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Gnetum philippinense Warb. Monsunia (1900) 196. 

Gnetum scandens F.-Vill. No vis. App. (1880) 211, non Roxb. • 

Gnetum laxifrutescens Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 4 (1912) 1478. 

Luzon (Cagayan to Sorsogon), Mindoro, Palawan, iSibuyan, Panay, 
Leyte, Samar, Siargao, Mindanao. In forests at low and medium altitudes; 
distinctly variable in vegetative characters. Represented by very numerous 
collections. India to southern China and Malaya. 

Local names: Bias (Tag.); bias-bias (Tag.); bulso (Buk.) ; dadaotum 
(Mbo.) ; kadiat (Itn.) ; kalat (Ig., Ilk.) ; kaliat (Ilk.) ; kandiat (Ig.) ; konjat 
(Ig.) ; koliat (Tag.) ;, kuliad (Ibn.) ; kuliat (Bik., Tag., Pamp., Mang.) ; 
lamparahan (Tag.) ; malaigot (S. L. Bis.) ; nonok (P. Bis.) ; tobal (Tag.). 

GNETUM MINUS Foxw. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 176, t. S3. 

Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 2513 Mearns. In forests or thickets, altitude 
probably about 1,500 m. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Gnetum neglectum Blume; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 211. 

ANGIOSPERMAE 

MONOCOTYLEDONAE 

TYPHACEAE 

1. TYPHA Linnaeus 

TYPHA CAPENSIS Rohrb. in Verb.. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 11 (1869) 96; 
Hallier f. in Lorenz Nova Guinea 8 (1913) 911. 
Typha angustifolia Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 687, ed. 2 (1845) 477, ed. 

3, 3 (1879) 91; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 297, non Linn. 
Typha angustifolia Linn, subsp. javanica Graebn. in Perk. Frag. Fl. 
Philip. (1904) 42, Merr. PL Manila (1912) 66, Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 53, non Schnizl. 
Luzon (Laguna), Mindoro, Negros, Merrill 895, Sp. Blancoanae 38, 
Piper 7U, B. S. 9881 Robinson, F. B. 9775 Merritt. In fresh water swamps 
at low altitudes. Africa and Madagascar, Philippines, New Guinea. 

Local names: Balangot (Tag., S. L. Bis.) ; homai-homai (Bis.) ; kaidked 
(Pang.); lampakanai (C. Bis.); tubal-tubal (C. Bis.). 

TYPHA DOMINGENSIS Pers. Syn. 2 (1807) 532; Graebn. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 2 1 (1900) 14; Hallier f. in Lorenz Nova Guinea 8 (1913) 
912, in nota. 
Mindoro, Panay, Negros, Cebu, F. B. 13371 Curran, 25893 Tamesis & 
Azurin, B. S. 11125 Ramos. In swamps at low altitudes. Tropical Amer- 
ica; Java, Timor. 

Local names: Balangot (P. Bis.); buhai-buhai (P. Bis.); lampakanai 
(C. Bis.). 

TYPHA SHUTTLEWORTHII Koch & Sonder in Koch Syn. ed. 2 (1844) 
786; Hallier f. in Lorenz Nova Guinea 8 (1913) 913, in nota. 

Typha angustifolia Vidal Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 280, non 
Linn. 

Typha orientalis Presl Epim. (1851) 239; C. B. Rob. in Bull. Torr. 



Vo1 - 1 PANDA NACEAE 9 

Bot. Club 35 (1908) 63; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
394. 
Typha shuttleworthii Koch & Sond. subsp. orientalis Graebn. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 2 1 (1900) 10, quoad syn. Presl. 

Luzon (Benguet, Bontoc, Sorsogon), Cebu, Mindanao (Bukidnon, La- 
nao), Cuming 1767, Elmer 6382, 16244, Clemens 856, B. S. 24.984. Fenix. 
In swamps at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,400 m. Europe 
to China. 

Local names: Anibung (Bon.); badok-badok (Ilk.); dosi-dosi (Ig.) ; 
palabog (Buk.). 

I have arbitrarily followed Hallier f. in this classification of the Phil- 
ippine forms but am by no means satisfied that the identifications are 
correct. 

PANDANACEAE 

1. FREYCINETIA Gaudichaud 

FREYCINETIA ACUTIFOLIA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 
267. 

Luzon (Camarines), Catanduanes, B. S. 30319 Ramos, 33561 Ramos & 
Edano. In damp primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA ANGULATA C. B. Rob. ex Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 
16, 309. 

Luzon (,Albay), Samar, Panay, B. S. 6221 Robinson, 24813 Edano, 32393 
McGregor. In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA APAYAOENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) 
Bot. 269. 
Luzon (Apayao, Ilocos Norte), B. S. 28034 Fenix, 33111 Ramos. In 
forests along streams at low altitudes. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA APOENSIS Martelli in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1111. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10781. In forests along streams, altitude 
about 1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Rasras (Bag.). 

FREYCINETIA ATOCENSIS Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 28, 309. 

Luzon (Benguet), (Loher 1570). Probably in forests, altitude at or 
above 1,000 m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA AURICULATA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
312; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 15, 309. 

Palawan, B. S. 876 Foxworthy. In forests at low or medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA BANAHAENSIS Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1907) 215; 
Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 29, 309. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Elmer 7902, 18424. In primary forests, 
altitude 800 to 2,000 m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA BATAN EN SIS Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 29,309. 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Ilocos Norte), B. S. 3806 Fenix, 33301 Ramos. 
In forests, altitude about 1,000 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Uyod (Iv.). 



10 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



FREYCINETIA BOTULIFORM IS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) 
Bot. 268. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), B. S. 23363 Ramos. In primary forests at medium 
altitudes. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA BULUSANENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) 
Bot. 268. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Panay, B. S. 23686 Ramos, 32571 McGregor, Elmer 
14978, 16294 as F. vulcanica Elm. Apparently in the mossy forest, al- 
titude at or above 900 m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA CUERNOSENSIS Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 26, 310. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Negros, Elmer 9677, 16314, 14914- In forests at 
medium altitudes. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA CUMINGIANA Gaudich. Bot. Voy. Bonite (1839-46), 
t. 37, f. 12-14, t. 60; C. B. Rob. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35 (1908) 
64; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 19, 310. 
Freycinetia luzonensis Presl Epim. (1851) 238 (inch var. hetero- 
phylla Presl); Walp. Ann. 3 (1852-53) 494; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1856) 172; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 154, Rev. PI. Vase. 
Filip. (1886) 280; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 286; Warb. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 35, /. 10, D-E ; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
3 (1908) Bot. 311; C. B. Rob. op. cit. 6 (1911) Bot. 193. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Camarines, Sorsogon), Cuming 1455, Weber 1585, El- 
mer 15394 as F. membranifolia Elm., 15930, 16016 as F. leuteocarpa Elm., 
B. S. 13874 Ramos, F. B. 11361 Curran. In forests at low and medium 
altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Alapunti (C. Bis.). 

FREYCINETIA CURRAN 1 1 Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot 312; 
Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 14, 310. 

Luzon (Camarines, Sorsogon), Catanduanes, Panay, Camiguin de Mi- 
samis, F. B. 11359 Curran, 23789 Alvarez, B. S. 35735 Martelino & Edano, 
14642, 30267, 30317 Ramos, Elmer 16590. In primary forests at low and 
medium altitudes. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA DISCOIDEA Martelli in Lean. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1113. 
Sibuyan, Elmer 12197. In forests, altitude about 300 m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA ENSI FOLIA Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 
5, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 25, 3 (1908) Bot. 315; Martelli 
in Webbia 3 (1910) 32, 310; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1118. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Bataan, Pampanga), Mindoro, Negros, Merrill 
3242, Elmer 6840, Whit ford 329, B. S. 1944 Foxworthy, F. B. 62.85 Curran, 
1347 Borden, 2624 Meyer, B. S. 39472 Ramos. In the mossy forest, al- 
titude 1,200 to 1,600 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Kangingai (Ig.) ; kakaag (Bon.). 

FREYCINETIA FEROX Warb. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 33; Merr 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 310; Martelli in Webbia 3 
(1910) 13, 310. 
Freycinetia lucbanensis Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 1 (1907) 212; Mar- 
telli in Webbia 3 (1910) 14, 312. 



Vo1 - > PANDANACEAE 11 

Luzon (Tayabas), Warburg in herb. Berol., Elmer 8280. In primary 
forests, altitude about 500 m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA GITINGIANA Martelli in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) Bot. 
1112. 

Sibuyan, Elmer 12358. In forests, altitude about 500 m. Endemic. 
FREYCINETIA INSIPIDA Martelli in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1114. 

Sibuyan, Elmer 12426. In forests along streams, altitude 500 to 600 
m. Endemic. 

Local name: Baganot (P. Bis.). 

FREYCINETIA JAGORII Warb. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 39; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 313; Martelli in Webbia 
3 (1910) 25, 311. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Biliran, Samar, Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan, Lanao, 
Zamboanga), Elmer 15378, 16210, 15057, 13717, Wenzel 306, Merrill 8300, 
Clemens, B. S. 18852 McGregor, 17395 Ramos, 37032 Ramos & Edano. In 
forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Magalop (Sub.). 

FREYCINETIA LEPTOPHYLLA Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 20, 312. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), (Loher 5450), B. S. 15006 Ramos. In forests 
at medium altitudes. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA LOHERI Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 15, 312. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Rizal), (Loher 1577, 1578, 5469). Probably from 
forests at or above 1,200 m altitude. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA MAXIMA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 310; 
Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 13, 312, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 
1111. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon), Samar, F. B. 
10754, 1238 Curran, 25374 Mabesa, B. S. 23343, 17444 Ramos, 6345 Robinson, 
Elmer 17530, 14697, 18152. In primary forests at low and medium al- 
titudes, ascending to 500 m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA MEGACARPA Merr. in Philip. Joum. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
314; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 31, 312, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 
(1911) 1117. 
Mindanao (Agusan, Lanao), Clemens, Elmer 14242. In forests, altitude 
about 650 m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA MERRILLII Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1907) 216; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 314; Martelli in Webbia 3 
(1910) 31, 313. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Tayabas), Elmer 9010, B. S. 10727 McGregor. In 
forests along streams, altitude about 600 m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA MONOCEPHALA Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1906) 78 
bis, (1907) 218; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 314; 
Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 31, 313; C. B. Rob. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 193. 
Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Elmer 7380, 9012, Whit ford 971, Mer- 
rill Phil. PI. 423, F. B. 13094 Curran, B. S. 29372 Ramos & Edano. In 
forests, altitude about 700 m. Endemic. 



12 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

FREYCINETIA MONTALBAN ICA Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 18, 313; 
C. B. Rob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 193. 
Luzon (Rizal), (Loher s. n., 5 4.51). Probably in forests at medium 
altitudes. Of this I have seen only a photograph of Loher 5451. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA MULTI FLORA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
259, 3 (1908) Bot. 312; Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 1 (1907) 212; 
Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 17, 313. 
Freycinetia luzonensis Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) 
t. 4-37, non Presl. 

Luzon (Laguna, Bataan), Mindoro, Mindanao, Merrill 564.7, Elmer 
8039, 9009, 17.974, Clemens 1028, B. S. 16857 Servinas, 15117, 2092 Ramos, 
11285 McGregor. In primary forests up to 900 m altitude. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA NEGROSENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
313; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 28, 313. 

Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Leyte, Negros, Mindanao (Agusan), Whit- 
ford 1541, Elmer 16161, 13766, as F. urdanetensis Elm., F. B. 26216 Franco, 
B. S. 16637 Ramos. In forests at medium altitudes, ascending to 1,200 
m. Endemic. 

Local name: Pandan-magamoi (C. Bis.). 

FREYCINETIA OBLONGIFOLIA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
310; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 16, 313. 
Panay, Mindanao (Surigao), Bolster 249, 342, B. S. 32533 McGregor, 
31060 Ramos & Edano. In primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA PALAWAN ENSIS Merr. ex Elm. Lead. Philip. Bot. 1 

(1907) 216, Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 313;, Martelli in Webbia 
3 (1910) 23, 313. 

Freycinetia elmeri Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 22, 310, Lead. Philip. 
Bot. 3 (1911) 1117. 
Luzon (Tayabas, Sorsogon), Palawan, Sibuyan, Panay, Mindanao (Agu- 
san, Lanao), B. S. 706 Foxtuorthy, 23707 Ramos, 32527, 32231 McGregor, 
35753 Martelino & Edano, Elmer 12072, 7810, 9386, 14030, Clemens 796., 
In primary forests, altitude 600 to 1,000 m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA PERIPI EZOCARPA Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 314. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet), Negros, F. B. 18020 Merritt, 13638 
Curran & Foxworthy, 10858 Curran, Merrill Phil. PI. 727. On ridges in 
thickets and forests, altitude 1,200 to 1,600 m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA PHILIPPINENSIS Hemsl. in Kew Bull. (1896) 165; Warb. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 40; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 

(1908) Bot. 313; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 25, 314. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Tayabas, Camarines), Samar, Biliran, Mindanao (Bu- 
kidnon), Gregory 117, Cuming 1898, B. S. 18787 McGregor, 26028 Fenix, 
22088, 22167 Ramos. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA PLATYPHYLLA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 
267. 
Samar, B. S. 24349 Ramos. In forests along streams at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 



Vo1 - x PANDANACEAE 13 

FREYCINETIA POLYSTACHYA Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 14, 314. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Rizal, Tayabas), (Loher 5454) , B. S. 26642 Ramos 
& Edano, 33299 Ramos, 25540 Yates. In forests at medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA RIGIDA Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1908) 362; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 313; Martelli. in Webbia 3 (1910) 
26, 314. 
Freycinetia hemsleyi Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1907) 214, non Warb. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Elmer 7847. In primary forests, altitude about 800 
m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA ROBINSONII Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
311; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 17, 314. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bataan, Pampanga), Leyte, F. B. 752, 2466, 
3037 Borden, 2194 Meyer, B. S. 2006 Foxworthy, 27256 Ramos, Whitford 
1311, Merrill 3791, In forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Var. LATI FOLIA Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 18, 314. 

Luzon (Benguet, Laguna, Rizal), Negros, Elmer 6196. In forests at 
low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Malabaling-uai (Tag.); malapandan (Tag.); maloran 
(Pamp.). 

FREYCINETIA ROBUSTA Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3097. 

Luzon (Laguna), Elmer 18026. In primary forests at medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA ROSTRATA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
177, 3 (1908) Bot. 315; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 34, 314, Leafl. 
Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1118. 
Samar, Negros, Siargao, Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill 5235, Clemens 
s. n., B. S. 24787 Edano, F. B. 19097 Curran. In forests at low and me- 
dium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Rasras (Bag.); sagatap (P. Bis.). 

FREYCINETIA SCABRIPES Warb. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 41; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 313, 394; Martelli in 
Webbia 3 (1910) 27, 314. 
Freycinetia dilatata Merr. ex Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1907) 214, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 313; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 
310. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Bataan, Rizal, Tayabas, Sorsogon), F. B. 4529 Maule, 
B. S. 99 Foxworthy, Elmer 9008, Merrill 2301. In forests at low and 
medium altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Palindan (Tag.). 

FREYCINETIA SPHAEROCEPHALA Gaudich. Bot. Voy. Bonite (1843) 
t, 52; Solms-Laub. in Linnaea 42 (1878) 96; Warb. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 3 (1900) 35; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
314; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 33, 315. 
Freycinetia strobilacea Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 154, Rev. 
PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 280; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 285, non 
Blume. 



14 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Freycinetia globosa Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 260; 
Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 1 (1907) 217. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Laguna, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon), 
Mindoro, Cuming 839, Merrill 5791, Elmer 14920, Wenzel 511, B. S. 16593, 
2201,6, 20510 Ramos. In forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending 
to 1,000 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Looi-looi (Bik.). 

The figure of Freycinetia strobilacea Blume given by Vidal, Sinopsis 
Atlas (1883) 42, t. 95, f. B, was copied from Blume's original in Rumphia 
fide Vidal 1. c. Blume's species does not occur in the Philippines. 

FREYCINETIA SUBFLAGELLATA Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3098. 
Luzon (Laguna), Elmer 17967. In primary forests at medium alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA SUPERBA Martelli in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1115. 
Sibuyan, Elmer 12257. In forests, altitude 300 to 600 m. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA VIDALII Hemsl. in Kew Bull. (1896) 166; Warb. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 36; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
311; Martelli in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 3 (1910) 21, 315. 
Freycinetia confusa Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1907) 213. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Apayao, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Tayabas), Vidal 3964, 
Elmer 9007, B. S. 16600, 13861 Ramos, 28434 Fenix, F. B. 19573 Curran, 
22192 Alvarez. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Takiakad (Ig.)- 

FREYCINETIA WARBURGII Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1907) 218; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 315; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 
34, 315; C. B. Rob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 193. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Elmer 8229, 15833, as F. sorso- 
gonensis Elm., B. S. 14988, 16604, 20608, 10925 Ramos. In forests; at 
medium altitudes. Endemic. 

FREYCINETIA WILLIAMSI I Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
315, 394; Martelli in Webbia 3 (1910) 32, 315. 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet, Rizal, Pangasinan, La- 
guna, Tayabas), Panay, Williams 1013, Elmer 5857, 18006, Merrill 8611, 
B. S. 3786, 29862 Fenix, 29737 Ramos & Edano, 22233 Catalan, 19755 
McGregor, 9380, 17120 Robinson. In forests, extending into the mossy 
forest, altitude 500 to 1,600 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Pandan (Ig.) ; vayasubas (Iv.). 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Freycinetia graminea Blume; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 286; Usteri 
Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 130. 

This Javan species is not known from the Philippines, both of the above 
records being undoubtedly based on erroneously identified specimens. 

Freycinetia insignis Blume; Vidal Cat. PI. Prov. Manila (1880) 46; 
Naves Novis App. (1882) 286. 

This Javan species certainly does not occur in the Philippines; from 
the local name cited by Vidal his specimens probably were Pandanus 
sabotan Blanco. 



VoL 1 PANDANACEAE 15 

Tillandsia pseudo-ananas Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 853, ed. 2 (1845; 
162, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 292. 

This was reduced by Naves to Freycinetia insignis Blume, a species that 
does not extend to the Philippines. I now consider that Blanco's descrip- 
tion applies to Freycinetia, but further identification of the species is im- 
possible from the very imperfect description given by Blanco. It is possibly 
the same as Pandanus copelandii Merr. 

2. PAN DAN US Linnaeus 

PANDANUS ACLADUS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 265. 

Catanduanes, Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 304-62 Ramos, 39172 Ramos 
& Edano. Along streams in forests, altitude about 150 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Ulango (Buk.). 

PANDANUS APICULATUS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 17 (1920) 240. 
Mindanao (Surigao), B. S. 34.572 Ramos & Pascasio. On ridges, al- 
titude about 650 m. Endemic. 

PANDANUS APOENS1S Martelli in Lean. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1129, 
Webbia 4 1 (1913) 6, t. 13, f. 12-U. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11313. In primary forests, altitude about 
1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Baraia (Bag.); maraia (Bag.). 

PANDANUS BARAI Martelli in Lean. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1126, Webbia 
4 1 (1913) 7, t. 38, f. 10-13. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10924. In damp forests, altitude about 
1,050 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Barai (Bag.). 

PANDANUS BILIRANENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 
266. 
Biliran, B. S. 18895 McGregor. In forests, altitude about 300 m. En- 
demic. 

PANDANUS BOTRYOIDES Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
66, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 8, t. 4, f. 14-16; C. B. Rob. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 193. 
Polillo, Mindanao (Surigao, Agusan, Lanao), Merrill 5442, Weber 1212, 
Clemens 984, B. S. 3/+570 Ramos & Pascasio, 104-73 Robinson. In forests 
along tidal streams, and at Lake Lanao along the lake shore, altitude 
about 650 m. Endemic. • 

Specifically distinct from P. radicans Blanco? 

PANDANUS BREVISPATHUS Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
69, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 8, t. 26, f. 3-5. 
Pandanus polycephalus Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 
8, non Lour. 
Mindanao (Davao), Copeland 442. In thickets near the seashore. En- 
demic. 

PANDANUS BREVISTIPES Martelli in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 8, 4 2 (1914) 
421, t. 38, f. 4-9. 



16 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS W22 

Luzon (Batangas), F. B. 7719 Curran & Merritt. On ridges in forests, 
altitude about 800 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Pandan (Tag.). 

PAN DAN US CALCEIFORMIS Martelli in Lean. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1127, 
Webbia 4 1 (1913) 9, t. 35, f. 3-6. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao), Elmer 11651+, B. S. 38580, 39170 Ramos 
& Edafio. On forested ridges, altitude about 1,350 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Baraui (Bag.). 

PAN DAN US CAMARINENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 367. 

Luzon (Camarines), B. S. 33635 Ramos & Edafio. In forests at low 
altitudes. Endemic. 

PAN DAN US CAUDATUS Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 6; 
Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 64, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 
9, t. U, f. 1-3. 
Luzon (Benguet), Elmer 61J+3. In thickets or forests, altitude about 
1,000 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Pangihang (Ig.). 

PANDANUS CLEMENTIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
178, t. 1, 3 (1908) Bot. 68; Martelli in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 10, t. 27, 
f. 6-10. 

Panay, Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens 436, Merrill 6708. In forests, al- 
titude 100 to 700 m. Endemic. 

PANDANUS COPELANDII Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 
7, Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 71; Martelli op. cit. 71, Lean. 
Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1132, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 11, t. 31, f. 5-7. 
Pandanus muricatus Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1906) 76. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Apayao, Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva 
Ecija, Zambales, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Polillo, Catanduanes, 
Samar, Bucas Grande, Panay, Leyte, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Zamboanga, 
Surigao). A very characteristic species, represented by more than 30 
collections. In forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,000 
m. Endemic. 

Tillandsia pseudo-ananas Blanco is possibly a synonym of this rather 
than a Freycinetia, see page 15. 

Local names: Baleo (Bis.); baleu (P. Bis.); baliku (C. Bis.); baloi 
(Mbo.) ; barieu (Bag.) ; bariu (Bik.) ; baroi (Mbo.) ; lagutlut (Tag.) ; 
pandan (Tag., Ibn.) ; pangdan (Ilk., Pang.); pataga (Ibn.) ; siri (Ibn.). 

PANDANUS CUMINGIANUS Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
70, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 11, t. 25, f. 13-15. 
Negros, {Cuming s. n. in herb. Mus. Brit.). I have seen only a photo- 
graph of the syncarps. The leaves are unknown. Endemic. 

PANDANUS DECIPIENS Martelli in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 12, 4 2 (1914) 402, 
t. 37, f. 7-9. 

Palawan, Elmer 12593, Merrill 921+6. In thickets and forests at low 
altitudes, often back of the mangrove swamps. Endemic. 

Local name: Olango (Tagb.). 



VoL x PANDANACEAE 17 

PANDANUS DINAGATENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 17 (1920) 240. 
Dinagat, B. S. 35183 Ramos & Pascasio. In forests along streams 
at low altitudes. Endemic. 

PANDANUS DUBIUS Spreng. Syst. 3 (1826) 897; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1855) 159; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 285; Warb. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreieh 3 (1900) 50; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 
8; Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 67, Lean. Philip. 
Bot. 3 (1911) 1122, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 12. 
? Pandanus latifolius Perr. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 134; 
Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 72; C. B. Rob. op. cit. 
306; Warb. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 88. 

• Mindanao (Davao), Copeland 613. In thickets or forests along the 

seashore; Java, Borneo, Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea to the New Heb- 
rides, Caroline, and Marianne Islands. 

Local names: Bakong (P. Bis.) ; bauang (P. Bis.) ; taboan (Bik.). 

PANDANUS ESCULENTUS Martelli in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 13, 4 2 (1914) 
403, t. 25, f. 1-3. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Apayao, Ilocos Norte, Bulacan), F. B. 17813, 17817 
Curran, 14009 Merritt & Darling, B. S. 28352 Fenix, 34-089 Ramos & 
Edano, 22208 Ramos. In forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending 
to 1,000 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Ligit (Ibn.). 

PANDANUS EXALTATUS Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 778, ed. 2 (1845) 536, 
ed. 3, 3 (1879) 183; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 163; Warb. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 84; Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 
(1908) Bot. 64, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 13, t. 10, f. 1-3, 9-11; Merr. Sp. 
Blancoanae (1918) 54. 
Pandanus arayatensis Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 
7, t. 3, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 25; Martelli in Webbia 
4 1 (1913) 6. 
Pandanus banahaensis Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1906) 79; Martelli 

in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 7 (banahaoensis) . 
Pandanus vidalii Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 65, 

Webbia 4 1 (1913) 36, t. 8, f. 11-13. 
Pandanus fascicularis Naves Novis. App. (1882) 284, non Lam. 
Luzon (Apayao, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, 
Tayabas), Catanduanes, Whitford 1325, Elmer 7574, 9074, Merrill 3832, 
Sp. Blancoanae 421, B. S. 30498 Ramos, 28256, 13546 Fenix, 11226 McGre- 
gor, 2701 Ahern's collector. In primary forests at medium altitudes, as- 
cending to 800 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Alasas (Tag.); bamban (Ibn.) ; pandan (Tag., Pamp., 
Ibn.); pangdan (Ilk.). 

Forma AHERNIANUS Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 64, 
Webbia 4 1 (1913) 13, t. 10, f. 4-8, 12-15. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Rizal, Pampanga), Merrill Dec. Philip. Forest Fl. 
296, F. B. 17264, 17722 Curran. Habitat of the species from which it 
is scarcely distinguishable. Endemic. 

183036 2 



18 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



a 



PAN DAN US GLAUCIPHYLLUS C. B. Rob. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35. 

(1908) 64, 74; Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 68, Lean. 

Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1124, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 15, t. 27, f. U-16. 

Negros, Romblon, Siargao, Mindanao (Zamboanga), Williams 2423, 

Copeland, F. B. 17372 Curran, B. S. 34.855 Ramos & Pascasio. In forests 

at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Pandan (P. Bis.). 

PAN DAN US GRACILIS Blanco PI. Filip. (1837) 778, ed. 2 (1845) 536, 
ed. 3, 3 (1879) 182, t. 446; Warb. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 
84; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 89, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 436, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 56; Martelli 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 68, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 16, 
t. 25, f. 16-24, 25-26. 
Pandanus whitfordii Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 
8, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 25. 

Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, 
Camarines), Mindoro, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao), Whit ford 351, Merrill 
7612, Sp. Blancoanae 890, 896, B. S. 23860, 22469, 39493 Ramos, 15783 
Fenix, 34844 Ramos & Pascasio, F. B. 20188 Aguilar, 2944 Borden, 6003 
Curran. In primary forests at medium altitudes, ascending to 1,000 m. 
Endemic. 

Local names: Ayasas (Tag.); laguloi (Buk.) ; pandan (Tag.). 

PANDANUS JULIFERUS Martelli in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 18, 4 2 (1914) 
428, t. 43, f. 10-12. , 

Camiguin de Misamis, B. S. 14670, 14671 Ramos. Probably in forests, 
altitude about 1,000 m. Endemic. 

This seems to be very near Pandanus polyglossus Martelli. 

PANDANUS LATERALIS Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 68, 
Lean. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1125, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 20, t. 27, f. 31-33. 

Mindanao (Davao), Copeland 836, Elmer 11029. In forests at low or 
medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Bakuling (Bag.) ; pandan (C. Bis., Sul.). 

PANDANUS LINNAEI Gaudich. forma PH1LIPPINENSIS Martelli in 
Webbia 4 a (1913) 21, t. 6, f. 1-2, Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
60 (as P. linnaei Gaudich.). 
Pandanus exaltatus Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 436, 
non Blanco. 
Semirara, Busuanga, Merrill 4140, B. S. 41264 Ramos. In thickets at 
low altitudes. The species in Celebes, Key, and Aru Islands. 

PANDANUS LOHERIANUS Martelli in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 22, 4 2 (1914) 
423, t. 27, f. 17-21. 
Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), B. S. 20549 Ramos, 13192 Curran. In forests 
along streams at low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 

PANDANUS LUZON ENSIS Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 6, 
t. 1, 2, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 25; Martelli op. cit. 3 
(1908) Bot. 67, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 22, t. 15, f. 5-9. 
Pandanus calicarpus Martelli in Webbia 1 (1905) 365, 4 1 (1913) 9. 



v <* i PANDANACEAE 19 

Luzon (Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna). 
Chiefly in secondary forests at low altitudes; represented by numerous 
collections, Merrill Phil. PI. 1931 and 759 are typical. Endemic. 

Local names: Alasas (Tag.); dasa (Tag.); pandan (Tag., Ilk., Ibn.). 

PANDANUS MAPOLA Martelli in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1124, Webbia 
4 1 (1913) 22, t. 41, f. 14-17. 
Sibuyan, Elmer 12139. In thickets or forests at low altitudes; the 
local name cited, mapuld, merely means red in reference to the color of 
the fruits. Endemic. 

PANDANUS MARTELLI I Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1908) 272; Martelli 
in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 23, t. 11, f. 4-7. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Elmer 9082, 9083, 17646, B. S. 23025 McGregor, 23829 
Ramos. In forests, altitude about 650 m. Endemic. 

PANDANUS MERRILLII Warb. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 50; 
Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 71, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 
23, t. 32, f. 35-37. 

Palawan, Merrill 840, 7250, 9274, 9375, B. S. 232 Bermejos. In primary 
forests, sea level to 500 m altitude. Endemic. 
Local name: Pandan (Tagb.). 

PANDANUS MINDANAENSIS Martelli in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 
1121, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 24, t. 36, f. 4-7 (mindanaoensis) . 
Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10823. In primary forests, altitude about 
1,200 m. Endemic. 

PANDANUS MULTIBRACTEATUS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 17 (1920) 
241. 

Mindanao (Surigao), B. S. 34.571, 34819 Ramos & Pascasio. In forests 
along streams, altitude about 650 m. Endemic. 

PANDANUS OCCULTUS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 265. 

Palawan, Merrill 9361. In primary swamp forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

PANDANUS PALLIDUS Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 5; 
Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 68, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 
26, t. 27, f. 28-30. 

Luzon (Benguet, Nueva Ecija), Elmer 5840, Williams 917, B. S. 26270 
Ramos & Edano, F. B. 5106, 5069 Curran. In forested stream depressions 
up to 1,500 m altitude. Endemic. 

Local names: Pangchan (Ig.) ; tachiang (Ig.). 

PANDANUS PALOENSIS Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1906) 75; Martelli 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 68, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 
1123, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 26, t. 27, f. 22-27. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Apayao, Camarines, Sorsogon), Leyte, Mindanao (Da- 
vao), Elmer 7343, 14858, 11224, Wenzel 1304, Weber 1568, B. S. 33556 
Ramos & Edano, 28072 Fenix, 13921 Ramos, F. B. 19569 Curran. In forests 
at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Baroai-latong (Bag.). 



20 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

PANDANUS PANAYENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 366. 
Panay, B. S. 80796 Ramos & Edano, 3574.0 Martelino & Edano. In pri- 
mary forests at low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 

PANDANUS PHILIPPINENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) 
Bot. 264. 

Luzon (Kalinga, Nueva Vizcaya), B. S. 11289 McGregor, 374-95 Ramos & 
Edano. On forested slopes at medium altitudes. Endemic. 

PANDANUS POLYGLOSSUS Martelli in Lean. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1130, 
Webbia 4 1 (1913) 28, t. 39, f. 16-18. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11835. In primary forests, altitude about 
1,350 m. Endemic. 

PANDANUS RADICANS Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 780, ed. 2 (1845) 537, 
ed. 3, 3 (1879) 184; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 166; Warb. in Engl. 
-Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 85; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 
(1905) 89, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 436, Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 54; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1906) 74; Martelli in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 66, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 29, t. 6, f. 8-10, 
Pandanus olango Blanco ex Espejo & Garcia Suppl. Cat. Seem. Hort. 
Bot. Manila (1876) 14, nomen nudum. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Leyte, Elmer 7200, 14892. In forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Local names: Olango (S. L. Bis.); ouango (P. Bis.); oyango (Bik.) ; 
uango (P. Bis.); uyango (Mbo.). 

PANDANUS RAMOSII Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 17 (1920) 242. 

Bucas Grande, Dinagat, B. S. 35136, 35198 Ramos & Pascasio. In dry 
forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

PANDANUS RECLINATUS Martelli in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 29, 4 2 (1914) 
432, t. 27, f. 3, 4. 

Palawan, Elmer 12731. In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

PANDANUS SABOTAN Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 779, ed. 2 (1845) 537, 
ed. 3, 3 (1878) 184; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 166; Warb. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 84; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 
27 (1905) 89, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 56; Martelli in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 72, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 30. 
Luzon (Laguna, Rizal), Merrill Sp- Blancoanae 185, F. B. 10099 Curran, 
B. S. 6532, 11934 Robinson, 11239 McGregor. A planted pandan of which 
the fruits and flowers are unknown. The Filipinos state that it never 
produces fruit. It is perhaps but a form of P. tectorius Solander, and 
Martelli has so identified some of the specimens cited above. Endemic? 
Local names: Parauan (Gad.); sabotan (Tag.); sibutan (Tag.). 

PANDANUS SIBUYANENSIS Martelli in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1120, 
Webbia 4 1 (1913) 31, t. 34, f. 4-6 (sibujanensis) . 
Sibuyan, Elmer 12146. In forests, altitude about 350 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Pandan-bugas (P. Bis.). 

PANDANUS SIMPLEX Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 6; 
Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 67, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 
31, t. 14, f. 11-14- 
Pandanus utilissimus Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1906) 80; Martelli 



Vo1 - 1 PANDANACEAE 21 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 67, Webbia 4 ' (1913) 36, t. 1U, 
f. 3-5; C. B. Rob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 193. 
Luzon (Ifugao, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Catanduanes, Elmer 7879, 
16866, Whitford 782, F. B. 20166 Aguilar, 8507 Curran, B. S. 20033 Mc- 
Gregor, 65U2 Robinson. In forests at low and medium altitudes; also 
planted. A species remarkable for its enormous syncarps. Endemic. 

Local names: Bankoang (Tag.); ilohan (Tag.); kalagimai (Tag.); 
karagomoi (Bik.) ; karagumoi (Bik., Bis., Tag.) ; pandan (Tag.) ; pandan- 
totoo (Tag.). 

PANDAN US SUBACAULIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 263. 
Catanduanes, B. S. 30U89 Ramos. In forests at low or medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

PAN DAN US TECTORIUS Solander in Parkins. Journ. Voy. H. M. S. 

Endeav. (1773) 46; Warb. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 46; Perk. 

f Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 50; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

'Suppl. 25, 3 (1908) Bot. 394, Fl. Manila (1912) 66, Sp. Blancoanae 

(1918) 55; Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 61, Leafl. 

Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 118, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 33. 

Pandanus odoratissimus Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 424; Vidal Sinopsis 

Atlas (1883) 42, t. 95, f. A; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 284. 
Pandanus malatensis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 777, ed. 2 (1845) 535, 
ed. 3, 3 (1879) 181; Warb. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 84;. 
Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 89; ? Martelli in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 70, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 22, t. 26, 
f. 22. 
Pandanus spiralis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 777, ed. 2 (1845) 535, 
ed. 3, 3 (1879) 181; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 
89, non R. Br. 
Pandanus blancoi Kunth Enum. 3 (1841) 583. 

Pandanus tectorius Soland. var. surigaensis Martelli in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 64, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 34, t. 8, f. 3-7 (surin- 
gaensis). 
Pandanus tectorius Soland. var. sinensis Warb. in Engl. Pflanzen- 
reich 3 (1900) 48; Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 62, 
Webbia 4 » (1913) 34, t. 9, f. 2-10. 
Pandanus tectorius Soland. var. spiralis Martelli in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 62, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 34, t. 9, f. 1-7, t. 12, f. 8. 
Pandanus tectorius Soland. var douglasii Martelli forma philippinensis 
Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 63, Webbia 4 1 (1913) 
33, t. 8, f. 8-10. 
Pandanus vidalii Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. .3 (1908) Bot. 65, 

Webbia 4 1 (1913) 36, p. p., quoad syn. Vidal. 
Pandanus coronatus Martelli in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
65 (incl. f. minor) , -Webbia 4 1 (1913) 11, t. U, f. 8-13. 
Along the seashore throughout the Philippines, abundant and forming 
characteristic thickets back of the beach. Indo-Malayan and Polynesian 
regions generally, extending to southern China and tropical Australia. 

Local names: Baroi (Bik.); laha (Sul.) ; ohango (Iv.) ; padan (Iv.) ; 
pandan (Tag., P. Bis., C. Bis., Sub.) ; pandan-dagat (Tag.) ; pangdan (Ilk., 
Pang.); panglan (Ilk., Sbl.) ; panhakad (Bis.); uhango (Iv.). 



22 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

PANDANUS TENUIPEDUNCULATUS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 17 
(1920) 243. 

Siargao, Mindanao (Surigao), B. S. 34739, 34842 Ramos & Pascasio. 
In open forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

PANDANUS 2AMB0ANGENSIS Martelli in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 37, 4 a 
(1914) 426, t. 42, f. 7-10. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga, Bukidnon, Lanao), Merrill 8051, 8065, F. B. 
9494 Whitford & Hutchinson, B. S. 15696 Fenix, 37428, 37429 Ramos & 
Edano. In thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Baliu (Sub.); bariu (Sul.) ; pandan (Sul.). 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Pandanus inermis Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 537, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 184, 
non Roxb. 
This is unquestionably a Pleomele {Dracaena) and is referable to Pleo- 
mele angustifolia (Roxb.) N. E. Br. 

PANDANUS kafu Martelli in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 19, t. 19, f. 1-3. 

"Is. Filippine" is an error, the type being from Guam, Marianne Islands. 

Pandanus porteanus Lescuy. ex Herincq Hort. Franc. 1 (1866) 16; Warb. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich 3 (1900) 90;, Martelli in Webbia 4 1 (1913) 28. 

A nomen nudum based on a cultivated plant of Philippine origin. 

Pandanus bagea Miq., P. caricosus Rumph., P. ceramicus Rumph., P. 
drupaceus Thouars., P. elegans Thouars., P. furcatus Roxb., P. humilis 
Rumph., P. latifolius Rumph., P. littoralis Jungh., P. montanus Miq., P. 
moschatus Rumph., P. repens Rumph., P. spurius Rumph., and P. sylvestris 
Rumph. 

The above fourteen species, several of them of entirely doubtful status, 
were credited to the Philippines by Naves, Novis. App. (1882) 284, 285. 
With the exception of Pandanus caricosus Rumph. = Scirpiodendron ghaeri 
(Gaertn.) Merr. none of them are known to occur in the Philippines. 

3. SARARANGA Hemsley 

SARARANGA PHILIPPIN ENSIS Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 
(1905) 5; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1911) 1110. 

Luzon (Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon), Sibuyan, Samar, Dinagat, 
Mindanao (Surigao, Bukidnon), Merrill 5230, Whitford 749, Elmer 17206, 
B. S. 6401 Robinson, 35181, 34680 Ramos & Pascasio, 33710 Ramos & Edano, 
F. B. 26530 Rola. Chiefly in secondary forests, sea level to an altitude 
of 750 m. Endemic. 

A genus represented by one other known species in the Solomon Islands. 

Local names: Bagaas (P. Bis.) balui (Buk.) ; balur (Buk.) ; nagsala- 
usau (Bik.). 

POTAMOGETONACEAE 

1. POTAMOGETON Linnaeus 

POTAMOGETON ANGUST1FOLIUS Berchtold & Presl Rostlinar 2 (1821) 
19; A. Benn. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 340. 



VoK x POTAMOGETONACEAE 23 

Luzon (Benguet), Loher 1597. In shallow water, altitude about 1,400 
m. Europe, Asia, and North America. 

POTAMOGETON M AACKI AN US A. Benn. in Journ. Bot. 42 (1904) 74, 
Philip. Journ. iSci. 9 (1914) Bot. 342. 

Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens 216. In shallow water of Lake Lanao, 
altitude about 650 m. Northern Asia, Korea, China, Japan, and Formosa. 

POTAMOGETON MALAINUS Miq. 111. Fl. Archlp. Ind. (1871) 46 (mala- 

ina); Aschers. & Graebn. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 31 (1907) 83; A. 

Benn. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 341; Merr. Fl. Manila 

(1912) 67. 

Potamogeton mucronatus Presl Epim. (1851) 245; Walp. Ann. 3 

(1852-53) 504, non Schrad. 
Potamogeton lucens Naves Novis. App. (1882) 297; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 282, non 
Linn. 
Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon), Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill 5107, 
Williams 2041, Elmer 18113, B. S. 22797 McGregor, 11892 Robinson & 
Ramos. In shallow water of lakes at low and medium altitudes. India 
to Korea and Japan southward to Borneo, Java, and Celebes. The Phil- 
ippine form has been somewhat confused with Potamogeton gaudichaudii 
C. & S. which is a form of P. lucens Linn. 
Local name: Damung-kulut (Tag.). 

POTAMOGETON PERVERSUS A. Benn. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) 
Bot. 343. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 249, 2684. In shallow slow streams and 
in rice paddies, altitudes about 1,300 m. India to China, Manchuria, Korea, 
and Formosa. 

Local name: fbas (Bon.). 

POTAMOGETON PHILI PPIN ENSIS A. Benn. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 
(1914) Bot. 342, hybr. P. malainus X P. maackianus. 
Potamogeton nipponicus Ostenfeld in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) 
Bot. 260, non Makino. 
Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens. In shallow water of Lake Lanao, altitude 
about 650 m. Endemic. 

POTAMOGETON PUSILLUS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 127; A. Benn. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 342. 
Luzon (Benguet), Elmer 5951. In shallow water, altitude about 1,300 
m. Widely distributed in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America. 

POTAMOGETON TEPPERI A. Benn. in Journ. Bot. 25 (1887) 178; Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 340. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill Phil. PI. 1722, Elmer 5952, Topping 45, B. S. 
14110 Robinson. In shallow water, altitude about 1,300 m. Yunnan and 
Australia. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Potamogeton ceispus Linn,; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 297. 
Potamogeton natans Linn.; Naves 1. c. 
Potamogeton javanicus Linn.; Naves 1. c. 



24 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



2. RUPPIA Linnaeus 
RUPPIA MARITIMA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 127; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
297; Aschers. & Graebn. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 31 (1907) 142; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 228, Fl. Manila (1912) 68. 
Luzon (Manila Bay), Panay, Merrill Phil. PL 799, Loher 159b, B. S. 
20660 Servinas. In shallow, brackish water. In salt or brackish water 
in most warm and tropical regions; the Philippine form is referable to 
the var. rostrata Agardh. (R. maritima Linn, subsp. rostellata Koch) . 
Local names: Bungut-bungut (P. Bis.); damong-palai (Tag.). 

3. CYMODOCEA Koenig 
CYMODOCEA ROTUNDATA (Ehrb. & Hempr.) Aschers. & Schweinf. in 
Sitzber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin (1870) 84; Graebner in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 31 (1907) 147; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. .10 (1915) 
Bot. 2. 
Phucagrostis rotundata Ehrb. & Hempr. ex Aschers. in Boiss. Fl. 
Orient. 5 (1884) 21. 

Palawan, Cavilli, Mindanao, Merrill 7180a, Phil. Pl< 126b, B. S. 15559 
Fenix. On sand about coral reefs in shallow water. In shallow seas 
from the Eed Sea to Australia. 

CYMODOCEA SERRULATA (R. Br.) Aschers. & Magnus in Sitzber. Ges. 
Naturf. Freunde Berlin (1870) 84; Aschers. & Graebn. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 31 (1907) 147. 
Caulinia serrulata R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 339. 

Mindanao, fide Ascherson & Graebner, 1. c. In shallow seas from the 
Red Sea and western Africa to Australia. 

Cytnodocea aequorea Koenig = C. nodosa (Ucria) Aschers.! was erro- 
neously credited to the Philippines by Naves Novis. App. (1882) 297. 

4. DIPLANTHERA Thouars 

DIPLANTHERA UNINERV1S (Forst.) Aschers. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. 
Pflanzenfam. 2 1 (1897) 37; Graebn. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 31 
(1907) 152; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sea. 10 (1915) Bot. 3. 
Zostera uninervis Forsk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab. (1775) 159. 
Luzon (Manila Bay), Palawan, Cavilli, Merrill 7179, 9223, Phil. PI. 
1263, Shaw llb-8. In sand about reefs. In shallow seas from the Red 
Sea and western Africa to Australia and Polynesia. 

The family Aponogetonaceae has no known representatives in the Phil- 
ippines; Aponogeton monostachyus Linn. f. and Ouvirandra fenestralis 
Poir., credited to the Archipelago by Naves, Novis. App. (1882) 298, 299, 
must be excluded. 

NAJADACEAE 

1. NAJAS Linnaeus 
NAJAS GRAMINEA Delile Fl. Aegypt. (1812) 282, t. 50, f. 3; Naves Novis., 
App. (1882) 298; Rendle in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 5 (1899) 424, 
443, t. 32, f. 192-201, Engl. Pflanzenreich 7 (1901) 18, /, 5, Q V; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 68. 
Northern Luzon to Mindanao. In shallow stagnant fresh water, at 
low and medium altitudes; often common. Northern Africa to Japan 
southward to New Caledonia and Australia. 

Local names: Aragan (Ilk.); bangbangi (Bon.); labui (Ig.).. 



Vo1 1 HYDROCHARITACEAE 25 

NAJAS PALUSTRIS Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 660; Rendle in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Bot. 5 (1899) 427, Engl. Pflanzenreich 7 (1901) 18; Merr. Sp. 
Blancoanae (1918) 57. 
Najas lobata Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 459, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 65. 
Najas foveolata A. Br. ex Magnus Beitr. (1870) 7; Rendle in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. Bot. 5 (1899) 416, t. 31, f. 139-1U, Engl. Pflanzenreich 
7 (1901) 15. 
Najas tenuifolia Naves Novis. App. (1880) 297, non R. Br. 
Luzon (Union, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Merrill 5109, Sp. Blancoanae 
519, Elmer 1U20, Whitford 837, B. S. 24079 Ramos. In shallow stagnant 
fresh water at low altitudes. India to Japan southward to Timor. 
Local names: Aragan-tamnai (Ilk.); rigmau (Tag.). 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Najas palciculata A. Br. in Journ. Bot. 2 (1864) 278, /. A; Rendle in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 5 (1899) 417, t. 32, f. 145-151, Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 7 (1901) 15. 

Manila, Mertens fide A. Braun 1. c. The type is an Indian specimen 
and I strongly suspect that the Philippine specimen referred here by A. 
Braun is Najas palustris Blanco. 

Najas indica Cham.; Schauer in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) 
Suppl. 1: 425. 

The record was based on a specimen from Laguna de Bay, collected 
by Meyen. The species is known only from India. 

ALISMACEAE 

1. SAGITTARIA Linnaeus 

SAGITTARIA SAGITTAEFOLIA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 993; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 298; Micheli in DC. Monog. Phan, 3 (1881) 66; Buche- 
nau in Engl. Pflanzenreich 16 (1903) 46; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 421, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 58. 
Alisma sagittifolium Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 69; F.-Vill. & 
Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 51, non Willd. 
Luzon (Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Sor- 
sogon), Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte, Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill Phil. PL 
982, Elmer 14339, Wenzel 1228, 1521, Clemens 888, B. S. 30161 Ramos, 
10703 McGregor. In fresh-water swamps, rice paddies, etc., at low and 
medium altitudes. Europe through Asia to Japan, southward to Java. 
Local names: Gauai-gauai (S. L. Bis.); tikog (Bik.). 

excluded genera 
Limnophyton obstusifolium Miq. ; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 298. 
Lophiocarpus guyanensis Micheli; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 298. 

HYDROCHARITACEAE 

1. HALOPHILA Thouars 

HALOPHILA BECCARII Aschers. in Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 3 (1871) 302; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 228, Fl. Manila (1912) 
70. 

Luzon (Rizal), Merrill 8045. In brackish fish ponds. Borneo. 



26 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

HALOPHILA OVALIS (R. Br.) Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. 2 (1860) 45; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 298; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) 
Bot. 2. 
Caulinia ovalis R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 339. 
Palawan, Bancoran, Biliran, Merrill 7155, Phil. PI. 1223, B. S. 18755 
McGregor. In sand on coral reefs. On sandy bottoms of shallow seas. 
India to Australia and Polynesia. 

HALOPHILA OVATA Gaudich. Bot. Freycinet's Voy. (1826) 430, t. U0, f. 1; 
Ostenfeld in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 68; Merr. Fl. Manila 
(1912) 70. 

Luzon (Manila Bay), Merrill 1*112, Phil. PL 1098, B. S. 9899 Robinson. 
In shallow water on rather muddy bottom. Marianne Islands. 

HALOPHILA SPINULOSA (R. Br.) Aschers. in Neumayer Anleit. Wis- 
sensch. Beob. (1875) 368, ed. 2 (1888) 396; Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 
(1878) 183; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 2. 
Caulinia spinulosa R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 339. 

Luzon (Camarines), Mindanao, F. B. 12275 Curran. In shallow seas 
on reefs. In shallow seas, eastern and northern coasts of Australia; Java, 
and probably in other parts of Malaya. 

2. HYDRILLA L. C. Richard 

HYDRILLA VERTICILLATA (Roxb.) Royle 111. Bot. Himal. (1839) t. 376; 
Presl Bemerk. (1842) 112; Casp. in Pringsh. Bot. Jahrb. 1 (1858) 
494; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 214; Merr. & Rolfe in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 96; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 69, Sp. Blan- 
coanae (1918) 58. 
Serpicula verticillata Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 416; Roxb. PI. Coro- 

mandel 2 (1798) t. 164. 
Udora verticillata Spreng. Syst. 1 (1825) 170; Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. 
(1851) 101; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 
78. 

Northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces. In 
shallow fresh water at low and medium altitudes; often abundant. Cen- 
tral Europe to Asia southward to Australia. 

Local names: Ginga (Ibn.) ; inata (Tag.); lomotlomotan (Tag.); lusai 
(Mag.). 

3. VALLISNERIA Linnaeus 

VALLISNERIA GIGANTEA Graebn. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 49 (1912) 68; 

Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 69; Hallier f. Nov. Guinea 8 (1913) 915. 

Vallisnerin spiralis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 781, ed. 2 (1845) 538, ed. 

3, 3 (1879) 187; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 214; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 

Philip. (1885) 148, non Linn. 

Luzon (Pangasinan, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Rizal, Camarines). 

In lakes and slow streams at low altitudes. Enormously variable in size, 

apparently depending largely on the depth of the water in which it grows. 

New Guinea, New South Wales. 

Local names: Balaiba (Ilk.); lanteng (Ibn.); mariu-bariu (Bik.) ; pala- 
ipa (Ilk.) sabotan-buaia (Tag.) ; sintas-sintasan (Tag., from Sp. cinta 
= ribbon) . 



VoL x HYDROCHARITACEAE 27 

4. BLYXA Thouars 

BLYXA OCTANDRA (Roxb.) Planch, ex Thwaites Enum. PI. Ceyl. 
(1859-64) 332; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. '73. 
Vallisneria octandra Roxb. PI. Coromand. 2 (1798) 34, t. 165. 
Blyxa roxburghii Rich, in Mem. Inst. France (1811) 77, t. 5; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 214. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Palawan, Merrill Phil. PI. 12J+4, Vanoverbergh 664.. 
In shallow lakes, rice paddies, etc., from sea level to 1,250 m altitude; 
apparently very local. Tropical Asia to Malaya, Australia, and the Ca- 
roline Islands. 

Local name: Pangpangdan (Bon.). 

5. EN H ALUS L. C. Richard 

EN H ALUS ACOROIDES (Linn, f.) L. C. Rich, ex Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 

1 (1840) 554; Chatin Anat. PI. Aquat. (1862) 15, t. 6; Merr. 

Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 84, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 59. 

Stratiotes acoroides Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 268. 
Enhalus koenigii L. C. Rich, in Mem. Inst. France 2 (1811) 78; Naves 

Novis. App. (1880) 214. 

Vallisneria sphaerocarpa Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 780, ed. 2 (1845) 

538, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 186. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, Merrill 8070, Sp. Blancoanae 
383, B. S. 18723 McGregor, 13001, 15558 Fenix. In ^hallow water of 
sheltered bays along the seashore; of general occurrence where favorable 
habitats are found. Ceylon through Malaya to tropical Australia. 

Local names: Iaai (Tag.) ; lamon (Tag., Bik.) ; mariu-bariu (Bik.) ; 
palaipat-baibai (Ilk.); bariau-bariau (Kuy.). 

6. THALASS1A Banks 

THALASSIA HEM PR1CHI I (Ehrenb.) Aschers. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. 
Pflanzenfam. 2 1 (1889) 254; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 71, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 2. 
Schizotheca hemprichii Ehrenb. in App. Akad. Berl. 1 (1832) 429. 
Luzon (Manila Bay), Alabat, Palawan, Cavilli. In tide pools, about 
coral reefs, etc., probably of general Philippine distribution. In shallow 
seas, sandy bottom, India to Polynesia. 

7. BOOTTIA Wallich 

BOOTTIA REN i FOLIA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 247. 

Luzon (Camarines), Mindanao (Cotabato), F. B. 12274 Curran, B. S. 
11593 Robinson. In swamps and slow streams at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Butid-na-ubal (Mag.); gabi-gabi (Bik.). 

Boottia cordata Wall., reported from the Philippines by Naves, Novis. 
App. (1880) 213, was unquestionably admitted on the basis of an erroneous 
identification. 

8. OTTELIA Persoon 

OTTELIA ALISMOIDES (Linn.) Pers. Syn. 1 (1805) 400; Blanco Fi. 
Filip. (1837) 461, ed. 2 (1845) 321, ed. 3, 2 (1878) 230; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 213; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 70, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 59. 
Stratiotes alismoides Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 535. 



28 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Damaso7iium lancifolium Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 89. 

Ottelia ensiformis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 460, ed. 2 (1845) 320, ed. 

3, 2 (1878) 229; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 214. 
Ottelia philippinensis Ostenfeld in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 
259. 
Northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. In shallow- 
fresh water of lakes, pools, and slow streams. India through Malaya to 
tropical Australia. 

A species presenting great variation in its vegetative characters, which 
largely depends on the depth of the water In which it grows, whether 
stagnant or not, and whether the plants are crowded or scattered. Two 
additional synonyms are Ottelia javanica Miq. and O. ovalifolia L. C. Rich., 
credited to the Philippines by Naves, Novis. App. (1880) 214, as distinct 
species. 

Local names: Damong-ilalim (Tag.); espada (Sp.) ; kalabua (Tag.); 
lanting (Bik.) ; lanten-sapa (Tag.) ; maraduyuk (lb.) ; maraduyug (It.) ; 
tarabang (Ilk.). 

EXCLUDED GENERA 

Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 213. 

Nechamandra roxburhii Planch.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 215 = Laga- 
rosiphon roxburghii Planch. 

TRIURIDACEAE 

1. SCIAPHILA Blume 

SC1APHILA CLEMENSAE Hemsl. in Hook. Ic. IV 9 (1907) t. 2850, f. 7-W, 
Fedde Repert. 5 (1908) 265. 

Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens 775. In damp primary forests at low alti- 
tudes. Borneo. 

This species seems to be closely allied to S. tenella Blume. Dr. J. J. 
Smith states that B. S. 63U7 Robinson, F. B. 9350, 9U9 Whitford & Hut- 
chinson, and Clemens 775 p. p. are very similar to Blume's species. 

SCIAPHILA M AC U LATA Miers in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1852) 48, 
t. 6, f. 19-36; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 154, Rev. PL 
Vase. Filip. (1886) 282. 

Luzon (Bataan), Mindanao (Butuan, Zamboanga), F. B. 5537 Curran, 
9126 Whitford & Hutchinson, Weber 11*62. In damp primary forests at 
low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

In addition to these two species what may be Sciaphila tenella Blume 
occurs in our collections, as noted above, as well as fragmentary material 
representing two other distinct species. 

GRAMINEAE 

1. ZEA Linnaeus 

ZEA MAYS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 971; Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 686, ed. 2 
(1845) 476, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 90, t. 279; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
314; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 133; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 320, Fl. Manila (1912) 74, Sp. Blan- 
coanae (1918) 59. 

Extensively cultivated in most parts of the Philippines, in some islands 
and provinces a staple article of food. Introduced from America. 



Vo1 - 1 GRAMINEAE 29 

Local names: Gahilang (If.) ; igi (Bon.) ; mais (Sp.) ; mait (It.) ; mangi 
(Ibn.); tigi (Bon.). 

Teosinte, Euchlaena luxurians Schrad., a native of Mexico, was introduced 
into the Philippines in the late years of the Spanish occupation and 
again in the early years of the American occupation and was cultivated 
experimentally for forage purposes. It has not persisted in cultivation. 

2. POLYTOCA R. Brown 

POLYTOCA HETEROCLITA (Roxb.) Koord. in Exksfl. Java 1 (1911) 99; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 288. 
Coix heteroclita Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 572. 
Polytoca bracteata R. Br. in Benn. PL Jav. Rar. (1838) 20, t. 5. 
Busuanga, Mindanao (Bukidnon), Baker 3616, B. S. 39226, 384-84-, 41267 
Ramos & Edano. In open grasslands at medium altitudes. India to south- 
ern China and Java. 

3. CHIONACHNE R. Brown 

CHIONACHNE BIAURITA Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
263; Merr. op. cit. 320. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet) , Merrill 4.282, Vanoverbergh 934- On fresh 
talus slopes, untilled soil, etc., altitude about 1,200 m. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Chionachne BARBATA R. Br.;' F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 314. 

4. COIX Linnaeus 

COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 972; Pilg. ex Perk. Frag. Fl. 

Philip. (1904) 137; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 

320, 3 (1908) Bot. 394, 5 (1910) Bot. 325, Fl. Manila (1912) 75, 

Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 59; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Veg. Philip. (1905) 

132 (lachrymae-jovis) . 
Coix lachryma Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1261; Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 

688, ed. 2 (1845) 478, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 92, t. 188; Miq. Fl.' Ind. Bat. 3 

(1857) 476; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 314;, Vidal Phan. Cuming. 

Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 288. 
Coix agrestis Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 551; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 314. 
Coix exaltata Jacq. ex Spreng. Syst. 1 (1825) 228; Nees in Hook. 

Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97. 

Throughout the Philippines in the settled areas at low and medium al- 
titudes, in most or all islands and provinces!; common. A native of the 
Old World, now pantropic. 

Local names: Abukai (Iv.) ; adlai (Bis.); agagai (Iv.) ; agda (Ig.) ; 
aglai (C. Bis.) ; alimudias (P. Bis.) ; apagi (Ig) ; atakai (Ilk., Bon.) ; 
balantakan (Pamp.) ; barubaioko (Bik.) ; bintikai (Bik.) ; bitogan (Bag.) ; 
dalai (Sub.) ; damau (C. Bis.) ; glias (Sub.) ; kalabugau (Buk.) ; kambot 
(Ting.) ; katayan (Ig.) ; katigbi (C. Bis.) ; kibaoung (If.) ; koldasan 
(Bik.) ; kudlasan (Tag.) ; lamudias (P. Bis.) ; lias (Sub.) ; paias (P. Bis., 
Bag.) ; palias (P. Bis.) ; pintaka (C. Bis.) ; tidbi (S. L. Bis.) ; tigbi (Bik., 
Tag.); tigbikai (Bik.); tiguas (Sul.) ; tikaian (Bon.). 



30 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Var. MA-YUEN (Roman.) Stapf in Hook. f. PL Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 100; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 321. 
Coix ma-yuen Roman, in Bull. Soc. Acclim. Paris III 8 (1881) 442. 
Luzon (Rizal), Mindanao (Zamboanga), Jolo, Merrill 5326, F. B. 3394 
A hern's collector. Occasionally cultivated for its edible grain or for 
use in making fermented drinks. Tropical Asia. 
Local name: lias (Tag.). 

5. DIMERIA R. Brown 
DIMERIA CILIATA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot..262. 

Palawan, Merrill 93.20. In low open grasslands just above sea level. 
Endemic. 

DIMERIA ORNITHOPODA Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820) 167, t. 14, var. 

TEN ERA (Trin.) Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 81; Merr. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 321, PL Manila (1912) 75. 

Dimeria tenera Trin. in Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. VI 2 (1833) 

335; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 315. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Cama- 

rines), Mindoro, Mindanao (Davao). In open grasslands, on rice-paddy 

banks, etc., sea level to an altitude of 1,500 m, locally abundant. India 

to Japan and Malaya. 

Haplachne pilosissima Presl and Andropogon chloridifomvis Gaudich. are 
included in the Novissima Appendix by F.-Villar as distinct species. Both 
are synonyms of Dimeria chloridif ormis K. Schum. & Lauterb. (D. pilo- 
sissima Trin.) a very characteristic species known only from the Marianne 
Islands. 

6. I M PER ATA Cyrillo 

IMPERATA CYLINDRICA (Linn.) Beauv. Agrost. (1912) expl. pi. 5, t. 5, 
f. 1, var. KOENIGII (Retz.) Benth. ex Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. 
Philip. (1904) 137; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
322, 3 (1908) Bot. 395, 5 (1910) Bot. 325, Fl. Manila (1912) 76, 
Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 60. 
Saccharum koenigii Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 16. 
Imperata koenigii Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 165; Nees in Hook. Journ. 

Bot. KewMiscel. 2 (1850) 100. 

Imperata arundinacea Cyr. PL Rar. Ic. 2 (1792) 26, t. 11; Miq. FL 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 514; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, 

Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 289; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 316. 

Imperata arundinacea Cyr. var. koenigii Benth.; Hack, in DC. Monog. 

Phan. 6 (1889) 94; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Phil. Veg. (1905) 132. 
Saccharum spicatum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 346; Kunth Enum. 
1 (1833) 476; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 513; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 317; Scribn. in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 52, t. 1. 
Throughout the Philippines, on open slopes, often gregariously occupying 
enormous areas, forming characteristic kogonales, the name of these areas 
being taken from its almost universal local name kogon. It ascends to 
2,300 m altitude. Tropical Asia and Africa to Australia and Polynesia. 
Local names: Buchid (Iv.) ; bulum (U.) ; gaon (Ig.) ; gogon (Bik.) ; 
goon (Bon.) ; ilib (Pamp.) ; kogon (Ilk., Tag., Bik.) ; panau (Ilk.) ; parrang 
(SuL). 



V ° L x GRAMINEAE 31 

IMPERATA EXALTATA Brongn. Voy. Coq. Bot. (1829) 101, excl. syn. 

Roxb.; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 98; Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 322; Pilg. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. 

(1904) 137. 

Saccharum confertum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 346; Kunth Enum. 

1 (1833) 476; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 317. 
Imperata ramosa Anders, in Oefvers. Vet. Akad. Forhandl. Stockh. 
(1855) 158, Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Vid. Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 289. 
Saccharum alopecurus Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 
(1850) 100; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 792; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 
513; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 317. 
Saccharum, negrosense Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 407. 

Central Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. In habitats similar to the 
preceding species, but much less common. Java to the Moluccas; a variety 
in tropical America as Hackel interprets it. 

Subsp. MERRILLII Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 264; 
Merr. op. cit. 322. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Benguet) , Negros, Merrill 4.813, Phil. PL 582, B. S. 2768 
Mearns, B. S. 19627 McGregor. On exposed ridges, altitude 1,500 to 2,250 
m. Endemic. 

Local names: Gogon (Bik.) ; kogon (Tag., Bis., Sul.) ; padang-lubuk 
(Sul.) ; paraugutau (Sub.). 

7. MISCANTHUS Andersson 

MISCANTHUS DEPAUPERATUS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) 
Bot. 170. 

Negros, Merrill Phil. PI. 583. In open places on the crater of Canlaon 
Volcano, altitude 1,800 to 2,000 m. Endemic. 

MISCANTHUS JAPONICUS (Thunb.) Anders, in Oefv. Vet. Akad. For- 
handl. Stockh. (1855) 166; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 
107; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 322, 3 (1908) Bot. 
395. 
Saccharum japonicum Thunb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 2 (1794) 328. 
Saccharum praegrande Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 408. 
Miscanthus luzoniensis Anders, in Oefv. Vet. Akad. Forhandl. Stockh. 
(1855) 166; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 289. 
Saccharum densum Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 
100; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 792. 

Babuyan Islands to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. In thickets, 
on slopes, and along streams at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 
1,200 m. Japan to the Moluccas and Polynesia. 

Local names: Biiyau (If.); loni (Bag.); tanlak (Tag.); tubas (Tag.); 
riino (Pang., Ig., Ilk.); viau (Iv.). 

MISCANTHUS SINENSIS Anders, in Oefv. Vet. Akad. Forhandl. Stockh. 
(1855) 166; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 105; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 323, 2 (1907) Bot. 260, 3 (1908) 
Bot. 395, 5 (1910) Bot. 325. 



32 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Eulalia japonica Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 2 (1833) 333; 

Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 518; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 316, 

non Miscanthus japonicus Anders. 
Miscanthus japonicus Pilg. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 137, non 

Anders. 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Lepanto, Pampanga, Tayabas, 
Bataan, Zambales), Mindoro, Negros. In open places, on slopes, and in 
ravines, altitude 800 to 2,700 m, often abundant. Japan to southern China 
and Celebes. 

Local names: Bigaho (Bik.) ; bigau (Bik.) ; biidu (Ig.) ; bilau (Ig., 
If.) ; gaho (Bik.) ; gisa (Bik.) ; lolo (Bon.) ; paded (Ig.) ; pao (Bon.) ; 
runo (Ilk.); viau (Iv.). 

8. SACCHARUM Linnaeus 

SACCHARUM ARUNDINACEUM Retz. Obs. 6 (1791) 14; Hack, in DC. 
Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 117; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 119: 
Erianthus sp. Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 137. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Nueva Vizcaya, Tayabas), Mindoro, Samar, Mindanao, 
Merrill 179 U, 5U8, Clemens 809, Williams 2625, B. S. 13279 Ramos, U207 
McGregor, 20906 Escritor. Along river banks at low and medium alti- 
tudes. India to southern China. 

Local names: Bagi'-unas (Ilk.); bahi-onas (Isn.) ; gatbo (Tag.); lakbo 
(Tag.); tanig (Bon.); zaigbau (Sub.). 

SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 54; Blanco Fl. Filip. 
(1837) 42; ed. 2 (1845) 29, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 55, t. 18; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 317; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 323, 
Fl. Manila (1912) 78, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 60. 
Saccharum violaceum F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 317, non Tussac. 
Cultivated throughout the Philippines, in some islands and provinces very 
extensively, being one of the major crops of the Philippines. Not a 
native of the Archipelago. Sugar cane. 

Local names: Agbo (Ibn.) ; caha dulce (Sp.) ; tubo (Tag., Bik.); tubu 
(Sul.) ; una (Ibn.); unas (Ilk.); unat (It.). 

SACCHARUM SPONTANEUM Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 183 subsp. INDICUM 

Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 117; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. 

Philip. (1904) 137; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 

323, 5 (1910) Bot. 325, Fl. Manila (1912) 77, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 

60. 

Saccharum spontaneum Linn.; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 512; Rolfe 

in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 

158, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 289. 

Saccharum spontaneum Linn, subsp. luzonicum Hack, in DC. Monog. 

Phan. 6 (1889) 117. 
Anthistiria gigantea Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 49, ed. 2 (1845) 33, 

ed. 3, 1 (1877) 62, non Cav. 
Saccharum insulare Brongn. var. amplum et var. depauperatum Anders, 
in Oefv. Vet. Akad. Forhandl. Stockh. 12 (1855) 157. 
Throughout the Philippines, in open areas at low and medium altitudes, 
ascending to 1,500 m, often gregarious and almost exclusively occupying 
large areas. India to southern China through Malaya to Polynesia. 



VoL l GRAMINEAE 33 

Local names: Bogang (C. Bis.); bugang (C. Bis.); lidda (Ilk.); salin 
(Bon.) ; sikal (Ibn.) ; talahib (Tag.) ; tibayo (Bag.) ; tigbau (S. L. Bis., 
P. Bis.). 

9. POLLINIA Trinius 

POLLINIA ARGENTEA (Brongn.) Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 
4 (1836) 90; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 162; Pilger in 
Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 138; Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 
(1906) Suppl. 265; Merr. op. cit. 325, Fl. Manila (1912) 77. 
Eidalia argentea Brongn. Voy. Coqu. Bot. (1829) 92. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Bontoc, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Rizal), 
Semirara, Merrill 4-152, 108, Elmer 6474, B. S. 17850 Otanes, 14216 Mc- 
Gregor, 7815, 8092, 7831 Ramos. In open grasslands at low and medium 
altitudes. India to Malaya and Australia. 

Var. LAGOPUS Hack, in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 79; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 325. 
Pollinia speciosa Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 138, non 
Hack. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Lepanto, Bontoc, Benguet, Pampanga), Mindoro, 
Palawan, Merrill 4222, 3902, 4-365, U535, 472, B. S. 32753, 32779, 5849 Ramos. 
In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,600 m. 
Endemic. 

POLLINIA CONTORTA (Brongn.) comb. nov. 

Pogonatherum contortum Brongh. Bot. Voy. Coqu. Bot. (1829) 90, 

t. 17. ■ 
Andropogon koretrostachys Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 2 
(1833) 273; Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 380; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1857) 484; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 316. 
Pollinia articulata Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 4 (1836) 90; 
F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 315; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 
(1889) 153 (subsp. fragilis Hack. var. setifolia Hack.) ; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci/ 1 (1906) Suppl. 324; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. 
Philip. (1904) 138. 
Pollinia setifolia Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 
88;, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 521; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
315; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 
(1886) 290. 
Andropogon asthenostachys Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 381; Miq. 

FL Ind. Bat. -3 (1857) 485. 
Eidalia contorta O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PL (1891) 775. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Abra, Lepanto, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya), 
Mindanao (Bukidnon), Merrill 317, B. S. 2014-1 McGregor, 7035, 8121, 
7809, 4-737 Ramos, F. B. 5875 Curran, 22128 Alvarez, 16460 Bacani. In 
open grasslands chiefly at medium altitudes. Burma, southern China, 
Moluccas, Australia. 

Local name: Sangumati (Buk.). 

POLLINIA FULVA (R. Br.) Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 526. 
Saccharum fulvum R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 203. 
Pollinia cumingii Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 

183036 3 



34 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

9.8; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 373; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 803; 

Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 522; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 

158, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 290; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 

6 (1889) 167; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904)' 138;, Merr. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 325. 
Andropogon aureo-fulvus Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 373. 
Pollinia aurea F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 315, non Benth. 
Eulalia fulva O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 775. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Amburayan, Lepanto, Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva 
Vizcaya), Mindoro, Cuming 1538, Merrill 260, 4293, B. S. 33254, 4827 
Ramos. In open grasslands, sandy river bars, etc., at low and medium 
altitudes, ascending to 1,200 m. Bengal, southern China, Timor, Java, 
Australia. 

POLLINIA GLABRATA (Brongn.) Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 4 
(1836) 90; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 179. 
Eulalia glabrata Brongn. Voy. Coqu. Bot. (1829) 93, t. 19. 
Andropogon glabratus Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 1 (1840) 91. 
Nemastachys taitensis Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 357. 
Pollinia monantha Nees, var. leptathera Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
3 (1908) Bot. 167. 

Luzon (Pangasinan, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas), Mindoro, Samar, 
Panay, Mindanao, Balut, Merrill 5212, 8272, 7323, 5627, 5426, Phil. PL 
151, B. S. 314-11, 29010 Ramos & Edano, 21993, 13784 Ramos. In open 
ravines, thickets, and old clearings at low and medium altitudes. New 
Caledonia to the Marianne Islands and Polynesia. 

Local names: Gulos (Sub.); kapong (Bon.); lusimat (Sub.). 

Var. ELMERI (Hack.) comb. nov. 

Pollinia monantha Nees var. elmeri Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 
(1908) Bot. 167. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Elmer 6524, Merrill 7784, Vanoverbergh 
3665. In thickets in damp ravines, altitude 1,200 to 1,500 m. Endemic. 

POLLINIA IRRITANS (R. Br.) Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 155, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 265; Merr. op. cit. 325. 
Saccharum irritans R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 203. 
Erianthus irritans Kunth Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 160. 
Eulalia irritans O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 775. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill 4388, Vanoverbergh 3838. In open 
grasslands, altitude about 1,000 m. Tropical Australia. 

POLLINIA MARITIMA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 326. 
Lumbucan, Merrill 5277, Phil. PI. 112. On sandy seashores. Closely 
allied to P. fulva Benth. Endemic. 

POLLINIA NUDA Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 2 (1833) 307; Hack. 
in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 178;, Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 265. 
Eulalia nuda O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 775. 
Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4727. 4842. In openings in the mossy forest, 
altitude 2,000 to 2,400 m. India to China and Japan. 



VoL1 GRAMINEAE . 35 

POLLINIA QUADRINERVIS Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 158, 
Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 79; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 325, 5 (1910) Bot. 325. 
Eulalia quadrinervis 0. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 775. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill 4.354, 4560, 6519, Elmer 5783, B. S. 
31980 Santos, F. B. 16183, 16208 Curran, Merritt, & Zschokke. On open 
slopes in the pine region, altitude 1,400 to 2,200 m. India to southern 
China. 

Local names: Galakgakan (Ig.) ; taao (Ig.). 

POLLINIA TENUIS Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 2 (1833) 307; 
F.-Vill. Novis App. (1882) 315; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 521; 
Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 181; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 326. 

Luzon (Ilocos Sur, Bontoc, Benguet, Bataan, Rizal), Merrill 4310, 4382, 
Kneucker Gram. Exsic. 721, B. S. 5310 Ramos. On dry open slopes, on and 
about cliffs, etc., from sea level to 1,200 m altitude. Caroline Islands. 

POLLINIA VIMINEA (Trin.) comb. nov. 

Andropogon vimineus Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 2 (1833) 

268. 
Pollinia ionberbis Nees in Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 410, var. 
willdenowiana Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 178, forma 
monostachya Hack, in Philip. Joum. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 265; Merr. 
op. cit. 326. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Rizal), Merrill 4707, Williams 1960, Vanover- 
bergh 809, 991, 3810. On open wet slopes and in the mossy forest, altitude 
1,200 to 2,200 m. India to southern China and Japan. 

10. POLYTRIAS Hackel 

POLYTRIAS AMAUREA (Biise) O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 788; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 327. 
Andropogon amaurus Biise in Miq. PI. Jungh. (February, 1854) 320. 
Andropogon diversiflorus Steud. in Zoll. Syst. Verzeich. (1854) 58, 

nomen nudum, Syn. PL Glum. 1 (July or August, 1854) 370. 
Pollinia praemorsa Nees in Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 409. 
Polytrias praemorsa Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 189, t. 1 } 
/. 13; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 7; Pilger in 
Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 138. 
Polytrias diversiflora Nash in Torreya 5 (1905) 110; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 11 (1916) Bot. 253. 
Luzon (Rizal, Sorsogon), Jolo, Merrill 386, Phil. PI. 106, Kneucker 
Gram. Exsic. 602. In open grasslands in and about towns at low altitudes, 
certainly introduced. Malay Peninsula, Borneo,. Java, introduced in the 
West Indies. 

11. POGONATHERUM Beauvois 

POGONATHERUM PANICEUM (Lam.) Hack, in Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 12 
(1906) 178; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 395, Fl. 
Manila (1912) 76, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 60. 
Saccharum paniceum Lam. Encycl. 1 (1785) 595, t. 40, f. 1. 
Pogonatherum saccharoideum Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 9, t. 11, f. 7; 



36 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 316; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 

158, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 290; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 

6 (1889) 192 (var. monandrum Hack.);, Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. 

Philip. (1904) 138; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 327. 
■ Pogonatherum polystachyum R. & S. Syst; 2 (1825) 497; Nees in 

Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 99. 
Pogonopsis tenera Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 333, t. U6; Scribn. 

in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 52, t. 2. 
Pogonatherum crinitum Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 478; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1857) 516; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Veg. Philip. (1905) 133. 
Cinna filiformis Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 9; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. 3, 4 1 (1880) 3. 
Deyeuxia quadriseta F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 319, non Benth. 
Ischaemum crinitum Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 2 (1833) 

298; Presl Repert. 1 (1833) 296. 

Throughout the Philippines, common on banks of ravines, along streams 
on cliffs and steep banks, etc., at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 
2,000 m. India to China through Malaya to the New Hebrides. 

Local names: Dumenei (Bon.); kisang (Buk.) ; lagitlit (C. Bis.); mala- 
kauayan (S. L. Bis.) ; oban-oban (Mbo.) ; panaguayan (C. Bis.) ; silsilig 
(Bon.) . 

12. APLUDA Linnaeus 

APLUDA MUTICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 82; Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. 

Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 192, Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 

(1850) 99; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 501; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 318; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PI. Vase. 

Filip. (1886) 292; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 

332, Fl. Manila (1912) 79. 
Calamina humilis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 344. 
Apluda humilis Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 517;, F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 318. 
Apluda cumingii Biise in De Vriese PL Ind. Bat. Or. (1856) 105; 

Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 501; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 318. 
Apluda varia Hack. var. humilis Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 

196. 
Apluda varia Hack. var. mutica Hack. f. intermedia Hack, in DC. 

Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 197. 
Apluda mutica Linn, forma intermedia Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

1 (1906) Suppl. 332. 
Apluda varia Hack. var. major Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 

198. 
Apluda mutica Linn. var. major Hack, in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 1 2 

(1906) 179. 

In thickets and open grasslands throughout the Philippines at low and 
medium altitudes, ascending to 1,800 m. India to southern China, through 
Malaya to Australia, New Caledonia, and Polynesia. 

Local names: Kauakauayan (Tag.); kolokauayan (Tag.); kurukauayan 
(Bik) ; magkauayan (C. Bis.). 

Var ARISTATA (Linn.) Rendle ex Forbes & Hemsl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
Bot. 36 (1904) 279; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 332, 
Fl. Manila (1912) 80. 



Vol. 1 



GRAMINEAE , 37 



Apluda aristata Linn. Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 303; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 318; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 132. 
Luzon (Rizal), B. S. 20 Ul Ramos, Merrill 629, Silva 391. Habitat and 
range of the species. 

13. ISCHAEMUM Linnaeus 

ISCHAEMUM ANGUSTI FOLIUM (Trin.) Hack, ex Oliv. in Hook. Ic. Ill 
8 (1888) t. 1773, DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 241; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 331. 
Spodiopogon angustifolius Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 2 
(1833) 300; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 99; 
Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 
(1886) 290. 
Andropogon obvallatus Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 373. 
Ischaemum notopogon Nees in Miq.' Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 500; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 315. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan), 
Cuming 1002, Merrill 172, Phil PL 171, B. S. 77 W, 7919 Ramos, 11>2U 
McGregor, F. B. 16527 Curran & Merritt. In open grasslands at low and 
medium altitudes, ascending to 1,400 m. India to southern China and 
Formosa. 

Local names: Kaboot (Ilk., Ibn.) ; poen (Bon.); pueng (Bon.); puenig 
(Ig.) ; sangumati (Buk.). 

ISCHAEMUM ARISTATUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1049 var. GIBBUM (Trin.) 

Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 204; Pilg. in Perk. Frag. Fl. 

Philip. (1904) 139; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 

330, Fl. Manila (1912) 80. 
Ischaemum gibbum Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 2 (1833) 295; 

Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 498; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 315. 
Andropogon gibbus Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 376. 

Luzon (Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, 
Bulacan, Rizal, Camarines), Culion. In open grasslands at low and me- 
dium altitudes; often common. Well represented by Merrill Phil. PL 179, 
1977, and Kneucker Gram. Exsic. 605. The variety endemic, the species 
India to China. 

ISCHAEMUM ARUNDINACEUM F.-Muell. ex Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 
519 var. RAD I CANS Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
266; Merr. op. cit. 331. 

Luzon (Benguet, Bontoc), Merrill 4264, Phil. PI. 1000, Williams 1197, 
Vanoverbergh 861. On open grassy slopes in the pine regions, altitude 
1,200 to 1,600 m. The variety endemic, the species in tropical Australia. 

ISCHAEMUM CILIARE Retz. Obs. 6 (1791) 36; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
315; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 255 (var. malachophyllum 
Hack.) ; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 395. 

Batan Islands (Batan), B. S. 3169 Mearns. In open grasslands. India 
to China and Formosa. 

ISCHAEMUM GLAUCESCENS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 
263. 

Palawan, Merrill 9453. In shallow water, borders of Lake Manguao, at 
low altitudes. Endemic. 



38 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

ISCHAEMUM INTERMEDIUM Brongn. in Duperr. Voy. Coqu. (1829) Bot. 
73; Pilg. in Perk. Frag. PI. Philip. (1904) 139; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 331, Fl. Manila (1912) 80. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon), Polillo, Leyte, Mindanao (Surigao), 
Merrill 68, 5222, 5213, Phil. PI. 102, U58, Elmer U326, 18318., 17408, 
16936, B. S. 34749 Ramos & Pascasio, 12103, 12022 Ramos. In open wet 
grassy places at low altitudes. Caroline Islands. 

ISCHAEMUM MERRILLII Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
266; Merr. op. cit. 331. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), Merrill 4622, B. S. 12917 Fenix. In open 
rather wet places, altitude about 1,500 m. Endemic. 
Local names: Kugangan (Ig.) ; sinamon (Ig.). 

ISCHAEMUM MUTICUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1049; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 

(1857) 496; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 315; Hack, in DC. Monog. 

Phan. 6 (1889) 212; Pilg. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 139; 

Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 330, 3 (1908) Bot. 395. 
Ischaemum glabratum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 328;. Kunth Enum. 

1(1833) 513; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 498; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 315. 
Andropogon relictus Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 377. 
Ischaemum repens Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 325; Nees in Hook. Journ. 

Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 100. 

Along sandy seashores from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, 
in most or all islands. India through Malaya to tropical Australia, New 
Caledonia, and western Polynesia. 

Local name: Karukauayan (Bik.). 

ISCHAEMUM PUBESCENS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 
264. 
Dumaran, B. S. 21639 Escritor. In open grasslands at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

ISCHAEMUM RUGOSUM Salisb. Ic. (1791) 1, t. 1 var. DISTACHYUM 

(Cav.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 330, 2 (1907) 

Bot. 436, Fl. Manila (1912) 80, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 61. 
Colladoa distachya Cav. Ic. 5 (1799) 37, t. 460; Willd. Sp. PI. 4 * 

(1805) 496. 
Andropogon ramosus Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 37, ed. 2 (1845) 25, 

ed. 3, 1 (1877) 48; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 

91, non Forsk. 
Ischaemum colladoa Spreng. Syst. 1 (1825) 298; Kunth Enum. 1 

(1833) 513; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 498; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 315. 
Iscliaemum rugosum Salisb. var. segetum Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 

6 (1889) 206; Pilg. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 139. 
Meoschium elegans Nees & Arn. in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 

(1843) Suppl. 1: 199; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 

2 (1850) 100. 
Ischaemum rugosum F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 * 

(1880) 105; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 496; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 

Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 290; Rolfe in 

Journ. Bot. (1885) 216, vix Salisb. 



VoL * GRAMINEAE 39 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Lepanto, Bontoc, Pangasinan, Rizal, Bataan), Po- 
lillo, Cuming 565, Merrill 1550, Phil. PI. 592, Sp. Blancoanae 165. In open 
usually rather wet 'grasslands. India to China and Malaya. 

Local names: Daua (Sub.); gulonglapas (Pang.); tinitrigo (Tag.j. 

ISCHAEMUM TODAYENSE Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 7 (1915) 2678. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10521. In ravines in secondary forests, al- 
titude about 9®0 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Halopos (Bag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

ISCHAEMUM polystachyum Presl ; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 315. 

The type of this was from the Marianne Islands and F.-Villar does 
not really enter the species as Philippine. It is a synonym of Ischaemum 
digitatum Brongn. 

Ischaemum timorense Kunth; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 315. 

Ischaemum minus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 329; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 315; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 514; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1857) 498. 

"Hab. in insulis Philippinis." This is an American species erroneously 
localized by Presl. It is Ischaemum urvilleanum Kunth; see Hack, in DC. 
Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 218. Andropogon minor Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 
(1854) 377 is a synonym. 

13a. EREMOCHLOA Buse 

EREMOCHLGFA CILIARIS (Linn.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 331. 
Nardus ciliaris Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 53. 

Ischaemum leersioides Munro in Proc. Amer. Acad. 4 (1864-65) 363. 

Eremochloa leersioides Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 264; 

Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 139; Merr. in Govt. Lab. 

Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 6. 

■Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela), Merrill 138, B. S. 7813, 7832, 8109 Ramos. 

In open grasslands at low altitudes. Southern China to Tonkin and 

Pegu. 

13b. ROTTBOELLIA Linnaeus f. 

ROTTBOELLIA EXALTATA Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 114; Nees in Nov. 

Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 173, Hook. Journ. Bot. 

KewMiscel. 2 (1850) 100; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 407; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 314; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, 

Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 290; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 

(1889) 293; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 328, Fl. 

Manila (1912) 78. 
Rottboellia setosa Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) .329; Kunth Enum. 

1 (1833) 466. 
Rottboellia denudata Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 362; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 408; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 314. 
Rottboellia coelorhachis F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 314, non Forst. 
Manisuris exaltata O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 779. 
Throughout the Philippines in open places, borders of thickets, etc., 



40 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



at low and medium altitudes; common. India to China, tropical Africa, 
through Malaysia to tropical Australia. 

Local names: Agingai (Tag.); annarai (Iv.) ; bodo (Bon.); bukal 
(C. Bis.); gaho (Bik.) ; girun (Bag.); nagei (Bon.); sagisi (Ilk.). 

ROTTBOELLIA GLANDULOSA Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 2 
(1833) 250; Hack, in DC. Morfog. Phan. 6 (1889) 302; Pilger 
in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 138; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 328. 

Coelorkachis muricata Brongn. Bot. Voy. Coqu. 1 (1829) 65, t. 14. 

Rottboellia muricata Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 407; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 314; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. 
PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 290, non Retz. 

Manisuris glandulosa O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 780. 

Culion, Palawan, Balabac, Siargao, Mindanao, Merrill 505, Phil. PI. 
1375, B. S. 34-988 Ramos & Pascasio, 491 Mangubat. In thickets, old 
clearings, etc., at low altitudes. Burma to Java. 

Local name: Murabon (Sul.). 

ROTTBOELLIA OPHIUROIDES Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 514; Hack, 
in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 303; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. 
Philip. (1904) 138; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
328, 5 (1910) Bot. 326. 
Ischaemum rottboellioides R. Br. Prodr. (1910) 205. 
Manisurus rottboellioides O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 779. 
Andropogon rottboellioides Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 382. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Tarl^c, Pampanga, 
Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal), Masbate, Panay, Bohol. In open grass- 
lands at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 2,000 m, often common. 
New Guinea, tropical Australia. 

Local names: Gilon (C. Bis.); katalon (Ig.) ; lagopak (S. L. Bis.); 
talango (Tag., Sbl.) ; tanlo (Ig.). 

Var. INTERMEDIA Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 265, 
Merr. op. cit. 329. 
Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4667, Elmer 6393. On dry slopes in the pine 
region, altitude 1,000 to 1,600 m. Endemic. 

ROTTBOELLIA TRI FLORA Hubbard in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 
257. 

Palawan, Ledesma. Borders of thickets at low altitudes. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Rottboellia myuros Linn.; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 181. 

This record was probably based on an erroneously identified specimen 
of Ophiurus monostachyns Presl. 

Rottboellia mutica Llanos ex F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 
3, 4 1 (1880) 99. 
This is an evident misprint for Rottboellia muricata Retz., a species 
that does not occur in the Philippines. 



VoL1 GRAMINEAE 41 

14. MANISURIS Swartz 

MANISURIS GRANULARIS Linn. f. Nov. Gram. Gen. (1779) 37, /. U-7 ; 

Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 409; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 314; 

Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 314; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 329, Fl. Manila (1912) 79. 
Cenchrus granulans Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 575. 
Hackelochloa granularis O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 776. 
Rytilix granularis Skeels in U. S. Dept. Agric. Bur. PL Ind. Bull. 

282 (1913) 20. 

Batan Islands to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. In dis- 
turbed soil, open waste places, old clearings, etc., at low and medium alti- 
tudes. Pantropic. 

Local name: Gingetkaran (Bag.). 

15. OPHIURUS Gaertner 

OPHIURUS EXALTATUS (Linn.) O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 780; 

Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 329. 
Aegilops exaltata Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 575. 
Ophiurus corymbosus Gaertn. Fruct. 3 (1805) 4, t. 181, f. A; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 314; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 

138. 
Rottboellia tongcalingii Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 7 (1915) 2680. 

Luzon (Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Negros, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao), 
Merrill 127 p. p., Williams 2617, Elmer 10317, 10521, 16486, B. S. 8076 
Ramos. In open rather damp places at low and medium altitudes. India 
to tropical Australia. 

Local names: Girun (Bag.) ; talangiu (Bon.) 

OPHIURUS MONOSTACHYUS Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 330; Kunth 
Enum. 1 (1833) 464; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 405; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 314; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 
158, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 290; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 
6 (1889) 318; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 329, 
Fl. Manila (1912) 79. 

Ophiurus undatus Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 
100; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 791. 

Ophiurus undulalus Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 405. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Lepanto, Ifugao, Rizal), Mindanao (Bu- 
kidnon, Zamboanga, Lanao), Cuming 1S39, Merrill Phil. PI. 12U, B. S. 32781 
Ramos, 19978 McGregor, 37J/.50, 39203 Ramos & Edano. In open grass- 
lands at low and medium altitudes. Southern China, Indo-China. 

16. ARTHRAXON Beauvois 

ARTHRAXON HISPIDUS (Thunb..) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 

Bot. 229. 
Phalaris hispida Thunb. Fl. Jap. (1784) 44. 
Arthraxon ciliaris Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 111, t. 11, f. 6; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 315. 
Pleuroplitis langsdorffii Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820) 174, /. 16. 
Arthraxon ciliaris Beauv. subsp. langsdorffii Hack, in DC. Monog. 

Phan. 6 (1889) 354, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 265; 

Merr. op. cit. 333; Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 139. 



42 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Arthraxon ciliaris Beauv. subsp. nudus Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 

6 (1889) 356, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 266; Merr. op. 

cit. 333. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Ifugao, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya), 

Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill 102, 1+1+27, 1+628, 7676, Phil. PL 175, Vanover- 

bergh 3811, 1760, 201+, Clemens 100, B. S. 19628 McGregor, 5531+, 5926, 5970, 

7021, 7912 Ramos. In damp places about streams, in old rice paddies, 

etc., at medium altitudes, ascending to 1,600 m. Japan, China, Formosa. 

Local name: Timi-timi (Bon.). 

ARTHRAXON M ICROPHYLLUS (Trin.) Hochst. in Flora 39 (1856) 188; 
Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 351, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 
(1906) Suppl. 265; Merr. op. cit. 333, 5 (1910) Bot. 326. 
Andropogon microphyllus Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 2 

(1833) 275. 
Pleuroplitis microphylla Regel in Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. 5 (1866) 
749. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill 1+363, 1+719, Phil. PL 193, 
Clemens 9233, Vanoverbergh 1732, F. B. 121+87 Merritt & Darling. On 
open slopes in the pine region, altitude 1,200 to 2,000 m. Abyssinia, In- 
dia, Ceylon. 

ARTHRAXON QUARTINIANUS (A. Rich.) Nash in N. Am. Flora 17 
(1912, Sept. 18) 99; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912, Sept. 
30) Bot. 229, Fl. Manila (1912) 77. 
Alectoridia quartiniana A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2 (1851) 448, t. 99. 
Arthraxon ciliaris Beauv. subsp. quartinianus Hack, in DC. Monog. 
Phan. 6 (1889) 356, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 266; Merr. 
op. cit. 333, 5 (1910) Bot. 326. 
Luzon (Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet, Rizal), Merrill 1+701+, 1+677, 7370, 9656, 
1+272, 6511+, Phil. PI. 999, Williams 1189, B. S. 19709 McGregor. On open 
slopes, in old rice paddies, etc., chiefly at altitudes from 1,100 to 1,600 m, 
rarely from about sea level. Abyssinia, India, introduced in the West 
Indies. 

17. ANDROPOGON Linnaeus 

ANDROPOGON ACICULATUS Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 22; Hack, in DC. 

Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 562; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. 

(1904) 139; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 338, Fl. 

Manila (1912) 83, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 162. 
Chrysopogon aciculatus Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820) 188; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 490; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 316; Vidal 

Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 

291. 
Rhaphis trivialis Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 553; Blanco Fl. Filip. 

(1837) 45. 
Andropogon acicularis Willd. Sp. PI. 4 2 (1805) 906; Blanco Fl. 

Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 26, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 49. 
Andropogon subulatus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 341; Kunth Enum. 

1 (1833) 505. 
Chrysopogon subulatus Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 491; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 317. 



Vol. 1 



GRAMINE/.E 43 



Rhaphis javaniccu Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 
99. 

Throughout the Philippines in open places at low and medium altitudes; 
a veritable pest on account of its spikelets adhering to fur, clothing, etc. 
India to China southward through Malaya to tropical Australia and 
Polynesia. 

Local names: Amor-seco (Sp.) ; dalekedek (Bon.); dalukduk (Bon.) ; 
lakut-lapas (Sul.) ; marisekos (Tag.); mariskos (Tag.); pagippi (Ibn.) ; 
tinloi (Tag.). 

ANDROPOGON BAILEYI F.-Muell. in Vict. Nat. 7 (1891) 16; Hack, in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 297; Merr. op. cit. 337. 
Sorghum laxiflorum Bailey Syn. Queensl. Fl. Suppl. 3 (1890) 84, 
Queensl. Fl. 6 (1902) 1869; Rept. Exped. Bellend. Ker Range 
25, non Andropogon laxiflorus Steud. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Rizal), Merrill 4399, Vanoverbergh 
2131, 3839, B. S. 24082 Ramos. On open grassy slopes at medium alti- 
tudes, ascending to 1,200 m. Tropical Australia. 

ANDROPOGON BREVIFOLIUS Sw. Prodr. (1788) 26; Hack, in DC. 
Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 363; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; 
Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 
(1886)' 291; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 139; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 335. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, 
Zambales, Bataan, Laguna), Mindanao (Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao). In 
open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. Pantropic. 

Local name: Bung-bung (Bag.). 

ANDROPOGON CINCTUS Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 398. 

Chrysopogon mAcranthus Benth. var. spicigerus Benth. Fl. Austral. 

7 (1878) 538. 
Andropogon micranthus Kunth var. spicigerus Hack, in DC. Monog. 
Phan. 6 (1889) 489; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 336, 
3 (1908) Bot. 395. 
Batan a'nd Babuyan Islands, Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill 4-836, 
Elmer 5918, F. B. 15612, U85U Curran, B. S. 5367 Ramos, 3726, 3918, 1+0W 
Fenix. In open grasslands up to 1,800 m altitude. China, Australia, 
New Caledonia. 

I believe this to be specifically distinct from Andropogon micranthus 
Kunth. 

ANDROPOGON CITRATUS DC. Cat. Hort. Monsp. (1813) 78; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 167, Fl. Manila (1912) 82, Sp. 
Blancoanae (1918) 62. 

Andropogon schoenanthus Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 39, ed. 2, (1845) 
27, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 50; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 316; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 339, 2 (1907) Bot. 436, non Linn. 

Cymbopogon citratus Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906) 257. 

Planted here and there about houses in most or all parts of the Philip- 
pines for its fragant leaves, but nowhere spontaneous; I have seen only 
one flowering specimen, Jolo, Link 215. A native of tropical Asia, now 
widely distributed in cultivation. 



44 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Local names: Balioko (Bis.); barani (Ilk.); paja de meca (Sp.) ; tang- 
lad (Tag., Bik., Bis.) ; salai (Tag.) ; sai (Mbo., Mand., Sul.) ; salaid (Tag.). 

ANDROPOGON CONTORTUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1045; Blanco Fl. Filip. 

ed. 1 (1837) 38, ed. 2 (1845) 26, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 49; Merr. in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 338, Fl. Manila (1912) 83, Sp. 

Blancoanae (1918) 61. 
Heteropogon contortus Beauv. ex R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 836; Nees 

in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 99; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 315; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 493; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 

Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 291. 
Heteropogon polystachyus F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 315, non 

Schultes. 
Heteropogon roxburghii Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 

(1850) 99, haud Arn. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Union, Lepanto, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, 
Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rizal, Zambales), Mindoro, Mindanao (Bukidnon, 
Misamis). In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes, often very 
abundant. Certainly an introduced plant in the Philippines. Pantropic. 

Local name: Sibat-sibatan (Tag.). 

The Philippine form is mostly referable to the var. hispidissimus Hack, 
in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 587. 

ANDROPOGON FASTIGIATUS Sw. Prodr. (1788) 26; Hack, in DC. Monog. 
Phan. 6 (1889) 393, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 267; Merr. 
op. cit. 335. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Bontoc, Pangasinan), Merrill 4-461, B. S. 30055 Ramos. 
On dry open grassy slopes at low and medium altitudes. Pantropic. 

ANDROPOGON FESTUCOIDES Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 340; Kunth 
Enum. 1 (1833) 500; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 489; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 316; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 61. 
Andropogon anias Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 29; F.-Vill. & Naves 
in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 20; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
316. 
Andropogon muricatus Retz. var. aristatus Biise in De Vr*iese PL Ind. 

Bat. Orient. (1856) 104. 
Andropogon nigritanus Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. (1849) 573. 
Andropogon squarrosus Linn. f. var. nigritanus Hack, in DC. Monog. 

Phan. 6 (1889) 544. 
Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf var. nigritana Camus in Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris 25 (1919) 674. 
Luzon (Pampanga, Nueva Ecija), Merrill 4231, 4240, Phil. PL 389, B. S. 
2.22.38 Santos. In open level lands, rice-paddy banks, etc., at low altitudes. 
Tropical Africa, Java. 

Local name: Anias (Pamp.). 

The roots are entirely odorless in striking contrast to those of An- 
dropogan zizanioides Urban to which it has been erroneously reduced. 

ANDROPOGON FILIPENDULUS Hochst. in Flora 29 (1846) 115, var. 
LACHNATHERUS (Benth.) Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 
635, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 267; Merr. op. cit. 339. 
Andropogon lachnatherus Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 534. 



Vol. 1 



GRAMINEAE 45 



Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet), Merrill 7799, 4.398, Elmer 6392. On 
open grassy slopes, altitude 1,100 to 1,600 m. 

Forma BISPICULATA Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 269; 
Merr. op. cit. 339. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4298. On open slopes, altitude about 1,350 
m. The var. lachnatherus Hack, in tropical Australia, other varieties in 
tropical Africa and Ceylon. 

Local names: Pauai (Ig.) ; taau (Bon.). 

ANDROPOGON FRAGILIS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 202, var. LUZONIENSIS 
Hack, in Philip. Journ/ Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 267; Merr. op. cit. 
335. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill 4468, 4386. In dry open grasslands 

at medium altitudes. 

Var. MALAYAN US Merr. var. nov. A typo differt spiculis pedicellisque 
omnino glabris. 
Andropogon fragilis Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
335, Fl. Manila (1912) 82, haud R. Br. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Ifugao, Pangasinan, Rizal), Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill 
8012, Phil. PI. 156, Loher 1864, B. S. 19977 McGregor. In dry open grass- 
lands at low and medium altitudes. New Guinea, King 1002. The species 
in southern China, New Guinea, and in tropical Australia, a variety also 
in China. 

ANDROPOGON GRYLLUS Linn. Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 332; Hack, in 
DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 550, var. PHIL1PPIN ENSIS Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 368. 
Chrysopogon gryllus Trin. ; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 316 (prob.). 

Panay, B. S. 30964 Ramos & Edano. On bowlders and ledges along 
streams at low altitudes. The variety endemic, the species, in various 
forms, southern Europe to Australia. 

ANDROPOGON HALEPENSIS (Linn.) Brot. Fl. Lusit. 1 (1804) 89, var. 

PROPiNQUUS (Kunth) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

Suppl. 336, Fl. Manila (1912) 84. 
Andropogon propinquus Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 502. 
Andropogon affinis Presl Rel. Haenk 1 (1828) 343, non R. Br. 
Sorghum halepense Pers. var. muticum Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. 

Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 99. 
Sorghum halepense Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 503; F.-Vill. Novis. 
- App. (1882) 317; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. 

PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 184, haud Pers. 
Andropogon sorghum Pers. subsp. halepensis Hack. var. propinquus 

Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 503. 

Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most or all islands 
and provinces, often common. The species pantropic, the variety Ceylon 
to New Guinea. 

Local names: Aroro (Bik.) ; baku (If.) batad-batadan (Tag.) ; dala- 
pak (Sub.); gingai (Sul.) ; gingia (Bag.); riaria (Sul.); sikal (Ibn.) ; 
uginai (Buk.). 



46 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

ANDROPOGON INTERM EDIUS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 202; Hack, in DC. 

Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 485; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

Suppl. 335 var. HAENKEI (Presl) Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 

(1889) 486; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 139; Merr. in 
. Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 335, PL Manila (1912) 83. 
Andropogon haenkei Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 340; Kunth Enum. 

1 (1833) 501; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 489; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 316. 
Rhaphis stricta Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 99; 

Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 803. 
Andropogon leptanthus Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 391; Miq. FL 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 389; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, 

Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 291. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, 
Pangasinan, Rizal, Batangas), Negros, Mindanao, Cuming 1400, Merrill 
6734, 313, 5456, Phil. PI. 134, 1842, B. S. 30072 Fenix, 8246, 7830, 7658, 
7918, 7916, 1426 Ramos. In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. 
The species in China and Australia, the variety in China and Ceylon, 
other varieties in Asia and Africa. 

Local names: Salai (Pang.); salai-parang (Tag.). 

ANDROPOGON MICRANTHUS Kunth Rev. Gram 1 (1829) 165; Enum. 

1 (1833) 504; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 488 (var. 

genuinus); Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 140; Merr. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 336. • 

Andropogon alternans Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 342. 

Chrysopogon violascens Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 2(1833) 

319. 
Rhaphis villosulus Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 

102. 
Rhaphis microstachys Nees 1. c, var. 
Chrysopogon villosulus Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, 

Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 291. 
Andropogon parvispica Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 397. 
Chrysopogon parviflorus Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 537; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 316. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, 
Zambales), Cuming 980, 1397, Merrill 118, UU, 4703, Phil. PI. 176, Elmer 
6593, Williams 1959, B. S. 32948 Ramos, 32010 Santos, 26038 Fenix, 14198 
McGregor, 8241 Ramos. In open grasslands chiefly at medium altitudes, 
ascending to 2,300 m. Abyssinia to China through Malaya to tropical 
Australia. 

Local names: Sangohgoan (Bon.); sanguan (Bon.); sisamon (Ig.). 

ANDROPOGON NARDUS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1046 var. TORTILIS (Presl) 

comb. nov. 
Anthistiria tortilis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 347; Kunth Enum. 

1 (1833) 483; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 317. 
Andropogon hamatulus Nees in Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechy's Voy. 

(1841) 244. 
Andropogon martyni Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 

(1850) 99. 



Vol. 1 



GRAMINEAE 47 



Andropogon nardus Linn. var. hamatulus Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 

6 (1889) 606; Pilger in Perk. Frag. PI. Philip. (1904) 140; Merr. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 339, 3 (1908) Bot. 396. 
Andropogon nardus Rolfe in Journ. Bot., 23 (1885) 216; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 291, non 

Linn. 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Bontoc, 
Pangasinan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija), Cagayan Sulu, Merrill 5307, Cuming 
1000, B. S. 7893, 7793, 804-7, 32888 Ramos, 10169 McGregor, F. B. 5858, 
17037 Curran, 164.61 Bacani. In open grasslands at low and medium 
altitudes. The variety in southern China, the species in India, Africa, 
and Malaya. 

Local name: Balaniu (Bon.). 

ANDROPOGON NITIDUS (Vahl) Kunth Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 166; Merr. 

Fl. Manila (1912) 84. 
Holcus nitidus Vahl Symb. 2 (1791) 102. 
Sorghum nitidum Pers. Syn. 1 (1805) 101. 
Andropogon fuscus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 342; Kunth Enum. 

1 (1833) 503. 
Sorghum fuscum Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 503; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 317; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. 

PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 291. 
Sorghum tropicum Nees var. muticum Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. 

Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 99. 
Andropogon pedicellatus Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 394; Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 488; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882)' 316. 
Andropogon serratus Thunb. var nitidus Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 

6 (1889) 521; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 140; Merr. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 337, 3 (1908) Bot. 396. 

Batan Islands, northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Mindanao, in most is- 
lands and provinces. In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. 

Forma HIRSUTA Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 140; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 337. 

Luzon (Isabela), Merrill 137. In open grasslands at low altitudes. The 
form endemic, the species India to southern China and Formosa south- 
ward to Java. 

ANDROPOGON PH ILIPPIN ENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 
367. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte), B. S. 32946, 32755 Ramos. On dry open rocky 
slopes at low altitudes. Endemic. 

ANDROPOGON SANGUINEUS (Retz.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 12 
(1917) Bot. 101; op. cit. 14 (1919) 369. 
Rottboellia sanguinea Retz. Obs. 3 (1783) 25. 
Thelepogon sanguineus Spreng. Syst. 1 (1825) 299. 
Andropogon pseudograya Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 465. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte), Culion, B. S. 32777, 41310, 41329 Ramos. On open 
slopes at low altitudes. Southern China, India, Ceylon, and Madagascar. 



48 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



192? 



ANDROPOGON SERICEUS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 201; Nees in Hook. 

Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 99; Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 

6 (1889) 575; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1888) 291; Pilger 

in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 140; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

1 (1906) Suppl. 338, Fl. Manila (1912) 82. 
Andropogon tenuiculus Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 371. 
Heteropogon tenuiculus Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 494; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 315. 

Luzon (Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal), Cuming 1398, Merrill 
266, Phil. PI. 163, B. S. 4824 Ramos. In open grasslands at low altitudes. 
New Guinea, New Caledonia, Australia. 

ANDROPOGON SERRATUS Thunb. Fl. Jap. (1784) 41; Hack, in DC. 
Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 520; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 337, Fl. Manila (1912) 84. 
Sorghum fulvum Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 164; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 317. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Rizal), Mindanao (Lanao, Davao, Bukidnon), 
Merrill 4297, Phil. PI. 593, Elmer 5958, Clemens 597, Piper 471, B. S. 
5764 Ramos. In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. Japan 
and China through Malaya to Australia. 

Local names: Girun (Bag.); taau (Bon.); tigau (Mag.). 

ANDROPOGON SORGHUM (Linn.) Brot. Fl. Lusit. 1 (1804) 88; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 336, Fl. Manila (1912) 84, 
Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 63 (var. vulgaris Hack.) ; Pilger in Perk. 
Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 140 (var. sativus Hack.) ; Usteri Beitr. 
Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 132 (var. niger Kunth). 

Holcus sorghum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1047. 

Holcus saccharatus Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1047; Blanco Fl. Filip. 

(1837) 47, ed. 2 (1845) 32, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 58, t. 436. 
Sorghum saccharatum Pers. Syn. 1 (1804) 101; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 317; Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 291. 
Sorghum vulgare Pers. Syn. 1 (1804) 101; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 

(1857) 502. 
Andropogon sorghum Brot. subsp. sativus Hack. var. saccharatus 
Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 505. 
Several forms or varieties of sorghum are cultivated in the Philippines, 
but none are established. A native of Asia or Africa, now cultivated in 
all warm countries. Sorghum. 

Local names: Bakau (Ibn.) ; batad (Tag., Bik., Bis.); batag (Tag.); 
bukakau (Ilk.); gau (If.); layagan (Sul.). 

ANDROPOGON TRITICEUS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 201; Hack, in DC. 

Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 588; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

Suppl. 338. 
Andropogon ischyranthus Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 367. 
Heteropogon ischyranthus Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 493; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 315. 
Heteropogon insignis Thwaites Enum. PL Zeyl. (1859-64) 437; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 315. 



i VoL * GRAMINEAE 49 

Luzon (Abra, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan), Busuanga, Cuming 1003, B. S. 
7216, 1+900, U269 Ramos, F. B. 121+77 Merritt & Darling. In open grasslands 
at low or medium altitudes. Ceylon and Bruma to tropical Australia. 

ANDROPOGON ZIZANIOIDES (Linn.) Urban Symb. Antil. 4 (1903) 79; 

Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 228, Fl. Manila (1912) 

83, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 62. 
Phalaris zizanioides Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 183. 
Andropogon squarrosus Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 542; 

Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 337, non Linn. f. (cf. 

Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906) 348. 
Andropogon muricatus Retz. Obs. 3 (1783) 43, 5 (1789) 20; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 316. 
Andropogon nardus Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 39, ed. 2 (1845) 27, 

ed. 3, 1 (1877) 51, non Linn. 
Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906) 346; Camus in Bull. 

Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 25 (1919) 673. 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Amburayan, Rizal, Cavite) , Merrill Sp. Blan- 
coanae 355, Phil. PI. 118, Loher 7213. Planted about rice-paddy banks, 
often abundant; certainly an introduced plant in the Philippines. A native 
of tropical Asia, now pantropic. Vetiver. 

Local names: Amoora (C. Bis.) ; amoras (Ilk.) ; anias de moras (Pamp.) ; 
giron (P. Bis.) ; ilib (Pamp.) ; mora (Bik., Bis.) ; moras (Tag., Bis., 
Bik.) ; moro (Tag.); narawastu (Sul.) ; raiz de moras (Sp.) ; rimodas (P. 
Bis.); rimora (Sbl.) ; rimoras (Bik.); tres-moras (Bis.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Andropogon eriostachys Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 339; Kunth Enum. 
1 (1833) 496; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 487; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 316. 
"Hab. in insulis Philippinis" Presl. This is the tropical American 
Andropogon ternatus Nees var. eriostachys (Presl) Hack, in DC. Monog. 
Phan. 6 (1889) 425. The type was one of the numerous Malaspina Ex- 
pedition plants collected by Presl but erroneously localized as Philippine. 

Heteropogon tenellus Schultes; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 315. 

18. ASTHENOCHLOA Biise 

ASTHENOCHLOA TEN ERA Biise in Miq. PI. Jungh. (February, 1854) 367. 
Andropogon leptos Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 397; Merr. in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 268, 337, 4 (1909) Bot. 250. 
t Garnotiella philippinensis Stapf in Hook. Ic. IV 5 (1896) t. 2U91+; 

Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 374. 
Garnotiella leptos Stapf in Kew Bull. (1910) 302. 
Luzon (Benguet), Panay, Merrill 1+322, Phil. PI. 15U, B. S. 5318 Ramos. 
On steep open slopes up to an altitude of 1,400 m. Originally described 
from "Andor," a locality I have not been able to locate; perhaps "Ind. 
or." intended. Java. A monotypic genus. 

The alliance of the genus is with Andropogon, not with Garnotia. 

183036 4 



50 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

19. THEM EDA Forskal 

THEM EDA GIGANTEA (Cav.) Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 670 

(var. genuina Hack.) ; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 

140; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 340, 3 (1908) 
• Bot. 396, 5 (1910) Bot. 326. 
Anthistiria gigantea Cav. Ic. 5 (1799) 36, t. 458; Willd. Sp. PI. 4 2 

(1805) 902; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 317; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 

Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 292. 
Androscepia gigantea Brongn. Bot. in Duperr. Voy. (1829) 78; Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 506; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 

2 (1850) 99. 
Perobachne secunda Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 348, t. U8; Kunth 

Enura. 1 (1833) 485; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 507; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 317. 

Batan Islands to Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces. In 
open grasslands on dry steep slopes at low and medium altitudes. India 
to China, Malaya, New Caledonia, and Australia. 

Local names: Girun (Bag.); mangambit (Sub.); sai-gaja (Sul.) ; salai- 
salai (Tag.) ; tanhad (Iv.) ; tanik (Bon.) ; taurar (Ilk.) ; teldak (Pang.) ; 
tulango (Tag.); talauyo (Tag.). 

Var. VULPINA (Anders.) Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 670; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 340. 
Anthistiria vulpina Anders, in Nov. Act. Upsal. Ill 2 (1856) 423. 
Anthistiria arundinacea Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 
292, haud Roxb. 
Luzon (Cagayan), Cuming 1272 and numerous other specimens. India. 
Scarcely distinguishable from the species. 

Subsp. INTERMEDIA Hack. var. DUBIA Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 
(1889) 675; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 341. 

Mindanao (Misamis), Cuming 1609. 

The species is variable in its spikelet characters, a number of forms 
being represented in the Philippines. 

THEME DA TRIANDRA Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 178; Merr. in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 340, Fl. Manila (1912) 81. 
Themeda forskalii Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 659; Pilger 

in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 140. 
Anthistiria ciliata Cav. Ic. 5 (1799) 36, t. 459; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 317; Nees in Hook. Journ." Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 99- 

(var. subglabra Nees) , non Linn, f . 
Anthistiria depauperata Anders, in Nov. Act. Upsala III 2 (1856) 

343; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 317. 
Anthistiria barbata Presl Repert. 1 (1833) 305, non Desf. 
Apluda barbata Llanos in Mem. Acad. Cienc. Madr. 4 (1858) 497; 

FL Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 99 (misprint for Anthistiria barbata). 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Ilocos Norte, 
Abra, Bontoc, Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Albay) , Mindoro, 
Busuanga, Semirara, Mindanao. In open grasslands at low and medium 



Vo] - 1 GRAMINEAE 51 

altitudes, ascending to 2,300 m. Frequently abundant and gregarious 
over large areas. Tropical Asia and Africa through Malaya to Australia. 
Local names: Punau (Bon.); samsamong (Ilk.); taau (Ig.) ; usimau 
(Ilk.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Anthistiria junghuhniana Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 
(1850) 99. 

This is credited to the Philippines by Nees, on the basis of Cuming 
24.31, which was from Sumatra, not from the Philippines. It is a syno- 
nym of Themeda frondosa (R. Br.) Merr. (T. arguens Hack., not Stipci 
ctrguens Linn.), which does not occur in the Philippines. 

20. PEROTIS Aiton 

PEROT IS INDICA (Linn.) 0. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PL (1891) 787; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 341. 
Anthoxcunthum indicum Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 28. 
Perotis latifolia Ait. Hort. Kew. 1 (1789) 85; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 313. 
Perotis glabrata Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 186; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1857) 479; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 313; Vid. Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 289. 
Perotis hordeiformis Nees in Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 306, 
Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 102. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Nueva Ecija), Mindanao (Agusan), Cuming 1399, 
Elmer 13873, B. S. 7911 Ramos. In open grasslands at low and medium 
altitudes. Tropical Asia and Africa. 
Local name: Bangat (Mbo.). 

PEROTIS RARA R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 172; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 
479; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 314; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 341. 
Xystidium barbatum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 228; Scribn. in 

Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 55. 
Xystidium maritimum Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820) 102, t. 2. 
Luzon (IIocos Norte, Lepanto, Amburayan, Pangasinan, Zambales) , 
Mindoro, Merrill UU7, Phil. PI. 152, F. B. 9979 Merritt, 5859 Curran. On 
dry open slopes at low and medium altitudes. Australia. 

21. ZOISIA Willdenow 
(Zoysiai auct.) 
ZOISIA MATRELLA (Linn.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
230, FL Manila (1912) 85. 
Agrostis matrella Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 185. 

Zoisia pungens Willd. in Ges. Naturf. Fr. Neue Schrift 3 (1801) 
441; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 313; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. 
Philip. (1904) 140; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
342. 
Osterdammia matrella O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PL (1891) 781. 
Northern Luzon to Palawan, in most islands, occurring in open places 
chiefly along or near tidal streams. Tropical Asia and Africa through 
Malaya to Australia and western Polynesia. 
Local name: Barit-baritan (Tag.). 



52 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

22. ARUNDINELLA Raddi 

ARUNDINELLA AGROSTOIDES Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. (1836) 23, t. 265; 
F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 318; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 85. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Rizal), Merrill 7399, Phil. PI. 594, 
Loher 7217, F. B. 124-82 Merritt & Darling. In open grasslands and on 
ledges along small streams at low altitude's. India to Burma. 

Var. CI LI ATA (Roxb.) Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 ,(1897) 71; Hack, in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 268; Merr. op. cit. 243. 
Holcus ciliatus Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 321. 
Arundinella ■ ciliata Nees in Wall. Cat. (1829) No. 1668. 

Luzon (Ilocos Sur, Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill 4328, Williams 1961, F. B. 
15940 Bacani, 15671 Merritt & Darling. On open slopes, about cliffs, etc., 
altitude 800 to 1,600 m. Range of the species. 

ARUNDINELLA M I LI ACE A Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 

102; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 158. 

Arundinella nepalensis F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 318; Vidal Rev. 

PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 289; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

Suppl. 343., non Trin. 

Arundinella hispida Hack, subsp. humilior Hack, in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 

II 4 (1904) 527, Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 12 (1906) 179. 
Arundinella filiformis Jan. ex Mez in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 85. 
Arundinella caespitosa Jan. 1. c. 

' Luzon (Apayao, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna), Panay, Merrill 2262, Phil. PI. 
161, Cuming 667, B. S. 30966 Ramos & Edano, 6700 Robinson, 35453 Mar- 
telino & Edano, 19286 Reillo, 28251 Fenix, 2101 Ramos, 30 Foxworthy, 
F. B. 7173 Curran, Kneucker Gram. Exsic. 606. On ledges and banks 
along swift-running streams at low altitudes. Formosa. 

The more-recent collections have been distributed as A. hispida (HBK.) 
O. Kuntze, following Hackel's identification. 

ARUNDINELLA PUBESCENS Merr. & Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 419. 
Palawan, B. S. 856 Foxworthy. On river banks at low altitudes. En- 
demic. 

ARUNDINELLA SETOSA Trin. Diss. 2 (1824) 63, Gram. Pan. (1826) 
245; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 318; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 342, 5 (1910) Bot. 326. 
Arundinella stricta Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 
102; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 804;, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 520. 
Danthonia luzonensis Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 245; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 427; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 319; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 292. 
Arundinella setosa Trin. var. stricta Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. 
(1904) 140. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, 
Rizal), Mindoro, Mindanao (Bukidnon). In open grasslands, on cliffs, 
etc., at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 2,000 m. India to China 
through Malaya to New Guinea. 
Local name: Salai-salai (Sbl.). 



Vo] - l GRAMINEAE 53 

23. THYSANOLAENA Nees 

THYSANOLAENA MAXIMA (Roxb.) O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 794; 

Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 141; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

,S«i. 1 (1906) Suppl. 343. 
Agrostis maxima Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 319. 
Thysanolaena agrostis Nees in Edinb. New Philos. Journ. 18 (1835) 

180. 
Thysanolaena acarifera Arn. & Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 1 9 

(1843) Suppl. 1: 181;, Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 289. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva 
Ecija, Bulacan, Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindoro, 
Palawan, Mindanao. On banks of ravines, slopes, about cliffs, etc., at low 
and "medium, altitudes, ascending to 1,600 m. India through Malaya to 
New Guinea. 

Local names: Bugubui (Pamp.) ; buybui (Ilk.); eagadu (Bon.); gatbo 
(Bik.) ; lasa (Tag.); tagadeu (Bon.) ;, tagisa (Sub.); tambu (Tag.); ta- 
lankaran (Ig.). 

24. DIGITARIA Scopoli 

DIGITARIA CHINENSIS Nees in Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey Voy. (1841) 
231. 
Paspalum ftlicidme Nees ex Thwaites Enum. PL Zeyl. (1859-64) 358. 
Digitaria viotoscens Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 347, 
3 (1908) Bot. 396, Fl. Manila (1912) 88, non Link. 
Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most 
islands and provinces, Merrill 4148, 9388, 7107, 7677, 4788, Phil. PL 17 U, 
B. S. 21715, 14524, 13939, 8250 Ramos. In open grasslands at low and 
medium altitudes. India to China and Malaya. 

Local names: Timi (Bon.); tumi (Bon.); ualisibis (Iv.). 

DIGITARIA CORYMBOSA (Roxb.) comb. nov. 

Panicum co-rymbosum Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 7, nomen nudum, 

Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 292. 
Panicum microbachne Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 298; Kunth Enum. 

1 (1833) 81. 
Digitaria consanguinea Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 

347, 3 (1908) Bot. 396, Fl. Manila (1912) 88, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 

64, non Gaudich. 
Panicum sanguinale Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, non Linn. 
Digitaria lanosa Llanos Fragm. PI. Filip. (1851) 28; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 19. 
Panicum gaudichaudii F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311, non Kunth. 
Panicum pruriens Trin. var. glabrum Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew 

Miscel. 2 (1850) 97. 

Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes in open waste 
places, old clearings, etc., usually common, Merrill 4-230, 5347, 7368, 9276, 
Sp. Blancoanae 787, Phil. PL 126, Elmer 18216, 16818, 164-17, 9570, B. S. 
12036, 13334, 32736, 14746 Ramos. India to southern China and Formosa 
through Malaya to Samoa. 

Local names: Babanai (Sub.); balili (C. Bis.); balisibis (Iv.) ; balud- 



54 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

gangan (Tag.) ; baririd (Bag.) ; gasa (Kuy.) ; halos (Tag.) ; maya-maya 
(S. L. Bis.) ; maraseda (Ilk.) ; sagisi (Ilk.)'. 

This species has been confused with Digitaria sanguinalis Scop, and 
by me with D. consanguinea Gaudich. It is distinguished by its almost 
obsolete first glume and short second glume, the latter rarely more than 
one-fourth as long as the spikelet. 

DIGITARIA HETERANTHA (Nees & Mey.) var. PACHYRHACHIS (Hack.) 
comb. nov. 
Panicum heteranthum'Nees & Mey. var. pachyrhachis Hack, in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 167. 

Palmas, Lumbucan, Merrill 5355, 5276. Along sandy seashores. The 
variety endemic, the species in the Malay Peninsula, Java, China, and 
Formosa. 

DIGITARIA LONGIFLORA (Gmel.) Pers. Syn. 1 (1805) 85; Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 347, 5 (1910) Bot. 326, Fl. Manila 

(1912) 88, Sp. Blancoanae '(1918) 64. 
Panicum, longiflorum Gmel. Syst. (1788) 158. 
Panicum parvulum Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 3 (1835) 

205; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 142. 
Paspalum brevifolium Fliigge Monogr. (1810) 150; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 310. 
Paspalum fuscescens Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 213, ex descr. 
Syntherisma fuscescens Scribn. in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 49, 

t. 10. 
Paspalum fasciculatum Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 23;. F.-Vill. 

& Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 16, non Willd. 

Northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces, Elmer 
16733, Merrill 24.9, 331, 1129, 6518, Phil. PI. 167, Sp. Blancoanae 1022, 
B. S. 32751, 33448 Ramos, 32009 Fenix, 10911 McGregor. In open grass- 
lands, sea level to an altitude of 1,600 m. Warmer parts of the Old 
World. 

Local name: Sasamon (Ig.). 

DIGITARIA PEDICELLARIS (Trin.) Prain Bengal PI. (1903) 1182; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 348, Fl. Manila (1912) 98. 

Paspalum pedicellare Trin. ex Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1840) 272. 

Panicum pedicellare Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 268. 

Panicum puberulum Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 143, non 
i (?) Kunth. 

Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan), Culion, 
Merrill 4225, 3164, 105, Phil. PL 577, B. S. 26273 Ramos & Edano, Williams 
S3. In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 850 m. 
India to Burma. 

DIGITARIA SANGUINALIS (Linn.) Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2, 1 (1772) 52; 

Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 286; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. 

Philip. (1904) 143; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 

346, Fl. Manila (1912) 88 (var. australis Thw.). 
Panicum sanguinale Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 57. 
Digitaria inaequalis Spreng. Syst. 1 (1825) 271. 
Digitaria biformis Willd. Enum. (1809) 92. 



Vo1 - ] GRAMINEAE 55 

Digitaria radicosa Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 437. 

Panicum radicosum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 297; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 311. 
Paspalum inaequale Link Enura. Hort. Berol. 1 (1821) 103; Kunth 

Enum. 1 (1833) 48; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310. 
Syntherisma sanguinalis Dulac Fl. Hautes Pyr. (1867) 77. 

Widely scattered in the Philippines in open waste places, B. S. 27396, 
7258, 7092 R { amos, 3681 Fenix, 18737 Otanes, Merrill 7258, Phil. PI. Ilk, 
Williams 1172. All warm countries. 

Local names: Dibutbut (Iv.) ; pagpagai (Bon.); saka-saka (Ilk.). 

Var. FiMBRIATA (Link.) Stapf in Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 440. 
Digitaria fimbriate/, Link. Hort. Berol. 1 (1821) 226. 
Digitaria ciliaris Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 168, Fl. 

Manila (1912) 87, non ? Pers. 
Panicum ciliare Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 16? 

Paspalum sanguinale Lam. var. ciliare Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 
15. 
Northern Luzon to Mindanao, Merrill 40, 330, Phil. PI. 147, B. S. 
7661 Ramos, 2249 Mearns. In open waste places. Pantropic. 

Var. AUSTRALIS (Spreng.). 

? Panicum australe Spreng. Syst. 1 (1825) 309. 

Pamicum sanguinale Linn. var. australe Thwaites Enum. PI. Zeyl. 

(1864) 358. 
? Panicum striatum R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 192, non Lam. 

Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, in thickets, 
waste places, etc., Merrill 529, 89, 5359, 7259, 9787, Phil. PL 578, Elmer 
5855, 15147. India through Malaya to Australia. 

This identification follows Hackel, but I am by no means certain that 
our form is the same as the one originally described by R. Brown. 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Panicum elythroblepharum Steud.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311. 

Panicum stipatum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 297; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 311. 

"Hab. in Mexico, Luzon?" Presl. This is the American Digitaria setosa 
Desv. fide Scribner in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 49. 

Paspalum filiforme Sw.; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 297; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 310. 

"Hab. in Luzonia ? Mexico" Presl. This is the American Digitaria fili- 
forme Delile fide Scribner in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 49. 

Paspalum molle Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 213 = Paspalum mollicomum 

Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 310; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 433;, F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 310 = Syntherisma molle Scribn. in Rept. Mo. 

Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 50. * 

"Hab. in Luzonia" Presl. This was considered by Scribner to be a valid 

species, but Presl's description does not apply to any Philippine form known 

to me and I suspect that the type was an American, not a Philippine plant. 



56 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Paspalum fuscum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 214; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 
46; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310 = Syntherisma fusca Scribn. 
in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 49, t. 11. 

"Hab. in Luzonia ? in Peruviae montanis huanoccensibus ? Mexico?" 
Presl. From the figure given by Scribner, drawn from a cotype of Presl's 
species, this does not appear to represent any known Philippine species. 
The type was probably from America. 

25. PASPALUM Linnaeus 

PASPALUM CONJUGATUM Berg, in Act. Helvet. 7 (1772) 129, t. 8; Mez 

in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 141; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. 

(Philip.) 6 (1904) 28, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 345, Fl. 

Manila (1912) 87. 

Throughout the Philippines in the settled areas, about towns, along 

trails, streams, etc., often very abundant. A native of tropical America, 

now pantropic. 

'Local names: Bantotan (Mbo.) ; kauatkauat (C. Bis.) ; laau-laau (Tag.). 

PASPALUM LONGI FOLIUM Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 7, nomen nudum, 
Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 283; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 141; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 345, Fl. Manila (1912) 
86. 
Paspalum flexuosum Klein in Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 216; Kunth 
Enum. 1 (1833) 54; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 433; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 310. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Benguet, Bontoc, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Rizal, La- 
guna, Albay), Polillo, Palawan, Bohol, Mindanao, Weber 1063, Merrill 
9303, Phil. PI. 1956, B. S. 26002, 26675 Fenix, 21681*, 11*512, 29501*, 10979 
Ramos. In open, usually rather wet lands at low and medium altitudes. 
India to Malaya. 

Local name: Taltal-likod (Ilk.). 

Var. TRICHOCOLEUM Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 167. 

Mindoro, Mindanao (Surigao), B. S. 91*1 Mangubat, Merrill 51*55. In 
open level grasslands at low altitudes. Endemic. 

PASPALUM SCROBICULATUM Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 29; Nees in Hook. 

Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 

310; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 286;, Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 141; Merr. in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 344, Fl. Manila (1912) 86, Sp. 

Blancoanae (1918) 63. 
Paspalum cartilagineum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 216; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 432; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310; Scribn. 

in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 49. 
Paspalum kora Willd. Sp. PL 1 (1797) 332; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 

(1828) 216. 
Paspalum villosum Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 40, ed. 2 (1845) 28, ed. 

£ 1 (1877) 53, non Thunb. 
Paspalum sumatrense Roth Nov. PI. Sp. (1821) 35; Llanos Frag. PI. 

Filip. (1851) 22; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 * (1880) 

15; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310. 



VoL 1 GRAMINEAE 57 

Paspalum thunbergii Kunth. ex Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 28; 
Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 141. 
Throughout the Philippines, in open grasslands at low and medium 
altitudes, ascending to 1,500 m; common and somewhat variable. Pan- 
tropic. 

Local names: Angangsug (Ig.) ; bias-biasan (S. L. Bis.) ; bubulis (Sub.) ; 
paragis (Tag.); sabung-sabuhgan (Tag.). 

Var. PHILIPPINENSE Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 345. 

Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal), Merrill 140a, B. S. 1449 Ramos. In 
open, rather wet grasslands at medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Var. BISPICATUM Hack, ex Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 86. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Rizal, Bataan), Panay, Merrill 
Phil. PI. 576, B. S. 10083, 32275 McGregor, 27378 Ramos. In open grass- 
lands at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Var. AURICULATUM (Presl) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
345, Fl. Manila (1912) 86. 
Paspalum auriculatum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 217; Kunth Enum. 
1 (1833) 54; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 432; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 310. 

Luzon (Rizal), Palawan, Samar, Leyte, Mindanao, Merrill 5361, 7292, 
820, Phil. PI. 158, B. S. 843 Foxworthy, 24435 Ram.os. In open rather 
wet grasslands at low altitudes. Tropical Asia and Africa. 

PASPALUM VAGINATUM Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 21; Stapf in 
Prain Fl. Trop. Afr. 9 (1919) 570. 
Paspalum distichum F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310; Usteri Beitr. 
Ken. Veg. Philip. (1905) 133; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 346, Fl. Manila (1912) 87, non Linn. 
Luzon (Amburayan, Union, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna), Panay, Samar, 
Elmer 18140, Merrill- 4253, 5229, 7116. In open wet lands, usually in places 
subject to the influence of salt or brackish water. Pantropic. 
Local names: Pagetpet (Ilk.); panluilui (Pamp.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Paspalum elegans Fliigge; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310. 

Paspalum chrysotrichum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 211; Kunth Enum. 1 
(1833) 64; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 431; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 310. 

"Hab. in Luzonia." The localization is unquestionably erroneous. 
Presl's species is probably the same as Paspalum aureum HBK. of tropical 
America. 

Paspalum boryanum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 209; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 
52; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 432; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310. 

"Hab. ad Sorzogon" Presl. This may prove to be a Digitaria, or again 
it may be an American species of Paspalum. 

Paspalum filiforme Sw.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310. 



58 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

26. ERIOCHLOA Kunth 

ERIOCHLOA RAMOSA (Retz.) O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 775; Hack. 
in Bull. Acad. Int. Bot. 16 (1906) 19; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 348, Fl. Manila (1912) 85, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 
. 64. 

Milium ramosum Retz. Obs. 6 (1791) 22. 

Pasjmlus annulatus Fliigge Monogr. (1810) 133; Trin. Gram. Pan. 

(1826) 117, Sp. Gram. 2 (1829) t. 133. 
Eriochloa annulata Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 73; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 311; Perk. Frag. PL Philip. (1904) 141. 
Piptantherum annulatum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 221. 
Helopus laevis Trin. in Spreng. Neue Entdeck. 2 (1821) 49; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 434. 
Eriochloa punctata F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312, non Ham. 
Milium zonatum Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 24; F.-Vill. and Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 16. 

Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, in open 
usually damp grasslands at low and medium altitudes. Pantropic. 

Var. INVOLUCRATA Hack, ex Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
349. 

Mindoro, Bohol, Merrill 3333, B. S. 121+7 McGregor. Habitat of the 
species and scarcely distinguishable from it. Endemic. 

27. ISACHNE R. Brown 

ISACHNE BEN EC KE I Hack, in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 51 (1901) 459, Govt. 
Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 79; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 350, 5 (1910) Bot. 327. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Bataan, Pampanga), Merrill 
4.680, 5019, 3201, 4544, 4619, 4523, 4522, Phil. PI. 1467, B. S. 19690, 1979, 
McGregor, 37736 Ramos & Edano, Williams 1193. In open wet places, 
borders of cold pools and sphagnum swamps, and of? narrow forested 
ridges, altitude 800 to 2,400 m. Java. 

ISACHNE CONFERTA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 261. 

Luzon (Laguna), B. S. 14914- Ramos. On bowlders and ledges along 
streams at low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 

ISACHNE DEBILIS Rendle ex Forbes & Hemsl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 
36 (1904) 322; Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 268; 
Merr. 1. c. 350. 
Isachne monticola Hack, in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 79, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 268, non Biise. 

Luzon (Abra, Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, 
Bataan, Laguna), Mindanao (Davao), Merrill 5315, 9680, 7675, Phil. PI. 
599, Elmer 5821, 18367. Along streams in damp ravines and on damp 
forested ridges, altitude 1,000 to 2,000 m. Formosa. 

This seems to be close to I. myosotis Nees. 

ISACHNE DEPAUPERATA (Hack.) comb. nov. 

Isachne beneckei Hack, forma depauperata Hack, ex Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 350. 



Vo1 - 1 GRAMINEAE 59 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), Negros, Merrill U5J+5, U89, 6978, 6504, B. S. 
U2U9 Mearns. In the mossy forest and in damp thickets, altitude 1,700 
to 2,200 m. Endemic. 

ISACHNE GLOBOSA (Thunb.) 0. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 778. 
Milium globosum Thunb. Fl. Jap. (1784) 49. 

Isachne australis R. Br. Prodr. (1812) 196; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
321. 

Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens 870, 111U- In swamps about Lake Lanao, 
altitude about 650 m. India to Japan south to Australia. 

ISACHNE INCRASSATA (Hack.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) 
Bot. 168. 
Isachne debilis Rendle var. incrassata Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 
(1906) Suppl. 268; Merr. op. cit. 350. 
Negros, Mindanao (Davao), Merrill 6977, De Vore & Hoover 358. In 
crevices of ledges along mountain streams, altitude 1,200 to 1,500 m. 
Endemic. 

ISACHNE MAGNA (Merr.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 
327. 
Isachne beneckei Hack. var. magna Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 

(1906) Suppl. 350. 
Isachne apoensis Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 7 (1915) 2676. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet), Mindanao (Davao), Merrill U5U1, 
7672, 7678, 6569, Elmer 11578, B. S. 31686 Santos, 8870, 19731 McGregor, 
U83, 424-8 Mearns. In the mossy forest, altitude 1,800 to 2,400 m. En- 
demic. 

Local names: Buyo (Bag.); popoktot (Bon.). 

ISACHNE MICRANTHA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 168. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Tayabas), F. B. 16837, 16841 Curran, B. S. 28708 
Ramos & Edano. On slopes, altitude 300 m and above. Endemic. 
Closely allied to /. myosotis Nees. 

ISACHNE MILIACEA Roth Nov. PI. Sp. (1821) 58; Merr. Fl. Manila 
(1912) 89. 
Panicum minutulum Gaudich. in Freyc. Voy. (1826) Bot. 410. 
Isachne minutula Kunth Rev. Gram. 2 (1829) t. 117, Enum. 1 (1833) 
137; Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 172; 
F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 321; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. 
(1904) 141; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 349. 
Isachne pulchella Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 141 p. p. non 

Roth. 
Panicum macilentum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 310; Kunth Enum. 
1 (1833) 116; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312. 
Throughout the Philippines, in low open wet places, old rice paddies, 
etc., often abundant; Kneucker Gram. Exsic. 609 from Manila well rep- 
resents the species. India to Malaya and Polynesia. 

Local names: Lagitlit (C. Bis.); matang-lamok (Pang.); tagik-tagik 
<C. Bis.). 



60 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

ISACHNE MYOSOTIS Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 
98; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 720; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 462; 
F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 321; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 
156, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) '286; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 349, 2 (1907) Bot. 261, 5 (1910) Bot. 327. 
• Panicum myosotis Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 96. 
Isaclrne paiiciflora Hack. var. hirsuta Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 
(1908) Bot. 167. 

Luzon (Abra, Benguet, Rizal, Pampanga), Negros, Mindoro, Mindanao 
(Zamboanga), B. S. 1765, 13768, 27029 Ramos, 29677 Ramos & Edano, 
1921 Foxworthy, F. B. 4405 Merritt, Merrill 6167, Copeland 162. In open 
places at medium and higher altitudes, ascending to 2,400 m. Reported 
also from Australia. 

ISACHNE PANGERANGENSIS Z. & M. Syst. Verz. Zoll. Pflanz. (1845) 
102, var. HALCONENSIS Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
167, Merr. op. cit. 5 (1910) Bot. 327. 

Luzon (Benguet), Mindoro, Merrill 6221, 6203, F. B. 16182 Curran, 
Merritt, & Zschokke. In open heaths, altitude 2,400 to 2,600 m. The 
variety endemic, the species in Java. 

ISACHNE PAUCI FLORA Hack, in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 
80; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 350, 5 (1910) Bot. 

327. 

Luzon (Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya), Elmer 6486, Merrill 4292, 9770, 7673, 
7674, Phil. PI. 195, B. S. 31753 Santos, 14211 McGregor. In wet places, 
along streams, in rice paddies, etc., altitude 1,400 to 2,300 m. Endemic. 

ISACHNE STRICTA Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1908) 463. 

Leyte, Negros, Mindanao (Lanao), Elmer 10425, Wenzel 781, Clemens 
1135a. In crevices of ledges, on seepage slopes, etc., altitude 600 to 1,200 
m. Endemic. 

ISACHNE VULCAN ICA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 169. 

Negros, Merrill 6975, Phil. PI. 585. On bare slopes of the old crater 
of Canlaon Volcano, altitude 1,800 to 2,100 m. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 
ISACHNE JAVANA Nees. 

This species was credited to the Philippines by Nees in Hook. Journ. 
Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97, on the basis of Cuming 2288; this specimen 
was from Malacca, not from the Philippines. The species has not been 
found in the Archipelago. 

ISACHNE PULCHELLA Roth. 

This species has been credited to the Philippines by F.-Villar, Novis. 
App. (1882) 321, and by Mez ex Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 141, but one 
of the specimens cited by the latter is Isachne miUacea Roth, and another 
is /. debilis Rendle. Roth's species is Sphaerocaryum pulchellum (Roth) 
Merr. (S. elegans Nees) which has not been found in the Philippines. 



Vol. 1 



GRAMINEAE g1 



28. PANICUM Linnaeus 

PANICUM AMBIGUUM Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 3 2 (1835) 
243; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 61; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1857) 447; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311; Mez in Perk. Frag. 
Fl. Philip. (1904) 141; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
355. 
Urochloa pctspaloides Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 318; Scribn. in Rept. 
Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 54, t. U, non Beauv. 

Northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Mindanao and Palawan, Merrill 9590, 
Phil. PI. 580, 33.3.2, 5369, B. S. 11*511, 27128 Ramos, 31536 Ramos & Edano. 
Widely scattered in open more or less waste places, old clearings, etc., at 
low and medium altitudes. Burma to the Mascarene Islands, Malaya and 
Polynesia. 

PANICUM AMPLEXICAULE Rudge PI. Guian. (1805) 21, t. 27; Merr. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 356, Fl. Manila (1912) 92, 

Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 66. 
Panicum myuros Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 86; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 27; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 

133, non Lam. 
Panicum polygonatum Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 41; F.-Vill. & 

Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 30; non Kunth. 
Panicum acutiglumum Steud. Syn. PI; Glum. 1 (1854) 66. 
Hymenachne serrulata Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 

(1850) 98, nomen nudum. 

Central Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, Merrill 91*68, Phil. PI. 157, 
Sp. Blancoanae 967, Elmer 11*561, F. B. 8881 Curran. In open swamps and 
along swampy margins of lakes and streams at low altitudes. Pantropic. 

Local name: Lagtom (Bik.). 

PANICUM AURITUM Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 305 (inch var. proce- 
rus Presl); Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 113; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 
1 (1854) 70; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 456; Nees in Nov. Act. 
Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 172, Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew 
Miscel. 2 (1850) 97; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 287; 
Scribn. in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 46, t. 15; Mez in Perk. 
Frag. FL Philip. (1904) 142; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 356, Fl. Manila (1912) 92. 

Northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or 
all islands and provinces. Common in open, rather wet places at low 
and medium altitudes. India to southern China and Malaya. 

Local name: Mongoto (Sub.). 

PANICUM BREVIFOLIUM Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 59. 

Panicum ovalifolium Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 4 (1816) 279; Hook, 
f. FL Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 44. 
Balabac, Merrill 5386, Phil. PI. 110, B. t S. U2 Mangubat. In thickets, 
along trails in shaded places, etc., at low altitudes. Tropical Africa and 
Asia to China and Malaya. 



62 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



PANICUM CARINATUM Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 309; Kunth Enum, 
1 (1833) 112; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 452; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 312; Scribn. in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 46, t. 17; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 362. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Bataan, 
Camarines) , Mindoro, Palawan, Culion, Balabac, Panay, Mindanao, Ba- 
silan, Presl! in Herb. Bernhardi, B. S. 30023 Fenix, 29483 Ramos & Edano, 
16887 Servinas, Merrill 477, 10596, 9241, Phil. PI. 178. In old clearings, 
thickets, etc., at low and medium altitudes. Borneo and probably other 
parts of Malaya. 

Perhaps better considered as a variety of P. patens Linn. 

Local names: Baile (Sul.) ; gamog-gamog (Sub.); hirabon (Sul.) ; ka- 
uang-kauang (Sul.); malakauayan (Tag., P. Bis.); tuad-tuaran (Tag.). 

PANICUM CAUDIGLUME Hack, in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 51 (1901) 428, 
Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 80; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 27, 360, Fl. Manila (1912) 92. 

Luzon (Ilocos Sur, Bataan), Culion, Palawan, Merrill 832, 3307, 7436, 
11607, Kneucker Gram. Exsic. 731, B. S. 29240, 24083, 41285 Ramos, In 
open waste places at low altitudes, apparently introduced. Java. 

Local name: Kumut-palaka (Tag.). 

PANICUM COCCOSPERMUM Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 62. 

Panicum villosum Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 269; 
Merr. op. cit. 355, 5 (1910) Bot. 327, non Lam. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal), Culion, Mindanao 
(Lanao), Merrill 7692, 4281, 4396, 4459, 4360, 11606, Phil. PI. 591, B. S. 
5918, 8214, 41339 Ramos, 4492 Mearns. On open grassy slopes and banks 
chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 m. The identification of our 
material with Steudel's species was made by Mr. C. A. Backer of Buitenzorg, 
Java. India to Java. 

Local name: Tumi (Bon.). 

PANICUM COLON UM Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 870; Steud. Syn. PL 
Glum. 1 (1854) 46; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 286; Mez 
in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 142; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

1 (1906) Suppl. 354; Fl. Manila (1912) 91, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 
65. 

Panicum colonum Linn. var. pseudocolonum Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. 
Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 172, Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 

2 (1850) 97. 

Panicum cumingianum Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 58; Miq. FL 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 447; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311. 
Echinochloa colona Link Hort. Berol. 2 (1833) 209. 
Oplismenus colonus HBK. Nov. Gen. Sp. PL 1 (1815) 108; Presl 

Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 321. 
Orthopogon dichotomus Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 38; F.-Vill. 
&. Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 28. 
Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes. In open, 
rather wet places. Pantropic. 

Local names: Bulang (Tag.); dakayang (Ilk.); dukayang (Ilk.); tiri- 
buhan (Tag.); tumi (Bon.). 



VoL 1 GRAMINEAE 63 

PANICUM CORDATUM Biise in Miq. PI. Jungh. (1854) 376; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 249. 
Panicum luxurians Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 359, non 

Willd. 
Panicum montanum Naves Novis. App. (1882) 312; Ceron Cat. PI. 
Herb. Manila (1892) 180; Mez in Perk. Frag. PI. Philip. (1904) 
142; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 27, non Roxb. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Union, Bataan, Bulacan), Culion, Palawan, Merrill 9348, 
9318, 554, Phil. PL 146, Elmer 5595, 6735, Williams 134. In thickets, 
old clearings, etc., at low and medium altitudes. Java, Borneo. 

PANICUM CRASSIAPICULATUM Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 356. 
Panicum latifolium Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 39, excl. syn. et 
var. majus Hook, f., non Linn. 

Palawan, Balabac, Mindanao (Agusan), Merrill 5387, 7290, 9240, 9286, 
Phil. PL 111. In thickets and along trails in forests at low altitudes. 
Malay Peninsula, Java. 

Closely allied to the American P. oryzoicles Sw. 

PANICUM CRUS-GALLI Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 56; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 311; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 142; Merr. in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 354, 5 (1910) Bot. 327, Fl. 

Manila (1912) 91, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 65. 
Oplismenus limosus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 321; Kunth Enum. 

1 (1833) 144. 
Panicum limosum F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311. 
Panicum hispidulum Lam. 111. 1 (1791) 171; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 311. 
Echinochloa crus-galli Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 53. 
Orthopogon hispidus Spreng. Syst. 1 (1825) 307; Llanos Frag. PL 

Filip. (1851) 37; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 * (1880) 

27. 
Orthopogon subverticillatus Llanos op. cit. 38; F.-Vill. & Naves op. 

cit. 28. 

Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, in open wet 
places, rice paddies, etc. All warm countries. 

Local names: Baobao (If.); daua-daua (Tag.); daua-dauahan (Tag.); 
dauana (Mbo.) ; lagtom (Bik.) ; sabsablug (Bon.); sabsabug (Bon.). 

Var. MUTICUM Doell.; Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 268; 
Merr. op. cit. 354. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Rizal), Balabac, Palmas, Merrill 5363, 4307, 
B. S. 460 Mangubat, 5975 Ramos. Habitat of the species. Pantropic. 

PANICUM DISTACHYUM Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 138; F.-Vill. Novis App. 

(1882) 311; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 91, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 66. 
Panicum remotum Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 71; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 354. 
Panicum petiveri Trin. Ic. Gram. t. 176, f. C. 
Panicum ramosum Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 143, non 

(?) Linn. 



64 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

? Panicum umbrosum F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311, non Retz. 

Panicum miliiforme Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 300; Kunth Enum. 1 

(1833) 96; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 488; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 312; Scribn. in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 47, t. 20. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and 

provinces.- In open waste places in and about towns at low and medium 

altitudes; common. India to China through Malaya to tropical Australia. 

PANICUM FLAVIDUM Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 15; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. 

Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311; Vidal 

Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 

286; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 142; Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 27, 353, Fl. Manila (1912) 90. 

Panicum floridum Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 133, sphalm. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. A common weed in open 

waste places in and about towns at low altitudes. Tropical Asia, Africa, 

and Malaya. 

Local names: Giling (C. Bis.) ; sabung-sabungan (Tag.) ; baili itau 
(Sul.). 

PANICUM HUMILE Nees ex Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 84; Hack, in 
Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 80; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 358. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Tarlac, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal), Culion, 
Merrill 3623, U66, 11608, B. S. 21998 Ramosl, F. B. 5872 Curran. In open 
waste places, grasslands, etc., at low and medium altitudes. India to south- 
ern China and Malaya. 

PANICUM INDICUM Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 184; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. 
Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311; Vid. 
.Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 
287; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 142; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 27, 357, Fl. Manila (1912) 92. 
Hymenachne indica Buse ex Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 458. 
Sacciolepis indica Chase in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 21 (1908) 8. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Common in open wet 
grasslands at low and medium altitudes. India through Malaya to trop- 
ical Australia. 

Local names: Buntot-pusa (Tag.) ; sabsablug (Bon.) ; salai-maya (Tag.) ; 
sangumai • (Tag.) ; sikuan (Ig.). 

Var. ANGUSTUM (Trin.) Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 42; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 357. 
Panicum angustum Trin. Ic. Gram. 3 (1836) t. 334; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 287. 
Occasional, in the same habitat as the species. India. 

PANICUM LUZON ENSE Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 308; Kunth Enum. 1 
(1833) 121; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 457; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 312; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 358. 
Luzon (Amburayan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna), Pa- 
lawan, Merrill 316, 3107, 4183, Phil. PI. 1238, B. S. 4600, 21997 Ramos, 



VoL l GRAMINEAE Q§ 

23060 McGregor. In open waste places, old clearings, etc., at low al- 
titudes. Malay Peninsula. 

Local name: Niknikan (Tag.). 

PANICUM MALABARICUM (Linn.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 248. 
Poa malabarica Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 69. 

Panicum arnottianum Nees in Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 59. 
Mindoro, Palawan, Mindanao, Palmas, F. B. 534.9 Merritt, Merrill 5367, 
9378, 9581, B. S. 36687 Ramos '& Edano. In old clearings at low altitudes. 
India to Malaya. 

Local name: Salid (Sub.). 

PANICUM MAXIMUM Jacq. Ic. PL Rar. 1 (1781-86) t. 13; Merr. Fl. 
Manila (1912) 93. 

Cultivated for forage purposes, occasional as an escape or persisting 
from former cultivation. Cultivated in all tropical countries. Guinea 
grass. 

PANICUM MiLIACEUM Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 58; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 358/ 

Very rarely cultivated in the Philippines, and nowhere spontaneous. 
Cultivated in most warm countries. Millet. 
Local name: Kabug (C. Bis.). 

PANICUM MINDANAENSE Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
360. 

Luzon (Ilocos Sur, Rizal, Batangas, Zambales), Mindanao (Lanao), 
Clemens 99, B. S. 27379, 5103, 29242 Ramos, Merrill Phil. PI. 168, as 
P. caudiglume Hack. In open places at low and medium altitudes. En- 
demic. 

PANICUM MYOSUROIDES R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 189; Kunth Enum. 1 

(1833) 77; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 142; Merr. in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 357. 
Panicum angustissimum Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, 

Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 286, non ? Hochst. 
Panicum contractum Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 

97, non ? Trin. 

Luzon (Abra, Nueva Vizcaya), Panay, Mindanao (Misamis), Cuming 
1668, B. S. 31283 Ramos & Edano, 14221 McGregor, F. B. 16459 Bacani. 
In open wet lands at low and medium altitudes. Tropical Africa and Asia 
through Malaya to Australia. 

PANICUM NODOSUM Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 97; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 

(1857) 448; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 357, Fl. Manila (1912) 92, Sp. Blancoanae 

(1918) 66. 

Panicum multinode Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 303, non Lam. 

Panicum violaceum Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 42; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 x (1880) 31. 
Panicum ouonbiense Mez in Perk. Frag. FL Philip. (1904) 142, non 
Balansa. 

183036 5 



QQ ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

i 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and provinces, 
Merrill 4228, 527, 7056, 127, 4182, 255, 5385, 5247, Phil. PL 113, Sp. Blan- 
coanae 944- In thickets, old clearings, etc., at low and medium altitudes; 
common. India to China and Malaya. 

Local names: Banig-usa (Tag.); kauakauayanan (Tag.); kumut-ajsa 
(Tag.). 

PANICUM PALUDOSUM Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 310; Usteri Beitr. Ken. 
Philip. Veg. (1905) 133; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
249, Fl. Manila (1912) 93. 
Panicum proliferum Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 143; Merr» 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 359, non Lam. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna), Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill 97, Phil. 
PI. 159, B. S. 23144 McGregor, 7429 Ramos. In shallow water along mar- 
gins of streams and lakes at low and medium altitudes. India to southern 
China and Malaya. 

PANICUM PATENS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 86; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. 
Philip. (1904) 142; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
361, 3 (1908) Bot. 396. 
Panicum radicans Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 18; Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 
(1854) 87; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 453; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312; 
Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 
(1886) 287; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 143. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and 
provinces. Common in thickets, some secondary forests, old clearings, 
etc., at low and medium altitudes. India to Malaya. 

Local names: Ililit (Ig.) ; malaniknik (Tag.); pugad-laguyo (Tag.). 

PANICUM PILIPES Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97; 

Buse in Miq. PI. Jungh. (1854) 376; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 453; 

Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 143; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 27, 361, 3 (1908) Bot. 396, Fl. Manila 

(1912) 94. 
Panicum hermaphroditum Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 67; Rolfe 

in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 

157, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 287. 
Panicum trigonum Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 

1:172; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312, non Retz. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and 
provinces. In thickets, along streams, in old clearings, etc., at low and 
medium altitudes. India to the Mascarene Islands, Malaya, tropical Aus- 
tralia, and Polynesia. 

Local names: Baitbut (Tagb.) ; banig-usa (Tag.) ; baririt-pualas (Bag.) ; 
marikauayan (Ig.). 

PANICUM PSILOPODIUM Trin. Gram. Pan. (1826) 217; Rolfe in Journ. 
Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. 
PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 287; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) 
Bot. 168, Fl. Manila (1912) 93, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 66. 
Panicum crispum Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 42; F.-Vill. & Naves 
in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 30. 



Vol. 1 GRAMINEAE 67 

Luzon (Benguet, Rizal), Merrill 7079, Phil. PI. 597, 1? '67,, Elmer 5972, 
6589. In open wet places at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 
1,400 m; local. India to Burma. 

PANICUM PUNCTATUM Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 26; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 

Ind. 7 (1897) 29; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 

353, Fl. Manila (1912) 90. 
Panicum fluitans Retz. Obs. 3 (1783) 8; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 

455; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 

Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 287. 
Paspalum pluriraeemosum Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 27; Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 431; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310. 
Panicum brizoides Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. 2 (1850) 97, Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 445, non Linn. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), Leyte, Mindanao (Misamis, Davao, Zamboanga, 
Agusan), Merrill 7%06, 8111, Phil. PI. 131, Cuming 532, Wenzel 1780, 
Elmer 12019, B. S. 3736% Ramos & Edano. In shallow water and in open 
muddy places at low altitudes. Northern Africa to Mauritius, India, and 
Malaya. 

Local names: Baririan (Bag.); lalabok (Sub.). 

PANICUM REPENS Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1762) 87; Hook. f. Fl. BriJ. Ind. 
7 (1897) 49; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 180; Mez in 
Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 143; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 
(1906) Suppl. 359, 3 (1908) Bot. 396, Fl. Manila (1912) 93, Sp. 
Blancoanae (1918) 67. 
Panicum ischaemoides Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 17; Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. 
Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 175; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 
450; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312. 
Panicum convolutum Beauv. ex Spreng. Syst. 1 (1825) 319; Presl 
Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 304; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312; Steud. 
Syn. 1 (1854) 73. 
Panicum tuberosum Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 40; F.-Vill. & 

Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 29. 
Panicum miliar e Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 142, non Lam. 
Throughout the Philippines in open low lands, especially near the 
sea, but also inland locally and ascending to 1,500 m; common. Pantropic. 
Local names: Kayana (Mbo.) ; luya-luyahan (Tag.). 

PANICUM REPTANS Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 871; Hitchc. in Contr. U. 

S. Nat. Herb. 12 (1908) 119; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 

Bot. 249. 
" Panicum prostratum Lam. 111. 1 (1791) 171; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 

446; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) . 311; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. 

Philip. (1904) 143; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 

355. 
Panicum calaccanzense Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 65; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 287. 
Panicum barbatum Lam. Tabl. Encycl. I (1791) 171; Presl Rel. Haenk. 

1 (1830) 299. 
Panicum procumbens Nees Agrost. Bras. (1823) 109, Hook. Journ. 

Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97. 



68 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Panicum luxurians Willd. ex Nees Agrost. Bras. (1829) 233, non P. 
luxurians Willd. ex Spreng. Syst. 1 (1825) 305. 

Throughout the Philippines in open waste places, old clearings, thick- 
ets, etc., at low and medium altitudes. Pantropic. 

Local names: Babaka-nalabaga (Ilk.); marakauayan (Ilk.). 

PANICUM SARMENTOSUM Roxb. PL Ind. 1 (1820) 311; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 312; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. 

PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 287; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 

143; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 27, 360, 2 (1907) 

Bot. 261. 
Panicum incomptum Trin. Gram. Pan. (1826) 200, Ic. Gram. 

(1828-36) i. 223; Kunth Enum. 2 (1833) 112; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 

3 (1857) 451; Nees in Mart. Fl. Bras. 2:207. 
Panicum extensum Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 72. 
Panictim vacillans Steud. op. cit. 75. 
Panicum concinnum Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 

97; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 719. 

Luzon (Bataan, Cavite, Zambales, Tayabas), Mindoro, Culion, Palawan, 
Balabac, Panay, Negros. In thickets and secondary forests at low and 
medium altitudes, often common. India to southern China and Malaya. 

Local names: Kanubsuban (Tag.) ; kauakauayan (Tag.) ; kauayan-sa- 
uak (P. Bis.); kaykauayan (P. Bis.); kuayan-kuayan (SuL). 

PANICUM STAGNINUM Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 17; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 311; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 133; Merr. in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 354, 3 (1908) Bot. 396, Fl. 

Manila (1912) 91, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 64. 

Echinochloa stagnina Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 57; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 

3 (1857) 464. 
Aegilops fluviatilis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 47, ed. 2 (1845) 32, ed. 

3, 1 (1879) 59. 
Orthopogon loliaceus Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 36; F.-Vill. & 

Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 26, non Spreng. 
Panicum crus-galli Linn. var. stagninum O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PL 
(1891) 783. 
Babuyan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and 
provinces. In open wet places, swamps, borders of lakes and streams, at 
low and medium altitudes. India to Africa and Malaya. 

Local names: Balili (Tag.); banago (Sub.); lagtom-na-pula (Bik.) ; 
timsim (Tag.); uraroi (Bik.). 

PANICUM TRICHODES Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1788) 24; Hitchc. 
& Chase in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 15 (1910) 129, /. 125. 
Panicum capillaceum Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 173. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan), Culion, Merrill 458, B. S. 7618 Ramos, 
F. B. 15530 Merritt & Darling, Gates 5675. In thickets at low and me- 
dium altitudes. Similar in appearance to Panicum brevifolium Linn., but 
distinguished by its short first glume. I am indebted to Prof. A. S. Hitch- 
cock for indicating to me the error in the original determinations. Widely 
distributed in tropical America, probably an introduced species in the 
Philippines. 



Vo1 - 1 GRAMINEAE 69 

PANICUM TRYPHERON Schultes Mant. 2 (1882) 244; Hook. f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 47; Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 143; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 358. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Lepanto), Semirara, Mindoro, Palawan, Mindanao 
(Davao), Merrill 678, £136, U78, Phil. PL 1281, Copeland 896, F. B. 
16585 Curran. In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. Trop- 
ical Africa through India to China and Malaya. 

PANICUM TUBERCULATUM Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 307; Kunth 

Enum. 1 (1833) 120; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 454; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 312. 
Panicum caesium Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 

97; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 358. 
Panicum acroanthum Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 141, non 

Steud. 

Luzon (Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna) , Panay, Min- 
danao (Misamis), Cuming 1667, Merrill 123, 6707, 4229, 1469, Phil. PI. 
2057, B. S. 23081 McGregor, 8122 Ramos. In open waste places, old 
clearings, etc., at low and medium altitudes. India to Borneo and New 
Guinea. 

PANICUM UNCINATUM Raddi Agrost. Bras. (1823) 41; Trin. Gram. 
Pan. (1826) 174, Ic. t. 216; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
> Suppl. 362. 

Mindanao (Davao), Clemens 266. In thickets or open lands, altitude 
about 650 m. Pantropic. 

PANICUM WARBURGII Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 143; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 362, Fl. Manila (1912) 93. 
Panicum patens Linn. var. parvulum Warb. 1. c. in syn. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Ifugao, Lepanto, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Zambales, 
Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas), Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill 303, Kneucker 
Gram. Exsic. 734, B. S. 28834 Ramos& Edano, 27018, 27394 Ramos, 20007 
McGregor. In thickets and forests, sea level to 1,200 m altitude; probably 
but a greatly reduced form of P. carinatum Presl, the latter being interme- 
diate between the present species and P. patens Linn. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Panicum brizaeforme Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 302; Kunth Enum. 1 
(1833) 78; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 445; F.-ViU. Novis. App. 
(1882) 311; Scribn. in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 46, t. 16. 
Panicum paspaloides Pers. Syn. 1 (1805) 81; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 
77; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311. 
Hitchcock & Chase, in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 15 (1910) 30, state 
that the Haenke specimen of P. brizaeforme in the Prague herbarium is 
labeled "Acapulco, Mexico," and is Panicum geminatum Forsk. 

Panicum elatius Kunth; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312. 

Panicum paludicola Nees Agrost. Bras. (1823) 179; Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 
1 (1854) 65; Miq. FL Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 455; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 312. 



70 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

"Brazil . . . ins. Manil, Java" Steudel. This is a Brazilian species, 
Panicum palustre Trin.; see Chase in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 21 (1908) 
5, sub Hymenachne palustris (Trin.) Chase. 

Panicum mertensii Roth; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312. 

Panicum leucophaeum HBK.; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 299; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 311. 

"Hab. in Mexico, in Luzonia" Presl. An American species to which 
some Australian forms have been referred. The Luzon record was based 
on an erroneously localized Malaspina Expedition collection. 

Panicum helopus Trin.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311. 

29. ICHNANTHUS Beauvois 

ICHNANTHUS VICINUS (F. M. Bail.) comb. nov. 

Panicum vicinum F. M. Bail. Syn. Queensl. Fl. Suppl. 3 (1890) 82. 
Ichnanthus pallets Munro in Benth. Fl. Hongk. (1861) 414; Merr. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 261, 363; Hack, in Govt. 

Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 80, non Panicum pollens Sw. 
Panicum paludicolum Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 454; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 312, non Nees. 
Panicum nitens Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 8. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Kalinga, Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon), Catanduanes, 
Mindoro, Biliran, Mindanao, Merrill 3756, 8221, 54-98, 5538, Phil. PL 109, 
Kneucker Gram. Exsic. 740, B. S. 30226, 23608 Ramos, 18502 McGregor, 
37475, 38608 Ramos & Edano. On forested slopes and ridges up to 1,400 
m altitude. India to southern China and Formosa through Malaya to 
tropical Australia. 

Local name: Doot (Ilk.). 

30. ALLOTEROPSIS Presl 

ALLOTEROPSIS SEMIALATA (R. Br.) Hitchc. in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 

12 (1909) 210; Chase in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 24 (1911) 159. 
Panicum semialatum R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 192; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 

Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 287. 
Alloteropsis distachya Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 344, t. 47; Scribn. 

in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 37, t. 23. 
Holosetum philippicum Steud. in Flora 33 (1850) 228, nomen, Syn. 

PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 118; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 444. 
Arundinella nervosa Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 

102; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 115; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 

519; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 318. 
Coridochloa semialata Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 

(1850) 97. 
Panicum philippicum, F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312. 
Urochloa semialata Kunth Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 31; Pax in Perk. 

Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 144. 
Axonopus semialatus Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 64; Merr. in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 367. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Pangasinan, 
Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Laguna) . On open grassy slopes 



V cl - 1 GRAMINEAE 71 

at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,800 m. India to South Africa, 
China, and tropical Australia. 
Local name: Timi (Bon.). 

31. OPLISMENUS Beauvois 

OPLISMENUS BURMANNII (Retz.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 54; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 312; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 

144; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 364, Fl. Manila 

(1912) 94. 
Panicum burmannii Retz. Obs. 3 (1783) 10. 

Panicum hirtellum Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 24, t. 12, f. 1, non Linn. 
Orthopogon burmannii R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 194; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 

3 (1857) 442. 

Luzon (Pangasinan, Rizal, Bataan), Mindanao (Zamboanga), Merrill 
3290, Phil. PL 196, Elmer 66^5, Williams 135, B. S. 2U08U Ramos. In 
thickets at low altitudes. Pantropic. 

OPLISMENUS COMPOSITUS (Linn.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 54; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 312; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

Suppl. 364, 3 (1908) Bot. 397, Fl. Manila (1912) 94, Sp. Blancoanae 

(1918) 67. 

Panicum compositum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 57. 

Panicum loliaceum Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1790) 170, Encycl. 4 

(1798) 743. 
Oplismenus loliaceus Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 168; Kunth Enum. 1 

(1833) 140; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312. 
Orthopogon sylvaticus Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 443. 
Oplismenus sylvaticus R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 481; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 312. 
Orthopogon compositus R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 194; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 

3 (1857) 443. 
Oplismenus indicus R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 484; Nees in Hook. Journ. 
Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 
157, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 288. 
Orthopogon setarius Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 35, non Spreng. 
Orthopogon hirtellus R. Br.; Llanos op. cit. 37. 
Panicum lanceolatum Retz.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311. 
Panicum sylvaticum Lam. Encycl. 4 (1798) 733; Steud. Syn. PL 
Glum. 1 (1854) 45. 
Throughout the Philippines in all or most islands and provinces, in 
thickets, old clearings, etc., at low and medium altitudes; often common. 
Pantropic. 

Local names: Balibatong (Sub.); balisibis (Iv.) ; banig-usa (Tag.); 
kauakauayan (Tag.) ; litlitun (Bon.) ; malakauayan (Pang.) ; marikauayan 
(Ig.) ; yamog-yamog (P. -Bis.); bailituganalu (SuL). 

Vor. LASIORHACHIS Hack, in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 364. 
Oplismenus burmannii Mez in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 144, non 
Beauv. 
Palawan, Merrill 826. In open dry places at low altitudes. Endemic. 



72 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

OPLISMENUS UNDULATIFOL1US (Ard.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 54; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 364. 
Panicum undulatif olium Ard. Anim. Bot. Sp. Alt. (1764) 14, t. 1*. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Bontoc, Ifugao, Union, Bataan, Laguna), 
Mindoro, Mindanao, B. S. 19708 McGregor, 27397 Ramos, 36693, 37488, 
37108 Ramos & Edano, F. B. 251*7 Borden, Williams 1179, 1962, 11*1*,, Elmer 
6987. In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes. Europe to 
tropical Asia and Malaya. 

Local names: Lulupong (Sub.); malaniknik (Tag.). 

Var. IMBEC1LLIS (R. Br.) Hack, in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 
81; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 364. 

Panicum imbecille Trin. Ic. Gram. (1828-36) 16, t. 191. 

Orthopogon imbecillis R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 194. 

Oplismenus minus Merr, in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 9. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Benguet, Bontoc, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Bulacan, 
Pangasinan, Bataan, Sorsogon), Catanduanes, Leyte, Negros, Mindanao, 
Merrill 3203, 1*511, 51*85, 8276, 6976, Kneucker Gram. Exsic. 739, Elmer 
17105, B. S. 29923 Fenix, 12281 Foxworthy, 30286, 19381 Ramos, 31692 
Santos. Along streams in shaded places and on ridges in the mossy forest, 
at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 2,400 m. Australia. 

32. SETARIA Beauvois 

SETARIA GENICULATA (Lam.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 51, 178. 

Panicum geniculatum Lam. Encycl. 4 (1798) 727 (err. typ. 737). 

Panicum flavum Nees in Mart. Fl. Bras. 2 (1829) 180. 

Setaria flava Kunth Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 46; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 365, 5 (1910) Bot. 327, Fl. Manila (1912) 95, 

Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 68. 
Panicum penicillatum Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) 

Suppl. 1: 173, Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97, non 

Willd. 
Panicum chrysanthum Steud. Nomen. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 254, Syn. PI. 

Glum. 1 (1854) 50. 
Panicum rubiginosum Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 50. 
Setaria aurea Hochst. ex A. Br. in Flora 24 (1841) 276. 
Setaria pilifera Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 34; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 25, non Desv. 
Setaria glauca F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 

Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 288, non Beauv. 
Chaetochloa glauca Scribn. var. aurea W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. 

Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 223. 
Setaria glauca Beauv. var. aurea K. Schum. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzegeb. 

Sudsee (1901) 180. 
Setaria rubiginosa Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 467; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 313. 
Chaetochloa geniculata Millsp. & Chase in Field Mus. Bot. 3 (1903) 

37; Hitchc. in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 22 (1920) 168, /. 1*1. 
Throughout the Philippines in open grasslands at low and medium al- 
titudes, ascending to 1,800 m. Pantropic. 

Local names: Buntot-pusa (Tag.); lagilikaran (Bag.); putingan (Ig.) ; 
sabsablug (Bon.) ; samsamang (Bon.) ; tirtirigo (Ilk.) ; daua-ambau (Sul.). 



Vol.1 



GRAMINEAE 73 



SETARIA ITALICA (Linn.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 51; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1857) 467; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312; Vidal. Phan. 

Cuming-. Philip. (1885) 157; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

Suppl. 365, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 68; Hubbard in Am. Journ. 

Bot. 2 (1915) 192 (subsp. stramineo-fructa Hubb. var. brunneo- 

seta Hubb.). 
Paniciim italicum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 56; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. 

Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97. 
Panicum miliaceum Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 39; ed. 2 (1845) 28; ed. 

3, 1 (1877) 52, non Linn. 
Panicum comosum Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 53, ex descr. 
Setaria comosa Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 468; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 313. 
Chaetochloa italica Scribn. in U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Bull. 

4 (1897) 39. 

Cultivated here and there throughout the Philippines, occasional as an es- 
cape in old clearings. Cultivated in all warm countries. Italian millet. 

Local names: Bikakau (Ilk.) ; borona (Pamp.) ; bukakau (Ilk.) ; daua 
(C. Bis., P. Bis., Tag.) ; rautnokara (Iv.) ; sabug (Ig.) sammang (Bon.) ; 
turai (Sul.). 

SETARIA LAXA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 Suppl. (1906) 366, Fl. 
Manila (1912) 96. 
Chamaeraphis gracilis Hack, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 6 (1885) 236, non 
Setaria gracilis HBK. 
• Panicum chamaeraphoides Hack, ex Koord. Exkursionsfl. Java 1 
(1911) 135. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), Merrill 7UhO, Phil. PL 595, Hallier. In thick- 
ets and fallow lands at low altitudes. Java. 

SETARIA PALM 1 FOLIA (Koenig) Stapf in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 42 

(1914) 186. 
Panicum palmaefolium Koenig in Naturf. 23 (1788) 208; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 449; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

Suppl. 361, 2 (1907) Bot. 261, 5 (1910) Bot. 327. 
Panicum plicatum F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 311; Mez in Perk. 

Frag. FL Philip. (1904) 143, non ? Lam. 
Panicum amplissimum Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 54; Vidal 

Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 

287. 
Panicum nepalense Spreng. Syst. 1 (1825) 321; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 

23 (1885) 216. 
Panicum neurodes Schultes Syst. Mant. 2 (1824) 321; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 287; 

Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 133. 
Panicum lene Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 54. 
Setaria lenis Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 468; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 313. 
Chamaeraphis . setosa O. Kuntze var. lenis O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PL 

(1891) 769. 
.Panicum kleinianum Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 

97. 



74 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Chaetochloa palmifolia Hitchc. & Chase in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
22 (1920) 161, /. 38. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and 
provinces. Common in thickets, old clearings, abaca plantations, etc., at 
low and medium altitudes, ascending to 200 m. India to China and Malaya, 
introduced in tropical America. 

Local names: Agusais (Bik.) ; asahas (C. Bis.); bahgas (Ig.) ; dumbug 
(Sul.) ; hagusahis (Bik.).; lalasa (Ig.) ; liahon (If.) ; lias (Bon.) ; yas (Ig.). 

SETARIA VERTICILLATA (Linn.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 51; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 312; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
397. 
Panicum verticillatum Linn. Sp. PL ed. 2 (1762) 82. 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Rizal), B. S. U01+1 Fenix, Merrill Phil. PI. 1406. 
In open waste places. Temperate and tropical regions generally. 

SETARIA VIRIDIS (Linn.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 51; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 312; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
366, Fl. Manila (1912) 95. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Bontoc, Rizal). A casual introduction, occurring 
rarely in open waste places. A temperate and subtropical weed. 
Local names: Dapdapigan (Bon.); upoan (Bon.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Setaria globularis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 314; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 
151; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 314; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
312; Scribn. in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 52. 
Panicum globulare Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 51. 

"Hab. in insulis Philippinis." The species is certainly not Philippine, 
but the specimens on which it was based were probably of Mexican origin. 
A sheet of Presl's type material in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden consists of Setaria caudata Lam. and S. composita Kunth. 

Setaria macrostachya HBK.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312. 

33. CENCHRUS Linnaeus 

CENCHRUS VIRIDIS Spreng. Syst. Veg. 1 (1825) 301; Chase in Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 22 (1920) 57, /. 11. 
Cenchrus inflexus R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 50, non Poir. 
Cenchrus echinatus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 317; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1857) 472; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 313; Perk. Frag. 
Fl. Philip. (1904) 145; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 367, 
Fl. Manila (1912) 95, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 68, non Linn. 
Cenchrus hexaflorus Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 36, ed. 2 (1845) 24, 
ed. 3, 1 (1877) 46. 
A widely distributed weed in the settled areas of the Philippines, oc- 
curring generally in open waste places in and about towns. A native 
of tropical America, now also found in Guam, Siam, Indo-China, New Gui- 
nea, and northern Australia. Dr. A. B. Rendle has critically compared 
our material with the type of Cenchrus inflexus R. Br. 



vpl - 1 GRAMINEAE 75 

The Philippine form has been confused with C. echinatus Linn. 
Local names: Agingai (Tag-.); sagisi (Ilk.). 

34. PENNISETUM Persoon 

PENNISETUM ALOPECUROI DEU M (Linn.) Spreng. Syst. 1 (1825) 303. 
Panicum alopecuroideum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 55. 
Alopecurus hordeiformis Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 48, non ? Linn. 
Pennisetum compressum R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 195; Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 368. 
Gymnothrix nigricans Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 315. 
Pennisetum nigricans Trin. ex Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 297; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 470; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 312. 
Pennisetum cenchroides F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 313, non Spreng. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Benguet) , Merrill 7704, 4435, Williams 
1201, Elmer 5756, B. S. 31898 Santos, 5932, 5365, 274-22 Ramos, 12708 
Fenix, 8763 McGregor. On open slopes at medium altitudes, chiefly in 
the pine region, ascending to 2,000 m. India to Indo-China, China, Japan, 
and Australia. 

Local name: Kaibuan (Ig.). 

PENNISETUM M ACROSTACH YU M Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 
3 2 (1835) 177; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 121; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 368. 
Sericura elegans Hassk. in Flora 25 (1842) Beibl. 2: 2. 

Luzon (Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Mas- 
bate, Panay, Cebu, Negros, Mindanao, Basilan, Merrill 3381, William? 
2622, Elmer 9674, 81324, 15327, B. S. 31306 Ramos & Edano, 24939 Fenix, 
14749, 11079, 5217 Ramos, 15494 Reillo. In old clearings at low and me- 
dium altitudes. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago to Polynesia. 

Local names: Daraui (C. Bis.); gulalai (Sub.); handalaui (C. Bis.); 
lagoli (Bag.). * 

35. CHAMAERAPHIS R. Brown 

CHAMAERAPHIS MURICATA (Linn, f.) comb. nov. 

Andropogon muricatus Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 433; Stapf in Kew 

Bull. (1906) 348 in nota. 
Panicum asperum Koen. in Naturf. 23 (1788) 209. 
Panicum spinescens R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 193. 

Chamaeraphis spinescens Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 2 (1811) 189; 
F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 313; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 
62. 
Chamaeraphis aspera Nees in Wall Cat. (1849) No. 8679; Mez in 
Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 145; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 
(1906) 368, Fl. Manila (1912) 96. 
Central Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, Merrill 375, 4194, 7060, 9467, 
B. S. 29500 Ramos & Edano. In shallow stagnant water at low altitudes. 
India to China through Malaya to tropical Australia. 

36. THUAREA Persoon 

THUAREA INVOLUTA (Forst.) R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 782; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 369, Fl. Manila (1912) 97. 
Iscliaemum involutum Forst. Prodr. (1786) 73. 



76 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Thuarea sarmentosa Pers. Syn. 1 (1805) 110; Nees in Hook. Journ. 
Bot. Kew Miseel. 2 (1850) 97 (Thouarea) ; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 313; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Phil. Veg. (1905) 133; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 28. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Bataan, Rizal), Mindoro, Palawan, Samar, Mindanao. 
On sandy beaches and in thickets back of the beach, often common. Cey- 
lon to Madagascar through Malaya to Australia and Polynesia. 

37. SPINIFEX Linnaeus 

SPINIFEX LITTOREUS (Burm. f.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 229, PL Manila (1912) 97, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 69. 

Stipa littorea Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 29. 

Stipa spinifex Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 84; Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 
41; ed. 2 (1845) 29, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 54. 

Spinifex squarrosus Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 163; Blanco Fl. Filip. 
(1837) 46; ed. 2 (1845) 31; ed. 3, 1 (1877) 57; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 313; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miseel. 2 (1850) 
97; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. 
(1886) 288; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 369. 

On sandy seashores from the Batan Islands to Palawan and Mindanao. 
India to China and Malaya. 

Local names: Baki-baki (Bis.); tartarai (Ilk.); tayung-tayung (C. 
Bis.). 

38. LEPTASPIS R. Brown 

LEPTASPIS CUM IN Gil Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 416; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1857) 375; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 318; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 288; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 370. 
Leptaspis cochleata Hack, in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 
81, non Thwaites. 
Mindanao (Misamis, Davao), Bongao, Copeland 70S, Cuming 1627, B. S. 
i!6319 Yates. In forests at low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 

LEPTASPIS URCEOLATA (Roxb.) R. Br. in Benn. PL Jav. Rar. (1838) 

23, t. 6; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1854) 374; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 318; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PL 

Vase. Filip. (1886) 288; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

Suppl. 370; C. B. Rob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 194. 

Pharus urceolatus Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 611. 

Leptaspis manillensis Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 8; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 374; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 318. 

Luzon (Camarines, Sorsogon), Polillo, Palawan, Samar, Leyte, Negros, 
Mindanao. In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes; rep- 
resented by numerous collections. Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Java, through the Moluccas to New Guinea. 

Local names: Alaplap (Mbo.) ; baliotus (Bag.); budhak-budhak (Sul.) ; 
handalokot (Mbo.) ; madfoug (S. L. Bis.) ; rokot-dokot (S. L. Bis.) ; sa- 
lindaget (Mbo.); talingagito (Sub.). 



Vo '- 1 GRAMINEAE 77 

39. ORYZA Linnaeus 

ORYZA MEYERIANA (Zoll. & Morr.) Benth. ex Pilger in Perk. Frag. PI. 
Philip. (1904) 145; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
370. 
Padia meyeriana Zoll. & Morr. Verz. Ind. Arch. (1854) 103; Steud. 

Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 3; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 373. 
Oryza granulata Nees & Arn. in Wall. Cat. (1830) No. 2354, nomen 
nudum; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 93; Merr. in Govt. Lab. 
Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 7. 
Luzon (Isabela, Ifugao, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Tayabas), Palawan, Pa- 
nay, Mindanao (Zamboanga), Merrill 116, 6697, 8060, 7244, B. S. 19967 
McGregor, 20677 Escritor, 343 Bermejos, 8036 Ramos. In forests, bamboo 
thickets, etc., at low and medium altitudes. India to Java, Borneo, and 
Celebes. 

ORYZA MINUTA Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 208; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 
7; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 371; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
319. 

Oryza manillensis Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 219, 
Fl. Manila (1912) 98. 

Oryza latifolia F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 319, non Desv. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindanao (Zamboanga), 
Presl! in Herb. Bernhardi, Merrill 8112, 7402, Phil. PI. 128, Elmer 17 '407, 
B. S. 29492 Ramos & Edano, 2194, 12102, 12044, 13269 Ramos, 36714 Ra>- 
mos & Edano. In open wet places at low and medium altitudes. Bor- 
neo, Malay Peninsula. 

This is I believe the Malay Peninsula and Bornean form currently 
referred to Oryza latifolia Desv., but I believe the type of Desvaux's spe- 
cies was an American plant. Of the specimens cited, Elmer 17407, B. S. 
36714 Ramos & Edano, and Merrill 8112, being more robust than the 
others, closely match the Malay Peninsula form. 

Local names: Palai-maya (Sul.) ; palai-palai (Sub.); baili-gaja (Sul.). 

ORYZA SATIVA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 333; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
318; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 370, Fl. Manila 
(1912) 97, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 69, 70. 
Oryza aristata Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 274; ed. 2 (1845) 190; 

ed. 3, 1 (1877) 339. 
Oryza sativa Linn. vars. binamban, glutinosa, lamuyo, pilosa, prae- 

cox, quinanda, rubra, et violacea Blanco 1. c. 
Oryza glutinosa Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 215; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 319. 
Oryza montana Lour. 1. c. 215; F.-Vill. 1. c. 
Oryza praecox Lour. 1. c. 215; F.-Vill. 1. c. 
Extensively cultivated throughout the Philippines but not a native of 
the Archipelago, although of prehistoric introduction. The rice plant 
is enormously variable and probably several hundred distinct cultural forms 
occur in the Archipelago. No attempt has been made to compile the very 
numerous local names currently applied to special varieties. Rice. 



78 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Local names: Ammai (Ibn. It.) ; pagai (II.) ; pagei (Bon.) ; palai (Tag.) ; 
parai (Bik.) ; pai (Sul.). 

40. LEERSIA Swartz 

LEERSIA HEXANDRA Sw. Prodr. (1788) 21; Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. 
(1851) 26; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 
18; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 318; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. 
(1885) 157, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 288; Pilger in Perk. 
Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 145; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 

(1906) Suppl. 371, Fl. Manila (1912) 98. 

Leersia luzonensis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 207; Nees in Hook. 

Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 97; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 

367; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 318. 
Leersia glaberrima Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 5 (1839) 

173; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 368; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 

318. 
Homalocenchrus hexandrus O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 777. 

Northern Luzon to Mindanao. In open wet places at low and medium 
altitudes, ascending to 1,500 m. In the vicinity of Manila this is very 
extensively cultivated in paddies for green forage. 

Local names: Barit (Tag.); bungalon (Bis.); zacate (Sp.). 

41. MICROLAENA R. Brown 

MICROLAENA STIPOIDES (Labill.) R. Br. Prodr. (1910) 210; Benth. 
Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 552; Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 269; Merr. op. cit. 371, 5 (1910) Bot. 328. 
Ehrhartia stipoides Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. 1 (1804) 91, t. 118. 

Luzon (Abra, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Zambales), Merrill £54.3, 4696, 
4831, 6570, Phil. PL 13 US, B. S. 31957 Santos, 5128, 7064 Ramos. On open 
slopes and ridges, along mountain trails, etc., altitude 1,800 to 2,300 m. 
Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii. 

42. PH ALAR IS Linnaeus 

PHALARIS MINOR Retz. Obs. 3 (1783) 8; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 

(1907) Bot. 421. 

Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 2785 Mearns. Altitude about 1,500 m; probably 
a mere casual here. Europe, India, South Africa, Australia. 

43. ANTHOXANTHUM Linnaeus 

ANTHOXANTHUM LUZONIENSE Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 178, 372, 5 Bot. (1910) Bot. 328. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4-713, 6614, Phil. PI. 184, B. S. 8890 McGregor, 
F. B. 16188 Curran, Merritt, & Zschokke. In open grasslands, altitude 
2,000 to 2,700 m. Endemic. 

44. ARISTIDA Linnaeus 

ARISTIDA CULIONENSIS Pilg. ex Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 145; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 372. 

Culion, Merrill 471, 515, B. S. 41334 Ramos. In open grasslands at low 
altitudes. Endemic. 



VoL 1 GRAMINEAE 79 

ARISTIDA CUMINGIANA Trin. & Rupr. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 
7 (1849) 141; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 140; Miq. PI. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1857) 381; Vid. Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. 
PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 292; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 372, 5 (1910) Bot. 328, Fl. Manila (1912) 99. 

Aristida capillacea Cav. Ic. 5 (1799) 43, t. 468, f. 1, non Lam. 

Chaetaria trichodes Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 
101. 

Aristida trichodes Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 753. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Lepanto, Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet, Pangasinan, Ri- 
zal), Mindanao (Bukidnon). In open dry grasslands at low and medium 
altitudes, ascending to 1,500 m. India to tropical Africa and southern 
China. 

ARISTIDA TENUISETULOSA (Pilg.) Mez in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 147. 
Aristida stipoides R. Br. var. tenuisetulosa Pilg. ex Perk. Frag. 
Fl. Philip. (1904) 146; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
372. 

Luzon (Amburayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Zambales, Pampanga, Ba- 
taan), Merrill 329, F. B. 5855, 6361 Curran, 12476, 15657 Merritt & Dar- 
ling, B. S. 2334 Mearns. In dry open sandy soil at low and medium 
altitudes. Endemic, but closely allied to the Australian A. stipoides R. Br. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Aristida laxa Cav. Ic. 5 (1799) 44, t. 470, f. 1; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 
192; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 381; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
319. 
"Habitat prope Montevideo, et in insulis Philippicis." This is probably 

a Mexican species, certainly not Philippine, the latter record being based 

on a wrongly localized specimen of Nee's collection. 

Aristida luzoniensis Cav. Ic. 5 (1799) 45, t. 470, f. 2; Spreng. Syst. 1 
(1825) 266; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 192; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 
381; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 99; 
Novis. App. (1882) 319. 
Chaetaria luzoniensis Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 30. 
"Habitat in insula Luzon altera ex Philippicis." Certainly not a Phil- 
ippine species, but American or Australian. 

Aristida murina Cav. Ic. 5 (1799) 44, t. 469, f. 1; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 
192; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 319. 
"Habitat in Mindanao insula prope Samboangan [— Zamboanga]." 
Undoubtedly a wrongly localized species, and Australian or American 
rather than Philippine. 

Aristida rigida Cav. Ic. 5 (1799) 44, t. 469, f. 2; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 
192; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 381; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
319. 
"Habitat in insulis Philippicis." Unquestionably an erroneously lo- 
calized species, and Australian or American rather than Philippine. 



80 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Aristida sorzogonensis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 224; Kunth Enum. 
1 (1833) 192; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 381; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 319. 

"Hab. in Luzonia ad Sorzogon." This record is probably based on 
an erroneously labeled specimen, the species in all probability being 
American. 

44a. MUEHLENBERGIA Schreber 

MUEHLENBERGIA AR1SANENSIS Hayata Ic. PI. Formosa 7 (1918) 87, 
/. 54. 
Luzon (Lepanto, Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill 4716, Clemens 9203, Vano- 
verbergh 1158, B. S. 40213, 40296, 40360 Ramos & Edano. Along small 
streams, in old clearings, and in the mossy forest, altitude 1,300 to 2,400 
m. Formosa. Closely allied to M. japonica Steud. 

45. SPORO BOLUS R. Brown 

SPOROBOLUS DIANDRUS (Retz.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 26; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 375; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 321; Pilger 
in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 146; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 373. 
Agrostis diandra Retz. Obs. 5 (1786) 19. 
Vilfa diandra Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 155. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Pampanga, Rizal, Tayabas, Albay, Sorsogon), 
Mindoro, Palawan, Panay, Mindanao. In lawns and waste places about 
towns, perhaps introduced. Tropical Asia through Malaya to Australia. 

SPOROBOLUS INDICUS (Linn.) R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 170; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 321; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 

373, Fl. Manila (1912) 98, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 71. 
Agrostis indica Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 63. 
Sporobolus elongatiis R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 170; Usteri Beitr. Ken. 

Philip. Veg. (1905) 133. 
Spermachiton involutum Llanos Fragm. PI. Filip. (1851) 25; F.-Vill. 

& Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 17. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Bontoc, Benguet), Mindanao (Lanao). Com- 
mon at medium altitudes in open grasslands, ascending to 2,000 m. Pan- 
tropic. 

Local names: Bakit (P. Bis.); bangkit (P. Bis.); lusai (Sub.); sang- 
sangitan (Bon.). 

SPOROBOLUS PILiFERUS (Trin.) Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 611; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 373. 
Vilfa pilifera Trin. Diss. (1828) 157, Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 58. 
Sporobolus ciliatus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 242; Scribn. in Rept. 
Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 53, t. 30; Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 269. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill 4362, 4718, Phil. Pi. 194, Williams 
1957, B. S. 5361, 5905 Ramos. On banks, in open grasslands, etc., at 
medium altitudes, ascending to 1,800 m. India to the Malay Peninsula. 



Vo! - 1 GRAMINEAE 81 

SPOROBOLUS VIRGINICUS (Linn.) Kunth Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 67; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 171, Fl. Manila (1912) 99. 
Agrostis virginica Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 63. 

Sporobolus humilis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 241; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1857) 376; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 321; Scribn. in 
Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 53, t. SO; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 374. 
Vilfa humilis Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 153. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Rizal), Merrill Phil. PI. 574, B. S. 7881 Ramos. Along 
tidal streams within the influence of salt or brackish water. All or most 
warm countries. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Sporobolus scoparius Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 243; Kunth Enum. 1 
(1833) 216; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 376; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 321; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 374. 
Vilfa scoparia Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 156. 

"Hab. ad portum Sorzogon" Presl. Certainly not a Philippine species, 
but probably based on American material. 

46. GARNOTIA Brongniart 

GARNOTIA STRICT A Brongn. in Bot. Duperr. Voy. (1829) 132, t. 21; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 374. 
Northern Luzon to Mindanao. On talus slopes, along streams, etc., 
at low and medium altitudes; represented by numerous collections. In- 
dia to Polynesia and Hawaii. 

Var. LONGISETA (Merr.) Hack, in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 12 (1909) 
141. 
Garnotia longiseta Merr. ex Hack. 1. c. in syn. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Bataan, Laguna). 
Chiefly in the mossy forest, altitude up to 2,300 m, but occurring also at 
low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Balahibong-usa (Tag.); bariri (Bag.); pauai (Ig.). 

47. AGROSTIS Linnaeus 

AGROSTIS ALBA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 63; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 
254. 
Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 40496 Ramos & Edano. Along trails in open 
forest, altitude about 1,500 m; probably introduced. A native of temperate 
Europe and Asia, now widely distributed in temperate and subtemperate 
countries. 

AGROSTIS ELMERI Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 7, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 375, 5 (1910) Bot. 328. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet), Negros. In the mossy forest and 
in open places, altitude 1,600 to 2,800 m; represented by numerous col- 
lections. Southern China. To be compared with A. micrantha Steud. 

Local name: Sasamon (Ig.). 

183036 6 



82 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS ld2i 

48. ANISELYTRON Merrill 

ANISELYTRON AGROSTOIDES Merr. in Philip. Journ, Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 
329. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 64.83. In the mossy forest on Mt. Pulog, 
altitude about 2,400 m. A monotypic endemic genus known only from 
the original collection. 

49. CALAMAGROSTIS Roth 

CALAMAGROSTIS ARUNDINACEA (Linn.) Roth var. NIPPONICA 
(Franch. & Sav.) Hack, in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7 (1899) 652, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 269; Merr. op. cit. 375. 
Calamagrostis nipponica Franch. & Sav. Enum. PI. Jap. 3 (1879) 
599. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), Mindanao (Davao), Merrill 4.56^, 4697, 
4701, 7766, B. S. 31740 Santos, 4487 Mearns. On open grassy slopes, 
altitude 1,800 to 2,400 m. Europe to India,- China and Japan.- 

Local names: Bariri (Bag.); sangsangitau (Ig.) ; sasamon (Ig.). 

CALAMAGROSTIS Fl LI FOLIA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
179, 375, 5 (1910) Bot. 330. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4839, 6610, 6611, 4537, 4715, B. S. 31979 
Santos, 8891 McGregor. On open slopes, altitude 1,800 to 2,200 m. En- 
demic. 

Local name: AiTgangsug (Ig.). 

50. ERIACHNE R. Brown 

ERIACHNE PALLESCENS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 184; Benth. Fl. Austral. 
7 (1878) 630; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 321; Pilger in Perk. 
Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 147; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 376. 

Culion, Palawan, Merrill 520, 9582. In open grassy places up to 550 
m altitude. India to southern China through Malaya to Australia. 

ERIACHNE TRISETA Nees ex Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 237; 
Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 147; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 376. 
Culion, Merrill. In open grasslands at low altitudes. India, Ceylon. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Eriachne gracilis Brongn; F.-Vill. Novis, App. (1882) 321. 

51. COELACHNE R. Brown 

COELACHNE HACKELM Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 8, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 376. 

Luzon (Benguet), Elmer 5762, Merrill 4338, Phil. PI. 198, Williams 
1196. Forming dense mats along small cool streams, altitude about 1,500 
m. Endemic. 

Coelachne pulchella R. Br. and C. brachiata M'unro were both credited 
to the Philippines by F.-Villar, Novis. App. (1882) 321, but neither has 
been found in the Archipelago. 



v<,1 ~ l GRAMINEAE 

52. DESCHAMPSIA Beauvois 

DESCHAMPSIA FLEXUOSA (Linn.) Trin. in Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. 1 
(1836) 66; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 330. 
Aira flexuosa Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 65. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 6354, Phil. PL 189, B. S. 890/+ McGregor, 
F. B. 16155 Curran, Merritt, & Zschokke. In open grasslands at the 
summit of Mt. Pulog, altitude about 2,600 m. Endemic. North Tem- 
perate Zone generally. 

53. A VENA Linnaeus 

AVENA FATUA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 80; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
318; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 287. 
Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 2812 Mearns. Probably merely a casual here, 
altitude about 1,500 m. A widely distributed weed in temperate regions, 
of European origin. 

AVENA SATIVA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 79; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 376. 

Occasional in the Mountain Province at and above 1,500 m altitude, 
here a casual that will probably not persist. Oats. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

AvenA sterilis Linn.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 319. 

54. MICROCHLOA R. Brown 

MICROCHLOA INDICA (Linn, f.) O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. 3 (1893) 356; 
Hack, in Fedde Repert. 7 (1909) 373; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
7 (1912) Bot. 74. 
Nardus indica Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 105. 

Rottboellia setacea Roxb. PI. Coromandel 2 (1798) 18, t. 132. 
Microchloa setacea R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 208; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 319. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Lepanto, Rizal), B. S. 32889 Ramos, Loher 
7179, Vanoverbergh 764.. In open dry grasslands at low and medium al- 
titudes. Pantropic. 

55. CYNODON Persoon 

CYNODON ARCUATUS Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 290; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 320; Scribn. in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 41, 
t. 40.; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 9, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 28, 377, Fl. Manila (1912) 103. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna), Merrill 
3619, Phil. PI. 135, Williams 88, B. S. 1392, 32738 Ramos, 23130 Ramos. 
In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

CYNODON DACTYLON (Linn.) Pers. Syn. 1 (1804) 85; Miq. Fl. In'd. 
Bat. 3 (1857) 382; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 319; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 292; Pilg. 
ex Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 147; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 28, 377, Fl. Manila (1912) 103, Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 71. 



84 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Panicum dactylon Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 58. 

Cynodon linearis Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. (1809) 90; Presl Rel. 

Haenk. 1 (1830) 290; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 

(1850) 98. 
Panicum glumaepatulum Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 41; F.-Vill. 

Noyis. App. (1882) 312 (glumaepetalum) . 
Digitaria glumaepatula Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 439. 
Cynodon rufescens Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 31; F.-Vill. & 

Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 21, non ? Lagasca. 
Capriola dactylon O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PL (1891) 764. 

Throughout the Philippines, in open grasslands, fallow rice paddies, 
waste places, at low and medium altitudes; common. Pantropic. 

Local names: Balbalut (Bon.); galud-galud (Ilk.); grama (Sp.) ; kola- 
tai (Tag.); palot-galot (Ilk.). 

56. CHLORIS Swartz 

CHLORIS BARBATA (Linn.) Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 1 (1797) 200; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 387; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 

2 (1850) 102; F.-Vill. Novis, App. (1882) 320; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 

Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 292; Hook. f. Fl. 

Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 292; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 

147; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. .1 (1906) Suppl. 377, Fl. Manila 

(1912) 103, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 72. 
Andropogon barbatum Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 302. 
Chloris longifolia Steud. Syn. PI. Glum.- 1 (1854) 205; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1857) 388; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320. 
Chloris inflata Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 31; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 22, non Link. 

A common weed in and about towns in many parts of Luzon, Mindoro, 
Negros, and Palawan, and probably in other islands. A pantropic weed 
of American origin. 

Local names: Bamako (Ilk.); korokorosan (Tag.). 

CHLORIS INCOMPLETA Roth Nov. Sp. PI. (1821) 60; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 288. 
Luzon (Zambales), Palawan, Mindanao (Zamboanga), Merrill 9275, 
9616, 8279, Phil. PI. 1308, Gates 8145. In dry open sandy soil at low al- 
titudes, sometimes along the seashore. India to Formosa and Malaya. 

CHLORIS MEARNSII Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 220. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte), B. S. 7606, 27201 Ramos, 229k Mearns. In dry 
open places at low altitudes; perhaps but a depauperate form of C. incom- 
pleta Roth. Endemic. 

CHLORIS TENER (Presl) Scribn. in Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 10 (1899) 41, 
t. 40. 
Cynodon tener Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 291; Kunth Enum. 1 
(1833) 260; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 383; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 320. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Negros, {Presl), B. S. 9951 Robinson, as Cynodon. 
In open places at low altitudes. Hainan, Indo-China. 



Vo 1 - 1 GRAMINEAE 85 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Chloris CRINITA Lagasca Varied. Cienc. 4 (1805) 143; Kunth Enum. 1 
(1833) 268; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 389; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 320. 
"Insulae Philippinae" Kunth. This was probably based on a Mala- 
spina expedition collection erroneously localized. Judging from the de- 
scription it is not a Chloris. 

Chloris truncata R. Br. Prodr. (1910) 186; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 266; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 387; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320. 
Chloris dolichostachya Lagasca Gen. Sp. Nov. (1816) 5. 

Lagasca's species was credited to the Philippines by him; Link has 
reduced it to Chloris truncata R. Br., an Australian species. Nothing 
conforming to it is known from the Philippines. 

Chloris inflata Link Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 105. 

"Calif. ; Ins. Philipp." Link. The species was probably based on a 
Haenke collection, probably erroneously localized, at least as to the Philip- 
pine reference. 

Chloris radiata Sw.; F.-Vill. Novis App. (1882) 320. 

Chloris rufescens Lagasca Varied. Cienc. 4 (1805) 143; Kunth Enum. 3 
(1833) 268; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 388; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 320. 

"Insulae Philippinae" Kunth. Probably not a Philippine species but 
an erroneously localized Malaspina Expedition collection. 

Chloris rhachitricha Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 205; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 388; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320. 
"Cuming no. 111. Ins. Philip." This number of Cuming's Philippine 
collection is a fern, and none of his Philippine grasses conform to Steudel's 
description. The reference may be to Cuming's previous South American 
collection. 

57. TRIPOGON Roth 
« 

TRIPOGON CHINENSIS (Franch.) Hack, in Bull. Herb. Boiss. II 3 (1903) 
503; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 369. 
Nardurus filiformis Steud. var. chinensis Franch. in Nuov. Arch. Mus. 
Paris II 7 (1894) 149. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte), B. S. 3S2S7 Ramos. On dry open rocky slopes 
at low altitudes. Korea, China, Formosa. 

58. ELEUSINE Gaertner 

ELEUSINE INDICA (Linn.) Gaertn. Fruct. 1 (1788) 8; Presl Rel. Haenk. 

1 (1830) 286; Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 45; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1857) 386; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

Suppl. 378, Fl. Manila (1912) 104, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 72. 
Cynosurus indicus Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 72. 
Eleusine barbata Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 292. 



86 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Eleusine polydactyla Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 211; Miq. FL 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 386; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320, ex descr. 

An abundant weed in the settled areas throughout the Philippines. All 
warm countries. 

Local names: Apidan (If.); bakis-bakisan (Tag.); baraiigan (Bik.) ; 
bikad-bikad (Sul.) ; bila-bila (P. Bis.) ; dinapaiuk (If.) ; gagabutan (Tag.) ; 
kabit-kabit (Tag.) ; palagtiki (Bis.) ; parangis (Ilk.) ; parangis-sabungan 
(Pamp.) ; sabuhg-sabungan (Tag., Pamp.) ; sambali (Tag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Eleusine corocana (Linn.) Gaertn.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320. 
Eleusine verticillata Roxb.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320. 

59. DACTYLOCTENIUM Willdenow 

DACTYLOCTENIUM AEGYPTIUM (Linn.) Richt. PI. Europ. 1 (1889) 

68; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 104, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 72. 
Cynosurus aegyplius Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 72. 
Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. (1809) 1029; 

Pilg. ex Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 147; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 379. 
Eleusine aegyptiaca Desf. Fl. Atl. 1 (1798-1800) 85; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 320; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. 

PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 293. 
Eleusine mucronata Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 46, non Spreng. 
Dactyloctenium mucronatum Willd. var. aegyptiactmx Nees in Hook. 

Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 102. 

Throughout the Philippines. A common weed in the settled areas at low 
and medium altitudes. Pantropic. 

Local names: Alam (Tag.); damung-balang (Tag.). 

60. LEPTOCHLOA Beauvois 

LEPTOCHLOA CHINENSIS (Linn.) Nees Syll. Ratisb. 1 (1824) 4; Hook. 
Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 102; Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 
(1854) 209; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 389; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 320; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PL 
Vase. Filip. (1886) 293; Pilger in Perk. Frag. FL Philip. (1904) 
147; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 379; FL Manila 
(1912) 105. 
Poa chinensis Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 69. 

Leptochloa tetraquetra Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 288; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 389; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320. 
Luzon (Cagayan to Camarines, in most provinces), Panay. In open 
usually wet places along or near streams. India to Japan southward 
through Malaya to Australia. 

Local name: Kurukauayan (Bik.). 

LEPTOCHLOA FILIFORMIS (Pers.) R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 580; Presl 
Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 288; Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 270; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 389; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 380. 
Eleusine filiformis Pers. Syn. (1805) 87. 



VoL 1 GRAMINEAE 87 

Luzon (Abra, Union), Palawan. In open low lands, along streams, in 
disturbed soil, etc., at low altitudes. Pantropic. 

61. PHRAGMITES Trinius 

PHRAGMITES KARKA (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1840) 
324; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 381. 

Arundo karka Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 21. 

Phragmites roxburghii Steud. 1. c. ; Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 
19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 173, Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 
101; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 412; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
321. 

Trichoon roxburghii W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 383, 391. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Bataan, Laguna, Camarines), Negros, 
Mindanao, Merrill 3178, Phil. PL 581, Elmer 6851, Williams 221, Clemens 
728, B. S. 2213 Mearns, 15910 Fenix. In thickets and along streams at low 
and medium altitudes. India to Malaya. 

Local names: Kanubong (Bon.); lachitlit (Bag.); lupi (Bik.) ; sabunog 
(P. Bis.); tabunak (P. Bis.); tabunog (Bis.); talubung (Bon.); tantano- 
bang (Ilk.); tanubung (Bon.). 

PHRAGMITES VULGARIS (Lam.) Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820) 134; Pilger 

in Perk. Frag. FL Philip. (1904) 147; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

1 (1906) Suppl. 381, Fl. Manila (1912) 100, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 

72. 
Arundo vulgaris Lam. Fl. Franc. 3 (1778) 615. 
Arundo phragmites Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 81. 
Arundo tecta Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 48; ed. 2 (1845) 33; ed. 3, 

1 (1877) 60, non Walt. 
Arundo donax Llanos in Mem. Acad. Cienc. Madr. 4 (1858) 507; 

F.-VilL & Llanos in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 105, non 

Linn. 
Phragmites communis Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820) 134; Usteri Beitr. 

Ken. Veg. Philip. (1905) 133. 
Arundo madagascariensis F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 321, Vidal 

Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Kev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 

293, non Kunth. 
Neyraudia madagascariensis Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

Suppl. 381, non Hook. f. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, often forming dense thickets 
along the margins of lakes and slow streams. All warm countries. 

Local names: Bagang (Bis.); bugang (C. Bis.); lupi (Bik.); tabunak 
(Bis., P. Bis.); tagisi (Ibn.) ; tambo (Tag.); uba-uba (Sul.) ; tangbo 
(C. Bis.); tanobong (Pang., Ilk.); tantanubong (Ibn.); tanubong (Ilk.). 

62. DIPLACHNE Beauvois 

DIPLACHNE POLYSTACHYA (Forsk.) Backer in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 

Ill 2 (1920) 325. - 
Bromus polystachyus Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 23. 
Diplachne fusca Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 381, 

Fl. Manila (1912) 99, non Beauv. 



88 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS ' 1922 

Luzon (Laguna, Rizal), Mindoro, Mindanao (Cotabato), Merrill 5104., 
Phil. PL 183, Kneucker Gram. Exsic. 554a, Elmer 18131, Williams 2027. 
In swampy often brackish places at low alitudes. Tropical Asia and 
Africa to Australia'. 

63. ERAGROSTIS Beauvois 

ERAGROSTIS AMABILIS (Linn.) W. & A. in Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechy 

Voy. (1841) 251; Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 95. 
Poa amabilis Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 68. 
Poa tenella Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 69. 
Poa plumosa Link. Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 192; Nees in Hook. Journ. 

Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 102 (f. laxa) ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 

(1857) 394; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 322; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 

Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 293; Usteri Beitr. 

Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 132 (f. breviciliata Hack.). 
Eragrostis tenella R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 576; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 

(1830) 274; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 322; Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 383, 3 (1908) Bot. 397, Fl. Manila 

(1912) 101. 

In and about towns throughout the Philippines, a very common weed in 
open waste places. Old World Tropics generally. 

Local names: Bagibuk (Tag.); balisibis (Iv.) ; kaliraurau (Tag.); 
pagai-billit (Ilk.); pulpulut (Bon.); sigsigid (Bon.). 

ERAGROSTIS CILIANENSIS (All.) Vig.-Lut. in Malpighia 18 (1904) 
386; Hubbard in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 159. 
Briza eragrostis Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 70. 
Poa cilianensis All. Fl. Pedem. 2 (1785) 246, t. 91, /. 2. 
Eragrostis major Host. Gram. Austr. 4 (1809) 14, t. 24. 
Eragrostis megastachya Link Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 187; Nees in 
Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 102; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 293. 
Cebu, Negros, B. S. 11122 Ramos, Eskridge. In open waste places at 
low altitudes. All warm countries. 

ERAGROSTIS DISTANS Hack, in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 
81; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 384, 5 (1910) 
Bot. 330, Fl. Manila (1912) 102, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 74. 
XJyiiola paniculata Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 32; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 23, noh Linn. 
Eragrostis pilosa F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 322, non Beauv. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Lepanto, Benguet, Pangasinan, Rizal), Palawan, 
Elmer 6608, Kneucker Gram. Exsic. 761, Merrill 4472, B. S. 4821, 5314 
Ramos. In dry open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

ERAGROSTIS ELONGATA (Willd.) Jacq. Eclog. Gram. (1818) 3, t. 3; 
Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 275; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 
(1906) Suppl. 384. 
Poa elongata Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 1 (1809) 108. 
Eragrostis elegantula Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 148; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 384, Fl. JVIanila (1912) 
102, non Steud. 



Vo] - 1 GRAMINEAE . 89 

Eragrostis nigra Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 132, non Nees. 
Eragrostis luzoniensis Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 266; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 393; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 322. 

Luzon (Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, 
Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal), Culion, Palawan, Mindanao (Bukidnon). 
Common in open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. Pantropic. 

Hackel has identified this as Eragrostis atrovirens Trin. Typical 
specimens are Merrill 4,155, 9321 and Phil. PI. 1U60, 130. Cuming 1JJ.16 ,. 
cotype of E. luzoniensis Steud., appears to me to be merely a form with 
pale spikelets. 

ERAGROSTIS INTERRUPTA (R. Br.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 71 (non 

Doell). 
Poa interrupts R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 180. 
Eragrostis brownei Nees ex Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 1 (1841) 562; 

Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 102; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 322; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PL 

Vase. Filip. (1886) 293. 
Eragrostis cumingii Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 266; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 394; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 322. 
Eragrostis zeylanica Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) 

Suppl. 1: 204; Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 102 (var. 

glomerata et minor); Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Vidal 

Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 

293; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 148. 

Luzon (Abra, Bontoc, Benguet, Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Laguna, 
Zambales), Culion, Cuming 110U, 672, Merrill 686, U331, Elmer 5707, 
Williams 1181, 92. In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. 
Pantropic. 

ERAGROSTIS JAPONICA (Thunb.) Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 

1 (1830) 450; Hack, in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7 (1899) 705; Merr. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 384, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 

73. 
Poa japonica Thunb. Fl. Jap. (1784) 31; Llanos Frag. PL Filip, 

(1851) 47; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 

34. 
Poa interrupta Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 185. 
Eragrostis aurea Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 267; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1857) 394; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 322. 
Panicum, leptanthum Steud. op. cit. 79. 
Vilfa verticillata Steud. op. cit. 158. 
Sporobolus verticillatus Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 

(1850) 101; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 375; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 321. 
Eragrostis tenuissima Schrad. ex Nees in Fl. Afr. Austral. (1841) 

409; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 293. 
Eragrostis interrupta (non Beauv. ! ) var. tenuissima Stapf in 

Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 316. 
Poa amboinensis F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 322, ex syn. Llanos, non 

Linn. 



90 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Eragrostis hapalantha Trin.; Presl Repert. 1 (1833) 252. 
Eragrostis minutiflora Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 274 (excl. syn. 

Retz. ?). 
Eragrostis interrupta Doell in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3: 157; Usteri Beitr. 
Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 132; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. 
(1904) 148; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 383, Fl. 
Manila (1912) 101, non Beauv. 
Eragrostis interrupta (non Beauv.!) var. koenigii Stapf in Hook, 
f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 7 (1897) 316. 
Northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao. In open wet 
grasslands, along streams, etc., at low and medium altitudes. Tropical 
Asia and Africa to Japan and Malaya. 

Thunberg's specific name is accepted for this species as a collective one. 
Merrill 7322, Phil. PI. 165, Sp. Blancoanae 709 represent the .species as I 
here interpret it; numerous specimens have been distributed as E. interrupta 
Doell. 

ERAGROSTIS LASIOCLADA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
382. 
Culion, Merrill 461. In fallow rice paddies at low altitudes. Endemic. 

ERAGROSTIS M ANGALORICA Hochst. ex Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 
265; Merr. in Philip. Joum. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 299, Fl. Manila 
(1912) 101. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Rizal), Merrill 371, B. S. 74-52, 14569 Ramos. In open 
waste places at low altitudes. India. 

ERAGROSTIS PILOSA (Linn.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 71; Merr. Fl. Manila 
(1912) 102. 
Poa pilosa Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 68. 
Luzon (Benguet, Rizal), Merrill 9657, Phil. PI. 573. A weed in open 
waste places, of recent introduction, but now locally abundant. All warm 
countries. 

ERAGROSTIS REFLEXA Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 168. 

Luzon (Rizal), B. S. 2067 Ramos. In fallow lands at low or medium 
altitudes. Endemic. 

ERAGROSTIS SPARTINOIDES Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 265; Pilger 
in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 148; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 102, 
Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 74. 
Uniola spicata Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 33; F.-Vill. & Naves in 
Blanco Fl. Philip, ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 23, non Linn. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ifugao, Bontoc, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, 
Laguna), Mindoro, Cuming 668, Merrill 7055, Phil. PI. 107, Sp. Blancoanae 
170, 422, etc. In open grasslands at low altitudes. Endemic. 

ERAGROSTIS UNIOLOIDES (Retz.) Nees Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 
264; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 322; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 384, Fl. Manila (1912) 102. 
Eragrostis amabilis Auct., non (Linn.) W. & A. 
Eragrostis rubens F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 322, non Hochst.? 



Vo'i GRAMINEAE 91 

Poa annua Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 47; F.-Vill. & Naves in 

Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 l (1880) 34, non Lam. 
Eragrostis poiymorpha R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 180; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 322. 
Luzon (Zambales, Rizal, Sorsogon), Elmer 14531, Merrill Phil. PL 160, F. 
B. 5886 Curran, B. S. 19218 Reillo. In open wet places at low altitudes. 
Old World Tropics, introduced into the New World. 

ERAGROSTIS VISCOSA (Retz.) Trin. in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI 1 

(1831) 397; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 322; Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 383, Fl. Manila (1912) 101, Sp. Blan- 

coanae (1918) 73. 

Poa viscosa Retz. Obs. 2 (1781) 20. 

Eragrostis tenella R. & S. var. viscosa Stapf in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 

Ind. 7 (1897) 315; Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 148. 
Cyperus paniculatus Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 32, ed. 2 (1845) 22, 
ed.. 3, 1 (1877) 42, non aliorum. 
Luzon (Zambales, Rizal), Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 229, Phil. PI. 1^8. In 
open waste places in and near towns. India to Malaya. 
Local name: Kaliraurau (Tag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Eragrostis ciliata Nees; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 322. 

64. CENTOTHECA Desvaux 

CENTOTHECA LATI FOLIA (Osbeck) Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820) 141; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 100, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 74. 
Holcus latifolius Osbeck Dagbok Ostind. Resa (1757) 247; Linn. 

Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1305. 

Cenchrus lappaceus Linn. Sp. PL ed. 2 (1763) 1488. 

Centotheca lappacea Desv. in Nuov. Bull. Soc. Philom. 2 (1810) 189; 

Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 258; Miq. FL Ind. Bat. 3.(1857) 398; 

Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 98; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 322; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PL 

Vase. Filip. (1886) 293; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 

Suppl. 29, 3 (1908) Bot. 397; Perk, ex Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 148. 

Melica philippine?isis Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 44; F.-Vill. & 

Naves in Blanco FL Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 32. 
Centotheca malabarica Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
385, non Poa malabarica Linn. 
Throughout the Philippines in thickets, forests, and clearings at low and 
medium altitudes; common. Usually the only grass in some types of 
forest. Tropical Asia and Africa through Malaya to Polynesia. 

Local names: Baili-patung (Sul.) ; balikbatang (Sub.); kauakauayanan 
(Tag.); lansa-lansa (Sul.) ; mariga (Sul.) ; sikuan (Ig.). 

65. LOPHATHERUM Brongniart 

LOPHATHERUM GRACILE Brongn. in Bot. Duperr. Voy. (1829) 50, t. 8; 
F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 323; Pilger in Perk. Frag. FL Philip. 
(1904) 148; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 386, 2 
(1907) Bot. 261; C. B. Rob. op. cit. 6 (1911) Bot. 194. 



92 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon (Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon) , Polillo, 
Mindoro, Palawan, Leyte, Mindanao, Basilan, Jolo. In forests, along trails, 
and in old clearings, chiefly at medium altitudes. India to Japan, south- 
ward through Malaya to New Guinea. 

The Philippine form is referable to var. pilosum Camus in Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Paris 25 (1919) 495. 

66. POA Linnaeus 

POA ANNUA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 68; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 
(1906) Suppl. 181, 386. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4288, B. S. 32041 Santos. Naturalized in 
open waste places, altitude 1,500 to 2,400 m. Temperate and subtemperate 
regions generally. 

The form reported from the Philippines as Poa annua by Llanos, Frag. 
PI. Filip. (1851) 47, and by F.-Vill., Novis. App. (1882) 322, was probably 
Eragrostis unioloides Nees; there is no description. 

POA LUZONIENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 180, 386. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4712, B. S. 31911 Santos. Borders of cold 
marshes and streams, altitude about 2,400 m. Reported by Ridley from 
New Guinea, but the specimens should be compared. 

67. FESTUCA Linnaeus 

FESTUCA MEGALURA Nutt. in Journ. Acad. Sci. Phila. II 1 (1847) 188; 

Piper in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10 (1906) 17, t. 5. 

Festuca myuros Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 369, non Linn. 

Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 31913 Santos, Hitchcock. In open grassy places, 

altitude 1,400 to 2,300 m. A native of the west coast of North and South 

America, introduced in Portugal, and a recent introduction in Benguet. It 

is very similar to Festuca myuros Linn, and by some authors is treated as 

a variety of that species. The identification is by Professor Hitchcock. 

68. MONOSTACHYA Merrill 

MONOSTACHYA CENTROLEPI DOI DES Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 
(1910) Bot. 331. 
Luzon (Benguet), F. B. 16088 Curran, Merritt, & Zschokke. In open 
grasslands near the summit of Mt. Pulog, altitude about 2,800 m. A 
monotypic endemic genus. 

69. RAM OS I A Merrill 

RAMOSIA PH1LIPPINENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 11 (1916) Bot. 2. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), B. S. 23607 Ramos. In swampy places, border of 
Lake Polog, at medium altitudes. A monotypic endemic genus. 

70. BROMUS Linnaeus 

BROMUS PAUCIFLORUS (Thunb.) Hack, in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 7 (1899) 
713; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 386. 
Festuca pauciflora Thunb. Fl. Jap. (1784) 52. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill 4714, Clemens 9204, 9091, Vanover- 
bergh 3938. In wet open grassy places, altitude 1,500 to 2,400 m. Japan, 
China. 



Vol. 1 



GRAMINEAE 93 



Bromus commutatus Schrad. is represented by B. S. 31966 Santos and 
Merrill 6627, cultivated at Pauai, Benguet; introduced as B. inermis Leyss. 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES 

Bromus pallens Cav. Ic. 6 (1801) 66, t. 591, f. 1; Kunth. Enum. 1 (1833) 
418; Miq. PL Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 398; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
323. 
"Habitat in Manilae vicinis, ibique Acanthus ilicifolius Nee legit." The 
figure and description appertain to Bromus, but no representative of the 
genus is known to occur at low altitudes in the Philippines. The descrip- 
tion was probably based on an erroneously localized plant. 

Bromus luzonensis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 262. 

Triticum luzonense Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 446; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1857) 402; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 323. 

"Hab. in Luzonia" Presl. The type was certainly an erroneously 
localized specimen, probably from tropical America. 

71. BRACHYPODIUM Beauvois 

BRACHYPODIUM SYLVAT1CUM Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 146, subsp. LU- 
ZON I ENSE Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 269; Merr. 
op. cit. 387, 5 (1910) Bot. 332, 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4710, 4536, 4-830, F. B. 16187 Curran, Merritt, 
& Zschokke. On open slopes and in the mossy forest, altitude 1,600 to 
2,500 m. 

Var. ASPERUM Hack. 1. c; Merr. 1. c. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4698. On steep slopes in damp shaded ravines, 
altitude about 1,700 m. The two Philippine forms endemic, the species 
Europe and northern Africa to India and Ceylon. 

72. MONERMA Beauvois 

MONERMA REPENS (Forst.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 117; Hack, in Govt. 
Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 81; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 
(1906) Suppl. 387. 
Rottboellia- repens Forst. Prodr. (1786) 9. 
Lepturus repens R. Br. Prodr. (1910) 207. 

Mindoro, Culion, Bancoran, Cajoacan, Palmas, Mindanao, Merrill 606, 
3331, 5215, 5354, 11644, Phil. PI. 153. In sandy soil back of the beach, about 
sea cliffs, etc. Ceylon through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia. 

73. TRITICUM Linnaeus 

TRITICUM VULGARE Vill. Hist. PI. Dauph. 2 (1779) 153; Nees in Hook. 

Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 2 (1850) 102; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 

323; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 159, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 294; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 388. 

Formerly cultivated in certain provinces in Luzon, now planted to a 

limited extent in northern Luzon. Wheat. 



94 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

74. ARUNDINARIA Michaux 

ARUNDINARIA N I ITAKAYAM ENSIS Hayata in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 21 
(1907) 49, Journ. Coll. Sci. Tokyo 25 10 (1908) 240; Gamble in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 267; Merr. op. cit. 332. 
' Sasa niitakayamensis Camus var. microcarpa Camus Bamb. (1913) 
24. 
Bambusa aff. B. pygmaea Miq. ; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 261. 

Luzon (Benguet), Mindoro, Elmer 14.279, Merrill 4733, 6489, 6222,' Phil. 
PI. 177, B. S. 8379, 8893 McGregor, 5846 Ramos, F. B. 10823 Curran. In 
mossy thickets, sphagnum swamps, and open grasslands, altitude 2,200 to 
2,700 m. Formosa. 

Local name: Utod (Ig.). 

75. BAMBUSA Schreber 

BAMBUSA CORNUTA Munro in Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 113; Gamble 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 269; 8 (1913) "Bot. 204. 

Luzon (Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya), Merrill 124, 7711. In ravines along 
small streams, altitude 1,000 to 1,600 m. Java. 
Local name: Lopa (Isn.). 

BAMBUSA MERRILLII Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 269; 
Camus Bamb. (1913) 128. 
Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya), Merrill 229. In forests, altitude about 600 m. 
Endemic. 

BAMBUSA MULTIPLEX (Lour.) Raeusch. Nomencl. ed. 3 (1797) 108; 
Schultes f. Syst. 7 (1830) 1350; Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 
330; Munro in Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 119. 
Arundo multiplex Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 58, ed. Willd. (1793) 

119. 
Ludolphia glaucescens Willd. in Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berl. Mag. 2 

(1808) 320. 
Bambusa nana Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 25, nomen nudum, Fl. Ind. 
ed. 2, 2 (1832) 199; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 323; Gamble in 
Ann. Bot. Gard. Calc. 7 (1896) 40, t. 38, Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 
(1910) Bot. 268; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 389; 
Camus Bamb. (1913) 121. 
Arundinaria glaucescens Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 144, 152. 
Bambusa glaucescens Sieb. ex Munro in Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 
89, in syn.; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 230, Fl. 
Manila (1912) 105. 
Planted here and there for ornamental purposes, sometimes for hedges. 
Probably a native of China, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

Local names: Caha de china (Sp.) ; kauayan-china (Bik., Tag.) ; kauayan- 
sina (Bik., Tag.). 

BAMBUSA SPINOSA Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 25 [non Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 
(1832) 305]; Merr. Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 97, Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 75. 
Bambusa spinosa Blume ex Nees in Flora 8 (1825) 580. 
Bambusa blumeana Schultes f. Syst. 7 2 (1830) 1343; F.-Vill. Novis. 



Vo1 - x GRAMINEAE 95 

App. (1882) 323; Gamble in Ann. Bot. Gard. Calc. 7 (1896) 50, 

t. U7; Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 270, 8 (1913) Bot. 204; 

Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 29, 388, Fl. Manila 

(1912) 106, Am. Journ, Bot. 3 (1916) 60; Camus Bamb. (1913) 

130. 
Bambus pungens Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 270; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 

3 (1857) 421; Munro in Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 119. 
Bambus arundo Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 188; ed. 3, 1 (1877) 

335, t. 100, non Nees, nee Wight. 
Bambusa arundinacea F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 323, non Retz. 
Bambusa teba Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 418; Munro in Trans. Linn. 

Soc. 26 (1868) 122. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. A universally planted 
bamboo at low and medium altitudes throughout the settled areas; the 
only spiny bamboo in the Philippines. Southern China to the Malay 
Peninsula and Archipelago to the Moluccas. 

The most common and conspicuous bamboo in the settled areas, but in 
the Philippines apparently always planted. This indicates its probable 
prehistoric introduction by the early Malay invaders. The species very 
rarely flowers and then usually only when clumps have been severely 
injured by fire or by too extensive cutting. 

Local names: Aonoo (-Bik.) ; batakan (Bis.); baugin (Pamp.) ; dugian 
(Bik) ; caha espina (Sp.) ; kaaono (Bis.) ; kauayan (P. Bis., Bon., C. 
Bis., Bik., Ilk., Pamp., Sub., Sul., Tag.) ; kauayan-gid (P. Bis.) ; kauayan- 
ng-bayog (Ilk.) ; kauayan-potog (Sbl.) ; kauayan-siitan (Ilk.) ; kauayan- 
tinik (Tag.) ; kauayan-totoo (Tag., Bik.) ; kabugauan (Bik.) ; lamnuan 
(Is.); marurugi (Bik.); pasingan (Ibn., Is.); paua (Bis.); rugian (Bik.). 

BAMBUSA VULGARIS Schrad. ex Wendl. Collect. PI. 2 (1808) 26, t. U7 ; 
Gamble in Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 7 (1896) 43, t. 40, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 268, 8 (1913) Bot. 204; Merr. Fl. Manila 

(1912) 105, Am. Journ. Bot. 3 (1916) 61, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 
75; Camus Bamb. (1913) 123. 

Bambusa monogyna Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 286, ed. 2 (1845) 187, 
ed. 3, 1 (1877) 333; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1897) 420; Munro in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 119; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 
(1906) Suppl. 29, 389; Camus Bamb. (1913) 132. 

Bambusa mitis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 271, ed. 2 (1845) 188, ed. 
3, 1 (1877) 336, non Poir. 

Bambusa blancoi Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1 (1854) 331; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1857) 431; Munro in Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 120; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 389; Camus Bamb. 

(1913) 134. 

Dendrocalamus sericeus F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 324, non Munro. 
Dendrocalamus strictus F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 324, non Nees. 
Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and" prov- 
inces, in the settled areas at low and medium altitudes. Probably an 
introduced plant in the Philippines. Pantropic in cultivation. 

Local names: Bolinau (P. Bis.); burirau (P. Bis.); butong (Bik.); 
kabaloan (Bik.) ; kauayan (Ibn.) ; kauayan-china (Tag.) ; kauayan-kiling 
(Ilk., Tag.) ; kauayan-kiting (Sbl.) ; kiling (Ilk., Tag.) ; lunas (P. Bis.) ; 



96 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

marobal (Bik.) ; patong (Tagb.) ; patung (Sul.) ; sinambang (C. Bis.); 
taiuanak (Tag.); taring (Tagb.); teuanak (Tag.); tiling (P. Bis.). 

Var. STRIATA (Lodd.) Gamble in Ann. Bot. Gard. Calc. 7 (1896) 44, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 269; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 
105. 
Bainbusa striata Lodd. ex Penny Cyclop. 3 (1835) 357. 
Occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes; probably originating 
in China. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Bambusa tuldoides Munro; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 323. 

76. GUADUA Kunth 
GUADUA PHILIPPINENSIS Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
203. 
Mindanao (Davao), Piper 475. Probably from thickets or secondary 
forests; collected at Mati. Endemic. The genus is otherwise American. 

77. GIGANTOCHLOA Kurz 

GIGANTOCHLOA LEVIS (Blanco) Merr. in Am. Journ. Bot. 3 (1916) 61, 
Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 76. 
Bambusa levis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 272, ed. 2 (1845) 189, ed. 3, 
1 (1877) 337; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 421; Munro in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 121; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 
(1905) 93, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 388; Camus Bamb. 
(1913) 134. 
Gigantochloa scribneriana Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
390; Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 270, 8 (1913) 
Bot. 204; Camus Bamb. (1913) 143. 
Dendro calamus flagellifer F.-Vill, Novis. App. (1882) 324, non Munro. 
Gigantochloa robusta Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 

204, non ? Kurz. 
Gigantochloa atter C. B. Rob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 

194, non Kurz. 
Dendrocalamus curranii Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 
271; C. B. Rob. op. cit. 6 (1911) Bot. 194; Camus Bamb. (1913) 
158. 
Dendrocalamus latiflorus Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 
291, non Munro. 
Luzon (Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas) , Culion, Polillo, 
Leyte, Camiguin de Misamis, Loher 7208, Scribner 14, Merrill Phil. PI. 
586, 590, Sp. Blancoanae 310, B. S. 10414, 10417 McGregor, 6313, 11838 
Robinson, 14696 Ramos, F. B. 22771 De Mesa & Rosario, 10177 Curran, 
25405 Labitig, 25418 Duldulao. Usually if not always planted, and proba- 
bly an introduced species in the Philippines. To be compared critically with 
the Malayan species. 

Local nanies: Boko (P. Bis.); bolo (P. Bis.); bonsina (Tag.); botong 
(P. Bis.); buhong-china (Tag.); bulung-sina (Tag.); buton (C. Bis.); 
kabolian (Bik.) ; kauayan-china (Tag.) ; kauayan-puti (Tag.) ; kauayan- 
sina (Tag.); kayali (C. Bis.); patong (Bik., Bis., Sul.). 



Vo1 - x GRAMINEAE 97 

78. DENDROCALAMUS Nees 

DENDROCALAMUS M ERRILLI AN US (Elm.) Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 7 

(1915) 2675. 
Gigantochloa merrilliana Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (Jan., 1908) 

273; Camus Bamb. (1913) 139. 
Dendro calamus parviflorus Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (July, 1908) 

168; Gamble op. cit. 5 (1910) Bot. 272; Camus Bamb. (1913) 159. 

Luzon (Ilocos Sur, Abra, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Zambales, Pangasinan, 
Bulacan), Leyte, Cebu, Bohol, Mindanao (Lanao), Elmer 7283, Clemens, 
Barrow 30, F. B. 27332 Lopez & Reyes, 27319, 27329 Reyes, 27219 Duran, 
27177 Maneja & Bawan, B. S. 22466 Ramos, 27706 Fenix, 17949 Otanes, 
mostly sterile specimens. In and about towns, chiefly planted. Endemic. 

Local names: Bayog (Ilk., Ibn., Tag., Sbl.) ; bayugin (Tag.); botong 
(C. Bik., Bis.) ; bukaui (Tag.) ; butong (P. Bis.) ; kauayan (Tag., C. Bis., 
Ilk.); kauayan-bayog (Pang.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 324. 

Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro; F.-Vill. 1. c. ; Vidal Sinopsis Atlas 
(1883) 42, t. 96, f. B. 

Vidal's figure was copied from Munro's plate, fide Vidal 1. c; see Gigan- 
tochloa levis Merr. 

79. CEPHALOSTACHYUM Munro 

CEPHALOSTACHYUM MINDORENSE Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 
(1910) Bot. 272. 

Luzon (Camarines), Mindoro, F. B. 11421, 8619, 6213 Merritt, 10667 
Curran, 27424 Ablaza & Ramos. In thickets and forests at low altitudes, 
locally abundant. Endemic. 

This is presumably the form reported from the Philippines by F.- 
Villar, Novis. App. (1882) 324, as C. capitatum Munro, a species that 
does not occur in the Archipelago. To be compared here is Vidal 4021, 
reported by Ceron, Cat. PL Herb. Manila (1892) 185, as Oxytenanthera sp. 

Local names: Bagtok (Bik.); bakto (Tag.); bikal (Bik.). 

80. SCHIZOSTACHYUM Nees 

SCHIZOSTACHYUM CURRAN 1 1 Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) 
Bot. 277; Camus Bamb. (1913) 177. 
Luzon (Ifugao, Benguet), F. B. 10849 Curran, 18014 Merritt, B. S. 
19778 McGregor, Merrill <PhU. PI. 1217. In borders of the mossy forest, 
altitude about 2,000 m. Endemic. 

SCHIZOSTACHYUM DIELSIANUM (Pilger) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
1 Suppl. (1906) 391; Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 
274, 8 (1913) Bot. 205; Camus Bamb. (1913) 174, t. 96, f. B. 
Dinochloa dielsiana Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 148. 

Palawan, Merrill 711. In thickets and forests at low altitudes. En- 
demic. 

By no means certainly distinct from S. diffusum Merr. Numerous spec- 
imens distributed as S. dielsianum Merr. appear to be referable to S., 
diffusum, but many intergrades occur. 

183036 7 



98 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

SCHIZOSTACHYUM DIFFUSUM (Blanco) Merr. in Am. Journ. Bot. 3 

(1916) 62, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 78. 
Bambus diffusa Blanco PL Filip. (1837) 269; ed. 2 (1845) 187, ed. 

3, 1 (1877) 334; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 420; Munro in Trans. 
. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 118. 
Schizostachyum acutiflorum Munro in Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 

137; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 324; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. 

(1885) 159, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 294; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 391, 3 (1908) Bot. 397; Gamble in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 273, 8 (1913) Bot. 205; Camus Bamb. 

(1913) 174, t. 95, f. A. 
Dinochloa diffusa Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 29 (1905) 7. 
? Schizostachyum blumei F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 324, non Nees. 
Ischurochloa floribunda F.-Vill. in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4? (1880) 

14, non Biise. 
Dinochloa major Pilger in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 149; Camus 

Bamb. (1913) 170. 

Babuyan Islands, Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Apayao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos 
Sur, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, 
Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines) , Mindoro, Pala- 
wan, Leyte. Common in secondary and primary forests at low and 
medium altitudes, ascending to 1,700 im Variable. Endemic. 

Local names: Baliaro (Ilk.); balikau (Ilk.); bikil (Ilk.); bongbong 
(Bis.) ; loob (Bis.) ; indi, inri, hindi (Bik.) ; butor (Isn.) ; babui (Bik.) ; 
lilit (Pamp.) ; bikal (Ilk., Ibn., Pamp., Pang., Tag.) ; bikal-babi (Pamp.) ; 
bikal-babui (Sbl.) ; gimak (Tag.) ; mangnau (Ilk.) ; tagisi (Tag.) ; usiu 
(Tag'.). 

SCHIZOSTACHYUM FENIXII Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 
289, 8 (1913) Bot. 205. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Abra, Ilocos Sur, Benguet), Panay, F. B. 17815 Curran, 
28567 Vergara, 25U82, 25086 Paraiso, Fenix, McVey. In thickets at low 
and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Bolo (Ilk.); paua (P. Bis.); puser (Ilk.). 

SCHIZOSTACHYUM LIMA (Blanco) Merr. in Am. Journ. Bot. 3 (1916) 
62, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 77. 
Bambus lima Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 271; ed. 2 (1845) 189; ed. 3, 
1 (1877) 336; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 421; Munro in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 121; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 388; Camus Bamb. (1913) 134. • 
Bambusa longinodis F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 323, non ? Miq. 
Schizostachyum hallieri Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 

274, 8 (1913) Bot. 205; Camus Bamb. (1913) 175, t. 97, f. B. 
Schizostachyum brachycladum Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 

Bot. 206, non Kurz. 
Schizostachyum longispiculatum Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 
Bot. 206, non Kurz. 
Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Pala- 
wan, Leyte, Mindanao, Basilan, Hallier, Merrill 581, 9226, Sp. Blancoanae 
U, Phil. PL 1U72, as S. longispiculatum Kurz, Elmer 71U5, 10838, 12958, 
12599, 16621, Wenzel 1357, Weber 1111, Wester U5, B. S. 20120 McGregor, 



VoL 1 GRAMINEAE 99 

F. B. 11374. Merritt. In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium 
altitudes, sometimes gregarious ; a species having unusually long internodes, 
these being up to 120 cm in length. Endemic. 

Local names: Anos (Tag.); bagakai (C. Bis., P. Bis., Bik.) ; bitu 
(Pamp.) ; bolo (Ilk.); bubo (P. Bis.); lakap (Buk.) ; nap-nap (C. Bis.); 
Bumbiling (Tagb.). 

8CHIZOSTACHYUM LUMAMPAO (Blanco) Merr. in Am. Journ. Bot. 3 
(1916) 65, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 77. 
Bambus lumampao Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 272, ed. 2 (1845) 189; 
ed. 3, 1 (1877) 338; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 421; Munro in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 118; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 
(1906) Suppl. 389; Camus Bamb. (1913) 132. 
Dendrocalamus membranaceus F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 324, non 

Munro. 
Schizostachyum mucronatum Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) 
Bot. 169; Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 276; Camus 
Bamb. (1913) 175. 
Schizostachyum hirtiflorum Hack, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 420; Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 275; Camus 
Bamb. (1913) 176. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Pangasinan, 
Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Tayabas, Camarines), Panay, Merrill Sp. Blan- 
coanae 891, Elmer 6178, B. S. 7825 Ramos, 2810 Mearns, 29875 Fenix, F. 
B. 21926 Alejandro, 26058 Barros, 25829 Paraiso, 22808 Diaz & Alambra, 
24113 Velasco, 23560 Vergara, 20945 De Leon, 20870 Bernardo, 10414 
Curran, 3615 Maule. In secondary forests, but more frequently grega- 
rious and occupying extensive areas at low and medium altitudes where 
forests have been destroyed. Endemic. 

Local names: Bakakan (Tagb.) ; boho (Tag., Bik.) ; bokaui (Tag.) ; bolo 
(Tag., Ilk., Pang., Bik., P. Bis., Ibn.) ; bulo (Ibn.) ; caha boho (Sp.) ; daso 
(Bik.); lumampau (Tag.); napnap (Ilk.); oras (Bik.); valu (Ibn.) ; vulu 
(It-)- 

SCHIZOSTACHYUM LUZON 1CUM Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) 
Bot. 277; Camus Bamb. (1913) 177. 
Luzon (Zambales), F. B. 8411 Curran & Merritt, 5926 Curran. In 
forests and in ravines, altitude about 800 m. Endemic. 

SCHIZOSTACHYUM PALAWAN ENSE Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 
(1910) Bot. 274, 8 (1913) Bot. 205; Camus Bamb. (1913) 175. 

Palawan, B. S. 277 Bermejos, Elmer 12618. In forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Local name: Bugto (Tagb.). 

SCHIZOSTACHYUM TEXTORIUM (Blanco) Merr. in Am. Journ. Bot. 3 

(1916) 64, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 76. 
Bambus textoria Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 270; ed. 2 (1845) 188; 

ed. 3, 1 (1877) 335; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 421; Munro in 

Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 122; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 

(1906) Suppl. 389; Camus Bamb. (1913) 135. 
Gigantochloa atter F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 323, non Kurz. 
Schizostachyum merrillii Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 

278; Camus Bamb. (1913) 174. 



100 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon (Batangas, Rizal), Merrill 1744, Sp. Blancoanae 714. In second- 
ary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Kalbang (Tag.). 

SCHIZOSTACHYUM TOPPINGII Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) 

. Bot. 276; Merr. PL Manila (1912) 106; Camus Bamb. (1913) 178. 

Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal), Mindoro, B. S. 5222 Topping, F. B. 

9500 Merritt, B. S. 39366, 39713 Ramos. In thickets and secondary forests 

at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

81. DINOCHLOA Biise 

DINOCHLOA ELMERI Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 280; 
Camus Bamb. (1913) 170. 

Luzon (Benguet), Elmer 6542. In the mossy forests on Mt. Santo 
Tomas, altitude about 2,200 m. Endemic. 

DINOCHLOA LUQONIAE (Munro) comb. nov. 

Bambusa lugoniae Munro in Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 115; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 323 (luzoniae) ; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

1 (1906) Suppl. 389; Camus Bamb. (1913) 134. 
Dinochloa aguilarii Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 280; 

Camus Bamb. (1913) 170. 
Dinochloa ciliata Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 42 2 (1873) 253, in 

nota; Camus Bamb. (1913) 170, t. 95, f. D; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 11 (1916) Bot. 51. 
Dinochloa scandens O. Kuntze var. angustifolia Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 392; Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

5 (1910) Bot. 279, 8 (1913) Bot. 206; Camus Bamb. (1913) 169. 
Dinochloa tjankorreh Biise var. angustifolia Hack, ex Merr. 1. c. in 

syn. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Zambales, 
Cavite, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas), Mindoro, Leyte, Samar, Mindanao, 
Basilan. In forests at low and medium altitudes. Borneo. 

I have examined the type of Bambusa lugoniae Munro, which was from 
Mt. Banahao, and which is preserved in the United States National Her- 
barium. I fail to see how D. aguilarii Gamble can be distinguished from 
D. ciliata Kurz, or either from D. lugoniae Merr. 

Local names: Bika (Ibn.) ; bikal (Ibn.) ; buloau (Sub.); bolokaui (C. 
Bis.); malilit (Sbl.) ; osiu (Tag.); timak (Tag.); usiu (Tag.). 

DINOCHLOA PUBIRAMEA Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 
279; Camus Bamb. (1913) 171. 
Dinochloa scandens O. Kuntze var. pubiramea Merr. ex Gamble 1. c. 
in syn. 
Leyte, Samar, Negros, Mindanao (Surigao), Basilan, Bolster 319, Wen- 
zel 1310, F. B. 5589 Everett, 26268 Mallonga, B. S. 17639 Ramos. In 
forests at low and medium altitudes. Borneo. 
Local name: Bukau (Yak.). 

DINOCHLOA SCANDENS (Blume) O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 773; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 392; Gamble in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 278, 8 (1913) Bot. 206; Camus Bamb. 
(1913) 169. 



Vo1 - 1 GRAMINEAE 101 

Bambusa scandens Blume ex Nees in Flora 7 (1824) 291. 

Nastus bjangkorreh Schultes Syst. Veg. 7 2 (1830) 1358. 

Dinochloa tjankorreh Buse in Miq. PL Jungh. (1854) 388; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 415; Munro in Trans. Linn. Soc. 26 (1868) 
153; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 324; Vidal Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 
42, t. 96, f. C, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 157, Rev. PL Vase. 
Filip. (1886) 294; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
29. 

Dinochloa macrocarpa Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 7 (1915) 2675. 

Luzon (Bulacan, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon), Polillo, Mindoro, Pala- 
wan, Balabac, Samar, Panay, Sibuyan, Biliran, Leyte, Mindanao, Basilan. 
Common in primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Malay Penin- 
sula and Archipelago. 

Local names: Baka (Tagb.) ; balikau (Tagb.) ; bid (Tagb.) ; bika (Bon.) ; 
balilit (Bag.) ; bayokaui (P. Bis.) ; bukau (Yak.) ; bukaui (Tag.) ; bulukaui 
(P. Bis.); burukaui (S. L. Bis.); timak (Mang.) ; usiu (Bik., Tag.). 

EXCLUDED GENERA AND SPECIES 

Lappago racemosa Houck.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 313. 

Beesha rheedii Kunth; Vidal Cat. PL Prov. Manila (1880) 48; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 324. 

Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 323. 

Phyllostachys nigra Munro; F.-Vill. 1. c. 

Pappophorum phleoides (Cav.) R. & S. 

"Arab, vel ins. Philipp.?" Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1 (1854) 199. This 
is an American species erroneously credited to the Philippines by Steudel. 

Stenotaphrum complanatum Schrank.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 313. 

Teinostachyum sp.; Gamble in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 205. 

This reference was based on \a sterile specimen of what will probably 
prove to be a species of Schizostachyum. 

Several species of the Chlorideae, chiefly of the genus Bouteloua, have 
been erroneously credited to the Philippines on the basis of American 
specimens collected by members of the Malaspina Expedition and erro- 
neously localized as Philippine. They are: 

Bouteloua curtipendula (Mich.) Torr.; Eutriana curtipendula Trim; 
Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 280; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 383; 
F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320= Bouteloua racemosa Lagasca. 

Bouteloua barbata Lagasca; Eutriana barbaia Kunth Rev. Gram. 1 
(1829) 96; Enum. 1 (1833) 282; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 
284; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 321. 

Bouteloua tenuis Griseb. ; Chrondrosium tenue Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 41; 
Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 76; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320. 

Bouteloua simplex Lagasca; Chrondrosium simplex Kunth Enum. 1 
276; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 320. 



102 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Polyschistis paupercula Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 294, t, 41, f. 2; 
Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 282; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 384; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 321. 

"Hab. in insula Luzonia" Presl. The specimens were erroneously local- 
ized; a species of tropical America = Pentarrhaphis sp. 

Atheropqgon procumbens Jacq.; R. & S. Syst. 2 (1825) 292. 

"Ins. Philipp. Mexico" Roemer and Schultes. This is one of the American 
species of Bouteloua. 

CYPERACEAE 

1. LIPOCARPHA R. Brown 

LIPOCARPHA ARGENTEA R. Br. in Tuckey's Congo Append. (1818) 

459; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 331; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 

308; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 285; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 109. 

Lipocarpha laevigata Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 

(1854) 28. 

Kyllinga albescens Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 68; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1856) 294; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 300. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Lepanto, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva 
Ecija), Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 26007, 26151 Fenix, 14252 McGregor, 
7864 Ramos, Merrill 215, Phil. PI. 570, Elmer 6484, Williams 1224. In 
open wet places chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 1,800 m. Warmer 
parts of the Old World. 

Local name: Balabak (Buk.). 

LIPOCARPHA MICROCEPHALA (R. Br.) Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 268; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 331; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 6 (1893) 668, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 110; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 308; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 119. 
Hypaelyptum microcephalism R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 220. 
Ascolepis kyllingioides Steud. in Zoll. Verz. Ind. Archip. (1854) 61. 
Kyllinga squarrosa Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 68. 
Luzon (Apayao, Ifugao, Bulacan, Rizal), Merrill 3625, Phil. PI. 547, 
B. S. 21712, 12177 Ramos, 28174 Fenix. In open wet grasslands at low 
and medium altitudes. Japan to the Malay Peninsula- and tropical Aus- 
tralia. 

2. HYPOLYTRUM L. C Richard 

HYPOLYTRUM COM PACTUM Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 288, Nov. Act. 
Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 73; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 

(1855) 132; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 333; Boeck. in Linnaea 
37 (1871) 127; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 309; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 29; C. B. Clarke op. cit. 2 (1907) Bot. 
109. 

Luzon (Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Ba- 
taan), Palawan, B. S. 29983 Fenix, 29537, 29428 Ramos & Edano, Elmer 
8889, 13041, Merrill 2496, 7597, 5184, Phil. PI. 1434. In forests at low and 
medium altitudes, often common- Indo-China, Andaman Islands, Borneo. 

Local name: Tuhog-dalag (Tag.). 



Vol. 1 



CYPERACEAE 103 



HYPOLYTRUM LATIFOLIUM L. C. Rich, in Pers. Syn. 1 (1805) 70; 

Hook. f. in Curtis's Bot. Mag. Ill 33 (1877) t. 6282; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 309; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 

108; Merr. op. cit. 264. 

Scirpus anomalus Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 15, non Hypolytrum anomalum 

Steud. 
Albikia schoenoides Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 185, t. 34. 
Hypolytrum, schoenoides Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 288. 
Hypolytrum trinervium Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 272; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1856) 332; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 308. 
Luzon (Tayabas, Pangasinan, Camarines), Palawan, Biliran, Panay, 
Mindanao, Basilan, Merrill 9449, Phil. PL 537, F. B. 20186 Aguilar, B. S. 
13115 Foxworthy & Ramos, 18561 McGregor, 34841 Ramos & Pascasio, 17787 
Otanes. In forests at low and medium altitudes. India to Formosa through 
Malaya to Polynesia. 

Local names: Baliis (Tag.) ; bubugo (Sub.) ; marakibkib (Neg.) ; parai- 
biau (Sul.) ; root (Neg.). 

HYPOLYTRUM SCiRPOIDES (Presl) comb. nov. 

Albikia scirpoides Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 185, t. 35, excl. syn. 
Hypolytrum philippense C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1908) 

Bot. 109. 
Hypolytrum viridinux C. B. Clarke 1. c. 

Throughout the Philippines, Elmer 6223', 15916, 18198, Merrill 7291, 10430, 
744, 5126, 8186, B. S. 29589, 28654, 28462 Ramos & Edano, 34394 Ramos 
& Pascasio, 28164 Fenix, 23601, 13929, 20424, 15314, 1853, 7389, 33162 
Ramos, 14238, 32473 McGregor. In forests at low and medium altitudes; 
often common. Borneo. 

Local name: Alisahis (Buk.). 

The Philippine form Presl figured and described is unmistakably the 
same as H. philippense C. B. Clarke; Presl erred in referring to it H. nem- 
orum Beauv. and Schoenus nemorum Vahl. 

3. CYPERUS Linnaeus 

CYPERUS COMPRESSUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 46; Nees in Nov. Act. 
Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 56, Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew 
Miscel. 6 (1854) 27; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 302; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 282; C. 
B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 84; Merr. op. cit. 
3 (1908) Bot 398, Fl. Manila (1912) 111, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 
79. . 
Cyperus humilis Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 13; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 7, non Kunth. 
Cyperus compressus Linn. var. brachiatus Nees in Linnaea 35 (1868) 

518. 
Cyperus meyenii Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 
1: 57. 
Throughout the Philippines in open grasslands, waste places, etc., at low 
and medium altitudes; common. Pantropic. 

Local names: Anana (Ibn.) ; gisai-kalabau (Tag.); kaptos (Iv.) ; tuhog- 
dalag (Tag.); sangsanga (Bon.). 



104 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



CYPERUS DIFFORMIS Linn. Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 302; Presl Rel. 
Haenk. 1 (1828) 69; Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) 
Suppl. 1: 70, Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 28; Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 269; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 302; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1855) 155, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 
283; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 82; Merr. Fl. 
Manila (1912) 110, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 78. 

Cyperus subrotundus Naves Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 14; F.-Vill. & 
Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 8. 

Cyperus goeringii Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 24; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 303. 

Throughout the Philippines in open wet places, ascending to 2,000 m; a 
characteristic rice-paddy weed. Old World Tropics generally, introduced 
in Mexico. 

Local names: Baki-baki (Bis.); ballayang (Ilk.); bankoan (Bis.); 
gilamhon (Bis.); pukuugan (Bon.). 

CYPERUS DIFFUSUS Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 321; Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. 
Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 58, Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 
6 (1854) 28 (var. longifolius Nees) ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 
264; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 302; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. 
(1885) 155, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 283; C. B. Clarke in 
Philip. Journ., Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 83; Merr. op. cit. 262, Fl. Manila 
(1912) 110. 
Cyperus scirpoideus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 178, non Vahl. 
Cyperus sorzogonensis Presl op. cit. 351. 

Cyperus longifolius Dene, in Nuov. Ann. Mus. Paris 3 (1834) 359; 
Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 28. 
Throughout the Philippines, in thickets, secondary and primary forests, 
and in old clearings at low and medium altitudes; common. Pantropic. 

Local names: Barsanga-bakir (Ilk.); gumi-gumi (Tag.); haras (Tag.); 
nipinpin-di-gubat (Sbl.) ; tuhog-dalag (Tag.). 

Var. PUBESQUAMA (Steud.) Kiikenth. in herb. comb. nov. 

Cyperus pubesquama Steud. in Zoll. Verz. Ind. Archipel. (1854) 62; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 266; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 302; 
C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 83. 
Cyperus lagorensis Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 36; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1856) 275. 
Cyperus bancanus Naves Novis. App. (1882) 302; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 30; C. B. Clarke op. cit. 2 (1907) Bot. 
83, non Miq. 
Cyperus calacaryensis Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 34; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 275; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 304. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna), Mindoro, 
Leyte, Mindanao, F. B. 2581 Meyer, B. S. 13951, 8015 Ramos, Merrill 505U, 
5692, Phil. PI. 523. Habitat of the species from which it is scarcely 
distinguishable. India to Malaya. 

Var. CELEBICA Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 283. 

Throughout the Philippines, Elmer 18286, 667U, 8306, Williams 85, B. S. 
28839 Ramos & Edano, 16166 Reillo, F. B. 20172 Aguilar. Habitat of the 
species. Malaya. 



VoL x CYPERACEAE 105 

CYPERUS DIGITATUS Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 81, nomen nudum, Fl. 
Ind. 1 (1820) 209; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 86. 
Cyperus auricomus Naves Novis. App. (1882) 305; Ceron Cat. PI. 
Herb. Manila (1892) 177, non Sieber. 

Babuyan Islands, Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Pam- 
panga, Laguna), Leyte, Mindanao, B. S. 1U50, 8075, 8151, 18516 Ramos, 
Weber 1083, Merrill 2317. In open wet places at low and medium altitudes; 
widely scattered. Pantropic. 

CYPERUS DISTANS Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 103; Nees in Hook. Journ. 
Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 27; Naves Novis. App. (1882)' 303; 
Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 
(1886) 283; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 84; 
Merr. op. cit. 3 (1908) Bot. 398, 5 (1910) Bot. 333, Fl. Manila 
(1912) 111. 
Cyperus kurrii Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 38; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1856) 279; Naves Novis. App. (1882.) 305. 
Throughout the Philippines. Common in open rather wet places at low 
and medium altitudes. Pantropic. 

Local names: Amusan (Tag.) ; bakabakahan (Tag.) ; barisahga (Ilk.) ; 
burabongdai (S. L. Bis.) ; gagauan (Bon.) ; hanganga (If.) ; langalang 
(Bik.) ; muthang-kalabau (Tag.); pulukgalo (Buk.) ; talubak (Buk.). 

CYPERUS ELATUS Linn. Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 301; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 304; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907): Bot. 86. 
Cyperus bispicatus Steud. in Zoll. Verzeich. Ind. Archipel. (1854) 
62; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 303. 

Luzon (Laguna), Biliran, Leyte, Wenzel 1279, B. S. M955 Ramos, 231U0, 
18897 McGregor, distributed as C. radiatus Vahl, and not certainly distinct 
from VahFs species. In swamps and open wet places at low altitudes. 
India to Malaya. 

Local name: Kobong-kobong (Bis.). 

CYPERUS ELEUSINOIDES Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 39; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 303; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 84. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya), Mindanao (Bukid- 
non), Merrill 226, B. S. 2U950 Fenix, 22728 Castillo, 87 U7, 1U261,. McGregor. 
In open wet places at low and medium, altitudes, not common. Tropical 
Asia and Africa through Malaya to tropical Australia. 

Local names: Gauang (Bon.); salinganga (Bon.). 

CYPERUS FLABELLIFORMIS Rottb. Descr. Nov. PI. (1773) 42; Merr. 
Fl. Manila (1912) 110. 
Cultivated for ornamental purposes, occasional in waste places in Manila 
but scarcely established. A native of Africa and southwestern Asia. 

CYPERUS HASPAN Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 45; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 
267; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 302; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 82; Merr. op. cit. 3 (1908) Bot. 398, Fl. Manila 
(1912) 110, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 79. 
Cyperus caespitosus Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 14 (caespitorus) ; 
F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 8; C. B. 
Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 86, non Poir. 



106 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Cyperus dehiseens Naves Novis. App. (1882) 303, non Kunth. 
Cyperus flavidus C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
82, non Retz. 

In open wet places throughout the Philippines; a common and charac- 
teristic rice-paddy weed. Pantropic. 

I fail to see how Philippine specimens referred to C. flavidus Retz. can 
be distinguished from C. haspan Linn. 

Local names: Balabalangutan (Tag.) ; barsanga (Ilk.) ; buiTgot-bungot 
(P. Bis.); manik-manikan (Tag.); misai-kalabau (Tag.); zaingal (Sub.). 

CYPERUS IRIA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 45; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 174; 
Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 70, Hook. 
Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 28; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
303; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. 
(1886) 283; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 83 
(incl. var. paniciformis C. B. Clarke) ; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 
111, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 79. 
Cyperus nuttallii Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 14; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 * (1880) 9, non Torr. 
Chlorocyperus iria Rikli in Jahrb. Wissensch. Bot. 27 (1895) 564; 
Palla in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 17 (1911) Beil. 6; Kneucker Cyp. 
Exsic. No. 237. 
In open wet places throughout the Philippines; a common and charac- 
teristic rice-paddy weed. Old World Tropics generally. 

Local names: Alinang (Bik) ; okokiang (Bon.); paiung-paiung (Bik.) ; 
sud-sud (Bik.); taga-taga (Bik.). 

CYPERUS LEUCOCEPHALUS Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 11; Nees in Hook. 
Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 28; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. 
(1885) 155, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 283; C. B. Clarke in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 82. 
Sorostachys kyllingioides Steud. in Flora 33 (1850) 229, nomen 
nudum, Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 71; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 296. 
Cyperus sorostachys Boeck. in Linnaea 35 (1868) 588; Scheff. in 

Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 34 (1874) 48. 
Cyperus pulchellus R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 213; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 301. 
Mindanao (Misamis), Cnming 1617. This does not seem to have been 
found in the Philippines since Cuming collected it, between 1836 and 1840. 
Pantropic. 

CYPERUS MALACCENS1S Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 146; Usteri Beitr. 
Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 131; Merr. in Philip. Journ. ,Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 30, Fl. Manila (1912) 111; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 84. 
Chlorocyperus malaccensis Palla in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 17 (1911) 
Beil. 6, Kneucker Cyp. Exsic. No. 238. 
Central Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, on the muddy margins of tidal 
streams within the influence of salt or brackish water. Tropical Asia 
through Malaya to Australia and Polynesia. 

Local names: Baga-as (P. Bis.); balangot (Tag., Bik., Bis., Pamp.) ; 
balongat (Pamp.); barahgot (Bik.); talaid (Bag.); tikog (Mbo.). 



Vo '- l CYPERACEAE 107 

CYPERUS PILOSUS Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 354; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 

303; Vidai Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 283; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 84; 

Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 111. 

Cyperus marginellus Nees in Wight Contr. (1834) 83, Hook. Journ. 

Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 28. 
Cyperus pauciflorus Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 34; Miq. FL Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1856) 275; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 304. 
Cyperus obliquus Nees in Wight Contr. (1834) 86; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 305. 
Duvaljouvea pilosa Palla in Koch Syn. ed. 3 (1905) 2555; Kneucker 
Cyp. Exsic. No. 245. 
In open wet places throughout the Philippines; common. Tropical Asia 
and Africa through Malaya to Australia. 
Local name: Paragi (Sub.). 

CYPERUS RADIATUS Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 369; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 305; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155 (var. elongata 

Boeck.), Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 283; C. B. Clarke in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 85; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) 

Bot. 398, FL Manila (1912) 112, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 78. 
Cyperus racemostis Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 

27; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 303, ? non Retz. 
Cyperus macrosciadion Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 37; Miq. FL 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 277; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 305. 
Cyperus anabaptistus Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 37; Miq. FL 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 277; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 305; C. B. 

Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 86, ex descr. 
Cyperus cumingii Steud. 1. c. in syn. 
Cyperus imbricatus Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 17; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 11, non Retz. 
Cyperus spicalus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 173; Steud. Syn. PL 

Glum. 2 (1855) 52; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 287; Naves Novis. 

App. (1882) 306; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 

87, ex descr. 
Dichostylis radiatus Palla in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 17 (1911) Beil. 

8, Kneucker Cyp. Exsic. No. 247. 
Throughout the Philippines in open wet places at low and medium 
altitudes. Pantropic. 

Local names: Alinang (P. Bis.); balabalangutan (Tag.); balayang 
(Ilk.); dagko (Bis.); obod-obod (Bis.); upopi (Ibn.). 

CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 45; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 

175; Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 31, ed. 2 (1845) 21, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 40; 

Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 274; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 304; 

Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 282; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 85; 

Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 112, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 79. 
Cyperus hexastachyus Rottb. Descr. Ic. (1773) 28, t. 1U f. 2; Nees in 

Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 60, var. castaneus 

Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 27. 
Cyperus curvatus Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 15; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 9, non Vahl. 



108 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Throughout the Philippines in open areas at low and medium altitudes. 
Common in lawns, along roads, and in waste places. Pantropic. 

Local names: BarsaiTga (Ilk.) ; boto-botones (Bik.) ; galonalpas (Pamp.) ; 
kusung (Pamp.) ; malaapulid (Pamp.) ; mota (Pamp.) ; mutha (Tag.) ; 
omadiung (Pamp.); onoran (Pamp.); sur-sur (Pamp.); tarugug (Bik.). 

CYPERUS STOLON I FERUS Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 10; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 
(1828) 169; Boeck. in Linnaea 35 (1868) 489; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 302; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 85. 
Luzon (Rizal), Panay, McGregor 41, Copeland. In open places at low 

altitudes; rare and local. Tropical Asia to Mauritius, Formosa, and 

through Malaya to tropical Australia. 

CYPERUS UNCINATUS Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 7 (1806) 247; C. B. Clarke 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 82. 
Cyperus cuspidatus HBK. Nov. Gen. Sp. PI. 1 (1815) 204; Naves 

Novis. App. (1882) 301; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, 

Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 282. 
Cyperus solutus Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 14; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 

3 (1856) 263; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 302. 
Cyperus pusillus Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 27, 

non ? Vahl. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna), Mindanao (Lanao), 
Merrill Phil. PI. 1488, Williams 1975bis, 1969bis, B. S. 19213 Ramos. In 
open lands, old clearings, etc., at low and medium altitudes. Pantropic. 

Local name: Salasa (Tag.). 

CYPERUS ZOLLINGERI Steud. in Zoll. Verz. Ind. Archipel. (1854) 62; 
Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 17; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 264; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 302; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 85; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 112. 
Cyperus tenuiculmis Boeck. in Linnaea 36 (1869) 286; Scheff. in Nat. 
Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 34 (1874) 50; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 306. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Rizal, Sorsogon), Palawan, Pa- 
nay, Mindanao, Elmer 16488, 6473, Merrill 7667, 9310, Phil. PI. 530, B. S. 
82583 McGregor, 29513 Ramos & Edano, 1106, 4636, 7672, 7820 Ramos. In 
open grasslands at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,600 m. Trop- 
ical Asia and Africa through Malaya to tropical Australia. 
Local names: Daat-laua (Tag.); pakama (Bag.). 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Cyperus bulbosus Vahl; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 304. 
Cyperus castaneus Willd.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 301. 
Cyperus cephalotes Vahl; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 301. 
Cyperus corymbosus Rottb.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 303. 
Cyperus esculentus Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 304. 
Cyperus eumorphus Steud.; Naves Novis App. (1882) 303. 
Cyperus laevigatus Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 301. 
Cyperus. longus Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 304. 



Vo1 - l CYPERACEAE 109 

Cyperus ornatus R. Br.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 303. 
Cyperus pangorei Rottb.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 304. 
Cyperus radians Nees; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 305. 
Cyperus sexflorus R. Br.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 304. 
Cyperus tegetiformis Roxb.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 303. 
Cyperus clavatus Lam.; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 131. 
A lapsus calami; no such name occurs in botanical literature. 

Cyperus cruentus Rottb.; Boeck. in Linnaea 36 (1869) 338; Scheff. in 
Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 34 (1874) 51; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
305. 

The Philippine record was based on Cuming 2372, which was from Ma- 
lacca, not from the Philippines. 

Cyperus haematodes Endl. ; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 44; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 282; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 305. 

The type was from Norfolk Island; the Philippine record is due to 
Steudel's error in transcribing the type locality as "Ins. Norf. Philipp." 

Cyperus lamprocarpus Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 
27; Boeck. in Linnaea 35 (1868) 490; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 306. 

The type is Cuming 2437, which was from Sumatra, not from the Phil- 
ippines. It is supposed to be a synonym of Cyperus stoloniferus Retz. 

Cyperus tuberosus Rottb.; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 265. 

"Luzon ?" fide Miquel 1. c. The record must be an erroneous one as 
the species is not known from the Philippines.' 

Cyperus minutiflorus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 351; Steud. Syn. PI. 
Glum. 2 (1855) 52; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 287; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 306; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 87. 
Cyperus micranthus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 178, non Nees. 
Cyperus breviflorus Dietr. Sp. PL 2 (1833) 316. 
Cyperus multiflorus Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 562 err. typ. 

"Hab. in insula Luzon." 
Cyperus philippensis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 174; Steud. Syn. PI. 
Glum 2 (1855) 52; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 287; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 306; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 87. 

"Hab. in insula Luzon." It is desirable that the types of the last two 
be examined as from the description I cannot place either of these satis- 
factorily. Both are probably referable to some of the admitted species 
listed above. 

Cyperus exaltatus Retz.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 304; Ceron Cat. PI. 
Herb. Manila (1892) 178; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 86. 

Vidal's specimen on which Ceron's record is based is C. elatus Linn, 
fide C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 86. I suspect that 
Llanos's plant cited by Clarke as C. exaltatus Retz. is either C. radiatus 
Vahl or C. elatus Linn. 



HO ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS l922 

4. PYCREUS Beauvois 

PYCREUS ERAGROSTIS (Vahl) Merr. PI. Manila (1912) 108. 

Cyperus eragrostis Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 322; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 300; Suringar Geslacht. Cyp. (1898) 65. 
Pycreus sanguinolentus Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 283; C. B. Clarke 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 79. 
Cyperus sanguinolentus Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 351. 
Cyperus atratus Steud. in Zoll. Verz. Ind. Archip. (1854) 62; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 301. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Benguet, Pangasinan, Rizal, Laguna, Sor- 
sogon), Mindanao, Elmer 14336, 14323, Merrill 7354, 9792, Phil. PI. 514, 
Williams 1972, B. S. 27620, 4893, 12039 Ramos. In open wet places at low 
and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,600 m. Widely distributed in the 
warmer parts of the Old World. 

PYCREUS GLOBOSUS (All.) Reichb. PI. Germ. Exkurs. (1830-32) 140 10 ; 

C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 81 (inch var. nilagi- 

ricus C. B. Clarke). 
Cyperus globosus All. Fl. Pedem. Auctuar. (1789) 49; Naves Novis. 

App. (1882) 301; Suringar Geslacht. Cyp. (1898). 58. 
Cyperus vulgaris Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 4; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 

(1856) 256. 
Cyperus lanceolatus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 167, non ? Poir. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya), Leyte, Mindanao 
(Lanao), Merrill 237, 4630, Phil. PI. 556, Elmer 6483, Williams 1242, B. S. 
31810 Santos, 14261, 14257 McGregor, 5972, 8238 Ramos. In open usually 
wet places at medium altitudes, ascending to 2,000 m. Warmer parts of 
the Old World. 

Local name: Tantanud (Bon.). 

PYCREUS NITENS (Retz.) Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) 

Suppl. 1: 53; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 108. 
Cyperus nitens Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 13; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. 

Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 28; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, 

Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 283; Suringar Geslacht. Cyp. (1898) 55. 
Cyperus pumilus Linn. Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 302; Naves Novis. 

App. (1882) 300, non Pycreus pumilus Nees. 
Pycreus pulvinatus Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 283; C. B. Clarke in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 79. 
Cyperus gymnoleptus Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 3; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1856) 255. 

Northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces. In 
open usually damp places at low and medium altitudes. Common in the 
warmer parts of the Old World; Florida (probably introduced). 

PYCREUS ODORATUS (Linn.) Urban Symb. Antil. 2 (1900) 164; Merr. Fl. 

Manila (1912) 108, Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 104, Sp. Blan- 

coanae (1918) 80. 
Cyperus odoratus Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 46, excl. syn. Sloane. 
Pycreus polystachyus Beauv. PL Oware et Benin 2 (1807) 48, t. 86, 

f. 2; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 80; Merr. 

op. cit. 3 (1908) Bot. 397. 



vo 1 - 1 CYPERACEAE HI 

Cyperus polystachyus R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 214; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 

3 (1856) 258; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 301. 
Cyperus strigosus Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 16; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 10, non Linn. 

Throughout the Philippines. m Common in open usually damp grasslands, 
fallow rice paddies, etc., at low altitudes. Pantropic. 
Local names: Alusang-pasigan (Tag.); hana (Iv.). 

Var. PANICULATUS (Rottb.) Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 109. 
Cyperus paniculatus Rottb. Descr. Ic. (1773) 40. 

Pycreus polystachyus Beauv. var. laxiflorus Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 
(1878) 261; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 80. 
Luzon (Isabela, Pampanga, Rizal), Negros. Occasional; habitat of the 
species. 

Var. HOLOSERICEUS (Link) Merr. in Journ. Str. Branch Roy. As. Soc. 76 
(1917) 79. 
Cyperus holosericeus Link Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 317. 

Luzon (Zambales, Laguna), P'almas, Merrill 5843, Bolster 11, Baker 
983, B. S. 22986 McGregor. In open wet places; rare and local. Borneo, 
its other range uncertain. 

PYCREUS SULCINUX C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 593; 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 80. 
Cyperus sulcinux C. B. Clarke in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 
593; Suringar Geslacht. Cyp. (1898) 63. 
Luzon (Benguet, Bulacan), Palawan, Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill 4289, 
9278, Phil. PI. 548, Williams 1969, Elmer 6579, B. S. 21742 Ramos. In 
open places, in dry or damp soil, sea level to 1,200 m altitude; local. 
Warmer parts of the Old World. 

PYCREUS UNIOLOIDES (R. Br.) comb. nov. 

Cyperus' unioloides R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 216. 

Cyperus angulatus Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 73. 

Pycreus angulatus Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 283. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya), Mindanao (Lanao), Williams 
1971, B. S. 14228 McGregor, 8262 Ramos. In boggy places at medium 
altitudes. Pantropic. 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Cyperus albus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 175; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1856) 287; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 52; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882.) 306; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 81. 
"Hab. in insula Luzon" Presl. This is a Pycreus judging from Presl's 

description of the styles as 2-fid. It is necessary to examine the type to 

determine its status. 

Cyperus luzonensis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 174; Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 
2 (1855) 52; Miq. FL Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 287; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 306; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 81. 

"Hab. in insula Luzon" Presl. The type should be examined as the 
status of the species is hardly determinable from the description alone. 

Cyperus flavescenS' Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 301. 

Cyperus flavicomus Michx.; Naves 1. c. 



112 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

5. MAR ISC US Gaertner 

MARISCUS CYPERINUS (Retz.) Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 377; Nees in Hook. 

Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 28; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 87; Merr. op. cit. 3 (1908) Bot. 398, 5 (1910) 

Bot. 333, Fl. Manila (1912) 113. 
• Kyllinga cyperinus Retz. Obs. 6 (1791) 21. 
Mariscus sundaicus Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 289. 
Cyperus sundaicus Naves Novis. App. (1882) 306. 
Mariscus umbellatus Moritzi Verz. Zoll. Pflanz. (1845) 98, vix Vahl. 
Cyperus umbellatus Naves Novis. App. (1882) 305, vix Benth. 
Cyperus manilensis Boeck. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 5 (1884) 501. 
Mariscus philippensis Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 66; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 290; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 

Bot. 88. 
Cyperus steudelianus Naves Novis. App. (1882) 306; Boeck. in 1 Engl. 

Bot. Jahrb. 5 (1884) 91. 
Mariscus umbellatus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 191, non Vahl. 
•Cyperus cylindrostachys Boeck. in Linnaea 36 (1869) 383, p. p.; 

Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 283. 

Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, in open waste 
places, old clearings, etc. India to Malaya and Polynesia. 

Local names: Alusang (Tag.); alusang-parang (Tag.); bubuyangkat 
(Sub.) ; busikad-dako (C. Bis.) ; hand (Iv.) ; saka-an (Ig.) ; silal (Buk.) ; 
ubud-ubud (Tag.). 

MARISCUS DILUTUS (Vahl) Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 90; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 231, FL Manila (1912) 113, Sp. 
Blancoanae (1918) 80, 81. 
Cyperus dilutus Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 357; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. 
Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 27; Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 
(1843) Suppl. 1: 65; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 285; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 305; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155; Vidal 
Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 283. 
Mariscus microcephalics Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 182; Steud. Syn. 
PL Glum. 2 (1855) 66; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 290; C. B. 
Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 88. 
Cyperus haenkeanus Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 93. 
Cyperus quadriflorus Naves Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 17 {cuadrifiorus) ; 

F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 1 (1880) 12. 
Cyperus luzoniensis Llanos 1. c. ; F.-Vill. & Naves op. cit. 11. 
Cyperus septatus Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 46; Naves Novis. 

App. (1882) 305. 
Cyperus microcephalus Naves Novis. App. (1882) 304, non R. Br. 
Sphaeromariscus microcephalus Camus in Not. Syst. 1 (1910) 239. 
Duvaljouvea diluta Palla in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 17 (1911) Beil. 
8; Kneucker Cyp. Exsic. No. 246. 
Throughout the Philippines, in all or most islands and provinces. Com- 
mon in open wet placed at low and medium altitudes. Tropical Asia to 
Malaya and the Mascarene Islands. 

Local names: Baki-baking-pula (S. L. Bis.); durugi (Sub.); giron 
(Bag.) kadang-kadang (Bik.) ; tikai (Tag.). 



VoL1 CYPERACEAE 113 

MARISCUS MERRILLII C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 87. 

Luzon (Cavite), Merrill 4170. On wet banks in ravines, altitude about 
300 m. Endemic. 

MARISCUS NIVEUS (Murr.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 369. 
■Schoenus niveus Murr. in Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 13 (1774) 81. 
Scirpus glomeratus Linn. Sp. Pi! (1753) 52, excl. syn. Gronov., non 

Mariscus glomeratus Barton. 
Schoenus coloratus Linn. var. /3 Linn. Sp. PL ed. 2 (1762) 64. 
Cyperus kyllingiaeoides Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 312. 
Mariscus dregeanus Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 120; C. B. Clarke in Hook. 

f. FL Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 620. 
Cyperus irr'oratus Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 28. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte), 32826 Ramos. On dry open rocky slopes at low 
altitudes. India to tropical Africa, the Malay Peninsula, Singapore, and 
Borneo. 

MARISCUS PENNATUS (Lam,) comb. nov. 

Cyperus pennatus Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 144; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1856) 281; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 304; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 283. 
Cyperus siuppeus Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 89, nomen nudum. 
Mariscus siuppeus Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 398, 

Fl. Manila (1912) 113, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 80. 
Cyperus canescens Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 355; Nees in Hook. Journ. 

Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 27; Boeck. in Linnaea 36 (1869) 340; 

Scheff. in Nat. Tijdschr. NederL Ind. 34 (1874) 51. 
Mariscus albescens Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 415; C. B. 

Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci, 2 (1907) Bot. 88. 
Cyperus holciflorus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 173; Steud. Syn. PL 

Glum. 2 (1855) 43; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 282; Naves Novis. 

App. (1882) 305. 
Cyperus bracteolatus Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 49; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1856) 286; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 305. 
Cyperus bracteatus Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155. 
Cyperus ovatus Naves Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 15; F.-Vill. & Naves 

in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 (1880) 10. 
Cyperus nitidulus Boeck. in Linnaea 36 (1869) 363; Naves Novis. 

App. (1882) 305; Scheff. in Nat. Tijdschr. NederL Ind. 34 (1874) 

51; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 283. 
Cyperus anomalus Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 37; Miq. FL Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1856) 277; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 305. 
Cyperus stigmatosus Steud. in Zoll. Verz. Ind. Archip. (1854) 96, Syn. 

PL Glum. 2 (1855) 38; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 305. 

Along shores of tidal streams, inner borders of mangrove swamps, etc., 
within the influence of salt or brackish water throughout the Philippines. 
Tropical Africa to southeastern Asia, Malaya, and Polynesia. 

Local names: Kai-kai (Mbo.) ; obod-obod (Ibn.) ; tuhog-dalag (Tag.). 

183036 8 



114 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

MARISCUS SIEBERIANUS Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 286; C. B. Clarke in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 88. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and 
provinces. In old clearings, open grasslands, etc., at low and medium 
altitudes. Pantropic; considered by Kiikenthal to be a variety of M. 
umbellatus Vahl. 

Local names: Kupiupi (Sub.); okokiang (Bon.); mangilang (Sub.). 

MARISCUS TENUIFOLiUS Nees in Mart. Fl. Brazil 2 1 (1843) 46; C. B. 
Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 87. 
Mariscus flabelliformis C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 89; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 113, non ? HBK. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Scattered in thickets and 
secondary forests at low and medium altitudes. India to the Malay 
Peninsula. 

Local name: Bakis-bakisan (Tag.). 

6. JUNCELLUS C. B. Clarke 
JUNCELLUS PYGMAEUS (Rottb.) C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 
(1893) 596, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 81; Merr. Fl. 
Manila (1912) 109. 
Cyperus pygmaeus Rottb. Descr. Ic. (1773) 20', t. 14, f. 4, 5; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 261; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 301. 
Dichelostylis pygmaea Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 289; Kneucker Cyp. 
Exsic. No. 248. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna), Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill Phil. PI. 
509, B S. 22984, 2684 Ramos, 22714 Castillo. In open wet places, river 
banks, etc., at low and medium altitudes. Africa, India to Korea southward 
to Australia. 

7- TORULIN1UM Desvaux 

TORULINIUM FERAX (L. C. Rich.) Ham. Prodr. PI. Ind. Occ. (1825) 15 
• (ferox) ; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 114. 
Cyperus ferax L. C. Rich, in Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1 (1792) 106; 

Naves Novis. App. (1882) 305; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 

155, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 283. 
Torulinium confertum Desv. ex Ham. Prodr. PI. Ind. Occ. (1825) 15; 

Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 131; C. B. Clarke in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 89. 
Diclidium elatum Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 27. 
Cyperus calopterus Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 282; Naves Novis. 

App. (1882) 305. 
Cyperus holophyllus Miq. op. cit. 283; Naves 1. c. 
Mariscus ferax C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 624. 
Cyperus haenkei Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 172. 

Throughout the Philippines. In open wet places at low and medium 
altitudes. Pantropic. 

Local names: Biliran (S. L. Bis.); pulakgalau (Sub.). 

8. KYLLINGA Rottboell 
KYLLINGA BREVI FOLIA Rottb. Descr. Ic. (1773) 13, t. 4, f. 3; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 300; Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 
(1854) 28; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Joum. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 78; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 107. 
Kyllinga rigidula Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 71; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1856) 294; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 300, quoad pi. Philip. 



Voh l CYPERACEAE 115 

Kyllinga caespitosa Nees var. robusta Boeck. in Linnaea 35 (1868) 
413; Scheff. in Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 34 (1874) 45; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 283. 

Kyllinga longiculmis Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 292; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 300. 

Kyllinga fuscata Miq. 1. c. 294; Naves 1. c. 

Kyllinga squarrosa Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 68; Naves 1. c. 

Kyllinga sororia Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 131; Naves 1. c. 

Throughout the Philippines in open grasslands, waste places, etc., at 
low and medium altitudes; common. Pantropic. 

Local names: Bibi-inok # (Bon.) ; kadkadot (Ig.) ; pugo-pugo (C. Bis.). 

KYLLINGA CYLINDRICA Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 91; C. B. Clarke 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 79. 

Luzon (Benguet, Laguna), Mindanao (Bukidnon, Lanao), Elmer 6500, 
Merrill Phil. PL 571, Williams 1225, B. S. 26039 Fenix, 14033 Robinson, 
10980 Ramos. In open grasslands at medium altitudes, ascending to 1,600 m. 
Warmer parts of Africa and Asia, through Malaya to Australia. Consid- 
ered by Kukenthal to be a variety of K. odorata Vahl. 

KYLLINGA INTERMEDIA R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 219; C. B. Clarke in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 78; Merr. op. cit. 262, 5 (1910) 
Bot. 333. 
Kyllinga oligostachya Boeck. in Linnaea 35 (1868) 407. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna), 
Mindoro, Negros, Mindanao, B. S. 14249 McGregor, 14125 Robinson, Elmer 
6494, 10021, 9675, Merrill 6539, 4.618, 4624, 4371, 4h21, 4695, Phil. PL 539; 
Williams 1228. In open wet places, on slopes, about cliffs, etc., at medium 
altitudes, ascending to 2,200 m. Formosa, Australia, Samoa. Considered 
by Kukenthal to be a variety of K. brevifolia Rottb. 

Local names: Busikad (C. Bis.); tabtabulog (Buk.). 

KYLLINGA M ELANOSPERMA Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 91; C. B. 

Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 588. 
Kyllinga pungens C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 

78, non Link. 
Kyllinga bifolia Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 293; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 300. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Ifugao, Kalinga, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya), Min- 
danao (Lanao), B. S. 27159 Ramos, 14236, 19995 McGregor, Merrill 216, 
4649, Phil. PL 1761, 572, Williams 1235, Elmer 6292, 6495. In open wet 
places at medium altitudes, ascending to 2,000 m. India to Madagascar 
and Malaya. 

KYLLINGA MONOCEPHALA Rottb. Descr. Ic. (1773) 13, t. 4, f. t; Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 291; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 199; C. B. 
Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (190'7) Bot. 77; Merr. op. cit. 3 
(1908) Bot. 397, Fl. Manila (1912) 108, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 81. 
Kyllinga triceps Blanco ; Fl. Filip. (1837) 34, ed. 2 (1845) 23, ed. 3, 
1 (1877) 44; Steud/ Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 72; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 300 (Linn, f., p. p.). 



116 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Kyllinga mindorensis Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 67; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 292; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 300. 
Kyllinga monocephala Rottb. var. mindorensis Boeck. in Linnaea 35 

(1868) 424; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155, Rev. PL Vase. 

Filip. (1886) 284. 
Kyllinga gracilis Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 134; Nees in Hook. Journ. 

Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 28; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 300. 

Throughout the Philippines. Common in waste places, open grasslands, 
etc., at low and medium altitudes. Pantropic. 

Local names: Anuang (Tag.); barubotones (Bis.); bolobotones (Bis.) ; 
borobotones (Bis.) ; botoncillo (Sp.) ; bosobo^ones (Bis.) ; borsa-nga- 
dadakkel (Ilk.) ; baki-baki (S. L. Bis.) ; bosikad (C. Bis.) ; boskad (Bis.) ; 
busikad (P. Bis.) ; katutu (Mag.) ; kurukamoting-orig (Bik.) ; malabotones 
(Bis.) ; mutha (Tag.) ; mustra (Tag.) ; pungos (S. L. Bis.) ; sangsangitan 
(Bon.); sud-sud (Bis.); uli-uli (Bag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Kyllinga pumila Steud.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 300.' 

9. Fill REN A Rottboell 

FUIRENA CILIARIS (Linn.) Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 81, Fl. Ind. 1 
(1820) 184; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 119, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 
81. 
Scirpus ciliaris Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 182. 

Fuirena glomerata Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 150; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 309; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci, 2 (1907) Bot. 
101. 
Fuirena striata Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 21; F.-Vill. & Naves 
in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 14. 
Throughout the Philippines, in rice paddies, open wet lands, etc., at low 
and medium altitudes, often abundant. Old World Tropics generally. 
Local name: Pugapuk (Tag.). 

FUIRENA UMBELLATA Rottb. Descr. Ic. (1773) 70, t. 19, f. 3; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 308; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, 
Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 284; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 101. 
Fuirena paniculata Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 150, t. 39. 
Fuirena pentagona Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 93, Hook. Journ. 
Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 28. 
Throughout the Philippines in open wet lands at low and medium alti- 
tudes. Pantropic. 

10. SCIRPUS Linnaeus 

SCIRPUS ARTICULATUS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 47; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 
23 (1885) 216; Ceron Cat. PL Herb. Manila (1892) 178; Clarke 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 99; Merr. FL Manila (1912) 
118, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 81. 
Carex glomerata Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 24, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 
45; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 90, non Thunb. 
Scirpus incurvatus Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 216; Llanos ex F.-Vill. 
& Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 x (1880) 105. 



VoL x CYPERACEAE 117 

Luzon (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna), 
Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 268, Phil. PI. 513, B. S. 2295, 2298 Mearns, U9U9, 
7UU7 Ramos. In open wet places in settled areas at low altitudes. Old 
World Tropics generally. 

Local name: Apurau (Pang.). 

SCIRPUS ERECTUS Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 6 (1804) 761; Usteri Beitr. 

Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 132; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

2 (1907) Bot. 99; Merr. PI. Manila (1912) 118. \ 

Scirpus juncoides Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 216; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. 

Manila (1892) 178. 
Scirpus luzoyiensis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 193; Nees in Nov. 

Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 93; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 

2 (1855) 84; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 304. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Bulacan, Sorso- 
gon), Polillo, Leyte, Biliran, Mindanao. In open wet places, rice paddies, 
etc., at low and medium altitudes. Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

Local names: Bitubituinan (Tag.); gumi (Tag.); paratupit (Ilk.). 

SCIRPUS GROSS US Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 104; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 
195; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 307; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
308; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 117, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 82. 
Cyperus difformis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 32, ed. 2 (1845) 22, ed. 
3, 1 (1877) 41 i Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 90, 
non Linn. 
Scirpus kysoor Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 6; Llanos Frag. PL Filip. 
(1851) 20 (kisoor) ; F;-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 
4 1 (1880) 14 (kisoor). 
Scirpus grossus Linn. f. var. kysoor (Roxb.) C. B. Clarke in Hook, 
f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 660, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 100. 
Schoenoplectus grossus Palla in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 17 (1911) 
Beil. 3. 
Central Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces, Merrill Sp. 
Blancoanae 56 U, 692, Phil. PI. 515, Kneucker Cyp. Exsic. 220. In fresh- 
water swamps at low altitudes. India to Indo-China and Malaya. 

Local names: Agas (Bik.) ; baga-as (P. Bis.); baki-baki (P. Bis.); 
balakbak (Pang.) ; balangot (P. Bis.) ; bangkviang (Bik.) ; ragiudiu (Bik.) ; 
tikug (Mbo.) ; tikiu (Tag.) ; titiu (Tag.). 

SCIRPUS LACUSTR1S Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 48; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 172. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Zambales, Benguet), F. B. 17290 Curran, Merrill Phil. 
PI. 1792. In fresh-water swamps, sea level to 1,300 m altitude. In most 
warm countries except Malaya and South America. 

Local name: Tiker (Ilk.). 

SCIRPUS MERRILLII (Palla) Kukenth. in herb. comb. nov. 

Schoenoplectus merrillii Palla in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 17 (1911) 

Beil. 3. 
Cyperus tenellus C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 

81, non Linn. f. 
Scirpus inundatus C. B. Clarke op. cit. 99, non Poir. 



118 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Negros, Mindanao (Davao), Merrill 4740, 
6639, 7680, Phil. PI. 511, Knencker Cyp. Exsic. 223, Elmer 11379a, B. S. 
3174-8 Santos, 8331 McGregor. In open wet places on the higher mountains, 
altitude 1,600 to 2,700 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Salaisoi (Bag.). 

SCIRPUS. MUCRONATUS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 50; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 308; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 100; 

Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 118. 
Scirpus acutus Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 192, non Muhl. 
Scirpus preslii Dietr. Sp. PI. 2 (1833) 175 (presslii) ; Steud. Syn. 

PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 84; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 305; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 308 (preslei). 

Northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. In open 
wet places at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 m. Warmer 
parts of the Old World. 

Local names: Kanubsuban (Tag,); libiran (Tag.); parapipit (Ilk.); 
pulutapit (Bon.); pupuegan (Bon.). 

SCIRPUS PULOGENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 333. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 7789, 6616, 6550, B. S. 31750 Sayitos, F. B. 
16134 Curran, Merritt, & Zschokke. In very damp ravines and on open 
grassy slopes on the highest mountains, altitude 2,400 to 2,700 m. Endemic. 

SCIRPUS SUPINUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 49; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
308; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 99 (incl. var. 
uninodis C. B. Clarke) ; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 118. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Rizal) , M errill 3654, Phil. PL 504, B. S. 765-4, 21970 
Ramos. In open wet places, rice paddies, etc., at low altitudes. Europe to 
southern Africa and Australia. 

SCIRPUS TERNATANUS Reinw. ex Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 307; C. B. 
Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 100 (ternatensis) . 
Scirpus chinensis Munro in Seem Bot. Voy. Herald (1857) 423. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Kalinga, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Tayabas), 
Mindanao (Davao, Bukidnon, Zamboanga), B. S. 31934 Santos, 8173, 26750 
Ramos, 29113, 37489, 39192 Ramos & Edano, 19737 McGregor, Merrill 2315, 
Phil. PI. 559, Williams 1249, Elmer 6287, 5790. In open wet places and also 
in thickets chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 2,200 m. India to 
China and the Riu Kiu Islands, Celebes, and the Moluccas. 

Local names: Daatan (Tag.); sagari (Bag.); sanganga (Klg.) ; siilak 

(Ig.)- 

SCIRPUS TRIQUETER Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 29; C. B. Clarke in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) /Bot. 100 (var. segregata C. B. Clarke). 

Luzon, (Loher 802), fide C. B. Clarke. I have seen no specimens of this 
species. Europe to Japan, also in South Africa and New Guinea. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Scirpus fluctans Linn.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 308. 
Scirpus maritimus Linn.; F.-Vill. 1. c. 
Scirpus maximus Linn.; F.-Vill. 1. c. 



Vo1 ' x CYPERACEAE H9 

11. ELEOCHARIS R. Brown 

(Helebcharis auct.) 

ELEOCHARIS ACICULARIS (Linn.) R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 154; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 264. 
Scirpus acicularis Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 48. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet) , Merrill 7665, Vanoverbergh 293. About rice 
paddies, altitude 1,200 to 1,500 m. North Temperate Zone generally, ex- 
tending southward to southern China. 

ELEOCHARIS AFFLATA Steud. in Zoll. Verz. Ind. Archip. (1854) 62; 

Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 76; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 307; C. B. 

Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 90; Merr. op. cit. 3 

(1908) Bot. 398. 

Eleocharis microcarpa C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1908) 

Bot. 91, non Torr. 
? Eleocharis pellucida Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 196; Steud. Syn. 
PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 80; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 301; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 307 (H eleocharis) . 
Eleocharis subprolifera Steud. in Zoll. Verz. Ind. Archip. (1854) 62; 
Naves Novis. App. (1882) 307 (H eleocharis) . 

Babuyan Islands, Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet) , Elmer 6299, 5751, 
Williams 1230, 1243, 1247, Merrill 4621, 7703, Phil. Pi. 555. In shallow 
water, swampy places, rice paddies, etc., altitude 1,000 to 1,600 m. Japan 
to China and India, southward to Borneo. 

ELEOCHARIS ATROPURPUREA (Retz.) Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 
196; Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 151; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 90. 
Scirpus atropurpureus Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 14. 

Admitted on the authority of C. B. Clarke. I have seen no Philippine 
material representing the species. Warmer parts of the world. 

ELEOCHARIS CARIBAEA (Rottb.) Blake in Rhodora 20 (1918) 24; Merr. 
Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 83. 
Scirpus caribaeus Rottb. Descr. PI. Rar. Progr. (1772) 24, Descr. 

Ic. Nov. PI. (1772) 46, t. 24. 
Eleocharis capitata Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 299; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 307; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
90; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 114, non R. Br. 
Eleocharis retroflexus Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 19; F.-Vill. & 
Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 13, non Poir. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna), Cebu. Common 
in open wet lands at low altitudes. Pantropic. 

Blake has shown that "the type of Scirpus capitatus Linn, is identical 
with the plant commonly known as Eleocharis tenuis (Schultes) Willd., 
which should henceforth bear the name Eleocharis capitata (Linn.) R. Br. 

ELEOCHARIS DULCIS (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Henschel Vita Rumph. (1833) 
186; Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 104, Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 82. 
Andropogon dulcis Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 219. 
Hippuris indica Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 16. 



120 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Eleocharis plantaginea R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 224; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 306. 
Carex tuberosa Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 35, ed. 2 (1845) 24, ed. 3, 

1 (1877) 45, t. 15, non Degl. 
Scirpus plantaginoides Rottb. Descr. Nov. PI. (1773) 45. 
Scirpzis plantagineus Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 14. 
Eleocharis plantaginoidea W. F. Wight in Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 

9 (1905) 268. 
Eleocharis tuberosa Naves Novis. App. (1882) 306, non ? Schultes. 
Eleocharis tumida R. & S. Syst. Mant. 2 (1824) 86; Naves Novis. 

App. (1882) 306. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Bulacan, Laguna, Camarines), Negros, B. S. 7448 
Ramos, 12332 McGregor, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 395, Phil. PL 521. In 
open wet lands, shallow swamps, etc., at low altitudes. India to Malaya. 

Local names: Apulid (Tag., Bik.) ; cabezas de negrito (Sp.) ; kalangub 
(C. Bis) ; potok (Tag.). 

ELEOCHARIS EQUISETINA Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 195; Steud. Syn. 
PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 82; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 302; Nave's 
Novis. App. (1882) 306; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci, 2 (1907) 
Bot. 89; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 114. 
Heleocharis plantaginea Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, 
Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 284, non R. Br. 

Luzon (Rizal, Sorsogon), Mindanao (Lanao), Elmer 14341, Kneucker 
Cyp. Exsic. 224, Merrill Phil. PI. 531. In open wet lands at low altitudes. 
Ceylon to Madagascar, Malaya, and New Caledonia. 

ELEOCHARIS FISTULOSA (Poir.) Schultes f. in Roem. & Schultes Syst. 

Mant. 2 (1824) 89; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 

626; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 306; Camus in Lecomte Fl. Gen. 

Indo-Chine 7 (1912) 84, /. 13, 3, 4- 
Scirpus fistulosus Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 6 (1804) 749. 
Eleocharis planiculmis Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 80; Naves 

Novis. App. (1882) 306. 

Luzon (Rizal), Mindanao (Davao, Lanao), Merrill 9790, Copeland 441. 
In open wet places at low altitudes. Pantropic. 

ELEOCHARIS OCHREATA Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 294; C. B. Clarke 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 90. 

Luzon, (Loher 742). Admitted on the authority of C. B. Clarke; I have 
seen no specimens. Pantropic. 

ELEOCHARIS RETROFLEXA (Poir.) Urban Symb. Antil. 2 (1900) 165 

{Heleocharis) . 
Scirpus retro flexus Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 4 (1804) 753. 
Eleocharis chaetaria R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 154; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 307; C. B. Clarke in Philip., Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 90. 

Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Polillo, Negros, Mindanao, Elmer 14558, 
Clemens 845, F. B. 19276 Curran, B. S. 9029 Robinson, 10049 Ramos. Along 
streams and in rice paddies at low and medium altitudes. Pantropic. 



VoL x CYPERACEAE 121 

ELEOCHARIS SPIRALIS (Rottb.) Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 81; 
C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 627; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 370. 
Scirpus spiralis Rottb. Descr. Ic. (1772) 45, t. 15, f. 1. 
Luzon (Rizal), Merrill 9788. In open wet lands at low altitudes. India 
to Ceylon, Burma, and Indo-China. 

ELEOCHARIS TETRAQUETRA Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 113; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 307. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill Phil. PL 557, 1762, 
Clemens 1105, Vanoverbergh 461. In swamps, altitude . 650 to 1,800 m. 
India to China and tropical Australia. 

ELEOCHARIS VARIEGATA Presl Oken Isis 21 (1828) 269, var. LAXI- 
FLORA (Thw.) C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 
626, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 90; Merr: Fl. Manila (1912) 
114. 
Luzon (Bulacan, Rizal, Camarines) , Biliran, Mindanao, Merrill Phil. PL 
520, U61, B. S. 33928 Ramos & Edano, 18515 McGregor, 26129 Fenix, 1112 
Ramos. In open wet places at low altitudes. India to Madagascar, China, 
Malaya, and Polynesia. 

12. FIMBRISTYLIS Vahl 

FIMBRISTYLIS ACUMINATA Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 285; Nees in Hook. 
Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 29; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
307; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot, 91; Merr. 
Fl. Manila (1912) 115. 

Luzon (Bulacan, Rizal, Zambales, Albay, Sorsogon), Merrill 9798, 7355, 
Phil. PL 546, Kneucker Cyp. Exsic. 234, Elmer 14322. In open wet places, 
eld rice paddies, etc., at low and medium altitudes. Tropical Asia, Malaya, 
and tropical Australia. 

Local names: Puyong-usa (Tag.); surusibuyas (Bik.). 

FIMBRISTYLIS AESTIVALIS (Retz.) Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 288; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 308; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 94. 
Scirpus aestivalis Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 12. 
Fimbristylis dichotoma Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 191, non Vahl. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Bontoc, Benguet, Pangasinan, Pampanga, 
Rizal), Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill 1465, 4292, Phil. PL 554, Elmer 6070, B. 
S. 17847 Otanes, 7473, 8066, 3358, 5971 Ramos. In open damp places, rice 
paddies, etc., at low and medium altitudes. 

Var. MACROSTACHYA Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 310; C. B. Clarke in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 94. 

Leyte, (Jagor 1008). The species India to Amurjand southward to Aus- 
tralia, the variety in Australia). 

Local names: Bobook (Bon.) lamlamsit (Bon.); sirau-sirau (Ilk.). 

FIMBRISTYLIS ANNUA (All.) R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 95. 
Scirpus annuus All. Fl. Pedem. 2 (1785) 277. 
Scirpus diphyllus Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 15. 

Fimbristylis diphylla Vahl EnUm. 2 (1806) 289; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 307, Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 284; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 30, 3 (1908) Bot. 398, Fl. Manila (1912) 
116; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 93. 



122 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Fimbristylis tomentosa Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 290; Nees in Nov. Act. 

Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 81. 
Fimbristylis brizoides ' Sm. var., Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew 

Miscel. 6 (1854) 28. 
Fimbristylis philippica Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 116; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 324; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 308. 
Fimbristylis communis Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 234; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1856) 323. 
Fimbristylis affinis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 191; Kunth Enum. 

2 (1837) 234; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 308. 
? Scirpus falcatus Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 20; F.-Vill. & 
Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 * (1880) 13; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 83. 
Fimbristylis dichotoma C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 93, ,non Vahl. 
Throughout the Philippines in open waste places at low and medium 
altitudes, abundant and variable; in the Philippines various forms or 
varieties occur that have been characterized as species, such as F. podocarpa 
Nees, F. tomentosa Vahl, F. diphylla Vahl, F. calocarpa Steud., and F. 
royeniana Nees. Pantropic. 

Local names: Baliotas (Bag.) ; bubaging (Sub.) ; gilal (Sub.) ; tabtabin 
(Sbl.); talagig (Bag.); tayok-tayok (Sbl.). 

FIMBRISTYLIS CAPITULIFERA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) 
Bot. 265. 
Batan and Babuyan Islands, B. S. U042, 3575, 3926 Fenix, 3172, 3171, 3173 
Mearns, 10203 McGregor. In open places, usually near the sea. Endemic. 

FIMBRISTYLIS COMPLANATA (Retz.) Link. Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 292; 
Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 131 (var. kraussiana 
Hochst.) ; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 96. 
Scirpus complanatus Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 14. 
Trichelostylis complanata Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 

6 (1854) 29. 
FimbHstylis amblyphylla Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 117; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 324; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 308. 
Fimbristylis autumnalis Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. 

PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 284, non R. & S. 
Isolepis ivilldenowii R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 320; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 
(1828) 189. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, 
Sorsogon), Mindoro, Palawan, Negros, Panay, Mindanao, Merrill Phil. PI. 
1425, Elmer 18096, US$4, B. S. 31U5, 30941, 33500 Ramos & Edano, 27619, 
32956 Ramos. In open wet places at low and medium, altitudes. All warm 
countries. • 

Local name: Baki-baki (P. Bis.). 

FIMBRISTYLIS CORNICULATA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
231, Fl. Manila (1912) 116. 
Luzon (Rizal), Merrill 7359. In open sterile grasslands at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 



VoL a CYPERACEAE 123 

FIMBRISTYLIS DIPSACEA (Rottb.) Benth. ex C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. 
PI. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 635, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 93; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 116. 
Scirpus dipsaceus Rottb. Descr. Ic. (1773) 56, t. 12, f. 1. 
Echinolytrum dipsaceum Desv. Journ. Bot. 1 (1808) 21, t. 1. 
Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), Mindanao (Lanao), B. S. 3321 Ramos, 22985 
McGregor, Merrill 5105. On muddy lake and stream margins. Tropical 
Africa and Asia north to the Amur region. 

FIMBRISTYLIS FERRUGINEA (Linn.) Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 291; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 307; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, 
Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 284; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
2 (1907) Bot. 94; Merr. op. cit. 1 (1906) Suppl. 30, Fl. Manila 
(1912) 94. 
Scirpus ferrugineus Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 50>. 

Widely distributed in the Philippines in open wet lands, especially those 
subject to the influence of brackish water, Kneucker Cyp. Exsic. 196a, 
Merrill 546, 4252, Phil PL 549. Pantropic. 

FIMBRYSTYLIS FUSCA (Nees) Benth. ex C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 649, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 98. 
Abildgaardia fusca Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 95. 
Gussonea pauciflora Brongn. in Bot. Duperr. Voy. 2 (1829) 171, t. 

34, B, non Fimbristylis pauciflora R. Br. 
Abildgaardia pauciflora Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 298. 
Cladium cyperoides Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 74. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Bontoc, Ilocos Norte, Rizal), Palawan, Merrill 2785, 
9389, Vanoverbergh 273, B. S. 32809, 82742, 7859, 7836 Ramos. In open, 
rather dry grasslands at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,300 m. 
India to Malaya, 

FIMBRISTYLIS GLOBULOSA (Retz.) Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 231; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 308; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 
132; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 96. 
Scirpus globulosus Retz. Obs. 6 (1791) 19. 
Fimbristylis torresiana Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 413; F.-Vill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 308. 
Fimbristylis utilis Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1910) 855. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Lepanto, Bontoc, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Polillo, Pa- 
nay, Leyte, Samar, Negros, Bohol, Mindanao, Elmer 12571, 15584, Wenzel 
1532, Merrill Phil. PI. 1446, B. S. 84777 Ramos & Pascasio, 30672 Ramos 
& Edano. In open wet places at low altitudes. India to Malaya and 
Polynesia. 

Local names: Anahiuan (Mbo., Sub., C. Bis.); badang-badang (Ilk.); 
pilokong-kabo (Mbo.) ; sud-sud (Buk.) ; tayok-tayok (P. Bis.) ; tikog (C. 
Bis., P. Bis.). 

FIMBRISTYLIS JUNCIFORMIS (Retz.) Kunth E>num. 2 (1837) 239; C. B. 
Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 97. 
Scirpus juncijormis Retz. Obs. 6 (1791) 19. 

Fimbristylis brevifolia Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 193, non R. Br. 
Fimbristylis brachyphylla Presl op. cit. 351, non Schultes. 



124 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Fimbristylis haenkei Dietr. Sp. PL 2 (1833) 161. 
Fimbristylis falcata Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 239; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 
(1882) 308. 

Admitted on the authority of C. B. Clarke who apparently examined 
Presl's specimen, which was not from Monte Rey, California, but possibly 
from the Philippines, and also a specimen collected by Callery. India to 
Indo-China. 

FIMBRISTYLIS LEPTOCLADA Benth. Fl. Hongk. (1861) 647; C. B. 
Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 647. 
Luzon (Bulacan), Culion, Palawan, Merrill 9285, Phil. PL 1U26, B. S. 
U1S1U Ramos. In dry open sandy soil at low altitudes. Ceylon, Malay 
Peninsula, Borneo, southern China. 

FSMBRYSTYLIS MARIANA Gaudich. in Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 413, var. 
FOENEA Kiikenth. in Fedde Repert. 16 (1920) 432. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte), B. S. 789J+, 807U, 27625 Ramos, 
F. B. 16756 Curran. In open wet places. Marianne and Caroline Islands, 
the variety endemic. 

The specimens look very much like F. schoenoides Vahl, and three of 
those cited were originally referred by Kukenthal to F. mariana Qaudich 
var. maxima (K. Schum.) Kiikenth. 

FIMBRISTYLIS MILIACEA (Linn.) Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 287; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 308; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, 
Rev. PL' Vase. Filip. (1886) 284; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 96; Merr. op. cit. 1 (1906) Suppl. 30, 3 (1908) 
Bot. 398, Fl. Manila (1912) 117, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 83. 

Scirpus miliaceus Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 868. 

Scirpus niloticus Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 33, ed. 2 (1845) 23, ed. 3, 
1 (1877) 43, non Gmel. 

Trichelostylis miliacea Nees & Arn. in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 
19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 84, Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 29. 

Isolepis miliacea Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 189. 

Throughout the Philippines in open wet places; a characteristic rice- 
paddy weed. Pantropic. 

Local names: Agor (Tag.); gumi (Pang.); sirau-sirau (Ilk.); sirisi- 
buyas (Bik.) ; taulat (Tag.); ubod-ubod (Tag.). 

FIMBRISTYLIS MONOSTACHYA (Linn.) Hassk. PI. Jav. Rar. (1848) 61; 

F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 307; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 97; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 117. 
Cyperus monostachyus Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 180. 
Abildgaardia monostachya Vahl Enum. 2 (1806). 296. 
Abildgaardia compressa Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 179; Nees in 

Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 74; Miq. FL Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1856) 297; Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 72. 
Fimbristylis compressa F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 307. 

Throughout the Philippines in open grasslands at low and medium alti- 
tudes. Pantropic. 



v °>- * CYPERACEAE 125 

FIMBRISTYLIS PALUDOSA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 265. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Williams 1239, Merrill Phil. PI. 551, Elmer 
61f97. In cold open swamps, altitude 1,300 to 1,600 m. Endemic, unless 
referable to F. salbundia Kunth. 

FIMBRISTYLIS PINETORUM Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 
266. 
Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 766b, Phil. Pi. 558. On open grassy slopes 
in thin pine forests, altitude about 1,500 m. Endemic. 

FIMBRISTYLIS PODOCARPA Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 98, Nov. Act. 
Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 77; C. B. Clarke in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 94. 

Luzon, (Loher 766). Admitted on the authority of C. B. Clarke; I have 
seen no specimens. India to Malaya and the Marianne Islands. 

FIMBRISTYLIS POLYTRICHOIDES (Retz.) Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 248 

(polythricoides) ; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 307; C. B. Clarke in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 92; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 115. 

Scirpus polytrichoides Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 11. 

Luzon (Pampanga, Rizal), Kneucker Cyp. Exsic. 233, Merrill 9803, ^2^9, 

Phil. PL 522. In open wet places, especially near the sea or brackish 

streams. Tropical Africa and Asia to Japan, through Malaya to Australia. 

FIMBRISTYLIS QUINQUANGULARIS Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 229; C. B. 
Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 96. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Bulacan, Sorsogon), Negros, 
Panay, Mindanao, Merrill Phil. PI. U23, B. S. U558, 7625, 7.673, 768U Ramos, 
15656 Merritt & Darling. In open wet lands, cultivated areas, etc., at low 
and medium altitudes. India to the Riu Kiu and Marianne Islands. 

FIMBRISTYLIS RIGIDULA Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 99; Nees in 
Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 29; C. B. Clarke in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 95. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya), Panay, Negros, B. S. 1U226, 32233 
McGregor, 7856, 32811 Ramos. In open grasslands at low and medium 
altitudes. India to China. 

FIMBRISTYLIS SCHOENOIDES (Retz.) Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 286; Naves 

Novis. App. (1882) 307; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 178; 

C. B, Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 92; Merr. Fl. 

Manila (1912) 116. 
Fimbristylis bispicata Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 290, var. mono- 

stachya Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 29, F.rVill. 

Novis. App. (1882) 307. 
Abildgaardia nervosa Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 180; Steud. Syn. 

PL Glum. 2 (1855) 73. 
Fimbristylis nutans Naves Novis. App. (1882) 307; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 284, non 

Vahl. 



126 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Luzon (Iloeos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, Albay), Palawan, 
Merrill 9322, 9796, 7110, Phil. PI. 1U7, 507, B. S. 32690, ,3295k Ramos. In 
open grasslands, fallow rice paddies, etc., at low altitudes. India through 
Malaya to Australia. 

Local name: Gumi-gumi (Tag.). 

FIMBRISTYLIS SETACEA Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 2 (1843) 

239; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 91. 
Fimbristylis acuminata Vahl var. minor Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. 

Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 29; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 314; Boeck. 

in Linnaea 37 (1871) 4; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, 

Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 284. 
Fimbristylis bursifolia Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. 

PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 284, sphalm. 
Abildgaardia brevifolia Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 72; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 297. 

Luzon (Bulacan, Zambales, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon), B. S. 21740 
Ramos, F. B. 3390 Ahern's collector, .8156 Curran & Merritt, 5873, 12388 
Curran. In open wet lands at low altitudes. Burma to Tropical Aus- 
tralia. 

FIMBRISTYLIS SPATHACEA Roth. Nov. Sp. PI. (1821) 24; C. B. Clarke 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 95; Merr. op. cit. 3 (1908) Bot. 
398. 
Fimbristylis glomerata Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 290; Boeck. in 

Linnaea 37 (1871) 47. 
Scirpus glomeratus Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 11, non Linn. 
Fimbristylus rigida Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 246; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 308. 
Isolepis haenkei Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 187. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Iloeos Norte, Union, Zambales, Batangas, Laguna, 
Tayabas), Panay, Negros, B. S. 32274- McGregor, 33444, 32737, 32795, 
29245, 7469 Ramos, 29123 Ramos & Edano. In open wet or dry places, 
usually near the sea. Pantropic. 

FIMBRISTYLIS SQUARROSA Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 289; C. B. Clarke in 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 635. 
Palawan, Mindanao (Bukidnon), Merrill 9566, Phil. PI. 2093, B. S. 26093 
Fenix. Shores of lakes and in wet soil at low altitudes. Pantropic. 

FIMBRISTYLIS SUBBISPICATA Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 
(1843) Suppl. 1: 75; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 307; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 315 (var. caesia Miq.) ; C. B. Clarke in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 92. 

Luzon, (Loher 747). Admitted on the authority of C. B. Clarke and, as 
he suggests, perhaps best referable to F. schoenoides Vahl. India to China 
and Japan. 

FIMBRISTYLIS TEN ERA R. & S. Syst. Mant. 2 (1824) 57; C. B. Clarke 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 95. 

Luzon, (Loher 740). Admitted on the authority of C. B. Clarke. Trop- 
ical Asia, Africa, and Malaya. 



Vo1 - 1 CYPERACEAE 127 

FIMBRISTYLIS TETRAGONA R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 226; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 307; C. B. Clarke in. Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
91; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 115. 
Scirpus tetragonus Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 5 (1804) 98. 
Luzon (Pangasinan, Rizal), Merrill 7360, 9793, Loher 7U9, B. S. 4892 
Ramos. In open rather wet places at low altitudes. India through Malaya 
to Australia. 

FIMBRISTYLIS THOMSONII Boeck. in Linnaea 37 (1871) 37; C. B. 
Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6, (1893) 646. 

Palawan, Merrill 9350. On dry open slopes bordering thickets at low 
altitudes. India to Lido-China* 

FIMBRISTYLIS THOUARSII (Kunth) comb. nov. 

Arthrostylis thouarsii Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 284. 
Arthrostylis chinensis Benth. Fl. Hongk. (1861) 397. 
Actinoschoenus filiformis Benth. in Hook. Ic. Ill 4 (1881) 33, i. 1346. 
Fimbristylis actinoschoenus C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 

(1893) 650, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 98. 
Actinoschoenus thouarsii Benth.\ in Hook. Ic. Ill 4 (1881) 33. 

Culion, Busuanga, Merrill 553, B. S. 41184 Ramos, back of the mangrove 
swamp. Ceylon to Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, southern China, and the 
Riu Kiu Islands. 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Fimbristylis obtusifolia Kunth ; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 308. 

Fimbristylis pauciflora R. Br.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 307. 

Fimbristylis pilosa Vahl; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 191; Steud. Syn. PI. 
Glum. 2 (1855) 117. 

"Hab. in insula Luzon ad portum Sorsogon." Vahl's species is from 
Africa; the Luzon specimens referred here by Presl possibly represent a 
form of F. annua R. & S. 

Fimbristylis preslii Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 228; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 
(1855) 108; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 308. 
Abildgaardia pubescens Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 180. 
"Hab. in Mexico et in Luzon" Presl. Probably not Philippine. 

Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 228; C. B. Clarke in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 97. 

"'Toubonia' (1433 Cuming) in hb. Kew." This was from Cuming's 
earlier collections, probably from Polynesia. The printed label bears the 
date 1831, so that it cannot possibly be from Cuming's Philippine collec- 
tions. 

13. BULBOSTYLIS Kunth 

BULBOSTYLIS BARBATA (Rottb.) Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 208; C. B. 
Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 98; Merr. op. cit. 3 
(1908) Bot. 398. 
Scirpus barbatus Rottb. Descr. Ic. (1773) 52, t. 17, f. 4; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev n PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 284. 
Isolepis barbata R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 212; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 
187. 



128 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Oncostylis barbata Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 29. 
Fimbristylis barbata Benth. Fl. Austral. 7.(1878) 32;i F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 308; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 116. 
Isolepis cumingii Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 101; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
. Bat. 3 (1856) 310. 
Fimbristylis cumingii F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 308. 
Batan Islands, Luzon (Cagayan to Sorsogon, in most or all provinces), 
Negros. In open dry sandy places at low and medium altitudes, locally 
abundant, ascending to 1,500 m. All or most warm countries. 
Local names: Humot (Iv.) ; kulilis (Tag.); tirtiris (Ilk.). 

BULBOSTYLIS CAPILLARIS (Linn.) Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 211; Usteri 

Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 131; C. B. Clarke in Philip, Journ. 

Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 98 (var. trifida C. B. Clarke) ; Merr. op. cit. 5 

(1910) Bot. 334. 
Scirpus capillaris Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 49. 
Isolepis capillaris R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 118; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 

(1856) 311. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Lepanto, Bontoc, Benguet). In open places, chiefly 
at medium altitudes, ascending to 2,000 m. Pantropic. 

14. SCHOENUS Linnaeus 

SCHOENUS AXILLARIS (R. Br.) Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 2 (1811) 
251; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 334. 
Chaetospora axillaris R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 233. 
Luzon (Benguet), F. B. 161^1 Curran, Merritt, & Zsckokke. On Mt. 
Pulog, probably from the summit grasslands, altitude about 2,800 m. 
Australia, New Zealand. 

SCHOENUS FALCATUS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 232; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 268. 
Cladium filiforme Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 172. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Zambales) , Palawan, B. S. 5036, 32717 Ramos & Pas- 
casio, 508, 717 Foxworthy. In meadows and along streams at low altitudes 
ascending to 600 m. Formosa, Borneo, northeastern Australia. 

SCHOENUS MELANOSTACHYS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 231; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 263. 
Mindoro, Merrill 6173. In an open heath on Mt. Halcon, altitude about 
2,400 m. Borneo, Queensland, New South Wales. 

SCHOENUS PHILIPPINENSIS (Palla) Kukenth. in herb. comb. nov. 

Helothrix philippinensis Palla in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 17 (1911) 

Beil. 1. . 
Schoenus apogon C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 

102; Merr. op. cit. 5 (1910) 334, non R. & S. 

Luzon (Benguet, Tayabas, Laguna), Negros, Mindanao (Davao), Kneuc- 
her Cyp. Exsic. 211, Merrill 6508, 6973, Phil. PI. 5U-0„ Elmer 11370. On the 
highest mountains, in the mossy forest and in open grassy places, altitude 
1,800 to 2,700 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Kalesi (Bag.). 



Given by N. L, BRJTTON, 
Y°M Cy^tlACEAE 129 

15. CLADIUM P. Browne 

CLADIUM CRINITUM (Stapf) comb. nov. 

Vincentia -crinita Stapf in Philip. Journ. Sci. 19 (1921) 65. 

Luzon ( Albay) , B. S. 2935 Mearns. On slopes at medium altitudes on 
Mt. Mayon. Endemic. 

CLADIUM DISTICH UM C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
102. 

Luzon (Tayabas, east coast), Merrill 1123. Probably along streams at 
low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Barokibok (Tag.). 

CLADIUM FALCATUM (Nees) C. B. Clarke in Kew Bull. Add. Series 8 
(1908) 46. 
Baumea falcata Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 29. 
Vincentia falcata Stapf in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 42 (1914) 179. 

Luzon (Albay), Cuming 932. I have seen merely a fragment of the 
type, and Kloss's New Guinea specimen. New Guinea, a variety in Su- 
matra. 

CLADIUM JUNCOIDES Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1910) 854. 

Luzon (Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Tayabas), Palawan, Sibuyan, Panay, Di- 
nagat, Mindanao (Surigao), Elmer 12150, 1314-5, B. S. 34593, 35209, 
35446, 34605 Ramos & Pascasio, 32846 Ramos, 25428 Yates, 21172 Escritor, 
13209 Foxworthy & Ramos, Merrill Phil. PI. 1258. In thickets and forests 
at low and medium altitudes, along streams, etc. Endemic. 

Local name: Magodtangiad (P. Bis.). 

CLADIUM LATI FOLIUM Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 262, 3 
(1908) Bot, 399. 
Vincentia malesica Stapf. in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 42 (1914) 178. 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon, Albay), Mindoro, 
Negros, Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 17638, Williams 2614, B. S. 23499 Ra- 
mos, 6497 Robinson, 3822 Fenix, 2386 Foxworthy. On ridges in the mossy 
forest, and in open places, altitude 1,500 to 2,400 m. Sumatra, Borneo. 

Local name: Samalang (Bag.). 

CLADIUM PHILIPPINENSE Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 171. 

Luzon (Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Tayabas, Camarines), Mindoro, Palawan, 
Sibuyan, Panay, Bucas Grande, Mindanao (Surigao), F. B. 6724 Merritt, 
B. S. 34619, 35097 Ramos & Pascasio, 35429 Martelino & Edano, 33476,\ 
26508 Ramos & Edano, 20678 Escritor, 13161 Foxworthy & Ramos, Elmer 
12832, 12401, Weber 1053, Merrill 758. On ledges and bowlders along 
streams at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Kumpai (Bag.). 

CLADIUM RIPARIUM- (Nees) Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 405; C. B. 
Clarke 111. Cyp. (1909) t. 85, f. 5-8; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 
(1915) Bot. 288. 
Chapelliera riparia Nees in Lehm. PI. Preiss. 2 (1846-48) 76. 
Baumea riparia Boeck. in Linnaea 38 (1874) 246. 

Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens 916. In swamps, altitude about 650 m. 
Australia, with a variety in British India. 

183036 9 



130 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Cladium mariscoides F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 309. 

This was based on Baumea mariscoides Gaudich. non Torr. and is the 
Marianne Islands Cladium gaudichaudii W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 9 (1905) 230. It is allied to the Philippine Cladium juncoides Elm. 

Cladium glomeratum F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 309, non R. Br. 

This was based on Baumea glomerata Gaudich. It is a Moluccan species. 

Cladium mariscus R. Br.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 309. 

16. RE Ml RE A Aublet 

REMIREA MARITIMA Aubl. PI. Guin. (1775) 45, t. 16; Naves Novis. 

App. (1882) 309; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. 

PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 285; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 

(1907) Bot. 103; C. B. Rob. op. cit. 6 (1911) Bot. 195. 
Mariscus pungens Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 60; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1856) 288. 
Mariscus capitatus Steud. in Zoll. Verz. Ind. Archip. (1854) 63. 
Cyperus capitatus Naves Novis. App. (1882) 306, non Retz. 
Remirea wightiana Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 29. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Camarines), Polillo, Mindoro, Panay, Mindanao, B. S. 
82220 McGregor, 6305, 91SS Robinson, F. B. 16680 Bacani, 5584- Merritt, 
Merrill 881, 11542, Copeland 857. On sandy seashores. Pantropic. 

17. RYNCHOSPORA Vahl 

RYNCHOSPORA CORYMBOSA (Linn.) Britton in Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 
1 1 (1892) 84; W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 366. 
Scirpus corymbosus Linn. Cent. PI. 2 (1756) 7. 

Rynchospora aurea Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 229; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 

(1828) 200; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 336; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 309; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. PI. 

Vase. Filip. (1886) 285; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 

Bot. 102. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Palawan, 

Leyte, Biliran, Samar, Basilan. In open swampy places at low altitudes. 

Pantropic. 

Local names: Agas (Bik., Bis.); bariu-bariu (Bik.) ; ragiudiu (Bik.) ; 
rakido (Bik.); piso-piso (Bik.). 

RYNCHOSPORA GLAUCA Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 233, var. CHINENSIS 
(Boeck.) C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind, 6 (1893) 672, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 102; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 
309 (as R. glauca Vahl). 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet), Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens 1203, 
Merrill 4623, Phil. PI. 569, Williams 1245, Elmer 57.57, B. S. 2493, 2781 
Mearns. On open seepage slopes, along small streams, etc., at medium 
altitudes, ascending to 1,800 m. Pantropic. 

RYNCHOSPORA RUBRA (Lour.) Makino in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 17 (1903) 

180; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 119. 
Schoenus ruber Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 41. 
Rhynchospora haenkei Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 199; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1856) 336. 



Vo1 - * CYPERACEAE 131 

Rhynchospora wallichiana Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 289; F.-Vill. Novis. 

App. (1882) 309. 
Rynchospora wallichiana C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 

(1893) 668; Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 101. 

Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. 
In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. Tropical Africa and Asia 
to Japan, southward through Malaya to Australia. 

RYNCHOSPORA WIGHTIANA C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 
(1893) 669; Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 101. 
Rhynchospora wightiana Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 2 (1855) 148. 
Luzon (Pangasinan, Bulacan, Rizal), Merrill Phil. PL 2099, Loher 793, 
B. S. 4822, 217 US Ramos. In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes; 
local. India to Indo-China and southern China. 

18. GAHNIA Forster 

GAHNIA JAVANICA Moritzi Verz. Zoll. Pflanz. (1845-46) 98; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 340; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 309; Vidal Rev. 
PI. Vase. iFilip. (1886) 285; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 
(1907) Bot. 103; Merr. op. cit. 263, 5 (1910) Bot. 334. 
Luzon (Benguet, Laguna, Tayabas), Mindoro, Negros, Mindanao, Wil- 
liams 2621, Merrill 6162, 6596, Phil. PI. 538, Elmer 11589, B. S. 19571 
Ramos, 38538 Ramos & Edano. In the mossy forest, in open heaths, etc., 
altitude 1,700 to 2,700 m. Malay 'Peninsula to western China, south to 
New Guinea and Polynesia. 

Local name: Tamauan (Buk.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Gahnia rawacensis Miq.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 309. 

19. SCIRPODENDRON Zippel 

SCIRPODENDRON GHAERI (Gaertn.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) 
Bot. 268, Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 106. 
Chionanthus ghaeri Gaertn. Fruct. 1 (1781) 190, t. 29, f. a~c; Boerl. 

in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 31 (1896) 246. 
Scirpoolendron costatum Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 38 2 (1869) 
85; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 422; C. B. Rob. op. 
cit. 6 (1911) Bot. 195. 
Scirpodendron pandaniforme Zipp. ex Kurz 1. c. in syn. 
Scirpodendron sulcatum Miq. Illustr. Fl. Archip. Ind. (1871) 65, t. 28. 
Pandanus' caricosus Spreng. Syst. 3 (1826) 897. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Tayabas), Polillo, Palawan, Biliran, Mindanao (Zam- 
boanga), Merrill 5257, 8114, 11218, Phil. PI. 1295, B. S. 1024-9, 18592 Mc- 
Gregor, F. B. 17828, 19612 Curran. In wet places near the seashore and 
along streams at low altitudes. Ceylon through Malaya to Australia and 
Polynesia. 

Local names: Bilis (Sub.); gaas (Bik.). 

20. MAP AN I A Aublet 

MAPANIA AFF1NIS Merr. in Journ. Str. Branch Roy. As. Soc. 85 (1922) 
157. 
Jolo, Clemens 9330. On forested slopes, altitude about 800 m. Borneo. 



132 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

MAPANIA GRACILLIMA Kiikenth. & Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) 
Bot. 267. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Mindanao (Zamboanga), Merrill 8215, B. S. 26519 
Ramos & Edano. On forested ridges, altitude about 1,100 m. Endemic. 

MAPANIA HUM I LIS (Hassk.) F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 309; C. B. 
Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 109; C. B. Rob. op. cit. 
6 (1911) Bot. 194. 
PandanophylluTm humile Hassk. in Tijdschr. Nat. Vereen. 10 (1843) 

119; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 334. 
Lipironia humilds Miq. Illustr. Fl. Archip. Ind. (1871) 61, t. 23. 
Luzon ( Apayao, Rizal, Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon) , 
Polillo, Mindoro, Palawan, Sibuyan, Samar, Negros, Panay, Mindanao, incl. 
Elmer 14864 as M. alpina* Elm. In damp primary forests at low and 
medium altitudes. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

Local names: Babakal (Sub.); lubigan (P. Bis.); maribari (S. L. Bis.). 

MAPANIA KUR2II C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1894) 681; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 422; C. B. Rob. op. cit. 
6 (1911) Bot. 194. 
jMapania banahaensis Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 574. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Alabat, Polillo, Catan- 
duanes, Palawan, Panay, Negros, Elmer 7639, 16222, 15519, Merrill 10505, 
7220, 4001, Whitford 1569, B. S. 31414 Ramos & Edano, 30318, 13347 Ramos, 
10248 McGregor. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Malay 
Peninsula. 

MAPANIA MACROCEPHALA (Gaudich.) K. Sch. ex Warb. in Engl. Bot. 
Jahrb. 13 (1891) 265; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
422. 
Hypolytrum macrocephalum Gaudich. Bot, Freyc. Voy. (1826) 414. 
Lepironia macrocephala Miq. Illustr. Fl. Archip. Ind. (1871) 64, t. 27. 
Mindanao (Davao), Balut, Merrill 5409, Elmer 11978. In primary 
forests, altitude about 650 m. Moluccas to the Bismarck Archipelago. 
Local name: Barongis (Bag.). 

MAPANIA PALUSTRIS (Hassk.) F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 309; C. B. 

Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1894) 681; Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 267. 
Pandanophyllum palustre Hassk. in Tijdschr. Nat. Vereen. 10 (1843) 

119. 
Lepironia palustris Miq. Illustr. Fl. Archip. Ind. (1871) 63, t. 25. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga, Agusan), Merrill 7298, B. S. 37392 Ramos & 
Edano. In muddy places along small streams in forests at low altitudes. 
Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

Local name: Kulibang (Sub.). 

21. THORACOSTACHYUM Kurz 

THORACOSTACHYUM LUCBANENSE (Elm.) Kiikenth. ex Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 11 (1916) Bot. 258. 
Mapania lucbanensis Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 573. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Panay, Mindanao (Zamboanga), Elmer B. S. 
28469, 29177, 31136 Ramos & Edano, 22929' McGregor, 20493, 10029 Ramos, 



VoL 1 cyperaceae 133 

86625, 37414 Ramos & Edano, Elmer 9116. In primary forests at low and 
medium altitudes. Amboina. 

Local names: Payong-payong (Sub.); tingol (Sub.). 

22. SCLERIA Bergius 

SCLERIA ANNULARIS (Nees) Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 359; C. B. Clarke 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 104. 
Hypopyrum annulare Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 303. 
Luzon, {holier 807), fide C. B. Clarke. Not seen. India and China. 

SCLERIA BANCANA Miq. PL Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1862) 693; C. B. Clarke 
in Hook. f. PI. Brit. Ind. 6 (1894) 693, excl. syn. Presl. 
Scleria malaccensis Boeck. in Linnaea 38 (1874) 507. 
Busuanga, Palawan, Merrill 9202, B. S. 41175 Ramos. In old clearings, 
borders of thickets, etc., at low altitudes. Tenasserim through Malaya to 
New Guinea. 

SCLERIA CORYMBOSA Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 103, nomen nudum, Fl. 
Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 574; C, B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot: 104. 

Culion, Palawan, Merrill 656, 94-02. In wet places at low altitudes. In- 
dia to the Malay Peninsula. 

SCLERIA HEBECARPA Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 117; C. B. Clarke 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 105. 
Scleria wichurai Boeck. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 5 (1884) 510. 
Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), Palawan, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Zamboanga, 
Cotabato), B. S. 23136 McGregor, 12042 Ramos, 29679 Ramos & Edano, 
11703 Robinson. In thickets and open places at low and medium altitudes. 
India to Japan and Polynesia. 

Var. PUBESCENS (Steud.) C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1894) 
689. 
Scleria pubescens Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 168. 
Luzon (Laguna), Panay, Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens, B. S. 23796 
Ramos, 30957 Ramos & Edano. In dry open places at low altitudes. India 
to China and Malaya. 

Local name: Daat (Tag.). 

SCLERIA LEVIS Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 13; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind. 6 (1894) 694. 

Mindoro, Palawan, Negros, Merrill 9244, 8380, F. B. 5529 Merritt. In 
open wet places, ravines, etc., sea level to 1,200 m altitude. India to 
southern China, southward to Java. 

SCLERIA LITHOSPERMA (Linn.) Sw. Prodr. (1788) 18; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 310; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. PL 
Vase. Filip. (1886) 285; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 103; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 120. 

Scirpus lithospermus Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 51. 

Scleria glaucescens Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 202. 

Northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. In dry 
thickets at low and medium altitudes. Pantropic. 

Var. ROXBURGHII Thw. Enum. PL Zeyl. (1859-64) 354; C. B. Clarke, in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 104. 



134 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon, Mindanao, B. S. 16409 Reillo, Merrill 11543, (Loher 805, 806) . In 
thickets at low altitudes. India and Ceylon. 

Local names: Daat (Tag.); katabad (Tag.); talaid (Bag.). 

SCLERIA LUZON ENSIS Palla in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 13 (1907) 49. 

Scleria chinensis C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
105; Merr. op. cit. 1 (1906) Suppl. 31, non Nees. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, 
Bataan, Tayabas), Mindoro, Palawan, Negros, Panay, Mindanao, Merrill 
4834, 3958, 3964, 3921, 9523, Phil. PI. 560, Kneucker Cyp. Exsic. 167, Elmer 
8401, Whitford 1517, 1518, Williams 1227, 730. In primary forests, on 
ridges, etc., altitude 800 to 2,200 m. Endemic. 

Thought by Kiikenthal to be but a variety of S. multifoliala Boeck. 

Local names: Agagedan (Bon.) ; egegedan (Bon.) ; mankot (Ig.) ; papan 
(Bon.). 

SCLERIA MERRILLII Palla in Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 17 (1911) Beil. 8. 

Luzon (Rizal), Kneucker Cyp. Exsic. 249, Merrill Phil. PL 525 (as S. 
zeylanica Poir.) , B. S. 2029 Ramos. In fallow rice paddies at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

This is perhaps the same as the form referred by. C. B. Clarke to 
S. annularis Kunth. 

SCLERIA MOTLEYI C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 104. 

Scleria trigona Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 363. 

Scleria trigonocarpa Ridl. in Journ. Str. Branch Roy. As. Soc. 46 
(1906) 228, nomen, Mater. Fl. Malay. Pen. (Monocot.) 1 (1907) 110. 
Luzon (Pangasinan, Bulacan, Rizal, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), 
Catanduanes, Busuanga, Palawan, Panay, Leyte, B. S. 1854, 30426 Ramos, 
20681 Escritor, 29706, 33583, 34110 Ramos & Edano, 35496 Martelino & 
Edano, 25500 Yates, 29896 Fenix, Elmer 15411 as S. sorsogonensis Elm., 
Wenzel 158. In forests at low and medium altitudes. Borneo, Malay 
Peninsula. 

Var. DENSISPICATA C. B. Clarke 1. c. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga), B. S. 20997 Santos, 
22441, 32845 Ramos. In forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending 
to 800 m. Endemic. 

SCLERIA ORY20IDES Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 201; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1857) 342; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310; C. B. Clarke 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 105. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Camarines), Palawan, Merrill 144, Phil. PL 

1294, F. B. 11621 Curran, B. S. 7777, 8063 Ramos. In fresh-water swamps, 

old wet rice paddies, etc, at low altitudes. India and tropical East Africa 

to tropical Australia. 

Local name: Agaas (Bik.). 

SCLERIA PERGRACILIS (Nees) Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 354; C. B. Clarke 
in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1894) 685; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
7 (1912) Bot. 75. 
Hypophorum pergracile Nees in Edinb. Philos. Journ. 17 (1834) 267. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Mindanao (Cotabato), Vanoverbergh 889, Copeland. 
On open slopes, altitude 300 to 1,400 m. Tropical Africa through India to 
Yunnan and Indo-China. 

Local name: Bangbanglo (Bon.). 



Vo1 - 1 CYPERACEAE 135 

SCLERIA PURPUREO-VAGINATA Boeck. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 5 (1884) 
513; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 105. 
Scleria sumatrensis Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 285, non Retz. 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Cagayan, Abra, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Ba- 
taan, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon), Polillo, Mindoro, Palawan, Leyte, Panay, 
Negros, Mindanao, F. B. 1929 Borden, B. S. 31169 Ramos & Edaiio, 13932, 
26971 Ramos, 29881 Fenix, U248 McGregor, Wenzel 1691, Elmer 16063, 
Copeland 95. In thickets and in open places along streams at low and 
medium altitudes; scarcely distinguishable from S. scrobiculata Nees except 
by its winged sheaths. Ceram Laut. 

Local name: Tangilad (Tag.). 

SCLERIA SCROBICULATA Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 117, Nov. Act. 
Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 119; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1856) 342; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310; C. B. Clarke in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 106; Merr. op. cit. 1 (1906) Suppl. 81, 
3 (1908) Bot. 399, Fl. Manila (1912) 121, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 83. 

Scleria foveolata Llanos Frag. PI. Filip. (1851) 103; F.-Vill. & Naves 
in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 79, non Cav.» 

Scleria multifoliata C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
106, p. p., non Boeck. 

Throughout the Philippines, in thickets, open places, old clearings, etc., 
at low and medium altitudes; usually common. Andaman Islands to the 
Riu Kiu Islands, southward to New Guinea. 

Of two of the three specimens referred by Clarke to <S. multifoliata, 
Boeck. I consider Topping 460 to be <S'. scrobiculata Nees and Merrill 
4834 to be S. merrillii Palla. 

Local names: Agagidan (Bon.); aladan (Ilk.); amamgid (Ilk.); amgid 
(Tag.); arat (Pamp., Tag.); daat (Tag.); dahat (Bik.) ; dat (Pamp., P. 
Bis.) ; daut (Tag.) ; gaat (Iv.) ; haras (P. Bis.) ; katabad (Tag.) ; mang- 
ked (Iv.) ; tangra (Ilk.) ; ulat (Pang., Tag.). 

SCLERIA SUMATRENSIS Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 19, t. 2; Rolfe in Journ. 
Bot. 23 (1885) 215; Usteri, Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 132; 
C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 106. 
Scleria purpurascens Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 169; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 310. 
Palawan, Mindanao, Basilan, B. S. 16349 Reillo, Merrill 9750, De Vore 
& Hoover 7. In open places and in forests at low and medium altitudes. 
India to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

Local names: Balbalili (Bon.); bulalo (Sub.); pangpayung (C. Bis.). 

SCLERIA TESSELLATA Willd. Sp. PI. 4 (1805) 315, excL syn. Rumph.; 
F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310; C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 104; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 120. 
Luzon (Lepanto, Bontoc, Benguet, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Rizal), Panay, 
B. S. 30025 Fenix, 12221 Ramos, Merrill 4370, 4617, Phil. PL 1444, Williams 
1970. In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 
m. India to Japan southward to tropical Australia. 
Local name: Katabad (Tag.). 



136 ENUMERATION GF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

SCLERIA ZEYLANICA Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 7 (1806) 3 p. p.; C. B. 
Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 104; Merr. Fl. Manila 
(1912) 120. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bulacan, Rizal), Merrill 3665, Phil. PI. 14-51, B. S. 
27626, 10905, 21688, 22001 Ramos. In open rather wet places at low alti- 
tudes. India through Malaya to New Caledonia. 

Local names: Daat-babae (Tag.) ; daat-parang (Tag.) ; pugad-pugad 
(Tag.). 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES 

Scleria macrophylia Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 200; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1857) 343; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310. 

"Hab. in insula Luzon" Presl. This has been reduced to Scleria bancana 
Miq. with which Presl's description does not remotely agree. In its leaves 
being 16 lines broad, its panicle a foot long and much branched, and in its 
fruits being the size of a pea Scleria macrophylia Presl does not agree with 
any of the known Philippine or Indo-Malayan species, but apparently be- 
longs in the group of Scleria macrocarpa Nees. Presl's type was doubtless 
from South America or Mexico, not from the Philippines. 

23. DIPLACRUM R. Brown 

DIPLACRUM CARICINUM R. Br. Prodr. (1910) 241; C. B. Clarke in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 106; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 121. 
Scleria caricina Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 426; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 309. 

Luzon (Abra, Tarlac, Rizal, Camarines), Panay, Bucas Grande, Minda- 
nao, Merrill 3626, 8236, Loher 7157, B. S. 35031+ Ramos & Pascasio, 30954, 
33507 Ramos & Edano. In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. 
India to southern China through Malaya to tropical Australia. 

24. UNCINIA Persoon 

UNCINIA RUPESTRIS Raoul in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 2 (1844) 117 var. 
CAPILLACEA Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 64, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 58; Merr. op. cit. 5 (1910) Bot. 334. 

Luzon (Benguet, Laguna), Mindanao (Davao), B. S. 19560 Ramos, F. B, 
1614,0 Curran, Merritt, & Zschokke. In the mossy forest on Mts. Pulog, 
Banahao, and Apo, altitude 2,200 to 2,500 m. New Zealand, Tasmania. 

Local name: Loniai (Bag.). 

25. CAR EX Linnaeus 

CAR EX BACCANS Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 122; C. B. Clarke in 
Curtis's Bot. Mag. Ill 49 (1893) t. 7288, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37 
(1904) 14, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 108; Merr. op. cit. 5 
(1910) Bot. 334; Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 258, 
/. 39 E-H, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 59. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet). In damp thickets and in the mossy 
forest on the higher mountains, altitude 1,600 to 2,400 m. Himalayan 
region to southern China, Formosa, Sumatra, and Java. 

Local names: Gihidsan (Bon.); silak (Ig.) ; mankat (Ig.). 



VoL1 CYPERACEAE . 137 

CAREX BREVICULMIS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 242, subsp. ROYLEANA Nees 
Var. KINGIANA (Lev. & Van.) Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 
(1909) 469, Philip. Journ Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 62. 
Carex kingiana Lev. & Van. in Bull. Acad. Internat. Geog. Bot. 1 
(1901) 272. 

Luzon (Benguet),, Merrill 6609, 6628, Phil. PI. 561, B. S. 31771 Santos, 
8853 McGregor. In open grassy meadows and on damp open slopes, alti- 
tude 2,200 to 2,700 m. The species in Australia, the subspecies India to 
Japan, the variety in Japan. 

CAREX BREVISCAPA C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. PI. Brit. Ind. 6 (1894) 736; 
Kiikenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 474. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Palawan, Merrill 9521, Elmer 15353'. On forested 
ridges, altitude about 800 m. Ceylon. 

CAREX BRUNNEA Thunb. Fl. Jap. (1784) 38; C. B. Clarke in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 107; Merr. op. cit. 1 (1906) Suppl. 31, 
5 (1910) Bot. 335; Kiikenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 599, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 63. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Abra, Bontoc, Benguet, Lepanto, Kalinga, Zamba- 
les, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Bataan) , Negros, Mindanao. In 
the mossy forest, on forested ridges and slopes, altitude 800 to 2,400 m. 

Var. SUBTEIOGYNA Kiikenth. in Fedde Repert. 8 (1910) 8, Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 63. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill U731, 6505, B. S. 8866 McGregor. Borders of 
the mossy forest, altitude about 2,200 m. The species Japan to southern 
Asia, Malaya, Australia, and the Mascarene Islands, the variety endemic. 

Local names: Silak (Ig.) ; tayalid (Bag.). 

CAREX CRYPTOSTACHYS Brongn. in Bot. Duperr. Voy. (1828) 152, t. 25; 
F.-Vill., Novis. App. (1882) 310; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 
(1908) Bot. 220; Kiikenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 471, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 62. 

Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindanao 
(Zamboanga), Merrill 8218, Elmer 7306, 1U595, 16110, B. S. 1760 Ramos, 
29334- Ramos & Edano. In forests at medium altitudes, ascending to 1,000 
m. Formosa and southern China to the Malay Peninsula, Java, and 
Waigiou. 

CAREX ELMERI Kiikenth. in Fedde Repert. 8 (1910) 326, Leafi. Philip. 
Bot. 3 (1910) 853, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 64. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Laguna), Mindoro, Negros, Vanoverbergh 868, 
Merrill 6972, 80\25. In forests, altitude 1,500 to 2,200 m. Endemic. 

Doubtfully distinct from C. loheri C. B. Clarke. 

CAREX FILICINA Nees in Wight Contrib. (1834) 123, var. CEYLANICA 
(Boeck.) Kukenth. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 59; C. B. 
Clarke in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37 (1904) 11 (C. filicina) , Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 107; Merr. op. cit. 2 (1907) Bot. 263, 5 
(1910) Bot. 335; Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 274. 
Carex ceylanica Boeck. in Linnaea 40 (1876) 341; Kukenth. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 279. 



138 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon (Cagayan, Ifugao, Abra, Lepanto, Bontoc, Benguet, Laguna, Ta- 
yabas, Rizal), Negros, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao), B. S. 19559, 7213, 
13986 Ramos, 19732, 19695, McGregor, Kneucker Caric. Exsic. 372, Elmer 
8587, 10728, Merrill 7496, Phil. PI. 544, Loher 7155. In the mossy forest, 
altitude 1,400 to 2,500 m. India to China, southward to Java. 

Local names: Silak (Ig.) ; taan (Ig.) ; talayig (Bag). 

Forma SATURATA (C. B. Clarke) Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 

(1909) 275 (as var. of filicina) , Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bof.-59. 

Carex saturata C. B. Clarke in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37 (1904) 12. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Whitford 949, F. B. 866 Klemone. In the 

mossy forest on Mt. Banahao, altitude about 1,800 m. Java, Sumatra, 

Borneo. 

Forma DEPAUPERATA Kukenth. 1. cc. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Bontoc), Mindoro, Merrill 4513, 4743„ 6200. In the 
mossy forest, altitude 2,200 to 2,400 m. India to China, Java, and Sumatra. 

CAREX FUIRENOIDES Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 412, var. CIRR- 

HULOSA (Nees) Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 287, 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 61. 

Carex fuirenoides F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310; C. B. Clarke in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 107, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37 

(1904) 11, p. p., vix Gaudich. 

Carex cirrhulosa Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 29. 

Carex fibrata Boott ex Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. 

PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 286, nomen nudum. 
? Carex densiflora Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 204; F.-Vill. Novis. 
App. (1882) 310. 
Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna), Merrill 109, B. S. 26203 Ramos, 
29388 Ramos & Edano. In forests at medium altitudes. The variety en- 
demic, the species in the Marianne Islands. 

CAREX GRAEFFEANA Boeck. in Flora 58 (1875) 22; C. B. Clarke in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37 (1904) 5, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 107; Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 403, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 62; Merr. op. cit. 5 (1910) Bot. 335. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya), Negros, Leyte, Mindanao (Bu- 
kidnon, Davao), B. S. 8177, 8174 Ramos, 31742, 32076 Santos, 8370, 14401 
McGregor, 37710, 38642 Ramos & Edano i Merrill 6622, 9652, Phil. PL 566, 
Elmer 9842, 8532, Wenzel 625. On slopes in open places, along streams, 
and in the mossy forest, altitude 1,600 to 2,200 m. Samoa. 

Local names: Alasas (Buk.) ; bagibi (Bag.) ; giron (Bag.) ; kigid (Bon.) ; 
sidak (Ig.) ; silak (Ig.). 

CAREX INDICA Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 574, var. FISSILIS (Boott) Kukenth. 

in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 264, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 

Bot. 59; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310 (indica) ; Usteri Beitr. 

Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 132 (indica). 

Palawan, B. S. 844 Foxivorthy. On river banks, probably at low or 

medium altitudes. The species India to Java, the variety Borneo to 

Australia and Samoa. 



VoL l CYPERACEAE 139 

CAREX JAPONICA Thunb. var. CHLOROSTACHYS (D. Don) Kukenth. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 620. 
Carex chlorostachys D. Don in Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1825) 330. 
Carex doniana Spreng. Syst. 3 (1826) 825. 

Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 4-0359 Ramos & Edano. In openings in the mossy 
forest on Mt. Simacoco, altitude about 1,900 m. India to Korea, Japan, 
and Formosa. 

CAREX LIGATA Boott in Benth. Fl. Hongk. (1861) 402, var. NEXA 
(Boott) Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 474, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 63. 
Carex nexa Boott. 1. c. 

Luzon (Kalinga, Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 496, 1139, B. S. 374.91, 37516 
Ramos & Edano, 40765 Ramos. In) forests, altitude about 1,600 m. Central 
and southern China to the Riu Kiu Islands and Formosa. 

Var. FORM OS EN SIS (Lev. & Van.) Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 
(1909) 474. 
Carex formosensis Lev. & Van. in Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 25 
(1906) 216. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill Phil. PI. 562, 1763 as C. 
subtransversa Clarke, B. S. 31,958, 31684 Santos, 13987 Ramos. Along 
streams and trails, on cliffs and steep banks, etc., in and near the mossy 
forest, altitude 1,300 to 2,400 m. Formosa. 

Local names: Egegedan (Bon.); silak (Ig.). 

CAREX LOHERI C. B. Clarke in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37 (1904) 14, 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 108; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

5 (1910) Bot. 335; Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 

487, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 64. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet, Zambales, Laguna, Tayabas), Merrill 4488, 

6506, 6607, 6605, Phil PI. 563, Elmer 8582, 8444, B. S. 5133, 19565 Ramos. 

In the mossy forest, altitude 1,300 to 2,400 m. Endemic. 

Forma GRAND1MASCULA Kukenth. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 64. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4729. In clearings near the mossy forest, 
altitude about 2,200 m. Endemic. Scarcely distinguishable from the 
species. 

Local name: Silak (Ig.). 

CAREX MERRILLII Kukenth. in Fedde Repert. 8 (1910) 7, Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 63. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Benguet), Merrill 6623, 7806, Phil. PL 568, Yates. In 
the mossy forest and in open places along trails, altitude about 2,250 m. 
Endemic. 

CAREX MYOSURUS Nees in Wight . Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 122; 
Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 258, var. EM IN ENS 
(Nees) Boeck. in Linnaea 39 (1875) 335; Kukenth. op. cit. 259. 
Carex eminens Nees in Wight Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 122. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 992. On slopes, altitude about 1,700 m. 
India. 



140 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

CAREX NIKKOENSIS Franch. & Savat. Enum. PI. Japon. 2 (1879) 132, 
558; Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 252, /. A-E, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 59. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 6631. Along trails in the mossy forest, alti- 
tude about 2,300 m. Japan. 

CAREX NODIFLORA Boeck. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 5 (1884) 516; Kukenth. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 288, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 
Bot. 61. 
Carex cumingii Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. PL 
Vase. Filip. (1886) 286; C. B. Clarke in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37 
(1904) 11, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 107. 

Luzon (Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Rizal, Batangas, Laguna, Sorsogon) , 
Alabat, Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 6U9, 15328, 17781, 830b, Merrill 101*70, 
Phil. PL 1481,, B. S. 33013, 22411, 3350, 8006 Ramios. In primary forests 
at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

CAREX PALAWAN ENSIS Kukenth. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 4 (1911) 1169. 

Palawan, Elmer 1314-6. In damp soil in thickets along streams, altitude 
about 150 m. Endemic. 

CAREX PHACOTA Spreng. Syst. 3 (1826) 826; Kukenth. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 38 (1909) 350, /. 56 A-C, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 
Bot. 62. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill Phil. PL 565, Williams 121*6, B. S. 
2505 Mearns. In open damp places, altitude about 1,500 m. Himalayan 
region to China, southern Japan, and Java. 

CAREX PYCNOTHYRSOS Kukenth. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 60. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Nueva Ecija), Negros, Mindanao (Agusan), Merrill Phil. 
PL 543, Weber 1113, B. S. 26309, 37B81 Ramos & Edano. In primary 
forests, altitude 250 to 1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Harakhaches (Neg.). 

CAREX RAFFLESIANA Boott in Trans. Linn. Soc. 20 (1846) 132, Illustr. 

1 (1858) 12, t. 33; Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 282, 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 59. 
Luzon (Benguet, Pampanga, Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon), Palawan, Min- 
danao, B. S. 8378 McGregor, 665, 679, 554 Foxworthy, 6076 Robinson, 
Whitford 1121 f Merrill 4221, 4742, 4669, Elmer 6039. In and near the 
mossy forest, altitude 800 to 2,200 m. Sumatra and Java to northeastern 
Australia. 

Var. SCAB ERR I MA (Boeck.) Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 

283, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 60; Merr. op. cit. 5 (1910) 

Bot. 335. 
Carex bengalensis Roxb. var. scaberrima Boeck. in Linnaea 40 (1876) 

347; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 285 (bengalensis). 
Carex scaberrima C. B. Clarke in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37 (1904) 

10, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 107, Kew Bull. Add. Series 

8 (1908) 72. 
Carex cruciata Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 399, non 

Wahl. 



Vo1 - 1 CYPERACEAE 141 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Cagayan to Sorsogon, in most provinces), Leyte, 
Mindanao, Elmer 11607, 17692, 15522, 1154, Merrill 7599, 4795, B. S. 3801 K 
12704 Fenix, 27035 Ramos. Common on ridges in aind near the mossy 
forest, altitude 1,000 to 2,000 m. Sumatra to the Moluccas. 

Local names: Chidak (Ig.) ; ikidsan (Klg.) ; talayid (Bag.); tamalang 
(Bag.). 

Var. CONTINUA (C. B. Clarke) Kukenth. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 
Bot. 60. 
Carex continua C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1894) 717, 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36 (1903) 281, 37 (1904) 11, Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 107; Merr. op. cit. 1 (1906) Suppl. 31; Kukenth. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 281. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Kalinga, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pam- 
panga, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas), Mindoro, Negros, Mindanao (Zam- 
boanga), Merrill 3197, 6971, 8189, 8208, Phil. PL 564, Whitford 189, 1145, 
B. S. 20999 Santos, 33143, 8221, 13495, 15141 Ramos, 14246 McGregor, F. B. 
4384 Merritt. On ridges in and near the mossy forest, altitude 800 to 2,000 
m. India to southern China and the Philippines. 

CAREX RAMOSII Kukenth. in Fedde Repert. 8 (1910) 8, Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 63. 

Luzon (Kalinga, Pangasinan, Rizal), B. S. 1434, 20990, 40738, 40798 
Ramos, 11859 Robinson & Ramos, 17S66 Otanes, Merrill Phil. PL 536. In 
forests at medium altitudes. Endemic. 

CAREX RARA Boott in Proc. Linn. Soc. 1 (1845) 284, Trans. Linn. Soc. 
20 (1846) 139 subsp. CAPILLACEA (Boott), Kukenth. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 102, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 58; 
Merr. op. cit. 5 (1910) Bot. 335. 
Carex capillacea Boott Illustr. 1 (1858) 44, t. 110; C. B. Clarke in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37 (1904) 7, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 107. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 7715, 6626, 6632, 6612, 4732, Phil. PL 505, B. S. 
31744 Santos, 8333 McGregor. In open wet borders of small streams, al- 
titude 2,200 to 2,600 m. Japan and northeastern Asia to the Himalayan 
region and New South Wales. 

CAREX RHI20MAT0SA Steud. in Zoll. Verz. Ind. Archip. (1854) 60, Syn. 

PL Glum. 2 (1855) 206; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 384; C. B. 

Clarke in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37 (1904) 12, Philip. Journ. Sci. 

2 (1907) Bot. 108; Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 289, 

/. U, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 61. 
Co.rex cumingiana Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 2 (1855) 206; Miq. FL Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1857) 349; Boott Illustr. 3 (1862) 107, t. 324, 325; Boeck. 

in Linnaea 40 (1876) 367; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310; Vidal 

Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 156, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 286. 
Carex oligostachya Nees in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 6 (1854) 29. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Rizal), Mindanao (Davao, Lanao), B. S. 2700 Ramos, 
Clemens 1096, Williams 2615, Vanoverbergh 323. On open slopes, alti- 
tude 800 to 1,400 m. India to Indo-China, Java, and the Moluccas. 



142 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

CAREX RHYNCHACHAEN1UM C. B. Clarke ex Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. 
(Philip.) 35 (1906) 5, Philip. Journ, Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 31, 2 

(1907) Bot. 108, Kew Bull. Add. Series 8 (1908) 79; Kukenth. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 480, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 
Bot. 62. 

Luzon . (Kalinga, Pampanga, Bataan, Laguna), Mindanao (Bukid- 
non, Zamboanga), Elmer*. 6983, Merrill 8024, 8213, Phil. PI. 512, B. S. 37575, 
39007, 39081 Ramos & Edano. On forested ridges in and near the mossy 
forest, altitude 800 to 2,100 m. Endemic. 

CAREX SUBTRANSVERSA C. B. Clarke in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 108, Kew Bull. Add. Series 8 (1908) 92; Kukenth. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 614, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 63. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4730, 7714. On dry open slopes of recent 
clearings, along trails, etc., altitude 1,900 to 2,300 m. Endemic. 

CAREX TRISTACHYA Thunb. Fl. Jap. (1784) 38 var. POC1LLIFORM IS 

(Boott) Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 (1909) 471, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 62; Merr. op. cit. 5 (1910) 335. 
Carex pocillif ormis Boott Illustr. 4 (1867) 175, t. 593. 
Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 6606, 6630, 6629, B. S. 8856 McGregor. In 
open meadows and on grassy slopes, altitude 2,200 to 2,500 m. Japan to 
Formosa, the species also in eastern and central China. 

CAREX TURRITA C. B. Clarke in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37 (1904) 13, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 108, Kew Bull. Add. Series 8 

(1908) 74; Kukenth. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 63. 
Carex walkeri Arn. var. turrita Kukenth. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 38 

(1909) 546. 

Luzon (Abra, Bontoc, Ifugao, Benguet) , Loher 700, B. S. 7288 Ramos, 
40354 Ramos & Edano. Apparently in open places, altitude probably above 
1,400 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Tangtango (Bon.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Carex longebracteata Steud.; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 310. 

Carex haenkeana Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 205; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 

2 (1855) 241; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 354; F.-Vill. Novis. App. 

(1882) 310. 

"Hab. in insulis Philippinis" Presl. This is the South American Carex 

pseudocyperus Linn. var. haenkeana Kukenth., the record as Philippine 

being based on an erroneously localized Malaspina Expedition specimen. 

PALMAE 

1. PHOENIX Linnaeus 

PHOENIX HANCEANA Naud. var. PHILIPPINENSIS Becc. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 339, 14 (1919) 339. 

Batan Islands (Sabtan), B. S. 3744 Fenix. Along mountain streams 
at low or medium altitudes. The species in southeastern China, Hainan, 
and Formosa. 

Local name: Voyayoi (Iv.). 



Vo1 - 1 PALMAE 143 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Phoenix dactylifera Linn.; Naves Novis* App. (1882) 282. 

The date palm is very rarely found in gardens in the larger towns of the 
Philippines. It is not adapted to Philippine climatic conditions. 

Phoenix farinifera Roxb; Naves 1. c. 

Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.; Naves 1. c. 

2. CORYPHA Linnaeus 

CORYPHA ELATA Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 176; Merr. Fl. Manila 

(1912) 123, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 84; Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

14 (1919) 341, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3023; Brown & Merr. 

in Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 68, t. 24-28. 
Corypha umbraculifera Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 228, ed. 2 (1845) 

160, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 290; Naves Novis App. (1882) 281; Vidal 

Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 41, t. 93, f. A; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. 

(Philip.) 27 (1905) 88, n on Linn. 
Coryplia sylvestris Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 233, saltern 

quoad, cit. Philip. 
Sagus rumphii Perr. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 143, non Willd. 
Livistona vidalii Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 343. 

Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces, in some 
regions widely scattered, in others subgregarious and abundant at low and 
medium altitudes. India to Malaya. 

Local names: Bagatai (Is.) ; buri (Bis., Bik., Pamp., Tag.) ; busi (Pamp., 
Bis., Tag.); ibus (Tag.); piet (Tag., Pang.); silad (Bik.); silag (Ilk., 
Pang.); silal (Sub.); sira'r (Bag.); taktak (Is.). 

CORYPHA M1CROCLADA Becc. in Webbia 5 (1921) 7. 

Biliran, B. S. 18720 McGregor. In open places at low altitudes. En- 
demic. 

3. LICUALA Wurmb 

LICUALA SPINOSA Wurmb in Verh. Bat. Genoots. 2 (1780) 469; Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 53; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 281; Becc. 
in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 45, Webbia 1 (1905) 338, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 339; Brown & Merr. in Philip. Bur. Forestry 
Bull. 18 (1919) 88, t. 33. 

Culion, Palawan, Balabac, Merrill 543, Phil. PI. 1463, B. S. 836 Fox- 
worthy,, 269 Bermejos, 448 Mangubat,. F. B. 3611 Curran. In thickets at 
low altitudes, sometimes immediately back of the mangrove in brackish 
mud ; now cultivated in Manila for ornamental purposes. Malay Peninsula 
and Archipelago to the Moluccas. 

Local names: Balatbat (P. Bis.); ugsang (Sul.). 

excluded species 

Licuala elegans Mart.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 281. 
Licuala rumphii Blume; Naves 1. c. 
Licuala spectabilis Miq.; Naves 1. c. 



144 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

4. LIVISTONA R. Brown 

LIVISTONA MERRILLII Becc. in Perk. Frag. PI. Philip. (1904) 45, Webbia 
1 (1905) 339, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 340. 
Livistona whitfordii Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 615. 
Luzon (Cagay'an, Zanibales, Tayabas, Camarines) , Merrill 2071, Whit- 
ford 731, F. B. 17811, 104-09, 17278, 10189, 5876 Curran, 18451 Alvarez, 
B. S. 33759 Ramos & Edano. In forests and in thickets at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Local names: Anahau (Ibn., Bik., Tag.) ; bal-lang (Ibn.) ; labik (Neg.) ; 
magalai (Bik.) ; tekis (Sbl.). 

LIVISTONA ROBINSON IANA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 
230, 14 (1919) 341. 

Luzon (Laguna), Polillo, B. S. 9265 Robinson, 10471 McGregor, Loher 
7056. In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Pilig (Tag.). 

LIVISTONA ROTUNDIFOLIA (Lam.) Mart. var. LUZONENSIS Becc. in 
Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3025, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 340; 
Brown & Merr. in Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 92, t. 36. 
Livistona rotundifolia Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1919) 647; Merr. 

Fl. Manila (1912) 122; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 281, vix Mart. 
Corypha minor Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 229, ed. 2 (1845) 161, ed. 

3, 1 (1877) 290, non Jacq. 
Livistona blancoi Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 84. 
Luzon (Benguet, Union, Pangasinan, Zambales, Pampanga, Laguna, 
Tayabas, Camarines, Albay), Negros, Mindanao, Merrill 37.99, Sp. Blan- 
coanae 919, Elmer 18054, 9293, F. B. 5834, 17344, 17689, 10631 Curran, 
15322 Aguilar, 13576 Meyer & Foxworthy, 26228 Mabesa. In forests at 
low and medium altitudes; sometimes planted for ornamental purposes. 
Local names: Abiang (Pamp., Pang.) ; ana-au (Ilk.) ; anahau (Bik., 
P. Bis., Tag.); anau (Pamp., Ibn.); bagsang (S. L. Bis.); bahi (Bis.); 
bal-lang (Ibn.) ; balak (Mag.) ; bolong-ulong (Pamp.) ; bulus (Bik.) ; 
bulau (Bik.) ; bulno (Bik.) ; ingaing (Ig.) ; labig 1 (Ilk.) ; luyong (Sbl.) ; 
palma brava (Sp.) ; pilig (Tag.); tikis (Sbl.). 

Var. MICROCARPA Becc. in Leaf. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3024, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 341. 
Livistona microcarpa Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 231. 
Palawan, Mindanao (Davao), F. B. 3784 Curran, Elmer 11967. In 
forests at low altitudes. The species widely distributed in Malaya, the 
two varieties endemic. 

Local name: Bal-la (Bag.). 

Var. MINDORENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 341. 

Livistona mindorensis Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 615. 

Mindoro, F. B. 4108 Merritt. Common in forests at low altitudes on 
Bungabong River. Endemic. 
Local name: Panobau (Tag.). 



VoL l PALMAE 145 

LIVISTONA SARIBAS CLour.) Merr. ex A. Chev. in Bull. Econ. Indochine 
22 (1919) 501. 
Corypha saribas Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 212, ed. Willd. (1793) 

263, excl. syn. Rumph. 
Livistona cochinchinensis Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1838) 319; Becc. 
Malesia 3 (1886) 69, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 340; Becc. & 
Hook. f. in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1892) 434, Brown & Merr. in 
Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 92, t. 35. 
Livistona speclabilis Griff, in Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. 5 (1845) 

336, Palms Brit. Ind. (1845) 130, t. 266 C. 
Livistona inaequisecta Becc. in Philip. Journ. :Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 616. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Laguna) , F. B. 171U5, 17302, 17156, 10079 Curran, 
1U762 Darling. In open, somewhat swampy regions at low altitudes, in 
Cagayan gregarious. Malay Peninsula, Indo-China. 
Local names; Tarau (Ibn.) ; tikal (Tag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Livistona papuana Becc; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 282. 

5. METROXYLON Rottboell 

METROXYLON SAGU Rottb. in Nye Samml. Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. 
Skrift. 2 (1783) 527; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 276; Merr. Inter- 
pret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 112; Brown & Merr. in Philip. Bur. 
Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 96, t. 37. 
Metroxylon rumphii Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1838) 214, 313, t. 
102, 159; Naves 1. c; Becc. in Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3026, 
Phil. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 342, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12 2 : 
t. 105 ined. 
Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor, Mindanao (Agusan, Surigao, Misamis, Zamboanga, 
Cotabato, Davao), Basilan, Sulu. Abundant in fresh-water swamps at 
low altitudes, in some places planted. Widely distributed in Malaya. The 
sago palm. 

Local names: Ambolong «(Mbo.) ; bagsang (Bis.); langdang (Bis.); 
lumbai (Bis.); lumbia (C. Bis., Bag.); lumbiag (Sul.) ; sagu (Mbo., Bis.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Metroxylon sylvestre Mart.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 276. 
Metroxylon longispinum Mart.; Naves 1. c. 
Metroxylon filare Mart.; Naves 1. c. 

6. COELOCOCCUS H. Wendland 

COELOCOCCUS AMICARUM (Wendl.) W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 9 (1905) 244, t, J+5, U6. 
Sagus amicarum Wendl. in Bot. Zeit. 36 (1878) 115. 
Coeiococcus carolinensis Dingl. in Bot. Centralbl. 32 (1887) 349. 

Rarely planted, Panay, Mindanao (Zamboanga). Introduced from the 
Caroline Islands. Polynesian ivory palm. 

183036 10 



146 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

7. ZALACCA Reinwardt 

ZALACCA CLEM ENSI ANA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 618, 

14 (1919) 342, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3028, Ann. Bot. Gard. 

Calcutta 12 2 : t. 49, ined. 

Mindanao (Lanao, Zamboanga, Davao), Clemens 1109, Elmer 11879, B. 

S. 37427, 37431, 374.30 Ramos & Edano. In forests, altitude 600 to 900 m. 

Endemic. 

Local names: Dalubi (Sub.) ; kaubi (Mag.) ; lakaubi (Bag.) ; lubo (Sub.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Zalacca edulis Reinw. ; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 274. 

This has not as yet been found in the Philippines except as a recently 
introduced and cultivated palm. 

8. KORTHALSIA Blume 

KORTHALSIA LACINIOSA Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1838) 211, 343; Becc. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 343, Lead. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 
343, Malesia 2 (1884) 74. 
Luzon (Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Elmer 15634, 16672, F. B. 24537 
Aguilar, Klemme, (Vidal 4066) ; possibly also B. S. 10464 McGregor from 
Polillo. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Burma and 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 
Local name: Danan (Bik.). 

KORTHALSIA MERRILLII Becc. in Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12 ": t. 81, 
ined., Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 342. 
Palawan, Merrill 9410. In primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

KORTHALSIA SCAPHIGEROIDES Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 619, 14 (1919) 342, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12 2 : t. 67, ined. 

Mindanao (Agusan, Surigao, Zamboanga), Basilan, Merrill 7313, F. B. 
6106, 4816 Hutchinson, 23913 Ponce. In primary forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. , 

Local name: Kapnigid (C. Bis.). 

KORTHALSIA SQUARROSA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
620, 14 (1919) 343, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12 2 : t. 103, ined. 
Palawan, Balabac, Merrill 5384, F. B. 4185 Curran. In primary forests 
at low altitudes. Endemic. 

excluded species 

Korthalsia angustifolia Blume; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 273. 

Korthalsia ROBUSTA Blume; Naves 1. c. 

9. PLECTOCOMIA Martius and Blume 

PLECTOCOMIA ELMERI Becc. in Lead. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3029, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 342, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12 2 : t. 49 ined. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11887. In forests, altitude about 900 m. 
Endemic. 

Local name: Ungang (Bag.). 



VoL * PALMAE 147 

10. CALAMUS Linnaeus 

CALAMUS ARUGDA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 622, 14 
(1919) 352. 

Luzon (Cagayan), F. B. 6649 Klemme, 26618 Velasco. In primary 
forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Arugda (Ibn.) ; uai (Ilk.). 

CALAMUS BICOLOR Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3055, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 356, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 Suppl. 126, 
t. 73 ined. 
Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10541, 10618. In primary forests, altitudes 
1,200 to 1,800 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Lasi (Bag.); rasi (Bag.); sambonotan (Bag.). 

CALAMUS BLANCOI Kunth Enum. 3 (1841) 595; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 
3 (1849) 343; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 492, 5 (1858) 832; Miq.'Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 139; Becc. Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 204, 
Webbia 1 (1905) 346, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 635, 14 
(1919) 349, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 82, 216, t. 64, 
Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3048; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. 
(Philip.) 27 (1905) 88, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 86. 
Calamus gracilis Blanco PI. Filip. (1837) 267, ed. 2 (1845) 186, 

ed. 3, 1 (1877) 332, non Roxb. 
Calamus buroensis Naves Novis. App. (1882) 275, Vidal Cat. PI. 

Prov. Manila (1880) 47, non Mart. 
Calamus brevifrons Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 338; Walp. 
Ann. 3 (1853) 488; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 127; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 275. 
Calamus parvifolius Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 154, non 
Roxb. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte!, Cuming 1225, Zambales, Bataan, Bulacan), Leyte, 
Mindanao (Zamboanga). Elmer 7282, (Loher 1376), Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 
791, F. B. 4.819 Hutchinson, 887 Maule, 24-697 Lazaro, B. S. 33047 Ramos. 
In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Abit (Sbl.) ; alip (Sul.) ; talola (Tag.); u-uai (Ibn.); 
yantok (Tag.), 

CALAMUS CUMINGIANUS Becc. in Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. 2 (1902) 210, 

Webbia 1 (1905) 346, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 99, 

348, t. 142, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3050, Philip. Journ. Sci. 

14 (1919) 351. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Mindanao (Agusan), Cuming 762, Elmer 13646. In 

primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Douung-douung (Mbo.). 

CALAMUS DIEPENHORSTII Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860-61) 

594; Becc. in Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 96, 322, t. 126, 

var. EXULANS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 627, 6 

(1911) Bot. 230, 14 (1919) 350. 

Polillo, Palawan, Merrill 9357, B. S. 756 Foxworthy, 9111 Robinson 

(Loher 7054 from Rizal Province, Luzon, originally referred here by Beccari 

is C. filispadix Becc. fide Beccari) . In primary forests at low altitudes. 

The variety endemic, the species in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra', and 

(?) Borneo. 



148 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



CALAMUS DIMORPH ACANTHUS Becc. in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 

214, Webbia 1 (1905) 355, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 

117, 479, t. 219, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 631, 14 (1919) 

355, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3055. 

Luzon (Benguet, Union, Laguna), Panay, Elmer 6238, 18103, 18337, 

(Loher 1370, 1371, Vidal 3956) . In forests at medium altitudes, ascending 

to 1,700 m. Endemic. 

Var. MONTALBANICUS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 631, 
14 (1919) 355. 

Luzon (Rizal, Bataan), (Loher 7085), B. S. 29599 Ramos & Edano. In 
primary forests at medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Var. ZAMBALENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 632, 14 
(1919) 355. 
Luzon' (Zambales), F. B. 8412 Curran & Merritt. In mossy forests on 
exposed ridges, altitude about 2,000 m. Endemic. 

CALAMUS DISCOLOR Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 341; Kunth Enum. 
3 (1841) 212; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 136; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 275; Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 355, Ann. Bot. Gard. Cal- 
cutta 11 (1908) 120, 495, t. 228, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
635, 14 (1919) 350, Lean. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 649, 8 (1919) 
3048. 
Calamus lindenii Rod. 111. Hort. 30 (1883) 157, t. 489; Ridley in 

Journ. Str. Branch Roy. As. Soc. 44 (1905) 200. 
Cycas ? hypoleuca Presl Epim. (1851) 238; Walp. Ann. 3 (1852-53) 
453; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 212; Foxw. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 152, ex descr. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Elmer 9299, 16871, B. S. 12035 
Ramos, F. B. 25744 Mabesa. In primary forests at low or medium alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

Young plants are commonly cultivated in Manila for ornamental pur- 
poses. 

Local names: Hamlis (Tag.); kumaboi (Tag.); likbon (C. Bis.); si- 
muran (P. Bis) ; ubanon (C. Bis.) ; ulisi (C. Bis.) ; yarning (P. Bis.). 

Var. NEGROSENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 635. 

Negros, Siargao, Mindanao (Surigao), F. B. 12432 Danao, 20893 Tamesis, 
24024- Razon. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

CALAMUS ELMERIANUS Becc. in Lean. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 647, 8 

(1919) 3051, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 353, Ann. Bot. Gard. 

Calcutta 11 Suppl. 69, t. 37 ined. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Dinagat, Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), Elmer 14166, 

11756, 9298, Merrill 7289, F. B. 24021 Razon, B. S. 34909 Ramos & Pascasio. 

In primary forests; sometimes at low altitudes, more often in the mossy 

forest at 1,300 to 1,800 m. 

Local names: Sababai (Mbo.) ; samanid (Bag.). 

CALAMUS FILISPADIX Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 230, 
14 (1919) 350, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3048. 
Calamus hookerianus Becc. op. cit. 4 (1909) Bot. 621, non Becc. in 
Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta (1908). 



Vol. i PALMAE 149 

Luzon (Rizal, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Polillo, Masbate, Samar, 
Palawan, Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 13949, 16846, 12769, Merrill 7251, 
F. B. 26219 Mariano, 24824 Valencia, 10630 Curran, B. S. 13128 Foxworthy 
& Ramos, 10467 McGregor, 33761 Ramos & Edano, 24427 Ramos. In 
forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Kangnobnob (Mbo.) ; nokut (S. L. Bis.); panganpanganan 
(Tag.). 

CALAMUS FOXWORTHYI Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 352, 
nomen nudum, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 1 1 Suppl. 81, t. 45 ined. 
Palawan, B. S. 690 Foxworthy. On forested rocky slopes along streams, 
altitude about 1,000 m. Endemic. 

CALAMUS GRANDIFOLIUS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
629, 14 (1919) 352. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), B. S. 9448 Robinson, (Loher 7088). 
Local name: Uai (Tag., Neg.). 

CALAMUS HALCONENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
633, 14 (1919) 356, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 Suppl. 116, 
t. 65 ined. 
Luzon (Laguna), Mindoro, F. B. 4399 Merritt r 25742 Mabesa, B. S. 39471 
Ramos. In primary forests, altitude 450 to 1,500 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Lambutan (Tag.). 

r 

CALAMUS JENNINGSIANUS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
623, 14 (1919) 353. 
Mindoro, F. B. 4400 Merritt. In forests, altitudes about 1,500 m. 
Endemic. 

CALAMUS MANILLENSIS (Mart.) Wendl. in Kerch. Palm. (1878) 237; 
Becc. in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 215, Webbia 1 (1905) 349, 
Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 108, 413, t. 226, f. 1, Lean. 
Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3052, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 352. 
Daemonorops ? manillenis Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 330, 
t. 175, f. 1-3; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 480, 5 (1858) 829; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 275. 
Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Tayabas), Dinagat, Mindanao (Agusan, Davao, 
Surigao), Elmer 11714, 10560a, U011, 14133, 14173, 16811, 17077, B. S. 
18994 McGregor, 35255, 34693 Ramos & Pascasio, 26605 Ramos & Edano. 
In forests, altitude 600 to 1,000 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Bayabong (Mbo.) ; bunlak (Mbo.) ; lintokan (Bag.), sarani 
(Bag.); tumarom (Mbo.). 

CALAMUS MAXIM US Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 266, ed. 2 (1845) 185, ed. 3 
1 (1877) 331; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 343; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1855) 139; Becc. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 45; 
Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 88, Sp. Blaneoanae 
(1918) 85. 
Calamus merrillii Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 347, Ann. Bot. Gard. 
Calcutta 11 (1908) 105, 390, t. 167, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 629, 14 (1919) 351, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3057. 



150 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Masbate, Mindanao (Agusan, Lanao, 
Davao), Basilan, Merrill 1893, Sp. Blafricoanae 879, Clemens 1112, 1124, 
Elmer 11885, 13926, F. B. 20634 .Villamil, 2537S, 23988 Mabesa, 25353 Ba- 
wan, 23977 Maneja, 26225 Mariano, 2^822 Valencia, 24.326 Acedillo. In 
primary forests at medium altitudes, ascending- to 1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Akab-akab (Bag.) ; apas (Tag.) ; buai-magi (Yak.) ; kalapi 
(Bik.) ; labni (Pamp.) ; lokuan (Tag.) ; palasan (Tag., Bik., Mbo.) ; pa- 
rasan (S. L. Bis.); supot (Tag.); tumalim-babui (Tag.). 

Var. NANGA (Becc.) comb. nov. 

Calamus merrillii Becc. var. nanga Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 
(1919) 351, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3057, Ann. Bot. Gard. 
Calcutta 11 Suppl. 78, t. 42 ined. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11110, 11874- In primary forests, altitude 
600 to 1,000 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Nanga (Bag.). 

Var. MERRITTIANUS (Becc.) comb. nov. 

Calamus merrittianus Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 

233, 4 (1909) Bot. 629. 
Calamus merrillii Becc. var. merrittianus Becc. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 14 (1919) 351, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 Suppl. 78, 
t. 42 ined. 
Luzon (Tayabas), Mindoro, F. B. 3912 Merritt, 26218 Mariano. In 
primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

CALAMUS MEGAPHYLLUS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 353, 
Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3060, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 
Suppl. 66, t. 55 ined. 
Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), Elmer 11878, 13542. In forests up to 900 
m altitude. Endemic. 

Local names: Banakbo (Mbo.); lintokan (Bag.). 

CALAMUS MELANORHYNCHUS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 
350, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3058, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 
11 Suppl. 30, t. 16 ined. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11708. In primary forests, altitude about 
1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Dalimban (Bag.). 

CALAMUS MEYENIANUS Schauer in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) 
Suppl. 1: 425; Becc. in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 217, Webbia 
1 (1905) 346, Ann Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 82, 215, t. 63, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 349. 

Luzon (Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya), B. S. 17755 Otanes, 11442' McGre- 
gor. In forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Barit (Ilk.). 

• 
CALAMUS MICROCARPUS Becc. in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 213, 
Webbia 1 (1905) 355, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 117, 
477, t. 218, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 627, 6 (1911) 'Bot. 
230, 14 (1919) 356, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3055. 



Vo11 PALMAE 151 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Polillo, Min- 
danao (Davao, Agusan, Lanao), Elmer 10676, 1S551, 15573, 16810, 16991, 
B. S: 9131 Robinson, 10465 McGregor, 123,26 Foxworthy, F. B. 13305 Ta- 
mesis, 20667, 20668 Villamil, 27031 Villaflor, 21+522 Cortez & Valderrama. 
In primary forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,200 m. 
Endemic. 

Local names Agusi (Mbo.) ; kalapit (Bik.) ; lambutan ! (Tag.) ; pagipi 
(Mbo.) ; pariti (Bag.); sipai (Tag.); tandulang-gubat (Tag.). 

Var. DIMINUTUS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 356. 

Luzon (Laguna), B. S. 16599 Ramos. In primary forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

CALAMUS MICROSPHAERION Becc. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 
45, Webbia 1 (1905) 349, Ann,. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 114, 
453, t. 204, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 627, 14 (1919) 353. 

Luzon (Bataan), Culion, Merrill 507, Whitford, F. B. 20917 De Leon. 
In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Kulakling (Tag.); labit (Tag.). 

Var. SPINOSIOR Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 354. 

Palawan, Merrill 9358, 9247. In forests at low atitudes. Endemic. 

CALAMUS MINDORENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
235, 4 (1909) Bot. 625, 14 (1919) 352, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 
Suppl. 88, t. 49 ined. 

Luzon (Laguna), Mindoro, McGregor 309, F. B. 6217 Merritt, F. B. 
25745 Mabesa. In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Tumalin (Tag.). 

CALAMUS MITIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 341, 14 (1919) 
353, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 Suppl. 68, t. 36 ined. 

Batan and Babuyan Islands, Luzon (Ilocos Norte), B. S. 3817, 4075 
Fenix, F. B. 24810 Paraiso. In forests at low and medium altitudes. En- 
demic. 

Local names: Matkong (Ilk., Ting.); tebdas- (Iv.). 

CALAMUS MOSELEYANUS Becc. in Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 211, 
Webbia 1 (1905) 348, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 105, 
396, t. 171, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3053, Philip. Journ. Sci. 
14 (1919) 352. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga, Davao), Malanipa, Hallier, Elmer 11886. In 
forests at low altitudes, ascending to 1,000 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Sarani (Bag.). k 

CALAMUS MULTINERVIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 352, 
Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3060, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 
Suppl. 88, t. 49 ined. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11791, 11955. In primary forests, altitude 
about 1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Balala (Bag.); ubli (Bag.). 



152 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

CALAMUS ORNATUS Blume ex Schultes f. Syst. 7 2 (1830) 1326, var. 
PHILIPPINENSIS Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 346, Ann. Bot. Gard. 
Calcutta 11 (1908) 102, 370, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 230 
(excl. syn. Blanco), 14 (1919) 350, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 
3054. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas, Rizal, Sorsogon), Polillo, 
Mindoro, Negros, Mindanao (Davao), Surigao, Basilan, Elmer 7625, 9086, 
11236, 15607, 16886, 184-25, 17999, Whit ford 343, 502, Williams 337, F. B. 
212 Barnes, 2854 Meyer, 2439 Borden, 7154, 17252 Curran, 23973, 25041 
Maneja, 3911, 3913 Merritt, 6089 Everett, 6107 Hutchinson, B. S. 9266 
Robinson, 10461 McGregor, 16619, 23364 Ramos, 947 Mangubat. 

In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic, the species 
in Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, and Java. 

Local names: Agubak (Tag.); alimuran (Ibn.) ; kalapi (S. L. Bis., P. 
Bis., Bik.) ; kayapi (C. Bis.) ; likuto (Tag.) ; limuran (Tag., Pamp., Sbl.) ; 
lukuan (Tag.) ; mayangyang (C. Bis.) ; palaklakanin (Tag.) ; tubo (Bag.) ; 
uai (Tag.). 

CALAMUS RAMULOSUS Becc. in Perk. Frag. PI. Philip. (1904) 46, 
Webbia 1 (1905) 349, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 114, 
454, t. 205, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 354. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Merrill 2070. In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Paulis (Tag.). 

CALAMUS REYESIANUS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 237, 
14 (1919) 353, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 Suppl. 86, t. 36 ined. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Reyes, B. S. 13312 Ramos, F. B. 25746 
Mabesa. In forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 
Local names: Apas (Tag.); lukuan (Tag.); samulid (Tag.). 

CALAMUS SAM IAN Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 353, Lean. Philip. 
Bot. 8 (1919) 3059, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 Suppl. 92, t. 52 
ined. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11336, 17255. In primary 
forests, altitude about 1,300 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Samian (Bag.). 

CALAMUS SIPHONOSPATHUS Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 342; 
Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 491, 5 (1858) 832; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1855) 137; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 275; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. 
Veg. (1905) 130 (tiphonolpathus) ; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila 
(1892) 175; Becc. in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 213, Webbia 
1 (1905) 350, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 116, 471, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 354. 
Calamus inflatus Warb. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 45. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Min- 
doro, Mindanao, Merrill 1891, 1643, Elmer 11652, F. B. 18558 Alvarez, 20633 
Villamil, 23975 Maneja, 24321 Acedillo, 26223 Mariano, 11625 Fischer, 
23825 Mabesa. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending 
to 1,200 m. Endemic. 



VoL * PALMAE 153 

Local names: Bejuco (Sp., Tag.); biri (Tag.); dagdag (Ilk.); hamlis 
(Tag.) ; husi (Neg.) ; lambutan (Tag.) ; malauban (Tag.) ; oban-oban 
(Bag.) ; palimanok (Pamp.) ; papakin (Tag.) ; sipai (Tag.) ; sukol (Tag.) ; 
susuko (Tag.); talola (Tag.); valit (Iv.). 

Var. BATAN ENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 342, 14 (1919) 
355, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 1 1 Suppl. 115 ined. 

Batan Islands (Batan), B. S. 3611 Fenix. In forests along streams. 
Endemic. 

Var. FARINOSUS Becc. in Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 474, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 355. 

Luzon (Rizal), (Loher 7083), F. B. 23972 Maneja. In forests at medium 
altitudes. Endemic. 

Var. OLIGOLEPIS Becc. (minor et major) in Webbia 1 (1905) 353, Ann. 
Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 475, 476, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 
(1919) 355. 

Luzon (Rizal, Tayabas), (Loher, Warburg) . In forests at low or 
medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Var. POLYLEPIS Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 354, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 
11 (1908) 477, t. 216. 

Luzon (Rizal), (Vidal £068). In forests at low or medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Var. SUBLEVIS Becc. 1. cc. Philip. Journ, Sci. 14 (1919) 355. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Zambales, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas), Whit- 
ford 308, F. B. 1577 Borden, 2635 Meyer, 6225, 6514 Curran, 25739 Mabesa, 
13985 Merritt & Darling, 25100 Paraiso, B. S. 26643, 29601 Ramos & Edaiio, 
4713, 33182 Ramos, 10787 McGregor. In forests at low and medium alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

CALAMUS SPINIFOLIUS Becc. in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 202, 
Webbia 1 (1905) 348, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 107, 410, 
t. 178, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 353. 

Luzon (Pampanga, Bataan), Palawan, Panay, F. B. 17309 Curran, 2094-7 

De Leon, 1454 Ahern's collector. In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Kurakling (Pamp., Tag.); sika (Tagb.) ; yantok (Tag.). 

CALAMUS SYMPHYSIPUS Mart, in Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 336; Becc. 
in Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 346, t. 141, Lean. Philip. 
Bot. 8 (1919) 3049, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 351. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Bucas Grande, Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 16701, 
13902, B. S. 35035 Ramos & Edaiio. In primary forests up to 900 m alti- 
tude. Celebes. 

Local name: Bolanog (Mbo.). 

CALAMUS TRISPERMUS Becc. in Perk. Frag. PL Philip. (1904) 46,. 
Webbia 1 (1905) 349, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 108, 412, 
t. 180, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 625, 14 (1919) 352. 

Luzon (Rizal), Merrill 1645, (Loher 7071). In forests at medium alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 



154 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



CALAMUS USITATUS Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 265, ed. 2 (1845) 185, ed. 
3, 1 (1877) 330, t. 9,9 (as C. mollis); Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 
(1849) 340; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 131; Vidal Sinopsis Atlas 
(1883) 42, t. 93, f. D; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 85; Brown & 
Merr. in Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) t. 11, 12. 

Calamus mollis Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 99; 
Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 280; Becc. in Rec. Bot. Surv. 
India 2 (1902) 204, Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 46, Ann. Bot. 
Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 82, 212, t. 61, 62, Webbia 1 (1905) 345, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 342, 14 (1919) 348, Lean. Philip. 
Bot. 8 (1919) 3046; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 
88, Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 399, Fl. Manila (1912) 124, 
non Blanco. * 

Calamus haenkeanus Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 337; Kunth 
Enum. 3 (1841) 211; Walp. Ann. 2 (1852) 488, 5 1858) 831; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 127; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 275. 

Batan and Babuyan Islands, Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Apayao, 
Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Zambales, Laguna, 
Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Palawan, Biliran, Samar, Mindanao (Suri- 
gao), Elmer 11969, 17052, 17727, 18201,, Merrill 7407, 1642, 1743, 1411, 2077, 
Williams 561, B. S. 28131 Fenix, 11218, 1863k McGregor, 9571 Robinson, 
4032 Fenix, 381 Ramos, F. B. 23981 Maneja, 24536 Aguilar, 17034, 5957, 
G297, 5982, 6338, 17273, 8489 Curran, 2480, 2481, 3026 Borden, 24195 Bawan, 
25102 Paraiso. In secondary forests and thickets at low and medium 
altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Abet (Tag.) ; abit (Tag.) ; arit (Bag.) ; babuyan (Sbl.) ; 
balit (Ilk.) ; bari (Ibn.) ; barit (Ibn., Ilk.) ; digtan (Tag.) ; hanapas (Bik.) ; 
kakalsan (Tag.) ; pagipe (C. Bis.) ; ritoko (Ting.) ; tindarora (Bik.) ; 
tandulang-parang (Tag.) ; tagaloa (S. L. Bis.) ; tagokan (P. Bis.) ; tololang- 
lutukan (Tag.) ; uei (Pang.) ; uai (Tag., Ilk.) ; uhoi (Tagb.) ; valet (Iv.) ; 
yantok (Tag., Sbl.). 

Var. MAJOR (Becc.) comb. nov. 

Calamus mollis var. major Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 345, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 349. 
Luzon (Bataan), F. B. 24.99 Meyer, Whitford 80. In forests at low 
altitudes. 

Local name: Uai (Tag.). 

Var. PALAWAN ICUS (Becc.) comb. nov. 

Calamus mollis var. palawanicus Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 233, 14 (1919) 345, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3047. 
Palawan, Elmer 12607, F. B. 3613 Curran, B. S. 609 Foxworthy, 191, 196 
Bermejos. In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

CALAMUS VI DALIAN US Becc. in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 212, 
Webbia 1 (1905) 350, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 115, 
464, t. 211, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 634. 
Calamus horrens Vidal Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 280; Ceron Cat. 
PI. Herb. Manila (1902) 175, non Blume. 



Vol. 1 



PALMAE 155 



Luzon (Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Bataan, Tayabas, Camarines) , F. B. 2094-8 
De Leon, 22162 Alvarez, B. S. 1321 A, 2228H Ramos, 33762 Ramos & Edaiio. 
In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. 

Local names: Butarak (Ilk.); yantok (Tag-.). 

CALAMUS VINOSUS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 352, nomen 
nudum, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3061. 

Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 14158. On forested ridges, altitude about 
1,450 m. Endemic. 

CALAMUS VIRIDISSIMUS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 353, 
Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3059, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 
Suppl. 84, t. 47 ined. 
Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11938. In forests, altitude about 300 m. 
Endemic. 

Local name: Akal (Bag.). 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

CALAMUS ALBUS Pers.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 276; Vidal Cat. PI. Prov. 
Manila (1880) 47. 

Calamus concinnus Mart.; Naves op. cit. 275. 

Calamus curag Blanco ex Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 113; Becc. in Ann. 
Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 498. 
Blanco published no such species, but casually mentions a form known 
locally as kwrag, or purag. 

Calamus equestris Willd. ; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 276. 

Calamus javensis Blume; Naves op. cit. 275. 

Calamus nitidus Mart.; Linden 111. Hort. 28 (1881) 16. 

"Philippines." This is an Indian species, Linden's specimen being either 
erroneously named or erroneously localized. 

Calamus pisicarpus Blume; Naves op. cit. 275. 

Calamus philippensis Linden 111. Hort. 28 (1881) 16, nomen nudum, 
"Philippines." 

Calamus rhomboideus Blume; Naves op. cit. 276. 

Calamus scipionum Lour.; Naves 1. c. 

Calamus verus Blanco Becc. in Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11 (1908) 503. 

This is merely a lapsus calami, Blanco being erroneously cited instead of 
Loureiro. The page reference given conforms to Loureiro, Flora Cochin- 
chinensis, not to Blanco, Flora de Filipinas. . 

11. DAEMONOROPS Blume 

DAEMONOROPS AFFINIS Becc. in Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3042, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 359. 

Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 13978. In the mossy forests on exposed 
peaks and ridges, altitude about 1,200 m. Endemic. - 

Local name: Bag-bag (Mbo.). 



156 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

DAEMONOROPS CLEM ENSI AN US Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 636, 14 (1919) 359, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12 * (1911) 163, 
t. 67. 

Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens 1227. This is possibly a mixture of the 
fruits of D. ochrolepis Becc. and the leaves of some other species of 
doubtful status. Endemic. 

DAEMONOROPS CURRANII Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
238, 4 (1909) Bot. 636, 14 (1919) 359, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 
12 (1911) 142, t. 58, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3033. 

Palawan, Elmer 12663, F. B. 3791 Curran. In forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

As later noted by Beccari the portion of leaf-sheath and the fragment 
of the spadix on the left of the original plate do not belong here but 
appertain to D. pedwellaris Becc. 

Local names: Pit-pit (Tagb.) ; saranoi (Tagb.). 

DAEMONOROPS GRACILIS Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3014, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 359. 

Palawan, (Elmer 12945). In forests. Endemic. 

DAEMONOROPS LOHERIANUS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
637, 14 (1919) 358, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12 x (1911) 104, t. 41. 

Luzon (Rizal), (Loher 7073). In forests at low or medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

DAEMONOROPS MARGARITAE (Hance) Becc. var. PALAWANICUS Becc. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 636, 14 (1919) 358, Lean. 
Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3030, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12 k (1911) 57. 

Palawan, Merrill 9359, Elmer 12943, B. S. 899 Foxworthy. In forests 
at low altitudes. The variety endemic, the species in southeastern China. 

DAEMONOROPS MOLLIS (Blanco) Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 86. 

Calamus mollis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 264, ed. 2 (1845) 184, ed. 

3, 1 (1877) 329; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 336; Kunth 

Enum. 3 (1841) 594; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 486, 5 (1858) 831; 

Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 123. 
Daemonorops gaudichaudii Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 331; 

Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 481; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 275; Becc. 

in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 47, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 

226, Webbia 1 (1905) 355, Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 342, 

14 (1919) 359, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3031, Ann. Bot. Gard. 

Calcutta 12 x (1911) 157, t. 64. 
Daemonorops fuscus Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 331; Walp. 

Ann. 3 (1853) 481, Becc. Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2 (1902) 226; 

Naves Novis. App. (1882) 274. 
Calamus usitatus Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 

88, non Blanco. 

Babuyan Islands to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces, Whit ford 
289, 1371, Elmer 11880, 124-94, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 685, B. S. 1212, 
24394 Ramos, 948 Mangubat, 11358, 14192 McGregor, 4066 Fenix, 29368, 
33720 Ramos & Edano, 24876, 24777 Edano, 22577 Ramos & Deroy, 28401 



Vo1 - x PALMAE 157 

Fenix, F. B. 21713 Abellanosa, 3741, 6218 Merritt, 22163 Alvarez, 2601 
Meyer, 17310, 17218, 17252, 10190 Curran, 2504.0, 23974 Maneja, 24108 Ber- 
nardo, 25519 Cenabre, 24-825 Valencia, 20892 Tamesis. In primary forests 
at low and medium altitudes, often common. Endemic. 

Local names: Alimuran (Ibn.) ; alundayag (Ibn.) ; babuyan (Tag.); 
bag-bag (Tag.) ; baritau (Ibn.) ; batarag (Ilk.) ; batasan (P. Bis.) ; digtan 
(Tag.) ; diitan (Tag.) ; ditan (Ibn., Tag.) ; gatasan (Tag., S. L. Bis., Bik., 
P. Bis.) ; hamlis (Tag.) ; lakaoan (Bik.) ; labnig (Bik.) ; lisan (Sub.) ; 
mamuktong (Tag.) ; nakat (Bag.) ; nukot (S. L. Bis.) ; samulig (Bik.) ; 
sumulid (Tag.) ; tabanga (Tag.) ; takol (Bik.) ; tamarura (Tagb.) ; tap- 
nikid (C. Bis.) ; uai (Tag., Ilk.) ; uban-uban (P. Bis.) ; yantok (Tag.). 

DAEMONOROPS OCHROLEPIS Becc. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 
47, Webbia 1 (1905) 356, Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 230, 
14 (1919) 358, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3032, Ann. Bot. Gard. 
Calcutta 12 1 (1911) 160, t. 65, incl. var. radulosus Becc. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 636, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12 1 (1911) 
162, t. 66. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), 
Polillo, Mindanao, Merrill 2069, Elmer 11875, U120, 14838, 16869, B. S. 
13101 Foxworthy & Ramos, 13235 Ramos, 9039 Robinson, 26644 Ramos & 
Edano, 33048 Ramos, F. B. 8490, 10190 Curran, 16221 Mariano, 25740 Ma- 
besa. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,200 
m. Endemic. 

Local names: Ditan (Tag.) ; ligid-ligid (Tag.) ; mayangan (Mbo.) ; 
palaklakanin (Tag.); saladingan (Bag.) ; sumulid (Tag.). 

DAEMONOROPS OLIGOLEPIS Becc. in Lean. Philip. Bot 8 (1919) 3035, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 359. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11757. In primary forests, altitude about 
1,100 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Rogman (Bag.). 

DAEMONOROPS PANNOSUS Becc. in Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3033, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 359. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11600. In forests along streams, altitude 
about 1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Sabilog (Bag.). 

DAEMONOROPS PEDICELLARIS Becc. in Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3040, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 358. 

Mindanao (Agusan, Lanao, Davao), Elmer ,11896, 14132, 13853, Clemens 
1230. In primary forests, altitude 650 to 1,250 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Hiyod (Mbo.); oban-oban (Mbo.); rogman (Bag.). 

DAEMONOROPS URDANETANUS Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 
3038, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 358. 

Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 14201. In primary forests, altitude about 
1,600 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Sahaan (Mbo.). 

DAEMONOROPS VIRESCENS Becc. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 47, 
Webbia 2 (1905) 357, Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12 1 (1911) 201, 
t. 91, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 358. 

Palawan, Merrill 868. In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 



158 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Daemonorops accedens Blume; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 274. 

Daemonorops angustifolius Griff.; Naves op. cit. 274. 

Daemonorops calapparius Blume; Naves op. cit. 275. 

Daemonorops draco Mart.; Naves op. cit. 274. 

Daemonorops melanochaetes Blume; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 
203; Vidal Cat. PL Prov. Manila (1880) 47; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 275. 
The Haenke specimen cited by Martius as representing Blume's species 
was doubtless wrongly identified. 

Daemonorops niger Blume; Naves op. cit. 274. 

Daemonorops oblongus Mart; Naves 1. c. 

Daemonorops rumphii Mart.; Naves 1. c. 

12. CARYOTA Linnaeus 

CARYOTA CUMINGII Lodd. ex Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 315; Walp. 
Ann. 3 (1853) 466; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 41; Hook. f. in 
Curtis's Bot. Mag. Ill 25 (1869) t. 5762; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
279; Vidal Sinopsis Altas (1883) 42, t. 93, f. B; Becc. in Webbia 
1 (1905) 331, Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 48, Philip. Journ. Sci. 
14 (1919) 338; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 123, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 
87. 
Caryota urens Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 740, ed. 2 (1845) 510, ed. 3, 
3 (1879) 142, t. U9; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 279, Vidal Cat. 
PI. Prov. Manila (1880) 47, non Linn. 
Caryota merrillii Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 333, Philip. Journ. Sci. 
14 (1919) 338. 

Luzon (Apayao, Union, Rizal, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Nueva Viz- 
caya, Laguna, Tayabas), Mindoro, Palawan, Guimaras, Panay, Mindanao, 
Merrill 2880, 8036, 9360, Sp. Blancoanae 736, Elmer 5657, 18286, F. B. 1034-8, 
8490 Curran, 6216 Merritt, 119 Gammill, 9077 Whitford& Hutchinson, 19961, 
204-92 Villamil, B. S. 873 Foxworthy, 28160 Fenixt, 11243 McGregor. In 
forests at low and medium altitudes; sometimes planted in towns for orna- 
mental purposes. Endemic. 

Local names: Anivung (Ibn.) ; anibong (Ibn., Ilk., Tag.) ; bahi (Man.) ; 
batikan (C. Bis.) ; datipan (Tag.) ; hagol (Bik.) ; lagipan (Pamp.) ; lulug 

(Tag.); pugahan (Tag.); puguhan (Mbo.) ; patikan (P. Bis., Sul.) ; pola 

(Bag.); takipan (Sul.); tagipan (Pamp.). 

CARYOTA MAJESTICA Linden in 111. Hort. 28 (1881) 16, nomen nudum; 
Becc. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 48, Webbia 1 (1905) 335, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 338. 

Luzon (Rizal), Merrill 1892, 8490. In forests at low and medium alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Anibong (Tag.). 

This is perhaps C. rumphiana Mart. var. philippinensis Becc; the 
material is imperfect. 



Vol. 1 



PALMAE 159 



CARYOTA MITIS Lour. PL Cochinch. (1790) 569, ed. Willd. (1793) 697; 
Becc. & Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1892) 423; Becc. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 14 (1919) 338, Leaf!/ Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3020. 

Caryota sobolifera Wall. Cat. (1848) No. 8594; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 279. 

Palawan, Elmer 12606, F.B. 3838, 4148 Curran. In forests near streams 
at low altitudes; cultivated in Manila for ornamental purposes. Burma 
and Indo-China to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

Local name: Bato (Tagb.). 

CARYOTA RUMPHIANA Mart. var. PH ILIPP! N ENSIS Becc. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 337, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3019. 
Caryota rumphiana Naves Novis. App. (1882) 274; Becc. in Webbia 

1 (1905) 331, Perk. Frag. PL Philip. (1904) 48, vix Mart. 
Caryota maxima Blume in Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1838) 195; 

Merr. FL Manila (1912) 123. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Negros, 
Mindanao (Agusan, Davao, Cotabato), Elmer 10940, 13623b, 9301, 14929, 
15572, 15931, Merrill 2006, 8037, Whitford 1373, F. B. 10064, 19403, 17157, 
17764 Curran, 19961 Villamil, 7850 Curran & Merritt, B. S, 13471 Fox- 
tvorthy & Ramos, 11572' Robinson. In primary forests at low and medium 
altitudes. 

Var. OXYODONTA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 337. 

Luzon (Laguna), F. B. 10045 Curran. In forested valleys at medium 
altitudes. The two varieties endemic, the species widely distributed in 
Malaya. 

Local names: Anihung (It.); anivung (Ibn.) ; bagsang (Bis.); kalalios 
(Bis.) ; lumang (Ibn.) ; pogahan (Mbo.) ; pola (Bag.) ; pugahan (Tag.) ; 
pula (Mag.). 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Caryota griffithii Becc; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 279. 
Caryota propinqua Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Caryota nana Linden 111. Hort. 28 (1881) 16, nomen nudum "Philippines." 
Caryota speciosa Linden 1. c. nomen nudum "Philippines." 

13. ARENGA Labillardiere 

ARENGA AM BONG Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 229, 14 
(1919) 335. 
Arenga tremula Becc. op. cit. 4 (1909) Bot. 612, 14 (1919) 335, 

quoad descr., excl. syn., non Caryota tremula Blanco. 
Wallichia oblongifolia Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 328, non Griff. 
Luzon (Tayabas, Sorsogon), Palawan, Basilan, Balabac, Cebu, Minda- 
nao (Zamboanga), Sulu Archipelago, Merrill - 5\3'7 2, 8367, Elmer 12596, 
16237, Ahem 653, Copeland 1J6.81, F. B. 10213, 10280, 3542 Curran, 4032, 
Hutchinson, B. S. 735, 10816 Foxworthy, 1737 McGregor. In forests at 
low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Ambung (Sul.) ; banisan (Sul.) ; bat-bat (Tagb.). 

ARENGA PINNATA (Wurmb) Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 119, 
Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 88; Brown & Merr. in Philip. Bur. 
Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 26, t. 78. 



160 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Saguerus pinnatus Wurmb in Verh. Bat. Genoots. 1 (1779) 351. 
Borassus gomutus Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 618. 
Arenga saccharifera Labill. in Mem. Inst. Paris 4 (1801) 209; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1882) 280; Vidal Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 42, t. 93, f. C; 
Becc. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 48, Webbia 1 (1905) 328; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 126. 
Sagus gomutus Perr. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 142; C. B. 

Rob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 306. 
Caryota onusta Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 741, ed. 2 (1845) 511, ed. 

3, 3 (1879) 143, t. J&9. 
Arenga gamuto Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 63. (There 
is no "Saguerus gamuto Houtt." as indicated in literature.) 
Luzon (Rizal, Cavite, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas), Polillo, Biliran, Min- 
danao. Planted here and there about towns, and abundant in some 
forested areas but never at any great distance from settled areas; gene- 
rally planted in most islands and provinces. It has all the appearance of an 
introduced palm that has become naturalized. Sugar palm. 

Local names: Bagatbat (C. Bis.) ; bagobat (C. Bis.) ; bat-bat (C. Bis.) ; 
hibiok (P. Bis.) ; hidiok (Bik., P. Bis.) ; hiliok (Mbo.) ; ibiok (C. Bis.) ; 
idiog (C. Biis.) ; idiok (C. Bis.); igok (P. Bis.); irok (Sbl.) ; kabo-negro 
(Tag.) ; kaong (Tag.) ; kauing (Tag.) ; onau (C. Bis.) ; rapitan (Ilk.) ; 
unau (C. Bis.) . 

ARENGA TREMULA (Blanco) Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
612, quoad syn. excl. descr.; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 87; Brown 
& Merr. in Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 34, t. 9. 
Caryota tremula Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 744, ed. 2 (1845) 512, ed. 
3, 3 (1879) 144; Kunth Enum. 3 (1841) 549; Merr. in Govt. 
Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 88. 
Wallichia tremula Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 315; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 34; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 280; Vidal 
Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 279. 
Arenga mindorensis Becc. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 48, Webbia 

1 (1905) 329, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 355. 
Saguerus mindorensis O. F. Cook in Invent. Seeds Import. U. S. 

Dept. Agr. 33 (1915) 10. 
Didymosperma tremulum Wendl. & Drude in Kerch. Palm. (1878) 243. 
Luzon (Bataan, Batangas, Laguna, Tayabas), Mindoro, Mindanao (Da- 
vao), Merrill 1790, Sp. Blancoanae 828, Elmer 18472, 11192, Baker 1807. 
F. B. 10203, 5469 Curran, 8768 Merritt, B. S. 12395 McGregor, 13102 Fox- 
worthy & Ramos, 19468 Ramos. In thickets and secondary forests at low 
altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Abigi (Bik.) ; abiki (Bik.) ; baris (Bag.) ; bat-bat (Tagb.) ; 
bilis (Bik.) ; dayaka (Tag.) ; dumaka (Tag.) ; dumayaka (Tag.) ; gumaka 
(Bik.); gumayaka (Tag.); rumaka (Bik.); tipon-tipon (Bik.). 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Arenga manillensis Wendl. Index Palm. (1864) 3, nomen nudum; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 280. 
Saguerus manillensis Lodd. 1. c. in syn. 
A nomen nudum and hence indeterminable ; probably the same as one of 
the three species listed above. 



Vo11 PALMAE 161 

Arenga obtusifolia Mart.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 280. 

A species of the Malay Peninsula allied to A. pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.; 
not known from the Philippines. 

14. ORANIA Zippel 

ORANIA DECIPIENS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 614, 14 
(1919) 333. 

Mindoro, F. B. 4120 Merritt. In primary forests at low altitudes. En- 
demic. 
Var. MINDANAOENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 333. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga), F. B. 9179 Whitford & Hutchinson. In pri- 
mary* forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Var. MONTANA Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3018, Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 14 (1919) 333. 

Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), Elmer 11881, 13970. In forests, altitude 
800 to 1,000 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Banga (Tag., P. Bis., Bag., Mbo.). 

ORANIA PALI N DAN (Blanco) Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 
(1905) 88, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 32, Sp. Blancoanae 

(1918) 88; Brown & Merr. in Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 
110, t. 42. 

Caryota palindan Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 513, ed. 3, 3 

(1879) 145. 
Orania regalis Naves Novis. App. (1882) 279, non Blume. 
Orania philippinensis Scheff. ex Becc. in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 

2 (1885) 156; Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 335, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 

(1919) 332. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Union, Benguet, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Batangas, 
Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines), Samar, F. B. 1S10 Borden, 5818, 10410, 
17068, 10708 Curran, 8413 Curran & Merritt, 2183 Meyer, 20988 Villamil, 
B. S. 12391 McGregor, 24107, 24131 Ramos, Elmer 61, 74, 18248, Merrill Sp. 
Blancoanae 144, Phil. PL 1900. In forests at low and medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Var. SIBUYANENSIS (Becc.) comb. nov. 

Orania philippinensis Scheff. var. sibuyanensis Becc. in Leafl. Philip. 
Bot. 8 (1919) 3017, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 332. 

Sibuyan, Elmer 12066. In primary forests, altitude about 225 m. 
Endemic. 

Local names: Ambobanga (Ibn.) ; banga (Buk., P. Bis.); barangoi 
(Tag., Pamp., Sbl.) ; niogniogan (Tag.); palindan (Tag.). 

ORANIA PARAGUANENSIS Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 335; Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 14 (1919) 332., 

Palawan, Merrill 869, 9269, Phil. PI. 1316. In primary forests at low 
altitudes; probably not distinct from O. palindan Merr., which it exactly 
resembles in habit. 

Local name: Banga (Tagb.). 

183036 11 



162 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

ORAM A RUBIGINOSA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 333. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Tayabas), B. S. 10658, 10575 McGregor, 
13390 Ramos, F. B. 17259, 17192 Curran. In forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Local name: Kalahan (Ibn.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Orania macrocladus Mart.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 280. 

15. HETEROSPATHE Scheffer 

HETEROSPATHE ELATA Scheff. in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. t (1876) 

141, 162; Becc. Webbia 1 (1905) 328, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 

325, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3013; Brown & Merr. in Philip. 

Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 86, t. 32. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines), Mindoro, Masbate, 

Cebu, Samar, Panay, Siquijor, Dinagat, Bucas Grande, Mindanao (Davao, 

Zamboanga), F. B. 10352, 10481, 13238, 17064 Curran, 9684- Merritt, 19749 

VUlamil, 9030 Whitford & Hutchinson,, B. S. 3524-3, 34624 Ramos & Pas- 

casio, Whitford 1395, Elmer 11968, 18222, Merrill 2770. In forests at low 

altitudes, sometimes planted. Moluccas; introduced in Guam. 

Local names: Balaniug (Sub.); dagumaka (Ibn.); dayumaka (Ibn.) ; 
dumayaka (Ibn.) ; niogniogan (Tag.) ; sagasi (Tag.) ; sagisi (Bik., Tag., 
S. L. Bis.); salaniog (Bag.); tagisi (Bik.). 

HETEROSPATHE NEGROSENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 

Bot. 611, 14 (1919) 326, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3014. 

Luzon (Tayabas, Sorsogon), Negros, Panay, Elmer 9439, 10147, 17297, 

Whitford 1539, F. B. 13639 Curran & Foxworthy, B. S. 9443, 9358 Robinson, 

30752, 28684 Ramos & Edano. In forests at medium altitudes. Endemic. 

HETEROSPATHE PHILIPPIN ENSIS Becc. in Philip Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 610, 14 (1919) 326, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3013. 
Ptychoraphis philippinensis Becc. in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 2 (1885) 
90, Malesia 3 (1886) 109, Webbia 1 (1905) 47. 
Rhopaloblaste sp. Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 153. 
Luzon (Apayao, Ifugao, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, Cama- 
rines, Sorsogon), Leyte, F. B. 10856, 10892 Curran, 18019 Merritt, 21752 
Fischer, B. S. 19784, 19785 McGregor, 8198, 15260 Ramos, 28391 Fenix, 
83606 Ramos & Edano , Elmer 16519. In primary forests at medium alti- 
tudes, ascending to 1,600 m or higher. Endemic. 
Local names: Sanakti (Ig.) ; tagisi (Bik.). 

HETEROSPATHE Si BUYAN ENSIS Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3014, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 325. 
Sibuyan, Elmer 12350. In forests, altitude about 225 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Bilis (C. Bis.). 

16. ONCOSPERMA Blume 

ONCOSPERMA GRACILIPES Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
228, 4 (1909) Bot. 610, 14 (1919) 330, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 
(1919) 3017. 



VoL x PALMAE 163 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Biliran, Merrill 4010, Elmer 15223, 
Baker 3704, B. S. 18490, 22876 McGregor, 13213 Ramos, F. B. 10148, 10396 
Curran, 26801 Mabesa. In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Anibong (Tag.). 

ONCOSPERMA HORRIDUM (Griff.) Scheff. in Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 
32 (1871) 189; Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 610, 6 
(1911) Bot. 230, 14 (1919) 330, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3017. 
Areca horrida Griff, in Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. 5 (1845) 465. 
Polillo, Mindanao (Agusan, Zamboanga, Davao), Elmer 11876, 13886, 
Copeland 1626, B. S. 9277 Robinson. In forests at low and medium alti- 
tudes, ascending to 800 m. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

Local names: Anibong (Tag., Mbo.) ; tanaian (Bag.). 
ONCOSPERMA PLATYPHYLLUM Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 609, 14 (1919) 330. 
Negros, Whitford 1670, F. B. 17347 Curran. In forests at low and me- 
dium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Anibong (P. Bis.). 

ONCOSPERMA TIGILLARIA (Jack) Ridl. in Journ. Str. Branch Roy. As. 
Soc. 33 (1900) 173. 
Areca tigillaria Jack Malay Miscel. 2 ' (1820) 88. 
Oncosperma filamentosa Blume Rumphia 2 (1836) 97, t. 82, 103; Becc. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 610, 14 (1919) 330, Leafl. Philip 
Bot. 8 (1919) 3016. 
Areca nibung Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1838) 173, t. 153; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 279. 
Palawan, Elmer 12662, F. B. 3790 Curran. In somewhat swampy places 
immediately back of the mangrove more or less subject to the influence of 
brackish water. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 
Local name: Anibong (Bis., Tagb.). 

17. ACTINORHYTIS Wendland and Drude 

ACT1NORHYTIS CALAPPARIA (Blume) Wendl. & Drude in Linnaea 
39 (1875) 184; Becc. in Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3010, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 324. 
Areca calapparia Blume Rumphia 2 (1836) 70, in nota, t. 100, f. 2. 
Seaforthia calapparia Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 (1849) 313. 
Ptychosperma calapparia Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 20; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 377. 
Mindanao (Davao) , Elmer 11238. Isolated trees in settled areas, altitude 
about 500 m, undoubtedly introduced. Widely distributed in the Malay 
Archipelago. 

Local name: Tangalo (Bag.). 

18. PTYCHORAPHIS Beccari 

PTYCHORAPHIS CAGAYANENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 
326. 

Heterospathe cagayanensis Becc. op. cit. 4 (1909) Bot. 611. 
Luzon (Cagayan), F. B. 12286 Klemme, 16757 Curran. In primary 
forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Dagumaka (Ibn.). 



164 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

PTYCHORAPHIS ELMERI Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 328, 
Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3010. 
Heterospathe elmeri Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 646. 

Negros, Elmer 9669. In forests, altitude about 1,000 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Bilisan (C. Bis.). 

PTYCHORAPHIS INTERMEDIA Becc. in Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3011, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 328. 

Samar, Biliran, Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 13663, B. S. 18107 McGre- 
gor, 24753 Ramos. In forests 600 to 1,000 m and above. Endemic. 
Local names: Lubilubi (S. L. Bis.); marighoi (Mbo.). 

PTYCHORAPHIS MICROCARPA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 
327. 

Camiguin de Misamis, B. S. 14678 Ramos. In forests at medium alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

19. ADONIDIA Beccari 

ADONIDIA MERRILLII (Becc.) Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 

329; Brown & Merr. in Philip Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 15, 

t. 2, 3. 
Normanbya merrillii Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1909) Bot. 

606, t. 30, 31, Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3009; Merr. Fl. Manila 

(1912) 127. 
Actinorhytis calapparia Vidal Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 42, t. 94, f. B, 

non Wendl. & Drude. 

Coron, Palawan, Elmer 12708, Merrill 94-15. On limestone formations 
in open places, often subgregarious, and in sandy soil near the sea- 
shore at low altitudes. Cultivated in Manila for ornamental purposes 
since about 1875. A monotypic, endemic genus. 

Local names: Bunga, de china (Tag.) ; bunga de jolo (Tag.) ; oring-oring 
(Tagb.). 

20. PI NAN G A Blume 

PINANGA BARN ESI I Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 320, Philip. Journ. Sci. 
3 (1908) Bot. 340, 6 (1911) Bot. 229, 14 (1919) 320, Lean. 
Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3002. 
Pinanga barnesii Becc. var. macrocarpa Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 
(1907) Bot. 227. 
Babuyan Islands, Luzon (Cagayan, Union, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, 
Laguna, Camarines, Tayabas), Polillo, Catanduanes, Mindoro, Panay, 
Siargao, Mindanao, F. B. 122 Barnes, 2762 Meyer, 6309, 10757, 17756 Cur- 
ran, 6853, 11385 Merritt, B. S. 13248 } 13419 Ramos, 6937 Robinson, 10466,. 
23202 McGregor, 4144 Fenix, 28525, 31204, 33700 Ramos & Edano, 13248, 
13419, 13858, 30528 Ramos, 34862 Ramos <& Pascasio, 2003 Foxworthy, 
McGregor 275, Elmer 7924, 9297 r Whitford 799. In primary forests 
chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 1,600 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Abisi (Tag.); bubulin (Sub.); bungang-matsing (Tag.); 
gasigan (Neg.) ; katidi (Ig.) ; sauag (Sub.). 

PINANGA BASILANENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 322. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga), Basilan, B. S. 16119 Reillo, 3662,, 36623 Ramos 
& Edano. In primary forests at low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Buburis (Sub.). 



VoL * PALMAE 165 

PINANGA BATANENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 340, 
14 (1919) 322. 

Batan Islands (Batan), B. S. 3841 Fenix. Along mountain streams in 
forests. Endemic. 

Local name: Dapiau (Iv.). 

PINANGA COPELANDII Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905)| 317, 14 (1919) 320, 
Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3002. 

Luzon (Camarines, Sorsogon), Negros, Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), 
Weber 1134, Copeland 1283, Elmer 10467, 13875, Whitford 1669, Merrill 
7281, Phil. PL 1594, B. S. 15918 Fenix, 23619 Ramos, F. B. 2415a Cortez & 
Valderrama. In damp primary forests at low and medium altitudes, 
ascending to 1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Abiki (Bik.) ; bagtoan (Mbo.); habiki (Bik.) ; hiliuasiu 
(P. Bis.); tambingalan (Mbo.); timbafigalan (Bag.). 

PINANGA CURRANII Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 226, 14 
(1919) 320. 

Palawan, F. B. 3515 Curran. In primary forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

PINANGA GEONOMAEFORMIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 602, 14 (1919) 318. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), F. B. 10155 Curran, 26797 Mabesa, 
B. S. 20474 Ramos, 28565 Ramos & Edano. In damp primary forests at 
low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

PINANGA HETEROPHYLLA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 319. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Negros, F. B. 19346 Curran, 23635 Ramos. In pri- 
mary forests, altitude 100 to 700 m. Endemic. 

PINANGA INSIGNIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 223, 14 
(1919) 322, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3004. 

Luzon (Apayao, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, 
Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan, Zamboanga, 
Surigao, Bukidnon), Elmer 8028, 13950, 14909, 15445, 17656, Whitford 1388, 
Bolster 222, Wenzel 534, Merrill Phil. PI. 1135, B. S. 11233 McGregor), 
33512 Ramos & Edano, lSlll, 13236 Ramos, 26067, 29969, 28237 Fenix, 
25566 Yates, F. B. 9502 Merritt, 10491 Curran, 7791 Curran & Merritt. 
In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Var. GASTEROCARPA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 322. 

Masbate, Negros, F. B. 17348 Curran, 11555 Rosenbluth, 13560 Meyer & 
Foxworthy. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. The Luzon 
material placed here by Beccari I refer to the typical form of the species. 
Endemic. 

Var. LEPTOCARPA Becc. 1. c. 

Negros, Whitford 1621. In primary forests at low and medium alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 



166 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Subsp. LOHERIANA Becc. 1. c. 

Luzon (Laguna), (Loher 7092), B. S. 9789 Robinson. In forests on 
Mt. Banahao, altitude about 1,000 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Banga (Tag-.); salauak (Sub.); saramau (Tag.); sarauag 
(P. Bis., Mbo.) ; takon (Ibn.) ; tibanglan (Tag.) ; tibangloan (Bik., S. L. 
Bis.). 

PINANGA ISABELENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919^ 318. 

Luzon (Isabela), B. S. 10660 McGregor. In forests near the sea at low 
altitudes. Endemic. 

PINANGA M AC U LATA Porte in 111. Hort. 10 (1863) 92, t. 861; Drude in 
Bot. Zeit. 35 (1877) 636, t. 5, f. 12-13; Becc. Malesia 3 (1886) 
145, Webbia 1 (1905) 325, Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 48, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 317; C. H. Wright in Curtis's Bot. Mag. IV 
1 (1905) t. SOU. 

Palawan, Merrill 712. In primary forests at an altitude of about 500 m, 
a juvenile sterile specimen, its identity with Porte's species problematical. 

I have observed juvenile forms of'Pinanga with mottled leaves in Laguna 
and Pampanga Provinces, Luzon; and in Mindoro. Endemic. 

PINANGA MODESTA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 225, 14 
(1919) 318. 

Bucas Grande, Mindanao (Davao, Bukidnon,, Lanao, Agusan, Zam- 
boanga), Basilan, Clemens 4-87, Copeland, Merrill 8302, B. S. 15751 Fenix, 
85098 Ramos & Pascasio, 39002 Ramos & Pascasio, F. B. 3987 Hutchinson, 
4583 Mearns & Hutchison. In primary forests at low and medium alti- 
tudes, ascending to 1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Lampigi (Lan.) ; mambuding (Yak.); tigahui (Buk.). 

PINANGA NEGROSENSIS Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 642, 8 
(1919) 3006, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 322. 
Negros, Dinagat, Elmer 10030, B. S. 85182 Ramos & Pascasio. In damp 
forested ravines, altitude about 900 m. Endemic. 

PINANGA PHILIPPINENSIS Becc. in Malesia 3 (1887) 180, Perk. Frag. 

Fl. Philip. (1904) 48, Webbia 1 (1905) 324; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 32; Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 

320, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3003; Brown & Merr. in Philip. 

Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 112, t. U- 
Pinanga elmeri Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 322, Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 

(1908) Bot. 341, 14 (1919) 320, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3004; 

Merr. Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 32, 2 (1907) Bot. 264. 
Babuyan Islands, Luzon (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ifugao, Bontoc, Ben- 
guet, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Zambales, 
Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Leyte, Negros, Panay. Common 
on exposed ridges in the mossy forest, sometimes in ravines, altitude 800 to 
1,800 m; represented by numerous collections. Endemic. 

Local names: Bua-ti-baked (Ilk.); bua-ti-bakis (Ilk.); bungang-dakigan 
(Ilk.) ; gatilei (Bon.) ; katidai (Ig.) ; katildi (Ig.) ; lubia (Tag.) ; mama 
(Ilk.); matsing (Tag.). 



Vol.1 



PALMAE 167 



PINANGA RIGIDA Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 644, 8 (1919) 
3005, Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 321. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Negros, Elmer 10187, B. S. 28732 Ramos & Edano. 
In the mossy forest, altitude 1,200 to 1,800 m. Endemic. 

Elmer 1014-7 is not cited by Beccari in the original description; this is 
pretty clearly referable to Heterospathe negrosensis Becc. The type, 
Elmer 10187, is clearly a Pinanga. This note is published in reference to 
Elmer's statement, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3006, that Pinanga rigida 
Becc. was probably referable to Heterospathe or Ptychoraphis. 

PINANGA SAMARANA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 321. 

Samar, B. S. 17535 Ramos. In forests at low or medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

PINANGA SCLEROPHYLLA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 603, 
14 (1919) 322. 
Mindoro, F. B. 4468 Merritt. In primary forests, altitude about 1,500 
m. Endemic. 

PINANGA SIBUYANENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 324, 
Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3006. 

Sibuyan, Elmer 12425. In forests along streams, altitude about 600 m. 
Endemic. 

Local name: Tibangan (C. Bis.). 

PINANGA SPECIOSA Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 316, Philip. Journ. Sci. 
14 (1919) 323, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3005. 

Mindanao (Agusan, Lanao, Zamboanga, Davao) , Copeland 1265, Elmer 

10484, 13739, 13941, 14023, Clemens 374, F. B. 9271 Whitford & Hutchinson, 
28206 Elumir. In primary forests, altitude 400 to 1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Banisan (Sub.); sakolon (Mbo.) ; sarauag (Bag.); sa- 
dauag (Bag.). 

PINANGA URDANETANA Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3008, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 321. 

Mindanao (Agusan), Bukidnon, Elmer 14137, B. S. 38612, 38611, 38610, 
38570 Ramos & Edano. On forested slopes, altitude about 1,400 m. En- 
demic. 

Local names: Sagasi (Buk.) ; sagisi (Buk.) ; salang-isog (Mbo.). 

PINANGA UROSPERMA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 341. 

Babuyan Islands (Camiguin), Luzon (Apayao), B. S. 4044, 28038 Fenix. 
On forested slopes at medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Lagas (Ibn.). _ 

PINANGA WOODIANA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 604, 14 
(1919) 322, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3003. 
Luzon (Bontoc), Mindoro, Mindanao (Davao), Merrill 5680, Elmer 

10485, 11334, B. S. 38078, 40651 Ramos & Edano. In primary forests, al- 
titude 1,050 to 1,350 m. Endemic' 

Local names: Irar (Bag.) ; mumuing (Mang.). 



168 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

21. ARECA Linnaeus 

ARECA CATECHU Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1189 (err. cathecu) ; Blanco Fl. 
Filip. (1837) 714, ed. 2 (1845) 494, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 129, t. 350; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 8; Vidal Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 42, 
t. 94, f. A; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 278; Becc. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 340, 6 (1911) Bot. 229; Merr. in Philip. Joutfn. 
Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 32, Fl. Manila (1912) 128, Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 89; Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2997, Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 14 (1919) 304; Brown & Merr. in Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 
18 (1919) 20, t. 4, 5. 
Areca alba "Rumph;" Naves Novis. App. (1882) 278. 

Cultivated throughout the settled areas of the Philippines, in some places 
spontaneous; possibly a native of the Philippines, having been found once 
spontaneous in primary forests in Palawan. Old World Tropics generally, 
introduced in the New World. 

Var. BATANENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 304. 

Batan Islands, B. S. 8824 Fenix. Along a mountain stream. Endemic. 

Var. LONGICARPA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 229, 14 (1919) 
304, t. 2, f. 2. 

Polillo, B. S. 104-70 McGregor. Probably from planted trees. Endemic. 

Local names: Boa (Ilk., Ig., Ibn.) ; bua (Ibn.) ; bunga (Tag., Bis., Sul.) ; 
dapiau (Iv.) ; hua (It.) ; lugos (Sul.) ; luyos (Pamp.) ; pasa (Yak.) takob- 
tob (Bik.); vua (Ibn.); va (It.). 

Var. SILVATICA Becc. 1. c. pi 1, f. 2. 

Palawan, Merrill 9447. In primary forests at a place where an old 
trail crosses a small stream near Lake Manguao. Endemic. 

ARECA CALISO Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2998, Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 14 (1919) 310. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Biliran, Leyte, Samar, Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), 
Elmer 11898, 13814, 14839, B. S. 18875 McGregor, 24130, 15388 Ramos, 
24881 Edano. In forests, altitude 350 to 850 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Kaliso (Bag.); sakolon (Mbo.). 

ARECA CAMARINENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. S:i. 14 (1919) 309, t. 

3, f. 3. 

Luzon (Camarines), F. B. 14268 Aguilar, B. S. 33829 Ramos & Edamo. 
In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Mono (Bik.). 

ARECA COSTULATA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 312. 

Leyte, Dinagat, B. S. 15236 Ramos, 35242 Ramos & Pascasio. In pri- 
mary forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

ARECA HUTCHINSONIANA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 312. 
Areca mammillata Becc. var. mindanaoensis Becc. op. cit. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 602. 



Vo11 PALMAE 169 

Mindanao (Lanao, Zamboanga), Basilan, F. B. .9141 Whitford & Hut- 
chinson, 4019 Hutchinson, 23159 Agama, 25242 Alvarez, B. S. 36953, 37288 
Ramos & Edano, \88364 Brown. In primary forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Local names: Pisa (Yak.); pitha (Sub.); sambulayan (Sub.). 

ARECA I POT Becc. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 639, 8 (1919) 2998, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 229 (var. polillensis Becc.) 14 
(1919) 308, t. 3, f. 4; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 89. 
Areca catechu Linn. var. humilis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 716, ed. 2 
(1845) 495, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 120; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 
27 (1905) 88. 
Areca glandiformis Naves Novis. App. (1882) 278 (prob. !), non Lam. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Polillo, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 844, F. B. 
10178 Curran, B. S. 6938, 9712 Robinson, 10469, 10463 McGregor. Planted 
in and about towns, and along streams in forests at low and medium alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Bungangipot (Tag.) ; ipod (Tag.) ; ipot (Tag.) ; maiTgipod 
(Tag.); saksig (Tag.) saksik (Tag.). 

ARECA MACROCARPA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 601, 
14 (1919) 306, t. 3, f. 2. 
Mindanao (Zamboanga), F. B. 9103 Whitford & Hutchinson. Probably 
but a form or variety of Areca catechu Linn. Endemic. 

ARECA MAM MIL LATA Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 220. 
Areca vidaliana Becc. op. cit. 222, 14 (1919) 312. 

Palawan, Merrill Phil. PL 1464, F. B. 3816 Curran, B. S. 21575 Escritor, 
619 Foxworthy. In swampy forests at low altitudes, and also on forested 
slopes. Endemic. 

Local names: Boga (Tagb.) ; pita (Tagb.). 

ARECA PARENS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 307, t. 3, f. 1. 

Luzon (Camarines), F. B. 21712 Penas, Soriano, & Abellanosa. Along 
streams at low altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Takobtob (Bik.). 

ARECA WHITFORDII Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 219, 14 
(1919) 306, L«afl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2997. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Mindoro, Whitford 1372, Elmer 16240. In semi- 
swampy forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Var. LUZON ENSIS Becc. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 306. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya), B. S. 11384 McGregor, F. B. 17770 
Curran. Wild in forests and in river swamps at low and medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Local name: Bungang-gubat (Tag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Areca triandra Roxb.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 278. 



170 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

22. ELAEIS Jacquin 

ELAEIS GUINEENSIS Jacq. Select. Am. (1763) 280, t. 172; Merr. PI. 
Manila (1912) 126; Brown & Merr. in Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 
18 (1919) 84, t. 30, 31. 

Cultivated for ornamental purposes, and producing fruits abundantly. 
A native of tropical Africa. African oil palm. 

23. COCOS Linnaeus 

COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1188; Blanco PI. Filip. (1837) 
716, ed. 2 (1845) 495 (nucigera) , ed. 3, 3 (1879) 123, t. 36U; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 282; Vidal Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 42, t. 9U, f. 
D; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 64 (incl. var. macrocarpa Miq. var. 
saccharina Miq.) ; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 125, Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 89, 90. 
Cocos mamillaris Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 722 (mammilaris) , ed. 2 
(1845) 499, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 123. 

Very extensively cultivated in the Philippines, especially in those regions 
where the dry season is not too prolonged; one of the most important 
agricultural crops of the Archipelago. Pantropic in cultivation, probably 
a native of Polynesia, certainly not a native of the Philippines. Coconut. 

Local names: Coco (Sp.) ; cocotero (Sp.) ; gira-gira (Sbl.) ; i-ing (It.); 
iniug (Ibn.) ; lobi (S. L. Bis.) ; lubi (C. Bis.) ; niog (Ilk., Bik., Bis., Ibn. f 
Tag.) ; ngot-ngot (Pamp., Sbl.) ; ongot (Ibn.) ; ponlaing (Sub.) ; punlaing 
(Yak.). 

24. NYPA Wurmb 

(Nipa Thunb.) 

NYPA FRUTICANS Wurmb in Verh. Bat. Genoots. 1 (1779) 350; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 150; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 284; Vidal 
Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 42, t. U, f. C; Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 
461, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 68, t. 386; Becc. in Webbia 1 (1905) 357; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 125, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 90; Brown 
& Merr. in Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 18 (1919) 98, t. 88-M 
(mostly as Nipa). 
Nipa fructicans Thunb. in Vet. Akad. Nya Handl. Stockh. 3 (1782) 

231. 
Nipa fruticosa Lam. ex Perr. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 132; 

C. B. Rob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 306. 
Nipa litoralis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 662. 
Along tidal streams in brackish swamps throughout the Philippines, in 
favorable habitats gregarious over large areas. India, through Malaya 
to tropical Australia. 

Local names: Anipa (Ibn.) ; lasa (Tag.) ; nipa (Sp.-Fil.) ; pauid (Tag.) ; 
pinog (It.); pinok (Ibn.); saga (Sbl.); sasa (Pamp., Tag.), tata (Ibn.). 

EXCLUDED GENERA AND SPECIES 

Bentinckia RENDA Mart.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 280. 
Borassus dichotoma White; Naves op. cit. 281. 

« 

Borassus plabelliformis Linn.; Naves op. cit. 280. 



VoL 1 PALMAE 171 

Calyptrocalyx spicatus Blume; Naves op. cit. 280. 

Chamaerops excelsa Thunb. ; Naves op. cit. 282. 

Ceratolobus glaucescens Blume ; Naves op. cit. 273. 

Drymophloeus appendiculatus Becc; Naves op. cit. 277. 

Iguanura sp.; Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 279; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. 
(1892) 174. 

Kentia moluccana Becc; Naves 1. c. 

Lodoicea seychellarum Labill.; Naves op. cit. 281. 

Nenga latisecta Blume; Naves op cit. 277. 

Pholidocarpus ihur Blume; Naves op. cit. 281. 

Plectocomia elongata Mart. ; Naves op. cit. 274. 

Ptychosperma cochinchinensis Miq.; Naves op. cit. 277. 

Ptychosperma kuhlii Miq.; Naves 1. c. 

Ptychosperma punicea Miq.; Naves 1. c. 

Ptychosperma rumphii Blume; Naves 1. c 

Ptychosperma saxatilis Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Ptychosperma vestiaria Miq.; Naves 1. c. 

Rhapis arundinacea Llanos in Mem. Acad. Cienc. Madrid III 2 (1857) 499; 
F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 100; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 282, nomen nudum. 

Rhapis flabelliformis L'Herit.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 282. 

This is occasionally cultivated in Manila gardens as a pot plant, but 
it never produces flowers here. 

Rhapis javanica Blume; Naves 1. c. 

The above twenty-two species were credited to the Philippines by Naves, 
but none of the genera has known indigenous representatives in the Archi- 
pelago. A few of the species in the list now occur as recently introduced 
and cultivated forms. 

Since about 1905 a large number of palms have been introduced into 
Manila for cultivation as ornamental species. Some of these are now 
mature and flower and fruit freely; others have not as yet produced flowers. 
None of them occurs outside of cultivation, and for the most part they are 
as yet rare in cultivation. The list of these recently introduced and cul- 
tivated palms includes such species as: Acoelorrhaphe wightii Wendl., 
Archontophoenix alexandrae H. Wendl. & Drude, Attalea cohune HBK., 
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Wendl., Cocos plum-osa Hook., Coccothrinax 
garberi Sarg., Cyrtostachys lakka Becc, Dictyosperma alba Wendl. & 
Drude, Dypsis madagascariensis Nichols, Howea belmoreana Becc, Hyo- 
phorbe amaricaulis Mart., Latania commersonii Gmel., L. loddigesii Mart., 
Livistona australis GMart., L. chinensis R. Br., Martinezia caryotaefolia 
HBK., Oreodoxia regia HBK., Phoenix pusilla Gaertn., P. roebelenii 
O'Brien, P. rupicola T. And., Pinanga kuhlii Blume, Pritchardia gaudi- 
chaudii Wendl., P. pacifica Seem. & H. Wendl., Ptychosperma macarthurii 



/ 

172 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

H. Wendl., Raphia ruffia Mart., Sabal adansonii Guems., S. blackburneanum 
Glazebr., S. mauritii forme Griseb. & Wendl., S. palmetto Lodd., Thrinax 
argentea Lodd., T. robusta Wendl., and Washingtonia filifera Wendl. 

ARACEAE 

1. POT H OS Linnaeus 

POTHOS ACUMINATISSIMUS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 11 (1916) 
Bot. 175. 

Samar, B. S. 24125 Ramos. In primary forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

POTHOS CYLINDRICUS Presl Epim. (1851) 243; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 
501; Schott Aroid. 1 (1853) 23, t. 48, Prodr. (1860) 569; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 180; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 86, 
Pflanzenreich 21 (1905) 36, /. 17, D, E; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. 

(1885) 154, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 282; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 287. 

Luzon (Camarines, Albay), Leyte, Panay, Mindanao (Davao), Cuming 
914, Williams 2937, Piper 481, Wenzel 387, B. S. 22143 Romas, 32451 
McGregor. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Palipi (Bik.). 

POTHOS DOLICHOPHYLLUS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 11 (1916) Bot. 4. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Samar, B. S. 17628, 23708 Ramos. In primary 
forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

POTHOS HERMAPHRODITUS (Blanco) Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 
90. 

Batis hermaphrodita Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 791, ed. 2 (1845) 541, 

ed. 3, 3 (1879) 197. 
Pothos longifolius Presl Epim. (1851) 242; Schott Aroid. 1 (1853) 

22, t. 34, Prodr. (1860) 563; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 501; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 180; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 262; Engl, in 

DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 82, Pflanzenreich 21 (1905) 25, /. 9; 

Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 154, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 282; Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917), 124. 
Pothos chapelieri Naves Novis. App. (1882) 286, non Schott. 

Luzon (Pangasinan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Samar, Leyte, Panay, 
Siargao, Mindanao (Davao), Cuming 682, Merrill 2792, Sp. Blancoanae 57, 
Phil. PI. 4, Elmer 18005, Wenzel 265, Loher 7045, B. S. 34871 Ramos & Pas- 
casio, 13622, 24475 Ramos, 19211 Reillo, 16859 Servinas, F. B. 24911 Mabesa. 
In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Sumatra, Java, Celebes, 
Moluccas. 

Local names: Apis (Tag.); hipan (Bik.); oro-61a (Bik.). 

POTHOS INAEQUILATERUS (Presl) Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 

88, Pflanzenreich 21 (1905) 37; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 287. 
Scindapsus inaequilaterus Presl Epim. (1851) 241; Walp. Ann. 3 

(1853) 500. 
Pothos cummingianus Schott in Oester. Bot. Wochenbl. (1855) 19, 

Prodr. (1860) 570; Walp. Ann. 5 (1858) 910 (cumingianus) ; Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 181; Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 282, 

Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 154. 



Vo1 - 1 ARACEAE 173 

Luzon (Albay, Sorsogon), Samar, Leyte, Cuming 908, Wenzel 357, 1110, 
Elmer 17050 as P. peninsularis Elm., B. S. 24474. Ramos. In primary 
forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

POTHOS LUZON ENSIS (Presl) Schott in Oester. Bot. Wochenbl. (1855) 
19, Aroid. 1 (1853) 25, t. 56, Prodr. (1860) 574; Miq. PL Ind. Bat. 
3 (1856) 182; Walp. Ann. 5 (1858) 910; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
287; Engl, in DQ. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 93, Pflanzenreich 21 
(1905) 42; Vidal Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 282, Phan. Cuming. 
Philip, (1885> 154. 
Goniurus luzonensis Presl Epim. (1851) 244; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 
500. 
Luzon (Zambales, Rizal, Bataan, Camarines), Cuming 1045, Merrill 
Phil. PI. 1529, Loher 7036, 7037 „ F. B. 5948 Curran. In primary forests at. 
low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Uarat-uarat (Bik.). 

POTHOS OVATIFOLIUS Engl, in Pflanzenreich 21 (1905) 40. 

Luzon (Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Samar, Mindanao (Agusan), 
Ahem 155, Elmer 14014, 15204, B. S. 24543 Ramos, 28549 Ramos & Edano, 
F. B. 12247 Curran. In primary forests at low or medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Local names: Kalipkip (Tag.); kalot-kagot (Bik.); malaang-lakop-lakop 
(S. L. Bis.). 

POTHOS PHILIPPINENSIS Engl, in Pflanzenreich 21 (1905) 315; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 32. 

Luzon (Apayao, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Bataan, Tayabas) , Samar, F. B. 
369 Barnes, B. S. 34031, 36414 Ramos & Edano, 20742 Escritor, 28190 Fenix, 
13054 Ramos, 1640 Foxworth% Whitford 341, 1046bis, Williams 486. In 
primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Bagubalanak (S. L. Bis.) ; baladauan (Bik., Tag.) ; bayami 
(Tag.) ; malagayamon (Tag.) ; oroalaypan (Bik.) ; tibatib (Tag.) ; tagoapi 
(Bik.). 

POTHOS RUM PHI! Schott Melet. 1 (1832) 21; Engl. Pflanzenreich 21 
(1905) 38, /. 16; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 287; Merr. Interpret. 
Herb. Amb. (1917) 124. 
Scindapsus rumphii Presl Epim. (1851) 241. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon), Negros, 
Samar, Panay, Leyte, Mindanao, Basilan, B. S. 31078, 28585 Ramos & 
Edano, 24144, 22132, 19367 Ramos, 15435 Reillo, F. B. 9656 Curran, Loher 
7033, Wenzel 22, Clemens 685, Merrill 7309, Weber 1044, Elmer 15854 as P. 
clemensii Elm. Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea. 

Local names: Amlong (Bik., Bis., Tag.); bislag (Mbo.) ; dilang-baka 
(Tag.); takuling (C. Bis.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Pothos barberianus Schott ; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 287. 
Pothos beccarianus Engl.; Naves 1. c. 
Pothos gracilis Roxb.; Naves 1. c. 
Pothos leptostachyus Schott; Naves 1. c. 



174 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Pothos longipes Schott; Naves 1. c. 

Pothos loureiri Hook. ; Naves 1. c. 

Pothos macrophyllus De Vriese; Naves op. cit. 286. 

Pothos oxyphyllus Miq.; Naves op. cit. 287. 

Pothos roxburghii De Vriese; Naves op. cit. 286. 

Pothos sumatranus Miq.; Naves op cit. 287. 

Pothos vrieseanus Schott; Naves op. cit. 286. 

Pothos zollingeri Schott; Naves op. cit. 287. * 

Pothos celatocaulis N. E. Br. in Gard. Chron. 13 (1880) 200; Engl, 
in Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 5, Pflanzenreich 37 (1908) 44. 
This was described from Bornean material, and Engler, 1. c, referred 
to it Warburg H603, from Davao, Mindanao. Later, Pflanzenreich 21 
(1905) 44, Engler admits the species as one of doubtful status from Borneo 
only. It is probably a Rhaphidophora, R. celatocaulis v. A. v. R. in Bull. 
Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 1 (1920) 382. 

Pothos scandens Linn. Engl. Pflanzenreich 21 (1905) 26, quoad Philip.; 

Naves Novis. App. (1882) 286; Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 

177. 
Vidal 1990 is referred here by Engler, who gives the range of the spe- 
cies as from India to Indo-China, Java, Sumatra, and Borneo. I suspect 
the Philippine specimen to be referable to P. hermaphroditus Merr. in 
which species the relative length and width of the petiole and lamina are 
exceedingly variable. 

2. ANADENDRON Schott 

ANADENDRON MONTANUM (Blume) Schott in Bonplandia 5 (1857) 45, 
Prodr. (1860) 391; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 97, Pflan- 
zenreich 21 (1905) 49; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 287. 
Calla montana Blume Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 62. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga), B. S. 37023 Ramos & Edano. In primary 
forests at low altitudes. Siam and Indo-China to the Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Anadendron affine Schott; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 287. 

3. POTHOIDIUM Schott 

POTHOIDIUM LOBBIANUM Schott in Oester. Bot. Wochenbl. 7 (1857) 

70, Aroid. 1 (1857) 26, t. 57, Gen. Aroid. (1858) 96, t. 96, Prodr. 

(1860) 576; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 287; Engl, in DC. Monog. 

Phan. 2 (1879) 95, Pflanzenreich 21 (1905) 46; Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 32. 

Northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all 
islands and provinces. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. 
A monotypic genus. Celebes, Ternate. 

Local names: Ariuan (Ibn.) ; balong-kahinai (P. Bis.); baralta (Tag.); 
magutapilak (P. Bis.) ; malagayaman (Sbl.) ; pakokalangan (Mbo.) ; vara 
alta (Sp.). 



Vo1 - 1 ARACEAE 175 

4. ACORUS Linnaeus 

ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 324; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 

175; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 287; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 

2 (1879) 216, Pflanzenreich 21 (1905) 309; Merr. Fl. Manila 

(1912) 130. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill Phil. PI. 1789, Vanoverbergh 2585. 

In swamps, altitude about 1,300 m, here native or thoroughly naturalized; 

cultivated here and there at low altitudes. North temperate regions 

generally. 

Local names: Acoro (Sp.) ; bueng (Pamp.) ; dalau (Ilk.) ; darau (Ilk.) ; 
dengau (Bon.); lubigan (Tag.). 

ACORUS GRAMINEUS Soland. in Ait. Hort. Kew 1 (1789) 474; Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 21 (1905) 312; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 
(1915) Bot. 288. 
Luzon (Laguna), B. S. 14949 Ramos. On rocks or ledges in beds of 
small streams at low or medium altitudes. Japan to southern China. 

5. RHAPHiDOPHORA Hasskarl 

RHAPHIDOPHORA ACUMINATA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) 
Bot. 265. 
Luzon (Batangas, Sorsogon), Leyte, Wenzel 1139, B. S. 23300 Ramos, 
22669 Ramos & Deroy. In primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

RHAPHIDOPHORA COPELANDII Engl, in Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 115; 
Engl, ex Krause in Pflanzenreich 37 (1908) 49. 
Rhaphidophora trinervia Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 3073. 
Luzon (Benguet, Ifugao, Laguna), Mindanao (Davao), Copeland 1193, 
Merrill 7700, Williams 2605, Elmer 18057, B. S. 19706 McGregor. In 
forests and on ledges in thickets, altitudes 400 to 1,600 m. Endemic. 

RHAPHIDOPHORA ELMERI Engl. & Krause in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 44 
(1910) Beibl. 101: 11. 

Luzon (Tayabas, Sorsogon), Negros, Elmer (9286, 9268), 10135a, 15116. 
In forests at medium altitudes. Endemic. 

RHAPHIDOPHORA GRAN Dl FOLIA Krause in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 44 (1910) 
Beibl. 101: 11. 

Negros, Elmer 9464. In forests. Endemic. 
Local name: Dakoling (C. Bis.). 

RHAPHIDOPHORA LAGUNENSIS Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2072. 
Luzon (Laguna), Elmer 17812, Pascasio. In the mossy forest, summit 
of Mt. Maquiling, altitude about 1,100 m. Endemic. 

RHAPHIDOPHORA MERRILLII Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 115; Engl. 

& Krause in Engl. Pflanzenreich 37 (1908) 51; Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 32, 5 (1910) Bot. 335, Fl. Manila 

(1912) 129, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 90. 

Pothos pinnata Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 646, ed. 2 (1845) 450, ed. 

3, 3 (1879) 48, t. 339, non Linn. 
Epipremnum merrillii Engl. & Krause in Engl. Pflanzenreich 37 
(1908) 137. 



176 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan, 
Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon) , Polillo, Palawan, Leyte, Negros, Minda- 
nao, Merrill 94-34, Sp. Blancoanae 715, Elmer 5539, 7296, 15135 as Epi- 
premnum glaucocephalivm Elm,, B. S. 11292, 10370 McGregor, 6004, 5883 
Curroun. In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Amiling (Is.); amlong (Bik., Bis.); amolong (Ilk.); amu- 
ling (Is.); bagak (S. L. Bis.); bakag (Bik.); balikupkup (Bis.); balision 
(Is.) ; bisako (Bis.) ; daila (Bis.) ; dibatib (Bis.) ; dukiip (Bon.) ; garban 
(Bis.) ; garusiba (Ibn.) ; gatgati (Bon.) ; gayaman (Sbl.) ; horoa (Bis.) ; 
kigau (Bon.) ; kilat (Sbl.) ; malapakpak-balauai (Tag.) ; mamisi (Ig.) ; 
maragayaman (Sbl.); tabatib (Tag.); takoling (C. Bis.); takotin (Bis.); 
tampinbanal (Tag.); tibatib (Tag.). 

RHAPHIDOPHORA MONTICOLA Krause in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 44 (1910) 
Beibl. 101: 12. 
Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Negros, Leyte, Elmer 10098, 16790 as R. 
bulusanensis Elm., Merrill 7154, Wenzel 1160, B. S. 23455 Ramos, F. B.< 
21387 Villamil. In primary forests ascending into the mossy forest, alti- 
tude 700 to 1,200 m. Endemic. 

RHAPHIDOPHORA PERK1NSIAE Engl, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 
115; Engl. & Krause in Engl. Pflanzenreich 37 (1908) 37. 

Luzon (Benguet, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Elmer 6305, Loher 
7035, Whitford 1169, Merrill 9667, F. B. 2674-7 Mabesa, 7826 Curran & 
Merritt. In primary forests on trees and in thickets about limestone 
cliffs and bowlders, altitude 1,000 to 1,600 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Amlong (Tag., Ig.) ; madulunang (lg.). 

RHAPHIDOPHORA PH ILIPPINENSIS Engl. & Krause in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 37 (1908) 137. 

Samar, Mindanao (Agusan, Lanao), Clemens 1229, Elmer 13776, B. S. 
24405 Ramos. In forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Mananau (S. L. Bis.). 

RHAPHIDOPHORA RIGIDA Krause in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 6 (1914) 2284. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Negros, Elmer 10220; 15056. In primary forests, 
altitude about 1,250 m; apparently very near R. philippinensis Engl. & 
Krause. 

RHAPHIDOPHORA STENOPHYLLA Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 
3073. 
Luzon (Laguna), Elmer 18449. Margins of forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

RHAPHIDOPHORA TODAYENS1S Krause in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 6 (1914) 
2284. 

Mindoro, Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10849, B. S. 39735 Ramos. In 
forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

RHAPHIDOPHORA WARBURGII Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 116; Engl. 
& Krause in Engl. Pflanzenreich 37 (1908) 51. 
Luzon (Cagayan or Isabela), Warburg in herb. Berol. Probably from 
primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 



VoL 1 ARACEAE 177 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Rhaphidophora decursiva Schott; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 288. 
Rhaphidophora fallax Schott; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 130. 
Rhaphidophora lancifolia Schott; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 288. 
Rhaphidophora Montana Schott; Naves 1. c. 
Rhaphidophora peepla Schott; Naves I. c. 
Rhaphidophora pertijSa Schott; Naves 1. c. 
Rhaphidophora sylvestris Engl.; Naves 1. c. 

6. EPIPREMNUM Schott 

EPIPREMNUM ELMERIANUM Engl, ex Engl. & Krause in Pflanzenreich 
37 (1908) 66. 
Leyte, Elmer 7295. In forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

EPIPREMNUM PHILIPPINENSE Engl. & Krause in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
37 (1908) 137. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Elmer 7623, 9253, 14522, 15113 as 
E. miniatum Elm., 16422 as E. sorsogonense Elm., B. S. 10052, 20548, 23299 
Ramos, 35419 Martelino & Edano. In forests, altitude about 650 m. 
Endemic. 

EPIPREMNUM PINNATUM (Linn.) Engl. Pflanzenreich 37 (1908) 60, 
/. 25. 
Pothos pinnata Linn. Sp. PL ed. 2 (1763) 1374. 

Epipremnum robinsonii Krause in Notizbl. Kgl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
5 (1912) 266. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Polillo, Mindanao (Davao), Whitford 746, B. S. 15866 
Fenix, Robinson 9181, Elmer 16061 as E. multicephalum Elm. In forests 
near the seashore. Tenasserim to New Guinea and Polynesia. 

Local names: Lukmoi (Tag.); tibatib (Tag.). 

EPIPREMNUM TRUNCATUM Engl. & Krause in Engl. Pflanzenreich 37 
(1908) 63. 
Luzon (Camarines, Sorsogon), Biliran, Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), 
Elmer 7291, 13729, 14721, Merrill 7343, F. B. 27244 Pahna, B. S. 18925 
McGregor. In primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 
Local names: Lukmoi (Tag.); pasagianit (Mbo.). 

excluded species 
Epipremnum giganteum Schott; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 288. 

7. EPIPREMNOPSIS Engler 
EPIPREMNOPSIS HUEGELIANA (Schott) Engl, in Engl. & Krause Pflan- 
zenreich 37 (1908) 138. 
Rhaphidophora huegeliana Schott in Bonplandia 5 (1857) 45, Prodr. 

(1860) 384. 
Epipremnum mirabile Naves Novis. App. (1882) 288; Vidal Rev. 
PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 281; Engl, in Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 119; 
Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 130, non Schott. 

183036 12 



178 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Epipremnum medium Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 250, quoad 

Philip.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 289. 
Epipremnopsis media, Engl, ex Engl. & Krause in Pflanzenreich 37 

(1908) 1, quoad Philip. 

Batan and Babuyan Islands, Luzon (Bataan, Laguna, Camarines, Sor- 
sogon), Catanduanes, Panay, Mindanao (Agusan, Zamboanga, Cotabato), 
B. S. 35662 Ramos & Edano, 22852 McGregor, 11716 Robinson, 3902 Fenix, 
Elmer 16052, 18223, Merrill 8071. In forests at low and medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Local names: Lusigut (Ilk.) ; takhib (Iv.). 

8. SCINDAPSUS Schott 

SCINDAPSUS AUREUS (Lind. & Andre) Engl, in Pflanzenreich 37 (1908) 
80; Merr. PL Manila (1912) 139. 
Pothos aurea Lindl. & Andre in 111. Hort. (1880) 69, t. 381. 

Cultivated for ornamental purposes, but never observed in flower. A 
native of the Solomon Islands. 

SCINDAPSUS CURRANII Engl. & Krause in Pflanzenreich 37 (1908) 138. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Negros, Cami- 
guin de Misamis, F. B. 8014, 8027 Curran & Merritt, 13711 Curran, 11376 
Merritt, 26916 Mabesa, 25707 Foxworthy, B. S. 24064 Ramos, Elmer 18475, 
14590, 16556. In primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Lukmoi (Tag.). 

SCINDAPSUS FALCIFOLIUS Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 119; Engl. & 
Krause in Pflanzenreich 37 (1908) 79. 

Jolo, Warburg in herb. Berol. Celebes. 

SCINDAPSUS HEDERACEUS Schott in Bonplandia 5 (1857) 45; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 289; Engl. & Krause in Pflanzenreich 37 
(1908) 76, 138, /. 32, E-N. 
Scindapsus pictus Hassk. var. argyraeus Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 

13, Pflanzenreich 37 (1908) 80. 
Scindapsus argyraea Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 255; 
Naves Novis. App. (1882) 289 (argyracea) . 
Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Catanduanes, Negros, Leyte, F. B. 4274 Eve- 
rett, 26436 Catalan, B. S. 15019, 12028, 30383 Ramos, 23151 McGregor, 
29233 Ramos & Edano, Elmer 15230. In primary forests at low altitudes. 
Malay Peninsula and Cochinchina to Borneo, Sumatra, and Java. 

Scindapsus argyraea Engl, as represented by Engl. Araceae exsic. 265 is 
a juvenile form with mottled leaves; this is common in Laguna Province, 
Luzon. In mature plants the leaves are usually not mottled. 
Local names: Maragayaman (Ilk.); putoputohan (Tag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Scindapsus pertusus Schott; Vidal Cat. PI. Prov. Manila (1880) 47. 

9. SPATHIPHYLLUM Schott 

SPATHIPHYLLUM COMMUTATUM Schott in Oester. Bot. Wochenbl. 
7 (1857) 158, Prodr. (1860) 424, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 
(1863) 79; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 230; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 154, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 281; Naves 



Vo1 - 1 ARACEAE 179 

Novis. App. (1882) 288; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
264; Engl. & Krause in Pflanzenreich 37 (1908) 133, /. 55, A-G. 
Luzon (Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon), Polillo, Biliran, Mindoro, 
Leyte, Mindanao, B. S. 33596, 38523 Ramos & Edano, 10401, 18707 McGre- 
gor, 23571, 15385 Ramos, 6476 Robinson, F. B. 11415 Merritt, Wenzel 235, 
Merrill 5486, 4080, Copeland 1263, Williams 2364. In damp primary 
forests at low and medium altitudes. Celebes, Amboina. 

All other species of this genus are confined to tropical America. 

10. CYRTOSPERMA Griffith 

CYRTOSPERMA MERKUSII (Hassk.) Schott in Oester. Bot. Wochenbl. 

(1859) 61, Prodr. (1860) 403; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 

271, Pflanzenreich 48 (1911) 20, /. 7, G-K. 
Lasia merkusii Hassk. Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 59, PI. Jav. Rar. 

(1848) 161. 
Cyrtosperma griffithii Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 422 

sphalm. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, Mindanao, Elmer 15234, 
Merrill 5218, B. S. 1515 Bermejos, 24267 Ramos, 6678 Robinson. In ra- 
vines along streams, probably often planted. Java and Borneo to New 
Guinea. 

Local names: Galiang (Bik) ; palau (C. Bis.); palauan (S. L. Bis., P. 
Bis.). ' 

11. AMORPHOPHALLUS Blume 

AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS (Roxb.) Blume ex Decne. in Ann. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 3 (1834) 366; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 
201; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 309, Pflanzenreich 48 
(1911) 76; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 289; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 
130, Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 290, Interpret. Herb. Amb. 
(1917) 127, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 91.- 
Arum campanulatum Roxb. PI. Coromandel 3 (1819) 69, t. 272. 
Arum decurrens Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 656, ed. 2 (1845) 457, ed. 

3, 3 (1879) 62. 
Amorphophallus decurrens Kunth Enum. 3 (1841) 581; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1856) 202; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 319, Pflan- 
zenreich 48 (1911) 108; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) 
Bot. 290. 
Luzon, most or all provinces, Mindoro. In thickets and secondary 
forests, along roads, trails, etc., at low and medium altitudes in the settled 
areas, often common. India through Malaya to Polynesia. 

Local names: Anto (Bis.); apon (Tag.); apong-apong (Tag.); bagang 
(Ibn.) ; bagong (Bik., Sul.) ; oroi (Bis.) ; pamangkilon (Bis.) ; pungapung 
(Tag.); tigi-nga magmanto (Ilk.); tokod-banua (Pamp.). 

AMORPHOPHALLUS LONGISPATH ACEUS Engl. & Gehrm. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 48 (1911) 91. 
Mindanao (Davao), Williams 2684. In thickets or forests at medium 
altitudes. Endemic. 

AMORPHOPHALLUS LUZON I ENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) 
Bot. 289. 
Luzon (Cagayan), F. B. 19560 Curran, Weber. In crevices of limestone 
ledges at low altitudes. Endemic. 



180 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

AMORPHOPHALLUS MERRILLII Krause in Notizbl. Kgl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
5 (1912) 266. 

Panay (Batbatan Island), Cavilli, Merrill 7177, McGregor. Abundant 
in primary forests on Cavilli, a small island in Sulu Sea. Endemic. 

AMORPHOPHALLUS RIVIERI Durieu Cat. Jard. Bordeaux (1869) 12, var. 

KONJAC (C. Koch) Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 313, Pflan- 

zenreich 48 (1911) 85. 

Amorphophallus konjac C. Koch in Berl. Allg. Gartenz. (1858) 166. 

Luzon (Rizal, Bataan, Laguna), Mindoro, Palawan, Balabac, Panay, 

Mindanao, McGregor 274, Elmer 18185, Merrill 9419, Whiford 1338, F. B. 

17649 Curran, B. S. 26211 Ramos, 15641 Fenix. In thickets and forests at 

low altitudes. Indo-China, Japan. 

Local names: Bulang-an (Mang.) ; pungapung (Tag.). 

AMORPHOPHALLUS VARIABILIS Blume in Rumphia 1 (1835) 146, t. 
35, 37; Kunth Enum. 3 (1841) 33; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 
200; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 290; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 
2 (1879) 313, Pflanzenreich 48 (1911) 80; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. 
Veg. (1895) 130. 

Luzon (Union), Mindanao (Davao), Basilan, Copeland 1264, B. S. 
15444 Reillo, 9999 Robinson. In light forests at low altitudes. Java. 
Local name: Bagong (Bag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Amorphophallus bulbifer Blume; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 290. 
Amorphophallus dubius Blume; Naves op. cit. 289. 
Amorphophallus giganteus Blume; Naves op. cit. 290. 
Amorphophallus titanum Becc; Naves op. cit. 289. 
Amorphophallus tuberculigera Schott; Naves 1. c. 

12. HOMALOMENA Schott 

HOMALOMENA ELMERI Engl, ex Engl. & Krause in Pflanzenreich 55 
(1912) 42. 
Palawan, Elmer 13229, F. B. 21586 Danao. In forests along streams at 
low altitudes; scarcely distinct from H. palawanensis Engl. & Krause. 
Endemic. 

HOMALOMENA PALAWAN ENSIS Engl, ex EngL & Krause in Pflan- 
zenreich 55 (1912) 39, /. 19. 
Palawan, B. S. 912 Foxworthy. Margins of pools at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

HOMALOMENA PHILIPPIN ENSIS Engl, ex Engl. & Krause in Pflan- 
zenreich 55 (1912) 55, /. 33. 
Homalomena rubescens Kunth var. latifolia Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 55 
(1898) IS. 



VoL l ARACEAE 181 

Luzon (Isabela, Union, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, La- 
guna, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Palawan, Panay, Leyte, Biliran, Negros, Min- 
danao. Along^ small streams in primary forests at low altitudes ; common. 
Endemic. 

Local names: Alipaiu (Tag.); alupayi (Tag.); hayau (Sub.); payau 
(Tag.); salet-nga-nalabaga (Ilk.); tahig (Bik.). 

HOMALOMENA PYGMAEA (Hassk.) Engl, in Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 18; 

Engl. & Krause in Engl. Pflanzenreich 55 (1912) 34, /. 15. 
Aglaonema pygmaeum Hassk. in Hoev. & De Vriese Tijdschr. 9 (1842) 

161, Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 57. 
Chamaecladon lanceolatum Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 212, t. UO; 

Schott Gen. Aroid. (1858) t. 60. 

Negros, Whitford 1591. Along stream beds, in canons, altitude about 
175 m. Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Homalomena alba Hassk.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 290. 
Homalomena aromatica Schott; Naves 1. c. 

HOMALOMENA COERULESCENS Jungh. ; Naves 1. C 

Homalomena minor Griff. ; Naves 1. c. 

Homalomena miqueliana Schott; Naves 1. c. 

Homalomena propinqua Schott; Naves 1. c. 

Homalomena rubescens Kunth; Naves 1. c. 

Homalomena rubra Hassk.; Naves 1. c. 

Homalomena sagittifolia Jungh.; Naves 1. c. 

Homalomena cordatum Schott; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 130. 

Homalomena paludosum Hook, f.; Usteri 1. c. 

Homalomena rostratum Griff.; Usteri 1. c. 

The last three species were credited to the Philippines on the basis of 
specimens collected in Negros by Usteri and determined by Engler. The 
latter autho,r, however, does not credit them to the Philippines in his recent 
monographic treatment of the group. 

13. SCHISMATOGLOTTIS Zollinger and Moritzi 

SCHISMATOGLOTTIS CALYPTRATA (Roxb.) Zoll. & Mor. Syst. Verz. 
(1854) 83; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 291; Usteri Beitr. Ken. 
Philip. Veg. (1905) 130; Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 129; 
Engl. Pflanzenreich 55 (1912) 115 (var. concolor Hallier f.). 

Luzon (Bataan, Cavite, Laguna, Tayabas, Albay) , Samar, Leyte, Panay, 
Mindanao, Merrill 7603, 7273 (forma grandi folia Engl.), 7275, 6703, B. S. 
24952 Fenix. In damp shaded ravines usually along streams on banks and 
cliffs at low and medium altitudes. Burma, through Malaya to New 
Guinea. 

Local name: Alapayi (Tag.). 



182 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

SCH ISM ATO GLOTTIS LATI FOLIA Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 214, var. 

VIRIDIS Engl, ex Engl. & Krause in Pflanzenreich 55 (1912) 117. 
Schismato glottis luzonensis Engl. Pflanzenreich 55 (1912) 121, non 

Engl. op. cit. 88. 
Alocasia merrillii Engl. & Krause in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 54 (1916) 

Beibl. 118: 124, Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 79. 

Luzon (Pampanga, Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna, Camarines), Mindanao, 
B. S. 2015 Foxworthy, S3830, 33783 Ramos & Edano, 11248 McGregor, 6736 
Robinson, F. B. 1243 Borden Copeland 1310, Baker 1084, Elmer 17829, 
Me?*rill 8072. In shaded ravines along streams on banks and cliffs at low 
and medium, altitudes. Java, Celebes. 

SCHISMATOGLOTTIS LUZONENSIS Engl, in Pflanzenreich 55 (1912) 88. 
Luzon (Rizal), Panay, Merrill 5047, B. S. 30875 Ramos & Edano. On 
wet ledges in small stream beds at low altitudes. Endemic. 

SCHISMATOGLOTTIS MERRILLII Engl, in Pflanzenreich 55 (1912) 89. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), B. S. 12679 Fenix, 8772 McGregor, F. B. 5099 
Curran. On ledges and cliffs in ravines along streams, altitude 1,200 to 
1,600 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Atuped (Ilk.); pihau (Ig.) ; pikau (Bon.); pichau (Ig.). 

SCHISMATOGLOTTIS MINDANAOANA Engl, in Pflanzenreich 55 (1912) 
103. 
Mindanao (Agusan, Lanao, Davao), Merrill 7320, Elmer 13489, Clemens 
1225. In damp primary forests along small streams at low and medium 
altitudes. Endemic. 

SCHISMATOGLOTTIS PUSILLA Engl, in Bot. Jahrb. 1 (1881) 184, Pflan- 
zenreich 55 (1912) 103,/. 64. 
Leyte, Jagor 1018a in herb. Berol. Endemic. 

SCHISMATOGLOTTIS RAMOSII Engl, in Pflanzenreich 55 (1912) 98. 
Schismatoglottis rizalensis Engl. op. cit. 100. 

Luzon (Bulacan, Rizal), B. S. 3351, 13023 Ramos. On cliffs and 
bowlders along streams in shaded ravines at low altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Talisig (Tag.). 

SCHISMATOGLOTTIS WARBURGIANA Engl, in Bot. Jahrb. 55 (1898) 20, 
Pflanzenreich 55 (1912) 90, /. 57. 

Mindanao (Davao), Warburg 14605 in herb. Berol. In forests up to 
600 m altitude. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Schismatoglottis picta Schott; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 291. 

Schismatoglottis rupestris Zoll. & Mor.; Naves 1. c. 

14. AGLAONEMA Schott 

AGLAONEMA COMMUTATUM Schott Syn. (1856) 123, Prodr. (1860) 
304, Gen. Aroid. (1859) t. 59; Regel Gartenflora (1865) t. 470; 
, Engl. Pflanzenreich 64 (1919) 27, /. 10, G. 

Aglaonema mar antae folium Blume var. maculatum Hook, in Curtis's 

Bot. Mag. Ill 21 (1865) t. 550Q. 
Aglaonema marantifolium Blume var. commutatum Engl, in DC. 
Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 441. 



Vo1 - r ARACEAE 183 

Not uncommon in cultivation in Manila as an ornamental on account 
of its mottled leaves. Widely cultivated in tropical botanical gardens, 
probably a native of the Moluccas. 

For some years I thought that this might be Aglaonema maculatum 
Blume. Blume's species is based entirely on Dracunculo Luzonis primo 
seu indorum Gavay Sinbuga Camel in Ray Hist. Nat. 3 App. (1704) 36, 
and Camel's specimens were from Leyte and apparently from wild plants. 
I now suspect Aglaonema maculatum Blume to be a form of A. oblongi- 
folium Kunth. There is no evidence that A. commutatum Schott is of 
ancient cultivation in the Philippines. 

AGLAONEMA CORDIFOLIUM Engl. Pfianzenreich 64 (1915) 29, f. 14, A-C. 
Mindanao (Davao), (Warburg 14604). In primary forests at low alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

AGLAONEMA DENSINERVIUM Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 134, Pfian- 
zenreich 64 (1915) 13. 
Negros, Leyte, Siquijor, Mindanao, Basilan, Copeland 418, Piper 466, 
Clemens 476, Wenzel 1128, Williams 242-9, Merrill 7347, 8204, F. B. 4774 
Mearns & Hutchinson, B. S. 26139 Fenix, 15,452 Reillo. In primary 
forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

AGLAONEMA HAENKEI (Presl) Schott in Bonplandia 7 (1859) 30, 
Prodr. (1860) 301; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 291; Engl, in DC. 
Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 439, Pfianzenreich 64 (1915) 17; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 154, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 
281; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 400. 
Scindapsus haenkei Presl Epim. (1851) 240; Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 

500; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 183. 
Caladium seguinum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 148, non Vent. 
Babuyan Islands, Luzon (Apayao, Laguna, Cavite), Panay, Merrill 
4186, Elmer 17668, B. S. 4089 Fenix, 35350 Martelino & Edano, 12404, 
32590 McGregor, 10008 Ramos, F. B. 26047 Mabesa. In primary forests 
chiefly along streams at low and medium altitudes. Celebes. 

AGLAONEMA OBLONG1FOLIUM (Roxb.) Kunth Enum. 3 (1841) 55; 
Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 129. 
Calla oblongifolia Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 65, PL Ind. ed. 2, 3 

(1832) 516. 
Aglaonema marantif olium Blume Rumphia 1 (1835) 153, t. 66; Engl, 
in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 441, Pfianzenreich 64 (1915) 27, 
t. 10, f. A-F; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 291; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 33. 
? Aglaonema maculatum Blume Rumphia 1 '(1835) 154; Kunth Enum. 
3 (1841) 56; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 217; Schott Syn. (1856) 
123, Prodr. (1860) 306, Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 442, 
Pfianzenreich 64 (1915) 34. 
Northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Mindanao, in most or all islands and 
provinces, incl. Elmer 16520 as A. alpinum Elm. In primary forests 
chiefly along streams; the leaves are sometimes mottled. Amboina, 
Banda. 

Local names: Damping-banal (Tag.); pamitagen (Mang.) ; pauangkilon 
<C. Bis.). 



184 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

AGLAONEMA PH ILIPPINENSE Engl, in Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 21, Pflan- 
zenreich 64 (1915) 29. 
Aglaonema latifolium Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 134. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines), Panay, Mindanao (Davao), 
Gregory 86, B. S. 18139 Robinson, 2308k, 23088, 228^7, 23077 McGregor. 
In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Aglaonema modestum Schott ex Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 
442, Pflanzenreich 64 (1915) 29, /. 13. 

The type of this is a specimen collected by Gaudichaud supposedly 
in Luzon, but which in all probability came from Macao; the species occurs 
in southern China, but has not been detected in the Philippines. See 
Merrill in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 133. 

Aglaonema pictum Kunth; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 291. 

Aglaonema simplex Schott; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 291; ? Vidal Rev. 
PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 281. 

Vidal's doubtful record for this Bornean species was based on his No. 
1996 from San Mateo, Rizal Province, Luzon. I have not seen the spec- 
imen but suspect it to be the same as A. haenkei Schott or A. oblongif olium 
Kunth. 

15. ALOCA8IA Necker 

ALOCASIA ATROPURPUREA Engl. Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 132. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Mt. Polis), B. S. 19663 McGregor. In the mossy forest 
at medium altitudes. Endemic. 

ALOCASIA CUUONENS1S Engl, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 135; 
Engl. & Krause Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 102. 

Luzon (Pangasinan), Mindoro, Culion, Palawan, Panay, Merrill 555, 
9819, 9824, 9507, B. S. 29883 Fenix, 31264 Ramos & Edano, 39602 Ramos. 
In primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

To be compared with A. longiloba Miq. 

ALOCASIA HETEROPHYLLA (Presl) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) 
Bot. 220, Fl. Manila (1912) 133; Engl. & Krause Pflanzenreich 
71 (1920) 101, /- 22. 
Caladium heterophyllum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 148. 
Colocasia ? heterophylla Kunth Enum. 3 (1841) 40; Miq. FL Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1856) 204; Schott Prodr. (1860) 139. 
Alocasia warburgii Engl, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 25; Merr. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 33. 
Alocasia manilensis Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 23; Engl. & Krause 
Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 95, /. 19, E, F. 
Luzon (Uocos Norte, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas, Cama- 
rines, Sorsogon) , Polillo, Alabat, Panay, Negros, Samar, Jolo. In primary 
forests at low and medium altitudes. Alocasia manilensis Engl, is merely a 
juvenile form. Celebes. 

Local name: Naroknarok (Mbo.). 



VoL x ARACEAE 185 

ALOCASIA MACRORRHIZA (Linn.) Schott Melet. (1832) 18; Engl, in 
DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 502; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 293; 
Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) ISO, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 
91; Engl. & Krause Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 84, /. 15. 

Arum macrorrhizon Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 965. 

Calla maxima Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 658. 

Arum grandifolium Blanco op. cit. ed. 2 (1845) 458, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 
63, t. 177. 

Calla badian Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 658. 

Alocasia indica Naves Novis. App. (1882) 293, Usteri Beitr. Ken. 
Philip. Veg. (1905) 130; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 133, Engl. & 
Krause Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 87, quoad Philip., non Schott. 

Throughout the Philippines in old clearings and secondary forests at low 
and medium altitudes (incl. Elmer 17881 as A. talipan Elm.), the older 
plants often with a tall stout caudex. India to Malaya; planted for orna- 
mental purposes in other tropical countries. 

Local names: Aba (Ibn.) ; aba-aba (Ig.) ; badiang (Tag., Bis.) ; bagiang 
(Bis.); bira (Ilk.); biga (Tag., Ilk., Bis., Pamp.) ; bilbila (Bon.); gabi 
(Bik.) ; galiang (Bis.) ; gandus (Pamp.) ; malabiga (Tag.) ; ragiang 
(Bis.); sininaba (Ilk.); talipan (Bik.); taliang (Bis.). 

ALOCASIA MAQUILINGENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) 
Bot 3. 
Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Baker 868, Merrill 7153, Elmer 17955, 
16181 as A. vulcanica Elm., B. S. 6737 Robinson, 16926 Servinas. On 
slopes in primary forests, on Mt. Maquiling, altitude 100 to 600 m. Ende- 
mic. 

ALOCASIA MICHOLITZIANA Sander in Gard. Chron. 51 (1912) Suppl. 
XV, /. 9; N. E. Br. in Curtis's Bot. Mag. IV 9 (1913) t. 8522; 
Engl. & Krause Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 89. 
Luzon (Apayao, Benguet) , Merrill 97U, B. S. 2802U, 28^21 Fenix. In 
thickets about limestone bowlders, altitude about 1,300 m. Endemic. 

ALOCASIA PORTEI (Schott) Engl. & Becc. in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 

645; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 294; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 132. 

Schizocasia portei Schott in Bonplandia 10 (1862) 148; Engl, in DC. 

Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 495; Engl. & Krause Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 

117. 

Alocasia indica Schott var. heterophylla Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 

2 (1879) 502. 
Alocasia indica Schott var. diversifolia Engl. Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 
88. 
Luzon (Bataan, Laguna, Camarines), Lyon, Holman. In old clearings 
at medium altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Badiang (Bik.). 

ALOCASIA REVERSA N. E. Br. in Gard. Chron. Ill 8 (1890) 38; Hook, 
f. in Curtis's Bot. Mag. Ill 52 (1896) t. 7U98; Usteri Beitr. Ken. 
Philip. Veg. (1905) 130; Engl. & Krause Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 95. 

This was based on cultivated specimens supposedly of Philippine origin. 
I have seen no specimens. Endemic. 



186 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

ALOCASIA SAN DERI AN A Bull. Cat. (1894) 8, fig.; Merr. Fl. Manila 
(1912) 132; Engl. & Krause Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 104. 
Schizocasia sanderiana Engl, in Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 26. 

Mindanao (Misamis, Agusan), Merrill 7276, F. B. 4762 Mearns & Hut- 
chinson. In damp primary forests at low altitudes. A very beautiful 
species common in greenhouse cultivation in Europe and America. 
Endemic. 

ALOCASIA SINUATA N. E. Br. in Gard. Chron. (1885) 678; Engl. & 
Krause Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 102. 

This was described from cultivated specimens supposedly of Philippine 
origin; Merrill 9568 from Palawan possibly represents it. Endemic. 

ALOCASIA WENZELII Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 2. 

Biliran, Samar, Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), Wenzel 97, B. S. 24266 
Ramos, 18929 McGregor, F. B. 7615 Hutchinson. In forests at low alti- 
tudes; perhaps a gigantic form of A. zehrina C. Koch & Veitch. Endemic. 

Local name: Handuroi (S. L. Bis.). 

ALOCASIA ZEBRINA C. Koch & Veitch in Wochenschr. Gartn. Pflan- 

zenk. 6 (1863) 331, Fl. des Serres 15: t. 1541; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 294; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 507; Merr. 

Fl. Manila (1912) 133; Engl. & Krause Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 

105. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Whitford 645, Elmer 17790, 14911, 

B. S. 6731 Robinson. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. 

Endemic. 

Local name: Badiang (Bik.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Alocasia alba Schott; iNaves Novis. App. (1882) 293. 
Alocasia cucullata Schott; Naves 1. c 
Alocasia longiloba Miq.; Naves op. cit. 294. 
Alocasia lowii Hook, f . ; Naves 1. c. 
Alocasia Montana Schott; Naves op. cit. 293. 
Alocasia odora C. Koch; Naves op. cit. 294. 
Alocasia pubera Schott; Naves op. cit. 293. 

16. COLOCASIA Schott 

COLOCASIA ESCULENTUM (Linn.) Schott Melet. 1 (1832) 18; Merr. 

Fl. Manila (1912) 134, Interpret Herb. Amb. (1917) 131, Sp. 

Blancoanae (1918) 92. 
Arum esculentum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 965. 
Arum colocasia Linn. 1. c. 
Colocasia antiquorum Schott Melet. 1 (1832) 18, Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 292; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 491; Hook. f. 

in Curtis's Bot. Mag. Ill 50 (1894) t. 7364; Engl. & Krause in 

Engl. Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 65. 



Vo1 - x ARACEAE 187 

Calla gaby Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 659. 

Caladium esculentum Vent. Jard. Cels. (1800) sub. t. 30; Blanco 

Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 459, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 64. 
Caladium colocasia W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 

208. 
Caladium violaceum Desf. Cat. Hort. Paris ed. 3 (1829) 7; Naves 

Novis. App. (1882) 292. 

Generally cultivated throughout the Philippines, but not a native of the 
Archipelago. It rarely produces flowers in the Philipines. A number of 
varieties are recognized by Filipinos. Pantropic in cultivation. Taro. 

Local names: Aba (Ilk.); aua (Ilk.); abalong (Bis.); amoang (Bon.); 
gabi (Tag.); pising (Bon.); dagmai (Bis.); kimpoi (Bis.); lagbai (Tag., 
(Bis.); linsa (Bik.); lubingan (If.); natong (Bik.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Colocasia affinis Schott; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 293. 
Colocasia fallax Schott; Naves 1. c. 
Colocasia indica Engl.; Naves 1. c. 

17. CALADIUM Ventenat 

CALADIUM BICOLOR (Ait.) Vent. Jard. Cels. (1800) t. 30; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 291; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 131; Engl. & Krause 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich 71 (1920) 31. 
Arum bicolor Ait. Hort. Kew 3 (1789) 316. 

Cultivated for its variegated leaves; occasional in the settled areas as 
an escape. A native of tropical America. 

Local names: Corazon de maria (Sp.) ; linsang-pula (Bik.). 

18. TYPHONIUM Schott 

TYPHONiUM DIVARCATUM (Linn.) Decne. in Nouv. Ann. Mus. Paris 
3 (1834) 367; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 611; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 295 et in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) 
t. 330, var. MOTLEYANUM (Schott) Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 
2 (1879) 612. 
Typhonium motleyanum Schott Prodr. (1860) 106; Usteri Beitr. Ken. 
Philip. Veg. (1905) 130; Engl. Pflanzenreich 73 (1920) 115. 
Introduced and cultivated only; occasional in old gardens, but scarcely 
established. India to the Moluccas. 

TYPHONIUM FLAGELLIFORME (Lodd.) Blume in Wall. Cat. (1832) 

No. 8928; Engl. Pflanzenreich 73 (1920) 112, /. 16. 
Arum flagelliforme Lodd. Bot. Cab. (1819) t. 396. 
Arum cuspidatum Blume Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 101. 
Typhonium cuspidatum Decne. in Nouv. Ann. Mus. Paris 3 (1834) 

367; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 616; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 295; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 131, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 

92. 
Arum divaricatum Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 657, ed. 2 (1845) 458, 

ed. 3, 3 (1879) 62, non Linn. 



188 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Cavite, Rizal), Merrill 4171, 7128, 7111, Sp. Blcm- 
coanae 676, 970, B. S. 1369 Robinson. In waste places about settlements, 
along trails, rogds, etc., at low altitudes. India to Indo-China through 
Malaya to Timor, and the Marianne Islands. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Typhonium trilobatum Schott; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 295. 

This, like T. divaricatum Decne., has apparently been cultivated in Ma- 
nila, as it is represented in the Kew herbarium by Loher 2428, from Manila. 
It is not a native of the Philippines. 

19. AR ISA EM A Martius 
ARISAEMA CUSPIDATUM (Roxb.) Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 (1879) 
536, Pflanzenreich 73 (1920) 158. 
Arum cuspidatum Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 506. 
Arisaema roxburghii Kunth Enum. 3 (1841) 18; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 6 (1893) 497. 

Palawan, Merrill 9339. In primary forests at low altitudes. Assam, 
Malay Peninsula, Penang. 

ARISAEMA POLYPHYLLUM (Blanco) Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 
27 (1905) 90, Philip. Journ.- Sci. 1 (1906) Bot. 33, 2 (1907) Bot. 
264, 5 (1910) Bot. 336, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 92; Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 73 (1920) 182. 

Calla polyphyUa Blanco Fl. F'ilip. (1837) 659. 

Caladium digitatum Blanco op. cit. ed. 2 (1845) 459, ed 3, 3 (1879) 
64. 

Arisaema cumingii Schott Syn. Aroid. (1856) 28 (cummingii) , Prodr. 
(1860) 52; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 198; Engl, in DC. Monog. 
Phan. 2 (1879) 558; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 294; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 154, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 281. 

Arisaema sarasinorum Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 37 (1905) 143. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, 
Tayabas), Mindoro, Panay, Negros, Mindanao 1 . In forests and in open 
places, altitude 1,000 to 2,400 m, in the mossy forest often growing as an 
epiphyte on mossy trunksl Celebes. 

Local names: Bia (Ibn.) ; bila (Bon.) ; igigin-di-gayang (Bon.) ; takin- 
di-gayang (Bon.); tigtigki (Ig.). 

Var. ANGUSTIFOLIUM Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 336; 
Engler 1. c. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Zambales), Merrill 6472, Elmer 6330, F. B. 
18387 Alvarez. In the pine region and in forests, altitude 800 to 2,000 m. 
Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Arisaema fimbriatum Mast, in Gard. Chron. II 2 (1884) 680, 689, /. 119; 
Hook. f. in Curtis's Bot. Mag. Ill 46 (1890) t. 7150. 
This was originally described from cultivated specimens supposed to 
have come from the Philippines; it is a native of the Langkawi Islands, 
north of Penang, and nothing remotely resembling it is known from the 
Philippines. 
Arisaema laminatum Blume; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 294. 



VoL 1 ARACEAE 189 

20. CRYPTOCORYNE Fischer 

CRYPTOCORYNE APONOGETI FOLIA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 
(1919) 370. 
Negros, Panay, B. S. 81119 Ramos & Edano, F. B. 19411 Curran. Sub- 
merged in shallow water of streams at low altitudes. Endemic. 

CRYPTOCORYNE PYGMAEA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 371. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga) , Merrill 814.7, Copeland. In crevices of ledges 

in stream beds in damp shaded ravines, altitude about 300 m. Endemic. 

CRYPTOCORYNE USTERI AN A Engl, ex Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. 
(1905) 130, Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 54 (1916) Beibl. 118: 125; Pflan- 
zenreich 73 (1920) 240, /. 60. 

Guimaras, (Usteri). I have seen only the type, which is preserved in 
the Berlin herbarium. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

CRYPTOCORYNE ciliata Fisch.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 295. 

21. PISTIA Linnaeus 

PISTIA STRATiOTES Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 963; Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 
651, ed. 2 (1845) 454, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 55, t. 468; Presl Epim. (1851) 
240; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 218; Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 
2 (1879} 634; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 296; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 154, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 281; Merr. Fl. 
iManila (1912) 130, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 93; Engl. Pflanzenreich 
73 (1920) 259, /. 63. 
Pistia eumingii Klotz. in Abh. Akad. Berlin (1854) 354; Walp. Ann. 

5 (1858) 913. 
Pistia strqtiotes Linn. var. cuneata Engl, in DC. Monog. Phan. 2 
(1879) 634. 
Northern Luzon to Mindanao. Floating in shallow water of lakes and 
slow streams at low altitudes; often abundant. Pantropic. 

Local names: Alaluan (Ibn.) ; dagaylo (Mbo.) ; darahiro (Bik.) ; daraido 
(Bik.) ; darairo (Bik.) ; kaiapo (Bis.) ; kiapo (Tag.) ; kiupu (Mag.) ; loloan 
(Ilk.). 

EXCLUDED GENERA AND SPECIES 

Chamaecladon ovalifolium Schott; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 290. 

Chamaecladon pygmaeum Engl.; Naves op. cit. 291. 

Cusuaria MARANTIFOLIA Schott; Naves op. cit. 289. 

Dieffenbachia SEGUINE Schott; Naves op. cit. 291. 

Lagenandra toxicaria Dalz.; Naves op. cit. 295. 

Lasia SPINOSA Thwaites; Naves op. cit. 289. 

Theirophonium crenatum Blume; Naves op. cit. 295. 

Theirophonium wightii Engl.; Naves 1. c. 

Piptospatha sp.; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 130. 



190 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

LEMNACEAE 

1. SPIRODELA Schleiden 

SPIRODELA POLYRRHIZA (Linn.) Schleid. in Linnaea 13 (1839) 392; 
Hegelm. Monogr. Lemn. (1868) 151, 156; Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 21 
(1895) 284; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 134. 
Lemna polyrrhiza Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 970; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
296; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 131. 

Northern Luzon to Mindanao, F. B. 11622 Curran, Merrill 5121, AM5. 
Floating on stagnant fresh water at low and medium altitudes. Tem- 
perate and tropical regions of both hemispheres. 

2. LEMNA Linnaeus 

LEMNA PAUCICOSTATA Hegelm. Lemn. (1868) 294, Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 

21 (1895) 294; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 131; Merr. 

Fl. Manila (1912) 134, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 93. 
Lemna gibba Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 672, ed. 2 (1845) 468, ed. 3, 3 

(1879) 78; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 296, non Linn. 
Lemna oligorrhiza Naves Novis. App. (1882) 296, non Kurz. 

Luzon to Mindanao, floating on stagnant fresh water at low and medium 
altitudes, often abundant. Widely distributed in the warmer parts of 
both hemispheres. 

Local names: Inalia (Tag.); lia (Tag.); liya (Tag.). 

LEMNA TRISULCA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 970; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 

296; Hegelm. Lemn. (1868) 134, Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 21 (1895) 293. 

Luzon (Benguet), Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens, B. S. 8782 McGregor. 

Floating on stagnant fresh water at medium altitudes. Widely scattered 

in both hemispheres. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Lemna minor Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 296. 

3. WOLFFIA Horkel 

WOLFFIA ARRH1ZA (Linn.) Wimm. Fl. Schles. (1857) 140; Hegelm. 
Monogr. Lemn. (1868) 124, Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 21 (1895) 301; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 296. 
Lemna arrhiza Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 294. 

Luzon (Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal), Merrill U2UU. Floating on stagnant 
fresh-water pools at low altitudes. Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 
Local names: Dugman (Bis.); lia (Tag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Wolffia delilii Schleid. ; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 296. 

Wolffia shleideni Miq. ; Naves 1. c. 

FLAGELLARIACEAE 

1. JOINVILLEA Gaudichaud 

JOINVILLEA BORNEENSIS Becc. Nelle Foreste di Borneo (1902) 198. 
Joinvillea malayana Ridley in Journ. Str. Branch Roy. As. Soc. 44 
(1905) 199; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 181. 



VoL * FLAGELLARIACEAE 191 

Palawan, Jolo, B. S. 575 Foxworthy, Merrill 9515, Clemens 9S7U. In 
forests and on ridges, altitude 650 to 1,000 m. Malay Peninsula, Borneo. 
Local name: Odyung (Tagb.). 

2. FLAGELLAR I A Linnaeus 

FLAGELLARIA INDICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 333; Blanco PL Filip. ed. 
2 (1845) 196, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 347; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1856) 249; 
Naves Novis. App. (1880) 263; Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 
279; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 87, Sp. Blanco- 
anae (1918) 93. 
Flagellaria philippinensis Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1908) 274. 
Batan Islands to Mindanao and Palawan, in all or most islands and 
provinces. In secondary forests at low and medium altitudes; common. 
Tropical Africa, tropical Asia through Malaya to tropical Australia and 
the Marianne Islands. 

Flagellaria philippinensis Elm. is a form with very large leaves; all 
intergrades between it and the typical form occur. 

Local names: Anuad (Ilk.) ; arayan (Tag.) ; audi (Iv.) ; auai-s^-gayang 
(Is.) ; baling-uai (Tag., Pamp.) ; boboaya (Mbo.) ; hoag-uai (Bik.) ; huag 
(S. L. Bis., Mbo); hiiak , (Bis.) ; ingual (Ilk.); ihgula (Tag.); inual 
(Pang.) ; kala-uai (Ibn.) ; kala-uaiuai (Ibn.) ; ouag-oai (Bik.) ; ouag-ouag 
(Mbo.); paua (P. Bis.); sagakap (P. Bis.); taua (P. Bis.); tinuung 
(Ibn.); uag (Sul., Bis., Bag., Bik.); uai-ti-uak (Ilk.); uak (Bis.); venag- 
aiang (Is.). 

3. HANGUANA Blume 

HANGUANA MALAYANA (Jack) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) 

Bot. 3. 
Veratrum ? malayanum Jack Malay Miscel. 1 (1820) 25; Hook. Bot. 

Miscel. 2 (1831) 74. 
Hanguana kassintu Blume Enum. PI. Jav. (1827) 15, ed. 2 (1830) 

15. 
Veratonia malayana Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 553. 
Susum malayanum Planch, ex Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1892) 391. 

Mindoro, Palawan, Mindanao (Lanao, Surigao), Merrill 7221, 9498, Piper- 
529, Clemens llSUa. In thickets back of the mangrove swamps, ascending 
to 900 m in forests. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

CENTROLEPIDACEAE 

1. CENTROLEPIS Labillardiere 

CENTROLEPIS PHILIPPINENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 264. 

Mindoro, Merrill 6160, Phil. PI. 87. In open heaths, altitude about 2,400 
m. Endemic. 

This was also credited to Borneo, by Turrill, but Miss Gibbs later de- 
scribed the Bornean form as C. kinabaluensis Gibbs, Phytogeog. Dutch 
New Guinea (1917) 99. Only one other species of the family is known 
north of Australia, this being a species of Centrolepis in Indo-China. 



192 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

XYRIDACEAE 

1. XYRIS Linnaeus 

XYRIS COMPLANATA R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 256; Naves Novis. App. 
(1880) 268; Hallier f. in Nova Guinea 8 (1913) 903, Beihefte Bot. 
Centralbl. 34 2 (1916) 45. 
Xyris anceps Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 172, non Lam. 
Luzon (Isabela), Semirara, B. S. 8065 Ramos, Merrill £151. In open 
grasslands at low altitudes. Malay Archipelago to Australia. 
Local name: Gumi-gumi (Tag.). 

XYRIS PAUCI FLORA Willd. Phytogr. (1794) 2, t. 1; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1859) 529; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 268; Merr. Fl. Manila 
(1912) 135. 

Luzon (Pangasinan, Tarlac, Bulacan, Rizal), Loher 6985, Merrill 3628, 
Phil. PI. £63, B. S. 4911 Ramos. In open grasslands at low altitudes. 
India to China and Formosa through Malaya to; Australia. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Xyris indica Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 268. 
Xyris operculata Labill. ; Naves 1. c. 

ERIOCAULONACEAE 

1. ERIOCAULON Linnaeus 

ERIOCAULON ALATUM H. Lecomite in Journ. de Bot. 21 (1908) 104, 
/. 2; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 232, Fl. Manila 
(1912) 136. 
Luzon (Rizal), Merrill 7362, B. S. 1831 Ramos, 19270 Reillo. In open 
wet grasslands at low altitudes. Indo-China. 

ERIOCAULON ALPESTRE Hook. f. & Th. ex Koern. in Miq. Ann. Mus. 
Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3 (1867) 163; Ruhl. in Engl. Pnanzenreich 13 
(1903) 95; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 291. 
Mindanao (Davao), Copeland 14-31. In open wet places, altitude about 
1,800 m. India to Japan south to Indo-China. 

ERIOCAULON BREVIPEDUNCULATUM Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 
(1907) Bot. 265. 
Mindoro, Merrill 6214. On seepage slopes in open heaths on Mt. Halcon, 
altitude about 2,400 m. Borneo. 

ERIOCAULON CINEREUM R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 254; Benth. Fl. Austral. 
7 (1878) 193; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 291, Fl. 
Manila (1912) 136. 
Eriocaulon sieboldianum Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. Syn 2 (1855) 272; 
Ruhl. in Engl. Pnanzenreich 13 (1903) 111, /. 15 A-G. 
Luzon (Rizal), Merrill Phil. PI. \29\3, 1276, B. S. 24072 Ramo&, In 
fallow wet rice lands at low altitudes. Africa to Japan, Malaya, and 
Australia. 

Local name: Dundunsug (P. Bis.). 



Vo1 - 1 ERIOCAULACEAE 193 

ERIOCAULON DEPAUPERATUM Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) 
Bot. 336. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), Merrill 4520, 6590, B. S. 40528 Ramos & 
Edano. In pools and small shallow ponds* altitude 2,200 to 2,800 m. 
Endemic. 

ERIOCAULON ECH IN ULATU M Mart, in Wall. PI. As. Rar. 3 (1832) 28; 
Ruhl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 13 (1903) 106. 
Culion, B. S. 41325 Ramos. In open grassy places at low altitudes. 
Tanasserim to Indo-China and southern China. 

ERIOCAULON MERRILLII Ruhl. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 136; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 291, Fl. Manila (1912) 
136. 
Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Zambales, Rizal, Sorso- 
gon), Polillo, Culion, Sibuyan, Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill f 572, 7122, 3624, 
Elmer 14350, 1224-8, B. S. 14149 McGregor, 9031 Robinson. In open wet 
places, old rice paddies, along small streams, etc., at low altitudes. Ende- 
mic. Distinct from E. truncatum Ham.? 
Local name: Boibotanis (P. Bis.). 

ERIOCAULON NIGRICEPS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 
290. 
Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), B. S. 5544 Ramos, 31747 Santos, Merrill 
4646, 7748, Elmer 6617, Williams 946, 1004. In open wet places, altitude 
1,400 to 2, 300 m. Endemic. 

ERIOCAULON TRUNCATUM Mart, in Wall. PL As. Rar. 3 (1832) 29; 
Steud. Syn. 2 (1859) 270; Ruhl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 13 (1903) 
107; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 299. 

Luzon (Abra, Ifugao, Bontoc, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Camarines), B. S. 
33721 Ramos & Edano, 24089 Ramos, 19980, 20172, 20149 McGregor, 19267 
Reillo. In open wet places, rice paddies, etc., at low and medium altitudes. 
India to southern China and Malaya. 

Cuming 2326, credited to the Philippines by Ruhland, was from Malacca. 

Local names: Bauang-bauangan (Bik.) ; dasdasnuk (Bon.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Eriocaulon longissimum Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 131. 

This is a misprint for E. longifolium Nees, a species unknown from the 
Philippines. 

Eriocaulon sexangulare Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 299; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1857) 523; Ruhl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 13 (1903) 
110. 

Eriocaulon setaceum Linn.; Naves 1. c. 

BROMELIACEAE 

1. ANANAS Tournefort 

ANANAS COMOSUS (Linn.) Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 133, Sp. 
Blancoanae (1918) 94. 
Bromelia comosa Linn, in Stickman Herb. Amb. (1754) 21, Amoen. 
Acad. 4 (1759) 130. 

183036 43 



194 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Bromelia ananas Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 285; Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 

230, ed. 2 (1845) 162, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 291, t. 458. 
Bromelia pigna Perr. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 103; C. B. 

Bob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 304. 
Ananas sativus Schultes f. Syst. 7 2 (1830) 1283; Merr. Fl. Manila 

(1912) 137. 
Ananassa sativa Lindl. Bot. Reg. (1827) sub. t. 1068; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1859) 584; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 256; Merr. in Govt. 
Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 24. 
Ananassa ananas Karst. Deutsch. Fl. (1880-83) 466. 
Widely cultivated in the Philippines; in some regions, Palawan, thor- 
oughly naturalized. A native of tropical America, now cultivated in all 
tropical countries. Pineapple. 

Local names: Apangdan (Bon.); pangdan (Bon.); pina (Sp.). 

EXCLUDED GENERA 

BlLLBERGlA zebrina Lindl.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 257. 

Pitcairnia brachiata Cham. ; Naves 1. c. 

COMMELINACEAE 
1. POLLIA Thunberg 
POLLIA MACROPHYLLA Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 (1878) 90; C. B. Clarke 
in DC. Monog Phan. 3 (1881) 128; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 
269; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. (1892) 173. 

Philippines, fide C. B. Clarke, who cites specimens from Cuming and 
Llanos. These, however, need critical comparison with P. sorzogonensis 
(E. Meyer) Steud. New Guinea, Solomon Islands, tropical Australia. 

POLLIA SORZOGONENSIS (E. Meyer) Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 
368; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 541; C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. 
Phan. 3 (1881) 126; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 269; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 153, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 278; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 34, 3 (1908) Bot. 
400, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 94. 
Aclisia sorzogonensis E. Meyer in Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 138, 

t. 25. 
Lechea minor Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 52, ed. 2 (1845) 35, ed. 3, 

1 (1877) 65, non Linn. 
Aclisia cumingiana Klotz. in Hassk. Commel. Ind. (1870) 47. 
Northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao. Common in 
primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Southern China to Java and 
the Moluccas. 

Local names: Alikbangon (Tag); lohod-lohod (Bis.); luho-luho (S. L. 
Bis.); salibangung (Bag.). 

POLLIA SUMATRANA Hassk. Commel. Ind. (1870) 56; C. B. Clarke in 
DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 125; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 269; 
Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 278. 
Luzon (Rizal, Bulacan, Laguna), Polillo, Biliran, Samar, Leyte, Min- 
danao, Piper 483, Elmer 7153, B. S. 6724 Robinson, 15702 Fenix, 18667 
McGregor, 1088, 24425 Ramos. In primary forests at low and medium 
altitudes. Sumatra. 



VoL 1 COMMELINACEAE 195 

Clarke's description is based on Cuming's Philippine plant. I do not 
know whether or not it is identical with Hasskarl's type. 

Local names: Aregbabangon. (S. L. Bis.); idog (Mbo.) ; mantauasi 
(Buk.). 

POLLIA THYRSI FLORA (Blume) Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 368; 
C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 124; Naves Novis. 
App. (1880) 269; Vidal Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 278; Hallier 
f. in Nova Guinea 8 (1913) 907, Beihefte Bot. Centrabl. 34 J 
(1916) 51. 
Tradescantia thyrsiflora Blume Enum. PL Jav. 1 (1827) 6. 
Pollia philippinensis Elm. Lean". Philip. Bot. 1 (1908) 275. 

Luzon (Cagayan to Sorsogon) to Palawan and Mindanao, Elmer 9162, 
18545, 15329, Wenzel 1166, Merrill 9268, 4007, Loher 6981, F. B. 19623 
Curran, B. S. 25857 Yates, 12651 Fenix. In primary forests at low and 
medium altitudes. Andaman Islands to Java and Celebes. 

Local names: Talibangung (Bag.); sapilko (Ig.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Pollia aclisia Hassk.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 268. 
Pollia crispata Benth.; Naves op. cit. 269. 
Pollia japonica Thunb.; Naves op. cit. 268. 

2. COM M ELI N A Plumier 

COMMELINA BENGHALENSIS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 41; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1859) 533; C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 

159; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 269; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 

(1908) Bot. 400, Fl. Manila (1912) 138, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 94. 

Commelina polygama Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 25 (poligama) , ecL 2 

(1845) 18, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 34, t. 13, non Roth. 

Throughout the Philippines in open grasslands and waste places in the 

settled areas at low and medium altitudes, often common. Tropical Africa 

and Asia to Japan and Malaya. 

Local names: Alibangon (Tag.) ; bias-bias (Pamp.) ; kabilau (Bis.) ; ku- 
hasi (Iv.) ; kulkul-lasi (Ilk.) ; sabilau (Bis.) ; sambilau (Bis.) ; uligbongon 
(Tag.). 

COMMELINA CHAMISSONIS Klotz. ex C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phan, 
3 (1881) 186; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 270. 
The type is a specimen from Luzon, collected by Chamisso, probably from 
either Cavite or Batangas Province or possibly from the vicinity of Manila. 
I have seen no specimens I can with certainty refer to it, but some may 
have been distributed sub C. nudiflora Linn. Australia. 

COMMELINA NUDIFLORA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 4; C. B. Clarke in DC. 
Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 144; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 269; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 400, FL Manila (1912) 138. 
Tradescantia cristata Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) 
t. 83, non Linn. 

Throughout the Philippines in open grasslands, waste places, etc., at low 
and medium altitudes, often common. Pantropic. 

Local names: Alikbangon (Tag.); bangar-an-lalaki (If.); gatilang 
(Bon.) katkatauang (Bon.) ; kitkit-auang (Bon.) ; kohasi (Iv.) ; kolasi 
(Ilk.); kulkul-lasi (Ilk.). 



196 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

COM M ELI N A UN DU LATA R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 270; C. B. Clarke in 
DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 179; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 270; 
Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 173. 

Philippines fide C. B. Clarke 1. c. India to southern China, Riu Kiu 
Islands, Moluccas, tropical Australia. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Commelina barbata Lam.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 270. 
Commelina communis Linn.; Naves 1. c. 
Commelina obliqua Ham.; Naves 1. c. 
Commelina salicifolia Roxb.; Naves op. cit. 269. 
Commelina subulata Roth; Naves 1. c. 
Commelina suffruticosa Blume; Naves op. cit. 270. 

3. ANEILEMA R. Brown 

ANEILEMA AZUREUM Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 292. 
Luzon (Bulacan), Semirara, Merrill U13U, B. S. 21669 Ramos. In open 
wet grasslands at low altitudes. Endemic. 

ANEILEMA GIGANTEUM (Vahl) R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 271; Naves Novis. 
App. (1880) 271; C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 
212; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 294. 
Commelina giganlea Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 177. 

Semirara, Mindanao (Bukidnon), Merrill 4-132, B. S. 31385 Escritor, 
39210 Ramos & Edano, 26138 Fenix, F. B. 26553 Rola. In open grasslands 
at low and medium altitudes. Tropical Africa and Asia through Malaya 
to tropical Australia. 

ANEILEMA HUMILE Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 4. 

Alabat, Merrill 10459. On wet slopes in primary forests at low alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

ANEILEMA MALABARICUM (Linn.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 

Bot. 232, Fl. Manila (1912) 138. 
Tradescantia malabarica Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1762) 412. 
Commelina nudicaulis Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 17, t. 8, f. 1. 
Commelina nudiflora Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 177, non Sp. PI. (1753). 
Aneilema nudiflorum R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 271; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 

3 (1859) 537; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 271, t. 467 ; C. B. Clarke 

in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 210; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. 

(1885) 153, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 278. 
Commelina trichocolea Schauer in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) 

Suppl. 1: 448; Walp. Ann. 1 (1849) 885. 

Throughout the Philippines. Common in open grasslands, waste places, 
etc., at low and medium altitudes. India to China, the Riu Kiu Islands, and 
Malaya. 

Local names: Aligbangon (Pang.); aligbangon-lalaki (Tag.); alitba- 
ngun (Tag.); fangau (Bon.); olikbangon (Tag.); takdayan (Ig.). 

ANEILEMA PLATYPHYLLUM Merr. in Philip. Journ- Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 
293. 
Luzon (Pangasinan, Rizal), B. S. 985, 3342, 20985 Ramos, 17900 Otanes. 
Along streams in shaded places at low altitudes. Endemic. 



VoL * COMMELINACEAE 197 

ANEILEMA SPIRATUM (Linn.) R. Br. ex C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. 
Phan. 3 (1881) 207; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 270. 
Commelina spirata Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 176. 

This is credited to the Philippines by C. B. Clarke on the basis of a spec- 
imen from Lake Bay, Luzon, collected by Baume and preserved in the 
Paris herbarium. This specimen may be A. malabaricum (Linn.) Merr., or 
I may have included A. spiratum R. Br. in my conception of A. malaba- 
ricum (Linn.) Merr. India to Indo-China, China, and Java. 

ANEILEMA VERSICOLOR Dalz. in Hook. Journ. Bot. Kew Miscel. 3 

(1851) 136; C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 208; Merr. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 232, Fl. Manila (1912) 139. 

Luzon (Rizal), Culion, Merrill 36U, 518, Phil. PL 1980, 768, Loher 

6986, B. S. 10877 Ramos, 19171 Reillo. In open wet grasslands, fallow 

rice paddies, etc., at low altitudes. India. 

ANEILEMA VITIENSE Seem. Fl. Vit. (1865-73) 314, t. 96; C. B. Clarke 
in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 220; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 271. 
Philippines, Moseley, fide C. B. Clarke. Fiji, Samoa. 

Var. PET 10 LATA C. B. Clarke 1. c. 

Northern Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands 
and provinces, Merrill U862, 5332, 5119, 713U, Phil. PL 33, Weber 1022, 
Elmer 13557, 15366, 18053, Wenzel 4, Whitford 973, B. S. 12U09 McGregor, 
18081 Robinson, 15701 Fenix, 29057, 30928 Ramos & Edano. In damp 
shaded ravines usually along small streams at low and medium altitudes, 
ascending to 1,400 m. The variety endemic, the species in Samoa and Fiji. 

Aneilema scaberrima (Blume) Kunth has been credited to the Philippines 
by Hallier f., Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 34 2 (1916) 50, as A. protensum 
Wall., but I suspect that the specimen he examined is A. vitiense Seem. 

Local names: Balukid (Buk.) ; dalidigan (Mbo.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Aneilema dimorphum Dalz. ; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 270. 

Aneilema glaucum Thw.; Naves 1. c. 

Aneilema hamiltonianum Wall.; Naves 1. c. 

Aneilema herbaceum Wall.; Naves op. cit. 270. 

Aneilema loureirii Hance; Naves 1. c. 

Aneilema medium R. Br.; Naves 1. c. 

Aneilema monadelphum Kunth; Naves op. cit. 271. 

Aneilema scapiflorum Wight; Naves op. cit. 270. 

Aneilema sinicum Lindl.; Naves op. cit. 271. 

4. FOR REST I A A. Richard 

FORRESTIA HISPIDA Less. & A. Rich. Sert. Astrolab. (1834) 2, t. 1, var. 

PHILIPPINENSIS (Merr.) comb. nov. 
Forrestia philippinensis Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 

5, Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 266. 
Forrestia hispida Less. & A. Rich. var. glabrior Hallier f. in Nova 

Guinea 8 (1913) 906, Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 34 2 (1916) 46. 



198 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines,, Albay, Sorsogon), Polillo, Ca- 
tanduanes, Mindoro, Leyte, Negros, Panay, Samar, Mindanao ( Agusan, 
Bukidnon, Lanao), Basilan. In thickets and old clearings in the vicin- 
ity of primary forests and in primary forests at low and medium 
altitudes; .represented by numerous collections. The variety in Borneo, 
the species in New Guinea. 

Local names: Arigbabangon (S. L. Bis.); lohod-lohod (C. Bis.); 
malitago (Mbo.) ; mani-utus (Lan.) ; salimbagun (Bag.) ; tahig-tahig 
(Bik.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Forrestia glabrata Hassk. ; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 271. 
Forrestia marginata Hassk.; Naves 1. c. 
Forrestia mollis Hassk. ; Naves 1. c. 

5. CYANOTIS D. Don 

CYANOTIS AXILLARIS (Linn.) D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 46; R. 
& S. Syst. 7 a (1830) 1154; Schauer in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 
19 (1843) Suppl. 1 : 447; C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 
244; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 272; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. 
(1885) 153, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 278; Merr. PI. Manila 
(1912) 140. 
Commelina axillaris Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 42. 
Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and prov- 
inces. In clearings, open places along streams, rice paddies, etc., at low 
and medium altitudes ; often common. India to China through Malaya to 
Australia. 

Local names: Alikbangon (Tag.) ; alitbahgon (Tag.) ; kulasin-marintek 
(Pang.); sabilau (P. Bis.). 

CYANOTIS CAPITATA (Blume) C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 
243; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 272. 
Tradescantia capitata Blume Enum. PI. Jav. (1827-28) 6. 
Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, Clemens 773, Copeland 
740, Merrill 803, 4426, 81 5 4, 5462, 1804, F. B. 3453 Hutchinson, B. S. 26076 
Fenix, 23850 Ramos, 32555 McGregor. Along streams in shaded ravines, 
in damp thickets, etc., at low and medium altitudes; really distinct from C. 
moluccana (Roxb.) Merr.? Japan to Indo-China and Java. 

CYANOTIS CRISTATA (Linn.) R. & S. Syst. 7 2 (1830) 1150; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1859) 544; C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 247; 
Naves Novis. App. (1880) 272; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 
153, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 278; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 
140, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 95. 
Commelina cristata, Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 42. 
Tradescantia critata Linn. Syst. ed.'12 (1767) 233; Blanco Fl. Filip. 

(1837) 231, ed. 2 (1845) 163, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 293. 
Zygomenes cristata W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 
404. 
Luzon (most or all provinces), Basilan. In old clearings, open places 
along streams, about cliffs, etc., at low and medium altitudes. India to 
Mauritius and Malaya. 

Local names: Alikbangon (Tag.); kulasing-akabaleg (Pang.). 



Vo1 - * COMMELINACEAE 199 

CYANOTIS MOLUCCANA (Roxb.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 

Bot. 266, PI. Manila (1912) 139. 
Commelina moluccana Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 176. 
Cyanotis uniflora Hassk. Commel. Ind. (1870) 104; C. B. Clarke in 

DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 242; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 272; 

Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 34. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon), Mindoro, 
Leyte, Mindanao, Baker 500, Wenzel 54.2, Merrill £206, 6227, 7132, Williams 
24-9. On bowlders in ravines, along small streams, etc., at low and medium 
altitudes. Java, Borneo, Moluccas. 

Not always readily distinguishable from C. capitata Clarke. 

CYANOTIS PEDUNCULATA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 
266. 
Leyte, Wenzel 1024.. In forests, altitude about 500 m. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES . 

Cyanotis papilionacea R. & S.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 272. 
Cyanotis tuberosa R. & S.; Naves 1. c. 
Cyanotis vaga R. & S.; Naves 1. c. 

6. FLOSCOPA Loureiro 

FLOSCOPA SCANDENS Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 193; C. B. Clarke in 

DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 265; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 272; 

Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 153, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 

278; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 95. 
Tradescantia rufa Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 138. 
Floscopa rufa Hassk. in Miq. PI. Jungh. (1852) 151; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1859) 542. 
Tradescantia geniculata Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 232, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 

294, non Jacq. 

Northern Luzon (Cagayan) to the Calamian Islands and Mindanao, in 
most or all islands and provinces. In wet places along small streams at 
low and medium altitudes. India to China through Malaya to tropical Aus- 
tralia. 

Local names: Aligbahgon (Tag.); babilau (S. L. Bis.); kumpai (P. 
Bis.); pugad-labuyo (Tag.); sambilau (S. L. Bis.). 

7. RHOEO Hance 

RHOEO DISCOLOR (L'Herit.) Hance in Walp. Ann. 3 (1853) 660; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 273, Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 84; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 139, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 94. 
Tradescantia discolor L'Herit. Sert. Angl. (1788) 8, t. 12; Blanco Fl. 
Filip. (1837) 232, ed. 2 (1845) 163, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 294, t. 84. 

Planted for ornamental purposes, sometimes long-persistent after cul- 
tivation but scarcely established. A native of tropical America. 

8. ZEBRINA Schnizlein 

ZEBRINA PENDULA Schnizl. in Bot. Zeit. 7 (1849) 870; C. B. Clarke in 
DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 318; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 
(1912) Bot. 232, Fl. Manila (1912) 140. 



200 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Introduced from tropical America and cultivated as an ornamental, now 
more or less established in coconut groves, etc., at medium altitudes. Wan- 
dering Jew. 

PONTEDERIACEAE 

1. EICHORNIA Kunth 

EICHORNIA CRASSIPES (Mart.) Solms in DC. Monog. Phan. 4 (1883) 
527. 
Pontederia crassipes Mart. Nov. Gen. Sp. PI. 1 (1824) 9, t. 4. 
Eichornia speciosa Kunth Enum. PI. 4 (1843) 131. 
Piaropus crassipes Britton in Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 7 (1893) 241. 
Introduced about 1912 as an ornamental, nbw very abundant in shallow 
water of lakes and in slow streams in central Luzon, occurring also in 
northern Luzon and in Negros. Within a few years to be expected through- 
out the Philippines. A native of tropical America, now pantropic. Water 
hyacinth. 

2. MONOCHORIA Presl 

MONOCHORIA HASTATA (Linn.) Solms in DC. Monog. Phan. 4 (1883) 
523; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 141, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 95. 
Pontederia hastata Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 288. 
Monochoria hastaefolia Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 128; Miq. FL 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 548; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 267. 
Pontederia vaginalis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 255, ed. 2 (1845) 178, ed. 

3, 1 (1877) 320, t. 466, non Burm. f. 
Monochoria, dilatata Kunth Enum. 4 (1843) 134; Naves Novis. App. 
(1880) 268. 
Luzon to Mindanao, Elmer 14319, Merrill 4088, Phil. PI. 1121, Sp. Blan- 
coanae 419, McGregor 93, Clemens 179, B. S. 1456 Mangubat. In open 
wet lands, swamps, etc., at low and medium altitudes. India to southern 
China and Malaya. 

Local names: Gabi-gabi (Bis); gabi-gabihan (Tag.); kosol-kosol (Bis.); 
payau-payau (Bis). 

MONOCHORIA VAGINALIS (Burm. f.) Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 128; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 548; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 267; 
Solms in DC. Monog. Phan. 4 (1883) 524; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 153, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 278; Merr. FL 
Manila (1912) 141, Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 135. 
Pontederia vaginalis Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 80; Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 
222; Schauer in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 446. 
Monochoria ovata Kunth Enum. 4 (1843) 665; Naves Novis. App. 
(1880) 268. 
Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes; common in 
open wet places, rice paddies, swamps, etc. Tropical and subtropical Asia 
to Malaya. 

Local names: Biga-bigaan (Tag.); bil-lagut (Ilk.); gabi-gabi (P. Bis., 
C. Bis.) ; gabing-uak (Tag.) hahalung (If.) ; hakhaklung (If.) ; kalabua 
(Tag.) ; lagtang (Bik.) ; lapalapa (Ilk.) ; saksaklung (Ig.) ; saksakong 
(Bon.); upi-upi (Bik.). 



VoL * PONTEDERIACEAE 201 

Var. PAUCI FLORA (Blume) comb. nov. 

Pontederia pauciflora Blume Enum. Pi. Jav. 1 (1827) 32. 
Pontederia plantaginea Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 123. 
Monochoria pauciflora Kunth Enum. 4 (1843) 135; Naves Novis. 
' App. (1880) 268. 

Monochoria plantaginea Kunth 1. c. ; Naves 1. c. 

Monochoria vaginalis Presl, var. plantaginea Solms in DC. Monog. 
Phan. 4 (1883) 524. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya), Merrill 4616, 
^ Phil. PL 1723, Elmer 5953, B. S. 31813 Santos, 11371 McGregor, 11+109 Rob- 
inson, F. B. 16531 Curran & Merritt, 15516 Merritt & Darling. In swamps, 
rice paddies, etc., altitude 1,000 to 2,000 m. India to China and Java. 

The family Philydraceae has been credited to the Philippines on the 
basis of a Cuming specimen so labeled; Caruel in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 
(1881) 3; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 268. Cuming's specimen was from 
the Malay Peninsula, not from the Philippines. No representative of the 
family is known from the Archipelago. 

JUNCACEAE 
1. J UNCUS Linnaeus 

J UNCUS BUFONIUS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 328; Buchenau in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 25 (1906) 105; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) 
Bot. 294. 
Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 7794. Along the bridle trails in the mossy 

forest on Mt. Santo Tomas, altitude 1,900 m; probably introduced. Warmer 

parts of both hemispheres. 

JUNCUS EFFUSUS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 326; Buchenau in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 25 (1906) 135. 
Juncus communis E. Meyer June. Gen. Monogr. Spec. (1819) 20; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 273. 

Luzon (Benguet, Bontoc), Mindanao (Davao). In open swampy places, 
altitude 1,400 to 2,300 m. Warmer parts of both hemispheres, especially 
common in the North Temperate Zone. 

Local names: Badili (Ig.) ; balili (Bon.); pingot (Bon.); sudsud (Ig.). 
JUNCUS PRISMATOCARPUS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 259, var. LESCHE- 
NAULTII (J. Gay) Buchenau in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 6 (1885) 137, 
Engl. Pflanzenreich 25 (1906) 180. 
Juncus leschenaultii J. Gay ex Laharpe in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 
3 (1827) 205; C. B. Rob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 176. 
Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), Merrill 4517, 4739, Williams 1974bis, B. S. 
2791, 4261 Mearns. In cold open swamps, altitude 1,500 to 2,300 m. India 
and Ceylon to Kamchatka and Japan, to southern China, Australia, and 
New Zealand. 

2. LUZULA de Candolle 

LUZULA CAMPESTRIS (Linn.) DC. Fl. Fr. 3 (1805) 161; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 273; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 337, 
in nota; Buchenau in Engl. Pflanzenreich 25 (1906) 83, /. 52-55. 
Juncus campestris Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 329. 



202 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 8426 McGregor, '31787 Santos. On slopes in 
pine forests, at Pauai, extending into the mossy forest along trails, altitude 
2,000 to 2,400 m. Temperate regions in both hemispheres. 

LUZULA EFFUSA Buchenau Krit. Verz. June. (1880) 53, 88, Engl. Pflan- 

zenreich 25 (1906) 61; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 337. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 6490. In the upper border of the mossy forest 

and in the summit grasslands on Mt. Pulong, altitude about 2,700 m. 

Himalayan region, China. 

STEMONACEAE 

1. STEMONA Loureiro 

STEMONA PHILIPPINENSIS Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 
(1904) 16. 

Masbate, Merrill 3061. On ridges in thickets of forests at low alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Sigid (P. Bis.). 

STEMONA TU SEROSA Lour. PI. Cochinch. (1790) 404; C. H. Wright in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 32 (1896) 495; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. 
(Philip.) 6 (1904) 16, Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 135. 
Roxburghia gloriosoides Roxb. PI. Coromandel 1 (1795) 29, t. 32. 

Luzon, without definite locality, Palawan, Leyte, Negros, Merrill 792, 
Loher 6969, Wenzel 174-6, Eskridge. In thickets and forests at low alti- 
tudes; rare or local. India to Formosa and southward to the Moluccas. 

Local name: Lubilubi' (C. Bis.). 

LILIACEAE 

1. IPHIGENIA Kunth 

IPHIGENIA INDICA (Linn.) Kunth Enum. 4 (1843) 213; Hook. f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind. 6 (1892) 357; C. B. Rob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) 
Bot. 176. 
Melanthium indicum Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 226. 

Luzon (Cavite, Rizal, Laguna), Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao), Weber 
11*62, Williams 2962, Loher 1913. In open grasslands at low and medium 
altitudes; rare or local. India to Australia. 

2. THYSANOTUS R. Brown 

THYSANOTUS CHINENSIS Benth. Fl. Hongk. (1861) 372; Hallier f. in 

Nova Guinea 8 (1914) 991. 
Thysanotus chrysantherus F. Muell. Fragm. 5 (1866) 202; Naves 

Novis. App. (1880) 266; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 153, 

Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 277. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Pangasinan), 
Cuming \981, Merrill U51, 7750, Williams 971, 1455, B. S. 4905, 27527 
Ramos, F. B. 4.836, 15618 Curran. On open grassy slopes at medium 
altitudes, ascending to 1,600 m. Malay Peninsula, Indo-China,, southern 
China, New Guinea, tropical Australia. 

3. DIANELLA Lamarck 

Dl AN ELLA CAERULEA Sims in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 15 (1801) t. 505; 
Red. Lil. 2 (1805) t. 79; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
266, 5 (1910) Bot. 337; Hallier f. in Nova Guinea 8 (1914) 993. 



Vol.1 



LILIACEAE 203 



Luzon (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Benguet, Pangasinan, Bulacan, 
Rizal, Bataan, Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), 
Catanduanes, Polillo, Mindoro, Leyte, Negros, Mindanao. In forests at 
medium and higher altitudes, ascending to 2,200 m; represented by numer- 
ous collections. New Guinea, New Caledonia, Queensland, Fiji. 

Local names: Ablaas (Bag.) ; bariu-bariu (P. Bis.) ; dungau (Ig.) ; oyon- 
oyon (P. Bis.). 

3 

DIANELLA ENSI FOLIA (Linn.) DC. in Red. Lil. 1 (1802) t. 1; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 264; Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 277, 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 153; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 
(1907) Bot. 266, 3 (1908) Bot. 401, 5 (1910) Bot. 337; Hallier f. 
in Nova Guinea 8 (1914) 992. 

Dracaena ensifolia Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 63. 

Dianella robusta Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1806. 

Palawan, Panay, Jolo, Bucas Grande, Mindanao, B. S. 35067, 3^801 Ra- 
mos & Pascasio, 30995 Ramos & Edano, 21562 Escritor, Elmer 12900, 
Merrill 5317, 9338, Clemens 9377. In light forests at low altitudes. India 
to the Mascarene Islands, China, Formosa, Malaya, tropical Australia, 
and Polynesia. 

DIANELLA JAVANICA (Blume) Kunth Enum. 5 (1850) 52; Hallier f. in 
Nova Guinea 8 (1914) 992. 
Rhuacophila javanica Blume Enum. 1 (1827) 14; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. 

Soc. Bot. 42 (1914) 166. 
Dianella austro-caledonica Seem. Fl. Vit. (1865-73) 312; Lauterb. in 
Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 50 (1913) 294. 
Batan Islands, Luzon (Ifugao, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Zambales, 
Tayabas, Camarines, Albay), Mindoro, Mindanao (Davao), B. S. 31837 
Santos, 8U78, 17671, 8873 McGregor, 5U08 Ramos, 37636 Ramos & Edano, 
Cuming 929, Merrill 550U, 6585, Williams 2556, 127 U, 1533, Elmer 5797, 
Copeland 1035. On open slopes, in ravines, and in forests, altitude 1,000 
to 2,400 m. Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Moluccas, 
New Guinea, New Caledonia. 

Local, names: Apilug (Ig.) ; sapilau (Ig.) ; talobatub (Bon.); uraya 
(Ig.). 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Dianella bancana Miq.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 264. 

Dianella Montana Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Dianella philippensis Perr. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 112 ; C. B. 
Rob. in 'Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 305. 
"Espece nouvelle de Mindanao" Perrottet. A nomen nudum. 
Dianella revoluta R. Br.; Schauer in Nov. Act, Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) 
Supp. 1 : 445. 
Meyen's Jala Jala specimen, so identified by Schauep, is probably refer- 
able to the species I have interpreted as D. caerulea Sims. 



204 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

4. ALOE Tournefort 

ALOE VERA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 320; Berger in Engl. Pflanzenreich 33 
(1908) 228, /. 84, A-D; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 95. 

Aloe humilis Blanco PL Filip. (1837) 256, ed 2 (1845) 179, ed. 3, 1 
(1877) 321, t. 95, non Linn. 

Aloe'barbadensis Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8 (1768) No. 2; Naves Novis. 
App. (1880) 266. 

Cultivated for ornamental and medicinal purposes, Merrill Sp. Blanco- 
anae 1005. Subtemperate and tropical regions generally, often cultivated. 

Local names: Dilang-boaia (Bis.); dilang-halo (Bis.); sabila (Tag.); 
sabila-pina (Tag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Aloe umbellata DC; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 266. 

5. ALLIUM Tournefort ' 

No species of this genus occurs naturally in the Philippines, although 
several are cultivated. These include the onion, Allium cepa Linn., 
locally known as cebollas or sibuyas, lasond (Ilk.); the garlic, A Ilium 
sativum Linn., locally known as djos and bduang; and A. tuberosum Roxb., 
a form locally known as cuchdi or ganda. The last is the form de- 
scribed by Blanco as Allium tricoccum (non Ait.) and by Loureiro as Allium 
angulosum (non Linn.). Other species credited to the Philippines by 
Naves Novis. App. (1880) 267 are Allium fistulosum Linn.,, A. jacquemontii 
Kunth, A. ascalonicum Linn., and A. uliginosum Don = A. tuberosum Roxb.; 
I have seen no Philippine specimens of the first three, and it is probable 
that they do not occur in the Philippines even in cultivation. 

6. LILIUM Tournefort 

LILIUM LONGIFLORUM Thunb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 2 (1794) 333; Merr. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 400. 

Y'Ami and Batan Islands, Worcester, B. S. 3774 Fenix. On open grassy 
slopes at low altitudes. Japan, China, Formosa. 
Local name: Vonitan (Iv.). 

LILIUM PHILIPPINENSE Baker in Gard. Chron. (1873) 1141, /. 243, 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot.' 14 (1874) 228 (philippense) ; Curtis's Bot. 
Mag. Ill 32 (1876) t. 6250; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 266; Vidal 
Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 277; Merr. Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) 
Bot. 337. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Pangasinan) , B. S. 31851 Santos, 8791 McGre- 
gor, 4349, 3493 Mearns, 8291 Ramos, Merrill 4802, Williams 1132, Elmer 
6389. On open slopes in the pine region, altitude 1,100 to 2,300 m. 
Formosa. 

Local names: Kanyon (Ilk.) ; luplupak (Ig.) ; soyasoi (Ig.) ; tuktukpau 
(Bon.); tubtubkau (Ig.). v 

7. YUCCA Dillenius 

YUCCA ALOI FOLIA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 319; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 
266; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 32, Fl. Manila 
(1912) 145. 
Planted here and there for ornamental purposes, but not naturalized. 
A native of tropical America. 



Vo1 - x LILIACEAE 205 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

YUCCA GLORIOSA Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 266. 
Yucca superba Haw.; Naves 1. c. 

8. TAETSIA Medicus 

(Cordyline Commerson) 

TAETSIA FRUTICOSA (Linn.) Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 137, 

Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 96. 
Convallaria fruticosa Linn, in Stickman Herb. Amb. (1754) 16, Amoen. 

Acad. 4 (1759) 126, Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 894. 
Asparagus terminalis Linn. Sp. PL ed. 2 (1762) 450. 
Dracaena terminalis Rich, in Lam. Encycl. 2 (1786) 324; Blanco Fl. 

Filip. (1837) 263, ed. 2 (1845) 183, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 328, t. 98. 
Cordyline terminalis Kunth in Abh. Acad. Berlin (1820) 30, Enum. 

5 (1850) 25; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 558; Naves Novis. App. 

(1880) 265; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 145. 

Widely cultivated for ornamental purposes, but not a native of the 
Archipelago. Pantropic in cultivation, probably a native of Malaya. 

Local names: Baston de San Jose (Sp.) ; danga (Ilk.) ; dang-nga (Bon.) ; 
dongla (If.) ; kilaa (Bis.) ; kilala (Bik.) ; sagilala (Tag.) ; tokor-pari 
(Pamp.) ; tonkod-obispo (Tag.); tungkod-pari (Tag.). 

9. PLEOMELE Salisbury 

PLEOMELE ANGUSTIFOLIA (Roxb.) N. E. Br. in Kew Bull. (1914) 277; 

Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 137, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 96. 
Dracaena angustifolia Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 24, Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 

(1832) 155; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 264; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 35, 3 (1908) Bot. 400. 
Pandmms inermis Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 537, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 

184, non Roxb. 

Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most 
or all islands and provinces. Chiefly in primary forests at low and 
medium altitudes; represented by more than 50 individual collections. 
India through Malaya to Australia. 

Local names: Gigiman (Pang.); malasambal (Tag.); pasiu (Ibn.) ; 
saranakatmano (Bag.); taligbuhuk (Tag.); uhango-nu-kurang (Iv.). 

PLEOMELE MULTI FLORA (Warb.) comb. nov. 

Dracaena multiflora Warb. ex Sarasin Reisen in Celebes 1 (1905) 
136, t. 4. 
Batan Islands, Luzon (Nueva Ecija, Tayabas) , Polillo, Mindoro, Pala- 
wan, Ticao, Masbate, Sulu Archipelago, Merrill 9U2U, 5402 B. S. 26434 Ramos 
& Edano, 10407 McGregor, 39508 Ramos, F. B. 18815 Foxworthy, De Mesa, 
& Villamil. Chiefly on limestone formations along the seashore. Celebes. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Dracaena acuminata Thunb. ; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 264. 
Dracaena draco Linn.; Naves op. cit. 265. 



206 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

10. CORDYLINE Royen ex Adanson 

(Sansevieria Thunberg) 

CORDYLINE ROXBURGHIANA (Schultes) comb. nov. 

Sansevieria roxburghiana Schultes Syst. 7 (1829) 357; Naves Novis. 

App. (1880) 265; N. E. Br. in Kew Bull. (1915) 227, /. 12, D. E. 
Sansevieria zeylanica Roxb. PL Coromandel. 2 (1798) 43, t. 18U, quoad 
fig.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 265, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) 
t. 422; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 559; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 
144, non Willd. 
Cordyline hyacinthoides W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 249, non Aloe hyacinthoides Linn. 
Often cultivated, but in many regions naturalized, occurring in thickets 
and hedges at low and medium altitudes. A native of tropical Asia, now 
pantropic in cultivation. Bowstring hemp. 

Local names: Aspi-aspi (Pamp.) ; baniat (Is.); bontot-palos (Tag.); 
dildila (Ilk.) ; kakarohai (Ibn.) ; pakarohai (Ibn.) ; rabo de leon (Sp.) ; 
rabo de tigre (Sp.) ; sigre (Is.); sinaua (Tag.); tigi (Ibn.); tigre (Sp.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Sansevieria grandicuspis Haw.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 265. 
Sansevieria guineensis Willd.; Naves 1. c. 

11. ASPARAGUS Tournefort 

ASPARAGUS COCHINCHINENSIS (Lour.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 15 
(1919) 230. 
Melanthium cochinchinense Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 216. 
Asparagus lucidus Lindl. Bot. Reg. (1844) Misc. 29, var. dolicho- 
cladus Merr. & Rolfe in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 96. 

Luzon (Benguet) , Loher 1928, without data, but probably from above 
1,200 m altitude. Japan, China, Formosa. 

The above is the only indigenous species of the genus. Introduced and 
occasionally cultivated species include the common asparagus (Sp. espa- 
rrago) Asparagus officinalis Linn., A. plumosus Baker, and A. sprengeri 
Regel; see Merrill, Fl. Manila (1912) 143. Naves has credited Aspara- 
gus declinatus Linn, and A. racemosus Willd. to the Philippines, Novis. 
App. (1880) 264, but both were apparently admitted on erroneous identifi- 
cations. 

12. DISPORUM Salisbury 

DISPORUM LUZONIENSE Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 338. 

Disporum pullum Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 182, 

non Salisb. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill 4857, 6619, Phil. PI. 899, 

B. S. SI 675 Santos, 59 U2 Ramos, 8483 McGregor, 4316 Mearns. In the 

mossy forest, altitude 1,700 to 2,400 m. Endemic. 

13. LI R I OPE Loureiro 
LIRIOPE BRACHYPHYLLA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 266. 
Mindoro, Merrill 5710. On seepage slopes in open heath on Mt. Halcon, 
altitude about 2,400 m. Endemic. 



VoL l LILIACEAE 207 

LIRIOPE GRAMINIFOLIA (Linn.) Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 17 

(1879) 499. 

Dracaena graminifolia Linn. Syst. ed. 12 (1767) 246. 

Liriope spicata Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 201; C. H. Wright in 

Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36 (1903) 79. 
Ophiopogon spicatus Ker in Bot. Reg. t. 593; Naves Novis. App. 

(1880) 264. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Benguet), F. B. 968 Barnes, B. S. 83196 Ramos. On 
open slopes, altitude about 1,400 m. Japan to Manchuria, southward to 
Hongkong and Formosa. 

14. OPHIOPOGON Ker 

OPHIOPOGON JAPONICUS (Linn, f.) Ker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. (1807) 
t. 1063; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 35, 5 (1910) 
Bot. 338. 
Convallaria japonica Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 204. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Pampanga, 
Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas), Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao). Chiefly in the 
mossy forest, altitude 850 to 2,400 m; represented by numerous collections. 
Japan to southern China and Formosa. 

Local names: Langigit (Ig.) ; takaau (Bon.); uli-uli (Bag.). 

OPHIOPOGON MALAYAN US Ridl. in Journ. Str. Branch Roy. As. Soc. 
41 (1904) 34. 

Jolo, Clemens 9371*. On forested slopes, altitude about 700 m. Malay 
Peninsula, Borneo. 

15. ALETRIS Linnaeus 

ALETRIS SPICATA (Thunb.) Franch. in Journ. de Bot. 10 (1896) 199; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1908) Suppl. 182, 5 (1910) Bot. 338. 
Hypoxis spicata Thunb. Fl. Jap. (1784) 136. - 

Aletris japonica Lamb, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 10 (1811) 407, non 

Thunb. 

Luzon (Abra, Bontoc, Benguet), Merrill 4685, 4801, Clemens 9178, 

Vanoverbergh 568, B. S. 7242 Ramos, 81668 Santos. On open grassy 

slopes in the pine region, altitude 1,600 to 2,300 m. Japan, China, Formosa. 

Local name: Salenganga (Ig.). 

16. SMI LAX Tournefort 

SMI LAX BRACTEATA Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 131; Kunth Enum. 5 

(1850) 251; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 566; A. DC. Monog. Phan. 

1 (1878) 197; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 87, 

Fl. Manila (1912) 142, Sp. Blancoanae' (1918) 97. 
Smilax pseudochina Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 795, ed. 2 (1845) 548, 

ed. 3, 3 (1879) 204, non Linn. 
Smilax fistulosa Blanco op. cit. 796, 549, 205; A. DC. Monog. Phan. 

1 (1878) 211. 
Smilax divaricata Blanco op. cit. 795, 548, 206, p. p.; Merr. in Govt. 

Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 87. 
Smilax blancoi Kunth Enum. 5 (1850) 262; A. DC. Monog. Phan. 1 

(1878) 211. 
Smilax indica Naves Novis. App. (1880) 262, non Vitm. 



208 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon (Benguet, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Taya- 
bas), Merrill 2548, Sp. Blancoanae 572, Phil. PI. 313, B. S. 17777 Otanes. 
Common in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Local names: Banag (Ilk., Tag., Ig.) ; banal (Ig.) ; barag (Pamp.) ; 
kamagsa-obat (Tag.) ; hampas-tigbalang (Tag.) ; kolot-babui (Tag.) ; 
ronas (Pamp.). 

SMI LAX CHINA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1029; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 
261; Merr. .in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 267, 5 (1910) 
Bot. 339. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Zambales), Mindoro, Negros, B. S. 
31754 Santos, 5413, 5733 Ramos, 8411 McGregor, F. B. 17382 Curran, 
Merrill 4749, 4497, 6126, 6211, 6140, 6552, 6494, 7043; Williams 1340, 2008. 
In the mossy forest, altitude 1,600 to 2,400 m. Japan, China. 

Local names: Buanal (Ig.) ; palitpit (Bon.). 

SMI LAX ELMERI Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 6. 

Smilax reticulata Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2740, non Desv., 
nee Heer. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Bucas Grande, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Agusan), El- 
mer 13684, 16132, B. S. 35065 Ramos & Pascasio, 88761 Ramos & Edano. 
On forested ridges up to 1,000 m altitude. Endmic. 

Local name: Simbanag (Mbo.). 

SMILAX ERECTA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 5. 

Luzon (Tayabas, east coast), B. S. 285 60^ 28472 Ramos & Edano. On 
forested slopes at low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 

SMILAX LEUCOPHYLLA Blume Enum. PI. Jav. 1 (1827) 18; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 263; Stapf in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1894) 
242; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 172; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 96, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 97. 

Smilax latifolia Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 548, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 
204, non R. Br. 

Smilax vicaria Kunth Enum. 5 (1850) 262; A. DC. Monog. Phan. 1 
(1878) 212; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 35, 2 
(1907) Bot. 267, 436. 

Smilax macrophylla Naves Novis. App. (1880) 262, non Roxb. 

Luzon (Benguet, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna), Min- 
doro, Culion, Palawan, Mindanao, Merrill 3771, 1718', 659, 5579, Sp. Blan- 
coanae 951, 690, Elmer 12613, Williams 1555, B. S. 20554, 10888 Ramos, 
22776 McGregor, 12664, 15865 Fenix, 1992 Foxworthy, F. B. 1877 Ahern's 
collector. Chiefly in primary forests at medium altitudes. Malay Penin- 
sula, Java, Borneo, Moluccas. 

Local names: Banag (Tagb.) ; banal (Ig.) ; kaguno (Neg.) ; kamot- 
kabag (Tag.); sarsaparillang-puti (Tag.); sipit-ulang (Tag.). 

SMILAX LOHERI Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 294. 

Luzon (Nueva Ecija, Rizal), Loher 6968, B. S. 26506 Ramos & Edano, 
40708 Ramos. In the mossy forest at or above 900 m altitude. 
Local name: Kiting-kiting (Neg.). 



Vo11 _ LILIACEAE 209 

SMILAX LUCIDA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 5. 

Luzon (Rizal, Tayabas, east coast), B. S. 26611 Ramos & Edano, 4.0787 
Ramos. In forests at low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Baru (Ibn.). 

SMILAX LUZON ENSIS Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 131; Kunth Emim. 5 
(1850) 261; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 566; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 295. 
Smilax helferi A. DC. Monog. Phar?. 1 (1878) 176, quoad, syn. Presl; 
Naves Novis. App. (1880) 262. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte), Panay, Catanduanes, Mindanao (Bukidnon, La- 
nao), B. S. 33327, 30228 Ramos, 35611 Martelino & Edano, 38849 Ramos & 
Edano, Clemens 835, 905, Presl! in herb. Prague. In forests at medium 
altitudes. Endemic. 

SMILAX PYGMAEA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 339. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 6598^ B. S. 8902. In the summit grasslands on 
Mt. Pulog, altitude about 2,800 m. Endemic. 

SMILAX VERRUCULOSA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 173. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet), Topping 13, Merrill 7742, Elmer 
5820, 8572, Williams 1046, B. S. 19702 McGregor, 37,672 Ramos '& Edano, 
2810 Mearns, F. B. 15617 Curran. In thickets about limestone cliffs, in 
forests and ravines, altitude 1,300 to 1,600 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Bana (Bon.); paua (Bon.). 

SMILAX WILLIAMSII Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 173. 

Luzon (Tayabas, east coast), Mindanao (Lanao, Bukidnon, Davao), 
Williams 2579, Clemens 751, B. S. 29139, 38760 Ramos & Edano. In 
thickets or forests at medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Banug (Bag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Smilax aspera Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 262. 

Smilax barbata Wall.; Naves op. cit. 263. 

Smilax bauhinioides Kunth; Naves op. cit. % 262. 

Smilax blumei A. DC; Naves op. cit. 263. 

Smilax ferox Wall.; Naves op. cit. 262. 

Smilax javensis A. DC; Naves 1. c. 

Smilax grandifolia Regel; Naves 1. c. 

Smilax klotzschii Kunth; Naves 1. c. 

Smilax laevis Wall.; Naves op. cit. 261. 

Smilax macrabucha Duch.; Naves op. cit. 263. 

Smilax macrocarpa Blume; Naves op. cit. 262. 

Smilax odoratissima Blume; Naves 1. c; Stapf in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 
4 (1894) 242. 

Smilax ovalifolia Roxb.; Naves op. cit. 263. 

183036 14 



210 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Smilax polyacantha Wall.; Naves op. cit. 262. 
Smilax wightii A. DC; Naves 1. c. 
Smilax zeylanica Lirn.; Naves I. c. 

EXCLUDED GENERA 

Heterosmilax borneensis A. DC; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 261. 
Scilla sp. ; Naves op. cit. 266. e 

Tulipa gesneriana Linn.; Naves op. cit. 266. 
Xerotes longifolia R. Br.; Naves op. cit. 273. 

AMARYLLIDACEAE 

1. ATAMOSCO Greene 

ATAMOSCO ROSEA (Lindl.) Greene Pittonia 3 (1897) 188. 

Zephyr -anthes rosea Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 10 (1824) t. 821; Merr. Fl. 

Manila (1912) 147. 
Habranthus versicolor Herb, in Curtis's Bot. Mag. t. 2485; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 255, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 271, 375. 

Widely distributed in cultivation in and about towns, sometimes per- 
sisting from previous cultivation but scarcely naturalized. A native of 
tropical America. 

2. CRINUM Linnaeus 

CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 292; Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 

251, ed. 2 (1845) 175, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 314, t. 168; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1859) 580; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 254; Merr. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Bot. 35, Fl. Manila (1912) 147, Sp. Blancoanae 

(1918) 98. 
Crinum giganteum Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 175, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 

315, non Andr. 
Haemanthus pubescens Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 253, non Linn. f. 

Throughout the Philippines along sandy seashores, sometimes planted 
inland. India to Malaya and western Polynesia. 

Local names: Agabahan (Bis.) ; agakong (Bon.) ; bakong (Tag., Bag., 
Ilk., Sbl.) ; biliba .(Sub.) ; kabong (Bik.) ; palagukon (Bis.) ; saknib (Bon.) ; 
salibangbang (Bis.); teba (Bon.). 

CRINUM GRACILE E. Meyer in Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 120; Kunth 

Enum. 5 (1850) 566; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 255; Baker Handb. 

Amaryl. (1888) 81. 

Crinum cumingii Baker in Gard. Chron. II 16 (1881) 72, Handb. 

Amaryl. (1888) 81; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 215; Vidal 

Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 275. 

Luzon (Nueva Ecija, Laguna), Mindoro, Mindanao, Cuming 1382, Presl! 

in herb. Prague, Merrill 4063, McGregor, 152, 228, Elmer 17667, Baker 

3725, Bolster 303. In primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

CRINUM LATIFOLIUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 291; Merr. Fl. Manila 
(1912) 148. 
Cultivated in towns for ornamental purposes, but scarcely naturalized. 
A native of India. 



Vol.1 



AMARYLLIDACEAE 211 



CRINUM ZEYLANICUM Linn. Syst. ed. 12 (1767) 236; Baker Handb. 
Amaryl. (1888) 87; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 148. 
Crinum ornatum Herb. Amaryll. (1837) 262; Naves Novis. App. 
(1880) 255. 
Cultivated for ornamental purposes but nowhere naturalized. A native 
of tropical Asia. 

Local names: Lilio (Sp.) ; lirio (Tag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Crinum amabile Bonn; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 254. 
Crinum amoenum Roxb.; Naves 1. c. 
Crinum defixum Ker; Naves 1. c. 
Crinum pratense Hub.;) Naves 1. c. 
Crinum sumatranum Roxb.; Naves 1. c. 

3. HYMENOCALLIS Salisbury 

HYMENOCALLIS LITTORALE (Jacq.) Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. 1 

(1812) 338; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 98. 
Pancratium littorale Jacq. Select. Stirp. Amer. (1763) 99. 
Pancratium illyricum Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 251, ed. 2 (1845) 176, 

ed. 3, 1 (1877) 316, t. AH (as Hymenocallis adnata Herb.), non 

Linn. 
Pancratium maritimum Blanco op. cit. 252, 177, 316; Naves Novis. 

App. (1880) 256; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 

86, non Linn. 
Hymenocallis adnata Herb. Amaryll. (1837) 215; Naves Novis. App. 

(1880) 256. 
Hymenocallis tenuiflora Herb. Amaryll. Suppl. (1837) 44; Merr, Fl. 

Manila (1912) 149. 
Cultivated in Manila and other towns, occasional in waste places, etc., 
but apparently propagating only by its bulbs. A native of tropical. America. 

4. EUCHARIS Planchon and Linden 

EUCHARIS GRAND! FLORA Planch. & Linden Fl. des Serres I 9 (1853- 
54) 255; Mem Fl. Manila (1912) 149. 
This occurs in the Philippines only as a cultivated ornamental in Manila 
and in a few of the larger towns. A native of South America. The 
Amazon lily. 

5. EURYCLES Salisbury 

EURYCLES AMBOINENSIS (Linn.) Lindl. in Loud. Encycl. PI. (1829) 

242; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 582; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 

255; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 

(1886) 276; Merr. FL Manila (1912) 149, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 99. 

Pancratium amboinense Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 291; Blanco Fl. Filip. 

(1837) 252, ed. 2 (1845) 177, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 317, t. U06. 
Eurycles sylvestris Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. 1 (1812) 337. 
Luzon (Cavite, Rizal, Laguna), Mindoro, Palawan. In secondary for- 
ests at low altitudes, never far from settlements and hence probably 
introduced; often cultivated for ornamental purposes. Malay Peninsula 
and Archipelago to tropical Australia. 



212 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Local names: Abod (Bis.) ; abur (Bis.) ; dausum (Bis.) ; katangal (Bis.) ; 
kosol (Bis.) ; panabor (Bis.) ; taliunud (Bik.) ; talaonor (Bis.) ; tambal 
(Tag.); tanual (Bis.). 

6. PANCRATIUM Linnaeus 

PANCRATIUM ZEYLANICUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 290; Blanco Fl. Filip. 
(1837) 253, ed. 2 (1845) 177, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 317, t. 321; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 256; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 148, Sp. Blanco- 
anae (1918) 99. 
Luzon (Union, Camarines), Palawan, Biliran, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 
378, B. S. 1853U McGregor, 881 Foxworthy. In coconut and abaca planta- 
tions, thickets, etc., sometimes planted. Certainly not a native of the 
Philippines. India to Malaya. 

Local names: Baoang-baoang (Bis.) ; hagobaoa (Bis.) ; katongal (Tag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Pancratium malabathricum Herb.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 256. 

7. HIPPEASTRUM Herbert 

HIPPEASTRUM MINIATUM Herb. Amaryll. Suppl. (1837) 31; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 255; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 99. 
Amaryllis atamasco Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 254, ed. 2 (1845) 178, 
ed. 3, 1 (1877) 319, t. 359; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 
(1905) 85, non Linn. 
Luzon (Union, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Panay, Mindanao, Siassi, 
Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 10U8, Elmer 17U38b. Introduced and planted for 
ornamental purposes, but more or less naturalized in coconut groves, etc. 
A native of tropical America. 
Local name: Lirio (Tag.). 

8. POLIANTHES Linnaeus 

POLIANTHES TUBEROSA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 316; Blanco Fl. Filip. 
(1837) 259, ed. 2 (1845) 181, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 323; Naves Novis. 
App. (1880) 254; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 
85, Fl. Manila (1912) 146, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 99. 

Cultivated for its fragrant flowers but nowhere naturalized. A native of 
tropical America. Tuberose. 

Local names: Azucena (Sp.) ; nardo (C. Bis.). 

9. AGAVE Linnaeus 

AGAVE CANTALA Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 25; Berger Agav. (1915) 
236; Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 144, Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 99. 

Furcraea cantala Haw. Syn. PI. Succul. Suppl. (1819) 42. 

Agave cantula Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 167; Naves Novis. 
App. (1880) 253; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 146. 

Agave americana Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 258, ed. 2 (1845) 180, ed. 
3, 1 (1877) 322, t. 96; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 253; Merr. in 
Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 23; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. 
Veg. (1905) 129, non Linn. 



VoL x AMARYLLIDACEAE 213 

Introduced from Mexico at an early date in colonial history, now widely 
distributed in the Philippines, in some provinces extensively grown for its 
fiber. Pantropic. 

Local names: magei (all dialects); pita (C. Bis.). 

AGAVE SISALANA Perrine ex Engelm. in Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 3 
(1875) 314; Berger Agav. (1915) 230. /. 66. 

Introduced in the early part of the present century, and now widely 
planted for its fiber. A native of tropical America. Sisal. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Agave Mexican a Lam.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 253. 

10. CURCULIGO Gaertner 

CURCULIGO AGUSANENSIS Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1645. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Mindanao (Zamboanga, Agusan), Elmer 13584, 
17005, B. S. 36910 Ramos & Edano. In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 
Local names: Kuyabang (Sub.); pagatpat (Mbo.) ; tayabong (Sub.). 

CURCULIGO BREVIPEDUNCULATA Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 
1647. 
Palawan, Balabac, Panay, Elmer 13164, Merrill 5373, Phil. PI. 1318, B. S. 
32576 McGregor. In forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

CURCULIGO CAPITULATA (Lour.) 0. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 703; 
Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 142. 

Leucojum capitulalum Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 199. 

Curculigo recurvata Dry. in Ait. Hort. Kew .ed. 2, 2 (1811) 253; 
Naves Novis. App. (1880) 253; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) 
Bot. 401; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1645. 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon, Bili- 
ran, Leyte, Panay, Siargao, Mindanao), Merrill 9670, Phil. PI. 847, Elmer 
6202, 7771, 18196, Williams 1150, B. S. 35389 Ramos & Edano, 31962 Santos, 
15299, 23571 Ramos, 18867 McGregor, 14006 Robinson, F. B. 4893 Curran. 
In thickets and forests, chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 1,800 m. 
India to southern China through Malaya to tropical Australia. 

Local names: Abang-abang (Bik.) ; atukgan (Ig.) ; katuagan (Ig.) ; 
talauangit (Bag.); tayubang (Bon.); tokan (Ig.) ; tolabang (If.). 

CURCULIGO GLABRA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 267; 
C. B. Rob. op. cit. 6 (1911) Bot. 196; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 
(1913) 1645. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Polillo, Alabat, Mindoro, Merrill 5750, 10449, Elmer 
14990, B. S. 10366 McGregor. In primary forests at low and medium alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gaertn. Fruct. 1 (1788) 63, t. 16; Elm. Leafl. 
Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1645; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 100. 
Gethyllis acaulis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 260, ed. 2 (1845) 181, ed. 
3, 1 (1877) 324. 



214 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Luzon (Bontoc, Pangasinan, Rizal, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Semirara, Pala- 
wan, Biliran, Panay, Mindanao, Merrill U1UU, Sp. Blancoanae 260, Elmer 
16484, Williams 2927, Copeland 472, B. S. 32413, 18637 McGregor, 26122 
Fenix, 1520 Bermejos, 6739 Robinson, 21440 Escritor, 17858 Otanes. In 
open grasslands, chiefly in cogonales (Imperata areas), at low and medium 
altitudes. India to Java. 

Local names: Sulsulitik (Bon.); taloangi (Bag.); tataluangi (Buk.). 

CURCULIGO WEBERI Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1646. 

Samar, Mindanao (Agusan, Lanao), Elmer 14304, Weber 1081, Clemens 
1225, Taylor 285, B. S. 17657 Ramos. In forests at low and medium alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Bongbon (C Bis.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Curculigo ensifolia R. Br.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 253. 
Curculigo latifolia Dry.; Naves 1. c. 

11. HYPOXIS Linnaeus 

HYPOXIS AUREA Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 200. 

Hypoxis franquevillei Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 586; Naves Novis. 

App. (1880) 253. 
Hypoxis flava Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 85 
sphalm. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Ecija), Mindanao (Lanao, Bukidnon), 
Elmer 6585, Merrill 247, 4453, Phil. PI. 848, Williams 1063, B. S. 15775 
Fenix, 31818 Santos. In open grasslands at medium and higher altitudes, 
ascending to 2,300 m. India to Japan southward to Java. 
Local name: Kitkitli (Ig.). 

EXCLUDED GENERA AND SPECIES 

Amaryllis carnea Schultes; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 255. 

Amaryllis formosissima Linn.; Naves 1. c. 

Amaryllis vittata Ait.; Naves 1. c. 

Furcraea gigantea Vent. ; Naves op. cit. 253. 

Furcraea rigida Haw. ; Naves op. cit. 254. 

Hermione tazetta Haw.; Naves op. cit 256. 

TACCACEAE 

1. TACCA Forster 

TACCA ELMERI Krause in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 6 (1914) 2283. 

Palawan, Leyte, Elmer [12679, Weber 1522. In light forests at low alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

Loca name: Odang-odang (Tagb.). 

TACCA PALM ATA Blume Enum. PI. Jav. 1 (1827) 83; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1859) 577; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 257; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 35, Fl. Manila (1912) 150, Sp. Blan- 
coanae (1918) 100. 
Tacca montana Schultes Syst. 7 1 (1829) 168; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 152, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip, (1886) 276. 



Vo1 - l DIOSCOREACEAE 215 

Tacca vesicaria Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 261. 

Tacca palmata Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 182, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 325. 

Tacca rumphii Schauer in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) 

Suppl. 1: 442; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 577; Naves Novis. App. 

(1880) 257. 

Luzon (Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna), 
Semirara, Panay. In thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes. 
Malay Archipelago. 

Local names: Kanalong (Bis.); magsaloro (Bis.); payung-payungan 
(Tag.). 

TACCA PINNATIFIDA Forst. Char. Gen. (1776) 70, t. 35; Presl Rel. 
Haenk. 1 (1827) 148; Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 182, ed. 3, 
1 (1877) 327; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 577; Naves Novis. App, 
(1880) 257; Hook. f. in Curtis's Bot. Mag. Ill 49 (1893) t 7299, 
7800; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 150, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 101. 
Tacca gaogao Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 262, 856. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte) to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and 
provinces. Chiefly in sandy soil in thickets near the sea. Tropical Africa 
and Asia through Malaya to Australia and Polynesia. 

Local names: Gau-gau (Tag.); kanobong (Bis.); panarien (Ilk.); tam- 
bobon (Sbl.) ; tayobong (Bis.); yabyaban (Tag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Tacca aspera Roxb.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 258. 
Tacca lancaefolia Zoll. ; Naves 1. c. 

DIOSCOREACEAE 

1. DIOSCOREA Plumier 

DIOSCOREA ALATA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1033; Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 
799, ed. 2 (1845) 550, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 207; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1859) 572; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 259; Merr. Fl. Manila 
(1912) 151, Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 146, Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 102; Prain & Burkill in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 
(1914) 39. 

Cultivated throughout the Philippines for its edible tubers, but certainly 
not a native of the Archipelago. Pantropic in cultivation, a native of the 
Old World Tropics. 

Local names: fpoi (Ig.) ; kinampai (Bis.) ; liiktu (If.) ; ubi (Tag.), Bik., 
Ibn., Ilk., It., Bis.). 

DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1033; Schauer in Nov. 

Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1:445; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 

3 (1859) 574; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 258; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. 

Manila (1892) 171; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 151; Prain & Burkill 

in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1596, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 

(1914) 26. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Union, Nueva Ecija, Batangas, Bulacan, Rizal, Ba- 
taan, Zambales, Sorsogon), Masbate, Leyte, Mindanao. In thickets at low 



216 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

and medium altitudes; represented by numerous collections. India to China 
and Malaya. 

Local names: Aribukbuk (Ilk.); bayag-kabayo (Tag.); dadakan (Bag.); 
pulugan (Bik.) ; ubi-ubihan (Tag.); utong-utongan (Tag.). 

DIOSCOREA CUMINGII Prain & Burkill in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 4 
(1908) 449, 10 (1914) 25, Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1595. 
Dioscorea inaequifolia Elmer ex Prain & Burkill in Leafl. Philip. 
Bot. 5 (1913) 1595, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 24. 

Luzon (Apayao, Bontoc, Benguet, Lepanto, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Nueva 
Vizcaya, Rizal, Camarines, Sorsogon) , Mindoro, Mindanao, Cuming 14.69, 
Elmer 15333, 8692, Merrill U55, 7683, Phil. PL 2034, F. B. 22956bis Caly- 
cosa, 3376 Ahern's collector, 69 Barnes, B. S. 8207 Ramos. In thickets and 
forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,400 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Lima-lima (Tag.); pari (Bag.). 

DIOSCOREA DIVARICATA Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 797, ed. 2 (1845) 
550, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 207; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 35, 2 (1907) Bot. 436, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 101. 
Dioscorea batatas Naves Novis. App. (1880) 258, non Decne. 
Dioscorea foxworthyi Prain & Burkill in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 
10 (1914) 34. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna), 
B. S. 22425, 33185 Ramos, 29960, 30092 Fenix, 1558 Foxworthy, F. B. 2572 
Borden, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 391. In thickets and secondary and 
primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Baliakag (Bis.) ; buloi (Tag.) ; dulian (Ilk.) ; durian (Ilk.) ; 
duyan (Pang.); kiroi (Tag.); kobag (Tag.); pakit (Tag.); ubag (Tag.). 

DIOSCOREA ELMERI Prain & Burkill in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 
1594, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 24 (inch var. vera and 
var. dubia) . 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Samar, Elmer 9156, 8265, B. 
S. 28717, 24.196 Ramos & Edano, 3659 Fenix. In forests at low altitudes; 
really distinct from D. cumingii Prain & Burkill? Endemic. 

DIOSCOREA ESCULENTA (Lour.) Burkill in Gard. Bull. Straits Settl. 
1 (1917) 396; Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 147, Sp. Blan- 
coanae (1918) 102. 

Oncus esculentus Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 194. 

Dioscorea papillaris Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 801, ed. 2 (1845) 552, 
ed. 3, 3 (1879) 200. 

Dioscorea tugui Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 800. 

Dioscorea sativa Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 551, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 
209, Naves Novis. App. (1880) 259, non Linn. 

Dioscorea fasciculata Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 2 (1832) 801; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 260; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 151. 

Dioscorea tiliaefolia Kunth Enum. 5 (1840) 401; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1859) 576; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 260; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 153, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 276. 

Dioscorea aculeata Naves Novis. App. (1880) 260; Prain & Burkill 
in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 19, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 
(1913) 1593 (var. tiliaefolia Prain & Burkill), non Linn. 



Vo1 - 1 DIOSCOREACEAE 217 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Cagayan, Benguet, Union, Pangasinan, Nueva 
Vizcaya, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna), Semirara, Merrill 3805, 2727, 
2709, 4147, Sp. Blancoanae 677 „ 202,, Phil. PI. 325, Elmer 6421, B. S. 32265, 
14381, 23076 McGregor, 21120 Escritor, 21720 Ramos, F. B. 3280 Ahem' 8 
collector, 24879 Mabesa. In thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes, 
also often cultivated. India to Malaya and Polynesia. 

Local names: Aneg (Ibn.) ; boga (Ilk.); dukai (Iv.) ; kamiging (Bik.) ; 
luttu (Ibn.); tongo (Tag.) tugi (Tag., Ilk.); tungo (Tag.). 

DIOSCOREA FILIFORM IS Blume Enum. PI. Jav. 1 (1827) 22; Prain & 
Burkill in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 38. 
Dioscorea myriantha Kunth Enum. 5 (1850) 382; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1859) 571; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 258; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 153, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 276; Prain & 
Burkill in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 38. 
Luzon (Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Bataan, Batangas, Laguna), Culion, Pala- 
wan, Mindanao (Jolo), Merrill 466, 857, 8058,3167, 8120, 8244, Baker 460, 
B. S. 22266 Ramos, 209, 330 Bermejos, F. B. 6036 Zschokke. In thickets 
and in ravines at low altitudes. Java, Celebes, Moluccas. 

DIOSCOREA FLABELLI FOLIA Prain & Burkill in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 

(1913) 1593, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 12. 

Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Catanduanes, Mindoro, Loher 7027, Elmer 
9095, 16677, B. S. 30278, 23564, 39412 Ramos, 22830 McGregor. In forests 
at low and medium altitudes. Borneo. 

DIOSCOREA GRATA Prain & Burkill in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 

(1914) 35. 

Luzon (Rizal), Loher 7012, 7017, without data as to habitat. Endemic. 

DIOSCOREA HISPIDA Dennst. Schlussel Hort. Malabar. (1818) 33; Merr. 

Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 148, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 103. 
Dioscorea hirsuta Blume Enum. PL Jav. 1 (1827) 21; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1859) 575; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 260. 
Dioscorea daemona Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 72, nomen nudum, 

Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 805; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 

27 (1905) 86, Fl. Manila (1912) 151. 
Dioscorea triphylla Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 799, ed. 2 (1845) 551, 

ed. 3, 3 (1879) 208; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 573; Naves 

Novis. App. (1880) 259; Prain & Burkill in Journ. As. Soc. 

Bengal II 10 (1914) 25, Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1595, non 

Linn. 

Throughout the Philippines in thickets and forests at low and medium 
altitudes. India to southwestern China and Formosa through Malaya to 
New Guinea. 

Local names: Bagai (Mbo.) ; gayos (Bis.); kalut (Tag., Pamp., Sbl.) ; 
karot (Ilk.) ; karoti (Sul.) ; kayos (Tag.) ; kolot (Bis.) ; korot (S. L. Bis.) ; 
kulot (Sbl.); mamo (Bik.); nami (Tag.); orkot (Bis.). 

DIOSCOREA LOHER I Prain & Burkill in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 
(1914) 33; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 101. 
Dioscorea sp. (cobag na quiroi) Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 798, ed. 2 
(1845) 550, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 206. 



218 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Luzon (Rizal), Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 634, Phil. PL 6, 14.98, B. S. 12529 
Ramos. In thickets at low altitudes. This is perhaps referable to D. 
divaricata Blanco, the plants from not fully grown tubers. Endemic. 

Local names: Kiroi (Tag.); kobag (Tag.). 

DIOSCOREA LUZON ENSIS Schauer in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 
(1843) Suppl. 1: 444; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 571; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 258; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 153, 
Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 276; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 
(1910) Bot. 339; Prain & Burkill in Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 

1597. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 28. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Ilocos Norte, Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Bu- 
lacan, Rizal, Batangas, Laguna, Tayabas), Cuming 779, Elmer 18290, 18466, 
Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 117, Phil. PI. 1070, F. B. 24909 Mabesa, 13218 
Curran, 13336 Tamesis, 3293 Ahern's collector, B. S. 13734, 37240, 21752, 
1380 Ramos. In thickets at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Aribubu (Ilk.) ; kamangeg (Ilk.); kirini (Tag.); mayat- 
bang (Tag.); pakit (Tag.); ubag (Tag.). 

DIOSCOREA MERRILLII Prain & Burkill in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 

1598, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 35. 

Mindoro, Mindanao (Davao), Merrill 5657, Elmer 11924. In old clear- 
ings and in thickets, altitude about 700 m. Endemic. 

DIOSCOREA NUMMULARIA Lam. Encycl. 3 (1789) 231; Naves Novis. 

App. (1880) 258; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 276; 

Prain & Burkill in Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1599, Journ. As. 

Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 35. 
Luzon (Bontoc to Sorsogon, in most or all provinces), Polillo, Leyte, 
Camiguin de Misamis, Mindanao, Basilan. In thickets and forests at 
low and medium altitudes. 

Var. GLAUCA Prain & Burkill in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 35. 

Luzon (Benguet), Elmer 5638. Scarcely distinguishable from. the type. 
The species in Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea to Prince of Wales Island. 

Local names: Banan (Bag.); malabalukbuk-dagis (Pamp.) ; pakit 
(Tag.); pinot (Tag.); ubing-basol (Tag.). 

DIOSCOREA PENTAPHYLLA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1032; Blanco Fl. Filip. 
(1837) 802, ed. 2 (1845) 552, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 210; Miq. FL Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1859) 574; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 259; Merr. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 35, 3 (1908) Bot. 401, Fl. Manila 
(1912) 152, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 103; Prain & Burkill in Journ. 
As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 23. 

Luzon (Rizal, Bataan, Laguna), Panay, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 458, F. 
B. 1971 Ahern's collector, B. S. 12176 Ramos. In thickets at low and 
medium altitudes. India to Yunnan, southward through Malaya to New 
Guinea. 

Local names: Kasi (Ig.) ; lima-lima (Tag.) sapang (Bis.). 

The Philippine form is apparently referable to var. malaica Prain & 
Burkill 1. c. 



Vol. l DIOSCOREACEAE 219 

DIOSCOREA PEPEROIDES Prain & Burkill in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 
5 (1913) 1597, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 28 (var. vera 
Prain & Burkill). 

■ Luzon (Benguet, Rizal), Golo, Palawan, Elmer 6399, 6400, Merrill 9441, 
6512, 11552, 11555, Loher 7007, 7010. In thickets up to 1,300 m altitude, 
in Palawan about limestone formations at sea level. 

Var. SAGITTI FOLIA Prain & Burkill in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 
(1914) 28. 
Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya), B. S. 8178 Ramos. In thickets at low or 
medium altitudes. The species and this variety endemic, another variety 
in Indo-China. 

DIOSCOREA SOROR Prain & Burkill in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1598,. 
Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 34 (var. vera Prain & Burkill). 

Luzon (Lepanto, Bataan), Elmer 6737, Bona, B. S. 594-1 Ramos. In 
thickets at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. Probably the same as 
D. divaricata Blanco. 
Var. GLAUCA Prain & Burkill in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. II 10 (1914) 34. 

Luzon (Bulacan), Yoder. In thickets at low altitudes. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Dioscorea eburnea Lour. ; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 260. 

Dioscorea glabra Roxb. ; Naves op. cit. 258. 

Dioscorea japonica Thunb.; Naves op. cit. 259. 

Dioscorea oppositifolia Linn.; Naves op. cit. 258. 

Dioscorea pyrifolia Kunth Enum. 5 (1850) 384; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1859) 571; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 258. 
This record was based on Cuming 2314 as Philippine, but this number 
was from Malacca; the species does not occur in the Philippines. 

Dioscorea sativa Linn.; Naves op. cit. 259. 

Dioscorea spiculata Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Dioscorea vulgaris Miq. ; Naves 1. c. 

2. STENOMERIS Planchon 

STENOMERIS CUMINGiANA Becc. in Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 2 (1870) 

8, t. 2; Scheff. in Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 34 (1874) 70; Rolfe 

in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 215, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 278; 

Taubert in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 15 (1893) Beibl. 38:2. 

Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Sibuyan, Leyte, Mindanao (Zam- 

boanga), Cuming 1739 in herb. Webb.!, Wenzel 1210, 962, 718, Elmer 12064, 

F. B. 26909 Mabesa, B. S. 39429 Ramos. In forests at low and medium 

altitudes. Endemic. 

STENOMERIS DIOSCOREAEFOLIA Planch, in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ill 
18 (1852) 320; Walp. Ann. 6 (1860) 42; Becc. in Nuov. Giorn. Bot. 
Ital. 2 (1870) 8; Scheff. in Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 34 (1874) 
70; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 153, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 
(1886) 276; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Taubert in Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. 15 (1893) BeibL 38:2; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
2 (1907) Bot. 268. 



220 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 



1922 



Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Albay, Sorsogon), Catanduanes, Min- 
doro, Leyte, Biliran, Dinagat, Mindanao, Cuming 875, Merrill 5775, 8301, 
Phil. PI. 427, Elmer 9098, Baker 3383, B. S. 1005, 30339, 23514 Ramos, 
35192 Ramos & Pascasio. In thickets, old clearings, etc., at low and me- 
dium altitudes. Endemic. 

STENOMERIS WALLISII Taubert in Engl. Bot, Jahrb. 15 (1893) Beibl. 
38: 2. 

Luzon, Wallis! in herb. Berol. Endemic. 

The genus has one other known species in Borneo and the Malay Penin- 
sula. 

EXCLUDED GENUS 

Rajana sp.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 260. 

IRIDACEAE 

1. BELAMCANDA Adanson 

BELAMCANDA CHINENSIS (Linn.) DC. in Red. Lil. 3 (1802) t. 121; 

Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 129; C. B. Rob. in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 196; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 152. 
Ixia chinensis Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 36. 
Pardanthus chinensis Ker in Konig & Sims Ann. Bot. 1 (1805) 247; 

Naves Novis. App. (1880) 252, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 376. 

Planted for ornamental purposes but nowhere naturalized. A native 
of southeastern Asia, now cultivated in most warm countries. 
Local name: Abanico (Sp.). 

2. PATERSONIA R. Brown 

PATERSONIA LOWII Stapf in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (1894) 241, t. 20, 
f. 7-9; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 268. 
Mindoro, Merrill 5507. In an open heath on Mt. Halcon, altitude about 
2,400 m. Borneo. The genus a typical Australian one. 

3., ELEUTHERINE Herbert 

ELEUTHERINE PALM I FOLIA (Linn.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 

(1912) Bot. 233, Fl. Manila (1912) 153, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 104. 

Sisyrinchium palmifolium Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 122; Naves Novis. 

App. (1880) 252. 
Eleutherine plicata He»rb. in Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) sub t. 57. 
Antholyza meriana Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 24, ed. 2 (1845) 18, ed. 
3, 1 (1877) 33, t. 100; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 
(1905) 85, non Linn. 
A native of tropical America, introduced and now naturalized in some 
parts of the Philippines, occurring in hemp plantations and, occasionally, 
in waste places about towns, etc. ; also planted for ornamental purposes. 
Local names: Ahos-ahos (C. Bis.) ; hagusahis (S. L. Bis.). 

EXCLUDED GENERA AND SPECIES 

Antholyza aethiopica Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 252. 
Iris susiana Linn.; Naves op. cit. 253. 
Gladiolus segetum Ker; Naves 1. c. 
Watsonia meriana Ker; Naves 1. c. 



Vo1 - 1 MUSACEAE 221 

MUSACEAE 

1. MUSA Linnaeus 

MUSA ERRANS (Blanco) Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 
390, t. 17, f. 6-8; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 105. 
Musa troglodytarum Linn. var. errans Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 247, 

ed, 2 (1845) 172, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 310. 
Musa amboinensis Naves Novis. App. (1880) 218, non Rumph. 
Luzon (Apayao, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna) , Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 
873, Teodoro, B. S. 28268 Fenix. In forests at low and medium altitudes^ 
Endemic. 

Local names: Pau-ua (Ibn.) ; saging-matsing (Tag.); saging-na-ligau 
(Tag.). 

Var. BOTOAN Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci, 10 (1915) Bot. 391, t. 7, f. 
5-10; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 106. 
Musa troglodytarum Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 246, ed. 2 (1845) 172, 
ed. 3, 1 (1877) 310, t. 89, non Linn. 
Luzon (Rizal), Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 217, Teodoro. Planted in most 
parts of the Philippines; really referable to M. errans as a variety? 

Local names: Balaiang (Ilk.) ; butuan (Tag.) ; butuhan (Tag) ; vul- 
lungan (Ibn., It.). 

MUSA GLAUCA Roxb. PL Coromandel 3 (1819) t. 300; Naves Novis. App. 
(1880) 218; Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 387; 
Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 104. 
Musa troglodytarum- Linn. var. dolioformis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 
855, ed. 2 (1845) 174, ed. 1 (1877) 312. 
Luzon (Cavite, Laguna), Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 946,' 537. In ravines, 
etc., at low and medium altitudes. Burma, Pegu. 
Local name: Virgen (Sp.). 

MUSA PARAD1SIACA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1043; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1859) 588; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 215; Merr. Fl. Manila 
(1912) 154; Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 412; 
K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 1 (1900) 19, /. 3. 

The plantains are those bananas which are edible after being cooked and 
very inferior or inedible raw. A number of forms or varieties occur in 
the Philippines, which from a species standpoint are scarcely to be distin- 
guished from Musa sapientum Linn., the bananas. Following custom the 
forms are distributed between the two Linnean binomials. It is by no 
means certain that the numerous varieties which have been proposed by 
Blanco, Teodoro, and Quisumbing are correctly distributed as between 
Musa paradisiaca Linn, and M. sapientum. 

I am of the opinion that no more weight should be placed on the 
numerous forms of the banana than on similar forms of other exceedingly 
variable cultivated plants such as the orange, the apple, rice, the common 
bean, sugar cane, etc., because relatively speaking the differences in cul- 
tivated bananas are certainly no gxeater than those in the cultivated forms 
of the other plants mentioned above. No attempt has been made to corre- 
late these Philippine forms or varieties with extra-Philippine ones although 
some, perhaps many, of our cultivated bananas are certainly identical with 



222 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

those of tropical Asia and Malaya. Quisumbing, Phil. Agr. Review 12" 
(1919) 1-73 t. ISO, described and figured a number of varieties from extra- 
Philippine plants, cultivated at Los Banos, which have not been included 
in this enumeration. They are Musa sapientum Linn. var. gladiata Quis., 
origin unknown; var. oanga Quis., from New Guinea; var. klum Quis., 
from India; var. misi Quis., from Samoa; var. saloor Quis., from Borneo; 
var. chuntara Quis., from Siam; var. pop Quis., from Borneo; var. maori 
Quis., from Raratonga; var. sicsec Quis., from New Guinea; var. languma 
Quis., from New Guinea; var. radja Quis., from Java (=Musa regia 
Rumph. !); var. nam Quis., apparently from Indo-China; var. yanaikonban 
Quis., from India; var. rachidis Quis., from the Malay Peninsula; var. 
cochinchinensis Quis., from Indo-China (=>Musa odorata Lour.!); var. 
katali Quis., from India; var. khai Quis., from Siam; var. krie Quis., 
origin unknown; var. yan Quis., origin unknown; var. hazara Quis., from 
India ; var. maduranga Quis., from India ; Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. enosa 
Quis., from Java (=Musa corniculata Rumph.!); and var. tiparot Quis., 
origin unknown. 

Var. MAGNA Blanco PI. Filip. (1837) 244, ed. 2 (1845) 171, ed. 3, 1 
(1877) 307; Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 413; 
Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 108; Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 
12 3 (1919) 67, t. 12, f. 212, 213. 

Planted here and there for its fruit. Endemic? 
Local name: Tundok (Tag.). 

Var. MAXIMA Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 245, ed. 2 (1845) 171, ed. 3, 1 
(1877) 308; Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 414; 
Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 109. 
Planted here and there for its fruit, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 920. En- 
demic? 

Local names: Batabia (Tag.); matabia (Tag.). 

Var. SUBRUBEA Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 245, ed. 2 (1845) 171, ed. 3, 
1 (1877) 307; Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 414, 
t. 16, f. 1-5; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 109. 

Planted here and there. Endemic? 

Teodoro's figure and description were apparently based on material of 
Cuban origin and hence may well not represent the form Blanco described. 

MUSA SAPIENTUM Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1303; Teodoro in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 393. 
Musa paradisiaca Linn, subsp. sapientum O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. PI. 1 
(1892) 692; K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 1 (1900) 20. 

The bananas, distinguishable from the plantains (Musa paradisiaca) 
chiefly in the consistency and characters of the mature fruits. A number 
of forms are found in the Philippines in cultivation, many in all probability 
introduced from other parts of Malaya and from tropical Asia. 

Var. ANGAO Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 58, t. 5, f. 30; t. 

7, f. 69; t. 9, f. 126; t. 11, f. 192, 193; t. 26, f. 2. 

Mindanao (Misamis). Cultivated at Los Bahos. 
Local name: Angau (C. Bis.). 



VoL l MUSACEAE 223 

Var. BACA Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 51, t. 5, f. 23; t. 7, 

f. 60; t. 9, f. 118; t. 11, f. 176, 177, 

Luzon (Cavite). Cultivated at Los Banos. 
Local name: Sungai-baka (Tag.). 

Var. BINUTIG Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 401, t. 10, 
f. 1-5. 

Teodoro's specimens were apparently from Leyte, according to material 
prepared by him from plants cultivated at Los Bahos. 
Local name: Binutig (S. L. Bis.). 

Var. CAN AR A Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 406, t. 10, 
/.' 6-10. 

Cultivated at Los Banos, origin unknown but probably Philippine, arid 
very likely from Camarines Province, where kandra is a well-known banana. 

Var. CANAYA Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 44, t. 4, f. 18; 

t. 6, f. 54; t. 9, /. Ill; t. 10, f. 162, 163; t. 20, f. 2. 

Mindanao (Surigao). Cultivated at Los Banos. 
Local name: Kanaya (C. Bis.). 

Var. CINEREA (Blanco) Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 
397, t. 13, f. 1-5; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 106. 
Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. cinerea Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 250, ed. 
2 (1845) 175, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 313. 

One of the commonest bananas in the Philippines, Memll Sp. Blanco- 
anae 926. 

Local names: Latundan (Tag.); letondal (Tag.); tordan (Tag.). 

Var. COMPRESSA (Blanco) Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10. (1915) 
Bot. 408, t. 7, f. 1-5; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 108. 
Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. compressa Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 240, 
ed. 2 (1845) 168, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 304. 
A very common banana in most parts of the Philippines. 
Local names: Bisco (Tag.); obispo (Tag.); saba (Tag.). 
This is probably better placed under M. paradisiaca Linn. 

Var. D1NALAGA Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 55, t. 5, f. 31; 

t. 7, 66; t. 9, f. 122; t. 11, f. 184, 185; t. 26, f. 1. 

Luzon (Tayabas). Cultivated at Los Banos. 
Local name: Dinalaga (Tag.). 

Var. DOOL Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 35, t. 4, f. 6; t. 6, 
f. U; t. 9, f. 101; t. 10, f. 1U2, 1U3; t.'f. 15, f. 1. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon). Cultivated at Los Banos. 
Local name: Duol (Buk.). 

Var. EDA Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 37, t. 4, f. 9; t. 6, f. 
47; t. 9, f. 104; t, 10, f. 148, 148; t.15, f. 1. 

Mindanao (Surigao). Cultivated at Los Banos. 
Local name: Eda-an (C. Bis.). 



% 



224 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Var. FLABELLATA Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 66, t. 5, f. 

35; t. 8, f. 78, 87; t. 12, f. 208, 209; t. 29, f. 2. 

Luzon (Laguna, Bulacan). Cultivated at Los Bafios. 
Local names: Binendito (Tag.); inabaniko (Tag.). 
Perhaps better placed under M. paradisiaca Linn. 

Var. GALATAYAN Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review. 12 p (1919) 40, t. U, f. 13; 

t. 6, f. 50; t. 9, f. 108; t. 10, f. 15U, 155; t. 18, f. 1. 

Luzon (Cavite). Cultivated at Los Bafios. 
Local name: Galatayan (Tag.). 

Var. DARYAO Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 403, t. 8, 
f. 1-5. 

Leyte, Teodoro, cultivated at Los Bahos. 
Local name: Daryau (S. L. Bis.). 

Var. GARANGAO Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 401, t. 10, 
f. 6-10. 

Leyte, Teodoro, cultivated at Los Bafios. 
Local name: Garangau (S. L. Bis.). 

Var. GLABERRIMA (Blanco) Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) 
Bot. 399, t. 15, f. 1-5; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 106. 
Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. glaberrima Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 245, 
ed. 2 (1845) 171, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 308. 

« 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 865, Teodoro. 

Local names: Dinuguan (Tag.); durugo (Tag.); galamai-senora (Tag.). 

Var. GLAUCA (Blanco) Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 402, 
t. 11, f. 6-10; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 107. 
Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. glauca Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 250, ed. 
2 (1845) 175, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 312. 

Luzon (Rizal), Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 912. 

Local names: Bingti-kohol (Tag.) ; tinalong (Tag.) ; veinte-kohol (Tag.). 

Var. GRANDIS Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 410, t. U, 
f. IS. 

Luzon (Laguna). Occasionally planted. 
Local name: Sabang-iloko (Tag.). 

Var. HUM I LIS (Perr.). 

Musa humilis Perr. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 131; C. B. 
Rob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) 306; Teodoro in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 393, t. 18, f. 1-5. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga, Cotabato). A peculiar form with small obovoid 
fruits. 

Local name: Pula-pula (Mag.). 

Var. K1NAMAY Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 57. t. 5, f. 32; 

t. 7, f. 67; t. 9, f. 125; t. 11, f. 190, 191; t. 23, f. I 1 . 

Luzon (Bulacan). Cultivated at Los Banos. 
Local name: Kinamai (Tag.)., 



Vol. 1 



MUSACEAE 225 



Var. INARNIBAL Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 406, t. 9, 
f. 1-5. 
Luzon (Laguna), Teodoro. 
Local name: Inarnibal (Tag.). 

Var. LACATAN (Blanco) Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 
405, t. 11, f. 1-5; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 107. 
Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. lacatan Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 243, 
ed. 2 (1845) 170, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 305, t. 88. 
A widely cultivated banana and one of the most popular varieties in the 
Philippines. 

Local names: Bangaran (Bile); lakatan (Tag., S. L. Bis.). 

Var. LONGA (Blanco) Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 407; 
Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 108. 
Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. long a Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 245, ed. 
2 (1845) 171, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 308. 
Known only from Blanco's description. 
Local name: Kinauayan (Tag.). 

Var. PUMILA (Blanco). 

Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. pumila Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 244, 

ed. 2 (1845) 171, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 306. 
Musa cavendishii Lamb. var. pumila Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 

(1915) Bot. 412. 
Musa sapientum Linn, var.; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 108. 

Occasionally planted ; perhaps a dwarfed form of the bungulan. ' 
Local name: Tampohin (Tag.), 

Var. PADILAT Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 a (1919) 63, t. 5, f. 38; 

t. 7, f. 71; t. 8, /. 88; t. 12, f. 202, 203; t. 28, f. 1. 

Babuyan Islands (Dalupiri). Cultivated at Los Banos. 
Local name: Padilat (Ilk.). 

Var. PAMOTION Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 49, t. 5, f. 21; 

t. 7, f. 59; t. 9, f. 116; t. 11, f. 172, 173; t. 22, f. 1. 

Mindanao (Surigao). Cultivated at Los Banos. 
Local name: Pamotion (C. Bis.). 

Var. P ELI PI A Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 42, t. U, f. 1U; t. 6, 
f. 51; I. 9, f. 109; t. W, f. 158, 159; t. 18, f. 2. 

Mindanao (Surigao). Cultivated at Los Banos. 
Local name: Pelipia (C. Bis.). 

Var. PRINCIPE Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 50, t. 5, f. 22; t. 

7, f. 61; t. 9, f. 117; t. 11, f. 17 U, 175; i. 22, f. 2. 
Philippines, without locality. Cultivated at Los Banos. 

Var. PUTIAN Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 36, t. U, f. 8; t. 6, 

f. 46; t. 9, f. 103; t. 10, f. 1J+6, 11*7; t. 15, f. 2. 

Cultivated at Los Banos, from the Visayan Islands. 
Local name: Putian (Bis.). 

183036 15 



226 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Var. RAINES Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 55, t. 5, /. 27; t. 7, 

f. 65; t. 9, f. 124; t. 11, f. 186, 187; t. 25, f. 1. 

Polillo. Cultivated at Los Baiios. 
Local name: Raines-na-puti (Tag.). 

Var. SAROCSOC Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 8 (1919) 39, t. 4, f. 11; 

t.~6, f. 49; t. 9, f. 10%; t. 10, f. 152, 153; t. 17, f. 1. 

Luzon (Camarines) . Cultivated at Los Bahos. 
Local names: Saroksok (Bik.) ; sinaroksok (Bik.). 

Var. SISION Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 12 3 (1919) 35, t. 4, f. 7; t. 6, 
f. 45; t. 9, f. 102; t. 10, f. 1U, U5. 
Panay (Capiz). Cultivated at Los Banos. 
Local name: Sision (P. Bis.). 

Var. SUAVEOLENS (Blanco) Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) 
Bot. 400, t. U, /. 6-10; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 106. 
Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. suaveolens Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 244, 
ed. 2 (1845) 171, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 306. 
One of the most popular bananas in the Philippines, Merrill Sp. Blanco- 
anae 928. 

Local name: Bungulan (Tag.). 

Var. TERNATENSIS (Blanco) Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) 
Bot. 404, t. 7, f. 1-5; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 107. 
Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. suaveolens Blanco Filip. (1837) 243, ed. 
2 (1845) 170, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 305. 
Occasionally cultivated, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 216. 
Local names: Gloria (Tag., Ilk., Ibn.) ; ternate (Tag.). 

Var. TOMBAK (Blanco) Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 
407; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 108; Quis. in Philip. Agr. Review 
12 s (1919) 33, t. 4, f. 4; t. 6, f. 42; t. 9, f. 99; t. 10, f. 138, 139; t. 
14, f. 2. 
Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. tombak Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 246, 
ed. 2 (1845) 171, 3, 1 (1877) 307. 
Cultivated here and there, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 953. 
Local names: Goyoran (Tag.); tinumbaga (Tag.); tombak (Tag.). 

Var. TULDOC Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 407, t. 10, 
f. 1-5. 

Luzon (Rizal). Cultivated by Teodoro at Los Banos. 

Local name: Tuldok (Tag.). 

/ 
Var. TUDLONG Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 402, t. 11, 

f. 6-10. 

Leyte, cultivated by Teodoro at Los Baiios. 
Local name: Tudlong (S. L. Bis.). 

Var. VIOLACEA (Blanco) Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 
398, t. 5, f. 6-10; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 106. 
Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. violacea Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 245, 
ed. 2 (1845) 171, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 307. 
Cultivated here and there. 
Local name: Morado (Sp.). 



Vo1 - 1 MUSACEAE 227 

MUSA TEXTILIS Nee in Anal. Cienc. Nat. 4 (1801) 123; Hook. Lond. 

Journ. Bot. 7 (1848) 268; Baker in Ann. Bot. 7 (1893) 211; K. 

Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 1 (1900) 19; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 199; Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) 

Bot. 388, t. 18, f. 6-10; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 105. 
Musa abaca Perr. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 130; C. B. 

Rob. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 305. 
Musa troglodytarum Linn. var. textoria Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 247, 

ed. 2 (1845) 173, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 311. 
Musa mindanaensis Rumph.; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 588; Naves 

Novis. App. (1880) 218. 

Abaca or Manila hemp of commerce. Very extensively cultivated in 
those provinces from central Luzon to Mindanao where the dry season is 
not pronounced. In Luzon the chief abaca provinces are Camarines, Albay, 
and Sorsogon. The islands of Samar and Leyte are very important pro- 
ducing centers, as are also parts of Mindanao, especially Davao. Endemic. 

Local name: Abaka (most dialects). The species is variable, and sundry 
forms have distinctive local names. 

MUSA URANOSCOPOS Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 645, excl. syn. Rumph. 

Musa coccinea Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 47; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 218; 

Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 199; Teodoro op. cit. 

10 (1915) Bot. 388. 

Planted here and there for ornamental purposes on account of its very 

showy red bracts. A native of southeastern Asia. 

DOUBTFUL AND EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Musa alphurica Rumph. ; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 217. 
Musa corniculata Rumph.; Naves 1. c. 
Musa ornata Roxb.; Naves op. cit. 218. 
Musa simiarum Rumph.; Naves op. cit. 217. 
Musa uranoscopos Rumph.; Naves op. cit. 218. 

Musa chapara Perr. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1825) 131; C. B. Rob. 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 305; Teodoro op. cit. 10 (1915) 

Bot. 415. 
Unrecognizable except that it is a form or variety of Musa sapientum 
Linn. 

Musa ensete Gmel.; Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 887. 

This occurs on the grounds of the College of Agriculture at Los Banos 
as a recently introduced and cultivated species and has no claims to be 
considered as Philippine. 

Musa nigra Perr. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 131; Teodoro in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 415. 

Unrecognizable except that it is a form or variety of Musa sapientum 
Linn. 

Musa paradisiaca Linn. var. ulnaris Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 246, ed. 2 
(1845) 172, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 309; Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
10 (1915) Bot. 414; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 107. 



228 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

A purely imaginary variety, the description based on hearsay data, 
probably inspired by one of the tundok varieties. 

MUSA cavendishii Lamb.; Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 
410, incl. var. hawaiiensis Teodoro 1. c. t. 15, f. 6-10. 
This is. generally considered as a distinct species, but I believe it to be 
merely a variety of Musa sapientum Linn. Teodoro's descriptions were 
based on recently introduced and cultivated specimens. 

Musa sapientum Linn. var. cubensis Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 
(1915) Bot. 397, t. 11, f. 6-10. 

The description was based on material originating in Cuba. 

Musa sapientum Linn. var. Americana Teodoro in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 
(1915) Bot. 398, t. 7, f. 6-10. 

This variety was based on material of Cuban origin. 

2. RAVENALA Adanson 

RAVENALA MADAGASCARIENSIS Gmel. Syst. (1791) 567; Naves Novis. 

App. (1880) 219; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 199; 

Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 155; K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 

1 (1900) 29, /. 6. • 
Planted in Manila and in other large towns for ornamental purposes, 
a native of Madagascar. The so-called traveler's palm. 

3. HELICON I A Linnaeus 

HELICON I A BIHAI Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 211; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 
215; K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich. 1 (1900) 36. 
Heliconiopsis amboinensis Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 590; Naves 1. c. 
Planted occasionally for ornamental purposes. A native of tropical 
America, naturalized in some parts of the Old World. 

excluded genus 

Strelitzia reginae Banks Naves Novis. App. (1880) 219. 

ZINGIBERAGEAE 

1. ZINGIBER Adanson 

ZINGIBER APOENSE Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2914. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 105U5, 11750. In forests, 1,000 to 1,300 m. 
Endemic. 

Local name: Bogobog (Bag.). 

ZINGIBER BREVIFOLIUM N. E. Br. in Gard. Chron. 26 (1886) 390, non 
K. Schum. (1904). 

Described from cultivated specimens said to have originated in the 
Philippines. Otherwise unknown. Endemic. 

ZINGIBER BULUSANENSE Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2993. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Elmer 16914., 15178. In primary forests, altitude 
about 450 m. Endemic. 



Vol. 1 



ZINGIBERACEAE 229 



ZINGIBER CASSUMUNAR Roxb. in Asiat. Research 11 (1810) 347, t. 5, 
Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 49; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152, 
Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 274; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 220; 
Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 84. 
Mindanao (Misamis), (Cuming 1605). I have seen no Philippine mate- 
rial representing this species. Pantropic in cultivation, a native of tropical 
Asia. 

ZINGIBER MOLLE Ridl. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 607, nomen nudum, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 168. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Pampanga, Tayabas), F. B. 4.886, 
4914 Curran, 14490 Darling,, B. S. S3 64 Ramos, 1991, 1985 Foxworthy, 
Merrill 4843. In ravines along streams and in forests, altitude 1,100 to 
1,600 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Kalauing (Bon.). 

ZINGIBER NEGROSENSE Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2917. 

Negros, Mindanao (Davao),, Elmer 10421, 11768. In forested ravines, 
altitude about 1,050 m. Endemic. 

ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rose, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 7 (1807) 348, Monandr. 

PL (1828) t. 83; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 593; Naves Novis. 

App. (1880) 220; K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 

170, /. 23; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 159, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 110. 
Amomum zingiber Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1; Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 

2, ed. 2 (1845) 2, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 3, t. 131. 
Zingiber blancoi Hassk. in Flora 47 (1864) 20. 

Widely cultivated although not on an extensive scale, and nowhere 
naturalized. Pantropic in cultivation, a native of tropical Asia. Ginger. 

Local names: Agat (Pang.) ; baseng (Ilk.) ; gengibre (Sp.) ; laial (Sbl.) ; 
laiya (If.); laya (Ilk., Bon., Ibn., It.); luya (Tag.). 

ZINGIBER PUBISQUAMA Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 169. 

Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens 1163a. In open grasslands, cogon (Impe- 
rata) type, altitude about 650 m. Endemic. 

ZINGIBER SYLVATICUM Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2919. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Polillo, Ca- 
tanduanes, Negros, Elmer 9843, 18004, H992, 14.936, B. S. 19456, 30521, 
22048 Ramos, 13076 Foxworthy, 10237, 10238 McGregor, 9198 Robinson. 
In forests' chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 1,300 m. Endemic. 

ZINGIBER ZERUMBET (Linn.) Sm. Exot. Bot. 2 (1804) 103, t. 112; 

Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 593; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 220; 

K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 172, /. 24; Ridl. in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 199; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 

159, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 111. 
Amomum zerumbet Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1; Blanco FL Filip. (1837) 

2, ed. 2 (1845) 2, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 3, t. 370. 
Zingiber cassumunar Naves in Blanco FL Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83), 

t. 370, non Roxb. 
Zingiber zerumbet Sm. var. magnum Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 

2922. 



230 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

Northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces. In 
thickets in and near settlements at low and medium altitudes. A native of 
tropical Asia, now pantropic. 

Local names: Balauag (Bik.) ; barik (Tag.); lampuyang (Buk.) ; lang- 
kauas (Tag.) ; layag sa-siilug (Bik.) ; luiang-osiu (Tag.) ; tamohilang 
(Buk.); tumbong-aso (Tag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Zingiber amaricans Blume; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 221. 

Zingiber aquosum Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Zingiber elatum Roxb. ; Naves 1. c. 

Zingiber gracile Jack; Naves 1. c. 

Zingiber gramineum Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Zingiber inflexum Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Zingiber marginatum Roxb.; Naves 1. c. 

Zingiber odoriferum Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Zingiber ovoideum Blume; Naves op. cit. 220. 

Zingiber purpureum Rose; Naves 1. c. 

Zingiber roseum Roxb.; Naves op. cit. 221. 

Zingiber squarrosum Roxb.; Naves 1. c. 

2. LANGUAS Koenig 

(Alpinia auctt., non Linnaeus*) 

LANGUAS APOENSIS (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia apoensis Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2888. 

Catanduanes, Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11889, B. S. 30490 Ramos. In 
primary forests up to an altitude of 1,200 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Otin-otin (Bag.). 

LANGUAS BRACHYANTHA (Merr.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia brachyantha Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 296. 
Luzon (Cagayan), Weber 1571, B. S. 13920 Ramos, F. B. 19617 Curran. 
In forests at low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 

LANGUAS BREVILABRIS (Presl) comb. nov. 

Alpinia brevilabris Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 110, t. 17; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 225; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1919) Bot. 
190; K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 276, Pflanzenreich 
20 (1904) 314. 
Alpinia fraseriana Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 128, non 
Oliv. 

* The genus Alpinia of Linnaeus was based wholly on a tropical Amer- 
ican plant, Alpinia racemosa Linn. = Renealmia racemosa A. Rich., and is 
thus identical with Renealmia Linn. f. (1781), which it should replace. As 
between 'the two generic names, no matter which one be applied to the 
American group, Alpinia is clearly not applicable to the Indo-Malayan 
genus long known under this name. 



Vol.1 



ZINGIBERACEAE 231 



Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao. In most islands and 
provinces. Common in primary forests at low and medium altitudes. 

Local names: Apat (Ig.) ; bagongbong (Bis.); banai (Pamp.) ; gagad- 
no-koran (Iv.) ; katkatan (Pamp).; katolan (Bis.); katotang (Bis.); luya- 
luya (Tag.) ; malatalbak (Tag.) ; panauil (Bon.) ; parapad (Ig.) ; tagbak 
(Bik., Tag., C. Bis.) ; tagbak-gubat (Tag.) ; tagbak-matsing (Tag.) ; tagbas 
(C. Bis.); talbak (Tag.); tugis (S. L. Bis.). 

LANGUAS COPELANDII (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia copelandii Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 164. 
Mindanao (Zamboanga), Copeland. In forests at low altitudes. En- 
demic. 

LANGUAS CUMINGII (K. Schum.) comb. nov. 

Alpmia- cumingii K. Schum. in Engl. Pfianzenreich 20 (1904) 315; 

Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 187. 
Alpinia chinensis Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152, Rev. PI. 

Vase. Filip. (1886) 274, non Rose. 

Luzon (Albay), Cuming 859. Of this I have seen only a few detached 
flowers. Endemic. 

LANGUAS DIVERSIFOLIA (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia diversifolia Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2919. 

Vanoverberghia diversifolia Elm. op. cit. 2913. 
Luzon (Benguet), Elmer 8853. In damp ravines, altitude about 1,000 
m. Endemic. 

LANGUAS FLABELLATA (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia flabellata Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 188. 

Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao, Merrill Phil. PI. 831, 
B. S. 31885 Santos, 2718, 2871 Mearns. Not always easily distinguishable 
from A. brevilabris Presl. In forests at medium altitudes ascending to 
2,000 m. Endemic. 

Var. MAJOR (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia flabellata Ridl. var. major Ridl. 1. c. 

Range and habitat of the species and doubtfully distinct even as a 
variety. 

Local names: Bilau (Sub.); tagbak-gubat (Bik.); tagbak-lalaki (Tag.); 
tuka-maya (Tag.). 

LANGUAS FOXWORTHYI (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia foxiuorthyi Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 189; 
Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2887. 
Palawan, B. S. 772 Foxworthy, Elmer 12930. In forests at low altitudes. 
Endemic. 

LANGUAS GLABRESCENS (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia glabrescens Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 185. 

Batan Islands (Batan,, Sabtan), B. S. 3679 Fenix, 31U1 Mearns, 10156 
McGregor. On slopes at low altitudes. Endemic unless identical with 
some Formosan species represented by Faurie 975 of his 1913 collection. 

Local name: Gagad (Iv.). 






232 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

LANGUAS GRAMINEA (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia graminea Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 189; Elm. 
Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2966. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon) , Catan- 
duanes, Negros, Panay, F. B. 7267, 11208 Everett, B. S. 26S59, 30678 Ramos 
& Edano, 25A11 Yates, 28375 Fenix, 30239 Ramos, Elmer 16228. In forests 
up to 800 m altitude. Endemic. 

Perhaps but a narrow-leaved form of L. brevilabris (Presl) Merr. 

Local names: Barangin (Ibn.) ; lampingit (Neg.) ; tagbak (P. Bis.). 

LANGUAS HAENKEI (Presl) comb. nov. 

Alpinia haenkei Presl Symb. 1 (1832) 66, t. U3; K. Schum. in Engl. 

Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 341; Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 

35 (1906) 86, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 184. 
Alpinia malaccensis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 110; Naves Novis.. 

App. (1880) 225; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152, Rev. 

PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 275, non Rose. 
Alpinia philippinensis Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 

86; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 37. 

Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or 
all islands and provinces. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes, 
often common, represented by over 60 individual collections. Endemic. 

Local names: Bagumbung (Tag.) ; barapat (Ig.) ; birao-birao (Sul.) ; 
punan (C. Bis.) ; sakiapag (Neg.) ; simionan (Buk.) ; tagbak-babae (Tag.) ; 
tagbak-lalaki Tag.) ; tagusahis (P. Bis.) talbak (Tag.) ; tamotamo (Sbl.) ; 
tukang-maya (Tag.); kalaueg (Ig.). 

LANGUAS ILLUSTRIS (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia illustris Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 185. 

Mindoro, Palawan, B. S. 51U Foxtvorthy, 39485 Ramos. In forests along 
stream at low altitudes; very similar to A. malaccensis Rose. Endemic. 

LANGUAS LONGIPETIOLATA (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia longipetiolata Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2969. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Elmer 16167, 1695k, B. S. 23UU1 Ramos. In forests 
up to 600 m altitude. Endemic. 

LANGUAS MACROSCAPH1S (K. Schum.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia macroscaphis K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 284, 
Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 337, /. W, B. C. 

Mindanao (prob. Davao), (Warburg). The type is preserved in the 
Berlin herbarium. I have seen no specimens. Endemic. 

LANGUAS MOLLIS (Presl) comb. nov. 

Alpinia mollis Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 110; Naves Novis. App. 

(1880) 225; K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 368; 

Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 191. 

"Hab. in insula Luzon." The type was collected by Haenke. It is 

known only from the original description and is a species of doubtful 

status. Endemic. 

LANGUAS MUSAEFOLIA (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia musaefolia Ridl. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 604, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 186. 



VoL 1 ZINGIBERACEAE 233 

\ 

Negros, Elmer 9539. In forests, altitude about 1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Lunhas (C. Bis.). 

LANGUAS PENDULI FLORA (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia penduliflora Ridl. in Lean. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 570, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 187. 

Leyte, Elmer 7288. Probably from forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

LANGUAS PUBIFLORA (Benth.) comb. nov. 

Hellenia puhiflora Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 2 (1843) 235. 
Alpinia pubiflora K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 313, 

/. 39, F, G; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 188; Elm. 

Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2965. 

Luzon (Tayabas, Sorsogon), Guimaras, Camiguin de Misamis, Min- 
danao, B. S. 34699 Ramos & Pascasio, 14728 Ramos, F. B. 9100 Whitford 
& Hutchison, 34 Ritchie, Elmer 10456, 16546, Copeland 319, Piper 606. 
In forests at low and medium altitudes. New Guinea, Caroline Islands. 

Local names: Tagbag (Sul.) ; tagbak (P. Bis.). 

LANGUAS PULCHELLA (K. Schum.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia pulchella K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 276, t. 2, 
f. E, Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 315; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 
. (1909) Bot. 189. 

Mindanao (Davao), (Warburg) . I have seen no material representing 
this species. New Guinea. 

LANGUAS PYRAMIDATA (Blume) comb. nov. 

Alpinia pyramidata Blume Enum. PI. Jav. 1 (1827) 58; Naves Novis. 
App. (1880) 225; Ridl. in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 604, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 186; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 
(1919) 2967. 
Alpinia galanga Naves Novis. App. (1880) 225, vix Sw. 
Alpinia galanga Sw. var. pyramidata K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
20 (1904) 316. 
Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon), Panay, Leyte, Mindanao 
(Lanao, Agusan), Palawan, Elmer 16352, Wenzel 1407, Clemens 612, B. S. 
21556 Escritor, 23865 Fenix, 35279 Martelino & Edano. In old clearings, 
etc., sometimes planted. Himalayan region through Malaya to the Mo- 
luccas. 

Local names: Langkauas (Tag., Bis., Bik.) ; lankauas (Tag., Pamp., 
Bis., Mho.) ; pal-la (Mand.). 

LANGUAS ROMBLONENSIS (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia romblonensis Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2889. 

Romblon, Samar, Elmer 12050, B. S. 21238 Escritor (from Romblon, 
not from Panay as labeled), 17548 Ramos. Along streams at low alti- 
tudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Tagbak (P. Bis.). 

LANGUAS ROSEA (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia rosea Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2890. 

Sibuyan, Elmer 12509. In dense forests, altitude about 1,350 m. 
Endemic. 



234 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 



t 



LANGUAS RUFA (Presl) comb. nov. 

Hellenia rufa Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 114, t. 21; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1859) 604. 
Alpinia rufa Naves Novis. App. (1880) 226; K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. 
. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 293, Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 361; Ridl. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 190, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 604, 8 
(1915) 2887. 

Luzon (Laguna, Camarines, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Polillo, Catanduanes, 
Samar, Leyte, Panay, Negros, Bucas, Mindanao, Basilan. In forests at 
low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Bihai (C. Bis.); kaukos (Bag.); tagbag (Mbo.) ; tagbak 
(Tag.). 

LANGUAS SIBUYANENSIS (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia sibuyanensis Elm, Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2891. 

Sibuyan, Elmer 12316. In forests along streams, altitude about 225 
m. Endemic. 

Local name: Bobonan (P. Bis.). 

LANGUAS SPECIOSA (Wendl.) comb. nov. 

Zerumbet speciosum Wendl. Sert. Hann. (1798) t. 19. 

Alpinia nutans Rose, in Sm. Exot. Bot. 2 (1805) t. 106; Naves Novis. 

App. (1880) 226. 
Alpinia cernua Naves Novis. App. (1880) 226, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 

(1877-83) t. 464, non Sims. 
Alpinia speciosa K. Schum. Fl. Kaiser- Wilhelmsl. (1887) 29, Engl. 

Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 284, t. 3, f. A, B, Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 

339, /. 40 D-F. 

Occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes, but not a native of 
the Archipelago and nowhere naturalized. China, Japan; cultivated in 
other warm countries. 

LANGUAS SUBFUSICARPA (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia subfusicarpa Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2892. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10506. In damp primary forests, altitude 
about 1,200 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Bosadak (Bag.). 

LANGUAS TRACHYASCUS (K. Schum.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia trachyascus K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 
336; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 185. 
Mindanao (Davao), Warburg 14514 in herb. Berol. I have seen only 
the type which has the facies of Alpinia haenkei Presl. Endemic. 

LANGUAS VANOVERBERGHII (Merr.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia vanoverberghii Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 75. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 573. On slopes, altitude about 1,350 
m. Endemic. 

Local names: Kalauin (Bon.); kalauing (Bon.); takang (Bon.). 

LANGUAS VULCANICA (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia vulcanica Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2971. 

Luzon (Camarines, Sorsogon), Bucas Grande, Elmer 16168, B. S. 33864 
Ramos & Edano, 35051 Ramos & Pascasio, 23428 Ramos. In primary 
forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 800 m. Endemic. 



VoL 1 ZINGIBERACEAE 235 

LANGUAS WENZELII (Merr.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia wenzelii Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 353. 
Leyte, Wenzel 623. In forests, altitude about 500 m. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Alpinia arctiflora F.-Muell.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 227. 

Alpinia capitellata Jack; Naveg op. cit. 226. 

Alpinia chinensis Rose; Naves op. cit. 225. 

Alpinia coerulea Benth.; Naves op. cit. 227. 

Alpinia elatior Jack; Naves op. cit. 226. 

Alpinia gigantea Blume; Naves op. cit. 225. 

Alpinia javanica Blume; Naves op. cit. 226. 

Alpinia mutica Roxb.; Naves 1. c. 

Alpinia rubra (Miq.) Naves 1. c. 

Alpinia scabra (Blume) Naves 1. c. 

Alpinia spicata Roxb.; Naves 1. c. 

Alpinia stachyoides Hance; Naves 1. c. 

3. KOLOWRATIA Presl 

KOLOWRATIA CONGESTA (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Alpinia congesta Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2968. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Elmer 161UU. On forested slopes, altitude about 
450 m. Endemic. 

KOLOWRATIA ELEGANS Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 113, *. 20; Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 610; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 228; Ridl. 

in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 86, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 

(1909) Bot. 181; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 159, Sp. Blancoanae 

(1918) 110. 
Renealmia gracilis Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 1. 
Renealmia exaltata Blanco op. cit. ed, 2 (1845) 1, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 2, 

t. 1, non Linn. 
Hellenia gracilis Hassk. in Flora 47 (1864) 19. 
Alpinia gracilis Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 316; Vidal 

Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886), 275. 
Alpinia elegans K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 288, Pflan- 

zenreich 20 (1904) 352,/. il C; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 

27 (1905) 84, Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 37. 

Luzon (Apayao, Amburayan, Lepanto, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Bu- 
lacan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Polillo, 
Mindoro, Leyte. In thickets along streams at low and medium altitudes; 
represented by numerous collections. Endemic. 

Local names: Bagombon (Tag.); katkatan (Bis.); katotang (Bis.); 
salbak (Tag.); tagbak (Tag.); tugbak (Tag.). 

KOLOWRATIA ERUCAEFORMIS Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 182. 

Bucas, Merrill 5258. On dry slopes at the borders of forests at low 
altitudes. Endemic. 

The genus is confined to the Philippines. 



236 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

4. LEPTOSOLENA Presl 

LEPTOSOLENA HAENKEI Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 111, t. 28; Naves 

Novis. App. (1880) 227; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 

Bot. 181. 
Alpinia leptosolenia K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 312. 
Leptosolena insignis Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 

84, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 181; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 

(1915) 2907. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Benguet, Union, Nueva Vizcaya, B. S. 
8211, 8172, 82863 Ramos, 21093 Escritor, 37896 Ramos & Edano, Elmer 
6428, Lete 84, Vanoverbergh 384. In thickets and on open slopes at low 
and medium altitudes. A monotypic endemic genus. 

Local names: Banai (Ilk.); kalauin (Bon.); panauil (Bon.). 

5. ADELMERIA Ridley 
(Elmeria Ridley, non Rydberg) 

ADELMERIA ALPINA Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2885. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10534, 10642. In forests, altitude 1,200 to 
2,100 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Lurasising (Bag.); pusadok (Bag.). 

ADELMERIA GIGANTI FOLIA (Elm.) Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 
2963. 
Zingiber gigantifolium Elm. op. cit. 8 (1915) 2916. 

Luzon (Tayabas, Sorsogon), Elmer 9282, 14603. In forests on talus 
slopes and along small streams, altitude 500 to 700. Endemic. 

ADELMERIA OBLONGA Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) Bot. 443. 
Adelmeria albida Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2964. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Sorsogon), Panay, Negros, Elmer 6255, 15912, 
Vanoverbergh 3108, Eskridge, B. S. 30884 Ramos & Edano. In forests at 
low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 m. Endemic. 

ADELMERIA PARADOXA (Ridl.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 9 (1914) 
Bot. 444. 
Hornstedtia paradoxa Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1905) 85. 
Elmeria bifida Ridl. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 568. 
Adelmeria bifida Ridl. op. cit. 603; Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
179. 
Luzon (Apayao, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Rizal, La- 
guna, Tayabas), Panay, Mindanao (Lanao), Elmer 6629, 18145, 8568, 7706, 
Merrill 4786, 7517, Loher 7001, B. S. 29652, 26458, 30675, 38032 Ra^ 
mos & Edano, F. B. 15854 Merritt. In the mossy forest and in damp 
forested ravines, altitude 1,000 to 1,800 m. Endemic. 
Local name: Parapat (Ig.) 

ADELMERIA PINETORUM (Ridl.) Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 180. 
Elmeria pinetorum Ridl. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 569. 



Vo1 - x ZINGIBERACEAE 237 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Elmer 8548, Vanoverbergh 4-53. In thickets 
and on open slopes about limestone bowlders, altitude 1,300 to 1,500 m. 
Endemic. 

Local names: Alauin (Bon.); barapat (Ig.). 

6. PLAGIOSTACHYS Ridley 

PLAGIOSTACHYS CORRUGATA Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2908. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11130. In forests, altitude about 450 m. En- 
demic. 

The flowers are unknown; probably no Plagiostachys. 

PLAGIOSTACHYS ELEGANS Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 178. 

Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens. In forests, altitude about 900 m. En- 
demic. 

PLAGIOSTACHYS ESCRITORII Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2910, 
(1919) 2989. 

Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Samar, Mindanao, Elmer 10516, 10544, 17501, 
18071, 16216, 18477a, 16062, B. S. 15919 Fenix, 24242 Ramos, 21504 Escritor, 
37290, 37262 Ramos & Edano. In forests at medium altitudes, ascending to 
1,300 m. Endemic. 

Local names: Bosadak (Bag.); pupundia (Sub.). 

PLAGIOSTACHYS PARVI FLORA (Presl) Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 

(1909) Bot. 178. 
Amomum parviflorum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 112, t. 19; Naves 

Novis. App. (1880) 224. 
Alpinia parviflora Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 316 

quoad syn. Presl, Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152, Rev PI. 

Vase. Filip. (1886) 275, p. p.; K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 27 

(1899) 299, Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 368. 

Luzon (Sorsogon, Leyte, Panay, Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 16215, 
Wenzel 305, Merrill 7318, B. S. 31256 Ramos. In primary forests at low 
altitudes. Endemic. 

PLAGIOSTACHYS PHILIPPINENSIS Ridl. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 
571, Philip. Journ. Sci.' 4 (1909) Bot. 177; C. B. Rob. op. cit. 6 
(1911) Bot. 197; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 9 (1919) 2989. 
Plagiostachys ridleyi Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2911, (1919) 
2989. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines), Polillo, Catanduanes, Sibuyan, 
Panay, Samar, Mindanao, B. S. 33'614, 31245, 31239, 29272 Ramos & Edano, 
24157 Ramos, 11253 McGregor, Baker 3457, Clemens 855, Elmer 7M5, 
Williams 2402, Elmer 12209. In primary forests at low and medium al- 
titudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Tagbak (S. L. Bis., Mbo.). 

PLAGIOSTACHYS ROLFEI (K. Schum.) Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 
(1909) Bot. 179. 
Alpinia rolfei K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 368. 
Alpinia parviflora Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 316, 
p. p. quoad Cuming 1327. 

Luzon (Cagayan, not AlbayJ), Cuming 1327. Not seen. Endemic. 



238 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

7. VANOVERBERGH1A Merrill 

VANOVERBERGHIA SEPULCHREI Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 76; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2913, (1919) 2990. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Bontoc, Benguet, Sorsogon), Panay, Vanoverbergh 956, 
Sandkukl 257, Elmer 8560, 17383, F. B. 9U7 Barnes, B. S. 12913 Fenix, 
3073%, 3013% Ramos & Edano. In ravines along streams at medium al- 
titudes, ascending to 1,500 m. A monotypic endemic genus. 

Local names: Agbab (Bon.); barapat (Ig.) ; chakchakil (Ig.). 

8. A MO MUM Linnaeus 

AMOMUM BULUSANENSE Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2973. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Elmer 16395. In primary forests, altitude about 600 
m. Endemic. 

AMOMUM CONOIDEUM (Ridl.) Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2972. 
Hornstedtia conoidea Ridl. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 605, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 175. 

Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Negros, Mindanao (Davao, Lanao) , Elmer 
102%6, 1692k, 17896, 11131, Clemens, Barrett. In damp forested ravines 
at medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Valeton, in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ill 3 (1921) 174, 176, cites Elmer 
102%6, the type of this species, as possibly representing Hornstedtia alliacea 
Valeton and as H. deliana Valeton, the former definitely known from Java 
and Sumatra, the latter from Sumatra. Ridley's specific name is the 
oldest. 

AMOMUM DALICAN (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Hornstedtia dalican Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2906. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11626, 11759. Along small streams in forests, 
altitude about 1,100 m. Endemic 
Local name: Dalikan (Bag.). 

AMOMUM DEUTERAMOMUM K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 
313, Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 237; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 
(1909) Bot. 173. 
Mindanao (Davao), (Warburg 15735). In forests. Not seen. Ende- 
mic. 

AMOMUM ELEGANS Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 84, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 172. 

Luzon (Bataan), Mindanao (Lanao), Whitford 300, 207, Clemens 1061, 
F. B. 3033 Borden. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Local names: Luya-luyahan (Tag.); tagbak-gubat (Tag.). 

AMOMUM FUSI FORME Ridl. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 604, nomen 
nudum, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 171. 

Negros, Samar, Mindanao (Zamboanga, Surigao), Bolster 331, 22%, 
Elmer 9509, B. S. 24159 Ramos, 36690, 37001 Ramos & Edano. In primary 
forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Loya-loya (C. Bis.) ; mali-mali (Sub.) ; satagbak (C. Bis.). 



VoL x ZINGIBERACEAE 239 

AMOMUM IROSINENSiS (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Hornstedtia irosinensis Elm. Leafi. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2981. 
Hornstedtia peninsula Elm. op. cit. 2983. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Elmer 16832, 16263, 16455. In forested ravines, al- 
titude 350 to 500 m. Endemic. 

AMOMUM LEPICARPUM Ridl. in Lean. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 605, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 174. 
Hornstedtia lepicarpa Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2979. 
Hornstedtia subviridis Elm. op. cit. 2987. 

Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Negros, Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10044, 
17176, 17869, 10835, 16437* 17788. In forests at low and medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

AMOMUM LI NEARI FOLIUM Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2975. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Elmer 16926. In thickets bordering forests, altitude 
about 300 m. Endemic. 

AMOMUM LOHERI K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 247; 
Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 171. 

Luzon, without locality, holier 675. I saw Loher's specimen at Kew 
iri 1907 and at that time made a note that it was very similar to A. trilo- 
bum Ridl. Endemic. 

AMOMUM LOPHOPHORUM (Ridl.) Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2973. 
Hornstedtia lophophora Ridl. in Leafi. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 607, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 176. 
Negros, Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10365, 10519. In forested ravines, 
altitude about 1,200 m. Endemic. 

AMOMUM LUZON ENSE Elm. Leafi. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2976. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Biliran, {Elmer 15645), B. S. 18696 McGregor, det. 
Elmer. In secondary forests at low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 

AMOMUM MICROCHEILA (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Hornstedtia microcheila Ridl. in Leafi. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 606, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 176. 

Negros, Elmer 10279. On seepage banks along streams, altitude about 
900 m. Endemic. 

AMOMUM MINDANAENSE Elm. Leafi. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2894. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10822. In primary forests, altitude about 
1,100 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Tanaulak (Bag.). 

AMOMUM MURICARPUM Elm. Leafi. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2896. 
Hornstedtia muricarpa Elm. op. cit. 8 (1919) 2980. 

Mindanao (Cotabato, Zamboanga, Davao), Elmer 10947, B. S. 15846 
Fenix, 11555 Robinson, 36603 Ramos & Edano. In primary forests at low 
and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Lalangod (Sub.); panikaban (Bag.); tugis (Buk.). 

AMOMUM PALAWAN ENSE Elm. Leafi. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2897. 

Palawan, Elmer 12795. In forests along streams at low altitudes. 
Very similar to A. mindanaense Elm. Endemic. 



240 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1922 

AMOMUM PANDANICARPUM Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2899. 
Hornstedtia pandanicarpa Elm. op. cit. 8 (1919) 2979. 
Hornstedtia sorsogonensis Elm. op. cit. 2985. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Panay, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao), Elmer 10508, 
16223, 16755, B. S. 31184, 38758 Ramos & Edano. In primary forests at 
low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,100 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Dalikan (Bag.). 

AMOMUM PHILIPPINENSE (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Hornstedtia philippinensis Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 
(1906) 86 p. p., Lean. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 605, Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 175; Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2905, 
(1919) 2981. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Palawan, Biliran, Negros, 
Panay, Leyte, Mindanao, Elmer 9281, 9280, 11973, 16713, 17903, 7285, 
Merrill 9762, Williams 2888, B. S. 80k- Foxworthy, 34554 Ramos & Pas- 
casio, 31123 Ramos & Edano, F. B. 3737 Merritt. In forests at low and 
medium altitudes. Endemic. 

The fruit described by Ridley does not belong to this species ; see Elmer, 
Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2980, for the true fruit characters. 

Local names: Dalikan (Mbo.) ; lulutukoan (Sub.); parapad (Ig.) ; tag- 
bak (P. Bis.); tumbak (Neg.). 

AMOMUM PROPINQUUM Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 
84, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 172; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 
8 (1915) 2894; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 111. 

Amomwm echinatum Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 3, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 
4, non Willd. 

Amomum aculeatum Naves Novis. App. (1880) 224, non Roxb. 

Hornstedtia propinqua Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2979. 

Luzon (Benguet, Batangas, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Masbate, Bili- 
ran, Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 6284, 15900, 15614, 18456, Merrill Sp. 
Blancoanae 925, F. B. 1704 Clark. In forests at low and medium altitudes. 
Endemic. 

Local name: Tugis (S. L. Bis.). 

AMOMUM PUBESCENS (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Amomum lepicarpum Ridl. var. pubescens Ridl. in Leafl. Philip. Bot. 

2 (1909) 604. 
Hornstedtia pubescens Elm. op. cit. 8 (1919) 2979. 
Negros, Elmer 10384. In forests, altitude about 1,100 m. Endemic. 

AMOMUM PUBIMARGINATUM Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2900. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10546. In primary forests, altitude about 
1,300 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Tabak-bukalod (Bag.). 

AMOMUM PURPUREUM (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Hornstedtia purpurea Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 9 (1919) 2984. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Elmer 16819, 17023. *tn densely forested ravines, 
altitude about 450 m. Endemic. 



VoL 1 ZINGIBERACEAE 241 

AMOMUM TRILOBUM Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 85, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 173. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Bulacan, Pampanga, Laguna, Rizal), 
Palawan, Panay, Bolster 67, Elmer 17566, B. S. £602, b-655 Ramos, 817 
Foxworthy, F. B. 12698 Rosenbluth & Tamesis. In primary forests at low 
and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local name: Tagbak (Tag.). 

AMOMUM WARBURGII K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 257; 
Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 171. 
Costus warburgii K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 346. 

Mindanao (probably Davao), Warburg. The type, a mere scrap, has 
distinctly the appearance of Costus; to be compared with Costus clemeii- 
siae Ridl. A species of very indefinite status. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

AMOMUM cardamomum Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 223. 

Amomum ciliatum Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Amomum dealbatum Roxb.; Naves 1. c. 

Amomum gracile Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Amomum hatuanum (Rumph.) Naves op. cit. 224. 

Amomum heteranthum Blume; Naves op. cit. 223. 

Amomum maximum Roxb.; Naves op. cit. 224. 

Amomum villosum Lour.; Naves op. cit. 223. 

9. PHAEOMERIA Lindley 

PHAEOMERIA SPECIOSA (Blume) comb. nov. 

Elettaria speciosa Blume Enum. PI. Jav. (1827) 51. 
Alpinia magnifica Rose. Monandr. PL (1828) t. 75. 
Phaeomeria magniftca K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 262. 
Phaeomeria imperialis Lindl. Nat. Syst. ed. 2 (1836) 446; Ridl. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 177; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 
(1915) 2907. 

Mindanao (Davao, Bukidnon), Elmer 10652, Williams 294-3, Wester 49. 
In ravines, probably introduced. Malay Peninsula, Java, Celebes. 
Local name: Tikala (Buk.). 

10. HEDYCHIUM Koenig 

HEDYCHIUM CORONARIUM Koenig in Retz. Obs. 3 (1783) 73; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 608; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 227; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 274; 
K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 44,'/. 8, A, C; Ridl. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 164; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 



* >-. ►— 



- c 
c < 

- a 

5 00 



157; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2978. 
Hedychium lingulatum Hassk. PL Jav. Rar. (1848) 135; Naves Novis. 



r -~ ea 



App. (1880) 227. 



200823 16 



"J" 

3 



242 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Introduced and cultivated for ornamental purposes, in some regions in 
the southern Philippines naturalized. In Mindanao certainly of prehis- 
toric introduction, in Luzon of recent introduction. A native of India, 
now pantropic, cultivated and naturalized. 

Local names: Banai (Bis.); dansuli (Buk.) ; kamia (Tag., Bik., Sp., C. 
Bis.); katkatan (Bis.); katotang (Bis.). 

HEDYCHIUM PHILIPPINENSE K. Schum. in Engl. Pfianzenreich 20 
(1904) 47; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 164; Elm. 
Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2903. 
Hedychium mindanaense Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2904, (1919) 
2978. 

■ Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Polillo,' Negros, Leyte, 
Mindanao, Jolo, Elmer 10673, 7909, 15968, Loher 6996, Clemens 747, B. S. 
22897 McGregor, 35015 Ramos & Pascasio, 27947 Ocampo, 20777 Escritor, 
15206, 10962, 10003 Ramos, F. B. 4252 Everett. In damp forests at low 
and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,100 m; often epiphytic or pseudoepi- 
phytic. Endemic. 

Local names: Dainsuli (Sub.); kalauag (Bag.); tagbak (P. Bis.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Hedychium hasseltii Blume; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 227. 

11. KAEMPFERIA Linnaeus 

KAEMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 2; Naves Novis. App. 

(1880) 222; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 165; K. 

Schum. in Engl. Pfianzenreich 20 (1904) 77; Merr. Fl. Manila 

(1912) 157, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 110. 
Kaempferia rotunda Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 5, ed. 2 (1845) 4, ed. 

3, 1 (1877) 7; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 222; Merr. in Govt. Lab. 

Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 84, non Linn. 
Kaempferia latifolia Hornem. Hassk. in Flora 47 (1864) 22, quoad 

syn. Blanco. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Rizal), Mindanao (Bukidnon), Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 
942, B. S. 26075 Fenix, 4.560 Ramos. In open grasslands at low and medium 
altitudes. India through Malaya to the Moluccas. 

Local names: Disol (Ilk.); doso (Bon.); dosol (Sbl.) ; doto (Bon.); 
duso (Tag.) ; dusog (Tag.) ; dusol (Tag.) ; gisol (Tag., Pamp.) ; kisol 
(Buk., Bis.); kosol (Bis.); kusol (Pamp.). 

KAEMPFERIA PHILIPPIN ENSIS Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) 
Bot. 296. 

Luzon (Laguna), B. S. 14952 Ramos. In forests along streams at low 
or medium altitudes. Endemic. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Kaempferia latifolia Don; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 223. 
Kaempferia pandurata Roxb.; Naves 1. c. 



Vcl. 1 



ZINGIBERACEAE 243 



12. BOESENBERGIA O. Kuntze 
(Gastrochilus Wallich, non Don) 
BOESENBERGIA LONGIPETIOLATA (Ridl.) comb. nov. 

Gastrochilus longipetiolatus Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
166. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga), F. B. 9110 Whitford & Hutchinson, B\. S. 
S6798 Ramos & Edano. In primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 
Local name: Bubunad (Sub.). 

13. CURCUMA Linnaeus 

CURCUMA LONGA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 2; Blanco PI. Filip. (1837) 5, 
ed. 2 (1845) 4, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 6, t. 3; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 
221; K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 108; Ridl. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 167. 
Curcuma xanthorrhiza Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) 
t. 3, Novis. App. (1880) 222, non Roxb. 

Widely distributed in the Philippines in and about towns, sometimes in 
open waste places, sometimes planted, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 917, Elmer 
11933. A native of India, now pantropic. Turmeric. 

Local names: Angai (Pamp.) ; barak (Kuy.) ; dilau (Tag.) ; dulau (S. 

L. Bis.) ; kalabaga (Bis.) ; kalauag (Mbo., Bis.) ; kinamboi (Bis.) ; kulalo 

(Pamp.) ; kulyau (Ilk.) ; kunig (Ilk.) ; kunik (Ibn.) ; lampuyang (P. Bis.) ; 

lauag (Sub.); luyang-dilau (Tag.); pangas (Pamp.); salampauyan (Bag.). 

CURCUMA ZEDOARIA (Berg.) Rose. Monandr. PI. (1828) t. 109; K. 

Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 110; Ridl. in Govt. Lab. 

Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 84, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 

166; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 433; Fl. Manila 

(1912) 158, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 109; Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 

8 (1919) 2977 (err. zeodaeria). 

Amomum zedoaria Berg. Mat. Med. (1788) 41. 

Curcuma zerumbet Roxb. PI. Coromandel 2 (1798) t. 101; Naves 

Novis. App. (1880) 222. 
Costus nigricans Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 3, ed. 2 (1845) 3, ed. 3, 1 

(1877) 5. . 
Costus luteus Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 4, ed. 2 (1845) 3, ed. 3, 1 

(1877) 6. 
Roscoea wigro-ciliata Hassk. in Flora 47 (1864) 21. 
Roscoea lutea Hassk. 1. c. 

In open waste places in and near towns throughout the Philippines, 
often abundant; certainly introduced. India to Malaya. 

Local names: Alimpuyas (C. Bis.) ; alimpuying (C. Bis.) ; barak (Tag.) ; 
bolon (Tag.); ganda (Sbl.) ; konik (Ilk.); koniko (Bon.); lampoyang 
(P. Bis.); langkuas (Ilk.); luya-luyahan (Tag.); tamahiba (Tag.); tama- 
hilan (Bik.) ; tamo (Pamp., Tag.); tamokansi (Tag.); unig (If.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 222. 
Curcuma australasica Hook, f.; Naves op. cit. 221. 
Curcuma caesia Roxb.; Naves op. cit. 222. 
Curcuma purpurascens Blume; Naves 1. c. 
Curcuma viridiflora Roxb.; Naves op. cit. 221. 



244 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

14. GLOBBA Linnaeus 

GLOBBA AUREA Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1915) 2902. 

Busuanga, Palawan, Elmer 13243, Merrill 7199, 931*2, B. S. 21569 Escri- 
tor, 19339 Weber. In thickets and in rock crevices along streams' at low and 
medium altitudes. Endemic. 

GLOBBA BREVIFOLIA K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 145; 
Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 160. 
Globba parviflora Presl var. brevifolia K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
27 (1899) 330. 

Luzon (Zambales), Corregidor, Warburg 14066, F. B. 13216 Curran. 
In thickets or forests at low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 
Apparently very close to G. campsophylla K. Schum. 

GLOBBA CAMPSOPHYLLA K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 
145; Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 83, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 159. 
Globba parviflora Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152; K. Schum. 
in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 27 (1899) 330, non Presl. 
Luzon (Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Tayabas, Bulacan, Bataan), Catanduanes, 
Panay, Samar, Mindanao, Cuming 1090, Elmer 11284, Merrill 4177, 
5207, Phil. PI. 334, F. B. 1461 Ahern's collector, 7208 Curran, B. S. 
1110, 24277, 19444, 30296 Ramos, 6132 Robinson, 24975 Fenix, 21392 
Escritor. In damp thickets and forests, on and about cliffs, etc., at low 
and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Luya-luyahan (Tag.) ; malasabutan (S. L. Bis.) ; tangbak 
(Tag.). 

GLOBBA GRACILIS K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 145; 
Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 161, Lean. Philip. Bot. 2 
(1909) 605. 

Mindanao (Misamis, Davao), Warburg 1^580 in herb. Berol., F. B. 
6.752 Mearns & Hutchinson. In primary forests, altitude 300 to 1,000 m. 
Endemic. 

GLOBBA LATI FOLIA Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 161. 

Mindoro, Panay, Mindanao (Zamboanga), Merrill 4064, Williams 2334, 
B. S. 30976 Ramos <& Edano, 32197 McGregor. In damp primary forests 
at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

GLOBBA LEUCOCARPA Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 161. 

Luzon (Benguet), Polillo, Mindoro, Leyte, Elmer 6465, 7298, Merrill 
1789, McGregor 201. In damp primary forests, on shaded cliffs, etc., at 
low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

GLOBBA MARANTINA Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 170; Schauer in Nov. Act. 
Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1 : 427; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 
115; Llanos Frag. PL Filip. (1851) 7; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco 
Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 2, t. 351; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. 

(1885) 151, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 274; Naves Novis. App. 

(1880) 219; K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 156; Ridl. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 162; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 
156, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 111. 



Voli l ZINGIBERACEAE 245 

Globba barthei Gagnep. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 48 (1901) 208, t. 7, 
f. 1-4; K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 159; Ridl. in 
Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 83. 

Globba ectobolus K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 156, 
/. 19, L. 

Globba heterobracteata K. Schum. op. cit. 159, /. 19, H. 

Luzon (Union, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Cavite, 
Rizal, Bataan), Palawan, Panay, Negros. In thickets in and near towns 
at low and medium altitudes, often abundant. Certainly introduced. 
Malay Peninsula and Archipelago to New Guinea and the Bismarck 
Archipelago. 

Local names: Bangliu (Ilk.); barak (Tag.); luyan-luyaan (Pang.). 

GLOBBA MERRILLII Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 83, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 160. 
Luzon (Bataan), Merrill 3869, Whit ford 481, F. B. 1598 Borden. Along 
streams in primary forests and on exposed forested ridges up to 1,000 m 
altitude; not easily distinguishable from G. campsophylla K. Schum. 
Endemic. 

GLOBBA PARVI FLORA Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 115; Miq. PI. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1859) 592; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 220; K. Schum. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 146; Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. 
(Philip.) 35 (1906) 83, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 159; Elm. 
Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2977. 

Luzon (Rizal, Albay, Sorsogon), Leyte, Mindanao, Mem-rill 2783, 2782, 
Elmer 15666, 15381, B. S. 16503 Reillo, F. B. 2910 M earns, 12453 Danao. 
In forests at low and medium altitudes. Endemic. 

GLOBBA PYRAMIDATA Gagnep. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 48 (1901) 
204, t. 4, f. 7-10; K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 146; 
Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 158. 

Mindanao (Agusan), Weber 1128. In primary forests at low altitudes. 
Indo-China. 

GLOBBA USTULATA Gagnep. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 48 (1901) 208, 
t. 7, f. 5-7; K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1904) 158; Ridl. 
in, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 163. 

Balabac (Marche 22? B). The type is preserved in the Paris Museum; 
I have seen no specimens. A variety in Indo-China fide Gagnepain. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Globba aurantiaca Miq.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 219. 

Globba careyana Roxb.; Naves op. cit. 220. 

Globba ciliata Jack; Naves op. cit. 219. 

Globba leucantha Miq.; Naves 1. c. 

Globba maculata Blume ; Naves 1. c. 

Globba patens Miq.; Naves 1. c. 

Globba saltatoria Rose; Naves 1. c. 

Globba strobilifera Zoll.; Naves I. c. 



246 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

15. COSTUS Linnaeus 
COSTUS CLEMENSAE Eidl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 193. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga, Lanao), Clemens 1173, B. S. 36578 Ramos & 
Edano. On forested slopes, altitude about 700 m. Endemic. 

Local name: Tiuasi-tiuasi (Sub.). 

COSTUS GLABRA (K. Schum.) comb. nov. 

Costus speciosus Sm. var. glabra K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 27 

(1899) 343, Pfianzenreich 20 (1904) 398. 
Herba spiralis II laevis Rumph. Herb. Amb. 6: 143, t. 61*, f. 2. 
Costus speciosus Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 8 (1919) 2977, non Sm. 
Luzon (Tayabas, Albay, Sorsogon), Polillo, Samar, Leyte, Panay, 
Wenzel 227, Elmer U707, Whitford 830, B. S. 6299, 6926 Robinson, 351*78 
Martelino & Edano, 21*820, 21*811 Edano, 15302 Ramos. In forests, old 
clearings, abaca plantations, etc., at low and medium altitudes. Moluccas. 

COSTUS H1RSUTUS Blume Enum. PI. Jav. 1 (1827) 61. 

Costus speciosus Sm. var. hirsuta K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 27 

(1899) 343, Pfianzenreich 20 (1904) 398. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Union, Batangas), Vanoverbergh 1392, 

Cuzner 21, Lete 261*. In thickets and forests, altitudes 300 to 1,200 m. 

India to southern China and Formosa through Malaya to New Guinea. 

COSTUS SE RICE US Blume Enum. PI. Jav. 1 (1827) 62; Naves Novis. 
App. (1880) 227. 
Costus speciosus Sm. var. argyrophyllus Wall, ex Baker in Hook. f. 
Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1892) 249; Ridl. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 
(1906) 84, Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 192. 
Costus speciosus Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152, Rev. PI. 
Vase. Filip. (1886) 274; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
192, non Sm. 

Luzon (Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Taya- 
bas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Polillo, Masbate, Negros, Panay, Cebu, Leyte, 
Mindanao, Basilan, Jolo. Common in primary forests, old clearings, etc., 
at low and medium altitudes. Burma, through Malaya to New Guinea. 

Local names: Tiuasi (Sub.); tubong-usa (Bik.). • 

COSTUS SPECIOSUS (Koenig) Sm. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 1 (1791) 249; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 610; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 227, 
in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. U2; K. Schum. in Engl. 
Pfianzenreich 20 (1904) 398; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 160. 
Banksia speciosa Koenig in Retz. Obs. 3 (1783) 75. 

Occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes. This very large- 
flowered form is a native of the Malay Peninsula and is, I believe, 
specifically distinct from the common wild Philippine form. It is cul- 
tivated in various parts of Malaya and in some other tropical countries. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Costus potierae F.-Muell.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 227. 

EXCLUDED GENERA 

Elettaria alba Blume; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 224. 
Elettaria anthoides Teysm.; Naves 1. c. 



Voi - 1 CANNACEAE 247 

Elettaria cardamomum Maton; Naves 1. c. 

Elettaria coccinea Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Elettaria foetens Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Elettaria hemisphaerica Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Elettaria macrocephala Miq.; Naves op. cit. 225. 

Elettaria minuta Blume; Naves op. cit. 224. 

Elettaria mollis Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Elettaria pinanga Miq.; Naves op. cit. 225. 

Elettaria punicea (Roxb.) Naves op. cit. 224. 

Elettaria rubra Miq.; Naves op. cit. 225. 

Elettaria Solaris Blume; Naves op. cit. 224. 

Elettaria^ speciosa Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Elettaria tomentosa Miq.; Naves op. cit. 225. 

Elettaria villosa Miq.; Naves 1. c. 

Roscoea purpurea Spreng.; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 
3, 4 1 (1880) 99; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 223. 

CANNACEAE 

1. CANNA Linnaeus 

CANNA COCCINEA Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8 (1768) No. 3; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1859) 613; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 229; Merr. Fl. Manila 
(1912) 161; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 56 (1912) 60. 

Cultivated for ornamental purposes, but nowhere naturalized. A native 

of Central and South America. 

» 
CANNA FLACCIDA Salisb. Ic. Stirp. Rar. (1791) t. 2; Merr. Fl. Manila 

(1912) 162 (C. flaccida Salisb. x iridiflora Ruiz & Pav.) ; Kranzl. 

in Engl. Pflanzenreich 56 (1912) 49. 

Widely cultivated for its showy flowers, but not naturalized and appar- 
ently never or very rarely producing seeds. A native of tropical America. 
Local names: Bandera espanola (Sp.) ; kambut bandera espanola (Ilk.). 

CANNA GLAUCA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 

(1909) Bot. 198; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 162; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 56 (1912) 54. 

Cultivated for ornamental purposes, Merrill 64.8, 6690, 6691. A native 
of tropical America. 

CANNA INDICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1; Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 6, ed. 
2 (1845) 5, ed. 3, 1 (1877) 8, t. U; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 229; 
Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 198; Merr. op. cit. 5 

(1910) Bot. 340, Fl. Manila (1912) 161, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 111. 
Canna orientalis Rose. Monandr. PI. (1828) t. 12; Kranzl. in Engl. 

Pflanzenreich 56 (1912) 47. ? 

Throughout the Philippines in the settled areas, occurring in waste 
places in and near settlements. A native of tropical America, now pan- 
tropic 



248 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Local names: Balunsaying (Bis.); bangali (Bik.) ; kakuentasan (Tag.); 
kiuingan (If.) ; kolintasan (Bis.) ; kuentas-kuentasan (Tag.) ; lasa (Iv.) ; 
saging-saging (Tag.) ; tapuranga (Bis.) ; tikas (Tag.) ; tikas-tikas (Tag., 
P. Bis.); tikis-tikis (Tag.); tukas-tukas (Tag.). 

CANNA REEVESII Lindl. Bot. Reg. 23 (1837) t. 200U; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich 56 (1912) 50, /. 10, A-C. 

Cultivated for ornamental purposes, but nowhere spontaneous, Merrill 
6692, det. Kranzlin. A native of tropical America. 

CANNA SPECIOSA Rose. Monandr. PI. (1828) t. 17; Naves Novis. App. 
(1880) 229; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 161; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 56 (1912) 44, /. 8 D. 
Occasional in open waste places, naturalized, Merrill 6689. A native 
of tropical America. 

Local name: Kambut-nganalabaga (Ilk.). 

CANNA WARCEWICZII Dietr. in Allg. Gart. Zeit. 19 (1851) 290, fig.; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 162; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 56 
(1912) 64. 
Cultivated for ornamental purposes, but nowhere established. A native 
of tropical America. 

Local name: Kambut-nga-nangisit (Ilk.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Canna Montana Blume; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 229. 

Oanna edulis Ker.; Naves 1. c. 

Canna pedunculata Sims; Naves 1. c. 

Canna rubricaulis Link; Naves 1. c. = C. edidis Ker. 

« 
Canna flavescens Link; Naves 1. c. 

All our forms of Canna are introduced plants in the Philippines. Two 
or three characteristic species are thoroughly naturalized, especially Canna 
indica Linn., which was introduced at an early date in colonial history. A 
very large number of garden forms, mostly hybrids, have been introduced 
from Europe and America since the beginning of the present century, 
but it is impossible to determine their botanical origins, as the necessary 
data are lacking; few of these hybrids ever produce seeds here, but are 
reproduced by means of their rhizomes. 

MARANTACEAE 

1. DON AX Loureiro 

DONAX CANNAE FORM IS (Forst. f.) K. Schum. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 15 
(1893) 440; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 45 (1907) 243; Ridl. in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 193; Valeton ex Merr. Interpret. Herb. 
Amb. (1917) 166; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 112. 
Thalia cannaeformis Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 1. 

Maranta arwndinacea Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 7, ed. 2 (1845) 5, ed. 
3, 1 (1877) 9, t. 5, non Linn. 



VoL a MARANTACEAE 249 

Clinogyne grandis Benth. & Hook; f. ex Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 
465; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 
(1886) 275. 
Donax arundastrum K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 11 (1902) 33; 
Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 37, Forestry Bureau 
Bull. 1 (1903) 16; Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 68, t. 1 f. G-J, 
non Lour. 
Actoplanes cannaef 'ormis K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 11 (1902) 

34 p. p. excl. syn. Miq. 
Phrynium dichotomum Roxb. in Asiat. Research 11 (1810) 324; 

Schauer in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 427. 
Maranta dichotoma Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 6615; Naves Novis. App. 
(1880) 228; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 611; Usteri Beitr. Ken. 
Philip. Veg. (1905) 128. 
Maranta grandis Miq. FL Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860-1) 616; Naves Novis. 
App. (1880) 228. 
Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in all 
or most islands and provinces. Common in secondary forests, especially 
along streams at low and medium altitudes. Java and Borneo to New 
Guinea, the Aru and Admiralty Islands, New Hebrides, and the Marianne 
Islands. 

Local names: Alaro (Bis.) ; aratan (Gad.) ; baban (Chab.) ; bamban 
(Ilk., Bis., Mbo., Tag., Sul., Buk.) ; banban (Tag., Bik., Bis., Bag., Ibn.) 
bankolid (Mbo.) ; baras-barasan (Tag.) ; bonbon (Tag.) ; buaban (Bag.) 
daromaka (Ilk.) ; darumaka (Ilk.) ; garomaka (Ilk.) ; lankuas (Ilk.) 
mamban (Bik., S. L. Bis.) ; manban (Tag.) ; matalbak (Tag.) ; matapal 
(Isn.) ; mini (Ig.) ; nini (Ig.) ; ninik (Iv.). 

2. PHRYNIUM Willdenow 

PHRYNIUM PHILIPPINENSE Ridl. in Leaf!. Philip. Bot. 2 (1909) 569, 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 195. 
Phrynium capitatum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 109; Naves Novis. 

App. (1880) 228, non Willd. 
Phrynium, densiflorum Naves Novis. App. (1880) 228; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 152, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 275, non 

Blume. 

Babuyan Islands, Luzon (Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, Taya- 
bas, Albay, Sorsogon), Alabat, Polillo, Mindoro, Palawan, Panay, Leyte, 
Negros, Mindanao. In forests at low and medium altitudes; scarcely 
distinguishable from P. capitatum Willd. Endemic. 

Local names: Bogigkik (Mbo.); hagikhik (Bis.); hagithit (Tag.); lu- 
tataban (P. Bis.); okos (Bag.). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Phrynium latifolium Blume; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 228. 

Phrynium maximum Blume; Naves 1. c. 

Phrynium pubinerve Blume; Naves 1. e. 

Some species of Calathea have been introduced into the Philippines and 
are occasionally found in cultivation for ornamental purposes. 



250 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

3. MARANTA Linnaeus 

MARANTA ARUNDINACEA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 2; Naves Novis. App. 
(1880) 228; K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 11 (1902) 125; Perk. 
Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 72, t. 2; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 
6 (1904) 29, Fl. Manila (1912) 163; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
4 (1909) Bot. 197. 
Maranta ramosissima Wall. PL As. Rar. 3 (1832) 51, t. 286; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 228. 

Widely distributed in the Philippines in cultivation for its starchy 
rhizomes. A native of tropical America, now pantropic. Arrowroot. 

Local names: Araru (Ibn., It.); arorii (Tag.); aruru (Tag.); bai 
(Iv.) ; galamaka (Bon.); sagu (Bik., Ilk.). 

Var. VARIEGATA (N. E. Br.) Ridl. in Gard. Chron. Ill 9 (1891) 73; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 163. 
Phrynium variegaium N. E. Br. in 111. Hort. 33 (1886) 125, t. 606. 

Cultivated for ornamental purposes. 

4. MONOPHRYNIUM K. Schumann 

MONOPHRYNIUM CONGESTUM Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 197. 

Luzon (Apayao, Tayabas, Laguna), F. B. 954.8 Curran, B. S. 28082, 
£824.5 Fenix. In primary forests at low or medium altitudes. Endemic. 

Local names: Alauan (Ibn.); arupi (Ibn.). 

MONOPHRYNIUM FASCICULATUM (Presl) K. Schum. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 11 (1902) 68; Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 69, t. 1, /. 
A-F; Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 196. 

Calathea fasciculata Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 108, t. 10, f. 1; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 229. 

Phrynium fasciadatum Horan. Monogr. (1862) 11. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Laguna, Tayabas), Samar, Leyte, Biliran, Mindanao 
(Surigao), B. S. 34797 Ramos & Pascasio, 28589 Ramos & Edano, 24136, 
13356 Ramos, 22837 McGregor, Elmer 914-8, Wenzel 378. In primary 
forests at low and medium altitudes. Halmahera. The only representa- 
tive of the genus known outside of the Philippines. 

Local names: Hagithit (Tag.); hagithit-na-daytoi (S. L. Bis.). 

MONOPHRYNIUM SIMPLEX Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1 (1908) 276; Ridl. 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 196. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Elmer 7611, 9147, 17502. On forested 
slopes near streams, altitude about 750 m. Endemic. 

5. PHACELOPHRYNIUM K. Schumann 

PHACELOPHRYNIUM BRACTEOSUM (Warb.) K. Schum. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich 11 (1902) 123; Perk. Frag. FL Philip. (1904) 71, t. 3, f. 
F-O; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 268; Ridl. op. cit. 
4 (1909) Bot. 195. 
Phrynium bracteosum Warb. ex K. Schum. 1. c. in syn. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, Biliran, Mindanao (Agusan, 
Lanao), Merrill 7288, 5202, 5232, Elmer 16145, 15240, Clemens 423, Wenzel 



V* 1 - 1 BURMANNIACEAE 251 

232, B. S. 34564. Ramos & Pascasio, 24732 Edano, 15229, 17456, 39780 
Ramos, 18818 McGregor. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. 
Borneo. 

PHACELOPHRYNIUM CYLI NDRICU M Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 
(1918) Bot. 269. 

Catanduanes, Panay, B. S. 30503 Ramos, 31271 Ramos & Edano. In 
primary forests at low altitudes. Endemic. 

PHACELOPHRYNIUM INTERRUPTUM (Warb.) K. Schum. in Engl. 
Pfianzenreich 11 (1902) 121; Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 70, 
t. 3, f. A-Ei Ridl. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 194. 
Phrynium interrwptum Warb. ex K. Schum. 1. c. in syn. 
Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Cama- 
rines, Sorsogon), Polillo, Samar, Panay, Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan, Da- 
vao). In forests at low and medium altitudes, represented by about fifty 
individual collections. Endemic. 

Local names: Bamban (Tag.); hagikhik (S. L. Bis.); hagitit (Tag., 
Bik.) ; kokos (Bag.); nitni (Ig.). 

BURMANNIACEAE 

1. BURMANNIA Linnaeus 

BURMANNIA CLEMENTIS Schltr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
305. 

Mindanao (Lanao), Clemens 24- In grasslands, altitude about 650 m. 
Endemic. 

BURMANNIA COELESTIS D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 44; Naves 
Novis. App. (1880) 252; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 250. 
Burmannia azurea Griff. Notul. 3 (1851) 236, Ic. PI. As. (1851) t. 
272, f. 1; Becc. Malesia 1 (1878) 242, t. 15, f. 1-3. 
Luzon (Pangasinan), B. S. 4913 Ramos. Probably in open places at low 
altitudes. India to Borneo and the Caroline Islands. 

BURMANNIA LONGI FOLIA Becc. Malesia 1 (1878) 244; Naves Novis. 
App. (1880) 252; Rendle in Journ. Bot. 34 (1896) 355; Merr. in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 268. 

Mindoro, Negros, Camiguin de Misamis, Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), 
Merrill 5741, Elmer 13690, B. S. 14428 Ramos, F. B. 13611 Curran & 
Foxworthy. On ridges in wet mossy forests, altitude 1,200 to 1,600 m. 
Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Amboina, New Guinea. 

Local names: Bagumbaan (Mbo.) ; pamalauan (Bag.). 

EXCLUDED GENERA AND SPECIES 

Burmannia disticha Linn.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 252. 
Burmannia sumatrana Miq.; Naves 1. c. 
Burmannia tuberosa Becc; Naves 1. c. 
Gymnosiphon aphyllum Blume ; Naves 1. c. 
Sarcosiphon clandestinum Blume; Naves 1. c. 



252 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

APOSTASIACEAE * 

1. NEUWIEDIA Blume 

NEUWIEDIA V E RAT R I FOLIA Blume in Hoev. & De Vriese Tijdschr. Nat. 
Gesch. 1 (1834) 142, in Ann. Sci. Nat. II 2 (1834) 94; Reichb. 
f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 58, in nota; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 
748; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 251; Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. 25 
(1889) 231, 241; Hook. f. in Hook. Icon. PI. 20 (1891) t. 1987; 
Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 4 (1896) 329; Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 
(1897) 3, p. p.; Pfitz. in Engl. Pfianzenreich IV. 50 (1903) 5, 
fig. 3; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 15; Ames in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 311; J. J. Sm. in Bull. Jard. 
Buitenz. II 14 (1914) 1. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5681. Mt. Halcon, in forest at 750 m altitude. In 
Java and Borneo. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Neuwiedia zollingeri Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 251; 
Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. 25 (1889) 231; Pfitz. in Engl. Pfian- 
zenreich IV. 50 (1903) 5. 
This Javan and Bornean species is credited to the Philippines solely on 
the basis of Naves's record. 

2. APOSTASIA Blume 

APOSTASIA WALLICHII R. Br. in Wall. PI. Asiat. Rar. 1 (1830) 75, t. 84; 

Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 748; Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. 25 

(1889) 239; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 175; Ridl. in Journ. 

Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 415; Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1897) 7; 

Trim. Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4 (1898) 238; Pfitz. in Engl. Pfianzenreich 

IV. 50 (1903) 7, fig. U; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 

18, Fig.- Atlas (1908) fig. 3, in Bull. Dept. Agr. Ind. Neerl. 13 

(1907) 1; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 232; Ames in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 311. 

Mesodactylus deflexa Wall. PL Asiat. Rar. 1 (1830) 74. 

Luzon (Camarines), Sibuyan, Mindoro, Palawan, F. B. 18750 Darling, 

Merrill 5521, 5639, Elmer 1314-1. Terrestrial, up to 1,000 m altitude. In 

India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and New Guinea. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

APOSTASIA odorata Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 251; Rolfe in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. 25 (1889) 239. 

The Philippine record, repeated by Rolfe, is based wholly on the earlier 
one of Naves; the species is known only from Java. 

* The enumeration of the Apostasiaceae and the Orchidaceae was 
prepared by Prof. Oakes Ames, who was materially assisted in the biblio- 
graphic research connected therewith by Mr. F. Tracy Hubbard. — E. D. M. 



VoL 1 ORCHIDACEAE 253 

ORCHIDACEAE * 

1. CORDULA Rafinesque 

CORDULA ARGUS (Reichb. f.) Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 20 (1912) 2. 

Cypripedium argus Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. (1873) 608, (1874) 

710, III 7 (1890) 259; Hook. f. in Bot. Mag. 101 (1875) t. 6175; 

Naves Novis. App. (1882) 251; Veitch Man. Orch. PI. pt. 4 (1889) 

11; Sander Reichenbachia I 2 (1890) 77, t. 83; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. 

Manila (1892) 169; Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1897) 56. 
Cypripedium barbatum Lindl. var. argus Vos. in Belg. Hort. 25 (1875) 

57. 
Cypripedium pitcherianum Manda in Am. Flor. 3 (1887) 178. 
Cypripedium moensianum Hort. ex L. Linden in Lindenia 3 (1887) 

69, t. 129. 
Cypripedium argus Reichb. f. var. 7noensii Hort. ex Veitch Mas. 

Orch. PI. pt. 4 (1889) 11. 
Cypripedium argus Reichb. f. subvar. nigricans Veitch Man. Orch. 

pi. pt. 4 (1889) 11. 
Paphiopedilum argus Stein Orchideenb. (1892) 453; Pfitz. in Engl. 

Bot. Jahrb. 19 (1894) 40, in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50 (1903) 

90; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 63, 2 (1908) 23, 5 (1915) 10. 
Paphiopedilum argus Stein var. moensii Stein Orchideenb. (1892) 

450; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50 (1903) 91; Ames Orch. 

2 (1908) 24. 
Paphiopedilum argus Stein var. nigricans Hort. ex Stein Orchideenb. 

(1892) 454; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50 (1903) 91; Ames 

Orch. 2 (1908) 24. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Tayabas), Negros (Oriental Negros), Van- 
overbergh 262, 1186, 4-04-2, Elmer 6296, 9433, Lyon 158, B. S. 32015 Santos, 
20735 Escritor. Grassy slopes at 1,300 to 2,200 m altitude. 

CORDULA BARBATA (Lindl.) Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 20 (1912) 2. 

Cypripedium barbatum Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 27 (1841) Misc. 53, 28 
(1842) t. 17; Hook, in Bot. Mag. 72 (1846) t. 4234; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1859) 737; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 151, Rev. 
PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 237; Veitch Man. Orch. PI. pt. 4 (1889) 12, 
text cut; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 174; Ridl. in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 414; Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1897) 62; 
Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 229. 
Paphiopedilum barbatum Pfitz. in Pringsh. Jahrb. 19 (1888) 159, 
in Engl. & Prantl Pflanzenfam. 2, Abt. 6 (1888) 84, in Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. 19 (1894) 40, in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50 (1903) 91; 
Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 24, 5 (1915) 10. 

Palawan, B. S. 640, 645 Foxworthy. Mt. Victoria, in rocky forest at 
930 to 1,000 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula and western Siam. 

* See preceding footnote. 



254 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

CORDULA CILIOLARIS (Reichb. f.) Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 20 (1912) 2. 

Cypripedium ciliolare Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 18 (1882) 488, 20 
(1883) 46; Rodigas in 111. Hort. 31 (1884) 127, t. 530; Veitch 
Man. Orch. PL pt. 4 (1889) 16; Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et. Sp. 1 
(1897) 64. 
Paphiopedilum ciliolare Stein Orchideenb. (1892) 462, fig. 14.5; Pfitz. 
in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 19 (1894) 40, in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50 
(1903) 89; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 23, 5 (1915) 11, in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 39. 
Luzon (Bontoc), Dinagat, Mindanao (Surigao, Agusan), B. S. 37996 
Ramos & Edano, 34586 Ramos & Pascasio, Lyon 14.2, Weber 110. Forest 
slopes at 310 to 1,830 m altitude. 

CORDULA HAYNALDIANA (Reichb. f.) Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 20 (1912) 2. 
Cypripedium haynaldianum Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 2 (1874) 222, 3 
(1881) 33, t. 212, in Gard. Chron. II 7 (1877) 272, 752; Hook. f. 
in Bot. Mag. 103 (1877) t. 6296; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 251; 
Veitch Man. Orch. PL pt. 4 (1889) 28; Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 
1 (1897) 71. 
Paphiopedilum haynaldianum Stein Orchideenb. (1892) 470; Pfitz. 
in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 19 (1894) 41, in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50 
(1903) 66, fig. 31 A-C; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 22, 5 (1915) 10, 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 39; Memml. in Orchis 14 
(1920) 18. 
Luzon (Kalinga, Tarlac, Rizal), Wallis s. n., Lyon 49, Boettcher s. n., 
Ramos s. n. Sea level to 1,000 m altitude. 

CORDULA PHILIPPINENSIS (Reichb. f.) Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 20 

(1912) 2. 
Cypripedium philippinense Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 10 (1862) 335; Veitch 

Man. Orch. PL pt. 4 (1889) 42, text cut; Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 

1 (1897) 46; Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 22 (1914) 253, fig. 29. 
Cypripedium laevigatum Batem. in Bot. Mag. 91 (1865) t. 5508; 

Dombrain in Paxt. Floral Mag. 5 (1866) t. 298; Morr. in Belg. 

Hort. 17 (1867) 102, t. 6; Van Houtte in Fl. des Serres 17 (1869) 

83, t. 1760-61; Batem. Second Cent. Orch. PL (1867) t. 101; 

Naves Novis. App. (1882) 251; Ceron Cat. PL Herb. Manila (1892) 

169. 
Cypripedium roebbelenii Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 20 (1883) 684; 

KranzL Xen. Orch. 3 (1893) 113, t. 265, Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 

(1897) 47. 
Selenipedium laevigatum May in Rev. Hort. 57 (1885) 301. 
Cypripedium cannartianum Hort ex L. Linden in Lindenia 3 (1887) 

93, t. 141. 
Cypripedium roebbelenii Reichb. f. var. cannartianum L. Linden in 

Lindenia 3 (1887) 93, in syn. 
Paphiopedilum laevigatum Pfitz. in Engl. & Prantl Pflanzenfam. 2, 

Abt. 6 (1888) 84. 
Cypripedium philippinense Reichb. f. var. platytaenium Desbois Bull. 

Orchideene (1890), Cypriped. (1898) 285. 



Vol. 1 



ORCHIDACEAE 255 



Phapiopedilum philippinense Stein Orchideenb. (1892) 480; Pfitz. in 

Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 19 (1894) 41, in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50 

(1903) 61, fig. 28 A-E ; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 19, 5 (1915) 10. 
Paphiopedilum roebelinii Stein Orchideenb. (1892) 480, 482, in syn.; 

Pfitz. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 19 (1894) 41 (as robbelinii) , in Engl 

Pflanzenreich IV. 50 (1903) 62. 
Paphiopedilum philippinense Stein var. platytaenium Pfitz. in Engl. 

Pflanzenreich IV. 50 (1903) 61; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 20. 
Paphiopedilum philippinense Stein var. cannartianum Pfitz. in Engl. 

Pflanzenreich IV. 50 (1903) 62 (as cannaertianum) ; Ames Orch. 

2 (1908) 20; Memml. in Orchis 14 (1920) 18. 
Paphiopedilum philippinense Stein var. roebbelenii Kerchove apud 

Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50 (1903) 62, in syn.; Ames 

Orch. 2 (1908) 20. 
Cypripedium philippinense Reichb. f. var. roebbelenii Veitch apud 

Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50 (1903) 62, in syn. 

Palawan (Apulit Island), Merrill 9423. 

2. HERMINIUM B. Brown 

HERMINIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 6 (1890) 129; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 

8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 332, t. 434; Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et 
Sp. 1 (1901) 553; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 
25, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 7; Duthie in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 

9 (Orch. North-west. Himal.) (1906) 197; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 
25, 5 (1915) 12; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 13 (1918) Bot. 135. 

Aceras angustifolia Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 7061, nomen; 

Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 18 (1832) sub t. 1525; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. 

Orch. (1835) 282; Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 11, t. 1691. 

Aceras longicruris C. Wright ex A. Gray in Mem. Am. Acad. II 6 

(1858) 411. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet). Reasonably common in this region 

at about 2,000 to 2,300 m altitude. In British India, China, Japan, and Java. 

3. HABENARIA Willdenow 

HABENARIA ALAGENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 312, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 12. 
HabenaHa luzonensis Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1550. 

Luzon (Tayabas, Sorsogon), Catanduanes, Mindoro, Leyte, Mindanao 
(Camiguin Island), Elmer 7254, 7636a, 15474, 15748, B. S. 28510 Ramos & 
Edano, 14440 Ramos, Merrill 5803, Wenzel 0971, 0972, 0984, Ramos s. n. 
Terrestrial, apparently near streams, up to 3,000 m in Mindoro. 

HABENARIA ANGUSTATA (Blume) Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 664; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 312; Orch. 2 (1908) 26, 
in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special 
No. (1921) 137. 
Mecosa angustata Blume Bijdr. (1825) 404, fig. 1. 



256 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Platanthera angustata Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1835) 290; Reichb. 

f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 34; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 714; Naves 

Novis. App. (1882) 251; Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1899) 647; 

J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 29, Fig.-Atlas (1908) 

fig. 12. 
Platanthera amesiana Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 9 (1911) 212. 
Habenaria amesiana Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 12. 

Luzon (Benguet, Bataan, Laguna, Albay), Negros (Oriental Negros), 
Mindanao (Camiguin Island), B. S. 31983 Santos, 11*1*1*2 Ramos, 291*8 
Mearns, Ramos & Edano s. n., Whit ford 162, Elmer 10002, Merrill 7 1*9 A. 
In Java and Borneo. 

HABENARIA ARISTULIFERA Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 213; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 151, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 
273; Kranzl. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 84, Orch. Gen. et Sp. 
1 (1897) 231; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 32, 5 (1915) 13. 
Habenaria cumingii Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1898) 262; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 13. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), Alabat, Mindanao (Davao), Cuming 2091, 
Wilkes Exped., B. S. 12530, 11*590, 16957 Ramos, Weber 283, Merrill 101*35, 
Taylor 9, 10. 

HABENARIA BISAETA Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 30, text cut, 5 (1915) 13. 

Habenaria tipulifera Par. & Reichb. f. apud Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 151; Vidal Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 273; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 15. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Cuming 2095, Vanoverbergh 788, 1359, 11*80, 
R. S. Williams 1936, Merrill 1*325, F. B. 1*887 Curran, B. S. 1*1*61 Mearns, 
Ramos & Edano 57, 73. Terrestrial in mountain regions at about 1,300 to 
2,300 m altitude. 

HABENARIA BOADANENSIS Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 153. 

Luzon (Benguet), Ramos & Edano 78. Mt. Boadan, on open slopes at 
2,000 m altitude. 

HABENARIA CONGESTA Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 38, text cut, 5 (1915) 13; 
Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 167. 

Luzon (Lepanto), Panay (Antique), Guimaras, Busuanga, Culion, Min- 
danao (Zamboanga), Jolo, Merrill 1*1*79, Yoder 26, s. n., B. S. 18008 Robinsmi, 
1*1397 Lopez, 1*1333 Ramos, Hallier s. n., F. Link s. n. Apparently in dry 
open situations at low altitude. 

HABENARIA COPELANDII Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 29, text cut, 5 (1915) 13. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas), 
Panay, Culion, Coron, Vanoverbergh 1320, 3661*, 1*050, Copeland 11*03, Mer- 
rill 1*172, F. B. 321*3 Ahern's collector, B. S. 1*588, 22398, 1*111*7, 1*1321 
Ramos, 6189 Robinson, 121*8 Mangubat, 26316, 261*89 Ramos & Edano, 
321*1*1* McGregor, Native collector s. n. At about 15 to 1,250 m altitude. 

HABENARIA CURRANII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 2, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 13. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Benguet), F. B. 17138 Curran, B. S. 12578 Fenix. 
Lalloc, edge of forest at 50 m altitude, and Sablan. 



Vo1 - x ORCHIDACEAE 257 

HABENARIA DELESSERTI AN A Kranzl. in Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. 
Geneve 1 (1897) 108, Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1897) 233; Ames in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 2, Orch. 5 (1915) 13. 
Luzon (Laguna), Mindanao (Lanao), Cuming 2086, pro parte, B. S. 
12407 McGregor, M. S. Clemens 865. Calauan and Camp Keithley. 

HABENARIA DIPHYLLA (Nim.) Dalz. in Hook. Kew Journ. Bot. 2 (1850) 
262; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 3 (1852) 588; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 6 (1890) 151; Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1898) 346; Duthie 
in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 9 (Orch. North-west. Himal.) 
(1906) 185, t. 137; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 37, 5 (1915) 13. 

Liparis diphyllos Nim. in Grah. Cat. Bomb. PI. (1839) 252. 

Habenaria jerdoniana Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 14, t. 1715; Kranzl. in 
Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 154. 

Habenaria sutteri Reichb. f. in Linnaea 25 (1852) 229. 

Habenaria cordata Naves Novis. App. (1882) 250; Merr. Sp. Blan- 
coanae (1918) 21, non R. Br. 

Habenaria ahernii Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 53 (1915) 502. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Rizal, Laguna), F. B. 3241 Ahern's collector, 
Ramos 1071, 4668, B. S. 21331, 32754 Ramos, Native collector s. n. In 
India. 

HABENARIA ELMERI Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1550, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 14. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11845a. Todaya, Mt. Apo. 

HABENARIA FALCIGERA Reichb. f. in Linnaea 41 (1876) 100; Kranzl. 
in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 153, Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1898) 
345; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 36, 5 (1915) 14. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Wallis s. n., Vanoverbergh 1239, B. S. 8792 
McGregor, 4332 Mearns, F. B. 4884 Curran. 

HABENARIA GOODYEROIDES D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 25; 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 161 (excl. syn. P. grandis Blume) ; 
King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) 
(1898) 326, t. 430; Schltr. in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Nachtr. Fl. 
Deutsch. Schutzgeb. (1905) 79; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 27, 5 (1915) 
14, 6 (1920) 8; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. No. 104 
(1911) 3, in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 (Orch. Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) 
(1911) 5; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 167; Ames in Merr. in Journ. 
Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 138. 

Herminium goody eroides Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 7066, nomen. 

Peristylus goody eroides Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1835) 299, in Bot. 
Reg. 26 (1840) Misc. 81; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 
169; Grant Orch. Burma (1898) 329 (excl. syn. P. grandis Blume) ; 
Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1898) 503 (excl. syn. P. grandis 
Blume) ; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 32, Fig.- 
Atlas (1908) fig. 14, in Nova Guinea 12 (1915) Bot. 178. 

Platanthera goody eroides Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 151. 

Habenaria lauterbachii Kranzl. in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. 
Schutzgeb. (1901) 239, nomen. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Union, Benguet, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna), Panay 
(Antique), Mindanao (Bukidnon, Lanao). A fairly common species in 
200823 17 



258 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 192 * 

the Philippines, especially in Luzon, up to 1,300 m altitude in Bontoc. In 
India, Yunnan, Assam, Burma, Andaman Islands, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, 
New Guinea, and Formosa. 

HABENARIA HALCONENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
. 312, Orch. 5 (1915) 14. 
Platanthera halconensis Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 9 (1911) 212. 

Mindoro, Men-ill 5835. Mt. Halcon, terrestrial on open heath at 2,650 
m altitude. 

HABENARIA HYSTRIX Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 35, 5 (1915) 14. 

Dissorhynchium muricatum Schauer in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 19, 

Suppl. 1 (1843) 434, t. 1, fig. A. 
Habenaria muricata Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 151, Rev. 
PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 273; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 24 (1886) 59; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 140, Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 
(1898) 326; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 64, non Rodr. (1882). 

Luzon (Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas, Sorsogon), 
Siquijor, Dumaran, Mindanao (Zamboanga). A rather widely distributed 
species in the Philippines and fairly common in Luzon at about 120 to 300 
m altitude. Also in British North Borneo. 

HABENARIA INTRUDENS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 1, fig. 1. 

Habenaria lacertifera Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 39, 5 (1915) 14, non 
Benth. 

Luzon (Benguet, Bulacan, Rizal), F. B. 5085 Curran, R. S. Williams 
1933, B. S. 21706, 21999 Ramos. At 90 to 100 m altitude. 

HABENARIA LEIBERGII Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 34, text cut, 5 (1915) 14, 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 600. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Bataan, Rizal), B. S. 32866 Ramos, 5266 
Topping, Vanoverbergh 620, Leiberg 6112, Reillo s. n. Mountain regions 
of Luzon. 

HABENARIA LINGULOSA Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 33, text cut, 5 (1915) 14. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Vanoverbergh 900, 1525, Merrill U8U5. Near- 
streams in mountain regions up to 1,400 m altitude. 

HABENARIA MALINTANA (Blanco) Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 112; 
Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 276. 

Thelymitra malintana Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 642, ed. 2 (1845) 447, 
ed. 3, 3 (1879) 40; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 
85. 

Habenaria pelorioides Par. & Reichb. f. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 30 
(1874) 135, 139, t. 27, fig. A, 1-3; Reichb. f. Otia Bot. Hamb. 1 
(1878) 39; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 166; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 85, Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1897) 234; Grant 
Orch. Burma (1898) 340; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 31, 5 (1915) 15. 

Habenaria trinervis Naves Novis. App. (1882) 250, non Wight. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Zambales, 
Bataan, Rizal). A common species in Luzon, in the forest, up to 1,300 m 
altitude in Bontoc. In Burma. 



Vo1 - a ORCHIDACEAE 259 

HABENARIA MEARNSII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 3, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 15. 

Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 4313 Mearns, 8815, 8835 McGregor. Pauai and 
Mt. Pulog, at about 2,300 m altitude. 

HABENARIA MILITARIS Reichb. f. var. PH ILIPPIN ENSIS Ames Orch. 
2 (1908) 40, 5 (1915) 15. 
Mindanao (Zamboanga, Cotabato, Davao), Copeland 14.25, 1586, Merrill 
8299, Weber 214, 287. Terrestrial in damp soil at 60 to 1,000 m altitude. 
The variety endemic, the species a native of Cochinchina and China. 

HABENARIA PON EROSTACH YS Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 213; 

Kranzl. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 179, Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 

(1898) 385; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 4, Orch. 

5 (1915) 15. 

Leyte, Negros, Mindanao (Camiguin Island, Cotabato), Cuming 2095, 

Wenzel 063.6, Merrill 7022, B. S. 14415 Ramos, Weber 200. Terrestrial in 

forest at 230 to 1,600 m altitude. 

HABENARIA RETICULATA Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 154. 

Luzon (Benguet), Ramos & Edano 108. Mt. Pulogloko, on open pine 
slopes, at 2,000 m altitude. 

HABENARIA ROBINSON 1 1 Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 5, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 15. 

Luzon (Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas), Merrill 1095, 6306, B. iS. 9660 
Robinson, 2554.1 Yates, F. B. 29030 Sulit. 

HABENARIA ROSULATA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 5, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 15. 

Luzon (Tayabas), B. S. 13203 Foxworthy & Ramos. Quinatacutan. 

HABENARIA VANOVERBERGHI I Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 15. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 3687. In wet soil, at 1,300 m altitude. 

HABENARIA WARBURGIANA Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1898) 467; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 16. 

Luzon (Uocos Norte, Bontoc, Zambales), Warburg s. n., Vanoverbergh 
567, 3654, 3923, B. S. 32841 Ramos. Up to 1,300 m altitude in Bontoc. 

HABENARIA 2EPHYRICA Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 16. 

Mindanao (Lanao), M. S. Clemens s. n., Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, 
terrestrial. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Habenaria ahernii Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 53 (1915) 502 = Habenaria 
diphylla (Nim.) Dalz. 

Habenaria amesiana Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 12 = Habenaria angustata 
(Blume) Ktze. 

Habenaria cordata Naves Novis. App. (1882) 250; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae 
(1918) 21 = Habenaria diphylla (Nim.) Dalz. 

Habenaria cumingii Kranzl. Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1897) 262; Ames Orch. 5 
(1915) 13 = Habenaria aristulifera Reichb. f. 



260 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Habenaria graminea Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 251. 

Habenaria lacertifera Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 39, 5 (1915) 14, non Benth. 
= Habenaria intrudens Ames. 

Habenaria luzonensis Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1550 = 
Habenaria alagensis Ames. 

Habenaria muricata Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 151, Rev. PI. 
Vase. Filip. (1886) 273; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 24 (1886) 59; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 16 (1892) 140, Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 
(1898*) 326; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 64, non Rodr. (1882) = Habe- 
naria hystrix Ames. 

Habenaria pelorioides Par. & Reichb. f. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 30 (1874) 
135, 139, *. 27, fig. A, 1-3; Kranzl. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 16 
(1892) 85, Orch. Gen. et Sp. 1 (1897) 234; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 
31, 5 (1915) 15 = Habenaria malintana (Blanco) Merr. 

Habenaria rumphii Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 250. 

Habenaria thisbe Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 151 = Oberonia 
thisbe Reichb. f. 

Habenaria tipulifera Par. & Reichb. f. apud Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 151; Vidal Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 273; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 15 = Habenaria bisaeta Ames. 

Habenaria trinervis Naves Novis. App. (1882) 250, non Wight = Ha- 
benaria malintana (Blanco) Merr. 

4. DISPERIS Swartz 

DISPERIS PHILIPPINENSIS Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 9 (1911) 436; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 17. 

Luzon (Pampanga, Batangas, Sorsogon), Merrill 4215, Curran & Mer- 
ritt s. n., Elmer 17355. Terrestrial at 300 to 700 m altitude. 

5. THELYMITRA Blume 

THELYMITRA JAVANICA Blume Bijdr. (1825) 419; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. 
Orch. (1840) 519; Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 116 (Orch. Arch. 
Ind. 137), t. U, fig. 3, t. 48 A; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 737; J. J. 
Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 45, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 
25; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 41, 5 (1915) 18. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Vanoverbergh 1357, 1476, R. S. Williams 
1944, Merrill 4848, F. B. 4998 Curran, B. S. 4325 Mearns, 31929 Santos, 
Ramos & Edano 61, 63. On open slopes at 1,350 to 2,300 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Thelymitra malintana Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 642, ed. 2 (1845) 447, 
ed. 3, 3 (1879) 40; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 
85 = Habenaria malintana (Blanco) Merr. 



Vol.1 ORCHIDACEAE 261 

6. MICROTIS R. Brown 

MICROTIS UN I FOLIA (Forst. f.) Reichb. f. Beitr. Syst. Pflanzenk. (1871) 

62; Kranzl. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 6 (1885) 55; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 

65, 2 (1908) 41, 5 (1915) 18; J. J. Sm. Orch. Jav. Fig.-Atlas 

(1908) fig. 26; Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) 

Bot. 340. 
Ophrys unifolia Forst. f. Fl. Ins. Austral. Prodr. (1786) 59. 
Epipactis porrifolia Sw. in Kongl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Nya Handl. 

21 (1800) 233. 
Microtis rara R. Br. Prodr. Nov. Holl. (1810) 321; Lindl. Gen. & 

Sp. Orch. (1840) 396; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. 2 (1860) 24; Reichb. f. 

Beitr. Syst. Pflanzenk. (1871) 22. 
Microtis porrifolia R. Br. Prod. Nov. Holl. (1810) 320, by inference 

only; Spreng. Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 713; Hook. f. Fl. N. Zeal. 1 

(1853) 245; Benth. Fl. Austral. 6 (1873) 347; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 

6 (Orch.' Jav.) (1905) 47. 
Microtis banksii. A. Cunn. ex Hook, in Bot. Mag. 62 (1835) sub 

t. 3377. 
Microtis pulchella Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 395; Hook. f. Fl. 

Tasm. 2 (1860) 24, t. 118, non R. Br. 
Microtis arenaria Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 396; Hook. f. Fl. 

Tasm. 2 (1860) 24. 
Microtis frutetorum Schlechtendal in Linnaea 20 (1847) 568; Reichb. 

f. in Walp. Ann. 1 (1849) 807. 
Microtis javanica Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 36. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet), Vanoverbergh 71+3, 1356, 14.79, R. S. 
Williams 1935, Merrill £34.5, Topping 97, B. S. 31930a Santos, Ramos & 
Edano 98, F. B. 16344. Curran, Merritt, & Zschokke. Grassy slopes up to 
1,300 m altitude in Bontoc. In Java and Australia. 

7. CORYBAS Salisbury 

CORYBAS MERRILLII Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 42, 5 (1915) 19; Schltr. 
in Fedde Repert. 19 (1923) 20. 
Corysanthes merrillii Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 65, text cut. 

Luzon (Bataan, Laguna), Merrill 3871, Whitford 451, Leiberg 6074, B. 
S. 26664 Brown, Elmer 17939. Mt. Mariveles and Mt. Maquiling, terres- 
trial on mossy cliffs. 

8. CRYPTOSTYLIS R. Brown 1 

CRYPTOSTYLIS ARACHNITES (Blume) Hassk. Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 
48; Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 36; Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 
112 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 133), t. 45, fig. 2; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 
(1890) 118; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 407; -Trim. 
Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4 (1898) 209; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. 
Jav.) (1905) 59, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 37; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. 
Penin. 1 (1907) 225; Ames Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 313, 
Orch. 2 (1908) 44, 5 (1915) 19, in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 
Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 139. 



262 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Zosterostylis arachnites Blume Bijdr. (1825) 419, fig. 32; Lindl. Gen. 
& Sp. Orch. (1840) 446; Miq. PL Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 721; Hook, in 
Bot. Mag. 89 (1863) t. 5381. 
Zosterostylis zeylanica Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 446; Thw. 
Enum. PL Zeyl. (1864) 312. 
• Zosterostylis ivalkerae Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 20, t. 1748 IV. 
Cryptostylis philippinensis Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 58 (1922) 54. 
Luzon (Apayao, Rizal, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Polillo, Mindoro, Biliran, 
Leyte, Negros (Occidental Negros), Mindanao (Camiguin Island, Davao). 
A common, variable, and widely distributed species in the Philippines. 
Terrestrial, in forest at 30 to 1,000 m altitude. In India, Ceylon, Malay 
Peninsula, Java, and Borneo (Sarawak). 

J. J. Smith, in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ill 3 (1921) 239, expresses 
doubt as to B. S. 204-62 being referable to Cryptostylis arachnites. A re- 
examination of all available specimens from the Philippines indicates that 
there is only one species present. I cannot separate this from 'C. arach- 
nites. It is probable that Smith in studies of living material has been 
able to detect differences among the species of Cryptostylis allied with 
C. arachnites which are evanescent in herbarium specimens. Cryptostylis 
arachnites is a very variable species, flowers on the same raceme exhib- 
iting a wide range of variation in the labellum. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Cryptostylis philippinensis Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 58 (1922) 54 = 
Cryptostylis arachnites (Blume) Hassk. 

9. GALEOLA Loureiro 

GALEOLA ALTISSIMA (Blume) Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 2 (1865) 77; Hook. 

f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 98; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 349; 

Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 395; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 

6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 67, Fig.- Atlas (1908) fig. U; Ridl. Mat. 

Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 202; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. 

Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 139. 
Cyrtosia altissima Blume Bijdr. (1825) 396, Rumphia 1 (1835) t. 70; 

Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 26. 
Erythrorchis altissima Blume Rumphia 1 (1835) 200; Lindl. Gen. & 

Sp. Orch. (1840) 438, p. p.; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 3 (1852) 

602; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 720. 
Haematorchis altissima Blume Rumphia 4 (1848) t. 200 B. 

Luzon (Cagayan), F. B. 17812 Curran, B. S. 13985 Ramos. In Malay 
Peninsula, Burma, and Java. 

GALEOLA KUHLU Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 2 (1865) 78; Naves Novis. 

App. (1882) 247. 
Vanilla pterosperma Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 7402, nomen. 
Erythrorchis altissima Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 438, p. p., 

non Blume. 
Erythrorchis kuhlii Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 2 (1862) t. 119. 
Galeola hydra Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 2 (1865) 77; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 

Ind. 6 (1890) 89; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 350; King & Pantl. 

in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 264, 

t. 351; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 68, Fig.-Atlas 



Vo1 - ! ORCHIDACEAE 263 

(1908) fig. 45; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 313; 

Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 202; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 

46. 

Galeola pterosperma Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 (1910) 386; 

J. J. Sm. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. II 9 (1913) 10; Ames Orch. 

5 (1915) 19. 

Babuyan Islands (Camiguin Island), Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, 
Sorsogon), Mindoro, Samar, Panay (Capiz), Leyte, Mindanao (Lanao, 
Davao). A common and widely distributed species in the Philippines at 
75 to 180 m altitude. In Sikkim, Himalaya, Burma, Malay Peninsula, 
Java, and Sumatra. 

The valid name of this species has been a source of difference of 
opinion. It has been most widely known as Galeola hydra Reichb. f., 
but in 1910 Schlechter proposed the combination Galeola pterosperma 
(Lindl.) Schltr. In doing so he overlooked the fact that the name-bringing 
synonym Vanilla pterosperma Lindl. is a nomen nudum and has no stand- 
ing. The earliest valid name is Galeola kuhlii Reichb. f., published in 
Xen. Orch. 2 (1865) 78, in which Reichenbach cites, in synonymy, the plate 
published prior to the description [Xen. Orch. 2 (1862) t. 119']. This plate 
was published as Erythrorchis kuhlii and has full analytical drawings. 
According to the international rules adopted at Vienna in 1905 (Sect. 4, 
Art. 37) this plate constitutes valid publication. 

GALEOLA PHILIPPINENS1S Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 5. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Elmer 16122. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Galeola hydra Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 2 (1865) 77; Ames in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 313, Orch. 2 (1908) 46 = Galeola kuhlii Reichb. f. 

Galeola pterosperma Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 (1910) 386; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 19 = Galeola kuhlii Reichb. f. 

10. VANILLA Swartz 

VANILLA CALOPOGON Reichb. f. in Otia Bot. Hamb. 1 (1878) 40; Rolfe 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 459; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 21, 

6 (1920) 277. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte), Cuming 2070, Loher 630, B. S. 32928 Ramos. 

VANILLA OVALIS Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 448, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 42; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 21; Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 112. 
Epidendrum vanilla Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 643, non Linn. 
Vanilla majaijensis Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 593, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 

43. • 
Vanilla planifolia Ait. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248. 
Vanilla aromatica Sw. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248. 
Vanilla philippinensis Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 459; 
Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 47. 
Luzon (Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Sibuyan, 
Biliran, Mindanao (Dapitan, Lanao, Butuan), Cuming 2132, Merrill Sp. 
Blancoanae 665, Holman s. n., Serrato s.. n., Elmer 9259, 12534, 16035, 
F. B. 4585 Mearns & Hutchinson, 28614 Sulit, B. S. 1934-6 Wester, 18952 
McGregor, M. S. Clemens s. n. 



264 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Vanilla albida Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248. 

Vanilla aphylla Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248. 

Vanilla aromatica Sw. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248 = Vayiilla 
ovalis Blanco. 

Vanilla philippinensis Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 459; Ames 
Orch. 2 (1908) 47 = Vanilla ovalis Blanco. 

Vanilla planifolia Ait. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248 = Vanilla 
ovalis Blanco. 

Vanilla majaijensis Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 593, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 
43 = Vanilla ovalis Blanco. 

Vanilla speciosa Boxall ex Vidal ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248, 
nomen. 

11. LECANORCHIS Blume 

LECANORCHIS JAVANICA Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 188, 
Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 150 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 178), t. 63, fig. 1, t. 
66 A; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 718; J. J. Sm. in Nova Guinea 
8 (1909) Bot. 136, 12 (1913) 7, 12 3 (1915) 185, in Bull. Dept. 
Agr. Ind. Neerl. 43 (1910) 1; Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 277. 
Lecanorchis triloba J. J. Sm. in Bull. Dept. Agr. Ind. Neerl. 1 9 
(1908) 26, in Nova Guinea 8 (1909) Bot. 10, t. 3, fig. 9; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 21. 

Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), B. S. 22961 
McGregor, Elmer 16369, Wenzel 0120, 0282, 0851, Weber 71. Terrestrial, 
in damp forest, at 150 to 320 m altitude. In Java and New Guinea. 

J. J. Smith, in Nova Guinea 12 3 (1915) 185, suggests that Lecanorchis 
papuana Schltr. is the same as this species. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Lecanorchis triloba J. J. Sm. in Bull. Dept. Agr. Ind. Neerl. 19 (1908) 
26; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 21 = Lecanorchis javanica Blume. 

12. APHYLLORCHIS Blume 

APHYLLORCHIS BENGUETENSIS Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 49, text cut, 5 
(1915) 22. 
Luzon (Benguet, Laguna), Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), F. B. 5086 
Curran, B. S. 16565 Ramos, Serrato s. n., Elmer 1181+8, 1381+1. 

APHYLLORCHIS HALCONENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 7. 
Mindoro, Ramos & Edano s. n. Terrestrial at 1,000 m altitude. 

APHYLLORCHIS PALLIDA Blume Bijdr. (1825) fig. 77 (without de- 
scription) ; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 536 (mention only) ; 
Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1849) 30, Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 
43 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 52), t. 13, fig. 1 and t. 17D; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1859) 721; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 117; Ridl. in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 405; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) 
(1905) 71, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 1+7; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 



VoL 1 ORCHIDACEAE 265 

1 (1907) 205; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 313, 

Orch. 2 (1908) 50, 5 (1915) 22, 6 (1920) 11, in Merr. in Journ. 

Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 139. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5810, 5811. Terrestrial in humid forest, Mt. Halcon 

and vicinity, at 330 to 930 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula, Java, and 

Borneo. 

13. EPIPOGUM Gmelin 

EPIPOGUM ROSEUM (D. Don) Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 1 (1857) 

177; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 48, 5 (1915) 22. 
Limodorum roseum D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (February, 1825) 30. 
Galera nutans Blume Bijdr. (July, 1825) 416, fig. 3; Lindl. Gen. & 

Sp. Orch. (1840) 500; Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 187, 

Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 117 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 139) t. 52, fig. 3, 

t. 5UE. 
Ceratopsis rosea Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 384. 
Podanthera pallida Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 22, t. 1759. 
Galera rosea Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 188, Fl. Jav. 

Orch. (1858) 117 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 139). 
Galera pallida Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 117 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 

139), in obs. 
Epipogum nutans Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (February, 1857) 36; Lindl. 

in Journ. Linn. Soc. 1 (1857) 177; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 

718; Thw. Enum. PL Zeyl. (1864) 311; Benth. Fl. Austral. 6 

(1873) 308; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 124; Fitzgef. Austral. 

Orch. 2 5 (1896) t.; Rolfe in Dyer. Fl. Trop. Afr. 7 (1897) 188; 

Trim. Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4 (1898) 222; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. 

Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 253, t. 335; Ames 

Orch. 1 (1905) 68; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) 

(1905) 61, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 39; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 

Beihefte 1 (Orch. Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1911) 37; J. J. Sm. in 

Nova Guinea 12 s (1915) 185. 
Epipogum guilfoylii F. v. Muell. Fragm. 8 (1873) 30, comb, non faciet, 

ex Benth. Fl. Austral. 6 (1873) 308, in syn. 

Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna), Mindoro, Leyte, Negros (Oriental 
Negros), Mindanao (Lanao, Davao), Merrill 231, Copeland 124.1, 5623, 
Gates 6317, B. S. 17915 Brown, Wenzel 0284, 0289, 0427, Elmer 9467, 
10536, M. S. Clemens s. n., Weber 277, Ramos s. n. Terrestrial in forest, 
at 500 to 700 m altitude. In India, Ceylon, Java, New Guinea, Australia, 
and Africa. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

EPIPOGUM nutans Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (February, 1857) 36; Ames Orch. 1 
(1905) 68 == Epipogum roseum (D. Don) Lindl. 

14. NERVILIA Commerson ex Gaudichaud 

NERVILIA ARAGOANA Gaudich. in Freyc. Voy. Uranie et Physic. Bot. 
(1829) 422, t. 35; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 (1911) 405 
(excl. syn. Pogonia gracilis Blume), in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. 
104 (1911) 3, in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 (Orch. Deutsch-Neu- 
Guin.) (1911) 43; J. J. Sm. in Nova Guinea 12 3 (1915) 182; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 23. 



266 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Pogonia flabelliformis Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 7400, nomen, 
Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 415; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 715; 
Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 
121; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 353; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
32 (1896) 408; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 57, 
Fig.- Atlas (1908) fig. 36, Orch. Amb. (1905) 10; D.uthie in Ann. 
Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 9 (Orch. North-west. Himal.) (1906) 158, 
t. 125; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 203. 

Pogonia carinata Wight Icon. 5 x (1852) 15, t. 1720, non Lindl. 

Luzon (Zambales, Rizal, Laguna), Mindanao (Lanao), Sandkuhl s. n., 
B. S. 22683 Ramos, 17918 Brown, M. S. Clemens s. n., 546. Terrestrial, 
in forest. In India, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, and New 
Guinea, and said to extend to Samoa. 

Pogonia nervilia Blume is commonly referred to this species as a 
synonym, but J. J. Smith [in Nova Guinea 8 (1809) 10] treats it as a 
valid species. Further study is needed to determine its status. 

Pogonia gracilis Blume is treated by J. J. Smith [Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. 
Jav.) (1905) 58] as a distinct species, but in his notes Smith states that 
he regards it as a weak form of Pogonia flabelliformis Lindl. which is 
conspecific with Nervilia aragoana Gaudich. 

NERVILIA CRISPATA (Blume) Schltr. in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Nachtr. 
Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. (1905) 82, in nota, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
45 (1911) 402, in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 (Orch. Deutsch-Neu- 
Guin.) (1911) 38; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 23. 
Pogonia crispata Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1849) 32, Fl. Jav. 
Orch. (1858) 127 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 151), t. 52, fig. UA-C; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 716; Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 2 (1863) t. 126, V, 
VI, 10, (1865) 87; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248; J. J. Sm. Fl. 
Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 56, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 35. 
Bolborchis javanica Zoll. & Mor. Syst. Verz. Java (1845-46) 89; 

Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 1 (1849) 775. 
Coelogyne javanica Lindl. Fol. Orch. Coelog. (1854) 17. 
Nervilia fimbriata Schltr. in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Nachtr. Fl. 
Deutsch. Schutzgeb. (1905) 82. 
Palawan, Merrill 9288. Taytay, in forests on dry slopes. In Java and 
German New Guinea. 

Pogonia prainiana King & Pantl. has been referred to this species, 
which would extend the range to India, if this reduction is correct. 

NERVILIA DILATATA (Blume) Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 (1911) 
402; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 23, in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 
Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 140. 
Pogonia dilatata Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 127 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 
151), t. 10, fig. 4, 1 and 2; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 66. 

Luzon (Benguet), Bancalan, Elmer 6259, Merrill 77U, Weber 1574. 
Grassy hillsides at about 1,600 m altitude. In Borneo. 

Although the determination has been carefully made, there is room for 
uncertainty as to the identity of the Philippine material with the Bornean 
species. In twenty years but three incomplete specimens have been 
obtained. 



Vo1 - x ORCHIDACEAE 267 

NERVILIA DISCOLOR (Blume) Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 (1911) 

403; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 23. 
Cordyla discolor Blume Bijdr. (1825) 417. 
Rophostemon discolor Blume Fl. Jav. Praef. (1828) VI; Lindl. Gen. 

& Sp. Orch. (1840) 453. 
Pogonia discolor Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1849) 32, Fl. Jav. 

Orch. (1858) 128 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 152.), t. 57, fig. 1; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 716; Hook. f. in Bot. Mag. 100 (1874) t. 6125; 

Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248. 
Pogonia pudica Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 44, text cut. 
Pogonia plicata Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 43, non Lindl. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Laguna, Batangas), Panay (Antique), Mindanao (Da- 
vao), Vanoverbergh 459, 1201, 1460, Elmer s. n., 8180, 934.6, B. S. 17917 
Brown, F. B. 21501 Tamesis, 21331 Foxworthy & Catalan, Copeland 427, 
R. S. Williams 3088, McLean s. n., McGregor 5748. Grassy hillsides, at 
350 to 1,240 m altitude. In Java. 

15. STEREOSANDRA Blume 

STEREOSANDRA JAVANICA Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 176, 
Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 27 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 31), t. 10, fig. 3, t. 
11G; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 717; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 
(Orch. Jav.) (1905) 63, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 41; Ames Orch. 1 
(1905) 67, 2 (1908) 46, 5 (1915) 24; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
45 (1911) 406. 

Luzon (Benguet, Bataan, Rizal, Sorsogon), Mindanao (Zamboanga, 
Agusan), Elmer 6458, 17302, Merrill s. n., B. S. 12124 Ramos, 38349 Brown, 
Weber 300. In Java. 

16. DIDYMOPLEXIS Griffith 

DIDYMOPLEXIS PALLENS Griff, in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. 4 (1844) 
383, t. 17; Kurz in Journ. Bot. 4 (1866) 40 (excl. syns. Epiphanes 
and Gastrodia) ; Hemsl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 20 (1884) 308; Hook, 
f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 122; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 
(1896) 408; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. 
Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 260, t. 346; J. J. Sm. in Icon. Bogor. 2 
(1903) 5, t. 101B, Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 77, Fig.- 
Atlas (1908) t. 51; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 206; Ames 
Orch. 2 (1908) 51, 5 (1915) 24; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 
(1911) 408; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 165. 

? heucorchis sylvatica Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1849) 31, Fl. 
Jav. Orch. (1858) 124 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 147) text cut; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 722. 

? Arethusa ecristata Griff. Notul. 3 (1851) 378, Icon. PI. Asiat. 3 
(1851) 343, 344. 

? Apetalon minutum Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 22, t. 1758. 

Epiphanes pollens Reichb. f. in Seem. Fl. Vit. (1868) 266, in nota. 

? Arethusa bengalensis Hort. Bot. Calc. ex Hemsl. in Joum. Linn. 
Soc. 20 (1884) 311, in syn. 

Luzon (Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna), Bolster 27, Loher 6002, F. B. 
21333 Foxworthy & Catalan. Saprophyte, near brooks. In India, Malay 
Peninsula, and Java. 



268 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

DIDYMOPLEXIS PH ILIPPIN ENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 24. 

Luzon (Camarines), Palawan, Leyte, B. S. 22083 Ramos, Merrill 9409, 
Wenzel 0362. In forest at 6 to 300 m altitude. 

17. GASTRODIA R. Brown 

GASTRODIA JAVANICA (Blume) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 384; 
Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 175, Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 
121 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 145) t. 52, fig. 1; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 
717; Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. (1864) 311; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
247; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 123; Trim. Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 
4 (1898) 221;, J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 75, 
Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 50; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 (1911) 
410; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 6, Orch. 5 (1915) 
25. 
Epiphanes javanica Blume Bijdr. (1825) 421, fig. 4- 

Luzon (Pampanga, Tayabas), Mindoro, Palawan, Leyte, Mindanao 
(Davao), Merrill 4211, 7233, Elmer 7276, Weber 274, B. S. 28718 Ramos 
& Edano, Ramos s. n. Terrestrial, apparently more general in moun- 
tainous regions. In Ceylon (?) and Java. 

18. SPIRANTHES L. C. Richard 

SPIRANTHES SINENSIS (Pers.) Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 53, 5 (1915) 26, 

6 (1920) 11; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 4 (Orch. Sino-Jap. 

Prodr.) (1919) 160, in Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 37, Abt. 2 (1920) 

357; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, 

Special No. (1921) 140. 
Ophrys spiralis Georgi Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich. 1 (1775) 232, 

non Linn. 
Aristotelea spiralis Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 2 (1790) 522, non Spiranthes 

spiralis Koch. . 
Epidendrum aristotelia Raeusch. Nomencl. Bot. ed. 3 (1797) 265, 

nomen. 
Neottia spiralis 5 Willd. Sp. PL 4 (1805) 74. 
Neottia sinensis Pers. Syn. PI. 2 (1807) 511; Poir. in Lam. Encyc. 

Suppl. 4 (1816) 85. 
Neottia australis R. Br. Prodr. Nov. Holl. (1810) 319; Poir. in Lam. 

Encyc. Suppl. 4 (1816) 86; D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal (1825) 27. 
Neottia flexuosa Sm. in Rees. Cycl. 24 (1819) No. 9. 
Neottia parviflora Sm. in Rees Cycl. 24 (1819) No. 10, non Blume. 
Neottia amoena Bieb. Fl. Taur. Cauc. 3 (1819) 606. 
Spiranthes pudica Lindl. Collect. Bot. (1821) t. 30, in Bot. Reg. 10 

(1824) sub t. 823; Spreng. Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 708, p. p. 
Neottia australis R. Br. P chinensis Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 7 (1822) 

t. 602. 
Spiranthes australis Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 10 (1824) sub t. 823; Spreng. 

Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 708; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 464 

(excl. syns. Neottia strateumatica R. Br., Spiranthes strateumatica 

Lindl., and Orchis strateumatica Linn.) ; A. Rich, in Ann. Sci. Nat. 



VoL 1 ORCHIDACEAE 269 

II 15 (1841) 78, Monogr. Orch. Nil.-Gher. (1841) 10, 30; Reichb. f. 
Icon. Fl. Germ. 13-14 (Orch. Eur.) (1851) 152, t. 121* U76) ; 
Wight Icon. 5 1 (1851) 15, t. 1724; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. 2 (1855) 
15; Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 1 (1857) 178; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1859) 722; Benth. Fl. Hongk. (1861) 360; Miq. Sumatra (1862) 
275; Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. (1864) 312; Hook. f. Handb. N. Zeal. 
Fl. (1864) 272; Miq. Prol. Fl. Jap. (1866-67) 141; Benth. Fl. 
Austral. 6 (1873) 314; Franch. & Sav. Enum. PL Jap. 2 (1879) 
37; Fitzger. Austral. Orch. 1 2 (1880) t. 1; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 249; Kranzl. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 6 (1885) 55; Ridl. in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. 24 (1888) 392; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 
102; Kranzl. in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berl. 2 (1898) 105; King & 
Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 
278, t. 369; Trim. Handb. Ceyl. Fl. 4 (1898) 217; Palibin Consp. Fl. 
Korea pt. 3 (1901) 4 [in Act. Hort. Petrop. 19 (1901) 104]; 
Kranzl. in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. (1901) 
240; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 69; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) 
(1905) 81, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 55; Duthie in Ann. Roy. Bot. 
Gard. Calc. 9 (Orch. North-west. Himal.) (1906) 163; Nakai in 
Journ. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 31 (Fl. Korea 2) (1911) 225. 

Spiranthes parviflora Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 10 (1824) sub t. 823. 

Spiranthes flexuosa Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 10 (1824) sub t. 823; Spreng. 
'Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 708; Schltr. in Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 37, 
Abt. 2 (1920) 352. 

Neottia crispata Blume Bijdr. (1825) 406. 

Spiranthes amoena Spreng. Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 708 (excl. syn. 
Spiranthes congestu Lindl.) ; Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 
7377; Bunge Enum. PI. Chin. (1831) 63; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 4 (1833) 
173; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 4 (Orch. Sino-Jap. Prodr:) 
(1919) 160, in Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 37, Abt. 2 (1920) 349. 

Neottia pudica Sweet Hort. Brit. ed. 2 (1830) 485. 

Spiranthes ivightiana Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 7378, nomen; 
Schltr. in Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 37, Abt. 2 (1920) 359. 

Calanthe australis Ait. ex Loud. Hort. Brit. Suppl. 2 (1839) 615, 
nomen. 

Spiranthes longispicata A. Rich, in Ann. Sci. Nat. II 1 5 (1841) 78, 
Monogr. Orch. Nil.-Gher. (1841) 10, 30. 

Spiranthes densa A. Rich, in Ann. Sci. Nat. II 15 (1841) 78, Monogr. 
Orch. Nil.-Gher. (1841) 10, 31. 

Spiranthes indica Steud. Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 625. 

Spiranthes crispata Zoll. & Mor. Syst. Verz. Java (1845-46) 89; 
Schltr. in Beihefte Bot. Centralb. 37, Abt. 2 (1920) 352. 

Spiranthes Griff. Notul. 3 (1851) 384, Icon. PI. Asiat. 3 (1851) 
t. 3U8. 

Spiranthes novaezelandiae Hook. f. Fl. N. Zeal. 1 (1853) 243; Schltr. 
in Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 37, Abt. 2 (1920) 355; Ames Orch. 7 
(1922) 128, in obs. 

Spiranthes australis Lindl. var. pudica Lindl. in Hook. Kew Journ. 
Bot. 7 (1855) 38. 



270 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Spiranthes stylites Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 1 (1857) 178; Schltr. 

in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 4 (Orch. Sino-Jap. Prodr.) (1919) 160, 

in Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 37, Abt. 2 (1920) 358. 
Gyrostachys australis Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 108 (Orch. Arch. 

Ind. 129). 
Gyrostachys australis Blume var. amoena Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 

10'8 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 129). 
Gyrostachys australis Blume var. wightiana Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. 

(1858) 108 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 129). 
Gyrostachys australis Blume var. flexuosa Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. 

(1858) 109 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 130) t. 38, fig. 2. 
Gyrostachys australis Blume var. parviflora Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. 

(1858) 109 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 130). 
Gyrostachys australis Blume var. crispata Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. 

(1858) 109 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 130) t.37, fig. 3. 
Gyrostachys amoena Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 108 (Orch. Arch. 

Ind. 129), text cut only. 
Spiranthes australis Lindl. var. wightiana Lindl. ex Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 

Ind. 6 (1890) 102. 
Gyrostachys stylites Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 664. 
Spiranthes chinensis Ames apud Schltr. in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. 

Edinb. 24 (1912) 105. 
Spiranthes australis Lindl. var. suishanensis Hayata Icon. Fl. Formosa 

6 (1916) 86. 
Spiranthes suishanensis Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 4 (Orch. 

Sino-Jap. Prodr.) (1919) 161. 
Gyrostachys crispata Blume apud Schltr. in Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 

37, Abt. 2 (1920) 352, in syn. 
Gyrostachys flexuosa Blume apud Schltr. in Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 

37, Abt. 2 (1920) 352, in syn. 
Gyrostachys i parviflora Blume apud Schltr. in Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 

37, Abt. 2 (1920) 352, in syn. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Mindanao (Agusan), Vanoverbergh 1269, 
3668, 3922, Elmer 6623, R. S. Williams 1923, Merrill 43U, F. B. U951 
Curran, Weber 80. Terrestrial, at 360 to 1,500 m altitude. In India, 
Afghanistan, Ceylon, China, Formosa, Japan, Manchuria, Siberia, Java, 
Sumatra, Borneo, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. 

Spiranthes novaezelandiae Hook. f. does not appear to be a distinct 
species, but is probably a good geographic variety of Spiranthes sinensis 
differing in the structure of the column. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Spiranthes australis Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 10 (1824) sub t. 823; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 249; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 69, Spiranthes 
sinensis (Pers.) Ames. 

Spiranthes pusilla Miq. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 249. 
Possibly a form of Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames. 



Vol. i ORCHIDACEAE 271 

19. EPIPACTIS (Haller) Boehmer, non Zinn * 

EPIPACTES CLAUSA A. A. Eaton ex Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 41, t. 38; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 663. 
Goodyera clausa Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 (1911) 392; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 26. 
Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet, Tayabas), Negros (Occidental Negros), 
Merrill 4591, 7759, Elmer 8052, Banks s. n. 

EPIPACTIS ELMER I Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 12, fig. 3. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Elmer 14884. 

EPIPACTIS LUZONENSIS Ames comb. nov. 

Goodyera liizonensis Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 26. 

Luzon (Tayabas), B. S. 2465 Foxworthy, Merrill 7488. Mt. Banahao at 
about 2,000 m altitude. 

EPIPACTIS PHILIPPINENSIS Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 60, text cut. 

Goodyera philippinensis Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 (1911) 392; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 27. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Zambales, Bataan, Cavite, Laguna), Mindoro. 
Reasonably common in Luzon at 100 1 to 1,100 m altitude. 

EPIPACTIS RAMOSII Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 14. 

Goodyera ramosii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 409, Orch. 
5 (1915) 27. 

Mindanao, (Camiguin Island), B. S. 14421, 14446 Ramos. On a dead 
tree, in mossy forest. 

EPIPACTIS RUBICUNDA (Blume) A. A. Eaton in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 

21 (1908) 65; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 664. 
Neottia rubicunda Blume Bijdr. (1825) 408. 
Neottia grandis Blume Bijdr. (1825) 407; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. 

(1840) 494. 
Goodyera rubicunda Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 25 (1839) Misc. 61, Gen. & 

Sp. Orch. (1840) 493, in Journ. Linn. Soc. 1 (1857) 184; Miq. PI. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 728; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248; J. J. Sm. 

Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 121, Fig.-Atlas (1909) fig. 88; 

Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 27. 
Speiranthes grandis Hassk. Cat. PI. Bogor. (1844) 47. 
Goodyera rubens Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 36 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 

43) t. 9c, figs. 17-26, t. 9d, fig. 1; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 

111; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 403, Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 

1 (1907) 219. 
Goodyera grandis Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 36 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 

43); Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 728; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 

248. 

* Zinn's Epipactis as to apparent source of name is this, but as to majority 
of species given is Serapias Linn. 



272 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Goody era celebica Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 36 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 

43); Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 728. 
Orchiodes rubicundum Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 675. 
Orchiodes celebicum Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 675. 
Orchiodes grande Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 675. 

Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Panay (Capiz), Negros (Oriental Negros), 
Mindanao (Lanao, Cotabato, Davao), Elmer 10173, 11150, 14.867, B. S. 
31096, 31U55 Ramos & Edaho, 604-9 Robinson, Weber 201, Cuming s. n., 
M. S. Clemens s. n. Terrestrial in damp forest at 110 to 260 m altitude. 
In Malay Peninsula and Java. 

EPIPACTIS VIRIDIFLORA (Blume) Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 61. 

Neottia viridiflora Blume Bijdr. (1825) 408; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. 

(1840) 494. 
Physurus viridiflorus Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 1 (1857) 180; Miq. 

FL Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 734. 
Goody era viridiflora Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 34 (Orch. Arch. 

Ind. 41), t. 9c, fig. 2, 12-16; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 27. 
Orchiodes viridiflorum Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 675. 

Luzon (Benguet, Bataan), Negros (Oriental Negros), Mindanao (Davao), 
R. S. Williams 1085, B. S. 6191 Robinson, F. B. 13657 Curran, Elmer 9820, 
Copeland s. n. Epiphyte, up to 2,000 m altitude in Davao. In Java. 

20. LEPIDOGYNE Blume 

LEPIDOGYNE LONGI FOLIA Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 78 (Orch. Arch. 
Ind. 94) t. 25; Miq. FL Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 745; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 249; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 405; J. J. Sm. 
Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 129, Fig.-Atlas (1909) fig. 95; 
Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 224; J. J. Sm. in Nova Guinea 
8 (1909) 18, t. 6, fig. 17, 8 3 (1912) 526, 12 (1913) 10; Ames 
in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1553, Orch. 5 (1915) 28. 
Neottia longifolia Blume Bijdr. (1825) 406; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. 

(1840) 476. 
Speiranthes longifolia Hasskv Cat. PL Bogor. (1844) 47. 
Lepidogyne sceptrum Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 (Orch. 
Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) 55. 
Negros (Oriental Negros), Leyte, Elmer 9579, Wenzel 0399, 0789, 0850, 
090^. Terrestrial in mountain regions, at 500 to 600 m altitude in Leyte. 
In Malay Peninsula, Java, and New Guinea. 

Lepidogyne minor Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 (Orch. Deutsch- 
Neu-Guin.) (1922) 56 is probably conspecific. 

21. DICEROSTYLIS Blume 

DICEROSTYLIS LANCEOLATA Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 98 (Orch. 

Arch. Ind. 116) t. 38, fig. 1, 1-11; J. J. Sm. FL Buitenz. 6 (Orch. 

Jav.) (1905) 117, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 85; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 28. 

Hylophila lanceolata Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 746; Hook. f. FL 

Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 110; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 403, 

Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 223. 

Batan Islands, B. S. 3781 Fenix. Santo Domingo de Basco, near Mt. 

Iraya, in mossy forest. In Malay Peninsula and Java. 



Vo1 - l ORCHIDACEAE 273 

DICEROSTYLIS RUBRA (Ames) Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 (1911) 
392; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 28. 
Hylophila rubra Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 315, 
nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 65, text cut. 

Luzon (Laguna), Mindoro, Panay (Antique), Sibuyan, F. B. 4-378 
Merritt, Elmer 12517, Baker 3573, B. S. 32201 McGregor. Mt. Halcon and 
Mt. Giting-giting, terrestrial, up to 1,450 m altitude. 

22. ERYTHRODES Blume 

ERYTHRODES BOETTCHERi Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 8. 
Luzon (Kalinga), Boettcher s. n. At 1,000 m altitude. 

ERYTHRODES MERRILLII Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 79, t. 54, 5 (1915) 29. 
Herpysma merrillii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 313. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5836. Mt. Halcon, in damp ravine at 730 m altitude. 
ERYTHRODES VRYDAGZYNOIDES Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 29. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0150, 0225. Dagami, in forest at 60 m altitude. 
ERYTHRODES WEBER! Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 30. 

Mindanao (Lanao, Agusan), Jolo, M. S. Clemens s. n., Weber 156, 156A, 
J. Clemens s. n. Lake Lanao and Talacogon, terrestrial in shady forest 
at 10 m .altitude. In Jolo at 830 m altitude. 

ERYTHRODES WENZELI1 Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 31. 
Palawan, Leyte, Merrill 7218, Wenzel s. n. 

23. KUHLHASSELTIA J. J. Smith 

KUHLHASSELTIA WHITEHEADII (Rendle) Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 32. 
Zeuxine ivhiteheadii Rendle in Journ. Bot. 34 (1896) 358. 
Haemaria merrillii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 315; 

Orch. 3 (1908) 21, t. 30. 
Kuhlhasseltia merrillii Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 9 (1911) 437. 

Luzon (Laguna), Mindoro, B. S. 6567 Robinson, 19577 Ramos, Copeland 
s. n., Merrill 5819, 5840. Mt. Banahao and Mt. Halcon, terrestrial in mossy 
forest at 1,400 to 2,000 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Kuhlhasseltia merrillii Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 9 (1911) 437 = 
Kuhlhasseltia whiteheadii (Rendle) Ames. 

24. CYSTORCHIS Blume 

CYSTORCHIS APHYLLA Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 400; J. J. 

Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 93, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 

64; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 212; Ames in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 313, Orch. 2 (1908) 56, 5 (1915) 33. 
Luzon (Benguet, Pampanga, Bataan), Merrill s. n., 3135, R. S. Williams 
1921, Elmer 7012, F. B. 74-96 Curran. Terrestrial, in forest. In Malay 
Peninsula and Java. 

200823 18 



274 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

CYSTORCHIS JAVANICA Blume PI. Jav. Orch. (1858) 73 (Orch. Arch. 
Ind. 87) t. 2U, fig. 1, 1-16; Hook. f. PI. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 97; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 39, Orch. 5 (1915) 33. 

Etaeria javanica Blume Bijdr. (1825) 410. 

Aetheria javanica Blume apud Lindl. .Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 491. 

Hetaeria javanica Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 725. 

Cystorchis variegata Blume var. purpurea Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
32 (1896) 399; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 93, Pig- 
Atlas (1908) fig. 63; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 212; J. J. 
Sm. in Nova Guinea 8 (1909) 14; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
45, Beibl. 104 (1911) 3; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 
Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 140. 

Mindanao (Davao), Weber 286. Magum-Compostela Trail, in dense 
forest at 45 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and 
Dutch New Guinea. 

CYSTORCHIS LUZON ENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 33. 

Luzon (Laguna), Mindoro, Merrill 514.6, B. S. 17910 Brown, Quisumbing i 
1221, Ramos & Edano s. n. Mt. Maquiling and Mt. Halcon, terrestrial in 
forest at 800 to 1,600 m altitude. 

25. CYSTOPUS Blume 




CYSTOPUS MINDANAENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 34. 

Mindanao (Camiguin Island), B. S. H422 Ramos. Mt. Mahinog, on 
tree top. 

CYSTOPUS PHILIPPINENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 35. 




Luzon (Tayabas, Sorsogon), B. S. 9UU6 Robinson, 23636 Ramos. InfanTa! 
and Lake Pulog, the latter in moss at 500 m altitude. " ~=^M^ 

26. ANOECTOCHILUS Blume 

ANOECTOCHILUS sp. Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 36. 
Leyte, Wenzel 0286. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Anoectochilus ARGYRONEURUM Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 250, 
nomen. 

Anoectochilus bullenii Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 250, nomen. 

Anoectochilus dayi Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 250, nomen. 

Anoectochilus intermedium Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 250, 
nomen. 

Anoectochilus reinwardtii Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 250. 
A Javan, Sumatran, and Malayan species misdetermined by Naves. 

Anoectochilus roxburghii Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 250. 
A native of India and China, wrongly determined by Naves. 



Vo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 275 

27. MACODES Lindley 

MACODES PETOLA (Blume) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 497; Reicbb. 
f. Xen. Orch. 1 (1858) 227, t. 96, fig. I, 1-5; Blume PI. Jav. 
Orch. (1858) 100 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 119) t. 31, fig. 2, t. S6D; 
Naves Novis. App. (1882) 249; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 
(1896) 399; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 103, Fig.- 
Atlas (1908) fig. 73; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 215; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 36. 
Neottia petola Blume Bijdr. (1825) 407, fig. 2. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Mindanao (Agusan), B. S. 13705 Ramos, 9464 
Robinson, Elmer 14180, 18108, 18436. Mt. Maquiling and Mt. Binuang, 
forest slope, the latter at 300 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula and Java. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Macodes setaceus Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 249, nomen. 
Macodes striatus Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 249, nomen. 
Macodes VElTCHii Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 249, nomen. 
Macodes xanthophyllus Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 249, nomen. 

28. CHEIROSTYLIS Blume 

^HEIROSTYLIS OCTODAjCTYLA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
514, Orch. 3 -(l?(fl§) 46, t. 40, 5 (1915) 37. 

(Laguna), Mindoro, Merrill 5834, 7495. Mt. Banahao and Mt. 
in forest at 2,500 to 2,700 m altitude. 

;HEIROSTYLIS PH ILIPPI N ENSIS Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 59, 5 (1915) 37. 
Luzon (Kalinga, Benguet, Tayabas), Panay (Iloilo), Negros (Oriental 
Negros), Elmer 6035, 9701, popping 19, Boettcher s. n., Merrill 4015, B\ S. 
18196 Robinson. In mountainous. regions at 330 to 830 m altitude. 

29. PHILIPPINAEA Ames and Schlechter . 

PHILIPPINAEA WENZELII (Ames) Ames & Schltr. in Ames Orch. 6 
(1920) 278, t. 100. 
Adenostylis wenzelii Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 4L, 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 13884, 16668, 
Wenzel 0119, 0210, 0510, 0562. Terrestrial at 60 to 500 m altitude. 

30. ADENOSTYLIS Blume 

ADENOSTYLIS BENGUETENSIS Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 
(1912) 1551, Orch. 5 (1915) 39. 

Luzon (Benguet), Elmer 8856. Baguio. 

ADENOSTYLIS ELMERI Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1552, 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 408, Orch. 5 (1915) 39. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Bataan) (> Palawan, Vanoverbergh 69, 1099, 
2259, 4054, Elmer 8648, 12634, F. B. 6240 Cnrran. Terrestrial, on woody 
hillocks up to 1,300 m altitude. 




276 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

ADENOSTYLIS LEYTENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 39. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Leyte, Elmer 15672, Wenzel 0349. Terrestrial. 

ADENOSTYLIS LUZONENSIS Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 57, text cut, 5 (1915) 
39. 
Zeuxine luzonensis Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 314, nomen. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto), Mindoro, Vanoverbergh 787, Merrill £604, 5841. 
Terrestrial on mountains, in the forest, at 930 to 1,300 m altitude. 

ADENOSTYLIS M ARIVELENSIS Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 58, text cut, 5 
(1915) 39. 

Luzon (Bataan), Negros (Occidental Negros), Merrill 798, 3963, F. B. 
6517 Curran, Weber 17, Merrill 7019, Banks s. n., R. S. Williams 627. 

ADENOSTYLIS PH ILIPPIN ENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 9. 
Leyte, Wenzel 0375. Terrestrial in forest at 60 m altitude. 

ADENOSTYLIS STRATEUM ATICA (Linn.) Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 59, 5 

(1915) 40. 
Orchis strateumatica Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 943, ed. 2 (1763) 1336. 
Spiranthes strateumatica Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 10 (1824) sub t. 823. 
Adenostylis emarginata Blume Bijdr. (1825) 414. 
Adenostylis integerrima Blume Bijdr. (1825) 414, fig. 17. 
Pterygodium sulcatum Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 452. * 

Tripleura pallida Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 7391, nomen, Gen. 

& Sp. Orch. (1840) 452. 
( Zeuxine sulcata Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 7392, nomen, Gen. 

& Sp. Orch. (1840) 485; Griff. Notul. 3 (1851) 396, Icon. PL 

Asiat. 3 (1851) t, 349; Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 55 (Orch. 

Arch. Ind. 67) ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 723; Benth. Fl. Hongk. 

(1861) 360; Thwaites Enum. PI. Zeyl. (1861) 312; Hook. f. Fl. 

Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 106; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. 

Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 286, t. 381; Trim. Handb. Fl. 

Ceyl. 4 (4898) 215; Matsum. Ind. PI. Jap. 2 (1905) 264; J. J. Sm. 

Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 108, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig. 76, 

Orch. Amb. (1905) 12; Duthie in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 9 

(Orch. North-west. Himal.) (1906) 168; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 

1 (1907) 217. 
Zeuxine emarginata Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 485; Reichb. f. 

in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 36. 
Zeuxine integerrima Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 486; Blume Fl. 

Jav. Orch. (1858) 55 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 67), t. 19, fig. 1, t. 23c; 

Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 723. 
Zeuxine membranacea Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 486; Blume 

Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 56 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 68), t. 22, fig. 2, t. 23 A. 
? Corycium humile Herb. Ham. ex. Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 

485, in syn. 
Neottia strateumatica R. Br. ex Steud. Norn. Bot. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 190. 
Zeuxine bracteata Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 16, t. 1724bis. 
Zeuxine brevifolia Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 16, t. 1725. 
Zeuxine robusta Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 16, t. 1726. 
Zeuxine tripleura Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 1 (1857) 186. 



Vo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 277 

Zeuxine procumbens Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 56 (Orch. Arch. 

Ind. 68) t. 22, fig. 3, t. 23 B. 
Zeuxine sp. Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 273. 
Zeuxine strateumatica Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 (Orch. 
Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1911) 77. 
Mindanao (Misamis, Agusan), M. S. Clemens 6, 67.9a, Weber s. n. Ter- 
restrial in the forest, apparently at low altitude. In Afghanistan, India, 
Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, China, Assam, Japan, Java, and Amboina. 

ADENOSTYLIS VANOVERBERGHI I Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 
Bot. 408, Orch. 5 (1915) 40. 
Luzon .(Bontoc, Lepanto), Vanoverbergh 14-90, 3936, Ramos & Edano 67, 
84. In wet or mossy forest at 930 to 2,540 m altitude. 

ADENOSTYLIS WEBERI Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 40. 

Mindanao (Davao), Weber 280. Mt. Binatun, in bamboo forest at 
580 m altitude. 

ADENOSTYLIS ZAM BOANGENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 10. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga), Copeland 1567. Terrestrial, in forest at 130 m 
altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

•Adenostylis WENZELJi Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 41 = Philippinaea wenzelii 
(Ames) Schltr. & Ames. 

31. MYRMECHIS Blume 

MYRMECHIS GRACILIS Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 64 (Orch. Arch. 
Ind. 77), t. 21, fig. 2; Franch. & Sav. Enum. PI. Jap. 2 (1879) 
39; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 105, Fig.- Atlas 
(1908) fig. 74; Matsum. Ind. Fl. Jap. 2 (1905) 254; Ames in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 315, Orch. 2 (1908) 63, 5 (1915) 42. 
Anecochilus gracilis Blume Bijdr. (1825) 413. 

Anaectochilus gracilis Blume apud Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 500. 
Rhamphidia alsinefolia Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 1 (1857) 182; 

Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 730. 
Rhamphidia japonica Reichb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 36 (1878) 75. 
Myfmechis japonica Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. 36 (1903) 44, sub 
Myrmechis chinensis Rolfe. 
Luzon (Benguet, Bataan), Mindoro, Mindanao (Misamis, Bukidnon, 
Davao), B. S. 8422 McGregor, 38520 Ramos & Edano, Merrill 3865, F. B. 
4432, 4460 Merritt, 4622 Mearns & Hutchinson, Elmer 11372. In mountain 
regions, up to 2,100 m altitude in Benguet, and 3,300 m altitude in Minda- 
nao. In Java and Japan. 

MYRMECHIS PERPUSILLA Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 15. 
Luzon (Benguet), Copeland 124. 

MYRMECHIS PH ILIPPI N ENSIS Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 64, text cut, 5 
(1915) 42. 

Luzon (Bataan), Leiberg 6066. Mt. Mariveles, terrestrial at 800 m 
altitude. 



278 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

32. VRYDAGZYNEA Blume 

VRYDAGZYNEA ALBIDA Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 62 (Orch. Arch. 

Ind. 75), t. 19, fig. 2; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 97; Ridl. 

in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 397; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 

(Orch. Jav.) (1905) 89, Fig.-Atlas (1908) fig: 61; Ridl. Mat. Fl. 

Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 211; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 

Bot. 313; Orch. 2 (1908) 55, 5 (1915) 42. 
Etaeria albida Blume Bijdr. (1825) 410. 

Aetheria albida Blume apud Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 491. 
Hetaeria albida Blume apud Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 726; Naves 

Novis. App. (1882) 249. 

Luzon (Rizal, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Samar, Negros (Oriental 
Negros), Leyte, Mindanao (Zamboanga, Davao) , Jolo. A rather common 
and widely distributed species in the Philippines. Terrestrial in dense 
forest at 137 to 1,000 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula and Java. 

VRYDAGZYNEA WEBERI Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 42. 

Luzon (Apayao, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Polillo, Leyte, 
Weber 333, Elmer 14616, 14685, 17374, 18028, B. S. 9191, 9489 Robinson, 
2978 Ramos & Edano, 25401 Yates, Wenzel 0244, 0630. Terrestrial, up 
to 600 m altitude in Leyte. 

33. HETAERIA Blume 

HETAERIA BLACKII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 43. 

Mindanao (Lanao, Davao), M. S. Clemens 439, Black s. n. 

HETAERIA LANCIFOLIA Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 44 (as laMcif olium) . 

Luzon (Apayao), Weber 327. Abulug-Narig Trail, terrestrial in forest 
at 76 m altitude. 

HETAERIA LEYTENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 14. 
Leyte, B. S. 42081b Edano. At 300 m altitude. 

HETAERIA M IN DAN AENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 45. 

Mindanao (Agusan) Weber 317. Sangaan-Cabadbaran Trail, terrestrial 
in shady forest at 22 m altitude. 

HETAERIA OBLONGI FOLIA Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 85 (Orch. Arch. 

Ind. 102), t. 32, fig. 3; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 725; Kranzl. 

in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. (1901) 241; J. J. 

Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 113, Fig.-Atlas (1908) 

fig. 80; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 70, 2 (1908) 62, 5 (1915) 46; J. J. 

Sm. in Nova Guinea 8 (1909) 17, 8 3 (1912) 525. 
Etaeria oblongifolia Blume Bijdr. (1825) 410, fig. 14. 
Aettieria oblongifolia Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1840) 491. 
Etaeria rubicunda Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 214. 
Rhamphidia tenuis Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 1 (1857) 182; Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 730; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 248. 
Hetaeria tenuis Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 151, Rev. PI. 

Vase. Filip. (1886) 273; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 24 (1886) 59; Ceron 

Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 169. 
Goodyera rubicunda J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 

121 (as to syn. Aetheria rubicunda Reichb. f.). 



Vo11 ' ORCHIDACEAE 279 

Luzon (Uocos Norte, Cagayan, Benguet, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Ticao, 
Mindoro, Negros (Oriental Negros), Palawan, Balabac, Mindanao (Zam- 
boanga, Lanao). A common and widely distributed species in the Phil- 
ippines. Terrestrial in forest at 30 to 90 m altitude. In Java, Molucca 
Islands, New Guinea, and possibly Samoa. 

HETAERIA WENZELII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 46. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0227. Dagami, terrestrial in forest at 60 m altitude. 

.EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Hetaeria albida Blume apud Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 726; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 240 = Vrydagzynea albida Blume. 

Hetaeria javanica (Blume) Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 725 = Cystorchis 
javanica Blume. 

Hetaeria tenuis Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 151, Rev. PI. Vase. 
Filip. (1886) 273; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 24 (1886) 59; Ceron Cat. 
PL Herb. Manila (1892) 169 = Hetaeria oblongifolia Blume. 

Hetaeria variegata Miq. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 249. 
This is probably referable to Cystorchis javanica Blume. 

34. TROPIDIA Lindley 

TROPIDIA CALCARATA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 7, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 47. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), B. S. 13603 Ramos, Merrill 7144, Catalan 223, 
Elmer 18188. 

TROPIDIA MINDANAENSIS Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 
1553, Orch. 5 (1915) 47. 
Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11785. Todaya, Mt. Apo. 

TROPIDIA MINDORENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 315, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 47. 
Mindoro, Merrill 5552. Binabay River, terrestrial in humid forest at 
300 m altitude. 

TROPIDIA ROBINSONII Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 16. 
Luzon (Tayabas), B. S. 94-96 Robinson. 

TROPIDIA SEPTEMNERVIS (Schauer) Reichb. f. in Linnaea 25 (1852) 
230; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 47, in textu. 
Ptychochilus septemnervis Schauer in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 

1 (1843) 431, t. 12, fig. B. 
Tropidia minor Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 65, text cut, 5 (1915) 47. 
Luzon (Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Laguna), Mindoro, Leyte, 
Merrill 4204, Whit ford 1368, B. S. 16558 Ramos, 1542 Bermejos, 26267 
Ramos & Edano, 17927 Brown, Wenzel 0557, F. B. 7501 Curran. Terres- 
trial in forest at 500 m in Leyte. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Tropidia curculigoides Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 249. 

A native of Java, Borneo, and Malacca, wrongly attributed to the Phil- 
ippines. Cf. Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 47, in textu. 



280 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Tropidia graminea Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 249. 

Tropidia grandis Hance apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 249. 

Tropidia minor Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 65, text cut, 5 (1915) 47 = Tropidia 
septemnervis (Schauer) Reichb. f. 

35. CORYMBORCHIS Thouars 

CORYMBORCHIS CONFUSA Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 48. 

Corymbis disticha Lindl. Fol. Orch. Corymbis (1854) 1, quoad Philip.; 

Thou, apud Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 736, quoad Philip. 
Chloidia confusa Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 67, text cut. 
Corymbis confusa Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 (1911) 395. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Apayao), Leyte, Bancalan, Mindanao (Agusan, 
Zamboanga), Jolo, B. S. 32723, 32752 Ramos, 37295 Ramos & Edano, 
28227 Fenix, Cuming s. n., Weber 320, 339, Wenzel 0209, Elmer 131+33, 
R. S. Williams 2153, J. Clemens s. n. Terrestrial, in forest at sea level 
to 830 m altitude. 

36. CHRYSOGLOSSUM Blume 

CHRYSOGLOSSUM VILLOSUM Blume Bijdr. (1825) 338, fig. 7; Lindl. 
Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 14; De Vriese 111. Orch. Ind. Neerl. (1854) 
t. 12, fig. U; Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 137 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 
162), t. U7; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 626; Reichb. f. in Walp. 
Ann. 6 (1861) 206; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 783; Ridl. in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 316; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. 
Jav.) (1905) 173, Fig.-Atlas (1909) fig. 131; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. 
Penin. 1 (1907) 112; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
316, Orch. 2 (1908) 67, 5 (1915) 48, in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. 
Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 143. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5838. Binabay River, terrestrial at about 300 m al- 
titude. In Malay Peninsula, Java, and Borneo. 

37. NEPHELAPHYLLUM Blume 

NEPHELAPHYLLUM MINDORENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 316, Orch. 3 (1908) 83, t. 55, 5 (1915) 48. 

Luzon (Nueva Ecija), Mindoro, B. S. 26319, 26U9U, 26652 Ramos & 
Edano, Merrill 5623. Terrestrial on dry slopes and in humid forest at 
200 to 300 m altitude. 

38. DIGLYPHOSA Blume 

DIGLYPHOSA ELMERI Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1555, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 48. 
Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11815. Todaya, Mt. Apo. 

39. COELOGYNE Lindley 

COELOGYNE ASPERATA Lindl. in Journ. Hort. Soc. 4 (July, 1849) 221, 
Fol. Orch. Coelog. (1854) 3; J. Linden Pescat. 1 (1854) text to 
t. 7; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 666; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 
6 (1861) 224; Warner & Will. Orch. Alb. 7 (1888) t. 311; 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 835; Veitch. Man. Orch. PI. pt. 
6 (1890) 31; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 287, 32 (1896) 
326; L. Linden in Lindenia 13 (1897) 15, t. 582; Ridl. in Journ. 
Bot. 36 (1898) 214, Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 129; Pfitz. in 



VoL 1 ORCHIDACEAE 281 

Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 76; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 
68, 5 (1915) 49; J. J. Sm. in Nova Guinea 8 (1909) 20, 8 3 (1912) 
527, 12 (1913) 10, 12 a (1915) 196; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. 
Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 143. 

Coelogyne lowii Lindl. in Paxt. Mag. Bot. 16 (September, 1849) 225, 
t. and text cut; J. Linden Pescat. 1 (1854) t. 7; Boxall ex Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 237. 

Pleione asperata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 680. 

Samar, Leyte, Negros (Oriental Negros), Mindanao (Agusan, Surigao, 
Davao), Basilan, B. S. 17624 Ramos, 15500, 16257 Reillo, Wenzel s. n., Elmer 
10008, Weber 55, 250, Bolster 294, F. B. 6103 Hutchinson. Epiphyte in 
forest at 75 to 430 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, 
and New Guinea. 

COELOGYNE BILAM ELLATA Lindl. Fol. Orch. Coelog. (1854) 14; Miq. 
F'l. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 668; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237; Ridl. 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 287; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 24; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 73, text cut, 5 
(1915) 94. 
Panisea bilamellata Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 240. 
Pleione bilamellata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 680. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Leyte, Mindanao (Zamboanga, Agusan, Bu- 
kidnon, Surigao), B. S. 15131 Ramos, 3904-6 Ramos & Edano, Elmer 7727, 
13900, Wenzel 0412, 0494, 0513, Merrill 8202, Bolster 288. Epiphyte in 
forest, up to 1,000 m altitude in Mindanao. Reported from Borneo. 

COELOGYNE CANDOONENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 18, fig. 4- 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38894 Ramos & Edano. In forest at 1,830 
m altitude. 

COELOGYNE CHLOROPTERA Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 19 (1883) 
466; Kranzl. Xen. Orch. 3 (1890) 69, t. 235, fig. I. 1-6; Pfitz. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 55, fig. 18L; Ames 
Orch. 2 (1908) 71, t., 5 (1915) 49. 
Coelogyne sparsa Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 72, p. p. (as to Elmer 5842), 
non Reichb. f. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Kalinga, Bontoc, Benguet, Pampanga, Bataan, Ta- 
yabas), Negros (Oriental Negros). A fairly common species in Luzon, on 
trees and rocks at 1,000 to 1,530 m altitude. 

COELOGYNE CONFUSA Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 49. 

Mindanao (Camiguin Island), B. S. 14430 Ramos. Epiphyte. 

COELOGYNE ELMERI Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1556, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 50. 
Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao), B. S. 38583 Ramos & Edano, Elmer 
10694. Mt. Lipa and Todaya, Mt. Apo, up to 1,300 m altitude. 

COELOGYNE INTEGERRI M A Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
665, 6 (1911) Bot. 40; Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 
(1910) Bot. 340; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 50. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Tayabas), Vanoverbergh 3646, Merrill 6350, 
B. S. 8454, 8519, 8822 McGregor, 31711 Santos, Elmer 9258. Mountain 
regions at 1,750 to 2,450 m altitude. 



282 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

COELOGYNE LOHERI Rolfe in Kew Bull. (1908) 414; Ames Orch. 5 
(1915) 50, 6 (1920) 279. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Loher 549, Vanoverbergh 1197, 2867, 3906, 
4041, Boettcker s. n., B. S. 31909 Santos. Mountain regions up to 1,700 m 
altitude. 

COELOGYNE LONGIRACHIS Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 88. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38671 Ramos & Edano. Mahilucot River, 
along streams in forest at 1,300 m altitude. 

COELOGYNE MARMORATA Reichb. f. in Linnaea 41 (1877) 116; Pfitz. 
in Engl. Pfianzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 85; Ames Orch. 5 
(1915) 50, Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 20. 
Coelogyne zahlbrucknerae Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 389. 

Luzon (Benguet), Wallis s. n., Schultze s. n., Loher s. n. Sablan, May, 
1909. 

COELOGYNE MERRILLII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 
40, Orch. 5 (1915) 51. 

Luzon (Benguet, Rizal), Merrill 6620, Phil. PI. 716, Haight 14, B. S. 
31814 Saiitos, 29764 Ramos & Edano, Lyon 164. Mountain regions at 300 
to 2,300 m altitude. 

COELOGYNE M INUTISSI M A Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 390. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher s. n. 

No specimen seen. 
COELOGYNE PALAWAN ENSE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 51. 

Palawan, Merrill 9499. Mt. Capoas at 1,000 m altitude. 
COELOGYNE QUINQUELAM ELLATA Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 280. 

Mindanao (Surigao), Wenzel 01175, 01179, 01182, 01183, 01206. Epi- 
phyte in forest at 150 m altitude. 

COELOGYNE RAMOSII Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 90. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon, Agusan), B. S. 38892, 38944 Ramos & Edano, 
Elmer 14130. Mt. Candoon and Cabadbaran (Mt. Urdaneta) up to 1,850 
m altitude. 

COELOGYNE ROCHUSSENII De Vriese 111. Orch. Ind. Neerl. (1854) 
t. 2, t. 11, fig. 6; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 666; Reichb. Xen. 
Orch. 1 (1856) 212, t. 85; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 
321; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 144, Fig.-Atlas 
(1909) fig. 107; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 128; Pfitz. 
in Engl. Pfianzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 70, figs. Z2E, 23; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 664; Schltr. in Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. 104 (1911) 7; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 52, 
in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. 
(1921) 145. 
Coelogyne macrobulbon Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 830. 
Pleione rochusenii Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 680. 
Pleione macrobulbon Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 680. 
Luzon (Pampanga), Mindanao (Lanao), M. S. Clemens s. n., Lyon s. n. 
Camp Keithley, September, 1907. In Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, 
Celebes, and Borneo. 



Vol. 1 



ORCHIDACEAE 283 



COELOGYNE SPARSA Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 19 (1883) 306; 
Veitch Man. Orch. PI. pt. 6 (1890) 49; Kranzl. Xen. Orch. 3 
(1890) 70, t. 235, fig. II. 7-12; Wittmack in Gartenfl. 46 (1897) 
449, t. 1442; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 71 (excl. Elmer 5842), 2 (1908) 
70, text cut, 5 (1915) 53; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (1907) 54, fig. 18, J. K. 
Pleione sparsa Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 680. 
Luzon (Rizal, Bataan), Panay (Antique), Negros (Oriental Negros), 
Palawan, B. S. 2176 Ramos, 647 Foxworthy, Weber 11, 15, 16, Merrill 3961, 
Whitford 1090, Lyon 133, R. S. Williams 626, 759, Yoder s. n., Elmer 
10210, McGregor 5806. Mountain regions, epiphytic at 900 to 1,050 m 
altitude. 

COELOGYNE SWAN I AN A Rolfe in Kew Bull. (1894) 183, in Orch. Rev. 
2 (1894) 198, in Sander Reichenbachia II 2 (1894) 105, t. 92; Hook, 
f. in Bot. Mag. 124 (1898) t. 7602; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 68, fig. 22C; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 53. 

Only horticultural specimens of this species have been seen. 

COELOGYNE VANOVERBERGHI I Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 53. 
Bontoc, Vanoverbergh 2865. Bauco at 1,700 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Coelogyne ciliata Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237, nomen. 

Coelogyne conchoidea Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 237; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 237 = Pholidota imbricata Lindl. 

Coelogyne cumingii Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237. 

Cuming's specimen, on which this species was based, was from Singapore, 
not from the Philippines. 

Coelogyne fimbriata Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237. 

Coelogyne imbricata (Lindl.) Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 238 
= Pholidota imbricata Lindl. 

Coelogyne lowii Lindl. in Paxt. Mag. Bot. 16 (September, 1849) 225, 
t. and text cut; J. Linden Pescat. 1 (1854) t. 7; Boxall ex Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 237 = Coelogyne asperata Lindl. 

Coelogyne pallida (Lindl.) Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 238 = 
Pholidota imbricata Lindl. 

Coelogyne pandurata Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237. 

Coelogyne pumila Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 236 = Acoriditim 
pumilum (Reichb. f.) Rolfe. 

Coelogyne rhombophora Reichb. f. in Linnaea 41 (1877) 116 = Acoridium 
rhombophorum (Reichb. f.) Ames. 

Coelogyne rumphii Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237. 

Coelogyne sparsa Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 72, p. p. (as to Elmer 5842), 
non Reichb. f. = Coelogyne chloroptera Reichb. f. 

Coelogyne speciosa Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237. 

Coelogyne tripida Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237. 



284 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Coelogyne TRIOTOS Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 238, in Hamb. 
Gartenz. 18 (1862) 34; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237 = Pholidota 
imbricata Lindl. 

Coelogyne ventricosa (Blume) Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 237 = 
Pholidota ventricosa (Blume) Reichb. f. 

Coelogyne viscosa Boxall ex Vidal ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237, 

women. 

Coelogyne zahlbrucknerae Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 389 = 
Coelogyne marmorata Reichb. f. 

40. PSEUDACORIDIUM Ames 

PSEUDACORIDIUM WOODIANUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 79. 

Dendrochilum woodianum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
318, nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 80, text cut, 5 (1915) 66. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5816. Mt. Halcon, at 2,260 to 2,830 m altitude. 

41. ACORIDIUM Nees and Meyen 

ACORIDIUM AFFINE Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 80. 

Dendrochilum affine Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 95, 5 (1915) 55. 

Luzon (Bataan), Merrill 3218, Whit ford 1354, B. S. 5184 Topping. 

ACORIDIUM ANFRACTOIDES Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 80. 

Dendrochilum anfractoides Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 13, t. 28, 5 (1915) 
55, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 665; Merr. & Merritt in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 340. 

Luzon (Benguet), F. B. 4312a Mearns, B. S. 8358, 8834, 8858 McGregor, 
Haight 10, Ramos & Edano 11, 48, 48a, 49. In mossy forest at 1,930 to 
2,160 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM ANFRACTUM Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 148. 
Dendrochilum anfractum Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 
(1907) 118, fig. 38P; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 91, t. 21, fig. I, 1, 
5 (1915) 55. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), Merrill 4U82, Ramos & Edano 10, 39, 40, 47. 
In mossy forest at 2,100 to 2,290 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM AURICULARE Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 80. 

Dendrochilum auriculare Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
595, Orch. 5 (1915) 55. 

Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 5771, 5818 Ramos, Ramos & Edano 9. In mossy 
forest at 2,060 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM BINUANGENSE Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 80. 

Dendrochilum binuangense Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 281. 

Luzon (Tayabas), B. S. 28620 Ramos & Edano. Summit of Mt. Binuang 
at 500 m altitude. 



Vo1 ' l ORCHIDACEAE 285 

ACORIDIUM CINNABARINUM (Pfitz.) Ames Orch. 7 (1920) 80. 

Dendrochilum cinnabarinum Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 

II. B. 7 (1907) 104, fig. 35F; Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 10, 5 (1915) 56, 

6 (1920) 282, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 597; Merr. & 

Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 340. 

Luzon (Benguet, Rizal), Merrill 64-75, Boettcher s. n., Ramos & Edafto 

43, B. S. 8844 McGregor, F. B. 16348 Curran, Merritt, & Zschokke. In 

mossy forest at 2,160 to 2,930 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM CONFUSUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 80. 

Dendrochilum confusnm Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 
41, Orch. 5 (1915) 56. 

Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Leyte, F. B. 19124 Tamesis, B. S. 5640 
Curran, Elmer 15068, Wenzel 0853. In forest at 700 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM CURRANII Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 80. 

Dendrochilum curranii Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 15, t. 29, 5 (1915) 57. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), B. S. 3053, 16570, 19561 Ramos, 19152 Reillo, 
3077 Curran, 6575, 6580 Robinson, Disdon s. n. 

ACORIDIUM ELMER! Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 80. 

Dendrochilum elmeri Ames in Elm. Leafi. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1558, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 57. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10635. Todaya, Mt. Apo, epiphyte in mossy 
forest at 2,500 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM EXASPERATUM Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 21, fig. 6. 
Luzon (Rizal), B. S. 42338 Ramos. In mossy forest at 1,300 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM EXILE Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 80. 

Dendrochilum exile Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 317, 
nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 84, text cut, 5 (1915) 57. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5721. Mt. Halcon. 

ACORIDIUM FOXWORTHYI Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 80. 

Dendrochilum foxworthyi Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 8, t. 26, 5 (1915) 57. 

Luzon (Zambales), B. S. 2542 Foxworthy. Mt. Pinatubo at 1,800 m 
altitude. . 

ACORIDIUM GRAMINIFOLIUM Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 
144. 
Dendrochilum graminifolium Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (1907) 114, fig. 38 Q, R; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 83, 
t. 22, fig. II, 2, 5 (1915) 57. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), Merrill 4594, 4764, F. B. 5734 Klemme, 
15907 Bacani, Ramos & Edano 32, B. S. 8487 McGregor. 

ACORIDIUM HASTATUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 80. 

Dendrochilum hastatum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
317, nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 99, text cut, 5 (1915) 58. 

Mindoro, F. B. 4441 Merritt, Merrill 5759. Mt. Halcon at 2,260 m 
altitude. 



286 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS ' 1924 

ACORIDIUM HUTCHINSONIANUM Ames comb. nov. 

.Dendrochilum hutchinsonianum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 

Bot. 317, nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 96, text cut, 5 (1915) 58. 
Acoridium hutchinsonii Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81, sphalm. 
Dendrochilum hutchinsonii Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81, in syn. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5813. Mt. Halcon, in mossy thickets at 2,660 m al- 
titude. 

ACORIDIUM IRIGENSE Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 

Dendrochilum irigense Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 58. 

Luzon (Camarines), B. S. 22186 Ramos, Santos s. n. Mt. Iriga at 500 
m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM LOHERI Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 

Dendrochilum loheri Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 12, t. 27, fig. I, A, 5 
(1915) 59, 6 (1920) 283; Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
5 (1910) Bot. 340. 

Luzon (Benguet), Loher 4.61 A, Merrill 64-76, Boettcher s. n. 

ACORIDIUM LONGIBULBUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 

Dendrochilum longibidbum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
26, Orch. 5 (1915) 59. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto), Vanoverbergh 782, S830, Ramos & Edano 
25, 37, 46. At high altitudes. 

ACORIDIUM LUCBANENSE Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 

Dendrochilum lucbanense Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 
1559, Orch. 5 (1915) 60. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Elmer 7571. Lucban, in mossy forest at 530 m al- 
titude. 

ACORIDIUM LUZON ENSE Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 

Dendrochilum luzonense Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 121, text cut, 5 (1915) 
60. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), F. B. 5735 Klemme, 15729 Curran & Merritt, 
Ramos & Edano 18, B. S. 5772 Ramos. At 1,600 to 2,000 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM MACGREGORII Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 

Dendrochilum sp. Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) 

Bot. 341. 
Dendrochilum macgregorii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 
42, Orch. 5 (1915) 60. 

Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 8849 McGregor. Mt. Pulog. 

ACORIDIUM MALEOLENS (Kranzl.) Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 

Dendrochilum maleolens Kranzl. in Orchis 2 (1908) 63; Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 54, 60 

Luzon (Rizal), Loher s. n. 

Described from a plant collected by Loher at Manila, and said to be 
near Acoridium oliganthum Ames. No specimen of this species has been 
seen. 



VpLl - ORCHIDACEAE 287 

ACORIDIUM MARGINATUM Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 23, fig. 5. 
Luzon (Rizal), Ramos s; n. In forest at 1,630 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM MERRILLII Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 151. 

Dendrochilum merrillii Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 

(1907) 119, fig. 38A, B; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 102, t. 23, 

fig. I, 1, text cut, 5 (1915) 60. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), Merrill 4.585, 4858, B. S. 8353 McGregor, 

Ramos & Edano 1, 21, U- At 2,100 to 2,800 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM MICROCHILUM (Schltr.) Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 

Platyclinis microchila Schltr. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. II 6 (April, 1906) 

302. 
Acoridium venustulum Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (September, 

1906) 147. 
Dendrochilum venustulum Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 
(1907) 116, fig. 38U; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 88, t. 22, fig. Ill, 3, 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 595; Merr. & Merritt in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 341. 
Dendrochilum microchilum Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 87, in textu, 5 (1915) 
60, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 26. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna). A rather 
common species in the above region, especially so in Benguet at about 
1,800 to' 2,400 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM M1NDANAENSE Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 25, fig. 6. 
Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 14095. 

ACORIDIUM MINDORENSE Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 

Dendrochilum, mindorense Ames in Philip. Journ. iSci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
317, nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 91, text cut, 5 (1915) 60. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5729, 5795. Mt. Halcon at 2,000 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM MONTANUM Ames Sched. Orch. 5 (1923) 1. 

Acoridium linearif olium Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 141, non Rolfe. 

Luzon (Benguet), Ramos & Edano 56. Mt. Boadan, in mossy forest at 
about 2,000 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM OCELLATUM Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 
151. 
Dendrochilum ocellatum Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B, 7 
(1907) 117, fig. 38C; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 101, t. 23, fig. II, 
2, 5 (1915) 61, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 596. 

Luzon (Lepanto), Merrill 4481a, Ramos & Edano 7. Mt. Data at 
2,300 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM OLIGANTHUM Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 
150 
Dendrochilum oliganthum Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 
(1907) 117, fig. 38E; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 98, t. 23, fig. IV, 4, 
5 (1915) 61. 
Luzon (Lepanto), Merrill 4U81b, Ramos & Edano 35. Mt. Data and 
Mt. Sinapsapan, at about 2,300 m altitude. 



288 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

ACORIDIUM PARVULUM Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 146. 
Dendrochilum parvulum Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 

(1907) 116, fig. 38N; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 87, t. 21, fig. II, 2, 
5 (1915) 61. 

Luzon (Bataan, Rizal, Laguna), Merrill 3217b, Whitford HI, B. S. 
29724, 29732, Ramos & Edano, F. B. 8024 Curran & Memtt. Lamao 
River, Mt. Mariveles. 

ACORIDIUM PERPLEXUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 142. 

Luzon (Lepanto), Ramos & Edano 55. In mossy forest, Mt. Sinapsapan 
at 2,000 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM PHILIPPINENSE Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 
149. 
Dendrochilum philippinense Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 
7 (1907) 118, fig. 38F ; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 97, t. 23, fig. V, 
5, 5 (1915) 61, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 595. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Ifugao, Benguet). A fairly common species 
in the above region at about 2,000 to 2,300 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM PULCHERRIMUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 144. 

Luzon (Benguet), Ramos & Edano 1+5. # In mossy forest, Mt. Natoo, at 
1,930 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM PULOGENSE Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 

Dendrochilum pulogeyise Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 

594; Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 340; 

Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 61. 

Luzon (Benguet), F. B. 16347 A Curran, Merritt, & Zschokke, Merrill 

6^78, B. S. 8355, 884.2, 8843 McGregor, Haight 2, Boettcher s. n., Ramos 

& Edano 24, 33. 

ACORIDIUM PUMILUM (Reichb. f.) Rolfe in Orch. Rev. J2 (1904) 220; 
Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 
Dendrochilum pumilum Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 222, in Walp. 
Ann. 6 (1864) 927; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 81, 149, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. 
(1886) 268; J. J. Sm. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1904) 58; Ames 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 317, 4 (1909) Bot. 596; Pfitz. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 162; Ames Orch. 2 

(1908) 93, text cut, 3 (1908) 6, 5 (1915) 61. 
Coelogyne pumila Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 236. 

Luzon (Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas). Fairly frequent, especially in 
Laguna, on the mountains at 950 to 2,000 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM PURPUREUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 

Dendrochilum purpureum Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 286. 
Luzon (Apayao), Boettcher s. n. Mt. Pasoan at 2,000 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM QUADRILOBUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 
Dendrochilum quadrilobum Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 61. 
Luzon (Apayao, Ifugao), Boettcher s. n., B. S. 19894, 19896 McGregor. 



Vo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 289 

ACORIDIUM RECURVUM Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 148. 

Dendrochilum recurvum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (July, 1907) 

Bot. 318;, Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (November, 

1907) 117, fig. 38T; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 90, t. 22, fig. IV, 4, 

5 (1915) 62. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), Mindoro, Merrill 4584, 5509, 5831, Ramon 

<fc Edano 2, 4, 23, 27. In mossy forest, in mountain regions at 2,230 to 

2,730 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM RENIFORME Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81. 
Dendrochilum reniforme Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 63. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), B. S. 13759, 20440 Ramos, Calica s. n. Mt. 
Canumay and San Antonio. 

ACORIDIUM RHOMBOPHORUM (Reichb. f.) Ames Sched. Orch. 5 
(1923) 1. 
Coelogyne rhombophora Reichb. f. in Linnaea 41 (1877) 116. 
Pholidota rhombophora Reichb. f. in Linnaea 41 (1877) 117, in textu; 
Pfitz. & Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 153. 
Acoridium ivhitfordii Rolfe ex Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 73. 
Dendrochilum whitfordii Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 

(1907) 162; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 100, text cut, 5 (1915) 64. 

Drendrochilum rhombophorum Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 7, 5 (1915) 64. 

Luzon' (Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Wallis s. n., Whitford 139, 

Topping 360, Elmer 7395, 7679, F. B. 6516 Curran, B. S. 27935 Ocampo, 

28619, 28620 Ramos & Edano. On mountains, usually at a fairly high 

altitude. 

ACORIDIUM SACCOLABIUM (Kranzl.) Ames Sched. Orch. 5 (1923) 2. 
Dendrochilum saccolabium Kranzl. in Ann. k. k. Hofmus. Wien 30 
(1916) 56. 

Without locality, Loher s. n. A fragment from the living type plant 
cultivated at Nymphenburg, near Munich, Bavaria, is in the Ames 
Herbarium. 

ACORIDIUM SERRATOI Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 27, fig. 6. 
Luzon (Laguna), Serrato s. n. In dense forest. 

ACORIDIUM SIMULACRUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 82. 

Dendrochilum simulacrum Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 92, text cut, 5 
(1915) 64. 

Luzon (Benguet, Tayabas), F. B. 4.981 Curran, Elmer 7586. Mt. Tooglon 
and Lucban. 

ACORIDIUM SPHACELATUM Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 1, t. 1, figs. 1, 
4-6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20. 
Dendrochilum sphacelatum Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 7 (1907) 112, fig. 37 A, B, D, F, H, K; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 
82, 5 (1915) 64, 6 (1920) 287. 

Luzon (Benguet), Elmer 6554, Boettcher s. n., Sandkuhl 97. Mt. Santo 
Tomas at 2,300 m altitude. 
200823 19 



290 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

ACORIDIUM STRICT I FORME Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc, Wash. 19 (1906) 
147. 
Dendrochilum strictiforme Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 7 (1907) 116, fig. 38L; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 89, t. 21, 
fig. Ill, 3, 5 (1915) 64, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 597. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet, Tayabas), Leyte. A fairly common species 
in the mountains at 660 to 2,300 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM TENELLUM Nees & Meyen in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 19, 
Suppl. 1 (1843) 131; Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 219, 220; 
Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 3, t. 1, figs. 2, 3, 7, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19. 
Dendrochilum junceum Reichb. f. in Otia Bot. Hamb. 1 (1878) 54; 
Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 3 (1881) 30; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
245; J. J. Sm. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1904) 78. 
Dendrochilum tenellum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (July, 1907) Bot. 
318; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (November, 1907) 
112, fig. 37C, E, G, J, L; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 81, 5 (1915) 64. 
Babuyan Islands (Camiguin), Luzon (Apayao, Kalinga, Bontoc, Ifugao, 
Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon), Mindoro, 
Leyte. Probably the commonest and most widely distributed species of the 
genus in the Philippines, growing at fairly high altitudes on the mountains. 

ACORIDIUM TENUE Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 145. 

Dendrochilum tenue Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 
(1907) 116, fig. 38M; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 86, t. 21, fig. V, 5, 
5 (1915) 64. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Ifugao, Laguna), Negros, Leyte, Mindanao (Misamis, 
Bukidnon, Agusan). One of the commoner and widely distributed species 
of the genus, growing in mossy forest at 500 to 2,160 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM TEN U I FOLIUM Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 
145. 
Dendrochilum tenuifolium Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 7 (1907) 114, fig. 380; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 86, t. 21, fig. 
IV, 4, 5 (1915) 64; Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 
(1910) Bot. 340. 
Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet, Albay). Rather common in Lepanto and 
Benguet, in mossy forest at 2,060 to 2,260 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM TURPE Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 149. 

Dendrochilum turpe Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 
(1907) 118, fig. 38D; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 98, t. 23, fig. Ill, 
3, 5 (1915) 64. 
. Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4.758, Ramos & Edano 30, 42. Mountain 
regions at 500 to 2,260 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM UNICORNE Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 145. 

Luzon (Benguet), Ramos & Edaiio 43a, 54. Mt. Simakoko, in mossy 
forest at 2,160 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM VANOVERBERGHII Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 82. 

Dendrochilum vanoverberghii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 27, Orch. 5 (1915) 65. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Ifugao), Vanoverbergh 1046, B. S. 19893 McGregor. 



VoL1 ORCHIDACEAE 291 

ACORIDIUM WENZELII Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 82. 

Dendrochilum wenzelii Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 65. 
Luzon (Kalinga, Camarines), Leyte, B. S. 22161 Ramos, U2088 Edann, 
Wenzel 026U, 0338, 0787, 0803, 0862, 0876, 0880, 0886, Boettcher s. n. In 
forest at 500 to 700 m altitude. 

ACORIDIUM WILLIAMSII Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 143. 

Dendrochilum williamsii Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 

(1907) 114, fig. 38S; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 82, t. 22, fig. I, 1, 

5 (1915) 66. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), Ramos & Edano 5, 38, R. S. Williams 1939. 

Mountain region at fairly high altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Acoridium arachnites Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 219 = Dendrochilum 
arachnites Reichb. f. 

Acoridium cobbianum Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220 = Dendrochilum 
cobbianum Reichb. f. 

Acoridium convallariaeforme Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220 = 
Dendrochilum convallariaeforme Schauer. 

Acoridium copelandii Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 152 = 
Dendrochilum copelandii Ames. 

Acoridium cucullatum Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 152 = 
Dendrochilum cucullatum (Ames) Pfitz. 

Acoridium ■ cucumerinum Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220 = Dendro- 
chilum cucumerinum Reichb. f., spec. excl. 

Acoridium filiforme Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220 = Dendrochilum 
filiforme Lindl. 

Acoridium glumaceum Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220 = Dendrochilum 
glumaceum Lindl. 

Acoridium graciliscapum Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 152 = 
Dendrochilum graciliscapum (Ames) Pfitz. 

Acoridium hutchinson'ii Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 81, sphalm = Acoridium 
hutchinsonianum Ames. 

Acoridium latifolium Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220 = Denoh-ochilum 
kttifolium Lindl. 

Acoridium linearifolium Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 141, non Rolfe = Acori- 
dium montanum Ames. 

Acoridium longilabre Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1904) 152 = 
Dendrochilum longilabre (Ames) Pfitz. 

Acoridium magnum Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220 = Dendrochilum 
magnum Reichb. f. 

Acoridium parvulum Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1904) 146 = 
Dendrochilum parvulum (Ames) Pfitz. 

Acoridium philippinense Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1904) 149 = 
Dendrochilum philippinense (Ames) Pfitz. 



292 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Acoridium uncatum Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220 = Dendrochilum 
uncatum Reichb. f. 

Acoridium venustulum Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (September, 
1906) 147 = Acoridium microchilum (Schltr.) Ames. 

Acoridium whitfordii Rolfe ex Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 73 = Acoridium 
rhombophorum (Reichb. f.) Ames. 

42. DENDROCHILUM Blume 

DENDROCHILUM ARACHNITES Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 17 (1882) 
256; J. J. Sm. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1904) 65; Ames in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 316; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 92; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 119, text cut; 
5 (1915) 55; Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 
340. 
Platyclinis arachnites Rolfe in Kew Hand-list Orch. (1896) 189, 

nomen. 
Acoridium arachnites Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 219. 
Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet, Rizal), Mindoro, Leyte, Mindanao (Zam- 
boanga, Bukidnon, Agusan, Davao). A common and rather widely- 
distributed species. Epiphyte in forest at 660 to 2,300 m altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM BICALLOSUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 317, nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 117, text cut, 5 (1915) 56, in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 596. 

Luzon (Laguna, Camarines), Mindoro, F. B. 7797 Curran & Merritt, 
B. S. 21983 Ramos, 2667b Brown, 26438 Catalan, Santos s. n., Merrill 5812. 
Mountain regions, epiphyte in trees at 300 to 830 m altitude. 

Var. MINOR Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 317, nomen, Orch. 
2 (1908) 118. 
Mindoro, Merrill 5663. Mt. Halcon. 

DENDROCHILUM CAGAYANENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 
Bot. 41, Orch. 5 (1915) 56. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Apayao, Rizal, Laguna), Leyte, Mindanao (Davao), 
F. B. 16722 Curran, B. S. 28^25 Fenix, 15392, 16583 Ramos, Reillo s. n., 
Wenzel 0512, 0532, 0602, Elmer 11 8U- Epiphyte, in forest, up to 700 m 
altitude in Leyte. 

DENDROCHILUM CLEMENSIAE Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 109, text cut, 5 
(1915) 56. 
Mindanao (Lanao), M. S. Clemens s. n., 64-2. 

DENDROCHILUM COBBIANUM Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 14 (1880) 

748; J. J. Sm. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1904) 75; Pfitz. in 

Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 101; Ames Orch. 2 

(1908) 112, text cut, 5 (1915) 56. 

Platyclinis cobbiana Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. II 16 (1881) 656; Veitch 

Man. Orch. PI. pt. 5 (1889) 80. 
Acoridium cobbianum Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Mindanao (Agusan). A fairly common 
species in Luzon at 1,400 to 2,400 m altitude. 



Vo1 - x ORCHIDACEAE 293 

DENDROCHILUM CON VALLARIAEFORM E Schauer in Nov. Act. Nat. 
Cur. 19, Suppl. 1 (1843) 429; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 
50. II. B. 7 (1907) 97 (excl. syn. Acoridium copelandii Ames); 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 56. 
Acoridium convallariae forme Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220. 

Manila, Meyen. 

No specimens of this species have been seen. 

DENDROCHILUM COPELANDII Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 115, t. 24, fig. I, 
1, 5 (1915) 56. 
Acoridium copelandii Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 153. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga), Copelaiul s. n. 

DENDROCHILUM CUCULLATUM (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 98, fig. 38] ; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 115, 
t._U, fig. Ill, 3, 5 (1915) 56. 
Acoridium cucullatum Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 153. 

Mindanao (Davao), Copeland s. n. Mt. Apo, on mossy trees at 2,000 
m. altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM CYMBIFORME Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 
Bot. 41, Orch. 5 (1915) 57. 

Luzon (Abra, Kalinga), B. S. 7133, 7135 Ramos, Boettcher s. n. Mt. 
Bawagan and Mt. Pastan, at 550 to 2,000 m altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM ECALLOSUM Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 282. 

Catanduanes, B. S. 30240 Ramos. Mt. Mariquidon, on tree in forest 
at 140 m altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM FILIFORME Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 26 (1840) Misc. 52; 

Regel in Gartenfl. 18 (1869) 33, t. 604; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 

231; J. J. Sm. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1904) 68; Pfitz. in Engl. 

Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 97; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 113, 

text cut, 5 (1915) 57. 
Dendrochilum glumaceum Andre in 111. Hort. 25 (1878) t. 323, 

non Lindl. 
Platyclinis ftliformis Benth. ex Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. II 16 (1881) 

656; Veitch Man. Orch. PI. pt. 5 (1889) 80; Cogn. in Diet. Icon. 

Orch. (1902) Platyclinis t. 1. 
Acoridium filiforme Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220. 

Luzon (Rizal), Cuming s. n., Ramos s. n. Up to 660 m altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM GLUMACEUM Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 27 (1841) Misc. 23; 
Hook, in Bot. Mag. 81 (1855) t. 4853; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 
627; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 218; Batem. Second Cent. 
Orch. PI. (1867) t. 134; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231; J. J. Sm. in 
Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1904) 76; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
2 (1907) Bot. 317; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 
(1907) 104; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 110, text cut, 5 (1915) 57. 
Platyclinis glumacea Benth. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 18 (1881) 295, by 
inference only; ex Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. II 16 (1881) 656; 
Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 
267; Pfitz. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 2, Abt. 6 (1888) 128, 



294 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

fig. 127 B-F; Veitch Man. Orch. PL pt. 5 (1889) 81, t.; Cogn. in 
Diet. Icon. Orch. (1902) Platyclinis t. 2; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 74. 
Acoridium glumaceum Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220. 
Luzon (Isabela, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, 
Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines), Catanduanes, Leyte, Min- 
danao (Dayao). The commonest species of the genus in the Philippines, 
especially so in Luzon. Epiphyte in forest at 30 to 2,300 m altitude. 

Var. VALIDUM (Rolfe) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 
(1907) 104; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 112. 
Platyclinis glumacea Benth. ex Hemsl. var. valida Rolfe in Orch. 
Rev. 1 (1893) 115, 12 (1904) 73, fig. 18. 

DENDROCHILUM GRACILISCAPUM (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Planzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 99, fig. 38H; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 118, 
t. 2k, fig. II, 2, 5 (1915) 57. 
Acoridium graciliscapum Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 
152. 

Mindanao (Davao), Copeland 1019, Elmer 10633, 10647, 11359. Mt. 
Apo, epiphyte on mossy trees at 1,800 m altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM LATI FOLIUM Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) Misc. 56; 

J. J. Sm. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1904) 71; Pfitz. in Engl. 

Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 102, fig. B, C; Ames Orch. 

2 (1908) 104, text cut, 5 (1915) 59. 

Platyclinis latifolia Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. II 16 (1881) 656; Rendle 

in Journ. Bot. 34 (1896) 355; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 74. 
Acoridium latifolium Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220. 
Luzon (Pampanga, Bataan, Tayabas, Camarines), Panay (Antique, 
Capiz), Negros (Occidental Negros), Mindanao (Lanao, Davao). A 
common species, especially in Luzon. Epiphyte in mountain regions at 
300 to 1,000 m altitude: 

DENDROCHILUM LONGILABRE (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 

50. II. B. 7 (1907) 99, fig. 38K; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 119, 

t. 24, fig. IV, 4, 5 (1915) 59. 

Acoridium longilabre Ames in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19 (1906) 152. 

Mindanao (Davao), Copeland 1025, ? Elmer 11419. Mt. Apo, epiphyte 

on mossy trees at 1,530 m altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM LONGISPICATUM Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 105, text cut, 
5 (1915) 59. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Sibuyan, Panay (Capiz), Negros (Oriental 
Negros), Vanoverbergh 899, 1533, 1729, 3871, 3940, 4043, R. S. Williams 
1942, Merrill 4336, Elmer 9909, 12436, B. S. 35586, 35605 Martelino & 
Edano, 4462 Mearns. Epiphyte, in mountain regions up to 1,700 m 
altitude in Bontoc. 

DENDROCHILUM MAGNUM Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 240; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 231; J. J. Sm. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 
(1904) 74; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 317; Pfitz. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 100, fig. 33 H, J; 
Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 106, text cut, 5 (1915) 60. 
Acoridium magnum Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220. 



Vol. l ORCHIDACEAE 295 

Luzon (Rizal), Mindoro, Panay (Antique), timing s. n., Merrill 5611, 
5730, Ramos s. n., B. S. 32383 McGregor. Mt. Halcon, in mossy forest at 
2,000 m altitude, and Mt. Iriga at 1,630 m altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM M ALINDANGENSE Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 114, text 
cut, 5 (1915) 60. 
Mindanao (Dapitan), F. B. 4.597 Mearns & Hutchinson. Mt. Malindang 
at 1,230 m altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM MEARNSII Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 116, text cut, 5 (1915) 
60. 
Camiguin de Misamis, Mindanao (Misamis, Bukidnon) , B. S- 144-26 Ramos, 
38523 Ramos & Edano, F. B. 4605 Mearns & Hutchinson. Up to 3,060 m 
altitude on Mt. Malindang-. 

DENDROCHILUM NIVEUM Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 284. 

Luzon (Kalinga), Boettcher s. n. Balbalan at 1,000 m altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM PALAWANENSE Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 103, text cut, 
5 (1915) 61, in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1559. 

Palawan, B. S. 553, 557 Foxworthy, Elmer 13195. In mossy scrub at 
1,250 m altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM PANGASI N AN ENSE Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 29. 
Luzon (Pangasinan), B. S. 8286 Ramos. 

DENDROCHILUM PRODIGIOSUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 98. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38521 Ramos & Edano. Mt. Lipa, in mossy 
forest at 2,160 m altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM PROPINQUUM Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 285. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0279, 0329, 0376, 0398, 0449, 04-97, 0548, 0582, 0682, 0805, 
0809, 0857, 0868, 0911, 0920. Jaro, epiphyte in forest at 500 to 700 m 
altitude. 

DENDROCHILUM RAMOSII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
410, Orch. 5 (1915) 62. 

Luzon (Laguna), B. S. 15003 Ramos, Reillo 4- San Antonio. 

DENDROCHILUM UNCATUM Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 222, in Walp. 
Ann. 6 (1864) 927, in Gard. Chron. II 16 (1881) 780; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 231; J. J. Sm. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 
(1904) 72; Pfitz. in Engl. Pfianzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 103, 
fig. 35 G, H; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 108, text cut, 5 (1915) 65 
Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 340. 

Dendrochilum uncatum Reichb. f. var. lancifolium Reichb. f. in Gard 
Chron. II 16 (1881) 780; Pfitz. in Engl. Pfianzenreich IV. 50 
II. B. 7 (1907) 104. 

Platyclinis uncata Rolfe ex Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148 
Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 267. 

Acoridium uncatum Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220. 

Luzon (Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna), 
Panay (Antique). A fairly common species in the mountains of Luzon, 
especially of Benguet Subprovince, at 1,000 to 2,300 m altitude. 



296 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

DENDROCHILUM WEBER I Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
410, Orch. 5 (1915) 65. 
Mindanao (Agusan), Basilan, Weber 59, B. S. 1621*0 Reillo. Type from 
Cabadbaran River at 80 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

DENDROCHILUM affine Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 95, 5 (1915) 55 = Acoridium 

affine Ames. 
DENDROCHILUM Anfractoides Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 13, t. 28, 5 (1915) 55, 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 665; Merr. & Merritt in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 340 = Acoridium anfractoides 

Ames. 

Dendrochilum anfractum (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (1907) 118, fig. 38P; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 91, t. 21, 
fig. 1.1,5 (1915) 55 = Acoridium anfractum Ames. 

Dendrochilum auriculare Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
595, Orch. 5 (1915) 55 == Acoridium auriculare Ames. 

Dendrochilum auritum Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrochilum binuangense Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 281 = Acoridium 
binuangense Ames. 

Dendrochilum bistortum (Wendl. & Kranzl.) J. J. Sm. in Rec. Trav. Bot. 
Neerl. 1 (1904) 64; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 
(1907) 96, fig. 3U A-D ; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 54. 
Platyclinis bistorta Wendl. & Kranzl. Xen. Orch. 3 (1900) 169, 
t. 299, fig. I. 1-5. 
"Indischer Archipel. Insel Maschate (?) leg. W. Micholitz, imp. F. 
Sander." — Wendland and Kranzlin. Merrill writes: "I do not know of 
any Malayan island by this name and suspect that Masbate of the Phil- 
ippine Archipelago was intended; Micholitz has carried on extensive 
explorations in the Philippines." It has not been possible to refer this 
to any species of Philippine origin. 

Dendrochilum cinnabarinum Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 
(1907) 104, fig. 35F; Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 10, 5 (1915) 56, 6 
(1920) 282, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 597; Merr. & Merritt 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 340 =: Acoridium cinnabarinum 
(Pfitz.) Ames. 

Dendrochilum confusum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 41, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 56 = Acoridium confusum Ames. 

Dendrochilum cucumerinum Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 22 (1884) 

56, 649; J. J. Sm. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1904) 71; Pfitz. 

in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 103, fig. 35D, E; 

Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 54, 57. 
Platyclinis cucumerina Rolfe in Kew Hand-list Orch. (1896) 189, 

nomen. 
Acoridium cucumerinum Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 12 (1904) 220. 

This was described from cultivated specimens of unknown origin and has 
been ascribed to the Philippines; it may prove to be a native of some 
other region. 



Vol. l ORCHIDACEAE 297 

Dendrochilum curranii Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 15, t. 29, 5 (1915) 57 = 
• Acoridium curranii Ames. 

Dendrochilum elmeri Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1558, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 57 = Acoridium elmeri Ames. 

Dendrochilum exile Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 317, nomen, 
Orch. 2 (1908) 84, text cut, 5 (1915) 57 = Acoridium exile Ames. 

Dendrochilum foxworthyi Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 8, t. 26, 5 (1915) 57 
= Acoridium foxworthyi Ames. 

Dendrochilum glumaceum Andre in 111. Hort. 25 (1878) t. 323, non Lindl. 
= Dendrochilum filiforme Lindl. 

Dendrochilum graminifolium (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 
50. II. B. 7 (1907) 114, fig. 38 Q, R; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 83, 
t. 22, fig. II, 2, 5 (1915) 57 = Acoridium graminifolium Ames. 

Dendrochilum grandiflorum Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 8 (1910) 563; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 54, 58, non Pfitz. 

The geographic origin of this species is not certainly known; Schlechter 
stated "Philippinen?," but a drawing received from him is marked "India." 

This species is very close to Dendrochilum latifolium Lindl. 

Dendrochilum hastatum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
•317, nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 99, text cut, 5 (1915) 58 = Acoridium 
hastatum Ames. 

Dendrochilum hutchinsonianum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 317, nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 96, text cut, 5 (1915) 58, 7 (1922) 
81, in syn. (as D. hutchinsonii) = Acoridium hutchinsonianum 
Ames. 

Dendrochilum hymenanthum Reichb. f. apud Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. 
(1885) 149; Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 268, sphalm = 
Dendrobium hymenanthum Reichb. f. 

Dendrochilum irigense Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 58 = Acoridium irigense 
Ames. 

Dendrochilum junceum Reichb. f. Otia Bot. Hamb. 1 (1878) 54, Xen. 
Orch. 3 (1881) 30; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231; J. J. Sm. in Rec. 
Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1904) 78 = Acoridium tenellum Nees & Meyen. 

Dendrochilum loheri Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 12, t. 27, I, A, 5 (1915) 
59, 6 (1920) 283; Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) 
Bot. 340 = Acoridium loheri Ames. 

Dendrochilum longibulbum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
26, Orch. 5 (1915) 59 = Acoridium longibulbum Ames. 

Dendrochilum longifolium Reichb. f. apud Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 108, fig. 36 B (as to Jagor 680). 

Jagor 680 is a specimen from Luzon, probably incorrectly identified by 
Pfitzer who had not seen the type of the species, which is a native of the 
Malay Peninsula. 

Dendrochilum lucbanense Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1559. 
Orch. 5 (1915) 60 = Acoridium lucbanense Ames. 



298 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Dendrochilum luzonense Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 121, text cut, 5 (1915) 
60 = Acoridium luzonense Ames. 

Dendrochilum macgregorii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 42, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 60 = Acoridium macgregorii Ames. 

Dendrochilum maleolens Kranzl. in Orchis 2 (1908) 63; Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 54, 60 = Acoridium maleolens Ames. 

Dendrochilum merrillii (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (1907) 119, fig. 38 A, B; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 102, 
t. 23, fig. I, 1, 5 (1915) 60 = Acoridium merrillii Ames. 

Dendrochilum microchilum (Schltr.) Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 87, in textu, 

5 (1915) 60, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 26 = Acoridium 
microchilum (Schltr.) Ames. 

Dendrochilum mindorense Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 317, 
nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 91, text cut, 5 (1915) 60 = Acoridium 
mindorense Ames. 

Dendrochilum ocellatum (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (1907) 117, fig. 38 C; Ames Orch. 2 (1908 ) 12, 101, t. 23, 
fig. II, 2, 5 (1915) 61, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 596 = 
Acoridium ocellatum Ames. 

Dendrochilum oliganthum (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (1907) 117, fig. 38 E; Ames Orch. 2 (1909) 12, 98, t. 23, 
fig. IV, 4, 5 (1915) 61 = Acoridium oliganthum Ames. 

Dendrochilum parvulum (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 7 (1907) 116, fig. 38 N; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 87, t. 21, 
fig. II, 2, 5 (1915) 61 = Acoridium parvulum Ames. 

Dendrochilum philippinense (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (1907) 118, fig. 38 F; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 97, t. 23, 
fig. V, 5, 5 (1915) 61, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 595 = 
Acoridium philippinense Ames. 

Dendrochilum pulogense Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 594; Merr. 

6 Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 340; Ames Orch. 

5 (1915) 61 = Acoridium pulogense Ames. 

Dendrochilum pumilum Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 222, in Walp. Ann. 

6 (1864) 927; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 81, 149, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 268; J. J. Sm. 
in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1904) 58; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 

(1907) Bot. 317, 4 (1909) Bot. 596; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 162; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 93, text cut, 3 

(1908) 6, 5 (1915) 61 = Acoridium pumilum (Reichb. f.) Rolfe. 

Dendrochilum purpureum Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 286 == Acoridium purpu- 
reum Ames. 

Dendrochilum quadrilobum Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 61 = Acoridium quadri- 
lobum Ames. 



Vo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 299 

Dendrochilum recurvum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (July, 1907) Bot. 
318; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (November, 
(1907) 117, fig. 38 T; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 90, t. 22, fig. IV, U, 
5 (1915) 62 = Acoridium recurvum Ames. 

Dendrochilum reniforme Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 63 = Acoridium reniforme 
Ames. 

Dendrochilum rhombophorum (Reichb. f.) Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 7, 5 
(1915) 64 = Acoridium rhombophorum (Reichb. f.) Ames. 

Dendrochilum saccolabium Kranzl. in Ann. k. k. Hofmus. Wien 30 (1916) 
56 = Acoridium saccolabium (Kranzl.) Ames. 

Dendrochilum simulacrum Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 92, text cut, 5 (1915) 64 
= Acoridium simulacrum Ames. 

Dendrochilum sphacelatum (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (1907) 112, fig. 37 A, B, D, F. H. K; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 
82, 5 (1915) 64, 6 (1920) 287 = Acoridium sphacelatum Ames. 

Dendrochilum strictiforme (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (1907) 116, fig. 38 L; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 89, t. 21, 
fig. Ill, 3, 5 (1915) 64, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 597 = 
Acoridium strictiforme Ames. 

Dendrochilum tenellum (Nees & Meyen) Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
2 (July, 1907) Bot. 318; Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (November, 1907) 112, fig. 37 C, E, G, J, L; Ames Orch. 
2 (1908) 81, 5 (1915) 64 = Acoridium tenellum Nees & Meyen. 

Dendrochilum tenue (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 7 (1907) 116, fig. 38 M; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 86, t. 21, 
fig. V, 5, 5 (1915) 64 = Acoridium tenue Ames. 

Dendrochilum tenuifolium (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (1907) 114, fig. 38 O; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 85, t, 21, 
fig. IV, 4, 5 (1915) 64; Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 
(1910) Bot. 340 = Acoridium tenuifolium Ames. 

Dendrochilum turpe (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 
7 (1907) 118, fig. 38 D; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 98, t, 23, fig. Ill, 
3, 5 (1915) 64 = Acoridium turpe Ames. 

Dendrochilum vanoverberghii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
27, Orch. 5 (1915) 65 = Acoridium vanoverberghii Ames. 

Dendrochilum venustulum (Ames) Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 7 (1907) 116, fig. 38 U; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 88, t. 22, 
fig. Ill, 3, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 595; Merr. & 
Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 341 = Acoridium 
microchilum (Schltr.) Ames. 

Dendrochilum wenzelii Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 65 = Acoridium wenzelii 
Ames. 



300 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Dendrochilum whitfordii (Rolfe) Pfitz. & Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 162; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 100, text cut, 
5 (1915) 66 == Acoridium rhomb ophorum (Reichb. f.) Ames. 

Dendrochilum williamsii Pfitz. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 
(1907) 114, fig. 38 S; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 12, 82, t. 22, fig. I, 1, 

5 (1915) 66 = Acoridium williamsii Ames. 

Dendrochilum woodianum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 318, 
nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 80, text cut, 5 (1915) 66 = Pseudacoridium 
. woodianum Ames. 

43. PHOLIDOTA Lindley 

PHOLIDOTA CARNEA (Blume) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 37; Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 669; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) 
(1905) 158, Fig.-Atlas (1909) fig. 118; Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 66, 
in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. 
(1921) 149, Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 20. 
Crinonia carnea Blume Bijdr. (1825) 339. 
^Coelogyne carnea Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 237. 
Crinonia elmeri Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 67, nomen. 
Mindanao, Elmer 1383U. 

PHOLIDOTA I M BR I C ATA Lindl. in Hook. Exot. Fl. 2 (January, 1825) 
t, 138, in Bot. Reg. 14 (1829) t. 1213, 21 (1835) t. 1777, Gen. & 
Sp. Orch. (1830) 36; Lodd. Bot. Cab. 20 (1833) t. 193U; Wight 
Icon. 3 2 (1849) 9, t. 907; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. (1861) 262; 
Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. (1864) 300; Benth. Fl. Austral. 6 (1873) 290; 
Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 
149, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 269; Fitzger. Austral. Orch. 2 4 
(1893) t.; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 845;, Grant Orch. 
Burma (1895) 161; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 287, 
32 (1896) 328; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 
8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 144, t. 201; Trim. Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 
4 (1898) 162; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 151, 
Fig.-Atlas (1909) fig. 112; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 72, 2 (1908) 
75, 5 (1915) 66; Duthie in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 9 (Orch. 
North-west. Himal.) (1906) 115; Pfitz. & Kranzl. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich IV. 50. il. B. 7 (1907) 154; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 
1 (1907) 135; J. J. Sm. in Nova Guinea 8 (1909) Bot. 21, 8 3 
(1912) Bot. 527, 12 (1913) Bot. 11; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
45, Beibl. 104 (1911) 11, in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 4 (Orch. 
Sino-Jap. Prodr.) (1919) 188; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. 
Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 149. 

Cymbidium imbricatum Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 63, nomen, Fl. Ind. 
ed. 2, 3 (1832) 460. 

Ptilocnerna bracteatum D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (February, 1825) 33. 

Omithidium imbricatum Wall, ex Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 14 (1829) sub 
t. 1213, in syn. 

Pholidota pallida Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 21 (1835) sub t, 1777; Pfitz. 

6 Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 153. 



Vo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 301 

Pholidota conchoidea Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 26 (1840) Misc. 84; Pfitz. 

& Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 154, 

fig. 50 K. 
Pholidota loricata Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 43; Pfitz. & Kranzl. 

in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 153. 
Coelogyne conchoidea Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 237; Naves 

Novis. App. (1882) 237. 
Coelogyne imbricata Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 238. 
Coelogyne pallida Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 238. 
Coelogyne triotos Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 238, in Hamb. 

Gartenz. 18 (1862) 34; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237. 
Pholidota triotos Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 238, in syn.; Pfitz. 

in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 154. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal), Polillo, Panay 
(Capiz), Samar, Leyte, Palawan, Mindanao (Zamboanga, Lanao, Davao), 
Basilan. A common and widely distributed species in the Philippines at 
15 to 1,600 m altitude. In India, Burma, Assam, Siam, Malay Peninsula, 
China, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, Borneo, and New Guinea. 

PHOLIDOTA VENTRICOSA (Blume) Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 43; 

Rolfe in Gard. Chron. Ill 5 (1889) 585; J. J. Sm. PI. Buitenz. 6 

(Orch. Jav.) (1905) 154, Fig.- Atlas (1909) fig. 1U; Pfitz. in 

Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 148, fig. 51; Ames Orch. 

2 (1908) 75, 5 (1915) 66, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 665; 

J. J. Sm. in Bull. Dept. Agr. Ind. Neerl. 43 (1910) 13; Ames in 

Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 

150. 
Chelonanthera ventricosa Blume Bijdr. (1825) 383, fig. 51; Lindl. 

Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1833) 178; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 673. 
Coelogyne ventricosa Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 237. 
Pholidota sesquitorta Kranzl. Xen. Orch. 3 (1893) 114, t. 266, fig. I. 

1-7; Pfitz. & Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 

(1907) 146, fig. 50 F. 

Luzon (Lepanto), Mindanao (Zamboanga), F. B. 5715 Klemme, Copeland 
1621. At about 300 m altitude in Mindanao. In Sumatra, Java, and 
introduced into Borneo. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Pholidota conchoidea Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 26 (1840) Misc. 84; Pfitz. 
& Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 154, fig. 
50 K == Plwlidota imbricata Lindl. 

Pholidota elmeri Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1557 = 
Thecostele alata (Roxb.) Par. & Reichb. f. 

Pholidota globosa Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237. 

Pholidota membranacea Teijsm. & Binn. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
237. 

Pholidota rhombophora Reichb. f. in Linnaea 41 (1877) 116, in textu; 
Pfitz. & Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 153 
= Acoridium rhomb ophorum (Reichb. f.) Ames. 



302 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Pholidota triotos Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 238, in syn.; Pfitz. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 7 (1907) 154 = Pholidota 
imbricata Lindl. 

44. MALAXIS Solander ex Swartz 

MALAXIS ACUMINATA D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 29. 

Microstylis wallichii Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1828) No. 1938, nomen. 
Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 20; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 24 (1888) 
338. 
Var. BILOBA (Lindl.) Ames comb. nov. 

Microstylis biloba Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1828) No. 1940, nomen, 
Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 20; Par. & Reichb. f. in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. 30 (1874) 139. 
Dienia carinata Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 223. 

Microstylis carinata Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 207; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 230; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, 
Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 266; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 24 
(1888) 338. 
Microstylis wallichii Lindl. var. biloba Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1888) 
686; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 18; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. 
Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 16, t. 19; Duthie 
in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 9 (Orch. North-west. Himal.) (1906) 
88. 
Malaxis biloba Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 122, 5 (1915) 69. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Batangas, Laguna), Cuming 
2HU, Loher s. n., B. S. 1468, 3244 Ahern's collector, 1472, 4562, 13555, 
21337, 22384a Ramos, 29515 Ramos & Edano, Merrill 4175, Leiberg 6081, 
Native collector s. n., Vanoverbergh 1349, F. B. 24298, 24298bis Bawan & 
Borromeo. Terrestrial in forest. In India and Burma. The species 
proper does not occur in the Philippines. 

MALAXIS ALAGENSIS Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 122, text cut, 5 (1915) 68. 
Microstylis alagensis Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 318. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Mindoro, B. S. 25392, 25432, 25543 Yates, Merrill 
5801, 5807, Ramos s. n. Terrestrial in humid forest at 130 to 400 m 
altitude. 

MALAXIS ARIETINA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 411, Orch. 
5 (1915) 68. 
Mindanao (Camiguin Island, Agusan), B. S. 14418, 14443 Ramos, 
Weber 44, 69. Terrestrial up to 315 m altitude in Agusan. 

MALAXIS ATROSANGUINEA Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 30, fig. 7. 
Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 13815. 

MALAXIS BALABACENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 42, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 68. 
Luzon (Cavite, Laguna, Sorsogon), Leyte, Palawan, Balabac, Mindanao 
(Camiguin Island, Lanao, Bukidnon, Agusan, Surigao), Sibutu. A fairly 
common and rather widely distributed species. Terrestrial, in the forest at 
relatively low altitude, up to 130 m in Agusan and at 800 m in Cavite. 



Vo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 303 

MALAXIS BANCANOIDES Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 129, text cut, 5 (1915) 68. 

Sibuyan, McGregor 11+. Mountains back of San Fernando, terrestrial at 
about 660 m altitude. 

MALAXIS BATAANENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 43, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 69. 
Malaxis flavescens Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 127, 5 (1915) 70 (excl. syn.). 

Luzon (Bataan), B. S. 1671+ Foxworthy, 6211 Robinson, Merrill 3885. 
Lamao Forest Reserve, Mt. Mariveles, at 800 to 1,000 m altitude. 

MALAXIS BENGUETENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 
43, Orch. 5 (1915) 69. 

Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 8362 McGregor, Boettcher s. n. Pauai at 2,100 
m altitude. 

MALAXIS BINABAYENSIS Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 124, text cut, 5 (1915) 
69. 

Microstylis binabayensis Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 318. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5801+. Binabay River, terrestrial in forest at 330 m 
altitude. 

MALAXIS BRACTEOSA Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 111. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Mindanao (Bukidnon, Dapitan), B. S. 38658, 38673 
Ramos & Edano, F. B. 1+575 Mearns & Hutchinson, Elmer 15698. Mahi- 
lucot River, terrestrial along streams, in forest at 100 to 1,400 m altitude. 

MALAXIS BULUSANENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 33. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Elmer 11+830. 

MALAXIS COPELANDII Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 124, text cut, 5 (1915) 69. 
Mindanao (Zamboanga), Copeland s. n. 

MALAXIS CUNEIPETALA Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 288. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0721+. Jaro, terrestrial in forest at 800 m altitude. 

MALAXIS CURRANII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 44, Orch. 
5 (1915) 69. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Vanoverbergh 3919, F. B. 5105 Curran, B. S. 
12721 Fenix. Terrestrial, up to 1,300 m altitude in Bontoc. 

MALAXIS DAVAENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 69. 

Mindanao (Davao), Weber 21+3. Terrestrial in shade of forest at 
1,075 m altitude. 

MALAXIS DENTATA Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 125, text cut, 5 (1915) 70. 

Microstylis dentata Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (July, 1907) Bot. 

319. 
Microstylis philippiiiensis Kranzl. in Orchis 2 (November, 1907) 16. 
Malaxis philippinensis Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 71. 

Luzon (Rizal, Sorsogon, Camarines), Polillo, Mindoro, Leyte, Mindanao 
(Agusan), Jolo. A fairly common species, terrestrial or in trees at 60 
to 1,000 m altitude. 



304 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

MALAXIS ELMERI Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 126, text cut, 5 (1915) 70. 
Luzon (Benguet), Elmer 6621, R. S. Williams 1110. 

MALAXIS EPIPHYTICA Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 34. 
Mindanao (Cotabato), Weber 223. At 900 m altitude. 

MALAXIS HUTCHINSONIANA Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 128, text cut, 5 
(.1915) 70. 
Microstylis hutchinsoniama Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 319. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5809. Mt. Halcon, terrestrial in forest at 760 m 
altitude. 

MALAXIS LATI FOLIA Sm. in Rees Cycl. 22 (1819) No. 3; Ames in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 44, Orch. 5 (1915) 70, in Merr. in Journ. 

Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 151. 
Malaxis plicata Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 63, nomen; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 

ed. 2, 3 (1832) 456. 
Dienia congesta Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 10 (1824) sub t. 825, in "Wall. Cat. 

(1828) No. 1936, Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 22; Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 

3 (1855) 250; Benth. Fl. Hongk. (1861) 352. 
Gastroglottis montana Blume Bijdr. (1825) 387. 
Dienia fusca Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 22. 
Microstylis congesta Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 206; Hance 

Suppl. Fl. Hongk. (1872) 39; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230; 

Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 24 (1888) 334, 32 (1896) 223; Hook. f. 

Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 689; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 16 (excl. 

syn. in part) ; King & Pantl. in lAnn. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 

(Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 19, t. 23; Trim. Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4 

(1898) 141; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 14. 
Microstylis trilobulata Kurz Rept. Veg. Andam. Isles App. B (1870) 

xix, nomen; N. E. Br. in Gard. Chron. II 18 (1882) 393. 
Microstylis bernaysii F. v. Muell. Fragm. 11 (1878) 21. 
Liparis bernaysii F. v. Muell. Fragm. 11 (1878) 21, in syn.; Bernays 

Fl. Queensl. (?) 507; F. M. Bail. Syn. Queensl. Fl. (1883) 508. 
Microstylis congesta Reichb. f. var. fusca Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 

24 (1888) 335. 
Microstylis latifolia J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 

248, Fig.- Atlas (1910) fig. 185; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 

1 (Orch. Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1911) 124; J. J. Sm. in Nova Guinea 

12 (1913) 15. 
Microstylis latifolia J. J. Sm. var. fusca J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 

(Orch. Jav.) (1905) 249. 
Malaxis latifolia Sm. var. fusca Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 

Bot. 45. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon), Mindanao (Suri- 
gao). A fairly common species, though apparently localized. Terrestrial, 
in forest at 150 to 1,300 m altitude. In India, Ceylon, Burma, Malay 
Peninsula, Siam, China, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, Borneo, New Guinea, and 
Australia. 



VoL 1 ORCHIDACEAE 305 

MALAXIS LILACINA Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 35. 

Panay (Antique), Leyte, McGregor 620.$, Wenzel 0641, 0667. At 600 
to 900 m altitude. 

MALAXIS MACGREGORII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 45, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 71. 
Malaxis longipedunculata Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
411, Orch. 5 (1915) 70. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Polillo, Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), B. S. 
10U0 McGregor, 25539 Yates, Wenzel 033, 052, 0132, 0237, 0238, 0503, 
0847, Weber 294, 296, 313. Terrestrial in forest at 60 to 600 m altitude. 

MALAXIS MERRILL! I Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 128, text cut, 5 (1915) 71. 
Microstylis merrillii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 319. 
Mindoro, Merrill 5820. Mt. Halcon, terrestrial, at base of cliffs at 
1,930 m altitude. 

MALAXIS MINDANAENSIS Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 
1560, Orch. 5 (1915) 71. 
Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11855. Todaya, Mt. Apo, terrestrial in dense 
forest at 4,330 m altitude. 

MALAXIS MINDORENSIS (Rendle) Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 131, 5 (1915) 71. 
Microstylis mindorensis Rendle in Journ. Bot. 34 (1896) 356. 
Mindoro, Mt. Dulangan, Whitehead. Known only from a photograph and 
a sketch of the type. 

MALAXIS NEGROSIANA Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1561, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 71, 6 (1920) 288. 

Negros (Oriental Negros), Leyte, Elmer 9600, Wenzel 0641, 0667. 
Terrestrial or epiphytic in forest at 600 to 1,300 m altitude. 

MALAXIS PROPINQUA Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 289. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 3916. Terrestrial, on hills at 1,200 m 
altitude. 

MALAXIS QUADRIDENTATA Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 130, text cut, 5 
(1915) 72. 
Microstylis quadridentata Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 320. 
Mindoro, Merrill 5818, 5805. Mt. Halcon, terrestrial in forest at 800 
to 1,000 m altitude. 

MALAXIS QUADRILOBA Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 131, text cut, 5 (1915) 72. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Bataan), Panay, (Antique), Vanoverbergh 
786, 1348, 3680, 39 U, R. S. Williams 1108, B. S. 32381 McGregor, Merrill 
3886 in part. 

MALAXIS RAMOSII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 45, Orch. 5 
(1915) 72. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), B. S. 4-567 Ramos, 17040 Robinson, Baker 3573. 
Up to 700 m altitude in Laguna. 

200823 20 



306 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

MALAXIS RIZALENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 46, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 72. 

Luzon (Rizal), B. S. 4-561 Ramos. Bosoboso, in thickets. 

MALAXIS TAYLORI Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 290. 
Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 13495, Taylor s. n. 

MALAXIS UNCATA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 46, Orch. 
5 (1915) 72. 

Luzon (Laguna), F. B. 9552 Curran. Paete-Piapi. 

MALAXIS WENZELII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 412, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 72. 

Panay (Capiz), Leyte, B. S. 31141 Ramos, Wenzel 034, 0130, 0144, 
0211, 0239, 0503a. Terrestrial, in forest at 60 to 500 m altitude. 

MALAXIS WILLIAMSII Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 131, text cut, 5 (1915) 72. 
Luzon (Benguet), R. S. Williams 1109. Baguio. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Malaxis anceps Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 214 = Oberonia anceps 
Lindl. 

Malaxis angustifolia Blume Bijdr. (1825) 393 = Liparis caespitosa 
(Thou.) Lindl. 

Malaxis aporophylla Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 214 = Oberonia 
aporophylla Reichb. f . 

Malaxis biloba Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 122, 5 (1915) 69 = Malaxis acur 
minata D. Don var. biloba Ames. 

Malaxis caespitosa Thou. Orch. Isles Afr. (1822) t. 89 = Liparis caespitosa 
(Thou.) Lindl. 

Malaxis compressa Blume Bijdr. (1825) 390, fig. 54 = Liparis compressa 
(Blume) JLindl. 

Malaxis cylindrica Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 208 = Oberonia 
cylindrica Lindl. < 

Malaxis disticha Thou. Orch. Isles Afr. (1822) t. 88 = Liparis disticfia 
(Thou.) Lindl. 

Malaxis flavescens Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 127, 5 (1915) 70 (excl. syn.) 
= Malaxis bataanensis Ames. 

Malaxis iridifolia Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 208 = Oberonia 
iridifolia (Roxb.) Lindl. 

Malaxis latifolia Blume Bijdr. (1825) 393 = Liparis latifolia (Blume) 
Lindl. 

Malaxis longipedunculata Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
411, Orch. 5 (1915) 70 = Malaxis macgregorii Ames. 

Malaxis miniata Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 215 = Oberonia 
miniata Lindl. 



y° L 1 ORCHIDACEAE 307 

Malaxis minima Blume Bijdr. (1825) 391 = Liparis caespitosa (Thou.) 
Lindl. 

Malaxis monstruosa Blume Bijdr. (1825) 395 = Oberonia monstruosa 
(Blume) Lindl. 

Malaxis pallida Blume Bijdr. (1825) 391 = Liparis pallida (Blume) 
Lindl. 

Malaxis parviflora Blume Bijdr. (1825) 392 = Liparis parviflora (Blume) 
Lindl. 

Malaxis philippinensis Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 71 = Malaxis dentata Ames. 

Malaxis thisbe Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 213 = Oberonia thisbe 
Reiehb. f. 

45. OBERONIA Lindley 

OBERONIA ANCEPS Lindl. Sert. Orch. (1838) sub t. 8, Fol. Orch. Oberonia 
(1859) 6; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1888) 685; Ridl. in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. II 3 (1893) 359; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 28; 
Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 219;, Schltr. in Perk. Frag. 
Fl. Filip. (1904) 43; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 
238, Fig.- Atlas (1910) t. 17 U; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 78, 5 (1915) 
72; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 18; J. J. Sm. in Bull. 
Jard. Bot. Buitenz. II 26 (1918) 18. 

Oberonia imbricata Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 3, t. 1629. 

Oberonia griffithii Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 4. 

Malaxis anceps Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 214. 

Oberonia ancipita Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 266; Ceron Cat. PI. 
Herb. Manila (1892) 166, sphalm. 

Iridorchis anceps Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 669. 

Luzon (Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas), Polillo, Samar, Culion, Mindafoao 
(Agusan), Serrato s. n.; B. S. 16580, 24156 Ramos, Merrill 139, 569, s. n., 
Weber s. n. 

OBERONIA APOROPHYLLA Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 223; Lindl. 
Fol. Orch. Oberonia (1859) 6; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230; 
Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 140, 5 (1915) 72, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 
(1909) Bot. 666. 

Malaxis aporophylla Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 214. 
Oberonia imbricata Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. 

PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 266, non Lindl. 
Iridorchis aporophylla Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 669. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Mindanao (Lanao), Cuming 2113, Vanover- 
bergh 822, 1474, 3827, B. S. 8319, 8508 McGregor, M. S. Clemens 699. 
Mountainous regions at 1,700 to 2,100 m altitude. 

OBERONIA BASILANENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 72. 
Basilan, B. S. 16247 Reillo. 

OBERONIA BENGUETENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ, Sci. . 7 (1912) Bot 
8, Orch. 5 (1915) 73. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 4.855. Suyoc to Pauai, epiphyte in mossy 
forest at 2,200 m altitude. 



308 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

OBERONIA CYLINDRICA Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 26 (1840) Misc. 20, Fol. 

Orch. Oberonia (1859) 1; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230; Ames 

Orch. 1 (1905) 77, 5 (1915) 73; Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 341; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 

47. 
Malaxis cylindrica Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 208. 
Iridorchis cylindrica Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 669. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Union, Benguet), Leyte, Bohol, Palawan. A 
fairly common species in the Philippines. Epiphyte at 6 to 2,650 m 
altitude. 

OBERONIA ELMERI Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1564, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 73. 
Luzon (Benguet), Elmer 84-34, F. B. 5057 Curran. Baguio, epiphyte at 
1,580 m altitude. . 

OBERONIA HISPIDULA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 8, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 73. 
Luzon (Benguet, Rizal, Tayabas), Mindanao (Agusan), F. B. 5124 
Curran, B. S. 19240 Reillo, Elmer 7406, 9261, 14084. Epiphytic, at 800 to 
1,230 m altitude. 

OBERONIA IRIDIFOLIA (Roxb.) Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1828) No. 1948, 
p. p., Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 15 (excl. syn. Malaxis ensiformis 
Sm.), Fol. Orch. Oberonia (1859) 1; Benth. Fl. Austral. 6 (1873) 
274; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1888) 
675; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 31; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. 
Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 8, t. 8; J. J. Sm. 
Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 239, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 
175; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 77, 5 (1915) 73; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. 
Penin. 1 (1907) 16; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 4 (Orch. 
Sino-Jap. Prodr.) (1919) 194; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. 
Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 15-2. 
Cymbidium iridifolium Roxb. Hort. Beng. (1814) 63, nomen, Fl. Ind. 

ed. 2, 3 (1832) 458. 
? Cymbidium flavescens Llanos Fragm. PI. Filip. (1851) 96; F.-Vill. 
& Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 74; Merr. Sp. 
Blancoanae (1918) 113. 
Malaxis iridifolia Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 208. 
Iridorchis iridifolia Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 669. 
Luzon (Bataan, Rizal, Sorsogon), Palawan, Mindanao (Zamboanga, 
Davao), Basilan, F. B. 130 Barnes, 5174 Hutchinson, B. S. 5643, 24100 
Ramos, Weber 269, 607. Epiphytic, up to 400 m in Mindanao. In India, 
Burma, Malay Peninsula, China, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Australia. 

OBERONIA LEYTENSIS Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 291, t. 98. 
Leyte, Wenzel 0945. Epiphyte, in forest at sea level. 

OBERONIA LIPENSIS Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 114. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38535 Ramos. Mt. Lipa, epiphytic in 
mossy forest at 2,200 m altitude. 



" VoLl ORCHIDACEAE 309 

OBERONIA LUZONENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 74. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Mindanao . (.Surigao), Elmer 17558, B. S. 
20809 Escritor, 34489 Ramos & Pascasio. 

OBERONIA MCGREGORII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 321, 
Orch. 3 (1908) 65, t. 48, 5 (1915) 74. 

Luzon (Laguna), Mindoro, Mindanao (Agusan), Reillo 16, B. S. 15009 
Ramos, Weber 168. Epiphytic apparently at low altitudes. 

OBERONIA MERRILLII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 9, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 74; Merr. PI. Manila (1912) 168. 

Luzon (Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Tayabas), Busuanga, Mindanao (Zam- 
boanga, Davao), \B. S. 5298 McGregor, Merrill 7348, 11219, Ramos s. n., 
Weber s. n., ? F. B. 9022 Whit ford & Hutchinson, 26587 Reyes, Copeland 
1309. Epiphyte at 18 to 400 m altitude. 

OBERONIA MINDORENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 322, 
Orch. 3 (1908) 67, t. 49, 5 (1915) 75. 

Mindoro, Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), Merrill 5613, Wenzel 0420, 0425, 
0559, Weber 316. Epiphyte at 400 to 500 m altitude. 

OBERONIA MINIMA Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 75. 

Leyte, Wenzel 046. Dagami, epiphyte at 60 m altitude. 

OBERONIA MINUTISSIMA Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 115. 

Mindanao (Surigao) Wenzel 01030, 01032. Placer, epiphytic in forest 
at 150 m altitude. 

OBERONIA MONSTRUOSA (Blume) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 17; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 624; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. 
Jav.) (1905) 235, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 171; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 
76. 
Malaxis monstruosu Blume Bijdr. (1825) 395. 

Mindanao (Agusan), Weber 173, 312. Epiphytic at low altitude. In 
Java. 

OBERONIA OBESA Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 76. 
Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 407. 

OBERONIA REILLOI Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 40. 
Luzon (Laguna), Reillo 20. Epiphyte. 

OBERONIA SETIGERA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 10, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 77. 

Luzon (Bataan), Whitford 1122. Mt. Mariveles, epiphyte, at 1,200 m 
altitude. 

OBERONIA SURIGAENSIS Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 292. 

Mindanao (Surigao), Wenzel 01159. Epiphyte, in forest at 150 m 
altitude. 



310 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

OBERONIA THISBE Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 223; Lindl. Fol. Orch. 
Oberonia (1859) 5; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230; Ames Orch. 
2 (1908) 141, 5 (1915) 77. 
Malaxis thisbe Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 213. 
Habenaria thisbe Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 151. 
Iridorchis thisbe Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 669. 
Oberonia rufikubris Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 78, non Lindl. 
Luzon (Kalinga, Benguet, Laguna), Polillo, Mindanao (Surigao), Boett- 
cher s. n., Elmer 5839, Reillo 52, B. S. 15039 Ramos, 9255 Robinson, 
Cuming 2134, Piper 197. Epiphyte at sea level to 2,000 m altitude. 

OBERONIA TOPPING!! Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 413, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 77. 
Luzon (Rizal), Topping s. n. Wawa. 

OBERONIA WENZELII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 77. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0386, 0388, 0U1U, 01f26, 0436. Jaro, epiphyte in forest at 
500 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Oberonia ancipita Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 266; Ceron Cat. PI. 
Herb. Manila (1892) 166, sphalm = Oberonia anceps Lindl. 

Oberonia imbricata Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PI. 
Vase. Filip. (1886) 266, non Lindl. = Oberonia aporophylla 
Reichb. f. 

Oberonia miniata Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) Misc. 6, Fol. Orch. 
Oberonia (1859) 6; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230; Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 75. 
Malaxis miniata Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 215. 

This species was based on material from Singapore. It has been 
credited to the Philippines, but there is little reason for considering it 
Philippine. It has not appeared in our modern collections. 

Oberonia rufilabris Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 78, non Lindl. — Oberonia 
thisbe Reichb. f. 

Oberonia spatulata Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230. 

46. HIPPEOPHYLLUM Schlechter 

HIPPEOPHYLLUM WENZELII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
413, Orch. 5 (1915) 78. 
Leyte, Wenzel 020, 0158. Dagami, epiphyte, at 60 m altitude. 

47. LI PARIS L. C. Richard 

LIPARIS AMESIANA Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 (Orch. Deutsch- 
Neu-Guin.) (1911) 210; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 78. 
Cestichis gracilis Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 136, text cut, non Liparis 
gracilis Hook. f. 
Luzon (Bataan, Rizal), Mindanao (Bukidnon), Copeland 274, Merrill 
s. n., Weber 28, B. S. 1782, 38632 Ramos. Epiphyte in forest at 930 to 
1,460 m altitude. 



Vol. 1 



ORCHID ACEAE 31 1 



LIPARIS BENGUETENSIS (Ames) Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 

(Orch. Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1911) 210; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 78. 

Cestichis benguetensis Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 9, 75, t. 3, fig. I, 1-6, 
2 (1908) 132. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Negros. Fairly common in Luzon in moun- 
tainous regions at 700 to 2,300 m altitude. 

LIPARIS BONTOCENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 38. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 1245, 394.7a. At 1,650 to 1,700 m alti- 
tude. 

LIPARIS CAESPITOSA (Thou.) Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 11 (1825) sub t. 882; 

A. Rich. Monogr. Orch. Isles France et Bourb. (1827) [in Mem. 

Soc. Hist. Nat. Par. 4 (1828) 47] ; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 

32; Bojer Hort. Maur. (1837) 321; S. Moore in Baker Fl. Maur. 

& Seych. (1877) 342; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 290; 

Cordem. Fl. Reun. (1895) 180; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. 

Jav.) (1905) 266, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 204, in Nova Guinea 8 

(1909) 35, 12 3 (1915) 221; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 BeibL 

104 (1911) 17; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 78, in Merr. in Journ. Roy. 

Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 153. 
Malaxis caespitosa Thou. Orch. Isles Afr. (1822) t. 89. 
Malaxis minima Blume Bijdr. (1825) 391. 
Malaxis angustifolia Blume Bijdr. (1825) 393. 
Liparis minima Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 32;, Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1859) 622; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230; Ridl. in Journ. 

Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 297; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 10 (1911) 28. 
Liparis angustifolia Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 31; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 622; Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. (1864) 296. 
Liparis auriculata Reichb. f. in Flora 55 (1872) 277, non Blume. 
Liparis pusilla Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 294; Hook. f. 

in Hook. Icon. PI. 19 (1889) t. 1856 A, Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 

701; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. 

Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 32, t. 41. 
Liparis prainii Hook. f. in Hook. Icon. PL 19 (1889) t. 1857 A, Fl. 

Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 700. 
Liparis duthiei Hook. f. in Hook. Icon. PI. 19 (1889) t. 1857 B, Fl. 

Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 701; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. 

Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 32, t. 42; Duthie in Ann. Roy. 

Bot. Gard. Calc. 9 (Orch. North-west. Himal.) (1906) 93. 
Liparis obscura Hook. f. in Hook. Icon. PI. 19 (1889) t. 1886, Fl. 

Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 701; Trim. Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4 (1898) 147. 
Leptorchis caespitosa Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 671. 
Leptorchis duthiei Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 671. 
Leptorchis minima Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 671. 
Leptorchis obscura Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 671. 
Leptorchis prainii Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 671. 
Leptorchis pusilla Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 671. 
Cestichis caespitosa Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 132, t. 
Luzon (Benguet, Rizal), Leyte, Mindanao (Cotabato, Davao), R. S. 
Williams 428, 1954, Merrill 4684, B. S. 13558 Ramos, 19238 Reillo, Wenzel 
0734, Weber 232, Elmer 11858. Epiphyte in forest at 800 to 1,160 m 



312 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

altitude. In India, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, Borneo, New Guinea, 
Bourbon, Mauritius, Reunion, and Madagascar. 

LIPARIS CLEMENSIAE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 79. 

Cestichis clemensiae Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 666. 

Mindanao (Lanao), M. S. Clemens 129. Camp Keithley. 

LIPARIS COMPRESSA (Blume) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 32; Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 621; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230; Ridl. 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 291, 32 (1896) 230; Hook. f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 706; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) 
(1905) 280, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 215; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 
(1907) 25; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. 104 (1911) 17; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 79. 

Malaxis compressa Blume Bijdr. (1825) 390, fig. 54. 

Leptorchis compressa Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 670. 

Cestichis compressa Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 76, text cut, 2 (1908) 134. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Bataan), Borden 1816, Merrill 4577. Mt. Data and Mt. 
Mariveles, epiphyte in forest at 1,060 to 2,300 m altitude. In Malay Pen- 
insula, Sumatra, Java, and Celebes. 

LIPARIS CONFUSA J, J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 275, 
Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 211; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. 
104 (1911) 17, in Fedde Repert. 10 (1911) 28, in Fedde Repert. 
Beihefte 1 (Orch. Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1911) 205; J. J. Sm. in 
Bull. Jard. Buitenz. II 14 (1914) 32; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 79, 
in Merr. in Joum. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. 
(1921) 153. 
Liparis flaccida Schltr. in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Nachtr. Fl. Deutsch. 

Schutzgeb. (1905) 103, non Reichb. f. 
Cestichis vestita Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 139, p. p., non Liparis vestita 
Reichb. f. 

Luzon (Apayao, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, 
Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Leyte, Samar, Mindanao (Zamboanga, La- 
nao, Agusan, Butuan, Davao), Basilan. Common and widely distributed 
in the Philippines. Epiphyte in forest at 15 to 1,430 m altitude. In 
Sumatra, Java, Celebes, Borneo, and New Guinea. 

LIPARIS CUMINGII Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 292; Hook. f. 
Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 707; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 79. 
Cestichis cumingii Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 13, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
7 (1912) Bot. 7. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon), Leyte, Bohol,* Mindanao 
(Zamboanga), Weber 26, B. S. 17037 Robinson, Elmer 14703, 16296, Wenzel 
0680, 0808,Copelands. n.,Vanoverbergh 710. Epiphyte in forest at 600 to 
1,400 m altitude. 

LIPARIS DUMAGUETENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 80. 

Liparis elmeri Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1561, nee 
Cestichis elmeri Ames, nee Liparis elmeri (Ames) Schltr. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Panay (Antique), Negros (Oriental Negros), Leyte, 
Mindanao (Camiguin Island), Elmer 7566, 7579, 9445, 10236, Wenzel 0298, 
0299, McGregor 5805, B. S. 14444- Ramos, 41401 Herre. Terrestrial in 
forest at 600 to 1,300 m altitude. 



*Bopol, according to Hook. f. in Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890). 



Vo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 313 

LI PARIS ELMERI (Ames) Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 (Orch. 
Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1911) 210; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 80. 
Cestichis elmeri Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 10, 75, t. 3, fig. II, 7-12, 2 
(1908) 135. 

Luzon (Benguet, Laguna, Tayabas), Elmer 6553, R. S. Williams 1928, 
Ramos & Edano 107, F. B. 5065 Curran, B. S. 26528 Ramos & Edano, 
6085 Robinson, 2794-0 Ocampo. Epiphyte, 260 to 2,230 m altitude. 

LIPARIS FORBESII Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 283; ? J. J. 
Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 268, Fig.-Atlas (1910) 
fig. 205; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 80. 
Leptorchis forbesii Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 671. 
Cestichis forbesii Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 135. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Mindanao (Lanao), Vanoverbergh 711, 1387, 
1478, 394-7, R. S. Williams 1941, M. S. Clemens 446. . 

LIPARIS FRAGILIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 80. 

Cestichis fragilis Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 412. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga), Merrill 8184, 8289. Epiphyte at about 900 m 
altitude. 

LIPARIS HALCONENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 80. 

Cestichis halconensis Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
321, Orch. 3 (1908) 63, t. 47. 

Luzon (Ifugao), Mindoro, Panay (Antique), Merrill 5799, McGregor 
6182, B. S. 19882 McGregor. Terrestrial at 400 to 730 m altitude. 

LIPARIS JARENSIS Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 293. 

Leyte, Wenzel, 0628, 0708, 0799, 0813. Jaro, epiphyte in forest at 600 
to 700 m altitude. 

LIPARIS LEYTENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 80. 

Panay (Capiz), Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), Wenzel 0216, 0353, 0721, 
Weber 160, B. S. 35607 Martelino & Edano. Epiphyte in forest at 12 to 
800 m altitude. 

LIPARIS LINEARI FOLIA Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 81. 

Cestichis linearifolia Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1563. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11494, Todaya, Mt. Apo, epiphyte in dense 
forest at 2,000 m altitude. 

LIPARIS LONGIPES Lindl. in Wall. PI. Asiat. Rar. 1 (1830) 31, t. 35, 
Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 30; Wight Icon. PI. 3 2 (1849) 9, t. 906; 
Benth. in Hook. Kew Journ. Bot. 7 (1855) 33; Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 
5 (1857) 57; Benth. Fl. Hongk. (1861) 352; Reichb. f. in Walp. 
Ann. 6 (1861) 218; Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. (1864) 295; Reichb. f. 
in Seem. Fl. Vit. (1868) 302; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 
293 (excl. syn. L. elegans Lindl.), 32 (1896) 229; Hook. f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 703; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 21; King & 
Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 
29, t. 37; Trim. Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4 (1898) 147; Forbes & Hemsl. in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. 36 (1903) 7; Matsum. Ind. PL Jap. 2 (1905) 252; 
Duthie in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 9 (Orch. North-west. Himal.) 



314 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

(1906) 93; Ridl. Mat. PL Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 25; Schltr. in Fedde 

Repert. Beihefte 4 (Orch. Sino-Jap. Prodr.) (1919) 200; Ames 

Orch. 6 (1920) 94, in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits 

Branch, Special No. (1921) 154. 
Liparis pendula Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 24 (1838) Misc. 94; Regel Ind. 

Sem. Hort. Petrop. (1868) 79; Kranzl. in Orchis 2 (1907) 32. 
Liparis spathulata Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 26 (1840) Misc. 81. 
Sturmia longipes Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 250. 
? Liparis boothii Regel Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. (1864) Suppl. 14. 
? Liparis nesophila Reichb. f. Otia Bot. Hamb. 1 (1878) 56, Xen. 

Orch. 3 (1881) 31. 
Liparis longipes Lindl. var. spathulata Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 

(1886) 294; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. 

Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 30, t. 38. 
Liparis triloba Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 295; Ames Orch. 

5 (1915) 84. 

Cestichis pendula Pfitz. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 2, Abt. 

6 (1889) 131, fig. 128 C-E, G. 

Leptorehis longipes Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 670. 

Leptorchis triloba Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 671. 

Stichorchis pendula Pfitz. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 

1 (1897) 103. 

Cestichis longipes Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 75 (excl. Luzon specimen), 

2 (1908) 137. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Laguna), Mindoro, Mindanao (Zamboanga), Cum- 
ing s. n., B. S. 27138 Ramos, 9679 Robinson, Ramos & Edano s. n., R. S. 
Williams 2176, F. B. 9218 Whitford & Hutchinson. Epiphyte at 40 to 
1,650 m altitude. In India, Ceylon, Burma, Malay Peninsula, China, 
Formosa, and Samoa. 

LIPARIS LYON 1 1 Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 81. 

Cestichis lyonii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 47. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Vanoverbergh 3885, Lyon 155, Elmer 84.63. 

LIPARIS MAGNICALLOSA Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 108. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38739 Ramos & Edano. Mt. Candoon, 
epiphyte in forest at 1,600 m altitude. 

LIPARIS MERRILLII (Ames) Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 (Orch. 
Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1911) 210; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 81. 
Cestichis merrillii Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 11, 75, t. 3, fig. Ill, 13-18, 
2 (1908) 138, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 321. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Ifugao, Bataan, Rizal, Tayabas), Mindoro, Leyte, Min- 
danao (Misamis). A fairly common and widespread species, in moun 
tainous regions, epiphyte in mossy forest at 300 to 3,060 m altitude. 

LIPARIS MONOPHYLLA Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 294. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0660, 0673. Jaro, epiphyte in forest at 600 m altitude. 

LIPARIS NEGROSIANA Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1562, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 81. 

Negros (Oriental Negros), Elmer 9606. Dumaguete, terrestrial at 1,300 
m altitude. 



Vol. 1 



ORCHIDACEAE 3l5 



LIPARIS NUTANS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 81. 

Cestichis nutans Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 597. 
Palawan, Mindanao (Lanao, Agusan, Surigao), B. S. 638 Foxworthy, 
M. S. Clemens s. n., Weber 70, Bolster 289. In forest at 60 to 1,050 m 
altitude. 

LIPARIS PALAWAN ENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 39. 
Palawan, Weber 616. Alfonso XIII at sea level. 

LIPARIS PALLIDA (Blume) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 31; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 622; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230; Ridl. 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 296; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 
(Orch. Jav.) (1905) 272, Fig.-Atlas (1910), fig. 209; Ames Orch. 
6 (1920) 295. 
Malaxis pallida Blume Bijdr. (1825) 391. 
Leptorchis pallida Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 671. 
Liparis latifolia Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1562, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 80, non Lindl. 
Leyte, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao), Wenzel 077 5 ^ 0908, 0930, B. S. 
39120 Ramos & Edano, Elmer 10648. Epiphyte in forest at 500 to 2,250 m 
altitude. In Java. 

LIPARIS PARVI FLORA (Blume) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 31; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 622; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (1905) 
276, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 212; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, 
Beibl. 104 (1911) 17; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 81, 6 (1920) 95, in Merr. 
in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 155. 
Malaxis parviflora Blume Bijdr. (1825) 392. 

Liparis flaccida Reichb. f. in Linnaea 41 (1876) 45; Ridl. in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 296, '32 (1896) 228; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 
(1890) 703; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 24. 
Leptorchis flaccida Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 670. 
Leptorchis parviflora Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 671. 
Cestichis vestita Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 139, p. p., non Liparis vestita 
Reichb. f. 
Luzon (Apayao, Bontoc, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Polillo, Leyte, Bu- 
suanga, Mindanao (Cotabato, Davao), Basilan. A fairly common and 
widely distributed species in the Philippines. Epiphyte from about sea 
level to 1,450 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and 
Siam. 

LIPARIS PECTINATA Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 277; Ames 

Orch. 5 (1915) 82. 

Leptorchis pectinata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 671. 

Luzon (Laguna), Biliran, Leyte, Mindanao (Davao), Reillo 55, Cuming 

e. n., B. S. 18934 McGregor, 21450 Escritor, Wenzel 0207, 0223, 0380, 0481, 

0578, Black s. n., Weber 279. Terrestrial in forest at 60 to 500 m altitude. 

L1PARISPHILIPPINENSIS (Ames) Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 
(Orch. Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1911) 210; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 83. 
Cestichis philippinensis Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 7, 75, t. 2, 2 (1908) 
138, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 321. 
Luzon (Abra, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal, La- 
guna), Mindoro, Panay (Antique), Negros (Oriental Negros), Leyte, Min- 



316 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

danao (Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao). A common and widely distributed 
species, mostly in mountain regions at 300 to 2,900 m altitude. 

LIPARIS PRAVA Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 109. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0718, 07^9, 080b, 0834, 0842. Jaro, epiphyte in forest 
at 500 to 800 m altitude. 

LIPARIS PROPINQUA Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 110. 

Liparis gregaria Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 215; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 266, non 
Lindl. 
Cestichis disticha Pfitz. in Engl, in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 
2 Abt. 6 (1888) 131, quoad Philip.; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
2 (1907) Bot. 320. 
Liparis disticha Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 79, non Lindl. 
Luzon (Laguna), Mindoro, Palawan, Bancalan, Mindanao (Davao), 
Cuming 2099, B. S. 6546 Robinson, Merrill 5638, 5643, F. B. 8598 Merritt, 
28185 Elumir, Weber s. n., Oil, Elmer 18305. Epiphyte at sea level to 
600 m altitude. 

LIPARIS RIZALENSIS Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 295. 

Luzon (Rizal, Tayabas), B. S. 24070 Ramos, 26892 Edano, 26533 Ramos 
& Edano. Epiphyte on forest slopes at about 300 m altitude. 

LIPARIS STRICTA J. J. Sm. in Bull. Dept. Agr. Ind. Neerl. 5 (1907) 3; 

Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 95, in Merr. in Journ. Roy, Asiat. Soc. 

Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 155. 
Basilan, Mindanao (Agusan), B. S. 16250 Reillo, Weber 74. Terrestrial 
in shaded forest at 400 m altitude in Mindanao. In Borneo. 

LIPARIS TRICALLOSA Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 11 d(1879) 684; 
Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 275; Hook. f. in Bot. Mag. 
127 (1901) t. 7804; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 83. 

Sulu Archipelago (Buut Island), Jolo, Burbidge s. n., J. Clemens s. n. 
Wooded hillside at 660 m (?) altitude. 

LIPARIS TRICHOGLOTTIS (Ames) Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 
(Orch. Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1911) 203; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 83. 
Cestichis trichoglottis Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 139, text cut, 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Mindanao (Lanao), Basilan, B. S. 16564 
Ramos, 16253 Reillo, Elmer 7612, M. S. Clemens 131. 

LIPARIS WENZELII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 84. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0403. Epiphyte in forest at 500 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Liparis affinis Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230. 

Liparis diphyllos Nim. in Grah. Cat. Bomb. PI. (1839) 252 = Habenaria 
diphylla (Nim.) Dalz. 

Liparis disticha Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 79, non Lindl. = Liparis pro'pinqua 
Ames. 



Vol. i ORCHIDACEAE 317 

Liparis elmeri Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1561, nee 
Cestichis elmeri Ames, nee Liparis elmeri (Ames) Schltr. = 
Liparis dumaguetensis Ames. 

Liparis gregaria Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 215; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 266, non Lindl. = 
Liparis propinqua Ames. 

LiParis habenaria F.-Muell. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230. 

Liparis latifolia Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1562, Orch. 

5 (1915) 80, non Lindl. = Liparis pallida (Blume) Lindl. 

Liparis minima Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 32; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 230 = Liparis caespitosa (Thou.) Lindl. 

Liparis mucronata Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230. 

Liparis reflexa Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 229. 

Liparis rheedii Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230. 

Liparis triloba Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 22 (1886) 295; Ames Orch. 5 
(1915) 84 = Liparis longipes Lindl. 

Liparis viridiflora Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 230. 

48. Dl LOCH I A Lindley 

DILQCHIA ELMERI Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1554, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 85. 
Luzon (Rizal), Leyte, Mindanao (Davao), Reillo s. n., Wenzel 0446, 
0579, Elmer 10664- Epiphyte, up to 500 m altitude in Leyte. 

49. CERATOSTYLIS Blume 

CERATOSTYLIS DATAENSIS Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 151. 

Luzon (Lepanto), Ramos & Edano 76. Mt. Data, epiphyte in mossy 
forest at 2,540 m altitude. 

CERATOSTYLIS ELMERI Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 49. 

Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11358. Epiphyte at 2,580 m altitude. 

CERATOSTYLIS LATIPETALA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
671, Orch. 5 (1915) 86. 
Luzon (Rizal), Mindanao (Zamboanga, Misamis, Bukidnon, Agusan, 
Davao), B. S. 19232 Reillo, 38815, 38953 Ramos & Edano, F. B. 4661 
Mearns & Hutchinson, Elmer 10614, 13801, Merrill 8134, Copeland s. n. 
Mountainous regions up to 1,400 m altitude in Misamis. 

CERATOSTYLIS MINDANAENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 51. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 39015 Ramos & Edano. At 1,600 m alti- 
tude. 

CERATOSTYLIS PHILIPPIN ENSIS Rolfe ex Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 79, 
text cut, 2 (1908) 149, 5 (1915) 86; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

6 (1911) Bot. 50. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Bataan, Camarines), Leyte. A rather 
common species in the mountainous regions of Luzon, at 700 to 2,100 m 
altitude. 



318 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

CERATOSTYLIS RAMOSA Ames & Rolfe in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 323, nomen; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 149, text cut, 5 (1915) 86. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Bataan), Mindoro, Mindanao (Zamboanga), Vanover- 
bergh 785, 1S90, Whitford U57, Leiberg 6039, Merrill 8130, Merritt U18. 

CERATOSTYLIS RETISQUAMA Reichb. f. in Bohpl. 5 (1857) 53; Rolfe 
in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 215; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 
149, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 269; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 86. 
Philippines, Cuming 2152. 

CERATOSTYLIS RUBRA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 670, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 86. 

Luzon (Uocos Norte, Rizal, Bataan, Camarines), Mindanao (Lanao), 
B. S. 30k2, 26220, S3231 Ramos, 3070 Foxworthy, 3%%6, 3072, M. S. Clemens, 
Santos s. n., Lyon J. 

CERATOSTYLIS SENILIS Reichb. f. Otia Bot. Hamb. 1 (1878) 54, Xen. 
Orch. 3 (1881) 30; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 150, 5 (1915) 86. 

Luzon (Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Mindanao (Suri- 
gao), R. S. Williams 506, B. S. 3017, 13761, 19362- Ramos, Elmer 9262, 
U96Jt, Didson s. n., F. B. 7788 Curran & Merritt, Bolster 215, Taylor 28. 
Epiphyte up to 900 m altitude in Tayabas and 1,000 m in Laguna. 

CERATOSTYLIS SUBULATA Blume Bijdr. (1825) 306; Lindl. Gen. & 

Sp. Orch. (1833) 231; Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 53; Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 706; Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 2 (1863) t. 127, 

fig. II, 2, 2 (1865) 93; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245; J. J. Sm. 

Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 299, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 

229; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 323, Orch. 2 

(1908) 151, text cut, 5 (1915) 86, 6 (1920) 138, in Merr. in Journ. 

Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 176. 
Appendicula teres Griff. Notul. 3 (1851) 359, Icon. PL Asiat. 3 

(1851) t. 332. 
Ceratostylis teres Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 2 (1854) 89, in Walp. Ann. 

6 (1862) 470; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 825; King & Pantl. 

in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 247, 

t. 329. 
Ceratostylis cepula Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 53. 
Ceratostylis gracilis Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 2 (1863) t. 127, fig. I, 1, 

2 (1865) 92; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245; Vidal Rev. PL Vase. 

Filip. (1886) 269; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 307, p. p., 

Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 80; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 109, 

non Blume. 
Corymbis gracilis Vidal Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 272; Ceron Cat. 

PL Herb. Manila (1892) 168, non Blume. 
Ceratostylis malaccensis Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 825, in Hook. 

Icon. FL 21 (1892) t. 2098; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 

308. 

Luzon (Ifugao, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal), 
Mindoro, Panay (Capiz), Mindanao (Lanao, Zamboanga, Bukidnon, Da- 
vao). A fairly common species in the Philippines. Epiphyte at 1,600 



v <* 1 ORCHIDACEAE 319 

to 2,160 m altitude. In India, Assam, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, 
and Borneo. 

CERATOSTYLIS WEN2ELII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
421, Orch. 5 (1915) 87. 
Leyte, Basilan, Wenzel 013, 0175, 0661, 0678, 0745, B. S. 16256 Reillo. 
Epiphyte at 60 to 800 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SFECIES 

Ceratostylis GIGAS Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245. 

Ceratostylis gracilis Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 2 (1863) t. 127, fig. I, 1, 
2 (1865) 92; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245;, Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. 
Filip. (1886) 269; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 307, p. p., 
Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 80; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 109, 
non Blume = Ceratostylis subulata Blume. 

Ceratostylis graminea Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245. 

50. AGROSTOPHYLLUM Blume 

AGROSTOPHYLLUM ELMERI Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 48. 

Luzon (Laguna) , x Elmer 1804-7. 

AGROSTOPHYLLUM HASSELTII (Blume) J. J. Sm. in Icon. Bogor. 2 
(1903) 55, in textu, Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Java) (1905) 288, Fig.- 
Atlas (1910) fig. 220; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 87. 
Appendicula hasseltii Blume Bijdr. (1825) 304; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. 

Orch. (1833) 230; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 704. 
Appendicula graminifolia Teijsm. & Binn. in Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 

24 (1862) 322. 
Appendicula elongata Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II 3 (1893) 375; 

Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 389. 
Podochilus hasseltii Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 61; Ridl. 
Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 198. 
Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), Wenzel 0610, 0719, 0742, 0763, 0798, Weber 
307. In the forest at 500 to 800 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula, Su- 
matra, and Java. 

AGROSTOPHYLLUM INOCEPHALUM (Schauer) Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 
148, 5 (1915) 87. 
Diploconchium inocephalum Schauer in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 19, 
Suppl. 1 (1843) 428, t. 12, fig. A. 

Luzon (Benguet, Bataan), Mindanao (Lanao, Agusan), B. S. Williams 
1926, Lyon T., M. S. Clemens s. n., 130, Weber 6, 161, Elmer 13852. On 
rocks or in trees from sea level to 500 m altitude. 

AGROSTOPHYLLUM LEYTENSE Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 298. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0597, 0632, 0654. Jaro, in forest at 600 to 700 m altitude. 

AGROSTOPHYLLUM LONGIVAGINATUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 
(1913) Bot. 420, Orch. 5 (1915) 87. 

Luzon (Apayao, Rizal, Laguna), Mindoro, Leyte, Weber 345, Serrato 
s. n., B. S. 16584 Ramos, 5656 Merrill, 42061 Lopez, Wenzel 0170, 0171, 
0240, 0619, 0646, 0825. In the forest at 30 to 600 m altitude. 



320 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

AGROSTOPHYLLUM MALINDANGENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 
(1911) Bot. 50, Orch. 5 (1915) 88. 
Mindanao (Misamis, Bukidnon, Davao), F. B. 4610, Mearns & Hutchin- 
son, B. S. 38836 Ramos & Edano, Elmer 10868. On mountains. 

AGROSTOPHYLLUM MEARNSII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 

420, Orch. 5 (1915) 88. 

Luzon (Bataan), Mindanao (Misamis, Agusan), with Whitford 457, 
F. B. 4607 Mearns & Hutchinson, Elmer 13700. On mountains at 1,060 
to 1,560 m altitude. 

AGROSTOPHYLLUM MERRILLII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 323, Orch. 5 (1915) 88. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5844- Mt. Halcon, in forest at 1,000 m altitude. 

AGROSTOPHYLLUM MINDANAENSE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 88. 

Agrostophyllum pelorioides Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 

421, non Schltr. 

Mindanao (Cotabato, Davao), Weber 231, Copeland 1119. On mountains 
at about 860 m altitude. 

AGROSTOPHYLLUM PHILIPPINENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 
(1909) Bot. 669, Orch. 5 (1915) 88. 

Babuyan Islands (Camiguin Island), Luzon (Bataan, Rizal, Sorsogon), 

Leyte, Negros. Apparently fairly common, especially in Leyte, and wide- 
spread. On mountains, in the forest at 60 to 700 m altitude. 

AGROSTOPHYLLUM WENZELII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 88. 

Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), Wenzel 028, 0177, 0212, 0752, 0824, Weber 
104, Elmer 13967. At 60 to 800 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Agrostophyllum pelorioides Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
421, non Schltr. = Agrostophyllum mindanaense Ames. 

51. GLOMERA Blume 

GLOMERA MERRILLII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 419, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 89. 
Mindanao (Zamboanga), Merrill 8290. Sax River, epiphyte in damp 
shaded ravine at about 200 m altitude. 

excluded or synonymous species 

Glomera erythrostoma Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245. 

52. PODOCHILUS Blume 

PODOCHILUS BICAUDATUS Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 3 (1906) 19; Ames 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 669, 8 (1913) Bot. 415, Orch. 
5 (1915) 90. 
Palawan, Basilan, Usteri s. n., Merrill 775, B. S. 16255, 16259 A Reillo. 

Up to 560 m altitude on Palawan. 



Vol. l ORCHIDACEAE 321 

PODOCHILUS CUMINGII Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 3 (1906) 19; Ames in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 668, 8 (1913) Bot. 415, Orch. 
5 (1915) 89. 
Podochilus zollingeri Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 23, non 
Reichb. f. 

Catanduanes, Luzon (Rizal), B. S. 30310 Ramos, Reillo s. n. Epiphyte 
in forest at about 100 m altitude. 

PODOCHILUS HYSTRICINUS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 42, fig. 8. 
Leyte, Wenzel 0262, 0878. At 700 to 750 m altitude. 

PODOCHILUS INTRICATUS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
415, 416, Orch. 5 (1915) 90. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), Basilan, Disdon s. n., 
Elmer 13704, Copeland 1164, Weber 2U, B. S. 16263 Reillo s. n., 191>06 
Ramos. Epiphyte at 600 to 1,030 m altitude. 

PODOCHILUS LONGILABRIS Ames in Elm. Lean*. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 
1565, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 415, Orch. 5 (1915) 90. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines), Quisumbing s. n., Whit ford 939, 
Elmer 7585, B. S. 22038 Ramos. Epiphyte at 1,160 to 1,500 m altitude. 

PODOCHILUS PLUM OS US Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
668, 8 (1913) Bot. 415, Orch. 5 (1915) 90. 

Luzon (Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Laguna, Tayabas),, Panay (Capiz), 
Leyte, Mindanao (Zamboanga, Cotabato, Agusan, Surigao) . A fairly com- 
mon species, especially in Luzon. Epiphyte at 80 to 960 m altitude. 

PODOCHILUS RAMOSII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 415, 
417, Orch. 5 (1915) 90. 

Mindanao (Camiguin Island), B. S. 1U441 Ramos. 

PODOCHILUS SCIUROIDES Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 41; Schltr. in 

Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 20; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. 

Jav.) (1905) 511, Fig.-Atlas (1912) fig. 388; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. 

Penin. 1 (1907) 192; Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 140, in Merr. in Journ. 

Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 177. 
Cryptoglottis serpyllif olia Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 42, non 

Blume. 
Podochilus microphylliis Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 81; Grant 

Orch. Burma (1895) 320; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 

301, 32 (1896) 386; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 

Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 177, non Lindl. 
Podochilus curviunguis Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 10 (1911) 34; Ames 

Orch. 5 (1915) 89. 

Luzon (Pampanga, Bataan, Tayabas), Mindanao (Zamboanga, Lariao), 
Basilan, Merrill 4.260, 8311, B. S. 1678 Foxworthy, 16259 Reillo, 28652 
Ramos & Edano, M. S. Clemens s. n. Epiphyte in mossy forest at 450 to 
850 m altitude. In Burma, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, and 
Borneo. 

200823 21 



322 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

PODOCHILUS SERPYLLIFOLIUS (Blume) Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 

3 (1859) 37, in nota (by inference only) ; ex Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 

3 (1859) 688; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 244; Schltr. in Mem. 

Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 20; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) ; 

(1905) 508, Fig.- Atlas (1912) fig. 385; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 90, 

6 (1920) 140, in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, 

Special No. (1921) 177. 
Cryptoglottis serpyllifolia Blume Bijdr. (1825) 297, fig. b2; Lindl. 

Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1833) 230; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1864) 894. 
Hexamerva disticha R. Br. in Benn. PI. Jav. Rar. (1838) 26, fc. 7; 

Schauer in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1 (1843) 431; Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 656. 
Luzon, Meyen s. n. 

PODOCHILUS STRICTUS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot 669, 
8 (1913) Bot. 415, Orch. 5 (1915) 90. 
Podochilus robinsonii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 49, 

8 (1913) Bot. 415. 
Podochilus lucescens Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 90, non Blume. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Ca- 
tanduanes, Panay, Negros, Leyte, Samar, Mindanao (Zamboanga, Lanao, 
Agusan, Surigao, Davao), Basilan. A common, variable, and widely dis- 
tributed species. Epiphyte at 10 to 1,500 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Podochilus anceps Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 33; Ames 
Orch. 2 (1908) 142 = Appendicular anceps Blume. 

Podochilus clemensiae Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 667 = 
Appendicula clemensiae Ames. 

Podochilus cornutus Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 34; Ridl. 
Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 194; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
2 (1907) Bot. 322, Orch. 2 (1908) 143 = Appendicula cornuta 
Blume. 

Podochilus crotalinus Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 667 = 
Appendicula crotalina (Ames) Schltr. 

Podochilus curviunguis Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 10 (1911) 34; Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 89 = Podochilus sciuroides Reichb. f. 

Podochilus elmeri Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1565 = 
Appendicula elmeri Ames. 

Podochilus fenixii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 48 = 
Appendicula fenixii (Ames) Schltr. 

Podochilus pruticosus Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 48 ==' 
Appendicula buxifolia Blume. 

Podochilus longicalcaratus Rolfe in Kew Bull. (1904) 186 = Appen- 
dicula undulata Blume var. longicalcarata (Rolfe) Ames. 

Podochilus lucbanensis Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1566 
= Appendicula lucbanensis Ames. 



VoL 1 ORCHIDACEAE 323 

Podochilus lucescens Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 90, non Blume = Podochilus 
strictus Ames. 

Podochilus luzonensis Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1567 
= Appendicula luzonensis Ames. 

Podochilus malindangensis Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 
49 = Appendicula malindangensis (Ames) Schltr. 

Podochilus micranthus Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 36, 39; 
Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 144 = Appendicula micrantha Lindl. 

Podochilus negrosianus Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1568 = 
Appendicula negrosiana Ames. 

Podochilus pendulus Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 48, quoad 
Philip. ;, Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 322, 8 (1913) Bot. 
415, Orch. 2 (1908) 145 = Appendicula philippinensis (Schltr.) 
J. J. Sm. 

Podochilus perplexus Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1569 = 
Appendicula perplexa Ames. 

Podochilus philippinensis Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 49; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 322 = Appendicula 
philippinensis (Schltr.) J. J. Sm. 

Podochilus reflexus Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 322, non 
Schltr. = Appendicula micrantha Lindl. 

Podochilus ROBINSonii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 49, 
8 (1913) Bot. 415 = Podochilus strictus Ames. 

Podochilus scalpellifoemis Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 244. 
This is probably Podochilus strictus Ames. 

Podochilus tenuis Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 244. 

Podochilus undulatus Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 42 = 
Appendicula undulata Blume. 

Podochilus undulatus Schltr. var. longicalcaratus Schltr. in Mem. 
Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 43; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 146 = Appen- 
dicula undulata Blume var. longicalcarata (Rolfe) Ames. 

Podochilus xytriophorus Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 47; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 322, Orch. 2 (1908) 147 
= Appendicula xytriophora Reichb. f. 

Podochilus zollingeri Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 23, non 
Reichb. f. = Podochilus cumingii Schltr. 

53. APPENDICULA Blume 

APPENDICULA ANCEPS Blume Bijdr. (1825) 299; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. 
Orch. (1833) 228; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 702; J. J. Sm. 
Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 518, Fig.-Atlas (1912) fig. 
393; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 415, Orch. 5 
(1915) 91. 
Metachilum cyathiferum Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1829) No. 2022, nomen; 
Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 74. 



324 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Appendicular lewisii Griff, in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. 4 (1844) 378, 

t. 19, Notul. 3 (1851) 360, Icon. PI. Asiat. 3 (1851) t. 337; 

Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1864) 893; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 

6 (1890) 83; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 389. 
Appendicula cyathifera Reichb. f. MSS ex Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 

(1890) 83. 
Dendrobium vaginatum Wall. MSS ex Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 

(1890) 83. 
Appendicula complanata Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 389. 
Podochilus anceps Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 33; Ames 

Orch. 2 (190*8) 142; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. 104 

(1911) 19. 
Mindanao (Zamboanga), Basilan, Merrill 8122, 8128, Copeland s. n., 
B. S. 16238, 16245 Reillo, 37006, 37361 Ramos & Edano. Terrestrial in 
forest at 560 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, and Sumatra. 

APPENDICULA BUXIFOLIA Blume Bijdr. (1825) 300; Lindl. Gen. & 
Sp. Orch. (1833) 228; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 702; J. J. Sm. Fl. 
Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 532, Fig.-Atlas (1912) fig. 406; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 93. 
Appendicula frutex Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 302. 
Podochilus buxifolius Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 52. 
Podochilus fruticosus Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 48. 
Appendicula fruticosa Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 415. 
Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Mindanao (Misamis, Cotabato), B. S. 16905 
Servinas, Elmer 16138, M. S. Clemens s. n., Weber 216. Apparently in the 
mountain regions at about 600 m altitude. In Java. 

APPENDICULA CLEMENSIAE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 

415, Orch. 5 (1915) 91. 

Podochilus clemensiae Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 667. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Leyte, Samar, Mindanao (Lanao;. 

B. S. 13670, 19514, 24254 Ramos, 24-909 Edano, Disdon s. n., Elmer 15097, 

15609, 16593, Wenzel 023, 096, 0187, 0741, M. S. Clemens s. n., Boettcher 

s. n. Mountain regions usually, but at from 60 to 1,700 m altitude. 

APPENDICULA CORNUTA Blume Bijdr. (1825) 302; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. 

Orch. (1833) 229; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 704; J. J. Sm. Fl. 

Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 522, Fig.-Atlas (1912) fig. 396; 

Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 91. 
Appendicula congenera Blume Bijdr. (1825) 303; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. 

Orch. (1833) 229; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 704. 
Dendrobium 7nanillen.se Schauer in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 1 9, Suppl. 

1 (1843) 430. 
Appendicida manillensis Reichb. f. ex Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 

703; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245. 
Appendicula bifaria Lindl. in Hook. Kew Journ. 7 (1855) 35; Benth. 

Fl. Hongk. (1861) 358; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1864) 893; 

Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 82; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 

(1896) 301, 32 (1896) 387; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. 



Vo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 325 

Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 248, t. 330; Rolfe in Journ. 

Linn. Soc. 36 (1903) 39. 
Appendicula reduplicata Par. & Reichb. f. Otia Bot. Hamb. 1 (1878) 

45. 
Podochilus cornutus Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 34; 

Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 194; Ames in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 322, Orch. 2 (1908) 143; Schltr. in Engl. 

Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. 104 (1912) 19. 
Podochilus brachiatus Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 38. 
Podochilus congener Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 40. 
Appendicula brachiata Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 (Orch. 

Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1912) 337. 

Luzon (Laguna), Mindoro, Negros (Oriental Negros), Leyte, Palawan 
Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), B. S. 16573 Ramos, 641 Foxworthy, 41399 
Herre, Merrill 554-1, 584-3, Wenzel 0106, 0302, 0310, 0311, Weber 1.22, Elmer 
11329. In humid forest at 210 to 2,000 m altitude. In India, Malay Penin- 
sula, Java, Borneo, and China. 

APPENDICULA CROTALINA (Ames) Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 
1 (Orch. Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1912) 336, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
8 (1913) Bot. 416, Orch. 5 (1915) 93. 
Podochilus crotalinus Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 667. 

Mindanao (Misamis, Cotabato, Davao), M. S. Clemens s. n., Weber 230, 
Elmer- 10695. Mountainous regions up to 860 m altitude. 

APPENDICULA CUNEATA Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 44, fig. 9, habit 
and flower. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Leyte, Samar, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Cotabato, Da- 
vao), B. S. 28750, 38644 Ramos & Edano, 24236, 24524 Edano, Wenzel 
0635, 0668, 068.5, €702, Weber 237, Elmer 10696. 

APPENDICULA ELMERI Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 416, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 92. 
Podochilus elmeri Ames in Elm. Leaf!. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1565. 
Mindanao (Agusan, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao), Weber 86, 226, B. S. 
38630, 39048 Ramos & Edano, Elmer 10718. Along streams at 400 to 
1,300 m altitude. 

APPENDICULA FENIXII (Ames) Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 
(Orch. Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1912) 336; Ames in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 415, Orch. 5 (1915) 91. 
Podochilus fenixii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 48. 
Batan Islands (Batan), B. S. 3794 Fenix. Mt. Iraya, near the summit. 

APPENDICULA IRIGENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 5 (1923) 5. 

Luzon (Rizal), B. S. 41 941 C Ramos. Mt. Iriga, epiphyte in dense forest 
at 1,000 m altitude. 

APPENDICULA LEYTENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 47, fig. 9, flower. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0251, 0283, 035-9, 0364, 0417, 0482. Epiphyte in forest 
at 500 m altitude. 



326 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

APPENDICULA LUCBANENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
415, Orch. 5 (1915) 92. 
PodochUus lucbanensis Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 
1566. 
Luzon (Apayao, Abra, Bontoc, Rizal, Tayabas), Panay (Capiz), Min- 
danao (Camiguin Island, Agusan), B. S. 28350 Fenix, 7143, 14427, 41941b, 
s. n,, Ramos, 30778, 37888 Ramos & Edaroo, Elmer 8086, 13688, 13743. 
Apparently restricted to mountain regions. 

APPENDICULA LUZONENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
415, Orch. 5 (1915) 92. 
PodochUus luzonensis Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1567. 
Luzon (Tayabas), Elmer 7930. 

APPENDICULA M ALINDANGENSIS (Ames) Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 
Beihefte 1 (Orch. Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) 337; Ames in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 415, Orch. 5 (1915) 91. 
PodochUus malindangensis Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 
49, in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1567. 

Negros (Oriental Negros), Mindanao (Misamis, Bukidnon), Elmer 
9543, F. B. 4733 M earns & Hutchinson, B. S. 38563 Ramos & Edaivo. 
Mountainous regions up to 1,560 m altitude. 

APPENDICULA M AQUILINGENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 
Bot. 417, Orch. 5 (1915) 92. 
Luzon (Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon), Catanduanes, Panay (Antique, 
Capiz), Leyte, Negros (Oriental Negros), Mindanao (Camiguin Island, 
Bukidnon, Davao), Jolo. A fairly common and widely distributed species 
at 40 to 2,000 m altitude, on rocks or on trees in mossy forest. 

APPENDICULA MERRILLII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 

415, 418. 
Chilopogon merrillii Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 91. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga, Cotabato), Merrill 8135, Weber 219, B. S. 36974 
Ramos & Edano. Epiphyte at 700 to 1,160 m altitude. 

APPENDICULA MICRANTHA Lindl. in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 15 (1845) 

386; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 216; Vidal Phan. Cuming. 

Philip. (1885) 151, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 272; Ames Orch. 

5 (1915) 91. 
PodochUus micranthus Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 36, 

39; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 144. 
PodochUus reflexus Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 322, 

non Schltr. 
Appendicula wenzelii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 419, 

Orch. 5 (1915) 91. 

Luzon (Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Polillo, Mindoro, 
Panay, (Capiz, Antique), Negros, Leyte, Palawan, Mindanao (Bukidnon, 
Agusan, Davao). A common and widely distributed species in the Philip- 
pines. Terrestrial or epiphytic at 15 to 600 m altitude. 



Vo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 327 

APPENDICULA NEGROSIANA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
416, Orch. 5 (1915) 93. 
Podochilus negrosianus Ames in Elm: Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 
1568. 
Negros (Oriental Negros), Elmer 9636. In the Cuernos Mountains. 

APPENDICULA PERPLEXA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
415, Orch. 5 (1915) 92. 
Podochilus perplexus Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1921) 1569. 

Luzon (Tayabas), Elmer 7A.07. Mt. Banahao, in shaded forest at 800 
m altitude. 

APPENDICULA PHILIPPIN ENSIS (Schltr.) J. J. Sm. Orch. Amb. (1905) 

91, in textu; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 415, Orch. 5 

(1915) 92. 
Appendicula pendula Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245; 

Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 92. 
Podochilus pendulus Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 48, 

quoad Philip.; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 322, 8 

(1913) Bot. 415, Orch. 2 (1908) 145. 
Podochilus philippinensis Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 

49; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 322. 

Luzon (Tayabas, Laguna, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Leyte, Palawan, Min- 
danao (£amboanga, Bukidnon). A variable and fairly common species at 
115 to 1,600 m altitude. 

APPENDICULA POLYANTHA Ames Sched. Orch. 5 (1923) 6. 

Luzon (Rizal), B. S. 42058 Lopez, 29733 Ramos & Edano. Mt. Angilog, 
at 2,200 m altitude. 

APPENDICULA TAGALENSIUM Kranzl. in Ann. k. k. Nat. Hofmus. Wien 
30 (1916) 65. 

Philippines, Loher s. n. 

No specimens of this species have been seen. 

APPENDICULA UNDULATA Blume Bijdr. (1825) 301; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. 

Orch. (1833) 229; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 3 (1959) 703; J. J. Sm. 

Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 527, Fig.-Atlas (1912) t. 1*02; 

Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special 

No. (1921) 179. 
Appendicula purpurascens De Vriese 111. Orch. Ind. Neerl. (1854) 

t. 12, fig. 1, non Blume. 
Appendicula peruligera Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 41. 
Podochilus unciferus Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 81, in Hook. 

Icon. PI. 22 (1893) t. 2U5 ; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 

385, Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 194. 
Podochilus undulatus Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 42. 

The species proper is a native of Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, and 
Borneo, represented in the Philippines by the following variety: 



328 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Var. LONGICALCARATA (Rolfe) Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 
Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 179. 
Podochilus longicalcaratus Rolfe in Kew Bull. (1894) 186. 
Podochilus undulatus Schltr. var. longicalcaratus Schltr. in Mem. 
Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 43; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 146. 
• Appendicula tmdulata Blume var. calcarata Ames in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 416, Orch. 5 (1915) 93, sphalm. 

■ Luzon (Rizal), Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan, Lanao, Zamboanga, Cota- 
bato, Surigao, Davao), Cuming s. n., Reillo s. n., B. S. 15389 Ramos, 37022, 
37263 Ramos & Edano, 42084. Edano, Elmer 13622, M. S. Clemens 516, R. 
S. Williams 2331, Copeland 1584, Weber 207, 292, Wenzel 01095. In mossy 
forest, apparently in mountainous regions; also in Borneo (Sarawak). 

APPENDICULA WEBERI Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 418, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 93. 
Mindanao (Agusan, Cotabato), Weber 88, 217, Elmer 13639. On moun- 
tains, in damp shady forest at 430 to 690 m altitude. 

APPENDICULA XYTRiOPHORA Reichb. f. in Seem. Fl. Vit. (1868) 299; 
Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 215; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. 
(1885) 151, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 272; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 6 (1890) 84; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 301, 32 
(1896) 391; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 415, Orch. 
5 (1915) 92, in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, 
Special No. (1921) 179. 
Podochilus xytriophorus Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 47; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 322, Orch. 2 (1908) 147. 

Luzon (Benguet, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Polillo, Mindoro, 
Panay (Capiz), Leyte, Mindanao (Lanao, Cotabato, Davao). A common 
and widely distributed species in the Philippines; in mossy forest at 60 
to 1,330 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula and Borneo. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Appendicula alba Blume apud Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 91. 
This species does not occur in the Philippines. 

Appendicula fruticosa Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 425 = 
Appendicula buxifolia Blume. 

Appendicula kuhlii Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 244. 

Appendicula longifolia Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245. 

Appendicula manillense Reichb. f. ex Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 703; 
Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245 = Appendicula cornuta Blume. 

Appendicula pendula Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 92 = Appendicula philippinensis (Schltr.) J. J. Sm. 

Appendicula replexa Blume ex Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
322, in syn. = Appendicula micrantha Lindl. 

Appendicula rhodiola Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245. 

Appendicula torta Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 244. 

Appendicula wenzelii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 419, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 91 — Appendicula micrantha Lindl. 



VoL 1 ORCHIDACEAE 329 

54. POLYSTACHYA Hooker 

POLYSTACHYA LUTEOLA (Sw.) Hook. Exot. Fl. 2 (1824) t. 103; Spreng. 

Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 742;, Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 73; 

Boj. Hort. Maurit. (1837) 320; Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 24 (1838) Misc. 

78; Mutel Mem. sur. plus. Orch. (in Mem. Strassb. Soc. Hist. 

Nat. 3) (1840) 3, t. 1, fig. 2; Focke in Tijdschr. Nat. Wetensch. 

2 (1849) 203; A. Rich, in Sagra Hist. Isla Cuba 11 (Fl. Cub. 

Faner. 2) (1850) 247 (var. angus tifo lia ); Reichb. f. in Nederl. 

Kruidk. Arch. 4 (1858) 331, in Walp. Ann. 6 (1863) 639; Thw. 

Enum. PL Zeyl. (1864) 308; Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. (1864) 

628, Cat. PL Cub. (1866) 265; Sauv. Fl. Cub. (1873) 230; Reichb. 

f. in Linnaea 41 (1877) 128; Eggers Fl. St. Croix & Virg. Is. 

(U. S. Nat. Mus. Smithson. Inst. Bull. 13) (1879) 113, No. 970; 

Hemsl. in Godm. & Salv. Biol. Centr. Am. 3 (1883) 248; Chapm. 

Fl. So. U. S. ed. 2 (1883) 653, ed. 3 (1897) 482; Reichb. f. in 

Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell. 3 (1885) 276;, Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 

(1885) 215; Cordem. Fl. File Reun. (1895) 190; Cogn. in Mart. 

Fl. Bras. 3 4 (1895) 312; Dur. & Schinz Consp. Fl. Afr. 5 (1895) 

35; Duss Fl. Phan. Antill. Franc, (in Ann. Inst. Col. Marseille 3) 

(1897) 597; Urb. Symb. Antill. 4 (Fl. Portor.) (1903) 170; Ames 

Contr. Knowl. Orch. FL So. Fla. (1904) 16; Cogn. in Bull. Soc. 

Roy. Bot. Belg. 43 (1906) 304; Pulle Enum. Vase. PL Surinam 

(1906) 119; Cogn. in Urb. Symb. Antill. 6 (1909) 381; Ames in 

Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 666;. Boldingh Fl. Dutch. W. 

Ind. 1 (St. Eust., Saba & St. Mart.) (1909) 41. 
Epidendrum minutum Aubl. Hist. PL Guian. Franc. 2 (1775) 824. 
Dendrobium polystachyon Sw. in Kongl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Nya 

Handl. 21 (1800) 247; Willd. Sp. PL 4 (1805) 137; Sw. in Schrad. 

Neues Journ. Bot. 1 (1806) 95, Fl. Ind. Occ. 3 (1806) 1978, 1998; 

Pers. Syn. 2 (1807) 523; Lodd. Bot. Cab. 5 (1820) t. 4-58; Lindl. 

Coll. Bot. (1821) t. 20; Thou. Orch. lies Austr. Afr. (1822) 

Troisieme Tabl. Espec. (as polystachion) , t. 8U (as polystachys) ; 

A. Rich. Monogr. Orch. lies Fr. et Bourb. (1827) 50 [in Mem. Soc. 

Nat. Hist. Par. 4 (1828) 57], t. 8, fig. U (as polystachyum) . 
Cranichis luteola Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 3 (1806) 1433. 
Onychium flavescens Blume Bijdr. (1825) 325. 
Polystachya mauritiana Spreng. Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 742; Rolfe 

in Elliot in Journ. Linn. Soc. 29 (1891) 53; Dur. & Schinz. Consp. 

Fl. Afr. 5 (1895) 35; Palacky Cat. PL Madag. Fasc. 1 (1906) 7; 

Hochreut. Sert. Madag. (in Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve 1 1 & 

12) (1908) 55 (21); Schltr. in Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 33, Abt. 

2 (1915) 414. 
Dendrobium flavescens Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 85, in Bot. 

Reg. 30 (1844) Misc. 57; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 

II. B. 21 (1910) 302. 
Epidendrum parviflorum Pav. ex Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 

73, in syn. 
Polystachya zeylanica Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 24 (1838) Misc. 78; Reichb. 

f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1863) 639; S. Moore in Baker Fl. Maurit. & 

Seych. (1877) 362; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6. (1890) 21; Trim. 

Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4 (1898) 183. 



330 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Polystachya zollingeri Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 39, in Walp. 

Ann. 6 (1863) 640. 
Polystachya extinctoria Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1863) 638. 
Callista flavescens Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 654. 
Dendrorchis extinctoria Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 659. 
• Dendr orchis minuta Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 658. 
Dendrorchis zollingeri Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 659. 
Epidendrum reswpinatum Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2 (1894) 202, 

fide Cogn. in Urb. Symb. Antill. 
Polystachya minuta Frapp, ex Cordem. Fl. 1'Ile Reun. (1895) 190, 
in nota; Britton in Small Fl. SE. U. S. (1903) 328, ed. 2 (1913) 
324; Fawc. & Rendle Fl. Jam. 1 (1910) 48, t. 7, figs. U & 5; Small 
Fl. Miami (1913) 55; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 93; Schltr. in Beihefte 
Bot. Centralbl. 36, Abt. 2 (1918) 479; Britton & Millsp. Bahama 
Fl. (1920) 89; Schltr. in Urb. Symb. Antill. 8 (Fl. Doming.) 
(1920) 122; Britton in Addisonia 7 (1922) 19, t. 234; G. Wilson in 
Orch. Rev. 30 (1922) 324; Musgrove in Orch. Rev. 31 (1923) 
167, in textu, non A. Rich. & Gal. 
Polystachya flavescens J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 
284, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 218; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, 
Beibl. 104 (1911) 24; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 
Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 180. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal, Tayabas), Min- 
danao (Lanao), Vanoverbergh 760, 1332, 3670, Elmer 8527, Fenix s. n., 
Boettcher s. n., B. S. 13550 Ramos, 20781 Escritor, M. S. Clemens s. n. At 
sea level to 1,200 m altitude. In India, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, 
Madagascar, Mauritius, Bourbon, and also in Florida, Central America, 
the West Indies, and northern South America. 

The oldest name for the species is Epidendrum minutum Aubl. and 
although the combinations Polystachya minuta (Aubl.) Frapp, ex Cor- 
dem. and (Aubl.) Britton have been made, it seems inadvisable to use 
either on account of the already existing Polystachya minuta A. Rich. & 
Gal. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 3 (1845) 27. The last named is presumably 
not a Polystachya, but its status is at present (and probably will remain) 
unsettled. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Polystachya minuta Frapp, ex Cordem. Fl. 1'Ile Reun. (1895) 190, in 
nota; Britton in Small FL SE. U. S. (1903) 328; Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 93, non A. Rich. & Gal. = Polystachya luteola (Sw.) 
Hook. 

55. ACANTHOPHIPPIUM Blume 

ACANTHOPHIPPIUM M ANTINIANUM L. Linden & Cogn. in Journ. des 
Orch. 7 (1896) 138; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 50, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 93. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Sorsogon), Vanoverbergh 1203, Elmer 16409. In wet 

places. 



Vo1 - i ORCHIDACEAE 331 

56. PHAJUS Loureiro 

PHAJUS FLAVUS (Blume) Lindl. Gen. fe'-Sp. Orch. (1831) 128; Blume 

Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 179; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 

671; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 192, Fig.-Atlas 

(1909) fig. 144; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 50; 

Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45 Beibl. 104 (1911) 24; Ames Orch. 

5 (1915) 94. 
Limodomm fiavum Blume Bijdr. (1825) 375. 
Bletia woodfordii Hook, in Bot. Mag. 54 (1827) t. 2719. 
Phajus maculatus Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1831) No. 3748, nomen, 

Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1831) 127; Lodd. Bot. Cab. 19 (1832) t. 1803; 

Hook, in Bot. Mag. 68 (1842) t. 3960; Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.- 

Bat. 2 (1856) 180, Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 9 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 9) 

t. 5, E; Reichb, f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1862) 460; Veitch Man. Orch. 

PI. pt. 6 (1890) 12; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 817, 6 

(1890) 192; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. 

Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 107, t. 149. 
Bletia fiava Wall, in Bibl. Anglo-Indica ic. 1147 ex Lindl. Gen. & 

Sp. Orch. (1831) 127, in syn. 
Phajus flexuosus Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 179, Fl. Jav. 

Orch. (1858) 7 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 6) ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 

6,71. 
Phajus crispus Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 180, Fl. Jav. 

Orch. (1858) 8 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 8) t. 4, fig. 2, A, B; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 671. 
Phajus platychilus Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 1 (1856) 201, t. 76, fig. 

Ill, 4-6, in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 42; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 740. 
Phajus indigo ferus Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 1 (1856) 202, t. 76, fig. IV, 

7 & 8 (excl. syn.) ; Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 7 (Orch. Arch. 

Ind. 7) t. 2, fig. 2; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246, non Hassk. 
Phajus bracteosus Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 42; Miq. Fl. Ind. 

Bat. 3 (1859) 740; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 249. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Sorsogon), Panay (Antique), B. S. 5616 
Worcester, 32593 McGregor, Elmer 16530. At 1,200 to 1,500 m altitude in 
Panay. In India, Java, and Sumatra. 

PHAJUS HALCONENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 323, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 94. 
Phaius calanthoides Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 153, text cut. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna, Tayabas), Mindoro, 
Negros. Common in Luzon at fairly high altitudes, up to 2,130 m on Mt. 
Halcon. 

PHAJUS LINEARIFOLIUS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 10, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 94. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 1288, 3654. Terrestrial on hillocks and 
in brooks at 1,180 to 1,650 m altitude. 



332 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

PHAJUS LYON 1 1 Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 94. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Ifugao, Zambales, Laguna, Sorsogon), Leyte, 
Mindanao (Cotabato, Davao), B. S. 5613 Worcester, 22226 Brown, Lyon 
s. n., Elmer 117 98, 16524, Wenzel 0118, Weber 225, Wester s. n. Terres- 
trial in the open or shade at 600 to 850 m altitude. 

PHAJUS MINDORENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 324, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 95. 

Luzon (Laguna) Mindoro, Merrill 5131, 5612, B. S. 17115 Robinson. 
Epiphyte or terrestrial in mossy forest at 1,000 to 1,430 m altitude. 

PHAJUS PHILIPPiNENSIS N. E. Br. in Gard. Chron. Ill 6 (1889) 239; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 422, Orch. 5 (1915) 95. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Nueva Vizcaya), Vanoverbergh 3886, B. S. 11139 Mc- 
Gregor. Up to 1,300 m altitude in Bontoc. 

PHAJUS RAMOSII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 96. 

Calanthe ramosii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 12. 

Luzon (Zambales), B. S. 4987 Ramos. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Phajus amboinensis Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246. 

Phajus bracteosus Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 42; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 249 = Phajus flavus (Blume) Lindl. 

Phaius calanthoides Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 153, text cut — Phajus 
halconensis Ames. 

Phajus callosus Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246. 

Phajus grandifolius Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 529; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 246; Ames in Philip. Jourm Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 671, Orch. 

5 (1915) 94. 

There seems no real foundation for believing that this species occurs 

in the Philippines; the material referred to it is presumably Phajus flavus 

(Blume) Lindl. 

Phajus indigoferus Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 1 (1856) 202, t. 76, fig. IV, 
7 & 8 (excl. syn.) ; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246, non Hassk. = 
Phajus flavus (Blume) Lindl. 

Phajus kuhlii Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246. 

Phajus wallichii Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246. 

57. CALANTHE R. Brown 

CALANTHE ANGUSTI FOLIA (Blume) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1833) 
251, Fol. Orch. Calanthe (1854) 5; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1859) 710; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1864) 914; Hook; f. 
Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 854; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 
330; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 205, Fig.-Atlas 
(1909) fig. 152; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 324; 
Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 121; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 
154, 5 (1915) 96, 7 (1922) 150; J. J. Sm. in Bull. Jard. Bot. 
Buitenz. II 14 (1914) 30. 



Vo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 333 

Ambyglottis angustifolia Blume Bijdr. (1825) 369. 

Calanthe phajoides Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 1 (1856) 207, t. 79, fig. 

II, J, & 5, in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 37; Hook. f. in Hook. Ic. PL 19 (1889) 

t. 1864; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246. 
Alismorchis angustifolia Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 650. 
Alismorchis phajoides Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 650. 

Luzon (Benguet), Mindoro, Ramos & Edano 82, 109, Merrill 5677. Ter- 
restrial in mossy forest, at 2,130 to 2,260 m altitude in Mindoro. In Malay 
Peninsula, Sumatra, and Java. 

CALANTHE CONSPICUA Lindl. Fol. Orch. Calanthe (1854) 4; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 710; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1864) 913; 

Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 

149, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 269; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 96. 

Calanthe lilacina Loher in Gard. Chron. Ill 47 (1910) 66, text cut, 

in Fedde Repert. 11 (1912) 96. 

Luzon (Albay, Sorsogon), Palawan, Cuming 2097, B. S. 64.59 Robinson, 

23561 Ramos, Foxworthy 576. At 290 to 485 m altitude. 

CALANTHE DAVAENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 422, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 97. 
Mindanao (Davao), Copeland s. n. Mt. Apo, terrestrial at 2,000 m 
altitude. 

CALANTHE ELMERI Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 155, text cut, 5 (1915) 97. 

Luzon (Abra, Bontoc, Benguet), B. S. 27003 Ramos, 12936 Fenix, Van- 
overbergh 2195, 2210, Lyon 153, Elmer 5886, 8382, Topping s. n., Weber 
4-06. Terrestrial, sea level to 1,800 m altitude. 

CALANTHE FURCATA Batem. ex Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 24 (1838) Misc. 28; 

Knowles & Westc. Floral Cab. 2 (1838) 46; Lindl. in Paxt. Flow. 

Gard. 3 (1852) 37, Fol. Orch. Calanthe (1854) 25; Moore 111. Orch. 

PL (1857) Calanthe 5; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 711; Walp. 

Ann. 6 (1864) 916; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246; Vidal Phan 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 269; 

Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 81. 
Calanthe veratrifolia R. Br. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246; 

J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 211, quoad syn. C. 

fiircata Batem. et quoad Philip.; J. J. Sm. Orch. Amb. (1905) 23, 

quoad syn. C. furcata Batem. et quoad Philip. 
Alismorchis furcata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 650. 
Calanthe triplicata Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 326, 

Orch. 2 (1908) 159, non Orchis triplicata Willem. 

Luzon (Apayao, Kalinga, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, 
Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Albay, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Panay (Ca- 
piz, Antique), Negros (Oriental Negros), Leyte, Mindanao (Camaguin 
Island, Zamboanga, Dapitan, Lanao, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao), Sibutu. 
A common and very widely distributed species in the Philippines. Terres- 
trial at 60 to 3,100 m altitude. 

It has been deemed advisable to adopt the name C. furcata for the Phil- 
ippine material as there is no question as to its identity. As pointed out 
by J. J. Smith, in Merr. Interp. Rumph. Herb.: Amb. (1917) 170, the 
combination C. triplicata Ames is untenable as Orchis triplicata Willem., 



334 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 192 * 

the name-bringing synonym, is not conspecific. While C. veratrifolia R. 
Br., as to plant figured and described, is very probably conspecific with 
C. furcata Batem., it is open to grave doubt, as pointed out by Smith, 1. c, 
whether Limodorum veratrifolium Willd., is the same as the plant that 
Brown figured and described. Should Limodorum veratrifolium. Willd. be 
Calanthe sylvatica Lindl., as seems probable, the combination Calanthe 
veratrifolia R. Br., (as to name) would apply to that species. In view 
of the uncertain status of Calanthe veratrifolia R. Br. no attempt has been 
made to cite its bibliography, synonymy, or distribution. 

CALANTHE HALCONENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 

324, Orch. 5 (1915) 97. 

Luzon (Laguna), Mindoro, Raymundo s. n., Merrill 5489. Terrestrial, 
in forest at 760 to 1,260 m altitude. 

CALANTHE HENNISII Loher in Gard. Chron. Ill 46 (1909) 34, in 
Fedde Repert. 8 (1910) 384; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 
Bot. 423, Orch. 5 (1915) 97. 

Luzon (Rizal, Tayabas), Loher s. n., Lyon 41, B. S. 13111 Foxworthy & 
Ramos, 41916 Ramos. At 500 to 1,000 m altitude, according to Loher. 

CALANTHE LACERATA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 11, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 97. 

Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet, Tayabas, Camarines), Merrill 4582, 4756, 
Ramos & Edano 74, 114, F. B. 11355 Curran, Whitford 960. Terrestrial or 
epiphytic ?, in forest at 1,000 to 2,500 m altitude. 

CALANTHE LYROGLOSSA Reichb. f. Otia Bot. Hamb. 1 (1878) 53, Xen. 
Orch. 3 (1881) 30; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246; Ames Orch. 
2 (1908) 156, text cut, 5 (1915) 97. 
Alismorchis lyroglossa Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 650. 

Luzon (Apayao, Cagayan, Zambales, Bataan, Laguna), Negros (Orien- 
tal Negros), Palawan, Wilkes, s. n., Weber 343, s. n., B. S. 4782, 1.9558 
Ramos, F. B. 6306 Curran, Elmer 10083, Foxworthy 637. Epiphyte at 50 
to 1,100 m altitude. 

CALANTHE M AQUILINGENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 97. 

Luzon (Laguna), Negros (Oriental Negros), Leyte, B. S. 17246 Brown, 
Elmer 10063, Wenzel 0658. Terrestrial at 600 to 1,000 m altitude. 

CALANTHE MCGREGORII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 

325, Orch. 5 (1915) 98. 

Polillo, Mindoro, Mindanao (Lanao), McGregor 177, B. S. 10452 Mc- 
Gregor, M. S. Clemens s. n. Balete, Rio Baco. 

CALANTHE MINDORENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
325, Orch. 5 (1915) 98. 

Mindoro, Merrill 5525. Terrestrial, ridge forest, Mt. Halcon at 760 m 
altitude. 



VoL x ORCHIDACEAE 335 

CALANTHE PULCHRA (Blume) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1833) 250; 

J. J. Sm. PI. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 202, Fig.-Atlas (1909) 

fig. 150; Ames in Philip. Journ.' Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 326, Orch. 2 
(1908) 158, 5 (1915) 98, 6 (1920) 161, in Merr. in Journ. Roy. 

Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 181. 
Ambyglottis pulchra Blume Bijdr. (1825) 371. 

Styloglossum nervosum Breda Gen. & Sp. Orch. Java (1827) t. 10. 
Calanthe curculigoides Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 7340, nomen, 

Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1833) 251, in Bot. Reg. 33 (1847) t. 8; Reichb. 

f. in Walp. Ann. 1 (1849) 792, 6 (1864) 913; Lindl. Fol. Orch. 

Calanthe (1854) 4; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 710; Hook. f. 

in Bot. Mag. 100 (1874) t. 610U; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 

854; Veitch Man. Orch. PI. pt. 6 (1890) 63; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. 

Soc. 32 (1896) 330, Mat. Fl. Mai. Renin. 1 (1907) 122. 
Alismorchis pulchra Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 650. 
Calanthe curantigiodes Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 650, sphalm, in 

syn. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Mindoro, Negros (Oriental Negros), Leyte, Elmer 
9576, 14-883, Merrill 58U9, 5850, Wenzel 06U8, 0689, mixed with 0701,.. Ter- 
restrial at 130 to 760 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Calanthe australis Ait. ex Loud. Hort. Brit. Suppl. 2 (1839) 615, 
nomen = Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames. 

Calanthe emarginata Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246. 

Calanthe jusnerii Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 247, nomen. 

Calanthe lilacina Loher in Gard. Chron. Ill 47 (1910) 66, text cut, 
in Fedde Repert. 11 (1912) 96 = Calanthe conspicua Lindl. 

Calanthe masuca Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246, nomen. 

Calanthe nivalis Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246, nomen. 

Calanthe phajoides Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 1 (1856) 207, *. 79, fig. II, 
U & 5; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246 = Calanthe angustifolia 
(Blume) Lindl. 

Calanthe ramosii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 12 = 
Phajus ramosii Ames. 

Calanthe speciosa Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246. 

Calanthe triplicata Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 326, 
Orch. 2 (1908) 159, non Orchis triplicata Willem. = Calanthe 
furcata Batem. 

Calanthe veratrifolia R. Br. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246; J. J. 
Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 211, quoad syn. C. 
furcata Batem. et quoad Philip.; J. J. Sm. Orch. Amb. (1905) 23, 
quoad syn. C. furcata Batem. et quoad Philip. = Calanthe furcata 
Batem. 



336 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

58. ASCOTAINIA Ridley 

ASCOTAINIA ELMERI Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 99; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 
Beihefte 5 (Orch. Sino-Jap. Prodr.) (1919) 246; Ames Sched. Orch. 
6 (1923) 79. 
Tainia elmeri Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1570. 
Tainia inamoena Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 387. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), Vanoverbergh 
1110, 2434, 4052, Elmer 8526, Weber 042, 061, 075, 0263, Loher s. n. Ter- 
restrial in forest, at 3 to 1,300 m altitude. 

59. SPATHOGLOTTIS Blume 

SPATHOGLOTTIS CHRYSANTHA Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 161, text cut, 

5 (1915) 99. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Ifugao, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Albay), 
Vanoverbergh 378, 1211, 4039, F. B. 14494 Darling, Ramos & Edafuo 72, 
B. S. 14387, 19884 McGregor, 5374, 5546, 8,179 Ramos, Sandkuhl 295, 
Elmer 5779, 8815, Lyon 156, R. S. Williams 1064, Mearns 2905. At 1,400 
to 1,650 m altitude. 

SPATHOGLOTTIS ELMERI Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 
1572, Orch. 5 (1915) 99. 
Spathoglottis aurea Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 327, Orch. 5 (1915) 99. 

Mindoro, Negros (Oriental Negros), Merritt 4375, Elmer 10080. At 
1,415 m altitude on Mt. Halcon and from Dumaguete (Cuernos Mountains). 

SPATHOGLOTTIS Kl M BALLIANA Hort. Sander ex Gartenflora 41 (1892) 
184, nomen; Rolfe in Sander Reichenbachia II 2 (1894) 95, t. 88, 
text cut; Hook. f. in Bot. Mag. 121 (1895) t. 7443. 

Var. ANGUSTI FOLIA Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 99. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Albay), Sibuyan, B. S. 32872 Ramos, 21149 
Escritor, 6284 Robinson, Elmer 12556. The species proper is from Borneo. 

SPATHOGLOTTIS PLICATA Blume Bijdr. (1825) 401, fig. 76; Lindl. Gen. 

6 Sp. Orch. (1831) 119, in Wall. Cat. (1831) No. 3734; Hassk. 
in Tijdschr. Nat, Gesch. 9 (1842) 139; Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30 
(1844) Misc. 45; Hassk. PI. Jav. Rar. (1848) 126; De Vriese 111. 
Orch. Ind. Neerl. (1854) t.; Moore 111. Orch. PI. (1857) Spathogl. 
2; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 673;, Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 
(1862) 455; Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. II 18 (1882) 532; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 245; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. 
PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 269; Linden & Rodigas in Lindenia 2 
(1886) 15, t. 54; Kranzl. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 7 (1886) 438, in K. 
Schum. & Hollr. Fl. Kais. Wilhelmsland (1889) 33; Hook. f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 813; Kranzl. Xen. Orch. 3 (1893) 112; Grant 
Orch. Burma (1895) 192; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 285, 
32 (1896) 311; Kranzl. in Reinecke in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 
603, in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. (1901) 244; 
Volkens in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 31 (1902) 461; Schltr. in Perk. Frag. 
Fl. Philip. (1904) 43; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 
219, Fig.-Atlas (1909) fig. 162, Orch. Amb. (1905) 24; Ames Orch. 



VoL l ORCHIDACEAE 337 

1 (1905) 83, 2 (1908) 61, 5 (1915) 100, 6 (1920) 164; Ridl. Mat. 

Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 117; Ames.m Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 

Bot. 327; J. J. Sm. in Nova Guinea 8 (1909) 25, 8 3 (1912) 529, 

12 (1913) 14; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 10 (1911) 70, in Engl. 

Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. 104 (1911) 27; J. J. Sm. in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 12 (1917) Bot. 255, in Merr. Interp. Rumph. Herb. Amb. (1917) 

172; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 4 (Orch. Sino-Jap. Prodr.) 

(1919) 245; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits 

Branch, Special No. (1921) 182. 
Bletia angustata Gaudich. in Freyc. Voy. Uran. et Physic. Bot. 

(1826) 421. 
Bletia angustifolia Gaudich. in Freyc. Voy. Uran. et Physic. Bot. 

(1826) *. 32. 
Paxtonia rosea Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 24 (1838) Misc. 61, t. 60; Moore 

111. Orch. PI. (1857) Paxtonia 4, t. 1; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 

(1862) 456; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 237. 
Spathoglottis Marina Griff. Notul. 3 (1851) 323 and Icon. PL Asiat. 

3 (1851) t. 311, fig. III. 
Phajus rhumphii Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 179. 
Spathoglottis spicata Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 9. 

Batan Islands, Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Ifugao, Benguet, Nueva Viz- 
caya, Tarlac, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), 
Mindoro, Panay (Capiz), Negros (Occidental Negros), Samar, Leyte, Pa- 
lawan, Dinagat, Mindanao (Zamboanga, Lanao, Cotabato, Bukidnon, Agu- 
san, Surigao). A common and widely distributed species in the Philippines. 
Terrestrial at 160 to 1,500 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula, Formosa, 
Sumatra, Java, Amboina, Celebes, Borneo, New Guinea, and the Caroline 
Islands. 

SPATHOGLOTTIS TOMENTOSA Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 31 (1843) sub t. 19; 
Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1862) 455; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
246; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149; Kranzl. Xen. Orch. 
3 (1893) 112; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 163 (excl. Luzon spec), 5 
(1915) 100. 

Mindanao (Misamis, Lanao, Agusan, Surigao), Cuming 2108, M. S. 
Clemens 803, Weber 50, Bolster 256, (?) F. B. 7590 Hutchinson. Terres- 
trial at 200 to 430 m altitude. 

SPATHOGLOTTIS VANOVERBERGHI I Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 299. 

Spathoglottis tomentosa Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 163, non Lindl., as 
to specimens from Luzon. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet), Vanoverbergh 163, 1109, 1112, 2106, 
39W, U0U6, Merrill U287, Elmer 8U78. At 1,000 to 1,300 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Spathoglottis affinis De Vriese apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 245. 

Spathoglottis aurea Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 246; Ames 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 327, Orch. 5 (1915) 99 = 
Spathoglottis ehneri Ames. 

Spathoglottis tomentosa Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 163, non Lindl., as to 
specimens from Luzon = Spathoglottis vanoverberghii Ames. 

200823 22 



338 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

60. PLOCOGLOTTIS Blume 

PLOCOGLOTTIS BICALLOSA Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1915) 
1571, Orch. 5 (1915) 100. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Negros (Oriental Negros), Mindanao (Camiguin 
Island), Elmer 9577, 17117, B. S. 1U37 Ramos. Terrestrial at 1,300 m 
altitude in Negros. 

PLOCOGLOTTIS COPELANDII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
326, Orch. 5 (1915) 100. 
Plocoglottis acuminata Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 82, non Blume. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Polillo, Mindoro, Pa- 
nay (Capiz), Biliran, Leyte, Palawan, Mindanao (Camiguin Island, Zam- 
boanga, Cotabato, Agusan, Davao). A common and widely distributed 
species. Terrestrial in forest at 10 to 580 m altitude. 

PLOCOGLOTTIS LUCBANENSIS Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 
(1912) 1572, Orch. 5 (1915) 100. 

Babuyan Islands (Camiguin Island), Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Sor- 
sogon), B. S. 4U7 Fenix, F. B. 28938 Willie & Salvosa, Elmer 7707, 17123. 
Terrestrial in damp forest at 915 m altitude in Tayabas. 

PLOCOGLOTTIS MCGREGORII Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 121. 

Panay (Antique), B. S. 32189 McGregor. East of Culasi, in mossy 
forest at 1,000 m altitude. 

PLOCOGLOTTIS M INDORENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 327, Orch. 5 (1915) 101. 
Mindoro, Sibuyan, Mindanao (Surigao), Merrill 5837, Elmer 12H7, 
Bolster 278. Terrestrial in forest at 10 to 330 m altitude. 

PLOCOGLOTTIS WENZELII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 101. 

Leyte, Wenzel 067, 0385, 0U53. Ormoc and Jaro, terrestrial in forest at 
200 to 500 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Plocoglottis acuminata Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 82, non Blume = Ploco- 
glottis copelandii Ames. 

Plocoglottis latifolia Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 247. 

Plocoglottis Lown Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 247. 

Plocoglottis moluccana Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 247. 

61. PACHYSTOMA Blume 

PACHYSTOMA PUBESCENS Blume Bijdr. (1825) 376, fig. 29; Reichb. f. 

in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 251; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (185y) 675; Reichb. 

f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1862) 463; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 247; 

J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 186, Fig.-Atlas (1909) 

fig. 1U0; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 51, Orch. 5 

(1915) 102. 
Pachychilus pubescens Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 173, 

Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 24 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 27) t. 10, fig. 1, t. HE. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal), 

Mindoro, Vanoverbergh 1102, 2U35, hOUO, B. S. 7050, 7969 Ramos, 11135 



^ ol - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 339 

McGregor, 6774 Robinson, F. B. 11009 Merritt, 10942 Curran, Ramos s. n. 
Grassy hillsides up to 1,200 m altitude in Bontoc. 

62. EULOPHIA R. Brown 

EULOPHIA DENTATA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 51, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 102. 
Eulophia graminea Naves Novis. App. (1882) 241 (?) ; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 150 (?), Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 269 
(?); Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 166, non Lindl. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Isabela, Pangasinan), F. B. 17085 Curran, B. S. 7077 
Ramos, Alberto 36, Cuming 2059. 

EULOPHIA MACRORHIZA Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 155 (Orch. Arch. 
Ind. 183) t. 63, fig. 2, t. 66B; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 742; 
J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 227, Fig.-Atlas (1909) 
fig. 166; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 167, 5 (1915) 104. 
Graphorchis macrorhiza Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 662. 

Luzon (Bataan, Tayabas, Sorsogon),' Leyte, Whit ford 621, Lyon 165, 
Elmer 16118, Wenzel 0121. Terrestrial at 60 to 1,000 m altitude. In 
Java. 

EULOPHIA MACROSTACHYA Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1833) 183, in 
Bot. Reg. 23 (1837) t. 1972; Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 8, t. 1667-68; 
Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1863) 646 ; Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. (1864) 
301; Hook. f. in Bot. Mag. 102 (1876) t. 6246, Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 
(1890) 4; Trim. Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4 (1898) 176; J. J. Sm. Fl. 
Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 224, Fig.-Atlas (1909) fig. 164; 
Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 169, 5 (1915) 104; J. J. Sm. in Nova Guinea 
8 (1909) 25, 12 3 (1915) 215; Rolfe in Gibbs in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
42 (1914) 157; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits 
Branch, Special No. (1921) 191. 

Eulophia emarginata Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 152 (Orch. Arch. 
Ind. 180); Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 741; Miq. Sumatra (1862) 
274, non Lindl. 

Graphorchis macrostachya Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 662. 

Graphorchis blumeana Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 663. 

Luzon- (Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon), Leyte, Mindanao (Camiguin 
Island, Zamboanga, Lanao). Fairly common in the Philippines. Ter- 
restrial in forest at low altitudes. In India, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Ter- 
nate, Borneo, and New Guinea. 

EULOPHIA MERRILLII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 104. 

Mindanao (Surigao), Merrill 5452. Caraga, open grassy slopes at 
about 100 m altitude. 

EULOPHIA SQUALIDA Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 27 (1841) Misc. 77; Hook. f. 
Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 6; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 
289, 32 (1896) 332, 36 (1898) 214; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 
(Orch. Jav.) (1905) 225, Fig.-Atlas (1909) fig. 165; Ridl. Mat. 
Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 137; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 
(1909) Bot. 671, Orch. 5 (1915) 105, 6 (1920) 210; Merr. & 
Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 341; Rolfe in Gibbs 



340 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

in Journ. Linn. Soc. 42 (1914) 157; Ames in Merr. in Journ. 

Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 192. 
Cyrtopera squalida Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 38; Lindl. in Journ. 

Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 31; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 686; Reichb. 

f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1863) 668; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 242. 
? Eulophia lutea Brume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 153 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 

181); Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 742. 
? Eulophia celebica Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 154 (Orch. Arch. 

Ind. 182) ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 742. 
Eulophia elongata Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 154 (Orch. Arch. 

Ind. 182); Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 742; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 241. 
Eulophia mucronata Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 154 (Orch. Arch. 

Ind. 182); Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 742; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 242. 
Cyrtopodium squalidum Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 150, Rev. 

PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 270. 
EulopMa elata Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 3, fide Ridl. 
Graphorchis elata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 662. 
? Graphorchis lutea Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 662. 
Graphorchis squalida Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 662. 
? Eulophia squalida Lindl. var. celebica Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 

10 (1911). 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Zambales), Leyte, Bancalan, Palawan, 
Mindanao (Davao). A fairly common and rather widespread species in 
the Philippines. Terrestrial at 5 to 1,300 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula, 
? Sumatra, Java, Celebes, and Borneo. 

EULOPHIA STRICT A (Presl) Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 103. 

Bletia stricta Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 98; Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 247. 
Eulophia exaltata Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 38; J. J. Sm. FL 

Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 228, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 167; 

Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 85, 2 (1908) 166, 5 (1915) 103; J. J. Sm. 

in Bull. Dept. Agr. Ind. Neerl. 13 (1907) 22. 
Eulophia leschenaultii Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 154 (Orch. Arch. 

Ind. 182);, Naves Novis. App. (1882) 242. 
Cyrtopera ensiformis Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 31; Miq. 

FL Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 686; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 242. 
Cyrtopodium, ensiforme Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 80, 150, 

Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 270; Schltr. in Perk. Frag. FL 

Philip. (1904) 43. 
Graphorchis exaltata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 662. 
Eulophia warburgiana Kranzl. Xen. Orch. 3 (1893) 115, t. 266, fig. 

II, 8-12. 
Eulophia ensiformis Schltr. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 202. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Camarines), Mindanao (Zam- 
boanga, Bukidnon, Lanao, Butuan, Davao). Not uncommon in the Phil- 
ippines, terrestrial at 80 to 1,400 m altitude. In Java and Celebes. 



Vol. 1 



ORCHIDACEAE 341 



EULOPHIA VANOVERBERGHII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
13, Orch. 5 (1915) 105. 
Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 336, 11X8, 3876, 4051. Terrestrial at 
about 1,300 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Eulophia bicolor Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 241. 

Eulophia elongata Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 154 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 
182); Naves Novis. App. (1882) 242 = Eulophia squalida Lindl. 

Eulophia ensiformis Schltr. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 202 = 
Eulophia stricta (Presl) Ames. 

Eulophia exaltata Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 38; J. J. Sm. Fl. 
Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 228, Fig.- Atlas (1910) fig. 167; 
Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 85, 2 (1908) 166, 5 (1915) 103; J. J. Sm. in 
Bull. Dept. Agr. Ind. Neerl. 13 (1907) 22 = Eulophia stricta 
(Presl) Ames. 

Eulophia graminea Naves Novis. App. (1882) 241; (?) ; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 150 (?), Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 269 

(?); Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 166, non Lindl. = Eulophia dentata 
Ames. 

Eulophia leschenaultii Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 154 (Orch. Arch. 
Ind. 182) ; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 242 = Eulophia stricta 
(Presl) Ames. 

Eulophia mucronata Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 154 (Orch. Arch. 
Ind. 182) ; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 242 = Eulophia squalida 
Lindl. 

Eulophia saundersiana Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 242. 

Eulophia sumatrana Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 242. 

Closely allied to Eulophia squalida Lindl. The Philippine material is 
presumably referable to that species. 

Eulophia venosa Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 242. 

Eulophia warburgiana Kranzl. Xen. Orch. 3 (1893) 115, t. 266, fig. II. 
8-12 = Eulophia stricta (Presl) Ames. 

63. GEODORUM Jackson 

GEODORUM NUTANS (Presl) Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 164, 5 (1915) 106, 

6 (1920) 306; Merr. Fl. Manila (1912) 166, Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 

113; Wells in Philip. Journ. Sci. 14 (1919) 4. 
Dendrobium nutans Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 102, Symb. Bot. 1 

(1832) 34, t. 23; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234. 
Arethusa glutinosa Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 641, ed. 2 (1845) 446, 

ed. 3, 3 (1879) 38, t. U29bis. 
Dendrobium haenkeanum Steud. Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2, 1 (1840) 490. 
Geodorum senncristatum Lindl. Fol. Orch. Geodorum (1854) 2; Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 712; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1863) 



342 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

633; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 241; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. 
(1885) 150, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 270; Merr. in Govt. Lab. 
Publ. (Philip.) 8 (1903) 45, 52, 61, 75, 88, 152, 27 (1905) 84. 
? Geodorum pallidum Llanos in Mem. Real. Acad. Cienc. Madrid 4 
(1859) 507; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco PI. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 
105. 

Babuyan Islands (Dalupiri Island), Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, 
Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Polillo, Masbate, 
Panay (Antique), Negros (Oriental Negros), Biliran, Samar, Palawan, 
Bancalan, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao). A common and widely spread, 
endemic species; terrestrial at sea level to 300 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Geodorum citrinum Jacks, apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 241. 

Geodorum dilatatum R. Br. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 241. 

Geodorum pallidum Llanos in Mem. Real. Acad. Cienc. Madrid 4 (1859) 
507; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 105 = 
? Geodorum nutans (Presl) Ames. 

Geodorum pictum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 241. 

Geodorum purpureum R. Br. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 241. 

Geodorum semicristatum Lindl. Fol. Orch. Geodorum (1854) 2; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 712; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1863) 633; 
Naves Novis. App. (1882) 241; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 
150, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 270; Merr. in Govt. Lab. Publ. 
(Philip.) 8 (1903) 45, 52, 61, 75, 88, 152, 27 (1905) 84 = Geodorum 
nutans (Presl) Ames. 

64. DENDROBIUM Swartz 

DENDROBIUM ACLINIA Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 4 (1856) 329. 

Dendrobium pseudaclinia Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 9; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 297; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 134. 

Luzon (Isabela, Zambales, Rizal), B. S. 5618, 19065 (cult.) Curran, 
Lyon 63, US, 150, B. S. 19151 Reillo 7. Epiphyte up to 330 m altitude 
in Rizal. 

Reichenbach states that his specimen came from "Ostindien," a very 
indefinite localization. Lindley in 1859 renamed the species, without justi- 
fication, Dendrobium pseudaclinia, citing D. aclinia Reichb. f. as a synonym, 
and then made a new D. aclinia based on the genus Aclinia of Griffith. 
This proceeding is certainly unjustified and, moreover, the D. aclinia of 
Lindley is considered by J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 718, to be 
a peloric form of D. incurvum Lindl. Consequently D. aclinia Reichb. 
f. is reinstated in place of D. pseudaclinia Lindl. 

DENDROBIUM ACUM INATISSIM UM (Blume) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. 
(1830) 86; Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30 (1844) Misc. 50; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1859) 636; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 
350, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 265, in Nova Guinea 8 (1909) 71; 



v°L 1 ORCHIDACEAE 343 

Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 170; 

Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. 104 (1911) 35; Ames Orch. 

5 (1915) 114; J. J. Sm. in Philip'. Journ. Sci. 12 (1917) Bot. 256. 

Grastidium acuminatissvmum Bl. Bijdr. (1825) 333. 

Dendrobium caudatum Teijsm. & Binn. var. javanica Teijsm. & Binn. 

in Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 24 (1862) 315. 
Callista actiminatissima Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 654. 
Leyte, Wenzel 047. Dagami, epiphyte at 60 m altitude. In Sumatra, 
Java, Amboina, and New Guinea. 

DENDROBIUM ACUMINATUM Rolfe ex Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 86, 2 
(1908) 1, 170, t. 17, 5 (1915) 114. 
? Dendrobium cymbidioides Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 
Sarcopodiwm cymbidioides Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 

II. B. 21 (1910) 325, quoad Philip. 
Sarcopodium acuminatum Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 18 (August, 1910) 
239; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (November, 
1910) 329, fig. 82 D, E. 
Luzon (Kalinga, Bataan), Lyon 47, Boettcher s. n., Whitford 223, F. B. 
738 Borden, Topping 461, Weber 23, Copeland s. n. Epiphyte at 1,000 to 
2,000 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM AGUSANENSE Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 79. 

Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 12462. At 330 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM ALBAYENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
14, Orch. 5 (1915) 115. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas, Albay), Negros (Occidental Negros), Leyte, 
Mindanao (Butuan, Agusan, Davao). A fairly common species; epiphytic 
at sea level to 900 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM AM ETHYSTOGLOSSUM Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. (1872) 
109; Hook. f. in Bot. Mag. 98 (1872) t. 5968; Veitch Man. Orch. 
PL pt. 3 (1888) 16; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 
(1910) 115; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 115. 
Callista amethystoglossa Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 654. 
Luzon (Benguet), Lyon 157. 

DENDROBIUM ANOSMUM Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 31 (1845) Misc. 32; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 234; J. J. Sm. in Winkler in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
48 (1912) 101, in Nova Guinea 12 (1913) Bot. 74, 12 4 (1916) 
Bot. 351, in Merr. Interp. Rumph. Herb. Amb. (1917) 175; Merr. 
Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 114; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. 
Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 156. 

Dendrobium macrophyllum Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 25 (1839) Misc. 36, 
28 (1842) Misc. 84, 30 (1844) Misc. 47, Sert. Orch. (1840) t. 35; 
Paxt. Mag. Bot. 8 (1841) 97, t.; Hook. Cent. Orch. PI. (1851) 
t. 12; Planch. Hort. Donat. (1855) 156, Atlas t. 1; Reichb. 
f. in Linden Pescat. 1 (1860) 40, t. 40, non A. Rich. 

Dendrobium macranthum Hook, in Bot. Mag. 69 (1842) t. 3970; 
Paxt. Mag. Bot. 9 (1842) 238; Planch, in Fl. des Serres 8 (1852) 
21, t. 757; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 642; Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 233; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 166, non A. Rich. 



344 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Epidendrum ruibarbarum redolens Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 593. 
Dendrobium macrophyllum Lindl. var. giganteum Lindl. in Gard. 

Chron. (1854) 219; Warner Sel. Orch. PI. I (1862-65) t. 26. 
Dendrobium macranthum Hook. var. purpureo-marginaUim De Vriese 

III. Orch. Ind. Neerl. (1854) t. 17. 

Dendrobium macrophyllum Lindl. var. pallidum Planch. Hort. Donat. 

(1855) 156. 
? Dendrobium retusum Llanos in Mem. Real Acad. Cienc. Madr. 4 

(1857) 498; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 

100. 
Dendrobium macranthum Hook. var. marginatum De Vriese ex Miq. 

Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 643; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 
Dendrobium superbum Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 282, in 

Gard. Chron. II 17 (1882) 776;, Warner & Will. Orch. Alb. 1 

(1882) t. 42; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. PI. 

Vase. Filip. (1886) 267; Veitch Man. Orch. PI. pt. 3 (1888) 77; 

Du Buyss. in l'Orchidoph. 12 (1892) 70; Ridl. in Journ. Bot. 36 

(1898) 211; Cogn. in Diet. Icon. Orch. (1899) Dendrob. t. 20; 

Finet in Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Par. 6 (1903) 300; J. J. Sm. Orch. 

Amb. (1905) 67; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 90, 2 (1908) 186, 5 (1915) 

139; Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 14 (1906) 177, fig. 21; Ridl. Mat. Fl. 

Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 56; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 

II. B. 21 (1910) 33; O'Brien in Gard. Chron. Ill 72 (1922) 9. 
Dendrobium superbum Reichb. f . var. anosmum Reichb. f . in Walp. 

Ann. 6 (1861) 283; Veitch Man. Orch. PI. pt. 3 (1889) 77; Rolfe 

in Lindenia 6 (1890) 51, t. 264; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 

IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 33. 

Dendrobium superbum Reichb. f. var. giganteum Reichb. f. in Walp. 

Ann. 6 (1861) 283; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 187; Kranzl. in Engl. 

Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 33. 
Dendrobium superbum Reichb. f. var. purpureo-marginatum Reichb. 

f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 283; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 

IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 33. 
Dendrobium macrophyllum Lindl. var. purpureo-marginatum De 

Vriese ex Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 283, in syn. 
Dendrobium superbum Reichb. f. var. huttonii Reichb. f. in Gard. 

Chron. (1869) 206; Rolfe in Lindenia 6 (1890) 52, sub t. 264; 

Ames Orch. 2 (1905) 187; O'Brien in Gard. Chron. Ill 72 (1922) 

9, fig. 6. 
Epidendrum rhabarbarum redolens Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 3 ^1879) 

45, t. 389. 
Dendrobium macranthum Hook. var. giganteum Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 233; Roman in Journ. des Orch. 6 (1895) 284. 
? Dendrobium macranthum Hook. var. album Naves Novis. App. 

(1882) 233. 
Dendrobium superbum Reichb. f. var. burkei Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. 

II 21 (1884) 306; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 

(1910) 34; O'Brien in Gard. Chron. Ill 72 (1922) 9. 
Dendrobium scortechinii Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 741; Ridl. in 

Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 264. 
Callista anosma Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 653. 



Vo] - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 345 

Callista scortechinii Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 655. 

Dendrobium superbum Reichb. f. var. dearei Day ex Rolfe in Lindenia 

6 (1890) 52, sub t. 264; Rolfe in -Qrch. Rev. 14 (1906) 177, fig. 

22; O'Brien in Gard. Chron. Ill 72 (1922) 9. 
Dendrobium leucorhodum Schltr. in Fedde Repert. Beihefte 1 (Orch. 

Deutsch-Neu-Guin.) (1912) 499. 

Luzon (Abra, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal), 
Fairly frequent in Luzon, up to 760 m altitude in Bontoc. In Malay 
Peninsula, Indo-China (fide Finet), Celebes, Amboina, Borneo, and New 
Guinea. 

DENDROBIUM APOROIDES (Lindl.) Merr. Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 113. 
Aporum incrassatum Brongn. in Duperr. Voy. Coquille (1834) 204, 

t. 42B, non Blume. 
Epidendrum equitans Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 645, ed. 2 (1845) 

449, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 44, non Dendrobium equitans Kranzl. 
Eria aporoides Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 60; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 657; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236; Merr. in 

Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 84. 
Pinalia aporodes Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 678. 
Dendrobium brongniartii Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 

B. 21 (1910) 210; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 

15, Orch. 5 (1915) 116. 
Dendrobium equitans Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 

(1910) 228, quoad Philip. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Rizal, Taya- 
bas, Camarines, Sorsogon), Leyte, Basilan, Mindanao (Camiguin Island, 
Agusan, Surigao, Davao). A fairly common and widely distributed species 
in the Philippines at sea level to 1,000 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM APPENDICULOIDES Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 93. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38940 Ramos & Edano. Mt. Candoon; 
epiphyte in forest at 1,650 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM BASILANENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
14, Orch. 5 (1915) 116. 

Panay (Iloilo), Basilan, Mindanao (Zamboanga, Agusan), B. S. 18187 
Robinson, F. B. 3968 Hutchinson, Merrill 8068, Weber s. n., 45, 48, 132. 
Epiphyte at sea level to 400 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM BULLENIANUM Reichb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 20 (1862) 214; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 133; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 117. 
De-ndrobium erythroxanthum Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 2 (1874) 
162; Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. 25 (1898) 604. 
No specimens seen, but drawings have been studied. 
Regarding Dendrobium bullenianum Reichenbach states: "Sie soil aus 
Manilla stammen." Kranzlin gives in distribution "Luzon? . . . Samoa- 
Inseln." Reichenbach's specimen may have come from Polynesia rather 
than from the Philippines. Dendrobium erythroxanthum is supposed to 
have come from the Philippines. 



346 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

It seems probable that Dendrobium chameleon Ames is conspecific, 
but sufficient evidence of this fact is at present lacking. 

DENDROBIUM BUSUANGENSE Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 296, t. 101. 
Busuanga, Taylor s. n. (cult, in Manila). 

DENDROBIUM CABADBARENSE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 117. 

Mindanao (Agusan, Davao), Weber 157, 192, 297, with 310, Black s. n. 
Epiphyte at sea level to 100 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM CANDOONENSE Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 94. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38716 Ramos & Edano. Epiphyte on forest 
slope, Mt. Candoon, at 1,650 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM CARINATUM (Linn.) Willd. Sp. PL 4 (1805) 133; Lindl. 

Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 92; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 

II. B. 21 (1910) 298; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 118. 
Bontia luzonica, geniculis inferioribus carinulatis Petiver Gazophyll. 

Decas 5 (1702) 70, t. U, fig. 10. 
Epidendrum carinatum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 953, ed. 2 (1763) 1350. 
Dendrobium robinsonii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 

425, Orch. 5 (1915) 138. 

Luzon (Zambales) Mindoro, F. B. 6315 Curran, B. S. 3059 Foxiuorthy, 
56U2 Robinson. Epiphyte in open sandy spots. 

DENDROBIUM CERAULA Reichb. f. in Linnaea 41 (1876) 40; Kranzl. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 104; Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 118. 

Luzon, Jagor 895, 896 (in Herb. Berol.). 

DENDROBIUM CHAMELEON Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 174, text cut, 5 
(1915) 119; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 
(1910) 134. 

Luzon (Benguet), R. S. Williams 19U0. Baguio; epiphyte, hanging 
from the trees. 

DENDROBIUM CHRYSOGRAPHATUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 119. 

Dendrobium angustif olium Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
14, non Lindl. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal), Vanoverbergh 708, 
709, 13U6, 1522, Ramos & Edano 95, F. B. 6972 Curran, R. S. Williams 
76U, B. S. 29588 Ramos & Edano. Epiphyte at 1,450 to 2,000 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM CLEMENSIAE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
16, Orch. 5 (1915) 120. 

Negros (Occidental Negros), Leyte, Mindanao (Lanao), Lyon UO, Wen- 
zel 0530, 0591, 0599, 0906, M. S. Clemens 508. Epiphyte at 500 to 700 m 
altitude in Leyte. 

DENDROBIUM CRUMENATUM Sw. in Schrad. Journ. Bot. 2 (1799) 237, 
in Kongl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Nya Handl. 21 (1800) 246; Willd. 
Sp. PL 4 (1805) 137;, Lindl. in Trans. Hort. Soc. 7 (1830) 40, 
Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 88; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 480; 



Vol. 1 



ORCHIDACEAE 347 



Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 25 (1839) t.' 22; Paxt. Mag. Bot. 6 (1839) 
90, 10 (1843) 189; Edit, in Allg. Berl. Gartenz. 7 (1839) 254, 11 
(1843) 175; Knowles & Westc. Floral Cab. 3 (1840) 47; Hook, in 
Bot. Mag. 69 (1843) t. 4013; Griff. Notul. 3 (1851) 315; De Vriese 
111. Orch. Ind. Neerl. (1852) t. 3, fig. VI; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1859) 638; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 291; Miq. Sumatra 
(1862) 274, Choix des PI. (1863) sub t. 22, p. p. (excl. fig.) ; Thw. 
Enum. PI. Zeyl. (1864) 297; Naves No vis. App. (1882) 232; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PI. Vase. Pilip. (1886) 
267; Rolfe in Lindenia 5 (1889) 33, t. 207; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 5 (1890) 729; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II 3 (1893) 362; 
Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 80; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 
(1896) 270, 32 (1896) 254; Trim. Handb. PL Ceyl. 4 (1898) 151; 
Finet in Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Par. 6 (1903) 297; J. J. Sm. Fl. 
Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 330, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 249, 
Orch. Amb. (1905) 42; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 88, 2 (1908) 175, 
5 (1915) 121, 7 (1922) 95; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 
48; J. J. Sm. in Bull. Dept. Agr. Ind. Neerl. 43 (1910) 45; Kranzl. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 235, fig. 19 C, D, 
6-8; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. 104 (1911) 34; Merr. 
Fl. Manila (1912) 168; J. J. Sm. in Winkler in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
48 (1912) 98; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits 
Branch, Special No. (1921) 158. 

Onychium crumenatum Blume Bijdr. (1825) 326. 

Callista crumenata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 653. 

Dendrobium cumulatum Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. li. 
B. 21 (1910) 115, quoad Philip.; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 121. 

Dendrobium caninum Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 19 (1921) 344; Ridl. 
in Journ. Bot. 60 (1922) 274; Merr. in Journ. Bot. 61 (1923) 173, 
non Epidendrum caninum Burm. f. 

Luzon (Benguet, Rizal, Zambales, Tayabas), Polillo, Samar (Basiao 
Island), Biliran, Leyte, Palawan, Mindanao (Camiguin Island,. Zamboanga, 
Lanao, Agusan, Surigao, Davao). A common and widely distributed 
species in the Philippines, at sea level to 500 m altitude. In Ceylon, Burma, 
Malay Peninsula, Andaman Islands, Cochinchina, Sumatra, Java, Amboina, 
Timor, and Borneo. 

DENDROBIUM CULTRATUM Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 10 (1911) 71; 

Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 121. 
Dendrobium sinuatum Schltr. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 

43; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 216, 

quoad Philip., non Lindl. 
Dendrobium atropurpureum Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 86, 2 (1908) 172; 

Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 217, quoad 

Philip., non Miq. 

Luzon (Apayao, Ifugao, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tayabas), Polillo, Mindoro, 
Panay (Capiz), Negros (Occidental Negros), Samar, Palawan, Mindanao 
(Agusan, Surigao, Davao), Sibutu. A fairly common and widely dis- 
tributed species in the Philippines, at sea level to 150 m altitude. In 
Celebes. 



348 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

DENDROBIUM DEAREI Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 18 (1882) 361; 
Warner & Will. Orch. Alb. 3 (1884) t, 120; Veitch Man. Orch. 
PI. pt. 3 (1888) 37, text cut; Cogn. in Diet. Icon. Orch. (1905) 
Dendrob. t. 36; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 599; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 89; Rolfe 
in Orch. Rev. 19 (1911) 261; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 122. 

Mindoro, Dinagat, Mindanao, F. B. 8525 Merritt, Lyon 121. 

DENDROBIUM DISTICHUM (Presl) Reichb. f. in Linnaea 41 (1876) 39; 

Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 

50. II. B. 21 (1910) 211 (excl. syn. in part); Ames Orch. 5 

(1915) 122. 
Schizmoceras distieJm Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 96, t. 13, fig. 2. 
Dendrobium indivisum Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 267; 

Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 217, 

quoad Philip.; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 52, non 

Miq. 

Luzon (Benguet, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Camarines, Sorsogon), Po- 
lillo, Sulu Archipelago. A fairly common species in Luzon, at sea level to 
900 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM ELMERI Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1573, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 123. 

Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), B. S. 16568, 20U58 Ramos, 20851 Escritor, 
Serrato s. n., Calica s. n., Elmer 924-9. Epiphyte, in forest at 830 m altitude 
in Tayabas. 

DENDROBIUM EPIDENDROPSIS Kranzl. in Orchis 2 (1908) 79, fig. IS; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 598; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 106;, Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 
123. 

Luzon (Benguet, Bataan, Rizal), Loher s. n., Lyon 118, 161, F. B. 
2109 Borden, Elmer 6839, B. S. 3060 Ramos. 

DENDROBIUM ESCRITORII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 123. 

Luzon (Tayabas, Camarines), Mindanao (Surigao), B. S. 20683 Escri- 
tor, 22019 Ramos, 27405 Alambra, Wenzel 01091. Epiphyte at 35 to 150 
m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM EURORUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 124. 

Leyte, Wenzel 065, 0612. Epiphyte in forest at 120 to 500 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM GERLANDIANUM Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 6 (1909) 317, 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 238; Ame3 Orch. 
5 (1915) 125. 

The species was described from a Loher plant from Manila. The type 
has not been seen, but from the description it would seem to approach 
D. philippivense Ames. 



Vo1 - J ORCHIDACEAE 349 

DENDROBIUM H ERCOGLOSSUM Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 26 (1886) 
487; Edit, in Hamb. Gartenz. 42 (1886) 558; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 6 (1890) 185; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 
(1910) 75. 
Dendrobium aduncum Hook. f. in Bot. Mag. 110 (1884) t. 6784, 
non Lindl. 

Mindanao (Lanao) (so reported), Lyon 138. 

In view of the above cited (reported Philippine) specimen it does not 
seem improbable that the material referred to D. aduncum Lindl. by Naves 
and by Ceron is in reality this species. 

DENDROBIUM HETEROCARPUM Wall. Cat. (1828) No. 20, nomen, ex 
Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 78, PL Asiat. Rar. 2 (1831) 84, 
t. 196; Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30 (1844) Misc. 49; Paxt. Mag. Bot. 
14 (1847) 68; Hook, in Bot. Mag. 79 (1853) t. 4708; Planch, in 
Fl. des Serres 8 (1854?) 253, t. 842; Lem. Jard. Fleur. 4 (1854) 
t. 386; Batem. Second Cent. Orch. PL (1867) t. 150; Douglas in 
Gard. Chron. II 25 (1886) 397;, Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 
737; Berkl. in Orch. Rev. 1 (1893) 82; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 
97; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.- 
Himal.) (1898) 53, t. 74; Trim. Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4 (1898) 154; 
Cogn. in Diet. Icon. Orch.' (1898) Dendrob. t. 10; J. J. Sm. Fl. 
Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 368, Fig.-Atlas (1911) fig. 281; 
Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 89, 2 (1908) 176, text cut; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 45; Merr. & Merritt in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 341; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 

10 (1911) 37, Orchideen (1915) 260. 

Dendrobium aureum Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 77, in Bot. Reg. 
30 (1844) Misc. 51; Wight Icon. 5 1 (1852) 6, t. 1646; Lindl. in 
Fl. des Serres 7 (1852) 210; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 
287; Thw. Enum. PL Zeyl. (1864) 297; Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. 

11 16 (1881) 688; Veitch Man. Orch. PL pt. 3 (1888) 19, text cut; 
Reichb. f. in Sander Reichenbachia I 2 (1890) 31, t. 63; Stein 
Orchideenb. (1892) 186; Du Buyss. in l'Orchidoph. 12 (1892) 184; 
Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 56; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 115. 

Dendrobium aureum Lindl. var. pallidum Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 25 

(1839) t. 20; Knowles & Westc. Floral Cab. 3 (1840) 48; Reichb. 

f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 287; Veitch Man. Orch. PL pt. 3 

(1888) 19; Stein Orchideenb. (1892) 186. 
Dendrobium rhombeum Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) t. 17, 30 (1844) 

Misc. 56; Reichb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 1 (1843) 333; Lindl. in Paxt. 

Flow. Gard. 3 (1852-53) 52; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233; 

Reichb. f. in Sander Reichenbachia I 2 (1890) 31, in obs. 
Dendrobium heterocarpum Wall. var. henshallii Hook, in Bot. Mag. 

83 (1857) t. h970; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 

(1910) 45. 
Dendrobium aureum Lindl. var. philippinense Reichb. f. in Gard. 

Chron. II 13 (1880) 72; Veitch Man. Orch. PL pt. 3 (1888) 19; Stein 

Orchideenb. (1892) 187. 



350 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Dendrobium atractodes Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 23 1.1885) 123, 

fide Kranzl. 
Dendrobium aurewm Lindl. var. henshallii Veitch Man. Orch. PL pt. 

3 (188«) 19; Stein Orchideenb. (1892) 186. 
Ccdlista aurea Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 653. 
Callista heterocarpa Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 654. 
Dendrobium aureum Lindl. var. rhombeum Stein Orchideenb. (1892) 

187. 
Dendrobium heterocarpum Wall. var. pallidum Kranzl. in Engl. Pflan- 

zenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 45. 
Dendrobium heterocarpum Wall. var. philippinense Kranzl. in Engl. 

Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 45. 
Dendrobium hildebrandii Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 

B. 21 (1910) 34, p. p., non Rolfe, fide Schltr. 
Dendrobium minahassae Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 

B. 21 (1910) 107, fide Schltr. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Bataan, Rizal, Albay, Sorsogon), Mindanao 
(Davao). Fairly common in the Philippines, especially in Luzon at 1,300 
to 1,500 m altitude. In India, Ceylon, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Java, 
and Celebes. 

It has seemed advisable to adopt the name D. heterocarpum in 
place of D. aureum Lindl., because the first definite union of the species 
occurs in Bot. Mag. 79 (1853) t. 4708 (cf. International Rules adopted at 
Vienna, Sect. 6, Art. 46) and also because it is the earliest name, although 
a nomen, and still further because it has been more commonly accepted 
by reputable authors. 

DENDROBIUM HYMENANTHUM Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 222, in 
Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 302; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234; Ames 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 598; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 288; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 125. 

DBndrochilum hymenanthum Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, 
Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 268, sphalm. 
Luzon (Rizal, Tayabas), Polillo, Cuming 2135, Lyon 147, B. S. 3035 
Ramos, 5647, 10453 McGregor, F. B. 28368 Mabesa. 

DENDROBIUM INTERJECTUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 125. 

Leyte, Wenzel 065a, 0534, 0574, 0594, 0677, 0691. Epiphyte in forest at 
120 to 700 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM LEYTENSE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 126. 

Leyte, Wenzel 082, 0203, 0415. Epiphyte in forest at 60 to 500 m 
altitude. 

DENDROBIUM LOHERIANUM Kranzl. in Ann. k. k. Nat. Hofmus. Wien 
30 (1916) 62. 
Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher s. n. 
Known only from the type collection. 



Vol. 1 ORCHIDACEAE 351 

DENDROBIUM LUNATUM Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 4; Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 630; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148"/ Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 
267; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 218; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 17, in Elm. Lean. Philip. 
Bot. 5 (1912) 1574, Orch. 5 (1915) 127. 

Palawan, Cuming s. n, 2136, B. S. 733, 907 Foxworthy, Elmer 12764, 
Weber 606, Merrill 9337, 9623, Ledesma s. n. Epiphyte at sea level to 
500 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM LUZON ENSE Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30 (1844) Misc. 54; 
Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 290; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
234; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 
(1886) 267; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 
172, fig. 12 A-D; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 127. 
Dendrobium alagense Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 328. 

Luzon (Kalinga, Benguet, Sorsogon), Catanduanes, Mindoro, Leyte, 
Mindanao (Lanao, Agusan, Davao). A fairly common species; epiphyte 
at sea level to 1,300 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM LYON 1 1 Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 177, 5 (1915) 127, in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 672. 

Dendrobium acuminatum Lyon in Gard. Chron. Ill 42 (1907) 210, 
fig. 88; Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 15 (1907) 312, as to plant spoken of; 
Kranzl. in Orchis 2 (1908) 73, t. 16, non Rolfe ex Ames; Edit, in 
Gard. Chron. Ill 46 (1909) 150, fig. 64, in Gardners' Mag. 52 
(1909) 659, 660, text cut, non Rolfe ex Ames. 

Sarcopodium lyonii Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 18 (1910) 240; Ames in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 53, in Addisonia 8 (1923) 17, 
t. 265. 

Sarcopodium acuminatum Rolfe var. lyonii Kranzl. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 329, fig. 32 A-C. 

Luzon (Bataan), Lyon s. n., 10, F. B. 7153 Curran. Epiphyte at 660 
to 1,100 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM MACGREGORII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
17, Orch. 5 (1915) 128. 

Polillo, B. S. 10457 McGregor. 

DENDROBIUM MARIVELENSE Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 180, text cut, 5 
(1915) 128. 
Dendrobium parciflorum Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 21 (1910) 222, quoad Philip.; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 
(1912) Bot. 18, non Reichb. f. 

Luzon (Bataan), Mindanao (Lanao), Merrill s. n., Whit ford 1127, M. 
S. Clemens e. n. 



352 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

DENDROBIUM MERRILLII Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 181, text cut, 5 (1915) 
126, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 599; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 299. 
Dendrobium aloifolium Reichb f. apud Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B, 21 (1910) 206, quoad syn. D. merrillii; Ames Orch. 
5 .(1915) 115 (D. aloefolium). 

Luzon (Ifugao, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tayabas), Samar, B. S. 19989 Mc- 
Gregor, 29863 Fenix, 24.355 Ramos, Loher 6017, Merrill 3357. Epiphyte 
at apparently rather low altitude (350 m). 

DENDROBIUM M INDANAENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 
Bot. 423, Orch. 5 (1915) 128. 
Luzon (Rizal), Polillo, Negros (Occidental Negros), Leyte, Culion, Pala- 
wan, Mindanao (Zamboanga, Agusan, Davao). A fairly common species 
of rather wide distribution. Terrestrial ? or epiphyte at low altitudes. 

DENDROBIUM MODESTUM Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 222, in Walp. 
Ann. 6 (1861) 281; Naves No vis. App. (1882) 234; Kranzl. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 220; Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 128. 
Llanos s. n. 

Reichenbach described this species from a Llanos specimen from Manila 
and ascribed to it affinity with D. aciculare Lindl. Kranzlin in his mono- 
graph cites a Cuming specimen in the Lindley Herbarium. This species 
has not been recognized in any of the material collected during the past 
twenty years. 

DENDROBIUM MULTIRAMOSUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 129. 
Luzon (Benguet, Rizal), Williams 1934, Lyon 42. 

DENDROBIUM O'BRIEN IAN UM Kranzl. in Gard. Chron. Ill 11 (1892) 
266; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 182, text cut, 5 (1915) 130; Kranzl. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 105, fig. 5 N-O. 
Dendrobium striatum Hort. ex Gard. Chron. Ill 38 (1905) 382; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 298. 
Known only from a cultivated specimen sent from Luzon by Micholitz 
to F. Sander Co. 

DENDROBIUM ORNITHOFLORUM Ames Orch. 3 (1908) 60, t. 46, 5 
(1915) 130. 
Mindanao (Misamis), F. B. 4627 Mearns & Hutchinson. Mt. Malindang 
at 1,900 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM PAPILIO Loher in Gard. Chron. Ill 21 (1897) 416; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 231, excl. 
Williams 1934; Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 22 (1914) 272; Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 130. 
Dendrobium vanoverberghii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 
Bot. 425, t. 13. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Negros (Oriental Negros), Mindanao (Davao), 
Vanoverbergh 704, 1345, B. S. 31846 Santos, Weber 24.6, Herre s. n., Boett- 
cher s. n. Epiphyte at 1,450 to 2,200 m altitude. 



Vol i ORCHIDACEAE 353 

DENDROBIUM PERGRACILE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
423, Orch. 5 (1915) 131. 
Mindanao (Lanao), M. S. Clemens 999. Camp Keithley, Lake Lanao. 

DENDROBIUM PHILIPPINENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 
Bot. 424, Orch. 5 (1915) 131. 
Dendrobium adculare Lindl. apud Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 
148; Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 267; Hook. f. PI. Brit. Ind. 
5 (1890) 725, quoad Philip.; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 21 (1910) 241, quoad Philip.; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 113. 
Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas), Mindoro, Leyte, Cuming 2112, Loher 4-87, 
6022, Lyon 67, Reillo s. n., B. S. 564-1 Griffin, 20684 Escritor, 5658 Merrill, 
Wenzel 06, 077, 086, 0142. Epiphyte, apparently at low altitudes. 

DENDROBIUM PLANIBULBE Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) Misc. 54; 

Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 301;, Naves Novis. App. (1882) 

232; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 132. 
Dendrobium blumei Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 14; Miq. Fl. 

Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 638; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232; Kranzl. 

in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 234, quoad syn. 

D. -planibulbe Lindl. et quoad Philip. 
Samar, Mindanao (Zamboanga, Agusan), Cuming s. n., B. S. 24484 
Ramos, Reillo s. n., Sablaya s. n., F. B. 5176 Hutchinson, Weber 174- 
Epiphyte at low altitude. 

DENDROBIUM PLATYCAULON Rolfe in Kew Bull. (1892) 139, in Gard. 
Chron. Ill 12 (1892) 29, fig. 212; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50 II. B. 21 (1910) 267; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 
Bot. 52, Orch. 5 (1915) 132. 
? Dendrobium lamellatum Lindl. apud Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 269, quoad Philip.; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) ix, 
Merrill (cult.). 
Known only from cultivated specimens. 

DENDROBIUM PLICATILE Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 26 (1840) Misc. 10; 
Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 307; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
234; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 132. 
Dendrobium macraei Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 89, 2 (1908) 176, non 

Lindl. 
Desmotrichum fimbriatum Blume apud Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 354, quoad Philip. 
Luzon (Tarlac, Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Panay 
(Capiz), Leyte, Samar, Mindanao (Lanao, Cotabato, Agusan). A common 
and rather widely distributed species ; epiphyte at 60 to 800 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM POLYTRICHUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 328, nomen, Orch. 2 (1908) 183, 5 (1915) 133, 6 (1920) 297; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 240. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Isabela, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Mindoro. 

A fairly common species, especially in Luzon;, up to 260 m altitude in 

Mindoro. 

200823 23 



354 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

DENDROBIUM PRISTINUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 133. 
Luzon (Rizal), B. S. 8041 Ramos. 

DENDROBIUM PROFUSUM Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 21 (1884) 510; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 259; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 134. 

Roebelen s. n. 

Known only from the description and a tracing of the analytical draw- 
ings in the Reichenbach Herbarium. 

DENDROBIUM PSEUDOCONVEXUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 135. 

Luzon (Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon). A number of collections 
have been made in Luzon. Epiphyte in forest at 600 to 700 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM PTEROCARPUM Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 80. 
Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11528. Epiphyte at 2,080 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM PURPUREOSTELIDIUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 136. 

Luzon (Laguna, Sorsogon), Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), Basilan, B. S. 
15103 Ramos, 16258 Reillo, Elmer 16203, Wenzel 0193, 0228, Weber 191. 
Epiphyte at sea level and low altitudes. 

DENDROBIUM RAMOSII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 18, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 138. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet), Vanoverbergh 9, 1715, B. S. 7049 
Ramos, Lyon 154, Merrill 4.682, Ramos & Edano 115. Apparently terres- 
trial in rather open ground in mountainous regions at 1,200 to 1,300 m 
altitude. 

DENDROBIUM SANDERAE Rolfe in Gard. Chron. Ill 45 (1909) 374, 

fig. 163, in Orch. Rev. 17 (1909) 209, fig. 17; Ames in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 673; Fedde Repert. 8 (1910) 382; Rolfe 

in Bot. Mag. 136 (1910) t. 8351; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 138. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet), Vanoverbergh 560, 1263, 3112, B. S. 

5614 Worcester, 3497 Mearns, Lyon 114. Epiphyte at 1,000 to 1,650 m 

altitude. 

DENDROBIUM SCHUETZEI Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 19 (1911) 224, 20 (1912) 
289, 308, 337, fig. 47, in Gard. Chron. Ill 50 (1911) 42, III 52 
(1912) 229, fig. 102; G. Wilson in Orch. World 3 (1912) 19, t.; 
Rolfe in Bot. Mag. 139 (1913) t. 8495; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 138, 
7 (1922) 96. 
Mindanao (Surigao), Lyon s. n. 

DENDROBIUM SCO PA Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 28 (1842) Misc. 55; Reichb. f. 

in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 303; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234; 

Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 52, 9 (1914) Bot. 13, 

Orch. 5 (1915) 139. 

Dendrobium thysanochilum Schltr. in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Nachtr. 

Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. (1905) 152, fide Kranzl. 
Desmotrichum scopa Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 
(1910) 349. 

Luzon (Tarlac, Rizal, Laguna), Mindoro, Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), 
Loddiges 273, Lyon s. n., 110, Reillo 58, Merrill 9167, Wenzel 064, Weber 



VoL 1 ORCHIDACEAE 355 

163, Ramos s. n. Epiphyte at sea level to 350 m altitude. In Guam and 
also probably in Formosa, Celebes (fide .Kranzlin), New Guinea, and 
Samoa. 

DENDROBIUM SECUNDUM Wall. Cat. (1828) No. 1996, nomen; Lindl. 
in Bot. Reg. 15 (1829) t. 1291, 30 (1844) Misc. 65, Gen. & Sp. 
Orch. (1830) 81; Hook, in Bot. Mag. 74 (1848) t. 4852; De Vriese 
111. Orch. Ind. Neerl. (1854) t. 6; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 641) 
Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 296; Miq. Sumatra (1862) 
274; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233; Veitch Man. Orch. PI. pt. 
3 (1888) 73; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 730; Stein Orchi- 
deenb. (1892) 207; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 120; Ridl. in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 271, 32 (1896) 259; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 
6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 358, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 272; Kranzl. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich iV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 98; Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 139, in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soe, Straits Branch, 
Special No. (1921) 165. 

Pedilonwm secundum Blume Bijdr. (1825) 322. 

Dendrobium bursigerum Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 17; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 642; Edit, in l'Orchidoph. 2 (1882) 
421; Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 17 (1882) 424; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 238; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. 
PL Vase, Filip. (1886) 267; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 173, 5 (1915) 
117; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 119, 
fig. 10 G~0; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits 
Branch, Special No. (1921) 157. 

Callista bursigera Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 654. 

Callista secunda Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 653. 

Dendrobium secunduwj Wall. var. bursigerum Ridl. in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. 31 (1896) 271. 

Luzon (Bataan, Rizal, Camarines), Mindanao (Lanao, Agusan), R. S. 
Williams 765, B. S. 3097, 22155 Ramos, Weber 4, 1U, F. B. 12287 Curran, 
Merrill 9821 (cult.). Epiphyte at 15 to 230 m altitude. In Burma, Malay 
Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

DENDROBIUM SINUOSUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 96. 
Leyte, Wenzel 0996. Tacloban, Tigbao, at sea level. 

DENDROBIUM SPURIUM (Blume) J. J. Sm. FL Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) 
(1905) 343, Fig.-Atlas (1910) fig. 260; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 
185, text cut, 5 (1915) 139; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 
50. II. B. 21 (1910) 264, figs. 34 A, B, 35 E-H ; Ames in Merr. 
in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 165. 

Dendrocolla spuria Blume Bijdr. (1825) 290; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 
(1859) 697. 

Aerides spurium Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1833) 241. 

Dendrobium unguiculatum Teijsm. & Binn. in Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 
5 (1853) 491; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 634; Reichb. f. in 
Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 303; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrobium euphlebium Reichb. f. ex. Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
3 (1859) 7; Miq. FL Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 633; Reichb. f. Xen. 
Orch. 2 (1862) 26, t. 110, II 6; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232; 



356 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 192i 

Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 268, 32 (1896) 258, Mat. 

Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 49. 
Sarcochilus spurius Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1863) 500. 
Thrixspermum spurium Reichb. f. Xen. Orch. 2 (1867) 122. 
Callista euphlebia Kzte. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 654. 
Callista unguiculata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 655. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Bataan, Sorsogon), F. B. 16727 Curran, Merrill 3692, 
Whitford 1118, Lyon 4S, Weber SI, B. S. 23427 Ramos, Elmer 16384, 
17311. Epiphyte at 100 to 930 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula, Java, 
and Borneo. 

DENDROBIUM STELLA-SILVAE (Loher & Kranzl.) Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 
139. 
Sarcopodium stella-silvae Loher & Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 7 (1909) 
40; Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 18 (August, 1910) 240; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 326, fig. 31 A-C; Ames 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 426. 

Luzon (Abra, Bontoc, Rizal), B. S. 7134. Ramos s. n., Vanoverbergh 
2418, 2868, Loher s. n. On forest slope at 1,000 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM TAURINUM Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) t. 28, 30 (1844) 
Misc. 62; Paxt. Mag. Bot. 10 (1843) 143, 217, t. & text cut; G. 
K. in Bot. Zeit. 1 (1843) 511; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 
298; Van Houtte in Fl. des Serres 18 (1870) 133, t. 1904; Ander- 
son in Gard. Chron. (1872) 974; Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, Laminas 
(1877-83) t. 429; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234; Hemsl. in Gard. 
Chron. II 17 (1882) 776; Veitch Man. Orch. PI. pt. 3 (1888) 78; 
Du Buyss. in l'Orchidoph. 12 (1892) 37; Stein Orchideenb. (1892) 
210; L. Linden in Lindenia 13 (1898) 93, t. 621; Ames Orch. 1 
(1905) 90, 2 (1908) 187, 5 (1915) 139; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 145, fig. 10 A. 
? Dendrobium veratrifolium Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233, non 

Lindl. 
Callista taurina Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 655. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), Guimaras, Mindanao (Davao), Lyon s. n., 24, 
B. S. 2018, 21333, 22245 Ramos, Reillo s. n., 41, Foxivorthy s. n., Loher 
480, Everett 4206, Black s. n., 3, Copeland 505. 

DENDROBIUM TERNATENSE J.J. Sm. in Bull. Dept. Agr. Ind. Neerl. 22 
(1909) 26; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 
246, fig. 20 A-C; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 139. 
Dendrobium macrophyllum Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 179, non A. Rich.; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 244, quoad 
Philip. 

Luzon (Bataan), Whitford 1083. Mt. Mariveles. Lamao River. Ap- 
parently rare in the Philippines. Epiphyte at 900 m altitude. In Ter- 
nate Island. 



Vol.! 



ORCHIDACEAE 357 



DENDROBIUM T0PA2IACUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 140. 
Leyte, Wenzel 0202. Dagami, epiphyte at 60 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM UNICORNE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 140. 

Luzon (Lacuna), Leyte, B. S. 14-987 Ramos, Wenzel 0292, 0527, 0563, 
0872. Epiphyte at 500 to 700 m altitude in Leyte. 

DENDROBIUM UNIFLORUM Griff. Notul. 3 (1851) 305, Icon. PI. Asiat. 
3 (1851) t. SOS; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II 3 (1893) 363, in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 271, 32 (1896) 256, Mat. Fl. Mai. 
Penin. 1 (1907) 46; Ames Orch. 1 (1908) 91; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 185, quoad bibliog. et spec, 
(excl. descr.) ; Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits 
Branch, Special No. (1921) 166. 
Dendrobium revolutum Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 732, quoad 
syn. D. uniflorum Griff, et spec. Malacca; Grant Orch. Burma 
(1895) 118, quoad syn. D. uniflorum Griff, et spec. Malacca; Ames 
Orch. 2 (1908) 184, quoad syn. D. uniflorum Griff, et spec, 5 
(1915) 138; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 
(1910) 185, quoad descr. (excl. bibliog. et spec), non Lindl. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon), Sibuyan, Negros 
(Occidental Negros), Leyte, Dinagat, Mindanao (Lanao, Agusan, Surigao). 
Fairly common and of wide distribution in the Philippines. Epiphyte at 
60 to 700 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula and Borneo (Sarawak). 

Further study of the Philippine material has proved that the species 
concerned is D. uniflorum Griff, and not its near ally D. revolutum Lindl. 
with which it has been much confused. 

DENDROBIUM USTERI Schltr. in Usteri Viert. Naturf. Gesell. Zurich 
56 (1906) 450, in Bull. Herb. Boiss. II 6 (1906) 458; Kranzl. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 300; Ames Orch. 5 
(1915) 141. 

Negros, Guimaras, Usteri s. n., Lyon 137. 

DENDROBIUM USTERIOIDES Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 142. 
Luzon, Mindoro, Lyon 22, F. B. 3693 Merritt 75. 

DENDROBIUM VENTRICOSUM Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 21 (1910) 209; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot 19, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 144. 

Luzon (Zambales, Sorsogon), Mindanao (Agusan, Surigao, Davao), 
Loher s. n., 6004, Elmer 14441, 14779, 16423, Weber 119, 176, 179, Wenzel 
01156, Black s. n. Epiphyte at low altitudes in Mindanao. 

DENDROBIUM VERRUCULOSUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 
Bot. 426, Orch. 5 (1915) 144. 

Luzon (Ilocos Norte), Leyte, Lyon s. n., 143, B. S. 33236 Ramos, Wenzel 
0140. Epiphyte. 



358 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1921 

DENDROBIUM VICTORIAE REGINAE Loher in Gard. Chron. Ill 21 
(1897) 399, 22 (1897) 121, fig. 3U; Cogn. Diet. Icon. Orch. (1899) 
Dendrob. t. 21; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 92, 5 (1915) 144; Kranzl. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50 II. B. 21 (1910) 109, fig. 6 A, B; 
Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 20 (1912) 17, fig. 6. 

Dendrobium coeleste Loher in Gard. Chron. Ill 22 (1897) 1; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 120. 

Dendrobium victoriae reginae Loher var. exile Ames in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 328. 

Luzon (Benguet), Mindoro, Negros, Mindanao (Camiguin Island), Elmer 
6272, B. S. U326 Mearns, 31797 Santos, 1U29 Ramos, Lyon 122, Boettcher 
s. n., Merrill 5503, 7011, Loher J+83. Epiphyte at 1,300 to 2,650 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM WENZELII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 144. 

Leyte, Mindanao (Lanao, Surigao), Wenzel 039, 0139, M. S. Clemens £3, 
Hutchinson 7551. Epiphyte at 30 to 60 m altitude. 

DENDROBIUM ZAMBOANGENSE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 145. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga, Agusan), Merrill 817U, Elmer 13697. Epiphyte 
at about 1,100 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Dendrobium aciculare Lindl. apud Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148; 
Vidal Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 267; Hook. f. PL Brit. Ind. 5 
(1890) 725, quoad Philip.; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 21 (1910) 241, quoad Philip.; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 113 = 
Dendrobium philippinense Ames. 

Dendrobium acuminatum Lyon in Gard. Chron. Ill 42 (1907) 210, fig. 
88; Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 15 (1907) 312, as to plant spoken of; 
Kranzl. in Orchis 2 (1908) 73, t. 16; Edit, in Gard. Chron. Ill 
46 (1909) 150, fig. 64, in Gardners' Mag. 52 (1909) 659, 660, 
text cut, non Rolfe ex Ames = Dendrobium lyonii Ames. 

Dendrobium aduncum Wall, ex Lindl. apud Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. 
(1882) 234;, Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 166; Ames Orch. 5 
(1915) 114, in nota. 

This is a Himalayan species, and there is no sufficient reason for 
considering that it grows in the Philippines; cf. Ames 1. c. for a critical 
note. It is not improbable that the plant reported as growing there may 
in reality be the closely related species Dendrobium hercoglossum Reichb. f. 

Dendrobium alagense Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 328 = 
Dendrobium luzonense Lindl. 

Dendrobium album Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234, nomen; Ceron 
Cat. PL Herb. Manila (1892) 166, nomen. 

Boxall probably intended Dendrobium album Wight, which is a synonym 
of D. aqueum Lindl., an Indian species. 

Dendrobium aloifolium Reichb. f. apud Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 
50. II. B. 21 (1910) 206, quoad syn. D. merrillii; Ames Orch. 5 
(1915) 115 (D. aloefolium) = Dendrobium merrillii Ames. 



Yo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 359 

Dendrobium angustifolium Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
14, non Lindl. = Dendrobium chrysographatum Ames. 

Dendrobium antennatum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium atropurpureum Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 86, 2 (1908) 172; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 217, quoad 
Philip., non Miq. = Dendrobium cultratum Schltr. 

Dendrobium aureoroseum Reichb. f. apud Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 125, p. p.; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 115. 
This is a Javan species to which Kranzlin has referred a Philippine 
specimen collected by Cuming. J. J. Smith considers it to be a synonym 
of Dendrobium nudum Lindl. 

Dendrobium aureum Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 77; Ames Orch. 5 
(1915) 115 = Dendrobium heterocarpum Lindl. 

Dendrobium bifarium Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium binnendijkii Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium blumes Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 14; Miq. PI. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 638; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232; Kranzl. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 234, quoad syn. 
D. planibidbe Lindl. et quoad Philip. = Dendrobium planibulbe 
Lindl. 

Dendrobium brongniartii Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 
21 (1910) 210; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 15, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 116 = Dendrobium aporoides (Lindl.) Merr. 

Dendrobium bursigerum Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 17; Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 642; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 
267; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 173, 5 (1915) 117; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 119, fig. 10 G-0 = Den- 
drobium secundum Wall. 

Dendrobium calceolum Roxb. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrobium calophyllum Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium calopogon Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium canaliculatum R. Br. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium caninum Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 19 (1921) 344, non 
Epidendrum caninum Burm. f. = Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. 

Dendrobium capillipes Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium carnosum Teijsm. & Binn. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
234. 

Dendrobium cerinum Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 12 (1879) 554; Ridl. 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 263, in textu sub D. sanguinolen- 
tum Lindl.; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 
121; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 119. 

Reichenbach merely states that the type material came from the Malay 
Archipelago; Ridley, under D. sanguinolentum Lindl., doubts its being a 



360 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

distinct species and states that Burbidge's specimen came from the Sulu 
Archipelago. No material comparable with this species has been seen 
from the Philippines; for discussion cf. Ames 1. c. 

Dendrobium cobbianum Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 14 (1881) 748; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 297. 

The origin of this plant is unknown; it was sent to Reichenbach without 
localization by the firm of Hugh Low & Co. Why it is included among 
the Philippine species is unknown, as there seems no ground upon which to 
assume that it came from the Philippines. 

Dendrobium coeleste Loher in Gard. Chron. Ill 22 (1897) 1; Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 120 = Dendrobium victoriae reginae Loher. 

Dendrobium concinnum Miq. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234. 

Dendrobium connatum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrobium conostalix Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 292; Usteri 
Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 128; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 162; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 120. 

This is a Malayan species which has been reported from the Philippines. 
No material from the Philippines matches it and the reports seem erro- 
neous. Cf. Ames 1. c. for discussion. 

Dendrobium convexum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrobium crepidatum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium cumulatum Lindl. apud Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 
50. II. B. 21 (1910) 115, quoad Philip.; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 121. 
The Philippine specimens referred here by Kranzlin represent Dendro- 
bium crumenatum Sw. Cf. Ames 1. c. 

Dendrobium cymbidioides Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231 = 
? Dendrobium acuminatum Rolfe ex Ames. 

Dendrobium dayanum Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234, nomen; 
Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 166, nomen. 

Dendrobium draconis Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium equitans Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 
(1910) 228, quoad Philip. = Dendrobium aporoides (Lindl.) Merr. 
This species is known only from Formosa. 

Dendrobium erosum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium erythroxanthum Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 2 (1874) 162; 
Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234 = Dendrobium bullenia- 
num Reichb. f. 

Dendrobium euphlebium Reichb. f. ex Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 
7; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232 = Dendrobium spurium (Blume) 
J. J. Sm. 

Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook, apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium flabellum Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 



v °i i ORCHIDACEAE 361 

Dendrobium gemellum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium goldschmidtianum Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 7 (1909) 40, 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II.* B. 21 (1910) 116. 
"Provinz der Philippinen und Formosa." — Kranzlin. The specimen 
probably originated in Formosa, not in the Philippines. 

Dendrobium gouldii Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234. 

Dendrobium gracile Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 
230, quoad Philip.; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 125. 
Kranzlin, in his monograph of the genus, refers Loher 496 to this 
species. What the Loher plant is is open to question, but no material 
referable to D. gracile has been seen in the collections received. 

Dendrobium grandiflorum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium haenkeanum Steud. Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2, 1 (1840) 490 = 
Geodorum nutans (Presl) Ames. 

Dendrobium hasseltii Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium heteroideum Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrobium hymenophyllum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium indivisum Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 267; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 217, quoad 
Philip.; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 52, non Miq. = 
Dendrobium distichum (Presl) Reichb. f . 

Dendrobium intermedium Teijsm. & Binn. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
232. 

Dendrobium javanicum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234. 

Dendrobium johannis Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium kuhlii Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium labuanum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrobium lamellatum Lindl. apud Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 
50. II. B. 21 (1910) 269, quoad Philip.; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) ix. 
Cuming 207 U, referred here by Kranzlin, is probably Dendrobium platy- 
catdon Rolfe; cf. Ames 1. c. 

Dendrobium lilacinum Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium ix>bbii Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrobium longicolle Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 26 (1840) Misc. 74; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 127. 
Diplocaulobium longicolle Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 21 (1910) 340. 

The type was a specimen sent to Loddiges by Cuming from Singapore, 
where the species still occurs. There is no reason to consider it as Phil- 
ippine. 



362 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Dendrobium lucens Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium maccarthiae Thw. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium macraei Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 89, 2 (1908) 176, non Lindl. = 
Dendrobium plicatile Lindl. 

Dendrobium macranthum Hook, in Bot. Mag. 69 (1842) t, 3970; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 233; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 166, 
non A. Rich. = Dendrobium anosmum Lindl. 

Dendrobium macrophyllum Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 179, non A. Rich.; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 244, quoad 
Philip. = Dendrobium ternatense J. J. Sm. 

Dendrobium macrophyllum Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 25 (1839) Misc. 36, 28 
(1842) Misc. 84, 30 (1844) Misc. 47, Sert. Orch. (1840) t. 35; 
Paxt. Mag. Bot. 8 (1841) 97, t.; Hook. Cent. Orch. PI. (1851) 
t. 12; Planch. Hort. Donat. (1855) 156, Atlas t. 1; Reichb. f. in 
Linden Pescat. 1 (1860) 40, t. UO, non A. Rich. = Dendrobium 
anosmum Lindl. 

Dendrobium manillense Schauer in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1 
(1843) 430 = Appendicula cornuta Blume. 

Dendrobium metachilinum Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 222, in Walp. 

Ann. 6 (1861) 290; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234; Vidal Phan. 

Cuming. Philip. (1885) 148, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 267; Ames 

Orch. 5 (1915) 128. 
The type of this species is Cuming 2057, which, was unquestionably from 
the Malay Peninsula, not from the Philippines. The species is known only 
from the Malay Peninsula. Cf. Ames 1. c. 

Dendrobium minax Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium moniliforme Sw. apud Llanos ex F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco 
Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 100; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium monophyllum F. v. Muell. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
232. 

Dendrobium nudum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium nutans Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1827) 102; Presl Symb. Bot. 
1 (1832) 34, t. S3; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234 = Geodorum 
nutans (Presl) Ames. 

Dendrobium parciflorum Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 
21 (1910) 222, quoad Philip.; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 18, non Reichb. f. = Dendrobium marivelense Ames. 

Dendrobium parcum Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium paucilaciniatum J. J. Sm. apud Prain in Ind. Kew. Suppl. 
3 (1908) 58. 

Index Kewensis cites "Ins. Philip." as the locality; this is an error 
as the type was from Ternate. 

Dendrobium pierardii Roxb. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 



Vo1 - 2 ORCHIDACEAE 363 

Dendrobium pseudaclinia Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 9; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 134 = Dendrobium aclinw Reichb. f. 

Dendrobium pugioniforme A. Cunn. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium pumilum Reichb. f. apud Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 
148. 

Probably Dendrobium pumilum Roxb. was intended, as Reichenbach 
apparently described no such species. Vidal referred here Cuming 2102 as 
Philippine; the specimen in all probability came from the Malay Peninsula 
where the species is seemingly not uncommon. 

Dendrobium purpureum Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1880) 233. 

Dendrobium pusillum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrobium radians Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium ramosum Lindl. apud Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 21 (1910) 53, quoad Philip. 
This is an Indian species, Kranzlin giving its other range as "Philip- 
pinen (?)." There is no reason for considering it as a Philippine species. 

Dendrobium retusum Llanos in Mem. Real. Acad. Cienc. Madr. 4 (1857) 
498; F.-Vill. & Naves in Blanco PI. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 100 = 
? Dendrobium anosmum Lindl. 

Dendrobium revolutum Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 732, quoad syn. D. 
uniflorum Griff, et spec. Malacca; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 118, 
quoad syn. D. uniflorum Griff, et spec. Malacca; Ames Orch. 2 
(1908) 184, quoad syn. D. uniflorum Griff, et spec, 5 (1915) 138; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 185, quoad 
deser. (excl. bibliog. et spec), non Lindl. = Dendrobium uniflorum 
Griff. 

Dendrobium rhombeum Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) t. 17, 30 (1844) 
Misc. 56; Reichb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 1 (1843) 333; Lindl. in Paxt. 
Flow. Gard. 3 (1852-53) 52; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233 = 
Dendrobium heterocarpum Wall. 

Dendrobium robinsonii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 425, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 138 = Dendrobium carinatum (Linn.) Willd. 

Dendrobium ruckeri Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) Misc. 25, t. 60, 30 
(1844) Misc. 52; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 288; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 234; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 138. 
When first described this was thought to be of Philippine origin. R. 
A. Rolfe, in Orch. Rev. 4 (1896) 87, has shown it to be an Indian 
species. Cf. Ames 1. c 
Dendrobium scabrilingue Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium sculptum Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233. 

Dendrobium serra Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrobium sinuatum Schltr. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 43; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 216, quoad 

Philip., non Lindl. = Dendrobium cultratum Schltr. 



364 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Dendrobium striatum Hort. ex Gard. Chron. Ill 38 (1905) 382; Kranzl. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 298 = Dendrobium 
o'brienianum Kranzl. 

Dendrobium striolatum Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium subteres Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrobium subulatum Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium superbum Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 282; Vidal Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 267; 
Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 90, 2 (1908) 186, 5 (1915) 139 = Dendro- 
bium anosmum Lindl. 

Dendrobium tenellum Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

Dendrobium teres Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 638, non Roxb. = Luisia 
teretifolia Gaudich. 

Dendrobium teretifolium Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 444, ed. 3, 3 
(1879) 34, non R. Br. '= Luisia teretifolia Gaudich. 

Dendrobium teretifolium R. Br. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium tetraedre Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium tetragonum A. Cunn. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium tmesipteris Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 232. 

Dendrobium tuadenum Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234, nomen. 

Dendrobium unguiculatum Teijsm. & Binn. in Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 5 
(1853) 941; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231 = Dendrobium spurium 
(Blume) J. J. Sm. 

Dendrobium vanoverberghii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 425, 
t. 13 = Dendrobium papilio Loher. 

Dendrobium veitchianum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882 )231. 

Dendrobium veratrifolium Naves Novis. App. (1882) 233, non Lindl. = 
? Dendrobium taurinum Lindl. 

Dendrobium xantholeucum Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 231. 

65. ERIA Lindley 

ERIA ALBOLUTEA Rolfe in Kew Bull. (1917) 80. 

Described from cultivated specimens originating in the Philippines. 

ERIA ANCEPS Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 219, 237, 
fig. 18; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 
129; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 146. 

Negros (Occidental Negros), Palawan, Whitford 1601, F. B. 7275 Eve- 
rett, B. S. 636 Foxworthy. 

ERIA BARBIFRONS Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 * 
(1911) 52. 
"Provinz der Philippinen und Siid-Formosa: Philippinen, vermuthlich 
Manila, von A. Loher gesandt." Known only from the description. 



vol- 1 ORCHIDACEAE 365 

ERIA BINABAYENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 329; 
Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 223, 242; Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 146. 
Trichotosia binabayensis Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 21 2 (1911) 141. 
Luzon (Laguna), Mindoro, B. S. 16551+ Ramos, Merrill 5661. Epiphyte 
in humid forest at 215 m altitude in Mindoro. 

ERIA BONTOCENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 427, Orch. 
5 (1915) 146. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 1386. 

ERIA BRACHYSTACHYA Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 223; Lindl. in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 59; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 657; 
Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 276; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
236; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. PI. Vase. 
Filip. (1886) 268; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 221, 
241; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 188, 5 (1915) 146; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 a (1911) 100. 

Pinalia brachystachya Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 678. 

Eria wenzelii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 428. 

Babuyan Islands (Camiguin Island), Luzon (Kalinga, Rizal, Camarines, 
Sorsogon), Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan). A fairly common species of wide 
distribution. Epiphyte at sea level to 1,000 m altitude. 

ERIA BRACTESCENS Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 27 (1841) Misc. 18, 30 (1844) 
t. 29; Paxt. Mag. Bot. 8 (1841) 118, 11 (1844) 116; ( Edit, in 
Gard. Chron. (1841) 231; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 277; 
Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. II 18 (1882) 468; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind. 5 (1890) 796; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II 3 (1893) 366; 
Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 135; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 
(1896) 293; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 8 (Orch. 
Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 120, t. 166; Williams in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 
II 4 (1904) 368; J. J. Sm. Orch. Amb. (1905) 74; Ridl. Mat. 
Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 101; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 189, 5 (1915) 
147; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 209, 231, fig. 11; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 a (1911) 88; Ames 
in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. 
(1921) 168. 

Eria dillwynii Hook, in Bot. Mag. 71 (1845) t. 4168 ; Lindl. in Bot. 
Reg. 31 (1845) Misc. 63; F. Kl. in Bot. Zeit. 3 (1845) 550; Paxt. 
Mag. Bot. 12 (1846) 140; Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 
55; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 87. 

Eria litoralis Teijsm. & Binn. in Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 24 (1862) 
312. 

Pinalia bractescens Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 679. 

Luzon (Bataan, Rizal), Basilan, Samar, Mindanao (Zamboanga), Lyon 
123, 150, F. B. 1+017, 6562 Hutchinson, Whitford 1082, B. S: 3000, 6562, 
17641 Ramos. Epiphyte, apparently at low altitudes. 



366 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

ERIA CANDOONENSIS Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 101. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38941 Ramos & Edano. Mt. Candoon, epi- 
phyte at 1,650 m altitude. 

ERIA CARNICOLOR Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 152. 

Luzon (Bontoc), B. S. 37937 Ramos & Edano. Mt. Masapilid, epiphyte 
in mossy forest at 1,600 m altitude. 

ERIA CLEMENSIAE Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 220, 238, 
fig. 20; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 
126; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 147. 

Luzon (Rizal), Panay (Antique), Leyte, Mindanao (Lanao, Bukidnon), 
Reillo s. ii., B. S. 32192 McGregor, 15390 Ramos, 38891 Ramos & Edano, 
Wenzel 0393, 01*95, M. S. Clemens 602. Epiphyte in forest at 500 to 1,000 
m altitude. 

ERIA COCHLEATA Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30 (1844) Misc. 14; Reichb. f. 
in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 269; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236. 

Imported from the Philippines by Loddiges. Known only from the 
original description in which Lindley states that it has the appearance of 

E. stellata which is a synonym of E. javanica (Sw.) Blume. Kranzlin 
does not treat E. cochleata in his monograph of the genus in Das Pflan- 
zenreich. 

ERIA COM PACTA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 329; Leavitt 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 208, 231; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 77, fig. 15 A-D; Ames Orch. 5 
(1915) 147. 
Mindoro, Merritt W0. Mt. Halcon, at 1,415 m altitude. 

ERIA COPELANDII Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 203, 
226, fig. 3; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 147; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 
Beihefte 4 (Orch. Sino-Jap. Prodr.) (1919) 217 in textu. 
Eria formosana Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 * 
(1911) 47, non Rolfe. 
Mindanao (Misamis, Bukidnon, Davao), F. B. 4-596, 4600 Mearns & 
Hutchinson, B. S. 38524 Ramos & Edano, Copeland 14-23. Epiphyte at 
1,560 to 3,060 m altitude. 

Var. FUSIFORM IS Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 204, 227. 
Eria formosana Kranzl. var. fusiformis Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzen- 
reich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 47. 
Luzon (Lepanto, Benguet), Merrill 4590, Ramos & Edano 85, 106, 111, 

F. B. 5067 Curran. Epiphyte at 2,100 to 2,530 m altitude. 

ERIA CURRANII Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 210, 233, fig. 

13; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 a (1911) 79; 

Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 147. 
Palawan, F. B. 3904 Curran. 
ERIA CYLINDROSTACHYA Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 190, text cut, 5 (1915) 

147; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 211, 234, fig. 15; 

Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 69, fig. 

51 L, M. 



Vol. l ORCHIDACEAE 367 

Luzon (Benguet, Rizal), Mindanao (Misamis, Bukidnon, Davao), Boett- 
cher s. n., B. S. 29371, 38648, 39079 Ramos & Edano, F. B. 4612 Mecvrns 
& Hutchinson, Copeland 1424, Elmer 10632, 10632a. Epiphyte at 100 to 
1,560 m altitude. 

ERIA CYMBIFORMIS J. J. Sm. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 1 (1904) 152, 

text cut; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 330; Leavitt 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 224, 243, fig. 26; Kranzl. in 

Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 104; Schltr. in 

Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. 104 (1911) 40; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 

147. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro, Negros 

(Oriental Negros), Leyte, Mindanao (Davao). A fairly common and widely 

distributed species. Epiphyte at 500 to 1,015 m altitude, in Sumatra. 

ERIA DAGAMENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 147. 

Luzon (Ifugao), Leyte, Sandkuhl 296, Wenzel 0123, 0305, 0308, 0314, 
0315, 0317, ,0318, 0320, 0321, 0322, 0323, 0345, 0346, B. S. 42087 Edano 
Epiphyte in forest at 500 to 600 m altitude in Leyte. 

ERIA DAVAENS1S Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1575, Orch. 
5 (1915) 149. 
Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11321. Todaya, Mt. Apo; epiphyte in humid 
forest at 1,300 m altitude. 

ERIA FASTIGATI FOLIA Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 191, text cut, 5 (1915) 
149; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 221, 240, jig. 22. 
Trichotosia fastigiatifolia Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 21 * (1911) 162. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Ifugao, Benguet, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), 
Negros (Oriental Negros), Leyte. A fairly common species, especially in 
Luzon. Epiphyte at 300 to 1,300 m altitude. 

ERIA FLORIBUNDA Lindl. in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 7408, nomen, in 
Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) Misc. 43, 30 (1844) t. 20; Paxt. Mag. Bot. 
11 (1844) 91; Lindl. in Journ. Hort. Soc. 3 (1848) 15, in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 60; Miq. PL Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 661; Reichb. 
f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 276; Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. II 18 
(1882) 488; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 792; Ridl. in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. II 3 (1893) 366; Grant Orch. Burma (1895) 140; 
Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 290; Williams in Bull. Herb. 
Boiss. II 4 (1904) 368; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) 
(1905) 400, Fig.-Atlas (1911) fig. SOS; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 
1 (1907) 96; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 209, 231, 
fig. 10 (excl. syn. E. densa Ridl.) ; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 120, fig. 25 A-D ; Winkler in Engl., Bot. 
Jahrb. 48 (1912) 101; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 149, 6 (1920) 124, 
in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. 
(1921) 170. 

Eria leucostachya Lindl. in Journ. Hort. Soc. 3 (1848) 15. 

Eria floribunda Lindl. var. leucostachya Lindl. in Paxt. Flow. Gard. 
3 (1853) 116, fig. 288. 

Pinalia floribunda Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 678. 



368 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1924 

Palawan, Mindanao (Cotabato, Agusan, Bukidnon), B. S. 550, 633 Fox- 
worthy, 38911, 390U, 39107 Ramos & Edano, Merrill 9617, Weber 152, 228. 
Epiphyte at 15 to 1,260 m altitude. In Burma, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Java, and Borneo. 

ERJA FUSCA Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 183; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 3 (1859) 658; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23. (1885) 215; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. PL .Vase. Filip. (1886) 
268; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 388; Leavitt in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 222, 241; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 149, 
in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. 
(1921) 170. 

? Eria hirta Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 184; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 658, fide Kranzl. 

Trichotosia ciliata Teijsm. & Binn. in Nafy Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 5 
(1853) 492. 

Trichotosia fusca Teijsm. & Binn. in Nati^Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 5 
(1853) 492; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 7 
(1911) 145. 

Eria ciliata Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 659 ; (0 Reichb. f. in Walp. 
Ann. 6 (1861) 273. . ,", 

Pinalia ciliata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 678. 

Pinalia fusca Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 678. 

? Pinalia hirta Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 678! 

? Trichotosia hirta Blume in Herb. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. ex Kranzl. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 ! (191,1) 145, in syn. 

Negros (Occidental Negros), Leyte, F. B. 5582 Everett, Copeland 138, 
Wenzel 045, 0143, B. S. 40147 Lopez. Epiphyte in forest at 60 m altitude 
in Leyte. In Java and Borneo and, perhaps, Celebes. 

ERIA GIGANTEA Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 192, text cut, 5 (1915) 149; Lea- 
vitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 218, 239, fig. 21; Kranzl. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 130;, Ames in 
Addisonia 6 (1921) 41, t. 213. 

Luzon (Isabela, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna), Mindanao . (Misamis, Lanao), 
Lyon U6, Topping 472, Merrill 4110, B. S. 3430 Ramos, 18995 Brown, F. B. 
4606 Meams & Hutchinson, M. S. Clemens s. n., 437. Terrestrial (?) at 
660 to 1,300 m altitude. 

ERIA GRACILISCAPA Rolfe ex Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 93, 2 (1908) 193, 

3 (1908) 88, t. 57, 5 (1915) 149; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

4 (1909) Bot. 205, 228; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 21 2 (1911) 108. 

Luzon (Kalinga, Bataan, Tayabas), Boettcher s. n., Whitford 307, Top- 
ping 474, F. B. 795 Borden, Elmer 7405. Epiphyte at 600 to 1,000 m alti- 
tude. 

ERIA HALCONENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 330; Ames 
Orch. 3 (1908) 85, t. 56, 5 (1915) 149; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 224, 241. 
Trichotosia halconensis Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 
B. 21 ' (1911) 149. 



Y0I.1 ORCHIDACEAE .^ 369 

Mindoro, Panay (Capiz), Merrill 5510, 5742, B, S. 30TI6 Ramos & Edano. 
Terrestrial and epiphytic at 330 to 2,000 m altitude. 

ERIA HIRSUTIPETALA Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 102. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 39124 Ramos & Edano. Mt. Candoon, 
epiphyte in mossy forest at 1,830 m altitude. 
I 
1 ERIAHUTCHINSONIANA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 330; 

Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 204, 227, fig. 4; Kranzl. 
in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 80, fig. 17 A-D; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 150. 
Mindoro, Merrill 5514. Mt. Halcon, terrestrial on mossy ridge at 2,300 
m altitude. 

ERIA JARENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 150. 

Luzon (Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna), Leyte, Mindanao (Surigao), Wenzel 
0356, 0357, 0358, 0365, 0377, Lyon 130, B. S. 204-36 Ramos, 20090 McGregor. 
Epiphyte in fores^ at 50O to 750 m altitude. 

ERIA JAVANICA (Sw.) Blume Rumphia 2 (1836) 23; Ames Orch. 2 
(1908) 193; J. J. Sm. in Nova Guinea 8 (1909) 86, 8 3 (1912) 
577, 12 4 (1 16) 352; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 21 2 (1911) 26; Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 10 (1911) 91; J. J. 
Sm. Orch. Jav. Fig.-Atlas (1911) fig. 287; Ames in Merr. in Journ. 
Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 171. 

Dendrobium javanicum Sw. in Kongl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Nya Handl. 
21 (1800) 247; Willd. Sp. PI. 4 (1805) 137. 

Dendrolirium rugosum Blume Bijdr. (July, 1825) 345. 

Eria stellata Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 11 (August, 1825) t. 904; Lindl. 
Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 67;, Paxt. Mag. Bot. 2 (1836) 137, 4 
(1838) 234; Hook, in Bot. Mag. 64 (1837) t. 3605; Reichb. f. in 
Bonpl. 5 (1857) 54; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 661; Reichb. f. 
in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 269; Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. II 18 (1882) 
500; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II 
3 (1893) 366, in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 285, 32 (1896) 304"; 
Kranzl. in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. (1901) 
248; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 128; Ridl. Mat. Fl. 
Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 98. 

Octomeria stellata Spreng.. Syst. Veg. 4 Cur. Post (1827) 310. 

Octomeria vaginata Breda Gen. et Sp. Orch. Jav. (1827) t. 5. 

Eria ragosa Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 66; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 
3 (1859) 661; Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. II 18 (1882) 500; J. J. 
Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 378, Orch. Amb. (1905) 
74; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 212, 235; Ames 
Orch. 5 (1915) 158. 

Eria fragrans Reichb. f. in Bot. Zeit. 22 (1864) 415, in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. 30 (1874) 137; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 794; Grant 
Orch. Burma (1895) 140; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. 
Calc. 8 (Orch. Sik.-Himal.) (1898) 122, t. 168; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 24. 

Eria striolata Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. Ill 3 (May 5, 1888) 554, 
in 111. Hort. 35 (May, 1888) 35, t. 48; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 

200823 24 



370 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

31 (1896) 285, 36 (1896) 304, Mat. PI. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 
99; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 25. 
Tainia stellata Pfitz. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 2 Abt. 

6 (1888) 153. 
Dendrobium perakense Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 712, in Hook. 
. Icon. PI. 21 (1890) t. 2019. 
Pinalia rugosa Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 679. 
Pinalia fragrans Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 679. 
Pinalia stellata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 679. 
Pinalia striolata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 679. 
Eria vaginata Benth. ex Jacks. Ind. Kew. (1893) 864. 
Sarcopodium perakense Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. 

B. 21 (1910) 328. 
Eria javanica Blume var. philippinensis Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzen- 
reich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) fig. 11+ E-J. 
Luzon (Albay, Bontoc, Benguet, Rizal, Laguna), Leyte, Mindanao (Zam- 
boanga, Lanao), Loher 6003, Vanoverbergh 3911, Lyons- «■•> B. S. 15135 
Ramos, 17905 Brown, Wenzel 0100, F. B. 12361+ Hutchinson, M. S. Clemens 
s. n. Up to 1,200 m altitude in Bontoc. In India, Burma, Malay Penin- 
sula, Sumatra, Celebes, Amboina, Borneo, and New Guinea. 

It seems probable that Eria micholitzii Kranzl. in Oesterr. Bot. Zeit- 
schr. (1894) 459; Schltr. in Fedde Repeit. Beihefte 1 (Orch. Deutsch- 
Neu-Guin.) (1912) 653, Eria pseudostellata Schltr. in K. Schum. & 
Lauterb. Nachtr. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. (1905) 182, and Eria papuana 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 25 are conspe- 
cific. Schlechter reduces his E. pseudostellata and E. papuana Kranzl. 
(to which Kranzlin reduces his E. micholitzii) to E. micholitzii Kranzl. 
J. J. Smith states that E. pseudostellata Schltr. is probably the same as 
E: javanica Blume, and Kranzlin, in Das Pflanzenreich, cites it as a syn- 
onym of that species. 

ERIA LAGUNENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 150. 

Luzon (Laguna), Serrato s. n. Epiphyte in thicket forest. 

ERIA LAMELLATA Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1576, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 152. 

Biliran, Mindanao (Davao), B. S. 1891+2 McGregor, Elmer 11715. 
Epiphyte in humid forest at 660 to 1,300 m altitude. 

ERIA LEAVITTII Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 
64, fig. 17 G, H. 
Eria ventricosa Leavitt var. benguetensis Leavitt in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 212, 234. 

Luzon (Benguet), Merrill 1+81+9, B. S. J+986 Curran. Terrestrial and epi- 
phytic in mossy forest up to 1,950 m altitude. 

ERIA LEYTENSIS Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 427, Orch. 
5 (1915) 152. 

Leyte, Negros, Wenzel 017, 0169, 0674, F. B. 19072 Curran. Epiphyte at 
60 to 600 m altitude. 



Vo1 - * ORCHIDACEAE 371 

ERIA LOHERIANA Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 387. 

Loher s. n. Known only from the original description; no material has 
been seen. 

ERIA LONGIBRACTEATA Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 

219, 238, fig. 19; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 

21 2 (1911) 126; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 152. 
Luzon (Cagayan), Mindanao (Zamboanga, Misamis), F. B. 16735 Cur- 
ran, 4728 Mearns & Hutchinson, Merrill 8142. Up to 1,900 m altitude 
in Misamis. 



■i 



ERIA LONGICRURIS Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 205, 
228, fig. 6; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 
(1911) 109; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 152. 

Mindanao (Misamis, Davao), F. B. 4609 Mearns & Hutchinson, Elmer 
11351. At 2,800 m in Misamis. 

ERIA LONGILABRIS Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 27 (1841) Misc. 38, 30 (1844) 
sub t. 29, fig. 3; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 277; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 236; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) 
Bot. 210, 232; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 
(1911) 86; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 152. 

Panay, Cuming s. n. Known only from the description and the Cuming 
specimen. 

As pointed out by Leavitt and by Ames this may be only a variety of 
E. bractescens Lindl., but for the present it is deemed best to maintain 
it as a separate species. 

ERIA LYON 1 1 Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 212, 234, fig. 
17; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 87; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 152. 

Luzon (Tarlac), Lyon B, 116 in part (Luzon material). Terrestrial 
(?) near sea level. » 

ERIA MACERA Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 103. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38512 Ramos & Edano. Epiphyte on 
mossy forest slope at 2,130 m altitude. 

ERIA MAJOR Ridl. ex Stapf in Trans. Linn. Soc. II 4 (1894) 237, in 
syn.; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 280, 32 (1896) 288, 
Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 90; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
4 (1909) Bot. 218, 239; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 
21 2 (1911) 128; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 155, 6 (1920) 131, in Merr. 
in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 
172. 
Eria kingii Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 790, in Hook. Icon. PI. 

21 (1891) t. 2066, non F. v. Muell. 
Eria scortechinii Stapf in Trans. Linn. Soc. II 4 (1894) 237, non 
Hook. f. 
Mindanao (Misamis), F. B. 4595 Mearns & Hutchinson. Mt. Malindang 
at 1,750 m altitude. 



372 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

ERIA MAQUILINGENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 152. 

Luzon (Laguna), B. S. 17909 Brown. Mt. Maquiling, epiphyte in forest 
at 700 m altitude. 

ERIA MCGREGORII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 153. 
Luzon (Ifugao), B. S. 19876 McGregor. Mt. Polis. 

ERIA MEARNSII Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 216, 236; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 3 (1911) 37; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 155. 
Mindanao (Misamis, Agusan, Davao), F. B. 4729 Mearns & Hutchinson, 
Elmer 11850, 13802. Epiphyte up to 1,700 m altitude in Misamis. 

ERIA MERRILLII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 331; Leavitt 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 213, 235 ;, Kranzl. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 56; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 155. 

Luzon (Rizal, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Leyte, Mindanao (Surigao), Lyon 
116 in part, 5626, Elmer 15552, Merrill 5519, Wenzel 010 U, 0717. Epiphyte 
at 60 to 800 m altitude. 

ERIA MERRITTII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 331; Lea- 
vitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 207, 230; Kranzl. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 107; Ames Orch. 
•5 (1915) 155. 
Luzon (Rizal, Laguna), Mindoro, Leyte, B. S. 19205 Reillo, 15122 Ra- 
mos, F. B. 4537 Merritt. Epiphyte at 500 to 1,300 m altitude. 

ERIA MICROCHILA Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 104. 

Luzon (Bontoc), B. S. 37997 Ramos & Edano. Mt. Caual. Epiphyte in 
mossy forest at 1,530 m altitude. 

ERIA MINDANAENSIS Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1577. 
Orch. 5 (1915) 155, 6 (1920) 207. 

Sibuyan, Panay (Capiz), Elmer 12271, B. S. 35379, 35633 Martelino & 
Edano. Epiphyte at 250 to 660 m altitude. 

ERIA ODORIFERA Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 223, 242, 
fig. 2U; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 156. 
Trichotosia odorifera Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 
21 2 (1911) 153. 

Negros (Oriental Negros), Mindanao (Zamboanga, Davao), Elmer 
9521, 9658, Copeland 1182, Merrill 8153. Epiphyte up to 1,600 m altitude 
in Davao. 

ERIA ORNATA (Blume) Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 66; De Vriese 
111. Orch. Ind. Neerl. (1854) t.; Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 54; 
Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 48 (excl. Indian and Burman 
plants) ; Miq. PI. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 660 (excl. Indian and Bur- 
man plants) ; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 270; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 236; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. 
PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 268; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 
285, ? 32 (1896) 302; Schltr. in Perk. Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 
43; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 380, Fig.-Atlas 
(1911) fig. 288; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 94, 2 (1908) 195, 5 (1915) 



Vo1 - 1 ORCHIDACEAE 373 

156; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 217, 237; Merr. & 
Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 341; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 50, fig. 11 A, B; Ames 
in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. 
(1921) 173. 

Dendrolirium ornatum Blume Bijdr. (1825) 345. 

Eria armeniaca Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 27 (1841) Misc. 38, t. U2. 

Pinalia ornata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 678. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Rizal), Negros 
(Occidental Negros), Mindanao (Zamboanga, Agusan). A fairly common 
species in the Philippines at 10 to 1,450 m altitude. In ? Siam, Sumatra, 
Java, and Borneo. 

ERIA OVATA Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30 (1844) sub t. 29; G. K. in Bot. 
Zeit. 3 (1845) 95; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 277; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 236; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, 
Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 268; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 195, 5 (1915) 
156; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 207, 230, fig. 8; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 76. 
Eria elmeri Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 93, 2 (1908) 196, 5 (1915) 149; 
Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 208, 230, fig. 10; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 74. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Bataan, Laguna), Negros (Oriental 

Negros), Leyte. A fairly common species, epiphyte at 500 to 2,550 m 

altitude. 

ERIA PALAWAN ENSIS Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1578, 
Orch. 5 (1915) 156. 
Palawan, Elmer 13209. Mt. Pulgar. 

ERIA PERSPICABILIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 156. 
Luzon (Ifugao), B. S. 19733 McGregor. Mt. Polis. 

ERIA PHILIPPINENSIS Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 94, 5 (1915) 157; Leavitt 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 204, 227, fig. 5; Ames in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 673; Merr. & Merritt in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 341; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 21 2 (1911) 66. 

Luzon (Abra, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Bataan, Laguna). A common 
species in Luzon. Epiphyte in forest at relatively high altitudes. 

ERIA POLYURA Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 27 (1841) Misc. 55, 28 (1842) t. 32; 
Paxt. Mag. Bot. 9 (1842) 142; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 
279; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236; Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. II 
18 (1882) 500; Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 95, 2 (1908) 196, 5 (1915) 
157; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 203, 226, fig. 2; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 115. 
Pinalia polyura Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 679. 

Luzon (Cagayan, Bontoc, Benguet, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), 
Sibuyan, Panay (Antique), Leyte, Mindanao (Lanao, Surigao). A rather 
common and widely distributed species in the Philippines. Epiphyte at 
60 to 2,050 m altitude. 



374 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

ERIA PROFUSA Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 28 (1842) Misc. 3; Paxt. Mag. Bot. 

12 (1845) 46; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 271; Hemsl. 

in Gard. Chron. II 18 (1882) 500; Trim. Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 4 (1898) 

168; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 210, 233, fig. 14; 

Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 105. 
Luzon (Isabela, Rizal), Negros (Oriental Negros), Mindanao (Agusan), 
Lyon F, 132, B. S. 3079, 3083 Ramos, F. B. 11237 Everett, Weber 111. 
Epiphyte at 100 to 700 m altitude. 

ERIA PROPINQUA Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 105. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38939 Ramos & Edano. Mt. Candoon, on 
trees of forested slopes, at 1,650 m altitude. 

ERIA PUGUAHAANENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 157. 

Leyte,. Wenzel 0221. Dagami, epiphyte in forest at 60 m altitude. 

ERIA RACEMOSA Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 206, 229; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 115; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 158. 

Luzon (Benguet), Mindanao (Misamis), Curran s. n., Sandkuhl 225, 
F. B, 4,609 Mearns & Hutchinson in part. 

ERIA RAMOSA Ames nom. nov. 

Eria vagans Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 106, non Schltr. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Benguet), Vanoverbergh 2223, 3896, Elmer 8801. 

ERIA RAMOSII Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 224, 243, fig. 
25; Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1579, Orch. 5 
(1915) 158. 
Trichotosia ramosii Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 
21 2 (1911) 156. 
Luzon (Rizal), Negros (Oriental Negros), Mindanao (Agusan), B. S. 
1775 Ramos, 2,9731 Ramos & Edano, Elmer 9803, 13755, 15098, 16136. 
Epiphyte, forming dense mats, at 1,330 m altitude in Negros. 

ERIA RETROFLEXA Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 60; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 662; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 
268; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 197, 5 (1915) 158; Leavitt in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 206, 229, fig. 7; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflan- 
zenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 76. 
Pinalia retroflexa Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 679. 

Luzon (Benguet, Bataan, Rizal, Tayabas), Negros (Oriental Negros), 
Leyte, Mindanao (Cotabato, Agusan). A not uncommon species, epiphyte 
at 60 to 860 m altitude. 

ERIA RHODOPTERA Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 18 (1882) 586; 

Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 17 (1909) 220, in Bot. Mag. 136 (1910), i. 

8296; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 

84; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 158. 
Eria laucheana Kranzl. in Gard. Chron. Ill 11 (1892) 809. 
Eria bractescens Lindl. var. latipetala Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

4 (1909) Bot. 210, 232, fig: 12; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 

if. B. 21 2 (1911) 88. 



VoL 1 



ORCHIDACEAE 375 



Luzon (Rizal), Palawan, B. S. 3000 Ramos, Weber 40U. Epiphyte at 
sea level to 600 m altitude. 

ERIA RINGENS Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1885) 222; Lindl. in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. 4 (1859) 55 (erroneously referred to E. ovata R. Br.) ; Reichb. 
f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 275, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 30 (1874) 
137; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 
(1890) 793; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 207, 229; 
Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 s (1911) 74; 
Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1579, Orch. 5 (1915) 
158. 
Eria polyura Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. PI. Vase. 

Filip. (1886) 268, non Lindl. 
Pinalia ringens Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 679. 
Negros (Oriental Negros), Cuming 2128, Elmer 10192. Cuernos Moun- 
tains. In Burma. 

ERIA SENILIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 159. 

Luzon (Sorsogon), Panay (Antique), Leyte, Mindanao (Lanao), 
Elmer 16375, B. S. S2575 McGregor, Wenzel 0333, 0335, 0348, 0455, 0852, 
0890, 0892, 0894, 0897, 0898, 0899,0900, 0901, 0902, 0903, 0932, 0933, M. S. 
Clemens s. n. Epiphyte in forest at 500 to 900 m altitude. 

ERIA TAYLORII Ames Sched. Orch. 5 (1923) 31. 

Luzon (Laguna), Taylor 25. Mt. Maquiling, epiphyte in mossy forest 
at 1,000 m altitude. 

ERIA TRIDENS Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1580, Orch. 

5 (1915) 159. 
Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 11850a. Todaya, Mt. Apo. 
ERIA VANOVERBERGHII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 20, 

Orch. 5 (1915) 159. 

Luzon (Kalinga, Bontoc, Tayabas), Boettcher s. n., Vanoverbergh 789, 
13^7, B. S. 26523. Ramos & Edano. Epiphyte at 300 to 1,550 m altitude. 

ERIA VENTRICOSA Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 211, 
234, fig. 16; Merr. & Merritt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 
341; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 63; 
Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 159. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Ifugao, Benguet, Bataan, Tayabas), Mindoro, and pos- 
sibly from Mindanao. A fairly common species in Luzon, epiphyte in 
forest at 1,650 to 2,400 m altitude. 

ERIA VULPINA Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 3 (1855) 222; Lindl. in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. 3 (1859) 57; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 660; Reichb. f. in 
Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 273; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) .149, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 
268; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 332, Orch. 2 (1908) 
198, 5 (1915) 160; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 222 
241, fig. 23. 
Eriavestita Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30 (1844) Misc. 76, 31 (1845) sub t. 2 
in textu, quoad spec. Cuming; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 
274, quoad Philip.; Hook. f. in Bot. Mag. 95 (1868) sub t. 5807 
in textu, quoad Philip.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236. 



376 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

Pinalia vulpina Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 679. 
Trichotosia vulpina Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 
21 2 (1911) 141. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon), Min- 
doro, Sibuyan, Negros (Oriental Negros), Leyte, Mindanao (Camiguin 
Island, Zamboanga), Basilan. A common and widely distributed species 
in the Philippines. Epiphyte at 60 to 1,600 m altitude. 

ERIA WHIT FO RDM Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 215; 
236; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 160. 
Eria aeridostachya Reichb. f. apud Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 
(1907) Bot. 329; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 213, 
nota; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 35, 
quoad syn. E. whitfordii et quoad Philip. 

Luzon (Isabela, Bataan, Laguna, Sorsogon), Mindoro, Negros (Oriental 
Negros), Leyte, Lyon 135, G, Whitford 1119, Merrill s. n., 5518, Reillo 
10, Elmer 9731, 16457, Wenzel 0434, 0580. Epiphyte at 500 to 2,150 m 
altitude. 

ERIA WOODIANA Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 332; Leavitt 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 205, 228; Kranzl. in Engl. 
Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 105, fig. 14 J, K. 

Luzon (Laguna, Camarines), Mindoro, Leyte, B. S. 17072 Robinson, 
42082 Edano, Taylor 1, Merrill 5490, Wenzel 0324, 0864, 0924. Epiphyte 
at 500 to 1,500 m altitude. 

ERIA ZAMBOANGENSIS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 160. 

Mindanao (Zamboanga, Bukidnon), Merrill 8143, B. S. 38686, 39123 
Ramos & Edano. Epiphyte in mossy forest at 1,300 to 1,830 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Eria aeridostachya Reichb. f. apud Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 

Bot. 239; Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909). Bot. 213, nota; 

Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 35, quoad 

syn. E. ivhitfordii et quoad Philip. — Eria whitfordii Leavitt. 

For a discussion of the differences and identity of Eria aeridostachya 

Reichb. f. ex Lindl. cf. Leavitt. 1. c. 

Eria albido-tomentosa Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236. 

Eria amica Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236. 

Eria aporoides Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 60; Miq. Fl; Ind. Bat. 
3 (1859) 657; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236; Merr. in Govt. Lab. 
Publ. (Philip.) 27 (1905) 84 = Dendrobium aporoides (Lindl.) 
Merr. 

Eria armeniaca Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 27 (1841) Misc. 38, t. 42 — Eria 
ornata (Blume) Lindl. 

Eria bractescens Lindl. var. latipetala Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sc!. 4 
(1909) Bot. 210, 232, fig. 12; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. 
II. B. 21 2 (1911) 88 = Eria rhodoptera Reichb. f. 

Eria COMPREssa Blume apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236. 



Vol. 1 



ORCHIDACEAE 377 



Eria dasypus Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236. 

ERIA dillwynii Hook, in Bot. Mag. 71 (1845) t. U63 ; Lindl. in Bot. 
Reg. 31 (1845) Misc. 63; F. Kl. in Bot. Zeit. 3 (1845) 550; Paxt. 
Mag. Bot. 12 (1846) 140; Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 55; 
Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 
50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 87 = Eria bractescens Lindl. 

Eriaelmeri Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 93, 2 (1908) 196, 5 (1915) 149; Leavitt 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 208, 230, fig. 10; Kranzl. in EngL 
Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 74 = Eria ovata Lindl. 

Eria erecta Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236. 

Eria flavescens Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236; Vidal Rev. 

PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 268; Ceron Cat. PI. Herb. Manila (1892) 

167. 
This species is known only from Java. Vidal's identification of his 
1959 was made with expressed doubt. 

Eria formosana Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 
47, non Rolfe = Eria copelandii Leavitt. 

Eria formosana Kranzl. var. fusiformis Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 21 2 (1911) 47 = Eria copelandii Leavitt var. fusi- 
formis Leavitt. 

Eria goldschmidtiana Schltr. apud Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50* 
II. B. 21 2 (1911) 83. 

"Provinz der Philippinen und Siid-Formosa." — Kranzlin. The type 
was from Formosa ; the species has not been found in the Philippines. 

Eria laniceps Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236. 

Eria laucheana Kranzl. in Gard. Chron. Ill 11 (1892) 809 = Eria rho- 
doptera Reichb. f. 

Eria monostachya Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236. 

Eria mucronata Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 28 (1842) Misc. 27, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. 3 (1859) 59; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 657; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 236. 
Trichotosia mucronata Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. If. B. 
21 2 (1911) 157. 

The type of this may or may not have been a Philippine plant. How- 
ever, the collections of twenty years have not produced a specimen refer- 
able to it. 

Eria polyura Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. PI. Vase 
Filip. (1886) 268, non Lindl. = Eria ringens Reichb. f. 

Eria prorepens Reichb. f. Otia Bot. Hamb. 1 (1878) 54, Xen. Orch. 3 
(1878) 31; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236 = Phreatia prorepens 
Reichb. f. 

Eria pusilla Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236. 

Eria retusa Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236. 



378 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

ERIA RUGOSA Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 66; Leavitt in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 212, 235; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 158 = Eria 
javanica (Sw.) Blume. 

Eria stellata Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 11 (August, 1825) t. 90J+; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 236; Usteri Beitr. Ken. Philip. Veg. (1905) 128 = 
Eria javanica (Sw.) Blume. 

Eria Vagans Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 106, non Schltr. = Eria ramosa Ames. 

Eria ventricosa Leavitt var. benguetensis Leavitt in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
4 (1909) Bot. 212, 234 = Eria leavittii Kranzl. 

ERIA vestita Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30 (1844) Misc. 76, 31 (1845) sub t. 2 
in textu, quoad spec. Cuming; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 
274, quoad Philip.; Hook. f. in Bot. Mag. 95 (1869) sub t. 5807, 
in textu, quoad Philip.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 236 = Eria 
vulpina Reichb. f. 

Lindley originally placed the Cuming specimen from Manila under Eria 
vestita, but in 1859 (in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3: 57) he corrected this error 
and gave the points of difference between the two species. 

Eria wenzelii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 428 = Eria 
brachystachya Reichb. f. 

66. BULBOPHYLLUM Thouars 

BULBOPHYLLUM ADENOPETALUM Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 28 (1842) Misc. 

85; Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 255; Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 

23 (1885) 215; Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. 

PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 267; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 770, 

6 (1890) 188; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 273, Mat. 

Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 75; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 

Bot. 333, 7 (1912) Bot. 126, Orch. 2 (1908) 206, 5 (1915) 162. 
Bulbophyllum penicillium Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 215; Vidal 

Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. (1886) 

267; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 128, non Par. & 

Reichb. f. 
Bulbophyllum ramosii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 25, 

128, Orch. 5 (1915) 186. 
Phyllorehis adenopetala Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 677. 

Luzon (Apayao, Bontoc, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Mindoro, 
Leyte, Mindanao (Dapitan, Bukidnon). A fairly common species in the 
Philippines, epiphyte at 500 to 3,000 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula. 

BULBOPHYLLUM AEOLIUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
429, Orch. 5 (1915) 164. 

Luzon (Rizal), Leyte, Mindanao (Bukidnon), Reillo s. n., B. S. 88678 
Ramos & Edano, 15391 Ramos, Wenzel 06UU, 0652, 0671, 0835. Epiphyte, 
in forest at 600 to about 1,300 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM AESTIVALE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 164. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0395, 0505, 0506, 0568, 0626. Epiphyte in forest at 500 
to 600 m altitude. 



Vol. i ORCHIDACEAE 379 

BULBOPHYLLUM ALAGENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 

333, 7 (1912) Bot, 126, Orch. 3 (1908) 54, t. U, fig. I. A, a, 5 

(1915) 165. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna) , Mindanao, Leyte, Serrato s. n., B. S. 29736 

Ramos & Edano, 16579 Ramos, Merrill 5U95, Wenzel 0777. Epiphyte in 

forest at 400 to 500 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM ALBOROSEUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 147. 

Luzon (Benguet), Ramos & Edano 105. Mt. Lusong, epiphyte at 2,000 
m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM ALSIOSUM Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 
1583, Orch. 5 (1915) 165. 
Luzon (Rizal), Negros (Oriental Negros), Leyte, Reillo s. n., Elmer 
9817, Wenzel 06U2, 06U3, 0666, 0672. Epiphyte in forest at 600 to 1,300 
m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM ANTENNIFERUM (Lindl.) Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 
6 (1861) 248; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235; Ames in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 126, 138, Orch. 5 (1915) 165. 
Cirrhopetalum antenniferum Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) sub t. U9. 
Phyllorchis antennifera Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 677. 

Leyte, Mindanao (Lanao). Cuming s. n., Wenzel 0791, M. S. Clemens 
U5. 

BULBOPHYLLUM ARRECTUM Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 384; 
Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 82. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher s. n. 

Very close to Bidbophyllum stellatum Ames, but material at hand is 
inadequate to determine its status more definitely. 

BULBOPHYLLUM AURATUM (Lindl.) Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 

261; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 

1 (1907) 82; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 126, 139, 

Orch. 5 (1915) 165. 
Cirrhopetalum auratum Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 26 (1840) Misc. 50, 29 

(1843) t. 61; G. K. in Bot. Zeit. 2 (1844) 103; Moore 111. Orch. 

PI. (1857) Cirrhopet, 5, t. h; Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 

284. 
Phyllorchis aurata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 677. 

Leyte, Mindanao, Butuan, Agusan, Davao), Cuming s. n., Lyon 139, 
Wenzel 0200, 0511, B. S. 12128 Celestino, Weber 106, 137, Black 8. Epi- 
phyte at 5 to 500 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula. 

BULBOPHYLLUM BATAANENSE Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 96, 2 (1908) -207, 
5 (1915) 166, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 599, 7 (1912) 
Bot. 126. 

Luzon (Zambales, Bataan, Laguna), Mindanao (Lanao, Davao), B. S. 
3028 Mrs. Lyon, 5001, 16576 Ramos, F. B. 8995, 9501,. Merritt & Curran, 
796 Borden, Whitford 121, 163, Topping U73, Merrill 51.82, Black 10. 



380 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

BULBOPHYLLUM BLUM El (Lindl.) J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) 

(1905) 459, Fig.-Atlas (1911) fig. 351; Ames in Philip. Journ. 

Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 127, Orch. 5 (1915) 167. 
Ephippium, ciliatum Blume Bijdr. (1825)) 309, fig. 65, non Bulbo- 

phyllum ciliatum Lindl. 
Cirrhopetalum blumei Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 59, in Bot. 

Reg. 29 (1843) sub t. h9; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 654; Ridl. 

in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 285. 
Cirrhopetalum maxillare Lindl.' in Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) sub t. U9. 
Bulbophyllum cheiri Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30 (1844) Misc. 44; Reichb. 

f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 246; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235; 

Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 127, Orch. 5 (1915) 169. 
Sarcopodium cheiri Lindl. Fol. Orch. Sarcopod. (1853) 4; Moore 111. 

Orch. PL (1857) Sarcopod. 4. 
Bulbophyllum maxillare Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 248; Naves 

Novis. App. (1882) 235; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 

127, Orch. 5 (1915) 181. 
Bulbophyllum cuspidilingue Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 264. 
Phyllorchis blumei Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 676. 
Phyllorchis cheiri Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 677. 
Phyllorchis maxillaris Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 677. 
Bulbophyllum ephippium Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 78. 
Leyte, Cuming s. n., Wenzel 050, 0107, 0736. Epiphyte at 60 m altitude. 
In Malay Peninsula and Java. 

BULBOPHYLLUM BOLSTERI Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
126, 139, Orch. 5 (1915) 168. 
Bulbophyllum chryseum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 
54, quoad spec. 
Luzon (Rizal), Mindanao (Lanao, Surigao), B. S. 3076 Ramos, M.' S. 
Clemens s. n., Bolster 3U9. Epiphyte. 

BULBOPHYLLUM BONTOCENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 126, 135, Orch. 5 (1915) 168. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Zambales), Vanoverbergh 705, 136-6, 1382, 3681, F. B. 
8135 Curran & Merritt. Epiphyte at 1,450 to 1,700 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM BRACCATUM Reichb. f. in Linnaea 41 (1877) 117; 
Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 126, Orch. 5 (1915) 168. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Wallis s. n. Probably conspecific with Bul- 
bophyllum hortensoides Ames. 

BULBOPHYLLUM CANLAONENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 126, 136, Orch. 5 (1915) 168. 
Luzon (Benguet), Negros (Oriental Negros), Mindanao (Bukidnon), 
B. S. 38717 Ramos & Edano, 43U Mearns, Elmer 9936, Merrill 7015. 
Epiphyte at 1,300 to 2,300 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM CATENULATUM Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 
382. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher s. n. 



Vol. 1 



ORCHIDACEAE 381 



BULBOPHYLLUM CHRYSENDETUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 169. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0219, 0621, 0657. Dag-ami and Jaro, epiphyte in forest 
at 60 to 600 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM CHRYSEUM (Kranzl.) Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 
(1911) Bot. 54, (excl. spec), 7 (1912) Bot. 127, Orch. 5 (1915) 
170; J. J. Sm. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 8 (1912) 23. 
Cirrhopetalum chryseum Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 8 (1910) 97. 
Luzon (Rizal), Leyte, Loher s. n., Lyon 152, Wenzel 093, 0138, 021b.. 
Epiphyte at low altitudes, 60 m in Leyte. 

BULBOPHYLLUM CLEMENSIAE Ames in Philip: Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 127, 129, Orch. 5 (1915) 170. 
Mindanao (Lanao), M. S. Clemens UhO. Camp Keithley, Lake Lanao. 

BULBOPHYLLUM COLUBRIMODUM Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 82, 

fig. 12. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0698. Epiphyte in forest at 600 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM COPELANDII Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 97, 2 (1908) 5, 
t. 19, 5 (1915) 170, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 127. 
Luzon (Laguna), Mindanao (Davao), B. S. 20U3U Ramos, Calica s. n., 
Copeland 1316, Weber 265. 

BULBOPHYLLUM COSTATUM Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 299. 
Leyte, Wenzel 0665. Epiphyte, in forest at 600 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM CUBICUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 83. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38633 Ramos & Edano. Mahilucot River, 
epiphyte in forest at 1,400 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM CUMINGM (Lindl.) Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 

261; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 

6 (1911) Bot. 55, 7 (1912) Bot. 127, Orch. 5 (1915) 170. 
Cirrhopetalum cumingii Lindl. in Paxt. Mag. Bot. 8 (1841) 165, in 

Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) sub t. 49; G. K. in Bot. Zeit. 1 (1843) 791; 

Moore 111. Orch. PI. (1857) Cirrhopet. 5; Hook, in Bot. Mag. 83 

(1857) t. 4996; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 653; Veitch Man. 

Orch. PI. pt. 3 (1888) 100; Rodigas in 111. Hort. 39 (1892) 62, 

in textu. 
Phyllorchis cumingii Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 677. 

Luzon (Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas), Panay (Capiz), Negros (Occidental 
Negros), Cuming s. n., B. S. 13763 Ramos, 31273 Ramos & Edano, 7334 
Celestino, Serrato s. n., F. B. 13070, 13071 Curran, 5227 Danao & Aspillera. 
Apparently at low altitudes. 

BULBOPHYLLUM CUNEATUM Rolfe ex Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 98, 2 
(1908) 207, 5 (1915) 127, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 
674, 7 (1912) Bot. 127. 
Luzon (Bataan), Merrill 3730, B. S. 5183 Topping, R. S. Williams 431. 
Mt. Mariveles, at about 1,000 m altitude. 



382 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

BULBOPHYLLUM CURRANII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
127, 130, Orch. 5 (1915) 170. 
Luzon (Benguet), F. B. U953 Curran, Haight 7, Ramos & Edano 62. 
Epiphytic vine at about 3,000 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM DAGAMENSE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 170. 

Leyte, Wenzel 057, 0912. Dagami and Jaro, epiphyte in forest at 60 to 
500 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM DASYPETALUM Rolfe ex Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 98, 
text cut, 2 (1908) 207, 5 (1915) 171; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
2 (1907) Bot. 333, 7 (1912) Bot. 127. 
Luzon (Bataan), Merrill 3720. Mt. Mariveles. 

BULBOPHYLLUM DEAREI (Hort.) Reichb. f. in Flora 71 (April, 1888) 
156; Veitch Man. Orch. PI. pt. 3 (May or June, 1888) 95; Rolfe 
in Lindenia 8 (1892) t. 3U5; Cogn. in Diet. Icon. Orch. (1902) 
Bulbo. t. 2; Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 13 (1905) 197; Ames in Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 674, 7 (1912) Bot. 127, Orch. 5 (1915) 
171, 6 (1920) 174, in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits 
Branch, Special No. (1921) 185. 

Sarcopodium dearei Hort. ex Gard. Chron. II 20 (1883) 108, fig. 17; 
Flor. & Pomol. 22 (1883) 108; Journ. Hort. Ill 24 (1892) 237; 
Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1900) 357. 

Sarcopodium godseffianum Hort. ex Gard. Chron. Ill 7 (1890) 800, 
nomen. 

Bulbophyllum godseffianum Weathers in Gardeners' Mag. 33 (1890) 
540,. text cut. 

Phyllorchis dearei Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 677. 

Palawan, Mindanao (Lanao), Weber 7, M. S. Clemens s. n. Apparently' 
at low altitudes. In Borneo. 

BULBOPHYLLUM DECEPTUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 171. 
Leyte, Wenzel 01U8. Dagami, epiphyte in forest. 

BULBOPHYLLUM DISSOLUTUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 
Bot. 429, Orch. 5 (1915) 172. 

Luzon (Laguna), B. S. 15069 Ramos, Reillo 5. 

BULBOPHYLLUM DORYPHOROIDE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 172. 

Luzon (Ifugao), B. S. 19873 McGregor. Mt. Polis. 
BULBOPHYLLUM EBRACTEOLATUM Kranzl. in Ann. k. k. Nat. Hof- 
mus. Wien 30 (1916) 58. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher s. n. Known only from the original 
description; no material of this species has been seen. 

BULBOPHYLLUM ELMERI Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 127, 

136, Orch. 5 (1915) 173. 
Luzon (Benguet), Elmer 6618. Baguio. 
BULBOPHYLLUM ELONGATUM (Blume) Hassk. Cat. Hort. Bogor. (1844) 

39; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 648; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 6 

(Orch. Jav.) (1905) 426, Fig.-Atlas (1911) fig. 321; Ames Orch. 

5 (1915) 173. non Kranzl. 



Vo1 - i ORCHIDACEAE 383 

Ephippium elongatum Blume Bijdr. (1825) 309. 

Cirrhopetalum elongatum Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 29 (1843) sub t. 49; 

Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 264. 
Bulbophyllum, sceptrum Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 254. 
Phyllorchis elongata Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 2 (1891) 677. 
Phyllorchis sceptrum Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 678. 
Bulbophyllum gigas Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 277, Mat. 

Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 70, fide J. J. Sm. 

Mindanao (Cotabato, Bukidnon), Weber 227, B. S. 38616 Ramos & 
Edano. Epiphyte in forest at 100 to 900 m altitude. In Malay Peninsula 
and Java. 

BULBOPHYLLUM ERRATUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 85. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38685 Ramos & Edano. Mahilucot River, 
along stream in forest at about 1,400 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM ESCRITOR1I Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 174. 

Luzon (Benguet, Tayabas)* Ramos & Edano 104, B. S. 20734- Eseritor, 
F. B. 13088 Curran. Epiphyte up to 2,000 m in Benguet. 

BULBOPHYLLUM EXILE Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 208, text cut, 5 (1915) 
175, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 127. 

Mindanao (Davao), Copeland 1123, R. S. Williams 2563. Mt. Apo, 
epiphyte at 3,000 to 3,150 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM EXQUISiTUM Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 84. 

Bulbophyllum macgregorii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
127, 137, Orch. 5 (1915) 180, non Schltr. (1911). 

Luzon (Benguet), B. S. 8322 /McGregor, 31900 Santos, Merrill 6624, 
Haight 1. Epiphyte in mossy forest at 2,100 to 2,400 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM FENiXII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
430, Orch. 5 (1915) 175. 

Babuyan Islands (Camiguin Island), B. S. 4138 Fenix. 

BULBOPHYLLUM FILICOIDES Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 84, fig. 11. 
Mindanao (Agusan), Elmer 14200. Epiphyte at 1,500 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM GIMAGAANENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 127, 130, Orch. 5 (1915) 175. 

Luzon (Laguna), Panay (Capiz), Negros (Occidental Negros), Leyte, 
Reillo 14, B. S. 22885 McGregor, 35*62, 35518 Martelino & Edano, Whit- 
ford 1610, Wenzel 0538, 0541, 0544, 0556, 0613, 0615, 0656. Epiphyte at 
100 to 700 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM GLANDULOSUM Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 87, fig. IS. 

Luzon (Tayabas), B. S. 28787 Ramos & Edano. Epiphyte at 1,000 m 
altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM GNOMONIFERUM Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 209, text cut, 
5 (1915) 175, in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 127. 

Mindanao (Davao), Copeland 1023. Mt. Apo, epiphyte at 1,500 m 
altitude. 



g84 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

BULBOPHYLLUM GOEBELIANUM Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 
385. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher s. n. 

Allied to Bulbophyllum dearei (Hort.) Reichb. f. 

BULBOPHYLLUM GRACILISCAPUM Ames & Rolfe in Ames Orch. 5 
(1915) 175. 
Mindanao (Davao), Copeland 1127. Mt. Apo, epiphyte at 2,000 m 
altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM HALCONENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 127, Orch. 3 (1908) 54, t. U, fig. HI. C, c, 5 (1915) 176. 
Mindoro, Merrill 5832. Mt. Halcon, epiphyte in ridge forest at 1,500 
to 2,250 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM HORTENSOIDES Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 300. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0649, 0771. Epiphyte in forest at 600 m altitude. 
Probably conspecific with Bulbophyllum braccatum Reichb. f. 

BULBOPHYLLUM INVISUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 148. 

Luzon (Benguet), Ramos & Edano 58. Mt. Pulogloco, epiphyte in 
mossy forest at 2,200 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM JARENSE Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 301. 
Leyte, Wenzel 0761. Epiphyte in forest at 500 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LANCI FOLIUM Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 
(1912) 1583, Orch. 5 (1915) 176. 

Negros, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao), F. B. 1S662 Curran, Elmer 
11352, B. S. 38954 Ramos & Edafio. Epiphyte at about 2,600 m altitude 
in Davao. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LANCILABIUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 176. 

Luzon (Laguna), B. S. 20439 Rainos. Epiphyte at 1,000 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LANCI PETALUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 23, 127, Orch. 5 (1915) 177. 

Mindanao (Dapitan, Davao), F. B. 4608 Mearns & Hutchinson, Cope- 
land X. At 2,000 to 2,400 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LASIOGLOSSUM Rolfe ex Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 100, 
2 (1908) 3, 210, t. 18, 5 (1915) 177; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 
7 (1912) Bot. 127. 

Luzon (Bataan), F. B. 797 Borden, Whitford s. n, 138, 1094, Copeland 
s. n. Epiphyte at about 1,000 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LASIOPETALUM Kranzl. in Ann. k. k. Nat. Hofmus. 
Wien 30 (1916) 57. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher s. n. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LEIBERGI! Ames & Rolfe in Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 177. 
Luzon (Bataan), Leiberg 6034, B. S. 702 Foxworthy. Mt. Mariveles at 
900 m altitude. 



vd- » ORCHIDACEAE 385 

BULBOPHYLLUM LEPANTENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 127, 131, Orch. 5 (1915) 178. 
Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet), Vanoverbergh 1133, Merrill 4586, 
B. S. 31778 Santos. Epiphyte at 2,200 to 2,450 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LEPTOCAULON Kranzl. in Ann. k. k. Nat. Hofmus. 
Wien 30 (1916) 59. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher s. n. 

Known only from the original description and the fragment of the type. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LEVANAE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 178, Sched. Orch. 6 
(1923) 89. 
Bulbophyllum nymphopolitanum Kranzl. in Ann. k. k. Nat. Hofmus. 
Wien 30 (1916) 60. 

Luzon (Zambales, Sorsogon), Sibuyan, Leyte, B. S. 4985 Ramos, Elmer 
12320, 15836, Wenzel 0387. Epiphyte at 500 m altitude in Leyte. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LEYTENSE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 178. 

Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), Wenzel 098, Elmer 13805. Epiphyte. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LIPENSE Ames Sched. Orch. 3 (1923) 22. 

Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38582 Ramos & Edano. Epiphyte in damp 
forest at 1,300 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LOHERIANUM (Kranzl.) Ames comb. nov. 

Cirrhopetalum loherianum Kranzl. in Ann. k. k. Nat. Hofmus. Wien 
30 (1916) 61. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher. 

Known only from the original description and the fragmentary type 
specimen. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LONGIPETIOLATUM Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 
5 (1912) 1584, Orch. 5 (1915) 180. 
Mindanao (Davao), Elmer 10883. Todaya, Mt. Apo, epiphyte in humid 
forest at about 1,300 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM LUZON ENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
127, 141, Orch. 5 (1915) 180, Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 89. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna), Leyte, Mindanao (Agusan), 
F. B. 16787 Curran, B. S. 20100 McGregor, 16557 Ramos, Serrato s. n., 
Wenzel 084, 0167, 0405, 0765, Elmer 13623, 13908. Epiphyte, at 120 to 
500 m altitude in Leyte. 

BULBOPHYLLUM MACULOSUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 180. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0151, 0199. Dagami, epiphyte in forest at 60 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM MAKOYANUM Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 11 (1879) 

234; Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 81; Ames in Philip. Journ. 

' Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 55, 7 (1912) Bot. 127, Orch. 5 (1915) 181. 

Cirrhopetalum makoyanum Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 11 (1879) 

234; Hook. f. in Bot. Mag. 118 (1892) t. 7259; Ridl. in Journ. 

Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 284. 

200823 25 



386 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

Luzon (Ifugao, Rizal), Polillo, Busuanga, Mindanao (Agusan), B. S. 
10438, 19990 McGregor, 19185 Reillo, Weber 37, 407 in part. Epiphyte, 
apparently at low altitudes. In Malay Peninsula. 

BULBOPHYLLUM MARCIDUM Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 90, fig. 12. 
Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 38573 Ramos & Eda.no. Mt. Lipa, epiphyte 
at 1,630 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM MARIVELENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 127, 132, Orch. 5 (1915) 181. 
Luzon (Bataan), Merrill 3738. Mt. Mariveles, epiphyte on exposed 
ridge at 1,100 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM M ASAGANAPENSE Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 302. 

Luzon (Rizal), Leyte, B. S. 29714 Ramos & Eda.no, 41632, 41639 Ramos, 
Wenzel 0681. Epiphyte at 200 to 1,300 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM MEARNSII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
430, Orch. 5 (1915) 181. 
Bulbophyllum carinatum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
126, 140, nee Naves nee Cogn. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Mindanao (Dapitan), Elmer 17039, F. B. 4593 
Mearns & Hutchinson. At 900 m altitude in Mindanao. 

BULBOPHYLLUM M ELANOGLOSSUM Kranzl. in Ann. k. k. Nat. Hofmus. 
Wien 30 (1916) 60. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher s. n. 

BULBOPHYLLUM MERR1TTII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 
334, 7 (1912) Bot. 127, Orch. 5 (1915) 181. 
Mindoro, F. B. 433,8 Merritt. Mt. Halcon, at about 500 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM MINDANAENSE Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 
(1912) 1585, Orch. 5 (1915) 181. 
Leyte, Mindanao (Davao), Wenzel 0295, 0397, 0447, 0743, 0744, 0811, 
0815, Elmer 11307, 11625, 14160. Epiphyte in humid forest at 500 to 
1,300 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM MINDORENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 334, 7 (1912) Bot. 127, Orch. 3 (1908) 58, t. 45, 5 (1915) 182. 

Luzon (Camarines), Mindoro, Leyte, B. S. 22185 Ramos, Merrill 5796, 
Wenzel 0758. Epiphyte in damp forest at 500 to 1,000 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM MONSTRABILE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 182. 

Leyte,' Wenzel 0443. Jaro, epiphyte in forest at 500 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM NEGROSIANUM Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 
(1912) 1586, Orch. 5 (1915) 182. 

Negros (Oriental Negros), Elmer 9821. Cuernos Mountains, epiphyte 
in mossy woods at about 1,100 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM ORTHOGLOSSUM Wendl. & Kranzl. in Gard. Chron. 
Ill 19 (1896) 326; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
128, Orch. 5 (1915) 183. 



Vol. l ORCHIDAGEAE 387 

"In Sarangni insula det. W. Micholitz, Freder, Sander Verulamcnsis 
collecta indefessus." — Kranzlin. Probably Sarangani Island, off the 
southern end of Mindanao, is intended. Only a single flower and a sketch 
of the inflorescence have been seen. 

BULBOPHYLLUM OTHONIS (Ktze.) J. J. Sm. in Bull. Gard. Bot. Buitenz. 
II 8 (1912) 26; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 183. 
Cirrhopetalum nutans Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 25 (1839) Misc. 71, 29 
(1843) sub t. 49; Hook, in Bot. Mag. 75 (1849) t. 4418; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 653. 
Bulbophyllum nutans Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 260; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 235; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
24, 127, non Thou. 
Phyllorchis othonis Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 677. 
Luzon (Sorsogon), Polillo, Leyte, Elmer 16933, B. S. 9077 Robinson, 
Wenzel 014-1, 0192. Epiphyte, apparently at low altitudes. 

BULBOPHYLLUM PAMPANGENSIS Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 92. 
Luzon (Pampanga), Merrill 11214. 

BULBOPHYLLUM PAPILLIPETALUM Ames Orch. 7 (1922) 149. 

Luzon (Benguet), Ramos & Edano 79. Mt. Boadan, epiphyte, on mossy 
forest slope at about 2,300 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM PAUCIFLORUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 127, 132, Orch. 5 (1915) 184. 
Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 1381. Epiphyte at 1,650 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM PERAMOENUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 
Bot. 430, Orch. 5 (1915) 184. 

Mindoro, Mindanao (Zamboanga), Merrill 5832, 8271. 

BULBOPHYLLUM PHiLIPPINENSE Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 303. 
Leyte, Wenzel 0659. Jaro, epiphyte in forest at 500 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM PLEUROTHALLOIDES Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 
(1907) Bot. 335, 7 (1912) Bot. 128, Orch. 3 (1908) 55, t. U, fig. II 
B, b, 5 (1915) 184. 

Mindoro, Merrill 6128. Mt. Halcon, epiphyte in mossy forest at 1,500 
m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM PLUMATUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 184. 
Mindanao (Bukidnon), B. S. 21479 Escritor. 

BULBOPHYLLUM PROFUSUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
128, 137, Orch. 5 (1915) 185. 
Luzon (Cagayan, Rizal, Sorsogon), Sibuyan, Leyte, Palawan, Basilan. 
Mindanao (Agusan, Butuan, Surigao). A not uncommon and widely 
distributed species. Epiphyte apparently at rather low altitudes. 

BULBOPHYLLUM PUGUAHAANENSE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 185. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0128. Dagami, Puguahaan, epiphyte at 120 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM REILLOI Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
431, Orch. 5 (1915) 186. 
Luzon (Laguna), Reillo 24. 



388 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

BULBOPHYLLUM SANTOSII Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 186. 

Luzon (Laguna, Camarines), Leyte, B. S. 20461 Radios, Santos s. n., 
Wenzel 0269. Epiphyte, up to 750 m altitude in Leyte. 

BULBOPHYLLUM SAPPHIRINUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 187. 

Leyte, Wenzel 092, 0125, 0136, 0231, 0232. Dagami, epiphyte in forest at 
60 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM SAUROCEPHALUM Reichb. f. in Gard. Chron. II 26 
(1886) 262; Rolfe in Orch. Rev. 11 (1903) 190, in textu, 13 
(1905) 244; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 128, Orch. 
5 (1915) 187. 

No specimens of this species have been seen. 

BULBOPHYLLUM SEMPITERNUM Ames Orch. 6 (1920) 304. 

Leyte, Wenzel 0260, 0287, 0442, 0472, 0524, 0546, 0555, 0589, 0595, 
0607, 0610, 0675, 0751, 0810, 0820, 0841, 0848, 0849, 0873, 0893, 0913. 
Epiphyte in forest at 500 to 750 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM SENSILE Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 188. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 1134, 2816, 3018. At 1,600 to 1,700 
m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM SIBUYANENSE Ames in Elm. Lean. Philip. Bot. 5 
(1912) 1587, Orch. 5 (1915) 189. 

Sibuyan, Elmer 12140. Mt. Giting-giting, epiphyte in humid forest at 
about 400 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM SIMULACRUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 189. 

Leyte, Wenzel s. n., 0268, 0297, 0409, 0692, 0699, 0773, 0786, 0812. 
Epiphyte in forest at 500 to 750 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM STELLATUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 128, 141, Orch. 5 (1915) 190. 

Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 1360, 3914. Epiphyte at 1,650 to 1,750 
m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM STRAMINEUM Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 190. 

Palawan, Merrill 9567, F. B. 21577 Danao. Epiphyte at 75 to 500 m 
altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM SUBAEQUALE Ames Sched. Orch. 6 (1923) 93. 

Luzon (Rizal), B. S. 29296 Ramos & Edafio. Epiphyte at 300 m al- 
titude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM SYLLECTUM Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 383. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher s. n. 

Owing to the scanty material at hand for study, this is maintained as a 
species, though it is apparently at best hardly more than a variety of 
Bulbophyllum luzonense Ames; the slight differences are presumably the 
result of cultivation. 



Vol. 1 



ORCHIDACEAE 389 



BULBOPHYLLUM TOPPINGII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
432, Orch. 5 (1915) 191. 
Luzon (Benguet), Topping s. n., Merrill 7*753. Epiphyte at about 1,500 
m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM TRIGONOSEPALUM Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 17 
(1921) 384. 

Philippines, probably Luzon, Loher s. n. 

From the material examined this appears to be a large variety of Bul- 
bophyllum levanae Ames. 

BULBOPHYLLUM TRISETUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
128, 142, Orch. 5 (1915) 191.- 
Luzon (Benguet), F. B. 15899 Bacani. Itogan to Baguio, epiphyte. 

BULBOPHYLLUM VAGANS Ames & Rolfe in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 335, 7 (1912) Bot. 128; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 210, text cut, 
5 (1915) 191. 
Luzon (Benguet, Bataan, Laguna, Camarines), Mindanao (Camiguin 

Island, Agusan), F. B. 2205 Meyer, 15739 Curran & Merritt, Merrill s. n. 

(cult.), Whitford 1120, B. S. 1UU23 Ramos, 1636 Foxworthy, Santos s. n., 

Elmer 13699, Weber 30. Vinelike epiphyte at 800 to 1,000 m altitude. 

Var. ANGUSTUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 210, 7 (1912) 
Bot. 128. 
Bidbophyllum vagans Ames & Rolfe var. linearif olium Ames Orch. 
5 (1915) 191, nomen. 
Mindoro, Merrill 6218. Mt. Halcon, epiphyte in mossy forest at 210 m 
altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM VANOVERBERGHII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 
(1912) Bot. 133, Orch. 5 (1915) 191. 
Luzon (Bontoc), Vanoverbergh 1367. 

BULBOPHYLLUM WEBERI Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 

128, 142, Orch. 5 (1915) 192. 
Cirrhopetalum thouarsii Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 24 (1838) t. 11, non 

C. thcmarsii Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. (1830) 58; Hook, in Bot. 

Mag. 72 (1846) t. 4237 (excl. syn.). 
Bulbophyllum, longiflorum Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 260, 

quoad Philip.; Naves Novis. App. (1880) 235; Ames in Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 127, non Thou. 
Bulbophyllum baucoense Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 166. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Rizal), Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao), Vanoverbergh 
2613, B. S. 19239 Reillo, 22253, 41917 Ramos,. Weber 8, 19 U, 289. On 
rocks and in trees at 122 to 1,500 m altitude. 

BULBOPHYLLUM WEN2ELII Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
432, Orch. 5 (1915) 192. 
Leyte, Wenzel s. n., 0162, 0178. Dagami, epiphyte in forest at about 
60 m altitude. 



390 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

BULBOPHYLLUM WHITFORDII Rolfe ex Ames Orch. 1 (1905) 100, 2 

(1908) 211, 5 (1915) 192, in Philip. Joum. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 128. 

Luzon (Bataan), Busuanga, Basilan, Mindanao (Davao), Whitford 61, 

Weber U0S, s. n., F, B. U021 Hutchinson, R. S. Williams 2915. Epiphyte. 

BULBOPHYLLUM ZAMBALENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 134, 8 (1913) Bot. 433, Orch. 5 (1915) 192. 
Luzon (Zambales), B. S. 4996 Ramos. 

BULBOPHYLLUM ZAM BOANGENSE Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) 
Bot. 433, Orch. 5 (1915) 192. 
Mindanao (Zamboanga), F. B. 9165 Whitford & Hutchinson. Epiphyte 
at 20 m altitude. 

EXCLUDED OR SYNONYMOUS SPECIES 

Bulbophyllum aurecemum Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235, nomen. 

Bulbophyllum balaeniceps Reichb. f. in Hamb. Gartenz. 19 (1863) 280, 
Xen. Orch. 2 (1870) 147, t. 157, fig. 1-6; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
234; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 126, Orch. 5 (1915) 
165. 
This species was described from material in the garden of Consul Schil- 
ler. The origin of the plant was unknown and it was doubtfully ascribed 
to the Philipines by Reichenbach. There seems no evidence that it occurs 
in the Philippines. 

Bulbophyllum baucoense Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 166 = Bulbophyllum 
weberi Ames. 

Bulbophyllum biflorum Teijsm. & Binn. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
234. 

Bulbophyllum careyanum Spreng. apud Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 
(1912) Bot. 126. 

The type of the species was from Nepal, and there is no evidence to 
show that it occurs in the Philippines. 

Bulbophyllum carinatum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 126, 

140, nee Naves nee Cogn. = Bulbophyllum mearnsii Ames. 

Bulbophyllum carinatum (Teijsm. & Binn.) Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
235. 

Bulbophyllum cheiri Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30 (1844) Misc. 44; Reichb. f. 
in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 246; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235; Ames 
in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 127, Orch. 5 (1915) 169 = 
Bulbophyllum blumei (Lindl.) J. J. Sm. 

Bulbophyllum chryseum Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 54, quoad 
spec. = Bulbophyllum bolsteri Ames. 

Bulbophyllum coreyanum Spreng. apud Llanos ex Naves & F.-Vill. in 
Blanco FL Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 100; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 
235. 



Vol. 1 



ORCHIDACEAE 391 



Bulbophyllum cupreum Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 24 (1838) Misc. 95; Reichb. 
f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 257; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235. 
Lindley's statements in the original description that this species came 
from Manila and was collected by Cuming seem doubtful, as no specimens 
referable to it from the Philippines have been seen. 

Bulbophyllum dayanum Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234. 

Bulbophyllum densum Spreng. apud Llanos ex Naves & F.-Vill. in Blanco 
Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 4 1 (1880) 100; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235. 

Bulbophyllum echinochilum Kranzl. in Fedde Repert. 17 (1921) 385; 
Ames Sched. Orch. 6.(1923) 84. 

Kranzlin, 1. c, states: "Philippinen. Manila (Loher). Bliithe in kgl. 
botan. Garten zu Munchen-Nymphenburg in Dezember 1916. 

"Durch die Form und Behaarung des Labellums erinnert diese Art 
sehr stark an B. Calamaria Lindl. westafrikanischer Herkunft, * * *." 

The record of the Philippine origin of this species is doubted; nothing 
of its alliance has been seen from the Philippines and its affinities are 
African, as pointed out by Kranzlin. Bulbophyllum calamaria Lindl. has 
a similar labellum, but its habit is very different. 

Bulbophyllum godseffianum Weathers in Gardeners' Mag. 33 (1890) 540, 
text cut =.' Bulbophyllum dearei (Hort.) Reichb. f. 

Bulbophyllum henschallii Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235, 
nomen. 

Bulbophyllum lasianthum Lindl. in Gard. Chron. (1855) 53; Reichb. f. 

in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 255; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234; Ames 

in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 127. 
The type of this was Sumatran; the living specimen examined by 
Lindley, said to. have come from Manila, imported by Loddiges, probably 
came from the Malay Peninsula or Sumatra. No record for this species 
as Philippine is known other than Lindley's original statement. 

Bulbophyllum lobbii Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234. 

Bulbophyllum longiflorum Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 260, quoad 
Philip.; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235; Ames in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 127, non Thou. = Bulbophyllum iveberi Ames. 

Bulbophyllum macgregorii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
127, 137, Orch. 5 (1915) 180, non Schltr. (1911) = Bulbophyllum 
exquisitum Ames. 

Bulbophyllum maculatum Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235, nomen. 

Bulbophyllum maxillare Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 248;, Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 235; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
127, Orch. 5 (1915) 181 = Bulbophyllum blwmei (Lindl.) J. J. Sm. 

Bulbophyllum medusae (Lindl.) Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235. 

Bulbophyllum megalanthum Griff, apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 235. 

Bulbophyllum mucronatum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234. 



392 ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS 1925 

Bulbophyllum nutans Reichb. f. in Walp. Ann. 6 (1861) 260; Naves 
Novis. App. (1882) 235; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
24, 127, non Thou. = Bulbophyllum othonis (Ktze.) J. J. Sm. 

Bulbophyllum nymphopolitanum Kranzl. in Ann. k. k. Nat. Hofmus. Wien 
30 (1916) 60 = Bulbophyllum levanae Ames. 

Bulbophyllum odoratum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App, (1882) 234. 

Bulbophyllum penicillium Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 23 (1885) 215; Vidal 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 149, Rev. PL Vase. Filip. (1886) 
267; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 128, non Par. & 
Reichb. f. = Bulbophyllum adenopetalum Lindl. 

Bulbophyllum purpureum (Reichb. f.) Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234. 

Bulbophyllum ramosii Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 25, 
128, Orch. 5 (1915) 186 = Bulbophyllum adenopetalum Lindl. 

Bulbophyllum regnellii Reichb. f. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234. 

Bulbophyllum reticulatum Boxall ex Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234, 
nomen. 

Bulbophyllum tenellum Lindl. apud Naves Novis. App. (1882) 234. 

Bulbophyllum vagans Ames & Rolfe var. linearifolium Ames Orch. 5 
(1915) 191, nomen = Bulbophyllum vagans Ames & Rolfe var. 
angustum Ames. 

67. OCTARRHENA Thwaites 

OCTARRHENA AMESIANA Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 9 (1911) 439; Ames 

Orch. 5 (1915) 192. 
Phreatia parvula Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 204, non Benth. ex Hook. f. 

Mindanao (Davao), Copeland 1124, 1427, Elmer 10568, 11413, 11457. 
Mt. Apo, epiphyte at about 2,000 m altitude. 

OCTARRHENA CAULESCENS Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 192. 

Phreatia caulescens Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 200, text cut; Kranzl. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 23 (1911) 12. 

Luzon (Bontoc, Lepanto, Ifugao, Benguet). A fairly common species 
in the provinces mentioned. Epiphyte in mossy forest at 1,650 to 2,300 
m altitude. 

OCTARRHENA ELMERI Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 192. 

Phreatia elmeri Ames in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1581. 
Luzon (Camarines), Mindanao (Davao), B. S. 22184 Ramos, Elmer 
10622. Epiphyte in forest at 2,000 m altitude in Mindanao. 

OCTARRHENA ENSI FOLIA (Ames) Schltr. in Fedde Repert. 9 (1911) 
217; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 192. 
Phreatia ensifolia Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 202, text cut; Kranzl. in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 23 (1911) 15. 
Luzon (Bataan), Negros (Oriental Negros), Mindanao (Agusan), 
Whitford 153, Elmer 9733, 13851. Epiphyte at about 1,250 m altitude in 
Luzon. 



Vol. 1 



ORCHIDACEAE 393 



OCTARRHENA GEM M IFERA Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 193. 

Leyte, Wenzel 025k, 0293, OUOh. 0526, 05U7, 0592. Jaro, epiphyte at 
500 to 700 m altitude. 

68. THELASIS Blume 

THELASIS CAPITATA Blume Bijdr. (1825) 386; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. 
(1833) 253; Blume Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 186 (excl. syn. 
Euphroboscis pygmaea Griff.) ; Reichb. f. in Bonpl. 5 (1857) 37; 
Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 19 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 20) t. 7, fig. 1; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 700, Sumatra (1862) 275; Naves Novis. 
App. (1882) 244; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 86; Rid], in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. II 3 (1893) 376, in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 (1896) 
393; Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (1900) 69; J. J. Sm. FL 
Buitenz. 6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 493, Fig.-Atlas (1911) fig. 372; 
Ridl. Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 199; Ames Orch. 2 (1908) 212, 

5 (1915) 194; Schltr. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, Beibl. 104 (1911) 
54; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 50. II. B. 23 (1911) 41; 
Ames in Merr. in Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special 
No. (1921) 190. 

Thelasis capitata Blume var. major Blume Fl. Jav. Orch. (1858) 19 

(Orch. Arch. Ind. 20). 
Thelasis ochreata Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 3 (1859) 63; Miq. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 701; Naves Novis. App. (1882) 244; Ridl. 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 303. 
Thelasis elongata Blume var. major Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 32 
(1896) 393, fide Ridl. in Mat. Fl. Mai. Penin. 1. c. 
Mindoro, F. B. 12057 Merritt. In Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and 
Borneo. 

THELASIS CAR IN ATA Blume Bijdr. (1825) 386; Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. 
(1833) 253, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1856) 187, Fl. Jav. Orch. 
(1858) 21 (Orch. Arch. Ind. 24) t. 7, fig. 3; J. J. Sm. Fl. Buitenz. 

6 (Orch. Jav.) (1905) 497, Fig.-Atlas (1912) fig. 375; Ames in 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 336; Kranzl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 50. II. B. 23 (1911) 43; Ames Orch. 5 (1915) 194, in Merr. in 
Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits Branch, Special No. (1921) 190. 

Phreatia carinata Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 3 (1859) 655, Sumatra (1862) 

274. 
Eria carinata Reichb. f. in Seem. Fl. Vit. (1868) 301, in obs. 
Thelasis elata Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1890) 87; Ridl. in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. II 3 (1893) 376; Hook. f. in Hook. Icon. PI. 22 (1893) 
t. 2156. 
Oxyanthera elata Hook. f. in Hook. Icon. PI. 22 (1893) sub t. ,2156; 
Ridl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 31 (1896) 303, 32 (1896) 394, Mat. 
Fl. Mai. Penin. 1 (1907) 200. 
Oxyanthera carinata Schltr. in Mem. Herb. Boiss. 21 (