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Full text of "EPIGRAHIA INDICA VOL 16"

EPIGRAPHIA INDICA 



Vol. XVI (1921-22) 



\0*. r-iy--- 1 X 





PUBLISHED BY 

THE DIRECTOR GENERAL 

ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 

JANPATH, NEW DELHM 10001 

1983 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA 



Vol. XVI, 1921-22. 





PUBLISHED BY 

THE DIRECTOR GENERAL 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 

JANPATH, NEW DELHI-1 10011 

1983 



Reprinted 1983 




ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
1983 



Price : Rs. 80.00 



Printed at Pearl Offset Press, 5/33 Kirti Nagar Industrial Area New Delhf-UOOlS. 



PUBLISHED UNDEB THE AUTBOBIT? OP THE GOVERNMENT OF 1KDIA 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA 



AND 



RECORD OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 



Vol. XVI, 1921-22. 



EDITED BT 

F. W. THOMAS, M.A., HON. PH.!)., 

HOKOEA3T COBBESPONDEKT OP THE GOVEEIfMEiri OJ IKDli, ABCHJEOIOGICili DEPABTMMI, 

AND 

KAO BAHADUR H. KRISHNA SASTRI, B.A., 

GOTKEHMKNT EP1GRAPHIST 70S INDIA. 



CALCUTTA: 

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA PRESS. 




LONDON: KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, 
TRUBNER & Co. 



NEW YOXtZ: WESTEMIANK & Co. 
CHICAGO : S D. PEET. 



PARIS t E. LEROUX. 



ill 



CONTENTS. 



The names of contributors a*re Arranged alphabetically* 

* D. BAHIBJII 

No. 6. The Andhan Inscriptions of the time of Rudradaman ....... 19 

16. The Sanchi Inscription of Svamin Jivadainan": the 13th year . * * .230 

B. D, BAKEBJI and V. S* SUKTHAHEAB : 

No* 17. Three Kshatrapa Inscriptions ..**...... * 233 

I.-* Gnnda Inscription of the time of the Kshatrapa-Endrasimha j the year 103 , 233 
II. Gadha ( Jasdan) Inscription of the time of the Maha-kshatrapa Rudrasena : the year 

127 (or 126) ....... . 236 

HI, Junagadh Inscription of the time of the grandson of the Kshatrapa Jayadaman * 239 



BAP& AottABlA, VABAKHBDI : 

See T. A, QOPIICATHA BAD AND VABAKHBDI BAPTJ ACHABYA. 

IX BABOTTT : 

BTo 1* Sogal Inscription of the reign of Taila II : Saka 902 . * - * . c 1 

, 4. Bhamodra Mohota plate of Dronasimha : the year 183 **., 17 

7. Alnr Inscription of Vikrainaditya V : Saka 933 ,,..,.. 27- 1 

^ S Three Inscriptione of Lakshmeahwar ...**.,. 31 

A.-Of the reignof Vikramaditya VI : year 27 .**..* 31 

B. >, (year 32) and Taila III (years 3 and 4) . 35 

C. , Jagadekaraalla II : the 10th year . ...... 44 

s) 9, Two Jain Inacriptions of Mulgnnd and Lakshmeshwar * ..... * 52 

A. 'Mnlgund Inscription of the reign of Souiesvara I: Saka 973 . * . .53 

B, Lakahnneahwar Inscription of the reign of Vikramaditya YI : A. D. 1081 58 

^ 10. Two Kadamba Inscriptions of JNfiralgi .......... 66 

A. Of the reign of Somesvara I : Saka 974 .,. 66 

B. Soinesvara II : Saka 996-7 . . . * , * . 68 

>, llv Three Inscriptions from Hottur ...... .*. 73 

A. Of the reiga of Satyasraya : Saka 929 *...., 73 

B. Jayasimha II : Saka 959 ....,. 75 

C. ,> Somesvara I : Saka 988 *.... 31 

2l> Some minor Eashtrattita Inscriptions ... ....... 277 

1. Kunimellihalli Inscription of Saka 818 .., 277 

2. Kyasanur Inscriptions of Saka 868., etc. ***.,.. 280 

3. Devihosur Inscription of Saka 884 ....... 285 

24. Hulgur Inscription of tiie reign of Vikramaditya VI : Saka 999 329 

25* reigns of Jayasimha II (Saka 960) and the Yadava Kanhara 332 

26. Tilvaili Inscription of the reign of Somesvara I *..*, 337 

29. Two Banawasi Inscriptions of the Kadamha Kirtfcivarina-Deva , . 353 

A. Of the reign of Smnesvara I : Saka 990 ...., 4 ^53 

B. Vikramaditya VI ......... 35S 

A* CAMMIADK and tto late T. A. GOBINATHA KAO : 

Ho, -27* A second Plate of Bhaskara Barivarman found at Tirunelli . . . 



EPIGBAPHT A INDIC A. [ Vot. XV L 



PAGE 

C. N. DIS5HIT : 

No. 20. Garra Plates of the Cbandella Trailokyavarman : [Vikrairm] *Samvat 1361 . . .272 



The late T. A. GoBitfAraA KAO t- 

Xo. 23. VelUngudi Plates of Venkatat>ati-Deva Mahara I : Saka-Samvat 1520 .... 293 
M 28, Srirangam Plates of Hallilcar jnaa : Saka-Sainvat 1384 .,*, 345 
See also L. A, CAMMIADE and the late T, A, GQPINATEA RAO. 

The late T. A. GOPINATHA Rio and BAPIT ACHABYA, VAEAKHEBI :~ 

No. 15. Srirangam Plates of Harihara-Eaya Udaiyar (III) : Saka 1336*^ 222 



. 



LAL, Rai Bahadur t 
No* 2. Mahoba Plates of Paramardi-Deva : [Vikrama]-Samrat 1280 

K. P. JATASWAL: 

No. 6. The Ghosundi Staue Inscription * * * . * * t * 

C- R. KEISn^AKACHABIIT : - 

No, 18. The PeEugttlurn Grant of TiiruuiaU I ; Saka 149$ *S , * . * 

V, NAXESA AITAS ? 

No. 22, Padniaueri Qwok of Venk^ta I ; Sabv-Samvat 1520 \/ * * - * . < .287 

F. E. PASGITEE : 

No. 13. The luacriptions of the Biiuaran Vae * . t 97 

V. 6. StT^THANKAB : 

No- 19. Two Kadainba Graiits from Snrsi . > . *** 264 

A. Plates of Eavivarman: the [3]oth yea*.* t f i* - * 264> 

B. ^Plates of Krishimvarman II : the 19th yt'iu * i * . 268 

See also B B. BANEBJI aucl V. S. 



B. T* VlSVAfTA? HA :-^ 

No. 12* The Jaintmkesvarain Grant o Yijayaranga Chokkanatha Nayakar; Saka 1630 88 

J, PH. VO&BL ; 

No, 3, Shorkot Inscription of the year S3 ....... *.*15 

INDEX .*.,..,,..,,, 363 

Title-page, Contents, List of Plates, Additions and CQprectkm^ and Addendum and Gomgenduzn to Yol XY i ^ 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Jso. 1. Sopal Inscription of the reign of Taila II : Salca 902 . 
2. Mahoba Plates of Parattmrdi-Deva : (VikramaJ-Sainvat 1230 

3. Shorkot Inscription of the year 83 

4. Bhamodra Mohota Plate of Dronasimha : the year 183 

5. The Audhau Stone Inscriptions of the time of Kudradaman : the year 52 On 

back Gliosuiidi Stone Inscription , .. 

6. Alnr Inscription of Vikramaditya V : Saka 933 

I ,7. Lakshmesliwar Inscription of the reign of Jagadekamalla II : the 10th year 

8. Niralgi Inscription of the reign of Somcsvara I : Saka 974 
/9. Jainbnkeswaratn Grant of Vijayaranga Chokkanatha Nayaka : Saka 1630 . 
jj/10. The Inscriptions on the Bimaran Vase ..,** 

,,/lL Srirangani Plates of Harihara-Eaya-Udaiyar : Saka 1336 .... 

12. Sanchi Inscription of Svamin Jivadanian : the 13th year * 

* 13. Gunda Inscription of tlie time of the Kshatrapa Rudrasimha : the year 103 
'I Jnnagadh Inscription of the time of the grandson of the Kshatrapa Jayadaman . 
" " Gadha (Jasdan) Inscription of the time of Maha-Ksbatrapa Rudrasena : the year 

127 (or 126) 

/ 14. Penuguluru Grant of Tirumala I : Saka 1493 (i-va) 

15 . j 19 (vb-vii) . * < 

16* Sirsi Grant of Ravivarnian: the 35th year 

,, Krishnavarman ; the 19th year ... ... 

17, Garra Plates of Trailokynvarman : (Vikranw)-Samvat 12G1 

18* Kyasauar Inscription of the reigu of Kali- Vita : Saka 863 t 

10 , Nitivavftrsha-Air,cgh^varsha 

yi *^* 9 ** 

20* Devihosur Inscription of Saka 884 ..* 
!/21, Paauianeri Grant of Vcnkata I : Saka 1520 (i-va) 

* *. /uK.tTl^ * a * 



between pages 
to face page 



12 
15 
15 



24 & 25 

25 & 29 
46 & 47 

67 
94 

9S&99 
224 & 225 
to face page 232 

between pages 236 & 237 



between pages 

5> 

J> >J 

to face page 
between pages 



252 & 253 
to face page 254 

between pages 270 & 271 



to face page 



275 



J) 



(vb-xa) 
(xb-xvia) 



23. Vellangudi Plates of Venkatapati Maharaja : Saka-Sanivafe 15^0 (i-v) 
24. 

*tO fl *? *r "* " \ 

26. > >* (xvib-xvua) 

27. Tirnnelli Plate of Bhaskara Ravivarman ..** 

28. Srirangam Plates of Mallikarjuna.: Saka-Sanivat 1384 . . 
*Anbil Plates of Sundara Chola: the'4tli yc ar 



284 

. . s 280 

between pages 294 & 295 

to face page 296 

between pages 312 & 313 

314 & 316 

316 & 317 

to face page 318 



99 

between pages 349 & 350 
280 & 291 



[*Note that these two plates are Nos, 6 and 7 of Vol. XV and should to bound with that volume, being there 
inserted in their proper order between pp. 60 and 61 and pp. 62 and 63 respectively.] 




ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



Page 8, 1. 22,~[^Mmfyjra?am Is a scribe's error for tiSkaThgalaih) leaves, vegetation. In 1. 23 
dTiareyal should be corrected to -bereyal or -vereyal " to associate with f * : 
muTcfayol^bereyal^emd^rppam means " waiting to be united to (tlie bride) 
Salvation 1 *. The verse means tliat he subjected bis body to such hardship 
as to make people say that it was indeed beyond the power of other ascetics 
practising austerities to undergo sucb. mortification, etc. Rao Bahadur II. 
NarasimhacbJtrya, M.A/J 

^ 6, vetse 6, c water of aspersions f Gadduge, or gaddige, is tlie seat or throne of a Sar?a 
mendicant, a Ja#ama, and nlr (ntru?) means * Dishes '. Hence deva-snana 
jatust have the significance of a particular kind of ablution, like bJiasma-snana, 
in which ashes are smeared profusely over the body. H. K. S. 

^ 6, ,, 11, In tlae translation "who on seeing Mm" is to be interpreted as " look ye 
or behold } ' % nfidtfre being here used as aji interjection* Mali and Sumali ; 
If these words liave to give rise to the Sanskrit name Suvarnamahakshi, 
ifchey must perhaps be treated as Kanarese words composed of ma + ali and 
$u + ma + &U. The first meai^s c the big eye', which in Sanskrit could be 
rendered Into Jfa&SfcsM. In the second su may stand for swv&rna, and we 
thus have the name Suv^amamahakshl, This may seem to be a forced in- 
terpretation ; but there is no other way of connecting the latter name with 
Suvarnamahakshi, H. 1C. S* 

18. -The marvel indicated in this verse is not clear. 1L K. S. 
^ 86, *, S^. [/or " twelve timep " read *' ten times**. E. B, B*^ N.] 

41 (BL 17-24). In the translation " borse-sacrifices .... Siva and Vishnu n is 

apparently wrong, since Horse-sacrifices are not performed particularly to 
propitiate tlie Gods, Siva and Visb^u. The division of words in the text 
ought, in my opinion, to be left just as it stands and requires no correction 
'fldhisMTrita being combined with the following word and QJwturVhujam being 
separated without change to Chaturbhuja. The meaning then would be i 
"who owns 84 towns presided over by Siva &nd Vishnu; who is con- 
secrated ...**.... hors^sacrifices." H f JC S. 

80, trans-, verse 15.-^ So 48 to be served by the own race *. If Lakshml was already 

* 'in the lotus of his own race, there is no force in saying that she served him. 

Jn the text paifyTca-ruha must be sepai*ated from the next following word, and 
the translation should be; "so that the lotus of his own race became an 
abode of the goddess of Fortune* 5 . If sevyam qualiEed Aditya- Bhatta, we 
should have expected tlie masculine form sevyan- H. K. S. 

51 >f 11. 49 to 55, The translation of ll f 52 and 53, commencing " on whiah he deduct- 
** ed ...,., kanda-ground ", is capable of improvement. Aladu kan$a bhumt** 

*land whose extent was found out by measurement * or * measured land \ 
The word prabliugalge has to be construed with ifcfci and not with aladu* as 
Dr- Barnett has taken it. So the altered translation would be "and, having 
(also) given to tfrese gentlemen (the right of) dasavanda at ten in hundred 
for the extent of land (measured) by the rod according to the gadimba of 
Jtuligere, He obtained 1 *, etc, H* K, S. 



EP1GEAPHIA IffDICA. [Voiu XVI, 



Page 60, text, 1 14, [read av^asuranim 5 avu refers to the earth, the ocean, and the mountain; 
and the Asara Is Hiranyaksha. The meaning is, * the ordinary earth, etc., 
cannot be compared to Erega in weightineas, etc,, owing to their defects ; but, 
if there should be another earth etc. (without such imperfections), these 
might be compared to him'. EL K. S. 
,. 1, 17. [divide aryp=Ina-sunu ; arppu** liberality; Ina-sunu= Karna. His bounty was 

such that men said Kama was born again. E. B. E. N.] 

5S >? 1L 21*22.-- -[The sense of v, 12 is : " if enemy kings bow down at the feet of Erega, 1 
do not know ; but, if they do not bow, D5$a will make them fall so that 
voltures and the like will pounce upon them. It. B. E. N.J 
62 S 1. 38 3 [read Manu-muni-marggan = endu, "that he is one who walks in the way of 

the saint Mann ' V E. B. E. N.] 

n L 39, [read pasugeg-ojanan, ;< teacher of methodical work". -E. B. E. N] 
3, L 40, [read sahasadindavi - Ammwgeyan* Ammuge, like Inda, must hare been a 

person cast into prison by S5bhaua. B, B. E. KL] 

71, 1. 2*2, [correct to mand-endudam Jcotf = a^uki *... bhTtiyatvamani pandar*= emdamd 
eleie. The sense is : " when it is said that powerful hostile kings begged for 
protection, surrendered their strength of arm, offered whatever was asked^ 
and in fear and terror became his servants, will they be able to cross him ... 
and contend with him in battle ?" E. B. B. N.j 
71, L 26. [correct to Tiolvud-amt **irkke : " let alone his slaying the foes that oppose him r 

is he not, when enraged, able to terrify.....?". E. B* E. N,] 

5 , 7i, L 28. [read nimnol bidad = edaruvavamg * unite, C is he who opposes you possessor 
of the trident, etc."?, i.e. , is he Siva? The meaning is that none but Siva 
can confront him in battle* E. B. E. N.] 
S-i, L 19. [read suputrah kula dtpalka yenisL E, B, B. N/J 

[Eao Bahadur E. Narasimhacharya, who has kindly contributed the above notes 
which are acknowledged under his initials, further points out that thejKanarese 
poet Kayasena of Mulgund, who wrote in II 12 the Bharmamrita, was a disciple 
of Narendrasena II of the Lakshmeshwar inscription of 1081 (above, p. 58). 
Nayasena mentions among Jain teachers a previous Narendrasena, and imme- 
diately after him a Nayasena. L. D. B.] 

)5 96, trans 8) 11. 41-4 : for others of ahipativamsa read of other royal Unes. F, W. T. 
25 } 11. 334 and p. 229, v. 2. [Eao Bahadur E. Narasimhaehar writes, " the expression 
hadinemtit, mettina, gale, which means /a pole of eighteen feet * used for 
measuring, has been misunderstood both by the publisher (sc. author) and 
the editor (p. 229)" L. D. B.] But, with the following word kaftale, which 
means 'service (in a temple)',, the explanation of the Eao Bahadur cannot 
hold good. H.K.S, 

232, text, L 3 : for ava-ptiw], = $ (ytad-dharmwia read ftvapti-Jietor^dharnima. P. W. T. 
289, 5th line from bottom : for Sa&tiraya in column 3 read Sastriraya. 
?1 325, line 403 (correctly 404) of the Test, for Jamnam(ta>Bhatfca read Anamta-Bhatta. 
354, teit, L 10. Mlarkkola generally occurs as marhkole or viarkolvara and means " if 
opposed" or " opposing " (see line 35 of inscription B). Bhairava was not 
specially famous as an archer. Hence bhairava is to be taken here in the- 
sense of * terrible } i.e., terrible to the opposing (enemy). H. K. S, 
^ ^ 3 * wns-anka-Eudram must be translated "a Eudra in fighting with kings ** 

H. E. S, w *** 

S&5 trans., 11. 3-16 f * " sprung from the race which presides o?er eighty-four towns and ia- 
consecrated in eighteen world-famed horse-sacrificed to. (the god of) the* 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. h 

^_^__ Jm ^ -- ^ ----- ........ _..... A ______________ _ M ..... ^ ...... ^ ..... ^ ..... rpiriii i iiiiimiiiMiim imniiiiiiiiinnfiimiiii.i,..niMi -IIUT.-- .-. 1 m.r '-| ' " r , J ________ I"" ...... ininr. .luium:.. jn . ~_ihi . : nrr . _______ 

Frontal Eje (Siva)", This translation admits of another interpretation. 
The text, in that case, is to be transcribed: tl 



ritfam", and the translation, would then be : u who had settled (u,, conseerat* 
ed) Siva (Lalata-lflchana) in eighty-four towns and was sprang from a rare 
which had performed the eighteen world-famed Asvamedha sacrifices," Sac- 
rifices performed to please the god Siva exclusively are rare. He, like other 
deities, receives only a share in a sacrifice, See above, page 41. and Addenda 
and Corrigenda thereto,-H, TL S. 

Paip 356, para, 2, 1, 3, Rlrttign in Terse 1 of the Text refers very likely to tie himk 
Kirtti, who is distinctly so called in 1L 40, 42, 43. H, K. S. 

356, L 14 from top. JlfwftaWe means * great-grandmother ' and therefore it is not impossi- 
ble that the pillar in question was a gift for the merit of Klrttiyanna's great- 
grandmother,-!, K. S, 

357 (text), 1, ty~tl-tmj-ado&((l)*Aile, The meaning is not what is given in the transla- 
tion : the passage should be divided el ! turu^dod^dmle " Nay ! was it 

j. <j * ** v * ^ 

acquired by protecting cows?" Kripa-Meru, occurring twice in 11, 13 and 16 
may haye been a surname of Chattnga. E K. S. 
358, trans,, y. 2, "the god giving blessing of glory "-Evidently the translation of 

# / f 

KMi'Sdihh't^dham should be " the god (Siva) named Klrti-Samkara." 
This must hive been the name of a shrine in the ladhutesvara temple or 
somewhere in its neighbourhood, It is evident that Kirtti-Samkara was the 
name of the Siva temple built by Klrttiga,---E K. S, 

}, 8W tans,, Y. 17. The translation ought in my opinion to be;-" The lame of the sole 
nero-king of the world increases as each (poet) eulogises him, just as the 
lotns riaos according as the water rises high (in the tank) V-H, K, S, 



ADDENDUM AND COBRIGENDUM 10 VOL. XV. 

Page 8, text line 5. For NfigatSpIia-nSinS the facsimile reads nwjat$rtlta~ufan$, ' who?o 
corresponded to its meaning '. Accordingly, cancel in the Index the entry ' Nfiyti&tplnt, 
$ a. Kshemankara * (p. 394). Fox two similar cases in which iiusreadings have been taken 
for proper names see Ini. Ant., Vol. XIII, p. 12o, note 7,E. H, 



Corrigenda to " Two Inscriptions from Gawarwad and Annigeri n 
and " Gadag Inscription of Vikramaditya VI " in Epigraphia 
Mica, Vol. XV, p, 337 foil, 



Bao Bahadur R, Narasimhachar has kindly seat me the following corrections to these two 
paj.-ers: - 

fage 340, II. 910; aldana, " of his Jowl", and vitv$sad=al, " trusty servant." 

,, II Id 17 ; for n$$a read 3rfa, "behold 1" and wd^ipa.^tmkm, "greater than 
the ordinary," i.e., extraordinary. 

,, 841, II. 4T48 ; u Let the whole world fold its hands in reverence, the sun will net 
pay a pie. Will he give what is desired (lagedudan), like the sun of 
Belvala P 11 

85 /, 1 19 : verse 22 refers to the ox of Dharma standing upright on its four feet. 
852, II. SO-'Sl : read Sdmefoara-bJiatta ninn^orege. F|is/ia"^Sngia?*hypocrites. 

vr 888, L 32: read alii Jcallare lallar, i.e,, only those who are trained tinder him 
know it. 

I 39 : read fastra-patJiana~fravan$ni. 

3-54,, ^ 46 ' read ifa&u-'klrtti. 

555, /. BO : correct to dh&nya-vw'ggada. 

., I. 63 : read pamcha-ratnada, ditytibhwanada pasaradin; jxisaracpllection, store, 



359, verse 42 : guna, signifies both " wick " and " virtae." 

Jj, D. BAEKEIT, 
MGIPC-Sl-X-S-34-31-7-28-440, 



EPIORAPHIA INDICA 



VOLUME 5VI 



No. 1, SOGAL INSCRIPTION OF THE EBIGN OF TAILA II: SAKA 902. 

BY LIONEL D, BABSETT. 

Sogal is a village in the Parasgad taluka of- Belgaum District, Bombay Presidency. Its 
ancient name is given in our inscription variously as Soval, Solu and Sol ; to this we shall 
revert anon. It is marked on the Bombay Survey sheet No. 305 as in about long, 75 |' and 
lat. 15 5'* The .following record is now edited for the firsfe time from ink4mpressions prepared 
for the late Dr. Meet, and now in the British Museum ; bat I have been unable to discover in 
what part of the village the original stone was found. The latter bears on its topmost com- 
partment, which is rounded, some sculptures, viz. In the centre a shrine surmounted by a spire 
of the Drayidian order, and in it a Unga on its stand, with a priest sitting at the proper rigbt 
of it ; directly below it, a squatting ball ; to the proper left of the shrine, a squatting figure of 
a votary, with clasped hands/ facing full front; to the, right of it, a cow with suckling c^lf 
looking towards it ; over it, the sun (on proper right) and moon (on left) ; flanking both sides 
of the shrine and meeting over its summit, floral festoons twined so as to form four circles, in 
which are small figures. Below this is the inscribed area, consisting of three compartments : 
the first (lines 1-3) is 1 ft S| in, wide and 2f in. high ; the second (lines 4-64) is 2 ft. wide 
and 3 ft, 10| in. high; and the third (lines 65-63) is 1 ft, 9 in. wide and 4 in. high. The 
inscription is on the whole well preserved. The character is Kauarese, of a rather crabbed type 
of the period ; the letters vary from about T V in. to T \ in. in height. The cursive t? (above, 
VoL XII, p. 335) occurs in Vri (1. 5). The language ,ia Old Kanarese, except for the formal 
Sanskrit verses Nos. 1, 34, and 35. The I is preserved in <ildu (L 2), negalda (I. 32 : a tribrach) ; 
it is changed to r in pogarddam (1. 9) and porttum (1. 13) ; and in all other cases it is changed 
to Z. The archaic participle in -om occurs in pratipaUsidomge (L 58), in what seems to be a 
quotation from an earlier poem ; in the same verse we find ghatisidamge. Parinatikeye (L 30) 
and Ihumiye (11 52) are instrumental ; see above, VoL XIV", p. 277 n. In the words 
Kamchale-'k&nteya Utta dJiarmmamam (L 55) we have what looks like an instance of the use 
of genitive for nominative (Kifctel, Gram., 352. 1, p, 393 : see my note in Journ. JR, Asiat. 
$oc. 1918, p* 105). In KagJiava-dvishana nachchuva (L 18) it is possible to take Q dvi&hana 
similarly as genitive for nominative ; but I prefer to regard it as accusative, on which see Dr. 
Fleet's remarks above, VoL XI, p. 3. A few words are of lexical interest, viss, gadduge 
(L 12 ; cf. Kashmiri god u ?), seligu (L 15 : apparently a derivative from aZ5&a) ? viketu (L 35), 
rana (1. 41), and vibbStfa (L 4@). 

The record, after prefatory verses (11. 1-5), describes the beauties of the suiTomndiDg 
woods (11. 5-7) and the sanctuary of SuvarnSksM* on which see below (IL 7-16). In thii 

A 



BP1&BAPEIA INDIOA. [Toi,. XVI. 



establishment the chief was Tribhuvanasimha Pandita, an eminent ascetic and divine (11- 
16-17). The foandation-tegend of the place is told in outline (11. 17-21 ). It was established by 
the kings Mali and Sumali at the end of the Trefca Age. The latter gave his name to the place ; 
for the names by which it is designated Solu (11. 20, 44), S51 (L 50), and Soval (1. 54) 
are derived from SumaU (or SaumSla). 1 The poet then introduces us to another distinguished 
Saiva doctor, G-angarasi (1L 21-24), and to one of his lay disciples, named KafiehikafobO 
(Kaflchiyabbe or Kafichale), of the Dhanaga family, the wife of Kariya Ketimayya and 
mother of Chatta f a generous benefactress of her church (11. 24-33). He next devotes a versa* 
(11. 33-36) to the praises of king Taila, whom he describes as having conquered the Ch51a and 
Lala (Lata), and cut off the heads of Banakamblia and Kakkala, 2 The next passage (11* 
36-39) refers the record to Taila's reign, styling him ITurmadi-Tailapa-deva, with various 
titles, on which see Dyn. Kanar. Distr.^ p. 428 ; and then there appears on the scene a 
Ratta prince named Katta, son of Kantheyabbarada Nannapayya, who at the time was 
ruling as Taila's viceroy over Ktindi (11. 39-43). This Katta is identical with Kartavirya I, 
on whom see Dyn. Kanar. Distr., p. 553. The next section (11. 43-57) is occupied with the 
dating and specification of the endowment made by Kanchiyabbe for the benefit of the temple o 
Suvar^akshi and the mttra or almshonse connected with it ; its trustee waa Tribhuvanasimha, 
and it was to be under the protection of the Thirty (heads of households) of Soval. Several 
hortatory verses (II. 57-65) clinch the deed of gift : the first is evidently a quotation, as it 
addresses an otherwise unknown Devana Pandita, and the third and fourth narrate the legend 
of Indra and the Ch&Q^&ll* A further verse (II, 66*67) informs us that the poet who composed 
cur inscription was Kamaladitya [more likely Kavikamaladitya. Ed.] ; and a final clause 
stipulates that the cooking at the almshouse must be done by a Brahma^ woman (11. 67-68). 

Mali and Sumali, the protagonists of the foundation-legend mentioned above, are the Baksha* 
sas whose history is narrated in the Ramayana, VII. v. fE., and Bhagavata-pureina, VI. x* 21 and 
VIII, x, 56* A clue to the mystery of their appearance in the present legend seems to be 
afforded bj the Bmhma-vaivarta-pur&na, III (Gangsa-Jchanda,'), xviii-xix, which relates that they 
were devotees of Si\ra, and on being smitten by the San-god with disease propitiated him by 
worship. It would therefore seem that the god Savarnaksbi mentioned in our inscription was 
the Sun-god, worshipped as a phase of Siva ; and this will partly explain the rather obscure 
verse 18, which refers to his temple. 

The date 8 is given on 11. 43-44 as : Saka 902, the cyclic year Vikrama ; the new-moon day of 

Ashadha ; Sunday ; an eclipae of the sun.. This is irregular, according to the usual calculation, 

The titfai mentioned corresponded to Wednesday, 14 July, A.B. 98O f on which it ended at 

21 h. 7 m. after mean sunrise (for TJjjain) ; and there was no eclipse of the sun. But Mr. A. 

Venkatasnbbiah, who has discussed the data in his Some Saka Dates in Inscriptions, p. 133, 

remarks : " According to the Arya and Brahma Siddhantas the mean-sign Jovian year Vikrama 

wag current at the beginning of Ashadha in . 900. On the amavasya at the beginning "of 

tbi8 Ashadha, Stli June, AJX 978, there took place a solar eclipse which was visible in India, 

The week-day however was Saturday and not Sunday, This Saturday 8th June, A.D. 978 _ 

Beams to be the equivalent o the given date.' 1 

The places mentioned are Sogal itself, which appears in the form of Solu (11, 20, 44), 
851 (L 50), and Soval Q. 54) 3 ggndi (11. 19, 42), MirSjana (?) Belavldi (1. 28),' and' 

i This equation ia phonetically ummpeacfeable* tmfc on other grounds it is not conviucing. However 
that m&y ***, it is clear that the oldeafc form of the name was 8*ml. The modern name Sofal is an instance of 
the cfcange of intervocalic * to g> which, aa f ar aa I know, is rare, whereas the reverse change, g to t>, is rery 



See By*. Kan.Dittr., p,426 5 Ji>. JSi^Tol. XH, p. 144, etc. He names appeat a^ao in tt fomw 
a9*&ia and JTarlora. 
* I haw to thank Mr, R, Seweil for hi* Jfcindneas in verging Toy 



No, I.] SOGAL INSCRIPTION OF THE REIGN OF TAILA IF: SAKA 902. 3 



(1 49). On the name and site of Sogal see above. For'the Kfi$di Three- thousand 
L A., Vol. XXIX, p. 278. Belavadi may be "Belwadi" ( Belowuddee " of .the old Indian 
Atlas), which lies in Sampgaon t^luka, some 9| miles SS"W^ from Sogal. Tggur may oonceir- 
ably be one of two places of that name : there is a Tegur in SampgSon t&lnJca, some 22* miles 
SW. from Sogal, and another in Dharwar taluha, about the sameHistance SSW. from Sogal j 
but both of them are too far to suit the requirements of our text. The other places cannot 
be identified. 

TEXT* 1 

[Metres: vv. 1, 34*5, AnusJitubh; vv. 2, 5-10,12, 14, 16-19, 22-27, 29, 31-33, 36, 
Kanda; w. 3, 4, 11, 28, 30, Utpalam&l&t vv. 13, 20, Mattebhavikrtjita ; w. 15, 21, 



1 Cm 3 Namas*tuihga-^ira-chumbi-chariidra-chamara-charave | ttailokya-nagar-ararii- 

bba- , 

2 mu|a-staihbhaya Sa(Sa)mbhave || [1*] Srlmat-Snvarn^akshi-devara tlrtthadal* 



3*^*******^ ntare(?) tapsdbana *****? 
4 Srlmad-anayarata-Danuja-nar-amara-mani-Dnafcata-tata-ghatiita 

- 5 trilofca-svami Suvarnnakshi-devar=lg*emag=olpa || [2*] Yri || Pamkaja-shan^a- 
dimd=eseva ney4ala pu-go- 

6 ladim talirtta mavim kasum-Oditam kosagu-padari-n^ril-a^ka-baley^enib^amkada 

vri (vri) ksha- jatigali* 

7 n=*im-cliaradiiii pngaleihba k<5kil-alamkri(kfi)tadiihde sala-banam^oppTiTud^i vishay- 

amtaraladol (| [3*1 Alliya ' 

8 nirjjhax'-odakadin^oppuva 4lrttham=id=i jagakke pempellamananta amkara- 

Sayambhu-Suvarnnataahakshi-dYa- 4 

9 pad-<5llasit-ambujaihgalane pnji|p> bhalcti(kta)-]anakke mukti talv^illade kSdTig* 

. eriidtt pogai?dda0da)m kavite8a(ga)- 

10 mada-prabhamja^a || [4*] Ka || Puligale dharmma-Sraya^iamanele midukade 
u kel[n*]t-irppn.v-ara-giligal nirmmala(la)- 
Jft mnnipa(r)=5duv-5darii chalavadedey^=aridu pdva(lYtt)v=druliiib pagalum |j 

[5*] Vanara-samhati dSya-snanam mSduTa- 
12 r &S e ( r S Q ) gaddugeya niram san-manade tandivuv-enalkssan=ajiyem pogalal^a'vara 

tapad=ngrateya >|| [6*] Papi puga- 
iS It* pugal=ugrada *k<5pi pugalw pugal^asgshaidharmma-di'iha-vyapari pugal^pugal* 

end=a porttum kdkilaip.g%l.u- r /t 

14 ligum banadol^ j| [7*] Galapuv-ara-giliya fcukiluya Js^^ham^e(se)ya gavarippa 
. _ pen-dhn.(dn)mbiya " bavalisuva pnru- -j 

15 Jiya ^[m^dfa^&^^^^gis^va ravame nagada nal^^te^Sfeseyo]^ || [8*] 

tanu mutte Biddham^madhrva selig-ant^^Sesha-i^s^lig;^^ 

16 iafllikegal^ kudugum^amarSndrairaman^fi^^var^achcharas [i*]ya[r*jkfcaj-a 

kalama || [9*] Int^enisuva siddha-kshetr-arixtara- 

17 iirtthakke mukhyan=afirita-8ura-bliujam Tribhuvanasimlxa-munlmdram tapasa-g<5tra- 

vairi-kn}a-gaja-simha |j [10*] Vri(vri) |j N5- 



1 From the ink-ixaprcwsion. * Denoted by the Bymbol like a BengaH o. 

* 1&e letters in tfcia line are very niiicli worn, and harflly any can be n*ad with certftinty. g - 
4 The t?a has been omitted, and then added at tfte end of the line in smaller script, v ,, " : ; 

* Bead cbala-v&dadei/- ; of. cJiala-vadi. [No emendation, 1 neceary $ chala&afaedty* a^idu may 
f obserring the plstces where (the reciters) waver/ H. K* S.J 



EPIG-KAPHIA INDIOA. [VOL. XVI. 



18 d-ire Baghava-dvisliana nachclraya Mali Sizmali danavar=mina$iclar 

"" sTipratislifce(slitlie)yadarinide SuTarnnamahakslii-dg7ar=6iiib=ldita- 

19 namam-adndti Sninali-pesar^Bnagarakke rndiyolw. kadidnd^endod^e yogalya[ro*] 

Kn^dl-mahl-yalay-antaraladol Jj [11*] Ka j| ffiCa- 

20 U-SiHnali-dYaya-blinpalar^ddeYargge Solu-mtivattam sal-llleyole Tbittu sugati-sukli- 

alaya- 

21 in=a Tretey==amtya-kalade pokkar J| [12*] Yri |j Tapamam madtuya tapaearkkal^ 

tanu- 

k=irad===aiita meyyau=atayl-sakhamgalam tind= Umadbipanaiii 
mu- 

23 ktiyol=dhareyal=emd~irppam Suyarnnak8hi-dya*pad*ambh5ja-illmakh-abhan=en.ipam 

sri^Gramgara- 

24 si(si)-yratl {{ [13*] Ka || Ayar=npadegada dlaarmmaiii kiyi-vuge nai6liti(aht]ii)ka- 



25 iiaxnarix maduyTid=uttaina*paksham=emba san-matiyimda (j || [14*] Vri Jj 

charait*abja-bhri(bh.ri)mgi kapat-o- 

26 dba(da)ya-nii'33ita a nirmmal-amgi "bhasuratara-mnrtti nirmmalina-klrtti daya-para 

dana-dliarmma-ia- 

27 tpara-guna-ynkte deya-guru-bhakte sug5fcra-payitreyemdu vistaradole klrttikum. 

yasndhe santa- 

28 tadimdame KamcMkabboya jj [15*] Ka [1 Marajana 3 Belayadiya charu-gunam 

Eariya Ketimayyan=a- 

29 Talw vistara-gna-ambTLdhi dharmmada Meruvan-a Kamehikabbeyaria. pogaladar=ar j| 

[16*] Para-hita-guna-charltada 

30 Bhanagara " gotrada Kaihcliiyabbe mata-ratnam dKareg=eseva dha(da)na- 

dharmmada parinatikeye piridu parama-mahe^ya- 

31 riy[a*] jj [17*] Srlya dvara-yugam lll-ayata-karam=euipa s-aryya-kiraajta-starhbhaih. 

bkS-ynvatiy=o)age sale ka- 

32 lp*ayushyam rLilkam-endod^en^aclicliaiiyO || [18*] Bne iiegalda Karhchikabbeya 

tane (na)yam Siya-ch.aran.a-y ugala-kama- 

33 la-bhramaram muni-jaBa-bhaktam isht-esbta-nidhanam Ohattantigra-papa-gliaratta [| 

[IS^pTDatara-yap^nane |[ Vri || Bajayach-Chola-- 

S4 malildliaremdra-'kuliSam LsCl-eblm-pamchananarh jala-bhubhri(btrl) d-yana-durgga- 
margga-jaladlii-yratakk^ele Bada- 

35 v-anala-rupam Eanakamblia-Kakkala-ira- chchhedam 4 rip-ttgr-avani-vilay-Otpa ta- 

yik^tu ctakri-ti* - 

36 iakarix &l-Taila-rajadhipam |] [20*] Syasti samasta-bhuyan-asfraya - Sri- 

Pri(pri)t]byl-yallablia malxarajadMraja 
37, paramesya(sya)ram paramabhattarakam Satyasra(sra)ya-kTiia~tilakam ChSJiiky- 

abiaranani Sri-bliaja-bala-chakraya- 
38 rtti ^tirmmadi-TaUapa-deva-yijaya-ra]yam^uttar5ttar-a^^ 

manam-a*chaiiidr-arkka-t [a] - 
S9 ram saluttan-ire || Tat-pada^padm-0pa]lyigal || Vyi || Jana-pati-chakravartti- 

pariraksbaBa-dakslia- 

40 blinj-asi yairi-sadtana-laya-kari Batta-kiila"bliflslianan=atiya-itaramdra-darppa" 

bhaT^janap.avadata-klrtti yibhu 

41 Kantheyabliai!ada Nannapayya-ranana tane(na)yam yiyeka-BidM Katta- 
_ mahibhtijan^eiiiba per-mmagam || [21*] Ka || A- 

1 We should expect <6e$ar* - ' 2 Bead varjjite. " ~~ ^ 

* Or Mdrdlana : the one letter is not clear. * The chha is made carelessly like subscript da- * 



Sogal Inscription of the reign of Taila I! ; Saka 902. 



10 



20 




22 



24 



26 



30 



32 



34 



F. W. THOMAS 




68 



SCALE CIRCA '3 



No. L] SOGAL INSCRIPTION OJ THE BEIGN OP TAILA II : SAKA 902. 



42 tarn Kundi-maln.vaJay-atigayadhi(aii])Svaram 

patarix bimtaladole Katta-bhn[pa]- 

43 n=Amgaja-rupaih || [22*] Srasti Sa(sa)ka-varsha 002neya ikrama-samva- 

tsarad=Ashada(dlia)d=am[S*]vasyey=Adivara 

44 sftryya-grabana-nimittadol manneyarum Sola muvadimbarggam Bhanagara 

KamcMyabbe sthana-bhn- 

45 miyam kottu SuvarnnaksIii-dev^tirfcthadal=tapam-geyTa tapodhanar^ahara- 

dha(da)nakke Tribhuvanasimgi-pa[mdi]- 

46 tara kalam karchchi bitta kamma 500 || Ka || Avar=olage Chamdradharana 

ahga-vibhogakk=eyde nnru kamma * * * 

47 lam=udbhavam=agi nadevud=a-cb^m*dr-a-varddhi-tara-ga9am divam nilpinegam |j 

[23*] Parama-munl^ar=paiinir * * * frau]- 

48 ktige salya phalam=ad*aynur-kkammam nirutamene isarvva-badhapariliaraia=ad= 

omdu mane-nivesana-sabitam || [24*] 

49 Navidargge(rge) temkal=Akar-ggavnndara balake muda Tegfira polakk-avagade 

badaga Palvala bhfiv[ ^^ ] 

60 paschimadoHrdda g a (sa)trada vri(vri)tti || [25*] Uttamapurusliar=Ss5l. 
muvattarkk=adh.ipar=vyisesh.am=enisuva [ ] - 

51 l=na!vatt-aEu genol=aied=ayattapi=enal=madi kottad^aru^tr-kkammam [[ [26*] 

Favidar=Asagara ma- 

52 dhyada bhtmiye 1 tan=age nadeya bldige ba^agal=dovamg-erige temkal deva- 

tapodhanara a(sa)- 

5a tra-sa(^a)leya geha || [27*] A manege paimeradu kayyl mlamum*emfc* 
agalamam=akkum || Vri || [ w ]- 

64 ]am gu 9 a-prakaradol=Sovaladiya mtvadimbar-a p&vana-mtottigal-Babliatar* 
uttama-daniga [l=a]- 

56 Sritargge ka!p.avani]air*ss[!i*]dana-mdlii Kaihchale-kanteya bitta dharmmamam 
kavada tamma vyittiya [w w] 

56 vol=a dhare nSsa^ullinam || [28*] Sthaa-aoharyyamm-ttrom bhfnathar-kkldlse 

kayar^ur=kkidisalk=a [sthan-a]- 

57 charyyam kavam sthto-^am ki^ise mfivadimba^kkavaTO || [29*]' Vri II 

Blintala-putam^appa muni-n[athara] mu- 

58 ktige aalva dtariam%niam m ghatisidamge durggati-padam pratipallsldomge punya- 

bandn-atisay-aspaelam 

69 SU ^.^ a ^ gubh ^ T ^ ddhi ^- as P adaih maha-kHjati-padamgal^mb^v-ivu tappavu 

60 gram || [30*] Sasira pasnvaih dyijar^ircliohasiramam koti 

komda maha-dgsham 3 porddugum [^j v] ' 

61 va sa(a) B ana-dlLamTnamane kidipa ma-patakanam || [31*] MSlisi 

CBamdale kapaladole kaljan=ered=adn- 

62 tarn ta(ta)t ; ka!ade kerppim mia'chcte samalakadoHriidran^keyam besa-gonclaih II 

\6A J JJeva-svam brabma-svaman=ayu * * * 

63 ^Vvf^r f da ' ra J aril btavisatabhojyam.enat 

- niknCkrOshtarum-olarS || [33*] Na visham [visha]- 
64 



[34*] gya-datt[a*]iii pa- 



- * *'X false prdsa, & with &. 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [YoL. XVI. 



65 ra-dafct[a*]ni va j5 har5ti(ta) vasundharajjra*] [|*] s]iaslit.ir=vvarslia-saliasra(sra)ni 

vishta(shtha)yam jajatS krimi 1 || [35*] 

66 Btmvanam vananidbi snra-giri dlva-kulaia^iiia-cliamdrar^iilliBam dharmmam 

idududbhavam^agi na$ege 

67 sSsana-kavi-Kamaiaaitya-ra (| [36*] I(i) dharmmaman* 

firam sthan-acMryya- 

68 nnih kndi sva-dharmmadim nadeyisuva satrakke bralimaniy*=aduval j] Mamgala 



TRANSLATION. 

(Verse 1.) Homage to Bambini beanteous with tlie yak-tail fan that is the moon kissing 
his lofty head, the foundation-column for the beginning of the city of the triple world. 

(Lines 2-8.) Being in the sanctuajy of the blessed god Suvaroakshi ...... 

(Terse 2.) May the god Snyarnaksbi, lord of the three worlds, whose wondrous pair of 
blest lotus-feet -is ceaselessly touched by the edges of jewelled diadems of demons, mortals, and 
celestials, grant us welfare ! 

(Verse 3.) In this region of the land there is a forest of *#Z-trees s resplendent with masses 
of lotuses, with flowering lakes of water-lilies, with budding mangoes, with blossom-bearing 
lands of trees named Jcosagu^ trumpet-flower, 5 neril* aidka? and plantain, with an embelKsh- 
ment (consisting) of cuckoos crying in sweet strains pugal. s 

(Verse 4) The sanctuary there, bright with cascades of water, shall procure without delay 
salvation for votaries worshipping the brilliant lotuses of the feet of the god Sankara-Svayam- 
bhu-Sttvaraamahakehi, who bears all distinction in this world : thus has one who is a shatterer 
of the conceit of kings of poets praised ifc. 

(Verse 5.) Tigers listen to the preaching of religion without the stirring of a leaf 9 ; rose- 
ringed parrakeets, knowing the chants recited by the stainless holy men because of their constant 
. utterance, 10 sitig them bj might and by day* 

(Verse 6.) A flock of apes fetches with due houour water of aspersions (?) for thoae who are 
bathing the~ god ; h^nce I know not how to praise (worthily) the severity of their mortification 



erity of their mortification 
of the flesh, 

(Terse 7.) All the day the cuckoos, cry in the woods : " sinner, enter not, pugafii ; mm O f 
fierce wrath, enter not, $ugal ; tboa who breakest all duties, enter not, pugal." 

(Verse 8,) At the four sides of the mount there is a clamour, shaking the hills, of chattering ' 
rose-ringed $*acrkeets, of shrillmg singing-swans, of murmuring female bees' of ma/Mm 
parrots^ ' Baain 




. adepts' domain which is thus de~ 

ascribed, a celestial tree to dependents, is the great saint Tribhuvaaasimha, a lion to those ele- 
pharrfcs the families of foes of the tribes of ascetics. - 



1 Bead Jtfimih,. 2 Bead i 

* Tbe Shore* rolusta. * The 

\ U C I**" *** * u * moU ** * The *ff***amoa** or 

T * ?****** ***<** ^ , 8 One of tbe notes of the 

* JSffo fa herft used as an interjectloia ^Sd not in the sense of * lerf / _ ^H. 1L S. 
l * See above, p. 3, note 5. 



n on ifce negative impmttre pyal see Kittel'a Graamaf, 207. 3 (p. 166) and Dictionary 9 T hi 
fe also a ptay on -Che other meaning of f^al, i.e. tie eoefcoo'* note. 



" Pr Pery Beri)reted - Jt has to 
(the noise) ol black monkeya that eacdte laughter/ H. K. a] 



No. L] SOaAL INSCRIPTION OF THE REIGN OF TAILA II : SAKA. 902. -? 



(Verse 11*) There was a goodly consecration when the Dfinavas Mali and Sumili, who on 
seeing him became attached to Raghava's foe, made it; thence arose the adored name of the god 
SuTarnamahakslii. Surnali's name came to be currently attached to the town. On this account 
how do they praise it within the bounds of the surrounding land of Kuridi ! 

(Verse 12.) The two kings Mali and Sumali, giving to the god the TMrty of Solu in noble 
freedom, came in the last period of the Treta Age, a happy era of welfare. 1 

(Verse 13.) Is there not power in ascetics who obsei*ve austerities ! brayo ! Bearing the 
body without being subject to the inconvenience of physical pain, feeding on the branches of the 
wilderness, worshipping TTma's Lord, abiding in salvation while nominally on* earth, like a beo at 
the lotus-feet of the god Suvarjuakshi is that ascetic the blessed G-angarasi. 

(Verse 14.) The doctrine of his teaching having entered her ear, with the good thought that 
the noblest course is to give general largesse to devotees, ascetics, and Brahmans, 

(Verse 15.) A bee to Hara's lotus-feet, free from the influences of deceitj- faultless of body, 
most brilliant in form, stainless in fame, gracious, inspired by religious charity, devoted to gods 
and preceptors, purifying her good gotra : in these terms the earth abundantly praises at all 
times KanchikaTbbe. 

(Verse 16.) She is (the wife) of the amiable Ketimayya, Karl's son, of Marajana-Belavadi ; 
an ocean of abounding virtues, a Meru of godliness, who are there that do not praise this Kanehi- 
kabbe? 

(Verse 17.) Kaflchiyabbe of the Dhanagas* gdtra, who practises the virtue of beneficence, 
a gem of matrons, by the perfection of her eminent religious charities is verily one of the highest 
order of Mahesvaras on earth. 

(Verse 18.) A double door of Fortune, a column for the Sun's beams, where his rays are 
freely diffused, it shall indeed abide within the lady Earth for the length of the aeon ; therefore 
what a marvel it is ! 

(Verse 19.) Of KafieMkabbe, who is thus illustrious, the son is Ohatta, a bee to Siva'a two 
lotus-feet, devoted to saintly men, a treasure to cultured and agreeable men, a grindstone to 
dire sin* 

(Line 33.) The description of the benefactor. 

(Verse 20.)' An axe to that great mountain 3 the potent Ohola, a lion to those elephants tho 
Lalas, having forsooth the form of a submarime fire to all the oceans (consisting of) ways of 
fastnesses in the waters, mountains, and forests, he who cut off the head of Banakteibha and 
Kakkala, a malign meteor portending destruction to foemen's grim lands, an ornament of em* 
perors, is the blest lord of monarchs Taila. 

(Lines 36-39.) When the victorious reign of- hail ! the asylum of the whole world, favourite 
of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of SatySsraya's 
race, embellishment of the ChSiukyaa, the Emperor strong of arm Wurmadi Tailapa-deva, was 
advancing in a/ course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, $un, 
and stars : 

(Line 39.) One who finds sustenance at his lotas-feet 

(Verae 21.) A son of prince KantheyabMrada ETannapayya, a sword for arms skilled 
in defence of that lord of men the Emperor, destroying devices of foes, ornament of the Ba|;J;a 
race, crushing the pride of other monarchs, a lord pure of fame, a treasure of discretion, is tho 
elder son named king Katta* 



1 [* Came in , , , a happy era of welfare ' is not intelligible. * Went to the world of bHM or diei 

the literal translation of the phrase sugati-mkhal&yQ'Vn poJfciar. H* K S.] 
A play on words : wa&fr?&<*ra meaas both ** mountain " aud il 



16 



EPIGEAPHIA IKDIOA. [Voi. XVI 



(Verse 22-) He is the exalted ruler of the circle of land of Kundi, a thunderbolt-stroke to - 
the whole crowd of those mountains his adversaries, king Katta, wearing the form of the Love- 

god on earth, 

(Lines 4346.) Hail ! On Sunday, the new-moon day of AsMdha in the cyclic year 
Vitoama, the 902nd (year) of the Saka era, on the occasion of an eclipse of the sun, Dhana- 
gara Kaflohlyabbe, giving to the seigniors and the Thirty of Solu land for an establishment, 
laved the feet of Tribhuvanasingi Paadita and granted 500 Jtamma for the supply of food to , 
the ascetics observing austerities in the sanctuary of the godSuvarnakshi. 

(Verse S3.) Out of this, one hundred Jcamma . . ^ shall -be effectively applied in due 
manner for the personal enjoyment of the Moon-bearer [Siva] for as long as the moon, ocean, 
stars, and heavens endure. 

(Verse 240 Verily a fruit leading to the salvation of . * most excellent holy men are * 
these five-hundred kam&a : hence they, together with one dwelling-house, are immune from all 
conflicting claims. 

(Verse 25.) TJie estate of the almshouse situate to the south of the (Quarter of the) 
Barbers, east of the special estate of Akar Gavundar, north of the field of TSgur ... on the 
west qf . . (is as follows)* 

(Verse 26.) Those excellent men the chiefs of the Thirty of Sol, having measured out by 
the span forty-six ... as a special (estate) and caused it to be prepared, shall give six- 
hundred kamma* 

(Verse 27*) To the north of the road by which one walks within the land 1 between the 
(Quarters of the) Barbers and the Washermen, to the south of the god's tank, is the building of 
the almshouse for the ascetics of the god. 

(Line 53.) Of this house the length is to be twelve cubits and the width eight. 

(Verso 28.) . "T . in the multitude of their virtues the leading Thirty of Soval, they who 
are pure of body, valiant, supremely generous, trees of desire to dependents, shall preserve the 
pious foundation granted by the lady Kanchale, that treasure of bounty, as if it were . . .of 
their own estate, so long as this earth and sun exist. 

(Verse 29.) The priors o the establishment and the town jointly shall protect (the founda- 
tion), if princes do harm ; if the town harm it, the prior of the establishment shall protect it ; if 
the head of the establishment do harm., the Thirty shall protect it. 

(Verse 30-) For him who injures the pious foundation serving for the salvation of ; . . , 
holy men which purifies the earth 3 (there shall le) a state of misery ; for him who preserves 
it, a most exalted condition caused by the effect of his merit, a state of happiness, a condition 
of felicity, increase, and success* states of great reputation : these, these are inevitable, thou 
eminent scholar Devana. 

(Verse 31.) The great guilt of slaying a thousand kine, two thousand Brahmans, (and) a 
crore of holy men will accrue to the deadly sinner who injures a ... pious foundation 
(established) by edict. 

(Verse 32.) On seeing how the Chandala woman, having mixed dog's flesh in a human 
stall and poured (over it) toddy, was covering it with a leather shoe at the time while cooking 
it, Indra questioned her (as to the reason for ^ 



aeems to be an instrumental (see above, Vol. XIV, p* 277, note 9)* In the siddhi sense of 
distance wifcMa vhwh" : see Kittel, &ram.> 347. 5 (p, 383). 
z Apparently an inverted laTiM-vriM \ see Paniai JL ii. 37. 
a On tliis legend sea JSp* 'Carn n Vol. 1, introcl, p. 31, and ib. TN 63, 



No. 1.] SOGAL INSCRIPTION OF THE REIGN OF TAILA II ; SAKA 902. 9 

(Verse 33,) (She answered that her food was) unfit to eat, if touched by dust from the 
feet of the sinner who should have appropriated the estates of gods and Brahmajus : hence are 
any more degraded than he who infringes -a god's estate ? 

(Verses 34-35 : two common Sanskrit formulae.) 

(Verse 36,) So long as the earth, the ocean, the celestial mountain, the abode of the sky, the 
sun and moon exist, may this pious foundation, whereof the yersified regulations have been 
composed by Blamaladitya, poet of edicts, continue in effect, 

(Lines 67-68.) For the almshouse, in which jointly the town and the prior of the estab- 
lishment shall religiously maintain in operation this pious foundation, a Brahman woman shall 
be the cook. Happiness ! great fortune ! 



No. 2. MAHOBA PLATES OF PARAMARDI-DEVA; (VIKEUMA^SAMVAT 1230. 

BY RAI BAHIDUE HIBALAL, B.A., 



These copper-plates were found iu. the well-known Mahoba town of the Hamirpur District 
In the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, while digging for earth to build a house. They were 
deposited in a stone chest about 30' below the surface. The two plates were strung together 
with a ring having a seal, which the finder took for a lock and broke. Prom the figure of 
Q-aja-Lakshmi (Goddess of Wealth) in the middle of the first four top lines it was inferred 
that the record dealt with some hidden treasure, for which a search was strenuously made, of 
course to no effect. A few Sanskritists were then taken into confidence to find out the contents 
of the record, with a view to locating the exact spot of the treasure trove ; but, as none could 
decipher it, it was decided, with great reluctance, hesitation and misgivings, to seek the aid of 
an epigraphistj and the choice fell on me* The record was therefore sent to me in charge of a 
Pandit coufidant, who on my telling the contents declared that he had at the time of starting 
made astrological calculations and had already come to the conclusion that his efforts were to end 
in disappointment, Thes^ plates have thus had a very narrow escape from a perpetuation of 
the internment which they have undergone for the past three years after their actual discovery, 

The plates measure 13* x 10* and weigh 272 tolas, or a little less than 7 Ibs. The rims are 
bordered with separate copper strips about a quarter of an inch in breadth, secured with nails, 
Only one strip of the second plate has disappeared. Having been deposited underground for 
centuries, the plates were naturally covered with green verdigris ; but on cleaning them the 
record was found in a good state of preservation. The language of the text is Sanskrit. 
Altogether 33 lines are engraved with letters belonging to the northern class of Nagarl alpha- 
bets, their average size being half an inch. The record is clearly written; but the engraving 
is not altogether faultless, as some strokes or limbs of letters have been omitted; for instance, 
in line 16 w*ff is engraved as ^r% where $h is turned into p by the omission of the inside 
atroke which distinguishes the two letters. Similarly iu line 26 we find fsrw*f for ff^ir, the 
distinguishing hind $troka of ha being left out. There are several such slips. The last 
portion of line 30 was so carelessly written that it had to be re-engraved. There is very 
little difference in the formation of t> a, dha, ra and cha, so that one can be mistaken for the 
other* Ba is not at all distinguished from va. There are also some spelling mistakes, 
* which will be found corrected in foot-notes. The writing is, however, bold and well executed 
by one Palhana, who carved the Semra plates 1 some seven years previous to this record,, 

1 JEp, Ind., Vol. IV, pp. 153 <rt se%. 

B 



12 EPiaRAPEIA 1NDICA [Vol. XVI. 



TEXT. 1 

First Plate. 

II SfSnSTT'Sf^f'W f%^^ncftlCtTf?rt I 

2 nrt TOS^ *t<55arer. u 

3 



5 
6 

7 

8 
9 

10 



12 



15 



18 TSfr^rr trf^rn^rt f^ftr 

i 



1 Froip the original plate id impressions tindly taken by Bao Sahib Krishna Sastri, BIA. 
3 Expressed by a symbol. * Bead 5^TW-. 

* The present-day ^^?ff, the headman in lower castes. 

* ^C ia a tin<i of P lant ^^ sl!fe?fc 3 nifi e. -Apparently it flonrished in a special kind of soil, to which it 
has given its name, now corrnpted into ^^35. 

ft^ is a measure containing 16 prcuttka*. fNj^a^ would therefore be G^yrasthat, which, ^^ or 
less by a quarter of a^ff or 4jprosfftM, is eqnal to60i>ra^A a #. This correctly gives the calculation further on 
described as n^ra^fWmat^^m sng^T^r^rPf?!!,' $>** is, 60 vSdhag of land according to the rule of one 
pnufha for every v&lAa. Here the first phrase indicates the seed capacity and the litter the area of tl lan<l 
granted. 

Ajpurently a vadka of land had a seed capacity of onef rcwiia only. 



Mahoba Plates of Paramardi-deva : [Vikrama-] Samvat 1230. 



10 



12 



14 



16 




18 



22 



24 



26 



28 



30 



32 




No. 2.] MAHOBA PLATES OF PARAMARDI-DEVA : (VIKRAMA-)SAMVAT 1230. 13 



16 



Second Plate. 

17 



18 
19 
20 
21 



23 ^nr^RiT^i y -^ <lt -*c if r Osr) *^ ^ i 4*iTft : rirre'Tt"T(3r) w M^TU t sfw 



26 



^ Bead qre^it , a <*<* t- 

8 Thifl phrase also occurs in the Semra plates (JEp. Jrw?., Vol. IV, facing p. 167) and was read by Dr. 
Cartellieri as ^^f^^^^WTW^I^ (XMd, p. 169) and Corrected as 



He translated it as " asana*, shoots of sugar-cane, hemp, mangoes, madh&fca* and so forth ** (IMd, p. 166). The 
correct interpretation te"$al (Skprea, robusta), sugar-cane, cotton ^rtf, hemp and waAwa (JBawta latifolia)," to 
which onr inscription adds &u*wna (ScUeicfora trijug<i\ which produces most valnahle lac. It would appear 
that the trees or plants mentioned are those which produced most valuable articles, *&l giving the beat 
timber for buildings, sugar-cane materials for manufacture of sugar, cotton tree for cotton, land or hemp for 
*opea, and mahua for food, oil and liquor. What seem- to be omitted are poppy and ff&nja, plants, which might 
have been associated with mahua, though the latter's importance is so great that none others can claim a mention 
on anything approaching an equality to it. The Indian Forester (June 1917) remarks : Truly the ma&ua among 
the forest trees stands equally for idealism and utilitarianism. In the makua, flowers exists acetic acid, and 
acetone is one of the primary ingredients of cordite, the chief explosive used in the guns which are thundering on 
different battle fronts in Europe." 

In the Semra plates (J^p. Ind., Vol f IV, facing p. 167) the phrase reads as 



Dr. Cartellieri iread as ^eprwt^rfTW!T^ (IM&> P- * 69 ) 5 bufc ** seoma clear that what was intended to be written wa 
R ( to & e ^ elr with forests, mines and hollows), 



27 

28 



29 CTRinrt tifrrtarftr^^ mrftftrcft 

(f*r>n*: 

30 



31 

82 



83 



ABSTEACT. 
(LL 1-3.) Victory to tlie moon, tlie progenitor of tlie Ohandratreya family of kings. 

(LI 2-6.) Victorious is tlie king Patamaxdi-deva, Lord of Kalafijara, who meditates OB. 
ilie feet of 3ttadanavarina-dva f wlio meditates on tlie feet of Pnthvivarma-deva, born in the 
f amily of tlie heroes Jayasakti and Vijayasakti. 

(LL 7-8,) His Talonr harasses Ms enemies. He protects the earth as if she were a noble 
lady, and his wisdom is purified with discrimination* 

(LL 8-23.) Having called the Brahumns, headmen and other officers of the village Dhanaura 
in the District of Eraelxlia, he states, that in thatjrillage land measuring 10 x 6 or 60 square 
vftdhas cultivable by five ploughs, and bounded on the east by the nala belonging to the barber, 
on. the south by a nala f on the west by the embankment of the Bhatahada tank,' on the north by 
a Brahman's land and tank embankment, and also a square of 52 cubits of land for a dwelling- 
place, has been given by him at Camp GaMLu to Pandit Batamsarman (whose forefathers had 
come from Pkodiva-Bhatta-Sgraliara,) on a Tuesday the 4th of the dark fortnight of 
Itl&ha in "Vikrama Samvat 1230, when the ann had entered the zodiacal sign Makara* 

(td, 23-28.) Therefore the donee should be obeyed, and cattle, gold and taxes, etc., should be 
paid to him and no molestation caused by anybody in tlie enpyraent of land given along with 
he temple and mansion, with the rights of easement, with trees, such as sal*, sugar-cane, 
cotton tree, fewntm, hemp, mango, madhuka^ etc., with forests, mines, hollows and quarries of 
iron, etc., with animals* deer and birds* aquatic or otherwise, and other objects within the 
boundaries. 

denote* * wfld tribes/ * Bead 



Shorkot Inscription of the year 83* 




F. W, THOMAS 



SCALE TWO-FIFTHS 



WHtTTINGHAM * ORIQQS, COLL. 



No. 2.] MAHOBA PLATES OF PARAMARDI-DEVA : (VIKBAMA-)SAMVAT 1230. 15 

(LI 28-30.) Moreover the rights of the king, state officers, forest tribes, soldiers, etc., shall 
cease and the future kings shall protect this gift as inalienable. 

(LI. 80-31.) Here follows a common admonitory, verse. 

(LI. 31-33.) Given under his own hand by the illustrious Paramardi-deva. Composed by 
Pyitlividliara of a family resident in the village and carved by Palliana. 



No. 3. SHOBKOT INSCRIPTION OF THE YEAR 83,*- 
BY J, PH, YOGUL, PH.D. 

This inscription is engraved round* the shoulder of a copper cauldron,, found tpgether wiilx 
about -a.dozen other utensils at Shbrkdt in' the Patijab ou the 8th September 1908. 

The size of the letters may be defined as follows : Simple aksharas measure from % in % tb 
f in. in height, and ligatures (Including vowel marks) average about 1 in* 

TB AHSCBIPT . 

Sam 8O+3 Magha-ukla-di 5. [yai*]yahrityakara;BuddIia.das-5tthapita.3 | 

-vi[ha^ . [| 



" In the year 83, in [the month] Magfra, the bright, fortnight, the fifth day, dedipate'4 
by the vaiyabrityaJcara Buddhadasa to the universal congregation of friars of the Saryastivadin 
Beet at the Badhika Convent in the park of Sibipura." 



Notwithstanding its brevity, this epigraph presents several points of interest., A* ? 
its date the first point to be discussed there, prevails* some uncertainty owing ; to the 
circumstance of tha era to which it refers not being specified* We have, therefore, to choose 
between the following three possibilities : first, the date refers to the reign- of some ruler j second, 
it refers to the Lokakala or Saptarshx era ; third, it refers to the Gapta era. 

The first assumption may be safely discarded, because, firstly, no Hng'a n&me is mentioned, 
and, secondly, the year 83 would point to a reign. of almost incredible length. 

That iii the Shorkot inscription the Ltfkakala should have been employed seems also very' 
tmlitely, as long as there is no proof forthcoming o this era having been used as extensively 
in the Plains of the Panjab as we know was the case in the Hills. We are consequently led 
to assume that tl*e era used in this inscription Is the Q*upta era an assumption., which fits best 
with the palaeographical evidence. As the initial year of this .era must have corresponded- to; 
the period from the 9th March A.D. 319, to the 25iih February A.D. 320,* the date of our 
inscription, if referred thereto, must have fallen about the beginning of the Christian year 403. 
Now it will be seen that the character used agrees most closely wifch that found iii Gupta 
inscriptions of the 5th century of our era. Special attention may be drawn to the peculiar 



* A preliminary note on tliis inscription has "been, published in the Journal of the PtwjSh Historical Society ^ 
Vol. I, p- 174, under the title " Sborkot, the ancient Sibipura." 

* 0/. J. F. Fleet, Corgu* Inscr. Ind, 9 Vol, III, Inscriptions of the early &wpta Mugs^ Introduction, 
p. 127. ' " 




16 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [Vet. 



shape of the alcsharas ma and *a. On accoant of the script it is out of the question that any 
other known era can hay6 been used here. 

The chronological question having thus been satisfactorily settled, .we must turn our 
attention to the word following the date, which I read vaiyabrityaJcara. It will be noticed that 
the four dksTiaras brityakara, are perfectly plain. The' akshara preceding bri has the 
appearance of a ligature of which the second component is ya ; it may perhaps be read y&. 
Between this character and the figure indicating the day there is an open space ; apparently 
one or two aksTiaras have been effaced* Now as the word under discussion is immediately 
followed by the donor's name Buddhadasa, thece can be little doubt that the syllable vai has beeu 
lost and that we are justified in reading vaiyabrityakara* This term occurs in Sanskrit 
writings of the Buddhists in the two forms vaiyavrityakara and vaiyaprityaJcara, the latter 
being the correct one. 1 The word corresponds to the Pali veyyavachch&Jcara, meaning " one who 
does business or executes a commission for another, an agent.*^ I suspect, however, that in 
the Sh5rk$t inscription it has a more restricted meaning and may denote some function- 
ary either bMJcshu or upasaJca in connection with a Buddhist monastery. I am led to this 
assumption not only by the position of the word in the inscription, but also by the connection in 
which it occurs in the Mahavyutpatti^ where it immediately follows navalcarmiJcaf As I am 
unable to define its meaning more precisely, I have chosen in my version of the inscription to 
leave it untranslated* 

A point of special interest for the topography of the Panjab is the mention of Sibipura, 
from which wo may infer that the mound of Shorkst marks the site of the capital of the Sibis* 
a well-known tribe of ancient India. The Sibi raja who bestowed his eyes upon a blind 
Brahman and gave away his own flesh to ransom a dove from a hawk is celebrated as the 
paragon of charity and self-sacrifice in *both Brahmanical and Buddhist legend. The &ibi 
-tribe is repeatedly mentioned in the MahcCbharata ; but these references do not enable us to 
dedde on the geographical position which they occupied beyond that they lived somewhere in 
the western region. In the course of the conquest of the world (dig-vijaya) ascribed to the 
Pan4avas it is related that Nakula, J&e fourth of the five brothers, while engaged in subduing 
the western legion, overcame the Sibi, Trigarta, Ambashtha, JMalava and Panchakarpata> 
It should be remembered that the Trigarta country corresponds to the Kangra Valley. 

A famous episode 5 of the great epic relates how Jayadratha, the king of Sindhu, attempts 
to cany oS Draupadi, the common spouse of the five Panda vas. Here the Sibis are mentioned 
as a tribe dependent on Sindhu. 

Among the tribes of the Panjab subdued, by Alexander, the Greek authors mention 
the Siboi, in whom-Lassen has recognized the Sibi of Indian literature. 6 Owing to the circum- 
stance that they were armed with maces and wore skins of animals for clothing, the Greeks 
took them to be descendants of Herakles and his companions.. Arrian somewhat vaguely 
locates them in the country between the Indus and Akesines (i.e. the Chandrabhaga or Chin ab) ; 

* Santideva's fathatamwleKaya (ed, Bendall), p. 55 ; IH^doadana (wi. Cowell and Neil) rm 54 atlll 
XMyulpaBi (ed. Minayeff), BibL BoMl* XIII, 270, 22. For vaiyavHtya of. A^dan^atalca 5' 

IP p. 260, II, pp 9, 13, 96. v ' 

^ R. C. Chiider?, Did. of me Pali Language, S.Y. vqty&m&ekam> service or duty performed bv nn 
for a superior- C/. also Kerr, Manual of Indian 3utdK*, p. 84. "The function of a proxy or 
VeyzwJwnaJcara, may be beld by an innmte of tbe monastery (aramika) or a layman/* 
THs term occurs In several inscriptions from the North- West of India. 

Jf. m. 9 II, 1189 ( Bombay ed. II, 32, 7). 

III, U8M (,Eombay ed. Ill, MS, ll), ^ III, 15718 (- Bomlmy ed. Ill, 271, 3) 
>Indi S ^ M ter^^^^ T J ^ > * 

map f ac.o, p. * locals the Sibi iu the Doab of the Hydaspes and Hydros (L 



K. 



SHOEKOT ItfSCRIPTEON OF THE YEAR 83. 



but according to Cur-tins they were situated not very far from tbe confluence of tue Hydaspes 
'(i.e. the Vitasta, modern Jehlam) and the Akesines. This agrees very nearly with tbe position 
of ShorkOt. 

* 

Sir Alexander Cunningham 1 in his account of Sh6rk5t notes that according to the local 
Brahmans " the original name of the place was S'hivanagari or Sheopur, which WPS gradually 
iiontracted to Shor* Thus we see that some reminiscence of the ancient name has been pre- 
served down to the present day. In its correct form, Sibipura, we find it in the inscription here 
-under discussion. The ancient name Sibipura has become contracted to the modern form Shdr, 
4 to which the word Jcot (=a fort) has Tbeen added in the same way as has happened withthonnmes 
of other towns of the Panjab. Well-known instances are Sial-kSt (in which Sidl is probably 
derived from Sagala), Pathan-kdt (Pathan probably from PratishtJiana) and Nagar-ksfc (in 
which Nagar means " the Town "). 

It further appears from the inscription that the spot where the metal yessels were found 
more definitely marks the site of the Radhika Convent, which must have been situated in a 
.park (upavana). Most probably this convent stood outside the walle<J city, as was usual in tli 
case of Buddhist monasteries in India. 

Finally it should be noticed that the Shdrktft inBcrxpfticm confirms the prevalence of tl$ 
Sarvastivada sect in the north-west of India. Several other epigraphical records bear testimony 
to the importance of the sect : one of them is the inscription on the famous relic casket f 
Eanishka discovered at Shahjl-ki-Dheri near Peshawar in March 19Q9, 3 From tho accounts 
'of the Chinese pilgrims it is, moreover, evident that the influence of the Sarvastivadins was by 
no means restricted to this part of India. While discussing the data supplied by the Chinese 
pilgrim I-tsing regarding the geographical extension of this school, 'Professor Takakugu 
remarks 3 : " It flourished in 'Central and North India, and had some followers in East and 
West India, .but it eeerns to have had very few adherents in South India, and was entirely absent 
in Ceylon. In Sumatra, Java, and the neighbouring islands almost all belonged to this school, 
and in China all the four sub-divisions of it were flourishing. Even in Champa a trace of at 
was found. No other school, so far as we can ascertain, ever flourished so widely as tho Sar- 
vastivada, either before or after the seventh century ; though its adherents in India alone, in 
Tsiang's time, werejiot so .numerous $s those of the other .schools." 



4. BH&StODRA MOHOTA PLATE 0# D&ONASIMHA : TH1 YEAR 183. 

BY LIONEL D. BARNETT. 

Tte following inscription was originally published by HOT. A. M T. Jackson in the Journ. 
^Bombay Br. R. A. 8., Vol. XX, No. LIV, pp. 1 ff., but without any facsimile. At the instance 
'of the late Dr. Fleet Mr. D. R. Bhandarkar kindly sent me an excellent ink-impression, from 
Which I now publish the text anew, together with a plate, 

Mr. Jackson reports that the plate containing the present inscript r on, together with 
;amother charter, was found " baried in a field in the village of Bhamodra Mohota near Bhau- 
oaagar* in the year 1895," and was acquired by Mr. L. Procter Sims, engineer of Bhaunagar 
State. It is slightly irregular in shape-: the maximum height is 6f| in., the maxinmiji breadth 

1 A. S. -S., Vol. V, pp. 97 tf., and Ancient Geography of India, Vol.. I, p, 133. Cunn'icgbarn^ identification 
to Shorkot with Alexandria Soriana is ta be discarded. 

2 A, S. M* for 1908-9, p. 51, and for 1909-10, p.. 136. 

1 I-tsing, A record -of the Hudfhtid religion, transLby J. TaJkalmsn, Oxford, 1896,p. XXII. 
4 The only village with the name of Bhamodra that I caa trace is some distance from Bhannaga^. It lies 3 6 
>milea nearly <east fyom Kundla^ in "lit. 5l 2S*toa long. -71 3J'. 



18 BPIGBAPHIA INDICA* [Voi,. XVI, 

1 ft. 2 in. It is In perfect preservation, The character is similar to that o other plates of 

the same locality and period, but is more angular, as will be seen by comparison witii e.g. the 

Y grants published in Vol. XI of this journal, pp. 104 E., and notably with No. IV, pp. 114 

ff. 1 The jihvOmiilSya sign is found in DronasimhaH (1. 1) and prad^aiaH (11. 6-7), the upadh- 

manly a in bliagavatyah (1 3) and mata-pitroh (I. 3). Twice, in anumodoyur (sic t), 1. 7, and 

mddati, 1. 9, we find an archaic type of S attached to m, while elsewhere the ordinary form of 

the Towel is used. The numerals for 100, 80, S, 10, and 5 occur on L 1L The language ia 

Sanskrit ; it is prose,. except for the three formal verses in 11. 9-10, The spelling -sthittyx (1. 6) 

may be noticed : cf . Panini VIII. iv. 47, SiMhtota-kaumudt 48, On the spelling of the word 

Pandur<ajyay cL\ in L 3, where jy apparently stands for j, compare Dr. Konow's remarks above,. 

Vol. XI, p. 105. The short * of Shashfhidatta (1. 11) may be justified by Panini, VI. iii. 63. 

The grammar of 11. 5-7 is very irregular ; and the blame for this should probably rest with the 

official who drafted the document. 

The purpose of the grant is to record an endowment by the Maharaja Dronasimha of 

Valabhi (I. 1), who made orer for the cult of the goddess Pandaraja (?) in the Hastavapr- 

aharanl (1. 3) the village of Trisangamaka (L 5). It bears the signature of BMrtnraka, the 

dSvi-karmantilca or iatendant of the estate of the goddess (1. 11), and was drafted in fair copy 

"by Kumarila-patika (?), son of ShaslitMdatta (L 11). DrSnasirnha was the second son of 

B&atiCrkaj the founder of the Maitraka dynasty of Valabh! j on this subject it suffices to refer to 

the remarks of Messrs. Jackson (in loco) and Smith (Early History of India, 2nd edn,, j>, 314). 

The date is given on L 11 as Samvat 183, the 15th day of the bright fortnight of Sravana. 

If we take this as denoting the current year of the Valabhl era, the tifhi mentioned must 

correspond to Monday, 16 July, A JD. 5O1, on -which day it ended about 8 h. 26 m. after mean 

sunrise. But, as Mr. Sew ell has pointed out to me, it may possibly ^denote an expired year, 

corresponding to A,IX 502 : in that year^ there was an intercalated Sravana, and hence, if the 

tifhi mentioned refers to tliis intercalated Sravana, it must have been current at sunrise on 

Satxirday, 6 July, A. IX 502* while> if we refer it to the nija Sravana of the same year, it must 

"be connected with Sunday, 4 August, A J>. 502. 

The only places mentioned are Valabhl (L 1), the Hastavapr-aharani (L 3), and Tri- 
aangamaka (L 5). Valabhi is the modern Wala, in Kathiawar. Hastavapra is now Hathab* 
6 miles south of G5gha, in Bhatmagar State ; on this I may refer to Dr. Konow's remarks 
above, YoL 2I 3 p* 106, Trisangamaka has bee$ identified by Mr, Jackson with Tarsamia > near 
Hathab, 



[Metres : vv 1-3, Anus'htub'h.J 

Svasti Valabhltah Parama-bhattaraka-pad-nndhyato 

nSali sva* vishaya [kan*} sar vvan=v=asmat-santak-a y oktaka- 

- mab a- 



2 ttara-drangika-dhruva-stliaBadhitara^am{^ika)-ch&ta-b^ 

Astu v5 viditam yathi. inaha-vi3ay-aya[r*]-ddbarmma-phala-yas5-"vishaya* 



3 yS md rarsha-salmsraya sarvva-kalyan-abhipraya-sampattaye cha 

alaaranyaih sri-bhagavatyah=Pandnrajya (ja) yah 3 m ata-pitr5fe=puny-apyay ana-ni- 



1 1 may add that I am unable to agree with Dr* Kouow*s suggestion that the present plate is spurious (tft 
p. 106, n. 1). I \ l 

2 From ihe ink-impression* a ^See above. 



IMEoliota 3?late of Dronasimha s tlie year X83 




EFJGRAPHIA I5DICA, [VOL. XVI*. 



originals* Last time I had not sufficient time to make these transcript^ and had to content 
myself with very brief account, indeed, of them, 5 ' 1 In another part of the same report Mr- D. R. 
Bhandarkar published short summaries of the contents of these inscriptions. I visited Cutch 
in April 1919 and had the good fortune to transmit all the records from the originals, 
Though they are in varying stages of imperfect preservation, I found that,, with the exception 
of one, they yielded tolerably good impressions, which are reproduced with this article*. 

In all there are six stone inscriptions in the Fergusson Museum at Bhuj^ of whicli five^ 
are records of the second dynasty of the Satraps of Saurashtra, i.e. of the family of Chajshtana,, 
and the remaining one a fragment of an inscription of the fifth and sixth century A,D. IVar of 
the inscriptions belong to the reign of Eudradaman and were incised in the year 52 v of the ei-a 
used in the inscriptions and coins of the Satraps of Saurashtra, while the fifth belongs to the 
reign of the Maha*Kshatrapa Rndrasiihha I, and was incised in the year 114 of the same era. 
The fifth inscription of the time of Rudrad&man, mentioned by Mr. Bhandarlcar in the last lines 
of paragraph 15, Part II (6), of his Annual Report for the year 1914-15 y appears to be still in situ. 

The inscriptions of the time of Rudradarnan of the year 52 which are here edited are those 
which were brought to Bhuj from Andhau by the late Ranchhodbhal Udairam, formerly Derail 
of Cutch. These inscriptions repose on a number of wooden platforms and have "been placed 
under tlie grand staircase of the Fergusson Museum at Bhuj, Mrv, Bhandarkar has x*eeeiitly~ 
referred to them in a note on his article on " Deccan of the Satavahana period**' 

Andhau, or Andhou, is a very small village close to Khevda, or Pachham, hi the Cuteh* 
State. .It is situated in Lat. 23 46' 10", Long. 69 53' 55", The site where the records were 
discovered is described by Mr. Bhandarkar as a hillock. Mr, K. N, Dikshit of the Archaeological 
Survey is the only trained archaeologist who seems to have visited the site; but no notes or 
description have been published by him as yet* 

The records are incised on long narrow slabs of stone, and m the majority of cases tlie in- 
scriptions are incised lengthwise. The material is hard stone, which has suffered very much 
from corrosion with a singular effect. In certain cases the bottoms of incisions made by the 
mason while chiselling the record remain intact on the stone, whereas the sides of the incision and 
the surrounding uninscribed portions of the stone have disappeared. The effect produced by this 
action is to make one believe at first sight that some letters of one record were cut in relief, 
while the rest were incised. The inscribed surfaces of the stones are uneven, and it is apparent 
that the mason did not take the trouble to make them smooth before incising the letters. 

All four inscriptions refer themselves to the reign of the king (B#a) Rudradaman, SOB of 
Jajadaman. His name is immediately preceded by that of his grandfather Chashtaiia son of 
Tsamotika; but no term indicating the relationship between Rudradarnan and Chashtaria i* 
employed in any of the four records. All the records were incised on the same date "i e tlie 
rear 52, the second day of the dark half of Phaguna (Phalgwa). In three out of the four in, 
aenptioiis the year of the date is expressed both in words and in figures, while in the fouith 
it is given in figures only- The day of the month is in all four- expressed both in words and 
m figures consisting of two symbols. The first symbol* has been read by Prof. Liiders as 1 
foo far the symbol for 15 has not been met with in published inscriptions or MSS. of this period - 
but Dr. Liiders may have found it in one of tke Khotan MSS. The symbol consists of the akthara 
,fthen^ ^ ^^ fm 

a short distance From the right extremity of this another straight line, vertical and longer than 
r*. is produced downwards. This symbol looks very much like the proto-Nagart consonant ga. 

' IMd, 113llt-15, p. 8, 

* ** V H Bhamlarkar of the U!vr,it j of Calcutta ha, accepted Br. Lite' reading of thfe Bvmboi in % 
foot-sate to bis article aa the SiUvdhai* peri**! *' - /. 4,, Vol. XLVII, p. 154, n. 38. 



St>. 5.] THE ANDHATJ INSCRIPTIONS OF THE TIME OF BITDBADAMAN. M 

It is difficult to understand why the symbol for 15 should be used in this inscription, because 
it mentions the lunar tithi* I am inclined to think that the syllable represents Sahula and not 
15. Immediately after this we have two short horizontal strokes denoting 2, The year should 
be referred to the Saka era of 78 A.D., and the dates are, therefore, equal to 130 A,D. 

The language of the inscriptions is Prakrit, and the letters belong to the northern 
Variety of the Indian alphabet of the fitfst or second century A.D. The palaeography calls for 
some remarks, as the alphabet shows archaisms when compared with that of the Junagadh 
inscription of Budradaman. With the exception of , ri and o, no vowel occurs in its initial 
form. U in uthapita occurs in all the records in the last line. Ri occurs twice, once in inscrip* 
tion B in the word Rishabhadevasa (1. 5) and once again in inscription D in the same word (L 3). 
The initial form of o is to be found in A, B and D in the word Opa$atL The medial forms of 
vowels do not call for remarks with the exception of u in ga in Phaguna which is certainly earlier 
than the forms in the Junagadh inscription of Rudradaman ; cf. Biihler's Indische Palceogfttphie, 
Table II. 9. VI. The rare medial I occurs in Bihamita (C, L 2), StUla (A, 1. 3; B, 1. 6 ; and 0, 
L 3) and in vlraye (A, 1. 2). Among consonants ka does not show any curvature in its lowest 
extremity, except once in Ysamotika (B, L 1) ; ja shows two different forms, (1) with a curved 
back and (2) with a straight back. Na occurs in conjunction with ja in rajno. Ta also is found 
only once, in kutubiniye (C, 1. 3), It occurs conjointly with sha in Chashtana (ABCD, L 1), 
latIM (A, 1. 3 ; B, L 8 ; C, 1. 3 ; D, 1. 4), Jeslilaviraye (A, 1. 2) and Treshta (C, 11. 3-4). The 
lingual na shows the archaic form where no curvature is noticeable in either the top or bottom 
horizontal lines; cf Phaguna (A, 1. 2 ; B, 1. 4; C, 1. 2), Samaneriye (C, 1. 2), Sramanerena (D, 
1. 4) . In the majority of cases the base line of na is curved, the exceptions being na in Madanena 
(C, L 3) and the cases in inscription D. In Ihe majority of cases la is a perfect square with 
straight sides, the only exception being the foi*m in hutitbiniye (C, 1. 3). Ya presents a number 
of varieties.: (1) the archaic type, in which the light and left vertical lines show no signs of 
curvature, but have acute angles on one side of their bases, cf. Ysd (A, 1* 1) ; (2) the transition 
type, which shows slight signs of curvature, as in Jayadama (A, 1. 1) ; and (3) the early Kushan 
type, where the base line is curved, as in Jayadama (C, 1.1). Both la and ha show angles on 
their line at the point of its junction with the horizontal parts. The right vertical limb of la is 
higher in comparison with the left lirnb of ha. Threfe diffei-ent forms of the palatal ^ are to be 
found in the records :-(!) the broad-backed type, which is usually to be found in the records of 
Ushabhadata, in which the central pendant drops from the left half and slants to the right ; cf . 
Op&sati (A, 1. 3), pamch&se (B, 11. 3-4) ; (2) the more archaic form is to be found in inscrip- 
tion D, where it is used in all cases ; in this form also the letter is broad-backed, but the pendant 
drops vertically from the middle of the curve; cf. OpaSati (1. 3), sramanerena (1. 4); (3) the 
northern form, in which the back consists of two different curves which meet in an acute angle ; 
cf. Seni'ka and sdmaneriye (C, 1. 2). This is exactly the form in the Mathura inscription of 
the year 72 of this reign of Sodasa. 1 

The object of all four inscriptions; is to record the erection of funeral monuments by the 
relatives of the deceased. In the inscriptions themselves these monuments are termed lashtis 
(Pkt. latthijlii. *a stick'). Inscription A records the erection of silch a monument (lashti) by 
Madana, sou of vSihila (Sirnhila), to the memory of his sister Jeshtavli-a ( Jyeshthavlra), the daughter 
of Simhila of the Opasati (Aupasatika} gotrq, in the year 52, on the second day of the dark half of 
Phaguna (Phalguna), during the reign of the king (Rajan) Rudradaman, son of Jayad&ruan, 
(who w$s the grandson) of Ctashtana, son of Ysamotika. Inscription B records the erection of 
a f uneral monument to the memory of ^ishabliadeva, son of Simhila of the Opasati (Aupasatika) 
</ora, by his brother Madana, son of Simhila, on the same year, month and day. Ii 

1 Ante, Vol. II, p. 199, No H 





22 EPIOBAPHIA INDICA. [Vox- 

C records the erection of a funeral monument by Madana, son of Simhila, to the 
Ms wife YasadatS (Tasodatta), a novice (sramaneri\ the daughter of Sihamita 
of the Senika (Srenika) gotra, on the same day. Thus inscriptions A, B, and C 
erection of monuments by one Madana, son of Simhila, to the memory of his brother 
deva, his sister Jeshtavlra and his wife Yas5datta. The fourth inscription records the 
of a funeral monument to the memory of ^tishabhadeva, son of Treshtadata (Trishtadattst-) * * 
his father Treshtadata, a male novice (sravianera\ of the Opasati (AupaSatika) gotra , o*a * 
game date as that mentioned in inscriptions A, B 5 and C. Prof* D. B. Bhandarkar is cei^t^ 1 - 1 ^ 
wrong in stating that this inscription " is a memorial stone of Rishabhadeva, of the Opasati *& ' 
and son of Treshtadata, erected by Madana his brother." 1 It is a memorial stone of 
Riskabhadeva, son of Treslitadata, of the Opasati gotra ; but there is no mention of a 
named Madana. It is evident that the learned Professor failed to read the last 
inscription D. He appears to have read Srt-Madanenu instead of $ramanere,na, which is 
clear on the stone itself and distinct in impression. It is not very easy to understand how 3P*'<" 
Bhandarkar reconciles the words pitr[&\ Treshtadatena, which occur at the beginning of 
sentence, with the word immediately following them, if he read Srt-Madanena. Prof. O 
Bhandarkar's inability to decipher this word has led him to make some unnecessary con ject** 2**-*** 
regarding the personages mentioned in inscription D. He states, " this is rather 
because the gotra Opasati and the name Madana point to this Rishabhadeva being tlie samo 
that .of the first inscription, Treshtadata being in that case presumed to be the other nairao o 
their father Sihila; but it is inconceivable that two stelae were put up or can be put uj> 
memory of one and the same individual." 2 His remarks induced me to examine inscriptions 
and D very carefully; but I am now sure that his difficulties were caused by his own inabilxi y 
to read the last line of the record. The fourth inscription does not mention Madana as -fcl*c& 
brother of Rishabhadeva: therefore this Rishabhadeva cannot be the same person as -fell At* 
mentioned in inscription B. In fact, inscription D records the erection of a funeral monument to 
another Rishabhadeva, son of Trefchfcadata, who was a different person from Sihila, the father of 
Rishabhadeva mentioned in inscription B. The stele was raised by Treshtadata, the father o 
the deceased, who was a Buddhist monk (sram&nera). 

The mention of Chashtana, son of Ysamotika, immediately before the name of lifj* 
grandson Rndradaman, son of Jayad&man t in these four records, without any eonnecti:n$jf 
link, has led scholars to make a number of conjectures. Prof. D, E. Bhandarkair 
states that originally he. thought that the word pauttrasya had been omitted in each 
every inscription but now he is inclined to agree with his assistant Dr. Bomesh 
Majumdar in thinking that the omission of the word pauttrasya or potasa indicates that in fcJfcx 
year 52 Chashtana and Eudradaman were reigning jointly. Prof. D. R, Bhandarkair 
states 3 in a popular account of the history of Deccan named "Dekkan of theSatavahaii.au 
period" that "Mr. R. 0. Majumdar of the Calcutta University has kindly offered the- 
suggestion that the date had "better be ascribed to the conjoint reign of Chashtana and Rudra,- 
daman."* Apart from the possibility of %uch an event in India, nobody having ever thought cxr* 
tried to prove conjoint reigns of two monarchs except Messrs. Bhandarkar, there is sufficieii-fc 
evidence in the Andhau inscriptions themselves to prove that the author of the record was quito 
ignorant as to the exact relationship between Chashtana and RudradamaiL It is very well 
known that, though RudradSman was- an independent monarch, he never used the title ,R#/am 
alone* This is true of all princes of this dynasty and of that of Svdmin Jlvadaman. Ttere Ijs 
not a single coin or inscription of this dynasty in which the title Rafan is used by itself and not 

1 Annual Progress Report of the Atchmologi^l Survey of India, Western Circle, 191&IQ, p. 67. 

9 IU ' * Indian AnU^uary, VoL XLYII, 1918, p. 154, note 26. 



No. 5.] THE ANDHATT DfSCBIPTIOKS OF THE TIME OF HTJDRADAMA3ST. 23 

in combination with the titles Malia-Kshatrapa or KsTiatrapa. In fact the Ajidh&u inscriptions 
are the only records known which mention Chashtana or Rudradaman as Rajas and not as 
MaJia-KsTiatrapas. The only possible explanation of this is that in a remote place like Andhau 

on the Rann of Cutch the people were not aware of the new titles of the new dynasty of rulers, 

titles on which Rudradaman set great store, as is proved by 'the phrase svayam-adUgata-m&'ha- 
kshatrapa-namna. 1 The cause of the absence of any word or phrase indicating the relationship 
between Chashtana and Rudradaman now becomes clearer. It was due to the ignorance of the 
people of Andhau and does not indicate the joint reign of the grandfather and the grandson. 
It has been argued by some of my friends that the absence of any word or phrase indicating 
their relationship may have been due to the carelessness of the scribe in one record ; but the 
absence of such a word or phrase in four different records is significant. After deciphering the 
Andhau records I find that all of them were inscribed on the same day, three of them at the 
instance of one person, Madana, son of Slhila, who dedicated steles to his elder brother, his sister 
and his wife, while the fourth was raised by another person of the same clan to the memory 
of his son- Besides this, there is a family resemblance between the letters of all four records, 
which proves that they must have been written by one and the same person. No wonder, the 
same mistake was committed in all four records. When the ruler of the dynasty of Chashtana 
had become more secure in Cutch, people were better informed than Madana, son of Slhila, and 
, his clansman Treshtadata, the sramanera, as in another inscription found at the same place we 
find the titles correctly given. This inscription records the erection of a lashti in the year 114, 
during the reign of the king, the HaM-JZshatrapa, Svamin Rudrasirhha, son of the king, the 
Maha-Kshatrapa, Svamin Rudradaman, grandson of the KsJiatrapa, Svamin Jayadaman and 
great-grandson of the king, the Malia-Ksfiatrapa, Svamin Chashtana. 

I edit the inscriptions from the original stones and from impressions taken by myself : 

A. 

The record consists of three lines of writing on a single slab of stone. The inscribed 
surface measures 4' 9' y x 1' 1", and the average height of the letters is 1*. The object of the 
inscription is to record the erection of a funeral monument (lashti) by Madana, son of Slhila, 
to the memory of his sister Jeshtavira (Jyeshthavira), the daughter of Slhila of the Opagati 
(Aupasatika) gotra* 

TEXT. 

1 Raj [So] Ohash.[t3anasa 2 Ysamotika-putrasa rajno BudradSmasa Jayad&ma- 

putrasa 

2 Va[r]sh[e] d[vi]-pa[m]cli[ase 5O] 9 3 2, Phaguna-balmlasa d[y]itiya va 2 

Jffadanena Slhila-putrena [bha] 3 giniye Jeshtaviraye 

3 [SI]hi[la-dhi]ta 4 Opasati-sa-gotraye lashti uthapita 



e, VoL VIII, p. 44, L 15. 

2 The first six syllables of the first two lines have suffered considerably from corrosion. It is not easy feo explain 
why this part only has been damaged, while the rest has escaped* Th remaining portion of the record is quite 
legible. As has been stated above, the bottoms of the incisions of six letters in the first and second lines are exta,nfc 
the sides and the surrounding uninscribed surface having disappeared > leaving a smooth polished surface. The lower 
parta of ra, efta, sbta in 1. 1 and the upper parts of rshe, dm 9 and te in 1. 2 have also disappeared. This portion 
(A the stone appears to have been used for sharpening tools whEe the rest was buried underground. 

This syllable has suffered on account of flaking. 

* In L 8, ** and la of Slhila and dM of dbita have partly disappeared from the same cause* 



24 EPIGBAPHlA INDICA. [VOL. XVI. 

TBANSLATIO1T. 

In tie year fifty-two, 50, 2 j on the second day of the dark half of Phaguna (Ph&l- 
gTiaa), va . 2, of (the reign of) the king XtudradSman, son of Jayadaman, (the grandson) of the 
king CMshtana, son of "SfsSmotika, (this) staff (la&hti) was raised by Mfldana, son of SIhiJa 
(Simhila), (in memory) of his sister Jesh$avSrS (Jygshtjhavli'a), daughter of Sihila (Siriihila), 
of the Opasati (Aupagatika) gotra. 

B. 

The record consists of eight lines. The inscribed surface measures Y 8* X 1' 10", and the 
average length of the letters is If". The inscription records the erection of a funeral monument 
to the memory of Rishabhadeva, son of Sihila, of the Opasati (Aupasatika) gStra, by his brother, 
Madana, son of Sihila 

TEXT, 

1 Bojno Ch[3shtanasa Tsamo'tika- 

2 -pu[tra] J sa rajiio B[u]oradamasa 

3 Jayadama 2 -putrasa varshe dvi-pa[ifa.3, 

4 CchaJ*^, SO, 2, Ihaguna-bah-ulasa 

5 dvitiyam va 2 ^ishabhadevasa 
t> Siaila-putrasa Opasati-sa-gotrasa 

7 bhratr[a] Madanena 8 

8 lashti uthapita 3 



In the year fifty-two, BO, 2 ; on tihe second day of th& daark half of Fbagima (Phai. 
guna), va . 2, of (the reign of) the king Rudradaman, son of Jay a dam an, (who was the grand- 
son) of the king Cfcgshtana, son of Ysamotika, (this) staJE (lasUi~) was raised in memory of 
$ihabiiadeva, son of Sihila (Simhila), of the Opasati (Aupa&itika) astra, by (his) brother* 
aon of ^ihila 



0. 

The inscription consists of three lines. The inscribed surface measures 4/ T x 7J-" and 
the average length of the letters is 1*. Its object is to record the erection of a funeral monument 
to tic memory of Yasadata, a novice, the daughter of Sihamita, of the Senika .gdtea by her 
Jmsband Madana - 



, 
Jmsband Madana, on of Sihila-. 



TEXT. 



. 

1 Rajno Chastanasa YsRJmotika-putrasa r& j o * BudradSmasa 

varslie dvi-pamchSse 60, ? 
S Phagnna-bahulasa dvitiyam va^ 2 ^Tasadatsye SIhamita-dhita 

gotrana 8 sSma^eriye 
S BTadagena gihila-putrena kutubiniye pashti^] uthapita 



* This letter has rafferea throngh flaking. 

ilM ' 8IlfF6red ^^y tbroogh flaking. 
' 



urerect oaaiy tnrongfr flaking*. 

disappeared. This damage appears to be itxe to the m& of this part of ifc 

has become very faint. 'OBly the left half of 

e after the symbol for 4o*u ftt* T This may also be reed 

* '*** word h ** ^^ppeiwed ulinost entirely tbrbcgh flatrng. 



Andhau Stone Inscriptions of the time of Rudradaman: the year 52. 



C 



D 










WHITTINQHAM 



Ghosundl Stone 

Inscription. 



Andhau Stone Inscription of the time 
of Rudradaman: the year 52. 



B 





SCALE ONE-FIFTH 



No. 5.] THE ANDHAIT INSCRIPTIONS OF THE TIME OF RTTDRADAMAN. 25 



TBA.NSLATION. 

In the yea* fifty-two, 52, on tlie second day of the dark half of Phaguna (PhSlguna), ra 
2, (during the reign) of the king Hudradaman, son of Jayadaman, (the grandson) of the king 
Chsshitana^ son of Ysamotika, (this) staff (lashti) was raised by Madana f son of SIhila (Siihhila)^ 
(in memory) of his wife Yasadata (YaSodatta), a novice nun (framariert), daughter of 
(Siihhamitra), of the Senika (Srenika) gotra. 



This inscription consists of four lines in a very imperfect state of preservation. The second 
halves of the first two lines have disappeared almost entirely, stray syllables being legible in 
places. A portion of the stone at the bottom of the inscription has also broken away, carrying 
away the lower part of the subscript ra of ir& and the lower half of ra in re of tiramanerena. 
The object of the inscription is to record the erection of a funeral monument to the memory of 
one Rishabhadeva by his father Treshtadata, a Buddhist monk, in the year 52* It measares 
3'5*xl'2". 

TEXT. 

1 BSjno Chashtanasa 1 Ysa 2 motika-pu[trasa] r[a]j[5o] Bu[drad5,masa] Jayadama- 

2 putra[sa] rarshe 60, 2, Phagu[na]-bahulasa dvitiyam va 2 

3 Dftishabhadevasa Treshtadata-putrasa OpaSati-gotrasa 

4 pitr[a] Treshtadatena sra^man^jrena 4 lashti utha 5 pita 



TBAHTSLATIOW. 

In the year 62, on the second day of the dark half of Phaguna (Phalguna), va . 2 ? 
(during the reign) of king Budradaman, son of JayadSman, (the grandson) of king Chashtana, 
son of TTeamotika, (this) staff (tashfi) was raised (in memory) of Rishabhadeva, son of 
Treshtadata (Trishtadatta), by his father Treshtadata, a novice (jSrdmanerq^ of the Opasati 
(AupaSatika) gdtra. 



3STo. 6. THE GHOSUNDI STONE INSCRIPTION, 

^ 

BY K. P. JAYASWAL, M.A. (Oxo^.)> BAKKIPORK. 

This inscription is known as the Ghoafindl stone inscription. Ghosfindi is a village near 
Nagarl in the Chitorga<Jh District of Rajputana. The classical name of Nagari is Madhyamika. 
It was the eeat of the republican community of the Sibi6, known from their coins found in 
the locality. 

An excellent estampage of the inscription on which the present edition is based was prepared 
under the direction of Mr* D. R. Bhandarkar, then Superintendent of the Archaeological Survev 
of India, Western Circle 

1 The & mark in Chashjoma is not horizontal as in inscriptions A and C. 

3 A similar a mark is used in I>a, * The a mark is horizontal in fra. 

4 The presence of a taae line in the 10th syllable in L 4 proves conclusively that yllahle 8-12 of this l.'iie 
represent iramaptirtna, and not ri-&fadanena, as read by Prof. D, K. Bhandarkar. 

6 A similar a mark is to be found in tha. 



EPIGRAPBIA INDICA. [VOL. XVI. 

.^^1^. .- ~ " " '' ' " ~' ~~ ~~ 

This inscription was first brought to the notice of scholars by Kaviraja Shyamala Da-sa i 
the Journal of the Bengal A*ia,tic Society, Vol. LVI, Part I, pp. 77 ft, No. 1 and PI. V. It i* 
on a stone slab then fised in a Mult, or well with steps, but now deposited in the Victoria Hall, 
Udaipur. The original place of the inscription, as indicated by the material and the shape of 
this slab, was the HatM-vada at Nagart. Hathi-vaija acquired its name from the fact that 
Akbar'e army used it as an elephant-stable. The wall is massive, built of dressed stone- 
pieces without cement. Mr. Bhandarkar is of opinion that the beautiful column described by 
Kaviraja Shyamala Dasa, which also belongs to the same architectural type as the Hathl-vada, 
was removed bodily from its original site somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Hathl-vada. 

Unfortunately the inscription is fragmentary; a single slab of the inscribed portion gives the 
three lines reproduced here. The lines continued both right and left, as is evident from, the 
context. The inscribed surface measures 3' 3"x8|", and the average height of each letter is If. 
The letters are in a good state of preservation. The lines are regular, and the letters well exe*- 
cuted. The inscription is in the Northern Brahmi of the later Maurya, or Early Snnga, period. 

It is of great importance from the point of view of religious history. It is the earliest 
monumental proof of the fact that temples were erected to Vasudeva and to his brother, and that 
the followers of the cult included even Brahmins. Further, this is the earliest inscription in 
Sanskrit yet discovered in the country. It refers to the building of puj5-6ils-praikara in the 
2*&rayana~v8t&, or Harayana compound (Hindi, BatfS). The p&j$-tila-priikara was probably a 
railing round the temple or the statues. As its name signifies, it may have been a railing of 
slabs, like those discovered at Safichl. It was dedicated to the gods Samkarshana, and Vasudeva. 
Samkarshana and Vasudeva as gods appear also in the Nanaghat 1 Inscription, which in view of 
the Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela (165 B.C.) 2 is to be assigned to circa 200 B.C. 
There the two gods are described as belonging to the Lunar Family. 1 They were thus the deified 
heroes whom the Jatakas, Panini and the Puranas treat as historical personages and as belonging 
to the Vrishni family of the Lunar Kshattriyas. 

The worship of Krishna is not found in the Jatakas, nor is it found in Panini. The view 
that Panini notes the deified VisudSva cannot be maintained. My reasons for this opinion are 
given in my Hindu, Polity ; so I need not repeat them here. But the worship of Krishna with 
almost all his signification, e.g. of the child Krishna (Dxmddara) and Trivikrama, was known 
as early as Baudhayana's Dharma-sutra, the date of which has been assigned by Biihler as circa 
400 B.C. I demur to this dating, and my reasons are given in my Tagore Lectures 
Baudhayana's Dharma-sGtra- cannot be earlier than about 200 B.C. Krishna as a god is in the 
ArthaSSrtr* not prominent (see Bk. 13, ch, 3). The two inscriptions (Nanaghat and Ghosundi} 
and Baudhayana's DJiarma-sutra, therefore, are the earliest records establishing the deification of 
Krishna. It should be noted that in the inscription the first place is given to the elder brother 
Samkarshana, and Vasudeva is not yet more prominent than his brother, who later on is 
completely outraced and superseded by his junior. The process had probably already begun a/s 

*** "5lfrr"^t- ''^^^iwnriiufflfle <rf one only of the two, and the later history would 
suggest thant was Vasudeva who had bagun to be identified with Narayana. On these data 
we can say that Ky^na's worship began before 200 B.C., and that at that time probably it 

not Bry ancient* In arriving at tMs conclusion OUT fruBn-rmJi/hn -? ~-f 1* ^.^ , 

value* 



Ighit record stall remembers 'the family of the two brothers, the Ghosundl inscription 

M --^^^L^Hr^r^^^aLr^^ 
.m. ^^ th, t . it ta * pento the ^ ^'r^^ri 8 ! ^ 



No. 6.] THE GHOSUNDI STONE INSCRIPTION. 27 

Naji&gha$ inscription the two brothers ai*e invoked together, Samkarshana being first. The 
U-hosn$4l record shows that the two brothers were still equally worshipped, and the dedication of 
the railing was to both. This history of the worship of Vasndeva would place the Nanaghat 
evidence as the first piece chronologically, the Grhosundl as the next and the Besnagar as the last. 

As to the date of our present inscription, the only thing that can be said with certainty is 
that the script is later than Agoka's time. The &a, sa and sha in our inscription are clear 
instances of this. In comparison with the inscHptions of Nanaghat, Hathigumpha and Besnagar 
(Heliodorus) it is difficult to decide the chzxmological position of this record. Taking into 
consideration the locality, it has on the whole a close affinity to the letter- types of the column 
inscription of Besnagar. The age of the inscription can be assigned between circa 200 BC 
and 150 B*C, As the forms of the letters are definitely older than in the Pabhosa inscription, 1 
the lower limit cannot be placed below 150 B.C. In the inscxiption of Kharavela the 
transitional forms are very common ; but they are absent from this Grhosundi inscription. The two 
documents are, however, widely separate;! locally ; and the standard of comparison cannot be 
the same. The record of Heliodcrus, who was an ambassador to Antialkidas, shows that in 
Central India a transition set in later. The date 250 B.C., assigned by Dr. Biihler to the 
Ghosfi$d! inscription^ is much too high. The post-Aokan types in the inscription are of a 
definitely fixed character, denoting a fairly long interval* 

The inscription is also important from the point of view of the language employed. Former 
wiiters, including Dr. Liiders, have described it as a mixture of Prakrit and Sanskrit. 9 I am 
afraid I cannot subscribe to that view. It was based on defective readings (putena instead of ^ 
^putreno.) etc.). In my opinion it is a pure Sanskrit record. The only room for controversy is 
as regards the word inscribed as bhagauabhyam. But this seems to be a case of mistake on the 
part of the engraver- In inscribing a conjunct of three letters he omitted the smallest member. 
The rest of the inscription is perfect Sanskrit. 

TEXT. 

1 * * s na GajSyanena Parasarl-putrena sa * * * ** 

2 * * jina bhagavabhyam 6 Saihkarshana-Vasudevabhyam * * * * 

3 * * bhyaih puja-sila-prakaro 3STarajrana~vate k& 6 * * * * 



TRANSLATION 

iiy O f Qaja, SOI1 O f a p'arasari (a lady of the Parftfiara 
family) 7 (this) railing of stone for the purposes of worship 8 is (caused to be made) in the 
UTarSjarLa-compound, (dedicated) to the Blessed Ones (bhayavabhyath) Samkarshana and 
VasudSva, the gods, ****** 



No. 7, ALUR INSCEIPTION OF THE REIGN OF VIKRAMADITYA V : SAKA 933, 

BY LIONEL D. BARNETT. 

AWr, from which the following record comes, is a village in the Gadag t&luka of Bharwar 
District, Hombay Presideucy. In onr record it is styled Malad^JLlur, " Alnr of the Plain " 

i Ante, Vol. II, pp. 240 ff. 

* J. A. 8. 1?., Vol. LVI, Pt. I, List of Brahml Inscription*, Nos. 6-7. 

1 The letter is broken. It was probably a ta. The following na indicates an instrumental. 
4 We do not know how many letters are missing at the end of each line. 

* Bead Ma0avadltyaih. ft Read 



- 

^ Evidently a Brahmin lady. The form Gajayana ' according to the rnles of Paninl would also indicate A 
Brahmin family. 

* Probably for pradatobina, as in other known religious places of the time. 

i) 2 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. 



which serves to distinguish it from the many other towns and villages of the same name It is 
.iiuate in lai. 15 Mt ; and Ion*. 75 51% three miles HE. from pambj Onr mscxaptzon, of 
which a transcript is~given m Vol. I, fol. 20a of the Elliot Collection (B. As. See copy), was 
foond on a slab at the temple of Isvara ; I adit iffrom an ink-impres8ion prepared for the late 
Dr. Fleet, which IB now in the British Museum. The stone is rectangular, and m its upper 
compartment has Borne sculptures, viz in the centre * Knga on a stand, to the proper right a 
squatting figure feeing full front, and to the left a cow with suckling calf feeing the Mga. 
Underneath this is the inscribed area, about 4 ft, 4 in. in height and 1 It. 8| in. in width. 
The character is Kanarese, a good bold veil-rounded type, rather archaic m style. The 
fh on t 34, as sometimes in other records, is Indistinguishable from r. The height of the 
letters in II. 1-4 is about f in., and elsewhere from | in. to f in. The language, except in the 
three forma! Sanskrit verses at the end (1L 42-46), is Old Kanarese. The .? is preserved, 
NolaAlsSkirSjana (1. 3 ;. but Nolamhadhirdjam and Nolambavvdi, 1. 11), Kemgali (1. 12), afojp- 
ttlad-at'jifh (L 20), ild~ (L 30), alidamg** and alida (1. 41). The words marmmal (1. 1), ghatiga 
(L 19) ? and kaihbwadda (11. 28, 29) are of lexical interest. 

The record opens with a verse (11. 1-4) in praise of Iriva-lSTolambadhirSja, announcing 
that lie was married to a lady who was a granddaughter of Taila (Ahavamalla Nurmadi- 
Taila H) f a daughter of SatySsraya (Akalankacharita Xiivabedanga~Sat~yaraya) and tamge 
(literally, " younger sister/ 5 but really "paternal cousin ") to Vikramaditya [V Tribhuvana- 
mails]. On these and other facts connected with the inscription see Dyn. Kanar. Distr., 
pp. 332, 434, and 558. 1 It then refers itself to the reign of Tribhuvanamalla (VikramSditya 
V), and introduces as bis feudatory the ahove-mentioned Iriva-Nolaiiibadhiraja, a scion of the 
Ballava family, bearing among other titles that of "lord of KSmchi best of cities," who at the 
time was ruling over the B" olaikbaTadi Thirty-two Thousand, the Kemgaji Pive-hnndred^ 
the Ballakunde Three-hundred, the Kukkanur Thirty, and five towns in the Masiyavadi 
nadu (11 544). The next section (11. 14-24) introduces with all his titles a high officer of the 
letter, the Brahm5f$ general Venneya-Bfaatta, son of DiVda-Pandita ; and then 3 after the date 
(11. 24-26) f we learn that this person, having received certain lands from the representatives 
of Alfir, presented them as an endowment to AmaracMrya, of the Guhgya Matha in Sirivura, 
for the benefit of his monastery (1L 26-38). The writer of the edict was Maruloja (L 46). 

The date 2 is given on 11. 24-26 as : Saka 933 lapsed, the cyclic year Sadharana ; the 
full-iBoon day of Vaisakha ; a Sunday. This is slightly irregular. Sadharana was Saka 983 
current ; and the given tithi corresponded to Monday, 1 May, AJX 101O, when it ended JJ h. 
3 m, after mean sunrise (for TTjjain). 

The places mentioned are Kifichz, i.e* Conjeevaram (L 10), the ITolambavSdi Thirty-two 
Thousand, in the region of Bellary (L 11), the Kemgaji PiTO-hundred (L 12), the Balla- 
kunde Three-hundred (L 12), the Kukkantir Thirty (L 12), the MasiyavSdi nadu (1. 13), 
the Male or Highlands of the Western Ghauts (1. 20), the Sapta-grSma, or " seven towns " 
(L 21), Malad=AlSr (II. 26, 30: vide supra), Sirivura (II. 27, 84), and Ittage (L 27). On 
Ballakunde see above* Vol. XIV ? p. 267 ; on Itfcage, ahove, Vol. XIIL p. 36 j on Knkkanfir, %bid. y 
p. 40 ; on Masijav5di y Dyn. Kanar, Distr., p. 465, and above, Vol. XV, p. 78, Sirivura is novr 
Sirfir, in lat. 15 21' and long, 75 49|', about 3 miles NNT3. from Alur. 



[Metres : v. 1 MattebJiavilcrtdita \ w. 2-4, 
3ann-mSrgg~agrani chakravartti-tilakam Tailainge marmmal podarppina 



1 Much information as to the earlier Nolamlms will be found above, VoL X, pp. 54. if. 

2 I have to thank Mr. B. Sewell for bis kindcess in verify ng my calculations, 
* from the ink-impression^ 



Alur Inscription of the reign of Vikramaditya V : Saka 933- 




24 



WHITTINGHAM & GRlQGS, COLL, 



F, W. THOMAS 



SCALE ONE-THIRD 




40 



42 



44 



46 



Ho. 7.] ALTJR INSCRIPTION OF VIKRAHADITYA V : SAKA 933. 29 

2* ya-chakravarttiya magal sri-Vikramaditya-devana dmkresana tarn- 

3 ge tann*arasiyend-and*I Molambadliirajana pempam knlamam maba- 

4 maUimeyam baunippon*=e vannipom [| [1*] 

5 -Svasti samasta-bliutraii-asraya Sn-PrithvI-vallablia mabaraja- 

6 dhirajam paramSSvara paramabliafctarakam Chha(cliS)luky-abliara9am Satyasra- 

7 ya-kula-tilakam Srlmat^Tribhuvanamalla-devara rajyam=uttar3ttar-a- 

B T^hivriddM-praTarddhamanam^a-cbamdr-arkka-taram baram salufctam-ire [|*] 

tat-pada-pa- 

9 dm-^p-ijlvi svasti amadliigata-pamcliamaha-sabda Pallav-Snvaya Sri-Prithvl-va- 
10 llabham Pallava-kula-tilakan*eka-vakyam KamcM-puraTar-esvaram mandalika- 

Tri^dtram 
1 1 ghatey-amkakararh |rtmad-Iiiva-H"aiambIctliirajam JSTolarixbavadi-muvattircliclilii- 

12 siramum Ejemgajiy-ainlirum Ballakuade-mfinnraih Knk[k*]anar*mmuva- 

13 ttnm MSBiyaTadi-nSd^olagana pamclia-badamgalamam dushta-nigralia- 

14 Tifiisb^a-'pratipalanadim so khadm*alut tarn-ire [[*] tat-pada-padm-5pajlvi 

15 srasti samasta-rajya-bliara-iiirupita-mahasSBadliipati paii-Ht-a- 

16 charanani rai^a-ramga^diisHtazii dushta-nislithuraiii kutila-Kant[i*]lyaiii 

kshudra-vidravai^arii 
1 7 Kali-kala-Brihaspati parivara- vft]ra-pamjaranaliit-ah-&ara dlan*u- 

18 bhara-kavimdram kavi-raja-vallabham vad-lbha-pamchananam Sarasvatl-valla- 

19 bham para-nari-durllabharii ghatigana gandha-vara^am naya-dhamam clialad5ja* 

20 Balipilladatam nallargge nallam chatnra-Chaturmmukiiam kadana-yin^dam 

Malaya 

21 mnrddanam vipra*knla-kamala-bliaskaram parvvarol^ga^daik Sapta-gram- 

Jgraganyam 

22 Katoma-kul-Odbhavam * dhlta^g^tram Dimnda-pamndita-putrarii ciiLatraka-initram 

pandi- 

23 ia-raandanacri Venneya-bhattfa^jrara^enisida -srlmap- maha-pracharida-^andai^- 

24 yakam gbateyarhkak&a[m] bram(bra)Lm-adhirajargge 



25 ta-saihvatsara-satamgal 933neya Sadharana-sarhvateara Vaisakha- 

26 da pn^i^ame JLdityavaradamdu Malad^Alnra ba*4agana poladol 

27 SirivTiradirixd*Ifctagege p5da batteya Ka^na-knrimbana kalla badagana 

28 deseyol=Siddhes vara -geyya mfi dana kambi- vaddadol= Allg vara-geyy=a- 

29 daja mndana kambi-vaddadol nSru mattar*kkeyyam sarvva-badba-pa- 

30 Tiharam namasyay=age M51adA.11i[ra*] irnnnrvaruv=ild=nr-o4eyam Chatti- 

31 varayyam Venneya-bhattara kalam karchchi kude tat-kaladol maha- 

32 janadadbyakabadol Vatineya-bhattarttamin=aradhyar svasti yama-niya- 

33 m-asatia-pranaySima-pratyabara-dh^ 

34 Biiar^appa srimat-Sirivtirada GBkeya-matbada AmarScharya- 

35 bhattSrakargge pada-prakshalanam(na)-parvvakam BUJU mattar^kkeyyumaiii 

matha- 

36 mam-udisi mafchake vidya-danav=*age pamnirvvar=bralimanarggam*a|'ava- 

37 r*tfcap5dh.anarggam satrake vitfcan~Adan=irnnurvvaram sarvva-badha-parihairam ki* 

38 d-fi.duvar*l dharmmavam pratipalisidamge KurtLksbefcradol^sftryya-gralia- 

39 tiadolsayira kavileyam d^va-brahmanarggubliayamtikhi-go- 

40 |'t' a phalam Varanaslyol^sayira lirhgamam pratishfcke-geyda pa(pha)lara*a- 

41 kkuv r I dharmmavan=alidamgmitiimaB*alida pamcba-maha-patakam&kkum 



The flisft letter of this word, looks like r. Elliot's pandit has transcribed the word aa 



30 EPIQBAPHIA INDIOA. [VOL. XVI. 

42 Svam datum sumaliach~chhakyarii dukkhamaayasya palanam [|*J danam va 

p&la- 

43 Bam v~gti danacli*chlirey^Tnipalanain [||* 2*] Sva-dattam para~dat[i*]&:m *a 



y5 jbareta 

44 vasamdjaarim [|*] shashtim yarsha-sahasrani vishfchayam jay ate krimih. j (jj) 

[3*] Na visliarii 

45 visliaGi-ityaliur=bralima-svam viafa-am-ucliyatg [(*] visliam=ekakinam hazkti 

bralirua-svanx 

46 putra-petrikam 1 [({ 4*] (8J) Prasada-chakravartti MarulSjam baredam | 

manigalam 



TBANSIiATION. 

(Verse 1.) Inasmuch as his queen was a granddaughter of Taila, the ornament of emperors 
eminent" in Manu's courses, a daughter of the illustrious emperor Satyasraya, (and) a younger 
sister of the blest emperor king Vikramaditya, how can a panegyrist (worthily) describe 
this Holambadbiraja's greatness and (noble) race and high eminence ? 

(Lines 5-8.) When the reign of hail! the asylum of the whole world, favourite of 
Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, embellishment of the 
Chslukyas, ornament of S%tyssraya*s race, king Tribhuvanamalla, was advancing in a course 
of successi vely increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sun, and stars ; 

(Lines 8-14,) While one who finds sustenance afc his lotus-feet, hail ! he who has 
obtained the five great musical sounds, scion of the 3?allava lineage, favourite of Fortune and 
Earth, ornament of the Pallava race, uniform of speech, lord* of Ksnchi best of cities, a 
Trine tra [Siva] of feudatory princes, a warrior of the host [elephant troup. Ed.],Iriva-Nolam- 
badhiraja, was happily ruling the Nolambava4i Thirty-two Thousand, the KengflH Mve- 
. hundred, the BaLlakunde Three-lrimdred, the Kukkantir Thirty, and five towns within the 
Btasiys^Sdi province, BO as to repress the wicked and protect the cultured, 

(Lines 14-24) Tq^one who finds sustenance at his lotus-feet, hail ! the High General 
appointed to the whole management of the realm, doing service to his lord, grim on the stage of 
battle, harsh to the wicked, a Kaufcilya in crafc [to the crafty. Ed.] s one who drives away the 
base, a Byihaspati of the Kali Age, QB adamant chamber to dependents, a Garuda to the serpents 
Ms enemies, a great poet in both (languages),** a favourite with kings of poets, a lion to the ele* 
phants disputants, a darling of Sarasvati, nnattainable by other men's wives, a furious elephant 
to warriors of the host (?)j a home of polity 1 a master of enterprise, one who fails not (in vow 
and promise), a friend to friends, a Brahma of the skilful, delighting in the fray, crushing the 
Highlands, a Bun to the lotuses 'the Br5Lhman race, a warrior among Bratma^s, a leader in the 
Seven Towns, a scion of the Kamma 2 * race, of the . . . gfitra, son of DindaPandita, 
friend of students, ornament of scholars, the great aogust General Vemjteya Bhattara, a warrior 
of the host, [elephant troup], an emperor of the BrShma$ order, 

(Linea 24-26*) On Stmday, the full-moon day of Vaissklia of th cyclic year Sadbirana, 
the 933rd (year) ia the centuries elapsed from the time of tlie Saka king, 



(Lfitves fift-31.) 3?iie mayor Chattivarayya in concert with the Two-hundred of Alur of the 
Plain, waahimg V^tt^eyarBhafcta's fet gave as a namasya holding immune from all conflicting 



* Sanskrit and Katifuree. 

9 TMi f*riij may p^ably ba connected with the Kflmma-raAh^ra or Korma-raghtra, on which see /. A* 9 
VoL YII^.p. H7 VoL XXt p*.105, and JR I., above, VoL V11I, pp. 234, 238. [Ftwna-Kamma ia a well-known 

found in the Kellore DUtrcfc ; BAbbur-K%mmi ia another* Ed.] 



7.] ALTJE mSCRIPTIQtf OF TrKBAMABITTA V : SAKA 933. Si 

61aini8, a field of one hundred mattar id the fields north, of Alar of th& Plain, on the' niorth sidfe 
of the road going" from Sirivura to Ifctage* {and) Kanna* the Shepherd's sterna irt the e&steru 
kamli-vadda of Siddhesvara's meadow, {and) in the eastern Kambi-tiadda of Alldgva*a*s 
meadow ; 

(Lines 31-38,) Whereupon in the presence of the Mahajanas Venneya- Bhafcta assigned to 
his preceptor 1 Amaraeharya-Bhattaraka of the Gtiheya monastery in Sirivufa, who is 
hail' ! 'practised in the major and minor disciplines, seat-post sires, suppression of breath, with- 
drawal (of the senses from their objects), spiritual concentration, meiitation, and absorption, ^dth 
laving of his feet, a field of one hundred mattar for the almshouse for {the maintenance of) twelve 
Br&hmans and six ascetics, so that the monastery may be fed and supply iiis traction. The 
Two-hundred shall protect this {establishment, keeping it) immune from all conflicting claims", 
and furnish it with food. 

(Lines 38-41,) To him who preserves this pious foundation shall accrue the reward of giving 
in Kurukshetra during an eclipse of the sun as ubhayamukhis* a thousand kitw to gods and 
Brahmans, the reward of consecrating in Benares a thousand phallic images ; * to him who 
violates this pious foundation shall accrue {tke guilt of) the five deadly sinB for having, destroyed 
tb.e same number. 

(Verses 2*4 : common Sanskrit formulae,) 

(Line 46.) The pra$ad&-vhakravativ* Maroloja was the Writer (tf/ 
Happiness 1 



No. 8. THREE INSCRIPTIONS. OF LAKSHMESH^tR. 
BY LIONEL D. BABNKEX. 



The site of Lakshmesliwar town and its ancient names* of- Porige^ Ptdigere, Ihtrigeje, 
Purikara, and Pulikara have already been discussed in this journal (above, VoL XIII, p. 178, 
XIV, p. 188).. As befits its former importance, it contains a considerable number of ingcrip- 
tions, among them the following three, which were found on stones in the lodal temple of 
Scmesvara by Elliot's pandit and copied by him. They all bear upon the history of the cult of 
Maha-svayambhu- Somes vara. The first of them (No. A.) appears in the r Royal Asiatic 
Society's copy of the Elliot Collection on foL 262a of Vol. J, the second (No. B.) on fol. 302b 
ibidem, 4 * and the third (No. C.) on fol. 504a ibidem. All three were subsequently removed to 
the local kflch&ri, where ink-impressions of them were prepared for the late Dr. Fleet, which, 
are now in the British Museum. Pr6m these I have edited the texj; A facsimile- and 
of C. is given in PSOCL, No. 97. 



A. OP THE BBEGHBT Off VIKBAfMADITTA VI : TE&& 27. 

stone bearing this record has a rectangular top containing sculptures, namely, in 
centre a linga on a stand, with a squatting bull on the proper right aud a cow sucHiag a catt 
surmounted by the sur* (right) and ' moon (left). Below this is the inscribed area* in two 

1 Jiradhya, literally ** worshipful one/* the title of a class of Saiva Brahmana. 

2 See at>ove, Vol. XHI, p. 15; 

* Literally, " emperor of palaces *' ; it seema to be a title of a afcone-maaon, Cf, ^oi3-<j*a*r<wwir*, of a. 
m^clmttt (above, Vol, XIII, p, 21), 

4 With'tH^ note that it Wad on a stoae m a tow oFalaba standing along the outer wall of th$ 
the doorway* 



BPIGBAPHIA EO1ICA. [ToL. XVI. 



compartments : the first, oontaiaiag 1. 1, is about 2 ft?, wide and 2 in, Mglx, and the second 
(11* 2-53) is about 2 ft. wide and 4 ft. 7 in. high. The character is good Kanareee of the 
period, with letters varying in L 1 from f in. to J in. in height, and in 11. 2-53 from & in* 
to <$ in. The subscript c& (see 11. li, 30, etc.) is almost exactly like subscript dh, The 
language is Old Kanarese, except in the formal Sanskrit verses Nos. 1, 7-9. The I has been 
cbaagedto I throughout, But p is preserved. The spelling *bh&wina$**p Q (1. 49), for the more 
regular Tth&vinafap , is noteworthy. The word adQ&gara-m^i (1. 37) seems new. . 

The record first refers itself to the reign of Tribhuvanamalla, i.e. ViiramSditya VI 
(11. 2*5), and then introduces in verse and prose the High Minister and General Bhivanayya, 
or Bhima, a native of Kashmir, who held the title of mahft-sSmant&cthipati and filled several 
important offices, being at the time the administrator of the Palasige Twelve-thousand and- the 
controller of the acTichu^pann&yaj one of the departments of taxation (11. 5-15) .* Next come 
four verses and a prose description of Bhlva;ciayya*8 subordinate the General Madhava-Bhatta, 
ft soldier, statesman, and man of taste, who was a High Minister and " president " (adhishthfi,- 
yaka, probably head of the local department) of the achchu-pannaya (11. 15-31)* The follow- 
ing paragraph (1L 31*43) gives the date and details of an. end'owmejxt granted by Madhava to 
the temple of Svayambhu-SSmelvacra 3 at Purigere and to the associated cult of Muddesvara 
out of the fiscal revenues controlled by him, the trustee being Mahendrasoma, the prior of the 
local monastery. 

The ^ate is specified on 1L 32-33 as the 27th year of the Ctalukya-Vikraina era, Chitra- 
fohanu ; Aflhadha u. 5 ; Sunday ; a vyatip&ta. This is regular, so far as it goes : the given 
tiihi corresponded to Sunday, 22 June, A.IX 1102, on which day it ended 17 h. 30 m. after 
nean sunrise (for Ujjain), 3 

The only geographical names mentioned are : KafimJra (L 10) ; the Palasige Twelve- 
thousand and the Seven and a half Iiakh Country (L 14) ; Forigeye (1L 35, 36, 38) ; 
nd the tirthas (11. 43 f.), Palasige is the modern Halsl, situate in lat. 15 32 7 and long. 
74 36'. Purigeye, also called Puligeye and later Huligere, with the Sanskritised bye-form 
Ptwikara, is the modern 



TEXT. 4 

[Metres : TV. 1, 7 9, Anushtubh ; vv. 2, 6, MattebJiavikrifota > w* 3, 5, 10, Kanda ; 
y. 4, GhampaJcam8l& ; r. 8, Saliril*'] 

chu^ trail5kya-nagar*araiii- 

Sa(ga)mbhave |j [1*] |5 

2 ^) Svasti sama&ta-bhuvan-asraya ri-Prithvl-vallabha mahSrajadliiraja para- 

3 mgsSvara paramabhattarakam Satyfisraya-kula-tilakam Chajuky-abharanaiii srimnt- 

Tri- 

4 bhuTanamalla-devara Tijaya-rajyam*uttar6ttar-abhivriddhi-pravarddhamanam*a- 

5 chandr-airlcfca^taram baraih Baluttamire [|*] tat-pada-padm-Opajivi j| Vfitta || 

Dhuradol*tane 

6 dhuramda(dha)ram samuchit-apt^aldchan-agrgsar-amtaradol^tane samagra-mamtri 



7 l[l*]*emd=ixhtu karunyadirii pored=aldaih charitakke mechchi piridum 



1 See D^* K&nar* Di*tr 9 p. 451, 

On the aignificance of the title Svayambhu gee my paper on the Kurgod inscr. B. above, Vol. XIV, p. 278. 

* I liave to thank Mr. Eohert Bewell for his help in calculating the dates of the inscriptions in this payer* 

* From the ink-impression. 



. 8.] THUEE INSCRIPTIONS OF LAKSHMBSHVTAIl. * 38. 

8 rol=imt=orvvane jlya bapp=eiusiduh ^rl-BMma-dandadMpam }j [2*] Svasti 

samadhigata-pariieba- 

9 maha-sabda-maMsamariitadhipati maTm-prackanda-dandanay r * 7 "Xrii sisht-epta(ahta)- 

10 jan-abhlshta~phala-pradayakam nudid-amte gandark saujan/a-vanaja-Tana-marttandarii 

Kasmira-vi- 

1 1 sliaya-mukha-mandanarii svami-vamcliaka-slrah-khandaTii[iii] srlraa [t*]-Triblravana- 

malla-deva-pa- 

1 2 d-abja-bhri(bbri)mga sabas-Otturhga nara-adi-samasta-prasasti-saHta srlnianmaba- 

pra- 

13 dhanam savasigal=adbisht]iaya,kaiii maue-verggade patta]e-*karanaih dandanftyaka 

Bhi- 

14 vanayyarngalu Palasige-pananirclicliasiramuiaam S n wpt-arddlia-lakslieya<'}jcbii- 

pamnayamu- 

15 min=aluttam-ire [|*] tit-pada-padm-opajivi ^^ Ka || Abhimana-Meru vifearana- 

vibbu- 

16 sbanam dbarmma-Dliarnimara l ja-tanu(nfi)3arii vibbav-aika-Divij irajam prabhn-maiiitr- 

Otsaba* 

17 gakti-guna-sariipamna || [3*] Yri || Kadaaadol-aintararii tulidu kolv^edeyohc 

laya- 

18 kala-Kalan=eriibuclu bada-pattu bedidavargg(rg)=ivade ]amgaina-kalpa- 

eriibii- 

19 da saran=emda bamd==elaso kav=edeyolw drida ! -vajra-goliam=eriibuda 

akkaridi vi- 

20 bdba 2 -maiidali M:adhava-daIla^^Tlathanam || [4*] Ka || Mattina nirasta-gunaran-aii- 

Tittamaraiii padedu- 

21 darkke dhatram pray aschittn[m;j- gey dam padedu budli-ottamauam 

Manu-cliaritranam Madhavana || &*] 

22 Vri |1 Dayeyol dliarnimadol^rirppinol vibhaTadol=gamblilryyadol dliaiiyyadol na- 

23 yadol cliaru-chai^itrndt^l vinayadol ctaturyyadol sanryyadol ni- 

2 1 yat-acbaradol^olpinol bahu-kala-vijniinadoUtano dli'iti'iyoWatyunnata- 

25 n*adanflriJita-yaSJ-lakslimI-ahava[m] Madhava[rii3 || [6*] (^ Svasti simasta- 

vastu-gun-alaiiikn (kri)ta 

26 maliamatya-padavl-virajumana mnn-omnata prablm*mariitr-5tsah.a-sakti-traya- 

27 sirhparima Tib(llia :4y -prasa[ih]iia sTikara-kavita-rasa-Tlchilra-cliaru-Chatnrananaih 

madavadli (d)-a- 

28 ri w kaririidi i a-paTiicliaiBa'narii 

29 rafrh] sanjanya-ratnakararii srJinad"Bhav[a*]ri!nritha-prid-abja-bliri(bhri)mgaiii pabas- 

rttn[rii]- 
iiO ga niam-adi-samasta-prasasti-saliitani srl man-maliapradhanan=acliclin - 

3 1 parimfiyad-adliishthayakam daTidanayakam Madbava-bhattar <^/ Svasti 

32 grim-icli-Chslukya-Vikrama-kalada 27neya Clxitrabhan-a-sa(sa)mvatsa- 

33 rada Asada.sxiddTia' 1 5 Adity.ivaramu[rh] vyatipatadaiiidu srimarl-na- 

34 nclanayakam MSdlxava-bhattar^achclia-pamnayamarii snkhiidin^lultatn-irfltln 

35 arl-rajaflhani pattanarh Purigereya sri-SvayathbTni-S5mesTa(sva)ra-deva- 

30 rs Miiddesya(sva)r^-3evar-amga-bhngakke Purigereya 48 saaira mattar=bhI:hfSmi- 
37 ymid^olag^eleyarii maruva taladaokkalav=addagara-Yadiy*agi perina- 



df idha-. ? Bend urtwrfAa-. $ Head 

Eead JL 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. .[VOL. XVI. 



88 lum tale-voreyal=elli tamdadaih devargge pannayada samkamumam Pnriger- 

39 yalu maruv^eleya parhnayamaman^atta sumkav^ikki baiiidu maru- 

40 va perimg=ele 530 tale-yorege 300 laya^ige vokkal-dere damnda-d5sa(sha)v=int 



41 n=alliya sthan-acharyyara Makendrasoma-panditara kal-garcbchi dhara-pfirvYa- 

42 kaih madi bittar=Int=l dharmmamarii parmayaman=alv=arastigaiTi pratipalisn- 

43 varu / Idam kad-ataih Varanasi KnrakshStra[m] Prayage Argghyati- 

44 rttham Gramge ,&ayey=emba maha-punya-tirttliaiiigalohi sasira kavileyam(ya) k5- 

45 durh kolagumam paiiicha-ratiLadal==kattisi sasirvvar yeda-paragar*appa 

brahmanargg==ubliaya- 

46 makhi-gotta phalam=akkam=idin=alId-atamg^aniiamaii=aHda pamcha-malia-patakan* 

akkniia | 

47 Sva-dattam para- cl at bam ya yd hareta vasundhara^] [|*] sliaslitir^varlrslia 1 - 

saliara(8ra)m vislita(slitha)yaih 

48 jayate krimi[Ii*] || [7*] SamanyO^yam dharmma-setur-nnripanam kale kal 



49 bliavadbliis=[i*]sarT^aii=etaia bliavinas(h.)=parttliivemdraii bliny5 blafiyc yachate 

50 machandra[h*] || [8*] Baliubhir^Yvasadha blaukta rajabhis=Sagar-adibbih [|*] yasya 

ya- 

51 sya yada blinmi^j^tasya tasya tada plialaik || [9*] Idan-a-cliamdr-arkkam baram* 

ndi- 
.52 t*0ditam=age kadavar-pparama-sukk-aspadha(da) i*-appar papadin^alida 

53 duratmar=Bnaraka-gatige galagalan=idi(li)var J| [10*] Mamgala malia-ri Sri 



TBAJTSLATIOISL 

(Verse 1,) Homage to Sambhu, beauteous with tbe yak-tail fan tiat is tlie moon kissing 
is lofty head 3 the foundation- column for the structure of fche city of the triple world, 

(Lines 2-5 >) Wlxile the victorious reign ef-~rhail ! the refuge of the whole world, darling 
of "Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supremo Master, ornament of Satyssraya*s 
race, embellishment of the Chalukyas 9 king Tribhuvanamalla, was advancing in a course of 
successively increasing prosperity a .(to endure) as long as moouj sun, and stara; one who finds 
finstenanee at his lotus-feet 

(Verse 2,) As the sovereign, saying that " he is the leader in battle and likewise a perfect 
counsellor among the most capable of fitting and reliable deliberations, there are no others {equal 
to Win)," thus graciously has aggrandised him, and, being pleased at his conduct, abundantly 
praises him, hence the blest General Bhima alone among generals is addressed with jtt/a aud 



(Lines 8-15, ) Hail ! wHle the maha-sama'&t&dh'ipati who has obtained the five great musical 
, greai august General, bestower of desirable rewards upon cultured and agreeable 
persons, mn of might according to his word, sun to the ptfrk of the lotuses of nobility, ornament 
on the face of ihe proviiice of Iaslimir, decapitator of traitors against Ms lord, bee to king 

lofcus-feet, exalted in bravery, High. Minister, president of the itttendants, 



the houaeliold, provincial 3 registrar, the (Jenei?al BMvan^yya, was administering 



Bead *fAa*. s Words expressing high approT&I and 

^ Vol. XIII, 



8 '3 THREE INSCRIPTIONS OF LAKSHMESHWAE. 35 

the Palasige Twelve-thousand and the achchu-pannSya of the Seven-and-a-half Lakh 
Country 1 ; one who finds sustenance at his lotos-feet 

(Verse 3,) A Meru in pride, distinguished by bounty, a Dharmaraja's son [TnaliislitMm]^ 
in righteousness, a unique King of Celestials [Indra] in magnificence, endowed with the excel-" 
lences of the powers of lord, counsel, and enterprise 

(Verse 4.) With affection of spirit the congregations of sages name the General Madhava, 
on the occasion of his trampling down and slaying those who confront him in battle, a Spirit of 
Doom of the time of dissolution ; on the occasion of his making gifts to impoverished suitors, a 
walking Tree of Desire ; on the occasion of his giving protection when men come and pray for 
refuge, a solid adamantine house, 

(\euse 5.) By generating Madhava 3 who is the best of sages, who follows the course of 
Manu, the Creator made atonement for having created other inferior men of reprobate character. 

(Verse 6.) In mercy, righteousness, power, magnificence, profundity, firmness, policy, 
pleasing conduct*, courtesy, skill, valour, regular practice of duty, excellence, (and) knowledge 
of many arts, Madliava 'has became exceedingly exalted on earth, a lord oE the goddess of 
splendid fame. 

(Lines 25-31.) Hail ! he who possesses all titles of honour such as " he who is adorned 
with all positive "virtues, illustrious in the office of High Minister, exalted in dignity, endowed 
with the three powers of lord, counsel, and enterprise, gracious to sagep, a charming Brahma 
In appreciation of sentiments of skilf ul poetry, a lion to the great elephants proud foemen, a 
full moon of the antumual season to the ocean of his kindred, a jewel-mine of nobility, a bee to 
the lotus-feet of Bhavanf s Lord [Siya], lofty in valour/' the High Minister, Controller of the 
achchu-pannaya, (and") General Madhava-Bhatta 

(Lines 31-33.) Hail ! on Sunday, the 5tli of the bright fortnight of Ashadha In the 
cyclic year CMtrabhanu, the 27th (year') of the Chalukya-Vikrama era, during a 



(Lines 33-43.) The General M5dhava-Bhatta s while happily administering the achcTiu- 
pannaya, for the personal enjoyment of the god Svayambhu-SSmesvara (and) the god Mudde- 
gvara of the capital city Purigere," presented to the gods, with layiug of the feet of Hahendra- 
sorna Pandita, prior of the local establishment, and with pouring oi water, the pannaya tax 
(collected) wherever tenants of estates selling betel-leaf within the 48,000 matiar of the lands 
of Purigere bring (the leaf) in loads conveyed either on shoulder-poles (?) or in head-loads, 
likewise the pannaya on betel-leaf sold in Pudgege, likewise a total of 530 leaves on each load 
and 300 on e-.^h head-load sold there after deduction of the tax, together with tenants* tax and 
fines for offences. So the governors 3 administering the pannaya shall maintain this pious 
endowment. 

(Lines 43*46 : a prose formula of he nsual type.) 

(Verses 7-9 : common Sanskrit verses.) 

(Verse 10 : a Kauarese commomtory stanza.) 

B OF THE REIGNS OF VIKBAMADITYA VI (YEAB 32) AND TAILA 3H (TEAHS 

3 & 4). 

The stone bearing this inscription has suffered some damage, a considerable portion having 

been broken ofl on the proper left side, from the top dawn to line 15. About half of the 

i~The aobcfai-pannay<* ws one of the branches of taxation. On the Seven-and-a-half Lakh Country see I>&*. 

Kattar. Distr*, p. 341, n. 2. 

* A vtlt/a in which the declination of sun and moon are equal. 

* This use of ara in reference to ciyll officers of the Crown deserves notice, especially in connection witli 
Dr. Fleet's remarks in 2>y. K&nar. Dfofo-., p. 429. Cf * "below, $ . 50, n. 2 6 



36 - EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVL 

pediment remains ; and on this the only sculptures visible are a Unga on a stand with a squatting 
bull to the proper right. Tbe text below this is contained in three compartments, all of them 
about 2 ft. wide. The first of these, comprising 11. 1-5, is about 4| in* high ; the second, II, 
6-68, some 4 ft. 3 in. high j and the third, 11. 69-70, about 2^ in. high. The character is a 
fair Kanarese of the middle of the twelfth century, with letters varying in height from fV in. 
to -^ in. Apart from the Sanskrit stanzas N os. 1, 2, 15, and 26, the language is Old Kanaresa. 
The ancient 2 has beea changed to r in kirtt- (L 10) aud ncgardda/h (L 42), aad elsewhere to I* 
The npadhmftniya appears in paya$pura- (1, 25) aud V<Zchak-pati (1. 54). P is changed to fa 
only in the names Tailaha (11. 22, 32, 48, 56, 58) and Hanuingall** (11. 65-6 ; elsewhere 
P&numgallu). Among the words of lexical interest we may notice Chaluki (1, 5), jagadala 
(L 6), nirvv&dhe (L 15), Jcamdarisu (L 27), Jcartimay i$u (L 27)., ullekha in the sense of ** high- 
flashing" (1. 57), gadduge (1. 58), l and kando.rcbne 9 " carving " (L 70). 

The record chronicles three endowments, and was redacted in its present form on the occa- 
sion of the last of these. The firsfe part, after a prelude (vv. 1-4), opens with a series of 
stanzas (11. 6-10) praising in succession Permadi-Ra[ja] 5 by whom Vikramaditya VI seems to 
be meant (v. 5), Tailapa (i.e. Ahavamalla Nurmadi Taila II), Satyasraya, and Vikrama, ie- 
Vikramaditya VI (v. 6} ; and Vikramaditya* s successes over the Clx51as 5 IKTepalas, and 
Gurjaras are glorified (v, 7)* Then comes the formula referring the grant to Vikramadifcya r s 
reign (11. 10-12), followed by verges giving the lineage of bis feudatory the Kadamba 
31aha-Mandalesvara Taila [II] or Tailaha-devarasa of Hangal (11, 12-17). He was -the son of 
Santa (SantiTarnian) and Sjciya-deTi; and Santa had four brothers, named Taila [I], Havuli* 
Choki, and Bikki (i.e. Yikrama), 3 After this conies a prose passage giviug to Tailaha all th& 
standing titles of his family and referring the grant to iiia reigti (11. 17-24). Then -we have 
some verses in praise of the town of Purikara, i.e. Lakahnieshwar (11. 24-26), its sanciuary of 
Maha-svayambhu-Somauatha, or Bakshina-Soma, ifi the Somnath of the South *' (11. 26-28), 
and the prior of that establishoaent, MaTiendrasoma Paadita-deTa 3 (11. 28-30) ; and then 
comes au interesting prose paragraph (11. 30-34) i-elating how the latter paid a visit to the 
Msfcha-Mandalesrara Tailaha-deva (the above*mentioned Kadamba Taila II) at PannngallUs 
and gave him Jhis blessing and gift of the Saiva euoharist^ in return for which he receiyed from 
Tailaha the gift of the town of Kallavana for the maintenance of his tezuple (11. 34-38). A 
formal ending of the usual kind then brings the first section to a conclusion (11. 38-40), 

The second part then opens with a verse in praise of tho Chalukya Taila U, who in allusion 
to his title Nurmadi-Taila^ " a hundred times a Taila/' is here called Xrmadi-padwmadi-nurma^i-* 
Taila, "twice, twel/e times, a hundred times a Taila" (11. 41-42), and it then formally refers 
itself to his reign (1L 42-4<l). We are then introduced in three verses to another Kadamba 
prince, Mavuli- Taila, also called Tailaha-deva and simply Taila, a grandson of the above- 
mentioned Tailaha II; ho was reigning at Wareyangallu (11. 44-48), aud was a worshipper of 
Somanatha (11. 48-49). He had a feudatory, the Maha-Mandalesvara VJra Pandya^ who at tha 
time was holding the manneya or seigniory of the Puligere nad (11. 49-51), while the General 
Hahadavarasa was governing the same district aud the BanaYftse country in the office o,f 



1 Cf. the phrase m a Sogal Inscription, 11.11-12, snqnath maftiwargge gadditgeya ntraih^ It seems to bo 
the same as the Kashmiri gydi^ " aspersion/' w coreuiomal spriukliag/' 

3 OJEI tWs pedigree see B$n Kaai\ Dittr., pp. 559 sc[q. 

^ s Ainou^ other titles he is described as Da$avarmma-vrctja-niyule& (L 29), ^employed in tlio vraja ol 
I>asavanonaii, n Proptrlj way a means a cattle-s tall; here perhaps it &ignifics a royal court- Who Dasavarmuu 
was is a mystery* 

Cn Vu-a-Fajidy a, who also appears as ruling at this time in Uehcharigl-durga orer HfolambavMi, see 
r. JM^r. t pp. 456, ^58, fSOCL, N<w. 116, 117, 139, Mnore JT#*er. f Nw. 8, 9, 3^ 34, S3, 



No.. 8;] 



THEEE INSCRIPTIONS OF LAKSHMESHWAB. 



mel-dlke (11. 51-52), and the Generals Biddarasa and Attiraja (tfr* Attipar&ja) were 
administering the Puligeye n&$ under the orders -of MahadSvarasa '(11:52-55). The recdrd 
then relates in prose that Mavuli-Tailaha after a visit to the temple at Pulige?e confirmed his 
grandfather's gift of Kallavana, with some farther provisions, the trustee being Jfianasoma 
Pandita-deva (1L 56-64). 

The final section (11. 64-70) records ~a supplementary grant, by which pakaraaa, general 
in command of the Hsnungallu. Five-lmncjjyed, in concert with the controllers of the treasury, 
Assigned one paqa from every town and village in lite district for the supply of lamps in the 
same temple, and brings the inscription to an end by a series of -verses from which we lea^n 
that Jftanaspma, the prior of the temple, was the son of the above-mentioned Mahendrasoma 
and MSliyakka, and that the engraver was ItSjoja, son bf Jinndja and younger brother of 



The date $f the first grant is given on 11. 34-35 as the 32nd year of the 
Vikrama era, Sarvajit ; Pushya suddha 13, Sunday ; the uttar$yana-#aih1cr&nti ; a vyattpata. 
These details are discrepant. The titlvi mentioned corresponded to, Stuaday, 29 December, A.D. 
J107, and ended about 18 h. 37 m. after mean sunrise (for U jjain) ; but the uttar&yana-Baitikr&nti 
of that year took place about 6.50 A.M. on Wednesday, 25 December '. Mr. Sewell informs 
me that according to the Siddhft'nta-Jirdmaiii the titJii was 29 December, but Ihe u,ttar$yaQa- 
samkr&nti occurred on Tuesday, 24 December, at 1 h. 5 m, 20 s. after mean sunrise. 

The second graxit is dated on 11. 59-60 as the 3rd year of Trailokyamalla, Angiraa; 
Pushya Buddha 8, Monday; the uttarftyana-savkkranti *, &vyattpata. This is quite irregular. 
The Hthi in question corresponded to 'Saturday, B December, A..D; 1152, ending about 10 h. 
38 m. after mean sunrise. On the other hand, the V{ttarayana-$(ith]fr3riti occurred on 
Wednesday, 24 December. 

The third grant bears as date the 4th year of Trailokyamalla, Srimukha ; Chaifcra 
amav&sy& 9 .a Mon4ay (1L 64-65). This again is wrong r for the given. tithi was current on 
Thursday, 26 March, A.D. 1153, ending about 21 h. 24 m. after mean sunrise* 

The geographical names mentioned are Purikara town (11. 3, 26) and province (I. 51), and 
their synonyms, Puligeye town (1. 57) and province (11. 50, #2) ; the Cho}as, Nepaias, -and Oar- 
jaras (1. 9) ; Banavssi town (11. 12, 17), and its synonym Jayanti 1 (11. 13, 18 ; . 45) ; Banavasc 
province (L 51) ; the Panuugallu or HSnungaUu Five-hundred (11. 22, 35, 63, 65-6) ; the 
nele-vidu or standing camp of Panuugallu (1L 23, 32) ; the Kundaroro Thirty (L a6) ; 
Kallavana (11. 86, 59, 61) ; the tirthm (1, 39) ; and the n&le-viju of NareyangaUu (11. 46, 63). 
On Purik^ra or Poligej-e see above, p. 31, Pftmmgallu or" Hanungalln is now Hingat, and 
NareyangaUu NarSgal. K[!anda,vara is possibly the same aa Kacidftr, the modern Nar^ndra, OQ. 
^hich poe ^bove, Vol. XII, p 298. Kallajvaija I a,m suable to identify. 

TEXT.* 

[Metres: vv. 1, 2, 15, 26, AnusUubh; vv. 3-5, 8, 12-14, 16, 18-24, 27, Kandai vv, 6, 9, 10, 
g5, M atteb'ham'kn^ita ; vv. 7, 11, Mahasragdharft ; v. 17, 

1 ^ Jayaty-ananda-sandOha-jnan-aiSvaryya-mayas-sada 

samasta-bhuva[naw ] [1*] 

2 Namas=tumga-sira-chambi-chamdra-chamararcharave [I*] trail5kya-nagar:&rambha*mtlp,^ 

stambhaya SambhavS | [|| 2*] 8 Gana . , , 



1 This name regularly is used in the name Jayq*ft~MadhuTce$wr'&, i\& standing title of the tutelary deity 
of fehe Kadambas. 

3 From tke ink -impression. 

* [The phrase intended was G-anadhipataye namafy i With fnmat t>egins correctly the veree 3 ' 
, metre. H. K, S.] 




38 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVI. 



8 si3malrPiHikara-pRra4akahm = ubhaya * bbava - hitfy - karan 

mahitan=*empa DaksM[na-S6m ^ . . ] 

4 pad~ara[dha]karam || [3*] (iJ) ^aadiya 

sauda S[vayamfolm(?) 




5 ge Ctoaiukl-Yama^fctamaram {( [4*] 

6 (t? Srlmacb-Ohalukya-YamSa-lalamaiii vidYisbta-raya-;jagada]an=akbil-5rYY!-- 

Yarasiy==eHit=amte bittaradim raksbisi 
Satyasray^a[rvYiSYaram(?)w ^ w Cfcalukya]~- 

8 Yamsa-lalana-lalata-lakshmarii vasumdliareyarii fcaldidan-atyudMta-maMmam srl- 

Vikram-5rYvl^Yara || [6*] Pariy-i[ w \^/ \*/ ^ ada]- 

9 tiniiii Cholanam chalanam-geyd^ariyim ITepala-bhupalauaii^adafc-aledam Qurjjar-' 

SrYYlSa-rajat-pTiraniaib, nirdbdiiama-dliu Tma w vy ^/ \*/ \/ \^ 1 
1& suttan==ottaysid=urYYlgara beram bgradim kirtt=aledan=anupamam Vikrainaditya- 
devam |j [7*] ^) Svasti saniasta-bbuvan-asraya [Srl-prltiiYi-Yallablia maba]- 

11 rajadhiraja parameYara paratnabhattaraka -Saty^sraya-kala-tilakam Ottaluky- 

abharartam Srlmat-Tribh'aTanaiiia [lla-devara vijaya] - 

12 ra3yaY=uttar5ttar-abhiYridhdti-pravardhdhamanani=a-cham baram 

saluttam-ire |[ Tat-pada-padm-OpnjiYi j| Ea || ^^ BanafYasi v/y 



13 n=anagha-Jayaihti-pur-esa-Madhnkesa-jaga3-jaua-Yaihdya-pada-sa 

ndgha-samara-lolam Tailam [8*] || Vyi [j Jaaaka[m ^ ^ ^ ] 

14 r-ddalana-daksham Santa-bhfipaian=atana ma-devi samagra-punyaYati dal tay= 

tarn Sriya-devi Taila-Bripaih Mlvtili Ohoki Bikkiy=enipi bbn[pa]- 
15* la-jalam yas5-dhanar-em punyamo sat-kanlya-3anaka[r=*]srl-Taila-bliepa|aaia j| [9*] 
Baliy^emts^amte tadlya-deaman=adam nirYvadIieyimcI=aldii me[y-ga]- 

16 li dik-knmbhiya kumbha-sambhnta4asat-simddhu(dt)ra"rag-aYlla[m] bala(la)Yat- 

tejam^enal dhara-Yalayamam nilLka(siika)mfcakam madidam palarurii baanisa* 

17 I-adbdhat-ari-dalanam Kadajfaba-kanthlravain |[ [10*] () SYasti samadbigata- 

pamcha-maha-sabda-xiiahamandalesYaraiii BanavfiCsI-puraYar-adhiSYaram 



Tryaksba-kshma-sambhaYam cbatur'asl(si)ti-nagar-adMshtliita 

19 pachaDa-Chajtiirbhbliajarii (ja)-]agad- vidit - ashtadag- afivamedha - yajna - dikska-diksbltam 

HiiamYad-giiliMra-rumdra-Sikhari(ra)-sekharayaman^ 

20 [tika-sila-stam] bba-badlidba-mada-gaja maha-mab.im-ab!iiramaiii Kadaihtoa^eliakri 

Mayiiravarmina-maha-Biabipala-kula-bhasbaHam perrnma- 

21 [tti-tQ]ryya-nirggh5sIianam sa(sa)khScliaremdra-dhvaja-Yirajam5Ba man-0ttnihga 

siihha-Iamohchhanam datt-arttixi-kainchanam samara- jaya-karanam Ka- 

22 [damb-a] bh aranam mar-kkolvara gandam nam-adi-samasta-prasasti-sahitam 

grimau-mahamauclalesvaram Tailaha-deYarasar-Ppautimgall^a- 

23 [yzOuram tribbag-abhyantara-sidbdlilyim dushta^nigraha^YisisMa-pratipaianoyimd^ald^ 

ai-asn-geyyuttam 3?anumgalla nele- 

24 [Yi]dinol sukba-samfcatha-vizi5dadimdIral-ittal || Tri |j Tevare]lam devata- 



25 d-dirgehika-samkula-bbarita-payapara-nireja-kasaraYe matfcaiii tat-samalarnkjita- 
Yasudh.eyadellam 



No. 8.] THREE INSCRIPTIONS OF LAKSHMESHWAR. 39 

26 mya[m*] daWndam Purikara-nagarl-lile ]5k-aval5kam [[ [11*] Mattam^alli j| 

Kath || Ond==omd==akshateyarh sanandadm=abhyarclichisalke kolagam tivitt* 
eriido- 

27 de Siva-limgada sama-sanda mab-onnatiya pavaxxan=ariyeiii pogalal || [12*] 

Kftdeyada kariadarisada ber-ppadmada kammayisadomdakrirltri(tri)- 

28 .ma-rnpam padeda[m ?] Svayambtra neladimd=odedu dayam-geydan*=alli DaksMna- 

Somam || [13*] Int=enisida Malia-svayambliti-S5manatba-devara 
*29 sthan-acbaryyam || Earn || Savrata-uilayam sakala-maha-vrati-santana-kal pa- 

th n j am Dasavar aima- vraja-niy uktan=esed am prav raj y a-Mahem - 
30 drasoma-paadita-devam || [14*] Intu sama-dama-yaina-niyama-mshtha-garislitliaii* 

appa 
"31 mahiman=appa 

masri(sri) na-chandan-auulep^-siigaiidlia-gandhaimiinam tat-prasa- 
32 da-sesh-akshatamgalamam kondu. Panumgallige p^gi raaha-mandalevaram 

Tailaha-devanaih parasuvudnm liarsh-0fekarslia-cliitiiaii=agi stha- 
"33 na-viseshamumam devata-visesliamumam manade-goB.du S5ia.natlia-devargg=amga- 

btfigakke rsamma nadol=omd=nrarh. kadaYamemda vicha- 
.34 risi irlkara-na-pradhana-senadliipa-purassaraiii svasti srlmach-Ohalukya-Vikrama- 

samvatsarada 32neya Sarvvajit-sanivatsarada Pu- 
35 shya-suddha IS Adi-varav=attarayarta-saiiikramanavyatipataTii kudida punya- 

tithiyol PSnuihgall=a.ynurara kam- 
:36 panaik Knndavura-jtrifivattara baliya badam Kallaya^Lamaiii gri-S5manatha- 

devargg=aiiiga-bli5gakk=achaiiidr'arkkaiii sthayiyagi 

37 sarvva-natnasya(sya)mum sarvva-badlia-pariliaraiaum=agi paramevara-dattiy*agi 

sa sana-sahitam Mahe m - 



38 drasoma-panditara kalatii karctclii dliara-p^rvvakam madi bittam 
Slokam (^) Sva-dattam para-dattam va y5 hareta vasu- 

:39 ndharam [|*] sb.ashfci[r*]-varsha-sahasrani Tishthayaiia jayate krimiii || [15*] Kaibi [[ 
Gamga-sagar.i- Yamuna-sam [ga] madol kOti-kavi- 

40 leyam brahmanaram limgigalam, sale pU5iya-dixiamgalol=alidavaT t gal=appar=int=idatL^ 

alidar || [16*] Ql) Pratipali8idavargg=ananta-punya-phala ^) (^ 

41 ^rl- vadliu tanna pr-uradol=tidgliia- jay-amgane t5lol=oppe dkatrl- vadhttv^icliliekarfcti 

ka4ugu(ga) tt-ire cliarti-ClialTikya- varhsa-rajlva- 

42 \ikasau-5llasita-chaj?.diakax^am negardda(rda)rii samasta-dhatri-valay-eSanItmmadi- 

Padirmma^-Hurmmadi-Taila-blinbliu[ja]iii || [17*] Svasti saraasta-bhuvan-a- 

43 srayam Sri-Frit hvi-vallabha maliarajadliiraja paramvara pararaabbattaraka 

Saty asray a-kula - tilafeam Chaluky - abharanam sri- 

44 mat-Trailokyamalla-devara vijaya-rajyaT=nttar5ttar-abliivridh-dhI-pravardlidlia 

iaa[n:x]m*a-chamdr-arkkataram baram saluttam-ire j| Ta- 

45 t-pada-padm-QpajlYi 



^ 

lefia Mavtili-Tailam [| [18*] Nareyamgal nele-vld^ene parigrabam 
galapta-var^gaih paleyai^ppiriya 



mauta^iav^ixo 



40 EPIGEAPH1A 1NDICA, [VoL< XVI. 

48 suklaakk=elasi pnnya-bMjanan^adaih || [20*] Antn katipayia-samvatsararii tad- 

rajya4akshmiyan=alamfcaris*irdda Kadamba-kanthlravam Tailaba- 

49 devam S5manatlia-deva-darsana-vrata*prabhavadiiiid=ire |j Asi-dliara-Yratamam 

sadhisi jaya-yadhu Ya#l bana-muklianiaiii sale 

50 sadhisi bamdu bbujadol-asyadol^esed-irppal Vira-Pajadya-bhup&lakaiia || [21*] 

A mali-a-mandaleSvaraih 3?uligere*nada manneyaTna- 

51 n=ald=arasa-gejyutt-ire jj (O^ ^urikara-deSanmmaih bamdhuratara-Banavase- 

desamam mel-alke nirantarara=agal=aldan=atidnrdhdha- 

52 ra-dfaairyyam da$danatba-MaliadeYai*asaiii jj [22*] A praebaiida-dandanafcbmia 

besadim Pnligeye-nadani Biddam(dda)rasa-dandanathannm mahapra* 

53 dlian-5ttamanAttira;jaiiuni=aldar=avara prabha,Tam=ent=ene || Kam jj Eradaiii 

nudiyada aamgara-dhareyol bem-gndada para- 

54 Yadb.a-k5liyanacbarisada pempinol=avarii dore parikise Biddaraja-datidadhipanol || 

[23*] Madhnra-vaclio-Vacbahpa- 

55 ti vidhn-Yisada-yasam vlnta-shadgunya-nay*aihbudbiy=eiiidoditarar*eneye pradliaua- 

senadliipatyaa^Attiparaja [|J* 24*] 

56 ^^. Svasti samasia-praSasti-sahitam sriman-maliaiiiandalei^ararii Mavuli-Tailalia- 

devaik Somanatba-deYa-darslia(rsa)Ba-Yrat-5- 

57 Ayapan-artthnm srlmad-rajadliani-pattaiiaiii Puligerege baihdiL S5ma-deva-pada- 

na k ha- may n [kh-o*] llekh a- 1 ekh - apaga- prav aba- 

58 dim pavitiikrita-sarlran-agi kshira-dhara-p-aradim satasra-gaddageyaiii kottu 

devarijga mumaam tammajjam Piriya-Tailaha-devaih 

59 [b]5tta deva-bli5gam Kallavanamam punar-ddattiy=agi svasti srimacli-Clialukya- 

Traiio^yamalla^deva-Tarsliada Sney^Amgira-samvatsarada 

60 tP]nsbyL-uddha Smi S5inavaraY=uttarayana*sarhkramana*Yyatlpafcam kndida punya- 

titbiyol sri-SYayambliu-Daksliina-SSmaaa* 

61 tba-devr.rjg-amga-bhSgakke Kal[l]avanada Tne[l-a]lfce manneyaiii k&mkey=aya~ 

daya- ':" ra-knla-sahitani sarYVaya-ad1idh.iy=agi pfirvva~da- 

62 tti-ki^ania^jalu sarvra-naraasya(sya)ma2ia saryya-b^dlia-pariharam-agi alliya sthaii- 

acliarryaiii JnSnasoma*pandita-deva- 

63 [ra kajl^iii karcbcsbi dhara-purvYakam madi Bamimgall^ayntiyaya prabhu- 

gaYnnd galum srikatana-pradiiana-senadlii patl-sabitam Hareyam- 

64 galla nele-Yj^iaol-irddu tad-gramamaiii bitfca || Svasti r!macli-Chaltikya- 

Trail jkyatnalla- Yarshiada 4neya Srlmu kha-samYat sarada Chai- 

65 trad==amtvase(se) Somavaradaiiidu Haaumgall=aynnraja daiidanayakam Dakarasa- 

uum SrlkaranaiiigaMm rI-S5manatiia-de- 

66 Yara Bam(ni)tya-nauda-dlvigege HSimmgall^ayTi-arara gram-anngramadalu praty- 

ekam bitta panaYomda (^ V"yi ^) Tanag=aradhyaiii [*]r[i]- 

67 [l]oki-pati Yibudha-nntam SnmadY-adHpa[rii] saj-janakam M[a]lieriidras5maiii 

janani Ymuta-charitre tarn Maliyakkam YiDay-alamkarey=em 

68 dhan [y] ano gnna-gana-varasi- [sa] mpnrn [u] a-s5mam m u3ai-samtan-5fcpal-5 [ ] 

YlpnIa-lasat-s5maD=i Jflanasomam jj [25*] (D) Sl5ka () Ba- 

69 tubbir^Yvasudha datta ra]abhis=Sagar-adiblxir[|*]yyasya yasya yada 

tasya tacla pbalam [|j* 26*] -^ Bh-a-vintLtam riiYara-ka~ 

70 la*Yida-Jinnojan=agraputi?am ChaYaiii keYalame saYap~=ballara depam Eajojan 

ivargal*esedardlidliareyol [||* 27*] ^ Eajojana kan^arane fi 



1 Zhe seco!:d patio, of tin* verse will not scan, [If mam of the word defamam is dropjpsd, tha difficulty 
<Happears. In tLis case dea-**el~allce mnsfc be writfcem together. H. K, S.] 
* The ink-impression is here very indistinct j the traces suggest -5 



Ho. 8.] THREE INSCEIPTIONS OF LAKSHMESHWAR. 41 

TBANSIiATIOH. 

(Verse 1.) Victorious ever is he who is composed of accumulated bliss, of knowledge, and 
of power, from whose mere will arose all the . , worlds. 

(Verse 2 : identical with verse 1 of inscr. A. above.) 

(Verse 3.) May [the god Somanatha of] the South, who is known as Abhava [Siva], 
embellishing the fortune of the blest city Purikara, causing weal in both spheres of existence, 
[bless] the worshippers of his feet. 

(Verse 4.) Nandi, the Mountain's Daughter, the diadem moon, the tall pile of braided locks 
all this the excellent Svayambhu [bestowed upon] the noble (scions) of the Oiialuki lineage. 1 

(Verse 5.) An ornament of the blest Chalukya lineage, a> jagadala, against hostile kings, an 
embellishment of the whole earth, incomparable in majesty, is king Permadi . . . 

(Verse 6.) Like the ocean perfectly protecting numbers of families of kubhrit [kings, or 
mountains] who came to him for refuge, king Tailapa ruled the earth, then king Sityasraya, 
[then] the blest king Vikrama most lofty in dignity, a frontal decoration of the lady [the . 
Chalukya] lineage. 

(Verse 7.) Swiftly (?) ... by his baldness having driven to flight the Ch51a, by his 
strokes the incomparable king Vikramaditya overwhelmingly crushed the Nepala monarch 
burned the G-Grjara sovereign's brilliant city [so that it was . . . ] lustreless (?) smoke, in 
indignation tore up and flung away the roots of banded sovereigns. 

(Lines 10-12.) While the [victorious] reign. o . , . 2 king Tribhuvanamalla was 
advancing in a course of successively increasing prosperity, (Jto endure*) as long as moon, sun? 
and stars : One who finds sustenance at his lotus-feet 

(Verse 8.) [Ruler of the city (?) of] Bauavitsi, devoted to the worship of the universally 
adored lotus-feet of Madhuk^sa the lord of the faultless city of Jayanti, eager for mighty battle 
is Taila. ' 

(Verse 9.) His father was king Santa, skilled in shattering . , . j his mother forsooth 
was the latfcer'a chief queen Sriya-dert, perfect in righteousness ; the group of princes consisting 
of king Taila, Mavuli, Cfcoki, and Bikki are rich in fame : what righteousness is that of the 
blest prince Taila, who has worthy uncles and father ! s 

(Verse 10.) Reigning undisturbedly like Bali over his country, being known as a true hero 
one who is stained with the red hue of the bright minium lying thick upon the temples of the 
elephants of the sky-quarters, mighty of splendour, the Kadamba lion who shatters proud foes 
has made the circle of earth free from obstruction, so that many praise him. 

(Lines 17-24.) Hail ! the MahaMandalesvara who has obtained the five great musical 
sounds, who has all the titles of honour such as '*' lord of Banavasi best of cities * 
receiving the grace of boons from the god Madhukesvara of Jayanti ; naturally scented 
with musk ; ornament of the race of the Kadamba emperor the great king Mayuravarman 
wtnch is sprung from the .Three-eyed [Siva] and Earth, presides over eighty-four towns' 
is consecrated in the consecratory rites of eighteen world-renowned horse-sacrifices to 
the (God of the') Frontal Eye [Siva] and the Four-armed [Vishnu], binds its furious 
elephants to great crystal pillars crowning the massive peaks of the. lord of mountains Himavat, 
and is delightful in its great majesty ; he who is attended by the noise of permatti drums and 



1 [It looks \asif the verse mqant to say that Svayambhu with Nandi etc. might confer blessing on 
Chalnki lineag^ H. K, S.] g 

2 Supply th^> usual Chalakya formula, as above, insor. A v 1. 2 & 

* [Kmiy&'jbnaJkar is * uncles, ' not uncles and father/ H, K t S,] 



42 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Voiu XVI. 

{other) musical instruments ; brilliant with a banner (having the device) of a great ape ; 
taring as crest a lion lofty in pride ; bestowing gold on the needy ; causing victory in strife - 3 
ornament of the Kadambas ; man of might against adversaries,'* the Maha-Mandalevara Tailaha- 
devarasa, while royally controlling with the internal authority of the tribhoga 1 the Wive- 
hundred of P&rrangallu so as to suppress the wicked and protect the superior, being in the 
enjoyment of pleasant conversations at the standing camp of BanungaUu : 

(Verse 11.) To speak of all the hillocks, the crowd of temples, all the lines of valleys, the 
lotus-pools in the waters filling the multitude of brilliant ponds, likewise all the earth adorned 
therewith, the bright parks of sandal-trees verily the aspect of Purikara town is a charming 
for the world. 2 



(Line 26.) There, moreover : 

(Verse 12.) In the joyous offering of consecrated rice-grains one after another a kolagcfi is 
filled tap* ; hence I know not how to celebrate (fittingly") the magnitude of the famous eminence 
of the Phallus of Siva. 

(Verse 13.) The Self-born assumed a unique natural form made without turning of the 
lathe, without graving, without separation, without craftsmanship ; Soma of the South there 
condescended- to burst forth out of the ground. 

(Lines 28*29.) The Prior of the establishment of the god MahI-svayanibiiii.^S63DaaiiStlia $ 
whey has thus been described : 

(Verse 14.) There flourished a seat of pious observances, a tree of desire to the lineage of 
all great ascetics, a servant in Daaavarman's court (?) 6 , the cleric MafcendrasSma 



(Lines 30-380 So Mahendrasoma Pa^dita-dgva, most reverend in devotion to calmness, 
self-control, the nia|or and the minor disciplines, having -taken -unguents of saffron aad bland 
sandal and fragrant scents prepared for [that decorated. H* K. S.] the worsMpof the divinely 
blest feet of the most noble god Ssmanatba, and likewise rice-grains leftover from Ms saored 
meal [grace, H. K. S.], went to Panungallu and pronounced a blessing upon the Maha* 
Ma^dalgSvamking Tailaha, who, realising with extreme joy the mmguliu? qualities of both 
*he establishment and the deity, said c < Let us give to the god Samanatba fm W personal 
enjoyment a town in our province," and having thus reflected, in eoucert witfe tfee teeasurerBi, 
ministers, and generals, on a holy lunar day on which Sunday, the 13th of the bright fortnight 
of Pushya in the cyclic year Sarvajit, the 32nd of tlie diS^ukys-Vikrama era, occurred 
together with the uttaraya^-samkranti and a vyatfy&ta, laved the feet of MahSndrasoma 
Bmdita and with pouring of water granted as an imperial gift, together with a copper-plat^ 
charter^ the town KaUaYa^a in the Btumdamira Thirty, a county of tke Mve-tamdred of 
tlnungallu, for the personal enjoyment of the god Sdmanfciha, iu perpetuity for as loug aa 
moon an3 SUB endure, on wrva^na,ma,*y<* tenure with immunity from all confficiaBg elaim^ 

(Verse 15 ; a common Sanskrit formula*) 

(Versa 16 s a similar Kanarese stanza.) 

(Line 40.) For them that preserve (this fowndatwri), fruit of sndless merit, 



See Ad. Awt^ Tri, ^ 33X^ p. 271, 

[** All hills are abode*; of goda, mE v^eyt ai^ lote^M^ aw b^bt park 

trees/*~H. K, S.] 

A meaaure of c*pae!ty f the Santkrit 5#5a* t $quU ta 4 aaj|. 

[*O&0 coxisecrAted grate of rice offered with joy, grew iato a 'Jttfe^V 'P*^ W| ta te the 
the Htallns which the poet wants to deemta. H. K* S.J 
is an order of as$et|oft*~-B* 



No. 8.] THREE INSCRIPTIONS OF LAKSHMESHWAR, 4$ 

(Verse 17.) There has become eminent a brilliant sun bringing to bloom the lotuses of the 
fair Chalukya lineage, a lord of the whole circle of earth, king Irmadi-Padirmadi-Nurmadi- 
Taila, 1 on whose broad breast appears the lady EWtune, on whose arm (appears) the noble lady 
Victory, to whom the lady Earth is an amorous Ionian. 

(Ejines 42-45.) While the victorious reign of . * . 2 king TrailSkyamalla was ad- 
vancing- in a course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as raoon, sun, and 
star : One who finds sustenance at his lotus-feet 

(Verse 18.) Mavuli-Taila, the Viceroy beloved of Earth, whose origin derives from the 
Kadamba race, (and) to whom arises grace of "boons from the god MadhukeSvara of Jayanti, 

(Verse 19.) thinking of (his) possession, to wit the standing camp of Mareyangal* (his) 
subjects, the band of (his) friends, the elders, the senior treasurers, the excellent ministers, has 
been solicitous to strengthen (them). 

(Verse 20.) Standing in the line of succession and holding the royal rank, devoted to right- 
eousness, king Tailahas sought for unending bliss in the next world oh, what a design !--**and 
become a vessel of holiness. 3 

(Lines 48-49.) So after having for several years adorned the fortunes of that realm, the 
K&damba lion king Tailaka, being in the glory of the festival of visitation of the god 
SOmauatha : 

(Verse 21.) The lady Victory, accomplishing the vow of the sword-edge, 4 and the goddess 
of Speech, surpassing the point of an arrow, 5 have come and displayed themselves (respectively) 
upon the arm and in the mouth of king Vira-Pandya. 

(Lines 50-51.) While this Maha-Mandalesvara was royally administering the seigniory of 
the Puligere county : 

(Verse 22.) The General Mahstdevarasa, most irresistible in valour, was administering the 
land of Purlkara. and the land of most beauteous Banavase in perpetual superior control. 

(Lines 52-53.) Under the command of this august General, the General Biddarasa and 
the noble High Minister Attiraja were administering the county of Puligere. As regards 
their dignity 

(Vei*se 23.) In (his) greatness in speaking nofc two (things) , 6 in turning not his back on the 
field of battle, (and) in holding not amorous sport with others' wives, when one considers, who 
m equal to the General Blddaraja? 

(Verse 24.) As he is known as a Vachaspafcl [Brahman] of sweet speech, a possessor of 
moon-bright glory, an ocean of policy according to fehe famous six qualities, 7 are there others 
equal (to thee), senior General Attiparaja ? 

(Lines 56-64.) The Maha-Mandalesvara king Mavuli-Tailaha, having come to the capital 
town Puligepe in order to spend the festival of visitation of the god S5manafrha, purified his 
body IQ the stream of .the high -flashing Celestial River consisting of the rays from the god 
Sama's toe-nails, and gave a thousand aspersions with streams of milk and water; and, renew* 

1 Literally, ** fewice, twelve times, a hundred times a Taila," 

* Supply the usual Chalukya formula, as above* 

* [The words sant&na, and mantana (for mantana P) seem to be used here in the sense of t progeny * and 
* honorable race. * Ed*] 

* See Ind. Awt^ VoL XVII, p. 322, The sense ia that victory is obtained under extreme difficulties. 

* Namely in keenness and swiftness. [A probable reference to the poet Biiua and his works is intended. $d.] 

* This is a variation of the common epithets eka-vakt/a, " uniform in speech- 3 * 

* 8ha4gunya,, the six modes of conduct of a military commander, viz. wndki (peace), mgraha (war), yan& 
{torarel), a*&na (resting), dvaidMbhava, (causing separation of enemies), and samfraya, (making alliance). 

F 2 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVI. 



ing the gift of the sacred usufruct of Kallavana previously granted to the god by his grand- 
father king Tailaha the elder, lie, while staying in the standing camp of Nareyangallu in 
company with the sheriff and gavnndus of the Five-hundred of Panungallu, the treasurers, the 
ministers, and the generals, laved the feet of Jnanasoma Pandita-deva, the prior of the local 
establishment, and with pouring of water, on a holy lunar day on which Monday, the 8tH of 
the bright fortnight of Pushya in the cyclic year Angira, the 3rd of the Chsiizkya king 
Trailokyamalla's (regrnaZ) years, occurred together with the uttarayana-samkranti and a 
vyattpata,, granted for the personal enjoyment of the god Svayainbhu-Somanatha o che Sonth 
the same village, Including the superior control and seigniorial rights over Kallavana, bene- 
volences, prescriptive fees of office, gifts, and petty due*, with right to all prescriptive fees, 
according to the precedent of the previous gift, on sarva-namasya tenure with freedom from all 
conflicting claims. 

(Li ties 64*66.) On Monday, the last day of Ckaitra in the cyclic year Srimukha, the 
4th. of the Chalukya Trailokyamalla's (regnal} years, pakarasa, General (in charge} of the 
3?ive -hundred of Hanungalln, and the treasurers granted for the regular perpetual lamps of 
the god SSmanatha one pana from each of the villages and hamlets o the Five-hjindred of 



(Verse 25.) The (god) worshipped by him is Sorna the Lord of Gods, sovereign of the 
triple world, praised by sages [or, celestials] ; his good father is Mahendrasoma ; his mother 
is Maliyakka, renowned for her conduct, adorned hj refinement: how fortunate is this 
Jnanasoma, a full moon (soma*) to the ocean of all virtues, a . . . ample brilliant moon to 
the lotuses the lineage of holy men. 

(Verse 26 : a common Sanskrit formula.) 

(Verse 27.) Chava, the eldest son of the world-famed skilled engraver Jinndja, a perfect 
Jain, (and) Rajoja, a god of the cunning, the&e have become renowned on earth. 

(Line 70.) Tlie engraving of Raj5ja. 



C. OF THE REiaN OF JAGADEKAMAIiLA II : THE 1OTH YEAE. 

This is on a slab with a rounded top containing sculptures, namely a liriga on a stand in 
the centre, with a squatting bull to the proper riglit and a ebw suckling a calf to the proper 
left ; apparently there is a scimitar over the latter, and on the top are the sun (on proper riglit) 
and moon (on left)* The inscribed area below this pediment consists of three parts. The first 
(containing lines 1-2 of text) is about 1 ft. 7f in, wide and 2 in. high * the second (lines 
3-17) is about 1 ft. 10 in* wide and 1 ft. 3 in. high; the third (lines 18 to end) is of about 
the same width and 3 ft. 11 in. high.-^-The character is a very good Kanarese of the period* 
The avei^age height of the letters in the first half: of the inscription is about | in. ; after this 
they begin to decrease, and towards the end average only about T \ in. The language is Old 
Kanarese, with formal Sanskrit verses (Nos, 1, 32) and a Sanskrit phrase (11. 60-61), It is 
not certain whether the avagraha denotes, as in pure Sanskrit, a completely vowelless consonant, 
or whether the vowel u was inserted there ; the spelling of dyad-ya$d-rJ3Uan in L 20, whers 
the second d is written with avagraha and is followed by ya t suggests that the d represents du. 1 
The uftadhtn&ntya is used in Brihakpati (1. 56), The archaic I appears as r in negardam (L 4) J 
elsewhere it has become L The treatment of initial p in Kanarese words is inconsistent: In 
verse it usually remains, yet we find&ore (1. 13), liimgidud^ (L 13), Jial (L 48), horn (1. 48), and 
in prose we have pannir (L 26), Puligere (11. 50, 64), padedw (11. 52, 55), beside hattar** 
(1. 52), hola (11. 53, 58, 60), hala (11. 58-9), horeya (L 59), and AaZZa (L 59). The archaic 
ending o &vom (L 37) is noteworthy. As lexically interesting we may notice stamlira (1, 20X 
apparently fox^med metri gratia as a variant of the regular stamberama by the analogy of *ga 

* Oa this point see my remarku on tlic MadagihSl inacription, a1x>ve, Yol. XT, p. 318, 



No. 8.]- THREE INSCRIPTIONS OF LAKSHMESHWAR. 45 



beside gama j heriga (L 21), a form throwing some light upon the meaning of the official title 
heri-sandhi-vigrahi, which hence would seem to mean a minister in charge of the secret intelli- 
gence -department of foreign policy (cf. Kittel, s.v. hSrfgd) ; and kandarane, "carviiu?" 
(1.64). * " 

The record, after invocation, of Siva, begins with a short metrical genealogy of the 
Western Chalukyas from Tailapa (i.e. Taila II) to the reigning' sovereign, JagadekamaUa 
[II], whom It duly gloriBes (11. 2-15). It then refers itself in formal prose to the latter'* 
reign (11. 15-17), and devotes four stanzas (11. IS-ri-i) to the laudation of his minister KesirSja, 
also called Kesavadeva, Eesimayya and Jayakesids-varasa in 1. 51, a distinguished general 
who had defeated the Cholas, Lalas, and Gurjaras, and who was also a minister of foreign 
affairs, an officer of the treasury, and an administrator of the royal seraglio ; we next learn from 
the prose of 11. 24-27 that he was at this time administering the Belvala Three-hundred, the 
Huligere Three-hundred, the Halaslge Twelve-thousand, and the Hanumgallu Fiya- 
hundred. 1 A series of 10 verses (II. 27-39) then introduces us to the following pedigree of 
generals : 

Aditya-Bhatta Melamayya 

1 " " 1 

DronEcharya, m, Chamala-devi 



I 
Achiraja or Mectta ? Mechi, Mecharasa, Meohiraja or Mechana Kafichi 

Achai^asa m. Vennala-devI and Laliya-devi 

Four further verses (11. 39-44) bring us to the province of Purikara (i.e. Puligere or 
Efuligere), now being ruled by a certain Jayakesi-deva, of theManala 3 family, and its capital, 
oil the same name, with its sanctuary of Maha-Svayambhu-Somanatha, of which the prior 
(Ooharya) was Jnanasoma Pandita-deva, the son of Hahendrasoma, 3 the son of Devasonm* 
After a verse in praise of u Kesava the minister of king Somesvara," who mast be the pre- 
viously mentioned general KLesimayya, and Jagadekamalla's father BhUlokamalla-Sumesvara 
III (1L 44*45), and another in honour of Jnanasoma (1L 45-47) ? we learn from two stanzas 
(11. 47-49) that MScharasa set up a golden finial (kalasa) upon this temple, and gave for 
this purpose 100 mattar of land in KunduravallL The details and date of this gift, for which 
JnanasQma ^was trustee, are then specified in prose (1L 49~tJl), and another verse adds some 
further details (11- 61-62). The words Earn^fa-suJmvi-mukhya-panditara (1. 61), which I 
have translated as " of an eminent scholar among Kanarese master-poets" may equally he 
taken as a proper natne, the nom de plume of the author of the inscription. The engraver was 
CliSvSja, son of Jinnoja of Puligere (**&.), on whom see above, inscription B M 1. 70. 

The date is given on 11, 56-57 as the 10th year of the reign of JagadSkamaUa, the cyclic 
year Prabhava ; Ashadha guddha 12^; Thursday; the dak*hin&yana-$a>hkr&nti; a vyatipxta. 
This is irregular. The giveu tithi corresponded actually to Thursday, 12 June, A JX 1147, 
oa which it ended 17 h. after mean sunrise (for TTjjain). Ba6 the dakshinzyana-samkranti, or 
Kacka-aaAJferffn^ took place, according to the Arya-siddJrtnta, exactly a fortnight later, on 
Thursday, 26 June, 15 h. 51 m. after mean sunrise; and Mr. R. Sewell has pointed out to 
me that by the Siddhznta-siromam, and probably by the Brahnia-siddhSnta also, it was due on 
Wednesday, 25 June, about 14 h, after mean sunrise. 

' The geographical names mentioned are ; the Behrrala Three-hundred (II 25-6) ; the 
Huligere Three-lmndred (1. 26), or Buligere n&4 (L 50), sanskritised as Pi^ikara (L 39) ; 
* he townofHnligere (L 58)rPuliger6 (L 64). or Purifcara QL 40. 45 f.) ; the Halasige 



Dyn* Kanar* Distr.* p- 458* 

This if the aame as the M^nalera family, ou which sec above, \ol. V 1, p. 52, and Mysore 
^908-9, p. 16. An ancestor of tine official, also named Jajakeai, figures in a Hulgur inscription of faaka 960, 
8 Sop above, inscriptions A. and B, 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. (ToL. XTL 



Twelve-thousand (L 26) ; the HanuAgallu Five-hundred (L 26) ; Kuntala (L 39) ; 
Bkkalava4a (1: 49) ; Kimduxavalli (11. 49, 51-53) ; Iftage (11. 53, 58 .) ; Bittur (11. 53, 60) ; 
Kaatarike (L 59) ; Benakana kola, " Beuaka's Lake " (L 60) ; the tfrtkas (L 63) j and various 
nations (II. 7, 18, 22-3). Beluvala (Belvala) and Hnligere are well known ; and Huligere 
town is the modern Lakshmeshwar. Halasige is Halsl. HanuDgallu is the modern HangaL 
Ekkalavada is the name o the district in which lay Kunduravalli ; and the latter may be 
identified with the village styled " Kunderhalli " in the Postal Directory, u Koondnrwuliee )? 
on the Indian Atlas, sheet 41, and " Kudravli " on the Bombay Survey, sheet 334, which lies 
jnlat. 158', long. 75 36', about 5| miles ENE, from Lakshmeshwax\ Kittur ( u Neetoor 
on the Indian Atlas) lies in lat. 15 9| ; , long. 75 34|'. 



" 



. 

[Metres: vv, 1^ 32, Anushiubh; vv. 2, 3, Sardulavikrtd'ita ; vv. 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13-20, 
2-7, 29, 30, 33, Kanda; vv. 5, 28, Mah&sragdhara ; w, 8, 31, ChampaJcamala ; vv. 10, 12, 21, 



1 Sri Namas=fcuriiga-siras-chumbl-chaiiidra-chamara-charave [|*] trailskya-nagar-arariibha- 

mnla-stam- 

2 bBaya Saihbhavg [|| 1*] Srimach-chara-Ohalukya-vamsa-naHni-bal-atapam dar- 

vvinit-a- 

3 mey-ari-nripala-bala-kadall-shand-dgra - vedandan = uddani-anamra*narnadra-maDli-mani- 

saniglirishfc-amghri(ghri)- 

4 padma-dvayam bhum-Iam negardarii samagra-vijaya-srl-ldlupam Tailapam (j [2*] 

Ch^luky-abharanaih tadlya- 

5 tane(na)yam Satyaarayaih tadh-dharapal-atm-anujarsfinu Vikrama-nripaih samd^ 

Ayyanam klrtti-Iakshml-lolam Ja- 

6 ya45irialiana ** nripa-sata[ih*] samgrama-jit sarvvabhaum*alaihb-Ahavaraallan=5 

nfipa-sutarh S5mesvar-^rvvl- 

7 Ivaraih jj [3*] Ka jj A nripatiya tatnmam Chol-anana-kanana-dav-analaih 

CHirjjara-bhap-Anupa-khadira-khandanan=i nelanam 

8 taledan^aaafcaPerminSdi-nripa |j [4*] Y*i |( Chala-ch!rl-bheriyiih kichaka-knla- 

vilasad-gayak-anlkadirii bhntala-bhubhrit-pitha- 

9 dim panoaga-phana-mani-dipamgaliih sarmma^-nirmniOka-lasad 3 * vasti amgalim 

varge vibhavamaih madi vidvishtaram d5r-vvala-driptam Bhi- 

10 lla-palll-athitiyolirisdam Vikramaditya-deva || [5*] Ka || A 

putraih sadhita-dik-chakranamritakara-fcira^a-ya- 

11 s5-didhitiy=esedam mahlm-agadhaiii Bhnlokamallan=uddhata-malla || [6*] Tad- 

apatyam ripn-bhnpa-pradipa-jhaih* 

12 jha-samlranam ripn-ray-oumada-kari-kanthlravan*ennadar=ar-Jjagadekamalla-chakre- 

gvarana || [7*] Vyl (| Kamatha-kathara- 

13 karpparada tapam=adamgitu Naga-rajantittama-inajpLi-inastakakke hojre 

dig-ibhakke kantha-bha- 

14 ram=ad=udugittenal?4 vasumatl-talamam JagadekamaUan*asra(sra)madol6 taldidam 

2ii] 4 a-bhuja-dracihima-pra- 

15 bala-praciesadol || [8*] Svasti samasta-bhnvan-asraya SrI-Ppthvl-vallabha maha- 

rajadhiraja paramesvara 

16 paratnabhatfcaraka Satyasraya*kuia-tilakam Ohajiaky^abhara^iam foirnat-pratapa-chakra- 

vartfci Jaga- 

1 From the ink*impresion. a Apparently an error for 

of ^a aed ?<? ft 



Lakshmeshwar Inscription of the reign of Jagadekamella II: the roth year. 




F. W, THOWIA0 



SCALE CIRCA Z6 



WHITTINGHAM & GROQS, OOtL. 



30 



32 



34 



36 



38 



40 



44 



46 



48 



50 



52 



54 



56 



58 




82 



64 



SCALE CIRCA '26 



No, 8.] THREE INSCRIPTIONS 01 LAKSHMESHWAE. 47 



1? dekamaUa-dev&ra vijaya-rajyamutt^^ 

chamdr-arkka-taram bamm saluttam-ire [|*J 
18 Tach-charapa- kamala-bhiimgaih saeb r charitam Chola-Lsia- Gfer j jara-raj^mdr-acicka- 

tana-pafca-maBbtram mchchafca-galf ^esiraja-danda- 
- 19 dhlsaxii || [9*] Vri || Safcat-alamtrita-bhaclra-lakshaaa-jntam g5tr-5dbhaYarii 

dana-sambh|itauaihgxkrita-g5m 

20 dyad-yasa-rjjitan=adyaj-Jagadek^^ mab-Srimatiyimd~5.ii0ya 

Kesiraja-pritan-adliisamg==ida- 

21 Bvarttliakam (| [10*] Mada-radanigala hay-anikada teriga-Lala-sandhi'-Yigraliada 

malia-padaviya siri-karanada satiipa- 

22 dad^amtavar-adhikari KesaTadevam || [11*] Ida dalw Malavaa-at;tidTidgha-liaya- 

samghataih Kalimg-e^an^atfclda matta-dvipa-rSjl Cho- 

28 pkaa=adhlram bhitiyim kappam=attida nana"maui-matiliy=emd=aYar-avar-tte2ii- 
(tta)rttamdu mumd^ikke tejadin^achcliliadisidim dhar-ambudlii- 

24 kubbrid-dig-d^savam Kesavam (| [12*] Svasti aamasta-pragasti-sabitam Mmau- 

mahapradhaniua 1 kavi-turaya-sahani srikaranani sa- 

25 rrv-adhyaksbam hari-Lala-sandhi-vigralti pasayfeam senadtipati maha-prachanda- 

dandanayakam Kesimayyamgalu Beluva- 

26 la-manaramaiii H aligare-m iiafiruma .h Halagige-paatil(niii)rchcliSsiratnuti3. Ha- 

numgall^aynniniinain dual ita-nigra ha-vi- 

27 Sisbta-pratipalaaey ixhdald =arasu-gejyutt-ire |] Tat-pada-pay5ja-madliukaran*iatpaiiiaa- 



28 Mj-tpatana-patti-pavanam sat-pSjyam Meohiraja-dandadlilia || [13*] A 

anubhavananvaya-prabhavam=emt=emdade || Ka || Mata- 
29 



80 J H [14*] Pitamaham \\ Dkare pogalalw nija-kula-pariikaralia^] Srl-sevyam 
gal*udayam-geydam 



|| [15*] Pomgam pesar*VYe(ve)tt-adityamgam 

putfeuva Tol*adanakMla-guii"S.<iltyaihge Butam BronScliaryyaiix 
Gi,ndiYiy-amnaneEipa chap-acbaryyam (| [16*] A YibbuYina 



33 90 ene^ Chamala-dTi jagam .pogale g5tra-mandaney-adal \\ [17*] 

aYarge sSnapatiy*enls-irdd=Achirs;jaiiu3ii MecHa-cliamti* 

34 patiyum budha-jana-kalpa-kahitijam Suligeya Eftiij.cha-dau4adMpainiA || [18*] I 

^ chatap-ambi^hi-Yesbtita-bhu-ohakradol==Itaparpiiriisbarol padi- 

35 y-i^e nimt^icliarasaiian^anvaya-gafil-rCcbiya doreyolare inaBujarimnum mum- 

nam f| [19*] Kal-agni*spbTtrita-siklia,male maha-BabtL- 

36 afia(sa)najn-Ami;aka-dan3isIifcram kal- ahiya sn(phu)tkaram sulige 4 SQlIgeya S&xholti* 

da^d&dhlpana J| [20*] Dhaval-apaiiiga-nirlksban-allasita-Yegya-sOdaram sa- 
S7 t-kavIrij.dra-vipaoMj-]aiiat-adaram Siva-kum^ram Manmatb-akaranauya-Yadhfl -putra* 
kari-atma*g^trariaalinimitraiii dai*emdamdti p6lvaYati=aYom Siva-dliarmiia;(rinina)^ 
38 barmya-tala-pfcYYa-pracldyam SJgcMyaiix |[ [21*] 5 Vinaya-nia}u Meehi- 
da^d^Saua sati Vannaltt-devi IiaUya-deTiyiam^iirYYi-Ymuleyar-eseda- 
ija- YSbm|a-aav-5ipala-cIiamdra-lekhegal yasumatiyol 1 1 [2^*] Bharab-ftvaniyol* 
ramjisuvud=alli Purikara-dasam 



* Read pra&Mnarit* 2 T j, e engraver haw almoet written ppa-u for ppd, 

Bead wymtn*. * Again jpra^a of ? and 2a P 

1 The eecoud ^a^a of this verse is metrically wrong, having two mome in excess. 

^>^-r- it E? i*. s? r j ** , 




48 EPIGEAPHIA 1NDICA. [VOL. 



40 ppugum^a risliay-amtara-rajad-rajadhani Purikara-nagara || [23*] A nalke 

maaneyaih Lakshmi-nilayam Manala-vamsa-bhusliaiiaiiasuhrid(ii)-Mainaka- 

41 dalana-pavly^ene Ahu-nuta~JayakesideYan*=eBedam jasadhi(di)m || [24*] Nam- 

diyum^alii-blmsliananinm Mamdakiniyurii jat-aliynrh Girijeyn- 

42 m=ardhdh-eriiduvum=opp-iral=udi(da)yisidaija DaksMna* Somanatba-devam nmdadirii 

II [25*] A Maha-Srayambhu-SSmanatha-devara stkan-aoMryya-kramain=em- 

43 t^emdade || Kskiti-pujya-Devasoma-vratiya maha-Trati-knl-odbhavam sakala- 

gun-5nnatan=a Mahemdrasoma-vratiya su- 

44 tarn JMnas5ma-pandita-deva r || [26*] Para-vadlmg=elasada pusiyolw poreyada 

dL.armm-avataran=enisida gunamam dhariyiaidarii 

45 sale S5mesvara-devara mamtri Kesavatia dhare pogalak j| [27*] Yri jj 

Madauam tald-irddan5 rajita-Yipula-jata-jalamam kalpa-btujam padepimdam 
tapas-akarade Puri* 

46 kara-Some^vara-sthanado] sariipadadimdam sthayiy-ag-irddudo jalanidhi gambhi- 

ramam y5gi-rupimd=ide tald-irddappud=eihbaiit=esec]an-aiiupamam Jfianasoma- 

47 vratlmdram |] [28 % ] A maba-vrati-putra-aantana-samtati-kraraam^uttardttaram 

negale || Kanak-achala-chfida-kamchana-baTiihima"kalasain=enipa Dakshina-So- 

48 mesana maihdirakke kamchana-ghaiia-kalasaman=ifctari=aiiiLpaiiiaih Mecharasam II 

[29*] Ealasada-hal (O^aned^anvaya-tilakam liom-gottu inaru-gondittam hom- 
gala- 

49 sa(sa)kk=Ekkalavada(4a)da ball Kumdnravalliyolz; nivarttana-fiatainam j| [30*] 

Svasti samasta-prasasti-sahitaih srlman-maliapradlianam para-narl-putram yfi. 

50 ya-sah5daram Siva-kumaram chafcus-samaya-satmidhdliaranarii Puligere-nada Ver- 

ggade dandanayakam Mecharasar | siiman-maMmandale- 

5 1 svaram Jayakesi-devarasargge sayira-parigralaamgalgarii srimat-Euihdiiravalliy*fir- 

odeyam Maddiraja Sovimayya Kesimayyamgalgam dra- 

52 vya-nivedanam geydu kal-garchchu-kai*dharey*agi padedn mattam^a prabhugalge 

aladu kanda-btmmige nfirakke liattar^apadlp, dasavamdliaman^ikki Kundu- 

53 ravalliya chatur-agbafca-bhfi mi-gi(sl)m-abhyamtaradeka-clesad=ltt.age-volada deva-bli5^a 

Nittura iiolada hattageya holanam Huligereya ga- 

54 dimljada galeya nnru mattar=kkeyyam kalasakk=aksliaya'danamumacliaihdr- 

arkka-sihayiy=agi sart-va-Bamasya(sya)m=agi tanna svami Ohalukyar 
rajy-8- 

55 dhdhara^a-karana-karanan-appa maba-praclianda-dandaiiayakaih Kesimayyamgalge 

binnapam-geydu paramesvara-dattiy=agi padeda || Syasti rImacli-ChS- * 

56 lukya-pratapa-ehakravartti Jagadekamalla-deva-varahada lOneya PrabkaTa. 

samvatsaj-ada isada^sudhdha 12 Brihahpati-varam dakshlnayana^amkrama- 

57 na-yyatlpatam kfidida punya-tithiyolw grl-SSmanatlia-devara sthan-ackaryya- 

Jfianasoma-pandita-devara kalam karchchi dhara-pnrvYakam sarvva*namaya(sya)- 

58 mum sarYTa-badha-parlharamnm=agi bitfcar || A dharmma-bhtmi nuru 

matta[r*]-kkeyya simey=emt=[e*]Ehdacfe | iftnyada slme Ifctageya bala liolada 

59 badagana horeya Hnnari-gal mfidana slme Ittage-yolada nir-wariya Lallam 

m5re \ agneyada sime Eamtarikeya hala mudana lalla-dadiya 

60 kinBari-galla mere nairirityada 8 slme Benakana kolada temkana kimari-gallu 

mre | vayavyad* slme NitfcUra Btolada temkana mgreya natta kinaari-gallu J 



iti claa- 



* Apparently to le emended to end*. 2 Bead 

' Bead n 



6. 8.] THREE INSCRIPTIONS GV LAKSHMESHWAR. 49 



$1 tus-slma samaptah Vyi [j KalaSada nujtt mattar^ag==uttama-bliftmlyaiiittan*i 

ya3as-tilakan=enippa Mechana-chamtpati Nandiya bavig^arn nirramala- 
62 gu^a-yakte Gunraleya 1 bavige mattar*ad=arenalke bMtala-nutan~amtu panneradu 

matfcarnmam Siva~pada-sekharaih j| [31*] Sva-dattam para-dattarii vt y8 

harSta vafiu(su)m- 
<53 dbaram [I*] a(sha)shtim varsha-sahasrani vishfchayam jayate krimih || [32*] 

Gamga-sagara-Yamana-samgamadol^ katsi kavlleyam brahnaanaram limgigalara 

sal pupya-dinamgalo- 
64 l=calidaTargalappar=imtidan=altdar |j [33*] Srlmat-KaraaSta-sukavi^miikhya* 

panditara kavite [[ Rftvari-chakravarttl Puligereya Jinnojara agra-sniam 

Chavojana kandarane 

TBiNSLATIOIL 

(Versa 1 : identical with v, 1 of inscr. A.) 

(Verse 2.) There flourished a morning-sun to the lotus-lake the blest beauteous Chalukya 
lineage, a grim elephant to tbe coppices of young plantains (consisting of) countless froward 
enemy kings, a lord of earth whose pair of Jqfcus-feet was tubbed by the gems of august obeisant 
monarchs' diadems, an eager wooer of the goddess of universal victory, Tailapa. 

(Verse 3.) His eon was Satyasraya embellishment of the Ohalukyas. A son of the 
latter monarch's younger brother was king Vikrama, (likewise) the excellent Ayyana (and) 
Jayasimha the wooer of the goddess of glory. The last-named king's son wa<* Aliayamalla, 
victor in battle, mainstay of empire; that king's son was the lord of earth S5mesvara. 

(Verse 4) That king's younger brother, the valiant king Permadl, a consuming fire to 
the forest of the- faces of the^ Clxolas, breaking down the acacias in the marshes of the Gorj^a 
kings, ruled this land, 

(Verse 5.) Haughty wibh his might of arm, king Vikramaditya reduced his foes to the 
condition of a, village of Bh'illas, giving them severally splendours with drums consisting of 
skipping crickets, with bands of bright singers consisting of thickets of reeds, with royal stools 
consisting of the ground, wiA lamps composed of gems in the hoods of serpents, with gay robes 
of snakes' sloughs. 

(Verse 6.) Thrs sovereigns sou BhnlSkatnalla hecatne distinguished, acquiring the ci'rcte 
of space, having a radiance of glory like moonbeams, unfathomable of majesty, wrestler against 
tte prolid. 

(Verse 7.) His son ia a storm-blast upon the lamps hostile kings, a lion to the furious 
elephants hostile princes ? who are there that do not thus speak of the Emperor Jagadeka* 
malla? 

(Verse 8.) The pain of the Tortoise's hard carapace has stopped ; the load ou the Serpent 
"king's splendidly jewelled head has diminished ; the burden on the neck of the elephants of the 
sky-quarters has abated : this is because Jagadekamalla bears without labour the realm of 
earth upon the puissant place of firmness, his own arnu 

(Lines 15-17,) While the victorious reign of . . , 2 the majestic Emperor king Jagad- 
ekamalla was advancing in a course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as lojig 
AS moon, -sun, and *stftra C * 

(Verse 9.) A bee to his lotus-feet, righteous in conduct, having counsels skilful in shatter* 
ing the ChSla^ IiSla, and G-urjaTa monarchs, a true hero Is the General Kesiraja. 

(Verse 10.) Having auspicious characteristics [or, characteristics of a high-bred elephant] ia 
constant embellishment, born of a noble family [or, herd], abundant in bounty [or, 



* The *# is rather axicertain. 5 *Sm>j>ly the usual -CMluVya formula, as above. 



SO EPIGHAPHIA INDIOA. [Vot,. XVI- 

_ ..... t ..... u ____ ............ , T ,,,,, ..... ......... IMTI-lMT-O-nuU.!!.-. ...... ....... "" " ........... ~^._,~,^I^I ........ / : -.:^: --^-r-^v.-.- 7" "*" ........... TlTli-^ .-'.r-U 1.J-HJ-". m'f- ."-"" J "V _____ " '', ~ ""..._ """"' ---- 'J''"' ' | _____ _ 

vioxuiig high .fame through receiving the embraces of the beloved elephant-cow of LaksKml ho 
is a butt-elephant of victory for the edited JagadekamaUa ; through this high distinction the 
General Xesiraja of the Elephants has gotten this appropriate name. 

(Terse 11.) Kesavadeva is (in charge) of rat-raging elephants 3 of squadrons of Korse, of 
the high office of (the ministry of) peace and war for the secret service (P) 1 and Lalas, (andy 
of the treasury, a controller of the prosperous seraglio. 

(Terse 12.) "This forsooth is a troop of noble horses sent by the MSlava " ^ (this <&) a* 
column of fiery elephants sent "by the king of Kalinga '* " (this is*) a diadem of various gems 
sent w tribute In terror by the Cholikas* monarch " 3 : as each of them with these words brought 
(the$e thing*) and laid them down before him, Kesava overspread with his glory earth, ocean, 
mountains, and sky, 

(Lines 2-4-27.) Hail ! wfaile he who possesses all titles of honour, high minister, master of 
the stakles of elephants and horses, treasurer, general supervisor, minister for peace and war 1 
for the secret service (?) and the Lalas, favourite, head of the army, the great augnst General 
Kesimayya, was reigning 5 in government of the Beltivala Three-hundred, the Hulige|-o 
Three-huadred, the Halasige Twelve-thousand, and the Hanumgallu ELve-hundred so/ aa 
to suppress the wicked and protect the cultured : 

(Terse 13.) A bee to his lotus-feet, talented, a. wind potent to uproot the trees haughty 
foemen, venerated by the good, is the General Mechtraja. 

(Line 28.) As regards the dignity of this noble man's lineage : 

(Terse 14.) His maternal grandfather was the illustrious General Melamayya, renowned 
for virtues ; he was a modern Celestial Tree on earth, praised throughout the world. 

(Line 30.) His paternal grandfather :~ 

(Terse 15.) Iditya Bhatta, abounding in the lore of the excellent books of the Vg 
pulverising sin, rose (to fonour) amidat the applause of the earth, so as to be served by 
goddess of lortnna (dwelling) in the lotus of Ms own race. 

(Terse 16.) Totlditya, who had all the virtues, there was a son DronScMrya a master 
of the bow known as being like Ga^yi [Arjuua], as if he had been born to Pon* and the 
renowned Sun-god. 



. i ( J T_f "! * noW ma *' 8 lu > k - born ^ e ChSmala-devi, who was known as a peer o 
the lady Fortuae, a peer of Axoadhati ia virtue, a peer of the lady Speech, adorned he 
amidst the praises of the world, 

(Verse 18.) Their sona were the General lehiraja, the General Mecha, and the- 
Kancha of the Spear, a tree of desire to sages. 






(Gopi n atha Eao, 

qualifying 




. in the 
begemtive; tat.if so, it has a. 



No. 8.] THEEE INSCRIPTIONS OP LAKSHMESHWAB 51 

(Verae 21.) As truly he is called a brother to public women "bright with the glances from 
their white eye-corners, one who honours worthy master-poets and sages, a son of Siva, one with 
the form of the Love-god 3 a sou to others* wives, a friend to the Iotas-pool 1 of his own race 3 who 
can equal Meohi, the right eastern face 2 on the floor of the edifice of the religion of Siva. 

(Verse 22.) Vennala*devi and Laliya-devi, the good wives of that treasure of courtesy 
the General Mecbi, have flourished on earth, renowned in the world, as digits of the moon to the 
fresh water-lilies of their race. 

(Verse 23-) In the realm of Bharata the land of Kuntala shews itself in beauty. In it 
appears forsooth the province of Porikara ; the capital city radiant within that district is 
Purikara town. 

(Verse 24,) The seignior of this county, the world -renowned Jxyakesideva, has become 
eminent by his glory, being known as a seat of Fortune, aa ornament of the Slaaala race, a 
thunderbolt shattering the Mainaka hia foes. 

(Verse 25.) There has arisen amidst joy the god Som-matha of the South, with whom are 
seen (the sacred bull) Nandi, the ornament of snakes, the Gauges, the high-braided hair, tha 
Mountain's Daughter, and the half-moon. 

(Lines 42-43,) As regards the line of priors of the establishment of this god Maha- 
Svayambliu-Somanatlia : 

(Verse 20.) Of the world-revered ascetic Devasoma (there was a son) sprung from the 
family of great ascetics, exalted in all virtues ; of this ascetic Mahendrasoma (there was) a son, 
Jfianasoma-Pandita-deva. 

(Verse 27.) Kesava, minister of king Somesvara, has verily maintained the merit of 
desiring not others' wives, of abiding not in falsehood, of being known as an incarnation of 
righteousness, so that the earth praises him. 

(Verse 28.) The incomparable Jnanas5ma, lord of ascetics, has so distinguished himself 
that men say : " Is it the Love-god who has assumed a brilliant aboaridinsf mass of high- 
braided locks ? is it the Tree of Desire that joyf ally has settled permanently in happiness at the 
establishment of S<3me3vara in Purikara under the guise of an ascetic ? is it the Ocean that 
displays its profundity in the form of a T5gi ? ** 

(Line 47.) While this continuous sequence of the succession of sons of great ascetics was 
flourishing : 

(Verse 29*) On the temple of Sdmesa of the South, which is. as one may say, a massive 
finial of gold on the crest of the Golden Mountain, the incomparable Mecharasa has set a solid 
finial of gold. 

(Verse 30.) The ornament of his lineage, having purchased for payment of gold a hundred 
nivartanas at Kunduravalli, within (the district of) Ekkalavada, for (defraying the expenses 
of) the golden finial, presented it under the name Kalasada-halu. 

(Lines 49-55.) Hail ! He who possesses all titles of honour, the high minister, son to 
others' wives, brother to public women, sou of Siva, restorer of the four churches, 3 controller of 
the county of Puligere, the General Mecharasa, having presented money to the thoiiaand 
retainers of the Maha-Mandalesvara Jayakesi-devarasa and to Maddiraja, mayor of Kundur- 
aValli, Sovimayya* and Kesimayya, and having (thereby) purchased with washing of feet and 

1 A poetic term for the sun. 

a The word purva-prachi is not clear to me. It seems to mean ** the east-o~<iast face/ 5 i.e. a person holding 
a very prominent and representative position, in the church. Most temples face towards the east. 
a The Saivas, Yaislmavas, Jains, and Buddhists. 

G2 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVI. 



laving of hands the piece of estate connected with, the lands of Ittage and the lands of Nifctur 
{held for) the god's usufruct, forming a part of the area within the boundaries marking the four 
sides of access of Kunduravalli* which be measured out for these gentlemen and on which he 
deducted a dasavandha 1 at the rate of ten per cent, on karc-rfa^grouiid, obtained as an imperial 
gift one hundred mattar arable soil bj the rood according to the gadimba of Huligeye, as a 
perpetual endowment for thefinial, to endure as long as moon and sun, on sarva-namasya tenure, 
as the result of a petition made by him to his lord the great august General Kesimayya, the 
instrument and cause of the uplifting of the Chalukya kingdom ; 

(Lines 55-58.) and hail I on a holy lunar day on which Thursday, the I2th (day) of the 
bright fortnight of Ashsdha in the cyclic year Prabhava, the IGth of the (regnal) era of 
th0 CMJiikya majestic Emperor king Jagadekamalla, coincided with the dakshinayana- 
szmfcranti and a vyatipata^ (Mecharasa), haying laved the feet of Jfianasoma Pandita~deva, 
prior of the establishment of the god S5manatha, made over to him with pouring of water (the 
above-mentioned estate) on, sarva-namasya tenure, free from all conflicting claims. 

(Lines 58-61.) As regards the bounds of this hundred-ma Wa** field of endowment-land : * 
the north-eastern bound is a stone (ivith the figure) of a Klimari at the northern side of the 
wa^te lands of Ittage. As to the eastern bound, the limit is the running stream in the lands of 
Ittage. As to the south-eastern bound, the limit ie a stone (itnth the figure) of a Kinnarl on the 
river-bank to the east of the waste of Kantarike. As to the south- westei-n bound, the limit is a 
stone (with the figure) of a Kinnari at the south of Benaka's Lake. The north-western bound 
is a fixed boundary-stone (ivitli the figure) of a Kinnari ou the south of the lands of Mttxir, 
Thus the four^unda are concluded. 

(Yerse 3L) Out of the hundred mattar (assigned) for the fimal, this general Mecfcana, 
who is indeed adorned with glory, world-famed, crowned with Siva' a feet, has granted excellent 
laud, six mattar for the well of Nandi, six for the well of Gaurale faultless in virtue, thus 
{amounting to) twelve mattar. 

(Verse 32 : a common Sanskrit formula.) 
(Terse 33 ; a Kanarese commonitory stanza.) 

(Line 64.) The poem (is that) of an eminent scholar among Kanarese masteivpoefcs. The 
engraving (is that) of Chavoja, eldest son of Jinndja of Puligere, emperor of stone-masons. 



No. 9. TWO JAIN INSCRIPTIONS OB* MULGUND AND LAKSHMESHWAR. 

BY LIONEL D. BA&NETT. 

The following two inscriptions have been edited from ink-impressions prepared for the late 
Dr. Fleet, aud bequeathed by him to the British Museum, where they now are. Though they 
relate to different foundations, they refer to the same lineage of Jain Gurus, and have two im- 
portant verses ia common ; and this fact, together with their mention of the standard grammars 
of their day, gives them a more than ordinary intereafc, 

* OQ thU term see j&irf. Ant., Vol. XXX, pp. 107, 287 j Ep Carn.> Yol X, pt i, Ml). 172 ., 259, CB. 9, Bg 
71, Ct. 1, 14. It is a remission of ^V f the revenue, under varying 1 conditions (e.g. as compensation for some 
public work, such s digging aud niaiatainir.g: wells). 

2 The meaning of Kanda here is not clear. There may be some ccnnectio'ii with fclie Tamil fcandn, 'cornfield./ 
or wich fehe Marathi usage in the seuse of * contract/ 

9 A yo$o> ou vliick tkQ declination of sun aad moon is fclie same* 



No, 9.] TWO JAIN INSCRIPTIONS OF MULGUND AND LAKSHMESEWAE, 

A. MULGTTND INSCEIPTION OF THE BEIGN OF SOMESVAEA I : SAKA 875- 

Begarding the site and name of M-ulgtmd, whence this inscription comes, it suffices to 
refer to Dr, Fleet's remarks above, VoL XIII, p. 190. The present record was found on a slab 
in the local Jain bdsti or temple. The stone is surmounted hj a rounded pediment with - trun- 
cated top, which contains some sculptures, viz. in the centre a squatting Jina in a niche or 
Jtoshtha-panjara ; on the proper right a fig-ure, perhaps representing a worshipper ; over it the 
sun ; to the proper left of the Jina, a cow -with sucking calf ; and above it the moon. Below 
this is the inscribed area, in two compartments, with a width of about 2 ft. 4| in. ; the upper 
one, containing lines 1-2, is about 3| in. liig-h, and the lower one, containing the rest of ~the re- 
cord, is some 4 ft. in height. A transcription is given in the Elliot Collection, VoL 1, fol. 76b. 
of the Royal Asiatic Society's copy ; but it is very incorrect, and omits a considerable part of 
the text. The stone is very much worn, ami in many planes the writing is almost illegible. 
The character is an elegant monumental type of Kanarese of the period, with graceful upright 
letters varying in height from | in. to f in, The language is Old Kanarese, with the exception 
of three Sanskrit stanzas, viz. verses 1, 7, and 10. It preserves the archaic I, in negaldark 
(11. 11, 18), pogalte (1. 16), and elpatt- (1. 29). Qa the word 'stoat a (1. 22) cf. above, VoL XV, 
p 105. For inoggu (1. 25) see note in loco. 

The record, after invoking the blessing of the Jina Chandraprabha (1L 1-2), refers itself to 
the reign of Trailokyamaila, i.e. SSmesvara I (11. 3-5), and states that at the time the 
Three-Hundreds of Belvola and Purigere were under the administration of his son, the 
Malia-Mandalesvara Somesvara [irj, who bears among many other titles that of "-lord of 
Vengi best of cities " and " furious elephant of Amma " (11. 5-10). It then introduces a 
pious and eminent Jain sandhi-vigrah-adfa'kar'i, or officer of peace and war, named Beldeva ; he 
and his two younger brothers Baladeva and Santivarma were the sons of Aggaladeva and 
Gojjikabbe (11. 10-17), Beldgva was a cc servant " or " soldier " (bamtu) of Kesiraja, and a 
disciple of Nayaser^a Suri (11. 17-19). Then come two verses extolling Kancfoarasa, a local 
prince of the Sinda family, 1 who was induced by Beldeva to make a grant out of his own 
stvata (11. 19-22). Next comes the spiritual pedigree of NayasSna, and a eulogy of the latter's 
learning : in the Sena or Chandrakavata anvaya of the Mula Sangha there was an eminent 
divine named Ajitasena Bh^ttaraka, whose disciple was Zanakasena Bhattaraka, whose 
pupil was the eminent grammarian NarendLrasena, who was the teacher of 'the incomparable 
grammarian Nayasena (11. 22-28). An estate, duly specified, and apparently in the swata of 
Kancharnsa, was made over by Beldeva to Nayaseua as trustee for the supply of food to the 
local latti (II 28 ff.). 

The above-mentioned Ajitasena may very possibly be the famous Jain divine of that name, 
wlio was the prior of the Bankapnr* monastery, and who was the spiritual guide of the Western 
Ganga king MSrasimha II (who piously starved himself to death at Ajitasena's feet) and of 
the minister ChamundarSya 2 (J3, Z, Vol. "V, pp. 152, 171, 180 ; J3p, Oarn., Inscr. Sravana 
Belgola, Nos*. 38 and 67, and introduction, pp. 20 and 34 ; Ep. Oarn. t Vol. VI, Kp. No. 3 3 and 
introduction, p. 11)* He appears to have been a teacher of a Kanakasena, entitled Vadi-raja, 
who is mentioned in several inscriptions as a disciple of Akalatka and teaoher of the Ganga 
king RachaTtialla (Ep. Cam., VoL VIII. iL, Nr. f Nos. 35-7, 39, TL, No. 192). This Ajitasena 
mast be distinguished from the scholar cf the same name, styled Vadlbhasiriiba, Sabda- 
chaturmukha, and Tarkika-chakravartin, who was a later scion of the same spiritual lineage, 

1 On the Sindas see above, Vol. XIV, p, 268. 

2 A SringarOfWanjari, or aeries of erotic verses Is ascribed to him ''see Sesbagiri Sastri's Report, IT, pp. 8'J, 
231 f.j 234) ; but ifc seems more natural to refer it bo the otber Ajitasena mentioned below if indeed to an\ 
Ajitasena,. 



54 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [You XVI. 

and who flourished in the first half of the twelfth century A.D. (see J3. L, Vol. Ill, p. 188 ; 
$p. Cam., Inter. Sravana Belgola, No. 54 j Up. Cam., Vol. VIII. ii., ISTr., Nos. 35-7, 39, 
TL 192). It 5s not clear which of these two Ajitasenas was the author of the Alankara-chinta,- 
mam* 1 and Mani-prcikSfikS (a supercomrnentary on the grammar of Sakatayana) mentioned by 
Mr. Rice in Ma introduction to the Kar&ataka SctbdcinuSasana 9 p 35. We find a similar dupli- 
cation of Kanakasenas ; for the one mentioned in our record can hardly be the same aa 
Kanaka.sena the disciple of Vinayasana (E. I., Vol. X, pp. 57, 69), or Kanakasena the disciple 
of Yirasena, circa A.D. 880 (ibid., Vol. XIII, pp. 19 1, 193 f.), while a tradition records yet 
another as preceptor of Jinasena the teacher of Mallisbena. 

The grammarian "NfareiicJrasena of our record seems to be the sarue as Narendrasona, the 
author of a work on logic styled Pramana-prawieya~faili'k& (see S, R. Bhandarkar, Catalogue of 
3IS5. in Deccan College, p. 327 ; A, V. ECathavate, Report for 1391-5, p. 76 ; Kashinaih Krmte, 
Statement showing old and rare MSS. in Gujranwala and Delhi Districts, 1881-2, p. 11 ; Peter* 
BOO, First Bejport, p. 126), But our inscription B. will introduce us to a second I^arendrasena ? a 
disciple of Nayasena> who may also have some claim to this distinction. 

The date of our record is given on 1. 29 as : Saka 075 (lapsed), tlie year Vijaya ; the 
uttar&ya$a,-samkrnti 9 This ought to correspond to Friday* 24 December* A.JX 1053, when 
^he samkr&nU occurred about 1 h* 35 oa. after mean sunrise, according to the A.rya-Mdhanta.% 

The only geographical names mentioned are : the Belvola Three-Hundred (1. 9), 
the Puligere Three-Hundred (*&.)>' Mulgunda (L 21), Kirugere, or " Little Tank '* (L 31), 
and Asagagere (1. 33). On the first two see above, Yol. XIII, p. 178 f., and XIV, p. 188. Th* 
Ohaadrakavat-anvaya (L 23) preserves the name of Chandrikavataj on which Bee above, 
Vol. XIII, pp." 192-4. 

TEXT.* 

[Metres: VT. 1, 4, S&rdulavikrSdita ; v. 2, MahSsragdharS ; v. S 3 IftpalamalS; TV. 5 3 6, 8, 
Kanda ; vv. 7, 10, MwsJitubh ; v. 9, MattebhcwiJvrigita.'] 

1 \jjn Sri mad - bhakti - bhar - anat - amara -kirlt-anargghja-ratna*prabha-3al-allda(dha)"'pad. 

aravinda-yugalah Kandarppa-darpp-apahah 

2 tmil6ky"Qdai^-vartti-kirtti"Visadas=CIiandi. > aprabhassupi^ bhavyanam nivaharii 

nirakulam-alam payad=apayaj=Jinah [||* 1*] 

3 Svasti samasta-bhuvan-agraya Srl*Prithvl-vallabha maharaj-adhiraja paramesvara 

paraina-bhattarakam Satya- 

4 grays-kula-tilakaiii Ghaluky-abharaijam srlmat-Trailokyamalla-devara vijaya-rajyam= 

uttar6ttar*abhivjriddhi-pra va - 

5 rddhamanama-chandr'arkka-taram saluttam-ire [(*] Tat-tanayam samadhigata-pamcha- 

iDtaha-abda-mahamandalesvarani VeBgi* 

G. piaxavaiyesvararii samara-p2?achandam knmara-marttandiBiih para-kari-mad'a*nivaranan 
Ammana gandha-varanam parivara-nidhanam 



1 



This work was first published ia pts. 1-6 of the JE&rp&m&udM edited l>y Padmaraja Pandit (Bangalore, 
1893 ff.) ; hut, as far as I am aware, it was never completed in that series. A full tesfc has since been issued, in 
Saka 1829 (A.1X 1907), from the Jamendra Press at Kolbftpur> edited by Sakharam Nemichand 3>osi of Sholapur, 
who <m- the tifele*page ascribes it, to Jinase0acharya. 

^ Mr, B. Sewell has very kindly pointed out to me that according to the Surya-siddhanta the 
anti of that year took place 2 h. 10 m. after mean sunrise on Friday, 24 December, but that by the 

the -Siddka*tQ**$irdmani> and probably also the 'JB,aja~mriganka it happened at 2 h. 9 m. 3^ s. after 
swn sunrise on Thursday, 23 December. 
3 JPram th mk-imprcssian. 



ISTo. 9.] TWO JAIN INSCRIPTIONS OF MITLGTTND AND LAKSHMESHWAJR. 55 



7 dana-Karilnam taya-Vatsa-rajam rapa-Man{5jam ripn-nyipati-lifidaya-sellam 

aika-mallam mandallka-sira- 

8 maiii Chaliikya-cbudamani vidvistta-samliararii kafcaka-prakararh. 

Trailokyamalla^deva'pada-pamkaja-blira- 

9 inaram srl-Somesvara-deTam Belvola-munururo. Ptaigere-DauiiliramaBi sukta- 

samkatha-vinddadin^aJ attam-i- 
1O re tat-pada-padm-5pha(pa)jivl jj Vrittarh | Vmayakk=adhara4>liutaih. pati-hita- 

chaiitakk==asray am sad-vivekakke 1 nivasa [ \^ ] 
JL1 sampattige kula-bharaiiaih saatat-anuna-danakke nidhananx mantanakk=agarazn= 

ene negaldam sad-vacLo-bhushanaiii bhfl-vimi[tam Se]- 
i3 ldevau=adyad-vidhu-Tlsada-yasS-vyapta-dik-chakravalam [j [2*] Iva ganam ganarb. 

pati-hit-acharitam chaiitam par-5pa [ka] - 

13 r-avasatla*arttliain=arttliam-aglia-bi (bhi) j- Jina-tat [t*] vame tat [t*] vam=emba sad- 

bhavane tammol=ondi nele-vett-ire klrttlge nantar=int[a] 

14 Beldevanum=olpan=alda Baladevanum=aiitkada Santivarmmanum |] [3*] 

Vaclianam || Antu sakala-guna-gan-ottuihgararix Jina-dliarmtriai- 

15 uirmmalaram. nikhila-jan-6pakara-nirataram 

priya-tanti bha varum GrO j j i- 
1 6 kambika-ky is-5dara-nibida-nibaddlia-pafc^arum=agi pogaJte^Yetta* tat-sabodara-trayadol* 

agrabhavan-appa sandhi-vigra- 
17 hi-adMkari || Vrittam ) Jina-pM-ambnja-bkrimgan^Amgaja-nibliam gamy-artttta- 

ratnakaraih Manu-marggam Tinayariinavam Kali-mala-pradhvamsa- 
1 8 kam Kesirajana barhfcini 3STayase]iia-stiri-pada-padin-aradhaiia-rakta-cliittan=* 

udattam negajtdaiii yirgka[ww --- ] mahl-blxaga- 

19 dol j| [4*] A mah-aaubhavarii dharinma-prabhava-prakatlkrita-ckittan==age |j 

Kandam j . Sinda[v> s^]kan=abal-anaiidaiiakara*'ru- 

20 pauasama-sahasamlayarii Siuda-nrlpa-nandanam lasad-inda-kara-pratima-klrtti 

kanta-kantam [j [5*] Jlna'dharmma-nirinmal^rii satya-nidha- 

21 nu(nan 3 =a)niina-dana[ vx\^ v^vjf v-/]au=andma Kamcharasaih 

Mulgunda-Sinda-desa-lalaiuarh |[ [6*] Bmba pempiriigam 

22 da KamchBrasam tanna siyatad-olage dbarmm-antLraga-chittarii sa-hiranya- 

purvvakarix kude kondu j| Srl-Mula-samgha-vara- 

23 sau raanlnain= s =e(i)va s-archcliisb.am maha-parasba-ratn&narii sfchanam Sen-5nvayo 

jani || [7*] Va | A Chandrakavat-anvaya-yarlshtlia- 

24 r=A]itasena*bhattarakarttad-anteva3igal Kanakaseua-bliattarakar-avara Sislayar j| 

Kanda | Chandram Katamtram Jalnendram Sa 1 - 

25 bd-anusasananx Pa^ini matt*Aindx*am Narend^asena-nxi3:iilndramg=ek*akjslaaj^m 

peramg=ivu moggS [j [8*] Ant a jagad-vikhyatar=adar=a- 

26 vara sisbyar |j Yritta | Ninag=eneiiibeno Sakatayana-munlan=tane Sabd* 

annsasanadol Panini Pa^iinlyadole Chandram Cha- 
ndx^adol taj-Jinendi^ane Jainondradol*a Knmarane gadam Kaumaradol=polpar:eiit=* 

ene p5lar=Hnayasena-pan4itarolanyar=warddlii- 
vlt-srvviyol || [9*] Intu samasta-Sabda-sastra-paravara^pai^gar^lTnayasena-pa^dita- 

devara pada-prakslialanam*ge* 

29 ydu I Saka-varsham^ombay-nur-elpatt-aydaneya Vijaya 2 -samTatsaraduttaraya^a- 
samkrantiyariida tlrtthada ba~ 

x The engraver has apparently written another letter (ve ?) after the ve, and then partly blocked it out* 
* The syllable vi has been omitted, and added below the line. 



56 SP1&RAP&IA INDICA. t^oi. XVI. 



30 sadig^ahara-dana-niiaaittam nijambikey=appa <3rojjikabbeg pardksha-vinayam 

nagara-mahajanamujh pamcha-iaatha-stha- 

31 Bataum^uriye iNagaresyarada gadimbada k5lol*='aledu Earugereya keyy-olage 



~ 
82 ge [b]i[tta] key~mattarppa:aneradii []*] a keyge gudde isanyadol kavlleya 

kal agneyadol-adityana kal nairi(rri)~ 
S3 tyadol chamdran& feal rayayyadol Padmavatiya kal Asagagereya temka sasira 

balliya tsmtay-ondu || Sya-datt[&]m 
34 [para-dattam va] y5 hareta yasundharam [|*j shashtir-yyarsha-sahasrani 

yishthayam jayate kTiinih }|* [Ifr*] 

TEANSLATIOIT, 

(Verse 1,) May tko radiant Jina Chaitdraprabha, whose blest pair of lotusf eet is licked by 
the mass of lustre from priceless gems in the coronets of gods bowing (to him) in intensity of 
devotion, who overthrows the pride of the Loye-god, who is brilliant with glory pervading tho 
belly of the three worlds, fully preserve from harm the congregation of the godly (so that it le) 
undistarbed. 

(Lines 3-5.) While the victorious reign of hail 1 the asylum of the whole world, favour- 
ite of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of 
Satyasraya's race, embellishment of the Chalukyas, TrailokyamaUa-deva, was advancing in a 
course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sun, and stars t 

(Lines 5-10.) While his son, the MaM-Ma$daisvara who has obtained the five great 
musical sounds, lord of Vengl best of cities, terrible in battle, a sun among princes, checking 
the fury of foemea's elephants, a fiery elephant to Amnia, a tereasuie to his household, a Kanlua 
[Karjaa] in bounty, a king of the Vatsas with horses, 2 a Cupid in beauty, a shaft in the heart of 
hostile kings, unique athlete of the woi'ld, head-jewel of feudatory princes, crest-jewel of the 
GhSlukyas, a destruction to foes, a rampart to the camp, a bee to the lotus-feet of Trailokya* 
malla-deva, 35mesvara-deva, was governing the Belvola Three-Hundred aad the Puligera 
Three-Hxuidred with eBjoyment of pleasant conversations : 
{Line 10.) One that fimds sustenance at his lotus-feet 

(Verse 2.) As a foundation of courtesy, a resort of loyalty, a -dwelling-place of discernment 
*>f truth, a native house of prosperity, a treasure of constant unstinted bounty, a home of 
dignity was BeldeTa renowned, adorned with goodly speech, world-famed, filling the circle of 
.^pace with glory bright as the rising moon. 

{ Vearse .) " Merit is the merit of givitag ; conduct is loyalty to one**s loixi ; wealth is designed 
to be a dwelling for beneficence ; principles are the principlesof the sin- destroying Jinas " ; as this 
true conception <3azn:e and established itself in them, accordingly .Beldeva and the excellent 
Baladeva and "the eminent Santiyarma fulfilled their religious duties with glory. 

(Lines 14-17.} Thus of these three brethren, who* were famed as ezalted in the series of 
<all virtues, stainless iu the religion of the Jinas, unceasing in benefice ace to all people, homes of 
the creeping-plaaat of lofty fame, dear sons of Aggaladeva e and cloths tightly swathing the 
slender belly of Goj jikambika, 3 the eldest, a Mimsttr of Peace and War 

(Verse 4.) A bee to -the Jiaas* lotas-f oet, like the Lore-god, a jewel- mine of fitting thoughts, 
i-ollowing the coarse of Manet, an ocean of courtesy, dissipating tha defilement of the Kali Age, 

4 After this verse are some vtry 'worn letters; the first two are ^uite effaced, and tire remainder look like ga l& 
&a ma la. 

* See afcove. Vol. V, p. 236 a. 

4 The translation of the phrase '&qfji^amb'i^^kr^^dara'nilida'niladdhapafta^um^ -as an adjunct to the 

"hroflberg Beldeva ^fcc. would bo m&*e intelligible If rendered "whose fillet (of greatn%$) wets firmly 

white key 40#re) IB the alenderiellj of Gojjikambika/' H* K, S.] 



No. 9.] TWO JAIN INSCRIPTIONS OF MTJLGTTND AND LAKSHMESHWAB. 57 

a henchman of KesirSja, having moreover a mind fervent in adoration of Nayasena 89ii*8 
lot us- feet, lofty, . . discernment, he was renowned in the land, 

(Line 19.) As this noble man revealed his spirit; in his eminent practice of religion : 
(Verse 5.) A ... of the Sindas, one whose form gave delight to women, a seat 

of peerless courage, son of the Sinda king, having fame like the radiant moonbeams, beloved of 

lovely women, 

(Verse 6.) stainless in the religion of the Jinas, a treasure of truthfulness, 
unstinted bounty, is Kancharasa, resembling the (Qod of the} Five Arrows [Kama], an orna- 
ment to the Sindas' land of Mulgrinda. 

(Lines 21-22.) He who, receiving from Kaficbarasa, (i.e. Beldeva) a seat of such greatness 
and fame, being inspired to religion, made a grant out of his own slvata 1 with presentation 

of gold : 

(Verse 7.) There has arisen the Sana lineage, a seat of radiant gems, jewels consisting of 
great men, in the ocean of the blest Hula Sangha. 

(Lines 23-24.) Ajitasena Bhattaraka, worthiest of the Chandrakavata lineage his 
disciple Kanakasena Bhattaraka his disciple 

(Verse 8.) The ChancLra (grammar), the Katantra, the Jainendra (grammar), the 
Sabdanusasana, Pa^ini, and the Aindra (grammar) were to the great Muni Narendrasena a 
single letter ; to what other man are they possible ? 3 

(Lines 25-26.) Thus world-renowned was his disciple 

(Verse 9.) What shall I say of thee ? As it may be said, ** How now, is the great sage 
Sakatayana himself equal (to Nayasena) in the SabdanusJasana, Pagdni in the Paninlya, 
Chandra iu the .Chandra, that Jiuendra in the Jainendra, that Kumara forsooth in the 
Kanmara ? ", there are no others equal to Kayasena-Pandita on the ocean-girt earth. 

(Linos 28-33.) Having laved the feet of iNayasena Pandita-deva* who is thus a 
consummate master of all grammatical lore, at the uitarayana-samkranti of the cyclic year 
Vijaya, the nine hundred and seventy-fifth (year) of the Saka era* he 3 with the cognisance 
of the Mahajanas of the to^n and the establishment of the Five Mathas measured out by the 
pole fcf the NagareSvara'a 0ac?im6a-staudard and granted for the purpose of supplying food to 
the temple of the sacred demesne, in pious memory of his mother Gtoj jikafobe, a field of twelve 
mattar in the field of Kijrugeje, with immunity from all conflicting claims The bounds 4 of 
this field are : on the north-east a stone (with the figure) of a cow, on the south-east a stone 
(with the figure) of the sun, on the soath-west a stone (with the figure) of the moon, on the 
north -west a stone (with the figure) of Padmavatl, 5 to the south of Asagagere garden of a 
thousand creeping-plants. 

(Verse 10 : a common Sanskrit formula.) 

* See above, Vol. XV, p. 105. 

* Moggu, meaning "possible," "able," "ability/ 1 etc., is not given in Kittel's Dictionary. Rao Bahadur 
B, Narasimhachar, to whose kindness I owe the interpretation of this passage, has called uny attention to its uae In 
Pampa-bMrata, XII, 16, Pampa's Adi-purana> VI, 29, AMiinava-Pampa's Eamayana* I, 39, Nagavarma'g 
Kdvydvalokana 517, and .Andayya's Kabligara JSfaa 1S6. 

8 Namely Beldeva* 

* Properly, gudfa iweani a hill. *' In S. Canara, this in sometimes the boundary -mark of lands 5 sometimes a 
stone exists or is placed at the top of a hill to-mark the points from which rain-water commences to scatter in all 
directions and water adjacent, lands " (Kisarnwtir Glossary* p. 129), 

J Cf. Ind. Ant., Vol. V, p. 43 n. Xp. Cam., II (Sravana Belgo\a) 9 iutr., p. 2B L, Jfarffa* Arclaol. Ktport, 
1912-8, p. 6 f 1914-5^ p. 19 f and above, Vol. VIII, p. 1S0, etc. 

m 



68 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [Tot. XVI. 

B. I^AKSHaiESHWAB INSOBIPTIOlSr OP THE REIGKN" OP VIKEAMADITYA VI : 

A JX 1081* 

On the site of Lakshmeshwar (the ancient Puligere, Purigeje^ or Purikara) I may refer to 
what I have written above, ToL XIV, p, 188. The inscription is on a slab which was in the 
local JECacheri when the ink-Impression was made ; whence it originally came I do not know. 
The stone has a rounded pediment with some sculptures, namely a squatting Jina in the centre, 
with a cow and sacking calf on the proper left, surmounted by the sun (to right) and moon (to 
left) ; a figure or figures has apparently been effaced on the proper right. The inscribed area 
below this is about 3 ft. 2 in, broad and 3 ft, 6 in. high. The character is a fairly regular 
Kanarese type of the period,, slightly angular and sloping. The letters vary from about J- in. to 
f in, in height, and in places are somewhat worn. The cursive v occurs in ai?ar, 1. 30, The 
language is Old Kanarese; the only Sanskrit is versa 1 and a short quotation in verse 7. The 
archaic I is preserved in pogaltegaih, 1. 9, negaltegam, 1. 9, tlduv=* 9 L 15, negaldara, L 16, ild~, 11. 
18, 24 ? neg&lda 9 1. 43, negaldan, L 44 ; it appears as r in Ikirttit) 1. 3 3 negartte, L 46, and as I in 
Jtfolariiba, 1L 8 f?., 23, pogalalj 11. 17, 26, negaldar, I. 86, pelvade, 1. 39, pogalalk**, L 42 ; and it is 
falsely substituted for r in pelchutt-ire, 1* 18. It will be noted that in negaldara, 1. 16, negalda, 
1. 43, and negaldan, L 44 5 the second syllable is short metrically, while iu negartte, 1. 46, it is 
scanned as long (cf. above, Vol. XIII, p. 327) ; hence it seems likely that negaldar, L 36, where 
it is also short, is a scribe's error for negaldar* Lexically interesting* are avasura, 1. 14 (appar- 
ently meaning asura : cf. avakripe, avaguna, etc.), udd&ni, 1. 18 (cf. above, Vol. XIII, p. 327), 
bliuvana-'bumbJiMka, 1. 19 (ib. pp. 298, 327), prabda, L 26, jpa6&[a*] } 1. 26, arttiga in the sense 
of " lover," 1. 38, and gdja with the meaning of " moon/' 1* 39 (cf. abjfa). 

Tfa e record, opening with the stock stanza Snmrai-parama-gariibJMra (1. 1), refers itself 
in prose and verse to the reign of Tribhuvaaamallaj or Vikramaditya [VI] (11. 2-5), and 
then introduces his younger brother Jayasimlia III, the TTuvaraja or Heir-apparent, to whom, 
besides many complimentary titles, it gives -the full set of names found in some other records, 
TrailSkyamalla Vlra-lSTolamba PaUava-Permanadi Jayasimha-deva (11. 5-8). * After two 
Tersea of florid compliments to him (11. 8-?10) and a statement in prose that he was at the time 
governing the " Two Three-hundreds " (namely Belvola and Puligere), the Banavsse 
Twelve-thousand, the Santaligo Thousand, and the Kandur Thousand (11. 10-11), it brings 
in one of his subordinate barons, the Mahftsftmantadhipati Ejemayya (also called below Erakapa 
and Erega), a high minister, steward of the royal household, and general (11. 11*13), dwelling 
in verse upon his virtues and informing us that at the time he was administering the Puligera 
Three-hundred (11. 13-19). Six verses follow (11. 19-26), which expatiate on the equally 
surprising merits of Eremayya's younger brother Dona* who also held high office in the govern- 
ment j and then comes a series of seven stanzas (11. 26-34) announcing that on a given, date 
D5na assigned a grant for the Jain cult in Purikara (the modern LakshmSahwar) to the trustee- 
ehip of Uarendxasena [II], of the Sena Gasa in the Mula Sangha, the senior disciple of 
MFayasena Suri, who in Ms turn was the senior disciple of JSTarendrasena JTJ. We have 
already made the acquaintance of Narendrasna I and Nayasena in the preceding record ; the 
present record, which quotes stanzas 8-9 of A,j now carries the succession one generation 
further on. Our author next brings on the scene in vv. 23-34 (11. 34-46) a distinguished 
family of pious Jains, namely Dinakara (11. 34-36), his sons Eajimayya (or BSja) and 
Budama (11. 36-42), Dudama's ivife EeM&abbe and their daughter Hammikabbe /1L 42- 
43), Hammikabbe's husband Arasimayya or Arasayya (11. 43-44), their son the physician 
Kannapa or Kanna (11. 44-45), and Kannapa f a sons Indapa, Isvara, Ksji, Kalideva, 
Adinatha, Santi, and Parsva (II. 45-46). Here the record breaks off ; apparently it was 

1 See Dynast. Kawr. 2K*tr., pp. 45S f, 



No. 9.] TWO JAIN INSCBIPTIONS OF MULGUND AND LAKSHMESHWAB. 59 



never finished. But it would seom that one of the last mem hers of this pedigree was in some 
way concerned in the grant, perhaps as having petitioned DOna for it. 

Of Dudama certain exploits are reported (11. 39-42) which are rather obscure, owing to the 
loose and vague language used by the poet. The words seem to mean : "At the stern command 
of the sovereign he took captive the Lord of the Eighty-four . . * he in his turn took captive 
. . Sobhana, who in wrath had seized, bound, and cast into prisofr king Inda . , . By his 
might of arm he took captive him who had casfc his master into confinement, and made him release 
him." The data given by the record are too scanty to enable us to identify these persons. Very 
possibly the " Lord of the Eighty-four " may be a Kadamba king, whose dynasty is regularly 
described in its titles as chatitradtti-nagar-adhishtfiitay " presiding over eighty-7oiir cities." An 
inscription of Saka 907 at Huli (Elliot Collection, Boyal Asiatic Society's copy. Vol. II, 
fol. 336a.) mentions a person named S5bhanayya, whose pergade made a raid upon Huli in that 
year ; but it is unsafe to connect him with the S5bhana of on* record, 

The date is given on 1. 26 as : the sixth year of the Vikraraa era, Duvmati ; Pnshya 
krishna 6, a Friday ; the yogci vyatlp&ta ; the uttarayana-sam'krunti. This is regular. The 
tithi mentioned was current on Friday, 24 December, AJD. 1081, when it ended about 9 h. 
47 m. after mean sunrise (for tljjaiii). The uttar&yana-scnh'hranti occurred on the same day 
7 h. 25 m. after mean sunrise, while the tithi kri. 6 was still current. 

The places mentioned are the " Two Three-hundreds " (i.e. those of Belvola and 
Puligere), 1. 10, the Banavase Twelve-thousand, 1. 10, the Santalige Thousand, 1. 11, the 
Kandur Thousand, 1, 11, the Puligere Three-hundred, L 18, and the town of Purikara 
(i.e. PuKgefce), 1. 29. 



TEXT, 1 

[Metres : v. 1, AnusJifabh ; vv. 2, 3, 6, 9, 14, 23, 26, MaJiasragdhara ; vv. 4, 5, 7, 
10-12, 17-19, 24, 25, 29-32, Kanda ; vv. 8, 21, 27, 33, 34, Champakam$la ; vv. 13, 15, 
Utpalam&la ; vv. 16, 20, 22, 28, 



^ 

Srlinat-paraixia-gambhlra-syad-vad-ain5gha-lamchchhanarii 
sasanam Jinasasanam 



2 Svasti eamasta-bhuvan-asraya Srl*Prl(pri)thvI-vallabha mahuraj-adhiraja paranie- 

gvara psiraina-bhatfcarakaiii Satyasraya-kuja-tilakarii Chaluky-a- 

3 bharanaiii arimat-Tribhuvanainalla-deva || Vritta \\ Dhareyarh varasi(si)- 

paryantam=anavayavadim durvviiiit-a vanlpa lara beram ki rttu nlrolgalagalan- 
aled-i- 

4 d-adi mun-nintu chakrSsvarar=ar nishkamtakaiii madidar=ene mahi nishkaihtakam 

madi chakresvara-ratnarii santaiarii palisidan^atibalam Vikramaditya-devani |[ 
[2*] Autu srlma- 

5 t-Tribhuvanamalla-devara vfjaya-rajyam=utfcar^ttar-abhivrid(ihi*pravarddhamanaia= 

a-chamdra-taram saluttam-ire |] Tad-anujarii svasti samasta-bhuvana- 

saihsttSyamana 10* 

6 ka-Tikliyatam 3 Pallav-anvayam Srl-Mahl-vallabha yuvaraja raia-Paramevaram 

vlra-M^hesvaram vikram-abh.iranaih jaya-lakshral-raina^aih sara^-agata 
rakshama^ii Chalu- 

1 From the ink-hnpres-ioii, 2 This amuvarct is rather doubtful* 



60 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVI. 



kya-chfidamajii kadana-Triiietram ksbafcriya-pavitram matta-gaj-Aihga-rajam sabaja- 
' ripu-raya-snrekaraa=a^^an*amkakaj:am grlmat-Trailokyamalla 



8 VIra-Nolamba PaUava-Permmanadi Jayasimha-deva || Vyitta || Para-cbakr- 

akala-chakram Nala^NakTisha-Nrig-ady-adi*bkupalak*ail-charitam Cfcalulj:ya- 
ckodamani sahaja-ManSjam nat-ara* 

9 ti - bhSmigrara - samgkat - Sttamamg * acha(bba)rarta - mani-gana-]y5tiT-Bttamsa-bliasvach- 

charanam samanyane bhtparol=apagata-vidvit-kadambaih Holamba \\ [ 3 J 
Vachana Jl Euisida pogaltegam negaltegam neley-e- 

10 nisi 1| Ka || Arasa-gunamgal mejr-vett-ire page migad-ire jan-ftnnrftgam pirid- 

ag-Ire klrttWatike nimiratt-ire Vira-Nolamban^avanat-ari-kadambam [| [4*] 
Va || Erad[u mu]nurumam BanaTase-pannircholigsiramu- 

11 mam Ssntalige-sasiramumam Kamdur^ssasiramumam snkia-samkatha-viBOdadim 

pratipallsuttum-ire | tat-pada-padm-Opajlvi I samadliigata-pamcha-maha-sabda- 
mah as [a*] mantieLdhipati ro aha-pra- 

12 okanda-daaadanayakam ripu-mastaka-Dyasta-sayakaiii sahitya-Yidy-arii gana-bhujamga 

*Sarasvati- makha-kamaia - bhririigam(a)naradhita-Hara- charana-smaraDa-parinat- 
antah-kara$am | Sarasvatl-karn^-abharanam 

13 tooian-mahapradhanam mane-verggade daj?danayakan=Breyam,ayyaiii || Karixda || 

Sakala-kala-Bralimain BraLma-kal-arkkam Vatsa-g^tra-ratnakara-sltakaram 

kiriyane bliavana-prakaradol*a 

14 ri-m?Ltyn-bliipaii-Erega-cbamupam \\ [5*] Tri |( Kleyolw sadrigyam-appaihd= 

Erega-vibhuge binpifm^jge 1 ganpimga ti9.pimg=ele pai^a[v]aramImdr-acha|am 
aTasuraaiiii Ramaniiii Krisiinanijii samchalam. [ -- ] 

15 slishta-gambhlramuma 

be^ond^animisba-nagam^ettaaum^amt^appocj^al^ jj [6 W J Karhda 

Parikipode hasti-maak-antaram=eniptLdu tail [na] 

16 [gn]^ada negaldara ga^adaataram*ene gunri(ne)shu k5 matsara eriiba bttdh-. 

6kta[m]*Erega-vibliage sad-uktam [j [7*] Sad-amala-klrtti-vallari 
antaramam terap=illad=antu parvvidudu parakramaik 

17 [w w]sam*ifctudu binp=eshamana 3 -babyanaadadu charitam 

arppina sftBU matte pntfcidaai^enipanttLfc-ayt=E3regan==uanatiyarii pogaia 
samartthar=ar || 



18 Enia-ild^l kbyati vikhyatige salut*ire santam basantarii tadly-avaaigemb=Eddani 
pelclitt(rchcliu)tt-ire PuUgere-mfinurumam avami-sampattlna pempam 



1& [g]tttta(ta)in=andaryjadim satyadim Karjginantunam mikk*utsava2ii-ppe(be)tt*iral= 
Efega-cliaixmpaia Bal-lmdrarajya 3 -svai"tipaiii 1[ [9*] Kanda Jj Tad-anujan 
aparimita-gan-aspadan-esedam bhuvana-barhbliukam sura-pa- 

20 ti*aaab.padan===atiila-bliuja'-balaih para-sudatl-prakara-Prasfina-basgLaih Do^am j| [10*] 

Kaiitanadol Kuru-kula*samktila-mathaiiaiia tammaBanapaman-akritiyo| 

Baladdvana tammam blmja-bala- 

21 dol Yama-STitana tamman=OEregana tammam jj [11*] E3pegan=adi-modalol*=ari* 

Byipar*e?agidodl*adaii=ariyett*=araga<l-iral* [e*] mb=M 4 *ag=eEagiBugaih g riddhr-adigal 
eragai*pati~karyya- 

1 This word has been omitted in the line and inserted between lines 15 and 16. 

* Delete rdga. * 



No. 9,] TWO JAIN INSCRIPTIONS OF MULGUND AND 31 



22 



23 



2-4 



25 



'26 



bbara-dhurlnam Ddrmrii || [12*] Yrii(vrl)ttam |j Kem(kd)camiadamdol 
&aj-jana-vrittlyol~eggtt siladol kanalo barad=6mdodo 
marttya-lskadol Donano- 



l^ 

samasta-kala-pravli^anol jj [13*] Param~apta-svami deyYam Pasop&ii jitft- 
vidvifc-kadambam Nolambaiii 



pored~aldarii tamde sarhbhattara-gana-ganadlm mlkka Tikkam 

charit-alariikare Ealvaiixbike jananl tadly-agrajaia dandanath-Otkara-ratnaiii 
ru(ii-vett-ild=Erakapan-ene Donam jasakk=irkke-da- 

nam || [14*] [I] Kali-kaladol vishama-kaladol=abbateyaytu dharmtna-ratnalcarana 

firvvinaxh paiava kaladin=iksMsal=adud=imtTi k5l-p5kume dharmmam-end-ogedn 
tannana kautakam^age me- 

dial-l^kam=asesliam=omde koralol pogalal=padichandam=applnam [j ^15*] Kamanlya- 
kraraa-Vikram-abda-tati-sbatkam Burmmati-prabda-Pusliyam=aSiik!aiii - 

shashtiy^oppal^ava^ol kndaltt 

vyatlpatam-eiixba ma 

Ottamau-and=uj [j*] vala-klrtti 

Kanda || Pai % ama-Jinasamaya-rafcna- 

Mula-sariiglia3aii i bhaYas5bli-akara.S8iia - gana - 

avara' 8ito. 3 ifa[i]-te.dhaTaili() II [17*] Vara^unipara 
kshitipara, mravadyara Naremdrasena- 

pada^rak.halana. P arassara[m] dlvya-puradoH Piarikamdo| 
tara* Jaia.mdraxa SabdanusEsanam Pa,M, M h 






lb 



sSna-pandltajol-anyar-vvanidhi-vrt 01 vvijoi L J 

- oh* 



8 amaayam6 Sruta 



38 

j^vv- 

s^^^^^ 

xmd-^^^ 

matiyirix vipra-vams-arnai aharppa ? saty adimdam 

85 la-bal-a^aryyadHh .^=^^^^=5^ ta- 
akaram pxtnya-pumja '' ^ al J ndi (d a )yise nija-knla- 
ante mitlxyatva-tamam l> ina -^^^g II [24*] Atana tan a yar=jiana-vikliyat a r= 



62 EPIGBAPHIA IWDICA. [VOL. XVI. 

37 Jina-pad-ambli5ja-bliriiiigam sujana-jaua-mano-ramjanam vilva-dhatrl-vinutam dig- 

damti-dant-ari(sri)ta-visadl-yas5-bhasi sisbtheshta-kalp-avanijam sat-patra-dan- 
adhikan=enute mantra gadim kfirttu vidyaj-jaiiam^e- 

38 llam fannikum Bajanan=amala-lasat-tejanam niohcha-mchcba j| [26*] Manu- 

imnni-margga-nStoa Jina-pnjeyol-arttigan=emdtL daniy=eihd-aiiapama-fcejau=eihdu 
suchij^emdu daya-paran=em^u niohchalam martam=o[?se]- 

39 d=akkarim bidade bar$isugum jagam=eyde kMe Bajanan==ina-tejanam pasnge 

grtjanan^asrita-kalpa-bhnjana |j [27* J Tat-priy-anujana san(sau)ryyad=aWam 
pelvade || Kadupindam 

4tO dharanlsyaram besase chaiirasisanam bandiyarii pidldam saliasadiudamam 
siuge(gi)yan*Ind-orbbisartarii kapadim pidid=uyd=a serey-itta S6bhananaii= 
aty-ascharyyadim bandiyam pidi- 

41 dam tan=eiie sau(sau)ryyad=ond=alaT=ad=em samanyame Dudana || [28*] Nija- 

patiyam sere-vididode bhuja-baladim bandi-vididu bidialdan=end=l trijagaih 
banaisugarii sa[d*]-dvija-kulanam san (sau)ryya- 

42 sa(sa)liyam Dudamana || [29*] Int^enisida Dudana vara-kanfce Manabhavana 

kautegarii rupiiiol^atyantam migil=ene pogalalk=entum narey~arivarEchikabbeya 
rupa [j [30*] Ant-avargge(rge) puttidal sura-ka- 

43 nt-5pame vIc}iRlad-ali-kiil"alaki(]ke) vilasan-mantana-samete budha-jana-chintamaui 

Hammikabbe lalana-ratna || [31*] A. negalda Hammikabbeg=anflna-priya- 
Yallabham ManObhava-rflparii danad=ede-* 

44 g=aiidin=a Kaninana vol BegaldanArasimayyaiii jagadol || [32*] Anupama- 

dana-sila-gonl^blifishana-blifishitey^ada Hammikfi-vanitegamatyudaran=Arasayya- 
maha-Yibliugam vinl- 

45 tan=olpina kani vaidya-astra-kusalam stijan^agrani vaidya-Kannapam taBe(na)yan* 

eualke n5ntan=ene Kannana vol krita-pnmnyan~avari5 j| [33*] Jiua-pada* 



46 ne(n a) ya- vilasi Baji sujanani Kalidevanaganya-piiiiya-varddhanak:araii*Adinathanfc 
adhikam suclil Santi negartte-retta Parsvaaium=Ivar=atmajatarene Kannatm. 
yol kritapumnyan=avan5 {J [34*] 



TEANSLATIQH, 

(Yerse 1.) Yictorious be tlie commandment of the Lords of the Three Worlds, enjoined by 
the Jinas, bearing for token the blest supremely profound doctrine of (different} possibilities 
of predication. 

(Lines 2-3.) Hail ! the refage of the whole world, favourite of Fortune and Earth, great 
Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of Satyasraya's race, embellishment of the 
Ohalukyas, Trifohuvanamalia-deva 

(Verse 2*) What emperors hare completely torn up the roots of froward monarchs, aeattered 
them Tfith hurtling fling into the waters, stood up in the fore-front^ and cleared the earth of 
thorny right up to the (surrounding} ocean ? A gem of emperors, the exceedingly puissant 
ViktftdaSditya, hs cleaned the earth of thorns and constantly protected it. 

(Lines 4*5-) So, while the victorious reign of Tribhuvanamalla-deva was advancing in a 
course of snccessivelj increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon and stars : 

x See note oa translation* below. 



No. 9.] TWO JAIN INSCRIPTIONS OF MTTLGTIND AND LAKSHMESHWAS. 63 

(Lines 5-8.) His younger brother liail ! lie %vho Is praised by tlie whole world, renowned 
among men, scion of the Pallavas, darling of Fortune and Earth, lieir-apparent, Parame- 
svara [Supreme Lord] among kings, Mahesvara [Great Lord] among warriors, adorned with 
valour, minion of the goddess of victory, guardian-gem to refuge-seekers, crest-gem of the 
Ghalukyas, Tiiuetra [Siva] in the fray, purifying the Kshatriyas, a king of the Angas [Karna] 
to fiery elephants, a natural Love-god, plunderer of hostile kings, champion of his elder brother, 
Trailokyamalla Vlra-ISTolamba PaUava-Permanadi Jayasimha-deva 

(Verse 3.) ISTolamfoa, a fatal discus against foeraen's dominions, following the course of 
the seines of primitive kings such as Nala, Nahusha, and Nriga 3 a crest-gem to the Clialukyas, 
a natural Love-god, whose feet arc illumined by wreaths of lustra from numbers of genis adorn- 
ing the heads of the crowd of bowing hostile monarchs, he whose enemies' hosts have fled 
is he ordinary among kings ? 

(Lines 9-10.) Being known as a subject of such praise and distinction 
(Verse 4.) Vira-Nolamfoa, in whom are embodied the royal virtues, who has no foes remain- 
ing, towards whom the people's affection waxes great, the creeping- plant of whose glory stands 
erect, has hosts of foes bowing before him. 

(Lines 10-11.) While he was protecting the Two Three-hundreds, 1 the Banavase Twelve- 
tlurasand, the Santalige Thousand, and the Kandur Thousand with enjoyment of pleasing 
conversations : 

(Lines 11-13.) One who finds sustenance at his lotus^feet, the Mahasatnantadhipati who lias 
obtained the fivu great musical sounds, great august General, setting arrows on the heads of 
foes, gallant to the lady the art of literature, bee to the lotus-face of Sarasvati, he whose soul is 
matured by remembrance of Hara's feet adored (by him), a jewel in the ear of Sarasvatl, the 
High Minister, Steward of tho Household, (and} General, Eremayya 

(Verse 5.) A Brahma in all arts, a sun of the Bx*ahman race, a moon to the ocean of the 
Vatsa got, a king Death to foes } is the General Erega a man of slight account iii the series 
of worlds ? 

{Verse 6.) If the lord Erega ,has a resemblance (to anything} on earth, it is the earth, 
the ocean, (and) Indra's mountain 2 (to which he may be compared respectively} for weightmess, 
profundity, (and) solidity. (J3i&), if one considers, the earth, which became tremulous through 
the Demons, 3 may become something -different, the ocean, which had its profundity diminished 
by Rama, 4 may become something different, the celestial mountain, which became light 
of weight through Krishna, may become something different, if sometime the case should 
happen* 

(Verse 7.) If one reflects, the distance between hia merit and (other) illustrious men's 
merit may be said to be the distance between an elephant and a gnat ; hence the sages' phrase 
" what envy is there for merits ? " applies well to the lord Erega. 

(Verse 8.) The creeping -plant of (his) goodly stainless glory has thus overspread the 
regions of space so that there is no gap ; (his} valour has wrought . . * ; (Jiis} weightiness is 
beyond comparison ; his conduct has reached a crowning degree ; it has been suoh that they say 
u a SOB. of strength 5 has again been born ": who are able to praise (adequately} Brega's eminence ? 

(Verse 9.) As he lives in such fame and repute ; as (Jiis} distinction 5 in which he is known- 
as a sweet springtime to his land, continues to increase ; as he enjoys the government of the 

1 Belvola and Puligc^e- 2 Apparently G-ovardhana, wlrich was lifted by 

ft Cf . Etip-veda IT. xiL 2, X. xliv. 8, Yedische Studien L 174. 

4 ETamely wheti the Setu or causeway was Vuilt from India to Ceylon. 

* This phrase seems to be a version of the Vedic sahasaft 



64 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XV t 

Pialigere Three-lmndred while maintaining tlie high* degree of his lord's fortunes, and bolds 
a happy course transcending even Karna in generosity (and) truthfulness the General Erega 
is of .the same quality as Balin and Indra, 

(Verse 10.) His younger brother Dona, a seat of unbounded merit, a bhtwana-bumbhuka, 1 
enjoying the fortunes of the Lord of" the Gods [Tndra], peerless in strength of arm, a (Qod of the) 
Flowery Arrows [Kama] to the multitude of enemies' wives, has become eminent. 

(Verse 11.) Erega's younger brother is in valour the younger brother of him who shattered 
the troop of the Kuru race [Arjtina], in incomparable beauty the younger brother of Baladeva 
[Krishna], in might* of arm the younger brother of Yama's son [Bhima]. 

(Verse 32-) Wl en enemy kings are bowing at the base of Erega's feet, it is Dona- who 
makes them bow, so that their cry is " I cannot but bow " ; he bears the burden of his lord's 
business, while the covetous and their like stoop (before him), 

(Verse 13.) As there appears no grudging in (his) generosity, nor shortcoming in his 
worthy conduct, nor shame in his behaviour, are any other men in the world of mortals equal to 
Dona, who is a (Grod of the) Flowery Arrows to women, a preserver of a multitude of agreeablfe 
cultured men, an expert in all arts equal to the Lotus-born [Brahman] . 

(Verse 14.) His deity is Paupati ? a supremely helpful lord j ITolamba, conqueror of lios tg 
of foes, has cherished and supported him ; his father is Tik&a* eminent for a series of brightest 
virtues ; his mother ia Kalvambike, adorned with brilliant conduct ; his elder brother is the 
renowned Erakapa, a gem of the company of generals : thus Dona is a dwelling-place for glory* 

(Verse 15.) In this Iron Age, this time of stress, there has been an outcry 5 at the rise of an 
ocean of righteousness, so that it would seem as if the people of the earfch altogether with one 
voice in their delight were joyously uttering praises, saying ; " after a long time it has become 
visible, thus righteousness is coming to hand 1 " 

(Verse 16.) Whilst Pushya of the year Dmrmati, the sixth in the series 3 of the years 
of Vikrama delightful in their course, the dark fortnight, and Friday and the sixth (lunar) 
day were in progress, while with these coincided a maha-yoga consisting of vyatipafa^ and the 
great uttarayana-samkranti, the excellent man. Dona, brilliant of fame, preserver of wide 
righteousness, here with generosity 

(Verses 17-18.) Having laved in this Purikara, a divine city, the feet of Narendrasena 
Traividya, 5 who is a moon to the ocean of the supreme Jinas' Church and a lotuses' friend [sun] 
in the sky of the Sena G-ana, that mine of lustre sprung from the Mala Sangha, who is a 
bridegroom of the goddess of white fame, a chief of worthy ascetics, one to whom monarch s bow 
down, a man without fault 

(Verse 19 : identical with verse 8 of inscription A,) 

(Line 30.) His senior disciple 

(Terse 20 : identical with verse 9 of inscription A.) 

(Terse 21.) He has cherished Sarasvati with delight of spirit ; me he has despised ; I do 
not exist while she is presentfie ! to cohabit with a rival wife is hard ! ** uttering' these 
harsh words, swiftly mounting the elephant of the sky-quarter, Fame herself enviously reviles 
the worthy ascetic Nayasena S*uri, 6 

(Line 30.) His senior disciple 

(Terse 22.) Ho ! hurrah ! is the great ascetic Warendrasena, the emperor of masters of 

i See star*, Vol. XIII, pp. 298, 327. 2 Or, possibly, elation/' 

* Properly iati^atka means a series of dx. * The ySfa when the declination of *tin and moon b equal, 

* Explained as learned in $ai*a, logic, and grammar," I. A., To!. XIV, p. S3 n. The Jain " threefold 
lore" is elsewhere defined as fabd-agama, yufcty-fyawa, and 

* An example of the rhetorical artifice of vydja-stwti* 



STe. 9.] TWO JAIN INSCRIPTIONS OF MTTLGtTND AND LAKSHMESHWAR 65 



the triple lore, something ordinary : he whose pair of lotus-feet is beaten by diadems of stooping 
sovereigns, he who is renowned, he who is a sun ID peerless lustre, a mirror to-the lotus-face of 
thfe lady Fame who is renowned (as being bright as) stars, pearl-strings, Hara's laughter, 1 
ether, and frost, he who is an ocean o scriptural lore ? 

(Verse 23,) Because of the magnificence of (his) extraordinary sun-like character 2 owing to 
the presence of the majesty 3 of conquered foes (appropriated by Kiwi), because of (his) firm 
mind devoted to the grand and brilliant Jain religion, because of (his) peculiar quality of 
superlative splendour by which he is known as a sun in the sky of the Brahman race, because of 
(7m) supremacy in peerless might, because of (his) peculiar eminence in bounty, and because of 
(his) truthfulness, Dinakara (ivas) a mine of exceeding lustre, a heap of godliness. 

(Verse 24.) As on the rise of the sun all darkness flees away, so with the rise of Dinakara 
the darkness of error flees away from the park of his race and is dissipated : what a wonder ! 

(Verse 25.) His sons Rajimayya and Dudama are illustrious over . the whole earth as 
being renowned among men, bees to the Jinas' lotus-feet, possessed of culture. 

(Verse 26.) All learned folk everlastingly praise lovingly with affection of spirit RSja, 4 
who is stainless and bright in brilliance, as being a bee to the Jinas' lotus-feet, gladdener of good 
men's souls, renowned over the whole earth, radiant with lustrous fame moan ting to the tusks of 
the elephants of the e ley-quarters, a tree of- desire to cultured and agreeable men, exceeding in 
bounty to worthy recipients. 

(Verse 27.) The world in unison always without cease rightly extols with gladness (?) of 
spirit (and) with afEeotion Raja, who is brilliant as the sun, a moon in golden hue, 5 a tree of 
desire to clients, calling him n lover of the worship of the Jinas according to the rules of the 
saint Manu's course, bountiful, peerless in brilliance, pure, full of kindness, 

(Line 39.) If one would describe the measure of his beloved younger brother's valour 

(Verse 28.) At the stern command of the sovereign he took captive the Lord of the 
"Eighty- four ; in his boldness he clasped not his hands (in submission*) ; he in his turn took 
captive in a most marvellous manner that same Sobhana ^vho in wrath had seized, bound, and 
cast into prison king Inda : is this singular degree of Duda's valour an ordinary thing ? 

(Verse 29.) " By his might of arm he took captive him who had cast his master into con- 
finement, and made him release him " : thus this triple world lauds the valiant Dudama, scion 
of worthy Brahmans. 

(Verse 30.) The excellent lady of Duda, who has thus been described, far surpassed in 
beauty the Mind-born One's mistress [Rati] : despite this praise, men do not withal fully com- 
prehend in any way Echikabbe's beauty. 

(Verse 31.) So there was born to them Hammikabbe, comparable to a goddess, having 
locks of hair like troops of gadding bees, brilliantly distinguished, a wishing-gem to sages, a 
jewel of women. 

(Verse 32.) This illustrious Hammikabbe's completely beloved husband, Arasimayya 
comely as the Mind-born One, was distinguished in the world like Ranina [Karoa] here in 
respect of bounty. 

(Verse 33.) The lady Hammikabbe, who was adorned with the ornaments of the merits 
of peerless bounty and virtue, and the most generous lord Arasayya had a son, the physician. 



1 Cf. Meg&a,~duta 58. 

2 There is perhaps a play on saury and Jaurya, " valour." The name Binalcara meanp literally " sun," 

8 Literally, "heat." * Raja meana * r moon " ; hence tbc following epithet, 

Gf>ja> lit "milk -horn," mar mean'* noon," though I have never found it used in this derivative * 

Were it not for the context, I should be inclined to suggest pasuge gopanan, ** shepherd to bis fiock." 



I 



66 EPIGEAPHIA INDIOA* [Voi. XVI. 

Kaimapa, who "was refined, a mine of excellence, skilled in the healing art, pre-eminent among 
good men : in view of this, as he \vas godly in his works, who has such righteousness accounted 
to him as Kanna ? 

(Yerse 34.) Their sons are Indapa, a bee to the Jinas* lotus-feet, Isvara 9 an ocean of noble 
Tirtue, Haji* Brilliant in refinement, the worthy Kalideva, AdmStha, an accumulator of 
incalculable merit, the exceedingly pure Santi, (and) the distinguished Parsva : henc who has 
such righteousness accounted to him as Kaima ? 



Ho. 10. TWO KADAMBA INSCRIPTIONS OF NIRALGL 
BY LIONEL D. 



The village of Niralgi, -whence these records come, lies In the Hangal taluJca of Dharwar 
District, in lat li 52' and long. 75 18', about 11J miles to the north-east of Hangal town* 
As our inscriptions shew, it was formerly called Wirili. The ink-Impressions on which the 
tests of the following inscriptions are based were prepared for th.e late Dr. Fleet, and are now 
jii the British Museum. 

A. OP THE BEI&N OF SOMSSVAEA I : SAKA 974. 

As to the exact site where this record was found and the character of the stone I have no 
information. The inscribed area is about 2 ft. high and 2 ft. 5| in, broad. The character 
is fairly good Kanarese of the period, with letters f-f in. high. The palatal and the guttural 
nasals both occur : c Mnchanam (L 9), -mmangala* (L 15). The language, except in the formal 
Sanskrit verses and final formulas and the phrase Sarasvaty&ya namah (an error for Sarasvatyai 
namah) in L 22, is Old Kanarese prose. The I is preserved in ^ggaldeyumam (}. 14) and pel$&, 
{1. 18) ; it is changed to I in baliyan (1. 13), and aK (11 17, 19). On the phrase baUyan**a$$i 
see Dr. Fleet's remarks above, VoL XI 5 p, 3* 

The record begins by referring itself to the reign of Trailokyamalla-Ahavamalla, i.e* 
Sonaesvara I (11. 1-3), and then informs ns that on a certain date the KadambaMaha-Mandalc- 
Bvara BCarikeaarin formally made over by deputy certain estates to the Three-Hundred MahS- 
3#iias of Klrili for the maintenance of the Piriya Kere or Great Tank and the cult of the god 
Kali (1L 3-15). The document was drafted "by the town-clerk J5givayya f and engraved by 
CMttoja (II. 21-22). Harikesarin is the prince, also named Arikesarin and Hariga, who 
figures in the Bankapur inscription of aka 977 published "by me above, Yol. XIII, p. 198, 1 
with titles almost the same as those given in the present record. I there stated (p. 169) that 
the year Saka 977 marked the earliest known connection of the Kadambas with the Bamvssi 
province ; we are now able to trace it back to a date three years earlier, 

x " 

The date is given in II. 11-12 as : Saka 974 (expired), the cyclic year Haadana ; Piishya 
saddha 13 ; Sunday ; the uttarSyana-samJcranti ; a vtfatvpata. This is irregular. In Nandana 
there was an intercalated Pnshya. If we take the given iifhi as belonging to the latter, ii 
corresponded to Tuesday, 5 January, A.D. 1053, ending at 12 h, 19 an. after mean sunrise. 
Mr. R. Sewell, who has kindly checked my calculations in this paper, points out that the titki 
snddha 13 in Kija-Pushya o the same year was expunged : at mean sunrise on Wednesday, 3 
February, A.D. 1053, the current HtUi was sudtLha 12, and at the same moment on the following 
Thursday the current tithi ^yas suddha 14. Furthermore, the uttar&yana*isaitikr$Kt-i took 
place on Wednesday, 24 December, A,D. 1052, at 19 h. 23 m. after mean sunrise, 



1 In my translation of that document I have fallen Into sowe errors^ wbich I liaTe tacitly corrected in my 
rendering ot the present inscription, 



'**** %l 




Niralgi Inscription of the reign of Scw'svara I : Saka 07-1 




12 



22 



F. W. THOMAS 



SCALE ABOUT ONE-FOURTH 



WHlTTiNGHAM & GRIGQS. COU 



No. 10.] TWO EADAMBA mSORIPTIONS OF NIRALGI. 67 



The- only places mentioned are: Banavasi (1. 4), the Agrahara of Nirili, i.e. Nlralgi 
(1. 12), the Piriya Keje or Great Taak (11. 13-14), and the tfrtha* (11. 15-16), 




[Metres : v. 1, &Unt ; v. 2, 
Svasti samasta-bhnvan-a&raya SrI-Pri(pri)thvi-vallabha maharaj-adhiraja 

paramesvara parama- 

2 bhattarakam Satyasraya-knla-tilatam ChBluky-abharanam grimat-Trailokyamallan= 

Ahavamalla-deva- 

3 ra vijaya-rajyam^uttarattar-arbhivriddhi-pravardHdharma^ saluti^ 

ire || Svasti samadhi* 

4 gat^-pamcha-maha-gabda^mahainandalegvaraik- BanavSsi-piHfavaa^esvaraik Tryaksha- 

kshma-sambhavam chatura(ra)* 

5 &lti-nagar-adhishthita Lalatalflchana-Cbatarbhbh^ 

dlkshita Hi- 

6 mavad-girimdra-rnindra-sikhara-^ati^saiiisthapita sphatika-Sila-stambha-baddha-mada- 

gaja maba-ma- 

f him-abhirama K5daifaTba-chttkri~Ma^ 

permraa- 

8 tti-turyya-nirgghcfihanara ^khscharemdra-dlivaja--virsjainaiiam klrtti-Yitanan^ 

uttmh ga-simlia- 

9 ISmclaclilianam datt-artti (rt fchi) -kanchanaih saifiara-jaya-kara^Lam m ar-kkolvara 

ganda I auryy a-marttandan^adata-Na- 

10 rHya^an=anriana simga nam-adi-samastapra9a(sa) sti-eahitaiii srlman-mahamanda]g- 

gvaram Hari- 

11 kesari-devar || Sa(sa)kja-varBtia 874neya Kandana-samvatsaradfa Pusliya- 

su (su) ddha trayBdasiyum JLditya- 

12 va^ainuJ3a=iittarayana-samkrantiyTim vyatlpatadandu snm ad-agraharaih KTiriliya 

13 mahajanam mfinurrvarige baliyaii=atfci bariai kalarii karchcTai dhara-purvvakamra* 

madi Piriya Ke- 

14 *ege man^va^amnmaii^alliya Kali-dSvarig.e ajrutiTiru marada tSiitamumaih 

mattar^ggalde- 

15 yumam bittar^mmangala maha-Srl || 1 dharmmamam pratipalisidamge Yaranasi 

Kuru- 

16 kshetra Prayagey=Arggbyatirttham=emb*i tirttha-stbanamgalol sasira kavitejam 

cbatur-vveda-pa- 

17 ragar*=appa 3 bra^mag-argg^tibhayatOLukbi gotta pa(pha)lam-akfcam=l dbarmmaman* 

alidamgamaliyal=oda- 

18 rcbcbidam.gain*! pida puijya-tlrttba-stbaiamj^l'ol sasira. kavileyumam sasira 

veda^paragar==appQr v brahmana-? 

19 la(tn)man=alida patakaipa^akku II Samanya=yam 

kal kalS p|lanlyct bbavadbbih [}*] 

20 sarvYa^=petall=bbagmah parttbivemdraiibbily<5 bhnyO yachate Eamabbadrah \ (j 

[1 *] Sva-dat l [a*] tfa para-dat t [&*] in va 

1 From tke ink-impression. 

J Tb$ engraver has made after this word a ra. Breezed in between ppa and 

I 2 



68 EPIGRAPHIA ItfDtCA. [Vot. XVL 

21 y5 hareti(ta) vasnndhara [m*] [|*] shaslithi(sliti)r=yvaraliasaliasra^ra)ni 

vishta(shtha)yaih jayatg kri(kri)mih jj [2*] Baredam senabsva Jo- 

22 givayyam besa-geydam kal^kufcigam CMttojam | maiiigala maha-grl |f 

Sarasvatyaya narnah 

TBAHSLATIOM". 

(Lines 1-3.) WMle the victorious reiga of hail! the asylum of the whole -world, 
favourite of Fortune and Earth., great Ernperor 3 supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of 
Satyasraya's race, embellishment of the Chalukyas, king Trailokyamaila-Alaavamalla, was* 
advancing in a coarse of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sun* 
and stars : 

(Lines 3-11.) Hail ! The Maha-MandalS^vara who has obtained the fi^e great musical 
sounds, who bears all titles of honour such as " lord of Banavasi best of cities, ornament of 
the race of the Ksdamba emperor the great king Mayuravarinan, which is sprung from the 
Three-eyed [Siva] and Earth, presides over eighty-four cities, is consecrated in eighteen 
world-famous horse-sacrifices to (the god o/) the Frontal Eye [Siva] and the Four-armed 
[Vishnu], has established its might upon the massive summits of the great Mount Himavat, 
binds its fiery elephants to columns of crystal, and is charmiag with, great majesty, he who ia 
(attended) with the noise of permatti drams &nd (other) musical instruments, who is resplendent 
with a banner (bearing the device) of a greart ape, is canopied- in- glory, and has for crest a 
stately lion ; giver of gold to the needy, cause of victory in the fray, man of might to adver- 
saries, son of valour, a NTarajana of the gallant, a lion for his elder brother "-the Mahar 
llandalevara Harikesari-deva, 

(Lines 11- 12.) On Sunday, tlie thirteenth, of the bright fortnight of Pushya in the cyclic 
year Handana, the 974th (year) of the Sata era, atthe t^i&raj/ ami- sanikr 'ant i, in a vyatfy&ta, 1 

(Lines 12-15.) Having seat a satnmoner to tlxe Three-hundred Mahajanas of the Agra- 
tiara of ISririli, convened them, and laved their feet, made over wifeh pouring of water the house- 
tax to the Great Tank, and a garden of six-hundred trees and a field of one mat tar to the god 
Kali of that place. Happiness t great f ortuiie 1 

(Lines 15-19 : a prose- coramonitory formula of the usual type.). 
(Verses 1-2 : two common Sanskrit verses.) 

(Lines 21-22.) The town-clerk Jogivayya wrote (7w record). The stone- mason, 
Chittoja executed the order. Happiness ! great fortune I homage to Sarasvatl ! 



B. OF THE BBiaN" CXF SOHtESVARA H : SAKA 996-7. 

In the case of this epigraph also I feave been unable to trace the Bita whence it comes, or 

to find any details as to the stone. The inscribed area, which is much wora by weather, com- 

prises an tipper compartment, on which are lines 1-2, and a lower one containing all the rest ; 

it is nearly 4 ft. high and 2 ft. 7% iuu wide. The character is Kanarese, rather- strangling and 

clumsy, and resembling the Peggur inscription of AJD. 978 (no. 4 of "-Goorg Inscriptions '/* 

revised edition). The cursive forms of m 9 y, and v (above, Vol. XII, p. 335) are all found 

here : m in balamam and (?) brzfyatvamaih, 1- 22, mamfalilca , L 24, 3r$man, L 33, dharvnma?, 

11. 37, 39, kavileyumam, 11. 39-40, patakttm, L 40, Rama , L 41 ; y in sarh1trantiyaAdwn, IK 

31-32, UmchagSriya, L 32 ; and v in nerevare, L 23. The n is writtea in pamncha , 11. 30, 38 X , 

40- The height of the letters varies from f in. to f in. The language is Old ^anarese, ezoepjk 

1 A yoga ia wbicjli the declination* of sun and moan are 



No. 10.] TWO KADAMBA INSCRIPTIONS OF NIRALGL 69 

in the Sanskrit verses ou 11. 40-42 and the barbarous concluding formula. The archaic I occurs 
once, mpelda, 1. 39 ; it is replaced by I in bali, 11. 10, 33, baliya, 1. 36, aZt, 11. 39-40, and by 
r in mel-arkeyya, L 13 (a blunder for alkeya) and Srppattara, 1. 32. la regard to lexico- 
graphy, we may notice baliyan**atti 9 1. 10,, and baliy-atti, 1. 33 (see above, inscr, A.)> wwSfcjp*? 1. 
22, (?) tott= 9 1. 22, (?) brSdyatva, 1, 22, polisim, L 23 (perhaps connected with jpoZs, "to shine" 
or "to be swung about": should we then read here pol&pim ?), and avafngumie^ 1, 28 (in 
Kitfcel's Dictionary avangota). 

The record is twofold, comprising two endowments, and probably was engraved at the 
time when the second was granted. The first (11. 1-13) opens by referring Itself to the reign 
of a Chalakya king whose name id here lost; but that it was Bhuvanaikamalla (Sdmesvara H) 
is proved by the reference to him and the date in 1. 8. Tt then mentions (11. 3-5) the Maha- 
Mandalesyara Vikramaditya-deva (possibly the king's younger brother, afterwards Vikrama- 
ditya VI), and likewise (11. 5-7) a noble of the Pallava lineage named Bhuvanaikamalla- 
Pallava-Permanadi ViCslxnuvardliaua-Vijjayaditya, 1 and bearing among his other titles 
that of " lord of Kaiachi basfc of cities "; and it states that, when Vikramadifcya aixd Vishnu- 
yardhana-Yijayaditya were at Bankapura in the course of a tour of state in the service of kiug 
Bhuvanaikamalla, in Sakn 996, they granted the village of BasaltU', iu the Blambi Twenty, fa* 
the 300 Mahajanas of Nlrili for the maintenance o the cait on Bamesvara (a weil-kuown form 
of Siva) at Pomballi (11. 7-13). 

Then comes the second record (1L 13-43), It begins by introducing, in prose, with the 
usual titles of his lineage and some others, the KEdamtoa Maha'-Mandalesvara Santivarinan, 
**lord of Banavasi bast of cities '* (11. 13-21), and extols his valour and glory in four verseb 
(11. 21-30). After this comes the formal wtatement thfifc in Saka 997, when at Unchageri, 
he, in concert -with two other high officers of state, renewed the grant of the first record (11. 
30-12)/ 2 Bichchara Gangayya made the fair copy, and Sudoja engraved it (11. 42-13). 

There are two dates. The first is given on 11. 8-9 as: Saka 996, Ananda ; the full* 
moon of Asvayuja; an eclipse of the moan, Thu seems to be regular. The tithi mentioued 
was current at sunrise on Tuesday, 7 October, A.D. 1074, and ended about 20 h. 3 m. 
Orfter mean sunrise (for TJjjaiu). On that day there was a lunar eclipse, in which total obscara-* 
tion began 19 h. 30 ra. after mc^n sunrise, while the above tithi was still current. 

The second date is given on 11. 31-32 as: Saka 997, Eakshasa; Pushya uddha 1; 
Sunday; the uttaraycma-samkranti. This is qnite wrong. Pushya suddha 1 of given year 
corresponded to Friday, 11 December, AJX 1O75, on which it ended about 11 h. 15 m. after 
mean sunrise. The uttarayana-samJsr&nti, on the other hand, occurred on Thursday* 2& 
December, about 18 h. after mean salirise, so that Friday was reckoned as the first day of 
Makara. 



The places mentioned are: KancM (11. 6, 7); the nelfrvffa of Bankapura (L 8); 
Pomballi (11 10, 35) ; the Panufigal Five-hundred (1. 12) ; the Elambi Twenty (IL la, 
36) ; Basalur (i&.) ; Banavasi (11. 18, 30) ; the nele-vidu of TTfiohageri (L 32) ; and the 
tlrthas (K 37), besides a rather obscure phrase nad^Srppattara (L 32), which, is perhaps a mis- 
take for nad^irppattara^ " the Twenty of the county, 8 * viz. Elambi. Pomballi is the modern 
Hombli, lying 3| miles nearly soajih of Nlralgi, ia lat. 14 491' and long. 75 17'. One is 
tempted to identify TJnchageri with the modern Wunchigarinear Kumta. ; but the distance 
from -Nlralgi is considerable. KaiSch! (Conjeevaram), Baakapura (Bankapur), and Panufigal 
(Hangal) are well known* Elambi and Basal ur do nob seem to be traceable, 



See X>yn* Kanar. Di$tr n \>. 444 and a. 1. 2 See Dyn. JSfawar. Di&tr.* p, 561 



70 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [Vot, XVI. 

TEXTJ 

[Meire&: TV. 1 : 3, 4, Malt&sragdliarZ \ v- 2, CJiampakam&lS ; v. 5, SsLlinf \ v. 6, Amisli- 



1 Sri Svasti samasfa-bhnvan-aSraya Srl-Pri(pri) [tlLVl-yallabha maharaj-adhiraja 

paratncsvara parama-bbattarakaiii] 

2 Sityasraya-[kula-tikka7h Chsluky-abLara niih sri aiad-Bhuvanaikamalla-devara 

rajyaTn*uttarnttar-abhivriddhi-pravarddbamauama-cham'lr^ 

3 harirh salattam-ire |[ Tatit-pada-padwm-5pajivi j| Svasti samadliigata-paihcba- 

maha-sa- 

4 bda-maliaTnandalesvnraTii Gauri-Ganey(S)-avataram Parwatl-priyani * * * 

* * kavanarii riam-a- 

5 (?lii(di)-samasba-prasa(fia)sti-saliifaih srimaiJ-matatnandalosvaram Vikra[inaditya'* 

deva]:r II Svasti samasta- 

6 bhuvan-e5rlla(lla)sita-vlra-Pallav-anrayam . Sri-Pri(pri)ihTl-vallabIiarii Palla[ya * * 

* * *]n=amflgba-vakyam Eaih- 

7 chi-piipaTar-esTaram sriniad-Bliuvanaikaraalla-Pallava-Permnianadi(di} 

Vl[sliniivardhana(?)-Vi3jayadityanum-irddu srl- 

8 mattt-Bhuvanaikamalla-dSvargge Bathkapurada nele-Tidlnol bi [jayaih-geyda (?)] 

S ikha-varis i 3 996ney a 

9 Anamnda-saihvatsarada As^ayujada pu^uive sflma-grata^adaih^a Irimad]- 

agraharam ITIriliya mata- 

10 janarii mSnurvvarumam bally an?*atti barisi kulam karcliclu dliara-pnrvYakam 

raadi Pomballiya iirttbada 

11 sri-Kamesvai^a-devara snana-nivedyakkarii gandha-dlifipakkam namnda-divigegaiii 

matliaiimta 3 -Si(Si)va-pnnditarggaiii bhra(bra)lima- 

12 narggaih cbchhatrakkam Panumgall^aynQrada kampanam Elambiy=irppattara 

ballya badam BasalH- 

13 ra[iii] mol-arkke(Ike)ya sarw-abfeyamntara-sidhdhiyim bittu kofctai* |[ L~ f| 

Svapti samasta^kula-Tualildlia* 

14 ra-cbakravarfcti-[maba : *] -mabima-Himava^-girlmdra-rnmara-Sikliara samstliaplta - malia- 

sakti - prabtta v a m Ka* 

15 da(da)mba-kn]-anibara-prachamBda-iBa! t tfea9dananeka - samara - samaya - samudita - nija- 



16 rjjita-vlra-lakslimi-mvasa-mamdita-pracliamn^^ balavad-ari-kala-Kal- 

analam pratapa-pra- 

17 k3p'5pofca[m*] Lalatal6Aanam(na)-jagadvIdit-aslitadas-asva(sya)m6d^ 

ku]a-prasfitanx chatura(ra) Siti-nagar-adH- 
13 s'hti(sbt'hi)ta vi^istta-Banavasi-piiravar-adlalsvaram Kada(da)riiba-kamtliiravam 



19 ]a-kula-bhfisbanam permattl-turyya-uir2:gli5sa(sha)narii sakhscharemndra-dlivaja- 

virajanjaiia[m] man-ottnmga-si3iilia-lamcha(chlia)nam datt-a- 

20 rtti(rft'hi)-kamGlianarh ma^-kkolvara ga^daih samara-ma rttamrtd am rana-yijaya- 

karanafi=aBnana gariindba-varanam nam-aii-samasta-praSasti- 
SI sahiiari) srimaB-mahamandalesYaram Sa(sa)ntIvarmma*-deTar || 
bh Qpalakar*a^ig*e jagi saranuih -b [o] g [e] 4 d u- 



1 From the ink-unprmfon. 2 

3 Head watJitisiJia-. Tmaf^anfa will do equally well. H. K. S.] 
* EUlier adige or eraffi may "be read, hufc not both ; aad we should conwt 4<iranum to 



Ko. 10.] 



TWO KADAMBA INSCEIPTIONS OF HIRALGL 



71 



rvvara-balia-balamaiii manp 1 =ariidhu(dn)dam tott=al[u*]ki bal[u*]ki brldyatvamam 
pundai'=omdariid=elele miraln kadaifagal=todaral-edaral=otta.ysal=ukka- 

}palamchal poliwiiii 2 mar-ariitu kadal iierevare climradol deva Kadamba-Bndra || 
[1*] Balavad-arati-maiiindalika-gariida-lay-amtaka Sarii- 

nta-btmpa maiiiclalika-lalama maihdalika-Bhairava , mamdalika-Tiiaetra mamdalika- 
gliaratta mamdallka-raauli-vigliattita-pa- 

da-pltlia madidalika-lalata-patta ninag*ar=ddore mamdalikal* dhaiitriyolw [| [2*] 



22 



23 



24 



25 



26 kolvudariid=irkke 

chalisal blintalam^amtiim kaihpisalw- di(di)g-ga- 

27 jaman=alarisal varddhiyuih sosliisalk=e 5 chalamo pel salano tat-kshanadole 

mulidamcl~fl}io Kadarhba-Rndram [| [3*] Kadupim- 

28 daiii deva niihBn=5r bitlad^oda(da)ruv=avaiiigamte stLlam tapalam kode 

khatvamgaiii pmakam poleva nosala kan liasti-cliarinmaih sii^-o- 

29 dyadrid 6 vaifadr-ablilla-bh-at-avali kaje-koral-arddli-aiiigadoht Ganri periiparii 

paded-arddbeiinidu-prablLa-bhasura-vIkata-jara(ta) 

30 Yitamkaiii || [4*] Svasti samadliigata-parimelia-maha~sabda~m 

BaBaYasi-pxiravaT-adliiSYaram srimaH-makamaiiindalesva- 

31 ram Samntivarmma-devar Sailia(ka)-Tarsha 997neya Raksliasa(sa)- 

saaiivatsarada Pusya(shya)-su(sn)ddtia pacjiva Adi-varainumra-iittarayana-fiainkra-- 
.32 ntiyariidum=fi(a)gal iiad~e [i**]ppattaj> 7 baliya Uihchageriya nele-vldinal-Irddamdn 
srlmad-agraliaraih Kiriliya maliajanam. mu- 

33 iiflrbbaminaiii baliy-atti barisi silman-rualiaraarhndal^svai^aiii Sa(sa)miiti'varraina'" 

devaruiii inaha-pracllianaiii piriya perggade damnd.aBaya- 

34 kav=I(i)syaram[m]ayyanum malia-pradbanarii perggade ^6Tbliaiiayyanum=irddii 8 

kalam karchcM clliara-pflrvvukaiii madi Srlmat- 

35 Pomballiya tirtthada srl-RamdSvara-dcvara ariiga-bbogakkam dgyaram pfijisuva 

bralimackarigalgarh pannirvvaru in 

36 brahmanargga[m] chliatrakkam Elambiy^irpp:ttFi;a baliya badam BasalSram 

pravishtam^agi sarvv-abhyaihntata(ra.) -sidclliiyiih bittu ko- 

37 ttaru |] I dharmmamam pratipalisldaiiige Varanasi Kurukslietra Pray age 

Argbyatlrttliam=emb=l tirttlia-stliaiiamgokol u sa~ 

38 sira- kavileya kodiim kolagumaih pamnclia-'ratnamgalolu kattisi 

saslrv r var=yvedaparagar=appa blira(bra)Timariargg=nbliayaruu- 

39 kM^gotta phalanaakkum || I(l) dliarmmamana]idaiiigam^aliyal=o<^rclicHdamgam=i 

pelda puniiLya-t!rtha-st]iaBariig[al*]olu sasira kavi- 

40 leynmam s&sirvvar-vveda-paragar-appa brah.ma^.arumaiL=alida pamnclia-maha" 

pata^am^akku [m] || Samaiiy 5=yarix dharmma-setam ( tur ) *Byii(nri) - 

41 pananx kale kale palaniya "bhavadbhili [|*] sarvvan=etaiL^blLagiiiaii parttHYeiimdr^^ 

bMy5 bMyo yachate Ramabhadrah [[|* 5*] 
42 SYa-datt[a*]m para-datt[a*]m Ya y5 hareti(ta) Yasumndliaram [|*] shaslitir*vvarsTia- 

saliara(sra)9i vipta(slitlia)yaiii jayate kri(kri)mih. || [6*] Baredam 
43 G-aihgayyam \ besa-geydaiii kahtkufciga Sud5jaih [||*] Mamgala maha-fei 

Sarasyatyaya namah. 



Tl\& p is not certain: it may be v. 
Written separately, as balarat 
Written eepar&tely, as 
Se above. 



2 Perhaps a mistake for polepim ; see ubove. 
4 Read adrini draw urn* 

* Apparently to bo corrected to -odyaj-jade, 
8 Or possibly *W<#u i.6. 



7*2 EPIGBAPHIA TNDICA. [VoL.XVL 

TRANSLATION, 

(Lines 1-3.) Fortune ! While the reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole world, 
[favourite] of Fortune and Earth, [great Emperor, sttpreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament] 
of Satyasraya's [race, embellishment of the ChSlukyas, king Bhuvariaikamalla,] was 
advancing [in a course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as BKOB, sun, 
ai*d stars] : 

(Lines 3-5.) When he who finds sustenance at his lotus-feet, hail ! the Maha-Mandale- 
svara who has obtained the five great' mnsical sounds, having all titles of honour such as 
<$ incarnation of Gaurl and Ganesa (F), beloved of Parvati, protection . . " the Malia- 
inandalesvara Vifcramaditya-cJeva, 

(Lines 5-8.) Likewise hail !* the scion of the heroic Pallava race illustrious over the 
whole world, favourite of Fortune and Earth, ... of the Pallavas, unfailing in speech, 
lord of KafichI best of cities, Bhuvanaikamalla-Pallava-Permanadi VishmivardTaana {?)- 
Vijayaditya, in concert (with him), having made a tour of state for king Bhuvanaikamalla, at 
the standing camp 1 of Bankapura, 

(Lines 8-33*) On the full-moon day of Asvayiija in the cyclic year Ananda, the eeetfa. 

(year) of tbe Saka era, during an eclipse of the moon, having senfc a suminoner and convened 
the Three-hundred Mahtijanas of the Agrahara of Nirili and laved their feet, made over with 
pouring of water Basalur, a town belonging to the Eiamtoi Twenty, a county of the PSmin- 
gal Five-hundred, with full internal authority of higher administration, for the baths and 
oblations of the god Ramesvara of the sancf.uary of Pomballi, for scents and incense, for perpe- 
tual laim>s, for the learned men of (the cult of) Siva resident in the monastery, for the Brah- 
mans, and for the charity -halK 

(Lines 13-21. > Hail ! The MahaMandalesvara Santivarma-dgva, who bears all titles of 
honour such as <* he whose puissance of great might is established upon the massive summits of 
the great Mount Himavat mighty of majesiy, the emperor of all central mountains ; a magnifi- 
cent sun in the sky of the Kadamba race; he whose awful rod-like arm is adorned by the 
residence of heroes' Fortune won by the victories of his arms uplifted on the occasion of many 
a fray; a fire of Doom to potent foemea's races; inspired with majesty and wrath; sprung 
from the lineage consecrated in the consecratory rites of eighteen world -renowned horse-sacri- 
fices to (jihe God of) the Frontal Bye; presiding over eighty-four cities ; lord of that best of 
cities the peculiarly excellent Banavasi; lion of the Kadambas ; ornament of the race of the 
Kadamba Emperor, the great king Mayizravarman ; he who is (saluted) with the noiee of 
permatti drums and (other) musical instruments, who is resplendent with a banner (bearing the 
device) of a great ape, who has for crest a lion stately in pride ; giver- of gold to the needy, 
man of might to adversaries, sun in battle, cause of victory in the fray, furious elephant for his 
elder brother ": 

(Verse L) When puissant hostile monarchs come bowing at his feet for refuge, 2 in fear and 
terror of hie irresistible might of arm yearning for the word u stop/ 5 they confess their shame : 
at once, aha ! as they swell in pride, put forth effort, become arrested, bend, contract them- 
selves, boil in rage, strike in resistance, confronting (thee) B . . . will they be able- to con- 
tend in the fray, Eudra of the Kadambas ? 

"(Verse 2.) king Santa, thou Death-spirit of cosmic dissolution to warriors of puissant 
eneoay princes, ornament of princes, Bhairava to princes, Trijgietra [Siva] to princes, grindstone 
to princes, tBoti whose footstool is rubbed by prinoeB* crests, thott frontal diadem of princes, 
what princes oo earth are like to thee ? 

i See J.R.A.S., 1917, p. 117. * Sw on text;, above. * See above. 



TWO KAPAMBA tSTSOMPTIOHS OP NIRALGI. 



75 







g ,eat stains shakes the .Hole earth, bringa 

Ol i8not 



(Verse 4.) In thy pride O king, thou hast, with not a single one of them lacking, <&',) 
brandished sword pike, skulls parasol, fcfcai^a-club, trident, gleaming frrntal exe, elephant- 
Hide, high mass of haxr on the head, troops of fearful goblins as votaries, black throat, Gaurf, 
occupying half of (S^o,*) body, and (hair dressed in the shape of) a dovecot OE the top of 
wondrous matted tresses radiant with the lustre of the half -moon who has obtained eminence 

(Lines 30-33.) Hail! the Maha-MandalgsVaia who has obtained the five great musical 
sounds, lord of BanavSsi best of cities, the MaM-Mandalesvara Ssntivarma-deva, en Sunday, 
the first of the bright fortnight of Pushya in. the cyclic year Eakshasa, the e7th (ymr) of 
the gaka era, on tbe uttarayana-sarfrbrSnti, when he was at the standing camp of Ufichagri m 
the Seventy (?) of the county, having sent a summoner and convened the Three Hundred 
IMahajanas of Nirili, 

(Lines 33-37.) The Maha-MandalesVara Santivarma-deva, and the- high minister, senior 
controller, (andJ) general Isvarammayya, and the high minister (and) controller Sobhanayya 
In concert, having laved the feet (of ihe MahSjanas^ made over, with pouring of water 
Basaltir, a town belonging to the Elambi Twenty, inclusively with full internal authority, for 
the personal enjoyment of the god RamesVara of the sanctuary of Pomballi, for the celibates 
and the twelve Brahmans worshipping the god, and for the charity-hall, 

(Lines 37-40 : a prose formula of the usual type.) 

(Verses 5-6 : two common Sanskrit metrical formulae.) 

(Lines 42-43.) Bichchara Q-angayya wrote (the grant) ; the stone-mason Sadoja executed 
the order. Happiness ! great fortune ! Homage to SarasvatJ. 



No. 11. THREE INSCRIPTIONS FROM HOTTUR. 
BY LIONEI D. BAKSTBTT. 

r, to give it its ancient name, Pottiyur~is a village in the Bankapfir i&luka of 
Dharwar District, lying in lat. 14 56' and long. 75 16', some three miles nearly due south from 
Shiggaon. The ink-impressions from which the following inscriptions have been edited by me 
were prepared for the late Dr. Meet, and are now in the possession of the Trustees of the 
British Museum. 

A. OF THE REIGHN" OF SATYASBAYA : SAKA 929. 

This inscription is cut upon a rectangular block, divided into six horizontal bands, and sur- 
mounted by a stepped top ; I can find no record of the site where it stands, or stood. The 
irtone is a vlragal, with sculptures of the usual type : in the uppermost compartment, a seated 
god with . fan-bearer on each side ; below this, lines 1-6 of the inscription ; below this the 
hero being carried up to heaven by deities, one on each side ; below tmi .lines 7-12 of tf*. 
inscription; below this, a battle-scene, representing in the centre the hero wrih a bow, facmg to 
ihe proper left and ahooting agauwt two archerg, while a ted man is falirng F erced 



74 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVL 

arrows at Ms feet, and six cows stand behind him ; below tWs is tlie base. 1 Tlie width, of tlte 
inscribed bands 13 about 2 'ft. 5 in., and their height about 6| in. They are very much worn, and 
parfs happily not material are quite broken away. Tlie character is Old Kanarese of the 
period, rather clumsy and irregular- The height of the letters varies generally between | In, 
and f in. The cursive y appears in c7iayafagala[m], 1. 5, and ^geriya, L 12 (see above, Vol. XII 3 
p. 335). The language is Old Kanarese prose. Original I is preserved, and sometimes I is 
wrongly written for Z. The words talarath, 1. 9 (see above, ITol. XVI, p, 80), and eltu (eltam, 
1. 10, and eUige t L ll*), the source of the modern ettu, are deserving of notice, 

The record, after giving the date (L 1) 3 describes in detail an invasion by the ClioJ.a kin**, 
whom it styles Eajaraja 3STitya-via5da Bgjendra-vidySdliara JSTurniadi-OhoJa (1L 1-3), 
This evidently refers to Hajaraja I, who was reigning at the time, and bore the title of Nitya- 
vinoda, {Soutfi-Ind* Inscr., Vol. II, pp. 151, 260 n., 301). It then relates Ms defeat by the Chalukya 
Akalankacbarita-tlrivabedaiiga Satyaaraya, and the latter 1 s triumphal progress through the 
south (1L 3-6). While Satyasraya in the course of this campaign was at the gTiatta of Tavare 
(gee Dyn. San. Distr., p. 433), and certain persons, wb.o$e names are lost, were acting as 
gavundas of the na$u and the town of PottiytLr respectively, a raid was made by jobbers upon 
the oxen belonging to the betel-traders, and the beadle G-oj jiga perislied in a valiant attempt to 
save them. In recognition of his courage the betel -traders made a grant, apparently for a Jcal* 
nadu (11. 6-12). The stone was prepared by Macho ja of IndSsvarageri (1. 12), 

The date is given in L 1 as Saka 9 [2] 9, the cyclic year Plavamga being current. What is 
meant is evidently A.D* 1O07-9, with which Plavamga coincided the words pravarttisuttum* 
ire, "being current," refer to Plavamga, not to Saka 929 j for Plavamga corresponded to Saka 
929 lapsed and Saka 930 current* 

The places mentioned are Donavimi (1, 2), the ghatta of TSvare, or "the Lotus- Ohafc" 
(L 6), the Panungal Five-hundred (11, 7-8), Pottiytir (1, 9), and Indesvarageri (1. 12). Dona- 
vrura must be Donftr, in the Bagewadi taluka, of Bijapur District, in lat. 16 44J' and long. 
76 OJ y . It is not clear whether the gfiatta of Tavare means a mountain-range or pass, as 
Dr. Fleet holds (JDyn, ICanar* Xtistr., p. 433), or a bank or quay. Panungal is of course the 
modern Hangal, and PottiySr is Hottur. I cannot locate Indegvarageri but there was a sanc- 
tuary of Indresvara at BankapUr, 

TEXT. 3 

1 5$ Saka-varislia 3 9[2]9neya Plavamga-samvatsaram pravarttisuttum-ire | 

Eajar[a*]ja BTitya-vinoda Bsjemdra-vidyadlia[ra] 

2 Cliola-kula-tilakam Nnrmmadi^ChoJam nava-laklika(kklia)-balaiii-herasu ba&dm 

Donavnradol^bitt-ildu desa(sa) vellavam s-ar e-gon dii [s] trl- 

3 vadhe bala-vadhe brahmana-vadhegalain geydu pendiram p[i]4idu 

madi Cholanirppinam ) Svasti grl~raja- 

4 ra [ ja] param^sva (fiva)ra parama-bhattarakan AkalaCla>mkacliarita [n-I]riva-. 

b[e] damga Cha;lukya^kuja(la)-tila(la)ka Tigula(la)-mari sii- 

5 matjSatyOTaya-dera[m] Chojana[m] bem-ko^du vastu-vahana-chayamgala[m] 

pididu tezhka~di* 

1 There seema to-be likewise on inscriptiom running down both sides of the stone. Very little of it is legible 
hot it apparently mentions Saty&fraya's dig.vijaya, (cf, our inscription below, 11. 5-6), some of Ms titles, and tb 
same (loat) and borne, (Mulaval}i) of tbe Tnrit^r. 

the iak-impression, * 



Ko. 11.1 THEEB INSCRIPTIONS FROM EOTTTTB. 76 

6 g-vijayam-geydu Tgvareya ghattadol=ildtL samudra-mudiiia-d]iar5,.cfaakr*man==5ka- 

7 cha(chchha) [ttra-chchhayeyol ?] rajyam-geyyutfc-ire fl Gamndl * 

****** mma Panum- 

8 gall=[aynaja]ja nal-gavundu-geyye [| ***.** trapa ****** fcfce 

nalla 

9 Manu-margg-acharita Some's'vara-dasi M * * yyam 1 Pottiy[fira ?gavundu-ge]yye 1 

talaram 

10 Gk>jjiga[m] ta[m]buligar*M3ltam ka]Iar*kkole kadi * * deva-lokakb=esedan i 

tambuliga-sasi- 

11 rvva[r*] neredu 2 eltige 1 visavaxh emdimge kottaru | idain kadamg-asva($va)- 

medhada phalam ali- 

12 dam. pamcha-malia-pataka, \[ Besa-geydan=Indesva(sva)rageriya llaclidja | 

TEANSLATIOlSr. 

(Lines 1-3.) The cyclic year Plavamga, (corresponding to) tiie 929th. (year) of th 
era, Toeing current when Bajaraja Nitya-viaoda Egjendra-vidyadhara, ornament. of tie 

a race, Wtormadi-Cli51a, came accompanied by a liosfc of nine-tmadred thousand (men), 
halted at DonaTura, and was ravaging the whole country, perpetrating murders of women, 
children, and Brahmans, seizing women, and overthrowing the order o caste, 

(Lines 3-7.) Hail ! the auspicious king of kings, supreme Lord, supreme Master, 
Akajankacharita Irivabedanga, ornament of the ChSlukya race, slayer of Tamils, the 
auspicious king SatySsraya, drove away the Choja, captured his trains of baggage-waggons, 
and made a triumphal progress through the South ; 

( Lines 7-11.) And while (* the course .thereof), being at the gftatfa* of Tavare, he was 
reigning over the circle of the ocean-sealed earth under the shadow of his single parasol, at what 
tiie . was exercising the office of count y - ? ^nda over the PSnungal nve-hundred, 

(and) ' ' . . follower of the courses of Manu, servant of SsmeSvara, was exercising the 
office of ,**. over Pottiytir, the beadle <*** defended the Hne of ^ "^T '^ 
robbers were carrying them off - . . and rose to honour m parade. The Thousand of fh 
betel-eellers in assembly granted 1 tffro for each ox in perpetuity. 

(Lines 11-12.) To him who preserves this there shall be the same reward as for an 
a^-aSr sacrifice; he who violates it incurs the guilt of the five deadly sons, liae^a of 

IndiSvaragSri executed the order. 

B. OP THE BEIGN OP JATASIMHA H : SAEA 05&. 

This record is cut upon a sixme which was found somewhere in Survey Ko 91 j h* exact site 
X do no^r The J has . *.~ - - ^ ^ ^ f lS 
on the proper right a cow (P) ^^1 and &| in. wide.-The character is Kanarese, 
area below this as about 6 ft. 1, ^.^ ^ " ^ hei M &* about 1 in. to * ia ; 

of a rather irregular hand of the period. The letters W^nfif ^certain 

tbey are fargest at the *^^ffi^^^,. , (abovl Vol. ZII P . 
whether the sonne is written. In the ** a11 t]iri ^ cnrsive thrice.- 




a Or neradu ; tie letter is Bot 
Either tiwii-raiao . K 2 



76 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [y OL . X.VI. 



preserved in $#a[&], 1. 2, ildu, L 41, negald**, L 19, and irregularly in palam, L 42; it is 
replaced by I in pelavara, L 16, aZtd!*, 1. 43, at<2a, L 44, and perhaps baliy**, L 37. Initial p is 
kept throughout. Of some lexical interest are ; vadda-lagula, L 32, and vadda-lavula, 1. 37 
(for the more usual form vadda-v uvula), pannakeni^ L 32, and chatta, L 24* 

The record opens with a short statement of a grant made "by the three controllers of taxea 
of the county (1L 1-3). It then refers itself to the reign of Jayasimha (II) Jagadekamalla 
(11. 4-6), and states that at the time of the endowment to be chronicled Akka-devi 1 
(the sister of Yikramaditya V, on whom see Dyn. Kanar. Distr^ pp. 435, 437 ? 439 f.) wa g 
ruling the Banavasi Twelve-thousand (11. 6-7) ; the maka* mandate &ara Mayuravarma-deva 
* c lord of Banavasi best of cities 5 ' and "a lion for Harikanta," was administering the 
game province and the Panungal Five-hundred (11. 8-12) ; Mara Gavunda of Pottiyur, who is 
described as " a brother-in-law to the lame " (ci inscription C, below, 11. 16-17) and hence by 
reason of this service to the physically afflicted as " a UrtiTia (holy place, where the sick and 
crippled resort for divine help) in the midst of the county, a Somanaiha (Somnath) of the 
south/' was serving as pralhu or sheriff of the Panungal Mve-hundred (11. 13-22) ; the 
Kannada-sandh'imgra'h'i (minister for affairs of peace and war in the Kannada Country) and 
general Chavanarasa, who is described among other epithets as a chatty to Siiiga (possibly 
Jayasimha II), a comet (or fire) to the Konkan, an uprooter of Parniala, a grindstone to 
Paleysvattana, a shatterer of the pride of the fortress of Bijavadi, and a disfapatta to Dora, 
was ruling the Belvala Thre^-hirqdred and the Purigere Three-hundred (1L 23-29) ; and the 
pergade Akalimayya was controlling the taxation of. Belvala and Purigere (11. 29-32). Then 
follows tlie specification of the endowment (11. 32-42), by which certain high revenue officials 
arranged for the division of the tolls on betel-leaves between the various taxation-departments 
and assigned a proportion for the upkeep of the Kemgere, or " Bed Tank," presumably in or 
near Pottiyur. The record ends with a moral verse written by the town-clerk Dasimayya or 
X>asiga 

It is worthy of note that the Banavasi province was at this time under the rule of both 
Akka-deri and Mayuravarman. TKe fact suggests that there was some close connection 
between the two, sucli as that of husband and wife ; and this inference is supported by the in* \ 
scription 0, below, which shews that Akka-devfs son, the Kadamba maha-mandalewara Toyima- 
deva, possessed titles very similar to those borne in the present record by Mayuravarman. Botfy 
were " lords of Banavasi best of cities " ; Mayftravarman is Har*[a*]wtewa sirhga (B., L 10), 
Tdyima-deTa is Harigana, simga (0., L 13). It seems therefore reasonable to infer that 
Mayuravarman was married to Akka-devi, and that T6yima-dSva was their son. Mayttm-t 
varman's title HariJ&ntana simga, " lion of Harikanta/ 5 seems to point to some services rendered 
to a king of that name, who may have been a predecessor (perhaps the grandfather) of the 
Kadamba Harikesarin or Hariga of Bankapur; see above, YoL XIII, p. 168 ff., and below, 
inscr. 0. 

The date 3 is specified on L 34 as : Saka 959, Isvara ; Margasira guddha 11 ; a Monday- 
This is regular : the given UtU corresponded to Monday, 2} JToYember, A,D. 1O37, on which 
day it ended at 11 h, 50 m, after mean sunrise (for TJjjaiQ)* 

The places mentioned are Pottiyur, i.e. Hofcfcflr (II 19, 34) ; the Banavssi Twelve-thousand 
(II 7, 12, 32 ; spelt Vanavase on L 7) ; the town of Banavasi (1. 8) ; Somanatha (L 17) ; tha 
PnungalPive^hundred (U, 12, 22, 32, 38) ; the Konkan (L 26) ; Panna^a (L 26) ; Baley*- 
vattaga (L 26) ; Bijavadi (L 27) ; P5ra (L 27) ; the Bejvala Three-hundred (L 28) ; thq 

1 1 think there can be no reasonable donbt "that this name mnst "be restored on L 7, although the letters **a 
^Q be upplied by conjecture to fiU the gap caused by the breaking of the fltpne on the proper right side. 

* I hfrve to thanfc Mr, K. Sewell fpr his kindnew in Ywif ying my calculationf in this ud the next incription 



Ko. 11.} THEEE INSCRIPTIONS FROM HOTTER, 7T 

^urigere or Pnligere Three-himdred (II 28, 39) ; the Ox-hundred composed of Belvala ind 
Puligere (11. 31, 39) ; Mfilayalli (1. 36) ^Kallavana (1. 36) ; the Winery-six (1. 40) ; the Kern- 
gere or " Red Tank " (11. 41, 42) ; and Banarssi, i.e f Benares (I 43), SSmanatha Is of course 
the famous sanctuary of Somnath in Junagarh State ; and Panungai is now Eangal, Panna;a, 
elsewhere termed also Parmaleya-ksfce, Pannale-durga, Pranalaka-durga, and ParlmaiJila-dTirga, 
is now panlaala, about 12 miles KTW. of Kdlhapur (see Dyn* Ranar. Dirfr., p. 54*3], Baleya- 
yattana is mentioned again in Jp. Cam., YoL II (Inter, of Sramna Belgola), Xo. 56 (cf. ilnd.. 
introd., p. 41, and Dyn. Kanar. Distr., p. 496). I venture to identify "It with the modem Ba*ia- 
pattam (more correctly written Valapattanam), lying in lat. 11 55' and long. 75^ 22' in trie 
Cliirakkal tdluJca of Malabar District, a few miles NW. of Cannanoi, Bafiapattani wa a 
place of considerable importance in early times ; it is the Balaipatna (wrongly -written in some' 
editions as Baltipatna) of Ptolemy's Geography, VII. L 6, and apparently the PalzipaimJi cf 



tlie Periplus (cf. McCrindle, Ancient India as described by Ptolemy, p. 45, and id., Co 
and Navigation of the Erythrean Sea, pp. 127, 129 ; Lassen, Alterfhumer, III, pp. 181, 153; ; aiul 
there is much likelihood in Kern's view that Ptolemy's Balaipatna is the Baladevapatta^a men- 
tioned in Varaha-mihira'e Brihat-samhita, xiv. 16. Bijavadi is uncertain : it may conceivably 
be the modern village of Bijwadgi near Hungund. D5ra, if it is a geographical name, may 
possibly be the same as DOrasainudra. On Belvala see above, YoL XIII, p. 40 ; on Puliger.e or 
Purigere, ib., Vol. XIII, pp. 179, 188. Hulavalli is possibly Munawalli, a village ^bont 4J 
miles SSB. from Shiggaon, 1| miles SE. from Hottar, and | mile NW. from BaiklpSr. 

TEXT,* 

[Metres : v. 1, Kanda ; vv. 2 and 5, Ghampakamzla ; v. 3, Anu&Uub'k', T. 4, Salmi.] 
, Srimat muyu nada sumkigarnv=ildu munne na^ev^Iru p-rm 

2 . ^ 6 [ka]m^yadim dharmma-cHttam putti mattam bitta pern 1 antu 7 
]m [|*] bidad-i]Lda[m] kavile 






ba raA 



7 

aluttam-ire 1| 
8 [Sva]sti samadliigata-pamolia-malia 



10 [r 

sa - 3 . ,- T ,am-adi-samasta-praBa(8a)sti-saHta 

11 [bkata-Tr]intra Budr-avatara nam adi samasi P 

varmma-devar Bar Pantu fagaU^ynurainaa"4kayatpdiii s -alda 

J.2 [mva]8i-pamiirclilichlisiiramumam Panumgau y ^ 

samkatt.a-vinOdadol=ire 




From the 



78 EPI&RAPHIA INDICA. [Voi. XTL 



13 [ta]t~pada-padm-5pajlyi S[v*]asty=anaka-guna-ga9.--alamkara. para-narl-dara gdtra- 

payitra budta-jana-mitra 

14 [g]aucli-Amjaneya . satya-Radheya SSryyamge bhakta dnrjjana-virakta kele-geyde 

(yyo?) ku(kli)rppa [m] kiirfct-Iyal^arppa [m] 

15 [b]ttdha-jan-adliara vine (na)y-ayatara si(si)sltta-prasamga nuta-diairyy-Sttumga 

asrita-jana-kalpa* 

16 yri(yri)kslia bandhu-jana-climtainam dana-ckadamani Kali-yuga-MaliesTa(lTa)ra 

pelavara bhava SS- 

17 [me]sva(sva)ra-dasi vine(na)ya-yilasi nadu-na4a tlrttha temka^a S5ma3Qadlia(tlia) 

nama di-samasta-prasa (sa) sti- 

18 saMta srimat^ j| Danam par-5pakaj?a[m*] jfiSna[rh*] Si(^i)ya-bliaktl satyam 

emb^ol-gunadolw 

19 tanadMkaneiiisi negald=abliimaiia-dliana[m*] Pottiyura Maranudara ^ [1*] 

Vidita-yas5(sO)-rttlian=:eriibTidu | bndha- 

20 stutan^embudu | satyavaiitan=eihb"adiL | naya-sa (^a)Ky s =eihbtidu 1 daya-paratt= 

emfcnzdu f sundar-amgatL==eihbu- 

21 du [I*] Manu-marggiyembndu I gnn-agraniy=embiidu | g5tra-ratztanembTidTL f 

sakha(ka)l'avaiil-ta [la] - 

22 d[o*]l=em perat^embude Mara-Gavoadana {[ [2*] Antu Pauuthgall^aynflrakkaiit 

prabhutartam-geymttam-ire j 

23 Srasti 1 samadMgata-pamclia--maha-sa(sa)bda"ma]ia"Sa (sa)ndlii-"yigra"b.'-SdHpati malia- 

prachamnda-dandanayakarii 

24 arigliat[a*]-mallam SiiBgana chattan^asrita-jana-kalpa-yrikslia^^] bhxi(bliri)tya 

cMmntamam satya-Kanma[rix*] sam ara-du(dliu)- 

25 ramdliara[m*] pratipaksta-raksliasam ripu-kiii^ihga-paiiicMiLaiia[iii*] pirid=ittu 

mareya[m] clialamam inejeyam pi- 

26 suna-tala-prahari giri-durgga-malla[m*] Komkana-di-ftma-ketTi PamiSl-eSnmttlaiiaia 

Baleyavattaria-gliarattaiii 

27 Bijavsdi-fc5te-darppa-dalanam D6r 

pada-pamkaja-bhramaram grxm at-Ka- 



28 nnada-santH(3idM)yigraln: dandanayakam Chavanarasar Belvala-muB.ufuva[m3 

Barigere-muriiimvam sukha-samklia(ka)- 

29 tliayiii5[da*]din=aluttam-ire |j Tat^-pada-padm-Spajlvi Syasfci sama^ta-rajya-bliara- 



30 jamana man-*5nnata prabhu-ma[m]tr-a(5)tsaHa-gakti-feraya-sampanna pati-hit* 

acharyyan=aclialita-dliau(dliai) ryya nudi- 

31 dante ganola nam-adi-samasta-prasa(sa)stl-sa J Mtam ferimato perggade Afcalimay-* 

yamgal-erad^arunQrara sumka- 

82 manalutt-ire 1 pannakeni yaddarlagulada suinka-yei^gade S&mgavayyanuik 
Banavssi-pannirclioliliasirada sum- 

33 ka-yerggadlie(dle) Charundaiaayyaiiuih Panumgalla3niurara manneya suthka- 

yerggadl Dudiyammanu[m] ant=anibaruyi- 

34 Idn Qs Saka-varisha^ 959neya Isvara^samvatsarada l3rggasi(^i)ra-su(su)ddha 

SomaTaradandu PottiySra 



1 THs. word is preceded on the stone "by a /a*Ja-symT>ol madb tip of small 'circloa 
31 



No. 



THREE IKSOBIPTIONS FROM HOTTUR. 



35 ra-Gavundtim 1 Qakarava Surimayya Poleyamma [Getimayya perggade 

BQMmayya senabsva Dasimayya 

36 int=ivarmmodal*4gi mflvadimbarggam Huiavalli bada Kallavariam 2 antu nalku 

badak[kam* ?] kotfca sa(a)sana-maryya- 

37 de emnt-endade eleya perimge pattemt[u*] bittu baliy~eleya pSram kaledu 

vadda-lavulada suihkadavaru perimge ko- 

38 Iva vlsavam pattu | PsnumgaU-aynurara peqjuinkamum manneya sumkamum 

kadi perimge kolva vlsavam panneradu yare | 

39 erad-arunilrara perjjumkadavaru pejimge kolva yisayam padinaydu IhiLigere- 

nada manneya suinkadavaru perimge ko- 

40 lya vlsav=aydu \ tombhatt-arajra mamnneya aumkadayaru pejimge kolya 

* j. "L. 1 * 

ylsayay= a ondu yare [ ant^aniDarii suniJs:i- 

41 garuy=ildu i(l) Kemger[e*]ge barisavala am pejra sumkamam biduyaru \ 

tambuliga-sasiryyaru 1 s i(i) 

42 Kemgerege perinalu kotfca yisayan=ondu | Antl dh.armmama[m*] kidal=lyade 

kad-atamge asya(ya)medham geyda ., palam 4 =a- 

43 kku Alid-atamge Banarasiyolu sai(yi)ra kayileynma[m] sasi[ryya]ru chatur-yyeda- 

pg,ragar=appa br[a*]- 

44 hma^aran^alida parhclia-mali5-patakanakkii f Sya-dattam para-dattam y[a] yd 

liaretu(ta) yasundharam [|*] staslitir=yyarslisliasa'- 

45 hasrani I 5 yisMMyam jayat krimi^ [| [3*] Samanya-yam dliarmma-setu[r*] 

Bri(nri)paHam kal^ kal^ palaniy<5 bhayadblii[h*] 1 saryyan^e- 

46 tan^bhaHLnafh*] prativendra 7 j bhiiy<5 bhiiy5 yacliat^ Bamabliadra[h] [j [4*] 

fw w v/ ^J w ^ ^ ^1 S5lad-ir-aliaya-ramga-bli15niiy5- 

47 lu kusiyad-ir=ittudam inagule kollad-ir[ v/w w v-* f ^" 

^ ^ v^/ w v/ ^]ttad-ir=oykane lamcliay=iiidiL ko^d-^^sa" 

48 gad-ireluyele narakam narargg(rg)-endapan-alte Dasiga | ([|) [5*] Antu 

Manii-marggi . , . tanime seiiab5ya Dasimayya[m*] barada[m] 

TBANSLA.TIO1T. 

(Lines 1-3.) - , , The ttree controllers of taxes of the county in assembly, inspired by 
piety, graciously assigned in addition to tie six loads previously in usage (/or tTw income of 
the sanctuary") I load more, altogether 7 loads. He who fails to make the grant shall incur the 
guilt of the five deadly sins, as though he destroyed cows and Brahma^s. 

(Lines 4-6,) When the reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole world, favourite of 
fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of Satyasraya's 
race, embellishment of the Chalu!feyas f king Jagadekamalla- Jayasifiga, was advancing in a 
course of successively increasing prosperity, (to ensure) as long as moon, sun, and stars : 

(Lines 6-7.) While she who finds sustenance at his lotus-feet, Akka-devi, was ruling 
the Vanavase Twelve-thousand with enjoyment of pleasant conversations : 

(Lines 8-12,) While hail ! the Maha-Maiadalesvara w ho has obtained the five graat 
jnusical sounds, lord of Banavasi best of towns, who bears all titles such as " he whose 



1 An error or &dwn> danuih or Gf-avundam ? 

a This danda fa superfluous. 

* This danda is superfluous. 

? Bead parttbivendran, and delete tire 



2 Apparently some names liave been omitted, 
4 Read 

< Kead 



EPIGRAMA IKDICA. 



temole rod-like arm is adorned by warriors' Fortune engendered from churaina- the 
of hostile hosts,* Hero of title-bearers, buffeter of the bold, a Murari to brave soldiers 
is enterprise, a lion toHarikanta, pure with warriors' Fortune, a Tringtra [Sival 
an embodiment of Bndrn," king Mayuravarman, ruling the Banavs~i 



13-18.) While one .who finds sustenance at his lotus-feet, the bearer 
aa .^^^ b/ a series of man7 ^^ ^ ; 

gstra, fnend to sages, an Anjaneya [Han 

votary of the Sun, if-dispoJto L L, 

gi-g, foundation of sages, embodiment 'of 

renowned firmness of character, free of desire to dependents, wi s hing.,e m ' 

of bounty, a MahSlvara of the Kali Age, a brother-in-law in rta i 



of 

eeteena. 






w 

fee,, c^ffa fa Stt-gl^ ifa^dSSS a :?? geM1 ^ WreStIer ' h h ^ 
[Karn, mtathfi.!,^ Mer in bawTdSn to^ ^^-f * ni^ a Ki nlna . 
forgetting it ZkZTL ^T? ^ * the dMr "" 

" 



tie lota-feet o kmg Jagadetamalu ZL ' * 1 * scatterer3 <> f D6ra, a bee 
, the 



one 



Taiooi m accordance with the name " rt, m& *ter, immovable in firmness a man f 

^^thetwo (pr ^^^ was administering 

(limes 32-34) Sangavayya, eontmlW J , ! ? /<^^ff) a Six-hundred 4 

===5==i!=!^l!^iS^^^ ^"U." - d 
^^^^^^ 

ra**!^ iv-j,- ^ tram the chummo* 



'axxtuaa 

i. 

of the 



(or 



** \^JWv V Oi _AiT I ^ >i /} 'ff* i . *' ***HM x^t v*l^9 ^^rQt*ix. 

. *i4ij t j. li. An V Al v mrT ****. w^- ^-- v* 



11.} THREE INSCRIPTIONS PROM HOTTUB. 81 



controller of the taxes of the seigniories of the Panungal Five-hundred, being together in 
assembly, 

(Lines 34-420 On Monday, the eleventh day of the bright fortnight of Margasira in 
the cyclic year Isvara, the 959th (year) of the Sa&a era, gave to the Thirty, headed by Mara 
Cravunda of Pottiyur, Gakaruva Surimayya, Poleyamma Getinaayya, the superintendent 
Btihimayya, and the town-clerk Dasimayya, and to the four towns, namely the to'Nvns of 
Mulavalli and Kallavana/an edictal regulation of the following tenour : granting on each load 
of betel-leaf eighteen (leaves'), and excepting the loads of fraZi-betel, 1 the controllers of the taxes 
of the vadda-lavula shall draw ten visa on each load ; the main-tax of the Panungal Five- 
hundred and the seigniorial tax thereof jointly shall draw twelve visa on each load regnlarly ; 
the controllers of the main-tax of the two (provinces of Belvala and Puligere forming) a Six- 
hundred shall draw fifteen visa on each load ; the controllers of taxes of the seigniories in the 
3?uligere county shall draw five vtsa on each load ; the controllers of taxes of the seigniories of 
the Ninety-six shall draw one visa on each load regularly. The above tax-officers in assembly 
shall assign to this Kemgere the tax of six loads as annual income. TJae Thousand' of betel- 
traders granted to this Kemgeye one visa on each load. 

(Lines 42-44.) So to him who guards this pious foundation, not suffering it to be injured, 
there shall be the same fruit as if he performed a horse-sacrifice ; to him who violates it there 
shall be the guilt of the five deadly sins, as though he destroyed at Benares a thousand kme and 
a thousand Brahmans versed in the Four Vedas. 

(Yerses 3-4 ; two common Sanskrit verse-f ormulee.) 

(Verse 5.) ..... be not defeated, on the stage of battle bend not, take not back 
\\ T hat has been given >**.. duly, take now no bribe. There is a sevenfold 2 hell 
for men. Thus verily saith Dasiga. 

(Line 48.) So the follower in the courses of Manu ...... the town-clerk 

Dasimayya has written* 



THE BEIGKBT OF SOMESVABA I : SAKA 988. 

This is upon a slab found by the honifa or tank in the village. The stone has a rounded top 
divided vertically into three compartments containing sculptures : in the central one is a ling a 
on a stand ; in that on, the proper right is a seated votary facing full front, with the sun and 
inoon above ; in that on the left, a cow and sucking calf. The inscribed area below this is 3 ft. 
10| in, high and 3 ft. 6 in. wide. The characters are good Kanarese of the period, but consi- 
derably worn, so that it is often difficult to arrive at certainty in the reading of details such a$ 
the sonye. The letters are from |- in. to | in. high. The cursive y (above, Vol. XII, p. 335) is 
used in Pottiyur- (1. 5). The language is Old Kanarese, except for the formal Sanskrit verses 
on 11, 40-42* The Z appears in irlda, for ilda or irda (1. 15), negaldan (L 18), ndl (1. 22), 
ildu (11. 22, 32) it is changed to I in Chdla (L 4), pelavamge (1. 17), alid- (1. 39), and to r in 
berkuve (L 17). Initial p is preserved, except in the name Handiyur (1. 6).. The upadhmamya 
is found in the Sanskrit bhaginah=p (L 41). Words of lexical interest are : Jcuttumbitti {1. 6). 
garuli (L 12 t Kittel has garudi), barhgara (L 13 : apparently to be distinguished from bamgara), 
baruhi (1. 23 : for Sanskrit barhi), sote (1. 32 ; possibly connected with Sanskrit 'sudha), poge-voge 
(1. 34), pada-bara (1. 35), bojamga (L 37), ugura (1. 37). On the nominativally used genitive 
Kesi Gavundana in L 32 see J". E. A. 8., 1918, p. 105, 

The record first refers itself in 1L 1-3 to the reign of Trailokyamalla-Ahavamalla 
(Somes vara I), and then mentions one of his feudatories, the Maha-Mandale^vara Jemarasa, as 

1 I do not trfow whether baU here means a special kind of "betel, or signifies "gift," 
* This is also the Jain number* Manu speaks of 21. 



83 EPIGBAPHIA IMDICA. [ToIi 




Oar inscription Iow iatrodaces Goduvara Msra Osvunda of 



, 



."STr-'T-f""" i^sx.:-s,r.s?.cs- 

P-I/U) who, regarding him as a son, gave Mm his own name m 24 ?A i - i i ' 

bountiful gifts to men of eminence HI 2 72ft rt ? ( , )- Besic l es makl ^g various 

of Ke-savelvara (11 28 30^^ .V ? ?' constructed a temple of Siva with the title 

Tayima-deva, and M!^? (^80^^tT?,T ?** * ^^^ 
possibly she was Toyima-deva's ,2^ f } ' , tnis Mailala-dgvi was does not appear; 



, and , 

she was Toyima-deva's ,2^ f } ' , tnis Mailala-dgvi was does not appear; 

l (o n ^r 5e fa^veT^/^ SU ^ T tt0thiSead Wmettt ' T6 ^-^va's mother 
occasion of Lvinal Set ?teS iTi T^ 11 t0 tt6 ^^ th& fee due to her on ^ 
is mteresting to find a womanT r * aaa ^ an rt t0 the n ^ an g ikabbe (11. 35-37). It 
ascetics. KnaUy te lej Z th ? f a re P resentative P ositio - - community of Saiva 

^etod^IS^t^^^?^T Tr 6 " b7 ^ P et ^^allabha, and 
deva ; the mason Z^**** "'^ 192 ' P- 377 --) -d Balabhadra- 



of 

grievously incozc if *' rt**"****-"**"** ; a ryaW^o. This is 

in the ven' * 



' 3 J a ^ ". 1O67, on which day t 



. , y 

ya, not Hasta - and ( ' "*!? SUm>ISe> S ^ M ^^sponded to the naJcshatra 

when the ^AWu ? 24 Decem ^ ^ 1066, 



u 

cycle, the titU ^con^^' o ' 

about 12 h. 24m of t l " P ^ J ' 2 IJecember ' AJX 1064, on which day it ended 
53m. after meS ^0^^ ^ S* ilW f^ a ^*^ of *hat year too/plaee 21 h 

and the na^atra at mean suniise on th e 



of 



No, ll.j THEEE INSCRIPTIONS PEOM HOTTUB. 83 

full- moon, day of Paushya was Punarvasn. Calculation by mean longitudes and motions will 
not remove these discrepancies ; for it gives as tifhi and week-day tlie same date (Sunday, 26 
December, A.D, 1064), with. Friday, 24 December, for the uttaraydna-samJcrant^ and Punarvasu 
as naJcshatra. 

The places mentioned are : PottiyQr (11. 5, 8, 15, 22, 30, 32 1), Elavatti (1. 6) > 'U"ittasiitgi- 
(1. 6), Handiyur (1. 6), the Male or Highlands (1. 11), Banavasi (L 11), the Banavasi Twelvs- 
thousand (1. 14), the Panungal Five-lmndped (1. 14), arid Kovagere (L 33 .) Elavatti is 
the village called Telawati in the Bombay Postal Directory and Talvatti in the^ Bombay Survey ; 
it lies in Hangal taluTca,, in lat. 14 51f and long. 75 1Q|'. Nittasingi is now Nidsiagi 
(IsTidsangi in the Bombay Survey), in the same^ taluka^ in lat. 14 52' and long. 75 10| A . 
Handiyiir I cannot locate, unless (which I doubt) it is to be identified with " Haaadihal " of 
tlie Survey, a village 4| miles nearly west of Hangal town, in lat.. 14 45 J' and long. 75 5|' . 

TEXT. 1 

[Metres : vv. 1, 3, 4, 6, Kanda ; w. 2, 7, 8, 9, MattslTiavikrldtta ; v. '5, MaJiasragdhara j 
v* 10, SalinZ ; vv. 11, 12, AnusJipubh ; v. 13, Champakamala.'] 

o ' ^ 

^ O oS^^sii samasta-bhuvan-asraya SrI-Pri(ppi)thvl-vallabha maharaj-adhiraja 

o 

paramesva(Sva)ra parama-bhattarakam Satyasraya-knla-tilakam Claalu- 

2 ky-abharanam ^rima[t*]-Trail6kyaiiialla-Ahavamalla-devara vije(3a)ya*rajyam= 

uttar-5ttar-abhivri(vri)ddhi-pravarddhamanama-chamdr-a Tbaram sa- 

3 luttam-ire (j tat-padapadm-5pajivi [| Samadhigata-pamcha-maha-sabda- 

mahamandalesvaraih samara- Haha(he)svaram sau(a l a)ryya-kanthlravam* rana- 
ramga-Bhairava [rii] bhritya-chintamani 

4 subhata-si()r(3mani satya-Eadheyam sau(san)ch-Amjanoyarii bhuvan-abhiramam 

sahas-5ddamam svarni-samnnaham budha-jan-5tsaharh ChSla-bala-jaladhi'-Badav- 
analarii Bhoja- ^ 

5 kal-analamnubhaya-bal-acharyyam Mandara-dhairyyaih srimad-Aiiavamalla-devaara 

vagga nam-adi-samasta-prasa(sa)sti-sahitaih srimanmahamandalesvara3L Jema- 
rasam Pottiyu* 

6 r=Elavatti Nittasimgi HandiyQra modal=age palavum badamgalaih 

kuttumbittiyan-anugii-jivitadin-altittav-ire | tat-tanfljaih || S^madhiga- 

7 ta-pamcha-maha-sa(sa)bda-mahasamantam vlra-lakshml-kantanx medini-mallam ripu- 

hri(hri)daya-sellan=ayyana gamdha-varanam vairi-samharanam kttinara-!Nara- 
Narasiin- 

8 ga nam-adi~samasta~prasa(a)sti-sah itam Sriman-mahasamamnta 01 Joyiyarasam 

knmara-vri(vp)ttiyim PottiyQranaluttam-ire (j Samasta-bhuvana-jana-vixmta-pada- 
payd- 

9 3a-ParamSsvara~Ha:m-Dhar-am^ ksliamadhar*en 

dra-rumndra-si(si)khara*samsthapita-sakti Yyakta-bhu]a-ni]-amishthit-5shtadas(s)- 



10 medha vilnlita-sit-atapatra-traya-virajamana mahim-My-aneka-sammna(mra)jya-rajaka- 

virajita-pavitra-tKshatra Kadaajatoa-kula-bhiishan a 

11 pernimatti-tiiryya-nirggh5shanam samadhigata-pamcha-maha-^abda-mahamaiid.alesva(sva)-' 

rain Banavasi-ptiravaresva(sva)ram ma[r*]kkolvara gandam Malege 
inarttanda [m] 

1 Ptom the ink-impression. 2 Apparently some word like grasiita is missing hereabouts. 

L 2 



84 EP1GRAPHIA INDICA, [YoL. XVI. 

12 satya-ioity-odayam lanciL-Amjaneyam gondala-Chaturmmnkliam samara-irmklia- 

SBanmtddiaiii kaiaduka-Sahasrabalm samgrama-Ralm para-garuli-Parasu(gu)- 
Ramam blruda-ka- 

13 * * Bliiinaii=aras-amka Hruda-bamgarain=Meruganamka]s:ra sakas-Ottuihga 

Harigana sixiiga raam-adi-]^masta~prasa(sa)stl~saliita [m] Srlman-maliainanda- 

14 1 esYa (Ya)ram T6yima-devar TTvanavSsi-pamnirclieliliasir anmma [m*] Panum gall 

aynHaruvam suklia-samkata(tlia)-Yi:a^ |[ Kamda | 

15 A nadol==akliila-g]iatlk [a*] -sthanav-id=eiiisittu Pofctiyuradaral salllna-mati Maran= 

ncliita-Taciio-iiIdlii gayunda-samyadol snkh.av=irlda(lda) |j [1*] Vii(vri)tta |[ 
Knduva- 

16 3^vvedidod-art7tMg=aitthi(i^tlia)*cIiayamam srimamtar^Timt^eiiuinani kndar=I 

lokadol=<)nd^apui^vav^eiLisal-kal==illadar=vvedi bandade kalam nija-saktiyim 
palargge(rge) gottarix Mara-Gravunda- 

17 xi=eiidade tat-sat[t*]Yada ^ tat[t*]vad=TJihnatiyan^amt=iriit^nmt=[e*]nalbOT || 

[2*] Gunadolam=a-lavinolam Mamig=eney==ene pelavamge kalan=ittudarim 
daksMnaS6nianadlia(t]ia)n=ene dharim- 

18 talam negaldan=alte Maranudaram H [3*] IrfcLtiz par-aiitliaYtijii purust- 

artthamum berasu Goduvara Mara- Gravun dam gavundu-geyyutt-ire || ta=t- 
tanubliavaih |[ Jalanidhlyo- 

19 l-Tidupan=uday-achaJadol=inaiii ptLtfcuY=ante YD! GodTiva-sat-knladol=udi(da)yisi 

su-pui:ralL(iii) knlad=id[u*]k[e*3y=enisi Elesi jasamam padedam [[ [4*] 
Samasta-l5- 

20 ka-stnyaman-aneka-guna-gan^adlaaram para-nari-d-aram taya-Vatsa-rajam ganika- 

Manojarii Marana ehakrana nyaya-chakram sttiti-sara-samudram kadan-aika- 
Rudram e* 

21 karhga-Ylram Vlr-Yataram chalake bal-gandam Yairi-bhernmndam pai^a-bala 

Parttliam nadu-nada tlrttham dana-cMmtamard Yibudha-rakshamar^l SOmesvara- 
dasi Yinaya-Yilasi 

22 Yairi-Narayanaih nam-adi-samasta-prasa(sa)sti-saliitam grimacli-Clialiikya-Q-amga- 

Vermmadi Ksa(sa)Ya~Gavundam nal-prabtutYadim PottiytargLg]e gavundu* 
geyyuttav-Ildu [[ 

23 Vri(Yri)tta |j Padedam Kadainba-Yaras(s)-agrani"-E[arigamahi (hi)palanpl 

chamar-augliaih gndi chaukaiii blieri samkam ^aruM-bahala-pimcliliataYam 2 
Yaranam. bel-godey=emb-I rajya-clii- 

24 h.na-brajamaii=^iidIta-tiYra-prabha-bh.asI tan=endade Iiu(]i5) bappappud=imt=l 

bliiiYaBa-"bliaYaiiadol Kesi-tejd-Yilasani | j [5*] Magan=enag=ltane Chalukya-* 
Gam ga-Vermzriadiy=endu 

25 pesar-ggo(go)ttam Kesig mecliclii naclicM Chal,ukya*&amga-Vermmadi- 

nri(nri) pam s |j [6*] Param-5tsaliadiii=itta 
cliamara-yiigmam gudi Ylra-bheri si(si)- 

26 kM-pirhclia (chlaa) - [eh*] cliliatram=emd=int [u*] G-amgara Chalukyara ra jya-cHlina- 

cliayamani sr!-Vilorainaditya-bk1idharan=eiiib==iiiinati 
peramg=ak[k*]uY=em [j [7*] Vri(Yri)tta | 

27 TJdaka-sYarnna-cliay-ainnna-dana-giiiiadiiii go-daiiadlm bli1imi-danadin=tikslia-brajaT 

danadiih Yividlia-Yidya-danadim nitya-danadin=udjat-tila-daiiadi [m] nikhila- 



i For leLfcume ? [or barTcume. H. H. S.] 2 The ra is not clear. Bead *$imckh-atap-ai>aranan> m 

3 Tbis verse is two feet short in the last pccda. [Perhaps the syllables Filcra-maditya are omitted before the 
word nripam. H. K. S,] 



;No. 1L] THREE INSCRIPTIONS PROM HOTTUR. 85 

28 kany fi~daiiadim tushti-ma4idan~ut^kri (kri) shta-janakke Kesa(sa) van=id=eih sad (cli) - 
chitta-sampaimanS || [8*] Pranat-abKislxta-pa(plia)la-pradatanan=agliu (glia)- 

pr>adlivamsiyam bhogi-bliuskana- 

iJ9 iiaiii Sa(sa)riikai t anarii pratishti(shtlii)si xnalia-saYasamaiii pnnya-pfiraiiainam 
pujitamam sila-racliitamam rarajit-otturiiga-torauaTam madisi Kesi 

bhasara-yasa[s*]-srl-kante(iiti)- 

30 yarii taldidam || [9*] Intu Pottiyura Permmadi Kesi G-avundanurii 

niuvadimbarurii sukliadin=lre |j Svasti Sa(sa)ka-nri(nri)pa-i:al-atlta-samvatsara- 
sa(sa)tamga [1*] 988neya Parabhava-samvatsa- 

31 rada Paushya-su(su)ddha piinnaTey^Adityayaraiii Hasta-naksliatram=uttaraTana* 

sariikrantiyum vj-atipataclamdu maliasamanta Joyiyarasarum raalianiandale' 

sva(sva)ram T6yima-deva 
S2 num Mailala-deviyaruv=ildu Pofctiyura Permmadi Kesi Gavundana aiadisida 

kerey=eriya megana Kesavesvara^devargge bifcta dliarmmav^ent-eiiidade 

degulada sote-sunnakkam pu (pn) j[a] 
33 rigaih 2 devargge gamdliakkam dlinpakkarii dipakkam nlvedyakkaih 

parekara[r*]ggam piitrakkam vaiisigargga[ih*] 1 KSvagereyim padxival eleya 

kavanadiin badagal | nalka mattar-kkeyyumaih Pottiya- 
Si ra mel-alkeya poge-vogej r a manege panaviKn pagada tereyumam maniieya 

samyada mane-vana-vi(?cH)na-tereytimam ri-Eesa(sa)yesvara-deva[r*]gge dera- 

puj-aiianla- 
33 ram pada-baradol d}j.ara-pui"vvakadin=a-cha[m]dr-arkka-taram baraih bittar [| 

T6yimadevaralbbegal srimad-Akka-deviyaru tapo-niyama-japa-samadM-sIla- 

saiiipa- 
SG nueyarappa tapasyi(svi) Gamgikabb[e*]gala kalarh ka-rclicM dliara-ptirvvakadiiis, 

matliada vidya-danakke taYa(ma)ge nadeva ariidi 3 "garch.clia kanikeyaY-eradu 

gadyanada tereyain tat-ka- 

37 ladol bitfcaru || 1 matliarii * * [ta]p5dhana-sthanav-l dharmmamarii 

gavuadanum mnvadimbaruv=eleya bojariigar nura-nalYararii ugura-mflnnrvvaruih 
taiiibuli- 

38 ga-sasirvYarurii murum nada 9Umkigaruv=Int=inibarurii datarar^agi pratipalisiiYar |j 

1 dliarminaYam kada malia-pni'usliamge Varaii[a^]siyol sasira kavileya 

39 k5[duma]m kolagumani pamclia-ratnaiiigaliin kattlsi chatur-YYeda-paragarggo 

ubliayamukH-gotta plialaY=aknm Idan=alid-atanige Yaranasiyol sasira ka- 

40 [Yile]yum sasirvYar br5liinanarumarh koxida maTia-patakaY-aku[m] Jj Samanya* 

yam dliarmma-sStur=nri(nri)pa9am 4 kale kale palaniyO bliaYadbhi [h*] [|*] sa- 

41 rvvan^etaihn bbaginai[i=parttliiveiiidra[n*] bb,1iy5 bh.ny5 yacliate Ramabliadra[h*] 

H [10*] Sva-datt[a*]m para-datt[a*]m Y y5 liareti(ta) Tasuifajidhara[ih*] 
[i *] sIiaslitirssYvarslia-saliasi'a^i Yislita(slitlia)yaiii 

42 jayate kri(kri)mih j| [11*] Svam datum sumaliatsakyam 5 klesam=anyatra(sya) 

palanaih [I*] danarii Ya palanam v*Sti dana[cli*]=cliiirey6=:mipalann(nam) (| 



1 Eead * 

2 These two syllables have freen omitted, and then added before the beginning of the line* 
1 Apparently for adi-. 

* The engraver has written nre f with the vowel i on top of the e. 5 Eead 



86 EPIG-BAPHIA INDICA. [Voi. XVI- 

43 Sphu [rita] -vach^vibhasi-chadu (tu)-Tani(ni)ya 1 sat-kavi Bs javallabhaih virachi- 

sidam vlveka-nidhi pattal[ w w w \s ]riigiyim "bai^edan= 
ida[m*] savistarisi tirddida 

44 vak-pati Cha[m]dra-bhatfcarum guram(ru) Bada(la)bliadra-devaruv^icleih 

trijagad-guruv^ayto .sa(sa)sanam || [13*] Dasojam besa-geydam marhgala H 



(Lines 1-3.) When the victorious reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole woiid r 
favourite of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of 
Satyasraya's race,, embellishment of the CMlnkyas, king Trailokyamalla-Aliavamalla, was 
advancing in a course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sun, 
and stars : 

(Lines 3-6.) While one who finds sustenance at his lotus-feet, the Maha-Mandalesvara who 
has obtained the five great musical sounds, possessing all titles of honour such as " a Mahesvara 
in the fray, a lion in valour, a Bhairava on the stage of battle, a wishing-gem to servants, 
a head- jewel of men of valour, a Radheya [Karna] in truthfulness, an Anjaneya in purity, 
delightful to the world, mighty in boldness, an armour to his lord, giving bounty 3 to sa^es, a 
submarine fire to the ocean of the Chola's host, a flame of doom to Bhoja, a teacher of both 
forces, 3 having the firmness of Mandara, the tiger of king Ahavamalla," the Maha-]VIandale- f 
svara Jemarasa, was ruling over many towns, beginning with Pottiynr, Elavatti, Nittasingi, 
and Eandiyiir, and kuttumbitti, as a love-fief 4 ; 

(Lines 6-8.) While his son, the Mahasamanta who has obtained the five great musical sounds, 
bearing all titles such as " beloved of warriors' Fortune^ wrestler of earth, shaft in foemen's 
hearts, his father's rutting elephant, causing destruction of enemies, a Narasinga [Vishnu- 
Krishna] to princely Naras," the Mahasamanta Joyiyarasa, was ruling Pofctiyur as a prince's 
fief: 

(Lines 8-14.) While he who is an ornament of the Kadamba race [which is descended] 
from the hero of the bright frontal eye [Xrilochana Kadamba] who sprang from the grace of 
the supreme Lord Hara, whose lotus-feet are praised by the peoples of all the world, and of the 
lady Earth ; which (race) has established its might on the massive peaks of the King of Moun- 
tains 5 ; which (race) has performed eighteen horse-sacrifices by the manifest quality of its arms * 
whicli is resplendent with three fluttering white parasols ; which has its pure chivalry illu- 
minated by many royal attributes of empire such as dignity, etc. he who is (saluted) with the 
noise of permatti drums and (other) musical instruments, the Maha-Ma^dalsvara who has 
obtained the five great musical sounds, lord of Banavasi best of cities, bearing all titles of 
honour such as " man of might to adversaries, sun to the Highlands, ever active in truth, 
Anjaneya in purity, Brahman in assemblies, Shanmukha in the front of battle, Thousand-armed 
[Kartavlrya] with balls, 6 Eahu in the fray, ParaSu-Rama to the resorts of foes, ... of titles, 
bearing the royal stamp (?) of a Bhima, bamg&ra of title-bearers, warrior to Meruga, exalted 
in high spirit, lion of Hariga," the Maha-Man^alesvara Toyima-deva, was reigning in the 



1 This reading is rather uncertain. 2 g^ a t ovej VoL XIV, p. 189. 

- s Infantry and mounted troops ? [The two opposing troops. H. K. S.] 

* I understand this as more or less equivalent to the term $rlti-goda,gi in Up. Cam., XII, (Ttunkur), Ck. 2 ; 
sea Eittel, p. 1706, s.v. anugu. 

* See above. Vol. XIII t p. 173, and ref . 

5 This seems to mean that he tosses ahout his enemies 1 heads like Iballs in such numbers that he appears to have 
& thousand arms* 



No- 11.] THREE INSCRIPTIONS FROM HOTTTJB, 87 

government of the Vanavasi Twelve-thousand and the Pantingal Five-hundred with enjoy- 
ment of pleasant conversations : 

(Verse 1.) This Bofctiytir is a general gJiatika-stJiana 1 in the county ; in it Mara, composed 
of mind, a treasure of becoming speech, has dwelt happily in the office of Gavunda. 

(Verse 2.) The wealthy, when entreated, may give abundant substance to the needy, (fcuzf) 
they do not give, in this wise anything unique and unprecedented in this world ; whereas, 
when footless men came with entreaties, Mara Gavunda by his own power gave feet to many. 
Hence is it needful to tell in this and that wise the high degree of the quality of his goodness ? 

(Verse 3.) As the earth spoke of him as a peer of Maim in virtue and power, as a southern 
Sdmaxtatha 2 because of his giving feet to the lame, Mara in truth was illustrious, a noble man. 

(Line 18.) "While G-5duvara Mara Gavunda, thus combining philanthropy with worldly 
success, was acting as Gavunda ; his son, 

(Verse 4.) As the moon is born from the ocean, the sun from the Eastern Mountain, Kesi, 
a worthy son arising in the goodly family of the Goduvas, won fame as an ornament of his 
race. 

(Lines 19-22.) "While he who bears all titles of honour such as " basis of the series of many 
virtues praised by all the world, remote from others' wives, a king Vatsa with horses, 3 a Cupid 
to public women, a discus of justice to the troop of Mara, 4 an ocean of the essence of order, 
a unique "Rudra in warfare, a warrior of the bodyguard, an incarnation of Vlra [Virabhadra], 
a mighty man of valour in courage, a bherunda^ to foes, a Partha [Arjuna] to hostile armies, 
a site of salvation in the centre of the country, a wishing-gem of bounty, a protective gem to 
sages, servant of S5mSvara, brilliant in culture, a ISTarayana to foes," Chalukya-G-anga- 
Vermsdi Ke6ava Gavunda, was acting as Gavu^icla over Pottiyur in the county-shrievalty : 

(Verse 5.) He received from king Hariga, the head of the Kadamfoa race, many tokens 
of royalty, to wit, a number of yak-tail fans, a flag, a palace, 6 drums, conches, parasols of many 
peacock-feathers, and a white parasol, (so tliat he became) radiant with manifested intense 
lustre : for this reason, oh bravo ! thus was the brilliance of Kesi's distinction in the abode 
of this world. 

(Verse 6.) The king Chalukya-Gauga-Vemadi [Vikramaditya], pleased with Kesi and 
loving him, said " this man is to me a son, CMlukya-Gauga-VermUdi/' and gave him that 
jiame, 

(Verse 7.) With supreme generosity the blest king Vikramaditya gave the various 
royal emblems of the Gangas and Chalufcyas, to wit, the honour of the excellent white 
parasol, a pair of golden yak -tail fans, a flag, warriors 1 drums, a parasol of peacocks' feathers : 
this distinction comes to the lord Kesiraja ; does it come to any other man ? 

(Verse 8.) By the merits of gifts of water and a quantity of gold and food, by gifts of kine, 
by gifts of land, ' by gifts of herds of oxen, by gifts of divers kinds of knowledge, by constant 
gifts, by gifts of excellent sesam, by gifts of all (kinds of) maidens Kesava has gratified 
distinguished men : truly he possesses a right mind* 

1 This term (cf . JEJjp. Cam., VII. L Sk. 94, X. i. Kl. 170, XII. Si. 23 ; Progress Report of Atst. Suyt. 
Ejpigr* 3 Southern Circle, 1912-13, p. 99 ; J, -dL, Vol. XIV, pp. 19, 25 n.) is still not quite clear ; but it seems to 
mean the official meeting-place of learned and godly men, and thus is connected with gTi&tigz and gTialige in the 
meaning of " assembly/' on which s$e my note on the Kalas inscription above, Vol. XIII, p. 327 n. 

3 Seo above, inscr. B, 8 gee above, Vol. V, p. 236 n. 

4 The spirit of, carnal temptation, [Mara has here a possible reference to Mara-Gavun4 a j the father of Sesava* 
Gavunda. In this case the text Jtfa/ciwa chafcrana nyaya-cJtaTcravh can he divided Marina, chakra 
cTbakrairh and translated "the discus of Mara- [Gavunda] and a discus to (destroy) injustice. ** H. K* S.] 

5 A fabulous two-head edlbird, 

6 C&au&a is from Skt, ckatush&a (Pkt. c^awMa) ; for the sense of "palace'* cf. 
V. UviiL, VII. rx. 



EPIGKAPHIA ZNtDICA. [Tori. XVI, 



(Verse. 9.) Having consecrated Sankara, the giver o fruits desired by his worshippers, the 
aunihilator of guilt, the wearer of ornaments consisting of snakes, (and) having constructed a 
great abode perfect in holiness, worshipful, built of stone, and made with brilliant lofty archways, 
Eesi has enjoyed the beauty of the goddess of radiant glory. 

(Lines "30-35.) Thus Permadi Eesi G-avuada of Fofctiynr and the Thirty being in happy 
estate, hail ! on Sunday, the full-moon day of the bright fortnight of Paushya in the 
cyclic year Parsbhava, the 088th (year) of the centuries lapsed since the time of the Saka 
king, under the constellation HastS at the wttar&yana-'samJcrant'b, in the vyattpafa, 1 the Maha- 
jsamanta JSyiyarasa and the Mahamandalevara Toyima-deva and Mailala-devi jointly granted 
a religious foundation to (the temple of) the god KesaveSvara above the bank of the tank? 
Constructed by PermSdi Kesi Gavuuda of Pottiyur, as follows ; for plastering of the temple, 
for an officiant priest, for the god's scents, incense, lamps, and oblations, for drummers,- a dancing-- 
-woman, and flute-players, they granted in the pada-bara with pouring of water to the god 
Keavevara after worshipping the god a field of four mattar west of Kovagere, north of the 
betel-sheds, and the tax of a pana and a quarter on the . . . house belonging to the 
magistracy of Pofctiyur, and the petty (?) tax on houses under seigniorial authority, for as 
long as moon, sun, and stars, 

(Lines 35-38*) Akks-devi, the mother of Toyima-dera, haying la-red the feet of the 
ascetic lady G-angikabbe, who practises austerities, minor disciplines, prayer, and absorption, at 
the same time granted with pouring of water for the dispensation of teaching at the monastery 
the tax of two gadyana,, the fee for washing' the feet, which (hitherto) had accrued to her,. 
This monastery , . . establishment of ascetics, this pions foundation the Gavunda, the Thirty, 
the hundred and four Bojangas of the betel-gardens, the three-hundred Uguras? the thousand 
sellers of prepared betel, and the three controllers of the taxes of the county shall protect 
as donors* 

(Lines 38-40 : a prose formula of the usual type,)' 

(Verses 10-12 ; three common Sanskrit verses*) 

(Verse 13.) Bajavallablta, a good poet of clever speech brilliant with bright words, a 
treasure of discretion, composed ..... . wrote it ; it was* Chandra Bhatta, lord of 

language, and the Master Balabhadra-deva who amplified and corrected it. Truly this edict has 
"become a teacher to the three worlds* 

(Line 44.) Dasoja executed the order. Happiness I 



No. 12. THE JAMBTTKESVAKAM GRAFT OF VIJAYABANGA CHOKKA1OLTHA 

NAYAKA : SAKA 1630. 
BT S. V. VISWAKATSA, JC JL, TBICHINOPOLY. 

This inscription is on a single copper-plate bored at the top. It was Kndly given for ex* 
a/minatioa by the Samkaracharya of the Eltimbhakd^am matha* I edit the inscription from 
inked impressions of the plate prepared by me. 

The plate has a semi-circular currature at the top, including which it measures 10 in. in 
height and 6*3 in. in breadth. It is in good preservation. It contains 46 lines in all, including 
the signature at the bottom and Srt-Qhamdrcmavlifawa-wilmi at the top of the first side. The 
inscription, which runs across the breadth of the plate, is legible and is in prose. The semi* 
circular portion of the plate at the top is worth notice. It contains an illustration which 

1 A yoga in wbich the declination of the snja is equal to that of the mooru 
* See above, Vol. XIII, p. 15 and n* 



12.] JAMBUKESVAKAM GBAKT OF SAKA 1630. 8$ 

be taken to convey to UB the traditional history regarding the origin of the god Jambuksvara 

In Trichinopoly. The illustration itself includes the figures of the sun and the moon, a tree 

supposed to take its root from the head of a devotee seated below with folded hands (anjalf) in 

the vtr&sana posture, a Unga placed on a pedestal underneath the tree, an elephant with its 

trunk raised over the tinga, a spider-like creature flying above the Unga and a goddess standing 

on the right* The figures of the sun and the moon are perhaps indicative of the overlordship 

of the Vijayanagara house over the Nayakas of the south, the sun and the xnoon being found 

oa the seal and coins of the Vijayanagara kings. 1 There is a belief, as recorded in the Sthala- 

purana of Jambukesvaram, that the place was called after JamZ>tefc& Mum 9 from whose head 

tike jambuJca tree had its origin. The elephant and the spider, it is believed, worshipped the 

li&ga representing the God Jambukgsvara and attained salvation. The Unga on the pedestal 

is the god of Jambukegvaram, and the goddess represented as- standing on the right side is 

probably Akhilandesvarl. 

The language of the inscription is Telugu and Sanskrit combined. Lines 1-3, which 
contain the epithets of the donee, are in Sanskrit. Lines 4-35 are in Telugu, and lines 35-44 
are in Sanskrit, containing the admonitory verses art the end of the plate* The characters of 
the inscription are Telugu. 

There are a few orthographical peculiarities worth noticing. There is an unnecessary 
reduplication of consonants in ma,mddu (L 15) ; nadipimchcha and ajnapimchchi (L 18) J 
^mamgalamlld (1. 22) ; puramttd (1. 23) ; JembbuTcesvaram (1* 28) ; vrayimchchi (L 33) and 
anubhavimchchu (L 34). Instances of dravidianised forms of Sanskrit words are seen in 
t&ntbra for Q tamra (1. 21) ; $aihbrajyam instead of sSmrajyam (L 9) and vubhaya in the 
place of ubhaya (30*1). 

The inscription records the grant of lands in certain villages in the Trichinopoly district and 
some lands on both sides of the Kaverl river for the conduct of worship, offerings and charities 
in the Samkaracharya matha at Jambukesvaram (Tiruvanaikaval), where even now the head 
of the Kumbhak$;iam matha has his residence for a portion of the year. The grant was made 
by Vijayaranga Chokkanatha Nayaka at the instance of the then presiding guru of the matha. 
The name of the latter is not explicitly given in the grant* He is styled Lokaguru Srtmad 
SariikarScJiarya Bv&inulavciru. 

The objects for which the grant was made were annadana Jcattala (endowment for gift 
of food) and the naivedya, which was to be offered to the god. For the former purpose certain 
lands were granted. These were situated in Mah^ndramangalam, Krishnapuram, Karaikkadu, 
Kondayampettai, Mangamambapuram, Ariyuru and Ariyamangalam. For the naivedya, which 
was to iaclude four measures (jpa^i) of cooked rice, dosai, atirasa, sugiya and dtparh 
(oil for lights), 2 it was ordered that certain tolls collected should also be assigned. 

The grant is dated Saka 1632, Vikriti, ELartika, Suddha, full moon, Monday, 
naJcshatra* 

Vijayaranga Chokkanatha and his line are said to belong to the I)alkshina>-$imh3$ana, styl- 
ing themselves DaJcshina-simhawn-adhyakshafr (* Lords of the southern throne *) They were 
viceroys in the south, acting under the kings of Vij&yanagara. They were lords of the regions 
of the PSndyas, comprising Madura %nd Tinnevelly districts. The circumstances under which 
the Nayakas became rulers of the south are recorded thus. 8 In 1558 u the then Chola ruler 

1 [The aymbols of stm and moon are quite common in all Cfcalnkya inscriptions also. They are not peculiarly 
the syiaabols of the Vijayanagara royalty. These in my opinion indicate the a-0&andr~arlfa**t&ayita of the 
gift conveyed by the document over which they are engraved. H. K* S.] 

2 X>ipam cAamaru is the supply of oil for lamps in addition to the offerings whioh were to be made to tl\e 
god. 

* Se Gazetteer of the Madwa D*>*rttf, Vol. I, p. 41. 

m 



90 EPIGKAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVI. 



invaded the Madura country and dispossessed the Pandya king. Whereupon tie latter ap* 
pealed to the Court of Vijayaaagar, and an expedition under a certain Nagama Nayakkan was 
accordingly sent to his aid. jN'agama easily suppressed the Clisla king and possessed himself 
of Madura; but he then suddenly threw off Ms allegiance and, declining to help the Pandya, 
assumed the position of an independent ruler. The Yijayanagar emperor was furious at his 
defection, summoned a council, laid the matter before his most faithful officers, and cried out to 
the assemblage, * Where amongst you all is he who will bring me that rebel's head ? * " Vi^va- 
Batha, the son of jS"agama, promised this, captured his father in battle and placed him in con- 
finement, only to be released later on. The Pandya king nominally held sway over Madura, 
but the new Nayaka regime " developed first into a governorship, which became hereditary, and 
then into wbat was practically a hereditary monarchy." The Nayakas " were content -with 
the position or lieutenants under Vijayanagar ; but in essentials their sway was practically 
absolute and the Pauclyas disappear in effect henceforth from history*" 

The general character of the administration of the Nayaka kingdom of Madura is thus dwelt 
on by Caldwell 1 ; "Their reigns record little more than a, disgraceful catalogue of de- 
baucheries, treacheries, planderings, oppressions, murders and civil commotions, relieved only by 
the factitious splendour of gifts to temples, idols and priests, by means of which they appar- 
ent!? succeeded in getting the Brahmans and poets to speak well of them, and thus in keeping 
the mass cf the people patient under their misrule*" 

The genealogy of the JJayaka dynasty of Madura, so far as known, may be given thus 2 : 

1. Nagama, 

2. Visranatha I. . ' 15591563 

3. Kumara Krisbnappa . . . 1563 1573 

4. Krisbnnppa alias Periya , . * I K 

5. Virappa and ViSvanfltha IF } 15731595 

6. Lingayya alias Kumara Kri&hnappa Visrappa alias 

Vifivanfttba III 15951602 

7. Muttu Krishnappa ........ 1602 1609 

8. Muttu Virappa . J609 1G23 

9- Tirumala, ^ ...... 9 16231(559 

10, Muttu Alakadri alias Hattu Virappa . 165y 166JJ 

11. Chokkanaiba alia* Chokkalinga * * . . 1662 1682 
12- Rafiga Krishna Muttu Virappa . 1682 1689 

13. Mangammal f ... 1689 1704 

14. Vijayai-aaga Chokkanfithft , 17041731 

15. Mlnakshi . . 17311736 

Our record states the genealogy from Chokkanatha (No. 11 of the above list) downwards* 
and Vijayaranga Ctckkanatha is efcjled a desceadaot of Visvanatlia (probably I;, the real 
founder of the Nayaka kingdom of Madura. He was the son of Eanga Krishna Muttu Virappa 
Jf avaka, and in his early years from 1689 1704 Maagammal, his grandmother, acted as regent. 
She was an able and charitable woman, and under her ** Madura apparently all but regained 
the proud position it had held in the days of Tirumal/ 1 Vijayaranga Chpkkanatha took 
charge of the administration from 1 704 and ruled till 1731. He was a weak ruler, " was Tain 
and weak-minded and unfit to govern himself or others. His reign was distinguished by theill- 
regulated aud extraordinary munificence of bis gifts to Brahmans and religious institutions. 
The injustice of his rule caused a serious riot in Madura., the mutiny of the whole of his troops 
and incessantr internal commotions." 3 



1 History ofTinnevelly f p. 62. 

2 See Madura District Gazetteer, I ; also Tfee N*$r Kic^doaa of Madura ' in the In$. Ant^ 1916, p. 
* Madura District Gazetteer* Vul. I, p, 6^ 



12.] 



JAMBtJKESVABAM GBA3TT OF SAKA 1630 



In 1725 tie entered into a war with Tanjore over tte question of succession to the throne 
of Ramnad, in which the Raja of Tanjore obtained a decisive victory. He died in 1731, and 
was succeeded by an adopted son. MiuaksM, his queen, acted as regent. It was dariog hwr 
time that a quarrel broke out between her and Yangara Tirumala, the father of the adopted 
son. It was at this time that the Nawab ol Arcot seat two of his generals to colect tribute 
from Madura. The kingdom divided in- itself, fell aa easy prey to the invader, and from 1733 
the Nayaka kingdom of Madura ceased to exist as such* 

We are told in the inscription that Yijayaranga Chokkanatha Nayaka was ruling in the 
south when a certain Venkata-dgva Maharaya, his overlord, was the raj a of Yijayaoagara, ralicg 
from his capital GhanagirL He is stylod KajadMraja and Virapratapa and is said to hare hm 
seat at Ghanagiri, which has been, identified with Penuko^da* 

The genealogy of the third Vijayanagara dynasty, as made out from inscriptions, runs m 
follows 1 : 



Eanga. I m. TirumalamTbika 



1, T 

Tirmnala I 
(15651575) 

j 


Aliy ft Ramaraya (II) 
**-& (1565) 


Venkatadri 
d. (156 5 > 
I 
Ea&m V 



Eaghumltha 



Kama III Venkata 



3 _86) (15861614) (16 
m. 5 wives i 

i 


23) Oopali 
Sai 

i 


Tirumala II 


Kanga III 
(1610) 

Eama IV 

(1629) 



(1680) 



to tKe 

the dates 1706^1716 
present grant is 1630 Saka= 

Venkata-dera Mataraya of 



t.He 



[. Ill, p. 238, and 
2 [Mr, T. A, Gopinatha Bao, who lias 

Mfi^Aa, has given an incorrect reading 
TO0 ^ detected from the citation of the "* 
alo she-aid have overlooked the error, _ , Ootacamnnd, haa itmcuj cu "%" 1>. U - - 

10 yA, 28 v^ft. H, K S^] * ** 



Venkata III 

Ranga YI 
(1644) 

Yenkaia IT 

1678/1680 

YII 
1602 

Venkata Y 

17061716 

of Teta V. ^Tta ft. 
^ ^ ^^ rf Vijayamfiga 

_ - _ - 

Foraotte Eatfire, Cbu XVII, pp. 222 f. 

* ff ^ topp**** !*<?* if *** 

which the Editor has adopted hut which he coald Ira 
^ . ^^ hov Mr . L. D. SwamikaBnu FOU 

** ^^ a K ^ D P ' 
has kindly edenbted 



EPIGBAPHIA IKDICA. 



[Vox,. XVL 



Chokkanatha Nayaka, is according to the above table Veftkata V, who ruled, with Penukoudia 
as his capital, over the domains of the Vijayanagara house. 

The grant does not mention explicitly the name of the donee* It is merely stated that it 
was made to the matha at the instance of the thesa head, who is styled Lskaguru Sriraad* 
Samkarachary a- svamulavar a . 

We find, however, at the top of the first side of the plate, below the figures on the arch, the 
inscription iSr^Oharhdramaul^uara-Svami. It may also be noted that there is some blank space 
between 11. 3 and 4 and a short space between two horizontal strokes in L 19. Chandra- 
maullsvara is the name by which the god of the Ktimbhakdnam matha, is known, and the line 
at the top may possibly refer to the deity. We are not in a position to account for the blank 
spaces between 11. 3 and 4 and in 1. 19. It will be seen that it would be appropriate if the 
name is taken as that of the Samkarachary a and is inserted between the blank spaces* This 
is reasonable, as out of respect for the teacher the name of the latter may not be directly 
mentioned by the disciple or devotee. 

The tradition as regards the names of the Acharyas of the KumbbakSi^am mapha leads one 
to hold the above view. It is to the effect that for over two centuries the-Samkaracharyas of 
the Conjeeveram branch have borne alternately the names Mahadera and Chandrachuda 
or Chandramauli. Hence it is quite likely that the Samkaracharya mentioned in our inscription 
should have had one of these two names. 

The Melupaka grant, dated 1608 Saka, 1 of MahadevSndra Sarasvati, the disciple of Chandra* 
ISkhara Sarasvatl, records the fact of the grant of lands in- the village x>f Melupaka by the 
former to a certain Rama Sastrin. The present grant is dated Saka 1632, and it is probable that 
the Samkaracharya of 1632 Saka was the one who succeeded him of 1608 Saka. 

On the foregoing grounds I hold that the name of the head of the matlfia at the time of the 
present grant was OEandramaulisvara, which name is inserted on the top of the first side. 

The plate records a grant of land to the Samkara matJia at Tiruvanaikaval, and the 
details of the grant run as follow : 



Locality. 



Amount. 



BEMABKS. 



1. Mahendratnangalam in Tottiyam Slma 
t* Gopala-svamiB*s garden . * 
8. Kpshnapuram * 

4. K&rakfcadu ..... 
B. Kondayartipeta . * 
6. Mang&mambapuram in Tinichchencid- 



4J half -*<*$ and 1 ta*$ (?) 



7. Ariypi" in Timaam fima 

8. Ariyamaigaiam in the South K6-nadu 



4J half-ma^ and 2 t&ru. 
44 mas and 2 tdru. 
2 fey& of wet land. 
8 fey 8 of wet laud 

16 fey* of wet land, 
6 fey* of wefe land. 



Originally *W|Fn (?). 

Probably Tef ers to the garden of the go4 

Venugdpala-svarnin, 



The village takes its name probably 
al; the fajnous queen. 



The plate records also the grant of 1 3ey of laud on both banks of the KavSrl for certain 
offerings to the God, and the right of collection of certain tolls for the same. 

1 'Being eclitecl in the ISp* Ind* by the author. 

* 144. &q* ft 1 kuU : 100 u|**-l md. Tarn may mean either a tre$ or a groye* 



of 



seat of the -Kamaksfci- ^f^a for afeoai two centuries- past. The KaniakSfci 
Enmbfc&kenam amst at the time of our grant have been situated at K&ftchi 
Migration of tie Samksraeharya from Conjeeveram to the Knmbhakonam matJia m I 
omirred later than 1710 A.C. The tradition current in the Knmbhakonam mU,^ to 
effect that Eaja Sarabhoji of Tanjore bnilfc it for the Chandraraaaligyara SwWin ** 
wowhipped at the maffta. This is corroborated by a stone inscription in the matha '^ ~ 

1743 Saka=:l821 A.O. Thus from the evidence available it wouH appear Tat *ft f ^ 6 K" 
kfinam m^fta was m existence only from .the 19th century,! while that at .Tiruyanaika^ 
have continued in the possession of the Swamin at least from TbetweenThe T 3 T ,t 7 
1710 A.C., as the present epigmph shows. h Centnr 7 







Jambukesvaram Grant of Vijayaranga Chokkanatha Nayaka : Saka .630. 




8 8 




F. W. THOMAS 



S g S3 

W. QRIQO8 * SONS, LTD.. 



JAMBURESVARAM GRANT OF SAKA 1030. 




27 

28 

29 

30 
31 
32 

33 

34 
35 

3G 

37 *m3Ttfrf?T 

38 trW 

39 ^ 

4.0 [?f] 



Second Side. 

[1*3 
tflr ^ [] 



D i ] 



[''] 



tt 



n 



i Bead o^>, 
* Bead arl 



a B^ f^. s 

B Bead the Towpl sign as short. s Ktad ^s 

8 Read 3f%r 

[The actual readi ff is ^t^ T ^, ^ *' ^ * Mr " T ' A " C 'l linatlia Rao in hk 
the samo mistake. In 1. 24 below, the reading < g 8 o/ " must similarly be substituted for -J 
i Road c^ 

Kal 
15 [The actual spelling ou tlie plate is itnim, H. K. S.] 



"-H. K. S. > 



" 



1S 



[The symbols 



and J - 5 



Y L 



Bead 
Kead 
Bead 







96 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA, [Votr. XVI. 



faff**: H 



I 



*r?rfflr n 

f%^2 

46 



Line 1. The Lord whose crest Is adorned by the Moon. 

LL 2 & 3. To the lord Samkaracliarya, resident in Kanchipura, who is a paramahamsa? 
and the most exalted of those who have ^renounced the world, 

LI. 4-6. In the Saka year 1632 of Salivahana, in the year Vikriti, on Karttika, on the full 
moon day, on Monday, when the star was BoMni, on this auspicious d&y, 

LI. 7-9. When, the king of kings, the supreme lord, Virapratapa Venkata-deva 
Maharaya was ruling over the earth, seated on his jewelled throne in G-hanagiri, 

LL 10-15. The lord of the Pandya eountry, who is enthroned as lord of the southern seat, 
of the KaSjapa gdtra^ the descendant of Visvanatha Nayaka, the grandson of Chokkanatha 
Nayaka and the son of BangaJErislma luttu Vfrappa Nayaka, Vijayaraiiga Chokkanatta 
made to the lokxguru (teacher of the world) Samkaracharyaswuini, 

LI. 15*19. By command of the Swamii* for giving charity in the shape of food for' all 
time in his own matka, which has been in existence from antiquity in the Ponv5sikondan 
street in GFajaxanya-kslietraj 

LL 19-21. For (his) pleasure a pterpetual copper-plate grant for worsHp, offerings, feeding 
and general propitiation 3 of Brahmanafl' as follows : 

LL 21-28. 4| half-was and 1 faru of Ihatfavritti Taud in Mahendramangalam in 
Tottiyam &ma, G-opala-swamin^s garden ; 4| half -mas and 2 tSrus in- Krishnapuram ; 4| half- 
m%s and 1 taru in Karakkadu ; 2 leys of wet land in Kondayampettai ; 8 &ys of wet land in 
Mangamambapuram in Tiruchendorai &lma, ; 16 eys of wet land in AriyHr in Tinniyam 
&ma ; 6 i&ys of wet lancl in Ariyamangalam in the South Ktoadu $$ma, 

LL 28-31. 1 sey of land on both banks (of the KavSri)* and the right of collection of some 
tolls for the daily offerings of 4 padis of rice for 2 taligais of cooked food, 2* dosais, 2 atirasams, 
I sugiyan and | padi of oil for lights, to the god in the Jambukesvaram tempte. 

LL 32-35. The deed having thus been settled and made for the above purpose, you and yon-r 
line of disciples on the pontifical throne shall enjoy the lands and protect the charities as long as^ 
the sun and the moon rtru their course (i.e. for al] time) and grant me yo-nr blessings. 

LL 36-41. Admonitory verses. 

LL 41-44. My respectful prostrations to those princes of my line as well as others of 
dhipativamiSa who* being actuated by lofty ideas of charity, preserve my endowment,. 

Signature of Vijayaranga Chokkanathanayanayya. 



i Read 

s [Santarpctna seems to be here used in the popular sense of * sumptuous meal * 5 s^e Kittel r s*v* EL K. &] 
4 [Here again the author and Mr* Gopinatha Bao have not clearly ntiderstood the passage, the latter remark- 
ing that r a portion of the passage is^ somewhat o^eeure. This was on account of the wrong reading in I, 31. As 
corrected the passage means : one go* (i.e. vara&aw f above* YoL VIII, p. 130} from the tolls daily as per arrange^ 
and (one) turn of paddy from each tey on either bank (of the ri?er Kaven) for etc. -HI. K, S.I 



No. 13.] THE INSCRIPTIONS ON THE BIMARAN VASE. 97 

No. 13. THE INSCRIPTIONS ON THE BIMARAN VASE. 

Br F. E. PARGITEB. 

This vase was found by Masson in the village of Bimaran in the course of his excavations 
in Afghanistan during the years 1834-7* When excavating " Tope no, 2 " he found in its centre 
a small apartment containing relics. " They consisted of a good-sized globular vase, of alg or 
steatite with a carved cover or lid, both of which were encircled with lines of inscriptions 
scratched with a stylet or other sharp-pointed instrument. The characters were Bactro-Pali. 
On removing the cover the vase was found to contain a small quantity of fine mould, in which 
were mingled a number of small burnt pearls, beads of sapphire, crystal, etc. In the centre 
was standing a casket of pure gold ; . , . * " that is, apparently, not inside the vase, but in the 
centre of the small apartment. 1 Bimaran appears to be in the neighbourhood of Jallalabad. 
The vase is now in the British Museum* 

Two early attempts to decipher the inscriptions were made, 2 and Dowson reconsidered them 
in 1863. s M. Senart published some notes upon them. 4 Dr. Fleet had three photographs taken 
of the vase and its inscriptions, satisfactory ink-impressions being hardly possible, because the 
letters are scratched in the stone and the vase has suffered sundry scratches besides, which tend 
to interfere with the appeai^ance of the letters. The photographs are reproduced in the annexed 
plate. Fig. Ill shows the inscription on- the cover, and figs. I and II give side views of the 
vase and together display the whole of the side inscription, which runs a little more than three- 
quarters round it. I have inspected the vase and compared the photographs carefully with 
the original inscriptions. 

The vase is carved out of brownish-grey stone. Its height is 5-3 inches (15*7 cm.), and 
its greatest width 5*4 inches (15'9 cm.). It consists of a body and a separate lid or cover. In 
the underside of its base an oblong mortice has been cut, 1 inch (26 mm.) long, f inch 
(16 mm.) wide and % inch (5 mm.) deep, which was evidently meant to receive a tenon to hold 
the vase. In the mortice are remains of vermilion colour. 

The two inscriptions are in KharoslithJ characters, which are not well made because the 
scratching tool seems to have slipped in places and distorted some of them. I call the inscrip- 
tion on the lid (fig. Ill) inscription A, and that around the vase B. The latter begins at the ex- 
treme right of fig. I and is continued into fig. II, where the first two letters are a repetition 
of the last two in fig. I. 

The main feature that requires notice is the sign for subscript r, a rightward stroke or 
curve at the bottom of the main letter. It is applied to g in bhagavata in A and B, but is not 
a real r. It is also applied to t, not only in putasa in A and B, but also in fracMiitasa in A and 
B, and 'bfiagavata in B (though not apparently in A) ; and in these two words there can be no 
tr. Further, it is applied to r itself in raG7^'h^tasa in B, where of course it is impossible. It is 
clear therefore that the stroke or curve has no significance 9.3 a letter in these two inscriptions, 
and is a mere peculiarity or flourish. Hence it means nothing when applied to t in niyatide in B. 

1 Ariana Anf.iqua, pp. 69, 70. The vase and both its inscriptions are figured there on plate II, after p 54. 
The gold casket is described pp. 41, 71. 

2 By Edward Thomas in his edition o Prinsep's Indian Antiquities) vol. I, pp. 105-8, By General Cunningham 
in JASB* XXIII, p. 707* 

8 JJ2J.S, vol. XX, p* 241 > with B transcript of both inscriptions in plate III, opposite p. 222* 
* Jour*. Asiat., s4r. Y11I, TO!. XV (184)0), p, 133 : sSr. IX, vol. IV (1894), p. 514. 

M 



98 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [Vol. XVL 



Ud. 
Bhagavata garirehi SivarachMtasa Mnmjanamda-putasa dana-muhe. 

B. Around the vase. 

Sivaraofithitasa Mumjavada-putaisa dana-muhe niyatide Bhagavata sarirehi sarva- 
Budhana puyae. 

TBASTSLATION. 

A. On tlie lid. 
With relics of the Lord; oi SivaraclxMta, son of Mumjanariida, the head of gifts. 

B. Around the vase. 



The head of gifts of SivarafChbita* son, of Mum javada, is bestowed ; with relics of the 
Lord ; for the veneration of all Buddhas, 

NOTES. 

The father's name is written differently in the two inscriptions. JV in A seems to be a t? 
with the top omitted, and the proper form would seem to be Mwnjavanda. 

Niy atide. The last letter is : not well formed, but seems to be de* This word plainly agrees 
with dana-muhe, and its termination therefore should also be e. Niyaiide no AoubkssmyatUe^ Le. 
niyya*tite t " bestowed/* Niyy a fo*a= Sanskrit niryatita, 1 which occurs in the Divy&vad&no, and 
appears in Pali in the verb niyyadeti. 

Dana-muhe. This is clearly a nominative, and the question that arises is, what does muJie 
represent and mean ? I have had the great benefit of discussing this expression with Dr, F. W. 
Thdmas and Professor Macdonell, and offer the following explanations of it. 

As regards its form, Ji in Prakrit is often a degenerate Teh ; Teh may represent either an origin- 
al Sanskrit Wi or & weakened Prakrit JckJi ; and Prakrit Tckh may represent Sanskrit JcsJi and 
Sanskrit Tchy. Pischel gives instances of 'the full change from Tts~k to h in his Prakrit Grammar, 
323, but none, so far as. I have seen, of that from Tchy to h. The % want may be due to the fact 
that the latter process is much rarer than the former ; still analogy would indicate that there 
would be no difficulty in the modifications lshy ^ "kWi ^ JcJi -^ li ; and Dr. Thomas agrees in this 
riew. Hence muha might represent muTtha? or muJchya? and dana-muha would = dana-muJcha or 



Dana-muhe is obviously a substantive and not an adjective, and so must be a tatpurusha 
compound and not a bahuvrlhi. Hence the question for decision is, what is the meaning of 
dftna-muklia and dana-mukliya as tatpurughas, that is, what meanings have muhha and mukhya, 
as the final members of a tatpurusha. 

M. Senart discussed dana-mulcha with reference to the inscriptions in which it occurs 
and, while rendering it "moyen* objet d'anm&ne," doubted whether it had any difference in 

1 So M. Senart took it, Journ. Asiat., aer. VIII, vol. XV (1890), p. 13S. 

2 So M. Seaart has taken it, Jovrn. Miat., sr. VIII, vol. XV (1890), p. 133. 



The Inscriptions on the Bimaran Vase. 

R 





F. W. THOMAS 



SCALE THREE-QUARTERS 



WHITTINGHAM & 



S, COLL, 



A 




SCALE FIVE-SIXTHS 



No. 13.] THE INSCRIPTIONS ON THE BIMABAN VASE. 



meaning from simple dSna. Dr. Tliomas also discussed the word (J. E. A. 8., 1915, pp. 97 sqq.) 
in connexion with some instances of the words mukha and mukhya at the end of compounds in the 
Kautiliya-ArthaSastra, where mukha, means "head, heading,. sum " in administrative arrange- 
ments and accounts, and came to the conclusion " Hence it seems best to accept it [dsna- 
mukha] as a mere synonym for dana, a misapplication of a technical term, 'gift department,' 
' gift heading 1 ,' ' gift account/ under which the donation would be recorded in the accounts of 
the institution benefited. Or is it, after all, the inscription itself ? " 

It is well however to consider also more popular illustrations of the use of mukha and 
muTchya final ; and here the language of the Purinas, which corresponds better than other 
Sanskrit compositions to that of Prakrit inscriptions, throws fresh light j for both words occur 
abundantly there as the last member of a compound. 

I will deal with mukJiya first, citing instances out of the many that occur. 

(1) "Chief, foremost," and so implying the meaning of SeZt: thus 8$ry~endu-Marici- 
mukhy&b, " of whom the sun, the moon and Hanoi were chief," " the sun, the moon, IHartci 
and others" (Matsya-P., 545,20): Vriddha-Kattfika-mukhyafy, "with Vriddha-Kaagika and 
others " (Brahma-?., 170, 88). 

(2) " Chief, pre-eminent (in) " : thus vamta-mukJiySfr, " pre-eminent men in the family" 
(Matsya-P., SOI, 40) : dvijebhyo Veda-muTthyebhyafy, " to brahmans pre-eminent in (knowledge 
of) the VSda" (Bralima-P.,\218, 18 1 ). 

(3) " Chief (of or among) " : thus BrahmanS deva-mukhye'na, "by Brahma chief of the 
gods " (Matsya-P,, 104, 1). 

(4) Then virtually an adjective qualifying the preceding noun, " chief, foremost, pre-emi- 
nent " : thus risM-mukJiya, " foremost among rishis," and so " a pre-eminent rishi" (Brahma- 
P., 78, 23, 25 ; 127, 6) : vipra-rnukhya, " a pre-eminent brahman " (Brahma-P., 220, 126 ; 
Padm'a-p', vi, 268, 77, 80) : tfrtha-mukhya, " a very disfcinguished tlrtha " (Brahma-P., 132, 9). 
This use is very common. 

(5) And so virtually coming to mean " choice, superfine," as qualifying the noun to 
which it is added : thus turaga-mukhya, "a very fine horse" (Padma-P., iv, 112, Puratana 
Ramayana, 6) : ratla-mMya, " a specially fine chariot " (Vayu-P ft 90, 14; 93, 19 : Brahma.- 
P., 216, 55) : Sara-mukhya, " a choke ai-row " (Padma-P., vi, 269, 166). Accordingly d&na.- 
inukhya would mean " a choice gift." 

As regards muWia, it is used similarly to mukhya in the first sense, " ihe chief, the fore- 
most "; thus-mrm-^a^, | Mad^a^-muk^h, "all the gods having me Brahma) and 
iva as their chiefs " (Padma-P., vi } .2Q3, 37) : RakttesSlt Eumbfokarna-nukhah the ^Rak- 

So at virtually 



Indra and the other gods we*> 




Brm* ph-P, v, 4O, 31) : 
conquered " (ibid, 82). 

Of the other meanings I have found no definite instances j yet possibly TJMo. 
M!&M*&I taken to yield the second meaning; and Tad-^tro 
mukhafy tameto* might give the fourth meaning. 




nary tradition '* 



100 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VoL. XVI. 



then, i it represents d$wa-muMiya> would certainly mean "a choice gift.*' If 
it represents dana-muJcJia, that meaning cannot definitely be given to it. I cannot bat think 
that d&na-nwkha denotes something more particular than simple dana. It can be a tatpurusha 
compound ; for mukha occurs as the final member of such compounds, as in the word aya- 
muJcha, that Dr. Thomas cites from the Katitilzya-Arthasastra, and also in the words dwasa- 
muJcha, ritu-mulcha, and yajna-muJcha. Since muTcha means " beginning, commencement/ 5 in 
these three expressions, and has also the meaning " the chief, principal, best," as well as "head, 
heading/* d&na-mulcha, can literally mean " the commencement of gifts " (implying perhaps 
that it was the first gift made) } or " the chief or best of gifts nl (implying perhaps that it 
was the best gift made), or again what Dr. Thomas has suggested, as already noticed. 
At present its exact sense is uncertain, and it may be best to render it provisionally by some 
general expression that combines the above meanings without attempting precision, and so I 
have translated it as " the head of gifts," 



14. THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA 

THE " AftYABHATIYAj" OB " LAGHU-ARYA-SlDDHANTA " OF ARYABHATA, A.D. 499. 

WORKING TABLES FOR CALCULATION BY THE TRUE, OR APPARENT, 
MOTIONS OF SUN AND MOON. 

BY BOBEBT SKWELL (1,0. S., RETIRED). 
["Indian Chronography," continued from Vol> XV above, p. 845.) 

"V 

286- My last article (JEpig. Ind., VoL XV, pp. 159-245) provided working Tables for verify- 
ing dates according to tlie requirements of tlie Sfddli&nta-iirGinani ; the present one provides 
similar Tables fox* tlie First JLrya-SiddJi&nta. Tliese Tables are framed so as to correspond to 
those published in tlie Indian Calendar, which, for luni-solar computation, generally followed 
the S&rya-Siddhanta. 

Since amongst the ancient historical records yet discovered in India by far the larger num- 
ber comes from Southern India, where the JLrya-Siddh&nta has retained its place in popular 
favour throughout the centuries, it is plainly necessary to provide Epigraphists with information 
which will allow them to test with scientific accuracy, and according to the requirements of that 
authority alone, the details of documentary dates. It is probable, as I have already more than 
once insisted, that a number of records whose dates might have been found correct had they been 
computed by the Arya-Siddhanta have been set aside as irregular or of doubtful accuracy 
because their examination was conducted solely by Surya-Siddhanta, Tables. 

No pains have been spared to render the information that follows scientifically correct. But 
we do not yet know how far, or in what tracts or in what periods, the by-gone framers of local 
almanacs adhered strictly to rule ; or used other sets of Tables for their guidance ; or worked by 
whole numbers alone, discarding fractions ; or made their calculations in true or apparent time 
instead of, as in these Tables, in mean or clock time. "We have, moreover, as yet no definite 
information as to at how late a date calculations were made by the sun's and moon's mean move* 
meats as opposed to their true or apparent movements ; nor do we know with any certainty thQ 
boundaries of the tracts within which the different rules governing the civil beginnings of solar 

1 This eeeiJQB to me the most probable meaning. 



No. 14] THE FIRST AKYA-SIDDHAOTA : "TRUE 15 SYSTEM. 101 

months were adhered to (Ind. Calendar, 5S). These remarks apply, of course, to all Tables 
or ephemeres yet, or to be, published, which can only confine themselves to the actual require- 
ments of the Siddhanta concerned. Such matters are problems of the future, only to be solved 
after protracted enquiry and investigation. Dew an Bahadur L 1). Swamikannu Pillai gives it 
as his opinion (Indian Chronology, p. 70, 169} that, while the Ary a- Siddhanta was used for 
solar computation, the authors of South- Indian panchangs in some cases carried out their lunar 
calculations, for the tithi, nakshatra, etc., by Surya-Siddkanta rule. This remains to be proved. 

287, It is easy to understand how dates of documents, the details of which dates depend on 
the position of sun and moon, must often differ when calculated by different authorities. Taking 
only the Arya ^ncl Sfrrya Siddliantas into consideration, it will be seen by Table A below that in 
114 years out of the 850 with which the main Table LXI is concerned there were radical differ- 
ences. In 66 of these years the samvatsara cycle-name of the whole year was different ; in 33 
years the intercalation and suppression of lunar months were different; and the day on which 
the luni-solar year began was different in 15 years. 

Consider the year A.D. 1418-19, for instance, or Saka 1340 expired. This year was, accord- 
ing to the northern system of nomenclature, called * s Visvavasu " by the followers of the Jrya, 
but " Krodhin " by those of the Sury a- Siddhanta, In the same year there was, by the Arya- 
SiddMnta, a suppression of the lunar month Magha and an intercalation of Phalguna, while by 
the Surya-SiddMnta there was none such; so that a date correctly expressed in Arya-Siddh&nta 
reckoning in that year would seem entirely inaccurate when tested by Surya- Siddhanta Tables, 

ARRANGEMENTS OF THE TABLES. 

288. The principal working-Tables for computation of dates expressed in First Arya-Sid- 
dh&nta reckoning are Tables LXI to LXXI below. Tables LXI to LXX are disposed so as to 
correspond in rotation with Tables I to X of the u Indian Calendar," and have been framed in 
similar manner. This arrangement is adopted for the convenience of those who, during the 
last twenty years, have become accustomed to the processes of that publication, 

Table LXI corresponds to Table I, " Indian Calendar" 1 
LXII II, Part II, " Indian Calendar" 

LXIII A III, Part I, 
LXIII B Part II, 

[This Table is framed in a similar manner to Table XVIII A, " Indian Chronography," which 
it is intended to supersede.] 

Table LXIV corresponds to Table IV, "Indian Calendar." 



5 
VI, 
LXVII w VII, 

[Tables LXVI A, LXVII A give closer details than do Tables LXVI, LXVII, and are to be 
used for very accurate calculation in doubtful cases.] 

Table LXVIII corresponds to Table VIII, " Indian Calendar " 



n 



1 Because of this intentional correspondence the years of Indian eras quoted in cols. I to 4 are con.curpenjs 
years, as in the "Indian Calendar." 



102 , EPIGBAPHIA HTOICA? [Tor, XVI. 

Table LXXI is taken from Tables XLI A and B, "Indian Chronography " (pp. 176, 177), 
It enables the week-day corresponding to the Hindu date under examination to be determined 
according to European computation* 

Then follow three Tables by which the details given in the main Table LXI have been 
calculated* These are Table LXXII, which fixes the values of a, &, c (mean distance of moon 
from sun, moon's mean anom., sun's mean anom.) at the beginning of the centuries 
concerned ; Table LXXIII, which gives the same information for tlie beginnings of odd years of 
centuries; and Table LXXIV, which provides, in combination with Tables LXXIIandltXXIII, 
an easy method of arriving at the values of a, 6, e, or the mean positions of sun and moon at mean 
sunrise on the first civil day of each lunl-solar year. The system of work is the same as that of 
Prof. Jacobi. 

Full particulars of the moon's equation of the centre will be found in the last Table LXXV. 

ELEMENTS OF THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA. 

289. This work was composed by Aayabhata at Kusumapura in A.D. 499, or the year 3600 
(expired) of the Kaliyuga. About AJX 638 a treatise called the DM-vriddM-da was written by 
Lalla, who introduced a blja, or correction, affecting three of the piincipal elements of the Sid* 
dhanta. He seems to have reduced by about 10' in a century the moon's increase in her mean 
distance from mean sun (our "a." 1 ) ; and he added about 36' in a century to the moon's mean 
anomaly (our " & ") i his third Correction had reference to the ^planet Jupiter, with which at present 
we are not concerned. He did not make any change in the sun's mean anomaly (our ** c **). 
The Karana-praka^ai of date A.D. 1092, an authority largely used in Southern India, is based on 
Aryabhata's Siddhanta as amended Toy Lalla. 

The Tables given below, which deal with the period AJX 899-900 (K.Y* 4000 expired) to 
AJX 1750-51 (KY. 4851 expired) include Lalla's corrections. 

290, (i) The length of the sidereal solar year, according to the Arya-SiddJi&nta, is 
365*2586805 days, or 365* 6 h 12 m 30 s . 

(ii) Sines of angles are the same as those of the Surya-SiddJianta, based on a radius of 
(sin. 90 =) 3438'. The 24 base sines and equations of the sun's centre are given in my Table 
XL VII, Vol. XIV above. Those of the moon's centre in Table LXXV below. 

(iii) ]?or the sun's mean motion per day, hour, minute and second, see Table XLIV, Vol. 
XIV. 

(iv) Tbe circumference of the sun's epicycle is 13 30' ; that of the moon 31 30'- There is 
no contraction of the epicycle in either case* (Jacobi, Vol. I above, p. 441.*) 

(v) There is no shift of the sun's apsis. The longitude of his perigee-point is always 258 ; 
apogee 78. In ten-thousandths of the circle the perigee is 7166'6. 

(vi) The sun's equation of the centre at the moment of true MSsha-samkranti in every * 
year, i.e. the moment when the true sun reaches celestial longitude 0, is, according to 
Dr. Schram's calculation, 2 6 ; 57*-323494885 3 or, in ten-thousandths of circle, 58-77S644170 1 ; 
the sun's mean longitude at the same moment being 35 7 53" 2"*676505115, or, in ten-thousandths 
of circle, 9941-224355830 ; and Ms mean anomaly 99 53' 2*'676505115, or, in ten-thousandths of 
circle, 2774-557689163. 



M. de Hies has worked this out quite independently, and His calculation agrees with that of Dr. -Schrain as far 

Att, Ae^rnol * ^ 



as the 6th decimal. 



Ko. 14.] THE FIRST ABTA-SEDDHAKTA : "TBTJE" STSTEM. 103 

(vii) For the sun's mean and true long, for every consecutive 24-hour period measured from 
the same moment (true Mesha-samkranti) readers are referred to Table XLVIII A (Vol. XIV 
above). 

(viii) The sun's equation of the centre {see above, Vol. XIV, Table XLVIT) is obtained by 

J-L ^ , 3 . __ minutes in epicycle . * , . -. , 

the tormula p^- sin, a. For sin. eqn. = - 5 - . ~ /,, ............. x sin. a. 1 where a is the sun s 

ou x minutes in orbit 

mean anom. ; and here the minutes in the epicycle are 81 0', the circumference being 13 30', 

Q-J rv O 

and those of the orbit are 21600' (360). Hence sin. eqn. =A^ na sin. a, or ^r sin. a. In 



all equations of the sun's centre, the angle being less than 8 45', the eqn. is the same as the sin* 
eqn. (belotv, 294 if). 

(ix) The moon's equation of the centre (below , Table LXXV) is obtained by a similar pro- 
portion. The circumference of the epicycle being 31 30' or 189 0', the working formula is sin. 

1890 7 7 

eqn. ~ ~oi>/\n> sin. a, or - - _ * sin. a ; but in this case, the sin* eqn. for all angles in the 

quadrant lying between 3 45' and 7 30', the equation does not equal the sin. eqn. The process 
for obtaining the former from the latter is fully set forth in 294 below* 

(s:) The isdhya, or time-equivalent of the equation of the centre^ in other words the 
interval of time between the moments of the true sun reaching long. (true Mesha-sam- 
kranti) and mean gun reaching the same point (mean Mesha-samkranti) IB calculated by 
Dr. Schram as 2-146831 days, or 2 d 3 h 31 m 26 S '1984. This differs a little from the accepted 
Hindu valuation 2 3 h 32 m 30 s . As the latter is believed to have been always taken in India 
as the ssdhya value according to the First A.rya-Siddh($ntay it is the value adopted in the 
present work. 

(xi) According to this Siddhanta the Kaliyuga era began, or in other words K.T. expired 
or K.TT. 1 current began, with a conjunction at celestial longitude of mean moon, mean sun, 
and the principal planets at the moment of mean . sunrise a-t Lanka on Friday, 18 February, 
B.C. 3102. That was the moment of mean Mesha-gamkfanti in that year. It was O h O m 
Lanka time on that morning* 

(xii) At that moment, and the . same in every succeeding year, the sun's apsis (perigee 
being at long. 258, his mean anom. (our " c ") is (360 -^-258) 102, or, in thousandths of 
circle (our notation), 283*3* , 

(xiii) The moon's .mean anom. (our " b ") was 90, or 3 in thousandths of circle, 250. 

(xiv) Since mean moon and mean sun were at that moment in conjunction, the distance 
between them was nil. This is represented in ten-thousandths of circle by the completed 
circle 10,000. From this, in order to arrive at the exact v^lue of our " a,'* must be deducted 
the sum of the greatest equations of <[ and . These are deducted for convenience of 
calculation, the respective quantities being added to " eqn. b " and " eqn. c," so that the 
working values may always be additive. The sum of these greatest equations I estimate at 
199*115048361, in ten-thousandths of circle (below, 296") 10,000 less this quantity = 
9800*884951639. Hence at. the beginning of the Kaliyuga 

a = 9800-884951639 
b = 250 
c = 283-3 

i Abova, g 251, 2$2, Vol. XI V> pp. 9-10; J&coH (above), VoL I, p. 441. 



104 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVI. 



CONSTRUCTION OF THE TABLES. 

291. No special remarks are necessary except with reference to Tables LXIIT B (lengths 
of solar months), LXVI A and LXYII A (Detailed "Equations' 9 and "Equation e")> 
LXVIII (Indices of tithis, etc.), and tlie three Tables LXXII, LXXIII, LXIV. 'The 

remainder are only duplicates of the similar Tables in the "Indian Calendar." (See "Arrange- 
ment of Tables," above, S88.) 

Table LXIII B. Lengths of tJie true solar months. 

292, M. Louis de Ries has been repeatedly quoted in these pages as a most caref al 
calculator. Several years ago he kindly worked out for me an estimate of the lengths of the 
true solar months according to the First JLrya-Siddhanta, but did not inform me of the process 
by which he obtained his results* An entirely independent calculation has now been earned 
out, based on my own Table of the sun's true longitude for each 24-hour period of the solar 
year (above, Vol. XIV, Table XL VIII A) a Table, let it be understood, prepared some 
years subsequent "to 1L de Ries' communication and to which he has never had access. 1 Compari- 
son of results proves the accuracy of M. de Ries' figures, and these have been adopted without 
alteration in my Table. The complete agreement of our respective fixtures is really remarkable. 

For example, M. de Ries found that the true sun, -according to Aryabhata as 
corrected by Lalla, reaches 180 of celestial long., the moment of the Tula-sariikranti, 186 tl 
21 h 21 m 37 a< 82 after the moment of true Hesha-samkranti, the astronomical beginning of the 
true solar year. 

My own work for solution of this problem is as follows : It will be seen from 
Table XL VIII A (above, Vol. XIV) that on that 186th day, i.e. after 186 periods of 24 hours 
each from the moment of true Mesha-samkranti, the true sun has to travel (ISO 179 6' 
55"-21=) 53' 4"-79 before reaching the Tula-sariikranti point, 180. Calculating by his actual 
velocity on day 186 (Table XLIX, Vol. XIV), the time required for him to accomplish this 
journey (using his- true, not mean, velocity in minutes and seconds as well as in hours 2 ) is found 
to be 21* 21 37"82, precisely M. d Ries' fixture. All the details given by M, de Ries 
have been similarly examined, and found correct. 

Dewan Bahadur L. D. Swamikannu Pillai's estimate of the lengths of these months 
(Indian Chronology, Table II) differs somewhat from ours, the sun according to him arriving 
at each samkranti always a little later than it does by our determination. The greatest 
difference between us is at the Tula-samkranti, which his Table shews to occur 3** 34 S *18 later 
than the time yielded by our Table, Adding together the lengths of the twelve solar months as 
given by him, the length of the Arya-Siddhanta year appears to be 365 d 6 h 12 m 37*, or 7 
seconds longer than its accepted length. 

Talks LXVI A, LXVII A." Equation b " and " Equation <x" 

293. In order to obtain the correct working equations of C and from their respective 
mean anomalies it is only necessary m ordinary cases to use Tables LXVI, LXVII which 
give the values of eqn.4 and "eqn,c" roughly' in whole numbers' For very close 
calculation, however, Tables LXVI A and LXVII A are provided, which give the exact 

1 It was published during the war. 



act using Table L which only states the ran's mean Telocity. 



Ko. 14] THE PIBST ARTA-SIDDHANTA : "TRUE" SYSTEM. 105 

equations with four decimal places for a large number of anomaly angles. For an explanation. 
as to the construction of these Tables see my paper on the Siddhanta-s-ir&mani (above, Vol. XV, 
275). 

294. It is advisable to explain clearly my reason for differing from Prof* Jacobi as to 
the amount of the greatest equation of the moon, which he values, in ten-thousandths of the 
circle, at 139'0 as against my 139'4. 

"JE?g?&. 6." The general formula ( 290 ? ix) for the equation of the moon!s centre is, 

7 

a being the angle of mean anom., sin. eqn. == sin. a. To obtain the equation from the 

oO 

sine of the equation-angle the proportion eqn.: sin. eqn. :: diff. in angle : cliff, in sine is 
used. The Hindu astronomers always worked by sections of anomaly-arc, each measuring 
3 45', or 225'. Reference to the Equation- Table LXXV will shew that in the case of the first 
group axiom. to 3 45 ; the difL in anom. is 225' and the cliff, in sine is also 225'. Hence, in the 
case of all anom. angles between and 3 45' eqn.=sin. eqn. But in the case of all anom. angles 
between 3 45' and 7 30' and no equation angle of the moon's anom. exceeds the latter quantity 
the diff. in angle is 225' and the diff. in sine is 224' ; so that the formula to be used for all angles 

225' 
coming into this second group is eqn, ^QQT? s "* n * e( l n ' ^k* s a PP^ es OI ^J to th excess in the angle 



over 3 45'. The working rule, therefore, for finding the equation of angles lying between 
3 45' and 7 30' is as follows : 

> 7 
With the formula sin. a, find the sin. eqn. From the sin. eqn. deduct 225'. Multiply 

feu 

the remainder by 225' and divide the product by 224'. Add 225 7 to the result. 

Or, a little more simply, From the siru eqn. deduct 225'. Divide the remainder by 224' 
Add the result + 225' to the sin. eqn. 

For an example let us suppose that it is required to find the moon's eqn. for anom. 

7 y 3177' 
67 30'. Sin. 67 W=(Table LXXT) 3177', =277'-9875, or 4 37 ; 59"<25, an angle 



between 3 45' and 7 30'. 277''9875 - 225'=52'-9875, and this divided by 224'=0'*236551. 
52''9875 + 0'-236551+225'=278'*224Q51, or 4 38' 13"*44306. This is the correct equation 6 for 
the given anom. It is stated by Prof. Jacobi (afcot-e, Vol* I, Table XXIV A) shortly as 
4 38! 13". 

Turning now to the equation of 90, the greatest equation C , and working in the same 



way, sin. 90=3438'. ~ =30Q'-825. This less 225'=75'-825, and this divided by 224'= 

80 

0''3385Q4464. 75' *825+0'-338504464 4- 225' =301' 163504464, or 5 T 9 '810268, which is the 
exact equation required. In ten-thousandths of circle this=139'427548361. 

295. " Eqn. c." [Working similarly for the greatest equation or the equation of sun's 



3 

anom. 90.] The formula for finding sin. eqn. in this case is ( 890, vwf) -^ sin. a. Sin, 90 = 

ou 

*> ^ OAOQ' 

3438'. Sin. eqn.= gg =128' '925, or 2 8' 55"-5, or, in ten-thousandths -of circle, 59'6875 ; 

j because this angle is one in the first group, being less than 3 45 ; , the eqii.= sin. eqn* Hence 

H 



toe EPIGRAPHIA INBICA; [VOL. xvr. 

*s eqn. 90= 59*687&. This is the same as Prof. Jacobi's valuation, which he gives in 
degrees as 2 8' 56" and in circle measurement (my notation) as 59'7. 

296. Greatest equations < and . My estimate, therefore, of the sum of the greatest 
equations <[ and is 

C . 139-427548361. 

. 59-687500000 



TOTAL . 199115048361 
The difference between its causes a slight difference in our respective Tables of equation. 1 

fable LXVIIL Indices of tithis, etc. 

296-A. In this Table the indices are given with decimal points for guidance in close 
cases. Otherwise they correspond exactly to those in Table VIII, " Indian Calendar. 9 ' The 
indices of yogas (col. 6) are the same as those of nakshatras (col. 8). 

Table* LXXII, LXXIII, LXIV. 

297. Prof. Jacobi (above^ Vol. 1, p. 450) has provided a Table, Xllt, shewing for four 
of the Indian astronomical authorities the places of the sun and moon at the beginning of 
centuries, 2 and another, XV, shewing their increases through the years of a century according 
to the Arya-Siddhanta with Lalla's corrections. It is plain from Table XIII that in Prof > 
Jacobi' s opinion Lalla did not interfere with Aryabhata's fixtures previous to the year ILY. 
3600, the date of the latter's work, but introduced his corrections for all later years. 

If, therefore, we establish by Aryabliata alone the values of a, 6, c for 36 centuries of the 
Kaliyuga and add to these their values at the beginning of that era as given above, we shall 
arrive at their values (positions of sun and moon) at the beginning of ICY. 3600 values* 
that is, recognized by Lalla ; and Tables giving Lalla's estimate of the periodic changes in 
position of the sun and moon for centuries, years, and days will enable us to ascertain their posi- 
tion at any later date when computed by the JLrya-8iddh&nta with the brja. 

298. (i) First to find the century increase of a, 6, c respectively according to Aryabha^a 
uncorrected* We work for mean sunrise values only, not ror values at moments of Mflsha* 
saihkranti We require, that is, the several increases in a common century of 36526 civil days 
and in a defective century of 36525 such days. In, the 36 Kaliyuga centuries concerned therd 
were 31 of the former and 5 of the latter, 

(ii) As regards the time-interval between the moments of mean Mfeha-jaamkriliiti and 
the nearest mean sunrises at the beginning of each century, Prof. Jacobi's column headed " Cor/* 
ia Table XIII states these clearly in ghatikas and palas. Mean MSsha-saiiikrSnti always 
occurs 2* 3 h 32 m 30 s after true Mesha^samkranti, and the moment of the latter's occurrence 
every year is given in hours and minutes in coL 17, Table I, w Indian Calendar." There is no 
difference between us in this respect. 

~ ~~' ' * ' "" ' ' ' * 

1 For the information of those who wish to compare the two it is deeirahto to point out that in Prof* 
Jacobi'a TaWe VII (Pol. XJ, a&otw), under head " Equation " on left sid^ the tenth entry from the top* w 826'* 
is probaWy a misprint for 616 " 5 and in the same column, the eighth entry from the bottom, *U58 fi should 
preferably be read " 14&" 

* There appears to be one misprint in JacoM's Table XIII. Under head "Dirt. C ^corrected/' in the 

5otion dealing with the J[rya~Siddkantat against K.Y. century 4300. the number of minutes should be ** 14 ** 
not 



NO. 14] 



THE TOST 




(iii) The advances in the 
to 



- anom - 

mean anom.) 7 48 139. These m Ol rcle measurement (our notation) are 

a=8872-4586S0555 
6= 586-100443673 
c= 0-361215706 

(iv) Taking only the circle measurement, the respective increases for one day of 2i-\a*r 
are 

a=338-632000730 
o= 36-291575876 
c= 2-737785720 

(v) Deducting one day's increase from the former fixtures, we have for a defective century 
of 36525 civil days 

a=8533-826679S25 
b = 549-8Q8867797 
c= 997-623429986 

"We now have to work out the correct details for the first 36 centuries of the Kaliytiga, 31 
common and 5 defective. 

299. (i) a. Using the above figures, it is found that tire advance of o in that period 
(omitting quantities of 10,000 or whole revolutions 1 ) was 7-7 15-352496330 ; and since at ih* 
epoch of the Kaliyuga the distance between mean moon and mean sun was nil (above, 290, sir), 
the same represents their relation at the beginning of K.Y. 3600. But for iabulation purpose. 
we have to deduct from this the sum of the greatest equations <t and ( 290, xvc ; and SOS). 
This sum, as already stated, I estimate at 199-115048361. Therefore the tabular a for the 
beginning 'of K.Y. 3600 is 7516-237447969. FxoLJaobbi gives this figure, as I interpret 
him 3 i* our notation as 7516'6. The difference between us if due to his estimation of th* 
greatest equations J and as 198-7 (mar^ of Table quoted i footnote Mo) ****** of 
199-1. But I adhere to my figure, the reason^or which has been fully explained. 

Cin & The advance of 6 in the first 36 centuries, omitting whole revolutions," wu la 
thousandths of the circle, 918-158092848. Adding to this the valueof b at ".OO** 
anu), namely 250, we have for the moon's mean anom. at the begmnmg of KT. 3600, 
& =168-158902848. 

rtifi Now in this matter Prof. Jacobi and myself are tot quite in accord. He rtatea th* 
(m) ]Now m tms m TMs ^ m ^^^ 

value (Vol. XI ^'^ 
from pengee instead of apoge ^ 
moment, m degrees etc., asven 



This 



my 

to his valuation of 6 at th* 
XII I, where it is fltod, for the 
.f OT me an simrke V al W i. 



nt for 75166." In the same Tab e, Sector ^ ^ 
There aw 1325 anomalistic revolutions of the moon ffl a jr ^ g 



108 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Vox,. XVI 

& ' ' '-'" ~ ' - ' ........ ..... T " " ' " * * 

241 50' T'5, -which, in thousandths of circle, is 171*760416667. Not being absolutely certain 
in this case that my valuation is more accurate than his, I defer to him, and accept his figure 
as correct. 

(iv) In any very close case arising from the use of the Tables which follow the difference 
between us in the value of 6, n&wiely 3*6, may be deducted from the resulting 6, and the date tested 
by my oivn estimate* 

(v) c. The change in the sun's mean anom. (our c), similarly calculated for the 36 
centuries, 1 was 999*314836816, Adding 283*3, the yalue of c at K.Y. ( 290, arft), we have 
for K.Y, 3600 c =282*6481 70149. But here again there is a minute difference between my 
estimate and that of Prof. Jacobi. He gives, for the sun's mean anom. (measured from apogee) 
at the beginning of K.Y, 3600 (mean Mesha*samkranti) 3 282 a value certainly correct. To 
obtain mean sunrisp value 14' 47" has to be deducted, 5 * with the result 281 45' 13", which 
in thousandths of circle ==782*64891 9 753 3 ancl in my notation (measurement from perigee) 
?=282-648919?53 t I let this stand, 

(vi) The values, then, adopted in this ivork for the positions of <) and <t at mean 
a the beginning of K.Y, 3600 are 



^6= 171*760416667 
c= 282648919753 

300. (i) Table LXI below, however, the main working Table, starts from the year K.Y, 
4000, and we have to add to the above figures the respective increases of a-, 6, c for four centuries, 
these increases being assessed by Lalla's values and not by the original values of Aryabhata 
( 98ff). 

(ii) The increases of a, &, c in one day, one year and one century according to Lalla are 

given in the heading of Table LXIV below. The four centuries are all common ones, and, 

adding the necessary quantities, we have for the beginning of K.Y, 4QOQ, mean sunrise value- 

a=2987*553682533 
&= 523-155092591 

e= 284-093782577* 

These agree, mutatis mutandis, with Prof, Jacobi* s figures {Vol. XI, Table V), which, 
in my notation, are a=2988*G, 6=523-2, c=284*l t 

(iii) Now these values are, as will be seen fromihe entry " 1 " in Jacobi' s column for the 
week-day .(^*) the figures for mean sunrise on Sunday, that is to say, on Sunday, 25 March, 

1 Omitting Ms 1OO whole sidereal revolutions* 

2 14' 47", or actually 14/ 47" '04, is the 0's mean motion in 6 hours, the difference in time "between mean 
mrise and the moment of mean Mesha-satbkraati on the day when, astronomically, K, Y* 3600 began, 

3 We may estimate the value of o on the Sunday at the beginning of 3LY* 4000 in another way. The sun's 
mean anom. at the moment of mean Mesha-sanskranti is always 283-3, or 102 ( 290, xii). In the year in question, 
AJX 899, trne Mesha-samkranti toot place (Indian Calendar, Table I) at 13** 47^ SQS a fter mean sunrise on 
Tlmrs., 22 March, while the moment of mean Hesha-saxhkranti was ( 290, x) 2& 3h32 80s later, or 6& 40^ before 
mean sunrise on Sunday, 25 March- Adding the sun's motion for 6h 40^ from Table LXV below, viz* 
0*7tKM$6686 to ^8^3, the c for mean sunrise on that Sunday is found to be 284*09E829019. 



No. 14] THE FIRST ^JtTA^SIDBHANTA : "TRUE" SYSTEM. 10ft 

A.TK 899, mean Mesha-samkranti haying taken place on the preyious day, Saturday, at 
17 h 20 m after mean sunrise. Following general practice, I work for mean sunrise on tlie day on 
which the mean samkranti occurred, ie. for the Saturday, and deduct one day's values from 
the above. 

Finally then the working values for tJie beginning of K.Y. 4000 (Sat., 24 Mar^ A*D* 899, 
mean .sunrise) are 

a -2648-921808551 
b- 486-863468853 
o= 281*355996857 

301. The century Table LXXII below is prepared from these details by addition of century 
increases. All the centuries concerned except century 42, which was defective, are common 
jones, each of 36526 days. 

Table LXXIII gives the increases of a, &, c for each year of the century, 1 following Lalla's 
blja. 

Table LXXIV gives the values to be added for the days inteirening between that on which 
true Mesha-samkranti occurred in each year and the day -of the corresponding beginning of the 
luni-solar year, Le, the civil day -called " Chaitra sukla 1." This Table is prepared for the 
purpose of assisting workers to check the main Table entries giving the values of a, 6, c (Table 
LXI, cols. 23-25), The weeb-day stated in the main Table will always serve as a guide 
Compare the similar Table in my article on ihQJSiddh&nta-jiromani (Vol. XV, pp. 159-245 
abwe) where instructions for its use are given ( 279), 



THE NAKSHA.TBA, 

302. A special note must be made regarding the working of "the "Indian Calendar " rula 
{ 156, p. 97) for obtaining approximately the index of the nakshatra. 

It will be observed there that part of the process (see " 183, Ind. Gal.} consists of the addi- 
tion to the value of c, the sun's mean long., of a constant, viz. 7207, as stated in 10,000ths of 
circle. This is the Stirya-SiddhSnta, quantity* For work by the JLTya-SiddUsnta we require 
the JLrya-SiddJianta quantity. 

The Surya-Siddhanta figure is made up of (i) long, of sun's perigee-point (257 15 ; 
55**7s=) 7146*3 and (ii) 60*4, the greatest equation of the sun's centre- 
Now (i) the long, of the sun's perigee-point according to the Arya-SiddJiSnta is always 
258, or, in 10,000ths of circle, 7166'6 ( 290, v, above) ; and (ii) the greatest equation of the 
sun's centre ( 295, 296) is 59'6S75. Hence the Arya-SiddhSnta constant for calculating th e 
nakshatra is (7166-6 + 59*6875=) 7226*3542 ; and for approximate 'calculation is 7226, not 7207. 

* There appear to be two misprints in Prol Jacobi's Tatle YI (atove, TaL XI, p. 165), in which he give* 
similar annual increases. Against year 3, under **/' 61 J * should be " 6 " | and againrt year 52, under * f a," 
/* 16312 " slioxild be 16882." 



110 



EPIGBAPHTA INTDICA* 



[Vox,. XTI. 



Thus the rules for finding tlxe xxakshatra by tlie &<rya~Siddhanta are as follows : 

A. Roughly. Find a, 6, c and t in whole numbers ; multiply c by 10 ; add 7226 to the 
result ; from this subtract " equation c." The result is s, the sun's true longitude. 

B. More closely, Find a, &, c and t "with the fractions in decimals ; to the -value of c 
multiplied by 10, or, -with the decimal point one place to the right, add the constant 7226-3542 ; 
from the result deduct (including -decimals) the amount of " equation c." The result is s in 
full detail. s + t=n, the index of the nakshatra, with which, turn to Table LXVTII for value 
of the nakshatra. 

The -work is shewn in Example 7 below. 



EXAMPLES. 

JSxawvple 1. To find the a, b, c values for wiean sunrise on tJie first civil day of tfae luni~$olar 
year* 

Hule. Add together the entries in Tables LXXII and LXXIII for the corresponding 

-expired year of the KLaliyuga, and those in Table LXXIV for the number of days' interval from 

true M3sha~samkranti (Table ZrJO", col. 13, bracket -number) to the first civil day of the luni- 

solar year, called " Chaitra sukla 1 " (col. 19^ bracket -number"). "Note specially the week-day of 

Chaitra sukla 1, and work for that day. 1 Decimals need not be used except in close cases. 

For an example I take the year A.D. 1110-11. It corresponds {Table L2I) to K.TT. 4211 
expired. The entries shew that true Mesha-samkranti occurred on Day 83 (Thursday, 24 
March, A.D. 1110), and Chaitra sukla 1 on Day 82, the day previous. Interval between them 
1 day. 

Full work with the decimals : - 



a. 



b. 



c. 



(Table 

K.Y. cent. 



Beginning of 



(Tatte Z/XXJJI) Beginning of 
year 11 . . . . . 

(Table iXJKIF) Interval of days, 
1 ...... 



A.t mean sunrise on Day S2 3 or on 
() Wednesday, 28 March, A.D. 
1110 . 



. (0) 

(0) 
(4) 


384 
622 
8984, 


5799 
-869 1 ? 
1044 


662 
819 
891 


5608 
7442 
1251 


282 

991 


0784 
4230 
7866 



(4) 9991-5540 373*4301 274*2880 



These are tlie entries for that day in Table LXI. 

The same result can be obtained by first finding the a, 6, c for mean sunrise of the day on 
-which trae Mesha-samkranti took place, and then deducting the values for the intervening 

1 Owing- to the formation of the several Tables the interval of days measured by their bracket-numbers in 
Table XiXI* cols. 13, 19, sometimes differs "by 1, but never by more than 1. But this leads to no difficulty when the 
desired week-day is duly noted. The point to remember is that the resulting- week-day in oiir addition mnst be the 
correct one as given in Table ItXI y and that we must use the entries in Table XtX3SLTV for such number of day as 
will make the final week-day the one we work for* 



No. 14] THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : " TRUE " SYSTEM. Ill 

days as given in Table LXIV. [The day on which true Mesha-samkranti took place is, in 
Table LXXIY, the day " MSsha " (col. *);] 

Thus : 

w,-d. ' a, b. c. 

(Table LXXII) As lefore . . (0) 384-5799 662-5608 282-0784 

(Table LXXIII) Do. . . (0) 622-8697 819-7442 0-4230 

(Table LXXIV) "MisliaO" . (5) 9322-7363 927-4168 994-5244 



At mean sunrise on day of true 

Mesha-sarhkrSnt'i, (5) Thursday, 

24 March (Day 88) . . (5) B301859 409-7218 277-0258 

(Table LXIV) Less 1 day interval 1 338-6319 36-2916 2-7378 



At mean sunrise on Day 82, () 

Wed., 23 March . . (4) 9991-5540 373-4302 274-2880 

The result is the same as above. 

Example 3. TJie same for a year icith a greater interval of days between Mesha-samkr&nt'i 
and Chaitra Sukla 1. 

Take the year A.D. 1603, K.Y. 4704 expired. The interval of days from true Msha- 
samkranti (Table LXI, col. 13) back to Chaitra sukla 1 (col. Iff) (mean sunrise in both cases) 
is (87-62) 25. 

First process with full decimals ; 

w.-d. a. b. c. 

(Table LXXIiy Cent, 47 . . (6) 4385-0933 565-5125 281-1467 

(Table LXXIII) Year 4 , (5) 4741-1679 22-0623 999-9049 

(Table^LXXIT) Interval 25 days (1) 856-9394 20-1262 926-0798 



At mean sunrise on Day 62, or 
Chaitra sukla 1, (5) Thursday, 
3 March, A.D. 1603 . . (5) 9983-2006 607-7010 207-1314 

These are the entries in Table LXI. 

Second process : 

w.-d a o. c 

(Table LXXIF) Cent 47 . . (6) 4385-0933 565-5125 281-1467 

(Table LXXIIT) Year 4 . "-. (5) 47411679 22-0623 999-9049 

(Table LXXIY) " Mgsha " . (5) 9322-7363 927-4168 994-5244 



At mean sunrise of (Day 87) 

Mesha-samkranti day, (2) Mon., 

28 March, A.D. 1603 . (2) 8448-9975 514-9916 275-5760 

(Table LXIV) Less for 25 days' 

interval . . (4) -8465-7968 -907-2906 68-4446 



At mean sunrise on Day 62 . . (5) 9983-2007 607-7010 207-1314 
Result, the same. 



112 EPIGBAPHIA IKDICA. [Vol. XVI. 

Computation of a date. 

Example 8. We will now take a suppositions Record-date, and in the following examples 
explain tlie complete method of work for proving the accuracy of all its details ; and for settling 
some other matters. 

The date is " Saka, 1148 expired, K.Y. 4327, Vyaya, Saturday, Bhadfapada sukla 5, 
Kanya 1, Bava karana, naksliatra Visaklia, yoga Vtudhnti, Kanya lagna." 

Table LXI shews that the year corresponded to AX 1220-27 ; that in that year true 
Mesha-sathkranti took place 3 h 55 m after mean sunrise o -Wed., 25 March (Day 84 from 1 
Jan.) ; that the civil day Chaitra sukla 1 was Sunday, 1 Marcii (Day 60 from 1 Jan,) ; and that 
(coL 8) the lunar month Ashadha was ntercalated in that year, The year was called a Vyaya " 
in South India, " Vikrita " in the North. 

The interval of days between the initial days of the solar and limi-solar year was (8460) 
24 

In this example we work for the values of a, &, c and t at mean sunrise of the day Chaitra 
sukla 1, which is stated in Table LXI to have been (col. 20) a Sunday. We work by the first 
process shewn above, and with full decimals. In using Table LXXIV for the interval of days 
24 as already stated it is obsei-ved that the week-day number (col. 3) for that number of days* 
interval (col. 1) is 2, and that, since the week-days obtained for the year from Tables LXXIT, 
LXXIII are respectively 6 and 6, total 12, the addition of 2 will make total 14, or 0, or a 
Saturday, whereas the day we are working for was Sunday. Hence we use the figures for 
23 days' interval, week-day 3, which gives us the correct a, I, c for 1 Sunday. (See note to 
Example I.) 

w*~d. a &. c. 

(Table LXXII) K.Y. Cent, 43 . (6) 8913-7771 214-1179 279-7019 

(Table LXXIII) Year 27 . . (6) 9587-5412 907-9933 0-0428 

(Table LXXIV) 23 days' interval (3) 1534-2032 92-7094 931-5554 



At mean sunrise on (T) Sunday, 1 
March, A.D. 1226, i.e. the day 
Chaitra sukla I . . . (1) 35*5215 214-8206 211-3001 

The above work has been thus fully carried out in order to prove the correctness of the 
entries in Table LXI, cols. 23, 24, 25, winch are the same. This work is not required to be done 
in practice as the Table provides the information. 

Now knowing the Table entry to be accurate, we proceed. 

TJie tithi. Ordinary work* 

Example^. The true titJii* The given date is Bhadrapada sukla 5. Table LXIII A 
skews that, Ashadha having been intercalated in the year in question and Bhadrapada being 
therefore the seventh, and nob the sixth, lunar month of the year, it began about 177 days after 
the day Chaitra sukla 1 ; consequently Bhadiv Suk. 5 was about 181 days after. Having added 

1 The mean tithi (and probably the mean nakshatra and yoga also) was nsed in earlier years to bow late a 
date is not yet known. The mean tithi is the mean moon* s distance from mean snn, our a. To find it add to the 
ascertained value of a (as in Example 3) for the day the sum of the greatest equations of moon and sun ie 
199-1150. The total givos the a of the mean tithi (- * of the true tithi). Thus for the day in question the 
ntean tithMnde* is (88 + 199) 235, or (35-5215 + 199-1150) 334-6365. This was its value at mean sunrise of th* 
given day. 



No, 14,] THE FIRST AEYA-SIDDHANTA : "TRUE" SYSTEM. 113 

the values of c&, &, c for 181 days to tliose already found for Chaitra~ukla 1, tie equations of 
6 and c are added from Tables LXV1, LXVII approximately, or from Tables LXYI A, 
LXVII A in very close and doubtful cases, to tlie resulting value of a for tlie day ; tlius *, the 
true tithi-index, is found". 

* In this example we work appi'oximately* 

The serial number of the day Chaitra sukla 1 (in March A.D. 1226) is 60 and the week- 
day 1, Sunday (Example 3). The a, 6, c for mean sunrise have been settled in Example 3. 

d. iv*~d. a. 6. c. 

Table LXI, cols. 19-25 . . (60) (1) 36 215 211 

(Table LXID . . . . (181) "(6) 1292 569 496 

At mean sunrise on day . . (241) (0) 1328 784 707 

(Table LXVI) ^ Eqn. b " . 3 

(Table LXVII) " Eqn. c " . . 117 



At mean sunrise on day 241, t =1448 = {Table LXVIII} sukla 5. 

Day 241 was (Table LXIX) August 29. Week-day 0= Saturday. Reference to Table 
LXXI confirms this as the right week-day. 

Tlte given Hindu date then is so far correct. The 5th sukla tithi of Bhadrapada ended OB, 
and gave its name to, Sat., 29 Aug., AJX 1226- For historical purposes it is .seldom necessary, 
unless the kai^ana is mentioned, to find the time of beginning and ending of the tithi ; but, if 
required, this is obtained approximately from Tables LXVIII, col. 3, and LXIX. At mean 
sunrise the tithi-indes was 1448. It began (14481333 =) 115, or (Table LXX) 8 b 9 m 
before, and ended (1667 1448 =) 219, or 15 U 31 m after mean sunrise on that Saturday, 

The titJii. Exact work. 

Example 5* Working the same date with the full decimals, we have 

d. w*~d* a. 6. c. 

As in Example 3 . . (60) (1) 35-5215 214*8206 211-3001 
Table LXIT . . . (181) (6) 1292-3692 568-7839 495-5392 



(241) (0) 1327-8907 783-6045 706'8393 

For either equation b or equation c note the difference between the values of 6 or c thus 
found and the nearest value respectively in Table LXVI A or LXYII A, cols. 2 a, 2b. 
Multiply this difference by the group-difference (col. 4). Divide the result roughly by 2 or 
exactly by 2"083 ; and add or subtract the result to or from the standard equation- value 
given in the Table (col. 8) as necessity demands, 

[This is the complete process \ but it almost always suffices to arrive very near- to the truth 
merely by the exercise of common sense, using Tables LXYI A, LXVII A as Eye-Tables,] 

Here the moon's anom, 6 is 783*6045, and the nearest amount of Argument 6 in Table 
LXVI A is 783'3, whose exact equation is 3*1006 (col. 5). As the difference in anom. is 
only about 0"3, viz* 0*2712, and the group-difference only 0*4150, we may take 3*1006 as the 
required equation of the given anom. Or we may work roughly by a multiplication of the 
first two decimals of the anom. diff. (0*27) by those of the group-diff. (0*42) and a division 
of the result by 2 yielding 0*0567, which, added to 3-1006, makes " equation 6 " = 3' 15 73; 
or we may work completely with all four decimals, arriving at the absolutely correct resu!6 
3-1546, 

o 



The ^ anom . ( C ) is 706-8393. The equation is similarly found by use of Table. 
LXVII or LXVII A. The nearest amount of "Argument" in Table LXVII A IB 
70^500 FoFwork is as follows :-Diff. in anom. 0'5893. This, multiplied by the group- 
difference (col 4) 0-2257, is 0-133005. This, divided by 2-083, is 0-0638. The equate 
of anom. 706*2600 is (col. 5) 117-1181. This plus 0-0638-117-1819, the exact equate 



reqiiirecL 

Applying, as before, these exact equations of the values of anom. & and c to the value of 
a, we have o 

A* already found . 1327-8907 
Eqn.6 . . . . 3-1546 

Eqn. c . . . - H7-1819 

The tithi-index, *,= 1448-2272 
By the work as in Example 4 the tithi-index (0 at mean sunrise was 1448. 

The Jtarana. 

Example*. The karana is half a tithi. See Table LXVIII, cols. '4, 5. For the date 
we are examining (Examples 3, 4, 5), viz. sukla 5 (Table, col. 2), the >^ ****** 
Bava and Balava. The tithi began (end of Example 4) 8* 9* before and ended 15* 31- 
after mean sunrise on 29 Aug. AD. 1226. Its length was 23* 40-. Half of this is 11* 
5O Thus Bava was the kara^a from 8 h 9 before to 3 h 41 m after mean sunnse on 29 
Au^. and Balava was the kara 9 a from 3 h 41 to 15* 31 on that day. Since the karana 
mentioned in the given date was Bava, the action referred to in the record must have taken 
place between mean sunrise and 3* 4,1- later on 29 Aug. 1226, i.e. roughly between 6'0 and 
9 -41 A..M. on that day. 

The nakshatra. . 

Example 7. Bequired the nakshatra of the same day, month and year as in Examples 3, 4, 

5,6. 

A nakshatra, or lunar mansion, is, in the equal-space system, a 27th part of the complete 
journey of the moon in a lunar month through the circle of the stars. Our nakshatra-index 
shews in which of these parts the moon was at any given moment. In these examples we are 
working for the true, not mean, moon's place. Each of these 27 parts has its own nakshatra- 
nftme and yoga-name (see Example 8). In the systems of Garga and the Brahma- Siddhanta 
the divisions of the constellation-circle are unequal, being designed more nearly to suit the 
positions of the principal stars 1 ; but the names of the divisions are the .same as in the 
.equal-space system. 

The indices of the beginning and ending points of the nakshatras are stated, in lO.OOOtlw 
of the circle, in Table LXTIII. The same in degrees are given, together with those oif the 
zodiacal solar signs, in " Indian Chronography" Table XXII. 

(A) The rule for finding the nakshatra rougHy, when working with only whole number*, 
if as follows -.Take the c of the date; multiply it by 10; add the constant 7226 (see 3O2 
above) ; and deduct the amount of " equation c." This gives *, the sun's true longitude at 
mean sunrise of the given day. Add s to * and th& result is n, the nakshatra-index. Reference 
with this index to Table LXVIII (col. 8, or 9 t or 10) shews .the nakshatra required, Le. the 



i :Mr.6.3t. Ka-ye, in Ms "Agronomical O&rtxh>f** of Jai iny*"(p. 117), gw aetnaa la*. nd long. 
of the stars after which the nakshatr&a were named. 



No. 14.} THE FIBST ABYA-SIDDHASTTA : "TBTTE" SrSTBM. US 

true moon's place amongst the constellations at mean sunrise, stated in 10,000ths of the circle. 
The moon's place in degrees, minutes, and seconds can. be found by Table XI/V B, Yol. XIV 
above. 

Thus, by the figures in Example 4 : 

c x 10 =7070 
Constant +7226 

4296 
Less eqn. c 117 

Sun's true long., s =4179 
Tithi-index, t t +1448 

Nakshatra-index n =5627=(Ta&Ze LXVIII, cols, 8, 9, 10) Visakha, 

by all systems. 

This is approximately correct. 
(B) Greater exactness can be obtained by using the decimals, thus 

c x 10 =7068-3930 
Constant +7226*3542 

.; 7'TiRu* 

4294-7472 
Less eqn. c - 117'1819 



s =4177-5653 
* +1448*2*272 




n =5625-7925 

There is here a little difference in the resulting nakshatra-index, which may in some oases 
be as great as nearly 10 units* owing to the roughness of the earlier method, 

(C) The value of s at mean sunrise of the day in question can also be obtained easily by 
my Tables for the sun's true longitude for each day of the solar year given in VoL XIV above. 
The following shews method of work ; 

In the present case the serial Dumber of the day in question was 241. True Mesha- 
samfcranti took place (see Example S) on Day 84 at 3 11 55 m after mean sunrise. The day of 
our date was (24184) the 157th. period (each of 24 hours) after the moment of true Mesha- 
samfcranti On this 157th day at 3 h 55 m after mean sunrise the sun's true longitude, *, 
was, in 10,UOOths of fifrcle, 418^0049 (Table XL 7 III A, Vol. XIV above, p. 32, col. 9}, 
Deduct the values for 3 hours (Table XLIX, p. 54, sun's true motion on that 157tli day) 

55 m (Table , me&n motion in Minutes), viz., respectively, 3*3852 and 1*0457, total 4*4309* 

4182-0049 
- 4-4309 



At wean sunrise $=4177*5740 

This is the value of s at mean sunrise of the 29 August of our date, and, added to f (4177*5740 
f 1448 4 2272), it gives us the correct nakshatra- index 5625"8Q12, shewing a slight difference of 
0*0087 in results. 

O 2 



116 EPIGRAPEIA INDIOA. [Voi, XVL 

If, for even greater accuracy, instead of using the value of the sun's mean motion in 55 m , 
we had worked 'by his true motion on that 157th day, viz, by dividing by 60 his true motion 
in 1 hour (Table XLIX, p. 54) and multiplying the result by 55, we should have found 12. = 
5625-8092. 

This method C, for finding the sun's longitude *, is believed to be absolutely accurate and 
should be relied on in case of doubt. 

[For a note on the nakshatra see the next example.] 

The yoga. 

The nakshatra (Example 7), as quoted in the given date, shews in which of the 27 sidereal 
divisions the moon stood at the moment in question, or the extent of the moon's journey from 
celestial long. 0. The y5ga deals with the combined journeys of both sun and moon, 

To find, therefore, the index of the y5ga at mean sunrise of the given day we have to add 
the long, of the true sun to the long, of the true moon at that moment. But the long o 
the true moon is the index n, i.e. the nakshati^a-index already found. And the long, of the 
sun is the index s, also already found (Example 7). 

Hence the y5ga-index (y) = $ + or, since n = s + t (Example 7), .y = 2s + t* 
The latter formula makes it easy to find the y5ga when it is unnecessary to find the nakshatra. 

At mean sunrise of 29 Aug. A.D. 1226 we have found that s =: 4177*5653 and that 
n = 5625-7925 ; hence the y5ga-index (y) = 9803'3578, and (Table LXYIII) the y5ga of the 
day was 27 Vaidhriti 

The several samkrantis. 

Example 9. To find the values of a, 6, c and t at the moments of tJie several solar samkrantis 
in the given year, and thereby to find whether a lunar month was common, intercalary (adhiJca), 
or suppressed QcsJiaya'). 

A samkranti takes place when the sun touches the point of a zodiacal sign, i.e* when he 
reaches long. 30, 60, etc. When, at the first of two such successive occurrences, the true 
moon is waning-and at the second is also waning, or at the first is waxing and at the second 
is also waxing, the lunar month is common. If the moon is waning at the first and waxing at 
the second, the lunar month is repeated* It is intercalary (adMka). When the moon is 
waxing at the first and waning at the second, the lunar month is altogether suppressed (kshaya). 

Thus it is necessary to find the a, 6, c for the moment of the astronomical beginning of the 
solar year, the actual moment, that is, of the true Mesha-samkranti, and add to their values 
their respective increases during the several true solar months, thus obtaining the a, 6, o for the 
moments of the true samkrantis concerned. Adding to the value of a at the moment of a 
gamkranti the values of " equation & " and " equation c " (as ia the former examples), we find 
the index of the tithi i, which shews whether the true moon was waging or waning at thei 
moment. 

The date and time of the true Mesha-samkranti is given in Table LXI, cols. 13, 14, 17. 
The intervals in time to each subsequent samkranti, and the collective intervals to each, are 
given in Table LXIII B, cols. 8 and 3 ; and the corresponding increases in the values of a, &, c 
given in the same Table, cols. 9, 10, 11 <and 4, 5, 6. 



^ We .will consider the conditions for the first few samkrantis of the same year as in 
Examples 3*8, viz. AD. 1226-27, K.Y. 4327, Saka 1148. 



No. 14.] THE FIRSTLAEYA SIDDHANTA: "TBUE" SYSTEM. 117 

First we have to ascertain ihe values of a, 6, c at the moment of true Msha< sariakranti 
which took place (Table LXI, cols. IS, 14, 17) at 3 h 55 m after mean sunrise on Day 84 namely 
Wednesday, 25 March, A.D 1226. The a, 6, c for mean sunrise of Day 60, Sunday, I 
March, the day of Chaitra sukla 1, are given in cols. 23, 24, 25 of the same Table. 
Interval between the two, whole days, (8460=:) 24 Taking down the a } b> c for 25 
March and adding their increase for 24 d 3 U 55 m from Tables LX1V, LXV, we find the values 
of a, & r c at the moment of true Mesha-samkranti, as required* 

Table LXIII B gives us the exact interval in time and the amount of increase of a, 5, c, 
darincr that interval, up to the moment of every subsequent sainkranti in the year. In close 
cases, of course, full decimals can be used and the equation- values very carefully examined, but 
in general it is only necessary to use whole numbers, as in this example* Only in a doubtful 
case need we do more. 

We desire, let us suppose, to ascertain, from the values of t at the respective Mithuna and 
Karka-samkrantis, whether the moon was waxiiig or waning at the moments of their occurrence. 
The work is as follows ; 

d. w.-d. a. b. c. 

Mean sunrise, Ghait. 4uk. 1 (Table LXT) .60 1 36 215 211 

34 days' increase (Table LXIV) ... 24 3 8127 871 66 

3 hours' do. (Table LXV) . . . 42 5 

55 minutes' do. ( do. ) 13 I J) 

At moment of true Meslia-samkranti + 84 4 8218 92 277 

Interval to Mithuna-samh (T. LXIII B, left side) +1105 262 171 

At moment of Mitlmna-samkranti . 9323 354 448 1 

Eqn. b (Talle LXFI) ... 250 

. c (Talle LXVII)' ... 41 1 



i = 9614 

This value of i shews that at the Mithuna-samkranti the moon had not reached the point of new 
moon when t = 10,000. She was still waning. 

a. b. c 

At moment of Mithuna-sariikr&nti, a$ above * 9323 354 448 
Interval to Karka-whk. (T. LXIII B, cols. 9, 10, 11} . 703 147 47 

At moment of Karlka*samkranti * 26 501 535 

'Eqn. b (Table LXVI) ...,,. 138 
* Eqn. c (TMe LXVI1} ...... 73 1 

* = 237 

[It is not really necessary, when it is seen that a (here 26) is greater than 0, to add the 
equations, because the value of a proves that the moon had begun a new synodical revolution 
and was waxing.] 

The value of t (and a) shews that the moon was waxing at the Karka-samkranti. Thus 
the lunar month Ashadha (see cols. 1, 2, Table LXIII J5) was intercalated in the given year. 

The place of the moon at the moments of the later sarakrantis is obtained, if required, by 
a continuation of similar work and the use of Table LXIII B. 

1 See note to TaWe LXIII B. These wines are given m the auxiliary Tal>le. At the Mitlimaa-samkranti c 5s 
always 44jS'Oi>77 and etjii. c always -iO'56iO. At the Karka-samkranti c is always 534'6213 and eqru c always 



KB EPIGBAPHIA INDIGA- [Voir. 

Days of the solar year. 

Jt5xampl& 10. , To find the day and week-day of the solar year corresponding to any given 
day in tlie Iwii-solar year. 

The moment of true Mesha-samkranti, as given in Table LXI, cols. 13, 14, 17, marks th 
astronomical beginning of tlie solar year. In ,diei*ent parts of India (see Indian Calendar , 
28, p. 12, and Indian Ohronography, 43, pp. 18, 19) there are different rules for fixing the first 
day of tlie solar month, which is sometimes the same day, sometimes the next day, sometimes 
(in Bengal) the third day. In the present case we imagine the record to have come from the 
Tamil country and we work by the Tamil rule* 

In tlie given year (Example 5), A.D. 1226, true Mesha-samkranti took place on Day 84 
(measured from Jan. 1), Wednesday, 25 March, at 3 b 55 m after mean sunrise, and that 
Wednesday was the day " 1 Mesha " since the sarhkranti occurred before sunset. 

The days in Mesha follow regularly. But to find the first civil day of each successive 
month in the year we must establish the moment when each samkranti took place. This 
information is obtained from Table LXIII B, 

We have determined the given date to be (see Examples 4, 5) the serial day 241 measured 
from Jan. 1, and the 157th day after the day on which Mesha-samkranti occurred, which was 
Day 84. Turn to Table LXIII B. Kanya began 156 days after true Mesha-sarbkranti ; so our 
date will be in the solar month Kanya. Calculate the moment of occurrence of the Kanya- 
samkranti in the given year from the same Table. 

d. w.-d. h. m* s* 

(Table LXI) Trite Mesha- samto&nti , + (84) (4) 3 55 

(TaUe-LXHI B) Interval to Eanya-samk. . (156) (2) 10 24 25 

Moment of Sanya-saihkr&nti . . . (240) (6) 14 19 25 

By Tamil rule, since the samkranti took place after, sunset, or 12 11 Lanka time, viz. at 
14 h 19 m 25" after mean sunrise, the civil day < c 1 Kanya " was not (6) Friday (Day 240), 
28 August, the day of the samkranti, but was Saturday (Day 241), 29 August, 

And this Saturday happens to have been the very day of our record, which day was in 
solar-year reckoning " 1 Kanyi." 

[Observe that, if the record had come from Bengal, its solar date would have been the 
same, since the samkranti occurred before midnight on Friday and the Saturday was therefore 
" 1 Kanya." Had it come from Orissa, the Saturday would have been " 2 Kanya," since the 
first day of the solar month is, in that country, always the day of the samkranti, and so 
" 1 Kanya " was the Friday. By the Malabar Rule " 1 Kanya " was Saturday.] 

The lagna. 

Example 1L On the day in question (Example 7) it has been established that at mean 
sunrise the sun's true long, s, in 10,QGQtfas of the circle, was 4177 '5653. To calculate the 
lagna we must have 8 in degrees, etc., which can be calculated by Table XLV B, Vol. XIV above, 
*>r by Tables XL VIII A, XLIX, L, in the same volume. We work by the latter. 

The day of the record was the 157th after true Mesha-samkranti, which took place 
S b 55 m after mean sunrise on the day of its occurrence. Table XL VIII A (p. 32) shews that 
at S h 55 m after mean sunrise 157 days later the sun's true long., $, was 150 33' 7' % 84 Deduct 
Ms motion {true) for 3 h by Table XLIX (p. 54), viz. 7' 1S"*72, and (mean) for 55 by Table L, 
via. 2' 15"-52, total 9' 34"-24. Then s at meat) sanrise was 150 23' 33*'60. 

The long, of he point of rising of Kanya is (Indian Chronograph**}, Table XXII) 150, 
and thai si g a ends at 180, Take the ending-point and calculate the distance between it and 
the sun at mean sumise, 180 150 23' 83^60=29 36' 26"*40. There is no need her* for 



Ho. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARTA SIDDHANTA : TSUE " SYSTEM. 



ereat accuracy, and we take this as 29 36'. Turn this 'into time fcy multiplying the degre.es by 

O ^ i , i 1. t* O fn rt A a 



mean sunrise. 

In examining the given date in the matter of the karana (Example 6) we found that the 
M-Hon referred to in the record must have taken place between mean sunrise and 3* 41 later or 
^en 6 1 9.41 ..M. on Sat, 29 Aug., A.D. 1226. The mention of the lagna still further 
reduces the time and shews that the action referred to must have taken place between mean 
gunrise and a time l h 58 later; or between 6.0 and 7.58 A.M. on that day. 

NOTE. 

The above examples may, perhaps, strike the uninitiated as involving an immense amount 
of complicated work in order to obtain the desired result. But such xs by no means the case. 
EW date can be calculated in whole numbers at first, and it is very seldom^hat the decamals 
needbe resorted to. They are provided for the purpose of deciding doubtful cases where very 
great accuracy is required. 

For all the details of the given date,-and it is very seldom that so many are stated in an 
inscription or grant,-the following exemplifies all the work necessary to be done to put _us 
in full possession of the facts. In about a, quarter of an hour we learn <"!^*** 
has to be learned; and, when less details are given, their accuracy can be proved or disproved 
Salew minutes. What follows shews the ordinary work ix> be done for the date given m 
Examples 3-10. 

Given year = Saka 1148, K. Y. 4327, Vyaya, A.D. 1226-27. 

d. w.-d, "h. m. . 

1 Megha = (84) (4) 3 55 

(156) (2) 10 24 25 



(240) 
1 Kanya = (241) 



1448 
- 1333 



(6) 14 19 
Sat. 29 Aug. 



1667 
-1448 



25 



d. 
(60) 

(181) 


ll)' 
(6) 


a. 
36 
1292 


6. 
215 
569 


c. 
211 
496 


(241) 


(0) 


1328 
3 
117 


784 


707 



116s _8 h 9* 219 =s 



Total BSva 




t = 1448 Bhadr. uk. 5 



c e 7070 
7225 

4296 
-117 



s = 4179 
f = 1448 
= 5627 



4179 
2 

8358 
1448 



Blva on Sat. 29 Aug. = 3 4.1 



n s ViSSkha y - 9806 

y ssVaidhriti 



HBICi [Yoz, XVI 



(The-lagna requires a short; calculation by itself,) 
The above decides the solar month, day and week-day. 

n hm-solar month, day and week-day, 

tithi, 

karana. 
nakshatra, 



> }) )) 

n 

the positions of sun and moon, their longitudes, and distance fiom 

another. 







the time of day referred to, within 2 hours, 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST A&YA-SIDDHANTA : TRUE " SYSTEM. 



121 



TABLE A. 
IN THE CALENDAR BETWEEN ABYA AND 



SroBHiNTA 



1, 2. The number of the year here given is the one generally used in records of the year 
A.D. noted in column 3, and is stated here so as to catch the eye readily. In referring to 
the main Table LXXI the number of the year in columns 1, 2 therein is the present number 
advanced by 1, being the corresponding concurrent year. 

CoL 4, Class A, Different samvatsara-names given to solar and luni-solar years. 

CoL 4, Class U. Intercalations and suppressions of different lunar months. "_adh.**~an inter- 
calated (adhika) months; "ksh," a suppressed (kshaya) month. 

CoL 4, Class C. Differences in the civil day called " Chaitra'Sukla 1," the civil beginning of the 
luni-solar year. The figure in brackets in columns 5, 6 is the number of the civil day 
measured from January 1st. 



1C Y. 

expired. 


Saka 
expired. 


A. D. 


Class 


i 
FIXTURES ACCOBDIKQ- TO THE 


First Jbya-Siddhaata. 


S Iry a-Siddharxta. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


4007 


828 


906-7 


A 


1 "Prabhava" . 


60 "Kshaya." 


4008 


829 


907-8 


A 


2 "Vibhava" 


1 " Prabhava." 


4000 


830 


908-9 


A 


3 "Sukla" . 


2 " Vibhava.'* 


4075 


896 


974-75 


B 


4 Ashadha (adh.) . * 


3 Jyeshtha (adfa.) 


4080 


901 


979-80 


B 


6 Bhadrapada (adh.) 


3 Jyeshtha (adh.). 


4092 


913 


991-92 


A 


27 "Vijaya" 


26 "N&ndana; 1 


4093 


914 


992-93 


A 


28 "Jaya" .... 


27 ** Vijaya^ 


4094 


915 


993-94 


A 


29 "Manmatha" . * 


28 "Jaya" 


4095 


916 


994-95 


A 


30 "Burmukha** . 


29 " Maamatha." 


4159 


980 


1058-59 


B 


4 Ashadha (adh.) . 


3 Jyeshtha (adh.). 


4177 


998 


1076-77 


A 


53 "Siddharfchui" . 


52 "Kalayukta." 


4178 


999 


1077-78 


A 


54 "Raudra" 


53 " Siddharthin.** 


4179 


1000 


1078-79 


A 


55 "Durmati*' 


54 " Baudra," 


4180 


1001 


1079-80 


A 


56 "Dradubhi" . 


55 ** Burmati" 


4193 


1014 


1092-93 





11 Mar. (71% 5 Thur. 


12 Mar. (72), 6 Fri. 


4232 


1053 


1131-32 


B 


5 Sravaria(adb.) . 


4 AshadJha (adh.). 


4251 


1072 


1150-51 


B 


5 Sravana (adh.) * 


4 Ashadha (adh-X 


4256 


1077 


1155-56 


B 


NU 


12 Phalguna (adh.). 


4257 


1078 


1156-57 


B 


1 Chaitra (adh.) . 


mi. 


id. 


id. 


id. 


C 


23 Feb. (54), 5 TKur. 


24 Mar. (84), Sat, 


4262 


1083 


1161-62 


A 


19 "Parthiva" 


18 "Tarsia/' 


4263 


1084 


1162-63 


A 


20 u Yyaya" 


19 "Parthiv*" 



122 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[Voi,. XVI. 



TABLE A Contd. 



Kv 








FIXTURES ACCOJ 


JBINa TO THE 


* J. 

expired. 


expired. 


A. D. 


Class. 


First Arya-Siddhanta. 


Surya-Siddhanta. 


1 


2 j 


3 


4 


5 


6 


4264 


1085 


1163-64 


A 


21 "Sarrajit" 


20 " Vyaya." 


4265 


1086 


1164-65 


A 


22 "'Sarvadharin". 


21 "Sarvajit." 


4313 


1134 


1212-13 


H 


7 Asvina(adh.) 
11 MdgJia (ksh*) 


V7 Asvina (adh.). 


4348 


1169 


1247-48 


A 1 


12 Phalguna (adh*) 
46 "Paxidhavin" . 


45 " Virodhakrit.*' 


4349* 


1170 


1248-49 


A 


47 "Pramadin." . 


46 " Paridhavin/* 


4350 


1171 


1249-50 


A 


48 "Ananda" 


47 " Prainadin." 


4351 


1172 


1250-51 


A 


49 "Rakshasa" , 


48 t( AnandaT 


4356 


1177 


1255-56 


C 


11 Mar. (70), 5 Thur. 


10 Mar. (69), 4 Wed. 


4378 


1199 


1277-78 


*P 


9 Margasira (adh.) 
10 PawsJia (ksK.) 


8 Karfctika(adh.). 1 
10 Pausha (ksk.). > 








I 


12 Phalguna (adh.) 


12 Phalguna (adh.). J 
9 Margasira (adh.). j 


4397 


1218 


1296-97 


B 


12 Phalguna (adh.) . < 


10 Paitsha (JfcsA.). > 
12 Phalguna (adh. )./ 










f 


8 Karttika (adh.)* *S 


4416 


1237 


1315-16 


B 


12 Phalguna (adh.) . < 


9 Margasira (ksJi.)* V 
12 Phalguna (adh.)* j 


4433 


1254* 


1332-33 


A 


' 12 "Bahudhanya" 


11 u lavara." 


4434 


1255 


1333-34 


A 


13 " PramatMn '* . 


12 " Bahudhanya/* 


4435 


1256 


1334-35 


A 


14'"Vikrama" . 


13 ' Pramathin." 


4436 


1257 


1335-36 


A 


JL5 > nsixa *> * 


^14 " Vikrama." 


4454 


1275 


1353-54 


sJ 


7 jLsyina (adh.) * * 
11 Magha (teh.) . 


hBhadrapada (adh.). 








j 


12 Phalguna (adh.) 




4471 


1292 


1370-71 


35 


' 3 Jyeshtha (adlu) 


' 2 Vaisakha (adh.). 


4481 


1302 


1380-81 


B 


*A^. { 


8 Karttika (adh.). "> 


4492 


1313 


1391-92 


B 


7 Aavina(adL) . * - 


6 Bbadrapada (adb.). 


4509 


1330 


1408*9 


B 


3 Jyeshtha (adh, ) 


2 Yaiaakha (adh.). 


4511 


1332 


1410-11 


B 


7 Asvina(adh.) 


6 Bhadrapada(adh.) 


4518 


1339 


1417-18 


A 


38 ^Krodhin" 


37 " Sobhana." 


4519 


1340 


1418-19 


A 


39 "Visvavasu". . 


38 " Krodhin." 








C 


8 Karttika (adh.) 




id 


id. 


id. 


H 


t 11 Magha (Jc~sh.) 


U Karttika (adh.). 










12 Phalguna (adh. ) * . 


J 


4520 


1341 


1419-20 


A 


40 " Parabhava ** * 


39 " Visvavasu.** 


4521 


1342 


1420-21 


A 


41 "Plaranga*' 


40 " Parabhava.** 


.4537 


1358 


1436-37 





18 Mar, (78), 1 Sun. 


19 Mar. (79), 2 Mon. 


4557 


1378 


1456-57 


4 


" 8 Karttika (adh.) . 
10 Pausha (fah.) * 
12 Phalguna (adh ) 


U Karttika (adh.). 


4566 


1387 


1465-66 


B 


2 Vaisakha(adh.) 


1 Chaitra (adh.). 



No'. 14.] THE FIEST AEYA-SIDDHANTA : "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



123 



TABLE A Contd. 



'> '' ===== 

K.Y. 


Saka 




-- 


"" .---.'--- ' - -"- - ^- ='*--.* " - "'" 

RXTTRHB ACCORDING- TO THE 


expired. 


expired. 


A, IX 


Class. 

















First Arya-Siddhanta. 


Siry a-Sidd hint a. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 





4574 


1395 


1473-74 


e 


28 Feb. (59), 1 Sun. 


27 Feb. (58), Sat. 


4576 
4587 


1397 
1408 


1475-76 
1486-87 


sJ 


7 Asvina(adk) 
10 Pawka (&?]&.) . 
12 Phalguna (adh.) 
6 Bhadrapada; (adk) 


7 A5vina(adk). A 
11 Mctgha (ksh.). V 
12 PMlguna(adk). j 
5 Srivana (adk). 


4603 


1424 


1502-3 


A 


4 "Pramoda" 


3 "fiukla.* 1 


4604 


1425 


1503-4 


A 


5 "Praji.pati" . . . i 


4 <e Pramoda.** 


id. 


id. 


id. 


B 


2 Vaisakhatadk) 


I Cbaitra (adk). 


4605 


1426 


1504-5 


A 


6 "Aiiglrasa" . 


5 ** Pfcajapati." 


4606 


1427 


1505-6 


A 


7 "Srmukha" . 


6 - ABgirasa.- 


id. 


id. 


id. 


B 


6 Bhadrapada (adk) 


5 g ? ava^a{adk}. 


4607 


1428 


1506-7 


A 


S "Bhava" 


7 <c Srlmiikli^" 


4608 


1429 


1507-8 


A 


9 "Yuvaa" 


8 "Bhara." 


4609 


1430' 


1508-9 


A 


10"DWtei" . - 


9 " Yuvan-" 


4610 


1431 


150940 


A 


11 "Isvara" 


10 u Bhatri." 


4611 


1432 


1510-11- 


A 


12 "Bafeudhaiiya" 


11 "Javara." 


4612 


1433 


1511-13 


A 


13 "Pramatbfn" . 


12 " Bahudhanya" 


4613 


1434' 


1512-13 


A 


Wj 4 Vikrama- . . . 


13 " PramatME.** 


4614 


1435 


1513-14 


A 


16 *'Vrisha*', 


14 ** Vikrama." 


4615 
4622 


1436 
1443 


1514-15 
1521-22 


A 

B 


16 "CMtrabhanu* 1 

jsr*r. [ 


15 " Vrisha.** 
8 Karttika (adk). 
9 Margasira (.). 


4644 


1465 


1543-44 


B 


6 Bhadrapada (adk) 


SSriya^a(adk). 


4659 
4660 
4679 


1480 
1481 
1500 


1558-59 
1559-60 
1578-79 


C 

K 

B 


21 Mar. (80), 2 Moa. 
8 Karttika (adk) . 
11 Magha (ksh.) * 
12 PbMguna (adh-) 
8 Karttika (adk) . 


20 Mar. (79) 1 Smu 
1 
j (a 


4682 


1503 


' 1581-82 


C 


6 Mar. (65), 2 Moa. 


5 Max. (64), 1 Son. 


4689 


1510 


1588-89* 


A 


3i Hemalamba* 1 


30*Dumuikh*J* 


4690 


1511 


1589-90 


A 


3-2 " Vilaiaiba'* * * 


31 tf Hemalamim, 11 


4691 


1512 


1590-91 


A 


33 " Vikfcrin*' . . . 


32 * Vilamba. tf 


4092 


.1513 


1591-92 


A 


34 u Sirvarin** 


33 ** VikariiL'* 


4693 


1314 


1592-93 


A 


35 "Plava" . 


34 " Sawaxtnu** 


4694 


1515 


1593-94 


A 

r=!," 


36 "Subhakrifc 1 * . 

1 "* 


; 35 * Plava.** 


^*, 



SMGRAPHIA IKDIGA. 



TABLE A Cowtd. 



K. Y. 

expired^ 


Saka 
expired. 


A,D. 


Class, 


FIXTURES ACCORDING TO THE 1 


First Arya-Siddhanta* 


St5rya-Siddhanta* 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


4695 


1516 


1594-95 


A 


37 "Sobhana" 


36 * Subhakrit," 


4696 


1517 


1595-96 


A 


38Kr6dhin" 


37 " Sobhanav 5 * 


4697 


1518 


1596-97 


A 


39 Visvavasu" . 


38 * KrodliiDu** 


4608 


1519 


1597-98 


A 


40 * Parabhava" . 


39 * Visvavasu." . 


id* 


id. 


id. 


B 


8 Karttika (adh.) . 


7 Asvina (adk.). 


4699 


1520 


1598*99 


A 


41 "Plaraiiga" . 


40 Parabhava/* 


4700 


1521 


15994600 


A 


42*Klaka" 


41 " Plavacga.*' 


4701 


1522 


1600-1 


A 


43 * Saumya" 


42 K Iaka. M 


4720 


1541 


1619-20 


C 


7 Mar. (66), 1 Sun. 


6 Mar. (65), Sat. 


4731 


1552 


1630-31 


C 


4 Mar. (63), 5 Thur. 


5 Mar. (64), 6 Fru 


4754 


1575 


1653-54 


C 


20 Mar. (79), 1 Sun. 


19 Mar. (78), Sat. 


4757 


1578 


1656-57 


C 


17 Mar. (77), 2 Mon. 


16 Mar. (76), 1 Sun. 


4773 


1594 


1672-73 


C 


20 Mar. (80), 4 Wed. 


19 Mar. (79), 3 Tues. 


4774 


1595 


1673-74 


A 


57 "Budhirodgarm" 


56 " Dundubhi" 


4775 


1596 


1674-75 


A 


58 "Raktaksha" . 


57 Rudhircdgariix.** 


4776 


1597 


1675-76 


A 


59 "Krodhana" . 


58 * Baktaksha." 


4777 


1598 


1676-77 


A 


60*KBhaya" 


59 - Krcdhana.*' 


4778 


1599 


1677-78 


A 


1 "Prabhava" . 


60 Kstoya." 


4779 


1600 


1678-79 


A 


2"Vibhava" 


1 - Prabhava." 


4780 


1601 


1679-SO 


A 


3 "Sukla" . 


2 Vibhava,'* 


47S1 


1602 


1680-81 


A 


4 * PramSda 


3 Sukla." 


4782 


1603 


1681-82 


A 


5 "Prajapati** . 


4 Pramdda.** 


4783 


1604 


1682-83 


A 


6liigirasa" . 


5 Prajapati." 


4784 


1605 


1683-84 


A 


7 ** Srunuklia" . 


6 Angirasa." 


4785 


1606 


1684-85 


4 


8 "Bhava" 


7 Snmukba.'* 


4786 
4801 
4802 


1607 
1622 
1623 


1685-S6 
1700-1 
1701-2 


A 

{ 

B 


9 * Yuvan" 
7 Avina(adk) . 
11 Mfyha(teh.) , 
1 Chaitra (adk) , 


8 Bhava." 
1 7 Isvina (adh.). 
Nil. 


id. 


id. 


id. 


C 


27 Feb. (58), o Tbur* 


29 Mar. (88), Safe. 


4807 


1628 


1706-7 


B 


4 Ishadha (adh.) . 


3 Jyeshtha (adk)* 


4819 


1640 


1718-19 


C 


22 Mar. (81), Sak . 


21 Mar. (80), 6 FrL 


4826 


1647 


1725-26 


B 


4 Ashadha (adk) . 


3 Jyeshtha (adh.). 



THE FIRST AmU>ffi9RJt! " TBUE " S?S 



I ABIE LXI. 



Cok 1 to 4.~The present Table states the conctwrenJ years so as exactly to cor&spond with 
Sable I of the " Indian Calendar " and in that respect to save trouble for those who have become 
accustomed to use that publication, The year usually quoted in inscriptions is the expired year, 
though sometimes the concurrent year is given; e.g. t the year A.D. ^900/jomspfends'tothe 
concurrent years K. Y. 4001, aka 822, but to the expired years & 1. 4000, Saka'821, 

GoZ. 5. All the entries are of intercalated (adhika) months, except those in italics, which 
are suppressed (Maya) months, 

A List of instances where in important details the Arya and Surya differ is given in Table A 
at end of text. 

It has not been thought necessary to include in to Table the years between A,D. 499 and 
899, This paper concerns computation by the true motions of sun and moon, and it is pc*i fc 
cally certain that prior, at least, to the latter date all calculations for almanacs in India were 
made by mean planetary motions, 



1W 



[Vol. 



TABLE 

GENERAL TABLE FOR CALCULATION 
Conforming to Table 1 " Indian jCcdendar,'* 

Entries in italics in Column. 7 shew -where, in the Northern system, eamvatsara- 

* =Leap-years of 366 days. 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


IKTEBOALATBD 
(adhika) and 

STTPKEWESSED 

(kshaya) LTTKAB 
MONTHS (true). 


KftIL 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Vikmma. 


S ^ 
.P* oo 

8 d 
jsj.3 


Koliam. 


A.B. 


JOVIAL SAMVATSARA, 


Southern 

system. 


Korthem 
system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4r 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4001 


822 


057 


306 


74^7S 


899*900 


53 Siddharthin . 


53 Siddhaxtkin . 


** 


itX>2 


*23 


058 


307 


75*76 


*900-01 


54 Haudra 


54 Randra 


* 


4003 


824 


959 


308 


76-77 


901-02 


55 Durmati 


55 Durmati 


2 Vai&kha . 


4604 


885. 


960 


soa 


77-78 


90&G3 


56 Btinduhhi , * 


56 Dundubhi 4 


**'* 


4005 


826 | 


961 


310 


78-79 


903-04 


57 Rudhirodgarin 


57 Rudhirodgarin 


6 Bhadrapada 


4006 


827 


962 


311 


79u8O 


*94-r05 


58 Raktak^La 


58 Raktafcsha 




4007 


'828 


963 


w*- *| 

312 


80-81 


905-06 


59 Kr^dEana 


59 Kfddlianat . 


* 

* 


4008 


829 


964 


313 


81*82 


906-07 


60 Ksha-ya 


1 PrdbTiava 


5 Sravana 


4909 


830 


965 


314 


82-83 


907-08 


1 Prabhava 


2 Vibhava 


** 


4010 


831 


966 


315 


83-84 


*908-09 


2 Vibhava 


3 SuMa . 


* 


4011 


832 


967 


316 


84-85 


909-10 


3 Sukla . * . 


4 Pramcda 


3 Jyeshtha 


4012 


833 


968 


317 


85*86 


910-11 


4 Pramoda 


5 Prajapati 





4013 

4014 


834 
835 


969 
970 


31S 
319* 


86-87 
87-88 


911-12 
*912-13 


5 Prajapati 
6 Arigirasa 


6 Angirasa < 
7 Siimukha 


7 Asvina *J 
10 Pau*ka (fah ) j 

1 Chaitra 


4015 


836 


971 


320 


88-89 


913-14 


7 Srimukha 


8 Bhava . 


* 


4016 


837 


972 


321 


89-90 


914-15 


8 Bhiva . 


9 Yuvau . 


5 Sravai^a 


4017 


838 


973 


322 


90-91 


915-16 


9 Yuvan . 


1O DLatri 


* * 


4018 


839 


974 


323 


91-92 


*916-17 


10 Bhatri . 


11 Isvara . 


** 


4019 


840 


975 


324 


92-93 


917-18 


11 LSvara , 


12 Bahudhanya . 


4 Aehadha 


4020 


841 


976 


325 


93-94 


918-19 


12 BahudMnya . 


13 Pramathin . 


* 


4021 


84 


977 


326 


94-95 


919-20 


13 Pramathin 


14 Vikrama 






t 60 Kflhaya was aupprea*d in th* north. 




TRUE" SYSTEM. 



137 



LXI. 



BY THE FIRST 

iAe columns being similarly numbered 

names of solar years differ from those given by followers of the Saxya-SiddMnta. 

of civilly. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Knit 


SOLAR YEAR, 







LUKX.SOX4B YEAR (MEAK STJUOEISE OF CIYH, BAT OH WHICH" 

CHAITBA SUKT..A 1 SKXMS). 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkrantL 


I>ay and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


6. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


J 


22 Mar. (81) 


5 Thur. 


H. M. 8. 
13 47 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


6 Fri. . 


9939*8668 


196-5305 


259-453Y 


4001 


21 Mar. (81) 


6 Fri . 


20 


4 Mar. (64) 


3 Tues. 


9815-5502 


43-7053 


228*6299 


4002 


22 Mar. (81) 


1 Sun. . 


2 12 30 


22 Feb. (53) 


1 Sun, . 


29-8654 


927-2917 


200-5438 


4003 


22 Mar. (81) 


2 Mon. . 


8 25 


13 Mar. (72) 


Sat. . 


64-5051 


863-2752 


251-8535 


4004 


22 Mar. (81) 


3 Txxes. 


14 37 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


5 Thur. 


278-8203 


746-8017 


223-7674 


4005 


21 Mar. (81) 


4 Wed. 


20 50 


20 Mar. (80) 


3 Tues. 


9974-8281 


646-4936 


272-3393 


4006 


22 Mar, (81) 


6 Fri. . 


3 2 30 


10 Mar. (69) 


1 Sun. . 


189-1433 


530-0200 


244-2533 


4007 


22 Mar. (81) 


Sat. . 


9 15 


27 Feb. (58) 


5 Tbnr. 


64-8268 


377-2548 


213-4295 


4008 


22 Mar. (81) 


1 Sun. . 


15 27 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


3 Tiies. 


9700-8345 


276-9467 


262-0014 


4000 


21 Mar. (81) 


2 Mon. . 


21 40 


6 Mar. (66) 


1 Sun. . 


9975-1497 


160-4731 


233-9153 


4010 


22 Mar. (81) 


4 Wed. 


3 52 30 


23 Feb. (54) 


5 Tinir. 


9850-8331 


7-7079 


203-0914 


4011 


22 Mar. (81) 


5 Thur, 


10 5 


.14 Mar. (73) 


4 Wed. 


9885-4728 ] 


943-6915 


254-4011 


4012 


22 Mar- (81) 


6 Fri. . 


16 17 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


2 Mon. . 


99-7880 


827-2178 


226-3151 


4013 . 


21 Mar- (81) 


Sat. . 


22 30 


22 Feb. (53) 


Sat. . 


314-1033 


710*7443 


198-2290 


4014 


22 Max. (81) 


2 Mon. . 


4 42 30 


11 Mar. (70) 


5 Thur. 


10-1109 


610-4362 


246-8010 


4015 


22 Mar. (81) 


3 Tuea. 


10 55 


28 Feb. (59) 


2 Hon. . 


9885-7943 


457-6710 


215-9771 


4016 


22 Mar. (81) 


4 Wed. 


17 7 30 


19 Mar. (78) 


1 Sun. . 


9920-4340 


393-6545 


4017 


21 Mar. (81) 


5 Thur. 


23 20 


7 Mar. (67) 


5 Thur, 


9796-1174 


240-8S93 


**v-*u>w 


4018 


22 Mar. (81) 


Sat. . 


5 32 30 


25 Feb. (56) 


3 Tues. 


10-4326 


124-4158 


208-3769 


4019 


22 Mar. (81) 


1 Son. * 


11 45 


16 Mar. (75) 


2 Mon. . 


45-0722 


60-3992 


259-5866 


4020 


22 Mar. (81) 


2 Mont. . 


17 57 30 


5 Mar. (64) 


6 Fri. . 


9920-7556 


907-6340 


228-8628 

i 


4021 



EPIGRAPHIA INDIOA. 



[Vot. 



TABLE 



CONCDBEBNT YEAR. 


1 

INTERCALATES 

1 (adhika) and 

StIPPBKSSEB 

(kshaya) LUKAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka, 


'j 


1 

iw j? 


Kollam. 


A.D. 


JOVIAN SASCVATSABA 


Southern 

system* 


KTorthern 
system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


S 


4022 


843 


978 


327 


95-96 


*920-21 


14 Vikrama 


15 VrisBa . 


2 Vai&kha . 


4023 


844 


979 


328- 


96-97 


921-22 


15 Vrisha . 


16 CHtrabhanu . 


*** 


4024 


846 


980 


329 


97-98 


922-23 


16 Chitrabtanu . 


17 Subhanu 


6 Bhadrapada 


4025 


846 


981 


330 


98-99 


923-24 


17 Subhami 


18 Tarawa . 


*.. 


4026 
4027 


847 
848 


982 
983 


331 
332 


99-100 
100-01 


*924-25 
' 925-26 


18 Tarawa . 
Id Parthiva 


10 Parthiva 
20 Vyaya . 


** 
4 Ashadha fc 


4028 


849 


984 


333 


1014)2 


926-27 


20 Vyaya . 


21 Saivajit. 


... 


4029 


850 


985 


334 


102-03 


927-28 


21 Sarvajit, . . 


22 Sarvadharin . 


*... 


4030 


851 


986 


""335 


1034)4 


*928-29 


22 Sanradharin * 


23 Virodhin 


3 Jyeshtha 


4031 


852 


987 


336 


1044)6 


929-30 


23 Virddhin 


24 Vikrita . 


# * 


4032 


853 


988 


337 


1054)6 


930-31 


24 Vikrita v . 


25 Khara . 


7 Asvina 


4033 


854 


989 


338 


1064)7 


931-32 


25 Khara . 


26 Kandana 


-r 


4034 


856 


990 


339 


107-08 


*932-33 


26 Nandana 


27 Vijaya . 


*,** 


4036 


856 


991 


340 


108-09 


933-34 


27 Vijaya . 


28 Jaya . 


5Sravana. . 


4036 


857 


992 


341 


109-10 


934-35 


2S Jaya . 


29 Manmatha , 


*.** 


4037 


868 


993 


342 


110-11 


935-36 


29 Manmatha 


30 Durmukha . 


js j 
* , 


4038 


859 


994 


343 


111-12 


936-37 


30 Bormukha , 


31 Hemalamba . 


3 Jyeahtha . | 


4039 


860 


995 


344 


112-13 


937-38 


31 Hemalamba * 


32 Vilamba 


* 


4040 


861 


996 


346 


113-14 


938-39 


32 Vflamba 


33 Vikarin . 


*** ! 


.4041 


862 


997 


346 


114-15 


939-40 


33 Vikarin . 


34 Sarvaria 


2 Vaisakha . 


4042 


863 


998 


347 


115-16 


*940-41 


34 Sarvaria 


35 Plava . 


*** 


4043 


864 


999 


348 


116-17 


941-42 


35 Plava , 


36 Suhhakrit 


6 Bhadrapada 


4044 


866 


1000 


349 


117-18 


942-43 


36 Subbakrit 


37 Sohhana 


# 


4046 


866 


1001 


360 


118-19 


94344 


97 Sdbhana 


38 KrodMn 


* * 


4046* 


867 


1002 


361 


119- JO 


9*4^ 


38 Krddhin 


39 Viavavasu , 


4 Ashadha 



14 ] 



THE FIRST AEYA-SIDDHANTA : " TRUE " SYSTEM. 



129 



LXI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali, 
1 


SOLAS TEAB. 


LtJHI-SOLAB Y1SAB (MKA3T SUOTISE OF CIVIL BJLT OK WHICH 
CHAXTBA SUKLA 1 ENDS). 


Bay and 
month, A.D. 


Week* 

day. 


Time of 
true Mesha* 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


6. 


. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


2& 






H. M. S. 














22 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


10 


23 Feb. (54) 


4 WedL 


135-0709 


791*1625 


200*7767 


4022 


22 Mar. (31) 


5 Thur. 


6 22 30 


13 Mar, (72) 


3 Tues. 


169-7105 


727-1460 


252-0864 


4023, 


22 Mar. (81) 


6 Fn. . 


12 35 


2 Mar. (61) 


Sat. . 


45*3939 


574-3808 


221*2635: 


2024 


22 Mar. (81) 


Sat. . 


18 47 30 


21 Mar. (80) 


6 Fri. * 


80-0335 


510-3623 


212*5722! 


4025 


22 Mar. (82) 


2 Mon. . 


100 


9 Mar. (69) 


3 Tues. 


9955-7169 


357-5.972 


241-7524 


4026 


22 Mar. (81) 


3 Tues. 


7 12 30 


26 Feb. (57) 


Sat. 


9831*4003 


204*8339 


210-9246 


4027 


22 Mar. (81) 


4 WedL 


13 25 


17 Mar. (76) 


6 Fri. . 


9866-0399 


140-8154 


262H2323. 


4028 


22 MarJ (81) 


6 Thur. 


19 37 30 


7 Mar. (156) 


4 Wed* 


80-3551 


24-3419 


234-1482 


4029 


22 Mar. (82) 


Sat. * 


1 50 


24 Feb. (55) 


1 Sun. . 


9956-0385 


871-5766 


203*3243 


4030 


22 Max. (81) 


1 Sun. * 


8 2 30 


14 Mar. (73? 


Sat. 


9990-6782 


807-5702 


254>6340 


403* 


22 Max. (81) 


2 Hon. . 


14 15 


4 Max. (63) 


5 Thur. 


204-9934 


691*0866 


226-5480 


4032 


22 Mar. (81) 


3 Tues. 


20 27 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


239-6331 


627-0701 


277-8577 


4033: 


22 Mar. (82) 


6 Thur. 


2 40 


11 Mar. (71) 


1 Sun. . 


115-3164 


474-3049 


247/0339 


4034 


22 Mar. (81) 


6 Fri. . 


8 52 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


5 Thur. 


9990*9998 


321*5397 


216*2100 


4035 


22 Mar. (81) 


Q Sat. . 


15 5 


19 Mar. (78) 


4 Wed. 


25-6394 


257-814& 


270*2575 


4036 


22 .Mar. (81) 


1 Sun. . 


21 17 30 


8 Mar. (67) 


1 Sun, . 


9901-3228 


104*7680- 


23S-&958 


4037 


22 Mar. (82) 


3 Tuee. 


3 30 


26 Feb. (57) 


6 FrL . 


115-6381 


988-2845 


208*6098 


4038 


22 Mar. (81) 


4 Wed. , 


9 42 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


5 Thur. 


150-2777 


924-268O 


269-919$ 


4039 


22 Mar. (81) 


6 Thur. 


15 55 


5 Max. (64) 


2 Mon. . 


25-9611 


771-5027 


229-69571 


404O 


22 Max, (81) 


6 Fri. . 


22 7 30 


23 Feb. (54) 


Sat, . 


240-2763 


655-0292 


201-8096: 


4M1 


22 Mar. (82) 


1 StllL . 


4 20 


12 Mar. (72) 


5 Thur, 


9936-2841 


654-7211 


249-5816 


4042 


22 Mar. (81) 


2 Men. * 


10 32 30 


1 Mar. (60) 


2 Mon. * 


9811-9675 


401-9560 


218*7576 


404$ 


22 Mar. (81) 


3 Tues. 


16 45 


20 Mar. (79) 


1 Sun. * 


9846-6072 


337-9394 


270-0674 


4044 


22 Max. (81) 


,4 Wed. 


22' 57 30 


9 Mar. (68) 


5 Thur. 


9722-3005 


185*1742 


239*9517 


404$ 


22 Mar, (82) 


6 IWL . 


5 10 


27 Feb. (58) 


3 Tuee, 


9936-6057 


68-7007 


211-1575 


4046 



1*0 



BPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



. Xtl. 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


INTEBCAI^ATEB 

(adhika) and 

SUPPRESS ED 

(k&haya) LUNAR 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Yikrama* 


>> 

i, 

$ * 

"iCC 

! 


Kollam. 


A.D. 

j 


JOVIAN SAMVATSAKA. 


Sou*hferti 
system. 


Northern 
ttystem. ' 


i 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4047 


86S 


1003 


352 


120:21 


945-46 


39 Visvavwm 


40 Parabhara . 


'** 


4048 


869 


1004 


353 


121-22 


94-6-47 


40 Paribhav* . 


41 Havanga 


* 


4049 


870 


1005 


354 


122-23 


947-48 


41 Plavanga 


42 Kilaia . 


: 3 Jyeshtha 


4050 


871 


1006 


355 


123-24 


*94S*49 


42 Kilaka . 


43 Saumya 


* ** 


4051 


872 


1007 


356 


124-25 


949-50 


43 Saumya 


44 Sadharana 


7 Asvina 


4052 


873 


1008 


357 


125-26 


95O-51 


44 Sadharana 


45 Virodhakrit . 


*.. 


4053 


874 


1009 


358 


126-27 


951-52 


45 Virodhakrit . 


46 Paridhavin * 


** 


4054 


875 


1010 


359 


127-28 


*952-53 


46 Paridliavin . 


47 Bramadin 


5 Sraviana 


4055 


876 


1011 


360 


128-29 


953-54 


47 Pramadia 


48 Ananda 





4056 


877 


1012 


361 


129-30 


954-55 


48 Amanda 


49 Rakshasa 


*** 


4057 


878 


1013 


362 


130-31 


955-66 


49 Rakehaea 


50 Anala 


3 Jyeshtha 


4058 


879 


1014 


363 


131-32 


*956-57 


50 Anala . 


51 Kiogala 


... 


4059 


880 


1015 


364 


132-33 


957-58 


51 Ptegala 


52 Kalayukta . 


- 


4060 


881 


1016 


365 


133-34 


958-59 


52 Kalaytikta * 


63 fiiddhartMn * 


2 Vais&khft . 


4061 


882 


1017 


366 


134-35 


959-60 


53 SlddLarthin * 


54 Raudra 


* 


4062 


883 


1018 


367 


136-36 


*960-61 


54 Raudra 


55 liurMati 


6 Bhadr^pada 


4063 


8S4 


1019 


368 


136-37 


961^62 


55 Burmati 


56 Bundubhi 





4064 


885 


1020 


369 


137-38 


962-63 


56 Baodabhi 


57 RucHurSdgaiifi 


. 


4065 


886 


1021 


370 


138-39 


963-64 


57 RttdhirSdgarin 


58 BaM&ksha . 


4 jy^idha 


4066 


887 


1022 


371 


139-40 


*964-65 


5S Rakt&irtka . 


69 Krodkana 


/ 


4067 


888 


1023 


372 


140-41 


965-66 


-59 Krodbroa 


60 Ksh&ya 


# 


4063 


889 


1024 


S73 


141-42 


966-67 


60 Ksiiaya 


1 Frai^ava 


3 Jyeshtfca . 


4969 


S$ 


1025 


374 


142-43 


967-68 


1 KabheRfa 


S.Vibtova , 


* 


4070 


mi 


1026 


375 


143-44 


*96#-69 


2 Yiblumi 


3 Sokla - 


7 jyvin*. 


4071 


892 

I 


1027 


6 


I44-4& 


96T-TO 


3 gnkla , 


4 Framoda 


%* 



U.J 



THE FIRST 



: -Ha*- S7STEM. 






COMMENCEMENT Qlf THE 


NMHM 




SonU&E YISAK* 


U- ^xg^ ,... sr , M 






Day and 
month, A*D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
ttne Mesha- 
samkranti. 


J)ay" Mid* 
moi^^ AcD. 


Week- ! 
daj . a. j 6. - c- 














1 






13; 


14 


17 


19 


20 | 23 24 25 


1 








H, M. S. 











22 Mar. .(81) 


Spt. ., 


11' 22 30 


17 M&ir. (76) 


2 Mon. . : 


9972*2453 ; 


*T47 




22 Mar. (81-) 


1 Sjin. .. 


, L7 35 


7 Mar- (66) 


Sat. ! 


185*5605 ' 


*CM 




22 Mar* .(SI) 


2 fif on. . 


23 47 30 


24 Eeb, (55) 


4 "Wed, 


61-244^ 3 ^^4 


4Att 




22 Mar, .(82) 


4 Vyod. 


600 


14 Mar. (74) 


3 Tues. 


5-88^ 254 W^9 


4a 




22 Man (S-lt) 


5 TJtmr. . 


12 1^2 30 


3 Ma^ (62) 


Bat. . 


9971-5669 


4A51 




22 Mar,. (81) 


6 IrL 


18 25 


22 Mar, (81) 


6 Eri 9 


6-2066 


! 275 %S2^ 


d2 




23 Mar., (82) 


1 Sjan. .. 


37 30 


11 Mar, (70) 


3 Tne& 


98&1-8899 




4-C3 




OO TWtt.1* /flO^\ 
jni JXLciirt V *'**/ 


2 Mo** * 


6, SO 


28 Feb. (59) 


Sf^ . 


9757-5734 


149-1168 ' 213 7052 


4^04 




22 Majr,,(81) 


SrPllJSfc*! 
J^ UtsnU 


13 2 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


3 JPri. . i 


9702*21^ 




4M 




2?Har:(Sl) 


4 Wed. 


,19 15 


8, Mar. (67) 


4 Wed. 


6-5282 : 




405i 




123 Mar % (82) 


6 I?ri. .. 


I 27 30 


26 Feb, (57) 


2 Men. . 


2^>8435 | 


852^1532 j 


4W7 


I 


22 Mar,X82) 


fcjwtp * 


; 7 40, 


16 Mar. (76) 


1 Son. . 


255*4831 


788*1367 j 


MM 




22 JJar, (81) 


1 Sun, . 


13 52- 30 


5- Mar, .(64) 


5 Thra 


131-1665 


635-3715 


*&5f 




22 Mar^(81) 


2 TVJon* . 


f 20 5 


22 #6b. (53) 


2 MOB. . 


6-8499 


\ 


WO 




23 Mar,, (82) 


4 Wed. 


, 2 17 30 


13 Mar, (72) 


1 Sun- . 


41-4895 


l ! 
i 


*y@i 




,22 Mar- (82), 


5 IJhur. , 


8. 30 


1 Mar. (61) 


5 Thnc. 


9917-1729 ! 


^5-8247 t 


401 




22 Ma&, (81) 


6 Fri. - 


14 42 30 


20 Marr (70) 


4 W*L 


9951-8125 




**^ 3 




^22 Mar. (91). 
23 Ma;r. (82) 


i Sa<v . 
2 Men, .. 


20 56, 
3 7 30 


9 Maar. (6S) 


1 Sun. . 
6 11YL * 


9827-4959 

41-8112 


' : 


4C5 




; 22 Majk (82) 


3 Tues. 
4 Wed. 


9 20 
15 32? 30 


17 Ma*. (7?) 
7 Ma?, (66) 


3*TPn ftSS- 
JL ti.t.JW 


75-4508 
290-7660 


', 22-7001 

1 

752*0794 | 

! * 


W 




22 Mwr (81) 
1 23 Mar. (82) 

I 22 M&Tt (82) 

I 

1 22 May*. (81) 


5 Thar. 
Sat. ? 
1 Sun. * 


21:, 45 
i 57 30 
,10, 1Q r 
10. 22 30 


24 Feb* (55) 
15 Mar. (74) 
3 Max, (63) 

21 Mar, (80) 

_.. ""-^ 


Sat. . 
6 IriL- . 

i Sim. * 

__ 


201-0890 

76-77:34 

9772-7802 

^. ii = 


590-3141 ; 203 7901 

535-2S77 i: 2S5'Oy&8 
382-5335 ; 224-27W ; 

282-23^ , *72-S47f 

) 


:T 






132 


EPIGRAPHIA INBIOA. [Voi* XVI. 




TABLE 


CONCURRENT YEAR. 


(adhika) and 

SUPPBBSSBJB 

[kshaya) LUNAB 
HOKTHS (true). 


Kali. | 


Saka. 


haitradi Vikrama* 


iV 


ollamJ 


AJX 


JOVIAN SAMVATSAEA 


Southern 

system* 


Northern 
system. 









H"* 














1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4072 


893 


1028 


377 


145-46 


970-71 


4 Pramoda 


5 Prajapati 


mm 


4073 


894 


1029 


378 


146-47 


971-72 


5 Prajapati 


6 .Aiigirasa 


5 Sravana 




4074 


895 


1030 


379 


147-48 


*972-73 


6 Aaogirasa 


7 Srimukha 


** 




4075 
4076 
4077 


896 
897 
898 


1031 
1032 
1033 


380 
381 
382 


148-49 
149-50 
150-51 


973-74 
974-75 

975-76 


7 grlmukha 
8 Bhava . 
9 Yuvan . 


8 EhaTa . 
9 -Yuvan * 
10 Bhatri . 


** 
4 Aehadha * 




* * 


4078 


899 


1034 


383 


151-52 


*976-77 


10 Dhatri . 


11 Isvara 


*. 




4079 


900 


1035 


384 


152-53 


977-78 ' 


11 Isvara . 


12 Bahudhanya . 


1 Chaitra 




1080 


901 


1036 


385 


153-54 


978-79 


12 Bahudhanya . 


13 Pramathin 


* mm 




4081 


902 


1037 


386 


154-55 


979-80 


13 Pramathin 


14 Vikrama 


6 Bhadrapada 




4082 


903 


1038 


387 


155-56 


*980-81 


14 Vikrama 


15 Vrisha . 


*.. 




4083 


904 


1039 


388 


156-57 j 981-82 


15 Vrisha . 


16 CMtrabhana * 


*** 




4084 


905 


1040 


389 


157^58 982-83 


16 Chitrabfeiom , 


17 Subhaam 


4 Aehadha 




4085 


906 


1041 


390 


158-59 983 84 


17 Subh&an 


18 Tarawa 


** 




4086 


907 


1042 


391 


159-60 *984-85 


18 Tarawa . 


19 Partbiva 


** 




4087 


908 


1043 


392 


160-61 985-86 


19 ParthiYa 


20 Vyaya . 


3 Jyeshtha 




4088 


909 


-<K 


393 


161-62 986-87 


20 Vyaya , 


21 Sarrajlt 


* 




4089 


910 


1045 


394 


162-63 987-88 


21 Sarvajtt, 


22 Sarvadharin , 


7 Asvina 




4090 


911 


1046 


395 


163-64 *9S8-89 


22^ SarvadMrin 


23 Virodhin 


... 




4091 


912 


1047 


396 


164-65 - 989-90 


23 Virodiin 


24 Vikrita 


* 




4092 


913 


1048 


397 


165-66 990-91 


24 Vikrita 


25 Kharaf 


5 Sravana 




4093 


914 


1049 


39S 


166-67 991-92 


= 25 Khara . 


27 Vijaya . 


** * 




4094 


915 


105C 


39S 


> 167-68 *992-93 


* 26 Nandana 


28 Jaya 


*** 




4095 


91C 


i 105] 


L 40C 


> 168-69 993-9.J 


I 27 Vijaya . 


29 Hanmatha 


3 Jyesbtha 




4096 


9r; 


r loss 


I 401 | 169-70 i 994-9S 


> 28 Jaya . 


30 DurmukJia 


.:. 



f 26 Nandana was suppressed in the north. 



, 14.] 



THE FI&ST A.RYA-SID0HANTA: "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



133 



LXI OonftZ. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


KalL 


SOLAR YEAB* 


LUKI-SOLAB. YBAB (MEAN SUKRISB OF CIVIL BAY OK WHICH 
CHAITBA SUKXA 1 ENDS). 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week* 
day* 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkranti* 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


#* 


b. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M. S. 














22 Mar. (81) 


3 Tues 


22 35 


11 Mar. (70) 


6 Fri, . 


9987-0954 


165-7508 


244-7619 


4072 


23 Mar. (82) 


5 Thur. 


4 47 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


3 Tues. 


9862-7789 


12-9856 


213-9381 


4073 


22 Mar. (82) 


6 Fri. . 


11 


18 Mar. (78) 


2 Mon. * 


9897-4185 


948-9692 


265-2477 


4074 


22 Mar. (81) 


Sat. . 


17 12 30 


8 Mar. (67) 


Sat. 


111-7337 


832-4955 


237-1616 


4075 


22 Mar. (81) 


1 Sun. . 


23 25 


25 Feb. (56) 


4 Wed. 


9987-4171 


679-7304 


206-3378 


4076 


23 Mar. (82) 


3 Tues. 


5 37 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


3 Tues. 


22-0566 


615-7139 


257-6475 


4077 


22 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


11 50 


4 Mar. (64) 


Sat. . 


9897-7400 


452-9486 


226-8237 


4078 


22 Mar. (81) 


5 Tlxur. 


18 2 30 


21 Feb. (52) 


4 Wed. 


9773-4234 


310-1835 


195-9998 


4079 


23 Mar. (82) 


Sat. . 


15 


12 Mar. (71) 


3 Tues. 


9808-0631 


246-1670 


247-3096 


4080 


23 Mar. (82) 


1 Sun; . 


6 27 30 


2 Mar, (61) 


1 Sun. . 


22-3783 


129-6934 


219-2234 


4081 


22 Mar. (82) 


2 Mon. . 


12 40 


20 Mar. (80) 


Sat. . 


57-0179 


65-6869 


270-5332 


4082 


22 Mar. (81) 

s 


3 Tues. 


18 52 30 


9 Mar, (68) 


4 Wed. 


9932-7013 


912-9117 


239-7093 


4083 


23 Mar. (82) 


5 Th r. 


150 


27 Feb. (58) 


2 Mon. . 


147-0166 


796-4381 


211-6233 


4984 


23 Mar. (82) ! 


6 Fri. . 


7 17 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


1 Sun. . 


181-6562 


732-4216 


262-9330 


4085 


22 Mar. (82) 


Sat. . 


13 30 


6 Mar* (66) 


5 Thur. 


57-3396 


579-6565 


232-1091 


4086 


22 Mar. (81) 


1 Sun. . 


19 42 30 


23 Feb. (54) 


2 Mon. . 


9933-0229 


426-8913 


201-2852 


4087 


23 Mar. (82) 


3 Tues. 


1 55 


14 Mar. (73) 


1 Sun. . 


9967-6626 


362-8648 


252-5949 


4088 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


8 7 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


5 Thur. 


9843-3460 


210-1096 


221-7711 


4089 


22 Mar. (82) 


5 Thur. 


14 20 


21 Mar. (81) 


4 Wed. 


9877*9856 


146-0931 


273-0808 


4090 


22 Mar. (81) 


6 Fri. . 


20 32 30 


11 Mar. (70) 


2 Mon, . 


92*3008 


29-6195 


244-9948 


4091 


23 Mar. (82) 


1 Sun, . 


2 45 


28 Feb. (59) 


6 Fri, . 


9967-9842 


876-8543 


214-1709 


4092 


23 Mar. (82) 


2 Mon. . 


8 57 30 


19 Mar, (78) 


5 Thur. 


3-6239 


812-8379 


265-4806 


4093 


22 Mar. (82) 


3 Tues. 


15 10 


8 Mar. (68) 


3 Tues. 


216-9391 


696-3643 


237-3945 


4094 


22 Mar. (81) 


4 Wed. 


21 22 30 


25 Feb. (56) 


Sat* 


92-6225 


543-5991 


206-5707 


4095 


23 Mar. (82) 


6 FrL . 


3 35 


16 Mar. (76) 


6 FrL . 


127-2621 


479-5826 


257-8804 


4096 



EPIGBAPBTA INBICA. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


IKTEBCALATKD 
(adhika) and 

S PFRESSED 

(kshaya) LUNAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 
1 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama, 


f g 


iollam* 


A.D. 


JOY.IAH SAMVATSABA, 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system. 


2 


3 


3* 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4097 


918 


1053 


402 


170-71 


995.96 


29 Manmatha 


31 Hemalamba * 


* 


4098 


919 


1054 


403 


171-72 


*996-97 


30 Durmukha . 


32 Vilamba 


1 Chaitra 


4099 


920 


1055 


404 


172-73 


$97-98 


31 Hemalamba . 


33 Vikarin - 


... 


4100 


921 


1056 


405 


173-74 


998-99 


32 Vilamba 


34 Sarvarin 


5 Sravana 


4101 


922 


1057 


406 


174-75 


999^1000 


33 Vikarin -, 


35 Plav,a 





4102 


923 


1058 


407 


175-76 


*1000-01 


34 Sarvarin 


36 Subhakrit 


.*. 


4103 


924 


1059 


408 


176-77 


1001-02 


35 Plava . 


37 Sobhana 


4 Ashadha, 


4104 


925 


1060 


409 


177-78 


1002-03 


36 Subhakrit 


38 Krodhin 


* 


4105 


926 


1061 


410 


178-79 


1003-04 


37 Sobhana 


39 Visvavasu 


* 


4106 


927 


1062 


411 


179-80 


*1004-05 


38 Krodhin 


40 Parabhava 


2 Vaisakha 


4107 


928 


1063 


412 


180-81 


1005-06 


39 Visvavasu 


41 ^lavanga 


* 


4108 


929 


1064 


413 


181-82 


1006-07 


40 Parabhava 


42 Kilaka . 


6 Bha<Jrapada, 


4109 


930 


1065 


414 


182-83 


1007-08 


41 Playanga 


43 Saumya 


... 


4110 


931 


1066 


415 


183-84 


*1Q08-09 


42 KSaka . 


44 Sadhara^ia 


* 


4111 


932 


1067 


416 


184-85 


1009-10 


43 Saumya. 


. 45 Yirodhakrit . 


5 Sravajja. . : 


4112 


933 


1068 


417 


185-86 


1010-11 


44 Sadbara^a . 


46 Paridhavin 


... 


4113 


934 


1069 


418 


186-87 


1011-12 


45 Virpdhahjit * 


47 I^ramadin 


... 


4114 


935 


1070 


419 


187-S8 


* 1012- 13 


46 Paridha^yin, * 


48 Ananda 


3 Jyeshtha 


4115 


936 


1071 


420 


188-.89 


1013- 14 


47 Pramadin 


49 Bakshasa 


* 


4116 


937 


1072 


421 


189-90 


1014-15 


48 Ananda 


50 J^nala, 


.,, 


4117 


938 


1073 


422 


190-91 


1015-16 


49 Rakshas* . 


51 Pifjgala 


1 Chajtra 


4118 


939 


1074 


423 


191^92 


*1Q16~17 


50 Anala . 


52 Kalayukta 


..* 


4119- 


940 


1075 


424 


192-93 


1017-18 


51 Piiigala^ 


53 Siddharthin. . 


5 Srava^TiA^ 


4120 


941 


1076 


425 


193-94 


1018-19 


52 KiOayukto . 


54 Eaudra 


*. 


4121 


942 


1077 


426 


194-95 


1019-20 


SSSiddMrtW, . 


55 Durma^i 


*.* 



. 14.] 



THE FIRST 



; TRI7R" SYSTEM. 



186 



~ - - I, 

COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


^BBBSiiHT!* 


SOLAR YEAR. 


~ .. 






LUHJ-SOLAB YEAB (MEAH SUHBISE OF CIVIL BAY V WHICH 




CHAITKA SUKI^A 1 JJKBS). 


, 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


true .Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Bay and 
month, &.D. 


Week, 
day. 


a* 


ft. 


, : - 




13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


; 25 


1 






H. M. S. 














23 Mr. (82) 


Sat. . 


6 47 30 


. 5 Mar. (&4) 


3 Tutes, 


2-94S& 


3^-8174 


' 


<^- 


22 Mart -(82) 


1 Sun. . 


16 


. 22 Feb. (S3) 


Sat. , 


9878-6289 


: 174-0522 


196-2327 


4m 


22 Man (81) 


2 Mon. . 


22 12 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


B FrL . 


9913-2685 


110-0357 


; 247-5424 


\4trn 


23 Mar, (82) 


4 Wed. 


4 25 


2 Mar. (61) 


4 Wed. 


127-5838 


993*5622 


! 21*4663 


4Ii 


23 Man (82) 


5 Thar. 


10 37 30 


. 21 Mar. (80) 


B Tuesu 


162*2234 


929-5456 


270-7Sl 


; 4101 


22 Mar. (82) 


6 Fri. * 


16 50 


, 9 Mar. (69) 


Sat. . 


37-9068 


776-7804 


239-9422 


4Utt 


22 Mar, (81) 


Sat. . 


23 2 30 


, 27 Feb. (58) 


5 Thur. 


252-2221 


660-3068 


211-8562 


4183 


23 Ma*. (82) 


2 Mon. . 


6 15 


. 17 Mar. (76) 


3 Tues. 


9948-2298 


559*9987 


2S0-42S0 


4184 


23 Mar. (82) 


3 Tuea. 


11 27 30 


. 6 Mar. (63) 


Sat. , 


9823-9122 


407-2335 


229-6042 j 


418:3 


22 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


17 40 


24 Eeb. (55) 


. 5 Tkar. 


38-2274 


290-7599 


201*5181 ! 


:UM 


22 Mar, <81) 


5 Thur. 


23 52 30 


13 Mir: (72) 


3 Tu&s. 


9734-2382 


190-4518 ; 


250^01 j 


4WI 


23 Mar. (82) 


Sat. . 


630 


3 Mar. (32) 


1 Sin*. , 


9948-5515 


73-9783 




|4MI 


23 Ma*, (82) 


1 Sun. . 


12 17 30 


. 22 Mar, (81) 


Sat. , 


99834911 


9-9618 




&m 


22 Ma*.*(82) 


2 Mon. . . 


18 30 


, 11 Mar. (71) 


5 TMtur. 


197-5068 


893*4882 


245-2^7^ 


4110 


23 Mat. (82) 


4 Wed. . 


42 30 


28 Feb. (59). 


2 mto... 


73-1897 


740-7230 


S14-07 ; 


4111 


23 Mar, (82) 


5 Thur. - 


6 g 


19 Mar. (78) 


I SttCu * 


107^8294 


876-7066 | 


265*7135 


4112 


23 Mar. (82) 


6 EVL . 


13 7 80 


8 Mai (67) 


5T&ir, 


9983-5127 


5B3-0413 


f34^W 


4113 


22 Ma^ (82) 


Sat. , 


10 m o 


25 Bel* (56) 


2Mo^. 


9859-1901. 


371-1761 




4iM 


23 Ma*. (82) 


2 Men. . 


1 32 80 


15MaM74) 


1 SldX . 


9893*8357 


307-4513 


2584183 : 


4115 


i>3 Mur, (82) 


3 TUCB. 


7 45 


4Mar,(6a> 


5 Tkar. 


9769-S190. 


154*3945 




41 H 


^3 Ma*. (82) 


4 Wei 


13 57 80 


22 Fab; (5SJ 


3THM 


983*8344 


-37-9209 


\ 


4117 


22 Ha** (82) 


5 Thur. 


20 10 


12 Max* (72) 


^ JHOHd. * 


18^4746, 


WKMt 


2^FW^ 


41IS 


23 M**(ffi) 


Sat. . 


22 80 


S.M^(Sl) 


Sst. . 




8S7.43Q9 


19^68^2 


4tl 


23 Ma*. (82) 


1 Sun. . 


8 35 


21 M*r, (* 


5 ^T!l* * 


267:4288: 


^414* 


fTO^IOi 


um 










f _-^ 


iJL^-^Vfrft 


6^CHS4$1 


SMHt?^! ! 


4Ui 


^ m 


Mon. - . 

.-.; i i 


44 #1 80 

i "mi i * ..- """ " '" li!BS 


ui^iu ii ir "~ 








J.TJ.: 


p.,,, 1,1 LJ1 i^iiiiigiiaM 


HilK-'M'!?^ 1 " 1 * 



130 



EPIGKAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT TEAR. 


IKTEBCALATEB 
(adhika) and 

SUPPKESSED 

(kshaya) LUNAB 
MONTHS (true)* 


Kali, 


Saka. 


i 
Chaitradi Vikrama, 


I 

p>> 



"3 -d 

~ SP 

31 

DQ _ 
i<L> 

s~ 


Kollam* 


A,3X 


JOVIAX SAMVATSABA. 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 

system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4122 


943 


1078 


427 


195-96 


no2o^i 


54 Raudra 


56 Dundubhi 


4 Ashadha 


4123 


944 


1079 


428 


196-97 


1021-22 


55 Durmati 


57 Rudhixodgarin 


* 


4124 


945 


1080 


429 


197-98 


1022*23 


56 Bumlubhi 


58 Kaktaksha . 


*** 


4125 


946 


1081 


430 


198-99 


1023-24 


57 RudMrodgarin 


59 Krodhana 


2 Vaisakha 


4126 


947 


1082 


431 


199-200 


*1024-25 


58 Raktakslia + 


60 Kshaya 


# 


4127 


948 


1083 


432 


200-01 


1025-26 


59 Krodkana 


1 PrabhaYa * 


6 Bhadrapada 


4128 


949 


1084 


433 


201-02 


1026-27 


60 Kshaya 


2 Vibhava 





4129 


950 


1085 


434 


202-03 


1027-28 


1 Prabhava 


3 Sukla . 


* 


4130 


951 


1086 


435 


203-04 


*1028-29 


2 Vibhava, 


4 Pramoda 


5 gravana . 


4131 


952 


1087 


436 


204-06 


1029-30 


3 Sulla . 


5 Prajapati 


# 


4132 


953 


1088 


437 


205-06 


10SO-31 


4 Pramoda 


6 Aigirasa . 


** 


4133 


954 


1089 


438 


206-07 


1031-32 


5 Prajapati 


7 Srimukha 


3 Jyeshtha 


4134 


955 


1090 


439 


207-08 


*1032-33 


6 Axigirasa 


8 Bhava . 


* 


4135 


956 


1091 


440 


208-09 


1033-34 


7 Srimukha 


9 Tuvaa . 





4136 


957 


1092 


441 


209-10 


1034-35 


8 Bhava . 


10 Dhatri * 


1 Chaitra . 


4137 


958 


1093 


442 


210-11 


1035-36 


9 Yuvan . 


11 ttrara . 


* mm 


4138 


959 


1094 


443 


211-12 


*1036-37 


10 Dhatri , 


12 Bahudhanya . 


5 Srarapa . 


4139 


960 


1095 


444 


212-13 


1037-38 


11 levara * 


13 Pramathin . 





4140 


961 


1096 


445 


213-14 


1038-39 


12 Bahudhanya . 


14 Vikrama 


** 


4141 


962 


1097 


446 


214-15 


1039-40 


13 Pramathin * 


15 Vnsha * 


4 Ashadha . 


4142 


963 


1098 


447 


215-16 


*1040-41 


14 Vikrama 


16 Chitrabhami . 


*** 


4143 


964 


1099 


448 


216-17 


1041-42 


15 Vrisha . 


17 Subhanu 





4144 


965 


1100 


449 


217-18 


1042-43 


16 CMtrabhanu . 


18 Tarawa 


2 Vaiaakha 


4143 


966 


1101 


450 


21849 


1043-44 


17 Rubhanu * 


19 Parthiva 


* * 


4146 


967 


1102 


451 


219-2U 


*1044*45 


18 Tarawa . 


20 Vyaya . 


6 Bhadrapada 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA: "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



1ST 



LtXI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 


SOLAS, YEAB. 


LUNI-SOLAB YEATfc (MEAST STIHBISK OF CIVIL BAT OXT WHICH 

CHAITHA SUKJLA 1 BKBS). 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 

samkrarxtL 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


4. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. ML S. 














22 Mar.. (82) 


3 Tues. 


, 21 


27 Feb. (58) 


Sat. . 


18*6956 


487-SS40 


209-3513 


4122 


23 Max. (82) 


5 Thar. 


3 12 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


6 Fri. . 


53-4352 


423*8675 


280*6609 


4123 


23 Mar. (82) 


6 Fri. . 


9 25 


6 Mar. (65) 


3 Taes. 


9929-1186 


271*1022 


229*8371 


4124 


23 Mar.. (82) 


Sat. . 


15 37 30 


23 Feb. (54) 


Sat. . 


9804-8020 


118-3371 


19-0m 


4125 


22 Mar. (82) 


1 Sun. . 


21 50 


13 Mar. (73) 


6 FrL . 


9839-4416 


54-3206 


250-3230 


4126 


23 Mar. ,(82) 


3 Tues. 


4 2 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


4 Wed. 


53-7569 


937-8470 


222-2369 


4127 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


10 15 " 


22 Max. (81) 


3 Tues. 


88-3965 


873-8305 


273-M68 


4128 


23 Mar, (82) 


5 Thur. 


16 27 30 


12 Max. (71) 


l.Sun. . 


302*7117 


757-3570 


245-4606 


4129 


22 Mar. (82) 


6 Fri. . 


22 40 


29 Feb. (60) 


5 Thur, 


178-3951 


604-5917 


214-4366 


4130 


23 Mar, (82) 


1 SUB. * 


4 52 30 


18 Max. (77) 


3 Tues. 


987*4029 


504^837 


263*2086 


4131 


23 Mar. (82) 


2 Men. . 


11 5 


7. Mar. (66) 


Sat. , 


9750*0862 


351*5185 


232-3847 


4132 


23 Mar, (82) 


3 Tues. 


17 17 30 


25 Feb. (56) 


5 Timr. 


9964-4015 


235*0448 


204-2987 


4133 


22 Mar. (82) 


4 W-ed, 


23 30 


15 Max. (75) 


4 Wed. 


9999-0411 


171-0284 


255-6084 


4134 


23 Mar. (82) 


6 JW. . 


5 42 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


1 Sua. 


9874-7245 


18-2632 


224-7846 


4136 


23 Mar, (82) 


Sat. . 


11 55 


22 Feb. (53) 


6 Fri. , 


89*0398 


901-7897 


196-6984 


4136 


23 Mar. (82) 


1 Sun, . 


18 7 30 


13 Mar. (72) 


5 Tfctir, 


123-6794 


837*7731 


248*0082 


4137 


23 Mar. (83) 


3 Tes. 


20 


1 Mar. (61) 


2 Man. . 


9999-3828 


685*0080 


217-1843 


4136 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


6 32 30 


20 Mar. (79) 


1 Sun. . 


34*0024 


620-9915 


26S-4941 


4133 


23 Mar. (82) 


5 Thur, 


12 45 


9 Max. (68) 


5 Thtir. 


9909*6858 


468-2262 


-237-6702 


4140 


23 Max. (82) 


6 Fri. . 


18 57 30 


26 Feb. (67) 


2 Mon. . 


9785-3692 


315-4611 


206-8464 


4141 


23 Far. (83) 


1 Sun. 


1 10 


16 Mar. (76) 


1 Sun. . 


9820*0088 


251*4446 


258-1561 


4142 


23 Mar. (82) 


2 Hon. 


7 22 30 


6 Max. (65) 


6 Fri . 


34-3241 


134*9710 


230-0700 


4143 


23 Max. (82) 


3 Tues. 


13 35 


23 Feb. (54) 


3*Tmes. 


9910*0075 


982-2058 


199-2461 


4144 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


19 47 30 


14 'Max. (73) 


2 Mon. . 


9944-S471 


918^1893 


250-5559 


4145 


23 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


200 


3 Max. (63) 


Sat. * 


158*9623 


801-7158 


222-4698 


4146 



iaa 



EHGE1PBU INDICA. 



C VoI *~ 



CONCUBBENT YEAR. 




Kali. 


gaka. 


j 


I 


lollam* 


A.D. 


JOVIAN SAMVA.TSABA. 










! 


if 






Southern 
system. 


Northern 

system. 




1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


B 


4147 


MB 


1103 


452 


220-21 


1045-46 


19 Parthiva 


21 Sarvajit* 


* 


4148 


969 


1104 


453 


221-22 


104647 


20 Vyaya , . 


22 Sarvadharin * 


* * 


4149 


970 


1105 


454 


222-23 


104748 


21 Sarvajit 


23 Virodhin 


5 gravapa 


4150 


971 


1106 


455 


223-24 


*104849 


22 jSaxvadhaxm . 


24 Vikrita . 


** 


4151 


972 


1107 


456 


224-25 


1049-50 


23 Virodhin 


25 Khara * 


*,. 


4152 


973 


1108 


457 


225-26 


1050-51 


24 Vikjita . 


26 jNandana * 


3 Jyeshtba, 


4153 


974 


1109 


458 


226-27 


1051*52 


25 Khara * 


27 Vijaya 


** 


4154 


975 


1110 


459 


227-28 


*1052-53 


26 Nandana 


28 Jaya . f 


T Asvina "> 
X> Paushct (Jk&Tb) 


4155 


976 


1111 


460 


228-29 


1053-54 


27'Vijaya . 


29 Manmatha 


X Chaltra, * 


4156 


977 


1112 


461 


229-30 


1054-55 


28 Jaya * 


30 Durmuklia # 


* * 


4157 


978 


1113 


462 


230-31 


1055-56 


29 Manmatha . 


31 HemaTamba . 


& Sravana 


4158 


979 


1114 


463 


231-32 


*1056-57 


30 Dornmkha * 


32 Vilamba 


* * m 


4159 


980 


1115 


464 


232-33 


1057-58 


31 Hemalamba . 


33 Vikarin . 


m i * 


4160 


981 


1116 


465 


233-34 


1058-59 


32 Vilamba 


34 Sarvarin 


4 A&hadha , 


4161 


682 


1117 


466 


234-35 


1059-60 


33 Vikarin 


35 Plava 


. 


4162 


983 


1118 


467 


235-36 


*1060-61 


34 Sarvarm 


36 Subhakyit 


** 


4163 


984 


1119 


468 


236-37 


1061-62 


35 Plava . 


37 gdbhaaa 


^ Vaisaklia, 


4164 


985 


1120 


469 


237-38 


1062-63 


36 Subhakrit 


38 Krodhin 


* 


4165 


986 


1121 


470 


238-39 


1063-64 


37 Sobhana 


39 Visvavasu , 


6 Bhadrapoda, 


4166 


987 


1122 


471 


23940 


*1064-65 


38 Kjodhin 


40 Parabhava 


* 


4167 


988 


1123 


472 


24041 


1065-66 


39 Visvavasu , 


41 Havaiiga 


* 


416$ 
4169 


990 


1125 


473 

474 


241-42 
242-43 


1066-67 
1067-68 


40 Paribhava . 
41 Plavanga 


42 Kolaka , 
43 Sauuaya 


4 AshUdlxa 


* ' 


4170 


991 


1126 


475 


24344 


*1068-69 


42 KHaka . 


44 Sadharana 


*** 


4171 


992 


1127 


476 


24445 


1069-70 


43 Saumya t 


45 Viroditakrit . 


3 Jyeattha 



No. 14.] 



THE FIBST ARYA-SIBDHANTA; "TKTJE" SYSTEM. 



139 



LXlContd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 


SOLAB YEAR. 


LUIU-SOLAR YEAR (MEAN STTNBISE OF CIVIL BAY OH WHICH 

CHAITRA SUKLA 1 ENDS). 


Day and 
month, A.D, 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D, 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


ft. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M, S. 












23 Mar. (82) 


Sat. ,. 


8 12 30 


22 Mar. (81) 


6 Fri. . 


193-6019 


737-6992 


273-7795 


4147 


23 Mar. (82) 


1 Sun* , 


14 25 


11 Mar. (70) 


3 Tues. 


69-2853 


584-9341 


242-9557 


4148 


23 Mar. (82) 


2 Men, . 


20 37 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


Sat, . 


9944-9688 


432-1689 


212-1318 


4149 


23 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


2 50 


18 Mar. (78) 


6 Erf. . 


9979-6083 


368-1524 


263-4415 


4150 


23 Mar. (82) 


5 Thur. 


9 2 30 


7 Mar. (66) 


3 Tues. 


9855-2917 


215-3872 


232-6177 


4151 


23 Mar. (82) 


6 Fri. . 


15 15 


25 Feb. (56) 


1 Sun. . 


69-6069 


98-9136 


204-5316 


4152 


23 Mar, (82) 


Sat. . 


21 27 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


Sat. . 


104-2465 


34-8972 


255-8413 


4153 


23 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. . 


3 40 


4' Mar. (64) 


4 Wed. 


9979-9299 


882*1319 


225-0175 


4154 


23 Mar. (82) 


3 Tues. 


9 52 30 


22 Feb. (53) 


2 Mon. . 


194-2452 


765*6584 


196*9313 


4155 


23 Man (82) 


4 Wed. 


16 5 


13 Mar. (72) 


1 Sun. . 


228-8848 


701-6419 


248-2411 


4156 


23 Mar. (82) 


5 Thur. 


22 17 30 


2 Mar. (61) 


5 Thur. 


104-5682 


548-8767 


2174172 


4157 


23 Mar. (83) 


gat. . 


4 30 


20 Mar. (80) 


4 Wed. 


139*2078 


484*8602 


268-7270 


4158 


23 Mar. (82) 


1 Sun* . 


10 42 30 


9 Mar. (68) 


1 Sun. . 


14-8912 


332*0950 


237-9031 


4159 


23 Mar. (82) 


2 Mon. . 


16 55 


26 Feb. (57) 


5 Thur. 


9890-5746 


179-3299 


207-0793 


4160 


23 Mar. (82) 


3 Tues. 


23 7 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


4 Wed. 


9925-2142 


115-3133 


258-3890 


4161 


23 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur. 


5 20 


6 Mar, (66) 


2 Mon. . 


139-5295 


998-8397 


230-3029 


4162 


23 Mar. (82) 


6 Fri. . 


11 32 30 


23 Feb. <54) 


6 Fril . 


15-2129 


846-0746 


199-4790 


4163 


23 Mar. (82) 


Sat. . 


17 45 


14 Mar. (73) 


5 Thur. 


49-8525 


782-0580 


250-7888 


4164 


23 Mar. (82) 


1 Sun. . 


23 57 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


3 Tues, 


264-1677 


665-5845 


222-7027 


4165 


23 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues. 


6 10 


21 Mar. (81) 


1 Sun, . 


99604755 


565-2764 


271-2747 


4166 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


12 22 30 


10 Mar. (69) 


5 Thur, 


9835-8589 


412-5112 


240-5508 


4167 


23 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur. 


18 35 


28 Feb. (59) 


3 Tues. 


50-1742 


296-0396 


212-3647 


4168 


24 Mar. (83) 


Sat. . 


47 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


1 Sun. . 


9746-1819 


195-7275 


260'9366 


4169 


23 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun. . 


700 


7 Mar. (67) 


6 Fri. . 


9960-4972 


79-2560 


232-8506 


4170 


23 Mar. (82) 


2 Mon. . 


13 12 30 


25 Feb. (56) 


4 Wed. 


174-8124 


962-7823 


204-7645 

* 


4171 



140 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR, 


IKTEKCALATEB 
(adhiJca) and 

STJPPBESSESB 

(kshayd) LTJNAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama, 

f 


i* 


Kollam. 


A.D. 


JOVTAH SAMVATSARA. 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4172 


993 


1128 


477 


245-46 


1070-71 


44 Sadharana 


46 Paridhavin . 


** 


4173 


994 


1129 


478 


246-47 


1071-72 


45 Virodhakrit . 


47 Pramadin 


7 Asvina 


4174 


995 


1130 


479 


247-48 


*1072-73 


46 Paridhavin 


48 Ananda 


... 


4175 


996 


1131 


480 


248-49 


1073-74 


47 Pramadin 


49 Rakshasa 


... 


4176 


997 


1132 


481 


249-50 


1074-75 


48 Ananda 


50 Anala . 


5 Srava^ia 


4177 


998 


1133 


482 


250-51 


1075-76 


49 Rakshasa 


51 Pingalaf 


... 


4178 


999 


1134 


483 


251-52 


*1076-77 


50 Anala * 


53 SiddhartUn . 


* . 


4179 


1000 


1135 


484 


252-53 


1077-78 


51 Piagala 


54 Raudra 


3 Jyeshtha 


4180 


1001 


1136 


485 


253-54 


1078-79 


52 Kalayukta 


55 Durmaii 


... 


41S1 


1002 


1137 


486 


254-55 


1079-80 


53 SiddhartMn . 


56 DundubTii 


... 


4182 


1003 


1138 


487 


255-56 


*1080-81 


54 Raudra 


57 Rudhirodgarin 


2 Vaisakha 


4183 


1004 


1139 


488 


256-57 


1081-82 


55 Dormati 


58 Raktaksha . 


... 


4184 


1005 


1140 


489 


257-58 


1082-83 


56 I>undubhi 


59 Krodhana 


6 Bhadrapada 


4185 


1006 


1141 


490 


258-59 


1083-84 


57 Rudhirodgarin 


60 Kshaya 


... 


4186 


1007 


1142 


491 


259-60 


*1084-85 


58 Raktaksha . 


1 Prabhava 


... 


4187 


1008 


1143 


492 


260-61 


1085-86 


59 Krodhana 


2 Vibhava 


4 Ashadha . 


4188 


1009 


1144 


493 


261-62 


1086-87 


60 Kshaya 


3 Sukla 


... 


4189 


1010 


1145 


494 


262-63 


1087*88 


1 Ptabhava 


4 Pramoda 


... 


4190 


1011 


1146 


495 


263-64 


*1088-89 


2 Vibhava 


5 Prajapati 


3 Jyeshtha 


4191 


1012 


1147 


496 


264-65 


1089-90 


3 Stikla . 


6 Angirasa 


... 


4192 


1013 


1148 


497 


265-66 


1090-91 


4 Pramoda 


7 Srimukha 


7 Asvina 


4193 


1014 


1149 


498 


266-67 


1091-92 


5 Prajapati 


8 Bhara , 


*. 


4194 


1015 


1150 


499 


267-68 


*1092-93 


6 Aiigirasa 


9 YuTan . 


... 


4195 


1016 | 


1151 


500 


268-69 


1093-94 


7 Srlmukha, 


10 Dhatri 


5 gr&vasa . 


4196 


1017 


IU 


501 


269-70 


1094-95 


8 Bh&va . 


11 Isvara * 


... 



f 52 Kalayukta was suppressed in the north* 



No. 14.] 



THE FIKST AEYA-SIDDHANTA : "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



141 



LXI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 


SOLAR YEAR. 


LUNI-SOLAR YEAR (MEAN SUNRISE OF CIVIL BAY ON WHICH 
CHAITRA SCJKILA 1 ENDS), 




Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


6. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 i 


25 


1 






EL M. 8. 














23 Mar, (82) 


3 Tues. 


19 25 


16 Mar. (75) 


3 Tues. 


209-4520 


898-7659 


256-0742 


4172 


24 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur, 


1 37 30 


5 Mar. (64) 


Sat. . 


854354 


746-0007 


225-2504 


4173 


23 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


7 50 


23 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


119-7751 


681-9843 


276-5600 


4174 


23 Mar. (82) 


Sat. . 


14 2 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


3 Tues. 


9995-4584 


529-2190 


245-7362 


4175 


23 Mar. (82) 


1 Sun, * 


20 15 


1 Mar. (60) 


Sat. . 


9871-1418 


3764538 


214-9123 


4176 


24 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues. 


2 27 30 


20 Mar. (79) 


6 Fri. . 


9905-7814 


312-4374 


266-2221 


4177 


23 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


8 40 


8 Mar. (68) 


3 Tues. 


9781-4647 


159-6721 


235-3982 


4178 


23 Mar. (82) 


5 Thur, - 


14 52 30 


26 Feb. (57) 


1 Sun. . 


9995*7800 


43-1986 


207-3122 


4179 


23 Mar. (82) 


6 Fri. . 


21 5 


17 Mar. (76) 


Sat. . 


30-4197 


979-1821 


258-6219 


4180 


24 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun. . 


3 17 30 


7 Mar. (66) 


5 Thur. 


244-7349 


862-7084 


230-5358 


4181 


23 Mar; (83) 


2 Men. . 


9 30 


24 Feb. (55) 


2 Mon. . 


120-4183 


709*9433 


199-7119 


4182 


23 Mar. (82) 


3 Tuee. 


15 42 30 


14 Mar. (73) 


1 Sun. . 


155-0579 


645-9268 


251*0217 


4183 


23 Max. (82) 


4 Wed. 


2i 55 


3 Mar. (62) 


5 Thur. 


30-7413 


4934616 


220-1978 


4184 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 "FrL . 


4 7 30 


22 Mar. (81) 


4 Wed, 


65*3809 


4294451 


271-5066 


4185 


23 Mar. (83) 


Sat , 


10 20 


10 Mar. (70) 


1 Sun. . 


9941-0643 


276-3799 


240-6836 


4186 


23 Mar; (82) 


1 Sun. . 


16 32 30 


27 Feb. (58) 


5 Thur. 


9816-7477 


123-6148 


209-8598 


4187 


23 Mar. (82) 


2 Mon. ; 


22 45 


18 Mar. (77) 


4 Wed. 


9851-3873 


59-5982 


2614695 


4188 


24 Mar. (83) 


.4 Wed. 


4 57 30 


8 Mar. (67) 


2 Mon. 


65-7026 


943-1247 


233-0835 


4189 


23 Maar. (83) 


5 Thur. 


11 10 


26 Feb. (57) 


Sat. . 


280-0178 


826-6511 


204*9974 


4190 


23 Mar: (82) 


6 Fri. . 


17 22 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


6 Fri. 


314-6574 


762-6346 


256-3071 


4191 


23 Mar. (82) 


Sat. . 


23 35 


5 Mar. (64) 


3 Tues. 


190-3408 


608-8694 


225-4833 


4192 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. . 


5 47 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


1 Sun. . 


9886*3486 


509-5613 


274-0551 


4193 


23 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues. 


12. 


11 Mar. (71) 


5 Thur* 


9762-0319 


356-7962 


243-2313 


4194 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


18 12 30 


1 Mar. (0) 


3 Tues. 


9976-3472 


240-3225 


215-1452 


4195 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


25 


20 Mar. (79) 


2 Mon. . 


10-9868 


176-3061 


266-4550 


4194 



142 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


INTEECAL.ATED 
(adhika) and 

SUPFBESSED 

(kshaya) LUNAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. ! 


aka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama. 


s 


>* 

^-3 3 

._=, & 

*g g 

red 4> 

Sw 

CO . 

i- s 


Eollam. 


A.D. 


JOVIAN SAMVATSARA. 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system. 


1 
4197 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


1018 


1153 


502 


270-71 


1095-96 


9 Yuvan * 


12 Bahndhanya * 


*.. 


4198 


1019 


1154 


503 


271-72 


*1096-97 


10 Dhatri * 


13 Pramathin 


3 Jyeshtha 


4199 


1020 


1155 


504 


272.73 


1097-98 


11 Isvara 


14 Vikxama 


* 


4200 


1021 


1156 


505 


273-74 


1098-99 ! 


12 Bahudhanya . 


15 Vrieha . 


* 


4201 


1022 


1157 


506 


274-75 


1099-1100 


13 Pramathin 


16 Chitrabhanu . 


2 Vaisakha. . 


4202 


1023 


1158 


507 


275-76 


*1 100-01 


14 Vikrama * 


17 Subhanu 


* 


4203 


1024 


1159 


508 


276-77 


1101-02 


15 Vrisha . 


18 Tarana . 


6 Bhadrapada 


4204 


1025 


1160 


509 


277-78 


1102-03 


16 Chitrabhanu . 


19 PartMva 


# * * 


4205 


1026 


1161 


510 


278-79 


1103-04 


17 Subhanu 


20 Vyaya . 


* 


4206 


1027 


1162 


511 


279-80 


*1 104-05 


18 Tarana . 


21 Sarvajit 


4 Ashadha 


4207 


1028 


1163 


512 


280-81 


1105-06 


19 Parthiva 


22 Sarvadharin . 


* * 


4208 


1029 


1164 


513 


281-82 


1106-07 


20 Vyaya , 


23 Virodhin 


* * 


4209 


1030 


1165 


514 


282-83 


1107-08 


21 Sarsrajit 


24 Vikrita . 


3 Jyeshtha 


4210 


1031 


1166 


515 


283-84= 


*1108-09 


22 Sanradbarin * 


25 Khara . 


* * 


4211 


1032 


1167 


516 


1 284-85 


1109-10 


23 VirodMn 


26 Nandana 


7 Asvina 


4212 


1033 


1168 


517 


285-86 


1110-11 


24 Vikrita . 


27 Vijaya . 


.. 


4213 


1034 


1169 


518 


286-87 


1111-12 


25 Khara . 


28 Jaya 


* 


4214 


1035 


1170 


519 


287-88 


*1112-13 


26 Nandaaia 


29 Manmatha 


5 Srava^a * 


4215 


1036 


1171 


-520 


288-89 


1113-14 


27 Vijaya . 


30 Durmukha 


* * 


4216 


1037 


1172 


521 


289-90 


1114-15 


28 Jaya 


31 Hemalamba . 


... 


4217 


1038 


1173 


522 


290-91 


1115-16 


29 Manmatha 


32 Vilamba 


3 JySshtha 


4218 


1039 


1174 


523 


291-92 


*1116-17 


30 Pmtniikha * 


33 Vikarin . 


... 


4219 


1040 


1175 


524 


292-93 


1117-18 


31 Hemalamba . 


34 Sarvarin * 





4220 


1041 


1176 


525 


293-94 


1118-19 


32 Vilamba 


35 Plava , 


1 Chaitra 


4221 


1042 


1177 


26 


294-95 


1119-20 


33 Vikarin . 


36 Subhakrit 


*** 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : " TBOE " SYSTEM. 



[COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali 


. 

SOL.AR YEAR. 


Ltmi-SOLAR YEAR (MEA.K STOBISE OF-tfltVXL DAY OK WHICH 

CHAITBA &raA I ENDS). 


Day and 
month, A,D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkranti 


I>ay and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


b. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


I 






EL M. S. 


i 












24 Mar, (83) 


Sa.t. . 


6 37 30 


. 9 Mar. (68) 


6 Fri . 


9886-6702 


23-5409 


235-6311 


4197 


23 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun. . 


12 


.27 Feb. (58) 


4 Wed. 


100-9855 


907-0673 


207-5451 


41W 


23 Mar. (82) 


2 Mgn. . 


19 2 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


3 Tues. 


135-6251 


843-0508 


258*8547 


4199 


24 Mar, (83) 


4 Wed. 


1 15 


6 Mar. (65) 


Sat. . 


11-3085 


690-2856 


H27-9309 


4200 


24 Mar. (83) 


5 Ttiur. 


7 27 30 


24 Feb. (55) 


5 Thur. 


225-6237 


57S-8121 


199-9448 


4201 


23 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri . 


13 40 


13 Mar. (73) 


3 Tues, 


9921-6314 


473-5040 


g48-618 


4202 


23 Mar. (82) 


Sat . 


19 52 30 


. 2 Mar. (61) 


Sat. . 


9767-3148 


320^7388 


817-6929 


4203 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. 


250 


21 Mar. (80) 


6 Fri. , 


9831-9544 


256-7233 


269-0026 


4204 


24 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues. 


8 17 30 


11 Mar. (70) 


4 Wed. 


46*2697 


140-2487 


240-9165 


4205 


23 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


14 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


1 Sun. , 


9921*95^1 


987-4835 


216-Q927 


4206 


23 Mar. (82) 


5 Thur. 


20 42 30 


,18 Mar. (77) 


Sat. , 


9956-5927 


923-4670 


261-4024 


4207 


24 Mar. (83) 


Sat. . 


2 55 


8 Mar. (67) 


5 Thur.. 


170-9080 


806-9935 


233*3163 


4208 


24 Mar. (83) 


I Sun. . 


9 7 30 


25 Feb. (56) 


2 Mon. . 


46*5913 


6^4-2283 


02-4925 


4209 


< 23 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. . 


15 20 


I 15 Mar. (75) 


1 Sun. . . 


81-2310 


590*2118 


253-8022 


4210 


23 Mar. (82) 


3 Tues. 


21 32 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


5 Thur. 


9956-9143 


437*4466 


222-9783 


4211 


24 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur. 


3 45 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed, . 


9991-5540 


373-4301 


274-2880 


4213 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri . 


9 57 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


1 Sun. . 


9867-2374 


320-6649 


243-4642 


4213 


23 Mar. (83) 


Sat. . 


16 10 


1 Mar. (61) 


6 Fri . 


81-552Q 


1044913 


215-8781 


4214 


23 Mar. (82) 


1 Sun, 


22 22 30 


20 Mar. (79) 


5 Thur. 


116-1922 


40-1749 


266-@@79 


4215 


24 Mar, (83) 


3 Tues. 


4 35 


9 Mar. (68) 


2 Mon. 


9991*8755 


887*4097 


235-6740 


4216 


24 Mar, (83) 


4 Wed, 


10 47 30 


27 Feb. (58) 


Safe . 


206-1909 


770-9361 


207-7779 


4217 


23 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur, 


17 


17 Mar. (77) 


6 Fri . 


240-8305 


706-9196 


259-0866 


4218 


23 Mar. (82) 


6 Fri. , 


23 12 30 


6 Mar. (65) 


3 Tues. 


116-5138 


654-1544 


228-2638 


421d 


24 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun. * 


6 25 


23 Feb. (54). 


Sat, . 


9992-1972 


401*3898 


197*4399 


4220 


24 Mar, (83) 


2 Mon. , 


11 37 30 


14 Mar, (73) 


6 Fri. , 


26-8368 


37*3727 


2W-7W 


421 



144 



1PIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


INTEBCALATED 

(adhika) and 

SUFPBESSED 

(kshaya) LXTJSAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 


I 

Chaitradi Vikrama. 


i 

s 

o ^ 
>3 g 3 


Kollam. 


A.D. 


JOVIAH SAMVATSABA* 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 * 


5 


6 


. 7 


8 


4222 


1043 


1178 


527 


295-96 


*1120-21 


34 Sarvarin 


37 Sobhana 


6 Bhadrapada * 


4223 


1044* 


1179 


528 


296-97 


1121-22 


35 Plava . 


38 Krodhin 


... 


4224 


1045 


1180 


529 


297-98 


1122-23 


36 gubhakrit 


39 Visvavasu 


... 


4225 


1046 


1181 


530 


298-99 


1123-24 


37 Sobhana 


40 Parabhava 


4 Ashadha 


4228 


1047 


1182 


531 


299-300 


*1124-25 


38 Krodhin 


41 Plavanga 


i 


4227 


1048 


1183 


532 


300-01 


1125-26 


39 Visvavasu 


42 Kilaka . 


... 


4228 


1049 


1184 


533 


301-02 


1126-27 


40 Parabhava * 


43 Saumya 


3 Jyeshtha 


4229 


1050 


1185 


534 


302-03 


1127-28 


41 Plavanga 


44 Sadharana 


... 


4230 


1051 


1186 


535 


303-04 


*1128-29 


42 Kilaka . 


45 Virodhakrit . 


7 Asvina 


4231 


1052 


1187 


536 


304-05 


1129-30 


43 Saumya 


46 Paridhavin 


... 


4232 


1053 


1188 


537 


305-06 


1130-31 


44 Sadharana 


47 Pramadin 


... 


4233 


1054 


1189 


538 


306-07 


1131-32 


45 Virodhakrit . 


48 Ananda 


5 Sravana 


4234 


1055 


1190 


539 


307-08 


*1132-33 


-46 Paridhavin 


49 Rakshasa 


... 


4235 


1056 


1191 


540 


308-09 


1133-34 


47 Pramadin 


50 Anala . 


*** 


4236 


1057 


1192 


541 


309-10 


1134-35 


48 Ananda . 


51 Pingala 


3 Jyeshtha 


4237 


1058 


1193 


542 


310-11 


1135-36 


49 Rakshasa 


52 Kalayukta . 


... 


4238 


1059 


1194 


543 


311-12 


*1136-37 


50 Anala 


53 Siddharthin * 


.... 


4239 


1060 


1195 


544 


312-13 


1137-38 


51 Plngala 


54 Raudra 


1 Chaitra 


4240 


1061 


1196 


545 


313-14 


1138-39 


52 Kalayukta 


55 Durmati 


... 


4241 


1062 


1197 


54 


314-15 


1139-40 


53 Siddharthin , 


56 Dundubhi 


5 Sravana 


4242 


1063 


1198 


547 


315-16 


* 1140-41 


54 Raudra 


57 Rudhirodgarin 


... 


4243 


1064 


1199 


548 


316-17 


1141-42 


55 Durmati 


58 Raktaksha . 


... 


4244 


1065 


1200 


549 


317-18 


1142-43 


56 Dundubhi 


59 Krodhana 


4 Ashahda 


4245 


1066 


1201 


550 


318-19 


1143-44 


57 Rudhirodgarin 


60 Kshaya 


*.* 


4S4S 


1067 


1202 


551 


319-20 


*1144-45 


58 Raktaksha . 


1 Prabhava 


* * 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ABTA-SIDDHANTA ; TRUE " SYSTEM, 



145 



u^. 


COMMENCEMENT OF THE 




SOLAB YEAR* 


LTTHI-SO&AR YEAB (MEAK SUKBISE OP givn, DAY OK WHICH 
CHAIXBA SUKLA 1 ENDS). 


Kali. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


6. 


c, 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


i 






K M. S. 


/ 












23 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues, 


17 50 


2 Mar. 62) 


3 Tues. 


1 19902-5202 


184-6076 


217-9258 


4222 


24 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur, 


2 30 


21 Mar. (80) 


2 Mon, . 


9937-1598 


120-5911 


269-2355 


4223 


24 Mar, (83) 


6 Fri. . 


6 15 


11 Mar. (70) 


Sat. . 


151-4751 


4-1174 


241-1494 


4224 


24 Mar. (83) 


Sat. . 


12 27 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


4 Wed. 


27-1585 


851-3523 


210-3256 


4225 


23 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun. . 


18 40 


18 Mar. (78) 


3 Tues. 


61-7981 


787-3358 


261-6353 


4226 


24 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues. 


52 t30 


8 Mar, (67) 


1 Sun. . 


276-1134 


670-8622 


233-5493 


4227 


24 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


750 


25 Feb. (56) 


5 Thur. 


151-7967 


518-0970 


: 

202-7254 


4228 


24 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur, 


13 17 30 


15 Mar. (74) 


3 Tues. 


9347-8045 


416-7889 


251*2974 


4229 


23 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


19 30 


3 Mar. (63) 


Sat, . 


9723-4879 


265-0237 


220-4734 


4230 


24 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun. . 


1 42 30 


22 Mar. (81) 


6 Fri. . 


9758-J.275 


201-0072 


271-7832 


4231 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. . 


7 55 


12 Mar. (71) 


4 Wed. 


9972-4428 


84-5337 


243-7071 


4232 


24 Mar, (83) 


3 Tues. 


14 7 30 


2 Mar. (61) 


2 Mon. . 


186-7580 


968-0600 


215-6120 


4233 


23 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


20 20 


20 Mar. (80) 


1 Sun. . 


221-3976 


904-0436 


266-9208 


4234 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


2 32 30 


9 Mar. (68) 


5 Thur, 


97-0810 


751-2784 


236-0969 


4235 


24 Mar. (83) 


Sat. . 


8 45 


26 Feb. (57) 


2 Mon. . 


9972-7644 


598-5132 


205-2730 


4236 


24 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun. . 


14 57 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


1 Sun. , 


7-4040 


534-4967 


256-5727 


4237 


23 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. . 


21 10 


5 Mar. (65) 


5 Thur. 


9883-0874 


381-7315 


225-7589 


4238 


24 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


3 22 30 


22 Feb. (53) 


2 Mon. . 


9758-7708 


228-9664 


194-9350 


4239 


24 Mar. (83) . 


5 Thur. 


9 35 


13 Mar, (72) 


1 Sun, . 


9793-4104 


164-9498 


246*2448 1 


4240 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri, 


15 47 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


6 Fri. . 


7-7257 


48-4763 


2184587 I 


4241 


23 Mar, (83) 


Sat . 


22 


21 Mar. (81) 


5 Thur. 


42-3653 


984-4598 


269-4685 


4242 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon, . 


4 12 30 


11 Mar. (70) 


3 Tues. 


256-6806 


867-9862 


241-3823 


4243 


24 Mar. (83) 


3 Tuea. 


10 25 


28 Feb. (59) 


Sat. . 


132-3640 


715-2210 


210-5585 J 


4244 


124 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


16 37 30 


19 Mar. (78) 


6 Fri. . 


167-0036 


651-2045 


261-8682 


4245 


23 Mar, (83) 


5 Thur. 


22 50 


7 Mar. (67) 


3 Tues. 


42-6869 


498-4393 


231-0444 


4246 



B 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 








> 
1 


<D 






JOVIAN SAMVATSAKA. 


INTERCALATED ; 
(adJiika) and 






s 


t-t 
cC 








SUPPRESSED 


Kali. 


Saka. 







Kollam. 


A.D. 






(kshaya) LUNAB 
MONTHS (true). 






3 


"" r 






Southern 


Northern 








.*** 

"3 


j 






system. 


system. 








s 


s- a 












1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4247 


1068 


1203 


552 


320-21 


1145-46 


59 Krqjlhana 


2 Vibhava 


2 VaiSakha 


4248 


1069 


1204 


553 


321-22 


1146-47 


60 Kshaya 


3 Sukla . 


* 


4249 


1070 


1203 


554 


322-23 


1147-48 


1 Prabhavfc, 


4 Pramoda 


6 Bhadrapada 


4250 


1071 


1206 


555 


323-24 


* 1148-49 


2 Vibhava 


5 Prajapati 


... 


4251 


1072 


1207 


556 


324-25 


1149-50 


3 Swkla . 


6 Angirasa 


.,, 


4252 


1073 


1208 


557 


325-26 


1150-51 


4 Pramoda 


7 Siimnkha 


5 Sravana 


4253 


1074 


1209 


558 


326-27 


1151-52 


5 Prajapati 


8 Bhava , 


... 


4254 


1075 


1210 


550 


327-28 


* 1152-53 


6 Angirasa 


9 Yuvan . 


... 


4255 


1076 


12ft 


560 


328*29 


1153-54 


7 Siimukha/ 


10 Dhatri . 


3 Jyeshtha 


4256 


1077 


1212 


561 


329-30 


1154-55 


8 Bhava ., 


11 Isvara . 


... 


4257 


1078 


1213 


562 


330-31 


1155-56 


9 Yuvan . 


12 Bahudhanya . 


... 


4258 


1070- 


1214 


563 


331-32 


*1156-57 


10 Dh&tri . 


13 Pramathin 


1 Chaitra 


4259 


1080 


1215 


564 


332-33 


1157-58 


11 Isvara . 


14 Vikrama 


... 


4260 


1081 


1216 


565 


333-34 


1158-59 


12 Bahudhanya . 


15 Vrisha . 


5 Sravana 


4261 


1082 


1217 


566 


334-35 


1159-60 


13 Pramathin 


16 Cliitrabhanu . 


... 


4262 


1083 


1213 


567 


335-36 


*1160-6l 


14 Vikrama 


17 Subhanuf 


... 


4263 


108i 


1210 


56B 


336-37 


1161-62 


15 Vrfsha . 


19 Parfhim 


4 Ashadha 


4264 


10S5 


1220 


569 


337-38 


1162-03 


16 Clutrabhami . 


20 Vyaya . 


... 


426o 


10S6 


12il 


570 


338-39 


1163-64 


17 Subhanu 


21 Sarvajit 


... 


4266 


10S7 


1222 


571 


339-40 


*1164-6o 


18 Tarana . 


22 Sarvadharin . 


2 Vaisakha 


4267 


10S8 


123 


572 


340-41 1 


1165-66 


19 Parthiva 


23 Vlrodhin 


*.. 


4268 


1080 


1224 


573 


341-42 


1166-67 


20 Vyaya . 


24 Vikrita . . \ 


6 Bhadrapada 


4209 


1000 


1225 


574 


342-43 


1167^68 


21 Sarvajit 


25 Khara . 


... 


4270 


1001 


1226 


575 I 


343-44 


*1168-69 


22 Sarvadharin . 


26 Nandana 










! 












4271 


109:2 , 


1227 


576 j 


344-45 


1169-70 


23 Virodhin 


27 Vijaya * 


5 jSravarjca . 



f IS^Tarana was suppressed in the north* 



tfo. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : TRUE " SYSTEM. 



147 



LXI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 

1 


SOLAB YEAR. 


LUHI-SOLAB YEAR (MEAN SUNRISE OF CIVIL. BAY OK WHICH 
CHAJTEA SUKLA 1 ENDS). 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day, 


Time of 
true Mesha* 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


/ 
b 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 






H. M. S. 














24 Mar, (83) 


Sat. . 


5 2 30 


24 Feb. (55) 


Sat. . 


9918-3703 


345-6741 


200-2205 


4247 


24 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun, . 


11 15 


15 Mar. (74) 


6 Eri. * 


9953-0099 


281-6576 


251-4803 


4248 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. . 


17 27 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


3 Tues. 


9828-6934 


128-8925 


220-7063 


4249 


23 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues. 


23 40 


22 Mar. (82) 


2 Mon. . 


9863-3329 


64-8760 


271-2161 


4250 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Thur. 


5 52 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


Sat. . 


77-6481 


948-4024 


243-9300 


4251 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


12 5 


2 Mar. (61) 


5 Thur. 


291-9634 


831 : 9288" 


215-8439 


4252 


24 Mar. (83) 


Sat. . 


18 17 30 


21 Mar. (80) 


4 Wed, 


326-6030 


767-9126 


2674537 


4253 


24 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon. . 


30 


9 Mar. (69) . 


1 Sun. . 


202-2864 


615-1471 


236-3298 


4254 


24 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues. 


6 42 30 


26 Feb. (57) 


5 Thur. 


77-9698 


462-3819 


205-5071 


4255 


24 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


12 55 


16 Mar. (75) 


3 Tues. 


9773-9776 


362-0739 


254-0778 


4256 


24 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur. 


19 7 30 


6 Mar. (65) 


1 Sun. . 


9988-2928 


245-6002 


225-9918 


4257 


24 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


1 20 


23 Feb. (54) 


5 Thur. 


9863*9762 


92-8351 


195-1679 


4258 


24 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun. . 


7 32 30 


13 Mar. (72) 


4 Wed, 


9899-0158 


29-8186 


246-4777 


4259 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. , 


13 45 


3 Mar. (62) 


2 Mon. . 


112-9311 


912-3451 


218-3916 


4260 


24 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues. 


19 57 30 


22 Mar. (81) 


1 Sun. . 


147-5707 


848-3285 


269-7014 


4261 


24 Mar. (84) 


5 Thur. 


2 10 


10 Mar. (70) 


5 Thur. 


23-2541 


695-5633 


238-8774 


4262 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


8 22 30 


27 Feb. (58) 


2 Mon. . 


9899-3375 


542-7982 


208-0536 


4263 


24 Mar. (83) 


Sat. * 


14 35 


18 Mar. (77) 


1 Sun. . 


9933-5672 


478-7816 


259-3633 


4264 


24 Mar, (83) 


1 Sun. . 


20 47 30 


7 Mar. (66) 


5 Thur, 


9809-2605 


326-0164 


228-5395 


4265 


24 Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


300 


25 Feb. (56) 


3 Tues. 


23-5758 


209-5429 


2004534 


4266 


24 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


9 12 30 


15 Mar. (74) 


2 Mon. 


58-2354 


145-5264 


251-7632 


4267 


24 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur. 


15 25 


4 Mar. (63) 


6 Fri. . 


9933-8988 


992-7612 


220-9392 


4268 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


21 37 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


5 Thur. 


9968*5284 


928-7447 


272-2489 ' 


4269 


24 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. , 


3 60 


12 Mar. (72) 


3 Tues. 


182-8537 


812-2712 


2*4-1629 


4270 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. . 


10 2 30 


1 Mar. (60) 


Sat . 


58-5371 


659-5059 


213-3301 


4271 



a-2 



148 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


IKTEBCAI^ATED 
(adhika) and 

STJPPBBSSED 

(kshaya) LUITAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama. 

! 

- - ! 


CQ !* 


Kollam. 


A,D. 


JOVIAN SAMVATSABA, 


Southern 
system* 


Northern 
system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4272 


1093 


1228 


577 


345-46 


1170-71 


24 Vikrita * 


28 Jaya 


* 


4273 


1094 


1229 


578 


346-47 


1171-72 


* 
25 Khara . 


29 Manmatha 


*.. 


4274 


1095 


1230 


579 


347-48 


*1172-73 


26 Nandana 


30 Durmukha 


3 Jyeshtha 


4275 


1096 


1231 


580 


348-49 


1173-74 


27 Vijaya * 


31 Hemalamba . 


* . * 


4276 


1097 


1232 


581 


349-50 


1174-75 


28 Jaya 


32 Vilamfea 


* * 


4277 


1098 


1233 


582 


350-51 


1175-76 


29 Manmatha 


33 Vikarin . 


1 Chaitra 


4278 


1099 


1234 


583 


351-52 


* 1176-77 


30 Durmukha 


34 Sarvarin 


... 


4279 


1100 


1235 


584 


352-53 


1177-78 


31 Hemalamba , 


35 Plava , 


5 Sravana 


4280 


1101 


1236 


585 


353-54 


1178-79 


32 Vilamba 


36 Subhakrit 


... 


4281 


1102 


1237 


586 


354-55 


1179-80 


33 Vikartn 


37 Sobhana 


... 


4282 


1103 


1238 


587 


355-56 


*1180-81 


34 Sarvarin 


38 Krodhin 


4 Asliadha * 


4283 


1104 


1239 


588 


356-57 


1181-82 


35 Plava . 


39 Visvavasu 


. 


4284 


1105 


1240 


589 


357-58 


1182-83 


36 gnbhakrit 


40 ParabhaYa 


* 


4285 


1106 


1241 


590 


358-59 


1183-84 


37 Sobhana 


41 Plavaiiga 


2 Vaisakha 


4286 


1107 


1242 


591 


359-60 


* 1184-85 


38 Krodhin 


42 Kilaka . 


... 


4287 


1108 


1243 


592 


360-61 


1185-86 


39 Visvavasu 


43 Saumya 


6 Ehadrapada 


4288 


1109 


1244 


593 


361-62 


1186-87 


40 Parabhava 


44 Sadharana 


... 


4289 


1110 


1245 


594 


362-63 


1187-88 


41 Plavaxiga 


45 Virodhakrit , 


... 


4290 


1111 


1246 


595 


363-64 


*1188-89 


42 Kilaka , 


46 Paridhavin 


5 Srava^a 


4291 


1112 


1247 


596 


364-65 


1189-90 


43 Sauuaya. 


47 Pramadin 


* 


4292 


1113 


1248 


597 


365-66 


1190-91 


44 Sadharana 


48 Ananda 


* . 


4293 


1114 


1249 


598 


366-67 


1191-92 


45 Virodhakiit . 


49 Rakshasa 


3 Jyeshtha 


4294 


1115 


1250 


599 


337-68 


*1 192-93 


46 Paridhavin 


50 Anala* * 


.* 


4295 


1116 


1251 


600 


368-69 


1193-94 


47 Pramadin 


51 Pingala. j 


7 Asvina > 


4296 


1117 


1252 


601 


369-70 


1194-95 


48 Ananda 


52 Kalayukta 


1 Chaitra * 



* Taraua was suppressed iu the north. 



No. 



THE FIKST ARYA-SIDDHAKTA : TRtJl SYSTEM. 



149 



LXI 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 




SOLAS. YBAK. 


LUKI-SOLAB YEAH (MEAK SUN3RISE OF C&VXL DAY OS WHICH 

GHAITRA STTKLA 1 ENDS). 








Ksli. 


Day of 
month, -A..IX 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Bay and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


4. 


< 




13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 25 


i 


' 


% 


H. U. S. 














[\ 24 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues. 


18 15 


20 Mar. (79) 


6 Fri. , 


93-1767 


595-4895 


264-04S8 


4272 


24 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


22 27 30 


9 Mar, (68) 


3 Tues. 


9968-8601 


442-7243 


233-8250 


4273 


24 Mar. (84) 


6 Fri, . 


4 40 


26 Feb. (57) 


Sat. , 


9844-5534 


289-9591 


203-0010 . 


4274 


1 24 Mar, .(83) 


Sat. . 


10 52 30 


16 Mar. {75) 


6 Fri . 


9879-1831 


225-9426 


2M-3107 


4275 


24 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun. . 


17 5 


6 Mar. (65) 


4 Wed. 


93-4983 


109-4690 


226-2247 


4276 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon, . 


23 17 30 


23 Feb. (54) 


1 Sun. . 


9969-1816 


956-7039 


195-4008 


4277 


24 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


6 30 


13 Mar. (73) 


Sat. 


3-8212 


892*6873 


246-7106 : 


4278 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Thur. 


11 42 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


5 Thur. 


218-1365 


776-2138 


218-6245 


4270 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


17 55 


22 Mar, (81) 


4 Wed. 


252-7762 


712-1973 


269-9343 


4280 


25 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. * 


7 30 


11 Mar. (70) * 


1 Sun. . 


128-4595 


559-4320 


239-1103 


4281 


24 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon. * 


6 20 


28 Feb. (59) 


5 Thur 


4-1429 


406*6669 


208-2851 


4282 


24 Mar. (83) 


3 Tuea. 


12 32 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


4 Wed. 


38-7825 


342-6504 


259-5962 


4283 


24 Mar. (83) 


4: Wed, 


18 46 


7 Mar. (66) 


1 Sun. . 


9914-4659 


189*8851 


228-7724 


42S4 


2S Mar. (84) 


6 Fri. . 


67 30 


24 Feb. (55) 


5 Thur. 


9790*1493 


37*1200 


197-9485' 


4285 


24 Mar. (84) 


Sat, . 


7 10 


15 Mar. (75) 


5 Thur. 


163-4208 


9-3951 


251-9960 ! 


4256 


24 Mar. (83) 


i Sun. . 


13 22 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


2 Mon. . 


39-1042 


856-6300 


221-1721 


4287 


24 Mar- (83) 


2 Mon. , 


19 33 


23 Mar. (82) 


1 Sun. . 


73*7438 


792-6134 


272-4618 


4288 


f 25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


1 47 30 


13 Mar. (72) 


6 Fri* . 


288-0591 


676-1399 


244-3958 


4289 


24 Mar. (84) 


5 Thur. 


800 


1 Mar. (61) 


3 Tues. 


163-7425 


523-2747 


213-5720 


4290 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


14 12 30 


19 Ma*. (78) 


1 Sun. 


9859-7302 


423-0665 


262-1439 ' 


4291 

JL2Q2 


1 24. Mar. (83) 


Sat. . 


20 25 


8 Mar. (67) 


5 Thur. 


9735-4336 


t 270-3014 


23I*321 


rAip 1 ** 


25 Mr. (84) 
24 Mar. (84 
24 Mar. (83) 
24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. 
3 Tues. 
4 Wed. 
5 Thur. 


2 37 30 
8 50 
15 2 30 
21 IS 


26 Feb. (57) 
16 Mar- (76) 
6 Mar. (65) 
23 Feb. (54) 


3 Tues. 
2 Mon. - 
Sat. . 
4 Wed* 


9949-7488 
9984*3885 
198-7037 
74-3871 


153-8278 
89-8114 
973*3377 
820-5726 

.jsssssassa. 


203-2339 
254-5436 
226-4576 
195-6337 

SSSSSSSSim = 


: 4293 
4294 
i 4205 
4296 

: ', 






,! !,;:, i r " , as 


rr-; . '". 



150 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. 



TABLE 



CONCUHRENT YEAR. 


INTERCALATED 
(adMkd) and 

SITPPBESSED 

(ksJia^a) LUNAR 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka,. 



P. 


i 
i, 


Kollam. 


A.D. 


JOVIAL SAMVATSABA, 






1 




1 


Meshadi 
in Beng 






Southern 
system* 


Northern 
system. 




2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4297 


1118 


1253 


602 


370-71 


1195-96 


49 Rakshasa 



53 Siddharfchin . 


* 


4298 


1119 


1254 


603 


371-72 


*1196-97 


50 Anala . 


54 Raudra 


5 Sravana 


4299 


1120 


1255 


604 


372-73 


1197-98 


51 Pingala . 


55 Durmati 


* 


4300 


1121 


1256 


605 


373-74 


11^8-99 


52 Kalayxikta 


56 Dundubhi 


... 


4301 


1122 


1257 


60$ 


374-75 


11994200 


53 SHdharthin . 


57 Rudhirodgarin 


4 Ashadha 


.4302 


1123 


1258 


607 


375-76 


*1200-01 


54 Raudra , 


58 Raktaksha . 


*.* 


4303 


1124 


1259 


608 


376-77 


1201-02 


55 Durmati 


59 Krodhana 


... 


4304 


1125 


1260 


609 


377-78 


1202-03 


56 Dundubhi 


60 Kshaya 


2 Vaisakha 


4305 


1126 


1261 


610 


378-79 


1203-04 


57 Rudhir6dgarin 


1 Prabhava 


. * 


4306 


1127 


1262 


611 


379*80 


*1204-05 


58 Raktaksha 


2 Vibhava 


6 Bhadrapada 


4307 


1128 


1263 


612 


380-81 


1205-06 


59 Krodhana 


3 Sukla * 


... 


4308 


1129 


1264 


613 


381-82 


1206-07 


60 Kshaya 


4 Pramoda 


... 


4309 


1130 


1265 


614 


382-83 


1207-08 


1 Prabhava 


5* Prajapati 


4 Ashadha 


4310 


1131 


1266 


615 


383-84 


*1208-09 


2 Vibhava 


6 Atgirasa 


. . 


4311 


1132 


1267 


616 


384-85 


1209-10 


3 Sukla * 


7 Srimukha 


* . 


4312 


1133 


1268 


617 


385-86 


1210-11 


4 Pramoda 


8 Bhava . 


3 Jyeshtha 


4313 
4314 
4315 


1134 
1135 
1136 


1269 
1270 
1271 


618 
619 
620 


386-87 
387-88 
388-89 


1211-12 
H212-13 
1213-14 


5 Prajapati 
6 Aiigirasa 
7 Srimukha 


9 Yuvan . 
10 Dhatri . J 
11 Isvara . 


7 Asvina *) 
11 Mag7ia(ksh.) 
12 Phalguna ) 


4316 


1137 


1272 


621 


389-90 


1214-15 


8 Bhava 


12 Bahudhanya . 


... 


4317 


1138 


1273 


622 


390-91 


1215-16 


9 Yuvan * 


13 PramatMri 


5 Sravana 


4318 


1139 


1274 


623 


391-92 


*1216-17 


10 Dhatri , 


14 Vikrama 


... 


4319 


1140 


1275 


624 


392-93 


1217-18 


11 Xsvara . 


15 Vrisha . 


. 


4320 


1141 


1276 


625 


393-94 


1218-19 


12 Bahudhanya * 


16 Chitrabhanu * 


3 Jyeshtha 


4321 


1142 


1277 


626 


394-95 


1219-20 


13 Pramathin 


17 Subhanu 


... 



No. U.] 



THE FIRST AUYA-SIDDHANTA : "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



151 



LXIContd. 



j COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 


SOLAB YEAR. 


LUJU-SQLAK, YEAR (MEAN SX^KItlSE OF CIVIL BAY ON WHICH 

CHAITRA SUKLA 1 E^DS). 


Day and 
: month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


6. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M. S. 












25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


3 27 30 


14 Mar. (73) 


3 Tues. 


109-0267 


756-5561 


246-9435 


4297 


24 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. . 


9 40 


2 Mar. (G2) 


Sat. . 


9984-7101 


603-7908 


216-1196 


4298 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon, . 


15 52 30 


21 Mar, (SO) 


6 Fri. . 


19-3497 


539-7744 


267-4293 


4299 


24 Mar. (83) 


3 Tuos. 


22 5 


10 Mar, (69) 


3 Tues. 


9895-0331 


387*0092 


236-6054 


4300 


25 Mar. (84) 


5 Thur. 


4 17 30 


27 Feb. (58) 


Sat. , 


9770-7165 


234-2441 


205-7817 


4501 


24 Mar. (84) 


6 En. , 


10 30 


17 Mar. (77) 


6 Fri. . 


9805-3561 


170-2276 


257-0914 


4302 


24 Mar. (83) 


Sat . 


16 42 30 


7 Mar. (66) 


4 Wed. 


19-6714 


53-7540 


'229-0054 


4303 


24 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun. . 


22 55 


25 Feb. (56) 


2 Mon. . 


233-9866 


937-2804 


"200-9192 


4304 


25 Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


5 7 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


1 Sun. , 


268-6263 


873-2640 


252-2289 


4305 


24 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


11 20 


4 Mar. (64) 


5 Thur, 


144-3096 


720-4987 


221-4051 


4306 


24 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur. 


17 32 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


178-9493 


656-4823 


272-7148 


4307 


24 Mar. (83) 


'6 EriL ., 


23 45 


12 Mar. (71) 


1 Sun. * 


54-6327 


603-7171 


24L-8910 


4308 


25 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. . 


5 57 30 


1 Mar. (60) 


5 Thur. 


9930-3161 


350-9519 


211-0672 


4309 


.24 Mar..(84) 


2 MOIL 


12 10 


19 Mar. (79) 


4 Wed. 


9964-9557 


286*9354 


262-3769 


4310 


24 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues. 


18 22 30 


8 Mar. (67) 


1 Sun, . 


9840-6390 


134-1702 


231-5529 


4311 


25 Mar. (84) 


5 Thur. 


35 


26 Feb. (57) 


6 Fri. . 


54-9543 


13-6966 


2034669 


4312 


25 Mar. (84) 


6 Fri. . 


6 47 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


5 Thur. 


89-5939 


953-6801 


264-7766 


4313 


24 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


13 


6 Mar, (66) 


3 Tues. 


303-9092 


837-2065 


226-6906 


4314 


24 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun. . 


19 12 39 


24 Mar, (83) 


1 Sun. * 


9999-9169 


736-8985 


275-2625 


4$15 


25 'Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


1 25 


14 Mar. (73) 


6 Fri. . 


214-2321 


620-4249 


247-1765 


4316 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


7 . 37 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


3 Tues. 


89-9156 


467-6597 


215-3526 


4317 


24 Mar. (84) 


5 Thur, 


13. 50 


20 Mar, (80) 


L Sun. . 


97S5-9233 


367*3616 


264-9245 


4318 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


20 2 30 


10 Mar. 1(69) 


6 Fri, . 


0-2385 


250*8780 


236-8384 


4319 


25 Mar, (84) 


1 Sun. . 


Z 15 


27 Feb. (58) 


3 Tues. 


9875-9219 


98-1128 


206-0146 


4320 


25 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon. . 


8 27 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


2 Mon . 


9910-5615 


34*0963 


257-3243 


4321 



153 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


INTEECALATED 
(adhika) and 

SUPPRESSED 

(Icshaya) LUNAB 
MONTHS (true)* 




Kali. 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama* 


1 

.* bft 


Kollam. 


AJX 


JOVIAN SAMVATSABA. 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system. 


1 


2 


3 

1278 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4322 


1143 


627 


395-96 


*1220-21 


14 Vikrama 


18 Tarana , 


* 


4323 


1144 


1279 


628 


396-97 


1221-22 


15 Vrisha . 


19 Parthiva 


2 Vaisakha 




4324 


1145 


1280 


629 


397-98 


1222-23 


16 CMtrabhanu . 


20 Vyaya . 


... 




4325 


1146 


1281 


630 


398-99 


1223-24 


17 Subhanu 


21 Sarvajit 


6 Bhadrapada 




4326 


1147 


1282 


631 


399-400 


*1224-25 


18 Tarana . 


22 Sarvadharin . 


... 




4327 


1148 


1283 


632 


400-01 


1225-26 


19 Parthiva 


23 VirSdhin 


**. 




4328 


1149 


1284 


633 


401-02 


1226-27 


20 Vyaya . 


24 Vikrita . 


4 Ashadha 




4329 


1150 


1285 


634 


402-03 


1227-28 


21 Sarvajit . . 


25 Khara . 


... 




4330 


1151 


1286 


635 


403-04 


*1228~29 


22 Sarvadharin . 


26 Nandana 


* * * 




4331 


1H2 


1287 


636 


404-05 


1229-30 


23 VirSdhin 


27 Vijaya , 


3 Jyeshtha 




4332 


1153 


1288 


637 


405-06 


1230-31 


24 Vikrita . 


28 Jaya 


* 




4333 


1154 


1289 


638 


406-07 


1231-32 


25 Khara * 


29 Manmatha 


7 Asvina 




4334 


1155 


1290 


639 


407-08 


*1232-33 


26 Nandana 


30 Durmukha . 


* 




4335 


1156 


1291 


640 


408-09 


1233-34 


27 Vijaya . 


31 Hemalamba . 


* 




4336 


1157 


1292 


641 


409-10 


1234-35 


28 Jaya . 


32 Vilamba 


5 Sravana . 




4337 


1158 


1293 


642 


410-11 


1235-36 


29 Manmatha 


33 Vikarin . 


* 




4338 


1159 


1294 


643 


41M2 


*1236-37 


30 Durmukha . 


34 Sarvarin 


* 




4339 


1160 


1295 


644 


412-13 


1237-38 


31 Hemalamba . 


35 Plava . 


3 Jyeshtha 




4840 


1161 


1296 


645 


413-14 


1238-39 


32 Vilamba 


36 Subhakrit 


** 




4341 


1162 


1297 


646 


414-15 


1239-40 


33 Vikarin . 


37 Sobhana 


.. 




4342 


1163 


1298 


647 


415-16 


*1240-41 


34 Sarvarin 


38 Krddhin 


2 Vaisakha 




4343 


1164 


1299 


648 


416-17 


1241-42 


35 Plava . 


39 Viavavasu 


... 




4344 


1165 


1300 


649 


417-18 


1242-43 


36 Subhakrit 


40 Parabhava 


6 Bhadrapada 




4345 


1166 


1301 


650 


418-19 


12*3-44 


37 Sobhana 


41 Plavanga 


* 




4346 


1167 


1302 


651 


419-20 


*1244-45 


38 KrSdhin 


42 Kilaka . 


* 





No. 14.J 



THE FIRST ABYA-SIDDHANTA : TRUE " SYSTEM. 



153 



LXI Covad. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 




SO:LAB YEAB, 


LtTNI-SQLAB YEAB (MEAN SUNRISE OF CIVIL BAY ON WHICH 
CHAITBA SUBXA 1 ENDS). 


Kali. 


Day and 
month, A.D* 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
sanikranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 

day. 


a. 


b. 


c. 




13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M. S. 














24: Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


14 40 


7 Mar. (67) 


Sat. . 


124-8768 


917-6228 


229-2383 


4322 


24 Man (83) 


4 Wed. 


20 52 30 


24 Feb. (55) 


4 Wed. 


0-5602 


754-8576 


198-4143 


4323 


25 Mar. (84) 


6 Fri. . 


350 


15 Mar. (74) 


3 Tues. 


35*1998 


' 700-8410 


249-7241 


4324 


26 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


9 17 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


Sat. . 


9910-8832 


548-0759 


218-9002 


4325 


24 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. . 


15 30 


22 Mar. (82) 


6 ErL . 


9945-5228 


484-0594 


270:2099 


4326 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. . 


21 42 30 


11 Mar. (70) 


3 Tues. 


9821-2062 


331-2941 


239-3861 


4327 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


3 55 


1 Mar. (60) 


1 Sun. . 


35-5215 


214-8206 


21^3001 


4328 


25 Mar. (84) 


5 Thur. 


10 7 30 


20 Mar. (79) 


Sat. 


70-1611 


150-8142 


262-6098 


4329 


24 Mar. (84) 


6 Fri. 


16 20 


8 Mar. (68) 


4 Wed. 


9945-8444 


998-0389 


231-7858 


4330 


24 Mar. (83) 


Sat. . 


22 32 30 


26 Feb. (57) 


2 Mon. . 


160*1597 


881-5653 


203*998 


4331 


25 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon, . 


4 45 


17 Mar. (76J 


1 Sun. . 


194-7993 


817-5489 


255-0095 


4332 


25 Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


10 57 30 


6 Mar. (65) 


5 Thur. 


70*4827 


664-7836 


224*1857 


4333 


24 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


17 10 


24 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed, 


105-1223 


600-7672 


275-4954 


4334 


24 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur. 


23 22 30 


13 Mar. (72) 


1 Sun. . 


9980-8057 


448-0020 


244-6716 | 


4335 


25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


5 35 


2 Mar. (61) 


5 Thur. 


9856-4891 


295-2368 


213-8476 


4336 


25 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. . 


11 47 30 


21 Mar. (80) 


4 Wed. 


9891-1287 


231-2203 


265-1574 


4337 


24 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon. . 


18 


9 Mar. (69) 


1 Sun. . 


9766-8121 


78-4551 


234-3335 


4338 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


12 30 


27 Feb. (58) 


6 Fri . 


9981*1274 


961-9816 


206-2475 


4339 


25 Mar. (84) 


5 Thuf. 


6 25 


18 Mar. (77) 


5 Thur. 


15-7670 


897-9640 


257-5572 


4340 


25 Man (84) 


6 Fri. . 


12 37 30 


8 Mar. (67) 


3 Tues. 


230-0823 


781-4915 


229-4612 


4341 


24 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


18 50 


25 Feb. (56) 


Sat. * 


105-7656 


628-7263 


198-6473 


4342 


25 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon. . 


1 2 30 


15 Mar. (74) 


6 Fri. . 


140-4053 


564-7098 


249-9570 


4343 


25 Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


7 15 


4 Mar. (63) 


3 Tues* 


16-0887 


411-9446 


219-1331 


4344 


25 Mar. ,(84) 


4 Wed. 


13 27 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


2 Mon. . 


50-7283 


347-9281 


270-4428 


4345 


24 Mar. (84) 


5 Thur. 


19 40 


11 Mar. (71) 


8 IM. * 


9926*4116 


195-1629 


239-6190 


4346 



154: 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[Voi- 



CONCUEEENT YEAE. 


(kskaya) X-XJ3^-d.^ 
MONTHS (turixo)* 




Kali. 


tA 

t 

aitradi Vikrama. 


M 


Kollam 


A.B, 


JOVIAN SAMVATSAEA. 


Southern 

system. 


Northern 
system. 




o 


sr s 














1 


2 3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4347 


1168 1303 


652 


420-21 


1245-46 


39 Visvavasu 


43 Sauraya* 


4 xiSnacl.ii.su * 


4348 


1169 1304 


653 


421-22 


1246-47 


40 Parabhava , 


44 Sadhiraijiaf 


... 




4349 


1170 


1305 


654 


422-23 


1247-48 


41 Plavanga 


46 Pon-Mtoto. . 


... 




4350 


1171 


1306 


655 


423-24 


*1248-49 


42 Kilaka . 


47 Pramadin 


*j tTyesn^J3LiCt 




4351 


1172 


1307 


656 


424-25 


1249-50 


43 Saumya 


48 Ananda 


* 




4352 


1173 


1308 


657 


* 425-26 


1250-51 


44 Sadharana 


49 Rakshasa 


7 Asvina 




4353 


1174 


1309 


658 


426-27 


1251-52 


45 Virodhafcrit . 


50 Anala . 


** 




4354 


1175 


1310 


659 


427-28 


*1252-53 


46 Paridhavin 


51 Pingala . 


... 




4355 


1176 


1311 


660 


428-29 


1253-54 


47 Pramadin 


52 Kalayukta 


SSrava^a. 




4356 


1177 


1312 


661 


429-30 


1254-55 


48 Ananda 


53 Siddharthin . 


... 




4357 


1178 


1313 


662 


430-31 


1255-56 


49* Eakshasa 


54 Eaudra 


... 




4358 


1179 


1314 


663 


431-32 


*1256-57 


50 Anala . 


55 Burmati 


3 Jyeshth** 




4359 


1180 


1315 


664 


432-33 


1257-58 


51 Pirigala 


56 Bundubhi 







4380 
4361 


1181 
1182 


1316 
1317 


665 
666 


433-34 
434-35 


1258-59 
1259-60 


52 Kalayukta . 

53 Siddharthin 


57 Eudhirod-.. $ 
garin ' 
58 Eaktaksha . 


8 Karttika, > 
10 Pausha (ic&Jb* ) > j 

1 Chaitra 




4362 


1183 


1318 


667 


436-36 


*1260-61 


54 Eaudra 


59 Krodhana 


... 




4303 
4364 


1184 
1185 


1319 
1320 


668 
669 


436-37 
437-38 


1261-62 
1262-63 


55 Burmati 
56 Bundubhi 


60 Kshaya 
1 Prabhava 


6 Bhadrapada- 




4365 


1186 


1321 


670 


438-39 


1263-64 


57 Eudhirodgarin 


2 Vibhava 


*.. 




4366 


1187 


1322 


671 


439-40 


*1264-65 


58 Eaktaksha . 


3 Sukla . 


4 Ashadha ^ 1 




4387 


1188 


1323 


672 


440-41 


1265-66 


59 Krodhana , . 


4 Pramoda 


* * 




4368 
4369 
4370 


1189 \ 
1190 ; 
1191 


1324 
1325 
1326 


673 

674 ; 

675 


441-42 
442-43 
443-44 


1266-67 
1267-68 
*1268-69 


60 Kahaya 
1 Prabhava 
2 Vibhava 


5 Prajapati 
6 Angirasa 
7 Srlmukha 


3 Jyeshtha* 

* * # 




4371 


1192 


1327 


676 


444-45 


1269-70 




3 Sukla, . 

"--i" r-m 


8 Bhava . 


7 Asvina 




f & VWdhrnkjit was suppressed in the north, " """~^ 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYASIBDHANTA: 



SYSTEM. 



LXT. Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


KalL 


SOLAR, YBAB. 


LTTKI-SOLAB YEAR (MEAN stnsrBisu OF civil* DAY ON WHICH 
CHAITB.A STFKLA 1 ENDS).. 


Day and 
month, A. IX 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkraiiti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


b. 


c 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M. S. 














25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


1 2 30 


28 Feb.{9) 


3 Tues. 


9802*0950 


^2-3977 


2I08-7952 


43*7 


25 Mar, (84) 


1 Sun. . 


S S 


20 Mar. (79) 


3 Tues. 


175*3365 


14-6728 


262-8&27 


4348 


25 Mar. (&4) 


2 Mon. - 


14 17 30 


9 Mar. <8) 


Sat. . 


51-0499 


861-9077 


232-t>l7 


949 


24 Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


20 30 


27 Feb. (58) 


5 TLur. 


265-3651 


746*4341 


203-9327 


4350 


25 Mar. (84) 


5 Thur. 


2 42 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


4 Wed. 


300-004? 


681*4176 


255-2424 


4861 


25 Mar. (84) 


6 Fri. . 


8 65 


6 Mar. (65) 


1 Sun. . 


175-6881 


528-6524 


224-4166 


&S62 


25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


15 7 30 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Eri. . 


9871-6959 


428-3444 


274-9905 


4SS3 


24 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. . 


21 20 


12 Mar, (72) 


3 Tues. 


9747-3793 


275-5791 


242-1667 


4354 


25 Mar. (84) 


3 Tuea. 


3 32 30 


2 Mar. <61) 


1 Sun. . 


9961-6945 


159-1055 


214*0805 


4365 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


9 45 


21 Mar. (80) 


Sat. . 


9996-3341 


95-0891 


265*3903 


4366 


25 Mar. (84) 


5 Thur. 


15 57 30 


11 Mar. (7O) 


5 Thur. 


210-6494 


978-6154 


237-3042 


4357 


24 Mar. (84) 


6 FrL . 


22 10 


28 Feb. (59) 


2 Mon. * 


86-3328 


825-8503 


206*4804 


4368 


25 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. . 


4 22 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


1 Sun. , 


120-9724 


761-8338 


257-7901 


4369 


25 Mar. (8) 


2 Mon* . 


10 35 


7 Mar. (66) 


5 Thur. 


9996-6558 


609-0686 


226*9663 


4360 


25 Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


16 47 30 


24 Feb. (55) 


2 Mon* . 


-9872-3392 


456*3034 


196-1424 


436*1 


24 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


23 O 


4 Mar. (74) 


1 Sun. * 


9906-9788 


392*2869 


247-4621 


4362 


25 Mar. (84) 


6 Fri. * 


5 12 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


5 Thur. 


9782-6622 


239*5218 


216-6282 


4363 


25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


11 25 


22 Mar. (81) 


4 Wed. 


9817-3018 


175-5052 


267-938O 


4364 


25 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. . 


17 37 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


2 Mon. . 


31-6171 


59-0317 


239*8619 


4365 


24 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon. . 


23 50 


29 Feb. (60) 


6 Fri. . 


9907-3005 


906-2666 


209-0281 


4366 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


6 2 30 


20 Mar. (79) 


6 FrL . 


280-5720 


878-5417 < 


263-0766 ; 


4367 


25 Mar. (84) 


5 Thur. 


12 15 


9 Mar. (68) 


3 Tuea. 


156-2563 


726*7764 


232-2616 ! 


4368 


25 Mar/(84) 


6 Fri. . 


18 27 30 


26 Feb. (57) 


Sat. . 


31-9387 


673-0112 


201*4278 ] 


4369 


25 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. . 


40 


16 Mar, (76) 


6 Fri, . 


66-5784 


609-2864 


255*4753 


4370 


25 Mar. <84) 


2 Mon. . 


6 52 30 


5 Mar. (64) 


3 Tuea. 


9942*2617 


366*2205 


221*9137 


4371 




156 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCUBBENT YEAR. 


IOTEBCALATED 
(adhika) and 

SUPPBBSSED 

(ksJiaya) LUNAR 
MONTHS (true). 


| 
Kali. 


1 

Saka. 


I 


1 

s-s : 

tt> 

i*j jH 

TiJ 33 

J3 PQ 

|.s 


ECollam* 


A.D. 


JOVIAN SAMVATSABA. 


Southern 
syst&m. 


Northern 
system. 


1 

4372 


2 


3 
132S 


30 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


1195 


677 


445-46 


1270-71 


4 Pramoda 


9 Yuvan * 


ft* a 


4373 


1194 


1329 


678 


446-47 


1271-72 


5 Prajapati 


10 Dhatri a 


* 


4374 


1195 


1330 


679 


447-48 


*1272-73 


6 Aagirasa 


11 Isvara , 


4 Ashadha 


4375 


1196 


1331 


680 


448-49 


1273-74 


7 gnmukha 


12 Bahudhanya . 


* * 


4376 


1197 


1332 


681 


449-50 


1274-75 


8 Bhava . 


13 Pramathin 


... 


4377 


1198 


1333 


682 


450-51 


1275-76 


9 Yuvan . 


14 Vikrama 


3 Jyeahtha 


4378 
4379 
4380 


1199 
1200 
1201 


1334 
1335 
1336 


683 
684 
685 


451-52 
452-53 
453-54 


*1276 : 77 
1277-78 
1278-79 


10 Dhatri , 
11 lavara * 
12 Bahudhanya * 


15 Vrisha . 
16 Chitrabhanu ^ 
17 Subhanu 


9 Margasira ^ 
10 Pausha (Jcsh.) V 
12 Phalguna J 


4381 


1202 


1337 


686 


454-55 


1279-80 


13 Pramattun * 


18 Tarana . 


... 


4382 


1203 


1338 


687 


455-56 


*1280-81 


14 Vikrama 


19 Parthiva 


5 Srava#a 


4383 


1204 


1339 


688 


456-57 


1281-82 


15 Vrislia . 


20 Vyaya , 


* * * 


4384 


1205 


1340 


689 


457-58 


1282-83 


16 Chitrabhanu , 


21 Sarvajit 


... 


4385 


1206 


1341 


690 


458-59 


1283-84 


w 17 Subtariu 


22 Sarvadharin * 


4 Ashadha 


4386 


1207 


1342 


691 


459-60 


*1284-85 


18 Tarawa . 


23 Virodhin 


** 


4387 


1208 


1343 


692 


460-61 


1285-86 


19 Parthiva 


24 Vikrita , 


* 


4388 


1209 


1344 


693 


461-62 


1286-87 


20 Vyaya . 


25 Khara . 


2 Vaisakha . 


4389 


1210 


1345 


694 


462-63 


1287-88 


21 Sarvajit. 


26 Nandana 


* * 


4390 


1211 


1346 


695 


463-64 


*1288-89 


22 Sarvadharin . 


27 Vijaya . 


6 Bhadrapada 


4391 


1212 


1347 


696 


4M-65 


1289-90 


23 Virodhin 


28 Jaya . 


<r 

* * * 


4392 


1213 


1348 


697 


465-68 


1290-91 


24 Vikrita . 


29 Manmatha 


* 


4393 


1214 


1349 


69S 


466-G7 


1291-92 


25 Khara . 


30 Durmukha 


4 Ashadha 


4394 


1215 


1350 


699 


467-68 


* 1292-93 


26 Nandana 


31 Hemalamba . 


* k * 


4395 


1216 


"1351 


700 


468-69 


1293-94 


27 Vijaya . 


32 Vilamba 


* 


4396 


1217 


1352 


701 


469-70 


1294-95 


28 Jaya . 


33 Vikarin . 


3 Jyeshtha 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : TRUE " SYSTEM. 



157 



LXI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali, 


SOI*AB YEAB. 


LUNI-SOLAB YEAR (MEAN SUNRISE OF CIVIL DAY ON WHICH 
CHAITRA SUKLA 1 ENDS). 


Day and 

month, A.D 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 

true Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Bay and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day 


a. 


b. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. 1L S. 














25 Mar. (84) 


3 TUGS. 


13 5 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. . 


9976-9014 


292-2121 


273-2234 


4372 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed* 


19 17 30 


13 Mar. (72) 


6 FrL . 


9852*5848 


139-4479 


242-3996 


4373 


25 Mar. (85) 
25 Mar, (84) 
25 Mar. (84) 


6 Eri. . 

Sat. , 
1 Sun. . 


1 30 
7 42 30 
13 55 


2 Mar. (62) 
21 Mar. (80) 
10 Mar. (69) 


4 Wei 
3 Tues. 

Sat. . 


66*9000 

^ 

101*5396 

9977-2230 


22-9743 
958-9578 
806-1926 


214-3134 
265-6232 
234-7993 


4374 
4375 
4376 


25 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon. . 


20 7 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


5 Thur. 


191-5382 


689-7191 


206-7133 


4377 


25 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed. 


2 20 


18 Mar. (78) 


4 Wed. 


226-1778 


624-7025 


258-0230 


4378 


! 25 Mar. (84) 


5 Timr. 


8 32 30 


7 Mar. (66) 


1 Sun. . 


101-8612 


472-9373 


227-1992 


4379 


25 Mar. (84) 


6 Eri. . 


14 45 


25 Mar. (84) 


6 Fri. . 


9797-8690 


372-6293 


275*7711 


4380 


25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


20 57 30 


15 Mar. (74) 


4 Wei 


12-1842 


256-1556 


247-6750 


4381 


25 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. . 


3 10 


3 Mar. (63) . 


1 Sun. . 


9887-8676 


103-3905 


216-8611 


4382 


25 Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


9 22 30 


22 Mar. (81) 


Sat. 


9922-5072 


39-3740 


268-1709 


4383 


23hMar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


15 35 


12 Mar. (71) 


5 Thur. 


136-8225 


922-9004 


240-0848 


4384 


25 Mar. (84) 


5 Tkur. 


21 47 30 


1 Mar. (60) 


2 Mon. . 


12-5059 


770-1352 


209-2610 


4385 


25 Mar. (85) 


Sat. , 


400 


19 Mar. (79) 


1 Sun. . 


47-1455 


706-1187 


260-5706 


4386 


25 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. . 


10 12 30 


8 Mar. (67) 


5 Thur. 


9922-8289 


553-3536 


229-7458 


4387 


25 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon. * 


16 25 01 


25 Feb. (56) 


2 Mon. . 


9798-5122 


400-5883 


198*9229 


4388 


25 Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


22 37 30 J 


16 Man (75) 


1 Sun. . 


9833-1519 


336-5718 


250-1827 


4389 


25 Mar, (85) 


5 Thur, 


4 50 


5 Mar. (65) 


6 Fri. . 


47-4671 


220-0983 


222*1466 


4390 


25 Mar. (84) 


6 Fri. . 


11 2 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed, 


9743-4749 


119-7901 


270-7185 


4391 


25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


17 15 


13 Mar. (72) 


2 Mon. . 


9957-7901 


3-3166 


242-6325 


4392 


25 Mar. (84) 


I Sun. * 


23 27 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


Sat. . 


1724054 


886-8430 


214 5463 


4393 


25 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


5 40 


21 Mar. (81) 


6 Fri. 


206-7450 


822*8266 


265*8561 


4394 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


11 52 30 


10 Mar. (69) 


3 Tues. 


82-4284 


670-0613 


235-0322 


4395 


25 Mar. (84) 


5 Thur, 


18 5 


27 Feb. (58) 


Sat. . i 


J958-1118 


517*2962 


204-2084 


4396 



158 



INDICA. 



[Vol.- XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


INTEBOALATBD 
(a-dhika) and 

SUPPRESSED 

(kshaya) LITKAB 
MONTHS (true). ] 


Kali. 


Saka. 


j> 

#rH 

3 


i 
i. 

OB pg 

-3 &0 
1 "Q P5 

P 


Kollam* 


A.D. 


JovlAsr SAMVATSABA. 


Southern 

system. 


Northern 

system. 


1 


2 


3a 
702 


4 


5 


^ 


7 


8 


4397 


1218 


1353 


470-71 


1295-96 


29 Manmatha . 


34 Sarvarin 


* 


4398 


1219 


1354 


703 


471-72 


*1296-97 


30 Durmukha * 


35 Plara . 


12 PMlguna ^ 


4399 


1220 


1355 


704 


472-73 


1297-98 


31 Hemalamba * 


36 Subhakrit 


* * 


4400 


1221 


1356 


705 


473-74 


1298-99 


32 Vilamba 


37 Sobhana ^ 





4401 


1222 


1357 


706 


474-75. 


1299-1300 


33 Vikarhi . 


38 Krodhin 


'5 Srava^a 


4402 


1223 


1358 


707 


475-76 


*13QO-01 


34 Sarvarin. 


39 Visvavasu 


** * 


4403 


1224 


1359 


7O8 


476-77 


130-1-02 


35 Plava . 


40 Parabhava 


*** 


4404 


1225 


1360 


700 


477-78 


1302-03 


36 Subhakrit 


41 Plavaaga 


4 Ashadha 

* 


4405 


1226 


1361 


-^710 


478-79 


1303-04 


37 gobhanai -; 


42 Kilaka * 


** 


4406 


1227 


1362 


711 


479-80 


*1304-05 


38 Krodhin 


43 Saumya * 


it mm 


4407 


1228 


1363 


712 


480-81 


1305-06 


39 Visvavasu 


44 Sadharaaa 


2 Vaimkha 

* 


4408 


1229 


1364 


713 


481-82 


1306-07 


40 tarabhava . 


45 Virodhakrit . 


* 


4409 


1230 


1365 


714 


482-83 


1307-08 


41 Plavaiiga * 


46 Paridhavin . 


6 Bhadrapada 


4410 


1231 


1366 


715 


483-84 


*1308-09 


42 Kilaka . 


47 Pramadin 


** 


4411 


1232 


1367 


716 


484-85 


1309-10 


43 Saumya . 


48 Ananda , 


* 


4412 


1233 


1368 


717 


485-86 


1310-11 


44 Sadhara^ia 


49 Eaksbaea 


4 Ashadha, j 




4413 


1234 


1369 


718 


486-87 


1311-12 


45 Virodhakritr * 


50 Anala . . 


** 


4414 


1235 


1370 


719 


487-88 


*1312-13 


46 -ParidMvin * 


51 Picgala. 


* 


4415 


1230 


1371 


720 


488-89 


1313-14 


47 Pramadin 


52 Kalayukta 


3 Jyeehtha 




4416 


1237 


1372 


721 


489-90 


1314-15 


48 Ananda 


63 Siddharthin * 





4417 


1238 


1373 


722 


490-91 


1315-16 


49 Bak&baaa 


54 Baudra 


12 Phalguaa 


441S 


1239 


1374 


723 


491-92 


*1316-17 


50 Anala % 


55 Durmati . 


* # 


4419. 


1240 


1375 


724 


492-93 


1317-18 


51 Pipgala 


56 Dundubhi 


& * 


.4420 


1241 


1376 


726 


493-94 


1318-19 


52 Kalayukta . 


57 Budhirocigarin 


5 Sravai^a 


4421 


1242 


1377 


726 


494-95 


1319-20 


53 Siddharthin . 


58 Baktaksha . 


** 



Ho. 14J 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : "TgUE" SYSTEM. 



15$ 



LXI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali 
1 


SOLAB YEAB, 


LtTKI-SOI*AB YEAR (MEAN SUNRISE OF CIVIL BAY OK WHICH 
CHAITBA STJKLA 1 ENDS). 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week* 

day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 

day' 


a. 


ft. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 






B* M. a 












26 Max. ($5) 


Sat. . 


17 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


6 Fri. . 


9992*7514 


453-2797 


255-5181 


4397 


25 Mar. {85} 


1 Sun. . 


6 30 


6 Mar. (66) 


3 Tues. 


98684348 


300-5144 


224-6943 


4398 


25 Mar. (8i) 


2 Mon. . 


12 42 30 


25 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon. . 


9903-0744 


236-4980 


276-0039 


4399 


25 Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


18 55 


14 Mar, (73) 


6 FrL . 


9778-7578 


83-7328 


245*1801 


4400 


26 Mar. (85) 


5 Thur, 


1 7 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


4 Wed. 


9993-0731 


967-2592 


217-0940 


4401 


25 Mar. (85) 


6 FrL . 


7 20 


22 Mar, (82) 


3 Tues. 


27-7127 


903-2427 


258-4038 


4402 


25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. 


13 32 30 


12 Mar.<71) 


1 Sun. . 


242*0280 


786-7691 


240*3177 


440a 


26 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. . 


19 45 


1 Mar. (60) 


5 Thur. 


117-7114 


634-0039 


209-4938 


4404 


26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


1 57 30 


20 Mar. (79) 


4 Wed. 


152-3510 


569-9874 


260-8035 


4405, 


25 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed. 


8 10 


8 Mar. (68) 


1 Sun. . 


28-0344 


417-2222 


229-9797 


4406 


25 Mar. (84) 


5 Thar. 


14 22 30 


25 Feb. (56) 


5 Thur. 


9903-7177 


264-4570 


199-1558 


4407 


25 Mar. (84) 


6 FrL . 


20 35 


16 Mar, (75) 


4 Wed. 


9938-3574 


200-4405 


250-4656 


4408 


26 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. . 


2 4? 30 


5 Mar. (64) 


1 Sun. . 


9814-0408 


47-6754 


219*6417 


4408 


25 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. . 


900 


23 Mar. (83) 


Sat- . 


9848*6804 


983-7588 


270-9514 


4410 


25 Mar. (84) 


3 Tues. 


15 12 30 


13 Mar. (72) 


5 Thur. 


62-9956 


867-1853 


242-8653 


4411 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


21 25 


3 Mar. (62) 


3 Tues. i 


277-3109 


750-7117 


214-7792 


4412 


26 Mar. (85) 


6 Fri. 


3 37 30 


21 Mar. (80) 


1 Sun. . 


9973-3187 


650-4036 


263-3512 


4413 


25 Mar. (85) 


Sat. . 


9 50 


10 Mar. (70) 


6 I'd. . 


187-6339 


533-9300 


235-2651 


4414 


25 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun. 


16 2 30 


27 Feb. (58) 


3 Tues. 


63-3172 


381-1648- 


204-4413 


4415 


25 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon . 


22 15 


17 Mar. (76) 


1 Sun. . 


9759-3250 


280-8568 


253-0132 


4416 


26 Mar, (85) 


4 Wed 


4 27 30 


7 Mar. (66) 


6 Fid. . 


9973-6403 


164-3831 


224-9271 


4417 


25 Mar.-(85) 


5 Tkur. 


10 40 


.25 Mar. (85) 


5 Thur. 


8-2799 


100-3667 


276-2368 


4418 


26 Mar.- (84) 


6 Fri. . 


16 52 30 


14, Max* (73) 


2 Mon. * 


9883-9632 


947-6015 


245-4130 


4410 


25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


23 S 


4 Mar, (63) 


Sat. . 


98-2785 


831-1279 


217*3269 


4420 


26 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon* . 


5 17 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


6 Fri. . 


132-9181 


767-1114 


268-6367 


4421 



160 



EPIGRAPH1A INDICA. 



. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


IKTEBCALATED 
(adhika) and 

STJPPBESSEB 

MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 


Cbaitradi Vikrama. 


1 
1 

a "4 

*C' S3 


Kollam* 


A.D. 


JOVIAN SAMVATSABA* 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system. 


1 


2 


3 


3* 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4422 


1243 


1378 


727 


495-96 


*1320-21 


54 Raudra 


59 Krodhana 


* * 


4423 


1244 


1379 


728 


496-97 


1321-22 


55 Durmati 


60 Kshaya 


4 Ashadha 


4424 


1245 


1380 


729 


497-98 


3322-23 


56 Dundubhi 


1 Prabhava 


... 


4425 


1246 


1381 


730 


498-99 


1323-24 


57 Rudhirodgarin 


2 Vibhava 


* 


4426 


1247 


1382 


731 


499-500 


*1324-25 


58 Raktaksha 


3 Sukla . 


2 Vaisakha 


4427 


1248 


1383 


732 


500-01 


1325-26 


59 Krddhana 


4 Pramoda 


* * 


4428 


1249 


1384 


733 


501-02 


1326-27 


60 Kshaya 


5 Prajapati 


6 Bhadrapada 


4429 


1250 


1385 


734 


502-03 


1327-28 


1 Prabhava 


6 Angirasa 


* * 


4430 


1251 


1386 


735 


503-04 


"1328-29 


2 Vibhava 


7 Srimukha 


*. 


4431 


1252 


1387 


736 


504-05 


1329-30 


3 Sukla . 


8 Bhava . 


4 Ashadha 


4432 


1253 


1388 


737 


505-06 


1330-31 


4 Pramoda 


9 Yuvan . 


.*. 


4433 


1254 


1389 


738 


506-07 


1331-32 


5 Prajapati 


10 Dhatri f 


* * 


4434 


1255 


1390 


739 


507-08 


*J332-33 


6 Ajigirasa 


12 BaTmdltanya . 


3 Jyeshtha 


4435 


1256 


1391 


740 


508-09 


1333-34 


7 Srlmukha 


13 PmmatMn 




4436 
4437 


1257 
1258 


1392 
1393 


741 
742 


509-10 
510-11 


1334-35 
1335-36 


8 Bhava , 
9 Yuvan * 


14 Vikrama J 
15 PWsA# . * 


7 Asvina ^ 
Pausha (ksh.) V 
2 Phalguna J 


443S 


1259 


1394 


743 


511-12 


*1336-37 


10 Dhatri . 


16 Chitrabhanu . 


* 


4439 


1260 


1395 


744 


512-13 


1337-38 


11 Isvara . 


17 Subhanu 


5 Srava^a 


4440 


1261 


1396 


745 | 


513-14 


1338-39 


12 Bahudhanya . 


18 Tarawa . 


* 


4441 


1262 


1397 


746 


514-15 


1339-40 


13 Pramathin 


19 Parthiva 


* 


4442 


1263 


1398 


747 


515-16 


*1340-41 


14 Vikrama 


20 Vyaya . 


4 Ashadha 


4443 


1264 


1399 


748 


516-17 


1341-42 


15 Vrisha . 


21 Sarvajit 


* 


4444 


1265 


1400 


749 


517-18 


1342-43 


16 Chitrabhanu . 


22 Sarvadharin * 


* 


4445 


1266 


1401 


750 


518-19 


1343-44 


17 Subhanu 


23 Virodhin 


2 Vaisakha . 


4446 


1267 


1402 


751 


519-20 


*13M-*5 


18 Tarawa * 


24 Vikrita . 


#* 



t 11 Isvara was suppressed in the north. 



No. 14.] 



LXI Contd f 



THE FI&ST ARYA-SIDDHANTAi "TBUE" SYSTEM. 



Ifil 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 


SOLAK YEAB. 




LUNI-SdLAB YEAB (MEAST STOKISE OF CITO* DAY OK Wmca 

CKAITBA STOLA 1 XHBS). 


IDay and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day, 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A,D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


6. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M, 8. 














25 Mar, (85) 


3 Tues. 


11 30 


11 Mar. (71) 


3 Tues. ; 


8-6015 


614-3462 


237-8628 


4422 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


If 42 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


Sat. * 


9884-2849 


461-5811 


206-8889 


4423 


25 Mar. (84) 


6 Thur, 


23 55 


19 Mar. (78) 


6 FrL * 


9918-9245 


397-5645 


258-2986 


4424 


26 Mar, (85) 


Sat, . 


6 7 30 


8 Mar. (67) 


3 Tues. 


9794-6078 


244-7993 


227-4748 


4425 


25 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. . 


12 20 


26 Feb. (57) 


1 Sun. . 


8-9231 


128-3258 


199-3887 


4426 


25 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon. . 


18 32 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


Sat. . 


43*5628 


64-3092 


250-0985 


44*7 


26 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed. 


45 


5 Mar. (64) 


4 Wei 


9919-2462 


911-5441 


219-8746 


4428 


j 26 Mar. (85) 


5 Thur. 


6 57 30 


24 Mar. (83) 


3 Tues. 


9953-8858 


847-5276 


271-1843 


4420 


25 Mar. (85) 


6 Eri . 


13 10 


13 Mar. (73) 


1 Sun. . 


168-3010 


731-0530 


243-0982 


4430 


25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


19 22 30 


2 Mar. (61) 


5 Thjar. 


43-8845 


578-2878 


212-2744 


4431 


26 Max. (85) 


2 Mon. , 


1 35 


21 Mar. (80) 


4 Wed. 


78-5241 


614-2714 


263-5841 


4432 


26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


7 47 30 


10 Mar. (69) 


1 SUEU .. 


9954-2074 


361-5061 


232-7602 


4433 


25 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed. 


14 


27 Feb. (58) 


5 Thur 


9829-8903 


208-7409 


202-1364 


4434 


25 Max. (84) 


6 Umr. 


20 12 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


4 WedL. 


9864-5305 


144-7245 


- 253-2461 


443S 


26 Max. (85) 


Sat. . 


2 25 


7 Mar. (66) 


2 Mon. * 


78*8457 


2S2509 


225-1600 


4436 


26 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. * 


8 37 30, 


26 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. . 


113-4853 


964-2344 


276-4697 


4437 


25 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon., , 


14 50 


14 Mar. (74) 


5 Thim 


9989-1687 


811-4702 


245-6459 


4438 


25 Mar. (84) 


3 T.uea. 


21 2 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


3 Tues* 


203-4840 


694*9967 


217-5598 


4439 


26 Mar. (85) 


5 Tfcur. 


3 15 


23 Mar. (82) 


2 Mon. * 


2384236 


629-9801 


268-8696 


4440 


26 Mar. (85) 


6 Eri. . 


9 27 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


6 Eri . 


113-808! 


473-2149 


238-0457 


4441 


25 Mar, (85) 


Sat, . 


15 40 


29 Feb. (60) 


3 Tues. 


9989*4904 


325*4498 


207*2219 


444! 


25 Mar. (84) 


1 Sun . 


21 52 30 


19 Mar. (78) 


2 Mem. . 


24*1200 


261-4333 


259-5315 


4443: 


26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


450 


8 Mar. (67) 


6 FriL , 


9899-8134 


108-8880 


227-70T7 


4444 


26 Mar. (85) 


4 WecL 


10 17 30 


26 Feb. (57) 


4 Wed. 


114-1286 


992*1945 


199*6316 


444A 


25 Mar, (85) 


5 TJmr. 


16 30 


16 Mar. (76) 


3 Taes. 


148-7682 

======= 


928*1780 




260-9314 


4448 

i Tf,.a 



BPIGRAEHIA INDIGA. 



[Vox,. 



TABLE 



CONCUEBENT YEAB 


(adhika) and 
SXTPPBESSEP 
(kshaya} LTJKAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama, 


5) 


Kollam. 


A.D. 


JOVIAK SAMVATSABA. 


Southern 

system. 


Northern 

system. 


I 


2 


3 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4447 
4448 


IMS 


1403 
140 


7B2 
753 


520*21 


1346447 


19 B&rthir* 
20 Vyaya . 


25 Khara . 
26 Nandana 


6 Bhadrapada 


* 


4440 


1270 


1405 


75* 


522.23 


1347^8 


21 garsrajit , 


27 Vijaya . 


* 


4460 


: 1^71 


1406 


755 


023,24 


*134S,49 


22 ^arvadbarin * 


28 Jaya 


4 J^LSdha . 


4451 


1272 


1407 


756 


524,25 


1349^50 


23 Yir5dhia 


29 Mannaatha 


. 


4432 


i 1273 


140& 


757 


S25.26 


1350,51 


24 Vikylta . 


30 Durmukha * 


#* * 


4453 


1274 


140& 


758 


526^7 


1351.53 


25 Kkara . 


31 Hemalamba . 


2 Vailfifeha . 


4454 
4455 
4466 


! 1275 

im 
, iaw 


1410 
1411 
141'2 


758 
760 
761 


527-28 
53&-30 


jfci OK>- K*> 

X C*OC2T"Oo 

135S-54 
1354^55 


26 Kandana 

27 "?t|aya . 
28 Jaya , 


32 Vilamba 
33 Vikarin * < 
34 fervarin 


* ** 

7 Asvina "\ 

.2 Phalguna J 

* 


4457 


127$ 


1413 


762 


530-31 


1355-56 


29 KbwuriJba , 


35 Plava . 


. 


44B3 


127^ 


1414 


763 


531*32 


naatwer 


30 I>iirmtklLa^ 


36 Subiiakrit 


5 Sf avana 


445$ 


12&0 


. 1415: 


764 


532-3$ 


13^,58 


31 Bfeia&mba . 


37 Sobiana 


*i*i 


4460 


1^1 


urn 


. 745 


533,34 


135R-50 


32 Y^mba, 


38 JDLTOtZulXX . 


*> 


4461 


.ia 


14F? 


766 


534-35 


1359^60 


33 TRMiia . 


39 Viairavasu 


SJyeshtha . 


4462 


. 108$ 


1418 


767 


538^6 


' *1360NK 


34 Sarcasm 


40 Par&bha^a 


**. 


4463 


1284 


1419 ^ 


T68 


538^7 


iset^z 


35 Pla^a * 


41 Plavauaga, 


.... 


4464 


1285 


142a 


7& 


53!Z^8 


136^63. 


t$O t^^tjtff fi'ipMIBIFtv * 


42 Bolaka . 


2 VaJSaHi* . 


4*i3 


j&Be 


i42a 


tro 


538^0 


1363^1 


37 SQWum* . 


43 Satunya. 


,*- 


446Q 

4mt 


1287 
1289 


1422 
1429 


771 

T7SJ 


539.4O 


: 1365.66. 


30m^u 


45 irllhakrit . 


6 Hhiarapada> 


*- 


4#3 


1289 


1424 


' 7TO 


8^ 


1366^67 


40 Aaftbiom . 


46 PariiJhaivin 


... 


4469 


12dO 


H25 


WA 


5^*S 


1367-^8 


41 n^aiiga . 


47 Pramadin 


i^aMdlav . 


**Q 


12S 


142@ 


TT^fit 


343^4^ 


*136E,6 


42 Kifeka . 


48 Ananuda 


** 


*** 


1200 


i42f 


^fT^J 


MM& 


1368.10 


43 Saiunja, 


4081^^ . 


*# 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : TRUE " SYSTEM, 



16* 



LXI Contd. 


COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


-I 

I Kal! * 


SOLAB YEAR. 


JLUKI-SOLAB YEAB (MEAN STrNRISE OP CIVIi; DAY ON WHICH 
CHAITBA SITKLA 1 ENDS). 


Day and 
month., A-D- 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


b. 


c, 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M. S. 














25 Mar. (84) 


6 Fri. . 


22 42 30 


5 Mar. (64) 


Sat. . 


24-4516 


775-4128 


220-1075 


4447 


26 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. . 


4 55 


24 Mar. (83) 


6 Fri. . 


69-0912 


711-3963 


271-4172 


4443 


26 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. 


11 7 30 


13 Mar. .(72) 


3 Tues 


9934-7747 


558-6312 


240-5933 


4449 


25 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


17 20 


1 Mar. (61) 


Sat. . 


9810-4580 


405-8660 


209-7695 


4450 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


23 32 30 


20 Mar. (79) 


6 Fri. . 


9845-0976 


341-8494 


261-0792 


4451 


26 Mar. (85) 


6 FrL . 


5 45 


9 Mar. (68) 


3 Tues. 


9720-7810 


189-0843 


230-2554 


4452 


26 Mar. (85) 


Sat. . 


11 57 80 


27 Feb. (68) 


1 Sun. . 


9935-0962 


72-6107 


202-1693 


4463 


25 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. 


18 10 


17 Mar. (77) 


Sat. . 


9969-7359 


8-5942 


253-4790 


4454 


26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues, 


22 30 


7 Mar. (66) 


5 Thur. 


184-0511 


892-1206 


225-3929 


4455 


26 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed. 


6 35 


26 Mar. (85) 


.4 Wed. 


218-6907 


828-1042 


276-7026 


4456 


26 Mar. (85) 


5 Thur. 


12 47 30 


15 Mar. (74) 


1 Sun. . 


94-3741 


675-3389 


245-8788 


4467 , 


25 Mar. (85) 


6 Fri. . 


19 00 


8 Mar. (63) 


5 Thur. 


9970*0575 


622-5737 


215-4549 


4458 


26 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. , 


I 12 30 


-22 Mar. (81) 


4 Wed. 


4-6971 


458-5573 


266-3647 


4459 


26 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. 


7 25 


11 Mar. (70) 


1 Sun. . 


9880-3805 


305-7921 


235-5408 


4460 


26 Marl (85) 


3 Tues. 


13 37 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


5 Thur. 


9756-0639 


153-0269 


204-7170 


4461 


25 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed. 


19 50 


18 Mar.' (78) 


4 Wed. 


9790*7035 


89-0104 


256-0266 


4462 


26 Mar. (85) 


6 Fri. . 


2 2 30 


VMar. (67) 


2 Mon. . 


6-0188 


972-5368 


227-9406 


4463 


26 Mar. (85) 


Sat. 


8 15 


26 Feb. (57) 


Sat. . 


219-3338 


856-0632 


199-8545 


4464 


26 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. , 


14 27 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


6 Fri. . 


253-9737 


792-0468 


251-1642 


4465 


25 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. . 


20 40 015 Mar. (65) 


3 Tues. 3 


129-6571 


639-2816 


220-3404 


4466 


26 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed, 


2 52 30 


24 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. * 


164-2967 


575-2651 


271-6501 I 4407 


26 Mar. (85) 


5 Thur. 


95 


13 Mar. (72) 


6 Fri. . 


39-9801 


422-4999 


241-1180 j 


4408 


26 Mar. (85) 


6 Fri. . 


15 17 30 


2 Mar. (61) 


3 Tues- 


9915-6635 


269-7347 


210-0024 


4469 


25 Mar. (85) 


Sat. . 


21 30 


20 Mar. (80) 


2 Mon. * 


9950-3031 


205-7182 


261-3121 


4470 


26 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. . 


3 42 30 


9 Mar. (68) 


6 Fri. . 


9825-9865 


52-9530 


230*4883 

, 


4471 




*4 


x^iS^ 

/LV'TIPV*AT! ^ 


It: (NO 

VsP" .'.-...-'-. 



EPIGEAPffll INDICA. 




CONCURRENT YEAR. 

f 








cd 

S 


1 






"JOVIAN SAMVATSABA. 


I 3BKr^SS > 






1 











suprRa:ssKX> 


Kali. 


Saka. 




g> 


Kollam. 


AJX 






MoSas <Sao>* 






3 


^3 eP 






Southern 


KTprthern 








f-4 
+3 


SP 






system. 


system. 








"3 


18 S3 
















5 


S"* 












1 


2 


3 


3* 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4472 


1293 


1428 


777 


545-46 


1370-71 


44 Sadharana 


50 Anala , 


I 

3 Jyeattlaa 


4473 


1294 


1429 


778 


546-47 


1371-72 


45 Virodhakrit . 


51 Pingala 


... 


4474 


1295 


1430 


779 


547-48 


*1372-73 


46 Paridhavin . 


52 Kalayukta 


6 Ehadra.T>CLda. 


4475 


1296 


1431 


780 


54849 


1373-74 


47 Pramadin 


53 Siddharthin . 




4476 


1297 


1432 


*781 


549-50 


1374-75 


48 Ananda 


54 Baudra 


a 


4477 


1298 


1433 


782 


550-51 


1375-76 


49 Bakshasa 


55 Durmati 


5 Srava^a. 


4478 


1299 


1434 


783 


551-52 


*1376-77 


50 Anala * 


56 Dundubhi 


* 


4479 


1300 


1435 


784 


552-53 


1377-78 


51 PiBgala . 


57 Eudhirodgarin 


... 


4480 


1301 


1436 


785 


553-54 


1378-79 


52'Kaiayuta . 


58 Raktaksha 


3 Jyeslitlxa- 


4481 


1302 


1437 


786 


554-55 


1379-80 


53 Siddharthin . 


59 Krodhana 


** 


4482 


1303 


1438 


787 


555-56 


*1380-81- 


54 Raudra 


60 Kshaya 


*** ! 


4483 


1304 


1439 


788 


556-57 


1381-82 


55 Durmati 


1 Prabhava 


2 VaMaklia, , | 


4484 


1305 


1440 


789 


557-58 


1382-83 


56 Dundubhi 


2 Vibhava 


... 


4485 


1306 


1441 


790 


558-59 


1383-84 


57 EudhirSdgann 


3 Sukla , 


6 Bhadra,pad 


4486 


1307 


1442 


791 


559-60 


1384-85 


58 Raktaksha . 


4 PramSdu 


... 


4487 


1308 


1443 


792 


560-61 


1385-86 


59 Krddhana 


5 Prajapati 





4488 


1309 


1444 


793 


561-62 


1386-87 


60 Kshaya 


6 Angirasa 


4 Ashadlxa, 


4480 | 


1310 


1445 


794 


562-63 


1387-88 


1 Prabhava 


7 Srimukha 


... 


4490 


1311 


1446 


795 


563-64 


1388-89 


2 Vibhava . j 


8 Bhava . 


... 


4491 


1312 


1447 


796 


564-65 


1389-90 


SSukla . 


9 Yuvan . 


3 Jjesh.thia, 


4492 


1313 


144S 


797 


565-66 


1390-91 


4 Pramoda 


10 Dhatyi 





4493 


1314 


1449 


798 


566-67 


1391-92 


5 Prajapati 


11 Isvara * 


Tl^vina, 


4494 


1315 


1450 


799 


567-68 


"1392-93 


6 Angirasa 


12 Bahudhanya . 


** 


4495 


1316 


1451 


800 


568-69 


1393-94 


7 grimukha 


13 Pramathin . 1 


... 


4496 


1317 


1452 


801 


569-70 


1394-95 


8 Bhava . 


1 

14 Vikrama . 1 5 Sravano, 

*. 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : "TKOE" SYSTEM. 



165 



LXI ConttL 




COMMENCEMENT OF THE 






SOLAB YEAB- 


Limi-SOLAR TEAK (MEAN STTNEISE OF CIVIL DAY 02* WHICH 
CHAITBA SUKLA 1 EKBS). 


Kali. 
















i 


















\ 






Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day, 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkrantL 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week* 
day. 


a. 


b. 


e. 






13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 ! 


1 








H M. S. 
















26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


9 55 


27 Feb. (58) 


4 Wed. 


40*3017 


9364794 


202-4022 


4472 




26 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed. 


16 7 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


3 Tuea. 


74*9414 


8724630 


253-7119 


4473 




25 Mar. (85) 


5 Thur. 


22 20 


7 Mar. (67) 


1 Sun. , 


289-2566 


755*9894 


225-6258 


4474 




26 Mar. (85) 


Sat. 


4 32 30 


25 Mar. (&4) 


6 Fri. , 


9985-2614 


655-6813 2744977 


4475 




2& Mar, (85) 


1 Sun. . 


10 45 


15 Mar. (74) 


4 Wed. 


199-5796 


539-2077 j 


246-1117 


4476 




26 Max. (85) 


2 Mon- 


16 57 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


1 Sun. . 


75-2629 


386-4425 ! 


215-2878 


4477 




25 Mar, (83) 


3 Tues. 


23 10 


21 Mar. (81) 


6 Fri. . 


9771-2707 


286-1344 


263-8598 


447S 




26 Mar. (85) 


5 Thur. 


5 22 30 


11 Mar. (70) 


4 Wed, 


9985-5859 


169-6608 


235-7737 


4479 


| 26 Mar. (85) 


6 Fri. * 


11 35 Q 


28 Feb. (59) 


1 Sun. . 


9861-2694 


16-8957 


204-9499 


4480 




26 Mar. (85) 


Sat. * 


17 47 30 


19 Mar. (78) 


V Sat. * 


9895-90SO 


952-8791 


256-2595 


; 4481 




26 Mar. (86) 


2 Mon. . 


000 


8 Mar. (68) 


5 Thur. 


110-2242 


836-4055 


228-1735 


44S2 




26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tuea. 


6 12 30 


25 Feb. (56) 


2 Mon. , 


9985-9076- 


683-6404 


I 197-6414 


44S3 




26 Mar, (85) 


4 Wed . 


12 25 


16 Mar. (75) 


1 Sun. . 


20-5472 


619-6238 


248-6594 


4484 




26 Mar. (85) 


5 Thur. 


18 37 30 


5 Mar. (64) 


5 Thur. 


9896-2306 


466-8587 


217-8355 


4485 




20 Mar. (86) 


Sat. , 


SO 


23 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


9930-8702 


402-8422 


269-1452 

i 


448S 




26 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. . 


7 2 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


1 Sun. . 


9806-5536 


, 250-0770 


238-3213 


4487 




26 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. . 


13 15 


2 Mar. (61) 


6 Fri. . 


20-8689 


133-6034 


210-2353 


4488 




26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


19 27 30 


21 Mar. (80) 


5 Thur. 


55-5085 


69-5869 


261-5430 


4489 




26 Mar. (86) 
26 Mar* (85) 
2tf Mar. (85) 
26 Mar. (85) 


5) Thur. 
6 Fri . 
Sat. . 
1 Sun. . 


1 40 
7 52 30 
14 5 
20 17 30 


9 Mar. (69) 
27 Feb. (58) 
18 Mar. (77) 
7 Mar. (66) 


2 Mon. . 
Sat. . 
6 Fri. . 
3 Tues. 


9931-1919 
145-5071 
1804467 
55-8301 


916-8218 
800-3481 
736-0401 
583-5665 


230-7212 

: 202*6351 
! 25I-2070 
2234200 


4491 
1 44S2 
i 4493 




26 Mar. (86) 


3 Tues* 


2 30 


25 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. 


904698 


519-5501 IT-I^-.-J ! ** * 

A A , i *i e% jt m 1-3 r^O .A.il j*i 




26 Mar. (85) 
1 26 Maar, (85) 


4 Wed, 
5 Thur. 


8 42 30 

14 65 


14 Mar. (73) 
3 Mai?. (62) 


6 Fri . 

3 Tues. 

""^ 


9966-1531 
9841-8365 

:= = 


368-7848 
214-0196 

= ' = 


Z-*t>*inw3 ; -KTC ** 

212-7329 t *&i6 

:z " 



166 



EPJGBAPEIA INDICA. 



[VOL. xvi; 



TABLE 



CONCTJBRENT YEAB 


INTERCALATED 
(adhika and 

SU^PBESSBD 

(Isshaya) LUNAB 
'MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 


j 




Kollam. 


A.D. 


JOVIAL SAMVATSABA* 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4497 


1318 


1453 


802 


570-71 


1395-96 


9 Yuvan . 


15 Vrisha . 


... 


4498 


1319 


1454 


803 


571-72 


*1396-97 


10 Dhatri 


16 Chitrabhanu . 


... 


4499 


1320 


1455 


804 


572-73 


1397-98 


11 Isvara . 


17 Subhanu 


3 Jyeshtha 


4500 
4501 


1321 
1322 


1456 
1457 


805 

806 


573-74 
574-75 


1398-99 
1399-1400 


12 Bahudhanya * 
13 Pramathin 


18 Tarawa . 
19 Parthiva ( 


** * 
8 Karttika > 


4502 


1323 


1458 


807 


575-76 


*1KM)1 


14 Vikrama 


20 Vyaya . 


1 Chaitra 


4503 


1324 


1459 


808 


576-77 


1401-02 


15 Vrisha . 


21 Sarvajit 


... 


4504 


1325 


1460 


809 


577-78 


1402-03 


16 Chitrabhanu . 


22 Sarvadharin . 


6 Bhadrapada 


4505 


1326 


1461 


610 


578-79, 


1403-04 


17 Subhanu 


23 VirodMn 


** 


4506 


1327 


1462 


811 


579-80 


*UQ4-05 


18 Tarana - 


24 Vikrita . 


... 


4507 


1328 


1463 


812 


580-81 


1405-06 


19 Parthiva 


25 Khara f 


4 Ashadta 


4508 


1329 


1464 


813 


581-82 


1406-07 


20 Vyaya . 


26 Nandana 


* 


4509 


1330 


1465 


814 


582-83 


1407-08 


21 Sarvajit 


27 Vijaya 


... 


4510 


1331 


1466 


815 


583-84 


*1408-09 


22 Sarvadharin . 


28 Jaya * 


3 Jyeehtha 


4511 


1332 


1467 


816 


584-85 


140940 


23 Virddbin 


29 Manmatha 


mm 


4512 


1333 


1468 


817 


585-86 


1410-11 


24 Vikrita . * . 


30 Durmukha 


7 Alrma '. 


4513 


1334 


3469 


S18 


586-87 


1411-12 


25 Khara 


31 Hemalamba . 


* 


4514 


1335 


1470 


819 


587-88 


*141243 


26 Nandana 


32 Vilamba 


* 


4515 


1336 


1471 


820 


588-89 


141344 


27 Vijaya . 


33 Vikarin . 


4 Ashadha 


4516 


1337 


1472 


821 


589-90 


1414-15 


28 Jaya . 


34 Sarvarin 


** 


4517 


1338 


1473 


822 


590-91 


141546 


29 Manmatha 


35 Plava , 


* 


4518 


1339 


1474 


823 


591-92 


*141647 


30 Durmukha 


36 Subhakritf . 


3 Jyeshtha 


4519 
4520 
4521 


1340 
1341 
1342 


1475 
1476 
1477 


824 
825 
826 


592-93 
693-94 
594-95 


1417-18 
1418-19 
1419-20 


31 Hemalamba , 
32 Vilamba 
33 Vikaria 


38 Krodhin 
40 Parabhava 


8 Karttika ^ 
11 Magha (JbA.) 
12 Phalguna ^ 

* 



t 37 Sdbhana was mippreseed in the north. 



So. 14.] 



THE FIRST ABYA-SIDDHANTA : "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



167 



EXI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OE THE 


KaU. 


SdLAB YEAB. 


L0HI-80LAR YEAH (MBA^ SUKBISE OI 1 CIVIL I>A* .OK WHICH 
CHAJTEA STJKLA 1 ENDS)* 


Day and 
moutji, A.D. 


Week- 
day, 


Time of 
true Mesha* 
samkrantL 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


- 


e. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 


26 Mar. (85) 


6 Eri. . 


H. M. S* 
21 7 30 


22 Mar. (81) 


2 Mon. . 


9*76-4762 


150-0032 


264-0927 


4497 


26 Mar. (86) 


1 Sun. . 


S 20 


11 Mar. (71) 


Sat. , 


90-7914 


33*5295 


236-0066 


4498 


26 Mar. -(85) 


2 Mon. . 


9 32 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


4 Wed. 


9966*4748 


880-7644 


205-1827 


4499 


26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


15 45 


19 Mar. (78) 


3 Tues. 


1-1144 


816-7479 


266-4924 


4500 


26 Mar, (85) 


4 Wed. 


21 57 30 


9 Mar. (6) 


1 Sun. . 


215-4296 


700-2743 


228-4064 


4501 


26 Mar. (86) 


6 Eri. . 


4 10 


26 'Feb. (57) 


5 Thttr. 


91-1130 


647-5092 


197'5*25 


4502 


26 Mar. (85) 


Sat. . 


10 22 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


4 Wed. 


125-7528 


483-4926 


248-8923 


4503 


26 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. . 


16 35 


5 Mar. (64) 


1 Stca. . 


1-4S60 


33d-7275 


218-0683 


4504 


26 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. 


22 47 30 


24 Mar. (83) 


Sat. ., 


wow* 


26(8-7110 


269-3781 


4505 


26 Mar. (S&) 


4 Wed. 


S 6 


12 Mar. (72) 


4 Wed. 


9dll^759D 


113-9457 


238-50421 


4506 


26 Mar. (85) 


5 Thur. 


11 12 30 


2 Mar. (61) 


2 Mott. . 


I2S-074S 


S97-4722 


210-4682 


4507 


26 Mar. (85> 


6 Eri . 


17 25 


21 Mar. (80) 


1 Sun. . 


I60'*7ISfll 


93^-4557 


261-7779 


4508 


26 Mar; (85) 


Sat. . 


23 37 30 


10' Max. (09) 


' 5 Thtch 


36*39*1^ 


7^-690. 


2309641 


4509 


26 Mar. (86) 


2 Mon. * 


S 50 


28 Feb. (36) 


: *M* 


250-7J25 


Mtew* 


202^8680' 


4510 


26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


12 2 30 


nHf A.** f*[L\ 
Mar. \/w; 


i-flte . 


9946-720* 


663-908^ 


25I-4308- 


4511 


26 Mar. (S5J 
27 Mar. (86) 


4 Wed. 

6 m. . 


IS 15 
tf 27 30 


6 Maar. (65) 
25 Mar. (8$j ' 


5 Tter. 
1 4 Wed. 


9822-4037 
'9857-0433 


347-1271 


2i80*-160i 


4512 
4513 


26 Mar. (86) 


Sat. . 


6 4Q 


13 Mar. (73) 


1 Sm * 


9732^267 


194-3620 


241-1619 1 


4514 


26 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun. . 


' 1# 62 30 


3 Mat; (02) 


6 Rtt * 


9947^419 


77-8^84 


213-0161 


4515 


26 Max. (85) 


2 Mon. . 


1 W 5 


2f : Mr:(*l) 


5 Star. 


gstei-esis 


13--8720 1 


264256 


4916 


27 Mar. (96) 


4 Wed. 


I 17 30 


12 Mftt fft) 


1 3 Strew; 


1 19^-9988 


sw-sssar 


236^2394' 


4*17 


26 Mar; (86) 


5 Thur. 


> 30 6 


29Ib.fJ) : 


08kfr. . 


71-6*fo>f 


744-6332 1 


208-*i56 


4*18 


26 Mar. (85) 


6 Eri . 


42 30 


19 Mar. (TO) 


6#rf; . 


M^-SldT' 


680-6161 1 


256-71253 


41 


26 Mar; (85) 


Sat, . 


1^ .85 


r 8 : Star: (8*7) 


VVttK 


9982^* 


527-8514' 


225-9015 


4820 


27 Mar. (86) 


2 MOIL . 


7 30 


27 Sfiaaf. (88) 


2'M^ft. . 


' *** 


.**835* 


mi 





158 



EPIORAPHIA INDICA. 



[VoL XVI, 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR, 


INTEBCALATEB 
(adhika) and 

STTPPKESSEB 

[Toshaya) LTJKAK 
MONTHS (true). 


Kedi. 


Saka. 


Chaltradi Yikrama, 


> 

h 

^8 
1 
%A 


Kollam. 


A.D. 


JOVIAN SAMVATSABA, 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4522 


1343 


1478 


827 


595-96 


*1420-21 


34 Sarvarin 


41 Plawnga 





4523 


1344 


1479 


828 


596-97 


1421-22 


35 Plava . 


42 Kllaka . 


5 Srava^a * 


4524 


1345 


1480 


829 


597-98 


1422-23 


36 Subhakrit 


43 Saumya* 


* 


4525 


1346 


1481 


830 


598-99 


1423-24 


37 Sobhaaa 


44 Sadharana . 


... 


4526 


1347 


1482 


831 


599-600 


*1424-25 


38 Krodhin 


45 Virodhakrit . 


4 Ishadha . 


4527 


1348 


1483 


832 


600-01 


1425-26 


39 Visvavasu 


46 Paridhavin , 


... 


4528 


1349 


1484 


833 


601-02 


1426:27 


40 Parabhava 


47 Pramadin 


* 


4529 


1350 


1485 


834 


602-03 


1427-28 


41 Plavaiga 


48 Ananda 


2 Vaiiakha . 


4530 


1351 


1486 


835 


603-04 


*1428*29 


42 Kflaka 


49 Eakshasa 


* * 


4531 


1352 


1487 


836 


604-05 


1429-30 


4 Saumya 


50 Anala . 


6 Bhadrapada 


4532 


1353 


1488 


837 


605-06 


1430-31 


44 Sadhara^a 


51 PiBgala 





4533 


1354 


1489 


838 


606-07 


1431-32 


45 Viiodliakrit . 


52 Kalayukta 


**., 


4534 


1355 


1490 


839 


607-08 


*1432-33 


46 Paridhayin 


53 Siddharthin 


4 Ashadha 


4535 


1356 


1491 


840 


608-09 


1433-34 


47 Pramadin 


54 Baudra 





4536 


1357 


1492 


841 


609-10 


1434-35 


48 Ananda 


55 Burmati 


* 


4537 


1358 


1493 


842 


610-11 


1435-36 


49 Bakshasa 


56 Dundubhi 


3 Jyeshtha * 


4538 


1359 


1494 


843 


61142 


*1436-37 


50 Anala 


57 Budhirodgarin 


* 


4539 


1360 


1495 


844 


61243 


1437-38 


51 Pingala 


^68 Baktakaha . 


8 Karttika 


4540 


1361 


1496 


845 


613-14 


1438-39 


52 Kalayukta . 


59 Krodhana 


' 


4541 


1362 


1497 


846 


614-15 


1439-40 


53 Siddharthin . 


60 Kshaya 


.* 


4542 


1363 


1498 


847 


61546 


*1440-41 


54 Baudra 


1 Prabhava 


5 Sravana 


4543 


1364 


1499 


84$ 


61647 


1441-42 


55 Durmati 


2 Vibhava 


*** 


4544 


1365 


1500 


849 


61748 


1442-43 


56 DundubM 


3 Sukla . , 


* 


4545 


1366 


1501 


850 


61849 


1443*44 


57 Rudiurodgarin 


4 Pramoda 


4 Ashadha 


4546 


1367 


1502 


851 


619-20 

* .-.--.- 


*1444*45 


58 Baktakaha . 


5 Prajapati 


* 



tf o. 14.1 



THE FIRST ARtA-SIDDHANTA: "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



169 



LXlContd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 




SOLAR YEAR- 


LuUT-SOItAR YEAIt (MEAN STOBISE OF CIVIL BAT OS WHICH 

CHAITRA SUKLA 1 &H0s). 


Kali* 


Day and 
mouthy A.B. 


Week- 
day. 


true Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month A.B. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


d. 


e. 




13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M. S. 














26 Mar. (86) 


3 Tues. 


8 20 


15 Ma*. (75) 


6 Eri. . 


9892-3261 


311-0698 


246*3894 


4522 


26 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed, 


14 32 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


3 Tues. 


9768*0095 


157-3046 


215-5634 


4523 


26 Mar. (85) 


5 Thur. 


20 45 


23 Mar. (82) 


2 Mon. . 


9802*6491 


94-2881 


266-8732 


4524 


27 Mar. (86) 


Sat. . 


2 57 30 


13 Mar. (72) 


Sat. . 


16-9644 


977-8145 


23S-787I 


4525 


26 Mar. (86) 


1 Sun. 


9 10 


2 Mar. (62) 


5 Thur. 


231-2797 


861-3410 


210*7011 " 


4526 


26 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon, 


15 22 30 


21 Mar. (80) 


4 Wed. 


265-9193 


796-3244 


262-0208 


4527 


26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


21 35 


10 Mar. (69) 


1 Sun. . 


141-6027 


644-5593 


2314870 


4528 


27 Mar. (86) 


5 Thur. 


3 47 30 


27 Feb. (58) 


5 Thur. 


17-2860 


491-7941 


200-3631 


452$ 


26 Mar. (86) 


6 Fri, . 


10 


17 Mar. (77) 


4 Wed. 


51-9257 


427-7776 ; 


251-6727 


4530 


26 Mar. (85) 


Sat. , 


16 12 30 


6 Mar. (65) 


1 Sun. . 


9927-6091 


275-0124 


220-8489 


4531 


26 Mar. (85) 


1 Sun, * 


22 25 


25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


9962-2487 


210-9959 


2724586 


4532 


27 Mar. (86) 


3 Tues. 


4 37 30 


14 Mar. (73) 


4 Wed. 


9837-1321 


58-2307 


241*3348 


4533 


26 Mar. (86) 


4 Wed. 


10 50 


3 Mar. (63) 


2 Mon. . 


52-2473 


941-7571 


213-2487 


4534 


26 Mar, (85) 


5 Thur. 


17 2 30 


22 Mar. (81) 


1 Sun. . 


86-8870 


877*7407 


264*5585 


4535 


26 Mar. (85) 


6 VA . 


23 15 


12 Mar. (71) 


6 FrL 


301-2022 


761*2671 


236-4723 


4536 


27 Mar. (86) 


1 Sun. * 


5 27 30 


1 Mar. (60) 


3 Tuea. 


176-S856 


608-5019 


205*6485 


4537 


26 Mar. (86) 


2 Mon. . 


11 40 


18 Mar. (78) 


1 Sun. . 


9872-S933 


5084938 


254*2204 : 


4538 


26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


17 52 30 


8 Max. (67) 


6 Fri. . 


87-2086 


391-7202 


226*1344 


4539 


27 Mar. (86) 


5 Thur. 


050 


26 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed. 


9783-2164 


291-4121 


274-7063 


4540 


27 Mar. (86) 


6 Fri. , 


6 17 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


2 Mon. * 


9997-5316 


174-9385 


246-6203 


4541 


26 Mar. (86) 


Sat. * 


12 30 


4 Mar. (64) 


Fri. . 


9873*2150 


22-1734 


216-7964 


4542 


26 Max. (85) 


1 Sun. . 


IS 42 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


5 Thur. 


9907-8546 


958-1569 


2674061 


4543 


27 Mar. (86) 
27 Mar. (86) 
26 Mar* (86) 


3 Tues. 
4 Wed. 
5 Thur. 

... i IIMI 1 1 iinrnniMillihiiii 


55 
7 7 30 
13 20 

i inn ii 'in 


13 Mar. (72) 
2 Max. (61) 
20 Max. (80) 

^^aaa^s^sssssssA 


3 Tues, 
Sat. . 
6 Fri. * 

... i 


122-4699 
9997-8533 
32-4928 


841-6932 
6S8-9181 
624-9016 


239-0200 
2084962 
259-5059 


4544 
4545 
4546 





170 



BPKKftAEB-IA INDICA. 



[VoL, XVI, 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


INTERCALATED 
(adhika) and 

SXJPPBESSED 

(Jcshaya) Lt?KAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


gaka. 


Chaitradi Yikrama* 


Meshadi solar year 
in JBengaL 


Kollaw. 


A.IX 


JOVIAN SAMVATSABA, 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
systom, 


1 


2 


3 


30 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4547 


1368 


1503 


852 


620-21 


1445-46 


. 59 Krodhana 


6 liigirasa 





4548 


1389 


1504 


853 


621-22 


144647 


60 Kshaya 


7 Snmukha 


2 Vaisakha . 


4549 


1370 


1505 


854 


622-23 


144748- 


1 Prabhava * 


8 Bhava , 


.. 


4550 


1371 


1506 


855 


623-24 


*144849 


2 Vibhava 


9 Yuvan , 


6 Bhadrapada 


4551 


1372 


1507 


856 


624-25 


1449-50 


3 Sukla . 


10 Dhatri , 


*,. 


4552 


1373 


1508 


857 


625-26 


1450-51 


4 Pramoda 


11 Isvara , 


.,, 


4553 


1374 


1509 


858 


626-27 


1451-52 


5 Prajapati 


12 Bahudhanya . 


4 Ashadha 


4554 


1375 


1510 


859 


627-28 


*1452-53 


6 Angirasa 


13 PramatMn 


... 


4555 


1376 


1511 


**860 


628-29 


1453-54 


7 Srimukha 


14 Vikrama 


4* 


4556 


1377 


1512 


861 


629-30 


1454-55 


8 Bhava . 


15 Vrisha , 


3 Jyeshtha , 


4557 
4558 
4559 


1378 
1379 
1380 


1513 
1514 
1515 


862 
863 
864 


630-31 
631-32 
632-33 


1455-56 
*1456-57 
1457-58 


9 Yuvan . * 
10 DMtri . 
11 llyara . 


16 Chitrabhanu . 
17 Subhanu <| 
18 Tarawa 


8 Karttia ^ 
10 PausJia(fah.) }> 
12 Phalgiina J 


4560 


1381 


1516 


865 


633-34 


1458-59 


12 Bahudhanya .- 


19 ParthiVa 


** 


4561 


1382 


1517 


866 


634*35 


1459-60 


13 Ecamathia ^ 


20 Vyaya . 


5 Sravana 


4562 


,1383 


1518 


867 


635-36 


; *146Q,gI 


14 Yikrama 


21 Sarvajit. , 


"* 


4563 


1394 


*1519 


868 


636-37 


1461-62 


15 Vjisha 


22 SarvadHarin. * 


* 


4564 


1385 


1520 


869 


6a?-38 


1462-63 


16 Ckitrabhanu . 


23 Virodhin 


4 Ashadha * 


4565 


1386 


1521 


870 


638-39 


1463-64 


17 Subhanu 


24 Vikjita., ^ 


* 


4566 


;1387 


1522 


871 


63940 


*1464-65 


18 Tarana * 


25.Khara , 





4567 


1333 


1523 


872 


64041 


1465-66 


18 BarthiY* . ^ 


26 Nandana 


2 Vaisakha . 


46a 


138* 


1524 


873 


64142 


1466-67 


20 Vyay* . 


27 Vijaya . 


... 


4369 


; i39Qt 


1S2& 


874 


64243 


1467-68 


21 Sacvaiit 


28 Jay?, . 


6 Bhadrapada 


4HV' 


1391 


,152ft 


875 


64344 


*1468-69 


22 Sarvadharm ^ 


29 Jtfanjoaatlia . 


*** 


4571 


1302 


1527 


876 


AA AK 

VaMi *nw 


1469-7& 


23 Vicfidhin 


30 Durmjiita . 






. 14.] 



THE PIBST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : " TRUE SYSTEM. 



171 



LXI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 


SOLAB YEAB, 


LXJNI-SOLAB YEAB (MEAN STOBISE OF CIVIL DAY OH WHICH 
CHAITBA SUKLA 1 BHI>S), 


Day and 

month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D, 


Week- 

day. 


a. 


b. 


0. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M. S. 














26 Mar. (85) 


6 Fri. . 


19 32 30 


9 Max, (68) 


3 Tues. 


9908-1762 


472-1363 


228-6821 


4547 


27 Mar. (80} 


1 Sun. . 


1 45 


26 Feb. (57) . 


OSat. . 


9784-8596 


319-3712 


197-8582 ! 


4548 


27 Mar. (86) 


2 Mon. . 


7 57 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


6 Fri. . 


98184993 


255-3547 


249-1679 


4549 


26 Mar, (86) 


3 Tuea. 


14 10 


. 6 Mar. (66) 


4 Wed. 


32-8145 


138-8812 


221-0818 ' 

t 


4550 


26 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed. 


20 22 30 


25 Mar. (84) 


3 Tuss, 


67-4541 


74-8646 


272-39B | 

j 


4551 


27 Mar. (86) 


6 Fri. . 


2 35 


.14 Max. (73) 


Ofi* . 


9943-1375 


922-0995 


241*5677 | 


4552 


27 Mar. .(86) 


Sat. . 


8 47 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


5 Thur. 


1574527 


805-6259 


134816 ! 


45S3 


26 Max,.(86) 


1 Sun. . 


15 


22 Max. (82) 


4 Wed j 


192-0924 


741-6094 


264-7914 ' 


4554 


26 Mar. (35) 


2 Mon. ' 


21 12 30 


11 Max. (70) 


1 Sun. . 


67*7757 


588*8442 


233*9674 


4555 


27 Mar. (86) 


4 Wed. 


3 25 


28 Feb. (59) 


5 Thur. 


99434591, 


436*0790 


203-1436 


4556 


27 Max. .(86) 


5 Thur, 


9 37 30 


19 Max. (78) 


4 Wei 


9978-0987 


372*0625 


254*4533 


4557 


26 Mar. (86) 


6 Fri. . 


15 50 


7 Max. (67) 


1 Sun* 


9853*7821 


219-2973 


223-6295 


4558 


26 Mar. (85) 


g* . 


22 2 30 


26 Max. (85) 


Sat. . 


9888*4218 


155-2809 


274-9392 


4559 


27 Max. (86) 


2 Mon. 


4 15 


16 Mar. (75) 


6 Thur. 


102-7370 ' 


38*8073 


246*8632 


4560 


27 Mar, (6) 


3 Tues. 


10 27 *30 


5 Max. (64) 


2 Mon. . 


9978-4204 


885-0421 


216*0293 


4561 


-26 Mar. (86) 


4 Wed. 


W 40 


23 Max. (S3) 


1 Sun. . 


13;0600 


822-0256 


267*3390 


4562 


26 Max, (85) 


5 Thur. 


22 52 30 


13 Mar. (72) 


6 1L , 


227*3753 


705-5520 


236-2529 


4663 


27 Mar. (86) 


Sat, 


550 


2 Mar. (61) 


3 Tues, 


103-0587 


552-7868 


208*4291 


4564 


27 Max. (86) ; 


1 Sun. - 


11 17 30 


21 Max. (80) 


2 Mon. . 


.137^6983 , 


488*7703 


259-7388 


4565 


26 Mar. (86) 


2 Mon. . 


17 30 


9 Mw. (69) 


6 Fri, . 


13*3817 ; 


336-0051 


228-9150 


4566 


26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


23 42 30 


26 Feb. (57) 


3 Tues. 


9889*0651. 


183*2400 


198-0911 


4567 


27 Mar. (86) 


5 Thar. 


6 55 


17 Max,(7fi) 


2 Mon. * 


:D923-7047 


119-2214 


249*4008 


4568 


27 Mar. (86) 


6 Fri. , 


12 7 30 


7 Mar. (66) 


Sat. v 


14841M 


2-7499 


221*3147 


4569 


26 Mar. (86) 


Bat. . 


18 20 


25 Max. (85) 


6 Fri. * 


172-6596 


938-7334 


272-6244 


4570 


27 Mar. (86) 


2 Mon. . 


34 30 


U Mar.. (73) 


3 Tuea, 


48*3430 


,785-9682 


241-8Q06 


4671 



m 



EPIGRAPHIA I&DICA. 



[Tor,. 



TABLE 



CONCURBENT YEAR. 


INTEBCALATBD 
(adhika) and 

SUPPBESSKP 

(kahaya) LUNAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 


I 
I 


S* 

I, 

I 
% I' 

3*2 
4 


Kollam. 


AJX 


JOVIAL SAMVATSARA. 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system* 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


S 


4572 


1393 


1528 


877 


645-46 


1470-71 


24 Vikrita . 


31 Hemalamba . 


4 Ashadha 


4573 


1394 


1529 


878 


646-47 


1471*72 


25 Khara . 


32 Vaamba 


* 



4574 


1395 


1530 


879 


647-48 


*1472-73 


26 Nandana 


33 Vikarin . 


* 


4575 


1396 


1531 


880 


648-49 


1473-74 


27 Vijaya . 


34 Sarvarin 


3 Jyeshtha 


4576 
4577 
4578 


1397 
1398 
1399 


1532 
1533 
1534 


881 
882 
883 


649-50 
650-51 
651-52 


1474-75 

1475-76 
*1476-77 


28 Jaya 
29 Manmatha 
30 Durmukha . 


35 Plava . 
36 Subhakrit J 
37 Sobhana 


7 Asvina ^ 
10 Pausha(ksh.) I 
12 Phalguna J 




4579 


1400 


1535 


884 


652-53 


1477-78 


31 Hemalamba . 


38 Krodhin 


* 


4580 


1401 


1536 


885 


653^54 


1478-79 


32 Vilamba 


39 Viavavasu 


5 Sravai^a 


4581 


1402 


1537 


'886 


654-55 


1479-80 


33 Vikarm . 


40 Parabhava . 


#* 


4582 


1403 


153S 


887 


655-56 


*1480~81 


34 Sarvarin 


41 Plavaiiga 


* * 


4583 


1404 


1539 


888 


656-57 


1481-82 


35 Plava * 


42 Kilafca . 


4 Ashadha 


4584 


1405 


1540 


889 


657-58 


1482-83 


36 Subhakrit 


43 Saumya 


** 


4585 


1406 


1541 


890 


658-59 


1483-84 


37 Sobhana 


44 SadkaraBa 





4586 


1407 


1542 


891 


659-60 


*1484-85 


38 KrSdhiu 


45 Virodhakrit . 


1 Chaitra 


4587 


1408 


1543 


892 


660-61 


1485-86 


39 VisvaTasu 


46 Paridhavin 


* 


4588 


1409 


1544 


893 


661-62 


1486-87 


40 Parabhava . 


47 Pramadia 


Bhadrapada 


4589 


1410 


1545 


894 


662-63 


1487-88 


41 Plavaiiga 


48 Ananda 


** 


4590 


1411 


1546 


895 


663-64 


*1488-89 


42 Kaata . 


49 Rakshasa 


.* * 


4591 


1412 


1547 


896 


664-65 


1489-90 


43 Saumya 


50 Anala , 


4 Ashadha 


4592 


1413 


1548 


897 


665-66 


1490-91 


44 Sadharana 


51 Pingala 





4593 


1414 


1549 


898 


666-67 


1491-92 


45 Virodhakrit . 


52 Kalayukta . 


** 


4594 


1415 


1550 


899 


667-68 


*1492-93 


46 Paridhavm . 


53 Siddharthin . 


2 Vaiiakha . " 


4595 


1416 


1551 


900 


668-69 


1493-94 


47 Pramadin 


54 Baudra 


** 


4596 


1417 


1552 


901 


669*70 


1494-95 


48 Ananda 


55 Durmati 


6 Bhadrapada 



tfo. u.;} 



THE FIEST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : " TEUE " SYSTEM. 



173 



Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kail. 


SOLAB YEA&. 


LTTNI-SOLAB YEAB (MEAN SUNKISE OF crra, BAT OK WHICH 
CHAITBA SUKLA 1 BKBS), 


i 

Bay and 
mouth, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 

trae-Mesha* 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A. IX 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


6. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


i 






H. ML S. 














27 Mar.-(86) 


3 Tues. 


6 45 


4 Mar. (63) 


1 Sun. , 


262-6582 


669*4946 


213-7145 


4572 


27 Mar. (86) 


4 Wed. 


12 57 30 


22 Mar. (81) 


6 Fri. . 


9958-6660 


569-1865 


262*2885 


4573 


26 Mar. (86) 


5 Thur. 


19 10 


10 Mar. (70) 


3 Tues. 


9838-3494 


416-4214 


231-4626 


4574 


27 Mar. (86) 


Sat. . 


1 22 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


1 Sun, 


48-6646 


299-9477 


203-3765 


4575 


27 Mar. (86) 


1 Sun. \ 


7 35 


18 Mar. (77) 


6 Fri. . 


9744-6724 


199-6397 


251-9484 


4576 


27 Mar. (86) 


2 Mon. . 


13 47 30 


8 Mar. (67) 


4 Wed. 


9958-9875 


83-1661 


223-8624 


4577 


26 Mar. (86) 


3 Tuea. 


20 


26 Mar. (86) 


3 Tues. 


9993-6272 


194496 


275*1721 


4578 


27 Mar. (86) 


5 Thur. 


2 12 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


1 Sun. . 


2079424 


902-6760 


247-0861 


4579 


27 Mar. (86) 


6 Fri. . 


8 25 


5 Mar, (64) 


5 Thur. 


-83*6259 


749-9109 


216*2622 


4580 


%l Mar. (86) 


Sat. . 


14 37 30 


24 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed. 


118-2654 


685-8943 


267-5720 


4581 


26 Mar, (86) 


1 SUB. * 


20 50 


12 Mar. (72) 


1 Sun. * 


9993-9488 


533-1291 


236*7480 


4582 


27 Mar. (86) 


3 Tues, 


3 2 30 


1 Mar. (60) 


5 Thur. 


9869-6322 


380-3640 


205*9242 


4583 


27 Mar. (86) 


4 Wei 


9 15 


20 MBJC. (79) 


4 Wed. 


9904-2718 


316*3474 


257-2339 


4584 


27 Mar. (86) 


5 Thur. 


15 27 30 


9 Mar. (68) 


I Sun. . 


9779-9552 


163-5822 


226-4101 


4585 


26 Max. (86) 


6 iPri . 


21 40 


27 Feb. (58) 


6 IW. . 


9994-2705 


47-1087 


198*3239 


453tJ 


27 Mar. (86) 


1 Sun. . 


8 52 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


5 Thur. 


28>91Q1 


983*0922 


249*6337 


4587 


27 Mar. (86) 


2 Moo* . 


10 5 


7 Mar. (66) 


3 Tuea. 


243-2253 


866*6186 


221-5476 


4588 


27 Mar. (86) 


3 Tuea. 


16 17 30 


,26 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. . 


277-8650 


802-6021 


272-8573 


4589 


26 Mar. (86) 


4 Wed. 


22 30 


14 Mar. (74) 


6 Eri . 


153*5484 


649-8370 


242*0335 


4590 


27 Mar. (86) 


6 Fri. * 


4 42 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


3 Tues* 


99*2318 


497*0717 


211*2097 


4591 


27 Mar. (86) 


Sat. . 


10 56 


22 Mar. (81) 


2 Moi> . 


63-8714 


433*0553 


262-5194 


4582 


27 Max. (86) 


1 Sun. . 


17 7 30 


11 Mar. (70) 


6 Eri. . 


9939*5548 


280*2901 


231*6955 


4593 


26 Mar, (86) 


2 Mon. . 


23 20 


28 Feb. (59) 


3 Tues. 


9815*2381 


127*5249 


200*8*16 


4594 


27 Mar. (86) 


4 Wed. 


5 32 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


2 Mon, . 


9849*8778 


63*5084 


252*1813 


4595 


27 Mar. (86) 


5 Thur. 


11 45 


8 Mar. (67) 


Sat. . 


64*1930 


947*0348 


2244)953 


4586 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABU! 



CONCURBENT 'YEAR. 


INTEBCAX^ATEB 
(a&hika) and 

STTPPBESSBB 

(kshaya) LTJKAB 
MONTHS (true)* 


Kali, 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama. 


t 

M 

Q 
TO 

sr rt 


K oil am. 


A.D. 


JOVIAH SAMYATSARA, 


Southern 

system. 


Northern 
system* 


1 


2 


3 


Za 


4 


5 


a 


7 ! 


8 


4607 


1418 


1553 


902 


670-71 


1495-96 


49 Baksh^sa 


56 Bundubhi 


#- 


45&S 


M19 


1554 


903 


671-72 


*1496-97 


50 Anala . 


57 Eudhirodgaria 





4599 


1420 


1055 


904 


672-73 


1497-98 


51 Pi&grfa 


58 Baktaksha . 


5 jSravai^a 


4600 


1421 


1556 


905 


673-74 


1498-99 


52 Kalayukta . 


59 Krodhana 


* * 


4601 


1422 


1557 


996 


674-75 


1499-1500 


53 Siddharthin . 


60 Kahaya 


* 


4602 


1423 


1558~ 


907 


675-76 


*1500>.01 


54 Raudra 


1 Prabhava 


3 Jyeshtha 


4603 


1-424 


1559 


908 


676-77 


1501-02 


55 Ihurmati 


2 Vibhavaf 


** * i 


4604 


1425 


1560 


909 


677-78 


1502-03 


56 Bundubhi 


4 Pramoda 


* 


4606 


1426 


1561 


910 


678^79 


1503*04 


57 Budhirodgarin 


5 Prajapati 


2 Vaisakha . 


.4606 


1427 


1562 


911 


679-80 


*1504,05 


58 Baktaksha . 


6 Angirasa 


* 


4607 


1:428 


1563 


912 


680*81 


1505-06 


59 Kiddhana 


7 Brimukka 


6 Bhadrapada 


4608 


1429 


1564 


913 


681-82 


1506-07 


60 Kshaja 


8 BMva * 


* 


609 


1^30 


1565 


914 


682-83 


1507-0$ 


1 Prabhava 


9 Yuvan * 


* 


4610 


1431 


1566 


915 


683-84 


*15Q8-G0 


2 Vibhava 


10 DMtfi . 


4 Ashadha 


4611 


1432 


1567 


916 


684-85 


1509-10 


3 SuHa - 


11 livara, 


* 


4612 


1433 


1568 


917 


685-86 


1510-11 


4 Pramoda 


12 SaTmdMnya * 





4613 


1434 


1569 


918 


686-87 


1511-12 


5 Prajapati 


13 Pramctihin 


2 Vaisakha . 


4614 


1436 


1570 


919 


087-S8 


*151243 


6 Afigirasa 


14 ViJcrcma 





4615 


1436 


1571 


920 


688-39 


1513-14 


7 gtimuklia 


15 VrMa . 


6 BMdrapada 


4dl6 


1437 


1572 


921 


689-90 


1514-15 


8 Bhava 


16 Chitrabhanu . 





46H 


1438 


1573 


922 


690-91 


1515-16 


9 Ynvaa * 


17 Subhanu 





4618 


1439 


1574 


923 


691-92 


*1516-17 


10 Dhatp . 


18 Tarawa . 


5 Srava^ia 


4619 


1440 


1575 


924 


62-93 


1517-18 


11 lavara . 


19 Pari&iva 


*** 


4620 


1441 


1576 


925 


093-94 


1518-19 


12 Bahudlianya . 


20 Vyaya . 





4621 


1442 


1577 


926 


004-95 


1519-20 


13 PtaanatMa *. 


21 Sarvajit 


3 Jyeshtha 



f Kfo. 3 Sukla was suppressed in the north. 



tto. 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIPDEANTA : " TRUE " SYSTEM. 



176- 



LXI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 
1 


SOLAB YEAB. 


LlTCri-SOLAB YEAH (MEA3ST SUNRISE OF BAY OW WHICH 
CHAITRA SITKLA 1 ENDED). 


Day and 
month, A JX 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha 
samkranti. 


Bay and 
month, AJ). 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


b, 


<?. 


13 


14 


17 


1$ 


20 


23 


24 


25 






H. M, S. 














27 'Mar. (86) 


6 EH . 


17 57 30 


27 Mar. (86). 


6 M. . 


98-8327 


883-0184 


275-4050 


4597 


27 Mar. (87) 


1 Sun. . 


10 


. 16 Mar. (76). 


4 Wed, 

\ 


313*1479 


766-5447 


247-3190 


"4598 


27 Mar- (86) 


2 &ton, . 


6 22 30 


5 Mar. (64) 


1 Sun. . 


188-8313 


613*7796 


216-4950 


4599 


27 Mar, (86) 


3 Tues. 


12. 35 


23 Mar. (82) 


6 Eri. . 


9884-8390 


513-4715 


265-0670 


4600 


27 Mar, (86) 


4 Wed. 


18 47 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


3 Tuea 


9760-5224 


360-7063 


234*2431 


4601 


27 Mar. (87) 


6 F$L . 


100 


1 Mar. (61) 


1 Sun. * 


9974-8377 


244-2328 


206-1571 


4602 


27 Mar. (86) 


S&t. . 


7 12 30 


20 JSfar. (79) 


Sat. . 


9-4773 


180-2162 


257-4608 


4603 


27 Mar, (86) 


1 Sijn. . 


13 25 


9 Mar. (68) 


4 Wei 


9885-1607 


27-4510 


226-6429 


4604 


27 Mar. (86) 


2 Mon. -. 


19 37 ,30 


27 Feb. (58) 


2 Mon. . 


99-4760 


910-9775 


198-5568 


4605 


27 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed. 


1 50 


. 17 Mar, (77) 


1 Sun. . 


134-1156 


846-9609 


249-8666 


4606 


27 Mar, (86) 


5 Thur. 


8 2 30 


6 Mar. (65) 


5 Thur, 


9-7990 


694-1968 


219-0427 


4607 


27 Mar. (86) 


6 Fri . 


14 15 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed, 


44-4386 


630-1793 


270-3525 


4608 


27 Mar. (86) 


Sat. . 


20 27 30 


14 Mar> (73) ; 


1 Sun. , 


9920*1220 


477-4141 


239-5286 


4609 


27 Mar, (87) 


2 Mon, . 


2 40 


2 Man (62), 


5 Thur. 


9795-8054 


324*6489 


208*7048 


4610 


27 Max. (86) 


3 Tuea. 


8 52 30 


21 Mar. (SO) 


4 Wed 


983O4460 


260-6324 


260'0144 


4611 


27 Mar. (6) 


4 Wed. 


15 5 

* 


11 Mar. (70) 


2 MOIL , 


44-7603 


144*1589 


231-&2S4 


4612 


27 Mar. (86) 


5 Thur. 


21 17 30 


28 tfeb* (59) 


6 Era. , 


9920-4426 


991-3936 


201-1045 


4613 


27 Mar, (87) 


Sat. . 


a 30 o 


18 .Mar. (78) 


5 Thur. 


9955-0933 


927-3772 


252>4142 


4614 


27 Mar. (88) 


1 Sun. * 


9 42 30 


8 Maar, (67) 


3 Tues. 


169-3984 


810-9036 


224-3282 


4615 


27 Mar. (86) 


2 Mon, . 


15 55 


27 Mar. (86) 


2 Mon. . 


202-0381 


746-8872 


275-6379 


461$ 


27 Mar. (86) 


3 Tues. 


22 7 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


6 Eri. . 


79-7215 


594-1219 


244-8140 


4617 


27 Mar. (87) 


5 Thur. 


4 20 


4 Mar. (64) 


3 Tuea 


9955-4049 


441--3567 


213-990a 


461# 


27 Mar. (86) 


6 Eri, . 


10 32 30 


23 Mar. (82). 


2 Mon. . 


9990-0445 


377-3403 


265-2999 


461$ 


27 Mar, (86) 


Sat. * 


16 45 


12 Mar. (71) 


6 Eri, . 


9865-7278 


224-5750 


234-4760 


4620 


27 Mar. (86) 


1 Sun, . 


22 57 30 


2 Mar. (61) 


4 Wed, 


80-0431 


108-1015 


206-3800 


4621 



176 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURBEIST YEAR. 


INTERCALATED 
(adhikcfi and 

SUPPBESSB0 

(kshaya) LXJKAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama* 


J-8 

I 


Kollam. 


A.IX 


JOVXAH SAMVATSABA. 


Southern 

system. 


Northern 

system. 


I 


2 


3 


3* - 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4622 


1443 


1578 


927 


695-96 


*1M1 


14 Vikrama 


22 Sarvadbarin . 




4623 


1444 


1579 


928 


696-97 


1521-22 


15 Vrisha . 


23 Vixodhin 


** 


4624 


1445 


1580 


929 


697-98 


1522-23 


16 CMtrabhanu * 


24 Vikrita 


2 Vaisakka 


4625 


1446 


1581 


930 


698-99 


1523-24 


17 Subbanu 


25 Kbara . 


,.. 


4626 


1447 


1582 


931 


699-700 


*1524-25 


18 Tarana . 


26 Nandana 


6 Bbadrapada 


4627 


1448 


1583 


932 


700-01 


1525-26 


19 Partbiva 


27 Vijaya , 


* 


4628 


1449 


1584 


933 


701-02 


1526-27 


20 Vyaya . 


28 Jaya * 


* * 


4629 


1450 


1585 


934 


702-03 


1527-28 


21 Sarvajit 


29 Manmatba 


4 Ishadha 


4630 


1451 


1586 


^35 


703-04 


*1528-29 


22 Saarvadkarin Y 


30 Durmuklia . 


. 


4631 


1452" 


1587 


936 


704-05 


1529-30 


23 Vir5dhin 


31 Etemalamba * 


... 


4632 


1453 


1688 


937 


705-06 


1530-31 


24 Vikrita 


32 Vilamba 


2 Vaisakba . 


4633 


1454 


1589 


938 


706-07 


1531-32 


25 Khara . 


33 Vikarin . 


* ** 


4634 


1455 


1590 


939 


707-08 


*1532-33 


26 Nandana * 


34 Sarvarin 


6 Bhadrapada 


4635 


1456 


1591 


940 


708-09 


1533-34 


27 Vijaya . 


35 Plava . 


** 


4636 


1457 


1592 


941 


709-10 


1534*35 


28 Jaya 


36 Subhakrit 


* * 


4637 


1458 


1593 


942 


710-11 


1535-36 


29 Maumatha 


37 Sobhana 


5 Srava^a 


4638 


1459 


1594 


943 


711-12 


*1536-37 


30 Dunnukha 


38 Krddhin 


... 


4639 


1460 


1595 


944 


712-13 


1537-38 


31 Hemalamba * 


39 Visvavasu 


** * 


4640 


1461 


1596 


945 


713-14 


1538-39 


3? Vilanaba 


40 Paxabhava 


3 Jyesbtba 


4641 
4642 


1462 
1463 


1597 

1598 


946 
947 


714-15 
715-16 


1539-40 
*1540-41 


33 Vikarin . 
34 Sarvarin 


41 Plavanga 
42 Kilaka * f 


* 

7 Asvina* V 
10 Pautha (k&h.} Ji 


4643 


1464 


1599 


948 


716-17 


1541-42 


35 Plava , 


43 Saumya 


1 Chaitra * 1 


4644 


1465 


1600 


949 


717-18 


1542-43 


36 Subbakiit 


44 Sadbarana 


... j 


4645 


1466 


1601 


950 


718-19 


154344 


37 Sobbana 


45 Virodhakrit . 


6 Bhadrapada 


4646 


1467 


1602 


951 


719-20 


*1544-45 


38 Krodhin 


46 Paxidbavin * 


* 



A close case* At the Tula-aamkranti the moon had been waxing for 1000 than 2 minutes- 



. 14.] 



THE mtST ARYA-SIBDHANTA: "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



LXI Gontd. 


COMMENCEMENT OB 1 THE 




SOLAA TSAB. 1 fcUHI-SOIUJt TXIUl (XXAK STOKES* OT CUTIL DAT O* WHICH 




]| 


CSAITBJL 6U2XJL 1 !>). 


KalL 






l"p*l TTH A f\9 














Pay and 
Ufronttu jsLi-'. 


Week- 1 
day. 


Aimo QX 
true Mesha- 
samkranti. 

1. 


Bay and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a* 


* ^ 


C. < 




18 


14 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






JdU JML. Z5. 














27 Mar. (87) 


3 Tuea. 


5 10 


20 Mar, (80) 


3 TOM. 


114-6827 


44-OS50 


257499?, 




27 Mar. (86) 


4 Wed. 


11 32 30 


9 Mar. (68) 


Sat. . 


9990-3661 


891*3198 


226*8758 ' 

f 


4SM 


27 Mar. (86) 


6 Tkur. 


17 35 


27 Feb. (58) 


5 Ttmr. 


204*6814 


774-8462 


198-78^ 


4624 


27 Mar, (86) 


6 Fri. . 


23 47 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


4 Wed. 


239-3210 


710-8297 


250-099& 


4625 


27 Mar. (87) 


1 Sun. . 


600 


6 Mar. (66) 


1 Sun. . 


115*0044 


558-0646 ! 


219-2756 


46M 


27 Mar. (86) 


2 Men. . 


12 12 30 


25 Mar. (84) 


Sat. . 


149-6440 


494-0480 


270-5854 


4627 


I 27 Mar. (86) 


3 Tuea. 


18 25 


14 Mar. (73) 


4 Wed. 


25-3274 


341-2828 


239-7615 I 402* 


1 28 Mar. (87) 


5 Thtir. 


37 30 


3 Ma*. (62) 


1 Sun. . 


9901*0108 


188-5177 


208-9577 


42 


I 27 Mar. (87) 


6 Eri. . 


6 60 


21 Mar. (81) 


Sat. . 


9935*6504 


124-5011 


160-2473 


4630 


I 27 Mar. (86) 


Sat. . 


13 2 30 


11 Mar. (70) 


5 Thtir. 


149-9657 


8-0276 


232-1613 


4631 


J 27 Mar. (86) 


1 Sun. . 


19 15 


28 Feb. (59) 


2 Moo* * 


25-6490 


855*2624 


201-3374 


4632 


1 28 Mar. (87) 


3 Tue. 


1 27 30 


19 Mar. (78) 


1 Suit* * 


60*288? 


791-2459 


252-6471 


.403* 


I 27 Mar. (87) 


4* Wed. 


7 40 


8 Mar. (68) 


6 FrL . 


274-6009 


674-7723 


224-5641 


4634 


1 27 Mar. (86) 


5 Thvup. 


13 52 30 


26 Mar. (85) 


4 Wed. 


9970-6117 


574*4642 


273-1330 


4635 


1 27 .Mar. (86) 


6 Fri. . 


20 6 


15 Mar. (74) 


1 Sun. - 


9846-2851 


421-6991 


242-3091 


4636 


1 28 Mar. (87) 


1 Sun. . 


2 17 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


5 Thur. 


9721-9785 


268-0338 


211-4S53 I 4637 


1 :$7 Mar. (87) 


2 Mon. . 


8 30 


22 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed. 


9756-6181 


204-9174 


262*7960 


4TOS 


I 27 Mar. (86) 


3 Tiiee. 


14 42 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


2 Moo, , 


9970-9333 


$8*4438 


234-7089 


46a^ 


I 7 Mar. (86) 
I 28 Mar, (87) 
1 27 Mar. (S7) 
I 27 Mar, (86) 
I 27 Mar. (86) 
1 28 Mar, (87) 
I 27 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed. 
6 ITrL 
Sat. - 
1 Sun. . 
2 Mon. . 
4 Wed, 
5 Thur. 


20 55 
3 7 30 

g 20 o 

IS 32 30 

21 45 
3 57 30 

10 10 




2 Mar. (61) 
21 Mar. (80) 
9 Mar. (69) 
26 Feb. (57) 

17 Mar. (78) 
6 Mar. (65) 
24 Mar. (84) 

_.. 


Sat. - 
6 FrL * 
3 Tues. 
I Sat. . 

6 FrL . 
S Tues, 
2 Mon. . 
___ 


185-2486 
219-88S2 
95-5716 
9971-2550 

5-8046 
988I-578Q 
9916-2175 




971-8702 
907-9531 

755-1885 
602-4234 
538-4068 
385-Mit 
321-6252 

J ^juagg 


1 257-9326 i 4641 

227-1088 1 4642 
! 196*2848 I 4643 
1 247*5946 1 4644 
216-7707 1 4546 
1 268*0805 1 4S4U 

Y 



E?IGBAPHIA INDICA. 



TABLE 



COttCttollEliT YEAH, 


iNTERCAtrAIFSfB* 

(adhika) and 

STTPPEESSE0 

(Ic&haya) LXTUTAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 





>> 

Ji 
i* 


KoUam, 


A,IX 


<& ( 
JOVIAN SAMVATSABA, 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4647 


1468 


1603 


952 


720-21 j 


1545-46 


39 Visvavasu 


47 Pramadin 


** 


4648 


1469 


1604 


953 


721-22 


1546-47 


40 Parabhava 


48 Ananda 


4 Ashadha 


464d 


1470 


1605 


954 


722*23 


1547-48 


41 Plavaiga 


49 Bakshasu 


** 


4650 


1471 


1606 


955 


723-24 


*1548-49 


42 KJlaka . 


50 Anala * 


** * 


4651 


1472 


1607 


956 


724-25 


1549-50 


43 Saiimya 


51 Pingala 


2 Vaisakha . 


4C52 


1473 


1608 


957 


725-26 


1550-51 


44 Sadharana . 


52 Kalayukta * 


>* 


4653 


1474 


1609 


958 


726-27 


1551-52 


45 Virodhakrit . 


53 Siddharthin * 


6 Bhadrapada 


4654 


1475 


1610 


959 


727-28 


*1552-53 


46 Paridhavin . 


54 Baudra 


* * 


4655 


1476 


1611 


960 


728-29 


1553-54 


47 Praraadia 


55 Durmati 


kA* 


4656 


1477 


1612 


961 


729-30 


1554-55 


48 Ananda 


56 DundutH 


4 AsMdha 


4657 


1478 


1613 


962 


730-31 


1555-56 


49 Rakshasa 


57 Rudbirodgarin 


khtkO, 


4658 


1479 


1614 


963 


731-32 


*1556-57 


50 Anala , 


58 Raktakshai . 




4659 


1480 


1615 


964 


732-33 


1557-58 


51 Pifigala 


59 KrSdhana 


3 Jyeshtha 


4660 
4661 
4662 


1481 
1482 
1483 


1616 
1617 
1618 


965 
966 
967 


733-34 
734-35 
735-36 


1558-59 
1559-60 
*1560-61 


52 Kalayukta , 
53 SiddhartMn . 
54 Eandra 


60 Kstaya 
1 Prabhaya J 
2 Yibtava 


8 Karttika "^ 
1 Magha (ksl.) I 
2 Phalguna J 

.., 


4663 


1484 


1619 


96S 


736-37 


1561-62 


55 Durmati 


3 Suklft v. 


* 


4664 


1485 


1620 


969 


737-38 


1562-63 


56 DundubM 


4 Pramoda 


fl Srava^a 


4665 


1486 


1621 


970 


738*89 


1563-64 


67 Rtidhirddgarin 


5 Prajapati 


*** 


4666 


1487 


1622 


971 


739-40 


*1564-65 


58 Raktaksha . 


6 iiigiras 


.*.*L 


4667 


1488 


1623 


972 


740-41 


1565,60 


59 Krodhana 


7 Srimuklia . 


4 Ashadha 


4668 


1489 


1624 


973 


741^42 


1566-67 


60 Kafcaya 


8 BMvft 


i** 


466ft 


1490 


1625 


974 


742-43 


1567-68 


1 PrabhaTa 


9 Yuvan ^ 

* 


%,.* 


4670 


1491 


1626 


075 


743-44 


*1568-69 


2 Vibhav* 


10 Dhatri , 


2 Yaiiakha . 


4671 


1492 


1627 


976 


744-45 


1569-70 


3 Sukla , 


11 *fsvar ^ ^ 


< 



Ne.14.] 



THE FIRST ABYA'SIDDHANTA: "TBTJE" SYSTEM. 



COMMENCEMENT. OF THJE 




SOLAS TSAB. 


LUNI-SOLAB YEAB. (lOLUT STTMB1SE OF OCTIL DAT OH WHICH 

CHAITBA foxu 1 BKPS). ' 


Kali. 


Day and 

month, A.D, 


Week- 

day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samiranti. 


Day and 
monjti, A.P. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


5. 


c. 




13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M. S. 








*> 






27 Mwr. (88) 


6JH . 


16 22 30 


.13 Mar. (72) 


6JH. . 


9791-9009 


168*8599 


237-2566 


4647 


27 Mar.. (86) 


Sat. . , 


22 38 


3 Mar. (62) 


4 Wed. 


6:2162 


62*3864 


209*1706 


404$ 


28 Max. (87) 


2 MOIL . 


4 47 30 


22 Mac. (81) 


3 T,uea. 


40-9559 


988*3699 


2604802 


4649 


27 Max. (87) 


3 Tues. . 


11 


11 M. (71) 


I Snn. 


255-1711 


871-8964 


232*3942 


4650 


27Mar,(j86) 


4 Wed. 


17 12 30 


,28 Feb. (59) 


5 Thar. 


130*8544 


719-1311 


201*6703 


.4051 


27 Mar. ,(86) 


5 Thur 


23 25 


19 Mar. (78) 


4 Wed. 


1654941 


6564147 


252*8800 


4652 


28 Max. (87) 


Sat. , 


6 37 30 


8 Mar. (67) 


1 Sun. . 


41:1774 


502-3495 


222.0562 


4363 


27 Max. (87) 


1 Sun* . 


11 60 


26 Mar, (86) 


Sat. . 


75*8171 


438*3329 


2734659 


4664 


27 Mir. (86) 


2 MOD. . . 


18 2 30 


15 Mar. (74) 


.4 Wed. 


9952*6005 


285*5678 


242*6420 


4655 


28 Mai. .(87) 


4 Wed. 


15 


4 Mar. (63) 


1 Sun, . 


98271839 


132-8021 


211-7182 


4666 


28 Ma*, (87) 


5 Tlrar. 


6 27 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


Sat. . 


9861*8235 


68*7856 


26^279 


4057 


27 Mar, (87) 


6 Fri. . . 


12 40 


. 12 MM. (72) 


5 Thar. 


76-1387 


952-3120 


234*9418 


4668 


27 Mar,.(86) 


Sat. . 


18 52 30 


, 2 Mar. (61) 


3 Tuee. 


290*4540 


835-8385 


206*8558 


4659 


28 Max, (87) 


2 Moo. . 


160 


21 M^ (SO) 


2 Man. . 


326*0936 


760-8220 


258*1656 


4360 


28 Ma*. (87) 


3 Tues. 


7- 17 30 


10 Mi- (69) 


6 Fri. . 


200-7771 


619*0567 


227*3417 


4661 


27 Ma*, (87) 


4 Wed. 


13 30 


27 Mar. .($7) 


4 Wed. ; 


9896-7848 


61&-7487 


275*9136 


4662 


27 Ma& (86) 


5 Thar. 


19 42 30 


16 Mar, (75) 


1 Sun, . 


9772-4681 


365*9835 


246-0897 


4663 


28 Mar. (87) 


Sat . 


1 55 


6 Mar. .(65) 


6Ri . 


9986*7834 


249*5104 


217*,0036 


4664 


28 Mai, (87) 


1 Sun. . 


8 7 30 


25 .Mar. (84) 


5 Thtjr. 


214230 


185*4939 


268*3134 


465 


27 Mar. (87) 


2 MOD. . 


14 20 


13 Mar. (73) 


2 Monu 


9897*1064 


32*7287 


237*4896 


4366 


27 Ma*. (86) 


3 Tues. 


20 32 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


OSat. . 


1114197 


916r2552 


209*4036 


4667 


28 Mar. (87) 


5 Thai. 


2 45 


22 Mar. (81) \ 


6 ITri . 


146-0613 


852*2386 


260*7131 


466S 


28 Mar, (87) 


6 Fri. , 


8 57 30 


11 Mar. (70) 


3 Taes* 


21*7447 


699*4735 ] 


229*8S83 


4688 


27 Mai. (87) 


Sat. . 


15 10 


28 Feb. (59) 


Sal 


98074281 


846*7083 


199*0664 


4670 


27 Mar. (86) 


1 Spa. . 


21 22 30 


18 Mar, (77) 


1M , 


9932-0677 


482*891? 


260*3762 


4S71 



180 



EMGRAPBIA INDICA 



[VoL. XVt. 



TABLE 



CONODBBENT YEAR. 


IKTKBCALATBD 
(adhika) and 

SUPPRESSED 

(ksJiaya) LUNAR 

MONTHS (trUO). 


Kali. 


Sak. 


Chaitradi Vikrama. 


ij 

23 

*T3 S 

! 

g.a 


Lollarn. 


A.D. 


JOVIAN SAMVATSABA. 


Southern 
system* 


Northern 

system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4672 


1493 


1628 


977 


74546 


1570-71 


4 Pramoda 


12 Bahudhanya . 


6 Bhadrapada- 


4673 


1494 


1629 


978 


746-47 


1571-72 


5 Prajapati 


13 Pramathin 


. 


4674 


1495 


1630 


979 


747-48 


*1572-73 


6 Aagirasa 


14 Vikrama 


.-. 


4675 


1496 


1631 


980 


748*49 


1573-74 


7 Srimukha 


15 Vrisha . 


4 Ashadha 


4676 


1497 


1632 


981 


749-50 


1574-75 


8 Bhava * 


16 Chitrabhanu . 





4677 


1498 


1633 


982 


750-51 


1575-76 


9 Yuvan . 


17 Subhanu 


** 


4678 


1499 


1634 


983 


751-52 


*1576-77 


10 Dhatri . 


18 Tarawa . 


3 Jyeeththa 


4679 


1500 


1635 


984 


752-58 


1577-78 


11 lavam . 


19 Parthira 


* 


4680 


1501 


1636 


985 


753-54 


1578-79 


12 Bahudhanya . 


20 Vyaya , 


8 Karttik* . 


4681 


1502 


1637 


"986 


754*55 


1579-80 


13 Pramathin 


21 Sarvajit 


** 


4682 


1503 


1638 


987 


755-56 


*1580-81 


14 Vikrama 


22 Sarradhaxin * 


* * 


4683 


1504 


1639 


988 


756-57 


1581-82 


15 Vrisha . 


23 Virodhm 


5 Srava^ia 


4684 


1505 


1640 


989 


757-58 


1582-83 


16 Chitrabhanu . 


24 Vikrita . * . 


* * 


4685 


1506 


1641 


990 


758-59 


1583-84 


17 Subhanu 


25 Khara . 


* 


4686 


1507 


1642 


991 


759-60 


*1584-85 


18 Tarawa . 


26 Nandana ; 


4 Ashadha 


4687 


1508 


1643 


992 


760-61 


1585*86 


19 Partki^a 


27 Vijaya . 


** 


4688 


1509 


1644 


993 


761-62 


1586-87 


20 Vyaya * 


28 Jaya 


* 


4680 


1510 


1645 


994 


762-63 


1587-88 


21 Sanrajit 


29 Manmathaf * 


2 Vaiaakha . 


4690 


1511 


1646 


995 


763-64 


*1588-89 


22 Sarvadharia . 


31 Hemalamba , 





4691 


1512 


1647 


996 


764-65 


1589-90 


23 Virodhin 


32 Vttamba 


6 Bhadrapada 


43$2 


1513 


1648 


997 


765-66 


1590-91 


24 Vikrita . 


33 V*k&rin 


* 


4693 


1514 


1649 


998 


766-67 


1591-92 


25 Khara . 


34 Sarvarin 


* 


4694 


1515 


1650 


999 


. 767-68 


*1592-93 


26 Nandaaa 


35 Flaw . 


4 Ashadha 


4695 


1516 


1651 


1000 


768-69 


1593-94 


27 Vijaya . 


36 Subhafyto 


.*. 


4696 


1617 


1652 


1001 


769-70 


1594-95 


28 Jaya 


37 Sobhana 


* 



No. 30, Durmati, was suppressed in the north. 



. 14.] 



THE FIRST ABYA-SIDDHAOTA: "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



181 



J.XI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 



SOLAR YEAB. 


LUNI-SOLAR YEAR (MEAN SUNRISE OF BAY ON WHICH 
CHAITEA SUKLA 1 ENDED). 


KaD. 


Day and 
month, A.D* 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha* 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


6. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 


1 




H. M. S 














28 Mar. (87) 


3 Tues. 


3 35 


7 Mar. (66) 


3 Tues. 


9807-7511 


330-2366 


219-5513 


4672 


28 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed. 


9 47 30 


26 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. . 


9842-3907 


265-9101 


270-8611 


4673 


27 Mar. (87) 


5 Thur, 


16 


15 Mar. (75) 


Sat, . 


56-7060 


149-4366 


242-7749 


4674 


27 Mar. (86) 


6 Fri. . 


22 12 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


4 Wed. 


9932-3894 


996-6713 


211-9511 


4675 


28 Mar. (87) 


1 Sun. . 


4 25 


23 Mar. (82) 


3 Tues. 


9967-0290 


932-6549 


263-2608 


4676 


28 Mar. (87) 


2 Mon. . 


10 37 30 


13 Mar, (72) 


1 Sun. . 


181-3441 


816-1813 


235-1747 


4677 


27 Mar. (87) 


3 Tues. 


16 50 


1 Mar. (61) 


5 Thur. 


57-0275 


663-4160 


204-3509 


4678 


27 Mar. (86) 


4 Wed. 


23 2 30 


20 Mar, (79) 


4 Wed. 


91-6671 


599-3996 


255-9524 


4670 


28 Mar. (87) 


6 Fri. . 


5 15 


9 Mar. (68) 


1 Sun. . 


9967*3506 


446*6344 


224-8368 


4680 


28 Mar. (87) 
27 Mar. (87) 


Sat. . 
1 Sun. . 


11 27 30 
17 40 


28 Mar. (87) 
16 Mar. (76) 


Sat. . 
4 Wed, 


1-9902 
9877-6735 


382-6179 
229-8527 


276-1464 
245-3226 


4681 
4682 


27 Mar. (86) 
1 28 Mar. (87) 
28 Mar. (87) 


2 Mon. . 
4 Wed 
5 Thur. 


23 52 30 
650 
12 17 30 


6 Mar. (65) 
25 Mar. (84) 
14 Mar. (73) 


2 Mon. . 
1 Sun. , 
5 Thur. 


91-9888 
126-6284 
2*3118 


113-3791 
49*3626 
896-5974 


217-2365 
268-5463 
237-7224 


468$ 
4684 
4685 


27 Mar. (87) 


6 Fri. 


18 30 


3 Mar. (63) 


3 Tues. 


216-6271 


780-1239 


209-6363 


4066 


28 Mar. (87) 


1 Sun. . 


42 30 


22 Mar. (81) 


2 Mon. . 


251-2667 


716-1074 


260-9460 


4687 


28 Mar. (87) 


2 Moa . 


6 55 


li Mar. (70) 


6 Fri, . 


126-9501 


563-3422 


230-1222 


468S 


28 Mar. (87) 


3 Tue*. 


13 7 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


3 Tues. 


2-6335 


410-5770 


199*2983 


4689 


27 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed. 


19 20 


18 Mar, (78) 


2 Mon, . 


37-2731 


346*5605 


250-6081 


4690 


28 Mar. (87) 


6 Fri. . 


1 32 30 


7 Mar, (66) 


6 Fri. . 


9912-9565 


193*7953 


210-7842 


4691 


28 Mar. (87) 


Sat. . 


7 45 


26 Man (85) 


5 Thur. 


9947-5961 


129-7788 


271*0939 


4692 


28 Mar, (87) 


1 Sun, . 


13 57 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


3 Tues. 


161-9114 


13-2053 


243-0078 


4693 


.27 Mar. (87) 


2 Mon. . 


20 10 


4 Mar. (64) 


Sat. . 


37-5948 


860-5401 


212-1840 


4G94 


28 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed. 


2 22 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


6 Fri. . 


72*2344 


796-5236 


263-4037 


4695 


28 Mar (87) 


5 Thur. 


8 35 


13 Mar. (72) 


4 Wed. 


286-5496 


680-0500 


235-4076 


4696 




183 



EPHJBAPHIA INDICA. 



[VoL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 








* 


i 






JOVIAK SAMVATSAEA. 


(adhika) and 


















SUPPRESSED 


Kali. 


Saka. 


5 


"i-i 


iollam. 


AJX 






(kskaya) LFNAB 
MONTHS (true). 






I 


3 SsP 






Southern 


Northern 








"S 


|$ ' 






system. 


system. 








Q 


S* S 












1 


2 3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 i 




? 














* 


1518 


1653 


1002 


770-71 


1595-96 


29 Manmatha 


A 

38 KrodUn 


3 Jyeshtha 


4698 


1519 


1654 


1003 


771-72 


*1596-97 j 


30 Durmukha 


39 Ftotiww 


..* 


4699 


1520 


1655 


1004 


772-73 


1597-98 


31 Hemalamba . 


40 Parabkava 


8 JKarttika 


4700 


1521 1 1656 


1005 


773-74 


1598-99 


32 Vilamba 


41 Plamnga 


* ** 




j 














4701 


1522 1 1657 


1006 


774-75 


1599-1600 


33 Vikarin . 


42 Rttaka > 


* 




! 














4702 


1523 1658 


1007 


775-76 


*1600-01 


34 Sarrarin 


43 Sawnya 


5 Sravajgia * 


! i 














4703 


1524 | 1659 


1008 


776-77 


1601^02 


35 Plava . 


44 Sadharana 


..* 


4704 


1525 1660 


1009 


' 777-78 


1602-03 


36 Subhakrit 


45 Virodhakrit . 


* * 


4705 | 1526 1661 


1010 


778-79 


1603-04 


37 Sobhana . ! 


46 Paridhavin . 


4 Ashadha 


4706 


1527 1662 


1011 


779-80 


* 1604-06 


38 Ercdhia 


47 Pramadin 


*.* 


4707 


1528 1663 


1012 


780-81 


1605-06 


39 Visvavasu 


48 Ananda 


** 


47W 


,1529 


! 1C64 


1013 


781-82 


1606-07 


40 Parabhava * 


49 Rakshasa 


1 Chaitra 


4706 


1530 


1665 


1014 


782-83 


1607-08 


41 Plava^ga / 


50 Anala . 


... 


4710 


1531 


1666 


1015 


783-84 


*1608*09 


42 Kllaka . 


51 Pingala 


6 Bhadrapada 


47;: 


1532 


1667. 


1016 


784-85 


1609-10 


43 Sauinya . 


52 Kalaytikta . 


*** 


4712 


1533 


1668 


1017 


785-86 


1610-11 


44 Sadharana 


53 Siddharthin . 


.. 


4713 


1034 


1669 


1018 


786-87 


1611:12 


45 Virodhakrit . 


54 Raudra 


4 Ashadha 


47! i 


1035 


1670. 


1019 


787-88 


*1612-13 


46 Paridhavin 


55 Dunuati 


* 


4715 


1536 


167i 


1020 


788-89 


1613-14 


47 Pramadin 


56 Dundubhi 


* 


4716 


1537 


1672 


1021 


789-90 


1614-15 


48 Ananda 


57 Rudhirodgarin 


3 Jyeshtha 


4717 


1533. 


1673 


1022 


790-91 


1615-16 


49 Raksbasa 


58 Raktakaha . 


.. 


4718 


1539 


1674 


1023 


791-92 


*1616-17 


50 Anala * 


59 Krodhana 


7 Aivina 


^716 


15-10 


| 1675 


1024 


792-93 


1617-18 


51 Piiigala 


60 Kshaya 





472-0 1541 1678 


1025 


793-94 


1618-19 


52 Kalayukta . 


1 Prabhava 


... 


4 














- 4?2-l 1642 ' 1677 

8 ' 


1030 


794-95 


iei&20 


53 SiddhartMn . 


2 Vibhava 


5 Srava$ , 


# ^ 















, U.] 



THE FIEST ARYA-SIDDHANTA: "TRUE" SYSTEM 



LXI Ctonfefc. 




COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


KslL 


SOLAR YEAR. 


LUHI-SOI^B TBAB (KEAS stnraisB o* cuvn, DAY ox WHICH 
CHAITBA SCKLA 1 BHDS). 


(Day and 
month, A.D, 


Week- 
day. 


I 

Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkraati. 


I>ay and 
month, AJ>. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


; A, 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 25 


1 


28 Mar. (87) 


6 IH. . 


H. M. S. 
14 47 30 


2 Mar. (61) 


1 Son. . 


163-2330 


1 627*2848 


204-5838 


4997 


27 Mar. (87) 


Sat. . 


21 


19 Mar. (79) 


6Eri . 


9858*2408 


426-9767 


253-1557 




28 Mar. (87) 


2 Mon. * 


3 12 30 


8 Mar. (67) 


3 Taes. 


9733-9241 


274-2115 


222-3318 


4699 


28 Mar- (87) 


3 Tues. 


9 25 


27 Mar. (86) 


2 Man. . 


9768-5638 


210-1951 


273-6415 


4700 


28 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed. 


15 37 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


OSat. . 


9982-8789 


98-7214 


245-5555 


4701 


27 Mar. (87) 


5 Thur. 


21 60 


6 Mar. (66) 


5 Tbm. 


197-1942 


977-2479 


218-4694 


4702 


28 Mar. (87) 


Sat. . 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


231*8338 


913-2313 


288-7792 


4703 


28 Mar. (87) 


1 Sun. . 


10 15 


14 Mar. (73) 


1 Sun. . 


107-5172 


760*4661 


237-52 


47W 


28 ifiur, (87) 


2 Mon. . 


16 27 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


5 Xhur. 


9983-2006 


607-7010 


2074314 


47Q 


27 Mar, (87) 


3 Tiies. 


22 40 


21 Mar. (81) 


4 WecL 


17-8402 


543-6844 


258-4411 


4700 


28 Mar. (87) 


5 Thur.j 


4 55! 30 


10 Mar. (69) 


1 Sun* * 


9833-5236 


390-9192 


227*6173 


4707 


28 Mar. (87) 


6 EH. . 


11 5 


27 Feb. (58) 


S Tbm. 


9769*2070 


238-1541 


196-7934 


4708 


28 Mar. (87) 


Sat. . 


17 17 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


4 Wed. 


9803-8466 


174-1376 


248-1032 


47< 


27 Mar. (87) 


1 Sun. . 


23 30 


7 Mar. (67) 


2 Men. . 


18*1619 


57-6640 


220-0171 


4710 


28 Mar. (87) 


3 Tues. 


5 42 30 


26 Mar. (85) 


I Sun* * 


52-8015 


993-6475 


271*3267 


4711 


28 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed. 


11 60 


16 Mar. (75) 


6 IH* * 


267-1178 


877-1740 


243*2407 


4712 


28 Mar. (87) 


5 Tlmr. 


18 7 30 


5 Mar. (64) 


3 Tuea 


142-8002 


724-4087 


212-4169 


471S 


28 Mar* (88) 


Sat. . 


20 


23 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. . 


177-4398 


660-3923 


283-7266 


4714 


28 Mar. (87) 


1 Sum * 


6 32 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


6 Eti . 


534233 


507-6271 


232-9028 


4715 


28 Mar* (87) 


2 Men. . 


12 45 


1 Mar. (60) 


3 Tues. 


9928*8064 


854-8619 


202-0789 


4710 


28 Mar. (87) 


3 Tues. 


18 67 30 


20 Mar. (79) 


2 Mon, . 


9962-4162 


290*8454 


253*8885 


4717 


29 HOT. (88) 


5 Thur, 


1 10 


8 Mar. (68) 


6 1H. . 


9839*1305 


138*0802 


222*5647 


471S 


28 Mar. (87) 


6ffri . 


7 22 30 


27 Mar. (86) 


5 Tbm* 


9874-7691 


74*0637 


273-8744 


4719 


28 Mar. (87) 


Sat. * 


13 35 


17 Mar. (76) 


3 Tuea 


88-0843 


957-5901 


245*7884 


472 


28 Mar. (87) 


1 StUL * 


19 -47 30 


ISUB, . 

'''^BBigHBSSSSr!?!?*'*;?!!^'^^^^^^^' 1 *** 1 ' 111 ^^ 


302-3996 


S4M165 


217*7023 


4721 



184 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI- 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR, 


IKTEBCALATJSD 
(adhika) and 
SUPPRESSED 
(hshaya) LUI^AI^ 
MONTHS (trtfe). 


Kali 


Saka. 


Chaitradi yikrama. 


i 

2-3- 

l! 

00 . 

23.3 
JS 


Kollam. 


A.D. 


JOVIAN SAHVATSABA. 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 
1027 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4722 


1543 


1678 


795-96 


*1620-21 


54 Raudra 


3 Sukla . 


# 


4723 


1544 


1679 


1028 


796-97 


1621-22 


55 Durmati 


4 Pramoda 


* 


4724 


1545 


1680 


1029 


797*98 


1622-23 


56 Dtmdubhi 


5 Prajapati 


4 Aahadha 


4725 


1546 


1681 


1030 


798-99 


1623-24 


57 Rudhirodgarin 


6 Angirasa 


* * 


4726 


1547 


1682 


1031 


799-800 


* 1624-25 


58 Raktaksha * 


7 Srimukha 





4727 


1548 


1683 


1032 


800-01 


1625-26 


59 Krddhana * 


8 Bhava . 


1 Chaitra 


4728 


1549 


1684 


1033 


801-02 


1626-27 


60 Kshaya 


9 Yuvan * 


... 


4729 


1550 


1685 


1034 


802-03 


1627-28 


1 Prabhava 


10 Dhatri , 


5 Srava^a * 


4730 


1551 


1686 


1035 


803-04 


*1628-29 


2 Vibhava 


11 Isvara * 





4731 


1552 


1687 


1036 


804-05 


1629-30 


3 Sukla . 


12 Bahudhanya * 


... 


4732 


1553 


1688 


1037 


805-06 


1630-31 


4 Pramoda 


13 Pramathin . 


4 Asbadha . 


4733 


1554 


1689 


1038 


806*07 


1631-32 


5 Prajapati 


14 Vikrama . 


* 


4734 


1555 


1690 


1039 


807-08 


*1632-33 


6 Afttgirasa 


15 Vrisha . 


** 


4735 


155S 


1691 


1040 


808-09 


1633-34 


7 Srfmukha 


16 Chitrabhanu . 


2 Vais&kha . 


4736 


1557 


16,92 


1041 


809-10 


1634-35 


8 Bhava . 


17 Subhanu 


. 


4737 


1558 


169$ 


1042 


810-11 


1635-36 


9 Yuvan . 


18 Tarawa . 


6 Bhadrapada 


4738 


1559 


1694 


1043 


811-12 


*1636*37 


10 Dhatri . 


19 Parthiva f . 


* 


4739 


1560 


1695 


1044 


812-13 


1637-38 


11 Isvara . 


20 Vyaya . 


*** 


4740 


1661 


1696 


1045 


813-14 


1638-39 


12 Bahudh&nya . 


21 Sarvajit. 


5 Srava^a 


4741 


1562 


1697 


1046 


814-15 


1639-40 


13 PramatMn . 


22 Sarvadharin . 


** 


4742 


15&3 


1698 


1047 


815-16 


"1640-41 


14 Vikrama . 


23 VirSdbin 


*** 


4743 


1564 


1699 


1048 


816-17 


1641-42 


15 Vrisha . 


24 Vikrita . 


3 Jyeshth* 


4744 


1565 


1700 


1049 


817-18 


1642-43 


16 Ckitrabhanu ., 


25 Khara . 





4745 


1566 


1701 


1050 


818-19 


* 1643-44 


17 Subhana 


26 Nandana 


*> 


4746 


1567 


1702 


1051 


819-20 


* 1644-45 


18 Tarawa . 


27 Vijaya . 


1 Chaitia 



Nb. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA: " 



SYSTEM. 



185 



IiXI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 


SOLAS, YEAR. 


LUKI-SOLAB YEAS (MEAH SUNRISE OF CIVIL BAY O2f WHICH 

CHAITRA STTKLA 1 ENDS). 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
samkranti* 


Bay and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


&. 


6. 


e. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


*23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M. -8. 














28 Mar. (88) 


3 Tues. 


200 


24 Mar. (84) 


6 Fri . 


9998-4073 


740-8085 


266-2743 


4722 


.28 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed. 


8 12 30 


14 Mar. (73) 


4 Wei 


212*7226 


624-3349 


238-1881 


4723 


28 Mar. (87) 


5 Thur. 


14 25 


3 Mar. (62) 


1 Sun. . 


88-4060 


471-5697 


207-3643 


4724 


28 Mar. (87) 


6 Fri. . 


20 37 30 


21 Mar. (80) 


6 Fri. . 


9784-4137 


371-2616 


255*9362 


4725 


.28 Mar. (88) 


1 Sun. . 


2 50 


10 Mar. (70) 


4 Wed. 


9998*7290 


254-7880 


227-8502 


4726 


28 Mar. (87) 


2 Hon. . 


9 2 30 


27 Feb. (58) 


1 Sun. . 


9874-4124 


102-0228 


197-0263 


4727 


28 Mar. (87) 


3 Tues. 


15 15 


18 Mar. (77) 


Sat, , 


9909-0520 


38-0063 


248-3361 


4728 


28 Mar. (87) 


' 4 Wed. 


21 27 30 


8 Mar. f (67) 


5 Thur. 


123-3673 


921-5328 


220-2500 


4729 


28 ]&ar. (88) 


6 Fri. . 


3 40 


26 Mar. (86) 


4 Wei 


158^0079 


857-5162 


271-4596 


4730 


28 Mar. (87) 


Sat, . 


9 52 30. 


15 Mar. (74) 


1 Sun. . 


33*6902 


704-7511 


240-7358 


4731 


28 Mar. (87) 


I Sun. . 


16 5 0- 


4 Mar. (63) 


5 Thur. 


9909-3737 


551-9859 


209-9120 


4732 


28 Mar. (87) 


2 Mon. . 


22 17 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed 


9944-0133 


487-9693 


261-2217 


4733 


,28 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed. 


4 30 


11 Mar. (71) 


1 Sun. . 


9819*6967 


335-2042 


230-3979 


4734 


28 Mar. (87) 


5 Thur. 


10 42 30. 


1 Mar. (60) 


6 FrL . 


34*0119 


218-7306 


202-3118 


4735 


28 Mar.. (87) 


6 Fri. . 


16 55 0, 


20 Mar. (79) 


5 Thur. 


68-6516 


154-7141 


2534575 


4736 


.28 Mar. (87) 


Sat. . 


23 7 30 


9 Mar. (68) 


2 Mon. . 


9944-3349 


1-9489 


222-7976 


4737 


28 Mar. (88) 


2 Mon. . 


5 20 


27 Mar. (87) 


1 Sun, * 


9978-9746 


937-9325 


2744073 


4738 


28 Mar, (87) 


3 Tues. 


11 32 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


6 Fri. . 


193-2898 


821-4589 


246-0213 


4739 


.28 Mar, (87) 


4 Wed. 


17 45 


6 Mar. (65) 


3 Tues. 


68-9732 


66S-6936 


215-1974 


4740 


28 Mar. (87) 


5 Thur. 


23 57 30. 


25 Mar. (84) 


2 Mon* - 


103-6128 


604-6772 


266-5072 


4741 


,28 Mar. (88) 


Sat. . 


6 10 


13 Mar. (73) 


6 FrL . 


9979-2962 


451-9120 


235-6833 


4742 


28 Mar. (87> 


1 Sun. . 


12 22 30 


2 Mar. (61) 


3 Tues. 


9854-9796 


299-1468 


204*8594 


4743 


28 Mar. (87) 


2 Mon. . 


18 35 


21 Mar. (80) 


2 Mon. . 


9890-6192 


235-1303 


256-1691 


4744 


.29 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed. 


47 30 


10 Mar. (69) 


6 Fri. . 


9765-3026 


82-3651 


225-3453 


4745 


28 Mar. (88) 


6 Thur. 


700 


28 Feb. (59) 


4 Wed. 


9979-6178 


965-8916 


197-2592 


4746 



1B6 



EPI&HAPHIA I&DIGA, 



[Via. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR* 


iKTEBCALATfifi 

(adhika) and 

SUPPBESSEP 

(kshaya) LITNAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama, 


>> 

4. 

a 

a M 

*TJ S 

Vc 

ft ftQ 
I* 


Kollam* 


A.D. 


JOVIAL SAMVATSAXA. 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 

system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 ! 


4747 


1568 


1703 


1052 


820-21 


1645-46 


19 Parthiva 


28 Jaya 




4748 


1569 


1704 


1053 


821-22 


1646-47 


20 Vyaya . 


29 Manmatha 


5 Sravajja t . 


4749 


1570 


1705 


1054 


822-23 


1647-48 


21 Sarvajit 


30 Durmnkha . 


* 


4750 


1571 


1706 


1055 


823-24 


*1648-49 


22 Sarvadhariix . 


31 Hemalamba . 


.. 


4751 


1572 


1707 


1056 


824-25 


1649-50 


23 Virodhin 


32 Vilamba 


4 Ashadha 


4752 


1573 


1708 


1057 


825-26 


1650-51 


24 Vikrita, . 


33 Vikarin . 


* * * 


4753 


1574 


1709 


1058 


826-27 


1651-52 


25 Khara . 


34 Sarvarin 


... 


4754 


1575 


1710 


1059 


827-28 


* 1652-53 


26 Nandana 


35 Plava . 


2 Vaisakha 


4755 


1576 


1711 


1060 


828-29 


1653-54 


27 Vijaya , 


36 gubhakrit 


.*. 


4756 


1577 


1712 


1061 


829-30 


1654-55 


28 Jaya * 


37 Sobhana 


6 Bhadrapada 


4757 


1578 


1713 


1062 


830-31 


1655-56 


29 Manmatha 


38 Krodhin 


** 


4758 


1579 


1714 


1063 


831-32 


* 1656-57 


30 Durmukha 


39 Visvavasu 


..* 


4759 


1580 


1715 


1064 


832-33 


1657-58 


31 Hemalamba . 


40 Parabhava 


5 Srava^.a 


4760 


1581 


1716 


1065 


833-34 


1658-59 


32 Vilamba 


41 Plavatga 


... 


4761 


1582 


1717 


1066 


834-35 


1659-60 


33 -Vikari.1 . 


42 Kilaka . 


** * 


4762 


1583 


1718 


1067 


835-36 


* 1660-61 


34 garvtain 


43 Saumya 


3 Jyeshtha 


4763 


1584 


1719 


1068 


836-37 


1661-62 


35 Plava . 


44 Sadharana 


** 


4764 


1585 


1720 


1069 


837-38 


1662-63 


36 Subhakrit 


45 Virodhakrit . 


** 


4765 


1586 


1721 


1070 


838-39 


1663-64 


37 Sohhana 


46 Paridhavin . 


1 Chaitra 


4766 


1587 


1722 


1071 


839-40 


*1664-65 


38 Krodhin 


47 Pramadhin 


m 


4767 


1588 


1723 


1072 


840-41 


1665-66 


39 Visvavasu 


48 Ananda 


5 Sravana 


4768 


1589 


1724 


1073 


841-42 


1666-67 


40 Paxabliava 


49 Baksliaaa 


* * 


,4769 


1590 


1725 


1074 


842-43 


1667-68 


41 Plavanga 


50 Anala . 





4770 
4^71 


1591 
1592 


1726 
1727 


1075 
1076 


843^44 
844-45 


* 1668-69 
1669-70 


42 Kflaka . 
43 Saumya 


51 Piiigala 
52 KalajTikta . 


4 Ashadha * 


** 



No. U.} 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : TRUE " SYSTEM. 



187 



LXI C&ntd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 


SOLAR YEAR. 


Ltnsri-soLAR YEAR (MEAN SUNRISE OF BAT o^r WHICH 
CHAITBA STJEXA 1 ENDED), 


Bay and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


Tim of 
true Mesha- 
sariifcranti. 


, Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a* 


b. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M. S, 














28 Mar- (87) 


6 Fri. . 


13 12 30 


18 Mar. (77) 


3 Tues. 


14-2674 


901-8750 


248-4690 


4747 


28 Mar. (87) 


Sat. - 


19 25 


8 Mar. (67) 


1 Sun. . 


229*5727 


785-4015 


220-4829 


4748 


29 Mar. (88) 


2 MOIL . 


1 37 30 


27 Mar. (86) 


1 Sat. . 


263-2124 


720*3850 


271-7925 


4749 


28 Mar, (88) 


3 Tues* 


7 60 


15 Mar. (75) 


4 Wed 


138-8957 


568-6198 


240-9687 


470 


28 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed. 


14 2 30 


- 4 Mar. (63) 


1 Sun. . 


14-5791 


415-8546 


210-1449 


4751 


28 Mar. (87) 


5 Thur. 


20 15 


23 Max?. (82) 


; Sat. . 


49-2187 


351-8381 


261-4546 


4752 


29 Mar. (88) 


Sat. . 


2 27 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


4 Wed. 


9924-9021 


199-0730 


230-6308 


4753 


28 Mar. (88) 


1 Sun. . 


8 40 


29 Feb. (60) 


1 Sun, , 


9800-5855 


46-3077 


199-8269 


4754 


28 Mar. (87) 


2 Mon. , 


14 52 30 


20 Mar. (79) 


1 Sun, . 


173-8570 


18-5828 


254*8044 


4755 


28 Mar. (87) 


3 Tues. 


21 5 


9 Mat. (68) 


5 Thur. 


49-5403 


865-8177 


223-0305 


4756 


29 Mar. (88) 


5 Thur. 


3 17 30 


28 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed. 


84-1800 


801*8012 


274-3402 


4757 


28 Mar. (88) 


6 Fri. . 


9 30 


17 Mar. (77) 


2 Mon. . 


298-4953 


685-3276 


246-2542 


4758 


28 Mar. (87) 


Sat. . 


15 42 30 


6 Mar. (65) 


6 Fri. . 


174-7786 


532-5624 


215-4303 


4759 


28 Mar. (87) 


1 Sun* . 


21 55 


24 Mar. (83) 


4 Wed., 


9870-7864 


432-2544 


264-0023 


4760 


29 Mar. (88) 


3 Tues. 


4 7 30 


13 Mar. (72) 


1 Sun. , 


9746-4697 


279-4893 


233-1784 


4761 


28 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed. 


10 20 


2 Mar. (62) 


6 Fri- 


9960-7850 


163-0155 


205-0743 


4762 


28 Mar. (87) 


5 Thur. 


16 32 30 


21 Mar. (80) 


5 Thur* 


9995-4246 


98-9991 


256-4020 


4763 


28 Mar. (87) 


6 Fri. . 


22 45 


10 Mar. (69) 


2 Mon. . 


9871-1080 


946*2338 


225-5782 


4764 


29 Mar. (88) 


1 Sun, . 


4 57 30 


28 Feb. (59) 


ft Sat. . 


84-8233 


829-7603 


197-4921 


4765 


28 Mar. (88) 


2 Mon. . 


11 10 


18 Mar. (78) 


6 Fri. . 


119*4629 


765-8038 


248-8019 


4766 


28 Mar. (87) 


3 Tues. 


17 22 30 


7 Mar. (66) 


3 Tues. 


9996-1463 


612-9787 


217-9780 


4767 


28 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed, 


23 35 


26 Mar. (85) 


2 Mon. . 


29-7859 


548-9621 


259*2877 


4768 


29 Mar. (88) 


6 Eri. . 


5 47 30 


15 Mar. (74) 


6 Fri. . 


9905-4693 


396-1969 


238-4628 


4769 


28 Mar. (88) 


Sat. . 


12 


3 Mar. (63) 


3 Tues. 


9781-1527 


243*4318 


207-6400 


4770 


28 Mar. (87) 


1 Sun. . 


18 12 30 


22 Mar. (81) 


2 Mon. . 


9815*7923 


179-4152 


258-9497 


4771 



z2 



188 



1PIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



[Vol.. XVI, 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR* 


I^TEKCALATICB 

(adhika) and 

SUPPRESSED ' 

(kshaya) LTTKAB 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 1 
1 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama, 


o ci 

S' S 


Kollam. 


A.D, 


JOVIAH SAMVATSABA. 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system. 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4772 


1593 


1728 


1077 


845-46 


1670-71 


44 Sadharana 


53 Siddharthin . 


., 


4773 


1594 


1729 


1078 


846-47 


1671-72 


45 Virodhakrit . 


54 Raudra 


2 Vaisakha . 


4774 


1595 


1730 


1079 


847-48 


*1672-73 


46 Paridhavin 


55 Durmatif 


... 


4775 


1596 


1731 


1080 


848-49 


1673-74 


47 Pramadin 


57 Rudhirodgartn 


6 Bhadrapada 


4776 


1597 


1732 


1081 


849-50 


1674-73 


48 Ananda 


58 Rakaksha 


.*. 


4777 


1598 


1733 


1082 


850-51 


1675-76 


49 Bakshasa 


59 Krodhana 


... 


4778 


1599 


1734 


1083 


851-52 


*1676-77 


50 Anala 


60 Kshaya , 


5 Sravana 


4779 


1600 


1735 


1084 


852-53 


1677-78 


51 Pingala 


1 Prabhava 


* . 


4780 


1601 


1736 


1085 


853-54 


1678-79 


52 Kalayukta 


2 Vibhava 


** * 


4781 


1602 


1737 


1086 


854-55 


1679-80 


53 Siddharthin . 


3 Snkla . 


3 Jyeshtha 


4782 


1603 


1738 


1087 


855-56 


*1680-81 


54 Rattdra 


4 Pramoda 


** 


4783 
4784 


1604 
1605 


1739 
1740 


1088 
1089 


856-57 
857-58 


1681-82 
1682-83 


55 Burmati 
56 Dundubhi 


5 Prajapati < 
6 Angirasa 


7 Asvina 1 
10 Pausha (fah.) > 

1 Chaitra 


4785 


1606 


1741 


1090 


858-59 


1683-S4 


57 RudhirSdgaiin 


7 Srimukha 


... 


4786 


1607 


1742 


1091 


859-60 


*1684-85 


58 Raktaksha -. 


8 Bhava . 


5 Sravana 


4787 


160S 


1743 


1092 


860-61 


1685-86 


59 Krodhana 


9 Ywan . 


... 


4788 


1609 


1744 


1093 


861-62 


16S6-87 


60 Kshaya 


10 Dhatri . 


... 


4789 


1610 


1745 


1094 


862*63 


1687-88 


1 Prabhava 


11 Isvara . - 


4 Ashadha 


4790 


1611 


1746 


1095 


863-64 


*16,88-89 


2 Vibhava 


12 Bahudhanya . 


-\ . 


4791 


1612 


1747 


1096 


864-65 


1689-90 


3 Sukla 


13 Pramathin 


* * * 


4792 j 1613 


1748 


1097 


865-66 


1690-91 


4 Pramoda 


14 Vikrama 


2 Vaisakha . 


4793 1614 


1749 


1098 


866-67 


1691-92 


5 Prajapati 


15 Vrisha . 


... 


4794 ! 161I> 

4795 ; 1616 

i 


1750 
1751 


1099 
1100 


867-68 
868-69 


*1692-93 
1693-94 


6 Angirasa 
7 Srimukha 


16 Chitrabhanu . 
17 Subhanu 


6 Bhadrapada 

* 


470C 1617 


1752 


1101 


869-70 


1694-95 


- 8 Bhava 


18 Tarana . 


* 



j- No. 56 Dundabhi was suppressed in the north* 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST AEYA-SIDDHANTA : " TRUE " SYSTEM. 



189 



LXI Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 
1 


SOLAB YEAR, 


LUNI-SQLAB YEAR (MEAN SUNRISE OF CIVIIi BAY ON WHICH 
CHATTIIA SVKTLA 1 ENDS). 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 

true Mesha- 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a, 


6. 


c. 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 






H. M. S. 














29 Mar. (88) 


3 Tues. 


25 


12 Mar. (71) 


Sat. . 


30-1076 


62-9-117 


230-8637 


4772 


29 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed. 


6 37 30 


1 Mar. (60) 


4 Wed. 


9905-7910 


910-1765 


200-0398 


4773 


28 Mar. (88) 


5 Thur. 


12 50 


20 Mar. (80) 


4 Wed. 


279-0625 


882-4516 


254-0873 


4774 


28 Mar. (87) 


6 Fri. . 


19 2 30 


9 Mar. (68) 


1 Sun. . 


154-7458 


729-6864 


223-2634 


4775 


29 Mar. (88) 


I Sun. 


1 15 


28 Mar. (87) 


Sat. . 


189-3855 


665-6700 


274-5731 


4776 


29 Mar, (88) 


2 Mon. . 


7 27 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


4 Wed. " 


65-0688 \ 


512-9048 


253-7493 


4777 


28 Mar, (88) 


3 Tue?. 


13 40 


5 Mar. (65) 


1 Sun. * 


9940-7522 


360-1395 


212-9255 


4778 


28 Mar. (87) 


4 Wed. 


19 52 30 


24 Mar. (83) 


Sat. . 


9975-3918 


296-1231 


264-2352 


4779 


29 Mar. (88) 


6 Fri. . 


250 


13 Mar. (72) 


4 Wed, 


9851-0752 


143-3579. 


233-4113 


47SO 


29 Mar. (88) 


Sat. , 


8 17 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


2 Mon. 


65-3904 


26-8842 


205-3252 


4781 


28 Mar. (88) 


1 Sun. . 


14 30 


21 Mar. (81) 


1 Sun. . 


100-0300 


962-8678 


256-6349 


4782 


28 Mar. (87) 


2 Mon. - 


20 42 30 


10 Mar. (69) 


5 Thur. 


9975-7134 


810-1026 


225-8111 


4783 


29 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed. 


2 55 


28 Felx (59) 


3 Tues. 


190-0287 


693*6290 


197-7250 


4784 


29 Mar. (88) 


5 Thur. 


9 7 30 


19 Mar. (78) 


2 Mon. . 


224-6683 


629-6125 


249-0348 


4785 


28 Mar. (88) 


6 Fri. . 


15 20 


7 Mar. (67) 


6 Fri. . 


100-3517 


476-8474 


218-2108 


4786 


28 Mar. (87) 


Sat, . 


21 32 30 


25 Mar. (84) 


4 Wed. 


9796-3594 


376*5391 


266-7828 


4787 


29 Mar. (88> 


2 Mon. . 


3 45 


15 Mar. (74) ! 


2 Mon. * 


10-6747 


260-0656 


238-6967 


4788 


29 Mar. (88) 


3 Tues. 


9 57 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


6 FrL . 


9886-3581 


107-3005 

i 


207-8729 


4789 


28 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed, 


16 10 


22 Mar. (82) 


5 Thur. 


9920-9977 


43-2840 


259-1826 


4790 


28 Mar. (87) 


5 Thur. 


22 22 30 


12 Mar. (71) 


3 Tues. 


135-3130 


926-8104 


231-0966 


4791 


29 Mar. (88) 


Sat. 


4 35 


1 Mar, (60) 


Sat. . 


10-9963 


774-0452 


200-2727 


4792 


29 Mar. (88) 


1 Sun. . 


10 47 30 


20 Mar. (79) 


6 Fri* . 


45-6360 


710-0287 


251*5824 


4793 


28 Mar. (88) 


2 Mon. * 


17 


8 Mar. (68) 


3 Tues. 


9921-3194 


557-2636 


220-7585 


4794- 


28 Mar. (87) 


3 Tues. 


23 12 30 


27 Mar. (86) 


2 Mon. . 


9955-9590 


493-2471 


272-0682 


4795 


29 Mar. (88) 


5 Thur. 


5 25 


16 Mar, (75) 


6 Fri. . 


9831-6424 


340-4819 


241*2444 

";: : r-ria; 


4796 

!:..!, 



190 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


INTERCALATED 
(adJiika) -and 

SUPPEESSBD 

(IcsJiaya) LTTKAB 
MCJSTHS (true). 


KaH* 1 i 

% 


| 
aka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama. 



o 
>* 

1 

s t; 
li 

|.S' 


Kollam. 


A.D. 


JOVIAN SAMVATSARA. 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 

system. 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 ! 


7 


8 


4797 


1618 


1753 


1102 


870-71 


1695-96 


9 Yuvau 


19 Parthiva 


4 Ashadha 


4798 


1619 


1754 


1103 


871-72 


*1696-97 


10 Dhatyi 


20 Vyaya . 


... 


4799 


1620 


1755 


1104 


872-73 


1697-98 


11 Isvara 


21 Sarvajit 


* * 


4800 


1621 


1756 


1105 


873-74 


1698-99 


"12 Bahudhanya . 


22 Sarvadharin . 


3 Jyeshtha 


4801 


1622 


1757 


1106 


874-75 


1699-1700 


13 Pramathin 


23 Virodhin 


* * 


4802 


1623 


1758 


1107 


875-76 


*1700-01 


14 Vikrama 


24 Vikrita , | 


7 Asvina \ 
1 Magha (teh.) > 


4803 


1624 


1759 


1108 


876-77 


1701-02 


15 Vrisha 


25 Khara . 


1 Chaitra 


4804 


1625 


1760 


1109 


877-78 


1702-03 


16 Chitrabbanu 


26 ^Nandana 


** 


4805 


1626 


1761 


1110 


878-79 


1703-04 


17 Subhanu 


27 Vijaya . 


5 Sravana 


4SOG 


1627 


1762 


1111 


879-80 


* 1704-05 


18 Tarana 


28 Jaya 


* * 


4807 


1628 


1763 


1112 


880-81 


1705-06 


19 Parthiva 


29 Manmatha 


* 


4808 


1629 


1764 


1113 


881-82 


1706-07 


20 Vyaya 


30 Durmufcha. 


4 Ashadha 














* 






4809 


1630 


1765 


1114 


882-83 


1707-08 


21 Sarvajit 


31 Heroalamba . 





4810 


1631 


1766 


1115 


883-84 


* 1708-09 


22 Sarvadharin * 


32 Vilamba 


* 


4S11 


1632 


1767 


1116 


884-85 


1709-10 


23 Virodhin 


33 Vikarin 


2 Vaisakha 


4812 


1633 


1768 


1117 


885-86 


1710-11 


24 Vikrita 


34 Sarvarin 


* * 


4813 


1634 


1769 


1118 


886-87 


1711-12 


25 Khara 


35 Plava * 


6 Bhadrapada 


4814 


1635 


1770 


1119 


887-88 


*1712-13 


26 Nandana 


36 Subhakrit 


+ * 


4815 


1636 


1771 


1120 


888-89 


1713-14 


27 Vijaya 


37 Sobhana 


* 


4816 


1637 


1772 


1121 


889-90 


1714-15 


28 Jaya 


38 Krodhin 


4 Ashadha 


4817 


1638 


D773 


1122 


890-91 


1715-16 


29 Manmatha 


39 Visvavaeu 


*, 


4818 


1639 


1774 


1123 


891-92 


*1716-17 


30 Durmukha 


40 Parabhava 


* ** 


4819 


1640 


1775 


1124 


892-93 


1717-18 


31 Hemalamba . 


41 Plavanga 


3 Jyeshtha 


4820 


1641 


1776 


1125 


893-94 


! 1718-19 


32 Vilamba 


42 Kilaka . 


* 


4821 


1642 


1777 


1126 


394-95 


1719-20 


33 Vikarin 


43 Saumya. 


7 l^vina 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARtA-SIDDHANTA : * TRUE " SYSTEM. 



191 



LXl Contd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kail. 


SOLAB YEAR. 


LTJNI-SOLAB YEAR (MEAN STORISE OF CIVIL DAY ON WHICH 
CHAITRA SUELLA 1 EKBS). 


Day and 
month, A.D, 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Msha- 
samkranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a. 


6. 


C- 


13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. M. 8. 














29 Mar. (88) 


6 Fit , 


11 37 30 


6 Mar. (65) 


4 Wed. 


45*9577 


224*0083 


213-1584 


4797 


28 Mar. (88) 


Sat. . 


17 50 


23 Mar. (83) 


2 Mon. . 


9741-9654 


123-7001 


261-7303 


4798 


29 Mar. (88) 


2 Mon. . 


2 30 


13 Mar. (72) 


Sat. . 


9956-2806 


7-2266 


233-6441 


4799 


29 Mar. (88) 


3 Tues. 


G 15 


3 Mar. (62) 


5 Thur. 


170-5959 


890-7531 


205-5581 


4800 


29 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed. 


12 27 30 


22 Mar. (81) 


4 Wed. 


205-2355 


826-7366 


256-8678 


4801 


2S Mar. (88) 


5 Thur. 


18 40 


10 Mar. (70) 


1 Sun. . 


80-9189 


673-9714 


226-0440 


4802 


29 Mar. (88) 


Sat. . 


52 30 


27 Feb. (58) 


5 Thur. 


9956-6022 


521-2062 


195-2191 


4803 


29 Mar. (88) 


1 Sun. . 


750 


18 Mar. (77) 


4 Wed. 


9991-2419 


357-1897 


246*5298 


4804 


29 Mar. (88) 


2 Mon. . 


13 17 30 


7 Mar. (66) 


1 Sun. . 


9866-9253 


304-4245 


215-7059 


4805 


28 Mar. (88) 


3 Tues. 


19 30 


25 Mar. (85) 


Sat. . 


9901-5649 


240-4080 


267-0157 


4806 


29 Mar, (SS) 


5 Thur. 


1 42 30 


14 Mar. (73) 


4 Wed. 


9777-2483 


87-6428 


2364918 


4807 


29 Mar. (88) 


6 Fri. . 


7 55 


4 Mar. (63) 


2 Mon, . 


9991-5636 


971-1693 


208-1058 


4808 


29 Mar* (88) 


Sat. . 


14 7 30 


23 Mar, (82) 


1 Sun. . 


26-2032 


907-1528 


259-4155 


4809 


28 Mar. (88) 


I Sun. . 


20 20 


12 Mar. (72) 


6 Fri. . 


240-5185 


790-6792 


231-2295 


4S10 


29 Mar. (88} 


3 Tues. 


2 32 30 


1 Mar. (60) 


3 Tues. 


116-2018 


637-9140 


200-5055 


4811 


29 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed. 


8 45 


20 Mar. (79) 


2 Mon. . 


150-8415 


573-8975 


251-8153 


4812 


29 Mar. (88) 


5 Thur, 


14 57 30 


9 Mar. (68) 


6 Fri. . 


26-5249 


421-1323 


220-9914 


4813 


28 Mar. (88) 


6 Fri. . 


21 10 


27 Mar. (87) 


5 Thur. 


614645 


357-1158 


272-3011 


4814 


29 Mar, (88) 


1 Sun. . 


3 22 30 


16 Mar. (75) 


2 Mon. . 


9936*8478 


204-3506 


241-4773 


4815 


29 Mar. (88) 


2 Mon. . 


& 35 


5 Mar. (64) 


6 Fri. . 


9812-5312 


51*5855 


210-6535 


4816 


29 Mar. (88) 


3 Tues, 


15 47 30 


24 Mar. (83) 


5 Thur. 


9847-1709 


987-5689 


261*9631 


4817 


28 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed, 


22 


13 Mar. (73) 


3 Tues. 


614864 


871-0954 


,233-8770 


481S 


29 Mar. (88) 


C Fri. . 


4 12 30 


3 Mar. (62) 


1 Sun. . 


275-8013 


754-6218 


205-7910 


4S19 


29 Mar. (88) 


Sat. . 


10 25 


22 Mar. (81) | 


Sat. * 


310-4410 


691-6053 


257-1007 


4820 


29 Mar. (88) 


1 Sun. . 


16 37 30 


11 Mar. (70) 


4 Wed. 


186-1243 


537-8401 


226-2769 


4821 

j. m 



192 



EPIGKAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


INTERCALATED 
(adhika) and 

SUPPRESSED 

(kshaya) LUNAR 
MONTHS (true) . 


Kali. 


Saka. 


Chaitradi Vikrama. 


Mcshadi solar year 
in Bengal. 


Kollam. 


A.D. 


1 
JOVIAN SAMVATSAKA. 


Southern 
system. 


Northern 
system* 


1 


2 


3 


3a 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4822 


1643 


1778 


1127 


895-96 


*1720-21 


34 Sarvarin 


44 Sadharana 





4823 


1644 


1779 


1128 


896-97 


1721-22 


35 Plava 


45 Virodhakrit- . 


* 


4824 


1645 


1780 


1129 


897-98 


1722-23 


36 Subhakrit 


46 Paridhavin 


5 Sravana 


4825 


1646 


1781 


1130 


898-99 


1723-24 


37 Sobhana 


47 Pramadin 


. 


4826 


1647 


1782 


1131 


899-900 


*1724-25 


38 Krodhin 


48 Ananda 


,.. 


4827 


1648 


1783 


1132 


900-01 


1725-26 


39 Visvavasu 


49 Rakshasa 


4 Ashadha 


4828 


1649 


1784 


1133 


901-02 


1726-27 


40 Parabbava 


50 Anala . 


,.. 


4829 


1650 


1785 


1134 


902-03 


1727-28 


41 Plavanga 


51 Pingala 


? * 


4830 


1651 


1786" 


"1135 


903-04 


*1728-29 


42 Kilaka 


52 Kalayukta 


2 Vaisakha * 


4831 


1652 


1787 


1136 


904-05 


1729-30 


43 Saumya 


53 SiddhartMn . 


... 


4832 


1653 


1788 


1137 


905-06 


1730-31 


44 Sadharana 


54 Raudra 


6 Bhadrapada 


4833 


1654 


1789 


1138 


906-07 


1731-32 


45 Virodhakrit . 


55 Durmati 


... 


4834 


1655 


1790 


1139 


907-08 


*1732-33 


46 Paridhavin 


56 Dundubhi 


** 


4835 


1656 


1791 


1140 


908-09 


1733-34 


47 Pramadin 


57 Rudhir5dgarin 


4 Ashadha 


4836 


1657 


1792 


1141 


909-10 


1734-35 


48 Ananda 


58 Raktaksha . 


** 


4837 


1658 


1793 


1142 


910-11 


1735-36 


49 Rakshasa 


59 Krodhana 


* 


4838 


1659 


1794 


1143 


911-12 


*1736-37 


50 Anala 


60 Kshaya 


3 Jyeshtha 


4839 


1660 


1795 


1144 


912-13 


1737-38 


51 Pin gala, 


1 Prabhava 


* 


4840 


1661 


1796 


1145 


913-14 


1738-39 


52 Kalayukta 


2 Vibhava 


7 Aavina 


4841 


1662 


1797 


1146 


91445 


1739-40 


53 Siddharthin . 


3 Sukla 


... 


4842 


1663 1798 


1147 


915-16 


*1740-41 


54 Raudra 


* 4 Pramoda 


... 


4843 
4844" 


1664 
1665* 


1799 
1800 


1148 
1149 


916-17 
917-18 


1741-42 
1742-43 


55 Durmati 
56 Dundubhi 


5 Prajapati 
6 Aiigirasa 


5 Sravaria 


4845 


1666 


1801 


1150 


918-19 


1743-44 


57 Rudhirodgarin 


7 Srimukha 


... 


4846 


10(57 


1802 


1151 


919-20 


*1744-45 


58 Raktaksha . 


8 Bhava 


4 Ashadha 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : TRUE " SYSTEM. 



193 



LXI Oontd. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE 


Kali. 


SOLAB YEAB 


LUNI-SOLAB YEAR (MEAN SUXBISE OF 3>AY ON WHICH 
CHAITKA SUKX.A 1 ENDED). 


i 














Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
saihkrantl. 


Day and 
month, A.D. 


Week- 
day. 


a* 


*. 


c. 




13 


14 


17 


19 


20 


23 


24 


25 


1 






H. ML S. 














28 Mar. (88) 


2 Mem, * 


22 50 


28 Mar. (88) 


2 Mon. . 


9882-1321 


437-5321 


274-8488 


4822 


29 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed. 


5 2 30 


17 Mar. (76) 


6 Fri. . 


-9757*8155 


284-7669 


244-0249 


'4823 


29 Mar. (88) 


5 Thur. 


11 15 


7 Mar, (66) 


4 Wed. 


9972*1307 


168-2932 


215-9388 


4824 


29 Mar. (88) 


6 Fri. . 


17 27 30 


26 Mar. (85) 


3 Tues. 


6-7703 


104-2768 


267-2486 


4825 


28 Mar. (88) 


Sat, . 


23 40 


14 Mar. (74) 


Sat. . 


98824537 


951-5116 


236-4247 


4826 


29 Mar. (88) 


2 Mon. 


5 52 30 


4 Mar. (63) 


5 Thur. 


96-7690 


835-0380 


208-3387 


4827 


29 Mar. (88) 


3 TUGS. 


12 5 


23 Mar. (82) 


4 Wed, 


131-4086 


771-0215 


259-6484 


4S23 


29 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed. 


18 17 30 


12 Mar, (71) 


1 Sun. . 


7-0920 


618-2563 


228-8246 


4820 


20 Mar. (89) 


6 Fri. . 


30 


29 Feb. (60) 


5 Thur. t 


9882*7754 


46o-4911 


198*0006 


4830 


29 Mar. (88) 


Sat. . 


6 42 30 


19 Mar. (78) 


4 Wed. 


9917-4150 


401-4746 


249-3104 


4831 


29 Mar. (88) 


1 Sun. . 


12 55 


8 Mar. (67) 


1 Sun. . 


9703-0984 


248-7095 


218-4865 


4832 


29 Mar. (88) 


2 Mon. . 


19 7 30 


27 Mar. (86) 


Sat. . . 


9827-7380 


184-6929 


269-7963 


4833 


29 Mar. (89) 


4 Wed, 


1 20 


16 Mar. (76) 


5 Thur. 


42-0533 


68-2194 


241*7102 


4834 


29 Mar. (88) 


5 Thur. 


7 32 30 


5 Mar. (64) 


2 Mon. . 


9917-7367 


915-4542 


210-8864 


4835 


29 Mar. (88) 


6 Fri. . 


13 45 


24 Mar. (83) 


1 Sun* . 


9952-3763 


851*4377 


262-1960 


4836 


29 Mar. (88) 


Sat. , 


19 57 30 


14 Mar. (73) 


6 Fri. . 


166-6915 


734-9641 


234*1099 


4837 


29 Mar. (89) 


2 Mon. . 


2 10 


2 Mar. (02) 


3 Tues. 


42-3749 


582-1989 


203-2861 


4838 


29 Mar. (88) 


3 Tues. 


8 22 30 


21 Mar. (80) 


2 Mon, . 


77-0146 


518-1725 


254-5958 


4S39 


29 Mar. (88) 


4 Wed. 


14 35 


10 Mar. (09) 


6 Fri. . 


9952-6979 


365-4172 


223-7720 


4840 


29 Mar. (88) 


5 Thur. 


20 47 30 


29 Mar. (88) 


5 Thur. 


9987-3376 


301*4008 


275-1017 


4841 


29 Mar. (89) 


Sat. . 


300 


17 Mar. (77) 


2 Mon. . 


9863-0209 


148-6356 


244-2579 


4842 


29 Mar (88) 


1 Sun. . 


9 12 30 


7 Mar. (66) 


Sat. . 


77-3362 


3M620 


216-1717 


4843 


29 Mar. (88) 


2 Mon. * 


15 25 


26 Mar. (85) 


6 Fri. . 


111-9758 


968-1455 


267*4815 


4844 


29 Mar. (88) 


3 Tuos. 


21 37 30 


15 Mar. (74) 


3 Tues. 


9987-6592 


815-3803 


236-6576 


4845 


29 Mar. (89) 


5 Tfcur. 


3 50 


4 Mar. (64) 


1 Sun. . 


201-9744 


698-906S: 


208*5707 


4846 



194 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI, 



TABLE 



CONCURRENT YEAR. 


INTERCALATED 
(adhika) and 

SUPPRESSED 

(kshaya) LUNAE 
MONTHS (true). 


Kali. 


Saka. 


*adi Vikrania. 


* 
o 

.- so 

3 g 


Kollam. 


A.D. 


JOVIAN SAMVATSABA. 


Southern 


Northern 






'3 


|w 






system. 


system. 









Cj 


M.H .M 












I 

4S47 


3 


1152 


4 


5 





7 


8 


1668 


1803 


920-21 


1745-46 


59 Krodliana 


9 Yuvan . 




4S4S 


1669 


1804 


1153 


921-22 


1746-47 


60 Kshaya 


10 Dhatri . . 


... 


4849 


1670 


1805 


1154 


922-23 


1747-48 


1 Prabhava 


11 Isvara . 


1 Chaitra 


4SoO 


1C71 


1806 


1155 


923-24 


1748-49 


2 Vibhava 


12 Bahudhanya , 


** 


4851 


1672 


1807 


1156 


924-25 


1749-50 


3 Sukla 


13 Pramathin . 


6 Bahudhaaya 


4852 


1673 


1808 


1157 


925-26 


1750-51 


4 Pramoda . 


14 Vikrama 


t 



No. li] THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : " TRO " SYSTEM 



1 I 
ft 



LXI-CwicM. 



mam*** 


'-; , 


SOLAR YEAR, 


LtJSl-SOlAR YEAS (MEAX StXRI?E 

CHAITEA SCKLA 1 EM 




* * * 1 * ". a 

)!';, 


Day and 
month, A,D, 


Week- 
day, 


Time of 
true Mesha- 
daiiikranti. 


Day and 
month, A.D, 


Week- 
day. 


\ 

fl, 

1 


fi * 
* i . ii 








i 
1 


1 


, IN 1 1 "T u'J 1 J i JnmiDHjilliWlniJinr 


uwiii 


13 


14 17 


19 


20 


23 ' 


lit - ' i 


( 

i 


20 Mar, (88) 


Jm,. f 

(iFri, , 


II M. S, 
10 2 30 


23 Mar. (82) 


OSat, . 


: 


i 


29 Mar, (88) 


OSat , 


16 15 


12 Mar, (71) 


4 Wed. 


112-S4 


*jiD*'*l*'^' ** ^ s J 

4 


i v 


' 29 Mar. (88) 
29 Mar, (89) 


1 Sun, . 
3 Tues, 


22 27 30 
4 40 


I Mar, (CO) 
19 Mar, (79) 


1 Sun. . 
s OSat . 


9987-9S09 

22-eaw 


Uiww'tJN fv ^ . * h> ' 

C 
j 

*Uw' v* v* ** i ' ' ' " ** 


'i * 4 


29 Mar, (88) 


4 Wei 


10 52 30 


8 Mar. (67) 


4Wd 


4 1 *w f J tl fa JMiJiiv (i '* a 


}* 


24) Mar. f SS) 


5 Tlrar, 


17 5 


27 Mar, (86) 


3 Tea 


ffi-9431 


*J rj 4 i I * * ih * 


I.' 











in ..i :tmfnm 


.! 


4 



196 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE LXIL 

NAMES OF MONTHS AND NAKSSATRAS. 
(Corresponding to Table II, Part II, " Indian Calendar") 



LTOAB MOKTES. 


SoiliB MONTHS. 


No. 


Usual name. 


Tamil name. 


Ko. 


Sign name. 


Bengal name. 


Tamil name. 


Malayalam 
rxame. 


Orissa name. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


1 


Chaitra 


Paggu 


1 


Mesha 


Vaisakha 


Chittirai 


Medam 


Baisak 


2 
3 
4 
5 



Vaisakha 
Jyeshtha 
Ashadha 
Srava^a 
Bhadrapada 


Besa 
Kartelu 
Ati . 
S6na 
Nirnala 


2 
3 

4 
5 
6 


Vrishabha 
Mithuaa 
Karka 
Simba 
Kanya 


Jyeehtha 
Ashadha 
Sravai^a 
Bhadrapada 
Asvina. 


Vaikasi* 
Ani . 
Adi . 
Avani 
Purattadi 2 


Edavam . 
Midunam . 
Karkadagam 
Chingam . 
Kanni 


Joistho. 

Assar. 
Sawun. 
Bhadro. 
Assin. 


7 


Asvina 


Bontelu 


7 


Tula 


Karttika 


Aippasi 3 


Tulam 


Kaittik* 


a 
^ 


Karttika 
Margasira 


Jarde 

Perardo 


8 
9 


VriscMka 
Dhanus 


Margasira 
Pausha 


Karttigai 
Margari 


Vriischikam 
Dhanu 


Aghran. 
Paus. 


10 

11 

12 


Pausha 
Magha 
Phalguna 


Puntolu 
Mayi 
Suggi 


10 
11 
12 


Makara 
Kumbha 
Mina 


Magha 
Phalguna 
Chaitra 


Tai . 
Masi 
Paiiguni 


Makaram . 
Kumbham 
Minam . 


Magha. 
Falgua. 
ChoitVo. 


1 or VaiyasL * or Purattasi* 3 or Arppisi, or Appisi. 



NAKSHATEAS. 1 



No. 


Name. 


Tamil name. 


Deity* 


No. 


Name. 


Tamil name. 


Deity, 


1 


Asvini 


Asuvati . 


Asvin. 


15 


Svati . 


Sodi 


V" 


2 
3 


Bharani 
Krittika 


Bhara^I 
Kirmitigai 


Yama. 
Agni. 


16 
17 


Visakha. 
Anuradha 


Visakam 
Anusham, or 


IndragnL 
Mitra. 


4 
5 
6 


Rohim 
Mrigasira 
Ardra 


Kohim . 
Mirugusiram 
ArucLra, or 
Tiruvadirai. 


PrajapatL 
Soma. 
Eudra* 


18 
19 
20 


Jyeshtha 
Mula " . 
Purva-Asha- 
dha. 


Anilum. 
Kettai 
Miilara 
Puradam 


Indra. 

Nirriti. 
Apah. 


7 


Punarva^u * 


Punarpusam . 


Aditi. 


21 


Uttara-Asha- 


Uttiradam . 


Visvadeva. 












dha. 






S 


Pnshya , 


Piisam . 


Brihaspati 




Abhijit. 




Brahman. 


9 


Asleaha 


Ayilyam . 


aw. 


22 
23 


Sravarja 
Dhanishtha 
or Sravish- 


Timv^nam . 
Avittam 


Vishnu. 
Vasavah. 


10 


Magha 


Magham * 


Pitarah, 




tha. 






11 


Purva-Phal* 
gnni. 


Puram 


Bhaga,' 1 


24 


Satabhishaj or 
Satataraka. 


Sadayam 


Vartiria. 


12 


Uttara-Phal- 


Uttiram . 


Aryaman. 


25 


Purra-Bhadra- 


PiSrattadi . 


Aja Ekapad 




gani* 








pada. 






13 

14 


Hasta . 
CHtra. 


Hastam or At- 
tain, i 
Chittirai , 


Savitri. 
Tvaahtri ; 


26 
27 


Uttara-Bha- 
drapada* 
Revatl 


TJttira^tadi . 


Ahi Budhnya. 
PCsharu 


L, , : 








i 









from I)ewan 



14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA: "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



197 



TABLE LXIII A. 

(Corresponding to Table HI, Part I, " ,'ndian Calendar"} 
COLLECTIVE DURATION OP MEAN LUNAB MONTHS. 



LUNI-SOLAE YEAE (CHAITBlDI). 






CoiiBCTIVE DUBATIOK FEOM 






BEGrNOTNG OF YEAB TO E> T D 






or EACH mtan LITHAB MOKTH. 


8 
& 


Name of month. 




In civil days. 


a 

a 
G 

o 




Exactly 
in Tithis. 




Approx- 
imate. 


Exact. 


CO 






! 




1 


2 


3 


3fl 


36 


1 


Chaitra . . 


30 


30 


29-53 


2 : 


Vaisakha . 


60 


59 


59-06 


3 


Jyeshtha . 


90 


89 


88-59 


4 


Ashadha 


120 


118 


118-12 


5 


Sravaija . 


150 


148 


147-65 


6 


Bhadrapada . 


180 


177 


177-18 


7 


Asvina . 


210 


207 


206-71 


8 


Karttika . 


240 


236 


236-24 


9 


Margasira 


270 


266 


265-77 


10 


Pausha . 


300 


295 


295-30 


11 


Magha . 


330 


325 


324-83 


12 


Phalguna . 


360 


354 


354-38 




In intercalary yean. 

nit^MMBMIirT 


390 

1. " 


384 

i * 


383-89 

MOTWHMMMMI 



10S 



EPIGEAPIIIA IXDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE 

DURATION AND COLLECTIVE ur RATION OF TRUE SOLAR MONTHS, WITH INCREASE 

The values arc ti.ose 



Tf-fx TaUe sifpsrsff'ft Tnl ; c XV II I A, ''Indian 



^tejifl,.^ 


i 

At the trr," ^olar 1 


C'ulk*'*ti -, c (.liii'rtt !on in linys, 
oi ^*. y ^ *' ii'.nu true MC'.sha-^ 1 


' u r-^, rlo. n 
niS r.*H't to 


ml ( <?i!c--~-tiv 
c*;ick true ai 


r mrrr.ise 

Iilki'.'illU. 


Ctt tin* two stsiar 


riaziikrfuiU. 


j 








>T iKi'uill \ V i..il 




i). \V-U IL il. S. 


r? 


b 


C 


V" ! 1C il i t J S CO! 1HOC tCi i. 




1 








1 i 


- 


3 


4 


5 


G 


1. Chuitra . . ! 


Mln.,.,,/,-,^ 










( 


" MG^hfi-siiihkr. 


(0) 











. ,. 1 

* ? V;t**VuLiui 












r 


( Yrishabha-samkr. 


3U (2) 22 11 0-UO 


171-0831 


122-2961 


84-0643 














3 J> ' L 


C Jlithuna-riamkr. 


62 (>} 7 47 43-05 


1IO.V1053 


201-8682 


170-6319 




\ 










/ 


(_ Karka-saiiikr. 


93 (2) 22 22 0*;i7 


1S08-3520 


408-9426 


257-1 C54 


"~ *Cit-~V M f > '\ 












"-d'i'mh '" 


^ SiiiiLu-samkr* 


125 (;) 9 34 40-40 


2404-1251 


550-9358 


343-3157 


r 


(_ Kaiiyu-tiixihkr. . 


MO (2) 10 24 24- W 


2073-4105 


077-2297 


428-2817 


i *i> r ill It * S 












\-n--v- ^ 


f Tulu-saiiikr. 


ISO (4) 21 21 37-S2 


3280-9182 


782-5419 


511-0048 


( 


(, Vjisehika-samkr. . 


210 (i) 19 2 43-3* 


3413-2087 


807-7898 


593-5344 


y XaiLcisuMia .| 


r Dhanus-sajfhkp. 
i \ 


i 240 U) 7 15 59 -OS 


3405*9677 


938-7208 


674-3243 


U. Mugha . . ) 


(. Makara-saiiikr. 
( Kumbha-samkr. . 


275 (2) 15 41 4-81 
305 (4) 2 39 12-57 


3345-0707 
3320*1612 


3-9135 
72*9570 


754*6804 
835-3275 


12. Phalguna 


i] 










c 


(. MIna-samki:. 


334 (o) 22 4 5-29 


3414*4196 


154-7719 


916*9379 


1. riiaitra (///o/- 4 












lowing year)* {, 


' Meaha-aamkr. (o/ 


305 (1) 6 12 30-0 


3C88-2315 


255-8299 


1000-0 




following year. 











NOTE. 

EZACT VALUE OF " C " AND OF " EQUATION C " AT THE 
SEVERAL TKUE SAMKUANTIS IN EACH YEAR, 



Samkranti. 


c. 


Eqn. c 


1. Mesha-samkr* 


277-4558 


0-9119 


2. Vrishabha-aarixkr. 


3(>2-1201 


14-2108 


3. Mithuna-samkr. 


448*0877 


40-5649 


4. Karka-samkr. 


534-0212 


72-5193 


5. Simha-samkr. 


620-7715 


100-7366 


6. Kanya-samkr. 


705-7375 


117-0626 


7. Tula-samkr. 


789*1206 


117-5601 


8. Vrichika-saihkr. 


870-9002 


102-9215 


9. Dhanus-samkr. * 


951-7801 


77*4872 


10. Mafcara-samkt. . 


32-1302 


47-7147 


11, Kumbha-samkr, 


112-7833 


20-8518 


12. Mina-aamkr. 


194-3937 


3-6236 



No. li] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHAXTA: "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



LXIII B. 

? Ct, b, C, AT EACH SAMKIUNTI BY THE FlRST ARYA-S] 

by M. de Kies. 

o/ ciYc/e ; 6 and c in 

"T>, .732, flwt? "Indian Calendar" TaUcIII, Part II. 



~ .__ - . - . - : 


Length of month preceding earh true samkranti and lucres ul ., \ :, " . >*:* 
eai-h true sanuriiiti. 


At true solar sam- . 
kranti. 


D. W-D. H. M. S. 


d, 1 


i 
6. c. 


7 


8 


9 


10 H 




00 0^0 








Vrishabha-samkr. 


30 (2) 22 11 6-99 


471-9831 


u&afc 'is 


I Mithuna-sariikr. . 


31 (3) 9 36 36-06 


633-1S22 


130-372! ' >.X'OTii 


1 Karka-saiiikr. 


31 (3) 14 34 17-32 


703-1867 


147-0744 Ht/'TO 


1 Siriiha-samkr. 


31 (3) 11 12 40-02 


655-7731 


141-3332 (Hrftfi 


1 Kanya-samkr. 


31 (3) 49 44-48 


509-2854 | 


120-2939 bH*l 


1 Tula-samkr. 


30 (2) 10 57 12-94 


313-5077 


105-3122 W-Kl 


1 VriBchika-samkr. 


29 (1) 21 41 5-52 


126-2905 


85-2479 : >W* 


1 

1 Dhanus-samkr. . 


29 (1) 12 13 15-74 


9992-7590 


70-9370 &?"3 

[ 


1 Makaia-sarakr. . 


2 9 (1) 8 25 5-73 


9939-1030 

1 


65-1867 1 8>3oCl 

1 


1 Knmbha-somkr. . 


29 (1) 10 58 7-76 


9975-0905 


89-0435 MHH.I 

J%T;A^^A Cl ft 1 i*4 f 


1 Mina-sariakr. 
1 M5sha-samkr. (oj follow- 

1 \ 


29 (1) 19 24 52-72 
30 (2) 8 8 24-71 


94-2584 
273-8119 


81-8U9 , OHM 
101*0530 i 83-068 


1 ing year). 


'~- 


~ ~^" 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE LXIV. 
IKCBE.SE , I, c BAYS o* 24 HOUKS EACH BT THB FIBST i*&muTA WITH 



a in KXOOOths ; 6 and o in I,000th3 of circle. 



TUs Table corresponds to Table IV, " J*kKon Calendar. 




One day * 
Ono year of 365 days 
One year of 366 days 
One century of 36,525 days 
One century of 36,526 days 



338-631873982 
3600-634003430 
3939*265877412 
8529-197184659 
8867*829058641 



36-291623738 
246*442664370 
282-734288108 
051-557045243 
687*848668981 



2-737785720 
999-291787800 

2-029573520 
997-623429986 

0-361215706 



DAYS OF 24 HOUBS BACH. 




No. 


Week 
day. 


a. 


b. 


1 


2 | 3 


4 



c. ; 


No. 


Week 
day. 


5 


1 1 2 



3 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



17 
18 
19 

20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
23 
29 
30 



1 
2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 


1 
2 
3 

4 



338-6319 

677-2637 

1015-8956 

1354-5275 

1693-1594 

2031-7912 
2370-4231 
2709-0550 
3047-6869 
3386-3187 

3724-9506 
4063-5825 
4402-2144 
4740-8462 
6079-4781 

5418-1100 
5756-7419 
6095-3737 
6434-0056 
6772-6375 

7111-2694 
7449-9012 
7788-5331 
8127-1650 

8465-7968 

8804-4287 
9143-0606 
9481-6925 
9820-3243 
158-9562 



36-2916 

72-5832 

108-8749 

145-1665 

181*4581 

217*7497 
254-0414 
290-3330 
326-6246 
362-9162 

399-2079 
435-4995 
471-7911 
508*0827 
544-3744 

580-6660 
616-9576 
653-2492 
689-5409 
725*8325 

762-1241 
798-4157 
834-7073 
870-9990 
907-2906 

943*5822 

979-8738 

16*1655 

52*4571 

88-7487 



2-7378 

5*4756 

8-2134 
10-9511 
13-6889 

16-4267 
19-1645 
21-9023 
24-6401 
27-3779 

30-1156 
32-8534 
35-5912 
38-3290 
41*0668 

43-8046 
46-5424 
49*2801 
52-0179 
54-7557 

57*4935 
60-2313 
62-9691 
65*7069 
68-4446 

71-1824 
73-9202 
76*6580 
79-3958 
82*1336 



31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 

38 
39 
.40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46 
47 
48 
49 
50 

51 
52 
53 
54 
55 

56 
57 
58 
59 
60 



3 
4 
5 
6 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



1 
2 
3 

4 



497*5881 

836*2200 

1174-8518 

1513-4837 

1852-1156 

2190-7475 
2529-3793 
2868-0112 
3206-6431 
3545-2750 

3883*9068 
4222-5387 
4561-1706 
4899-8025 
5238*4343 

5577-0662 
5915-6981 
6254-3300 
6592-9618 
6931-5937 

7270-2256 
7608-8574 
7947-4893 
8286-1212 
8624*7531 

8963-3849 
9302-0168 
9640-6487 
9979-2806 
317-9124 



125*0403 
161-3320 
197-6236 
233-9152 
270-2068 

306-4985 
342*7901 
379-0817 
415-3733 
451-6649 

487-9566 
524-2482 
560-5398 
696-8314 
633-1231 

669-4147 
705-7063 
741-9979 
778-2896 
814*5812 

850*8728 
887-1644 
923-4561 
959-7477 
996-0393 

32-3309 

68*6226 

104-9142 

141-2058 

177-4974 



c. 



5 



84-8714 
87-6091 

90-3469 
93-0847 
95*8225 

98-5603 
101-2981 
104-0359 
106-7736 
109-5114 

112*2492 
114-9870 
117-7248 
120*4626 
123-2004 

125-9381 
128*6759 
131-4137 
134-1515 
136-8893 

139-6271 
142-3649 
145-1026 
147-8404 
150-5782 

153-3160 
156-0538 
158-7916 
161-5294 
164*2671 



No. 14.] 



THE FIEST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : " TKTJE " SYSTEM. 



201 



TABLE LXIV Contd. 
DAYS Contd. 



No. 


Week 
day. 


cu 


&. 


c. 


No. 


Week 
day. 


a. 


6. 


c. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


61 


5 


656*5443 


213*7890 1 


167*0049 


111 


6 


7588*1380 


28*3702 


303-8942 


62 


6 


995*1762 


250-0807 


169*7427 


112 





7926-7699 


64-6619 


306*6320 


63 





1333*8081 


286*3723 


172-4805 


113 


1 


8265-4018 


100*9535 


309-3698 


64 


1 


1672*4399 


322*6639 


175-2183 


114 


2 


8604*0336 


137*2451 


312-1076 


65 


2 


2011-0718 


358*9555 


177*9561 


115 


3 


8942-6655 


173-5367 


314-8454 


66 


3 


2349-7037 


395*2472 


180*6939 


116 


4 


9281-2974 


209*8284 


' 317-5831 


67 


4 


2688-3356 


431*5388 


183-4316 


117 


5 


9619*9293 


246*1200 


320*3209 


68 


5 


3028-9674 


467 -8304 


186*1694 


118 


6 


9958*5611 


282*4116 


323-0587 


69 


6 


3365-5993 


504*1220 


188*9072 


119 





297*1930 


318*7032 


325*7965 


70 





3704-2312 


540-4137 


191-6450 


120 


1 


635 '8249 


354*9948 


328*5343 


71 


1 


4042-8631 


576*7053 


194*3828 


121 


2 


974*4568 


391*2865 


331*2721 


72 


2 


4381 -4949 


612-9969 


197-1206 


122 


3 


1313*0886 


427-5781 


334-0099 


73 


3 


4720-1268 


649-2885 


199-8584 


123 


4 


1651*7205 


463-8697 


336-7476 


74 


4 


5058-7587 


685*5801 


202-5961 


124 


5 


1990*3524 


500*1613 


339*4854 


75 


5 


5397-3905 


721*8718 


205*3339 


125 


6 


2328-9842 


536*4530 


342-2232 


76 


6 


5736-0224 


758*1634 


208-0717 


126 





2667-6161 


572*7446 


344-9610 


77 





6074*6543 


794*4550 


210-8095 


127 


1 


3006-2480 


609-0362 


347-6988 


78 


1 


6413-2862 


830*7467 


213*5473 


128 


2 


3344*8799 


645*3278 


350-4366 


79 


2 


6751-9180 


867*0383 


216-2851 


129 


3 


3683-5117 


681*6195 


353*1744 


80 


3 


7090**5499 


903*3299 


219-0229 


130 


4 


4022*1436 


717-9111 


355*9121 


81 


4 


7429*1818 


939-6215 


221*7606 


131 


5 


4360*7755 


754 2027 


358*6499 


82 


5 


7767-8137 


975*9131 


224-4984 


132 


6 


4699*4074 


790*4943 


361-3877 


83 


6 


8106-4455 


12*2048 


227-2362 


133 





5038*0392 


826-7860 


364*1255 


84 





8445*0774 


48*4964 


229*9740 


134 


1 


5376*6711 


863*0776 


366*8633 


85 


1 


8783*7093 


84*7880 


232-7118 


135 


2 


5715*3030 


899*3692 


369*6011 


86 


2 


9122-3412 


121*0796 


235*449* 


136 


3 


6053*9349 


935-6608 


372*3389 


87 


3 


9460-9730 


157*3713 


238-1874 


137 


4 


6392*5667 


971*9525 


375-0766 


88 


4 


9799*6049 


193-6629 


240-9251 


138 


5 


6731-1986 


8,2441 


377*8144 


89 


5 


138*2367 


229-9545 


243-6629 


139 


6 


7069 -8305 


44-5357 


380-5522 


90 


6 


476*8687 


266-2461 


246-4007 


140 





7408-4624 


SO-8273 


383-2900 


91 





815-5005 


302-5378 


249*1385 


141 


1 


7747*0942 


117-1189 


386-0278 


92 


1 


1154*1324 


338*8294 


251 *8763 


142 


2 


8085*7261 


153*4106 


388*7656 


93 


2 


1492-7643 


375*1210 


254-6141 


143 


3 


8424*3580 


189-7022 


391-5034 


94 


3 


1831-3962 


411-4126 


257-3519 


144 


4 


8762*9899 


225-9938 


394-2411 


95 


4 


2170-0280 


447*7043 


260-0896 


145 


5 


9101*6217 


262*2854 


396*9789 


96 


5 


2508*6599 


483*9959 


262-8274 


146 


6 


9440-2536 


298*5771 


399*7167 


97 


6 


2847-2918 


520*2875 


265-5652 


147 





9778-8855 


334-8686 


402*4545 


9S 





3185*9237 


556*5791 


268*3030 


148 


1 


117*5173 


371-1603 


405-1023 


99 


1 


3524-5555 


592*8708 


271-0408 


149 


2 


456-1492 


407-4519 


407*9301 


100 


2 


3863*1874 


629*1624 


273-7786 


150 


3 


794*7811 


443*7436 


410*6679 


101 


3 


4201*8193 


665*4540 


276*5164 


151 


4 


1133-4130 


480-0352 


413-4056 


102 


4 


4540-4511 


701*7456 


279*2541 


152 


5 


1472-0448 


516*3268 


416*1434 


103 


5 


4879-0830 


738-0372 


281-9919 


153 


6 


1810-6767 


552-6184 


418-8812 


104 


6 


5217*7149 


774-3289 


284-7297 


154 





2149*3086 


588-9101 


421-6190 


105 





6556*3468 


810*6205 


287-4675 


155 


1 


2487-9405 


625-2017 


424*3568 


106 


1 


5894*9786 


846*9121 


290-2053 


156 


2 


2826*5723 


661 -4933 


427*0946 


107 


2 


6233*6105 


883*2037 


292-9431 


157 


3 


3165*2042 


697-7849 


429-8324 


108 


3 


6572*2424 


919*4954 


295*6800 


158 


4 


3503-8361 


734-0766 


432*5701 


109 


4 


6910*8743 


955*7870 


298*4186 


159 


5 


38424680 


770-3682 


435*3079 


110 


5 


7249*5061 


992*0786 


301*1564 


160 


6 


4181*0998 


80G-C5S8 


- 438-0457 



2B 



202 



EPiaRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI, 



TABLE LXIV Cowtd. 
DAYS Cotttd. 



J- 

No. i 
i 


- 
o 


a. 


6. 


c. 


No, 


Week 
day. 


a. 


6. 


c. 


1 


3 4 


5 


1 


2 


3 


4 5 


101 | ' 


15-9-7317 842-9514 


440*7835 


211 


1 


1451-3254 


657-5326 


577-6728 


162 1 


4S."}-*Wr36 


879*2430 


443*5213 


212 


2 


1789-9572 


093-8242 


580*4106 


163 


2 


5196-9955 


915-5347 


44G-2591 


213 


3 


2128-5892 


729*1159 


583*1484 


164 


3 


5535-6273 


951-8263 


448-9969 


214 


4 


2467-2210 


766*4075 


585-8861 


165 


4 


5874-2502 988-1179 


451-7346 


215 


5 


2805-8529 


802*6991 


588-6239 


16G 


5 


6212-8911 ! 24-4095 


454*4724 


216 


s* 


3144-4848 


838-9907 


591-3617 


107 


6 I 


(5351-5230 


60*7012 


457-2102 


217 





3483-1167 


875*2824 


594-0995 


168 


o i 


6N90-I54S 


96*9928 


459-9480 


218 


I 


3821-7485 


911-5740 


596*8373 


109 


i 


7228-7867 


133-2844 


462-G858 1 219 


2 


4100-3804 


947*8656 


599-5751 


170 


2 


7567-41 SG 1 1G9-57GO 


465-4236 I 220 


3 


4499-0123 


984*1572 


002-3129 






j 














171 


3 


7900 '0505 205 *8G77 


468-1013 


221 


4 4837-6442 


20-4488 


003-0500 


172 ! 


4 


S2 44-0823 242-1593 


470-8991 


222 


5 5176-2700 


56-7405 


607*7884 


173 : 


5 


b3S3-3J42 278-4509 473*6369 ! 


223 


G o5l4-9079 


93-0321 


610-5262 


174 


G 


8921-04*51 314-7423 476-3747 


224 


5853-5398 


129-3237 


613*2640 


175 





9200-3779 351-0342 1 479*1125 


225 


1 6192-1716 


165-6153 


616*0018 






\ 










170 


I 


9r>00-2008 387-3258 ! 4SI-S503 


220 


2 6530*8035 201-9070 


618-7300 


177 


2 


0937-S417 423-6174 1 484-5881 


227 


3 6809-4354 


238-1980 621-4774 


178 


3 


270-4730 459-9090 J 487-3259 


228 


4 7208-0073 274-4902 024-2151 


179 


4 


01 "v 1 , 054 49G-200G i 490-0636 


229 


5 7540-6991 


31 0-78 \ 8 620-0520 


ISO 


5 


05:.?-7:t73 532-4923 , 492-8014- ; 


230 


G 7SS5-3310 


347-0735 029-0907 


181 


G 


12^2-?n02 56S-783D ! 495-3392 


231 


i 82*23-9629 


383-3651 I 032-4285 


182 





103J-'KM1 005*0755 - 498-2770 


232 


1 85U2-5948 


419-0507 


(535-1 Of >3 


183 ! 


1 


1 069-6329 041-3671 \ 501-O.L48 


233 1 2 i 8W1-22W ! 435-9483 


637-9041 


184 i 


imi 


2308-2048 677-6588 ,i 503-7526 


234 


3 9239-8585 i 492-2400 


640-0410 


185 ; 


3 


2046-8007 ( 


713-9504 ; 

i 


50G-4904 


235 


4 9578-4904 


528-5316 643*3790 


1SG 4 


20S5-52SG ' ! 


750-2420 l 


509*2281 


230 


5 9917-1223 


564-8232 


646-1174 


187 5 


3324-1004 780-5336 


531-9059 


237 


6 ; 255*7541 


60M148 


648-8552 


188 G 


3002-792^ 822-8253 


514-7037 


238 


; 594*3860 


637-4004 


031-5930 


189 i 


4001*4242 858-1109 


517-4415 


239 


1 j 933-0179 


673*0981 


054*3308 


190 1 


4340-0361 895-4085 


520-1793 


240 


2 j 1271*6498 


709-U-897 


057-0680 


i 


il 












191 


9 


4G7S-G879 ]| 931*7001 


522-9171 


241 


3 


. 1010-2816 


746-2&13 


659-8064 


192 


3 


5017-3198 , 067-99 1 8 


525*0549 


242 


4 


1948-9135 


782-5729 


602-5441 


193 & 


5355-9517 


4*2834 


528-3926 


243 


5 


2287-5454 


8KS-SOIU 


065-2819 


194 5 


i 5694-5836 li 40-5750 


531-1304 


244 


6 


2626-1773 855- 1502 


04)8-0197 


195 


G 


6033-2154 |! 7G-8GGG 


533*8682 


245 





2904-809J 


80L-J178 


070*7575 


196 





! 6371-S473 j 1 KM 583 


j 536*0060 


246 


1 


3303-4410 


927-7304 i 673-4953 


197 


1 


1 0710-4792 


149-4499 


i 539-3438* 


247 




3642-0729 


IK;;** w.i 670-2331 


198 


2 


i 7(>4-0-lllO 


IK5-7415 


542-0810 


248 


3 


3980-7047 0-3227 <17S-!>71M> 


199 


3 


i 7387-7429 222-0331 


544-8194 


249 


4 


4">19:3:$'50 


3<M>1 13 I 08l-708(i 


200 


4 


; 7726-3748 


258-3247 


547-557-1 


250 


5 


4fJ37-9G$:"> 72-5)' )0l> i 084-4404. 




j 








, " j 


201 


5 


gOfi5-(W>7 j 294 -OHU 


550- 2MO 


251 


6 


ttWMttOi ^'M'rir. <iS7-lSl2 


202 





840:>-63isr> 330-9080 


553-0327 


252 k 


5:>:j,v2322 


\ >3-:^)2 . OS9-9220 


203 





! 8712-2704 


"G7-1996 


555*7703 


253 


\ I 


*.*.** i 

*t}7o*Sn4\ iX* 4 i JS * (>9"^-05*)Ji 


204 


1 


9OSO-902;> 


403- UM 2 


f5S-5OS3 


254 


2 


f;ol2-4l)W ::* v o7:*t <i)5 -397-0 


205 


2 


, 9419-5342 


4"9-70 


501-2401 


255 


3 


0351-1279 ;*- ;-v Jl (Wb-1354 


son 


3 


! 9758-3000 


470-0745 


563-9839 


25tt 


4 


<wso-75j>7 ;-;n r-r/; 7<K>-7:u 


207 


4 


I 9t>-7tJ79 


r>i2-3otn i rifr>-72iG 


257 


5 


TOi'HvUUO ;.?':*. ,7:* 70:H>1<*9 


208 


5 


435-4298 


54 S- 0577 1 n f 59-4504 


258 





73I>7-02^5 I"*:*- .^;v* 74KKUX7 


209 


6 


774-0017 


DS4 -941)4 | 572-1972 


259 





77^5-B5.">4 t : J9*/*.** '*> 7 09*0 SO 5 


210 





1112-6935 


! 621-2410 574-9330 


Of Jfj 


I 


S(44*H<2 t* :'-5"-i.2 711*82-43 



NO. no 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : " TRUE " SYSTEM. 



203 



TABLE LXIV Contd. 
DATS Contd. 



No. 


Week 

day. 


a. 


b. 


c. 


No. 


Week 
day. 


a. 


b. 


c. 


L 


2 


3 


4 


5 


1 | 


2 

! 


3 


4 


5 


261 


2 


8382-9191 


472-1138 


714-5621 


311 


3 


5314-5128 


286*6950 


851-4ul4 


262 


3 


8721-5510 


508-4054 


717-2999 


312 


4 


5653-1446 


322-9866 


854-1801 


263 


4 


9060-1829 


544-0970 


720-0376 


313 1 


5 


5991-7766 


359-2782 


856-9261) 


264 


5 


9398-8147 


580-9887 


722-7754 


314 


6 i 


6330-4084 


395-5699 


859-(><47 


265 


6 


9737-4466 


617*2803 


725-5132 


315 





66GO-0403 


431-8615 


862*4025 














j 








206 





76-0785 


653-5719 


728-2510 


316 


1 


7007-6722 


468-1531 


865-1403 


2C>7 


1 


414*7104 


689-8635 


730*9888 


317 


2 


7346-3041 


504-4447 


867-8781 


268 


2 


753-3422 


72<H552 


733-7266 


318 


3 


7084-9359 


540-7363 


870-6150 


260 


3 


1091-9741 


762*4408 ! 


736*4644 


319 


4 


802J>5678 


577-02SO 


873-353(5 


270 


4 


1430*6060 


79S-7334 I 


739-2021 


320 


5 j 


8362*1997 


613*3196 


S76-09U 














i 








271 


5 


1769-2378 


835*0300 ' 


741-9399 


321 


6 


8700-8315 


649-6113 


878*8*292 


272 


6 


2107-8697 


871-3217 : 


744-6777 


322 





9039-4634 


685-9028 


881-5670 


273 





2446-5016 


907-6133 t 


747-4155 


323 


1 


9378*0953 


722-1945 


8S4-304S 


274 


1 


2785-1335 


943-9049 


750-1533 


324 


2 


9716*7272 


758-4861 


S87-042<i 


275 


2 


3123-7653 


979-1905 


752-8911 


325 


3 


55-3590 


794-7777 


889-7804 


276 


' 3 


3462-3972 


16-4882 


755-6289 


326 


4 


3JU-9900 


831-0693 


892-5181 


277 


4 


3801-0291 


52-7708 ! 


758-3666 


327 


5 


732-6228 


867-3610 


895-2.159 


278 


5 


4139-6610 


89-0714 


761-1044 


328 


6 


1071*2547 


903-6526 


897*9937 


279 


6 


4478-2928 


125-3630 


763*842:2 


329 


i 


UOO-8805 


939-9442 


900-7315 


280 





4316-9247 


161-6540 


766*5800 


330 


1 


1748-5184 


076-2358 ! 


903-469:? 


281 


1 


5155-5566 


197*9463 


769-3178 


331 


2 


2087*1503 


12-5275 


906*2071 


282 ; 


2 


5494-1885 


234-2379 


772-0556 


332 


3 


2425-7822 


48-8191 


908-9449 


283 


3 


5852-8203 


270-5205 


774*7934 


333 


4 


2764*4140 


85*1107 


911-6826 


284 


4 


6171*4522 


306-8211 


777*5311 


334 


5 


3103-0459 


121-4023 


914*4204 


285 


5 


6510-0841 


343-1128 


780-2689 


335 


6 


3441-6778 


157-6940 


917-1582 


286 


6 


6848-7160 


379-4044 


783-0067 


336 





3780-3097 


193*9856 


919-8960 


287 





7187-3478 


415-6960 


785-7445 


337 


1 


4118-9415 


230-2772 


922-6338 


288 


1 


7525-9797 


451-9876 


788*4823 


338 


2 


4457-5734 


266-5688 


925*3710 


289 


2 


7864-6116 


488-2793 


791-2201 


339 


3 


4796-2053 


302-8604 


928-1094 


290 


3 


8203-2435 


524-5709 


' 793-9579 


340 


4 


5134-8372 


339-1521 


930-8471 


291 


4 


8541*8753 


560-8625 


796*6956 


341 


5 


5473-4690 


375-4437 


933-5849 


292 


5 


8880-5072 


597-1541 


799*4334 


342 


6 


5812-1009 


411-7353 


936-3227 


293 


6 


9219-1391 


633-4458 


802-1712 


343 





6150-7328 


448-0269 


939-0605 


294 





9557-7710 


669-7374 


804*9090 


344 


1 


6489-3646 


484-3186 


941-7983 


295 


1 


9896-4028 


706-0290 


807-6468 


345 


2 


6827-9965 


520-6102 


944-5361 


296 


2 


235-0347 


742-3206 


810-3846 


346 


3 


i 7166-6284 


556-9018 


947-2739 


297 


3 


573-6666 


778-6123 


813-1224 


347 


4 


7505-2603 


593-1934 


950*0116 


298 


4 


912-2984 


814-9039 


815-8601 


348 


5 


7843-8921 


629-4851 


952-7494 


299 


5 


1250-9303 


851-1955 


818-5979 


349 


6 


8182-5240 


665-7767 


955-4872 


300 


6 


1589-5622 


887-4871 


821-3357 


350 





8521-1559 


702-0683 


958-2250 


301 





1928-1941 


923-7787 


824-0735 


351 


1 


8859-7878 


738-3599 


960-9628 


302 


1 


2266-8259 


960-0704 


826-8113 


352 


2 


9198-4196 


774-6516 


963-7006 


303 





2605*4578 


996-3620 


829-5491 


353 


3 


9537-0515 


810-9432 


966-4384 


304 


! 3 


2944-0897 


32-6536 


832-2869 


354 


4 


9875-6834 


847-2348 


969-1761 


305 


4 


3282-7216 


68-9452 


835-0246 


355 


5 


214-3153 


883-5264 


971-9139 


306 


5 


3621-3534 


105-2369 


837-7624 


356 


6 


552-9471 


919-8181 


974-6517 


307 
308 


6 



3959-9853 

4298-6172 


141-5285 
177-8201 


840-5002 
843-2380 


357 

358 



1 


891-5790 
1230-2109 


056-1097 
992-4013 


977-3895 
980-127* 


309 


1 


4637-2491 


214-1117 


845*9758 


359 


2 


1568-8428 


28-6929 


982-8651 


310 


2 


4975-8809 


250-4034 


848-7136 


360 


3 


1907-4746 


64-9845 


9854029 



204 



EHGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE LXIV Concld. 
DAYS Concld. 



No. 


Week 
day* 


a. 


6. 


c. 


No. 


Week 
day. 


a. 


b. 


c* 




I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


361 


4 


2246*1065 


101-2762 


988-3406 


376 


5 


7325-5846 


645-6505 


29-4074 




362 


5 


2584-7384 


137-5678 


991-0784 


377 


6 


7664-2165 


681-9421 


32-1452 




363 


6 


2923*3703 


173-8594 


993-8162 


378 





8002-8484 


718-2338 


34-8830 




364 





3262-0021 


210-1510 


996-5540 


379 


1 


8341-4802 


754*5254 


37-6208 




365 


1 


3600*6340 


246-4427 


999-2918 


380 


2 


8680-1121 


790-8170 


40-3586 




366 


2 


3939*2659 


282-7343 


2-0296 


381 


3 


9018-7440 


827-1086 


43-0964 




367 


3 


4277-8978 


319-0259 


4-76Y4 


382 


4 


9357-3759 


863-4003 


45-8341 




368 


4 


4616*5296 


355-3175 


7-5051 


383, 


5 


9696*0077 


899-6919 


48-571* 




360 


5 


4955-1615 


391-6092 


10-2429 


384 


6 


34-6396 


935-9835 


51-3097 




370 


6 


5293-7934 


427-9008 


12-9807 


385 





373-2715 


972*2751 


54-0475 




371 





5632-4252 


464-1924 


15-7185 














372 


I 


5971*0571 


500-4840 


18-4563 














373 


2 


6309-6890 


536-7757 


21-1941 














374 


3 


6648-3209 


573-0673 


23-9319 














375 

< ...la 


4 

a... , 


6986-9527 


609-3589 


26-6696 















No. U.] 




INCREASE op a, b, 



TABLE LXV. 



HOURS, insures AND SECONDS. 



corresponds to Table V, "Indian Valeriar." 
Increase in 



One hour . 
Ono minute 
One second 



'"""" 

<z. 

"""" 

14-109861416 
0-235161024 
0-003919350 




"""" mm 

b. 

in 

1-512150989 
0'025202517 
0-00042CHM2 

"" " 11 1 : 


. 
c. 


0414074405 
0-001901210 

0-0000316S7 

- 



_. 


HOUBS. 

Tin 'I I- 1 HUT ,_, , 


No. 


a. 


6. 


c. 


No. 


a. 


&. 


"; : 

C. 


1 
2 
3 

4 

5 
6 
7 
B 
9 
10 


144097 
28*2193 
42-3290 
56-4386 
70-5483 
84-6580 
98-7676 
U2-8773 
126-9870 
141-0966 


1-5122 
3-0243 
4-5365 
6-0486 
7-5608 
9-0729 
10-5851 
12-0972 
13-6094 
15-1215 


04141 
0-2281 
0-3422 
045G3 
0-5704 
0-6844 
0-7985 i 
0-9126 
1-0267 
1-1407 


13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 


1834256 
197-5353 
211-6449 
225*7546 
239-8642 
253-9739 
268-0836 
282-1932 
296-3029 
3104126 


19-6580 
214701 
22-6823 
24-1944 

25-7066 
$7-2187 

28-7309 

30-2430 ; 
31-7552 
33-2673 


14830 
1-5970 
1-7111 

1-8252 
19393 

2-0533 
2-1874 
2-2815 
2-305$ 
2-51)06 


11 


155-2063 


16-6337 


1-2548 


23 


324-5222 


34-7795 


2-6237 


12 


169-3159 


18-1458 


1-3689 


24 


338-6319 


36-2916 


2-7373 



MINUTES. 



No. 


a, 


6. 


c. 


No. 


a. 


6, 


c. 


No. 





6. 


c* 


1 


0-2352 


0-0252 


o-oei9 


21 


4*9384 


0-5293 


0-0399 


41 


9-6416 


1*0383 




2 


0-4703 


0-0504 


0-0038 


22 


5-1735 


0-5545 


0-0418 


42 


9-8768 


1*0585 




3 


0-7055 


0-0756 


0-0057 


23 


54087 


0-5797 


0-0437 


43 


10-1119 


1-0837 




4 


0-9406 


0-1008 


0-0076 


24 


5-6439 


0-6049 


0-0456 


44 


10-3471 


14089 


CMB37 


5 


1-1758 


0-1260 


0*0095 


55 


5-8790 


0-6301 


0-0475 


45 


10-5822 


14341 


0-W56; 


6 


1-4110 


0-1512 


0-0114 


26 


6-1142 


0-6553 


0-0494 


46 


10-8174 


1-1593 


0*0873 


7 


1-6461 


0-1764 


0-0133 


27 


6-3493 


0-6805 


0-0513 


47 


11-0526 


14845 


0*0894 


8 


1-8813 


0-2016 


0-0152 


28 


6-5845 


0-7057 


0-0532 


48 


11-2877 


1-2097 


04013 


9 


24164 


fl-2268 


0-0171 


29 


6-8197 


0-7309 


0-0551 


49 


11-5229 


1-2349 


0*0932 


10 


2-3510 


0-2520 


0-0190 


30 


7-0548 


0-7561 


0-0570 


50 


11-7581 


1-2601 





11 


2-5868 


0-2772 


0-0209 


31 


7-2900 


0-7813 


fl-0589 


51 1 


11-9932 


1-2853 


$0970 ! 


12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 

id 

19 
20 


2-8219 
3-0571 
3-2923 
3-5274 
3-7626 
3-9977 
4-2329 
4-4681 
4*7032 


0-3024 
0-3276 
0*3528 
0*3780 
0-4032 
0-4284 
0-4536 
04788 
0-5011 


0-0228 
0-0247 
0-0266 
0-0285 
0-0304 
0-0323 
0-0342 
0-0361 
0-0380 


32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 


7-5252 
7-7603 
7-9955 
8-2306 
8-4658 
8-7010 
8-9361 
9-1713 
9-4064 


0-8065 j 
0-8317 
0-8569 
0-8821 
0-9073 
0-9325 
0-9577 
0-9829 
10081 


0-0608 
0-0627 
0-0646 
0-0665 
0-0684 
0-0703 
0-0722 
0-0741 
0*0700 


52 j 
53 ! 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 


12-2284 
124635 
12*6987 
12-9339 
13-1690 
13-4042 
13-6393 
13-8745 
14-1091 


1*3105 
1-3357 
1-3609 
1-3831 

14113 
14365 
1-4617 
14369 


0-09S9 
(HOOB 
0-1027 
0-1045 
0-1063 
0-1084! 
04103 
0-1123 
0-1 141 


























**** 



206 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE LXV-CM. 
SECONDS. 



*wmp 

No, 


a, 


5, 


c, 


MMMHI 

No, 


MIHWHMH 

a, 


MMMMlttM 

u. 


1 C, 


;-" i 

No. 


m 


5* 


MMtMMD^ 
f, 


1 
2 


00039 
0-0078 


0-0004 
0-0008 


0-0000 
0-0001 


21 
22 


0-0823 
0-0862 


0-0088 
0-0092 


0-0007 
0-0007 


41 
42 


0-1607 
0-1646 


0-0172 
n*ni7/{ 


0-0013 

fliAlUO 


3 


0-0118 


0-0013 


0-0001 


23 


0-0901 


0-0097 


0-0007 


43 


0-1685 


U \)U\) 

iinifii 


U'UUli) 
n A/\T * 


4 


0-0157 


0-0017 


0-0001 


24 


0-0941 


0-0101 


0-0008 


44 


w IvUv 

(W) 


U'Uloi 
n.A1QR 


U'UUI* 

(\ A/\t J 


5 
6 

7 


0-0196 
0-0235 
0-0274 


0-0021 
0-0025 
0-0029 


0-0002 
0-0002 
0-0002 


25 
26 

27 


0-0980 
0-1019 
0-1058 


0-0105 
0-0109 
0-0113 


0-0008 
0-0008 
0-0009 


45 
46 
47 


V 1 I *U 

0-1704 

0-1803 
(H&io 


Ul/loo 

0-0189 
0-0193 

Ml ft? 


0-0014 
0-0014 
0-0015 

A.ivn s 


8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 


0-0314 
0-0353 ! 
0-0392 j 
0-0431 
0-0470 
0-0510 


0-0034 
0-0038 
0-0042 
0-0046 
0-0050 
0-0055 


0-0003 
0-0003 
0-0003 
0-0003 
0-0004 
0-0004 


28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 


0-1097 
0-1137 
0-1176 
0-1215 
0-1254 
0-1293 


0-0118 
0-0122 
0-0126 
0-0130 
0-0134 
0-0139 


0-0009 
0-0009 
0-0010 
0-0010 
0-0010 
0-0010 


48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 


1 "/ Aunt** 

0-1881 
0-1920 
0-1960 
0-1999 

0-2038 
Q.0077 


V \Jl\1i 

0-0202 

wm 

0-0210 
0-02U 
0-0218 i 

AAq* 


IJ'UUU) 

0-0015 
0-0016 
0-0016 
0-0016 
0-0016 

A A Ai n 


14 
15 
16 
17, 
18 
19 
20 

taWM 


0-0549 
0-0588 
9-0627 
0-0666 
0-0705 
0-0745 
0-0784 


0-0059 
0-0063 
0-0067 
0-0071 
0-0076 
0-0080 
0-0084 

MMHMBMI 


0-0004 
0-0005 
0-0005 
0-0005 
0-0006 
0-0006 
0-0006 

MMMVHM 


34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

MHNWMU 


0-1333 
0-1372 
0-1411 
0-1450 
0-1489 
0-1525 
0-1568 

MMtaMWW 


0-0143 
0-0147 
0-0151 
0-0155 
0-0160 
0-0164 
0-0168 

MNMMM 


0-0011 
0-0011 
0-0011 
0-0012 
0-0012 
0-0012 
0-0013 

*M^MftMM 


54 
55 
56 
57 
' 58 
59 
60 

MHMMMN 


V 4-V/ 1 

0-211& ' 

fl-2156 ; 

0-2195 
0-2234 

0-2273 
0-23 P 

v +0l* 

O'W 

v*VlUri 

*"' >.> 


V V*^*.*> 

0-0227 
0-0231 
0-0235 
0-0239 
0-0244 
0-0248 
0-0252 

* .-~ 


0-0017 
0-0017 
0-0017 
0-0018 
0-0018 
0-0018 
0-0019 
0-0019 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA: "TRUE" SYSTEM. 



2-17 



TABLES LXVI, LXVII. 
" EQUATION 6 " AND " EQUATION c " IN WHOLE NUMBERS BY THE FIRST Any.t-ivr-r.jT:vT% 

(corresponding to Tables VI, VII, "Indian Cnlwlir'*}. 
Tables LXVI A and LXVII A state the values of " equation b *' ard " oq\ .t: :. >' " ,*i ; 

TABLE LXVI. TABLE LXVII. 

LUNAR "EQUATION 6." SOLA?. " E<i'-vr:>w ' "" 



Arg. 


Kqn. 


Arg, 


Arg. 


Eqn. 


Arg. 





139 


500 


500 


139 


1000 


10 


148 


490 


510 


130 


990 


20 


157 


480 


520 


121 


980 


30 


ir> 


470 


530 


114 


970 


40 


174 


400 


540 


105 


900 


50 


1H2 


450 


550 


96 


950 


60 


191 


440 


560 


88 


940 


70 


199 


430 


570 


80 


930 


80 


200 


420 


580 


72 


920 


90 


214 


410 


590 


05 


910 


100 


221 


400 


GOO 


58 


Ono 


no 


**><< 

A*m O 


390 


010 


51 


890 


120 


235 


380 


620 


44 , 


880 


ISO 


241 


370 


630 


38 


870 ! 


140 


247 


300 


640 


32 


860 


150 


252 


350 


050 


27 


850 


KM) 


257 


340 


000 


22 


840 


170 


2(52 


330 


G70 


17 


830 


I HO 


2(55 


3L>0 


680 


13 


820 


UK) 


209 


310 


690 


10 


810 


200 


272 


300 


700 


7 


800 


210 


274 


290 


710 


4 


790 


220 


276 


280 


720 


2 


780 


230 


277 


270 


730 


1 


770 


240 


27H 


20 


740 





700 


250 


270 


250 


750 





750 



1 


Ar_' 


A-.- E 4 . ', A-, j 


I 

n ! 


at 


- 


,-/* ^i ; 


1,H> 


lit | 


**' ! 


4**! 


ri* O : 


'' ** # ; j 


-JO 


"2 


4M : 


s f i i 7 


>**,' j 


:;n ; 


49 


47n 


-. : H 71 


1 ! "' ! i 


4*1 i 


4.1 


4*Ui 


,*4' ? 75 


^M j 


;*** 


41 ; 


47^ i 


^-a TH i <v ; 


r.o ; 


:is 


44 


r t ^ s^ I *u-* ! 


70 j 


34 


4!jo 


"7 1 ' ^* *.' fe< . 


Ml ! 


31 


4ilit 


*,*UJ H% 1 ^^i i 


{ i 




41U 


r-v io 


*,*i* i 


lui ' 


25 ' 


41 M 


MM* ii* j 


%*ij 


no ' 


21 i 


;;!i 


t;|^i f*H | 


>( 


b *k * 


IS i 


: 3 nit 


*.^. l**l 


^H*I ; 


i" 


us; 


370 : 


IX! ( TOn 


w-l) ' 


140 


u: 


300 


C40 1^** 


%frft 


ICO 


!i 


3T0 


|/,H IM* j V>; | 


inn 





: 3111 


f>ai ' li* 1 ( ^4-'' ! 


170 

iso 


i a 

6 


; ! 


t!wi , m 


; s> 


IBM 

200 


4 : 


. S! 


?!!: 5U; ^ ! ^ 


210 
220 


I 


^Nfi 


7^1 ! lU 7* ; 


230 
240 


1 




27U 


74*' i 11* 


?*'* 

i *** *" 4 1 


2*0 


i \j 

i 


sw 


. 



Last figure of argument. 




208 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE LXVI A. 

(A) MOON'S " EQUATION 6 " BY TEE FIEST ABYA-SIDDHINTA, FROM ([ 's MEAN ANOM. 50O 





Cols. 3, 4. Equation and difference stand for either of the mean anom. values in cols. 2a, 2b. For 

the 24 base-equations see Table LXX. 

Arg. b is d '& mean anom. in IflOOths of circle. 
Col. 3. Tite equation is([ 's greatest equation plus the actual equation, in 10 5 000ths of circle- 



Serial No. 
of sine. 


Arg. fc 


Equation 
5. 


Biff. 


Arg. I. 


Serial No. 
of sine. 


Arg. b. 


Equation 
6. 


Biff. 


Arg, 5. 


1 


2a 


3 


4 


2b 


1 


2a 


3 


4 

! 


25 





0-0 


139-4275 " 


1 


500-0 


12 


125-0 


237-9056 - 


\ 


375-0 




2-083 


141-2505 




497-916 




127-083 


239-1537 




372-91 G 




4-16 


143-0734 


>- 1-8220 


495-83 




129-16- 


240-4019 


V 1-2482 


370-83 




6-25 


144-8963 




493-75 




131-25 


241-6501 


1 


368-75 




8-3 


146-7192 




491-6 




133-3 


242-8983 


J 


366-6 


1 


10-416 


148-5421 




489*583 


13 


135-416 


244-1464 * 


r r 


364-583 




12-5 


150-3569 




487-5 




137-5 


245-3102 


1 


362-5 




14-583 


152-1718 


* 1-S14& 


485-416 




139-583 


246-4739 


Y 1-1637 


360-416 




16-6 


153-9866 




483-3 




141-6 


247-6376 




358-3 




18-75 


155-8014 




481-25 




143-75 


248-8014 


J 


356-25 


2 


20-83 


157-6162 




479-16 


14 


145-83 


249-9651 




354-16 




22-916 


159-4148 




477-083 




147-916 


251-0312 




352-083 




25-0 


161-2134 


* 1-7986 


475-0 




150-0 


252-0973 


> 1*0661 


350-O 




27-083 


163-0120 




472-916 




152-083 


253-1634 




347-916 




29-16 


164*8106 ! 




470-83 




154*16 


254-2294 




345-83 


3 


31-25 


166-6093 




468-75 


15 


156-25 


255-2955 




343-75 




33-3 


168-3836 




466-6 




158-3 


256-2640 




341-6 




35-416 


170-1579 


- 1-7743 


464-583 




160-416 


257*2324 


> 0-9684 


339-583 




37-5 


171-9322 




462-5 




162-5 


258*2008 




337-5 




39-583 


173-7065 




460-416 




164-583 


259-1692 




335-416 


4 


41-6 


175-4808 




458-3 


16 


166-6 


260-1376 




333-3 




43-75 


177-2227 i 




456-25 




168-75 


261-0003 




331-25 




45-83 


178-9649 


> 1-7419 


454-16 




170-83 


261-8629 


> 0*8626 


329-16 




47-916 


180-7065 




452-083 




172-916 


262-7255 




327*083 




50-0 


182-4484 




450-0 




175-0 


263-5882 




325-0 


5 


52*083 


184-1903 




447-916 


17 


177-083 


264-4508 




322-916 




54-16 


185-8917 




445-83 




179-16 


265-2076 




320-83 




56-25 


187-5931 


> 1-7014 


443-75 




181-25 


265-9645 


> 0-7568 


318-75 




58-3 


189-2944 




441-6 




183-3 


266*7213 




316*6 




60-416 


190-9958 




439-583 




185-416 


267-4781 




314*583 


6 


62-5 


192-6972 




437-5 


18 


187-5 


268*2350 




312-5 




64-583 


194-3581 




435-416 




189-583 


268-8779 




310-416 




66-6 


196-0190 


> 1-6609 


433-3 




191-6 


269-5208 


> 0-6429 


308-3 




68-75 


197-6799 




431-25 




193-75 


270-1637 




306-25 




70-83 


199-3407 




429-16 




195-83 


270-8066 




304-16 


7 


72-916 


201-0016 




427-083 


19 


197-916 


271-4495 




302-OS3 




75-0 


202-6139 




425-0 




200-0 


271-9785 




300-O 




77-083 


204-2262 


> 1-6123 


422-916 




202-083 


272-5074 ; 


j- 0-5290 


297-916 




79-16 


205-8384 




420-83 




204*6 


273-0364 




295-83 




81-25 


207-4o07 




418-75 




206-25 


273-5654 


1 


293-75 


S 


83-3 


209-0630 




416-6 


20 


208-3 


274*0944 ' 


< 


291-6 




85-416 


210-6104 




414-583 




210-416 


274-5094 




289-583 




87-5 


212-1579 


> 1-5475 


412-5 




212-5 


274-9244 


V 0-4 ISO 


287-5 




89-583 


213-7U33 




410-416 




214-583 


275-3395 


1 


285-4 la 




91-6 


215-2528 




408-3 




216-6 


275-7545 




283-3 


9 


93-75 


216-8002 




406-25 


21 


218-75 


276*1695 


.' 


i 281-25 




95-83 


218-2829 




404-16 




220-83 


276-4707 




270*16 




97-916 


219-7655 


> 1-4S26 


402-083 




222-916 


276-7718 


> 0-3011 


277-O83 




100-0 


221*2481 




400-0 




225-0 


277-0729 




275-O 




102-083 


222-7308 




397-916 




227-083 


277-3740 




272-9 1C 


10 


104-16. 


224-2134 


1 


395-83 


22 


229-16 


277-6751 




270-83 




106-25 


225-6231 




393-75 




231-25 


277-8541 




268-75 




108-3 


227-0329 


V 1-4097 


391-6 




233-3 


278-0332 


r- 0*1790 


266-6 




110-416 


228-4426 


1 


389-583 




235-416 


278*2122 




264*583 




112-5 - 


229-8523 


J 


387-5 




237-5 


278-3912 




262-5 


11 


114-583 


231-2620 


I 


385-416 


23 


239-583 


278-5703 




260*41 (3 




116-6 


232-5907 




38S-3 




2414 


278*6272 




e53i 




1)8-75 
120*83 
122-916 


233-9194 
235-2482 
236-5769 


V 1-3287 


381-25 
379-16 
377-083 




243-75 
245-83 
247-916 


278-6842 
278-7412 
278*7981 1 


>. 0-0570 


256* > 5 
254-16 
252 O&3 






- 


__.__-. 




24 


250-0 


278-8551 


*^ 


250-O 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDBHANTA: "TRUE" SYSTEM, 



09 



TABLE LXVI A 

(B) MOON'S " EQUATION 6 " BY THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHIUTA PBOM s 's MEAN ANOM. 50 1 

1000 (180 320). 

Col. 3. The equation isO greatest equation jruwus the actual equation, in 10,000ths of circle. 



SerialNo. 
of sine. 


Arg, b* 


Equation 


US. 


Arg. 6. 


SerialNo. 
of sine. 


Aig. 5. | 


Equation 
5. 


DIE ; 


Arc* 1?* 


1 


2a 


3 


4 


2& 


1 


ia 


3 


4 


*^& 


n 


500-0 


1394275 


1 


1000-0 


12 


625-0 


40-9495 i 




873-0 . 


\j 


502-083 


137-6046 




997-916 




627-083 


39-7014 




872-91*5 




50446 


135-7817 


V 1-8229 


995-83 




62946 


38-4532 


> 1-24S2 


S7t)*S;{ 




506-25 


133-9588 




993-75 




631-25 


37-2050 




S6ij'7t5 




508-3 


132-1359 


J 


991-6 




633-3 


35*9568 




866-4 




510416 


130-3130 


} 


989-583 


13 


635416 


34-7087 * 




804-3S3 




512-5 


128-4982 




987-5 




637-5 


33-5449 




80:1 -5 




614-583 


126-6833 


> 1-8148 


985416 




639-583 


32-3812 


> 1-1837 


860-4 ir 




516-6 


124-8685 


1 


983-3 




641-6 j 


31-2175 




838-3 




518-75 


123-0537 


J 


981-25 




643-75 


30-0537 




856-23 


2 


520-83. 
522-916 


121-2389 
1194403 




979-16 
977-083 


14 


645-83 
647-916 


28-8900 
27-8239 




83440. 


3 

4 

6 


525-0 
527-083 
52946 
531-25 
533-3 
535416 
537-5 
539-583 
541-6 
543-75 
545-83 
547-916 
650-0 
552-083 
554-16 
556-25 
558-3 
500416 
562-5 
564-583 
566-6 
568-75 


117-6417 
115-8431 
114-0444 
112-2458 
1104715 
108-6972 
106-9229 
105-1486 
103-3743 
101-6324 
99-8905 
98-1486 
964007 
94-6648 
92-9634 
91-2620 
89-5607 
87-8593 
864679 
844970 
82*8361 
81-1752 


V 1-7986 
L 1-7743 
L 1-7419 
L 1-7014 

I 1-6609 
J 


975-0 
972-916 
970-83 
968-75 
966-6 
964-583 
962-5 
960-416 
058-3 
956-25 
954-16 
952-083 
950-0 
947-916 
945-83 
9T43-75 
941-6 
939-583 
937-5 
935416 
933-3 
931-25 

0OO 1 G 


15 
16 

17 
18 


650-0 | 
652-083 i 
6o>16 
650-25 ! 
658-3 ! 
660416 1 
662-5 
664-583 
666-6 
668-75 
670-83 
672-916 
675-0 
677-083 
679-16 
681-25 
683-3 
685-416 
687-3 
689-583 
691-6 
693-75 
695-83 j 


26-7578 
25-6917 
24-6257 
23-5596 
22-5911 
21-6227 
20-6543 
19-6859 
18-7175 
17-8548 
16-9922 
16-1296 
13-2669 
14-4043 
13-6475 
12-8906 
12-1338 
11-3770 
10-6201 
9-9772 
9-3343 
8-6914 
8-0485 


> 1-0661 i 

0-9684 ' 

1 
i 

I 0-8626 ; 
> 0-7568 
* 0-6429 


830-0 
847-91 U 
843-Sti 

843-75 

837-3 " 
8334115 
833-3 
831-23 
S2946. 

825-0 

822-116 
820-S3 
818-75 
816-6 
814-583 
812-5 
810-416 

800*25 
804-16 


7 


570-83 
572-916 
575-0 
577-083 
579-16 


79-5144 
77-8535 
76-2412 
74-6289 
73-0167 


* 1*6123 


29-16 
927-083 
925-0 
922-916 
920-83 

fl 1 Q *1 K: 


19 


697-916 \ 
700-0 
702-OS3 
704-6 
708-23 


7-4056 
6-8786 
6-3477 
5-81S7 
5-2S97 


I 0-5290 ; 


S(0-0 

707-916 

7113-75 




581-25 


714044 




918-75 
m R h 


90 


708-3 


4-7607 


1 


791-lS 

1"" C 1 fl ** O *3 


8 

10 
11 


583-3 
585416 
587-5 
689-583 
591-6 
593-75 
595-83 
597-916 
600-0 
602-083 
604-16 
606-25 
608-3 
610416 
612-5 
614-583 
616-6 
1 618-75 
620-83 
622-916 


69-7921 
68-2447 
66-6972 
65-1498 
63-6023 
62-0549 
60-5722 
59-0896 
57-6069 
66-1243 
54-6417 
53-2319 
51-8222 
604125 
49-0028 
47-5931 
46-2644 
44-9357 
43-6069 
42-2782 


>. 1-5475 
> 1-4826 
L 1-4097 
L 1-3287 


910'0 

914-583 
912-5 
910416 
908-3 
906-25 
904-16 
902*083 
900-0 
897-916 
895-83 
893-75 
891-6 
889-583 
887-5 . 
885-416 
883-3 
881-25 
i 879-16 
877-083 


*t\j 

21 
22 
23 
1 24 


710416 
712-5 
714-583 
716-6 
718-75 
720-83 
722-916 
725-0 
727-083 
72946 
731-25 
733-3 
735416 
737-5 
739-583 
741-6 
743-75 
745-83. 
747-916 
750-0 


4-3457 
3-9307 
3-5156 

3-1006 
2-6835 
2*3844 
2-0833 
1-7822 
14811 
1-1800 
1-0010 
0-8219 
0-6429 
0-4639 
0284S 
0-2279 
0-1709 
0-1139 
0-0370 
0-0000 



L 04150 
^ 0-3011 
^ 04790 
^ 0.0371 


ib9-o^a 
7S7-5 
7S5-416 

7S3-3 
781-25 
77946. 

777-OS3 
775-0 
772-9M 
770-^3 

766-6 

764-583 
7152-5 
760414 
738-3 
756-23 
75446 
752-OS 








- j 


^gr 


=SS 


-' 






S 



210 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI 



TABLE LXVII A. 

(A] SUN'S " EQUATION C " BY THE FlRST ARYA-SlDDHlNTA FROM Q'3 MEAN ANOMALY 00 

(0 180). 

Cols. Z, 4. Equation- and Difference stand far either of the 'mean anom : values in cols. 2a, 2b. 

For the 24 base-equations see Table LXVII, above Vol. XIV. 

" Arg. c " is 's mean anomaly in I,000t7ts of circle. 
Col. 3. The equation is 's greatest equation minus tlie actual equation, in lO.OOOths of circle. 



Serial No- 
of sine. 


Arg. c. 


Equation 
c. 


Biff. 


Arg. c. 


Serial No. 
of sine. 


Arg* c. 


Equation 
c. 


Biff. 


Arg. c. 


1 


2a 


3 


4 


26 


1 


2a 


3 


4 2b 





0-0 


59-6875 




500*0 


12 


125-0 


17-4826 





375-0 




2-083 


58-9078 




497-916 




127-083 


16*9479 




372-91 G 




4-16 


58-1281 


- 0-7797 


495-83 




129-16 


16-4132 


> 0-5347 


370-83 




6-25 


57-3484 




493-75 




131-25 


15-8785 




308-75 




8*3 


56-5687 




491-6 




133-3 


15-3438 




306- d 


1 


10-416 


55-7890 




489-583 


13 


135-410 


14-8090 




364-583 




12-5 


55-0096 




487*5 




137-5 


14-3125 




362-5 




14-583 


54-2303 


>- 0-7793 


485-416 




139-583 


13-8160 


> 0-4965 


360-416 




1C-6 


53-4510 




483*3 




141-6 


13-3194 




358-3 




18-75 


52*6717 




481-25 




143-75 


12-8229 




356-25 


2 


30-83 


51-8924 




479*16 


14 


145-85 


12-3264 




354-16 




22-916 


51-1215 




477-083 




147-916 


11-8715 




352-083 




25-0 


60-3507 


* 0-7708 


475*0 




150-0 


11-4167 


> 0-4549 


350-0 




27*083 


49-5799 




472-916 




152-083 


10-9618 




347-916 




29-10 


48-8090 




470-83 




154-16 


10-5069 




345-83 


3 


31-25 


48-0382 




468*75 


15 


156-25 


10-0521 




343-75 




33-3 


47-2778 




466- (5 




158-3 


9-6389 




341-6 




35-416 


46-5174 


> 0-7604 


464*583 




160-416 


9-2257 


> 0-4132 


339-583 




37-5 


45-7569 




462-5 




162*5 


8-8125 




337-5 




39-583 


44-9965 




460*416 




164-583 


8*3993 




335-416 


4 


41-6 J 44-23(51 




458-3 


16 


166-6 


7-9861 




333-3 




43-75 1 43-4896 




45tt-25 




168-75 


7-6181 




331-25 




45*83 


42-7431 


> 0-7465 


454-16 




170-83 


7-2500 


>- 0-3681 


329-16 




47-916 


41-9965 




452*08$ 




172-916 


6-8819 




327-083 




50-0 


41-2500 




450-0 




175-0 


6-5139 




325-0 


G 


52-083 


40-5035 




447-916 


17 


177-083 


0-1458 




322-916 




54-16 


39-7743 




445-83 




179-16 


5-8229 




320-83 




56-25 


39-0451 


0-7292 


443-75 




181-25 


5-5000 


> 0-3220 


318-75 




58-3 


38-3160 




441-6 




183-S 


5-1771 




316-6 




60-410 


37-5868 




439-583 




1S5-416 


4<8542 






6 


62-5 


36<8576 




437-5 


18 


187-5 


4-5313 




312*5 




64-583 


36-1458 




435-416 




189-583 


4-2569 




310-410 




66-6 


35-4340 


* 0-7118 


433-3 




191*6 


3-9826 


> 0-2743 


SOS- 3 




68-75 


34-7222 




431-25 




193-75 


3*7083 








70-83 


34-0104 




429-16 




195-8S 


3-4340 




304-16 


7 


72-916 


33-2986 


V 


427-OSS 


19 


197-916 


3-1597 




302-083 




75-0 


326076 


i 


425-0 




200-0 


2-9340 




300-0 




77-083 


31-9167 


U 0-6910 


422-916 




202-085 


2-7083 


>- 0*2257 


297-91(5 




79-16 


31-2257 


f 


420-83 




204-16 


2-4826 




295-83 




81-25 


30-5347 


J ; 


418-75 




206-25 


2-2569 




293-75 


8 


83-3 


29-8438 


1 


41S-6 


20 


208-3 


2-0312 




291-6 




85-416 


29-1806 


i 


414-58$ 




U10-41& 


18542 




289-583 




87-5 


28*5174 


\- 0-6632 


412-5 




212-5 


1-8771 


> 04771 


287-5 




8S-5S3 


27-8542 


f 


410-416 




214-5.8^ 


1-5000 




285-416 




91-6 


27-1910 


J 


408-3 




^I8-ii 


1*3229 




283 -& 


9 


93-75 


26-5278 


\ 


406-25 


21 


21S-75 


i-1458 




281-25 




95-85 


25-8924 




404- Ifi 




220-83 


1-0174 




279-16 




97-916 


25-2569 


S- 0-6354 


402-08$ 




362-916 


' 0-8889 


!* 0-1285 


277-083 




100-0 


24-6215 


r 


400-0 




225-Q 


0-7604 




275-0 




*02-083 


23-9861 


J 


397-916 






0-6319 




272-91(3 


10 


104-16 


23-3507 ' 


1 


395-83 


22 


229*19 


0-5035 




270-83 




106-25 


22-7465 




393-75 




231-25 


0-4279 




268-75 




108*3 


22-1424 


>- 0-6042 


891*6 




33- & 


0-3522 


^ 0-0756 


266-0 




110--416 


21-5382 


f 


389-583 




235-^16 


0-2766 






11 


112-5 
114-583 
116-6 


20-9341 
20-3209 ' 
19-7604 


( 


887-5 
385-41 6 
S83-3 


23 


237-5 
241-6 


0-2010 
0*1254 
0-1003 




262-5 
260-4iQ 
258-3 




118-75 
120-83 
122-916 


19-1910 
18-6215 
18-0521 


y 0-5694 


381-25 
379-10 
377-083 




243-75 
45-84 
247-916 


0-0752 
0-0502 
0-9251 


^ 0-0251 


256-25 
254-16 
252-083 


L 










24 


260-0 


0-0 




250-0 



No. U.} 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDEAffTA : TRUE " SYSTEM. 



211 



TABLE LXVII A Contd. 

CB) SUN'S " EQUATION C " BY THE FlBST A.BYA-Sfl>DHlNTA FROM 5 S MEAN ANOMALY 500 1000 

. (180 360). 

. 3. The equation is 's greatest equation plus the actual equation, in 10,00 Oths of circla. 



Serial No. 
of sine. 


Arg c. 


Equation 
c. 


DIE. 


-^ Serial No 
^** L of sine. 


Arg. c. 


Equation 
c. 


Diff. 


Arg.s. 


1 


2* ; 


3 


4 


26 


1 


2* 


3 


4 


2& 





500-0 
502-08$ 


59-6875 ^ 
60-4672 


i 


1000-0 
997-916 


12 


625-0 
627-08$ 


101-8924 ^ 
102-4271 




875*0 
872*916 




604-16 


61-2469 


Y 0-7797 


995*83 




629-16 


102-9618 


L 0-5347 


870*83 




506-25 
508*3 


62-0266 
62-8063 




993-75 
991-6 




631-25 
633-3 


103-4065 
104-0312 . 


i 


868-75 
866-6 


1 


WO w 

510-416 


63-5860 


\ 


989-58$ 


13 


635-416 


104-5660 * 


I 


864-583 






64*3654 




987-5 




637-5 


105-0625 




862*5 




614*58$ 


65-1447 


Y 0-7793 


985*416 




639-58$ 


105-5590 


V 0-4=965 


860-416 




516-6 


65-9240 




983-3 




641-6 


106-0556 




858-3 




518-78 


66*7033 


1 


981-25 




643-75 


106-5521 


j 


856-25 


2 




67-4826 


< 


979-16 


14 


645-83 


107-0486 * 


\ 


854-16 


*f 


522-916 


68-2535 




977-08$ 




647-916 


107*5035 




852-083 




kJJjLi *7J-V7 

525-0 
627-08$ 


69-0243 
69-7951 


Y- 0-7708 


975-0 ! 
972-916 




650-0 
652-08$ 


107*9583 
108*4132 


> 0-4549 


850-0 
847-916 




529-16 


70-5660 


j 


970-8$ 




654-16 


108-8681 


J 


845-3$ 


3 


531-25 


71-3368 


{ 


968-75 


15 


656-25 


109-3229 


1 


843*75 


** 


533-$ 
535-416 


72-0972 
72-8376 


V 0-760* 


966-6 
964-583 




658*$ 
660-416 


109-7361 
110-1493 


} 0-4132 


841*6 
839-583 




537-5 


73-6181 




962-5 




662-5 


110-5265 




837-5 


4 


539-583 
641-6 


74-3785 
715*1389 




960-416 
958-3 


16 


664-58$ 
666-6 


110-9767 
111-3889 


J 


835-416 
833-3 




643-75 
545-83 
547-916 


76-8854 
76*6319 
77-3785 


Y 0-7466 


856-25 
954*16 
952-08$ - 




668-75 
670-8$ 
672-916 


111-7569 
112*1250 
112*4931 


> 0-3681 


831-25 

829-1& 

827-083 






78-1250 


j 


950-0 




675*0 


112-8611 


J 


825*0 


5 


552-08$ 
554*16 


78-871S 

79-6007 




947-916 
945-83 


17 


677-08$ 
679*16 


113-2292 
113*5521 




822-01G 

820-83 




556*25 
558'^ 


80-3-299 
81-0590 


i. 0-7292 


943*75 
941-6 




681-25 
683-$ 


113-8750 
114-1979 


i- 0-3229 


818-75 
810-G . 




*JiJ<J O 

560*416 


81*7882 


J 


939-58$ 




685-416 


114-5208 


< 


814--5P/i 


6 


662:5 


82-5174 
83-2292 


1 


937*5 . 
935*416 


18 


687-5 
689-58$ 


114-8438 
115-1181 




SI % -5 

Slu-ilG 




566-6 


83-9410 


W 0-7118 


933-$ 




691-6 


115-3924 


L 0*2743 


ftOfe-3 






84-6528 




931-25 




693-75 


115-6667 




BOG '25 


7 


670-8$ 
672-916 
575-0 
677-088 
579- 16 


85-3646 
86-0764 
86-7674 
87-4583 
88-1493 


V 0-8910 


929-16 
927*08$ 
925-0 
922-916 
920-8$ 


19 


695-8$ 
697-916 
700-0 
702-08$ 
704-16 


115-9410 
116-2153 
116-4410 
116-6667 
116*8924 


L 0-2257 


802-083 
800*0 
797*916 
795*8$ 


8 


581*25 
583-3 
585-416 
587-5 
589-583 
591-6 


88-8403 
89-5312 
90-1944 
90-8576 
91-5208 
92-1840 


I 0*6632 


918*75 
916*6 
914-583 
912-5 
910-416 
908-3 


20 


706-25 
708-3 
710-416 
712*5 
714-583 
716-6 


117-1181 
117-3438 
117-5208 
117-6979 
117-8750 
118-0521 


L 0-1771 


793-75 
791*0 
789-58$ 
787-5 
785*416 
783-3 


9 
10 
11 


593*75 
595-8$ 
597-916 
600-6 
602-083 
604-16 
606-25 
608-3 
610-416 
612-5 
614-58$ 
616-6 
618*75 
620-83 
622-916 


92-8472 
93-4826 
94-1181 
94-7535 
#5*3889 
96-0243 
96-6285 

97-8368 
98*4410 
99-0451 
09-6146 
100-1840 
100-7535 
101*3229 


L 0*6354 
L 0-6042 
L 0-5694 


906*25 
934-16 
902-08$ 
900-0 
897-916 
895-8$ 
893-75 
891-6" 
889-58$ 
887-6 . 
885-416 
883-3 
881-25 
i 879-16 
877-08$ 


21 
22 
23 
24 


718-75 
720*8$ 
722-916 
725-0 
727-08$ 
729*16 
731-25 
733-3 
735-416 
737-5 
739-583 
741*6 
743-75 
745-8$ 
747-916 
750-0 


118-2292 
118*3576 
118*4861 
118-6146 
118*7431 
118-8715 
118-9471 
119*0228 
119*0984 
119-1740 
119*2496 
119-2747 
119-2998 
119-3248 
119-3499 
119-3750 


I 0-1285 
V 0*0756 
I 0-0251 


781-25 
779-16 
777-083 
775-0 
772-916 
770-83 
768-75 
766*6 
764-583 
762-5 

75S-3 
756-25 
754-16 
i 752*083 
750-0 


2c2 



212 



EPIGEAPEIA INDICA. 



[Vot. XVI. 



PB 

S 




o ***< 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : "TRIJE" SYSTEM. 



213 



oo 
10 



-^ *D <> 

* oo ^" 

GO -r-* ?? 

2! S 

SS 3 S 



*w 

*^ O l 



CD *C^l -<p -O *g !> 



*- + 

li 

^ ^ 

^ I 
Q >. 



{! 2 &* 




214 



EHGEAPHIA INDICA. 



[Voi. XVI. 



TABLE LXIX. 

SERIAL NUMBER OP DAYS IN A YBAB AD. FOE TWO CONSECUTIVE YEARS. 

y. B The numbers given are those in a common year. In Leap-years, after February 29, the 
day of the month must be reduced by 1. Thus Day 153, in a Leap-year, is not June 2, but June 1. 

The Table is the same as Table IX, " Indian Calendar" 



PARTI. 



1 


KTJMBEB or DATS BECKONED FROM IST JANTJABY OF THE SAME YEAK. 


J 









"d 
o 


o 

a 














; 












a 


*g 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


NOT. 


Dec. 


"S 

& 


a 


























A 


1 


1 


32 


60 


91 


121 


152 


182 


213 


244 


274 


305 


335 


i 


2 


2 


33 


61 


92 


122 


153 


183 


214 


245 


275 


306 


336 


2 


*v 
3 


3 


34 


62 


93 


123 


154 


184 


215 


246 


276 


307 


337 


3 


** 

4 


4 


35 ! 


(53 


94 


124 


155 


185 


216' 


247 


277 


308 


338 


4 


jt 
5 


5 


30 ; 


64 


95 


125 


156 


186 ; 


217 


248 


278 


309 


339 


5 


g 


6 


37 


65 


96 


126 


157 


187 


218 


249 


279 


310 


340 


6 


\y 

7 


7 


38 


66 


97 


127 


158 


188 


219 


250 


280 


311 


341 


7 


S 


8 


39 


07 


98 


128 


159 


189 


220 


251 


281 


312 


342 


8 


9 


9 


40 




90 


129 


160 


190 


221 


252 


282 


313 


343 


9 


*/ 

10 


10 


41 


69 


100 


130 


161 


191 


222 


253 


283 


314 


344 


10 


11 


11 


42 


70 


101 


131 


162 


192 


223 


254 


284 


315 


315 


12 


12 


12 


43 


71 


102 


' 132 


163 


193 


224 


255 


285 


316 


346 


12 


13 


13 


44 


72 


103 


133 


164 


194 


225 


256 


286 


317 


347 


13 


14 


14 


45 


73 


104 


134 


165 


195 


226 


257 


287 


318 


348 


14 


15 


15 


46 


74 


105 


135 


166 


196 


227 


258 


288 


319 


349 


15 


18 


16 


47 


75 


106 


136 


167 


197 


228 


259 


289 


320 


350 


1ft 


*i\/ 

17 


17 


48 


76 


107 


157 


168 


198 


229 


260 


290 


321 


351 


17 


IS 


18 


49 


77 


108 


138 


169 


199 


230 


261 


291 


322 


352 


18 


19 


19 


50 


78 


109 


139 


170 


200 


231 


262 


292 


323 


353 


19 


20 


20 


51 


79 


110 


I 140 


171 


201 


232 


263 


293 


324 


354 


20 


21 


21 


52 


80 


111 


141 


172 


202 


233 


264 


294 


325 


355 


21 


22 


22 


53 


81 


113 


142 


173 


203 


234 


265 


295 


326 


356 


22 


23 


23 


54 


82 


113 


143 


174 


204 


235 


266 


296 


327 


357 


23 


24 


24 


55 


83 


114 


144 


175 


205 


236 


267 


297 


328 


358 


24 


25 


25 


56 


84 


115 


145 


176 


206 


237 


268 


298 


329 


359 


25 


28 


26 


57 


85 


116 


146 


177 


207 


238 


269 


299 


330 


360 


26 


87 


27 


58 


86 


117 


147 


178 


208 


239 


270 


300 


331 


3(il 


27 


28 


28 


59 


87 


118 


148 


179 


209 


240 


271 


301 


332 


3(>2 


28 


29 




60 


88 


119 


149 


180 


210 


241 


272 


302 


333 


363 


29 


30 


30 




89 


120 


150 


181 


211 


242 


273 


303 


334 


364 


30 


* 




























31 


31 


... 


90 


... 


151 


... 


212 


243 


... 


304 


... 


365 


31 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 




- 




.._ 




















: j 





No. 



THE FIKST ARYA-SIDDHANTA: "TKUE" SYSTEM. 



215 



TABLE LXIX Contd. 

SERIAL NUMBER OF BAYS IN A YEAR A.D. FOR TWO CONSECUTIVE TEAKS. 

JV- JJ* When tte previous year was a Leap-year, the days of the month must all be reduced 
by 1 ; and so all those after February 29, when the given year is a Leap-year. 



PART II. 



NUMBER OF BAYS BECKONED FROM 1 JANUARY OF THE PEECEDOG YEAR. 



31 



380 
387 
388 
380 
390 

391 
392 
393 
394 
395 

396 
Jan. 



422 
423 
424 

425 



Feb, 



450 
451 
452 
453 
454 

455 
Mar. 



481 
482 
483 
484 
485 



506 
507 
508 
509 
510 



516 



537 
538 
539 
540 
541 

542 
543 



567 
568 
569 
570 
571 

572 
573 



577 






599 
600 
601 
602 

603 
604 
605 
606 
607 

608 



April. May. I June. I July. I Aug. 



630 
631 
632 
633 

634 
635 
636 
637 
638 



Sepfc. 



660 
661 

662 
663 

664 
665 
666 
667 
668 

669 
Oct. 



601 
692 
693 

694 

695 
696 
697 
698 
699 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar, 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. | 

j 


i 

-5 

S 


366 


397 


425 


456 


486 


517 


547 


578 


609 


639 


670 


700 ! 


I 


367 


398 


426 


457 


487 


518 


548 


579 


610 


640 1 671 


701 i 


2 


368 


399 


427 


458 


488 


519 


549 


580 


611 


641 ! 


672 


70-2 


3 


369 


400 


428 


459 


489 


620 


550 


581 


612 


642 


673 


703 


4 


370 


401 


429 


460 


490 


521 


551 


582 


613 


643 


674 


704 


5 


I 371 


402 


430 


461 


491 


522 


552 


683 


614 


644 


675 


705 1 


6 


372 


403 


431 


462 


492 


523 


553 


584 


615 


645 


ft7& 


7(K> 


I 


373 
374 
375 


404 
405 
406 


432 
433 
434 


463 
464 

465 


493 
494 
495 


524 
525 

626 


554 i 
555 
556 


585 
580 
587 


616 
617 
618 


646 ! 
647 
648 


677 
678 
679 


707 j 
708 
700 


8 
9 
10 


376 
377 
378 
379 
380 


407 
408 
409 
410 
411 


435 
436 
437 
438 
439 


466 
467 
468 
469 
470 


496 
497 
498 
499 
600 


627 
528 
529 
530 
531 


557 
55S 
559 
560 
561 


588 
589 
590 
591 
692 


619 
620 
621 
622 
623 


649 
650 
65 1 
652 
653 


080 

cm 

6S3 
684 


710 
711 

712 
713 
714 


11 

12 
13 
14 
15 


381 

382 
383 
384 

385 


412 
413 
414 
415 
416 


440 
441 
442 
443 

444 


471 

472 
473 
474 
475 


501 
502 
503 
504 
505 


532 
533 
53* 
535 
536 


562 
563 
564 
565 
566 


593 
694 
595 
596 
597 

rrf\f\ 


624 

625 
626 
627 
628 

t*nf\ 


I 654 
655 
656 
657 
658 

tKf\ 


685 

686 
687 
688 
689 

OA 


713 
710 
717 
718 
719 

*w* 


IB 
17 
18 
IS 
20 

vt 



721 
722 
723 



725 
72tf 

727 
728 



730 
Dec 



23 
23 

at 

25 

S8 
27 
23 
29 
30 

31 



2*6 



EPIGRAPHIA ISDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



TABLE LXX. 

CONVERSION OP TlTHI-PABTS AND INDICES OF TlTHIS, NAKSHATKAS AND Y5GAS INTO TIME. 

(Corresponding to Talk X, "Indian Calendar") 

The " Argument " unit 1=4 -2524 (a trifle over 4 % minutes cf time), in the ease of the tithi- 
index (t), and 4 n "3831 in the case of the nakshatra-index (n). 





TiME EQUIVALENT Off 




TIME EQUIVALENT OI 1 




TIME EQUIVALENT OF 




Tifchi- 
parts. 


Tithi- 
Indcx 


Nak- 

shatra 
indox 


ndex 




Titlu- 

mrts. 


Tithi- 
ndex 
(0- 


Nak- 
hatra 
ndex 
(n). 


STfga- 
ndex 

(y). 




Tithi- 
parts. 


Tithi- 
index 
(t). 


Nak- 

shatra 
index 


Yoga- 
index 

tox 


o 










i 




















































1 


H. M. H. M. 


R.M. 


H. M. 


$ 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H* M. 


| 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


H. M. 


1 


1 


4 


4 


4 


41 


58 


2 54 


2 41 


2 30 


76 


1 48 


5 23 


4 59 


4 38 


2 


3 ; 


9 


8 


7 


42 


1 


2 59 


2 45 


2 34 


77 


1 49 


4 27 


5 3 


4 42 


3 


4 


13 


12 


11 


43 


1 1 


3 3 


2 49 


2 37 


78 


1 51 


5 32 


5 7 


4 46 


4 


6 


17 


16 


15 


44 


1 2 


3 7 


2 53 


2 41 


79 


1 52 


5 36 


5 11 


4 49 


5 


7 


21 


Q 20 


18 


45 


1 4 


3 11 


2 57 


2 45 


80 


1 53 


5 40 


5 15 


453 


6 


9 


0^6 


24 


22 






















7 

8 


10 
11 


36 
34 


28 
31 


26 
29 


46 

47 


1 5 

1 7 


3 16 
3 20 


3 1 
3 5 


2 48 
2 52 


81 

82 


1 55 
1 56 


5 44 
5 49 


5 19 
5 23 


4 57 
5 


9 
10 


13 

14 


38 
43 


35 
39. 


33 
37 


48 
49 


1 8 
1 9 


3 24 
3 28 


3 9 
3 13 


2 56 
2 59 


83 
84 


1 58 
1 59 


5 53 

5 57 


5 27 
5 30 


5 4 
5 7 


11 


16 


47 


43 


40 


50 


1 11 


3 33 


3 17 


3 3 


&? 


2 


6 1 


5 34 


5 11 . 


12 


17 


51 


47 


44 


















- 




13 
14 
15 


18 
20 
21 


55 
1 
1 4 


51 
55 
59 


48 
51 
55 


51 
52 
53 


1 12 
1 14 
1 15 


3 37 
3 41 

3 45 


3 21 
3 25 
3 29 


3 7 
3 10 
3 14 


86 
87 

88 


2 2 
2 3 
2 5 


6 6 
6 10 
6 14 


5 38 
5 42 
5 46 


5 15 
5 18 
5 22 


16 
17 


23 
24 


1 8 
1 12 


1 3 

1 7 


59 
1 2 


54 
55 


1 17 

1 18 


3 50 
3 54 


3 32 
3 36 


3 18 
3 21 


89 
90 


2 6 
2 8 


6 18 
6 23 


5 50 
5 54 


5 26 
5 29 


18 


26 


1 17 


1 11 


1 6 






















19 
20 


27 
28 


1 21 
1 25 


1 15 
1 19 


1 10 
1 13 


56 

57 


1 19 
1 21 


3 58 
4 2 


3 40 

3 44 


3 25 
3 29 


91 
92 


2 9 
2 10 


6 27 
6 31 


5 58 
6 2 


5 33 

5r37 


21 
22 
23 


30 
31 
33 


1 29 
1 34 
1 38 


1 23 
1 27 
1 30 


1 17 
1 21 
1 24 


58 
59 
60 


1 22 
1 24 
1 25 


4 7 
4 11 
4 15 


3A.& 
ffrO--^ 

3 52 
3 56 


3 32 
3 36 
3 40 


93 
94 
95 


2 12 
2 13 
2 15 


6 35 
6 40 
6 44 


6 6 
6 10 
6 14 


5 40 
5 44 
5 48 


24 


34 


1 42 


1 34 


1 28 






















25 


35 


1 46 


1 38 


1 32 


61 


1 26 


4 19 


4 


343 


96 


2 16 


6 48 


6 18 


6 51 


26 

27 
28 
29 


37 
38 
40 
41 


1 51 
1 55 
1 59 
2 3 


1 42 
1 46 
1 50 
1 54 


1 35 
1 39 

1 42 
1 46 


62 
63 
64 
65 


1 28 
1 29 
1 31 
1 32 


4 24 
4 28 
4 32 
4 36 


4 4 
4 8 
4 12 
4 16 


3 47 
3 51 
3 54 
3 58 


97 
98 
99 
100 


2 17 
2 19 
2 20 
2 22 


6 52 
6 57 
7 1 
7 5 


6 22 
6 26 
6 29 
6 33 


5 55 
5 59 
6 2 
6. ft 


30 


43 


2 8 


1 58 


1 50 






















31 
32 
33 
34 
35 


44 
45 

47 
48 
50 


2 12 
2 16 
2 20 
2 25 
2 29 


2 2 
2 6 
2 10 
2 14 
2 18 


1 53 
1 57 
2 1 
2 4 
2 8 


66 
67 
68 
69 
70 


1 34 
1 35 
1 36 
1 38 
1 39 


4 41 
4 45 
4 49 
4 53 

4 58 


4 20 
4 24 
4 28 
4 31 
4 35 


4 2 
4 5 
4 9 
4 13 
4 16 


200 
300 
400 
500 
600 


4 43 
7 5 
9 27 
11 49 
14 10 


14 10 
21 16 
28 21 
35 26 

42 31 


13 7 
19 40 


12 18 
18 12 


36 
37 
38 
39 

40 


51 
52 
54 
55 
57 


2 33 

2 37 
2 42 
2 46 
2 50 


2 22 
2 26 
2 30 
2 33 
2 37 


2 12 
215 
2 19 
, 2 23 
2 26 


71 
72 
73 
74 

75 


1 41 
1 42 
1 43 
1 45 
1 46 


5 2 

5 6 
5 10 
5 15 
5 19 


4 39 
4 43 
4 47 
4 51 
4 55 

= ...,.:.'= 


4 20 
4 24 
4 27 
4 31 
4 35 

T: a., 


700 
800 
900 
1000 


16 32 
18 54 
21 16 
23 37 


49 37 
56 42 
63 47 
70 52 


===== 


*"" 




- '-- -' 


..-.Mi - 



No. 14,] 



THE FIRST AR YA~SII>DHANTA : " TRUE '* SYSTEM. 



21? 



TABLE LXXL 
THE EUROPEAN CALENDAR. 



A. INITIAL DAYS OF CENTURIES, JTJLIAK AKD 



B. WEEK-BAYS FOB, ONE YEA&. 

TO BOTH OLB AND 







Centuries A.D. 


t 

| 

J 




I 

.a 
a 

11 


S 
Mo 
Tu 
W 
Th 
Fr 
Sa 


Mo 
Tu 

W 
Th 
Fr 

Sa 

S 


Tu 

W 
Th 
FT 

Sa 
S 
Mo 


W 

Th 
FT 
Sa 
S 
Mo 
Tu 


Th 
FT 
Sa 
S 
Mo 
Tu 
W 


Fr 
Sa 
S 
Mo 
Tu 
W 
Th 


Sa 
S 
Mo 
Tu 
W 
Th 
FT 


.3 S 
>> 

U 


Old Style. 


New Style. 


Odd 
years of 
centuries. 



700 
1400 


100 
800 
1500 


200 
900 
1600 


300 

1000; 

1700 


400 
1100 
1800 

i 


500 
1200 
1900 


600 
1300 
2000 


Sa 


Fr 


W 


Mo 


1600 
2000 


1700 
2100 


1800 
2200 


1500 
1900 
2300 


Jan. 
Oct. 

Feb. 
Max, 
Nov. 

April 
July 

Aug. 

Sept. 
Dec. 

May. 

June 


1 

8 
15 
22 
29 

5 
12 
19 
26 

2 
9 
16 
23 
30 


2 

9 
16 
23 
30 


3 
10 
17 
24 
31 


4 
11 
18 
25 

_ 

8 
15 
22 
29 


5 
12 
19 

26 

~2 
9 
16 
23 
30 


6 
13 
20 
27 


7 
14 
21 
28 

S 

25 


Jan. 
April 
July. 

FeK 
Aug. 

Sept. 
Dec. 

May 

June 

Oct. 

Mar, 
NOT. 


Initial days. 



L 
2 
8 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 
9 
10 
11 

12 

13 
14 
15 

16 
17 

18 
19 

20 
21 
22 
23 

24 
25 
26 
27 


28 
29 
30 
31 

32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 

38 
39 

40 
41 
42 
43 

44 
45 
46 

47 

48 
49 
50 
51 

52 
53 
54 
55 


56 

57 
58 
59 

60 
61 
62 
63 

64 
65 
66 

67 

68 
69 
70 
71 

72 
73 

74 
75 

76 

77 
78 
79 

BO 
81 

82 
33 


84 

S 

87 

88 
89 
90 
91 

92 
93 
94 
95 

96 
97 
98 
99 

100 


Th 

Sa 
S 
Mo 

Tu 

Th 
Fr 

Sa 

S 
Tu 
W 
Th 

Fr 

S 
Mo 
Tu 

W 

Fr 

Sa 
S 

Mo 
W 
Th 
Fr 

Sa 
Mo 
Tu 
W 


W 

Fr 

Sa 
S 

Mo 
W 
Th 
Fr 

Sa 
Mo 
Tu 
W 

Th 
Sa 
S 
Mo 

Tu 
Th 
Fr 
Sa 

S 
Tu 
W 
Th 

Fr 
S 
Mo 
Tu 


Tu 
Th 
Fr 

Sa 

S 
Tu 
W 
Th 

Fr 
S 
Mo 
Tu 

W 
Fr 
Sa 

S 

Mo 
W 
Th 
Fr 

Sa 
Mo 
Tu 
W 

Th 
Sa 

Mo 


Mo 
W 
Th 
Fr 

Sa 
Mo 
Tu 
W 

Th 

Sa 
S 
Mo 

Tu 
Th 
Fr 
Sa 

S 
Tu 
W 
Th 

Fr 
S 
Mo 
Tu 

W 

Fr 
Sa 
S 


s 

Tu 
W 

Th 

Fr 
S 
Mo 
Tu 

W 

Fr 
Sa 
S 

Mo 
W 
Th 
IV 

Sa 
Mo 
Tu 
W 

Th 
Sa 
S 
MQ 

Tu 
Th 
Fr 

Sa 


Sa 
Mo 
Tu 
W 

Th 
Sa 
S 
Mo 

Tu 
Th 

Fr 
Sa 

S 
Tu 
W 
Th 

Fr 
S 
Mo 
Tu 

W 

Fr 
Sa 
S 

Mo 
W 
Th 
Fr 


Ft 

8 
Mo 
Tu 

W 
Fr 
Sa 

S 

Mo 
W 

Th 
Fr 

Sa 
Mo 
Tu 
W 

Th 
Sa 
S 
Mo 

Tu 
Th 
Fr 

Sa 

a. 

To 
W 
Th 


Sa 
Mo 
Tu 
W 

Th 

Sa 
S 
Mo 

Tu 
Th 
Fr 

Sa 

S 
Tu 
W 
Th 

Fr 
S 
Mo 
Tu 

W 
Fr 

Sa 

S 

Mo 
W 

Th 
Fr 


Th 
Sa 
S 
Mo 

Tu 
Th 
Fr 
Sa 

S 
Tu 
W 

Th 

Fr 
S 
Mo 
Tu 

W 

Fr 
Sa 

S 

Mo 
W 
Th 
Fr 

Sa 
Mo 
Tu 
W 


Tu 
Th" 

Fr 
Sa 

S 
Tu 
W 

Th 

Fr 
S 
Mo 
Tu 

W 
Fr 

Sa 
S 

Mo 
^W 
Th 

Fr 

Sa 
Mo 
Tu 
W 

Th 

Sa 
S 
Mo 


S 
Tu 
W 
Th 

Fr 

S 
Mo 
Tu 

W 
Ft 

Sa 

s ! 

Mo 
W 

Th 
Fi 

S& 
Mo 
Tu 

W 

Th 

Sa. 
S 
Mo 

Tu 
Th 
Fr 
Sa 


L.Y. 
L.Y. 
L.Y. 

L.Y. 

L.Y. 
L.Y. 
L.Y. 


6 
13 
20 
27 


7 
14 
21 

28 


3 

10 
17 
24 
31 


3 

10 
17 
24 
31 


4 
11 
18 
25 

~l 
8 
15 
22 
29 

5 
12 
19 
26 


5 
12 
19 
26 


6 
13 
20 
27 


7 
14 

21 

28 


i 

15 
22 
29 


6 
13 
20 
,27 


7 
14 
21 

28 


2 
9 
16 
23 
30 


3 
10 
17 
24 
31 


4 
11 
18 
25 

~ 
8 
15 
22 
29 

~& 
12 
19 
26 

2 
9 
16 
23 
30 


5 

12 
19 
26 


3 
10 
17 
24 
JJ1 

7 
14 
21 

28 


4 
11 
18 
25 


6 
13 

20 

27 

~3 
10 
17 
24 
Jtt 

7 
14 
21 

28 


7 
14 
21 

28 

~4 
11 
18 
25 


2 

9 
16 
23 
30 

~6 
13 
20 

27 


1 
8 
15 
22 
29 


2 
9 
16 
23 
30 


4 
11 

18 
25 


5 

12 
19 
26 


6 
13 

20 
27 


1 
8 
15 

22 
29 


3 

10 
17 
24 

i 31 



To find the initial day of a given year A*D. take the day marked in Section A perpendicular under the 

fiven century and horizontal opposite the given year, Note this initial day in column 2 of the heading of 
ection B. Find the given day of month in the hody of Section B. Bun up to the week-day in horizontal line 
with the initial day in the heading. The day so found is the week*day of the given day of month and year. 

J$+g* Wanted week-day of 23rd March, A,B. 645- At junction of century 600 (perpendicular) and 45 
{horizontal) in Section A is Saturday. This was the initial day of A.D. 645* The year was common. The 
week-day noted in the heading of Section B at the junction of 23rd March (perpendicular) and of " Sa." in 
column 2 of heading (horizontal) is ** W," Wednesday. Therefore 23rd March, A.D. 645, was a Wednesday. 

In common years work with the month on left, in leap-years with that on right. 

jv; B. In the New Style the years 1600 and 2000 are leap-years, but 1700, l00 r 1000 are common years. 
The initial week-day of the first year of each New Style century is given above it in heading of Section A. 
For the initial week-day of other years of the century look for the day in th junction of columns as mentioned 
above ; e$., A.D. 1900 began (top) on Monday. 1901 began (junction of columns) on Tuesday. 1928 begins oa 
Sunday. 1919 began on Wednesday- 

2D 



18 



BPIGBAPHU INDICA, 



[Voi, XVI 



TABLE LXXH. 
VALUE or 0, &, c AT BEGINNING OP CENTURIES OP THE KAUYUOA BY THE FIRST AHYA-SIDDBINTA 

AT MEAN SUNRISE ON DAY OF OCCURRENCE OP MEAN MSSHA-SAMKRANTI, WHICH IS THE 
MOMENT WHEN MEAN SUN REACHES LONGITUDE 0. 



Century. 


Week- 
day, 


a, 


5. 


C. 


36 





7177-6066 


135-4688 


279-9111 


37 





60454346 


723-3175 


280-2723 


38 





4913-2637 


311-1661 


280-6336 


39 





3781-0927 


899-0148 


280-9948 


40 





2648-9218 


486-8635 


281-3560 


41 





1516-7509 


74-7121 


281-7172 


42 





384-5799 


662-5608 


282-0784 


43 


6 


8913-7771 


214-1179 


279-7019 


44 


6 


7781-6062 


801-9665 


280-0631 


45 


6 


6649-4352 


389-8152 


280-4243 


46 


6 


5517-2643 


977-6639 


280-7855 


47 


6 


4385-0933 


565-5125 


281-1467 


48 


6 


3252-9224 


153-3612 


281-5079 



N. B.~~Tfa mine of &, the d'a mean anomaly, is given a$ 
estimated fy Professor Jacobi. The present avthw esti* 
mates its value as less than the gwen amount ly 3*6* In a 
wry dose me both valuation* my le tried* 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : " TRUE " SYSTEM. 



219 



TABLE LXXIII. 

MEAN SUNRISE VALUE OP a, 6, c FOB YEARS OP THE E. Y. CENTURY BY THE 
* Years thus marked are years of 366 days, the rest of 365 each. 



Year. V 


P-d. 


a. 


6. 


c. I Yea*. ^ 

P 


r-<L 


a. 


6. 1 c- 




1 



















1 50 





4433-9145 


793-9243 t CBS06 


O 

1 

3 

4: 




1 

2 
4 
5 


36OO-6340 
7201-2680 
114O5339 
4741-1679 


246-4427 
492-8853 
775-6196 
22-0623 


999-2918 51 
998-5836 *52 
0-6131 53 
999-9049 1 54 


I 

2 
4 
5 


8034-6485 
1635-1826 
5574-4484 
9175-0824 


40-3670 
286-8001 
689-5439 

815-9860 : 


9994724 

998*7542 


5 

7 

8 
9 


6 

2 
3 
4 


8341-8019 
1942-4359 

5881-7018 
9482-3358 
3082-9698 


268-5049 
514-9476 
797*6819 
44-1246 
290-5672 


999-1967 I 55 
998-4885 1 *66 
0-5181 1 67 
999-8099 I 68 
999-1017 59 


6 

i 

3 

4 


2775-7164 
6376-3604 
315-6163 
3916-2603 
7516-8843 


62-4293 
308*8719 ' 
591-6062 
838-0489 1 

84-4916 j 


099-3773 
B98-6691 

0-6987 

^9*2823 


*1O 
11 

12 


5 

1 

2 
4 


6683-6038 
622-8697 
4223-5037 
7824-1377 
1763-4035 


537-0099 
819-7442 
66-1868 
312-6295 
595-3638 


998-3934 I *60 
0-4230 I 61 
999-7148 1 62 
999-006$ I 63 
1-0362 1 *64 


5 

1 
2 
3 


1117-5183 
5066-7842 
8657-4182 
2258-0522 
5858-6862 


330-9342 1 
613-6686 
860-1112 
106-563$ 
362-9965 


998-5741 

9994872 
99S4790 


15 
16 

18 


5 
6 

2 
3 


6364-0375 841-8065 
8964-6716 &8-2491 
2565-3066 334-6918 
65O4-5714 617*4261 
105-2054 863-8687 


0-3280 65 
999-6197 66 
998-9115 I 67 
0-9411 1 *68 
0-2329 1 69 


5 
6 

1 
3 


9797-9621 
3398-5861 
6999-2201 
699-8641 
4639-1200 


835-7308 
'882-1736 
128-6161 
375-0688 
667-7931 i 


999-0921 
998*3839 

0"4135 


SO 

22 
23 
24 

2 
27 

28 
*29 


V 

4 
5 

1 
2 

3 
5 
6 

1 


37O6-8394 110-3114 
7306-4734 356 7541 
1245-7393 639-4884 
4846-3733 8 8 &f>12 
8447-0073 132-3737 

2047*6413 378-8164 
5986*9072 661 " 5 522 
9587-5412 907-9933 
3188*1762 154*4360 
6788-8092 400-8786 


999:5247 1 70 
998-8165 I *71 
0-8460 I 72 
0-1378 1 73 
999-4296 1 74 

998-7214 1 *75 
0-7510 I 76 
0-0428 1 77 
1 999-3346 1 78 
998-6263 1 *79 


4 
5 


j 

3 

6 
6 
C 

' t 


8139-7640 ' 
1740-3880 
6679-6539 
9280-2879 
2880-9219 

6481-6569 
420-8217 
4021-4567 
t 7622-0897 
[ 1222*7238 


904-2S57 ' 
160-6784 
433-4127 ! 
679-8554 

926-2380 

172*7407 ! 
465*4760 
i 701*9176 
948-3503 

194-803 

477-5372 


9^-7053 

1-0261 
0-31S4 

^8-^20 
0-93IS 
0-2234 
999-5152 
998*8070 

0-8365 


30 
31 
32 
33 
34 

IS 

*37 
38 
39 


3 
4 
5 
6 
1 

2 
3 
4 
6 



728-0751 583*6129 

SSI BSB 

iSS-SBl 422-9409 
5469-2430 705-6752 

9O69-8770 952-1179 
1^70-5110 198-5608 
027M450 445-0032 
210-4109 727-7375 
3811-0449 974-1801 


0-6559 1 01 
999-9477 I 82 
999-2395 1 # 83 
998-5313 1 04 
0-5609 1 

1 85 
999-8526 1 86 
999-1444 1 *87 
998-4362 88 
0-4658 1 89 
999-7576 1 
1 9C 


Q t UJLVJ. VWW 

4 8762-6236 
5 2363-2576 
6 5963-8916 
1 9903-1575 

2 3503-7915 
3 7104-4255 
4 705-0595 
6 46*4-3254 
8244-9594 

i i 1845-5934 

' ! mf M A O OT> 


723-9799 
970-4226 
216-8662 
499-6995 

746-0422 
992-4849 

238-9276 
621-6618 
768-1046 

14-6471 
2BO9S98 


0-1283 

999-4301 
998-7119 
0-7415 

1 0*0332 
i 999-3260 

1 999-9382 

i 999-2300 
098-5218 






1 


I *9' 


[ 2 5446-2274 


ffljnj w*f*> 
fjtn *7<>41 


0-5613 


40 
*41 


> 1 
2 


7411-6789 220-622S 
iSi-3129 46J-06W 


1 999-0494 I 95 
i 998-3412 j 9; 
j 0-3707 1 9, 


> 4 9385-4931 
5 2986-1271 
[ 6 6586-761: 


43-7*j 
790-1665 
j 36*6094 


I 999-8431 
t 9994349 


42 4 


4951*5788 1 4t<7 iwt 


I 999-6625 I 






[ 998-4267 


4S 

*44 


t c 

t < 


\ 2162-8468 242-686^ 


L 998-9543 1 *g 
I 9 


, o 187-39& 
a 2 4126-661 

7'7VT-295 


j j y^y\MjA 
2 ] 565-786* 
2 812-229^ 


1 0*4663 
. 999-7481 


41 

4< 
4' 

*4i 

41 


i 1 
i i 

r 3 
i - 

9 ' 

ii 


L 6092-1126 5?'*!! 
I 9692-7466 771-862 
J 3293-3806 J^-304 
i 6894-0147 284-JJ7 
B 633-2805 647-481 


i 0-9839 1 9 
0-2757 9 
7 999-5675 *9 
A 998-8592 1 
7 0-8888 I 1C 

, ' 


7 3 ilfl *""* 

I 4 1327-929 
I 5 4928-563 

^ o 8867-82S 

_ * === 


2 58-671 
2 305-114 

H ! 687-848 

-. = 


7 '' 999"CS^8 
4 998-3316 

7 0-3612 

. ^ 



220 



EHGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[70L.XVI 



TABLE LXXIV. 

DAILY VALUES OF a, I, c FROM MJNA TO 2 ' MESHA. 
For calculation of their value at mean sunrise on the day Chaitra Sukla 1. 



Interval of 
days from 
true Mesha- 
gamkranti. 


Day of 

Solar 
month. 


Week 
day. 


a. 


b. 


c. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


30 


Hlna 


3 


9163-7800 


838-6681 


912-3908 


29 


1 


4 


9502-4119 


874-9597 


915-1286 


28 


2 


5 


9841-0438 


911-2513 


917-8664 


27 


3 


6 


179-6756 


847-5429 


920-6042 


26 


4 


a 


518-3075 


983-8345 


923-3420 


25 


6 


1 


856-9394 


20-1262 


926-0798 


24 


6 


2 


1195-5713 


56-4178 


928-8176 


23 


7 


3 


1534-2032 


92-7094 


931-5554 


22 


8 


4 


1872-8350 


129-0010 


934-2931 


21 


9 


5 


2211-4669 


165-2927 


937-0309 


20 


10 


6 


2550-0988 


201-5843 


939-7687 


19 


11 





2888-7306 


237-8759 


942-5065 


18 


12 


1 


3227-3625 


274-1675 


945-2443 


17 


18 


2 


3565-9944 


310-4591 


947-9821 


16 


14 


3 


3904-6263 


846-7508 


950-7199 


15 


, 15 


4 


4243-2581 


383-0424 


9534576 


14 


16 


6 


4581-8900 


419-3340 


956-1954 


13 


W 


6 


4920-5219 


455-6256 


958-9332 


12 


18 





5259-1538 


491-9173 


961-6710 


11 


19 


1 


5597-7856 


628-2089 


964-4088 


10 


20 


2 


5936-4175 


564-5005 


967-1466 


9 


21 


3 


6275-0494 


600-7921 


969-8844 


8 


22 


4 


6613-6813 


637-0838 


972-6221 


7 


23 


5 


6952-3131 


673-3754 


975-3599 


6 


24 


6 


7290-9450 


709-6670 


978-0977 


5 


25 





7629-5769 


745-9586 


980-8355 


4 


26 


1 


7968-2088 


782-2503 


983-5733 


3 


27 


2 


8306-8406 


818-5419 


986-3111 


2 


28 


3 


8645-4725 


854-8335 


989-0489 


1 


29 


< 


8984-1044 


891-1251 


991-7866 




Mesha 


5 


9322-7363 


927-4168 


994-5244 




I 


6 


9661-3681 


963-7084 


997-2622 




2 



























The figures fpr Mesha are tfiose for mean aunriae on the day whea true MEsha-samkranti occurred, ue, 
on the day when true sun reached long* 0. 

The table eervea equally for calculation from the day of mean Jleeha-eaihkranti by noting the interval 
of days. 



No. 14.] 



THE FIRST ARYA-SIDDHANTA : " TBUE " SYSTEM. 



221 



TABLE LXXV. 

MOON'S EQUATION OP CENTRE BY THE FlBST 

(For equation of sun's centre see Table XLVII, VoL XIV above.) , 







SINE OF MEAN 
ANOM. ANGLE. 


EQUATION* 






Serial 
No, of 
sine* 

1 


Moon's mean 
anomaly. 






Moon's mean 
anomaly. 


Serial 
No, of 
sine*. 


Value 
in mi- 
nutes. 


Diff- 
erence. 


Equation in 
degrees* 


DifL per 
minute 
of anom. 


Equation in 
10,000th of 
circle. 


1 . 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


1 





0' 


180 0' 


0' 


/ 


0' 0* 








180 0' 


360 0' 













225 




5-250 










1 


3 45 


176 15 


225 




19 41-25 




9-114583 


183 45 


356 15 


1 










224 




5-226 










2 


7 30 


172 30 


449 




39 17*25 




18-188657 


187 30 


352 30 


2 










222 




5-180 










3 


11 15 


168 45 


671 




58 42-75 




27-181713 


191 15 


348 45 


3 










219 




5-110 










4 


15 


165 


890 




1 17 52*5 




36-053240 


195 


345 


4 










215 




5*016 










5 


18 45 


161 15 


1105 




1 36 41*25 




44-762730 


198 45 


341 15 


9 










210 




4-900 










6 


22 30 


157 30 


1315 




1 55 3*75 




53-269675 


202 30 


337 30 


6 










205 




4*783 










7 


26 15 


153 45 


1520 




2 13 0-0 




61-574074 


206 15 


333 45 


7 










199 




4-64$ 










8 


30 


150 


1719 




2 30 24-75 




69-635415 


210 


330 


3 










191 




4-456 










9 


33 45 


146 15 


1910 




2 47 7-i 




77-372684 


213 45 


326 15 


9 










183 




4-270 










10 


37 30 


142 30 


2093 




3 3 8-25 




84*785878 - 


217 30 


322 30 


10 










174 


^ 


4-060 










11 


41 15 


138 45 


2267 




3 18 21-75 




91*834490 


221 15 


318 45 


11 










164 




3-926 










12 


45 


135 


2431 




3 32 42-75 




98*478009 


225 


315 


12 










154 




3*5947 










13 


48 45 


131 15 


2585 




3 46 11-5681 




104*718890 


228 45 


311 15 


13 










143 




3-3516 










14 


52 30 


127 30 


2728 




3 58 4p-6696 




110-537572 


232 30 


307 30 


14 










131 




3-0603 










15 


56 15 


123 45 


2859 




4 10 16-4900 




115-867978 


236 15 


303 45 


15 










119 




2-7979 










16 


60 


120 


2978 




4 20 44-0290 




120*710099 


240 


300 


16 










106 




2-4844 










17 


63 45 


116 15 


305(4 




4 30 3-0134 




125-023250 


243 45 


296 15 


17 










93 




2-1797 


, 








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67 30 


112 30 


3177 




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247 30 


292 30 


18 










79 




1-8416 










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71 15 


108 45 


3256 




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19 










65 




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75 


105 


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134-660805 


255 


285 


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101 15 


3372 




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136*742001 


258 45 


281 15 


21 










37 




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22 


82 30 


97 30 


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138-247533 


262 30 


277 30 


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86 15 


93 45 


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266 15 


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270 


270 


24 



222 EPIOBAPHIA IFDICA. [VOL. XVI. 



No. 15. SRIRANGAM PLATES OP HARIHAEA^BATA UDAIYAB (III); 

SAKA 1336, 

?Y 

THE LATE T. A. GOPINATHA RAO, M,A,, TBIVANDBAM, ANP VAUAKHEDI BAPU ACHAEYA, B.A-, 

HABEAS* 

This set o copper-plates belongs to thfe Srlranganatha Temple afc Srlrartgam. The temple 
authorities kindly allowed us a loan, for a few days, o the original copper- plates, from whici^ 
j <m which the accompanying facsimile plates are lasetl, were taken under our 



supervision. 1 

The set consists of five plates, which are engraved on both sides and are 7"x 4f in size. 
In -the middle of the left margin of each plate there is a hole to take in the binding ring^ 
which, when the plates were lent to us, was not found with the set. Most probably the 
binding ring has been lost* The inscription is in an excellent state of preservation. The 
plates are marked serially with Telugu-Kannada numerals one to five near the ring-holes. 
The alphabet is Telugn and the language Kannada* But the first five lines, which contain au 
invocation to Vishnu in his Boar incarnation, are written in Sanskrit verse ; similarly, linea 
92-98 contain the usual imprecatory verses in Sanskrit* The Kannada employed in the record 
is far froia literary and is distinctly faulty j it sounds more like the dialect spoken in the 
Coimbatore, Salem and Trichinopoly Districts than the pure Kannada of Mysore* 

A number of orthographical and graphical peculiarities are worth noting. The chief 
among them is the universal use of the anusvara before a consonant in the place of nasals : it 
would be impossible to correct them all, and they are therefote left as found in the inscription t 
The necessary^ doubling of consonants is in many-instances omitted :e.g>, in koto, in 11. ] 3, 24 
and 27, iu gramavanu in 1. 17 [the accusative termination anu is correct ; see Kittel's Sannada 
Grammar, p. 43.-*- H, K. S.] 3 in Tiotina in L 32, in oba in 11. 40 and 77, etc* The use of vowels 
at the end and in the middle of words, where there ought to be sonant consonants, is also a 
common feature of this document ; e.g., n&il for navn in 11. 13, 18, 57 and 89 ; riiti for ntvu 
in 11. 48, 58 and 87 ; Jcoteii foTjtottevu in 1, 24 ; dv(tde$eii for dvadatfiyu in L 19 ; ma^isuvadakkeu 
for mtidisuvadakJcu in 1L 35-6 ; Naru&ru for Naruvuru in 11. 15, 26 and 6Q-1 ; QheUrako^e fay 
OhivuraJcdfe in L 20, The consonant nau is used in some instances for navfi, e.g.> pratidinau for 
gratidmavu in 11* 28 and 67 ; similarly dau is used for dald (davu dalti) in dravyadimdau for 
dravyaditiidalo in II 62 and 63. The secondary e-symbol is in many instances added at the bat torn 
instead of the top as in other inscriptions and in modern Telugu: e.g., in U in kalebara% 
in 1. 2 ; in kke in ^sJcJieya in 11. 11 and 17 ; le in kale in L 95. The consonants with secondary 
i are hardly distinguishable from those with the secondary e. Two different form$ of the* 
consonant va is employed, one resembling the English letter s and the other the corqjnon one. 
The former type occurs also an conjunctions, e.g., vo in vcrrhdu in 1. 32, 

The record belongs to the reign of Vira-Harihara-BSya TJ4aiyar {III), son of Vira-, 
Pratapa-deva-Baya II of the first Vijanayagara Dynasty* That Vlm-Pratapa-dva-Rfiya had 
a son named Vlra-Harihara-Raya is ktiown from a solitary record of the latter at Vijaya-* 
mafigalam, No. 596 of the Madras Epigraphist's collection for 1905, dated Saka 1334. Hari- 
tara-Baya seems to ha?e ruled as a vi<30roy orer the country lying Q:Q the banks of the JBhavani 
river 2 (that is, a portion of the Ooimbatore District, as it is at present constituted). He appears 
to have ended his life only as a governor and never to h^v occupied the position of king of 
Vijayanagara. 

* [They have been already noticed by the Madras Epigraphiat in Ms Awwal &e$ort for 1905-6. Appendix A f 
yob. BL] ' 

* [See Ar&. Srv* Sep. for 1907-8, p. 246. Ed.] 



No. 15.] SRIRANGAM PLATES OF HARIEARA-RAYA TTDAIYAB (III). 



223 



n 



The subject matter of the record is the grant of the Tillage of Naruvfiru, ritnaied 
ngu-nsrfw o the Eayarapttra-reTi^eT/a (district), to Uttamanainbi-; son of Uttamanambi, 
of the Kanganatha temple at Srirangam'/ori Friday, the "first day of the dark fortnight of the 
month Bhadrapada in the cyclic year Jaya, -which corresponded to the Saka year 1338. 
The inscription further states that the same village was originally granted to one Appannan- 
galu., son of Ichappa, by Vira-Harihara-Raya Udaiyar, on Monday, tha twelfth day (Sravana- 
J3vSdasi) of the bright fortnight of the month of Bhadrapada of the same year, i.e., 
four days earlier than the previous date, at Chevurakote, in the presence of the god Madhava, 
on the banks of the BhavSnl river, for the propitiation of the god Tryambaka. l.ja..aUo 
understood that Uttanoanambi, who recerped^the gift from Appannangalu, was to hold a 
subordinate position (ediridii) ixTthe latttr with reference" to the grant. It il not possible to 
explain, why in such a short period as four days the gift should have changed hands. It was 
perhaps that Appaimangalu could not at a distance manage the charity as effectively as a 
native of the place, and therefore handed over the management of the same io the charge of 
TJ t tarn anambi. 

The deed of gift to Uttamanambi stipulated : 

1. that the village of Waruvnru should thenceforward be designated Eanganathapura ; 

2. that a daily service with every detail of oft'rings to the god Ranganatha_BjjjQuld be 

maintained ; 

3. that a flower-garden should be kept up for the special service known as Padinettampaeli- 

Servai (?) ; 

4. that a Satira, or feeding house for Biahmanas, should be constructed within the walls 

of the Ranganatha temple, and twelve Brahraanas fed daily ; and 

5. that four ma of land should be granted to each of eight Bjahmanas residing at 

Naruvu.ru, free of taxes. 

The prince Harihara-Raya Udaiyar expresses his desire that, since this was a charity 
primarily by him, it should be conducted without remissness and diminution. Who the person 
called Apparmangalu was, is not patent from the inscription ; he appears to have been a highly 
placed man, wielding some influence with the prince Haribara-Baya Udaiyar, and to have 
induced the prince to grant the village with the distinct intention of giving it over to TJttama- 
nambi. The family of the Uttamanambis is an ancient one in Srlrangam; the Uttamanambia 
-were very influential, and there is still a current proverb, tir padi mtamanambi padi, " the town 
is one-half and Uttamanambi the other half," meaning that the members of the family were as 
ffood as the whole town put together. These are Brahmanas of the P*na-S&hK sect and have 
done very much towards the enriching of the temple of the god Ranganatha of Srlraftgam. 
A detailed account of these will be found in an article on the Srlrangam Plates of Devaraya II. 
to be edited by one of us in this journal. The Uttamanambis are one of the hereditary trustee* 
of the temple of Ranganatha and enjoy certain rights and duties in it. 

The places, etc., mentioned in this record are : Rayarapura-^n^, Kelangu or ^lan^- 
n* 4 u, laUrt, Narnvflru, Chevm^ote, Bhavan! and Srlrangam. Of these the K*ri ori the 
Bhavani are two rivers, the latter a tributary of the former. Naiuvto, * evadentl y te n 
irerur, situated on the bank of the river Eaven in the Karfir tMa of the Coimbatore 
It is famous as the place where the groat Sadasiva Parabrahnoam, a *>*?*% 
powers and devotion, died and is interred. Chevurukate may he *** wi _ 
Fnthe Palladam taluk* of the ,ame district. There are three places ca led R ayapa .yam 
Ravanaruram and Rayapuram, intheErode, the Udamalpet, ^* 
sound Hke Fayarapuram; but since Nerur, the village granted, i 
te . y perhaps idLtify R.yarapura of the ^ ^^ 
Karui- talttka. Whether Kilarigu-7zarf takes its name from 

cc* would bo hard to say. 2 r.'2 



224 EPIGRAPEIA DroiCA. [VOL. XVI. 

TEXT. 1 

[Metres: v. 1, ard&lavikr$<Jita ; v. 2, Anushtubh;v. 3, Salint.'] 

First Plate '; First Side. 

1 o 
2 



3 srflfstsrt 3 [i] ^r; <ff<?f?r ^frr ffcc- 



6 

6 

7 
8 



10 -^ 

First Plate .- Second Side. 

11 
12 



13 51 gite 11 TTfrmw^ 12 w^^^t [i*] 

1* TO 14 

15 



^ 

M. >* 

16 
17 
18 mira? 

19 



Second Plate : First Side, 




_H. K. a] 
8 Omit the anttiv&ra on ma in 



Rflad 

Bead 






Srirangara Plates of Harihara-Raya Udaiyar: Saka isjfe^Vy 

^:. 



*>* 








o 

n 




F. W, 



SCALE ONE-HALF 



WH1TTINGHAM & GR1GGS, PHOTO'LlTH. 



GS 



70 




3 3 






";, ': ''.''''':: ''.-. -'"' dU-'': -': :''. : 'fZ\?^''\:'-\ : ;:^\'' 1 ^J~i^ ! &^>'-'" : * r f^^ ,^.7 l""""TJf-' -, *^:'*> , -..;- - . *;.- /;, ;..:->*ti::;;'*;. j 



86 



8S 



SO 




No. 15.] SBIRANGAM PLATES OF HARIHARA-RAYA UDAITAB (III). 



225 



23 

24 sRt^ 8 Hi*] *rr *n**N*iaf 'fa 4 ^rsr^j 6 nf?r- 

25 



26 *TT 
27 



AQ gfr .r",.\fr wfr^rt^o^lO 



29 
30 

Second Plate : Second Side. 

_> /^ A 

31 
32 
33 



15 r> . C^7> im- ml J Jl Jill I -J j _aM 



34 5fz ^f5T TB^T rt2*4iw *jQ9Th 

.18 



35 

36 * ^- 18 

37 aeft 

38 3 
39 



40 !TT<^*l**' a 

Third Plate : First Side. 

_ .^^ *Bfc. _ _ ***u ,^4k jfe * 

41 
42 



44 



Bead u ^eai. " Beaa TI *V ' B6ftd '^ nm0 ' 

* Bead TO. ' Bead 7^. 6 Bead 

' "Read ~~ ^ *R.ft.<l -orraww. * Read 



" Bead nf U ^ M Bead 



Bead ^te " Rad itftPT. " Read 

Bead o^^u " Read ^. Bead 

Bead^^. * "Bead^. Bead 

* Bead ^ M Bead ^ 

[Perhaps trr WIT was intended. H. K. S.] s * Bead 
Head w . " Bead ^^. 

"Bead wnnnrftir. [wnw is * more oftoa in popular ^Jf 11 ^ 6 than mrem. 

w *" 1 



Bead ^. Bead KTWt^r. w B*" 1TTJ 



226 EPIGRAPEIA INDICA. [Vol.. XVI. 



45 

4u i^4l<c|^} ^1*^1 WT^I^f ITT 

47 f 

48 

Af\ Hr8 * _.._ ILL _ .' 

t arai ^EfT ^i*4rtl 
50 



53 



55 fae 

56 

57 

58 

59 vs^ *rr 

60 



PZoze : First Side 

61 
62 



63 n 31 fr* 

64 

65 



1 Eead ^?:...._ 2 Bead i- 8 Omit the 

4 Read ttfc<%4> s Ecad a ig t 

Eead ^. [There is no necessity for this correction. H. K. S 1 ' Read 

8 Bead es - * Ecad 

4: ; 






<N. 



No. 15.] SRIRANGAU PLATES OF HJLRIH ABA-BAY A ITDA1YAB (III). 



227 




77 si 15 

78 ^ 1? 

79 f% 

80 ft 



Fourth Plate : Second Side. 

71 

72 
73 
7.4 
75 
76 



Fifth Plate : First Side. 




is Read TE*nrU _ * * -D^/I 

. Bead ^4pf. See above, p. 225, note 27. ^ Be-1 



^ 

Eead > ,.a 

Eead W - 

Omit the anwo&ra on ?[t 



228 EPiaRAPEIA INDICA. [ToL. XVI. 



87 ^ref 1 ^fe 8 4fmi<i;j(fdbJi ^r^hre- ^ts fsr 



89 6 i 



* 

o 

90 



PZate : Second Side. 

91 q*g ^Nrs 10 gfiV 1 Vtaww 11 [II*] 

92 ^r^trf tropRi ^r *rt 

93 ^ [i*] 



(i) 
?TT- 

98 ^t ^CTW^: II [^ *] ^^t^TT- 

99 ?r [ii*] 

ABSTBACT OP CO1TTBNTS. 

(LI. 1-5.) Adoration to Viskna in tis Boar incarnation. 

(LI. 5-33.) In the Salivahana Saka year 1336, corresponding to the cyclic year jaya 
on the first tithi of the dark fortnight of the month Bhsdrapada, on a Friday, JfaAS- 
mandale&vara Vira-Harihara-Eya Odeya, son of Vira-PratSpa-deva-BSya MaharZya, wito 
possessed the titles MahSrSjadhiraja and Rsjaparamesvara, gave to Uttamanambi, son of 
TJttamanambi, of the Kasyapa gBtra, aad the Rik sakhs, (a serrant) of the temple 18 of firl- 
BanganStha, a deed of a charitable gift, the terms of which, are as follows : 

(LI. 14-24.) " In the presence of the god Madhavadgva of Chevurakote in our kingdom, 
which is situated on the river Bhavani, We, for the propitiation of the god Tryambaka, 
granted to Appannagaju, son of Ichappagaju, of the Bharadvaja g5tra and the Yajufi faiths, 
n the Sravana-DvadaSi tithi of the bright fortnight of the month BbSdrapada of the 
year Jaya, the village of Haruviiru, situated on the bank of the river KSverJ, in JEelangu 
nsdu of the Bayarspura ventheya, (circuit or district) with all its appurtenances (?) (ksiuwaff) 
a village which yields at present fourteen Jions, as an ekabhSga (village) by the pouring 
of gift-water (on the hands of the donee) together with gold. 

(III. 24-28.) " This Appannagalu, having received it from our hands, gave the village of 
Naiuvuru the name of Srlranganathapura -and established a course of offerings, etc., to be 
made daily to the god Sriranganatha, which 13 as follows : 



Read 
* Bead 

* Bead ^j. 8 Bead f. Bead 

10 Bead j. Eeai f . Bead 

Bead *?;&?. u Reftd ^ u 

Bead W . Eeal 



r 
it. Jv. S.j 



. ea q,^^. 

K* A na thr TI & llOTlt ^a inscription seems to be used in the senae of temple ;cf.*an*a, a worshipper. 
v. S. * 



&o. 15.] SRIRANGAM PLATES OF HAUIHARA-RAYA UDAITAR (HI). 

(LL 29-33.) " Two plate-offerings with necessary equipments consisting of food, wavii.g 
K&tLtB, perpetual lights, sandal paste, flower- garland, incense, light (of camphor to be waved in 
f roil*) and betel -leaves and nuts, together with all concomitants, are to be offered once a clay ; x 

(til. 33-360 " A flower garden (of the extent) of one hundred and twenty kulis of laiul 
is to be cultivated (for the supply of flowers to make garlands to be worn by the foage of 
1) on the occasion of the service (called) padinettampadi (?) s In the temple of 



tlae god) 



36-43.) <4 A- kouse being built within the enclosure of the temple of Srlranga, to serve 
as a* ohhatra and necessary money to conduct the feeding being procured arrangements shonM 
Tbe xxi ade to appoint a Brahmana servant to cook for the feeding of twelve Brahma ass daily, 
Witlx rice dhal, ghee, four vegetable curries, butter-milky together with betel-leaves and 

IVDLtSt 

CM 44-47.) " Eight Brahmaijas in the village of NajTLTftrti should each be given, rent-free 
foixr ma of wefc land. 

(IA 47-49.) " And the remaining produce of the village, af tor meeting all these expenses 
He En ay enjoy as rent-free. 

CL1 49-57.) " With, these objects in view he, Appanna, granted the Tillage (to you) by the 
pcmriug of water, together with gold, aa a freehold, and, having executed this deed of u 
charitable grant, fixed on the boundaries of this village stones beanng the sankha and the client 
{ the emblems of Vishnu, to whom the village is granted), so that you might eajoy the villa^ 
iritb. the eight kinds of enjoyment (enumerated), aU income and all tases and conduct the 
charitable acts towards the god and the Brahmanas. 

CIA 57 89 ) " And, since this is an act of charity which We (i.e. prince Earlhara) have 
ffirst\ instituted, you (Uttamanambi) should conduct Jhe charities (which are once again 

proTpeetsintt snd conduct the charity from the said first Mfc of the dark fought of the 
month of Bbadrapada of the year Jaya. ..,,.. 

-93 ) This is the charity deed given (to you) by TJ 3 with the firm faith that you 
^m conduct the charities as long as the moon and the sun *. 



(LI. 93-98 contain the usual imprecatory verses.) 

(LI.' 98-99 bear the signature of the king Vlra-deva-Raya.) 



_ . 77 . snii 67 to 87 the inscriptSon states that the service here 

i [In repeating for the accord time these sUpulatnns "J.?^ ^ ^ 

moted was the second of the morning offerings to T^^' ^ W6 ll-known service called padinettampadi in the 
* TTlieKannada words aarft^rm e ?fcettamly Biggest Perhaps the author of the inscni- 

of Srl.RaigaBatha , but the meaning of 9^^^^ vS ^e y a for t ,>f^.-H. K. S.] 

m-al. ^ 



8 Instead of * either from * 

See above, p. 226, noto 30. Tte5 kiBg says that he woM of ui. owntree ^rEl agr 

* [The translation given fioes not appear to ce cor. . ^^^ ^^ ^^ exist ._H. K, &,] 

to declare the charities (recorded in the grant) tax-f ree as long 2 



230 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA, [Voi. XYL 



No.lG.~XHE SANCEI INSCRIPTION OF SVAMIN JIYADAMAN; THE 13TH YEAR. 

BY B. D. BASTEKJI, if.A* 

YVr- Mi-'i" :s kno*vrn about Svamin Jivadaman, tlie father of the Kshatrapa Rudrasimha 11^ 
v. -;v r;iItNj over Saaxiishtra In the third and the fourth decades of the third century AJX 
r*nl V<LM %u, , v^ry probably the ancestor of the Maha-Kshatrapa Sv&min Rudrasena IIL No 
inscriptions / this period have been discovered, and one has to depend entirely on numismatics 
for the reeo^strtietion of the history of this period. The line of Chashtana seems to have come 
to ai* t'lul v/itb the Kshatrapa YisvaseBa, son of the Maha-Kshatrapa Bhartridaman, The latest 
known date of Visvasena is Saka 226=3Gi AD, 1 In the following year (S. 227=305 AJD,) 
a prince named Rndra&izhba strikes coins; therefore it is certain that the reign of the 
Kstatrapa Tisvasena came to an end either in S. 226 ' or in S* 227. On this point Prof* 
E. J. Rapson states, u There is, however, only the possibility of a very small error in regarding 
Visvasena's last known coin date. 226, as the actual end of his reign, since his successor, 
the Kthatrapa Radrasimha II, issued coins in the following year, 227. " 3 Nothing is known 
about the origin ot ! this third dynasty of Satraps of Saurashtra. On the coins of Kshatrapa 
Rudrasimiia II it is stated that he was the son of Svamin Jivadaman. " With Mahakshatrapa 
Bliartridaaian and his son, the Kshatrapa Tisvasena, comes to an end the ruling family of 
Chashtana. It is succeeded by a family which traces its descent back to a personage Sv&min 
Jivadumar*, who, like Gksainotika, the father of Chasbtana, bears none of the titles which may 
be regarded as distinctly royal in character, 'raja,' * maJiakshatrapa ' or * kshatrapaS ns Prof. 
R:ip-DB is inclined to agree with the late Pandit Bhagwan Lai Indraji in thinking that Syamin 
Jiva'Jamaii va^ a scion of some younger branch of the family of Chashtana, because of his title 
S"jWfc and the ^tfix dft/iaw to his name, 

A -tone inscription was discovered in the village of Kanakheda near Safichl in the Bhopal 
State, by 01^ of the A^Lstants of Sir John Marshall, Director-General of Archeology in India, 
two or three year* ago. This record throws some light on the hitherto obscure personality of 
tlie ancestor of the third dynasty of the Satrgps of Sauraslitra* The inscription is in a very 
imperfect sirre of preservation and consists of six lines of writing. The language of the 
recowl is Sanscrit, and it is partly in prose and partly in verse. The inscribed surface 
measures i' 2T l*r *U ? and the average length of letters is 1|". The record opens with a number 
of O'Jjectii-ps and the first line ends with the name of Jivadamazi, The object of the rest 
of the iii^eiipifoT? is to record the excavation of a well by the Judge or General 
(Jfci/ifi-I^w^/ja^ (^afca), who was the son of Wanda the 

Scythian, in the kingdom-increasing year 13, The middle of the record has suffered consider- 
ably by flaking and it is ^impossible to make out any sense at all. The last two lines contain two 
pndiis of a verse in tlie Sardnlavikrldita metre, which records the purpose of the inscription, rw. 
the excavation of a well by Srldharavarman. The verse is followed by two numerical symbols 
and l>y three or four syllables which ai*e illegible. The adjectives in the first line cannot 
refer to Jivailansau, as they begin with the word Bliagavatak. It is probable that some 
comparison v as made bet-v*>?en the lord who was the commander of the heavenly hosts, whose 
armies had rever been vanquished, tlie lord ITahasena (SJcanda or KarttiJceya), and 
Jivatlfiman; but tlie fragmentary state of the first Ime prevents us from making any guesses. 
It is quite certain, however, that the line ends with the word Jtvadaman, the case-ending 
being illegible. It is also quite certain that the word Jivadaman is a proper name, and not 
an adjunct of any other name. The connection between the first line and the second line 
cannot be^ made out. It begins with the word dharnima-tijayena, which is an adjunct of the 
subject SfSdharg rarmmana. It contains a phrase the exact meaning of which is not apparent- 
1 Eapson, S. M. Cat,, <wZ. 16$. 3 Ibid., exL *~B. 9 exit. ~ 



o. 16.] $EE SAM3HI INSCRIPTION Otf SVA1IIN JIVADAMA2T. 2Si 



*J1f-db'hiti?iddh'i*lca're vaijayiJce samvaisare me&ns "in the kingdoms-increasing victorious 
year." This phrase is quite intelligible, if it is used in connection with a reigning sovereign ; 
but its meaning becomes dubious when it is used in the case of a royal officer. In this 
record it is used in the case of a Maha-DandanayaJca, a judge or at best a commander of 
forces. Now what can be the kingdom of a judge or a general? Yet the prefix sra 
shows clearly that the adjective must refer to the subject immediately preceding it, i.e. 
Srtdharavarmmana* It is quite possible that in the troublesome times which saw the end of the 
first dynasty of Satraps in Western India a judge or a general may have practically obtained 
independence ; but the use of regnal years in the case of a prince who for some reason or other 
liad refrained from openly proclaiming his royalty is very unusuaL Srldharavarman does not 
claim any royal titles : therefore it is extremely improbable that the year 13 mentioned 
in line 2 was a year of his reign. Most probably it is a regnal year of the reign of his master or 
suzerain who is mentioned in the previous line. 

The other interesting feature of this record is the numerical symbols, which have been 
incised after the last verse. The reason for putting the numerical, figures at the end of the 
recoi^d without an explanatory word is not apparent. They are two in number* There is no 
doti.'bt about the reading of the second symbol. It is a symbol for the unit and is used commonly 
in Kushan records and Western Satrap records and coins. -The other symbol is less easily 
recognisable. It resembles to some extent the Kushan symbol for 70. But it seems that it is 
tlie Western Kshatrapa symbol for 200 written at one stroke. It is a modified form of the 
symbol for 100 commonly used on Kshatrapa coins, which consists of two semicircles placed 
horizontally side by side, with the light end produced downwards and then made to curve 
towards the left. The symbol for 'two hundred has a short horizontal line attached to middle 
of tlie right vertical limb, to its right. In the Sanchl record we have a modified form o this 
symbol, which resembles the English letter T written in the 'current hand The symbol for 200, 
as used on the coins, has been modified in the inscription, because in this ease the serilx 1 
attempted to write it, and in fa.ct wrote it, at one stroke of the pen. Ilere we have two possible 
equivalents for tlie first numerical symbol, i.e. 70 and 200. We do not know what this nur^ler, 
71 or 201, indicates. It is not preceded by any such word rar.?7*e or saMvatsufi*. Yet there is 
tut one way of explaining the presence of the symbols, i.f. it is a date. The qua! i lying word 
seems to have been omitted through negligence* The Saka era is almost universally used in the 
inscriptions and 011 tlie coins of the Western Satraps, and tlie prefix Sv&min and the affix da^an 
indicate that the master or suzerain of the JVlalia-Daudanayaka Srldharavarman was descended 
from some younger branch of the family of Chashtana. Therefore it is extremely probable that 
tlie date used in the Sanchl inscription is a Saka date. [Now, considering the form of the 
characters used in the record, it is absolutely impossible to admit that the numerical symbols at 
tlie end stand for 71. The difference in the forms of the characters used in jlie Janagadh 
inscription of Budradamaii, which was incised shortly after the year 72 of the Saka era, and 
thereof this from SaSchlis very great, and therefore it is quite certain that the SaSchl inscription 
could not have been incised in the Saka year 71. On the other hand, the alternative suggested 
gives a fitting explanation to all the points raised by the newly discovered inscription. Tha 
record mentions Svatuifr. Jl'vadaman in the first line. We know from coins that tLe Kshatrftpa 
B-udrasimha II had acquired the country of Saurash^ra in S. 227=305 A.D. Therefore if is 
quite possible that his father was alive and was ruling in . 201=279 A.D. 

The SaSchl inscription, therefore, furnishes us with three different Items of hiihe-rto 
unknown, information about Svamin Jivadamanj it famishes us with (1) his date, (2) ^ri 
mum extx*nt of hi* reign, and (3) the locality of his principality. 

It ia now almost certain that the date of the record is S, 201S79 AD, ; and the association 
of JiY-adaman's *ame with, it shows that h& wa? reigning in -that year. It is also extroc;w!y 

*> i? 



EPI&RAPEIA INDICA. [y OL ; 



probable tliat the kingdom-increasing and victorious reign of the Maha-Dandanayaka 
v!irn;an is really the 13th year of Jivadaman's reign. The accession of Jivadaman 
therefore be placed tentatively^ in S. 201 13=188=266 A.D. Jivadaman could not 
been the ruler of Saurashtra in !. 188=266 A.D., because we find an almost unbroken series 
elated coins of the Maha-Kshatrapa Rudrasena II and his sons the Maha T Kshatrapas Vivasi riilx* 
aud Bhartjidaman from S. 187 to S. 201. It is therefore almost certain that Svamin Jiv^d 
had no control over Sauroshtra during this period. The conclusion is, therefore, that lie 
;>egix:; his career as the ruler of Malava, in which country the first record of his reign has 
discovered, 

As no coins of Jivadaman have been found, we are not in a position to discuss the. extexxfc 
Lis reign. Tfae Safichl inscription proves that he had ruled over Malava for at least thixHbe on 
years. Twenty-five years after the date of the Sanchi inscription the line of Chashtana carcte "to 
u end. The latest coin of the Kshatrapa Visvasena was issued in S. 226=304 A.D. He -w-as. 
fcucceeded by the Kshatrapa Eudrasimha II, whose earliest coin was struck in the Saka 
a27=3 ( j3 A.D. The intei'val between the two reigns seems to have been exceedingly 
We du not know how the reign of the Kshatrapa Visvasena ended, nor do we know how RtLcLr-a- 
Himlia II, the son of Svaniin Jivadaman, came to succeed him. Either Visvasena was defeated 
I>y Radrasimha II and driven out of his ancestral dominions or he died without issue azacl 
Hiuliasimlia II succeeded as the nest-of Jon. The text is edited from the original stone, 

TEXT. 

knii* ^ jj Bhagavatas*trida&rga^*s5napatSr*ajita-s6nasya svami-Mahaseiaa - 
mahatSja . . . s*aditya-virjya-Jivadama 

* 



2 dliaimma-vijaysna Sakarffanda-putrS^a maha^dandanayakena 

vaLrmma]na Varmma .... sra(s*%a* sva-rajy-abhivriddhi-kare 
sa[m]vatsare trayodasam[e] * 

3 Srayana-bahiilasya dasaml-pQrvvakam-etad.divasam kalyan-ablirudaya-vriclcllxj-- 

aitk^aks^^ dharmm-asi-sambrtcl - 

dhaa^ sracldha . , 



sracldha 

4 Sikbate chatoj-tttra . . tuk8-jiam . . . i . . . . m . api . . kapi[n] 

ma . . salilah sarvv-aclhigamyah sada 

5 satvuurrii] priya-dariauo jala-nidhir=ddharmmamalah . . gatah ... 

, * pruchy-y . . , " 

Srldharavarmmana gunavata khana P itO=ya3di subhah 200 I 
s . . stu ' 

TRANSLATION. 

^ 



.... m the tWrteenth year of Ma Mngdom-increasmg and victorio-uu 



margin of^thc record on the level between 11. 3-4. 
s ec note 2^ above.^^^"]'"*'''"'''''^ "* S6nSe US d in tbe AS lca inscr 'P tions '* Ed - XI! - 



Sanchi Inscription of Svami Jivadaman: the rnh v 



3 en year. 





16.] THE SAKCHI INSCRIPTION OF SVAMIN JIVADAMAN. 



233 



3. On the tenth day of the dark half of SrSvan* * ^T+w ^ , * ^ - 
welfare and prosperity, for the eternal ol^aimn^^^^ti? 1 v T*"* 

and fame, for the iMr ea se o f the S wo rf "L t h e S^T 1 *"* ** 



4 ..... , of which the . . . , water which Is accessible to all, at all times, 
5. Sweet to the sight of all created beings, a reservoir of water .... pure 

to be eaTEted by the virtuous SrldharaTarman, 



No. 17. THREE KSHATRAPA INSCRIPTIONS. 
BY RAKHALDAS BANERJI AND VISHKU S. SUKTHANKAR. 

These three Kshatrapa inscriptions, which are now exhibited in the TTatscm Museum of 
Antiquities at Rajkst, have been published before, at different times and different places, hut are 
here re-edited in order to have them properly illustrated and render them easily accessible. A 
comparison of the originals with the facsimiles of the same inscriptions published in the Bhav* 
nagar Collection of Prakrit and Sanskrit Inscriptions made us feel the special need of placing 
before scholars reliable facsimiles obtained by purely mechanical means. These, it is hoped, 
will enable even those scholars who are not in a position to examine the stones personally to 
re consider the previous readings, which, in our opinion, are in many respects defective. Our 
transcripts, which were in the first instance prepared from ink-impressions and squeezes, were 
subsequently compared with the originals. 

I.- Guxids Inscription of the time of the Kshatrapa Budrasimha : the year 103* 

The inscription was first edited, with a translation, in 1881, by Georg Buhler in Ind. Ant., 
Vol. X, pp. 157 f.^Jcrom an eye-copy and a transcript prepared by Pandit Vallabhacharya Hari- 
datta of Kathiavad and submitted to Buhler by Major Watson for publication. Nine yeara later 
Biihler published some corrections in Sitswng&er. Wien* Akad. Wi$$., Phil. Hist. Kl., Vol. 
4DXXII, No. XI, p. 46, note 2, which publication was unfortunately not accessible to the writers 
of this article. The posthumous papers of Bhagranlal Indraji edited by Rapson in the JQUF. 
Hoy. A*. Soc, (1890) contain a short note (pp* 650 f.) on this inscription* In 1895 the text and a 
Jbranslation of this epigraph were republished in the Collection of Prakrit and Sanskrit Xnscrip- 
fion#, Bhavnagar, pp. 21 f., No. 3 and Plate XVII. In 1896 appeared in the Bombay Gazetteer, 
Vol. I, Part I, p. 42, some corrections proposed by Bhagvanlal Indraji himself in his earlier 
.readings and interpretation; Rapson, in Jour. Moy. As, Soc., 1899, p. 375, also published some 
fresh corrections*. The Catalogue of the Coins of the Andhra Dynasty, etc. (1908), of Rapson 
Includes (p. Ixi) a short note on this record, which gives reference to the literature on the sub- 
-ject and briefly summarizes the contents of the inscription. In 1912 Prof- Luders In bis List of 
JSrSKmi Inscriptions (Appendix to Epigraphies Indica, Vol. X, No. 963) gave a complete biblio- 
graphy of the ipLSCriptioiij a reading of the date (it cannot be said whether from the published 
facsimile or directly from an impression of the stone), and a summary of its contents. And 
finally, in 1915, Prof. D- B. Bhandarkar published some corrections of previous readings and 
interpretations In Prog. Rep. Arch, Surv. of India, IF. Circle, 1914-15, p, 67. 

The inscription was discoyered in 1880 by Major Watson in an old unused well at Ganda in 
Aba HalSr District of North KafcMavad. It was subsequently removed to the temple o Dvfea- 
k&n&tKa at Jamuagar, where, apparently, it wa* kept until its transference to the 
Muaeum of Antiquities at 



234 



EPIGEAPEIA XND1CA. [VOL; 



Tlie epigraph contains five lines of well-engraved writing, covering a space of about 2 *- 
2 in. ir width by about 9* in. in height The writing is, on the whole, in an excellent 
01 preservation;* some isolated syllables here and there are, keweTO*, Seriously clar^-ed. 
average size of such letters as n, wi, y, and I is about f ". 

The characters present an earlier form of the southern variety of the Gupta alphabet 
that seen in the well-known inscription of Skaiidagnpta at Junagadh. It differs in a few 
pa-ilciilru^ from the Junagadh edict of the Sfaha-Kshatrapa Rudraclaman; to wit, in the form of 
fstilvcripr as well AS nncombined), and in the marking of the meclial vowel in si (1. 3), m { 0,noL t^ 
(L 3j. Subscript consonants, excluding ./, are expressed by the ordinary full forms of the letter's. 
No tinal consonants occur. Of initial vowels the record has only a (1. 4). Medial a lias in vario** s* 
instances been left unmarked, evidently through the carelessness of the scribe ; when engraved - 
it I a (like .7 and C) denote! by a short horizontal line appended, generally, to the top of tTie coraso- 
* ;a:t i'-gii: as au except iou we may mention ,/(^)'% in which the sign of <5 (which is made up of "tlxt* 
sign* oi and e> Is drawn in continuation of the middle bar of the letter. Noteworthy is -fcito 
furm of the medial long f, in the only certain and clear instance of that sign in this inscrigtioza, 
in c $ilutsi/a (L 3). In inscriptions of the same period and locality the long % is generally repre- 
sented by a crescent-shaped arc, with unequal arms and open at the top. In this instance, lio*\v 
ever, the free end of the shorter arm is attached to, or rather drawn in continuation of, one of tlio 
upright verticals of the mafrifta, a peculiarity which gives this letter a somewhat uncomirion 
appearance. This mode of drawing i is probably the origin of the spiral sign of that vowel irx 
the sQiuhem alphabets of a later epoch. The medial u is marked either by a subscript curved. 
Hue open to the right, as in #w of -suddhe (1. 3), or by one open to the left, as in pic of -putrcL&'i/CL 
(I, 2), or lastly by a short horizontal stroke attached to the lower end of a long vertical as in --rtt 
of Ii'2ii:,'-r (L 2). Line 3 includes the numerical symbols for 100 and 3. ISTosign of punctuation 
C'jenrs : the letters are engraved in a continuous succession without a break. 



The- language of the in<eribii^ii i* n mixed dialect, and the Tvhpls is m prose. The 
crul>.m> are t* f iij-i:tl'it\t- (L 3), aud ii,Uiiddli i 7]jtfa (L 3), and besides, perhaps, such irregularities 
i-i tfiiL-IIiiig a a cunnut. be put ilown to the negligence of the scribe; the rest is in Sanskrit. Ixi 
|ia,s,>lui4' ii may Le observed that the Sandlii constant y which we find here inserted between f y 
and 'uft.im serves very often the same purpose in Prakrit, as may be seen by reference -to 
PIseheFs Gwmmatik der Prakr-it-SpracIien, 353. [The construction of the genitives is in SOJOOLO 
eases in all these inscriptions irregular, e.g. ma7ia-T6shatra[jpas]ya t L I of Inscription ]S"o. I. ~E<3._3 
As ivcranls orthography, we may notice the sporadic doubling of the consonant after T* ixx 
-KiuJiiirtfe (1.4), sttrvva- (1. 5) ; in sukJtartlaim** (L 5) the consonant is not doubled. Tliere 
moreover, no instance of the phonetic doubling in a ligature when r forms the second 
ef the conjunct. The word bamddhapita seems to offer an instance of the doubling of 
evnsonaat following upon an amisvdra ; but the reading of the ligature is not quite certain, 
perhaps we have to read the word as bamndhapita, in which casthis would be an illustratioix 
of the addition of a superfluous aatisvara before a nasal, of which there are instances to bo 
TV it It in inscrsptlon.s of all periods. 

T\c- iiidci-ipt ion refers itself to the reign of the king (and) Kshatrapa Lord 
iBucIrcsimlia), and gives the following pedigree of the king : king and Maha 
Lurd Chashtana ; his son king and Kshatrapa Lord Jayadaman ; his *on king and Malxa- 
ir^lintmpa Lord Budradaman ; his son king and Ksliatiupa Lord Budrasiha (BudrasimtLa 
Tills is a genealogical list and not a dynastic one; that is why the names of several princes wt 
1 in! r i 1 -i Let- ween Chashtana and Itadrasiiiiha, hut who were not in the direct line of descexair 
Lave been left out* The record is dated on the fifth tithi of the bright fortnight of Vaisalc 
during the constellation of R5Mm in the year one hundred and three, -which nuwber 



THREE KSHATRAPA INSCRIPTIONS. 235 



expressed botli in words and numerical Ideograms. There can be little doubt that (lie era to 
which the year in this inscription is to be referred is the Saka era. Accordingly the 
inscription may be taken to be dated roughly in* the year A JX 181. It %vill be remembered" that 
the evidence afforded by the dates and the legends on the coins of Kmlrasiriiha lead us to infer 
that he ruled first as Kshatrapa in the year 102-3, then as Maha-Kshatrapa from 103 to "ill), 
then again as Kshatrapa from 110 to 112, and lastly as Maha-Kshatrapa from 113 to 118 (or 
119). According to this scheme the present inscription must be taken to refer to the period 
when he was reigning as Kshatrapa for the first time. The earliest elate we have for his reign 
is the year 102 on a coin belonging to the Cunningham collection. 

The object of the inscription was to record the digging and constructing, at the village of 
Basopadca, of a well by the general (senapati) Rudrabhuti, son of the general (sSnapati) 
Bapaka, the Afohira. 

The village of RasOpadra, which is the only locality mentioned in this record, remains 
unidentified. 

TEXT.* 

1 Siddha[rh] [(]*] Rajn5 maha-kshatra[pas]ya svami-Chaslitana-pmpautrasya rajSo 

kshatrapasya svami-Jayadama-pantrasya 

2 (sya) raj[nt>] maha-kshatrapasya sv[a]mi-Budradama-putrasya rajnS ksliatrapa- 

sya svami-Rudra* 

3 siliasya [vajrshe [tri]y-uttara-sate 100 3 Vaisakha-suddlie pameham[i] -cilia 

[t] t ya-tit h an Bo [hi] ni-naksha- 

4 tra-muhfirtt[e] Abhirena senapati-Bapakasya putrena seiiapati-Rudrabli[u]una 

grame Kaso- 

5 [pa]driye va[pl] [kha]ni[t5] [bamddh] apitas=cha sarvva-satvauarii hita-sukh- 

artham=iti [||*] 

Eemarks on the Transcript.' 2 

L. 1, GB and BI raj no maJia- and srami- ; "but in our estanipage the sign of length 
can "be made out in none of these words. L. 2. Over ma in malut^ to its iight ? is to be noticed a 
slanting irregular depression, the nature and significance of which, is uncertain- L, % GrB 
dvy-uttara-iate sa 100 2, which, is clearly inadmissible ; BI and L tri-uttara-gate, differing from 
our reading in the second syllable, which is, however, unmistakably yu and not n ; on the other 
hand, it is uncertain whether the first syllable should be read as m or tra. G-B, BI and L 
Buddha for suddke ; but our estampage shows the sign of e quite distinctly. The estanipage 
does not show any clear trace of the .sign of the long in-^amcJiam^ as read by GB, BI and L. 
The projection on the left of the sign of '-fat is abnormal. GB, BI and L -dlianya- ; but an 
examination of the back of thy estampage removes all doulit as to the correctness of our reading 
of the second syllable. Host probably we hare to correct dhattya to dhanya ; the former gives 
BO sense, Mr. Banerji would read Sttya regarding the latter as equivalent to asyam or StasySfm^ 
and cognaie with the Pkt. et4ya found in Knshan inscriptions, GB Sravana- for Rdhini-. L. 5. 
.GB padre Jiradartt?ie, and BI padre T^radal^ ; L accepts the sense, adding hrada in brackets -with 
a querj. DKB speaks of Rasopadriya and garta, in giving tlie contents of the inscription. 
The syllable va is quite clear in the estatupage, especially on the back of it ; dob or da, which 

1 From a set of estampages. 

2 Explanation of the abbreviations : B Georg Btfhler, Ind. Awt. 9 Vol. X, p, 157 5 BI Collection of 
Prakrit and Sanskrit Inscriptions 9 Bhavnagar, pp. 21 f, ; LLMers, List of Sra&mi Inscrigtiont, No. 963 3 
JDBB =D. E. Bhandarkar^ Prog, Me$. Arck. Surv. of W Circle, 19W-15, jp, 67. 



230 EPIGRAPETA IffDICA. 



J- VOL 



are made quite differently, are out of the question; cf. dS in -Jayadama- inl. 1, and - 



in 1. ~2. The estampage will also show that the reading "hra, for the first donbtful syllable 
utterly impossible. The anusvara in barn is well marked; but it is impossible to say w 
certainty whether we have to read mndha or ^mddhcP ; the latter seems to us 
probable. 

TBAHTSLATIOir, 

Hail ! On the [auspicious*] fifth tithi of the bright fortnight of VaisSkha during 
auspicious period of the constellation of Echini, in the year One hundred and threes _ 1OO 3 
(during the rei ? n) of the king, the Kahatrapa Lord Eudrasiha (Budrasiihha), the s 
of the king, the Maha-Kshatrapa Lord Budradaman (and) son's son of the king, the Kshatra/pi* 
Lord Jayadaman, (and) grandson's son of the king, the Haha-Kshatrapa Lord Chaslxtan.* , 
the well was cansed to be dag and embanked by the general (senapati) Budrabneti tli'e son. 
of the general (tgnlpati) Bapaka.3 the Abhlra,* at the village (grttma) of Basopadral for 
welfare and comfort of all living beings. 

H. Oadha (Jasdaii) Inscription of the time of the MahaVEfchatrapa Budrasena : tlxe 

year 127 (or 126). 



The inscription was first edited, with a translation and lithograph, prepared probably 

S / '"'AT' '\ 8 ' bj Dl> - BHaU Daji in J Ur - B - Br - R y- As ' 8oc -> VoL Vni, pp. 234 f., , 

^ L ^ * t remained unnoticed til1 18 3, when Hoernle puMished a revised transcript 
andtr a n^a,ti nofjtinI^^. > VoLXII, P p.32f. The posthumous papers of Bhagva^lal 
Indrap, edited by Rapson fe J^ Eoy . As , ^ 18&0> p< ^ ^^ & ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

r . H if / T n ^ anslati011 ' 1 Bd u Fn the eAMo prints of Dr. Bhau Daji, were 

r^v^fp^^ 

and a reference to the literature of the subject Prof Lii,W fl i w,, r.-^ / n r r ^ . s ' 
rAr>np.T,^iT fr. IT , . T ,. 1- , Jecr " ri01 - Aiders in his Lw* ofSrahmz Inscription if 
Aendix to * 



ng 



. T ,. - , f 

* I**oa> Vol. X), No. 967, gives a complete bibliography of the iiorip- 

or directly 



" its 



miles north of 



'. " Tegttlar ^ 8tandi ^ ^S 11 * on the margin of a 

*- ^ tra - feWed fo *' Wat - ^eum of Annuities, Ba^ot, 




-, seethe rema,!^ m 
c. 



, 353. 

later 
-derthe 



. 

, which shows that of ins ^on referring itself to the reign of t o 

svrordof thecomrnamisrby the sceptre of the sovereigT eventually succeeded in replacing- tlio 



Stone Inscriptions of Gunda and Junagadh. 



rt 

QJ 



3; 



cd 

cu 



ctf 
CD 

4-1 

t-^ 
O 

1 



0) 

JG 



O 



a 

c^ 
C 



C 
D 

O 




SCALE ONE-HALF 



F, W. THOMAS 



SCALE ONE-THIRD 



WHITTSNQHAM 8t QRIOQS, PHOTO-UTH, 



Gadha (Jasdan) Inscription of the time of the Maha-Kshatrapa Rudra.se t*&- 




No. 17.] THBEE KSHATRAPA IN3CKIPTION8, 237 

The Inscription contains six irregular lines of varying length and uncouth writing, covering 
a rhomboidal space of about 3 ft. 7 in. in width, by about 1 ft. 10 in. in height. The engraving, 
which is shallow, is on the whole in a fair state of ^preservation. The average size of such letters 
as n, m, p, and 6 is afbout 1|". 

The characters of the inscription are of the same general type as those of other Kshatrapa 
inscriptions, and the above remarks on the palaeography of the Ganda inscription are, with a 
few exceptions, applicable to this one also. The letters of this "epigraph lack, however, all 
regularity and finish ; they have a decidedly cursive character. Observe, for instance, the form 
of the uncombined - w, which is sometimes denoted by the older X-shaped form of the earlier 
inscriptions and sometimes by a more advanced form which is met with, regularly, only in the 
records of the Gupta dynasty. The letter t appears to have been drawn with prongs of unequal 
length, both curved, one of them being slightly longer than the, other f In tra the subscript r 
ia marked l>y drawing the free end of the right prong to a little distance to the left ; thus this 
ligature and the uncombined t are indistinguishable from each other when either of them is badly 
drawn. Of initial vowels the inscription contains i (1. 5) and u (1. 6). Subscript consonants, 
excluding r and y, are expressed by the ordinary full signs of the letters, as in the Gunda inscrip- 
tion described above. No final consonants appear in this record. Sporadically one notices the 
flattening out of the serif of the letters into a thin horizontal top line, so that in some cases 
it becomes extremely difficult to say whether the top-stroke is only a serif or the sign of &, e or # 
which is marked by a slight prolongation of the serif. The length in si (L 5) is denoted by a 
distinct spiral, which is a further development of the form which was met with in the Gunda 
inscription. To judge by the instance of T)hatrab~hih (for bhratribbiii) in line (3, no distinction 
was made in writing between the subscript r and the medial ri. The diphthong au is marked 
by the addition of an upward stroke, slanting to the right, to the sign of o. On two occasions 
the engraver has omitted the syllable tra in writing Kshatrapas(y)a. Lastly it maybe 
observed that the first line of the inscription contains four numerical symbols, 100, 20, 5 and 
another about the reading of which there is some doubt 5 it may be either 6 or 7. 

The language of the inscription is a mixed dialect. In this specimen the Prakritisms are 
slightly more numerous than in the Grunda inscription. One may notice the frequent use of 
sa for the termination of the genitive singular in 11. 1 and 2 in addition to the verbal form 
ytthavitalm) in 1, ? The sense of the record, a$ it stands, is incomplete, and, to judge by 
the two final syllables sva[rga] in 1. 6, it should seem that a few syllables or words, in an 
Additional line which is now lost, are missing. [Regarding .the irregular genitives (e.g. maha- 
'kshat[r]apasa >9 1.1) see r^maijks on Inscription No. I. Ed.] As regards prthograpfcy the only 
point Vorth drawing attention tq is the sporadic doubling of thd consonant before r in papau- 
\ji\trasya in 1. 2 ; but it should be added that the reading of the ligature is not absolutely certain, 
Of words not foun4 in dictionaries thq insqription contain^ one, viz. fatra, of which, moreover ? 
the meaning is not known. Prof. Luders hesitatingly identifies it with the Prakrit word sata 
in an inscription from the Kanherl caves (Lpxlers' JKrf, No. 985), for which he, also doubtfully, 
suggests the meaning ' seat/ 

The inscription refers itself to the reign of the king (and) Maha-Kshatrapa Lord 
Budrasena and records the erection of a fair* (meaning ?) by the brothers of Khara[r> 
pattha, the son of Pratifoka o the Mftnasa gotra. Previous editors of the inscription have read 
in 1, 6 Pranathafea instead of Prataeaka and Khara-pautra instead of Kharajr] pattha. Our < 
reasons for adopting the reading whioh we have will be found in the remarks on the transcript, 
below, p 238. The inscription gives the following pedigree : king and Maha-Kshatrapa 'bhadra- 
Lord ChSsWma ; his son, king (and) Kshatrapa Lord Jayadaman ; hie json, king and 
* 2 G 



238 EPIGRAPHIA INDIGA. [Vol. XVI, 

Maha-Kshatrapa Wiadra-muWia Lord Kudradaman; Ms son, king and Maha-Kshatrapa bhadra* 
muWia Lord Sudrasilia (Rudrasimha) ; ids son, king and Maha-Kshatrapa Lord Rudrasena. 
Tills is the longest pedigree of the Kshatrapas of Surashtra and Malava contained in a single 
record. It will be noticed that the title Ihadra-mu'kJia, ' of gracious appearance/ is added before 
the names of some of the Mahfi-Kshatrapas, bufc not before the name of the only Kshatrapa men- 
tioned in the record, or before that the last Maha-Kshatrapa named here, viz. Rudrasena, in 
whose reign the inscription was engraved. The reason for the omission in the last- case is not 
apparent ; it would seem, however, that the title was used with the names of Maha-Kshatrapefc 
unly, The names of Damaysada I* and Jlvadaman, who had reigned before Rudrasena, But 
who were not iii the direct line of descent, are not included in this list, which is purely genea- 
logical. 

The inscription is dated in the year 127 (or 128) on the fifth, tithi of the dark half 
of the month of BMdrapada. The era to which the date is to be referred is undoubtedly the 
Saka era; accordingly the date of the record may "be taken to correspond to 127 (or 126) + 78 = 
AD. 205 (or 204). 

The record contains no geographical name. 

TEXT. 1 

1 [Yajrshe 100 20 [7] [Bhajdrapada-bahulasa 5 [(*] R[a]jSd mahakshatfYjapasa 
2' bhadra-mukhasa s vam [a] -Chash tana-pu tra-papau [t] trasya ra juO Ksha [tra*] pasa 

3 syami-Jayad[a]ma*putra-pantra3ya rajn5 maha-Kshatrapasya bhadra-mukhasya 

4 [sya]ma-Rud[r]adama-pa a [tra] sya rajno ma [ha] -Ksha [tra 5 *] pasya bhadzu-mukhasya, 

svii[nV]i- 

5 Rttdraslha[-putra*]sya rajns maha-Kshati-apasya STami-Bndrasenasya [|*] idam 

satraiii 

6 Manasa-sa-g6t[r]asya Pra[ta]saka-putrasya Khara[r]patthasya bhatrabhih utthavita[m] 

sra[rga] 

7 ............ ....... 

Bemarks on the Transcript, 5 

L. 1 The reading 7 is uncertain ; it may "be S. DEB reads 5. L. 2. D and H -mubhasya 

i-. The slanting line below the so, of the first word is an abrasion and not the subscript y> 
L. 3. D and H Jayada-ma. bhadra-tn-iikJiasya is continued in a slanting direction above the 
level of the same line. L. 4. No^ trace remains of the i in svSmi, if it was marked at all. 
L. 5. D and H mahfr. D^B Sakri (for Satram). which is very ^doubtful. L. 6. Hoernle^s 
reading -ma?ia[wlf?4 Tum(jotras[_y~\ai$ out of the question, and need not be discussed here. 
D prantithaka- (the previous syllable is read by him as &*-), and H Praa[ra]^aa (for 
Pra#Wafc*), both of which are inadmissible. The second syllable may, perhaps, be a ; but the 
third one cannot be tlia, as tlia does not contain the vertical bar in the centre which our letter 
shows ; the shallow stroke at the lower end of the letter is an accidental mark, of which the 
rock has many. D and H Khara-p&utrasya, but the fourth syllable is clearly ttha and not tra ; 
cf. the same ligature in a subsequent word of the same line. DBS Eharapttthasya* 
D aad H IhratriUuh (for bhatr'tbhift. It is doubtful if the medial ri would be marked 



1 From a set of estam pages. 

> Explanation of abbreviations: DBhan Daji, 7owr. Bo. JBr, .o#. As. Soc., Vol. VIII, ?P . 23^ 1 - 

H-Ho^iile 5 lfid,^n^ Vol. XII, pp. 821; DBB-D. Pw Bhaudariar, Proff. Rev. Arch. Svrv of India W 
irCele, 1914-15, pp. 67-8. 



. 17,] THREE KSHAIRAPA INSCRIPTIONS, 239 

differently from the subscript r by the writer of this Inscription. DEB bMttra'bJiiJ^. D 
nttTiavitasva and H utthamtS8t[{]. The top of the fourth syllable is no doubt somewhat 
thick ; nevertheless the sign of the length cannot be- looked upon as having been marked. 
A part of our bracketed [rga] is lost in the crack and not distinguishable on the facsimile. 
DBB ends line 6 with utthavita sva-, and then gives an additional (seventh) line, 
ia']; which we were not able to trace on the stone* 



On tlie fiftli (titbi) of the dark fortnight of Bhadrapada in the year I00 3 20 [7] 4 
(during the reign) of the king, the Maha-Kshatrapa Lord Budrasena^ [son*] of the king, the 
Maha-Kshatrapa Lord HudrasHxa (Rudrasimlia) of auspicious appearance (jbhadra-mukTiny ; 
(and) son's son of the king, the. Maha-Kshatrapa Lord BudradSman of auspicious appearance 
(jbhadra-muJcha) ; (and) grandson of the son of the king, the Kshatrapa Lord Jayadaman ; (and) 
great-grandson of the son of the king, the Maha-Kshatrapa Lord ChasJitana of auspicious 
appearance (bhadra-mukha) ; this SatraP was erected by the brothers of Khara[r]pattha f the son 
of Pratasaka of the Manasa gotra ......... heaven ....... 

HI. JunSgadb. Inscription of tlie time of tlie grandson of the Kshatrapa Jayadaman* 

This inscription was first edited, with a translation and a, photograph, in 1876, by Biihler 
iii Arch. Surv.- West. Ind., Vol. II, pp. 140 f ., and Plate XX ; the block is rather small and 
almost useless for purposes of study. In 1895 Biihler's text was republished, with a few minor 
alterations, accompanied by a facsimile of an inked impression, and a translation of the text in 
the Collection of Prakrit and Sanskrit Inscriptions, Bhavnagar, p, 17, No. 1, and Plate XY. 
Rapson gives an abridged bibliography of the inscription, and summarizes briefly its contents in 
his Catalogue of the Coins of the Andhra Dynasty, etc^ p. Ixi; No. 40, The most recent notice 
is by Prof. Liiders in Ms List of Brahmi Inscriptions (Appendix to EpigrapJiia Indica, Vol. X 
(1912), No. 966),. where we find a complete bibliography of the inscription, a reading of the 
date (probably from the facsimile iu the Bhavnagar Collection of Prakrit and Sanskrit Inscrip- 
tions) and a summary of its contents. 

The inscription was discovered^ during excavation, in froni of one of the cell* of an esten- 
aive complex of caveat situated to the east of Junagadh, close to a modern monastery known as 
Bava Pyara's Math. Regarding the mischances that fell- to its lot after its discovery we have 
the following account by Burgess. While extricating it, he writes, "the workmen damaged 
one end of it, but, to add to the misfortune, some one carried it off to the palace in the city, and 
in doing so seriously injured it at one corner. When I went to photograph it, I had a difficulty 



literaUy means* lucky-faced/ T>ut is here used specifically aa tbe title of some o the Maha- 
Kshatrapas. 

8 This word has not been met with elsewhere and iifc meaning Is uncertain* Bhan Bajf renders it with * tank * 
without assigning any reason for doing so ; the dictionaries do not snpport this meaning. Hoernle suggests that it 
i a Prakrit form of aatra, which denotes 'a kind of expulsive Soma sacrifice extending over many days * ; to Satra, 
of our text he assign* accordingly the derfratire meaning of * liberality, munificence/ which does not convince n. 
It was remarked above that Prof. Liiders refers in this connection to the word sata (? seat) occurring in a Bt!ddhi*t 
Cave inscription, Mr, E. D. Banerji looks npon the word as a Prakrit form of satro, and wonld translate it as 
almhouse/ which meaning that word has in most of the modern dialects of North India. Mr. D. K. Bhandarkar 
reads the word as Safari and,, connecting it with the following -*na*a-, regards Sakrimanasa as the yra-name 
an explanation which does not commend itself to ns. It may be noted that uttbavita clearly implies that we har 
here to deal with a structure that was raised, elevated, erected, and not du.g or sunk. 




240 1PIGBAFHIA IKDICA. [7L. XVI- 

in tracing it ; at length* however, it w&s found lying in a verandah in the circle ip. front of thei 
palacg," 1 For some time previous to its transference to the Museum the stone used to be kept 
in the State Printing Press at JunSgadh, The misfortunes -which have fallen to the lot of this, 
stone since its recovery did not end with those described by Burgess. As a result of some 
fresh accident, it is now in $wo halves, probably having split along the fissure which is 
noticeable in the facsimile published in the Bhavnagar Collection of Sanskrit and Prakrit In* 
scriptions, and referred to in the letterpress accompanying the facsimile. 

The inscription is engraved on one of th$ faces of a dressed slab of soft calcareous stone 
about 2 feet each way and 8 inches thick. The epigraph contains four lines of writing, covering 
a space of about 1 ft. 9 in. in width by about 6 in. in height. The average si^e of such letters 
as % m, PI and is about ^", Much of the writing is seriously damaged. The two 
middle lines are in a fair state of preservation ; hut the greater p^rt of line 1 and a good bit. of 
line 4 are illegible. Moreover the inscription is fragmentary. The slab has lost a large 
fraction of its length i how much it is not possible to say. Buhler assumes that lines 2-4, at 
their left ends 9 are almost intact, only a couple of syllables being necessary in each to complete 
them. This is, however, far from being certain. As far as we can judge, there is nothing to 
show how much is missing on either side of the preserved portion. We can only say that the 
lost portion of 11. 2 and 3 must have contained, at l^ast, the names of the son ancl grandson 
of Jayadaman as well as the year in whicJb. the record was dated^ expressed possibly both in 
words and numerical ideograms. 

The characters closely resemble those of the Gunda inscription of the time of the Kshatrapa 
Rudrasimha, which have already been minutely described above. It will, therefore^ suffice to 
draw attention here only to a few outstanding features of the alphabet of this inscription. The 
syllable me in 1. 3, it will be noticed, shows that the siga of in mi was attached to the con^ 
stricted part of the letter. The same line offers a specimen of the numerical figure 5. The sign 
of the medial u in su (L 1) is seen to open towards the left ; in Su (1. 3), on the other hand, it 
opens towards the right ; of the medial u marked by a short horizontal stroke appended to the long 
vertical of a letter this inscription contains no specimen. We have here only one initial vowel, 
smmely i (L 3) ; it is denoted by three dots, of which two are placed in a vertical line on the 
left side of the remaining one. In ^ the middle bar, which is attached only at one end, is almost 
vertical* The letter y shows the simple bipartite form, [In regard to the language we may 
note the irregular genitives (e.g. ksha\trapa\$y.$s L-2) as in Inscriptions Nos, I and II. Ed.] 
A regards orthography the only point worth, noting is th$t its inscription offers no 
instance of the phonetic doubling of con#onant8j 

The inscription must belong to the reign of a Eshatrapa, or Maha-Kghatrapa who wfta the 
grandson (o_r rathpr son's son) of the king, Klsh^trapa Lord Jayadan?.an, and great-grandson of 
Ch&shtana ; the name of the ruling prince is lost with the portion of the record which is 
missing. This Satrap "to whose reign the record referred itself was therefore either Damaysadf* 
I or Budrasimha I (the brother and successor of the former). The purport of this fragment; 
ary inscription cannot be determined, as the portion containing the object of the record is lost* 
It may be added that from the occurrence of thq expression kevaU-jnana~sam[prapta'] ('who 
had arrived at the knowledge of the Jcevalins *) in L 4 it may be surmised that the inscription 
probably had something to do ivith the Jainas, since the word IcevaUn occurs most frequently k^ 
Jaina literature 

The inscription is dated on he fifth (5th) day of thQ light half of Chaitra in a year 
, like the purport of the record, cannot be ascertained, as it is lost in a lacuna of th$ text. 

Suns. West* Ind., VoL II, p. *140. 



ISTo. 17.] TITttEE KSHATBAPA INSCRIPTIONS. 



241 



The only.loeality which the record mentions is the well-known Giri-nagara, which was the 
name of Junagadh. and which survives in that of the adjacent Mil of Gimir. 

TEXT.* 

s=tatha sura-gan[a] . [kshatra]nam pratha[rna] . . 



2 Chaahtanasya pra[pau]trasya riJSatt ks1ia[trapa]sva-sTSmi- 

Jsysdama-p[<aTi]trasya rajn<3 malia] ...... 



[Charjtra-suklasya divase pamehame 5 i^ha] (Jiri- 
dev-asura-naga-ya[ksha3-ra[ksha]s-e . ..... . 

4 ....... -thap[u]ram=iva .... kevali-jjSalna-saiii . . . nam . 

. -jara-maranJV] .... ..... 

Remarks on the Transcript. 
L. 1- GrB reads in the first line .... ktri . raga . . . Jishatrapa . . . . ; 

BI statJia suraga .... kshatrapa. L. 2. GB adds si-ami in square brackets hefora 

Ghashtanasya. The bracketed syllable in -p[_au1trasya has broken away and become illegible. 
GB pdtrasya ; BI pautrasya. The medial vowel of the first syllable is quite uncertain. L. 3, 
GB BI and L read paJcsJiasya after sukla. The mistake had its origin in BuHer's faulty 
+^0^^;^ GB BI and L read panchame for patfwhame. We do not see the %cha ; the sign 
Sow ia, we 'believe, is only an abrasion; in any case, *rte is by no means certain. 
GB and BI 'rakshasendri ..... L. 4. GB. praka^ mica fa ...... 

ItevaU-jnana-sampraptctn&m jita-jara-marananam (?). 

TKANSLATIOU. 

Also .'"... flw fc 1 * tosts * ' ' the firSt 
* ! ' f1f \ n : r ^' * ' .... On the fifth (5th) day of the light 

Here m toi-gara . '. who j 



g .,a<,,. ,h 

It the knowledge of the J*K. ..... old age and toth . 

No. 18.-THB PBNUGULTJEtr GBANT OF TIRTJMALA I , SAKA U93. 

Bv 0. B. KwSBBiiliOEiBHJ, B.A., 
The subjotaea insPon *^- ^"fe 

et - - 



i From a sot of estampagos. . . . Mr> Sewe iH n Ms i* o/ ^nHa' 

* * 



. . > 

This b very polWj tho etof ^P^^^tlu in tbe village 
p; 131, as being in the potion of one ^^J^tsceadant of the first in ibe list of the 
*?Aa of the Cuddapah district. The owner ev^ntly 
tloaed in the gi-aut. See _j>. 258 balow. * 



242 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XT1 



The plates measure 7f '' by 7*; and have, like other Vijayanagara ones, a^ curved top- 
portion, which is provided with a hole, through, which passes the ring holding the plates together. 
This ring carries a seal, the bottom of which, shaped like a signet-ring, slides on the main ring. 
The seal is circular and has a diameter of If. It bears the following emblems cut on its 
countersunk surface : 

(a) the SUB and the crescent (with a star in it) in a line at the top, from the proper 
right to the proper left, 

(6) a running boar, facing the proper left, -with a dagger in front pointing downwards, 
below (a), 

and (c) a fioral device below (&), separated from it by a double line ? which is probably meant 
to represent the stand for the boar, 

All the plates, except the first and the last, are engraved on both the sides, and all, except the 
last plate, are numbered in Telogu-Kannada noraerical figures on their first sides, at the left 
margin. In tie last plate, at the top, a space for five lines is left uninscribed, though it has 
been ruled for writing, as in the case of a few other Vijayanagara copper-plates. The plates 
bear slightly-raised rims, as a result of which the ink-impressions from which the accompanying 
facsimile plates are made have nofc come out very welL At fche bottom of the written face of 
the lasfe plate is engraved the colophon * Sri- Virupaksha * in the Telugu-Kannada script, 
representing, perhaps, the Biprn-tnanual of king Tirumala* Most of his predecessors on the 
Vijayanagara throne adopted the same form of signature. 

The inscription is engraved in the Nandi-Magari characters of the period to which the 
record belongs. The language employed is Sanskrit prose and verse, the former occurring 
only in the portion describing the details of the boundaries, marked by trees, tanks, wells, etc, 
(11. 274 to 278)* The engraving seems to have been done rather carelessly. There are many 
omissions of letters, e.g. Eedri Q for HemftdrF (1. 3), Vijayobhinyu for VijayobMmanyu? (1. 9), 
rabhadrd for rabJiavadra (1. 10), and repetitions of letters and o words, e.g. sadguna-sadguna 
for sadguna '(11. 54 f.), anuJtalamayamayamava? for anukalamayamava* (L 40), and mamtra- 
purasmram-ri-pura]i$aram for mamtra-purassaram ripif (L 62). Wrong forms of words like 
^hcJihritam for *chr"tihriitam (1. 21), srita for s'ruta (1. 83), srite for trute (I. 103), samprtipaiya 
for samprapayya (L 63), drima for druma (1. 66), hrida% for hradali (I, 277), bahvrija 
(II. 177, 191, 193) and bamlwrija (11. 180 and 197) for baU'riclia,~"dvddasyam for dv&dafyain 
(L 104), Kasyapa Q for Kasyapa (L 120), samasnute for samaSnute (11. 186, 193), 3vechclih-a- 
dSna for $vefihchh~adana (L 122) seem to be the result of -mispronunciation of the classical 
words by people accustomed to the vernacular tongue. The forms kamnyd for Jcany& (1. 18), 
JcamnyaTcS for kanyaM (1. 20), dJiamnya for dhanya (1. 73), md. pumnya for puny a (L 104) 
are due to the unnecessary, but intentional, stressing of the nasal sound which occasionally 
appears in the South-Indian pronunciation of Sanskrit words. Besides, the Dravidian la 
appears in Sanskrit words in place of the correct la : lalitam for lalitam (L 5), 8urabMl-8 for 
Surabhil-a (1. 19), kamdalad-abhyv? for Jcamdalad-abJiyu (L 25) and jala for jala (I 53). 
Examples of wrong forms due to local peculiarities of indifferent pronunciation are found in 
Jiaram durgani for haran durgani (11. 13 and 14) and mrasyam Nriga for nirasyan Nriga 
(L 99), yekaya for ekayS (11. 16l> & 170-171), yekavrityS for ekavrittya (1. 24.0), vuttarasyam for 
uttarasyam and ayisdnyam for aiswyam (1.277). The sound of the intensive ra (sakata- 
repha) peculiar to the South-Indian yernaculars is in this inscription represented by the con- 
junct consonant rra ; and r with virama (1. 230) and ru (11. 233 and 276) is often employed 
^denote the vowel smaiid ri* just as mt occasionally appears, as noted above, for w. As a 

^ 1 The average South-Indian generally mispronounces the ri sound o Sanskrit words as H or ru 5 e.g. 
is almost always pronounced as Krishna or JKrushna. 




tt *" oajJ 3- 




rule the compound 3sa is employed where ssa'b&s t be '"" r " 

doubling of the consonant following r is common (dha ^^^ ^ 57> I34c ' UE 155 /- *ve 
tke inscription r%a is written for vrittvS ThA ,, Tm a > "uryya, etc.), atd iliroughoat 
hand top corner of the letter to which it f belongs 7 " ** Written Bt the J' r ' ^ l ^~ 

Certaio peculiarities of the language employed "in th - 

Telugu possessive forms appear in Sanskrit co & inscr . lphon ffia y also - sotic'ed, 

afan;ffE*-drfl'<M (1. 25), r^iZK.t aJ Wa" (11 *Q/^?. '* e ' 9 '* ra ? ii '* a S art '" ll ''^ ^ui- 
TiiWbttlK ace the possessive forms vt Arartdu **** T lch ^f art ^ iTaAJu^^Z. atd 
endings are also x^tained in .snch compoundT a^ 1^^.^LJ^u% ?"*""* C ^ 

where 6irwcZara and <rai,nrst Q-K^ 4.1,^ .* . * ** d ^^rr*- 

.- .., ^ f-*yura are tiie possessive f* rms of Itrndasu AT/! 

i forms hke OAa^flAa for CAaZu^a (1. 87; and ^fcfc for^i^ 



It _u, .dated i n the Saka year 1493, Prajapati, Magha, auMa-d^sl (?/ L 
12th day of the bright fortmght). Accordi ng to Dewan Bahadnr L,D. Swamikannu Pk " 
ZfAanMTM^ tlu s corresponds to Saturday, 2eth January, 1572 A.D. lh e genealocrv of til 
king furmshed by the record and the mention made in it of some other members of this fa,i3 v 
agree wibh what we find m other published inscriptions of this dynasty .* TEe Teiugu poetical 
W>rk VasK-charitramu, of Ramarajabhfiahana, the court-poet of our king, also gives at KB* 
length an account of the members of this family. The Aravlti line appears from literatare 
and inscriptions to have played an important part during the sovereignty of the kings of the 
second Vijayanagara dynasty and even for sometime previous. Bukka of AraviduS is stated 
(v. 8) to have helped SS|uva Nrisimha to put his rule on a firm basis. This probably refers 
to the help rendered by Bukka to tfie first usurpation of the Vijayanagara crown by the 
Saluvas.* About RSmaraja, the son of Bukka, the inscription says : Sahasrais^saptaiyS 
sahitam^api yas^simdhu-janushSrh Sap&dasy~S,n$kam samiti bhuja-jauryena mahata njiiy* 
Sdatte s<m,=:&davanigi<rirdurga,m. Dr. Hultzsch, 5 and others' after him, have taken this passage 
to mean tliat ' he conquered SapSda" and captured from him the fort of Avauigiri-durga." 
But it ifi evident that we have to separate the compound differently as adatte si 



1 The position and the form of the a-nusvara in these plates are similar to those in tlse Mire^apalli grant of 
l (see Plate .opposite page 330 of Epiffrapkia Indioa, Vol. XI). In the earlier Vijay&nagBra grants tbe 
form of the anusvara. was a complete circle (Epigrapbia Indica, Vol. Ill, Plate opposite page 38, and Epigrapkia 
Indica, Vol. VII, Plate opposite page 82), while the visarga was composed of two such circles one abuve tbe other. 
The position of tbe anttsvdra in the last hut one of the references quoted is exattly a& in tbe modern Deva-R&g&rl, 
4.e. right above the letter to ^which it belongs. In the Da^dapalle plates of Vijya-Bhapati (S-S. 13S2}, edited by 
Mr. G. Venkoba Rao (JEpigraphia Indica, Vol. XIV, pp. 68 ff.), the anutvara is a loop, as in the earlier plates. 
but placed &t tho left-hand top corner, as in the plates under notice. 

* For instance, the Maredapalli grant referred to in foot-note 1 above. This record agrees in the first 28 
Terses with the present inscription. 

* This Icing seems to have been the first historical person in the dynasty whose sutns w&s recognized by the 
thea ruling- Vijayanagara lings. The Teluga poem Itamarajiyamv gives him the title ifaliiT 
pratishtha-jpan-dcharya. 

* It may he observed that the kings of the second Vijayanagara uj nasty, nz. Krishna-Rays. 

*nd Sadfifiiva-Ray*, th<mgh they were Tuluvas, are given th epithet ' Saluva % in a few mords. 3he A 
chiefs, who hd originally helped tho Saluvas,' later on supported the Tuluvas too and contracted ir.arriage relations 
with them. 

8 JJpijgrrajpAto Indica, Vol. Ill, p. 239. .-,.,,. . .. 

* SpSda is appareatly tha Sanskrit form of 'Savaee', an appellation gi?en to Tasoof AM Shah of Brjapar 
nce the latter was educated at, and came from, Sava, s town in Persia ; see Brigg's Feritlta, Vol. Ill, pp. 7 f. 
It may be noted that sapadt is Lo a Sanskrit rendering of the Hindustani word *atai which means one and a 
qtuurter. The Hindu writers of the period, in denoting Yusoof idil Shah as tapdda, were eTideut!}- not 

of the oorrect meaning of the title Savaee as applied to him. 



214 EPIGKAPHIA INDIOA, [Tot. XTI. 

giri-durgam and translate tlie passage 'lie took from him the hill-fort of Adavani.' In agree- 
ment with this it is also clearly mentioned in the Telugu poem Jtamarajtyamu, or Narap&ti* 
mjayamu, of Andugula Venkayya that Rama crushed Kasappudaya, who had hid himself in 
Adavani-dnrga, 1 Adayani is the modern Adorn in the Bellary district. Kasappndaya 9 
[.=Kasappa-Udaiyar. F. W. T.], from whom Eamaraja took this hill-fort, has not been identified, 
Bamaraja conquered also Kamdanavolu (modern Kurnool) ; and the Vam-charitramu informs 
us that he had his residence at that historic town, Eamaraja had according to this latter poem 
three sons, 3 ws* Timmarsja, Konda and Sriranga, of whom the inscription mentions only the 
last* 

Tiramala's appearance in epigraphical records ranges from about Saka 1465 to !aka 
1493. 4 In Saka 1465 ~(A.D. 1543) Tirumala was governing the Udayagiri-dwr^a, perhaps as a 
deputy of his elder brother Eamaraja, under the name Bamaraja-Timmayya-deva-Maharsja. 5 
Subsequently too he governed the province TTdayagm-rjy j/a till Saka 1473. In this year 
it is stated that he was enjoying the nayankaram (lordship) of this province, governing it 
through his agent Bayactiarajayya, 6 and that he was succeeded in that office by Timmayya- 
deva-Maliara^a, son of Konetayya-deva-Mabaraja. 7 

Prom Saka 1473 to 1477;Tirumala seems to have remained at the capital as the minister 
of Sadiaiva* 8 From Saka 1477 to Saka 1481 he filled the office of the minister. 9 It may be 
observed that Caesar Frederic states that during the regency of Biamaraja his younger brothers, 
Tirumala and Venkatadri, were respectively minister and commander-in-cbief. In Saka 1488 
Tiramala was raling over the Kondavldu-rajfya. 10 After the jbattle of Talikota (25-1-1565 
A.D.) 11 he became the most important person in the court and kingdom of Yijayanagara owing to 
the death of Bamaraja in that battle* The period Saka 1489 to Saka 1493 (the date of this 
Inscription) is a rather doubtful one, for which we do not find ar>y inscriptions which definitely 
describe the position of Tirumala, In the first of these years Tirumala made a gift in hfe 
own name, and in the last, we are told that he was * ruling the earth.' We know also that the 
latest year for Sada&va was Saka 1492. 13 Tirumala thus could only have ruled for three years, 

1 These facts are also mentioned in the Tasu-charitramu. 

2 Kasappudaya could be identified with Kacbapa-STayaka of Adavani or his SOB Iramadi Kachapa-Nayafea 
mentioned in the Madras Epigraphical Collection for 1917, Ifo. 719 ; see also paragraphs 12 and 69 of A. R, 
on Epigraphy for 1920-21. 

3 ArGh&olQgical Survey Report for 1908-9, Table opposite page 200. 

* Sewell's Lists of Antiquities, VoL II, p. 76, mentions a record, dated $aia 1499, which mentions him and 
his minister Chennappa-Nayadu. The record must be of a time subsequent to the close of Tirumala's reign j seo 
Arob&ological Surrey JReport for 1911-12, p, 184 

s Nellore Inscriptions^ Udayagiri 30. * IMd., Nellore 104. 

^ IMd,, Udayagiri 22. 

8 See ArchaQlogwal Survey Report for 1911*12, p. 180. Mr, Sewell refers to a revolt of Tirumala *and 
his younger brother Venkafcadri against their brother Rainaraja, about A.D. 1551 (i.e. Saka 1473 ; see Archao* 
logical Survey Report, 191142, p. 178). According to Ferishta (Brigg's Translation, Vol. TI, pp. 104 & 105) 
Eamaraja and Venkatadri were busy with BahmanI affairs and so absent from the capital just about this time. 
In the Budihala plafcea (EptyrapMa Carmtioa, Vol. IX, p. 44), dated in Saka 147S, Tirumala assumes the titles of 
sovereignty, 

9 See Nellore Inscriptions, Nellore 112 and Gudur 113, Probably he was also the titular governor of the 
Gutti fortress at this time, since he Is called Gutti-Yar,a-Tirumalaraja in No. 412 of the Madras Epigraphical 
Collection for 1911, dated in Saka 1477- From this year onwards he appears under this name invariably, 
Ferishta too calls him Yeltuinraj (Brigg's Translation, VoL III, pp, 128, 130, etc.). 

1 Nellore Inscriptions, Ongole 29, ll Brigg's Translation of FerisMa, VoL III, p. 414, 

12 See ArohozQloffical Survey %eport> 1911-12, p. 181. Eamaraja was 96 years old in A,D. 156& (Mr. gewell'a 
J?orgotten Empire, p* 203), Allowing eyen a decade for the difference in the brothers' ages, Tiruinnla must then 
have been 86 and over 90 when he ascended the throne, This fact partly explains his short rule and the 
number cf his inscriptions. 



No. 18.] THE- PElSrUGULTJBU GEANT OF TIBUMALA I : SAKA 1493. 245 

i.e. from about 1-11*1571 A.D, to about A,D, 1574, since th.e inaoriptions of his son and succes- 
sor Sriranga (II) begin to date from Saka 149 6, l Tirumala appointed Tais foray sons to the 
several governorships in the kingdom. And in the last days of his life he sought the company 
of the wise and the learned, leaving the burden of government to his sons. 3 

Tirumala was a lover of learning and even aspired to the fame of authorship. He figures 
as the writer of a commentary called Sruti-ranjint on Jayadeva's GUa-Qomnda (Annual Report 
on Epigraphy for 1899, p, 9). From the colophon to this -work we leara that Tirumala's 
favourite deity was Rama. Probably it was on accotint of this devotion that he is often praised 
in the present record afe a repository of nectar-like devotion to Hari (Hari-bbaMi-sudJia-nidhi 
(L 95) and Hari-gdchara*mana$a (1. 82))* 

The object of the inscription is to register the grant of the village Penuguluru (1, 115)*, 
(called also Penalur, perhaps by mistake for Pengalar in 1 ISO) alias Yellama-rsja-samudram) 
(Ellama-rajendra-samudraw,, 11. 113, 130, and yellamarajasamtidra, 1.274), together with the twof 
hamlets Yelammapadu-Chennapalli and Kondftru-Oliennapalli, -made by king Tirumala at I 
the request (vijnapti) of the Matla chief Timmaraja, to a number of Brahman s. Penngulnru/ 
is said to be situated on the eastern bank of the river MahabShu in Pottapa-nSrfw, 8 a division^ 
of the Siddhavara-tftontf. The entire village was divided into 128 wittis (1. 129) and given to \ 
(115) Brahmanas who were highly learned in khesastras and were masters of the Vedanta, But 
the actual number of vrittis granted comes to 128f. Among the beneficiaries two were poets. 
Besides these, one vritti was granted for the study (?) of the Jtig-Veda, one for that of the 
Yajur-Veda, and one each to the local shrines of Vishnu and Hara (L 273), Pemigulu.ru is the 
modern Penagaluru in the Pullampet t&luka of the Cuddapah district in the Madras Presidency. 
Of the villages Pottapi, Srivaram, KondQru* Siakamala, Tiriimalaraju-peta and In<Jalu, 
mentioned among the boundaries of Penuguluru, the first, second, fifth and the sixth are* 
identical with the modern Pottapi, Sirtvaram, Indium and Tirumalarazupeta in the same 
t&luka. The river Mahabahu is the Telugu Cheyyeru, which separates Penagalaru from 
Pottapi* The village Kon^firu-Cheimapam of the inscription is identical with Kondu-ru- 
ChenBaraya-samudram, about 2 miles north-east of Penagaluru. Yelammapadu-Cheimapalll 
seems to have changed its name subsequently and to have been attached to Singanamala 
(Sinkamala of our inscription), being now called Singanamala-Oliennaraya-samiidram. My 
thanks are due to E. A. Davis, Esq-, Acting Collector of Cuddapah (1914), who very kindly 
obliged me by furnishing a tracing showing the localities mentioned in the inscription* 

Tiinmaraja, who made to king Tirumala the request for the grant, belonged to the family 
of Matlas. 4 They were of the Surya-vamla (1. 119), the KaSyapa gotra, (L 120) and the ChQla 
lineage (1. 122). The family ^as known also as the Deva-tOh5da family- 6 It must have taken 



Carnatica, Vol. XII, Ck. 8, and iU& 9 Vol. VIL Sb. 55- 

Tr<wtro&cKritramu f JtSwta I, verses 67-82 : Eaghxmatha, tlie eldest son, was ruling over the northern part of 
tb kingdom, fighting against the Malagas (MalUcJcs, i.e. Muhaimnadan chieftains) ; Siiraiga, the second son, 
was crowned as Yuvaraja and remained at the capital. Rawmraja, the third sou, was ruling over the Sri- 
patta^a province, while Vefckata ruled over the Chandragiri province. 

The "actual form used ia the inscription is Chita-Pottapa-flarf^ Evidently Pottapa-5*ft* is a mistalce for 
pi'a^ti. The division Siddhavara-wfwa, in which Penngulupu was situated, could not have been called after 
the village Siddhavavam in the Pullampet talttba only 2 miles from Penagaluru, lut must be identified with 
Siadharata-fCma in which according to TST6. 436 of the Madras Epigraphicai Collection for 1011 Pottapi-oA* was 
situated. * According to the same inscription Siddhavata-^wa wan a subdivision of theTTdayagirir^>a. 

* In Telugu literary works the family name is given indifferently as Matla and Matli, This inscription 
uniformly has the former, 
& No. 564 of 1915. 

*j iJr 



246 



EflGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[Voi. XVI. 



its name from Matli, a village m the Rajactoti taluJca of the Cuddapah district. Thie f aT 



the 



that the tower wa, buUt by the Mahamandalesvara Matla Anantarajayya-DevacS-MahS 
Collecfaon, 191 5, we learn that the poet had a sou called Tiruyeigalanatha. 



wort 






f 




6 Spiffrap&m Indi Mf Vol. Ill, pp. 151 ff. 
EpiffrapMa, Carn&tic't, Vol. XII, Ti. L 

7 See Indian, A<nti%u.*ry t Vol. XLIV, p. 225. 



No. 18-] THE PENUGTTLUEtr GBANT OF TIEUMALA I : SAKA 1493. 

TEXT. 1 

[Metres : vv. 1 to 4, 34, 39 to 42, 44 to 64, 66-71, 73-98, 100 to 113, 115, 117-121, 123 ta 
136, 138 to 176 and 179 to 183, Anu^ubJi^ w. 5, 7 and 23-26, SwdulaviUri&ta ; vr. 6, 
22 and 28, Sragdhara ; TY. 8 and 33, Hathoddhata ; w. 9 and 14, Vasantatilakft ; w. 10 and 
15, Prithvt; vv. 11 and 20, Sikharint; w, 12 and 32, SailaiiWia, ; v. 13, Indravajra; w. 16, 
18 and 30, Malini; vr. 17 and 31, PusJipitagrfi ; w. 19, 21, 27 and 29, Upajati ; w. 35 to 37, 
43, 5, 72, 99, 114, 116, 122, 137, 177 and 178, Arya (<?i) ; T. 38, EddJiaJca; v. 184, 

. Letters and eymlbols in round brackets are to be omitted,] 

Plate. 



2 
3 



(0 






7 
6 

9 f^ra^[w*]^^^^rf9mrf^?m: 4 iD**] h^wreifri?iOT9ifiT 
10 IWHWI ^nr^feir^Ttr^?TrTw[:*] 6 

< *"N tm 

12 
13 



14 if'T ^HTWT I 

15 



16 wH+i 4 ^ 3^<trn^?i; i 



1 Fi-om ink-impression* kindly lent to me by the Assistant Archaeological Superintendent for Epigraphy, 
Southern Circle. [Note that verses 2, 4-24, 26-28 recur in the Vellangndi Plates of Vonkatapati-deva-Mahar*y 
of Saka 1520, edited by the late Str. T. A. Gopinatha Rao j below, Vol. XVI, pp. 298 sqq. H. K. S.] 

ReadW. *-Kead 3. * Eead . 

Bead ^Tfri:. Read 5Tr^ft 1T^;. 7 Read 

Bead ^fft. ' Bend fx::. LOt^ platen clearly read ^. H. Z. S.]| 



Read /' Read "fq^R . " Read 

[The plato has ^. -~H. K. S.] " 



a-68. 



1HOBAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI. 



17 



fir 



ferctertf 



22 ^cf [HO*] 



23 




(i) 



25 

26 
27 

28 



30 

31 
32 
33 



35 
36 
37 



Second Plate ; First Side. 






f*iVi*if fn 
fhf?r^r?n" 



iDt*] 



fnsr 



i 



fawaift*! 
i 



r: i OH*] 



* Bead 

* Bead 

' Bead 
10 Bead 



2 
Read 

fi Bead 



Read 
Bead 
8 ^ is a correction from r. 



" Tie Tumkur pltes 6f lirnajale, leferred to above, read 



. 18.] THE PEJnTGTTliTTBU GRANT OF TIRTTMALA I : SAKA 1493. 249 



45 
46 
47 

48 



38 Tratafafa f^fcr 1 * tnrcnnfta 



39 HfSrronqr: TTSTOT* ^rg^i: i[u^>*] ftriwrfw^f TOT 

4O farf *NTOPSttaTWT5frrTf%JIHr [fj 



Second Plate ; Second Side, 



5O 
51 
62 
53 

54 

55 
56 






57 ^f%^T^^wwT^ 12 ^r [i*] 
58 

69 



6O fVwt gf^f rsT5Tfi^mf^*m: ^rm: H^HT ^fw KO 
61 



i The reference here might be to the fighfc which Samaraja had witt Salaka and bis victory over him 
mentioned in verse 41 of the VasvoAaritramu, At'oas* 1. 

* Read n@*n . Eead f 



Bead 6 Read Tfa^*wftft. * 



n Bead ^. " Bead 



** 



EPIGE1PHIA INDICA 




66 

67 
65 

69 
70 
71 

72 



*rrf Plate ; First Side. 

f; , t ,,.r| 



^wftwaiTsronr^ 




o.'lS.] THE PENtrGULURU GKRANT OF TIETJMALA I : SAKA 1493. 251 



85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 



92 
93 

94 
95 
96 

97 

98 



TJtird Plate ; Second Side. 

99 ^^ta^T^TOcA (i) 
100 
101 

102 

103 



104 tr^ q<^ n 13 ^rnn ^r^w 14 ^r wufH i 



1 Bead . [In other inscriptions too the word occurs only as -qf . Perhaps it is the same as the Kanarese 
*=a mass, an army. H. K. S.] 
Bead =ft ; . * Rd fa. 4 Read =q and jf. 

* Thi verse consists of three half -verses in the AnusTituVh metre. 

* The last half -verse is preceded in the Turnkur plates by f^ 



' Bead fc. 8 Kead ^^. 9 Bead 

Bead dr. 

11 In place of this verse the Tumkur plates have the following two verses-. 



Bead w. " Bead 5. M Read 

2 



EPIGBAPHU IN.DICA. 



[VOL. 




111 

112 ?r 



f^fstr t W**TI ^T 



113 



115 

116 
117 
118 
119 

120 

121 

122 

123 

124 
125 git 



jef [i*] 



Fourth Plate; First Side. 
^ I 



Bead ft. " ~ 

Bead ?T. The Tuintar plates show again that the second half-veiw omitted in verge No. 4 i. 



4 Reftd ^ 
t Read if. 



Bead P 



Eead 



u 



Eead 



._ Ed.]. 



Penuguluru Grant of Tirumala I : Saka 1493* 



PuftE I. 




ll a. 



26 
28 

30 

32 
34 
36 
38 
40 
42 

44 
46 
48 






. 



n ^'^ 



, 

^ 






26 
128 
30 
32 
34 
36 

38 
40 
42 
44 
46 
48 



iib. 





F. W. THOMAS 



SCALE TWO-FIFTHS 



WH1TTINQHAM & GRtGGS, PHOTO'UITH 



in . 



11} a. 




122 



124 




148 





*. 



OE TIBPMALA I . SAKA U93. 



253 




132 



182 to 272 consist of the mimes o the donees given on pp. 258 S. 

Plate ; Second Side. 









278 

279 
280 
281 



Seventh Plate. 

3 



s 

291 

292 










^ co m pos,d of tlv.ee ^-verses 



^^ 
Eead 



in 



Uvgo Tolu,u. U a.uada cha^o, 



254 EPIGBAPHIA INDXCA. [Vot. XVI. 



ABBIDQED 

Line 1. Prostration to the blessed Ganadhipati (i.e. Ga^aprti). 

Verses 1-3. 1 la vocations to Sambhu (i.e. iya) 3 Varata (the Boar incarnation of Vishnu) 
and Ganapati. 

Vv* 4-6. 2 The ancestors of the family, viz. the Moon ; his son, Budha ; his son, Parn- 
ravas ; his son, Ayuh ; his son, Kahasha ; his son, Yayati ; his son, Pnra ; in his family, Bha- 
rata ; in his family, Santann ; fonrfch from him, Vijaya (i.e. Arjuna) ; his son, Abhitnanyu; 
his son, Parikshit ; eighth from him, Nanda 3 ; cmtb from Mm, Chalikka ; seventh from him, 
Rajanarendra ; tenth from Mm, Bij jalendra ; third from him, VIra-Hemmali-Baya, the lord 
of MByapiirL 

Vv. 7-2L 4 Fourth from him (i.e. Vlra-Hemmali-Eaya) was Tata-Pinnama ; his SOB, 
S6mi-deva who captured seTen forts in a day ; his son, Bagliava-devarat (i.e. Raghavendra ?) > 
his son, Pinnama, the lord of Aravidu 6 ; hia son, Bukka, who helped Saluva Hrisimha in 
putting his rule on a firm basis, and married Ballambika or Ballama ; his son,Rama-B.aja 
(I), who captured the hill-fort of Adavani from Sapada after having driven away from it the 
chief Elasappudaya (Kus&ppa-Udaiyar} and took the fort of Kamdanavoltu His wife was 
Iiakkarhibika, and their son was Srirangaraja (I), who married Tirtumalambika ; his three 
sons were Bama-Eaja (II), Tirumala-Baya (I) and Venkatadri. 

V. 22. When the sun of whose proud valour, that dispels the darkness, viz, (his) 
enemies, has risen, his white parasol looks like the full-blown lotus (growing) in the milk-ocean 
of his fame ; the golden knob (kalasa) at its centre shines like the pericarp (of that lotus), and 
the pair of fly-whisks like a couple of swans in its vicinity. 

V. 23. Deserting the serpent-king for the reason that he moves with crookedness, 
though famed for being possessed of happiness (or serpent's body), the tortoise (for the rea- 
son) that he takes shelter in laziness (or water), though brilliantly well-behaved (or perfectly 
round), the elephants of the quarters that they are dull (in walking), though they possess 
charity (or rut), and the mountams (supporting the earth) that they are cruel (i.e. hard), 
though they are high-minded (or lofty) , the earth seeks earnestly with delight this (king), who 
is the sole repertory of the collection of the good qualities "of every one of them. 

V. 24. Who, having completely weeded out the thorns (L&. destroyed the enemies), 
having well ploughed and prepared the entire field, the earth (i.e. improved* it -by good deeds), 
having filled it with profuse waters of (i.e. poured during) his liberal gifts, and having raised 
thereon the collection of crops, (his) spotless fame, bears with splendour, on the field- watchL- 
scaffold (kSyamana) of his shoulder, the lady, vi*. the goddess of victory, to guard this (field 
of fame). 

V- 25. Who practically exhibits, on earth, the parts of 4ihe lords of the different quarters 
(of which he is made up) by possessing conquering capacity (the characteristic of -India), 
purity (nature of. fire), by adopting equal treatment of all people (the quality of Samavartin, i.e. 



1 These verses aretHe same as in the Hampi inscription of Kpislma-Riya {EpigTapMa Indica* Vol. I, pp. 
861 it.). 

a These verses are the same as In the Kuniyfir plates of Venfcatfc II (Spiff raphfa Indict VoL III, g. 241). 

* The Telugu work Hamarajiyamn, which also supplies the ancestry of the kings of the Vijayanag&r^ 
dynasty, gives interesting and sometimes historically Important details concerning Nanda, Chalikya and others. 
This militates against tfae.snpposition that these were fanciful names, poetically introdnced into the genealogy 
with the object of establishing connection with some of the ruling families of ancient India. 

4 These verww are the Baine as in the Kiiniyur plates. Verses 11-21 occur also in the Maredapalle grant of 
JSrirangra II (%p*.&rapMa Indi'ca, Vol. XI, pp. 326 ft). 

6 This is poftsibly identical with the village Irave^a in the THapatri talnfcft of the Anantapnr district. 



Penuguluru Grant of Tirumala I ; Saka 1493. 



PLATE II 





m I. 



int. 





292 



F. W. THOMAS 



WHITTINGHAM 8* GRIGGS, PHOTO'LITH 



!3b. 18.] THE PENTTGTTLTJBTT &BA2TT OF- TIBUMALA I : SAKA 1493. 255 

the God of death 1 ) and conduct pleasing to righteous people (like that of Nirriti pleasing to the 
<punya~janas 9 demons), reputed as a broad-minded one (or Prachetas, i.e. Varum), having 
acquired the art of making, gifts (or 'of touching and wandering,' as the god of /wind), being the 
lord of wealth (orJDhanapati, i.e. Kubgra), and distinguished by the quality of the Omniscient 
(or Sarvajna, i.e. Siva). 2 

V. 26. Who having sacrificed in the fire of (his) valour the fried grain (lajd) of (7tis) 
enemies' reputation; in accordance with the incantations of counsel, marries with pleasure the 
bride (of) Fame, who increases the pleasure of the good (or is brilliant with her marriage wrist- 
band), taking her through the seven steps ($a$ta<*pada) of the seven worlds and helping her to 
ascend the stone of the Meru (mountain), and victoriously occupies the throne, receiving the 
blessings of holy Brahmans. 8 

V, 27. Desiring to achieve equality with whose fame of (making) perpetual charities 
the celestial trees are performing penance on the bank of the river of the heaven 4 (i.e. the 
Qanges)> having assumed the ochre robe (of their red) tendrils, and the plaited hair (of their) 
hanging roots. 

V- 28. [This is the same as verse 24 in the Hampi inscription of Krishna-Raya, except 
that ^Sra^twr^ra and ^"sr^fi^il of the latter are replaced in our inscription by 
and 



V. 29. [This is the same as verse 34 of the Kuniyur plates of Veiikata II and verse 35 
of the Maredapalle grant of Raiiga II* 5 ] 

V. 30* (The) destroyer of (his*) enemies, a (very) celestial tree to supplicants, the 
chastizer of chiefs who take new titles (ho$a~birudara-gan$a*)y the excellent cavalier of kings 
(raya-rahutta-min,da), happy in (his) honoured deeds (^mahita-cTiarita'-d'hanya), whose wealth of 
titles consists of Manniyam-samul, etc., and who has destroyed (hi s)^ enemies. 

V. 31. The grandfather of the two (opposing) armies [ulhaya-dalapit&maha),* one 
ttat is (ever) ready in giving protection to surrendering enemies and whose glory is praised 
by all people, in the words : * this is the crusher of the prestige of AvaJialu-Haya.*? 

V. 32. Whose prosperity dances (la mirth), who, being the lord of title-bearing chiefs, 
possesses a powerful army and is surrounded by heroes expert In the conquest of the king of 
TTtkala (i.e. Orissa), who is fierce (In battle), who chastizes the hosts of enemies with the 
strength of (his) arm, and who is possessed of lofty and respectable titles like gan^ara-guli 
and 



1 Yam a, ae the god of death, is known as Sama-vartin, i.e. one who treats all beings alike, 

2 The idea seems to be basd upon the saying : 



* The .reference is to a ceremony observed in Brabnaamical marriages. In this the bride is led by the bride- 
groom by tlie hand round the sacrificial fire, treading aeven steps, and finally her right big toe is placed by him upon 
a stone which is called Mem. The poet here draws a comparison between the king's heroic career and glorious 
coronation on the one hand and the scene of a marriage performed according to Vedic rites, where Iq/a-Aoma,, tapta* 
padi, efcc.> are important ceremonies* 

* The &anges is called Tripatha*ga for the reason that she flows in the Heaven, on the earth, and in the 
nother regions. 

5 JSpigrapftia Indica, Vol. XI, p 333, 

* The exact import of this title IB not apparent, [Possibly it refers to the position of Vyasa in relation to the 
Kanravas and Pandavas in the Mahahharafa war. P. W. T.] Elsewhere pitamaha occurs in the title * J[ndkr& 
ka-Dita-jpitamaTta * (i.e. the Brahma or Creator of the Andhra poetry), borne by the great poet AUaaani Peddana of 
Krifihna-deva-Eaya*s court. 

7 This expression must be taken to signify * the lord of Avahalu \ AvahaJu-Eaya is not known to be a proper 
isame. Arahalu is perhaps the modern c Aihole *. 

8 Tkeae titles denote comparison with the prond breeding-bull (yuli) and the tiger (pttW), as ia classical 
Sanskrit poetry, which compares heroes to the vfishatha (bull) and the vydghm (tiger). 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA, [Vol.. XVI. 



V, 33* The charming lord o the town of Aravl^u, 1 shining with the goddess of heroism 

and assuming the position ctf the Boar in raising the earth of the feudatory chiefs (dharanf* 

var&ha), and having shoulders as huge as the lord of serpents, 

V. 34. Vengi-Tribhuvanimalla^ a (very) Arjuna in the art of (fighting on) the battle* 

freld, the Sultan (Suratrana) of TJiigsla (i.e. Orugallu), 3 who sees Hari (in his) heart, the best 

of kings famed as a (very) JRamabhadra (i.e. Rama) in the front of the battle, who possesses 

the title * the lord of the illustrious chiefs of several classes/ 

V. 35. The foremost of those born In the Atreya gotra> of great fame among kings and 

possessing a cavalry of horses bearing high titles (aU-biruda-turaga-dJiatta), who is high-minded- 

and holds a position respected by the Aratta and the Magadha (kings), 

V, 36, Possessed of the righteous conduct of the Enemy of Salya (i.e. Yudhishthira), 

the lord of Kalyanapura, an expert in (all) arts, the Chajikka (t.e, Chalukya) emperor, glorious 

in (his) lofty crown of gems, 

Vv. S7-40. Who possesses the glory (conveyed by) the epithet *e-liruda-r&ya-raTiuta~v$y=* 
aika-bfaijanga,' 4 whose fame is rendered more magnificent by the proclamation of the title Otftfiya- 
raya~diso,~patta* who is a lord comparable to the moon, who has surpassed even Him of the 
odd number of arrows 6 (i.e. Manmatha, the God of Love) by his pleasing form, who is the 
chastizer of the kings that fail to keep their word (of allegiance), under whose protection tine 
nine divisions of the earth feel happy, who is the glorious suzerain of kings (rajadJiiraja^ 
the illustrious Paramegvara among kings (rafia-paramesvara), is entitled the * lord of the three 
kings (m&ru-rayara-gantfa)^ one whose great fame strides across (even) the Meru (mountain), 
who turns away his face from the wives of others, who is a terror to hostile kings, one given 
to supporting the good, the destroyer of the tigers, *;&. the wicked (men'), (the monster-bird) 
gan$a-Uerunda to the elephants, viz. (his) enemies, and the repository of the nectar of 
devotion to Hari, 

Vv. 41-42. Who is constantly pressed with titles such as these by crowds of bards (vandi} 
that proclaim with clasped hands * Be victorious/ < Live (long), 5 and whose praise is loudly 
sung by the kings of Kamb(h)5ja, Bhsja, Kaliriga, Karahata, etc., who have assumed the position 
of 'door-keepers to him, 

V. 43. The thus excellent and glorious Tirnmala-MaKaraja (I), of good qualities, praised 
by the Brahmanas, being seated on (his) throne, rules the kingdom extending from the Setu 
(i.e. RameSvaram) to the Sumeru, and from the hill of sunrise in the east to the (other) 
end of the western mountain (in the west), eclipsing in fame and righteousness even 
(kings like) ISTfiga, JSTala, Nahusha and such others on earth, and drawing (unto himself) 
the minds of all (his subjects). 

Vv. 44-62. In the Saka year, counted by Emas (3), planets (9), oceans (4) and moon 
(!)- (i.e. 1493) In the (cyclic) year called Prajspati, in the month known as Magha f in 
the bright fortnight, on the great and auspicious titid of Dradaiii, in ihe presence of the 
glorious god B&machandra, the treasure-house of all prosperity, complying with the request 
of the illustrious Tirnmala-Baja, of matchless beauty and of reputed prowess, the grandson of 

1 The word nayaka also means the chief pendant of a necklace. 

a This title appears elsewhere in earlier time*. See Noo. 251 and 507 of the Madras Epigraphies! Collection 
for 1906- * This is uow called Warangal. 

4 The aole paramour of the prostitutes of kings, the cavaliers of any (sort of) title. 

* Causing (his enemy) the Oddiya (.*. Odhra) king to fly in all directions. In the next attribute 
also mean *t&e cheek*. H* K, S.] 

* Zdnfa in tUa sense of * an arrow Ms found an the Nanartha-ratnamala ; see KUtal's Za*n 
Dictionary. 

i The three kings, so far as the South is concerned, are generally supposed to IMJ the Chera, Chole and Pa^dya. 
The Aava-pati, Nara-pati and the Gaja*jti kings may also be meant 



. 18.] THE PENTJGULURU GRANT OF HBUMALA I - SAKA 1493. 257 



of the Matla (race), the son of the great Mug Yellama, respected by (In si 
younger brothers, (viz.) princes Varada, China-Timma and Ananta, the moon in the nectar 
oeeau of the Solar race, of pure birth, of the glorious Easy apa gotra, an ocean of praiseworthy 
s, who scorches hostile kings with the fire of his valour, and fills all directions (of the 
with the camphor, 010. volumes of (his) pure fame, the foremost of the "chdja 
, a nd the prosperous abode of unrestrained charities the great (king) Tirumala- 
ja of powerful arm; (highly) esteemed of wise kings; being surrounded by pious and 
g priests (purdhua) and attendants and by various wise men who follow the ways laid 
in the Vedas (Srutf) and are highly educated, gave, with pleasure, with libations of gold 
water, as a sarva-manya to Brahnianas of several sdJchas, names, gotras and sutras, the 
village nnmed Penugultzru with the two (villages called) Yalammapadu*ChnnapallI 
and Konduru-Chennapalli, beautiful with gardens, be-ariog the happy second namo of the 
prosperous EUama-rajendra-sanrudra, supplemented by tbe Ttlianda-lslietra obtained from the 
village of Kottari, and situated in Pottapi-wadw, (a sub-division) of the prosperous Siddha- 
"Vra-s2ma, lying on the eastern side of the great Bahn river, to the south-east of Pottapi* 
fcfcto ornament of villages, to the south of this (i.e. the neighbouring) ^irl-sarovara (tank), to 
tlte south-west of the great village Srivara, to the west of the village named Eondnrii, to the 
ncxttli-wesfc of the village Indalta, to the north of the village called Sinkaxnala, and to the 
xxo-rtli-east of the village Tirumalaraja-peta, with its boundaries on all the four sides (marked 
0*0. t)., -with its resources (widhi), hidden treasures (w'fcs/igpa), stone, realised (sidha) and real- 
i&a/L>le (sadhya) (income), water^ together with dkshini, agami> and trees, to be eiijoyed in cem- 
in'o.iiity' (by all the donee Brahnaans), with (its) descent-wells, draw-wells, tanks, marshes 
SLncl gardens, enjoyable successively by sons, grandsons and so on, as ]ong as the moon and 
fclxo stars remain, (and) (if necessary) to be disposed of in charity, mortgage (adhamana), sale, 
or "fcransfer (vinimaya). 

Vv. 63 & 64. The (names of the) Brabmans of the several &&kh<*$, names, gotras and 
8>H<ra$, who are well- versed in (all) the sciences (sdstr&s) and have mastered the Vedanta, that 
own shares (vrittis) in the excellent village of Penaliaru (i.e. Penugulum), which consists of one 
l3Lia.xiclred and twenty-eight shares (vrittis) and is otherwise called the prosperous Ellama-rSjen- 
3jra.-eaimidra are thus enumerated in the order (in which they were) given by Timma-Baja : > 
[W. 65-176 register the names of the recipients as given on pp. 258 to 263.] 
LI. 274-278. (These) are the boundaries in the (several) quarters of this village Yellama- 
3ri& j CL-samudra : In the east, a banyan tree and a draw-well (situated) on the western 
sidle of (the river) Kufijara-nadf ; on the south-east, ChennS-Beddi-t;a5zam (i.e. the garden, 
cxf Clienna-Eeddi) ; on the south, the tank with the pipal tree (Asvat*ha-toaa) ; on the sonth- 
tlie tank, Apaviraya-ifa^aX;a ; on the west, the temple of Eamalinga ; on the north-west, 
Saml tree ; on the north, the Tatiparti-pond ; and 011 the north-east, the Punnaga (Rotileria 
oria) and the lotus ponds. 

Vv. 177-178. This is the edict of the great and illustrious Timmala-Bsya, disfcin- 
for (his) prudence, the gifts from whose hands excelled (even those) of the tree of 
(i.e. the celestial tree), and who was a (very) fountain of (good) qualities. Under the 
of king Tirumala-Baya*, Kavi-fasana Svayaihtliu, the son of SabliSpati, composed 
Jly the verses of (this) copper (-plate) edict. 
379. By the order of the glorious Tirumala-HahirSya the illustrious Ganapsya- 

the son of VIrana, engraved (this) copper (-plate) edict. 
"W. 180-184, The usual admonitory verses. 
L. 291. Prosperity. 

Xi. 292. Sri-Virupaksha. 1 ^ 

JSridently the sign-mftaual of the king in Teiugu-KaiHm4a letters. 




258 



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264 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [Vox,. XVL 

No. 19. TWO KADAMBA GRANTS FBOM SIRSI. 

Br V. S. StfKTHANKAR, PH.D., 



The copper-plates bearing the subjoined inscriptions, which are now edited for the first 
time, belong to Mr. Subbaya Nagappa Hegde of Ajjiba! in the Sirsi Taluka of the North 
Kanara District. They have been in the possession of Mr. Hegde's family for a very long 
time ; so long, in fact, that nothing is now known as to when and nnder what circumstances tha 
plates came into the possession of the family. I obtained them on loan through the good 
offices of Mr. Shankarrao Karnad, High Court Pleader, Bombay, who, at my request, kindly 
induced his colleague Mr, V. G. Hegde, B.A., LHB. Sirsi (a son-in-law of the owner), 
to send the plates to me for inspection and to allow me to take impressions from them. 
I am thus editing the grants from the original plates* which were on loan with me for about 
six months daring 1918, and from a set of inked impressions prepared from them in the office 
of the Superintendent, ^rchasological Survey, Western Circle. The annexed facsimiles were 
subsequently prepared under the supervision of tbe Government Epigraphist from the impres- 
sions supplied by me. The transcript given below has been carefully compared (in manuscript) 
with the originals before the latter were returned to the owner. My sincere thanks are due 
to Messrs. Ka?nad and Hegde for this opportunity of offering here a description of these 
interesting records of the reigns of the Kadamba kings Ravivarman and Kri&h^avarman of 
Vaijayantl (Banavasi). Their cKM claim to our attention lies in the regnal years in. which 
they are dated. The grant of Ravivarman was made (if my reading of the date is correct) in 
the thirty-fifth year of his reign, and that of Krish^avarman in the nineteenth year. 

A. PLATES OF BAVI VARMLOT : THE [3]5TH YEAB. 

These are three copper-plates, the first and last of which are inscribed on one side only, 
and each of which measures roughly 5 f" long by 3" -broad. They are quite smooth, their 
edges being neither fashioned thicker nor raised as rims. Although the plates are fairly thin, 
the engraving, not being very deep, does not show through on the reverse sides. The letters 
show evitleat traces of the working of the engraver's tool. The entire inscribed surface of the 
first " plate is more or less corroded ; but only at a few places has the engraving thereby been ao 
far affected as to have become quite illegible. The second plate is, in a sense, in a worse con- 
dition, as three of its edges are eaten away ; and with them the greater part of 1. 6, about a 
third of 1. 17. and some syllables in 11. 11 ai*d 16 are completely lost. The third plate is 
fortunately quite untouched, and the engraving on it is in an almost perfect state of preserva- 
tion. The most deplorable part of the havoc wrought oil these plates by the destructive agency 
is that in line 11 some of the letters comprising the words expressing the date are damaged in 
such a manner that the reading of the date (which is by far the most important element of the 
record) has to be tf based on a conjectural restoration from which the element of uncertainty 
cannot entirely be eliminated. Of no great consequence IB, on the other hand, the damage to 
line 6 ; for from the preserved fragments of letters we may, I think, safely conclude that the 
line contained nothing more than a eulogistic phrase" or two, which, even if restored, would 
have added nothing of importance ,fco our stock- of knowledge concerning the his.tory of the 
Kadambas. The plates are pierced by a circular hole so as to receive the ring and seal which 
are attached. The weight, including the ring and seal, is 38| tolas. The ends of the ring are 
securely soldered on to the ba#k of the seal. About an eighth of an inch of the edge of the 
latter is raised ^ so as to forfn a rim ; the recessed space, which is oblong in shape, is devoid of 
legend or emblematic design. 

The characters, which show great uniformity throughout, belong to the southern variety, 
and have close affinities with those of 'other grants of tbo Kadamba kings, especially with the 



No, 19.] TWO KADAMBA &EANTS FROM SIBSI. 203 

Halai 1 plates of the Kadamba Ravivarman, published by the late Dr. Fleet. The letters t and 
n, alike whether used singly or in conjunction with other consonants, are devoid of loops : never- 
theless they are clearly distinguishable from each other. For iu n the right limb of the letter 
ia regularly drawn in continuation of the slanting (or vertioal) stroke; whereas in t the upright 
stroke is much shorter and distinct from the lower part of the letter, which forms a horse-shoo 
(sometimes with unequal arms), and to which the short vertical stroke ia attached at the top. 
It may be added that owing to this characteristic evert the upper half of the letter t is sharply 
ci is languished from the corresponding portion of v, in which the vertical stroke is regularly 
drawn iu continuation of the right limb (as in <n), a fact whose importance will be apparent 
when we shall turn our attention to the subject of the reading of the date of the record. The 
difference between the forms of t and v may be studied in the following exaaiples : Setritt* and 
pratikriti? in line 3, ^pati-pratimaT), 1. 7, ttihau 1. 12, raJcshati L 19, bhavati 1. 20; and vijaya 
L 1, tH2pwZa 1. 8, and vinaya and msn.rada L 9* In II. 7 and 10 occurs an initial a; in 11. 10, 
1 2 S; in L 20 u ; in 1. 19 final k ; ia 1. 14 final t ; and in 11. 17, 21 final m> For final consonants, 
as is usual in these records, the fall forma are used in reduced size, written on a slightly lower 
level than the rest of the letters of the line. The medial vowel in na is writtin *by bending 
back tho last downward stroke in an upward direction, e.g. in lines 2, 3, etc. The language of 
the inscription is Sanskrit, and, with the exception of the imprecatory and admonitory verses afc 
the end (11, 20-23), the text is in prose. The document, it may be add?d, begins and ends 
somewhat abruptly. The grant proper is couched in -very tei*se language. The preamble does 
not mention any of Ravivarman's ancestors, and the epithets coupled with the name of 
Bavivarman himself, which are of the stereotyped form, are, relatively speaking, few in number* 
They contain no new historical information regarding the royal donor. In its brevity the 
record resembles closely the Nilambiir* plates of the Kadamba king of the same name, The 
ortliograpiiy does not call for any particular remarks, 

The inscription-ip one of the DTwrma-MaJiaraja Baviv^rman of the Kadamba family. We 
liave already the Halsl and Nilambftr plates of a Kadamba Bavivarman. The highest regnal 
year recorded in these grants is the eleventh. The present grant records (1L 10-19) that ou the 
flLfth tithi of the bright half of the month of Karttika in a specified regnal year (the reading 
of which is uncertain aud will be discussed later on) Bavivarman granted to the ilahadeva 
temple of his beloved physician, the dei^mStya Nilakantha, 3 torn* nivartanas of land in the 
village of Sard (or Sara), of which further specifications will be found in the appended transla- 
tion. In this portion of the record (11. 16, 17) there ia a lacuna, in which some further details 
of the donation are lost, 

The genealogy of Ravivarman is not given. But, as the writing of the present record does 
not differ in any essential joints from that of the Halsi and Nilambur grants of the Kadamba 
king of the same name, WQ may on pal geographic grounds tentatively identify him with 
Ravivarman, the son of Mrlgesavarman and grandson of Santivarman. 

The reading of the regnal year is, as stated above 5 tmcextaiti. The year is expressed in 
words only (as in all the records of this dynasty that have come under my notice), which I read 
as pancha-[ t trim^sat[tame"\4, 'in the thirty-fifth/ The compound indubitably contains the ele* 
ment pancha-, which is cleajr, and another word, expressing a multiple of tea, which is obliterated. 
Tte second syllable of this partly defaeed word coo tains again unquestionably a & The choice, 
therefore, lies between -tHm&Tand -vimSatitiimli or -trimse and -trims at tame, As, moreover, the 
sign of i does not appear to have been added to f 9 f.he intended ahshara must be taken to be 
so,. This circumstance further reduces the possible alternatives at our disposal to - 

i Tnd. Ant,, Tol. VI, pp. 25 ffi, 2 Above, Vol. VIII, p. 147, and Plate, 

s See below, p. 268, foot-upto 10, 



266 EPIGKRAPHIA IJSDICA. [VOL. XVI. 



and tr%mattawie. Further, tlie remnant of the akshara after a appears most to resemble a 
deformed t, very faint, indeed, but atill distinguishable oa the plate, a conclusion which is in 
har.nony with the above supposition that the longer form of the ordinal (vimSatitama or trim- 
fottama) has been UHed here 9 and not the shorter (iiirhda, trirhia). Let us now turn our atten- 
tion to the syllable preceding sa+ The preserved portion appears to consist of the medial i and a 
short vertical stroke added at the top of a mutilated horse-shoo. Therefore, from what I have 
said above regarding the shapes of v and , it follows that this defaced alcsTiara cau only repre* 
setrfc-a vi and not ti. This result also fits in with our former observation that the third missing 
syllable is a deformed ta (and not ti) ; for an initial t requires the restoration -trim&attame 
(containing ta in the third syllable), while an initial v would necessitate the reconstruction, 
~vim$atitt\,m (with ti iu the third syllable). I have, therefore, for my part, no hesitation in 
reading the preserved portion of the first damaged akshara as ti, and supplementing the lost 
subscript r under it. The second syllable is, aa already remarked, sa beyond doubt. Then I 
read t[t]a, after which, there is just sufficient space for the inclusion of me, which syllable, 
however, is completely obliterated. The complete restored regnal year would, therefore, be 
paftcha-tririisattamg? c in the thirty-fifth year.* It may be added that, if the reading proposed 
by me is nofc accepted, the only possible alternative is pancha-vithsatitame, which in my opinion 
is extremely doubtful. 

The village Sarg (or Sara), -which is the object of the grant and which is mentioned 
without any specification of its whereabouts, remains unidentified. 

TEXT .3 

[Metre of two verses in 11. 20-23 : Sldka 

First Plate. 



2 CTvran3*nm(*f T?) mfwi^rt (n) 

3 



5 

Second Plate ; First Side. 

6 



8 



1 [The form trayasMmfatim6 occurs in a Telugu record from Draksiarama : No* 349 of the Epigraph ical 
Collection (Madras) for the year 1893. H. K. S.] 

2 Froi tbe'briginal plates and a aet of impressions. 8 R ea ^ jj. 

* The bracketed letters are conjccturally added ; at this poiot the plate ia worn alnio&t"to the depth to which 
the letters were iacised. 

* The last two or three syllables of lino 5 have worn away and become completely illegible. 

* The upper edge of this side of the middle plate is eaten away j and, with it, the upper portions of the 
letters in 1. 6 are either effaced cr completely lost. It is needless to add that the vowel signs are almost aU 
completely obliterated, andj in the reading given above, only conjecturally supplied* 

7 Heve, and 5a other places below, the rules of tamdJU have not heen observed. 
s The sign of the vfsarja is defaced. 



No. 19.] 



KADAMBA GRANTS FROM SIRS! 




12 
13 
14, 
15 
16 
17 



Second Plate ; Second Side. 



finrHrer 




-..*/ 






Third Plate. 



18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 



[*] 



[*] 
[I*] 



D*] 



u ?r 



: [i*] 



^fir: 



[*] 



' Read 

2 1 can make no sense out of the sjllabks ^sr^Tgrsi!. ^ ead 'SffL'TT*]^! ? See below, p. 2C3 n. 7. 
* The lower portion of all the remaining letters of this line are more or less defaced. Of the bracket^ J 
syllables, the preserved portion of the first, I am fully persuaded, can be nothing but ti (see above, pp. 2d5-6) ; 
the next syllable, Sa, Is quite distinct and unmistakable, both on the plate and in the impression ; f arthermirc, 1 
believe, it is possible to discern on the plate very faint, but unmistakable, traces of a diminutive t (which must be a 
part; of a ligature) and somewhat uncertain traces of m. 1 have, therefore, no hesitation in sapplyitig the 
missing subscript r below the ti, and I may say that I look upon the reading trim/a as more or less certain. 
For tlie bracketed tta compare the form of this ligature in =dattavan= in I. 16 below. 

The subscript ma is rather faint, and appears to have left no truce on the impression paper. 
Head ^f. 6 O F lt *TT?t. 

The final t (for which the full sign is used), written below the line, is faint ; but it can be made .rat au t!.. 
original plate quite unmistakably. 
Or ^s ? 

The sign of the medial t ia the bracketed syllable appears to have been crowded out cf its n&iuMi poutwn 
(winch is a little more to the left, over the hollow of pa) by the subscript ya of the lig&fctre immediately ever 
the syllable iu question. [Possibly the reading is ^^g^f%. H. E. S.] 
10 A short space is left between ^ and ?ft. 

13 Bead I- - 

Z a 



EPIGRAPEIA INDICA. 



[Voi,. 



TEANSLATIOM". 



(Line 1.) Hail ! At (the city of) victory, the glorious Vaijayanti, tlie Vha.rm.a- 
/a, 1 (of the family) of the JEadambas, anointed after meditating on Svami-Mahasena an< 
the assemblage of the Mothers ; belongbg to the Manavya gotra; descendants of Haritl - 
studying the requital (of good and evil) as their sacred text, 2 the glorious Eavivarmam 
before whose prowess (are) prostrate all* ......... similar to the great leader 

of the armies of Kadamba, 4 (the excellence of 5 ) whose body had been produced by grea.i> 
religious merit acquired in numerous births, well-versed in (rules of) statesmanship and 
decorum, highly righteous and deeply devoted to his father, on the fifth tithi of the bright 
half of the month of Karttika in the [thirty]-fifth year, in uninterrupted succession * 
augmenting his life and sovereignty, has given* ........ four nivarUanas ,^ 

land) m the plough-land called Bamdupukro[pi] (or Bamdu ) below Dasa-tadaka (and) above 
Bambare-tadaka,9 (situated) in the village of Sire (or Sara), to the temple of Mahadva (Siva} 
of his beloved physician named Nllakantha, the det-amstya, y two parts of it (are given) . . 
'I'-- for maintenance ........ up to the temple ... 

. . . to Arya-svamin and Pasupata belonging to the Kasyapa gotra and the Bharadvaid 
gotra (respectively). J 

(Line 19.) He who protects it will have a share in the merit accruing from it. 

(Line 20.) It has also been said : 

[Here follow two of the customary admonitory verses.] 

B. PLATES OF KEISHNAVAEMAlSr II : THE 19TH TEAR. 

These plates, which are in a much better state of preservation than the foregoing ar 

1 I 8 m / Um ^- The 7 measure rg% 6|* long by 2|" broad. They are quite 

smooth their edges being neither fashioned thicker nor raised into rims. The plates are- 

thin ; but the engraving being shallow, though otherwise quite good, the letters do no* show 

through on the reverse sides at all. The letters show the characteristic marks of the working- 

86 ^*^' It3literalmeanin * is: ^^^>^-to is devoted to the performance of duty- 



he reader to 

The rest of the sentence is lost. 

** *?*"* ^f^ a "^ a "' ! ^^-^-a^ a -^[3] wa - (; 4 a neJr a ^ ('the full moon -i* 
'r?-^ Kada,nba leader of armies'), applied to KakuBthaiman in kbt, 

of Kafcusthavarman, ed. Eielhom, Sp. Ind., Vol. Till, p. 31. 

5 I suppose we have to supplement here some such words as these. ' 

See above, p. 267, note 3. 



8 There is a lacuna in the text here, 

med *- to the "level of .the field 



s bntit may have a mwe specie 

^^^ 



3ST0. 19.] , TWO KADAMBA GRAFTS FROM S1RSI. W.< 

of the engraver's tool. The grant is engraved on the inner sides of the fir-t ar/i last plates. 
amd on both sides of the middle one. The plates are pierced by a circular hole In ordf-r to 
Deceive the ring and seal, which are attached- The ends of the ring are, as in the ease t:>f the 
plates of Ravivarnian, soldered onto the back of a seal) which, in this instance, ^s oval in shape anil 
"fa-eare a device. The seal has a raised rim, and inside this there is shown in low relief tlie figure 
xxf a^.quadruped (perhaps a horse) facing left. The weight of the plates, includii-.g the rhif? 
tt*id seal is 52 tolas- Each engraved side contains four lines of writing; there are thus sixteen 
lines in all. Excepting isolated letters which are worn away and now become partly illegible, 
tfJh,e record is in a perfect state of preservation, and can be deciphered without any uncertainty. 

Tlie characters belong to the southern variety, and have close affinities with those of oilier 
grants of the Kadamba kings. They diSer palpably from the characters of the grant o! Ravi* 
vaircnan described above and appear to belong to a later palesographic epoch. The vowel a in 
: Is -written by bending back the last downward stroke in an upward direction ; e.g. in 11. 2, 
3 : etc One notices the tendency of the vertical lines to slope, a feature which later develop* 
Sbato tlie spiral formation of Hala*Kannada letters. Noteworthy is also the doubling of the left 
limb of g (11. 1, 2, 6, 8, etc.) and s (II. 4, 7 5 etc.). This record contains the earliest specimen 
Hitherto known, in a southern alphabet, of the initial ri (1. 8), Initial a occurs in 1. 5 ; initial 
in 11. 4, 6 ; initial it in 11. 11, 13*; initial in 1. 7 ; the Sign of final t in 1. 7, and final n in 1. 11. 
One ligature, with the word containing it, has remained uudeciphered in L 10 ; I have never 
oorne across the sign anywhere before and can euggest no reading for it. The language of the 
inscription is Sanskrit, and, with the exception of the imprecatory and admonitory stanzas at 
the end, the text is in prose. The main part of the text (11. Ml) forms a single rattera and 
states like the foregoing grant of Ravivarman, without much circumlocution the object of tae 
record. The attributes qualifying the donor are of the stereotyped form. In its brevity tnw 
record resembles the grant of Ravi varaau described above, 

The inscription ia one of the Vhma-MaJuMja Krishnavarman of the Kadamba family. 
The hitherto known records oi th, Kadamba dynasty have revealed tia, a^a wo 
Krishnavarmans in the family. And, as the present record neither gjve. the ge B ^^ ^ 

tions tHs king may tentatively be ideutiBed tk the second Kadamba kg rt ^u n 

gvtra, named Soma-svSmm, who was a student of the ^xg veoa, an P 
sacrifice, making tte village free from all taxes and dues. _ 

To the PF oposed iden^on * the **^Z5Z& 1"^- 
of the Bannahalli grant it may be objected that the fctla ^ / K r i s hnavarman II. 

along with the name of the tor, is not found coupled ^^^.^ dafad in the 

> 



xx any other record ; thas, for instance, in the nnana i g > ^ ^ K?ish?avarm m - 



year of the reign, only the shorter title M"* invariably styled Dfcuma- 
name. On the other hand, the earlier ^' 3b ^ var ^, g The ob iect=on is not valid ; for 
AfoMr^a in- the ptmmbles of the later Mam a ^^ \ Q all accouDt6 , performer of a 
it should he noted that Krishnavarman I. was, accormn _____ _ 



. ltd., VoL VI, P. 18 L P late - 



270 - EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVL 



horse-sacrifice. If our KrislinaTarman is to be identified^ with, this king, how are we to 
explain the silence of the record regarding the sacrifice said to have been performed by him ? 
On the other hand the expression aSva-tnedh-abJi'isTii'kta, herein applied to the Kadambas as a 
class, shows that in the time of our Krishnavarman the epithet aJva-niedha-y&jin had become 
a hereditary title of the Kadamba family, a fact which can be explained only on the assump- 
tion that some prolonged interval of time separates the actual performer of the sacrifice from 
our Krishnavarman, Moreover, there is at least one other instance of the indiscriminate use of 
the titles Maharaja and Dhartyia-MaliSrajaj namely, in the case of Mrigeavarman. Both titles 
are found used in connection with this king in his epigraphic records. 1 

A word may be added regarding the localities mentioned in the record. The object of the 
grant is stated to be Eamakapalli, situated in the Gririgada village (grama) of the Karvan- 
nadga district (vishaya). Kone of these places can be identified with certainty. Mr. Hegde, 
owing to whose good offices the plates were made available for publication, is a resident of Sirsi 
and has favoured me with the following topographical details, which throw some light on the 
question. He \vriies : * c Sirsl talu^a (which used to be called Sunda taluka) was formerly 
divided into a number of mag&ne, each of which consisted of a number of villages. One of such 
wiagane went by the name of Karur magane, deriving its name from Karur, a village included in 
the m&gane. Another such village was called Girigadde. Both these villages still bear the 
same names," The proximity of Girigadde to Sirsi favours the identification of the former with 
the Girigada of the plates, which, aa stated above, come from Sir&{ itself. Also, in regard to 
the great and often inexplicable changes which many place-names have undergone, the i 
fication of Karvannudga with Karur is not an impossible proposition* 

TEXT.* 

[Metre of the two verses in 1L 14-15 : Slohi 

First Plate. 

l ^fe [n*] 

2 



3 ^Tfrf^g^T^f wfro ?r^ 
4 



Second Plate; First Side. 

5 

6 



1 Kitjlhorn's ?>/ of Inscriptions of Soitfkern, India,, JSTos. 604 and 605. 

2 From the original plates and a set of impressions. 

s Bead a?^f. [The author may have meant this word to be in the ablative case. Cf, *l''ija 
of other inscriptions. H. K. JS,] 

4 The length of ma is added at the top of the alcsJiara. 

* Head ^i7rt ^T^os?^ . 

* ~he length of ma is added to the constricted pai-t of the okskara. Bead 

* Bead ?gf. 

>* The Raviraraian plates ahove read jff%ff%. Bead TO^t Here, and in othqr places below, the ral^s of 

have not been clb served. 

9 Read ^f. i Eesul -. 

^ The Inaertion of the visarga is an ufteithoughfc. 12 Bead 



Sirsi Grant of Ravivarman : the 35th year. 







F. W. THOMAS 



SCALE FOUR-FIFTHS 



Sirs! Grant of Krishnavarman : the igtb year. 




lla 





10 




"SCALE FJVE-SiXTHS 



No. 19.] TWO KADAMBA GRANTS FROM SIRSI. 271 



7 

8 

Second Plate ; Second Side, 
9 

30 



12 

Thi.rH Plata. 



13 



14, ^JT ^T TTrfiT[:*] iraftfT[:i*] 

15 f?r[;*] ?r^ cr^i cr^T *m [n*] w^r 10 Tnsw 10 ^r tfr 

16 ^^^^T U [i*J 



TRANSLATION". 



(Line 1.) .Hail! At (the city of) victory, Vaijayanti, tlie Dharma-MaJiaraja^ (of the 
family) of the Kadambas, anointed during a horse-sacrifice 16 after meditating ou Svami-Mahasena 
and the assemblage of the Mothers ; belonging to the Minayja gotra ; descendants of Hariti ; 
studving the requital (oi good and evil) as their sacred test" ; and looking to the Mothers of 
Mankind for protection, the gloi-i..us Krishnavarman, who during countless births ha=i 
accumulated an abur.dant store of religions merit, who has gained fame and the fortune of 
royalty by virtue of successes in many battles, in the nineteenth year of his prosperous 

i The final f is written below the line. 

- -.,, s B, ea d w f The length of ma is added at the top of the akshara. 

Head ij[!jriSTl!'*r- TSHI< _, c _ 

* rilie last syllable of the namo of tlie district appears to be Tj not ^ . H. K. _.j 

The last but oeaJb*Ai- r*n,aina undociplicr^; the very laBt one of th line is either or cAa, with or 

^^ 



^ 

The final n is written below the line. ca 

e The sign of the secondary a seems to have been also adde.l 



8 Bead 



C " 

Her Jld as a tible. Its literal meaning is 'the Jfrfai^.wto IB devoted to performance of duty 

a 



B.nab, W Pl^es of ^^-^ "-f; mav refer the reader to 

I have adopted Ihoru's rjoto* f ^^'^ ^L'te ^^t b hee, t.an.ated 

^ ^-t,o r s to people (,A.,M dependent 



(on t*M)\ ab 5 ve, Vol. VIII, P . 148. -H. K. S/J 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVI. 



(reign) of victory, on the full-moon (day) of Karttika, 1 for tie religious merit of his father 

and mother, has given with pouring-otit of water, with gold, (income*) and ... ( an( 5) with 
every exemption, Kamakapalli in the village (grama} of Girigada in the district (visJiaya) 
of Karvvanriadga to the Soma sacrificer Soma-svamin, belonging to the Varahi gotra* who lias 
completely studied the Rig-veda and who follows (the moral and ethical duties inown as) 
yaina and niyama. 

(Line 12.) He who shall protect this (charity) will share in the merit (attaching to the 
making of ifc) ; and he who shall confiscate it will be (guilty) of the five great sins. 
[Here follow two of the customary admonitory verses.] 



No. 20. GARBA PLATES OP THE CHASTDELLA TRAILOKTAYABMAN : 

[VIKRAMA]-SAMVAT 1261, 



BY K. 1ST. DIKSHIT,, M.A., CALCUTTA. 

These plates Trere found in a tank near the Tillage of G-arra, to the south-east of Chhaf?ai > - 
capital of the Indian state of the same name in Bundelkliand, and were subsequently sent 
to me for deciphexroent and publication through the kindness of Pandit Shukdeo Bihari Misra, 
B.A., Dewan, Chhatarpnr State, Being considerably corroded when first received by me, the 
plates were thoroughly cleaned, and impressions were taken from them, which are published 
in the accompanying plate. They are now exhibited on loan in the Provincial Museum, 
Lucknow. 

The plates are two in number. Each is a complete record by itself, engraved on only one 
side. They measure 13|" by 8J" and 12f" by 7f" respectively. A small hole (dia. f") at the top 
.shows that at one time a ring must have been attached to the plates. Below the ring-hole, 
and dividing the first four lines of tke inscription just in the centre of each plate, is engraved 
a sealed figure of the goddess Lakslami, with four -arms, the upper two holding lotuses. On 
both the copper-plates the writing has been protected by means of copper bands, f " in breadth 
and from J" to ^ r/ in thickness, rivetted along the edges. The lettei's are generally well pre- 
served; but here and there a few letters are concealed by the protecting band, and at the bottom 
of plate II a pension has been damaged and lost, though the lacunae can be easily supplied. The 
plates weigh 124 and 122 tolas respectively. 

The alphabet is ITagari, regular for the period and locality to which, the record belongs. 
The sharp angular forms of letters, found in many inscriptions of the twelfth century, give 
place here to more rounded ones. Tke identity of the signs for ra and &a, the similarity of tie 
forms of va, cJia, dha and ra and similar palseographical peculiarities have been noticed before in 
documents of this period (c. Semra plates of Paramardi-deva ; E%. Ind., IV, 153 ff.)- 2 

The language is Sanskrit. Both the inscriptions are in prose throughout, excepting a 
verse each at the beginning aiid the end* Regarding orthography there is little to note. The 
influence of the vulgar pronunciation is reflected in the promiscuous use of sa and $a, ra and la. 
Most of the consonants folkwiug r are doubled. Rules of SamdJti are often violated, and u 
final consonant is not marked with the tirdma, as t in sawrat (I. 9 f.). 

1 Tha full-moon day of Kurttika, as a day on which donations were made by the Kndainba kin^s, is men. 
tioned also in the Nilambur platen of Rarivormnn (-S^?* Ind Vol. VIII, p. 146) and tlie Halsi plates of 
Mrigesavarman (Ind, Ant, 3 Vol. VI, p. 24). 

2 [Tlra form o * deserves notice as pointed out by Mr. Y. R. Gupte, Ifc differs from that of the Seuir* 
platen, Hue 1, and is more progressive, giving us thus the earliest form of the modern Devanairarl n Kd.] 



20,] GABR1 PLATES OF THE OHANDELLA TRAILOKYAVABMAN. 273 

The records belong to the well-known Chandella dynasty of .Bttndelkhand, called Chandra- 
treya in the inscriptions. Opening with, a panegyric of the family, they next refer to Jayasakti 
and Vijayaakti, two early heroes of the family, and proceed to describe the grant of two 
villages by the Parama-bhattaraka Mahar&j-adMraja Parammwa, the glorious Trailokya- 
varma-deva, who meditated on the feet of the P, if. P. Paramardi-deva, who meditated on 
the feet of the P. Af. P. Madanavarma-deva. Encamped at a place called VadavSda, the king 
Trailokyayarma-deva granted the village of Kadolia in the Paniiili territory (vishaya) on 
Friday the second (titU*) of the bright fortnight of VaiSakha in Sam vat 1261 by the fir&t 
copper-plate and the village of Lohasihani in the Vikrauni 1 territory (mshaya) on IViday the 
second (tifhi) of the dark fortnight of Vaisakha in Samvat 1261 by the second copper-plate, 
In both grants the donee was the Bauta Samanta or Savanta of the Bharadvaja gotra, son oi 
Raiita, Pape, who was killed at Kakacladaha in a battle with the Turushka (Turks), grandson 
of Uaiita, Sahanapala and great-grandson of Baiit a RanapEla. The object of the grants is 
unusually interesting, being the bestowal of villages ' by way of maintenance for death,' 
unquestionably that of the father of the donee, on the field of battle. 

As regards the equivalents of the dates given in the records, we find 

(1) Samvat 1261, Vaisakha Sudi 2, Snkra 

Northern Vikrama current : Tuesday, 15th April, 1203. 
Northern Vikrama expired : Saturday, 3rd April, 1204. 
Southern Vikrama expired : Friday, 22nd April, 1205. 

(2) Samvat 1261, "Vaisakha Vadi 2, Sukra 
Northern Vikrama current ; 

Paur^imanta : Monday, 31st March, 1203. 

Amanta : Tuesday, 29th April, 1203, 
Northern Vikrama expired ; 

Paurnimanta : Friday, 19th March, 1204, 

Amanta : Sunday, 18th April, 1204. 
Southern Vikrama expired : 

Pauniimanta : Tuesday, 7th April, 1205, 

Amanta : Friday, 6th May, 1205. 

The first date is thus Friday, 22nd April, 1205 A,D ; the second may he either Friday, 19th 
March 1204, or Friday, 6th May, 1205. But, as all our evidence points to the fact that the two 
grants must have been recorded almost simultaneously, we are justified in believing that the 
former solution must be rejected and Eriday, 6th May, 1205 A.D., must be the true equivalent 
of the second date. We thus hare here instances (which are comparatively rare) of North 
Indian epigraphical dates calculated as southern expired Vikrama years, with am&nta months 
(vide Int. Ant, Vol. XIX, pp. 181-2). 

The present records give us the earliest known dates for Trailskyavarman, the only certain 
inscription of his so far known being dated eight or nine years later. 3 On the other hand, our 
dates bring us within two years of the date of the death of Paramardi, TrailOkyavarman's pre- 
decessor, and the fall of Kalanjar and Mahoba (April 1203 AD.)* Let ns Bee whetlier ? ke 
present records throw any light on the fortunes of the Chandellas after the disaster which 

overlook them in 1203. 

Mr. Vincent Smith observes in his paper on the History and Coinage of the Chandel Dynasty 
(Ind. Ant., 1908, p. 146) that the history of the Chandel dynasty, as one of the powers of 

"~~" ~~ ~[Thereading does not seem quite clear : should it be Fiaum ? F. W, T.] 

2 Cunningham, A. S. Reports, Vol. XX1 3 p. 50, 




274 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Vox,. XVJ. 



Northern India, ends in 1203 A,D>, and that Traildkyavarman succeeded his father as a mere 
local chieffcaia, holding the eastern part of the ancestral kingdom of Jejaka-bhukti. As we 
gather from the present inscription, however, Trailskyavarman mast shortly after the catastrophe 
at Kalanjar hare mustered his forces, followed the Miihammadans into the western part of 
Bundelkhand, fonght with and possibly defeated them there, re-established his power in at 
least the western and central parts of his dominions, and probably recovered his ancestral strong- 
hold of Kalanjara (as appears from his assumption of the epithet Kalanjar-adhipati, 1. 5). It is 
possible that the latter epithet is merely an empty claim to the lost fortress, similar in nature to 
the same title as held by Vijjala, Kalachuri king of Kalyani, or to the title Dv&ravatt-pura-var- 
&dhtvara, as assumed by the Yadavas of Devagiri. But in the present case it is rather sio-ni- 
Scant that a claim should be asserted over the place within two years of its loss. Besides 
as General Cunningham remarks, 1 we know for certain that Trailokyavarman recovered 
Kalanjara some time before 1233 A.D. Nothing prevents us, therefore, from assuming that he 
did so just at the outset of his career. Other inscriptions tell us that he was in possession of 
Ajaygarh Fort in 1212 A.D., that he was the paramount ruler in Baghelkhand in 1240-41 A.D 
and that he was eulogized in his successor's time 3 as * a very creator in providing strong places' 
and as 4 a veritable Vishnu in lifting up the earth, immersed in the ocean formed by the stream 
of Turushkas.' All this evidence warrants us in assuming that TrailSkyavarman was not a 
mere local chief, that he retrieved the waning fortunes of his dynasty to a considerable extent 
by stemming the tide of the Moslem invasion, and that daring his p ratty lon^ rei^a of Ju^rlv 
forty years he succeeded in establishing his sovereignty over most if not all _ of his paternal 



Of the localities mentioned in the records the following can bo identified, Vadavada, the 

place of encampment, is most probably the same aa VacLavari of another Chandella'insciiption * 

to be identified with Bedwada in the Lalitpur subdivision of the Jlmnsi district the 'Berwara ' 

of the maps in K L. 24 30 / and E. L. 78 41'. KakadadaHa, the scene of ? the battle with 

the Turk, must in all probability be the Kakaradaha mentioned elsewhere* as situated in the 

Yadavari region, and as such I propose to identify it with Kakadwa, a little to the south-east 

of Bedvada, the ' Kukurooa ' of the maps in N. L. 24 28 r and E. L. 78 42'. The Vifcrauni 

territory of these plates is probably the same as the Vikaura territory of the Semra plates * 

which was identified by Dr. Cartellleri with Bikaur in Saugor district, the Beekore of our 

maps, in N. L. 24 13' and E. L. 78 41'. Lohasihani in the Vikrauni territory mar be the 

same as Lohani in the Bijawar State, situated in N. L. 24 23 /5 and E. L. 79 12' KadSha 

one of the villages granted, must be identical with Kadoa in the Chhatarpur State situatJ 

mN.L.2448' and E. L. 79 52', j as t south Gar, tie place wkere tte ^7""" 

discovered. Paniiili might possibly be identified with Panna, capital of the Indian state of tii* 

same name, in N. L. 24 43' and E. L. 80 16', ' 

TEXT.* 
I. 

1 [0m] Svasti[|*] Jayaty=ahladayan=vivaiii vi^v-esvara-sira-dhritah j Clianclratreva-nar- 

emdranam vamsag=clmndra iv*=$~ 

2 jjvalah [I Tatra pi^arddhainana-^ 

vlr-avirbhava-bha- 

A. V Shorts, Vol. XXI, p. 87. V*. *,. **., VoL I, p. 829. "~ 

8 Semra plates of Paramardi-deva (Xp. 2nd., Vol. IV, p. 157. text IS) 

; 156 alld 1 p " ,T J test L 7< ' f Indian Atlas 

the original plates. 



Garra Plates of Trailokyavarman : [Vikrama]-Samvat 1261- 





No. 20.] GABBA PLATES OF THE CHANDELLA TEAILOKTAVAEMAN. 275 



S svare paramablmttaraka^malia^ 

anudliyata-parama"bliattara- 

4 ka~maharajadMraja-paramgs^ - paramablaat/fcaraba - 

mahar&ja dhiraja- 

5 parameyara-parama-malieSvara-rl-K51afijar - adMpati - srlmat - Tfcaildkyavarmraa - deyo 

vijayl sa eslia dnrrvishaliatara-prata- 

6 pa-tapita-sak ala-ripu-kulah knla- yadlittm=iva TasnmdliarSii===Birak"alaiii paripalayaim* 

avikala-viv^ka-mrmma[li*]krita-matih. 

7 PSniiili- vistay- antahpati-KSdolia*^^ samajfS a- 

payati ch-Astiz "vah 
& samviditam 1 yath=(5pari-likliitO=yam griLmah sa-jala-sttalahi sa-stlaaYara-jangaTnah 

sva-slm-avachcliMimali. s-adha-nrddh [Y*]O S "btuta* 
& bhavisliyad--varttamaBa-nihSesli--adaya*saHtah pratishiddhacliat;adipravesag=cli 

a smabMr^Vvadavada-grama-samavase sam- 

10 vat 1261 Vaissklia-sudi 2 Sukra-vare 3 Bharadrsja-gctraya ra 1 Ranapla- 

prapautraya ra \ Sahanapsla-pautraya Kakad[S]- 

11 dalie Turushka-yuddtg mrita-ra | PSpe-putraya ra I Samanta-namne 

pra^adSna* mfityuka-vrittau Sasanarii kyitva pradatta iti 

12 matva bliavadb}iira]na-sravana 5 -vid]ieyair=l3liatva bhaga-blxog-adikaiii sarvvam=asmai 

samupanetaYyam | tad=gnamasya grSmam sa-mamdira- 

13 prakaram sa-nirggama-praYe^am sa-sax^vaneksliu-karppasa-knuma-sen 6 -ami^*madlia^ 

adi-bbfiruliam sa-vana-khani-nidhaBam sa- 

14 lob.-ady-akarain= : aparair=api sim-antarggatair=Yvasublii]i saliitam sa*balay-abliyaBtar- 

adayani bhumjanasya Ba kSB=api badha kary[a] 

15 atra cha raja-raja-purusli-adibliih, sYam svam=abliaYyarii pari"harttaYyam^idaB=ciL= 

asmad-daBam=aBaclicTilidyamaBaliaryan==cli=gti bhavibkir^api bMini- 

16 palaih palaBlyam || SariikliaiB bhadr-asaBam 7 elJiatrarii Yar-asva 8 Yara-Yaranah 

bhami-datxasya pupya^i 9 pkalam svarggah. Puramdara |j SYa-liasto=yarii 



II. 

1 [Om] sYasti || Jayaty^aMadayaB^YisYam 11 YigY-esYara-sirO-dliritah j Chandratreya- 
m Ya 
Tatra 



adi-Ylr-a 
Yirbbava-bhasYarS paramabTiattaraka-maharajadMiiija-pammgsYara-gri 

devarpad-aBtt* 

dhyata-paramabhattaraka - maharajadhiraja - paramSYara - srl-Paxamarddi - devarpad- 
antidhyata-paramablia-" 



I Read samviditam. 2 [The syllable u looks almost like /a of $a-jala in the same line. H. K, .] 

* Read Sukra-fiare. 4 Read prasddena. - * Read fravana. 

Read IcusuMTta-fana. Ku*um and san are vernacular corruptions of Satiskrit Jb^uz^a and faun. The 
farmer is a widely grown plant, from the flowers of which a scarlet dye is obtained; the latter is hemp, from which 
Topes are made. The six plants here chosen to represent the vegetable kingdom illustrate different uses to \\hih 
plants are pat. [The construction of m-$arvdn is obscure; read m-tarvv-ekslw. P i\ W. T.] The emra Platen 
read "here sa-parvv m cixan-eJcs"h/ii> $ etc. H* K* S*' 

7 Read bhadr-dsanam. 8 Head chhattr&m and var-dva. * Read pits&jpaW. 

w It appears that a line (at least a part) after this i lost beneath the protecting copper baud. 

II Read mVi?aA, 

2 N 



276 EPIG&APHIA 1HBICA. [VOL. XVI. 



~ XSlafi jar - adhipati -> 
Trailokyavarmnia-devo vijayi 

sa esha durv^shahatara-prataj^ kula*vadhftm~iva 

vasundharan^niralmlliiii paripalayaim-avikala-vivS [ka] - 

-vis^ 



8 n^kutumbl-kayastlia-dfita-Taidya-mahattaraii 

dhayati samajnapayati chAstu vah 

9 tarn yath5pari-likliit5*yam grftmah sa-jala^halah sa-sfcliaYara-jaiigamai 

avachchhinnah s-adha-arddhva bhnta-bhavisliyad-yarttama- 

10 na-nihgefili-adaya-saJritaiL pratishiddli^-chat-a^i-pra^ 

samavase samvat 1261 Vais3dia~vadi 2 Stifcra 3 * 

11 Tire Bliaradvaja-gotraya raiitar-Ba^apala^prapantriya rtiita-Sahanapala-pautraya 

BZakadadalie TuCra^Jsltke^a salia yuddhe myita- 

12 r& f Pftpe-ptttraya rauta-Savanta^nanme mrityuka-yyittau fiasanarii kritTft 

pradatta iti matva bhavadbhiraja-iravana-'yidlieyai 

13 r^bMtya bliagabli5g-&dikaiir garyama&mai samtipaii8tayyarix | tad*enam*asya 

gramaih. sa-mandira-prakaram sa-mrggama-pmygsam sa*sarvyan 3 *kslitL-karppa- 

14 s-adi-blxaruliam aa-Taaia-kliaxd-mdliaiiarii jsa-l5li-ady-afcaramaparair*api sim- 

antarggatair*yyasabliih saMtata sa*bah.y-abliyantar-adayaiii [bhuriijfir] 

15 nasya na kSn*api badhA karyya | atra clia raja-r&ja-purusli-adibMlL 

syam=abliayyarii pari}iartayyamidaS*cli^mad-diiim=^^^ 

16 [naliS]ryan*ch*eti bltavibhirapi bhami-paiaiK [pala]niyam*iti 

Samkham bhadr-asanam 4 chbatram rar-asva 6 yara-varaBait | bhnmi- 

17 [dana]s[ya] pushpS^i phala[m] syarggah Puramdara t [Sya-hastOj^ya^ 5 * 

Trailokyavannma-devasya [majtajja mama |j cklia [| ciika |j 

TBANSLATION. 

I. 

LL 1-2. Om. Hail ! Victorious is the linerfge of the ChandrStreya sovereigns, refulgent 
as tte moon, by reason of its gladdening the uniyerse, and its being lield on the head (i.e. 
respected) by the rulers of the world (just as the moon is held on the head by the Lord of the 
Universe, i.e. the god Siva). 

LL 2-5, In that (family), resplendent with the birth of heroes like JayaSakti, Vijayasakti 
and others, shining with ever-increasing victory over (their) foes, (was born) the illustrious 
king TraHokyavaxmman, victorious, overlord of KSlafijara, great devotee of the supreme 
god (Siva), Supreme Lord, great king of kings, meditating on the feet of the illustrious Para- 
marddi-diva, Supreme Lord, etc*, who meditated on the feet of the illustrious Madanavarmma- 
deva, Supreme Lord, etc. 

LL 5-7. He, here, having overcome all hostile families by his unbearable valour, protecting 
the earth without any disturbance, as if (it were the) young bride of a (noble) family, with, his 
intellect puiified owing to his unobstructed discrimination, informs and instructs the headmen 
and ao forth of the village of XadohS, situated in the territory (mshaya) of 



*<ukviditaik. 2 Bead Sulkra** f [On ta-*artjt?5*i see note 5, p. 275, above. F. W, T] 

. * Bead b%adr-&*anam. * Bend cMattraih var-&/va m 

[The letter ja is not visible on the plate. Perhaps jnaJi as in Plate I has to be read after ra<~ -H. K f S.] 



No. 20.] GARRA PLATES OI 1 THE CHANDELLA TRAILOKYAVARMAN. 277 

LL 7-11. Let it be known to you that this above-mentioned village -with (its) land and water, 
movable and immovable (objects), overhead and underground, circumscribed within Its bon nd- 
aries, wltli it whole produce past, present and future, with access to it prohibited for <-7it*i3 
and otliers, has been graciously granted by us together with a charter (for the same) by M ay 
of maintenance for (the heii-s of one who suffered) death (on the battlefield), issued from four) 
camp at the village of Vadavsda, on Friday, tlie second (day) of the bright half of 
Vaisafclis In the year 1201 to Bstita Samanta of the Bharadvaja gotra, sou of Eaiita Pape $ who 
was killed at Kakadadalia in a fight with the Tnrushkas, grandson of Eaiita Sahanaplla, 
and great-gi^andson of Raiita Jtanapala* 

LL 12-14. Knowing this, you should be intent on obeying (these) instructions, and prefer t 
kirn all liis dues, such as the claim to a portion (of the agricultural produce), etc. So 3 also, no 
one should obstruct him in the enjoyment of this village, %vith its houses and surronr,d:i:g 
walls, with its ingress and egress, with its trees (and plants), such as sugarcane, cotton, iwn?;- f 
hemp, mango, madh&ka, etc., with its forests, quarries and hidden treasures and mines of ircr, 
etc, 3 and other sources of wealth within and without its boundaries. 

LI. 15-16. Here also, the kings and officers of the kings should forego all their respective 
rigiits. Future monarchs should likewise protect this grant of ours, considering that it ong&t 
not to be wrested or seized. " The conch, the throne, the umbrella, the fine horses and ire 
stately elephants (in fact, all the insignia of royalty) are (but) the blossoms of (the merit 
accruing from) the grant of land ; its fruit is (the attainment of) heaven, Puramdara." Thi* 
is the handwriting of the king. 

n, 

Almost identical with the above, except that theF^pelrsons who are called upon to obey the 
instructions in lines 7-8 are: Brahinans and other respectable dignitaries and householder as 
Myasthas, dutas (carriers of messages), physicians, and maJiattaras (headmen), even doira to 
mldas (a low-caste people of Bnndelkhand) and chavdalas.^ The last line (1,) contains t::, 
signature of king TrailOkyavarmma-deva in his own handwriting. 



No. 2L-SOMB MINOR EASHTBAKUTA INSOBIPTIOSa 

Bt LIONEL D. BARRETT, 



and Manuscripts in the British Museum. 

1. KXTWIMELLIHAI,!.! INSCBIPTIOS OF SAKA 818. 

^'n-ndlone 75 22', about 11 miles S.E. from 
52 andta. * 



,,. . , 

The village o KutLimellibalU j m . ^ 

' " 



, 

heet 309 as "Kuni Milihali" and on the f^ m^" or Mehleeh^ee." 

The word K* distinguishes xt .. ^**& ^ teTn ffi eBtion 9 d In the F ^:, 
Whether it IB identical with the village of Da ^^^ s foimd on a ^ne' in front of the !, ,al 
record is a matter for conjecture The - ^ ^ l fc 1Q| in . { 



temple of Hanuman, in Survey No. 4L ^^ ^ lettera varyin m 



^^ 



273 EPIGEAPHIA IKDICA. [ToL. 



in style. The i (in idan**, 1. 16) is of the old style, two curves with two dots beneath, aa 
described by Dr. Fleet above, Yol. XI, p. 7. The I and o are written in both the earlier and 
the later manner. The & is of the old knife-shaped type, but somew-hat broad. 1 The -j, b, and 
y approach the later types ; the 6 has a large rounded top. In nni of Anwigana (L 12) there is 

a somewhat unusual variety of Fy * The I sometimes has the archaic inward curl, and 

sometimes appears to be without it, in the later fashion. The ft occurs in panclia (L 5) 'and 
pamncUa (L 18). The language is Old Kartarese prose, but not of the most archaic type. 
The word bidisidorn (1. 15) is worth noting ; cf. above, Vol. XI, p. 6, L 27. 

The record opens by giving its date (11. 1-4), and then refers itself to the reign of the 
Mahasamantadhipati Kannara-vallaha (11. 4-6), who seems to be the Bashtrakufca Krishna 
II Akalavars&a. The title Mahasamantadhipati however raises some difficulty, for already 
in the Batgere inscription of A.D. 888, eight years previous to our record (see above, Vol. XIII, 
p, 189), Kannara is given the full regal titles^ ; and it would hence seem that, as he had for 
some years before his accession reigned as Yuva-rSja, or Heir Presumptive, jointly with his 
father,^ and had then borne the title of MahasamantadJupati, he was still locally described as 
such. The alternative inference is that tMs Kannara-vallaha is an otherwise unknown viceroy 
of the same family; but the predicate "reigning over the earth" practically bars this 
possibility. 

The inscription then states that at this time the Bauavasi Twelve-thousand was under tho 
government of Ldkade (1L 6-7). This Lskade is the same as L&kaditya, of the Chellakgtana or 
Sellaketana family, on whom see Dr. Fleet's notes in Ind* AnL, Vol. XXXII, pp. 221-26, and 
Dynast. Kanar. Dtstr., p. 411 and IK 3, Next it mentions Oinkira-Siva-bhatara, of the temple 
of Dindesvara, as administrator of PalaSQr, and, as it would seem, two or three persons as 
county-sheriffs of " Anniga's Hundred of Pamingal * * '(II. 7-12). TMs last-named district 
must be a part of the Panuiigal (HJtngal) Five-hundred, and it would be interesting to know 
who Anniga was from whom it took its name ; possibly he is the Pallava or Nolamba-Pallava 
Anniga of the records (above, VoL IV, p. 289, Y, p. 191, X, pp. 58, 63 B., Dynast* Kanar, 
Distr., p. 420). Finally in 11. 12-15 the inscription mentions two other local officials and a 
person who induced Oiiikara-Siva-bhatara to grant remission to DautavSr or Dautavura. 
This seems to mean that the village was granted some liberty or immunity from payment of 
taxes to PalasUr j perhaps PalasUr was a church-property, administered together with some 
neighbouring villages for the benefit of a local Saiva temple, and by the present act Dautavfir 
became released from this service. 

The date is specified in 11. 1-4 as sSaka 818 current, the cyclic year Banu {sic !) * 
Jyais&tlm su. 13 ; the nakshatra TTttaro. This is altogether irregular, aka 818 current 
corresponded to Rakshasa in all systems ; and in that year the UtTii mentioned was connected, 
according to the S&rya-siddJianta, with. Satiarday, 1O May, A-D. 8&6, ending about 14 h. 
44 tn. after mean sunrise (for Ujjain), and corresponding to the nafahatra Svati (or Yi^akha 
according to Grarga on the Brahma-siddhantay. What naJcshatra our inscription means by 
u Uttare " is obscure* 4 Nor is the difficulty solved by assuming that Saka 818 expired waa 
intended ; for Mr. R. Sewell, who with his usual kindness has investigated the dates in this 
paper, has pointed out to me that in accordance with the urya~&iddh$nta the date, would ba 

1 In this connection I may note that in the Adiir inscription of Saka 826 expired (see Dywa** Kanar. 
;p, 411, n. 3) the Jc is written with a rounded body* 

2 In the Bagnmra grant, a few days earlier, he is still called maM#amantad&ipati. 

3 See Dynast. Kanar. Di&fr., p. 411. 

4 [In Tamil the na&skatra Utiiram correspond** to the Sanskrit Uttara-Phalgum. H, JL S.1 



Ntx 21.] SOME MINOR EASHTBAKUTA IN SCRIP TIONS. 279 

Friday, 28 May, A.D. 8*96, corresponding to the nakshatra Amiradlia l>y all systems, "while 
according to the Brahma-Mdhanta, the nakshatra would be Svati and according to the equal- 
-space system and Garga it would be Chitra. If xm the other hand *we reject' the Saka date as 
wrong and accept " Bami/' i.e. Bhann, as being tlie same as Subtanu (as is sometimes the 
case la Northern Calendars), we must fix the year of our inscription as either 786 or 846 Saka \ 
but in neither case can we obtain a naksfiatra with. Uttara in its name, and hence this 
alternative may be discarded. 

The only place-names mentioned are the Banavssi Twelve-thousand (1. 7), Palasur 
<L 9), "Anniga's Hundred of Panungal" (11. 11-12), and Dautavur or Dautavura 
(11. 14-15). Palasnr is now Halsur, in lat. 14 51' and long, 75 21', nearly a mile S.W. of 
Kui^imellihalli. Of " Amiga's Hundred of Panungal " I have already spoken. Dantavur is 
very possibly the ancient name of Kunimellihalli ; if not, it must have been a village in the 
immediate neighbourhood. 

TEXT. 1 

1 Svasti 3 srl Sa(sa)ka-kal-&tita-sambatsaa!a-sa(sa)tainga- 

2 l^entu-nuipa padmentaneya Ba(bha)nuv*emba Csamba*]tsaram prava- 

3 rttise Jeshta-masamum Sukla-pakshamurix tray(5da- 

4 si(si)yum Uttare-nakshatramuih pravarfctisutt-ire [i*] sva^ 

5 sti sainadhigata-pancha-maha -sabda- mahasamanta- 

dhipati srimat-Kannara-vallalia[m] prithuvi 8 -ra]yaih-geye [(*] LO- 

7 kade Banavasi-panmrclicliasiramunian.=a]e [[*] aneka-gu^a- 

8 gan-alarhkrita-sattya-sauch 4 -achaiu-sila*-sampannar==appa 

9 grimat-Dindesvarada 6nikara-Siva-1bliatrar 5 Palas1iranalu- 

I tt-ire [| *] svasty=an5ka-gup.a-gari- ajariikrita-satya-sauch-achara-sl (gi) la- 

II saiiipannan=app=Aldiyam 6 Govam* inmim Kalpata[m] grImat-Pa[nnin] 

12 gall-=Aniiigana nurakke nal-gamumndu-geye Maravayyam 

13 perggadetanam-geye Ktanugulara Ayich.a-GavurL<ia- 

14 n~OT-gavundu-geye atana maganAsaganna[m]| DautavtL- 

15 ra 7 bidisidoih 6mkara-Siva-bhatarar=bittar=Idam kadomge Asva(4va)~ 

16 medhada phalam idanalidomge B&ranasiyosi- 

17 yo 8 sasira kavileyuma[m] sasirbar-parvvaruma[m] 

18 konda paihncha-mahapatakan=akkum 9 

TBAlffSLATIOJSr. 

(Lines 1-4.) Hail 1 fortune ! while the cyclic year BMnu, the eight-hundred and 
eighteenth (year) of the centuries of years elapsed since the time of the Saka king, %vaw 

in progress, while the month Jyaishtha, the bright fortnight, the thirteenth (lunar day"), and 
the constellation Uttara were in progress : 



From the ink-impression, 

This word is preceded by an ornament of tlie fanfcha type surrounded by petals. 



4 It is not quite clear whether the stone has f or $> 

* It is not quite certain whether we should read ~l&atarar or 

s These names seem strange. The syllable yam 1ms been omitted and added in smaller script below the lino 
cross after the di indicating its proper place. Should we read Alddtya ? 

* Should we read -i>ra?h or -vuramam ? See lupwever above, Vol. XI, p, 3n. 3. 
8 Head ItaranasiyoL 

This word is followed by an ornament similar to that at the beginning of 1. 1. 



280 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [V0L...XVL 



(Lines 4,15.) Hail ! while the MohGaSmantSdhipati possessing the five great (musical) 
s, Kannara-vallatia, was reigning over the earth : while^ L5.kada was governing the 
BanavSfli TweWe-thoufland s while Pmdesvara<ia OmfeaFa-Sia-bb^S^a> adorned with a 
series of many virtues and practising trothf illness ad pure conduct, was governing Palastir : 
while Aladiya 0ova (?) and likewise Kalpata were holding the county-shrievalty over 
Amiga's Hundred of Pfiwng*! : while Maruxgiilara, Ayicha avur4a was holding the 
town-shrievalty : his son Asaganna obtained the remission (from taxation ?) of Dautavnra ; 
Oiiikro-$iva-bhatsra granted the remission, 

(Lines 15-18 : a Kanarese prose formula of the usual type.) 

2. KYASANUB INSCRIPTIONS OP SAKA 888, etc, 

The village of Kyasanur ("Kyasnur" on the Bombay Survey sheet 310, "Kasnoor" on the 
Indian Atlas sheet 42) lies in the Hangal t&luka of Dharwar District, in 14 39 1 ; lat, and 75 7|' 
Ion**. Its ancient name, as is ghowii in the inscription C. below, L 6, was Kesalur, whence is 
derived the modem name, by change of S to y& (a very common modification in vulgar 
Kanarese) and of Z to n. The epigraphs here published were found in different parts of the 
village ; but with the exception of A., which is known to have been found in a row of stones in 
a road to the north of it, their exact location is not on record, as far as I am aware. An 
incorrect and imperfect transcript of A. is given in the Elliot Collection, Vol. II, foL 335a of 
the Royal Asiatic Society's copy. 



This epigraph is on a rectangular stone surmounted by sculptures which are described by 
Elliot's copyist as representing respectively the Sun, Kvara (Siva), Halayudha (sie !), and the 
Moon. The inscribed area is about 1 ft. 10| in. high and 1 ft. 8 in. -broad. The character is 
Kanarese, somewhat in?egular and cramped in style, with letters varying in height from f in. tp 
1 in. The vowels e and g are written in. bot\ th$ earlier and the later manner. The b and j 
are of the later types ; but the I is sonxawhat archaic, except in JE?$3t;oZaZ, L 6, and agal, 1. 13, 
where it is almost modern. We find the guttural nasal in 11. 3, 7, 10, and the palatal naaal in 
L 4 (twice). The cursive m appears in the last syllable of Angiravaramum, 1. 10, and Gamunji- 
ganol, L 12 ; and there is an interesting form of y, in two lobes, in -entaneya, 1. 8, and Pora- 
vayyan, 1. 11. The language is O14 Kfeiiarefl6 with the exception of the formal Sanskrit 
verse at the end ; as in the rest of this series, it belongs to the second period of the archaic 
dialect. We may note the form mattal for the commoner mattar (see above, Vol. XIII, p. 168) 
and Udisi (see above, Vol. XI, p. 6, 1. 17).- 

The r$oo:r4 opens by referring itself in 11. 1-3 to the reign of king Kanxiara (the Rashtra- 
knta Krislmfr IH A^ftUvayslja, on whom see Dynast. Kanar, Distr., pp. 418 ff.), and then 
states that while th$ tfaAff$naitf a aU~Vit$* O f the Ckellaketana lineage was governing the 
Banavasi province (11. 3-4) and 0-Smun.diga was serving as nyl-gamundVf or sheriff of the 
Edevolal nZdu, on a given date, the revenue of a field was transferred by Gamundiga, at the 
request of Poravayya, to a special account for the upkeep of a local taijk. The history of the 
Chellaketana or Sellaketana family, of which Kali^Vitta ia the latest repi^sentative on record, 
has been examined in Ind. Ant., Vol. XXXII, pp. 221 ff ., by Dr. Fleet, who has noticed this 
inscription and the next on p. 226. "We have found an earlier representative of the same 
family in the Kunimellihalli inscription above. 

The date of the donation is given in U, 740 as 8afc& BQ8 current, ViSvSvasn, the bright 
f ortnight, Thursday, the nak*hatm Ufctara 1 ; hat with peculiar negligence the draftsman o* the 



1 See my retujarfcn ou * Utt&re * m tltf 



SOME MINOR BASHTRAKtTTA INSCRIPTIONS- 281 

mason has oinitted the mouth, and lunar day. aka 868 current coincided with VisY&vasu f 
tie Southern Cycle in A.B. 945-6. 

The place-names mentioned are the Banavasi n&fa (1. 5) and the EdaTOlal nadu (1. 6). 
tJie county iac lading Kyasanftr, was a seventy district, and was usually reckoned as 
f oxzurog part of the Banayisi province. 

TEXT. 1 

[Metre : v. 1, Anu*htubTiJ\ 

I Svasti Srl-Pii(pyi)th^vl-vallabha mah&raj&dhir[S.*]ja para[me*] 
"2 sva(fva)raih paramabhattarakaih . Srlmat Kannara-devam pri- 

3 " tuv! 3 -r[a*]jyamn s -geyye [(*] Svasti samadhigata 4 -pa- 

4 iacha- maha-sa (a)lxla-mahas [ft*] mantan=Cliellaketana~ 

5 vam-6dbhavam Kali-Vittam BanavasI 5 -nad-ale [|*] Gom(ga)- 

6 mundigaii=Edevolal-na]k0 nal-gamundu-geyye 

7 Sa(sa)ka-nripa-"kal-atlta-samvatsara 6 -sa(sa)taiiga- 

8 l*entu-ntir- aruvatt-entaney a Vis va(sva) vasuv 

9 l>a samvatsaram pravarttise su(su)kla-paksham A* 

10 ngiravaramuni=IJttare*nakshatradaihndu Sega- 

11 ra PoraTayyan-att*ara-gaddad(?)-o}ag*ir-matta- 

12 l*keyyam Q-Smundigano|.*bidisi kereg^a- 

13 gal*=e[m]dom 7 [||*] Sva-datt[a*]m para-datt[a*]m ba(va) y3 har3tu(ta) vasum- 

14 d3iar[aih*3 []*] ehashtir*wa[rfiha*]-sahasra(Bra)ni vishtaya 8 ja- 

15 yatS krimi* [,*] 

TKANSLATION. 

(Lines 1-13,) Hail ! while the darling of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, 
supreme Master, kB|g Kannara, was reigning over the earth: Hail ! while the Mahas&manta 
poseefising the five great (musical) sounds, scion of the Chellaketana lineage, Kali- Vitta, was 
governing the province of BanaVfisi : while Ofimu^diga was holding the county-shrievalty 
over the county of Edevojal : when tlie cyclic year Visvavasu, the eight^lnindred and 
atrty-elghtli (year) of tlie centuries of years elapsed siace the time of the Saka king, was 
in progress, in the bright fortnight, on Thursday, under the constellation Uttara, Segara 
3?oravayya obtained fronj GSmundiga the remission of a field of two wiattal within the ara- 
gadda (?) there, and aaid that it should be for the tank. 

{Verse 1 : a common Sanskrit formula-) 

B. 

Of this epigraph lines 1-9 are engraved on a parabola-shaped block about 11 in. broad and 
17f in* high; the remainder is on the base on which this block stands, and which is about 1 ft* 
9 in. broad and 6 J in. high. The* upper block is surrounded by a border with bead ornament 
except at the bottom, and is slightly damaged .on the proper left side. The character is 
Kanarese, at first fair, but gradually degenerating, until it becomes in 11. 10-13 a clumsy 



1 From the ink-impression. f 

* A small letter ifl written in front of the & wMeh seems to be taeant for a final Wh 

* Tlie syllable sa was originally Uvtitten t A and tlten eottected to *a. 

* JEUad JBdto*t?a*iX Th6 a bas been omitted and added below tbe line. 

* I give this reading- trith aoma diffidence* There is a ya written below the , trhicli seems to have been 
-omitted from tbe beginning of the line, 

* Beaa vitliMSJ*. 



282 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [\TOL. XVI. 

straggling cursive. In 11. 1-9 the height of the letters is between | in. and 1 in., but in 
1L 10-13 it varies from f in. to 1 in., the smallest size being that of a cursive m which appears 
thrice in L 13 (Slulkadara, mangala, ma&5), 1 

The vowel I is written in both ancient and later style, the g in the later, and the general 
type of the letters is that of the ti^ansitional period. We find the guttural nasal in 11. 11 and 13 r 
tlie palatal nasal in 1. 5 and apparently in 1. 12. The language is Old Kanarese. Pora- 
vayyamna (read Poravayyana) in 1. 12 seems to be a genitive used for nominative (c'f. J.R.A.8., 
1918, p. 105). 

The record refers itself in 1L 1-9 to the reign of Kannara (Krishna III) and tbe adminis- 
tration of Kali-Vitta and Gamundiga in almost the same words as inscription A v and then in 
11. 10-13 announces a charity or public service performed in the same year, viz. Saka 868 
VisvSvasn, corresponding to A,D. 945-0. 

The places mentioned are the BanavSsi na$u (1. 7), Edevojal (1. 8), and a village with a 
doubtful name (L 12). 

TEXT. 3 

1 [Sva]st[i] Sri-Pri(pri)thwvI-vallahha ma- 

2 [harajjadhirajam paramesva(va)ra 

3 [para]mabhatt[a*]rakam sriinat Kannara- 

4 [devam] p[r]i(pri)tli^vi-ra]yam.geyye [*] Svasti 

5 [samadhi] gata-pancha-maha-sabda* 

6 [maha] s [a*] manta Chellaketa 3 - vams (s) -Odbhava 

7 [Kali-Vi]ttam Banavasi*n5d=alutt-ire [(*] 

8 [Gamulndigan^EdevoJal-nllke nal-ga- 

9 [mundu-ge]yye 4 [j*] Svasti 

10 Sa(sa)ka-nripa-kal-atitavartthamana - sambatsara - sata[m3gal^e[m]ttum- nnCnu)^ 

aruvatt-enta- " 

11 neya Visva(svS)vasu^sa]mba[t3sara[m3 pravarttise Segara^ 5KaravayyftgaD* ?] 

gunxmaka(?) 



12 peSchiihdo* [|*j rI-Poravayam(yya)na sm(rI)^IeP-Bi!i g i]igeya mahajaiiake 

ka[dur']- 

13 du [|*] Mul[ka]dara VaddayyaA^ m[a^]didom [|] mangala maha-firi 



Hail ! while the darling of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor; supreme Lord, supreme 
Master, king Kannara, was reigning over the earth : Hail ! while the Mahasamanta possessing 
the five great (musical) sounds, scim of the CheUaketa" lineage, Kali-Vitta, was governing 
the province of Banavasi :~while Qamundiga was holding the county-shrievalty over tbe 
county of Edevolal : while the cyclic year Visvavasu,theeight.hundr0d and sixty-eighth 
(year) of the centuries of ciaxrent years elapsed since the time of the aka king, was in 

J Of. the facsimile of laser. D,, 1, 15. 2 From tte ink . impresfiio ^ 

. Probably to be corrected to ChellaJcetana-, as in A. 

* Under this word are two short lines of very small characters, mostly illegible. 

* Head 



* There is a cut across the base of the #, apparently sigmf ying nothing. 

[The reading seems to be &wravayyangal=ammm<*lha&am ?] jprfl**"S*~H. K. S.] 

* Apparently meant for pancbidom ; but the second syllable is not quite clear to me 

J Jhe syllable $ is rather doubtful, being written with a smaller letter rather high 
omitted and afterwards squeezed in. Possibly we should correct /r*0 to M m at. 
appears to me to be the probable reading. H K S] 
[Perhaps C^/^ya^^H. K. 8.] ' ' n Perhaps to fce ^^ fc C lella*itn*. 



Kyasanur Inscription of Kali -Vita, Saka 868. 




SCALE -31 



THOMAS 



No. 21.] SOME MINOR RASHTRAKUTA INSCRIPTIONS. 2?3 

progress : Segara Karavayya distributed (?) . . . . Poravayya shall preserve (it) 
for the burgesses of ... Biligilige Mujkadara Vaddayya made (this monument). 
Happiness ! great fortune ! 



C. 



This fragment is contained on a stone of which the inscribed area is about 1 ft. 10 hi. 
high and 1 ft. 7 in. wide. The character is a fine upright Ranarese with letters varying 
in height from in. to 1^ in., and with a tendency to make the I very large. The vowels I and 
g are usually written in the older fashion; but the later style is used in -Z=e-, 1. 8, -r=o-, 1. 7, 
-DO- 1. 8, and -do-, 1. 11. The palatal nasal occurs in pancha-, 1. 4. The I is rather archaic 
in type,' but the j and 6 are of a rather later style, and the general character is that of the 
transitional period. The language is Old Kanarese. The words naUga (I 7) and mattal, for 
the commoner mattar (11. 10, 11 : of. above, A. text line 11 1), are of sortie lexical interest. 

The purport of the inscription, so far as it is preserved, is to record the grant of some laud 
for the maintenance of a temple. It prefaces this by referring itself to the reign of Kandara. 
V allatoha, ie. Kannara or Krishna m (11. 1-3), while the MahaaZmantadUpati Sankaraganda 
was governing BanavSsi (11/4-6) and Gamundiga was county-sheriff of Edevolal (11. 6-9). 

The places mentioned are the Banavasi nadu (1. 6), the Edevolal Seventy (1. 8). the 
Fulil-kere, a local tank (1. 9), and the Buda-kanda, some local field or the like (1 11). 

TEXT. 1 

1 [PSvasti] SrI-Prituma 2 -vallabha inahar[a]jadhi- 

2 [raja pa]ramesva(sVa)ra paramabhattarakam srlmat 

3 [Kalndara-vallabliam pritiivi 3 -rajyam-geyye [|*]. 

4 Svasti samadi(dhi)gata-pancha-maha-sabda-ma- 

5 h[a*]s[a*]mantadi(dhi)pati rlmat-Sa(sa)mkaragandam 

6 Banavasi-nad-altitt-ire [|*] Svasti shadgunna*-sam - 

7 dhu(p)rnna naliga,r=oj-ganda rimat-G[a*]nmndiga- 

8 n-Edevoial-eipattakkaih 5 nal-ganiundu-gey[yu]- 

9 tt-ildu Pulil-kereya kejage vedhya c -dana- 

10 da keyy-ir-mmattal=a kereya kelage bSradu na- 
il l-mattal=Buda-kan4adol=nivedhya(dya)da key=or-matta- 

TEANSLATION. 

FHail '1 ^hile the darling of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor supreme Lord .npiwe 



Buda-kanda 8 



From the itik-impression 




Namely lordship, knowledge, glory, fortune, freedom 
qTi,lit5eti ot BtatesmansHp. 

On kaAa fcee above, Lnltliin?Bbwar mscr, C ., f. o*. * 



284 EPI&BAEEIA INDICA. [Voi, XVI. 



>. 

This record is on a stone with inscribed area 2 ft. 6 in. high and 1 ft, 7|- in. broad. 
The character is a fine upright Kanareaa hand, with leiters varying from | in* to 1 in. in 
height. The style is somewhat archaic, with features of the transitional period- The I is 
written in both the earlier and the later fashion, the o only in the later. An i of rather archaic 
type is used in 1. 13. A cursive m of the peculiar kind mentioned above appears twice 
in L 15 ; and the y is composed of two parts, not, as is usual, of three. The language is 
Old Kanaresej except for the formal Sanskrit verse in 1L 11-13. Some words are lexically 
interesting, as mattal for mattar, 1L 6-7 (of. above, remarks under A. and C.), damma, 11. 
7-8, itcfigatj L 7, (?) gambonnu, L 8, vasa, L 9. 

The record refers itself in 11. 1-3 to the reign of HityaYarsha-AmogliavarslM, with the 
usual epithets of royalty. This is peculiar, for these two birudas are not elsewhere borne by a 
single king. As the inscription seems to be perfectly genuine, we must conclude either that the 
draftsman made the mistake of combining the birudas of two different kings, which seems rather 
improbable, or that they were actually borne together by some sovereign. Who this sovereign 
could have been is a matter of conjectm*e ; but, as our epigraph mentions as Bis viceroy 
Sanlcaraganda, whom we have already met in inscription 0., and as nal-gamunda, Q-amundiga, 
who figures in A*~C,, it seems at any rate possible that Nityavarsha-AmOghavarsha 
is the same as Wityavaxsha-Kliottiga, the son of Amdghavarsha-Vaddiga and the younger 
brother and successor of Krishna III (Kannara) Akalavarsha, so that the date of the inscription, 
would be about A.D. 970. 

After mention of the reigning king the record states that at the time the Banavasi 
province was under the governorship of Jankaraga?uja s while (Hmu^diga was nal-gamunfa 
o Edavojal (11. 4*6), and then sets forth a standing order in connection with the levy of the 
king's taxes on land and houses in Kesalur and some cognate matters. 

The places mentioned are the Banavasi nadu (L *4), the Edevoja* Seventy. (1, 5), and 
Kesalur, i.e. the modern Kyaaanflr (L 6)* 

TEXT. 1 

[Metre : v. 1, AnushtubTi.^ 
Svasti HUthya(tya)va[r*]slia Sri-Prii('pri)thwvi-vallabha 

Vi * jT 




2 mah[a*]r[a*]j[a*]dhiraja paramesva(sva)ra paramabatharakam 8 

3 gri-Amogliavarislia 3 priituvi*-rajya[m*] geyy[e |*] 

4 Sa(sa)mt:aragandaCm*] BanaT[a*]si-nad-a(a)lutt-ire [|*] 

5 3rf-<*5nmndigam Ede(d0)volal-elpat[t*]akke nal~g[a*> . 

6 vundu-geyy[e 1*] Kesaiargg[e*J kothta(tta) sti(sthi)ti matta- 

7 Ige n[a*]lku damma ^digalge maru mani(ne)- 

8 ge era^u mane-damma ondu gam-bonnu mttva- 

9 tta-eradu arasar4rappo(yvo)de*] ondu vasada 

10 ku(ka)lan-*ikkuge allindatta nal-g[a*]vundar*:ikkuvu- 

11 dn \\ Sva*datt[a*]m para-dattadvam 5 va y6 harati 6 na* 

12 diipa 7 [I*] shashti[r*]*varisha-sahasrani 8 vishteya 9 

13 jayyate 10 fcrimih ]| [1*] Idaih kada(da)va[m*]ge anva- 



Erom the ink-impression. * Read ~ 

Bead -AmogbcwarsKam* * Bead 

Bead -tattem. Eead kar&a. 

Bead vasundhardn. Bead -t^ar^a 

Bead vishthdydib. i Bead j&yaii 



Kyasanur Inscription of Nityavarsha Amog-havarsha. 




12 



or* ALE 29 



WHITTINGHAM & GRiGGS, PHOTO-LJTH 



SI.} SOME MINOR RASHTKAKUTA. INSCRIPTIONS. 285 



14 mSdadai pale(la)m-aku(kku) alido[m*] pamcheha-yaha- 

15 patakan a ~aka(kk:u) Ma[m]gada(la) mah[a*]-giri s 

TBANSLATION. 

(Lines 1-11.) Hail ! while Nityavarsha, darling of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor 
supreme Lord, supreme Master, Amdgnavarsha, was reigning over the earth: while 
Saftfcaraganda was governing the province of BanavSsi : while Gamundiga was' holding 
the county-shrievalty over the Edevojal Seventy : an arrangement was laid down for Kesalur 
Cat fallows') : for a mattal (the tax is to be) four dam-ma,* for an Gdigal three, for a house 
two ; the damma on houses (is to be) one ... gold ; when the thirty-two Crown-officials' 
koW the survey, they shall provide rice for one year ; the cotuaty-sheriffis there shall provide 
(%ty thence. 

("Verse 1 : a common Sanskrit verse- formula.) 

(Lines 13-15 : a Kauarese prose formula.) 

[NOTE. udigalge may have to be corrected into tidigalge (sligaltJte ?) in the sense " for 
(Mirvices " ; gam may be taken with the word ondu which precedes it and explained as a conjunc- 
tion corresponding to kkam. Evidently 10 dammas equalled 32 pon. In the phrase o>ndu 
vaaada k&lan'-ikktige I would insert di before vasada and translate : " the king, whoever it may 
1>e, should provide rice for one day." In the collection of taxes in former times, the bill collec- 
tor used to be fed at the expense of the debtor ; of. e.g. my remarks on remission of wttachchu, 
A. R. on Epigraphy (Madras) for 1911, page 77. H. K. S.] 

E. 

This small fragment occupies an area of about 8| in. in height and 1 ft. 5| in. in width. 
The .character is a fair Kanarese of cursive sloped type, with letters varying from | in. to f in. 
The $ is written in both the earlier and the later style, the 5 only in the later. The guttural 
nasal occurs in 1. 5, the palatal nasal in 1. 1. The ordinary cursive form of m, is used in 
*[a."]mantanadhipa>ti (ic !), 1. 1, frimat, 1.2, -chasiraman-, 1.3, and -3[3*]mrf, 1. 5. The 
language is Old Kanarese. The $ is wrongly written for r in pan-nil-, 11. 2-3. 

AM to matter, the fragment is part of the official preamble of some document, and reports 
that at a certain date the Banavasi Twelve-thousand was under the government of the Mah&- 
tamantadhipati Kannayya, while the county-sheriff of the Edevojal Seventy was Polega and 
the town-sheriff Singa. On epigraphic grounds it may be assigned to a date a few years later 
than the preceding record. 

TEXT. 6 

1 panchft-mahasa(Sa)bda-mah,s[a]mantana- 

2 dhipati 7 firimat Kannayya[m] BanavSsi-pa- 

3 nni^clia(roh.oh.h5)siramanale (^ srimat Ede- 

4> voMl-SllpattakkCe] Polegani n[a*]|-g[a*]mundu- 
5 geyje Bingan-ur-ggamundu-geyye 

3. DBVIHOSTTB I1TSCBIPTION OP SAKA 884. 

USvihosur, literally "New Town of the Goddess" (probably becau^ of some temple of 
"Irving to distinguish it from other towns called Hosur ) is a vm 
DhUrDistrfct, the Bomba, ^Survey ^j- ft 



286 EPIGRAPHIA IKDICA. [VOL. XVL 

derived %>$ir, the second "element of tlte modern name. Tlie stone is rounded at the upper 
corners, and in a band on the top are sculptures of the sun (proper right) and moon (left). 
Below this is an inscribed area about 2 ft, 3| in- high and 17 in. broad. It is somewhat 
damaged on the proper right side, from the top downwards to 1. 5. The character is a bold 
Ranarese hand of the period, somewhat affectedly angular in II. 1-5 ; the letters vary in height 
from f in. to If in., and belong to the -transitional type. The vowels land 8 are written 
in the later manner, except in trayodasi (1. 7), Q jana"kJce (L 9), and lelva (1. 10). The language 
is Old Kanarese, but not of the more archaic type. 

The record opens by referring itself in 11. 1-4 to the reign of Akalavarsha Kannara-deva 
(the Bashtrakuta Krishna HI, on whom see Dynast, Kanar. Distr., pp. 418-422), while his 
subordinate Gtarvindara was, governing the Banavasi nadu 1 (11. 4-5). It then states that on a 
given date in Saka 884 an impost of 55 g&dydnas was required of the Mahajanas of Posavfir, 
from the interest of which certain Brahmans were to be fed at the samkranti in the house 
of Binaga, 2 son of Malakka (11. 6-13) ; and it concludes with a pious prayer that religion 
may increase for all time (11. 13-14). 

The date is specified on 11. 6-9 as J3aka 884, BundubM; Pausha su. 13, Sunday; the 
uttarayana'Samkrftnti, .There is a slight irregularity here. The Saka year intended is the 
current year, corresponding to Dundubhi of the Northern. Cycle ; the tifhi Pausha 6n. 13 was 
connected in that year with Sunday, 22 December, A.D. 981, ending 18 h. 8 m. after mean 
sunrise -(for TJjjain), The uttar&yana-samkranti occurred on the following Monday, 23 
December, at 6 h, 25 m. after mean sunrise. Thus the titU ended at 0.8 A.M. and the 
samkranti occurred at 12.25 A.M. on the same day, Monday. These calculations are by true 
titJris ; but if we reckon with mean tithis and months the result is rather different, for thus su. 

15 corresponds to Monday, 23 December (being current during 20 h, 36 m. of the preceding 
Sunday, and ending 3 h. 24 m, after mean sunrise on the Monday), while the samktanti, occurred 

16 h. 54 m. 22 s. after moan sunrise on the Monday. 3 It is thus impossible to say whether the 
date in the inscription was calculated by true or by mean tithis. 

The only place-names mentioned are the Banavasi nadu (1. 5) and PSaavur, i.e. 
DSYlhoattr (L 9). 

TEXT. 4 

1 [Svasfy*A]kalavarslia-deYa Sri-Pritkvi-valla- 

2 [bha majharajadhiraja parame- 

3 s[va](sva)ram [paTn*]mabhattarakam Kannara-dva[m*] r&- 

4 [37 ari O"-g e yye tat-pada-padm-5pajl- 

5 [vi] Garvvindaraih Banavasi-nadan=ale 

6 Sa(sa)ka 5 -yarsha 884 DnndubM-saihvatsa- 

7 r-antarggata-Paualia-sii(su)ddha-tray6da8i(si) A- 

8 ditya-vicram^iittarayana-saih'fcranti- 

9 yandu Posavura mahajanakfc=a- 

10 yvatt-aydu gadyana ponna b6lva karam] 

11 Malakkana magam Binagaihge sam- 

1 2 ki*3itiyol*maneyoloxTYarbrahinana* 

13 r*=unda phalam chamdr-adityarullina[m-* j 
^ dharmmam^abhiyyiddhige sahrudu niamgala 



samo Garvindara appears in a record of Saka 890 (Prabhava) M ruling a part of the 
Twelve-thousand under Khottiga (Epigr. Carn. 9 Vol. VIII, Six 531), 

11 This name seern to be the same as Bena^ derived from the Sanskrit Ftnoyafo. 

4 I am indebted for these results of mean calculation to Mr. Sewell. 

4 From the ink-Impression. 

* Only the second half of the t h visible, but it is enough to shew th*t the engraver cat an t, not a /. 




14- 



WHITTtNGHAW & GRIQOS, PHOTO-LITH. 



PADMA1TERI GBAKT OF VENKATA I s SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 287 



No. 22. PADMANEBI GRANT OF YENKATA I: SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 
Br V. NATESA AITAR, BJL, M.R.A.S, PESBAWAB. 

Tlie subjoined grant is . published with the aid of an excellent inked estampage, kindly 
lied to me by Rao Sahib H. Krishna Sastri, Government Epigraphlst for India. It is noted 
as ISfo, 14 o Appendix A in the Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1905-6. 

The copper-plates on which the grant is incised are seven in number, as can be judged 
from the Telugu. numerals at the right-hand corner, and they are bored at the top for the 
insertion of a ring and seal, which, unfortunately, are no longer to be found. 1 Of these plates the 
first and the last are carved only on the inner side, and the remaining fire on botb sides. Tfat* 
**pace covered by tbe writing measures 7* x 7| v on each plate, while the size of the individual 
letters varies from T \ r/ to J". The alphabet is Nandinagarf, with the exception of the * sign- 
nia.rru.al * at the end, which is in the Kannada- Telugu script* 

Among the orthogi-aphical peculiarities and errors which occur in the grant may be men- 
tioned (1) the doubling of consonants when preceded by r, as in turyy& (1. 7) 5 tartttytk 
(1. 1O), sauryyena (1.21), durgga (L 55), *r=ddadsti, (L 149) ; (2) the doubling of d when 
preceded by an anusvara or followed by y^ as in rumddhatt (L 29), maddliye (1. 46), 
cvi*hddkava (1. 70), $jiddfiya (1. 117) ; (3) tbe use of anusvzra instead of nasal, as hi 
**y<*Jp< l tfotS (L 46), V~emgalamba (L 54), kothdav^u (L 56), vasayam (L 100), Iramhamdam 
(L 136), v~emdrcin (L 269) ; (4) the omission of visarga before conjunct sibilants, as in 
^kcfrnin? sva (L 15), raja kshitau (L 38), d-anvja m (L 62), dhe sn (L 122), prayatai SHI* 
( L 164) ; (5) the use of dental n for cerebral n as in rarnita (L 88), Varna (L 228) ; (6) the 
n.**e of yi for i &ud ye for e and rice versa as in ytta (L 33), yiti (L 88), -ifffte (L 94) ; and 
(7} lion-adherence to Sandhi rules, as in m=*abhut=nla (L 2), srmiat-cha (L 170), y-dtb!wta** 
Ci- 191). 

The inscription consists of 159 Sanskrit verses and opens with an invocation to the 
jod Sri Venkatgsa in prose. The peculiar Sanskiit words and the royal lirudas used in thi* 
epigraph are the same as in the other published records of this king and of his successors Veukata 
II axid Ranga Vl/ 3 

The genealogy of tbe king (vv. 3-28), both mythological and historical, agrees precisely 
with that given in the inscriptions already referred to, while the description of his 
exploits (vv. 29-45) adds nothing to what is contained in the Yilapaka grant. 5 



Verses 46-47 give the date of the grant, which was the twelfth tithi of tbe bright fort- 
night of the month of Sravaua in the Saka year reckoned by the sky, the eyes, the arrows an J 
tlxe moon (i.e. 1520), the cyclic year being Vilambin. This date corresponds with A.D. !*& 

Tbe grant was madein the presence of the god Veniatesa, evidently on tie Tiranala hill 
amd at the request of Kyishna, the Nayaka king of Madhux^a. The tatter", pedigree, as shown m 



-These plates were originally in the Collector's office, Tmnevolly, and ^1 t^eir ring a*d ^1 intaefe at th, 
time wben they were examined by Mr- Sewell (IM* of An*******. VoL II, p. 17, ^ a 111} ; 

. Vide J5p. rA, VoL IV, pp. 269 & , , VoL III, pp. 236 . s IiA Ant, VoL XFI1, PP. 125 ft ; ... 
pp. 153 ff. j and J5p. Inrf., VoL XI, pp. 326 ff. 

* JBp. Inc?., VoL IV, pp. 269 flf. 



288 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. Voi-. XVI 



the present record (w. 58-78), tallies exactly with what Mr. Sewell has given, 1 tra* * 
included in the Kflniyflr Plates of Venkata II. 2 This pedigree can be shown as follows : - 



liaga of the KaSyapa race 
Visvanatha 

Krishna (or Kunzara Krishnapa Nayaka) 
w. Laishmyambika 

Vira (or Periya Vitapa Uayaka) 
w Tirumalambilia 

Krishna (or Knmara Krishnapa alias Lingaya) 

As to the martial exploits and public eliarities of these Nayaka kings, the record ^aya that, 
Vwanatha, ^ of Naga, defeated the Enmtfi king and the great Pa ft dTa Va,^,^a ^d 



f Mad ^(v- 59) /that ^^xxson 

Mj-aka constructed a sculptured mandapa in frost of the shrine of S*l^<Sa, the 
deit, of Madura gave the goddess MfciUhi a golden ** & 

performed the ceremonies and made the gifts 7^-an-a, 



r-^ Ma ^y VJ . ^au^i-a, gaye tne gociaess Jttinaksni a golden kavacha set witlt e-"eis 
instituted ^wjas, performed the ceremonies and made the gifts hem-asm temn m z i ' 

^ni-tnla-p^ha, etc. (yy. 63-64) , that Virapa Nayaka's son Krishna ^ix+i k "> Mk - 
of Eangapati (., the god of Srlranga,) by gifts of Celled \1" ! Ik ^1, ^<f ^'h 

ZTr; ^" d ^^^W^ by th e endow m entof vSages ^ de t 

aad orchards, bv the ^AlA]i^4;AT. ^ ^^ ^^- _i_ _.. .11.,-. ^nidtg-es, gfa/jraeiig 



, , -, n wasan, y te endownt of v 

and orchards, by tbe celebration of car-festivals and bv t J *HP e ^ owm ^t of villages, 





in his temple (, 69) ; and that he also founded 

in **, and bestowed Ullages on them in perpeLity ' f 



^^^^ 

p ac hcSur 5 f^^^^^^^^ tHe M~*tfy., i, 

it was irrigated brthePachchlrru rim ( ^' Pftohd ^ erideatiy so called I^e au e 

Marugal and the BMnnasnaanTIT Ja f 'K T "^ to the east of ^ofct^fcu^i- 







exactly to the east- of IP^Kl 



^omnnerL 



No. 22.] PADMANEBI GRANT OF 



I : SAKA-S1MVAT 1520. 



289 



The village was divided by king Krishna i n tp 83 sliares and bestowed on a number of 
Brahmans of different gdtras and sutras (v. 81). The following is the list of the donees and 
their shares : 

List of Donees. 



Line 
of 

tftXt. 1 


Donee's name. 


Lineage. 


Sakha. 


i 

Gotra. 


Siitnu, 


Number 
of 
shares. 


169 


Saihbbn (Siva) 


* * : 


*. 








1* 


M 


Madbav% (Yiahan) 


. *** * 


... 


* 


** 


u 


9t 


&abaasta (tutelary deity* 


** **% 


* 


** 


* * 


li 




of the village). 












170 ; 


Akkala-Bha^ta 


Grandson of Akkala-Bbatta 


Babvricba 


Bharadvaja 


... 


5 






and son of Yodya Peru- 






\ 








Bbatta. 






' 




178 


Cirumala-Nambikori^arya 


Son of Madavada Pina- 


,.. 


Kann4inya 


Apastainte 


3 






madhavayarya. 










176 


KontJa-Jdsya 


Son of Timma-Josya 


... 


Do. 


Do. 


6 


177 


Yenkata-Amatya 


Son of Honnaya-Amatya . 


Yajns 


Bharadraja 


} 


5 


178 


Yeiikataya and Suren- 


Sons of Sarvaya 





YiSvamitra , ! 


Agvalayana 


2 




dra. 












180 


Bbuma-Bhatta 


Son of Manamkali Naga- 


Yajus 


Kutsa 


* 


2 






Bhatta. 










181 


Karasam-Bhatta 


Son of Tirumalarya 


Po. 


Yisvamitra 


* * 


1 


182 


Abba-Bbatta . . . ; 


Son of Samkara-Bhaita . 


3>o. 


Saunaka 


* * 


1 


183 


Samkara 


Son of VallanVBhatta . 


Bahvricba 


Katisika 


*.* 


I 


185 


Alagi-Smgari 


Son of Srirama. 


,., 


* 
Srivatsa 


Apastamba 


1 


186 


Tiruvenkatayarya * 


Son of Anantayarya 


Yajns 


JLtreya 


... 


If 


187 


Tirtxmalarya 


Son of Krishnayarya 


Do. 


Kanndinya 


* ** 


1 


189 


Krlsbnaya 


Son of Pertunllarya 


Do* 


Bharadvaja . 


[ 


1 


190 


Tiruvali 


Son of ATbbaya 


... 


Do- 


Bodhayana 


1 


191 


Naraya^a . * 


Son of Tirnvenka^aya 


. 


Bo, 


Do. 


1 


192 


Lakbi.narya 


Son of P^rumalarya 


* 


Do. 


Do. 


f 


194 


Porotti-NaiBar 


Son of Srinivasa 


YajiLS 


Kaundinya . 


**<* 


* 


195 


Suryatxarayana * 


Son of Bbaskara-Bhatta * 


Do, 


Bharadvaja . 


*. 


1 


196 


Abban-Sastriii 


Son of Si stiraya 


Bahvricha 


Srlvatsa 


# 


1 


197 


Padmanabha-Fa^clita 


Son of Devaraya-Pandita 


... 


KaSyapa 


Bodbayana 


1 


199 


Vedappa-PaniJita 


Son of Garttdavabana 


... 


Do. 


Do. 


1 

<& 


200 


Faramasvatni-Taidya 


Son of Sundararaja 





ParaSara 


Do, 


31 
I 










* 


* 




201 


Gaixgayadi Koneri-Bbattf 


i 


* 

^ 







JTL: -^ 



the 



-290 



EPIGEAPEIA INDICA 




List of Donees contd. 



Line 

of 

text. 



Donee 5 



s name. 



203 
204 



207 
208 
210 



213 

214 



215 

217 



218 
219 
220 
222 
224 



Bhaskara 



Mndda-Bhatta 

Yallaih-Bhatfca 

Oba-Bhatta . 

Suri-Bhatta 

Gangadhara 

Narayana 

Seshadri-Bhatta 

Vaidyanatha 

Suri-Bhatta 



Tirumala-Bhatta 
Madhava-Bhatta 

VfranVBhatta 
Krishnaih-Bhatta , 
Papa-Bhatfca 
Venkatadri-Biiatta 
Baaava-Bhatta 



225 Nagl-Bhatta 



226 



228 



230 



233 



KpshnahVBhatta . 
Venkata-Bhatta 

Samkara-Bhatta 

Suryanarayana 

Suryanarayana 

Appaya 

Anantaya 

Vaidyesa-Bhatta . 



Lineage. 



Son of Kaveri-sainadrani 
Sdmaya. 

Son of Kagappa 
Son of Tiinma-Bhatta 
Son of Chikkaihmi-Bhatta 
Son of Basava-Adhvaiin . 
Son of 



-- of Hn ggi Tallam-. 
Bhatta. 

on of Kondu-Bhatta 
Son of Lakshminatha 
Son of Naga-Bhatfca 

Son of Viraya 

Son of Main -Bhatta 

Son of Gangadhara 
Son of Jtoiidn -Bhatta 
Son of Barga-Bhatta 
Son of Yallam-Bhatta 
Son of Bnchchella 

Son of Pakam-Krish 
Son of Suri-Bhatfca * 

Son of Svarnaghanti- 
Appayarya. 



Sakba. 



Gotra. 



Bahviicha 
Bo. . 

Bahvricha 



Bahvricha 



Bahvricha 



Do. 



Bahvpcha 
Bo. . 

Bo. . 



Bo. 

Bo. 

Bo. 



Bo. 
Bo. 

Bo. 



Son of Tirnmala-Yajvan 

Son of 

Sun of 

Son of Tirnvenkata 

Son of Yajnesvara 

Son of Mangesa 

Son of Konda-[Bha.tta*j j Bahvpieha 

[Son of] Vengal-Adhvarin I Yajn, '. 



Saman 



Guntama 

Bo. 

Bo. 

Bo. 

Vasishtha 
Agastya 
Harita . 

KaSyapa 
Bo. 

Maana * Bhai 
gava. 

Gantama 

Vishnnvar- 
dhana. 

Ka^yapa 

Do. 
Atreya 
Gautama 

Kamakayana- 

Visvamitra. 

Bharndvaja 

Vishnnvar- 
dbana. 

Bharadvaja 



Kasyapa 
Haritasa 
Haritasa 

Kansika 



Harifcasa 
Kasyapa 



Sutra. 



Asvalayana 

Brahyayanu 
Asvalayana 
Bo. 

Bo. 
Bodhayana 

Asvalayana 



Number 

of 
sharos. 



2* 



i 

I 




I 

i 

I 



A 



Kb. 22.] PADMANEBI GRANT OF VENKATA 1 : SAKA-SAMVAT 1520, 



291 



of 



of 

text. 



238 

239 



240 
241 



Donee's name. 



Bisham-Bhatta 
Yefckata 



Chikkarya 



245 



246 



247 



249 
250 
252 
25S 
254. 
255 



Bhanaya 
AehcKaya 



Bhairava 

Ganapati 

Baglitmatha 

Peraya 



Btxarata-Bhat^a 
Mannan 



Liuea^e. 



Son of 

Son of Yonkata 

[Son of} Kamnakara 

Son of Nagaih-Bhatta 
Son Of Nagam-Bhatta 
Son of Tlangaya, 
[Son of] Obaya 

Son of Yenkatadri 
Son of Uamakpshna 

Son of ]STagaBlaatta 
Son of Kondtt-Bbatta 
on of 3 Hamaya 



Gdtra* 



Stea. 



of 

shares. 



Yajxis 



Yajas. 
Bahvyicifc 

Do. 
Yajus 



Kasyapa 

Bo, 
Bharadvaja 



atyayana 



Atreya 
j Bharadvaja 
M&una BMr- 



Do. 
I Bafevrlcha 

MRik 

Yajna 



Son of Tippa-Bhatta 

Son of INTagaya 

Son of lainga 

[Son of] Mallaya . 

Son of Aiiantayarya 

Son of Bevadevela-Bliatta | Yajtis 

Son of 



Yajus 



[ Jamadagrtya- 
Vatsa. 

Kalyapft 
Bo. 

Jamadagnya- 
Yatsa. 

SriYatsa 

KanSika 

Srtmtsa 

Gutttamft 

Bliaradvaja 



Some of these donees, it may be noted, seem to hare come 
Akkala-Bhatta is stated to be tlie son of Pera-Bhatta of Vodya 

p^a tW son of Pina-Madhava of Ma^avada or Mai*war (T. 

i-Bhatta of Maliathkali, or Mahakali or Ujjain (?) (y. 92) ; 
^^^a of Huggi or Hoi?gi (y- 115). It is also worthy of note 
BraTiinanical sects and to different tolcMs, gttras and sutns, from 



f 
t 

I 

A 




A 
A 
A 

A 

A 
A 




292 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [Toi. XVI* 

king was very tolerant in matters of religion and confined Ms munificence to no particular sect 
or class. 1 

In v. 81 it is said that tte village of Padmanerl was divided into 83 shares, and the actual 
number of shares distributed among the donees comes to that number. 

The inscription was composed by Eyislinakavi-BIamakoti, 2 grandson of Safohapati, and 
engraved by Virana-Mahacharya, son of G-anapaya. s 

The grant closes with the usual imprecatory verses (w. 155-59) and the sign-manual 
of the king. 

TEXT. 



[Metres: vv. 1-3, 38 (partly), 43-44, 4.6-57, 61-62, 65-67, 74-151 and. 154-158, 
TV. 4, 6, 22, 28, 31-32, 45, 58, 63, 68-69 and 72*73, S&rd&lawkrt&ta; vv. 7, 37 and 70, Rathod- 
dhata; vv, 5, 21, 23, 59 and 64, Sragdhara; vv. 8, 13 and 60, YasantatilaTeS ; vv. 9, 14, 26 and 29, 
PritTwi; vv. 10 and 19, Sikliarinl\ vv. 15, 17 and 34, M&Unl\ vv. 11, 25 and 36, Saila$i7c7t>a; 
TV. 12 and 30, IndravajrS ; vv. 16 and 35, PushpitfyrS ; vv. 18, 20, 24, 27 and 33, TTpajati*, 
vv. 38 (partly), 39-41, 71 and 152453, Ary&\ v. 159, $*K$ ; v. 42, Dodhaka,'] 

NbTE. Letters in round brackets stand for corrections of the immediately preceding letters.] 

First Plate. 



*nr: 

\3 

2 vnfftaren* i n^trraf wrei rre^ji^wret i[i 

3 



. Lines 5-94 are omitted as the verses 3-42 which they contain have been printed above 
(Vol. XI, No. 34) as occcurring in the Maredapalli Grant, most of them also in the Dalavay 
Agraharam Plates (Vol. XII, No. 21), the Arvilirnangalam Plates (Vol. XII, No. 38) and in the 
two Grants of Venkatapati (Vol. XIII, No. 22). Some of the following verses also occar more 
or less exactly in the same. 

Third Plate : Second Side. 

95 ^^^^1%?rre^^"; i 

96 
97 

98 



99 TT^T^ffra\W: i[l 88*] 



1 [Tim identification of Yodva, Madavada, Mabankaii and Haggi wifcli names of provinces and towns is very 
doubtful. These are most likely family names. Ed.] 

2 The composer of the VSlapaka, Kondjata and the Kaliakurli grants of Venfc ^ I, Tenkata II, and Kanga 
VI was Rama, son of. Kamakoti and grandson of SablmpatL This being tlio case, the namo Kyishnakavi Kamakuti 
in the present record may be taken to mean Kjialinakavi, son of Kamakoti and brother, presumably, of Eama. 

8 The engraver of the Vflsipaka grant of VeAkata I was Eamaya, and that of the Kuniyur and Kondyata 
grants, Achyntarya, both sons of Gamipaya or Ganaparya. It is, therefore, apparent that VIi-ana-Mahacliarya of 
oar inscription was the brother of Kamaya and Achyutarya. 

4 Read 3^^ 6 Bead Pw Eoad 



JJo. 22.] PADM.ASTERI GKANT OF VENKATA I : SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 



293 



100 
101 

102 

103 
104 
105 
106 

107 

108 

109 ft? 

110 

ill 

112 

113 



f [i*j 



: i [i 



i[v 



115 
116 



[i 



Fourth Plate: First Side. 

i D 



Bead nf * 
which ate rej-CRted by mistake. 



fwfwfrf^r i[i 




* Bead 
Omit the 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Yoi. XTl- 



136 tf 



152 
153 

154 



129 

130 
131 
132 

133 ^ro**jfarrf^^ 

I3di 

135 



137 ?i%j i 

138 z ^ i 
139 



i 

Fourth Plate : Second Side. 



140 

141 ifaft i ^t n ^^Wtrri^f ^ ^t!f?ri i [i 4^*] 

142 



147 

148 

149 



150 ^^ tWf wt^ngvf ^fci 4 i ^iimin%ffiir(iff^)f 

151 



2 Cancel the d a .#o. 3 R ea d ,' * Eead ^ 

[The correction mad* in b-a^kets does not suit the metre. I would read ^^ftff^ -H. K. &] 
j; [cr ^ T -H. K, S.J. 



Padmaneri Grant of Venkata I : Saka 1=520. 



PLATE 1 
(*'-?*.) 



II a. 



t^w;^ ^ 

^ift^ 

,^$^;^ 
)^ 
^'*;^^ 



I 

i6iii^^ 
^^ 

i^ 



: 

a 



il( f W^ 



2 
4 

6 
8 

10 
12 
14 
16 

18 

ao 

22 




it b. 




70 




F, W. THOMAS 



SCALE TWO-FIFTHS 



WHITTINCHAM & GRIGGS, PHOTQ-LlTH. 




IV a. 



118 
120 
122 
124 
126 
128 
130 
132 

134 
136 
138 



^ 



118 
120 
,122 
124 

126 

128 

130 

132 

134 

136 

138 



Wb. 



r f 7i(i ?( #ita ^'( 



^(nq'i^^'^QOT^tnr-! 
/H^ta/no/H ^avti^'ffai | 



^^^^ 
|(n^i^^fi^ 



140 
142 
144 
146 
148 
ISO 
152 
154 
156 
158 

160 
162 



104 
166 
163 
170 
172 
174 
176 
178 
180 
182 
184 
186 



^^ai^'ad^a^^ 

aqrtniiWfifl^w'is^ ( jfi^ 

''n^/rt-gg^'g-^s^ . 

^p/,!^/t^'7n ; .fi^;Ffl* 

^(^^^fia(Jl(n\7i^ 



164 
166 
168 

170 

174 
176' 

178 
180 

182 
184 
188 



No. 22.] PADMANEBI GBAKT OF VENKATA I : SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 



285 



155 
15 e 
157 
158 



IBO 



162 

X63 

X64 
X65 
X66 
X67 



OL69 

X70 



173 



-.75 



fir*r 



: ill 



[*] 



f&rtfw. D 



r .. 

[l ^^ J 



: D*J 



wr [*] 



.0 



'D 



. * wrrt iD ] 

. M-I 



[Lines 177 



-267 ooatam omly the nfflW, ete., of donees, 



M t M the Jist rf donees 



296 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



XVL 



Seventh Plate. 



258 
259 

260 

261 qwu<flwrm7r; 
262 



263 

264 
265 



i [i m*] 



[i*] 



. t [i 



l[l 



I 5f 



tfi 



vfegrt 




2(56 ?r 



267 

268 
269 

270 



ABSTRACT OP CONTBM'TS. 

u ^ Velka ^ ga ' the feet ^ Eama, VislxvaksSna and the Mooxx. 

The genealogy of the Araylti femily down to king Bukka. 
Vv. 7-8. Praises of Btikka and his wife BaUambikS. 
Vv. 9-11. The conquests of Bama-Bsja, son of Bukka. 
V " " 3 " of Bama-Raja and 



i . 

4.-I5. Praises of Tirumaiambika wife f $T.,A TJ-- j ^ xi 
Baja, Tirnnmla-Baya and VefikatSdri Snra^a-Eaja and the mother of 

Vr 16-17. The military exploit 'of Eama-BaJa. 
V. Ib Praises of Venkatadri-Eaja 




chapter,. 



Padmaneri Grant of Venkata I : Saka 



1520. 



PLATE II. 

( />.-://.} 



Tl a. 





258 



260 



262 



264 



266 



268 



258 




/. THOMAS 



SCALE TWO- FIFTHS 



WHITTINQHAM & GRIGQS, PHOTCrUTH. 



JSTo. 22.] PADMANEEI GRANT OF VENKATA I : SAKA-SAMVAT 1520, 297 

Vv. 24-25. The conquests of Koricjavi4u, Vimkonda and other fortresses by Sri*aiga- 
Baya (H), son of Tirumala-Raya and VengalSmba, while staying at Uddagiri (Udayagiri) and 
at Ms capital Penukonda. 

V. 26. Sriranga-Raya's coronation ceremony and his praises. 

Vv. 27-28. Venkatapati-deva-Raya succeeds his brother rIranga-Raya on the latter's 
death. 

V. 29* Veikatapati-Baya's coronation performed by his preceptor Tatayarya and his con- 
quest of the "STavanas (Muhammadans). 

V. 30. His queens were Venkatambs;, Baghavamba, PedobamSmba and Krishna- 
mamba. 

V* 31. The defeat of Mahamanda-sstui (',*. Muhammad Shall), son of Malik-Ibharama 
(i.e. Malik Ibrahim). 

Vv. 32-45. His numerons birudas and praise. 

Vv. 46-48. In the 3aka year vyona~netra-kalamb~endu (i.e. 1520), in the cyclic year 
Vilambin, in, the month of SrSvana, in the bright fortnight, on the dvSdasi day, in the 
presence of god Venkatesa, the grant was made to Brahmans of various satehas, names, gotras 
and Sutras^ most of whom were well-versed in the Vsdas. 

Vv. 49-57. The object of the grant was the village of Padmaneri, in the Tiravadi- 
rajya, Vanava-nacJ'w and the Pachchat'cuppokku, of which the "boundaries are set forth ia 
detail. The terms of the grant. 

Vv. 58-59. The genealogy of the [ITSyakVI kings of Madhura Naga and Viavanltha. 
Tlie latter conqnered VanSdaraya, the great PSn4ya and the Timvadi kings* 

Vv. 60-61. Praises of YiSvanStha's son Krishna, the Kayaka of the south and Ms wife 
Lakslimyambika. 

Vv. 62-64, Praises of their son Vira and Ms gifts to the temples of Sundara-Nayaka 
and Mlnakshi (at Madura) and the numerous religioua rites which he performed, 

Vv. 65-66. Praises of Tirumalambika, wife of Vlra. 

Vv. 67-77. Praises of Kpishna (ITayaka), son of Vira, his gifts to the god of Banga, (i.6. 
Srirangam) and his birudas * lord of the Southern Ocean ' and ' the conqueror of the army of 
Paflcttar-Tiruvadi P 

Vv. 78-80. The gift of the said village of Padmanerl was made by king Veakatapati- 
Baya at the request of Etrishna (Nayaka) of Madura. 

V. 81. The village was divided into 83 parts. 

Vv. 82-83. Grant to Sambhu, Madhava (Vishnu), and MahaSastri, the village deities. 

Vv. 84-151. The names of the donees and their shares. 

Vv* 152-153. The poet who . composed the verses in thfe grant at the command of 
Venkatapati-Baya, was Kristtnakavi Kamakoti, grandson of SabliSpati. 

V- 154. The engraver of the grant, at the "bidding of Venkata-Maliaraya, was Virata- 
Mahactiarya, son of G-anapaya. 

Vv. 155-159. The usual admonitory and imprecatory verses, followed, iu line 270, 
by the * sign-manual * Sri-Venkat&fa in the Kannada^Telugu script* 



298 EPIGKAPKIA INDICA. [VOL. XYL 

Ko. 2aVELLANGUDI PLATES OF VENKATAPATI-DBVA-MAHABAY A I : SAKA- 

SAMVAT 1520. 

BY THE LATE T. A, G-OPINATHA BAD, M.A., TBIVATOKAM. 

The inscription edited below is engraved on a set of seventeen copper-plates. 1 These have 
the shape common to all inscribed plates bearing the deeds of grants made by the kings of the 
Vijayanagara dynasty of the period to which, this set belongs. In the curved upper part of 
each of these plates is a round hole through which the binding ring is meant to pass ; to the 
proper left of this hole and on the first side ol each plate is marked the number of the plate 
in TeltigtL-Kannadg, numerals. The rims are raised to protect the writing from damage. When 
the set came to me for examination, there was no ring. The first plate is engraved on the second 
side, and the last one on its first side only, Plates 7,- 13 and 14 are lost ; since these 
belong tp that part of the document which enumerates the names of donees, the historically 
important portion of the record is intact. The preservation of the inscription is very good, 
From impressions taken under my supervision, as also from the originals, I now edit the 
inscription. 

The alphabet of the record is Nandinagarl ; the sign-manual of the king, the word 
Venkati>ga, is in the Telugu alphabet. There is nothing peculiar in the orthography of 
the inscription demanding special comment. All the faults usual in the other documents 
of the Vijayanagara kings are also found iu this j for example, tte use of the anusv&ra for 
the varga~panchama,i *a for Aa, etc. 

The grant belongs to the reign of the king Venkatapati-dSva-MaharSya. Hie genealogy is 
traced from the moon as follows : 

Moon 

Budha 
PurSravas 
Ayu 

Nahneha 

TaySti 
Puru 

Bharata 

6 \ 
Santanu 

(Fourth descendant) Vijaya (Arjuna) 

Abhimanyu 

Paiikshit 

(Eighth descendant) Nanda 

* 
* 

(Ninth descendant) Chajikka 
(Seventh descendant) Rftjanareadra 
(Tenth descendant) BrjjalSndra 

(Third descendant)* Vlra-Hemmfili-Raya* 
the Lord of Mayapurl 

(Fourth descendant) Tata-Pinnama 

* [Noticed in paragraph $Q of Part II of the A. B r on Epigraphy (Madras) for 1912. H. K. S J 



23.3 



PLATES OF VENKATA I : SAKA-SAJI VAT 1520. f:0 



Tfce historical part of the genealogy begins from this Tata-Pinnama and is as follows : 

Tata-Pinnama 

Sdroideva 



Vira-Bixghava 



Pinnama, 
the Lord of Araviti-nagara 

Bukka, 
md. Ballambika 

Rama-Raja, 
wcZ, Lakkambika 

Srlranga-Rirja, 
md. Tirumalambika 



Rama-Raja. 



Tirumala*Raya, 
. VengalambSi 



Venkatadii-Raja. 



SrSranga-Raya. Venkatapati~deva-R.&ya s 

vid. 1. Venkatamba, 
2. Raghavamba, 
3* Peddbarriamba, and 
4. Krishnaxaarnba. 

The doings of each o these kings are given in the document in some detail S5mideva 
ia represented as haying taken seven forts from his enemies in a single day (v. 7), Pinnama in 
described as the lord of JLravIdu, and his son is reported to have established Saluva Wrisimha 
firmly on the throne (v. 8). His son Kama-Baja was a staunch devotee of Vishnu, and through 
His grace he got over the effects of poison administered to him by his jftatis in the fort of 
KaBdanavolu durgam, wtich he had just then taken after defeating Sapada at the head of an 
army consisting of 70,000 Horses and taking from him the Avanigiri durgam, 1 driving off with 
Mm Kasapp-Udaya (w. 11 and 12). 

Bama-Raja, the son of ^rlranga-Baya, ruled the country justly, after destroying the enemies 
of the world (the Muaalmans), and was a veritable kalpaka-vriJcsha in his munificence. Of the 
three sons of Sriranga-Raya, the middle one, Tirumala-Maharaya, having routed his enemies 
in battles, was anointed to the throne and like Fish^u, the middle member of the Hicda 
Trinity,* protected the kingdom. This king performed again and again all ^ the mahSMnas 
such as the warna-tula-purusha and the upadSnas in such holy places as Kafichl, Srirangani, 
. etc., and in atf important places of pilgrimage and holy ttrthas (vv, 20 and 27). His 
son rIranga-Raya, being stationed in Uddagiri, conquered the forts of Kondavldu, Vinikonda- 
pura, etc., and began to reign in Penugoruja. He had emblems, such as the makara, as signs 
of royalty. The great gifts which this king made on the occasion of his coronation permanently 
removed poverty from poor people (vv. 29 and 30). After him succeeded to the throne 
his brother Venkatapati-dSva MahSraya, aTao born to the same mother, VengalambS. Just 

1 [ This should be the Idavani giri-durya : ee above, p. 244. f, W. IT.] . ^ 

2 Being t ht middle one among the sons of Sriranga-Kaya, he is compared to Vision among tto Hindu Trinity, 



EPIQRAPHIA INDICA. [ToL. XVL 



as Rama was anointed by Vasishtha, his family priest, Venkatapati-dfivaraya's coronation 
performed by tlic learned TBtaySrys, his guru. Having conquered the Yavanas, he ruled tie 
earth. He defeated Mahammanda Saliu, the son of Maliklbharam?, In battle, and during the 
continuance of the war the latter used to return home day by day after losing his elephants, 
horses, weapons and umbrella,. Venkatapati-deTa-Maharaya was extolled by the kings of the 
Kumbhaja, Bhflja, Kalinga, KerahSta and other countries, waiting at the entrance of his palace. 
Be bore the binidas, Cha^ran-durg-aika-vibJiala-varya, Hosabirudara-ganda, liciya-r&lMtta- 
windct, Avahalu~raya-mruia-martliii, 'Biruda-inanniyara-ganda, Utkal-3ndra,-jaya-pandita-vira 9 
Manny flnsSmul, Gandara-guti, Manya-puU, Handatika-dharant-varaJia, Venga-tnbhnvant-malla, 
rri-jola-suratrSna, Itanamnkha-liamalhadra, MandaliJca-ganda, Aratta~Magadha~manya-pada, 
Chalikfat-cJiakrarartin, Sbiruda-rSya-rahuta-v^y-aika-bhujangat Kalyana-pitr-Sdhipa, Oddiya- 
rrtya-distipatta, JJh&$7iege-tappuva-r8yara<*ganda and ftfaru-rayara-gandu. 

Haying obtained the throne of the Earnata kingdom by the prowess of his arms, and 
dofcating his enemies, Yenkatapati-deva-Raya ruled the earth from the Himalayas to Sdtu 
( liames vavam). 

The genealogy as given in this grant agrees as far as Tirumala-Raya with those given in 
the K-ojGLilyata, the Kallakursi, the Kuniyur and the Vilappakkam grants and entirely with 
that found in the Dalavay-Agraharam Plates of this king. This grant, like the last nrentioued, 
emits the names of Rfima III and Raghunatha among the sons of Tirumala-Rfiya and gives 
only those of Sriranga-Raya (Ranga II) and Venkatapati I* 

The historical importance of the events narrated in relation to the individual kings, the 
ancestors of Venkatapati I, as also about Tatayarya, his family priest, has been discussed already 
in iny article on the Dalavay-Agraharam Plates of Venkatapati- deva-Maharaya (JJp. Ind. f 
Vol. XII, pp. 159-187), and therefore need not be repeated here. 

The present grant is dated the Saka Sariivat 1520, computed by the moon (indu)> the 
arrows (kalamba), the eyes (nera) and the sky (vydma>) 9 which corresponded with the cyclic year 
Vilirabin. On the dvadosi titM of the bright lialf of the month Sravana the king Vira 
Veiiliata-p^ti'-Mataraya granted as an agrahara to a large number of Brahmanas the village of 
Veil "figoU! together with K^iyattaiikuricticlii, TTppn-vaniyan-putt-ur and Manamangalam 
in Forumpattn, all clubbed together under the name of VIrabtmpa-samudrfcm, at the 
request of prince Krish^a-Bhfipati of Madura. The villages granted wore in the Jffulli-notftt, 
vrhich foriued part of the sub-division AnjarSkkare of the Tiruvadi-d^a. Their boundaries 
are stated in vv. 56-66. 

The prmce Ejishna-BhBpati, at whose request the grant was made, was the then Nay oka 

of Madura, tlis pedigree is trated thus : In the Kasyapa gotra was born Kaga, a devotee of 

the god V"isY&!vara (evidently of Kasi or Banarasi)* His son was Visvanatlia. This prince 

conqiiei^d the Tiruvadi* the great Pandya, the Vanadaraya and other kiugs in pitched battles 

and took from them their kingdoms solely by the prowess of his arms and became the lord of 

the Madhxsra country. Krishna, the lord of the south, possessed of valonr, justice, intelligence 

and courage, was burn to Vi$vanatba. The queen of Krishna was Lakshmyambika. To these 

was born Virr*-Bhnpati, of charming manners. This last mentioned prince constructed 

a wandapa, containing several beautifully sculptured pillars, in front of the shrine of the 

god Ssxmdai-a-na^aka (that is, Sundaresvara 'of the famous Siva temple at Madura) and 

presented to the goddess Minakshi a golden covering (Jcavacha) set with gems. He is 

described as having performed the gifts called hem-a^^a^ Tiema-garbJia, tuld-purushu, (weighing 

against gold and precious stones), visva-chaJcra, brahm-Snda, go-sahasra^ elephant chariot 

and Jcclma-dfiemi made of gold, sapt-Sn+bhodJii, horse chariot made of gold, nahabhvta- 

ffhatdy svarna-kshw& &nd ratna-dhemi. Tirnmalamfoika was the wife of Vira-BhQpati, 

To them was born Kxishiia-Mahlpati. This prince, who wai well lead in all sort of 



2STo. 23.] VELLANGITDI PLATES OF VENKATA I: SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 301 



was daily engaged in the performance of one or oilier of the sixteen . 

He presented to the god Banga (of the temple at Srlrangain) a covering (JuvacJiu), studded 
with gems of different kinds, a head-dress (ushmsha), yellow silk garments, necklaces, 
Mrttas (diadems), knndalas (ear-ornaments) and girdles; he granted to the 'same deitv 
several villages and lands, celebrated the car-festival and in various other ways served Him and 
obtained His grace. Again, to the lord Saundara-uayaka (of Madura) he' presented several 
lamp-stands (making provision to burn lights in them), made arrangements for the celebration 
of the abhisliekas (holy baths) of milk and the car-festival and presented the deity with several 
rich, ornaments. Ho- is said to have set up a matii-stumlha before this deity. He performed the 
tula~puru$Iia> and the liiranya-yarbha 1/aMtZanas, and on thut occasion made valuable presents 
to Brab.no anas; allusiou is made to the Mahadanas. kulpakfi-vrlksha, samudra (sapt-amlhadhi) 
and JcfZma-dhenu. Prince Krishna-Mablpati granted enough money to the Brahmanas of other 
kin-gdonis to redeem their lauds, which they lost to their kin^s owing to their inability to pay 
the taxes thereon. By this statement we are to understand that the government of ottar 
kings was BO oppressive even in the case of Brahmanas, and consequently rmieh more so in the 
case of other castes, that the former had, on account of their inability to make good the heavy 
taxes imposed npou their lands, to abandon them; whereas the government of Kriahna-Mablpati 
"wa^ so good as to attract Brahmanas even from other countries to seek the benefit of his 
munificence* The statement is not a mere boast, as will be seen from the Hat of villages from, 
winch, came the Brahmana donees of this grant ; I shall revert to this matter later on. Krishm- 
Mahlpati ie further stated to have been praised by the Pandya, Chera and Chola kings. He 
was styled '* the lord of the southern ocean." Lastly, he is reported to have wrested from the 
Pttficha-Tiruvadis 1 their kingdom* The genealogy of the Nayahts of Madura, as obtained from 
this record, may be represented conveniently thus : 

Nagama-Nalyaka of the KSsyapa gotra. 

Vi8vanatha Nay at a. 

[Conquered the Tiruvadi, the great Pandya and the 
Vanadaraya and other kings, and became 
the lord of Madhura.l 

Krishna-Bhfipati I 
m. Lakshmyambika, 

Vlra-Bhnpati, 

[Constructed a mandapa, in front of the shrine of 
Saundara-nayaka, and presented Mluakshi with 
a jewelled kavaclia and performed seve- 
ral mahadanas. in. Tiruinaiambika.] 

Krishna-Mahipati II. 

[Presented the god Ranganatba with costly orna- 
ments, clothes, villages, gardens, etc., per- 
formed mahSdSnai and made gifts to the 
god Suridara-nayaka for abhisheJeas, 
lights, rath-dtsava, etc.] 

As stated above, the newly formed agraUra of Virabhttpo-samudram was glinted, at tlie 
request of prince Krisbna-Mahipati, by VeBkatapaii-deTa^laliaraya to a very large numherot 

i See boiow, p, 317, f ooi-oote 5. o 



303 EPIGRAPHIA INDIOA. [VOL. XVI. 

Brahmarias and, curiously enough, to some Brahmana ladies also ; it is a very rare tiling to 
meet with the allotment of shares to women in the agrakaraa which are conferred on Brahma^as. 
It is stated that the agrahSra was divided into two hundred and sixty-one vrittis and that each 
vritt-i was farther divided Into five amsas> thus making a total of 1,305 amfas, and the gift to each 
donee is made in terms of the amsas. We learn that each vrUti was sufficient to meet the needs 
of five persons ; it appears that the shares were granted, perhaps, proportionate to the number 
of members in the family of a donee, In the existing plates of the set a total of one hundred 
and eighty-two vrittis aad one a mm are accounted for, and the plates seven, thirteen and fourteen, 
which are lost, should have contained an account of the distribution of the remaining seventy- 
eight vrittis and four afnsas. The list of the donees, with the names of their fathers, their 
native villages, their saJsJins and yotras and the number of amsas they received^ is given in the 
" abstract of contents " at the end. 

From that list it would seem that most of the donees were residents of the Telugu country 
and had either already migrated into the Tamil country or had come down south at the invita- 
tion of the donor* Anyhow the record is o mure than ordinary importance in that it accounts 
like a few otters, 1 ior the existence of a large number of Telugu Brahmana families in the 
Tinnevelly District. Themselves Telugas by birth and possessing strong liking for the men of 
their own country, speaking their own language, the Nayakas of Madura would have imported 
large colonies of Telugu Brahniauas from the north and settled them down in Madura and 
Tinnevelly Districts. At present there are numbers of Telugu Brakmana families in several 
villages in the Tiuncvelly District, as, for instance, Tenkasi, Sennadevi, Pavur, Vellangutji, 
Pettai, Nalattinputitir, Koyilpatti, Tirunelveli and Blavelafigat and in many villages in the 
Madura District, A parallel to this tendency to import their own countrymen, speaking their 
own tongue, is to be found in the Maratha Rajas of Taujore, who planted a considerable 
colony of Maratha arid Ghirjara Brahmanas in the Tanjore kiugdom, some of which families 
are now found scattered over the whole of the Madras Presidency, having at one time occupied 
the highest positions both in the British Government and in the Native States, 

The present record is of great importance for the history of the Nayakas of Madura, which 
is not very clearly known. The late Mr. Nelson had attempted a continuous and fairly fall 
history of this dynasty of princes in his Madura Manual, from all available sources, such as 
India* chronicles, traditions and manuscripts and a few inscriptions, as also the valuable records 
of the Jesuits of the Madura Mission. Attempts have been made quite recently by some others 
with the help of the same materials to .reconstruct the history of this country and of this 
period* with, to my mind, no whib better success than that achieved by the pioneer, Mr. Kelson, 
All attempts at tiac'mg Indian History morely from the sources referred to above have proved 
incomplete, if not always incorrect. It must be constructed mainly on the strength of inscrip- 
tions, supplemented largely from literary and other sources, wherever the latter do not militate 
against the statements made in Inscriptions. Some amount of new information regarding the 
Nayakas of Madura has been brought to light in my articles on the Krish^apurain Plates of 
Sada&va-deva-Maharaya, the Dalavay-Agraharam Plates of Venkatapati-deva-Maharaya and 
other records. The first of these deals with the reign of Krishnappa-Nayaka I, son of Visvanatha^ 
Mayafca, and the second with that of his son Vira-Bhiipati, Virappa-Nayaka or Periya or Peda- 
Virappa-Nayaka ; the copper-plate grant under consideration belongs to the reign of the latter'a 
son Kpshzta-Mahipati or Krishnappa-Nayaka II. Thus the three records belong to three 
consecutive reigns, and the last is of greater historical importance than the others. It is 
necoss^y therefore -to discuss here the historical information contained in this inscription in the 
light of other epigraphies!" records. 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 85-SS, of the T-ravancore 4r*k*ologieal ISeries ; also pp. 145-146, 



No. 23.] VELLANGTJDI PLATES OF VENKATA I : SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 303 

In the Kriahaiapuram Plates, 1 Nagama-Nayaka 2 is said to have been a devotee of the god. 
Visvanathaand to have borne the birudas, Kanchl~pura~var~adkisvara 9 Hokalipatfa-vardhana, 
Samaya-drohara-ffanda, Samaya-kdlahala, Ailavali-pura-var-ad'htsvara, Pandya-Jcula-sth&pan* 
Scharya and Dakshina-samudr-adhisvara and to have taken the kingdom of TiruvadL An old 
Tamil, work called Tiruppani-malai, quoted by me already ia my article on the Dalavay- Agra- 
fe aram inscription, also describes YiS^anatha and Vlrappa as KaGhchi-n&yaJc&n Visuvanathan and 
Kachchi'V&l Krishna- Virapp an. Evidently the Nayakas of Madura will have been originally 
residents of Kafichlpura aud hence must have borne the title KancM~pura~var~adh,t$vara. 

The reading of the Veljaogudi inscription, where it deals with Visvanatha-Nayaka, is- 
defective and therefore -unintelligible. ThePadmaneri grant of Venkafca I, 8 dated also S. 1520 
gives the correct reading, which runs as follows : 



(Line 120) 

r^ 

irf*fc \ 






From this passage we learn that Visvanat&a, after having conquered in "battles the 
Tiruvadi, the Haha-Pandya, the Vanada-Raya and other kings, and having taken possession of 
their kingdoms by the true prowess of his arms, became the lord of the Madhnra-m?*7/a and waa 
ruling. What were the circumstances under- which ViSvanatha conquered the kings named 
above and who the Vanada-Rayas were and how they happened to be in the south are questions 
which require a clear answer. Let us now try to explain briefly the points raised 
above, Tiruvadi is the name applied in inscriptions, as well as in literature, to the king of 
Travancore, The Tiravadi of the time of Achyuta-deva-Rayg, needed chastisement, since he had 
harboured the enemies of the Vijayanagara emperor and had refused to acknowledge his 
suzerainty* Achyuta-deva-R5ya himself led the expedition as. far as Srlraiigam, but at his own 
request Salaka-Tiruinala-Raya, the king's brother-in-law, was put in command of the army to 
subdue the Tiruvadi. Salaka-Tirumalsi-Raya defeated the Tiruvadi and, his confederates on the 
bank of the Tamraparm and made him surrender all the territories usurped by him from the, 
Pandya. Nagama-Nayaka evidently held, then the military command over the ToncUi ma^afam 
and lived in Conjeevaram, and would therefore, on account of his familiarity with the people and 
their languages, have been taken by the king with him as one of the Vijayanagara generals in 
his expedition against the Tiruvadi. The Pandy a king Srivallabha, who applied to the emperor 
for help, must have been put in possession of his lost kingdom after the defeat of the Tiravadi; 
and in remembrance of this event Achyuta-deva-Baya, Srivallabha 1?an4ya aud Nagama-Nayaka 
severally called themselves The Tiruvadi king then ruling 

must, according to the inscriptions in my collection, have been Bhutalavlra TJdayamartta^da- 
yarmau pf the Tivuppapptir branch. 

It is doubtful whether Vi^vanatha also formed one of the party which proceeded against tlie 
Tiruvadi at the time of Achyuta-deva-Raya, It looks more than certain that ViSvan^tha distitjr 
guished himself in the southern regions on a subsequent occasion and nofc during the reign of 
Acbyuta-deva-Kaja. No. 140 of the Madras Epigraphist's Collection for 1895 states that the 

1 Above, Vol. IX, p. 330. 

2 He is called Chinna^Nageudra in No. 9, C* P., of tlie Madras Epigraphist'* Collection for 1906. 
? Above, pp. 287 ff- * See pp. 54-56, Tr^ancore dLrcbaologica.! Sent** Vol. L 



304 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XVL 

Vijayanagara general Vitthala-deva-Maharaya conducted an expedition against the Tiruvadi In 
the reign of Sitdasiva-deva-Raya, some time before S. 1466 ( AJD. 1544-45), and that a 
Brahroana of Tiruvidairaaradur, named Tiraclicliirrambala-BIiatfcan, " joined Vitfchala's armv 
and continued to fight on hie side from c Anantasayanam in the south to Mudugal ID the north.* " 
Vlvanatha must have been one of the military officers who accompanied Vifcfchala; for. No. 17 of 
the Madras Epigraphist's Collection for 1912 distinctly affirms that Visvanatha obtained from 
Ramarajarayyan (i.e. Aliya Ramaraja), the powerful minister of Sadasiva, the Tiruvadi-clcsa 
as amara-n&y&kam, and his son Krishnappa-Nayaka granted seven villages in this province to 
the god of the Krishnapuram temple, which lie had newly built. Trouble cropped up evidently 
once again in the Tirnvadi rujyam during the reign of Sada^iva-deva-Raya, and a punitive 
expedition against the king of that country was necessary, and it was accordingly despatched 
under Vitthala. From one of the inscriptions in my collection we find that in the Ko 11am 
year 722 (=A.D. 1547), Bhutalavlra Ramavarman, of the Jayatunga nddu branch, who calls 
himself the velaikkaran of (the god ?) Sankaranarayanamtirti (probably of Navaykkulam, near 
Attingal), made arrangements for the (monthly ?) celebration, in the Vishnu shrine at 
Suehludram, of the day of Rshini, the natal star of Yitthale^vara-M'aharayar. The Tiruvadi 
must have lost a large portion of his territory on this occasion, and what was taken away from 
him appears to have been bestowed upou Visvanatha as an amara-nayakam. The Tiruvadi 
was ruling, very probably, over what remained, as a vassal of the Vijayanagara king. 

The kingdom of the Pandya, king was situated on the way to the Tiruvadi r&jyam, and 
had necessarily to be passed through. If the Paadya, as stated in the document, had also to 
lose his kingdom, it must surely be that he had offered resistance to the passage of the Vijaya- 
nagara army through his territories or offended Vitthala in some other way. Anyhow the 
Paodya does not appear to have been deprived altogether of Ids kingdom, but was subjugated 
and suffered to rule as a subordinate of the Vijayanagara Emperor. 

The princes called Vanada-Rayars were the lineal descendants of the Bana kings, who, in 
the earlier period of South Indian History, were the vassals of the Pallavas and ruled over the 
North Arcot District and portions of the Mysore Province ; their kingdom was known as 
Banappadi or PerumbanappadL When the Pallavas were subverted by the ChSlas, they became 
subordinates of: the Cholas, and the Vangda-Rayars continued faithful to the latter till the 
reign of Kubttanga III. Rajaraja Vanakovaraiyan, alias Ponparappinan M'agadaippera- 
mal, one of the vassals of Kuldttunga III, rebelled against bis suzerain and entered into political 
compacts with some southern petty princes. He drifted on to the south and appears eventually 
to have joined the Pandyas, who were thea growing in power and were soon to subvert the 
ChSla supremacy during the reign of Rajaraja III and his son Rajendra-ChSla III. The Vanada- 
Rayars continued to be friends and subordinates of the Pandyas till the Muaalman invasion of 
Madura under Malik Kaf ur. When the Pandya king was taken prisoner and carried away by 
the Muhammadans, the Vanada-Rayars took service under the Vijayanagara kings and ruled 
over the- Madura country. They were Vaishnavas in religion, and they gave donations, as 
may be seen from their inscriptions, to the Vishnu temples at AlagarkCyil, Tiruppullani and 
Srlvillipottnr. Visvanatha- "STayaka had evidently ousted the Vanada-Hayars from Madura and 
made it the capital of a kingdom which he formed from the districts of Madura and Tinnevelly 
and portions of the Travaticore State. 

In fact, Visvanatha was the founder of the Nayaka dynasty at Madura, and that in the 
reign of Sadasiva-deva-Raya. It is difficult to say how far credence can be given to the tradi- 
tion that Visvanatha fought against Nagama-Nayaka, Jtiis own father, to regain for the 
Emperor of Vijayanagara the Madura country said to have been usurped by him. Unless it be 
presumed that he joined in a confederacy with the VSijada-Rayar, the Pandya and tlio 
Tiruvadi and asserted independence, the tradition cannot be upheld. 



No. 23.] YELLANGUDI PLATES OF VEKKATA I: SAKA-SAMVAT 1520, SOS 



The Srlranyam-Koyil-olugu informs us that Visvanatha-Navaka made to the god Eanga- 
natha gifts cf several golden vessels, costly ornaments and lands all to the extent of three 
lakhs of pon, afc the instance of Vadhfila-kula-Desika Kamftra-NaTasiiiihacharya ; and the da to 
assigned in that work is S. 1420. 

The Tvntppan i-malai states that Visvanatha-Nayaka presented a valuable necklace 
aiad pendant to the god SundaiesYira of Madura and also granted to the same deity 
the villages of Adanfir, Tiruklvanapper and llamai-nallur. He also covered afresh the old 
Indra-vimamn/i (a vehicle to place the image on and to take it in procession) with gold. 
This work nlso states that Visvunatha defeated Tiruvadi in battle and compelled him to pay 
tribute, but saved the Pandya. 1 

Mr. Nelson states that Arya Xayaka Mudali was the minister of ViSvanatha and did much 
to improve the condition of the province of Madura. 2 He is referred to in our inscription as the 
Periya Nainar Mudali (1. 553) ; and, as believed by Nelson, he seems to have lived also in the 
reigns of Krishnappa-Nayaka I and Ma son Vlrappa. He is called Ariva Nayina Mudali in the 
Tirnppani-malai, -which states tliat he built the mandapn for the sixty-three Saiva saints 
In the Srmdnresvara temple, a mcnidapa for an aracTichalai (alii3B-house) 3 set up an image of 
Subrahraapya under a vanni tree j,nd presented a silver throne to the god Sundaresvaia. 3 He 
conquered portions of Ceylon for his master; a stone bearing an inscription of his is preserved 
m the Colombo Museum. It ia a significant fact that the Kajas of "Ka^di Tvere also Nayakas 
and were related to the Nayakas of Madura. 

The Vellangolli grant passes over the reign of Kriahnappa-Nayaka I without supplying 
any historical information. AVe know from the Krishnapuram grant that Krislinappa con- 
structed with beautifully sculptured mandapas, etc., the Vishnu temple in the village of 
Kpishnapuram, and endowed it with lands and provided the necessary ornaments for the deity 
aet up""by him in the temple. Nelson thinks that Krishnappa-"Nayaka must " have "been a brave 
and politic ruler " ; he also states, on the authority of certain manuscripts, that Krisbnappa- 
Nayaka defeated tlaeT refractory pSlayaTc&ra chief Tumbichcbi Kayakan and invaded Ceylon and 
took Kandi. The inscriptions hitherto discovered are, however, silent about the defeat of 



1 Sciijol-pimai Matlurcsar Timvalavay-iraivar tiru- 

vnla-nmgilndu-punaiya-ch- 
clicuiboK-pftclukkain-udan-anav - afrharanaiaim - jernda- 

pari gala m iular u n - 
kanja-vayal sfdu-kouimatti uiadalalyiri-uier kayal 

kudi-hod-Adaimruii- 

puga-vayal-kafcfcu- 



roafiju-taval tf51ai-Sfil-Ilainainalluraiyum maruvum 

liidiravimanam 
valainaiyothi pahmai pudidagave pon-puai magiinai- 

y u dai i ey -n da v inaii 
viuji-Viini-Tiruvadi tanaip-pcxrudu tirai-kpndu SIi- 



mevu-kn Kaebcln-nayakaii ViSuvanadan-uyar 

vorri-piratapa iiiugile. 

2 Nelson"* JUaflitrn 3Ianuaf, p. 90. 

8 Ara-inri-diivafi-jey-nrubattu-niuvar mandapu,- 

niar u v -arn a- j 51 aiy -arachclial ai-uiaij dapam vajmiyad i 
Mupuffnu 'Sokkaxiu, venich-cbingudana 
Varu-mal-Ariyaiiayiga-mudaU Biati-mantriye. 



306 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVI.- 



TumbichcH-Najaka by Krishnappa. The Tiruppani-m&lai enumerates the donations of this 
prince to the Madura temple,* whereof details have already been given in Ep. Int., Vol. XII, 

1 / "I 

P The 8rfraAgam-K5yil-ofagu> states that Krishnappa Nayakkar gave a number of valuable 
ornaments to the god Ranganatha and built a landing place and a mandapa on the bank of the 

Kaverl, south of Srtraftgam. ... ., t - 

Kpshnappa-Nayaka's son was Virappa-Nayaka. The Vellangudi inscription describes km 
donations and services to the temple of M IB akshl- Sun dares vara at Madura. The acts of devo- 
tion attributed to him by the Tiruppani-malai have already been given by me (Ep. Ind.? Vol. 
XII p. 161) ; and I now quote the verses in a foot-note below, 2 Neither the Vellangndi inscrip- 
tion'nor the grtrangam-Kdyil-ofcgu mentions any donations made by him to the temple o the 
god Ranganatha of Srlrangam. 

Tbe son and successor of Virappa-Nayaka was Kumara Krisbnappa-Nayaka II. The 
Vellangudi inscription is rather profuse in its praise o the munificence of this prince. The 
statements made in this record are also corroborated by other documents. The Tiruppani- 
vialai states that he built in Madura the temples of Viresvara, Krishnegvara, and AyyangSrtfi- 
vara, as also the north and west mandapas in the second prakara of the temple of MinaksM.* 
The *&rzrangam-K3yil-olugu informs us that, through the influence of Narasimha Desika already 
mentioned, Kuraara Krishnappa-Nayaka II presented the god Ranganatba with a coat set 
with gems, a kirfta stadded with precious stones and other ornaments worth a lakh and a 

half pons. 

Mr. Nelson, on tie authority of certain manuscripts, states that on the death of Kumara 
Krishnappal (son of ViSvanatha) his two sons, Krishnappa or Periya Vlrappa and* Viva~ 
natha II, ruled jointly at Madura, and similarly on the death of Krishnappa or Periya Vlrappa 
his two sons, Liogayya or Kamara Krishnappa and Visvanathalll (or Vigvappa), ruled jointly, 
but that Visvauatha III died very soon. The hitherto discovered copper-plate inscription* 
dealing with the Nayakas of Madura do not appear to corroborate the statements of the 
manuscripts. Mr. Sewell, following Nelson, gives in Vol. II of his Lists of Antiquiti** of 
Madras brief notices of the reigns of the Nayakas of Madura. 



Muttainilk- Kudaj**patich Cho"ktana<larkku imitt-alakkun 
jittirak-kopurainuM-jengair-padaiyaicli chirakkadi-cJieydau 
mattaga-ppor Visuvauatau-kumaran Manu-inuraimai- 
kottuj^,-ppar-purakkun-Krisbna-bupa gunakkondale. 
Vidikkn-Mukmidarkimi-etfcada Sokkarkku medmiyor 
tudikkun-kodikkamba-mandapain-onru tnlaiigach-clieydaa 
gadikktmi paramannar ponnar nindigalaik-kalil-ejrri 
midikknii-gadaclialattan Kaclichi-val-Krishna-Vlrappane. 
Ayyar-^ingaracb-chelanii'p-punal Volliyainbalamuii- 
jeyy a va da&kut-tirukkopuramuu- jev vlehchurainun' 
tuyya tiruniadaippaliiyum-anbtidan-roriracli-cheydaii 
taiyalar moganavel Krishna- Vlra- jay at ungane 
Varip*puv i-p ugal-aylrakkan-inaniinandapaTnu- 
m-er u irra Murttiy aminan-taandapam u tn-i randauipi ra- 
karat-tiruchchurru-HiaBdapaiQun-godi-kkainbattumtin- 
Virappa-aiandapaiiiuii-jeydaiian Krishna Yirappanc. 
Allotta pungulal-Angayarkkannainmaiy-alayattun- 
Mallappanattu-por-kainbam palagiyavaru kando 
nall-ittamagap -pon -pu^u vitta-nannalar uk k-oru 
vill-Ittap-poral - vilak k-ittarul Krishna Virappane. 
yirlcliciniran-Kittimchcburan-jodi-vilangUBa-Aiyan- 
gariclichurati-Kayarkann-irandaui-pirakarattini^^ 
cMrar vadapiijja-nielpiira-mandapaii-jeydaiMaittan 



No. 23.] VELLANGUDI PLATES OF YENKATA I : SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 



307 



The VellaiLgudi plates mention that Krishnappa II set up a mani-stamWiain the temple at 
"Madura. It is not quite easy to 6nd out what is meant by a mani-stambha. The TrfUfpani- 
malai seems to throw some light on the matter ; a pillar in the temple of Mlnakshi was plated 
with gold by one Mallappa. In coarse of time the gold plating was worn out and Krishna 
Vlrappa (that is, Virappa, son of Krishnappa I) regildecl the pillar. 1 It is perhaps this act, 
which is attributed to the father of Krishnappa II in the Tiruppani-malai, that is alluded to a.s 
iiaving been performed by the son. 

Another fact which is not quite clear about Krishnappa II is that he conquered the king- 
dom of the Pancha-Timvadis. 3 Who these five Tiruvadis were it is not possible to say hi the 
present state of our knowledge of the history of the Tiruvadi kingdom. We may. however, 
provisionally assume that the term Pancha-Tiruvadi refers to the members of the various 
branches of the Tiruvadi lino, such as the Tiruppappnr si'arupaiu> the Siraivay srarrtpnia. tht3 
Jayatunga-nadu warupam, etc., which were ruling simultaneously over portions of the Tiravacii 
r&jyam. 

The following is an alphabetically arranged list of the names of places which occur in the 
Inscription (11. 123-14:0), with their identifications with modern villages and towns : 

i. Names of villages, etc., occurring in connection with th<; grant. 



Ko. 


Kame of Village. 


Modcra Kaijie. 


Taluk. 


Di-tric:. 


1 


Anchanalliir 


Karikesavanallur 


Atnba^aiiiiidram . 


Tinncvclly. 


2 


Atfralanall-ur 


Attalanallur . 


Bo. 


Do, 


3 


Kallanai(ore*]skuTicli . 


Kallidaikkuficbchi . 


Bo. 


Do, 


4 

5 

6 


Kailasanatha-tatalca (tanV), 
belonging to Viravanallur. 

K&iy otfcank uruchi 
Kannadiyankul-araclichi v 





Bo. 

AniMsam n d rain 


Do. 


Uutw through the Tinne- 
velly district. 


Thine vclly. 


7 


Kottalakuriclii . . , 


Kottarakkur.ichclii 


Srivaiktmfcimi * 


Do. 


8 


Kudireyocll (garden) 











9 


KurungudL .... 


Tirnknraiigiidi 


Xangnneri 


Tiiuiovjlly. 


10 


Manarnaiigala 


BJ anfinnaijtgalain 


A m'baainud: > aiu 


J>i. 


11 


Padaryoda (watercourse) 


; ,... 








12 


Perumbattulkado . * 


ETadnyani Perumpatfiu 


Araba sa m udrani 


Tiuncvelly. 


13 


Ponnadi-kulya (canal) . 


*# 








14 


Sariikar amaha- patha (liigliroatl) 


.*. 







15 


Tadicheri, Taclchm or Tadcher 


Titlncberi 





4'*mit 


16 


Uppnva'Qyaihpntfcur 


Uppanimuttiir 








17 


Vellangolli . 


Vallankuli 


Aiuta&xmtulvain 





18 


Viravar.allur 


Viravanallur 


Bo. ... 


Tinnevelly. 



1 See the fourth verso in foot-note 2 above, p. 308. 

2 [See below, p. 317, * ob note 5, and Eeport on Epigraphy for 1905-00, p. 85, paragraph tU-J 




308 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVI, 



ii* Names of villages occurring in connection with the donees. 


Same of Village. 


Modern Name. 


Taluk. 


District, 


Abb lira . , . 


Abburu , 


Safcteaapalle 


Guntur. 


Addaiiki . 


Addanki . 


Qngole . 


* 


Alikonda , ; 


..*... 





....a. 






f Teuali . 


Gunitir. 


AIlu 


Allur . 


1 Kellore , 

Koyilkuiitla , 
f 


Nellore. 
KurnooL 








I^Nandikotkur , . 





llura .... 


Aluru .... 


f Alur 
(.Tadpatri 


Bellary or 
Anantapur. 


Ammaaamaclii or AinnaBiaii- 
chi. 










Arakatavelma (see ArakattaremuJa). 






Arakattavemula . 


Arakatavemula . 


Proddatur 


Ouddapah. 


Attali.ru ... * 


Attaluru ^ 


Sattenapalle . . . 


Guntur. 


Balapanuru 


* 


* 


*< 


- Bellamkouda 


Bella ink on da * . ^ 


Satteuapalle . , 


Gunfcnr. 


Bitr*gunta 


Bifcragunta 


Kandukur * , 


\ellore. 


Bondapatti 


* '* 


r Panganur 




"NT, Arcot. 






Kaudufcur 


\ellore. 


Brahmalapalli * .. . 


Brain mala pal le . 


Atomkur 
Vinikouda 


Gnutur. 






Nandyal 


Kurnool or 






LGooty .... 


Anantapur. 


Budapuru , 

Buravilli . . . . \ 


* * 




* 


* |4 


JBuria(?) . 





**f ** 


* * > > 


Chandaiu * * 


Cfcowduru 


Froddatur 




Cheppali 1 . 


Chempalli , ^ 


Gudiyattaiu 


N. Ariot* 


Cherukupalli 


** t ** 


*.* 




Chilfcu (P) . 


** 







Chiravuru . . . * 


^litrravufii , ^ ^ 


3uutur . . 


Guntur. 



[Chhappalli is a family name among the Telugu Mnliki-nidu Bralimans. H. K. S.] 



ISTo. 23.] VELLANGUDI PLATES OE VENKATA I : SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 



303 



Kaine of Village. 


Modern Name. 


) Taluk, 


District. 


Chirakfiru * * . * 


Cherukuru 


fBapatla . 
I 

( Kauduktir 


Guatur or 
Nellore, 


Chittalum . 


Cbittaluru 


Rayacboti 


Cuddapah. 


Dasarajapalli . * 


Dasarajapalle * 


Ongole . . 


Guntur. 


Devulapalli 


Devalapalle - . 


Vayalpad . 


Chittoor. 


Dupum * 


Dupadahalli (?) . 


ETudligi . 


Bellary. 


E4avelli . . . 


Kavali Edavalli 


Atmakor .... 


Nellore. 


fipum . 


Yepuru .... 


Rapiir ..... 





Ettfiru .... 


ffituru . 
-{ Yeturu . 
'^Eturu . 


Cuddapak 
Bapur .... 
Pun^anur . 


Cuddapah. 
Nellore or 
N. Arcot. 


Goddamari - 


.,...* 





* i* 


Gollanapalli * 


Gollepalli 


Atmakuni . 


Nellore. 


Gottipadu .... 


Gotapalli .... 


Punganar 


N. Arcot. 


Gunturu ... 


Guntar .... 


Guntur .... 


Guntur. 


Gutti - 


Gutti . . . 


Gutfci" . 


Anantapur. 


Haleubarivi 


Halabarivi . . 


Alur * 


Bellary. 


Hampasamudraui 


Hampesagara (?) . 


Huvinahad^galli , 


>, 


Jnclraganti (?) - 


* < . > 





.... 


Jagarlaputi 


Jagarlamudi 


Bapatla , 


Guutur. 


Jayanti * * 


Jayanti .... 


Naiidigama 


Krishna. 


Joisnalaganda * 


Jonnal^gadda * 


Naragaraopet or Gunt.ur 


Gunfcqr. 


Kadula * 


.* * . * 


* . 


...... 


Kalpa (?) . 





.** 





Ka|ttkaturu * 


* . 


Palmaner 


*.* 

N. Arcot 


Kaftclierla * - i 


Pedakaiicherla . 


Vinikonda . 


Guntur. 


KaScbi .... 


Conjoeveram . . , 


Conjeeveram . . 


Chingelpnfc. 


Karaviti * . 


Earamcbedw . * * 


Bapatla . . 


Gantur. 


Kata(or Katra)vayi * 











ICattapa (?) 


MM 


" 




Khyabacberu (?) 


** ** 


i 






2 EL' 



310 



EPIGRAPHIA 




Kodura . 

Kolakalur 
Kolla(P) . 
Kraosla . 
Kundavara 

Msganti . 
Matnudur . 
Maakala . 
Matyemadugn 
Mokshagttndam . 
Morluru 

Maddalapnra . 
Hula (?) . 
MtLi-amadugu 
Muaalakavi (?) . 
27aO&gatta 
ISTandyala . . 
Narasancboii (?) . 
Nidachanabetla . 



Nitfcuru . 

Nokala (?) 
Koryya(?) 



Olaviiru 
Pad:Jarangi 



Pa^uinarti > 



Palagiri . 
Falasamndram . 
Parnan(?i , 



A.yyavari Kaduru 
Brahma Kflduru 



Mamaduru 



MokshaguBdam 
Molluru , 
Mudlapura 

* 
Manamadngn (?) 



N"andyal . 

**<* 

P **.* 

Niduru 

NittQru 



Pandarangi 



Pcntrala . 
Pallaglri . 



Kaadyal 

Bapatla . 



Afcmakur 



Cumbum . 
Eayachuti 
lospet 
t 
raaigiri 



^andyal . 



Ramallatot 
fBelkry . 
UTadpatri 



Udayagiri 



KtirnooL 
Guntur, 



Nellore* 



Kurnool, 

Cuddapab. 

Bellary* 

* * 
Xellore. 



KumooL 



KarnooL 
Bellary or 



Krisbna. 



No. 23.] VELLANG-UDI PLATES OF VENKATA I : SAKA.-SAMVAT 1520. 



Name of Village. 


Modern Xame. 


Taluk. 


District. 


Patta ... * 


* 


.,..t. 


tl * , m 


Pedipati . 


Pedapadn 


Ellore , 


Krishna. 


Pen.ngon.da 
I?iH8t"p& * * 


Pen.ukon.da * * 


Pcrnikonda . . 


A.nautapur. 


Pisupati or Pisupati . 


Pisapadu ... * 

Puslipa *!!*! . 


Satteuapalle 
Cncldapnli * 


Guntur. 
Cuddapiilu 


Pofct^adurti 


Pot-taisutfci 


Kaiiguneri 


Tuinevelly. 


Pratbipadu * 
Po.slip8- <:r iri * * 


Prafctipadu 


^ Satfcenapalle * 
(.Gucfcur , 


Guntur. 

?3 


Raddicherla 


Eeddielierla * 


Carabura * 


Kumool. 






f" Kandukar 

i 


Ncllore. 


Ramacliandrapura 


Rauiachandrapuram * * 


I 
<| Gurttur . 
i 


Guiitur. 






1 
i^Oagole . 


*> 


Ra^urn * 


Ravuru * 


Kandukur 


Xellore* 


Rayalacheru 


Rayalacheruvu * . * 


Dharmavaram . * 


Aaautupur. 


Remarli . 
SaHcicrara (?) * * * 


** 








Saiigu (Sarigra ?) 


* i* 


t,^ k* 





Sanugod * * 
SaLsauA-kotta * 


* 


* *t* 

< 





Settipalli . * 


Sefctipalle * * 


fTellavaram . . i 
(^Cliaudragiri * 


Godavari, 
X. Arcot. 


SevathaBa (?) 


* * # 





* * 






fMarkapur . * , 
I 


Cttddapah, 


Siiikesula * 


Sunkfe.la . * 


^ Kainallakoi , . . 
I^Pulivendula 


Kumool. 
Cuddapah, 


SishtU (or Siahtla) 








* * * 


Solasa (?) . * * 


Solasettipalle . * 


Kangundi 


X. Arcot. 


Sorabu * 


Soraba (?) 


Shimoga . . . 


ME^sore State- 


Sixmuluru ... 


t* * 





* ** 


Tarimdellapali 
Ts/Qfirstiiru, *. 


** * 


4* * 





Tangirala .... 


* 
Tangella (?)... 


Kandukar . * . 


Nellor* 



S12 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



L. XV J- 



Xame of Villag-e. 


Modern Name. 


Talab. 


District* 


T%ampalli 








"""^" 


Tlmpati . 


Tirupat! . 


> ClwidlBgili . 


Cliittoor 


Tiramalapnra . , 


Timmnlapuram , 


Udayagin 


Nellore. 


Tdbapalli . 


Totapslle 


Tenali . 


Gimtur. 


Xubati . 










***"** 





...... 


Tumaluru , 


Tummaluru t 


Xandikotkur 


KurnJoL 


Tnrumilia 


Tarituella 


Cambum % 










j? 


Uddfgiri . 


Udayagiri 


Udayftgiri 


JSTellore. 


Uplatladiya 


Uppalapadu 


^Atmakur 









( Cumbum 


BTurnool. 


Vrtinganli 














fSafctenapalle . 


Guntur. 


Ptukilrn . 


Vfttnkura 


-j Rapur . . 


Nellore or 






L Udayagiri 




Valavnra . 










* * 





* <* 


Vlaapalli .... 


** * 










* ** 


* * 


TangaTiti 


* *r 






Vellffla (?) .... 


*** * 


* * 





Pellfltuia' * 


Vellaturu 


C Tenali 4 


Guntur. 






(Vinikonda t 




rellurn . 


rValluru 


Bapatla 




r elpnmnlla (?) . . . 


CVellore . 


Fellore . 
** i 


North Aroofc. 


elvnnuru 


Velpuru ... | 


" Sattenapalle , , ( 






( 


Vinikonda . a I 


j> 


Irilrn . 


Firuru . . . rAtmakar . . I Xdlore. 




(.Udayagiri 


iminanura or Yeinmaiiara 


I 1 
* - "" J 








<* 







1 From inked impression, prepared under 



avy supervision. 



Vellangudi Plates of Venkatapati-deva Maharaya I : Saka-Samvat 1520. 



i. 






F, W, THOMAS 



SCALE TWO-FIFTHS 



WH1TT.NGHAM * 



PHOTCn. 5 TH. 



!Ti7;<1^ 



4 
6 
8 
3 
2 
i 
3 
J 






^ 
^ 

^ 
'^ 



rfff.iwvf^ 
"'p ^ 



* T T f v i vr ~ <vi ^ri n I n I't i * v w w ' j f * ,fi. M.-;TI ^ M ^ 
?1l^|,S^i 



88- 
90 
92 
94 
"98 
98 
100 
102 

104 
106 

108 
110 



112 




a. 




154 
156 
158 
160 
162 
164 
166 
16S 
170 
172 
174 
176 



^Tww=-, 



. .. . . 






. 23.] VELLANGUDI PLATES OF VENKATA I: SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 313 



29, 40, Sailasikha ; vv. J3. 84, 41, Indravajra ; vv. 16, 18, 38, Mslim ; w. 17, 39, Pv,slipit&gra. ; 
TV. 19, 21, 26. 28, 31, 37, Upajati; v. 47, Dodhaka ; v. 72 1, J/awdafcrania ; w. 43f-46, 

208f-20H, <?*.] 

[A T .B. Letters enclosed in round brackets are meant to be omitted.] 



First Plate : Second Side. 



2 
3 

4 



: i[i*J 
* i 



frirfar 



[i 



Lines 5-110, containing verses already printed in the Marcclapalli Grant (Vol. XI, No. 34) 
and the Padmuneri Grant' (see above, p. 292), are omitted. 

Fourth Plate : First Side. 



Ill 

112 

113 



115 
116 
117 

118 

119 
120 

121 

122 

123 
124. 



(i) 



i 



[ 



i The anutvam is used in addition' to the varga-pancTtama in Ail and aU Bubsequent instances. Bead 

* Bend 'f^n. 

* The antinvara is employed instead of the final m here and in subsequent pages. 

* Eed Sfn. " s Read f f . 
Bead fmg q m q<V is corrected from q ; read 
' Bead ' 

J0 Eead 

" Bead 



Eead 



Read 



lt Kead ^ T ^. 




314 EPIGRAPBIA UTDICA. [VOL. XVI. 



125 

126 flfrnaTc[ i[i 

127 



128 
129 
130 



Fourth Plate : Second Side. 

132 
133 



135 air[w]^Tci i gpsrrar: 



143 

144 99 



lt 

145 ^T 



136 Trc^nw^T u ^mro^^r HT^H: i fRrrar[:*] 

137 ^rtTOnrmnpjf^ra: 18 i[i w*] rrf^ 

138* [t^t]fxr ^fieri i ^wiw'f^'TOlgj^OTf^m i[i 



139 



i Read ft. 

* Bead ^. * Bead Vm . Read 

7 Bead ^cW. 8 Bead ^ijffare and n fT . Read 

w Beii m. S Bead ^^. Read 

Bead ^iT5^n . " Kead ^g^f, " Bead 

Read jg ^-^f . e*d rN T fi. 1S Eead 



of VenUatapati-dev, Maharaya I : Sa^va, 



in a. 





-vib. 





p. W. THOMAS 



SCAU TWO-FIFTHS 



ix a. 




292 






). 23.] VELLA3TGUDI PLATES OF VENKATA I : SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 315 



148 
147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 
153 

154 
155 
156 

157 

158 

159 

160 

161 

162 

163 

164 

165 



fsr<3T [i*] 



ft- 



Fifth Plate : First Side. 

irerwft ^^f^^ff^ 8 >& 



nftiwrWwr. i 



: i [i 



Hff?f 



I [I 



0) 



i[ 



Eead 



, 

The Madras Museum Plata* No. 14 of 1906, read :~ 

Read 
B Bead 

Bead 

' Bead qffa 

The 





Bead 



- seems to be corrected from wme other letter. 




12 



Read 

M Bead 
12 Bead 



" Bead 
20 Read 



i* Bead <jjrt. 
is Bead St'iffa. 
Bead 
2* Bead vri 



(0 



24 




181 
182 
183 



EPIGHAPHIA IKDICA. [VOL. XVI. 



166 



167 

168 

169 

170 frret: i irrawrwt9 ! twiHrft*wrolf^P?T: <0 
171 



172 ^ TT?niTRfr^f ^tf:TfHt% lit (i) 
173 



174 ^ ^raf^wT^^ff^t^T^^i^fif^ff ?i^ f^rosi^r 7 [ii 

175 nnsrfir n^^Hft^ ^r^ ^wgt ^^f?r 8 
176 



Fifth Plate : Second Side 

177 ^*wt^: pifcfi!?wvraf \ 

178 m 10 



179 ^ 

180 wft [i*] f^TT^rt^ IR [?r*] 



185 n&m vzKffcrzi 17 ft^rr 



186 f?f Hctl-j5(ff I fTff 1fiT^RTTr^TT^i% cff ^flf n 

187 

188 



i Bead ftnHrfW. 2 Eead C ^aWT^T^^ft. ' Eead 

* Eead f3gp|. 5 Read ^. Eead 

Read f^atSf^ 1 ?^. 8 Eead ^^f?f. * Read 

">Eead ^pt. S "E'ead^^ag:. Read 

Bead ^KT^nr:. w Read fa. ls Read 

Head Pf^gt^^^TH} . " Bead fsnn, Read 



Vellangudi Rates of Venkacapau-deva Maharava 



Xb. 



Saka-Samvat 1520. 




xi a. 





422 
424 

428 
428 
430 

432 
434 

436 

438 

440 

442 



)m 





,^ 



. THOMAS 



SCALE TWO-FIFTHS 



WHITTINQHAM & GRIGGS, PHOTO'Lim 



xiib. 



XV a. 




464 




XV b. 




508 




530 



1520. 317 




190 t 



191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
i 



: ID 



ID ] 



. .D 



198 



199 



Plate : First Side. 






sis. 3j 



Sixteenth Plaie : Second Side. 




552 

O^AJ 



i Bead 
* Bead sgf. 
& 



. 
. [This the Plate really readB 

t.Pancha r -Tiruadi.-H. K. BJ 



, iai \ rt ; 

- w T n r T }i Padnianeri grant (above, p. 295, ,. ) 
.-F.^V.l.] L 

Read 



is Read 



Bead 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. 




: 8 [i*J 

i 



Seventeenth Plate : First Side. 



555 



55S 



50 ^arw: i 'sW^rHTWTOf ^f^rm*^^ 5 i[i 



561 3ErfT^?T iRf l[l ^^f*] ^^TTT 1W tr^TTt^qw I TT- 

562 
5G3 



565 ?T 

1 nr- 



5i'.7 fe?^*^ m^ tra^: [ s, 



ABSTRACT OP CONTENTS. 

(Verse 1.) Adoration to Rama's feet. 

(7. 2.) Adoration to Vishvaksena. 

(V. 3.) Adoration to Vaxaka (Vishnu). 

(V. 4.) States tiiat the Moon, born from the ocean of milk, is resplendent. 

(Vv. 5-7.) From the Moon came in regular succession Budha, Pururavas, Ayu, JN"aliuslia 
Tayati and Paru. In this family was bora the king Bharata, and in his lineage Santazm. 5 
th-j faurth after Santanu was Vija'ya (Arjuna) ; his son was Abkimanyu ; his son -wn. 
Parikshit ; the eighth in descent from Parlkshit was Uanda ; the ninth from Nanda Tvaa 
Chalikka; Eajanarendra was the seventh from Chalikka ; the tenth from Kajanarondra' waa 
Bijjalindra ; the third from him was VIra-Hemmali-Raya, the lord of HSyapnri ; and tlie 



a Eead 
Eea.1 5TT?i. [Pe^aps the correct reading will be ^TSnffWfRT*. Ed.] 



Ee8>1 3 ' Ke Read 



& ^a^ sfi^KW ^ft 1 TO 3 . * Bead ftm^t an a %!%;. * a Bead 

I ^lf. Written in Teiugu-Kannada alphabet. 



, udi P lat eso f VenkatapatUdeva Mah^ya , = SaWa-Sa^ , MO. 




X I '/I 



568 









i^t^M^ 

i-^m^ 

m*m^ 
^^&^^i^^^^\^^^^^ 

ik^^fS^Mi^^.^i* ; <* W'p-if|if ; 

^wf^ : ii^;pi^^ 
'^^^^Sl'Sli^ 

feilliliflvitm*::,!^;^ 









P.W.THOMAS 



SCALE TWO-FIFTHS 









No. 23.] VELLAKGUDI PLATES OF YENKATA I : SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 319 



fourth from him was Tata-Piroiama. To Tata-Pmnarna was bora Somi-deva, who took from 
his enemies in the course of a single day seven forts. To S5rai-deva was born Vlra-Raghava- 
deTa, and to the latter, Pianama. 

(Y* 8.) The SOD of Pinnama, the lord of Araylti-nagara 5 was Bmkka-Rja ; he consolidated 
the kingdom of Saluva-Nrisimha. 

(W. 9-10.) B ukka- Raja was married to Bailambi&a; to these was born a son Darned 
Bama-Raja. 

(Vv. 11-14.) This prince Rama-Baja conquered the army of Sapada, consisting* of seTentj- 
thonsand horses, and took from him the fort of ATanigiri durga, 1 driving away Kasapp-Odeya. 
This king, who was a great devotee of Yishnu, took the fort of Kandanavoli durga by the 
prowess of his arms ; here he was poisoned by bis relations, which did no harm to him. Ke 
had a queen named Lakkambika. A son named Srlranga-Raja was bora to them. 

(Yv. 15-16.) The name of the queen of Srlranga-Raja was Tirumalambita* By her 
he had sons Kama-Raja, Tirumala-Biya and Venfeatadri^in the order in which they are 
mentioned. 

(Vy. 17-18.) BSma-Eaja ruled the earth with justice, after haying destroyed his enemies, 
who were a pest to the world. He surpassed even the wishing tree of, the gods in his gifts. 

(V. 19.) Venkatadri-Raja was also distinguished in the world as a warrior. 

(V, 20,) Tirumala-Maharaya, the middle one among the three sons of Sriranga-Raya, 
having defeated his enemies and being anointed king, protects the earth like Vishnu among the 
Trimfirtis. 

(W. 21-26.) Praises of Tiramala-Haharaya. 

(V. 27.) This king performed frequently all the dSnas mentioned in the Sgamas, such as 
the fcandto-ittZS-y ariwAa and the upadanas, in the temples at Kafietd, Srirafiga, etc., and at the 

sacred tirthas. 

(Vv. 28-30.) Then was born to him by Vegalamb5, Sriranga-Saya, who, residing at 
Uddagiri, conquered the forts of KondaYidu, Vinikonda-pura and other forts and, making 
Penugonda his capital, ruled in splendour with all insignia of royalty, such as the mavara, etc. 
By the gifts made by this king at the time- of his coronation poverty was completely wiped out 

for good nten. 

(Vv. 31-35.) After Sriranga-Eaya had reached the region of Vishnu (i.e. died), his brotber 
Venkatapati-deva-Baya, born of the same mother, ascended the throne and ruled the earth 
with justice. Just as Eama was crowned by Vaslshfeha, conquered the rahhasas and gowned 
the world, this king was anointed by the learned Tatayarya, defeated the Yavams (Musalmans) 
and ruled the earth. He had four wives, named Venkatamba, Bagbavamba, Pedobainamba 
and Krishnamamba. MiHamanda-sahn, the son of Malukibharama, being defeated 
repeatedly by the army of this king, used daily to return dejected from the lttle-fi*3d after 
being deprived of his elephants, horses, arms and umbrella. 
(V. 36.) Description of Venkatapati-deva-Baya's reign. 

(Vv. 37-50.) The birudas of this king as employed by the court-heralds. 

(Y.5L) The kings of the Kamboja, Bhoja, Ealinga, EaraMta, etc, countries used to 

stand at the, gate of this king and praise him. 

(V. 52.) Having made, by the power of arms, the throne ot Ka^ta h is own ^ a after 

reion between Seta aud the Hnnadn, V.nkatftpaa. 



conquering all his enemies living in tke region between 

deva-Raya ruled the kingdom in joy, ,777 * */, o 



- ,777 * 

(Vv. 58-98.) IntheSaka year 1520 (counted by *1, 1J* .6j=6, 

a=0 which caPie^Bdedt 



[This should be Adavam Surg* : see above ' ^ 209 ' a ' 



320 EPIGBAPHIA 1NDICA. [VOL; 

Tbright lialf of the month. SrSvaria,, in the holy presence of the god Srl-Veikatesia, the villages 
of Vellangolli, Kaiyottankuruobi, Uppu-vanyaih-ptittiii!' and MIn&ma&gala in the 
Perumbatt-ulkade 9 being clubbed together under the name of Virabhupa-samudra, 
were granted, together with all the eight kinds of enjoyments* to a number of learned 
Brahmanas of various $&kh$s, names, gotras and sutras, with privileges of free disposal, mortgage 
and sale, at the request o Krislinablinpa, whose genealogy is giyen as follows :~~ 

la the Kasyapa gotra was born ISTaga-Prithvipati (^Nagama-JSTayaka). To him was born 
king ViSYanatha, who, liaving conquered in battle the Tiruyadi, th$ great Pan^ya, the 
Vanada-raya and other kings, and having annexed their territories, became the master of the 
kingdom of Hadlrura. To him was born the prince Krishna who acquired tlxe * overlordship 
of the south* (DaksMna-Nayahatv&m) j Krishna's wife was Iiakshrayambika. To these was 
born "Vira-Blmpati. He built in front of the shrine of Saundara-Nayaka 1 a mantfapa havipg 
pillars of rare workmanship ; he also presented the goddess Minaksh^ with a kavacha (body 
cover) made of gold and set with rare gems, He made the sixteen mah&danas, beginning witfe 
liem-Ssva. Hia queen was Tinimalambika. Their aon was Krishna- Mahipati. He gave to the 
god Banga-pati 3 a kavacha studded with precious stones, a similarly bejewelled u$Jin$$ha, yellow 
silk garments, necklaces, *Mnta (crown), kundalas (ear-rings), Jcatfcsutra (waist zones), ai3td 
presented him further with villages aud gardens, and made arrangements for the celebration 
of rath-olsavas (car-festivals) and the daily services. He set up a number of lights in the 
presence of the god Saundara-Nayaka ; made arrangements for bathing the image of the god 
in milk and for the car-festival ; gave ornaments (?) ; and set up a large mani-stambha. He* 
performed the ceremony of weighing himself against gold and the mahadanas of hemagarbha,,. 
svar-dkewto, [sap]-ambudhi and Jcalpa-saJGhin. His praises; lie , founded agraJiffrSs for 
Brahmanas and protected them ; he paid to Brahmanas enough money to enable them thereby 
to redeem their lands situated in the countries of other kings, which were mortgaged for the 
purposes of paying taxes ; the PIndya, the Chera and the Chola kijigs served him as his 
magadhas. He possessed the birudas dakshina-samudr-esa ' and * the taker of the kingdoms 
of the Pancha-Timvactis/ 4 

The villages granted were situated in the Tbuvadi-cfefo, in the Mnili-nadu sub-division 
of Anjarakkare, and they belonged to the eastern portion of KallanaikkuricM. The 

boundaries were : 

on the south-east, the tank called Kailasanatha-tataka on the boundary of Virava-nallur ; 

on the north, the boundary stone of Attala-nallur ; 

on the east, KottalakuriekU the channel of the village of Kottalaknrchi, the high- 
road called ankara*maliapatha on the boundary of Arlcha-nallQr, and the way 
leading to Virava-nallur ; 

on the south, the boundary atone of Kuningudi, the watercourse of that village called 
Padaiydda, the Kanaadiyantsl^ra^^t (channel), the boundary stone of Kallane- 
knrohi, the eastern ridge ef the sixth Jcannjtru (from the TSmrapar^S evidently)- 
and boundary stone of the seventh kannaru flowing into Tadicheri ; and 

on the west, the^ river TamraparnI, flowing northwards, and the channel of Pon- 
nadiktilya, of the village of Tadeher. The stone on the 'boundary of the eighth 
kannffru of this Tadcheri village, the mound lluppayadi-ttidar, and the garden 
called KudireySdL 

1 This ia the uame of the presiding deity, Siva, ol the famous temple *t Madura. 

2 This is the name of the goddess of the same temple. 

* This is the name of the god Vistm^ of the largest temple at Srirangam in 8. ludia. 
* See above^p. 307, foot-note 2.. 



No. 23.] VELLANGUDI PLATES OF VEKKATA I: SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 321 

(Vv. 99-100.) The total number of vriltis (shares) was two hundred and sixty-one; 
and each share was divided into five amtas (parts), so that each vritti might suffice for the 
maintenance of five persons. 1 The following is a list of the names of he donees : 

Table showing tlie names, etc., of the donees. 



Line 2 
of 


Name of Donee. 


Father's Name. 


Name of Village 
or Family. 


Sakha. 


Qotra. 


AAsas. 


text. 














207 


Visvanatha . * 


Bboglsvara 


Vangaviti 


Yajus , 


Harita . * 


4 


208 


Venkatadri 


Anna-Bhatta 


[Pfj&upati 


Do. . 


Bbaradvaja 


7 


210 


Ayyapa 


Venkatarya 


6 until ru * 


Bo. . 


f 
Srivatsa * 


3 


211 


Tirumalarya 


Peddii-araa- BLatta 


Pande (?) 3 


Do. , 


Kasyapa * . 


4 


212 


Madhavarya . * 


Kondu-Bhatta 


Kidurn 


Do. . 


Haritasa . . , 


2 


214 


Padxnanabba 


EaSI-Bbatta 


Jagarlaputi 


Balivri - 

cha. 


B Laradvaja 


5 


215 


Soma(ya) . 


Soma-Bhatta 


Makanapeddi 


Yajus . ' 


Srivatsa . 


4 


217 


Krislina-Bhatta . 


Peru-Bhatta 


CLiravuru 


Do. . 


Do. 


5 


218 


Tirumala-Bhatta 


Basavarya 


Velpuinalla (?) . 


Do. . 


KSSyapa . 


5 


220 


Peru-Ebatta 


Xarasarii-Bhatta 


Ravura * 


TTV A 

xrO. . 


Kaundinya 


5 


221 


Kahgu-Bbatta 


Rainarja . 


Kalaga (?) 


Do. . ! 


Haritasa . 


3 


222 


Naga-Bbatta 


Naga-Bhatta . 


Pasumarti . 


Do. . 


Kasyapa 


2 


224 


Yajneivara 


Narayanarya 


Mula (?) 


Do. . 


Gaatama . 


1 


225 


Venkatadii 


Yellarya . . * 


Uppals 


Bahvyi- 

cba. 


Bbaradvaja 


7 


226 


Venkatadri 


Tirumala-Bhatta . 4 . 


Cbeppali . 


Yajas . 


Kaiyapa . 


1 


227 


Chitti-Xarasaih-Bhatta . 


Dugarya 


Vellaturu 


Do. . 


Bbaradvaja 


8 


229 


Bucbchana-Bbatta 


Kondarya * ' * 


SinkesTiIa > 


Da. * 


Kasyapa . 


6 


230 


Yenkatadri 


Krishnnm-Bbatta . 


Morlum . 


Do. * 


Lobital * 


5 


231 


Viraih-Bbatta 


Akkala-Bbatta . 


Dupum (?) 


Do. . 


Ha/itasa 


3 


232 


Kondu-Bbatta * 


Obhalarya . 


Xarasancholi (?) 


Do. . 


Kasyapa . 


1 


234 


Duga (orDurga)-Bbatta 


Akkala-Bhatta . 


Vellala 


Babrri- 
cba. 


1 Bbaradvaja 


3 










Do. . 


Bo. 


1 


235 


Sarva-Bbatta's wife 


* ** 


* ** 










Yeiikatamba. 












236 


Rama-Bhatta 


Baghavarya . 


SttiirtL 


Do, . 


Vasi&htha 


9 


2S7 


Garudadri * 


Peddi-Bbatta 


Matyemadugu . 


Yajua . 


Katisika . 


3 

========== 



It 



tb.t 



on. 



tb. 



o 4. 



[ProtaWy Pandepeddi was the fainUy name. H. K. S.] 



S22 



EP1GEAPHIA INDICA. 



[Vol.- 



of Xame of Donee, 

text. 


Father's Xame. 


Name of Villag 
or Family. 


e Saklia 


r 

Gofcra. 1 ^**** t 

!____- 


229 - ! [Ijlyjam-Blutta 
i 


. Itakshmansrya 


. Alikonda . 


* Yajus 


* Srlvatsa 


S 


240 Venkatadri 


, Eaina-Bhact& 


. Chirnkdru 


. Balivn- Kalyana . 


5 








cha. 


* A, - 




i 












211 Tirumalarya * * Mallu-Bhatta 


, Edavelli , 


Yajua 


Srlvatsa 


10 


243 


Viram-Bhatta 


Abburu 





Do. . 


* 


! 


(Here Plate VII is U*t) 








244 ; Lafcshmanirya . 


Ramarya . 


Bitragnnta 


BahvyN 
cha. 


[BLarajdvaja 




1 
245 i Venkatidri 

I 


Siva-Bhatta 


Addanki * . 


Yajus . 


EaSji apa . 


* 


2-16 i Bamacbatidrarya 

i 


Oba-Bhatea 


BItragunta 


Bahvjri- 
cha. 


Bharadvaja 


rji 


347 i Hari-Bhatta 


Pfdipa-Bhatta . 


Akajyautishata . 


Rich -. 


M[aujd ga lja 


2 


240 Parvatarya 


Xarasarya 


Arakafcavelma . 


Yajus . 


Srlvatsa ; 


* 


250 Krisfinarii-Bhatta 


Bo. ... 


Yammaniiru 


Do. , 


Do. 


Si 


251 Yailam-Bbatta . 


Yallam-Bhatta . 


Pitti 


Bo. . 


Badarajana 


4, 


253 Xarasara-Bhatta . 


Acheliana-BLatta- 


Nitturu , 


Bo. . 


Kaugik^ 
* 


1} 


254 ' Bekara-Bhatta . . i 


Ayya-Bhatta 


Brahmalapalli , 


Do. . 


Haritasa , . . 


4 


235 Ixdnarya 


Cbitti-Bhatt-a 


Yajilamurti 


Do. . 


Gautama 9 


a 


257 ; Padxnaxiattia 


Achchanarya 


Budapurn 


Do, . 


Bharadvaja 


Si 


558 AchchaiuLrya 


Yajn&rya 


Tirumalapura 


Do. . 


Kau^ika 


* 


239-1 





Sangu (Sangra ?) 


*** 


Ka^yapa 


* **> 


211 Obliallrya . 


Pinabasavarja 


Kattapa , 


cha. 


Bharadvaja 




253 Attoam.Bbatta . 


Lalcilimanarya ^ . ; 


iluru , 


Yajus . 


Ka^yapa 


4. 


2J3 VsnkatSdri 


Pinrtabbasayarya 


Vellala . 


Do, . 


Bharadvaja 


S 


264 Vengam-Bhatta . 


Tininmlarya 


tVkuru . 


Do. . 


KauSika . 


** 


~G6 Xarahari . 


Basava-Bbatta 


Vellgla . 


Bahvri- 


Bharadvaja 


e 








cha. 






2f7 L^gam-Biatta . 


Kamfi-Bliatte . . ' 


femmaniira . 


Yajus . 


Snvatsa a 




269 Yirupikatia 


STarasaih-Bhatta 


Do. . . 


Bo. . 


Do. 




270 Chintamani 


L-inga-Jyotiahika 4 1 


Vellala . . ] 


Bahvyi- 












cha. 




Arf 


272 Sarva-Bhatta 


^aniarya, r 














Migampalli . ! 


K'ajus . 


Do. 


-dL 


273 _ Xlmmaraaa . w " 

* fRrulflnfli- V TP A /^ TSI. 


Pijayargghavarya , I 

. 


iamayaija . I 


lik . 


fabishtha . 


S 



^^^^..^^^STkT*'-*---*'' 



No. 23.] VELLANGUDI PLATES OF VENKATA I : SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 



823 



Line 
of 


Xaine o Donee. 


Father's Name. 


Name of Village 

or" Family. 


f 


Gdtta, 


Amlas, 


text. I 










_ - 


1 
274 j Yira[nn]a . 


Virappa 


iluddalilpiira, 


Babvri- 
eha. 


Kasyapa * 


2 


1 

276 


Hari-Bbatta 


Baumrya . 


Koclura 


Yajus . 


Kaundinya 


2 


277 


H ana man . 


Appalarya . 


Velvunura 


Do. . 


Sri vats a 


2 


279 


Cbokkayarya 


Aubbala-Bbatta . 


Paitlfila 


Do. . 


Haritasa . * 


I 


28O 1 Cbikka Yeiikatiulri 


Acbcba m - Bhat ta . 


Sasana-kotta 


Bahvri- 
cba. 1 


Kaiyapa . 




281 I Venkatadri . 1 


Konaifa-Bbatta , 


Muruniadiigu * 


Do. . ; 


A trey a 


4 


28S | Rugniayarya 


Appaji Odayarya 


Settipalli * 


Do. ., 


Vasishtba a * 


10 


284 I Yirupaksba-Bbatta 


Yedappya 


Paddarangi 


Do. . 


Visvamitra 




285 I Tirnmalarya . 


Tiruwalarya 


Kancbi 


Do. . 


Haritasa . 


4 


287 


Varada 


Yyasarayarya 


Kalakaturu 


Do, . 


ViiTiBufaa 


"X 


288 


DSmarya . 


Kama-Bbatta 


HalabarivA 


Do, . 


Kasyapa 

; f 




290 


Ab[b*]arya 


Mallu-Bbatta 


Indraganti (?) . 


Yajus .\ 


Saiaitayana . 




292 


Tirtmiala-Bhatta 


Kama-Bbatta 


Urungaritl 


Do. .; 


Kasyapa 




293 


Venkatadn 


Venga]ar,a - - 


Kayalacbem 


Bahvri- 
cba. 


Do, 




295 




Mabadeva . 


....^ 


Yajus . 


KaorfiEJ* - 




Appakuti-lTpadbyaya . 


296 


Obbalarya . 


Pedi-Bbatta 


Madbavarya 


JFticb . 


Atreya 


4" 


298 


Yenkatadri . 


Tajnaih-BIiatta * 


Tipana Yajra * 


Brthvri- 
cba. 


Kaxisika + * 




299 


n-adbavarva 


Pedi-Bbatta 


Madbava^Bliatia 


Do. , 


Atreya 


4 


SOO 


Krisbiiam- B bat ta 


Rama-Bbatta 


Chittnlurn 


Do. . 


Kaundiuja 


5 


302 


Tejarya 


yajiiam-Bhatta . 


Annatna Yajva 


Do. . 


Atreya 


7 


303 


Appalaya . 


Lingam-Bbatta 


^ladbavarya 


Do, , 


Do. 




305 


Pinnananta-Bbatta 


Kr^bna-Bbatta . 


Madhava-Bbatta 


Do. . 


Do- 


K 


306 


Tirumalarya 


Kybbnarya 


Notela (?) 


Kik , 


Do. 


'& 

3 


303 


Tirnmala-Bbatta . 


Nagarya . 


Gbbala-Adbvarm 


Babvri- 
cba. 


KaaSka * 




811 


Lakab manary a, 
Narayana . 


Yenkatadri 
VjU'aiiasi Lingo ry a 


Obbaia-Bbatta . 
Dd-iagiri . 


Rik . 

Yajus 


Do. . 
Bbaradvaja 
For feeding Br.'ih- 


4 
5 


13 


Xarayana-Bhatta 


* * * 






manas uTi ine 










Moksbngondara * 


Yajus . 


Bharadv&ja 


5 


316 


Krishna-Bhatta 
[Cb]ennam-Bbatta 


V[i]rarivBfcatta, . 


TJdilagiri - 

i 


Do. . 


Kfisyapa - 


3 



324 



UPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. 



r 'f i Xame o Bonce. 


i 

Father's Name. 


Xaine of Villaj 
or Family. 


Tfi f 

^ Sakb 


a Gutra. 


\* 


SB Malkya . 


LiDgam-Bhatta . 


. Xandyala . 


. Yajus 


. 1 Kanaka * 


f 


31 r J Vt-iikaiaya 


. j Tirtimala-Bbatta . . 1 Viruru 


. Bahvi 


1 , 
i- Siivatsu . 





32 1 K u n f la j R ry a * 


. Achjutarya * * Sinkesula . 


dia. 
. Yajus 


- Ky. pa . 


3 


322 Ellaya 


. Hariyapparya 


. Ratlcliclierla 


. Do. 


* Bharadvaja 


2 


324 Paj-ayirja . 


i Bboglsrara 


. Kranala * 


Do. 


Bo. , 


2 


32C Ayyaps. . . 


Gaurarya . 


. Trivikrama 


. Do. 


. Srivatsa . 


,_ 


327 Varadiirya , 

f 


Samblaii-Bhfttta . 

5 


. Sevathana 


Do. 


. Saudi ly a . 


8 


329 Ayyapa 


j Purushuttama * . 


. Trivilcrama 


. Do. 


. Srlvatsa . 


a 


331 Ayyapa 


i T .. 

j I*msrarya . 


. Trivikrama 


Do. 


Do. 


'i ^ 


332 Govindaya 


; f Virupaksha . . j Sahavasi 


' Kalivri- 


Vtoishflia 





i 
334 Lakshmaya 


1 
] Vusndevarya . . j Varanasi . 


clia. 
Do. . 


Atroya 


*f 


336 ! Bharataya 


Ylram-Bhatta 


Vellatura . 


Yajus . 


Bharadvftja 


4 


537 : Virup&kslia 

! * j 


Virarya 


Do. 


Do. . 


Bo. . 


ai 


^39 ; Xarasaih-Bhatta . 


Tirumalurya 


Kaipa (?) . 


Do. , 


Kaundinya 





MO Aiinimallrya . 


Obhalarya , . . j Raddicherla 


Do. . 


Bharadviija 


5 


T| < f ^ ' * ! ^*" *" 


Kondtt-Bbatta ; 


Cheruknpalli 


Do. . 




7 


343 j Murti-Bhaffa . , \ 

! 

345 f Ramavarva 

1 " '! 


Xaraaiihha 

Rainacliazidra , 


Penirgtmda 
Balapanuru 


Bo. . 
Do, . 


Bharadvaja 
Do. 


6 


34C j rummala-Bhatta . j Bfcdg* [rya] 


Tottapalli 


Do. . 


Gautama . 


4 


SiS ; Eoniiaya . ^ j ] 
340 OangMliara ! g 


Sanm-krisbnarya 
krvayarya t 


Musalakari 
Masalakavi 


Do. . 
Do. , 


Bbaradvaja 
Do. 


3 


351 i Yallarya . g ; ^ 


"irumalarya , 


Sanagara (?) 


Do. . 


Siivatsa 




352 , GaigMham . . Malhi-Blmtta 


T>n 








; 


* 


1/0. 


Do. , 


Do. 




354.01^. . . < Naga-Bbatta . 


Grollanapalli 


Do. . ] 


3haraclvy ja 


i 


*<oa Buclicfaana-Bhatia . JJ 


agarya . 


a* j 


*r\ 




ZZ? Hamavar 




p ra 


Do. . 


Bo. 





..., ! * . " ' 


^j lush* v& ra - Adli var i 


Jhand-uru . 


Do. . I 


Casyapa . 


4 


**UD Jcxfiso iis m*B iiis tta r 
3I^J Hudhavirya , , rg 

" i 

5 ''2 Sara<am-BLatta . . f K( 


ngarya . , J 
rafijgadliara 
>ndu-Bliatta . . j 


Lrakattavemula , 
Caraviti . 
tnkuru . 


Do. . I 
Do. . G 

Do T? 


Hutradvaja 
argya . 


G 

4 


*<'* . PanikoivaM-Bliatta . | Virupakslia . m \ 


oddmari . t 


'-'v. Ji 

Do. . Si 


'Ivataa 


5 


,-t X:l^|;i m tta 


ni-Bbatta 


ampasamudram 


Do. . A 


fcreya 


8 


*-!$ t *iisu\avi.i T> - 
* * f Ka 


* 
ma-Bbatta 

^ =========== 


^l[pu]inalla . ] 
iniandl (?) . j 


Do. . ! Ki 
)o. . V 


isyapa . t 
idhula . 


2 

5 





No. 23.] VELLANGUDI PLATES OF VENKATA I : SAKA-SAMYAT 1520. 325 



Xiine 
of 

text. 


Name of Donee. 


Father's Name. 


Name of Yillage 
or Family. 


Sakba. 


Gofcra. 


Amsas. 


370 


Tiruinalarya , 


Obbalarya . 


Boudapatti 


Yajns . 


Bbaradv'aja 


3 


371 


Basava-Bbatta 


Malu-Bbatta 


Sisb[t*]la (?) 


Do. . 


Kaundmya 


2 


373 
375 


Yeiikatadri 
Yisvanatharya 


Karanam Ramayarya . 
Xarayana . . . 


Tirupati . 
Yaranasi 


Bahvri- 
eha. 
Do. 


Yilsishtha 
Atreya 


7 
3 


376 


Muddarasa . 


Obayarya , 


Muruuiaclugu 


Rik , 


Mauni-bhargava 


4 


378 


Tiriiinalarya 


Nagfirya - 


Efimacbandi'apura 


Do. . 


Do. 


7 


380 


Appala-Bbatta 


Tim mala ry a 


Kolla (?) . 


Bahvri- 
clia. 


Kasjapa . * 


10 


381 


Puttam-Bbatta . 


Cbitti-Bbatta 


Gottipadu 


Do. . 


Srlvatsa . 


3 


383 


Bosavaya . . 


Hariyappa 


Pulasaixiu drain . 


Do. . 


Visvaoaitra 


4 


384 


Rfimarya 


Pimdariiarya * 


Pottyadurti (?) . 


Do. . 


Vasishtba . , 


2 


386 


Venkataya 


Yenkatarya 


Turumilla 


Do. . 


Atreya 


3 


387 


Kcsavarya 


Sriramaya 


Nalla^atta 


Do. . 


Bliaradvaja 


2 


389 


Obbalilrya 


Anna-Bbatta 


Sauugod . 


Yajus . 


Kasyapa . 


4 


391 


YeiiTzatadri , 


Peru-Bbatta 


Amiiamanelii * 


Do, , 


Bliaradvelja 


4 


392 


Timmayiirya , 


Peru-Bbatta 

1 


Amnianamuchi 


Do. . 


Do* 

i 
I 


5 


394 


Yisvanatharya . 


Peddi-BIiatta 


Mug ant i , 


Do. . 


Sandilya 


2 


395 


Tirumalarya 


Appala-Bba[tta*] . i 

! 


Noryya . . 1 


Do. . 


Haritasa . 


4: 


397 


Cbavandisvara-Bbatta . 


Aclicbayurya . 


Pisupfiti * 


Do. . 


Srlvatsa * 


3 


398 


YyvanatMrya 


Xaga-Bbatta 


Jayan[ti] 


Do. * 


Kausika - 


2 


400 


Karayaua . . 


Oanapatyarya 


Yatainanta 


Babvri- 
cha. 


Do. . * 


5 


401 


Eamayjlrya * 


Appalarya 


Chiravurn 


Yajus . 


Srlvatsa . 


[8] 


403 


Jarimarh(ta)-Bbatta * 


Srlpati 


Yelliiru 1 . 


Do. . 


Easy a pa . 


4 


404 


Bayappa 


Laksbmayarya . 


Patta 


Do, . 


Haritasa . * 


6 


406 


Sarva-Ehatta . . 


Mallu*Bhatta . - | 


Burla 


Do. * 


Bbaradraja * j 





407 


Komraayarya 


Gauri-Bbatta 


9^0 utul lira * 


Do. . 


Harifeasa . 


1 


409 


Yirupfiksba * 


Siiru-Bliatta t " * 


Taiigirala 


Do. . 


Sankbyayana. 


I 


410 


Kalam-Lkitta 


TirumaliLrya 


Allu 


Bahvp- 

cba. 


Hebha^^yap, . 


u 


412 


Ayyurii-TJbatta 


Tirumalarya 


Do. 


Do. . 


Do. 


" 


413 


X.iriiya.v* . 


Tiraraala-Bhatta . j 


Do. 


Do, . 

s 


Do. 


i 


41S 


ra-u-uiuif . . 


Ayynngari-Bbaun 


Do- 


Do. . 


Do* 





[Possibly Velpiira. H* K. ^ 



326 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



[Vol. XVI. 



Line 
of 
text. 

>i ,.,. 
416 
418 


Kame of Donee. 


Father's J^ame. 


Kame of Village 
or Family. 


Sakba. 


Gofcra. 


Arhlas. 


Kaiarh-BIiatta 
Tirnmalarya * . 


Balcshinamurti . 
Buclicbanarya 


AJlu 
Eeniarli 


Bahvri- 
cha, 
Yajus . 


Kebha-Kasyfi>pa . 
Kau^ika . 


3 

3 


419 


Veiikatadri . . . 


Tiruinalarya . 


Sislitla 


Do. . 


Kanndinya 


5 


421 


Krishnam-Bhatta 


[Eru]~Bhatta 


Pedipati . , 


Do. * 


Bharadvaja, 


2 


422 


Tirumala-Bhatta 


Kondu-Bliatta 


Epuru 


Babvri- 
eha. 


Kalyapa , 


3 


424 


Narayana . 


Tir urn alary a 


Eesidang on the 
bank of the 
river GaataraL 


Yajus . 


Kaundinya . 


2 


425 


(Y)eltoih-Bhatta . 


Uma-Mahesvararya 


Bellariikonda 


Do. . 


ETasyapa * 


E8] 


427 


Venkatadri 


Yellam-Bhatta 


Upladadiya 


Do. . 


f 
Srivatsa . 


4 


428 


Tirumalarya . 


Tenkatadri 


Buravilli - 


Bik * 


Kamakayana-Vii- 
vamitra. 


4 


430 


Veiikatadri , 


Tirumalarya 


MaicMvadbana . 


Bab vri- 
cba. 


Bbaradvaja 


5 


431 


Liitgarya . 


Tiramalarya , 


Trivikrama t 


YajUB . 


Srivatsa 


3 


433 


Banganatha 


Bbaskarar^ a . 


Ka vensam u dram 


Bahvri- 
cba. 


Gautama . 


6 


434 


Veiikatadri . 


SrIpa[ti]-Basava-BLatta 





Do. 


Bharadvaja 


12 


436 


Lirigam-Bhatta . 


Ayynrii-Bhatta . 


Pushpagiri 


Yajus . 


Do. 


5 


438 


Venkatadri 


Tirumala-Bhatta . * 


Cbeppali . 


Do. . 


Kalyapa , 


4 


439 


Ayyaih-Bhatta . 


Tirumalarya 


Trivikrama 


Do. . 


Srivatwa * 


2 


44.1 


Iiingarya . 


Kuppa-Bbatta 


Moksbagundam . 


Do. . 


Bharadvaja 


4 


442 


Lakshrnana . 


Singarya . 


Pa t ta [ vard dhana" 


Bo. . 


Kamakayana-Vis- 
vainitra. 


3 


444 


Kathasagars Vefikata- 
rya* 


Bngga-Bhatta 


Pushpagiri 


Do, . 


Bharadvaja 


3 


446 


Koadu-Bhatfca * 


Dtiggarya 


Bo. . 


Do, . 


Do. 


3 


447 


Lmgarya * 


Basava-Bhatta 


Sakalya 


Do, . 


Tadbula . 


4 


449 


Venkatarya 


Tiramalarya . 


TazhdeHHpali . 


Babvri- 

cba. 


Haritasa . 


5 


450 


Eama-Bhafcta 


Vitfchalarya 


Aluru 


Do. . 


* 
Srivatea . 


3 


4-52 j 


TIrumalarya . 


Devarayaryu 


Mamudur . 


Yajus . 



Atreya 


3 


454 


Rangaya , 


Ka^mdra 


Kancberla 


* 


Atreya (Katya- 
yana-subra) . 


3 


455 


Raglmnatha .-..,. 


Suri-Bhatta 


Tubati 





Kalyapa (Katya- 
yana-sufcra). 


2 


457 


Maraya * 


Akkala-BBfttta . 


Pinapa 


,. 


Do. 


3 



. 23.] VELLANGTTDI PLATES OF VENKATA I : SAKA-SAMTAT 1520. 32? 



Line 
of 

text* 


Name of Donee, 


Father's Name. 


Name of Village 
or Family. 


Sakha, 


Gorra. 


Am sag. 


458 


Alagappa - * 


Tirumlaltlrya 


Katravayi, 


* 


K*;TJsilia (Katya- 
yfiiia-butra}/ 


2 


460 


Xagaya 


Narasayarya 


.^a,- 53 -apalIi . 


** 


Gatatatna (Kafcya- 
yana-siitraj. 


4 


461 


Go an day a * 


Tiruinalarya 


Bhagavata 


; 


KaSyapn (Katya- 
yana-sutra). 


i 


463 


Amirmlaya * 


Abbayarya 


Tangaturu 


t* 


Kauiika CKatya- 


G 












yana-sutra) . 








(Here Plates IS and 14 are missing.} 








465 


Venkatadri 


Tirmnalarya . . 


Attaluru 9 


Bahvri- 

clia. 


Kas^yapa t . 


5 


466 


Appukonda, the brother 
of Yenk'atadri of 1. 4,66. 


Do. * , 


Do. 


Do. . 


Do. 


4 


467 


Tiramala-Bbstta 


Dema-Bhatfca 


Addanki 


Do. . 


Paraiara t 


5 


468 


Nagra-Bbatta 


Tiruinala-Yajvan 


Sorabu 


Tajus . 


Do. 


5 


470 


Sarva-Bhatt* 


Sriva[ma*]-Bhatta l . 


Addanki * 


Do. . 


Kiisyapa . 


6 


471 


Ayyappa . 


Tauitna-BhatU . 


Xudurumatn . 


Do. . 


Kaundinya 


4 


472 


Venkafcadri 


Kondxi-Blaatta 


Vauapalli 


Do. . 


Bbaradraja 


6 


474 


Singararya - 


Purnshottama 


Yalavura . 


.Do. . 


Lohifca 


4 


475 


Kjishnam-'Bhatta 


Tirumalar^a * 


Tamma-Bliatta t 


Bahvri- 

eha. 


Kaulika * 


5 


477 


Aimnarmari . wife of 
Tippavojbla Yallaih- 
Bhatte. 


* 





Do. . 


Atreya ^ 


1 


478 


Nagarya 4 * 


Tirumala-Bliatta 


Tamraa-Bbatta , 


Do, . 


Kausika * 


3 


480 


j Ramarya * * 


Sarvya-Bhatta . 


Vasudeva 


Do. . 


Yasisbtha 


S 


481 


Obhalarya . 


JoSSaih-Bhart*? 


[Cliiltn] . 


Do. . 


Eatiiidinya 


4 


483 


Yasudeva-Ganapaty- 
arya's wife Mai- 
lama. 


.. ** 


** 


?ich . 


Yasisbtha 




484 


* 
Appalarya * 


Lmgarya , 


Chiltu 


Bahrri- 
cha. 


Kaundinya 


2 


486 


Venkatadri 


Tirumalarya 


Madbavarya 


Do. . 


Afareya 


6 


488 


Nairayana , 


Tirurnalarya 


Naga-Yojlila . 


Do. . 


Do. 


5 


489 


Yenkatadi i 


[P6]chnarya 


Va(ma)d li ft v a* 
Bhatta, 


Do. . 


Do. 


4 


491 


Peddanauta-Bb atta 


Kyiehiiam-Bhat^a 


Madbavarya . 


Do. . 


Dou 


9 




~ JJJ " ' ' * __-,. 1 V ^ I^A^vk A *v A.*k Illr^fV* THOT11A.. 



i Siva-Bhatta would have been a more li 



EPIGB.APHIA ItfDICA. 



[Tor.. XVI- 



1 > " ' ' 

r * Xa ;/ 'if DnTiee. i Father's Kame. 
Mt. 


Xatiie of VilLig 
or Family. 


Sakha. Gotra. 


1 * . 


4^ T:; T ^vYaiv:.n - &.ma- 





Rico . Kaugika 


' 
j 
1 


;.a H w:*v Eliiiitfii. 








1 *' Jar^.'I'.'.ir-.iryji . * JyautwMktt Gangadhai 


*u * *.. 


Bahvri- Kalyapa . 
cha. 


4 


i 








*' " ^I'.v^'ia't* . . i ^lalin-Bltatta 


. Tippana-Tajvan 


. Do. . KauSifca 


& 


i 


_ 


T\A 1 TN 




4i*S FSiatej.lrya . . Tiruonala-Bhatta 

, 


. oamacbatidra 
. Annama-Adhvari 


. Do. .Do. 
n Rich . Atreya 


4* 


1. J j K'nkatiii'.ri . . j Srlr-atl-Bhatta , 


Tella^Vojbla 


. Bahvri- KftTilikji 


5-- 


i 




cha." 


9^ 


JG1 ^ Saihkararya . . | Baghararya 


Hautra . 


Do. J Bo. 


*O^ 


M i Cliarhlr oekbira . . MalHrya . 


Gatgana-Adhvarii 


i Do. . Do. 


2 


^'3 ; Xa':a>TOra . . Rama-Bhatta . 


Palagiri . , 


Do. . 5treya 


4> 


ft: 3 ; Xarjyaaa . . . j Xarasaih-Bhatta . 


Bainaehaudra 


Do. . Kaufika 




P- -4 ' 








OL*J : Rngb-.patS . . . Jannam-Bhatta . 


Tippana-Yajvan 


Do, .Do. 


& 


- r "-.5 j Som-r-ya . . . Jauanldana-Bhatta 


Tippana-Adhvar 


,Do. .Do. 


2. 


j i * * ^ tifc.j'w kji'iniVfisa * 9 


A> ideva , . 


Do. . Atreya 


6 


all j Anontaya . . . Suru-Bbatta 


Snpati-Bhatta . 


Do. , Gautama . 


a 


>2 ; ^eikat-TJri. . . Xarasain-Bhatfca 


Bhairavarya 


Bo. . Do. . . 


4 


513 * 5*daiirarya . . K r ishnarya 


Palagiri . 


Kit . Itreya . 


a 


CIS ! Appaia-Bbatta . . Amia-Bhatta 


Tasudeva 


Bfthvri- j Vasishtha . 




1 




cha. j 




510 ; Bagbwpat. . . % Bfimadiandrarya 


Solasa (?) . 


Yajus . 


Atreya 


* 


:^S 1 Sara^m-Iilutta , Anbhalarya 


Devulapalli 4 


Do. . 


Kaundinya 


& 


519 ' Sivi-lHiattd . . TajfiSvaia f . 


Kadula 


Do, . 


Bharadvaja 


a 


fel j Kuma-a-BIutta . . Gauri-Bhatta . 

i 


Pumalurit 


Do, . 


Haritasa . . 




g-"EJ ! <^- 










| -)u*i\ a , t Ya.juesrara t 


Jonna[la*]gaiida 


Do, . 


Do. 


- 


523 jTimjaav.;:7 . AnWmi/ 








*. 


i * * * * AHDtialft.ija f) 


Prafctipadu 


Do, . 


Kaava . 


5 


t)**5 | ..N ArEfeari^Bjdat t*$ 1 "V'/mn I>KI.J. & 
1 ,.** j loru-isjoatta 

' > " 


vhyatacheru (?) 


Do, . 


Bharadvaja 


5 


c*-.*6 ^ Pd'iuiaDaWia . . | Yeru-Bhatta , , ^ 


Pniyfiga . 


Do, . 


Kaufika 




1 fS S ' V*"* "f ^ i f" 






' 




* * * | [."'iJiraj-Bh it-ta 
520 i r .J ! -'^>J . Krisbuam-Bhatta . j 

fj -jij * , i 


Chyafcacheru f?) 
ialla 


Do. . 
Do. . 


Bharadvaja 


r 

5 


I x * w *-u*-i,ka t ta ; Bhiiuesvara t j 

&*- ' AD'i'^'^V? 


lolakalur 


Do. , 


Bharadvaja 


Losfc. 


i * i: * -, . .1 Madbavarya . i 


^unduvara 


Do. . 


SrivafcH* . *. 


8 


S^4 Padm?ia'lLba rp^i -r>t, i, 
1 * * L-^JOT-Bnatta . J 


T 










f **^*" * 




Do. . 


Hharadvaja 


* 



No. 23.] VELLATOUDI PLATES OF VENKATA I : SAKA-SAMVAT 1520. 



329 



Line 
of 

text. 


Itfame of Donee. 


Father's Name. 


Name of Village 
or Family. 


SakM. 


Gotra* 


Am^as. 


585 


Sarva-Bhatta 


Obbalarya 


Kaipa, , 


Yajas . 


Katt^i^ja 


2 


537 


EIondu-Bhatta 


s 

Sridhara-Bhatta . 


Xiducbanabetla . 


Do. . 


Do, 


3 


538 


Surn-Bhatta . 


Tirumalarya 


Sanagara (?) . 


Do. 


Srivafcsa . 


7 


640 


[Ka ?]savaya 


Rangarya . . * 


Eupavatara 


Babvri- 
cba. 


Bharadvaja 


2 


541 


Lingarya . 


Guruva-Bhatta . 


Grutti 


Yajus . 


KaSyapa . 


4 


548 


Kondu-Bhatta * 


Kondu-Bbatta 


Totapalli . 


Do- , 


Gautama . t 


2 


544 


Kyisbna-Bhatta . 


Aubhalarya 


Gutti 


Babvri- 

cba. 


Ka^yapa . 


3 


546 


Latshmana-Bhatta 


Tellarya 


Samag-Ojbala . 


Yajus , 


Haritasa * 


9 


647 


Timmala-Bhatta * 


Kondu-Bhatta 


Totapalli . 


Do. . 


Gautama . 


2 


549 


Kona-Bhatta 


Kondti-Bhatta 


Mankala . 


Do. . 


Do, * 


3 


551 


Pinakamarya's wife 
Aanaina. 


** 


Chiraviiru . 


* # 


[Sravatsaj . * 


1 
919 



(LI 552-4.) Tke passage here ia somewhat obscure. It seems to state that the charitable acts 
performed by Kyishna [II] were equal to those done by Visvanatha, Ylrabh&pa and Periya 
KaioSr Mudali put together. 1 

(LI. 555-9*) This order o the king Veakatapati-Raya was the composition of Erishnakavi- 
Kamakoti, the grandson of Sabhapati, and the engraving was executed 
son of Q-anapaya, under orders of Venkata-maliaraya. 

(LI. 559-567 ,) The usual exhortatory and admonitory yerses. 

(L. 568*) The sign-manual " Srl-Venkafca " ia Telugu-Kannada characteps. 



Ho, 24.- 



*HULGUR INSCRIPTION OF THE REIGN OF VIKBAMADITTA VI 

SAKA 999. 

BT LIONEL D. BABNETT. 



HnlgQr anciently named Hullumjgar, is a Tillage in the Bankapur Division of Dharwar 
District, and is situate in lat. 15 5' and long, 75 19|', some eight miles to the north-east from 
Shiggaon. It contains several inscriptions ; among them, is the present record, vrhich was found 
on a stone standing against, or fixed in, the wall on the south side of the local temple of Siddha- 
liuga. An ink-impression of it was made for the late Dr. Fleet, who bequeathed ifc with others 
to the British Museum. From it I now edit the text. The sfcone is surmounted by a rounded 
top, oa which are sculptures : in the centre is a linga, and to the proper right of this are a cow 
and a calf ; there were some other figures also, but they are now worn away. Below this is an 
inscribed area 2 ft. 7| in. high and 1 ft. 4 in. wide. The character is Kanarese, of a some- 

1 [Excluding the (former) grants made to gods, Byahmans and mathas by Visvanatha, Virabbupa and Periya 
Nainar Mudali, the rest now granted by Kyisb^a was to be enjoyed by the Brahmans mentioned, as an individual 
unit. Ed,] 



330 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. t [ VOL. XVI. 



what crabbed and angular type of the period ; the letters are from | in. to f in. high. The 

1 angtxage is Old ICanarese, exoept for three formal Sanskrit verses. The archaic' I is replaced 

by r in n&r-ggavunju (L 14) and parttiya, (1. 21 ; see Kittel, s.v. palti) ; elsewhere it has be- 

come 1. Initial p is retained. The upadhmantya appears in bhaginah^p (L 31). The words 

t alaboyi (L 17), ekkavatiigs (1. Ity^partti (L 21 ; the later patti, hattfy, malave (1. 21), Koylali 

(L 22), and puttavald (L 25) are of some lexical interest. 

The reeord refers itself in 11. 2-6 to the reign of Tribhuvanamalla [Vikramaditya VI], 
and then in 11. 6-11 introduces as regent of the Belvala Three-hundred and Puligere Three- 
himdred the prince Trailokyamalla Nolamba~Pallava Permadi Jayasingha, of the Pallava 
lineage, i.e. Vikramaditya's younger brother Jayasimlia III^ ; on whom see Dyn. Kanar. Distr., 
p. 453. We are further iaformed in 11. 11-14 that the nal-gavunda was-the Mahasaraanta Jaya- 
kgsiyarasa s of the Manaleyara lineage, whosa device was a lion and who bore the title " lord of 
Puligege best of cities." This family appears also above, Vol. VI, p, 52, and Ann. Report 
STysore Arch. Dept^ 1908-9, p. 16. Then follow, after the date, the specifications of endowments 
granted by some fiscal officers aod others to a local Saiya temple, under the trusteeship of 
Isanssiiigi Jlyar (11. 14 fL). 

The date is given on 11. 14-16 as ; Saka 999 expired, the cyclic year Piogala ; Ashadha 
sti- 2j Sunday 5 a samkranti. This is quite ,1-egnlar. The tithi mentioned corresponded to 
Sunday, 25 June, A,D. 1O77 ; it iras current at snmnsse of that day, and ended about 3 h. 37 m* 
after mean sunrise (for Ujjain)* On the same day, about 13 h. 16 m. after mean sunrise, 
occurred the Karka-rajftftr arc, the following Monday being reckoned as the first day of Karka. 

The only places mentioned are fhe two Three-hundreds of Belrala and Puligere (1. 9) 
and the town of Puligere (L 12), on which see above. Vol. XIII, pp. 178, 328. 

TEXT. 1 

[Metres : w. 1, 3, Anushti&Ji j y. ?, SsMnl.] 

1 (D) K"ainas=t u mga-siras -chuiiibi-chaihdi*a-cLSiiiara-chax*aye trai}5kya- nagar-a- 

2 rainbha-mula-stambhaya Sambhare [|j* 1] ; Svasti Samasta-bhuvan-aSraya 

Sri- 

3 Prithvl-vallabha maharajadhiraja 'parameSvara paramabhattarakath Satya- 

4 g raya-kula-tilakam. Cb.aluky-5bharanam r Imjb[t*] -TriblxuTanamalla-devara 

5 vijaya-rajyam*uttaiOtta^-abMvyirddhi(ddhi)-pravar 

6 taram bararii saluttam-ire /^ Svasti samasta 2 -bhixya'na-vikhyata-Pallav-a- 

7 uvaya Sri-PfLthvl-Yallabha-mahara3adhira]Vpammesva(sya)ra-Yira pra- 

8 taksha-Qbaoa(na)kya(ni)iiam5gha-vakyarii ^rlin9,[t*]-Trail6i:yamalla KTolamba* 



9 ya Permmatji Jayasimgha-devar | Bslvala-munurum Puligere^mu- 
10 nayum*ant=erafl[*aran1lyumam sufca(kha)-saihkatha-vm5dadim rajyaiii-geyyutta- 



11 m-ire (0) Svasti samadhjgata-panicha-jnaha-sa(sa)bda-maMsamaiitarix Kall-yuga* 
Reva[u]ta[ni'] 

1 From the ink4mpresffioiu 

5 The engraver has blundered ovor tlio sta, making it look like gtu>. 



ETJLGTTR INSCBIPTION OF VIKRAMADITYA VI : SAKA 999. 331 

12 Ma&aleyar-aiivaya-prasiUam simlia-lamclicliliaiaa-pra^utam Puligere-p-urava- 

13 r~gBYa(3va)raih samara-Mahesva ( va)ram sa [m*]gara-marttanda manney a-siriiga 

narn -adi- sam asta-pr a [s a") - 

14 rti-Bahitam Srimat-Jayakesiyarasar imr-ggavundu-geyye |j Sa(sa)ka-nripa~[l3;a]~ 

15 [l]-atitft-samvatsara-sa(sa)tamgala 999neya Pimgala-satiivatsarada isatja 1 - 

sn(3u)ddha 2 A- 

16 dityavara samkranti pavitr-arfthanftdamdtt samasta~gttna-sampaiinar*appft sum- 

17 " ka-v9r#ea<Je Barmmanna Aychimayyam talategi Basiyantiam Famasta-sTiTix"kiga- 



sainadb.i-saihpa 

19 [nn]rappa Isanasimgi-jlyara kalam karofaehi dBara-pnrvyakarii uaacli 
ekkavatti- 

SO ge eleya p5f=erada paley-eleya per^eradn kariy-[e*]Ieya 

21 pSir^eradu antu 'pg^aru [(*] Okkalu pariari? mflru parttiya malave 

22 pantiei'adu. int^initiimatri varisha-prati bUfcar Koylaligal tamma 

23 flarirgTaitiaTnam 8 Wtfcar kalpiya makkalge panav^aydu poia-'Koyla- 

24 Hgfe panavaydn darirsbinam 4 pSrtiv^eleya perimsre visavondu ma- 

25 laorara Barmmayyath ondu pasadanada pnttavalamain Ktta * * [p&]- 

26 nnirvvar=a]rtLTatt=:okkaIa dbarmmam [|*] Int=l dliarmmamam prafcipalisi[d-atam] 
2^ ge Gaiiiga-Ragaram Vara^aai Su(ku)rujcslietram Prayaeyemb==[l punya]- 

2S <;frtthamgalol sasira kavjleyam sasirrva[r]brahraaiaargjar==iibhayamti[khiyaih] 

29 kotta phialam*akku || Int*! dharmmaTan=alid-ataih inituman=alida [maha-pata- 



fca|- 
SO nakfeu [| Samauy^yam dbarmma-sgttL[r*] nripanam kale kale pala[nly5 



Sl vadbhih arvvan*gtS(m)nT^liae5Bal}*parUbivgmdrat)^ blrnyS [y 

82 is RamabhadraTi | f|]) [2*] Sva-dattCa^jm para-datt[a*]m ya yd Bareti(ta) 
"vastindliara [iii*] sh a [sh tir v v] - 

33 rstiaHsabasram vis"h.fca(sTit"ha)vam. jayate kfimili ! (Jl) [3*] Parekara BS t 

34 gamgQ dliasavaBdhamarii 5 bittar 

TRATSTSLATION. 

( Verse -1.) Homage to Sambhu lovely with, tb^ yak-tail fan wtich Is tlie tnoon kissing Ha 



lofty head, the foandation -column for the contraction of tlie city of tlie tkree worlds ! 

(Lines 2-6.) "While the victorious reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole world, 
favourite of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of 
SatysSraya's race, embellishment of the Ohalukyas, king TribiniYanamalla, was advancing in 
a course of successively increasing prosperity/ (to endure) as long as moan, suu, and stars : 

(Lines 6-11.) While he who is hail ! of the Pallava lineage renowned throughout the 
whole world, a warrior of the Favourite of Fortune and Earth, the great Emperor, the 



Read AsKadha* 2 Before tWa word Is a letter which may Ibe remd aa Ma or 

* Bead dartanamam. * Bead darjanam. 5 Bead dasatandama 

2 



332 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [Voii- XVI. 

supreme Lord, a manifest Ohanakya, unfailing in speech^ Trailokyamalla Nolamtaa-Pallava 
Pe*madi Jayasingha-devaj was reigning with enjoyment of pleasant conversations over the two 
(provinces, together forming} a Six-hundred, of the Belvala Three-lrandred and the Puligere 
Three-hundred : ~ 

(bines 11-14.) While hail ! the MaHasamanta who has obtained the five great musical 

sounds, who has all titles of honour such as " Bevaata 1 of the Kali Age, scion of the Manaleyara 

lineage, renowned for the device of a lion, lord of Puligere best of cities, a Mahesvara of 

battles, sua in the fray, lion of nobles," Jaya&esiyarasa, was holding the office of County 

Gavunda : 

(Lines 14-21-) On Sunday, the 2nd of the bright fortnight of JLsh&dha in the cyclic 
year Bingala^the 909th (year) of the centuries elapsed since the Safca king's time, during a 
conjunction, at the pavitr-ardJiana? all the taxation-officers, the Controllers of Taxes Barinanna 
and Ayehimayya (and) the talaJbogi Dasiyanua, having laved the feet of Isanasingi Jlyar, who 
piMcfciaes meditation, spiritual concentration, observance of silence, prayer, and absorption, with 
pouring of water (assigned) to the god Koylalesvara s two loads of ekkavabtige betel-leaf, two 
loads of pale betel-leaf, two loads of kari betel -leaf altogether six loads. 

(Dines 21-26.) The Households assigned for every year the amount of three pana (and) 
twelve mal&ve of cotton. The Koylalis assigned their temple- fee : for a trained damsel five pana, 
for a novice-Koylali five p&na, as temple-fee, (and) one wsa on every load of betel-leaf carried. 
The florist Barmayya assigned one putiavala of decorations twelve 

the sixty Households* pious gift. 

(Lines 26-30 ; a prose formula of the usual type.) 

(Verses 2-3: two common Sanskrit verses.) 

(Lines 33-34,) To the drummer Ba . . ga they assigned a 



No- 25. HULGUR INSCRIPTION OF THE REIGNS OF JATASIMHA II (SAKA 960} 

AND THE TADAVA KANHARA. 

BT LIOKEL D. BABNETT. 

The site of HulgGr has been discussed by me above, p. 329, in treating of the inscrip-* 
tion of iaka 999. From the second part of the present record, 1. 32, we learn further that it 
was a Bananju-vaitana 5 or market-town of the Banafijns or Vlra-Valanjiyas, an important 
corporation of traders whose centre was at Aiyavole (the modern Aihole), the seat of 
their Five-hundred Svamis, and whose organisation seems to have spread over the greater 
part of Southern India. They claimed to have originally come from Ahichchhatra, and some 
of their records are couched in a tone of regal pomposity. 6 The present inscription was found 
at the temple of Kalame^vara in Hulgur, and an ink-impression, from which the text is now 
edited, was prepared for the late Dr. Fleet and bequeathed by him with others to the British 



5 See above, Vol. XIII, p. 313 n. 2 g ee J MC ^ ^ n ^ Vol. 33, p. 52. 

3 The name IZoytala seems to be derived from the Tamil 3oyil-ala 9 "ruling in the temple "; and the Jtoylalis 
mentioned in t"he next paragraph must be the temple -women. 

* See Ind. Ant,, Vol. 30, pp. 107, 267; JSJp. Cam. X. 1 (Kolar), Mb. 172 f. 2S9 CB. 9, Bg. 71, Ct. 1, 14 $ 
XitatHwdr G-lossary, p. 92. 

6 Befinifcions of the term pattana are given in the Kamilcagama xx. 8 f , and Yugadide$a,na Y. 50 j flee also 
my translation of the Antagada~da$ao 9 p, 45. 

On these see Mysare Xn$cr. 9 pp. 73,120,123; Spiff r. Cam., VII. U Sk. 94, 118-19; Madras 
t* 1905-06, pp. 11, 17, 1912-13, pp, 99-102, 191445, p, 102 ; above, Vol. XIII, pp* 21, 26. 



No : 25.] HULGTJR INSCRIPTION OE THE BEIGES OF JATASIMHA II, ETC. 333 

Musettm. The stone is broken at the top, on the proper right, so that a considerable part of 

the 'text of 11. 1-7 is lost ; otherwise it is in fairly good condition, 0! the mseribed area the 

maximum heiglit is 2 jft. 9| in., its width being 2 ft. 4| in. It contains two distinct records. 

The first of these, dated Saka 960, and covering 11. 1-26, is in a fair sloping Kanarese script of 

the period, with letters varying from f in. to in. The cursive m (above, Voi XII, p. 335} 

occurs here only once, in munurum, I. 7 ; the other cursives are not found. The second record, 

comprised in 11. 27-35, "belongs to AJX 1255, and is in the somewhat crabbed upright rounded 

Kanarese hand typical of that period ; it shews a free use of all the cursives, m appearing In that 

form 10 times, y 4 times, and v 9 times, and it marks the aspiration in dh and ph by writing d 

- and jp mth a curl underneath them very like a subscript t. The language of tie first record, 

wMcK (so far as it is preserved) is entirely in prose, is Old Kanarese. It changes I to r in 

erpatfam (1. 15). The second record contains four introductory verses and one final verse ia 

Sanskrit; th.e rest is in Kanarese prose, of the medieval dialect. We may -note the spelling v.i 

for S (1. 31), initial h for p (haihmrvv&rw, L 32), mixture of I and n (V&ralSsiyalu, 1. 33, 

Reside V&ranftsiyalu, L 84), and I from original I (ali, 11. 34, 35). The word dana-bala (1. 33) 

is of some lexical interest; it seems to mean literally "" cattle-section " (of land: cf. above 3 

Vol. XIII, p. 179 and n.)- 

The first record, so far as it is preserved, begins with the statement thai at the time o! 
tlie donation the Three-hundreds of Belvala and Purigere]were under the administration of the 
General V&va^arasa, an officer of JagadSkamalla (Jayasimtia H), who among many other titles 
is described as "a comet (portending! woe) to the Kor&an" (1L 1-8). Then we are told thai 
ftere was a n&l-g&w$$a, or couxLty-sherifif of the Purigere Three-hundred, the Mahasamanta 
IjEivabe^aaga MSrasiriga-ddva, 1 of the M mala or Manalera family, 3 who among his many other 
titles "bore that of " lord of Purigere best of cities " (1L 8-12), Then is introduced, in 
ajoaooltitHo style, a certain Nidugtuidara Bata Gavupda (11. 12-13) ; and after this a some- 
wlxat obscure episode of previous history is narrated (11. 1346), to the effect that after king 
Sa,ty?6raya had gone away after taking possession of the Benuegere Seventy 3 there was a 
lack of roast meal for the festival shows of Kidngunda (no donht in consequence of the re- 
quisitions made by tlie royal army), and accordingly the above-mentioned Marasiaga-deya and 
his mother supplied the need. It seems that this event took place when Marasifiga-deva WM 
serving as *9l~gato**4* of Purigere, some years previous to the present record, Eeverting now 
to contemporary history, our record details its present business (11. 16-26), stating that the 
nOZ-9Amda of the Purigere Three-hundred is now Jayakesi, also of the Manalera family, 
entitled "lord of Purigeye best of oities and hearing the device of a lion, and that in the 
aka year 960 tlie above-mentioned Buta Gavunda obtained from him some land and granted it 
to a temple- 

second record opens mtt four Sanskrit verses (11. 27-29), of wMch nos 1 and 
and nos. 3 and 4 complimentary addresses to the protagonist, tfce High Minister 
The following prose (11. 29-33) reports a donation by T^parasa and 

** g 



f ormulse of the usual type follow. 

Cf . Dynast. Kanar, Distr., p. 437. 



fche comTn ,nd of Sfi 



lfiase on e comTn 
* See Dynast* Kanar* DMr., p. 526 and n, 4, g _, 2 



334 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [ToL. XVI. 

The date of the first record is specified on 11. 24-25 as : Saka 960, Bahudhanya ; th e 
uttarayana-samkranti ; Sunday; the day of new-moon. This is not quite regular. TheMakara- 
sarhkranti for tlie given year occurred on Sunday, 24 December, AJX 1O38, at 4 h. 28 m. 
after mean sunrise* But that day, according to the Stirya-siddMnta, corresponded to the 
tithi Pausha krishna 10, which ended about 2 h. 7 m. after mean sunrise, and not to the full- 
moon. Practically the same result is obtained if we reckon by the JLrya-siddJi&nta ; by the 
former the ^W-index at mean sunrise was 8301, by the latter 8295, so that the difference is 
negligible. 1 

The date of the second record is given on 11, 30-31 ad : the 9th year of the v reign of the 
Y adava Kahnara (Kanhara), Ananda ; the full-moon of Phalguna ; Monday ; the ydga Vyatipata ; 
a satfikr&nti. This is fairly regular. The titU corresponded to Monday, 22 Felmiary, 
A.D. 1255, ending about 21 h. 54 m. after mean sunrise. The Mina-samJcrctnti, according to 
the Arya-siddTianta, took place 7 h. 50 m, after mean sunrise on the following day, w>. 
Tuesday, 23 February, only about 10 hours after the moment of f nil-moon. 3 

The geographical names that occur are : the Koiikan (L 5) ; the Be^vala Three* 
Hundred (L 6) ; the Purigere Three-hundred (11 6, 11 f., 23 f.) ; ^Purigeje city (U. 9, 17) ; 
the Bennegere Seventy (L 15) ; Widugunda (L 15 f.) ; Hulungur (1, 32) ; and Benares 
(1. 33 f-)- Pnrigere town is the modern Lakshmeshwar (see above, Vol. XIII, p. 179, XI Y, 
p. 188), Bennegere seems to be Bengeri ("Bhingerree " of the Indian Atlas sheet 41 of 1852), 
situate in lat. 15 21| f and long. 75 121', about 1| miles north of New Hubli NidLugunda 
is perhaps Nidgundi, in lat: 14 56|' and long, 75 14^, nearly 4 miles S.S.W, from Shiggaon, 

Hulungftr is the modern Hulgar. 

TEXT,* 



tt 

2 

. . t * ta 

5 [da^danayaka] . [a]sr[i]ta-jana- 

kalpa-vriksham. | bhritya- 
4 [chintamani] [? brahma-i^5]kshasam | ripn- 

kuramga-pamchananam | piri- 
5 ,*'....,.< t . [pra]hari j giri-durgga-malla 

1 Komkana-dhSLma-ketu 1 (?)pa- 

6 . . , , Kannaya*disa(Sa)pattam | rimaj-Jagadekemalla'* 

deva-pada-pamkaja- [bhjra- 

7 [mararii ^ri]mad-dandanayaka Vavanarasar Belvala-munururia . Purigeye- 

munuruvam [dushta]- 

8 [nigra]ha-visi(si)shta-pratip51anadim sukha-sarhkha(ka) tha-vln$dadin=5luttam-ire ^5 

Samadhiga [ta-pam]* 

9 [cha*ma]ha-sa(^a)bda-mahasavanta | Kali-yuga-Eevanta | Furigeye-piiravar-esva- 

(s va)raria | samara-Ma f ma) he [S varam | ] 

10 Manala-mSrttanda 1 gandarol==ganda | manneya-siiiigam | sahas-Ottuaiiga^*] | 
rana-ramga-mallam | ahita-[sellam ? j] 

1 For the reference! to tlie iry a-siddhanta I am indebted to Mr* R. Sewell, who with his usual kindness baa 
checked my calculations. 

a The Vyatipata yoga aeema to be added honor is causa, as often happens (sec Mr. Venkatasubbiah's Son** 

Dates in Inscriptions, p. 19 ff.) 
8 From the ink-impression. 



"No. 25.] HULGTTB INSCRIPTION OF THE REIGNS OF JAYASIMHA II, ETC. 335 



11 subliatia-cliudama^i I arfida(dHa)~vidyadliaram j Inmad-IriYabedamga ICSrasiiiiga- 

devam Puri[ge]re-mu- 

12 ixaakk[e*] nal-gavundu-geyye ( Samasta-guna-sampainaa | nudidu matt* 

ennam [ ) S5me]sva(3va)ra-dasi I g5tra- 

13 pavitrarix I tolagada Mem } irL ..... . [MdTigtLm]dara Bnta- 

GavutKjanfim Q/ Sakala-yimalad-ana- 

14 varata . . ,. [la]kshmi - ... Jaina-dharmma-samndhdliarane 

BTayibbarasiyar besase Sstya- 

15 sra(sra)ya-de^ar=allige v(5gi Bennegere.y=rppaUam padadu 

Marasimga T d8vanum mechciii Nidugum- 

16 da-golakke bemda pittill=eTidu kottar Q, Svaati samadkigata-pamclia-maiil- 

gabda-maliSs&vaiita | Kali-yu- 

17 ga-Reyantani | Manaler-anvaya-prasfltam | siihga-laiiaelioliliana-praiifltaiii 1 



srlman- 



1 8 samara-Make Svaram | BKagavad- ArHat-Paramesvara-parama-bliattamka-pada-kamala* 
raadlnikaram | samya- 

19 kt[v*]a-ratnakaram I pracHaiKja-mandialagra'-ma^dita-ddr-ddaBda j samgara* 

maritatLdam | Jina-dliarmma-bliiislia- 

20 na*h t vmaya-sambMslianaiiii i blaritya-cliintamaiii 1 snbhata-ckudamaiii 1 matta- 

gaja-malla(m) 1 -n=artthige 

21 nallam | liaya-Vatsa-rajam 1 varam^sura-[snra*]-bliiijam | satya-Badteyam f 

nYipa-Vainateyam I sa(sa)cran-a- 

22 gata-jalanidM | guna-ratnapajy6md | kamini-Kamam I Manalara Bhlmam \ 

arl-matxneya-tala-pra 

23 Mri I Tairi-samhari | uam-ad^sama8ta^pmsa(sa)sti-8aliitani irimaj-Jayakfcl 

purigere-mu- 

24 xmiarkkam n ai-gaTu^du-geyy6(yye) Sa(sa)ka-varsha 960neya Bahudhanya- 

s^mvats^vada uttarayana-samkramapa vsrftioi 

25 Adityavara axnav^eyamdu iTidngnndara Bmta^avundam Jayakesxyarasaralli 



27 



28 



mattar=eradu ^^ 

]sramah(8)=tumga-gira[s*]-clitimbi-c] ia mar a -cliaraara-cliar a v5 

rambha-mlila-stambhSya Sa(la)m^e [] [1*3 



trailskja-nagai-- 



Tippamamtaiga 



arvva[k*]-kariiata || [4*] 

a Bead 



Srasti Irimate-Yada- 




Bead 




336 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [Vox,. 



30 Ya-Har&yana bhuja-bala praudha-pratapa 1 cltakravartti &l-Kaxhhnara~dSva. ~ 

vijaya-r ajy-odaya-varsliada eneya Am(a)namda-sa2hvatsarada Piialgiina(na> &&, 

pauraiia- 

31 mi Sdiuavara vyatipata samkraiiitiyaihdti svasti samasta-prasa(ga)sii*saHtaii2. 

srlmanw-iaakaprada(db.a)iiam Tipparasaraih ya sarv^amga-lakslimi Gona-ma' 

32 deiyam=a siimad--a{a)BadI-Banamj'a-vattaBam Hulumgura tamnirvvaru gavumtfix 

samasta-praje nakhax-a mummum(mu)ri-damdanigalige 

33 a sta(stha)lada dana-bal'avanu sarwa-namasyav*gi bittaru [|*] Ti(i) dharmu.a- 

(rmma)vam pratipalisidavara Varala(na)siyala sahasra 1 kavileyanu 

34 brahma[na*]rige vnbliayamukliiy=a dana madida plialav=a 

allpid-ataihge Varanasiyalu sahasra(sra) kavile- 

35 vanu alida papam |j Sva-dattam para-datt'[a*]m va y5 hareti(ta) 

vishtayam 3 jayate 



(Lines 1-8.) When * . - tlie great august general - . * tree of desire to seekers 
of Ms protection, vzshing-gem to dependents . . . lion to the deer his foes . . \ athlete' 
against mountain- fastnesses, comet to the Klonkan . . . disa-patta* to Kannaya (P), bee to 
the lotos-feet of king Jagadeka malls, the General Vavanarasa, was ruling with enjoyment of 
pleasant conversations the Belvala Three-hundred and the Purigere Three-hundred, so as to 
suppress the wicked and protect the cultured : 

(Lines 8-12.) While the Mahasamanta who has obtained the five great (musical) sotmds y 
a Bevanta 8 of the Kali Age, lord of Purigere best of cities, a MaheSvara in the fray, a sun of 
the Minalas, man of might among men of might, lion to nobles, lofty in bravery, athlete on tb,e 
stage of battle, arrow (?) to foes, crest-gem of bold wairiors, master of exalted arts, Irivabedan-* 
ga Marasiiiga-deva, was holding the eonnty-shrievalty for the Purigere Three-hundred : 

(Lines 12-13.) And . . . Nidugundara Buta Qavun^a, who possesses all virtues^. 
who after speaking says not otherwise, a "servant of Somegvara [Siva], purifying his Gdtjra, an: 
immoveable Mera 

(Lines 13-16 ) .... at the command of ITSyibbarasi, who is a genius of ceaseless . . 
of perfect purity, a restorer of the Jain religion, king Satyasraya on going thither took posses- 
sion of the Bennegere Seventy and went away, his mother and KCarasinga-deva, seeing 1jhai? 
there was not any roast meal for the festival-shows of Nidugunda, were pleased to make a gift 
(of ilie same) 7 

(Lines 16-24.) Hail ! While the Mahasamanta who has obtained the five great (mt&sicaiy 
sounds, who bears all the titles of honour such as : "a Eevanta of the Kali Age, sprung from tlie 
Manalera lineage, renowned for his device of a lion, lord of Purigere best of cities, a Mahe- 
svara in the fray, a bee to the lotus-feet of the Lord [Vishnu], the Arhats [Jinas], Parame^vara? 
[Siva], and the Supreme Master, 8 a jewel-mine of righteousness, he whose rod-like arm m 



1 The engraver lias written sa&ra, and tken added a small $ra over the right hook^of the k. 

2 Head r*r*Aa-. s & ead vMtMyam. A 'rowel it, is attached to the vf. 

* Head farimifi. 

* This seems to be the same word as dMS-paf*, explained s.v. hy Kittel as "cansing (his eneinies} to Ibe 
scattered in all directions/* 

* See above, Vol. Y, p. 236 B., Vol. XIII, p. S13. 

* [ The object of the grant was evidently the remission of the tar &**fe piffr. Satya*rayadS*ai-aIZft* 
-to Satyasrajadem^ and abt^afum refer, to N^ibbarasi queen of Marasmgadeva. The donee wa 

-H. K. 8. J s Apparently this means the Chalukya king. 



No, 23.] HULGUR INSCRIPTION OF THE REIGNS OF JATASIMHA II, ETC, SS7 

adorned by a terrible scimitar, a sun of battles, an ornament of the Jims* Church, conversing 
with refinement, wishing-gem to dependents, crest-gem of bold -warriors, athlete against furious 
elepHants, friend to the needy, a Vatsa-king 1 with horses, a celestial tree to Brahmang aRadhft's 
son [Karna] in truthfulness, a Vinata's son [Ganuja] among kings, an ocean to seekers of his 
protection, an ocean of gems of virtues, a Love-god to lovely women, aBMiina of the Hanaias a 
differ of hostile nobles, a destroyer of foes," Jayakesi, was holding the office of connty-shetifE 
for tlie Purigere Tbree-liuiLdred : 

(Lines 24-26 ) At the uttarayana-samkranti, on Sunday, the day of new-moon, in the 
cyclic year BalxudliSnya, the eeotli (year) of the Saka era, Niduguitdara Buta G5vuQ<)a 
granted to the god Narayana two mattar according to the rood, wMcli he had obtained from 
Jayakesiyarasa on $arvanamasya tenure, at tlie side of the field of the rest-house 

(Verse 1) Homage to, Sambhu lovely with the yak-tail fan that is the moon kissing Ms 
lofty, head, tlie foundation- column for the construction of the city of the threefold world. 

(Verse 2.) Homage to him who stills all obstacles, who casts out the serpent of pride, who 
"foldings prosperous ending, wlio reveals himself in native radiance. 

(Verse 3.) Groocl fortune "be thine as long as moon and stars endure, great Minister Tippa 
"by contact with whose fame Sarasvati shines in perfect whiteness ; 

(Verse 4,) Coming under the shadow of whose parasol, the excellent 2 Lady who bestoweth 
all {^Fortune] shall with speed bring hither complete prosperity of life. 

(Lines 29-33.) On Monday, the full-moon day of Phalgtuia in the cyclic year Anaada* 
the 9th of the years of the rise of the victorious reign of king Kahnaxa* the HarSyana of 
tlxe "STSda-vas* the Emperor strong of arm (and) splendid of majesty, during the Yyatlpata 
^y@ga"), in a conjunction, the High Minister Tipparasa, who possesses all titles of honour, and 
Ck>i?,a-mS;dgvi, that perfect Goddess of Fortune, granted to the twelve S&erlfis of Hulungfir, 
tlie immemorial town of the Bananjus, 8 to the whole population, the merchants, and die 

^as^ a cattle-pound (?) for that place on swva-namasya tenure* 
(Lines 33-85 : a Kanarese prose formula of the usual type*) 
C Verse 5 : a common Sanskrit commonitory verse.) 



26. TILVALLI INSCRIPTION OF THE KEIGN OF SOMESVARA I. 

Br LIONEL D. BABHETT. 

Tilvalli is a village in the K3d taluka, of Dharwar district, situated *in about lat , 14 
and long, 75 17'. The name is spelt in the Indiaa Atlas sheet 42 m " Teelowly and in 
the Bombay Survey sheet 310 as Tilvaffi.'' The present 'record was i^c^d for tie 



, i Plet, an ba^t^d by M m to . 

namely, a linaa on stand in the centre, with officiant priest by the side, to me p pe g 



i Seo above, Vol. V, p. 236, Vol. XIII, p. 313 n. Goaa-madevi (B. 31-82), who 

* The adjective ffunavat* seems chosen for the sake of a play *pon tie v* * * 

wo uW aeem to "be the wife of Tippa. officials . ^ &lo v*, To! . X11I, P- SS. 

Soe above, p. 832, 



338 EPIGBAPHI1 INDICA. [VoL/XVI. 

of iMs, a cow with ^calf ; to tlie left of it, a bull ; above it, the sun ; to the proper left, th 
moon. The diameter is fair Kankrese of the period, angular and slanting, with letters varying 
in height from f in. to | in. The cursive m (above; Vol. XII, p. 335) occurs in rajyam (I. 5), 
-mmane (L 6), andMwa[P]- (L 7). The language is ft 01d Kanarese. The f is preserved, 
soil, in negald-ilda (J. 19). The I is doubled before y in kallyan* (1. 6) ; cf. Panini, VIZI. 
iv. 47, and Siddkanta-kaumudi, .48 ; and the upadhm&nlya appears in -avhtahpura- (1, 7). We 
may note the instrument -srtye in 11. 1-2, on which cf. above, Tol. XI V, p.|27, n. 9* The words 
leanik&ra, and atth$$a (1. 12) are of some lexical interest. The first of these occurs in an 
inscription of Kdlur, in the phrase vadda^ravulada JcheniJcara ; so it denotes some fiscal officer j 
and atthana may be from Skt. astliana. 

The record opens (11. 1-2) with a Jcanda verse which may be thus rendered : " By For- 
tune's s blessed benediction (is won) the realm of bliss of glory (and) of bliss of victory i in the 
primal summit by Fortune's blessed benediction may Abltava [Siva], (who ii) the realm of bliss 
of glory (and) of bliss of victory, be won." Then, after an ungrammatical salutation to Siva 
(L 2), it refers itself to the reign of Trailokyamalla [Somesvara I] (11.. 3-6), and announces that 
at the time his senior queen Mailala-devi was administering the Banavasi Twelve-thousand 
(H* 6-9). 1 Next it proceeds to give the names and jtitles of ^ certain high fiscal officers who 
apparently made an endowment for the cult of Siva (11, 9 ff.), and breafcs off before giving the 
details oJ their arrangements. These officers are the high minister and vadda-ravulada perg-ade 
Sovanathayya, by whose instructions the endowment was made ; Nagavarmayya, SivanSgayya^ 
and Sifigayya, the presidents of the JtenikfZras of the attJi&n-anf<a,ras (Privy Courts ?) of . 
* ppatiir and Pasmngal; and the high minister and perjunJcada pergade Cfcattimayya or 
C&atta. 

The date is not certain : it depends upon the authority of Elliot's copyist, who read a few 
fragmentary words after the portion attested by the ink-impression, among them the word 
975neya (see below). If we accept this statement, we must assign the record to Saka 975 ; this 
ygar, if takeii as current, corresponded to A.D* 1052-53, and, if lapsed, to A.D. 1063-54.. 

The only places mentioned are the Banavasi Twelve-thousand (L 8), . . ppatiir 
(L 12), the Five-lmndred of Panuxigal, i.e. Hangal (1. 12), and Tilivalli (1. 20), 

TEXT.* 
[Metres ; v. 1 , lEanda ; v. 2 y Utpalamala,"] 

jr , > 

1 [Srijya vacha[^]-srlye yasha 3 -srlya jaya-sriya padavi modalol tudiyoi Sri* 

2 [ya] vacha[S]-griye yasa[s]-srlya jaya-grlya padavi dore-kolg=Abhavaih |j [1*] 

Nama Sivah [||] 

3 [Svasti] samasta-bhuvan-^sraya Sri""PrithuvI 4 -vallabharii maharajadhiraja paramg- 

4f [Svara] paramabhatt[a^]rakam" Satyasraya-kula-tilakam Chaltiky-abhara^Lam 
srima[t*]-Trai- 

5 [lokya]malla-devara rajyam=uttaxOttar-abhivri(vri)ddM-pravarddhamanam=a-chamdr 

Irkka-taram-baram salu- 

6 [ttam-i] re || Svastyanavarata-parama-kallyan-abhyudaya-sahasra-phala-bhdginl(ni) 

dvitiya-Lakshml-sama- 

7 [ne sa] vati-mada-bhamjani samaiiit-aihtahptira-mnkha-manda]i( ne) dana-chintamani 

Srlina[t*]-Trail6kya- 

8 [malla]-visala-vaksha-staniyar 5 appai piriy-arasi Mailala-deviyar ^ Banavasi- 



1 See Tyn. K&nar. J)i$ti\ 9 p* 440. 2 Prom the ink-impression. - * Head #a^.i-. 

* Bead. / y rtt&i$* 8 Bead 



. 26.] TILVALLI INSCRIPTION OP THE REIGN OF SOMESYARA L .839 

9 marb, sukha- samkafcha- vmodadimdam-aluttam-ire j| Siima[t*]-Trail6kyamalla-devara 
pada-p&dm-opajivi 

10 [svasti] samasta-rajya-bhara-niirupita-maliamatya-padavi-viTajamaiia man^onrtata prabliu* 

raaihti-otsa- 

11 [ha>6akti-traya~sampannar appa 6rimat(d)~vaclda-ravii}pda p[e*]rggade Sovanatiiay- 

yarh-gala besadirii. 

12 * ppatur^atthan-antarada Panniiigall=aiynii^==att3iaii-antatada keiiikara[r=a*] 

dhishthaya- 

13 [ka] Nagavaxmmayyanujii Sivanagayyanurh Sixagayyanurfa [| &rlmat{n)-Mailala* 



14 [vijyara sri-pada-padm-opajivi samasta-rajya-bliara-nirupita-malianiatya-padavi- 

15 [vijrajamana man-cmnata prabhu-mamti-otsaha-sa( sa)kti-traya-sampannan=ani mujtle 

(Ide) gamndaiii 1 

16 [?b]avana 2 sirhgaiii haya-Vatsa-rajam gotra-pavitram nam-adi-prasa (sa)sti sahitam 

srlma- 

17 [t]-perjumkada perggade Gliattiraayyajii |j 



18 tmanam nirggu^anain nikri(kri)shtanan=ale naya-kovidanaiii[v-' ^> 

w ^-/ ^j w] pa- 

19 rirakstakanam negald-ilda Cfrattanaxii perggadey=emba [ w w w w 

^j - \^f V^/ - ^j - ] 

20 danam |j [3*] Ghattimayyana besadim TIliva[lli ^ ****** 

K ^c # * * >|c*j 

21 naBdpa Sirhganum || Sv^sti sa ***********^ 

* * #3 



No. 27. A SECOND PLATE OF BHASKARA RAVIVARMAN FOUND AT 

TIBUNBLLI. 

BT L, A, CAMMIADB, B.A., B.L., BAR.-AT-LAW, AXD THE LATE T. A* GOPINATHA RAO, M,A- 

Tke copper-plate, the inscription on whicli is edited below, was discovered years ago by 
of us a,t Tirunellij and fix>m the impressions then taken we edit ttie record below. 

The copper-plate measures 8f " by 2J", is engraved on both sides, and contains a compJete 
document. Very near the left margin of the plate is a ring-hole ; but, when the plate came 
to us for examination, there wae no ring strong to it. The preservation of the inscription 
is good. The alphabet employed in the record is Vatteluttu of about the tenth or eleventh 
century A.D. A few Sanskrit words and letters which occur in the record are written in the 
thrantha characters, e.g. Svasti Sri occurring in LI, sapta in panclitimasa'fta in 1. 13, aw iu 
Vasndeva in L 15, Sri and shna in Srfvaishztava in L 19, and gd-prdhmanftn& iva*t* in L llo. At 
the end of the inscription occurs om namo N&r&yan&ya namak written In tbf* Nagari 
alphabet of the type employed in the Mahabalipnraia and the Gonjeevtiram mscripiJ.r-, of 

1 Meaning : " valiant when hosts are wroth." 2 Either bavana or inavana is }M^sibi- 

3 The ink -impression ends here. Elliot's copyist however found the following words on the stouo : 
pura * , * #ari markkbla, . . - * sta-prasa , . * * 9Toneya * . * . 

J A 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICT [VOL XVL 



the early Pallaya kings. 1 The language of the record is Tamil* The words pandtradi 

(II. 4 and 10), ari (L 11), parainnw (L 19 1), vaichchu (1. 20), vaippiclicJiu (L 21), Kunni* 

(IL 21 and 26), marinala (L 22), etc, may be cited as instances of Malayalam words and 

therefore the language of the document might be called Malayalam; but against this 

contention it may be stated that these words are pure Tamil, with here and there a slight 

change in the pronunciation, an alteration which is also common to the Tamil language 

and is, therefore, no special feature of Malayalam* It is from about the period of this 

record that we begin to meet with the slight changes in the Tamil language which go to 

make its ancient dialect pass for the supposed separate language, viz, Malayalam, For 

example, the retention of the words which have become obsolete in the spoken Tamfl 

language, the abolition of the gender suffixes at a comparatively recent period and a few 

similar peculiarities produce an impression of difference between the two languages, Tamil 

and Malayalam. It i, however, easy to establish the identity of the two languages in 

JRO far as the vocabulary and the grammar are concerned ; a rough and ready proof of their 

identity is offered by the fact that a man from the Tamil country is able to make himself 

understood, by the Malayali and vice versa, which is however not possible between the Tamil 

and the Telugu and the Malayali and the Telngu. One peculiarity of the present document 

worth noticing is th#t it omits in many cases the final w in the conjunctive particle urn} 

*.g. in uru (I, ?), S^imiyu (L 23 1), Ayyanu (L 23), etc. The final m in $uch words as 

muttikkum (I. 20) is also omitted, 

The most important feature of this inscription of king BhSskara Bavivarman is 
$he mention of a complete set of astronomical details necessary for the determination 
of the age of the king. The grant recorded in the document was made in the sixth year 
opposite to the thirty-fifth, which was opposite the second year, that is, the forty- third year 
#f the reign of the king* In this year, at the time iffhen the grant was made, Jupiter stood 
in the TulS-rSSi, the^ sun in ^he Mma-rssi, the date of the solar month being the eighth 
expired, the day a "Wednesday and the nakshatra Uttara-Pitalgunl. Regarding this date 
the Hon. D^wan Bahadur L. D, Swamikannu Pillai writes as follows ; 

"I took the period from A.D* 949 to 1329 (380 years) and found only one year in which 
the 9th Mina was a Wednesday, when Jupiter was in Tula &nd the moon in TJttara-P halgi>nl 
(&ttu-$enra is, I believe, 9th and not the 8th), 

"The year in question is A.D. 1020-21, when 9th Mina was Wednesday, 1st March 
1021 AJX, on which day Jupiter was in Tula (fcagitiide about 186=Tula?), and the moon 
was in nakshatra TJttararPhalgunl, whose ending jnoment was 57| ghatiJcas after mean- 
sunrise. 

"In A.B. 1115-16, the next most likely year, the 8th Mina was Monday, 29th February 
AJX 1116, and the 9th Mtoa was Tuesday, 1st March AD. 1116. I do not find any other 
year in the period of four centuries examined (A.1X 950 to 1350) when the 8th or 9th Mina was 
& Wednesday and when Jupjter stood in the Tula-rSsi and the moon in the nakshatra TJttara- 
PhalgunL 



the present we may rest satisfied that your Tirnnelli grant was d^ted on Wednesday, 
1st Mareh A.D. 1021, and that Bhaskara Ravivarman who made a grant to the Jew, 
Kabbi 4o^eph (Cochin Plates, Ind. Ant., Vol. X2;), began to reign somewhere abo^t A.D, 
984. 

1 [The letters in the Tmraelli Plate are abnormally box-bended. Excepting in the ca* of na , I do not see 
rese^bltoce bofcwen tt^ SSlav^nkuppaiu aer Mafcabalipurin* (Ep 

, Plate ppp.p, J4j, " ' * ' "* '^ 



Ko. 27.] 



A SECOND PLATE OF BHASKARA RAVIVAKK AH. 



841 



" Dates when, Jupiter being in the Tula-rasi, the moon was in Uttara-Phalguni aad the 
ouu. in the Mlna-rasi and the day of the month 8th or 9th of Ulna, a Wednesday, could occur 
only once in 95 years, e.g. A.D. 1020-21, 1115-16, 1210-11 and 1805-06, but only A.D. 1020-21 
all the conditions." 



In. the collection of Travancore inscriptions there ore some belonging to the reign of 
Bhaskara Ravivarman which contain more or less astronomical details which enable us note to 
verify the date deduced from the Tirunelli plate under notice. The date portions of these are 
extracted below in chronological order, together with the notes kindly supplied to as by 
. Filial. 



Tiruvajikleurtsfahellaninra SrSm-a^aHik-edif 

Viy&lan-ninra TulS-nay-irfU . . . ." ' In the seventh year which was 
c'^ent Ind which was opposite to'the sixth (of the reign) of the king PSkkaraE-Ira,vi7ammar 
Tiruva4i, when Jupiter stood in the ^isHabha-rssi and the sun in the Tula-ram.' 

"No 89 of 1086 M. B. of the Travancore Collection. 13th year. Jupiter in $ishabh 
month Of the years A.D. 990, 991 and 992, which correspond to the 13th, 14th and 
in this series, only A.D. 992, Tula month, answers the description ' Jnpter a 
1 and I suspect that 'tranrfam-a^aiMt-a&r', which is present m all tne otner 
WiYarman dates, has been left out in this case and that the regnal year is really 
'' L. D. S. 



(aamf)' opposite fte 



(of tie 



' > 



u *ra^^afcfe.a<Kr 



t e 
I4aba(rt-s? l a6? t a.^) a ndattheendofthe 

"No. 84 of 1086 (of the Travaucore collection) 
^Lishabha month April-May. 



^. 

3Sta year. y 



.. 

that tbe^igumust hare 
regnal years ehanged numbers in this 
38 g th Jar and March 1021 
beginning of the 44th year, an 
of the 23rd year." 



fl I . &boTe 
ter Ap ^ ^ ^ ^ 

1021 *ay have been in tie 
have Octobe, 1000 A.D. 




- . 




EPIGEAPHIA INDICA, [Vor,. XYL 



From the various dates noticed above it is now quite certain that the reign of Bhaakara 
Bavivarm&n began, as already stated, some time after October A.D, 984, 

The inscription records that Kunjikkutta-varman alias Adigal Vira-Kurtimburaiyar 
Tiruvadi, who was governing the Mutta-kum of the Kurumburai nadu, granted a piece of 
land known a& KilkSttiy-pPolacliclierikkal (i.e. the cherikkat, or mountainous tract, 
Pfilacheheriykkal of Kilkkadu), for a rice-ofiering at the pandzradi time of the day and for 
a perpetual lamp to be burnt before the god of the temple at TiraneltL This charity was placed 
under the management of the members of the family of the donor, the yogins (who were per- 
haps residing in or near the temple) and the Srlvaishnavas ; the community or assembly known 
as the seven hundred ' of the Mutta-kuru, the villagers and the Vellalas who are the major 
Jand-lords of the village all these, without entertaining among themselves any difference of 
opinion on the matter of this charity, were obliged to arrange for the supply of the rice for the 
offering and for the burning of the perpetual lamp. Kunjikkutta-varman also gave to the 
temple a silver pot, a silver paragai, and a silver sword, and a pearl neck-lace to the god of the 
temple at Tirunelli. 

There are a few words occurring in the document which are still current in the Malayalam 
language and which- require a few words of explanation. The word pandlradi is a technical 
term commonly employed for the service which is conducted at a time when the sun stands at 
such a height in the sky as to cast the shadow of a man which measures twelve feet reckoned 
by his own fo<>t, Assuming the height of a man to be about seven feet measured by his own 
.foot, 1 the time when the shadow measures twelve feet would be about eight o'clock in the 
morning. Hatta-kuru occurring in II. 5 and 26 may mean either the portion of the country 
ruled over by the elder branch of the family to which Kunjikkutta-varmau belonged or the 
larger of the t^o sections into which the Kurnmburai nftfa was divided and one of which was 
governed by the members of the family to which the donor belonged, while the other was 
governed by some other person. Again * elunurruvar *, occurring in Z. 7, is employed here 
evidently to denote a community consisting of seven hundred members j this term may be 
compared with advantage with the rnuvayiravar of Tiruchchengunrur, occurring in the 
NalSyira-prabandham* the narpatt-ennayiravar* of Kanyakumari, the munnurruvar of Nanrujai 
nadu* occurring in some of the inscriptions of Tiruvanva^dur, etc. It will become patent 
from the 'references giveu above that the phrase wStta-kurril elunurruvar cannot mean 
the seven hundred members of the elder branch of the family governing the Kujmntmrai 
natfu, but that it refers to a community of men living in the Mutta-kuru of the said nadu 
Idavagai is another word employed in a particular sense in Malayalam and means the property 
belonging to an important personage or a very rich landlord ; for example, we hear of the 
Puftnarru ifavaga, the estate belonging to the Pflnnarru Raja, or Chief, in Travaueore. 
Kammalvar, the great Taishnava saint, also uses this term in the same sense- 5 Ntrattu-palli is- 

1 Thl is what Mftliavlracharya does in the chapter on Chhaya-vyavahara of bis 



* Amarada4ir muvayiravar-vediyargal tampadi. 

Tiruvaymoli, 8, 4-P. 
Muvayira-Ban*maraiyalar nalum muraiyal vanaiiga. 

Periyattrumoli, 3,2, 8, 

* See Travancore ArcZaological Serie*, Vol. I, pp. 168,169. 

* Trarancore AycTi^ological Serie*, Vol. II, pp. 23-4. 

* Kdmaoai-ppayanda, kalai 



Tirvvaymoti, 10, 



Tlrunelli Plate of Bhaskara Ravivarman. 






8 



O < CO 09 




F. W. THOMAS 



SCALE FULL SIZE 



C. WHITTJNGHAM & GRIOQS, PHOTO'LiTH. 



No, 27.] A gECfOBD f>LATE OF BHASKARA BAVIYARMAff. 343 

used to mean the bathing of the image of the god with water or the place where such a bath 
takes place. 1 The words padi-pada-mulattar, prakritiyar, adigari, etc. ooonr in several other 
documents and have been explained by those who have edited those inscriptions. 

The names of places that occur in the record are Tirunelli, Kwrumburai *afr and ' 
Kilkkattiy-pPolacb-cnerikkal. these, the first two are the names of a town and of a 
district respectively in the Wydad and the third is the name of a plot of land, which is not 
possible to be identified. 

TEXT.3 

First Sids. 

1 Svasti Sri[h|l*] Ka Sri Parkkaran-IraviTarmmaii-Timvadikku=chchella(-B)ninra 

irandam-a[n]- 

2 daiik-edir mup P att=[aiya]m-andaikk=edir=aram.and[n] TnIMttl (v)Vyalaimmra 

Mina-fisyiru f 

3 ettn ienra Bndan-anda-mtiratti-nal Tirunelli mutkalvattattu ninrn sejda 

kariyam-avadn[|*] Ti- ,.,.,.- 

4 rnnelli-pPerumalkka niyadam pandlra[di*]kku ari munna-naliyal arn-nah om 



- 

5 [vila][k*]k[n] (da) amaichchan* Ki^lkkattiy-pPeiaolichgrikkSl a^-kkaduttan 

Muttakfiru-valginra 

6 Ku*3ikuttaYarmman-ayi[na] Adigal Vira-kKTOTumburaiyar-Tiruvadi attikkud,!- 

7 tt-aruHyar[l|*] MftttaktLrril Eiunfirruvamta paniy-u4aiy nayannm flru[m ] -nrida' 

8 vagai* Vellalarnm K-urtoaburayiftacJu Mn[tta]knrrmTikk-amaiSja Nil[l>im] 



9 yunm^TagaiyuCmn pirakidiyum^ ndan-Mdi-niar^virOdam-ay Tirunel- 

10 li-pPeruraalkku niyadam agattn-pandiradi-tiravamirdinnkkum oru nanda- 

11 v a a kkinnn-Kiikkattly.pP61acb.clirikk5l=atti.kkuduttidaCll*] an munna-na- 

12 lival=afrulnaliyalnm padi pirammanar ami[r]di.seyvidn.[H*] padi-chchO- 



[pan]cha m asa P tan-kotfci7 uvachchagal kolvidu [r] Ich.hep, 
14 pettil-ppatfcay-ilekaiyisal 6rru[k*]konda pnrularavOrS Tirunelli- 

Second Side. 

15 pura* Narayanan Vasudeyan-ayina Nelkk W radigalum NeUamam^ Nlriyana, 

16 n TiruueUi-ttSiYSriyanu pirakidiyum^ TinmeUi mukkalvattatt-amai. 

17 Sja padipaclamulamadi ivargal kaiyyil-atti-kkndnttan Kufljiku ? tavarCm]ma^ 

ayi- 

18 na Vira-kKurumbural KilkkSttiy-pP61acb.oherikk5l[r] iohcherifckal tan- 

' nnatigalkku 11 




i Cf. NirattuppaUi paadiru-kudan-nir kondu mrattuppaUi-a> idu. 

JProm the impressions of the copper-plate taken by Mr. Cammiade. 

[Tiiis word is entered below the line. Ed.] 

n i* written in smaller characters below the line. 

r*w * ^i.n ff traces 5Wrf*^w would be a fetter reading than wdavaffai- K. V. B.J 

7 Bead paucha*Ma bafaoaam* 
> [iBsfcead of .pwa, I woulcl read ZV*w0 V-., V. 8 ] 



the e^tin, traces ^^^ 
Bead ira*,t. ' 



34* EPIGEAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XVL 

19 yOgigalkka 1 SrlvaistnavarkkafL-kJlldaga kodtattiduQl*] ichchelariaukku idaiyflju 

pajai- 

20 Sfitt muttikku[m*]-avan aj-arai-kka^ajjm*] pc=a;<Jaua 3 Perumal ba#darat[t*]il 

vaichehu mutt-Iratfei tirmvaml- 

21 rdum nnnda-vilakkn[rnt*] vaippicliclm nmkkalvattattu cliellakkadava$[|j*J 

idakkarivu sJiyBr-kKuiafii- 

22 F7i*]kkiraraa&-agiya adigara&um Amaiyamanftalattu Takkaji SattaijSgiya padai 

Ttlda$rim(?,) Kiliya- 

23 Dr*]jr"ii *Tiilavilli AyyIPi[m*;i KSyiima^-Msyiiiaii-gandafttLm Manaimsttu 

Kerila?ium 



24 nniyu[m*] ayivar[ []*] KiLra[m*]bTir^^ [y*} 

kaiyyeJtidiy-aiiYen Valise- 

25 ri-kKanapati JST!lakanda|i*ayiDa Ktiriimbxirai-pperun-datta)j-eluttu[j|*] Gs- 

praliinanana 5 gvastika[m] [s]vasti[|i*] 

26 TimneUi*pPerumalkku KurumbTiraiyiijSdu Muttakuru-Talginya KufifiikTittavar. 

27 mma&yi[na] Vira^kKiirumbujaiyar kodutta velli-ppaoaiyum v[e*]lli valu [111*3 

pa[ya]gaiyum miit- 

28 tu-tajvadamu[ia*] en^-Qjrju elupatt-ettu muttu niyadam eduppi4u[|j*] sarttnTidun* 

jeyTada[|[*] 

29 Padevadevaiyamad6r : -[Om] narnS Narayanaya namalL [H*] 



lanes 1-3. Hail Prosperity ! In the sixth, year opposite to the thirty-fifth year, 
was opposite to tie second year that was current in the reign of the glorious king Bhaskara 
Bavivarroan Timvadi, when Jupiter was standing in the TulS (rasi), on the expiry of the 
eighth day in the solar) month lima, on the day of the ascendency of Budha ( Wednesday ) t 
in the nakshatra Uttiram, the following was the business that was transacted in the temple 
of Tirunelli : 

LI. 4-7- KnfijikTittavarncian alias Adigal Vira-kKtijTimbiiraiyar Tiruvadi, governing: 
the Miitta-klijm (larger division of the KturumTkmrai n5jf), was pleased to make a gift by 
the pouring (of water) to the god at Tinmelli (of the land known aa ?) Polachchrikk5l in 
for the upkeep of the daily offering 6 of three times four nails'* of rice (to t>e offered) 



when the sun stood at an altitude at which the shadow of a man is twelve feet (as measured 
by his own feet) and for (burning) a perpetual lamp* 

IiL 7-11- The (community of) the seveu hundred (residing) in the Mtitta-kfiju (larger 
division of the Kurambuyai nSdw) and the Nay an who has service (rights in the Tirunelli 
temple), the townsmen and the VeJlSjas who hold estates 8 (in Tirunelli), the inhabitants who 
a.re ..... to tie larger division of the KimimTrarai n&fa, the estate holders in it and the 
Prakrit!, all these, having unanimously agreed among themselves, granted by the pouring of 



1 Bead ^6y#a{**fcft* or yq^a^fot. * m is entered l>elow the lino. 

1 [Puiur would be tetter : fu IB diffareirfly shaped. K. V. S.] 

4 The first letter looks like Pa. * Read gd-fa-ahmandnd [m*} 

6 [There aro 110 wordi in 1L 4-7 for ** for the upkeep of the daily offering/* The engraver *eem* to have omit- 
tod to enter here ihe word ** tiwvamudinukkum *% which, however, oeenx* in L 10^ K. V* S,] 

T dtomtafta. liyal ajrewa li meana * f six n&U (as menrod by) the mwmSn&K " and not ** three times four 
3jf * a has been rendered. Jfc*^a I might, however, mean *' three' times foar wU " 9 and in that case 
* inv**an&}i$idl ajwnali ** would be eqiuralent to seventy-two alf. K* V. S-] 

* [W5th the altered reading of IC nal-\dah$(*\-ve\\a\ar J> , eng^etted in foot-note 5 on p* 343, the trans] atiop 
wiuld be " tHe f onr d wses of Idangai-Vej^at^ K. V- S* 



o, 27, J A SECOND PLATE OF BHASKABA EAVIVABMAJNT. 345 

water, the land known as the Pdiachcherikkal in Kijlkkadu to the god at Tirunelli for 
offering daily at the * twelve-feet J time of the day 1 and for (burning) a perpetual lamp. 

LL 11-13* Out of the three times four nalis- of rice, six nalis, (that is) one half, should 
be utilised for feeding Brahmanas ; the (remaining) half should be taken by the drummers who 
sound the five great (musical) instruments at the time of bathing (the image of the god). 

LI. 13-18. The purushas (persons) \vho accepted (this gift) as detailed in this copper- 
plate are Narayanan Vasudevan alias Nelkunradigal of Tirunelli-puram, 3 Neilamam 
HSrayanan, Tirunellittsivariyan 4 , the prakriti and the padipadam&lam employed for the 
temple of Tirunelli, in the hands of these did Ktmjiknttayarman alias Vira-Kuruia- 
fourai give, by the pouring, of water, Psjaehcherikkal in Rilkkadti* 

LL 18-19* This cheriJcMl was given as a klUdu (to be placed) under his (the donor's) 
agnates, the yogins and the Srivaishnavas, 

LL 19-21, He that offers hindrance to this (item of) expenditure shall (become eligible to) 
enter the temple, only after having paid a fine of six and a half Mnams of gold in the god's 
(that is, the temple) treasury and having also paid down donble the expense of the offering 
and the lamp (which were stopped by his interference). 

LL 2 1-25. Those who know this (transaction) : the adhikftrin, Arur KuMivikraman, 
Yakkan Sattan of Amaiyamannalam the leader of the army (?), TalaVilli Ayya^Lof Kiliyaru, 
Mayinan-Gandan of Kayuman and Kandan Kerilan of ManannadTi and Bamag. KuMi of 
Kannanur know (this transaction). As the servant of Irari Iranian, the Main&yan of Kujum- 
bujai n&du, I, Ganapati Nilakandan of Valiseri, the goldsmith of Knmmbnjai, wrote 
this and know (the transaction) (and this is my) writing. May the cows and Brlhmarias 
prosper : be it well, 

LL 26-29. Knnniknttayarman alias Vira-Kurumbniraiyar, the governor of the 
larger division of the Slununburaiyi n$$u, gave a silver pot, a silver sword (?), a flag (?), a 
necklace of pearls (made of) eight hundred and seventy-eight pearls, which is to be taken out 
d*ily and used to adorn the image 

Om namG Narayanaya n&mah. 

JSTo. 28. SEIBAKGAM PLATES OF MALLIKABJTJNA : SAKA-SAMVAT 1384. 

BY THE LATE T. A. GrOPINATHA EAO, M.A W TillVANBBUK. 

The irpscription edited below is engraved upon a set of three copper-plates (size 9| in, 
Jiigh, 6-| in. broad), of which the first and the last have writing on one side only, namely the 

1 The word agattu used with pandiradi ia the tadbhava form in Tamil of the Sanskrit ajiar or akah, a day 
The phrase agattu pandtradi literally mana * when the day was (at) twelve feet/ The wo rd agattu is found also 
in. the compound attalam, which is a corruptioja of agatt&lam*tga>Uu i- tala, * when the day was down/ that is 
plEtttr sunset. The Malaya-Jam language has created the word muttalam, meaning the early morning, in opposi- 
tion to attdla-m, which ia as meaningless AS the introduction of an I ia the English word could > which is formed in 
imitation of the word should. [Agattu in agotitvrp&ndlrGrgi cannot he considered to be &fadbhaua of the Sanskrit 
verd a&ar : ag&ttu means ** within wr before.** The full expre8ion of which " agattu-pandtrddi is a shortened 
farm is " uc&c&i agattu $&nlradi ** 9 which means '* twelve feet (time) before (the son gets to) zenith ** : and tfcig 
is opposed to ** whchi tirinju pandiradi '% meaning ** twelve feet (time) after senifch/* A given shadow 
will occur twice daily, once before the aun reaches tt^-zenith and once after it. Thus, agattu$andira4i** 
aiid its antonym tirinji fawflrafi** 3-47P-M:. I may note that " agattu-irubatfaiycidi " and " velM 

adi ** occur in an inscription of Mujiklalam iu the Travancore State. K. V. S*] 

Munnan&liy&l arttndU means f six nd U (as measured by) the ununnanaU ** and not " three timef four 
as has been rendered* Munnanali might, howirer, mean w three times four ndli J % and in this cat 
mSUy&Z tsptnuli * would be equivalent to seventy-two n&li. K V. S/j 
FThifl muftt he altered into * ; Tirunaraya^aa , . * . . of Tirunelli/* K. V. S J 

in Kanajrese tneaxw * a village watchman/ Perhaps Tirunettitt&lp<*ri$*n here denote* 
of Tirunelli/ Hv iu a T ] 



346 EPIGRAPH!! INDICA. [y OL< z y j . 

second side of the first and the first side of the third, or last, plate, and the plates are numbered. 
1, 2 3 and 3 on their written sides, the number 2 being marked on the first side of the second 
plate. The writing is very well preserved. The inscription is in ISTandi-nagarl characters, 
and the language is partly Sanskrit and partly Kannada ; the Kannada portion occupies only * 
few lines at the end, that is, 11 68-73* The chief peculiarity of this document is that the wsa,rg& 
is omitted in a very large number of instances where it is required and, as in all Vijayana"arar 
grants, the anitsvara serves as a substitute for the varga-panchamas. 

The grant was made by Mallikarjnna, who is also called Immadi Deva-Raya 
Immadi Prandfaa-bMpati 1 in the record. His genealogy is given as follows : 

Sangama 



Bukka-Raya 

! 

Harihara (II) 

Deva-Raya (I) 

\ 

Vijaya-Raya 

i 

Deva-Raya (II) 

I 

iJallikarjnna alias Immadi Deva- 



jjjrfaj.Lu.ixaa ju..ua, HOTOMF xiuJULUbUl JL/6 Va-Xtaya. 

In the Saka year 1884, expressed by &7m=l, gwp=B, asUa=8 and vSdas4,, which corre- 
sponded to the cyclic year Cbitrablisim, on the full moon tithi of the bright half of the montlx 
Vaiiiakha, at the sacred moment of a vyatipSto, the king Mallikarjuna aUas Immadi Deva- 
Baya or Immadi Praudha-bhupati made the gnati to the god Srl-Eanganatha of the village of 
Uttamanoheri-kiliyup, in the presence of the god Chandramaali ; the object of the rant bein^ 
that by its virtue it should secure for the king victory, long life and success in the conquest of 
the fonr quarters. It wag made at the request of Chammafci Sflmaya, who bore the biruda 
Antembara-andn- 



, rua 

andnKnAManne-gajafatL From the income of the village the following items of 
had to be met for each pari^a daily, viz. :-rice, 10 manaJcas; ghee 3 A,uJfcii - 
plantain fruits, 10; coconufe, 2; green gram, i W w and fruit 8 and veaekbles * 

At the above rate six (complete) dishes of food should be daily offered to tie -oc 
together with a hundred and twenty aptfr cakea. A water-shed should be maintained perpe- 
nally front of the temple. Again, areca nuts, 50 , betel leaves, 100 ; and canton; gkaL^a 
aMa+tarwn, W panas in weight; tariM (musk), 2 fanas in weight ; ' 



, ; sana, 6 

costog 5 ^s r a^,a= saff ron) and camphor (.j^^w*,^^ 5 
m value; and ma- Tamil, Pa,^,= rose - wat er) ^ith fto^ttrf (zniL in tt) 

daily offeri^ to the god Eanganka. Besi 



m value; and ^ma-;^ (Tamil, Pa,^,= rose - wat er) ^ith fto^ttrf (zni in t) 
3 w ; should I-e used for daily offeri^ to the god Eanganka. Besi e 

^gements were made or three g^d feedings, one in the month of Phalguna Ide oher 
twom Dhanus: the following articles were to be used on those occasion^ -rio^ ,5 Tto, 
greengram)! drona; ghee, 1 adhaka; and fruits and vegetables * *Aan ,- 

Again, the king ordered that sixty Yaishnavas should be fed daily in the R-imanuia kM 




1907* alar JanabjtlicnameVhay a raya(II). See A. S. B. fci 



\No. 2S.J SRIRANGAM PLATES OF MALLIKARJUNA: SAKA-SAMVAT 13S4. 347 

The last plate contains the statement that the deed was engraved by Virana, 1 the son of 
jMuddaii-aeharya, for whom, one share was allotted; at the end are the usual admonitory and 
imprecatory verses and the sign-manual, Sri-VirupSksha, of the king. 

The articles kast&rt, kuitkuma, pachchai-karpuram and sandal form to this day very im- 
portant objects in the toilet of the image of Ranganatha. The paste of kasturt is applied as a 
tilaka or forehead-mark, every day to the image, and pachchai-karpuram, kutikuma and sandal 
five applied to the body. The word hima-jala, or rose-water, is the literal translation of the 
Tamil word pai~n?r (which is the same as the vulgar patiulr') ; this article does not appear to 
"be employed in the temple of Ranganatha at the present time. The term avasara employed in 
the document needs a few words of explanation ; in every temple there are three to MX different 
times, beginning from the early morning and ending at midnight, during which p&ja? are per- 
f ormyd and offerings made ; the pujSs are of different degrees of elaborateness, and the offerings 
are also of various kinds of preparations, such as rice, sugared rice, cakes, etc. Koch of these 
different times of p&j& and offerings is called an avasttra in the Srirangam temple and, in imita- 
tion, thoruof , in other Vaishnava temples also. I have not heard the term employed in Siva 
temples The king Mallikarjuna had made by this grant arrangements for the performance of 
one sncijp? every day with the offerings evidently of pongal (a kind of cooked rice raised 
with green' gram, salt! ghee, cumin seeds and pepper) and ddsais (a kind of cake made of rice 
and hKck <n-am ground together with water, salt and cumin seeds) or appam (a sweet cake) 
and with "vegetable curries. JtOmSnuja-kuta is the name of buildings set apart for the accom- 
modation amlboardmg of Srivaishnavas, and any Vaishnava town which lays claim to import- 
,~ will generally have a tia-manuju-kuta. The inscription mentions the names of different 
,. such as khXrt , drSna, adkaka or ath(?)aka, prasriti and kudupa, which are measures of 
counts; pna and 'palace measures of weight. In the Trichinopoiy District oil and 
ive measured in terms of the standard called adam even to this day. _ _ 

Tl,a tifavti in this inslanco is Charnmati Sonny* of whom no particulars are giveo :n 
^,rint on, nor ^m I able to find any from other sources. He rnay have been an ofcce. 
IThTtiie portion of the country surrounding Trichinopoiy ; there a village called 
Bnm-u-ns-tm^ttai five miles to the west of Trichinopoiy, which may possibly have been named 

Madras Presidency. Srirangam is three miles nort n at iw B ^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ 

temple of Ranganatha, which attracts daily ^ c ^ , J ^ t g riTa i shll nva ScUry**, 

the centre of Srlvaishnavism and was tne lieaa-quai _ & .-[jttamaeheri is a village 

liogunring tvom Yamnuarya, down to ManavaLa-mamum a ^^ ^ ^ ^ Srirangam. 
situated in the island of Srlrarigam and is at a dis jaoe . o 8raadhar ^ T . 3, -In/a; vv. 5, 

,, 8 , ^r^-^r;.^ ir^:*^; ^, * *--, 

TEXT.* 

"First Plate, 







EPIGEAPHIA IffDICA. [Voi.XV"l- 




Bead if. Eed n. 

* Bead ^f|^ s as in Sjp. Cam., Vol. VIII, Part II, Tl. 206. 

* Bead ^ : . T Bead ^ *<atefu. 

* 3rad J. Bead 3. Beid ^. " Read 

E ea a 



* Be*l wj. Bead w 



' Raad ^^Rjir^ffifofa w " Bead ^. * Bead 

Bd ^{^t fat^^. n Bead %. Bead 



^ 
** Kea5 ^yjfi ^frfc. Thew are several errors in this veise, aach as omissicra of lettera, and RO the ens 

Tty*cl fej fclie verse is difficult to te understood. [ The fire of Ms prowess, bom ia mire* , , . boins bamboo 
bat not the grass in the mouth of Ms ftnemies : strwige i* H JE. S.j 

Betd nftn;. Bftd o 



No. 28.] SBIBANGAil PLATES OB 1 MA.LLIKARJ0NA : SAKA-SAMVAT 1384. 



25 
26 

27 

28 

29 

30, 

31 

32 

33 

34, 

35 
36 

37 

38 

39 

40 



: D*] 



Second Plate : First Side. 



n[:] 



i[i 



LI t^ u *] ^T 19 



g; 



42 
43 
44 



t[:*3 i 



i[i 



* Eead 



Read 

Read ,$. Could th teadia? 
beuta of Hostile prinw * ? F. W. T/|. 

Read " 



Kad 



* fiead 

IP?: ' * eeive heat, or pn, nered the 
Bead w . 



Bead 



" Ra*Hft. 



lt Read 
Read 

Read 
Read 



** Eead 

in L 52 
" Bead 

** Ti * ta B * 



" 



3 * 



llticl1 ^ this foofc * 
* *<** 



Read 
Read 



" Bead ,?. 

** C 1 vouM suggesi 



. H, K. 



* Raf W. 



3 B 2 



350 



EPIGRAPHIA IKTDICA. 



[Voi. XVI. 



46 -ER 



48 
49 

50 

51 



i[i 



?rsn i[i 



?r*n" 






?f5rr i 



r 4 ?i5rr i it 



fan ' 



^r twrt 
TOT fwrai 



l[l 



52 
53 



55 *: 

56 f?f 
57 

58 



i 



59 f?nim trftr^sr: i 
60 



61 wfW[r] 
62 



Second Plate . Second Side. 



[11 



f (i) 



12 



2 If ^ is supplied aud the word read as nil 14^?^ there would be. one syllable in excess. 
Road H^Jtprt. * Read TOKnn&tf, 5 Read 

1 Be a<1 I 7 Rad JJT^R^ a Read ^5 

i Eeud HlT3r ^r^Tli^fjt 10 Uoai ^T?r : . Bead 

The exact sliape of the pbrase^tg-^q-^ is not clear. There ia some mistake here in the passage. [Read 
f ? T!ie ^ftRTPT ^i^f^cf: ' m u - 53 * 6 seems superfluous ia the verse and an anticipation of II. B8-8 _ 
F. W. T.] 



meant. H. K e S.] 
> Read f^S3p[, as ia 1. 55, 

u Read 1 M Bead *ii. The word iffim is incorrect. 

18 Reid fsRTT TlgRr^. T ^ Kannada form f^fsj ? (t.. finrm) is ttsed in this Sanskrit passage. 

** Th^i form q-fe^^ is also wrong, is Eoad "$m Q t 



Srirangam Plates of Mallikarjuna : Saka-Samvat 1384. 





Ko. 28. J SBIBANGAM PLATES OF MALLIKARJUNA : SAKA-SAMVAT 1384. 351 



64 
65 

66 
67 
68 

69 gf^rft 
70 

71 f^s 

72 r 
73 



PZoie : First Side. 

7 it 
75 
76 



77 ^r^r f'Txqrer 11 Kt^ R[I 

78 w [i*] isrf^^.T?TTf^ ^m w^rt fk^r[:*] 12 [*!*] 
79 

80 
81 
82 
83 

84 



ABS.TBACT OP 

Adoration to Gan&dliipati. 

Verse 1. Adoration to the primeval Boar (iacamation of 

V. 2. Adoration to child Oanapati." 



i Read srf. * K*<1 W. * Bead 

iiead ^ft- s Bead 6 



Kad ^. ' Bead ^1%t^r. * Eead 

Kead 

Read 



W Kead & ll Bend 

w p ea ,i _ " Read 

^ 



This v^rse conveys exactly tft 

Pandya : _ v-^nn knlavi-vea-diiwlina kSttadu 



g$2 EPIGRAPH!! INDICT. [Von. XV& 

W, 3-4 In the race of Yadu there was a good king jiaxned Sangama* He enabled the 
goddess of prosperity (Lakshml) of the Karnata kingdom to wear the ear-ornament (tatanka) 
permanently (i.e. did not allow heir fed remain without * lord reigning over it)* 1 

V. 5. To this kittg^ was- bora the famous BukkaJftSyfy ^o destroyed Ma snemiest with his- 
sword, 

V. 6. King Harihara was* bom to Bukka-Baya; he made other kings- bow down to his< 
mandates* 

V. 7, Deva-Bsya [I], who possessed a'pair of arms which crusted the hostik kings, I 
Born to Barihara, 

V. 8. Prom him cameijjiya-jBaya; r theibode 

V,. 9. Deva-Raya [H] wba appeared te be a copy of th# King of ^Gods (Imdra> y was bom 

to Vijaya-Eaya. 

Vv. 10-11. He was not onfy as skilled in the use of the bow as Arjuna himself, but also 
possessed wealth to be counted by laWis. His further pnw* 

V. 12. To Dgya-Kaya was- born MallikSrjuua> wha outshone Itis fatter in pr