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Full text of "EPIGRAHIA INDICA VOL 18"

EPIGRAPHIA INDIC 



Vol. XVIII (1925-26) 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE DIRECTOR GENERAL 

A RCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 

JANPATH, NEW DELHI- 11 0001 

' ' ' '' 



TIRUPAT 

- / '" ' ' 

>' *// **** * 







Vol. XVIII. 1925-26. 





PUBLISHED BY 

THE DIRECTOR GENERAL 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 

JANPATH, NEW DELHM 1001! 

1983 



Reprinted 1983 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
1983 



Price : Rs. 90-00 



Printed at Pearl Offset Press, 5/33 Kirti Nagar Industrial Area New Delhi-! 10015. 



PUBLISHED UJTOBB THE AUTHOBITT OP TEE 50TBBlSfMEl!rT OP JNDU 



EPIQRAPHIA INDICA 



ASD 



RECORD OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



Vol. XVIII. 1925-26. 



EDITED BY 

RAO BAHADUR H. KRISHNA SASTRI, B.A., 

GOVERNMENT EPIGBAPHIST FOB INDIA,, 

AND 

HIRANANDA SASTRI, M.A., M.O.L., D.LiTi-., 

GOVERNMENT EPIGBARHIST POU INfiU. 




CALCUTTA: 

, GOVEENMENT OF INDIA CENTRAL PUBLICATION BRANCH. 
BOMBAY: BRITISH INDIA PRESS. 



LQEDON: KEGAN PAUL, TBENCH, 
TEUBNEE & Co. 



NEW YORK: WESTEBMAKN & Co. 
CHICAGO; S, D. PEET. 



S: B, LEEOUX. 



CONTENTS. 



Contents 
No. 2 

No. 4 

No, 8 
No. 9 

No, 14 
No, 17 



Page 



No. 18 
No. 21 

No 38 
No. 40 



Bahur plates of Nripatungavarman : 
By prof : E. Hultzsch, Ph. d. Balle 
Kanyakumari Inscription of Vira- 
.Rajendra-Deva - By the late T. A. 
Govinda Rao, M, A., Trivandrum. 
Nidur Inscription of Kulottunga-Chola 
by K. V, Subrahraanya Ayyar, B, A. 
A Note on Manigramattar occurring in 
Tamil Inscriptions - by the late T. A, 
Gopinatha Rao, M. A. 

Pattattalmangalam Grant of Nandivarman. 
by K, V. Subrahraanya Ayyer, B, A, 

Srirangam Copper-Plates of Devaraya 
II : Saka - Samvat 1356. By S. V. 
Visvanathan, M. A. Mannargudi and the 
late T, A. Gopinatha Rao. 

The Vayalur Pillar Inscription of 
Rajasimha II - By H. Krishna ''Sastri 
Two Copper - plate Grants of 
Krishnadevaraya - by the late T. A. 
Gopinatha Rao. 

S 

Polonnaruva Inscription of 
Vijayabahu I - by S. Paranavitana 
Peruneyil Record of Kulasekhara- 
Koyiladhikari - by A. S. Ramanatha 
Ayyar, 



(iii) 
5 



21 

64 
69 



115 - 

138 - 



145 - 

160 - 

330 . 

340 - 




CONTENTS. 



The numes of contributors mre wranffed <tl 



JL AMBITA RAO $ FAGS 

Sea T. A. Gtopmatha Rao and K, Amrifca Bao* 
B. D* BANEBJIS ' 

No* 39. Jtmagadh inscription of Jivadaman (I) ..* 4 . 9 839 
JL D fl BAENETT s 

No. 7* Vappaghoshavata grant of Jayanaga * * * * * 60 

22, Inscriptions o! Huli * ........ * * * 170 

30. The MiiBgir plate of Devapaladeva : Samvat 38 * * * * 304 

D. B. BHAHDABKAB, : 

No. 26. Sanjan plates of Amoghavarsha I : Saka-SauiYat 793 * , . * 2SS 
Nii^TKiKAijrTA BHATTASALI : 

No. 11, The Ghugrahati copper-plate inscription of Samacharacbva * ^ # 74 
K. N. DIKSHIT : 

No. 37, Inscription on a Vishnu Image from Deopani ., 320 

$. B. BlSKALKAB : 

No. 35, Betma plates of Bhojadeva : [VikramaJ-Samvat I07S * 9 320 
T, A. GOPDTATHA EAO : 

No. 4. Kanyakumari inscription of Vira-Rajendra-deva tt21 

,,, 9, A Note on Manigramattar occun'ing in Tamil inscriptions , . t 69 
T s A. GOPINATHA EAO AHD K. AMBISTA RAO ; 

x/iTo, 21. Two copper-plate grants of Krishnaderaraya s , < 

A. Of Saka-Samvat 1436 . * . , . A . . * . .ISO 1 

B. Of Saka-Samvat 1450 ....*. 4 ... 106 

HlEALAL S 

No. 29. Four Bhanja copper-piate grants ..... * , * 282 
BJBJLRATOA SASTEI : 

No, 19. Brahmi iuacription on a wooden pillar from Kirari * * ^ * 152 
E HUITZSCH: ; 

No, L Kondanagura grant of Indravarmaa . & * t 4 1 ^ 
w 2, Bahur plates of NripatmagavarmaE ,*.**' 6 

>9 5- Niduparu grant of Jayasimha I ft ,.*** 55 > 

6* Iprar plates of Vishnuvardhana III , . * ' * . * * ft 5S < 

25. Vemalorpadu plates of Ammaraja II* *****. 226 ^ 

w 27. Kopparam plains of Pulakesin II ..... t * 257 ^ 

t 31. Tekkali plates of Danarnava's SOE Indravarman ..... , 307 

^ 32. TdkkaJi plates of Bajendravarman's son DevendFavarmaD * > . 311 

99 33* Penukapara grant of Jayasimha II . * . * t * * 313 t 

STJEK Kcwow : 

No, 28. The So-caHed Takht-i-BaM inscription erf the year 103 . , . * . 9 28! 
fit KIISEKA SASTEI : 

No 18, The Vayalnr pillar inscription of Rajasimha II ........ 145 

34, The Kodavali rock inscription of Chandasati : the second year, of relga . Si 8 % 

C 4 B. KBISHHAMACHAEDJ : 

No, 41. Graravapadii grant of Ganapatideva : Saka-Samyat 1182 . . . , 34U 

SF 



i/ EPIGRAPHIA INDIC'A, [Tor,. XVIII, 



fi, C. MJJOMB : 

Xo. 12. Jodhpur inscription of Pratiliara Bauka : V, S. 894 , , , , , , , 87 
13. Tk GwaEor prasasti of the Gurja.Prfl,t,ikrii, l^g p^jii ,,,,,, 99 

O'ATESiAlYAE:- 

Xo. 3. An inscribed relic caSket from Kurram , ....... lg 

30, Inscribed Buddhist Image from Gopalpur . ' , , . , , 73 

S, PABiMrmsA :- 

t 

No, 38. Polonnaruva inscription of Vijayabak I , ....... 33Q 

A, S. jRmxmi AIYAE : 

Xo. 40. Peruneyil record of Kulaseidiara-Koyiladliikari , 
DATA EAK SAHSI : 

Xo. 15. Deogarh rock inraipfcion of Svamibhata 
16. A Kalacburi stone inscription from Kaaia ,, 
20, Three Bralimi inscriptions from Kosam 

23. Don Bozurg plates of Qorindaohadn : [Vikrania]'Samvat 1178 218 

24. Ckhatarpur copper-plate iascription of"GoviadacaandradeTa of Kanauj rViknm^ 
Samvatil77 ....... *i 

rr ,, e . .......... if24 

K, V, blTJBAHMASTA AlTAE ! 

Xo. 8, Xidra inscription of Kulofctnnga-Chola ...... w 

14. Pattattalmangalam grant of Xandivarman ...... ' SI5 

MADSO SAEUP VATS ;- 

Xo. 36, Unpubiisted votive inscriptions in the Ckitya Cave at Karle , 305 

S,V,VisTAjfAraiAroT,A,GopmATHARAO:^ ..... 

No, W Srirangam copper-plates of Devaraya II ! Sakatoat 1356 ..... ^ 









, 








857 



-Contents, Lists of Plates, and Additions and Corrections * ' .' 

* * i 



z 



LIST OF PLATES. 



No. 1. Kondanagurn Grant of Indravarman e 

w 2. Baliur Plates of Nripatungavarman, ia-iiib 

y> 3. ,, 99 *9 99 IVfl-V 

4. Ixiicribed Reiic-Casket from Ktirram : the 21&t (?) year 

5 , 5, Konyakumari Inscription of Vira-Eajendra : the 7th year, I 

j, i 8 Nidnparu Grant of Jayasimha I 

* 9. Ipnr Plates of Vishnuvardhaoa III ....... 

10, Vappaghosha-vata Grant of Jayanaga ...... 

11. Jodhpur Inscription of Pratihara Bauka : Vikrama Samvat 394 

12* Pattattalmangalam Plates of Nandivarman . . . . . 

13. Eock Inscription of Svamibhata from Deogarh . 

14, A Kalachuri Stone Inscription from Kasia 

15. Srirangam Plates of Devaraya II : Vikrama Sain rat 1358 . 

16. Vayalur Pillar Inscription of Rajasimha II ..... 

17. Wooden pillar with a Brahmi Inscription from Kirari 

18. Brahmi Inscription on a wooden pillar from Kirari . . . . 

99 19* Three Brahmi Inscriptions from Kosam 

20. Srirangam Copper-plate Grant of Krishnadeva-Raya ; S. S. 1436 

21, Huli Stone Inscription of the reigns of Somesvara I and Jagadekamalla II: 
Saka 066 and 1067 

w . 22. Huli Stone Inscription of the reign of Vikramaditya VI : Saka 1029 . 

23, Huli Stone Inscription of the reign of Bijjala : Saka 1084 . 

24. Vemalurpadu Plates of Ammaraja II 

n 25. Sanjan Plates of Amoghavarsha I : Saka-Samvat 793 ... 

26. Kopparam Plates of Pulakesin II 

27. Takht-i-Bahai Inscription : the year 103, being year 26 of Gudufara . 
Four Bhanja Copper-Plate Grants : 

28, H -Ganjam Plates of Netribhanjacleva 

29. I Ganjam Plates of Netribhanjadeva, with damaged seal 
30. J Ganjam Plates of Vidyadharabhanjadeva . 
3L KAutirigam Plates of Yasabhanjadeva . 

SJ 32. Mungir Plate of Devapala : tho 33rcl year. A Obverse 
,. 33. Mungir Plate of Devapala : the 33rd year. B Reverse , ' 
34. Tekkali Plates of Danarnava's son Indravarman , 
35. Tekkali Plates of Eajendravarman's son Devendravarman 

j. 36. Penukaparu Grant of Jayasinaha II 

^ 37. Kodavali Eock Inscription of Chandasati ; the second year of reign . 
99 38. Betina Plates of Bhojadeva ; [Vikrama-] Samvat 1076 
39. Unpublished Votive Inscriptions M the Chaitya Cave at Karle (I) 

n 40. 99 9, (IT) . 

n 41, Deopani Vishnu-Image Inscription 

. 42. Polonnaniva Inscription of Vijayabahu I ..... 

n 43. Jnnagadh Inscription of Jivadaman (I.) ...... 

.. 44. Peruneyil record of KuJasekhara-Koyilarthikari . , 

jj, 45. Garavapadu Grant 01 Ganapatideva : Saka 1182 



pages 







10 & 11 






12 






18 & 19 


le 7th year, I . 




S4&35 



99 ?? 



to face page 

9? >7 

between pages 
to face page 



, to face page 
, bstween pa f ^es 
. to face page 
, betAveen pages 

* to face page 



44 & 45 

50 & 57 

60 

63 

90 

120 & 121 
126 
13:2 

142 & 143 

150 & 151 

151 

156 & 157 

100 

102 & 163 

174 
197 



. between pages 230 & 23 1 

248 & 249 

, to face page 259 



.between pages 292 & 293 

. * 291 & 295 

. 290 & 297 

. M 293 & 200 

, to face page 3Q4 

' n 99 306 

, between pages 310 & 311 
312 & 313 

316 & 317 

to face page 3 1 8 

between pages 322 & 323 

99 326 & 327 

328 & 329 

,9 330 & 331 

. to face page 337 

* 99 340 

* 99 99 344 

* between pages 350 & 351 

3 F 2 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



Page 2, 1. 23. For Bol read Bol 
6, 1. 30. For ellaiinnum read ellaiinnum. 

10, text 1. 11. For brindam read vrindam. 

? , 13, translation of v. 10. For toir ght read to right. 

16, L 2 in para, beginning with " The Palaeography ".-For Shah-ji-ki-dheri read Shah-ji-kl 

dheri. 

w 17, L 2 of translation. For (Uttarasena ?) re&cZ (Uttarasena 1). 

18, L 4 of Notes. JP0r -dherl, read -dheri. 

99 21, L 3. .For Komarei read Komar, 

L 7 from bottom. Fer (prasas) read (anuprasas). 

99 22, L 1. For am afrurer read a maturer. 

23, L 13, JFor been read bom. 

26, L 16. For jSankara* read iSahJcara-. 

27, 1. -i from bottom. For Gaiigavati read Gangavati. 

28, item 29. For Kalavali read RalavaU. 

99 29, item 22. jFor Kadara read Kadaram. 

30, L 7 from bottom. For nscription read inscription. 

5 , item 27. For Parani read -pParani* 

32, f. n. 1. Omit the first c and '. 

33, 1 n. 11. Jot ^rft^: read ?rfw;. 

3, 35, text L 84. ^.For ^wl'W^w read ^^wjire. 

36, 5J L IU. Insert " (i) 9? after f . 

, f 40, f. n. 8. Insert cc ? " at the end. 

49, translation of v. 12. For king read kings. 

99 f . n. 1 . Omit the hyphen between.JSa/a and parampariyam and for Solan re%i $Ql % ^ - * 

51, f. n. 6. For Kalinga read Kalinga . 

59, text L 2. For -gu- read -ga-. 

99 61, 1. 13 from the bottom. For MayuraWianja read MayurabkaHja. 

99 L 10 For a&shai/al read akshayaiyi. 

62, L 16. For Amala- read JLmala-. 

64, L 3. lor Bhara read Bhara . 

f. n. 1. .For amil read Tamil. 

67, L 15 from the bottom. For CKhandas~astra read Chhandas* ast ra. 

f , L 7 n . For village and Milalalai ra,i village and 



viii 



BPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [ VOL. XVIII. 



Page 76* i n. B Insert ] at the end. 

81, L 3 from tie bottom, For Nahar read Nahar. 

,, S3 3 t n, 2. Om^ the " a " at the and of the line, 

86,1 19, For *= read-* 

92, L n. L L 2, For Hiwen read! Hluen. 

93, L l& Insert * 9 ' after Maimad. 

113, 1 n. 1, 1. 3. For -Nitlsara read -NUUara. 

114, f. us. 5 & 6. For ender read render, and jar rut crip lion lead inscription. 

tf llfi, I *7. -Jfor -rSshtra read -rashtra, 

IK", 1. 15. For ghatdkayar read GJiataJcayar* 
35 penultimate line. Insert cr between fa and w. 

118, L 23. Insert s r ? between c sepa * and 6 atcd \ 
f. n. 2. For 53 reeul 541. 
f. n. 3. For IS read XI. 

119 9 L 10. JPor tates read states* 
?!P 5J L 11. For mmi iRi^ 1 ^ ^?H ^a^ ftin^rf awisr ^^^irf. 

120, text i 10, ^or fe reorf fsr. 

124, serial numbers 4, 6, 9 and 10 of the table. For Iradhldara, Bniir, 51, 52, Sfinda uml 

Sadanga read Iradlilfcara, Eniir, 52, 53, S8nda and Sadaiiga TOftp<3ctivoly. 

130, L 21. For * undoubted 9 and 6 thts 3 rea^ c undoubted ' and c this 3 reBpectively. 

131, 1 n. 2, For *m read spi 

139, D. 3 & 18. Jor McchikrurclicM and t&anapati read Nachc.hikrnrchohi and sihmapati 

respectively. 

140, L 4. Jor Mnsalmans reafi Mnsalmans, 

141, text i 16. For *r read 4; and for V rea<Z n. 

n M L 2L Jor* read ^f. 

144 S . 8^ Delete . 

, f 145, L 17. .For stMnapati read sthanapatL 
3> ^ n. 1, L 2/^Jor -Kaoya rea^ -Kavya. 

156, 1. 15, For c the 3 rea^ tf to \ 
L 16. For Hastya read Hastya . 

159, text i 6. For Vrrisa read Varisa, 

160, i 11. for Sri- read Sri-. 

185, Jlctres. For iSaKnl r*ad SaKnl. 

171, heading. -for 17 read 171. 

11. 23 & 24.~Jor fi eltus ' and ' i ' r^ ' efe, ^ and ' fa 
L 26. Insert a hyphen at the end 

181, 1. 22. For Gaya read Gaya. 

M 183, L 8, Jor Sobhana- reatZ'SSbhana-. 



AND CGKBECTIONS, ix 



Page I94 5 f . n. 2. For c th ' read c the \ 

3 198, f. n, 3. For Kalidasa read Kaliclasa, 

199, f, n, 3, 1. 3. for 4 sten 5 read ' stem '. 

J5 206, 1 1 of translation of J. for ' lie ' read ; the J . 

95 217, 1 n. 4, for ; appaya- 5 read * Appaya- '. 

218 5 L 5. for Bijjanadeva read Bijjanadeva. 

translation of 11. 3843, for dhamela read dfiarmmeta 

219, f. n. L f or fa m d V. 

222, f. n. I for Kamaulf read Kaniaiili 

223, 1 n e 1. Insert { at tie beginning. 

228, 11 14 and 17. for Andeki read Andeki. 

234,1.20.-,, 

235, L 6 from bottom. for Qovinda III, read Govbda 111, 

240, L 4 from the bottom. for Amogli varsha read Amogbavaisha 



244 3 text 1 12. For ii^ifn^i read 

250, text L 64. for ^ read ^. 

J? 253, translation of y. 24, for Kosala read Kosala. 

9 , n j> j 3 v. 29, For Jgaattunga read Jagattunga. 

275, L 8' from the bottom. for full read fall 

,5 285, f, n. 3. for , read , and commence a new sentence with c The *. 

287, 1. 9. For imoghakalaSa read Amogbakalafia. 

f, n. line 5 from the bottom, for read igw. 

289 ? 11. 14 and 42, for Baripada and Binka read Baripada and BinkS re^pe'.tively. 

95 291, f. n. 2. for Bhanja and Daspalla read Bhanja and Daspalla respectively. 

292, para, 1. Close the quotation at the end of the penultimate sentence aud omit the. 

quotation mark at the end of tiie para* 

5S 293, 11. 1 and 12. for q read s;. 

294, text L SI, for ^ vfaf read p \ (cftsf^ ) and for vt^w read 
?J ^ L 23. for ^; (n) <qfwr read i^pswffifrP* 

S9 f. n. 4, for Aiichadeva read Aichadeva. 

f , 297, f. n. 10 for Matre read Metre. 

9 j 305 3 text L 8. for sya-dliarmm I read sva-dhaimme | 

5S 314, f. n. 5. for 5o> ^od Bol and omit c Vcl XVIII \ 

n 318, f. n. 4. for Hathigumpha reai Hathigumpha. 

321, L 6 from bottom, for Delha read Delha, 

322 3 L 4. for , read , and omit the rest of the paragraph. 

n 324, 1. 4 from bottom. for Delha read Delha. 

325, text 1. 2 a ~f or Yitasa[iii*]ga read Ohitasa Ga [N. G. Majumdarj. 





translation of lo.L-ftr'Vitasamgat 

textofNol-Mti[la]pe' 
i 



I J I 



plGJajiinidarj, 





means 'of tie fatlet's younger fcrotlier, w, 



M 

22Ui4fter%'8M[ 

icle'-Ed,] 

talatioii of No, W or " Agla, . a resident of Chlapetu (!) " nd ' " Hs uncle 
ri 




,, 



\ No. XI, text and talatk-lo? " Malamata " ml " llamita (llaliimitra) ",- 
Ed, 

i 1 I 1 f XT YTT PAM((^" J?-?M..--.1 ^T\L-. ..If..? /TM..*. J!?- A \ )) 



m*ml (( Dbma'!eva(Dkiinafe8) 'V 



1. 2i-fo Poionnarava rend Polomianiva. 



EP1GRAPHIA INDICA 



YOLUME XYIII 



No, L-KONDANAGUBU GRMT OP IKDBAVAEMAK. 
By PEOFESSOB B. HULTZSCH, PH.D. ; HALLE (SAALE). 

Ink impressions of this inscription were sent to me by Eao Bahadur EL Krishna Sastri, 
&long with the following description of the original plates : 

" This set of five copper-plates was received from Pendyala Subrahmanya Sastri, National 
College, Masnlipatam, through the President, District Board, Godavari, in June 1921. The 
plates are held together by a circular ring- rivetted into the hack of a circular aeal, on the 
countersunk surface of which are cut, in relief, a crescent, the word sri-TyigadliETi, and an 
expanding lotus-flower of six petals, The plates bear writing on eight faces in all, the first send 
last plates having writing only on their inner sides, and have no raised rims. They measure 
about 1" in breadth, and a little less than 2'' in height The ring-hole is bored at a distance 
of about \" from the left margin of the plates and measures about f in diameter. The ring 
has a diameter of about 4", and the seal is a little more than 2" in diameter. The plutes, witk 
the ring and seal, weigh 100 tolas. The ring was cut in this office," 1 

The writing on the plates is on the whole in a state of very good preservation. The 
alphabet resembles that of other early Eastern Chalukya inscriptions* The secondary forms 
of i and I are not always clearly distinguished. The JihviimuMya occurs in j/aR* kaichid* (1. 30). 
A final form of m is frequently used ; one of t is found in prftdat (1, 18) and vaset (1. 34), one of 
ft in raja[r*]$fc?n (L 26), and one of I in -Sol (four times in 1. 28 1, and once in 1. 37), 

The language of the inscription is Sanskrit prose ; but three verses of VSdarVyssa are 
quoted in lines 31-35. The Telugu plural -Bdl occurs four times in line 28 f ., and once, in line 
37. Lingual jf is used also in Ohalnlcy^nSm (L 6), -ytt$roa& (1. 16), and in the Telugu village- 
name VelleTcU (L 29), The Telugu r occurs in the two village-names Oherupuru (1. 20) and 
lr rato[r] (L 22). The vowel n after consonants is generally expressed by the syllable n. After 
r consonants (except sibilants) are doubled, and dh is doubled before y in maddhyS (1, 21)* In 
-vahha-tfhalasya (L 9 f.) s is elided before stL In line 28 the group j is employed instead 
of jft in vififapanaya and afijapti (for ftjfiapti). In line 21 the adjective nw[5*jrin seems to be 
used in the sens$ of ' lying, situated. 1 

The inscription records the grant of the village of Konda^agBru to the BrShmana 
Ohendigarman by the Maharaja Indravarman, sumamed sri-Tysgadh6im, s i.e. ' the (celestial) 
cow in liberality, ' who was a son of the Maharaja Visknttvardhaaa $nd a grandson of the 
Maharaja KIrtivatman, and who belonged to the family of the CMJukyafl, The donor's 
father, Vishnuvardhana, has to be identified with VishnTivardhana I, the founder of the 

[The inscription has been reviewed in the JSpigrwphicd Report for 1922 j App. A, No. 2, and p. 96, Ed,] 
Tlie &ime surname forms the legend OB the seal of ibis giant which is reproduced on the back o! FUte of thfl 
I, infra. 



1P1GEAPHIA IND10A. [Tor. XVIII. 



Chalukya dynasty^ who is known to haV "been the younger son of the Western 
Chatakya Kng Eirtiyarm.au I. Cop&eqtiently, Indravarpaan must be the actual name of the 
younger eon of Vishnn-vardhana I, who Is called Indra-Bliattaraka or Indraraja In the inscrip 

of Mi successors, and who, according to later' tradition, reigned only for seven days. 1 

The grant seems to have been jnade at the request of a chief named Kondivarman, and 
the executor of the gr^nt seems to have been Indravar man's eldest son, who likewise bore the 
name Indravarmam. From other inscriptions we know only of a single son of Indra-Bhat$araka 
&T IndrarSja, who succeeded to the tJirQ&e ajs Yish^uvardhana II. 

Line 28 i. contains four signatures o'f witnesses of the grant, each of which consists of the 
name of some village, followed, by the word Sol. In the opinion of Rao Bahadur Krishna 
Sastri, &5l (for Bdyaht) is the Telngu plural of Soya. In the Ghendalftr plates of A.D. 673, 
Bdya occurs five times, and is once replaced by the Sanskrit word v&stuvya, * a resident, inha- 
bitant.' 2 The sarpB must be the meaning of the word Bdya in a grant of Vishrxuvardhana II, 
where a large number of donees are mentioned by name and are stated to have been Soyas, t.e. 
* residents, ' of certain villages.* In the Cfeendalui* plates of AD, 6-73- the actual names of' the 
$qnees are omxtte4 andihe expression ' resident of such and such. a village ' is employed in the 
place of the donee*s proper name. Similarly,, the . donee's grandfather, Durga^arm^an, receives 
fa the subjoined grant the epithet * Irralii[r]-B5ya by name ' (1. 22). It might "be concluded 

tMs that Bdya is the designation of a village.clerk (Xamam)J But this possibility m 

by the . fact that in the above-mentioned grant of Vfshnuvard'hana II two different 
< 




--,..-,, , .,- --------------------- plural Bdl auggegts that the 

M m AlaMfca-Bol, etc, 0- 28 1), and in OM^a-Bo*. (1. 37) will have to be explained m 
the honpvifa plural of Soya, ' a resident, inhabitant/ 

I^l^Icojrf^ia tie Barnes of four villages which formed the boundaries of the village 
granted, Koncjanaguru. The bound^iy m. the Sonth w^s Chernpacn (1, 20). This village IB 
SfpftiflmiMrtv^Qlwp^itoiifcito wMeh, according to Dr, Fleet 7 was 

m Qlder form, of Ohlpurn^e ^ the grwi Vi^g^atam District. The 
I $m w^ble, to- identify., ' 



'Plats ; 
1 .9m.0r.nn Sri^W^v - 1 " 1 arl ) ]myaa l a, 8a matfiyama na .Ma[ n a]vya 1 Bag . 



3 

,-prasSaa-lbdlia.rSJ7{S*3n5 m 
cliliaa-ek8ltana.k8ltana-vaakriClEri)t-e8lia 



KONDANAGURU GRANT OF INDRAVARMAN. 



t. 



^ 

**"' V : %^^^ 









iia. 



8 




iib. 



10 



12 




I lid. 



14 



16 




a js 

i nb 



18 

20 

22 




tea. 



24 



26 




28 
30 

32 




va. 



34 




I,}: KOKDAHAGUBF GGRAWT OB 1 BTDRAVARMA^ 



$&eond Plate ; Mrst Side. 
5 maMbh^tam [*] a^amedfe-avabim^^ 
IS nam(n5m) 0vu~yas5-vis]myikri 
7 



8 rSjasya iiaptS M-Yi^ntivarddliana-iiialiSrajah 1 rana-muklta-ga(sa)ta-rlpii- 

* 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

9 vijaya-samupalaMlia-Srl-va^ 

10. sya pntrah sakti-traya-samadliigata-maM-kliyatl*-vibIi-ati[lk] tri- 3 

11 vargga-seva-nipunah Pni^napuruslia rm batu-l5ka-stn- 

12 tat PurarStir^iva bhtta-gana-priyali dvitlya ira 



Third Plate; First Side.* 

13 panchama ira lokapalah Pridliagrasuta 3 iva satya-sandlaah; gara(ra)t-kala I 

14 knta-bandhujlv-StsayaL. purw-aclialendra 4 iva mitr-6day-5nuknla- 

15 mahima niahlpati-makuta-tet^gliatita-maiJia^ 

1 6 S jarl-raS jita-charan-araYinda-yugalah sr-Indrava[r*J mma-maliarajali Tya- 
17 gadheny-apara-Bamadlieyali 5 adaka-pirwakam sarvvarkaa?a(ra)-parililLr-6petam 

Third Plate ; Second Side. 
1ft braJainad[d*]yIknty& Kondamagiiru-n5margrma-gramam pradat [[*]. Tasya griipasya 

10 dig-Tibliagatk^] j TTttatuteh Mujiiii3?fifirti-niatna-graina[li j*] Pfirvratah' PsgUBBni- 
nama-grft- 

20 mah [I*] Daksliina-vibliag-ta^vastMi^lL 1 Ctte^pBrtc-iiaiii^giuias,^^ |*] PacMinala 
Ifbba- 



21 [l]i-nama-gr[a*]maK [}]" EtestaA gram[a]naih : m^d'd.lxyBi 6 niv[a*Jfll kritai 

Vajasaneya-clia- 

22 ra^asya Dm[r*]ggaga[r*]uamaiLali(rL5) BraKma-viiita-karmma^iitratasya 



; First Side, 

28 [brakmanajsya pautraya 7 abliijana"-vidya-vri(vri)ttayataii(t5) 
Afr *ya Vishimsaifminana?^ pntraya,' vedavid-vipi^-sa 
So CJiendiSarianiBinS matapitr5r*atmanascka j3nnyd(my-a)Yaptays(ya), iti clia [|*] 

26 Bhavind rajafr^jsliiii yatli5pacliara-pT3Erassaram(ra A) r . sammanayati [|*] 

27 fati-Ya[m]!a~gagam~ti^ 



-maMrajtisya; 



4 The syllable U is cofi^tJteiii b jr tHe wnter'frbm lo; 
9 t^' 



1PIGEAPHIA OTDIOA. [To*. XVHL. 

Fourth Plate ; Second Side. 
SB BdMnumttav* immadhSya 1 vinjapaaayi tasy*aSjaptir3Tam^ ilapSka-B$l 

9 . , ppi-BsOG SoiimysMarVett^M-B^l MaratarBol [|*] Api cha 

30 d-Yi, yaB*kagcMd-Tiglma-karara 8 sa pancha-mahapataka-yuktd bhavishyati 

' iti* eha [!*] 

31 Vada-lTyg[8a*]sya fl$k[a*]Sch*atra [i*] Mghnatd 

y5sMt-ta- 

32 pasvinah [{*] y& gatis-sS l>havStYrittim fi haraia 

Sliashthimma* 1 varslia-sa-' 

Fifth Plate ; First Side. 
83 h&(ha)sE&Di syargge iiahthati blitmi-da[h.*] | akslidpta chftaTiinazit[&*] ciia 

tny=^Ta na- 
34 rake irasSt [|| 2 ||*] BaliubMr*Tva[su*]dha datta bab.ublxis*cli*-aiinpalit [|*} 

yasya-ya- 
85 sya yada bli"5mi[s**]tasya-ta3ya tada p!halam[|| 3 |J*] Itl KaBakarSma-liklii- 

88 te ^a (rs) ne cBatugliaslithiya^ali 7 [|*] EtesM namanam Skaik-aali 8 

37 . . [palT&]iamlMk-amga[:ii] [|*] Cbo4a~B0P tri(tri)tly*a[rii*]am [H*] 

ABSTEACT OF COHTEISTTS, 

The MaMraja Iiubavarman, whose other name was Tyagadhenu (1. 16 1), adorned tlie 
family of the Oha^nkyaB (1. 6 1) ; was a grandson of he Maharaja Klrtivarmnn (L 7 f.) ; ami 
iros a son of the Maharaja VislinTivardliana^ (11. 8-10). He granted the village 11 of Kondana- 
gttra (1. 18) to ChendlSarman (L 25), son of Vishnusarman of the Bharadvaja gotra (I 23 f.) 
and grsadsoH of Burgasarman, (also) called lpralHCr]-Boya 5 of the Vajasangya cliarana 
{1X21-23). The Txmndaries of the Tillage, granted were: in the North, Hujumailru ; in tho 
Xaat^ ^gtmaru ; in the South, Clxerupiiru ; and in the West, Irbba[l]i (11. 18-21), 

The grant seems to have been made at the instance of a chief named KondivarmPDu who 
ed to the family of Aryyahii(?) and at whose request the Maharaja's (t?t& IndravarmaiiV) 
son, who, (like his father), "bore the name Indravarman, was appointed executor (jwtpti) 
f iMs (grant).^ Line 28 1 seems to contain the names of four witnesses of the grant, preceded 
fcy the particle emm, 'thus/ viz. ilapSka-BBj, .- , ppi-Bd], Sdmayajizla-Vellekki-Bfti V 

4fc ' 



Bead perb*ps I^ratJarwma^ama^A^. Head ^jM^n^&t^^ 

Beftd ^^^ * Bead 

Head 



^ ,- 
is engraved between lo and |. 



Thatfc I ead 85 rraa.^am,'Tilkg e ofvaiage8 J ' t -. e . a largeTil!age' (?) or 'a chief villaw > m Tl, 

""*" * "- - p. ( }> 



*uu w. IB i, ey ot t&at grant, *a*fejprajpt mtist be corrected into *.-**- ^ 



No- 2.] BAHUB PLATES OF NBIPATUNGAVABMAN. 5 

(This) edict (sSsana) was written by Kanakarama (L 35 f.). The village granted was 
divided into 64 shares, of wiicli each of the donees 1 received one share (1. 36). The last line 
(37) contains the names of two farther recipients of shares, of whom the first, whose name is 
doubtful, received one share, and the other, named Cfioda-Bd}, one-third share. 



No. 2. BAHUB PLATES OF NRIPATTTWGAVAKMAN. 

BY PROFESSOR B. HULTZSCH, PnJX; HALLE (SAALE). 

As stated by M. Julien Vinson, this inscription is engraved on five copper-plates whicla 
were discovered by M. Jules Delafon 2 in 1879 * at a depth of about one metre, in the middle of 
a structure of bricks, at six metres south of the pagoda of Batinr, an important locality on the 
south of Pondichenyj from which it is* 28* 5 kilometres distant.' The plates are now preserved 
in the Biblioth&qne Nationale, Paris. They measure about 91*5 millimetres in height, 2o]'9 mm. 
in. breadth, and 4t"l mm. in thickness, and weigh altogether 3106 grammes. There is the usual 
ring-tiole, 13*5 mm. in diameter, at a distance of 9-10 mm. from the left margin of each plate; 
but the ring which must have been originally passed through the holes and borne the royal seal, 
has not been recovered. * It had surely been broken long ago ; for the first side of the third 
plate and the second side of the second one are in worse condition than the other sides. They 
were no doubt on the outside of the set. This allows us to conclude that the document has been 
buried with carelessness or in impatient hate.' I am deriving all %ese details from M. Vinson's 
article * Le college de Bahour au IX e siecle,' 3 in wHich he f umis^ed a tentative transcript and 
translation of the inscription. Tears ago I had published a few remarks on it, 4 based on a 
transcript which had been prepared by a Tamil pandit and supplied to me by M. Delafon, Thin 
transcript has "been recently printed in full, with some additional remarks, by Rao Bahadur 
Krishna Sa&tri. 5 The historical importance of the record now induces me to re-edit it from a 
set of photographs which M. Vinson had been good enough to send me in 1 91) 5, The photo- 
graphs are not quite perfect and distinct, but nearly every detail of the text can be made out 
from them with certainty. 

The languages of the inscription are Sanskrit and Tamil, and the alphabets are Grantha 
and Tamil, respectively. There are 32 Sanskrit verses (11. 1-45 and 74-7?) ; the rest of the 
text is in Tamil prose (11. 45-74 and 78 f.). Grantha letters are occasionally used also in the 
Tamil portion (Nri, 1. 45 ; rmma, 1. 46 ; brahmadeya, L 50; uidya&tha, 11. 51 , 71 ; vidyabhoga, 
11. 52, 71 1 ; ha, and vy avast e($fh,ai) 9 1. 72 ; sarvvapariha, brahma. and datti, L 73 ; Uditodaya and 
<i, 1. 78 ; Nripatumga, 1. 79), and the Tamil syllable raA occurs in a Sanskrit verse (1. 34), while 
the purely Tamil name Nilaitangi is written in Grantha letters (Nilait&&g*3ti, L 30). In the 
Sanskrit portion, the secondary form of I is not distinguished from that of i, nor that of ri from 
that of m, nor p from v. In the Tamil portion, the length of initial e and & is not marked in 
Sri (L 72) and ddai (L 69). The secondary forms of f, e, o are the same as those of i, e, o. The 
length of the vowel t is marked in 'ur, Vagur^JTrattur, O rtw% #Sr, and jpwrfi; but the mu of 
immunrurum (I, 50) does not differ in shape from mw, and from the lu of ~palun~ (I 68). 



1 The names of the 64 shareholders are not specified, but the latter are alluded to by the pronoun ete, * these,* 
implies that they were assembled in the king's presence when he made the grant. For similar instances of 
tl nse of the pronoun etad see above, Vol. IX, p. 59, note 6. The unnamed donees perhaps consisted of the chief 
donee Chendisaraan and his relatives, and of the four persons who were mentioned as witnesses of th grant in line 

28 f . 

2 To the same gentleman we owe the discovery of the Kasakugi plates of Nandivarman (S, L L, YoL 11 3 
No. 73). 

s M&moires Orientals (Paris, 1905), pp, 211-263. 4 Above, Vol. IV, p, 180 f . 

* S. 1. 1., Vol. II, pp. 513-517. 



All these defect^ "spells are well kn^fiom, many other T*mii w^riptiw.? They 
were not intended to ipply actual differences of- pronunciation, but we oafc due to t' 
imperfect development of the old Tamil alphabet. In my transcript, 5. hs-ve, Aewfojie, 
stifrated the long Ypwefe wherev W they- are required. In. the Sanscrit portion, a -fiatf 
of m is frequently employed (11. 11, 12, 13, etc.). Virama is expressed by *i<l dash after 
n (11. 10, 29 (?), 35 (?), 40, 41), but seems to be omitted generally after final t (11. 4, o, ^b, W, 
30 45) 'where I have tacitly supplied it. Superscribed r has the same shape as Virama, bat is 
represented by a point in mrfrbJiau, (L 16); and -jpflrwafafcM (* 32).. In the Tamil portion, 
VirSma is expressed only in. two instances.: by a vertical. dash in tan ,(1. .48), and by a point 
(8tt#0 in n (L 50). In the Sanskrit portion, the. end of averse is marked indiscriminately 
by various signs of punctuation, consisting of one or more of five different elements (|, \\, .:, ,, 
0), but which i; have in every case replaced by the usual mark (||). The end of the first 
half of a verse is marked by a horizontal line (~) only in. five, instances (11. 33, 15, .17, 20, 30). 
At the end of the two Tamil passages, two other signs of punctuation are employed, wia. :||0 
(1. J74) and :ln (1. 79). 

The orthography; of the Sanskrit portion calls for a few. remarks. Tamil pronunciation is 
responsible for the forms. Tantivarmman (11- 14, 1 8) for D^niwarr^n^an, and rebha (J. 33) for 
repAa, and agatha(l, 37^ is. meant for agadfeo. The group ksh is. replaced by tth in rctratsha 
(1. 9 f.), tshmapalo,-^'. 14 f.)< -difyitthayS, Q. 17)-, and Latshmir~ (I. 20). The Santlhi. rules are 
disregarded in pSlav&t^bh&miib (1, 15), Jcritavan^sastra" (1. 4&), svarggo,m^vimanetna (1, 13), 
and labdham=vidya- (1. 35). Visarga is dropped, not only, as 'optionally permitted, in <*tSju 
tthiti- (I. 3) and d&sa.sthanasya (1. 44), but also in va sriyam- (1. 1) and rSjii-a sri (11,, 21, 42). 
Consonants .are doubled after r, with four, exceptions (Sri-l>ha,rtus=, 1. 3, . wirfMbhatt, 1. 1C,, and 
Dfc8[r*]./ai'r*;'a$a , 1. 36,). 2 Double t is. simplified before in, datv& (1. 39) and tatva (I. 45). 
The Tamil of the grant portion is on the whole correct. The only mistak.es. in it are 
(1.49) for pakkatii > wm f natti andm$w,ifra (1. 53) for natii. and wjfwMca, vifainda (1. 66) for. 
fimam (1, 67) for &rum t vypvastet/um (I. 72 f.) for vywasthaiyumi and a few other alipa in 
two last lines of the inscription, The genitive .affix in is joined. to ellai, ' a boundaay,' without 
Soadhi in ellatin (11. 58, 63, 64 f., 65, 66), and its final is doubled before the conjunctive affix 
vm in eZkMgjjMm (11. 58, 59, 60 ? 61). Similarly, the past relative participle dyi$a is spelt 3fina 
(L 62). For the past gerund Sy we have ayi (1. 7'2, and twice in 1. 73), which is an archaic 
form; meyi (1. 68) for mey, 'to graze \ av.&Nelvayipfa'klca'm (L 59 f.) for NekSygpdlcJcam. 

The metres of the Sanskrit portion are : Drutavilambita (verses 1, 7), Vafiimtatilakft 
(15, 31), Arya (32), and Anushtubh .(3-6, '8-14, 16-30). Th.e metre of Teree 2 is Praharahinl ; 
but its fourth Pada is Anushtubh, and in each of the two first Padas the tenth and, eleveth' 
syllables of the Praharshiol metpre are missing. I, am unable to correct and translate this vers* 
in a satisfactory manner. 

The Tamil portion of the 'inscription records a grant of three villages, and the Sanskrit, 
portion preceding it professes to be a eulogy (yraiasti, 1. 45) celebrating the donor. Th'o Tamil 
and the Sanskrit versions supplement and corroborate each other, and have both to be considered 
together. The grant was made, jux the eighth year (11.46, 51) of the reign, of king (to) 
Tijaya-Hjipatuagavarinan (L 45 f.), or simply Nyipattifcgavarmen (1. 74 f.), ITripatiinga 
(11,24, 25, 32), or Tngavarman-(1..42>,v who boasted of the- title 'lord of -the three world*'' 
OL 22 1, 41 i), Verses 2-16.con.tein the following genealogical account of this king; IVom the 
lotos-flower arising from Vishnu's navel was produced Brahma ; from him, Angiras 5 from him, 
Bnhaspatijfrom fern, . Samyu ; from him, Bharadvaja ; from him, DrOna ; from him, Afivatthft- 
; and from him^kjng gaUaya .(verae.6). The same .mythical pedjgcee JaJoTrnd at. the begin- 

-^ 



> lit wr^^* (1. 16 f.>the deobUag of tt "ribaMt i, 



Ho. 2.] BAHTJB PLATES OP N&IPATIJN&AVARMAN. 



king of several inscriptions of tlie Pallava kings of Ksflchi. Next we are told tHat from 
family of Pallava c arose a group (of kings) commencing witK Viaiala and KbfLk&nlka ' (verse 
7), and that, * after Vimala, etc., had gone to heaven ' (verse 8), there was DarftivaimarL (vei*se 
9), whose son was ITandivarman (verse 12). As I have suggested drt a forrtier occasion, 1 tie 
* group (of kings) commencing with Yimala and Kon&ani&a' ? which is gaxcdwiched between 
the mythical kiiig Pallava and thfe historical kiitg Danti^arman, probably owes its niention to * 
the desire of claiming fot the tetter connection with the WeStern GAagi Sings, whose ancestor 
is believed to have been Koiikani. 2 Tlte queen of Nandivartritoj S&okiia; by time; was borit in 
the B&s&trakGta family (verse 13) and bore to him the donor of this* graiiV ifripgtiliiigsL (verse 
15). Of him verse 16 t&Hs ris that he supplied a 3?andy& king, wto'se pi-opdr naine itf n6t 
disclosed, with an army, and that he defeated softie enemies, wHo are not specified eitlie'r, on th8 
further b&nk t> the ArieMit river. The name of this river must be a Sansferitized form of 
Arisil, a branch of the' EavM whidb enters the sea at Kgraikkal (Kafitaf). 13 -" it ittxf be 
oneluded from ve'rsd 16 that Nripattinga allied himself with d Pliidya Kng and tindertooK kii 
eipeditioit into 1 the dctoinions of the CliSla king. The two riimes D'^niivafm^iL fed Nripatnnga 
denr also ainoii^ the 1 Bas&traktita lings', with whom Nati'Sivatinalii b^caine'^ctiially cdfibaect^d 
through his qnefen SankhS, and Dantivarinan is perhaps identical with iJ&jfcrtig&; tfie- Mler of 
ESnchl who was defeite'dE by the' Eashfirak^ta king Gfsviiaa 1 III ii Ar.D. 80K* 
Krishna; S'asfei has shdi^'it quite fec&rrfly that the TeKrpalaiyaii plated of 
and the Ta^afttOftaitf pfe^' of Vf j 
fef STripaiungaV father Kan'<Eva*mai:.' 5 

According to the Tamil portion, tEe grant was made at the request of Vesali-pSraraiyan 
(1. 46), i.e. * the great chief of Vesali.' The Sanskrit portion supplies his proper nam6, Mr- 
tanda (L 27 f .)> and his surname, Hilaitangi 6 (1. 30), and c$lls him, with a* play on his name 
Martanda, the sun of the Vesali family* (1. 27 f.). From other inscriptions we leam that Vesa* 
lippadi was the name of a province, of which Vagtir-niMjxLj i.e. the country round Bahur, 
formed a subdivision. 7 Evidently Marfenda was a' heredilkry chief of this province. He 
Claimed descent from' thfc family of Kum (11. 27 9 31 f., 43), the mytMMT s&cGSb&r of the heroes 
f the Mahabharata. At his own request (1L 32, 46 f!.)', lie' hM deceived three villages in his 
wn province (rashtra) from king ISTripatunga (verse 21). This probably means nothing "but 
that his sovereign accorded him permission to give away these three villages, and explains two 
apparently conflicting statements, viz. that, in verses 23> 26 9 and 29, Martanda is represented as 
tie actual donor, while, in verse 3 1, K"iipatugavarmaB claims the merit of having made the 
grant himself. 

The executor (ajftapti in Sanskrit, 1L 32, 39, and 41, or ahatti in Tamil, 1. 47) of the grant 
was TTttamagila (1. 41), the minister (mantrin) of king TungaYarman (1. 42), i.e. of Nripa- 
, t*mga. He had the title Videlvidugii-BIadnpatti-Tamila-peraraiysn (1. 47), i.e. * the great 
ehief of the Tamilians ,of Videlvidugu-Kadupatti,' As K&dupatti is a synonym of Pallava, 8 
Uttamasila's title suggests that Videlvi^gn^ i>& *the crashing thunderbolt,' was a surname of 
the Pallava king Nripatunga, The sana$ word Tidelvid)igu seems to have been a surname of his 
iatlier Nandivarman. For an inscription of kiiig Vijaya-lSfandivikram.aTar.man and of Ms 
feudatory, the Bana chief Vikramadit^ at Timvallam 9 records the grant of a village named 
Tidelvidugu-Vikkii^maditta-chatui^ediinapgal^in. The first member of this compound wcml 

* Above, VoL IV, p, 181. *' Of.' above, -Vol. lil a p. 164, n. 3, and g! I. L f Vol. Ill; 

S. I! J., ToL II, p. 52, a. rf. ** Ind. Ant., Vol. X p. 227. & I. L, Vol^ ifc p' 



&PIGRAPHIA tNDICA; 



[Vox,. 



must refer to Nripatanga's father Nandivarmaa, 1 and the second one to the Bana chief Vxkra- 
maditya. The executor (atiatti) of the Tirnvallam grant was Ka4upatti-Tamiia-pera[rai]ya 
which may be taken as a title either of UttamaIla himself, or of another minister who preceded 
him in office daring the reign of Nandivarman. 

The recipients of the grant were the residents of a ' seat of learning ' (vidyS-stli&na) or 
college, at VSgfir (11. 51 f., 71 j see also 11. 35, 37 f., 38 f., and 44 of the Sanskrit portion), i.e 
BaMr, where the plates were discovered by M. Delafon. As M. Vinson remarks,* the modern 
form looks like a learned corruption, deriving the ancient name VSgnr from the Sanskrit Ishu 
' an arm,' instead of the Tamil vagu, beauiy.' The grant was to be a vidyMdga (11, 52 71 f ) ' 
i.e. a scarce of revenue for the promotion of learning. This is perhaps the earliest case on record 
of a university scholarship or educational endowment. 

As in the Leyden plates (a scholarly transcript, translation, and analysis of which still 

remain a desideratum), the official routine observed in this grant was as follows The three 

Tillages having been granted to the Vagttr college, an order (tirwugam, 1. 54) communicating 

this fact and callmg for a report (arai^l^, 11. 53, 55, 56) was issued to the headmen of Kilveli- 

IT"? 6 4U ' ( ^f uMi 7 ioJ1 of the district ) of Arava-aa-du' (1. 48). Having read the order, 

the headmen of the #, reverently placed it on their heads and circumambulated the limits of 

the > villages granted. .Lane 40 of the Sanskrit portion suggests that, as in the case of the Leyden 

pkte hey were accompanied by an elephant whose hoofprints marked the boundaries on 

wluch^ra^d sto n e sandplantedmilk.bush(11.53, 55). The names of the three yillaT 




forest 






BAHUR PLATliS OF 



Kijimanpatti 



VagTii 



N 

/ "t^ > 

i 



chcheri 



a forest 



Nerunjiktirrimbii 

M. Vinson 1 lias consulted a local map and tells us that, besides Vaguu (Bahnr), two of 
tliese village-names survive to'tlae present day: KiriiMnpatti is now represented 'by Kirimaoa- 
bskkam, 6 kilometres north-east of Bahnr, and Yilangattangaduvannrts perhaps connected 
with Kactuvanur, 5 kilometres west of Bahfir. I hope nay Brahinin irknds in Madras will find 
&n opportunity for making enquiries on the spot, and will succeed in identifying a few more of 
the village-names which are registered in the detailed description of the boundaries of the 
grant. 

In verse 30 we are told that the Sanskrit \y*r&&a,sti, which forms the first portion of ihe 
inscription, was composed by Kagaya, a servant of the Vagftr college. At the end of the whole 
document, its writer informs us of his name and parentage in a Sanskrit verse (32) and in 
Tamil prose , (1. 78 1). He was a goldsmith (suvarnakrit or, in Tamil, tatian), named Mfipa- 
tunga (11. 77, 79)," :: -evidently after his sovereign, a hereditary servant of the Pallava family, 
the son of Madevi-perundattaii, and the grandson of Uditodaya-perund^ttan of EJ!- 
Paisaram toear Kacbchipedu (Conjeeveram). The name, or rather the title, of his father 
means 'the great goldsmith (by appointment) to the chief queen.' Similarly, the name of his 
grandfather would mean * the grea^ goldsmith (by appointment) to (king) Uditfldaya,' and 
Uditsdaya (L 78) or TJditSdita (1. 76) may have been a surname of one of the immediate 
predecessors of king NripatungavariEan, TJditodita is actually known to have teen one of the 
fctLmerous birudas of Eajasimba, an earlier Pallava king of Kanchl. 2 From this king it 
be supposed to have descended to one of the predecessors of Nripatungavaraian. 



First Plate; First &' 

1 Svasft irlfh ||*] Disatu va[h*j Sriyam*ambu]a-l5chanas=trida;a-matili-nigh|i 
S slitarjjad-ambujah [|*] gakala-laka-bhayamkara-rakshasa-prasama-hetur^a* 

*sudanah || [1 |j*] Srl-bhartus^sayana -parasya 
sthiti-laya-su- 



yat= 



S, L L, Yol. I, 



8 -From set of . photograph a enpp^ed by M* Juikn Vmson. 




10 



KPIOBAPHIA IffDXOA. [ VOL - XTOt 



4 ti-hetuli [I*] tan-nabher-ajani S amasta-bljam=abjam=Atmaytois-tat5*bliavat || [ 2 ||*] 

5 Arm^lgiras-tata utpanns l5ka-nathacli=cliattirmmukliat [|*] B F iixaspatis-tatd 

6 maatrf Sakrasya Vala4*adina& [| [3 ||] Tatafr-Samyus-tatO J8(ja)jfi 

Bharadvaja-sa- . 

7 makvayali [ |*j tato DrOnQ mah-aslivasas-samard Sakra-Yikramah y L* II J i j t ^ 

8 Dronn=maha-baliiiss a r7va-yu[d*]dha-viaradali Q] A^vatth&ma kil-Smsena aamba- 

9 bMva PinSkmat || [5 ||*] ASvatthamnas-tatd raja Pallav-akkyO babhttva 

tt(yW [i*] ra - 

JKr^ PZaie ; Second Side. 

10 ratsiia(kslia) nava-klianda-sthan==bliupatm==sa--krislilvalan (^[6 ||*] Vimala-Koiiika^ii:* 

adi ta- 

1 1 d-anYayad=a]ani brindam-ari-pramad-aBatam [ | *] nflxita-SSsanam-anya-niipSslivapi 

12 priyatamafi=3aya-gli5siLam=anarafcam || [7 ,\\*] Bhuktva bhuYarii Bva-Ylryy^a 

chatns-[sa]- ., t ^ 

13 gara-mekkalam 1 tata[h*] svarggam^Timaneiia 1 gatgstm Vimal-adiBliii }| [8" I) 1 *] A- 

14 slt=Parandara-sam5 raja 2 dripa(dha)-bliaktir=Mmura-dTlpi(8lii) [(*] Ta(I>6)iativafrmw 

maha- [b^alinh. tslnna(kslima)- 

15 pila-makut-anatah |l [9 [(*] Dharmme^a palanat(d)*bMmIih KalSY^api yngg 



16 rshanad=api danasya parjjanya iya nirbabtau |[ [10 |j*] Atman6 bai^di-ynkV 

5[nam] s Ta- 

17 m-alayardidritslia(kslia)ya f 1 patlieyam=iva k|itv=*arlnpa^dStii 4 viaa^a^jijja ya^i 

[| [11 (I*] Nandi- 

18 varmms maiia-baliiLs^sa jatd 8 Ta(Ba)ntiva[r* e ]mnia4dh [ (*] BfemarS 

btSmir^asahaye- 

Second Plate ; First Side* 

19 BS yena sah jj [12 jj*] Asict=Cliliankli-SltYaya d^yl tanv-ariag! 

[ 1*] E^slitra" 
^} knta-[ku*]le jata Latslmiz(ksliini)r==iva Mni^a-dvishah || 



21 priya [I*] babtau Saihkh-alivaya devl rSjna[h*] grlr^iva Ttlpinl || [14- 
Tasyam 

23 iah [I*] ntpadyamana-tapanadlilpa-titlya-teja 

24 Wripatuihgadevah jj [15 jj*] Yat-prasad-a[r*]jjita sena Pan^yena samara pura [I*] 

25 ptre-BicMt=sa m]-agnir=ddadahia ripu-samtatim [) [16 ||*] H"ripatuihga iti khyStd 

26 bald=pi blniYan-gsvarali 1 idxyatd na ; kevalam=bliumaY=ainuslimmB^api Rama-vat 
2L7 |j [17 j|*] Tasy=6pakara-samytikt5 rajnat Ktirn-knl-odbliaYak [|*] 

fo salasfy the metre, this word mtisfe be cancelled. 



Bead pe*- 

vyyto+ 

syllaUe of *aKrt* r the metre require* a ahorfc syUablej wad perhaps Zal<ij,a.* 



*a m <iri. 



BAHUR PLATES OF NKIPATUNGAVARMAN, 



i a. 




i b. 



10 



12 



18- 




12 



^^ a. 



22 



24 



26 




a 6. 



28 



30 



32 



34 



36 




a. 



38 



4Q 



42 



44 




46 



52 



54- 




Ko. 2,] BAHUE PLATES' ,OT N'SlPu&TCTMSAVAEMAN, 11 



Second Ef&fy--; Seco'n&*>S$de* 

28 rtta)n4ah prajanam sara^g ratali-li [18 it*] Sa&-Yat^tilak^ l$ke 

adau 1 

29 sanmdra-Yat [|*] st[i^]yja-Tadra4:slxa^al-10k5m 3 Iflktofiiwnitey?* n 

30 Tasmat=tasy=5chitannama Hllaitamg-iti deva-vat i atkava sutariln-nama-pra- 

31 tyaksliatvad=Tisam=patelL |j [20 j|*] Grama-trayam SYa-rashfcre sah 

vivarddha- 

32 nah [1*] Yi3Ba[pya] Niipatiamg-eM^labd5iamajSap^-pu3rr^ ||- [21 

33 ppg;ldiam^l3^1-adtaram> gr&mam*^kam^tli=apaaui3q& !*} g.ra39aah(maw) * Vidya- 



34 nta-pada-namaka[m]j| [22 

[)*] evam 

35 grama-trayam labdliam=vidya"Stliaiiaya 4 dattavart |1 [28' [j*] Mandakinim 

samayantim^iirmmi- 

36 vaga-samakulam [1*] sa [ba]blira yathS dev5 DM[r*]3atirjatay-aikaya |j [24 |i*j 

TUrdTlaie; 



37 Vidya-iiadi 

38 stMnam vyapya yasmad*vyavastHta [| . [25 1|*] 

39 stMnam=prachaksliate [[*] tebhyd datva(tfeva) sa bjiflpito * gramau^jnapti- 
^ ptirvakn H [26 ||*] Hasti-saScli^i'Sim&nt5n=atmanambi^ 

41 rvva[pa]rlMrair-akaratYena raksMtan 11 [27 

42 ky-e^ya?a^3italL [!*] mantri 



44 t^palanlya iti svayam || [29 [|*] Dasa[:b*] sthanasya yidyaya, 

jusham^a- 

45 yam 6 [1*] kyitaYan(fi)-^astra-tatva(ttva)-jnah prasastin=Ki;gayassii[kri*]t ft [30ft* 

Ko Visaiya-Hri- 

Third Plate; Second Side. 

46 patoigavarmmarkn yandu ettivadu VeSsli-pperaaraiyaii vinnap-. 
4V pattal Vi4lTi4iagtt*K^tipattimamila-pp6mraiy0e atiatti 

4S Arava^S^^KMltra^VSgfir^Battst - ^atfcii? -kanga [||^] T 

49 ppa[k*]kaintim Vilangattanga^ttvanSrum IiraippTinaicliclieriyu-. 

50 maga imrnQnturum palayav-aramum br^km&dey^u^t^ 5 iti 

51 n pejjarai majjri ySn4u ettSvadu vagfir Yidyastlianat- 
5fc tarkku vidyabli5gam*agappanitt5m [|j*] Tangalum padagai 
53 da kallum k^lliyum n[a*]tti ajaiydlai Sayd^ 7 v i4 u tka(k 
4 nattarkkTi=ttirumagam vida [jj*] Nattar tirumugan^gagdte 

55 [k]ku yalttu^ppadagai na^andu kaIlungaIliytinStti atai[y5lai] 



* The second part of the au of -adoM is engraved at the l>egiiiniiif ( of i5*ftxji li 
a Eead 

8 Kead 

* Read 



8 The reading = imam would be more 

( .-Bd.] 

A 2 



EPIGRAPH1A ISTDICA; 



Fourth Plate; First 




[Voi*. XVIII. 



K ^ydu nattar vi^da(tta) asaiyalai^pa^i xdUttakk-eUai [I ] 

\57 n^tteng^ ira * 4U 

58 tf*li kattu ' ellaiinnum Nema1ipp^attu ellaiift 

59 



60 yippsfckatt^ellaiiixnum T^ttBr-dlaikku 

ii^um iy- 
a*ubadu se S 



63 natta- 



64 m nllitta kSttnkku meskan-den^^Ek^llai HuftJiknrumW 

6& in vadakku-mel-paik-ellai Tagur-ellaife kilakkum va4arpftjk-ellai 

Plate; Second Side. 



6S KirimlnpStti . 

67 galilum-agappatta nila^ nlr-nila$um pti?i5eyyum umam 1 ttr-irukkaiytt- 

68 ma&aiyrima^ppa4appu~m^ 



70 pflii nedum paramterimdu ud[imibodi amai 

71 m u^-^iila^olh-inji Vig^r vidyastta^attarkk 

7? bh^am-ayi Ttgttr6<Je ep VggSr pey^a parikaramum vyavaste(sthai)[yti] 
*7H m perju sarrva-pariliaram*=ayi braliniadeyam*ayi*ppai*adatti Seftr^- 
?4. dH {1 Pn^yaai samani kptavatam pariraksliata,n*cha tad*rakslxat5tl 
78" patimgavarmma [[*] agaminah, kshltipatlnprauiamaty*aja8ram 

Mukunda-chara [:a*ain3 * 

Fifth Plate- First Side. 

7ft ba]a-feklmre^a || [31 ||*] ITditodita-kala-tilaka[h*} 

f7 Bishfatah. [1*] alikhaii-Nyipatuiiag*aTs:liyaiL Pallava-kuj 

78 KacHciiipg^ EiJ-Padferattu XTdit5daya*peru[n*]dtttti;[*] raaga^ 



f 9 & magan(n) ^ipatnihgafe*] eluttu H 

TEAKSIiATION. 



J.) Hail! Prosperity I 

(Tecrae 1.) Let Madtu's destroyer (Tishnn) grant you prosperity, tlxe lotus-eyed one, 
se lotus-feet are nibbed by tlie diadems of tte gods (bowing to Mm), tie unborn one, (wh^ 
became) the means of "the destruction of demons that terrified the whole world ! 

(Terse 2.) In the eye of the deeping husband of Sri (Vishnu) was produced the luminary* 
the Sun ?), (which, is) th$ i^ans of duration, deistructiom, and production. From M 



BAHUR PLATES OF JNRIPATUNGAVABMAN. 



56 



58 



60 



62 



64 




iv b. 



66 



68 



70 



72 



74 




76 



78 




No. 2.] fcAHUR PLATES OF KEIPATtTNGAVARMAK. 13 



(Vishnu's) navel arose a lotus- flower, the germ of all. From this (flower) the self-horn 
(Brahma) was produced* 

(Verse 3.) From this four-mouthed lord of the world, Angiras was horn, (and) from the 
latter, Brihaspati, the minister of Sakra (Itidra), the splitter of .(the demon) Vala. 

(Verse 4.) Fiom him was born Samyu; from him, he who was named Bharadv&ja ; frotta 
him, the great archer Drona, whose valour equalled that of Sakra in battle. 

(Verse 5.) From this Ditma was produced, it is said, by a portion of Pinakixt (Siva) the 
long-armed Asvatthaman, who was skilled in all fights. 

(Verse 6.) From this Asvatthaman was bom a king named Pallava, who ruled the kiiigs 
, residing in the nine continents, together with the ploughmen. 

(Verse 7.) From his family arose a group (of kings) commencing with Vimala and 
Koiikanika, which was bowed to by the wives of enemies ; which imposed commands even on 
other rulers of men; which was much beloved ; (and) which continually shouted 'victory* ' 

(Verse 8 f .) Then, after Vimala , etc., having enjoyed by their own valour the earth girt by 
the four oceans, had gone to heaven on aerial cars, there was the long-armed (king) Dantiv&rni&t>, 
who resembled Purandara (Indra), showed firm devotion to Mura's foe (Vishnu), (and) was 
bowed to by the diadems of the rulers of the earth. 

(Verse 10.) By ruling the earth according toir ght even in the Kali age, and by showering 
gifts, (this) ruler of men shone like a rsia-cloud. 

(Verse 11.) He dispatched arrows, furnishing (them) with provisions for (their) visit of thfc 
nether world under the guise of (the blood of those of his) enemies who were not (already) con- 
fined* in his own prisons. 1 

(Verse 12.) From Dsntivarm&o. was born that long-armed NandiTarmaa who subdued 
the earth unaided in battle. 

(Verse 13.) Just as Lakshml (is the consort) of Mura's foe (Vishnu), (the wife) of 
Nsndivarmfcn was the slender queen named Sank ha, who was bom in the B5gfrr&kuar 
family. 

(Verse 14.) Full of patience like the earth, beloved by ttae people like a mother, the queea 
named Sank ha shone as if she were the embodied fortune of the king. 

(Verse 15*) By her who possessed intelligence, beauty, arts, etc., was born the virtuous 
Nripatungadeva* the lord of the three worlds, noble by birth* resembling the rising sun in 
splendour, (and) victorious in fights with arrows. 

(Verse 16.) Resembling fire, this king, by whose favour the Pan4ya tad obtained am 
army formerly, burnt a confederation of enemies in a battle on the further bank of the AricMt 
(river). 

(Verse 17.) Even in his youth (this) lord of the world (was) renowned (by the name) 
of INTyipatunga (i.e. 'the high one among rulers of men'), (He was) renowned not only on 
earth, (but) even in the other (world), like Rama* 

(Verse 18.) Provided by this king with benefits (was) Mart&nda of the family oi Vesali,* 
a descendant of the family of Kuru, (and) intent on (affording) refuge to (his) subjects. 

(Verse 19.) A& ornament to the world like the moon, (and) resembling the ocean in. pro- 
fundity, etc., (this) ruler of men (became) the resort of the people by protecting the peoples as 
if (he were) the sun. 

1 i.e. lie either imprisoned or sliofc his enemies. 

s Vfr?es 19 and 20 suggest that the word Martaqda (i.e. the &cm) is n6t a mere metaphor (HjyaJfcam), but b;,* t* 
%$ taken here as a proper name. 



U EmaiUPHU.lN.DIGA, [Voi. XVIII. 



v (eiw2Q.) TJua'efe^e, the .(sur)naiae ,,Mlaii;f fegi (i..e, 'the *mppoH trf tint world') (wa 
as) suitable to this ruler of men as (unto) a god, or because (las real) zuvnw (iMrfiH&fi<jat, Lih tlie 
gun) wae quite manifest (to all);, 

(Vewes 21-23,} This promoter of 'the family of Kuril gave to a mat of Itwntiif*; (rzVi/*l~ 
sth&na) tkree -vilJages,ia his own proYiiLce (ra*A#r<x) -which, at, (hi#) reijiii'Hl, Hit? had) rewiwil, 
provided with an executae. (a/ajp&*),Jrom thai .lord N:ppMQxtg& viz* th< villiJK* 1 of CkQLtup- 
pa&k&m^ rick, in; fru^t* then another village whose parne (ccmttiHted of) a word ending* in an r 
and beginning with Vi-dyavilanga, 1 (and) thirdly the very prosperous (vilhige uf) 



(Verses 24-26.) % Jnst as the god DhSrjaJi (Siva) Carried 021 the Btngl j lork of (liis) hair tlm 
approaching Mandakinl fGanga), agitated by the Telocity of waves, tlmn the lwp river of 
learning,, filled witt troops,, (of scholars) from the four directions,* stayed affor if, lia*l tittwl tlm 
seat of the residents q| the village of Vagur, Therefore they call ihln n^at of wholurx a neai <rf 



(Ve3?se,26 t) This. ruler of lancl thinks highly of himself after lit* IUIK glv^n io 
f sctola^B) the (three) Tillages, provided with m executor, their limit* having 'hum fii^um- 
amhulated by an elephant, 3 accompanied by all Immunities, (arid) protwlwl hy freedom from 
taxes. 

(Verse 28.) The executor (was) CJttamaSIla, worshipped by the lord of tin* fhm* worUk* 
the minister, resembling Brihaapati, of the glorious king 



9.) The.desqeii^Mpf Eoyji.hipisejf en^eata.futui-o.^ings: 4 AH thin oliuriiy m 
oommon (to all kings), it must be preserved (by you as well) ! ' 



.), The ,se^ytotpf thp seat gleaming, of the remdentB of the villa^ of Vlgflr, 
the pious Ifagaya, who knew the truth of sciences, composed this eulogy (prtfaili). 

(Lane ;) In *He eighth year (of the.reign) of king ; Vijaya^i^tllAgavaTOi^, i the 



n f ^^^'^eiSr^ciu, (a subdiviBlm) of iTft.nfc4u, * 
(Line 48.) IB the eighth year (of our reign), we have 



^ 




ot Ksil> at ^ Vol VIII f 



Cf, iine.105 of the Kiftkuff plates. 



hw.-^^^. ta s ,^ 8 ' ' L ' ^ ol ITI P .. ' U ; #&# m4,ri iu tl. 



Nd. -2.] BAHTJR PI/AT-ES OF WBIPAT WGAVARMAN. 



(Line 54.) ' Wk'e& tke headmen of iiie '-n&du 'saW t tlie order, the/- $aiaed (their) joined 
hands (before It), placed (it) on (their) heads, circamambiilated the limits, planted stones and 
milk-bush, and drew up 'a, report. 

''(Line 56.) According to 'the' report ^submitted "feytBfe headmen* df 
of the land (grantdd are i*& .follows) :-^Of r the two tillages of 
.J50tfcuppakkam, the' eastern - boundary --is'toi the" west* of "-the 'boundary : a -forest aadv>6--iiliB 
boundary of - N0H;Malii>pEkitani ; -the 60 iithemj boundary as 'to the' ndrth :< <!>f the bdanidatfy* 
Heamalippakkam, of the * boundary of Nelirayippa/;srkam 9 and of the boundary 6f 0f attur ; 
the western boundary is to "the "east of the 'boundaty of 'MamfoEkk&m and of -fcixty "rice- fields 
(seruvu) which - form a- Brakmadeya near 'this Vilsnggttaiiga^VPiior j 1 and the northern 
boundary Is to the south of the boundary of Vagtir, 

(Line 63.) The boundaries of Traippbgatelxeihera "{are) r^Tire eastern boundary is. to the 
svest o a forest surrounding the village (nattam) ; the southern boundary is 1 to the north of *he 
boundary of Nernnjikurnmbu; the western boundary is- to the east of the boundary of -Vagur ; 
and -the northern bcnmdaiy is -to -the south of the boundary of Kirimanpatti. 

(Line 66.) Altogether, the land enclosed by the fout great boundaries specified here, 
including -wet land and dry land, villages and village-buildings, houses and house-gardens, 
clearings ;md young-trees, waste grounds- for grazing, 2 tanks, store-houses, 3 ditches, wells, foiests, 
brackish ground, ^water-courses and breaches, & wherever water is conducted (?), long harrows 
are applied, 5 iguanas run, and tortoises creep, not excluding the cultivated land, 6 being joined ? 
fo VSgQr itself as a source of revsnue for the promotion of learning to the residents of the seat 
of learning at Vsgar, enjoying the immunities and agreemeuts 8 enjoyed by "Vagtir, 
possessing all immunities, (and) being a Brafamadeya, the grant was made. 9 

(Verse 31.) * The good works of those who perform 1 (them) and of those who preserve 
(them) are equally (meritorious). Therefore preserve you (this gift)!* Thus (requesting 
them), king'Hripattingavai'liiaii perpetually bows (Eis) head, which bears on its crest the lotus 
feet of Mukunda (Vishnu), 'to future kings. 

(Verse 32.) The ornament of the family of Uditodita, the goldsmith named USTripatunga, 
who was skilled in all sciences (and) a hereditary servant of the Pallara family, wrote (this) . 

(Line 78.) The writing of ISTyipatunga, the son. of JCadevi-per^indattaa (who was) tha 
son of'Udit6day%0rnadattaii,. (a resident) of Kil-Baisaram near 



1 In two otber instances (11 49, 56 f.)* the & of ita i represented by a short .^ 

2 These throe doubtful terras occur also in Hue 281 o the Leydeu plates, and in t&e Aubil p'-atesj abovp, Vol. 
XVj p, 65, text line 167 f., wlicre they are translated* by * halls, wastes in which the calves graze/ I adopt 
M. VijQson'tj renderings of martrum and &.inU,m (as the Leyden plates read for Jcattrit-). 

8 For 'Jcott&garam see S. L'L, ToL II* p. 61, n. 2 5 ahove, ' VoK "XT, p. 71, u. 3; Travancore Arch. Series, 
ToL III^p. 177, u. 3. 

* See S. I. L, Vol. Ill, p. 64 n. 1. 

8 The expression mr <pu$i occtirs also In line 84 of the Leyden plates, and nvdfu>m pa rambler indu in line 30 
(which ought to have' been ntufjbered 285) of the same* Both terms are used in line 434 of tLe TiruvahmgiUhj 
plates, S. I. L, Vol. Ill, p 410. 

6 See S, I. L, Vol. Ill, p, 109, n. 2. 

7 fir i may be the intransitive form of err/, e having joined/ 

s For vyava&fba, seo S. I. I., Vol. I, -No. 40* 1L 20 and 56 ; -Vol. II, No; 98, 11. 58 and 62. 

a Tlis two word* -parad&tti genradu occur also in line 133 ol the Kasiikudi plates, and in Imo 63 of fcb/ 
Velurpakiyara plates . (S* J. L, VoL II, p. 509), where I would read garadatti (with Grautha da} ins-eado 
pnradatti and cancel the noire an p* xiii of the Addenda aud Corrigenda* Tb'e Aijbil plntes (above, VoL XV, p. 6f 
text line 180 f.) read farad* tti lor paradatti. 



EPIG&APHIA 1NDICA. [ VOL. 



No. 3, AN INSCRIBED RELIC CASKET FROM KURIUM. 

BY THE LATE PANDIT V. NATESA AltAB, B.A. PATNA, 

(This casket was bronght to my notice in the year 1917, when I was Superintendent of 
tlie Archaeological Survey, Frontier Circle, Peshawar, by Khan Sahib Mian WasI U<UIm t my 
Assistant. On inquiry 1 learnt that its exact find-spot was unknown, but tlmt it WK given 
as a present by a villager to one of the sons of the Nawab of Landi Yarghazo, while he wa 
Tahsildar of Eurratn. The casket is now in the possession of his younger brother, a Htnduiit 
of the Edwardes College, Peshawar, froni whom I tried to acquire it for the local Muslim, 
of which I was the ex-officio Curator; but I could not succeed until the moment of my 
departure from JPeshawar in January, 1919. 

The casket is made of copper and measures 18" in height. Ite bae i square und ii 
attached to the drum by means of a fillet and grove joint. The hafmikS in of the ooiivoritonal 
shape ard loosely threaded on to a central shaft, also of copper, 

The casket is almost perfect in every detail and has the appearance of * mluiaturo $tup* 
with its harmixti and umbrellas. (PL I, a.) 

The relics which the dasket was meant to enshrine are no longer traceable. Likewise, a* 
1 have observed already, the exact find-spot of the casket is unknown, Neither could I, owintf 
to the unsettled state of the Kurram valley, visit the spot and obtain toy local information. 

The inscriptiou on the casket consists of four lines of Khar58hthT Mript punctured 
in^heoase of the Kanishka casket from Shah-jVkl-dherl, on the four sklen of i te H quiuv 
The writing covers a space of 4fx2" on each side and seems to fee m fairly good pn 
toi, except as regards the lowermost line on two of the sides, which, unforiuniLlv 
disappeared altogether. (PI. I, 5, and H. II.) /? 



The paleography of tte ^cord presents tho same pecnliaritles M the rilv^r 
inscnption Irom Taala.1 tte Kanishka caskei from Shah-il-kl-dherl* and *1, M- -i 
^ The letters are of the elongated and cursive variety Ld on,. " * 

Kash^n penod.* It 18 noteworthy that in ihe case of some of the rn 

record, snch as fa, dha, ys, h and w, the shape is not uniform throughout hut 
differentlas. Tins I at^bute n lO ,e the carele 8 snes S of t 



;^nr e to ? 

Amc^tne^ographie^^ 

ia, a for p. and ^ for Besides, dolle coZnattf 1 
consonants, as in o^a for oma OOM ? ntfc are alwa 



ia, a for p. and ^ for Besides, dole conat 1 " '^"^^ ttWMl 

consonants, as in o^a for om^a ^^^2 OOM ? n f tfc are alwa y a ^P'^ented by i 

, . for ^ ^ ji^csz f r 



h mo^, ^e STll T 
^M^. lSs#ro whic 



dw of the t6k 'It 6 a *vastivg(iin se^ inthevearsi 

-*tgr ui uae tonth month Aavina 6 T"h 4 j^ar * ^-^ t ^ 

text of the Pratitya-samutpsda or JTOteBd./tefrv, v i ^f eil T ol ^ W8 tll e anutoma portion of the 
^ ' ' a l^J^!i>? dlla ^ <>on aftc, 



J. i A. 8~ 1820, p,-. 193 ff. *' I !rf " v l- XII, Plate facing p 299 



No, 3.] AN INSCRIBED RELIC CASKET FHOM KURRAM. X7 

Ms enlightenment under the Bodhi tree at Bddh-Gaya. The inscription nds with, the prayer 
that these sacred relics, as well as the Sutra propounded, "by the Lord, -may be honoured "by 
all sentient beings. 

TEXT. 



1 [Sam 2O] 1 masa 1O Asimakasa di 2O j&e 1 chhttnatoi [khe]tre 

Jjra^sa-piitrasa [HiLiijbhixmi-ranasa 2 .... mi Uelia[rsa3im Sarva- 
[sti]vadana s . . . gaha[mi] ga[bha]mi Bhagava[ta]sa Saka-raun[i]sa 

2 sarira . pradiokhadi 4 Sakavuta Bhagava[ta] 5 Avija-praehaga sainkara samkara- 

prachaga vinana vinana-praehaga nama-ruva nanXaruva-prachaga sha[d~a]ya- 
[tana] sha[d-a]yatana-praohaga phasha ptasha-prachaga 

3 vedana vedana-praehaga tusha tusha-prachaga nvadana nvadaaaa-prafchjfcgia 

bhava bhava-prachaga jati jati-pra[chaga] jara-marana-soga-pari^ha^TaiTdukha 
manasta 7 uvaga[sa] .... kevalasa dukha-[kaih 8 ]dhasa samudae 9 bhavati 

4 sariiu mahiphati[e]na 10 sarva-satvana pttyae 



sa[rya] sa[tva]na puyae 
cha [pra]tichasainasa cha 

TBANSLATIOK". 



In the ye&r 21 ? of tlie tentli month Asvina, on tlie SOtli day, at this, moment,, in tl*e 
territory of Varmayasas* son, the king of R^ubhiimi, in . . / tTcliarana-(Uttara8eni f*) 
[consecrated], in the sacred shrine of the Sarvastivadins, the bodily relics of the divine Sakya-"* 
muni. Says the holy scion of the Sakas ; 

" From Ignorance spring Impressions, from .Impressions springs CjonsciQUfiness, from 
Consciousness spring Name-and-For^m, from N ame-and-.Form spring tihe Six Provinces (of tl& 
six senses), from the Six , provinces springs Contact, from Contact springs Sensation, from 
Sensation springs Thirst (or desire), from Thirst springs Attachment, from Attachment .springs 
Existence, from Existence springs Birth, from Birth spring Qld Age a*id Heatth, Grief, Lamenta* 
tion, Suffering, Dejection and Despair. [Such is] the origin of [this] 'whole .( or unique) Mass 
of suffering. [May these] relics of the Lord of the Universe [be] honoured by all sentient 
beings and [likewise] this summary [doctrine] of causes and effects." 

[Dr. Thomas's revised text and translation (inserting marks^of vowel length).] 
IS. 21 masa Ayadnnakasa* di 20 ie chttLnami 
navakammi['asa Samghara]mami 
thnbammi Bhagavatasa Saka-munisa. 



In the Brahml inscriptions of this period (cf . Liider* List N.os. 32, 34) the corresponding, erpressio^ is 
i or asma Icshune, while the Taxila silver scroll inscription has <isd diva.se* [The #rm&vk is-nofr. &Q6i%... 
etter may he read y. Ed,] 

2 Kead rafasa* * Bead *v&dina+ 

4 The formation of this word does not seem to he quite clear. 

5 The usual form is bkagava, (nom.) or bkagavato (gen.)* 

6 The other versions have $&r-ideva+ * Bead c manast x_- 
ft Read ^foJiaik . * Baed samudao* 

^ Read w-ct^t^flf^ict7i<iw2- . , 

^TiRiJp.^rr^"- 

Ho, . 

s^uu... 

PCMTrr- ^& 



EHOliPHlA JNDrOA. [Vox,. XV7II. 

]) Bhagwatfc 



. 

namarrfya-pracliaga shadl-Syatana shafayatana-prachaga phasha 

3 vedanft vedana-pracliaga tafiha(toha<?) tasha(<arsha)-prachaga uvSdina 
[uvidana-prachaga] bhava bhava-praehaga jSti ja[ti-praehaga] 3ara-[EianiyaJoya- 
oitoaii^vi{si)-tLteg4it saih [bhava] ti kevalaga daklia-sk(kkh ?)aih- 
bhavati 

(??} sarvasatvana[m] pflyae sarra-satTlEa[m] pSyae aya[m]-chd 



Year 21 7 moatli Avadtnaka (Audi naios), day 20~OB this date, in the ttumafltery of tho 
MwiwrnAa f son ol Tstitra (kshudra)-Varmayajas (P), in the abode of tbe tcverond 
Sarrastivadiiis, in a s^j>a, was deposited a relic of titie Holy Sakya-mtiBi **.* 
. * . . ....... * ...... [This casket is given by . , .] 

for the honouring of all beings, and also for the honouring of all beings this 
[formula] ift engraved.] 



3STOTES. 

The record is of great importance for many reasons To tagm with y the -macription 
in so many words that the relics to the consecration of which it refers are those of the Buddha 
himself. We know of very few instances of this kind sa far, Even the epigraph on the Kaniahka 
relic caskit discovered at Shah-ji-kl-dhrl, in Peshawar, fails to supply us with anything but 
e' as to the aiitheifefeicity of the deposit. It follow, therefore, that tho 
^ wm siishrfned tourt hate been i%gardod originally m 

most iiapottant w. the country* 



Secondly, there have been discovered in India onfy tw dtto fwcriptloM containing tho 
teat of fte 2ftfM*#fito. The om com^s fr^m the tillage of Gopalpur in the Gumkhpur Din- 
iritt i tim UMted Ptwince^ and tlie other from Easia, the Attcient Katinaggitt, sl^f in the Nne 
.rtHbt, Bat^ in b^th amy we have only the Sanskrit c^fe& of the Sutrtt. The Gmalftur 
3m^ti<m fe cwv^d toft siaes df one tf 5 iiwribeA bricks wMc^ wen dug ottt itoin a bricfc 
irife dmiaBer k Ae tetnnol the MaiijrMiya Mcmsd, and doi tf 



i maer e tenno e aiirMiya Mcmsd, and doi tf Wemn Kadphii^ Kwinhlcft 
^ Mnvifiika tod Me. d* Ayiifiiitm *i* siid td hat$ bem fotod along irith the hrioke The 
eetjifc^^ ^ ^ pia fta^ ^ the tot of ^ Bfttm ' _ 

' l ~ O*'"* 1 



5S 

ON BBICK .3 



map fate^tada naq* Bh^Ttt-Ohhttmlyta vihs^ti 







P. 4. & JR. for 1896, pp. 99 ff. 



Inscribed Relic-Casket from Kurram : the *ist (?) year. 







SCALE TWO-FIFTHS 

Eye-copy 



5T0. 3.3 AJST INSOEIBED BSSLIC (UfiEET-fiBQM 



4 manasi knrata bhashishyg dharmSnam^ciayah - katamah. yad=nt^5smin 

5 darix .bliava^=a^=(5Apadad;=idam=tLij)adyate jad=ut=aYidya-j>rai^a j ySt 

sarhskara- 

6 pratyayaiii vijnanam vijiaana-pratyayaih jjjtoa-w^iaaii 4Miim-;rii^ 



7 .spai-aa-pmiyaya ^e^[)aS$ ^eobixa-pmtyaya i>ri&kaa ipsb^arpi^^ 
.8 pSdSnanp3?tyagr5 fcfaa^roh. 



mmbava(^)ty=*h?^^ 



anana- 

t*^ 



3 

ayatana- 

4 mrSdltaii shad-ayatana-BirSdihSd^vedamft-n 

5 tristna-mi^dliSd^iipadai^ iijfadanaa-iiir5d^d=rl^^ 

jati- ' 

'6 nirSdtali jati-BirdaMj-Jara-inaa^na-I^^ 

7 nirudhyanty=eyam=asya kevala]sya mutates duhtta-skandliaaya 



8 -dharmaiLam=a,pacliayarhL .diaTmanaMi ^5 bMkslistfra raclxayam xdia 

apadtayaiii cha 

9 itim yad-iiktartn*idam^6tart*prafyu^ 

10 bhikshavU Wiaga?7at5 ;bliasliitam=a[bliya]iiaiida[ii3 

The otter tascriptioa which ccmfcaiiis the 'text otf tHs Bttra comes, as I ;1xme ^ad,. lirom 
Kasia. It is partly oatred and partly wrftten in ink on a eopper-.piate wbick 
from the relic chamber of the I&vg& -srt&pa 'behind 1she Niarvana teiAple^ .The iaaognagB aaod " 
wording of the record toe identically thB me as those *crf %he Gopalpur mseriptiaii, ibift iiue , 
is about twQ ; eenl5Ui?ieB later. 

Again, the present epigraph is of considerable value from the philological standpoint; 
, its language' is local ."PrSfcjii goes without saying, .In .this rfche dedicators &&GJXL -to, 
faithfully fallowed ithe iikjitnoiion /laid dowi^ in the JBuddhktJBcriptureSj-.for it ia 



that is, 'that -the "Buddhsi had .allowed that every one should learn the sacred testts in ids 
own language? The same remark holds good in the dase df the inHcriptions *fl&3Covered s at 
Taxila, Peshawar, and other places on the ISTorth-West Frontier. The literary ^sii version. $; 
the Sutra is contained in the Stahavagga of the Ymnya-fitaJc^ and ihis-ye^ibn is " 
by an account of the incidents which led up to the propounding of *thB 
Causes send efiects ' by ^the fioly Sakya^muni. 5?rom thmandcfoom the feet rthatithe, only 
bearing the complete text ctf-the&fttra^of wM^^ 



i A. & J?., 193.0-11, pp, 73 ff. Oldeal>erg, Introduction toF^ayd^aAra, j. .3CCYTIL 

* [Full text of the Sutra d its^Wwjwt^^ in SaiMferit *e-ia<B*d <m some Jidc 

,~H.-S 3 



20 BPIGEAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XViIL 

from the Malia-pariiairvft^a-Cliaitya of the Buddha, it is easy to see how much importance tho 
Buddhists attached to the same, It is for this reason that I remarked above thai the 
monument in which the present casket was enshrined must have been coxumiwcd in olden 
days as one of the chief places of worship. 

Let us now see if the places and persons mentioned in the inscription afford any duo 
to the identity of the monument. The only names available for this purpose an* (1) Tannm/a* 
ia-putrasa, i.e. the son of VarmayaSas, (2) Enubhtimi-rana, i.e. the king of RuubhUmi, and 
(3) Ucliarsaaa, which I take to be the name of an individual. - Who thin VarmayaiiaH wan and 
where he reigned as, undoubtedly, he seems to have been a king 1 have not k^n able to 
ascertain from the materials at my command. On the other hand, Ucharfiana or tlttaranrna, if 
supposing I am right in my equation, though not a historical personage, yot HOOWIH omwhat 
capable of identification. In the itinerary of the Buddhist pilgrim Hinen Thnang it in naid : 
"About sixty H south-west from Mangkil city and on the east side of a great river wan the 
tope erected by Uttarasena, king of this -country, to enclose his share of th n.liH of tho 
Bu,ddha f s body, and near this was the tope which that king built to mark the wpot at which lu 
large white elephant bearing the precious relics had suddenly died and become a rook." 1 

Commenting on this passage Matters remarks : There does not room to fa any mention 
either of Udyana or of Uttarasena in the Yarious accounts given in the varioun NirvRpa 
treatises of the division of the Buddha'i relics. But other authorities relate how a tomato 
elephant named* tto-fo (or Mafca) bearing reKcs of Buddha died suddenly on the way, wtw 
afterwards reborn as a human, creature and became .an Arhat with an enorniouH apwtilw fl 
Major Deane identifies the monument mentioned by Hiuen Theang with tlm jvnmiiw of a 
ttopa which are said still to exist between the Tillages of Ghaligai and ShaxikanJar on ilw, Swut 
river in what used to be the ancient kingdom of Udy&na. It may be asked, howmr ho^' 
inasmuch aa the casket is reputed to have come from Kurram, it could be awictHiitod with any 
monument in the Swat valley, which lies in quite the opposite direction and in a different r^ion 
This objection can be met, in my opinion, by the fact that, as 1 have otomid at th vwv 
outeet, tie exact provenance of the casket is not known even to ite premt owner we! that 
th^fore, flute would not be^any inherent impossibility, if we were to snppo* that tlui obj^t 

l^S ? ^ T ^ PkC ? f ^ rigi31 ' t0 ^ lo alit y Whew ^ntwMy c.o o 
^Hbe^ase both the places a*e situated in the name province and are intuited 

graces or tabes, who are not too far removed to have consent interoou^e 



~-'- "' w 



No. 4] KANrAKUMARI INSCRIPTION OF VmA-RAJEKDRi-DETA. 21 

No. 4. KANTAKUMARI INSCRIPTION OF VIRA-RAJENDRA-DEYA. 

BY THE LAM T. A, GOPIKATHA RAO, M.A., 



The village of Kanyakumari, as everyone knows, is situated in the extreme south of India 
and is a very ancient place of great reputation. It was known to early Greek writers under 
the names of JKomarta Akron, or Cape Jomaria, as Ptolemy calls it, or simply Komarei., as 
described by the author of the P&riylus. The latter says : " After Bakare occurs the mountain 
Pyrrhos (or the Red) towards the south, near another district of the country called Paralia 
(where the pearl-fisheries are which belong to king Pandion), and a city of the name of 
Kolkhoi ..... Next to this is another place called Komar, where is the Cape of the same 
name and a haven. Those who wish to consecrate the closing part of their lives to religion 
come hither and bathe and engage themselves to celibacy- This is also done by women ; since 
it is related that the goddess once on a time resided at the place and bathed/' 1 Paralia 
mentioned in this extract is the name of the river Paraliyaru, which! waters a portion of 
S. Travancore and empties itself into the Kulitturai river. I have shown elsewhere^that the 
land watered by the Parajiyaru was the country belonging to the powerful dynasty of Ay kings, 
who had their capital at Kottaru, which is mentioned by Ptolemy under the" name of ' Kotiara 
Metropolis ' and c Kottara * by Pliny* Prom time immemorial, the Pandyas were the guardians 
of Kanyakumari and the temple in it ; one of their distinguishing titles being Kanni-kavalan, 
the guardian of Eanni (i.e. Kanyakumari). 

The temple of the goddess Kanyakumari is situated on the very brink of the Indian 
Ocean. Opposite to the central shrine is a mandapa locally known as the manimandapa, 
which contains six cylindrical stone pillars covered with writing in Grantha (11. 1 to 
419) and Tamil (11. 420 to 444) characters. Kanyakumari was visited by the Madras 
Government Epigraphist in 1896, when an attempt was made by his staff to obtain a mechanical 
copy of the inscriptions contained on these pillars, but the task was given up as impossible. I 
tried to copy the inscription in 1910 ; the result was not at all satisfactory. Since then I have 
visited the place more than once ; every time I saw the inscription on the pillars, which is 
qlearly legible in some places, but more or less completely worn out in others, I was impelled 
to make a fresh attempt to copy it; and what was to be the last, a serious and determined 
effort to secure a good impression of the writing on all the pillars, was made in 1916. The 
first and foremost difficulty experienced by all up till then was that of removing the thick crust 
of oil and dirt which from a long time past had accumulated on the pillars. This was completely 
removed after one or two unsuccessf al attempts, and the inscription was found in some places 
defaced, being corroded by the action of tbe sea-air. Though these parts did not appear 
legibly on the impression, it was still possible with great difficulty to read the writing on those 
parts directly from the stone. After straining every nerve to obtain a set of good estampages, 
with lamp in hand, letter by letter, word by word, the record was deciphered from, the original 
jatone itself. Tbe success is largely due to the indomitable perseverance of my Pandit, 
Mr. V. Srinivasa Sastri, Smritivi^ftrada ; h and I worked at the epigraph, on the spot, for 
nearly one month. Most of the verses employ rhymes (jpras&$) 9 which also came in handy 
by suggesting conjectural readings which in almost all the cases proved, upon reference to 
the original stone inscription, to be quite correct. Thus then the text was at last nearly com* 
pleteJy recovered from the worn surface of the pillars. 

The inscription may fitly be called the " Chola-vamga-prasasti*" It is extremely important 
for the history of the Cholas as it contains many pieces of information hitherto unknown to 
history. As I think that it is not right to defer the publication of this very important document 

* (JaMwelJ's Bistory of Ti*n*ve?lfy p, 19. 



22 



EPIGBAPEIA INDICA. 



;VOL. XVIJI. 



any longer, I am giving in this article what may be considered a preliminary notico, um aftirer 
edition being reserved for my own publicatiou, in the Travancnre Arc.htrototjtrtil jS 



As has been already remarked, the six pillars are covered with, writing from tho ion fo tho 
bottom. At first I conceived that the writing went round the pillar in a Kpira! ; but on rlos >r 
examination ife was discovered that each pillar consisted of two aeciionn, wie 011 the back ftuie 
and another on. the front. The inscription is continued from pillar to pillar tu tlio folfowi 
systematic order la, 16, Ha, II&, and so on, whore I represents the tiri pillar nnd a a** 
represent the back and front faces of the pillar. The language is mostly S;mkrit. At 
end of the record oecnra the grant portion beginning with *he birudus of king V 
Esjendra, and giving his regnal year. The lirudas and names of the king in thm m-nf io,, ar 
written in the Gtnurtha alphabet, while the rest is in the TamiJ alphabet ami language Tho 
Sanskrit portion of the record, giving the genealogy of the Ckojas, is entirely in vcnw 
the Tamil portion is in prose. On the whole the epigraph consista of 444 li neM . ' 

In the first two verses the god Siva,, and in the third Vilnm, are praimi. The 
Universe first created the Brahmanda, and then Brahma was 8 horud into ,.,^,,1,, 

Err; : f c r in f ? other things - Bmhma ' in MB to ' r - ted ^^ RiHiu^ to , : 

m h I8 task. One of them was MaricM. The son of Marlohi was JBOtopa - 1 ' ! 'I 

I 



lh(l 



Imotang 



for.,t s 






ar 
* 



" PWMI<I <m a 
""' "'">" 



tie 

in the 
before Mm. 

tSllQitJ Q.00T, JElv ijllTfl |"ITY"|* "ha - ---^ -. 

its course, bathed in its water, wh^wirlT sw^t ^^ ^^ T '* Kavri 5 > won't 
3 and found none about the pla'ce. He then bivm^f '* , !S lo k d a11 Tou Il(l *< 



Vol. HI, p. 



BTo. 4] KAFTAKUMABI INSCRIPTION OP VIRA-BAJENDRA-DEYA. 23 



; Iraseiia ;* and CMtra 9 frightened at the power of whose arrows DevSndra (Indra) ae- 
' eepted the tiger-bander, in which h0 also took refuge- From that time the tiger be<?ame the 
cre&t oi the Clidlas just in the same manner as a pair of carp fish and tie feow were respectively 
the crests of the Pandya and the Cheras ; then- came Pn&lipaketTi ? Retimala 9 Samudrajit and 
Bafieliapa. Tfee last mentioned king* cut open five arteries in his body and fed with the blood 
issuing oat of them five Yakshas who came to him as his guests and demanded of him this 
carious and eroel food. For f ceding the Yakshas in the manner descried he obtained the name 
Paochapa, The king Nrimyiila sprang in this race, and fey the grace of Paramesvara conquered 
Mpityu, the god of death ; then appeared Hanorarfjha, and the illustrious Pariraatkili (Peru- 
natkilli) and others, Karikala, who was born in this family, seeing that the "river Kaverl by 
its* irregular flow was destroying the crops, caused embankments to be constructed on both its 
sides, the- ki&gp conquered by him carrying earth on their heads for that purpose. Valablia, 1 
Jagadekamalla and Vyslstoayaiikart were also been in this dynasty, 



^ commences the genuine history of the Cfaolas. Yijayglaya is said to have been bom 
in this lineage. He was worshipped by all kings 5 ha is here atated to have constructed anew 
the city of Tanjapurl in the Chflla country ; but the Timvalanga^u grant distinctly mentions 
the fact that Vijayalaya took Tanjapurl by force and set up in it the goddess NisumbhasMani 
(Durga). 3 Evidently, the compose? of the Kanyafcumari pratiasti did not know exactly how 
Tanjapurl came to be the seat of the Chslas in the time of Vijayalaya. The true fact seems tc 
hare been remembered by the composer of the Tiruvalanga^a document It lias been stated 
elsewhere that Tanjapuri must have been seized from the Mufctaraiyars, the vassals of the 
Pallavas, by Vijayakya. 3 The son of Vijayalaya was Adityavarmaii alias Kodan4arama. 
In the village of Tondaraanad near Kalabasti there is a temple of the Chsla period* 
One of its inscriptions belonging to the 34th year of the reign of Madiraikoxida, 
Parakesarivannan, i.e. Parantaka I, calls the temple by the name Kodandtaramelvara aliat 
Aditye^vara. Mr. Venkayya in his Annual Report on Epigraphy for the year 190 5, wrote 
about it thus: " Ho. 318 of 1904 mentions the Mag's son srl-Eodandaramaii while No* 347 
of 1904 refers to prince Ksdandan. Even at the present day Kadandaa is a familiar 
abbreviation of Ksdandararnag, and we may therefore suppose that both Nos. 818 and 347 of 
1904 refer to the same prince, who was the son of Parantaka I. In the same village of Tonda- 
manad is another inscription of Parantaka I, dated in Ms 34th year (about A.D. 939), which. 
mentions the temple of KfldandarameSvara alias Adityesvara. It is not impossible that 
this temple was called after the ChOla prince ESdandaramaa, If this surmise proves correct, 
it may be concluded from the other name Adityeivara given to the To$damaiiad temple 
that K$dandavaman was the surname either of the king's eldest son Bajaditya or of his second 
son GandarSditya." 4 Subsequently, while reviewing No, 286 of the Collectioii of the Madras 
Epigraphist for. the year 1906, fonnd ia Tirumalpnram which stated that the village of 
SijEiyaryur had been granted as a devadan and as a brahmadeya in the 21st year of 
Tondaimanajprur-tunjina-Udaijar, Mr. Venkayya changed his opiiuon and said that Tori{Jai 
manaiEur-tunjiga-lTdaiyar, i.e. * the lord who died at Tondaima^ajrur/ must refer to Aditya I, 
that To3p4^i^5rr6r is probably Toodamaaad Bear "Kalahasti in the Nortb Areot District 
which in a record of Parantaka I found at the place, is called I0ndaim!npi%rur 5 

1 The Tamil word Falavan,, which later on came to signify, like the word Ch6!n, any ChSla km^, is 
here into Valabha. 

2 gee 8. 1. L, Vol. Ill, p. 418, vv. 45 and 46. 
%.J^.,Yol.XIII,p. 136. 

4 Ef. jStfjp., 1908, p. 50, para, 9. 




EPIGKAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XVIII. 

.___^__ ::::: . : . :; ___, 

at the village, vhiofc is also called Adtyfitam in the 
been called aridity, L* THs latter conclusion is 

o found in the Kanyakumiiri inscription that Adifcyal, 

father of Printato I, was known by the name Kfldandarama, The Kanyakumin inscription 
adds that Aditya I aim Kadandarama killed the Pallaya king seated on his elephant,' Ihe 
opponent of Aditya I was Aparajita, 

The next king of the dynasty was Parantaka, son of Aditja. Ho destroyed the Paxulya 
kinz together with his whole army, took the whole of his treasure and burnt Madam, his 
eJLl From these military exploits he was known as MadhurSntaka, that in, " death to 
Madhura (ie. Madura)/' Because he defeated the uneonquered Kjisfaija-B&ja ho came to be 
known as Vira-OHola. It is only in this inscription that we hear that the KKshtrakfi(a king 
Krishna III was defeated in battle by Parantaka I. Krishna, ascended the throne about A.D. 
940, a year which falls within the reign of Parantaka I (A.D, 907-948), It is quite probable 
that Krishna III was defeated by Parantaka I, and it) was perhaps in vengeance thereof 
that the former invaded the Chola country soon after the death of the latter and early in the 
reign of Rajadifeya, Paranfcaka's son and successor, 5 

In all his Tamil inscriptions Parantaka I is described as Ma&wcnkonfa Parafef iantaman> 
that is { Parakesarivarman who took Madura/ Sometimes the word " llamm n ooauro after 
< Mddiraiyum ) in the inscriptions of. this king. We shall see presently that he conquered &l*o 
Ijara or Ceylon as reported in the Tiruvalangadu grant. 4 

The Kanyakmnari inscription states that Parantafca caused his army to cross the sea and 
conquer Simhala ; by killing the lords of Simhala and subjagating th country he obtained 
the surname Simbalantaka. As it is stated that it was otyly his army that crossed the 
sea we have to infer that Parantaka I himself did not lead the army to Simha{a, but, 
entrusting the invasion to his generals, stopped on the mainland. He ia further stated 
to have constructed several agraharas like ViranSrSyaijapura and granted them for the 
enjoyment of Brakmanas, This Viranarayaijapara seems to be the same m the modem 
Kafctuma^narfcoyil, a suburb of Gangaikondiasajapuram which was the native place of the great 
Srivaitthnara Sch&ryas Nathamunigal and Tamunarya alias AjavandSr, 

The eon of Parantaka (I) was Armdama. To Arindama was born a SOE named ParlEtftka 
(II). Anticipating trouble from this valiant king, the Pa^y^ king fled acro6$ the Mountains, 
evidently to the Kgrala country. Parantaka II fought several battles and imprisoned a largo 
number of kings. 

The son of Parantaka II was Rajaraja. He caused a number of yfyat to bo performed. 
It was the custom with Rajaraja never to kill those enemies who surrendered to him ; m spile 
oi this well-known fact the Chslukya king SatySsraya senselessly rau away from frlie 
battlefield. 

Bajaraja had a son named MadhiarSntaka. He conquered the Ktmtah king, tbat is, th* 
CMlukya, and made Manyakhete, his capital, a camping and sporting groand for his itrmy # 
Sending his generals at the head of his powerful army northwards, he caused them to defeat 
tyeaswriy the tings of the Bam* and the mkalaoountriea and to kill the kings of 

1 $p.&e$ ti 1907, p. 71, para. 30. ~~ * ^ " ~ ' : - 

8 Bt'J., 1906, p. 65. 



' Bn&XA Iwr., Vol. Ill, p. 396, rr. 51-52. 

Aiiin M nptK,aom 1 dvtMaheadragiri(No.S97 of the Madra, Epigraph, Collection for 1897) feto 



No. 4.] KAUYAKUMARI INSOEIPTIOSr Of VISA RAJEFDRA-DE VA. 25 

Kaliiiga and VimSendra 1 ; and to bring the water of tHe Ganges filled in pots carried on the 
heads of the conquered kings. The latfcer statement regarding the conquest of 
Eajendra-Cholaof the countries as far as the Granges is in close agreement with that found 
in the Tirrrvalaftgadii grant. In both the records it is distinctly mentioned that Rajendia-Ohala 
alias Madhnrantaka himself did not proceed fc gainst the northern kings and did not. extend 
iiis arms as far as the Granges by leading the army in person, bat got the credit of having 
* taken the Gangs river ' (Qangai-koncja) by the victories achieved by Ids generals. 2 Ttte 
inscription states further . that he sent his army across the sea to the Kataha country -and set 
fire t<> it* and that there was nothing impossible for this monarch to achieve. 

This sing, "Madhorantaka (that IB, Rajndra-Gh6la I), had three sons, named (respectively) 
Eajadhiraja, Bajendra-deva and VIra-BSjendra-deva. Of these, Rajadhiraja was the eldest. 
For the first time we have the very explicit statement in the inscription tinder notice that 
Bajeudra-Chola had three sons. 4 Up till now the relationship existing between RajSndm-ClioIa 
and the three brothers, Rajadhiraja, Rajendra-deva and Vira-Rajendra-deva, was vaguely 
conjectured. 

The Kanyakumari inscription states that Rajadhiraja destroyed the city of Ralyanapura 
and conquered the lord of that place, Ahavamalla. These facts are -well known to students 
of Indian history by the inscriptions of this king. Kalyanapura was the capital of the 
Chalukyas and Ahavamalla was the Chalukya contemporary of Rajadhiraja. 

After the death of Rajadhiraja, his next younger brother Rajendra-deva ascended the 
throne, and the latter in his turn was succeeded by his younger brother VIraR5,ien.drE-deva. 
He killed the Mannata (ICarnata ?) kings in the battle at Ku^al-sanganaa. This king, Valla- 
bhavallabha, took possession of Vengi and Kalinga, 6 left uncared fot by his elder brothers 
and consequently overrun by enemies ; Tlra-Rajendra, who is known, also by the names Karikala 
and Vira-ChQla, set up several dharma-tiasanas (thafc is, engraved deejls of grants). He 
presented an invaluable ruby, known as trailokya-sara, to the god Dabhra-Sabhapati (the 
god of Chidambaram), and it was set up m the crown of that god. He established a 
number of agraharas in the Chela, Tundira, Pandya, Gangavati and Kuluta countries and 
colonised them with forty thousand Brahmayas well- versed in the Vedas. From the other 
inscriptions of this monarch we know that he won a victory over the Chalukya Ahavamalla at 
Kudalsangama and Koppa and captured all the treasures belonging to his opponent, as also 



1 [The note on Text 1. 360 below reads ^[f ] 55. Ed.] 

4 South-Ind. Inter*., Vol. Ill, p. 424, v. 117. 

Ibid., v. 123. 

The conquest of Kadaram also ia described in the historical introduction prefixed to his Tamil i 

4 The Kalingattupparani seems to indicate that Bajeodra-Chola.I, seeing that he had mo eons to succeed him, 
resolved on electing Kulottnnga-Chola I, a grandson by his daughter, as his successor. This inf ornmtioa is not 
oi much value as it is not based on actual facts* Inscriptions of Rajadhiraja I and Bajendradeva enumerate a 
number of Cbola princes who stood in the relation of unelvs, brothers., and sons to the kings. Besides, the Tiruva- 
langada Plates state tjiat a certain Sundara-Chola-Pandya was Kajendra-Chola TS son j Bee & L X, VoL III, p, 423, 
w, 93 and 99. 

& r ihe following is the passage in & J. J,, Vol. Ill, Part I, pp. 6^-70, which describes this event : 

"(L. 28.) Having moved (his camp), he declared: <(We) shall not return without regaining the $00! 
country of Yengai, which (we had formerly) subdued. You, (who are) strong, come and defend (it), if (yon) are 
able I * That army which was chosen (for this expedition) drove into the jungle thafc big army, which Jv*Muted 
(its enemies) on the great river close tr> ViSaiyavadai (and) which had for its chiefs .lanAnathan, the Dan^atii^ ika 
K/ajamiiyaii, whose mast elephants trumpeted in herds, and Mupparasan. 

"(L. 29,) His elephants drank the water of the GodavarL (Us) crossed yen KaliAgam and, feoyoiid (it), 
despatched (for) battle (his) invincible army as far aa the further end of Sakkara-kottmm (Chakra-kobta). 

" (L. 30.) (He) i*-cOEquered the good country of Vengai and bestowed (it) on Yi jay adit VHII, whooe broad hand 
(held) weapons of war, (aid) who had taken refuge at his lotus-feet" 

J) 



;26 



BPIGEAPHIA INDICA, 



[Von. XVIII. 



his women. The fact of his presenting the god Sabhapati with a jewel is quite new. That he 
established a number of agraharas does not appear to be a mere boast ; we have area BOW 
several of them, such as Vsrarajamangalam, Vlrachtflapuram, etc. 

The TamiJ portion of the inscription begins afresh with the phrase 8va$ti Sri and states 
that the king BSjakesarivarman Vlra-Bajendra, who bore the liruda* and surname** 1 
Mahai^jadhirSja, RSjSSraya, BSja-Bajendra, Vlra-Chola, KarikIla*Cbt5l% etc., seems to 
have made a grant of land to the temple of Kanya-Pi^ariylr (Bhagamtf) at Ktxmari (i.e. 
Eanyafcumari). This portion of the inscription is damaged and cannot be easily deciphered. 

On the whole the Kanyakumari inscription is a valuable document for the construction 
of the history of the Chola dynasty. With the Anbil grant, 3 the Leiden groat,* the T iruv&Inft- 
gadu grant* and the Kanyakumari inscription, the four most important document^ the luatory 
ckf the Chojas could be written completely and satisfactorily. The Tamil works JKatingat- 
tupparani, etc. may also be of great interest in the study of Chflla history. 

The followiog table gives the genealogy of tlie Cholas as fouud in the Kanyakumari 
msoriptiou ; ad the genealogies derived from the Tamil works, the Vtfoama-SCfaf^uto, tho 

and the Sankara-Svlan-uls, are also added for purposes of c'ompariwou. 



The 



i inscription. 



1 TOfUhbiU.. 






2 Brahma* 


18 


Muchakunda, 




14 


rr x t^ j 


8 Marichi. 




c anat4\ 


4 Kasyapa. 


15 


S?gara. 


6 Yivaimm, 


16 


Bhagiratha* 




17 


Wf 


6 Mann. 


* i 


JJ'itnpar^a. 


7 lUMOni, 


18 


Diiipa, 


8 Ytoftddfam. 


19 


Raaa, Iiakdwnaijii, Bktrata and B^TV hiaa. 




2n 


n^ *i 


9 Kftknfcjsfcha #Z{ a* PnraSjaya. 


jy\J 


down W thwe r f t b?oTht ^v T* '' a ' K - * Ml<fA 


jLO jFrffyTyrit 




tJi'abxnfliins 11*0111 XricStf 1 *!'****!. ,^ * > * ! 

* _ -"^v*** -ivjjsvviiALU DfltCl yODXilatil^tl tillrt 

m " 


11 Knval"va. 








21 


Eajakesari, 


12 Mandhifcpu 


22 


Parakesari, 


* The followine is the -DBRRflaA r^f &;. x. i. . ' " ***-., _,_ _. 




ra . - -D-- , 
tie Myaore province - ra-Rajendx-a which occurs fc No . J6l. 

1 



. rMrtjl| 
^^ 



4.]. KANTAKUMABI INSCRIPTION OF VIRA-RAJENDRA-DEVA. 



27 



The Kanyakurnari inscription. 



23 Mrityiijifc, who conquered Death. 

24 Virasena. 

25 Cbitra, who made Indra seek *efuge in his tiger 

banner. 

2(5 Pushpaketu. 
S7 Ketumala, 
28 Samudrajit. 

5:9 Panchapa, who cut his veins and fed with his blood 
five Yakshas who caine to him as guests. 

30 Kyimrida, wht> with the help of Paramesvara con- 

quered Death. 

31 Manoratha. 

32 PerunafcHllu 

33 Karikala, who built the embankments of the 

Kaverl, which was destroying the crops by its 
excessive flow. 

34 Yalabha. 

35 Jagadekamalla, 

36 Vyakbhayankara. 



37 Vijayalaya, who made Tanjapun the capital of the 
Chola country. 



38 JLditya alias Kodandararaa, who killed the Pallara 
that was seated on his elephant, in battle. 



41 



42 



39 Parantaka, who killed the Pandya king, extin- 
guished his army, took all his treasure, and set 
Sre to Madura, his capital. Hence he was called 
]M adkurantaJea. He conquered the un conquered 
Krishnaraja and waa therefore called Vira-Chola. 
He crossed the ocean and defeated the kings of 
Blmhaia and was hence styled Simh&ldntaJca. 
He established VtraBarayaaapura and other 
famous agrakdras* 



40 



Arindama, 



Parantaka. 



The Pandya was driven 
defeated in battle. 



away and several kings 



Bijaraja, who defeating several kings in battle, 
perf urmed sever*! ydga&. Satyasraya rau away 
from him in battle. 



Rajendr$ or Madharantaka ; he conquered tbe kiris? 
of the Kuntala country ; made Manyakhefea th 
playground for Ma army ; his general defeated 
the kings of Kuliita and Utkala and killed those 
of Kalinga and Vanga and made the defeated 
kings carry the water of the river Gawga one 
tbcir heads for his lord. His army crossed the 
flea, defeated the Mog of Kataha, and sefc fire to it* 



J 



44 BajadMraja destroyed with fire 
Kalyanapura, defeated and 
dealt with AMvamalia and 
Ma generals. 



45 Bajendra-deva. 



46 Vira-Bajendra <Baja-BajendraV 
He conquered in the battlfe 
of Kudalsaixgama the kings 
of the Karnata family. He 
took the countries of Vengi 
and Kalinga which were neg- 
lected by his brothers and 
had, therafotfe, been seized by 
enemy kings- He was called 
Vira-Chola and Karikate. 
He set a famous ruby called 
the trailo&ya9ar(i in -the 
crown of the lord of Chidam- 
baram. Ho established agra- 
tiaras in the Chola, Tundliu, 
Pandya, Gafigavati, Kuluta 
and other countries and 
caused lands to be granted t<* 
40,000 learned Brabmanas. 



D 2 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVIII 



The KaTmgfttfcupparanu 



1 Yishnu. 

2 Brahma* 

3 Mariclii. 

4 Ka^yspa* 

5 Arfca, 

6 MantL 

7 Ikshvaka. 

S He who drove his chariot over his own sou. 

Purandara, 

10 He who made the tiger and the deer to drink 

water in the same stream. 

11 Muchokumla. 

12 He who inade it possible for the gods to drink 

ambrosia. 

IS He f u-ho weighed himself against dove 
(Sibi). 

14 Suradhiraja* 

15 . Cliots. 

16 Bajakesart 
IT ParakesarL 

18 He who explained the law to Death, 

19 He who brought the river Kaveri from the 

west. 

20 He who took the higher worlds and ruled the 

whole of this world. 

21 He who made Indra reside in hu flag. 

22 He who made flue western oceaa mix with the 

eastern one. 



23 Ha who gtive his Wood fc<> IKJ drunk by 



24 He who commanded the wtxul, 

25 He who destroyed the flymfc fort*. 

26 He who roamed about tho fcy in !*: aorial 

chariot. 



27 He who helped Bharnmtljn in the 

war. 

28 fie ^ho married a N 



He who, being pfcasoA with thi^ p<Mm 
of the poot Pov:ai. libcrntoii the Chora. 



80 Ho who rnftdo kin$>ji (<<mqn*rt*d by him) ImiM the 
of the Kaverl. 



31 Ho who received In liw praiite kho pon called 



32 He who destroyed tlie binprt of the 

awl the I'hSra ooantriot and took Kuijai 
Madura) and Ijam. 



33 He who celebrated the festival of hi* blr 

day (8adat/a-n&fcs&tra) in tho Chtir** eoutt* 
try. 



34 TUtt kitjg who made bin hoY-^cs drink wat<r from 

the river Gaixg& and took Ka^armm situated 
beyond the sea. 

35 He who sH up a pillar of victory at KftmpiU, 

took KttlvijQLa and caused the t!gt*r emblem 



t!gt* 

feo be engraved oa the eight chief moan-* 
tains* 

36 He who, seated upon an eleplmnt, cmne out 
victorious at the battle of Kopp 
received the anoint uaeutfc of 



37 He who enforced the Laws of .Yuan, 
was thrice (ut four timt-s) su^'rior to 
himself. 



38 Abhaya, who was victorious t 



The Tikrama-Solaij-TilS. 



"J Brahma. 

3 Kasyapa. 

4 MarlckL 

5 Th0 wJieled charioteer (Sun), 

6 He wKb dwre his chariot over the body of his 

OW * JOXt * * 



T He who made the fcigor and the dear to drink from 
the saine stream. 

H 

8 He who drove in bia aerial chariot. 

9 He who ruled over the Bhdgahhumi 

10 He who explained the law to Death* 

11 He who 

12 He who destroyed the flying forts. 



No. 4] 



KANTAKUMAEI INSCRIPTION OF VIEA-EAJENDEA-DETA. 



The Yikrama-SoJan-ula. 



IS He wbo made the water of the western ocean join 
with that of the eastern ocean. 

14 He who married the Niga princess. 

15 He who got. into the scale-pan against the weight 

of a dove. 

16 He who brought the Kavirl river to the Chola 

country* 

17 He who built the banks of the KaverL 

18 He who, being pleased with the poem of Poygai, 

liberated the Chera king. 

19 He who was adorned with 96 scars on Ms chest, 

received in battlefields. 

20 He who covered the hall (Chidambaram temple) 

Tilth gold. 

21 He who took in a day the kingdom of the 

Malai-nadn. 



22 He who took the Oanga and Ka<Jara and wa& 

pleased to be seated on simha&nna. 

23 He who conquered the city of Kalyana after 

attacking it thrice. 

24 He who fought the battle at Koppam. 



25 He who presented the god Banganatha with 

serpent couch. 

26 He who defeated his enemies at Kudalsangamaiu 

and killed several elephants* 

27 He who twice destroyed the Jcalam at Salai, who 

took the western ocean, defeated the Pandyas, 
Cheras, took Konkana and Katmada, kilted the 
Maratfca king-, and who is known by the name 
of Abb ay a. 



28 Vifcrama-Cbola. 



The Kulottunga-Sdlan-ula. 



1 The Sun (?) 

2 He who drove his chariot over his son. 

3 He who ..*.. 

4 He who protected the castles of the gods. 

5 He who sat en the throne of the lord of gods 

(Indra) along with him. 

6 Killi, who explained the law to Death. 

7 Mand&atrL who made the tiger and the deer to 

drink water from the same stream. . 

The king of kings who brought down Mandakinl 
((dfeBga) to send his ancestors to heaven by 
bathing their bones with the holy water. 

9 He who fought against the Kauravas in tho 
Mahabharata war. 

10 ....** 

11 He who took the head of a . . . * * 

12 

13 He who destroyed the flying forts. 

14 He who joined the western ocean with the 

eastern. 



15 He who broke the rock that stood in the way 

of the Kaveri river and brought her into lot 
country. 

16 He who ascended the scale-pan against the weight 

of a dove. 

17 Karikala, who made kings carry earth to build 

the embankment of the Kaveri. 

18 Killi, who married (the Nags) damsel. 

19 He who liberated the Chera king, being pleased 

with the poem JTa jovaji of Poygai. 



He who was adorned with 96 scars on Ms chest 
received in battle. 



20 



21 He who tore to pieces a Brahraar&kshasa 

repaired the Chidambaram temple : who took 
Ilam and Madura. 

22 He who took and destroyed the tort of Udagai m 

one day. 

3 He who took the river Ganga and the country 
Kadaram and was pleased to be seated o% th 
simhdsana* 

f 

24 Sungandavirtton. 

25 Akalankan, who received in hi prabo ttw 



26 Knlottunga-ChoJa. 



EPIGRAPHIA INDIOA. 




[Vnt, X 



19 He who bore on hi i'hrst 1W ^trs vc<vivtd 

in battle, 

20 The king who covered tho Hall with gnM. 

21 He who took the K8rn|a count vy 'n tmo <Uy. 



22 He who took Gangs, and Kmllr.im. 

"23' He^whofousM Ihrico against iho eily ol Kul- 



18 The king who IttH'vnt**! tVc Chra t \m\\K 

1 .YiBlmxt. pleased with the i^iii h*itl<*rti!i muig by 

2 Manu(P). !>0 ^ aL 

3 The SUB. 

4 He who drove his chariot over his own son, 

5 He who made the tiger and the deer to 

drink from the same stream* 

d He who drore in a celestial chariot. 

? Purandara. 

8 He who explained the law to Death, 

9 He who . * * . 

10 He who destroyed the flying forts* 

11 He who joined the western ocean with the 

eastern* 

12 He who married the Naga princess whos 

ancestors possessed the seven worlds. 

13 The king who presented ll t OOO fons for one 

verse. 

14 Another who gave 16 erores o pans for a 28 "Vik^atna-ChoK who received th uld\i\ hit* 

praise from the pan of "" 

16 He vho ascended the scale-pan against the 
weight of a dore, 

Iflr He who conducted the Kaveri from the west 
to his country. 

17 He who "built ^ the einhankments on hoth 
sides of the river 



24 Ho who took 1,000 **l{pbaut at Kopttun. 

% 

25 He who gavo to Vinhnn in Ko.vil 

a jowel cou<;i* iu tho nhapo 



serpent. 
26 He who defeated Inn onomy at 



mam, 



27 'He who re<-oivod tho Xt<lintftttittt*t*rif$i \ 
praise of himself* 



29 He wlio wan pvi<sd in a \ r <tllitik 
and a f% 



30 He who pre&0ntd for nch vurae of ax* 

praising him 1,000 pong* 

31 Sankara-Ilaja, 



We bare to mention here two Chflla kings, rts. Adhirajendra and Rljaniahcn!ra, who scorn 
to liave reigned as eo-regents with Rajendra-d^va and VlrirajSncb-a. 

I)r. Etaltzseh Relieves that Bajamahendra must be -(he son of Rajonclra-il^va aitd tin* pw- 
aetsessor of Vlm~Bajudra~dSva> He writes ahout these kings thus : ' AH rt^m. ds Ka juinuhrn- 
dra, his reign seems to be eoveied altogether by those of R&jSndra-deva and Vlm-Ilftjfin<lra I- 
Fnfhftpe be was a son and tewporwy oo-regent of RijPndra-dgva. This wan HuggeKt.d alwacly 
ly tn aamptionof the 9th year of Ha^ndra which mentions among ihe hcnnularlvB of a 
Tillage the road of Rajamahendra,' A farther ocmfincnation IB furnwliod by tho fact that hi* 
*~- Ylra^ajendra adopted the surname Rajakesari. IE ha had recognised ttiii 

i.T*TX?|!tTtnfl'n ia1-;^ja w/T-i4-^-il n - n >n AA i. . t * . - . ** 



.v^,^ e rtNrama-etotan-ul* and the SanJcara^Slan-ula refer to a king 
.wo latter works to have given to the god RaftgauaUm of Srlrafigam 



No, *] KAITTAKUMAEI BTSCBIPTION OF VIBA-EAJENDBA-DEVA. 31 

'- JlMl \ " ........... ~~"'""" ..... ""--- ' ....... ' ..... ....... ........ _.-,r-. _.--.r,.---,jn--- - ...... .m-,n-,--.-,r -,,:rr .-n, ..-- . - ..". .......... - 

a golden serpent couch, 1 The Koyilolugu informs ias that the Meg Bajamahendra was a devotee 
of the god Ranganatha and that he constructed one of the pr&karas of that god's temple. 
Putting together the statements of the two sets of literary evidences, I think it is possible 
for us to infer that the king who presented to the Srlrangam temple a golden serpent conch 
must be identical with Raja in alien dra. Since the K&lingattupparani, etc*, place him before 
Vira-RajencLra, the finding of Dr. Hultzscli receives further strength. It is quite likely that he 
was made a yuvaraja with the title Rajakesari, that, ^ken his father and uncle were engaged 
in war with the Chalukyas, he was administering the kingdom in the capacity of the 
yuvar&ja, but that he died befoie his father and therefore never ascended the throne, As a 
consequence, when Vlra-Rajendra ascended the throne, in regular succession to Baje^dra-dSva, 
lie also called himself a Rajakesari. 

The Kanyakumari inscription, which traces the descent of the Ch5las down to Vira-'Rajen* 
dra, is silent about Kajamahendra, his immediate predecessor. This silence about him is 
significant and corroborates further the hypothesis of Dr, Htiltzsch. 

TEXT, 2 

[Metres: vv. 1, 10-12, 18, 21, 24, 26, 44, 47, 52, 56, 73, 76, 77, 79, Ssvd&lamkrsjita ; 
vv. 2-9, 15, 20, 60, BragdharB; v. 13, Vamsasfha ; vv. 14, 49, 71, SiTtharinl ; w. 16, 48, 50, 57, 
67, 72, 74, VasantatilaM ; vv. 17, 23, 25, 41, 62, 65, 69, Mdlini ; vv. 19, 27, 28, 40, 75, 
Jfandakr&ntS ; w. 22, 53, 78, Svagata; v\ r . 29, 45, AupacJidhhandasiJca ; vv. 30-31, 61', Prithvii 
W- 32, 46, 59, Praharshint ; vv, 33, 38, 39, 42, Saline ^ w. 34-35, Harini; vv, 36-37, 58, 63, 66, 
66, BatJidddhata ; vv. 43, 54, 55, Upajati ; w. 51, 64, 70, Upendravajra ; vv. 80 aud 81, Anush- 
tubh.'] 

First Pillar : First Side. 
*] W Wrf! 



4 

5 

6 
7 



1 The Kfdingattnpparani describes tLis king thus ; 
Panuvalukku mudalaya Veda-Haijgiir- 

pand-uraitta neyi pudukki=ppalaiyar tangan- 
Manuvinukku inumma^i namwadijam Solan 

madifckndaikkil-aran-dalirppa valamdava^utn 
The V'ifcrama~ Solan-ula thus 

Pad-ai-ava-ttenn-Aranga-noejarkku-ppanmii^iyal- 
adatava-ppayal-amaittaniuia 

Manralan- 

kappanaifi- Koy i^- karumngijka n-ani kk ap- 
pappanai Seydalttta parttivanniii. 

Sahkara> II. 41*43 > 

1 Botli from the oi'iginal stoti^s and the mechanical impressions prepared by m*** 

4 Bead 5ff *raTo * Bead 



32 



EPIGRAPHIA IOT)ICA. 



[ VOL. X VIII. 




[Tie Option sa ems to read 
of 1. 30.] 



No. 4] KANTAKUMARI INSCRIPTION OF YIBA-EAJE^DRA-DEVA. 



33 



33 

34 



. . f% 



First Pillar ; Second Side. 




I [ Mr - K - v - s * Ai J ar has 



Perhaps tli* actual rending i g 



2 [The reading of this line, in the Trav. Arch. Series, by Mr. K. T. S. Aiyar ia equally doubtful and defective 
Bd.] 



3 

* Bead ^f^^f^^??; 7 The aiwwdra i in the nxt lute ; 

s r^.^ seems to be the correct reading.] * Read 
Head w A^ Read 



10 Bead 
18 Eeftd 



BPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Vox.. XVIII. 



59 ^re^r a [<=*] 



60 



65 



3 



61 

62 fsm wnHN nirfa [i*] 

63 



66 ^ufl-ynrc [.*] 

67 
68 



69 Trl^s^TlAI^ [l*] 



Second Pillar : First Side. 

70 
71 
72 ^i ^r: insT t Ci*] 

73 



n D*] 

4y/ ^ q*^ __T\. <r^Q 



77 w Tit 

78 

79 
80 

81 

82 

83 



* [The gap may be filled np with the word 

* [The ta s t 



Read ^f^^t, The mwara ia in the next line. 



VI 






Kanyakumarl Inscription of Vira-Rajendra: the 7th year. 



First Pillar: Front. 



First Pillar: Back. 




" ; ^V, ' f ' ''-YvVi ' , Y/l'l'*il''/,i '','/''* 



W, THOMAS 



SCALE THREE-FIFTHS 



WHUTINQHAM Sc QRIQQ8, 



Second Pillar : Front. 



Second Pillar : Back, 




4J ELOTTAKUMAEI INSCRIPTION OF VIBA-BAJEKDRA-DEVA. 35 



105 

106 



ft 

^ ^ *\ 

85 
86 



87 2 f^rtftr <ET OT^M*r: 3 u 

88 

89 

90 ?rag; [|*J 

91 

92 

98 

94 



95 li n-a*t*jl^ 1 Prt*. 



98 
99 
100 f^m^i?: ^ftwr ^fwu^ifa [i*} 

101 

102 

103 



1 [Eawi ^fttfw]^ like W^r, ^^5 and ^^ wKch follow, must be fcbe abstract nouns derived from 
f*fir^ etc., by adding tfce termination ^^, But f%f ? ^ is not, according to the Bhatupatba, a fwrf 
and hence the reading fif^^fw is very doubtful. Ed.] 



4 [The correct reading appears 

5 Eead i^ and 1ST . * iiead 

length of ^\ is at the beginning of the next line. [We should have rather expected vmf and not 



8 Read ^pyrTcfT* ^Q secondary a symbol is at the beginning of the next line. 

9 Bead ^pjfc w Eead 
11 [Tk comet reading seems to be 



EPIGRAPHU INPICA. 



C^oi, XVIII 



107 

108 
109 
110 



113 



115 

lie 

117 

118 

119 

120 

121 

122 

123 
124 

125 

126 
137 

128 
129 

ISO 

131 

132 
133 
3 34 
135 



Second Pillar : Second Sid,e. 



[i*] 



[l*] 



H 



[l*] 






i Tbe awvar* i. in the next liae. * [The correct re.4k.ff wo4 b* 

[The i sign of ^ is at the end of the previous line.] 



JM 



ET. 

JS T o. 4] KAFTAKUMABI INSCRIPTION OF VIRA-RAiflENDBA-DEVA. 37 



136 

137 tern: [i*] 

138 '(T 
139 
140 
141 



142 7 rtf rKmi: D*] faift 

143 

144 

145 



TUrd Pillar : First Side. 

146 fi ^fd3 trfH 

147 t ^M^ D*] 

148 ^ ^[t]r% 

149 fiwr[irm]: M 

150 [iff] ^q?! 1 

151 ^r 13 IT ftrlf ^ 



152 ^imf*?T ^m^fi ^w ^ [i*] 

153 

154 

155 

156 

157 
158 



159 wtgfi^ [i*] fcj iw [ft] 



i Bead TOWft. [I woald suggest faltalfW as ^ ^ore probable WA- 
J The e symbol of fft is at the end of the pre?ious line. 
* [Tbe correct watog is * * 



8 



is the actual reading in the inscription.] 

actual reading in the inscription* The I sign of t> t fte kginniug if 1 147 is -at tb 



10 Reaa ij|^ : n Kf ad fi 



12 [W *^1 J s the actual reading.] 1S The i symbol of is in ft* pwious Iftic. 

M Bead c '4 r 



38 



BPIGEAPHIA flSTDICA. 



[Vot,. 




The 



* syfflbo]L fe to tb6 aext ^ 

5 symbol is IB the 



i 



Kanvakumari Inscription of Vira-Rajendra : the 7th 



'/I 



Third Pillar: BackT 




Fourth Pillar : Front. 



Fourth Pillar: Back. 



394 




Ho. 4] KANYAKUMARI WSCBIPTION Q3 1 YIRA-RAJEHDRA-DEVA. 



Pillar ; 
186 

187 

188 



189 [is] ^ u [] 

190 tglNctuT ^?rerfTra?*r 
191 

192 

193 



194 fl^tR^ft ssj^Tct. U [^8*] 

195 

196 

197 
198 



u 

200 *rWg TTW%^ 

201 wffsrf?r: [i*] 

202 [f^g:] 
203 



204 ft [rTW]f^r^ref: [i*] 

205 ....... ; . 

206 

207 

508 [at: <*] [t]^ 6 

209 
210 



212 [<I D*] 



i Bead ^f^fr. Bead 

8 Between t^: and qyifa two long syllables are wanting. f^Perbap* ^g^i|g\g aiglit be 

* L Bead ^T?. * C TKe correct reaaing- i 

* [This word may also be read 3f *\] 

T The secondary & symbol is in the nextliae. e Eaad 



40 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. 



[V< 



213 

214. 
215 
216 

217 

218 



w: 



220 

221 
222 
223 

224 

225 

226 

227 

228 
229 

230 

231 

282 



: [l*] 



n-[8o*] 

iT 

] [i*] 



J'our fh Pillar : First Sida. 

TTWT i an?n^Trnr- 

: [fl TRgn vihmwt [%]- 




T . 



W$* $flir$ *w seen Before 



5. tke Mtwl rtair 



XVIII. 

So. 4] KANYAKTJMARI INSCRIPTION Of ViSA-RAJENDRA-DEVA, 

239 grausraairore; H [**] 
240 



; [i*] 

242 Hjft 



244 

245 

246 t*mr^fafi*T ^ftt [i*] I* 

247 
248 



.249 wfwnr f^spr^]^ [*] 

250 *fa^ ft 

251 

252 ?m;5r?TPr: [i*] 

253 

254 

255 
256 



257 ffilW^ [l*] 

258 

259 

260 



Foarih Pittar : Second Side. 

261 faarrfffewfrVfn . ^: [i*] 

'262 

263 



264 ?wt w^ar: H [**] 
265 



1 Bead fjf?f. ' Could the reading here 

* Bead Hjjsf, * ^ e bnusvara, o^ is in the next line. 



Read iftfo. 9 Bwd 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



317 

318 
319 

320 

321 

322 
323 



325 

WS6 

327 

328 



330 

331 



333 



: 0*3 



[i*] 



^ D r, 



^ 



^ f 



WTJ 




DL. XVII! 



Kanyakumari Inscription of Vira-Rajendra : the ;th yean 



Fifth Pillar : Front, 



Fifth Pillar: Back. 



298 




328 



328 



830 



332 



334 



F, W. THOMAS 



SCALE THREE-FIFTHS 



WHITT1NGHAM & GRIG' 



Sixth Pillar; Front. 



Six tli Pillar: Back. 




No. 4.] KANYAKUMABI INSCRIPTION OF VIBA-BAJENDBA-BEVA. 




*-Tbe letter w is engraved below the laae. 
* [[The missing syllables may Thread 

* [The gap after this word may be filled with the syllables 
7 [The gap contains the syllables IHRK. ^-1 

* The at symbols are in this line and 9 in the next line. 

* [Possibly sfij^ was meant. Ed.] 

MRead^q*$, [The correct reading is l(^r)S . Ed.], 
18 The ai symbols are at the end of the previous line. 
" Bead 



* Bead 









368 
369 
370 

oil 

372 
373 



D*] fr:*] 



Pillar : First Side. 




^..^ i. in the next li^ 



KANTAKTJMAEI IXSCaiPTIOS O# VtflA-RAJENDRA-DEVA. 



393 
394 
395 
396 
397 

398 ?rfa [l*] 
399 



401 t^ ?f l^HTc ft 

402 



403 TS&\\ gjf^g^ ^^ ^: [1*3 

404 

405 
406 
407 
408 

409 



Sixth Pillar : Second Si'e 



411 ..... w ....... [*] 

412 
413 

414 

415 



417 

418 

419 5i3i4mTOfii(Ki=[ a [c^ 



1 Bead ^f^t^l; ; tlie o* ayin"bols of ^ alone are in tMs line and r in fch0 next lino. 

2 The secondary e of = is in the previous line. a Bead ^ft?^gtf?L * Read 

s [The reading appears to be ^ ^cir.] 8 ^ 6a<i TT 7 L^ 6 reading seems fco 

8 The secondary a and the visarga of ?f*; are in the next line* 
Bead Vrflft ; Bead 



48 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



-[VOL. 



i (}*] 



420 Svasil 

421 ^n-metdijnl-vallablm 1 mahftraja- 

422 dMraja saka[la*]xnahentra parama-a- 

423 shterkularsimha r&ja-knla-bliayaka- 

424 Jcnia[sdklia]ra .... -kul[&ata> 

425 ka lhavwna]Ila . - la Aha- 

426 TamsIIanai .... .[di-mejii-ka- 

427 Bda Bj'aMliara Rajasraya 

428 Baja-KajSndra Vlra-GkSla Karikalar 
4^ Ch5]a Rajakesarivannm sii-V r ira- 

430 rajdndra-deyarkku yaiida j[a- 

431 vadn te ..... pat- 

432 tiii ..... 

433 Vira-Rajendra ..... 

434 mmarava ...... Bajarft* 

435 [jajp-Pa^di-natftTi] Uttama-S(5la-va- 
Jan^ttnp-PiLjatfcaya-iiattu Kumari-[k]ka 
mya-pi^ariyarkku va^dnm nityani- 

438 vandangalukkn 

439 ndra-[devar] kndntta 

440 tu PujattSva-natta 

441 ^ iru-niajr^eltibatfc- 

442 Is irandu inavum in-oattu-pPeru 

443 ngudl kilkombu utpatta * * 

444 aiymbatt-onbade-onbadi 2 



Line 1, Be it well 



ABSTEACT OP 

Prosperity f 



of 




of 



one aMohn "-"^ wlo ho,d 

existing ou earth JOU wo are so "WQJ portions of His 



P-poee. Therein He sowed His 
O. fee .orlds. He 



the 

Whi h) * 



a for 



fittest ^ct for that 
.^^ ^ which 
in existence all other 



No. 4.] SANTAKUMABI INSCRIPTION OF VIRA-RAJENDRA-DEVA. 

V. 5. This Brahma who was thus begotten, having created all the worlds, containiug e^ 
kind of thing, produced other Brahmas. One among such was Marichi who shone with a i: 
which spread on all sides. 

V, 6. Kasyapa, who, with his omniscience, could perceive the subtlest things [pasya 
was born of Marichi, His great beauty ($re) was noticed by the eyes of Brahma. H 
reckoned as the first among- the men of pre-eminence (sreyas-sawipatti). The constant f 
among the Devas and others born of Kasyapa, to own Prosperity appeared like the das! 
against each other of the waves of the ocean (which bore Lakshmi). 

V. 7. From him (Kasyapa) was born the transcendent "Vivasvan, 1 who is the father 
time, who by his generous light or power (prabh3va) which is capable of affording proteci 
to the world, subordinates the planets, and by the contact with whose rays the lotus issu 
from the navel of the Lord of all (Vishnu j as also the lotuses, the faces of Brahma, renours 
sleep f or the first time. 

V. 8. When the rays of the sun began to dispel iarkness from every quarter, the shin 
golden Brahman da appeared as though (the ^old) was emitting the flaws (kaUm&) in it ; \ 
the disc of the sun looked like the pericarp of the Sky-lotus of which the petals were 
directions of the compass, and the filaments th solar rays. 

V. 9, The patriarch of all kings (who ruled over the earth later on) was Mann, the son 
Vivasvan 2 ; from whose connection the human race received the name Manava. Manu i 
worthy of being praised by the world 5 he created and promulgated laws and made huxnai 
happy. Vivasvan made his son Mann as resplendent as he did his father (Kasyapa). 

V. 10, To Manu was born Ikshvaku 3 , who had unblemished fame spreading in all 
and sung by the hosts of DSvas. The all-pervading prowess of this conquering king^ 
had no enemies (amitras) to conquer, vanquished the sun (Mitra, a word which means 
" a friend") 

V. 11. Vikukshisrava o high ideals of justice and of great intelligence was the son 
Ikshvaku.* This powerful king afforded protection to this earth. Kings used to acqn 
wealth by warring against each other, and they have now the easy method to attain it narn 
to worship the feet of this king. ? 

V, 12. The son of Vikukshirava was Puranjaya who subdued those king who offe 
him battle. 6 Having transformed Indra into a bull, he stood on its high hump to conquer i 
Asuras ; the gods in great joy addressed him as Kakutsfcha (he who stands on the kakud, liu 
of a bull), and this became thenceforth his name. 6 

V. 13. Prlthu, who was comparable to the gre^t mountains (Jcula-parvatasJ and who i 
respected by all other kings, was born in this family.? During his regime all the people w 
wise and pleased. There did not exist then trembling (for fear) or beggary. 

V. -14. In this great dynasty appreared the king KnvaMLSva. He was famous for 
powerful horses. This powerful sovereign, In order to afford protection to the world, killed i 
.Asura named Dhundhu, who had taken refuge in the sandy river Sindhu. 8 

VY. 15-16. Of astounding greatness, the incarnation of Awr&ri (Vishnu) the kin* Mi 
is born in this race* to remmm f,l^ ,** * humanity residing on this ear 




&Htt&-I*d. Inscrs., Vol. Ill, p. 893, v. 6. 
Ibid, v. 7. 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIII. 

He afforded pleasure to the eyes of his subjects (by his personal appearance, perhaps). To drive 
off unrighteousness (adharma) his discus (chakra) travelled as far as the OhakravSla mountain. 
While this famous monarch ruled the earth, the lion and deer lived together amicably, 
All objects renounced ;their mutual hostility (that is, became friends) ; but dharma alone 
became an exception to this statement, for adharwa did not exist (that is, it could not become a 
friend of adharma). 

V, 17. The king Muchukunda of many good qualities was born, of this race, which is 
never exposed to danger and which is ever prospering; this sovereign shone bright like the 
moon Mith his fame, which was white (unblemished) as the Tcunda (jasmine) flowers. 1 

V. 18. ........... The king made it impossible for even those who 

Ml in battle to enter heaven. 

V. 19. In this family was born HariSchandra, who subdued by his prowess hosts of kings 
and who delighted in war,, Valuing them as a mere straw, he sold his own body and his wife 
and son to pay the money of KauSka (Visvaraitra). 

V* 20. In this dynasty was a king named Sagara, who was dreaded by all other kings. 
When this monarch b^gan to perform a number of afoamedha-yagas, lodra began to tremble 
(lest his position be lost to Sagara by the virtue which he was going to acquire by his raeritorio&s 
deeds). Owing to the greatness of the sons of Sagara, the salt oceans obtained the name 
f jara, and this name began to apply to other seas also. 

V, 21. Bhagiratba was born in this race. Having brought down from heaven the river 
.Ganga to raise his ancestors (the sons of Sagara) to heaven from the ashes to which they were 
reduced by the fire of the anger of the sage Kapila, he caused the celestial tivec to 'flow in 
three regions (that is, heaven, earth and hell) and the men who touched its waters to become 
immortal. 

^ V. 22. Rituparna, who was full of kingly virtues and who possessed a fame which was 
praised by all good men, sprang from this dynasty and protected the earth, 

V. 23. In this family was born king Dilipa ; he was like a lamp to the universe 5 he had 
removed from the world misery and had destroyed the power of his enemies ; his anger drew 
tears Jrom the eyes of the queens of hostile kings (that is, if any hostile king excited Ms 
wrath, that king was aura to meet with his death at the hands of Dilipa), He was a famous 
sovereign whose bow was ever destined to be crowned with success. 

tD at tJOte earth waft crrnft/mnr* nnrl*aT. 4-V*^ rtw ^1 /Jpp^jcj of 



. m 6 VmM ^ BhagaVan > became i^^te in four different aspects 

~ F^ *?***** Satrughna, The two first and last pairs of broLr* 

resembled the right and the left pairs of arms of Vishnu 

th9 rld ^ m deS "*** son should conduct 






4.] KAHTAKtJMATlI INSCRIPTION OF VIRA-BAJBNDBA-DEVA. 

Vv. 28-35. In this race there was a king named Chola. 1 To this king, by whom 
"World was governed as though it was but his capital city, the forests appeared like so rr 
pleasure-gardens. Once upon a time this king, who was resplendent as Hara, was speuc 
his time in sport within the forests inhabited by 'hosts of sages. At another time 
strayed into other forests, with a band of his army^ for the purpose of hunting deer ; then 
he allured by a Bakahasa,- who had assumed the shape of a deer, and was beguiled into 
sonthei-n regions. In the pursuit of this (pseudo-) deer the horse of Chsla took him gracU 
into another fcT^st- thickly studded with trees. The commanders of his rapidly marching ai 
who were prepared to accompany their sovereign to distant lands, ..kept pace with 
swift horse. Having killed the deer-asura, the king began to inarch along the bank of 
river 3averi. It seemed from the sweetness of her water that the river Kaverl was earn 
the very ambrosia (amrita) which the Devas churned (with great effort) out of the oc 

After bathing in her water, the king (looked for) Brahrnanas but fo 

none in that region. Therefore, he brought a large number of Brahmanas of superior yir 
from the Aryavarta and settled them, down there (on the banks of the Kaveri). He cle; 
the JQ-agta and planted betel-vines and areca trees in large numbers. He created several o 
kinds of ^gardens, whereby the country waa rendered shady (and cool) and also productrs 
fruits. People bathe in the river Ganga and do penance in order to obtain svarga ; but 
bath in the Kaverl and penance on her bank would take those who do them to regions Mj 
than svarga. 

V. 36. After him (Ch5la) his son RSjakessiri, 3 who was bright as the sun and who d: 
his enemies to the brink of the ocean, ruled the earth. 

V. 37 Bajakesari's son was Parakesari 3 ..... 

V". 38. In this family there shone the king Mrityujit, 4 who conquered Mrityu (Dea 
He felled the hosts of his enemies, pleased the Devas by the yagas performed by him 
made his foes tremble. 

V". 39. The king Virasena, who removed the sufferings of his subjects, who was res] 
dent as the sun, who was the abode of all auspicious qualities and who possessed beau 
limbs, was born in this race. 

V. 40. There was born in this dynasty a king named CMtra, 5 whose anger would disap 
if his enemies prostrated themselves before him. Being terrified in battle by the ar 
of this king, Indra forthwith made friends with him and adopted Vyaghrakstu'n [i.#. Chit: 
banner of tiger. 

V. 41. Pnshpaketu, who by the spell of his prowess playfully drew towards himsel: 
wealth of all other kings, was barn in this family to rule the earth as far as tlie borders o- 

seas. 

V. 42. Ketumala, who shone as bright as the liofhtning, was born in this race. Ha 
seized the rows of standards (fcetu-mala^) of other kings he came to be known by the a 
of KStumala, 

V. 43. In this race was born a king named Samudrajlt. He made the eastern ocean 
the western one and aa a prize for it obtained the hand of tJhe daughter of a kin 

marriage. 6 

V. 44. Pafiahapa, who delighted in treating gnests, belonged to this family. 7 Hs 
been requested by five Yakshas, who came to him as guests, he cat open five arteries in his 



South-lnd. Inters. Vol. Ill, p* 39*, v. 28 aad Ep. 2nd. VoL XV, p, GO, v. 
and 3 Ibid, p. 395, v. BO, 
IMd, p. 395, v. 36. 
Ibid, v. 37. 

V. 18* 
* Xtwcrs., Vol. Ill, p. 39 i, r, 24. 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [YoL. XVHI. 



mi offersd the Wood issuing from them with great tenderness to the Yaksha& to drink. From 
this act of hospitality he came to be known as Panchapa. 

V. 45. Surpassing the dfk-p&las in greatness and similar to the moon in his splendour,- 
king Jfrimrida was a member Q this family. This king of undying fame conquered death 
I)/ the grace of the god Parameivara. 

V. 46* King SCanoratlia of unblemished character and of incomparable wealth was 
km in this dynasty ; he was powerful in war ; through haying been able to destroy the desires 
of the enemies and fulfil those of his (friends and dependants) ..... ie was dubbed 
Hanoratha* 

V, 47. PorunatkilM 1 and other kings who surpassed Indra in strength, wealth and 
reputation, were horn in this family. Their fame extended to the Tery borders of the earth 
and se% and reached even the sun and the Brahmapda and was ever shining. 

Vy. 48 49. Zarikala-Chola, who was firm as the Jcula-parvatas, who possessed great 
f&me, "as white and unblemished as the flowers of the "kafa plant and who was Death to the 
hostile kings who met him in battle-field, was born in this family. Seeing that the river 
Kiverl was overflowing its banks and not allowing crops to flourish, this monarch, who curbed 
$be haughtiness of insubordinate kings, caused the embankment of this river to be constructed 
with ihe earth carried by (such insubordinate) kings in baskets on their hands, and afforded 
protection to cultivation* 3 

Y. 50. In this dynasty was born the king Valabha, 8 who possessed good qualities, 
wealth and prowess which compelled other kings to prostrate themselves before his feet ; he 
burnt with the flames of his admirable valour the insects (ialdbha), Ms enemies. 

Y. 51. JagadefeanaUa, who was comparable to Indra, drove off poverty from learned 
ace, and wielded ihs weapon called the lihalU (spear), which was Death to other kings, 
was bom in this family. 

Y. 52. The king Tyila (or Vairi?)-bliayankara was born in this family. The hostile 
kings prorated themselves before his feet The fire of the anger of this powerful king, who 
fought with the sw.ord held in his long arm, could be quenched only by the tears flowing from 
the eyes of the queens of hostile kings. 

Yr, 53-51 The lord of all the earth, the king Vijayalaya, was born in this family All 
kings bowed before fo feet. He established in the Chola country the city of TaftjSpurl, which 
was praised even by Brahma and other gods. Being a newly founded town, it flourished with 
all good qualities. 4 

V 85. Ih.m of tta VijajMaj. IdityaYarman, lettn faowo ly tie name of 

" **" m '" roh ' * 



VT. 56-60. To Mm (Iditj.) WM bom a un named Pawntakvriu, was the abode of 

padrfta(*.^ ^fci-i.taA,4j.*. taHli-fc .JSJ 

flu. tog, iriu* m qartug m tt. garcM, adjointag tte A^ of the Ka 4e J^TrfflL 
-i^^M. l*^!**,^**^^^*; J*J * 

1 **Wi* frtcrifiiont, ToL III, p. 395. T. 41. ~~ - - ~ - ' 

' A 



> YT . 



\ 

** 



Ko. 4.] KANYAKUMAEI INSCEIPTION OF VIBA-RAJENDRA-DEVA, 

wealth and barnt (his capital) Mad&ura ; for this achievement he received the title of 1C 
rSntaka. 1 This king, who was as bright as Arjuna, conquered in battle the thitherto uncom 
king Krislinaraja, and thereby augmented his own glory. In recognition of this feat h 
entitled Vira-Oliola. Parantaka, who is respected by all kings, caused his array to c*oss f 
and defeat the king of Simliala, who^was waiting on the shore to give him battle, and t 
received the true surname of Simlialantaka 2 . Who could stand comparison with this kit 
abode of all good qualities ? Who can describe the traits of this monarch, who conquer 
enemies in battle and who was the only residence for prow<2se ? The destroyer of the en 
Parantaka, brought into existence superior villages of great wealth like ViranaStaya 
just as Brahma created warga, and caused them to be enjoyed by learned Brahmanas. 

Vv. 61-62, The son of this king (Parantaka) was Arittdama,* of glory similar to i 
the moon. He destroyed the power of Ms enemies. Many a king, who had heard 
valour of this sovereign, took refuge in mountain caverns. He brought all other kings 
his sway ; like Tidhi (Brahma), he conferred riches upon good men; this king of re 
prowess caused grief to hostile kings. This sovereign of unparalleled beauty made the 
of the moon comparable to his own splendour. 

Vv. 63-64. Pargntaka, 5 who always destroyed the hosts of his enemies, was born to 
dama. Taking into consideration the advent of this sovereign, the Pandya king cross 
mountain and fled away, Parantaka imprisoned all his enemies and fought successfully t 
battles. He satisfied the needs of learned men and was a terror to bad ones. 

Vv, 65-67* To this monarch (Parantaka), the abode of all virtues, was bora the L 
men, B^jaraja. 6 This king, who had a body as beautiful as that of Cupid and han 
lotais-like eyes, was comparable to Kuvera (otherwise known as Rajaraja) only : 
munificence.* He killed in battle the enemy kings and rooted out evil from the eartl 
celebrated several yagas and was ever veracious. Satyzisraya, when he could have oh 
strong support in Bajaraja, ran away senselessly from the battle- field. 8 In fact, the te 
enemies of Bajargja wiu Mm over in battle by quietly bowing before Mni ; nor will lie d 
such suppliants of their life or property* 

Vv. 68*72, The king Madluirantaka, who punishes those who do not submit to Mm 
chastises Ms enemies aud who possesses a body as handsome as that of Cupid himseli 
born as the son of Rajaraja. This monarch, as powerful as Arjuna, defeated all the Mi 
Ktmtaja (JZuntalanam^adJit&an). This king, who wore a h&ra on his meek, abstracted the 
of the moon (that is, caused the glory of the moon to wane before his own). Conquering 1 
kings by the power of Ms arms, he made M&nyakJieta a sporting ground for his army 
caused the kings of the Kuluta and TTtkala countries to be defeated by his general) 

1 & His achievements are described in Sowtk-Ind. Inter*. Vol* III, p* 396, Vv. 61-52 & JSp. Je* v Vo 
P 61, V* 21* See also Ealin.gattupparatyi, Rajaparam, TV. 23 and 23. 
* Compare: 



* Up. I*d. Vol. XV, p* 61, v. 23. 

* Soutk~Ind. Inter*. Vol. Ill, p. 396, Vv* 55 and 56. 

He is said to have l>een barn under the asterism, Sadaiy&m, to have captuned Udagai (JKalinyat. v* 
Knlott. 11. 46*48) and to liave tafam Malai-na^u (Ft2ran* H. 33-34). 

7 King Rajaraja was a great giver of wealth (dhana + da), and in this reswct resembled Kurei 
bore the name Dhanada, But Kuvera was> as Ms name indicates, ill-shaped in body irbile king Bajaraja v 
One of Kuvera's eyes was yellow. Rajaraja, the king, had none of these drawbacks. " 

8 His conquests of Mapgfti, KIdiiram and Gangai are mentioned in the Eattnpat.t v. 25, 
Kulott, U. 49*60 f 



54 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA, [ VOL. XVIII. 

kiugp of Kalinga and the VimsSndra (P) 1 were also vanquished by his generals, who reached 
the Ganges, whose banks slipped down the river through the battering of his elephant brigade * 
the wafer of the (holy) Ganga was carried in pots on the heads of fciugs (to his capital city)! 
He made his powerful army, which uprooted several hostile kings, "cross the sea and set fire 
to Ka$fiha,* which it was not possible for other kings to conquer. What act was impossible 
for this monarch Eajeodra-Chsla ? 

V. 73. This king tad three sons, comparable with the three fires in a yaga. Of these the 
preeminent RajadMraja was his first son. He set fire to Kaly&napura, 3 defeated its fcmsr 
[and did something to king Ahavamalla, . . . 

.".'..,...]. 

V. 74 When this king wenfc.to Heaven, Ma younger brother who removed the sorrow of 
the world, ascended tho throne. Bajendra-deva, the monarch, who had arms resembling in 
Bhape the snake Adi-Sesha, killed all his enemies. B 

Vv. 75-81. When this sovereign also went to heaven, his younger brother Vlra-Bsigndra 
whp caused the valour of his enemies to wane, succeeded to the throne with due fonnalitr He 
conquered not only his outside enemies, but also his own five senses > He killed the kfnn of tfa 
2ftT T; " ^l^ M * fl -*^ * *- kings augxnented the ar m7 of ^vlf (l ' tl 
c^tzal world).' The ocean was gratified by this king, who by killing hosts of men in battle 
fields created a new river, river of blood, and made her join her lord the a 7 Th* + 

WW^for toying off sme of those enemies and def others 7 lao^a 

' 




_,.,,, T uu ijtj. 5 p, mwj v 1XT * 

''"EK***** ** *ni TO * TO , ft^ra^ 

* jX2i3l wT*t'^ M " m ** : ' 

4fk "v*'.5#***ta II. 36"38i ' '^ f ^**fyF&<ttMpjp&9 t ci'fii 

s^^SSSSas - - 



2ta 4] KANTAKUMAEI INSCRIPTION OP VIBA-RAJENDBA-DEYA, 

five times, 1 BSjasekliars, B&jasraya, Haja-Bajendra, Vira-Ohola and Karikala-Clio; 

in Parattayar-nadu, a sab-divisioo of TTttama-Sola-valanadu in Bja3 

Pandi-nadu* * ,. * . . to the Kanys-Tbhatiraki . . . . the land, two hundred 
seveaty-oneand tliree-qiiartera and two wf (in extant) comprised in the village of 
kndl in Purattaya-nadu in TJttama-SoIa-valanadu, together with 
the same nadu, containing fifty-nine and nine mi of land .. 
the emperor (ch&kravartti) srl-Bajendra-deva ,..*. 



No, 5,NIDUPABU GRANT OF JAYASIMHA I, 



Br PBOFJSSSOR E. HCJLTZSCH:, Pa.D.; HALLE 

A set of ink-impressions of this inscription "was sent to me by Rao Bahadur EC. 
Sastri, who tad received the original plates for examination 3 from Mr* M. Ramabrishnal 
M.A., Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras. Tke inscription is engrared on three obj 
copper-plates, the second of which bears writing on both sides. The margins of the : 
inscribed sides are only very slightly raised into rims. The plates measure S" in hei 
The two first are 7" in breadth^ while the third is cut on the right margin and hence " tae^s 
only 6-f". The plates are strung on a ring which is 2f" in diameter, and which is pai 
through a hole of about -| " in diameter. The two ends of the ring are fixed in the base < 
circular seal of about I% f in diameter which -bears, in relief, the legend tSri-S&rvvasiddhi, wii 
crescent at the top and an expanded lotus-flower of nine petals at the bottom. The weight 
the plates, with zing and seal, is 70 tolas, - 

The writing is in a tolerably good state of preservation ; but some aTcsharas, anusva 
and vowel-marks are indistinct, and at the endr of the first five lines of the third plate, two 
three letters are lost. The alphabet resembles that of -other early Eastern Chalukya gra: 
A final form of t occurs in -vasakat (1. 1) and vaset (L 24). The syllable r% is used in 
Telugu proper names Gfanderw (11. 9 f% aaad 10), Vanneru <? 1Q) Ntduparu (1, 18 f .) i 
N^ularu (1. 11). 

The language is Sanskrit prose as far as line 19. The last plate contains four Sansl 
verses. Consonants are not doubled after r, except in -aiti- (for -arttv-} 1. 3), pravarddfaa (L 
-mantrartthi (for -mantr&rithtf*, 1. 16), =aryy#- (L 19), Vhir=vvasudh& (L 22), As the^ notes 
the text will show, the rules of Sandhi are frequently neglected. For -&&Zapa (1. 8) the se; 
requires the instrumental -Jcalapena. 

The inscription records the grant of the Tillage of Hidmpsru or Hidtifofern to the leara 
Brahmana Kati^arznan (read Kstisarman ?) by Jayasimha (I) Vallat>lm, son of Vishntiirardtig 
(I) and grandson of Kirtivarman (I) of the C&altLkya family. "Vishnu vardhana I bore i 
surname Makaradlrvaja, i.e., Cupid, whom lie is stateS to have surpassed in beauty (L 
The donor, Jayasimha I, had the surname SarvvasiddM, 8 by which he "is designated on the^se 
of Ms two grants. 4 

The king's order was issued from Asanapura (1. 1), and the donee's grandfather ^was 
inhabitant of the same town (L 12)* 5 The village granted was included v in Q-and%uvsti a 

1 [Mr. K. Y. S. Alyar reads in L 426 mwmmadi and translates: * wlio saw the tack aaf 'Jthava *!! three 'tli 
Ed.] 

2 See %p. Mep. for 1917, App. A., 3STo. 7 and p, 113. 
8 See Ind, Ant., Yol. XX^ p. 07* 

* See the first paragraph of tins article, and Ind* Ant^ Yol. XIIIj p. 187. 

5 The grandfather of the donee of a grant of Yish^uraMhana II also resided la Aaa&mpar&s 
YoLVII,p, 102. 



56 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Vox,. XVIII. 



slte&tecl on the river Vanngru, north of the Vyaghra river, and two gavySiis. east of the 
rqjnal jeeidenee of G-anderu. The district of Gandejuyafcl is evidently the same as KanderuvSdi 
or Ka^<l rav5 4i * other inscriptions from the Telugu country. 1 Rao Bahadur Krishna Sastri 
lias jdeirfified Gr^nde^u, the chief town of this .district and the residence of Jayasimha I, with 
tike village of Kantem in the Guntur Taluk of the Grxmtnr District, and the village granted, 
Ifijaparu or.M^baru, with the modern Nidamarru 'which is actually about two gavy&tis (i.e., 
eight miles) to the east of Kanteru.' 2 Mr, Sewell informs me that Kanteru is a few miles N". E. 
of Gu^tur near the main road leading to Bezvada, and that Nidamarru is a few miles N. N, E* 
of it. He is unable to trace the Vyaghra and Vanneru rivers, and the town of Asanapura. 

TEXT. 3 

First Plat* ; Second Side. 

1 Svasti [ij*] Sramad-Asan^pura-vasakat svami-Mahasena-pad-anudhytnam Harttl- 

putraioafm] Manavyia- 

2 sag6t[r]anam Mtri-gana-paripaKtanam 4 ' a^vamedha-yajinam ChalukySnSm viriluddha- 



3 p^-akhar^dit^tfihitipaty-aHmadxdhiteh sakala^agad-a^jtti.hara-karmanarhl 

% Sri-Kirtiirarmanah priya-napta saalnchhanasy=eva sakala-jagan-ma[n]0-nayan-ana- 

5 ndana-karasya sva-r!lpaJavftny.ava]ita-Makarathva(dhva)jasya Mataradhvaj^apara" 

namnah srimad-aida[rix*]yaglna* 

6 Visl^o^ Vish 9W awiliana. m aMrftja S ya priya-tanayah pravarddtaman- Odaya-pratfip- 

ftpanata-sama- " 

Second Plate ; First Side, 
7 



ja-pi^ 
mja- * 

8 - iv=akliandita. 



9 .^.a^ya matapitji.patLanudlxyatat' 

tire 




M B^papayati [ r] Yiditam^tu Tg yat^Asanapura.stea-nivasin^ gtatika-samanya- 
1 See tlwve, V0L VI, p. 148, an d VoL XII, p. 62 "" " " "" 



a nd 39, 

. .^S^^^^^ T8lnk ' 

Mr. Krirfbn Sa.tri'. ideatific.tiot, taL W^n? the Taluk maps in the Briti.h Munm, 
t P lw tl M ih'^^^ KaBtSrnin tW Gn^r Distrirt 

, i,..^ t^ ^ yill .^ of iaS&TirSf! "T. name in the Trtn ' lktt >* * ^e 

*>gfl>a**ily.q,ute am^l places.' & * 9t * ru "^ Nl * mawu this last dirtiict are not very C ]OB. 



GRANT OF JAYASIMHA I. 




^^a,. 



8 



10 



12 




18 




20 



22 



24 




SEAL OF THE NIDUPAHU GRANT OP JAYASIMHA l. 




SEAL op THE KONDANAGURU GRANT OF INDRAVAKMAN. 




NlDttPARU GRAHT OF JAYASIMHA I." 



Second Plate ; Second .Side. 

13 sya sa-[pa]xla-kram-anukrain-adhIia-TSda-dvayasya ^fcal 

dharmasastra- 

14 Vidah<d5) Man^ajgarmanah paufcraya sva-pitur^adMka-guna-sampad-gan-a^pa 

nirmala-yasS-viSe'- 

15 she[nap [a]tmaa5=nTayam=alam=alaiHlMJAshnOh2agiiishtoma-j.ajInali Sivarndrasarmai 

16 putraya dvi-v[e]d-adhyayin3 yajifegam-5panislian-maiitrartth.-i(5)tilia8a-parana-dlM 

17 gastru-vimallkrita-vina(nl)ta-mafcayg Harita-sagOtraya Tailtirtya-aabrahmachara( 

Katisarmane 

18 Kartika-paTtrnamSsySrii mafcapitr6r=atmanas=eha yasat-pa^y-abHvirdhav^ 3 sampr 

yam Nidupa- 

Third Plate ; First Side. 

V9 ju-nama-gramab ([*] Jtf=a S ya badha karanlya O*] Ajnaptir=atr-aryya*ii 
bbiramah ri-vlFya-[m]a[tsa] .... 

20 nasray5=yam* [,*] bhapsndra-nlti-pravibhaga-daksbai(ksli) Cve3danga-vit 

antarannabCinah) [|j 1 J|] Atra Vyasa-gltah [||*] Svaj[dattam p 

21 ra-dattim va yatnad=rakslaa Yadbishtbira [i*], [mabim taabS][ma*]tam 

danacb=cbb[r*Jy5-mi[p]iiIu[Barii] ' [\\ 2 || BabU*]- 

22 bbir^wasudha [dajtta bahubbig=cb=anii[pali]ta [|*] yasya yasya yatba(di] bl 

i . [sya] [tasya*] s 

23 tada pbalam [|| 3 j]*] Sbasati[m*] varsba-Bahasra^ii 8Targa(i-g6) mOdati -bb 

dab. [I*] aksbepta cb=aau[ma][nta cba*] 

24 tany-S[va3 narake vasgt [|| 4 j|*] 

ABSTBAOT OF CONTENTS. 

Haill From (bis) residence in tbe prosperous Asanapura (1. 1), Jayasimhs.-'Valla 
Mabaraja (1. 9), tbe dear son of Vishnuvardnam-Mabaraja (1- 6) wbose ofber name 
Makaradhvaja (1. 5), and tbe dear grandson of Kirtivarnieit (1. 4) of tbe family of tbe Ct 
kyas (1. 2), commands (as follows) tbe assembled ryots inhabiting tbe village named Bidul 
<wbicb lay) in (the District of) Gh-nderuvSti, north of the VySgHra river and on the ban 
the Vanneru river, at (a distance of) two gavy&tis on the 'eastern side of tbe royal resid 
^rajadhani) of Q-anderu (11. 9-12). 

' Be it known to you that, oh the fnll-moon Ctithi) of KSrttikV, (I have) given this vi 
named Niduparu. (1.-18 f.) to Eatisarman of the Harlta got and of the Taitfcirtya (char, 
(1. 17), son of Sivarndrasarman (1, 15), and- grandson of Man[da3sarman (1. 14) who reside 
the town . (sthana') of Asanapura -and -was a member of "(its)- college* "(1. 12).' Man[da]gai 
is stated to have ' studied two Vedas together with their Pada, Krama, and Anukrama" ' am 
have ' known many law-books, together with Kalpa, Upanisbad, Parana, and ItihSsa j' Sivam 
sarman, to have performed Agnishtbuias ; and Kafcisarmun, to have ' stiidied two Vedas ' ar 
have ^purified and ti-ained his mind by sacrificial lore, Up,inisbad, the meaning of Man 
Itihasa, Pnrana, and Dharma^astra.' 



perhaps ' 
* 



* Por^A#**5 see above, VoL VIII, p. 26 and n. 1 5 Southed. J,cr., Vol. II, pp. 502, 510 f. 



Stf IgtSBAPHU lUDIOl. 

' 



The executor (sjnapti) of this ) (grant) was ........ who knew royal politics, the 

VJdisgas, a$d all arts? (mw 1, 1. 19 I.). The record cads with three wises ' sang by VySsa ? 
0.20), >~ 



. 6. 3LPUB PLATES OF VISHMTVABDHANA III. 

(i x*' 

BT PSQFESSOB B. EUMZSCH, Pn.D. j HALLE, 



I am editing the inscription on these plates from a set of ink-impressions supplied to me by 
Sao Bahadur 3. Krishna gasfaj. The plates were found white, digging in an unspecified village. 
of the Kistna District and now belong to the collection of Mr. Brindavanam Gopalacharlo, at Ipttf 
a village in the TenaK Taluk of the Gun$ftr District.' These are three oblong copper-plates' 
the second of which bears writing on both sides. The margins of the four inscribed sides are* 
Bhgh% raiaed into rims. The three plates have a sMght inward curvature in the middle of the 
long edges and measure 6f -by 2*'. They are strung on a ring of about 3? in diameter which 
passes thrxmgh a hole of about |" in diameter and bears a circular seal D f If in diameter Thfl 

^T?,? a f' mtera ! lllk 81lrfa ^' ^ e le ^ d ^-YiBha^ddU in Telugu characters, with an 
.anded loto-flower- of seven petals at the bottom and a crescent enclosing a star (or the sun P) 
top. The weight of the plates, with ring and seal, is 35 tqlaa. * 






**; ** 8 .-*" ^-*" * 

'**fc. M ^JSiS^S*^<TO-. 



j- Pv 
^,1^ 




- - j t 
Above, Vol. X, p. 4. 



IK- 6J IPUB PLATES OF VISHNU VABDHAN A III. 



The period of the reign of VishnuvardMnst III (A. D. 709 746) 1 would suit this identifica- 
tion. A close connection between both dynasties might be gathered also from the fact that th* 
panegyrical descriptions of kings in the Eastern Chalnkya grants remind of those of some Pailavi 
grants. 3 



TEXT. 3 

First Plate ; Second Side. 



1 Svasti [|1*] Srlmata[m*] 

n[am*] Hiri[ti-pTitran[aiii*] Kau^ikl-vara-pra^ada-labdlia-rajya*]iiaiii Matri(tri)-gu- 

3 na-paripalitani [ m*] bhagavan-Narayana-prasada-sam [a*J sadita- 

4 var [&* ] ha-lancha(nchha)nana [m*] 4 asvameth (dh)-aTabhri(bhri) tia-sn 

kri(kri)ta-vapusham 

5 ChlialTtkliyanaCm*] 5 kulam=ala[m]karishn6 [tt*] grl- Vishnuvarddhana-mahiiraja- 
'^ &ya ^nOr^*^efe-samfc^ 

7 iah-prasn(sn)ty- [a*] m5da-^kLdh-adi(dM)vfeita-sa]mla-dig-3tt Sfl- 



Seoond -Plate ; W&st Side. 
8 ViJayaidd!iiCddlieh) 



timira-pral [a]y{a]diiyA(tyd) yti^ati-]ana-Makha(ka)3*adhVaja (jS) 



10 taka- 1 ^na-Eiinadi:^nT^iri 11 machhchajy- 12 [a] lasya-naisht nrjy^rislLya- ls pai^tf(Sii)nya- 

11 iuhita sto-bh5la- 14 rri(TO g 



12 harajasya 15 e[Ya]m=anya(jna)payati [||*] Kommara-v[a*]stavy[a*]ya 16 ' Atri(trS)ya-gO 

13 traya [Hi*]^(m)nyakel-snifdlya 17 A^iisarmmana[h*] 



Second Plate ; Second Side* 

* 

14 rmmana[h*] putraya K^fevafen*mman[e*] J?loteSrt4u 

15 gim[e] paichima-diSayaCrii*] 30 ElJyern-nadi(dl)-pa[Sch]imata[h*] PrabhSkara 

kshetra- 21 

16 %i[tfara]ta[h] K^a4diTa4^kSshetra-pn[r*]vvata"(t5) valml[ka]-&aksHinata etat(ch)*ch 

17 tLr*av^3hi vi [fii]Sa[tJi-khandift- bri(vrl)hi-bl]a-paripramana [m] 2 ^ >kshe- 

18 tra^*] sakramti-nimitti 38 o(ti)daka-pn[r]v[va][m*] [da]tta[m} 

st[a](stha)n[a]m pushpa-vali(ti)- 



* 2nd. Ant., Vol. XX, p. 99. * Above, VoL VIII*/p. 237. 

* From "the iBi:4iiipresioiis. 

4 Bead anam=. * Bead ClialuJcganam. 6 Cf. Ind* Ant., Vol. XX, p.-105>Jtext line 7 f 

7 Read -mandalo^ri-. B Bead vidvat-fcavi-. * Bead ~ 

10 Bead -paf baka-. u Bead c?Mnur. 12 Bead 

"i* Eead -*dt>^VAry-aH*A#a-, 

" Be^d -55^-: a l5 Bead ra/a. 

w Read 0#5y* Jto-|#ct% IT Bead ~*&tray* <gni 1S Bead paufraya. 

19 The syllable Jift was^eorrected by tie engraver from rmma* M Bead di$dyam* or 

34 Bead 1f*etr-QttarataJi, ** Bead -$&riman<im* ** Bead samkranti-nimitta* 



m EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Voi,. XVIIL 

Third Plate; First Side. 

20 jya-sainvaehtia(tsa)rg vims'sti-trir-varBhe 1 sn-MaghiinduyarSja-priya-duhit[a*] 

21 srt-IW(pri)tMvi(vI)p5ta!-%ama s datta[m ||*] Bahubi'(bhi)r=v\ asuda(dha) dattS 

bahubi(bhi)=eh=ana- 

2 palita [I*] yasya-yasya yada bhtimi 4 tasya-tasya tada ba(pha)la[ra] [|| 1 j|] 
Sya-da- 

23 ttam para-datta vam 5 yy5(y5) hareriti* va8undhara[m [ *] ^shtir='V ars i la . 

sahasraiii Yisht[a](shtha)- 

24 y[a][m*] jayate tr[i*]mi[!b] [|| 2 ||] Anya(i5a)pti[H*} kada-ejeyaCyo) Vata^a- 

aama(ma) [ |*} Tinasya 8 gri(gri)- 

25 :ha-8ta(stlia)nam datta[m |j*] 

ABSTEACT OP CONTENTS. 

Vishnuvardhana-Maharaja (1. 11 f.),-the dear son of Vijayasiddhi (1. 8), the son of 
ViflhnuvardHaua-MaliarSja-wlio adorned the family pf the Chalukyas (1. 5 1), orders as 
follows : 

' On the occasion of a Saihkrsiiti (1. 18) in the year twenty-three of (my) *eign 
(1. 19 f.),_a field (Mid) a house-site accompanied by a flower-garden were given to Kefiava&nnaa 
o| the Atreya-05fra and Hiranyakeli-stefro, who resided at Kommara (1. 12) and was a son of 
and a grandson of Agnilarman, by Prithivfpothf, the beloved daughter of 
' The field granted lay in the western part of the village nanaed 
lnan4u (1, M 1). Its' four boundaries were to the 
^ ^ M f Prabtak ^ ^ ^ east of the fields of 



^^^ V&t ^ < ? > * -"" B 7 U. the 



Ko. 7.-VAPPAGHOSHAVATA GBANT OP JATANA&A. 
By LIONEL D, BAKSETT. 



0- 15) d ^^, p. 
Instead of -d&kit 




~ - ~~ - 



. ,. 
for 1019-20, p. 99 f . Cf the r of 



word 



1 ** ^ia. *} " da ?** ^ q Rflad ** 

2sr^'*^<^*^^^^rfcs^r. j^r: 



0F VlSHNUVARDHANA IIL 




via. 



8 



10 



12 



^;^,^^/:^ . -. . -vv ' 

i 3 : 5 s ' 



iib. 





No. 7. ] VAPPAGHOSHATATA GRANT OF JATAlf AGAr 

somewhat nnsuccessfal attempt to translate and annotate the plate, which bears the subscri 
tion: "R. Mittro, Asiatic Society, 6th December 1854,'* and to which Mr. Greig has prefis 
the note " Translation of a Copper Plate found in the Indigo Estate at MalKa 1 by one of 1 
James Smith's villagers, and presented to me by that gentleman in January 1855." 

It consists of a single rectangular plate of copper, slightly irregular in shape, abo 
7| in. in width and 5| in, in height* with a circular seal about 3 in. in diameter soldered 
the proper left side* The seal, which is very much worn, shews traces of an upright fern* 
figure, apparently Lakshml, with either one or two elephants performing the kumbh&bhishe 
over her, while in the exeigue below there are the remains of a now illegible inscription. T 
plate itself, which is inscribed on one side only, is io very good preservation, except for a era 
running down it, which has been repaired by a small rivet. T\vo or fchi*ee letters at the end 
L 14 and a whole line of writing immediately following the latter have been deliberate 
erased. The characters, which have been picked out comparatively recently with wh 
paint, are of a well-formed upright Gupta type, apparently of the latter half of the sixth ce 
tury, and average in height a little less than J in. In most respects they are archaic enon| 
to justify an ascription to the fifth century; but the forms of the initial i (iti, L 11) and t 
bipartite y (passim), make the latter date more probable. The conjunct nasals and consonai 
are used in preference to the simple consonants with preceding anusv&ra (e.g. *sambh8ga- 9 L J 
F" and b are confused (e.g. -scimbatsare, 1. 2, AudiimvartlJca-], 1. 3, but sa-vrahmach&rine, L 
vrahmananarh, L 8, etc.). Internal a is denoted either by a doubly waving line curving upwar 
towards the right from the top of the shaft (cf. the Sfch and 18th syllables of 1. ]), or by a she 
upward tick at the right corner of the top'(cf. the 14th syllable of L 1), or by a downward lo 
from the right corner of the top (cf. the 15th syllable of L 2). Interna! is represented uaual 
by a waving line similar to the first type of a but in the opposite direction (e.g. the 18 
syllable of L 2), rarely by a perpendicular tick on the left corner of the top ^svamine^ L * 
Internal o is made with the waving e combined with either the ticked or the downwai 
looped a. The curve of internal I is sometimes single (e.g. &*, L 2, -sZmd, L 9), sometim 
double (e.g. gramZna-, 1. 14). The angularity of the base of the tJi (d&$yath=eti, 1. 7) is nol 
worthy; so also is the combination of the syllable U with a following danda, in which the curvn 
line denoting i is carried around the t and upwards to the right of it, terminating there in 
email horizoutal lick on a level with the top of the t (see 11. 4, 7, 13), a peculiarity which seei 
to have been affected by Eastern scribes, as we find it again even as late as the TalchSr plai 
of Gayada-TungadSra (Bee Nagendranath Vasu's Archwol. Survey of Mayuralhanja, plate to fa 
p. 154. and /. A*. Soc. Bang., Vol, SET, 1916, No. 6, pi 4, last line). The cursive rya in Sury 
l (L "3) is also significant* The language is Sanskrit prose, becoming in parts loose and almc 
dialectal. As already remarked band t? are confused. Lexically we may note the words aJcskayai 
dharman (1. 6) ; ganginika (1. 9 bis), the modern ganyina, which possibly may be used here as 
common noun meaning "dry river-bed " (see above, Vol. XTT, p. 66, n. 3, smd p. 78, n. 5), b 
more probably is the name of a particular river (see below) ; and tamra-patta (11. 8, 11, 13, Hi 
which here, instead of its primary meaning of " copper-plate " ( as above, Vol. VII, pp. 87, 
98, Vol. VIII, pp. 152, 157-59), signifies an estate granted under a warrant engraved on 
copper- plate. 2 

The object of the document is to specify the bounds of a certain village named Vapp 
ghdshavata granted to the Brahmarir Bhatta Brahmavlra Svamin by the Samanta Narayar 
bfaadra, and is dated in the reign (the word qualifying the samvattLra is unfortunately efface 

* As I am unable to locate "Mallia* 1 with certainty, I have judged it advisabte to designate ttoia cliarter by 
name of tbe village granted in it. 

8 Cf aboro, Vol. II, p, 3S3, gramam . . . tamratoam . . , lebbe The word paft* by itself is sowtii 
to denote a piece of land : cf . &u$ta Inscr,, p. 104 & n. 




EflGEAPfilA INDICfcA. [Vol. 



of Mug JayanSga, who was at the time residing in Karnasuvtonafca, arid who, to judge from 
Ms title of 'Mbkfr&jSthMj'a, must have b&m a ruler of considerable importance. The docu- 
ment was drawn up in accordance with Naraya^abhad'tfa's instructions by his commissioned 
(vyamMrin) Stirjrasena* On the principles of this administrative hierarchy the 6tudefet may 
profitably compare the observations of Mr. Badhagovinda Basak in his paper on the Dam5darpnr 
Plate (above, Vol. XV, pp. 116 ff). 

Of JayaBaga we know nothing from other sources. But Mr. John Allan has suggested to 
me thai he may be the same as the king whose coins, described in his Catalogue of the Coins of 
the Gupta Dynasties (Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum), pp. Ixi, civ., cvi, 
ficcdii, 150-51, and pL xsiv, bear oja the obverse the abbreviated name Jaya and on the reverse 
a seated Lakghml with an elephant sprinkling her. This connection seems highly probable. 
In any case, the present document furnishes an important fact concerning the early history of 
Karaasuytirna, which, token in connection with the Nidhanpur grant of Bhaskaravannan (above, 
Vol. XII, p. 65), supplies material for interesting speculation. 

The names of places mentioned, besides Kar^asuvar^iaka (L 1), are the Audumvarlka* 
vislxaya (L 3); the villages of Vappaghoshavata (1. 6), Kutkuta-grftma (11. 8, 14), and Axnala* 
pautika-grama (L 10) ; G-anginika (L 9, bis), literally " river, 1 ' which here is perhaps used as 
a proper name ; the Sarshapa-yanaka or " mustard-channel" (1. 10); -and the pool of Vak&ata- 
Eumalika (1L 13-14). On the geographical position of Karjiasuvarriaka, the ancient capital of 
the kingdom of the same name, see T, Waiters, On Yuan Qhwang, Vol. II, p, 191-93, and 
BL Beveridge, The Site of Karna Suvarna, in J. A. 8, JB., 1893. pp. 315 f., the latter of whom 
identifies it with Eafigamati, near Hnrshidabad, which is said to have been formerly known as 
Ka^stea or KinsOna, a name which phonetically corresponds perfectly to Ea^asuvarnaka, 
through an intermediate Prakrit .form Kpnnasonnaa. 1 On the other names I am indebted to 
Mr. S. .K. Chatt^rji, M. A., D, Lit., for the following observations. The Gaftginika seems to be 
the river Jalangl, a branch of the Ganges or Padm& which unites with the Bhagirathl ne$r 
Kadiya, the classical Navadvipa. The Bengali poet Bharatachandra Ifcaya (c- 1740 A.D,) in his 
Anmadarmafyala (pp. 136 and 151 of Mnktararaa Vidyavaglsa's edition, Calcutta, 1857) speak$ 
of the ancestors of the Rajas of Nadia as living in the parganah of Bagw&n (Bagioftn) 
at a village called Andalija : " Ganga herself i.e. the Bhigirathl to the west, to the east 
the Gttginl - there is the village of BadagacM ; opposite to it, on the other side of the 
nver, Is Anduliyf In the Survey map of the Nadia Diaijriet Bagwgn is a village in the 
Mehcrrpnr sub-division, and closejo it, on the two sides of the Jalftngj, are the villages of 
Ba^gaehi ( Bnigachee ' J ) and Anduliya ( Andooleea y> ), as stated by Bharatachandra. It 
ueems likely that this river Jalaigi is the Gangimka of the present record. North of B&gwn at 
sotoe distance from the Jalangi, fs an important village named Ginganl, which may -possibly 
presage the name of the Ganginika. Eivers in the plains often change their courses- None of 
the othei place-names can be located. But it ^ay be noted that VappaghSshavata fyapp* is the 
B*yh &*, * latter /' and gUsha-vata= -dwelling of herdsmen") would be a likely village^name 
m Souther Mnhifln*a and Nadia, where there was much cattle-breedmg. A Gh^shpada 

Bh * B * aa > ajld wel1 ^own as the home of the founder of the 



MurshidSbSd, GOA4I (i.e. 
J ^hnagar, near Nadia town, etc. A^ extended stem FotooioW i. 

?" , I " ^^ P lace ^ ame ***** ***r*> in Modem Bengali 

of e.g, J^Bayya/ opposite KumSrkfcSH 



" ==s 






Vappaghosha-vata Grant of Jayanag-a. 




Hq. ?.] VAPPAGHOSfi&VATA GRANT Ol J&YANAGA. 63 

in the Kushtiya sub-division of Nadia ; Bayra on the Kabadak or Kabatakh, in the Bongong 
(Vanagrama) sab-diTision of Nadia ; HS$-Bayj& (i.e. Hatta-Vakhataka), and elsewhere. 

TEXT. 1 

1 (J Svasti EIararia[s]tiarnBak-avastMtasya maMraj*adliirajah(ja)-parama-bliagaTate*' 

iBm^r 

2 grl-JayaBags-[d]easya . 1 . [bh]yudaya-sambatsare 2 tat-pad-anuddhyata-Srl- 

samanta- 

3 if arayanabhadrasy^Auduinvarika-[visha]ya-samblioga-kal^ cka [ta*] d-vyavahari~ 

maha-pratihara- Sliry a- 

4 sene vyavaharati | tad=asy=ajSa srl-sanianta-padaih pradattah(tta) Ka3yapa~ 

sagottraya Chha- 

5 nd5ga-savra(bra)limacliarine biiatta-Vra(bra)hmavira-svSmiiie maya 



6 s=cb.a puny-abliivriddliaye Vappaghosliavata-grama akstayani-dliarmmanfi pra- 

dattah Tislia- 
7. ya-mudr-alankri(akri)ta-tamra-sasanam slm-agliata-pariclichTii2iiia[m*] dasyath=eti | 

attra slmS- 

8 lingani yattra paeMiaasyaiLdii Kutkuta-gramIna-Yr5(bra)limananam satka-tamra- 

patta- 

9 sitna utta[ra]syarii gaaginikS . purvyasyam=iyam=eva ganginika . tata ixissrita 

10 AmaJapautiTa-grama-paScMma(ma)-sl^ - tenai[va si] - 

11 [mn]a [sa]mpariohchMnii5 yavad^Bhatt-Oitmllana-STaini-tamra-patta iti tasin2cli= 

clia dakshiiia"din(g)-bliag5- 

12 d=blxnyas=teiiaiva slmna uttamn^disam=aniiTalanianastaYad=agatd yava[d*] 

Bharani-svami- 

13 timra-pafcta-slm*ti { tat5=pi pragnnena Bhatt-Onmaana-STSmi-tamra-patta- 

simni Vakliata-[S]flina- 

14 likS-deva-kliatampravisya tava[d*] gat6 yava[t*] sa eya Kntknta-gramlnar- 

vra(bra)lmiana-sim=eti * . 

15 (Effaced) 

TEAKSLATION. 

Hail ! In tlie year of fcbe rise ... of the Great Emperor, the snpreme worshipper o 
the lord, the fortunate king Jayanaga, when he is resident at Karnasuvarnaka, at the time tha 
the Baron Narayanabtiadra, who meditates upon his feet, is in the enjoyment of the Audumba 
rika province, his commissioner the Mahapratih^ra Suryaseria acting as administrator : the com 
mand given to him by the noble Baron is as follows : t The village of Vappaghoshavata has beej 
given by me to Bhatta BrahmsTira SvSmiDi, a member of the Kasyapa gotr& and colleague o 
the Chhanddgas, for the increase of the merit of my mother, my father, and myself, as aperpetua 
endowment 8 ; you are to give (a deed engraved on) a copper-plate adorned with the seal of th 
province and specifying the boundaries." The signs of the boundary therein are : on the wesl 
the .boundary of the grant belonging to the Brahmans of Kutkuta-graina ; on the north, tli 
river-bed ; on the east, the same river-bed ; issuing thence and running along the wester 
boundary of Amalapautika-grSma,'~ {the boundary} is the Sarshapa-yanaka ; it is limited b 



1 From tihe plate* a Kead 

Apparently aktkayani-dharman denotes the same form of tenure as a^Aaya-^lm cr nwl - c?Aarma, on 
see Mr, Eadhigovinda Basak's note above. Vol. XV, p* 181* n* 8, 



64 



EPIGRAPHIA 1ND1CA. 



[ VOL. 



the same [boundary], as far as Bhatta lTnmilana-sva"miii's grant ; from the south thereof 
(the boundary), turning along further by the same boundary to the north, proceeds as far as the 
boundary of Bharani-sv5min'fl grant, thence in a straight line enters the pond of Vakhata- 
Sflmilika on the boundary of Bhafcta TJnmflana-svSmin*a grant, and goes as far as the same 
boundary of the Brahmans of Kutkuta-grama, 



No. 8. NIDUR INSCRIPTION OF KULOTTUNGA-CHOLA. 

Br K. V. SDBEAHMANI'A Amu, B,A., OQTACAMUND. 

The subjoined two inscriptions. are engraved on the south wall of the Siva temple , 

& village situated on the north bank of the Kaveri in the Mayavaram taluk of the Tanjore 
district. This temple is one on which the Saiva saint Sundaramftrti-NSyanar of the 8th 
century has composed hymns. Though the preservation of the records is not good, there are 
enough traces left in them to make out the inscriptions almost completely. It would have been 
certainly much better if they had not suffered damage. I am editing the inscriptions from 
impressions secured during the field season of 1921-22 by Mr. A. S. Eamanathier of the office of 
tire Assistant Archaeological Superintendent for Epigraphy, Madras, and registered as Wos. 534 
and 535 of Appendix B of the Annual Report on Epigraphy for that year, where, however the 
importance of these metrical records has not been noted. ' 

The two inscription^ are dated in the reign of Kul6ttunga-Ch6|a. The kin* bears no 
distinguishing epithets : but to judge from the characters employed, the records appear to be 
of the fame of Zulottunga^ who reigned from A.D. 1070 to 1119. The high regml years 
46 and 38 given to the kuig m these records also point to the same conclusion. As wiU b. 
shown below the znsmptxons are of great.value to student, of Tamil Hterafare as they almost 
fii the fame of one 01 the most important works on Tamil Prosody 



at whose instance A^**^"J^ 

and was the chief of fUtM^O^ i^tT *? k CM KSrigaI 

(i.a. the ancient Tondai-mandalam) Sj ' 



the work 
Yipparn 
when that am&or flourished The 

of tie subjoined epigraphs. 




known TamiJ W rk on pody 

^^ U8 * drtmttiM the 
."- * Contem P^y of the unl 
m the 12 ^ century A.]), tJio dirie 



No. 8.] NIDTJB INSCRIPTION OF KULOTTtJNGA-CHOLA. 65' 



Yappamngalakkarigai is generally "believed to l)e a mucli earlier work. IB. discussing 
tlie date of Chvl&mawi, one of tlie five smaller Jcavyas of Tamil, the late Mr, C. W. Damodaram 
Pillai wrote the following : l 

** Several stanzas from the Ghnlamani have been cited as examples in the Y&pparungala* 
virutti and in the commentary 2 written in the interval between Sa-ka 200 and 300 by 
Gnnasagara on the YapparungalaJcJcarigai of Anmdasagara which was based on Yapparungal- 
avirutti. As it is known from the introductory verse of the Cbulamani that that work was 
composed during the reign of Vijayaraja who ruled from the city of Karvetinagar in Chslaman- 
dalam and as that city was earlier than Urandai, the work must be not less than 1,500 years old." 

It is not possible to ascertain whence Mr. Damodaram Pillai obtained the date " between 
Saka 200 and 300 " for Gunasagara's commentary and what his authority was for the state- 
ment that " Karvetinagar in Solamandalam was earlier than Urandai (i.e. TJraiyur)." There 
are literary evidences to show that Uraiyur in the Trichinopoly district and Kavirippum- 
pattinam in the Shiyali taluk of the Tanjore district were the capitals of the Cholas prior fe> 
Tanjore. But there is none so far to the effect that Karvetinagar was even a famous city. 
Neither was this situated in Gh5la-mandalam. Evidences, both literary and epigraphical, 
would point to Karvetinagar having been included in Tondai-mandalam. We shall discuss 
the upper limit of Gunasagara's age after citing the opinion of Pandit M. Eaghava Aiyangar 
on the date of Yapparungalakkarigai. Writing on the age of Mandalapnrusfca, the author 
of the Tamil Nigantfu, he says that " there are ample reasons that -confirm that Amritasagara 
could not have lived before the 10th century A.D." 3 and it is pretty certain that he must 
have with him materials to prove his point. These are the only two definite pronouncements 
that we know of regarding the date of Yapparnngalakkarigai, besides the statement of 
Mr. Narasimhacharya which will be referred to later on. 

It is interesting to note here the account preserved in the Tamil literature respecting 
Amudasagara and his work* From the invocatory stanza of his work it is learnt that the 
author was a Jain, for it is addressed to the Arhat under the shade of the A5ka tree 4 . 
Gunasagara, the Jain commentator on YapparungalakMrigaiy has the following say on the 
name of the work and the method adopted in its composition : 

"Like the Prakrit grammar P&littiyam and Pingalam otherwise called OhTiandopisitamJ* 
this work (i.e. Yapparungalakkarigai) is made of Karigai* verses ; and like the Karnataka 
Ghhandas GunaJcanhiya, each stanza is addressed to a female and is concise. It cites 
examples like the M ahesvara- Y&ppul ; like the SeyyntturaiJckdvai of Tamil music ; like the 
VargaTckZvai* of the Ashtakas in the Vedas and like the NitaJca-titoJcas of the Rupa,Zatara, 
it gives the commencing portions of the verses cited as examples. As the Nirutta 

* See his introduction to the work* 

2 For citations of the CMl&m&qi stanzas in the YdpyarungalaJcMrigai, see the comment on Terse 13 of ZTrup- 

v. 13 of eyyulit/al and v. 6 of OliUyal. 
8 Mythic Society Journal, Vol. XIII, page 490 

* Nandamadivil 



di todai pav-inafaJctiruvan pallavattin 

aT-adiycm, maruttiya tdl-fculale. 
6 [Perhaps Chhandovichiti. Ed.] 

The word "Karigai means beauty, woman, the metre called EaUalaiTdcaJlM^ai and the work on prosody 
known as Tapparunffala&kariffai. It is here used in the sense of the last. According to the Amar*, KBriki 
means Vritti. In Sanskrit it means the corciae statement in verse of any certain doctrine. 

' Though this work is not now extant, stray stanzas from it are f oand quoted by Gunasagara himself in hit 
commentary, e.g. see his comment on v. 17. 

*Kowai is a short verse indicating the commencement or end of a passage j or sometimes the number and orde 
of *ords or sentences in the Vedas and Upanishads. It is both an aid to memory and a measure of the content*. 

I 



(i#* 3K3f*fc*&) 10 tc* tiba eda^ a* the K&vikS* are to tha VySkarsna, as tlxe N&l$i forty 
m to* jkriaya*ft JSpy*, K> is tikis litxrik a ecmpoiieii* part o$, and a jewel to, tb* Prosody^calted 
Y#pjpar**40aZaw; it is hence called by the name Ypparungalakk(J'riffi. The aittbor "who 
is, stated tcx have Bmde into i^an^aiilia great, ocean el l&jvm (Sanskrit Pvofiody) and rendered 
it in Tamil, "was a a^int who "bore the name AmudB^SgBara-AchSija. Tbe work is divided 
into tifcree cbapte&s,, t&, Frwjpjp^ai, 8&tywUy&t nd Qlibiyc&J ; there are 44 hJrik&s^ containing 
90^ jraiio and 2& kttexi y a Mra<iM Ibemg eqraul to 3^ letters mcluHive of rowels and 
TOOR^b eonsonantfi^ excluding noioeTccalic consonants. Of the 44 Kirigai, 21 commence 
witib i*S*~a&&i Qmg jqrbUc&)r and bave IB each foot 16 letteam exclusive of inm-TooaliQ 
j and the reiaainiiig 23- verses begin with ntroiji^at (dborfc nyll^bl w) and have 



in each foot 17 letters ; thus BOaking in all 2,908 katterv (whick wh&xn divided by &2 
90 gnmfto* aad 28 letters).'^ 

Jrom the extract given a"bove. it will fee obiserved tbat Gtnp.aaigara T tlie commentator 
on Y^pjpwrf^aiafcfear%a% was acqnadated witk PiagaJa'g @&handdmcMfri 9 the U^parcBt^a 
and tibe Gfw^ifeV% * w ^^ <> Kanarese Prooody. By Piagala^ mby be meant eit&er 
iite earEer Sanskrit Pingala w ibe Prakrit, PiagaLa 8 on wMck was fcuned Kigavarma'a 
Oifcandat. 4 There were mere worts tltaa oae bearing tke name JSTSj^^a^Jr^, The author- 
of die of item was Dtaraatarfci, who has. beem ideatified by Prol M, Bangacharya with 
Buddhkt &fa^&n of iitat Bauaa-who flourished in the court of ParSkramaJIliu I of 
who, m Bwk, belonged to the 13th eearfury A.D, It in worth pointing 
icreeort^ jwxt Diatriot, detailing a boardmg 

mstitntioa m^ntained in the temple at that place, states that an many an forty 
wara teamimg ttie Bj^aia^ and this mu&t refer to *m earlier work String 
that name aad ca^aot refer to Dha^mi^Irfci^ treatise mentioned above. The beat way to 
xt is that Buvamt&m ms tha name of a subjaet taught and that there were some 
wmttea he^mg the name of the suhj^ one of which being earlier than the middle of 
life century XD. md another belonging to the 13th century AOX It in not certain 
h\vT^nir ^^ ^ camm**tary, If it ia to the latter, he should 

* ' W ' etam ** t^BSelZ.ll 

, his 



, , 

tllatt ^ most relevant say on tke authoraMp and time of 



who in 

Witl1 Ng g^^ fte e^iert writer on 

. Oi^Wta 
ftlao alwwa from interaal evidence 



tea* fiagavanoa was 3, resident of S A- MU *-own xrom mternai evidena 

granSfether is stated to have balrmJS T! & -TT^* ia ^ We&tem Ga6 ga temtoxy, tlxough his 

SaiBo^^ofN^;^^:^ 6 ^^^^ It^av^notrd alao 

_^!^l^f^desmptio^ gi V6B aWe by Q^^gg^^ 

" ., 

to TaiaiJ 
e*& 

2Srif!Srr* y ^ J '^ *.*. v* OE 

**Hsi'*" wK ftQu Ifibt^r "fc^Atfl tliX6 ^tl& CK&lJtttt^y 

Pp. MB-6, 



68 



1PIGBAPHIA INDICJL 



[Voi,. XVIII 



Sekkilar in the time of the Gh5la king Anapaya, 1 Identified with KtildW.iinga II.* It Is ver$ 
likely that tie mandapa referred to in A is the same as this thousand-pillared manfapa, though 
we cannot be sure that the ptwana expounded in it was the P&riyapnrancMH. If the identity oi 
Anapaya with Kulottnnga I instead of with Knldttnnga II could be inmeeded, Hum the Purtina 
referred to in our inscriptions might be the Pemyapwranavn itself. In thin connection it may 
be pointed oat that the titles or surnames Abhaya and Anap&yn are Found applied to the 
Chola king who was the contemporary of SekkilSr. 8 We havo references to gifts 
made by the author of the Periyapuranam and his brother Palaravaynr in two inscriptions 4 
which coine from Tirukkadaiyur and Kalappal (Mannargudi Taluk), whoro the full namoH of the 
donors are given as Sekfcilan Ainmaiyyappan Parantakadevan alias Karikalas^hi-Pallavaraiyan 
of Kunrattnr in Kunrattur-riadiij a district of Puliyur-kdt'tam alias Ivul^lt.un^astlhi-vaJaiiaclu 
and Sekkilan Palaiavayan Kala-ppatarayan of Kunrattflr hi Kunraitfir-am^lii* The shrine of 
Sonnavararlyar in the temple at Chidambaram referred to in iiuscripHoii A may have* been built 
in honour of the visit of the Saiya saint Seramanperumal-KSyjinJir who \vas also called 
EalaTirrarivar of which SonnayararivSr is only a synonj r m. It is ivcord^d in lh< P^riyapnrdnam 
that the Chera king visited Chidambaram, TlruvSrur and many other Saivn. JI!;U*CH in company 
with Sundaramurti-Hayanar. 5 From the Tamil work Twuppn(tirij>pultyurKah^^ \ve 

learn that there was a shrine of Ganapati called SonnavfirarivSr in the Siva feinplo at EVidiii- 
ppnliyfir 6 (Criddalore). But there could not be a reference to this shrine in our inscription as 
the phrase Tilfaiy-ambalattg vadaltflppcll (Le. ou the north-o^t Hide of the tempi u at Chidam- 
baram) clearly shows that the shrine referred to in our epigraph was situated Ju the Chidam- 
baram temple. 

TEXT OP AJ 

Svasti frx [ || *] [Kiiri] *ya [ v=u ] lag-anaittaiy uu =kudai -kk T I -ft - 
[kkiya] Kul6ttung^61arkk-and-oru-na[r]patt.^adan-Tctui ^ 
t 9 vadakil[p*]pal p<3r-iyal-amattadu 
purisai-m^ligaiyum varisaiyal vihingn-pporuppiziM 
^el-ainj-iiWaln-niQnjinil nigai-ila^kkarrali W^Q 
Amndasagaran^edutta . . togntta-Karigni kKuJattOr-Matujiuiui 
kavalan SiEukunra-natt . . karpagam 
n Bjandaii MSdavane 10 [11*1 

TEXT - 

ai^lagai orukudai-mlarkli iruttiya 

-muppatt-ett^ 
Talar Tirnvindalte.Batt,un , . . / dai ' nldiya WI^T 

, , . . hi malai[y*]-Wa^Loli UaiySN n tto- 



1 
2 

S 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



srl 






for 1.12 

See the life of Serami?iperumal^ayanr in the 



to 19 6 



collection 






n 



for the year 



No, 8] NlDtfR INSCRIPTION OF KULOTTUKGA-CHQLA 67 

In any case, from internal evidence alone, it aught be aaxd that Ganaaagum could not have 
has conunentaay on Y&ppcvrungalaJcl$ngai an the interval between aka 200 and 300 
AS sfc&ted by the Jate Mi W Damodar&m Filial, Now that ws have definite information fcha,t 
AmudJieSgaia wiote his woik in the reign of Kiil8ttujiga-Ch6*la I { A D 10701119), it is clear 
that Gunusagara should have commented on it in still later times, ^ e, af tei the beginning of the 
lath, centniy AD. An eailier Ganasagai a-Bhatara, also a Jam by religion, is known from 
inscriptions, He figtuea aa a contempoi ary of the Papaya king Maranj&4aiya& in two maorip- 
tlous 1 of Ka]ugamalai in tiie Tinnevelly district, dated in the 3rd year of the king's leign This 

a, 2 who flonriahed long before iia namesake the oommentator on the Y 
t seems to have made a gift of land for meeting the expenses of feeding certain 
yas (?) who were required to expound the Siddbanto, Fiom pal9ographical grounds as well a 
from references made on these epigraphs to the tank V$raiwr&yaMti~Sn evidently called af t&r 
P-arSntaka I and the field Galled U^amci^otan it might be inferred that &is Jtajanja^aiya^i must 
have been a successor of the Pagdja iiiag Ra jaswnha III in whose reign the bigger 









Besides settling the date of the Tanui weak l^^p^^ngMkhang^ the exta^ict given 
above from the commentary of -GuDasagora enables ns io know definitely the authorship of the 

r ^J ff .J 

Sanskrit work QhhcMidfcicliiti wbich IB referred o by Dandin in has KSvyadarifo (I'lrBt 
Eftrwh, v 12) and which lias been considered by moma to be one of Damjm's own works, while 
others regstrd it to be an earlier tieatae*. A Gunftsftgara states that Okbandfyi&ta (Ghhands- 
w<ch^t^) is otherwise called Pmgal&m^ it is dear that the latter name must have bee a derived 
from the name of its author who must have been no other than Pin gala and by Qlihandfimchiti 
must be meant Pingala's Qhhandas S&straj if there was not a diffeient work of the name 
Qbhantfovtchiti by tlie same author, 

Of tho places mentioned in the two insci iptions^ Ni4Gr as stated alr&ftdy, is in the 
Miyavaram Taluk, and is reputed us the birth-pkoe of one of the 63 Saiva saints called 
Munaiya^vSr who gave away all the wealth acquned by him to Biva temples and Saiva 
devotees 3 Tix.vindftiur, the distiict an which Kldfir ^Yas eituatedj is a vil%;e near NwJfir, 
It is very likely that the epithet Karigai was applied to Kulattnr in commemoi'fttion of the 
composition of the work at the place or by the fact of its gift to the author. I am not suie if 
we can identify this place with Eailattur, a village noarNl<J&r< Mijalalat-afc^u is stated to be 
a aub- division of VirudaiSjabhayankaia-valftnf^ *&&& inscription of Yejppattur* 

SirukuflFft-nS^u, w perhaps identical with KunjfaUflr-u&iJu, whenw Sekkijar, tho authoi of 
the Tamil Panya^wjflttotn, hailed,* 

In conneotion with the con&Uuotion of the pavilion at Tillfli for expounding the Pnrfflnae it 
is interesting to note that acooi ding to the Tamil Fenyapni&ntm the thousand-pillared man$apa 
m tho temple at Chidambaram was the place wb&re QHgmtvlly that woilt was firat jaxpounded by 






i 110 aqd 117 o tl\o Madias Eplgrophical collcotiou for 
1 No 45 oi! tho srtmfl collection rofow -probably -to a ioimlo dwolple of this 

"Syo tin; He of tfnnatyaguvftY in the Pw\$<tpw fa\am< 
4 No 47 of the ifftdius Epigi apliical colloctlon for 1910 
* Knlatti^poHyflr pcr-padMtta gunattij; poffryflr 

i y or * An ap A y &n - rajn ttta-8nnig \\ te fl \\ 





v al tt l^*k tik V" ru ng ejj j; i-^ ft i tt ai S o Ja^ui im 



pngal kKun^Tind^ vilnigu Tamil 




V 

mah Pull>vir kko^ft nft^Kunratturil njlft ttrar vfllnm(vlI-pakkU(vvo;i pngal 

v 60, 



No. 8.] NIDUR INSCRIPTION OF KULOTTUNGA-CEOLA. 69 

5 ma-vimanam=ing-amaitta^ [tan-Da^mll-Amidasagara-Mnijiyai Jayango- 

6 nda^6la-mandalattu=ttan-SIrukuni;a-[iiatta] 3 ttirutti . . . . 3 

7 nnr-Karigai avanar=kaiidayan-marutna^. K5rigai-Kulat[tfir] 

8 kkaval-nilayinan evarkkn6=karu9aiyun=ti[yagamun] 4 *kattiya Mila- 

9 lai-nattu-Vel Kandan Madavane 5 [||*] 

TBANSLATION. 
A. 

Hail ! Prosperity.! In the forty-sixth, year (of the reign') of Kulottunga-Chflja, wlio had 
brought under (his) parasol all the known worlds, Kandan Madav0n 9 the Kef of Milalai-na^n, 
and the ruler of Tondai, \vho had earned fame by constructing in the year seven times five 
added to three (i.e. 38) (of the reign} of the E"eriyan (i.e. the Clifila king), the incompai-able 
stone temple of the resplendent god of Nidur, who was the chief of Kulattur, where Amudasa- 
gara began [and] completed (7m work*) Karigai,, and who was (as it were) the kanaka, (wiwh- 
giving tree) to the people (?) of Sirukiinra-nadu, was pleased to construct of stone the shrine of 

Sonnavararivar in the great on the north-eastern wide of the hall (awilm- 

lam) at Tillai and the walled pavilion (in it), where works on Pur&nas were expo muled ami 
which were thus made to appear extensively splendid* 

B. 

Hail! Prosperity! In the thirty-eighth, year (of the reign) of Kul5ttiingn-C!idl?i, who 
had brought the world with its eight quarters under the shade of liis Mingle (i.e. incomparable) 
parasol, Kandan Btadavan the Vel of Milalai-nadu, who was the nephew (or won -iu- law) of him 
that caused the fine woiic KSrigai-[Tappu] (prosody), to be composed l>y Amudasagaramuni 

of Tamil fame, who was the chief of Karigai-Kulattut Sijiikunra-nfidu (a Hub-division) 

of Jayangondassia-mandaram and who showed mer<jy and goneroHiiy io aJt, WUK pleased io 
construct an excellent stone fimana as high as a mountain to tho god who wa WNpiontlent \vlih 
(his consort) Uma at ISTidur of high (maiisioiiH) and . . . (nituatcd) In Tiruvnidalur-niidu 
(a sub-division) of Sdnadu, 



No. 9. A NOTE ON MANIGBAMATTAR OCCURRING IN TAMIL INSCRIPTIONS. 

BY THE LATE MR. T. A. GOPIKATIIA RAO, M.A. 

The word Manic/ramam was first met with, in some copper-plates belong ing to thu West 
Coast of the Madras Presidency. It is found, for instance, in the platen of Sthauu Kavi und of 
Yira-Raghava-Chakravartti preserved in the Seminary at K(5ttayam. Tho meaning of thin \v<>rd 
was discussed by the Rev, Dr. H. Gnndert in his article on the plates mentioned above, in tlu 
Madras Journal of Literature and Science, Vol. XIII, Part II. In it he taken the word to moan 
what he believes to be one of the four immigrated merchant triboM and quote** in support of it 
the following extract from the Payyanur-pattdla, an old MaJaySlam poem : 

ChSvalare-ppOle ill agala-ppfiyfim 

charinatam vCnam perigay--=ippcM 

KOvatalachchett.i Anjuvannam 

kilttam Manikkirataattar*makkal 

nammalal na'lu uagarattilum 

nSlarB-kkolka-kkuc.Ukka 



1 Tie letters iu "brackets are nrwli w>rn ouT^iT^ ..... " ..... 

2 Naftu has been filled In with rcforcncos to inscription A. 

Tbis gap may *o filled up with the syllables. ySppu. '' The tn for ySga^k arc wry fu5 u l and ,bdUm 

* e is exjjlcMve. The metre is the same as in A. 



?0 EPIGRAPSIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIf 



which he translated thus: "* * * * Strong guards (or<5ompanionH) are jiow required (to) take 
tie children of the GOvatala-Chetti, of Anjuvannam and of the Majtiigrtowuu iwopk*, w } w , icg-ether 
with ourselves, are the four (classes of) colonists in the four U>WHH."> The Infor view of Or. 
Gundert regarding the meaning of the terms Manigramam and Afijn viu.uun w (luii they are 
two different trading communities of foreign merchants. Drs. Gmi<1t>rf ami Burm-ll !ttu> on 
took the pei-sons denoted by the term Anjuvannam as the colony of ih> J<WN u.i tli,rf th-noted 
by Sfanigramam as that of the Christta. It was Mr. Voiikayya who firnf ..],.<.*,.,! th* ul ea 
But he has not expressed his opinion as regards the religion of tluMm-inlu-r-K , if f?. JlfantoM* 
mam ; nor are we able to infer from his comments on the plate of Vlm-H^havu-Chakmvartti 
whether he took them for Christians or Hindus. Some iime aUer th'e ino, W .*ion given to 
the term ^mgr^am by Dr. Gundert, the Rev. Peet made f 1 M f II w , K ob*-rv ftt ! 1 i{ ._ 

JETTT 11 " r- O f, a ClaS8 f ChriStianS ^^Plmto^l..iH, Oin,u K h'ihe 
mnuence of a sorcerer (Manzkkavachakar). Some of that claw ar, <ili f,,u,l ^nr Qnllon 
Each mdmdual called a ma^' (in native books), a jewel, on aocounf of !HH JIimf ^ u^ 

TimTeUa^i Tfrn^aikka 
feyd^tombadu Vedam-ws OT 



Here 



, fc ^ to Woog to the . 







JNarayanaii Ichchaii, a member of fi,* TLT * 

-" 



Ko. 9.] A NOTE ON M1NIGBAMATTAE OCOTTEBTNTG IN TAMIL INSCRIPTIONS, 71 



the aboT* extracts the chief points to be noted are : 

1. That the yy,<mffir patttila, does not name the four communities mentioned in it as 
professing Christianity or any other religion; it simply implies- that there resided four 
communities dbaely allied to each other by similarity of interests, namely, trade, eta 

2. That the ManigrSmam community is not peculiar to the Malabar Coast alone and that 
it was found in the interior also, as evidenced by the Tiruvellajai inscription. 

3. That Hindu institutions were placed under their px'oteqtion^ which would, mot lag 
possible if they belonged to the Christian community 1 ; and 

4. That it is simply the name ol a certain corporation or community, p>*&a?ps engaged in 
trading, like the Valanjiyars, as Mr. Venkayya suggested. 

The Rev. Mr. Peet opined, as already referred to, that the Manigramakk5rs were originally 
Christians find that a sorcerer, Manikkavachakar, onTerted them to Hinduism. It i& laard to 
believe that the conservative Hindus, who, in thes& daya of free thomg-kt wfus^ t$ take back 
even converted Hindus into Hinduism, would in those ancient times have consented to take 
wholesale communities of entirely alien religionists into their fold. Again, it is iwH known, that 
never visited the Malabar Goa$t j the r^Kgi&us ^is^Taasio^ Im whidb fafc took" part 



was with the Bauddh&s of Ceylon, and that was at Chidwib^raui, according ta the 



If Manigr&m&tfar in the Tiruvellami instiriptiom, were to "be taken as the name of a Christian 
trading community of the Malabar Coast, how was it possible for N&rftyanaix Acheha;g, who, fewa 
Ms name, may certainly be taken to be a Hiwlu a*nd mot at all a Christian, to belong**** the Christian 
community of trailers of the Malabar Coaat, but living then in U jaiyur ? Again, hw could the 
tank montioaa&d in the Slam inscription "benring tha distinetly Vaislupuam name of 
meant evidently for the use of the Hindus, be placed und&r the pwteofcioia ctf -Ufa Q 
traders of Malabar then residing in Siam ? 



In dealing iBcidentally with the Siam inscription I beg to difierfrom,tht interpr^teti< rf 
Dr, Hultzisch, and offer the f olLowiag fresh reading of it as I aw abl$ to make cwxt fewit tbi 
impression reproduced by Dr. Hultzsch in the Journal of the Soyal Asiatw SQcwty* 

1 ........ [yajvarmatku [y] ..... 

2* . . . [m^to tSn n&fi[gu] rayai . f . . . 

3. . . [t]totta kulam [||] per Sri- 

4 NSranam [[{*] Ma^ikkirSmattar- 

5. [fc*]kum S3B.Smugattarkkum 

6, [ku]la[t*]tarkkum a^aikkalam [||*] 

Br. HultsiscFs remark, that the remnant of the Sanskrit name rcwarmm in tte first line of 
ife0 irecord might perhaps be that of BhSsfcaravarman, is evidently due to his convictioKX that th 
Mriigr*inattlr were members of a trading community belonging to the Malabaor. Coaat of the 
time of the Malabar king Bhlskara Ravivarman, That tihia notion of his waa the cauae of the 
mistake is corroborated by the following extract from Ms paper: ** Ma^igraman occurs in 
Wwaml inscriptions of the Malabar Coast ; as shown by Bal Bahadur Venkayya, it ia, the dasigttar 
ticrn of a trading corporation. T * Later on he adds: " We may thus conclude that in the eigRth 
ot ninth centmy there existed' in distant Siam a colony of traders from the Western Cbftst ol 
Southern India, who had built themselves a temple of Yishriu." Again, he rexaarka : " 3jf the 
-wwds which I hve giren are correct, they would imply that at the beginning of the i 
* lengthy passage is lost, which, if it had been preserved, might have eompletdl aoid 



1 [ The fact tbfc oi$ peraona or & b*idy ol uteti wtrft yf^tibki to prottct 
insfcitntion of a particular jaiiaidity cannot by itlf arg$* tba* tbe m belonged to tbat nattoanMty; tt 4Wh 
wrong pcewjise i$ tUowad to stand, Mn^igriwgitiar em well be aiA to bo Cbnstiatii "btcnuitt tliey 
to protect tbo gift made to the Christian chuwih of Taf oippftjp In th Stbanti Bavi 



No. 9.] A NOTE ON MAN1GBAMATTAE OCCURRING IN TAMIL INSCRIPTIONS. 73 

" However little credit we may be disposed to give to the story about the conversion of the 
king of Ceylon, or to the identification of that king with, the Gothakabhaya of the MaTiavamia^ 
I see no reason for hesitating to believe the Indian tradition that Manikkavasagar visited 
Malabar and reconverted two families of Christians to Hinduism* The desceiidents of those 
families, who are still known as Manigramakars, are not admitted to full privileges as caste 
Hindus. Some traditions place the reconversion as having occurred itbout A. D. 270, If that 
date be at all nearly correct, the Malabar Church must be considerably older. So far as I can 
appreciate the value of the arguments from the history of Tamil literature, there seem to be 
good independent reasons for believing that Manikkavasagar may have lived in the third century. 
Some authors even place him about the beginning of the second century. 1 If he really lived so 
early, his relation with the Church in Malabar would confirm the belief in its apostolic origin. " 

Evidently the name Sanghamitra, occurring in the Hahavafasa, could not belong to the 
Jain or Hindu community ; but since he is called a Tamil heretic therein, we must take Mm 
to be a Mahayanist, who, to the Hlnayanist, is a heretic. There is nothing against his being a 
Tamil Buddhist, but it is impossible to identify him with a Tamil Hindu, as "was attempted by 
Mr. K. G. Sesha Ayyar. The description of Safighamitra as "versed in the teachings concern- 
ing the exorcism of spirits and so forth" clearly evidences bis mastery of the Bauddlia Tantrism 
and never points to a Hindu. Manikkavasakar refers to Varaguna-Pandya twice in his 
TiruGfacJiirr(*wibala~kk6vai and this Varaguna is the same as the Vara.guna-Maharfl.ja who was 
crowned in A, D. 86 2; and I have long ago arrived at the conclusion that Manikkavasakar 
lived in the first half of the 10th century. 8 

No Tamil work dealing with the life, of MSnikkavasakar states that he went to the West 
Coast of the Madras Presidency. They are uniform in asserting that he went to Tirupperttn- 
dujai, or the modern Avadaiyark5yil, in thp eastern part of the Presidency, He must have 
gone to purchase horses brought down from Pegu and other places in the east places which 
were familiar to the Tamils. It is only when the Arabs came to the West Coast in mediaeval 
times that horses were imported from Arabia. Till then the chief sources of the supply of 
horses must have been the Eastern Archipelago and Burma. 



N.o. 10, INSCRIBED BUDDHIST IMAGE PROM GOPALPUR. 

BY THE LATE PAKDIT V. NATESA AlYAR, B.A., M.R.A.S. 

The village of GSpalpnr is situated some three miles to the south-east of Bheraghat 
popularly known as 4 The Marble Rocks/ in the Jnbbulpore District ; it lies on the right bank 
of the Narmada. The village contains only a few scattered houses: owing to its secluded 
position the place is seldom visited by travellers or tourists. Sir Alexander Cunningham, the 
pioneer archaeologist, however, seems to have visited the spot in the winter of 1874; for in one 
of his reports he gives an account of an inscribed stone tablet of the Chgdi dynasty which, he 
says, was discovered there previously by Professor Hall. 8 It was this fact alone which induced 
me to explore the place while I was encamped at Bheraghat some eight years ago. Although, 
unfortunately, the inscription in question could no longer be traced, I was lucky enough 1o 
discover within a fortified enclosure, which, I learnt, was then in the occupation of a certain. 
, named Vindhya-sftri, five elegantly carved stone images of the medieval period. At 



l>. 73 79., and pp. 53 55 ; and Mackenzie, p 138. The late Dr. Pope, shortly befora his deatb* 
expressed his acceptance of the opinion that Ma^ikkavasgar lived not later than bhe fourth century (Tarn* 
ut, supra, p. 54). 

2 See my article on the " Age of Ma^ikkavachakat " in the Madras C&rultoM College Magazine for 1005, 

A, &*., Vol. IX,p,9&/ 

& 



EPIGRAPHIA IBTDICA 



XVIII. 



the remaining portion." This statement appears to mo to bo doubtful, for flu* f?is"npijofi, m 
in the case of 'many others, begins with the name and ivgiwl wur of f h* kiu;,r, au*l id tlw nuwfe a 
few words such as wasti m and yffftltt and the numeral exprvuwmtf f IN* inrnal vr.ir nnt! f bo 
portion of the name of the benefactor, the capitalist whoilug tin* funk, all ntnnnniini* to 
fire or six words could be supposed to hare been loni Dr. lhiltx,srb iiifrrjnvfH 
according to Winslow's Tamil Dictionary by (1) ' th fmnt of n army \ unr] (;!) * * ilivwiiin of 
an Anny '. Its meaning may be settled, hemver, from ilu; following <j*ii<taurmi<, tu IH the 
of a military cantonment The Mayamata say ;~ 



And the Kamikfigama defines it thus ; 



ntagot 



fc 



r 



tak m, , wm ,,,,,. nrs , llit ,,,,, 
a, portion, nd tb.i, l,,, ta . J ,,!,, ,,,,, ' 

Dr. D .Itank ,,j, that " A',,*, i, , 

,, rao ; M , , (M , 

oflj- stated to be. tank md M i . Vuh t u tempi. 

" (Th ^> ..... ' ( -< "' il. king) 

'' 






- 



, (oh. 



of thekmg, who 



* 
th. 



m .. , 
of sprite ^.otah'. Mr.K G Z T 1U1 "'"" lli " K " """"'* ' 






74 EPIGBAPHIA INPtOA, [You XVIII. 

the time when I noticed these images they were almost complotoly lwnr<l unchr the ground. 
Howevet, sufficient remained visible to prove that they powered tfivat niviiitvtlogiral value 
were worth acquiring for the Central Museum at Vagpur, which contained Hciitwly any 
specimens of this period. I, therefore, had them extricated fnm fin* rarth ami 
cleaned. And my trouble was more than repaid by the diKcovwy of ifiMMrniory iwmiti on three 
of them. 

Four of ttiese images represent the Bfidhisattva Avaldkitdrivarn, * hih* flu* fifth in that of 
his consort T5ra. They all wear elaborate on&atxumt* and AW wuf wl in an f? fwtttrt under t 
richly decorated canopy, consisting of seven umbrella* ming our alxivit Ihn oth<r like the 
familiar %fo' on Buddhist stfipas. Kumeroaa attendant flgnrw nn* nin^<Ml on all idfi And 
portrayed as paying devotion to the main deity in the cwitw. Ktt>n tlirir ti*r}inique and the 
scheme of decoration it appears that they are product M of tlw u Wii^adhii wrfu-M*!/* 

As I have already remarked, only three of the ttculpinrtw lnnr <lHiii*a(4ry iiwrripticwa* 5 
of these latter, two contain barely the Buddldot formula "yit f/Anrni'l hMnyrithhurtt" off. The 
remaining one is more detailed and, therefore, mow ixn{x>iiiint. Hit* rfiiiriirfrrii tine Hffipurf 
and belong to the llth or 12th century A.I). Subjoined HIT * tranitrHpt utul tmiwktitin of tliii 
record. 

TEXT, 

Line I Yd dharma h<5tuprabhav h8tu[ih] Unh&ih Titlii;a]td Iiy^iiviwlit [?] 
tsha[m] cha yo nirt[dlia*] *va[ihj v*t!i XnbUlKmVft(nift)[92^ || 
[DS]yadha[r]moyam pravara-mahfijtoujiyi[un|i;p 

2 pa^m^psaka-kyastha^M-fiubaakta[iya]|tt 

DenuvSyft [Ta*]datta(tfcra) pu^yaih [tej<lbhnvfttv**[ t-h 



3 tvi flakala^t7a-rt[r]-^u[<te].j8* 



L Whichever phenomena are cauae^born, of them th CMM th Tittilfttt 

S^ ^^ aBniMlati031 alao tlM J <* thi. Bach in the lom of thu flbtmt 

uddha). 



the 



No.ll.-THE GHUGRAHATI COPPEE-PLATB IKSCEIPTIONOF 



plate in the August, 19W*L Ttw ? Mr ' H ' ' S*V>*. HHd with * 

Mr. Banerfi upheld oi. ChCiSl iJtl ^ ' p ' / "? I?*** **** ** *** l > 
forgery. p W (4rc ^ 8w9 ' Ke P' * 1W7-8, p. m) that the pint* 



iteod 



TST'o. 11.] GHUGRAHATI COPPEK-PIATE INSCRIPTION ,OF SAMACHAEA DEVA. 75 



other copper-plates 1 of a similar nature had, however, been fotmd in the Faridpur 
district in 1891 and 1892 and been purchased for the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Dr. Hoextale. 
These, after various vicissitudes, were taken in hand 1 by Mr, Pargiter and published in the 
'Indian Antiquary of July, 1910, in a veiy able and critical toticle. The publication of these 
plates necessitated reconsideration of Mi 1 . Banerji's propositions - 9 which he did in an article 
published in the J. A. 8- B., June, 1911. Shortly afterwards, Mr. Pargiter published an article 
in the August, 1911 number of the J. A. 8. J?., which was based on the first article of Mr. 
Banerji and was evidently written before Mr. Pargiter had occasion to see Mr. Banerji's second 
article. In it, Mr. Pargiter very ably defended the genuineness of the Faridpur plates and 
published a revised reading of the GlmgrSMlti plate, which went a long way towards clearing it 
from the aspersion of ambiguity and unintelligibility cast on it by Mr. Banerji* Mr, Pargiter 
also showed, by discussing the paleography of the grant, that it was not spurious, but a per* 
fectly genuine one. Mr. Banerji answered this article in his paper entitled " Four forged 
grants from Faridpur " in J. A. 8. J?,, Dec., 1914, but had no better success than before in 
maintaining his ground, t The recent discovery of five plates from the village of Damodarpur 
in the Dinajpur district of Bengal, and their publication by Prof. B. G. Basak in the 
Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XV, must perhaps induce Mr. Banerji now to reconsider his decision, 
as these plates' bear close family resemblance to the Faridpur plates both as regards palaeography 
and documentary form. In this article I shall not only try to furnish additional reasons, if 
any are at all required, for the recognition of the Faridpur plates as genuine, but also hope 
to identify the Maharajadhir&ja Samachara-dgva as one of the kings who took the place of 
the Guptas in Eastern India towards the end of the 6th Century A. D. It will be seen that in. 
the presentation of the text and translation also, I have been able to improve upon Mr. 
Pargiter's reading "6f the plate in several important points. 

I refrain from giving the usual description of the plates, its orthography, etc., since these 
have been completely dealt with by Messrs. Banerji and Pargiter, but proceed at once to 
give the text which I have read from the original plate, now in the Dacca Museum. Before 
doing so, I give, in brief, the contents of the inscription. It refers itself to the 14th year of 
the reign of a hitherto unknown emperor Samachara-deva who is styled MaharajadhirSja. 
In that year, Jlvadatta was the viceroy or governor in MavyavaksSikS, which appears to 
have been the Divisional head- quarters. The District Officer in the district of Varaka-mandala 
approved by Jlvadatta was Pavittroka. The latter was assisted in his administration by 
a District Court presided over by the Judge Damuka. The affairs ' of the village or 
locality to which thia refers, were in the joint care of a number of Elders (VisMya-Mahattar&ty, 
of whom six are mentioned as in the second plate of DharmmSditya (Ind. Ant:, July, 1910 
p. 200). Other men of experience in the village had also a say in village affairs. These 
represented the villagers and like the Panchayets of the present day, transacted the ordinary 
civil and criminal affairs of the village. 

Supratika Sv&mi, a Brahman, approached the District Court presided over by Damuka as 
well as the Elders* and meb, of experience of the locality and applied for a piece of waste land of 
that locality for settling himself on it- The Elders and the men of experience decided to give 
Mm the piece of land free of any consideration, and after authorising KSfiava, RTayaniga and 

........................ "" " ................................ * ........... "; .................................................................. :;"; ............ iv; ............. n ..... . ..................... ""r .............. ^ ............ ............................................... ' ...... ' ..................... .......... ' ...... " ........... ' " ' ' ....... 

1 All my attempts at determining' the exact ilnd-pot of these three plates have hitherto been una vailing 
Dr. Christie, Honorary Secretary to the Asiatic Society of Bengal* in his letter No. 2234 of the 26fcb j^ptember, 
1919> informed me that the plates had originally belonged to one Fohiljad^in ai^d were purchased from Alnlul Kak 
Abid, but he could tiot tell me in which particular village the plates were found. 

a Itdeservea to he noted, aa already noted by Mr, Pargiter, that the name-endings of .these Elders were Kiwj<Ja, 
Pfclita, Ghoalia, Patta and l>asft, all o which are to be met with in the surnames of the present day Kayattha* 
and Navafakhas of -cBeugal, 



76 EPIGRAPHIA INDlCA, [Vot. XVIIT. 



others to mature the transaction on their behalf gave the pieee of laud to Wupratlka SvSral. 
The transaction was ratified by the District Court by the wo of a eoppor-plaU) dpd. The 
measurement o the land, which was situated in the village of Vyatfhriwhflraka, IH not given: 
bnt it included the whole of that place, minus three kiilyavftpat, which had already len granted 
to some one else and which were, therefore, separated before the present, grout was made. 



TEXT. 1 

Obverse. 



2 
3 



6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

11 
12 



1 From the original plate. 
s Head Jeamala. 



5^6 wc-ond a looks Uke a to and k probably a sign for doubling. 



'[Bead i^ ft^ -Bd 

* 



. .r^^T.^r^rr " rT? * - - ~- 



th. 



No. 11.] GHTJGRAHATI COPPER-PLA.1?E INSCRIPTION OP SAMACHARA-DEVA, 77 

Baverae* 

13 



*u 

16 
16 

J_ / "mSSii IHK^" I 'SBi ^"flSf 9K1"X3'B 3Mf SBHWIP^Ot ^"HSff ZM I W"^"!I^ I ?SM'<! ajgy my i "jgufB* ^| IBB"! "3|(BL:'-3gyi!ri* yrrf"'3!S HfK k *^ w "'5fflr'3ffl > -^* 

18 
19 
20 
21 
22 



23 ^['g tng^ H ^T^ ^o 8 gRTfil fg V 1 H 



x The word, as Mr. Pargiter very reasonably brought out, Is undoubtedly stimsmrtya* but tbe projection o 
the perpendicular stroke of $a upwards, cannot be taken as an anusvara as the other #a* in this incrtption foave 
Iso tbis peculiarity. The anusvara over aa seems to bave been Sleft out through the engraver's mistakes. [The 
reading is ^ssm and no * ^fWW. I *> n t see the y=sign of ^ on the impression Ed.] 

8 Mr, Pargiter*s suggestion of $&&{$ here as the irregular instrumental case of the numeral $ba$k is inadmli^ 
sible, as it would give sJiaskd. The second letter of the word looks like &abut it has also a very close resemblance 
to pa, occurring in the same line. If ifc ia a la which has in no other place been used in this plate, it Is an incorrect 
use, as the word avafa,) meaning hole, is spelt with v and not 6* The letter may, however, be either p or sJ& and 
should be emended to v. 

8 Bead dharmmartha. The <5 mark is left out. Mr. P arbiter's suggestion, that the word is IMvyavtlq 
cannut stand. The letters clearly read d&ammdrt&a, the doubling of m being indicated by a peculiar stroke (vide 
suvaryw. ^ 1 3). The tube which makea the double m is broken. It is not the sign which is used in. doubling 

for in other cases of double m in the inscription it in not seen. Ed.) 

4 The second letter om this line is clearly tu* The first letter hm certainly been ill-formed &od the 
and the most probable emendation is ya. 

* Read kfitt<*\ 

9 Bead JBrdhmanaya 



Read 
g Head 



w- Omit *. 

^ Bend garvnma. Mma is not wjp^ as Mr. Pnrgiter takes it to be. Of. dJiarmma on line 14. 

111 The wmrd is Xjo^crA and not JcenaJi. The right stroke of o over /^ is represented by a series of short shallow 
strokes* which are clearly visible on the original plate. Neither Mr. Banter ji aor Mr. Fargiter observed thti$$ 
strokes, and thus missed some very important historical information furnished by the plate. 

i* Read uztf arenot. 

**Read *Aa*ftft'0i tanAa. 

19 Read svadattaih paradattdm va. 

w Mr, Pargiter read %, but there 10 no justification for it. The right homonftal stroke in tk middle^ 
inakes w, is absent. 

18 Read 

* Read 

^ Read 

41 The figure is 2 and not 1. Both Mr. Baaorji and Mr. Parglter have overlooked Ih&t thwa ig t symbol likt 
ir omma [Possibly it is not itatentiomai &.] below the uiual marl; for 1 which wakes the figure I* 



No. 11.] GHUGBAEATI COPPEE-PLATE INSCEIPTION OF SAMACHAUA-DEVA. 7 : ft 



-st 



(Liues 12 17*) Wherefore, the above-enumerated Elders and others who were skilled in 
Law, receiving this petition and calling to mind (the following ttoka') : * The land which is full 
of pits and which is infested with wild beasts, is unpx^ofitaTble to the king "both as regards, 
revenue and religious merit. That land, if made capable of being used, does bring revenue and 
merit to the king himself ' ; and having decided ' Let it be given to this Brahmana ' and 
having recognised (i.e. constituted) the Karanikas Naya-Naga, Kesava and others as the repre- 
sentatives of the public 1 and having separated the three huly a sowing areas 2 of land previously 
granted away by a copper-plate, (the aforesaid gentlemen) established the land that remained 
in "Vyaghra-choraka by the issue of a copper-plate, after the demarcation of boundaries, as 
being (henceforward) in the possession of this Supratlka Sv^mL 

(Lines 18 20.) And the boundary indications are these : On the east, the goblin haunted 
Parkkafcti tree; on the south, the Vidyadhara Jotika 3 ; on the west, the corner of Chandra- 
varmman's fort; on the north, the boundary of the village Gftpndra-eh5raba. 

(Linos 20 23.) And here apply the verses : The grantor of land delights in heaven for 
sixty thousand years. The confiscate!' or one who approves of confiscation resides in hell f<?r an 
equal number of years. Whoever takes away land granted by himself or others becomes worm 
in his own ordure and rots there along with his ancestors. 

The year 14, the 2od day of Karttika. 

Now, I propose to discuss the various issues raised by the inscinption. The first point is the 
determination of the identity of Sam&chsra-deva, 

Mr. Pargiter has pointed out that even if the grant were spurious, no forger would be so 
foolish as to date it in the reign of a king who never existed (J. A, S. JB M August, 1911, p. 499), 
We can adthxce gtronger proofs of his existence, I refer to the two gold coins-, described as 
* Uncertain' on pp. 120 and 122 of the Catalogue of tVnW, L M. C M Vol. I, and illustrated as 
NOB, 11 and 18 on Plate XVI. They are both of gold (considerably alloyed with silver). One 
of them, of the Rajalila type, was f ound near Muhamnmclpnr in the Jessore distiict of Bengal 
along with a gold coin of Saftnka, and another gold coin of the light-weight " Imitation Gupta' 1 
type, as well as Bilver coins of Chandra- Gupta, Skonda-Gupta and Kumara- Gupta (Allan, Cata- 
logue of Qupta Cains, IntrocL, Sec, 171, and /, J, 8. B., 1852, Plate XII), The provenance of 
the other coin in unknown. It is of the .common Archer Type of Gupta coins. The king's name 
occurs below the right arm, of the king, A letter occurs between the feet of 'the king which Dr. 
Smith recognineci as Oha. The reverse legend is recognised as Narendra-Vmata with some hesita- 
tion* Of the Rajnlila coin, he read the name of the king on tlie obverse as Tamadha written 
in characters of the close of the sixth century A, D, and the reverse legend as Nar^ndradltya. 
Mr. Allan, in his Catalogue of Gupta Coins, attributes the * Archer Type * coin to a period earlitT 
than that of Sa$iika (Intro,, p. LXI), and, from the supplanting of the Garuda Standard of the 
Guptas by the Bull Standard on thin coin, surmises that the coin was of a devout Sawa, The 

1 Mr. Pargitor explains fadavdran as referees or arbitrators. The word is composed of two section* f fada and, 
?$ra; the former means the chief, the head; and the latter means the common populace, the public. Hence th 
Meaning- * the chief men of the people * 

2 As much land as could be sown by a Icula (winnowing baslet) full o seed. The term Kudavft, eqnivalenb to 
Bigha, the most current land-measure in Bengal, appears to be a corruption of the term ftulyanapa. The name 
aurvivea In the form of Kitlavdya (^gjefrsr)* the name of the standard land-measure ia the Sylhet District. 

* Mr. Pargiter explains Jotilcd a equivalent to Bengali Jot> meaning cultivating tenure, This & hardly 
defensible, though the word 5s a derivative form Jota. Jot is iuos*t likely derived from the Sanskrit wovd 4 y<xwtfa*r<.r ; 
which means, one's exclusive private property, any property in guiuiMl. The word Jofa IB derived from the r6x>t; 
Jwto come together* Jota is still a very common word in Bengali, meaning uiiion or coming together. The term 
yotifca, with the shortened form.f'efa, occurs also in the IOi^lohpur*grant of Dharmmapaladeva (flip. Jw*., Vol. I V, 
p. 24^ toxt 11 36 f,). Keferencti in to the corcecled reading of the plate in &M($alkfwmal& b> Mr. A, JiT. 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [Voi. XVHI. 




(Lines 1 to .) May success attend.* May welfare accrue.* While tho 
<the supreme lord of kings), SamSehara-deva, who is without, , rival on thin earth and who is 
equal ID prowess tb Nriga^ahusha, Tayati and Ambarteha.--!* (ruling) ixi splendour, Jmdatta, 
of the intimate class of servants (of his Majesty), master of the bullion market,* (flourished as 
governor) in Nayyavakasika* through paying court to the twin lotuH-Hko feot of that monarch 
(Samaohara-deva) and the district officer in (the district of) Viraka-ma^ala, 6 approved 
of him (Jlva-datta),.(was) Pavittraka. 

(Lines 5 to 11.) While he (Pavittruka) was administering, whoroaw hiw Dwtriot Court presided 
over hy the Chief Judge (Jy^htJuSdhiJuar^ika) DSmufea, as well as the Elder* Vatsa-Kunda, the 
Elder uchi-Palita, the Elder Vihita Ghosha, (the Elder) 8ara-l)n[tfco,], the Elder Priya-Datta, 
.tne Elder Janarddana-Kunda and others in charge of affaira 7 (of tho village in question), and 
maBynfther leading gentleaaaen (of the village) skilled in Law 8 wore apprised by Supratlfca Svftml 
(thus) : _ I wish through your honours' favour for a piece of waste lutid which has long lain 
negteeted, for the esfcaHishtment of Salt, Qbaru and /Sa^ra 9 , (tlms) getting it to be of use to a 
Brahmana; do ye favour me (math it) by issuing a copper-plate deed, 



symbol at the btgramng sea my wwiark f ^bov^ Vol. XV II* p* 
force <$ jfche w^d ^ot4< feettot t^ tt>* ww*l * H 1I f * 

m,ry or attasrwtas PJtki mmnn a TO a 
a shop in the market; and benoe I have translated the j^iraao Iitrf41y aw libm*. The rml titles how6vr may have 
* Jiaster of 4ihe Mint or Treasury *, 

4 NavyavaJcafikd was, without doubt, the Divhional hejul-quartcirH. 

The name of the 'district was Varaka-inaxidala, The cxpiYrums inch m l^raJta^maf^a/i ^i^Ava^a^- 
VdrakamandalavishayadkikaraTMtya suggest that the uamo of th0 ^i>jla t fa ltti!f WM Vftraka-inaa- 
From a atady of 'the Bengal plates, it appears that bhukti wan ilm krgMt territorial diviHion of a 
kinjdoBaiit was divided into a naoaher of wskayaa oir dtotrieti TheiM wdr0 Efalu divided ittto afi^aia* or 
cjrcles, which were again sometimes sah-divided into kban$al'a3 or }K^rtn. 

- ifaXaZtara is a title, sotnething like the * Honourable 1 of the present day* It { of ffi^qwmt we ixi ftt, 
Isj^ntfphsollJhls period and survives in tiae term iMT^ Mb applied to vilkga RUm clc*wn to th jtmimt day. Jft 
canie with it Jhe idea of dignity and superior worth and may ftdequtely tor tmBibtolby tlio term Bldftr. [Im Tamil 
thol iuBcriptionB of the llth Century, we Have the correspotidltif tttld pwmd&mm w pernn$&rum coftlwnt on 
officers and other private persons (^. X Inters*) Vol. II, p. 98, 141, *tcu~BML] 

' F*^a^a-3faAaara has nothing to do with the territorial dfoblon FitAayoi. FMa^a hmi rniNWl affaln* 
Compare the phraseology of this part of the present ded with the Mtond pUttt of Ohnrmldity^ t>i f A 
JyeshtTm-kaya^tha^lSrayaaenapmmukhamadhikara^am Mahattera Sdmaglidsl^immfemrllac^ 
tara vijfiaptafc. These deeds were the issues of a District Court, namely that of the dtotrtat of 
Mahattaras cannot reasomahly he supposed to have jurisdiction fa dlitrleto other thm ttw dlitrldt of 
as visUqawm, used in the plutral number, would indicate. If, tMayn wwt to ttefttt, * a dbfartot % hart- 

a* here becomes a plain word meaning ^affairs V [In the fart pUte of Dbniildltya ft Ttry kr number of 
w 'the le^ngf mcfti of ihe distrU* are iweBtlondi in emveottw with ft grtmt lathe my MWM 
ferbaps i?tV%a-^^^a like wa&a^ara w^ ^ fcltU without nny ptrtlMlw Werenee to n 
I* ow inscription Vatsa-Knh4a may We been a patriot Uld0r (TUhftju-Mfthftttam) In thie aeoie, whfl 
the others were only ordinary MahaHam (mdew) that formed a s*T*W far fee MeMlcm, Mug tht * leidlw men * of 
the village, they were not necessarily men of law (vyav<h$riw%)* B4] 

'Thetedmic^^ aw ftfc ^ ^^ 

in law and legal procedure, 

*?>'** w^hwrthaWm ha ^tomanee of the fiv gmt sacriflco. 

ogrtto I. called JlroAwair^iU or 
' ftd to dl flMtam-JMU or 
h 8ml, 8rd 



<. 



EPIGEUPHIA JtfDlCA. [Vox,. XVllf 



Hue's, name lie reads hesitatingly (Sec. 165) as Saha or Samdcha or Yamacha, and thus wants 
to connect It with the Eajalila coin OB which he reads the king's name a^s Yam&cha. The reverse 
lee/end lie reads on both the coins as Narendraditya. 

In the Arcl&ological Survey Report for 1913-14, Mr. R, D 6 Bauer ji discusses these two 
coins again. He observes that the name of the king on the obverse of both the ooixis is the 
same, viz. YamS. The reverse legend is read as Narendravinata. 

A careful study of the two coins will convince any scholar that the name of the king ia 
the same on both the coins and it cannot be read as anything else than Samaska (**wn^0 and 
the reading is confirmed when we come to know of a contemporary king Samaehara-tleva by 
name, whose capper-plate inscription was discovered not far from the find-spot of one of these 
coins (the Eajalila coin) and the lettering of whose name, as written on his copper-plate, closely 
agrees to the lett&ring on these cows. The coins may therefore be assigned to Samachftra* 
deva of the Ghugrahati plate and they furnish proofs, hitherto wanting, of his existence and 
reign and of the genuineness of the Qiuigrahati plate. These coins may be described thus : - 

Ho. 1. Coin of Samachara dgva; allayed gold; provenance unknown; wt. 14 8" 2 gr. 
Diameter *9 in. 

Obv. : The king, in traditional Gupta dress, standing in the Tribhanga pose with a halo 
round the head, to the left of which curls are shown. He has a necklace of pearls. A bow is 
shown in the left hand, while the right hand is offering incense at an altar. Below the left hand, 
in characters of the close of the sixth century A. D., ia found flfamff; between the feet is ch&, and 
above the Bull of the Standard, probably ra. The a in ma is a superscript angular stroke and 
tbft a in oka is a short perpendicular stroke to the proper left, exactly as found on the 
Ghngrfthati plate of Samachara-deYa ; "but in this plate aha has the angular stroke and r/i& the 
perpendicular one. These methods of marking 8 appear to he indiscriminate. 

To the right of the kwg appears a standard surmounted "by a bull. The Bull Standard 
wo aid indicate that the king was a devout Saiva and belonged to a line different from the 
Gupta line so long predominant. 

Reverse :~A goddess, nimbate, seated on a full-blown lotus with a lotus bud in her left hand 
and a noose in the right. To the right of the head of the goddess is seen what appears to be 
aa Indistinct monogram and on the left margin occurs the legend NarSndravinata. 

No, 2. Coin of Samachara-deva; alloyed gold; slightly purer than No. 1; wt. 149 gr. 

Diameter '8 in. 

Obv, : The king, nimhate, sitting on a couch in (for coins) a unique Eajalila pose, and 
looking to Ms right. His left hand is raised as if to fondle the female figure standing to the 
16ft by touching her chin. The right hand is placed on the hip. Above the left hand occur 
6a ma, below the conch otaand beneath the feet of the female figure to the right of the fcinir, 





Reverse : Goddess Sarasvati,* nimbate, standing on a lotus bud in Tribhanga pose aiul 
luokmg to her nght; the left hand rests on a lotus, while- the goddess draws another Iptnt 
towards lier face with her right hand. A lotus bud is on a stalk below the bend of the right hand, 
telow winch agarn is a Ha*** (swan) with neck stretched upwards. On tie left margin occurs 
toe legend Aarfndravinata. The reverse type ia also unique. 

Some wnolnsionfl force themselves upon the careful observer of these t^o coins : 

(I) Tke kmg wa^ certainly not of the Gupta lineage, though he may well have been a 

esB of the Guptas in the dominions where the Guptas had once held sway. 



No. 11.] GHUGBAEAT1 COPPER- PLATE INSCRIPTION OF SAMACHARA-DJilV'A. 81 

(2) Samachara must, on palseographic grounds , be placed earlier than Sasaiika in chrono- 
logy ; also because there Is no place for Samachara In chronology after Sa&inka* whose immediate 
successors in Eastern India were rirst Harsha and then Aclityji-Sena and his descendants. 

(3) He was a devout Saiva. The cuiitinuance of the Bull Symbol by Stisanka, as well as 
ike facts (a) that the Rajalila coin was found with a coin of Sasaiika, (6) that Sasanka^s 
lineage and parentage have netfer yet been satisfactorily established, maSce it almost certain that 
Samaehara was a predecessor of SasSnka In tlie kingdom of Gaudaand of tiie same lineage, 
perhaps Ms father. 

(4) The Rajalila coin may be later than the other coin, as it shows a distinctly greatei* 
change from the almost conventional type of the latter. 

Two other kings stand connected with Samachara-deva, viz. Maharajtidhiraja Oharmtna- 
dityaand Maharajadhiraja Gflpa- Chandra of the Faridpur plates published by Isir. Purgiter, In 
order, therefore, to losate the position of these kings in the chronology of tiie country, it is 
necessary to clear tip, if possible, some doubtful points ixl the chronology of the Gupta kings 
and their successors during the sixth century A.D. The publication by Prof. Basak of the five 
plates of the Gupta kings Kumara- G-upta, Budha- Gupta and Bhana (P)-Grupta (Above, Vol. 
XV., No. 7) has given all students into rested, the opportunity of rediscussing the matter. 

The evidence of the Bharsar hoard (Allan, Q-upt A Coins, Intro., li), in which coins of 
Bamudra-Qupta, Chandra-Gupta II, Kumara- Gupta I, Skanda- Gupta and Prakasaditya were 
found buried together, made possible the natural deduction that Prakasaciitya succeeded 
Skanda-Gupta and the hoard was buried in Prukasaditya's reign. No one has yet succeeded 
in solving the problem who this Prakasaditya was, and the purity of gold in his gold coins has 
been a puzzle. It may be now: accepted that Kumara- Gupta II was the SOIL and successor of 
Skanda- Gupta and so we must see if he cam be connected with the coins bearing the legend 
Prakasaditya. These coins are all o the * horseman ' type and the letter which signifies the 
kind's name on the obverse has been taken to be an otherwise inexplicable Bu (Allan, pp. 
135^36, Plate XXII, Nos, 1-6), I think,- however, that this reading will have to, be revised. 
The letter on coin No. 1 is almost certainly Ku 9 the matra, or the top horizontal line being very 
prominent, though unfortunately mixed up with a band hanging from the saddle of the horse, 
On coins Nos. 3 and 4, -this letter is indistinct, while on coins 2 and 6 the letter certainly look 
like TU. The letter on coin No. 5 has been made in one stroke, thus ^tj and it is hardly 
possible to read it as . This, I think, will have to be taken as KM, and the letters on Nos. 2 
and 6 also as Ku, 9 executed as badly as the horse and the horseman on the coins are. 

Several scholars have attempted to identify this Kumara- Gupta with Kum,ra-Gupta, 
the son and successor of Narasimha- Gupta, and to thrust in the reigns of Nara and Pura 
between G.E. 148467 A.D., the last known date of Skanda-Gupta, and G.E. 154=473 A.D., 
the first known date of Kumara-Oupta. By this arrangement, Budha and Bhanu are to be 
placed after Pura, Nara and Kumara, This is a rather risky proposal There is no certainty 
that 467 A.D. is the last date of Skanda. Similarly 473 A.D, may not be the first fate of 
umara. If these two date approach, each other by even one year, Pura and Kara have barely 
four years left between them. The find of coins, which, presupposes their currency in a locality, 
is more or lens a sure measure of the importance and Duration of the reign of kings represented by 
them and the extent of their kingdom. The British Museum Catalogue describes 12 coins and 
the Indian Museum Catalogue 6 coins of Nara ; 4 and 3 coins respectively of Pura are described 
in the British Museum Catalogue and in the Lucknow Museum Catalogue. I have seen a num- 
ber of coins of Nara in the Nahar Collections of Calcutta and in the collection of the Vanglya 
Sahitya Parishajb of Calcutta, Some more coins of "Nara are to be found in the possession of 
Eai M-ritynnjay Chondhnri Bahadur of JRangpur. To ascribe a reign of only two or three yeara 



EPIGBAPHTA IH-DtCA. [VoL. XVIII- 



-- -^^_>--- 

Lo a km* of anch widely dis^^ The next king, Kumara, 

bflonght to be thrust in between .the years 473 and 477 A. D., has also 18 coins described in 
the B. M. C. and three in that of* the Indian MUBOUBI. 

Pura and- Kara were undoubtedly succesHora to the G'npfci throne, at a time which, we 
hare yet to determine, with very much diminished power and territory. Their coins have beer* 
found exclusively in Eastern India and it is hardly reasonable to place a real emperor like 
Budlia after Pura and.Nara who were perhaps only kings of Eastern India. 

Karasimha-Gupta Baladitya is generally credited with standing against Mihiratula in 
Magadha. The claims of BO other Baladitya have yet been substantiated. Mihirakula cannot 
be put earlier than* the beginning of the sixth century A.D. ami the proposition to pixt 
Baladitya between circa 470 and 473 A,D. makers him precede Mihiralcula by half-a-centuiy. 

IVom the Haraha inscription (Above, Vol. XIV, No. 5), Sarvvtxvarmman and his son 
Arautivarmman's date can be put as 5(50 A.D. onwards. Tu the Deo- Bamark inscription .of 
Jiyita-Supta, the Par amefvara Baladitya is spoken of as preceding Sarvvavtirniman and Avanfci- 
varmman. Sarrvavarinman, the father of Avautivarmman, WSIH the immediate predecessor 
of the latter, and the presumption is thai Baladitya also preeoded Sitrvvsivarinman closely, 
gay, by not more than a generation. Thj fits in. well if liulfulitya's date is ciroit 530 A, t>. 
But Baladitya becomes too far off from Barvvavnrnnuan if lio i,s put at 470 A.D. 

Again, the history of the founding of the Nalancla nioiuiHttn-y, as rei^ordcd: by Yuan Chwanjj 
Li evidently rather confused. But the ineniion of Budha-Gupla as a predoceswor of Baladitva. 
is significant, and is, in my opinion, iu true chrouolojjicjal or'ilur. 

Knm&ra- Gupta II was succeeded on the invp(jrial Uirouo by Biulha-Gupta probably about 
G;E. 157=476 A.D,, as the Sarnath inscription of Biulha-Ciupia in (luted G.E. 158 = 477 A. I >* 
Here, again, his relationship with hi predecessor i.s not known, but until evidence is producoil 
to tlie contrary, we may take him aft Kumara-GupUi I I'M son. 

The latest date on the silver coins of Tludha Cluptji !H 0. K. 175=40 I A.D. (Allan, No. 617). 

The next king,, Bhauu- Gupta, who from IHH suum* (Hhann and Hudha are both naraew of 
planets) 1 appears to have been a brother of liu<l!m*U u]tji, may bo tentatively taken to have 
come to the throne in G.EL 177=495 A, IX 

The Huna under Toramana were hy this time propuring to <uiitet with the Gnptas, tlio 
sovereignty of India. In G.fi, 165 = 484 A,D. Uic t\va brothers Mairi- ViHlum and Dhanyji,- 
Vislinu, who were local rulers of Krai; T had arkuovvlod^od the Huw^miuty of Biidha-Gnpta 
(Fleet's Qupta Inscriptions, p, 88). lint in tho Kran Boar inscription of Dhanya-Vishntx 
the interval between which and the pillar iuNoription caunoi. \vry wtdl b<5 more than 25 yoar, 
the suzerain acknowledged is Tdraraana in M'hoso (Jrst. year- tin; 'Hosir \va iustalled. TSramaiia, 
must have ousted the Guptas from thc.se partw in the CORI-HO of th<>Ho 25 or iJ<> yeara, 

The memorial Eran inscription of G^paraja of C.K. 191 =510 A.I), gives a clue to tlie 
situation. Tie inscription mentions that GflpavAjii wan killod ai- Wra,n while fighting a gre^^t 
tattle, paobably with, the Hum under Tflmmftna, in , tho <>m]>any of tho br&ve 
and allies. 



i[This inference based OB the names of plants w liof; nafis factory. ' Mil.] 

Tlie exact year of ToramEua's aocopsion to tlio kinship of the luiliuu dominions of tho Wliite Huns i mot 
T S W t 9 ^^ of thH Era-ii iiiHiTipiioii of Budha*Gupta which 

iBentjons Matr: Vishnu as the local kin* rei^ain^ while Dhanytt-VMmfi wa his youn^r brother. In tho Eran Boar 
inscription of the first year of T5ramana, Dli^ya- Vishnu w tho U,<< , 1 kin^ unii his oldor brotlior Mafcri-Vishrm is u.id 
av , e ^ to heaven - If Toramfi^a aet^ndod tlw tbrono innr,1iaMy afior 484 A. I)., tho battle of Iran in 51O- 
A.U IB which GoparajawaB killed, will havo to bo takm m Bhauu.Gupta'fl attempt, to rogain the former 
m. of the Guptas from the grasp of iGramua or of hb KOU MU.iuikalL 



No. 11.] GHUGRAHATI COPPER-PLATE INSCRIPTION OP SAMAOHAEA-DBVA. 83 



From, the acknowledgment about the same time of "fcte suzerainty ,of the Guptas in the 
eastern parts of the country (modern Central Provinces) by the Parihrjaka Maharajas .and. 
Maharajas of Uchchakalpaj Prof. Basak has -been led to suppose (J5p. TwdL, XV, 7, p. 125) 
that Btianu-Gupta was the victor in the battle in which G5paraja was killed. But I -do not 
think that the supposition is reasonable. The following facts should be considered : 

(i) Goparaja who appears to ha^e been a powerful ally of Bhanu-Gupta was killed in the 
battle, 

(ii) If Bhanu-Gupta were victorious, the fact would certainly have been mentioned. 
Victory lay on the other side, hence the silence and the consolation of some high-sounding 
adjectives. 

(it*) Bhanu-Gupta had evidently lost his former power; for, had he still been the suzerain,, 
the fact would have been mentioned; and the loss of power can only result from defeat iu battle 
in such a situation. 

(iv) The suzerainty of TOramaria is acknowledged by Dhanya-Vishnu, king of Eran, while- 
some years previously he and his elder brother M&tji-- Vishnu had acknowledged Bndha-Gupta 
as the suzerain. 1 

From these it Appears to be clear that th# contest between Bhanu-Gupta and the aggres- 
sive Toramana took place in Era# abo,ut 1.91 G,E.=310 A.D., and that the battle resulted in 
the Gupta Emperor being worsted and having to cede Mal-wa to the invader, Bhanu-Gupta 
was probably killed in action, as was his faithful ally Gfrparaja, and also perhaps Matri Vishnu ; 
or, if Bh^nu-Gupta survived, he is not likely to have survived long. 

Thus from Skanda-Gupta to Bhanu-Gupta we have an unbroken line of succession, 
Where, then, is the place for Pura-Gupta of the Bhittari seal and his line ? Mr, Allan and 
others have assumed that during the latter days of Skanda- Gupta, Pura-Gupta, his brother or 
half-brother, revolted and established an independent principality (Allan, .Intro., See. 62). But 
where was this principality ? We find Budha-Gupta implicitly obeyed from Malwa to Paundra- 
vardhana. Where is the place in which Pura-Gupta or his successors were obeyed ? 

Prof. Basak wrote (Ep. Ind. 9 XV, p. 120) : " But with our present stock of knowledge, 
it is not very easy to indicate the place where the branch line headed by Pura-Gupta may have 
ruled ; , ........... It may be believed that the rulers of the stronger branch may, by 

courtesy and in good-will, have suffered the other branch to rule somewhere in the eastern 
portion of the Gupta empire, perhaps in south Bihar. 11 

Such courtesy to a branch whose origin wa"S in revolt would be, to say the least, impolitic. 
The truth seems to be that Pura-Gupta was a child of four or five 1 when Kumara- Gupta I died 
and Skanda-Gupta succeeded him on the throne, and that the child was brought up in the 
harem,? as his name signifies. When the last king Bhanu-Gupta of the main line died, possibly 
without leaving any a uccessor, this Gupta prince, the grand-uncle of the last two kings, who must 
p.ow have reached an age of &t least 60 years, was called to fill the vacant throne. If subsequent 
researches prove my inference to be correct, a tragedy like the crowning of Pura-Gupta has 
seldom happened in history. 

Prim-Gupta cannot have reigned for more ibaa a few years and the accession of his son 
BfarasiiiiharGupta Baladitya may be dated in 196 G.E.:=5i5 A.D. Mihirakula may have 
succeeded his father at Sabala about this time. 

'W e know from Yuan, Chvvang that Mihirakula invaded the kingdom, of B&laditya, who is 
called king of lf&g&4k$i, In the war that ensued Mihirakula seems to have been taken 



1 [These reasons are not quite convincing, Ed* ] 

* [This does not appear to te a reasonable inference. The author is evidently led to it by Pura, meaning 
Ei] 



8* EPIGEAPHIA INDICA [VOL. XVIII. 

prisoner and condemned to death, but was saved from death by tlie intervention of the mother 
of Baladitya (VatsadevI). This contest may be dated about 525-530 A.D. 1 

I leave out of discussion the position of Yasfldharman and Vishuu-vardhana in chrono- 
logy as it has hardly nuy bearing on the present scheme. 

UTacasiinha-Gupta Baladitya did not probably long survive his victory over Mihirakula, 
and the accession of the next king Kumara- Gupta III may be dated in G-.E. 213=532 A.D. 
The last Damodarpur plate is dated in 214 G.E. and it was issued during the reign of a Gupta 
whose name "uas been broken away. I have reasons to thiuk that he was Kumara-Gupta III 
Prof. Basak supposes that only two letters have been broken a\vay and lost ; but the letter ra, 
the last letter of Kumara, which is simply a perpendicular stroke, does not occupy much 
space, and further discoveries will, I think, show that the Gupta king ruling in the Bast in 
2U G.E. =533 A.D. was Kumara-Gupta III, son of Baladitya. 

On the testimony of the Kalighat hoard 2 which contained coins of Baladitya, Kumara- 
Gupta III, Chandra-Gupta III and Vislirua (Gupta ?)-Ckandraditya > we may take the 
successor of Kumara-Gupta II as Chandra-Gupta III, who appears to have been succeeded by 
one whose name began with Vishnu and whose title was Chandraditya. 3 We cannot Bay 
definitely who this Vishnu was. But there cannot be any doubt that he was . of the imperial 
Gupta line, as the Garuda standard on his coins would signify. 

For the remaining period, until the first established date of Sasafcka in 600 A,D*, Eastern 
India was ruled, as Mr. Pargiter has demonstrated, by the emperors Dharmaditya, &6paChandra 
and Samachara. It has been already pointed out that Samachara was a devotee of Siva ; and 
it does not seem an impossible conjecture that all these kings were related to one another and 
formed a dynasty that took the place of the Guptas in Eastern India. 



TOPOGBAPHY. 

As already pointed out, Varaka-maiidala was the name of the distract. 

About the position of Varaka-mandala I am in substantial agreement with Mr. Pargiter 
and I tl^ink that he is right in thinking that Varendra or Varendrt is derived from the same 
root. The word V&raJca means obstructing, opposing; ma tidal a means a collection of small 
areas. So the word Varaka-wiandala should be taken to mean, an area of land consisting of 
smaller. amis lying between and separating rivers; Varaka may also be taken in the sense of 
'the deltaic land that obstruats and alters the current of a river 1 ; Varaka-mandala would then 
be a group of deltaic areas. Anyway, Va-aka-mandala would be the district round Kotalipa45 
in the present district of Faridpur, almost in the heart of what was anciently known as Vanga, 

Kotalipada is at present a Parganah in the district of Faridpar. The old settlement 
was in and about the old mud fort there, in the vicinity of which the Ghugrahati plate of 
Samachara-deva was found. A number of gold coins of the Gupta emperors have been found 
outside the western par or embankment of the fort. 

1 Prof. H. Koyehandhari's objections to identify Namsiiutia-Gnpta Baladitya with the conqueror of Mihirakula do 
not appear to be very sound (J. A. 8. JB., Vol. XVII, p. 315). Even allowing that Yuan Chwang's statements regard- 
ing Baladitya's predecessors are historically accurate, Tathagata is not stated to be t}\e father of Baladitya nor Budha 
of Tathigata, and there is no mention of immediate succession. Baladitya's son is Ixamara-G'ipta. Yuan Chwaug 
gives Ms name as Vajra ; hut evidently this is a pot name or a, family name* and not the royal name* 

Sec Allan, Intro,, Sec. 166-169 and pagos 137-146. 

1 A stm as well as a muon. A sun of scorching rays to his enemies and e moon of pleasing and cool rays to Ms 



No. 11.] GHUGlUHATIOOPPER-PLAT3BlNSOBlPriONOFSAMACHARA.DEVA. BS 

Kotalipa^a is at present surrounded on all sides by big marshes ; it is inconceivable that any 
saue man could think of * royal settlement in sucli a water-logged area. Bat the big fort is 
there, and brick constructions very often come up unexpectedly from low water-logged places, 
As correctly surmised by some scholars, the low level of Kot-alipidla appears to be the* effect of 
subsidence due to earthquake. We find a new town NiwyavakSfiika springing up during the 
reign of Uharmmaditya which does not seem to have existed in the third year of the same king, 
The presumption is that, about the fifth or sixth year of the reign of Dharmmftditya, owini* 
to an earthquake, marshes be?g*m to form round Kotallpada which had been a flourishing royat 
settlement for the past two centuries and a half, and necessity was felt for shifting the 
gubernatorial head-quarters to some new and safer .site on more settled land* Kotallpada 
continued as a- district head-quarters, but the value of its land decreased so much that we find 
almost a whole village, \vliu-.jt is described as having long lain fallow, given away to a Brahmin 
for uo consideration, 

Where was Hayyavakasfci,, the new Divisional hearl-quarteis ? !NSgadeva had his head- 
quarters at Nuvyiivak&sika, whi >h from the very name appeal's to have "b^en a recently 
founded town during the reigm of Dha-rrnraaditya, in the interval between the plates A and B 
published by Mr. Pargiter. 

AvalcSsa means an opening, an aperture, and its derivative avaMsifea may very veil mean 
a kh&l, a canal, and the whole name Navyavakasika would mean, the place provided with a 
new cunal. There is a place called Sabhar fin the Dacca district which contains imposing ruins 
of a traditional king called Harisehandra. Numerous gold coins of the ' Imitation Gupta $ 
type have been found exclusively from S&bhar* The Dacca Museum cabinet possesses eight 
such coins from Sabhar. Tlie place contains a fort, 250 yards by 190 yards in area. A water 
course breaks ofE from the river Baiigsai about two miles above the place where the fort stands 
and after running through the eastern part of the site 'of the old town, turns to the west ani 
re-enters the river just below tbe southern face of the fort. The canal, which is undoubtedly 
in part artificial, is locally called Katagaaga ' the dugout river '. The ruins of the royal 
palaces and temples are situated on the south-east comer of this enclosure, outside the 
Katagaaga. This old site appears to answer to the name Navyavakl&ka very well. The 
discovery of ' Imitation Gupta * gold coins throughout this site distinguishes it from any other 
aid site in Eastern Bengal and also shows that its foundation goes back to the time we are 
discussing- 

It would thus appear that tbe ruins at Sabhlr may be identified with Navyavakasika. Tin 
word Sa&fcffr, a corruption of Sambhara, means fullness, wealth, affluence. A visit to the 
site will convince anyone that it was a well-planned city of very great affluence surrounded by 
an artificial water-course. The latter might have been the cause of its name Navyivakasika, 
while its subsequent opulence and splendour earned for it the name of Sambhara" Wealth 
and plenty materialised," 

It is easy to prove that Kotalip5da is the older of the two ancient sites. Below we shall 
show that tbe fort at Kotalipada dates from a period previous to the Ghxptes, but the, discovery of 
the gold coins of the Gupta emperors exclusively from this site and only coins of the * Imitation 
Gupta ' tvpe, which were undoubtedly much later currency, from Sabhar tends to show tuat the 
former aito is the more ancient of the two. It is needless to notice in detail the gold . 
discovered at Kotalipada or the 'Imitation Gupta' coins from Sabhar. ^ *>* 
article in the Numismatic Supplement to the J. A. 8. B. It may only be stated 



donee. 



fort there. 

tad h : 6 h sttr v* caiw 'WMM-ta. TW 

T3 tounauy McaZ, of the Za ', T *" "" * "" talet i> *o th. 

.XtakMH.ta.; oa the' S0 utl V^S!!??!!.^ 118 ^ : - ntl ^* *- 

', a Corner of Ohandra" 
'a-olidrakA. 



remembered to have been o 

is supposed to be naunted. By tte north 
two curious parallel ^banked / Oa d7 
,nd the other for the comznon. people 
term Jotika or two roads phoed^er 

place and this was i doubt the G pe 7d, T" eg 

being synonymous. ^P^ra-chsraka of the plate, the 



l4 



* 



^ & * 

' "* 



Tie 



*" 



den ted 

Httle 

Gflvizxda and 



^^ ** handi^the ^ , 

ihe ; b lgge t ancient earthwork known in BeW the n^ ' ^ ^ ea8areS 2 * x 2 ^ M ' le9 ' ] " s 
aBcxent Pau^ravardhana) which i s only 1 (ToO vlT^M* Wg **** &t M **^to (the 
powerful king who ooJ 00^^ ^ mU&t tave 1)ee 



O f 



** 

* eut s 

i !'" i^-fpUon 
witiL his *** ,e 



of 



of the gold coins of Gupta e mp erors 

old as the Guptas. We are at once 

who ' when warring in the Yaa ga 

enemies who uniting together can\e 

(Meet, 0. I. I. p. ! g 41 .; Fta 

asoription whfch is no t dated, and an w 

ibis Ohaud,, with Chanda-a-Gup'ta II.^H^^^^-t^ ** * 

Chandra with Chandravarmman-son of S^" ^P** 4 Sa t*i Ba. identified this 

inscription,- who was finally oveXown h T^ Pusllfcara ^ * "> ^usuniil Hill 

in Vadga, s, dhaniavl *]M~m*it&*,' w ho 

o(tha 




identificatioB is nofe convincing _Bd 



No. 12.] JODBPUE INSCRIPTION OF PRATIHABA BAUKA ; V. S. 894 81 

No. 12. JODHPUH INSCRIPTION OF PRATIHAEA BAUKA; V. S. 894. 

Br R. 0. MAJUMJUR, MJL, PH.D., DACCA. 

This inscription was first edited, without any translation and facsimile, by MunsM 
Deviprasad of Jodhpur in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society^ 1894, pp. 1 ff. I re-edit it 
fit the fiuggestion of, and from an estaxnpage kindly supplied to* me by Professor D, R. B bandar* 
kar. The stone which bears this inscription was discovered about 1892, in the wall surrounding 
the city of Jodhpnr, but, as Professor Bhandarkar suggests, it was probably brought there 
from Mandor, five miles to the north of the city. 1 

The inscription consists of twenty-two lines of writing which cover a space of about 2 ; -10^ 
broad by 2'~1|" high. It is generally in a good state of preservation, although some letters have 
peeled off here and there. The engraving is remarkably excellent, The size of the letters is 
between f " and f. The characters are of the type used in the inscriptions of the Imperial 
Pratlhara dynasty, but the following peculiarities may be noted ; 

The triangle at the light lower end of JcK is represented by a simple wedge. Both the 
forms of n illustrated in Butler's Chart' (V, 24. II, III,) are used. JVis formed by a distinct 
loop, as in the Dighwa-Dubaull plate 2 . The forms of -bh and s resemble those of the Fehoa 
Prasasti 3 and are different from those used in the Gwalior inscription of Bhsja I 4 . 

The language is Sanskrit ; and excepting the benedictory formula ** Orfi namo VishnavS^ 
at the beginning, and the date and the engraver's name at the end, the inscription is written 
in verse. As Munshi Deviprasad remarks, "the language offers some serious blunders.** 
Thus we have dhwiam and varidaj&m in v. 8, where the anusvara stands for the final n* 
Similar errors also occur in Y. 27. Tyajya for tyaktva, stambhya for skmibliitva, and prahatvS 
for prahatya occur in 11. 17 and 15, respectively. Other Instances will be noticed in their proper 
places ; but it,' appears that the write* was influenced by the idioms of the Prakrit language, which, 
as the Ohabiyala inscription of Kakkuka 5 shows, was also used in official documents, about this 
period. As regards orthography we have to noticse (1) the regular use of the proper sign for 
the letter 6 ; (2) the use of upadhm&nlya before p (e.g. in vak**payad in L 1) ; (3) the doub- 
ling of $ in place of visarga (e.g* in yatas*=sarga in 1. 1) ; (4) the use of the guttural nasal in- 
stead of anusv&ra before ^ (e.y. in -wzrirfa" in L 2) ; (5) doubling of k and t in conjunction with, 
a following r (e.g. in -vikkrain&nvit&n and "bhr&ttra in L 2) ; (6) the doubling of ' consonants 
after r (e.g. in 4argg& 9 1. 1) ; but note the use of single v and y after- r (&$. in pfrdttJiftryatig 
in 1. 3 'and ^r-virachitam in 1. 19) ; and (7) the use of ttri for M (in JesJiattfiyS in 1L 3 and 4)\ 

The inscription records in the last five verses (27 to 31) the military exploits of a Frst!* 
hSra chief called Bauka and gives in vv. 4 to 26 an account of the dynasty, to "which he 
belonged. The eulogy of Bauka as described in the record seems to suggest that Bauka 
must have been away on a career of conquest when his kingdom was attacked by a confedera* 
cy of kings. His own partisans were unable to stand the fight and brok& into' disOKbx 1 , wheu 
B&uka suddenly appeared on the scene, rallied his men and gained a -complete vidt6ry. This 
teroic feat that saved tie countzy from a great disaster 'is the nstain thome of the ' iil#<5rip 



1 Progre** Export of the Arehtfologwal Sitrwg of India, Western Circle, 

* Ind, Ant. VoL XV, p, 112. 
Ep. Ind. Vol. I, p 244. 

4 PablWirf below as No. 13. 

Above, Vol. IX, pp. 277 ff, 



S8 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIII. 



The? iuacription supplies us with the following genealogy of Baukgu 

Haiichandra Rtfhilladcihij 

a Brahinana, 



By liis unnamed BrShmaaa 
wife 



By Bhadra, hie 
Kshatriya wiie 



The Pratlhara Bralmianas Bhtigabhata Kakka Bajjila Dadda 

I 

Narabhata 
otherwise called PellapeHi* 

Nagnbhata 
m. Jajjikade?!, 



Tata 
Tasdvardhaua 

Chanduka 

Siluka 

I 
Jhdta 

Bhilladitya 

Kakka 
By queen Padminl _ _J __ By queen Durlabhadevl 1 

I ' 

Bftuka Kakkuka 

The GhatiyalS Inscriptions of the Pratihaia Kakkuka, dated in the Vikrama year 018,* 
confirm the above genealogy, although in two cases the rames are slightly modified such 
as Sillnka for Siluka, and Bhilluka for Bhilladitya. As these inscriptions trace only the 
direct line of descent, they omit the names of tie three brothers of Bajjila and of the brother of 
Tata but add a new name to th dynastic list, mz n that of Kakkaka, the eon of Kakka and 
Dnrlabhadevi. Kakkuka was thus a step-brother of Bauka. 

The foundation of th dynasty is thus ascribed to a Brahman who married two wives 
from two different castes. This is ?ery interesting from a social point of view. 3 His sons 
are credited with the conquest of Ms^LcJayyapura (modem Mandor) where, as already observed 
the atone must hare been originally put up. The graadson of one of them fixed his capital at 
the city of !Ce4antaka 9 which, as Munshl Deviprasad remarks, is possibly represented by the 
town Herta in M&rwar 4 . Shortly after this the military ardour of the family gives way to a 



mamas Durkbh&devi and Kakkuka are taken from the Qt&atiya|i i&scriptkmg. 

* JT. , A. & 28$$> p. 513 if 5 JPp. Ind, Vol. IX, pp. 277 ff. 

@ [JfaftttMBf/tf (III. 13) allows a Biihioaqa to mairy aon*!BisliiDa3Qa women- * Ed,] 

* J. JB. A. 8. 1894, p. 8, 



No. 12,] JODHPUR INSCRIPTION OF PRATIHAR A. BAtTKA : V. S. 894, 89 

religious one, and tfce next king Tata spent his last days in a hermitage. His three successors 
seein, no doubt, to have "been powerful rulers, but his example was followed by the ,next two 
kings who spent the last part of their lives on the banks of the Gauges. Kakkft, tlie successor 
of the last of them, is described to have fought with the people of B.engal (Gauda) in distant 
Monghyr, and the full significance of this will be explained later on. His successor Bauka 
who is the hero of the inscription, defeated a king named MayOra. 

The date of the inscription has given rise to much discussion. Manshi Deviprasad who 
originally edited the inscription read the figures as 940 but Kielhorn held that there is only one 
numeral figure, which is 4 and read the whole as Samvat 4. 1 Professor D. R. Bhandarkar 8 
reads the date as Sam 894. He reads the letter following Sam as vra and takes it to be a sign 
for 8. 

As regards Kielhorn's view I entirely agree with Professor D. R Bhandarkar that what 
the former reads as vva is more like vra and that the sign which he reads as t denotes the 
cipher for 9. There is also undoubtedly much force in the learned Professor's contention "that 
there can be no question that ma also is a sign for some integer and that it may be taken as 
equivalent to 8," although as he himself admits, vra has never been so far found to represent 
the integer 8. Apart from the arguments advanced by him, there is one consideration which is 
decidedly in favour of his view, and seems to me to be fatal to Munshi Deviprasad's contention. 
If the date of the record be 940 Samvat, as the latter holds, Bauka must be looked upon as a 
younger brother and successor of Kakkuka. It is, therefore, inconceivable that his name should 
have been omitted from, the dynastic list of our inscription which retains the names of collateral 
kinws of earlier generations. On the other hand, as Kakkuka's inscriptions do nob refer to any 
collateral king at all, it cannot be a matter of surprise that Bauka's name is not mentioned 
therein. On the whole, therefore, I am inclined to think that Bauka was the earlier prince and 
that the date of the inscription is Samvat 894 or 837 A.D. as read by Professor Bhandarkar. 

The historical Importance of the inscription is very great* It gives us a line of chiefs 
extending over twelve generations. Taking twenty-five ym,rs as average for each generation 
the total reign-period of the dynasty would be about 300 years. 3 

As the dates of Kakknka and Bauka, representing the twelfth generation of kings, are 
respectively 861 and 837 A. D., Harichandra, the founder of the dynasty may be placed at 
about 550 A. I). The Imperial Pratlhara dynasty, however, cannot be traced back beyond the 
beginning of the eighth century A. D.* So far, therefore, as the available evidence goes, 
Harichandra must be looked upon as the earliest Pratlhara chief. The verse 5 of our iiiscrip- 

1 J. 22 1 A. S. 189*, p. 9, 

2 Progress R&port Arch. Surv. W. Circle, 1906-07, p. SO. 

8 Dr. Ifoerule remarks : "The fcwo half-brothers Kakkuka and Bauka formed the twelfth get7cration of the 
Parihar dynasty. This fact, r.fc the usual rate of twenty years for n reigti, will place Harichandra, the founder of 
the dynasty, at about &10 A. D." (J. R. A. S. 1906, p. tt8). Dr. Hoernle here overlooks the difference between 
reign aud generation. A consideration of the duration of the well known historical dynasties would show that the 
average duration of a generation unay he fairly taken to be at least 25 years. Thus 

(i) Eight generations of Paia kings from Dharmapala to MaMpaia, I ruled for considerably more than 20$ 

years. 
(H) Seven generations of Chalukya kings from Kirttivarmiwa I to Kirttivarmau II ruled for mor than 

180 years. 
(iii) Nino generations of Kashtrnkuta kings from Dantldnrga to IndrarSja IV ruled for more than 229 

years, 
(iv) Nine $onerntions of Pratlhara lings from Yatsaraja to Trilochanapala ruled for more tbaa 344 

years. 

These give 27, 26 f 25, and 257 years respectively for the average duration of a generatxoB. 
* J. JEte. J5r, E. A. S. Vol. XX I, p. 421. 



BHGEAPBIA INBICA. [VOL. XVHI. 



<fiion says tli^ ! iibeons that wre born-df Sarichandrft and Bh*dr& ws known a 
and were wine-drinker*. This might imply ft common origin of ftll th.0 Pnttibim ruling clans, 
and it-is not 'imposfiibletliftt the Imperial PTfttlli&ras of Kan&nj lmt hnuwliod off from this 
family. The^two following grounds may be urged in support of thin vfow, although the questUm 
cannot be 'finally sealed *ill fresh evidence is available i 

(1) The common mythical tradition ubont the origin of the name PmtThira. both. imsing 
it 'to Irtifeshmanaj the brother and door-keeper of Rama.* 

(2) The -community of names in the two "families, sttoh a tihom of Kukkwkn, Nlgabha$a 
and Bhoja. 

It 'is not easy to determine the status of the chiefs mentioned in the iiiaoription, Their 
names are not preceded by titles like mahSrajadkirSja, parama-bhatt&rafat etc., which often 
accompany -he names -of independent and paramount fioveretgiti in ifworiptmns. But no 
conclusions can -be "based on the absence of these 'titles in the present inMimce, for wj know that 
in some inscriptions the Imperial Pratlharas are mentioned without nay of thiMM* pompons 
titles, which are, 'however, preserved in other incriptionti. Frolitw>r Bimndfltarkav has 
fleailt 'With 'this point "in artail* 'and 'his ssrgumetftfl hare been faUj'tnadonmcl. by V. A, Smith 8 ; 
tmd 1 believe 'it is impossible to avoid the conclusion, that HO far at IMH! at tlu period is 
-eoncerned, ' titular fonnnlas, in reality, are of extremely slight tignifimtuM/ 

Onr inscription applies the term ' rcty'fl! ' to Bhadrl, tbo <jiii of HnohttDdri th 
first chief, and to JajjikadSvi, the queen of Nagabhata, and the term Maferj?l to Padnainl 
the queen of Katka. It refers to the " r&jadhSM " of NSgbh&|* HIK! tho vUjya *' f Tito, 
JhiS^a and BhillSditya. The sons of Harichandra are oalkd ' Bh^dkun^'kihama^ ' ; Sakha 
is styled ' Mupati ' and 'Bauka is called %wrfi&a. These re th only mfttrattow, diwwjfc or 
indirect, to fche royal power exercised 'by these chiefs. In this rpect U twain * islowB rewan- 
hlance to he Gwalior inscription of Bhoja I published below. Th Ifttttr mitla no toyl 
-epithet to "NSgabhata, the first chief; calls the second and fcmfftfc king* w*ioiiroly a 
" mhmtibhridm '-and ' &?3 F afZa ' while NSg*Bha$a and Bhojft I f two of the gtwtimt kbgp of 
the dynasty are introduced without any royal epithet. Whatever might be th MMOOM, -*he 
close 'parallel between these two contemporary epigraphio weord would p*dta<le my con- 
-cltreion regarding ihe subordinate *rank of the chiefs of our iairariptloft, o tht. banin of tho 
-albsenCft'ol High sounding -royd! 'epithets.* 

As we have seen before, the firat chief Hario1>andr must be placed at th* bgittinf of 
the latter half of the 6th century A. D. This ia in f ull ftora*t*oe with 4ti fMt thf ib 
earliest reference to the Gurjaras, to which race the Pratlhiww belonged,* m mmed back 
to the same period by the reference, in the jHonka-'OAMAa, toiha wias of P 



gainBt'ihem. The 'province of GurjaratrS, which was named alter them and m net, 
be looked upon as the province wliere they gained a fiwa 'footing und tWii.bi tb, 
.of this dynasty. Thia ia qn ite evident not only Irom tbt find-apoti 



a. !.,B. i. jSf. \Col. . XXI, jp., 409^10. 
J.S. A. 8. 1909, pp. 248-249. 



W, pp. 414-15. 



10 JODHPUR INSCRIPTION 3P PRATIHARJL BAUKA; V.S. 894. $ 

of inscriptions* of ; tiiis^ dynasty which have all been fbund- within* itfe ares, 1 bufcafeo fcom 
the express mention in the GhatiySjS Inscriptions, that/ Ka&kuka ruled over Q-arj^mtrS^ 
(v. 16). The inscription al&o thrown some light as tb the period: when this province was^ being: 
gradually occupied by the dynasty. Verses 9 a/nd f 10 tell us that the four sons- of Hari*- 
chandra built a huge rampart round' the fort of Mandavyapura which wa& gained "by 
own proivess (nija-bJiuj-&rjjite : ) t Mandavyapura is evidently Mandor, the ancient capital of 
war, near Jodhpur. 3 It is evident* therefore, that the (Jurjams under- Harichandra and 
hia SODS had occupied the province^ known after them, and proceeded up to M'andbr, before the 1 
end of the sixth century A. D. 

The period was indeed a suitable one for such conquest. After the downfall of the Hoit L 
lived empires of Mihirakula and Yas5dharman, northern India must have presented^ ffevour-* 
able field for the struggle of nations.- The Gtarjaras, who probably entered India albng with 
or shortly after the Hunas, found a favourable opportunity to press forward till they advanced 
as far as the Jbdhpur state. Their further advance was checked by the prowess of JPrabhakara- 
vardhana and his son,, and they were therefore obliged to establish themselves in the province 
which was subsequently named after them. Harichandra must have been the leader, ( or at 
least one of the principal leaders, of this advanced section of the Gurjaras.; in any case his 
dynasty was ultimately able' to establish its supremacy over tbe entire, clan. This seems to- be 
the only reasonable inference from the circumstances stated above, and I do not know of any r 
thing which contradicts this view. 

Inscriptions testify to the existence of a line of feudatory Gurjara chiefs ruling at. Broach,* 
The earliest date of the third chief of 'this dyua&ty is 629 A. D. Allowing fifty years fbr the 
two generations that preceded him, we get the date c. 580 A, D, for the Samanta D&dda^ who 
founded the line. The date corresponds so very well with that of Dadda, the youngest son of 
Harichandra, that the identity of the two may be at once presumed. It has-been already sag- 
gested, on general grounds, that the Broach line was feudatory to the main line of ! the 
Oarjaras further north, 5 But no link, connecting the two, has been hitherto obtained, The 
proposed identification would not only supply such a link but would also explain why the 
Gurjara inscriptions record that Dadda I was of the race of Qurjara King& (Gfurj^ra^nnyta^ 
uarrwfa) although he and his descendants are referred to as S&mantas or feudatories It further 
closely fits in with the theory of the Gurjara invasion dealt with above. It would appear that 
after Harichandra had carved a principality for himself in GurjaratrS and the neighbouring 
country, the nomadic habits of the tribe led them further south- till they conquered a fair 
portion of tSta. ^e necessity of preserving their own against the rising power of ih& Chalur 
fcya*r probably led to the foundation of a feudafcory. state in the southern province under Dadda* 
the younger brother of the ruling king Eajjila. Instances like these are furnished by/ the 
history of the Ghalukyas and- the Bashtrakfttas. 

The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsiang visited' a Gurjara kingdom which was about 300' 
miles north of Yalabhi or Suratk 6 It is a noticeable fact that Grurjaratra or the country 
round about Mandor exactly answers to this description. As Harichandra's dynasty waff 
certainly ruling in th# locality at the time of the pilgrim's visit, we are justified in identifying 

* For the extent of Gurjaratra as deduced from epigrapWcal references see Xlid> p, 415. 

2 Gnj jaratba is Skr. Gnrjjaratra, noli Gujeratas supposed by the Translator (< . A. St 1895, p. 520). 

* J. S. A. 8. 1894, p. a. 

4 For a detailed account of them, sec Dynaati** of the Ktn&reae Districts, pp. 312 JGL 
6 Thus Biibler infers from fcb title of S&maoto, used by these cfaiefe that " it is not unlikely that iiiey 
vassals of the Garjaras of Bhillamala ** (Ind* Ant, xvii. p. 184). 
a Waiter** Yuan-Cbwang II, p. 249. 



1)2 EPIGIUI'HIA mUl'A, i'Vor. XVIII. 



their kingdom with the one described by I liurn TM'UI'.U;. X;ty, ] !,!. i \i< (h;ii \\v n roe v^n able 
to identify the king whose court was visited by Utojiil^iim ".Tin- k.zy " ;mn { " ia of the 
Kshatriya caste. He is just 20 yoare old, Hois <ii>ungt;i'4;ti fur \vihJi-vi, ;u;t! hi' in coura- 
geous. He is a deep believer in the law <f Buddha n\\ -I liii'Uy ho;i.r,>";i MI^M f distinguished 
ability," Now, as the pilgrim, visiitnl thts kin^dutu alum huiciir I yrui., ,;jf,?i jlui foundation 
of the dynasty we may reasonably expert four juvut.-i'uUt'ir. f kin^ tn !; ur pawi-tl ;*vw.v during 
that period and the young king may be loukuii upon ;IH 1)! In!;; in;* in slu- iifth. On refcrruttt 
to the dynastic list wo find king Tata occupying this }o-ihim. Vtm'u 1 1- lf> inform tin thafc 
king Tata, considering the life to be ovaiu'sisyut as li^htniut;. 1 li-ut^l iu fnv*nu' >f ln younger 
brother and himt-elf retired to a licrmttft^c, ]>ra:t^iu|j; ih^n- tlio vilt *-f irun txtligion, The 
curions confirmation txbout tho religions fervour <if the k'*ug, wlm njt) v I'c Itriti tj othiu' grounda 
to have been contemporary with the pilgrim, gi\vs UNO to u ^tJ'o^|,* ptv^uitipfum lUnmfc the 
correctness of onr identification, 1 

The Qtirjuras, after their sotfloincnt in KSjpiUnua nnd BtHaoh, li ti Itght for llwir Bpre- 
macy with Prabhakavaviirdhana of Thatieswat who set'itis to hn\v himlwil I he nutivv remitance 
against the invading hordes of the Hmias and tho Ourjnra. Wi- !> aJn*(Jj KifViTt'il to the 
wars of Prabhakaravardhana against iiio Uurjanw. The pi>i>(icwl kignngi> f lii,mlha||a 
may be taken to imply that the fin-tlior uilvftuco of tiut (iurj.-twn;* vim *tny^(l in ihe mirth. The 
struggle was not, however, a decisive oio, and MM-IIM to IMVV lk*n eu'iitinurd till Ui ttttie of 
HawhavwdUana. The feudatory Dadda 11 of Broa,-h b iwid to hum |ntiMtwi * Jowl o{ 
Valabht against the Kanuuj Emperor, and Miirprine ha juntly burn ux|>rnMMnl biw ft wimll Kbit* 
like Broach conld wilhtaud the force of tho mighty empwur-. Kvory UUI<K hwvr ftppmn 
quite dear if we admit Broach to have boea fotuiauir; utttto of tbo ilvn^ty of Ikwkuudr* 
and remember its hereditary enmity with the royal houm of TUti^vr". That tb OuriatM 

7 e !l l n A l WOrSted iU their 8trUggle Wifch the kiu rt of Thaiwww ^.pwini qnito d.^riv f run ihe 
fact that they a^tamed their indepentoxo., a Hium T.mug inform., ,, till i hrnrt w lato pwiod 

L^^f^^S" 1 ^. 1 ' 110 rtw 1 ^w W nl)d.U.Mi.,,ci thi. r!,. ra uf Kumuj 

^.^f t ^ to ^^^th.l looked upon ,a i*ri <d pan-! ofihe 
great and long-drawn battle between tho two powww. 

G T" P^^-o^ brought H i,,t W ,H, with tl. mmg 
uae V m *", 'Tl^r 1 * thfl AiH<? Iw i l' '* the Cbfttak^ bm! 

exactly correspond to tl "i, The , J! 1 S T ' th " Im ' lh * I liw ' " l " 1 *' 1 ' *^ 
duration ; for during the wfen of rt ** T^ th w !* m,t hv !*n of U* 

was fonidedtlfh^Gu^ wf h Wk. .!/* 

Gurjaras in the B01 ih 3 ' ^^ WaS evi(k * flt ^ U> k JW ! in chnk thv powwful 

^t^^^S^^ 

D. B. Bhaudarfer^as pointed out aevteal drLHi, , ^ lJlllll ^ ml* over Vy t>i.- Lliu| Uynaniy. IVufv. 

It ^aufB ' 1 ' " ""' (</ ' ** "" *' ''' *' 



aevtea ri, , . 

It ^aufBceheretopt ortTS?^'; 1 ' "f "ft"' (</ ' ** "" *' ''' *' V XXI ' " 4l?) * 
vn^w of its distance from Valabhias Z 1 by 1 il T "^ ' * Hl1 UMll "* > * " M tbf M .U,.^ In 
duttegniahedfrom the Q ur jar iu fcho jLairt Lf . *f"T R : Agllil1 ' ''"' cl l J )t '*nM r tiw t:M|iM ar* clearer 
X* No. 40*) flad the C j h2 W om T t Cllllllh y ^k^WJ* <KMIi.'. *^AI 

1tom Ctt 



o art f . 

X* No. 40*) flad the Ch2 W ll y ^WJ* <KMI.'. *^A 

1 >, b. I4ntJ(i e a with tte Unrjam kli|f*i vhikd to 



No. 12.] JODHPDE INSCRIPTION OF PEATIHAEA BATJKA ; V. S. 894. 



The Gurjara Pratzluira line founded by Harichandra thus established itself in Rajputana 
and fought successfully against the royal houses of Thaneswar and BSdarai; For about two 
hundred yeans they mljd in splendour over the greater part of Rajputana hut the Arab invasion 
of about 725 A.D. brought about a decline. The Nausarl plates of the Gujarat Clialukya 
Pulake^iraja, dated in October, A.D. 788, tell us that the Gurjaras were destroyed by an inva- 
sion of the Tajikas or Arabs, apparently shortly before that time. 1 

It seems very likely that the Arab invasions referred to in the Nauawri plates were those 
undertaken by the officers of Junaid, the general of Khalif Hasham (724-743 A.D.). Biladuri 
gives a short account of these expeditions and mentions, among other tilings, that Junaid 
sent his officers to Marruacl Maxidal, Barus and other places and conquered Bailauian and Jurz. 8 
There can be no doubt that Marmad is the same as Marn-m,da which is referred to 111 the 
Ghatiyala inscription of Kakkuka and includes Jaisalmer and part of Jodhpnr State/ 5 Barns 
is undoubtedly 1 Broach and Maudal probably denotes Mandor. It is now a well-known fact that 
Jurz was the Arabic corruption of Gurjara, and Bail a in an probably refers to the circle of slates 
mentioned in our inscription as Valla- man da la. It would thus appear that the Arab army 
under J until d conquered the mum Gurjara states in the north as well as the feudatory .state of 
Broach in the south* 

This catastrophe must have taken place at the beginning of the second quarter of the 
eighth century A.D* According to Biladuri the Arab expeditions wore arranged by Junaid 
during the Caliphate o Hasham who ruled from 724 to 743 A.D. According to Elliot Junaid 
was succeeded by Tarnin abottt 726 A.I). 4 Evidently this last date is far from being definitely 
known and we may therefore conclude that the expeditions were undertaker, shortly after 724 
A.D. The Nausaii plates show, however, that the expeditions referred to in them took place 
-between 781 and 738 A.D. For, according to the Balsar plates, 5 Avanijanasraya-Pulakesi- 
rja did not come to the throne till the year 731 A.D., and as he himself takes the credit of 
having repelled the Arabs from Nausarf, the event must be dated after that year. 

The Ohalukya prince Ayanijana^raya-PulakesirSja, who successfully resisted the Arabs, 
probably took advantage of this opportunity to wrest the Lata province from the Gurjara king- 
dom. The decline uf the Gurjara power thus brought about by the Arab invasion in the north 
and the Clialukya aggression in the aonth favoured the growth of a rival Pratihura dynasty 
which was ultimately destined to play the imperial rftle in India, The origin of this dynasty 
is described in verses 4 and 7 of the Grwalior praSa&ti of Bh$ja published below. It records that 
N&gabhata, the first king, defeated the Mlechchhas, and after him ruled las two nephews 
Kakkuka and Devaraja. Vatsar&ja, the son of the latter, became a very powerful king and 
wrested the empire from the famous Bhandi clan. Now, our inscription tells us that Biluka 
who was tjbte protector* of Valla-ma^ala (a circle of kingdoms) defeated Bhattika Devaraja 
(v. 19), AB Devaraja of the Imperial Pratlhara dynasty was the father of Vatsaraja whose 
known date is 783-4 A.D., Le probably flourished about tlie middle of the eighth century A.D. 
Siluka, according to our scheme of chronology must also have been ruling about the same 
time and the identity of the two kings called Devaraja may be at once presumed* A careful 
study of the two inscriptions seems to show that Nagabhata, the founder of the Imperial 
Pratlharus, successfully resisted the Arab invasions which proved so disastrous to the other 
Pratlhara line* His successors were not slow to take advantage of this favourable situation, and 
Ddvaraja entered into a contest for supremacy with Siluka* He was defeated by the latter. 

1 Transactions of the Vienna Oriental Congress* Ariau Section, p. 231* 
a Zlliot-JSMory of India, Vol. I, p, 120. 
Above, Vol. IX, p. 278, 

* Ellfot-HMory of India, Vol., I, p. 442. 

* Referred fco in J, So. J3r. S. A. S., Vcl. X VI, p* 5 ; and above, Voi Vill, p, 281, 



BttflAPHlA. INDICA, 

k pursued hi& policy with signal HIUTWW au! wv h f nl ilu 
family of Harichanchtu 

All these successive changes 'in the fortune nf tho lyinmy ir irJU-t,,,! In our 
According to our scheme of chronology Chawlukji wan on tin- thnm< M hn tin* Arab mraifa 
took place. It becomes therefore a significant Hid fluit wluwaK '!,. IN j>n>w<f ,.I,T with ae w 
conventional praises, tribute is paid to tho FOWOSK au<l horoinm ,,f Inn M.-,rsm,r S.luka. Then, 
again, the two successors of iluka are said to liavo lukwi to ivh>. h Ift :UH! i.( t ningb act 
of martial glory is attributed to any of them. Thw WBB jtp|'r,-uil^ !w time wh.-n thwir rivals 
gradually established themselves in the position of mfp"* 1 ' 1 MJ/tiuiinf.v ovor tlw entire 
confederate clans which was so long enjoyed by them. The wnkH'.jUrt.t kinn> .f i\w lino f Hari- 
chandra retained possession of their own kingdom, ttltlioitgh 1 h'\ IMH! titcir KH|irt'm iwitioa, 
and gradually seem to have reconciled theniKdvw to ilu'ii 1 iujw hittitiiioii. Kahlu, (tu* great 
grandson of Siluka appears to have accompanied thu new Huwtititt po\vt'i' iu ita wws of uaiqust, 
For we are told in verse 24 that he fought with Ihr Giuninh ut, Mmlgn^iri or Mtmghyr, 
Apparently he fought as a feudatory of Nagablwta II <m of w!i<tM' knw n dnton i 815 
and who is said in the Gwalior inscription of Bhflju (below) iu huvr iK-lViUt:.! tin- king of 



There was, however, a temporary revival of the Ptutilitira puwtn* in t!i** iiiiSfIli? f the 
century A.D. The Daulatpnri copper plate of BhAjtt, tltlwl in tlw y?wr 84IS A. I),, riHiordu tbt 
grant of a piece of land situated in Gurjaratr^ hut ilui (11i!i|ij"A}il iMru'ripftuii of Kakkttk* 
refers to the province as being, held by that kiug. An thin iittcrijilinii i in 8tii AD* 

Bhdja mast have lost this province betweon ilmm\ In fw*t n cluww |iicfj of tfai 

Daulatpura plate seems to indicate that the provluoe wiw hulil by VaNnr^ Kiig!ililn$|* 'bit 
lost by Bamabhadra and regained by Btoja lifforo B41J A,l), Fur it of lliti tirifiiidi 

grant by the first, its continuation by the second and miwwui h/ Jlu fuuith king* to tlur 

evident conclusion that there was a break in thft of iliit fi^rrit-ufy liming flit 01 

the third* This view entirely agrees with what wo kncnv of tlit* rival I'^riiiililrii 5 for 

Nagabhata II was crushed by the Klshtrakfl|a king Gftviiul* III niiil tl4inifilitnliii* nt^ivwi' 
an inglorious one. The difficulty of the rivals must huvi> itiw imjiiinit^ ci|i|>iirtttttity 

to the Jodh^ur Pratlharas to regain the power that Uiny kiui lew*. IMinw tki two 

successors, of Siluka, are described as practising auutavilwH -nn iniiinti*fcrJii^ gl 

political and military inanity Kakka, the tliirci ^iug ttftw Wilitkii in itiwnt*i tm n 
fighter and his queen consort is called a watof%VE Tlu*ir turn Illiibi WUH nl^ti n kfW |I 

his military^ exploits are described at great lougth la our ii)^Ti|rt,in. Arnii'ditig to iie 
G-hatiySla, inscriptions Kakkuka,also ruled over a vnt ilnsiiinttui, Nuiliing in at fifwttit known 
about his successor but it, is likely that with the revival f f-tut Ii$iifi1nl fiiifilt*iwii iittdtr 
Bhoja during the latter part of Bhdja'n reign, thoir territory wa liimlly lUiia^ml l^ tiit 



A few words may be said regarding the geagwpliitwl tifitntw wnlmfml in llw ini 
Msn4avyapura and M4antaka-pura (L 7) ntmi \imbMy dmu^ lim cttuf* wf Mmalor and 
Merta. Line 11 contains the namea of Stravatji aiul t^u jirviiiww, rl<K*t to taoh 

other. As Siluka is said in the same line to have bmi * mt^M^l^^l^i \ Mi 

denote the region over which these Pratittm chieh rulacl AN HiJnkii IN nlMi i*aiil in mm 18 
to have fixed the boundary between Straya^I ami Valla, th* l^um* wcmlil njiiMtif to !? 
denoted a neighbouring kingdom. Stravatf i prohaWy this iitiiit HN Tumatti of tw 
insertion of Eratthto Bftuka as the latter oooun along witk VaU in n tint of coutlgww 
countries. The locality of thia StraTay! or Tamtmi ban mil tii-iiii iwtaMiiiUl i far, It M* 
to me, however, that it is to be identified with tta kingckmi erf Talian ntfurmi (11 h H* 
geographers of the ninth century A.D, A compurkou of thu varioua iWmmm to tliii 



No. 12.] JODHPUR INSCRIPTION 'OF PRATIHARA BAUKA; V. S. 894-. 95 

by Arab writers 1 seems to show that it consisted of a part of the Panjab just to the north-west 
of Raiputana. Reference is twice made (vv. 27, 29) to Mayura, a king defeated by Bauka. 
We know of no such king, but Hiuen Tsiang refers to a city called Mo-Yu-lo (or Mayura) 
situated near Gangadvara^ mentioned in v. 23. Mayura of our inscription may refer to tho 
king of the locality. 

TretS-tirtha (v. 20) and Bhuakfipa (v. 27) cannot be identified. But Ganga-dvara 
(v. 23) and Mudgagiri (v. 24) are well known names denoting respectively Haridvar and 
Monghyr. 

TEXT. 

[Metres used: vv. 1 to 26, Anuatyulh ; vv. 27-28, Sragdhara; v. 29, Irya; v. 30, 
Sardulavikrljita ; v. 81, Matin?.] 

1 Om nams Vishnave \\ Ya[smin-via]nti bhutani yatas=sargga-sthitl mate j sa 

vah=payad=Dhrishlke<3 mrggunas=sagiinas=cha yah || [1*] GunaVpfirwam 
pu(pn)rushanam kl[rttyant6] tena 3 

2 panditaih | guna-k!rttir=anaayantl svargga-vasa-kart yatah || [2*]* Atah fid- 

Bauk5 dhlm&m 6 sva-Pratihara-vanga,jam | praSastau lekhayamasa firl-yaSO- 
vikkram-anvitan || [3*] Sva-bhrattra Ra- 

3 mabhadrasya pratiharyam kritam yatah I 8rl-Prattihara7-van&~yamataS=ch= 

onnatim=apnuyat8 I [|4*] Viprah gri,Hariohandr=akhyah-patnl Bhadrft cha 
kshattriya* | tabby&n-tu [y6 su]ta jatah [Pratlha]ram=cha tan=vi- 

4 duh I [15*] Babhftva BShilladdhyanko Vda-astr-arttha-paragah | dvijah Sri. 

Harichandr-akhyah Prajapati-aamO guruh || [6*] Tena fol^Harichandrena 
parinlta dvij-atraaja | [dvi]t!ya kshattri- 

5 V5 <J Bnadra maha-kula-gun.anvita [||7] Pratlhara dvija bhuta BrShmanyani 

ye^bhavamti^sutah | rajSl Bbadra cha yamt=sflt te bhuta madhu^payinalj I 
[|8*] Chatvara[s]*ch=atmai5s=tasyaih. jata bhft-dbarana-ksha- 

fi mah I grlman-Bhogabhatah Kakko Bajjil5 Dadda eva cha I [|9] Ufindavya, 
ptira-diirgge=sminn=ebbii : =nniia-bhuj-i'3Jit | prSkSrah kftritas=tu-ngO vidvisham 
bhlti-varddhanah | [!10*] AmlshSm Bajjilaj= jatah 

- jJrTman.UTaratohatah sutah | PeUipll=Iti namabhnd=dvi[tlyam] tasya vikkramaih 

' rilll*] Tasman 5 =[N a ,rabha]taj=iatah firfman-WSgaWia$a& utah [|*] lajadhanl 
sthira' yasya mahan=M4antakam ptiram || [12*] Rajnyam firt- 

8 Jaj3ika-devyasi3=tat5 jatau maha-gunau | dvau sutau Tata-Bhoj-akhyaa sau-i* 
daryau ripu-marddanau || [13*] TStena tena lokasya vidyuoh-chamchala- 
jlvitam | budhva 14 rajyam laghor-bhratu 15 ri-BhOja- 



y of India, Vol. I, pp. 4, 5, 13, 21, 25. 

Wattera ra Cftwoiw 1. 32&-9. The letter a look* 

* The Sloka-metre hero employed is tanlty-the sixth syllable in the fir*t pada being short agauwtruK 



Bead dUman. ' 

i The doubling of * in pmttikSra is agparently due to the esigeneies.of .tb* mtre. Bflftd 

* ^Eead =jmya#. BdJMa**J*a. .' 

w Bead w-rewm: and nraft in the same line, as per sutra nn (VI 1 1-3-30) 

u Bead . u "**- 

Bead so. ** ' 

is Read bbratufy. 



EPIGRAPETA INDICA. [V^'f. XVTlt 



9 sya samarppitaih * |j [1-1*] Svuyamn'-dui Riims(.lnfjwTa{[li*] rfinldhuiii <Uwu'inma>. 
[m*J samacharan | Mindavyasy^asramS jntnyfi nadf-iiirjjhirn 
SrT-Yasovarddhsnas^asmat-pnttrd vikhyatu-paimiKhah j Iihilfd ni 
10 bhnja-kbyatih samast-orlclhnta-kantakuh || [16*.] TnmArh.H 

si-!maii=puttr5=bhflt^prithu-vikkvamab i tfljaxvl tyl^a-SrljuS -cha viilvi-shdm 
dimldlmvab j| [17*] Tatah srl-8iluli5 jfttah puttrrt ''' 



11 alma kjita nitya Stravanl-Valla-dgSayfvli J| [18*] BJiuttlkirti 

V.lla-maridala-palaka[m]h [ iu[pS]tya t,[fkHha]n}uii l>hfltu 
chcbbattra-cbilmakam[t] 3 || [19*] Pushknriiii 
pattanam | Si- 

12 ddUMvara Mahadtivah karitas^tuftga-mamdiral/ || 1 20*J T 

fclmfa-Jhata raral? satah J ytinsi tAjju-jjukhacu MitifUva* 

krita gatilj. | [|21*] BabbRva satvav5ii*tflsmal-Bhillidit,VM fnp^-inji' 

1.3 tih | yfma vajyaih Vyitam y?na jranah pnttifyw. dnif;iva(vE)n jj ['3*j OaftgS- 
dvavam tatfl gatva varehi^y^ash^^fc Hfh.U*iJ.i | wi^ h.R'Anmih kfttvl 
svargga-lflkaiia samagatafr || [sJ3] Tatfl-pi fcl.yutol.t Xakka^ 

14 puttro 'jAlfl inaliamati^ | y a ft MtwJgagirm Inblbuh .yfn,'* GhftttfW 
*] [OlOwado] Vy*kMuwh Tiu-kkfl 



15 

, 
BhflakQj?>prySi* dfts^va, bba- 



nai-a-royiga; . ghatitft, h-, 
17 [ti]i,,aiv a K [27*] 



fr 



^ 

The first ^rf a O f tlie w*a ^tfcain, cue ay liable too 
4 



Bead 

6 Eead 



7 Pad i^ 



I * r * 1 ^ a# : aild ad PaimbyM t^kt^S^ 

: gg r> ^**-^' 1 "-' 1 

the mofre i 



14 



No, 12,] JODHPUB INSCRIPTION OP PBATIHARA BAUKA ; V, S. 894, 97 



, sattraih 

chhitva 1 bhitva s sixiasanam kptamati-[bha]yadarii Bank-anytaa tasmln i| 
[28*] Wava-majjL^ala-nava-nicliayS bhagne katya Mayfiram*ati-gahano | tad* 

ami 

19 bhrit-asi-taramga srl-niad-Bauka-tin-simglicna 3 || [20*] Sarddh-ftrddhail)=praga[la3d 

bhirakta^sushirair^ 

saya-griliam phetkara^-satv-Skulam | 

20 yaolioliTir!-B&uka-3naTida[l]agra-raeliitarii prakch,hattrn-&aiiigli-akulo tat-Baihsmritya 

na kasya samprati bhavet-tras-adgamafi-ckStaBi [|] [3D*] Nairn sama[ra*J 
dharayaiix Bauke nyityamaao ava-tanu- 

21 galral-antreshv*8va vinyasta-pade i ganiamlYa hi gatas=4o tishtha-tishth-^ti 

gli&dbbaya-gata-fl|i-k[u]iuihga 8 || [31*3 Sain 894: 

Ohaittra su di 5 9 

22 Utkirnna clia hemakara-VisIinnravi-s[u]nana Kpislinesvarena [| 

TRANSLATION, 

(Line 1). Om ! Salutation to Vishnu ! 

(Verse 1). May Hrishlkd^a, In whom all elements eater and from whom creation and pro- 
tection are supposed (to proceed), who is both ntrguna and saguna (?>., with ami without 
attribute) protect yon- 

(Verse 2). The glories of ancestors are first sung by wise men because perpetual recitation 
of glories (has for its effect) the dwelling in heaven, 

(Verse 3). Hence the illustrious wiseBauka caused (the glories of his ancestors), belong- 
ing to his own PratlhSra clan, and possessed of wealth, fame and prowess, to be written in (this) 

pratiasti. 

(Verse 4). Inasmuch as the very brother of Ramabnaclra performed the duty of doci*- 

keeper it (pratih8ra'), this illustrious clan came to be known as PratiUSra. 10 May it prosper. 

(Verse 5). (There wan) an illustrious Biahmana named Hariohandra and his wife 
Bhadra, a Kshatriya. The sons born of them are known aa 1 'ratTh&ms. 

(Verse 6), There was an illustrious Brahmana namfd Hnrichflndra Hohilladdhi t wlio 
versed in the meaniog of the Vodas and the dftstrtis and who waa a preceptor like Prajfipi^IJ 1 

(Verse 7). That illustrious Harichandra married (first) th<^ danghter of a Urahmana, au-I, 
(as) second (wife), the Kshatriya Bhaclra, belonging to a noble family aud puHHOBScd of g:>oil 
qualities. 

1 Head chhittva. 

2 Road hhit&vfi* 

8 Read $\Jhhnn,* Some such phrase as send hat'1 has to be supplied in order to coinjtlr/tti tin; c ^j^, 
4 Read praffalad-viraJIrfa, If Iki is retained, we should, grammatically hnvo expected yrdy&l&dhkl iTa^iai, 
VL 8, 111). 

6 Read *<Hntr>wf* 

8 The word virachitafa is redundant since later on occars also the word nickiLm. It may be omitted in or* lor 
Iso feo set the metro right. 

7 Rend phStJctiri* Read- la two ?'(/; tyaiSaSwd* 

8 There is the figure of a * wheel * alter this word. 

9 There is the figure of a ' conch 9 after this word, 

10 The word Prattkara is variously written as Pr'&j'0(l 2) and PfMi?wr& (1. 3), I havo adopted the first 
form throughout the translation. 

11 The meaning ->f the word * UohillftddhyaAka * in this verso rs uncox'tu'm. [Harichaivlni's snrnainc o; 
may have been Bohilladdhi though it sounds rather outlandish. KMJ 

,rfi5/^:^ * % t H 

n^^l't^fAl Rf f U' 

A 



//eSV-' .- 

<'**' Vn-.f 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICT. 



(Verse 8). Those sons who were born of the Brahmana wife became Pmtihftra Br&hma 
Those who were born of queen Bhadra became ' drinkers of wino '. l 

(Verse 9). Four sons, fit to hold the earth, wore born to her, >., th* illnatnW 
Bhogabhata, Kakka, Eajjila and Dadda. 

(Verse 10). In this fort of Mandavyapura, conquered by their own , they erected a 
high rampart, (which was) calculated to increase the fear of the tmeimtw. 

(Verse 11). From Rajjila among them was torn the illustrious sou Narafohftta,. On 
account of his prowess his second name was ' Pellfipelli.' 

(Verse 12). From Narabhafc was bom a son, the illustrious N&gabhata, who had his 
mauent capital at the great city of Me"4antaka. 

(Verse 13). From him, begotten on JajjlkSdSvI, wem lm tho two uterine 
phshed sons named Tata and Bhoja, who were opprenotv of 






1 It is curious to note that *K 




No. 12.] JODHPUR INSCRIPTION OF PRATIHABA BAUKA ; V. S. 894. 99 

(Verse 28). What other king bat Bauka, while his authority over other kings was 
destroyed, bis own younger brothers and ministers had left him and his army on all sides was 
seized with terror, could, unaided, stand firm like a pillar, and, leaving the horse-back and 
standing on the ground unperturbed, sword in hand, pierce the enemy through and through, 
causing thereby a terrible burial ground in that battlefield ? 

(Verse 29). After having dispersed the recent gathering of the newly formed confedera- 
tion, and killed Maytira, Bauka, the lion among men, killed the army which was supporting 
waves of swords. 

(Verse 3o). Whose mind would not now be filled with terror on remembering the house 
of dead made by Bauka's sword, which ere long was put in confusion by the enemy's host the 
house of dead which was made by the arms, thighs, legs and other limbs, rent in twain, with 
oozing as well as bloodless cavities, together with the entrails hung above, and which was full of 
jackals ? 

(Verse 31). Verily, when Bauka was dancing in the battle-field, placing his feet on the 
very entrails and other parts of the dead bodies, the frightened men (enemies) who were like 
deer, became quiet as it were with strain tishiha, tishtha 1 . This indeed was very strange ! 

(L. 21). The year 894, (the month of) Chaitra, the fifth day of the bright fortnight. 

(L. 22). Engraved by Krishnesvara, son of the gold-smith Vishnuravi. 



No. 13, -TEE GWALIOR PBASASTI OF THE GURJARA-PRATIHARA KING 

BHOJA. 
By R. 0. MAJDMDAB, M.A., PH.D.; DACCA. 

The stone which bears this inscription was discovered in 1896, about half a mile west of 
Gwalior town, at Sagar Tal in the Gird-Gwalior district. It contains 17 lines of writing 
cohering a space of about 3' 4|" broad by 1' 2" high. The first twelve lines are incised with 
great care and neatness and the letters are so distinct and beautiful that they can be read 
without hesitation even from a distance. The remaining lines, for some unaccountable reasons 
are not so distinctly engraved, but can be read, without any great difficulty, especially from the 
reverse side of the estampage. . The whole inscription is thus .clearly legible except two 
letters at the end of line 5 where the stone surface is damaged. 

It was first edited by Pandit Hirananda in the Arch. Surv. Report for 1903-4 (pp 
277-285), with a facsimile Plate. Then, in March 1905 Dr. Kielbora gave a ghort account of 
the inscription in Nacliric.Mm von dor Koniglidien Oeselkchafi dsr Wittentchaften ai Qot- 
ttngen (pp. 300-304) without any reference to the first edition. I re-edit the inscription from 
fresh impressions kindly procured for me by Prof. D. R. Bhandarkar, M.A. My exotue 
in taking up. the subject again, is that, in my opinion, the great historical importance of the 
record requires further scrutiny and comment. I follow the previous Editors as" far as posaible 
but give my independent opinion only in cases where I feol it necessary to do so. 

The language of the inscription is Sanskrit, and except the benedictory formula oA nam 
VuTwve at the beginning, it is throughout composed in metrical form. The author nhowg 
himself to be well versed in the best form of tho Kavya stylo, and kin ohiwto digniBod TOM* 
make one sincerely regret that no further production from lu able pen ha been preserved for 

whicli 






MS 



100 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. 




The important points to note in the matter of orthography have beuu uiiviwI71iiiwif!i^ tf' 
Pandit Hirananda in A, S. E. for 1903-04 pp. 277 ff. "Wttwwwd by 



The use of dental nasals instead of anusoSra, e.g. in hiniraih (v. It), uml m mutt f v 
the different spellings of the same proper name as in Pratlh&m (v. H) and jF " 



oo - 

(T. 6), *tM8= S amucMa-chantatb (y, 12), and ttpffyati a amj MU ZffA (v. 13) may bo uotioed 

The characters of the inscription are of the Nlgarl typo oummt In Northwn M i W-^te^ 
Indza dmrng the ninth century A.D. Pandit Hirananda nnuark. ihat Uio V 'i^M^25 
closely those of the Peheva grant of Mahendra-Pala. But C U imSnrtU, T^?- 
records shows that the letters i, t, , th, dh, n, m , I, and /of our inrip,. * li^Ui fcW 
those .employed mtne Peheva grant.* Asamatter of fact, *ho ouly pibHrtM ^C ^' 
which our record shows the closest resemblance is the GwdioHnwiLfon of iJb^rt^" 

and .used m the latterj in addition to thoe employed in our iriptin. Tl 1 1 m 

' 



ol 
Solar 

.I' 




I. Kakkuka 

.0? , , , | 




IV, 
V. NAKttbbH,(d, If, 

VI, 

VII, lt 



* iw^p.ieo. 

j *^ b O^V<4lX,p.l98. 

5 Hngs had alao other 



No. 18]. THE GWALIOn FRASASTI OF BHOJA, 101 



Of these, NSgabhafa I defeated a Mlechctilia army (v. 4), and DevarSja is said to hare 
defeated a host of tings (v. 5). His son "Vatsar&ja, a famous king, forcibly wrested the 
empire from the BhaiHii clan (vv. 6-7) and Nagatohata H defeated C&akrayttdha and also con- 
quered kings of the Anartta* Turushka* MSlava 9 !Tatsa f Matsya and other countries (TV. 8-11). 
BIx5ja also called Mihira, is said to have defeated Ms powerful enemies and verses 16-26 
describe his greatness in general terms. 

The chronology of the kings mentioned in this inscription may be fixed with a tolerable 
degree of certainty. We have the dates 756-7 AJX for Nagabhata I, 783-4 A.D.J for Vatsaraja, 
815 A.D. for Kagabhata II, and dates ranging from 843 to 881 A.D. for Bhdja. Again, we 
learn from a Jaina book, the PrabhavaJca-cJiarita, that king NSgSvaloka of Knyakubja, the 
grand-father of Bhoja died in 890 Vikrama-Samvat, and this NSgavalOka ha* been dorre^tly 
identified with Nagabh&Ca H.i Thus the first three kings of the genealogical table fpay be 
placed between 725 and 775 A.D., and the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh kings may be taken 
to have ascended the throne respectively at about 775, 800, 833 and 840 A.D. 

Before the discovery of this inscription, our knowledge of the Gurjara-Pratlhra kings, who 
played such an important part in Indian history, was very limited and inaccurate. Although 
the late A. M. T. Jackson, M.A., I.C.S., and Prof. Bhandarkar^ laid the true foundation 
of our knowledge about the Gurjara-Pratlh&ra history, a complete understanding of the subject, 
in all its bearings, was impossible, in consequence of the view held by Dr, Fleet, Dr. Kielhora 
and others, that the homonymous kings referred to in the copper-plates lived earlier than, and 
were thus different from, those mentioned in the stone inscriptions. It was the discovery of this 
inscription that finally settled the question and facilitated the proper treatment of the Q-urjara- 
Pratlhara history. 8 Dr. V. A. Smith has clearly pointed out,* that the express mention of the 
family name of the kings in this inscription helps us to definitely assign the royal dynasty of 
Kanauj to the Grurjara-Pratlhira clan. 

The rise and growth of the great Gurjara empire, which played such a conspicuous part in 
Indian polity in the ninth century AJX, is clearly traced by our inscription. The names of 
the early kings of the dynasty, recorded in inscriptions, such as the Daulatpura copper-plate of 
BhOjadSva, 5 Dighwi Dubauli plate of MahSndrapSla 6 and the Bengal Asiatic Society's copper- 
plate of Vin&yakapala 7 are but a mere string of names without any details such as are to be 
found in the present inscription. This invests our record with particular importance, and the 
data it furnishes may be justly said to have revealed an altogether new chapter of Indian 
history. 

The founder of the royal line is named Hagatohata, a name not yet found in any other 
record of the family. He is said to have defeated the MlScTichha army, and the manner in 
which this solitary fact is mentioned with regard to hitsij seems to show that it was looked upon 

1 Above, Vol. XIV, p. 179, foot-note 3. 

2 A, If. T. Jackson, in Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I, App, III | Prof. D. B. Bhandariur in J. So, Sr. 
M. A. $., Vol. XXI, p. 405 1, 413 f , 

f This point is fully brought out by Dr* Kielhom (loo, ett}* 

* J. JB. A. 8., 1909, p, 68. 

Above, Vol. V,ptflQ8. 

< Ind. Ant., Vol. XV, p ? 105. 
7 Ibid, p. 138* 



102 



EPIGRAPHIA IJTOIOA. 



[VOL. XTIIL 



as of great importance in the history of the family. Now the locality of 

and the period when he flourished may be gathered from a piwwigis hi th Jaina 

The passage has been noticed by various scholars, and the .following reawrku of Dr. Fleet aav 

be taken to represent the earlier views regarding its interpretation. * A pattwkg in the J| 

Earivaihta of Jinasgna tells us that that work was finished in &aka- Ruth vat 705 

784 A.D., when there were reignin^-in various directions dntormtned with 

town named Vardharoanapura, which a to be identified with modern WnghwAp m th 

division of Kathiawar, in the north, IndrSyudha; in the mrntfa, 6rttliabha in th 

Vatsaraja, king of Avanti (Ujjain) ; and in the wett, Vai-Ehft or Jyawr|Ii f i '& 

the Sauryas."^ This seems to have been the accepted view till 1002 wtum Prof. D E 

darkar gave a somewhat different interpretation of it. He tnumtfttod tfei hit ' 

follows :- In the east, the illustrious king of Avanti ; m the wit Mg 7*1^1*1 

the tenitory of the Sanryas, the victorious nd bntve VwAb*."* Quito rw% Pnrf D 

Bhandarkar hs drawn my attention to a passage m u 

possession*, which runs as follows : 



" Hiranyagarbham 
Pratih*rikritani ySna Qwjwv8l|dirf jakwn 11 " 



f 










-. IS.] THE GWALIOE PBASASTI OF BHOJA. 103 

incursions against TJjjain, and if we remember that this is from the pen of an Arab historian, 
it must be looked upon as a tacit admission that the Arabs failed in their expedition against 
Ujiain. It is also significant, that the Nausarl plates 1 do not include the king of Avantl in 
the list of those that were defeated by the Arabs. Further, Biladuri himself admits that 
Junaid's successor was feeble, and, in his days, the Miisnlmans retted from several parts of 
India and left some of their possessions. 

Thus all the available evidence shows tbat Nagabhata I established the greatness of his 
family by his triumphant success over the Arabs. " The Hns5t plates of the Chabamana 
feudatory Bhartrivatjdlha II 3 records a grant that was made at Broach, in the increasing reign 
of victory of the glorious NSgavaldka, in the year 756 A.D. Prof. D. E. Bhandarkar 3 upheld tha 
view that this NagavalOka is no other than Nagabhata I, and Dr. Sten Konow* has accepted it. 
It would then follow that he re-established the Pratlhara sovereignty over Broach which the 
family of Jodhpur must have lost during the Arab expeditions, A reminiscence of Naga 
bhata's struggle with the neighbouring powers seems to .have been preserved in the Ragholi 
plates of Jayavardhana II, a king of the Saila dynasty, ruling over part of the Central Pro- 
vinces. We are told that Pp ithuvar,dhana 3 a king of the family, who probably ruled about the 
middle of the eighth century AJX, conquered the country of the Qurjaras. 5 

We have seen above, in connection with the Jodhpur inscription of the Pratlhara Bauka, 
how, as an indirect result of the Jflechohha invasion, the suzerainty hitherto enjoyed by 
the dynasty of Harichandra passed into the family of Nagabhata. It would appear that shortly 
after 725 A.D., when the Arab invaders seemed to have carried away everything before them t 
and, in particular, defeated the Pratlhara clan who had been ruling in Rajputana for about 
two centuries, Nagabhata gained successes over the Mlechchha forces and established his 
supremacy over the clan. The struggle which thus began between the two Pratlhara families 
was long and tedious. &iluka, the king of the Eajputana family, succeeded in regaining hia 
territory after defeating one Devaraja, probably the nephew of Nagabhata I. Vatsaraja, the son 
and successor of Dertiraja, however, continued the struggle and gave the final blow to the totter- 
ing rival power. The empire over which it had ruled for well-nigh two hundred years then 
finally passed into the hands of the family of Nagabhata* 

The data furnished by onr inscription, supplemented by a few other known facts, enable ua 
to sketch a brief history of the empire tbat was thus founded by Vatsaraja. Verses 6 and 7 
describe his mighty prowess and splendour, and mention, inlparticfular, that he had subdued the 
whole world. This statement, allowing for the natural exaggeration of the Prasasti writers, 
cannot be said to be altogether inaccurate, inasmuch as it is pretty certain that Vatsaraja had 
conquered the lord of Gau4& and was thus probably master of by far the greater p&rt of 
Northern India. This state of prosperity, however, did not continue long. The Biahtrafcuta 
king Dhruva inflicted a crushing defeat upon him, overran his territory as far as the Gaugea 

J Transactions of the Vienna Oriental Congre^ Ariau Section, p 231, 
Above, Vol. XII, p. 197. 
8 Ind. Ant. 9 1911, p 210, 
* Above, Vol. XII, p. 200, 
5 Above, Vol. IX, p, 41. 



104 EPIGRAPH!! INDKJA. I Vol., XVIII 

and Jumna, and forced Mm to tafca shelter in the doed of RfijputArui,' Th o efifeotg of ill 
Bashtrakfifca Wow seem to have been disastrous. The Fjllnw took ailvniitag^ of f h anpoittmitv 
and entered the field as rivals of the Gurjaras. Dharinnpila, th hwrmu! king af tho (iyuMto 
carried a campaign of conquest from one end of northern India, to another, nrul rAtw&A hia wY 
nominee Chakrayudha on the throne of Kanauj, apparently mn bulwark attiiwl the p 
Gurjara invasions. 3 The Gnrjara. power was, however, merely ittunavd by tins blow for the 
being, and Nagabhata II, the sou and succowfor of Vfttearaja, cmou awrn weight, tc r 
imperial dreams of his father (vv. 8-11). The poet tll UH in v, 8, that king** of 



, 
Andhra, Vidarbha and Kaliaga succumbett to Inn power liko motlw imf<> oWj ino$ are 



j o 

attracted by the glare of the fire and approach it of their om award, Alifaoujfh it lU*i to 
ultimate destruction. The force of this simile la prasurved if we nuppowt ihat'Oto kingH of ihtae 
four countries were not conquered by NSgabhafca but joined htm of th; r own ^mnl m tho tot 
instance, although, ultimately, they lost their power tboreby. The iMMition of thm foar ootttttriM 
confirms this view. Joined to MSlwa and B%uiAft which wi th hmnt-territorj of the 
Gurjaras, the four countries form a central belt right WTO*, th* ooantijr, bcmmUHl <m th iorth fair 
IbA empire of the Pal M) and, on the south, by that of th Rfahlmkflff^ u HMMMI q tt lt 

< 



MI q tt 

therefore, that they formed a c^nfederaoyag^^ < h 

the two sides although, a* so often happen*, the mori powerful ,, of t | w 
significance of the eighth vexm In tho next, the p* terifaM ttw H,fc 



mm 




* 



of his gtay, but we know from other re R* T ** w "' ^ hi ^ b * 

_ _ unman tuong the Vmdhya moaatalaii we Mmtml ty 0drlnSi 



Dr. Fleet who edited the above inscription (xxfcth/Sdi^ XH * P " 180t 

ted Mr. B. Chanda also adopted the tame view* (MaJ% w **** ** * 6 * tr>!ll f *> Odl*i III (/*, p, JS8) 

"^^?S5^ d *^* m ^^w!^^ '""v h wwott ii.ii, 

** v. 6 of the Khalimpw can*,.^* /. fc * , J5 Wf W **"*l * * M <Whr Dhm^. 

>i Vol. XV, p. M| |J 4 r . I l |fc 



No, 13.] THE GWALIOB PBASASTI OF BHOJA- 105 

III 1 and one inscription specifically refers to the defeat inflicted upon K&gabliata Tby tiie same 
king, and Ms triumphant march to the Himalayas 2 , It would thus appear that the Gurjara 
empire so laboriously rebuilt by Nagabhat-a II once more fell beneath the crushing blows of 
the hereditary foes of Ms family. There are reasons to believe that this was brought about by a 
confederacy between the two chief enemies of the Ghirjaras, vis. the Palas of Bengal and the 
B>Sshtrakt|jas of the south. For the same inscription that records the defeat of Fagabhata II 
in the hands of G5vinda III also mentions the fact that DharrnapSla and Chakrayudha visited 
or submitted to the last named king of their own accord 8 . 

The victory of the Bashtrakutas, although by no means final and decisive, was no doubt 
disastrous to the Gurjaras. The province of Malwa passed into the hands of the Eashtrakuta, 
and Andhra, Vidarbha and Kalinga also possibly shared the same fate. The Pratlharas, 
however, did not cease to give trouble to the Eashtraktitas, for we are told in the inscription of 
the feudatory chief Karkaraja of Gujarat, that the Eashtrakuta king had " caused his arm to 
become an excellent door-bar of the country of the lord of the Gurjaras." 4 

But ere long the political situation changed. The Eashtrakutas themselves were torn 
asunder by internal dissensions, Karkar&ja of Lata, the son and successor of IndrarSja, was 
expelled by his younger brother in 812 A.D., and what was worse still, the revolutionary 
movement, thus set on foot, afterwards developed into an attempt to prevent the accession of 

Amdghavarsha I. 5 

This unexpected embroglio in the EUshtraktita affairs left the Palas and the Gurjaraa 
free to fight among themselves. It appears that NSgabha^a retained his hold upon Kanauj 

1 Cfa Rodhanpur plates, v, 15 (above, Vol. VI, p. 244), and the NUgund ins., v. 5 (ibid, p. 102). Two 

passages in the Baroda plates of Karkaraja also seem to refer to the conflict between Nagabhata and the Bashtra. 
k-utafl. Thus it is said with reference to Isdraraja, the "brother of Govinda III, and the founder of the Gujarat 
branch o the BashtraMtas ; 

w Yen=aikena cha Qiirjjar*es?ara~patir~yy6ddhum samabhyudyatalj 

fouryya-proddhata-kandharS mriga iva kshipram diso grahitafo | 

"bhitrisan (ihJhata^DakBhi^&patha-mahft-samanta-ohakrajfh yato 

rttkshain-apa viknthyamana-vibhavam Svlvallabhen=adarat || 

I& Ant. t Vol. XII, p. 160. 

As it is explicitly stated that, Indraraja was placed on the throne of Lata by Govrada III, this defeat of the 
Gtnnaras must have taken place during his reign. It was thus different from the expedition undertaken by Dhruva 
against Vatsaraja* and the word SMnos, distinguishes it from the campaign of Govinda III referred to in the 
Badhanpnr plate or the Nllgxmd inscription. Thai the opponent of Indraraja was most likely Nagabhata himself who 
is represented in the above passage as entering into some alliance, protective or defensive, if not offensive, with the 
mc^ammant^ of tbe south against Govinda III and actually prepared for war (cf. Fleet's remarks, Hid, p. 158). 
This f tilly confirms what I have suggested above on the strength of the eighth verse of our inscription, 
The other passage refers to KarkarSja as follows : * 



cha yasya j| 
nltva bhujwn vihataMal4va-rakshanarttham j 
svami tatha=nyam=api rajya*chha(pha)lani bhunkte || 
fir. V. A. Smith identified the ff< Lord of Gurjaras*' in the above passage with Vatsaraja (J, JB. A*$, t 1909, p 252). 

But thi$ is untenable. As Govinda died about 814 A.D., it must be maintained that the Gurjara chief 
against whom he employoA bis nephew in 812-3 A, D. could not be any other than Nagabhata who is specifically 
mentioned a being defeated by him (see 1 n* 2 below). As Nagabhata defeated Vangapati, the phrase ** Gaud-endra 
VaBgapati-nirjjuy^flurvvWagdlm ** m%ht well apply to hiBij and the Buchkala inscription (above, Yol, IX. p, 
shows that he was ruling in 8SB A,D. 

The SaSjin copper-plate j J". So. Mr. $ A. S. t Vol XXjl, p* 118, 

* Svayam*0y=opanatan cha yasya mahatas=tau Bharma-Chakrayudhau || (Ibid*) 

* Bar5da plates' of Karkaraja $ 1L 89-4.0 5 Ind. Ant> 9 Yol, XII, p*JL6Q 

* Somlay Gfasettee*) Vol. I, Part II, pp, 402^ 409, 





EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. f Vm]> 



which he had conquered from ChakrSyadha, transferred 1m capital thwn, mul 
ed in offering an effective resistance to the PSJas till his death in 83U.81U A. I), 

Of Ramabhadra, the son and successor of Nagabhata U, wo know w n ''m'lto l t f 
t/?? P T' de Iined durin & his reign i quite ovidont from H .mt^ml mrff ' 
abou kn. The , twelfth verse of our tocription oem to imply ihl Hln Wt hh } , 
counfay from the yoke of foreign, soldiers. It Beoi n likely thuf, fh lul o 
belonged to ti. Palas, for the other rival powor (the E^k tw ) Init 
Danced as ar as the Gurjara kingdom at thi. ponod. Th Ifcujpa* 
the same concluBon. It renews the gnat of a piece of land in OarjwJk 
HU^e by^ Vat 8ar a 3 a, and continued by NIgabhata, tot hnd fail, B L O , h 

Bhflja. This seems to indicate that the promce wa held hy V^^Jk i w. I. ^ Ol 

^cntion, * '. will of i^ 






tory princes of the latter, Thus tha T^llL, J? **& to in tJ *,. putmn or uie fontla* 

accompanied Mgabhata II in his eatei TO^ A ? !T M n ^ r ' Mwt lik % *t W 
Ngabhata II on the same occasion wtw viliitkSnl i n. ^ pTOl * llf ^ ipi<l 
we learn from an inscription of his flrreat ^a A **' WurAuhtm, Far 

drapalads^, that he defeated king Dhwm k Ck IT W ^J r ^ Wll ft ar 'f MUMal 

third ohief who joined Kftffabhata ^ v ei ?P? W ol ** ta. 8 We tout Mill ti-aoo 1 
'AJbove, Vol. V; page 208. ~ ' ^ , * A "fwAintf M. Hwhft| f 

J, T TT \ - _ i , ^^^^^^^^^^*^*"****"^^ 



Alwe, Vol. IX, r . 
and was a fewiatory &f 

fSV ... . 3 <m t ' 



. -. 



tfo. 13.] THE GWALIOE PEASASTI OP BHOJA, 

the son oi &tkta&ga,ttaj its said to hav6 dftftquei^d the kings in the north and presented torses 
to Bhsja, who has tottL irigktly ideittifiad With the gteat Ifr&tlhWA empftroi- Bh$j& by Prt)f. D.- 
It. Bhandarkar, 1 Further GnMIa II> the BOB. of H&rahcuft^ i mid to harct d$feat&d the 
Gauda king and levied tribute from the princes in the 



[Metres : TV, 1, 841, 26, Vasantatilaka ; w. 2, 4, 7, 18,19, 3<t&nlavihrldia } tv. 3, 
6, 6, 12, 27, SragdharS ; TY- 18,14, 16, 21-23, 25, Anushti&h \ w, 15, 24>, Upajatfj T. i7 f 
Sikharini ; v. 20, ffari-pf.] 

1 Om 3a narnd VishnavS U 



vaksh ah-sthal-6llasit 

Syamarii vapu [h*] Sai-vir5chajia-vimira(bimba)-chmmTi(mM)- 

YyQma-prakaSam^avataiisNaraka-dvisha yah jj 1 (| 

Atm-arama-plial&d=aparjya vijaram deyena Daitya-dvisha 

jyQtir-vvIjam 4 =akrittrime 

2 gnijiavat[i] ksliettre yadBptarii pura J 
reyah-kanda-vapus*tatas=samab^ 

Manv-Ik8hvaktL-Kakustha 5 -mnla 6 -Pritliayah kshmapala-kalpa-ddr[u]ma^ [| 2 \\ 
Teshm vamse sujanma krama-nihita-pade dhamni vajr-eshu-gliSi'ain 
Bimah Paulastya-MnSrarii 7 kshata-vihati-samit-karmma <?hakre pal&Sai^ | 
jllighya- 

3 s=tasy=aimj5=saii Maghava-mada-mushs Meghanadaisya samkhye 
Saumittrist!vra-dandlah, pratiharana-vidhr=ya^ pimtlhara Sslt [| & || 
Tad*yanSe 3 PratitiSra-ketaiia-bhyiti ttrailokya-rakst-aspade 

dey^ Nagabhatah, 

yen=asau sukfita-pramathi-ya(ba) l 
4 
ksh\mdana ll sphurad-ugra-lieti-ruchire (rai)r*ddorbhW=chatUi*l)Mry vabliau* 2 [[ 4 



gltah pratlka-priya u -yachaiiataya 

sy*aujaiMl KuK6^dhai^Iiw^ 
ya]ne**^hchMn 16 -Om 



28 of ito CM^ Mos^riptioB, IWtf, p li. 

* Froti: .the ink-impressions supplied by Prof. D. E. 

4 Eead -lUjam-. 9 Read 

fl [Could JfwZa stand for Mula lea Jor which g0e Jargiter -Iwe^ (I?i^.) JEBf*. Trad. p. 147 Ed*] 

7 Bead -Aiwram. 8 Besrik HMCAI; * Bead *mtih$i<na'. 

10 Pandit Hbrananda roads it as 'Valana, * and Prof, D. B. Blmnda^kar reada it m T&IM^ (J^4 Ant+ 191 1 
p240)* The third letter, ho wever, seems to me to be cleoorly a wj^ it being: quite disimct OB tli0 watw rf the 
Cfitampa-ge. I therefore read the wh^le- o^jreawn && v&tav<m*MlechchM The loop of m ii tb ec%^>Haiit 

is probably omitted through the 

u Kead &$%unddnas~. 

18 Eead RdTcutetha-> u Eda^ -jprtya-, 

15 



108 EPICffiAPHIA INDIOA. [VQJ,. XVIII. 

5 ti kulaA bhtibhfitaiii siwaniyantft |j fi it 
Tatflfimiii prapya rfijyam -- "^ --' .ni- ..*.. ... . .- - 



yasy=ait&s=sampada=clia 

padmakskir-aksliipantya 1 pra^ayi-jana-parishyaiiga-kantl virdjn^i. Jj 6 fj 



yah samrajyayadliijyas-karmmuka-aaklia samkhyg 

ekafc Kstattriya-piingavesliu ch.a yaSc-gurvYln-dhumria 

Ikslivak[o] kulam-unnatam sucharitaiS-ohakrS ava-nlm-ii&tkita& }| 7 if 

Idyali puman=punar=api sphuta-klrfetir-asmaj- 

]'atas=.saeva kila N5gabliata8tad-ak]iyali | 



7 

Kaumara-dhaaiaai patanga-samair-apati || 8 

Ttra(tra)yy=aspadasya sukpitasya 

yali 

jitvft 

OhatoSyudharix Tinaya-immra.vapur-.Tvyara3at |J 9 



- samghafca- 
8 



10 



II Jl 
Taj-ianrnft EStoa- 



^^ 




No. 38.] THE GWALIOB PRASASTI OP BHOJA, 109 



prltyai n^atm-eoliclilia-YiiiiySgatali || 14 
Jagad-yitnstntili sa 
prajapatitvam vi 
sufam i*aliasya-Trata-'8Uprasannat= 
Suryada ra- 

il ~panMi!iir*abMd]iaxiarii || 15 



Skramya bhftblijitarii bkQkta yati prabh,nrBlioja ityabli&t || 16 
YaSasvI Sant-atm5 jagad-aMta*viclicli]lieda-nip"anati 
parish.vakt5 Lakslimya na oha mada-kalankena kalitat | 
prem-ardrO gunisliu Tislaayali 



12 

asau. Bm<5 v^Sgre sva-kfiti-ga^anayam^ilia Vidlieh j| 17 || 
=kula-bhtmibliyit-pramatliana-vyast^anya-s 
cha splxutitari*laja-iilvali3,ii=hntv pratp-aBale | 
gupta viriddha-ganair^anaiiya-gatibMh. 5ntais*sudli5dbha8ibliir* 
dDharmm-apatya-yagah-prabMtir*apara Lakslimlh. punarbhft- 

13 r-omayft || 18 ff 

Prltaih pSlanayS tapOdhana-kuIalh snehad-gurtinarii 
bhaktya bhatya 8 -janeiia 
vljven=apl yadlyam^ayur^amitam kartnm 

tan-niglma vidadhe Vidhataii yatba sampatpar-ftrddbySrayg J| 19 
Avitatham=idaiii 



bhavati 

adharita-Kalelt klrttgr^bliartt-as'satam sukyitalr^abhftd* 
yidturita-dHyam sampad-vyidd]iir.yadasya tad*adbfa,iitada |j 20 
Yasya yairiyFihad 4 yan.flan.a=dahata^ k5pa-yabnma | 

21 



yab Safias=Aauranagh5ran-strai^eiiastr*aikavfittiiia 22 



Hlekha mukham^alokya pratilskhya-kard TidMh || 23 
TJddama-tejali-prasara-prasfita 
jagad^bltartti- 



Bead 



Bead -amtudher [Bead amlwdJi>r~<vyM&& Bd.] 

Bead 

Bead 



no BPJGRAPHIA INDICIA 



crasser r^^jas, ' v ,; ' , ' .',.',. : " " * "- ' - 

clilfctmni 



Kajni tena sra-devlnani ya4afr-pu?y-ftbhiviicUUi^i> 
anta^-pura-puraih. namnS vyadhftyi Namka- 
Yivan=*nal>hah Sura-sarit-pa(pm)sar-flttarlyarii 




satyan =cha yavaduparistha (h{&a) m*a v aty ^awiHhu it 
tavat pu- 

17 *natu jagatlm^ywa-firya^-ltlritiO, | UO jj 

Patarvvivasya samyak^amawauai-w^ vid 

sthltaiva pnratd Blidjii^l6?iijft niji1a|i | 
m phalami?i| n u r * 

praasteh kaviriha jagatft Hft,kttm*&*kuIiw*vfitt4H> ji U7 



(Line L) Om, adoration to 

(Verse^l,) May the dark-blue body of the Knettiy of (tlomtmt) {imtont y0tt,< that 

body which shines like the sky kissed by the of tki Sun atul ilw M<M,m 9 (txtuMinuoh M) it {9 

illuminated by the white lower part of the ftorgxmfc Sfinha uffx! HUH ft twl f 14111! m by 

the trillianoy of the (jewel) Kauetubha glitterittg cm it* taiutut, 

^(Verse 2,) As from the fresh awd ^km n frmifc In mtd in i matuml 

fertile soil, grows balbuous root of a superior kind, from which forth trees j 

so from the (particle of ) Kgh* solved, by h* BlMmy of DotnottK (fw* 

arama) and sown by him in soil well qudifad by xuOwtt, Wfti bum thu Bun, tUn roal of all that is 
good, and from the Sun, again, a line of anoh M Mwitt, *ad fcha 

first Pfithu> 



^ 8.) In their race, in the family hi which Vl*hu iifi fcnrf., if birth v 

carried on ^ war of destruction aaid alaagKtw with tkt dfiznoiMf~dit^ an noctmnt of th 
msntine arrows which killed Eftva^a. 



^ All praise unto his younger brother, Lskihm^m i$t^wi roil of 

m war with Maghan&da, the destmyer of lira's priiln t -wh as tho rfmir-k 

alma), owing to (his) commandment not to allow ofcliew to en tor (lit to Mp! 



A u , and 

eMter -of the three wrick, the king Hgabhifal appmml M il m iumgii of iliii c)M 
iJNarayana) in a strange mjp Uvto^ oranhml fclu Iiii W of tho 



1 Head 

a Pandit HSranaoida reads a^a bu|j &^a k quite elm^ 
8 



, flol, 18, MB, 
Yens. eAontootetM tn Mi. v uf ite *m*, vJ,,, tto 

^^ v . - . u - **. - 

that anyone who Ha S ^i "O'wtWng vry wlWintI|. H Ktrstd pNMMtf 






No, 13.] THE GWAL10R PEASASTI OF BHOJA* 111 

lElBcliohlia king, tlie destroyer of virtue, lie shone with four arms brilliant on account of the 
glittering terrible weapons. 1 

(Verse 5.) His brother's son, who added to the renown o the family and had the well- 
known nar^e Klkustha (Kjffcutstha), but who, on account of his (habit of) raying welcome 
things in ag, inverted manner, was known, in the world as Ka&kuka (i.e., one who always laughs) j 
was 4. paramount king, 2 

(Then.) was born his illustrious younger brother, De.varlja who performed the same task 
as the great Wielder of thunderbolt (Indra) 5 (for) he curbed a multitude of kings (bhtiblurit) 
by having destroyed their powerful allies (palcshah) and caused them to cast off their (free) 
movements (#aii) ; Indra also curbed a multitude of mountains (bhubhyit) by having destroyed 
their powerfujrwings [pakshah) and thus caused them to cast off their movements (gati)* 

(Verse 6.) His son, king Vatsaraja, who was compassionate towards the entire world lie had 
subdued, and resembled the Sun in prowess, revealed himself by attaining his own kingdom 
which rivalled the mountain Udaya. 

His riches, too, highly fragrant by reason of the flavour of the wino of elephant ichor, and 
shining in company of the needy, appeared exceedingly beautiful, having eclipsed the lotus* 
eyed women, who too became exceedingly merry by having tasted wine which wa like ichor of 
elephants and appeared charming in the fond embrace of their lovers. 

(Verse 7.) With strong bows as hia companion he forcibly wrested tho empire, in buttle 
from the famous Bliandi clan, hard to be overcome by reaaon of the rampart made of infuriated 
elephants. 

Having successfully wielded a position weighty with renown, ho, the foromoftfc among tin* 
most distinguished Kshatriyas, stamped the noble race of Ikshvaku with his own name by virtue 
of his blameless conduct. 



Both Dr. Kielhorn and Pandit Hirananda take the fourth lino of tho verse to mean that Laktthmaua \ 
Kama's door- keeper since ho repelled the enemies (pratiharanawidbtifo. This meaning doe* not ueem saWftwiturY 
for there is no connection between the repelling of enenriefl and acting as a door-lcc&por. Oneof thowdl-knowij 
meanings of pratiharana, is 'to avoid, * 'shun/ etc., and vidhi also means a commandment, it preempt* whMi ouioinw 
goinethjmg for the first tinie. In the well*kxiown incident of the U&mfiya^a, quoted above, Bftma on joined for the 
first time that all persons should be excluded from his private interview with tho ascetic, and appointed LnMminna 
as the door-keeper to auccessfully accomplish this purpose, This makes it quite clear why Lakshmaim in dosU'nbiU 
in the inscription as pratth&ra owing to pratitiarana-vidhi. In other words, tho poet hnplioB that Luksbmana 
was uot an ordinary door-keeper, but served as such on account of tho particular commandment laid down by Kam'u, 

The fpurth verse of the Jodhpur inscription of PratlhSra Bfiuka also traces tho origin of tho uaiuo of tlnl 
Pratthara dynasty to this incident, and it certainly well deserves tho dignity, "boaviwo literally an well JIB figumtivoly> 
it was the last act of self-sacriace on the part of Laksbna^a, whoso whole life was one of sacriflro for hia brother, 

[The derivation of the name Pratth&ra which is given hero IB evidently not tho HUIMO an thai intHmtnrl 
by the word pr&t&ary* in the Jodhpur JPra***K of Bauka, Hero tho poet suggontn that tho prattt&rauti* 
wlhi displayed hy Lakshmana in his fight with MSghanada, IB tho origin of tho family nuw Pratlliilra tmd not tliu 
traditional ,pra^aryadoorkeepor's place This is a grammatically possible derivative siuco Aaruwh<tw doiiviiin^ 
or taking away qr destroy in*. Ed,] * ' * 

' '' 1 Th obvious implication is, that thetfftriblo weapons glittering in tho two hands of NaaMu^H, mado it 
m if heliad four hands, and ho tlras reaemUed, although in a strange manner, the old sage Naraya,m who 
four lianda too. " 



Pandit Hirananda traaslates " Tchyata^&ku^a-nnma m * coUAmtod tlw names of tho donromUnte of 



Kfikust^a and gives EMto as the only lwne of the king. Hut tho two oxprosBiom -u 

and loke ftta* placed side by nfewm. to indicate that he had tho well-known mmq K&kuM^, but wan pmm 
known as JTafttuAa. Tho wot *aftfrm MB 8 to laugh ' and XaM* was a fit appollatwrn of uo who kuLd 
made people laugh by his inverted way of aaying things, 



112 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICIA. [VoL. XVIII 



(Verse 8.) The primeval man was again 1 born to him, and, being far-famed, aad possessed 
of elephant hosts, was called WSgabhata (H). 

The kings of Andhra, Sindhu, Vidarbha and Kalinga succumbed to his youthful energy 
as moths do unto fire. 2 

(Terse 9.) Who, desirous of the great growth of -virtuous acts enjoined in. the VSdas, per- 
formed a series of religious ceremonies according to the custom of the BIshatriya families ; and, 
after having defeated Chakrayudha, whose lowly demeanour was manifest from his dependence 
on others, he became eminent, although he (life his body) was humble through modesty.* 

(Verse 10.) Having vanquished his enemy, the lord of VaAga, who appeared like a mass of 
dark- dense cloud in consequence of the crowd of mighty elephants, horses and chariots, "*' 



, 

bhata, who alone gladdens (the heart of) the three worlds, revealed himself, even as the rising 
Sun, 'the sole source of manifestation of the three worlds, reveals himself by vanquishing dense 
and terrible darkness. 5 

(Verse 11.) Of him, whose mode of life was beneficial to all mankind, the moomproKeMible 
royal qualities 6 (like eloquence, statesmanship, etc,) became manifest in the world, eren from 
boyhood, by his forcible seizure of the Mil forts of the kings of JLnartta, KUava, BteSt* 
Turashka, Vatsa and Matsya. 

(Verse 12.) (The great Eama), the protector of virtue, after having forcibly bridged over 
the oceans (lit. the lords of rivers), full of exceedingly cruel animate, by means of coutinuoTii 
chain of rocks placed by the best monkey force, looked bright Tby having kilted the evil-deem' 
who serred as obstacles and (as he thereby) got (lit. was joined by) hta wife nadf ratowtt* His 
(Nagabhata's) son, RSma byname, also shone forth like tide (homonymoag) prodecMHUK>r Tby fimilar 
worthy deeds ; for he, the defender of religion, too, had the haughty arid cruel ooxa&audeva of 
armies forcibly bound down by (his subordinate) kings who had the best enralry tinder their 
charge, and looked radiant by having , destroyed the obitaclea oauaed by the evildoenft (us Ke 
thus) attained the fame which was unto him even as a consort, 7 

(Verse 13.) That lord of prosperity, who had overpowered the points of ootrijpws by meaaotft 
of valour (alone), unsupported by the other expedients (such an *dE?na, d&na, 6Mda) f wm yet 

1 The phrase p&nar*api denotes either that the primeval man who was once bora fwt NignUift$* (c. Y. 4) 
appeared again, or that Nagabha^a, the first man in the family ($d$afy fwm&n) f wtui again botftt IMI ftaah. 

2 There is a pun on the word fcwmdra-dkamavti* KumSm meant fire m well m youth* 

s [In verse 9 laH-prabandaji must mean the collection of taxeg as Mr. Hirnnaxid* Kttfttxi interpret*, A king 
has to collect taxes if he has to perform Vedic sacrifices atid protect the Dliarma* Hid of all ataMMrt% 9 the verw 
means that the King collected taxes only as per prescribed law for lnereaninff Vdlc merit | ind fooquerid king' 
Chakrayudha who had joined the enemy, With alaM&r a it mean* ** he excaltod Vlnl^u-^tbonyh Uk6 MM bo 
also imprisoned Bali, since he was not low like Vaaiana nor proud like Trlvikm% but was full of rfaaya. Ed*] 

* There is an implication in this verse to the effect that Nfigobhafc exc'elled Vfahyu (Chttkrtyttdh*), Both 
were Trayy-aspadasya sulcrttassya *<w*riddhim*iekchhu]i, but Vighnu could not, likft NftgubbA^ fc* wW to h*v 
heen K*battra-dhama-rfdhMcdd&a*1>aUprafandhab m ho :oalduot nabdae Ball by Kthatriyib ritftd. Tlim Viih^v 
w&*par-d$raya-krita-.iphvt(t-nwha lliamfy, Tliis refers to the Vftinana iucarnaikm in whk*k Vfsl^d took 
the body of a dwarf. Again, whereas Nagabhata was namr&m$uft only through f Jiaya, V!htyi&' body WM 
namra, inasmuch as he was a dwarf. 

5 There is an implied SlSsha in this verse, The adjective M^affad^ka^iMmm^^im both to 
hhata and the Snn, and both vanquish darkn<?aa, in the on case literally, and fai the othr f figtimttv01y, 

fl Pandit Himnanda translates dtmamMa?am by w greatness of aottl/ 1 It Is bettor to tJk$ ft, iogga 
my friend Mr. J. 0. Ghatak, M.A., as equivalent to the technical form &tmammjwt wewitef a gptmf o / f 
qualities as explained in KawandMya J!nti*&ra 9 Oh. IV, vv. 14 -J 8 

' The phrase tntyvtat tertti-darafy seems to be a signiflcoa'; one. Hie evident mwaliif !# tlwt a in tho 
of Earnachandra, he was joined by his wife after she had been in enemy's stronghold for sornt time, Hftwabh^ra, too, 
Tfigained the fame which was so long in his enemy's possession. This nmmn to show that Riitttbhftdr* 1 ** l*Wr was 
overshadowed by his enemy till he defeated him and captured his commanders. 



No, 18.] THE OF 113 

demurely waited upon by the other Means (I.e. although lie neglected thorn m not necessary , 
tkey were within Ms beck and call). 1 

(Verse 14) 'The production of the wealth of that successful one was merely a source of 
delight ; it was at the disposal of the supplicants, but never a to aatisfy MB own 

desires, 

(Verse 15.) A pare soul, averse from the world, he obtained a son, fey by 

(the favour o v f) the Sun, propitiated by mysterious In order to dispose of ike lordship over 

his subjects. 3 

(Verse 16.) The lord, who ruled over many kings (bJmbhfit) after having overcome them, 
and (being therefore) known as Bhaja, shone more gloriously than Agastya who (merely) check- 
ed the rise of (a single bhubhrit, i.e. mountain) Yindkya through favour (and not % Ms own 
prowess)/* 

(Verse 17.) Famous, unperturbed, adept in removing the evils of the world, embraced by 
Lakshmi (sovereign power), but not soiled by the stain of arrogance, lie was affectionate towards 
the meritorious and an asylum of good and pleasant words. Does he or Kama slainl foromogt 
when Brahma counts his own creation ? 

(Verse 18.) The other Lakstml, the source of the of 

son, who was cast out of the ocean of hostile forces, churned by the Kula mountain** in the 
form of kings of his (Bhaja'e) own race, who was married by offering (at* an oblation) 
fried grains, which were the destroyed enemies* in the fire of Ms valour, and who was pro- 
iected by (his), superior accomplishment^ mild, uixcommoxi and pure like xxectar, bccaino a fit 
remarried "bride of that king. 4 



l The ancient writers on Hindu polity laid down sama, ddntt,, fthSda, and AwdVi us tho lour npdym OT expe- 
dients which a king should adopt towards other Mugs. (Soxuo add three more, making tho tq|*al immkr to lw wmni 
c. the KdmandaMya NUisam, Oh. 13.) Now the poet implies that of these the king followed mily onu, vh. dtintfa 
and did not tak resort to the rest. His position was, therefore, similar to ono who jwwwoiJHOJi muny wivcm but cures 
for only one. But, as in tins case the neglected wives,, as IB deity bound, would still conthmo to pay their hnmbfo 
devotion to Mm, so the other political expedients,, although not adopted by the king* were nlwayn within hi Iwwk and 
call The poet thus indicates that though in practice the king used only ono expedient* Sfc should not bo mwludod 
therefrom that h was ignorant or Incapable o handling the rest. 

2 The general rneaiiiEg conveyed by the verse sooms to "be that although ho wits avow) to the worldly plecumroft 
lie wanted a son, not for Ms own delight, but merely for tho mason that ho might loavo a ruler for MB wibj^tc 

8 The allusion is to the mythical story that the Viadliya mountain once got angry with tho Htm and Imgtiit to 
riso higher and higher in order to chock his daily cousm At the wpaoHt; of tho goAs tho 

the mountain and asked ft-to bow down in to room for Mm on hb way ' to fcho Huviih, and iiol. t*' tm up 
till his retam* The Vindliya agreed, and as Agastya no?or returned, Iml to i*oumin iu tlio MUM jioMium. Cf . 
MaMlMrataz Vaaaparva, Chap. 104. 

Tli poet contrasts the deeds o Agastya and Bhoja, Tho contrast h hotweou (1) Vindfya uud 
(2) samruddM^fiddUk and Ihokta and ( u$arddM and akratoya. Om hud to cl,i with only ii,ci 
(mountain), the other dealt with a number of Waikr** (kings as well as laouuttujw nituatud within ilwiir j 

ttenitt on case the question was merely of checking tho growth, in the other, of comploio cunqaest ; tatty, ona 
gained his object ^by requert while the other had achieved his purpose by xtiewtu o pwwtuts. 

The prindpal dauae fa the _s^enL0 Ya*y*dbh$dKapara l^Mmik v*mrlMr>nmyS 

who "belonged to another became properly lm punarl'K or voniarriod wiE, AuiMlitig to lli |MM^ 
acted properly (oya). -A similar sentiment occurs hi an almost coniompomry roowd 2f/t'.^ vorwi 3 of thu 
EadlmEpur plates of Govinda III, above, Vol. VI, p. 248.) * 

Tho expression dkarmm&prfya*yatol pralMtt, appliod to I^ilcHlunl lian hiKm tnxuHluM by FIit 
as - sourco of fame, progony and virtuo But LakBhm* who !H wordy <v coiiv^niilonai roiinnfontatmi, f mmmlfn 
power cam harffly be said to be the m* of progeny or vlrtuo. I have, thwf,, fdccm rfir W -^. I ' 
of soE.of Dhaim or Blmmapak, (te. Dfivapffla).- Tlih fife In mil with Uu. ^ntutfc, lin plying U,rt TkKlim1 

to tlio other, and this 1ms hoen shown to to a hiatorkaJ; i^ct 



S5PIGEAPHIA INDIOA. 



i n order "to extend the duration, of hia life beyond all measure, the, asce% 
oa account of the protection afforded to them, the preceptors out of affection, the 
ents out of devotion, the multitude of foes, out of policy, ami maakutd in general, for the 
sake of its livelihood, made their respective services (treasures) subservient to him, who vra* w 
worthy a recipient as the Creator Himself- 1 f 

rVerse 20 ) According to the injunction of the Sruti, this is a truism, qp long as the world 

lut. that he who does a thing enjoys the fruits thereof, and not (another) though he be the lord 

f even hundred kings It is strange that the meritorious deeds of honest men, whose intellect 

was undefiled, went to increase the prosperity of this king, who was the conqueror of Kali and 

CVerae 21 ) Of him, who had hurnt the powerful hostile races by the fir of his a^ger, and 
guarded the oceans by his valour, the absence of greed (for further conquest) shone indeed (even 
as the satiety of a man who had drunk a large quantity of water) . s 

(Terse 22.) Like Kumara (Karttikeya) with his host of Matrika who performed wonder- 
ful deeds, he subdued the terrible Asuraa with the help of a band o* woman that lived upon 



arms.* 



(Verse 23.) Vidhi (Fate), writing anew (the destinies of the world), wrote in the chancery 
of that king, looking at (i.e. being guided by) hia face, ainoo the latter waa the master of the 
world in oonsequenoe of his prowess. (In other words the destiny of the world was absolutely 
at the command of that all-powerful king.) 

(Verse 84.) Fame, resulting from the unbounded energy of that lord of the world, WJMS 
nnto him even as a consort, and like a flame, issuing out of a flood of luxuriant luatre, returned 
after conquering the Sun. It is a wonder that she crossed the oceans. 

(Verse 25.) In order to increase the fame and religious merit of his consorts, the king 
erected a house within his seraglio compound in the name of NarakadvMa (Ywtum). 

(Verse 26.) is Iqng as the sky has th,Q flowing celestial stream (Qmfagl) as it upper gar- 
laent, as long as there lasts the power originating from sovero religious austerities, as long ae 
Tmth protects all that ia above, BO long may this noble and famouB work 1 purify the world. 

(Versa 27.) BBlSditya f is) the poet of this prafagti which would exist along witb. the 
world tip to' the end of the JKaJjpa ; (he,) the son of BhatfadhamiSka and the fruit of penances, as it 
were of a number of learned men, (is) the (personified) inner facility of dkorimiua.tioa, Branding 
before king Bltfjadeva, the protector of the, world, inasmuch m ha (lW4ity) follows the 
gx>od rulBB BanetkmQd by the beet of siagea, 



1 The varm apparently ineans that all triad their best to prolou the life of tlui Mug. TJU0 wettilc% fey 

his "behalf, the j>*ece|tQrs, by teacMug Mm proper mode of lt(i tlM wrvbEti 'by looking to Ub 
s^ the enemies, hy not disturbing him, and the subjects, "by loyally carry tag oat .hk order*, would tUl 

same onii, vw. a Jong aucl happy life to him. 

This verse completes the sense of the pirevious one wherein it WM j#u$lfod ttw*fc thft king <in|ay<|d tjjit fruits of 
&eds Qf vaiiou^ categories of peonle, 

* [Fa^r^W^ m wa wy opinion, means here the opposite of * ahw of grwV t'f tUiffft (for 
thirst,. say the poet was evident, because the King ij.&d burnt the t?a4* (two* or bwibooi) at li 

for protected) on account of that great heat {pratapa) 9 the ocwmu^ B4*3 

* The aUusion fa to the %kt between the Devas aud the Dtaarau in which Kumtaif ww UIHI 

of the f ooaor, and had in hi$ army a number of Matrik&s, Cf. JaM6Mm% &lyapA.rvft Ch. 4& 
Edition^ Although* the female companions of Knm&m. ar* usually called MAtrikftn, tli uw of tli word 
to be explained by the f act that it is aomptimefl miad an a ayuoayw of MMfiki^ bath m^uiaK 
ft in the ws^ of the King should ba takeu to mean * Source of Kuowlw%a/~!ikL} 

* This yarsa furnisher another instance of the use of tfw word * KMti 9 in tlw aonao of * i.uy wok of 

^ to ^nder faijuouts the name of the eomtruetor of it-* ICor full diicwibn cm tills polttt e* 
fife p, 312, f A TU 6-, 
8 I am indebted to Mr, Badhagovfeda Basak, M. A,, for valmb raggcuitlonii vtgarAliig Ui 



No. 14] PATTATTALMANGALAM GRANT OF JTANDIYARMAN. 115 



No. 14. PATTATTALMANGALAM GRANT OF NANDIVARMAN. 

BY K. V. SUBBAHMANYA AlYER, B.A., OoTACAMUNB. 

In October 1922, when I was in charge of the office of the Assistant Archaeological Superin- 
tendent for Epigraphy, Madras, Mr. P. V. Jagadisa Aiyar obtained the following set of copper- 
plates from Mr. Em. St. Sivananda Pillai of Kumbakonam and sent it to me for examination, 
As I had soon after to go away to Ootacamund, I left the plates to be noticed by Mr. Venkoba Rao 
in the Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1922-23. The set is marked as No. 5 Appendix A in the 
Report for that year and finds a short notice in Part II which will be referred to in the sequel. 
I edit the inscription on the plates with the help of one set of impressions kindly placed at my 
disposal by M. R. Ry. Rao Bahadur H. Krishna Sastri. Recently an article entitled " the Kot. 
rangudi plates of Nandivarman II " has appeared in thp Mythic Society Journal, Vol. XIV, pp. 
125 to 129, under the editorship of Mr, T, N. Subramaniam. There the discovery of the plates 
has been described in detail, 

The set consists of five plates of which the first and last are engraved only on their inner sides. 
They were originally strung together on a ring bearing a massive seal, 3 inches in diameter. The 
emblems and legend on the seal are so badly obliterated that they cannot be made out. A cou- 
chant ifoull is all that could be faintly seen. The ring had been cut when the plates reached me 
and it is not known when and by whom it was cut. The plates measure nearly 10* by 3|* and 
the ring-hole, b'ored at the left margin, is f * in diameter. The five plates with the ring and seal 
weigh 320 tolas and the plates alone weigh 175 tolas. 

The inscription on the plates is neatly executed and is in good preservation. The only places 
where some damage is done to letters are at the commencement of lines 7 and 8 of 116, lines 
1 and 2 of Ilia, lines 5 and 6 of III6 and line 8 of IV6. It has been found possible to restore 
with certainty all the damaged portions except that in line 1 of Ilia. The reading of the 
damaged portion in line 6 of III6 is tentative. As is usual with most of. the copper-plate 
charters of South India, this inscription consists of two parts of which the first is in Sanskrit 
poetry (eleven verses in all) written in <3xaut1ia characters and runs from line 1 -to line 22, where 
the second part in Tamil prose commences and runs to the end i.e., line 60. The few Grantha 
letters and words employed in the Tamil portion are sama, sarmw-pariharam and brahmade 
(L 37), haram (L 38), brahmade ( 1. 42), gauta (11. 43 and 45), #y* and Jcra (1. 43), bhatta (11. 44 
and 45), jatva (1. 44), Hira^ya (11. 44 and 48), Agni&armma and gdtra (L 47), de (L 48), armma 
(II 45, -53, 56, 57, and 58) and &i-JDo#$ (i. 60). 

A few alphabetical peculiarities deserve notice : The symbol for secondary? (long) is a con- 
cave curve with a commencing loop engraved on the top of the consonant, while in the case 
of i (short), this loop is absent. The three letters mu, pu and lu are almost similar in shape, 
but can be well distinguished on close examination : while the u symbol of mu is written 
Immediately below the horizontal line, it is engraved at the end of a vertical downward stroke 
drawn from the right end of the horizontal in the case of pu* Though lu is formed like pu, it 
is distinguished by having a small indenture at the right end of the horizontal stroke. Two 
forms of ya occur of which one is a semi- circle with two upward arms on the right side, white 
the other is a simple loop twice wound round. The shape of w is almost that of a triangle 
with its base at bottom. La has not got the usual convex curve on the right aide ; it has only 
an angle. The rlpha* is invariably marked in this epigraph and in most gases the pulli also* 
The Tamil tandfoi rules have to account for the change o< I into y in p&r&r-lmJima, (I 42). But 
it m^y be pointed out that the same change noticed in the word vity^appattSv occixrring " before 
JLlapp&kJca (L 27), in valiyar occurring before ma#at (1. 31) and in 










116 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. fVoL. XVIJI. 



assataxuEsu. 1 . .v 



(1. 44 f.) is unusual and against the rules of grammar. Among the <ji"(m name*, Jatvakaranaa 
(1. 44) and Kondina (1. 54) stand for Jatukarna and KauQtjttnyu rt*p'r<ivrly. 

After an invocation to Vishnu (v. 1) and tho primeval rauw of Ui> l r nivorm* (v. 2), the mythi- 
cal geneaology of the Pallavas is given in verse 3 which utatog t hut f rni t hi' lot UK- navel of NarakSf 
(i.e., Vishnu) came Brahma; from him came Angiran; from him DfVMgtmt (,,, Brihanp&ti) 
from him the renowned sage $amyu; from his son Bharadviija watt horn lrfi,w of established' 
skill in handling the bow in battles; from him I)rauui{i.*., AAvaithiiman) of unnurpawed valour 
and from himPallava. Prosperity and Earth rested with the Pailava* fo the fxrtnmon of other 
kings (v. 4) and the sovereigns of this family obtained glory by comj tiering M mwnwa (v. } T n 
the line of kings counting from VSxakttrcha and othsr who had obtained *wrgtt t thm wa*k{mr 
HiranyavarDaan : and then came Nandivarman {v, 6). !! wan a powerful monarch and 
it is stated of him that he came to rule the kingdom white h<* wan very young ; and conquering 
all enemies, he had his foot-stool adorned with the erawiu of f his ford* f mf ^ w \ w bowad Wore 
him (v. 7). The darkness of the world was removed by the nplemlour of Inn (ante (v, 8) 
Waiting to get entrance, it is said, there were at hi* gate thi Vatlabha, Kalabhm, JClrala* 
Pandya, Choja, Tu]u, Gongana (Konkana) and others (v, ). Vmwi 10 givw t that' the chief 
officer of his, who was ruling the province of Ma%*a-r&fatm and' who WM a great hero 
virtuous and respected by the good, having petitioned thn king, guv** (n bn^atadiua) toil 
number of Brahmanas. The Tamil portion record* that afe tlw rwjiumfc (m>|Mp^M) | 
Mangalana^allvan. and at the*o of llappaklta-VijaiyannlUliatt, king VlJayH-lfittidlvilc. 
ramavarman issued an order in the 61t yww of M Jfjo to tho ndfydr of T0taw 
in 6dla-na^u granting aa 6roAmo%o 40 w of land, whirl* mc!u4! an old 



, 
of 24^, another oraAm^a of 12 ^' 8 granted in the 89th ynr of io MUM kiiig'a kn 



iiga n 

at the request of MangalanadajvaD and tho **& of Alappiklni.VijiiivMMltO|ff and the 
remauung 4 e? W now ass^ned. ThenS^r mad. ohdanm to UM onto,' rw! it on tMir 

' 



oflandin 

thii of 



to 

n 



then - 

of 



ran i t 

Simhavarman and erandZ f w ^ J 7 pl&te8 wh wh "^ timt ifcvWi ww tJw ton of 
sovereiglTtirPa^Zutl^ ^mtor,te to thi. Nandivarman. Tto eeond 

and a lLa ^ Lentlt S^ ^ ** "^ Narfiva ^ th mn of Jiim V av a ma 
Ksha'triyalu^ ^5^^%!^^ *"* J 8i ^ vi h ^'' H. bom tJ/urMme 

issued ^^maUa and it was dtmng hi te igtt that tha mlm btS wre 



issued an i was tmng hi te igtt that tha m^^lymn pbtS wre 

rt 

Vol. HI, p. ~~~ : 




IM. p. 360, TT. 28-30. 





Ifa W, p. 011. rr, 



o. 14.] PATTATTALMANGALAM GRANT OF NANDIVAJRMAMT. 117 

states that it must belong to the reign of Nandivarman III. I consider this conclusion of Ms 
to be quite untenable. I would at the outset point out that the Taij.dantottam plates which 
are supposed to have been issued in the reign of NandiVarman III should correctly be attributed 
to his grandfather Nandivarman II Pallavamalla. According to the Ta^dantottam plates the 
king bore the surname Ekadhira 1 and this was the surname of Nandivarman Pallavamalla as is 
clear from the fact that the grant made in the Ka^akudi plates was constituted into a new village 
under the name Ekadhiramangalam 2 which should have been so termed after the king's 
surname Ekadhlra. The second point to note is that the Nandivarman of our plates was the 
successor of Hiranyavarman as was the Nandivarman. of the Ka6akudi and the Tandantottam 
plates. The third ground, which is much stronger than all, is furnished in the Vaiku^tha- 
Perumal temple inscriptions 3 explaining the sculptures representing the events that took place 
immediately after the death of Parame6varavarman II leading to the accession of andivar 
man Pallavamalla. It says : 

After the death of ParameSvaravarman II, a deputation consisting of the Matras, 
the Mulaprakritis ^ndtheghatakayar waited on Hira^tyavarma-Maliaraja 
and represented the fact that the country was without a ruler and requested 
him to grant them a sovereign. Thereupon king Hiranyavarman sent for 
the chief potentates (Jculamallar) and enquired which among them would 
accept the sovereignty. All of them refusing, he asked his sons Somalia, 
Raxiamalla, Saigrarnamalla and Pallavamalla. Pallavamalla humbly 
offered to go, but king Hiraiiyavarman was at first unwilling to risk his son, 
who was then only twelve years of age, in such a perilous undertaking. But 
Hiranyavarman was soon persuaded by Daranikoaju^apS&ar to give his 
consent. Receiving the weapons presented to him both by his father and 
DaraiTiikoaidapo^ar, Pallavamalla proceeded to KSficMpuram, crossing 
on his way several hills, rivers and forests. Hearing of his approach 
a certain Pallavadi-Araiyar came* with a large force, and placed him on an 
elephant's back and returned to the city where he was received by the 
feudatory chiefs, the memfbers of the merchants* guild, the mulaprakritis, 
and KS^akka-Miittaraiyar. He was then crowned king under the name 
Nandivarman and with the insignia of VidLelvi^ugu, Samudraghdsha, 
Khatvanga-dhwja and Vrtshabha-lMchhana by the ministers, the feudatories^ 
the ghatakayar and the ubJiaiya-gana. 

The above facts show that Nandivarman Pallavamalla's accession to the throne took 
place without any bloodshed, the whole country being instrumental in getting him as their 
sovereign. Thds fact does also find expression in the KaSaku^i plates which state that he Was 
chosen by the subjects. 4 The statement that Nandivarman was quite young (i.e., 12 years of a ge 
according to the Vaiku^tha-Perumal temple inscription) when he became the ruler of the Pallava 
dominions is correctly reflected in the present grant wldch states of him *rnr*T Trftraft *p*f W* 
A further point in favour of our view is that Nandivarman Pallavamalla bore the surname 

1 South Jnd* Inscrna,, Vol. II, p. 520, v* 4 and p. 529* note 4, 

* Ibid. p. 359. 

Ibid (Texts), Vol. IV, G! No. 135, pp. 10 ft 
4 South-Ind. Inter*., VoL II, p. 357, v, 27, 



No. 14.] - PATTATTALMANGA1AM OF NAND1TAEMAN. 119 

The object of the inscription is, as stated already, to register the grant of certain lands in 
the vicinity of a village situated in JLrvala-ku;;am, a sub- division oi &5}a-n&}u, constituted into 
a new village under the name Pattattalmangalam to a number of Biahmans who are introduced 
by the collective term ^algw-narpappar. It is worthy of mote that in the Tagdantofitam plates 
also, the donees are similarly styled. 1 Two possible modes of interpreting the term nafyw-naf- 
papparhave been given by Mr. Krishna Sastri * viz., " the good Brahmins of Nalgfir " and " the 
poor good Brahmins. 5 ' Since in two instances the donees have been so styled, it, does pot scorn 
probable that Nalgiir means a village of that name* Accordingly, we m^y adopt the second 
interpretation- The grant must have been made on their request which was conveyed to the king 
by the chief of Mangala-nau,. and this is perhaps clear from the Sanskrit portion which, tat eg 
fqwpft ^Hra 3ff ~^F|* If Nalgiir were a village, it might have been mentioned in the Sanskrit por- 
tion also. It is to be noted that most of the donees were highly learned men being Kramavits, 
Sha<Jan.gavits and Trivedins. Since the villages in JLrvala-kuggam are- mostly fount! in the 
Negapatam taluk of the Tanjore district, we have to look for PattattaJmOiiagalaim in that same 
taluk. Arvalam is at present called 'Alivalam. AlambSkkaxa, of which VijayanalluJlaR was 
a native, has already been identified by me with the village of th$t name in tfaa Triohinopoly 
District, 12 miles from LalgudU op. the road to Ariyalur. 3 Mangala-n&d,ii was a sub-division of 
Arumolideva-valanadu and in it was situated the village of Mafigalam now called Mangah* 
It is needless to say that Kachchippedu mentioned in the record is identical with Conjeoveram 
and Aimpanaichcheri ia Aimbuijaichcheri,, a quarter of it. 

We may here add a short note on some of the important words occurring in this inscription. 
As " ami " means ** to beat " and " olai " " a (written) palm-leaf," we may take the compound 
"apaiy-tila'?* (1.32) 4 to mean C the draft whose contents had to be proclaimed by beat of tom-tom," 
Tirumugam (L 33 f .) is only the Tamil form of the Sanskrit word irimuMtw cc a sacred order, a royal 
writ." Kottagdram (L 35) seems to be the Tamil adaptation of the Sanskrit gfohthH griha u a cow- pen, 
kraal " it is sometimes? employed in the seme of a king's residence, palace. Jfaarti (L 38) k a wonl 
which is largely met with in Tamil inscriptions e.g., mawrupa$u> ma$rum kanrum$y*patum> etc, As 
such, its meaning deserves to be noted. In Puyam 34, occurs the phrase iraiti-niftiya ayan-falai* 
manram which, According to the commentator, means " the extensively spacious common grouud 
(podiyil) with the long iratti tree standing 6n it.'* Marippalavin " in the jack-tree standing on 
the common ground (podiyil) " occurs in Puram 128. ; Again, we meet with thi* word in the 
phrase pMai-mudur~manran~1eande in Puram 220, In all these cases, the commentator takes 
the word manru or marram in the sense of " a common meeting ground n (podwifam m. podiyil), 
A distinction is, however, made between ^podiyil and manram in Tirumiirogarruppaijai, one of 
the ten Tamil idylls known as Pattuppattu.* N^chchinarkkigiyar takes the word fadiyil to m ^n 
an af^aZam,~which, by the way, we may WDM*:, is am)t^er tepn used in iworiptioiw and tlia 
word manmm he explains as " the space under a tatee in the uoiddle of yiJHg^ wl^eye' ftll pooplo 
meet (QruKhu na$uv8y~ellarum imMum mmtta$i). n JVom the veferenoea quoted low*, it will 
be plain that manram refers to the place where the village assembly met to tmnsaot ito bufiinoHg 
and that this was under a (big) tree (which afioided them shade), Epigmphical are 

not wanting to support the fact that in the assembly grounds th^m wew ferejs and that '^wmmm& 
had been ma4e to have them washed and swept clean. An inscription of tb time of Bsjfi. 
4hija I states that an assembly of a toidm^^ a tamarind tree* that 

, p. 52).* i 37 t ....... ""^"* *^ ^ -~~-^^ 



5 Above, Vol. IX, p. 155. 

* Southed. Intcrm* Vol. II, p, 521, L 37 and Introduction p rail 

* l ^ Jp 



a 226 



BPIORAPHU INDICA. [Vor, XVIII, 



as stated already, and it Is after thia title that the father of tW vn^mver of the 
grant must have been called Videlvldugu-Pallava-perunaaehchaih 1 

It fc noteworthy that the Sjftapti of our inscription, vt., Xlappak'bi (AlambSkka)' 
Vijaiyanaflulaft figures in an inscription of Pallaratilaka-NamHvnrman found at Tinivdlarai in the 
Trichinopoly district.* This chiefs younger brother, Kambau Araiyan hy nmnf\ figure* as the 
constructor of a big well in the same place as recorded in an wcription of 'Pniliivaiilaka^Oanti* 
vatnian. 3 It is now beyond question from the prcwnt grant that tfnw kin/** Pnllavat-iluka'Nandi* 
varman and Pallavatilaka-Dantivarman, in "whone inHmption fij;nrt k the two brothers 
Vijayanallulaii and Kamban. Araiyan as donors, are identical witli Nandivarman Paltavamalla 
and his son and successor Dantiviirman. Thus it become clour thai. fh*> t*rm raltnwtihtka was 
not the surname of any particular king of the Palluva line whirh WIIH lalr on tulopted as a title 
by his successors. In editing the*Tiruveflajai well inscription 4 I waa inrlim*d f o follow the late 
Mr. Venkayya in considering the successors of Dantivurman a tH^tHigSHg to th^ family of 
Pallavatilaka, that being almost the special designation then known to hr* uf Dantivurman as 
indicated in the Triplioane inscription of that king. 5 The pmsent grant ht>W8 that clmrtor* writers 
did not mean any distinction between Pallamkula and Pallw&atilttkrtkittu. lli^nvfon^ in case we 
meet with inscriptions of Nandivarman or Dantivarman with the word PniluviiUhika or Pallava- 
tilakakula prefixed to their names, we have to distinguish the king from tlum** who lx>re wimilar 
names, by other evidences than what is furnished by the mere title Puthnwtitaktt. In this 
connection, it may be pointed out that A^iga} Qarjicjarj Mft^ambfivai, who figum* a donor in a 
record of the early Cho}a king EajakSsarivarman (Aditya 1) and who in Htntwi to h< the queen 
of Pallavatilaka-Nandivarman 6 , cannot be the queen of Pallavamalla, for Idilyn I mid Hallava- 
malla, are sepa ated by over a century ; in all probability li iniii linvi* bwn t.hw queen 
of Pal'avamalla's grandsjgp Nandivarman III. 

As has been noted, the present inscription is dated in thn flint yi*ar of th kiri^n reign, 
In my Historical Sketches 7 , I gave my consideration to the quotum win*iti!T or not Nandi- 
varman Pallavamalla could have reigned for a long tim, unurpisr m ho WIIH than known to be, 
and taking only into view the several conquests he effected and thu tiruo of riil^ of hm contem- 
poraries, I arrived at the conclusion that he should be credited with a king puriodl ol a rule. Thin 
conclusion is now made certain by a study of the Vaikuatfm-Pwuttijtl Uboi cpigmph and the 
present copper-plate grant according to both of which the princw wn* qwitw ' young />. 12 
years of age, when he became king and by the fact of the prenent wwsripfcion tunng dated in the 
61st year. The latest regnal year, however, of FaUavamalla in the 05th which in furnixhed n 
a Mahabahpnram inscription recently discovered by BHI in tho rcniriyiirrl ,f tiu Vartha- 
Perumaicave^ If this be the last year of hm rule, the king glicnt'c! hHvHiva up to bin 77th 
year of age. 



* have been dertvd from th P||.v.. who w,r th.ir.t 

extract f vel ! from * hB v ^^ha.^ rilTO 5l tompb imorlptkm, H h , that t tta time of 
Sim8<JCdWi th, Tirv,i wll IM. 



f 

oftheAIadraEp3graphioalo,neot i .onforl906 
8 and above, Vol. IX, pp. 154 ff. 

8 Abpve,'Vol. VIII, p. 292. 

*$outh-Ind. Inacrna., Vol. Ill, p. 229. 

istorical Sketches ofAwient Dekkfan, pp. 45 ff. 

o*tl, Arch. Surv. Dr.rtm.ni hy M. K, B. Jtao 

.t 



tottam plates of Naadivarman (Pallavarnalia) actually provide for tL Z w J5 ***** 

TEXT. 

B 



*R5ffe^f%: 4 [,*] ^. ^ 



Second Plate * 

9 




* ***&. xae actual wAr^ Hm*^*****^!' ^?* ^ *^* ^^ ^* W8 

:r^^r^^-r^^----^L^^ - 



%i*'3sj:^wr iw '^' 

' Bead o W ' ^ ' "^ *torf*>n*%|* MH*IT 






PATTATTALMAKGALAM. PLATES OF 



ip t ^ ( ^:*a;fe < ^f|Ei(f 

- ----- -<- - - ' -'^iSWf^ti 



^p?f*>gp^|^f|j 
^:^^;ltt^K^iil 



^^a. 




10 



12 



14 



16 



18 



18 




26 



28 



30 



m ^. 



30 



i|PP|pi) jppptigaiijii;|i|ff si 






iiib. 



32 



34 



36 



y^ 



^ 



32 



34 



36 



38 



'" 



' 



38 



40 



42 



44 



46 






^,^ 

' 



40 

42 
44 

46 



ivb. 



48 





60 



No. 14.] PATTATTALMANGALAM GRANT OF NANDIVAEMAN. 



ll <a?m *f*roi*i f% I[L*] 
1 wrW^fift- 

12 a tTfisrS 2 ifft iMfeiprtftS D*] 

13 



15 
16 



Second Plate : Second Side. 

17 



18 l^^^^^^ III/.*] 

19 



20 
21 
22 



Vi]aiya-Nandivikkiranaa--parTanaairloi 

23 t-o[r5vadu MaAJgalanadajLvaij. vi^^ap^attal Alappakka-Vijai y anaUiil%=a. 

24 $atti|>a]ga 66[la-na]ttu=tTeijkarai-Arvala-.kkanrattu nattar ka^ga tanga-pttu. 

Third Plate : First Side. 

25 tta&i[yur] ..... Ujr-chujju naspadiiru-veliyuUum paiam-pkamadSyam=imbat- 



-- . . . . _ _ , . 

26 [veliyum] nikki nij:a padiasii-veliytillum y%4^ aymfeatt-oobad-avaduW Mangak- 

27 nadaivan y^appattas 11 Alappakka-Vijaiyanallulaa9attiy : aga. peiuma- 

28 nadigajum piramadeyam-aga anai-chcheyda paiipiru-veliyum ya^du asubatt-o> 

29 ss-avadu Mangalanadalvaa vi 



Reaa - 

Beading TT^ift would be better Ed.] 



" MSead as 'aymbatton^aoadit ia the Jf ytAio -Society Journal, Vol s XIV, p. 128. 
11 Read t'i 



EPIGEAP1IA 1NDIOA [VOL, XVfflt 



30 g^S^attiy-Sga a:roji-chcl*eyd nai-vKyum t!]jitfit podiB-ajfrf-vSIjyum thick il* 

31 ru pulli-yaliyaj^ma^aiyum ma&ai-ppaflappuiu <>iiv-ipfi*ppirttmii^ 

Third $te ; Second ftifa 

32 ttem=eijp nattarkku vitjja tirumTigan*n8ftar tohulu talaikkn rViutt^ 



33 p6y=kkallun=kajjniyun 2 *nattippa4%ai valaR-ch\ydu uStfilr viriiuniin 11 tpii- 

34 y-5ia$]to$^^ EiiUltiyniii ^ 

35 padiappum kulamu^kottagaramum uvariyum firp Ilutii Ajlaiytifti m> 

36 nedum-paramb-ep[ndu ucJumb-o](JiyamaitavEliiiiii(l*el!riiii liuvuni {pujfi^ih 

37 n-tirandu JHiyil samatya kBruf ] pm}i"p|u^i[yHjfjft iMirvva-jmrthArHlm] 

braEiuadS- 

38 yam=ay[ijju][||*J Ivv-[fl> pew paribttrafm] [va^i-nSiiyum ptulA nttliyum ronnro-nidum 

urat[cM> ' * f"viu 

fourth Plate : Pint Si fa 



39 pmtaragu^kulamumilam.pujxjhiyura-KJiai.ppfltchiyum nl)ii-kAviilnm 

40 uppu-kkochcheygaiyum nall-Svun^aU-eradum ar-y&ymum iviy. u ||ttf n 

41 ko=ttott=u wa ppalav-ellam evvagaippa^-avum 



43 ppappar Gautama- g 5ttirattu I?yak8fi^ttttiwtttt'NitkattjrMni' km 

44 .avitUnaM 8^iNH-*fAM^^^ H^j 

46 .^^ 



; Smtid 

i "-'. 






- Fint 8M* 

as !, 4 ly '' <1 ' l ' i 



^!?i?^!!^ *"*"*- 

i R ft nH iiJi ~ - < ^ ~~-^^^r^ 



U.J PATTATTALMANGALAM GRANT OF NANDIVARMAN. 



'(Verse 1). Hail ! Prosperity ! Let that :body of the husband of $n ,(ie., Vishnu), which 
is resplendent with the Jcaustubha jewel on its chest and which with a hundred mar&Tc&ta-llk 
arms is lying on the ocean, resembling a collection of clouds lustrous with -the interspersed lightning 
and settling on the waters of the ocean to imbibe (its) water, grant you welfare. 

(V. 2), That which is the highest place of salvation, is immutable, is omnipresent, is con- 
templated on by yogis and that which the Brahmans excessively extol always with firm wisdom 
and with the chanting of the Vedas, which though itself undivided, assumes three differentiations 
'by adopting the three qualities in order to accomplish (the work of) protection, destruction 
and creation may that all-pervading object protect you. 

(V. 3). From the navel-lotus of Narakari (i.e. Vishnu) was born Brahma ; from him was (born) 
Angiras ; from him Devaguru (i.e., Brihaspati) ; from him (came) Samyu the best of sages ; from 
his son Bharadvaja (was born) Drojja who was renowned as an archer in the battle-field ; from 
him, (came) Drauiji (i.e., A^vatthaman) who was of irresistable great power, and from him came 
Pall&va, 

(V. 4). Lakshmi and the Goddess of Earth having attained the status of consorts to the 
-kings of this family they could not be appropriated by the assemblage of (other) kings. 

(Vv. 5 and 6). In this dynasty of kings, whose family vow was the accumulation of fame by 
giving largesses to suitors after having made the wealth their own by conquering all enemy kings^ 
after the illustrious Vlrakftrcfaa and others had gone to Heaven after having enjoyed the sea-girt 
earth for a long time, there came $Wr^yavar:oqi$;p, the foremost of rulers and then Nandi- 
varman, whose glorious feet were rubbed against by the diadems of all kings. 

(V. 7). This king of renowned prowess, whose foot-stool was the. crown of prostrate kings, 
ruled his,kiiigd,om,0v0jDL'"wMle yqnpg, after having killed his enemies and conquered the king- 
dom single-handed 'With his unsheathed sword scintilating in his hand. 

(v. 8)- The* entire world was rid of its darkness by * his fame with ^hich all the quarters 
were whitened; arid the sun and the moon were (only) useful for awakening (i.e. 9 opening) the 

lotus and lily ponds respectively. 

(V. 9), At his gate there await without (getting) opportunity (to enter) the Vallabh.as ? the 
KalaMiras, the KeraJ^s, the PajjwJ.yas, the Ch6J.as, the Tulus, the Ko&ka^as and others 
desirous of obtaining admission to serve (him). 

(V. 10). The servant of this '(king) ,who was the storehouse of austerities and virtue, who 
was. heroic, highly distinguished, . respected by the good, whose wealth was honour, whose spread- 
ing fame enveloped the interior of all the quarters, and in whom, who was the relative of the 
world, the name MaAgalar50htra-bhartyi (the lord of the district called Mafigala-rashtra) 
became -wdl-kaown, gave to a concourse of Brahmans (their) desired object, having repeatedly 
petitioned; b,e ,kwg- 

(V. 11). May this gift of the ruler of the country of Ma&gala, the ..subordinate of the Pal* 
lava Idngj^ta^jd^alo^as the Earth, the Ocean, the Moon .and the Sun (exist). 

(LL 22 to 32). In tfce sixty-first year of (the reign of) king Vijaiya^Nandivikrama- 
varman, the following order to the residents (of Arvala-kujjam) was issued at the request of 

^t the oompaa&d (atyatti) of IjTijaiyapalMlan of t Alappals;am : 
of Teijkarai-Arv^la-kiljfyam in the Ch5Ja country (^ojla-na^u) observe, 
Out of the forty -five veli (of land) round about the free village of ...... in your, sub- division, 

.^^iX;e#Q]^i$^ ^f jtwpntjy-fotjr w$i th^re jenaa^n sixteen v$i (of land). , These 

sixteen vg& formed by adding together th$ frwpl ve v$li (of la&d) which the king (Perim 
hddbeeii pleased to ^grjuit as a brahmct48y& in the .fUty-nintb -year (&f*his<reign).^k the 

Q2 



124 



EPIGBATHIA IND1CA. 




CVot, XVIII 

of Mangalana^SJvSn and at the instance of VijaiyauaailftJ&n of Alapp&kkam and 
v&i (of land) which (the same) had been pleased to be convortod into n, hwhmwtfiiM, (now) * 
sixty-first year (of his reign) at the request of MaAgalanadalv&u and at th rommand'of 
Vijaiyanallulaiji of Uappakkanx,--without excluding the houw** of f Jo rrwdenta f th persona wh 
settle the village and house-sites (mopa^apy)the we have ordered (to !*) R 

(LI. 32 to 38). The residents of the district made obei aiicc (to the royal 
it on their heads, planted stones and milk-bush, went right rtwnd Urn pojOgei and imm^j 
order for publication (arai-Slai). According to it, the sixteen vfii (af land) inrludiiur' 
house-sites, tanks, kraals, uvar, viUage-waste, forest, atroamn and all (ithw) kind* of 
covered with water and ploughed with pafomlnt where ingtianai run and 
removed from the exercise of the rights of the king and (hit ) authorities 
pariharas in order 1 : it (then) became a 6raAwl%o. 

(LI. 38 to 43). The pariharas which this village rewived worei-Incluntve of 



wr 
' 



, , , 

naU-a,ndl-erudu, ner-wyom and all other kinds of tarn which thn kinc hid 

not hencefo } be paid 



Serial 
No. 


' Number 
of line. 


Gotra. 


Sutra, 


VUIB, : 


1 


43 


GauUma 


li-ra.va^, 


^Kidhqm. ~ 


2 


44 


Jatafc^ . 


. Do. 


Myitt|q, , 


3 


45 


Gautama . 


Ivattftmbft/inai. 










Umba). 


wttmtagl 


4 


46 


Iradhidara (Rat- 
bitara). 


Do. 


Kam.tto . . i 





47 


Vadtla (Vidhiiia) 


Do. 












* * 


6 


48 


Ma4ala (Mathara) 


KiranyakWl 




7 


49 


Attiraiya (AtarSya) 


AvattaaU * 


Kombt ' " ^ 


8 


50 


Do, 


Do. , 


UmaWr' ' ' 





51 


Kappa (Kfipya) . 


Do. 


ffiu'i r 


10 


52 


Gdtama (Gautama) 


Do. 


V JlL^iiflt^tflej **** 


11 


53 


Do. 




T ^**-%|f "Ii"I*^Sri : * 








U0# t 


Do* -! 


12 


54 


Ko^^ina (Kaufl- 


Do, 


WIB"- v .' # ' ' ,| 


13 
14 


55 
56 


G6tama (Gautama) 
Vadula (Vadhila) 


Do. 
Do. 


Dm . 'i 


15 


57 


Attiraiya k 




^li^iyttWciljiitttiJ^ii j 


16 

--" . 


53 

"-' 
1. KQ.anv i 


* * 


* 

1 * # 


IC^wbife^ii ^ | 

; I 






Ki%tMvilMitir 









of 



No. 15, BOCK INSCRIPTION OF STAMIBHATA FROM DEQGARBL 125 

No. 15. DEOGARH ROCK INSCRIPTION OF SVAMIBHATA. 
BY DATA RAM SAHNI, RAI BAHADUB, M.A. 

The antiquities of Deogarfa. situated about 22 miles from Lalitpur in tlie district of Jhausi 
are described in Dr f Fiihrer's Monumental Antiquities and Inscriptions in the North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh, pp. 119-121 and 333, Mr. P, 0. Mukherjee's Report on the Antiquities in 
the District of Lalitpur and General Cunningham's Archaeological Survey Reports, Vol. 2t, 
pp. 100-110. The ancient fort at Deogarh is designated Luachchhagira in the Deogarh pillar 
inscription of Bh5]adeva of Kanauj, Vik. Samvat 919 1 while the Deogarh rock inscription of 
Kirtivarmaa of the [Vik.] year 1154 gives it the name of KirttigiriL 2 

This inscription is engraved on a much-worn rock-cut flight of steps which led down on 
the south side of the Deogarh Fort to the water of the river BetwS, which encloses it on three 
sides. This flight of steps is locally known as the Nahar or Nar Ghat! and possesses as many 
as eleven niches all contemporaneous with the Gh5t some of which still contain their images. 
The panel occurring at the top of the Ghat, with which we are here concerned, contains a row 
of nine seated figures which represent, beginning from the left : (1) A male figure holding a 
1 1 1& between both hands, probably Vlrabhacba, (2) Brahtnl with three faces, (3) M&h8vari 
seated on a lion and holding Ga^eSa in her left hand, (4) KaumSri on her peacock^ 
(5) Vaishnavl on the Garu<Ja> (6) VgraM, (7) Indra^tf* (8) four-armed Chamu^a, seated oil a 
human corpse and (d) two-armed Ganapati. 

The inscription under description is engraved immediately above this panel of the divine 
Mothers. The inscribed surface is 1' 11" wide and 1' 1" in. height. The inscription consists 
of seven lines and is in a fairly good condition of preservation though six letters in the begin- 
ning of the first line and a few letters in the beginning of each of lines 5 7 are mutilated. 
The characters which belong to what Dr. Buhler styles the *< acute-angled alphabet M of 
Northern India, are closely allied to the alphabet in which the Bddh-Gaya inscription of 
Mahanaman of the Gupta year 269 s , the Prafasti 41 of the temple of Lakha Marwjal at Madiha in 
Jaunear Bawar Fargana of the Dehra Dun District, the Benares inscription of Pantha 6 and 
several other documents are written. The striking peculiarities of this alphabet are the 
highly ornamental kdnas and m&trSs and these are fully shared by the epigraph under discus- 
sion. Dr. Buhler assigns the Lakha Ma$4&l praiasti^ to about the end of the 6th century 
A.D, In my paper on the Benares inscription of Pantha referred to above I assigned that 
document erroneously to the beginning of the 8th century A JD, In reality it must be as early 
as the other inscriptions referred to. This is obvious, besides other considerations, from the use 
of the archaic form of y consisting of the loop and two vertical lines. This form of y is also used 
throughout in the present inscription, and I feel no hesitation in assigning it to the 8th century 
A.D, The language of the document is Sanskrit and except for the opening words 6m namafy 
at the beginning of line 1, the inscription is in verse throughout. In the matter of spelling 
and sandhi, only one or two irregalarities are observable in our inscription. One of these is 
the use of frdptdn***trida4a instead of prdptdms*tridaa in line 5. Similarly although the 
doubling of consonants in contact with r after vowels is quite regular, ihe form JcJcramSgata 
(1. 4) in the beginning df the third quarter of v. 4 is objectionable, as the consonant Jc concerned 



Indica* Vol. IV, p. 809 seq. 
Indian Antiguary, Vol. XI, pp. 311 ff. and Vol. XVIlI, pp. 237 fl : 
Fleet, Gupta Inscriptiont, PI. XLI, A. 
X&VrdpM* Idica 9 VoL I, p. 10 eq> 
Ibid, Vol. IX, p. 69 and PL facing p. 60* 
Indian Pataoprapky, edited by Dr. Fleet ae an Appeadix to the, Indian Anti$wry $ Vol* 



EPI8RAHHIA INIMOA. | Vot. X?JTI. 



-* '""" i'w* 

is not preceded by a rcowel. .The wor.d prathi ml. 5 i nut found in dirtiimiuios. Itjg 
probably the engraver's -miataVe for pathi, leottXivK wngukr of jintJnn, mmming 'range' 
1 reach ', etc. 

The inscription does not appear so far to have boon prfb]jhid any wluirc, It* existence " 
referred 'tol)y Mr. . 0. Mutherji 1 but all tot -he has to toll m 1wtnt 5*, it* thtt in rfe *th name 
ol'ftie reigning fcfng Is lost.*' Dr. PthreT appears, however, to haw th'riphwwi a part of the 
insdriptidn as "he has 'the folio wing 'remark about it. "N<m.rih N,hwrghi{i ( thoiv IB a valoabla 
record of SvSmibhafca, 'drited 'Saihvat '609,' written in oharact^< tf tli<t ' IMW Uupta period"* 
JTow, -though ihe tot part oiihe remark is quite oorreot, Ihere no traw f ' ,iftt any where 
to be seen in the'inserijjiioli. 

^The inscription consists of seven verses. Th voim ar not numhintifi. Tfau iatarpono* 
tuation is also not regular, for though the ends of 'th vi aw 1^17- whw rokd L the 
usu&l Amtite v6rticaT8troketfe^'J, the'fcalf vewes n onty oeiMunrally 'tmliMtad by u 
horizbntai Stroke ' whi^h In one '6r two cases hus 'a inor cooiplipfttetl foinn. A* to tin t 
dNh'edo'ctMftienV*he ; fir^ verse invokes 'the Uetting df ihe 'divim Kotlm. Vnnw'si 
contain the p-e } digte& oif a 'certain STBttrfbhflffa trhone high qutilitiefi AN alcrtrd in wrl fi" 

ttte div&e Mothers bn to"motmtafc Oto'Whiclt the Deogftrh Fort m ituatoi. Th PraAuM wn 



**s o it^r^?T ii ^ )mM u iimi< * iin * ii> * f '' u " 



V, 





s 





LL 

6 



O 
CO 



or 

CO 
CO 



I 

CO 



4 

No. 15.] BOCK INSCRIPTION OP SVAMIBHATA PROM DEOGARIT. 127 



: [i*] 
irofinsiw: ws*3g9i ^ *rsiTf<w fs 

6 



n [4*] 



TBAISTSLATION. 

Oiii Salutation ! 

(Verse 1). May the group of Mothers, the mothers of t,ho unive*ne having tlwir dwelling 
in ..... and having prowess fit for the preservation of the world ho for youi- 
welfare. * 



(V. 2), There was (one) admilaka, the ornament of the pure raoo of tho iliuuwiii<l-mv'l 
(Sun); whose meritorious conduct is not equalled to this day by rightrouH men. 

(V. 3). Prom Mm was born KSdava, equal to Vishnu, whom oxtonrive fame ww wH-knm 
in the world, and who, of firm righteousness, produced progeny of lofty mentation which WIM 
firmly established in the primeval path (of rightoouanesfl), 

(V. 4). He (KSSava) had a son namod SvSmibhata of great prowora, (wlowiod with the 
handsome ornament of Ms traditional family piety. 

(V. 5). The multitude of whose eminent ftiad countless virtues was not ohmmtxtrl by Kali 
(the virtues which) encompassed all the directions by their hmmuraB and brilliant, h.ntw w ] lf rh 
had found an easy passage (everywhere) and which, in scope, had nearly reached won <,}' ,,,! 
of the residents of tho abode of the gods, just as the ray* of tho moon are not o>otin,i hy th,> 
hare though manifestly closely attched to her, 

(V 6). By him (Svamibh4a) who honoured his Hnpplicant,clwJr(n.fl a it wo of >. 
ent gifts, was caused to be mado, here on this hill, a very costly and fedeHtniotiU,. abodo of "tb 

* 



(V \ 7 i' l^- for *? nost Cpm^^O was composed by JRta, tho son of YtHMhdttm 
engraved by Bharni, tlie son of Durggi of polished intellect.* 

"^^ 



d by I" 1"" a ^^^^^^^ ^ ^i"n, Tho 

2 Bead qfig[, 

Afier the word ft* one or two nyllatiloi wor first ^graved anil t.lum W o,-Nl o,,f, 
[ The expression 9 ^^ft : may mean who i* clever m w.gnuring '. C. H K.) 



128 EPIGRAPHS 1NDICA, 



m. 16.- A KALACHTJRI STONE INSCBIFTIOH FROM KASIA, 
Br DATA KAM SAHNI, EAI BAHADUR, ALA. 

The stone slab on which this inscription is engraved, was dfcoovereti by Mr. A, C* L. 
in 1875-76 at the Buddhist ruins near Kasia which has since been proved by nucxmuwr* 
tions to represent in all probability the ancient site of Kulimagam whero Gautama Buddha, 
breathed his last or entered Mahaparin%rv$na* The exaofc pot whi ihifl ducovary wm made 
was on the south side of the door- way of the brick shrine in which the large hlatikobom imnge ol 
the Buddha at the moment of Ms enlightenment, locally known M the M&th& Klar t wm 
ly enshrined. This shrine turns out to be the chapel of a monastery of the 1 1th or 12fch 
A.D,/ and not an independent i temple as Mr, Carlleyla piwumsbly ixnaginacl. Thin 
WAS excavated by Pt. Hirananda Sastri in 1911 and 1912.* An the innoriptioa which forma the 
subject of this paper, was found in this monument, it neem* to me likely that doemniTOfe 
recorded its erection. The loss of the latter portion of the inscription to be rafernd 'to later on 
is, therefore, much to be regretted. 

The slab is the blue stone of GayS of the same kind an thm tutorial ol Hit 
statue, referred to above and must, likewise, have been brought fount that District and 
and set up in the building where it has been recovered. Mr, Cartleyle had ttibbiagp of 
inscription made for Professor Kielhonx from which and certain othertv HUppKod by the 
of the Lucknow Museum, the late Professor published a r&raxnl of thu oantcmta of th 
his JSpigraphic Notes mNachrichten von far KSnigl GwlUofaafi d0r m 

PUl.Ustoruche Klasse 1908, pp, 800 to 303. Profawor Kiftthom did not any porti^a of 
the inscription. The text that I edit below was pwp0d in 1912 wlum 1 wm Otirator of tho 
Provincial Museum at Lucknow and I believe I have SEoetedtcl in dwiphwixig* th0 ol tiha 

record as far as it was decipherable, Besides, a faller trwtaMmt of thfi ii0ripiici WM 
as 'this is the only record, so far known, of the branch of the Kalaohuri family to whloh Ife blwp 
The condition of the inscription is described in Profaftor Klelliom 1 !! iutim k* ml mfy 

salient points may be mentioned here. This alab ia 86|* and 17 ^ high, The 

portion of the inscription contains 24 lines, but evicbatly writing m lott at tit ml of i*. 

The annexed pkte will show the amount of damage that hw ocournd to tho domtinmt ^ 

peeUngoff of the surface, rendering illegible toge portioM of 0vtlllii Hurl making oihtr pwte 
almost unreadable except with difficulty from the origiBal itoiiii, Tha rift* of 
from f to f exclusive of the vowel marks. The smaller il of f oooom in fcto 
due evidently to considerations of space that was availaU* on th* lab whu tho fend 

reached a certain stage of his task. 

The peters are Nsgari of the Uth or 12th century A.0. I g with Protwv* 
Kielhom that both the wnter and the engraver have dcme their work OMttf ally bat, vm M. 
a few intakes have ^ept m. In 1. & we notice ^okiMlha qpk with gk m pto of k. In fotfr 
cases the awwSra m the hody of word* ia replaced bafom the ibiit *a md *a hy th 
of one or other of the wr ^ f . Thea 6 are vatta for W(W W m 11. 10, 11 tod 1ft atul 



. , 

m 1. 19. SandAt is everywhere carried out except onw la Mjpofara^ Irtfafojo in 1 10. 

As as ud 



of this period, the final comonante are omfcim writ mai ( with 

^ed the 
with A* 


and a far gfldfc, of the 31flt yer8e< Prof0gflw 




S. B. for 1910-11, Part II, p. 68 and 101142, W, II, pp. 188 f . 



No. 16.] A KALAOEUBI STONE INSCRIPTION FROM KASIA. 129 

the first 29 stanzas indicating the metre of each, and the number of the line of the inscription in 
which each verse ends or would have ended had the document been better preserved. As to 
the metres of these stanzas, I agree to Professor Kielhorn's list, except in regard to the 28th 
verse, "where he doubtfully makes the metre Vamtiattha, though it is more probably Maths-* 
ddhat& y the space being just enough for 44 syllables and the scheme of the extant last pada a& 
read by me being that of the Eathdddhata metre. 

In respect of its contents the document is divisible into three portions, namely, (1) the 
invocations of deities (vv. 1-5), (2) the mythical and legendary portion of the genealogy 
(vv. 6-12), and (3) the historical portion. In connection with verses 4 and 5 it is interesting 
to observe that the two Hand! verses of the Buddhist drama, the " Nagananda ", also invoke 
the Buddha under the epithets of Jina and Munindra, the appellations in our inscription being 
TatJiagata and Hunzndra, In connection with the second section, it Js to be observed that in 
v. 8 the marriage of Budha with IIS, the daughter of Manu, is also mentioned though it is over- 
looked in Prof* Kielhorn' s resume. It is also noteworthy that while the Kahla plate inscription 
of SodlhadSva 1 of another branch of the Kalachuri dynasty mentions Kritavlrya after Haihaya the 
Harivamsa has as many as seven kings between Haihaya and Kritavtrya.* The names of these 
seven kings are (1) Dharman^tra, (2) Kartta, (3) Sahanja, (4) Mahishman, (5) BhadraSrSnya, 
(6) Durddama and (?) Kanaka* 

The historical portion of the genealogy begins with'v, 18 and embraces the rest of the 
preserved portion of the document. The founder of the branch of the Kalachturl dynasty 
represented by the present epigraph was Saiikaragana as was Lakshma^a-rfija of the other 
branch referred to in the preceding paragraph. My text of the Kasia inscription elucidates two 
or three obscure points in the summary of Prof. Kielhorn, and furnishes the names of one or 
two other kings which are omitted by him. In the first place Prof. Kielhom was doubtful 
about the relationship of the third king Lakshmana (I) (v. 16) to his predecessor If annarlja. 
My reading of the verse clearly makes him a son of Nanna-raja. The same remark applies 
to the next king Siva-r&ja (I) (v. 18) who must have been a son to Lakshmana (I)* 
Again Prof. Kielhorn's summary makes Bajaputra (v- 20) the son of Bhimata (I) mentioned in 
v. 19. It now appears that the term rGjaputra is only a title of Lakshmana (II) aiot mentioned 
in Prof. Kielhorn'a jiotes, who was in all probability the son of Bhunafca. The last Icing* (v. 27) 
mentioned in the extant portion of the record is Bhimata (II), son of Kane ha na probably the 
wife of LakshmaiaarSja II or of another king whose name may have disappeared in Y, 26- It is 
impossible^to ascertain whether the inscription was set up in the time of this prince (Bhimata II) 
or whether the missing portion contained the names of one or more other princes, Nor la it 
possible, for the same reason, to say what the object of the inscription was. 

The only place mentioned in the epigraph is Saivaya 8 (verse 17) to which Lakahmaga 
resorted after having entered a fort whose name is missing. The verse mentioned above 
describes it as a mountainous district (tiikhari-vishayath) which was the residence of Sifoi 
the son of TTsmara. Prof. Kielhorn proposed to identify this locality with Seweya, situated 
a few miles south or south-east of Kasia. I have nothing to say againat this suggestion, for 
the place must have been situated somewhere in the vicinity of Kasia where the inscription has 
been found, though it must be observed that the village Seweya, which I personally mnpected, 
is situated on perfectly level ground and not iu a mountainous region- In an interesting article 
on the 8horJcot inscription of the year 83* Dr. Togel has discussed the history of the jSibi tribe 



ia Indica, Vol. VII, pp. 85 *eq m -~-.-~_^ ...... ..... __ 

a Harivamta, Calcutta edition of 1839, adhydt/a W, vv, 1845-50. 

3 Saivaya appears to be a mistake for Saivya (**$M+ the suffix %<*), i,*., the country or city of the Sibis [The 
metre requires such a form which might be rtidka. Ed] 

4 Epigrafhia, Indicv, Vol. XVI, pp. 15-17. 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL, XVIII 



at some length, According to the MaMWiSmta, thin iribe Imul in tho wwtorn part of 
Dr. Lassen considers the Siboi, one of too tribes mibciiitul by Alemntter f h* (Jivaf, io be identical 
with the ibis of the ancient Indian literature iwd Mr. Smith Ja hm !sW% //tVtory of Indi a 
'locates them in the Doab of the Hydaapew and Hydrant in. Tin* iimerijrfum referred to aboT 
appears to show that the mound at Shorkot> where llw reconl hm Iwou fiuimi marka the rite ol 
Sibipnra which Dr. Vogel believes to have been the capita! of fhi;^ fiibiw. It thuu becotnes 
evident that the Sibis'were at one time manto of tlw greater part i*f Nort fnuii India. 

The name of the king who bad thin inscription iiwtiilled i* h>t in th* U>ww obliterated 
portion of the record, and we know nothing about him Inland ittt* fiM?t, AM wi3 gather from 
-verses 1-5, that though a Buddhist by faith, lie rcvorwl, along with iht< KtnUlha and TArt^ the 
Brahmanical god Siva. This is in keeping with the ntoto of ilu* ^ewiy during tho period to 
which the inscription belongs and we are aware of IJall&liw^n^ 1 kittg of Umigal, who in the 
beginning of Ms reign was a Buddhist but turned a Baiva iu hl lafvr life. At flia Buddhist 
ruins of Sfirnath and other ancient sites, Bralimanical imatgw havi^ liwn found i^icli) by ldi with 
Buddhist ones in the shrines of the late mediaeval periiHl Further |nnf uf tin* ri^?cmcitiatioxi of 
Hinduism and Buddhism during this period is afforded by wrtaw M6n iiurrijiliciiw of Burjw^ 
recording the consecration and dedication of a great n*ligiow,s Iiiiililiiig r |iliii, ft Tho 06r* 
monial lasted a number of days and Brahman aHtroIogtirw iw well am UitclilJiii itioiiku took |mrt 
in it. This process of harmonising the two faithn munt t howMV^r, linvn tw^urj muoh tarl!er t 
The drama N&gSnanda, of Harslia, to which a wrfeNmcw him Itcwnt fiiiulf i4,liv*^ wp:rsi0,nffl aia 
undovbted attempt in thts direction, for do wo not find in it tho ff^iiliimiitrii Jlmtttavlhana 
worshipping the Brahmanical goda and MB father Jluiflttvkfltu loading thw erf s 
after Kis retirement ? 



[Metres: vv, 1, 7, 15, 29 and 30 Bmgdkurtt ?v, 9, J! f 6, 10 wid II 

v. 4 FaA/astf&a; TV. 5, 18, 14 and 17 ; w, 8 r 9, 11, It1 f 1% Cl f f4 f flSS iad S7 

5 v. 18 Sikharinti TV* 21 to 83 and iff JUrytt ; t, 28 



f 

^ * 



2 



i[t*] 



Ct maiKl^/oitow-ritoOr^, by N. N. VMM, 

dhyaya Haraprasad Sastri, p, 21. ' 



15 all, 22 d > 810 my ' wm ' w * /" * ** Mh iI, W , 14. 

lo, and 1916, pp. 22-23, and fflptgmyhia AimiMfca* Toi 111, Pt I p > 

the oriirals A *"" >i'^ f Ite ^m^ 



, ver a 

joined consonant of the second ^ of w ? T^,"*"', 1 * 1 , WlW) hM " M ^ f * 1 Wl * >!! ' 

aod is distinct from rfra iu C l JraSl ?f m ^ , t 1^ * " !WWl la " " k " lb * 



ao s snc rom ra u C ra m , . 

* ere w v Ti glifc restore the words * aa '* * ^**. " 

syllable sam is -Rxitten Mow the lino, 



16.] A KALACHtrRI STOKE INSCRIPTION fROM KASIA. 



5 



6 



3 

mi 



[T] 



: [i] 









(w)|%fW 



g ,, f^pfi^^^fi^^ 



1 1 originally read these thet ^U^Wea ai, t^^tay^ I owe, tht w4J? in, to* *0Xt t<? t fb klw^ow of Mr. H , 
Smstri. 

a Cf. Marivajk/a, Calcutta, 183^ AdliySya 25, TV, 1814*15* 



10 



11 



12 



EPIGB&PHIA INDICA. [Yoi,. 




w 



r: nmoni 



is 



No. 16.] 



A KALACHimi STONE INSCRIPTION PROM KASIA. 



133 




15 



[U*3 






16 






D*] 



17 



[ftrn] 



1 The syllable a is written below the line. 

The reading of ths word pratya&t&a bu been kindly supplied by Mr. H. Saatri. 

la verse 17, Mr. H. Swtri suggests /ii&ari-BwAayaA and girth in place of /t*riei*4* and SfA a 
otigiaally read by me. The last afttiora of the first word is damaged, bnt Mr. H. Sartrl's wading givei *_ better 
sense aad I have adopted it. There is, however, no djubt as to tbe correctness of my own wading of Sibefy (e 

^ According to the H&rivitMa, Sibi was one of the five sons of USinar* of the Puru bnweh of the Lunar raco , 
Be was the founder of the Sibi tribe. 



(H*ri*aMa., Adhyaya 81, vv. 1874-78). 




1*4 



HPIGHAPHIA HWfCA. 



[v olt 



18 



| ^ 

Like P*ofw Kielhorn, I flt 




136 EMGBAPHIA INVWA. 

..... _ ...... __ _ 

of &e threefold universe, were quickly created through mc,!if*fi on 
beginning with Atri. 

V. 7. Of them (the Prajapatis) Atri, the lemior ,>f th* Imrmx! m ,.f i*,,! 
asAnuttarafor thr^e thou^d divine year, with W ink I,KK ,'' 
h prowess, of his (Atri's) noble eye waa bom the moon X u 
whose Hght is piecing to the whole un, ^^ 



PTr 
Ivor,. XV 




HI- '- oe, 



took for hia wife Da, the daughter of Manu ^ '" a " ""' thl * 

whose vas t dynasty was honoured byt^Zo w!ri% ^^^ ^' (I>m g) 



. . 

E a :r . 7. *" .1 vio,.^ , t *.^ifcXii";.:, g ' ori r t- 

y I5 ^, "'K 1 ^-. lfI) who piirllldi the 

^ly the f * < for *'' ^ ** M * ***** 



the fac on h e r S^ <) for th 



l " ! 



- 

7^ _ ___ -----_/ NwMrt*^ for0e,- 



No. 16.] A KALACBUm STONE INSCRIPTION FROM KASIA, 135 

23 ^ ^ ~ w ^- --- wvywwvy^-^~w-~ ~ II 

__ , . vy V-/vyvy w -v^*^, 

w v/ ^ 

v ^^^vy^^v-/v^vyvy-- jjj [^o^J 






TRANSLATION, 

Om ! Salutation to tlie Self -controlled, 1 salutation to the Buddha ! 

Verse 1. May the eternal vision of Siva, who destroys the threefold 2 fear of (mundane) exist- 
ence, protect (us or you, the vision) which is subtle and unique^ which is luminous after having 
cut asunder the knot of dense and extensive darkness by the sword of knowledge which is hostile 
to the assembly of the entire multitude of all the sense-organs ; which shines in various super- 
human aspects such a$ the manifest, etc., and which gladdens* ... ....... 

V, 2* May Sarikara defend you for a long time, (Sankara) who is engaged in coaxing 
entreaties befitting the occasion on seeing Pa-rvatl averse (to him) on account of anger through 
jealousy due to his salutation to Sandhya \ (and) who (Sankara) at that very moment obtains 
the pleasure of a violent embrace (given) by her (Parvatl) frightened (by the Kailasa mountain 
being lifted up) by the two migVty arms of Ravana). 3 

V. 8, May Tara, the mistress of the three worlds, extend enjoyments to you f (Tara) who 
bears her body ,(wMch is Beautified) by the law of the Buddha in this way : (her) form (is) an 
embodiment of piety ; (her) mind (is) replete with the sentiment of mercy ; (her) intellect (is) 
cleat ; (her) eyes (are) beautiful with love for the merit of friendship (and her) hands ar 
disposed in a peaceful posture. 

V. 4. Tictorious is the Buddha, the ascetic, whose intellect Is bright on account of the 
absence of partiality for (the three) qualities and desires of varipus kinds, who having curbed 
the triumphant joy of Mara was extolled by the groups of Siddhas. - 

V. : 5. 1^ho s seeing the highest bliss in the welfare of the sentient beings has perforated 
good action^ of various kinds for the sake of the needy even at the cost of his own life, which 
(actions) ^re eulogised in stories ; (and) who, having assumed by (his) power of yCga very many 
incarnatio|ts in the world, was always the sole (repository) 4 of mercy such m the lord of sages. 

V. 6." That GodTishnu (BhagavSn) the Destroyer of Demons, who is the root cause of the 
worlds and the sole support in the processes of dissolution and maintenance, created Brahman in 
the beginning. And by hiin (Brahman)- who is the store-house of the art of skill in the creation 

1 See note on the text. Ed. 

s IB the translation, the word tripavvva has fccea construed witih $rabbaval>kaya> tlie thre dangers in question 

%ding birth, old ag and death (cf. V^ird^a-.SataJc^ ver*e 7). Or possibly the- three miseries Atiky&tmika, ete.^ a-re 
meant. The word might* however* equally well be rendered as an adjective to jyotfy like 4*fatam in the mm 



Ifeis episod is f regwmtly a llucLed -to in the Pura^as M other Sanskrit litw&tnm .. 4friqp*2aiwftka, I* 
verse |50, 

is is * m* m conjee-feme. 




No, 16.] A EALACHUEI STONE INSCRIPTION >ROM RASI A. ' 137. 



V. 16. He (Nannaraja), the creeper-canopy of wkose unrivalled dense fame liad covered t 
entire "body of tbe quarters, had a son (named) the illustrious IiaksJimana (I) 1 who had 
destroyed the strength of his enemies (and) was,. as it were, glory (itself) which had assumed 
a visible body. 

V, 17 ...... having, entered a for ..... * ......... afterwards that lord (srl- 

Lakshmatia) resorted to a j&ountainotis district named fijaiv&ya which was the sum total of the 
universe and the residence of SiW Auslnara* 

V. 18. Prom him (Lakshmana) was born the famous lord of this wide world named Siva- 
raja (I) 3 who ....'. brilliant ...... with (his) prowess resembling the light of the flame 

created by Aurva 3 (Rishi), who was more successful even than Klrtti, 4 and was famous in the 
whole world like Siva. 

V. 19. The son of that king (Sivariija) was the Lord of the Earth, the illustrious Bhimata (I) 
df fortunate birth, the sole repository of the multitude of qualities and all comparisons .... 
good warriors, ..... a /sword dexterous in the art of deceitless destruction (of the wicked) 

* a 'i 

V. 20 ...... there was the illustrious Lakshmana (II) 5 wh6 had mastered all the feats of 

bowmanship (and) whom the title, the son of a king, the source of virtues, befitted more 
appropriately than hundreds of (other) princes., 

V, 21. His (Lakshiuaiia's) son was Sivaraja (II) (who) was conversant with all topics, like 
Siva who ...... ..... confusion in the circle of (his) enemies. 

V. 22 ....... there was born the crest-jewel of kings, whose fame, was sung in the three 

worlds, who was the desire-granting-tree of 6 ....... 

V. 23. That prosperous king had a heart-captivating wife n^med BhudS of noble descent on 
both sides, whose patronage was benelicial (or who had a clear complexion) like a female goose 
going to the Manasa lake and casting the shadow of both her white wings* 

V. 24, From him? (Bhuda's husband) was born La^shman^r^jadeva (III) . ... in the 
world- 

V. 25. By whom (Lakshmanarajadeva) ........ with pearls dropped from the "broad 

temples of the elephants of the enemies split asunder by hard ^trokes of the sword on the battle 
field, (pearls) which are mixed with tears resembling the trickling safbton. 

V. 26. . . named Kanchana;,* the daughter of ........ ' 

V. 27* On her (Kafichana), that king (Lakshmanarajadeva) whose footstool was illumined 
by the multitude of the crest-jewels of the circle of prostrating enemies, begot the illustrious 
Bhimata II who had earned fame by his fierce prowess. 



* Prof. Kielhorn was doubtful about the relationship of Lakshmana t j 

2 Here, too, Prof. Kielhorn'g query about this king; being the son of Lakshmana should be deleted. 

8 Aturva was a descendant of Bliyign. Karfctavirya intent on destroy"? g the descendants of Bhfign destroyed 
the children even in the wombs of the women of &hafc family. One of these women secreted her embryo in her thigh* 
Hence the child that was born was called Aurva. At the very sight of him, the sons ol Karttavirya were struck 
with blindness and his wrath produced a flame which threatened to destroy the whole world. 

* The reading of this passage u almost certain, but who the Kirtti was,, that is referred to here^ cannot be 
ascertained* 

5 This name is not noticed by Prof. Kielhorn. 

6 The name of tbe king in this verse has disappeared in the missing portion of the stanza. 

* Prof. Kielhorn's summary here reads <4 her son Lakshmanaraja (II) ". The first word of the stanza is, 
however* most probably tasmat* 

8 This lady would appear to have been the wife of Lakshmanarajadeva (III) mentioned in v, 24 



188 BPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIII- 



Ko, 17. SEIBAffGAM COPPER-PLATES OF DEVARAYA 11 -, 8AKA-SA1IVAT 1856, 
BY S. Y. YISWAHAIHAN, M.A., MANNABGUDI, AND THK UTE MM, T. A, GOPINAYIU RAO, M.A, 

TBIVANDRUM. 

This is another set o^copper-plates of the Vijayan&gara king Dflvartya fl in the possession 
of the authorities of the Sri-RanganStha temple at SnraAgam (e a!vw, Vtil, XVII, No, 8) 
It was esamined by the Assistant Arohwologieal Superintendoni for Kpigmnhy/ Madm* 
in his Ey. Sep. for 1906, and noted as No, 19 of App. A. We dti tiui ituiiM-iptum below from 
inked estampages kindly supplied by Rao Bahadur H. Krithna Swttri. Tin* dioriptaoft of the 
plates as noted on his office copy rune as follows: " Thne pUtoi ia ring in tho Ba&imnltha 
temple at Srirangam." The following further details may to addod ;~^ 

The inscription is written on three' oop pW ;.pl a ti with * ring I w b t th top. The first 
and tod plates are engraved only on their inner m<b. They HMMUW 11'3" intend 
inoluding the arch at the top, and 7" in breadth. The holo ha* . dimmittrr of -75". The ft* 
and second plates are numbered at the left hand top oomr with tho KMM*^ M ml 1 wd 2 



e are 



The ~ * B * r 



(1. 44) 



(I. 



* 



* 



Sangama. 
Bukka (I). 
Harihara (II). 
(or DSv&rlya) I. 




D6v *&ya Mahiraja It 
o _n 1(lM1 . "" - "*""*~~"^ _ 

flf i lUgM * ^ *v7^.^^^^^ 



o. 17J SR1RANQAM PLATES 0? IL 



The date of the grant is expressed by the chronpgram ra^fctwmrtrfcrtnrfni=lM5ti of 
the Saka era which corresponded to the cyclic year Inatida, the (Uy of 

On this day and on the occasion of the 3X5>n^aratha-mah&d8na, the king grantocl thw 
five villages of KtilaminifeyanaUQr aZia0 HlooMkrarcfaolai, TiruvaraABanallrtr, 
n&riyananalllir, Kumarakkudi, and BajanirlyananaUfir, Theae villager woro niiii,lc4 
in CMla-ma^dala and in the Trisirappalli-rajya, The first threo villages wm on Lh> 
southern bank' of the river Kaveri, in E^jagamblilra-valatildii, Tho laat iwo rillttgiw 
were on the northern bank of the KSvSrl, Kumarakku4i being situated in i-ho wewtern luilf 
of Maia-na4u and Rajauaraya^anaMr being in the eastern half of the 0am o dtvwion, Thu* 
the villages given lay on either bank of the KSvdtt. Of those platan, NSehohikurchrhi 
is the village NachohikknricM in the Triohinopoly Taluk. Tho donee was Ffi|t>irf 
lav^^'P^^^^^I^'^ttaBiaiiaiii.bi, son of Uttamanambij who belonged to thu KStiyjij 
Rik-^^o: and the ASvalayana-^tAira. He was the fth&napati of th tfrlrangam 
and the above said villages were evidently granted to him for conduct.! ng tho dally worship of 
the god ^rlranganatha. 

A large number of taxes and incomes accruing from the village aro onnmcraU^tl In (ho 
inscription such as those on nanjai (wet-land), puHJai (dry-land), kamuku (JI^HH'H K rnv ) 
Jcarnnu, vaippu (Margo^a), tennamaram (coconut trees) t kolundu 9 vflliii (planlain fri3iM) 
Jcarunibu (sugarcane), maftjal '(turmeric), iftji (ginger), fatikalnntr (llowor) mtl othui' 
vaftpayir (minor cultivation) ; v&tial-vari, p8r-ka$amai y t(tx"i*1ckti<f*OH,n'l (in'i on IMUHJNI}, 
mara-kkcKJamai (tax on trees), hkku-Jcatla'mai (taz on oil mills), wtfwflfai, m<rnrnirf*M\ knttirn^n, 

malldyi^mag'ka'mai, ina~vari y n&ttu**'kffinik'ka% 9 ka$$ffiya'm f , Mwikul<ivi&' : $hMnt amSu^tlrn^ Hitltei'i 
(good bull), nal-Mcfa (good sheep), nal-pa$u (good now), palata^ anVi-Avi'jtam-, Irtlrtiynrikk, 
madarilckaij r&yasavarttanai, avasarMttrttanni, k(i>$fi()&viwktMn(&i, ktiwuiiki', jVii/i* ? n/f4uj' 
(water tax), ndt$ukana,kktt,vari akkas&levari) Sfamanjii fyfyigotm (worviou), f?t<% 

The above list includes taxes and customary dues levied in anoionl/ tinieii. Wo havo 
the means of knowing the proportion of the taxes to the prodnon, the right innuieiioi; *f 
tion, etc. It Js clear, however, that no produce from tbo land or si.riy oilier pr<,|Kirly WIM li*jf(, 
taxed. The various kind a of proceeds from the villages* m oaumovatoii in our rootml, 
how carefully municipal taxes were levied in South India nndor Vijayiwjagam kiu^?^ Hit! 
incomes granted to the donee included van (revenue taxes), wuujnmai mul mAfat (foil/*), 

The donee Valiyadimainilayiffia-TP^n^ who, undor the iiiwni + l JtittumuitmUi, 

haB been already referred to in the SrlraAgam Plates of HarihararSya^UfJiAiyar 1 1 1 (nlwvi^ Vol. 

XVI, page 223), i said in the Kfiyilojrugu the temple history oE Srlrangatn in TainiJ, *lo havn 

made some additions and repairs to the RaugatiStha temple* Tho futtno work alno r^ff?rH in liiui 
by the names M6j/niZaiyii#a-Uttamaiiambi and ^Za^ntZat^^^a-lIttamauaTnln* Two oihrr re- 
lations of his who, like himself, had been the managers of the tomplo wore 'P'a'tijiikfiiiliiiiirSjm- 
TJttamanambi and TirumalainEtha-TJWamanamblt Th Jjafahniik&pyfy a Bttaiikfit poout wriU'n 
by the latter, gives the genealogy of the family M under :~ 

In the K3fiyapa-#flipfl&* 

i 

XTttamaraya 
(pojBtesiod roval in MI urn !a 
amd:' " " " ' ' " ' 



Uttama-Chakrar&ya 

m. 



140 " HKGBAPHIA INDJCA,^ [VoL. XVIII. 

In the above pedigree, UttamarSya the brother of f hakrnrKya he identical with the 

dc/nee of oar grant. According to the Kdyilojwjn, 1 he Ret up AH ima^c of Oftrmjta in front of 
the central shrine of Rangauatha in Saka 1387 and replied t.h# iwiiigii of Rlwa, which was 
originally installed by Vikrama-Ch^la bat which wan cieatroyiH'l % th Mvtuu truant. It it alto 
Stated that he obtainedfrom Gajavettai PiatSpa-DeyaiSjaiwalilrlvii for liiian^lF tlie nole manaMh* 
ment of the Raaganatha temple, and the title ChakmrSya for hit* brother and that^a ww in 
power from Saka 1340 to 1366* 

The inscription states that the verses warn composed by EHjaiCi ! ?Ii*irit Wo do wot find 
mention of the name of RajaS&kliara in any of th* hitherto known ^ratttH of tlit flygi 
Vijayanagara dynasty. We find that some inscriptions of the tiino of UdviirSjn H 
by one Mnddaijtna, 



TEXT. 8 

[Metres : vr. 1 and 2, 4 to 36, 43 lo 46 and 48 A*vthtubh ; vv. 3, 37 awl 4'2 
; TT. 38 and 47 fen? ; vv. 39, 40 and 41 



First Pltit@. 

nmt 



2 ^3f i ^RTf^igft: ftnraltrt^ttir^]** itn*] 

3 ?T?f WUWillft ^T^iN W, \ 



5 

6 ^nsR%, 'sp^R'fltNt it ui g^whw; m 

7 

8 
9 
10 t: : t 



12 i [i 



wtrfw i mNI *N*ft irt 



. 17.] SRtRANGAM PLATES OF DEVABAYA II. 



89 
40 



15 

16 

17 
18 
19 
20 wiHTsf. pmw i 

21 

22 






23 irf^ : i ?m ^^-^f?rT ^ ^rfvr ^ft^f \[\ 
24 



25 ^T W1llt ! ll^^: \[\ li 

Stietmd PUtfi ; Firtt Side. 



27 



28 ^?tri 8 r*lf*rwp* ro: i fwrf 

29 
ao 



Tlum U MrjwuKtbHii(n for m. . 

4 tw nt.rad Wow Uw Ita, thoi Jotoa b utoridfc 



83 

84 ^i^wwfvn t|i ^i*J nwctiftwrerar wrmwR^C*] [fl 

35 n^?ftifirfiwiitif^ii^ 

30 fwn usTtn! ^ftrt 

37 mm i(t 
38 



Srirangam Plates of Devaraya 1 1 : Vikrama Samvat ! 356. 




O 04 

ID tO 




?? a a 



142 EPIGRAPHU INDICIA, [Vor,. XVITI. 



41 *irot: i^ftgt: [t*] fiira<5tf?r " trf%$ 

i[iu*] qrftr- 

42 OT^rcmwn*^ n fit [i*J 



h* 



46 

46 
47 
48 
49 

so \ - 

51 ^wi(i) 9ra6*%(t) w 

52 



Second Plato ; Sanond Sid* 

53 



55 



1 x h entered Wow th lifts, 
5 t| is inserted below the line. 



*s 1- 44, thus omitting 11. 39.4*. 
is proTaaWy pofdmbolce <* ' waste land*. 

e find in the originul ooiwl olato, 



i inserted below the line. Read 



Read 

11 AfWr g jrraA is aeeu in the original. 

u Read ^^^^, T 5 

Befcweea ^^^ and at the end ef .11 M 62 th original 

14 ?rr inserted above the line, 

* ^ is inserted below bhe lite. 

14 For ft^| welmve f^ in the origjaal duplicate copy of the Mwmi plats, 



77 

78 l?f%; 

79 



80 

81 "qt|Qc| 

82 

83 



86 
86 

87 
S8 
89 
so 
91 

92 

93 



EPIGRAPHIA 1NDICA. 



rj 



n 



Plate. 



[l*] f 



II [8^*] 



im%f 



Abstract of Contents. 

V. 1. Adoration to the Elephant-faced god (Gte^M*). 
V. 2. Adoration to the Boar avatXra (of Vishnu) 



it 



. XVIII. 



m- 



ctho 



t 






V. 4, Adoration to Sambhu 



toring 



N0.i7,3 HHWANCJAJ4 ftATSvS OF DKVARATA II. 



67 ft i 'wwwwrff i <*rifw i wfwif i TOr(r)w 

r , 

rtJ* 

08 



60 vTwrw i wm>wiw i wBrvWT vn i 

61 wit ^wifflr^fw^.Tij i itpw< wi ^^<it i 

62 rt g Sniwt tri^wfn% Dt^*] W WTTfr*wnt (i) 

88 ill 



65 5 l|u*i 4* fw T ^i^jffltil)riafVfIIIffi|t [l*] 

^iif fv- 
66 ^f 



0? fww*iliiNfr<Kigii: i 



70 ^rtw[i* jflfvT %-ffi?4-f^f?f: wwfwfl 



74 ititrriii si iwri|t<"'ryTmf!'ifTt i 

75 im 

70 ftTf/r|7f*iitw" w 



! i|iJ ^f UK-owl }Sto i* 



},,) Kn/.'^jfji, vt.it,f><*A *i*4 owwwd. 

i| 

* U*Ji ' 



146 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA, [ VOL. XVIII. 



evidently the present name Vlyalfir is a relic. Th etirrnt mane Vyaghrapurltvara, t.. < the 
lord of Vyaghrapurl,' is a Sanskrit translation from Pilavftyal which ww Monithow connected 
by mistaken analogy with Pulivayal. 

The importance of the record under publication wa firut brought to noticr in my Annual 
faptrt on Epigraphy (Madras) for 1908-9, Part II, paw>grph 16 mid 17, Hiiuw then Professor 
Jouveau Dubrenil of Tondicherry has discussed its content* in detail in Chapter II of his work 
" The PalUvdt " published in 1917 and has given there tht facirinute of a part of th* uiacription 
The present paper supplying the deficiency by giving a complete faruimilc of the record 
which was. examined tn situ, attempts to diswjmss certain diiMnrepancMM in the readings of 
Professor Dubreuil and to examine certain other points in th ohwwwbgy of the Pallavas to 
which the book of the Professor haa given publicity, 

The dilapidated temple of Vyaghrapurtlvara at Vlyalflr maul hav* hud it* palmy day* when 
its prsksra wall, subordinate shrines, marfapa* wad vin&na wre in H |Mrfectly good 

BOBfl jS? n<L The central * au * M whidl fa ^^^ thie l y tan<lmg utrnrtni*, hw thu gajapruhiha 
or tle^elephant-back form peouKar to many &iva tomplw in th f'hmgU'pwt dintrutt and 
enshrines within it a stone ItAga.i On the back iide of thu linga nd rliiw* < ihit war waH is 
placed a stone panel containing the group of figures iv, Pftrvati and Kutnlra, generally 
known in iconography by the name Sflm&skanda. Tha exuUtttca of Mttfh KAminkanda paaels L 
a striking characteristic of the Saiva shrines of Pallava origin ; bat th punolii, in thtws cftMB, are 
^variably cut or fixed into the wall behind the titga. What then eonld th ffxw^noe of this 
detached panel in the VyaghrapurlBvara shrine signify P Perhaps UM onginal Uirnpln whioh was 
founded m Pallava times disintegrated in course of time mul WM wbuilt, m in found to be the 
case mth many other South-India* temples, in some later periud, c.nly to rwpoat once again a 
second course of dilapidation, such as it now pmente to u. Still another flhamrttrwtjfl, if one 
u lequied, of the Pallava origin of the temple, oomwto in th mnny Pi!bvi pilto with large 
cubical secfaons intercepted by an octagonal middle, bearing MfetHcm. of lt diwmtiun. on each 
face- of the cube and plam-cut corbels.- These pillar* m l w ^ f mtlul ia tb|j ewt ^ 
-*he mam outer entrance mto the temple ; and on of thw~th . on UKI right i<k i one 
enters-has on xt he subjoined record inscribed in 14 B*. of writmg, goig H,cl the piZ 
^the form of a spral from top to bottom. Line 1 of the iweription }J& o/th oth fl of 

sr svri'Si 7 thfl * est - , ^ m *- s wwch --" ~ * ^ ** ^ w 

OT " 



, 

rt ,- ! t OTe ? er " dflvioe Weting a bnawh of .pnmto* ft. go on 




, 

. W of 
In *-> VoL X, Kafeg 2> 8 and 4. 




OF bBVABAYA II 145 



V 14 He hM in IH ftnia, ft hrtwwUft, the earth, which conld not be supported even 
b th'primal Tot-tot*'. *' ,STprnt Lord. ti Mountains and th Klephant*. 

fVv 15-544 (liwriW liin ri}il"itn *<? Snow, whiflh spread to all th ci;ht quarter* of the 
globe, hi" to 1 "' 1 *}" ><! *>> M "lftnt\ , J 

V' 25-HJ Tlu- king Kw*' <<vl tli- ihiiv vjliigw of Kulamft^ikyanalltlff at*o WBohohi- 
krarobchi, .'vtupnmng 77 t-iiw (..f lr.v bunt ?) iaul | r^lt of *> (wet land), Tiruvaraiii- 
Hxallto niul Rnmnnfcymwni4mr, all sifunt^a nn the wratheru bank ol ihe BSvSn, m 
BSiagambhlra -T|w*a f Chojn -mJ<U'. !*' the Triairappalli-i'ljya together with the 
new village! <f KwiwilrftkltMdt mt.l IU jnnftrftyftpuMUttr, nituatol renpeotively ia the western 
Ld easttn-n livwi. .f MM* iM. '" t> wtrttieni Imuk of the K^vftrl. 

[U, 45 *" *'. ""''*' lt " ** <! *''fc'rt t* * TwniJ) the tftxw and incomes due from the 



T'tfi Th- 

li(). *''" < --n.'A.i,lr,i (1) (i.,'.,138), wrrwpondiug to the cyclic year 
On th full moon dny f f- .,.th .rf VaifiSkha, king DSvartya, at the tune of 





making h- n-U'ht-ntr.i ,,,A,i,M ^ n\M IHm*w*ka, to V 

Sttemnftmbi. W ..f mtamttwb*.i..'^^rt^/Miftlw artwhgwa temple who belonged 

to the KUynvn"jM>"> ' !ll> Aivlynii *^',i mnl i- H-V**a. 

[Vv IHi-'W "n<n H..' |'"*iw "f S wvr*j (or ltoYw*y) and a prayw fov his long life 



^a , M -|i.'nty n. i.u-iif i.m tiw imini. uf tlw 



[Vv. '1.1-4(7, Tht* iJwniU niljntuf'cy VTWN, ) 

TV IH, H'iH'|'li<iti * IA sl' lim') .] 

1,1." fit to IIS Thin. .M il,r ffmni K i v, and Hi V il hy the king with hi 8 own hand (M) 



N,, |. Illl'. VAVAI.ItU I'H.I.AIl INSCRIPTION 09 RAJA8IMHA H. 
H, II K,,,, S.ii. H. A,. H.o HAWH, 



u " " "* 

. 



......... , 

. . ..... .' f j^,,.. , ,,h B ,,hi..f iMt of the powerful 

" " "' . th. S.mU.-I4ta JUilw. r . Tb. 



J/k " firt > ww* s* *' *" "" ' T "?-' f , 

V| | | I | ! *. * t I * l*fl %'f >tl 1 fl'IS'l ll%" f itt* *?11* P8 *ti* #** ,, ^TWWWTT'-. - 

;;,;;;!;r,;;;::; s,::;:;:,';:;.,' .>;. ..-.- **" - ?*-- 

ik&ibi) 1 i^nd C'lrrwtiHthiU f^> UIK* Hm^kr^ ri*fc^*i 'i*'.iipii**iw****r f 

4o iwff, ^ iffnjiAlwi J2*/tf^ ^ 100H| p* 89 1 

* Ffcwi lrt$fift^i*tt |'r*i*rl Vt wi*tf wllti th* W|i * wy > ^ 



No. 18.] THB VATALUR PILIMB INSGBIPTIOtf Of EAJ4SIMHA It 14,7 



occur in III, 2 and 10 and tha Dr*vidi*n / in II 3 nM 4. The punofcEation ijmbol used 

in the inscription ift ft iriplo wrfieml jointni at. tlia top, the oompoaent lines being often of 
varying length**. Two othwrymHi>lH of *n orannrumtAl type ocoar in Hue fl f eyidently *lso being 
used as punctuations ; font th*Hs aw not tjn Jt* (iifttinct. 1,'ti the matter of ortnography, the use of 
the antfft&ra and ite change into th tttn*NnAiijtI in <x>mponud letters k generally correctly 
observed, e.g* jf%t>(t$ in L 1 ( XVtitfctfriiA in Hnn 3 and Skamda in L 4* The doubling of conso- 
nants after a conjunct r omim throughout* Thttrw is one Mistake of spelling in ijita for 
fruta (L 10) ; and wrong mn4ki in jfi/*if*w< for jfj/ft^*w (Mci) and mi ia fc&attt for nata 
fe&afc (If my road ing in correct in L 1 1), In liitu 10 the form yubtih& (m^y^ddha m apparently a 
mistake of the 



As stated in ih Annum! K^piwt tm Rpigmphy (Muclriw) for 1009 1 the record is a very 
interesting oxw on i^iMnini of tlio long Iit <if Pallavu iinniew it wupplios, Whan I drew up ihe 
report, I ww not aM t<i gm* (ho whoUi lint, for want of it mo au<l a satisfactory eetampage* 
Also the VftWrpIlniyam piai^H wliirli giv\ ihough Nuntmarily f a similar Hat of names in the 
anoestey of th Palluvan, hiw! IM* ltn*n Iw^i puhlinlwl, and conaeqtiently, the big list of the 
y&yalftr record licl mil. aitmrt. iintrh ntti*wfiiiiL Tbankii to tlie ncholarly 1 work of Professor 
Dubretxil in tho fiold uf Kiulh* Indian Kpii^raphirat remiarcli and especially in the study of the 
Pallava dynttfltiwi, w *'^ now JH^^I*H a fH HtaUunont of the contentu of tWa valnalble inscsripticm 
$ad its bearing ttjwn PaHnvit rlifinitil^^y, 

The Purity i nam'ri in tin* !(. from Hmhmi to AAAkn^I,, 1 and 2) are found in the K&S&* 
ku<Ji platen of Natuiivarnmn PalliivnntiftHa' 1 j an! wp faithw opimymous Pallaya, the 'predecessor of 
ASOka, they ar ftmnl aiNi in th Kfiram plalitm 4 f ParaniAlvaravarman I and the "UdaySndiram 
Platen: 1 AmonK Mtm iiiyiw'if *llvr niwrly kingw wtiititi tho KUEku^i plates incidentally mention 
are those of VlrnKtfhha ail Vihi t wimJw wlu<rh <lu not find uplaoo ia the &yalflr list. The Vglttr- 
pSJaiyam platon^t whirl* am Ut*tr, ifivit th PtirlQtio tinwciw in. tlwi aama order up to ASftkafarmtm 
correctly, bnt afi^*r a g^j* iij*}ily UN with ilia thrw tinmes Ki|ftbhtiri Ohtttapallava and 
Virakttwha in thi onlur of ftiflmr utn! am mxnctly'iui wi* 6ml m t 3 of our inscription. After 
these oornoH thu rmnu* of ttki.m(uiltebyii whiuh I)CKHH ttot figuro in th Viyalftr roeord, It looks, 
therefore, an if thw uulhui^ of tttti O'tlifcjdiiillmii^ and the TftlflrpSJaiyam plates, all of 

which are admittwHy luf^r iiniri thu Vljulflr wiiwrd^ but not very nmok later, drew theae stray 
name for wring Uunr kii<wli*d>jfi> uf wly PnUnvn ckrcmology purely from, memory and were 
notalwayK eorwrt. Th-> Vlvnlftr r^M-n-il ttftor mtmtiomitg Alnka gives eight names, vi*. 9 
Harigtipta, BhutadnttA, auryaviirman, Vlili^ugdpft, Dh|itaka Kailnda, Jyamalla and 
BipumaUa* whi'h <ii mit npjH'iir in flu* lutwr gmnt- After ihwe come the thirty-six names 
listed by Profiwuir Ihii>-miil <m p. '20 f hw " IWlawt f| with the small difference that the 
name Konkayika i iM^tniilly f*iwnd on thti ifiini|mg) t*^ Iw KoAka^l 

Mt>nmr Ihibwiit trim o iiifrilnitM (o lh ViyaWr lint tha oredifcof supplying a ^ complete 
genealogical u**?iwii4 fruiii ivrn th timw of iho 0poaymoH founder Pallava, including 
practiruilly nil tho tianifw mi*ntiom*<l in Mi* I*rlkrit and tlw Sarakrifc copper-plate grants hitherto 
diBcownul and in Iho luf^r Nl4inn ittnrri|UimN 4 In tMng *hln he fimclg mway difficulties in his way 
but attemplH lc> gut OVIT ilmn by fhulittg nmileniMrl coii'idm*e in the order of the names. In 
Vlwftflroha, B^candiiMfihy^ KumAmvlihiU mul BddhaTftrman of tKa YfilflrpSJaiyam plates 
for intiro<w t IVB fm*I M wimniln^ with tliti i4 of mtimm N<. 2 to 32 (U to 14) of the V&yalfir 



^ Pwi II, imm K rph 17, ju 70 t * imi^ndim In**rift4*** 9 Vol. II, 

iw, vi i.p, tu, * .. V.L ii, P. m 6 

Prff*>r DnbMuit ri^In hy iliit twa wt# J jrimdte w Eipamalla u 

Af.vv*rtiiMi fiww Mi *' Jf*a/lant */" JL 20}* 
nw t M, !iiiWi*ali*ii wwmlttw re glten In 



T 



248 EPIGRAPHIA INDICIA, [VOL. XVIII. 

list. Here, however, it has to be observed that Vlrakfuvha, whom Duhrouil Hclocta an the first oi 
the ruling Pallava kings, perhaps from a statement nmdu about, him in I he V#Iurp5|aiyam plates 
was the son of Chutapallava and grandson of K&lublmrtft- thu t^jrvospomiiitfj; to JSTo. 23 (5) 
of the V&yalfir list and not to No. 2U (11), Alo the ihreti mtmos that sutMttVLul this Vlrakurcha 
are Chandravarman, KarEla and Vishnugopa and not SkuKulatiinhya, IvumiVraviBhjgui and 
Buddhavarman as Dubreuil puts It dowxu Again, his pmsmnpi -inn thai tho t 'houdalfh 1 plates 
must be a copy of some ancient record, nuits hLs purptmt* vm*y well ; ninw tho i m Convenient names 
Skandavarman, Kumaravishriu and Biuldhavarmau whi^h tluso platw* given otu*ur in that order 
in Nos. 30, 31 and 32 (12, 13 and 14) of tho Vayalur list; hut hnv again ho forgots that tie 
fourth, name that occurs in the Ghoxidalur plates i,s iv Mitnmtl Ktm'travi,sh^iu ami not as in to be 
expected No. 33 (15) Skandavarman of tho Viyulur list, Tlu* partittl H>in<*i<Uvnee in the 
earlier Pallava names mentioned in the VSyaliir list with those *f tin* (Muutlahtr and tho V^lur- 
pSlaiyam plates serves no practical purpose and tho agreement, If any, ruuld 1m attributed only to 
an accident by what we may call tkek8kat&tiya<-nt/&tftt. It doon ruf, thrnftr*s gjv<h the Viyaltr 
list any more completeness than what could Ins claimed For tho KasiukutjU or tho Vdlfirp&laiyam 
accounts. Perhaps Dubreuil also, though he han not expresw^ri hiftinoif rUarlj t>u tins point, 
meant the same thing when he said '* wa nhould not i\ily too wurh on Uio tr<Ur of Kiic^eHBion of 
the kings given in the Vayaiur inscription after Virakfnvha ( 1 1 )/ M 

Passing on after 32 (14) Buddhavarman to eight other klngw and in tho int.orim identifying' 
Vishnugopa 37 (19) with Vifthupugdpa of Kftnchl, tho wolUkuovvn l v ullava (Ir) contemporary of 
SamudragTipta about the end of the 4th Century AJ) M FrofeHHor Dnbnnnl nayn that from 
VIravarman 41 (No. 23) the V&yalfir inHcription bocoxuoH truHtworthy, evidently again in the 
sense that it supplies a complete li&it of kings in tho order of HUcweHHiim ciuwn to Rajanimha 
Narasimhavarman II. This is altio extremely doubtful. The Sanskrit gruut*s *n'ou though we 
may exclude the Ohendalfir plate 5 which according to the ProfeKHor nuiwt be a copy of an older 
inscription giving some early names that have to be placed before Ote time t>f Vlravarman, 
supply us with the names 'of only six kinga whose HtujeeHHiojti in Yhe ortlor given below may be 
taken as certain : 

Malx&r&ja Skandavurmim I . 

Virakflrcha or Vu*avurruuiu 
Skaud avarmau 1 1 



Simhavarman I. Yuvamahar&ja 

SirhhavarinaxL TL 



Of these, the Yuvamaharaja VishntigOpa may not have ruled. Tho information obtained 
from the Udayfadiram* and the Ohurft* copper-platen, both of w!n<*.h aro i!ecu<UMlly later by 
reason of their paleography and are otherwise also nnlruwtworthy, csannot be unect, OB has been 
done by Professor Dubreuil, for the purpose of obtaining a oontiuuouH Pallava aiuweasion after 
Siiiihavarman I or Simhavarman II. If this could be done, there in no reanon why the names 
Sunhavarman, Nandivarman and Simhaviek^u which oocmr in the Anifu&vatl pillar inscription 
of about the 12th Century AJ)> should not b utilised for a HimUav purpose. Again, the 
assumption/ in tie first place, of two simultaneously ruling families, one at KSfichl and the other 
xu the Telugu country, and in the second place, the statement that 8ixhhavarma& 43 (25) of the 

~ 



. 9 ., 
Meport (Madraa) for 1914, p. 8- * 8. L L, Vol. I, p. a$. 



*T0. 18,] THE VAYALUH PILLAR INSCRIPTION 9 OF BAJASIMHA II 



Urarapalli platan probably raunuMi jKwwwHion of Kftnobl are not founded on any sure ground, 
We rery well know thai tlw mrty Pullava ktugw while ruling at their capital KSnehz had 
their Viceroy at !>h&imitka<ja (l)iiEnyaknta) in tlw Teliagti country. Why the later kuigB. 
succeeding Hkamluviirmim II should havt* chomm a different coarse of admimatration, dividing 
the kingdom bet wwn I \v ruling dynnwiiw and why, even if this were so, the V&yalfir inscrip- 
tion whcme dolinilo puppom* in in di'Hcritw ilto finc*enlry of king Bajaaiifaha-Narasiiiihavarmaii II 
of the Falaikkacin hnmt'li *huiiid go out of the* way to include the names of the collateral KsSdbl 
broach 4# to 4t> (Nun, &> to % *JH) which iwvording to Professor Dtxbreuil was altogether 
unoouMHrtod with if, nn> <|uwfiom thtif roqiiint to he explained satisfactorily before we 
could follow <h* tlworv of ProfVwwor IHthnnul populating two separate dynasties simultaneously 
ruling in tlw IVlugn *ountry and in tin* To$^imaty4alam. Again, in the set of names 
enumerated on** uflor f lit* othr from NOH, 43 to 50 (25 to ItSJ), what authority does the Professor 
discover to priwunu* flmt whili* (ho firt four ruUnl in a givtm order, the second iive (omittingthe 
first of them) niltMl, n<*< ufti*r thorn iw liou!d iHu^tpmtad, but simultaneously with them P Do 
not thews kingH poRniMv ntand to iwh other in t.ho relation of father and son as the first and the 
last HotH of nntnoH in tin* lint uj^gHt or agaiu tui tho partial coincidence in the order Vlra- 
kOruha to HmUUmvannait ( V*lftrpnlaivam platw) iuit full coincidence in Skandavarman to 
Naudivanuaii (rdavn*linun plnN'H), in<li*ate *f In faot, thorofore, the list of the names giren 
by tho Viiyiilur mnrnpfimi rentniuH fo lie n hidtifmiio m those oupplied by the KaS5kn4i y 
ITdayfintUruin and Hie Vuirtrjnilaiyant plat and thoro in not the least poaaibility of finding 
therein ft aumwiou lini either wholis or partial tucopt after No. 49 (81) SiriihaTarman, the father 
of Sinihavitfhvu* l*rfeHH*r I MthreniTH argument* art thun Been to be vitiated by wrong identi* 
fioatiouH ami griituttmut aw^uiiiptiuiw and by Inn acottptauoe ad genuine material of what till 
vemainHtmly lfniaftvM and rwjumw furthisr c'ttntful exaniitiatiuti and Acrutiuy. 

Ouw jwitiv* and imjKrtant reHH, however, dwived from a study of the VSyalfir list, is 
that oortain ron<*lioiiw arrived at in my tioiifcribution *on the Vftlflrpijaiyam plates require 
oorrali>. The ideniiiiention f Kfc|aJiharip with Kfcpagftpa on page 503 of the South- Indian 
Imcnptwm* Vohum* M, IH now un(*tiahle iiluee both these names occur in the V&yalflr list as. 
KoSJl Mid '-2H (IJ and HI); nimilarly, Ute idntifition pf Ohfltftpallava with Skandavarman and 
Vlrakflrohu with Viravanmutt>f Uie l^kira nml the Ml&g4 fl ^ grants caEnot any more be upheld, 
Thethmt kinH KAJahhartri. t-hflU|mHVA wicl Vlkroha mentioned m the Tslflrpllaiyam 
platen niUHt In* fiome iriMlitioimlly known vwy early kingff of the Palkva family. SkandaSishya 
(poHHihly HamiMw Kkimdnvarinan)" KiiwiniviHhvtt and Buddhavamao, who we mentioned in 
ordw of HuewHHiini next in the V^Irtrp*|aiyam platen, do not find the same place in the Tiyalftr 
lint. There miiNt evidently U a in intake dun to the <sarolossnes of the author of th0 V^lflrpa- 
laiyam plaUm in dtwTtbmg itut wilatioiwhip of Skanciatohya to Vlrakttrcha, Perhaps these 
throe* kiKH aUno luttNt htivi* Imm mmw ftirgiAtou old king** with whom the later genealogy 
derived frmu Urn Huimkrit cop|M^pUtw graiiin cannot IMS counooted, Ooaaequenily, the probable 
period of 'about tint mifldlo af t)* 4th iwntniy or* thuwaboute for kings Simliavarman and 
hin mm SkamJavitntiuu, who, on* tiff^r im<thnr f w^rci crowned on their thrones by Aryavarman 
and MAdhavuvurmiui 11 of (hi* Wontum (JaiiKa dynwty and the beginning of the 7th century 
fitwi fur MaliAnilravarniun I, Iho iitilhor of tw rtnik-out nhrmes of South India, must remain 
still tut iki uuly two iniiiiMtmum in Pulliwn chronology- 

Th tw vom^i n^onlHt iu KWH B to I* of tlw mscriptian we respectmly in the 
FMontoMIato. am! th Wra^A^r* mrttnii aod rather coiropl They give the -king toe 
alrndy known titl M IWjtMrtita, KhatmiirtiM f TuddWBrJim*, AtyantaWma, Snmggba, 
aito, Ba^jaya mid 6rlaihi. The adjunct m^m^W^^^ ^ 
and whinh, UtomHy mmim^ rneanii *OM who0 clmdem shines mtt the 
(Bi)/ in miter peqiteiaff. CampariBg this with tltlei like 



150 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIII 



and the verse ;m^*rasfWT, etc. which occurs in the South-Indian Intnriptwnt, Volume I, FOB, 
18 and 19 (v. 3) and mflrt^srai^'eto. in. ibid., NOH. 21 d 22 (v. 2) all with reference to 
king Eajasimhait looks as if the king did actually wear , ti#uro of &iv, etr mihor his symbol 
the 2ui;a, on his head. This fact is evidently also hinted tit the vwtw *3"Wt*n){^ <{8j*j^*i fa^ 
fiaffrfif etc. (t&wZ., No. 33, v. 2), which refers to tho <K>nvwMum of tho Pulluva king 
MahSndravarman I Gunabhara from Jaiixism to Saivwrn. Again, v, 4 of No, 1*4 in the 
same volume speaks of "Siva fixed in tho mind, bung worn on t\w hwwl." All these 
references clearly point to the existence of a /,t%a-euU Imi>c Imfuw iho nivival of the 
Vlra-8aiva faith under the auspices of tho fai<m Kalauhuri nuiuHf^r BnMivn (Clionna- 
Basava) in which the wearing of the lingo, playH a promttuuii, pwh Agiiui, tlw WMMO of the 
two verses, particularly that of the second, is such that it u^' flu< ornmiun for the 
engraving of this record to be the accession of king BftJ8ixhh<t to th0 throne, Thi, if it 
were so meant, would indeed have been a fitting opportunity to wdogtHo IUM tunny *<* of heroism, 
charity and piety, and to proclaim to all subjects hig awmmption of |wwi-r over h'w hrerlitMy 
dominions. 

TEXT. 1 



WITT ffl ^rfirtT: ffl] rwffr: ffl fC*n ffl vrl^vroR fij fH: in 



; tn ^TOTO: W 



[fii] . -. fr^ii'fiwj in 

sj| 

:] [ffl*] [*r]fc^: m wnn 



m qr?^5: yjj f^^ijTrtti: ffl ^n^^; [QJJ ^wntor; i 
flj] 



5 m ^pmrt [tn] W3mri w ^nfiRr^p HI fl 

ID 



6 tr: A f^pTW: (D w^RTp II) ] fwfti! QJ ftfviii 01 

{fl "fti- 



in w^fid fli frf'??^ d "fciwf LID) ffr 



8 ftr^wd m f^^rf%^: ffl qiKqmli jn ^ifFf^?rw! 01 

9 **rc fll 




1 Direct from the stone. 

1 ^L-Ms symbol which ia evidently intended as a mark of punctuation it) fUowil by uurtthor whidi 
complicated. It is seen on the facsimile plaAo though, indiotinctly. 



Vuvaliir Pilhu Inscription of Rajasiniha II. 
South faff East Face 







North Face 
















. 18.] THK VAYALUR PILLAR INSCRIPTION" OF RAJASIMHA II. 



151 



10 *; 



12 



13 



(LI, 1 to l>) 
L Br&Jhnum. 

2- 



4 Sarhyn. 

5. 

6, 

7* Afivutt.hRinun. 



10. 

1L 

12, 
18 



15. Hbptaka, 



17, Jyimalla. 
18- Hipuiualta* 
10. VimIa. 

20, KAukavi. 

21. KRjahhartf 
22. 

28, 
24. 
5:5, Kart|a. 



27 H 



01] 



ri 



It in aiilU'tii to notify ibin 



tioiw tho only on** ublch cmb In 
likt aybidiviikurii 



b 



' *ku 



28. 

29, Vliiikflrcha. 

Ii(K Skatidavarmaa. 

Ill, ECum&ravtHh^a. 

32 , B u <1<I ha varman* 

Jill Bkandavarman. 

J14. KumftravitihjgLit. 



;{{}. Skartilavarman. 

{17. 

H8, 

89. 



41, 



48. Biihhavarmaa* 
'14* Skimciavafmatt 
45* JNfaudivarxnaoi. 
46* Bithhavarmaii* 



48, 

49, Kimhavarmim* 

50, BuhhaviD'h^u. 

fi 1 . M ahfitul ni> varman * 

52'* 
58. 

54 . I 






:] 6 [i*] 



, d) U j^rtiftj* mlitekt for i) and ^TJ corrected into 

*tw titli* of lilijiwlrhija givn in ilie Conjoeverom i 

, [Aimlony with xyfirevtf ...^W J ftmi M |e epitheta 
wonld iitg^*it that WHS r^MMling inigat DO 



ft w*ntl$r 



ou liiug mini owo hort 
Uttmr 



152 



EPIQRAPHIA IK l>10 A. 



[Vot,. XVIII. 




(LI 9 to 1L) Be lie victorious, the royal lion aai* on 
of the glorious Pallava race, who. spotless fame * the lion of warn,,, 
known whose crown u resplendent with the cret,jow.I, , ? u. Mhr (Siva). 
lords of fangs (JKwftaiwrifcfc) of the whole earth, ami an Arjon. in tail,. ( 

14) MaJ ^ 6XerciSe the TOyal P 1 ** *^ * <*k P <h' vo 
up to the extremities of hiH kingdom, M even 1 inriud, h 

T^ the name "' tke glmt Wrc8tlcr " (""^"'M - 

fight, who is excessively devoted (X^mtoiMmn) rvrr 
lotus-feet of Samh'hu (Siva), who i tho bU Jd oL,l f fin- 
crops the Brah^, prosperous, who is'th,, Mo ( ,n th. < 
" "the storehouse of pn w ^Jty'H^ N ^^^^ 



of 
ffu> 

PV, ? tl 



No. 19.-BRAHMI INSCRIPTION ON A WOODEN PILLAR KKM KIRAEI. 

BY HlBANANDA SASTRI, M.A., M.O.L. 

early Brahroi inscriptions. The river Mahal d flol ^ '" U 'f lUr " w ' < ^""ng well as 

began to dry a good deal of its L&TrSSi^ E P'PV for, th momnt the pillar 
invahable record which was 1^^^^^ .^V ^ "^ r ^^ f ** 
on it some of the villagers called their Pandit nlmld f tT*, & * ^ PUIar ^ iwm !<5tt M 
could read the writing. Failing to lakelt 21 Lak8hraJ P^ida UpMhyfty., to ee if he 
letters which he noticed on the plr at t h e Le fl f V^ ^f ^ 
traces of a letter over it. Apparently "^ Bot 

or which was the top or bottom o 
separately on 8 heets of paper 



** 



no 

** 



of all the 
th. frintert 
' whtoh id 



mn ' wto id * 

^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ Wch Hnfl 
the fcme according to the nuudbn of 




^tawkiwitt.*!*!-...... . """""'flwwkiwUww^iK *f i!l? , We te<i J *" ! *^ on thdr 

MitaiT^ -Inttcttt hint u* tl* Mten 



No. 19.] BRAHMI TXSCKTPTrON ON A WOODEN PILLAR PROM KIBARL 153 



so often found at the <nci nf flu* inanusmpt copies of Sanaldrt books. How faithful his copy 
is can be judged from tin* fwsimilo of tho inecluiniail impressions of the portions which were 
copied whon I first insjMvti'd tin* pillar in 11*21 and which wore still intact when I again examined 
it in 1924 at tin* Xatrjmr Muwunu <!onparis<m will show that the eye-copy can be taken 
as quite tnwUvorf In in tin* raw of the portions which are now lost, for ever. The fact that the 
copyist did not rvcn understand whioh wide n'pnwnted the top and which the bottom of the letter- 
ing precludox tin 1 su^pirion of forgery altogether. How lie succeeded in bringing out the "shapes 
of the letters accurately *^ 1 think, dm* to the little knowledge of drawing which he possessed 
and to his intelligence. Hut as the fad remains that- those portions of the epigraph do not exist 
now, \ve would naturally feel hesitant to draw largo eonehimonB from the hand-copy. The Pandit 
took a copy of not less titan !M!* tikshtnwt wherean at the time of my first inspection the pillar had 
not more than fiO or 70 lei t ers and now not more than 30 or 40 including the traces of vowel marks, 
The Pandit's eye-copy wan handed over to my draftsman a{ the, time of my visit to Kirari and I 
have used it in preparing the comparative facsimile plate as well aa in reading the lost portion 
for which it was the only source now to depend upon, 

The find wan next brought to the notice of Pandit Lochan Prasad Pandeya of Balpur, 
a village attached to tin*. rhawiarpur Pont. Office, not very far off from Kirari He 
promptly brought it. to the notice of Hir John Marahall under whose instructions the pillar was 
unmerned in water in a titnk at KirurT where it. lay till it waB finally removed to the Government 
Museum at Nagpur after being very carefully treated chemically for the preservation of the 
writing on it. The MuHHimHUthoritwNhuvti now cut it into two parts, one of which, ie., the 
upper portion, they have placed in a glumi cast% accommodating the other' in an outer verandah 
of the MuHWinu The former t ill H!IOWH not lew than twenty-two continuous letter** more or 
less distinctly, while the latter retaitw tracer of lettering here and there and some three or four 
complete afahtiraH a well, The fate of the lower portion < annot fail to remind us of the all 
powerful law of nature which prrmitn the mtrvivnl of the fittest only! 

AH haa t>een utatwl uliovi*, tlie pillar w wooden and tneaBur^B about 13 ; 9" from top to bottom* 
It is Btirmounted by a noli*! knhrfn which in ab<tt 1' 2* high* The Jsdato has ar narrow neck, a 
broad and almoMt flat mouth, the body being more elliptical than round* 1 am reproducing here two 
of thephotograpliH which were taken ut the time- of my innpoction during 1921 to replace further 
description of this wtwwtinK fiml The* nurfaea of the pillar has badly flaked and I cannot 
positively nay if it wan nhaped irilo facctH and planed, at least at the middle, for writing the 
inscription/ The lower portion, in all probability, mu st have been left unshaped, as it 
wan meant for iiiHertion in the ground, 1 got a fawchipB of the pillar examined and am told 
that the tree, of which i' WHH mud belongn to the order of Leguminosae papilionaoeae and its 
botanical name in Ptcroeiir|Hw mamipiuin, the Hindi name being Blja Sal This tree 
gives a hamkoikr ; nd uaeful ti^iber of (kutfcral India and is almost as good as teak. 

ThiR find, I believi% IH the fimt of itn kind yet made in Indter Bo far some four sacrificial 
posts have been found in i hit* rcmntry nnd porhapa a similar number in Koetei in the Indian Archi- 
pelago. All theme hav* recently bwu noticed by Dr. Voel in his paper on the Yfipa Inscrip- 
tions of king Mulavarimnitn. T!^y are all of wtona and appear to be memorial yUpas for, sacri- 
ficial yiipa^ m would be ihown by *th< terniB y&pa-dru, yupadrum<* or yiipa-d&m, were usually 
made of wood. Pcmnilily them* were put up instead of the wooden pillars or ytipw and were 
their exact copien in ntonk A rlow comparison of the illustrations of these pillars and of the one 
represented m th utetmtdh* coinn of Samudragupta the Great, with the photograph of the Kirari 
pillar, herein n^wdtieect will sitow that the latter cannot be a yupa or sacrificial pest The 
description given 'of a yfljpa In the &tojwtta-Br*Afna(r* would point towards the same inference 



154 K1MGRAPH1A IXPH.'A. [ VOL. XVI 

According to this authority 1 the shaft of a //M/WI, except for the lower portion, should be octagon 
and bent at the top. At the same time & //MJWI iKdiHtimjju^lirtl by A ihwl-jueee or top-ring (ci 
s&aZo) and marked by a girdle rope (rafatiti) whivh wniiia round it. The Kirsiri pillar reveals noi 
of these characteristics. Taking it for granted that ail tin- eujht cottierx ami the 17 cloths wit 
which, according to this authority, A wu-riticial pout i to In- wrapt m hound, luive disappear 
we cannot account lor the absence of the hollow at the top ami the litN^rrriurut in height whic 
ought to be 17 cubits in threats*' of a ///<. But at* tin 1 Jhiibnnitw ^>n<'t* different- height* ft 
different purposes and says that " the sacrifivial Htake of tlr (ordinary 1 ! imjnlHHerifiee is eitln 
three or four cubits long and one above that belongs to the Soiuu MIU nh " ve cannot depeni 
on the length of the pillar for its identiiieation. That K rannut le a ^ii/ni r pillar connect* 
with animal sacrifice will be shown by a reference to i'iitanjtth who in IUH .l/tiAu/iAifoAi/a clearlj 
puts down* that a ^wjua niust be made of either /;' i.l'.jjli- nuinm lvi or Kfmtlirtt (Acatis 
catechu) 



n lf 



As I have already stated, the Kirari pillar iHuwde neither *f ,Klr iu,irin'!i> nor 'of Acacia 
catechu but of Pteroearpiw inarsnpiuni. In the KdmAi/n,^ of Valtuil.1. Imwevi-r, it i t-ated that 
2J y&pas were erected at the time when a hortw HHcrtiire >r .{jtMOnit/Att pi-dormed hy Uafia- 
ratha. Out of these six were made of Bilva (Af#\v umrmelon), mx of Khtuhrn (Amcift eatwhu), 
8K of PoZ^a (Butva frondosa), one of gfaAmatafci (Ccn-dia MVMI or LutifoJiH) anil two of Dtat- 
t* (Avaria longifolia and Erythroxylou HideroxylcutlaH or PinuN tiiHia<), Iwtuiting the one 
added by Monier Williams in hisSamArtt Dictionary* we iinti Uat ih pilUr uiitiur examination 
cannot come within the category of yvpa* w far an ih trw* of whirh it in Jiuwlw m concerned, 
An other words the KirSrI pillar cannot be oimt'.U-ti with uny Mnitiwi 'rifice (paA^ 
anubandha) on the authority of Vllmlki and Patnj*H it leat, " The drwription given in 
toe ^atopoOa BrShma^a is not free from confusion atui if we Cllow ,t , I think, tho Kirar! 
pillar might be connected with the V&japSya ritc. Th Up portion doe* not provide 
a very convenient seat for the householder to occupy at the tini* h h ti> hold a dialogue with 
MB wiie m reference to their mounting to heaven. Still, aa we tatrn from the Jtrakma**,* i 




he thebj wvr" 0nft m% gttiUM tlw l "' <n< ' im l ttu<l wh " JM> 

s Adhyayal,Padal,Ahnikal. 
*I, 14, its. 22 25. 



fivta Tf n?" an V "*!! rem '* *" th " ^'^P ' l* Iwou^ht in ^mr VH/. -1 r^'/,,:ra ( fi 

*Z2 * ; ; ? a<WraiS of /w<Wa ' m o( r ' /ttM ^' "" - { ^**i -! ....... rf w* 

WOU ]d no t wppor, thi. cUvfeion for it make no mention ,rf th -rf.fc,, a v ,. . , ,>* . N follow. 

TOT jnir iifi^ ^f n: ^if^ IWVT , 



1 1 
by th comnintator KAnia /mu JtHtM,uiuu iiAto ti.r* two of 



2, 

*<*, given aWc P " ' *" d f OtBOt "' **"' * Bwn * tt> *****' "/ *^, F- 1. 



WOCWKX 1'SLLAK WITH \ HfUHMf INSCRIPTION PROM KlBARL 
A u>MI'l,KTK, 




s w;TAtt. 




T it u fe* i? . vt ti i*T tl tt . 



OF INDIA* CALCUTTA, 



flo. 10,3 BRAHM1 INSCUIPTION ON A WOODEN PILLAR FROM KIRAEL 155 

some cases he has to ascend a y&pa by a ladder, touch the mortar-shaped top-piece made of wheaten 
dough, rise by the measure of his head over the post and descend after performing certain rites 
Our pillar could nerve such a purpose very welt But here we should remember that Vajapeya 
is one of the .several Bftnm Mcrifire* which kings or Brihma^s have to offer before celebrating 
the RSjawy* and the BrihatpMtoava. Why should a sacrifice select a thing connected with a 
rite which is after ail a minor one aa compared to the principal Fo/Ca and write a large inscription 
on it giving the names of very high officials mteh as this pillar bears ? Jo solve such a question 
satisfactorily one would like to explore the site where the pillar was unearthed and see if any 
vestiges of some other sacrifice or itacritirftn are to be found there, 

The asvooiation of a rrwnrvoir or tank (Htrfcbandh) might suggest this pillar to be an ordinary 
tank-pillar, such as we ee erected in the midat of tanks in the Central Provinces or elsewhere. 
But then, we have to remember that such columns are generally of stone. Besides, there would 
be no reason why auch an important record should be incised on it mostly to remain hidden 
under water* Another likelihood may be that it was a jaja&tmfaha or column of victory, but 
there too, looking at th* position of the personage rswponsible for its setting up and of the officers 
connected with him, it will be quite rwusonabl* to expect a more permanent and dignified 
material than an ordinary 6ty t r* * f which the pillar islrnade. The other alternative would be 
that it was a dhmjmtamfah^ ojr a flagstaff connected with sonrf temple for, that may be made 1 of 
stone or wood* circular* nixtMtt* or eight- sided and shaped Eke a ftum&ta (pot) at the middle or 
at the beginning. Its height varies according to its nature. The emblem (wShma] of the god 
to whom it ii dedicated i to be put cm it together with the banner cloth (dAw/a*pfa), Such an 
assumption would naturally the existence of tome structure close by and until we find 

any traces of it w* are not in a position te* call the pillar a dH^mtm^M* Whether it is a post 
connected with the V&j&ftfytt or similar ritos or a Mwj&itamhka, the fact remains that it is a 
unique find yt made in India. 

The writtof cut thi* pillar vary resemble* that* of the Nlsik cave iwotiptions, 8 Leav- 

ing aside other aymbols the one (or kki is particularly noteworthy. In the two impressions 
reproduced hew thia ii by tJiis Af th while ia the N&ik car* ,iioription$ it k 

to be in the word though in another word* *'* in. IMII&AH^faw, it is 

written in a difltarent tnattmr. Itegarditig tlie 1 am to remark that on palaographic 

grounds the reoord ii to bn to about the iOEd, oentuxy ' oi the Chiistian era- The 

extant portion shows no trace of any in it. It ii ctiety on account of its age that this 
relic of the paat considerable apigraphlqat value for, early Brlhml inscriptions 

are rather wry rare, A an hiatorioal documentp however, one will be sorry to fiud that 
whatever importance it had origittaUy now imitrievably lost with the portion that has peeled 
off. What we may now from th* of the contorts M they we at present i* that the 

imcription muat with mighty rulr of a vey htgh rarak who had a 

well-orgajaiidi atafl of auoh M fcht CJonimwdidir-in-Chief t the Aeeomitant, the 'Treasurer, 

etc, <*t. 

. The IsuBfmg^ in h h Fmkfit, or ot %l* call it wrrupt ' 

Sanskrit pra* it it Hk th* of th* Nliik iorad^feioM allfttod ;to above. 

As to th* oatur* ot ito oonttsit* 1 a to that the aoocd now mostly oonsirts of 

official title* or dwignatira* si tto rf thi indivMimli who mmt have held them. 



I ii^i 
4N 

St t!w # VoL VIII, N*. 1% ffeto V (a. 




BRAHMI INSCRIPTION ON A WOODEN PILLAR FROM KIRARI. 



I 




*.:) 



( From Impressions)* 



BPieBAPMA INDICA. r^ 

:sAKitt/.V"'i- " " 



.;. . '" "~-~~~r 

8 W ., * he designations as are practically certain together with th hamea oV a" few~T" 
incumbents as are still intact ox can be made out ara thear : NgarnrkWi /,.j tv ', j 
pofoe-jnspectors) mmed yirajmlita and Chingohaka ; Stotpati (r m ,, 14l ,,,irr of \nnvi ! 

G^ (accountant) called HSasi, a Niga ; Gthnpttiya (r ^,A, J v -\^r" f thlt! 
(?=%eya^ or ? the king'* elephaafc-driver) ; A*v&r&hi <!,* p ,, r ,, M> ",', 

' 



chariots); M^n^a (kitc^officar), (I. U , ^mpag,, .,, . 
= 



...,. ^perJxfpB.Sliperintcndentofelaphant.):^^,..,..^,,,.,..,.!,,,,,,,,,, 8tt| u i^y ,., . 

now'cast into oblivion but, parhapa, would h*v bel Jrv!l I ? 'I' * *' "*"" ;i 

copies been carefully taken tv u- pr*wrvca tma iiiutgfsphii or mochanici> 

ouC In line 4 of tjke ey e .copy thZT! ""jPf^" 1 r !i th h*ry part wa* dj 

,iaq!s: like ' Sipia(<iha)r5.ja A f 1 tt **"!* wmtm * fter lil " titll? r Mabaiian4nl aa< 
(fMi^); and then comeU^erb wMoh mW^!!!- 1 * /f h * * wora wllioh TO<is ?^^ 

No. 1, 
(PART OF LWB i.j 

TaoRt. 

iit *-Ck[]tagflhka.j:dJnipatid'|va. 

mmun t ho two guair 
...iragflhaka. Tha first 
looki to b of ntmHanakriU origin. Th 



attribute *a a a proper 



~ 




' e ^ ' ' ' 



,; 



jf 0> 19.] BRAHMI INRCRIPriON ON A WOODEN PILLAR PROM KIRABI, '157 

,- - "T"""-^^ 

No, 2. 

OF LINK 2,) 
Txt. 
^^ 

*,--- The firot wore! in certainly which me&ns door-keeper, The second word 

may read wvpatti signifying good foot noldier but _ comparmon with the N&sik cave inscrip- 
tion, referred to above*, would that it ntitst ha read m Khipatti. The conjunct i is partly 
visible in the impreiwion but clear on thw fyc*ropy. What follows mimt be ga$ak&. Had the 
preceding word tmm mipatti mm could taknit, in reference to the /ftV^r/twij/ow (XV. 16), in 
the seme of * an officer whtwtt chitf function in to mimter the infantry or superior foot-soldiers/ 
But I prefer to road the flrnfc aknhnrn khi would take In the of 'accountant*. 

The word that followH, *,*' M iwlii'Kte* th tribe to which Hifaii belonged* HJasi is appar ' 

ently an aboriginal tmn. (9AhnpStiya* I would oonni^ct with the word Garhaj^y and trans- 
late as the keeper of the houwhold or yUrhapdyn fire. 0harikn must have been the name of 
this officer and in pcrhapn n n iipciMrnwAi of yrihilcti(l') iw i ghari^i^ the Pfili form of griMyf* 
The word that follow* in mtainly thi 1 rrjuivalent of Rannkrit bh&$<l8gilnka and means * store* 
keeper', 

Now I glva a traniwript of flip iyt*-fopy, AH far iw I have been abl^ to make it out, for what 
it is worth* or witftw to natrnfy ft nirtoitity. In the faoaimileii the imprewnions of tK^ 
existing portionn of the epigraph anl the whole of the aye-copy ftr reproduced. The papor u0ed 
by the Pandit wiii of a tniill 80 lini could not be brought out ia their Ml length. TaMng 

the entire linen into cxmakforationt the Snwrttitcl portion of the ^ii* meaiur about 8 feet ad tlie 
eye-copy approximately | of the ftiw of the it, The text given below 

follows the order in which Pundit Pra^lc! copied the imoription. 



(Line I) 

. .Qautftvfui(bt)hftthi (dA'iyikama , mi i 

riA or S) 



* . 



tat* (or .btabhi) 



(Line 2.) P[rjiitih[*lr* Kbipatti gHhapitiya 

kSrika, Asldhiii viiililtlttiiliilm dlritltayftkt ptdamillika ratMka' 

sislra khakhimaia (I) butniiEiimkii umhftitanika kuku4abata, 

(LineS.) H&thivuka gclma^cjilika yftnaai8yudhagharilrt 

daliakhOmha (I) pulavi^huia nava(or kha)rad*pa(or ha)diaka 

vftdiK^8avana*hO(l) varharA ami , yinfi (tuntivritto IfihahAmkA p8ta (?) payuta*va (J) 



Kudva (?) 
, , s,, na 



(Line 4.) ti . . . aaliiMma * [Iiti] , Si|lmt[I]ja . . 

. , putami , . . , pijtn(?) . . pavarafbi . . . , kavayu 

]mf]rfl . . , , ijii , 

(line 5.) Bha>ayu (nr ghP f)ni (;ln)|ift . |n(?) {<) . punajVif Jy3 ma 



be 
, tm w, 0ri* la 





(ri{Nnr *1 

1 



(FROM EYE-COPY BY PANDIT LAKSHMT PIUSAD UPADJIVAYA). 



1st line. 



line. 



r\ 




^O 



rK 










4th line. 



3rd line. 









R 



5th lino. 





r 




SCALE ONE-FOURTH 



Three Bralimi fiiHCriptions from 




dfNtthMm^dMMtti 

jaw 





160 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[Voi,. XV 



Inscription No. III. 

The slab beating this inscription was aroured from tho village* of ilaaanab&d close t 
ancient remains of Kosam, It was lying near a well nnd would tippoftr to have been used 
sharpening tools and other utilitarian purpuwm. The slab is tvtumiwi at th top and a porl 
of it is broken off at the bottom. Ita pmwnt dimetwionii ar* li' 10" in height and the same 
width, the thickness being only 3". Only four line* if tho innrriptinn now romiun in the up 
round portion of the stone, bnfc that originally the im-ord novctvd Nonw mow space of the slab 
obvious from the traces of aksharas which have mirvtvwl in th rrt of tho dofnoed surface, 'l 
characters are similar to those of inscription No. II, tike whirh the wv.rd ia composed 
Sanskrit. The only information of any intonwt obtainable from the* inwftripiion is the aaaw 
the ruler which on the analogy of the ruler's nonin in tho prmwliimr epigraph has been read 
MahlrSja ri-Bnadram[gha], It is gratifying to note that in thin inmiription it ia possible 
make out the date with a considerable dqrre* of certainty and it. in th , r >th day of the i 
fortnight of the rainy season in the year 88. The om unfortunately > nut Riven bat if, as se 
likely, it was the Gupta em, tho oomwjpoudiug Ckrutiikn ymr wauld lw 407 A.'D. Tl 
however, is a mere conjecture, givamftgh* ttMutionad in Inrription No. II ami Bhadram[6g] 
of the present inscription presumably belonged to tlio nm dymmty aUiut which we at 
kno.w nothiug more. 

TXX.T. 

1 . . Maharajasya SrI-Bhad*a[Sghaiiy!,] 

2 [Sanivat8a]rS 80^8 varan* pak*ha*8 div 8 

8 fl y a Samaraya(?) puttm Him[i]nganH 

4 



No.21.-TWO OOPPBB-FLATB GEANTS OF KRISHNADKVARAYA. 

Bt rajs UTB T. A. Gon^tix R AO , M,A, TMTA.DMII, AW K. Am-rA RAO, M,A, 
?! ^ouiHHetota rifed below -a^ ngmt uplw lwo wfei of ooppm . vl ^ 9 
Ra%attathftvSmin temple at fcfaHftfui. They are rdlted for fch tat time 
' prepared utidee the aupervlBion of ont of an, 



, ^r . 

record (No. 23 of the Ko^a* >pigm f U*? t Opjw-j^ flbUWfon for 19064 
ixpon three pbAN, which aw tettn *og*tlir on a rt whioh bears a o 
:8f al, ;,,Qj the seal are haped ia half *1M a boar, tl M and fch, moan -the usual Vij 
The first side of the firt plate and the Moond aid** of th* third M left 

iT 8 th t P ! fttflS <Ufemi * ed ' Th * writln * ~^tly ^ry we 
plates are numbered with ft. TWugu-IUaw^ nanwrtl. 1,2 and 3 engrave 

/I t f*' Md B * he flMt 5de Of the ^^ * tWrf PW V*^ 

of me ring-hole* 

t * *J T^. * fl ^^ ! " writte " NandinSgarf, and the fcngoaj 
; , A ^ Y/ ^^^P^ i the word ^-Wr^ltofca, tht rign-numul of tt 
? wntten m the Telugu-Kannada alphabet. Th inscription almost *,! way. employs the am, 
. the nasals have to be used. The t in oonjnnot oooionMti i* ually doubled 




, the wife of 



fc $10 TWO ('OFTER-PLATfe; 



i'S OF KR&SHNADEVA3EUYA. 



1, 2J., &t " ! A r ?vWrfjWw/rrt/ in i *iS, * in a&ftwAft in i .JJljtljo^eoii^j 3 pytijJbol in y? in A.v 
E L40, f i IfingtilgtitfMt in I 41 ami HO ou ; tboise ovm0io&9 ,a 3^ppJiod in ^ 
with an aHttjmk. The rmir</a 1 aim* onutt<Mji in % larye number of iurtau^s wliar jit ip wanted 
and tUeru a^aiw it in jwwtftoil niI!arJ^ iu our trawwript. tb^9 there $fj 

In both tfeo iw<rdH ttif of tUo ^kiiig IB jpiy^ M^ollowf I- 



n, 




liaviiig built H Inndge 

y, tguk ljitt f iripwt)r will ^a 



thw CJ 



liv TippBjjl 



tlw Klvfii% clufcatptl 
tiajdefpi 

i ; the Jord of 

Sy 



um 



^ ri^cnird i 6. wfektii to iby w the pi 

tultvr*i*Mit.hSrt^ft <*f Viiiiviiiiiigiiis* In ttii# ytw* # i^i wiiwli coinoidodl 

with thi UCmiT Itllii in flit mouth w jm day being 

tho king giwili^l itw vjiUngv of ^ly^iktu|j to tUci iirUiumv* A.ll*lA*Bha^tt, Uwguw'llug 
dato tint IJuti'lilii Mr. !* U, *Sw Mjyui^ki^nu PilliPj U^wati BAb^<iuJt\ wriift^^-* 

^M I'W, ItliRvii, WtHliitwIaj, (inilv2tlaAl(ftM in tho month K Srilka y IShaTa? 
Ativhift Sukhi liviiiaiii in xsnlUnl (i5iivftdaH {IniL K^kmwni^ p. XIX) ; but in AXX 
1514-15:- s, !-t!5t), KhHva, Aflviini HtL 12 Ml on Saturday, !JOth Sopttunhop^ 1614, and the 
( Ai WH- Hiiijt,llnii)sii|, "I'luMiay inimtlwl 4 Wii probably Alargafiira Bu. 12, Wedxiooday, 



N'-I <iMr/arfl ciiKinrii Iii r4Ur4lcK9ttsiints A!M* W' moot with it, for h^tanoo, in, 



wiuii iilmMrvnnri^ Uuiro nitt on thin pwrtiottlw rltft</arfl in not known. On tho 

ho fcCf infiuibfilvivAfii^ Iw^iig % tf^W pftic'ticwi of iitii got Vifi|Mt^Ira in 

toanplo at \'ijuyftim^ara (fliitiipi), nt^udiugti|ai the Imnk of tbo the 

hill ffj'iintf*!l t!iii 'nVlliigi* inf KyiinkiKll under the nam of to 

Aliii^llfuAltiK mm if V'iirftcliirjjil^f^ of th* Atrdya flMtp, of ihci |ii^ f r* and ox the 

Yajjttu fa^/iA, win* vni/,1 n nuuit^r in tlitflix w nteinH of pliilcwop'liy. The OLH^IUU vjra \/hiuh thia 



162 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [Vet. XVIII. 



grant was made was the giving of the mdhatana called the Ga-sahatr*. The village granted 
fi ftsid to be situated in the Cholamandala-r^a, that is, that province of the empire which 
was Jmownhy the name of Cholamandala ; the village was in the western portion of the^dm- 
sioB called the TJyyagondadhSlendra-valaiiadTi, which belonged; to the [Tiruv]arur-cMva4i 
oad wau situated in -the Tiromihachohnr-pattu ; the village was situated on the bank of the 
rivttXBvbi'ood was to the east of Karkaktai (?), to the south of the canal NSttSvakk&l, 
to the wast of Pelaitudi (MCelaikkudi) and to the aorth of the river VIrantana;ru. 

It ife not quite patent how a document issued to^ a private person found its wayjnto the 
treasniy of the^ temple of Ranganathasvamin at Srlrangam. Perhaps the donor, a Srlvaish- 
^ava, was a native of Snrangam, and he may have either deposited the copper-plates in the 
temple treasury for safe custody or have presented the village "with its original deed of gift to 
the god Eanganatha. As regards the donee, nothing can be said definitely, as no distinguishing 
family names are affixed to his name; to which of the aeh&ry a-purusKa families he "belonged is 
no* easy to Ascertain, 

At the end of the document it is stated that the composer of the inscription is SabhSpati 
and the engraver Mallanacbarya, tha son of Viranacharya. 

The names of places, etc., which occur in the document are : Uyyagondacholendra-valS* 
nldu, [Trravjarar, Tirumihachchtr, E^akudi, Karkaktai, Pelaikndi and the rivers Kavri, 
VitSutanaja and N"attv5kkaL Of these Uyyagondacholendra-valanadu is the same as 
TTyyakfco^dlacltola-valana^n, an ancient division of the Chflla days, Tiruvarflr is a 'town of 
great importance for the large Siva temple situated in it ; it is in the Negapatam Taluk of 
the Tanjore^ District, Tirumihachchur, same as Tirumlyaeliclitir, a place whose praises are 
sung by the Saiya saints Tiru-Jnanasamhandha and Appar, is situated in the Nannilain Taluk, 
The river KSvM is too well known to need any comment. The NattavSkkal is the same as the 
NitfcSrs which runs through the Nannilam Taluk and the French territory of EaraikkSL 
Tbe river VirSntanaju seems to be the same as the Vlragalagaru, which runs through the 
IfSyavarara Taluk and disembogues south of Tranquebar. We are not able to identify 
Karkaktai (here the reading itself appears to be wrong) and Pelaiku4i (Mglaikkutfi) and 



The portion* of the inscriptions A and B which contain the genealogy of - 

are mtailar to those found in other inscriptions of this king. For instance, vv, 1-28 of A 
.-Miml with those of the Conjeeverara Plates of KyishnadSvaraya edited in Vol. 
XHI, pp. 126*129. Yv. 9-11 found in A are omitted in B. Therefore vv. 1-8 of B agree ^itli 
YJ. 1-8 d A, and vv. 9-24 of B with vv. 12-23 of A. Since the genealogical 'portion of the 
maonptioiis A and B have been printed in the -Epigraphia Indica more than onoe, they are 
omitted in the transcriptB of the texts given below, 



A. 

TEXT. 1 



- v . 
Second Plate : Second Side. 

Mtflr. " 






Srirangam Copper-plate Grant of Krishnadeva-Baya;S.S. 




04 *" 




CM 





10 ID 



No. 21.] TWO COPPER-PLATE GRANTS OF KRISHNAD BVARATA. 163 



66 
67 

68 
69 

70 
71 

72 

73 

74 
75 
76 



o*. 



77 

78 ^'srT^T^^rN ^Tfor Wr^ 5 ff i 



79 [5]iwn[^]% iD 9.^*3 ^^ ^fwr wrm *f?r 

rd PZaie : First Side. 




> Bead ^. 

i Bead *. ^ 

i [ The actual reading on tie plate is TJ'^^. wMch has to be corrected into 3'VTffJ, - Bd -J 

it Read S- "Read. . Readf*. 

Bead 



Bead "fi 



H4t5W. w Hrart ^*. Bead -rf. 



EPIGKAFHIA IffDICA. 



[VOL.. 



nrtwNNrt ifii 




100 



ABSTBACT OP CONTENTS. 

(f v. 25 to 28.) King Kpfehnaxaya ruled tie earth, being seated upon the jewelled 
m atvyayanagara, in &6 glorious a fashion to (the ancieut kinge) Nfiga and others 
grwitlug ample sums of money to mp F lianta throughout the length and breadth of the land, 
from Btte to the Hdm mountain, from the Mountain of the rising Sun to that of the setting 

ottlu 

20-35 ) in the year one thousand f our hundred and thirty-si* the Saka era, 

e m0ntl1 f Kartika ' on a Wednesday, the 
granted ' iD thB P- 8 ^ ce of *'' od Vira- 
dM the Hemaktata hill (at Vijafana.ara), 

^^^^ 1 ^^' to Allalaiha^ta, S on 
0) Apastambaq and Yajug *rt to , wh o was a 'master 



_ 






,. Btad 



166 BPIGBAPHIA DSTDIOA. [ YOL. XVIII. 

The Tillage itself seems to have been situated on the bank of the rivulet called the Unshi river. 
In the Tumil portion the boundaries of Vedamburu-YSkamfoarapuram are given as follows : 
TirtLkalambfir on the east ; Tirukalambtr and VelSngndi on the south-east j Vglangu^i, and 
SSdiriyanalltir on the south: on the south -west Sedirayanalltir and Manavarinallfir ; on the 
west Minavarinallfir ; on -the north-west the same (?) ; on tiie nortt KongarayaneUftr, aud 
tte same on the north-east. It was divided into thirty-two shares and distributed among Brah- 
marias who had different gdtras, sutras and d&khas. The namea of the Brahmanas, however, 
are not given as prooiised. One share each was given to the gods Vishnu aud Siva in the 
village; and the ^ana-engraver Mallanacharya gets, as usual, one share for his work. 

Regarding the date, the Hon'ble Mr.L. IX Swamikkanuu Pillai, C.LE., kindly furnishes us 
with the following note : 

" S. 1450, Sarvajit ; Monday, Utthana-DvadaSl, in the month of Karttika. 

Kirftika Su. 12 is called Utthana-DvadaSl (Itd. Ephemeris, p. XIX}. In A*D. 1527=8 
1450 (current) Sarvajit, Utfchaim-Dvadagl or Karttika Su, ] 2 fell on Monday, 4th November 
A.D. 1527 : the tithi commenced at 19 ghaffhSs after mean sun-rise on Monday and came to end 

-on Tuesday at I5| gJiatiJcSs after mean sun-rise. 11 

^ At the end of the inscription we are told that the composer of the document was SabhS- 
pati, and the engraver Mallaijacbarya, son of 



The following re the names of places, etc., mentioned in the record : Ekambaraparam 
^mbflr or Ve*uabflr, TiravalQr, Snttayalich5da-valanadu, Alangadi, Manavarinaliftr 
numul ' 



, Timkalambudur or Tirukalambiir, Sedirayaoalliir, V^langadi and the rivers' 
dBu.hL Of these Tiravalur has already been identified with the town of that name 
mthe Negapatam Talnk , Suitavalichoda^valanadu, which is one of the clivisiom of the CM a 
^^^"T^ ^rf *? : h<5Se m derD 8pelHng is S^^alli and which is situated 

B. 

TEXT. 1 
[Metre. : T . 25, SrajfflarS j vv. 26-43, ., A,mA t M . T . M , SaUnt.l 






of 

Second Plate : First Side 




21.] TWO COPPER-PLATE GKANTS Of KBISHNADEVAUATA. 105 

its the Six Systems of philosophy and the 8ruta (i.e. the Vedas), who was ever veracious, who 
officriSted &s priest during the Gdsahasra-ma,h$d&na 9 who was pure, praiseworthy, the goddess 
Sarasvatl in m&le form, of good conduct and intelligent and in wisdom like the- teacher Sesha 
(i.e. the serpent AdiSSsha). 

(TV. 36 fo 45f .) The Tillage granted was in the Chojamandafla-^a/j/a, on the south bank 
iff the KivSri. It belonged to the (jurisdiction of the) Arftru-chavadi (TiruvSrur) and was 
in the TirttmthaohoHQru-pattu the western half of 0yyagondach51ndi?a-Talanadu, It was 
situated to the east, of the village of KarJcaktai, to the south of the NSttavSfckSl, to the west 
of the village of Pglaikudi (Melaikkudti ?) and to the north of VlrStttanSru. It was granted 
With the enjoyment of the eight items of proprietorship, such as nidfii, niktiihlpa, etc., as a 
freehold to be enjoyed by the donee and his descendants as long as the Moon and the Sun 
subsist, with the lights of gift, sale, mortgage, etc,, by the illustrious Kyishnad&va-Maharaya, 
who was surrounded (at the time of the gift) by his PurQhitas and a number of BrShmanas 
wall verged in the $vaMta learning*, with pouring of water together with gold. 

(V- 4(1^.) This is the Sasana of king Krishnaraya, -fchose income from land is praised 
by suppliants for munificence, which is equal to that of the tree (Kalpa^iksha) of Indra's 
region. 

(V. 47 1,) The copper-plate document was composed by SabhSpati at the command of 
Elfish nacfeva- M aharaya, 

(^,48^) Mallanacharya, the swn of Virauachgrya, the arfci&Ger, who engraved this 
document on the copper-plates, obtained one share in the gift. 
(Vv. 49f to 51^,) Tlae uaual admonitory versea, 
Line 100, (Siga-noi&mial of the kings of Vijayanagara, the word) 



B. INSCRIPTION OP SAKA-SAMVAT 1450* 

This inscription also is engraved on a aet of three plates, of which the first side of the first 
and the second side of the third plates are left unengraved j the rims of the plates are raised, 
The writing is very well preserved. This set also, like the other set A above, htis a ring and 
seal. The plates are not numbered. 

The alphabet in which the record is engraved is Nandinagari,, and the languages 
Sanskrit and Tamil ; the earlier portion, describing the genealogy, the praises of the donor 
and the donee &&d the village granted, is in the Sanskrit language, while the latter portion 
describing the boundaries, etc., of the village granted, is in Tamil, The sign-manual, $rf- 
VirupSksha, at the end of the document is written m the Telugu-KaunacJa alphabet. The 
orthographical peculiarities of this epigraph are almost the same AS those of the other. 
In addition to those already detailed under A, this inscription introduces visargas in a number 
of places whei^ they a* superfluous, and in these instances they are marked off in the 
transcript by round brackets. The engraver has done his business iu a rather slovenly manner, 
allowing- many omissions and errors to occur in the document. 

The inscription belongs to the reign of Kpishttadeva-MaHftrgya and is dated Saka 1450 
which corresponded to the cyclic year Ssrvajit. In this year^ on a Monday, which was aLio 
fche tTttbana-dvSdafil tifhi in the month of KSrttika, the king made a grant of an agrah&ra to 
a number of Brahmanaa of various gotrat, sutras iwtuJ Vedas, The village granted wt>B 
!Tadatt4bmr*Eksmbarapi:iram---its name being changed into Krtsfc^OTayapiiratn at th 
o\me of the grant. The tillage was situated on the south bank of the river Kaveri in the 
.Tiruvalur-slma of the OhSla-naandala, belonged to the Sattavalicho^a-valanEdu and was 
in the sthala (sub-division) of JLlafigudij it wasbourfdedon the west by ManavarinsUflr, on the 
north by Kongarayanellur, on the east by Tirttkiilaiittbftdtir, and on the south by VStSfegu^L 



. 21.] TWO COPPER-PLATE GRANTS OF KRISHNADEYARAYA. 167 



58 
59 

60 



61 [<lTfw [^riftr*] fofatnflr ^ i srrere 

62 

63 



65 %f^sTOTfr ^^^rrmnrw i 



66 ^ri f^fiii^tiTfiiw 15 iD ^^*] ^^STwrC^T^nFirtet f^fir] 

Second Plate : Second Side. 

67 



68 t^igf^(T)mmffHn f^ftrTT !0 f^m [i*] 

69 

70 



71 4(i4di7 n^Ei *8it ^wr wn * \ 

72 



73 ^TOrfarefgir wr^nrer^Tf^ffrCn*] [11 



1 [The reading is ^15 and must be corrected into ^. 

a Bead 3^ ' 8 ^ad tzyr: 3- * Bead 

* Bead ?(t. 6 Eead *t^f c * 7 

Bead ^t. * Bead t. 10 Bead frj and 

11 Bead ?^5 and *W. Bead WT^W. 

" Bead ^mf ^1* ^T^f ^^^g^llfMlSr, 14 Read IflTrafWl^ as ia 11, 84 and 83 

Bead irrff fiE^g^TTf^^ll. Bead 1*. 1T Bead 

i8 Lines 80 and 82 T^elow read f?TW^**C without the penultimate consonant ? % * 
" Bead trf% and ft?T*tH* ^ * Bead ^hfT f<TOT . 

21 Bead fs^?f ;fi?T [W at the beginning of the line must be changed into ^. EdV} 
11 The anusvara on ^T is merged slightly in the top 'line of the next letter. Bead ^>f t 
Bead TfftrifriT W^ir and lCttWT^[. 
* There ia a dot on ^TT reaembling an anutvftra* ** Bead 



Read fn%*T l ftp* M Etftd 



EPIGH4PHIA ISDICA. [ VOL 



71 
W 

78 r: n[ 



Third Plate : First Side. 

78 % 

79 *m Tarai **is- am-mmm r 



ft- DM fteW 



w wnm^n^r i ***# 

86 

^ 

s 









JNo. 21.] TWO COPPER-PLATE GRANTS OF KBISHNADEVARATA 169 



93 
95 



96 |>f]rwi[:*] ^^WT^TW^^I: i ^m^^rnt^ 6 fsrfrf 

97 ifHwr: it ii C 4*] 



. 

ABSTBACT OP CONTENTS. 
(Verses 26-40.) In the year one thousand four hundred and fifty of the Saka dra, corre- 
sponding to the (cyclic) year Sarvajit, on Monday in. the month Karttika and the Utthana- 
dVSdasi tithi, the king Krishnadeva-Maharsya granted as an agrahara the village of Vadans- 
bUr-Ekambarapiaram to a number o Biahmanas of various gotras^ s&tras, sakhas and of 
different names, who are well versed in the Vedas, fit to receive land-grant and well known* 
The village granted was in the Tiruvalur-sima and belonged to the Chdla-mandala ; it was 
.situated in the Alangudi-sthala in the SuttavaliehSda-valanstdu, on the south of the river 
X&veri. It stood to the east of Manavarinallur, to the south of Kongarayaoelltir, to 
the west of Tirukalambudur and to the north of the village of Velangudi, on the river 
Bushi. The village was divided into thirty-two shares and given to learned Brahmanas fay the 
pouring of water together with gold. One share was given to each of the gods Siva aod Vishnu 
in that village. (The rest of the plate is left nnengraved, perhaps it was meant to filKup the 

names of donees.) . 

[V. 41 states that the boundaries, etc., will be given in the language of the country in 

which the village is situated.] 

(LI. 79-90.) The details of the boundaries, of Krishnarlyapuram alias Vadambtns 

JBkSmbarapuram are : 

On the east the boundary line joins the boundary of Tirukalambur and touches the 

stone bearing the Vamana-mudra, in the middle of Munneru. 
On the south-east the atone bearing the Vamana-mudr& at the point where Tiraka- 

lainbftr and Velangudi join the boundary of Vedambur. % 

On the south the ston* bearing the V$mana-mudra at the point where Yelangudi and 

gediyarayanallur join the boundary of Yedambur. 
At the south-west corner the stone bearing the Yamana-mudra at the meeting point 

where Sediyarayanalhlr and Manavarinallur join the boundary of Vedambur. 
On the west the boundary line joins the boundary of Manavarinallur and touches the 

stone bearing the Vamana-mudrfi* 

At the north-west corner the stone bearing the Vamana-mudra. 
On the north the boundary line joins the boundary of Kongarayarellui and touches the 

stone bearing the Vamana-mudra, ; and .^a 

On the north-east the stone bearing the r*>an- m *dr* at the point w^ere Kongaiaya- 

nellfir meets the "boundary of Vedambur, 



[Vv. 41-43. The usual admonitory verses.] 

[V. 44 states that Sabhapati composed the document at the command of 

. Allots one share to the engraver of the ^a,,, Mallanacharya, son of Tlrani- 



L. 

oharya.] . .. 

CL. 98.) grZ-VirupaksJia, (the gign-mftnoftl j>f the^temg.^ 







Bead W^TI^^W ii Of 

* * Bead "^ 8 Written ia Teliwu-Kaanada a*imuv. Jl ~ 



ir^I,'.:';^ 




170 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [ YQL. XVIIL 

No. 22. INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 
Br LIONEL D. BARRETT. 

The village of Hull, anciently termed Puli, lies in circa long. 75 14', lat. 15 47V about 
five miles east-hy-north of Satmdatti, the chief town of the Parasgad Taluk of the Belgaum 
District. It was formerly a town of considerable importance, and was one of the " Eighteen 
Agraharas " (Dynasties of the Kan. Distr., p. 443n.), as some of its inscriptions testify. I K 
He Archasological Survey of Western India .- Report of the First Season's Operations (1874), 
pp. 12-14, Dr. Burgess has given an account of its' chief architectural remains,- and in 188S 
the late Dr. Meet made a survey of its epigraphic records, as a result of which a number of ink- 
impressions were prepared for him, which are now in the possession of the Trustees of the- 
Bnteh Hneenm.8 Of this collection the texts published below are the most important Their 
provenance is as follows : 

A (a vira-gal), of A.D. 985, from the north of the BhlmSsvara or Andba-kMyara 

temple. 

B (Jain), of A.D. 1044-45 a^d 1145, from the temple of Virabhadra 

C (Vaishnava), of A.D. 1082, from the same temple 

D (of the cult of Harihara), of A.D. 1097, from the same temple. 



I-J (Saiva), from the same temple. 

K (Saiva), from the BhlmSsvara temple 

L (Vaiah.nava) of A-JD. 1162, from the Virakta-matha. ' ' 

M (Ta I ahnav a ), of AD. 1162, from the Agastygsvara temple. 

r&s^^^ . > ~ 

in the Saka ^<^?5S ^^ ^ ih6 WJ*<* of Prabhachandra 



of the 

m the north-east of the village. ThT M T" ^^ near ihe tank > 

^ He 8 on th f .J^ t v^Z e ' W CH tte VillagerS 8eemed i 
in 1882, and was covered bv 7' v ^^ N ' 693 ' Jt - was alr *ady 

"^ 



, vere v v - 

wit hout porch, and contZ ? , "^ gr Wth of P rickl 7 P It ie in the 
temple of lEtoi^ ^ 7 ne at *^ east end and OJ1 e at the 

by 



i* rf ^e, oa tbe ^ch^^^ I-ll i | 1 J2^ w ***% Atoned the labour of making m y 



. 22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 171 

pa, or " Siddhappa of the Tank," stands OB. the eastern side of tke tank marked in Survey 
No. 694, towards the north-east of the village. It is of sandstone, of the Dravidian order, 
-containing a shrine with linga, walled mantapa^ and porch (now in rains). The Virakta- 
mafcha is (or was) a building in the north-eastern part of the village, which served for lodg- 
ing ascetics. 

The Elliot Collection (Royal Asiatic Society's copy) contains transcripts of nine of these 
inscriptions : D. is given in vol. 1, foL 233a, B. ib., foL 284b, E 1 . ib., foL 307a, GL ib., fol: 306b 
H. ib., fol. 412a, I. in vol. 2, fol. 374b, J. ib., foL 374b, K. ib., fol. 375a, and M. ib., foL lla. Ag 
usual, these transcripts leave much to be desired. 

A. OP THE REIGN OP TAILA II : SAKA 907. 

The following inscription is incised npon a black atone which was found to the north of the 
iBhlmSsvara or Andhakesvara temple, on the west bank qf the Akkatangera-bhavi, in Survey 
No. 693. The slab was set in a base, and was 5 ft. 2 in. in height and 2 ft. 1 in. broad. It was 
ja viva-gal, or hero's monument, a-nd in accordance with the usual practice was divided into 
horizontal compartments, four containing sculptures and three writing. Of the sculptures I 
have been unable to obtain particulars. The first compartment of the writing ( about 5f " high) 
contains 11. 1-4, the second (about 3f * high) 11. 5-9, the third (about 2f ' high) 11 10-11 
The inscription is fairly well preserved, and is in good Kanarese script, with letters between |" 
and |" in height. The special form of y noted above, Vol. XII, p. 336, seems to occur in 
bhanfay**, 1. 3. The language is Old Kanarese : 11. 1-4 are in prose, and then come three 
verses. The forms are those of a transitional period: thus we find the short accusative and 
genitive, the locative in -ol (11. 5-8, 10), and the verbal forms irdan (1. 5), ildan (1. 7), 
aandar (1. 4), beside the archaic verbal forms antoran (1. 5) and Mdidon (1. 8). The word eltu& 
apparently the original of the later ettu, seems to occur in bhandiy-eltam, 1. 3. The I i 
not preserved, except in negalda (11. 8-9). 

The record is of the usual type of vtra-gal. It announces that on a certain: date Dadda 
payya, a pergade or official in the service of Sotahanayya, made a raid upon Puli, whereupon 
Kendara Keta, Bjevitta, and Tambada Keta attacked his party, slew the leader, his horse, and 
three of his men, and died the death of heroes. Verses 1-2 (11. 5-9) eulogise Kendara Kfcta; 
the mutilated and obscure verse 3 mentions a certain Kendara Marasimga as dying heroically 
in battle. 

The date of this record is : Saka 907 expired, the cyclic year PSrthiva 5 the full moon of 
Chaitra; Budhavara, or Wednesday (11. 1-2). These details are slightly irregular: the titki 
CJhaitra sukla 15 of the given year corresponded to Monday, 9 March, A,D. 085, on which day 
it ended about 16 h. 47 m. after mean sunrise, and it cannot have been connected with 
*tke Wednesday. 1 

The only place mentioned is Pfili, i.e. Hull (L 2). 

TEXT. 3 

[The metres are : verse 1, MattSbha-vikrtfita \ verse 2, Kanda. The fragmentary verse 3 
may possibly be a DvipadaJ] 
\ @ Svasti [ |* ] Sa(sa)ka-n^pa-ka}-atlta-sariivatsayamga 3 907neya ParttMva- 

samvatsarada 

2 Chaitrada puij^ame Budhavaradandu Sobhanayyaaa pergga<Je DaddapayyaA 
I'uliya, po~ 

i I am indebted to Mr, E. Sewell for the verification of my calculations oi" this and the other dates in the 
vp resent paper. 

* From the ink-impreaaiou. * AW>*eYis.ted for samvatmra-fataih^L . 

T 2 



172 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VoL, XVIll. 

tf lada bha^diy^-eltam &emman=akaranaiii konchi p$ge Kendara Ketanum Ejevit- 
tanum Tambada 

4t Ketamiiii parichche(chchhe)dam-geyda m5.rarum mel-aluzn kudureyuma^*], 
kondu rndkshakke saaidar [||*] 

o Duradol=kaydu kadamgi pomgi maled=5r-ant-irclan=eytanda 2 maclicliaradind 
antoranAnta- 

6 kamg=idadl[e*] kol-claand=ik ki mikk*I vasun [dh] areyol=tan[n] =aclaturii patapamum^ 

ad=a raj-Ottamam pe[r]chchi 8 

7 Kendara Keta[rii*] Tara-VSsav-a[m*]gaiieyaro| k0d-ijdan-a svarggadoi || [1*] 

Tddum bidum=ad=uduga- 

8 de pa4ajid=echch=aji-rashgadol vajiya[n] =alk-a4i sur-5 [m*] ganeyarolam kficlidon* 

em kaliye nega- 

9 Ida Ken[dara Ketam ||] [2*] 

10 Si[m]gamibliari)galarii nuguY=ante 4 tara 8 . . gi sarhgadol kalida Kendara 



11 gaaii me ...... m gandan=adatan5 |j [3*] 

TEANSLATIOK", 

(Lines 1-4.) Hail ! On Wednesday, the full-moon clay of Ohaitra of the 907th (year) of 
centiiries elapsed from the time of the Saka kiBg 9 the cyclic year Parthiva, when 
Bobhanayya's officer Daddapayya without right or reason was carrying away the cart-oxen(P) 
of the fields of Pali, Kendara Keta and Eyevitta and Tambada Keta, sla-ying the three men 
forming the division, the leader, and his horse, attained salvation. 

( v erse 1.) He stood worthily fighting in the fray, burning, striving, boiling : when > 
advancing, 6 with indignation he despatched his adversaries to the Death-god, exercising the 
opporturnty for slaughter (?), Ms prowess and majesty were extraordinary on this earth; and 
this noble prince becoming great, Kendara Kta was united in paradise to Indra's goodly 
damsels* 

(T. 2.) Shooting on the stage of battle Ms arrows with understanding of the right 
manner, so that the fitting (of the shafts on tlie iQiv-siring*) and their discharge did not slacken } 
wiien lie was exhausted he espoused the celestial ladies : what a hero is the illustrious Kendara 
Keta ! 

(V. 3,) As a lion crushes elephants . . Kendara Marasimga, who passed away 
in battle . . . what a man of valour and spirit ! 

B.OP THE BEiaNS OP SOMESVABA I AND JAG-ADEKAMALLA II: 

SAKA 966 AND 1087. 

This record is carved on a "black stone set upright in the ground against the outside of the 
western face of the Vlrabhadra temple (see above). The stone when found was* 4 ft. 7 in, 
high and 1 ft. 8 in. wide. The upper coiopartment, which was rounded on the top, contained 
sculptures, m$ n in the centre, a squatting Jina facing to the front, with a cow and calf on the 
proper right and a scimitar on the left, while above these was the sun (to left) and moon. 
(to right). The iuscribed area below this is 3 ft. 1 in, high and 1 ft. 7| in, wide. The 
character is Old Kanarese, the average height of the letters in 11. 1-2 being from T \ in. to f in., 

1 The y is uncertain. * Perliaps to be corrected to 

8 For percficfoJ 4 The e is not quite 

6 The t is somewhat uncertain : it is written very small, below tlie HBO. 
fl Beading e^fandu for the eyian&a of tbe stone, 



No. 22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HUM, 173 

and in 1, 3 from T ^ in. to f in., after wliiclh. it increases gradually to "between J in. to in. 
It is a fairly good type of tiie script used in the middle of the 12th century A.D. (see below). 
The language is throughout Old Kanarese, verse and prose, with the exception of the introduc- 
tory Sanskrit verse. The I is not preserved: instead we findTJ in elgeyam (I 12), pogalut* 
(L 13), podalda (1. 16), ndlke (1. 16), pelu (1. 20), pel (1. 54), and on the other hand r in erdda 
(1. 6) and negardda (11. 12, 18). On the instrumental artthiye (L 14) see above, Vol. XIV, p-27, 
n. 9. Of some lexical interest are the words chatta-samaya (1. 9), (?)ayavana (1, 9), Urtikad** 
amka~p"ala"ka (1. 14), and adda-chinna (11. 35, 49). 

The record is a double one, .containing two endowments, the first of which is dated in Saka 
966 and the second in Saka 1067. It was actually written in its present form in the latter year, 
as is proved by the absence of comminatory formulae and the character of the script. The first 
part refers itself to the reign of Ahavamalla (S5msvara I) in 11. 3-5, and then proceeds to 
celebrate in verse his feudatory Kaladiya Bolagadi (or Bodsgadi), the governor of a Maety- 
six district, w T hose son Payimma married Hammikabbe and by her had two daughters, 
Bhagenabbe and Lachchal or LachcMyabbe. Lachchale married a governor of the Kundi 
Three-thousand, and was a generous benefactress of religion (11. 5-15), After some verses in 
praise of Puli and the thousand Brahman burgesses of that town (11. 15-20) comes a prose 
statement that these burgesses sold to Lachchiyabbe an estate, on which she constructed a Jain 
sanctuary, assigning certain lands for the maintenance thereof, and appointing as trustee 
Balachandra-Bhattarakadeva (11. 20-37). Then begins the second document (11. 37-54), 
which announces that in the reign of Jagadekamalla (II) a local pergade named ISTemana or 
Wemayya, having purchased some land from the burgesses of Puli, made a farther endowment to 
the same sanctuary for the maintenance of the ascetics residing in it, th.e trustee being a certain 
Rsmacliandrad&va. This Nemana was a great-grandson of the above-mentioned Lachchiyabbe, 
Ids pedigree being as follows : 

LacheMyabbe 



Dema[naP] m. Bhagiyabbe Psyimma 

I 



Kalideva Nemana 

The document then ends somewhat abruptly, without any concluding formulae 
This record, being twofold, contains two dates. The first is given on 11. 20-22 as : Saka 
966 expired, the cyclic year Tarana, Pushya Suddha 10, Adivara (Sunday), the uttarayana* 
samkranti. These f details have been recently examined by Mr. A. Venkatasubbiah in Swne $aka, 
Dates in Inscriptions, p. 129, who remarks as follows : " Tarana by the northern hrai-solar 
system=. 966=A.D. 1042. In this year, su. 10 of the lunar month Pushya ended at 44 gK 21 jp. 
after mean sunrise on 24th December, on which day, the Makara-sankranti occurred at 14 gK. 
38 jp* after meap. sunrise according to the SQrya- Siddhanta. The week-day however was Friday 
and not Sunday. In the solar month Pushya, i.e. Makara or Tai, [Magha-jSu. 10 ended at 11 gh. 
86 jp. after mean sunrise on Sunday, 23rd January, A.D. 1043. The [Kumbha-] sankr&iiti, which 
occurred at 41 gh. 32 p. (S.S.) after mean sunrise on the preceding Saturday, fell, i.e. was observed, 
on this Sunday. This day, therefore, Sunday, 23rd January, A.D. 1043 is the 
equivalent of the given date." 1 



" Kialhorn in Ms List of Southern Inscription* (abore, Vol. VII, App., No. 169) gives' as tt> 

Sunday 23 Uecemner, A.D. 1044. [But the HtU ought to be the first and not the 10th; wt Ind Ant. Vol. XJLIV, 

p. 6, No. lia JSd/j. 



174 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [V0L, XVIII, 

The eco-ad date is given on 11. 40-41 as : Saka 1067 (expired), the cyclic year Krfldhana, 
the uttar&yawa-saihkrfinti. Naturally this cannot be verified The samkr&nti took place 20 fa. 
45 m. after mean sunrise on Monday, 24 December, AD. 1145, and 1 Makara was accordingly 
reckoned as corresponding to -Tuesday, 25 December. 

The places mentioned, besides Pali, are Kuadi (1, 14), the Belvala-nSdu (L 16), Siveyageri 
{11. 34, 47), Kalasavalligeri (1. 48), and a nameless Ninety-six district (L 6). For Belvala 
see afore,- Vot XIII, p. 40. On the ZiincLi Three-thousand see LA., Vol. XXIX, p. 278. The 
other places I am unable to identify. Kala^avalligpri was a parish (keri) in Pub', 

TEXT. 1 

, [The metres are as follows : verse 1, Anushtubh j verses 2, 3, and 8, Sanda j verse 
4, Utpala-mala ; verses 5 and 6 3 6hampaka~mal$ \ verses 7 and 9, Mattebha-vi'krZtfita.'] 

- 1 '() Srtmat-paranc^ [I*] 

traild- 

2 kya-nathasya Sasanam Jina-Sasanam || [1*] 

3 ^ Svasti [I*] Samasta-bhuvan-asraya Srl-Prithvl-vallabha maharajadhiraja 

paramabhattara- 

4 kaih SatySsraya-kula-tiJakam Ch|.-uky-lbharanam rlmad-5,h,avamallad,Svawt 

vijaya-rajya- 

5 m*utter-6ttar-abMvpid^ saltittam=ire II 

Tat-pada-padm-<5pa]Ivi || Mgl-e- 

-6 rdda 3 pagevaram nirmmQli(H)si jasamara nimirchchi dig-bhitti-varam , K51a4iya 
B6|agadi 3 tale 4 pali(K)sidam Toinbat-S- 

7 jfumam bhuja-baladim || [2*] A.tana putram vinay-OpStam PSyimmma-nri(nri)patigB 

oppuva sati 

8 vikhyati-yute Hammifeabbege Sitege sari Bhigenabbe Iiachchaley*ogedar U 

[8*] Ishta^ja- 

9 aakke cliatta-samayakke mahajana-bh{5janakkey^ntkri(kri)shta-"tapara(dha)narggey-* 

alid=ayava-; 

10 nakke sa-karhnyak-S,lik-a(a)gnishtageg*eyde nalkn-samayakk=anuragade begav 5 *iiii- 

11 tu samtushtate -Laolio]aiyabbarasig==arssati(ri)yar=ssa-char-achar-5rvviyolt6 j| [4*] 

12 Sakala-dliaritriyol*negardda(lda) vamdi-janam sale rGpin=Slgeyaih prakatate-vefcta d&- 

13 na-gnnamam kalad-umnatiyam Jin-imghrigalg=akiitila-cMttamam pogalut-i[rjppn- 

14 du Kftrndiy 8 - 6 liiiakadamba-'palakana kul-5ttam-amganeyanartthiye LachchaladSvi. 

yam 

15 j&gaiix [ Q( 5*] (t>^ Sa^aJiidhi-mekhal-avri(vn)ta-vasumdharey*eihba vilasinl-mukli- 

5mburahava(da)vOl=vir5]i- 

16 say*: Belvfela-nalke(lge) podalda sabieg=agaram=eni[s-i]rppa P51i tilak-akri(kyi)- 

tiyimd*esed-irppiid5 pnram sura-pu- 

17 ramam Kub^ran*Alakapuramam nagugum vilSsadim ^f [ 6*] Alii || Sakala- 

vyakaran-arttha-Sa- 

18 stra-chayadolw kavyamgalok saiiida natakadolu var^na-kavitvadol^negarddadds) 

vgdamtamgaloltt 

19 plraia*[rt]tli[ika]dolw lanki[ka]dok samasta-kaleyolw Tnglsanimdam ya5-dhi- 



l .From the Ink-impression. 2 t -^ 

* Or posaifcly 
It loots like &i on tbe plate Id,] 



Huli Stone Inscription of the reigns of Somesvara I and 
Jagadekamalla II : Saka 966 and 1067. 




10 

12 

14 
16 
18 
20 
22 
24 
26 
28 
30 
32 

34 
36 

33 

40 
42 

44 
46 
48 
SO 
52 



W. THOMAS 



No. 22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 17& 



20 kar^adaor^ppogalvanig^ar^alave pl sSsirvvara khyStiyam || [7*j Svasti Saka- 

nri(riri j pa-kS J- atfta-sam yatsara* 

21 aatamgaju 966neya Tarana-samvatsara'da * Pusya-sudhdha 1 10 Adiyiiam* 

a(u)ttarayana- 

22 samkrantiyamdu \\ Yajana-yajana-adhyayan-adkyapauanla^^^ 

niratainim ri~ 

23 [ma]ck-Chlukya-chakravai^ pitri-pitamaha - mahim-as- 

pada-raklislian-a- 

24 rttha-kftvidarum vidagdha-kavi-gamak [i*] - vadi-vagmitvarura=atitliiy-abliyagata-YiSislitft- 

25 iana-pxijana-priyaruiii Hiranyagarbhbha-Brahma-miik3iakamala-viiiirggata-^^ 

26 g- Sam- Attain vanarsamasta^ (sniri)ti-pii- 

rana- 

27 kSrvya-nat-aka-dtarmm-againarpravi ?iaru m sapta-soma-sanasth- avabh.Fit(tli) -aTagahana- 

pavitrlkri(kri)- < 

28 ta-satrarum kamcbana-ka[la]a-sita-shat)-chkatra-ch5marapamoha-m 

bkeri-rava-iii" 

29 nam (na ) ditarum=asri [ta-jana] -kalpai- vri (TF i ) ksharum*abita-Kalamtakainimeka- vakyarum 

30 sara^L-Sgata-vajra-pa [rii] ja [rarnm cha] tus-samaya-samadhdliaranarrLm 



31 labdha-vara-pras&darum-appa srlman-mali-agraliaram Paliy*fir-odeya-pr^mn- 

32 kka sasiiTvar-mmahSjaiiaihgala divya-^ri-pada-padmamgalam [Iiajohchiyabbarasiyarii 



sa- 



33 Mra^ya-pnrvvakam=aradhisi bhumiyam pa^edix basadiyam maijUsi kliam- 

34 da-sphu [ti] ta- jirp 5L-<5dhdlxaranakke paduva^a poladalu Sivey agdriy=aju-matfcar-vya- 

35 sugeyam ma[t]tariihg-adda-chmna4ekkadimd=aru-vai3iainaih mQyu pa^amam tett* 

umb^am- 

36 tagi Srl-Yapanlya-samghada Punnagavri(vri)ksha-mala-gaiiada grl-B&lachariidra-Bha 

37 ttarakadevara kalani karclxcH blttalu ]| @ Svasti [ 1 ] Samasta-bhuvaa-SSraya 

rl-Pri(pri)thvI-Yallablia malia- 

38 rajadkiraja parame^vara paramabhattarakam Satyasraya-kula-tilakam ChSJuky- 

abliaranam 

39 irimat-pratapa-cliakri(kra)yartti Jagad^kamallad6vara vijaya-rajyamTittar-atta- 

40 r-abhivri(vri)dMh^ saluttam*ire [|*] 

Saka-va- 

41 rstia 1067neya Krodhana-samvatsarad*uttarayana-satiikrintiyamdliu(dtL) yama- 

ni- 
4 2 yama-sradliyaya-dhyaiia' dharaD a-m5 (mau)n-amisli^S^a(na)- japa-samadH-Slte,- 

sa tii pa rinmar*appa 

43 Srlma[>] -mali-agraliararii PQliyni^odeya-pramukha sasirvYar=mmahajanamga[la] 

44 divya^ri^pada^padmamgalam perggade Nema^am sa^Mra^ya-parvvakam-aradhiai 

[dlia]- 

45 [ra]-pnrvvakam mKdisi kom[4u] tamma mu[t*]tavve Lachohiyabbarasiyaro 

inadisida basa- 

46 diyalirppa ri(ii)sliiyaralxara-dana^mmittam*alliy*acliaryyara Bamaohamdra* 

47 devara kalam karohohiy-avarp, muimav5luva paciava^a polada Siveyagfiriy^ 



1 Bead 



176 BPIGBAPHIA IJSTDICA. [VOL. XYIIL 

48 r*vrasTigeyim padu[va]na [bh,a]gadalu Kalasavalliyageriya 1 stha[na]d*olag=3ru mattar* 

kkeyyarix 

49 mat[t*]arljmg=adda-chinna-l[ekkadiind=aria]-vanamam muru panamam tett=umb*amt* 

agi bittern || 

50 Pati-Wiakte Dhe(Be)ma . . * sati Pa;yinxmarasan=agrfi-sute sakala-jana-stute 

Bhs- 

51 giyabbe-ranige sut . . , . , md=l [MFema]yyan=aiiclaryya-"giinaiii J [ 8*] 

Jina-dgvarii tanag=aptan=a- 

52 [rttM]-janata-kalpa-drama[m vy ]yyane tamra=ayyan=anuna-dani Ealidevarib. 

s-akshar-a- 

53 grgsaram tanagannam guna-ratna-bliujslianan=e[ ] samd-irda N"emamg*enalk- 

anavady-acha [ranam] - 

54 ge btn-yale(la)yadolw pel [ w w ] || [9*] 

TRANSLATION, 

(Verse 1.) Victorious be the teaching of the Lord of the Three Worlds, enjoined by the 
Ji&as, wliich bears the infallible token of the blessed and supremely profound doctrine of alter- 
natives ! 

(Lines 3-5.) When the victorious reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole world, 
favourite of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of 
Satyasraya*s race, embellishment of the CMlukyas, king Ahavamalla, was advancing in a 
course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sun, and stars : 

(L* 5.) One who finds his sustenance at his lotus-feet 

(V. 2.) Uprooting High-rising foes, spreading abroad his fame as far as the walls of the sky- 
quarters, Kaladiya Bol^adi perfectly (?) protected the JSTmety-six by the might of bis arm. 

(V. 3.) To the renowned Hamr^ikabbe, the distinguished wife of his son the cultured 
prince PSyimma, a peer of Sita, wer^ bom BMgenabbe and Lacheliale. 

(V. 4.) In the chatia-samaya? of agreeable persons, in the feeding of Brahman house- 
holders, IB (the supply of) measured spoons 3 to distinguished ascetics, in {furnishing) fire-places 
with rows of maidens, indeed, the four churches 4 straightway were delighted with affection : 
who are equal to LachcMyabbarasi on the earth with its stock of living and lifeless things ? 

(V. 5.) While illustrious eulogists are active over the whole earth, the world with joy 
praises for excellence of beauty, eminent generosity, distinction of race, and sincere devotion to 
the Jinas* feet LaehchaiadeYl, the exceedingly high-born wife of the Umkad^arhka-pala'ka of 
Kftndi.* 

1 Read JZalafavallifferiya, 

2 TMs phrase is obscure. It seems most probaMe that chatta is to be taken as a derivative of Sanskrit $%at (cf . 
Tamil tott&-v&rggam). Six s&maya* (schools of religion or philosophy) are of ten mentioned. The Saivaa recog-> 
iiiae as orthodox the Bhairava, Varna, Kalamnklia, Mahavrata, Pasapata, and Saiva samayas, and as unorthodox 
the Lokayatas, Buddhists, Jains, Mimamsakas, Pancharatras, and Bhattacliaryas. Another group is : Buddhists, 
Jains, Bhairavas, Kallinnkhas,, Lokayafcas, and Sftnyavadins. Six Vaidic samayas are recognised, mz. Saiva, 
TowhwaTO, Sakta, Saara, Ganapata, and Kaumara ; and there are six Vedantic samayas, viz. Kapila, Kanada, 
Fatawfala, Akshapada or Nyaya, Vaiyfisa, and Jaiminlya. The Vaishnavas admit 6 samayas as orthodox, tns. 
those of Sankara, Yadava Hisra, Bamanuja, Madhva, Bhaskara, and Hiranyagarbha 

8 The reading here is certain, but the division and sense are not. J[yavana is a rare Atharva-vedic word 
eiplftined as t stirring-spoon " ; but here it seems to have another meaning. 

4 The four tamaya* are the Mahesvaras, Vaislmavas, Buddhists, and Jains. 

* I can only conjecture that limJea is connected with lem%a t "servant," and that aihfca is used in the snie 
of * wftr, 1 ' ef. amtoaMfa) ; the phraae would then mean something like " Commander of the military forces of 
*' [Se foot-note 6. p. 174, above Ed.] 



No. 22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 177 

(V. 6.) Pfili, which is indeed a site of conspicuous charm, appears with, the aspect of a 
beauty-spot upon the county of Belyaia s which is radiant like the lotus-face of that fair lady the 
ocean-girdled earth. This town by its bright appearance laughs to scorn the city of the G-ods 
and KubSra's city of Alaka. 

(L 17.) In this (town) 

(V. 7.) In the series of all grammars and treatises on economic science, in poems, In 
goodly drama, in panegyric poetry, in the illustrious Upanishads, in transcendental and secular 
lore, in all arts, they have become superior in glory to the Lord of Speech [Brahman] : say, who 
are equal to praising the renown of the Thousand ? 

(LL 20-22.) Hail ! on Sunday, the occasion of the uttarftyana-saMr&nti, being the 10th 
of the bright fortnight of Push ya in the cyclic year Tar ana, the 968th of the centuries 
elapsed since the time of the Saka king : 

(LI. 22-23.) Lachchiyabbarasi, having adored with (offering of) gold the divinely 
blest lotus-feet of the Thousand Mahajanas, headed by the mayor, of the great Agrahara of Pfili, 
who are constant in the six duties of sacrifice by themselves and by others, study, teaching, alms- 
giving, and acceptance (of charity), 1 skilful for the purpose of maintaining the rank of honour 
of father and grandfather at the establishment of the CMlukya Emperor's Brahmapurl^ accom- 
plished as wits, poets, reciters, disputants, and rhetoricians, fond of serving guests, visitors. 
and men of culture, versed in all the Vgdas, the Rik, Tajus, Sama, and Atharvana, which have 
issued from the- lotus-mouth of Hiranyagarbha-Brahman, and in the Vedangas, the subsidiary 
sciences, all books of teaching, the eighteen sacred law-books and Puranas, poems, dzamas, and 
traditional rules of religion ; whose bodies are purified by plunging in the baths of the seven 
sdma-samstJiasP ; who are (honoured) with golden pitchers, six white parasols, and yak-tail fans 
and saluted with the five great musical sounds, gongs, and drums ; who are trees of desire to 
clients, Kalantakas to adversaries, uniform of speech, adamant chambers to refuge-seekers, 
restorers of the four churches, 4 and recipients of the grace of boons from the god KeSavaditya, 

(LL 33-37.) and having obtained (from them) land and constructed a sanctuary, laved 
the feet of Balachandra-Bhattarakadeva, of the Pun*aagavriksha MfUa-G-ana in the Tapaniya- 
Samgha, and granted for the restoration of broken, burst, and outworn (buildings) six matiar of 
v&mge* at' Siveyag^ri in the western field, to be enjoyed on payment of an aru-vana 6 of three 
panas, at the rate of half a gold piece on each mattar. 

(LL 37-40.) When the victorious reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole world, 
favourite of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of 
Satyssraya's race, embellishment of the Chalukyas, the august Emperor Jagadekamalladera, 
was advancing in a course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sttn, 
and stars : 

(LI 40-41.) on the occasion of the uttarayana-sartikr&nti in the Saka year 1067, the 
cyclic year Srddhana, 

(Lines 41-49.) the sheriff NSmana, having adored with (offering of) gold the divinely blest 
lotus-feet of the thousand Mahajanas, headed by the mayor, of the great Agrah&ra of Puli, who - 
practise the major and minor disciplines, scriptural study, spiritual concentration, observance of 

See Manu i. 88, 

A quarter for the residence of Brahmasjs in connection with a temple. 
These rites are enumerated in JSJp. Cam., Vol. VII* i. Sk, 74. 
See above* on v. 4 of this inscription. 
See Kitfcel, s* v. lasige, and above, Vol. XlII p. 37. 

Tha a%w~vaqa is A quit-rent for tenancy of land in connect on with a religion^ establishment j here .it 
amounted to | pana per mat far, in all amounting to 



178 EPIGRAPHIA* INDICA. [Vox,.. XVIIL 

the vow of silence, prayer, and absorption, and having arranged for purchase "with pouring of 
water, for the purpose of furnishing food for the ?ishis resident in the sanctuary constructed by 
his great-grandmother LackeMyabbaarasi, laved the feet of Kamachandradeva and granted 
six mattar of meadow in the grounds of Kalasavalligeri, in the part west of the six mattar of 
vasuge in Siveyageri in the western field formerly under his seigniorage, to be enjoyed on 
payment of an aru-vana, of three p&nas, at the rate of half a gold piece per mattar. 

(V. 8.) This Nemayya* illustrious in virtues, is ... son of the universally 
praised Bhggiyatobe-rani, the chaste wife of Dema . . . and elder sister of Payimma- 
rasa. 

(V. 9.) As the Lord Jina is his friend, that tree of desire to the needy . . his 
father, Kalideva the unstintingly bountiful and foremost among men of letters his elder brother, 
say, [who is equal] to Nema, who is adorned by the jewels of virtue , . . and is blameless 
of conduct, on the circling earth. ? 

0. OE THE REIGN OP VIERAMADITYA VI: THE 7TH TEAR. 

This inscription is on a black stone built into the western wall inside the temple of 
Vlrabhadra, at its north-western comer. The stone itself was 4 ft. 11 in. high and 2 ft..2| in. 
broad. On the upper compartment, which was rounded, were the following sculptures : 
in the centre a standing figure of Vishnu, facing full front ; to the proper right of this, a 
kneeling Garu4a, facing half towards Vishnu and half towards the front ; to the left of 
Vishnu, a cow with calf; above these, the sun (on left) and moon (on right). There may 
hare been some other derails concealed under the coating of chunam upon the stone. Under 
this is the inscribed area, 3 ft. 3 in. high and 2 ft, 2|in. wide. The character is Kanarese 
of the period, a fine ornamental hand with a tendency towards flourishes. The letters, which 
are generally well preserved, are from f in. to T \ in, high. -The language, with the exception 
of the formal Sanskrit verses 1, 12, and 13, is Old Kanarese, Initial p is preserved. Tie 
archaic Z remains in negaUar (1. 22) and negalda, (L 23), where the vowel before it is metrically 
short ; on this point I may refer to my observations above, Vol. XIII, p. 327. On the other 
hamd^is changed to Z in alidamge (L 15), bilgum (I 17), ISlpadav* (1. 26). The doubled 
in SJ&ndillya, for Sinijilya, (I. 21), is worth" notice : cf. Paiini VIII. iv. 47, Siddh$nta~ 
kaumwdt 48, 

The record, after referring itself in 11, 2-5 to the reign of TribhuvanamaUa 
(Vikramlditya VI), gives in 1L 5-11 details of an endowment, consisting of certain land*, 
which were purchased by Kisuv&yara Bavikimayya-WSyaka, a distinguished member of 
the Huixlred Brahman burgesses of Raviyanegeri (a subdivision of the Thousand burgeases 
of Pftli), for the upkeep of a temple of Vishnu which he had built. After some hortatory 
matter in prose (1L 11-14) md verse (11. 1547) the author proceeds to celebrate in verse 
Bejvala, Pflli, the Thousand Brahmans of Pftli, the Hundred of Raviyanaggri forming a part 
of them, the family of the donor, and the latter personally (11.17-30). The pedigree ia as 
follows : 

Dem&ya, of the &t ^Uilya gotra, 
Gommiraayya 



I j 1 

Bavikimayya TIkanSrya K&Sava 

The date of tbii record is given on 11 4-5 as : the 7th year of the Ch&lukya- Vilrraina 

era, the cycHc year Dundubhi ; the uttarSyana^aihkr^U. The *a*fcran*t' in question 



22.] INSCRIPTIONS OP HULI, 



occurred on Sunday, 25 December, A JX 1O82, at 18 h. 38 m. after mean sunrise and 1 
was accordingly reckoned as corresponding to -the following Monday; * 

The places mentioned, besides Ptli and tke tMhas in 1. 15, are BaviysnaaSri fl 
the Belvala^niSdn (L 17), Bhattara-kola or ' The Btattas* Lake - (1 11) 
or The Stonemasons' Tank ' (1. 11). OnBelvala see above, VoLXIII, p. 40. 
seem to have been in or about Pfili, and can no longer be traced ; Baviyanaffgri was 
(Ikeri, literally 4i street ") of PtlK, as will appear below, 



TEXT, 1 



[The metres are as follows : verses 1, 13, AnusUulti ; verse 2, Ma,ttb'ha-vikrl4it ; verses 
3-9, 11, Kanda ; verse 10, Champaka-mala ; verse 12, 




Svasti [I*] Jayaty=avishkrltam Vishn5rwaraham kshdbhit-arnmavam [[*] 
dakshinOi3oiata-damshtir-agra-visramta'bhuvanam ^apn [h*] [1*1 
2 p *(ffl^ Svasti [I*] Samasta-bhuvan-aSraya Srl-PpthvI-vallabha 




parameSvara paramabhattarakam SatyS- 

3 sraya-kula-tilakam Chaluky-abharanam rimat-T|i(Tri)bliUvanaiiialladevra vijaya- 

rijyam^nttar-ottar-abhi- 

4 vriddhi-prav^rddhamananj^a-chamdr-arkka-tai^ir saluttamire [I *] rlmach- 

ChSj.nkya--"V r ikrajDaa-varsTiada Tneya 

5 DumndiibM-eamvatsarad*uttarayana*samkra | Svasti [| *] Yama-niyama,- 

svadhyaya-dliya- 

6 na-dJxaTOna~m5(mau)ra-anushtha^ Mmad- 

agraliaram. Ptlli- 

7 y$r-odeya-prannikha sasirwartim ^ri-Kisuvayara 

luadisi- 

8 da Srl-Narayana-dvargge dharmm-abMvriddM-nimitta[m d*va]ra jlrn 

kha^da-spltTLtitakkam snina- 

~9 gandha-dhftpa-dlpa-mvdyakkamv=^mga-bliOgakkaiii satrakkam Baviyao^lriym 

nfbrwara kayyol Ravikima- 

10 yya-ixyakam dravya-pnrvvakadim dhira-ptrvvakam ma$is kondu S 

dgvargge Biatta- 

11 rakoladaUi bifct^ mattar*ayu Kalkutigageyeyalli paralm matfcaroiiia 

dharm.nGiaiQ.aiii sarwa~nanaa.- 

12 Sya(sya)magi sasirwarum pratipSlisuvarIdaiii pratip&lisidargge 



13 PraySge Gayey-emba t!rt*ha-sthSnamgalol*mahS-dftnamg 

akknm*iifatappudanayidn sa- 
14j sirwamm dharmm-Mrfiax^ttai>IbU^ 

pratipalisuvar [| Vyitta |( g) 

1 From fchiBVhnpTssion. 



180 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. (Tot. 

15 fjjfy Ivan=*iy=amdadin=eyd palisidavamgsislit-arttlia-samsiddhi sambhaviknm 

ko:$==alidamge &amge Graye Kh(Ke)d5rarii Kara- X 

16 ksliStrameihbivarol=pesade parvvaram goravarain g<5-byimdamaiii pe^diraiii tave 

komd=ikkida 



17 Yam telgnxh zng5daihgalol | [2*] Q Ambudhi^rita-dliaranig^ vadanam 

BelTaia-nad(dl) 3S! adarkke tliakada vSl^chelvaiaa-biruva Pu- 

18 li-grimam btidha-jaiia-nilayain^eiiipiid^a puravaradol || [3*] Amita-gun-anvita- 



19 rtteimrss5isirv"V-ar=yyama-aiyama-svadhyaya-pramukh-ach |[ 

[4*] Avarolage veda-^S- 

20 stm-pravai^rsliati-karmma-mi^terenip=UBiiatiyii^ Baviyanageriya nfirvvar* 

bhbi uvaBadol-ativisada-klrttiyam 

2) prakafcisidar \\ [5*] Alii || Sha(Sa)B4illya-g5tra Tanarulia-clia^4akara[m !|e l 



22 sida peihpoia-kond[-ire Demaya-panariigiyar^ssale negaldar |j [6*] Avar* 



23 tta-bandliaYam Manu-ctaritam dhavala-yafo-nMMyexie pempu-vadeda- jagad=olage 

m negajlda || [7*] 




24 CiQ^ Tat-tanujStam M-Pnni^^ttama-pada^kamala-yugala-bhfiiiigam dliarmm* 



Matta*manam vibhu sakala-jaga- 

26 irtilakam Bavikimayyar^maja-cliaritra [j [8*] Tad-annjar~agSsha-viWmv.. 
aspadlia(da)r= : islita-viSf8lita-janake Su* 

26 rabhiya v5lbelpadav-ifctn pempu-vacledai^ssad-amalar^eiie Tikauaryyamim 

Kesavauuiii jj [9*] Vfitta || Anupama- 

27 klrttiyam padeda mnvarolani prabku Baikimayyan=oIpiBa kani dharmma- 

clxittamane bliSTisi chelviBa Vistnu-g^- 

28 hamach jana-nutama[rii*3 parafere(tra)-hitamam bhuvana-trit^yakke 



29 dandam-id~ajrgge ti[rfctha?]mo || [10*] VanadHgalum chamdr-arkkarnv- 

aBimTsha-n&gSindra-lakamu[m] vasutratiynm Kanak- 

30 mahS[cha]lamu[m*] [a]llmegaih sale nilke Bavikimayyana dharmma |( [11*] 



m 



.31 k[51 ka]l8 palamy(5 btavadbMli [r|*] 
drim(ii) bhtljd bliflLyO yadbatS 

82 BS[macliam]drah [|| 12*] Sya-datt[>*]m para-datfc[a*]m va yO hareti(ta) 

vafiTtndtara[m I*] slia8litir(tim)-Tvar8lia-saliasraiii vislitliayaria ja- 
33 jm krlmlh I) [13*] ( 



Read 



No. 22,] INSCRIPTIONS OP HULL 1S1 

TRANSLATION, 

(Verse 1.) Victorious is the manifested Boar-form of Vishnu that stirs up the ocean aac 
holds the earth at rest upon the tip of his uplifted right tusk, 

(Lines 2-4.) When the victorious reign of hail 1 the asylum of the whole world, favourite 
of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of 
race, embellishment of the Ch&lnkyas, king Vribhuvammalla, was advancing in a course of 
successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sun, and stars : 

(LI. 4-5.) on the uttar&yana-sariikranti of the 7th year of the Ghaliikya-Vikrama era* 
the cyclic year Dnndubbi : 

(LI, 5-11.) the Thousand, headed by the mayor, of the Agrahara of Pali, who practise 
the major and minor disciplines, scriptural study, spiritual concentration, observance of the 
vow of silence, prayer, oblation, and absorption, 1 for the purpose of fostering the religious 
practice of (the temple of) the god Karayana constructed by KisuvSyara BaYikimayyB- 
NSyaka, for the restoration of outworn (buildings) and (renewal of) broken and burst (masonry) 
belonging to the god, for foaths 9 perfumes, incense, lights, and oblations, for the personal enjoy- 
ment (of the god}, and for the choultry, Bavikimayya-NEyaka made over to the god Narayans 
six mattar at the Bhatfcas* Lake (and) one maitar of gravel soil (?) at the Stonemasons' Tank* 
for which he had arranged the purchase with pouring of water and gift of m-mey from the 
Hundred of RaviyanagSri . 

(LI. 11-11.) So the Thousand shall protect this pious foundation as a tarva-namasya 
holding. To those who protect it shall accrue T.he meiit of making the great gifts at the holy 
places of Benares, Knrnkshetra, Arghyatirtha, Prayaga, and Gaya ; knowing this to be so, the 
Thousand shall protect it for the continuous increase of religion as long as moon, sua, and stars 
endure. 

(V, 2.) To him who protects (the foundation) duly as it was given by him (who 
established it) shall befall the fulfilment of the objects o his desire. To him who appropriates 
and destroys it shall accrue the guilt of downright cold-blooded slaughter of Bra,hmans,Goravas s 
herds of kine, and women ; he shall fall into (degraded) forms of rebirth. 

(V. 3.) The county of Belvala is the face of the ocean-girt Earth. Like a beauty- 
spot thereon is the town of Pflli, overspread with loveliness ; a home of sages there is in this 
excellent town. 

(V. 4.) The Thousand (of Puli) are noble Brahmans possessing boundless virtues, active 
in works of kindness and beneficence, practising the major and minor disciplines, scriptural study, 
and other duties, far removed from all sin, 

(V. 5.) Among them, the Hundred of Raviyanageri, who are eminent in the lore of the 
VSdas and devoted to the six practices, 3 have displayed to an exalted degree exceedingly brilliant 
glory on earth. 

(L. 21,) Among them 

(V. 6.) As he possessed such eminence as to be called a sun to the lotuses of the 
Sfindilya gdtra, an ornament of the whole world in divine lore, Bemaya the Shadangi* was 
truly illustrious, 

(V. 7) His son Oommimayya was illustrious in the world, attaining distinction as 
one who was expert in all arts, a kinsman without (selfish) object, following the practices of 
Mann, a treasure of white glory. 

1 The construction seems to be an anacoluthon, the subject sanrvvarum being left as a nowiativw ftnde*** 

a A class of Saiva ascetic** 

See Mann, L 88. 4 A matter of the six a%a* or ancillary science* of the 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIIL 




His son is the lord Eavikimayya, a bee to the two lotus-feet of the blest 
having a soul exalted in godliness, an ornament of the whole world, 

gtalnless la conduct* , 

fV 9) His younger brothers TikanSrya and Kesaya, truly stainless men, hare afctarned 
eminence, holding rank in perfect dignity, like Surabhi granting their desires to agreeable and 

cultured persons. 

(V 10) Among (then) three (brethren) possessing incomparable fame, the lord 
BaviMmayya, a mine of excellence, inspired by* a godly spirit, constructed a beautiful house of 
Yishnu renowned among folk, bringing welfare in the other world, BO that it has become au 
object of worship to the three worlds, an object of intense reverence : who are there that have 
a holy place of such sort ? 

(V 11 ) As long as the oceans, the moon and sun, the worlds of Gods and N&gas, the 
earth, and the great Golden Mountain exist, so long forsooth may Ravikimayya's pious founda- 
tion stand. 

Vv. 12-13,: two common Sanskrit formulae. 



3X_ OF THE HEIGHT OF VIKBAMADITYA VI: SAKA 1019 

- This document is cut upon a slab of black stone that was found built into the outside of 
the northern or front face of the temple of Vlrabhadra, on the western side of the door. The 
stone is 3 ft. 10| in. above the ground, and 2 ft. in width. It has a rounded top, with the 
following sculptures in the uppermost compartment : in the centre Vishnu 1 standing, and fac- 
ing full front; to his proper right successively, beginning from him, Nandi, a priest .behind 
Nandi standing facing Vishnu, and two kneeling worshippers likewise facing the god ; to the 
god's left, successively a kneeling Garu^a (half turned towards Vishnu and half ttf front), a 
cow wrfli calf, and a scimitar; above all "these are the sun (on right) and moon (on left) 
Below iihis is the inscribed area, measuring 2 ft. 10| in. in height and 1 ft. 11 in. in breadth. 
It is on the whole well preserved.^-The character is good Kanarese, but of a type about a century 
later than the alleged date of the record (aka 1019) ; it may be a genuine later copy of the 
original grant, but in estimating Its authenticity we must note also the irregularity of the date* 
The letters in lines 1-4 are about in. high ; then they begin to increase in height, and from 
line 6 cmward are on the average about f in. The letter fi in rishi (1. 13) is apparently re- 
presented by a modified ri. The special cursive form of t? (above, Vol. XII, pp. 335, n 1 
and 337) appears 39 times, as far as the text is legible. The language, except in 
lines 1-2 (verses 1-3, followed by the formula namo Jtfarayanaya), which are in 
Sanskrit, is Kanarese, verging on the medieval dialect. The archaic I is always 
changed to I (m&lJceyin, 1. 15; mftlpar, 1. 22 ; hala, 11. 35, 51-53 ; aUdhavh[ge] 9 1. 58 ; b$lg[um] 9 
L 60). F is changed sporadically to b (Irajad**, 1. 13; dibyam, 1. 23 ; Iya\tf\patamuifh 9 1. 25 ; 
difya-, L 32; drabya-, 1. 37), The npadhm&mya is falsely written in Aputita- (1. 33), for 
tpfatfftcu The consonant t is doubled before y in atty&yata- (1. 18) and atiyarhta- (I. 20) ; cf , 
above, on IBBCT. C. Initial a ig written y& (1.* 36). In the prose parts final m before a vowel is 
y changed to v, and initial p becomes h in Mia (11. 35, 51-53), hasug* G 1 ' 35, 51), 
(1. 36 ) fcx*IaIK (1. 38), hannwhdu (II 39, 43), hSrivhge (1. 55), horege (ib.), 
(ib.), Jwnnaih (1. 56 f .), while it remains in pajeda, pa^a, paifuvana, patfuvalu. As 
TOgwds flerion, we find an accusative plural in final -a three times (-padaihgala, 11, 37, 39, 42), 
and a corresponding adverb (-purwaJca, 11. 42, 50) ; that this is the genuine medieval form, and 
not a mere slip, is suggested by the adverb tcutotata (L 22) and the dative n$yakarhga (L 16), 
wh0re &a vocaEo ending is guaranteed by the metre. There are a few words of lexiisal interest, 



rigiit -]* lira> ^ ^^^ by w * a ^ nd U of tlie hweriptfan and the figure of mndi to the proper 



22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 183 

such as udgr&hakar, I 9 (spelt udvLgrahaJcarvi), "studying successfully " (cl the Sinlialese 
ugannava, " to learn "), and the technical terms karuva, 11. 39, 43 (from karma ?), ata, II. 52-3, 
(P) 1* 54, and hottalit, 1. 55. 



The record, after three introductory verses, refers itself to the reign of Tritalravanamalla 
(Vikramaditya VI) 9 and then launches out into verse in praise of Kuntala, Belvala, Puli, the 
Thousand Mahajanas of Piili, and the Hundred of Kalasavalligeri (11 1-13). Among the last- 
named was a distinguished Brahman family, the Ajjavas, belonging to the AtrSya gfitra; to this 
stock belonged S6bhana : Hyaka 9 who begot by Muddikavve Nakimayya (ETakarasa or 
Nakiyanna). Nakimayya begot by j$~agikavve Nanimeya, Ramadeva,, and Mahadeva (written 
Mahadeva for the sake of me tre), and rebuilt a temple of Vishnu in Puli (11. 13-23). Then 
follow specifications of various purchases of land acquired by NSkimayya from the Hundred of 
Baviyanageri, Kalasavalligeri, and .GrhaiSasagSri, and from the Thousand of Pnli (11. 23-53) .. 
Two minor endowments (11. 53-57) and a hortatory stanza (11. 58-60) conclude the 
document. 

The date of the record is stated, on 11. 23-25 as : Saka 1019 (expired), the cyclic year 
Ifivara; Pushya suddha 5, Adityavara (Sunday), the u ttaray ana-8aitihr&nti , the vyatlpata, or 
ydga in which the declination of sun and moon are identical* This date again is irregular. 
Pusiiya suddha 5 of the given year corresponded to Saturday, December 12, AJX 1O97 ; it 
began about 53 m. after mean sunrise on the preceding Friday, and ended about 34 m. after 
mean sunrise on the Saturday. It could not be connected with the uttarayana-samkranti, 
which occurred 10 K 45 m. after mean sunrise on Thursday, 24 December twelve days 
after it. 

The places mentioned, besides Puli and the ttrthas in 1, 58, are Zuntala (1. 4), BelTala 
(L 5), Kalasayalligeri (11. .12, 37, 38), Baviyanageri (11. 34, 53), ahaisisageri (1/40), 
Konalageri (? 1. 50), Kattiyageri (1. 52), and some minor localities ; see above. 

TEXT* 1 

[The metres are as follows : verses 1-3, AnusMubh ; verses 4, 5, 16, Mattebha~vikr$$ita * 
Terse 6, Maha-sragdhara ; verses 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, Kanda; verses 9, 10, Champaka~m&l$ ] verse 
13, Utpala-m&la.'] 

bha-mtlla-staihbhaya Sa(Sa)riibhav || [l*J ^ Srlmate-Harihar*-khyasya, 
padmburha(ruha)m=akshLay am [ I *] bhaki 5-namra-jananam 

eta 6anti-pushti-karam sada || [2*] <^ Jaiyaty=a(a)vishkri(kp)taih Vi8i,?,6r 
w[a*]rahaiia ksh5bhit-arnna(rELa)vam [I*] dakshi^-Onnata-damshtir-agra-vifir&iLta-bhuva- 
nam vapuh [||] [3*] pj 





Svasti [I*] Samasta-bhuvan-asntajsi Srl-Pyithvl-vallabha 
paramefivara paramabha^taraka SatySSraya-kula-tilaka 



I'rom 



184 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVIII. 



rajyam=tittar-5ttar-abliivTiddhi-pravai > dlidliaman.am==a-c]iamdr-arkka- 
saluttam-ire Vasudka-visyi(sruytam=appa Ktintala-vadhtl- 



6 



9 



10 









4 maUadeva[ra*J 

tararh-bararii 
saumy-S- 

5 nanara tan-enal pesaram-betta mali-agrahara-iiagara-rl-pafctan-akimna(r^a)dim 

rasayad-dMnya-samasba-vastu-eliayadirii Srl-Belvalam so(SO)- 

bhisalk=esev=a Putt maii-agraliara-tilakarii tad-desadolw rajikum || [4*] Alii || 
Alad=ambli3rlia(ruha)-rajiyim parimala-ri-mallik-arama- 

7 dim sale samd-irdda tataka-kupa-yibhava-praklrnna(riia)dim sutti-gond(nd). 

elasutt^ii-ppa sahasi-a(sra>ramya-Siva-kut-anka-k5ti-prabii-5j[j*]yalitam ta- 

8 t(d)-bahi ra mga-sevya-yibliayam sn-PQliy=i I it=oppugu || [5*] Mudadim srI-Ksava- 

dityara pada-yina(na)tar=vyeda-yedamga-vidya-vidi- 
tar shatu-tarkfca-lat.prayudiyol :i =atiayad=udwgraliakaTO nitya-yajnarw mada- 

matsaryy-adi-dnrar sakala-vibliu:bu)d]ia- 
samrakshakar pSjyar-emdmh sadayar sa S ii-yyar=uryyi.yinutar=akhila-a S tr-arttha- 

kayya-praylnar || [6*J Za || Dinapam tarn- 

karamgalan-anupamadim Pflliyalli pumjisi niratarix jana-yinutai 

anayaratam pa4edanaiht=ay(d?)=em kriCkrOta-kriCkrDtyarw II [7*1 

S I O TTrfS **tn**,** I_ S 11 /* \ II - \-^ \ * / J II L J 



18 l-a%5yata-pati.bhakte NSgikavve 

sreyaskaTE-BGi firtti ButeaTn K l T- - 

^_ jf* **"** 

19 guaadlm || [H*] ~ 

Tibhavam 



mahante n i[chcha]rix 



24 matu-SaCSa)ka-yar8ha 1019 



hvr^ -. 



v -. 
^?^ 




22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 



186 



26 tigraha-a(slm)1>karmma~mratarum I ^ima[cli*]-Oha*]}ukya.chakrayartti-Bral l map 1 m. 

sthan-adMpatya(tiya)rum j Hiranyagarbhbka-mii-" 

27 kha-Yinirggata-chatur^ 

narani | SYa-same(ma)ya-sarrni- ' 

28 ditasaracliamdrai-cliamdrika-cliak5ramiii | kamckana-kalaa-i(si)ta-^^ 

ckcliha(cli]ha)tra~cM 

29 di-raja-cHhn-abliirajitariim | sapta-sC5ma-samsth^abr^ 

sarirariiih 3 | Hara~has~abhaa(sa)~vi- 

80 gada-yaSak-klrttigalum | rimad-And]iasura*-deva-pad-aradliakaram 
raksliaka[r]iim | rl-Kegavaditya-deva~la- 

31 budlia-vara-prasada-sampaiinaruniappa 

pramukh.a sasirvYar=mma- 

32 tajanamgala dibya-ii-padamgalan=aradhisi | avara samnidhiyaln | Ajehha(jja)va3?a 

Nakimayyam tanu madisi- 

33 da srl-Hariliaradevara naiyedyakkam Ctayitra-pavitrakkam kb.anda-fepu(spi.ti)tiia- 

jirzux^-Odlidliarakkam pujariya jlvitakkani 

34 Rave(viya>ageriya nnrvva[ra] padamgalam suvarnna-plirvvakarn^ar^dliifii Budana- 

Moneya Raviyanageriya 

35 liala kasugeya badagana tale-kam^ikeyalli padeda mattaru murti | 5 keyige 

paduvana slme Kesava-devara ke- 

36 yi I badagalu heb-batte | mti^alii Bfldana-Ghitti j temkalu ya kto'ya 

bMmi | a n&in mattarggam | 6 ajn-va^a pana- 

37 v=omdu vi(vl)saih eradu kani eradu | mattaiii | KalagavalHgerlya ntrrrara 

Sri(ri)-padamgala a 3S"SMisaayyam drabya-ptt- 

38 rvvakamaradi(dM)si tdtada liaralalli S^nigagejeyim kelage sarvva-namaya(sya)- 

T=agi padeda mattaromdu | matfcam KalasaTalllge[ri]- 

39 ya nfirwara rl-padamgala a 3S"kimayyaih tirai?,ya-puryvakamaradi(dhi)si 

padjjeda karuva-geyi mattarn. L.a- 

40 nnomdu | a keyige tijuVa ayu-vana ma[ttarim]ge itagam era4u || Ka 1} 

Gliaigasagerig^adliiparo bhasnra-te ja [rw] 

41 mahamtar=enisida nfir 

Ynrjjita-dliareyam7 || [15*] Ant=a 

42 nftrvYara sri-padamgala Ajjavara Nskimayyarii draYya-pfirYvaka Srftdkbi 

paclecla ...... ma 

43 mattaru hannomdu ] a keyige ti(i5)^iiYa ayu-Ya^a mattarimge tagam eradu I 

yeradu keriya karn- 

44 va-vaney=era4umam nalku maneyam madi dYara BrahmapmiyoQu] gri(gri)lia. 

dana-bhami-danamath 



45 a#ida^ kramamemt*emdode | Kesava-Bhattaorige 

amt=ire padluYana mudala mane | avarige key! 

46 mattarh ayi[du] | avaru devarige ti(tl)ruva 

al[P]iria mfidana mane [UTa]rasiiiiliar 



47 SSmayaj[i*]yarige | avarige keyi matfcaru eraclakkam aru^Ya^a pa^aYomdu 
allini mti^a^La mane N":rasiinha- 



1 Bead - amch-cjiamdra-. 
8 Eead 



4 Here and telow tlie dk is written with the subscript character which usually denote* tk. 
* 



186 BPIGRAPHIA INHTCA, ' [Vol.. XVIII* 

48 ghaissarige [ avarige keyi mattaru eradakkam ayn-Yana panav=omdu | allim 

mfld^a mane I 1 Koneya M;a[llaC?)-kra]mita- 

49 rige | avarige keyi mattam mftru | avarn ti(tl)UYa aru-va^a panaY^omdu 

hagam era^u || 'Hattam Yur-odteya-pra- 
60 mukha sasirvYai^mmahajanaihgala divya-Sri-pMa-padmamgalam A[j]jaYara 

B"&Mya33,na2ii drayya-purwaka aradhisi [ ? Ko]na- 
51 lageriya hala hasngeyolu | 3 sarvya-namaya(sya)Y*agi padeda mattaru eradu I 

kammam rL&[F]nar-ayvattTi [I*] 

62 a keyige sltie badlagalu grimad-Andhtasura-d^vara keyi | madalu Kattiyageriya 
Sata | temkalu Mfila- 



53 stliaiia-deYara keyi | pa^Lnval[TL Ea]viya^iiya liala ata | ^7) Ayiratt*okkaluiii 

sama-olxcliliayeyol^irddiL d&vara 

54 dlvigege sotige e^neyaih Mt*aru || o) 'Hattazh Hakimayya-lfSyakam Bahara- 



55 Otikfearasaiia eleya sumka hyimge . . . . | liorege nnrii | hottalinige 

ayiyattu manakki 

56 gady&^am nalYatt-ajidn tomiam ko ......... || pa<JuYaaa btagada 

naYira kacjayamanu 8 

57 anftju gadya^a hoimam ko^u . ^ . ........ P a 9 a ora^ 11 kaga , . . . 



58 Ida( Ya)nIy-a til da[dineyde] p&lisuYava [iiigisliti- arttha-samsiddlii sam] bhavikum 

komd sB! alidlia(da)m[ge Gbmge Gaye KSdaram Ku]ru- 

59 kstStara.m*emb-iYa[iolw] pesade " paryva[rarii go]ra[Yaram g5- Yrimdama] m pezujirarii 

ta[Ye komd*ikkida papam^e]- 

60 [ydngujm^aYaiit bllg[nm mgo]damgalo[lw |[ ] [16*] 



TRANSITION. 

(Verse 1*) - Homage to Sambhu comely with the yak-tail fan that is the moon kissing his 
lofty head, the foundation-column for the structure of the city of the Triple World ! 

(V. 2 t ) The blest Harihara's lotus-foot is eternal, and ever causes increase of peace to 
those who bow down to him in deYotion. 
(V, 3 : identical with Yerse 1 of 0.) 
(Line 2.) Homage to Narayana 1 

(Ll. 3-4.) When the reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole world, favourite of 
Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of Satyasraya'a 
i?ace, embellishment of the Chalukyas, king Tribhufanamalladeva, was advancing in a course 
of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure*) as long as moon, sun, and stars : 

, (Y, 4 f ) While the blessed Belvala witlr its multitude of renowned great agrah&ras, 
cities, and happy towns and with its abundance of sapful grain and all kinds of treasures shines 
indeed, as one may say, as the lovely face of the world-renowned lady Kuntaja, this bright Ptlli> 
an ornament of great agrahras, is resplendent in that region. 

1 This dan$a is superfluous. 2 This danda if, also superfluous. 

1 TJbese letters are mostly reiy uncertain : we may read either M or #o, and he ya is doubtful. 



No, 22.] INSCBIP TICKS OF HULL 18? 

(L. 6.) In that (Puli) 

(V*. 5.) Being encompassed by lines of staying lotuses, "by pleasanoes of jasmine ricli in 
perfume, indeed, and with a profusion of splendour of appropriate pools and wells, radiant with 
tlie brilliance of many pinnacles on thousands of charming sanctuaries of Siya wherein men 
find delight, having worshipful majesty in the exterior thereof, thus does the blest Pflli display 
itself. 

(V. 6.) Joyfully bowing at the feet of the blest Kesavaditya, renowned for lore of Vdas 
and "Vedamgas, extraordinarily proficient in goodly skill in the six '(courses of) logic, holding 
constant sacrifice, remote from conceit, envy, and other (vices), protectors of all sages, worship - 
fuil ever, gracious, world-famous, versed in the purport of all books of teaching and in poetry are 
the Thousand (of Pali). 

(V. 7,) The sun, massing to an incomparable degree his rays on Pttli, constantly and 
ceaselessly has engendered the world- famed Thousand : thus have they not fulfilled their 
end ? 

(V. 8.) Puli by its charmingness is an ornament of all the many agraharas as Kalaga- 
valligeri in truth appears in grace as a pinnacle thereto, thus the Hundred (of KalatiavalligSri) 
are eminent. 

(L. 13,) Among them 

(V. 9.) Stainless like a clear pool, like a diadem thereof, 1 like a company of saints 
together is the Ajjava family, in truth ; in it was born the lord S6bhana-Kayaka 9 who by Ids 
eminence, his charming and beautiful conduct caused the increase of his mighty gdtra,, being 
exalted in virtues, crowned by Siva's feet, 

(V. 10.) In the wise of a pearl in sooth as it flashes in its shell, so was born 'indeed to 
the most charming lady Muddikavve and to Sobh ana-Nay aka, ITakimayya, an embodiment 
of most abundant merit, a crest- jewel of mankind's desires : so he restored the splendid house of 
Vishnu in the midst. of Puli, 

(V. 11.) His good wife is Bagikavve, immensely devoted to her lord, peculiarly fortn- 
na/tej great ever, having a form fraught with blessing on earth, a mother of sons through ex- 
ceeding "virtue. 

(V. 12.) Of the Atreya lineage, ever encouraging friends, having his high estate devoted 
to charity, one who makes gifts with knowledge of the recipients, a purifier of his noble g&tra> 
is the renowned lord Nakarasa. 

(V. 13.) His sons, the brilliant lord ITanimeya., in truth, Eamadeva, and the great lord 
Mahadeva exceedingly charming of form, foster the masters of all the lore of the Four YSdas 
and the TTpanishads and practise constantly the duty of charity : as thus their lineage becomes 
increasingly illustrious : 

(Ii. 22.) Subsequently to this 

(V. 14.) "With the four 2 present there, in sooth, the divine sanctuary of Harihara stands 
like a celestial (building) with a thousand Brahmaigis magnificent in charming lore displaying 
themselves in grace therein, 

(LI. 23-25.) Hail ! On Sunday, the fifth day of the bright fortnight of Pashya in 
the cyclic year Isvara, the 1019th (year) of the !aka era, on a holy day on which occurred 
both the uttarayana-samkranti and the vyattpatap 

* If the text is ris^ht, it must mean " a diadem of the Hundred of KalaSaralligeri " 5 but the sense seems rather 
strained, and one is tempted to conjecture san-muTcMtad- . 

2 Namely NaMmayya and his three sons. 

3 A yoga, in which the declination of the snn aM the moon are the same, 

2 A. 2 



138 EPIGHAPHIA INDICA. ' [VOL. XVIII, 

(LI. 25-32.) Having adored the divinely blest feet of the Thousand Mahajanas, headed 
by the mayor, of the great Agrahara of Pali, who are constant in the six duties of sacri- 
fice by themselves and by others, study, teaching, alms-giving, and acceptance (of cTiarityY 
masters of the establishment of the ChSlukya Emperor's Brahmapuri, 1 versed -in the lore of the 
Four Yedas that-issued from Hiranyagarbha's mouth, the Upanishads, sacred law, Pura^as, 
poetry, and various dramas, who are c&afcSra-birds to the moonlight arising' from the autumnal 
moon of their church, who are decorated with golden pitchers, six white parasols, yak-tail fans 
the five great musical sounds, gongs, drums, and other emblems of royalty, whose bodies are puri- 
fied by plunging in the baths of the seven soma-samsthas, 2 who have glory and renown brilliant 
ap the radiance of Hara's smile, 3 who are worshippers of the god Andhasura's feet, protectors of 
refuge-seekers, receiving the grace of boons from the god Kgsavaditya, 

(LI. 32-35.) In their presence, Ajjavara Kakimayya, having adored with (offering of) 
gold the feet of the Hundred of Raviyanaggri, purchased three mattar in the upper kantf-ike oa 
the north of the waste-land hasuge* of Eaviyanaggri at the Ghost's End for (the expenses of) 
the oblations of (tlie temple of) the god Harihara constructed by himself, the Chaitra-pavitra* the 
restoration of broken, burst, and outworn (masonry), and the maintenance of a priest. 

(LI. 35-37.) Of this field the western bound is tne field of the god K^gava; on the north, 

the high-road j on the east, the Ghost's Copse ; on the south, the lands of the parish. For these 

three mattar the aru-vana? is one pana, two visa, two Ttani. 

(LI. 37-38.) Likewise the same Nakimayya, having adored with (offering of) money the 

West feet of the Hundred of Kalasavalliggri, purchased (of them) one mattar as a sarva-namatua 

holding below the Gildsmen's Tank in- the gravel-land of the garden. 

(LI. 38-40.) Likewise the same Wskimayya, having adored with (offering of) gold the 

btesfc feet of the Hundred of KaMavalligeri, purchased a fcarwwo-field of ' eleven mattar: the 

orw-ca^a paid for this field is two haga on eaeh mattar. 

^i 15 ; } Tlie Hundred who *"> toris of Ghaiiasageri, brilliant of splendour, great, have 
given abundant land for the approved worship of the gods KeSava and Mahgsa. 

So Ajjavara ITakiinayya, having adored the same Hundred's blest feet with 

aru-vana paid for this field is two 



* hadbUIt * iarwa - lloases m ^ of) these two parishes,* 



* , 

,' f^^^entunderwhich Nakimayya made his grants of houses and 

d 



Mrt as , : ~ For Kesava-Bhafcta, hou 8es on the west and 



8 C^^o/) mon ey the. 

holding two nattar and four ^htilT'and fi* ^ ^^ V**~* as a * 
: - ____^_^_^QPr hundred and fifty Jcamma in the waste-land hasug* 

1 Cf. abovB, on uucr. S. ~ " --- 



. t * ~ *-"'##> and atx>ve. Tol. SITT -n w * -, 

f Apparently tbe knils of Baviyanuigen fiee J " 4 ' Vo1 " XX XVIJI, p. 53. 

: n and Ghaisasageri. 7 S ** ab V6j n imor * B * 




Ifo. 22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 

of Ko^alageri(F). Of this field the bounds are : on the north, the god And 
east, the Ma of the waste-land of Kattiyageri ; on the south, the field of the 1 
on the west, the 3ata of the waste-land of Raviyani. 

(L. 53-54.) The fifty households by common agreement granted oil for burning in the 
god's lamps. 

(L. 54-57.) Likewise N&kimayya-Nayaka [assigned] a toll on the betel-leaves of 
Chikkarasa of the Rahas' Hill, . . . on a (large) load, a hundred on a (small) load, fifty 
on a bagful ; (on} a maund of husked rice, forty-five gadyana in gold 

(V. 16 : identical with verse 2 of inscription 0.) 

B. OF THE REIGN OF VIKEIAMABITYA VI : THE 2J0TH YEAK, ETC. 

This is an inscription upon a black stone that w T as found standing against the east wall of a 
small empty shrine a little to the south-east of the front (eastern) face of the temple of 
MadanSSvara .P? Andhakegvara. Thfe stone was 7 ft. 6 in. high, and 3 ft. 01 in. wide. 
Its top was a rounded panel containing the following sculptures : in the centre, a linga in a 
shrine ; to the proper light of this, a priest sitting, facing it, in the same shrine ; in the proper 
riglit corner, a cow with calf ; in the left corner, the bull Nandi ; above these, the sun (to left) 
and moon (to right). Below this is the inscribed area, 4 ft. 8| in. high and 3 ft. broad. 
Tlie character is Kanarese, a good hand of the last quarter of the twelfth century, with a supple- 
ment in a later hand (11. 53-56). The letters are on the average in. high ; they are generally 
well preserved. The type of jh noted on the St<Ji inscription F. above, Vol. XV, p. 86, occurs on 
11. 22, 27. The cursive v is used in -chakravartti (1. 47). The language, except for the intro- 
ductory Sanskrit verse, is Old Kanarese, verging on the medieval dialect. The I is preserved in 
negalda, 1. 38, and ilduv**, 1. 39, and wrongly written in Belvalav*, L 5 ; on the other hand, 
it appears as I in pel, 1. 15, pogalgurh, 1. 30, eleneya, 1. 40, el, 1. 43, hala, 11. 37, 42, 50, and as r 
in negarddar, 1. 8, negarddam, 1. 25 (both with the second syllable short), and n&rppafa, 1. 24. 
Initial 
42, 

Lexically interesting 
chaih$&vwra, 1. 34, sata, 11. 44, 47, 51, 52, and sauti, 1. 46. 

The record is a consolidated one, comprising three different grants to the same foundation 
(1L 1-39, 40-47, and 47-52), with a later supplement (11. 53-56), When the third grant was 
executed and written out (A.D. 1184), the two earlier grants were copied and prefixed to it ; and 
in A.D. 1224 some one began to write as a supplement the fourth grant, but did not complete 
it. The first grant begins by referring itself to the reign of Tribhuvanamalla (VikramSditya 
VI) and then states that a general and minister, who was also Steward of the Royal Kitchen, by 
name Anantapalarasa, had a son-in-law, Lakkarasa, a general who administered Belvala and 
Puligore ; and this Lakkarasa, with the authority of Anantapalarasa, commissioned a certain 
Sifcgsrasa to assign one share in the proceeds of fines leyied in Pflli to the treasury of the gad 
Amdhasura, a form of Siva (11. 2-7). This was accordingly done, under the auspices of the 
Acbarya Tatpurusha, a diaciple of JfianaSakti ; this JfianaSakti was a distinguished dmne aod 
scholar, to whom king Bhnvanaikamalla (Somesvara H) paid particular reverence, IB connec- 
tion with which a fine temple of Siva (probably that bearing the name of Andlpsura, with wJnoh 
the present series of grants is concerned) was built (11. 748). Then comes, a- *- - 
supplement to this grant, a record of two endowments of Andhasura. The first (1 
with verses praising the town of Pflli and its mayor (fir-o^a), a scion of the 
named Maiigalarnava, who seems to have won some renown in the wars against tjie 

i and Claras, and is stated to hare settled 1,000 BrShmans on an estate granted by 




EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [V OL . 



himself ; after this come verses in praise of the Thousand, who are said to have built a stately 
temple of Andhasura (probably that already mentioned). Then follows another supplement 
(0. 36-38), chronicling a donation of land by four persons. 

The second main division of the record (11. 40-47) announces gifts of land to Andhasura from 
the above-mentioned JfiSnas'akti (11. 40-44) and the Thousand (11. 44-47). Next comes a third 
paragraph (11. 47-52) announcing the gift of some land to the god by the Hundred of Kalasavalli- 
gSri, the Thousand of Pali, and a certain Kalidevayya-Sefcti. Last comes an unfinished 
paragraph, added long after the preceding, to chronicle a grant by the guild of weavers to the 
Achlrya Vamasakti for the expenses of the establishment (11. 53-56). 

Corresponding to its composite character, our inscription contains four dates The first of 
these is given on 13. 7-8 as : the 29th year of the Chalukya-Vikrama era, the cyclic year Tarana 
Pushya addha 10, Brihaspativara (Thursday) ; the uttarayana-samkrant*. This is irregular.' 
Ine tithi Poshya guddha 10 corresponded properly to Wednesday, 28 December, A D 1104 
on which it ended about 18 h. 25 m. after mean sunrise, i.e. about 12.25 P.M., so that the con-' 
section with the following Thursday is not far wrong. But it cannot possibly haf e been con- 
Mad with the uttarayana-samltrSnti, which took place about 6 h. 13 m. after mean sunrise on 
toe preceding Saturday, 24, December. 



Tribhuvanamalla 

' SrSTa ^ a full - moon ' SOmavara (Monday); an eclipse of 

nly t0 a SK ^ de ^ ee - Tte * * Desponded 
it began about 55m. before mean sunrise ; Ld it 



to 

neffi^, i5 ;. T' a f ^^ termeans ^^ (see Eclipses of ike Moon in 
The Sunha-samkranti took place about 6.13 A.M. on Saturday, 28 July 



to 



BQragutti: 1.51), and some minor iocaUties. ****** and Baviyauageri (11.4461), 

TEXT. 1 



[The metres are as follows ; verse 1 

1 



No. 22.] INSCEIPTIONS OF HULL 191 



2 tp Svasti [I*] Samasta-bhuyan-afiraya Srl-Pri(pfi)tlivI-vallablia 

paramesvaram paramabhafcfcarakani Satyasraya-kula-tilakarii Chaliiky-afoharanazii 

firi- 

3 ma[t*] -TpibhuvanamalladSvaara vi]ayarajyam=uttar-5ttar-abMvri(vrl) ddM-prayarddlia- 

maBam=a-cliamdr-"arkka--taraiii saluttam^ire [|*] Tat-pada-padm-$- 

4 pajivl 1 samadMgata-pamclia-maha-^abda-mahasamaiitadliipati mahapraclian da-dan.da* 

nayakam sirlman-maliapradlianam bliaaasii- 

5 verggade AnantapSlarasara deseyiii=avar=aliyam dandanSyaka Lakkarasam kut- 

tumbitti bliatta-gftvey-olag-figi Belvalav=erad*ayti-nti- 

6 rtunani dusMa-rdgralia-^islita-pratipalanadimd^aluttam-irddii va (dha)rmma-karyy-5dd 

Sadirii tanna palihatani Siihgarasanaiii karedagraliSram Psliya 

7 grimad-Andkasura-devargge Pnliya danda-dOsliad=olagoiidiL bli^amatm 1 *] bid=emdti 

sama[r*]ppise srlmact-Ohalukya-Viktama-kalada 20neya Tara- 

8 na-samvatsarada Pasbya-Suddlia da^ami Bri(Bri)liaspatiTarad=tittarayanasamkra- 

manada divya-titMyol || 1 maliiyol=iiegardda(lda)r=vidyamalii-- 
m-5nnatiyol=ugra-tapadol=mTLktl(kti)-gri(sri)- mukta-mani-makurar Kkllamtikliar * &E& 

(nah)-paran(ii)mukliarmmuiii-miik]iyar || [2*] Vritta || Avarol=PQliya- 
10 devar=embar=esedar=nnislitli-agragaiiyarbbalikk - avarimdarh Lakupsadevar avarim. 
Vakhk(kkM)ni devar=gguna-pravara^^ 
dra- 

pe[m]pina Somadeva-miinipar==Yviyambliara-bliagadol [| [3*] EucBir- 
]-stabakaryila^it-to6karbk^ 

12 da~dyayan=upagata~sarasyataiii natna-ya(ka)rmni-dpacliay- ambli5rai - Kalanana(la P)- 

nikhila-miinliiidr-5ttamam moksha-Iaksliml-kaclm-kumbh-alamkrit- [s*] -stliala- 

13 n=amala-yaa[m^] Jfilnasakti-yratimdra || [4*] Skariy=ire bahu-tarkka-yyakara^am 

Jflanasakti-paJidita-deyargg=ekaksliaram-eiiidTi malil-lQkam ban^isiivnd^avara 

14 maMm-5nnatiya || [5*J Vitata-yaSaoi OhaJ-ukya-kuJartigmakaraifa, Bhuvaiiay(ai)ka[ma3 

lla-bliflpatl baliy-atti tan-miini-pad-abja-yugakke yinamna- 

15 nagi ,nicMta-mati kotta p^jeyole madisidar=^Siya-gel 

madipare pl=emitiiih ya(dlia)re ba^nip-aunega || [6*] 

16 ua gisliyar=Il^pravarar=gguna-gana-samanvitax=imana-a *= Ttatp"urasbaa?*ddig* 

yiyaramgalan=amala-kirttiyiiiL dtayalisidar [| [7*] Int-enisida stlian-ScliS- 

17 ryyar=appa Tatpiinislia-panditara samakshadolam trodeyapramtik]ia sasiryyar 

mmakajanamgala sannidJiaiiadaluiii Srlmad-Andliasura-d^yara p5- 

18 da-prakshalanam-geydn deyar=amga-bli5gakkam kliand 

darida-d5sliadolag=ondu bhagamam perggade Simgarasaiii bitisa @ VanadM- 
parlta- 

19 bhntala-yilasayatl-mnkliadaiit0 torppa ohelyipe kam B,elvalakke tilak-akri(kri)- 

tiyimd=esed-irppa Piiliy=sa==Ammislia-ra]an=irppa puram5 Phani-rajana ri- 

20 jadhaniyd ina^uja-niySsam-allad-enisal-^esegum pejrat*oudu 6bheyim || [8*] Adu 

ygdariagala tay-maney=adu nanatarkad=irkke-danam kSl=aiit*adu 

21 g&strariigala kaniy-enisidud-avanl-oliakpa'd-olage Pali-grama || [9*] Aiume pant 

ejagida sahakarame bt5r=emdix morey at-irppalini- 

22 jbamkarame sagandha-kusum-Ssarame posa-yolalol=emdod^ yarmipuda |j [10^] 

Sura-nilayamgal=Iaiia Dinesana pada-yugakke bhaktai^appara^aj- 

23 Tarirppa gayata-padakk=adardd(rd)=risal=emda saram=&g4re Bidi kattid*oriidu 

patham=emba yol=ambaramam tarurixbi bhasnratara-Sataktiniblia-kalafiaihga-' 

1 Read -dpajtvi. 2 The da has beeB orait.fced and tben rqreeied in* written small 



192 EPIGRAPHIA IHDICA, [Vol.. XYIIL 

24 linoppBgnmentu nQrppada \\ [11*] Aklii}a-inalildSvar*Sfiatamakliajmih tanipalke 

kfl.de madnttire karmmukliadlia 1 ' Yol*esegiim n5na-ma 

25 kha~dliuma-stGmadindamemdum vydma |j [12*] Clidlakula-Kala~dan4am MSlava- 

kularvilaya-ketu Onr j j ara-kula-nirm mala [ka 5 *] n=ene sale negardda (Ida ) m 

26 ChSlukya-kul-omda Mamgalarn&ava-deva || [13*] A Mamgalamnavam jagatl- 

madrita-yimala-kirtti sarYva-namasy am bliiimlya n=ittn saliasra-dlia- 

27 mmararam nilisi Pfiliyaih palisida jj [14*] Gudi ct.amaraY= ss oJ3]ia(]3a)raiii bel-go<Je 

hadapam ghaligey^^thaya-Samklaam modal*agodeya maha- 

28 mahimeyam"&r-odeya Srl-Maiiigalaranavam ku4e padedar |j [15*] Vachana || Anta 

paded^-ap^-odeya-pramuklia sasirrvar^mnmhajanamgala maha- 
2-9 maMmey=eriteiiida<ie || Vipul-achararaganna(nya)-pnnna(^ 

pfijyar*k]5ala-nlpunar*asa(s^a)rada*iiirad-5pama-yagars^^ 
50 sli^-vargg-aiiaa^-amghripar^TidYritta-vir^ 

ambl3.0nilia-bli2i(blin)mgaremdu pogalgum sasirYvaram bhntala || [16*] 
Ul Param-audryyakke janm-alayar^eiiisida sasirYYaram tammolatjadaradimdam kftcjU 

Ya(dlia) rmm-amfitajfian*osedti piral=manam- 

32 [go]ih4ii I5k-5ttaxam=app=atmlya"l^rttiprabala-]at6g*adar^^ 

sara- de v-aYasamam maddaidar^amara-gailakke 

33 sadri(d|i)yain=agal |j [17*] Aiit^emsi 

e(ai)kamai?yaY=ag-irddu 'nela-vantige sasirakke 

34 pannomd^adakeya sojjaoaumam ctamgUYuram bale modal=ag*ulidadakegalg*ellaih 

sSsirakke irppatt-pmd^adlakeya sojjamnmam pepmge labha- 

35 gaYaligey*entu-iilK=eleyumam tale-Yoj[e*]ge labha-gavaligeya nal-naj-eleyuma[m*] 

Srlmad-Andliasiira-'dSvai'a pada-prakshalanam- 

36 mSdii deVar=aiiiga-bli5jfakkemdu sasirYYar=bbittar |j Alljara Hagadevayya 

Haradara . Slutayy*Ja Mamndeyara Makanayya 

37 TTbtoarada Bammayya imt-l nalYaru SiY[e*]yageriya nnrbbarige pada-gta(pn)- 

jeyaiii kotfcm laaja pasngeol^ge 2 Kadakina- 

38 kejjeya kelage nalkn raattar^kkeyya sarvYa-na.masya(sya)Yagi r!mad-Addlia- 

koiii<Jti bittar || Jagad=olage negajda Pfiliyo- 

kichchim dKagadiaga btngilt=emdiiriyal 
poge kham^^am 8 muttad-ildnv=AmBdhasurana || [18*] 

40 Svasti [|] Srtm&tu^l&GTbu^ TriblniYanamallacleYa-YarsSa 

(rsha)deieneya Oliitrabliiiu-saiiiYarsa(tsa)rada raYana-sud!id]ia 4 purinami 



41 sOtt^-graiianamum kfidi banda punya-dinadolu Sr!mad : Anda(ndlia)siira-deYara 
stliSnad5ciiaryyaa>:appa srl- JflSnasakti-devaru griman-mali4(ft) gra- 

48 Mram Paliy*-fir-odeya-pramiLklia sasirvYaram draYya-pflrvYakam=aradi(dM)si devara 
snaBa-iuYedyakk-emdu Kokknl[i*]ggriya itala hasuge- 

43 yalu kori4n bitta xaattarSl=adakke aru-Ya^a mattarimge liana oiidu [|*] 

keyya sime ent^e[m*]dade badaga^ia slme Gdkliamrisvara 6 -dgYara key[y*]im 

44 temkalu A 3 >Y^a-deYta(va)ra key[y*]lm badagalu m^dlaln Kattiyaggriya 

ga(ia)ta paduYalu RaYiya^iya aa(fe)ta Svasti |* 



46 r-o4eya-pramuk3ia sasirYYarum srimad-Anda(ndlia)sura-deYargge snana-niYedyakkey* 
dle-YoIada Jmsti gey alii sarYYa-namaya(sya)- 

' Read Mrm*nu&a$a, t ^m&fmm^^l^e * There seems to be an r written over the U<r. 

* Bead 



No. 22.] INSCRIPTIONS OP HULL 



46 v*agi bitta mattar^emtu [|*] adakke simey=ent=e[m*]dade mudana sl[me*] 

Akkasaligeyi I temkana sime betta I haduvana slin,e sauti | badagan 
slme Grhais[a]- 

47 sageriya sa(sa)ta |(||) Srasti [I*] Srimat^-Cliaiukya-cliakravartti irl-SSmesvara- 

deva 1 -vai^a(rsha)d=era4iiya KrSdM-samfv*acnha(t8a)raola Pusya(shya)-sudhdha* 
punnami 

48 Sflmavara uttarayana-samkrama(ma)nadamdR nmatw-Kalasa(sa)valligeriya nurvvarum 

sasirvvarum same(ma)ya-cbakravartti Kali- 

49 devayya-settiyarum sah[i*]tam 6rimad-Amdhasu[ra*]-devargge snana-nivSdyakke 

Mairavanada hadinalku mattaru keyam- 

50 maihm 3 =mar[a*]tiav=agi Kokkulig^riya hala liasugeya modala sthaladalK sarvra- 

namaya(sya)v=agi bir 

51 tta mattaru 4 [I*] adara gi(sl)me Eaviyanag^riya sa(sa)tadiihdaiii mn<Jalu 

ba^laga^a sime Buragnt[t*]i-heb-batte 

52 mftda^a sime Kattiyageriya sa(a)ta temkaija slmeyEd.avanaliallada battey*i(s) 

da(dlia)rmmamam sasiryvaru pratipalisuvaru 1| 

53 s&^ Svasti [I*] SrImatw-Saka--varsha llleneya Tarana-samvatsarada JygsiLtba- 

udb.dlia 2 aslita[mi*] SCmavaradamdu [I*] Syasti [I*] Sajnasta-gu^a-sampaniiarappa 

54 irIma[t*]-Trik[tl*]tsvara-devara divya-srl-pada-padm-aradhakarum^appa ri-Puliya 

saliga-sama- 

55 yamgalumto-odeya sasirvvara sannidhanadaln tomad-AmdhasTira-deyara sthan- 

acharyyaru- 

56 m-appa VsmaiaJtti-devarige deva-karyyakkemdu dhara-parvvakay^agi kofcta 

barike 5 okkalimge bomge 6 

TBANSLATION. 

(Yerse 1 : identical with verse 1 of inscription D aboye,) 

(Lines 2-3.) "When tne victorious reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole world, 
favourite of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Loud, supreme Master, ornament of 
Satyssraya's race, embellishment of the Chslukyas, king Tribauvanamalladeva, was adva.nrv- 
ing in a course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sun, and 
stars : 

(LI. 3-7.) On behalf of him ^ho finds sustenance at his lotus feet, the great Lord of 
Feudatories who receives the five great musical sounds, the great august general, high minister, 
and Steward of the Kitchen, Anantapalarasa, his son-in-law, the general Lakkarasa, adminis- 
tering the Six-hundred of tlie two Bejvalas, 7 including the kuttuMitti and provision- 
villages, 8 so as to suppress the wicked and protect the cultured, despatched his deputy 
Singarasa on a mission of religious business, and having bade him to assign one share in the 
proceeds of the fines of Puli to the god Andhasura of the Agrahara of Puli, consecrated (the- 
same) ; whereupon _ 

i Bead SomeSvaradeva*. 2 Read Sudd*,*. 3 B^ad Tctyy* (P), 

4 Possibly a numeral haa been dropped before mattaru, 

* There seems to be a sonne at the end of this word on the stone, over the gre. 

The record here seems to break off in the middle of the sentence. 

This means the Three-htmdred of Belvala and the Three-hundred of Paligej;e : see Dr. Fleet's note on the 
gorfttur inscription^ above, Vol. XIII, p. 178. 

See note oa bhatta-gr&me (Sutli inscr. F,, I, 20) above, Vol. XV, p. 92. a, I 



EPIGBAPHIA INDIOA. 



VIIL 



IU 7 8 > On the holy lunar day, Thursday, the tenth of the bright fortnight of Pushya 
tie cjcUc year -Tirana, the 2h year of the ChSJufcya-Vifcrama era, on the ^yaa- 



nsoiio this earth are the eminent saints of the Kalimukha order for 
waited majesty of leaming (and) for -severe austerities, being jewel-mirrors for the face of the 
Spirit of Salvation, remote from sin. 

(? 3) Among them flourished one named Puliyadgva, -^re-eminent for devotion in the 
world; 'after Mm, Lakupsadeva ; after him, VakkhS^idiva, excelling in virtues and the 
great T5gi VidyeiHaa, versed in all arts and sacred tradition ; so after him, the distinguished 
mint Somadeva. ' 

(V. 4.) The great ascetic JfiSnasakti has his two feet much, rubbed by many monarchs' 
crowded crests brilliant with masses of lustre from bright noble gems; he is endowed with 
litenxy genius, highest of all the great saints who are like fires of doom to that ocean tlie ranis 
growth- of modem religions, stainless in fame, having his breast adorned by the rounded bosom 
of the Spirit of Salvation. 

(V. 5.) As JflSnasakti-tanditadeva's vast knowledge of logic and grammar is unique 
(P), the public lauds Ms exalted dignity, styling him SkSkshara. 1 

(V. 6.) In- iihe course of the worship which king Bfeuvanaikainalla, of widespread 
|&nie s a OTJI to tiie Obljiikya race, despatching a messenger, 3 reverently (and) resolutely offered 
to the lotus-feet of this saint, they constructed a sanctuary of Siva, which the world ever praises, 
ying ** Say, can they make -thus- a building of stone ? " 

(V. 7.) His beloved disciple Tatpurusha, eminent on earth, endowed with numerous 
Tirtnes, toaoviEg divers books of instruction, has caused the expanses of the regions of space to 
Income wMte with Ms stainless fame. 

(LI 16-18.) Having, in the presence of the local AchSrya Tatpiimslia, as above de- 
scribed, wad in the presence of the Thousand MahSjajaas headed by the mayor, laved the feet of the 
god Jbidiifeiimj the Steward Siagarasa made ovexfor the personal enjoyment of the god and for 
tibe of broken, burst, and outworn (masonry) one share in the proceeds of the fines of 

PftH 

(V. 8.) Shining in the form of a beauty-spot on Belvala, that mine of loveliness which 

like Ae face of that graceful lady the' ocean-girt Earth, Pflli is perfect in comeliness, a 

Quag* ic|tte ml apart, so that men say : " Is it the city where dwells the king of gods, or the 

of the lord of serpents ? It cannot be a dwelling-place of mortals. 7 ' 

(,f.) It is a motfier-hoEse of the Vedas, it is a dwelling -place of divers systems of 
so it is a mine of books of instruction : thus is the town, of Pfili known within 
fhe circuit of earth. 

(V. 10.) IB regards the pleasances, the mango-trees drooping with fruit, the mumnu> 
ing of of bees Aat hum with buzzing sound, the showers .of sceoted flowers In the 

of the town what deecriptioij can fit them ? 
.(T. 11.) How brilliant are the temples, when one observes, with their exceedingly 

mdMnt golden pumaclei, obetoicting the*ky, as if to say .that this is a peculiar path built by 

lore '^tedwith it; applied aa a title,, it ' 
ft. Caster of the i X .syllabW spell," 
W*l is mended in the , Ka|a, insertion of 

- **" 



abov t Vol. XI, p. 3, 



2.] , IjrSOBIPTIONS OF HULL 



195 



the Creator as Ms choicest work in order to raise the votaries of the feet of Isa and the Sun to 

enter into the everlasting seat where they 1 abide. 

(V. 12.) The sky is ever bright with masses of smoke of various sacrifices, like a 
rainbow, which all the Brahmans together make for the satisfaction of the Lord of a Hundred 
Sacrifices [Indra]. 

(V. 13.) Mangalarnavadeva, a moon of the Chalukya race, has become in sooth illus- 
trions aa a rod of K^la to the Chola race, a meteor of min to the MSlava race, an uprooter of 
t&e 0-Hr jara race. 

(V. 14.) This Mangalarnava* whose stainless fame is stamped .upon, the earth, having 
given land on sarva-namasya tenure (and) settled a thousand BrShmans, protected Pfili. 

(V. 15.) The fortunate Manga}5rjpaya, the mayor, received as a gift (marks of Ed.) the 
high dignity of governorship, namely the flag, yak-tail fans, discus (?), white parasol, betel-bag, 
gong, double shell, and the rest. 

(Id. 28-29.) As regards the high dignity of the Thousand Mahajanas, headed by the 
mayor who has had this fortune : 

(V. 16.) The earth extols the Thousand as being men of abounding (good) conduct, 
seats of incalculable merit, uniquely worshipful to the world, skilled in arts, having fame Eke 
autumnal clouds, celestial trees to the companies of cultured and agreeable men, ravishing the 
powers of haughty foes, bees to the lotus-feet of the blest god Ksgavaditya. 

(V. 17.) The Thousand, who are birth-sites of supreme generosity, having together 
drunk with delight the nectar of religion with exceeding reverence for him, moved in spirit* 
built a dwelling for the blessed god Andhasura, which was to be as it were a support for the 
mighty creeping-plant of their own superhuman fame, so that it was like to the celestial 
mountain. 

(LI. 33-36.) The Thousand Mahajanas headed by the mayor thus described, by unanimous 
consent, laved the feet of the god Andhasura and granted for the god's personal enjoyment on 
nela-vartti eleven sojja of areca-nuts per thousand ; on all other areca-nuts, such as chandavura 
and bele, twenty-one sojja per thousand j on each load (of betel-leaf), a bundle 2 (consisting of) 
eignt-Kundred betel-leaves; on each head-load, a bundle (consisting of) four-hundred betel- 
leaves. 

(LI. 36-38.) ilSJara B"SgadSvayya 9 Haradara Ssntayya, Mandeyara MSkanayya, and 
TJbbarada. Bamma'yya, these four, having offered worship at the feet of the Hundred of 
Siveyagdri, purchased (of them) and assigned to the god Andhasura as a sarva-namasya holding 
four inattar below the Kadaku Tank within the waste-land pasuge. 

(V. 18.) In Puli, which is renowned in the world, the whole company of gods is grief- 
stricken. if a morsel (of sacrificial food) should enter the flames in fiery glow with crackling 
sound, without coming to Andhasura. 

(LI. 40-41,) On the holy day on which occurred Monday s the fnll-moon of the bright 
f ortniglit of Sravana in the cyclic year Ghitrabhsnu, the seventh of the (regnal) years of 
hail I : the blest Kalachitrya Emperor Trifohuvanamalladeva/ together with an eclipse 
of the moon, 

(III. 41-44.) Jflsnaiaktid^va, the Acharya of the establishment of the god AndbJ,8tir, 9 
having adored with (offering of) Money the Thousand, headed by the mayor, of the great 
Agrah&ra of Pfili, purchased arid ^assigned for the god's baths and oblations seven maUar in the 

* Namely lla and the Sum, 

a Z,al&a#avaliffe : 'the word kavaUge means a 't quantity embraced 5 a pack or bundle of betel or plantain- 
leaves, etc." (Kittel, s.v,) 

a gee Dyit. Kanar, DMr ., p. 47^. 



196 EPIGRAPFIA INDICA. [ .For,. XVIII. 



waste-land hasuge of Kokkuliggri ; the aru~vana for it is one liana on each maitar. As regards 
t"he hounds of the field, the northern Tbonnd is from the field of the god Gskarngsvara, on the 
south from the field of (the god) of the Ajjavas, 1 on the north-east the fata, of Kattiyagen, on 
the west the sat a of Raviyani. 

(LI. 44-47.) Hail ! The Thousand, headed by the mayor, assigned to the god Andhasura 
(or baths and ohlations eight mattar as a sarva^ncttnasya holding in the hasuge of the Lower (?) 
Meld. As regards its bounds, the eastern bound is the Goldsmiths' Field, the southern bound 
the hill, the western bound the saufi, the northern bound the sat a of Ghaisasageri. 

(LI. 47-48.) On the uttarayana-samJcr&nti, Monday, the full-moon of the bright fortnight 
of Pushya in the cyclic year Rrodfai, the second of the (regnal) years of hail ! the 
Chi>}ukya Emperor S6mSvaradeva, 

(LL 48-52.) The Hundred of KalaJavalligSri and the Thousand (of Puli), together with 
the Samaya-chakravarttl Kalidevayya Setti, assigned to the god Andhasura for baths and 
oblations a (?) mattar as a sarva-namasya holding in the first grounds of the waste-land ha suye o 
Kokkuligeri, in exchange for a field of fourteen mattar belonging to Mairavana. 3 Its bounds 
are on the east from the sat a of Raviyanageri ; its northern bound the highroad of Bnragutti ; 
its eastern bound the ata of KattiyagSri ; its southern bound the road of the Edava's river. 5 * 
This pious foundation the Thousand shall protect. 

(L. 53,) On Monday the eighth of the bright fortnight of Jyishtha in the cyclic year 
Tirana, the 1146th year of hail ! the auspicious Saka era, 

(LI. 53-56.) Hail ! Endowed with all virtues, worshippers of the divinely blest lotus-feet 
of the god TrikutSvara, the weavers' guilds of Pflli, in the presence of the mayor and the 
Thousand, granted with pouring of water a votive gift (?) to VSmasaktidevag the Acharya of 
the establishment of the god Ajidhasura, for the business of the god : for each household, on 
every gold-piece , . , 

IV -OF THE BEIC2OT OF VIKBAMABITYA VI : SAKA 1020. 

This is an inscription on the upper part of a black stone -found standing in the mandapa on 
the southern side of the entrance Into the adytum of the temple of Kere-Siddhappa. The lower 
paii of the stone, with the Inscription from 1. 31 onwards, has been broken away and lost. 
What remains. Is 3 ft. S| in. high and 1 ft. 8| in, wide. It has a rounded top, on which are 
sculptures, ufc. in the centre a linga ; to the proper right of this, a squatting figure, possibly 
Siva or a YSgl ; to the left of the linga, a cow with calf; over the cow, a scimitar; above these, 
the sun (to right of lingo) and moon (to left). The inscribed area below this is 2 ft. 2| in. high 
and 1 ft. 8| In, broad. Tlie character is good Kanareae of the period, with letters about | In. 
high; which, however, become smaller as the inscription goes on. The cursive v occurs in 
ryatip&tadalu, I, 26. The language is Sanskrit in the prelude (11. 1-3), and for the rest Old 
Kanarese. The I appears only as I, viz. in vogalvudd (I 14) and. pogafvud* (L 18). 

The record opens with two Sanskrit verses, the first of which is the formal Namas- 
tuihga , and the second the introductory stansa of KSlidasa's RagfavaMa (11. 1-3). It then 
refers itself to tbe reign of Trifc&uvanamalladeva, i.e. Viforamtiditya VI (11 4-7), and next In a 
series of verses extols the Belrala nadu, Pull, the Thousand of Pull, the Hundred'of Kalagavalli, 
gen, the Saiva dmne Siddiiesyara, and his disciple Somesvara, both of whom were Acharyas 

1 The Ajjava family is mentioned above, in inscr. D ? 



On th^ epithet efava see above, Tol. XY 3 p. 81, n. 7, 



;!.:!: Stone Inscription of the reign of Vikraniaditya VI : Saka 1029. 




SCALE ONE-THIRD 



WHfTTINQHAM & OfllOQS, 



Ko. 22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 197 

of the temple of Kalase^vara in Kalaavaliigerl (11. 7-24). Descending then into prose, it dhxonU 
cles a gift of land to this sanctuary by the Hundred of Kalagavalligeri in the midst of which it 
is broken off. 

The date of this record is given on 11. 24-26 as : Saka 1029 (expired), the cyclic year 
Sarvajit ; Pushya uddha 12, Budhavara (Wednesday) ; the uttarftyaQa-savtihrSnti. This is irre- 
gular, being another instance of the conflation of two distinct dates. The tUM Pushya iuddha 
12 corresponded to Saturday, 28 December, AJX 1107; it ended about 20 h. 11 m. 'after mean 
sunrise on Saturday, i>e* about 2,11 A.M. on Sunday. The wttarSyma-samkranti again 
occurred about 50 m. after mean sunrise soil. 6.50 A.M. on Wdnesday s 25 December. 

The places mentioned are Poll, the Belvala nadu (1. 9), KalasaYftlligeri (11. 16, 28), and 
Budragere (1. 30). The last cannot be identified. 



1 



TEXT. 

[The metres are as follows : Vv. 1, 2, Anushtub'h i v. 3, Qhaw,pakam*lS\ v. 4, MaitibJia- 
viJcrtdita ; Yv. 5-9, Kanda.'] 

Namastumga-iiraS-chumbi-chajfadra-ch5mara-oh.arav6 trail^Kya-nagar-lramlbha- 

2 la-stambhaya Sariibhave || [I 5 *] Vag-artthaviva sampriktau vlg-arttha- 
. pratipattaye [|*] 

3 jagatah pita[r]au yamdje Parvvatl-Parame^varau || [2*] Oi nania^ Sivl[ya ||] 

4 ujjj) Svasti [I*] Samasta-bhuvan-asraya Sri-Pyithvi-vallabha maharajadhiraja 

5 paramesvara paramabhattarakam Satyasraya-kula-tilaka Chsliiky-i- 

6 bharanam ^rlma[t*]-TribliiiTaiiamalladeva-vijaya--rajyani*ufctar-atta- 

7 r-abhivri (yri) ddhi-pravarddham anam^a-chamdr-arkka-t^raniL saluttam*ire H Sara* 

8 mdhi-mekhal-avrita-vasnndharey=eraba vilasinl-mukh-amburuha- 

9 da TSl^virajisuva Belvala.nalge podalda ^olsheg^Igaram^enis^irppa 

10 Puli tilak-akritiyimd*esedirppud*S puram Sura-puramam' K[u]- 

11 beran^Alaka-puramam nagugum vilasadim || [3*] Bhuvanarprastutar^-Ska-vSkya- 

12 r*achalarri~Ke3avaditya-tleva-vara^ 



13 maklrnna(rnB^a)-vanana(rnna)-vilasar=chchaturar=chchatu8'Same(n^ 

tur-VySda-Sa- 

14 stra-vichara-kshaniar=emdad*e vogalvudS sSsirvrara khyatlyaifa- || [4^] 

15 Alii [| Viditaih (ta)-rI-Puli-pura-Yadan-al5kana-sudarppa^ar=tt5v*enipa- 

16 rssad-amala-charitar=guna-ga9a-sadanarenalw Kalasa(a)Yallige'nya ntl* 

17 rwarw || [5^] Alliy=acharyyaru || Snana-]apa-h5ma,*niyama-dhyan-a- 

18 nushtMna-Ila-tatparanani sad(j)-jSana-nidhi mana-nidhiya-emd-Smaikdade 

pogalvud=a- 

19 vani Siddhesvaranaiii || [6*] Bauddh-irhata-Samkhyaya-b3d[lih]dhyigal^md^[m] 

20 ba birudu samdudu jagadol^SiddM^vara-paiBditargaBatyuddhata-vad^ibha-siiiiliarspe- 

21 ne mechchadar=arfc || [7*] Avara sishyaru || Agha-dHrarmunilvaraaiuik 

jaghamnyam (nya) -yati-ta- 

22 tiyol=emdu sapaan*en=abar]?:ku laghu-guna-rahitam bhuvanado 

nishthit-atma-So- 

1 From the ink- impression. 

2 The to, was omitted by the engraver and then added below the line. 

* Corrupt : the true reading may perhaps be saMhy-ayana' (taking ayana as equivalent to 
Ed], 



198 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIII. 



23 mSsvsraimih || [8*] Jalaaidhi-parita-vasisdliataladoltt nai8MMka~muni(m)svar- 

aradhyam ri-Kala- 

24 ss4a-dva-p[a*]da-kamala-b1iriinga Some^vara-bratliam stutyam 1 |f [9*] Svasti [j*] 

Srimach-Chhaka-varsfia 

25 1020neya Sarv^ajitte-samvatsarada Pushyarsuddlia 12 Bndlaavaradaiti- 

26 duttarayana-,8amkram.ti-vyatipatadaln tomaii-mah-agrahararii 

2 7 Puliyur-odeya'pramiiklia-sasiryvarmmaliajaiLariigala samnidhinadalu 

28 irlmatw-Ka]asa(sa)vallig6'i^ srimatt*-KaJe(!a)^- 

29 svara-devara fkliai3a]d[a*spliiitita-j!r2in(rnn)-5dd]iarakkam nivdyakkavailiya tapd- 

dha*nar=aharar 
80 [danakkaml ........ ^ej[y]i Budragegeya mattam nalka 

kamina* 

TEAHSLATIOH. 

(Verse 1 : identical with v. 1 of inscription D. above.) 

(V. 2.) For attainment of words and ideas I adore ParvatS and Parame"vara, the 
parents of the universe, who are united like word and idea. 8 

(L. 3.) Om I Homage to Siva 1 

(LI 4-7.) When the victorious reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole world, 
favourite of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament 
of Satyasraya's race, embellishment of the Ch&lukyas, king Tribbuvanamalladeva, was 
advancing in a course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sun, and 
stars : 

(V. 3.) Puli, which may well "be called a mine of brilliant beauty, displays itself in 
tne form of a beauty-spot on the county of Be^vala, which is radiant like the lotus-face of 
tnat graceful lady the acean-girdled Earth. This town by its elegant appearance laughs to 
scorn the eity of the Grods and Kubra*s city of Alaka. 

(V. 4.) As they are known as being praised throughout the world, uniform of speech, 
unwavering, receiving all good fortune from the boons of the blest god KeSavaditya, having 
the splendour of their ^praises diffused through the whole of space, skilful, worshipped in the 
four churches,* competent for the study of the four Vexlas and books of instruction, what 
praise can befit the renown of the Thousand ? 

(L. 15.) In that (town)- 

(V.5.) The Hundred of Kalasavalligeri are indeed goodly mirrors to view the face 
of the famed and* blest town of PflH, being men of good stainless conduct, seats of numerous 



fL. 17.) The AchSryas there 

(V. 6.) The earth with delight praises Siddheivara, who is devoted to the practice 
of bathing, prayer, oblation, minor disciplines, and contemplation, as a treasure of goodly 
knowledge, a treasure -of dignity. 

CV. 7.) -The title of instructor in Buddhist, Jain } and Snkhya& doctrines is applied in- 
the world to BiddhSSvara-Pandita ; who are there that do not laud him as a lion to those 
elephants the exceedingly haughty disputants ? 

The defective metre *Sews ttat tfce text is wrong. The most likely emendation &eems to be - 



. 

* Line SO n<is wHh tbis word. Towards .the end of line 31 the tops ol a few lefeters are viable, bnt ao4 
one letter la the line is complete. The rest of the stone, ig lost, 

* Thw in the opening verse of KaHdasa's 

* gee aboire, on huer. B , 1 10. 



22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HUM. 199 



(L. 21.) His disciple 

(V. 8.) "When {can there be) even a great saint remote from guilt in the series of 
recent ascetics, who is his equal ? Can he match 1 Sdmesvara, who is void of vain qualities 
and whose spirit is devoted to prayer to Aghdra ? 

(V. 9,) On the sea-encompassed earth the great ascetic Sdmesvara is adored by devout 
saints, a bee to the lotus-feet of the blest god Kalasa, highly honoured. 

(LI. 24-26.) On Wednesday, the twelfth of the bright fortnight of Pusliya in the cyclic 
year Sarvajit, the lO29th (year} of hail ! the auspicious Saka era-, during a ryaffpflfo* 
in the uttarayana-scifhkrant'i,~ 

(LI. 26-30.) In the presence of the Thousand Mahajanas, headed by the mayor, of 
the great AgrahSra of Pflli, the full Hundred Mahajanas of Ka}aavalligri [assigned] for the 
restoration of broken, burst, and outworn (masonry of the temple) of the god Kalas*esvara, 
for oblations, and for the supply of food to the ascetics of the place . , a field, four 
mattar . . . hamma of Rudragere ...... 

a. OP THE BBIGN OF VIKEAMADITYA VI : THE 322TO YBAB. 

This is a y$ra-gal } which was found by Dr. Fleet lying between two stones of the same class, 
one of them "being the inscription A. above, lying to the north of the Bhlmesvara temple. It was 
removed by Mm into the porch of another temple which stands a few yards to the north of the 
BhlmSlvara, and for which the villagers had no certain name, though they inclined to. call it 
the TarakesVara. The stone is 6 ft. 2 in. high (not reckoning the tenon at its base) ; its breadth 
is 1 ft. 9 in, at the first line of writing, and 2 ft. 1 in. at the base. The basis in which it ori- 
ginally stood has been lost. It is divided into seven compartments, four containing sculptures 
and the intermediate three the text. . The uppermost compartment, which is rounded at the top 9 
lias in the centre a ling a in a shrine ; on the proper right of this is GangSa seated and facing 
iull front, with a worshipper at his right knee. On the proper left of the ling a axe three wor* 
shippers, and there are three more round the upper part of the compartment. Below this aro 
lines 1-4 of the text. The compartment next below these has in its centre the figures of three 
seated goddesses, facing full front ; to the proper right is a female dancing, and on the left a 
seated female playing on a lute. Above these are eight females "standing in a row, who hold 
chowries. Underneath this come lines 5-6 of the text. The compartment immediately below 
the latter has at its centre a male figure in movement, with his arms on the shoulders of two 
females, one at each side of him ; in each of the four corners is a group of three figures, also in 
motion. Below these are lines 7-10 of the text. In the lowest compartment is a figure of a man 
shooting arrows from a bow ; he faces half front and half to the proper left. Two corpses are 
lying under his feet. Facing him are two horsemen and three archers, and behind him BX& 
two or three archers shooting at the other party ; and behind these again, in the upper proper 
right corner, are twelve cows running away. The character is good Kanarese of the period ; 
the letters are generally fr-f in. high. The language is Old Kanarese The japp. as if 
1. 10). Of some lexical interest are the words Vaddavara, 1. 2 (cf. above, Vol. All, 
L 3 1, mSfad**}, 1. 9, and anuvara, 1. 9.* _ __ _ ^ 



i ^translation is Used upon tie assumption that afiat** ii the same as amarkt* But this is not quite 

certain, and the word is perhaps corrupt. 

A 1*5^0 in which the declination of sun and moon is the same. mi..^ 18<m as Jealaaa 

4n.ara is glossed in Gangadhara IbkhnlMiw Tarmari's aW<ma7< (Dharw.vr, 1890) M te a 

- WD^lI I prl*y right. But neither the word itself nor the verb a 

1 0<!0 translates if BeUcting; making (anything) one's special aim," ana he 

ignoring the explanation of the aldaiafyari. 



200 EPIGRAPH! A INDICA. [VoL, XVI II. 

The record itself is of a type common on monuments of the kind. It begins by referring 
itself to tie 82nd year of the Ciaalukya-Vikrama era 9 i.e. of the reign of Vikramaditya VI, 
and thea relates in prose that a certain Torapara Butayya carried off cows belonging to Piili,. 
and thereupon Gangara Bosi (Bosiga) and his messmate and comrade Peyuv* Malli (Malliga) 
made a brave attempt to recover them, in which they perished. Each of these heroes has a verse 
devoted to his praise. 

The Torapas are mentioned as enemies of the Hundred-and-four Mahajanas of B5ri in an in- 
scription of Ron of Saka 1102 which is also being published by me in this Journal. It styles the 
latter Tofapa-kulstiitakawwn. -Apparently they were a race of bandits. 

The date of the inscription is given on 11. 1-2 as : the 32nd year of the ChaJ.ukya-Vikrama 
era, the cyclic year Sarvajit ; Sravana "bahula 5, Vaddavara (Saturday). This is regular. The 
given tithi corresponded to Saturday, 10 Atigust 9 A.D. 1107, on which it began about 3 h 
50 m. before mean sunrise. 

The only place mentioned is Pali (11. 3, 7). 

TEXT. 1 
[The metre is Kanda."] 

1 Om s [I s *] Svasti [|*] Srimach-CMlukya-Vikrama-kalada 82neya Sarvvaji- 

2 t-samvatsarada &Svana-bvhi4a 5 Vad^avfiradamdu 

3 Torapara Btitayyam PHliya tura^am kondajje 3 ta- 

4s lara-nayakarix Q-amgara B6siyiiT=atanodian-iLriida keje- 

5 yam Peruva Malliyiim tuyuvig=addlani bamdu mel-alum kudureyu- 

6 maa=iridu palaram komdu sfiryya-mamdalamam bhojisidar || 

7 Torapar=idir*etti PHliya turuvam kole kamdu Bosiga[ lii] pagevaran=ant=i- 

8 ridu Divi]emdra-puradol*meredam ni3a-vikrama-pratap-6nnatiy[i*]m || [1*] 

9 Odan-um<Ja keleyanam samgaJad=alam melad=alananuvarad 3s edeyol bida- 

10" l=agad*emdu Bosigan^odan^alidarii Malligam pratap-Snnatiyim || [2*] Q/ Q/ 

TEAHBLATIOK. 

(Lines 1-2.) On Saturday, the 5th of the dark fortnight of SrSvana in the cyclic year 
Sarvajifc, tlie 32nd (year) of hail 1 the auspicious CMlukya-Vikrama era, 

(LI. 3-6.) When Torapara BUtayya had seized cows belonging to Ptili, the chief beadle 
G^angaxa B5si and Ibis messmate Peruva Malli stepped in the way of the cows, smote the leader 
and (Ms) horse, slew many, and enjoyed the orb of the sun. 4 

(Verse 1.) When the Toyapas, making an assault, carried off the cows of PUli, B5siga, seeing* 
it, confronted tlie* foemen, smote them, and became brilliant in the city of the Lord of Gods by 
the high degree of Ms valour and nobility. 

1 Fiom the inJc-impressiois. 

3 The om is denoted "by a somewhat fantastic figure, apparently based upon tbe SankTia symbol, 
$ Tlj :" ,' : ., '-ii- to Lave first written Icondede, and then cancelled the firs* e. 

* Tl.lj means that they were kiljed in the battle and their souls were carried up to the Valhalla of fallen 
heroes in the sum Cf* the well-known verse J)vdv=imau gurushau loke $%rya~fflandala~b&$d'inQu |j 
, fane fura-multfte 



STo. 22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 201 

(Y. 2.) Saying " I cannot leave my messmate, my associate my comrade on the field 
of battle," Malliga perished together with Bosiga "by reason of the high degree of his nobility, 

Ho OF THE REIGN OF VIKBAMA'DITYA VI 

This is a fragment of a Jain record. It is cut on the upper part of a uiack stone which* was 
found lying in the courtyard of the Panchalinga temple, and was placed by Dr. Fleet for secu- 
rity in the sablia-mandapa of the sanctuary. The lower part of the slab was lost. The 
remainder was 2 ft. 7^ in. high and 2 ft. 8 in. broad. The topmost compartment, which was 
rounded, contained sculptures, viz. in the centre a squatting Jina (Parvanatha ?) facing full 
front, with a canopy of inflated cobras' hoods over his head, in a shrine, and having below him 
a pedestal with a floral device and on each side of it a lion ; to his proper right a cow and calf ; 
to his left a scimitar; above him, to the left, the sun and moon. The inscribed area beneath 
this is 1 ft. 4 in. high and 2 ft. 7J in. broad. The character is good Kanarese, with letters of 
about | in. high. The language is Sanskrit (verses 1-4 and 6) and Old Kanarese (verses 5, 7-17 
and prose). As regards the latter, we may note that I is not found ; it appears as I (pogalvinam 
1. 4, podalda, 1. 10, pogalut**, 1. 20) andr (ndrppajanie, 1. 9, norppcufe, 11. 10, 11, negardda, 1. 18). 
The words jagadalam, 1. 17, liriikad^amka, 1. 19 (see above, on inscr. B., 1. 14), and kal-vesarii 
1. 21 may be noticed. 

The records after the usual Jain prelude, extols in poetry the Ga^iadhara Sudharman, 
Bathiibalin, the famous Jain divine of the Kandtm-G-ana of the Yspaniya-Sangha, Subha- 
chandra and Maunideva, of the same Gana, and Maghanandin (11. 1-5). 1 Then it refers itself 
in prose to the reign of Tribhuvanamalladeva (Vikramaditya VI), whom it lauds in verse (11* 
6-9), thence proceeding to extol in verse Knntaja, possibly Belvala, and Ptli with its Thousand 
Mahajanas (11; 9-15). It next gives the titles of an otherwise unknown raja named Pitta, who 
afcyled himself " Lord of Kolala, best of cities " (11. 15-17J, and adds in verse that he had four 
sons, Perma, Bijja or Bijjala 9 KTrtti, and Gorma, and a daughter, Mailaladevi ; Bijjala slew 
certain kings, and had some relations (a lacuna prevents us from -knowing what they were) with 
king Jayasimha of the Gurjarashtra, possibly the Paramara Jayasimha of Matws, who 
'flourished about 1055 A.D. (11. 19-20). A mutilated verse speaks of Rvakanirma<Ji as sister 
of king ICanhara, comparing to her SiriySdevi as sister of somebody else (1. 20). We then 
learn that Bijjala built a Jain sanctuary, which possibly may be the Panchalinga, and appa- 
r&utly that he or somebody else granted to it a place named Pergummi(P). The rest is lost. 

The reference to Bevakanirmadi and- Kanhara is interesting. Kanhara is the Eashtra- 
kuta Krishna III, and Revakanirmacli was his elder sister j she married the G-anga Satyavakya 
Butnga H 9 who succeeded between 933 and 940 A-.D. 3 This fact, and the titles " Gaogeya of 
tke Gangas " and " lord of K^lalapura," indicate that Pitta was a scion of the Ganga family, 

The places mentioned, besides Puli, are Kuntala (1. 9), Kolalapura, i.e. Kolhapur 3 (1. 16) , 
the G-urjarashtra, -i.e. Gajarat (1. 19), Belvala (1. 22), .Pergummi (*.), and MSnikya-tlrttha 
(1. 24). 



1 Bahutoalin is well known. MagbaUamUn and Subhacbaudra may conceivably be the same as the divine.; so 
named who are mentioned in Inscr. Sraoana J9^o/a, Nos. 404, 48, 45-9, 59,64-5, 144, and J. -4., Vol. XIV 
p. 82. A Maunada Bbattara is mentioned in Inscr. Srav. Belgola, No. 6.. 

a %p. Ind., Tol. VI,' p, 71 ; cf. ib., Vol. IV, p. 352, and y*. Kanar. JDisfr.,^. 304 The Gawarwad in6eri|). 
tion previously published by me speaks of Butuga as RSvakanirmmadiya vallalbam (L 15) j so does the Anniperi 
record which is almost identical. 

[Kolalapura is only an epigraphic variant of Kuvalalapnra wbicb has been identified with KSlar, th0 etaf 
tow ot the Kolar dietricl in th east of Mysore. See 3omb. flfaa. Vol. I. Part H, pp. S97-8.a.J 

2o 



202 EPIGEAPHIA INDIOA. [Vol. XVIII, 



[The metres are as follows: V. 1, Anushtubh; VT. 2, 3, 6, Trishtubh fy&/0#; v, '4 
Jirytsgiti (?) ; w. 5,12,13, 16, Kanda\ v. 7, Mahasragdhara* vv* 8, 15, Cham^kamS & . 

vv 9, 14, UtpalamSl&i vv. 10, 11, 17, HattebbaviMdita.'] 

1 [Srimat-pamma-gambM]ra-syadvad-gm5gha-lamcbcliiiaBam [| *] jiya[t*]=traildkya- 
natkasya iasanam Jina-sasanam ^) [1*J Srl-Vlra-Mtliasya 

SudJaarmma-nama 



[w v w w] Tapawye sa[fighS] pnnas-tatra cha ct.arti-margga j^ 
[2 s *] Kan4Qra-vik!iyata-gan0 babkSvuli pura nmnlihdrS baliavd maha(P) 



3 [w w w w]d 2 -alka-simli5 munifivarfl BShubali babhnva ^ [3 s *] Jayatu 

m^a^^ 



8 paraga budlia-vimitah ^) [4*] 

ggan-5bdli!-chamdramar=e3?id=i ksMti--vale(la)yaiii 

lm6.(HmaTi)ni[de]- 



5 [vapdiTya-munnhdra]^ @ [5*] Sri-lfag|iaiiaiiidi.bratinatliara=ide 

a[ra]ga-yainatyam [|*] nam[n]-avanipalaka,yiddlia-kl[r*]tti[m*J si[ddb]antMa[ttv]- 

fcnnava-purnna-clia[nidraih ^ ] [6*] 

6 [Svasti [|] Samasta-blinYaln-gsrayam gn-Pri(Pri)tlivi.vallabliam wOiSrVAdliirtjftriiLl 

pammisva^m paramabhattSmkam Satyassraya-feuMilakam Chaluky-abliarana^ 

irimat-TribliuTaiiainalla- " " " 



7 [devara nw*]-i&wm^tto^^ 

saluttam^ ( K^it%=ella^ taniia teiari^ tolagi feelage 



8 ^ "^ ^ > sale tann^arppu lokakke 



w v v - Vikrajmsdityadgva [?*] Jaladhi-parita.bhntala-vadttx- 

t:ge kumte^mdadim t manam-golisuvud-emta nOrppadame Kutiatala- 

desiim^vaCda)]^? clmma-pflgala te fa d=amte ramjis[ v V ]' ' 

V - V w -]tta6 taauktik-ayaliya podalda harada ypl-irppndu 

nerppade 



v V 



he iok-ii$pr9ston. 
1 It is doabtful whether this is d or *. 
Tlie fo is up* quite certain. 



* % ?owel before f^ ffia ^ b^ eithey a or o. 



No. 22.] ______=_ 

11 r w - ^ ^ - ( ?)poda]lda VSdamgale mfirtti-gom4ud=eBip^mdadal- 

oppuva viprarimde gramamgala dhakravarttiy^d-Wdudu nOrppade Pah 
lileyim @, [9*] Mattam=alliya viprara maHmey=e[nt=emdode] [1*1 

12 r ' w w v_,]plthan=enipa Sri-Krishna- devam savistaadim 

taim" S ahasram=appa pesaram rap-ag-iral* madi s-akshara-V^d-akshara-^a- 
mamtra-chayamam tlv-ittu Pn-li-malia-pura[- w wj 

1% r w w esedar]=ssasirvvar*imt*urvTiyoltt ^ [^ J pam-a 

pempu gunamaudaryyam chalam sahasam japa-hemam aiyamam mah-Snnatika- 

satyarii ^aucliain i =aj_"~ g " ^^ """"J -, -. > 

14 fw w ^ ^ ^] sastrad=odavim to-Kfifiavfidityardfiva-pad-ambHOja- 

. , j i t& m^l Hari kile-neleyim 

vara-prasadar=esedar=ssasirwar=imt=urvviyolw (gf L iJ - J 

clia(?ba)lisida hari-bada-bettim t 

15 ' . kk=emdu nirakaripndu sasirvyar^nchitade chalita-vacliaiiam 

' (^[12*]"svasty=anavarata-vmamad-Ama[ra]-rajat4i(^ 

charan-aravimda-ma trawtitava 

16 .... [ohala]d^uttaraih ? a ^) Vlra-Tidvislita-saihharana-pratapa-Karttikeya 

' A 'oathga-Gsmgeya ^ Chapala-vairi-vaMm-samhanana-prataprfamk^aram 



/^J K51a'la-p[iiravar-3dliisvaram ^ J 

1? [emt-em]dode <g Mamdalika^jagadalam mar-kkomdara 

Javanarttlii-ianake kalpa-malii(lii)jarii gamdara 

w w w ~ w ] puttidar=oppe 

18 [O - w w w ^ ^^ e ^, v Jirtti-bKupanum ]*ttig& aormmanuA 

gi |_ v *^ J 



-] 



Mattam [- 



limkad=amK:aQ !ss ari-uiJ.uLijj.uja JJ . * tave Kom 

dharanlgvaranam nija-raiya-lakshmiyolt, padu[w - ^ J ^ - ^ _ ^ _ p]o . 

1X^7 BiiJaTa-bMmipalan^""' [15*] Mattam BevaJca- 
nirmma4i KarixnUaradeyarfag-emt-^kkan-amte bhft-nute Siriy[adevi] ^. 

[@] [16*] [^ ^ - '-'' w W 

ijiU^A ^a^sa-^tha^lam" m^dad^ madli kal-vesam samesi- 
d[ - ^ ^ -] ^ 

22Tww w ^-w-^^^~ ^ _ 

* * ...,_. j.j. ^^^_4*AT-vo "pAfSTfifiininii 

w w] dim bitta [w - ^J 



21 




204 EPIGEAPHIA ISTDICA. [VOL. XVIII, 



TKANSLATIOH* 

(Verse 1 ; identical with verse 1 of inscription B. above.) 

(V, 2.) There was a Ganadhara of the blessed Vira, named Sudharman, who had cast 
away ..*.,, and again in this Yapaniya-Sangiiaj which is "beautiful in Its conduct, 

(Y. 8.) In the Gana, known as that of Kan^fir there were formerly many great saints 
...... there was the great saint BShubali* a lion . 

(V. 4.) Victorious be SubhacIiaiLdrade*v&, a sun to the lotus-park of the KamjOJ 1 - 

a ... to the terrible tridanda 1 . . . renowned among sages. 

(V. 5.) As the circling earth extols him as a moon to -the ocean of the famous 
Karkiur-G-ana in the renowned Yapaniya-Sanglm, the great and holy saint Maunideva rose 
to eminence. 

(V, 6.) I adore that lord of ascetics the blest BCsghanandin, a Garuda to the dread- 
ful serpent Kamari, 2 whose fame is attended by bowing inonarchs, and who was a full-moon to 
the ocean of the principles of doctrine. 

(LI. 6-7.) When the victorious reign of- hail ! the asylum of the whole world, 
favourite of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, -supreme Master, ornament of 
Satyasraya's .race, embellishment of the Cfcalukyas, king TribhuvanamaUadeva, was advanc- 
ing in a course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sun, and stars : 

(V. 7.) As his splendour shines radiantly over all the earth, his" authority dances upon 
[the heads ?] of Cfcdla kings, his power in truth as it were bears fruit equally with the Tree of 
Desire for the world, and he, being bom in the Kali age ... in the company of Raghu's 
son and other monarchs . . . king Vikramaditya, 

(V, 8.) How dott the land of Kuntala, even as one looks, fascinate the mind by its 
semblance of a lock of curls (on the head) of tytt lady the ocean -encompassed Earth ! . . . 
i^ resplen^tot after the manner of golden flowers. Pull, when one looks, is in its graceful aspect 
like a conspicuous string of , . . threaded pearls. 

(L. 10.) Moreover, 

( T" 9 :J P ^*> when one observ es, appears as an emperor of towns in its gracefal 
aspect, with golden pinnacles, with bright temples, with comely public women . . . with 
Biahmw so stately tbat the . . . VSdas seem to be incarnate in them. 

(L. 11.) Moreover, as regards the eminence of the local Brahmans : 



Wh is abasis > - - ^^ abundantly caused 

form ' a " d:ricllly stowed a mu ltitude 



fl A 

tLjf ^^ 
thus the Thousand [are eminent] on earth * - 



(V. 12 : mostly illegible.) 




him '^ ia [^passioned beel 
radiaat diadLs of . ceaselessly 



'"'**^' bntthe cont x -* ^KB^ts here the meaning "- 

f ^ n 



No - 22 INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 

bowing celestials, who is a lintel of tieh- 

** ** . <** of ., o, lg ,,, , S 

unsteady foemen, the Lord of Kolsja, best of cities : ^nattering the 

(V. 13.) Ajagadala of governors, a Death-god to adversaries, . a Tree of Desire to 

on to 

(L. 17.) Moreover, 

(V. 14.) . . , there were bom with distinction king Perma kinff Biiia 
KIrtti, the wrestler Gorma, and Mailaladevi, thus forming a group in beTt^y . 

(V. 15.) As he slew hostile kings of the liridcad-aihka* * '*>" . 

JayaBiihhadeva of the Gurjara kingdom in, bis own rojal fortune ...... ffL S 

praises king Bij jala. ..... Ltlie WorM J 

(L. 20.) Moreover, 

C X- 16>) AS Bgvakani na4i ^as the sister of king Kanhara, so the 



(V 17) Sayin g :^TmI 7 a^^^^ 



I v. I/ j baying: I mly a mother-house , king Bijjala, having with 

joy constructed (images. of) the twenty-four Tlrthas, prepared a building of stone 
granted the beautiful Pergnmmi in Belvala, * * * 

I. ON NAG-ARASFS COLUMN. 

This is an inscription on the eastern face of the south-western column of the four central 
columns in the outer mantfapa of the Panchalinga temple. The face of the column is 9| fo 
high and I ft. 5} in. wide ; the whole of it is covered by the writing, which runs over the 
margin to about an inch round it There are no sculptures. The character is good Kanarese 
with letters of about f in, high. The language is Old Kanarese, mostly verse. 

The purport of the inscription is to. record the construction of the column by the Saiva 
divine N&ga*si 9 a disciple of Jfisnasaiti probably the same JnlnaSakti who was introduced 
in inscription B. above, and to laud their merits. 

TEXT. 4 
[The metres are : V. 1, Mattebhavikniftta ; v, 2, Kanda."] 

Tanag=I 




2 dhasnram janata-bhasuran=anat-asura-narem- 

3 dr~aradhyan=aradhyan=olpina Kalamukha- 

4 darppanam nl(ni)ja-guru ^ri-JfiSiiasakt!jan*e- 

5 ndene vidya-nidhi M"agarSsiyan*adimna vam- 

6 gnlpam bannipaih || [li*] Yele-veldimgala kamti- 

7 ya balagaman*ola-komd.a ns(ni)ja-ya- 

8 go-ruehiyim bht-valayakk*anTiraktateyarii 

9 . taledam ^ri-isrgarli;si3r*enag*idti chitram || [2*] 
10. garasidevarm ma4isidar=i kambamam ]| 



a Karna or Bhislime,, [Bather the latter foT Karna was not a Qaisgeya~~EcL] 

* Soe above, on inscr. B., L 14. 8 The TirtliaAkarafl or Jinafii, " * ^>m the iaS:*jmjireiioa, 



EPIGBAPHIA INDIOA. [ToL. XVIIl 



TBANSLATIOB. 

(Verse 1.) As lie had (for deity) Andha&ura of tMs Southern Benares, the great town of 
FGli, for Ms master ike blest lord Jfigna^akti, who is resplendent among men, an aradhya 1 
adored % bow lag monarchs of demons and men, an excellent mirror of Kalamukha (doctrine) 
can a panegyrist now find words to laud the treasure of learning, Nagara~si P 

(V. 2.) By the lustre of his fame, which possesses the mass o loveliness of the young 
moon,, the West HSgarasi has gained the affection of the circle of earth : this is singular to 
me.* " 

(Lines 9-10.) NagarSsideva caused this column to be made. 

JV ON MADI-GATTDA'S COIiUMH. 

TMs is an inscription on the eastern face of the next column to the south of the column 
which contains inscription I. The inscribed face is 1 ft. 2| in, high and 1 ft. 5 in- wide. 
It has no sculptures. The character is good Kanarese, with letters about | in. high. The 
language is Kanarese, the verse being in the older dialect and the prose medieval, 

The object is to record that the .column was presented by M5diGau4a eon of BseM-Setti 
and lay-disciple of the KSgarasI mentioned in inscription I., and to sing the praises of-'Madi 
and his master, 

TEXT. 3 
[ The metre is 




Suvidita-bhoga-bhOginige BhSgale-nSrige Ba"~ 

2 cM-Settig=uibhavisida sunn dana-Bavi-sunu 

3 vaGho"-Mbu]a^ia:aii sad-guna-pravarana 

4 HSgarasi-munirljana si(si)ksheya sunu 

5 !5kadolKavadiya MSiii-Gau^anaesevam 

6 mahl(hi)-mastakarvastu-iiayakani || [1*] Guru gara- 

7 $n j| KavadM(iii)ya M5di-Gsu4a mad.[if]si ko- 

8 ttaa-S kambhava (1 



(Verse 1.) Illustrioiis in i^e world, a master 'of treasure at he head of the earth 'is 
^aXUi-Gtoo4a, who Is the- son born to the lady Bh%ale 9 the enpyer of famous 

delights, and to Bachi-Sefci, m& who is in bounty a son of the Sun [Kama], a Son of the Lotus 
P^hmim^ m speech, a son of the teaching of the king of saints, ttffgarstii, who is eminent in 

good qualities, 

(Lines 6-8.) The Maoris onr refuge. Kavadiya MsdirGhmcJa cdhsed this oolamn to 

tse maae and gave it. 

K. BECOBD OF MABTTAKTDA 



No. 22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 20? 

crouching demon, with Sarasvatl on her rigfct, another goddess on her left, and the eight Dik- 
palas in a ro^ above her ; the rest of the stone is filled in with figures of lions and other 
creatures, and on each side is a large makara, or sea-monster; as our inscription states. The 
inscription runs along the bottom of the beam, covering an area 2 in. high and 6 ft. 2| in. broad. 
The character is Kanarese, of about the same date as Nos. I, and J. ; the letters are generally 
between f in, and | in. high. ' The language is Old Kanarese verse. The I appears in fakhidano 
(1. 1), which seems to be an error for t$r<Achidano, and is replaced by I in $>ogalad*= (L2)- 
&wth (L 2) is archaic. 

The objeqt of the inscription is to celebrate the beauty of the archway above mentioned, 
on the beam of which it is engraved. We learn that the archway was constructed at the 
instance of Jnstaa^akti, whom we have already encountered in Nos. E. and I. above. The third 
verse praises the virtues of Marttanqla, who may possibly have been a disciple of this sage ; his 
connection with the work is not clear, but conceivably he may have caused the inscription to be 
added some time after the construction of the archway. 

TEXT, 1 
[The metres are : V. 1, MaJiasragdhara ; v. 2, PritJm; v, 3, Mattekhavikrtdita.] 

Im^jiBh* Idan=atyanandadinda[m] samedano Kamala-prddbhavam Vi^atetrmrnaife 

if 

mudadim rne$=int=idam tllch[i]dano s makara-yugm-anvitam. tSranam gattidana 
men prat^ag-SfiS-patiy-idon-ene sayvvrQrvvi-iobha-vibhuty-aspadam-int^ Jnanasakti- 
vrati sam[e]yisida[m] . [ w WJlpad^eniuin || ^ [1*] ^*- 
~ - 1 -i * - i i i i j. ; 1 "igi fmalka^ 



ra-dvayam Wbb.ey[i*]m manam-golise madid=l makara-tSranajh dMtnyol 
vinfltataram-imt-idaih pogalad-irppan-avom gadam || [2*] Hara-pad-Smbuja- 
shatpadam [w w w ] var(d?)-Ibha-pamchananani durit-Srvvidhara-vajran- 
nj[f]vala-[v - - - V ]rat[n]a[karam v w -]I rati-duran 
ishta-janat-adharam. kala-kSvidam gumi-bhak[t]am niyam-Oktan-mnbudan-enal 



(Verse 1.) Ha^ .the Lotus-born (Brahman) In exceeding delight fashioned this, or km 
ViSvakarman with joy executed this, or has the lord of the western region [Varuna] constructed 
this archway adorned with a pair of sea-monsters ? Such a site of the munificence of the whole 
eartih'B splendours is that which this ascetic ft&nafiatti has caused to be fashioned . . . m 



way. 

(V. 2.) This archway (adorned} with sea-monsters, which has been made so that the 
yery numerous images of the Lotus^born (Bmhman), Bhava (Siva), and (tie god) of the Navel- 
lotus (Vishnu) are most charming and the pair of sea-mof*sters with their ^elegance delight the 
paiad, is very famous 03 eaf th : so ^ho indeed is there that does not praise it ." 

(V. 3.) As one may state the fact ti^at he is a bee to Hara's -lotus.feet, a lion to the 
elephants . . . disputants (?), a thund^telt to- the mountains of -am, a Fwel^mme of 
brilliant . . . remote from carnal love, a support to agreeable persons, skilled in arts, 
to his master, ko.lditig speech byjmle,jowtortiiiiate is MSrttanda ____ ^ 

,...,, ...... , - ...... - - * : r- 2 AppMently meant for $wl$Udwo* 

1 From the ^-impression, ^vv*. i 



208 EPIGRAPH!! INDIOA. __ [VOL. XVIII, 

L. OP THE EBIGN OT BIJJALA : S AKA 1084. 

This inscription is engraved on a Hack stone which was found on the road outside the house 
known as the Viraktermatha, and was placet by Dr. Fleet for security in the sabhu-manjapa of 
the Pafichalioga temple. The height of the stone is 5 ft. 2 in. and the width 1 ft. 9| in. The 
rounded top bears sculptures, via. in the centre a standing Vishnu, facing full front; to his 
proper right, a kneeling Garuda facing full front ; to the left of Vishnu, a cow with calf ; over 
them, the SUE (to left) and moon (to right) . Under this is an inscribed area, 3 ft. 5 in, high 
and 1 ft. 8i in, wide. The character is fairly good Kanarese of the period, well preserved. The 
average height of the letters is about | in. The language is Old Kanarese, verging on the 
medieval dialect in the prose, with two opening stanzas and a final verse in Sanskrit. The 
upadJmSnlya appears* in 7ishnuk*p, 1. 2. The I is not preserved: we find nnegarda, 1. 11, 
and on the other hand elgeyol, 1*25, Mia, 1. 39 3 and bilgum, 1. 47. The treatment of initial p 
fluctuates : we have it changed in the prose to h in Tiala hasugey* , 1. 39, hittilalu 1. 43, Jiarada-, 
1.43, Jiannondam, I 44, while in other cases it is preserved. On the genitive sUa-&sJitara (I. 
19 ; the same in inscr. M., 1. 25) see my note in Journ. R. Asiat. 800,, 1918, p. 105. 

The record refers itself in II, 4-6 to the reign of the Kalachurya king Triblitivanamalla- 
deva (Bijjaia), and then proceeds to sing in verse the praises of Poll, the Thousand Mahajanas 
thereof, and the Hundred of Siveyageri forming part of them (11. 6-12) ; and it celebrates 
the excellences of a family in the latter parish, giving the following pedigree (11. 12-33) : 

Malapayya, of 
' 



KSlimayya, m. Eeviyakka 

Dasiraja, m. Olajale and Bhagale 



Mahadeva Maiayya 

We then learn that on the given date Dasiraja restored the decayed temple of Kesava 
(Vish^n) of Eagarakhandi, reconsecrated it, and bought from the Thousand of Pnli some land 
which lie assigned for its maintenance (11. 33 ff.). 

The date of this record is given on 11. 33-34 as : Saka 1084 (expired), the cyclic year 
ChiiraWhlnu ; Pushya hahula 2, SSmavara (Honda/) ; the iittarayantt-samkranti, This is nearly 
but not quite regular The given tithi coraesponded to Tuesday, 25 December, A..B. 1162 ; it 
began ahout 13 h. 18 m. after mean sunrise n the preceding Monday, and ended about 12. h, 
58 m. after mean sunrise on the Tuesday, with which it was properly connected. The uttarH- 
yana-samlrmiti took place about 6 h. 18 m. after mean sunrise on the Tuesday, while the tithi 
bfthula 2 was still current. 

The places mentioned are, besides Puli, Kalamjana (i.e. Ka'lanjara, on which ee Dyn. 
Kan. Diitr., p. 469), 1. 4, the Kofcfcaja-vavi, 1. 7 (apparently a pond m Pflli), SSiveyageri, 1. 12, 

Higarakha-ndj, 3. 35, Kokkuligeri, 1. 39 5 and Kattiyageri, 1. 40. On the Nagarakhanda 
Seventy of the BonavJsi province see I. A., Vol XIX, p. 144, and above, Vol. Y 3 p. 213 1?. 



[TTie metres are as follows: Vv. 1, 2, 17, AnushtubJi v. 3, StrdtlaviMftta ,- 
T . i lit, 11, 1446 3 Matmhank'^Ua ; TV. 5-9, 12, Kanda,; v. 18, Vt palatial 
I [Ja]yatyanshkptaih Vish 9 flrVfiraham kshobhit-amna(rnna)vam [|*] dakshia- 

5m(n)nata-damslitr-agra-visranta-bliiL- 

1 From tlie Ink-imprcasion. 



No. 22,] INSCRIPTIONS OF HUM. 209 



2 [vanam v &p]ab(c) [1*] Ja} Vishnu [s*] sthale 

[I*] jvala-mala-kiile Vishnus=sarvvaib. Vishnu- 

3 [ma]yam jagat || [2*] 

4 Svasti [ I*] Samasta-bhuTan-ifirayam Sn-Pritlivi-vallabliam Kalamjana-puraTar- 

adMsvaram damaruga-tn- 

5 ryya-nirggheslianarii ^Kalacliuryya-blnijabala-cliakravartti TribhuvanamaUadevara 

vijaya-rajyam==iitta- 

6 [r]lattar-aWvnddhi-pravarddk^ saluttam^ire fl Eam-ara- 

ma-vikirnnaCr^na )dim nikhila-dev-amka; 

7 dim Ei(Ri)g"Yajns-Sam-Atharvvana-Yeda"Sastra-vidita-vyapara-cliituryy grlmat-Kot- 

taja-vaviyim ke- 

8 regalim kanta-jan-anlkadimd= mats sale Pflli Iile-Ya4egii[iii] pt-d(5mtad=omd- 

Oliyim || [3*] Inanarii te- 

9 jadoUmdranam vibhavadol-01i5^(va)kya9a(iia)xii m(nl)tiyol=Maamvam oUra-oharitia- 

dolialari(dhi)yam gfimbhlryyado- m u 

10 1 diiairyyadol^Kaiiak-adrlihdramaii^eyde p5lpar=enipI sasirvvara khyatiyol- 

mma(ma)nuja[r*]kkal=padipati [p]a- 

11 sati samam-barpp^amnar^a^ddliatriyol || [4*] Alii 




210 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XYIH. 

26 pa-vetta Vag-nariya Yag-vilasa-tatiyol-nere p<3rv(lve)ge-vamdal=e [m*] dod[aimnar 

erie DSsirsjana ma- 

27 norame BHSgaleg=i dharitriyol (j [13*] Tat-sutar || Grikadol Lakshmi mali-Stsavam 

berasu 

28 nimdaltamna tad-vaktradol=maliim-alamkriteyappa V ag-vamtey-irdal^tamna ^* 

kirtti Sgtn-Hima- 

29 drimdradol=eyde tlvidal^enal^sImaByan^^g-iidane 2 Mahadeva-prabbu DasirSja-tana- 

yam 

30 sanjanya-ratnSkaram \\ [14*] Dkravan-arfmam dhritiyol-Sarojabhavan-aibiiam vlg- 

raiyol^cliemna Madhavan^am- 

31 iiam nija*murttiyo]=Kliac]baranamna danadol-Kumbliasambiiavan^aihnam sacbaritra- 



32 nam gnmpmoi=bliavisal=saman=ar 3 =pperggade-I)Ssiraja-tariayaiii Mslayyanolmana- 

33 [va]r J| [15*] Svasti [|*] Srimat^Saka-varslaa 1084neya Chitrabhgini-samvatsarada 

Pushya- 

34 bahula 2 SomavSradand^uttarayana-samkrantiya divya-tithiyalu srimat-pe- 

35 rggade Dasirsjam NagarakLandiya srl-Kesava-dgvalayam jirnnis 4 iralu jiimi 5 - 

OddKara- 

36 mam punah-pratisMbe satitam ma4isiy=a devara klianda-sphutita-jinin(rnn)' 

Oddharakkam ni- 

37 tya-nivgdya-Cliaitra-pavitra-nanda-dlvige pfljariya jlvita-nimittav=agi Mma- 

38 n-mah-agrakaram PtHy^r-odeya-pramukha-sasirvvar-mmaliajanamgala 6 divya- 

39 to-pada-padmamga}am dravya-p[n]irvakam=aradhisi Kokkuligeriya hala hasu* 

40 geyolage Kattiyagdrlyim pa^uvalu Galatige-ge^yim badagaln Chikkanika- 

41 ra-devara keyyim mii<Jala mattarimge panavonda|a lekkadimd=ajru-vanamaiii 

ti(tl)ruv-a- 

42 ut=Sg=ire padedu bitta mattar-aju \ A dgvarige Kftlasa(Sa)val}igriya bada^ana 

koppala * " 

43. Mttilalu harada^vaneyim mBJalu bada^vaneyim pa^uvaiia meyya stlialada 
mv^sana- 

44 dagalave[k*]-kayi nlla haraondaci tnattam sasii-Tvaram kiraEy a .pfirvvakav 
aradhisi 



45 iya(sya)y=agire pa^edu bittar [|*] InM mathamumam keyyuma^v^vtatam, 

vasate*nyayam^ 

46 gain puttida^aiii eSsimrarum sa[d*]dkarmmadipi pratipSlipar I! Initam 



47 siiYnd^ - dbarmmakk*e(a)payak[k*]e varppa^amCgham sa^knlam nigOda-laladol. 

bligum maha-pSta- ' ' 

48 kam manam-old*iatidaneyde raksMsuva dgvam g akknm*ayn 8 hya^arddlianaii^ 

atytrjjita- 

49 laksimi wmmala-yaSaih bhadram iublxam mamgalam || [16*] Sra-dattarix 

para-dattam Ta yS hargta va. 

50 sundharim 1 stashtir(8litiih)wa[r*]slia. S aha S ifini TistthayaA jayatg krimib [17*] 



I Mdaf would be more regular. , We shonld 

The engrarer first wrote ,aw^, and ffien cortected It to ,amd n *ar 
*Bd ,>*.. Eeadyjm.. 

The ja wasfirrt on tted by the engraver, and afterwds addd, partly on and partly below the l fee , 



No. 22.] INSCRIPTIONS OF HULL 811 

TRANSLATION, 

(Verse 1 : identical with verse 1 of inscription C. above.) 

(V. 2.) Vishnu is in the waters, Vishnu is on laud, Vishnu is on the mountain-top, 
Vishnu is on the multitude of lines of fire : the whole universe is- composed of Vishnu. 

(Lines 4-6.) When the victorious reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole world, 
favourite of Fortune and Earth, lord of Kal&mjiana, best of cities, attended by the sound 
of (jamaruga drums and (other) musical instruments, the Ka|.acliurya Empqroy, strong of arm, 
Tribb.iivanamalladeva f was advancing in a Course of successively increasing prosperity, (to 
endure) as long as moon, sun, and stars : 

(V. 3.) With a profusion of delightful pleasances, with the company of all _the gods 
with men skilled in renowned familiarity with the lore of the Eik, Yajus, Sanaa* and Atharvana 
Vedas, with the blest Kottaja well, with ponds, not to speak of companies of fair women, (and) 
an unbroken line of flower-gardens, Pttli in truth possesses a charming aspect. 

(V. 4) What men on earth are such as to bear comparison with the renown of these 
Thousand, who in sooth resemble the Sun in brilliance, Indra in majesty, CMnakya in policy, 
Manu in beautiful conduct, the ocean in profundity, the great Golden Mountain in firmness ? 

(Line 11.) In that (town),*** 

(V. R) While the earth lauds them by saying that each of them,^ if one considers,^ is 
omniscient in the illustrious lore of the VSdas, the Hundred in the blest SiveyagSri are verily 
distinguished. 

(L. 12.) Among them, 

(V. 6.) A leader of the Bharadvaja race, beautiful of conduct, discreet, a lord of speech, 
a bee to the lotus-feet of Kamsa's foe [Krishna], generous, the noble sheriff H^apayya was 
eminent. 

(V. 7.) To this noble man was bom (a son) like in form to the dear son of the lady 
Fortune : who is peer to the great minister Kajimayya, renowned in the circuit of the earth ? 

(V. 8.) His excellent high-born wife BSviyakka, a mine of propriety, may be said to 
surpass Slta, Arundhati, and Ratlin eminence, virtue, (and) renown : who does not praise (Tier) 
in these terms ? 

(V. 9.) To this couple was born a lover of the VSdanta, a votary of Ananta, by name 
the blest Bssiraja ; he is exalted, renowned in glory, like the San. 

(V. 10.) His conduct is a basic rule for worthy saints, his learning a festal ornament 
for the Goddess of Speech, his fame a festoon of flowering creeping-plants for the ladies of the 
regions of space, MB power (like) the gold which agreeable and cultured men h*ve laid in 
deposit 1 : heace what other men are such as to compare with the sheriff DSsirSja, a crowd of 
good qualities, a celestial tree of noble fortune ? 

(V. 11.) Inborn truthfulness, the generous virtues of his Jineage, conpnitel a# ^da- 
tum of good qualities, natural instinct for propriety, the religious pra#tie*s of his race, beautiful 
conduct, bis own life devoted to the benefit of friends, the congenital aten4ant triad of powers 
of counsel being his, who are superior to the blest D&sirSja P 

(V. 12.) Do any even observe religious vows like the lady Olajaje, Pfsi's high-born 
wife, who is like Eati in form, like Bharati in grace of speech, lifce 4ifaa *ftrfch ffl steadiness f 



* This seems to mean that his power is like the property of Brahmans, In that it was not liable to 
by advene occupation or UalMIftBi (&arada,. S m r iti L 81, JBri************ ix " l^aBdH), andtbet it comid notbe 
taken from him (tfarada~s xviii. 49) ; or that it enabled him to acquire boundless worlds, like tbe gift 01 property 
to Brahmans (JLpa*tamba*dh&rma*iitrQ II. x. 6, 1). ^ t 



212 EPIGEAPHIA INDXCA. JToi. XVIIL 

(V. 13.) Is she fully equalled the high, degree of beauty of Lakshml born from the 
churning of Hie Milk Ocean, the greatness of wifely devotion, present in Gauri, (and) the series 
of graces of speech of the charming lady Yak, who on this earth now are peer to DasirSja's 
beloved BaSgale ? 

(L. 27.) Their eons : 

(V. 14.) Fortune abode with great delight in his house ; the lady Vak adorned with 
magnificence resided in his mouth; his goodly fame completely filled (every place) from Setu 
to the great Snowy Mountains : hence was DSsiraja's son lord Mahadeya, 1 that gem-mine of 
nobility, an ordinary man ? 

(V. 15.) Like Dhruva 2 in* firmness, like the Lotus-born (Brahman) in eloquence, like the 
comely Madhava, in his form, like the Sun in bounty, like the Jar-born (Agastya) in right 
conduct, like the ocean in profundity, when one considers what men are equal to the sheriff 
Disirsja's son Majayya P 

(LI. 33-34) On Monday, the 2nd of the dark fortnight of Pusiiya in the cyclic year 
OhitrabhSnu, the 1084th (year) of the blessed aka era, on the holy lunar day of the 



, 

(LL 34-42.) As the temple of Keava of Nagarakhancli was falling into decay, the sheriff 
BasirSja, having restored the decayed parts and reconsecrated it f adored with (offering of) 
money the divinely blest lotus-feet of the Thousand Mahajanas, headed by the mayor, of the 
great acfr&Mra of Puli and for the restoration of (broken, burst, and decayed (masonry oj the 
temple) of ihat god and for the regular oblations, Qhaitra-pavitra rites, 8 perpetual lamps, and 
stipend for the officiating priest, purchased and granted six mat tar within the waste-land hasuge 
of Kokkuligeri, on the west of Kattiyageri, on the north of the field of Galatige, (and) on the 
east of (the sanctuary of) the Chikkanikas' god, on which is to be paid an ag-u-vana at the rate 
of one p&na on each mattar* 

(LL 42-46.) Haying again adored the Thousand with (offering of) gold, they purchased 
and granted, to the same god a dwelling one cubit in width and eleven in length in the 
meyya sthala north of KalaiavalligSri, east of the traders' house at the backyard of the town- 
house, as a sarva-namasya holding. So the Thousand shall religiously protect this monastery 
and field in respect of any minor claims to possession that may arise. 

(V. 16.) Eealise this with conviction : the great sinner who comes to overthrow thia 
pious foundation will inevitably sink to levels of (degraded) rebirth, together with his race; 
so to the king who cheerfully guards it in due wise 'shall accrue increase of vitality, most 
brilliant fortune, stainless fame, luck, welfare, happiness. 
(V, 17 : a common Sanskrit formula,) 



M. OF THE REIGW OS 1 BIJJALA : SAKA 108*. 

TMs inscription is on a black stone built into the northern wall on the inside of the man- 
. . * of the AgaatySSvara temple (see above). The slab is 4 ft. 10 in. high and 2ft. 2 in wide 
The topmost compartment bears the following sculptures : in the centre, Vishnu reclining on a 
serpent mthseyenhoods, with Brahman seated above him on the lotus arising from his navel, and 
to TOB proper left Lakshml seated at his feet ; below Vishnu, Garuda ; to the proper right of 

I^IS^S? 1 " ^^ P 8eated - d *^ ^ ** ; ^ Ms proper : 



1 By .metrical license for Xakadba. ~ 1 a., y' """ 

***l. ToL IIXVIII, p. 62. n^-^ 

* [V. I at tU, inscription would indicate that she u the Earth.godaess.-Ed.] 



22.] INSCRIPTIONS OE HULL 



213 



and more skilful in technique than most of the kind. The I is not preserved : It appears as r in 
erttamdu (1. 3), negra[r*]d- (1. 4), and or&Wfc. (1. 16, for ajw), and as } in j>4 (1. 16), 
(1. 18), %e^m (11. 20 f .), kalalchuvan (1. 31), foJaZdw (1. 33), MZa (11. 40,' 44), and &ffru ft (1* 48) 
The f is changed to h in halgalam (1. 31, verse), to&eyaifc (1. 32, verse 19, for heluyaih). Inn 
(L 33, verse 20), taZa hasugey** (11. 40, 44 f.) ; elsewhere it is kept, even in prose. As to 
lexicography, we may notice dharmmeta (1. 40) 1 and $ata (1. 41). 

The record, after preliminaries of the usual sort, eulogises Pflli, its Thousand Mah&janas, 
and the Hundred of Siveyageri (11. 4-13). It then gives in 11. 13-31 the pedigree of the same 
family which figures in inscription L. ahove, but with some more details : putting the two 
together, we have the genealogy : 

'Aditya, of Bharadvaja-grofra 
Devapayya 

i 

Sdma 

i 

Malapayya 
Kalidasa I (Kalimayya), m. Beviyakka 

Basiraja, m. Olajale and Bhagale 



r i i 

Mafcadeva Malapayya Kllidssa n 

(Malayya) 

Two vigorous vei-ses then introduce king Bijjala (11. 31-34). Next comes prose referring 
the record to his reign and giving him full regal titles 2 (11. 34-37), followed by tho date (11. 
37-38) and details of some lands purchased and granted by Dasiraja for the upkeep of the 
Nagara-Bhavi and some other local establishments and for the expenses of the worship of the 
Agasty^svara temple (11. 38 ff.). 

The date, given on 11. 37-38, is identical with that of inscription L. 

The places mentioned are, besides PtLli, giveyageri (1. 13), KslSmjana (1. 35 : see above, 
on inscr. L.), ITsga-vSvi (1. 39), Kattiyageri (L 41), Hsgarakhamdi (L 41 : see on inscr. L.), 
Yeramdageri (1. 42), Kokktqigeri (1. 44), and Jarimavegere (1. 47). The Nlga-vavi or 
" Nagaa' Well " is the same as the Nagara-Bhavi, on the side of which the AgMty^ivaw 
temple stands (see above). Y<ram4ageri (i.e. Eramda-geri, the "street of the oatoivoll 
plants ") seems to be another of the parishes of Puli. 

TEXT. 8 

[The metres are as follows : Vv. 1, 22, AnushiuWi*, vv. 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, Stodtlavilariiita i 
vv. 4, 9, 11, 14, 15, 21, Matt$b7u*vikrt&ia ; vv. 6, 12, 13, 16-18, Kaw$a ; vr.ilO, 19, 20, 
Champa 7cam&l&.~] 

(fjj\ Jayaty^avishkyitam VishnOr-Vvaraham 

<5Tniata-daihshtr-agra-viranta-bhtivamam 
i Th3s denotes some kind <* religions estaHishment, and may pcwffily ^ derbed from 



* See />#n. jKanar. Distr., p, 475. 

* From the ink-impression. 



214 



EPIGRAPHIA INTSIOA. [Vot*. XVIIL 



JS| Kslifr-amb1i5dMyoHppAiiaiita-sayanaiii Narayanam Kaustebh-fidUraih tamna 

8amaksbadoiKamaleyiim Blm-kante- 
yam nabliiyoi*sax-aih^am-baded=Ab3agarb[li3bha-saliitarh M-Paiig^erttamdu 1 nind- 

aradliyaih karuna-ras-ardra-li|idayam ra- 
ksfcikke sasirwa^am |j [2*] Antenisi negani*]dagraliaa'a-chs4amaniya vlkbyatiy* 

emt*appud*0mdade [I*] Samasta-kalegalge m- 
laya-stMnamum vilasakk^avasamuiii ^rimgarakfee janma-bMiaiyum vaaanta-sama- 



6 tnBi=altadeynm || Eam-arama-vlklnina(r9na)dim nikMla-ddv-anikadim 

Yaj 11 k- Sa m- Atkar wana- Ve da- S astra-ni vaha-pr akky a ta-sa- 

7 sirwariih Kam-5ddama-gajamgal*anWreseva a varamgan-anikadim srlmat-Pfili 

mrantaram sogayikum sat-svya-sampattiyim || [3^] 

8 Inanam tejadol^Imdranam vibhavadol Cha9.a(iia)kyaiiam nStiyol^Manuvam obAru- 

ckari [tra] dol jaladhiyam gambklryyadol 

dliairyyadof Kanak-adrlmdraman=eyde p5lpar*enip-l sasirvvara kliyatiyo}man,tt- 
jarkkalpadipati pasafci samam-barpp=amna- 

10 r*arddb,atriyoi (| [4*] Srl-Bamayaija-Biiarat-adi-Manu-eharitraiiigala vyaptiyol^sar- 

asaw-Tlcliira-tarkka-nicliaya-pra"" 

1 i [kkya*]ta-sastramgaioi urarTvda-sam-a!iadolsakalatat [t* ] va-jnana-sa mpattiyimd- 

ai^hyarddliaregemdadim piriyarar==sasirvvariiid*urvvi-- 

12 yol (I [5*] Avar=*olage \\ Elavi-gamaki-vadi-vagmigala vivekada deseyan*a3riyai> 

airita-be(]a)nam.utsavadlm bedalk*! var*ssavila [si] - 

13 galalte leyageiiya ntirvvartt (j [6*] Avai^olage || Bb.aradvaja-kul-atobara- 

dynnaaai tSja^-ptimjadim permmeyim kslilr-aiiibli0iiidb.i [dh]ai- 

14 TyyadumnntikejimdaiB Mamdarani sauryyadol irl-Ramam paramarttha-niSchayadiii- 

a Kamjasanam, tan=enalk=ariii3ii polvege barppare bn- 

15 dba-jana-prasttLtyan*S.dltyanol jj [7*] Tat-suta || riramgamg=a,tibliaktanoppTiy 

amai-acli&ram ya3-vallabL.aih paravarame merey*a- 

16 d^vasjil(iil)jarkkalg*eyde cbakye^varam "sara-gi^bl samasta-degadavarga]g=arbbbb(rTbb) 8 

ikk-iralw rakslilpam dhir-Qd&ttan-euippa Bevapayanol=pel=a- 

17 r-RRamarii-barppare |( [3*] Tat-suta ]| Bburadolbamd*urad*oddi 

britakke kayy&ntu bamderedarttli-prakarakke vara-vanit-anlka- 

16 kke gamblilm-Bagaraiil p[e*]rggade 
putram Hari-putraii^a Hari-sutam 



d*eii<e) Tmn^ipam |f 9*] Tat^nta fl Vara-vanita-janamgala manam Knsnm- 

&Atm-Saxkke sad-bmdli^tkam-kara-pamkajam 
marii- 



20 

diifa. patI-Mt-5m(aa)natiyim prabhu-MSiapayyanim* || '[10*] Tat-su- 
2i to I Akaiamkam tannTagi farttisuTa Chamdram. kantiy=omd=glgeyim sakala- 

Padmasanam 



i 1 ij-te W . ' Apparently to be corrected to 

for .ir(or .m^Ba-V-tem.- tperhas a . IrMa would be more 



Huli Stone Inscription of the reign of Bijjala : Saka 1084. 



10 




50 



F. W. THOMAS 



WHITTINGHAM & GRSGCS, COLL. 



SCALE -23 



*" 




23 [ra]tiyamnal vag-vilasadirh. 



21 



svabh.vikam sa 
[rggam.altma^ia-dharmmarh chgr 

mamtra-sakti-trajam S aha-jatam 



Sahaiam 
J 



tanag^emdo^m 

^^T'iJS 1 ^ 1 C15 * ] Tat " SUtarU " 
yun kalpa-bhttruham stkirateyol-a Mgru-girimdram 

29 Cl]aiimdatyadhikanalte Mahaagya-budham || - [16*] Atam tammam irata- 

vikkyatam Siva-pada-iekharam sakaja-gu^a-bratame Urftehavwn^wpaih nitija 

30 kai MSlapayyaneie meclicliadarar w [| [17*] AvarwmriAde Mriyam 

KSjidSsaih Knmbliddbliavaaiaiiiimm 



32 



33 



34 



85 



37 rkkartaram saliittam-ire || Srimacli-Ohliaka-vayahaA 
ftaihvat8aa<aa PtuShya-baHula 2 fi5mavarad 

88 [riti*]yalu vyatlpatam k'Udlida divya : tithiya?!i 
Dasirajam sriman-mab.-a;grabaraiii Fftliyllr-o- 

39 



va Bssirsja-8utaresedirddar W || [18*] 

Shiya lialgalain kalalcliiivan-idirage ESvanannvam nelak.ikkmvaii-IJ- 
gra-hs(hu)lieyariii bka(ba)varadol s *aiito4^ataiia bhujamgaj^-oppuva 

yiriidame kadLl-khamdlam^ge tajivam sale BijjanadSva-blifbiiiiJa || [10*] 
Pariv-aru^-aihbu susida midulparedokica karul-baialdu 

suj:idu kittuva b.u^abera8**adiiv-atteyim ciiaramefieya- 
Ike pS,4ava bhatarkkala pa^-daleyimds n5dal^iiramiim^^iiwriini4yfcl|idtt geld- 

e<Je Bijja^adSva-bktip'aiia || [20*] Svasti [|] Samasta-biniTaa'-&- 
graya Sri-Fyitkvi-vallabha mab^rajadliiiaja paramesvaram Ki 

adhlsvaraih ^^^^^uga^tfirj^ii^nirgghdsL^am pam-cliakra-blilslia- 
nam ^rlmat-Kalachuryya-bliiiJabala-.cliakrftvartti 



1084nya 






1 [The reading seems to be Hailiftyaib (=* Arjana Kart&vlrya). Ed.] 

2 The engraver seems to have begun with the intention of making tbe first letter & I, and to hare fiiikdlt oft 
as Ik ; for, unlike the regular JA, it is not open at the base, but on the other hand it ism a hurinatel tick on tfcft 
right -hand top comer, like & regular &A. 

8 The engraver hfca omitted 4 ^a/a^, and then inserted it below the line, marking tba comgprfi ttj * 
above the line. 

! The 9 has been omitted^and inserted above the liae. 




'21'6 EPI&tlAPHIA nSTDlCA. [Voii XVIII 



40 sphutta=jl:ran(r9:i?)-5^ dharmmefcakkam agnishtagey~araykegam*> 

emdu Kokkuligeriya hala-hasugey=olage sarvva-nama- 
.41 ya(sya)m~agi "bitfca mattar~as~adara sime mfidtalu Kattiyage[ri*]ya 3ata i 

temkana sime N&gaxakham4iya Keava-devara bhumi [i*] pa^uvana [s]l- 

42 me perggadle-Samkarayya-nayalsara satrada bhumi [|*] badagana sime YSram- 

<Jagerige pratinidhiy=agi kotta bhumi I Int*l dharmmama- 

43 n*ava nyayamum*adodam sarvva-namaya(sya)m.=agi sasa(si)rvvarum sadharmmadim 

pratipaliparu || Mamgala-maha-s*rl to 

44 (<S)S A punya-titMyolalliya pacMma-dvarada rImad-Agastyevara-dgTaraslitavidJi- 

arcliciiaiiia-iiimittaih Kokknligeriya h&la- 

45 liasugey^olage 8arvra-namaya(sya)T*gIy=ur-o4eya-pi^mnklia-sasirvvar 

galanamgadiy-nr-odeya- 

46 pramuklia-bliakta-janamgal^aradliifii padadu bitta mattar^era^^adaja sime mH^ata 

MelasSivara-deYara bliumi 

47 temkaltt Jainnavegexeya dari padLuTalu kara-bMmi.[ i* ] ba4agalum Melasevara-d^vaTa 

btiumi 1 Initam niicliayam=Sge 

48 bltaviBuvTid*! dhannmakb:-(a)p,yakke Tarppan=amQgliam sa-kulam nigOda-taJadol 

bilgum nmha-patakam maiiaw.*old*riit=idaii*eyde raksbisu- 

49 va dSvamg^akkum^ayashya-varddlia^^ nirmmala-yaSam bbadram 

gnbliam mamgalam |I [21*] Sva-dattam para-datta(tta)m vS ys hareti(ta) 
vasunidha- 

50 ram [|*] sliasktim-varslia-saliasrani vishtliayam jayate krimib. \\ [22*] 



(Verse 1 : identical witH verse 1 of inscription C above.) 

(V. &.) May NarSyana who rests upon Ananta in the 'Milk Ocean and wno wears tbe 
Kaustubha jewel, woz^Mpfnl-, with heart moist with the liquor of grace, coming to blest Pfill 
and dwelling (there) in company with Kamala and the lady Earth and the Lotus-born (Brah- 
man) who enjoys his essence in his navel, protect the Thousand ! 

(Lines 4-6.) If it be asked what is the reputation of that crest-jewel of agraharas which 
1$ so illustrious, (toe answer) ; it is called a dwelling-place of all arts, an abode of brilliance, a 
natal ground of ornament, a home of the season of spring; and moreover : 

(V. 8.) With a profusion of delightful pleasances, with the company of all the gods, 
with iihe Thousand who are renowned iu all the lore of the ^.ik, Yajus, Sama, and Atharvana 
Vedas, with the multitude of public damsels who are brilliant like fiery elephants of Kama, the 
"blessed Puli is ceaselessly splendid with fortunes subserved by worthy men. 

(V. 4 : identical with verse 4 of inscription L . above.) 

(V- 5.) As they are men of might in mastery over the blessed R&mayana, Bharata, and 
other works and the course of conduct of Manu, (and} in famous teaching-books of manifold 
studies of reality and unreality and of logic, adored by the world for their attainment of know- 
ledge of all" the principles in the series of the Vedas, who now are superior on earth to the 
Thousand P 

(L. 12.) Among them : 

(V. 6.) Knowing not a place of distinction between poets, reciters, ^ controversialists 
and rhetoricians, giving (alms) when clients cheerfully ask, the Hundred of Siveyageri are in 
sooth brilliant, 



22.] INSCEIPTIONS OP HULL 



21? 



(L, 13.) Among them :- 

(V.7.) As lie may be termed because of the mass ofjiis splendour a Sun In the skj of 
the Bharadvaja race, because of Ms greatness a Milk Ocean, by reason of the Ugh degree of his 
firmness a Mandara, in heroism a blessed iUma, in judgment of transcendental lore the Lotus- 
seated (Brahman) himself, can any compare wifch Iditya, who was renowned among sara ? 
(L. 15.) His son: " 5 s 

(V, 8.) Say, who can equal Devapaya, who was deeply devoted to Srlranga (Vishnu), 
a man of eminent stainless conduct, a darling of fame, verily an emperor to the natives of "the 
ocean-bounded earth, gathering the best (of all knowledge), a protector of the peoples of all 
lands when harm befell, firm and exalted of soul 1 ? 

(L, 17.) His son : 

(V. 9.) Going to battle and ceaselessly resisting the multitude of foemen's hosts 
stretching forth his hand to the troops of suppliants that came and begged (of Um)~~ a deep 
ocean to the companies of public damsels this sheriff Soma was in his own person a HarFs son 
(Arjuna) in confronting and smiting, a Hari's (Siirya's) son (Karna) in making gifts, a Hari's 
(Krishna's) son (Yama 2 ) in conquering, when the tale is told : hence how can one sing his 
praises ? 

(L. 19,) His son : 

(V, 10.) The souls of choice damsels became a place for the shafts of the god of the 
flower-arrows, the lotus-hands of companies of worthy sages a place for abundant quantities of 
gold, the royal mansion a place for the right firmly established Fortune of the kingdom, through 
the .Lord Malapayya, "by reason of the perfection of his grace of form, his incomparable gene- 
rosity, and the high degree of his services to his sovereign (respectively)? 

(LI. 20-21.) His son : 

(V. 11.) The excellent KSJidSsa was indeed through tlie unique perfection of his 
beauty a moon appearing with unspotted form, through his high skill in poetry a Lotus-seated 
(Brahman) devoid of iasentience while pervading the universe [or, intimate with all], through 
Ms gift of beauty a Kama who was not destroyed by ISa, 4 by his eminent conduct a Manu. 

(L* 22.) His good wife : 

(V. 12.) Beviyakka was like Rati in form, like BharatI in grace of speech, like the 
earth in steadiness, like Arundhatl in greatness : who do not give praise in these terms ? 

(V, 13 : almost identical with verse 9 of inscription L, above,) 

( Vy. 14-15 : identical with verses 10-1 1 of inscription L. <above.) 

(L. 28.) His sons : 

(V. 16.) The sage Mahadeva is a votary of the god Srlranga, a Tree of Desire by 
reason of his generosity, a Mount Mgru in firmness, altogether surpassing all in greatness, truly. 

(V. 17.) His younger brother MSlapayya is renowned for scriptural lore, crowned 
with Srva's feet, an aggregate of all virtues, a very ornament, a mine of propriety : who do not 
give praise in these terms ? 

(V. 18.) The youngest brother of these twain is the world-renowned KaJidSsa, like 
the Jar-born (Agastya) in conduct ; these eminent sons of PSflirSja have become distinguished. 

i Mr-odatt* is ft term for one of the types of hero of drama* and is defined in Dafarupaka il 5 as o! grett 
excellence, exceedingly serious, forbearing, not boastful, resolute, with aelf-aaaerfcion suppressed, and firm of pnr- 
pose " (Haas's translation). 

i[Bnt Yama is also called Han. So it would be better to take Karttikiya or Bhima as tne opamna 
especially when Hari is an epithet of Siva and of Yayu aU*. Id.] 

This verse, like the preceding, is an instance of the ihetorical %are yathtisanMya, 

* This ifi the rhetorical figure adM*-aMd*-r*e*** [according to appaya-DIkshitm See Kwal 
under J2f*2>a& Ed.] 2 



218 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVIII. 



(V. 19.) The monarch Bijjanadiva would say " what can this Yama do ? " ; lx>ldly 
he would knock out the serpent Kulika's teeth; if he confronted him, he would strike' to earth 
even Kavapa ; if he were to meet in battle the figure of TJgra, 1 he would lop his arms into frag- 
ments with his bright sword-edge. 

( V. 20.) When one looks, the place where the monarch BijjanadivS has won victory 
bj Wows is demoniac and frightful by reason of the decapitated heads of warriors uttering song 
wtuJe there arise sweet sounds from the headless trunks whose wounded limbs move in con- 
certed action, (wounded limbs') from which drink snorting the troops of foemen's elephants whoso 

marrow, over which streams gushing blood, and loosely out-bursting entrails swing about and 
dangle down. e 

(LI. 34-37.) When the victorious reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole world, 
iT . UUe andBartl1 ' 8W* Emperor, supreme Lord, lord of Ksjsfijana best of cities, 

rt/irS" h SOlmd f ' amarU9a drUm8 and ( ^ ar > mUBical ^truments, terrible to other 
a, the KalaohuryE Emperor strong of arm, Tribtmvanamalladeva, was advancing in 
rse ssively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sun, and stars :- 

* Mon ^ y ' the 2 nd of the dark fortnight of Pushya in the cyclic year 

^ at th 



course 






the 

waste-land faasuge of 
the southern bound is M 
western bound Is the land 
the land granted as a 
"^ ' "1 religiously 

(fit 44-47.) On 

w mayor, and the yotanes, hea 
for the proses of the eightfold 

gate^of the town two / -- 

The bound of __ _ 

J west the bkck 



or 'the restoJon of 



the 






of the Dearth six mattar 

" " ^ ^ ^ **" f 
/} ^ g d KSSaV& f ^^handi,- the 
^^^ ^ultry . the northern bound i. 
. So whatever claims n^y arise, the Thousand 
Happiness ! Great fortune ! 






(/row ^<?m) 

styegvara 8 at tbe western 
of Kokkuligen as a sawa-namatya 
3 Melae^gvara, on the south the road 



These copper-plates 
m the 



" Bil 




o 
Provinces in 1906 when I toured in the 

J *"**>** of Archaeology i 



. Theplates 
of Don Busurg sitaated 7^ 






No, 28.] DON BUZURG PLATES OP GOVINDACHANDEA : [V.] S. 1176. 219 

miles to the north of Malrwa Railway Station on the Bengal and North- Western Baiiway, and 
made over to the Maharaja of Majhauli. At my visit to this village, I did not notice any other 
antiquities of special interest. The village itself is, however, situated on a large ancient mound 
and the size of bricks unearthed "by the villagers averages 11" x 9" x 2". 

The plates are inscribed on one side only and measure Uf by IQf* and 14f" "by XQf 7 , 
respectively. The edges of the plates are fashioned into rims the maximum height of wlich 
is |". Both the plates were originally soldered on a circular ring passing through the upper part 
of Plate II and the lower part of Plate I, Plate I is loose on account of a small piece having 
broken away from the ring-hole. The seal is now attached to Plate II and is of the usual 
G-ahadavala type. The only orthographical peculiarities in the record that deserve special 
mention are the use of j for y in parjantafy (1. 18) and jatha (I. 25) and the confusion of s and s 
and of v and 6. A for ya in viskthaam (1. 30) is an evident mistake or aPrakritism. The form 
utakeritam in 1, 36 evidently stands for utktrnnam or the causal utMritam. There are many other 
mistakes of spelling in the inscription and they have all been corrected in the text. 

The inscription consists of 36 lines, of which 19 are engraved on Plate I and the remaining 
17 on Plate II. The wbole of the document is in an excellent state of preservation. The 
characters are Nagarl. The language is metrical Sanskrit in the first eleven and last eleven lines 
which contain respectively the usual genealogy of the G-a"Jaa4ava"la kings of Kanauj and the 
imprecatory and benedictory verses. The remaining fourteen lilies as well as part of the last or 
36th line are in Sanskrit prose and represent the formal historical portion of the document. 

The inscription records that on Tuesday 1 the Bih tithi of the bright half of Jyeshtha of 
[V,] S. 1176 (A.D. 1119-20) after bathing in the Ganges at his camp-residence (yna~vasa) at the 
village of MamdaliS, belonging to Alamvimahapura, the "Gahadavala king Qovindachandra 
granted the village of VadagrSma 2 in the Al&pa district to a Brahmana named Tultaieha- 3 
Sarman. This Brahmana belonged to the "Vachchha (Skt, Vatsa)-grora of Bronayanashacja. 
The fourth syllable of this latter name is not decipherable, but it is not impossible that it* was 
the name of a town or village or of some muni to whom (a branch of Ed.) the Fatsa-</otfra owed 
its origin. If this assumption is correct, we may without hesitation identify this locality with 
the village at which the plates were found and which is still called Bon Buzurg, or the 
Holy D3n. It is interesting to note here a legend which describes a small cultivated area in 
the neighbourhood of this village as Dr5na-ka*ghar or DrSnar-ka-garh, that is the residence or 
citadel of Dr5na, the preceptor of the Kaurava and Pandava princes. It is stated by the 
villagers that Drdna resided at this place and was on one occasion transported to Lanka to 
prescribe medicine for Vibhlshana, brother of Bavana, The story is not worth much, bat it 
shows atlea'st that the local pandits already recognize in the name Ddn a corruption of Drdna, 
probably a remnant of the original long name of the place. 

At the time of issuing the grant, the king GOvindachandra was encamped at a village named 
Majhdalia, which was situated in AlamvimahSpura. The latter was probably the name of the 
district in which the village in question was situated, and it is evident that the village stood 
somewhere on the banks of the Ganges. I am as yet unable to identify either of these places. 
The village granted was ap#a&a-*5-Va4agrftnia which I interpret as Vadagrama together with 
its outlying hamlet and its corners: This village was situated in the district (pa Mala) of Alapa, 



* [This re<iuire0 correction, for the original (1. 19) clearly gives VW, <. Monday. Reference to the 
late Mr. L. D. Swamikannu Piilai's Xtfenuri* Vol. HI, p. 240, will show that this date is quite regular and 
rightly corresponds to Monday, the 19th May, 1119 A.D. Ed.] *.,*,/** 

VaclagrSma appears to taVe been a common village name. In the Chandravati plate of Chandmdeva of [Y.] 
S. 1US (JBljp. IflL, Vol. IX, p. 302 tf.) we find Chandravatl ref erred to as Vadagava, a slightly modified form of 

, [ See ^ n. 1 on p. 223. Ed.] 
3 [See f, n 2 OB page 



EPIGRAPHIA INDIOA. 



[VOL. XVIII 



which cannot as yet be identified. Bat there is a village of the name o Bar gg in the Salempiir 
FarjgBiEa of the Grorakhpur district which might represent the Vadagrama of our inscription. 

TEXT.* 

[Metres: Vv. 1, 3, 10, II, 13-20, AnushfM ; vv. 2, 21, Indravajra; TV. 4, 7, 
Jerifita; vv. 5, 6, 8, 22, VasantatilaM ; v. 9 3 Drutavilamttita, ; v. 12, 




3 Cancel one danta. 



JTo. 23.] DON BTJZTJBG PLATES OT GOVIZTDACHAKDBA : [V.] 8. 11W. 221 



11 



[ift] 



10 ^5 ti [**] 






15 



16 f*W *I filfri 



^t (it) w^r wrt^ (ir)fH 
17 






13 %^r (^i) t^ir^'f^^^w^^Tg^Tff^ i ^n wnnwif^if 1 91 ^cws (w) 

[i^ " 



18 i^'^i^VT^C^)^!: ^^tiiro^re 

19 



Second Plate. 

20 ^ 



* [The correction is xnanecessary ; for kitK the f onna JK:a as well as Ka are Baed. EdL] 
2 Cancel the danga. * Bend 

* CTE original reads ^)nf^ which is correct, see f. n. 1 p. 219 above. M.] 

* Cancel the syllable nf. 

[The original reads ^^ ait fox is evidently a clerical mistake. EcL] 



EHGBAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVIII. 




27 

28 



29 



.30 



81 




No. 23.] DON BUZUBG PLATES OF GOVINDACHANDfiA : [T.] S. 1176. 223 
33 R 




31 *tflf V**irW*Tl I RWRraf^(w)ft rflfif 

*r ^iw w* garossftr it [*i] ccT<fPif*Pi- 
35 



36 wi TOnft i[i ^'] 



TBAKBLATIOl 1 , 

(Lines 11 to 25.) That victorious and illustrious king, Paramabnattaraka, MaMrajadMraja, 
Parame*vara, Paramamahesyara GWvindtfoliaiidpSdSva, wtose feet are honoured by the entire 
circle of kings, who meditates on the feet of the illustrious P. M.P.P, Madanapgladiva, who 
(in his turn) meditates on the feet of the illustrious P.M.P.P. Ckandradeva, who acquired 
the sovereignty over Kanyaknbja by (the strength of his) own arms, orders, informs and 
commands all the people assembled, residing in this village, (namely), in the midst of Va4agr 
md, 1 in the district (jpattals) of AlSpa, together with its outlying hamlets and corners, after 
excluding (the portions) already given to gods and Brahmanas, also portions meant for 
fortifications 2 as well as the kings, queens, Vown-prinoes, ministers, preceptors, door-keepers^ 
generals, treasurers, record-keepers, physicians, Astrologers, chamberlains, messengers, and officers 
charged with the care of elephants, horses, towns, mines (?), stfianas and g&Mas in the 
following manner ; 

"Be it known to you, that I have, on Tuesday, the 8th of the bright fortnight in the 
month of Jyejhtha, in the year (comprising) eleven hundred increased by seventy-six, while 
staying at the village of Maihdalii; belonging to Al^mvimahapura, in figures Samvat 1176, 
Jyeshtha u. di. 8, Tuesday, 8 after bathing in the prescribed manner in the holy Ganges at (my) 
camp, at MaxMaliS 5 after propitiating the sacred texts, divinities, sages, men, beings and the 
groups of deceased ancestors ; adoring the Sun whose lustre can dispel heaps of darkness ; 
worshipping the Moon-crested (Siva) j worshipping Vasudeva, the protector of the three worlds 
and after offering to (the god of) Fire an oblation rich in milk-rice for the increase of merit and 
fame of my mother and father and myself, bestowed by a charter by (pouring) water from the 
palm of my hand, sanctified by the gdkarna and foclo-grass for (as long as) the Moon and the Sun 
endure, the above-mentioned village, together with water and dry land, mines of iron, and salt, 
with, pits and deserts up to and including gardens of madhuka and mango (trees), parks, and 
trees, grass and pasture-lands, up to its proper limits clearly defined by the four boundaries, 
upon the learned and illustrious TultSicha-siarman, the son ofthe illustrious Pnnta, the grand. 

.............. CM 1 ' 1 "I*** '"" ..... <if*. ........ ..... ;.M ...................... . ....................... .. .......................... ........................... "- 

\The name of th village seems to be Konavada.EcL] 

* I am unable to offer a satisfactory explanation of T%^w*W^< Q 11 * " lt wouli3 T* [ 
resemWrng a coat of mail." The rendering in my translation is a mere conjecture. [The word &a*a 

puggest that what is read as 314^93?* gives the name of some hamlet, Id.] 
8 [See f. n, 3 on p. 221, ahove.Ed.] 



224 



BPIGEAPHIA 1NDICA. [Vol. XVIII- 



sxn of the learned and illustrious JSnta and the great-grandson of the learned and illustrious 
Harasixhlia of the Chhand5ga school, whose five pravara$ are, namely, BhSrgava, Chyavana, 
Aurva, Jaxnadagnya and ApnavSna, and who belongs to the Vatsa-gratfro of Br6nayanasIxa<Ja. 
Bearing this in mind, you should give (the donee) the Ityga-btega-kara, the pravani-kara and 

all the other sources of income that are due. 

[LI. 26 to 36 contain thirteen imprecatory and benedictory verses,] 

(L. 36.) Written by the Karon**** 1 tlie illustrious Thahkura Sahadeva. Engraved by the 

i -s~J.-*. f .Jl>sr~.r* TOTsrl Slyxa 



illustrious sutradhara, Haleka. 



No 24 CHHATAEPUB COPPER-PLATE INSCRIPTION OF GOVINDACHANDRA- 

DEVA OF KAJSTAUJ-: [VIKRAMA]-SAMVAf 1177. 

BY DATA EAM SAHNI, M.A., RAI BAHADUR. 

The copper-plates on which this inscription is engraved are two in number. They were 
forwarded to the Director- General of Archaeology in India by tne District Magistrate of Cawn- 
pore with the following information about the circumstances that led to their discorery : " The 
plates were discovered on or about the 5th July, 1920, by one Chhatiyan Chamg-r when digging 
the foundations for a hut. Local rumour has it that he found with it jewellery and gold orna- 
ments, but of this I have no corroboration. No one has claimed the plafces or any knowledge of 
their 'antecedents- The site was the village of Chfcatarpur near Sheorajpur, a small town, lying 
on the Grand Trunk Road, 21 miles north-west of Cawnpore. Sheorajpur was formerly a place 
of some importance : the seat of the Rajas of Chandel family. Chhatarpnr itself contains a 
very oldjfcemple of Khereshwar 2 Mahadeo which ,is regarded with the greatest veneration." The 
plates were in a much corroded state when they reached the office of the Direct or- General of 
Archaeology in India, who had them thoroughly cleaned and sent to me for publication in thi 
Journal. 

.Both ttie plates on which this inscription is engraved, are rectangnUr in shape, each 
measuring l'-3|" by 10*. Their edges are turned upwards, thus fawning a rim, -|" high, on all 
sides. The plates are held together by a stout circular ring of copper which passes through two 
holes cut in the bottom of plate I, and the top of plate II, respectively. To the ring is attached, 
as is frequently the case with such plates, a heavy seal of the king bearing the inscription 
gwmad-Govindachdndradevah with a figwe of Garuda above it and a conch below it. The 
plates, the ring and the seal are in a perfect state of preservation, except one corner of plate II 
and- another of plate I, which are slightly damaged; but we find no loss of the inscription out 
this account. The epigraph, which consists of thirty -two lines, is engraved on the inner side of 
each of the two plates, the number of lines on each plate being sixteen. The characters are Na- 
garl and the language is Sanskrit throughout. In respect of orthography, "* e observe the same 
peculiarities as in other inscriptions of this king. The letter ba is everywhere written as v& and 
the palatal s' as the dental sibilant, though occasionally it has its own proper sign, especially in 

1 This word means a icrilje, i.e. * one who has to do with documents ' (Parana). Mr. Y. E. Gnpte has kindljy 
drawn my attention to the fact that certain families among 1 the Chandraseniya KSyastha Prabtms (a class of 
Writers in the Deccati) to this day hear the snrname of Karnika (Sansktit fcaranifca). Tbe Prabims referred to are 
supposed to have migrated from the district of Oucih in the United Provinces. 
* 3 The correct name would appear to he Kshiresvaxm. 



3*0. 24.] OEHATABPUR PLATE OF GO VIND A CHANDRA : [V.] S. 1177. 225 

ligatures, A few otlier mistakes of spelling may also l>e noticed. In line 18, we meet with 
*8rddh&dha,s- for sGrdhvadkas. 1 In the same line we also find ushna wrongly spelt as usna, while 
in line 21, the repha is omitted from the name Barhaspatya. 3 The Sandhi is frequently dis- 
regarded* 

The first ten lines and a half are in verse and contain, as ,in other coppers-plate inscriptions 
of this dynasty, the genealogy of the king "beginning from Cliandradeva, while the nine lines at 
the end (11. 24-32) are taken up by seven benedictory and imprecatory verses quoted from the 
Mah&bh&rata. The rest of the insciiption, i.e., from the middle of line -11 to line 24, and the 
latter portion of line 32, is devoted to the formal subject matter of the epigraph. The object 
cff. the document is to record the fact that king Govindach.andradeva 9 son of the illustrious 
Madanapaiadeva, son of the illustrious CtiandradSva, after bathing with the water of the Ganges 
at VSr&nasi on the occasion of the full s moon of K&rtika iu the [Vikrama]-Samvat year 1177, 
after having duly propitiated the sacred 4 texts, divinities, etc., and adored the Sun, Mahadeva 
and "VHsudeva, gave away, "by this charter, the village of Sasaimaua in the K6ti district, clearly 
defined by its four boundaries, together with what is above and below it, to the Brahman, the 
illustrious SSliulasarman, the son of the illustrious Thahkura Lahula, and the grandson of 
Avasthl-rS-Malhe whose pravaras are Angirasa, Barhaspatya and Bharadvaja, and who 
belongs to the Bharadvaja-g^ira. The king further commands the residents of the aforesaid 
village to continue regularly to pay all the taxes to the donee. The document was written 
by th.e Karayika Thakkura Sridhara. 

Tlie name of the village, whose grant is recorded in this inscription, was Sasaimaua. The 
locality, where the two copper-plates were unearthed, was, as mentioned above, the village of 
Chliatarpur near Sheorajpur in Cawnpore district. I Ghhatarpur is really the place where the 
donee of the grant actually resided, then the village of Sasaimaua muat have been situated some- 
where in its neighbourhood. I have referred to a large scale map of the Cawnpore district, but 
have failed to discern any village of this precise name. I have, ^however, received a copy of a 
letter from the District Magistrate to the address of the Diiector- General of Archeology im 
India, which states that there is a village of the name of Sisamau, which now forms part of the 
Cawnpore City. This village answers very nearly to the ancient village Sasaimaua. The District 
Magistrate is unable to throw any light on the ancient district of Ko"ti. 



Pint Plate, 

1 to the middle of 11 are the same as in the D T 5n Buzurg plates of Gflvindachandra of 
[Vikram^-Samvat 1176; above, p. 218.] 

11 ..... ** *9^sf vHNjKi ^^iti^i^f^nr^R 1 ?; t 



12 is^ii^wrw^ 



[This remark is not jtistifiable f off the word is written wither without ?$ cf. Sabdkl$adrnma under th 



* 1 think it is there.- Ed.] 

JSTot mentioned in the inacriptioii whkh simply ttfffl wfWTlf^ I* ^ay be any of the five jp 



4 [It would be better to take mantr^deva together, meaning ' godi' iavoked by, 0tc/"- 
* 



226 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIIL 

13 f^fraiiw^iKwwTf^ 



14 intm^if!f%^^f i 

f T (W )?fPf "Pi" 



15 ^r TT^^prnwif^^ 



16 i* s ?FTraWM*i1^^ 

irort 



17 fft^fTi^;) ^w^n^rai 

^rm tiT|fi*f [^wifH^in"] ftr 

18 ^ 



19 ifift^f W<3f f^f%^^^^f%^^^Jcl1%^^ 



20 izffa Hjwfff w**f H (^ ) w^c ^rawjw f%w^*r^rg^fl^^i "grr fiwra 

21 



22 ^Twf^n^ncrar ^i1^l9n9%fKnr 



23 ^w n?<ft(^) r?qr ^rr^ ^mpnn^inii^ 
^FIF[(^) iv^^rra vnnft^fliur 

24 



[Her follow seven benedictory &sd iiaprecatory verses.} 
32 . . " . ft . . 



Ho. 25. VBMALUEPADU PLATES OF AMMAEAJA II. 

BY E. HULTZSCH, PH.D. ; HALLE (SAALE). 

For ink-impressions of these copper-plates I am indebted to Eao Bahadur Krishna 
Sastri, who acquired the plates for the Madras Museum in 1910 2 from a Muhammadan resident of 

1 [ I he plate gives adyeha. Ed.] 

[See Sf. JKtfh for 1910, p. icj, para. 10, and p. 15, App. A, No. 4. -Ed.] 



No. 25.] VEMALURPADU PLATES OP AMMARAJA TL 227 



*, a village close to the Phirangipuram Railway Station in the Guntur District' 
He describes them as follows : 

" Five plates with raised rims. The first and the last have writing on their inner sides only. 
The plates measure 9 J* by 4J*. They are held together by a circular copper ring which mea- 
sures 5f * in diameter and 2" in thickness. The ends of the ring are fixed into the bottom ol a 
seal whose base is "fashioned into a lotus of eight petals. The seal, which is circular, measures 
Sf " in diameter and bears, within a countersunk surface, the figure of a running boar facing the 
proper left, with a chaun in front of it. Below the boar is the legend ^ri-Trilhuv(zn[dmyc[u^a in 
old Telugu characters, and below it a lotus flower of eight petals spread out, with the sun and an 
anku$a to the right, and the crescent of the moon to the left. The ring had not yet been cut when 
the plates were received from the Collector of Guntur. The plates and seal together weigh 410 
tolas." 

The writing cm the plates is in a state of good preservation, with the exception of portions 
of plate iv, 6. The alphabet is Telugu, and the language is Sanskrit prose, interspersed with 
19| Sanskrit verses. The description of the boundaries of two fields in lines 59-63 is in a mixture 
of Sanskrit and Telugu. 1 The writer seems to have possessed a very superficial knowledge of 
the former language. As the notes on the text will show, he has committed an inordinate number 
of mistakes and omissions in copying the historical introduction from the records of his office. 

I shall not waste space and time by lengthy remarks on the orthography of this document. The 
upadhmdmya is represented by the Telugu symbol f in line 8, and by p at the beginning of line 
67. The Sanskrit word rdshtra is spelt raltra and raltra in line 48. 

The inscription on the plates records a grant of land by the Eastern Qaalukya king Am 
marftja II, and opens with a historical account of his ancestors which is nearly identical with 
the one given in the Maliyapun<Ji grant. As I have already discussed this genealogical portion 
elsewhere, 2 1 need note here only the corrupt verse 1 (line 11), according to which it remains 
doubtful whether the reign of Vijayaditya II, surnamed Narendramrigaraja, was believed 
to have lasted either 48 or only 40 years. 3 

Verses 9-15 seem to have been composed by a Brahmana named BlmttagiugMja (1. 73) and 
do not reflect much credit on this panegyrist as a grammarian and poet. Verse 9 states that Amma 

II was the son of Bhima (II), the grandson (in reality, the great-grandson) of BMma (I), and 
the great-grandson (in reality, the grandson of the grandson) of Vikrama&ka. The same verse 
alludes to the attack made by Vallabha, i.e. the Eashtrakuta king Kpshna II, 4 on Bhima I. 
It implies that Bhima I bore the surname ^itasiddM, 6 *wad that Vikramanka (i.e. Vikramaditya 
I) had received the dignity of heir- apparent, but did not ascend the throne. 8 Verse 13 informs 
us tiiat Amma II was eight years old when he was anointed to the dignity of heir-apparent, 
and that he was twelve years old at the time of his coronation. From other grants the exact 
date of the last is known to have been Friday, 5th December, A.D. 945, in the twelfth year of his 
age.' 

The regnal year of Amma II in which the grant recorded in the Vemalurpadu plates was 
made, is not specified in them. On the day of a winter-solstice (uttarayaq,a, I 5% the 



1 Mr. Krishna Sastri has very kindly deciphered from the original copper-plate, and rendered into 
English, a few Telugu words of this passage which I had been unable to read and explain, 

a Above, Vol. IX, p. 48 f. 3 Cf. Fleet's remarks in Ind. A*t. f Vol. XX, p, JOCK. 

* Ibid., p. 102, and above, Vol. IX, p. 841 * See below, p. 233, note 15. 

6 See Ind. Ant., Vol. XX, p. 103. 

7 See Ind, Ant., Vol. XX, p, 271 ; above, Vol. IX, p, 55 !., and p'. 134 i. 

2 F 2 



228 EPIGEAPHIA ESTDIOA. [Vox,. XVIII 

king gave an agraMra (II 45 and 57) or many (L 71) to a Brahmana named Musiya (11. 39 and 
51) or MusiyanaSarman (L 56), whose lather seem to have enjoyed the complimentary 
title of Maharaja (L 39 if.)* whose grandfathers name was Gtaipgamayya (L 41 1>, and who be- 
longed to the Bharadvaja-g^m (11. 42 and 56)* The king did this at the request of Dnr&arSja, 
the great-grandson of PS[n<J.a]ra&g.a (L 43 f.). Durgaraja seems to have been the royal superin- 
tendent of the district (raya~vuhay-Sdhy<J!k$ik&> 1. 53) or feudatory chief of the province 1 of 
Karma-rasfctra (I 48) "and to have eommunicated the king's decision to the inhabitants of 
this district and to the donee himself, who is addressed in the second person (tvam) in lines 39 and 
61. Durgaraja may be meant also by e the famous chief of the camp ' who was the executor 
(wjfiapti) of this grant (L 72). From the king's own words, which are quoted in line 44 f., we may 
conclude that the donee, Musiya, was Durgaraja' s minister (mantrin). Both Durgaraja and 
Ms great-grandfather, the general Fandaringa, are well knowm from other inscriptions. 2 

The object of the grant were two fields which had been cut off from the two villages of 
(11. 52 and 59) and A?4*ki (L 54) in the district of Karma-rasMra (L 48). 



This district must have corresponded to portions of the Ongole Taluk of the NFellore District. 
For, it included the village of Chendaltr In this taluk 8 and the two villages of Dharmapuiram 
and Kalvakuru in the Addanki Division of the Ongole Taluk. 4 Andeki (L 54) is perhaps an old 
form of the name of Addanki itself. In the absence of local maps I am unable to trace the foil*? 
villages which formed the boundaries of the subjoined grant (11. 57-59) The two villages of 
Karamcitedu (L 55) and Va&giparu (I. 73) where the recipient and the composer of the grant 
resided, respectively, are mentioned in a grant of Narendramiigaraja in the slightly different 
forms of Karanchedu and VangipayjjH.. 5 On sheet 3 of the Madras Presidency Map published 
by the Madras Survey in 1892, I find * Karanchedu/ 10 miles west by south of Bapafia ; a-nd 
Vangiparpi may be the same as Vaigipuram m the Bapatla Taluk/ which b*rclera on th 
Addanki Division. On the same map I notice * Nutulapad/ about 15 miles west of Bapatla. 
This is perhaps identical with the village of Nutulapajia in Karma-rashtra. 7 

TEXT. 8 
lint Plate. 

1 4$iRf i\\ J sflrfaRfU li^*lj|[WWWS|1W 

2 f^TOT 11 ^fi^R^WWT^spIWI^ TW*iTOtrf^ 

3 ^tf?mTtiroT54^rt wt w wwwirnpiri^ 

m 






(i) ^g^i^ff ^wirorwift lf (i) 



1 See below, p. 234, note 4. a See aboTO, Vol. IX, p. 49 f . 

8 AboTe, Voi, VIII, pp. 284 and 238. 

* AboY*, Vol. IX, p. 50. In Coitable*a Hand Atlas of India* plate 34, D> b, Addanki is entered on the left 
l?flnk of 'the Gundiakaoiins river. 

* ind. Ant., Vol. XX, p. 418. |fr, R. Sewell's Lists o/ Antiquities, Voi L p a 85 a 
t Ind. Ant., Vol. XX ,p. 105. F 

From ink-impreasipiia applied l&y Bao Bahadur H. Krishna Saslri, B.A. 
A flower is emgr^vtd t the beginning of this 1m. 
" Ifead ^ifW . w Bead pr T ^t. it Bead 

M Reafl iwmmt- ! Bead o^ft^. w Head 

M Bead *HH, w Bead 



No. 25.} VEMALTJB.FADU PLATES OF AMMAEAJA II. 829, 



6 ^rawn^^wn 1 (i) MTWT ^pirfiw^w^frar^ii 1 [i f ]f% (n) 

7 i ^w[?i*]ir[T*]|wn i w?[iiii*]h > wifthririif^ihqr^ i 



Second Plate ; Pirst Side* 

8 'fvrapnnft ;| w i Xttafvfrf 



9 ^U | W5VW:*] 4tfitiarei[T*]Ti I ?WB 
10 

11 



12 <pf|?r: ^RfwfSrwqii ^Hurif ^iisf ls i frown 14 
13 



15 Q^icqiRinf; i ip^aRt^ 19 f^mnwi 20 TW ftrfn I 

^1*1 n 



16 TWSIWrf%i9T^5[ al 



Second Plate ; Sewmd Side. 

17 
18 



Bead 

Read 4rfr , Wnfiiii i ^Rgift. * Bead f*Nnf . 

The initial ^ is entered below the line. 8 Bead 



10 The syllable ^ is entered below the line. u This ^f is entered below tfre line. 

19 Pada 4 of this Terse is corrupt ; c/. another corrupt version of it aboye, Vol IX, p. 61, text line I3 

pias to have been engraved on an erasure and may b meant for either ^^ or 
i Read 
i* Bead 
" Read 
i* Read fK 

x Read &an if 

Read in^. 
** Read 



23d IPIQEAPHIi IKDIOA [Vot, XVIII 



19 u^TwreNi^NinaT 1 H errand f^fw^wg'i ^[T*]*wjn<fai: [*] 

20 ttgjfsgp ^^*nitf%faw^<U ffflra^t^RHiP (l) 

21 faufwrwgt faamrf^riw: t [>*] 

22 

23 



24 foKTOrro [j 918 ] fvjf^ nnr" 'rf[T f ]frr n[Hit*r t*] 11 

^ 

25 m 



TJWrd Plote; Pwrt SUe. 

26 '^CtTt^T f^ : t ^^M^TJi^T,' 16 (l) 

27 ST 17 HlftJVfl: [l*] 



28 tq^wgAv 11 ' ftrofT *T%? B^in B [l*j IT^^t 

29 

30 

,81 ^r^ 23 r ^r ^<lf?f [ 4*] * ^TtfH^HHT 3 * (0 



20 



I Bead ^ti* T . * Bead 

' ^^ ^Jif , ^ff. ' * Bead 

B Above, Vol. IX, p. 52, text line 23, this was needlessly corrected into 

Bead <o<ereT. * Eead 5T^TW1 . 

8 Cancel the syllable ^ after xtspTTR^' R8ad ^TPraf. 

Bead ft^fiwtr -npa^. lo Eead <^- 

II The letters Enclosed in brackets are supplied from the Maliyapundi grant. 
Bead sfmfeft ^^t. 18 Read ^. 

Bead ftf^pfl-. " The Maliyapundi grant reads 
Bead n\tiar. "Readi. 

.Bead"perhape fl^^\'3!T. " Read 

Bead im^r. M Read 

Bead ^l! " Bead ^nnre^. " 

W fJnless ^unw * 6 intended for an imperfect of qj-gnff it might be corrected into <qptl* t* 16 impcrfccj of 

Bead ? {^af, ? Bead 



; "Veiiialurpadu Plates of II 



6 



6 




34 



OF 



36 



38 



36 




74 



No. 25.] VEMALDBPADU PLATES OF AMMARAJA II. 



33 mwt: ftrnrw: [i*] *PWnntar[T*]: W WHW^BWI^ [u 



Third Plate ; Second Side, 

85 
36 



37 ftTT***i <* *iw?!rf*ra ^ffft f^wiisK'59 IH[T*] 

38 w?rttfnni: wrfH^T^ii^RrtW[: D*] 

39 f%r^mw^friTf?r fsrot ^rarrf^mf: [ 

40 T[T*]gprjtww ftilf^fira^jTO 8 [i*] ^ 

41 fr nf^w^t^' H^r^fowEsra [u u*] 

42 sf^r r?'l[crf^TO i ?T [i*] 



f%- 

46 m[<Nroro D*] 

47 f?f tef [n 



48 WWW[l]trt WT?TTfWTW[:*] (ll) 

49 



50 ^ ^; i ^^^[T*]?^ 8 ! ^4fsrsr^mn?r: 21 [i*] 



Read ^ : , *, T .. Read 



43 u[: ^*] ^rifii^i^qtww 10 trretirer u IB;[T*] ^^T" firm- 

JPourtA Plate ; First Bide, 

44 fcratarMpr: 13 mft Trawf 

45 % 



Read Og Bead ^nhtvHI . 8 Read ^- 



8 Read qfa-. The metre seems to have induced the author to use the impossible form i 
instead of ^f^cpsf. 

8 ..Read perhaps 



9 The metre of Pads 3 is faulty. w Read perhaps 

" Read trnsr^.t'R^ ^d c f" above, Vol. V, p. 125, text line 35. 
"Read^nno . " "Read \wa& 

"Read 4ta. Read ft>. Read 

R.ead perhap |fcq. 



232 BPIGRAPEIA INDIOA. [Yoi. XVIII. 



51 faiflft 1 qfima i[ii*M 

[i*] 



52 



53 
54 

Fourth Plate; Second Side 

55 
56 

57 

58 



59 
60 

61 ftf?r?r 19 ^ ^f^ir 1^3^ ufror: irf^r grfeaf?r 

62 <T*]VWI: [f^c] iroronS ^j^ wm; a 

63 T 3 a 23 [l*] 



A doubfcfal symbol i, entered below the ftj *fof t 10 



Read 



r "Bead 

few. Mr. Krishna Sastri oottaots this into 



I owe the reading of this vord fe> Mr. Krishna Swtri. 

!! fl f% T r - " ^^ ^*Wt. Bead 

-Bead g,^ ( lA Eead 




No. 25.] VEMALITRPADU PLATES OF A1IMARAJA II. 233 

Fifth Plate. 

66 SfrrwT[T*]f*mT: 1 ^Tfm^flni^fhjW 2 STT]^ mws: [u*J 

67 

68 

69 f ii [v*] **f*rfa*[i*] ^rnr arfftraTStrenTi 8 [i*] 



70 wresr ?r<?T una [n i**] ^^t qwm*f *ft ^n ^*rct [i*J 

71 gwf^ff'i 8 fw^T^ri gjT^rw fMw: i 



72 ^enrtenwmtsf [i*] ^wfH^'w ^9 <$2%*ft ^afrf^r; H 
73 



TRANSLATION. 

[As far as line 33, the text is identical with that of the Maliyapuijcji grant, lines 3-34, as 
translated above, Vol. IX, p. 55.] 

(Verse 8.) Ammaraja (II) who was born to him by Lekamaliadevi, just as Kuinara to 
Malxesvara by Uma ; 13 

(V. 9.) From her (viz. LokamahadevI) was born the lord Amma (II), the son of prince 
Bblma (II) who vanquished the armies of enemies ; the grandson of the modest great king 
BUSma (I)" who seized and wore again at the top (?) of (his) parasol the diadem although it had 
been struck at by Vallablia, (and) who duly attained success by righteousness ;" the great. 
grandson 16 of Vikramanlsa" who was resplendent with the neck-ornament of the glorious dignity 
of heir-apparent (yuvaraja). 

<V. 10.) 'Thou whose name is Musiya, the best of the twice-born (Brahrnanas), (art) 
pure in three (respects). For, (thou art) pure in thoughts which are removed from ^he pro- 
perty of others, pure in words which are devoid of uakindness to others, (and pure m deeds, 
being) a benefactor of others.' 



> Read o^nflp,. ' Bead 

BeadW ' 'Reader*'. R*ad 

Bead ^f m. 8 Bead *^ifw ft*Wt. * Read 

M Bead f^%?t. " Bead font . 

14 A flower is engraved at the end of this line. 

" This verse is identical with verse 9 of the MdiyapOwJi Pf *- th 

' By mistake the panegyrist has omitted one generation (V.jayaditya IV). For, Ammall was 

grandson, but the great-grandson, of Bhima I. 

Or, ' who duly attained (the surname) ^itasiddhi.' l 



C/, note 14, above* 



234 'EHGRAPHXA INDICA. [VOL. XVIII. 

(V. 11 i) He (viz. Musiya) was tlie son of Mm who was the best of (those bearing) the 
glorious title of Maharaja, whose sight pleased wise men, Mends, and relatives, who fully dis- 
charged the debts to the gods, etc., 1 (and) who graced a noble family ; (and he was) the grandson 
of him whose nanje was Gun^amayya, who always fulfilled the six duties (of a Brahmana)*s 
who was a Bhaiadvaja by gotra* (and) whose dignity was boundless. 

(LL 43-45.) Having been requested by (Musiya 5 s) lord Durgaraja, the great-grandson-* 
of Pa[9$a]r0Agfa whose fighting-power had been unequalled, Aramaraja (II), whose heart was 
pleased with this devoted servant (viz. Musiya), replied : ; I shall gladly grant an agrdhara to 
your minister. 5 

(V* 13.) This (king), who had been anointed to the dignity of heir-apparent at (the age 
of) eight years (and) crawned at (the age of) twice six years, is always resplendent, having 
forcibly slain many enemies in great battles. 

(LI. 47-49.) He who has attained the five great sounds, 4 who. is deeply attached to Brah- 
man,as, the supreme Iord 3 the fervent worshipper of MakeSvara, who is devdted to (his) mother 
and father, having assembled all the ryots, headed by the Rashtrakutas, inhabiting (the province 
of) Karma-rasMra, commands (them) as follows : 

(LL, 49-57.) 'Belt known to you (that), having greeted the royal superintendent of the 
district (raja-vishay-adfayaksha), having cut ofi a field requiring as seed ten Mam 5 of kddrava* 
on-the southern side of the village named A^ma^auguru, having cut off likewise a field 
requiring as seed ten kharis of kddrava on the northern side of the village named Andeki, 
having joined (these two fields) to this village, he has given, 7 at the occasion of the winter 
solstice (uttaraya^a), the two villages named Tumiyave^iyapiajp^i^ etc., (as) an agmliara, 
having provided (them) with all immunities, to Musiyana&arinan who resided at Kararo.- 
cfc8$[u], e belonged to the family of Krovi (and) to the Bharadvaja-gtfft-a.' 

(V. 14.) 10 * To thee, the glorious Mtisiya who desires the favour of (his) lord, 11 wko 
shows CQinpaBsion to all beings, (and) who is .always eager for virtue and politics, (he has 
made this grant). na 

(V. I5,<) The meanings of the two words amma 13 and rajan are declared to be * mother * 
and c moon ' (respectively). Is it wonderful (that) these two are beneficial to the subjects (of a 
Mng) if they have become united (in the name AmmarSja) ? 



See Tatoiriy*BvhhitS, VI, 3, 10, 5 : 

r:. 

2 These six duties are enumerated by Man\i(I 88 ; X, 75) and in the Baudhagana-Marmawtra, I, 10, 



8 The pedigree of Pa^<Jr[a]nga in the MaliyapQ^nJi grant (above, Vol. IX, p. 56) shows that n&pta has to 
be fcakew, here too, in the sense of * a great-grandson.* Cf. above, p. 283, note 16. 

& This title, which is restricted to feudatory chiefs, suggests that Dutrgaraja, and not hia sovereign 
Amma II, is meant here. Of. Fleet's remarks, above, VoL XII, p* 255 and note 2. 

* See above, Vol. XIII, p, 121, note 1. 

* See above. Vol. V, p. 121, note 14. 

* The subject of this sentence is probably king Amma II. 

Is thia the new name that was beat-owed on the two fields f Perhaps the first field had originally borne 
tha nanae of Tnmiy&pfi$4i an the second one that of Ve$iyapii$di, 

This village is mentioned three times, and its name is spelled KfrraSchedu (with dental A) in every 
ft grant of Naxendramfigaraja; see Ind. Ant., Vol. XX, p. 418. 

10 This verse and the next one are inserted after the words * be it known to you * in line 50, 

11 s'.e; of Durg&raja whose raitxister he was ; see line 44 f . 
&$ Supply prad&t from line 57. 

one of the Dravi4ian words meaning * mother.* 



No. 25.] VEMALUBPADTT PLATES OP AilMAHAJA 11. 2S5 

(LI. 57-59.) The boundaries of this (agrahara are) : -To the east j to the 

south Gattipii^di; to the west the village named Leriikon^a ; to the north the village named 



(LK 59-63.) The limits of the fields (are) : To the east a ml l (tree) at the meeting-point 
of ttree boundaries ; a to the south-east a pond (gunta) ; to the south a gBnu, (tree) with margosa 
trees on the bank of the Gu^teru (river) ; to the south-west the salt marshes 5 * on the southern 
side of a lake ; to the west , .... on the bank of the rivex ; to the north-west a 
pond ; to the north the Chaliguijta (pond) ; to the north-east a white stone at the meeting-point 
of three boundaries, 

(L. 63 f.) Nobody should cause obstruction to him (viz. the donee). He who does (it) 
will be guilty of the five great sins. He who protects (the gift) will gain merit. And 
bliadra has spoken thus : 

[LI, 65-71 contain four of the customary verses (16-19).] 

(L. 71 f.) The grant (many a) is a field requiring as seed twenty kMris of leddrava.* 

(V. 20. ) 5 The executor (ajnapti) of this charity (was) the famous chief of the camp* 6 

(L. 73 f.) The poetry was made by BhaftagugiJLa who resided at Yaigipapi* (and) be- 

longed to the Atreya-grdtra. To him two shares (of the grant) were given. Written by Ghana- 

vatta~BI[r6]ja. 8 Let there be prosperity ! 



No. 26. SANJAN PLATES OF AMOG-HAVAESHA I : SAKA-SAMVAT 793. 
BY PBOFESSOB D. R. BHAKDARKAR, M.A., PH.D., CALCUTTA. 

The copper-plates, which are being edited here for the first time, 9 were originally lying 
with my brother, the late Professor Shridhar Ranxkrishna Bhandarkar, Elphinstone College^ 
Bombay, They were originally discovered, so I was told by Mm, at Sa&jSn in the TliaijtS 
District; Bombay Presidency, and were- forwarded to him for decipherment "by a Pare! Mend 
o his, whose name I do not know* 

At my suggestion, however, Professor S. R. Bhandarkar published a note on two verses 
from this grant to show the contemporaneity of the Rashtrakuta king Govinda HI* 
the Pratihara ruler Nagabhata, the Kanatij sovereign Chakrayudha, and the Gatufe ki&g 
Dharmapala. 10 These plates constitute the first' genuine record of tte Rashtiakfita king 
Am5gliavarslia > hereupto known. It is true that many inscriptions of Ms time have come to 
light, but none of them seems to harve. directly emanated from him. The best known of these is 
the Konniir stone inscription of Saka 782 which, however, is not an original record of the 

1 Prosopis spicigera, 

2 For muyyalikuttu see above, Vol. IV, p. 96, note 4. 

3 [The word parwvulu has been tafeea to be the plural of jwa=a salt marsh. H* K S.] 

4 Here the two fields specified in lines 52-55 are add - ed up. 
6 This is only a hall- Terse. 

6 The word ya&onidhi is perhaps a general epithet, and not a proper name* The kaptketo probably wn 
Durgaraja himself. Cjf. above, Vol. IX, p. 50, 

7 A village named Vaagiparra is mentioned four times in a grant ol NiyreEdramrigaraja ? see Id. 4 
Ant., Vol. XX, p. 418. 

8 a.e., Vlropadhyaya of Ghanava^a* For 6j<i see above, Vol. ^VIII, p* 140, note B 9 aad Browt^s 
Telugn -English Dictionary, s.v* oju. 

9 Her I wish to thank my pupils Messrs. Bakhohari Chatterjee and Chintahataa Chakrvvucti, to whott 
a good deal of credit is due for this work. 

w J, J?. B. %. A. 8., VoL XXII, p, 116 and a 

2 2 



236 EPIGBAPH1A INDIOA. [ VOL. XVIII, 

inlet but professes to be a mere copy of a copper-plate charter of his, prepared about the 
middle of the 12th century AJX 

The plates are three in number, each about 18 J* long and 10f* broad. The edges of them 
all are fashioned slightly thicker, so as to serve as rims for\the protection of writing. The record 
Is inscribed on the inner side of the first and third plates and on both sides of the second. 
The plates are strung together by a stout elliptical ring of about 4f" and 3$" in diameter and of 
about |" ; in thickness, passing through holes on one side of each plate. The ring was intact 
when the plates were examined* The ends of the ring are soldered into a roughly square seal* 
which measures If ^ in height and breadth, and ^ears, in relief, on a counter- sunk surface, as the 
principal figure, an image of Garu4a> on a lotus seat facing full front, with his prominent beak- 
nose and holding a snake in each hand. Two discs are seen above the ears of Garuda, but 
it is difficult to say what they represent. On Garada's proper right, there is a representation 
of Gaijapati in the upper corner, and lower down an indistinct chauri and a lamp. On 
Ms left s near the top is some goddess, standing in front of an animal (perhaps a lion) and 
holding a ladle in her right hand ; below her is a ohaun, and, near the bottom, a Swastika.* 
Beneath the central figure are in relief the letters : $Timad~Amdgh&varshadevasya. 

The engraving is clear and on the whole well-executed, but the record is full of inaccuracies 
due chiefly to the incorrect draft written by the scribe on the plates. The character agree fully 
with those of other Rashtrakufca records of the period. The langtaag is Sanskrit throughout. 
Excepting the introductory " 0m Svasti," the inscription is in verse down to line 5*7 (Third Plate). 
As regards metrology attention may be drawn to verses 23 and 39* The metre of these is Mattfi- 
bhavikndita, which is not found in classical literature. 2 It is not noticed in the Sutras of Pingala* 
Vfittaratnakara or Chhandfaiaftjari, but is described in the Chhandomanjan-paritiishta as *a- 
bka-ran-man g4a-gas*tray8^a-yatir*M$^ ' As regards orthography I might 

say that (1) v is almost invariably written for 6 ; (2) a consonant is invariably doubled after r, in 
the case of y, n, t s *m, dl, n, p, A, and also v when not followed by y (of. nirvyapSfahati* in I 7), bmt 
not- always in the case of grand j (ct Earahafa^vinirggata in L 60 and y&!rjjan& in 1, 20, but w- 
*Aaya-wnwotoinl. Gland Wr/da in 1, 8) ; (8) Fwargra when followed by rf, $&or s is, as a rule, 
changed to that letter ; (4) $h for h is found in one instance only (cl AyQdhyasimgMsana in 1. 8, 
PL I) ; (5) final n is sometimes replaced by m (cl sw-bhritySih jhatfti in L 13, and ttirh IMUrito in 
1. 15) and m by n (mga4kan~gja^> L 21, very rare) ; (6) upadhm&niya is frequently though not 
invariably, used (of. bh^fapa6Qnam*wa, L 40* but not in twaga&b yftacRa, L 21) ; (7) th 
vowel nand the syllable ri are sometimes interchanged (thus in Urttis~t r il5Tcyan, L 33, and trig 
agra-lagna, L 71) ;(8) t is, as a Me, doubled when followed by r ; and lastly (9) in prose portions 
Twofjaw retained in some instances where it should be replaced by o (cl pachimata% Nanda- 
gramayml. 65 S Pi III), and in some places where it should be elided (of. DJc$hinatah*U<pvala Q * 
etc., in L 65). ' rr 

The first thing that strikes one about the contents of this grant is that some of ita 
verses are identical with those in the Konnjfe .Inscription of Amoghavarsha published by the 

la f A P^rjf JTlol K rtf YI S TPTmo trflkt* f> 1 f\ -ft 4.K 1 i. . 

T^Q.Se, 45, and 50-53 of the former with slight variations in some cases/ With 
-.totheKonntrlnEcriptiop. Pro! Kielfrorn expresses the opinion about the middle' 

i whole i 

. Eaaarese anscriptior 




i Swim Mo. a), p. 5, v% 19. E4J 
* %. Iml v VoL VI, pp. 29 aad . 



No, 26. ] SANJAN PLATES OF AMOGHAVARSHA I; SAKA-SAMVAT 793. 237 

of Ms paper that " the genealogy was concocted gome time after the date which is recorded in 
this inscription, and has not been copied from a genuine copper-plate chatter of Amoghavarsha 
I.'* The same view he sets forth more clearly at the end of that paper. " Stating distinctly 
what I have indicated above/' says he, " I consider it possible that lines 1-59 of this inscription 
really were based on a copper-plate charter ; at the same time, I feel certain that, if such was the 
case,, the transcribers have taken so great liberties with the original as to deprive this * copy * of 
the value of an authentic document." The present plates, however, eDable us to decide how 
fat Kielhorn's opinion is correct. A comparison of lines 1-14 of the Konnui Inscription with the 
genealogical portion of these plates leaves no doubt as to the lines 1-59 of the former being copied 
on stone from a genuine charter of Amoghavarsha I, as the concluding part of it informs us. But 
what about the glaring blunders in the genealogy which Kielhorn has detected in the Konnur 
Inscription ? How did they arise ? In the first place, in our plates also the father of Govinda I 
is called Prichchhakaiaja, as the same verse occurs in both the records. Prichchhakaraja may be 
a new name not known from previous Rashtrakuta grants, but that does not mean that it ig a 
fabrication* And, as a matter of fact, it rliay be another name of Indraraja who is mentioned as 
the father of Govinda I in the fragmentary Ellora Da&avatara cave temple inscription. 1 Again, 
Kielhorn says that the Konnur Inscription makes Prabhutavarsha (-Govinda II) a son of his 
younger brother Dharavarsha s and consequently Prabhutavarsha (-Govinda III) not a nephew 
but a son of the former. This discrepancy, flagrant though it appears, can be easily explained 
away by the mention of the fact that Dharavarsha-sutas of the inscription is a misreading of the 
transcribers for the correct wording Dkarauarskas=tatas , such as that supplied by our grant, 
Then, again, Kielhora tells us that in the Kongaur epigraph Karkaraja IJs called Karkara, an 
apparently later form of the name. Here, also, the transcribers must have read Karkleara-prabhufa 
wrongly in place of KarJckardt prabhufy as appears in our grant. And it can scarcely be disputed 
that Karkkarat is precisely the same word as Karkkaraja. This name occurs in v. 4 of the Konnui 
record* which, however, begins with Imdr-dvampala-sutena dhari'til instead of dhanus-saanutsarita- 
bkubkrita mahl as in our plates. This discrepancy alone is of a serious character aa it makes 
Indra not a son but father of Karkkaraja. It is, however, possible to get over this difficulty by 
taking Imdr-avampala-sutena as a bahuvnhi compound. In this connection we have to 
bear in mind the fact that of all the verses common to the Konnur Inscription and OUT charter* 
this is the only stanza where one whole line is entirely different. Was it deliberately composed 
and inserted or is it an example of sheer carelessness ? If the introductory portion of the 
former is compared to that of the latter, it will be seen that the former, as it were of set purpose, 
wants to bring the genealogical account into the narrowest possible compass. This is quite 
clear from the fact that verses 12 and 27 of our charter, which are the same as verses 8 and 9 
of the Konnur Inscription, are connected with each other in the latter record by the two 
words : ,tasya autah. It is not impossible that the transcribers are responsible for this 
abridgement as th<iir main object must be to give in full only those details that relate to the 
grant proper and curtail them rigorously in all other respects. And it is not inconceivable 
that in their zeal to epitomize the genealogy they may have coined the line Imdr-avampata- 
sutena dhdriyi, which if we take it to be a tahuvrihi compound, can he made to yield the 
sense that Indra was the son of Karkkaraja, and can thus make one verse serve the purpose 
of two, 

The charter is one of the Hash^rakuta prince Amfigliavarsha described in 11. 57-58 as 
the Parama"bh<$taraka-Maharajadhw^ the prosperous Vallabhana- 

rSndradeva, who meditated on the feet of the Parawa&Aa^ra&a-Jif a^ 



. Surv. West. Ind., Vol. V, p. 87. 



238 EPIGRAPHIA INDIOA. [VOL. XVIII. 

the prosperous Jagattungadeva. It records that in the Saka year 793 when Am5ghavarsha 
was staying at Manyakteta, his capital, he granted to four Brahnaans the village of Jhari- 
yaUika from the Twenty- four- village Group adjacent to Samjana for the purpose of maintain- 
ing the bali, charu, vaisvadeoa, agnihstra and attihitarpaqa sacrifices. The donees are all 
Brahmans of the Bahvrieha-^Ma. Two of them, namely, (1) Narasimha-Dlkshita, son of Gola- 
Shadangavid and grandson of Savikuvara, and (SJJRakshaditya-Kramavid, son of Govinda-Bhatta 
and grandson of Bhatta, were of the Bharadvaja-.^m. The third, Trivikrama-Shadangavid, aon 
of Vishnu- Bhatta, grandson of Davadi-Gahiyasahasa, belonged to the Vaddamukha-y&w ; 
and the fourth and last, Kesava-Gahiyasahasa, son of Govaditya-Bhatta and grandson of 
Hari-Bhatta, was of the Vatsa-gdtra. They all hailed from the same district, namely, Karahada. 
They were probably the Karhada Brahmans. 

Having thus disposed of the formal part of the grant, we shall now see what historical in- 
formation can be gleaned from the introductory metrical portion, which sets forth -the genealogy. 
After the introductory Om, it opens with the well-known invocatory verse with which most of 
the Rashtrakuta records begin. The next verse is in praise of Vlra-Narayana, by whom is here 
to be understood not only the god Narayana, the originator of the Rashtrakuta family, but also 
Amoghavarsha, the Rashtrakuta king, the donor of the grant, who bore that epithet. In verse 
3 we are told that in the line of the Yadus there was a king Govinda, eon of Priohchhaka- 
raja. This Govinda is, of course, Govinda I of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta-. 
He was succeeded by Karkka, on whom nothing but conventional praise is bestowed in 
vv. 4-6. Verse 7 says that after him came Indraraja, who married the daughter of a Chalukya 
king at Khetaka by the Rakshasa form of marriage. This clearly shows that the Rashtra- 
ku$ae, in the time of Indraraja, came first into hostile contact with the Chalukyas not of the 
Dekkan but of Gujarat, for the seat of this Chalukya power is mentioned as Khetaka, the same as 
Kair in North Gujarat. These Chalukyas must, therefore, be the Gujarat branch of the main 
dynasty ruling at Badami. In this connection is worth noting the Introli-ChharolI (in Surat) 
copper-plate grant of Kakka, dated gaka 679=A.D. 757.* This record inentions-(l) a 
Rashtrakuta prince named Karkka, (2) his son, Dhruva, (3) hia son, Govinda, and (4) his son, 
Kaikka II, with whose name are coupled the titles MaharajadUraja, Paramttvara and Parama- 
bliattaraJca, One feels exceedingly tempted to say that the third and fourth of these princes are 
identical with their namesakes who preceded Indraraja, fatiier of Dantidurga. One is, however, 
confronted with the difficulty that whereas under this supposition we have the date gaka 679 for 
Karkka, we have Saka 675 for his grandson, Dantidurga, supplied by his Satnangadh charter. 
This difficulty, however, is not insuperable, because there are reasons to doubt the genuine- 
ness of this last record. That the portion of it relating to the details of the village granted 
has been tampered with was pointed out long ago by Dr. Meet when he edited the inscrip- 
tion.* And the authenticity of the record as a whole has recently been called in question by Dr. 
V. S. Sukthankar on pateographic grounds." Thus the date furnished by the Samangadk 
grant 1% not above doubt, and the identification just pointed out may hold good. We may 
thus toke it that before the time of Dantidurga his predecessors were occupying South Gujarat. 

'Verse 8 tells us that Indraraja was succeeded by Dantidurga, of whom the next verse 
says that when in Ujjain the various Kshatriyas performed the ceremony, namely, the Great 
Orrft o* Hiranyagarbha, he made the Gurjara and other lords his door-keepers (fratikdra). 

verse evidently means in the first place that Dantidurga either performed, himself or took a 

1 R Kielhotii's Lii of Inscriptions of Southern India, No. 54. 

J Iiul. Ant., Vol. XI, p. 110. 

3 Abore, Vol. XIV, p. 121, n. 5, and p. 122. 



No, 26,] SANJAN PLATES QJf AMOQHATAESHA I ; SAKA-SAWAT 793. 236 

prominent part in this Hira^yagarbha ceremony in Ujjain. And this receives confirmation from 
a stanza ^occurring in the Da^avatara cave temple inscription at Eiiora. 1 This inscription gives 
MahSraja-Sarira as another name apparently for Dantidurga, and claims that in that very 
Ujjain, in order to enjoy a diversion with other princes, he instituted a maM-dana worthy of 
kings, and pouted all kinds of wealth and precious stones on the supplicants. There can, therefore, 
be no doubt that Dantidurga had gone to Ujjain and performed the Hixa^yagarbha ceremony, 
Secondly, verse 9 of out grant also implies that at Ujjain was then ruling a Otirjara dynasty 
called Pratlhara* There can be little doubt that this must be the Piatihttai dynasty, that 
became supreriie after seizing the throne of Mahodaya. We know for certain fw>ni epigraphic 
records that their capital became MahSdaya or Kanauj from the time of Bhoja I onwards. 
But we did not know with certitude where they were actually ruling before they became 
rulers of Kanauj. And it was a mere surmise when some scholars thought that it was BMlmal 
or Bhinmal in South Rajputana. 2 Our grant, however, enables us now to say definitely that 
their original seat of power was Ujjain, It also enables us to interpret ptoperly the third lini of 
the stanza so often quoted from the Jaina Hwivam&a of Jinasena. We can have no doubt now 
as to the correctness of Dr. Fleet's translation, 3 which makes Vatsaiaja king of Avanti; 
This Vatsaraja,, of course, is the Vatsaraja of the Imperial Pratihara dynasty, and the Jaitm 
Hcuriv&mia may be regarded as strengthening the inference that the Pratiharas were estab- 
lished at Ujjain and. not Bhilmai before they transferred their capital to Kanauj. Danti- 
durga was succeeded by SubliatuAga Vallabha (v. 10) , that is, Krishipa I, who is re- 
presented to have seized the Chaiuky a sovereignty. - He was followed by Prabhiktavarslia, 'that 
is, Gdirinda II, and the latter by Dharavarslia, that is, Dferuva (v. 12). -Verse 13 contains 
BO historical information, but the verse following says that.Dhruva anatcbed away the royal 
parasols of the king of Gauga as he was fleeing between the Ganges and the Jumna. This 6an4a 
Mag, who would be a contemporary of Dhruva, is either Dharmapala or his father Gropalaj 
of the PHa dynasty. From the inscriptions of this family, however, Gopala does not 
seem to have been in any way a powerful prince ; and we must, therefore, suppose that Dhar- 
mapala was the Gau$a prince defeated by Dhruva. But the curious thing about this victory is 
that he was defeated not in his own country but outside.* Does this not show that the Oang* 
prince had gone outside his dominions, perhaps, to help the king of Kanauj ? This agrees witk 
the fact, mentioned in the Baroda plates, that Dhxuva seized the territory between the Gauge* 
and the Jumna and thus added the emblems of the two rivers to his imperial insignia* This 
territory certainly coincides with the Kanauj kingdom, and what appears to have happened is 
that when, after defeating Vatsaraja, Dhruva was pressing his victories northwards, the Gaiuja 
king must have made common cause with the Kanauj sovereign,but that 9 when the Eishtrakiif a 
prince inflicted a crushing defeat on the' latter, he began to pur we the former and encountered 
him before he was able to reach his dominions. Verse 15 says that Dhruva's feme, which hai 
already spread as far as the extremities of the earth, now extended to the heavens, implying 
that he died. The next verse furnishes Nirapama as an epithet of Dkruva, and telis us that, a* 
soon as Ms BOH Govinda III was crowned king, he re-instated some of the feudatories in t^eir 
own principalities, and, apparently against the wishes of his councillors, in particular, related 
the G-suiga prince, who, as we know from the records, was imprisoned by his father. This move 



i Arch. awrv. West, IncL, Vol. V, p. 88. . 

Jour, fi* As. 8oc. 9 1909, p. 57 ; Smith's Early Bis. Ind. t p. 378. 

Above, Vol. VI, pp. 19S-* Verse 9 of this charter of AmSghayaraha was . ownmted, to ^Dr. 
E.G.Maiumdar for being utilised in his paper entitled the Qurjara-PratlMras ptddidri m ba Jow. Dq* 

iefltew (Cal.Uoiv.),VoL X (p. 25andff.) ^ _ t . , /7 , A , Vnl TTT _ 

Dr. Uainmdlr was the first to show that this verse of the Baroda Plates (M 1*. VcL XII, p 
wa. to be taken as referring to Dhruva, and aot to Govinda III as had been done by Dr; Meet (/our. 
*, Vol. X, p. 35, a. 2). 



EPIGBAPHIA INDIOA. [ VOL* XVIII, 

wa^a]^ disaffection among the vassal kings who tad transferred their 

allegiance from Mm to another overlord (v. 17), This is evidently a reference to his contending, 
immediately after Ms accession, against a confederacy of twelve kings led by Stambha, who can 
be no other than Ms elder brother Kanavaloka-Kambhadeva. 1 This opposition, however, he 
quickly put down. But the Ganga, whom he L*d released, refused to pay the fine imposed on 
him and had to be put in fetters again (v* 18), 

Verses 19-20 contain nothing but conventional praise of Govinda III, but the second of these 
supplies for Mm 'a new epithet Tribhuvanadhavala, not known from previous records. 
From v, 21 "begins the description of his expedition of conquest in the north. He appears first 
to liave encountered and defeated Nagab&ata and Ghandragupta. Who the second of 
these princes was it is not difficult to say. The only prince of that name who can be a con- 
temporary of Govinda III is Chandragupta .of the K56ala country ruling at Sripura or Sirpur 
in the Central Provinces. 2 The name of the family to which he belonged was Panda va, but there 
can be no doubt that it was one of the paramount dynasties of the eighth and ninth - centuries. 
As regards Nagabhata* the other prince vanquished by Govinda III, there can be no question 
that he pertained to the Imperial Pratlhara family and was the son of Vatsaraja, king of Avantl, 
referred to above. His victorious march in the north, as verse 23 tells us, continued till Ms 
horses drank and elephants plunged themselves into the spring waters of the Himalayas. And 
it was here that two more princes, XXharma and ChakrSyudha, seem to have offered him their 
submission. This verse winds up by saying that he thus resembled the Himalayas in Mrti or 
fame, and, therefore, came to be known as Klrtin5rayaria, which, we know, was another 
epithet of Govinda III Of the two kings who submitted to him as he approached the 
Himalayas, Dharma has been recognised to be Dharmapala of the Pala dynasty, and 
Chakrayudha to be the prince of the same name who obtained the sovereignty of Kanauj 
through Dharmapala. 3 

From the Himalayas Govinda III returned to the Narmada ; and, turning to the east tf he 
along the bank of the river, conquering the Malava, KSsiala, Kalinga, Vanga, Pabala 

and O^raka countries (v. 24), and in this connection we are informed of another title that he 
bow, gamely, Vikrama, Making his enemies submissive, he followed the' other part of the 
m and established himself in a capital at the foot of the Vindhyas (v. 25). From verse 26 
it appears that he was then in the kingdom of a small ruler, called Maharaja 6arva, and in the 
me verse we are further told that while he was encamped there, a son was born to him who 
was known as Jfrfam/agarvan and about whom, verses 27-8 tell us that the astrologers 
a happy and. brilliant future. Evidently there is a pun here on the terms 
and mt. In one case they are taken as two separate words referring to 
a called Sarvan, no doubt, the Chief in whose principality Govinda 'III was 

- settled on the banks of the Narmada and at the foot of the Vindhyas; and, in 



Sareoeae so as to 



*irk-*w 1 4*<tl 1L 1 " 1 *"'- vw XA.I.M/.KXV^ J.TA-\Mlt'\Mi \M f\M KJlAtf UUr/tl Mf CJ 

royal title by which we know Amoghavarsha, son of GSvinda III, was known.* What 
to understand is that as Gfivinda III was turning to the west of the 
"ly established in the petty kingdom of his feudatory garvan, 
Similar information is contained in two other copper-plate grants of 
after receiving the submission of the Mala va king, he inarched 
"ice named Marasarva conciliated him with his choicest; 
rainy season at a place called SrEbhavana. 5 Maraiarva 




Vol. I, pt. II), p. 395. Aboy* Vol. VI. MM. 

o - 617 - 



4 &bove, VoL 1, p. 174. 

p, 250, 



NO, 26.] S1NJAN PLATES 01 AMOGHAVAESHA I- SAKA-SAMVAT 793, 241 

is evidently the same as Maharaja Sarvan, and must be the capital of the princi- 

pality of this ruler where G-ovinda III was encamped for the rainy season and where MB son 
Amoghavarsha was born- 

Veise 29 makes mention of the two titles which were borne by GSvinda HI, namely, Pra- 

febtttavarsha and Jagatttifiga ; and the two verses following inform us that from this encamp- 

ment in the Vindhyas he afterwards set out to attack and humble the Draviqb kings. Who 

these Dravida kin'gs were is made clear in verse 32, and it appears that in this expedition to the 

south he vanquished the Keraja 3 Pa^dya, Chaulika (Choja) and Pallava* With these are also 

coupled in the same verse the rulers of Kalinga and Magadha and the (jurjara to show that he was 

rightfully styled Vikrama, Then we are told that, presumably in this excursion, he chained and 

put to death certain G-anga princes who had become disaffected (v. 33). They apparently do not 

include the Ganga ruler referred to in verse 18 above, and probably belonged to more than one 

Ganga family. Which these were exactly it is difficult to say. One of these was certainly the 

Western Ganga dynasty ruling over the Gangavaxji province, and the other is probably what is 

called the Ganga-Pallava family. 1 The second half of verse 33 informs us that he made his camp- 

ground free of dust through the lords of mawfalM by compensating them if they were friendly 

and by subjecting them to forced labour if they were otherwise, such as the Vengi ruler was* This 

fact is also mentioned in the Radhanpur charter of that king. Where this camp is to be 

is not certain, *but it seems to be Helapura of the next verse, a place from where he is repre- 

sented to have enforced the obedience of the king of Lanka (Ceylon) and his minister. As a result 

of this obedience he seems to have received two statues apparently of Ravaija/ its most ancient 

and traditional ruler, which he, however, transferred to KancM, and put up as two oolunms of 

fame before the temple of Siva. Where can this Helapura be located? According to the Eadhaa- 

pur grant* he was then encamped either on or near the Tungabhadra, Can this Halapura be 

thus Velapura or Bfllui 8 in the Hassan District of the Mysore State 

Verses 35-36 speak of the death of Govinda III and the accession of Ms SOB, Amdglmvaraha* 
to sovereignty. The subsequent four verses inform us that just when Amoghavsrsha 

SSlhW-l Wh*t thi, public calamity it l-i *-* '2 



( Dyn. Kan. Distr., pp. 396 and 402-3). 

U. >- ^^^ 

Chronicle quoted i v , o, x^r ^ . 



. ZM, Ditto., p. 640, note, 



242 EPIGRAPH! A IffDICA. [VOL, XVIIL 



was the family deity of at least one branch of the SilanSra race* It is 
possible Amoghavarsha made a gift of his finger as 'bali to Mahalakahml of 

to avert some calamity which threatened his kingdom. Verse 48 compares Mm to 
a Gupta king in point of generosity and decides in favour of the former. The Gupta prince was 
no doubt traditionally handed down as a donor, but he had stigmatized his carfeer by killing his 
own brother^ seizing the latter's kingdom and queen, and wresting heavy sums from her. 
Amdghavarsha, on the other hand* panted neither for kingdom nor for self, and freely gave them 
away several times* The latter point reminds us of the PraSnottararatnamaUka* the Digambara 
Jaina copies of which inform us that the work was composed by Amoghavarsha ** after he had 
abdicated the throne in consequence of the growth of the ascetic spirit in him." 1 And it is quite 
possible that the figure of a royal ascetic found in a natural cavern 2 at Badami may represent 
this Amoghavarsha, But this was nothing more than a surmise, as the other copies of the work 
omitted all mention of the BashtrakSta sovereign. But our plates now clearly show that Amogha- 
varaha abdicated his throne, not once but more than once, before Saka 793 (=A.D. 871), the date 
of the charter^ when, however, he was carrying on his kingly duties. This shows that a king could 
in ancient times temporarily resign his sovereignty and enjoy the life of a hermit or ascetic. But 
who was the Gupta prinoe who was noted for his liberality up till the 9th century and who sinks 
into insignificancy by comparison with" Amoghavarsha ? The'Gatha-saptaiati of Hala who is 
ascribed to the beginning of the sixth century 3 and the Vasavadatta of Subandhu who has been 
placed in the century but at its close s for the first time speak of a king called Vikramaditya 

renowned for his gen^osity, Aad it has been suspected that this Vikramaditya is either Chandra- 
gupta II or Skandagupta., both of the Imperial Gupta dynasty. 4 Of the f ormej, there is no record 
to lead us even to surmise that i^e ousted his brother aiyl usurped the throne. In the case of 
Skandagupta, however, the Bhftafl! Pillar Inscription says that when his father (Kumaragiipta I) 
died, the sovereignty of the femily was tottering but that he put down his enemies and thereafter 
vent to see his mother Jurt a$ Krishna did DevakI, The ^efe^ence to Ejishga *od Dv*Jtt indi- 
cates that this was a femily feud and tkat his enemies jn the present oase we^e his kfeamen.* We 
ftlso further that Sfemdagupta had a brother nam$d GhatStka.chagupta who was in charge 

trf the Era^ district vhen Kw&fagupta I was alive. 6 A seal of Ghat&tkaohagupte was also 
found in BasSrh (a*efeitf Vai&aii) ? which was fte seat o| the Tuvwaja during the Gupta rule. 
It appeara probable tiiat there w^s a fyatticidal war between Ghat5tkachagupta and Skandagupta 
in which the former w^s kQled aod the throne sekedby the latter. |t may not, therefore, be 
mueaBonable to hold that Skandagupta- Vikramaditya was the Gupta king alluded to in our chatter 
vat comparison to Amoghavaisha, 

flie vikge granted, as we have seen, is Jlaaritallika which is said to be situated fr the 
-*~ -four-v^lage G ? ou p of gaiiijizia. The boundaries of the village are specified as 
:~To the east is the river Xalluvl, which falls into the sea ; to the south, the village of 
*.**.*. - to ihe west. Nand** m - , nd to the north, the village of DliaBna-. 

4- "U 4C J 

to De tound in the northern part of the 
Bombay Presidency, Samjana is, of course, Sanjan, the original refuge 



_ 

B. a MwdBrkar 9 s Earty Hi^DeL($omb. &*#*., VoL I, Pfc II, p. 201)* 
f frog. Sep. Arch. $urv. 9 JTwt, West Circle, for 1909-10, p 42 

'"" ma Vf- 193, Mr. i C. Woolner', Atredmiio* la Prakri 



aid KdtV. Smtril Vm-a 7i ma V^ ; f- , r. i C. Woolner', Atredmiio* la Prakrit, 

the 



*" ** "" l88 ' 





d camEtref erred to^-Ed.3 ^totkachagopta with Kumaragupta I is no w 



No. 26.] SAHJAtf PLATES OF AMOGHAVABSHA I ; SAKA-SAMVAT 703. 2 

of the Parsis and the place from where these plates come. JharivalHka is Zaroli ; Kallim is 
the Kalu, also called^Darota, which, no doubt, flows gradually westwards from this place till it 
falls into the sea. Uppalahatthaka is Uplat ; Nandagrama, Nandagaon ; and DhannavallikS, 
Dhanoll. All these places are traceable in Bombay Survey Sheets, NOB. 133E and 134. 



TEXT.i 

First Plate. 

[ii*] 



[l*] 

f% 6 I[R*] 
[i*] 



3 

[i*] 



[*] 



5 ^ trerimrT i 

Ci*] wm^m^WT^ 12 *w^*iMii*it [i*] 



6 

7 



From the original plates. , Metre ? 

* y * $y Metre of this and of ft. Mowing four v^ 



Bead . Read 



> 
"Bead TOT,;. 



"Bead -wn^f*. ee.. Meire 

Bead ft^t 2 H 2 



244 



EPIGEAPHIA INDIOA. 



[Vot. XVIII. 



8 si 1 



9 



10 WET; 9 



11 






12 



13 irm i 



15 



: [i*] 



ipr 






. aftd 

' 



i Bead {^. Bead 
Metre oE this and of the following verse i Vaditesttiavila. 

'BeadwjT. Bead 
Mefc^e : AnnshtnWu 

' B** 'HTTWirn;. C 1 "^ original reads *TO Ed.] Metre : Vasantatilaka. 

11 Bead o^^ . Metre : Anushtubh. Bead ^f^.. 

Bead and o u R^ .' 1S 



* Bead 
7 



Metre of this and of the following two verses : Sragdhara. 



* 



The letter ^ is engraved below the line. Bead 



Read q T aiR. M Bead 



Betd 



[Q 



[Tlie original correctly reads 



. Ed,] w Bead 






No. 26.] SANJAN PLATES OF AMOGHAVAKSHA I ; SAKA-SAMVAT 793. 245 



16 amw sNr 1 [l c *] ^fn^fT^T fwg 2 irf?rfrfwit 

n^^ 



17 



18 



19 



[i*] tf^wTOnnwrwhi^^ 



'rffc [i*] 



TIT- 



20 



21 



22 



Seoond Plate ; Wint Side. 



(0 



23 sitfifomw, 28 



24 



war 



[i*] 



Metre : Pushpitagra. 



Metre : Sragdh. 
. Metre :MaliBl. 
" Bead 
Bead 



a Bead 
' Bead 



' Barf 



" Metre : Sardfljaviki:i 4 ita " 



" Bead ^5. original has ^f. 



" **>* ***. 



Metre : Mattebhavikridita. 



" Bead 



Bend 

Metre : Prithvl. 
Bead 



? Bead 



9 [l*] 



2*6 



25 



26 



27 



28 w s 



30 



31 



EPIGRAPHIA IffDICA. 



c 



W 



['] 



[VOL. XVIII. 



e 







No. 26.] SAN-JAN PLATES OF AMOGHAVABSHA I; SAKA-SAMVAT 793. 247 



34 

35 ?it 

36 $ 



37 



38 



: [i*] 



[i*] ^rg 



: 15 [i*] 



Bead flT*l . * Read 

Metre of this and of the foH<miag two verses : Sragdhara. 

Bead rof. ' CThC riginal 

Bead ' Read 



* Bead 



" Bead 



Bead 

Metre : Sardulaikri4ita. 
Bead 
Bead 



Supply *. 
"Bead 

n Beftd 

" Read 
" Bead 



Bd 



, < 

amd 







; Mattebhavikridita. 
Metre of this and of the Mowing rerse : Malirf 



! Bead 



Bead 



248 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [Voi. XVIII. 

Second Plate / Second Side. 



45 wrranrpnFfp^wT*! 4 [i*] >uiiifteifaig4i 6 zr: 

: (i) S^NE^ ^P^e q^ 6 ^p^rw^^ 

(i) 



1 ii[8*] 



: 13 i (i) 



^cfera: (i) 
49 IT 



50 



(l) 



: (i) 



52 

^ *jt*ii5ii: [*] 
^m (i) 
53 



1(1) 



Read 



* Metre of this and of the following six verses : SardulavikriditB, 



* Bead N|s!*| . [Note the shape of ^ here and in lines 46, 56, 73 and 74 llow Ed,] 



, 

Bead jfm. . ffhe original correctly reads m^T- W-l " Bead 

"Bead 



" Ee * d T^"TRft ; tet *hia spofla the metre. 





SANJAN PLATES OF AMOGHAVARSHA 1 : SAKA-SAMVAT 703, 




it a. 




HASTRI 



SCALE. ONE-THIRD. 



OF INDIA, CALCUTTA. 



lib. 




78 



SEAL OF THE SANJAK PLATES OF AMOGHAVAESHA 1. 




Ko. 26.] SANJAN PLATES OF AMOGHAVAESHA I ; SAKA-SAMVAT 793. 219 



54, fa iirttffmntVipTOwii 1 0) 



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61 mirq'hrai* i 



Bead oqnf, * Metre : Malint a B*ad 

Read ^m$. * Metre i Anushtobh. Bead 

Bead ^?n?n . 8 Bead ^rf ^^- * Eead 

Bead ^ : . " Bead "^r^r'. " Eead 

Bead qrf^. u Metre of this and of the following vtrse : SalinL 

Bead grf. " Bead TqffJR . " Eeftd 



Bead ww . . Metre tltyi. 

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Bead rawfeftiT. * 8 Eead WfWIlf^^tftW^Wit 1 ! 1 . ** 



Bead o^^o. Bead 

Bead to* 



250 



EPIGKAPEIA IKDICA. 



[Vol. XVIII. 



Third Plate. 



66 



67 



68 



sens of this line is not clear. 
^e original re .ds 








NoJ36.] SANJAST PLATES OF AMOGKEAVABSHA I . SAKA-SAMVAT 793. 251 

72 

73 

74 ^?f 



75 



76 



77 



78 




TRANSLATION. 

(Verse 1). May He (Vishiju) whose navel-lotus was adopted by Brahman as his abode, and 
Hara, too, whose head is adorned by the beautiful digit of the moon, protect you t 

(V. 2). May that Vira-NarSyaija himself protect you here, who 'is all-pervading, who rests 
on the hood of (the serpent) Ananta, who is the rising mountain oi vfckrar, character, and greatness, 
and who is the progenitor of the lofty line of the good RSshtralr&tas. May fchat/Plra-Nara- 
yaiaa (Amdghavargha) himself protect you here, who is powerful, who Hvea in endless enjoy- 
ments, who is the rising mountain of valour, character, and greatness, and the ancestor o! whose 
lofty line was the good Bashtrakuta. 

(V. 3). In the line of Yadus, long extending through his prowess, in course of time, came to 
be, like a heap of jewels in the sea, prince Gflvinda, ornament of the earth, and &m of 



i Bead 

Bead 



"Bead 
"Bead 
14 Bead 
"Bead 
" Bead 
I 1 Bead 



Bead *&. 

Bead* T ^f. 

"Bead%^. 



8 

'Baad 



Bead 



CNote the cross-mark above ^. The letter ^ is engraved Ibelow the Kne. Ed,} 
"Bead 4hrf. "Bead 

"Bead " 

Bead 



Si 2 



252 EPIGRAPH!! INDICA. [Voiu XVIII, 

(Vs. 4-6). Then came lord Karkar&t, who bore an expansive chest with the rays of the 
Kaustizbha jewel throbbing like Meru which bears golden slope spread all over with lustre emit- 
ting from the morning sun ; full of fear for whom were constantly the minds of the enemies, 
proclaimers of whose fame were (their) words, bent at whose feet we?e (their) feeads, and lost 
, in whose lustre was (their) glory ; by whom possessing the power of Prithu the moM (the domi- 
nions, the earth) was widened, the bhubhrits (the kings, the mountains) were pushed back by the 
bow, and by whom of great Sjas (might, splendour) and of pratapa (valour, scorching heat) was. 
dispelled the darkness, namely, the enemies. 

(V.. 7). Then (came) Indraraja, who in the (marriage) hall, namely, Kfaetaka, seized ia 
battle the daughter of the Chaiukya king by the rakghasa (form of) marriage. 

(V. 8). Then flourished on the earth king Dantidurga^ the chief of his family 3 who smote 
hosts of elephants and humbled the circle of proud kings from the Himalayas down to the Emit 
of the Sgtu, 

(V. 9). By whom kings such as the Gurjara lord and others weice mad^ door-keepera 
when in Ujjayinl the (Great Gift called) Hiranya-garbha was completed by the Kshatriyas, 1 

(V. 10). Then in the battle field which proved a (place) of choice marriage, S-utbhatuAga^ 
Yallabha listlessly and forcibly wrested away the Fortune of the Chalukya family, bearing the 
garland, namely, the waving Palidhvajas.* 

(V. 11). Though elevated by means of incontestable throne and chowries, possessed of a white 
umbreHa and enjoying a kingdom without any rival, AkSlavarslia, who destroyed Mng& andl 
ehieftains, was a royal sage, a doer of unending holy acts*. 

(V. 12). Then Prabhatavarsl^ became (king),, and thereafter DfaarSvarslaa, by which 
king was rained down, as it were, a shower with arrows on the battle field* 

(V. 13). That (low) deep sound of whose drum is, as it were, the satiated Death belching out* 
(who is) intoxicated with potations of tasteful liquor, namely, the slightly warm blood from the 
enemies 9 heads cut off by his sword in battles and (who is) (now) with stomach filled to the 
throat. 

(V* 14). Who aeked the white umbrellas, the sporting lotuses of the Lakshml (Goddess of 
Sovereignty), ef the Gauda king, as he was $eei&g between the Ganges and the Jumna,. 

(V* 15), Whose fame, white as the rays of the moon, having pervaded to the end of th.e 
earth @n aU sides, (amd) having as it were uninterruptedly crossed to the other shore of the ocean 
in the shape of numbers of moving conches, hundreds of pearls, ^apJiara fish, and waves with 
n(ianifold foaon, reached iieaven under tlie semblance o| the necklaces and elephants of the gods, 
the heavenly river, and the dkartarasUra (swan). 

(V* 16). The aon of Nirup&m^, devoted to tri-varga'&nd diligent in" duties, a,s soon as he was 
clowned, being dewous of openly re-instating all classes of his feudatories, with courtesies, in. 
their respective positions, and intent upon releasing the imprisoned Ga&ga addressed the words : 
" Ye are (unto me) lik$ (my) father," to the assemblage of councillors, while they were protecting 
the earth* 

(Y- 1TX Quickly fighting in battle and capturing all his wicked vassals like great bulls, 
extremely uncontrollable and fierce, that had snapped (his noose) but had those of other iorda 
cast over them, and releasing them when thir spirit $f defection ended, he, with his hearfc 
softened, harboured them as the ocean does the submarine fire. It was no perturbation to him* 
He again supported the kings (lhtibh%its) that were his enemies (mpaksJias) just as the ocean doea 
the mountains (&M&&r#*) deprived of their wings (mpalcshas)* 



1 For a description of the MaMdana called Him^a-garbJi^ sea the Bhavishya*Puraw&s U&tara-par^n^ 
176, 



No. 26.] SANJAK PLATES OF AMOGHAVARSHA I ; SAKA-SAMTAT 793. 253 

(V. 18). By whom when the ungrateful Ganga was disaffected in consequence of fleeing 
away from, the fine ordered by him, that villain, who had been freed from fetters on the feet, had 
(now) fetters put round his neck. 

(V. 19). Who was the illustrious Mandhatii, another viceroy of the Creator, in as much as he 
with his lotus-like feet touched by the matora-shaped crowns of the lords of the earth, exerted 
himself to protect the earth, which had as the essence of (her) royalty the line of the Rasfatra- 
kutas, which was charming in consequence of beautiful women, and towns and villages that 
were delightful, extensive and possessed of gardens, and which had for (her) girdle the ocean 
yesounding clearly with (its) expansive waters. 

(V. 20). Who, deafening the intervals between all the quarters with the noise of the deep- 
sounding drums, the sound of which was as loud as that of a new cloud, and with (his) (Lhakkti** 
"kahalas, and the loud tnryas sounding shrill, is death to the busy time of the enemies of Tribhu- 
vana-dliavala - 

(V. 21). Who, moreover, being an unbearable store of lustre, was the Sun himself gone into 
the Uttar-dya^a (the north ; the northern part of the elliptic), bringing his pada (feet ; rays) to 
gtretch on the murdhans (heads ; tops) of bhubhrits (kings ; mountains), being of auspicious 
rise, covering the intervals between all the quarters with his lustre, getting at every step increase 
of pratapa (valour ; heat), having an anurakta (devoted ; red) matydala (feudatories ; disc) and 
being paimakar-anandita (gladdened by the hand of the goddess of sovereignty; gladdening 
the assemblage of lotuses). 

(V- 22). Carrying away in battles the fair and unshakable fame of kings Nagabiiata and 
Gb^mdragupta,, he, intent upon the acquisition of fame, uprooted, like rfoKcorn, other kings, 
in their own dominions, who had become destitute of all fortitude, and afterwards re-instated 
them in their own places. 

{V. 23). The water of the springs of the Himalaya mountains was drunk by whose horses 

and plunged into by whose elephants, the thunder was redoubled in (its) caverns by the turya 

musical instruments of (whose) ablutions, (and) to whom, the great one, those (kings) Dliarma 

and Ghakr&yudtoia surrendered of themselves. He thus bore resemblance to the fame of 

Himalaya,, and was consequently mrti-N&r&ya^a. 

(V. 24). Who returned from there, (thinking) that it was now the work of the ministerial 
servants, and following again the bank of the Narmada as if (following his own) prowess, and 
acquiring the MHIava country along with the K6sala, the Kalinga, the Vanga,* theDafcala, 
and the Oclraka, that Vikrama himself made his servants enjoy them. 

(V. 25). Making (his) enemies submissive, he returned to the remaining (part of the) Rgv&, 
and established himself in a capital befitting (him), at the foot of the Vindhyas, performing pious 
deeds by constructing temples, which are stores of spiritual merit, 

(V, 26). While the Maharaja Sarva, lord of a small kingdom, was his own, a son was bora 
to him who was to be Maharaja^arva, lord of the earth. 

(V 27) At the time of whose birth it was foretold by astrologers that ' being irresistible 
he would enjoy the earth bounded by the Himalayas and the Setu, and girdled by the oeean ; 

(V 28) " Of the warriors, (his) enemies, those that were bound down in battle by Amogha- 
^arsha would be released, but, if disaffected, there would be release from fetters only by being 

reduced to ashes^ ^ ^ Prab]lll tavarsha, as he satisfied the desires of those that were his own. 
He was JgaattnAffft, being at thehe^d of Wr* (kings), just as Mftru is jagattunga (lofty on 

earth) being at the head of bhubhrits (mountains). 

i [I wo^ld ynt Vgl (pr Vfthgf) mstead. gee f. n. 29 on p, 




254 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. D r OL. XVIII 

(V- 30). He (then) stood up to destroy the haughtiness of the Dravila kings, who were 
sleepless, anxious, and with minds distracted through deliberations. 

(V. 31)* By whose mere setting out, the clear undivided earth shakes, being shabbily covered 
by the instruments of his valour. Lakshmi too moves away, displeased, from^the breasts of the 
enemies who hate him intensely, like a creeper pulled out by the wind. It is not the dust that 
has flown away to the quarters, but the loom that extended the fame of his enemies. 

(V. 32), He terrified the Kerala, Pa^4ya and Ghaulika kings, caused the sprouting 
Pallava to wither, was the afflictor who caused the Kalinga and the Magadfca to sit and fast 
themselves to death, 1 was destruction to the valour of the head of the thundering Gurjjaras 
(and thus) behaved (like Rama), enemy of Lanka ; 2 (and as he) got its unimpeachable orders 
carried out assiduously, he was Vikrama of laudable valour. 

(V. 33). The Gangas, who became disaffected through baseness, were bound down with 
fetters and met with death. The lords of ma^alas, who were friendly, made his camp ground 
along with the enclosure, free of dust by wage, but the lord of Veiiigi and others by unpaid 
labour. 

(V. 34). By whom having forcibly by (his chastising) rod controlled, like dumb and deaf 
persons, the king and the prime-minister, ruined through laziness in working for their good, (and) 
having brought to Helapura from Laihka two statues of its lord, these, having afterwards 
proceeded to KificM, were established there in the temple of Siva like two columns of fame. 

(V 35). " (My) fame has occupied the three worlds, and my unique son is able to bear the 
burden of his world/* so (thinking) he made his life fruitful through various religious acts. " For 
doing what should I stay in this (world) ? '* so saying Anupama followed (his) fame, while 
going to the lofty palace, namely, heaven, to which spotless fame and holy merit formed the 
steps* 

(V. 36). In order to protect the fame (along with the subjects) of the ancestors in his worthy 
family, and of his pleasing relatives, who were the Vallabhas of the peoples, and who were now 
living in -the form of (their) good fame which filled up the world, and in order (thus) to destroy 
the fiinfulness of Kali, there rules the prosperous Amfigliavarslia, sitting on the lion- throne, 
the exterminator of enemies, whose deeds are praised by the wise. 

(V* 37). In front of the palace of whom, the destroyer of the impurity of Kali, (as in front 
of that) of India, sounds incessantly the deep rumbling sound of loud-sounding $iakk& and other 
(infltntmenta), soaring Ugh with, the import : " there is no other lord of the earth like this one, 
able to protect the humble, to conquer enemies at the front of the battle, to make gifts to 
supplicants, and maintain the truthfulness of custom. 95 

(V* 38). Seeing that j*ew kingdom which consisted of sixteen principalities but (seeing also) 
the king, the might of whose righteousness was profuse and ennobling, the crooked, deceitful 
Kali, distressed that it was the beginning of the Kyita Age, fleeing and penetrating, into the 
interior, distracted the fetMaiories, the ministers, and his relatives, who were made his own. 

(V. 39). Giving deceit-fid counsel through false oaths, they were independent of (their) lord. 
Of their own accord killing the appointed officers who were worthy, all seized for themselves. 
* Another's wife is a daughter or sister/~stich distinction there was none, as among the beasts. 
Tha KaH Age becoming thus supreme, good behaviour became extinct through sinful living. 

(V* 40). Wken, withdrawing (his) expanse of lustre from the sky, the great (sun) set0 f the 
disc of the moon and the stars shine out, attaining to the glory of a rise. When a saprat&pa 
!faa word pr^^alca I take in the sense of pr&y&aaka. Pf &ya signifies 'seeking death by fasting, fasting, 



sitting down and abstaining from food *vith some object in view (generally with words like &a upavU etc.)* ' 
J 



J take in tie sense of J^M-&?ivad-&eharati, behaves khneeif Hke-(Rama}, the enemy of Lm&kl 
For the ww|s my&li and parivfiti gee Abow, ol. VI, p. 280 and a* 0, 



No. 26.] SAN JAN PLATES OF AMOGHAVAESHA I ; SAKA-SAMVAT 793. 255 

(possessed of heat ; possessed of valour) (temporarily) ceases to be, for that length of time only 
do the vijihmas (the dismal ones ; the crooked ones) rise. 

(V* 41). Following guru and budha (the two planets of those names ;. elders and wise men), 
the lord, the sun of the Rattas, taking, again, his rise through the greatness of the rising moun- 
tain, namely, Arya PgLtSIamalla, and overpowering the unruly circle of tejasvins (luminaries ; 
men of fiery spirit), again, purifies the world alone, 

(V. 42). The soul is the king ; the mind is his minister ; the group of senses is again that 
circle of feudatories according to the political science ; and speech, &c., are the servants conform- 
ing to the prescribed rules. Presiding over his place, namely, the body, he (the soul) is able to 
enjoy, independently, his own vishaya (kingdom ; worldly objects). When that enjoyer is 
subject to samnipata (a kind of fever, collision), they all perish. 

(V. 43). Who, having, with rage, destroyed the sedition- mongers that were so by regular 
succession from their own ancestors as does a medicine diseases, wind clouds, fire dry fuel, and the 
sun darkness, (and) having (thus) destroyed by fame as by moon-light the darkness of Kali from 
both the beginning and extremity'of the earth, he shone by the beauty of the royal parasol, white 
like the moon. 

(V, a). From the mandala (feudatories) struck by whose da$4& (chastising rod) pearls came 
to his palace like fruit from a tree (struck by a stick), (and) to his palace came a host of elephants, 
like a herd of boars, from the forest, with mandala (temples) struck by da<$$a (stick). With the 
bodies consumed by the fierce fire of whose anger the enemies were reduced to ashes ; (as) others, 
with bodies favoured on account of their falling at his feet, attained to prosperity. 

(V. 45). Whose order the alien kings incessantly place on their head as a chapiet. Whose 
expanse of fame is the white veil on the row of the temples of the elephants of the quarters. Fax 
off from whom stands the greatness of the pratapa (valour; heat) of his karas (hands, rays), 
though it is in him ? Overpowering all the bhubhrits (kings ; mountains) with his tejas 
(prowess, heat) over whom is he not a very ina (king ; Sun) ? 

(V. 46). At whose gate the lords of the hostile territories are put to trouble by relays of 
door-keepers, being made to sit outside, while waiting for the proper time of (his) assembly-hall, 
and where, when they perceive that they will not obtain back their own bevy of courtezans and 
group of elephants, covered with choice gems and pearls, which have gone into his possession, 
they droop down. 

(V. 47). That son of JimutakatK gave away his own body in order to protect a serpent ; 
Sibi, again, to a hawk to save a dove ; (and) Dadhicha to (his) supplicator. But they, we are 
told, gratified each a single individual, (whereas) the illustrious Vira-Narayana presented Ms 
left finger to Mah5-Lakshmi for the pacification of a calamity to the (whole) people. 

(T. 48). That donor, in the Kali Age, who was of the Gupta lineage, having killed (his) 
brother, we are told, seized (his) kingdom and queen, (and) thereafter the wretch 
caused her to write down one lac, one crore (in the document). But he, who gave away more 
than once his own kingdom, insignificant (to him), (saying) : 5 of what account are the external 
objects % was bashful even when the fame (had spread) that the ornament of the exalted 
Rashtrakutas was the (real) doiaor* 

(V. 49). While AmSghavarsha, whose cluster of powerful enemies are bitten by the fangs 
of the terrible jaw of the snake, namely, the sword in his hand, is the ruler of the earth, no (adverse) 
times characterised by calamities to husbandry, plagues and famines can set their foot in the 
Hemanta, Si^ira, Vasanta, Grishma, Va,rsha and Sarat seasons, 



256 EPIGEAPHIA XXDICA, [VOL. XVIII, 

(V. 50). When the (earth), as far as the coast of the four oceans, bearing Ms seal, was sub- 
dued^ the seals of all kings were broken by the Garuda seal. 

(V. 51). Those kings are, indeed, worthy of respect who were of the past and whose charity 
is to be maintained by us and others. The (kings of the) present were wicked and had been 
destroyed. Those who are to be besought for (the maintenance of) our charity are kings of 
the future. 

(V. 52). What consideration can there be for that unstable kingdom which is enjoyed by 
some through valour, passed over by some to others, and given up again by some others ? By 
the great a charity alone should be maintained for fame* 

(V. 53). Considering that this life is unsubstantial and as fickle as a breeze or flash of lightning 
and that a grant of land is a supreme religious merit, he has promoted this gift to Brahmanas. 

L1.57fi. And he, the P.M.P. Sri-Pfithvi-vallabha, Srl-AmSgliavarslaa, Sri- Valla- 
bhanarendradeva, who meditates on the feet of the P.M.P. Srl-JagattiaAgadSva being well* 
commands the officials such as the lords of the provinces (rashtra), the lords of the districts 
(visJiaya), the heads of the villages (grama-kftfa), the accountants (Yuktaka), 1 the deputy- 
accountants (Niyuktaka), the leading persons, and others, all according as they are concerned. 

4(1 Be it known to you that by me, while residing at the capital of MBayakheta, for the 
enhancement of religious merit and fame, in this world and the next, of rny parents and myself 
has been granted to four Brahraaiias of the Bahvpicha 4$khS t namely, (1) Narasimha-Dikshita, SOB 
of Gola-Sha4amgavid, 2 grandson of $avikuvira-Kramavid, 8 a religious student of the Bharadvaja 
(gOtra) consisting of (the pravaras) Bharadvaja, AgnivSfiya, Angirasa, Barhaspatya, (originally) 
come from Karaha^a ; (2) Eakshaditya-Kramavid, son of Govinda-Bhatta, grandson of Bhatta f 
*>f the same g$tra and come from the same province ; (3) Trivikrama-Sha4aihgavid5 son ol 
Vishjju-Bhatta, grandson of Dava<Ji-Gahiyasahasa, 4 a religious student of the Vaddamukha (g&ra) . 
(residing) in the same country; (4) Kefiava-Gahiyasahasa, son of Govaditya-Bhatta, grandson of 
Hari-Bhatta, a religious student of the Vatsa (gotra), (residing) in the same country; the village 
called Jharivallika from the Twenty-four-village Group adjoining to SaxiijaBa. Its boundaries 
(are) : to the east, the river Ks^luvl, flowing towards the sea, to the south the village of the 
Bhattas called Uppalaliattliaka ? to the west Naadagrftma (and) to the north the village of 
Dhannavallika. 

That (village), so marked by the four boundaries, together with the royal share, 5 with the 
appurtenances, with (the proceeds of the punishments for) faults and the ten offences, with the 
(ri%ht) of toll upon the appearance of a spirit/ with (the right to) forced labour as it arises, aod 
with the assessment in grain and gold, not to be entered on by the Chatas or Bhatas, 7 and not 
to be seized by the hand of any (officials) belonging to the king, to be enjoyed lineally in regular 

* D, R. Bhandarkar's Afoka, pp. 55-4. 2 Above, Vol. VI, p. 241, n. 3. 

* Xramavid probably signifies **one conversant with the Krama arrangement of the Vedic text." 

4 GaMyasahasa corresponds to the modern Ghalssas, a surname at present found among the De^astha* Chit- 
jjjtv&n and Karhada Brahma^s of the Maharashtra* 

* 2nd. Ant, Vol. XII, p. 189, n. 39. 

* When any spirit manifests itself at any particular place, many people come there to propitiate it, and the 
place thus becomes a source of income (Kautilya's Arfhatfaim t p. 242). 

7 The meaning of these words is unknown. I have therefore left them untranslated* They have generally 
been taken to signify ** regular or irregular troops," but this is a mistake. For another meaning of chafa, see 
Abovz* Vol. IX, p. 284, n. 10. The correct sense, however, appears to be that deducible from the quotations 
which Professors K. R Pathak and H. M. Bhadkamkar have cited from Samkara's gloss on the BfiKad&ranyc&* 
opinishad (Ibid., pp 596-7} and the jr&jAavalky&emriti (Above* Vol. 21, p. 176 and n*I) respectively. See also 
J, Ph* ^ogei's Antiquities ofChamba State t Pt. I, pp, 130-2* 



26.] SAN JAK PLATES OF AMOGHAVAESHA I ; SAKA-SAMVAT 793. 257 

succession of sons, grandsons, etc., to endure for tlie same time with the sun, the moon, the sea, 
the earth, the river and the mountains, to the exclusion of previously given grants to Brahmaijas 
and gods, and according to the custom of cultivable and uncultivable land 1 for the purpose of 
internal adjudication 2 was bestowed to-day on the great festive occasion of the UttarSya^a in 
the month of Pauslaa falling in the (current) Nan dana- Cyclic year, seven centuries of 
years increased by ninety-tliree having elapsed since the time of Saka king, for the 
sake of bali, charu 9 vaivadeva 9 agnikStra and atitki$antarpa%a 3 by pouring water and so 
forth (from the hand). No hindrance should in the slightest degree be caused by any one to 
one enjoying (this village), allowing (others) to enjoy (it), cultivating it, causing (it) to be cul- 
tivated, or occupying (it) in accordance with the manner of a gift to a Brahmana. Likewise, this, 
my gift (to Brahmanas) should be assented to and supported, just as if it were their own gift, by 
the good kings of the future, whether my descendants or others, bearing in mind that the fruit 
of a gift is common (both to the grantor and to the preserver), and considering that ephemeral 
wealth is as fickle as the flashes of lightning and life as unsteady as the drops of water clinging to 
the ends of grass. And he who, with his intellect, enclosed by the cover, namely, darkness of 
ignorance, will assent to (the actions of) one ready to confiscate (this grant of land), will be 
invested with the (guilt of the) five great sins and minor sins. (For), it is also said by the 
divine Vyasa, the arranger of the Vedas [Vv- 54-59 are the benedictory and imprecatory verses 
with which a charter usually ends.] This has been written by the judge and SenabhSgiJca* 
Guxiadliavala, son of Vatsaraja, who is born in the KayastJaa family of Valabha and serves 
the lotus (feet) of the prosperous AmoghavarshadSva. The Mahatta&a Gtfgu-Ra^aka was the 
D&taJca through the king's own verbal order. 



No. 27. KOPPARAM PLATES OF PULAKESIN II. 



BY E. HULTZSCH, PH.P. ; HALLE 

Iuk4nipressions of these copper-plates were sent to me by Rao Bahadur Krishna Sastri, 
who had received them from the late Mr. K. V. Lakshmana Rao, M.A., Telugu Encyclopaedia 
Office, Egmore, Madras. The plates had been found near Kopparam in the Narasaraopet Taluk 
of the Guntur District* For a description of them, and for remarks on their alphabet and lan- 
guage, see Mr. Lakshmana Rao's valuable article in the Annals of the BhandarJcar Institute, Vol. 
IV, p. 43 S. 3 I now re- edit the inscription because I believe that I am able to improve a few of 
his readings and renderings. The composer of the text knew so little Sanskrit that in some 
places it is difficult to divine what he really wanted to express. 

The inscription records a grant made, by the Maharaja Satyasraya Pulakesi-Prithivi- 
vallablia 4 (line 6 i), the " dear grandson " (1. 5) of the Maharaja Klrtwanna-PyitMvivalla- 
bka of the Ghaltikya family (1. 4). As stated by Mr. Lakshmana Rao (loc. ci.,p. 43), priya- 
pautra must be a stupid error for priya-putra, " the dear son." For we know from trustworthy 
documents that PulakSSin II was not the grandson, but the son of Xlrtivarman I. 

The donee was a Brahmaija of the ^asidilyayana-^ra and the JLpastamba-swtf/a, who 
resided &t MKigamilr (L 10)* The grant consisted of a field of eight hundred (nwartanas of land) 
in the village of Irbuli in (the district of) Karma-rash4ra (L 11). The field lay to the south of 

1 For the expression bk&mi-chcfafaidra-nyayena, see Ind. Ant. 9 1922, pp. 77-9. 

a Siddhi^ '* decision, adjudication, determination (of a lawsuit) " Monier- Williams' San*Jcrit-18ngU&& 
Dictionary. 

8 See also Madras Epigrapkical Report, for 1923, App. A, No. 14. 

A In this oompomd the shortening of the final * of pritkw is permitted by Pa^ini* VI, S, 63 ; cf. compounds 
like JWrW-jpt^ra (line 1 of this inscription), Kalidasa^ etc. 

2 K 



258 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Voi,. XVIII. 



and to the north of Virpayu (L 12). For Karma-rashtffa, see above, Vol. XV, 
p. 250. Mr. Lakshmana Bao (loc. cit., p. 49) identifies Kondav[e]rupur with Kondavldu, and 
Virparu with Vipparla, both in the Narasaraopet Taluk of the Guntur District, and Mugamur 
with MungamuT in the Kandukur Taluk of the Nellore District. 

In line 10 we are introduced to a great warrior named PjitMviduvaraJa whom Mr. Laksh- 
mana Eao (lac, eft,, p. 46 f.) identifies with Satyasraya Dhruvaraja Indravarman of the Goa 
plates of &aka 532. 1 I venture to propose another identification. If we connect the participle 
W[w*]pr<wfatt3 (1. 8) with ajfaptih (1. 14) and with its Prakrit form aiy&li* (1. 10), we are driven 
to consider the words -rafyaaya Pritkiiriduvarajam^aqatti (1. 9 f.) a mistake which would not 
be without parallels in this incorrect text for -rajyasya Pritkimduvarajasy^Hapti^. Now, 
tvvaraja. is a Dravidian tadbhava of yuvaraja* If we contrast the title Prithiviyuvaraja, " the 
heir-apparent of the earth," with Prithivivallabha, " the husband of the earth," which was 
the title of Klrtivarman I and Pulakesin II ; and as it is stated in line 9 f. that Prithiviyuvaraja 
had " secured the kingdom to the lineage of his son," it seems that Prithiviyuvaraja can be 
safely identified with Viah^uvardliana I, the younger brother of PulakSsin II and the founder 
of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty. It follows further that Visfe^uvardbana I continued to be 
dependent on Pulakesin II in the twenty-first year of the latter's reign (text line 13). Prom the 
Satara plates we already knew that he held the office of Yuvaraja in the eighth year (of Pulakesin 
II).* In a grant of A.D. 632, which was the 18th year of his own reign, 6 and in the Timmapuram 
plates, 6 Vishnuvardhana I already bears the title of Maharaja. 

The words 7allabh a -s am a[ksh]-a V a*tite (1. 8) may have to be corrected into Vallabhe samateh- 



- 

Vallabha (i.e. Pulakesin II) being present in persoru" The mysterious words 
marnta Kali.Manim . 



8Va -bahuna (1. 8 f.) may be compared with Kaliyuga-khala- 
mrmathanaitt*] . . .charitai^ in the Satara plates of Vishnuvardhana I, and may be 
corrected accordingly into maths Kali-khalanam .... sva -bahuna, " by his arm. . (which 
*- Ch g 'f Ck * ^ r ked (PeoP 1 *) of the Kali (age)." The compound at the 
mg of hne 9, wkch Mr Lakshmana Rao (loc. cit., p. 53) refers to Prithiviyuvaraja 

T* * ,f* Wlth ****" * b to be corrected into 
, <l wielding the drawp sword." 



tHe reign (of Pulakesin 
atath (tlthi) ' a T ^ sda y- For authoritative remarks 



Ofl frl&iH Afii- T 1* j .*-.* M^M.JT . JL- v/x <a>uvjuuJLiu^i/Lvu KillltirKS 

^ntributed by" * * ^ P 8t8Cript n PW 260 ' 61 belov. which has been kindly 



TEXT, s 

First Plate. 

.u[va*]na-samstuyamana 8 -:M5navya-aag5trana[m*l 
ibhifh*] Sapta-Ma- 

* i ** Br ' B ' A ' s '' VoL ^ p- 365 f - 



ian4 VOL 

t, VoL XIX. p. 39, tet line 5 f. 



* s " 



AK.ui PLATES OF PULAKESIX IL 







SCALE 



. 27. ] 



KOPPARAM PLATES OF PULAKESIN II. 



259 



[sa]myag=abhivarddh.itana[m*] Kartikeya-paripalan-adhigata-kalyaiia- 

parampara3ja[m*] bhagavan-Narayaija-prasa- 
3 da-sa(sa)ma8ada(di)ta-varah.a-lanchhan-eksha^a-kslia^a-va6ikrit-a^e3lia - mabibhritam-anek- 

aSvamedli-avabhrita(tha)-sna- 
4= na-pavitrikrita-vapusha[m*] ab.alukyana[xfc*] kulam=abkyalaiiikari8li?a[h*] prathita- 

kirtteti*] 1 ri-Kirttivarmma-Pritliivivallablia-mapiirfi-] 

Second Plate ; First Side. 

5 jasya priya-pau(pu)tra[h*] praiTtat-aneka-maMpati-makrita-tata-vilagna-mani-makarika- 

ghrishta-pad-aravinda-dvaya- 

6 sya pratigat-arati-chakra-vidhva[m*]sana-vivi(dM)-vi&radasya deva-dvija-guru-vridd]i- 

apachaya(yi)na[b.*] pit=aiva 2 Sura[h*] Sa T 

7 tyasraya=pratiliat-ajfia[h*;p ri-Pulake6i-Pri(Pyi)tliivivallabba-malxar a ia(j5) 

yatharuha* sanma(mma)nayati [II*] Viditi(ta)- 

8 m=astu Vanablia(blie) sam a[k 8 h]-avasti( s thi)ts vidMvi(va)t=Ba[ni*3ptadatta marnta 5 

Kali-kxilaiiam= ft aneka-saihgr5ma-satiasa-daksh?a 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

9 nikiKstkfDshta-mau^mgr^gr^-sanathena sva-bahuna vipaksha-ma^alafin*] Birjitya 

sva-sut-anvaye pratishta(shtha)pita-ra- 

10 jyasya Pr i (Pri)tMv i du( y u)v a r ai am=a 9 attP [I*] 

Chha(a)ij4ilyayana-gotrasya lpasta[mba]- 

11 satrasya vipraeya .VMaSarmma^.) Kam.ma-ra.^ Irtuli-grlm. 

kahetram datam(ttam) Balaka-ba(pa)lva- 

,2 BOT^Tl**] Kaxmrnakara-tatakatf] 

u 



13 

taupalM [I*] -sa febtom- ]taya 



following it by datives. 




[The name seems to be 
the second lettai seems to be Jo, Ed.] 






above the line mark the place 



[The origuxal Beetne to read ^f.-Ed.] ^ 

[The letter looks more like cAe. Jia.j ding ta certain. 

^^ The topa of the bracketed letters arbroteen a way, buttaere i% 

There is a vacant space after this word. 







260 INDIGA. . [Voi. XYIIL 

16 tasya tada phala[m 11 2*] [Sva-da]t[t]S[rti*] pa-dat[t]a[ih*] va yatnad-raksha 
Yudhishthtra [I*] mahl[iii*] maM(hJ}blmja[m^] 6resh[tha 



TBANSLATXON. 

(Lines 1-6) Hail ! The dear grandson (read : son) of the glorious 

aliaraja who adorned the family of the glorious Ghalufcyas, etc. ; whose fame was ' 
(widely) spread ; whose pair of lotus-feet was rubbed by the makara ornaments 2 of jewels 
attached to the slopes of the diadems of many prostrate princes ; who was proficient in achiev- 
ing the destruction of the circle of opposing enemies ; (and) who honoured the gods, the 
twice-born, the Gurus, and the aged ; 

(L. 6 1) the glorious (who), like (his) father, 

(is) a hero, the abode of truth (SatyfiSraya) 8 whose commands are unopposed, suitably 
honours (the officials of this district and informs them as follows) : 

(LL 740) " Be it known (to you that), VoUabha being present in person, the execution 
(of the present grant) was formally bestowed on Prithividuvaraja (i.e. PritMiriyiivarfija) who, 
haying defeated the circle of enemies by his arm (which was) a chufning-stick of the wicked 
people) of the Kali (age), which was skilled in daring (deeds) in many battles, (and) which was 
wielding the drawn sword, has secured the kingdom to the lineage of his son. 9 * 

(LL 10-12) "To the Brahmaija 4 V5da&arman who resides at Magaxnfkr, belongs to the 
jSa^ttyayana-grStfra, (and) follows the J[pastamba-$#ra, a field of eight hundred (nivartanas) in 
the village of Irbtdi in (the district of) Karma-rfishfra has been given* (This field lies) to the 
east of the Balaka-palvala (pond), to the west of the Karmakasra-tataka (tank), to the south of 
the road to Ko^L^av^jrupiir, 5 (and) to the north of the road to Virparu." 

(L- 13 f.) " In the year twenty-one of the reign of increasing victory, in the 
month of SKrttika, on the great ninth (titM), on a Thursday* at an auspicious moment, 
the execution of this grant (was bestowed on Prithiviyuvataja)." 8 

[LL 14-16 contain three of the customary verses.] 

POSTSCRIPT- 

BY ROBERT SEWELL, LC.3. (RETIRED). 

At Dr. Hultzsch's request I have examined the date of the Chaiukya inscription published 
on pp. 43 to 54 of Part I, Vol. VI of the Annals of the Bhandarkar Institute which is stated to belong 
to " the year twenty-one of increasing victory " of a Chaiukya sovereign who is perhaps identical 
with Pukke&in II. 

The details of the given date are " Thursday the mah&navami day in the month Karttika." 
It is not stated whether this 9th day was in the light or dark fortnight, but in the absence of 
this information it is reasonable to assume that the 9th day of the month was -meant, or more 
accurately the day on which at sunrise the 9th ukla titki of Karttika was current. If the 
inscription belongs to the reign of PulakeSin II it must l^ave been composed about AJX 629 or 
630, or thereabouts. 



Bead 



ai/QKnuganam 

According to Cowell and Thornta (Translation of the JfrrfXacftorifa, p. 266), "the word malkarit* 

to denote a ma&ara-shaped forehead ornament." 

This was the iarounte surname of PnkkeAin II, See Fleet's Dyn. of the Kan. DiaMeU, sec. ed. f p. 351, 
* [See footnote 9 on the preceding page^Ed,] * [See footnote II on the preceding page. Ed.] 

' The bracketed words are supplied from lism 8 and 10, 



No. 27.] KOPPARAM PLATES OF PULAKESIN II. 



261 



Calculation for a date of that period must be made either by the mean-system computation 

of the First Arya-SiddMnta, or of the Brahma- Siddhanta, which latter was compiled in A.D. 628* 

By either of these the 9th Sukla titki of Karttika fell in A.D. .628 on a Wednesday. In A.D. 

629 it fell on Sunday by the First Arya-SiddMnta and on Monday by the Brahma-Siddhanta. 

In A.D. 630 it fell on Saturday by both authorities. But in A.D. 631 it fell on Thursday, by 

both these Siddhantas, and that Thursday corresponded to October 10 A.D. 631. This 

last satisfies the requirements of the case if, in the practice of those days, the 9th 6ukla titU of 

Karttika marked a mahanavann day. I regret that I am unable to give an opinion on this 

point. The modern maJianavami day is, I understand, the day corresponding to the 9th 6nHa 

tithi in the month JUvina. 

If the day in question was actually Thursday October 10 A.D. 631, it makes the king's 
accession to have taken place on or after October 11 A.D, 610, seeing that it belongs to his 21st 
regnal year. 

As regards this date it must be noted that Fleet (Dynasties of the Kanarese Districts, p. 23) 
stated that Pulake&in IPs accession must* have taken place 66 early inSaka 532 (A.D, 610-1) " 
that R. G. Bhandarkar fixed it as in $aka 533, Le. A.D, 610 or 611, according as the $aka year 
was treated as current or expired (Early History of the Dekkan, p. 38) ; and that Professor 
Jouveau-Dubreuil (Ancient History of the Deccan, p. Ill) gives it as in A.D, 609* Fleet's 
fixture slightly conflicts with the date October 11 A.D. 610, since the year $aka 532 began on 
March 19 in that year. 

B. SEWELL. 1 



No- 28.THB SO-GALLED T&KHT-I-BAHI INSCRIPTION OP THE YEAB 103. 

BY STBN KONOW. 

The stone on which this inscription is incised measures IT by 144", and it is now in the 
Lahore Musram. There is some uncertainty about ita provenance. Cunningham originally 
stated 2 that it had been discovered by Dr. Bellew at ShahbazgarhL Similarly Mr. Hargreayes 

writes in a letter dated Simla---- December 1913 : **In connection with the Gandhira 

10th 

sculptures I had occasion to look up references to the very well-known and frequently quoted 
Takht-i-Bahi inscription, and to my surprise find tliat there is no absolute certainty it emanates 
from Tt*kht-i-Babi at all, it may very well come from ShahbazgarhL" 

Liater on Cunningham speaks about the record as hailing from Takht-i-Bahl 9 without 
mentioning his previous note on the subjects and since that time the epigraph has always been 
spoken of as the e Takht-i-Bahl ' inscription, 

Both places are situated in the same neighbourhood, Shahbazgarhi 6| miles east and 
Takht-i-Bahi about 8 miles north-west of Mardan in YusufzaL 

According to the Editor of Tritbner's Record, June I873 ? Dr. Bellew had left the stone 
at Hoti Mardan *' in Dr. Johnson's compound. Several years afterwards, in 1870, he authorised 

1 Headers will learn with sincere regret that thia veteran scholar, to whom Indian History and Chronology 
so heavily indebted, died in London on the 30th December 1925 in the eighty-first year of las age.--]3. H* 
a Trubner's Becord, June 1878, reprinted Ind. Ant., VoL II, 1873, p, 242. 



26 



EPIGKAPHIA INDICA. 



[y OLi XVIII. 



Dr. Leitner io take away anything he might have left at Hoti Mardan. Dr. Leitner, after 
personal inspection, got the stone carried down to Lahore by bullock-cart, and there got the 
inscription both lithographed and photographed. The discovery of the stone therefore belongs 

to Dr, Bel It w, that of the inscription to Dr. Leitner." 

A rubbing of the inscription was forwarded by Dr. Leitner to Professor Dowson who save 
5 aoiitt of it in TMner's Eecord of June 1871. A second notice was published by Cunning- 
ham m the .same Record, June 1878, and a fuller account, with an excellent plate by Dow- 
, who read the date portion and, in a second note,* gave a new reproduction of the same 
Then follow edihoa. by Cunningham,' Sen** and Boyer.e I now edit the epigraph 7rom 
em-llem Rampages wluch I owe to the kindness of Professor Vogel, who had them prepared 
for me when fc was Superintendent of the Punjab Circle of the Archaeological Survey * ^ 
firat ^;7^ the le er is U" Tn the 



3. Ik. ^on 
i. boM, tto. records, 



"1 Aap.. Th. cumtare 
". - a,al ,, aud the 



Trhioh is 



, jo tin it ; s not 



and 
mo 



to ", ard " 

t he ^ 

oulmoar nd not the later 

the right h Tsry tosigoificant 



W6 



dao to damage to the stoae 
W A regard to indiv idllal 



. 
Ietler 

- 



ased for 



somewhat 

6, be read as 
certainly e . n i B 



M . 



y oause e an 




No. 28.] SO-CALLED TAKHT-I-BAHI INSCRIPTION OP TEE YEAR 103. 263 



Persian, i.e., the result was probably a Toiced sound. The KharSshthl sign itself seems to be 
derived from v and not from j>, by adding an upward stroke to the right. A similar stroke is 
found in the KhardshthI documents discovered in. Chinese Turkistan, where we sometimes find 
the letter which is usually transliterated st provided with a perpendicular, rising from the right 
end of the cross-bar. Of. plate XCII in Sir Aurel Stein's Ancient Kkotan, where Messrs. Boyer, 
Eapson and Senart read the akskara as sth in sthishyadi, 1. 9. I am, therefore, inclined to- 
think that vh, i.e., an aspirated voiced spirant, was the sound meant, and it would probably be 
more correct to transliterate vh. I do not think, however, that we can be certain about the 
pronunciation, and, for practical reasons, I prefer to write /. 

. I may further draw attention to the compound letters tsa in sanibatfarae, I, 2, and rjh in 
erjhana, 1. 5. 

With regard to orthography and phonology we may note the change of intervocalic $ to y 
in maharayasa, 1. 1 ; puyae, 11. 5 and 6 ; the softening of intervocalic t to d in madu, 1. 5 ; 
pidu, 1. 6 ; the change of v to b after an anusv&ra in sambat^arae^L 2 ; of ts to t$ in the same 
word ; of shy to * in isa, 1. 2, and of sr to sh in shadhadana, 1. 4. Such changes are, ftfl ia well 
known, of frequent occurrence in Indian Khar5shthl inscriptions. 

In spite of all the care that has been bestowed on the reading and interpretation of the 
epigraph, several points are still far from being finally settled. Dr. Thomas has, therefore, 
rendered a real service to scholars in preparing the new facsimile plate published together with 
this article. 

The first Hue can be read with perfect certainty and has never presented any serious 
difficulty. Dowson read the second akshara of the king's name *w. instead of du, but a com- 
parison with du in madu 1. 5, pidu, 1. 6, conclusively shows that the letter is du. The third 
akshara has usually been rendered as pha, but I have already given my reasons for transli- 
terating fa. We must accordingly read : maharayasa Gudufarasa vasha 20-4-1-1, (during the 
reign) of the Maharaja Guchif ara, in the 26 year. Yasha is also used in the Kaldarra inscrip- 
tion of the year 113 and the Skarah Dheri epigraph of the year 399, while the Machai record 
of the year 8'l JaavasH, which is probably intended in the other dates as well. There is not, 
however, any trace of an e-matrS. No certain inference can be drawn from the use of varsha 
instead of samvatsara iri these instances ; the word may have been chosen in our record in order 
to distinguish between the two dates in 11. 1 and 2, or in order to indicate ,that the year used 
in the first one began with the rains. 

Cunningham and Dowson identified Gudufara with the king G-ondophares of Christian 
tradition, and this identification has been generally accepted and may be considered as pertam 
The date of 1. 1 has, further, always been interpreted .to mean that the inscription belongs to tHe 
26th year of the reign of King Gudufara. Epigraphiats will, however, agree with me thai we 
are only informed that it was issued during Gudufara's reign, while the year can just as well be 
referred to some era whichmay have been introduced by some of Gudufara's predecessor* If 
we compare the dating of Br&hml inscriptions of the Kushana period, we might be mclraed 
to think that the latter was the cue. Of. e.g. No. 149a of Prof ewor Luders' >'*< of SrShmi In- 
scriptions .- moUrtyVuya r&tiffr** de^putrasya AaMrrttfiuMnva f^f ** M 
and other similar records where sam is used instead of rSJya-*amvat,arg. Nobody would hero 
think of the regnal year of the Mug mentioned in the inscriptions, but unhesitatingly refer the 
date to the Kanishka era. I shall state below why I think the same 'to be the case ip our 
epigraph. 

Then follows, in 1. 2 and the beginning of 1, 3, a new date. 



EPIGRAPE-IA INDICA. [VOL. XVIII, 



was read sam . . . by Cunningham, and taSwatsarata, by Dowson, B. Thomas 1 

to Dowson^s reading, but did not suggest any alternative. Messrs. Senart .and Boyer 

rod and explained this word as meaning " du eomput continu ", " in the continuous 

There cannot, however, be any doubt that Dr. Thomas 2 was right in reading 

The traces of the letters visible in the impressions and the plates make this reading 

Moreover, the use of ts for Sanskrit ts in this very word seems to be quite 

in inscriptions. Thus we find samvattarayS in the Taxila copper-plate of the 

year 76, in the Mount Ban] inscription of the year 102 and in the Paja record of the year 111. 

Similarly mmmtmrS is the usual form in the Khar5shthi documents from Eastern Turkistan. 

In the Sue Mr plate we have samvatsare, but the upper part of the compound is misshaped, 

Professor Franke 41 reads sajhvachiare and Mr. Majumdar 5 samvachcJrfiare. The Hidda 

of the year 28 and the Ara inscription of the year 41, finally, have sambaUarae. 

writing ts is no doubt meant to render the current pronunciation of the compound ts. 

Prakrit representative of ancient ts is chchh, which only differs from t$ in being 

It ia probable that the form ti is due to the linguistic tendency of the north- western 

which the Indo-Skythians adopted. 

The compound occurs in the KharQshtM manuscript of the Dhammapada, where M* 

it iw f in ahitsai, A 4 8 ; bhamtu 3 "B 34; bMt&di Cvo 3 and mat/ana Cxviii vo 2* 

The last words correspond to Sanskrit bhetsyati and matsy&nam, respectively, where t has 

a origin as in t&lkvatfara. In ahitiaf and bhamet^u a t seems to have been inserted 

a and $ with a consequent change of s to There IB nowhere any trace of the 

which comes in in the common Prakrit form. 

There are indications which seem to show that the absence of aspiration in similar com- 

is an old feature of north-western vernaculars. For we find pacha for pafoha in the 

version of the Asdka inscriptions. On the other hand, paicho, afterwards, in 

might lead as to the conclusion that we are faced with a phonetic tendency in 

tint of the IndoSkythians. 

Tfce of t to 6 in sa&batfaraS is perhaps to be explained as a result of the influeuce of 

^fcilo-Skythiaasiitetratum. For not only do we find 6 for * v after an anwvora in the 

manuscript of the DJiammapada, where api and wa become m and va, respectively, 

ftWTcnrols, but KmdJa, respectively, after an anusvOra* But in ancient Khotanl 6 fre- 

corresponds to Sanskrit V| not only in loanwords such as bra, Sanskrit rt&s, but also 

such as 61*1, Sanskrit vitoa. The actual sound was perhaps a bilabial 
English w, r 



M. Senart read MutamaS, but 
*" ** ^ diStiQCt t0 ta accide ^- The form *ma also occurs in 

' ^^ ^ ada ^^ imay e, and, as remarked by M. Boyer, in 

lnsonpfaonj 



symbolB lf luo> 



few wca^f ' M^tfc^asle^T' "* Cunnin 8 ham ^ a ^-P^ to make out some 
gmter portion of these lines ,ud iTs *** & traQsliteratio ^nd interpretation of the 

mes ' and M> B er gave a continuous reading of the whole. 



1 Cf. Konow, ^ttfjfa Orientaii* n D 114 

1 TS 1 - r ** -'* w "j-*.J.j LI. JL JLTt% 

B - f " lend fittn^rrt, pp. 96 f . 



No. 28.] SO-CALLED TAKHT-KBAHX INSCRIPTION OF THE YEAB 103* 265 

The first word in 1. 3 was read pamchame by the two French scholars, who also agreed in 
reading the ensuing sign or signs as pa, which, according to M. Senart, is the sign of the 
figure 5* I cannot accept this reading and interpretation. 

The first akshara is much damaged, and there are several strokes which are probably the 
result of the uee to which the stone lias been put* There cannot, however, be any doubt, that 
it is a jpa. I cannot se any trace of an anusvara 9 but there are some strokes at the bottom? 
which, may be the remnants of an u~m$tr& or of a post-consonantic r- The second letter consists 
o a vertical, bent towards the left at the top, and a distinct cross-bar. If the latter is accidental 
we would think of dha, and if the curvature at the top is due to accident or oversight, we would 
hare tha, I haye already in another connexion 1 suggested to read prathamS, and I still think 
that reading the most likely one, though pradhame would also be possible. 

What M* Senart read as the symbol for 5 I read as di 1, It is, as is well known, the 
uuvariable custom in Kbar6shthl to use the symbols for 4 and I when the number fire is given 
in figures, and not in words. And it would be very extraordinary to find a notation of the 
kind suggested by M, Senart. 

The ensuing aksJiaras were for the first time read by M. Boyer, and Ms transliteration 
ifa is certainly cowect, though both letters are damaged, and it is possible that ise is the 
reading intended* Ifa and He ar of frequent occurrence in Ktar5shtto inscriptions in India and 
Eastern Turkistan, and the meaning is clear ; they render Sanskrit asmin and atra. M. Boyer 
thinks that isa, cs with s instead of * as in M&gadhl," is Sanskrit esha, bufc that explanation 
cannot be rigbt ? esha being nothing else than the nominative singular, and the change of s or 
sfa to s not being a feature of the vernacular, S can only be an old sh or the representative of 
an old shy. In the Shahfoazgayhi version of the Agdka icscriptioBS we repeatedly find forms 
such as a<ralb'hi$amti ) Sanskrit arabMshyanti? and in the Khar5shthl manuscript of the Dhara- 
mapada i is frequently the representative of Sanskrit shy, 3 Isa would accordingly be the regular 
representative of a female oblique form from the base i, and it is possible that the theme ithya 
has developed a stereotype locative adverb ishye* At all events, the base must l3e the pronoun 
which we find in id-am. 

After im M. Boyer read ehhunami samana, and M. Senart * . , pa.de . . * . Khunami 
would of course suit the 'context very well, but samana could not represent Skr. dramana, as 
M, Boyer thinks, the only possible forms of that word in the dialect being Samana and shamuna* 

Now there cannot, I think, be any doubt that the two last afoharas of the passage are 
pachTie* The traces of both letters are quite distinct, and pa lias also been recognized by 
M. Senart The new plate will show that chh is also beyond doubt. PachM can scarcely be 
anything else than Sanskrit pakshS, pakshe, or, perhaps, pathyS, salutary, suitable^ auspicious^ 
here used to characterize the day or the moment when the inscription was issued. 

There accordingly only remain two aksharas between Ma and paohhe, and so far as I can 
see the extant traces are more in favour of ding than of eJihune, though it is impossible to be 
quite certain* 

I accordingly read the second data as follows : sambatiaraS tisatimae 1 100 111 Vefalchasa 
tnasasa divase p[ratha]mS di 1 isa [dine] pachhe, in the hundred and third year 1U3, ou the 
first day d. 1 of the month Vaisikha, on this jpa&s/ta-day, or, oti this auspicious day. 

The interpretation of the word pachhe is difficult. If we were justified in explaining it as 
corresponding to Sanskrit pathye, we should be able to prove conclusively that the date of 

i S. S.A. W. 9 1916, p. 801. 

a See Johansson, Actes du 8 eongrfa international des orientalises II, iii, pp. 129 and 189, where, Iiowever, 
use of s has not been explained. 
s See Konow, Festschrift WMiwh* p. 93* 



EPIGBAPHIA INDfCA. [7oi,. 



ou is the first and not the fifth Vaiaakha. That date was auaptcious because was 
to te the Buddha's birthday. Tradition placed that event on the full-moon day 
and the Takht-i-Bahi inscription would accordingly show that the months in 
Tndiawere p^^ju/asit can be proved to have been the case when 

epigraphs dated in the Kanishka era were drawn up. 

There is, however, one grave objection to this interpretation. In the Asoka inscriptions 
ftnd in the KbaresWh! records from Central Asia there are two different ateharas ^ h **- e 
usually both transliterated cM, one with, the other without a cross-bar below the head. The 
latter one is usually stated to be the only one occurring in later Indian KharOshthl inscriptions. 
That statement is not, however, correct. We find the cross-bar form m inscription J on the 
Uathura Lion capital, where we must read palichhina, Sanskrit pariohehhinna, instead of 
Btthler's palithtgna. Now an examination of the Kh#r5shfchl manuscript of the DJMmmapad* 
shows that the cross-bar form represents old ehh and also &hh derived from thy, while the other 
form stands for Sanskrit Ttth and should probably be transliterated Icsh and not dhh. It is this 
form which is used in pachhe, and it, therefore, seems necessary to explain this word as Sanskrit 
pakikS Of pakshS. I would therefore suggest to explain dine pachhe ^as dine pakshe, on (this) 
jM&%a-day, and assnme that the day is designated in such a way in order to mark it as the 
irst day of a, pa folia, though the paMias are not usually saextiioited in ]hai'5shthl inscriptions. 

Then follow five letters which M. Boyer read lelasami'sa, while M. Senart could not 
nmfee out more than the two last onea. M. Boyer a^s that the e-stroke' of the first letter is, 
perhaps, only a flaw in the stone, and it seems to me that &uch is, evidently the case. I,, there- 
fore, read lalasamisa, the genitive of balasami, which corresponds to Sanskrit lalasvami-n. 
The final so, is quite distinct, and I, therefore, do not venture to follow Dr. Thomas^ who 1 
thinks that we ought probably to read mira as in 1. 4. 

$. Boyer saw in ~bela.sa.misa the name of the. donor. It seems to me that such can scarcely 
fee &$ a*se, the donor being mentioned in 1. 4," sind. I, therefore, think tha,t balasam^sa should be 
with the opening word of 1. 4. 



The last four aJcskaras of 1. 3 were read g'Syanasa by the two French scholars, but only 
M. Boyer tried to translate this word. He took gdyana to correspond to Sanskrit gQyQna, a 
carriage drawn by oxen, a cart in general, and drew the final s# to 1. 4. I think, however, tha* 
the extent traces show that Dr. Thomas was right 3 in reading b$yanasct aa in 1. 4. I only differ 
froia Mm in transliterating the nasal as the cerebral n in accordance with my remarks.' 
Yol. XIV, pp. 181 ff. 



, which is also used together with the name Mira in 1. 4, cannot be an Indian word* 
M. Boyer sees in Mira Bsyana the Iranian name Mi3poj3ova^s, and this explanation 
in probably ri(&t, but it does not help us to understand the word boy ana itself. It BQems to 
contaiu . too* toy and a termination ana. The latter is no doubt the well-known suffix ana, 
vudi foraB adjectives fi-om nouns (as in Khotanl balysani, belonging to the Buddha 
neW 4m 



participles from verbal bases. The base 1^ can be 

with 



e wit raman fto^, to save, if we remember that *j between vowels has become 

and jw|?a. J 



****"* accordingly mean "saving , "saviour", and I take it to be an Iranian 
Mhtemof *. same title cr^'p which has been Indian ize d on Indian coins as 




7r/a *?' take l y a ? asa a s a title of Balasami. It follow, 

i tnat tne final Sfl ca.rn.nf, be taken together with the first word of 1. 4. 



No. 28.] SO-CALLED TAKHT-I-BAHI INSCRIPTION OF THE YEAR 103. 267 

Sere M. Senart read pa . . aa, but M. Boyer was certainly right in reading par[f]varu. 
At first sight one is inclined to read parovara, which might "be explained as a compound of para 
and ovara. Ovara would have to be taken as identical with ovaraJca, cell, which occurs in several 
Brahmi inscriptions. 1 Parovara might mean " the predominant cell ". This explanation cannot, 
however, be upheld. An ovara for ovaraka does not occur in any other record, and even dvaralca, 
itself is never met with in Khardshthi inscriptions. I think that M. Boyer is right in thinking 
that tie apparent cross-bar of the first r of par[f]vara is accidental, and that there are tz^acen 
of an i across the left extremity of the upper portion of the aksJia-ra. 

The word parivara, Sanskrit pariv&ra, occurs in many ancient records, M Boyer took it 
together with, the final sa of 1. 3 and explained sa~parivara as an adjective characterizing 
goyana, the whole meaning " a cart together with a s covering ". He is fully aware of the 
difficulty arising from the nature of the donation, which would hardly justify the engraving of an 
inscription. He thinks, however, that the object of the epigraph may have been to honour the 
piin-ce mentioned in 1, 5 more than to record the gift. Or else, the cart may have been of great 
value, and the donation accordingly of ^special merit. In this connexion, he draws attention to 
a passage in the Divyavad&na^ where we read y&nam d&nam dada.ti riddhip&davipaJcapr&tila* 
Wiasamvartantyam, he gives a cart, a gift leading to the acquisition of the result of the state of 
supernatural power. This explanation is very ingenious, but I fear that it is too ingenious, and 
if D*. Thomas* reading boyanasa in L 3 is accepted, we shall have to look out for another ex- 
planation* 

The meaning c * covering (of a carriage) " is well attested for the .word parivara, but it is 
never met with in ancient inscriptions. In Brahmi inscriptions we find saparivara, e.g., in the 
Nasik inscriptions Nos. 8 and 9, and in his edition of them M. Senart remarks 3 : u It is, i 
think, too precise to translate saparivara by ' with his family * . If such were his intention, 
the engraver would rather have used special names of kinship or some generic word, as jdii", 
which occurs elsewhere. Parivyra may, together with the family or even excluding it, 
apply to companions of the donor, fellow-workers or caste-partners." The original meaning of 
the word seems to be " covering >f , " surrounding", and it actually has this meaning in some 
passages in classical literature, but more frequently it must be translated by some word 
meaning surroundings, train, suite. This meaning does not, however, seem to give any sense in 
our inscription, and it may perhaps be of interest to famine other instances of its use in 
KharOshthi records. 

The oldest KharOshthi inscription where it occurs is the Mathura Lion capital. We ax^e 
there Informed of the fact that the chief queen of the Mahakshatrapa Eajula puts up some relics 
of the Buddha, together with some of her relatives, the ateura and the hfirakaparivara. Here 
ateura, corresponds to Sanskrit antahpura, the inner court, the female apartment of the palace 
and those who live in it. The horakas are the officials who are called hommurta, in the Manikiala 
inscription, and hdramurta is a " Saka " rendering of Sanskrit danapati.* Now it should be 
remembered that parivrita is used in the Satapatha-Br&kmatya (2.6.1.20) and elsewhere to denote 
a place enclosed with walls and used for worship, and hdrakaparivara might accordingly mean 
'* the enclosed hall of the hdrakas" and further "the horaka- department '*, a meaning which 
would he very appropriate in our passage, where the word is used in connexion with antahpura* 
which has a similar sense. 

The next time we find the wor&parivara in a Kharflshtbl inscription is in the record under 
discussion. The& follows the Sue Vihar copper-plate of the year 11, during the reign of Kanishka, 

1 See Liiders, List of Brahmi Inscription*, Index of Miscellaneous Terms, ml vote 'apavaraka*. 

3 ed. Cowell afld Neill, p, 482, 1. 20. 

*Bp. lnd.,~Vlll 9 p. 77. 

* See Lftders, J. R. A. B 1909, pp, 650 f . j 8. $, A. W., W12i pp. 421 f . 

2L2 



268 



EPIGBAPHIA INDIOA. 



[y L. XVIIL 



of which we have BOW a good reproduction in the excellent edition by Mr. N. 6. Maiizmdar** 

The third line of this record, where the word parivara occurs, cannot be read with absolute cer- 

; and I shall not, in this place, try to show how I arrive at my reading of the whale of it 

We that a yathi, a staff ? has been raised (in memory) of tke friar NSgadatta, and that the 

Balanandi, the wife of a householder, and the mother of Balaja, makes a present of an 

awtparivara, which in my opinion can hardly mean anything else than a subsequent enclosing 

through a wall for the purpose of building up the shaft in which the staff was placed. 

The word pariv&ra again occurs in the Manikiala inscription, where we read that the 
Lala erects a stOpa, together with some other persons and the whole parivftra : 
elm parivarSna sadha. Here we may translate " together with the whole retinue " 
but the original meaning of parivara can very well be the same as in the Mathura Lion capital 
inscription. 4 r 

finally, we meet with the word parivSra in the Wardak vase inscription, where I would 
iwdinl.8: mahiya cha rdhana sada sarvina avashadigana^ sa partvara cha agrabhaqapadi - 
yofe Vhacatu, and let my deposit-and also the surrounding wall (or chapel)~for ever lead to 

in the preferential lot for all (beings) up to the heretics 



fin* . ; * mSt TliT "** yadha ' ' na by M ' Senart and ********* by M Bow The 

.orth-wi dilc? ofljK^shM i ? " f"^* ^^ *** ^^^ * l * tlie 
the month Sr^ fc tStTor? 1 ^^'*S* we always find ^ in the name of 

We fiJ ketme tenl ' t i Ttl . f^* fOTm W ald ^ 

^?"^sri?to^*? pA ',? iM> diaiect f 

adopted in ihe PeCUharitieS rf tte dia1 ^ ""ok 

and ^ 

which is of frequent occnr^c in 

else the hook is the mar 

whieh is a 



"* herC faCed with tLe 
*>**< from Bartem Tnrklstaa.* 



The corresponding Sanskrit word 
P^d 



accordingly read 



Or 



or 



r 



M. Bojer 



d -=!^^ 



' ' 916) p - m * ' rt 



4S9 



Steiu'3 



Rate XXIV. 



No. 28.] SO-CALLED TAKHT-I-BAHI INSCRIPTION OF THE YEAR 103. 26& 

read ya, by M, Boyer, has a distinct vertical, rising from the left hand termination, and looks 
like ta. The following akshara cannot, I think, be sa, but seems to be dhi, though it is different, 
from the dha in shadhadana. With every reserve I would therefore read saputadhi. But then 
the following aJcshara cannot be anything else than ta, though it looks more like a ra. The 
upper stroke is sloping upwards and not horizontal as in TO. Moreover, there are traces of 
an upward stroke at the left termination of the letter, which has become somewhat indistinct 
as a consequence of the following letter having been engraved across it. That last akshara 
is quite misshaped, and it seems necessary to infer that it has not been engraved before 
the ensuing ahshara. 'It seems as if it had originally been overlooked and waa subsequently 
added, after the omission had been detected. There was not then sufficient space for the 
proper shape of the akshara, and its upper part was engraved above the other letters and 
across the preceding ta. "We have a similar letter at the very end of the Zeda inscription, 
where the last word is no doubt Samghamitramjasa. I therefore read the aksJiara as sa 
and the whole^compotuad as saputadhitasa. 

The remaining portion of 1. 4 does not present any difficulty, and both M. Senart and M. 
Boyer agree in reading Miraboyanasa. I have no hesitation in^accepting this reading, only 
substituting na for their na. Mir a is, as stated by M. Boyer, the Iranian TULithra, and it is 
of interest to note that tr has become r as in Ancient Khotanl. 

The first three akshara$ of 1. 5 were read ejhshuna by M. Boyer, while M. Senart only 
read the first and third letters. The second aksJiara is certainly a compound, and the upper 
part Is clearly jh. The curved line across the lower vertical is ihe usual sign of a r preceding 
the consonant, and such is evidently its significance in our inscription as well. A compound 
jTis"h is in itself very unlikely and has never been met with in any Khardshthi record, while 
rjh also occurs in the Zeda inscription. The loop below the akshara looks like an u-m&tra 
and it would be natural to read erjhuna, 1 If we bear in mind, however, that the usual way 
of denoting a r forming the first part of a compound in later Kharoshthl inscriptions is to add 
a loop at the bottom, it is perhaps possible to consider our compound as an intermediate form 
and to read erjhana and, finally, the reading erjhana might also be possible. Of. my remarks 
to the word shadhadana, 1. 4. At all events, there cannot be any <}oubt that we have to do 
with an nn- Indian word. 

The letter j& is seldom used in Indian inscriptions. "Where it occurs in KharOslithl records, 
it seems to represent a voiced z, just as is the case in the KharQshthl documents from Eastern 
Turkistan, where s is commonly softened between vowels so that we find dajha for d&sa^ 
divajha for divasa. The letter is found in the Zeda inscription, where marjhaJca, L 2, is 
evidently identical with Khotanl malysalvi* ; in the Maaikiala inscription, where we must read 
XLartiyasa majhe divase 20, with the same softening of s between vowels as in the Turkistan 
documents, and in the Ara inscription, where Vayheshka corresponds to Brahml Vftsishha. This 
name is evidently derived from the Iranian base vaza, strength, vigour. Similarly jh is used 
for z in the coin-legends of Zoilos. 

The sound s nad long ago become obsolete ia Indian languages, and considerable difficulty 
was experienced when it had to be expressed in foreign words. The form Vasishka shows 
that it *was occasionally written as s, and later on j became the representative of 2?, as, e.g., ia 
the coin-legends of Zeionises. If IZusuhtka, which occurs in the Taxila copper-plate of Patika 
and on the Mathnra Lion capital, is the same word as kujula in the name of the first Kusli&na 
ruler, we here have s and j in the same word as different attempts at rendering the voiced s . 

1 1 read the word so. 8. -B. A. W 1916, p 801* 
? C/. my remarks, Festschrift Hitt, p, &3Q, 




270 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVII I. 

A fourth attempt was made in the records of Ysamotika and Ms successors, viz., by means of 
the compound ys l ; and this same device became the rule in Ancient Khotani. 

Erjkana accordingly represents an attempt at rendering the sounds of erzana or erisctna, 
tnd there can be no doubt that in this form we have to see the same word which, occurs in 
Ancient Khotanl as alysanai, eysaihnai, which is used to render Sanskrit kumara. The I before 
the voiced s in this word, as also in malysaki, is certainly a later development in Khotanf, 
which, on the whole, agrees with Old Iranian in using r for I throughout.. 

M. Boyer, who read ejhsbuna, saw in this word the name of a prince and thought that 
this name was an Iraruan compound containing tzad as its first part. But no similar name is 
known to exist, and in my opinion, my explanation of the word is absolutely certain. 

If now erjharta belongs to the language which I have called Khotani, it would be natural 
to infer that the individual characterized as erjhana, i.e., Jcum&ra, belonged to the tube or 
tribe* who used that form of speech. His name must be contained in the fourth and fifth 
aksharas of 1. 5, which M. Senart read as kapa, while M. Boyer, who admitted that the firs* 
aJcshara looks like fa, suggested to read [bhu]pa. There cannot be any question about the 
nature of the first letter. It is fo, and it is so clearly cut that we have no right to correct it 
The second akshara is certainly pa, but underneath there are distinct traces bf an akshara 
which I have formerly" suggested to read as in or sha. It now seems to mo that it must be 
read M *&a, there being distinct traces of a vertical below the semi-circle, .., of the letter sha. 
I fell think that thie tephn cannot be anybody else than the Kushana prince whose name 
written in many different ways, TcadpUses and Jcadaphes in Greek letters, and fewa, toplud 
k^dapha m Kharoshthl. With regard to the use of A when the Greek rendering has * we 
may compare KharSsh^hl ayiUsha, Greek azilises. 



r * DgUe rf ^ K ^*- was identical with, or closely related 
rJohn Marshall's discovers at Taxi! a have shown that 



* 



is empire was split up into smaller principalities, and it 
is 1 appear to have made their successful invasion of 
our iniiffrmh'rm wM, IT A ^ e ^ e . feel no t0s itation in identifying the prince mentioned m 

^ h i^^irL^2r^i. KW - 1 tia md "-" ^ e 



t^TaZr^ 11 ?*?* T ripti n " quite Clear " Afto XP<** ft>"o W . the 

^"^^"^JSir %tr date: in the ' mh w auriiig ^ 

Vikrsma era. Sir John illhali n^T , I ^ **** ^ U8Ually bee " rftfew ' ed to th " e 
d Professor Bapson* end t th a t ^w 7 ^f re k nin8 iastituted by A > 

Sr John's theorv is based on hTs ^Let! TK I T ^^ t0 aoce P t ^ ^ several reaon. 
the ylar ^tC^^^ 9 !^ W rd a 2/^ oocuraing after the figure* 
yearnheaxd mscripfaon of the y eag 136, which he takes to be the genitive 



Attempt u,ado by. Mr. N. B. Divatm, J. o. 

^ filed to m^tattrt is the ii; s a ? f mg ; the COm P nnd afl ^ i- * failure, The learned author 
" A -8. ^. r., 1916, p. 801 f g ior - voiced * in ^cient Khqtaui. 

J C/. KOBOW, Z. D. if.'e. 68,' pp. 85 ffi. 
, pp. 979 f , 

. Oj VoL t 



No. 28.] SO'OALLED T1KEM-BAHI INSCRIPTION OP THE TEAK 103. 271 



of the name ^.2/a=Azes, characterizing the year as belonging to an era established by 
In my edition of that inscription I have mentioned 1 the reasons which have been urged by 
various scholars against this interpretation, and so far as I can see they are still as cogent as 
they were ten years ago, If ayasa were the name of a king, the inscription would necessarily 
fall within his reign. The absence of every title is, however, so extraordinary that it is almost 
impossible that the word can be the came of a ruler, Professor Rapson, it is true, asks 2 ..us to 
remember " that the inscription belongs to a people that knew not Azes. His family had been 
deposed and deprived of all royal attributes. The throne of Takshasila had passed from the 
Sukas and Pahlavas to the Kushanas. Azes could scarcely have been furnished with his 
wonted title, 4 Great King of Kings ', in this inscription, without prejudice to the house then 
actually reigning." Are we to believe, then, that the people who did not know Azes still used 
name in connexion with the era current in the district ? 



There is another reason which, in my opinion, makes it impossible to ascribe the establish- 
ment of the era to Azes : that theory makes it necessary to separate one of the Rhardshth* 
inscriptions, the Taxila plate of Patika, which is dated in the same way as the other 
epigraphs, from the rest and construct a special era for it That has also, as is well known, 
been done by several scholars. Sir John Marshall has, consistently with his interpretation of 
the Taxila silver scroll, explained the words maharayasa mahamtasa Mogasa in the Taxila 
plate as indicating the ruler who established the era used in the record. Professor Bapson 
thinks 3 that this era " may possibly mark the establishment of the new kingdom in Seistan, 
after its incorporation into the Parthian empire by Mithiudates I c. 150 B.C, If so, the date of 
the inscription would be o. 72 B.C., a year which may well have fallen in the reign of 
Maues." He further shows that the theory according to which Mithradates I conquered North- 
Western India is based on a misunderstanding of a statement of Orosius and goes ou to 
remark ; " The invasion of India must be ascribed not to the Part-Man emperors, but to their 
former feudatories in eastern Iran ; not to the reign of Mithradates I, but to a period after 
the reign of Mithradates II (i.e., after 88 B.C.), when the power of Parthia had declined and 
kingdoms once subordinate had become independent." M. Foucher 4 holds a similar view, but 
seems inclined to refer the date of the Taxila plate to the Parthian era of 248 B.C., supposing 
the figure for hundred to have been suppressed, so that 78 would stand for 178 and 'correspond 
to 70 B.C. 

I cannot accept any of these theories : Sir John's not because a proper name in the genitive 
in connexion with the date in ancient records invariably denotes the ruler in whose reign the 
inscription was executed, and the other ones because I do not think that we have any indica- 
tion of the use of foreign eras in India in ancient times, at least not in private document^ and 
most Kharsshth! inscriptions are of that nature. I quite agree with M. Foucher, who 
discusses the supposed use of the Seleukidan era in some Khar5shthl epigraphs and, after 
mentioning the well-known dated coin of Platon, goes on to say 5 ; " Just as much as the use*of 
the Greek reckoning seems to us to be on its place on an essentially official and governmental 
piece like the Platon coin, just as difficult would it seem to us to justify it in the case of a 
private ex-voto, emanating from a simple indigenous donator." Patika can hardly be supposed 
to have used an old era belonging to the dynasty from which the invaders of India, the ancestors 
of his own suzerain, had made themselves independent. Even if we were to admit the 
possibility of omitted hundreds in these dates, what I do not think we are justified to do, the 
only natural inference from the general state of things in the Indian borderlands in the first 



* Sp. Ind., XIV, pp, 286 f. * Z.c. p. 582, 8 U. pp. 568 ff. 

* L'&rt grtwlouddMsw dv ffand hAra II, p. 488, c Z.c,p, 490, 



272 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XVIII. 



century B.C., would be that the era used in the Patika plate was instituted in commemoration 
of the conquest of India by the dynasty to which Moga belonged, or of its emancipation from 
dependance on the Parthian overlords. In other words, the initial point of the era cannot fall 
before 88 B.C. 

The date of the Patika plate can, as is well known, be broadly fixed with reference to 
the Amshini votive tablet of the year 72, during the reign of the Mahakshatrapa Sfldasa. 
Professor Bapson, it is true, gives 1 -42 as the date of that epigraph. He seems to be unaware 
of the fact that Professor Liiders has proved 2 that the symbol used in the Ssdasa inscription, 
something like a St. Andrew's cross, must be read as 70 and not as 40. So far as I can see, no 
otter scholar has accepted Professor Rapson's reading, and so long as he has not shown that 
Professor Lfiders* convincing arguments are inconclusive, we can safely adhere to the prevailing 
opinion. 

I agree with most other scholars in referring the date of the S<5dasa record to the Vikrama 
ei*. It accordingly corresponds to 15 A.D- In that year Sodasa was Mahakshatrapa. In the 
inscriptions on the Mathura Lion capital Sudasa, i.e., Sodasa, is mentioned as Kshntrapa 
whole hia father Bajola is characterized as Mahakshatrapa. The Lion capital must accordingly 
be older than the Amflhini tablet, how much older we cannot say. Sir John Marshall has 
hewn* that Rajula was probably ruling about the beginning of the Christian era, and we can 
date the Lion capital between, say, 1 and 10 A.D. 



mention anothei< Mahafcshatrapa, 

v , elS6 ' than Patika ' the B0n of the Kshatrapa Liaka 

who issued the Ta S1 la copper-plate. Sir John Marshall therefore suggentsMo date 

ftdt* r "? 1 d ^ ^ * iSP SSible t0 ** Jt to a 

should be more inclined to say between 10 and 1 B.C. 



accordin ^ * *o -tote *ha* about 17 B.C. an 
- * laim AZ68 ' Wh is **** * * Deeded 



the 



ideas seem to be 

on the other han 
i. evident 

the days of 
o^Bdar divided the month mto 

^ eras nse d in the Patika plate as well 
lomign origin, and if it 
we meet with (^ufa. 



& 



T 



from Indian 

Indian **> and 

**** * in 
the Mace ^^n calendar. 

**-** and from the habit of 

m n ' whifo ^ **i"a 
aCCordin * 1 *' ^cessaiy to infer that 
Takht-i-Bahi inscriptib^ are 
^that era, 




U. p. S75. 

Ep. 2nd , IX, pp. 



ff. 



No. 28.] SO-CALLED TAKHTM-BAHI INSCRIPTION OF THE YEAR 103. 273 

records should be referred to one and the same era, so that there are, accordingly, 25 years 
between the Patika plate and the so-called Takht-i-Bahl inscription, or, in other words, between 
Moga and Gndnfara. 

Snch an interval is about what we would expect, considering ttie fact that only the Idng or 
Mugs known as Azes and Azdlises seem to intervene between them. The reason why this infer- 
ence has never been drawn is probably that Cunningham's dictum, that the inscription is dated 
in the 26th year of the reign of Gudufara, has never been challenged. I have already stated 
above that a comparison of other ancient records necessarily leads us to the conclusion that the 
Gudufara inscription is dated in the year 26 of some era which may or may not coincide with 
his individual reign. And if it is admitted that Moga was still reigning about 17 B.C. or 
perhaps even later, and that we have absolutely no real reason for referring the Gudufara date 
to the Vikraraa era, we are inevitably led to the conclusion that the year 26 refers to an era 
established by some of Gudufara's predecessors, and in that case there cannot be the question 
of any other ruler than Azes. If, therefore, we refer the Patika date and the Gudufara date to 
the same era, it will be seen that the era which I think commemorates the accession of Azes 
logins one year before the Patika date. But then his record hails from Taxila, while the so- 
called Takht-i-Bahl inscription only informs us of the fact that, 25 years later, the rule of 
another dynasty had extended its sway as far eastward as Takht-i-Bahi or Shahblsgarhi The 
conquest of Taxila did not take place in the first year of the Parthian era. 

There is nothing inconsistent in this supposition. The Saka conquest started from Seistan, 
reached the Indus country and thence extended over Taxila and Gandhara. The Parthian 
dynasty, to which Gudufara belonged, came from the west through the Kabul country. It 
found a Saka era in use in the conquered territories, and the use of this era had become so firmly 
established that a subject of Gudufara, 26 years after the establishment of Parthian rule, 
thought it necessary to record the date of his epigraph, not only in the Parthian era, but also 
in the old Saka reckoning. 

Nor can we wonder at the absence of any later reference to the Parthian era. The dynasty 
founded by Azes waa short-lived. After Gudufara's reign it was replaced by the KushS^as, 
the successors of the Sakas, in the Kabul country and in Taxila, and the second Kushana 
ruler, Vima Kadphises, reconquered " India ", * A, the Indus country and probably ako Kathia- 
war and Central India, and I still think that that event was commemorated through^ the 
institution of the Saka era, as stated in the K&laMct&ryakathanakaJ* In other wprds^ the Saka 
era commemorates the final re-establishment of Indo-Skythiau rule after the intemiption caused 
by the Parthian conquest, and it is a revival of the Saka era introduced after the first Saka con- 
quest of India. In this way it also becomes intelligible why Chinese sources speak of Vima 
Kadphises' conquest as a re-conquest. 

I agree with Messrs. Poucher and Rapson that the first Saka conquest must be subsequent 
to the demise of Mithradates II in 88 B.C. The subsequent weakening of Parthian power made 
it possible for the Sakas of Seistan to assert fcheir independence, and the strengthening of their 
power resulting from the immigration of new Saka hordes led to an expansion of their realm 
into the Indus country. We do not know who the first Saka conqueror was. We only know 
the name of the Saka ruler or rulers Manes, Moga, and we have seen that Moga was still ralmg 
25 years before the Gndufara inscription. 

It has been customary to speak of several mien intervening between Moga and Gtndu&n, 
one or two bearing the name Azes and one or two called Arises. Opinions Differ m to the 
nationality of this or- these rulers. Some scholars think that they were Parthians, others that 
the, were Sakas. I have never been able to understand why it should be necessary to assume 

' i Cf. my remarks, 8. 3. 4* W., 1016, pp. 811 ft j Xf. A&, XIV, pp* 



274 EPIGEAPHIA DTDIOA. (YoL. XVIIt. 

the existence of more tiian erne ruler AzesrAzilises. As pointed out by Dr. Thomas, 1 Azes is a 
short form of Azilises. And if we compare the coin legends, we are, I think, led to tlie conclu- 
sion that Azes and Azilises are one and the same person. When we find coins with the legends 
bagileBn megalou Azou on the obverse and maharajasa rayctrajasa mphatasa AyiUshasa 
on the reverse* or b&sileds , * megaloit, Azilisou on the obverse and maharajasa \rajaraja\sa 

Ayasa on the reverse, the only natural inference from the use of the imperial title on 
both sides is that we have not to do with more than one ruler. 

Nor do I think that there can be any doubt about the nationality of this ruler : lie was a 
Parthian and not a Saka king. That follows, in my opinion, from the coin-legends showing the 
names of Spalirises, Spalahora and Spalagadames. In the first place we have the coins of SpaK- 
rises, the king's brother, with the legends basileds adelphou Spalirisou on the obverse and 
maharajabhrata dhramiasa Spaliri$a$a on the reverse. Then we find Spalirises associated with 
AIM, with the legends basileds megaton SpaUrisou on the obverse and maharafasa mahataJcam 
4yaa on ^the reverse. Here Azes is associated with Spalirises, but he has not yet assumed the 
taperial title. We may infer that he had not yet acquired the power attested by his later 
legends, siad also that he was a Parthian ruler. Finally we[ find Spalirises designated as 
batiks* bamle megalou Spalirisou on the obverse and maharajasa mahatakasa SpalMfasa on 
the reverse. In addition to Spalirises we have Spalahora, alms Spalyris, and his eon Spala- 
gwlama, whose names are associated with that of the great King of Kings Vonones. There are 
aeveiul coin types and legends : basiled basiledn megalou Ondnou on the obverse and maharaja- 
Wrote dkramikam Spalahorasa, or SpalaJioraputrasa dhrdmiaea Spalagadamasa on the rerwse ; 

dikawu adelphou t<w barikSt on the obverse and Spalahoraputrasa dhrammsa j 

on the reverse. 



1 agree k the *** ion that Spalirises and Sp^lahora were both 
^ th6 f0rTO6r 8UrriTed Vonones and wdad him on the throne. 

[ rftaSL ^1 iT^l ' ^ C nsidered to ^ di ^ *> **& older than the king Vonones 
tfaat rf vllt ?}' ^ Daine f S P aliriseB is not ' ho ^ er ' anywhere oomMkud with 

* * he assllm P tion ^* ** * an older member 



- w* case the latter 

^ 



see no reason for -discrediting this ti-adi- 
i - "^ * com.emorate 

^ Indian ri ^' Th 
72, and from the fact that 



. 

'* " ^ *"* 

m8Cri P tion of the 




i8 ***-* county of the 
M 

* ' *' c XIV, pp. 293 



, 28.] SO-CALLED TAKHT-I-BAHI INSCRIPTION' OP THE YEAR 103. 275 

The best' known of the Saba rulers 'is Moga, who was still on the throne in the year 78 of 
the old Saka era. If it is granted that the establishment of that' era must be subsequent to 
tlie year 88 B.C., the year 78 cannot be earlier than 10 or 9 B.C. The Patika plate mention- 
ing it is dated on the fifth Panemos* From the use of the Macedonian name we can infer that 
the year began, as in the Macedonian calendar, with the month Dios, i.e., it was Kartfakadi, 
The month Panemos corresponds to June. If the beginning of -the era coincided with October 
88 and the years were currentj the earliest possible date for the Patika plate would be 
June, 10 B.C., and if the years wex*e elapsed, June, 9 B-C* It is not, however, probable 
that the era was established before one or two years after the demise of Mithradates 
II* On the other hand, some time was required for Patifca, who in the year 78 was not 
even a Kshatrapa, to acquire the rank of Mahakshatrapa, and further for 5dafia, who was 
Kshatrapa when Patika was Mahakshatrapa 9 to be promoted to Mahakshatrapa, a position 
which he held in 15 A.D. We can, therefore, with some confidence, state that the last ten years 
before the beginning of our era must be the period when the Patika plate was engraved. 

Now I have tried to show that a aew, Parthian, era had been established one year before 
tlie date of the Patika plate, by Azes, the first Parthian conqueror of the Kabul country and 
Western Panjab, and that the so-called Takht-i-Bahi inscription is dated in the 26th year of 
tliat era. That would take us to the time 16-20 A,D., which would be a very likely date for 
Gndufara, who is generally assumed to have come on the throne in 19 A.D. 

Gudufara is, as I have already mentioned, certainly identical. with the King Gondophares 
who, according to Christian tradition, summoned, the apostle Thomas to his court. This 
tradition is not, however, of much use for chronological purposes. In the first place, the name 
of the kiog is not mentioned before, the third or fourth century A.D., and, in the second, the 
whole tradition cannot prove anything more, than that the name of the King Gudufara had 
become known in the Christian east about the time of Christ's death or of the first Christian 
mission, 

We do not know how long Gudufara's rule lasted. We leant from the PanjtSr inscripr 
tion that a Kushana-Maharaja (Gushana, maJiaraya) had come into power in the year 122, 
i.e., 19 years after the date of our inscription, and from the Taxila silver scroll that this same 
Kusha^ia had assumed the -imperial titles maMraja rajatir&ja devaputra 14 years later, in the 
year 136. If the so-called Takht-i- Bail inscription belongs to one of Gudufara's first years, he 
cannot, accordingly, ham held undisputed sway for more than about twenty years, aad we do 
not know anything which militates against snob an assumption, 

With regard to the ruler mentioned in the Paujtar and Taxiia records opinions^ differ, hut 
all scholars are agreed that it is the same ruler who is mentioned in both Inscriptions. From 
a consideration of the find-plaeee of the two epigraphs we can infer that he had, between the 
years 122 and 186, extended his sway eastwards, and the increase of his power consequent on this 
extension is illustrated in the higher, titles used in the Taxila scroll But both find-plaoes full 
within the territory which the Chinese called Kipin, 1 and which, according to them, was con- 
quered by Kadphises I, while India", which was subdued by Kadphises II, must be located 
outside of Kipin. 

In full agreement with this state of things Sir John Marshall* has shown good reasons for 
Identifying the Kushana-Maharaja of these records with Kujfila- Kadphises, and I am more 
convinced than ever that he is right, though the prevailing opinion seems to b that Vima 
Kadphises is the ruler mentioned. 



1 Of. X!f. Ind., XIV, pp. 290 ft * / * $ Q 



276 EPIGBAPHIA INDIOA. [Voi, XVIII. 



We know from the Hou ffan-shu, the annals of the Later Hans, Oh. 118, foL II 70 that 
the M^fwu of Kuei-shuang, Kiu-tsiu-k'io, i*e n Kujula Kadphises, after conquering four other 
M-hou$, established himself as wang (king) and used the dynastic title " King of Kuei-slmang '% 
i.e., Kushana King, that he invaded An-si (Parthia), seized the territory of Kaof 11 (Kabul), 
annihilated P*u-ta and Kipin, and that all these territories formed his empire. He became 
eighty years old, and was succeeded by his son Yen-Kao-chen, i.e. y Vima Kadphises, who 
** again " conquered India, where he appointed a general to rule as his viceroy. 

The Sou &an~$hu cover the period beginning with 24 A.D. Knjfila Kadphises* consolida* 
tion of the Knshana empire accordingly falls after that date. Before then he can only have 
been a petty hi*hou or a young prince. But afterwards he gradually became king (wang) and 
king of Kuei-shuang. 

It will be seen that all these details point to the conclusion that the Kushana-MaharSja 
was Kujftla and not Vima Kadphises. The latter ruler does not seem to have resided in India, 
He ruled through a viceroy, and in my opinion this viceroy is the Soter Megas, whose " coins are 
found in extraordinary abundance, and over a wide stretch of country extending from 
Pesh&war to MathunL These facts point to a great power and 9, long reign, and are much in 
favour of the supposition that we must look for Soter Megas amongst the most important of 
the kings and satraps known to us, as it is very improbable that such a great potentate would 
be nameless and unknown except from these coins. The style of the coins, which are in copper 
only, and the absence of square forms point to a period about the Kushaga conquest, so that 
Soter Megas was probably a contemporary of one of the two Kadphises." 

<c Certain types almost invariably exhibit in the field the Khar5shthl akshara vi," 1 and I 
agree with Cunningham that this vi may possibly be the initial of the king's name, though 
Mr. Whitehead does not accept this view. If it is correct, we would have a clear indication 
of Vima Kadyhises being the suzerain on whose behalf the Soter Megas coins were issued. 

Mr. Whitehead thinks it possible that these coins were strnck by more than one ruler. I 
think that he is right, and that the Soter Megas coinage covers the period from the accession 
of Vima Kadphises to the installation of Kanishka. Sir John Marshall is no doubt right in 
assuming 2 an interval between the reigns of Kadphises II and Kanishka, but we have no 
information about the Kishana rulers who held sway at headquarters after the denu.se of Vima 
Kadphises. 

Moreover the designation Kush&na-Mahar&ja is more easily understandable, without the 
addition of any personal name, in the case of the ruler who first introduced it, than with his sue* 
cessor, and if Vima Kadphises was the king who introduced the later Saka era, as I think we 
must infer from a comparison of Chinese tradition and the K&laTcacTi&ryakatliancilta, he cannot 
be the Kusha$a-Maharaja of the Panjtar and Taxila records* We can only think of Kujul$, 
Kadphises. 

It has been urged against this that the Taxila scroll shows a monogram %t which is 
characteristic <?f the coins of Vima Kadphises. Sir John Marshall has, however, drawn 
attention to the fact that the same monogram also occurs on the coins of his predecessor, and I 
may add that it is likewise met with on coins of Zeionises. Professor Rapson 3 objects that 
the coins in question &t bear the name not of Kujnla Kadphises, but of Kujula Kara Kadphises,, 
who was probably another member of the dynasty .... Kujula Kara Kadphises seems to 
have succeeded the Satrap Zeionises in the kingdom of Pushkalavatl, and he may have 
been contemporary with Vim$ Kadphises.' 1 

* Cf. Whiteliead, I.e. p. 160*. 

* Archaeological Survey o/ Jndfa> Annual Report^ 1912-13, p. $** 



No* 28,] SO-CALLED TAKHT-I-BAHI INSCRIPTION OI 1 THE YE4E 103. 277 



being myself a numismatist I feel some hesitation in differing from a scholar whose 
knowledge of Indian coins is probably at the present time unsurpassed. I cannot, however, 
help thinking that numismatists are too much inclined to construct different rulers at the hand 
of different coin-types. Just as I have not been able to convince myself of the existence of more 
than one Azes, in the same way I fail to see that the ; variety in the titles used by Kujfila 
Kadphises makes it necessary to assume the existence of more than one ruler of that name. We 
must not forget that Chinese tradition assigns a long period to his reign* 

Kupla Kara Kadphises cannot have been a petty chief or a subordinate ruler like the 
BLsliatrapa Zeionises, He is designated as maharaya rayatiraya and maharaya rayaraya 
devaputra* Similar titles, viz,, maharaja mahata and maharaja rajatiraja are met with on 
coins which bear the name of Kuyula Kapha, and I do not think that it can reasonably be 
doixbted that Kujlla Kadphises and Kujnla Kara Kadphises are one and the same person. 
Sir John Marshall 1 found at Sirkap a coin showing, on the obverse, the bust of Hermaeus with 
a corrupt Greek legend, and, on the reverse, a Khar5shhi legend of which we can at least read 
jula fear a. Here Kujftla Kara's name occurs on a coin showing the bust of Hermaeus, and 
tlitis his identity with Kadphises I becomes still more probable. We do not know the etymo- 
logical meaning of the word kujula* I may add that I do not any more think it likely that it 
is a Turki word. 3 We have no certain traces of Turkish in the language or titulature of the 
Indo-Skythians* The title yavuga, which has often been stated to be an adaptation of the 
Tnrki yalgu, has not been etymologically explained, and it is perhaps more probable that it is 
originally an Iranian word which has been taken over by the Turks than that the opposite 
Bhiould be the case. 

I therefore identify Kujftla Kara Kadphises with Kujula Kadphises and cannot admit that 
ttife use of the monogram in question on the Taxila silver scroll can be urged against the view 
that the Kushana king mentioned in the inscription is Kujftla Kadphises. 

There is still another reason which strongly speaks in favour of this identification : Yima 
Kadphises is never, in his coin-legends, designated as a Kuslxina, and nobody would, I think", 
a priori be inclined to identify him with the Gwshana-maharaja of the Panjtar inscription and 
tlie maharaja rajatiraja^ devaputra KhusMna of the Taxila silver scroll, if it were not for the 
common theory that the Saka era was established by Kanishka- 

I do not overlook the fact that Sir John Marshall has found some coins at Sirkap which 
seem to show the legend maharaja sa rajatirajasa Khushana&a yavuga$a y while the obverse 
bears the head of a KushSna king, resembling that of Vima Kadphises. Sir John* is inclined 
to ascribe these coins to Vima Kadphises and writes : " The epithet Tavuga (-Turkish jabgou) IB 
found on coins of Kujula Kadphises, and is supposed to have been replaced by the title matomj* 
rajatiraja after the conquest of India. The simultaneous use, however, of the two terms in one 
and the same legend appears to indicate that the prevalent view regarding the meaning and use 
of this title is not wholly correct." He is not, it should- be noted, certain about the assignation of 
these coins to Vima Kadphises, and, in my opinion, the use of the title Khushana yamga goes a 
long way towards proving that they should be assigned to Kujula Kadphises. The legend 
informs us of the fact that he who was then the maharaja rajatiraja had risen to that exalted 
position from the rank of a Khushana yavuga, and I cannot help thinking that there is a 
touch, of justifiable pride in the wording of the legend. 

1 Z.c. p. 52, Of. Ludere, S. %* A. W,, 1922, pp. 260 L 

a Hultzscb, Z.D. M. &. 69, p. 176, thoagbt of ffltftt, atrog and I tore myself, S.B. A. W* 1918, p. 79. 
compared ytizel, beautiful. 

* Archaeological Survey of India, Annw& Iteporl, 1912*18, pp. 44 S. 



EPIGRAPH1A IND10A. 





_ i -j A-^rr rt- u* maar rajaMraja 

BapsonJ ha* no doubt .about the .dent, <y JT of la ^adpMses show 

with Vima Kadph.se,. He ^aays Most of Ke ^ j Ttey 

clearly both bytheir types and by the* fabnc to* ^^ continued to reproduce 

are imitated from the barbarous issues of that xeg ^ Hermaens, long after Ms 

TatlsilaXe the Ratification of the objects discovered in the 

tkmably tLt, in that district, they are rather later than the corns ot 

sight the evidence of the fed, would thus seen, to show that Kujula 

later in date than Gondopharnes and that he was the actual conqueror oi 

the coins in question manifestly come from the Kabul valley, we must suppose that they 

the ordinary currency of the Kushanas at the time when the invasion took place and that they 

were introduced into Takshagila as large numbers of Sassanian coins were brought into the coun- 

try of the lower Indus from Iran by the Hunas of the fifth century A.D. It is, therefore, by no 

means impossible that Kujftla Kadphises may have been not later than, but contemporary with, 

Gondophames ; and there is no reason to doubt the statement of the Chinese writers that it was 

not Kujnla Kadphises, but his son and successor, Vima Kadphises, who extended the dominions 

of the Kushanas from the Kabul valley to N.-W. India." 

I quite agree with Professor Rapson that the bulk of Kujflla Kadphises' coins may have 
been struck in the Kabul valley, but in other respects I differ from him toto coelo. The Chinese 
sources do not, as we have already seen, tell us that Vima Kadphises, and not Kujfila 
Kadphises, conquered N.-W. India. They state that the latter invaded An-si (Partlua), 
conquered Kao-fu (Kabul), P'u-ta (probably the country about Ghazni) and Ki-pin. But -we 
know that Ki-pin comprised parts of the Panjah, i.e., JS.-W. India, 2 and the "India "con- 
quered by Vima Kadphises cannot he identified with N.-W. India. 

In snch circumstances it seems to me that the Sirkap coins must be ascribed to Kujnla, and 
not to Vima Kadphisea. Coins of the known types of the former were found in the same 
locality, but no corns of Vima Kadphises or of Soter Megas. It cannot be objected that Ku.jIa 
Kadphises' bust does not occur on any of the coins which can, with certainty, be ascribed to 
him. Professor Rapson has given the explanation of this fact : these coins were struck in the 
Kabul valley, and it was only after the conquest of TakshaSila that KujSla Kadphises introduced 
his bust on his coins, probably in direct imitation of Gondopharnes. 

It is of interest to note that the form KhusJia^a occurring in the Sirkap legends is also found 
on some coins of Kujula Kadphises with the legend Khushanasa yavuasa Kuyulu Kaphsasa 
saehad hramathitasa, and some of these coins were found together with the new type at Sirkap, 
with the legend KJmsha^aga yavugasa Kuyula Kasasa. 

Bo far &e I can see, the cumulative weight of all these indications makes it necessary to 
ascribe the silver coins found at Sirkap, with a head " resembling " that of Vima Kadphises, to 
Kujnla Kadphises and to infer that they were struck during his rule at Taxila, in imitation of 
tlie practice adhered to by his predecessors. 

Now I have tried to show above that the date of the Qudufara inscription must fall bet-ween 
16 and 26 A.D. Nineteen years later, i.e., between 35 and 45, the Kushana ruler of the Panj- 
tar record had assumed the title Maliaraja, and 33 years later, i.e., between 49 and 59, he uses 
the imperial titles Maharaja rajatiraja divaputra. If the ruler in question was Kujnla Kad- 
phises, he had already a distinguished career behind him when, he began his conquest of the 
Parthian empire. He had succeeded some other ruler as yavuga, and he had subjected four 
1 1*, p. 581 ff. 

5 CJ, Franks, Seiirdge am cMnesischen Qwllen ntir Kenntnis der Titrkvolter und SkyMen Zentralosiene, 

Beriin 



, I9U4, pp. 59 f. 



No. 28.] SO-CALLED TAKHT-I-BAHI INSCRIPTION OF THE tEAR 103. 270 

other yavugas to his rule. He cannot have been quite a young man. If we assume that lie 
was about 40 years old at the time of the Panjjtar inscription, his death must have taken place 
between 75 and 85 A.D., and it will be seen that the establishment of the Saka era,, which I 
ascribe to his son and successor, falls within that period. On the other hand, he can hardly 
have been an old man when he started on his eventful career. We know from Chinese sources* 
that that happened after 24 A,D. We can infer, with some confidence, that he was born 
shortly before or shortly after the beginning of our era, and as h died an octogenarian, that 
would take us to the same time as 1 have come to above. I am unable to see how Vima 
Kadphises can possibly be pressed into the period between Gudufara and the establishment of 
the Saka era, 1 and the theory that that reckoning was introduced by Virna KadpMses is the only 
explanation, which is not merely based on general chronological considerations but derived from 
definite statements in Chinese and Indian literature, and I have not seen any serious grounds 
urged against it. 

In such circumstances my identification of the prince {erjJiana) Kapsha mentioned in 1. 5 of 
the Gudufara inscription with Kujftla Kadphises receives considerable support. He is not dis* 
tingmshed by any title which would lead us to infer that he was a ruling prince* He is not 
even styled yavuga, but simply characterised as erjha-na, i.6 M kum&ra. We would naturally 
infer that "he had not yet risen to the rank of yavuya, and at all events, that his conquest of the 
other ytt'cugas had not yet taken place. He may have been a young man, of say twenty years s 
and if lie were born about the beginning of the Christian era, the date of the Ouduf ara in* 
scription -would correspond to c. 2O A.D. 

I do not think that it is possible to arrive at more definite results at the hand of the mate- 
rials themselves, without any hypothetical interpretation of their test. I believe, however, that 
there is one indication in one of the ancient KharOshthl records which may some day lead ns to 
an absolutely certain conclusion about the initial point of the era, I refer to the word ay as 
in the Taxila scroll inscription. 

I have stated above that I think it impossible to explain this ayasa as the genitive of the 
name Ay a, Azes. But then ayasa must be connected with a&hadasa masasa, and the only 
question is why ifce month is characterized as aya. Aya might, of course, correspond to Sanskrit 
ftrya, and Professor Jacobi has mentioned the possibility that the month may have been called 
Aryan because the Indian and not the Macedonian month is mentioned* It will, however* be 
seen from a comparison of the elates of the Gudufara, the Paja, the Kaldarra and the PanjtSr 
inscriptions, that the use of the Indian and not the Macedonian names of the months was a 
common feature at the time wken the Tasila silver scroll was inscribed. I therefore still 
think, as 1 thought when I published the record, that ayasa corresponds to Sanskrit ftdyasya. 
It should Toe 'remembered that adya does not become ajja in any Prakrit dialect, and that the 
change of dy to yy is attested through uyy&na, Sanskrit udyana^ which is met with both ia P&li 
and in tlie Shahbtegayhi version of the As5ka edicts. 

"When the month Ashadha is designated as the " first " Ashadha, that does_not, of course, 
mean that Ashadha was the first month of the year, but that there were two Ashaclhas in that 
particular year. Can this information help us to settle the question about the precise date of 
the record ? 

The reply would, of course, be in the negative, if we had to do with the ancient Indian. 
calendar of the Jydtisha, according to which there was an intercalated Ashadha every five years, 
I have, however, already drawn attention to the fact that the calendar used in the old Kharfcshthl 
inscriptions is not purely Indian but contains foreign, Greco-Macedonian, elements. In other 

* The difficulty becomes still greater if the Gnduf ara date and those of the Panjtir and Tila records* are 

to the Yi3q?f&ma era. 



280 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XVIIL 



words, we have to do with the initial stages of that development which finally led to the 
recasting of Indian astronomy and the Indian calendar on purely scientific lines. 

The question then arises whether we should not be justified in applying the methods of 
the Siddhantas to the date of the Taxila silver scroll It is true that the Siddhantas are later 
than the inscription. According to Dr. Thibaut, 1 the S&rya- Siddhanta and pome other 
Siddhantas are probably at least some centuries older than 500 A.D., but not .necessarily more 
than two or three centuries older. But then it should be borne in mind that the Sfddkttota* 
are the result of a long development and not the first laying down of scientific astronomical 
principles. It is, therefore, not excluded that their methods can be used for a still older 
period. The question is not so much what the general Indian astronomer knew about calendar 
matters in the first century A.D., as what the Indo-Skythian successors of the Greek princes had 
learnt from their predecessors and how they had arranged their Greco-Indian calendar. 

I do not myself understand anything about astronomy, and I cannot, therefore, form an 
independent opinion. I have, however, submitted the question to my friend the Dutch scholar 
Dr. W. B. van Wijk, who has been good enough to calculate which years between A.D. 50 
and 80 had an intercalated Ashadlha according to the Siddh&ntas. He has informed me that 
such was the case in the years 52 and 71 A.D., and Mr. Sewell has accepted this result. 

Of these two dates only the former one is possible. For, if Sam. 136 corresponded to 71 
AJX, the 5th Panemos 78, the date of Patika plate, would correspond to 13 A. D., only two 
years before the Sodasa inscription, and two years are not sufficient for covering the events 
falling between the two records. The year 52, on the other hand, excellently suits the facts as 
we know them. If it should prove to be right, the date of the Gudufara inscription would 
correspond to 10 March 19 A.D., i.e., about 60 years before the beginning of the Sakaera, and 
if Kapsha, i,e,, Kujjula Kadphises, were then twenty years old he would have been bora in 
1 B.C. The year 103 would have begun in October 18, and the accession of Axes, if the figure 
26 refers to an era instituted by him, would fall in the year 9-8 B.C., wherewith it is impossible 
to know whether the use of the term varsha for * year f points to a year beginning with the rains 
and not with the autumn. 

If this result is accepted, it would become possible to give the dates corresponding to those 
occurring in other Khar&sbth! records of the older series. The Patika plate of the 5th Panemos 
V8= June 6 B.C. ; the Machai inscription of the year 81=4-3 B.C. ; the Mount Banj inscription 
of the year 102=18-19 A.D. ; the Paja inscription of the 15th Sravana 111=23 June 27 A.D. ; 
theKaldarra inscription of the 20th Sravana 113 = 5 July 29 A.D. ; the Pan j tar inscription 
of the 1st Sravana 122=7 June 38 A.D. ; the Taxila silver scroll of the 15th of the first Asha- 
4ha 136 = 17 May 52 A.D. the Dewai inscription of the 8th VaisHkha 200=24 March 116 A.D. ; 
the Loiiyan Taugai inscription of the 27th PrSshthapada 318=27 August 234; the JamSlgarhi 
inscription of the 1st Aspaiu (?) 35 9 = September 276 A.D. ; the Hashtnagar inscription of the 
5th Proshthapada 384=7 June 300 A.D.; the Skarah pherl inscription of the 10th (or 20th) 
Isha^ha 399=28 April or 8 May 815 A.D. 3 

I give these identifications with every reserve. Future research may make it necessary to 
fix the initial point of the era some few years later than I have done, but the relative chronology 
is, I think, certain. The new arrangement also removes a great difficulty which has been felt 
by everybody who has studied the history of the Xndo-Skythians : the many different eras 
supposed to be used side by side in their records. The late Dr. Fleet consistently maintained that 
all the dates of Indo-Skythian records should be referred to the Vikrama era, which he held to be 
introduced bv Kanishka. I do not think that anybody holds that view at the present date. 

1 Astronomie, Astrologie und Mathematik> p. 45. 

2 See Act* Qrienialia, III, pp. 82 f. 



fro. 28.] SO-CALLED TAKHT-I-BAHI INSCRIPTION OF THE TEAR 103, 

Most scholars are of opinion that the Patika olate stands 
older series should he referred to the Vi^C * 



The date, , wrth years higher tha, 300, finally, it has become 
Seleukxdan era. M. Foucker' has demurred to the latter part of the prevalent 
quoted h is remarks about the improhabiHty of the use ofa foreign JL priva 
taons above a^d I thxnk that they are quite to the zoark, Bufl do 
soufeon of the dxfficulty in any way ljetor . He holds ^ 



referred to .the so-called Maurya era, a suggestion which had already been Lde by Mr B !> 
' ^ m valuable P a ? er * toe Scythian Period of Indian Histoiy.^ He tie ' 

322 B.C. -as the starting point of the Maurya era and draws attention to the feet that the h 
aing of the^Saka era comes exactly 400 years after that date. In hie opinion the Saka ent i , 
a continuation of the Maurya era, with omitted hundreds. 

It is extraordinary how tenacious this idea of suppressed centuries is. I quite tl 

dictum of the late Dr. Fleets : There is, in fact, no sound reason for thinking that thi in*, 
tional method of recording, dates was used in ancient times in any temfcory m Mv 

way within the scope of our inquiry," The results of referring the Khatfehthi with 

years higher than 300 to the Maurya era are, moreover, jost as fatal as if we'uae the 
reckoning. We would have to date the Loriyan Tangai statue in the year 3 B.C. and the 
Hashtnagar pedestal in 63 A.D. Now paleography seems to be in discredit at the 
but still I think most scholars would experience some difficulty in ascribing the 
epigraph to an earlier date than the Gudufara and Paja inscriptions. M. 
thinks that the epoch of the Loriyan Tangai stopa is late, and according to him, 
the second century A.D. The point d'appui for this dating is the Kaidshka reign, lit 

supposes to begin about 78 A.D. If now the accession of Kanishka took place 50 

years after that date, 4 the Loriyan Tangai $t$pa must he referred to the third century, m I 
clone above. M , Foueher, it is true, places the inscribed statues from and 

Rajar (Hashtnagar) before Kanishka, but it seems to me that Ms reason, the of the 

foldings of the garments, is^ far from being convincing. If an older image ww aid had 

to be replaced by a new statue, the Gandhara artiste of a later period were not 

"backward in imitating ancient models' than the Indian craftsmen of the 
statues without heads and hands are, it would seem, not the very best for 

chronological conclusions* 

Moreover, it would .seem to be a necessary preliminary to the reawafeeaing f the 
of a Maurya era to show that the strong reasons cannot be accepted which 
the field in order to show that the whole idea of such an era is without^ any 
it would have been well to try to explain the curious fact that there is not the 
to any such era in the numerous epigraphs of the great Mauxya emperor Aldim. HIi 
are, it should be remembered, official documents, and if a Maurya era had is wt 

should certainly expect to and it used in them. The only inscription in which tibe m 

is supposed to be mentioned, belongs to a different dynasty that of the and tfce 

'supposed date is given in such a way that no unbiassed person could be to 

the meaning* 5 

M, Foucher has made no such attempt. He ha* been content to state thai Ms whole 
stands and falls with the Maurya era, and there is, so fur m 1 can aae, 

* I.e. pp. 484 ff. 

* JTiw*. Ant., Vol. XXXVII, 1908, pp. 25 IE. ; ea especially p. 67. 

8 7, JE. A. 8., 191 3, p. 984* . 

* 1 hope to show that such fa actually the case in my edition erf the 

* For further details I may refer the reader to my remarks, *** 0*rf, L FP* * ^ 



282 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIII. 

foundation for the belief in its existence than there would be if somebody were to suggest that 
an era was instituted to commemorate the conquest of India by Alexander. 

The only objection against referring the high dates in KharOshthl inscriptions to the old 
Saka era of which. I can think, is that it seems difficult to understand why it was not replaced 
by the Kanishka era* But then we have the analogy of the Ghidufara inscription, which shows 
that the old em had gained such a firm footing in Yusuf zai that it survived the introduction 
of a new, Parthian era. There are, on the whole, no traces of Kanishka and Ms successors in 
Ytisufzai proper. The capital was no more Pushkalavat! or Shahbazgarhl, Those districts", 
and the country further to the north, where the Gandhara school of art had had a richer 
development than anywhere else, were no more in the centre of political activity. Peshawar, on 
the high road to the stronghold of the Kushanas in BadakshSn, 1 had become the most important 
city in the west, and the route from Taxila to Peshawar did not lead through Ynsufzai, That 
country had been reduced to be an out-of-the-way territory, where Buddhist civilization and 
art remained, but .where political vicissitudes were of little importance. No wonder that the 
indigenous donors and sculptors went on using the old era, tin disturbed by the accession oi 
Kaxjishka. 



1 Maharayasa Gudnfarasa vasha 20 4 1 1 

$ samba[tsarae ti]Satimae 1 100 ill Vesakhasa masasa divasa 

8 [pratlia]me [di 1 ijga [dine] pachlie Balasamlsa [bo]yanasa 

4 par[i]vara [sha]dliad[a]^ia sapu[ta]dhitasa Hpra hoyanasa 

8 erjhana Kappshajsa pnyae madu 

6 pidn puyae 



(Duffipg the reign) of the Maharaja Gudufara, (in) the year 26, in the himdredand-third 
year103 on the first day d. 1 of the month Vaisa;kha ? on this pak$ha*d&y, the chapel (?) 
of Balas-vafmin the Saviour [is] the pious gift of Mira the Saviour, together with his 

daughter, m hpnonr of Prince Papsha, in honour of his mother and father, 



"Ho, 29. IWR BHANJA COPPERPLATE GRANTS. 

Br 
EAI BAHADUR HIRALAL, B.A., DEPUTY CoMMissroisrEE (Retired}, JUBBULPORE, 

The Governmeiat Epigraphi&t for India forwarded to me impressions of 4 sets of copper- 
plate grants belonging to the BhaSja dynasty sent to him by the late Mr. Tavini Gharan 
Rath, B.A., Dletrict Muii^iff of Aska, Ganjam "Disfcricfc. Brief notices in respect of them 
appeared in Rao Sahib Krishna Sastyi's Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1917-18 on pages 12 and 
185 ff ., paragraphs iG-^14, I now edit the charters from the impressions supplied by him, 
which are reproduced in the accompanying plates. 

The Bhafija grants yet discoyer^d nnmber eleven 2 including the present ones, four of 
which haTe been edited in the Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society and the rest in this Journal 
including tie one of the Bengal Asiatic Society's Journal, which has been re-edited by Dr. 
Kielhorn in Volume IX, above, For facility of reference the charters have been assigned 

* f* Chavannes, Toung Pao II* viii, p. 187*. 

2 Sixteen, ee Postscript. 



Takht-I-Bahai Inscription : the year 103, being year 26 of Gudufara. 




P. W, THOMAS 



SCALE -4 



W. GBIOG8 & SONS, tm. f*BQT0~UTH 



No. 29.] POUR BHANJA COPPER-PLATE GRANTS. 283 

distinguishing letters given below, especially becaruse some of them bear the same name, having 
been found in the same locality. In editiag^the two Baudh charters Mr. R, D, Banerji distin- 
guished theui by the letters A & B and Mr. Mazumdarjjgave to the Sonpur grant the letter 0, 
which have been retained in my scheme. 

A. Baudh grant of Ranabhanjadeva ol the 54th year ; by Banerji, Up. Ind. 9 Vol. XII, page 
322 ff. 

B. Baudh. grant of RanabhanjadSva of the 26th year 5 by Banerji, Up. Ind. 9 Vol. XII, page 
325 S. 

C. Sonpur grant of SatrubhanjadSva ; by Mazumdar, Up. Ind., Vol. XI, page 98 ff. 

D. Bamanghati grant of Eanabhaiajadevaj J. B. A. S-, XL, Part I, page 165 ff. 
B. Bamanghati grant of RajabhaSjad$va, Jl B. A. 8., XL, Part I, page 168 ff. 

P. Orissa grant of Vidyadharabhanjadeva, /. J3* A. 8., LVI, Part I, page 154, re-edited by 
Kielhorn in Eg. Ind>, Vol. IX, page 271. 

G. Ganjam plates of Netribhanjadeva, J. B. A. S., Vol. V, page 669. 

H. Ganjam plates of Netribhanjadeva edited below. 

I. Ganjarn plates of Nstribhanjadeva edited below. 

J. Ganjam plates of VidyadharabhanjadSva edited below. 

K, Antirigam plates of Yasabhanjad^va edited below. 

The description of these plates supplied by the Epigraphioal office is reproduced below* 

H. Ganjam plates of Netrib&afijadeva. 

" This is a set of three copper-plates, oblong in shape, strung together on a ring of the same 
metal, which, passes through a hole of about * in diameter near the proper right margin and 
has its ends riveted into the arms of the bracket at the back of the seal accompanying it. The 
ring was uncut when the plates reached this office. The plates have writing on five faces in all, 
the first plate being engraved only on the inner side. They measure about 6f * in breadth and 
Sf' 7 in height, They bear slightly raised rims on either face, though those of the first plate are 
worn out a little. The ring has a diameter of about 3J V . The seal is circular in shape and 
has a diameter of about 1|", On its countersunk surface it bears in relief the figure of a lion 
at the top of proper left with the legend ' Sri-JSTetriTbli&fijadevasya * below it in two lines* 
The entire set weighs about 158 tolas." 

I. Q-anjam plates of ITetribftafijadeva. 

" This is a set of three copper-plates, oblong in shape, strung ogetter on a ring of the 
same metal which passes through a hole about | v m diameter at about F from the proper 
light margin. The ring was uncut when the set reached the office. It carries a fixed saal 
wMch. is now partly damaged and must have been circular ia form originally. The engravings 
on it are all lost. The first plate is written only on one side while the other two have writing on 
both the faces. The plates have very slight rrras. They measure 6* in breadth and SJ* in 
height* The set weighs 71 tolas/* 
' J- Q-anjsm plates of VidySdharabhafijadeva. 

** This is a set of three copper-plates, oblong in shape and strung together on a ring 2f* ia 
diameter, -which passes through a hole of about |" in diameter near the proper right 
margin. The ring carries a seal into the two arms of the bracket on the back of which 
are fixed its two ends- The seal is much damaged fio that nothing remains of the original 
engravings on its surface. Its diameter is about If''. The plates measure 7J * in breadth and 
3y in height. They have writing on four faces in all, the first and the last ones being blaok 
in outer faees. The first plate is broken to the extent of T in the right band top comer. The 
total weight of the set is 85 tolas. The plates are nofe uniformly thick, the first being slightly 
thinner than the other two. 1 * 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIII. 



K. Antirigsm plates of Yasabhafijadeva. 

" This is a set of three thin copper-plates strung on a ring of the same metal passing? 
through a hole about |" in diameter near the proper right margin. They are oblong in shape and 
haee four faces of writing in all, the .first and the last beiag blank on the outer sides. They hare 
no rims worth the name ; still the writing is in good preservation. The ring which is about I-*'' 
in diameter carries a turned knob into the base of which its two ends are fixed. The knob is 
about 1|" long and is a miniature representation of the kalasika seen on the top of the broad 
umbrella nsed in the South Indian temples. The plates are a little drawn out in tie side 
margins and have therefore slightly rounded corners. They measure about 8" in breadth and 
8i' in height. The weight of the set is 72 tolas. The plates weqe found in a village called 
Antirigsm in, the Purbakhanda division of the Ohatrapur taluk, not far from Jauguda, in a, 
tield while ploughing." 

The language of all the records is Sanskrit written in the Nagari character 
influenced by the Oriya style more conspicuously in charter K than the three others 
which closely resemble one another not only in characters, but in the phraseology used in them' 
All the records as usual are divided into three portions, the first and the third -in verse, the 
former recording the invocations to the family god and the genealogy of the king and the 
latter benedictions and imprecations quoted from religious books, while the second or the 
middle portion in prose deals with the business in hand. There is also a HttEe prose at the end 
of the records giving the names of the messenger, the writer, the engraver and the seal-affiser 
The first portion being composed by a learned man of the court once for all daring the currency 
of a reign, is always ornate and so it is. in the present grants. The second is usually full of 
mistakes, as business respects neither rhetoric nor grammar and goes straight to the point, 
even admitting forms like 8vamisya, Sarmisya, Agnfhotrisya, so long as the sense is not 
obscured, Imprecations^being mere quotations from Dharaa-Sastras are pure formalities of 
the age, given little care in point of accuracy, though in well written records they receive as 
much attention as the other parts of the records. In oar records there is ample evidence o* 
the carelessness with which quotations have been entered. In. some cases the verses are incom- 
plete, m others they.lave been mutilated and strung together in a new form, for instance, see J 
where a verse occurs as, follows :-^ * 



which gives a jumble of mis-spellings and misjoinders. 

As regards the peculiarities in writing a full description has been given by Dr. Kielhornin 
his article on the Orissa plates of Vidyadharabhanja, re-edited by him in Yol. IX, pp. 271 ff in 
this Journal. His remarks almost wholly apply to the plates H, I and J, and need not be repeated 
The plates K are more modern than the other three and exhibit more prominently the Ojiya 
style of writing, the chief characteristic of which is the rounding of the straight or angular por- 
tions into a curve. The plates H, I and J will show that the top lines of letters are not straight 
but slightly curved, furnishing each letter with a sort of a horn. In K the form of ^ gets trans' 
formed into Q, a ^ into , a ^ into q and so on. These are really Oriya letters. Of course 
Oriya characters are no other than Nagari letters witli the inevitable rounding resulting from 
an iron stylus playing on palm leaves, which would be torn if straight lines were drawn on, 
tnem. As u matter of fact the slanting limbs of 'the letters in all these four reoord 3 are too pro- 
minent to require any mention. I would not therefore dilate any further on this point. 

I shall now proceed to the contents of the records and the historical data they giye tu,. The 
chartera Hand I were issued from Vafijulvaka by Netribh.anjade>a smmamed EalySnakalasa 
po.n of Bftnabhafijadiva, grandson of Satrubhafijadeva and great-grandson of Silabnafi jadf va* 



No. 29.] FOUR BHANJA COPPER-PLATE GRANTS. 25 

H grants a village named Ratanga 1 in the Vasudevakhanija-vishaya to a number of Aginli5- 
trins belonging to the Kausika- and VatBa-#Wr#*. The plate I grants a village named Hack- 
chha4&g^anisb of the MachM4&khanda to another donee of the Vatsya-#otfra. These t-vro 
records do not give either the residence of the donees or the place whence their forefathers came, 
nor do the;/ state the occasion on which they were granted. They state as usual that the gifts 
ivere made for increasing the religious merits of the king's father, mother and self. They do not 
refer to any date whatsoever, but simply say that they were issued at the king's own ortler and 
written by the Minister for peace and war, in the case of H by SavarSja and in the case of I by 
Ktifoera. Both were incited by a goldsmith (akskasatika) named Durgadeva. The seal in H 
was affixed by Mamma, apparently a short form of Mahamaya (the queen) and in I a lady, 
named Jacbchhika of the noble family. The messenger for H was Bhatta Sumangala, bur- 
the name of that in I is not legible* 

The charter J was issued by Maharaja VidyMharabhafi jadeva, surnamed Amoghakalasa ? 
8on of Silabhanjadeva, grandson of Digbtianjadeva and great-grandson of Banabhafijadeva* 
It was issuer! from the ancestral capital Vanjulvaka and records the grant of a Tillage named 
MtilamEohhada (?>.., Machhada proper) situated in the MachhSdakhanda-vishaya to Bhatta 
Ptarandara, an emigrant from ManmSna, situated in the district Tadisama-vishaya in 
Vsrebdhi 2 f province). In this case as in the previous two, the gift was made for increasing 
the religions merit of the donor and his parents and bears no date. The record was composed 
by Stambh*), the Minister for peace and war, and incised by the goldsmith KtunSrachandra, 
and the seal was affixed by Trikalinga-MahSdevi, on the record being apparently presented 
by the Prime Minister Bhatta Kesavsdeva. One ChScMka is recorded as the vargulika 
which appears to be an alternative term for dutaka or messenger. 8 All these names occur in plate 
F except the last, with a medley of offices, which throw a doubt on its genuineness, bat thiw is 
susceptible of being explained, as would appear later on* The last charter K was issued in t&ef 
3rd year (of the king's reign) on the llth day of the bright fortnight of theKSrtika month 
(known also as Prabsdhim IlkadaSl), the day on which Vishnu awakes from his four months* 
sleep, granting the village Komyana of VodS-vishaya to the astrologer Jagadhara-Sarman, resi- 
dent of Pattavadaptaka, situated in the district of Kontaravanga-vishaya, emigrant from 
VapablmmJL situated in the middle of TMh&ra-vishaya by Yasalbtoanjadeva, eon of Bya- 
bhafija XI, who was son of "VJrabliafija, wbo was son of Bayabhafija I, who was son of the 
Bajadhiraja Devabhanja, styled SamaBta-Khinjali-dti'Sdhipati or lord of the whole Khifijali 
country, which connects him with the family headed by SilabhanjadSva, from whom the kings 
referred to in the preceding three (H, I, J) records, were descended. Though KhinjaE is not 
mentioned in the three foregoing records in hand, it finds a mention in A, B and C. In the latter 
there is a mention of Ubhaya-KhiiajaU-mandala which shows that the Khinjali was divided 
into two ma ndalas or divisions, though owned by the same king. The records, howerer, do not; 
show how D^vabhanja, the original ancestor of Yagabhanja' 8 family, was connected with the 
parental stock to which all the kings mentioned in plates A to J appear to belong. From these 
eleyen 4 records of the Bhanja family the following tentative genealogy 5 may be made out ; 

* [E. B. Krishna S&stri would read IMs name as Arataha; see bis JS^, &ep. for 1017-18* p- 1% #<>* *~- JB&] 
2 [R. B. Krishna Sastri would read it as Varendhi, sec ilrid n p. 136, para, 13. Sd.] 

9 [If it Is a derivative of tlie Telugu mr^w* ledger, the official might have been a ledger-keeper of land givea. 
By analogy It appears to be supported by the Kanarese expression vatyakod* which means "to deliver laadto 
somebody as Ms property/* Ed.] 

4 Sixteen, See Postscript. 

* [In drawing the genealogical tree we should not lose sight of the fact that some of these rulers used different 
s> for such a difference can well Indicate a different house or branch of a dynasty. M-J 



EPIGBAPHIA INDJCA. [Voi. XVIII. 

VirabLadra (Ganadanda) 

(D. E. A. 0.) 

Kottabhanja or Silabhanja I 
(D.E. 0.) I (H.I.) 



Digbhafija I or Satrubhanja I 
(D. 0.) I (G. H. I.) 



Ranabhanja I 
(D. E, P. G. H. I. J. 0.) 



Digbhafijall Netribhanja Kajabhanja Prithvibhanj'a 

(*\ J-) (Kalyai?akalaa) (E.) I (0 "> 

(G. H. I.) I ^ ' 

NarSndrabhanja 

iilbltania II Devabhania 

<Y> (K) 

Vldygdha[ra*]blianiadeva or Bayabhanja I 

Vidyadharabhanja AmSghakalasa) (K) 
(F. J.) i 



Satrubhanja II Virabtanja 

(A. B. C. L. W. P.) 



Ranabbanja II BayabliaSja II 

(A. B. L. P.) (K) 

SolanabhftSja (M) 



'ft J tl . , Yalabhanja 

Durjayabhanja (M) () 

kabhanja (M) 



Kanaka 



10d 

Gukdhata. ancestor, which is found m some records in a corrupted 



Vali 8 Lt hamQ ni. f^^* lr > ^o was reared up 
was Ra^aSja , tMs see.a to tap ~ SSth^*^ 1 ^' f" K f ab ^a wbose go 
the one in which RanabhaSia I was bo A I 8everal other ^nches, the senior being 
single scabbed, the jnnior S^^'^Jtf 7 * ^ ^ 8WOrd8 ca -* ^-- 
alsawhere, either J snbordinai, J *i?1Ll2rT^ " &lternative b "* * -attto 
conned to observe the Ori ssa pLti^rf rtfr !?' ^^ that tb enior branch 
junior one B adopted a different Bcfemt Tnu? .T eMmeS f ** anceat i>s ' while <* e 
one whose name ia not repeated while in +i . 5* "^ braB h witK 8 kin S 8 ' there ia ^J 
been repeated. In Se^a fc ^ he fc 1 - ^ & "^ -' of 6, whiol 



andSBanabbanjas, although in 00^^ i ^ haS J as ' 2 trubhaSjas, 
the first SatrubhaSja. In the innlr brL\ ,t Dl g b ^Sja was apparently identical with 
line fe word Bhanja fonns aa SZ ai "!' ^ TO Only 2 ^bhaSjas. In the main 
woald be ridiculouB. I B the ianior lL ^ ! I"*" * &m *' Without which the latter 

appropriate connotation For instance Tt w^iAT * T "" ^ lisiOU WOuld sti11 ive aa 

tance, it would be extremely uncomplimentary to name one's 



No. 29.] FOUB BHANJA COPPEB-PLATE GBANTS. 287 

son as Satru or enemy, unless bhanja were to be an integral part of it, which would make him 
the ' vanquisher of an enemy '. Similarly H1A Is a rock, but with bhanja added, it makes its 
wearer *the breaker of rocks'. Sana is "battle, but a king is no battle ; he is Ranabhanja, the 
< conqueror in battle*. Dis are the 4 or 10 quarters. Obviously the king cannot be dis^ but i* 
is a great compliment to him to be called Digbhanja, the ' victor of all the quarters '. There is 
only one name in that line which appears to be self-sufficient without the bhaftju and that is 
VIdyadharabhanja found in two plates (F and J) where in each case the last letter ra is absent 
which, however, is supplied by the seal attached to the charter F, By the way I may here note 
that the king had the title of ' AtnGghakalafia ', which was conjee barally read by Dr. Kielhorn 
as DbarmmakalaSa, owing to an over-engraving in the part where the epithet occurred. It 
was natural for him to read it as such, on the analogy of Kalayanakalasa attached to the- 
name of Netribhanja, especially as the last letter looked like double *i, which was apparently 
meant for 0&. Dr. Kielhorn has clearly shown that plates F are palimpsests, but what is most 
curious is that the alterations are most prominent in the names o the donor, bis title and his 
ministers. Plates J shosv that the Prime Minister was Bhatta Keavadeva> who presented the 
charter to the queen for affixing the royal seal, and that the composer of the charter was 
Btamblia, the Minister for peace and war, in whose office it appears that such records used to be 
prepared. In plates F the offices are reversed, whereby KSSava becomes Minister for peace and 
war, while Stambha becomes the Mantri. 1 The alterations were so carelessly made that 
Khambha (the popular form of Stambha) continued to be shown as Minister for peace and war 
and; as such the writer of the charter. This led Dr. Kielhorn to suppose that Stambha and 
Khambha were different names, occupying the offices of Mantri and Scwdhi-vigrahika respec- 
tively, while Kesava was put down as a messenger, in view of the fact that BO messenger was 
mentioned in the record. 

My view of the matter is that the record F was originally prepared during the reign of a 
short-lived king, the immediate successor of SilabhaBja II, but it could not be issued before his 
death. At this stage Vidyadhara, the younger brother of the deceased, was installed, not without 
a coup d'ttat, which brought the Minister for peace and war to prominence causing the superses- 
sion of the Prime Minister Kesava by Stambha for the time being. The accession of Vidyadhara 
to the throne must have been an occasion for munificent gifts and apparently the charter $ 
was issued in hot haste, with necessary corrections, though not very carefully carried out as 
* Oar record J wh:ch has no signs of being tampered with at all reads as follows at the end : 



~^W "" - 1 *" " I ""H T I " "Nil >! l^y "lI'SI'^'Tn'l f*t t , SV\ 

I think the original record was exactly like this, except perhaps that at (a) the word JTtTOs *fcd at (6) 
or some such equivalents were omitted. la tampering with the record the first alteration to have been made was the 
insertion of the family name of Stambhadeva as Tejaflika, which took the place of $ram*itam at (a) leaving no 
room for the word ma,MQ& to precede his proper name, which was next inserted IB the place of Kesavadevena, 
The official designation matnM^d had therefore to follow instead of preceding hi* name against the usual practice, 
Thus the word mantrfya had to be put in the place of the unknown word at (1). This necessitated the insertion of 
his par! of the duty (that is, prorating the record to the queen for affixing the royal seal) farther. on, again 
against the usual pxwtiee, and the word tflW had therefore to go in the place of *T^n. There mnained 
now Kenya's name to be inserted and it was apparently pat in the place occupied by ^T^tf which was - 
as usual followed by f%f%ri *3ftfwf$3f, which was left intact, the duty and the office of^the displaced 
minister thus being joined with bis name in this manner. What was omitted to be done was the elkion of *- 
. created an almost meaningless colophon as follows : 



[The Expression TejadiH might be connected with the Telugu and Kanarese Teji meaning a horse. Tbe 
title may lave been derived from the fact of Stambha or his Ancestors having been originally Keepers of royal 
B. Ed.] 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Voi,. XVIlf, 



referred to before. Things may have afterwards resumed the normal condition including the 
restoration to office of previous employees, jwhen the charter I was issued. This would also 
ueroiint for the peculiar name Vidyadhiira as Silabhanja IPs successor, wlio should have been 
m the ordinary course named as Digbhanja III, (who should be no other than the deceased 
cider brother of Vidyadhara in the present case), I feel this is rather a wild conjecture, bat 
until evidence to the contrary is available, there is nothing strange about it. In Orissa the 
<astraic custom of continuing ancestral names 1 has survived even up to the present d&y. For 
iiista-ufe, the Raja of Batnra is either a Sfldhalndeva or a Tribhuvanadeva and I have personally 
biown three generations, Sir SttdhaludSva, his son Tribhuvanadeva and hijs grandson Sildhaladgya 
i.jm. In Pal Lalii-5, situated between Bamra and Keonjhar, the Raja is either " Pat Gaufishvara 
PIP or ''Pat Muni Pal". In the Bhanja family the recurring names appear to have been four* 
:^.. Sila, Dig, Satru and Rana, and each has had a repetition according to the inscriptions found. 
There is nothing to prevent the discovery of a third name-sake of any or all of thorn. 

There are a number of geographical names in the records which have been yet found, but 
no serious attempt was ever made to identify tlieni. Iu an appendix to this article I have tried 
to identify not only places mentioned in the four records in hand, about which. 1 I,a-ve added a 
special note in the end, "but also those mentioned in charters previously edited. It will be seen 
from them that the oldest charters 1) and E refer to village* in tbe extreme north of the 
Aiayftrabhafija State, A, B and C to those in the Baudh State to the west, and the reuaaiuri 
ones to those in the Ganjam District. This gives an indication of the extent of the Bhafija 
kingdom, which apparently included almost all the tributary states 9 of Orissa together with ti.f- 
uortlio-n portion of the Ganjam District covering about 16,000 square mile, about half 

inT ^t^^P 1 ^^ Stiit^ both of which were owned by 

ITbhaya-Khmja^^ Thid fitle was retainod bytI / @ 

latest .king of the family, 5 , Ynsabhanja- of charter K, who styled himself as Sain;t,ta,KhinnUi^ 
des-adhipati or the 'lord of the whole KhiSjali country ', which can be no other tJian the pre^r-t 
Jvecmjhar. The aspirate of the first letter disappeared, a soft ,. after / crept in A ftor the On vi 
mode of proniineiation and the I at the eni changed into r f which transformed the original name 

mto ikeonjiiari or Keonjhai*. 

The latest ;I M p*rM Gavtt*,* .tates, ' Keonjhar i s divided into two wUelv 



1 Cf. V. A. Smith, Lid. A^., Vol. XXXV, p 201 



.^uyus.ir;unvct-d--wi-i- *'* ' ' Inil anrt 0ld Wot "hut Lv bi'a 

*now rdrtSm,. ' P "" Cntlhl> * m those times - S* ' JTko ft 7^0 Vn /<*, j art 

Vrf. LXV, p. 202. 



Ko. 29 S ] FOUR BHAHJA COPPER-PLATE GRANTS. 289 

sgsr ~~ """ - " r " ; - - " " " 

the mountainous high lands," These are natural divisions which must have, existed, as they do 
to-day, during the Bhanja rule, and the word " ubhaya " meaning * both ' found in the records 
in connection with Ktdfijali not only justifies its use, but affords a clue for the identifica- 
tion of the country. Local chroniclers also support the fact that Keonjhar was ruled by the 
Bhanja Rajas. Hunter's Gazetteer 1 plainly records : " Keonjhar State originally formed part 
of Morbhanj, but about 200 years ago, the tribes of this part, finding it a great hardship 
to travel through the perilous forests of Morbhanj to obtain justice from their prince, separated 
themselves and set up the brother of the Morbhanj Raja as their independent ruler/* That is 
to say, Keonjhar separated from the parental stock less than 300 years ago and was part 
or the Mayurabhanja State where many of the Bhanja inscriptions were incised. 

The records shW that there were about three capitals of the Bhanja kings, either co- 
existing or at different periods of their rule. D. and E., the oldest records as noted before, 
give Khijingga or Khijjinga as the residence of the king, This is identical with the present 
Khiching to the west of Baripada, the present head-quarters of the Mayurabhaiaja State* It 
still contains numerous ancient remains about which Eai Sahib Nagendra Nath Tasu re- 
marks : " The superior workmanship of these has indeed been a startling discovery for us. 
The faces of the goddesses beam with radiant smiles which .seem to be a realization on" 

stone o the best dreams of poets and artists. The smiles look as fresh and 

soft as newly -blown buds and illustrate that motherly grace which is a pure 

Indian conception and is quite distinct from what we find in the Italian, painter's Madonna." 2 
A., B. and C. refer to Dhritipura as the old capital which ia untraceable. !% G., H., I. 
and J. were issued from Vafijulvaka and as the villages mentioned in them are all found in 
the Ganjam district, it is perhaps not unfair to conclude that Yanjulvaka was also' situated 
within that district. The name connotes a superabundance of cane plants, for which the 
Ganja.m district is noted. The last record, K., mentions no capital ait all. 

In spite of the extensive area occupied by the Bhanja family and its branches, it, however, 
appears that they were not the "sovereign lords of the country they ruled. The original an- 
cestor of the family appears to have been an officer of some China, or Hiudu republic, as Ms title 
Ganadanda indicates. The title was apparently a short form of Qan(idan$a-n&yaT(a or* fiono- 
danda-pala $ the former being equivalent to a Minister and the latter to an officer in charge of 
tlie maintenance of the army. 3 There are numerous instances of ministers or army officers 
becoming kings, whenever they found the administration over them weak* Traditions of a 
strong member of the democracy usurping the power of government and finally becoming 
king are not wanting in the Orissa Janapddas as the political ^communities were called in olden 
days of which the Athmallik State is an excellent example. It was ruled by eight representa- 
tives of the people by turns, which gave it the name of Athamallika (the tract ruled by eight). 
It is not very far away from Mayftrabhanja. What wonder that Vlrabhadra and his descen- 
dants should have seen their opportunity and become the sole masteis of their .politik^l 
community. Judging from the titles of the inBcriptional kings of this line, however, it does 
not appear that they ever attained to paramount sovereignty, and as such they must have 
become the HantjaUkas of the MahaksSala kings, firstly of the Ssmavamsis of Viniiapura 
(Binka) and later on, of -the Haihayas of Eatanpur, both of whom bore the title of Trika- 
lingadhipati or " Lord of the Trikalingas/' which, apparently, included the Orissa Tributary 
Mahals. The omission, in the grants, of references to any sovereign power, however, indicates 
that the Bhanjas enjoyed much extended powers and were at any rate semi-independent chiefs, 

1 Vol. VIII, p, 121 (Second Edition). 2 MaynrManj Arch* Eef. t Part I, Prefn-a, 

5 Mr, JayaswaFs Hindu Polity, Part Jl, pp. 13 and 147. 



BPIGBAPHIA INDICA. C^OL. XVIII. 




There is no record of any conquest made by them, tbo eulogistic epithet of 
added to the name of YagaWmfija being ambiguous. It may mean ' the conqueror of JagadSka- 
rnalta'or 'the one warrior and conqueror in the world '^ It, however, seems that the 
ESme of the Bfaanja dynasty were connected with the Southern Jaipur instead of the Northern 
Jaipur of Eajputana, to which local chroniclers connect them, in the wake of all Rajputs, 
who consider it an honour to link themselves with the country regarded as the true home ^ ol 
the Kshatriyas. The Jaipur Zamindar, formerly a Raja, who still holds an estate covering 
about ten thousand square miles, relates that the predecessors of his family belonged to 
SilSvamfe,* and we know from the Buguda 3 and Saganka's charters* that the family of 
Sllddbhavas or SailOdbhaTas (born of rock or hill) were ruling on that side about the 7th 
* century A.D, It sent out its scions to different parts of the country, one of whom settled in 
the Vmdhyas in the Central Provinces and conquered many countries round about, as reTealed 
by the Bagholi plates, 5 the only record yet found about that branch. Another adventurer, 
apparently, settled in MaytrabhaSja. The date of the advent of the Mayfirabhanja conqueror, 
as related in local chronicles OX, 1,300 years ago), 6 very well fits in with the ^dates of the 
imcriptional Siladbhavas, and the family has more than one Bhanja named after Sila. In fact, 
the oldest ancestor found in the inscription is named Silabhanja. Distinguished Indian families 
usually seek for supernatural origins. As is well known, Rajputs claim descent direct from 
the Sun or the Moon. This may look edifying, but they have pushed the matter 80 far as 
ta make it ridiculous. Some trace their origin from au inanimate object or an animal of any 
kind whatsoever, because such an origin implies some miraculous power. It mystifies the real 
origin which lurks beneath it and which might cause a blush in its bare nakedness. Here is, 
for instance, the origin of the SilQdbhayas as recorded in the Buguda 7 plates of Madhava- 
Tarman : " There was a personage named Pulindasena, famous amongst the people of 
Kalinga. He, although endowed with many excellent qualities, did not covet sovereignty 
for himself, but rather worshipped Brahma in order that the god might create a fit ruler of 
the land. And Brahma granted his wish and created out of a rock the lord Silfldbhava, 
who became the founder of a distinguished family." Laid bare, the story would show that 
the dwellers of the local mountains or rock produced a person yL who became the ruler and as 
such the founder of a dynasty. In editing the Bagholi plates I have shown how SailavarixSa 
wsa patronymic and how the metronymic of the same family was Gangavam^a. The dynasty 
was thus the outcome of a mountaineer husband and a river-born wife (the sacred Ganges), 
which was delicately turned into a compliment, when describing the local river SalimS on whoso 
bank KdBgeda, the capital of their kings, was situated. 7 * c On its banks covered with flowers 
of excellent trees," said the eulogist, " pools of water have formed resembling the river of gods 
(GfaAgi), which issued from the sky and the streams of whose waters are split- and dashed out- 
side by masses of rocks.*' 8 Bereft of the allegory, this would signify that a brave mountaineer of 
0rissa married a QrangavamM lady and their son became the founder of a new dynasty. By a 
similar procesB the A^davamSa family waa evolved from a pea-hen's egg. A scion of the 
SaQavaiha left his parental home and went to the country where peacocks (May lira) abounded, 
which gave to the people of that locality the appropriate name of Mayftrikas, 9 as found 
ia the Eijim stone inscription of Jagapaladdva. He defeated them and thus Tbecama the 
Mayflrabhanja (breaker of Mayfrras) and in due course married a Mgynrki, a local lady, whose 
[The attribute ^if^*^^ given to Tafebhanja in 1, 11, Plate K, is very significant and may lead one 
to onDiM that he defeated one of the Western CMlt^ya king* of Kalyani, perhaps Jagadekamalla II him- 
self 0r one of the f encbtories~H. K, S.] 

Hater's 6a*r, Vol. VII, p 64 (Second Edition). 3 Above VoL m 41 ffi . 

VoL 7 J * * 143 ff fc * Above, Vol. IX, p! 41 ft. 

It^maZ <?,*,, Vol. XYH| p . 355. 1 Above, VoL IX, p. 42. 

VoL XVII, p. 135 & 



y Q- 29j FOUR BHANJA COPPER-PLATE GRANTS. 291 

progeny became the founder of a new dynasty* A Mayurkl, literally pea-hen, 1 lays eggs and, 
therefore, her offspring must be andajafy or born of an egg. The peacock became the family 
totem and that is why there is still a strict prohibition against killing peacocks in the 
Maytrabhanja State. 

Postscript. 

It was after I had Rent my article to the Government Bpigraphist on 6th May 1923 "that 
I received a letter from Mr. McLeod Smith, Dewan of Mayurabhan ja State, dated 21st May 1923, 
in which, besides giving certain local information in reply to my queries, he was good enough to 
add that in 1916 a copper-plate grant was found at Khandadeuli in Pargang Khanta Pir of tie 
Bamanghati sub-division, and was published in the 4th volume of the Journal of the Bihar and, 
Orissa Research Society which I had not consulted at all. This led to a research which brought 
to ligM as many as three other grants 3 of the Bhanja family, published by Mr. B* 0. Maaumda* 
in Vol. II of the Journal, and a genealogy of the same dynasty as given by Mr. E. D. Banerji 
in the 3rd volume of the same Journal. Had these been before me when I. was drafting the 
above article, the discussion in it would have assumed a somewhat different form, but it is 
now too late to recast it. I would, therefore, note here the salient points after inserting new 
names of kings in the genealogical table on page 286 above, and some geographical names 
in the Appendix, which deals with identification, of places. For facility of reference letters 
L. ? M, K ., 0. and P. have been given to these records as follows : 

L. Tasapaikera grant of Eanabhanjadeva by Mazumdar, J. B. 0. R. 8. 9 Volume II, pp. 167 
et seq. 

M, Baudh grant of Kanakabhanjadeva by Mazumdar, J. B. 0. JS. &, Volume II, pp. 356 
et seq. 

N. Kumrukela grant of Satrubhanjadeva by Mazumdax, /. JS. 0. JS. &, Volume II, pp. 429 
et sag* 

O. Khaajidadeull grant of BanabhaSjadSva ? (Ifarndra"bhanjadeva) by Haraprasad Sastrl, 
JT. B. 0. R. 8. 9 Volume IV, pp. 172 et seq. 

P, Patna Museum grant of Ba^abhafijadeva of the 21st year by E. D* Banerji, Ep. Ind, 
(awaiting publication). 

Only two records, M. and 0., give new names of kings ; M. gives Kanakabhanja, son of 
Durjayabhanja, who was son of SolanabhaSja. They belonged to the Bhanja ^branch ruling at 
Bandit and were possibly connected with Satrubhanja II and his son Banabhanja II of A., R 5 
C., L., N, and P. The Plate 0. gives Narendrabhanja, son of Ppthvlbhanja, son of Ba^Waanja 

I, son of Kottabhanja, descended from Vlrabhadra, the original ancestor of the Bhanjas. 

In dealing with Plate M,, Mr. Mazumdar has given a lengthy discussion on the dates of 
fche Bhanja grants in general, and has come to the following conclusions : 

(1) The present chiefs of Mayurabhan ja and Keonjliar States have no connection with the 
inscriptional Bhanjas. 

(2) There were several offshoots of the early Bhanjas, of whichone ruled at Baudh and 
had under its sway the Baudh and Kimidi tracts during the times of gatnibhanja II. These 
split up during the reign of his son Ranabhanja II, who remained a feudatory at Baudh, while 
a descendant of KetribhanjadSva established a new line of rulers at KimidL 

(3) Kanakabhanja flourished about 1475 A.D, His line was independent of EanabhaSja 

II, 

i [Thatwonldl^MayunorMayurlka, but not Mayurkl Tbe latter, if cQBnecte<J with 3%omfcft, will 
iiave a different connotation for which see Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-Ingush Wet. under Mayuraka.-M,] 

a [The two Bhauja grants from Daspalla which Mr, B. Btotocharyya has edited w the mm journal (Vol. 
VI, pp. 266 It) are abo to be added to this list WJ ^ g 



292 EPJGEAPHTA INDICA. [VOL. XV11I 

_^___ ..-. ..... ........ - - -....-..-...-. ______ ................ _ ....... _ ................ ^ .......................... ..... ...... ...... _ '". ...... .. ..... ..'':. .. ...... ..... - ~ 

Mr. B. D. Banerji, reviewing Mr. Mazumdar's discussion, declared the date assigned to 
KaBakabhanja as absolutely impossible on pateographical grounds. ' We cannot,' he said, 
'admit the existence of. a Rauabhanja in 1200 A,D., because the Ba$abhanja of the 'Banian- 
ghati grant 1 was living in the third quarter of the llth century, according to Mr. Mazumdar, 
and palaeography shows that KanabhaSja (II), son of Satrubhanja (II), is earlier thau Rana- 
bhanja (I), son of Digbhanja (I). Mr. Banerji would place Kaiiakabhanja in the beginning of 
the 12th century A.D.' 

It -would thus appear that the Bhanja chronology still remains a subject of great contro- 
versy, but, although I do not find sufficient reasons in support of Mr. Mazumdar's theory 
dissociating the present f amilies of Mayurabhanja and Keonjhar States from the mscriptional 
Bhanjas by relegating their origin to an adventurer of Rajputana, I agree with him as regards 
the date of Ranabhanja II, about the end of the 12th century A.D., until Mr. R. D. Banerji 
establishes his contention, for which he says he is ready. Kaiiakabhanja may or may not have 
been very far removed from RanabhaSja II ; but the mere fact that Kanakabhanja's two 
ancestors only are mentioned in Plate M. does not warrant the conclusion that his grandfather 
was not connected with the Bhanjas known to have been previously ruling at Baudh, Jt 
is true that the Bhanja family sent out several offshoots and they became rulers of different 
tracts, but .at present there is nothing to show that Kanakabhanja's line was a distinct one 
and supplanted Ranabhanja IPs. Again, the adoption of the Kasyapa-g^ra in place of the old 
fc Andaja ' or egg-born is no proof of disparity in view of the accepted rule that fi he who has 
110 gdtra belongs to the Kasyapa-$3ra.' K^nakabhanja belonged to a much later date than his 
original ancestor. He must ha^e noticed the contempt with which the origin from an egg must 
have been looked upon in his time, The easiest thing for him or his immediate predecessors 
was, therefore, to relegate themselves to the sage Kasyapa, to which nobody could raise an 
objection. 

By a misreading of the word Kfcumjali as Khiiidioi or Khinjini Mr. Mazumdar was led to 
identify it with Khimidi aud consequently to the conclusion that a branch of the Bhanja family 
held sway there. In essence he is not very far from the truth, in that a branch belonging to 
the line of Netribhanja did rule in the Ganjani District, the eastern portion of which was 
certainly under the Bhanja sway, as a number of villages granted were situated in the GumsSr, 
Aska and Chatrapur taluks to which Kimidi in the same district adjoius towards the west, 
Kimidi may or may not have been included in the Bhanja dominions, but it was certainly not 
of such an importance as to have induced the kings to adopt the title of c Lords of Kirnicii 5 The 
title * Lords of both the Khinjalis (Keonjhar) ' was an ancient one, and all the branches of 
the" Bhanja family appear to have taken pride in calling themselves as such, irrespective of 
whether they continued to be rulers of that tract or not, 

.With due deference to the learned MahamahSpadhyaya Haraprasad Sastri, M.A., CJ.E,, who 
has edited the charter O., which he calls ; Khandadeuli inscription of UanabhanjadSva/ I may 
perhaps be permitted to state that his descriptive title is inaccurate. The grant should have 
been described as one of Narendrabhanjadeva, who was the real grantor and not his grandfather 
Eanabhanjad.eva. The latter comes in merely as one of the several ancestors of the donor. 
The? text reads : 3 



\ 
* * * * 



1 The only dated Bh&Sja charter yet found (D) bears the date 288 which Mr. Mazumdar assigns to the Chdla* 
era It is thus equivalent to 1060 A.D. 2 j t j^ t Q t jg. S<* Vol. IV, p. 176. 



FOUR BHANJA COPPER-PLATE GRANTS: 
H-Ganjam Plates of Netribfaanjadeva. 




^^a. 



10 



12 



14 



16 




10 



12 



14 



IB 



18 



iib. 



20 



22 



24 



26 




SCALE. 75. 



StTBTET ' 




38 



40 





Ho. 29.] FOUR BHANJA COPPER-PLATE GRANTS. 293 



The language is defective no doubt, but it is clear that the "words ^T and ^WTm I in the 
above extract refer to Narendrabhanjadeva 1 and not to Ra^abhanja. The above extract is 
preceded by verses giving the genealogy of the Bhanja kings from Virabhadra to Ranabhanjaj 
apparently taken from a charter composed during the time of Banabhanja in which the last 
line stood as follows : 



m? ^jtrrapT 11 

It appears that the word iff^r has misled the above-named scholar. It was suited to the 
time when it was composed and not to the one when it was adopted by his grandson's grant- 
writer. The latter' s composition in prose quoted above is an index of Ms poor knowledge of 
Sanskrit, although to the best of his ability he endeavoured to convey his meaning by repeating 
^^^RTWHsBTI after the close of the quotation in ver&e and connecting him with his reputed 
son TS^ whose ^ or son was Tt^?eH^^^r:* -^ ^ (be, vi*.. the latter) 



was the person who granted the village. 

H. Ganjam Plates of ITgtribhafijadeva, 

First Plate. 



2 f^^^f^%wtfsr^^i^ [i*] 
3 



5 g- 

6 J3fT 



7 ift^mi trr^g ^r; 11 [^*] 4 firw?iw^9frT^ [i*] 

8 

9 



Second Plate ; First Side 

10 
11 



12 TCI: 
13 



15 
16 



1 Tb5s is farther confirmed by his name being inscribed in the medallion (seal P) ab the top, as coinioimicated 
to me by Babii Kamakbya Frasad Basti, BeptHiy (Jollectoir of UJayurabliaSja State; 

2 Expressed by a symbo?, Metre : Mfflim. * Metre : 
6 [Prom srt% * . . to ^^TBTi scans as J.fy&. 1W-] 



2QA 



19 



99 



TT 



25 

26 

^7 

28 



31 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



jy OL< 




a 1 



Second Plate ; Second Side. 



ii 



^ |rTO(lr) 



, 



[,] 



[,] 




1 Punctuation superfluous. 

[The plate gives if^ T *rr and 



2 [See 1 n. 1 on p. 286 above. Ed.] 






nominative should all hareheeni, the e 
8 C ' 



Bead 



TMa letter is cut off by the ring-hole of the plate 



-M ^ * ***" b8CUre ' What fdlows in 

it does to the description of donees of another gotra. 



whol!y and the 



FOUR BHANJA COPPER- PLATE GRANTS; 

I-Gaajam Hates of Netriblianjadeva, with damaged seal* 




via. 



12 



14 



10 




16 



22 



24 




IS 



SCALE, 75- 



24 



KVXV OF TWDIA, CALCUTTA. 



ma. 



26 



28 



30 



32 




28 



30 



34 




. 29.] FOUR BHANJA COPPER-PLATE GRANTS. 295 

86 



37 ^T(Sft) f^UlUgft'ctf qg^NlfttW [l*] 



38 firdWT) nft 5^t*] iroftfto WPrtft:*] 1 [c*3 



Third Plate; Second Side. 

39 ersRH mvn^D*] 11 f 



41 



I. Ganjam Plates of Netribhanjadeva. 

First Plate, 



2 ^f^T<!!CTf^t 1 9ft(^t)r^i|vri^^(^)%W [l*] 

3 



4 ^ ^c^sr [ni*] 

5 3fensr: 

6 m[:i*] 

7 
8 



Second! Plate ; Mrst Side. 



10 

11 

12 

13 

14 
15 
16 
17 

Second Plate; Second Side. 

is i 



19 



* Metre : Pwhpitagra. ' * SxyttMttL by * symWL * * * ! 

* Read j[fen?w!g s in H. above and J. bdow. * ***** ! 
8 l_See footnote A on p. 293 bove^-Ed.] 



25 



26 
^7 

I 

28 
29 
so 
31 
32 

33 



35 
36 
37 



EPIGRAPHJA 



[Vor,. XVIII- 




rtZ PZatfe ; First Bide. 

D] 



0) 

v 1 / 



_ 



[i*] 



^ 

J 



rd Plate ; Second Side. 



J. G-anjam Plates of Vidysdharabtiafijadeva. 

First Plate. 



[i*] 



: i*] 



* Metre : 

8 [T^e tiro letters appear to be superfluous. Ed.] 

" a symbol. * Tbe portion of the plate containing the letters in square brackets is broken 
. Ed.] 6 Mttre: Malinl. * Punctuation superfiaous. 



FOUR BHANJA COPPER-PLATE GRANTS 
J-Ganjam Plates of Vldyadharabhanjadeva. 




10 




is 



18 



SCALE. 




'22 



28 





29.] FOUR BHANJA COPPER-PLATE GEANTS. 297 



6 

7 
8 
9 

10 

Becond Plate ; First Side. 

11 
12 



13 

14 [i*]'arnrafH 

15 

16 



15 ^^^-Tgf(^^(t) ('^TWT'S''!rro^zr( : Ei) u 5 



17 
18 
19 , 

TSRJ(^) 

Second Plate ; Second Side 

20 
21 

22 



25 

26 

Third Plate. 



27 

_ M-..-I r"* v< i 

28 



23 

fi 

[*] * ^r^^T 

['*] 



Metre: * Eead 



. *,.T 

6 rsee foot-note No. 2 o* p. 285 above.-Ed.] * Probibly ^. 

, P-U*-**- 



SS8 EPraBAPHIA IKDIOA. [Voi. 



7 

8 

9 
3-0 



17 



29 fafittf *rfaf%^(*f^)^(^)wr H 

30 fa[fi]imjn&i(*) mt30Er)*rorfa)*?ftrf?T n 



K. Antirigam Plates of Yasabhanjadeva. 

First Plate. 

[*] 



* II (l) 



3 w^r: [i] ^rmr^(ir)^f'fWT'^ ^8rf<TTftr ^rert tmrj 

*R i tslti ^tii^^i [ftf] 

4s f 
5 



: H 8 



: I 

Plate ; First Sde K 



15 wft*iTO^^Wirerf*()3^(w)^;TO$) 



* Metre : 



FOUR BHAISTJA COPPEK-FILATK 

K- Axitlrigam Plates of Yasabhanjadeva. 



4 
6 

8 

10 

12 




^ 

^ 



4 
6 

8 

10 



14 
16 

i8 



24 



30 





No. 29.] FOUR BHANJA COPPER-PLATE GRANTS. _ 299 




Second Plate ; Second Side. 

23 

24 



33 



25 ^r^rm wnrw^iinfipism(m)i^^ 



26 
27 

28 

29 <%** w*w:(rt) I ^ere 



30 wr i ^nrarr^m - 

i 



31 *tf(ft) wrrft i 



J *- , ,, 

32 ir^rf^: [i*] TO T tw Li J 



D'3 -* * 



r[tf] **fH *3f^: wwawrffa , ;i ^M" 



34 *Tfcrf*rfrr Pf] ^TH ^3T*^: i ww< . IZl^L, 

35 m(4 iM wHNrt ^1^ ^ ^S^^JZT^^ 

36 ^^mrarf [-] ^^tTr^JT^TO^lDJJ 



36 ?ftf?r 
37 




300 



EPIGEAPHIA INDIOA. 



[VOL. XYII3, 



1 



ll 

3 S 



Sit 
-*! 
25 

- 



O 



t. 

p3 



i 
I 



S. 

SI 

rrj & Qtl 

J5 g 

g?5 

tt o 

w >> 

II 
^J 



I 




el 



. 
Q 








! " .S 1 

o fcn-^ 

;wia! 5 t! 



i'Pfcls 

' O cO yX -J3 R 



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FOUR BHANJA COPPER-PLATE GRANTS, 



301 



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BPIGEAPHIA INDIC1, 



[Vol. XVIII. 




29,] 



POUR BHAKJA COFFEE-PLATE GBANTS. 



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804 BPIGBAPHIA INDIOA, [Yoi.XVIII, 

No. 30. THE MWGIB PLATE OF DEVAPALADEVA : SAMVAT 33, 

BY LIONEL D. BABNETT. 

This charter was first published in the year 1788, in Vol. I of the Asiatic^ Researches, p. 123 it 
where a lithographic reproduction and an attempt at translation. were presented. About that 
time the plate disappeared. In 1892 the late Professor Kielhorn republished the text with a 
corrected translation in the Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXI, p. 254 ff,, on the basis of the edition 
in the AsiaticJc Researches ; as will be seen, h^ accomplished the task with his wonted skill and 
success. But no trace of the original plate could be found. 

Recently, while repairs were being made in Kenwood House, a dirty and discoloured metal 
plate inscribed with Indian characters was found hidden away between a beam and the roof. 
It was brought to me for identification, and I at once recognised it as the long-lost charter of 
Devapaladeva. Then Mr. Plenderleith, of the Science Laboratory attached to the British 
Museum, came to my aid and skilfully removed the accumulated grime and rust of many gene- 
rations, so that it is now restored to its original condition, a fine and almost perfectly preserved 
specimen of medieval Indian metal- work. It seemed desirable to publish a photographic 
facsimile with 'an emended transcription of the text, and I have been permitted to do this by 
the kindness of the Eight Honourable the Earl of Iveagh, GLC.V.O,, Senior Trustee of the 
Kenwood Estate. 

The plate is of thick copper, measuring 18| inches in height and 13| inches in width. On 
the top of it is soldered a seal r 6| inches high and at the base 7| inches wide ; in the central panel 
of this is the well-known Sarnath device, the dharma-ckaJcra with two antelopes at the sides, 
under which is the royal name, $rl-Devapaladevasya. It is in excellent preservation : with the 
exception of a very few unimportant syllables, the characters are as cleanly cut as wheii the plate 
came from tEe engraver's hand. The script is typical of the region and date ; the letters are about 
& of an inch in height* It is needless to treat of the contents, as they are fully discussed IB 
Kielhorn's paper. 

The main part of this document, scil. from the beginning to hart/a iti, L 46, is duplicated 
in 11. 1-42 of the Nalanda plate published in Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 310 fit. The divergences are 
few and slight, and I have only noticed the more important, 

TEXT. 1 

First Side. 

1 Om 2 svasti | Siddharthasya par-artha-susthira 3 - 

2 mateh san-margamabhyasyatas*siddhis=siddJbim=a- 

3 nuttaram*bhagavatas=tasya prajasu kriyat | yas*traidhatuka-sat[t*]va-siddhi-padavlr 

atyugra- viry-oday aj j itva nirvjiti- 

4 masasada sugatah sansarvva-bhum-I^varah* |) [1*] Saubhagyan=dadhad*atula3ii 

6riyas*sapatnya Gopaiah. patir*abhavad=*vasu- 

5 ndharayah | dpisht-ante sati kptinam surajni yasmin=kaddheyah Prithu-Sagar-adayo* 

py=abhuvan || [2*] Vijitya yena jaladhervasundha- 

6 r&m vimochita mogha-parigraha iti | sa-vashpam=udvashpa-vilochanan*pun^arwaneshu 

va(ba)ndhiin*dadyishu(Su)rmmatanga-jah || [3*] Cha- 

7 lats,v*ananteshu va(ba)leshu yasya vi&vambharaya nichitasii rajobhih ! pada-prachaara- 

kshamamantariksham*vihangamanam suchiram*va(ba)bhiiva |[ [4*] 

I From the original plate* * Denoted by a symbol. 

II [The letter looks more like to, than ra EdJ 

*Tiie Nalanda plate (Eg. Ind., Voi XVII, p. 318) has sa*v*&rtJw-bMm-tivi*ra&, which is probably right*.* 



Mungir Plate of Devapala : the 33rd Year 
Scale : One Third Linear of the Original 




A. Obverse 



No. 30.] THE MUNGTR PLATE OF DEVAPALA : SAMVAT 33, 305 

8 iSastr-artha-bhaja chalato^miSasya varnnan~pratishthapayata sva-dharmm | 6rl- 

Dharmmapalena sutena so^bhut^svarga-stliitanain^anri^ah 

9 pltrinam |( [5*] Achalairiva jangamairyadiyair*viclialadbhir=dviradaiiL kadai* 

thyainana | nirupaplavam=amva(mba)ram piapede &SL- 

10 ra^arh remi-nibhena biiuta-dhatrl || [6*] Kedare vidhin*6payukta-payasam Gariga- 

saniet-amvu(mbu)dhau Gokarn^-adislm ch=apyami* 

11 fiLthitavatam tirtheshu dharmmyah kriyah | bhpityanaih sukliam=eva yasya 

sakalan=uddh[ri*]tya dushtaii=iman lokan=sa- 

12 dhayat6'nuslianga 1 -janit siddhih paratr=apyabliiit 1 1 [7*] Taistairdig~vijar- 

avasana-saraaye sainprestiitanamparaihi sa- 

13 tkarairapanlya khedamakhilara svam svangatanam bhuvam i krityam*bIiSvaya' 

tarn yadiyam^uchitaih prityS nripanamab3i"at*s-o- 

14 Isk&'Q-bh&ih hridayam diva=cliyntavatam jati-smaraEtamiva || [8*] Sri-Parava(ba)- 

lasya duhituh kshiti-patina Rashtraklita-tilakasya | 

15 Rai^S-devyatL panir=jagphe griha-medlilna tena || [9*] Dii?ita*tamir=iyam Lakshmih 

sakshat^ksMtir^mi ^ariri^I kim=avani-pateK 

16 kirttir-mfirtta'tliava 1 gyiha-devata [|*j iti vidadhatl fiuchy-acliara vitarkavatlh 

prajah prakriti-gurubhir=sya 6uddh*antam gui^ai- 

17 t=akaTod=adhah || [10*] Slaghya pativratasau mukta-ratnaiii samudra-6uktir-iva 

5ri-D5vapaiadevam prasanna-vrittam 3 sutam*asiita || [11*] 

18 Nirmmalo manasi vachi sainyatah kaya-karmma^i cha yat stMtah Suchau 

rajyam=apa nirupaplavaih pitur*vo(bo)dhi-sat[t*]va iva* 

19 saugatam padam || [12*] BJbtramyadbbir^vijaya-kraniLe^a karibh.is=tameYa 

atavlm=uddama-plavamana-vaslipa-payaso dpfshtah] punarva(ba)ndha- 

20 vah | [!] Kamv6(mbS)jeshu cba yasya vaji-yuvabliir*dbvast-aiLya-ra]-aujas6 

mi^rita-hari-heshita-ravah. kanta^chiram vikshitajt 8 || [13*] 

21 Yabi parvvamVa(Ba)lina kritah kpta-yn^ yen^agamad^Btargavas^tretayam praha- 

tab. priya-pra^tajana Karnnena yo dvapare ( vicbcliluimali kali* 

22 na Saka-dvishi gate kalena lok-antaram yeaa iyaga-pathak sa eva hi punar 

vispashtam*unmilitab || [14*] A(I) Gang-agama-maliita- 

23 t-sapatna^unyam=a SStu-pratbita-Da^asya-ketu-kirtteli | urvim*a Varu^anike[ta*]nacli- 

cba sindbora Lakshm!-kula-bhavanacli=clia yo 

24 vu(bu)bhoja || [15*] Sa khalu BIiagirathl-patiia-pravarttamana-nanavidlia-naTi-vlttaka- 



25 jgi-vibliraman=niratiSaya-gliana-ghanagliana-ghata - Syamayamana - rasara - Lakshml-sama- 

ravdha(bdha)-santata-jalada-samaya-sa- 

26 ndehat I udicbm-aneka-nara-pati-prabhptikTit-aprameya-haya-vahini-ki 

dhiill-dhGsarita-di- 

27 g-antaralat | parame*vara-s8v5-saxnayfit-aAesha-Jamv^mbil)dvIpa-bM^^ 

namad-avaneh | ^ri-Mudgagiri-samava- _ 

1 The elision of a is denoted by an wagraha. 

2 KieJkorn read praaanna-vatorato, and this is supported by the NalandS plate, I. lv. But our plate lias 



M p M w^ts read by Kielhorn ; the Nalanda plate horow to thit 

i. is), a Q 



308 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [Voi,* XVIIL 

38 sita- rimaj -j aya-skandhavarat parama-s augata-parame^vara-parama-bliattSxaka-maliaraj- 
adhiraj a* ri-Dliarmapaladeva- 

2$ pad- amidtyatah parama-saugatah parameS vara-parama-bhattarako maiaraj -adidraj a 
srlmaa^Devapaladevati kusali 1 

SO 6rSnagrara-bh.uktau KrirasdttS-vlsiiay-a^^ 
opeta-MSshika-grame satmipagata- 

31 na(n) sarwaneva ranaka- 1 raja-putra- | amatya- | mahakarttakfitika- | maha- 

dajj^anayaka- I maJha-pratihara- | jaaaha-sa- 

32 manta- | mahadauhsadliasadliaiiika- | mata-kuraSr-Smatya- | pramatyi- | sarabhanga- 1 

rajasthamya- | uparika- | da^a- 

38 paradhika- | ciatiroddhara^tika- | darwjika - | da^idapSSika- | ^aulkika- I gaulmika- [ ksha- 
(kshe)trapa- ( prantapala- ( kottapala- ; 

34 kfaa^claraksha- j tad-ayuktaka- | viniyuktaka- ( hasty-a^v-oslitra-va(ba)la-vyapptaka- 

[I*] ki^ora-vadava-go-mahisty-ai-avik-adliyaksha- | duta-praisliani- 

35 ka- j gamagamika- 1 abHtyaramana- j vishaya-pati- | tara-pati- I tarikar | Gau4a-Malava- 



86 sevak*adina(n) anyarhS=ch.=akIrttitan sva-pda-padm-6pajlvinah prativasinaScha> vra- 

mahattara-kutumvi(mbi)-puroga-med"a 



Second Side. 

37 ^diraka- Clian4ala-paryantan samaj S(a)payati 

38 stu btavataih yath6parilikhita-MSsliikfi-gramatL sva-si- 

39 ma-tpria-yiiti-goohara-paryantah sa-talalt s-odde6at s-amra-madlii3kat sa-jala-sthalai 

, sa-matsyah. sa*tii?LalL s-oparikara,^ sa-da3-a- 

40 paradhah sa-cliauraddhara^ah parilirita-sarvva-pidali j a-ctata-bliata-pravgfio'kificliit^ 

pragraliy 5 raj akully a- s praty aya-same- 

41 t5 btumi-chcliliidra-iiyayena-chaiidr-[arkka]-^ pfirwa-datta-bhukt^- 

bhujyamana-d\ra-vra(bra)lima-deya-varjjit6 may a mata-pitr6ratm^na6clia pu* 

42 ^ya-yafi5-bMv?iddliaye ved-a[rtlia3-vidS yajvano Bhatta-Vifivaratasya pautraya 

vidy-ayadatarchetaso Bhatta-ri*araharltaya pnfcraya ! 

43 pada-vakya-pramSna-vidya-param-gataya I Aupamanyava-sa-grS(go)traya I 



44 fiSsanlkiitya pratipaditat [|*] Yato bhayadbhi^ sarvvaireva bham&dana-plia!a- 

.gauravad-apaiiar^e maha-naraka-patabliayacii*clia danami- 

45 dam*aimm6dya pa[la]niyaiii prativasibliih 



46 yfth ka(I)rya iti | [Sa]mvat 33 Marga-ding 21 | TathS cba 
} SftnraiiteStaB bhavinah pirtMvendrati 



* f Tlbp t^tnbrf-semm^ read *ah*.~~Ed.] ^ Tlie elided a is denoted by an 

[Like the NSlanda plate, fefa charter clearly gives samavta before praty&ya. Eilh,om.ma donbtfal about 

dlng of tfcis woid. 8be fwrfi Aitf.> Voi XX I, y. 28fey. n, 3^~EdU] 
[I think tbe text reads Mlam as it does in the N&IandS plate, L 36, cf. other ms&i vwfctA& jfwr 

s* in II. 3a And 5.1 Ed,] 
Jtoad J,tal&yana. So read ia previous editions : the letters a^ ao longer legible. 



Mungir Plate of Devapala : the 33rd Year 
Scale : One Third Linear of the Original 




B, Reverse 



No. 31.] TEKKALI PLATES OF DAJfARJfAVA'S SOX INDRAVAKAtAS. 307 

E=g?-- . . . - . ' ' ' . ., ".'=_ 

47 bhuyo bhuyah prarthayaty=esha Ramah [|*] sama^o^yam dharma-setur* 

nppanam(m) kale kale' palaniyah kramenahi || [16*] Va(Ba)hubhir~vaaudha 

48 datta rajabhih Sagar-Sdibhih [|*] yasyayasya yada " bhumik(s=)tasyatasya tad5 

phalam|| [17*] Sva-dattam=para-dattam*va yo hareta vasu- 

49 ndharan(m)s [|*] sa vishthaya[rh*] krimir=bhu"tva pitribhis^saha 3 pachyat[e] [|! 18*] 

Iti kamala-dal-amvu(mbu)-vindu-16lan(lam) 8 srl(ri)yama=amichintya manushya- 
50 jivitan=cha | sakalam-idam=udahritan=cha vu(bu)ddh[v*]a na iii purushaih para- 

kirttayo vilopya[h*] |] [19*] Sreyo-vidhav=ubhayansa-*vv- 
51 suddhMhajam raj=atka(ka)rod=adhigat-atma-gmiam gujja-jfia^ | atm-anuru>a-ehar:-taia. 

sthira-yauvarajyam sri-Rajyaplam*=i- 
52 ha dutakam=atma-putram || [20*] 



No. 31. TEKKALI PLATES OF DANARNAVA'S SON INDRAVARMAN. 
BY E: H0i/rzscH> PH.D. ; HALLE 



Ink- impressions of this inscription 6 were kindly made over to toe by Rao Bahadur H. Krishna 
Sastri. The plates belong to Sri L. N. Deb, Esq., Tubraj of Tekkali in the Ganjam District 
of the Madras Presidency. These are " three copper-plates, each measuring about 5" 
i*x breadth and 2f* in height, and strung on a ring of the same metal. The first plate is in- 
scribed only on the Inner face, and the third plate bears only one line of writing on the outer f ace- 
The plates do not appear to have tad raised runs. The ring is 3* in diameter and is ixed in a 
circular weal measuring * in diameter, on which is engraved the worn figure of a standing bull 
with raised hump, facing the proper left. The three plates, with ring and seal, weigh 60 tolas.'* 

The siting on the plates is in a state of very good preservation. The alphabet resembles 
that of other early grants of the Gangas of Kalinga. The letters ur and * have the same shape 
as in tte majority of them, while in one of the grants of Indravarman 7 the ?r closely resem- 
bles the ?r. The jihvamuUya is employed in line 18, and the upadhmaniya five times. 
A final form of m occurs in line 27. The group <a! is written correctly in line 10, but is 
expressed by w in lines 3 and 81. In line 30 occur the numerical symbol 100 and the two 
decimal figures 5 and 4. The language of the inscription is on the whole very correct 
Sanskrit prose, with three verses ' sung by Vyasa ', quoted in lines 26-20. Line ^contains 
a few Dravidian words (amba-achchi-pfyi). 

The date of this inscription (1. 30 is the year 100 54=154 ; i.e. the first of the three figuies 
is expressed by the numerical symbol c 100 ', and the two remaining figures are decimals. This 
fresh dote induced me tore-examine the year of theChicacole plates of Devendravarman, son 
of CkUjariiava, which I had originally read as 100 80 3. Kielhorn noted already that the middle 
figure is certainly not the numerical symbol 80 ', but the decimal ' 8 . The third figure of tbe 
resemble the usuaHorm of ' 3 ' 5 but, to the date is recorded also in words, it nm** 



ear- , 

be meant for '8'. Bflhler solved this little problem in a very ingenious manner by explaining 



* [Tbe original irrongly -gives f&chyatl Ed.] * Bead 6Aaya- 

See the JfUroa EpigrapMsal Xeport for 1924, p. 10, Apju A, No. 1> and p. 97, para. i. 
See e.g. above, Vol. XIV, p. 361 s Ind. Ant,, Vol. XUI, p. 123 ; above. Vol. HI, y. ttl. 

* Ind. Ant. Vol. XIE. p. 120. ' _ 

* Abore, Vol. HI, ?. 1W. f AbcTe VoL V ' Atpeaa, p* 91, note 7. 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIII. 



th ik-ure 1 3 ' of these plates as an abbreviation of loTca, * the (three) worlds '.* Hence the year 
is in reality 100 83=183. The day of the same grant consists of the decimal figure ' 2 ' followed 
tv a cipher /0)=20. If we now re-examine the date of the Purle plates of Indravarman, son 
t f Mnarnava,' the year turns out to be (not 100 40 9, but) 100 37=137, and the day 2O =20 ; 
awl the year of one of the Chicacole plates of Indravarman is not 100 40 6, 3 but 100 38=138' 
ad its day is lOh (still expressed by a numerical symbol). If we go back to the other 
Cmratole plates of Indravarman,* we nd that both the second figure of the year and the first 
ot tie day are expressed by numerical symbols : 100 20 8 = 128 and 10 5 =15 

't t0 T 8 l~' the7ear f the CMcacole P lates of ^vendravarman, son of 
av^even tke fir* figure ceases to be represented by a numerical symbol and is ex- 
pre, : ed by a decimal in 195, the year of the Siddhantam plates of Devendravarman son of 

^ Q ^ :r ^ 5V(dianged i ecessarily b / t o 

may be excused for havmg gone into such details, because this 

to be 



=^ 



P. i:u si ' SUmame "** W*. Vol. XVI 



. . . 

-No. VI. Tekkali plates of Indra! KLa ^ lc]iandra ' * of Aditya,Bhoika. 






1 r ' :ila tLe Preceding li s f it f H OWs t , , 

Jr his SOQ Aditya, No* V^ and VI ^,7? ^^ V Vill ^ a ^ a ^ra. No. IV 
son of Kha^dichandra Inii * Ddra ' "*<******, and No. VII 

names f 



ya, o* V and VI , a ra. o. IV 

'; * arva ^'^ son of Kha^dichandra Inii * Ddra ' "*<******, and No. VII 

:: rrr Qti - ati - of ^e coj^^r' ^ e names f these meniais ^ 

' 



column XT of the TM , XT AboT . VoL XIV, p. 3 J2 

? ^^ ls " Btihjcr ' s 



. . 



. 31.] TEKKALI PLATES OF DANARNAVA'S 'SON mDRAVARMAN. 

The executor (ajna) of this grant was the Mahamahattara Haiiflarman (1. 29 f.). The donee 
was a Brahmana named Skanda6arman (L 17), who lived at GarakliSnna (1. 15). The royal 
donor was Danarnava-'s son, the Kalinga king Indravarnoan of the Gfiftga family, who 
issued this edict from his residence of Kalinganagara. He seems to have made the grant for 
the spiritual merit of his mother Achcliip6ti (1. 14). The grant was made at an eclipse of 
the sun (1. 15) in the year 154 (of the Ganga era) (1. 30). It consisted of a field at the vittaga 
of Turiganna (1. 11) or Tungana (L 21) in the district of RttpyavatS (1. 11). 

I am unable to identify either the village granted or its boundaries (11. 18-22), But the 
Rfipyavatl-w's&az/a (1. 11) may be connected with the [Rujpavarttani-wAaya 1 which con- 
tained the village of Sellada. For, according to Mr. G. Bamadas, 3 this village belongs to 
the Tekkali Taluk, and the subjoined grant is preserved at Tekkali. 

TEXT. 3 

First Plate. 



2 
3 
& 
6 

6 



Second Plate ; First Side. 

S 

9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Second Plate ; Second Side. 

16 
17 



Madras Epigraphicel Report lor 1919, p. 14, Appendix A, No. 6. 

* Journal of the Mythic Society, Vol. XIV, p. 271. 

* Prom ink -impressions uupplied by Eao Bahadur Krishna Sastri. 

* Stressed by a symbol. ' 3Bead 
Bead WW. TRead 

The word ^lf is 8 uperfltiou.. Ci.Ind.Ant. Vol .XIII, p, 123, ate fiO; fxn*, Vol. JH * 18S, Hole 

4, ; Voi. XIII, p. 214, mote 2 S 



810 EPI&RA'PHIA IN0ICA. [VoL. XVIII 



~pfr 



18 Ifeif f^|jj!f if I tf^pfbi ; -[f*i] 



19 iNr il^iit% [i*] ^w fwifipr [i*] 



m OT tmrr^tif^; [i* : ] fc$ir jnkm&irataroT: [i*] 

21 SNriftr ir^T f^ff'T .[i*] t|S' 

,22 *fen: 2 -IRIPWWW^ 

,[i*] 



; first Side. 

24 ol'n^nw w^Ji^i!n^fir^'WT^^^% 

25 wrtm^riw ^Nn wif% [n*] ^rff^^l^T ^JT ^ffi^g^Tfw?rT [i*] 

[n t 



27 ?im?^ if^%^; [i*] 



28 irr^riw [n **] ^H^n|^^^rTi% m^i fwKf^r ^fifr^: [i*] 

29 WT ^tgwfiT ^ wt^^ ft% i%f^f?r [u 3*] 
80 

31 



ir(Z Plate ; Second Side* 
82 W^i^^<W^nlITf?^ 



ABRIDGED TRANSLATION. 

(Lines 142.) From the residence 'of Kalinganaga^a (L 1 f.), the worshipper of the god 
GSkarna-svamin (L 3 f.) on the Maliendra mountain (L 2), the ornament of the spotless 
family of tJhie Ganges (L 5), who has obtamed the sovereignty over the whole of Kalinga {L 6), 
the fervent devotee of Mahesvara, who meditates on the feet of (his) mother and father, the son 
of the glorious Dfinangtaara, the glorious Maharaja Indravarman, commands (as follows) 
the ryots, accompanied by all (others), at the village of Tunganna in the fliipyavati district 
(visJiaya) (11 942). 

(LI. 12*17.) " Be it known to you that (one) plough (kola) of land, in this village, mea- 
sured by the rod (used for) br^hmadeyas, exempting (it) from the burden of all taxes, making 
(it) to last as long as the moon and the sun, has beeD granted, for the incisease of the spiritual 
merit of (my) mother, the "lady AchcMpdti, at an eclipse of the sun, % with previous 
of)watpr, -to Skandasarinan, who resides at Garakhonxia (and) belongs to th# 
e4i^ilyas>~& -studeat of the Vajasaneya (cftaraqa), whp has mastered the VSdas 
and 



i Read *?*l. 2 R^ad *5<9!IT. * Reaa perhaps 

* Baad ^f? ^* * See above, Vol. XIV, p. 362, test line 30. 

Bead e^>rf*nf4WHtf3w 9 . . This line ends with a punctuation. 

<***** (-. Satifciii'tfintia) In Telugu ineans * a mother '> ackvhi In Kanarese the same, and b$fi According t* 
TelvffuXlnffMA dictionary * a damsel *. 



TEKKALI PLATES OP DANABNAVA'S SON INDRAVARMAN. 



18 




SASTBI. 



FUIX WZE. 



m 



26 



3O 




30 



SEAL (FEOM A PHOTOG-EAPH). 




NBAKLY POUB TIMES THE OBIGINAL SIZE, 



No. 32.] TEK1 J PLATES OP EAJENDBAVARMAN'S SON DBVENDRAVARMAN. 311 

"""""""" ' " "" *"""" "'""'" ' ""''""' '" """" "-"-""" -"" IPH| Mil . 

(LI* 18-22.) ind the marks of the- boundaries of this- field are to be known in the* order 

from right to 1< To the east, tta Vidyudganga. To the south, a row of 'botilders for (a 

distance which tals) the sliadow of a man. 1 T-o the west, the boundaries of 6arkaravataita. 

And to the nor! the same Vidyudgaigg. And the water of the tank (ta$&ka) of Ttragax*a f a 

flowing out of t KaraMayiffi and BraJimayapdlanl (canals ?), enters this field Until (the crdjp) 
ripens/* 

[LI. 24-28 contain three verses. s sung by Vyasa\] 

(LI. 29-31.) "The executor (ajna) (was) the Mahamahattara Harifiarmm, 100 (and) 
84 years of the kingdom of increasing victory (had then passed). This., edict ,($cteana%> 
(was) written by the SarvadhiJcrita 6[a]mbapurdpadhyaya, the son of the HastyadhyaJcsfta 
Dharmaclaandra, (and) engraved by Khampcfcandra, son of Aditya-Bh6g[i]ka. n 



No. 32. TEKKALI PLATES OF RAJENDRAVARMAN'S SON DEVENDRAVARMAN, 

By E. HULTZSCH, Ps.D. ; HALLE (SAALE). 

These plates belong to Sri Gopinath Deb, Esq., Second Prince of Tekkali in t&$ fiaijaim 
District of the Madras Presidency. Ink-impressions of them were kindly forwarded to me by 
Rao Bahadur H. Krishna Sastri. These are " three copper-plates, each measuring about 
6^" high and 2f " broad, and strung on a ring of the same metal. The first plate bears writing 
only on the inner face. All the inscribed faces appear to have had raised rims, which are now worn 
out. The ring is about 3 Jf' in diameter and is fixed in a circular seal measuring 1 J* in diameter- 
The seal is much damaged and broken on one side. It bears the figure of a seated bH f facing 
the proper left. Below the bull is a lotus, of which only three petals are now visible* The three 
plates, with ring and seal, weigh 85 tolas." 

The writing on the plates is fairly well preserved and distinct, except where it has been- wil- 
fully tampered with by some person who erased and changed certain topographical andper&onal 
names which the inscription must have contained originally. The alphabet closely resemble* 
that of the Alamaiida plates of the year 304 s The language is very barbarous Sanskrit 
prose, with two equally faulty verses * sung by VySsa' 3 which are quoted in lines 24-27* 

The inscription 4 records the grant of a village by the worshipper of the god Gdkar^a-svatain 
(L 5} on the Mahindra mountain (1. 2 f.) and the ornament of the spotless family of the 
G-angas, the Maharaja Devindravarman, who was the son of the JfaMr5/aBajindravaa>- 
man (11. 12-14). He addressed this edict from his residence of KalMgaaaagara (L 2) to the ryota- 
inhabiting a village whose name has been later on erased and replaced by the wc*rd N^J/^M in 
Nagari characters (L 14). The name of the district in which this village wa& included has also 
been tampered with, but may have been originally [RUjpavarttant 5 The name of the Brih- 
ma^a donee seems to have been erased, but he was apparently a * good poet * (su-kam) and the som 
of a ' grent doorkeeper ' (maMpratihara, L 17). The description of the boundaries of the viHaai 
granted {ll 20-23) has also been tampered with and cannot be restored in full 

* Cf. above, Vol. Ill, p. 134, note 1, and Vol. XIV, p, 363, passim, 

a This name was spelled Tunyanna in lino 1L 

Above, VoL III, p. 18. * See Jfjp. Mep. for 1924, p, 10, App. A, No. t t wad p, S7, pan, 1 

"Of. above, p- 308. 



EPIGEAPHIA INDIOA. [VOL. XVIII- 



Line 28 1 contains the date of the inscription. If the compound [iata]-mayS is explained 
as a clerical error for tato-trayi, it may be translated by : " In the year three~fctmdred and. 
tin of tte kingdom of growing victory of the Ganga race.' 9 Devendravarman, whose 
subjoined grant is dated in the year 310, might then have been a second son and successor 
of that Ittjendravaiman whose first son, Anantavarman, issued the Alama^da -plates of the 
year 304. 1 Tlie two names of the writer (1. 30) and of the goldsmith (akshaSalin) who engraved, 
the edict (1. 31) remain doubtful and suspicious. 

It will be seen that at present this whole document is of very small practical value. But 
I am publishing it with the hope that, in the light of future discoveries, it may still prove of some 
use in unravelling the tangled web of the Ganga genealogy and chronology. 

TEXT.* 
First Plate. 

1 3 [0n*] [!*] Svas7=Amara-pur-anukarlna[h*] sarva-rtu-sukha-ra]- 4 

2 ma?i(n")ya i- vijaya(ya) vata[h*J Kali&ganagara- vasakan*Malae^ 

3 iidr5clial-amala-6ikhara-pratishthitasya sa-char-achara-guro^h^] sa- 

4 kala-bhuvana-nirma5-ailca-su(sfi)tradharasya 

5 $ama:aei4>hagavato G&karna(r^a)-sv 

6 yugala-pra^amad*vigata-Kalinkalanko=: 5 n6(ne)k-a 

Second Plate ; First Side. 

7 hava-sa[m*]ksh6bha-janita-]aya-)Savda(bdah) pratap-avanata-sama- 

8 ste-samanta-chakra-chu(chu)damani-prabhS*maSjari(ri)-puS 

9 vara-chara?a[h*] sita-kiinmda-ku[m*]d- ended vavadata-^di- 
3 [dge]ia-7vinirggata-yasho(65)-dhvast-arati-kulachal6 nay a- 

11 vinaya-daya-dana-dakshanya 8 -^aupy-audarya-satya-tya- 

12 g-Mi-gu3ja-sa[m*]pad-5dhara-bhu(bhfi)to Gafig-amala-kula-ti- 

Second Plate; Second Side. 

IS Iaka(k5) mahara]a^ri(^rI)-Rajendmva[r]mma-su(sfi)nu[r]m 

14 6ri(5rI)-Dgvindrava[r]m[a*] kuali(li) . . pavarttany[am] 

15 ma-mvasina[h*] kutu[mimna][h*pi samajnapayati [||*] Vidi- 
18 tamastn vo [bhavatarii] 1 ^ grama ........ 



9 



I L ^ P * 18 ' [See ftls - Srp ' **' for 1924 ' P* 97 P am - * aijd the geBoalogical table on p 98. Ed.} 
1 Mxom ink-impressions supplied by Rao Fahadur Krishna Sastri 

* Expre^ by a symbol For sway* read awaty*. 
4 The tops of tke letters of this line are cut away, 

* Bead -Kdli-kala1&o*. tr* * * j *** 
* ^ j- ** "*/. & Read -endvavad&ta*. 

and of. above, Vol. HI, p. 223, text line 7, s Read dU*Mvy*.. 

h * toBfag f thi8 word **' been erAsed ^ corrected The original 



' ^ ^i^ SubBfcituted b ^ * ^d 4 !Fhe ^owel of the first and second 
M 



is ^ bracketed word ii engrWetfon an 




ID 



t2 




14 



18 




ma* 



20 



24 




22 



28 



30 




26 



28 



SEAL (FROM A PHOTOGRAPH), 




NEABLY FOUR TIMES THE OEIGINAL SIZE.) 



No. 33.] PENUKAPARU GRANT OF JAYASIMHA II. 313 

17 sutsujnu-mahapratihara 1 . . [6armagra][Tb*] sutaya su-kavi a mata- 

18 pitror=atma:aa=cha puny(ny)-abhivriddhaye t[a]niv[ra3-6asana 3 sakala- 



Third Plate ; First Side. 

19 kara-bharai(ra)-parityageiia chandr-aditya-paryanta[ih*] prada- 

20 to(tto) maya [||*] Atra Bi(si)ma-ling[a*]ni likhyante [||*j Gramasya ptrwa-di- 

21 Sa(ili) vyaghra[h*]* tato [garta 5 nyag-gata ?] dakshinena vapya [va]na-raji}.h*J 

ga[rta] 

22 tato Lakshi?ia-paSchima-[k6] .... [ga]rta tato(ta) uta(tfca)ie- 

23 va tmtalika-vri[kslia][h*] [va]na-[raji]ka [|j*] Atra Vyasa- 

24 gi(gi)ta[li]* [Slo]ka bhavanti [||*] Va(Ba)hubliii=waaudlia data(tta) ia*]jabhi[^*J 

Sagar-a- 

25 di[bh]i[h* |] yasya-yasya yada bb.tmi[8*]tasya-tasya tath[a](da) plialafmi! 1*] 

Third Plate ; Second Side. 

26 Sva-datta[m*] para-datam=va 7 yo haieti(ta) vasundliara[m !*] s& vi- 

27 shthayaiii kpimir=bliu(bku)tva pachyate pitjibh^h.*] salia [!j 2*] 

28 Ganga-va[A6a]- 8 [pra]varddlxam[a*]na-viiaya-raja(jya)- 

29 samvatsara- 9 [6ata]-xnayS 10 daS-fittare [|*] Li[khi*]tam=i- 

30 dam 6asana[iii*] ra^Mam] 11 6ri(^i)-s[a*]maEta-Sarwa[cliaiwire]iia(^) (?) [:*] 

31 Utki(tki)ri?a[ih*] ch-akslia6[a31[i3n[a] &i(Sri)-s[a*]maata-Klia94iCm^Spa] 18 DI*J 



No. 33. PENUKAPARU GRANT OF JAYASIMHA H. 

BY E. HULTZSCH, PH.D. ; HALLE (SAALE). 

Ink-impressions of the plates which, bear the subjoined inscription" were kmdly ^t to me 
Rao Bahadur H. Krishna Sastri. The plates belo^ to Mr. K. Nagesvata Rac, editor of ^ 

" 



. 
, Madras. These axe three copper-p^tes, each 

first and third plates are inscribed 



nra-, . 

* . , .. a m .. ^.4-ai The first and third plates are inscribed onfy OB tbeir BJBOT 

E i'^li?iSIS .*- s!ffs^^ 



lot^-flower. ^e three 



, ... 
The syllable ttlookslike dkt. 







314 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA [VOL. XVIIL 



ii, 0, where some letters near the end have become illegible. The alphabet resembles that of 
the Chendalui plates of (the grantor's lather) Sarvaloka&raya (Mangiyuvaraja). 1 A final form 
of m occurs in lines 19, 21, 23, 28 and 30. In Chalikya (1. 4) and yugala (L 7), I is replaced by 1 9 
which letter is also employed in the Telugu genitive Bsla (11 16, 19). The Telugu letter r is 
used in lines 9, 12 and 14. The language is Sanskrit prose, with four verses quoted on plate 
iii, a. The Telugu word pow, c going, 3 occurs in the description of the boundaries of the grant 
(L 17), 

The inscription on the plates records a gift of land by the Maharaja Sakalalokasraya 
Jayasimka-VaHabha (L 81), who was the son of the Maharaja Sarvaldk&Sraya (1. 51) 
and the grandson of the Maharaja ishnnvardhana who adorned the family of the 
CfcalLikyas ' (L 4 I.)*' The Jayasimha of this grant must be identical with the Eastern 
Chalukya king JayasixhJia II, who is known to have been the eldest son and the successor of 
Sarvaloka^raya (Mangiyuvaraja) and the grandson of Vishnuvardhana (II) ; and the subjoined 
grant is the first of Jayasimha II which has hitherto come to light. 

In line 9 the king " commands all as follows : Be it known to you (that) by us ." This 

passage was probably copied from old office records and is left incomplete. It is repeated with 
modifications and completed in lines 12-17, where the king " commands as follows all ryots in- 
habiting the district (vishaya) of Karma-rashtra : (Be it known to you that) 2 on the lull- 
iKioon (titlu) ol Jyaislrtha, at the time of Samkranti, at the occasion of gifts of land 
(bhtimi-dana), at the request of Gobbadi, in the village named Penukapayu in Karma- 
rashitra, s a field (Jcshetra) in the north-eastern direction of this village has been given (by 
us)* 4 The limit of this field to the east (is) the Nidugatta-tataJca (tank) ; the limit to the south 
(is) the end of the Pusa-BSla-kshetra ; 5 the limit to the west (is) the road going to 

; the limit to the north (is) the limit of Maslialdia." 6 After a short lacuna at the 

end of line 17 the description of the boundaries is continued ; but it is difficult to say whether 
it refers to the same field as before, or to another. This description ends with the words 
(L 20 1) : * To the east of the Tala~tataka 3 in the southern half, a rice-field measuring four 
(nivartanqs ?) and ending in the east ; 7 on the north-eastern side of the village (the field lies) 
between hills (I).* The fact that the king granted the field is then stated once more in the first 
person singular, c I gave away * (pradam, L 23). The inscription ends with the usual threats 
and imprecations in prose (1L 23-26) and in four verses (11. 26-31). Between the third and fourth 
verses (L 30) we are informed that the 'executor (ajnapti) of this grant was Niravadya- 
SaJmlaI6kasraya^ This officer was evidently named after his 

sovereign's surname, Sakalalaka&raya (1. 8).^/The last portion of his title, gamu^in^ is pro- 
bably connected with gamu^a* a tadbham of gramahuta ; ct above, Voi VII, p. 183. His 
actual name may have been Gobbadi (L 14). 

The description of the donee, Era*rDr6na&arman (L 12), is sandwiched between the two 
versions olthe passage which records the king's order (1. 9 and L 12 fL)* He was a Brahma^ia 
ofVangipapu (L 9) and belonged to the Kaun$mya-0^ra, Taittirlya (cham^a) and ipa- 
stamba~*mra (L 10). His father and grandfather were Deva^arman (1. 11) and Gunjadeva^arman" 
{L 10 respectively). 

* Above, Vol VIII, p. 236 fL s These words are supplied from line 9. 

8 lu line 12 this name is represented by the words * in your district ' (bhavad-msliaye)l which, where they 
&3fcually stand, are out of their proper place. 

4 The words * by us * swa supplied fram line * . 

* i e., probably, * the field (Delopgmg to) Pusa-B%u* For Bdfa ewe above, VoL XYIII, p. 2, and cf. 

ra in line 19 of this inscription. 
This seems to be the name -of a village. 
7 l&a expression prag-apavargam occurs also in the Apa*tamfaZ>harma*ittra, t II, 2, 3, &SL 



aHGBAJPHLL'BSTDIOA- [Voiu XVIH. 



Secondi Plate ; Second Side. 

tasya ptrvvatovadMh kSpah [|*] 
vaffluh [tataka]h [I*] paSchipiata 

19, tittarata&.cha J[e]44?-Bola-kshtr-Int6YadlulL [I*] Asya kshetrasya kfipa^dvayam [I*] 
Tataka e 

20 .kah fctpah [1^] Tala-tatakasya pfiivrata^ dak'shi^-arddhe vrlhi-kshetrara chatushtaya 

parima-. * 

21 ^.arfi piag-apavarggam cHa [|*] Gramasy6ttara-piirvva-de^ giravaka^am 1 [[|*] 



22 paryyantam kslietrans= 8 dliarmma-yafio-bMv:fiddIiaye sarvva-kara-parihar-6petam 



23 rwakam brahmadeyikfitya prada:pi[i|*J Asya saiVTa-kara-paiihai-opetasya kshetrasya 

yo 

24 badharii karoti sah a T?&raQ&&j&3i satasra-brahmaliaty[a*]-pataka-samyii]kt6 

bhavati [H* ] 

125 Y o*smacli-cliliasanam-atikr[a]metsa papat Sari(ri)ran: 
pa[rfi]cha-malia-> 

Third Plate. 

2ft pataka^ariiyiikto Khavati [H*] Bhavanti ch^atra Sl5kahJ[|I*] 
danan^na bh[u]tan*na bha- 

27 vistyati [-!*] tasy*aiva hara?at*pape(pa)na:na b]ifltan*na . bhavishyati [U 1*] Sva* 

dattam=para-dattain va 

28 -yo re 6 tareta vastindliaram [1*] shashtini varsha-sahasrafli vishthayam jayatS 

krimih [U 2*] 

29 Bahubliii-wasudlia datta balmbhi6*ch*aiiupalita [I*] . yasya-yasya yada 

30 bhumis-tasya-tasya tada phalam [|| 3*] Ijnaptir-NBlra^adya-Sakalal6ka6raya-6ri- 

PritMvl-gamtuji^S [II*] 

31 Vindh.y-atavi(vi)slivat6yasu 6uslika-i:6tara-vasiBa[^ !*] kfisli^-aliayo hi jayante 

bralxinadey-apaharakp,iL [|| 4*] 



Ko.84. TEE KODAVALI BOCK-INSCRIPTION OF OHANDASATI } THE SECOND 

TEAE Of EEIGN. 

BY H. KRISHNA SASTBI, B.A., OOTAOAMUNB. 

Going in a north.* westerly direction from KthSpnram, a station on the East Coast Eailway, 
for a distance of about 9 miles along the Smalk5ta-Kattipfidi road, the village of Elodavali 
if sigtted^ It is situated not very far from the right side of the road. Proceeding thence for 
nearly two miles again in a north-westerly direction one reaches the foot of a range of hilla 



1 Read perhaps gwyavaM6am* * Read $$aeh,vhatur-* a Bead 

* The writer had originally written vt&ac?aa ; but he has himself cancelled the first ka by adding 
horizontal liffls *t tfe0 top of it. 

* Bead *a< * Gaacel this syllable, 



PENUKAPARU GRANT OF JAYASJMHA II. 




10 



t2 



14 




10 



14 



IB 



18 




te 



22 



24 



30 




26 



28 



SEAL (FROM A PHOTOGKAPH 




'UAL SIZE. 



No. 34.] KODAVALI BOCK-INSCRIPTION OP OH AND AS ATI. SIT 

covered with thin forest vegetation. From here the place called c< Danam-4ibba " 1 ~* the 
treasure-mound ' is readied by a gravelly foot-path running along the slope of the hill, which 
appears to liave Tbeen once provided with steps of ruhble stond Struggling two or three 
furlongs along tliis unwelcome path we come to the crown of the hillock and to the mound 
* Dhanam- dibba * on it. Here are found the remains of what looks like a BuddMsfc stupa 
consisting mostly of large- sized bricks and sometimes unhewn stone. 3 On the southern side of 
the mound are seen also portions of a- structure built of cut and dressed stone. The four rock 
cut wells on tlie south, and west sides of the mound, 4 to 5 feet square and 6 to ? feet deep, are 
of peculiar interest and seem to have been used once for storing water for the use of the occu- 
pants of the Buddhist monastery, as the mound may prove to be when excavations are properly 
carried out. 

On the north wall of one of the wells on the western side of the mound measuring 5' 8| 

long by 5' 5|-* broad arid,? 7 2" deep, is engraved in 6 lines the-Andhra inscription, edited below, 

in BrShml characters of about the 3rd century A.D. This inscription which was published iu 

1908 by Dr. Konow in Z. D. M* (?., Vol. LZII, p. 591 f. has been noticed as No. 1341 by Dr. 

Liiders in Ms List of Bra hmt Inscriptions in VoL 2, above! As remarked by Dr. Stan 

Konow in the Director- General of Archeology 'a, Annual Survey JBejport for 1907-08, p. 225, 

this is the only lithic record hitherto discovered of the Andhra king Chadasata, who is already 

known to us from a number of coins found in the Kistna and the Godavari districts. My friend 

Mr. 0. B. Krishnaraa Acharlu, B.A., of the Madras Epigraphical Department has also spent^some 

hours with me in reading the inscription directly from the stone; and the text given below is the 

joint production of both of us. The accompanying facsimile plate is reproduced from an inked 

estompage prepared under my direct supervision. The inscription thns deciphered will be seen to 

differ much from the published text of Di\ Sten Konow, The object of the record, for instance, 

was not the establishment of the earth-dwelling (bhumi vesa) of an unnamed -minister (amoefta), 

but was the establishment of the gift (dhama) of a Xha&gu (rock-cut well ?} by the minister 

Sasa of Khaddavali the ancient form of the present Tillage name KodaYali 3 

The name of the king occurs in 1. 3 as Cfcamdasati, the lingual 4 being possibly also read as 
a dental" <i But, it is to be noted that the long vertical stem which is required to dMingu^h a 
dental d (of. di in 1. 4) is missing here ; again fa may be compared with Kha m 1. 4. Ttatom 
ChadaMia* occurs clearly on one of the coins published by Eapson. S 
the f of tf is faintly seen and is practically certain. Possibly Mi is a Praknt 

ate.' It may to moitotelly noted also tb.t the MUM^U* ~*to? 




ssr^i * sr 



**^"*'-* 

Dr. B. G. Bhandarkar' S 



EPIGRAPHIA IKDICA. [VOL. XVIII, 



likely to have been tlie origin of the later Satakarni than the fanciful sata-karna 'the hundred- 
eared.' 1 But Dr. Konow neither accepts sato, as an abbreviation of $ataJcarni nor does he read 



fcsvati). He prefers to have the name Chadasata (Chamdasata) without explaining the 
name-ending sata. 

The date of the record in 11. 3 and 4 has been read by Dr. Sten Konow as " savachare 10 
3(?) he pa 3 diva dasame " whereas my reading is " mji vachhare 2* ma 1 he pa 2 di 1" The 
reading ma 1 after the regnal year is difficult to explain. If this were preceded by he, instead 
of being -followed by it, it would have yielded the meaning hemantam&sa 1, as we find in a very 
large number of similar dates coming from Northern India ; but, he is required before pa ; for 
otherwise the latter could not be explained. Besides, the dated Southern Brahm! inscriptions 
as catalogued by Dr. Liiders in his List of BrShml Inscriptions give only the paksha of the 
season and in no case the month (masa) as the northern dates do. I can only suggest that in 
this record both the month and the paksha are given and the word he which is an abbreviation 
for the season hemanta is placed after ma 1 while it should have preceded it, and thus arrive at 
the prpbable interpretation of the date as " the first day of the second fortnight of the firsfe 
month <rf the winter-season, " If this interpretation is right, the '.details of the date woilld 
correspond to %l%rgatrsha, bahula prathams, somewhere in December 2lO AJX, the second 
year of CUmtiida-svati. 

TEXT.* 

1 Sidham* [ I* ] Ban [5] VasitM- 

2 putaaa B sami~siri- 

3 Cfaaih4asst[i][fla] [ra]jz* vachhare 2 

4 ma 1 1x0 pa 2 d[i] 1 Klia4(|ava]li- 

5 amacha-Safsalini khagu.dhama 

6 thapita [||*J 

Fetes on letters. 

Lr 1. si The letter sa throughout is written with a loop at the left bottom corner 
whence it is stertecL This loop, in certain cases, is almost closed, whereas in certain others it i 
half open. The * which begins the inscription is one of the former type, though it is a little 
deformed looking p, though the loop were written twice. 

dham The position of the anusvara attached to dha is worthy of notice. It its on the 
left side of the letter and not on its right top corner, 

$8 Tie # mark is very faint. 

iU The long ? is indicated by two horns as in Kshatrapa inscriptions (Bxihler's Tables 
*+'"} */? 

Jk S. to The development of a loop in this letter is to be noted as in the Nasik inscrip- 
tion No, 20. (See Buhler'g Tables III, 13), Possibly, there was a secondary ta below the letter 
the Word punasa. 



.* The Word JT%*i<ar*d*9ar vMoh occnra in the Tamil poem SilavpadiMram* has been translated by BO me 
;ibe.bunAred^Td * aud taken .to be the equivalent of Satafea^i (or Satakarm). 

* The .three thw* horixoatsl marks one above the other each denoting the numeral .* one ' are visible. But as 
fcn^ topmost mark it above the level of the line and not vertiually above the other two, I am inclined to read 
the.ttyunbol aa * 2 * aud not 8 *. 
** Direct from the stone, 

'* Bpffcea'areleft in the origbal after the complete iwds s SUUm, ran*< etc., aa $iow in th text. Aftex 
S^~tiH'Ch'amdasdfrsa in 1. 8 aod aftw Sasam in 1^5, where we should have expected a space, it is wanting, 
The tame t jstem of separating wards bj spaces is Jonnd in the fiathignmpha inscription of Khauaveta, th* 
''nluittavi (above YoL ITfr*, plate facing p. 155) and dbe HIrahaflagalli inscription of 

n^ Vol. 1, pkte faoing p. & 
ii* IdL] 



fli 

a 



a 

fc 



H 



a 

o 

|A4 



^ 







o 



fi 
o 

M 




No. 34,] KODAVALI ROCK-INSCBIPTION OF CHANDASATL SB 



L. 3. Cham The anusvara is cleanly marked on the left top of the letter as in cl&aA in 1 1, 

After Chamdasatisa, Dr. Sten Konow read savachhare* But to me it appears as if tJbert 
is space enough, for two letters between the sa of Ghamdasatim and mchhare. Perhaps 
word like raji lias to be read. There are no doubt traces of a* sa to justify the reading jura- 
chhare. 

L, 4. The first letter is ma and not the symbol (oc) for 10 as interpreted by Dr. Btea 
Konow ; nor is the following symbol, 3. 

The i mark of di runs into the bottom of ra of raji in line 3 above, thus making tibe latter 
look somewhat deformed and crooked unlike the other ra-letters in the inscription. 

The letter between dda and li is completely damaged and no traces are seen. It could have 
"been a ma or a va. As, however, the present village name Kodamli to which there is a wire 
reference here is spelt with a v, I would prefer taking the damaged letter as M and not a ma. 

L. 5. The letter after kha (which Dr. Sten Konow read as ve) is like a & ; but* 
what looks like the stroke within does not go right across to meet the opposite side 9 1 it 

as gu. The meaning in either case is not clear. 

TBANSLATI03S; 

Success ; In the reign, of king Vasithlputa ^ami-sM-Cfcamda-sati, in the year 2 
1, the winter fortnight 2 (and) day 1, was established the charity (,, the gift) of & 
i/w(?) by the minister Saaa (Saga) of Khaddavali. 

POSTSOBEPT. 

Dr. Sten Konow to whom I had submitted the galley proof of tHs paper 
thus kindly written to Mr. Hirananda Sastri : 



* 



L. 3- I agree with him that -satisa is possible, but I can not read any such tiring u i 
The apparent dots to the right of-re are found in a part of the stone which if left open in 
other lines, and I cannot read them as = or = . They seem to me to be of the saioe Mud m 
other smaller or greater marks found in this part of the stone. 

L 4 I am quite unable to see a ma in the first ahtluim, and I still think iha* it mufc ta 
10. But I accept his reading of the following sign as . At all eyente, it is wry pwba^ 
Mr. Krishna Sastri has himself pointed to the great difficulty resulting from his reading. St 
far as I know, there is no instance of the mentioning of the month, wfam the date fa givim i 
eeasonal pakshas, and it would be absolutely unwarranted. It may also be doubted ^ti 
year began In the south with Mmant* The reading of the figure after jm m seems > IpohiUk 
to judge from the plate. After di there is hardly room for - f but I admit the poiuUifr of te 
reading- I have grave doubts about Kha^amli, but the coincidence o the modem mme it m 
its favour. The ^double 4$ is suspicious. w m :^ o^^ il li 

L. 5. I cannot understand liow a^c^asam^ can mean ^^f"*** 1 *- * 
n. 8 to M 1U the first word end, with !. It fc o"^* iW O. P-g r-h- 



n. 8 to M 1 e rs wor n . 

of * for i in fM. But the letter looks more like ^a or At, 




i [See f , n. 5 on the opposite page Bd.1 



320 EPIGEAPfllA INDICA. [VOL. XVITL 



No, 33. BETMA PLATES OF BHOJADEVA ; [TIKE AMA-] SAM VAT 1076. 

BY D. B.. DISKALKAR, M.A. ; BAJKOT. 

Though the name of tke Paramara king Bhsja of Dhara is well known to scliolars, epi- 
grapMcal records of Ms reign are rather rare. So far only two grants of this king have been 
discovered ; one of Y. S. 1078 in U jjain 1 and the other of V. S. 1076 (Magha, su. di. 5) in 
Banswara 2 . The copper-plate grant dealt with here is thus the third known record 8 of his reign 

The plates were discovered, about two years ago, by a peasant while ploughing his field near 
a village called Betma, sixteen miles to the west of Indore, in Central India. They subsequently 
came into- the possession of Mr. Manekchand Jati of Indore, who takes interest in antiquities. 
When I had been to Indore sometime ago I found them with him. Through the kindness 
of the late Bao Bahadur Dr. Prabhakar B. Bhandarkar, Home Member, Holkar State, and of 
Mr. K. K. Lele, Superintendent, Historical Department, Dhar, I have been able to edit the 
inscription here for the first time. 

The plates, which are two in number, are held together by two thick copper rings in 
the usual way. They measure 13 inches in length and 8f inches in breadth, and are in an 
excellent state of preservation. The inscribed side of the second plate bears at its bottom in 
a rectangular border a flying figure of Garada as is usually seen in the Paramara grants. 
The sign annual of the king is affixed at the Snd of either plate. It is to be noted that in none 
of the known grants of Bhajadeva the name of the writer of the grant is given. 

The alphabet is Nagari of the llth century A.D. prevalent in Malwa, as known to us from 
the other records of the period, e.g. the Banswara plates of the same king. The consonant 3 is 
expressed by q throughout. In fact, there is nothing to distinguish between the letters 
*T, V and if. U is wrongly replaced by ^r in ftWT (1. 1), *ftfow (L 14), 



(I 21) and m TO: (L 23). Similarly ^ is wrongly replaced by SI in IJTO^ft (1- 
and in 3PR9T (1. 25). A consonant following r is generally doubled, e.g. in ^fa (1- 1), 
0- 7), *rf; (L 9), fofipfcT 0- la), T|fasr*T (I. 19), etc. ^ at the end of a 



conjunct consonant is generally expressed in this inscription by the full letter added below 
the first consonant (e.g. tra 11. 8, 14 and 15, dra L 5, bhra 11, 8, 9, gra 1. 9, etc.), and not 
by a stroke turned to the left as we generally find. The letter "kri in the two cases where- 
it occurs (11, 1 and 16) is written imperfectly, the left portion of the letter fca being omitted. 
The document is drawn up in Sanskrit prose mixed with verses. 

Except 'for the following four points, our grant is practically identical with the Banswara 
grant of the same king issued in the s&me year : 

(1) Though the year in both the grants is the same, the months are different. The Betma 
grant is dated on the 15th day of the bright fortnight of the month Bhadrapada, while the 
Banswara grant is dated on the 5fch day of the bright fortnight of the month Magha. It is to 
be seen, however, which is the earlier of the two grants. If we consider the year as beginning 
with the month Chaitra, the Betma grant may be the earlier one. If, however, the year 

> Ind. 4vt Vol. VI, p. 53. 

2 2nd. Ant,, YoL XLI, p. 201, and Up. Ind< 9 Vol. XI, No, 18, p, 18L 

s Mr, K. N. Dikshit informs ine that another record of the reign of Bhoja dated Samvat 1091 (1Q34-& 
A,D,) has been traced on an image of Sarasvat! which has found its way to fche British Museum. I also find that 
the Tilafcwa<Ja plates of V. S. 1103 published by the late Mr. Kudalkar in the Proceedin$# of tie First Oriental 
Conference, Poona, most probably belong to therein of thia Bhoja, Due more copper-plate grant of Bhojadeva 
fca# recently been discovered at Ka!yan in the Naaik District. See 4. & ., 1981-312, p. US, 



No. 35.] BETMA PLATES OF BHOJADBVA ; [VIKBAMA]SAMVAT 1076. 

began with the month. Karttika, as ia thg> present usage in Malwa and Gujarat, ttten it 
must be looked upon as the later of the two. We have reasons to hold that -the latter 
supposition iB correct for, as has been already pointed out by Prof. Kielhom, 1 in the rant of * 

Bhojadeva of V. S. 1 078, ttie expression 



i.e. on the third day of th dark half of Magha in the year 1078, occurs m the middle of the 
grant and probably 'gives the date when the donation was made. At the end of the grant the 
date of its issue is given as the 14th day of the bright half of the month Chaitra of Samvat* 
1078. If Magha of 1078 preceded Chaitra of 1078, the year must have commenced from 
some month previous to Magha and ended subsequent to Chaitra. We can, -therefore, 'assume 
that the Samvat year began then as now in the month of Karttika. The Banswara grant which 
is dated in the month Magha of V. S. 1076 (Jan. 1020 A.D.) is, therefore, earlier than the BetmS 
grant which is dated in the month Bhadrapada of the same year, i.e. 1076 (Sept. 1020 A,D,j. 

(2) The occasions when the two grants of Banswara and Beting,, were made are different, 
In the former grant it is given as 3fff^wf%^^^f^ v while in the latter it is given as 

Dr * Hultzsch, who edited the Banswara grant 3 , translated this'historiU 



cally important expression as ' the anniversary of the conquest of Komkana/ But it is to be 
noted that the period intervening between these two grants, which record almost an identical 
expression, is only seven months and ten days. Mr. D. R. Bhandarkar who edited the- -same 
grant 3 I think gives a better translation of the expression as " on the festival day (jparvani) 
in consequence of the conquest of Komkana." The expression in the Banswara grant means thafc 
' Bhoia conquered Konkana * and thafc in the BetmS grant means perhaps * that he occupied it. * 
In the Balagamve inscription 4 of thfe time of the Chalukya Jayasimha, dated Saka 941 (Decem- 
ber 1019 A.D.), it is stated that Jayasimha had ' put to flight the confederacy of Milava \ From 
this we can conclude that iv the- contest for power between -the Malwa Paramaras and the 
Decean Chalukyas that was going on for years together, in the first quarter of the eleventh 
century AD. , both the parties were gAcceasful by iurns. Soon after his accession, Bhfrfa must 
have invaded the Decean to avenge th* execution of hia uncle Vakpati-M^Sja by the ChSlukya 
king Tailapa, and he probafclf succeeded in defeating and killing Tatlapa's successor, 
Vikramaditya Y. 5 When Jayasimha <pame to th throne in 1015 A.D. he must have retaliated 
by inflicting a crushing defeat on BhQja and his confederacy sometime before December 1019 
A.D. Bhoja apparently did npt take long to recover. He invaded the territory of Jayasithha 
and conquered Konkana, in Janttary 1080 A.D., which was-finally annexed to his empire sometime 
before September 1020 A*D. From the Miraj plates 6 it seems that Bhoja could not jetain Ms 
possession for long as Jayasipiha reconquered Konkana before the year 1024 AD. (Saka 946) 
and took into his possession * the wealth of the Lords of the Seven Koakanas '. 

(3) The grantee in the present inscription is a .Brahmana named Pandita Delha, son of 
Bhatta ThatthasiKa of the Kausika-gStfra with the three pravaras Aghamarsha$a, Visvlmitra 
and KauSika "and of the Madhyaadina-a*M. He hailed from Stli8,nvigvara f but his anoe 
h^d come from the village VisalagrSma. 

(4) The property granted .to the Brahmana consisted of a village named Walata<pCga> 
of the seventeen villages in the ISTyayapadra subdivision. 

1 Ind. Ant., Vol. XIX, p. 961. 

2 JSto. Ind. 9 Vol. XI, p. 18L [la thewbrda KS^kan^d^ht^a^an^^ ^rvm^vam ff^rlU^a occumjiy ia t 
Miraj plates (see supra, Vol. XII, p., 313, 1. 66) tiwi root yra^ is used in tte aeuse of taking p<>^teioi)u--|f4ij 

* Ind. Ant., Vol. XLI, ?. 2 f 01* 

* Ind. Ant., Vol. V, p. 17. 

* Ind. Ant., Vol. XLVIII, p. 117. Xp. Ind^Vol. XII, p. 314. 

2s 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVin- 



As regards the identification of the localities mentioned in the grant it is ttf be said that 
SthinVWvara is no doubt the Thanesar of modern times situated in the Karnal District of the 
Punjab, The Nyayapadra (subdivision) of the grant may be the town Napad in the Eaira 
Diatrict^a little to the south- west of Indore ; (and. the gift village Nalatadaga is probably 
represented by the modern Nlr (Nal) in the same district. Satrafci approaches very easily 
to our Saptadasaka meaning V group of seventeen villages which expression may have been 
afterwards wrongly construed to denote a village. The only difficulty in this identification 
a thprfc this place is at a long distance from Betma where the grant was discovered. 

The remaining places I apt unable to identify at present, 

TEXT, 1 

First Plate. 

[n*] 



^^q^^ 



5 ^Tg i ^HtrcTvn^i'? H i t i ^^^^fl^^ft^r^: ^wt H 

M?FW- 

6 ^ i *n ttnf?t^T^[frsT5r ^^^T^w^Tf^i^FWT 8 ^'t^ 



n 



8 



t (0 



10 vrcrenTrftwit ftrrf 



1 From tlie original plates, 2 Expressed by a symbol. 

a If we compare this grant with the otter of the same year and with the third of V". S. 1078 we shall find that 
the jprt*?&aiddra$ are used anywhere the writer liked, 



* Bead 

6 Be&d 

11 The left hand portion of t&e letter lea is expressed here only by a pcint separated from the body ol the 
letter. CJ. similar forays in 11. S and 7 of the Banswara grant. 

8 Uead fiw. * Read 



BETMA PLATES OP [VIXRAMA-] SAMVAT 1076. 




35.] BETMA PLATES OF BHOJADEVA ; [VIKRAMA-JSAMVAT 1076. 32.! 



12 



13 



[|*j 



Second Plate. 



14 
15 

16 



It will be seen that these strokes as , 
Tin- line is continued on Hie 8ecotid plate. 



* Read 

' Read 

Itcad 

,o Road 

Bead 



Eead 



_. .. 
Pessary -Ed.]. 







ftbove V ol. XI, p. 1S3, and 
^ ' 




^ 



Ecad 



324 EPIGEAPHIA INDIOA. [VOL. XVUI. 



23 mm: 3nr*f im TOre: 1 uftowrt ^ i[i*J 



25 

26 

werrr ^0^4 vrrKtRr ^ fif 
27 wnri H ^t *r?T^t ti ^^ftef sFhftar^rer [*] 



TBAWSLATION. 



(Line 1) O^i Victorious is this Vyoniakesa (Siva) *tvho for the purpose of creation 
bears on his head the digit of the moon, which appears like the shoot from, which the 
world sprang. 

(L. 2) May the matted hair, of the Enemy of Cupid, brown like the cirale of the dreadful 
lightning of the time of final dissolution, always extend your welfare ! 

(LI. 3-6) The illustrious! Bhojadeva, the great monarch, the overlord of great kings, the 
lord paramount, who meditates on the feet of the illustrious Sind&urajadSva, the great monarch, 
the overlord of great kings, the lord paramount, who meditated on the feet of the illustrious 
VgMpatirajadeva, the great monarch, the overlord of great kings, the lord paramount, who 
meditated on the feet of the illustrious Slyakadeva, the great monarch, the overlord of great 
kings, the lord paramount, issues, in good health, commands to all the officials of the Gov- 
ernment, the inhabitants headed by the Brahma^as, the Patels, and (other) townsmen, and 
others, assembled at,Nsiatac|ga, included in the group of HySyapadra Seventeen, (thus) : _ 

(L. 7) Be it known to you that we, seeing the worthlessness of the wordly life,* 

(L. 8) (that) the sovereignty over the earth is as shifting as the clouds wafted on the wind, 
the enjoyment of objects is pleasing only for a moment, the life of a* man is like a drop of water 
(hanging) on the point of a blade of grass, and Dha>rmq alone is the real companion in the 
journey to the next world, 

(L. 9) (and that) those who do not giveaway their acquired wealth which is (as it were) 
standing on the edge of the circumference of the revolving wheel of the word]y life have 
repentance as their only reward, 

(LI. 1016) thus ascertaining the momentary nature of the wordly life and choosing to 
abide by the unknown rewards for meritorious deeds, we have, on the joyful occasion (of 
celebrating) the subjugation of Konkana, with a view to increasing the religious merit and fame 
of^our parents and of oarselves, the above-said village has been bestowed upon Fan4ita 
DelUa, son of Bhatta Thatthasika of the KauSika-^m with the three pravarasfvt^ 
Aghamarshana, Vigvamitr^ and KauSika and of the Madhyan dina^atoa, who had come from 



gamarsana, ivamr^ an auSika and of the Madhyan dina^atoa, who had come from 
WSbSymm, (but$ whose ancestors had migrated from VisslagrSma with its regular bouncbrie* 
including the pasture lands for grazing cattle, with the land revenue and (other) cash inoom*, 



1 Bead 



VOTIVEINSCBIPTIONS IN THE CHAITYA CAVE AT KAELE. 




with the sundry taxes and with all (such) rights, by thir, with the 

by ponring libations of water-to last as long as the sun and the mooa and the earth endure. 

/o ! L * 1? l 5T Wing tUB and la ol)edience to (") orders you should give to this 
(iSrahma^a) the land revenue and other income and everything due to him, 

(IX 18) Similarly, considering that the merit of such a charitable deed is common (to all) 
the succeeding kings, whether of our family or of any other, should acquiesce in the charitable 
grant given by us and uphold it. For it is said 

[LI 19-25 contain four of the customary benedictory verses,] 

(L. 26) In the year 1076 on the 15th day of the bright fortnight of Bhsdrapada. 
(This is) our own order. 

(L. 27) Good luck (and) great prosperity ! The sign manual of Sri BhSjadeva. 



>T O go. UNPUBLISHED YOTIVB INSCRIPTIONS IN THE CHAITFA CAVE Af 

KAELE. 

BY MADHQ SAKUP VATS, M.A. 

In the beginning of November 1923, the Chowkidar of tie caves at KSrie while washing 
pillars and figures in the Chaitya hall, came across some new inscriptions and brought them 
t<a the nctic of the Assistant Engineers Bombay Ecad Subdivision. That officer oommimi- 
<satod the news of the discovery through the Executive Engineer, Poona District, to the 
Superintendent of the Archaeological Survey, Western Circle, who secured good impreesuwi 
of all of them. These inscriptions are twelve in number and generally in a very g<K>d of 

preservation, though all of them are not equally well inscribed, as is the case with 
of the Karle inscriptions so ably handled by M. Senari 1 About the letters it might be 
remarked that they are of the slightly cursive variety adopted in the Nasik inscription, Kb. 30 
(Biihler'8 Taf&l, III, eoL XIII), with the tailed fca, the hooked da ahd the erode W Though 
some of the technical terms used in these records are rather obscure and the places xnmiioiied 
in them, viz. Gonekaka, TJmehanSkata and Dhenukakata, have not been located with oa*- 
iainty, yet they are of special interest, for they help us in showing the extent of the 
pacts from which the caves attracted donating pilgrims, 

My reading of these inscriptions is based on the impressions reproduced below. My in- 
scription No. VII is identical with No. VII of Senart, but the other eleven are entirely 
a^id to tjiese latter a fragment of another inscription found near the caves baa abo teen 
added. Pillars in the right and left rows have been numbered with reference to tkar 
toward the visitor* 

No. L Fifth pillar ; right row. 

TEXT. 

1. TTmehanakata Tavanasa 

2. Vitasa[m*]gatanaih(l) danam tfcabhft. 



. JM., Vol. VII, p. 47 ff. 



326 EPIGRAPHXA INDICA. [Tor,, XVIII. 

Remarks. 

(1) * Vitasamgata ' means an ' assembly of actors' but appears to be a proper name here. 
The use of the plural " Vitasarhgatanam " with the singular " Yavanasa " is explained by M* 
Senart 1 In translating his No, 7. 

TRANSLATION* 
(This) pillar (is) the gift of the Yavana Vitasamgi,ta from Umehanakatsa. 

No. IL Eighth pillar ; right row. 

TEXT. 

1. Gonekakasa Dhamula-upasekasaih(l)- 

2. deyadha[m]ma(2) thariiv5(3) 

Bemarks. 

(1) The anusvara is redundant. 

(2) Mark the crude outline of * da ' and t ma ' in this, 

(3) * Vo ' seems to have been carved out for * bho '* 

This record does not appear to have been engraved by a practised hand, and compares very 
unfavourably with the other records in point of neatness and fixity of outline. 

TBAWSLATIOU". 
(This) pillar (is) the pious gift of the lay worshipper Dhamula of G-onekaka- 

ITo. III. Eleventh pillar ; right row- 

TEXT. 

1. Dhenukakata 

2. VSniya-gama- 

3. sa thabh5 danaih 

TBANSLATION. 

(This) pillar (^?) the gift of the " Community of Traders M from Dlxenukakata, 



No- IV, Thirteenth pillar j right row. 

TEXT. 

1. Dltenukakata Ya[va]nasa(l) Dhamadha- 

2. yanam thabho danam 

Remark. 

(1) The right side of the loop of *va 'in * Ta vanasa,' is broken, bat its outline is clearly 
perceptible from the reverse side of the impression. 

TRANSLATION. 
pillar (is) the gift of the Yavana Dkamadkaya f rom Dhenukakata. 

Mb. V. Fourteenth pillar ; right row. 

TEXT, 

1. Dhetmkkata R5hamitena Ohu[la]- 

2. p^tukasa(l) Agilasa atha-(2) 

3. ya thabh^j WiitO 

,, Vol. VII, pp. 53"S-4 4 



No. 36.] VOTIVE INSCRIPTIONS IN THE CHAIT7A CAVE AT KABLE. SIT 

Remarks, 

(1) c Chulapetukasa * agrees with fi Agilasa ', and seems to be an epithet daierlMng 
tliough its meaning is not clear. 

Upper part of tlie perpendicular stroke of * la * is broken, but its outline is 
relief on reverse of the impreasion. 

(2) It appears that the lower horizontal stroke of ' t"ha f to the right was in 01 an* 
graying when the engraver discovered that he was placing it much lower than its 
position, and consequently left it unfinished and crude* 

TRANSLATION, 

(TUs) pillar was caused to be made by B5hamita from DhSnukSkata, for the aafai of 
JLgila, a resident of Clmlapetti(?), 

No. VI. Fifteenth pillar j right row. 

TEXT. 

1. Dhenukakata OIiulayakhan[im3 

2. [Ya]vanasa thabha dana 

TBANSLATION. 

s} pillar (is) the gift of the Yavana Chulayakha from 

No. VTL Fourth pillar ; left row. 
TEXT. 

1. DMnukskata Yava^asa 

2. Sihadhay&na[in*] thambho 



^.B.-This inscription is identical witK No. 7 of M. Senart, ^^A 
pillar in the left row, and ha renders it thus : 

TBANSLATION. 

< (TWO pillar (M) the gift of the Yayana Stoadhaya from 

No, vm. Sixth pillar j left row. 



TEXT. 

1. DUenukSkats Somilam- 

2. kasa dana thabh5 

TEAJSTSIiATIOir. 



pillar (&) the gift of Somilanaka from 

* IX. Eighth pillar ; left row. 



TEXT. 



2.saputesa 
3. 



328 BPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XVIII, 

Remarks. 

(1) ' Gola-u&niya ' might mean a ' trader in myrrh* , but appears to mean the * trader 

Sola ' here, 

(2) Read Isalakasa, the anusvSra is superfluous. 

(3) The anusvara in thambhd is perhaps to be seen from relief on reverse of the impression, 

"feu! is not certain, 

(4) In line 3 it appears as if * da * was .being inscribed" and then left and carved out again 

immediately after. 

TRANSLATION. 
(This) pillar (is} the gift of Isalaka, son of the trader Q61a ? from DhenUkakata. 

No. X. Ninth pillar ; left row. 

TEXT. 

1. Dhemikakat Tavanasa 

2. Tasavadhanana[m] 

3. thahhd dana[m*] 

TRANSLATION, 
(:3%w) pillar (is) the gift of the Tavana Yasavadhana from Dheniikakata, 

No. XI. Tenth pillar ; left row. 

TEXT, 
[Dfc]enukakats [Ma]lia[ma]t(l) ghariniya 

Remark. 

(1) The outline of the 3rd letter in this word is not clear, it may be ma ' or < .' 

TRANSLATION. 

(Of) KaIiainatS 3 wife of ..... from Dhenukskata. 

No. XIL Thirteenth pillar ; left row. 

TEXT, 

L Bhenuklts(l) gahapati[n5] Asekasa n 
2* Dhamada(e)vays danam , 
3 thabho 

Remark, 
0) 



TBAKSLATION. 
a. 



37>] INSCRIPTION ON A VISHNU IMAGE FROM DEOPANL 329 

No. XIH. An inscribed piece of stone found near the, caves. 

TEXT. 
. . . . [kka]sa ega(l) putrasa 

He mark. 

(1) These two letters forming a proper name are not quite clear. The outline of the first is 
misleading, "but careful scrutiny of relief on reverse of the impression leads me to think that it 
is either ' se * or ' ge ' while the second appears to be * ga * ; the accretion of an altogether new 
outline proceeding from its top along the left being merely a development of the crack in stone. 

TBANSLATIO3ST, 

Of . . t Kha the son of Sega ? 



No. 37. INSCBIPTION ON A VISHNU IMAGE FEOM DEOPANL 

BY K. N. DIKSHIT, M.A. 

This inscription of four lines occurs on the side of a stone image of Vislxnu, which was found 9 
along with another partially broken and obliterated image of Durga, in the jungle close to the" 1 
IDeopani river (Sibsagar District, Assam) between the 26th and 27th miles on the Golaghat-Dimapur 
road. As the locality is frequented by wild elephants, to whom the present damaged condition 
of the images is due, the Vishnu image has been removed by me to Gauhati and deposited for 
safe custody in the rooms of the Kanirup Anusandhan Samiti. The place was visited by Dr. Bloch 
in 1904*05, who describes the image as follows in the Annual Report of the Eastern Circle : * The 
second or smaller image 2 feet 6 inches high is a standing Vishnu or Narayana with two hands 
only (the other two hands on the proper right have been lost) wearing the usual crown and having 
the r$vaisa mark on his breast. On the left outer face is an inscription in four lines, the end of 
which, is broken. The broken piece could not be found.* About the inscription, he further writes : 
'The inscription consists of three verses of Sanskrit poetry, evidently full of orthographical and 
grammatical blunders and for this reason difficult to read. The first two verses seem to be in 
honour of Siva and the third refers to the putting up of a statue of Narayana by some person whose 
name was on the missing piece of stone. It is of no historical interest. Judging from the charac- 
ters, it belongs to about the 12th century A JX ? As Dr. Bloch's estimate of the age of the inscrip- 
tion is rather wide of the mark, sufficient attention was not drawn to the importance of this image. 
The characters are similar to the inscription of Harj jara on a rock on the bank of the Brahma- 
putra near Tezpur, which is dated in the year 510 of the Gupta Era. The present inscription can be 
safely attributed to the 9th century A.D. on palseographical grounds, and as the statue is the only 
ea?ly example of an inscribed image yet known in Upper Assam, it is a landmark in the history 
of Art in Assam. On grounds of style and execution, the image could easily have been ascribed to 
the late Gupta or early Pala period in Bengal. Attention may be drawn to the thick lower lip, the 
expression of the face, the ear-ornament, the band around the crown, the Brahmanical thread 
and the elose-fitting garment, the style of the Gada and the Vanamala, and the Kaustubha 
and Srlvatsa symbols, which are all indications of an earlier age not far removed from the late 
Gupta period- It is worthy of note that the position of Deopani is intermediate between Dimapur 
and Kasomsm Pathar where still exist the remains of the peculiar culture associated with the 
K icharis IB the shape of monoliths described as * swoid-blade/ c chess- man/ * Y-shaped f and 
* buffalo-horned s columns. 

2T 



330 EPIGRAPHIA INDIOA. [Vot. 2TIIL 

The characters are ^cute-argled and belong, to the Eastern variety prevalent in the ninth 
century A. D. over the larger portion of Northern India. 

The inscription, as was pointed out by the late Dr. Bloch long ago, is full of orthographical 
blunders and was apparently written very carelessly. A number of letters have been lost at 
the end of each line, except the fourth. Calculating on the basis of completing, the first two 
slokas, we find that at least 15 Betters must have been lost in the first line and 11 in the second. 
Owing to the incompleteness of the record and inaccuracy of the scribe, it is not possible to. give 
a connected account of the contents of the inscription. The opening benedictory verse must 
bs taken as referring to Siva, as it mentions the serpent-girdle, bull emblem and the moon. 
The purport of the second verse, -which probably commences in the second line and ends in the 
third, is very obscure. The end of the last line seems to refer to a stone image of the divine 
Narayana. The text is 'edited from two impressions prepared at my instance. 

TEXT. 

1 Om 1 [I*] Hava 2 mtu tochh'yain uragendra-sutran> vrisha-dhvajam soma-jaga(t)- 

prakasam j ma 

2 Bhagavatis=tu Surjja J| Satv'as=tu Devi bhuvi 'martti-lokS 

snane ...... 

3 Aka-sudro dvija-varnna'-nari-sevyas=tu devi bhagavatis=tu Surjja || pi * * * 

4 na[ma]pa dhava 8 di (?) | Bhagavato Narayana [s.ya*] saill pratima bhakfcyantam 



No. 38. POLONNARUVA INSCRIPTION OF VIJAYABAHU I. 
BY S. PARANAVITANA, OOTACAMUND. 

in8Cri f ion is *"* * a 8t "* "M> lyi*g to the west of Vihara No. 1, 
north-east of the Latamandapaya in Poloimaruva, the medieval capital of the 
kings of Cey on. It was first discovered and brought to notice by Mr. H. C. P. Bell, C.C.S., the 
bte Arch^ological Commissioner of Ceylon, who sent iuked estampages of it, for examination, 
to the Government Epyraphist for India. Mr. H. Krishna Sastri in his Annual Report on Epl 
grphy for the year 1913, has discussed the historical importance of this record. An account 
of the ascription, with a translation of it, has also been published by Mr H C P Bell Tthe 



^f^- PUbH8lled iD V**"*-!**** Inscriptions ( Text),VoLlV 
P * 1 ? 1S ^^ ^ * he hel ? of an i^ession preserved in the 
the Govez-nment Epjgraphist for Ma, and of another kindly supplied by the 

*W ^ Rao Bahadur 



Expressed. by a symbol 



tre seem be 
probably 



* *"* fa of long. (The ongin.l Wada 

Appar^tJy martyal^ fe irttoteA, T TvhR nrilf , , , 

* is written below the line. , ? ff * al has 



VISHNU-IMAGE 




JS" 



i 

5 

ai 




IMAGE OF VISHNU AT DEOPANI, DISTBICT SIBSAGAB, ASSAM. 
From a photograph. 



7Jo. 38.] POLONNARUVA INSCRIPTION OF VLTAYABAEU I. 331 

Mr. K. V. Subralimanya Aiyar for many suggestions, and for the kind encouragement given to 
me in preparing this paper. 

The slab on which the inscription is engraved measures 8' 2" by 2' 6". There are 49 lines of 
writing on it. The stone had been planed and ruled before the letters were engraved. Thewritiag, 
which has been well executed, is in a fairly good state of preservation the average size of th 
letters being about 1 inch in height The characters used in the record are Grantha and Tamil- 
They agree, on the whole, with those of the Tamil inscriptions of the contemporary Ch5J kings 
on the mainland of South India. The following facts, however, are noteworthy. The jmgi or 
vii&ma sign, which is generally not used in most of the Tamil inscriptions in the South India of 
the medieval age, is here invariably indicated by a small vertical stroke, written over the letter, 
e a invali vanda (\. 1). The cmvwSra is generally written over the letter, at its top. The first five 
lines consist of a Sanskrit verse in the gardulaviJcrliita metre, and the rest of the inscription 
is in Tami* prose, where, however, "there is a great admixture of Sanskrit words. _ In tV 
Sanskrit portion the rules of *m&i have not been observed in one place, i.e. Jra^tf-r* 
"r It MnLsting to note that, in the Tamil passage, the following old Sutfxalese word- 
are used with Tamil inflexions in some cases : 

L. 16. Senwirat (Skt. S&napati-rdja), Commander-in-Chief. 

L. 11. Putanari (Skt. Pulasti-nagara), the name of a city. 

L, 20. dalada (Skt. dafasUra-AMtu}, Tooth Relic. 

L 27 Mugdan (Skt. Maudgalyayana), the name of a Buddhist monk. 

Nodate is given ^ei-ri^ 
reigned for 55years and celebrated ^^^^^^^r^ ~ **** 

. Vijayabahu reigned from AJ>. 1065 to 110 



The inscription opens with eulogistic 



, w _ It says that he ^^f^^^^^ ***" 

enemies before he entered AnuradHapura, where new o{ ^ Baddba It b 

of the Ariffto (*.e. the Buddhist monks), *- * -* ^ - -- 

also stated that he invited monks from 













ju-ju.*"* *" "i* '*' ------ * Ti P* 

Abhayagiri, and Jetavana BeotB. 



832 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA, [VoL XVIIL 

65 years, and passed his 73rd birthday (tirunaksTiatram). 1 . It next mentions the building of a 
shrine for the Tooth. Relic of Buddka in the monastery of Uturolmula which was a part of the 
Abh.ayagiri-viliara by a General named Diva, at the command of the king. We are next intro- 
duced to the royal preceptor Vyaricd Mugalan, who is described to have been well versed in all 
the sciences and scriptures, and who was a high dignitary of 'the Buddhist Church in Ceylon at 
this period. This hierarch, as our inscription informs us, convened a meeting of the chief minis- 
ters of the state, and inviting the Velaikksbpa forces to their presence, exhorted them to protect 
the temple of the Tooth. The Velaikkaras, who consisted of the three divisions of the Malia- 
tantra, the Valafijiyar, and the Nagarattar, agreed to do so, and re-named the temple as 
Munru-kai'tiru- Velaikkaran-Daladay-perum-palU, and concerted the necessary arrangements for 
the protection of the shrine. They bound themselves not only to protect the temple, its lands, its 
serfs, property, etc., but also to keep it in proper repair and to do everything necessary for 
its proper maintenance. The inscription also gives a list of the various tribes which formed 
the Vejaikkajas and ends with an imprecation on those who act against the rules laid down 
therein. 

The account given in this inscription of king /i~Sanghabodhi Vijayabahu agrees in every 
detail with that given in the Mahavam&a of Vijayabahu I, So there is no doubt about the 
identity of the king mentioned in our record. The statement that he had to conquer many ene- 
mies before he could establish his authority, is, no doubt, a reference to the long wars that he 
had to wage against the Clidla invaders and the petty chieftains of Ceylon who ruled in the south- 
ern part of the island. Perhaps it might not be out olplace, in this connection, to give a brief ac- 
count of the state of the country before the accession of Vijayabahu to the throne, and a short 
sketch of his career, as stated in the Mahavamta (Chapters LVIII to LX). At the beginning of the 
eleventh century, in the reign of Rajaraja I, the Cholas invaded Ceylon and annexed the -northern 
|>art of the island to their dominions, taking MaMnda V, the then king of Ceylon, as a prisoner, to 
the Chola country. From this time, up to the end of the reign of the Chola king AdMrajendra.- 
deva, Ceylon acknowledged the supremacy of the Cholas. 2 During this period Ceylon was in 
a state of utter confusion. The Sinhalese princes, driven to the mountainous districts of the South, 
were always fighting amongst themselves, when the Cholas were not at their doors. When the 
country was in this distracted state, a young scion of the ancient Sinhalese royal family, named 
Xirti, raised the standard of war, and after a considerable amount of fighting, made himself the 
master of the Hdfcana country, the southern part of Ceylon, and assumed the title of Vijayabahu, 
when he was only seventeen years of age. After making his position secure in the principality 
of which he was the chief, he started on a campaign to rid the island of foreign domination. The 
time chosen by him for this enterprise was an opportune one. The campaign of Vijayabahu 
against the Cholas falls into the period immediately before the accession of Kuldttu&ga I to the 

* TirunalcsJiatram means the ' sacred asterism. 3 It seems as if the Sinhalese kings of old celebrated a special 
festival annually, on the day of the constellation under which they were born. I am informed by Mr. K. V. 
Subhrahmanya Aiyar, Superintendent for Epigraphy, that such a custom still prevails in the royal family of 
^ravancore, and that the princes of Travancore are named after the constellations under which they are born. 
The Mahavamta also gives instances in which persons were named after the constellation of their birth, e.g. Tishya 
and Pushya. [The/ M a-naa or birth name of a Hindu child is given after the janma-*k*katra or the COM- 
tellation of nativity. Ed.] 

* Inscriptions of Rajaraja I are found in Ceylon, and in one of the records of the Tanjore temple it is stated 
tkat the income of several villages in Ceylon was dedicated to that shrine. Rajendra-Chola I also says in his in- 
Hcnptions that he conquered the whole island. Rajadhiraja I and Rajendradeva, the successors of Raiendra- 
Chola I, both conducted campaigns in Ceylon, in which several princes of the island are said to have perished, 

*f S???. 10 ! * f?* to * is al * *>nnd ^ Poloanaxum No inscription, however, of anv Choja 
o* Adhira3ndra is found ou the island of Ceylon, 



Bo. 38. j POLONNARUVA INSCRIPTION OF VUAYABAHU I. 333 

Choja throne. This was a period of Civil War in the Chola country, and, consequently, tie Cholas 
were not able to send sufficient forces to JDeylon to quell the rising there against their authority. 
In one of the inscriptions of Kulottunga'at Tirukkajtikkunram, 1 he says that he sent several 
expeditions to Ceylon, but does not mention any definite results gained by them. These were 
most probably, the armies which, according to the MaMvamSa, were sent by the Chola king 
to fight against Vijayabahu. After a long and protracted campaign, Vijayabahu succeeded in 
-driving the.Cholas out of Ceylon, and made himself the master of the whole island. 

During the Chola occupation, the Buddhist religion had suffered greatly. In fact, when 
Vijayabahu came to the throne, he found that there were no ordained monks in the island, who 
would help him in the work of reviving the religion pf the land. Therefore, he sent an embassy 
to the king of Aramana, requesting him to send properly ordained monks to Ceytyn. The king 
of Aramana at this time was Anuruddha, from whom Vijayabahu received substantial 
support in his struggle against the Cholas. The Burmese king sent several properly. ordained 
monks to the island, and they revived the Buddhist Church in Ceylon, and helped Vijayabahu to 
restore Buddhism to its pristine glory and splendour.. Our inscription alludes to this event, 
and, moreover, states that he purified the sangha of the three mkayas (fraternities), and gave three 
tulabliaras to them. The Ceylon chronicles do not mention this fact, though they give a long 
account of the king's benefactions to the religious establishments, and his various works of 
public utility. 

The Commander- in-Chief Deva, who, at the instance of the king, built a shrine for^the Tooth 
Belie, is not known to us from other sources. The monastery of Uturolmula, within the pre- 
cincts of which the Temple of the Tooth Belie was built,, and which was itself a part of the 
Abhayagiri- vihara 2 at Polonnaruva, must be the same as the monastery of UttarSla which was built 
TayMana, one of the predecessors of Vijayabahu I, for his elder brother who had entered the 
priesthood. 8 It is also stated in the Mahavamfa that the king entrusted the guard of the Tooth 
Belie to him. The Buddhist monk Mugalan, who took an active part in getting the co.nseat.of 
the VelaikMras to protect the temple, is not mentioned, so_f ar as I know, in any of the Ceylon 
chronicles. 

The next point to be discussed is, who these Vejaikkaras were, and what their position was 
in Ceylon, at the time when this inscription was setup. The Velaikkaras are mentioned in the 
MaMvamta as having formed a part of the army of the Sinhalese kings of this period. It is stated 
that' towards the latter part of Vijayabahu's reign, there was a revolt of these troops, when 
he was making preparations for undertaking an expedition to South India against the Chola 
king. This rising of the Vgjaikkaras was put down with considerable difficulty, and 
as a consequence of it, the projected campaign against the Cholas had to be given up.* Later on, 
in the reign of Vijayabahu's grandson, GajabaHu II, they again figure in the history of Ceyton^ 
There*, it is said, that Gajabahu's rival, FarSkramabahu I, tried tp win them over to his side- 
A few years later, we find the Velaikkaras in alliance with the Kerajas and the people of Bofcina, 
rising in rebellion against the authority of Parakramabahu I.' These accounts, coupled with the 
fact that their aid was considered effective for the protection of one -of the most cherished 
national treasures of the Sinhalese people, go to prove that the Velaikkaras were, at this, period, 
& very powerful community. 

Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXI, p. 282. 



i nian ntquary, o. , p. . 

" This viU.ro, was distinct from the monastery of the same name at the old capital, 

Matovamta, Chapter LV1L * H>id n Chapter "LX. 

* Ibid., Ckapter LX33. * #**- Chapter LXX1V, 



EPIGRAPHXA 1NDICA. , [VOL. 



Tie inscriptions of the Ch5ja kings Kijaraja I and BSjgfcdra-ChoJa I, on the walls of the 
BfihadMvara temple at Tanjoie, make mention of sevefal V81aikkaxa regiments. The origin of the 
word vetaikkafa has not yet been conclusively proved. Different scholars have given different 
interpretations of the word* Dr, Hultzsch has rendered wlaikkdra-padaigal as * the troop of 
servants \ l The late Bai Bahadur Venkayya was of opinion that it was a corruption of the word 
velaikkara,, and comments as follows : "At any rate, the origin of the term is obscure, and must 
be left to future research* It is possible they were no mercenaries in the Chola country at 
the beginning of the llth century. If a conjecture may be offered, I would say they were 
perhaps volunteers who enlisted themselves when the occasion (velai) for their services arose. In 
later times when their services were not required in the Tamil Country, they probably migrated 
to Ceylon, during the period of interregnum, when there were frequent Chola invasions against 
the island. Eventually they probably developed into mercenaries." 8 Mr. Krishna Sa&tri, in 
Ms remarks upon this inscription, says of the Velaikkajas, " Whatever the Velaikkaras may have 
been in their religious creed, it is clear from what is stated in the inscription that they included 
all working classes, and were apparently of Indian origin who immigrated into Ceylon with the 
merchants whom they served. " 3 The late Mr. Gopinatha Rao's opinion as to who the Velaikkaras 
were was quite different from any of the views set forth above. He says that they were not 
mercenaries; but " persons who had pledged themselves to do certain duties, failing which, they 
would voluntarily undergo certain penalties, which, in most cases, was death/' He has quoted two 
passages from Tamil literature, one from the commentary of Periyavichchapillai on Nammal- 
var's Tirumoli which, explains the word pu-velaiMdra as " those who, when they see the king 
being without flower(-garlands) at the time when he ought to wear them, had vowed to stab them- 
selves and die." ,The other extract is from the commentary of the ivavachanabhu$hanam, where 
the Vejaikkajas are said to be ** the servants of the king who chastise those who prove traitorous 
to ,him."* 

In this inscription they are termed * the Velaikkajas of the three hands ' (munru-kai)* In 
No. 602 of 1912, another inscription from Ceylon, munru*Jcai-tiru~velaikkdran appears as the sur- 
name of a certain AdMkarana Saranan, and in No. 610 of the same year, also from Ceylon, munru- 
Jcai is referred to as the name by which a particular community was known. 5 In an inscription of 
the time of Kul6ttunga-Ch5ladeva ? in the BhaktavatsaleSvara temple at ShermadevI, munyu-Tcai- 
mahasenai are represented as protecting certain charitable endowments made to that temple. 6 A 
Tamil inscription a4 Bangui, in Mysore, too, refers to the Velaikkaras of the right hand/' It 
seems from our inscription as if the three divisions or c hands ' to wMch the Velaikkaras were 
divided, consisted of the Mabatantra, the Valafijiyar, and the Nagarattar. Out of these terms, 
Mahatantra is not found elsewhere, and its sense is not clear. Probably it was used here with a 
Buddhist significance* The terms Valanjiyar and Nagarattar are of frequent use in the South 
Indian inscriptions of this period. They are there represented to have been a wealthy and in- 
fluential bodf of merchants. In Mr, Bice's Mysore Inscriptions there are three records from 
Ralligami, which refer to the corporation of merchants known as the Valanjiyar. In one of them 
the member^ are styled '* protectors of thd vwa-ba%Mfija rights." 8 In the second they are called 

1 Soutk-Indi&n Inscriptions, Vol. II, p. 97. 2 Ibid., Vol. II t Introduction, p. 10. 

a Jj/piyraphieal IReport of Madra for 1913, p. 102. 

4 Tk above is from an article by the late Mr. Gopinatha Rao, a reprint of which waa found among some 
of Ms papers whick are in the library of the Government Epigraphisfc for India, i have not bee/t akle to 
lad out the Journal to which the article was contributed. 

* Ep. %ep* fo* 1913, p. 101. 

* No. 189 of the Madras Epigrapfacal Meport for 18&5. 

* Mysore Archaeological Eepori for 1980, p. 31, Mysore Inscriptions, p, 78. 



No. 38.] PQLQNNA.RUVA INSCRIPTION OF VUAYABAHU L 335 

banajigas, 1 whilst the third inscription calls the members of the guild " the protectors of the mra- 
ba^anja-dharma"* Two inscriptions from Shikarpur Taluq (Nos. 94 and 118), published in the 
Epigraphia Carnatica, Vol. VII, 3 describe these merchants in great detail. An inscription has 
been found at JLnatdundava, a village near Polonnaruva, which begins with almost the same 
phrases as are used in describing the ValaEjIyar merchants in the Kanarese inscriptions from 
Mysore. This inscription being only a fragment, the word valanjiyar does not actually occur 
in it; but the phraseology used in it shows, beyond doubt, that it must have been a record 
of the same Corporation of Merchants. 4 In the inscription No. 555 of the Madras Epigraphical 
collection for 1923, mention is made of thejValanjiyar of South Ceylon (Ten-Ilawgai-valanjiyar). 
They are there represented as making donations to a Vishnu temple* 6 As regards the deriva- 
tion of this word, the late Mr. Venkayya says : " In Kanarese banajiga is still used to denote 
a class of merchants. In Telugu the word balija or balijiga has the same meaning. It is 
therefore probable that the words valanjiyam, valanjiyar, balanji, bananji, banajiga and balija 
are cognate, and derived from the Sanskrit variij."* The Nagarattars, who are mentioned 
in this inscription along with the Valanjiyars,, were also an influential community of merchants, 
who, at the time that we are speaking of, had their mercantile establishments not only all over 
South India and Ceylon, but also in Burma and other parts of Further India. 7 The Nagarattars 
comprised within their ranks another class of merchants called the Nanadi&f, An inscription 
of Queen Lilavati of Ceylon, who reigned in the first decade of the 13th century, mentions the 
NanadesI merchants as having made some donations to an alms-house at Anuradhapura. 8 As 
the Valanjiyars are said to have been the leaders (mudadai) , of the Vejaikkara troops, it might 
be conjectured that the latter migrated to Ceylon with the Valanjiyar whom they served. The 
Valanjiyars and the Nagarattars are at present represented by the Banajiga and Nagaratta 
communities of the Kanarese country. 9 

The different sub-sects, into which the Velaikkaras were further divided, were the Valangai, 
Idangai, Sirudanam, Pillaigaldanam, Vadugar, Malaiyalar, Parivarakkondam, and others. Out 
of these Valangai and Idangaimean the 'Right hand' and the 'Left hand' castes respectively. 
From an early time the inhabitants of South India were thus divided. The Madras EpigrapJiioal 
Report for 19 13 contains the following interesting account as regards the origin of the Jdangai : 
" While in order to kill demons (that disturbed) the sacrifices of the sage Ka6yapa, we were made 
to appear from the agni-lku^da (i.e. the sacrificial fire pit), and while we were protecting the 
said sacrifice., Chakravartin Arindama honoured the officiating sage priests by carrying them in 
a car, and led them to a Brahinana Colony (newly founded by himself). On this occasion we 
were made to take our seats on the backside of the car and to carry the slippers and umbrellas of 
these sages. Eventually, with these Brahmana sages, we also were made to settle down in the 
villages of Timvellarai, etc. We received the clan name Idangai, because the sages (while they 
got down their cars) were supported by us ori their left side." In the same inscription it is said 
that there were ninety-eight sub-sects of the Idangai* Their insignia are given thus : " It is also 
understood that only those, who, during their congregational meetings to settle communal dis- 
putes, display the insignia^.) of horn, bugle and parasol, shall belong to our class. Those who have 

1 Mysore Inscriptions, p, 120. ^ lbid. 9 p. 123. 

3 p. 114 and p. 156. 

4 This inscription runs as follows ; 

(1) Samasta-bhuvanagra-paiica^ata-vlra4^anam*ali(jaigita Lakfml}- 

(2) (ya) lak$a$a (vaksa-) stkala bhuTana-parakrama Sri-Vasudeva Kn^dala mu3a-(purtti-Mi2i). 

Epigra$Ma %eylanie&* VoL II, p. 2S(i 

* A. R. on Epigraphy for 1923, p. 106. Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 206. 7 A. K. on Epigraphy for 1913, p, 102, 

* Epiaravhia Zeyfanica, VoL I, $> 179. * A. B~ on JSpigrttpRy for 191& p, 102. 



336 EPIGEAPHIA INDICIA. [Vox.. XVIII 

to recognise us now and hereafter, in public, must do so from our distinguishing symbols, the 
feather of the crane and the loose hanging hair." 1 

The term Sirudanam appears in the Tanjore Inscriptions of Rajaraja I and Rajendra-Cholas. 
I, as a title given to military officers. Among the regiments mentioned in the inscriptions of 
the same place we find two named ** Birudanattu-va$uga-Ttkavalar and jSirudanattu- Valangai- 
Pelaikkara-ppadaigctt." The true significance of this term has not yet been satisfactorily 
explained. Dr. Hultzsch explains the terms &irudanam and perudanam as the * small treasury * 
and the ' big treasury \ and persons so entitled as officers of the treasury, small or big.. The 
titles are sometimes explained as referring to the followers of the king during his minority and. 
majority. In all probability Airudanam and perudanam were purely honorary titles conferred 
on officers, as well as private individuals, according to the status held by them in official position. 
or in society. 2 

The Vadugar (Northerners) might have been immigrants" from the Telugu Country. The* 
Malaiyalar, most probably, were settlers from the Malabar Coast. On the occasion of the rebellion 
of the people of Rohai^a against Parakramabahu 1^ as already mentioned, the Keralas took the 
aide of the insurgents. There are also other references to ihe Keraja soldiers in the Mahavamsa* 
The term Malaiyalar, therefore, must have been applied to the people foom the Kerala country. 

The inscription is silent as to the reason why the protection of the Velaikkaras was sought 
for the Tooth Relic. If this inscription was engraved only after the death of Vijayabahu I, 
it must have been owing to the state of anarchy which prevailed after that event. 

Out of the places mentioned in this record, Antiradhapura is the well-known capital of 
the ancient Sinhalese kings. Arumana has already been identified with Ramannadesa, i.e. 
Lower Burma. Pulanari, also called Vijayarajapura in the inscription, evidently after JKing". 
Vijayabahu 1, is the same as Poionnaruwa (Pulastipura 3 ), and was the mediaeval Sinhalese 
Capital. In Chola inscriptions found in Ceylon this city is also called Jananathamangalam." 
TJiere are extensive ruins of the many monasteries, palaces and other public buildings with 
which it was adorned in the days of its splendour. 

TEXT. 

1 "Svasti Srih [[I*] Lkriikayaiii Jina-danta-dhatu-bhavanam yad=Deva 

2 senadMpokarshit 6rI-Vij ayadLi3bab.unyIvar-ade6[a]- 

3 t PulastehL pure [|*^| Velaikl5:ibpa-sama[liTita]n tad=api ta. 

4 t"-paryyantardevalayan Velaikkara-balani pa- 

6 ntu 4 nitaram=sa-kalpa-sandher~bhuvi [II*] Naino BnddJaaya [||*J 

6 Jri-Lamka~dvipattu Siirya-vaxiifiattu IkskviLku[vi]- 

7 n vali-vanda aneka-6atm-vijayam panrd Anur[a]- 

8 dJiapuram pukku Buddha-6asanam rakshikka ve^di sa- 

9 ihgha-niyogattal tiru-mudi-&ii(Ji 



10 &um sangattarai alaippittu munpi nikaya- 

11 " ttu sanghar^uddhi pa^nuvittu muniu tulabharam 

15 jnunipa niKayattukku kuduttu daSa-raja-dharmattal 
13 N ainbatt-ayy-andu Ila&gai-muludum oru-kudai-ni[la]- 

14 xi:ittkuv-irajyan-cheyd-aruji elupattu xnuv-a^^ tiru-na- 

15 kshatran-cheluttina K5-ri-Sag3aabddlii--vatacnar*ana chakravartti- 

16 gal 6rI-Vijayal>ali,udevar=anuvagaI De[va]-senevirattar- 

J A* M. on Epigraphy lor 1913 . p 109. a Ibid for 1913, p. 97. "*" 

8 Thi*iBftmein which atlea,two soe ihe Puraaio allusion to Pulaati Brahma, an ancestor of 
feho giant JKing ol Ceylcn. * & J. /. Tests Yol. IT, No. 1396 reads y&ntu. 



No. 38.] POLONNARUVA INSCRIPTION OF YIJAYABAHU I. 337 

17 kku niyogittu=Ppnlaiaariy-aiia Vijayarajapurattu e$up- 

18 pitta Mulasthanam-agiya Ab&ayagiri-maha-viliaratt-a. agr-a~ 

19 yatanam-ana 1 Uttorulmulaiyil muv-ulagukkuii^chikamaiii~ 

20 y-agiya DaIada-Patra-dh.atu--svarQldevargalu]kku nityavasa-Tbhavana~ 

21 m-ana pratham-abhishegattiikku mangala-grihain-ana attain- 

22 dorun^tiru-nayana-moksham panni afijana nlrukkurn 

23 kannalan=oheyyum mangala-maha-6ilamaya-Buddha- 

24 devarkku gandhakutiy-ana Daladay-ppernra-balli unga- 

25 } rakshay-aga venguin=enm sakal^-^sfcr-agams-6i!-a- 

26 chara-sampannar-ana Raja-guru Uturulniulaiyil Vyarinl Mu- 

27 galan Maliastliavirar raj-amatyarodun^kuda elundaruliy^i- 

28 rundu engalai alaittu aruli-chclieydaniaiyil Ma-tantirat- 

29 ton^kudi engalukku miitadaigal-ay-iilla .Valanjeyaraiyum e- 

30 ngalo du kudivarum=NagarattaruIlittoraiyumkutti Munru- 

31 kai-ttiru-Velaikkaran Daladay-pperumballiy-enru 

32 tim-naman=chatti engal^aram-ay engal kaval-ay nirka- 

33 vendum=enru aran-gavalukku padai-ppadiaiyal 21 or[o]- 

34 Sevagaraiyum 6r5-veli nilamum=ittu=kkuduttu i-p- 

35 palli nokkip.a urgalum parivaramum pandaramum afaha- 

36 yam-pukkaraiyum pattun~kett"an=kakkak=kadavom=aga- 

37 vum alivupatt-idangal 3 alivu ^orndum engal anva- 

38 yam=ulladanaiyumennanTum=Idukku vejgtduvanav-e- 

39 naS,cheyvom=agaTum pannina inda yyavasthai ckandc-a* 
.40 dityavarai niirpad-aga=kkaiy"Tinav*ejri*chcheiabiliin=kalli- 

41 him vettuvittukkuduttora Valangai Idangai Si- 

42 rudanam Pillaigaldanam Vadugar Malaiyalar Parivarak 

43 kondam pala-kalanaiyum-ullitta tiru-Velaikkara- 

44 rom [||*] Ippadi tirambuvanura tiramba=clicb.olluvanii- 

45 m tiramba ckckammadippanum Ma-tantirattukkti=ppilaitta 

46 padai-ppagaiyan .panclia-ma]ia-patakaS.-c]ieyda^ujQa tevar- 

47 pudar-ma-tavattorkku=kktiduttaQ.a kollum kodum- 

48 paviyum BuddhaDharmma-Sanglia-ratnanga]iikku^ppilaitta- 

49 ?ium pugun=naragam puguvan [||*] Ara=maravarka [I*] Svasti 



TRANSLATIO3ST. 

(LL 1-5.) May the Vilaikka^a forces well protect, till the juncture of another Jzalpa, 
earth] that shrine of the Tooth Relic of <Jina (Buddha), which Diva, the Commander-in-Chief, had 
built in the city of Fulasti in Lanka (Ceylon), at the command of the glorious Mng Vijaya- 
bKhu, and the other shrines of the gods (situated) near that (shrine), which the Velaikka^as have 
"brought together under their protection. Obeisance to the Buddha* 

(LI. 6-24.) The glorious king Sangkab6dMvarman dKas Gliakravartin 6ri-Vijayal>SIra~ 
diva, who appeared in the lineage of IkshvUku of the Solar race in the prosperous island of 
Lanka ; who, having conquered many enemies, entered the city of Airaradliapiara, and wore the 
beautiful crown at the request of the sangha for protecting the Order (i.e. the religion) of th 
Buaoha \ who, inviting monks from Arumana, caused the purification of tk&sangha of the three 

i " A i. j. (Texts) Vol. IV. p. 492 reads agravadanam**** " W* ***** 

8 Ibid, reads 0j 



o 



335 EHGRAPHIA INDICA. [Y OL . 

fraternities (niMyas) and gave three tulabharas 1 to the three fraternities ; who, bringing the whol e 
of Lanka under the shade of one umbrella, had been pleased to reign for fifty-five years with the 
ten priariples of regal duty 2 and celebrated seventy-three birthday festivities (tiru-nakshatram), 
gave orders to Nuvarapal 3 Devasenevirattar, and caused to be built within (the precincts of) 
ITi 1 .ru]uiu]a, which was the principal shrine of the great monastery of Abhayagiri the Mulas- 
thana (i.e. important seat of monks) in the city of Pulanari alias Vijayarajapura, the great 
temple of the Tooth Relic (dala-day-ppemmpalli), the permanent abode of the venerated Tooth 
Eelic and the Bowl Relic (dalada-patra-dhatu-svami-devargal), the crest jewel of the three 
worlds, an auspicious house for the first inauguration ceremony, a gandhalcuti* for the great stone 

image of Buddhadeva to whom annually is held the festival of opening the eyes and fbdn* 
collyrium thereon. 

(LI 25-39.) AstheMahasthaviraVyarini'Mugalan, the royal preceptor, well versed in all 

the sciences and scriptures., of good conduct and behaviour, who, being gloriously seated in tho 
Uturulmula (monastery) along with the ministers of the king was pleased to call us to his presence 
and said " The great temple of th,e Tooth Relic should be under your protection," we of the 
Mahatantra, havrng called together the Valaiijiyar, who are our leaders, and the Nag-arattar 
and others, who always accompany us, gave it the sacred name of "Munru-kai-tiru-velaikJcdran 
Laladay-pjKrumpaUi" (,'.. the great temple of the Tooth Relic of the Velaikkuras of "the three 
bands), and to make it remain as our charity and under our protection, assigned for the protection 
of this chanty one servant and one Mi of land (for his maintenance), from each regiment ; and 
bound ourselves to protect the villages under the supervision of this temple fruits ants 
and treasures, as well as the men seeking its shelter, even though (we may) suffer ruin or loss ; 
toetto!S' 8 t P all the requirements of this (temple), so long as our community con- 

tinues to exist, repairing such parts (of the temple) as get dilapidated. 



. 
SonS^d^^^^!? 6 1 * ta giV6n ^ laSt aS l0 ^ as the Mo - * * 

' ' * *""> "* OUI tad * " * be enra 



engraved on 

' 



* The ten principles of regal dutv as explained in Pali >> i, 

(rricMOg,), rectitude ^> ww ), ^tleSTSfLS , , ' *""** ( ^' pi ty (" 7a) ' "bewjfry 
(^WW^hnm-iity (,, fob^J^ (l-l*). freedom from wrath 

:ri;sr^r a tr j 

. i* , ' ^/ ws^ tlie nazne sriven fcn ft^A -r^-^4. x 1.1 T 

iunaelf, when he waa alive. p 6 of * be wtero occupied by the Buddha 



oeuc^es 
The ft* gmt ^ Mcorih.^ the R 7,, ^ ^ "^ ^t* <* ii, word. 

- 



Cording to the Hindu Law-books tS! S ^ d f * Buddha ' ^ Cftusin S oa n 
ct. Di ;lii QT .( 3 )t fa efM4,eommi tting adXv wUh tt ^fV^ ^ f " g & ^"^ (2) dr - kin 4T*" 
V we guilty O f the8e OTim ler ^ Wltil the wife of a religious teacher, And (5) associating *it 



39.] THE JUFAGADS IHSOEIPTION OF 




No. 39,-THB JUNAGADH INSCRIPTION OF JIVADAMAN (I), 

BY E. D* BAHEBJI, M.A- 

The inscription which is edited below for the first time, was discovered by some labour* 
the top of the dtadfll of Junagadh fort during the rainy season of 1919 Mr 7 Brol 
the then Chief Engineer of the Junagadh State, removed the stone slab on which it L wriM 
to the State Office building and, sending its inked impression, informed the Archaeological Survw 
Department of its discovery. It is now depositefl in the Bahadur Khan-ji Museum JunSffadk 

' 



During my visit in the month of October of the same year I read' the inscription from the atom* 
^nd took its estampages for publication; 

The record is incised on a heavy slab of stone, the inscribed surface of which measures 31 
inches by 10 inches. At present, it consists of two short lines mutilated 'both at the beginai? 
aad at the end. The first line begins with'the word fakatrapasya and ends with tlie numerical 
symbol fox 100. The second line begins with a proper name" and ends with the wdrd putra, The 
length of each of these two lines is 30" and the average height of the letters is S^V Judging, 
however, from their contents it would appear that originally these lines Were considerably logger! 
The slab beating the inscription must have been used for building purposes. It was found witi 
its face turned downwards in the debris of an old structure. When I saw it in the State OjQ|ce at 
Junagadh, the letters were full of plaster or mortar made of powdered bricks (soorkhi) and lime* 
Possibly 9 there were several other lines below, the second one which were mutilated when the 
stone was broken up to suit the requirements of the mason. 

The characters of the inscription are of the uaual type used in Western India in the 

second century A,D. and akin to the alphabet in which the Indhau inscriptions of 

Rudradaman I are written. The lower parts of lea and ' ra curve to the left. The three 

verticals of /aare almost equal in.height and all instances of the subscript form of this letter are 

tripartite. Fa and the lower part of ma are rather triangular, Both the verticals' of pa we of 

equal height. In the only extant symbol of the palatal ia the pendant drops from the right 

half of the curve instead of from the left, while the angularity is not quite marked. In the 

letter aha the cross bar is joined to the right vertical straight line and not to the left as 

usual in one case, i.e., in Jcshatrapasya, while in the other, *.&, in varshe, it seems to join 

both the verticals. 

The inscription is written in Sanskrit prose. The object of it, however, is not clear oa 
account of its mutilated state. The portion giving the date is unfortunately damaged and 
nothing is legible at the end of the fitst line, except the syinbol for 100. The record refers iteelf 
to the reign of JivadS.man whose exact rank cannot be now ascertained because the portion 
of the slab, where his titles were in all probability written, is now missing. That he was a 
Ijtshatrapa is certain- as that title is prefixed to his name* Two Jlvadamans are known to hrro 
had any connection with KathiSwar. The first prince of that name was the son, "of Dam&jada^WI 
and the grandson of Rudradaittan I who is known from his coins to have ruled in KSthiftwSar* 
from $he year 100 to 118 or 119 of the Sakaera,. The second prince of that name is StSiai 
J!vad&man> known to us from the coins of his son, Kshatrapa Rudrasii&haJI,',wlH> was ruling 
in$aka227 and seems to have succeeded to the'throna on the extinction of -the direct 
Descendants of CKSsH|jana or of the Mahakshatrapa Budrasiiiha ; On patepgra^Mo grounds, 
I am of opinion that the inscription under examination pertain* to the ieiga* f -tie 
Mahakshattapa J^iradSmau L The' second line of this record, contains four prpef 
names : [Va]stradatta, VSstunaifidika, , VastuiSarmmaka and BSmaka, Tie last word of 



340 EPIGKRAPHIA IHDICA, [Vol.. XVIII. 

the second line, if read as putra [9&m] would show that the first three persons were the sons of 
Kamaka. The inscription must have been incised to commemorate some pious act or the 
erection of some building by these three brothers. 

TEXT. 

1 [ksha]trapasya Sv[a]mi Jlvadamasya etaya purvvaya 1 varshfe] 100.... 

2 [Va]*tradattasya Vastuna[rn]dikasya Vas[fcu]6arminakasya Ramakasya putr[a].,.* 

NOTES. 

L 1 (a) The-tipper part of the ligature in 'ksJia is broken. 

(5) The cross bar in sha in varsJie is damaged. 

(c) The last letter looks like a but the downward prolongation of the right vertical makes f 

it certain that this letter is the symbol for 100. 
L 2 The restoration [Fa] stradatta is tentative. The reading may be [$a]*tradatta or [A] jtradatta. 

The form of V& in V&stunamdika is peculiar. The base line is very rnucTi curved and the upper- 
horizontal line has disappeared giving place to two curved lines which appear like bifurcations 
df the vertical. 

TRANSLATION. 

. . * . of the [Maha]kshatrapa Svami JIvadaman, on the above mentioned, in the" 

year 100 .[Va] stradatta, Vastunamdika (Vastunandin), Vastu^armmaka, the sons of 

Kamska.. ..** 



HO. 40. PEBUNEYIL RECORD OF KULASEKHARA-KOYILADHIEARL 

BY A, S, RAMANATHA/AYYATt, B.A, 5 HABEAS- 

This inscription Is engraved on a slab set up in the western prdMra of the Vishrin temple at 
PertraayH, a suburb of GhanganacJaeri which is a taluk-centre in the Kottayam Division of 
the Travancore State. It is in clear-cut and well-preserved Vattejuttu characters, which can, 
-from purely palseographical considerations, be assigned to the llth century A.D. or thereabouts. 
The language of the record is Tamil, sprinkled with a few dialectical peculiarities of the West 
Coast e.g. 9 irunn-aruli (1 15), aruliydr (1. 23), olla (L 41), vannu (I 58), and a$ilckumad**Qlifin5m 
(U. 61-63). 

The record which is dated in the 8th: year opposite the 2nd year of the reign of a 
certain king named Kulaseldbiara-Koyiladliikarigal, presumably of the Ghera dynasty, does 
not give the exact Kollam year but mentions simply the vague astronomical detail that 
Jupiter was ia Karkataka. But this defect, as will be proved below, is mended by two other 
inscriptions secured from Quilon 2 and Tiruvalur*, both of which are also in the Travancprfe 
State. The date portions in these two -inscriptions run thus : 

1. KoUan-tonpy=iruntrr-elupatt-ettam=an<Jai Ka^iiiyil Viyalam pukka ChiAna fiayipi 
onpadu Senra nal irandam^an(Jaikk=edir 



KoyikdlkarigaUayina Srl-Kula^ekhara-chChakkiravattigal Kurakke^i-kKollattu 
PanaiMavin koyilagattrirunnaru|a. 

1 [This pbioae usually follows the date* EcL] 

*.Tm>. ArM. &-164 Vol. V, p. 44. Na 54 of ;App. B of Arc^logkal &&$, . Report <Tr*va*core) ^ 

* t ' 



Ibid, Yet IV, p. 145. See.p.. 47 of the Archaeological Survey .Report (Travangore) for 1919-5^ 
4 2M portton is fiomewhat damaged ; an alternative reading of Kd*Raman is abo 



THE JUNAUADH INSCRIPTION OF JIVADAMAN (I.) 




SCALE ABOUT A QUARTER. 



S XV.f OF 



No. 40.] PERUNEYIL RECORD OP KULASEKHARA-EOYILADHIKARL 34! 

2. Makarattil Viyalan nin^a Ktda^ekhara-pPeruma^iraclicMyam va 
ediram =andu. 



edirama^Kj 111 - 

Of these, the latter is dated in the year opposite the 2nd year of the reign of 
pPeruma} when Jupiter stood in Makara, and the first-epigraph, which is dated on the 9th of 
ChiAgam m th^ Kollam year 278 (=August 1102 A,D.) when Jupiter stood in 
to "have been issued in the reign of Iramar-Tiruvadi K6yikdhikarigal=%%< 

ravartigaj in the second year opposite to the year padi , the second part of of 

the possible reading nora. Jupiter, which was in Makara in the 2nd-f Ifit year' 0f lit 

reign of Kula&ekhara-pPerumal according to the Tiruvalur record, would have on to 

Karkataka six years later. This was actually the planet's position in the 2nd4*&th ft 

KulaSekhara-Koyiladhikarigal as recorded in the Peruneyil inscription. the 

kings Kula&ekhara-pPerumal and Kulafiekhara-Kojdkdhikarigal mentioned in 
epigraphs appear to be identical. Again, it is clear that two years later, ic., in the 
year, Jupiter would be occupying the Kanya-ra&. In the regnal year of 
Chakravartigal which has been read as 2nd+llth in the Quilon 
actually in Kawi (Kanya). This proves beyond doubt that the three 
to in the epigraphs from Tiruvalur, Quilon and Peruneyil are Identical, and it also ;tht 

king Kulafiekhara may have ascended the Chera throne between the _ 
Karkataka of the Kollam year 265, i.e., between January and July 1090 AJX 

The title Koyiladhikari assumed by the king deserves some notion 

* a temple ' or ' a palace ' and adkikdri is a c controUer.' It is, possible that the ft* 

palace was left in the hands of an important officer, sometimes the young crown-prince 
who was consequently called the Koyiladhikari, and so Dr. Gundert has 

' l flVflFP 11 Arcbl* &&ri&& t -V6l. Ill 'p^'88;- ' '''' 

_ . .* it.. ^T.;^/%A in .fl.ll urobaMlity*, _ _^^, , ' 



342 BPIGRAPH1A INDICA. [VOL. XtHL 

of the other title Koyiladhikari which would indicate a subordinate position to Ramar-Tiruva$i y 
appears to be inconsistent. Ramar-Tiruvadi to whom Kula6ekhara was the Koyiladhikari (or 
Agent- in-chief ) may be taken to refer to god RameSvara of the Quilon temple, * Tiruvadi ' being 
a respectful term applied alike to gods, kings, queens and saints* 1 Or again,- Ramar-Tiruva<Ji 
Koyiladhikarigal may be taken as the proper name of the king and Kula&ekhara as his 
xegal title. If, however, Ramar-Tiruva^i represents a senior king whose Koyiladhikari was 
Kula&ekhara at that time, then we have to understand that though the latter has styled himself 
as an independent king in the more northern localities in the 4th and 9th years of his reign, he 
acknowledged a suzerain in Ramar-Tiruva<Ji in the somewhat* later Quilon epigraph. Future 
researches alone can decide this point one way or the other ; but it looks probable * that Kula* 
fiekhara of the three records was a Chera or Cochin king and that Quilon was his southern outpost 
where in the palace called Panaingavu 3 he had encamped on the 9th Chingam of Kollam 27Q* 
It may be noted that the Cochin rajas even now style themselves as Koyiladhikarigal in docu- 
ments pertaining to the landed property of temples, their full title being * Peruzaba^appu Qai 
gadhara Yira-KSrala Tirukkoyiladhikariga] '.* 

The king of this record oeing assigned to the end of the Hth century AJX, he must be 
different from KulaSekhara, the author of the Mvkundamala (a devotional poem considered to 
be the work of the Vaish^ava royal-saint Kula6ekhara-Alvar), and the patron of the author of 
the four yamaka- kavyas* entitled the Yudkishthiravijaya, the Tripuradahana, the auriJca~ 
th5daya and the Nalodaya, and from another Kula6ekhara, the royal author of the two Sanskrit 
dramas, the Tapatuamvaraw* and the Svbhadradhanafijaya, and of the undiscovered prose works 
the ASckaryamafijan 6 . 

The object of toe record was to state that the king who was seated in (the hall called) Ne<Ji 
yata]i ($ his capital t) in company mth the pjrsidents of the four assemblies and (the president 
.of } Tirukkunjappolai, issued, after due consultation with his ministers, an order granting 
the annual income of 40 Mam of paddy and the tax (?) called arandai from the village of 
Peruneydal for the expenses of feeding certain Brahmaiis and for expounding the Mahabharata 
in that temple. The recipients of the gift were tie ur (i.e. the members of the village assembly) 
and the poduval (i.e. officers supervising charitable endowments). This order was conveyed by 
RimaB-TSyan of Kamakka^appalli and NSraya^an^Narayaria^ of Ka4ambana<Ju to the 
Jwdipati (headmen or chieftains) -of the two villages of Kapalimafigalam and Muttflju, who 
thereupon met in the temple of Peruneydal and, agreeing to refrain from collecting the arandai 
in obedience to the royal mandate, had this stipulation engraved on a slab of stone and got it 
0et up in the temple compound. 

The record is important in that it gives us, though perhaps imperfectly, a glimpse into the 
official routine of the 12th century k Ke^a where, more than in any other place^ temple adminis- 
tration was entirely in the hands of ySgams* (corporations),, which were wielding in- 
dependent power in matters pertaining to temple politics, and which were presided over by the 
long. 



1 Trot^reU. Sema. VoL HI, p. 3. 

the ti 



p. 39, and MaUbar Qwvftrly >ew, Vol. VJIT, p 1J7 
pp. 263-75. -i.pn". 



No. 40.] PERUNEYIL RECORD OF KULASEKHARA-KOYILADHIKAEI. 843 

** ............ "" ......... "'""" ...... ..... " ...... """ ............. .- ...... -r ............. ^jyr* i' ........... . ; ' ..... ," ' >. ....... .;..' ..... ."!. ............. ,, , y-^a ..... ^I-L. ".:. . ................... '^ 

Neciiyataii accordiiig to the Keraldtpatti was one of the four assembly halls in tlie capital 
town, where the councils (ydgams) elected their kings (raJcsha-purushas) tinder the leadership of 
their presidents called the Taliyadirimar or Taliyalvaiis 1 . It is not apparent why the royal writ 
relating to the Peruneyil temple emanated from the Necjiyatali Assembly Hall instead of from 
the Merra]i representing Mulikkalam, which might be expected to have exercised its jurisdic* 
tion over Peruneydal, as it had done in the case of the Tmivaijva^diir and Tirukkakkarai 
temples. 



Pati or hitjtip&ti is the term which has been applied to chieftains in the Kottayam plates 8 
of Sthaiiu-Bavi Punnaittalai*ppati .and Pulaikkudi-ppati, wiio were petty chieftains con- 
trolling restricted areas. Deiavalis or officers in charge of dS&as or villages would be their equals 
in status. Arandai 3 which literally means c misery ', here appears to signify some kind of tax 
in money or in kind leviable by the village officers on behalf of the king. 

Of the places named in the record* Ea<Jamban4u 4 'and Ilandurutti are the localities from 
where the taliyadiris or presidents of the Necjiyataji assembly are said to have been selected. 
Kapalimangalam and Kamakkanappalji are mentioned in the Tiruvalla plates 5 and Muttiiju* 
may be the same as the modern Muttupi in the Tiruvalla taluk. Tirukku&jappula seems 
to be identical with the village of the same name near Karttigaippai|i (Quilon DEI.) and belonging 
to the E4appa]U chief. 7 



Neciiyataii and Mejjaii 8 occurring in several other records at Tirukkakkara! may, in all' 
probability, refer to these two assemblies in addition to being .specific villages answering to these 
names. 



1 Tali means * a temple ' but here refera to the meeting halls (within temples ?) where certain assemblies 
Compare v. 69 of the SuJcasande/a of Lakshmldilsa (circa 12th cent. A.D*) where the Chra capital 
Mahodayapura, has been described as having talis, presided over by all-powerful presidents: 



wrfro: 



* Trav. ArcTil Series, Vol. II, p. 80. 

3 Cotop. * arandai-faduttu varan-tctrum^ival-efta ' lilappadigar<m (Uraiperukaftww, 3). 

4 Trav. 8tate Manual, Vol. I, p. 220. 

5 Trav. Archl Series, VoL II, p. 196. 

6 Mutturru-kurram was, the name of an ancieni territorial division and it was situated somewhere in the 

kingdom (Puj^m v. 2&), but it had nothing to do with the village hi this .record Compare ?. 125 of 
the Un$unniaande$am 9 where this village has been r'eferred to i 
Mutt%ioJhohennini/a pu|ayam plnnilittSchohu Ganga* 
m-utiarya tvam viravo^u flakhe Nalnkd^ikkTi chelka. 

7 In the island of Vaipeen, there ia another I}angunnappn|a whose famous Subrahmanya temple was, prior 
to its absorption by the Cochin Durbar, under the management of the Raja of Paravur and an influential 
sanketam wielding high sacerdotal power (Cocbin.State Manual* p 373)* Tirukkunrappolaynm being naed ia 
the neuter gender can Lave nothing to do with the chief Y&kkan Kunjappojag. figuring in the Tinikkakkarai 
record* of the lOth century A*D* 

* Trav. Archl Series, Vol. Ill, pp, 165-8, nd 172-8. 



344 



EPIGRAPHIA IMTDICA. 



[VOL. XVIII. 



First side. 



2 rnandal=kkedir e- 

3 tpm=andu 3 Knlai 

4 skara~KoyiIadi-. 

5 karigal tiruv-ir* 

6 chchiyanschella* 

7 ninra Karkkatakat- 

8 til Viyakttf- 

9 1* Virichchika- 

10 fiayiyju nalu- 

11 taliyaiyun*Tirn- 

12 kkiinrappojai 5 - 

13 yuiUIriittiko- 

14 nduNeliyatali 

15 irunn-aruli Peru- 

16 neydal-attaik- 

17 kolal %alppa- 

18 dig-kalan-nel- 

19 lam Pemneyda- 
%Q 1-arandalyum a- 

21 ttiP-peray ti. 

22 rakkai nanaiclicli=a- 

23 ruliyar [||*] Ittai- 

24 kol namakkaramum 

25 Mabaratamun-ti- 

26 raYulIara paii- 

27 gily=:ariiliyar a- 

28 ma!clicliii]lnTn[t*]ti- 

29 y 3 Ku!aisekara-KS- 

30 yiladikSrlgal. [||*J 



TEXT. 1 

Second side. 

31 Ittaikkol 

32 narpadin-kala- 

33 mum arandaiyu- 

34 m Peruneydal- 

35 urum poduv-a 

36 lum attil-pe- 7 

37 ray kond[a]r [jj*] Koyi- 

38 ladikariga- 

39 1 Kapalimarma- 

40 lattura Muttu- 

41 rrum olla 

42 kudi-patik- 

43 ku tirumuga- 

44 n=tiruvullam- 

46 kkanappalli 

47 Iraman-Taya- 

48 num Kadamraan- 

49 :attu Naraya- 

50 na^^J-Nara 

51 iir-ppoduv-a- 

52 Itin=Ididi tiru- 

53 m[u]gam patiy~uju- 

54 tti 9 Irandur- 

55 kkudi-patiyu- 

56 m Penuieydal" 

57 mlXJkkalva 10 - 

58 fe'pattu vannu 



V. Subrahxnanya Ayyar, 



n is the Malayalam form of 
would be more appropriate, 



,T> * 
**** 



> boen usecl, an the sentcrcfi 

" - " x" *"" ** *"** *wtii4jji UJJL iilBIj fr*ftf* ai**Mft-t Xt, 1 f\ *" ww*w^ i-vvs 

hare beer, in vogue at the time of the JLnf^T^ ^ g , & fimte VCTb ta modera ^alayaJam coTJic! ,,ot 
bftfrandfojiiflftr. Psertt record, as declensional endings have been used in r%r, 

".Before va. t a letter has been entered and 



PERUNEYIL EECOED OF KULASEKHABA-KOYILADHIKARI. 



First Side. 



1 



Second Side. 



, 



32 



34 



36 






Third Side. 



10 



12 



16 



18 



20 



22 



24 



28 



30 



61 



63 



65 



67 



69 



71 










38 



40 



42 



44 



46 



48 



5C 



Printed by Survey of India, Calcutta, 192s. 



HJRANANDA SASTRI 



SCALE: ONE-SEVENTHS 



RECORD OF _ 

---- ...-,,, .,., ^y 




59 kxl4i a - 66 tti=kko- 

CO randai *a- 67 ^^ 



61 dikkuma- 



62 



63 5.0111 en~ 

64 ru kal=e- 

65 ludi na- 



68 tiruvu|- 
69 



70 



71 yar(ya) mfir- 
73 ggame [jj*J 



TKANSLATION. 
Hail ! Prosperity ! 

In the month of Vrischika, of the eighth year current opposite to the 
of (hi&j prosperous reign, when Jupiter was in Kar&atoka* 
was pleased to be present at Nediyatali taking (with Mm) the fourta/t* 1 
and "was pleased to grant -as an attipperu with libation of water, 
aruliy&r} the annual income of forty Jcalam of paddy (accruing) from Pdniao^fdal tlit 

arandai of Peruneydal. After informing the ministry, itlaekhars-EoyiiftdLikaiigfli| 
also pleased to order the feeding 4 (of persons) and (the reading of ) the 
temple) from (Ar) annual income. 

( TJie member s of) the village of Peruneydal and the poduval* tMs A- 

nual income 7 of forty Jcalam and arandaL 

The Koyiladhikarigal having issued the royal order to the chieftains of the of 

KapaliixiangalainandMuttijiru, and Kaman-Tayan of Kamakk&nappalii nai 
Narayanan of Kadambanadu, as well as, the w-podw&l, {Ait) 

roj^al order* to the chieitains, the chief tains of the inhabitants of two 
temple of Peruneydal and caused the fact that they, as stated in the royal t* 

levy 8 tiie arandai, to be engraved on stone and had it set up. 



i It cannot be ascertained whether there is any mistake in tMs word bem If * WM 

the word used is rather rare. Another word afrkhn*du * is defined by Mr. m J 

*aZ as a fee due to the fiirkar from the heir on Ms secession to the riMtf ^ 

Royal M fc Dr. Gundert explains it as * the rights retained by the original proprietor fcw tU 



to wet 



of charitable institutions. They were *^^ !* rlSti^? JU*to -* ** i* 

In tlie expression AftatUflft w- annual, and W {the snbstantare of * 
the annual income (in kind) fum the lands is meant 

seems to ieau ' realisation (of the tax). g k 



846 BPIGEAJPHIA .INDICA. [VoL. XVIII 

No. 41. THE GABAVAPADU GRANT OF GANAPATIDEVA ; &AKA 1182. 
By C. E. KRISHNAMACHABLU, B.A., OOTACAMUND. 

This grant is engraved on three copper-plates which were forwarded to the Assistant 
Archaeological Superintendent for Epigraphy, Southern Circle, Madras, in the year 1916, by 
M. E. Ry. M. Ramakrishnakavi, M.A., late of the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, 
Madras, who had obtained them on loan from M. R. Ry. T. Achyuta Rao Pantulu, M.A., Deputy 
Inspector of Schools. No definite information as to their discovery is available. Their 
contents have been reviewed in the Madras Epigraphical Report for the year 1916- 17. * The 
plates have since been acquired for the Madras Museum and deposited there. 

The plates are oblong in shape and are held together by a copper ring, the ends of which are 
rivetted into the back of a circular seal. They measure 91" by 5f * and are about $" in thick- 
ness. . The ring and the seal have a diameter cf 3" and 2" respectively. The ring had not 
been cut when the plates came up for examination. They contain four faces of writing in all, 
the first and the last plates being engraved on their inner sides only. The entire set with, ring 
and seal weighs 274 tolas. On the seal, on a counter-sunk surface, are engraved in relief (1) the 
symbols of the Crescent and the Sun at the top ; below these (2) a boar* facing the proper left 
wi& -a -dagger pkced m its front with the point upwards, and (8) a cow facing the proper left at 
the -bsttfona. r 

The inscription is eomposed-in theSanskrit language and written in the Telugu characters 
of -ate period to which it belongs. 'The invocatory and narrative portion of the record (lines 1 
to 45) MBMtBri I 21 verses. This is followed, in lines 45 to 63, by the categorical enumeration 
dfte donees w** their gUm** their shares. Lines 63 to .65 give the boundaries of the gift 
Yinage^ These are followed, in lines 65 and 66, by the usual minatory verse beginning with 
*TO aad the closing benediction 'flBWPfrWWt:\ On the whole, the Lcrip- 

ftfcrf T 7+t ^ T ^ Tke P08iti0n f tte anus a is aot iform ' ^ some cases 
^splaeed at the proper eft top corner of the letter to which it belongs as in the later Chalukyan 

' and flcy of style - 



f Klidasa :, T If e&t ^ ? ur mind * to the beautiful egression 

n9T ^f3Bfra^f%[H^iT in the Megkaduta, by his phrase 
employed in verse 6-. P 



i30. 

fortgoSbeloDgingtoKingPmtapanidraof this family has the 
i of the XsJcatiyas has been noticed by Prof. Hultzsch (above, 
o ^ ^w^ton^ m which the Boar' emblem is carved, 
(or 3W185, aa given in the inscription, unless th* mKannW. ., -. ig ft 



No. 41 J THE GABAVAPADU GRANT OF GANAPATIDEVA, AKA 1182. 347 

This inscription is tlie second copper-plate record, hitherto fotm$, of the Kakatiya 
dynasty. The one already discovered also belongs to the time of King Grasgiapatl and is published 
in the Nellore Inscriptions . l It is dated in the Saka year 1176 corresponding to the cyclic year 
JLnanda and is thus six years earlier than the grant under notice, 

In verses 1 to 6 are praised in order Vighnaraja (i.e., Vinayaka), Varaha, SarasvatI,* 
the moon-crest of Sambhu, the Lord of Ambika (i.e., Siva), and Vishnu* Verse 7 gives the 
description of the Lotus coming out of the navel of Vishnu from which was born tBe four- 
faced Brahma (verse 8). Verses 9 and 10 state that from his eye came JLditya (i.e+. Sun) and 
from him came Mazm who was a king that regulated the castes (varnas) and (their) 
duties (dharmas) etc. The genealogy from Aditya given in tie record is as follows : 

Aditya. 

i 

Manu. 

KaHkala-Cliola. 

! 
Durjjaya. 

Prola. 



Kudra. Mahideva, 

Ga^apatideva. 

KalikSla-Cliola is stated to have gone to the BaksM^apatlia in the course of a hunting 
expedition (verse 11). Alighting there upon a famous town called * Kakati * he pitched Ms 
extensive camp near it (verse 12). King 3>-arjjaya who had the epithet Ra^a-durjayQ? (invin* 
cible in war) was the next notable member of this family by whom the line of the Kakati Mugs 
was first established (verse 13). Then is mentioned (verse 14) King Prola i.e., Prola II according 
to the genealogy of the Motupalli record of Gariapatideva. 4 His son was Rtidra (verse 15) who 
was succeeded by his younger brother Ma&adeva whose elephants made a breach in the ramparts 
of the residence of the Sevuutia (king) 5 (verse 16). His son was King Ganapatideva whose 

1 Copper-plate No. 17. 

The expression actually used Is ' 8<lraavataKh&adi-tSjd&* by which, it is clear the author is glorifying fcbe 
goddess Saiasvati. 

a A Copper-plate grant of about the 7th century A.D. (No, 6 of Appendix A to the Spigra&foeal M^on tot 
1916-17) mentions Maharaja Ra^a-durjaya as the founder of the family to which king Ppthivi-Mahizaja of <& 
record belonged, He belonged to the Kaiya-pa-go^m. It may be recalled here that KankaJa.Gh.6la *y*d ttw 
descendants claimed to belong to this gotra and that the long inscription at Malkapnmm refers to the KAfcottyaa 
Burjava-K^hatriyas ( A T ^m^caZ Report OT 1916-17, page 122, para, 32). 

**JB[p. Ind., VoL XH, page 189. Prof. Hultzsch remarks here that 'the first king of this dynasty, Brdla I is 
not mentioned in any other Kakatlya inscription/ It may, however, be noted that he is the earlier of tte two 
*Pr61as' mentioned in No. 107 of the Madras EpisraphicaJ Coltecfcion for 1902. Fmm No. 204 of 1905 it is 
seen that Prola H had two other sons, v&., Harihara and Ganapati, not generally known. Of these Oanapafci |McobaHy 
died at an early age. 

This must be the Devagiri Yadava king BMHama who reigned from A.B. 1187 to 1191 or Jaitogi I who 
reigned from A.B. 1191 to 1210 (Bom. Oaz. 9 Volume I, Part 2, page 519), Mahad^a^ latest jear wrold 

|>e AJ). 1197 or 1198. 

2 T S 



348 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. - [VOL. XVIII 

exploits were great (verse 17). His minister was Devaraja 1 wlio was famed for Ms wide 
charities (verse 18). He had four sons through his wife Lakshmi ; they were respectively 
called Rama, Tikka, 3 Maincliaya and Betaya (verse 19). In the Sakayear 1182, correspond- 
ing to the cyclic year Randra, in the month Chaitra, on the day of the Solar eclipse in tke 
dark f ortnigflit,. Tikka, the second of the said four sons, granted the village of Garavapa<Ju 
as an agrahara, to fifty Brahmans of several gotras* learned in the Vedas (verses 20 and 21), 
The date, according to the late Dewan Bahadur L. D. Swamikannu Pillai's Ephemeris, corre- 
sponds to Monday (not given in the inscription) April 12, A.D. 1260. On this day there was 
a Solar eclipse as stated in the inscription, 

The statement that Karikala-Chola fixed his capital at Kakati in Dakshi^apatha IB not 
found in any other known record of this dynasty, though Kalikala (or Karikala)-Chola as an 
ancestor of the family is mentioned in some. In a few records, however, * Kakati ' is referred to 
as a place with which its early members were connected. An unpublished epigraph 4 refers to 
Kakati as the * family city * (kulapura) of this dynasty. Another such epigraph 5 refers itself 
to king fi Gaijapatideva of Kakatiyyapura.' 

A chief named Kakartya Ghujdyana is mentioned in an unpublished copper-plate grant* 
belonging to about A,D. 945 as a subordinate of the Eastern Chalukya king Amma II- 7 The 
family to which the chief belonged is called Samantavoddi The epithet c Kakartya % which is 
evidently a variant of ' Kakatya, must, therefore, refer to a place to which the chief belonged. 
It is thus almost certain that e Kakati * was an ancient place and the family name Kakati, 
ELakatya, Kaketa or Kakatiya was based upon the origiriSl connection of its members with a 
town of that name and not upon the worship of any family deity as suggested by Kumarasvamin 8 
[Burnell quoted by Fleet. Ed.] the learned commentator of the PratSparudriya. . If the latter 

1 Devaraja was not the only minister of the Jong for we are told that a certain Sivadevayya was Ms Chief 
Minister (Lives of Tdugu Poets by Viresalingam, Old Edition, page 36) who was looked upon as no less than a god. 
Sivadevayya must have been identical with the great Saiva teacher Vifive^vara-Siva-Desika, the pontiff of the Gajajd- 
maika and the raja-guru of three Mags among whom was King Ga^apati (JSpigraphical Report for 1917, page 123)* 

'The commander Tikka feas to be distinguished from his two oontempo^xies of this name mz. 9 (i) the great poet 
Tikfcana who wrote the latter fifteen parvas of the Telugu MaMbJi arcda and who is stated to have gone as an ambassador 
to the Court of Ga^apati from long Mantanasiddhi of Nellilra (Nellore) whose minister he was and (ii) the warrior Tikka, 
the cousin of the poet, who was the commander of the armies of Mamimasiddhi. Siddha, the father of the last was 
n^iiuster under king Tikka, the father of Mantunadddhi (Ztra.o/ Tdu&t Poets, pages 33 to 39). The name Tikka, it 
may l>e noted, is a contracted form of 'Tiruk-KaJatti* a Prakrit form of c Sn-Kalahajstf.' The name was taken after 
that of tlie popular god Sri-KaJahastfs vara at Kalahasti, Chittoor District, Madras Presidency, See Nellwe /w*cf tjp- 
f ion*, A- 7, G, 45, Q, 60, etc. 

8 Though verse 20 of the inscription states that the village was granted to ' fifty' Brahmanis, actually only forty- 
niae Brahmans received shares. The fiftieth share was granted to Vallabha of S:rlkakolanu viz., Srikakujam in the Dhri 
taluk of the Kistna district. This is the god of the place who IB known also by the name * Srikaku}esvara* and has 
beea popular from early times (see Madras Epigraphical Collection lor 3893, Nos. 136-172). While making grant* 
of agraharas it was customary for ancient kings to provide shares for the local deities and for the Vedas v chiefly JJik 
and Yau'us (ribove, Vol. XVI, p. 253, text line 273 and p. 263). The first eleven recipients of shares arc of the 
YflBka-^m which is very rarely met with in these days. Yaska, the- author of the Nintfrta, was of this gdlra* 
His patronymic is Paingim the Anukramayii of the ItreyWafcM (Weber Indiscfo Sfadien, I 71, n; 3396; Vedic 
Index by Maodonell and Keith, VoLII, page 23). The^Muni Yaska is mentioned in the Ah^yma-SrautQwirG 
(Utiat&rdfM) along with Vadhiila, Manna, Mauka, ^rkarakfihi, Saishti, Savarni, Salafikayana, Jaimri 
Daivantyayana, most of whom were founders of gdtm 

* No. ^)4 of the Madias Ipigraphical Collection for 1906. 
No. Ill of 1902. 



?J4<a t page 1171 

' IvA. Ant+, Vol* XI, p. 



No. 41.] THE GARAVAPADU GRANT OF GANAPATIDBFA , SAKA 1182. 349 

were tlie case (Jho deity would have been invoked or praised at least in a few of the innumerable 
records of tins family. And even if there was such a deity known or familiar to the commentator 
it must have been called so after the place fi Kakati.' 1 There are many instances of the presicU 
ing goddess Durga of a village being called after the village. 2 

Kanker, the head- quarters of the state of that name, situated immediately to the north of 
the Bastar State in the Central Provinces was formerly called Kakera, Kakaira and Kakaraya. s 
Since epigraphs refer to Kakati as a yura (i.e., city) as noticed above, it is very likely that 
Kanker, as suggested by its ancient names, was identical with KakatL The forms * Kakati * 
* Kakatya/ etc. might have, in local pronunciation, taken the forms Kakera (<?/. the form Kaketa). 
The connection of the Kakati kings with Kalikala-Chola, wlio is well-known to South Indian 
history as a king of about the 6th century A,D., and the story that he fixed lis capital at the 
town of Kakati and the appearance, in the adjoining state of Bastar, of an early (Jaka 983) Ch$la 
Chief Chamdraditya-Maharaja 4 who calls himself, like the Kakatlyas, a descendant of Karikala- 
Chola, point to the possibility of the said identity. The advent, again, of Annamaraja, the 
brother of Kakti (i.e. Kakati) Prataparudra into Bastar, the present ruling family of which is 
Kakatlya though curiously enough SomavamSi must have been only a return to the inherited 
family territory lying here or such territory reconquered and recovered now. 5 

Among the boundaries of the gift village no village or town is mentioned to help us in its 
identification. There are villages of the name *Garapadu * in the Guntnr and the SatteuapalJe 
taluks of the Guntur district and in the Nuzvid taluk of the Kistna district. From the reported 
fact of the discovery of the plates near Ellore in the latter district it may have to be identified 
with the village of Garapadu in the Nuzvid taluk. 6 

TEXT.7 

[Metres. Vv. 1, 3 SragdJiara ; v. 2 Svagata ; v. 4, Indravajra ; vv* 5, 18 and 20 JayMlawk~ 
rl<$itam ; v. 6 MandaJcranta ; w. 7-8 Upajati ; v. 9 Hariri ; w. 10, 12-14 and v. 21 
Anuvhtubh; v. 11 Pushpitagta; vv. 15-17 MSKni ; and v. 19 Upendravajra.] 

First Plate* 



almost aU earlier inscriptions the family name is given as 'Kakati* (see Ios. 213, 244 and 288 
Epigtaphical Collection for 1893). 
2 [and vice v ersa. Ed.] 

Vide Nos. 252 and 253 of the Madras EpigrapMcal Collection for 1908 and Kbs. 124, 128, 109, 258 and 229 of frbe 
Li&te of Inscriptions of Central Province* and Berar by HiralaL 

*No. 198 of the Lists of Inscriptions ofCenlmlPrccmce$andBeraraxLdl$Q. 231 of the Madras Epigranbieal 

CoEeotion for 1908. ^ m t 

6 [It is doubtful if philology can allow of such a derivation. Besides, history or rather tradition, goes ag&iBst it in 
as tauch as the Kakatiyns are said to be the descendants of the Panuava Arjuna and of the Lunar race wteea* 
Karikala-Chola and Ganapatideva belong to the solar race. Ed.] 

[Line 64 of the text would show that it stood on the Bha&irathT. N. P. C.] 

7 From ink-impressions kindly lent by the Assistant Archaeological Superintendent for Epigraphy, Aladras. 
a This side of the plate is marked close to the ring-hole with the TeluguKannafia numerical %\ne for 1, 

Tiro Kns commences with a spiral which may stand either for C m or for Sri. 1 lie latter is more probable raK-e 
even to-day the orthodox practice in the Tcfcgn country is to commence any writing *tlh tlic ietto Sri ^P ae 
ornamental flourish representing-it. [See above Voi, xvil, p. S52 tnl EcLJ 



350 



EPIGRAPHIA IND1CA. 



[Vox,. .XVIII. 



6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



12 5 



14. 
15 



17 
18 

19 
20 

21 
22 

23 

24 
25 



[**] ?r- 



Second Plate ; First Side. 



n O*] 



^: n [u*] 



Bead 
Read 



* E * ad 



f?m. 



*Read ?^ [and ^W^ Ed.] 



"Bead 



Ed.] 



8 



10 



G ABATAFABU . GHANT OF GAN APATIBEVA : SAKA 1182. 












C//CJO. 



,SV<SJ 



>/>' o33', 

/ 



S *_) (^ y t , <S* -v f~\ O 

^ -' v^/- -.> .-o ] v _ 



12 
14 



S Ao- 



vo-JlcxX>cc '^ T->u 




H. 



SABTR.X . 



SCALE -e 



OF INJDIA, CALCUTTA. 




SEAL. 





,. 41.] THE GABAVAPADU GRANT OF GAUAPAJIDEyA, AKA 1182. ttl 

iw*- 



wfffaftfa maira w ^fiis i miiM 



26 



27 

28 
29 

30 wftr nt 
31 



32 

33 



34 



87 
38 
89 

40 



42 



rr 

46 feHTTO I 



H U*3 



Second Ptoe ; Second 8i 



* 






352 EPIGEAPHIA IKDICA, [YoL. XVIII. 



47 *rfr i *Rran4: ^nrr^ r ?|siTO9f fswft i 
48 



Third Plate. 1 

.49 itfRwnrot i *TTC*n4: ^vrwt i in* *n<*i*rNT; n 
i "^fr- 



ee ^rsn: i^fWT^t i . *rmn*; ^^vrr^ n (i) 



[t] i*3WTft I Wt^fTO H^HT^ I [l] 

[i*] 



52 f^nRr: n^mpit i 

r. [it*] 



53 ^tTTimf fwTift i ^T[*r]*rr4: 



54 qww i mr*r?n*zh 

^ 
65 ift r 



68 ^nW 5 : nRW*f1r i sftfref: n^wmt i 



69 iFrrtei: u ^wi: isRwft j 5Rtw*ns 
eo i*?iwT*ft i ^Rtwfiw. i^wmt t 



: u 
61 ^wn^r: ^9p*rT^t i 



56 rT^r: TRwrft i ^t?w^^r: u ^fW: i^rwft i ^ri^RT'Tt^: n 



57 ^: ir^ i^ 8 5! s ri n 



1 The pkte is marked with the Telugu numerical figure lor 3 near the ring-hole. 

2 [ Danfa, is nnneoesBarjr.-r-Ed.] * Read 



No. 41.] THE GARAVAPADU (HUNT OF GANAPATIDEVA. SAKA 1182 



tr[rr* 




65 IT: 



66 



H 



TRANSLATION. 

(Verse 1) Salutations to VighnarEj*, offered evejy 
(Verse 1). " u * 



dug the 
~ convey great pleasure, cause the enjoyment of the 

i-coast, set a-dancing everlasting fame in every quarter of 

[ding deity of 
"were once 



Bvah, .ho .e.to.s 



even on 



Uke the 0-^ (Moon,, the 

sf J^- 



beautMwith (the godd.) 




[Rules of mU are not observed in this list, Ed J 

Eead ^^: 

{The dw4a is to l)e omitted. Ed.] 



354 BPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [Voj,, 

able to the cloud (lit* with lighting), that is moid of fickleness and handsome, be ever for (t.e, 
grant) that prosperity of limitless increase such as overflows with elephants, chariots and horses ! 

(V. 7). From the navel of this (Vishnu) who desired to create the world there appeared a 
lotus* which did not depend upon the Sun for its awakening (i.e., blossoming) and which did not 
depend upon the splendours of tjhe moon-light for its sleep (i.e., closure). 

(V. 8). From that lotus arose the Self -torn (Brahma) simultaneously determining the four 
quarters with -the four faces beatitiful -like itself (i.e., the lotus) and even so (i.e., simultane- 
ously) revealing the four Vedas with thejr branches (anffas). 

(V. 9). Of his eye was horn the Sun, the ornament of the three worlds, whose round form is 
adorned with the light which is hostile to the mass of darkness and who opens (i.e., ^awakens), 
at the mom, the entire world (which is) like a lotus closed in all round fey they eight petals, viz., 
the eight quarters. 

(V. 10). From him was born the king Manu, the regulator of castes and (their) duties, who 
was praiseworthy among the lords of the earth like Vasava (i.e., Indra) among the Devas. 

(. 11). Then (i.e. y in course of time) ruled this earth Kalikala-ChdJadeva, who had 
Ms birth in that noble race (o/M&nu). Sporting, for the sake of hunt, in the several quarters, 
lie reached DakbbiqApatlLa. 

(V. 12)* Reaching there the well-known town called KlJkati, the king fixed his extensive 
eamp at that extensive place. 

(V. 13). In his family ivas bofrn King Dizrj jayfc, unconquerable in war (mwa-durjciya), whofte 
foundation (people) say that the Kfikati kings, bom in his race, were., 

(V. 14). In his line was born the king called PrSlaraja, who was a lion to the elephant, 
mz t ih$JbLOstile kings disinclined to do homage (to him). 

(V* 15). (4*) adorned that race, his son" tCudradeira, who removed all sufferings on eartfc 
and the sea-fije'of whose prowess, causing internal (i.e., mental) distress, quickly consumed the 

oceans of hostile Mugs. 

. (V. 16). Then, his younger brother, the glorious Mah&devaraja ruled the entire circle of 
ta earth right up to the Chakravala mountain, the residential rampart of the SSvtupa (king) 
bteaohed by the tusks of whose elephants, eclipses the Krauficha mountain cleft by Saravapi- 
bhava (i.e., Kumara). " 




itmbreiTa subject to (the (Mhbr&y of) no other king. 

<Y. 18). Now, 4at king had a minisi&r (named) DeVar5ja ? who possessed 'his confidence, 
who was the repository of the glory of the moonshine of great faihe, sung by thettoatH* of the 

^1,^^ '.JK* ^ ^;^ V ^ to* dirt, Which was the 'inmiknobntaUa 

^vferiy df learned mep, with the waves of 'the^big str^s of ^ter (pourM ^m the occasion*) 

of gifts and who was the refuge ,of all (kinds of) prosperity ' 

ied with the protection of the three worlds. 

w <to***U* (*.e, ^ight) 

1U82, in the (*yelic) yiar called RaiSra; j n the molth 

, ^ ( " ^ *"* ' (/ ^^ n <.~.*.*) the 

the wise and the Ulustnous feeneta! Tikka, of those (/ou. ^fa^..-^ *o 



No . 4,.] THE GABA7APADP OBAOT OF GASAPATIDEVA . SAKA 1182: 



Brahma-*, an extensive and prosperous a 
paddy (-fie* * 



.e, Bratanan village) p~*, feoitfnl 



(V. 21). (ffawimAr) are written the names am TO < "*,; , 
a the Vedas and holding shares in this (agfMa) called Garavapa^ 


i " 






mwmsoiumaum 


^^..^...nu,..,..^!, mi nn i in, i 










Share 




No, 


Name. 


Share 
or 


Gotra. 


No. 


Name. 


or 

share^* 


Qtiba. 






shares. 












1 


Somanatharyya . 


2 




26 


Prolanaryya 


1 




2 


Janarddanaryya . 


1 




27 


Kamanaryya 


1 




3 


Namanaryya 


1 




28 


Prolanaryya 


1 


s-SriYatsa. 










29 


Mamenaryya 


1 




4 


Vamanaryya 


1 ! 




















30 


Prolanaryya 


1 


. 


5 


Kamanaryya 


















o 




81 


Suranaryya 


1 




6 

7 


Mailararyya 
Somanatharyya * 


& 
I 


^Yaska. 


32 
33 


Suranaryya 
Amnenaryya 


1 
1 


Gautama* 

Atreya. 


8 


Ke^avaryya 






34 


Maranaryya 


1 


Vadliula, 


9 


Matavaryya 
(Madhavaryya?) 






35 


Namdanaryya 8 . 


1 


Gargya. 


10 


Damodararyya . 


I 




36 


Potanaryya 


1 


} 


11 


Maranaryya 


I 




37 


B5ddanaryya 


1 


V-KaSyapa. 


12 


Kesavaryya 


2 


\ 


38 


Mailararyya 


i 


j 


13 


Chodanaryya 


1 




39 


Prolanaryya 


1 


"> 


14 


Naganaryya 


1 




40 


Kollanaryya 


1 




15 


KeSavaryya 


1 




41 


PrSlanaryya 


1 


."BhtoWjfc 


16 


E^apStaryya 


1 




42 


Kdnimanaryya . 


1 




17 


Prolanaryya s 


1 


>Harita. 


43 


Chauvanaryya 


1 


s 


18 


Narasimharyya . 


1 




44 


PrSlanaryya 


1 


"* 


19 


PrSlanaryya 


1 




45* 


Koihmanaryya . 


1 




20 


Adityaryya . 


1 




46 


KSihmanaryya . 


2 


LKanSita. 


21 


Bhaskararyya 


1 




47 


Ctevarddhonoryya 


1 




22 


pQtanaryya 


1 


* 


48 


Kesavaryya 


: i 




23 


Pdtanaryya 


2 


i 


49 


Me4anaryya . 


i 


- 


24 


Chavanaryya 


1 


VSiivatsa. 


50 


Vallabha of 


i 


TMsisagod. 












Srikakolanu. 






25 


Appanaiyya 

- iiiiiiiiiiiinmil 


Ml HIM Hill" "1 


J 

^ '""""" 


nmiiiiiiii iiiimi 




" 


an i "'' 




BeadNandanarya 



SS6 EPIQBAPHIA ITSDJOA. [Vox,. XVIII. 

LI. 621 The boundaries of this village (are) : 
On the east : tJ^^&ulalro^te 1 ; 
On the south-east : Velagaktianta 1 ; 
On the south : the centre of Nelagu^a* ; 

On the south-west, west and north-west : (the stream) BMmaratlil ; 
^)n the north : PSyuziipiitta 3 ; 
On the north-east : Mtiraputta*. 

V. 22 is the usual minatory verse warning one against the sin of revoking gifts of 
land made by oneself or by others.] 

(L. 65). May there be three-fold prosperity, auspicious and great ! 



must have been a pond. 
Tliis musfc have been an ant-hilt, 



INDEX 1 . 



A 






PACE 


a, accusative plural ending in, 


. 182 




. 146 


& 9 used for ya, * 


. 219 


AWhaya, Chofa L 9 


. 28,29 


Abhaya, wn <?/ KuLottunga II (t), 


68 


Abiayagiri, Euddhist sect, * 


. 331. 


AbhayagirimahaviMra, * * 


. 337 


Abhayagiri-vihara* 


. 332, 333 


Abhayagiri monastery, . * 


. ' 338 


abhttvaramawa, official, . 


. 306 


Actcliaviiina-Chadangavi, m* 9 


, . 122,124 


- 


309, 310 


AoncnipOyi} ^u&en, * * 




Achyutapuram plates of Indravaraan, 


. 308 


a4$a~chinna, coin, 


173, 175, 176 


Q., 


. 334 






a<j&tMn&a official* * 


. 249 


AdMrajendra, CWJa i. 


. 30, 332 n. 


AdMrajendradeva, CAote k. f . 


. 332 


A<pgal Ga^dan Maj;ambavai, probably 


queen of 


Nandiwrwan III* 


. 118 


Aditya, m., 


213, 214-, 217 


Aditya alias Koda^arama, CMla h, 


27 


Aditya or Adityavarman, CJi$a k, 9 . 


. 23,42,52 


Aditya I, CJidla k.* 


. 23,24,118 


Aditya-Bhogika, m. 9 * ,. 


308,310, 311 


i j*A ii/r *- ti*** A 


. 308 






T jj. - 


352, 355 








81 






AdityeSvara, . a. K6dan4arame5vara, 


. ' .'23, 24 


odyo-pitJiO') * * 


. 241 


jr 


19,113,212,217 1 


AgastySvara, jroZ, . 


216, 218 


AgastyeSvara, te,, . . 


170, 212, 213 


AghSra (Siva), . 


197, 199 


Agila, m., .... 


326, 327 


Oflm&6<ra, rite, 


238, 250, 257 


Agni&mma-tTiruvedi (Trivedin), m n 


122,124 


Agnilarmman, OTJ, 


* " ' 1 



PAGH 

216,228,231,234,236 
27,,46, 174 
JLhavamalla (SSmeSvara I), GJi&lv&ya L, 26, 54, 55 ., 

A B% 

54 



ASchadeva, flt., .... 
Aichula, m., ..... 

Aihole inscription,. 
Aimpanaichcheri, *. a. AimbmiaioholiM, part o/ 





.AimpagaicliohSri (AimbopaiohchSri), ., 116, 122, 124 
Ajchha(jjavara) HaHmayya .o. Nakiiaayya, 



Ajjava,/am%, . . 183, 184, 187, 192, 19& & . 

SjtfS (executor) 309,310,311 

ajnapti (executor), 4, 7, 11, 14, 57, 58, 60, 118, 

228, 233, 235, 259, 314, 316 

OQ 

AkaMka& CJiSfa k. 9 * 

Akalavarsha, Ba*hfralwt& &* * * 2 * 4 ^ 
Akkatangera-bhavi, well, . . - . HI 
Akshapada or Nyaya, school, .' 176 B. 

official, . 9 . . . 22L228 



. . ^,295,296 

. . . 312,313 

^ ^ t / 81, 63 n. 

Alaka or Alakapra, city of Kubem* 174, 177, 19?,1B& 

' * lAtffc 1AK 



Ajajara Kagadevayya, 
Alama]j.(Ja plates of tiie year 304, 
Alambakkam, '. o. Alappakkam, 
Alambakkam, t., e . . 
Alamvunahapura, 

vs., . > 

stAoZa, di., 
Alapa, di., . . . 
Akpaka-Ba}, . . 
Alapagrama, vi., . . * 



192, 195 
311, 312 
. . 118 
. . 119 
219,221,223 



166, 17 
219,223 
. 2.4 
. 800 
. 281 
123, 124 
118, 118, 121 






1 MT IT. D. Jsaniiiw*Uf *>* **> * ***j v ***^, *~~ r ^ , , , A t j^;4i^*. 

vi vElage or town; u?= woman i 



EPIGBAPHIA IKDICA. 



JToi,. XVIII. 



Macsdmian &, 282 

AKTiLun, it, . , * . * .119 
., ... 161, 163, 164 


Bittiiri; .... 158, 159, 317 
Ctauitha* . 5, 21, 22, 115, 331 

Gapta Biibmi; 18 

Kamuwfaor Kanareee, 138, 171, 178, 182, 189, " 

186, 199, 201, 205, 206, 207, 208, 212 
. 16,20,262 

74, 10Q, 128, 219, 224, 284, 320 
- * * 138, 160, 165 

OlAEjmwre, 17 2 

PaBam-Qwatii, . 
Tamil - , - 



Anaulundava, w. 9 . * 335 

A&bfl plates or grant (of Srndara-Gh6Ja) 15 n., 26 



, s. a. AddanM ?, 
vi. 9 . ' . 



, 

Ajxwlapentika-ffr5ia f '., . 
AaarftTOtaa 




- - - ATCTJ 1 

- 5,21,22,115,138,331 
* 227,346 
. 165 
. 340 
. 62, 63 



or > (India), 



, mytk, 



306 



227 



352,355 



Amma (IT) or Ammaia 
raja (I), 

" 

B-. qf 

-285,286,287,297 

I, MsKfraMfa i., 105, 235, 237 
238. 240, 241 & ., 242, 246, 247, 248, 249 



ye tablet of the year 72, 
or Amndafiganwntmi, 



* 290 
-228 
^ 232, 234 
. . . 189 
AndhakeSvara, ^. a. Madaaefivara, . . .189 
AndiiakeSvara (BMme^vara), te., . . 170^ j 71 
Andhasura (Aihdlia^iira), god, 185, 186, 188, 189, ' 

190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 205, 20$ 
Andhasura, a. a. Andhakefivara, te ff . m 17(> 
Jbadhau inscriptions of Eudradaman I, , . 33^ 
Indhra, co., . . .. . /04, 105, 108, 112 

andhraka, ....... m 

Indtiliya (Andoolea), ri., ... * 62 
Aiiigiras or Angiras, sage, 6, 10, 13, 116, 120, 123, 150, 



or A^ma^a^gura, m^ 228,232, 



Annada-mafigala, work, 
raja^aia 

inscription, 



- 

235 



2 72 



.64,65,67,68,69 



ika, official, .... 
m ..... 

* 68 f YaSabhafi i adg W 284, 303 
copper plate grant of Kaifca of 

...... 238 

BUT. of Gtdlnndct III, . . 24? 2g4 

awupravaras 

^ htakavat ...... .297 

Aurva, ..... 



Chyavanavat 
Jamadagni 
E5hitavat, . 



, official, . . 

32 W ., 33 ., 34 W ., 
nmecessary insertion of 
replaced by guttral nasal, 




. A-BMtatn ; 



-- 

footnotes; and HL to the additions 
' co - ==coimtr y 5 A-dbtrfot or division . 



INDEX. 



ttft 



f replaced by dental nasal, 
anusvara* used for nasals, . f 
anusv&ra, wrongly used for final ti 
awusv&rO} consonants doubled after, 
tmuttara, pewxnce, 

anuvara, 

Aparajita, Pattava k., . 



, 100 

160, 348 

87 

* 138 
131, 136 
190 & n 

24: 

. 314 ?t. 

SCO 

352, 355 
. 162 
264, 269 

205, 206 & *. 

342, 343, 345 



Apilomuleri, w'. ... 

Appanaryya, w., . 

Appar, Saivc saiwt, 

Ara inscription of the year 41, 

aradhya, title, 

arandai, tax, 

Arama^a or Arumana = R&naMa, 331, 333, 336, 337 

o-jrat-or ardiy-oldiy report 9 

Archer Type of Gupta coins, * 

Arghyatirtha, 

Arichit (Arifil), n., 

Arindama, Chdfa &,, 

Axifil, s. a. Arichit, 

Arjuna, epic hero, . 

Arka, 

Artha&astra, work, 



PAGE 

49 

* , . 156 
. 348 n. 

. 60,222,228,269 
. 166 

6, 10, 13, 150, 161 
. 289 



Arundhati, t#., 
Arura-ciiavadi, 



Aruva-nadu, 



Arvalam . a. Alivalam, 

Irya Patalamalla, s. a. Patalamalla, 



jiryavarta, 
Aiyyaiiu (?), family (?), 
Asadhia, m., '* 
Asanapura, trf. 

), official, 



Iseka, 



, title of 



ASdka or A66kavarmon, 
A^oka, Mawrya Emperor^ 
afiokatree, . * 



11, 14, 119, 124 
79 

179, 181 
. 7, 10, 13 
24, 27, 43, 53 
7 

. 53, 152, 217 
28 

. .. .156 
. , 119 
209, 211 215, 217 
163, 165 

177 & n., 178, 185, 188 

8 & *., 11, 14 

. 8 n. 

. . . 123 
, 119 
241, 247, 255 
. 149 
22, 26, 39, 51 
. 3,4 
156, 157 
55 & n., 56, 57 
- 157 
. 342 
. 328 
. 48, 54 
. 298 
147, 150, 151 
. 281 
65 



AsnrM (Vishnu), . ' 
asvadhyaksha, official, * . 
Afoalayana^ravtaaittra, work* 
asvamedha, $acri c fice+ . . 
a&vdroka, official ?, * . 
ASvattMman, epic hero* 
Athamallika, s. a. AthntBllik, 
Athamalik or Athmallife State, 

atithuantarpawa,) ^50, 267 

atithitarpawa, 238 

Atri, sage^ . . - 131 & ., 138 
l $ annual income, * 344, 346 

344, 346 & tu 

Attiraiya, used for AtrSya, * 122 

Atyantakama, epithet of Mjasimha II 9 149, 161, 15J 

Atirva, sage, . . , 133, 137 

AvaloMte^vara, BodhteaMva, 74 

ATanijaniimya, epithet of Pufake$irfa f . . 93 

Avanivarman n, Swrashpra, ch. 9 . . - 106 

Avanti, co* "ft M^ ^ ^^ 

Avantivarmman, jafaXan Jfc., * .82 
AvastM-Sri-Malhe, m., .... 226,226 
Ava^amba, used for Apastamfaa, * * * 124 

OAT 

avom, 

ly,^. 2l 

Lj, tribe, 161 

&TOMO, 173.174I76-. 

lyiOhflmO.^ .... 132,136,161 

1, .'270/271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 277, 279, 280 

974, 

Azea-AsciKses, *'* 

A^ilises, .-..- ** 



206 



Ba4agach! (Bur^achee), 
Badaksban, vi., * 
Badainl, caves at * 
Badaml, w\, 
Bagwan, w. 
Bahadur 
Bahubalin, 



93,288 



201 & i^ 302, 204 



360 



BPIGEAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. xvm. 



n"., 
B&hur, n., , 

Bailsman { Valla-ma p/afo ?), , 



Jr. 9 



PAGE 
. 302 

5x O 
j O, */ 

mm fi?O 

173, 175, 177 
82, 83, 84 & n. 
. 114 
inscription of the time of CMJnkya 

321 

IT. ?, 268 

pnd . 259, 260 

Balanandi, IP., ...... 268 

a , . 268,282 

Bali, fe f . . . 32, 48, 112 n. 

78, 78 & i*., 238, 250, 257 
189,131 
ft. f . ... 130 

Balliguni, vi., 334 

93 

B&mad*ya 7 m., . .156, 157 & TO. 

fc p , 300,301 

Banuuighaft .,..... 300, 301 

gmot of BSjabhafijadeva, . 283, 300 

grant of RagaUutijadfi?a . 283, 300 

9 



...... 208 

BrtgM,K^ **... 85 

** * * * " * 320 

BAnswiiS, plates (of BhSjadeva), 320, 321, 322 . 

Baramba, staU, ..... 288 

Barg^w-, _ ! .". 22*0 

Baxipadi, m,, . . 9^0* QAA *>m 

* AO^ oUU, OUx 

plates of . KM.,105^,239 
(Broach) 93 

. 242 

^ m IfiQ 

. . . . 288,300,302 



. 

pmnfc off KuakabliA5jadva . " 291, 302 

graat of Iteijablmfijadevm of the 26ti 

. p ... 283, 300 
gwal of' Ba^afeliafijadem of the Mtb 
***** * 283 



PAGE 

Bauka, Pratthara Jt, 87 P 88, 89 & ^. 9 94, 95,, 96, 97, 98* 

99, 1O2, 103, 106 

bde, . . . , . 192, 195 
Belur, s. a. Veiapara, . . 241 

Belvaladt, . , 174, 177, 178, 179, ISO, 181, 

183, 184,. 186, 189, 190, 191, 194, 196, 197* 

198, 2O1, 203, 205 

Bejrala three-hundred, di. 9 . . . 193 n* 

Belvalavrera4a]ni-nucu f . . 101, 193 & n. 
Benares, vi.> . 181, 218 

Benares inscription of Pantha, w . . 125 

Ben<Jaki, vi., 3Q2 

Bengal Asiatic Society's copper plate of Vinaya- 

ka.pala, . .101 

Betaya, KZkMya prince, - . 343, 351, ^54 
Betma, vi. 9 .,..,, 320, 322 & ad& 

Betwa, rt., ...... w 125 

Bhadra, gween o/ Harichandra Rohillad- 

dM > 88, 90, 95, 97. 98 

Biiadram[egha], ft., 16Q 

Bhadxa^renya, Ka$achuri ft., . . 129 

bMga-bTwga-kara, . 222, 224, -3ga 

Bnagale, t^. f . , 206, 208, 21 0, 212, 213 

Bhagalpur copper-plate of NarayanapaK . 104 . 

Bhagenabbe, t., . . . 173^ 174^ 17^ 
Bhagzratha, myth. &. f . . 22, 26, 36 

BhagTratlii (Ganges), ri. f . ' .36, 62, 96, 98, 306 
Bnagiyabbe, w. 9 . . ^ 273^ 17^ j^g 
Bbairava ^Saiva school, . . a 9 176 ri. 

Baaktavatsale^vara temple, * 334 

into, ojgtaat * . . 156, 157 tf 22J, 226 

189 

Bbandi, clan s . , a 93^ j^j^ j^g , 

Bbanja, %., 282, 285, 286, 288, 289, 290, 291, *292 

293,295,297 

BMnn, ., 126j ^ 

Bhanucbandra, m. s ... ^Ag 

BMnn Gupta, Gupta Jc. 9 . * . gi f g^ & Bo 33 

Bharadvaja, ^e, . 6, 10, 13, 116, 120, 123, 150/151 
Bharani-svamin, m. s ^ m w 63 64 

Bharata, ej >ic^ . . m 22,26^37*50 
Mrata,epic 9 . ' . m . ^ 214,216 
Bharatachandra Baya, Bengali poet? ' . &2 
Bhargava (Par^nrama), ... 305 



INDEX. 



361 



Bhaskara, school of , . 
Bhaskararyya, m., 
bMfa> .... 
Bhata-Nirola, 
*Bhata-Mr6la= Nirla, . 
bkafta, .... 

Bhafrfca, m., . 

bhaffa, title, .... 
Bha^ta Brahmavlra-^vaurn, m., 
Bhattacharya, aamaya or school, 

Bha$tagun4a, m., .. 
Bha$take6avadeva, w., 
Bhattara-kola (Bhafta s lake), 
BKattapurandara, m., . 
Bhattarudada( drata), m., 
Bhattas' lake, 
Bhattasumaiigala, m., . 
Bhatta Unmilana-svamin, m., 
vi.> 



PAGE 

. 176 n. 
352, 355 

250, 256, 294, 296, 306 
302 
303 



238, 249, 256 
285, 287, 306 
. 61, 63 
.' 176 n. 
110, 114 
227, 233, 235 
297 

t 179 
. 297 
. 296 
. 181 
285, 295 
. 63, 64 
250, 256 

dan, 96, 98 

Bhaf tika epithet of Devaraja, ... 96 

Bbattika Devaraja, 8. a. Devaraja I, ch., . * 93, 98 
Bhiliaditya, Pratthara k. t . . 88, 90, 96, 98 

BMBama, Yadava &., 347 n. 

.BMUamala, w'., 92 n. 

BMHuka, *, a. BWUaditya, .... 88 
BMlmal or BMnmal, vi., . 239 

BJhlma, epic hero, .*..*. 217 n. 
Bhima, PaUava prince, . . . . .116 
BMma (I), Ch&lukya & * 2, 227, 231, 233 & . 

Bhima (II), Chalukya k., . . 227,231,233 

BMmarathi, ri., 353, 356 

BMmata (I), Kalachuri &., . . 129, 133; 137 
Bhima^a (II), Kalachuri k., * . 129, 134, 137 
Bhlme&vara, te., .... 170, 171, 199, 206 

bhisMj, official, ..... 221, 226 

Bbishma, epic hero, ..... 205 n. 

Bhitari pillar inscription, .... 242 

BMtar! seal, ...... 83 

Bhogabhata, Pratihara prince, . . 88, 95, 98 

Bhogabhumi, 28 

bhogi-bhogin, used for bhaga-bhogin* * . 297 

5*, palankeen-bearer, . . 308 . 



Bkdja, Bhojadeva or Bhdjaraja, Paramara k., 66, 
320 & ., 321, 322, 323, 324, 



PAGE 

Blidja, Pratihara fa, SO,. 90 & ra., 93, 94, 95, 98, 100, 
* 106 & ., 107, 109, 110, 113 & ,, 
114, 125, 239 
Bhojadeva, s. a. Bhoja, .... 106 

Bhrigu, sage, .....*. 137 n. 

Bhuakupa, ...... 95, 96, 98 

Bhuda, queen of Sivaraja (II), . . . 134, 137 
bhukti 9 territorial division, . . . . 78 m. 

bhumi-zhGhh'tdrchny&ya * . , 250, 257 ., 306 
Bkupati, epithet of Kakka, .... 90 

Bhiitadatta, PaUaw k., . . 147, 150, 151 

Bhuvanaikamalla (SomesSvara EC), OKalukya k., 189, 

191, 194 

Biblioth^que KationaJe, Paris, ... 5 
Bijja or Bijjala, ch., . * . 201, 203, 205 
Bijjala, Bijjava or Bijjaijadeva, ch., . 213, 215, 218 
BUddrai, author, . . . .93, 102 & n., 103 

Binka, vi. 9 .*..... 302 

Binka, a. a. VinTtaptira, 

Boar, emblem on seed* . . . 160, 346 & n. 
Boar (image of Vishrtu), . .82 

Boddaxiaryya, m-, . 352, 355 

Bo<J<Ja Pafti* w. ...... 302 

Bddh-Gaya, m., .*... 17 
Bodk-Gaya inscription of Mahanaman of th.0 

Gupta year 269, . 125 

BodM tree, ....... 17 

Bo} ..... 1 2, 4n. f 814 

Bonai, state, ..,,... 288 w. 
Bonula, m., ....... 303 

Bosiga, 5. a. Gangara, Boai, . . , 200, 201 
bow and carp fish crest, . ... 23 

J&OyCtr, *#.... J0 

Boyalu, .....* 2 

boyanq, .... 266,282 

6roAWK%% 11, 14, 15, 23, 47, 54, 116, 119 122, 

133, 124 
Brakmanapalanl, canal/ .... 311 

Brahma^iavasti- -vishaya s Bamanghati sub-divi- 

sion, .*..*** 301 

Brahinanavaatl, m*., ..... 301 
i Brahmanavas, . 301 



Bmhmajraii, . 
Brahmaputra, ri., 
Bpbadl&vara temple, 



. 175, 177 & n., 185, 188 
329 
334 



y f B f The figures refer to pages ; n. after a figure, to footnotes ; aad add* to the additions on pp. viito r 
Tlxe following otlier aSbreviationB are used ; cA.=cMef ; ca.=conntry ; cZi.=diHtrict or dWiion ; &>.=:ditto ; 
%.= dynasty; B. Eastern ; Ir. idng; m, man ; wo. = mountain ; rt.=riTer ; ^. a. sameas; ^ir. 
.= village or town; 10.== woman; IF. == Western* 



362 



EPIGRAPEIA ENDICA. 



[VoL. XVIII. 



PAGE 

, 0790, . . *6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 150, 151 
, sacrifice, . . . . 155 

Museum, , . . . , 320 n. 

Broach, ri., . . * . * 01 

Bachkala inscription of Nagabhata of 

V. S. 872, . - . . . - 100, 105 n- 

...... 185 

Budana-Mone, , . . . . 185 

. 128, 130, 135, 266, 267, 336, 337, 338 

Boddhavannaii, PaUava k., . 147, 148, 149, 150, 151 

BnddMst* (school), * 176 n. 

fc, . . . . 132, 136, 161 

(Mercury), pktnd, 82 

Budha-Gapta, t f ... 81, 82, 83 

of Madhavavarman, . . . 290 

(1), Tijayanagwv L, . . 138, 140, 144 

of Ifoara, . * . .161 

BiiU emblem, . . ; . . .311 

Boll standard on coins 70, 80, 81 

B&ngntti, 190, 193, 196 



Komaria, . a. Kanyakumiri, . . 21 

earp fiih creet, 23 

isfei, nsed for to, ...... 16 

m, . . . 285, 287 ., 297 

(Cha^asata), Jmdlra I?., 317, 318, 319 

OiMta.p&vit rites, . . . 188, 210, 212 & n. 

CSuimriya, m., . . . ... 139, 140 

ChaknTih o* - . 35, 50, 244, 351, 354 

Qmfamvartm Vijayabihadeva, name of Vijaya- 

. 337 

101, 104, 105, 106, 108, 
112 & ., 35, 240, 245, 253 
..... 232, 235 

. 314 



Ciiifakya, iy., l, 3, 4 9 25, 31, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 
89 *., 91, 92, 93, 174, 175, 176, 177, 179, 181, 183, 
185, 186, 188, 189, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 1S7, 
198, 203 m., 2fM, 228, 238, 239, -243, 252, 259, 260, 

321, 353 n. 
EMteRt-: > dg* . . . .2, 314 

. 229,280 



PAGE 
Chamdasati (Chadasata), Andhra k. 9 317, 318, 319 

Chamdraditya-Maharaja, Ghdja dh. 9 . 349 

Chamn^ida-Raja, Gaiiga ch. 9 66 

Chanakya, m,, . . . 209, 211, 214 
Charidala, . . .303 

chavdavura or chamcjavura, . . . 189, 195 
Chandel, Ay., 9 224 

Chandra, &., . . . 86 

Chandradeva, Kanauj k. 9 . . . 223, 225 
Chaacfragupta, ZWote A., . . 240, 245, 253 
Chandra-Gupta, Gtepta k. 9 . . . . 79 
Chandra-Gupta II, Gupta L, . * 81, 86, 242 
Chandra-Gupta III, Gupta k. 9 . 81 

Chandrambhojavati, 5. a. Chandrapushkari- 

m, 140 

Chandrapushkarii^i, ^a^Jfe, . . .144 
Chandravarman, PaUava k., <, 148, 150, 151 
Chandrayarmman, Pushkarana &., . . . 86 
Chandravati, vi., . . . , . 219 wv 
Chandravatl plate of Chaudradeva of V. S. 

1148, 219 n, 

Chanduka, Pratihara L, . 88, 94* 96, 98 
Chapa,^^., . . . . e 92 n. 

Chapa, kingdom, 93 Wt 

Chapotkata, 5. a, Chapa, . . , , 92 n. 

cfa> 76, 78 ft . f 238, 250, 257 

Chash^ana, Kshatrapa L, 339 

cMK .... 250, 256, 294, 296, 306 

Chatsii inscription of Baladitya, . . 106, 107 n, 

299 

173, 174, J76&W. 

chaturdtta-gana, 14. WB 

Chaulika (Chola), .... 241, 246, 254 
chauroddharatyika, official, QQQ 

Chauvanaryya, m., 352, 355 

CMvanaryya, m., 352, 355 

chayitra-pavitraka, ^. a, chaitra-pawtra, , 135 

Chedi, %., 73^ 281 

Chendalur, vi. 9 228 

Chendalur plates (of Kumaravishigtu II), 143 
Chendalur plates of Sarvaloka&raya (Mangiyu- 



Chenganacheri, i^., 
Cheras, people, 
Chera, ca, . 



? 4 

340 



28, 341, 343 



5* B *7 The 



tempk ; 



n, after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the additions on 
ard *>-*-<*, co.=country; dU-dlrtdet or division ; 
ng; ^-man; jo.momtaiii ; n.=river; ^ o,same as ; 
or town s 1^,= woman ; If.-Wastem. 



ii to x. 
ditto ; 



INDEX. 



363 



Chera, dy. 9 

Chera, &., 

CheramEnar, fo'f 

Chejrupura, w., 

Cherupurn, s. a* Cherupura, 



PAGE 
23, 340 

, 28, 29, 30, 68, 161 
. 841 
. 2,4 
o 2, 3, 4 
. 11, 12 

CKfianda$~&astra, work, * . 67 
OJrfianddmaftjan, work, 238 
Cfohandomanjari-parisishta, work 9 & * 236 
Ofahandombudhi, work, . . * . 66 
ChhandopiMta (Chhanddvichiti), 8. a. Pi%o- 

CKhand6vichiti 9 work? * * * 66, 67 
Chharampasami(svamin), m., a * . 298 
Chhatarpur, w., . ^ . . . . 224, 225 

CMcacole plates of Devendravarman, .. 307, 308 
CMcacole plates of Indravarman, . . * 308 
Chidambaram temple, 29 

Chidambaram, vi. a 25, 27, .68 

CMkkanika, ...... 210, 212 

CMkkarasa, . 186, 189 
Chiptirupalle, $. a. Che^upiiru (?), . * * 2 

ChiptorupaBe plates of Yish^uyardhama I, * 2 n* 
Chiragohaka, m. 9 . , . 156, 157 
CJhiKrumbalam (CMdambaram), *- .54 

CMta, m 825fl(W., 326 add. 

Chitpavan Brahmans, . . 256 n. 

CMtra, ^tnyfflb* k* 9 * 23, 27, 40, 51 

Choda-Bo], m., 2, -4, 5 

Chddanaryya, m. 9 * * - 352, 355 

Chdk co., 23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 42, 47, 52, 54, 110, 

119, 121, 123, 331 *., 332, 333 
Chdja, %., 7, 21, 22, 23, 26, 31, 41, 65, 68, 78 n. 9 

123, 161, 192, 195, 202, 204, 331, 332, 334 
Chola, myth, k., . . . * .22,28,38,51 
Ch6Ja-ma$dala, <B M 65, 139, 141, 145, 162, 163, 

165/167, 189 

Cholas, people, . 116, 121, 123, 189 

C^^^w^^*"^^^?^^ i&orky * * 64 it. 

cMla 3^6 & cwldf, 

Chul&ina'^i 9 work^ " 65 & w. 
Chulayakha, . 327 & o<M. 

CJiulLcivcLggcif work 9 * * 19 

Chura copper plate, . . * * * 148 
Chutapallava, PaMava k. 9 . 148, 149, 150, 151 
conch, emblem* ****** 224 



Conjeeveram, vi. A . . . . 

Conjeeveram plates of Krfeh^adevaraya, . 
consonant^ doubling of , after r , * 

couohant hull, em&iemi . , * 

crescent, emblem, * * * 

crescent and star (sun ?),. emblem^ . * 



* 14ft 

162, 166 



115 

55 
58 



Babhra-sabha, a. a. Chidambaram, . . 47, 54 
Dabhra^Sabhapati, (Siva enshrined at Chidam- 
baram), 25 

Dacca Museum, . * * ., 73 

Badda, PraMMra prince, . . 88, 91, 95, 98 
Badda II, Broach ,*... 93 
Baddapayya, w., . . * . * 171, 172 
BadMoha, <a^e, . . * . . 248, 255 
Bahala, a. a. Chedi, . 229 

Bahala, co., . . . . . 240, 245, 253 

Bakshi^apali, di., 303 

BaksMnapatha, co., 347, S48 f 350, 354 

BaJkshi^a-Vara9ai(s}i, s. a. Puli, . . . 205 
Dalada-Patra-dhatu-svamiderargal, Tooth 

and Bow! ^eUc^r, .... 337, 338 
Ba|aday-ppemm-balli, . of tie Tooth ReKc, 337, 338 
Bamajada&i I, Kshatrapa h a 339 
Damodaxaaryya, w. f 352, 355 

Bamodarpuir, ttf., .*** 75 
BajnSdarpnr plates, . . .S, 76 fk g4" 

Bamuka, m., 75,78 , 78 

Danarnava, (Ta^a ., , 308, 309, 310 
Da^daka forest, . * . . -317^* 

or ddyda-pitika, ojjicia?., . 293, 29H, 300 
ika, official, **.* 306 
Dandin, author, .' ^ / * 07 
Bangur, m*, . * * . . 334 

Bantidurgga or durga, Rashtrahiita ., 89 n* f 

238,239,243,252 

Batntiga, ^* a. Bantivarman (!), * ' 7 
Bantivarman, PaUava fa, . . 7, 13, US 
Daranikondapo&ir, "*, . . * * 117 
Darota, <?. a. Kilt, . . . 243 
Base, name ending* . * 75 * 
d&%wwTS<BM fa, official? . * * * 3O 
BaSaoratha, ej>w; ., * 154 
(Rarana), . * 05 



^ j;^ The figures refer to pages ; n. after a figure, to footnotes $ and odd. to the additions on pp. TO to 
The following other abbreviations are used: c.=chief 5 co. = country ; cZ*.= district or divisioii; 
^. = dynasty ; J7*srEastem; ^.=king; m,=inan; mo. =. mountain ; ri, Driver; ^a.=aame M ; twr. 
le.templej t?i.s7iHage or town; ?,= woman; IP; 



EPIGRAPH1A INDICA. 



[VOL. xvm. 



PAGE 
Dim or Dasiraja, m., 208, 209, 210, 212, 213, 

215, 217, 218 

Daspsdla, . 288*:, 291*. 

dates expressed by chronograms : 

ro^AwjiWKwAawdm (1356), . 139, 143, 145 
Datta, name ending* , 4 , 75 n. 

Dattlkara, general, 24 n. 

Danlatpura copper-plate of Bfadja, . . 94, 101, 106 
Diva^-G^hiyiysahasa, m,, . . 238, 249, 266 
days 

&k 303 

10k, 308 

15* fl e * 308 

20, . 80S 

days, lunar 
bright fortnight : 

6th, 97, 183, 184, 320 

8th, . . .190, 193, 196, 219, 221, 223 
. * '. 173,175,177,190,191,194 
.*..., 285 

12th, 197, 198, 199 

14th, ........ 321 

15th or Full Moon, 57, 139, 143, 145, 171, 
190, 192, 193, 195, 196 ? 225, 226, 320, 

324, 325 
dark fortnight i , 

. . 208, 210, 212, 215, 218 

..*... 821 

5th, 200 

days of the monthr 

Jst, . 265,282,318,319 

2nd, .. 77 
20th, * o . . . 16, 17, 18 

21st, 306 

days of the week- 
Friday, 183, 190, 227 

Monday, 165, 167, 169, 171, 174, 179, 190, 

192, 193, 195, 196, 208, 210, 212, 215, 218, 221 
Saturday, .. . . . 183, 190, 200 
Sdmadiaa, 219 n., 221 n, 

Sunday,-" 173, 375, 177, 179, 183, 184, 187, .344 
Thursday, * 183, 190, 191, 194, 258, 259, 260 
Tuesday, . * . 174,219,223 

Wednesday, i . 181, 163, 164, 190, 197, 199 
days, solar 



days, solar contd. 
2nd, 

5th, 
decimal figures 

2, 

4, 

5, # 

Delha, w,, , 
Detna, m., . 



79 
99, 160 



* * > 6 A a VvO 

a a - * 30* 

307 

, 321,323,324 

,.<.... 176, 178 

91 iw T7<1 17& 

* J> "*'*3 I * * * * * * * **} a. tO 

Bemaya, *., . 178, 180, 181 

Bemiva, m. 74 & ra* 

Beo-Barnark -inscription of Jivita-Gupta, . 82 

Beogarb, w., 125 

Beogarh p-ilar inscriplaon of Bhojadeva of 

Kananj, 125 

Beogarh rock inscription of Eortivarman, . 125 

Deoli grant, 241 n. 

Beopani, n.,. , 329 

BrahmanaSp & - . , . 256 n. 

'is, officials, ... 84S 

Bva ?, w., 156, 157 

Beva, general, . . . 332, 333, 336, 337 
Bevabhanja, Bfamja, 4., . . 285, 286, 298 
devadzna, 23 

Bevageri inscription, 104 n. 

BevaM, ?., M2 

Bevaki, queen of Timma, * 161 

Bevaku^da, di. 9 301 

Bevapila, or BSvapaladeva, JP<l7a fe, 106, 113 n, 9 

304, 305, 306 

Bevapayya, w., . . . . 213, 214, 217 
Bevaraja, m. 9 348 & n,, 351, 354 

Bevaraja, Praftftara fe,. 93, 100, 101, 103, 107, 111 
Bevaraja, Vijayanagat& Jfc,, * . * . 141 
Bevaraja, 8. a. Bevaraya, * . 145 

Bevaraja (I), Vijayanagam &., . * . 144 

Bevaraja (or Devaraya) I, Vijayanagara &., . 138 
Bevaraya, Vijayanagam & * . 143, 144, 145 
Bevaraya Maharaja IE, Vifayanagara, &., . . 138 
Bevaraya-Maharaja, Vijayanagara If., . 141, 144 
Bevaraya n, Vijayanagara &., . 138 & ., 140 
Bevarchidan AnfSuj-guva^, w., , . 122, 124 
Beva^armmaii, m. y . 314, 315 

deva&Myaka (dew~#thanika) 9 . * . 156 n., 167 



S^B The figures refer to pages ; n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the additions on pp. vii to x. 
Th following other abbreviations lure used; eft. ~ chief ; co. = country ; <Zi.= district or division ; do*?=d ; tto ; 



village or town; w.** woman $ IF. Western. 



INDEX. 



365 



Bevayani, myth, queen, 161 

Devendravarman, Gaiiga k 811, 312 

Dewai inscription of the 8tli Vai^akha 200, . 280 

Dhamadhaya, m., 826 

Dhamula, w., ^ 26 

Dhanam-cHbba, remains of Buddhist stupa at , 317 
Rock cut wells at , . 317 

Dhanika, Ouhilot prince, . . * . 108 w. 
Dhannakada (Dhanyakata), w., ... 149 
Dhannavallika, vL, . . - 242, 243, 250, 256 
Dhannavallika, e. a. Dhanoli, ... 243 

Dhanva-Vishnu, brother of MaMrlja M:tfl- 

Vishnu 82n.,88 

9QA 

Dharadhara, m., "* a 

Dharaka, m. f 159 

nj?f> 

Dharavarsha, Mashtrakufa k., zo -* 

Dharavarsha (Dhruva), R Ishlrtfcufa k., . 237, 239 
Dharavarsha, $w. of Dhrava, .... 244 
Dharma, *. a. Dharmapala, Pa?a 4., 106, 109, 113, 240, 



129 



dbarma-chalvra, emblem on seal, . 304 

Dharmachandra, m., . 308, 310, 311 

Dharmadovl, w?., 

DbarmakTrti, author * 

DharmanStra, KalacJmri k., 
Dnarmapala, Pa^ *., 89 n. f 104, 105, 106 n., 235, 239 
Dharmapaladeva, s. a. Dharnmpala, PaZa 4., . 306 

,. 302 

Dharmapura, di., 

228 

Dharmapuram, vi. 

Dharmaraia or Yudhishthira, epic hero, . . 28 

. 146 
25 

dharmmadhikarawa, official, . 251 

Dharmmaditya, 4., 78 n " 81 84 ' 85 

wrongly read for Amoghakala- 



Dliarmaraja-ratha inscriptions, 



Dliarmmapala, s. a. Dharmapala, 

dharmmeta, - 

dhavaka, official, - 

dfc, doubling of -, before y,, . 



- 305 

213 & ., 216, 218 
156, 157 
1 
325, 326, 327, 328 

,*.*--*. ; ; SS 

Dhritipura, w., . . 

Dhruva, m^A. 4., - 10 ' ^ L f 

Dhruva,m^m^4, . 103, 104m, 105 ^ 238 

Dhruvarajalndravarman, Chilubya, k.. - - 253 
Dhundhu, Asura k., 



PAGE 

Digbhanja, Bhanja k,, . f . - - 287 
Digbhafija I ( ^atrubhailja I), Bhanja 4., . . 286 
Digbhanja II, Bhanja 4,, . ... - 286 
Digbhanjadeva, Bhanja k., . . * 285, 297 

Dighwa-Dubaul! plate of Mahendrapala, . 87, 101 

DUipa f i^A. 4 22,26,37,50 

Don Buzurg, w\, . 218, 219 

Don Buzurg plates of Govindachandradeva of 

V. 8. 1176, 

Drauni (A^vatthaman), . . . 116, 120, 123 

Dravila, to., 246, 254 

Drdna, epic hero, 6, 10, 13, 116, 120, 123, 150, 

151, 219 

Drona-ka-ghar or garh, 

Dronayanashada, . 

Durddama, Kalachuri 4,, 

Durgadeva or Durggadeva, m., 

Durgaraja or Durggaraja, m., 

Durga^arman, w., 

Durgga, w, ** * 

Durjayabhanja, Bhanja k., 

Durjaya-Kshatriyaa, epithet of K .fadiyas. . 347 n. 

Durjjaya, Kakatiya k., . . 347, 351, 354 

Durlabhadevf, queen of Ka&ka, * . 88 fe w. 

Durvasa, sage, . 110 n. 

d&ta, official, ^ 21 * 25 ^ 

dutaka, official, . . 251, 257, 285, 295, 307 

duta-praishatyika, official, 
duvar'ja^yuvar ja, 



. 219 

219, 222, 224 

- 129 

285, 295, 296 

228, 231 & n., 234 

126,^127 
286, 291 



Eastern Chalukya dynasty, 
Eastern Ganga dynasty, 
eclipses 

lunar, . 

solar, 

Edappap, * 
edava, epithet, 



. 258 
. 308 

192, 195 

309, 310, 34S, 351, 354 
. B43 



Bjavati, . 

Ekadnira, swr. of Nandimrman /I, 
Ekadhiramangalaiii, w., 
Ekaksnara, title, - 
Ekarmbarapurani, i. * 

eka^i, 



* 193 
. 159 
. 117 

* 117 
194^?:* 
, 166 

* 189 
58, 59, 60 




or to ; -wo U ,F.-Wt. 



366 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



[ VOL. XVIII- 





PAGE 
139 


PAGE 
Ganapati, image on seal, . . 236 


Ellora Dasavatara Cave Temple inscription, 
Ewayiram, vi. 9 * * 


237, 239 
163, 164 
66 

122, 124 


Ganapati, Kakatiya, Tc. 9 * , 847 & w., 348 . 
Ganapatideva, Kakatlya L 9 , . 347, 351, 354 
Ganderu, vi., * . . . . 56, 57 
Ganderuvalji, di., 55, 56, 57 


E| > a*x*roTxaiaTi!!n.ai3a w^*, * 


314, 315 


GandhaJcuti, 337, 338 & js. 




242 


Gandhara, , * . . . . 16, 273 


12 ran, trf., . . . * 82 
Eran Boar inscription of Dhanya-ViakgLu, 
Era^t inscription of Goparaja, 
E^apdtaryya, m^ . 

eras 

Chalukya-Vikrama, 

Kanishka, ..... 

Kollam, . . a 


& %., 83 
82 
82 
352, 355 

. 194 
20 
341, 342 


Gandliata, see Ganadarida, ... 280 
Gandliatapati(?} J 303 
Ga^ieiia temple inscription at Mahabalipuraza, . 148 
Ganga or Ganga, iy. 9 201, 229, 239, 241, 244, 246, 
252,253, 254, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312 
Ganga (Ganges), rf., 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 50, 51, 54, 
103, 104 n. 9 114, 180, 186, 219, 223, 225, 




312 313 


r* * * * * 


Gupta, ...... 
Sam or Sapavat, , * 


. 160 
20 


Ga&ga-dvara, vi 9 - . . . 96, 98 
Ganga-dvara, s. a. Hatidvar, .... 95 




16 


angai, . . .^ . n* 




171 172 


" " * . " ' * 




81 


Gangaikondasdlapurain, vi. 9 . . . 24 
Gangakiita, mo., 229 
Gangam, m*, 62 

f3-fl TTI flffl - T-^JI 1 1 n V *i ffiwt '//<*/ *5>4. 1 




838 & n. 




Four forged grants from.Faridpur, * 


75 




G 


16 


Gangavaihsa,/m%, , 288 n., 290 
Gangavafo ca., .... 25,27,47,54 
* Ganges or Padma, rL, ^2 




220 


Gangeya, 205 n. 






gafiginlM (gangiua), . . . . 61, 62 


Gajabahu II, Ceylon &., . 


333 


Ganginika, identified with Jalangi, . . .62 








gahapatiya (?), official, * . , 
Gahiyasahasa, 5. a. Ghaissas, 
Gajavet-tai Pratapa-Devarayamaharaya, ] 


156, 157 
* 256 n. 


Ganjam plates of Netyibhafijadeva, . 283, 301 
Ganjam plates of Vidyadharabhanjadeva, 283, 301 


jayawzgara &., . . * . 
gamagamilca, official, 
-Gaaiiga (Ganges), n., * . 


140 
. 306 
45,221 
203 


Garavapa4u, t. f .... 348, 351, 355 & w. 
Gardal>hilla, UffayinS Tc., . 274 
Qara4a standard on coins, . . . . 79, 84 




289 


Garucja, figure of , . . . 178, 182, 208, 212, 320 




289 


Gara<Ja seal, . . . 224, 236, 249, 256 


Ganadarida ? fr&Ze o/ Vtrabhadra? 
gc/ j n^id^^4^~'^y^ Gif t official^ * 
$atyada'$4&-g(ila, official, * * 
Q&jiadliara, * 9 
$a#a1car official, o . 
Oa^apata, samaya, or schooly f 


. 286 
. 289 
". 289 
201, 204 
156, 157 
. 176 fi. 


Gatas, .... 325 & add., 326 & add. 
Qaiha-aapta$at$ 9 work, .... 242 & n. 
Ga&ipundi, *fc, 232,235 
Gauija, co., 81, 89, 103, 239, 244 
Gaudas, people? 94, 96, 9S, 106, 306 
GatdaSarmaB. (Aiohadeva), m. 9 294 & 78," 



$" JB. The figures refer to pages'"; n after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the additions on pp. vii to x 
2Phe following other abbteviatlona are used: cA,=cbief; co. == country ; e&.= district or division; 
ty<je.=Eaatern ; ^.3dng; m>=male; wo.=mountaia ; n'.=riYei:; ^ a. = same 
; trf.7illage or towni w. 



INDEX. 



367 



gaulmika, official, . 
Gautama Buddha, 
GawarwacJ inscription, . 
Gaya, * 
gh, used for h, , , 
Gharika, m., 



PAGE 
306 

. m 

. 201 n. 

179, 180, 181, 186 
. 236 
156, 157 



GhaiSasageri, w., * 183, 185, 188 & n., 190, 193, 196 
Ghaissas, sur. 9 , . . 256 & ft. 

Ghaligai, w., 20 

Ghanavatta-B![ro]ja, m, 9 . , 233, 235 & n. 
ghafakayar, . . * . . .117 
Ghatiyala inscription of Kakkuka, . 87, 88, 93, 94 
Ghatiyala inscription of PratihaEa Bauka, . 94 

Ghatiyala inscriptions, . . * . 91 
Ghatotkachagupta, prince , . . . 242 
Ghazni, vi,, ,.....* *278 
Ghosha, name ending, . . . 75 n. 
Ghdshapacla, vi. 9 . . . 62 

Ghugrahati, vi., 75 

Goa plates of Saka 532, ... - 258 

Gobbadi, m., 314, 315 

Gogu-Ranaka, m. t . . 251, 257 
Gdkarna-svamin, god, ... 309, 310 

Gokarrie^vara, god, 196 

Gokarnna, tlrtha, ..*..* 305 
GokarnneSvara, s. a. GokarrieSvara, , . 192 

Gola,m., 327,328 

.Gojakl-matha, ...... 348 n. 

GoMarman, m., * * '* * * 294 
Gola-Shadaiiigavid, m. . , . . , 249, 256 
Gola-Shadangavid, s. a. Gola-Sha4aiiigavid, . 238 
Gola-vaniya, .....* 328 

gdm(wdi(y,<}a)U]ca, official, . . 156, 157 
GSmilaka, m. 9 * 1$6 127 

Gommimayya, m., t . 178, 180, 181 

Gondophares, ft., 27S 

Gpnekaka, 325,326 

Gorigana (Konkana), people, . . 116, 121 

Gopa-Chandra, L, 81 > ^ 

Gopala, Gtoufak., * 239,304 

G-opalpur, vi. 9 * * ^ ^ 

Gopalpur, vi,, ^ 

Goparaja, ch. 9 82, 83 

Gopendra-choraka, vi n .... 77, 79, 86 

Gorava, ^ 

Goravas, Saiva ascetics, . - * . 181 & n. 



Gorma, ch, 9 . . 

Gormma, 5. a. Gorma, . 

Gosahasra, mahadana, 
Gotama, used for Gautama, 

Gotiputa, M., . * 

gotras 
Atreya, 



201, 205 
. 203 

162, 163, 165 
. 124 

158, 159 & n. 



59, 60, 122, 124, 161, 163, 16*, 
183, 184, 187, 233, 235, 352, 355 
Aupamanyava, . ' . . . . 308 
Bharadvaja, 4, 208, 209, 211, 213, 214, 217, 
225, 226, 228, 231, 232, 234, 238, 249, 

256, 299, 352, 355 

Gargya, . . . . 352 & n., 355 

Gautama, .... 122,124,352,355 

Harita, 352, 355 

Harita, .-...-.. 57 
Iradhitara (Rathitara), -. , 122, 124 & add. 
Jatukarna or Jatvakarnna, . 116, 122, 124 
Kappa or Kapya, , . * 122, 124 

Kasyapa, . 63, 139, 143, 145, 292, 352, 355 
Kondina or Kaundinya, . 116, 124, S14, 315 

Kaualka, . 285, 294, 321, 323, 324, 352, 355 
Ma4ala or Ma^hara, . . . 122, 124 

Eauhita, ^ 297 

San4ilya, * . 178, 180, 181, 309, 310 
an<Jilyayana, . . . 257, 259, 260 

grivatsa, 352,355 

Vachchha or Vatsa, 219, 222, 224, 238, 250, 

256, 285, 294, 295 

Tad^amukha, . . . 238,249,256 

VadJiula or Vadula, . . 122, 124, 352, 355 

Yaska, . . . . * 348 n,, 352, 355 

Govaditya-Bhatta, m., . . . 238, 250, 256 

GSvarddJianaryya, m., * . * * 352, 355 

Govinda, Rfahlrak&fr Jc. 9 238, 251 

Govinda I, Maahtrak&a *., . . 237,238,243 

GovMda II, JR&shfraktita k, 9 ... - 239 

Govinda III, JB&A}rak&!et ^*, 7, 94, 104 & n., 105 & m., 

235, 239, 240, 241 & n. 

Govinda Bhafta, w., . . - 238,249,256 
Govindackandra, Gahafawla i. f . 219, 221, 226 
Govindackandradeva, s. a. Govindacliaildra, 223, 225 
Govmdapur, m., ...* 300 
Govindapur, identified with Gdpendra-choraka, 
Govindaraja, commentator, * . * . 
grama-grtma, 



N B -The figures refer to pages , n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the additions on pp. ni to x. 
The following other abbreviations are used:-~4. chief ; cacountry ; <K-dMrid> or division; do.-ditto. 
dy.-dynaBty; J?.-Ea*tenn Asking ;^=malej ^-momtain; ri-river; *o.--uw 
fe.temple; t?i.vaiage or town; w.=womans W.** Western. 



S6S 



EPIGRAPEIA INDICA. 



[ VOL. XVIII. 



PAGE 
official, . . . . 249, 256 

GndraltSlt*, di* 9 ...... 315 

Gudufara, fc, . 262, 263, 270, 272, 273, 275, 279,282 
Gndttfara, $. a. Gondophares, . . . 263 

Gudnfara Inscription, . 278, 279, 280, 281, 282 

GuhaSa, m., 294 

Guhila II, Guhilot prince, . . ' . ,107 
Gujarat, di.> ...... 321 

Gujerat, a. a. Gujarat, . . . . 91 n. 

Gujjaratta, #. a. Gurjjaratra, . . * 91 n. 

Gumsur grant of Nlft^ibhanjadeva . . * 301 
Gnmsur, trf., .... 301 

Quriabhara, epithet of Mahendravarman I, . 150 
Gunadhavala, m., ..... 251, 257 

Gunakanka (Gu^aganka), s. a. Rakkasa-Ganga, 66 
Gunakatikiya, work, ..... 66 

Gu^anjava, Q&nga & . . o - 307, 308 
Guriasagara, author, , * . 65 & n., 66, 67 
Gunasagara-Bhatara, m., . , . 67 & u. 
Gun<Jamayya, m. , . . 228, 231, 234 

GunjadevaSannan, m., .... 314, 315 

Gui^Ett, n,,. 235 

Gupta, fy., . . 75, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 242, 248, 255 
Gmrjara or Gurjjara, co.,. . . 241, 243, 254 
<JurjaraorGurjjara, dy., . . . 192,195 

Gurjara, people, . 91, 103, 104, 105, 106, 189, 252 
{Jurjarashtra, #, a. Gujarat, co.* . , * 201 
Gurjaratra, province, . . . 90, 91 & n., 106 
Gurjara, kingdom,* . . ,91, 93, 106, 205 
Gtarjara, dan, 90, 91, 92, 93, 239 

Gurjara kings of Broach, ... * 91 
Gurjara-Pratlhara, clan, . 101, 102, 106 
Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, genealogy of , 93, 100 
Qurjja-rashtra, *...*. 203 
GwaKor, vL, . . . .99 

Gwalior inscription or prasasti of Bh6ja, 90 n, 9 93, 

94, 100, 102 



H 

A, used for p, 

Haihaya, myth. Tc^ 

Hailiaya dynasty of Ratanpur, 

Hala, author, 

Haleka, m., . . . 

Hammikabbe, w^ . 

Hamsa, symbol on coin, 



189 

129, 132 

. 289 

242 & n. 

223, 224 

173, 174, 176 

80 



PAGE 
Hansot plates of the Chahma^a feudatory Bhar- 

trxva4<!ha II, . . . . - . .103 
Haradara Santayya, m., * . . 192, 195 
Haraha inscription, 82 

Hari-Bhatta, m,, . B . 238, 250, 256 
Harichandra, s. a. Harichandra Rohilladdhi, 

89 &; w., 94, 95, 97, 103 
Harichandra Rohilladdhi, PratMMra Jc. 9 88, 90, 

91, 92, 93 
Haridvar, ^7"., ...... 95 

Harigupta, Pallava k. 9 * . . 147, 150, 151 
Harihara, figure of, * , . . . 182 n. 
Harihara, god, , . 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188 
Harihara, Yijayanagara k. 9 , 141, 144 

Harihara (II), Vijayanagara Jc., . * 138 

Hariputra (Arjnna), .... 214, 217 

Hariputra (Karna), 214, 217 

HarisSarman, m., . . . 297, 309, 310, 311 

Hari^ehandra, myth, h, . . , . 22, 26, 30 
Harisuta (Bhima), , . . 214, 217 & n. 

Harisuta (Yama), 214, 217 

Harita, sage, 353 n. 

Haritiputra, epithet, . . 2, 56, 59, 228, 258, 315 
Harivamsa, work, . 129 & n., 131 n. 9 133 n., 136 n. 
Harivamsa (Jaina), work, . . . 102, 239 

Harjjara, 329 

Harsha, author, . . . . . # 130 

Harsha, fe., . 81 

Harshacharita, work, ***** 90 
Harsharaja, Quhilot prince, + . .106 
Harshavardhana, Thanesar &., 92 

Ifasanabad, vi t . . . ft .160 

Hashtnagar inscription of the 5th Proshtha- 

pada 384, 280 

Hastigrama 9 tn. y .... 302 
Hastivarman, Ganga L, .... 308 

Jwstyadhyaksha, official, . . 156, 308, 311 

J^ty-a&v-oshtra-m(ba)la-vyapritalcat official, . 306 

hasuge, 196, 212, 218 

hathardha, (?) official, .... 156, 157 

Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela, 318 n. & add. 
Mthivaka, (?) official, . . . 156, 157 

Heasi, m. t ...... 156, 157 

Helapura, m., . 241, 246, 254 

Hemakuta, hill, . . , . 161, 163, 164' 
Hemaiivaratha, mahadana, * . 139, 143, 145 
Hidda epigraph of the year 28, 264 



N. M, The figures refer to pages ; n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add, to the additions on pp. vii to x. 
The following other abbreviations are used: eft. = chief ; co. = country ; di.~ district or division; db.= ditto. 
rfjy,s= dynasty ; JE?.== Eastern ; 4, *= king ; m,t=m&lQ ; mo. mountain j ff,wrivor ; * a. sesame as ; *^r. 
16.=== temple; !. village or town; &?.= woman; TF,== Western. 



INDEX. 



Himachala, mo., 
Himadd (Himalaya), mo. 9 
Himalaya, mo. 9 
Hlmavat (Himalaya), 
Him[i]ngana, m,, 
Hindol, state, 
Htrabandh, tank, . 



PAGE 
. 243 
. 210 

105, 240, 252, 253 
245, 246 
. 160 
. 28871, 
152 



Hirahadagalli inscription of Sivaskandavarman, 318 n. 
hiramyya, used for Mranya, .... 138 
Hirariyagarbha, mahadana, 238, 239, 243, 252 & n. 
Hira^yagarbKa, school of, . , . . 176 n. 
HiranyaJcesi-sutra, work, . . . . 124 

Hirartyaksha, demon, 353 n. 

Hiraijyavarman, Poltava *., . 116, 117, 121, 123 

Hiuen Thsang (or Tsiang), pilgrim, 20, 91, 92, 95 

Hoolee, s. a, Hull, 170 . 

hottalu 183 

Sou Han-shu, work, ..*... 276 
Huli, (Puli), vL, . . . . 170 & n., 171 

Huna, people, 91, 92, 306 

Huiis, s. a. Hu$a, 82 

Huvishka, Kush"na &., ..... 18 
Hydaspes ( Jhelum), ri. 9 .... 130 
Hydraotis (Eavi), n., 130 



ai, fub-Gect of Velaikk"ra8> 335, 337, 338 

Ikshvaku, myth. L, 22, 26, 28, 34, 107, 108, 110, 

111, 336 t 337 



Ha, myth, princes^ , * 

Ilam (t.e., Ceylon), . * 

Zlam-pufchi, parihara, , * 

Ilandurutti, . . 

Hangai(= Ceylon},. . 

Ilangiinnappula, . . 

Imperial Gupta dynasty, 
Imperial Pratihara dynasty, * 
imUa, used for inda, 
Indra IV, HashfraMfa Jc. t 
Indra-Bhattaraka or Indraraja, 

man, * * * 

Indraraja, CMlufaya fc * * 
Indraraja, 



129, I32 f 136 

, 24, 28, 20 

122, 124 

. 343 

. 336 



. 242 

87, 89, 90, 94 

. 138 

. 241 

Indravar- 

2 

. 229 
105 



Indraraja, EashfraMta &, 105 n., 237, 238, 243, 252 
Indraraja IV, Rashtmkufa L, . . 89 n. 
Indiavarman, Gh^ukyOf fc* f * 1, 2, 3 4 



PAGE 

Indravarnxan, Ch'lukya prince^ * . .2,4 
TndravarniaJi, Ganga fa, 307, 308, 309, 310 
i, initial form of , . * 146 

insignia (?) of Idangai, * .* * * 335 
Ipur, w\, . . * , . .58 

Tr&dMtara, used for Bathitara, . . . 122 
Iraippunaichchen", vi., . 8, 11, 12, 14, 15 
Iraman-Tayan, m., . . . 344 

Iramar-Tiravadi Kdyiladhikarigal, 9. a. Ktda." 

^ekhara Koyiladhikarigal, . 341 

Irbba[l]i, . . M 

Irbuli, ., 257,259,260 

Ijjjralu[r]-B6ya, epitJtet of Durga$ammn, . 2, 4 

Isalaka, m., . . * 327, 328 

l^vara; Vijayanagara k. 9 * * * 161 



, 285 

. 205 

. 201,208 

23, 27^ 42, 52 



17T 



290 



/, used for y, 

y, changed into y, . 

JachchMka, w., 

jagadaja, 

jagadalam, * 

Jagadekatnalla, 

Jagadekamalla (II), 

JagadekamaHadeva, CMlutya Jfe., 

Jagadekamalla- vijayi, e^ 
w, . 

Jagadekamallavijayi, 

Jagadhara^arman, tro*, . . . * 285, 290 

Jagati, w., . * * * 800 

Jagattxuaga or diva, iMe of Qdmnia II I, 8, 

241, 246, 249,- 253, 256 

Jaixniniya, vedantic samaya or school; \ 179 , 
Jain, samaya^oT school^ * 
Jaintamura, tn., * 
Jaipur, 

Jaipur (Northern), 
Jaipur (Southern), 
Jaipari== Jaipur Zamindcwi f t . . * 80S 

Jaittigi If Yadava i., 847 f. 

Jaj jikadSvi, gweem o/ NagahT^ta^ \ S8 90, 95, 08 
Jalangf, ri. 9 * ^ * * 88 

Jajayuru* w * S8, 5 t 6ft 

Jamalgarhi inscription of the 1st Aspaln (f) 359, 280 
Jamaripnra, rf., *** 808 
Jambipadraka (= Jamda ?), rf., * * 300 



The figures refer to pages * n. after a fguxe, to footnotes; aad aM. to ito addifewms on pp. **i to x, 
The following other abbreviations are used :~~c7L=chief ; co^country ; dK.dteferiul ordiTOimu 4a-*difete 5 
dy^dynasty ; JB.^Eastern ; &Mng ; m.male ; mo.mountain ; rfcriver ; . a.*-at as; mpinime' ; 
ie.s temple; vi=* village or town; K?,womanj If. Western. 

8 B 



EPIGEAFHIA INDICA. 



[ VOL. XVIII. 




' -- " a 

Jaasanathamangalaan, s. . 
Jwanathanallur (Vayalur), i, 



Jaarfca, 



Jayanaga, fc, 



ancient Tondai 



145 
^S9 293, 295 

. 76, 78^ 
Sftl, 355 
222, 224 
126, 127 

86 

116, 122 
158 

. 62, 63 
. 64, 69 



PAGB 
VV * WWJVWJ ff9 u% ^nanasa&ti 191 39 1 

Jodhpnrinscriptionof Pratihara Banka, 102, 103,10 n 

Jodhpnr State, . 

Jodhpur, m. 9 

Jodfapnr Pratihara dynasty, . \ \ 

J ot (muta ta), private p roperty, 



* 87, 91 
94 



4. of Malm, 



. 321 
201, 205 



Jot (yokrta), land measure, 
J6ta, shortened- form of Jofifa, 

Jofjka, 
Jumna, n., . 

Jianagadli State . 
Jtinagacl&> vi. 9 
Junaid, general, , 
Jupiter, planet, 
Jura (-Gurjara), . 
JyamaJIa, Pattava Js 

96 

cMtf judge, 

K 



Gvrjam 



IF, 



n., 314 

* 203 

314, 315 



ft* donbling of , 
Kabul, co., . 
Kabul valley, 
Kacharis, 
Kaohohippe<Ju ? 



, Buddhist sect, 
, form of, 



. 331 n. 



Kachchippg<Ju, * a, Conjeeireram, 
Kadakina-ke^e, (Ka<Jaku tank). 



Kadalibasanta, 3e a. KodoUbo^onto " 

"R* n A f. ~u. TL - - t 



* 62 n, 

. 79 n. 

79 ., 86 

104 & ., 239, 252- 

. 339 
. 339 

93, 103 

340, 341, 345 

. 147 &n., 150,151 
. 76, 78 



87 

275 
278 
320 

15, 116, 122, 124 
9, 110 

192. 105 
117 



o 189 

23% 250, 256 
- 243 



25 *>, 28, 29, 30 



270 5 275, 277 



Kadphises II, 



* 1,307 
ISO, 248, 255 

* 130 
120,337 

* 172 
239 

339,340 
75,76,78 
; * * . 82 
189, 1Q, 191- 1M> 

i 206, 207 



Jina (the Buddha); 
, figure of, ; 
, author, ; 
JlvBdaman (I), 
Jtradatta, m;, 
Jlvita-Guptai 6^<x 



plate inscription of 
Kailaaa, 




-i^risst^^ -*.-*- -i^n 

=-^5H^J = * E=r ;--^, 1 E^^ 



INDEX. 



S71 



. U7, 148, 149, 150, 151 



PAGE 

Kakkuka, s. a. Kaku(t)stha, . . 100, 111 & n. 
Kakkuka, Pratihara k., 88 & n., 89 & n., 90, 

91, 93, 107, 111 & . 

Kakustha(Kalmt8tha),PratfMra prince, 107, 111 & 
Kaku(t)stha, myth, k., . . 1<> 7 & n -> 110 
Kakutstha, epithet of Puranjaya, . 22, 26, 35 
Kala(Yama), . . . HO ., 192, 195, 230 
Kalabhanana (Ga^apati), 
KaLabhartyi, Pallava k. 9 
Kalabhras, people,. . 116,121,123 

1 OQ 1 29 
Kalachuri, dy* 9 iAO> 

Kalachtirya or Kalachuryya, ty. 9 192, 195, 

209, 211, 215, 218 

Kaladiya Bo!aga<Ji (Bodagadi), ch., 173, 174, 176 

Kajahasti, vi. 9 
Kalakacharya, m., 
KalakacMryakatMnaka, work, 

kalam, ** 

Kalamjana (Kalafijara), w. t 208,^09, 211,213, 

215,218 

KalfLnmkha school, . 176 n., 191, 194, 205, 206 

* rtQ 

Kalappal, vL, 

Kalarirrarivar, s. a. geramanperumal-Hayanar, . 68 
Kajas inscription of Saka 851, . .194 n- 

ligeri, 174, 176, 178, 183, 184, 185, 
187 & n., 188 & n., 190, 193, 196, 197, 198, 

199, 210, 212 

a, s. a. KaUSeSvara, . 
Kal.a6evara, god, * 

poem, 

t epigraphs, . 
Kalidasa, poet, 
Kalidasa (I) (Kalimayya), m., 



273, 274, 276 



.. 199 
197,198,199 

28> 29 ' JJ 
262, 263, 279,280 

J * 
.213, 215, .J17 



SSS 



Kaligkat hoard, . * 

Kalikala or Karikala-ChoJa, myth, k., . 347, 



348, 350, 354 



Kalimayya ? m., . . * 
Kajinda, Pato a *,,.. 
Kalinga, co, 25, 27, 45, 47, 54, 104, 105, 108, 
112 240, 241, 245, 246, 253, 254, 307, 309, 
' 



151 



Kalinganagara, *., 



PAGB 

309, 310, 811, 312 
i, uwrk, 25 ., 26, 28, 29, 30, 81, 

31 & n., 49 n., 51 n., 53 n., 54 n. 



Kali-Visb^turardhana, CMfutya fe, 
Kalkutiga-gere (Stoneinason,*s tank), 
Kdln^rt," ... - 
Kalluvi, . a. Kalu, ... 
KalQ, n., .,. 



242,250,256 



Kalvakuru, t7<. v 



^01,20$ 



Kalya^akalasa, 

Kalya^apura, m. . 
Kalyam, w., 

Kamakkanappalli, *., . 
Kamanaryya, m 
Kwnandakiya-nttiaara, work, 

Kamari, w., 
Kamauli plates, 
KambapL Araiyaij, m., 
Kamenaryya, m., . 
Kamxiharadeva, 
Kampili, .. 
K&mikagama, work, 
c ftero 



286, 287, 293, 295 

* 25 27 ' 46 W 

290 ** 
312,343,344,345 

* 8** 355 

. 112 *, 113 n* 



Kamboja, peopk, 
Kanada, aamaya or sc^ooZ, 



Kanaka, 



i k., 



, 
Kanakabttafija ar KaiiakablianjadeTO, 





305 

* . 176 . 
149,150,151 



286, 292 
209,214 



Kanakadri, 'myft. mo., . 
Kanakamahaobala, wty^A. ia., * 
Kanakarama, m, **** 
Kanauj,KMom ...... 92,101,105 

Kaaohana, gwfi of Lakshmavarajadloa (H), 129, 



KanoM (Conjeaveram), w^ 7, 58, 148 f 149, 241 
Kaachlpnram, , a. KaficH, ., 



lv I 



246, 254 

1 I w 



, 
KanderuvMi or Ka^dravidi, .o. Ga^deravati, 



56 










372 



EMGRAPHLL INDICA. 



[ VOL, XVIII. 



PAGE 
Kanhara, &. a. Krishna III, EashfraMfa L 9 . 201, 205 

Kanishka, KusM^a L, . 18, 267, 276, 277, 280, 

281, 282 

Kanishka casket from Shall- ji-ki-dheri, . . 16, 18 
Kanker State, 349 

29 

tii, s. a. Kanya, 341 

in, title of Pdritfya kings, 21 
, Kan&ona or Kanriason^aa, s. a. Karna- 

suvarriaka, 62 

Kanteru, s. a. Ga^deru, t*"., . . . . 56 

Kanya, rMi, 3 4I 

Kanya-bhatarakl, 55 

Kanya or Kanyakubja (Kanuaj), . 101, 221, 223, 225 
Kanyakumari inscription or $rasasti, 23, 24, 25, 26, 31 

Kanyakumari,^., 21 

Kanya-Pi4riyar, goddess enshrined at Kanya- 
^umafim . *>A 

***** *50 

Ka-fu (Kabul), co., . . . . 276, 273 
Kapalimangalam, w., . . 342, 343, 344, 345 

Kapila, sage, 36) 50 

Kapila, samaya or school, * . . 176 n, 
Kapsha, *. a. Kujula Kadphises, . 279, 280, 282 

238, 249, 256 

i}i, canal?, , 81 f 

Karaja, Pallam fc, . . . 143, 150, 151 
Karaikkal (Karikal), w. 9 7 

Karambiehchettu, t&, 122, 124 

krtrdw, official, . 9 . ' . 293, 295 
Karamchedo, w., . . . . 228, 232, 234 & . 
fcaratyika, official, * 77, 79, 223, 224 & &., 225, 226 

Karda grant, 241 n. 

Karhad grant, ' . 241 . 

Karhada Brahmans, . 238,256^. 

Kankala^oJa-Pallavaraiyan, 8, a, Sekkilar, . 68 
Kdfigai, worJs, * . . . # ^9 
JT^f ^a ^. a. YapparuftgalaJckangai, work, . 69 
Karigaa-KuJattur*. a. Knlattur, . 64, 68, 69 

Karikala or -Ch5Ia myth, k., . 23, 27/29, 41, 52 

Karikala or Cho|a, s. a. Vira-Eajendra-deva, 25, 

26, 27, 47, 48, 54, 55 
fort'tafapa-paton^^ 

official, o o , 221 

Karkaktai w., * - . / 162, 163, 165 



PAGE 

Karkaraja, cA,, . . ^ m * 105 ^ n. 
Karkataka, rfl, , - .340, 341, 34 J, 345 

Karkka, or Karkkaraja I 9 EashfraMfa k., 237/ 

238, 243, 252 
Karkka II, SashtraMta L, 238 

"*** Uz5 
Karma-m^/m, &'., 228, 231, 234, 257, 258, 259, 

260, 314, 315 

Kannmakara-tataka, tank, . . . 259, 260 
Karna (Kar TO a), epic hero, . . 205 n., 217,' 305 
Karnasuvarria, . a. Karnasuvamaka, . . 62 
Karpasuvarnaka, ^L, . 62 63 

Kar^ata, family, 27 

Karnnata, people, . . . . 

Kartabhaja, ecf. . 

Kartta, KalachiiTi'JG., 

Karttavirya, myiA. ft, . . 132, 136 & w.,'l37T 

*"""" 183, 185, 188 

Karve^inagar, i., .... r 

Ka&kudi plates of Nandivarman Pallavamalla, 

5n., 14 ., 15 n., 117, 147, 148, 149 
(Benares) -220 

i>vi -' 18, 19, 128 

Kasia copper plate inscription, . . 18 

Kasiyapa or Kasyapa, sage, 22, 26, 28, 33, 49, 292 
Katagafiga, canal, g- 

. 233, 235 n. 
-'.. 25,27,45,64 

Kathiawar, dl, 273,339 

Kati^arman, m., 55 57 

Kattiyaggrf, m., 183, 186, 189, 190, 192, 193, 196* 

208, 210, 212, 213, 216, 218 

KiBl^iiniai]i]Qii.rk6yil, #*., m &.& 

17- - * * * ^* 

ikauniara, samaya or school, . 176 

Kwilambi, identified with Kosam, * . 158 
Kautilya, author^ ^ 4 d j^ 

Kavadiya Madi-Gauda, $. a. Madi-Gauda, *. 206* 
Kaverakanya or Kaverasuta (Kaven), n., , 39, 163 
Kaven, n"., 7, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 30, 38, 41, 51, 52, 
'64, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 161, 162, 

165, 167, 18B 



Kavyadar&a, work, * , 67 
Kavyamfolca, work, w 



The figures refer to pages $ n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the additions on pp. vii to x* 
It following other abbreviations are used: cA. = chief ; co. country ; di.*& district or division; &>, ditto 
* fcy S $.Eastem ; i?.=BkJng ; f,s=male 5 io,=niountaia ; ri river ; s, a.a=same as ; sur.** surname ; 

>; i?i= village or tovn; w.** woman; fF* Western. 



INDEX. 



373 



kayastha, community* 
Kedara, tlrtlia, 
Kendara Keta, m., 
Kendara Marasimga, m., 
Kenwood House, * , 
Keonjhar, s. a. Khiiljali, 
Keonjhar State 9 . """^-s 
Kerala, co. 9 . 
Kerajas, people 
'Keraldtpatti, work, 
Kere-Siddhappa, te., 



PAGE 

, ' 74, 75 n., 257 
180, 186, 305 
171, 172 
171, 172 
. 304 
289,292 

~^r . 288, 291, 292, 300 

24, 241, 246, 254, 333, 341, 342 
116, 121, 123, 336 

* o t>TCO 



170, 196 
127 

Keiava, m. 9 . . 75, 77, 79, 178, 180, 182, 287, 296 
Ke&ava-Bha^ta, m. 9 , * . . 185, 188 
Kefevadeva, m*, . 285, 287 & n. 

Ke^avaditya, god, 175, 177, 185, 188, 192, 195, 

197, 198, 203, 204 
Ke^avaditya, m., 

Ke^ava-Gahiyasahasa, m*, . * 
KesavanashS ?,,,,.* 



Ke&avaryya, m. 9 



184, 187 
238, 250, 256 
. 157 
352, 355 
. 59, 60 
23, 27, 40, 51 
. 210 
317, 318, 319 
300 

* * * * 7t 

Khalimpur grant of Dharmmapaladeva, * 79 n., 104 n. 
Khamba or Stambha, m, * . 287 & n. 

Kha^dadeuH, t., 291, 303 

Khai^dadeuli grant of Banabhanjadeva (Naren- 



Ketumala, m^A. &*, 
Khachara (Sun), * 
IDiad4avali== Kodavali, 
KhadLuvapalls * 
Khalif Hasham, * 



drabhanjadeva), 

a, territorial division, 

official, 
Khandapara, state> 
kMwjaraksha, official, 
Khandicnandra, m,, 



measure, 
Khan(Jimalepa, m., 
khari, tonrf measur e, 

Khasa, 
Khatiya, 



khatvaltga-dhvaja, insignia, 
KJiereshwar Mahadeo, te. 9 



291, 303 

* 78 w. 

298 
. 288 7&. 
. 306 
308, 311 

308 
60 

313 & n. 

232, 233, 234, 235 

. 306 

300 



224 



117 



Khetaka (Eaira), vi. 9 . . , 
Jchi f form of , . - * * 
Khiching or Kicking, vL, . 
Khijjinga (*Kiching) s vi. 9 . . 
KhijMgga or KMjjjinga, s. a. KMcliing, 
Kbijjinga-kotta, . ., . 

Khijjiftga Kotta^EMcMng, ; . 
KMmidi, identified with Khimjali, . 
KMmjali or KhifijaK, di. t . . 
Khindini, misreading for KMinjali, 

State, . 



Khipatti, m. 9 . 

Kidaram, . . 

Kilauadigal, Kerala princess, .. 

Kitli, myth, fa, 

Kil-Faidaram, vi* 9 . . . . 

KfJvaH-Vagar-nadu, tfi;, , . 

Kimidi, dL 9 , 

Ki-pin, di., 

Kirari, vi. 9 * * 

Kirata, co., * 

Kir&tarjumyam, worJc, * 

Kinmambakkam, t?i. t . . 

Kirimanpatti, . a. KMmiiscibakkam, 

Bayimanpatti, trf., * 

Kirti, Sinhalese pritwe, * 

Kirti or Kirttivarman I, CMlukya fc,, 1, 2, 4, 

55, 56, 57, 89 n., 257, 258, 259 

Klrtinarayana, epttftef o/ Govinda III, 240, 245, 253 
Kirtivarma-Ppthivivallabha, *. a. Kfrtivarnian 

1, ....... 257,260 

B3rtti,<*., ..... 201,203,205 

Kirtti, wer^oncm wwrfe, * * * 114 TI- 
Kirttigiri, *. a, LuachcKhagira (*Deogarh), . 125 
Kirttiyarman II, CMlufa/a fe, ( . . 89 k 



PAOBI 

238, 243, 252 
* . 155 
289, SOD, 301 
. .300,301 
. 289 
. . 303 
. 300, 303 
. 292 
285, 289, 292 
. . 292 
* 300, 303 
. 300 

156, 157 
53 n. 

.. 341 
29 

9, 12, 15 
. 8, 11, 14 
291 

275, 278 
152, 153, 154 
104, 108, 112 
157 

. * 9 
* 9 
. 12, 15 
332 



. .**.. 006 

Ravikimayya-Nayaka, u., 178, 179, 181 
JcJcram&g'ata, used for feramagata, ... 125 
Koda^darama, . a, Adityavarman, OJ^a fe, 23, 42, 52 
Kodai?(Jaram^vara te,, . . . * 23, 24 

Ko4avali, vi, 9 . * 316 

Kodolibosonto, * ..... 303 
Koeti (East-Borneo), co. f . 152 n 153 

Kokkfli, Ghalutya fc, ..... 229 



N. B* The figures refer to pages ; #, after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the additions on pp. TO 
to z. The following other abbreviations are used ; ci.sweb.ief ; co.5oiintry ; <Zi*district or division; &* 
ditto ;%.= dynasty ; -B.=s Eastern; i,=saking; m*=mftm; 7w>,=5=nioimtaijij fi=wriver; *. aa=sameas; 
sumamo; fe.= temple 5 w.=i31age or towni 10.= woman; W. 



374 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[ VOL. XVIII. 



PAGE 

Kr.kiuljgri, 1W, 102, 193, 196, 208, 210, 212, 

213, 216, 218 

S^,'-*. "' 201,205 

\ujAlA i' !';r, v. ,;. Kopfa (Kolhapnra), . 201 
i, title of Pitta, , . 203 
241, 242 
352, 355 
21 
21 

122, 124 
352, 355 
. 58, 59, 60 
285, 299, 302, 303 
183, 186, 189 

223 n. 

. 1,2,3,4 

"' r 258, 259, 260 

identified with Kondav[e]rnpQr, . 258 

116, 124 



Kollarnryya, ^., . 

Komru Akron, a. a. Kanyakumari, 

Konur, if. 7. Kanyakumari, 



o my ai'1 



Kotayagatja, vi. 9 . 
Kotiara Metropolis, s, a. 



Kotrangudi plates of Nandivarman II, 
Kottabhaiija (^ilabhanja I), Bhanja k. s 
kotijagaram (gosfath* "" v 
JKot^aja-vavi, w&K 9 
kottapala, official, . 
Kottara, s. a. 



i, ei, 



RwikaiMx i> t 

'<M//., 

t i., 

nikA, Pnllaw I;., 
hii 



2, 3, 4 

165, 166, 167, 168, 169 
290 

29,321,323,324 
116, 123 
1*7, 150, 151 
7 

* 4 ? * 10 ' 1S 

tf Am5ghaT3Mha of Saka 782, 235 
236, 237 



PAGE 

302 

225 

21 
. 226 

115 
286, 291 
119,122 

208,209,211 
* 306 
21 

21 

Kotta&ramatapovana Kuting, . , f 3^ 

Kottayam Plates of 8thariii-Ravi, . . 59, 34^ 343 
Kottayam plates of Vira-Raghava-Chakravartti, * 69 
Kotwalipara spurious grant of Samachara-Deva 74 

KSvai, ... ' - * 
-. ., , 6S n. 

Koyilo!ugu,warJc 9 31,139,140. 

Kramavittanar.KuJaBhaWaij,m. y . . 122 124 
Krauncha,m^ ..... ^ m 

. 306 

* 139 

* 239 

24 

24, 27, 43, 53 



166, 169 
U64 



Krishna, m., 

Krishrta-I, RashfraMta L, 

Krishna III, Mshfrakufa 1c. 9 . 

Tf m * 

HI), R 



. a, Krishriadevaraya or 
maharaya, Vijayanagara k. 9 



, , . 
astojarayapnram, ,. 



*. a. 



300 
300 



' 



, official, 






\ 245, 253 
160 
* 36, 50 



139 
. 797*. 



-V., 5, a Xi^, fTC'i-x^ refpp *^ *" " ~~ ' 79 ra. 

-^^ ,;:c^^Hs=^^ 

S -tr ^,^7-7^."-^ --";: 



PAGE 

ku$ipati, headman of village, . * 342,343*344 
Kujula Kadphises, or KujiVa Kara Kadphises, 

270, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280 



Iculam, parihara, * * . * * ^ 
KTilamanikyanaMr oKoe NaochikrurohcM, vi., 

139, 141, 142, 145 

<M9 

KulaSekhara, owd/wr, ...*** 

KulaSekhara-Alvar, VaisJiVMWt saint, . 342 
Kulailekliara or Kula&khara K5yiladhii;arigal, 



ChSraJc., . 



., . 
Kulaiekhara-Chakravartigal, s. a. 

K8yiladhikarigal, . 
KulaSekharadSva, JTSra/a fc., . 
Kula^ekhara-pPeramal . o 

K6yiladhikarigal, . . 



340,341,342,344,345 



3 






kulavara (arbitrator ?) , 

kulavaya, land measure, 

Knlika, jpeojpZe, . * * ^ 

Kulika, serpent, . ' 

kuli(la)puttra 9 official, , - 

Kulitturai, ri., * - 

Kulottunga, Kulottunga-ChdJa (I) or Kulot- 

tunga-Chdladeva, CMla *., 25 n., 29, 64, 67, 

" 






69, 332, 333, 334 



KulSttuftga H, CU\a Te., 
Kul6ttungaS61a-valanadn, dt., 



fiR 



Kuluta, co,, . 
kulyavapa, land measure, 
Kumarachandra, m. 9 

Kmnara-Gupta, Gupta k. f 
Kumara-Gupta I, Gupta &., . 
Kuraara-Gupta H, Gupta Jc., . 
Kumara-Gupta HI, Gupta k., 



Kiimara-krama-Tiruvedi, m., . 
Kumara^arma-Chadaftgavi, m., 
Kumarasvamin, author, 



76, 77, 79 & n. 9 86 
285, 298 

* 81, 83, 242 
. .. .81,82 
. . '. - 84 
>, 142, 145 
122, 124 
122, 124 
. 348 



4. | vw***"""-- 

,, Pallava Jc., . 147, 148, 149, 150, 151 



7JS. it 

Ktup.4a, name ending, .. * .ion. 
;un# or Ku^di Three-thousand,' . 173, 174, 176 
Kunrattur, vi ^ 

.__!. ...#., , 67 68 

Kuram pl*fces of Paramgivaravai-tnan Iy . 1*7 
Kuravaiiri, vi 122) J 

Ku,m^.ifc.. . - ... 7,10,11,13,14 
Kurukshetra, . . - 179,180,181,186 

t identified with Kasia, 12? 

Kusapala,^, *> J 

Knshana, %., 2?9, 270, 271, 273, 275, 277, 278, 282 



Kushanas, people, 
Kusulaa Padika, s. a. Patika, 
Kutkuta-grama, w. t . 
Kiittan, author, 



270 
272 

62, 63, 64 
30 

>, 191, 193 



Kuvalalapura, s. a. KoiaUpura, (i. e, 

Ktivala^va, myth. & 

Kapsha, - 



?, changed into ?, ,* 
1 9 replaced by I, 
1 9 replaced by ?, * 
2J, replaced by I and r, - 

J, use of ..... 
4 used in Sanskrit, . 
l y wrong use of v * 

Laccadive Islands, . 
Laohchaladevi, s. a. Lachchalei 
I^achchiyabbarasi, s. a. Lacholale, 

Lachchiyabbe or Lachchale, u>* 
Lahula, m. f 

Ma^al prafasti, 



, 26. 35, 49 

. 277 



178, m 

. 314 

207 

0, 201, 213 



Lakkaxasa, 



. 152 n. 

174 1 176' 

174, 175, 

176, 177, ITS 

173, 174, 176 

225, 226 



189, 



Lakehadvlpa; s. a. Laocadive Islands, . 
I,akshmana, epic hero, . 22, 26, 37, 5*>, 90, 



Kumari, a. a. ELanyakumari, 
Kumari, ., 



(H), f 4taK fc. . 
raja,Xato^fc, - 
aja, II 4. a. Lakshmaim H, 



SS7S.K ig.iM.iM.a.1.**^ 



**. or K.all. . . ; : ^^ rf , WLm , ,. vU 

"TX^r^^r- ., - ^]^ fo r^4^ * SS. *- 
/w UM. ^"rr^r.ri'^Lrtii-M. , y .*- -- 




376 



JSriGBAPHIA INDICA. 



f Vot. SVJTf. 



W, ^ 

. 

!,, , 



PAGE 

348, 351, 354 
. 343^. 
. 139, 145 . 
191, 194 



w . 219, 241, 3*8, 337, 338 

from-**, a * 254 

, , . . . 254 n. 

. . * 246 

a, a. G$TJndapi!ry . . . , 300 

. . . , . ^ 182,200 

Old 171, 172, 178, 189, 196, 199, 

201,205,207,208,212 
16, 10, 87, 155, 158 
1, 5, 22, 55, 58, 81, 87, 99, 115, 
I , 128, 138, 159, 180, 165, 182, 189, 
196, 201, 203, 2I2 9 219, 224, 227, 236, 
884. am, 311, 314, 320, 331, m, 

348 

, , ^ % ,331 
. . 5, 22, 04, 115, 138, 165, 332, 340 

2oa 

m f * g lf 93^ | 05 & ^ 

. 

JMtgtk, 

...... 276 

* Ut buuT tutet, '. \ . . .335 

. 156,157 

of Laydea or grant, . . 8 

14 ., 15 .,* 22, 26 

; t . 232j 235 

fti'Slrapfl, 272 

. , # ^ \ m 

* . . . 201, 203, 205 &n 

. . ^ 173, 176&ti 

....... . lw 

fr" 01 ^' -.-.. m 

fttfieno/^ajo^As'wa //. * 231,233 

- 315 
dMihl, v arfo/JBjdrfiJ^^ . U1 

m2 
'211,218 






of Klmiip, <itfir p 

* i iascription of tie 27th 



PAG is 
Loriyan Tangai stupa, . * * . .281 

lotus flower, nin-petalled and expanded, 

emblem on seal 9 . 55 

lotus flower, seven-petalled, and expanded^ embkm 
on seal, gg 

Luaohchhagira, . 125 

Lucknow Museum, , . . , * 218 
Lnnarrace, . . . . . , 133% B 



1,307,314 
. 236 
48, 55 
344 



M 



m final, form of , 

m, replaced by ft, . , , 

ma s , land measure^ . a 

Mabarata s. a. MaMbharata, . 

Macohagaon, m., . 

Machai record of the year 81, . * 263 280 

Machchba , Machchha , MSohphha , MaohhS ,- or 

Machhadagrama, vi. 9 . . 285, 295, 301, 303 n. 
Machha or Machhadiagrama-Majhlgam, . . 303 n* 
Mactchhadagrama-Machhgaon, . w % 3^^ 
MacJiha or MacMia<Jakhan<Ja, di. t 285, 205, 297, 

301, 303 

* * " 9 Ol/U 

Madanapala or deva, Gahaflavala 4., 220, 221, 

223, 225, 226 
Madane^vara, fe., |^Q |OQ 

Madevi.perundaWan, m., . * [ 9,12,15 
I, (^a%a fc, 149 

25 27 45 53 
Madhurintaka, wr. o/ Parawtofc I," 24,' 27,' 48,' 53 

Madbva, school of . i^/. 

Madhyade^a tract between Bengal and Oriss, \ 302 
Madi, or Madi-Ganda .,.. 
Madiraiko^da Parakesarirarinaii, i!ftfe of JP- 

Madras Museum, -..!*" 345 
Madura, Madhura or Bfadhura, irf., J * j^ 

27, 28, 29, 43, 53 

* 241, 246, 254 

in, or Maghanandin, m. . 201 



INDEX. 



377 



Mahabalipuram, trf., 

Mahabfaar&ta, epic, 1, 110 n., 113 w. 1W fl., 130, 

225, 342, 345 & . 

Mah&bh&rata war, ..... 28, 29 
Mahabha$hya 9 work, . ,. 



maha-da%4anayaka 9 official, 



. 306 

, official, . . .306 

Mahadeva, a. a. Mahadeva, . S10, 212 & n., 215, 217 
Mahadeva, m., . . 183, 187,208, 213,294 

Mahadeva or "raja, KaJcatZya Te., . 347 & ., 351, 354 
mah&'Jearttaleritika,, official, . 3 6 

MahakoSata kings 289 

Mahakshatrapa, title . . 267, 272, 275, 339, 340 
mahdi-kumar-amatya, official, . . 306 

Mahal 289 

7 ) AO ^1 flf ^ill 

maM-mezfozto'#, official, * ow *>A^, *** 
MahamaHa, epithet of Rajasiitiha II, 149, 151, 152 



Mahamata, 
Mahanadi, H., 
tna&ftnaitia, official, 
mahanavaml, t&hi. 



. 328 

152, 300, 302, 303 
156, 157 
259, 260, 261 
. 12B 

Maha-parinirva^a-Chaitya 2 ^ 

maha~pratm 9 official, . . 306, 311, 313 & n. 

Maharaja, title, . 1, 231, 234, 278, 282, 309, 

310, 311, 312, 314, 315 

Maharajadhiraja, Mb, . 26, 48, 54, 62, 75, 76, 
78, 81, 90, 174, 175, 179, 183, 191, 197, 
202, 215,221, 223, 225, 226, 237, 238, 249, 

256, 306, 322 

maharaja mahata, title, . * * 277 

Maharaja rajatiraja, title, . * 277 

Maharajas of Uchchakalpa, ... - 83 
Jf AMraja Sarvan or Sarva, title of Amdghavar- 



Mahato s. a, Mahattara , 



Mahatantra, division of VtfaiU&ta for ess* 332, 

334,338 
. 78 n. 

. 251,257 

Mahattara-kutumvin(mbin) . 306 

Mahattara, title . ., * 78.,249 

Mahavagga, work, .19 

work, . 72 n. 9 73, 331, 332, 333, 336 

sect, * * * 331 n. 
Mahavrata, aiva school, . . * . 176 *. 
Mahendra, mo. 9 . . . 309, 310, 311, 312 



Mahendragiri, w., . * 
Mahendrapala or deva, Kanauj k. 9 
Mahendravarman, Pallava L 9 
Mahendravarman I, Pallava L, 
Mahendravarman III, Pattaw Je. 9 
Mahefivara, savnaya or school, 



. 24 n. 
106 & n- 
150, 151 
146 n., 150 
58 
. 176 n. 



simha II, 
MaMchandra, 
MaMnda V, Ceylon ., 
MaMpala I, Pala *., 
Mahishman, Kafachuri 
Mah5daya or Kanauj, 
Mahodayapura, vi* 9 
Mailaladevi, w, 9 * 
Mairavairia, . . 
makara, figure of , 



Makaradhvaja, wr . of Vishwuvardhaw /, 



shal, . . ' < 


240, 246, 253 


me 

H/f " 


Maharaja-Sarran, name of Dantidurga, 


. 239 


Ms 


Maharajni, . * . 


. 90, 94, 96 




Maharapura, . 


. 302 


Mi 


Maharashtra, di. 9 * 


. 256 n. 


M, 


maharayarayaraya devaputra, title, . 


. 277 


M 


maharaya rayatiraya, title, 


277 


M 


ma>ha-#&wianta 9 official, . 


. 306 


M 


mahasen&n$ 9 official, * 


156, 157 


M 


Maha^ramaria, (the Buddha), a 


74 


M 


Mahasthan (Fau^L<3Lravardhana), ., 


86 


M 



149, 151 
. 220 
. 332 
. 89 . 
. 129 
. 239 
. 343*. 
201, 203, 205 
193, 196 & n. 
. 207 
. 341 
55, 56, 57 
29, 53 . 

of Velattk&ras, 335, 336, 337, 338 
Mala-nadu, <&, . .' . 139,141,145 
Malapayya (Maiayya), m., . - 213, 214, 217 
Maiapayya; m., . 208,209,211,213,214,215,217 
Malava, Malava, Malwa or Malwa, co., 83, 101, 104, 
105, 108, 112, 240, 245, 253, 320, 321 
. . 192,195 
Malavas or Malavaa, people, . -92, 189, 306 

Malaya, mo., 37>5 ^ 

M34 ayva,m 208,210,212 

Malivapundi grant, . ^> 233 234 * 

* ^4i*7 4& 

Malkapuram inscription, . * * *** w * 

162, 164, 165, 166, 160 
200, 201 



figures refer to page,: * after a figure, toootnotes , 
*ox. ThefoUowmg other abbreviation, are used _*-<** ; co.= 
ditto ; %.=dymasty ; Jff.^Eastem ; *.=king ; J ,=man ; mo.^monntam ; . 
surname ; te.=temple ; t.=yfllage or town j w.=womaa ; TF.- Western. 



Malliga, s. a. Peruva MaBi, 




EHGEAPHIA 1NDICA. 



[ VOL. 




Mambakkaifc, #{., 



PAGE 

. 12, 15 

_, ..--.. 348,351,354 

Manadalia, m., .... 219,221,223 
Maindara or Mandara, w., . . . 214,217 
Mamenaiyya, m., . . . . ' 352 ' 3g5 
Maingalarnnava, Marhgalarnnayadgva, Manga- 

lar&avaor Mangajarnavadeva, m., . 189, 192, 195 
Mimma (Mahamaya), queen, . ... 2 85, 295 
ManuaanaorManmanS.M., . 285, 297, 301, 303 . 
Marimdeyara or Maudeyara, Makanayya, m., 192, 195 

JuTo -n e /To* m 7 . 7. 



Manabhuslia, lord of Madkura, . 161 

bUb* .....* w 



ManayarmaUur, *., 



1 o/ tf&e Chalulkycw, 2, 56, 69, 
228, 258, 315 

-- * * * 308w. 

Mandaidn!(Ganga), . . ^ . 11 14 29 
Mandal (Mandor ?), . . s ^ ' ' 93 
mavtfala, territorial division, . ,, ! 78. 
Ma^<Jalapurasha, aw^Sor, . . . * 65 " 

'm&wfali&a, official u , oni 

JT i *, 289 

^t T5 ' W '" 303 . 

Maijdam,^ 301, 

Mandavya, sage. ' QR 

r- j * **" 

Maridavyapura or Mandor, vi., . 88, 91, 94, 95, 98 

lOndhatft m^A. fc, . 22, 26, 29, 35, 49, 245, 253 
an or, ^., ^ 

Mangadur grant, . . , 9 % .149 
Mangala, Mafigala^napada or Mangalarashtm, *., 

116, 12 
MaAgalam (Mangal), vi. f 



PAQH 

Manigramam, .... 69,70,71,72 
Manigramattar, .... 70, 71 & ., 72 

Manjratlya monnd, 

TWi*tv .AW.S * i. >^. * 

( " 301 
53 . 

ijSta ?),>., .... 25 

Mo . ,,' !y(?) 46,54 

Manoratha, myth . ^ . . > 23,27,41,52 

Marru,,.a.Ma nr am, , 

""SfPM^lwtt*^ . . . 119,122,124 
nX^W, .... 221,226,231 
Mann, ^ft, 4., 22 , 26, 28, 30, 34, 49, 107, 110, 
129, 132, 136, 180, 209, 211, 214, 215, 216, 

217, 347, 350, 354 



LI Jff 

Manutmriti, work, * ' " ', Rfl ' ^ n> 
m&nya, ' - 88 - 1 36. 
y ' 228, 233, 235 

ManyakefcaorManyakheK^ .24,27,45,63,238, 

,.-- . 241 ., 249, 256 

Maranaiyya, w ., .... 352 % 

!-_ ~. , . *. 002, 355 

JM-aranjadaiyan, Pay4ya &., . -67 

Mara^a(Maharaj-aSarvEn),^e, .' I 2 40 



, . . , 121,123,124 
. . . m 

Mangi, Nolamba Jc. 9 m 

Mangi-yuvaraja, CMluTcya L, . f ^ 229 
Mangiynvaraja, ^%el o/ Sarwldtefraya, ' 314 



rfanikiala casket, '.... 

^inscription, . . .' 267,268,269 

.71,73 



... 

Maiygramakkar, a. o. Maijigramattar, . . . 



Marata-B5ya, epithet, . ' * ' " . * 
Mara^a, . ' * ** 

M^'T ' ' ' :22 .26,28; 3 3,4 2 9 9 
Marmad, (Maru-mada), A'., . fl2 

Martanda or Marttanda, VUSU oh, ' ' 7" u 13 
Marttanda,TO., .... '' "*" 

Jf?". 1 ' '... 314,3? 
Masharfa.w. * 

Matantira (Mahatantra), . * 337 

Matavaiyya(Ma<lhavSrya?),. ' * 3 * B2 afis 
MathaKuar, 352,355 

' 128 

Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions, . 266, 267, 

mtr 268j ^ 272 

, W *' 1)7 

Matiikas(Div i neMothei 8 ),repreaentetionsof-, 125, 

.114&n., 126, 



101, 104, 108, 112 



INDEX. 



wor ft, . 

mattar, land-measure* . 

Maues, &aka h f . , 

Maunada Bha^ara, m. y . 

Maunideva, m., . . 

Maurya, dy., . . 

Mayamata, worlk 9 
Mayilappil, rf., . 

Mailararyya, m., . 
Mayura, ^., . 

Mayurabhafija, epithet, , 



PAGE 

. 317 

195, 196, 212, 218 
. 273 

. 201 n. 

201, 202, 204 

. 281 

.. . 72 

122, 124 
352, 355 

. 89, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 
. 290 



Mayurabhanja State, 288, 289, 291, 292, 300, 301, 303 
Mayurabhafija, w*., . . * 290 

Mayuraka, ' * 291 n 

Mayurakshaka, m., . * * * 126 
Mayiiri > * . * * * 291 tt* 

Mayurika, . * . . , 291 n. 

Mayiirikas, people, * . * * * 290 

Mayurkl, 290, 291 &n. 

Meda, .*... * 306 

Medalkoi>4a, W M 232, 235 

Medanaryya, m,, . * * % * * ^' ^^^ 
Me4antaka, vi. p , . , * , . . 88, 95, 98 
Medantaka-pura, 5, a. Merta, . 94 

Mfyhaduta, work, , . . . 188 tt., 346 & n. 
Meghanada (Indxajit), ... 107, 110 
Meherauli pillar inscription, . . . 86 
Meherp-ur, di. t ... , 62 

Melaikkucji, s. a. Pelaikfca^i, . 

a, god, , 216, 218 

. . * s . * 343 
Merta, identified with Mecjantaka, t . . 88 
Meru, mo., . 164,215,217,243,243,252,253 
Mcshika, vi.> **.. 306 

metres 

AnusfyubJt, . 6, 31, 95, 107, 126, 140, 162, 
166, 174, 179, 183, 190, 197, 202, 208, 
213, 220, 243 n., 244 , 246 n., 249 ., 349 
JLry&> * * 6, 95, 120, 126, 130, 293 n. 

JLry&g&i, . . . . * 140, 202 
Aupachchhanda$ika, * * . . 31 
Champatamala, . 174, 179, 183, 190, 197, 

202, 206, 213 
Drutavilambita, * * * 6, 220 



Dvipada, 



171 



162 

31, 107, 349 

Zndravajra, .... 120, 220, 349 
Kanda, . 171, 174, 179, 183, 190, 197, 200, 

202, 205, 208, 213 

Kattalaikalitturai, * . * , . 65 n* 
Mahasragdhara, . 183, 190, 202, 207 

ling 31, 95, 245 w., 246 n., 247 n., 249 n. 9 

293 n. 9 295 f^., 296 n., 349 
* . . * 31, 130, 349 
Mattebhawkri&ta, . 171, 174, 179, 183, 197, 
202, 205, 207, 208, 213, 236 & n., 245 ., 

247 n. 

PraharsUni, * . . . . 6, 31, 120 
PrithvS, ... 31, 207, 245 . 

Pushpitagra, .120, 245 ft., 295 ., 297 w., 

299 ?t., 349 

Xatteddhaffi, . . . . . 31, 120, 129 
SUM, . 31, 126, 140, 162, 166, 179, 220, 

246 n., 249 n. 

SardulamJcr^iia, 31/95, 107, 120, 130, 140, 
208, 213, 220, 245 n.> 246 n., 247 . t 
248 n,, 293 n., 295 rc., 297 ^,, 298 ,, 

299 n., 331, 349 

littoritti; . . 31,107,120,126,130 

Srapdhara, . 31, 95, 107, 130, 149, 162, 

166, 244 ., 245 w., 247 ,, 298 n., 349 
Svagat% $ ..... 31, 349 
Upajati, . . .31,107,202,330^,349 
Upendravajra* .... 31, 349 
Utpatemala, . . . 174,183,202,208 
Fa^o^iAa, ..... 31, 129, 130 
Vathsasthavila, ... 243 ., 244 . 
6, 31, 107, 130, 149, 220, 244 ., 

294 ., 296 iw 



* * * 13d 

Mihira, sur. of Pratih&ra k. Bhoja, . . 100, 101 

MiMra, *. a. Bhoja, * 109, 113 

MiMraktila, Hu^a *., . . . 82 & n., 83, 84, 91 



U epithet of Kawfcx Madawn t 64, 68 
Milupacp, vi* 9 ...... 300 

Mlmaihsaka, wmaya, or ^cAooZ * . * 176 , 
Mira, m., .....** 



Miraj plates, 



321 & 



JVJ5, The figures refer to pages ; n, aft&r a %ure to footnotes ; and add. to the additions on pp. vrt 
to x The followingDther abbreviations are used ; cA.eiohief ; ca. country; di. district or division ;cto.*^ 
ditto; dy,== dynasty; ^.^Eastem ; J5x==king; m.mojc|: ino.aMmoun.tain; ri.~riv&i*, s. a, = same ai; ttrw 
surname; fe.temple; w\= village or town; w,=w;9maa; TF.a Western. 

8c2 



aso 



INDICl. 



PAGE 

Mtkradates II, Parthian i., . . 273, 274, 275 
HUohchhas, people, . . 93,101,103,107,111 
lloga, Euakay.0, &., , 272, 273* 275 

M6n inscriptions of Burma, 130 

Hanghyr, ., , 89,94,95 

months 

lsha<pia 279,280 

Aspaiu(?) 9 ...... 280 

A&vina ? . , , . . . 16, 17 

Avadunaka (Audiinaios), . . ,17, 18 
Bbadrapada, . . * 320, 321, 324, 325 
Chaitra or Obaittra, . 97, 99, 171, 172, 

320, 321, 348, 351, 354 

Chingam, . 341,342 

BliaiiiiB s . * * * 341 
Bios, 275 

First, 318,319 

Jyai or Jy&ihtha, 190, 193, 196, 219, 221, 

223, 314, 315 
Karkataka, ...... 341 

Kartika or Karttika, * 57 9 77, 79, 161, 
163, 164, 165, 167 9 169, 225, 226, 258, 

259 9 260 286, 299, 321 
High* ...... 320, 321 

Makara, , , . . . . . 174 

Marga^Irslia, ...... 318 

Panemos, * . . . . 275 S 280 

Pauslia, . 257 



Bushya, 173, 175, 177, 183, 187, 190, 191, 
193, 104, 196, 107, 198, 199, 208, 210, 

212, 215, 218, 250 

Srava^ta, . . . 190, 192, 195, 200, 280 
Tenth, . , . . . . . 16, 17 
VaiSakha, . 139, 143, 145, 265, 266, 280, 282 
Virichohika or VjMchika, . . 344, 345 
IEOOJI, embkm on seal, * . . . .160 
Moon, progenitor of race, . . . 161,290 
MofcupalK record of Ganapatideva, . * . 347 
Mount Banj inscription of Sam, 103, 262, 264, 280 
Mo-Yu-lo (or Mayura), ., . 95 

Mritya (Yama), god of death, . 22, 23, 39, 41, 51, 244 
Mptyujit, myth. I-., 22 S 27, 39, 51 

, myth, i., . . * 22 3 26, 28, 35, 50 

140 

Muddikawe, w. 9 . . . . 18P, 184, 187 



Pias 

Mudgagiri s w. t e . . , ,96, 98, 305 

Mudgagiri ? s. a. MongliyF, . . . 94, 95 9 106 
Mugalan or Vyari^i Mugaian, Buddhist mon% 9 3 2, 33S f 

337, 3'*8 & . 

Miigamiir, w., . . . 257, 258, 259, 260 
Muhammadpur, v., ..... 79 
Mujum^uru, w. 9 . 4 

Muhwdamala, worJs 9 . 3^ 

Mulamaohha4a or MulamacUiadagrama, w., 285, 29T 
Midaprakritis, . . . . .117 
Mula-Prithu, myth, jfe., . . 107 & ., 110 n. 
Mufasthana, importnl seat of monks, . 337, 333 
Mulasthanadeva, 186 

Mulavarman or Mukvarmmana Borneo , 152 . 153 
Mulikialam, * 343 

Mumneru or Mnnneniy t 168 

Miin:aiyadiivr, few saint, 67 

MMgamur, identified with. Mdgamur 9 . 258 
Mimindra (the Buddha), . . . 129, 131 
munru-kai, e&ithet of V$faiR&za*, . . . 334 



]i, another name of the shrine of the Tooth 

Eelic of Buddha ...... 332 

MinKU-kai-ttiru-VeJaikkara^ Daladaypperam- 

bajli 8, a, Dajadaypperam-balji, . * 337, 338 
Murapu^K ...... 353, 356 

Musiya or Musiyana^ariiian TO., . 228, 23 l f 

232, 233, 234 
Muttaraiyar, Gh$. 9 ...... 23 

Miittutin-kiiixam, di, t . . . 343 w 

Mutturn, m". 9 , . . ,342,343,344,345 
mnyyaliknttu, ...... 235 n 

Myakadonl inscription of Pulnmavij . . 318 A. 



W 



n inal s replaced ' 

Nachohikrorohohi, . . . 139, 142, 145 

NachchikrurchcH-pallika, . . . . 141 

NachcMnarkkiiiiyar, author ^ , . 70 & n. 9 119, 120 

na4u-Mval, parihdr a* . 122 9 124 

Naga, tribe, . . 156, 157 

Nagab!ia$a or Nagabhafca I, Ourjar-Pratiham fa, 100, 
' 101, 102, 103, 107, 110, 111 n 



. The figures refer to pages : n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the additions on pp. vii to x. 
The loEowing other abbrefiations are used : cA.= chief ; co. country ; <K.w district or division ; do* = ditto ; 

%.=sdynasty ; ^.ssEaatem i EMng ; w.ma,n ; fwo.wmoimtaia ; ri.OTer ; & .same as ; *ur. surname 5 

^e. M tempi i ^i == Tillage or town ; w, woman ; IF* 



INDEX. 



381 



PAGE 

NagaWiata, Pn^Mra i. f . - 88, 90, 03, 95, 98 
Kagabha^a or Nagabhata II, Gtirjar-Pratikam i., 94, 
100, 104, 105, 106 & ., 107, 108, 

112 &9U, 235, 240,245, 253 

Nagadatta, wcwl, * . .268 

Nagadeva, m. 9 

Nagaladevi, gwee^ o/ Naraaa, . . 
Nagananda* work . 129 

Naganaryya, w,, . 352,355 

Nagara Bhavi, wZI, ..... 17 
Nagaraklian4a Seventy, dt., . * 208 

Nagarakliai?<ji or Nagarakliamdi rf.* %%* 

210, 212, 213, 216, 213 

nagararakhin (nagarara&sUn), official 9 . 156, 157 
NagaraSi or Nagara&deva, m., . * 205 206 
Nagaratta=Nagarattar 9 . 335 

Nagarattar, <K. of VelaikMra forces 332, 334, 335, 

337, 338 



Nagavarma or Nakiga, author* 



? 

Nagavaloka, identified with Nagabhata I 
Nagavaloka, identified with NagabHata II, 



' 215 
103 

101 



184 > 187 



Naghumslia, mong form of 

Na^kavre, .,.. 

Fahar collections, . 

Nahu8ha,m^fc, . - 76,78,136,161 

maimiUilca> official, ..... 221,226 

Nakarasa, Nakimayya, Nakimayya-Nayaka, or 

NaMya W a,m, . . . . 183,184,185, 

186, 187 & n., 189 

aakshatras 

Bhara^i ..... 161,163,164 
Sadayam or Sadaiyam, 28, 53 n. 

oa 

N alanda monastery, * * * * * 

Nalanda plate, * . . 304 & n., 305 n., 306 n. 
Nalanda, site at, * . 19 . 
(Nar or Nil), rf., . 321, 322 fr mM. 9 324 
or wrfgw nalppappdr, 119, 122 



Nammalyar, saint, " 
Nanade^i merchants, 
Nandagrama, m, 9 
N"andagraina, s & Nandagaon, 
NaBdavalla, 
Nandi, figure of , . 



PAGE 

. 159 
. 334 
. 335 
243, 250, 256 
- 243 
. 96, 98 

. . .182 n., 189 
p ' . 122,124 

Nandivarman or Nandivarman I, Pattava L 9 

116 & n., 149, 150, 151 

Nandivaranan, Nandivarman Pallavamalla, 
Vijaya-Nandivikkirama-parumar or Kandivar- 
maB II, Pattava Je* 9 * ?* 1W, 117, 118, 

Nandivarman, Vijaya-Nandivarman, Vijaya- 
Nandivikramavarman or Handivarman III, 



187 



Nannaraja, Xalachuri t, . 129, 133, 136, 137 & n. 
JNFarabliata, Pratfflra Js. 9 * * 88,05,98 
Naraka, demon, . . * - .110 
Narasa, Jijayavwgara, h, 161 

Narasigba, wrong form oi Narasidihs, . 249 
Narasimba, m., ..... 222,224 
+ . -888, 249 & *, 256 



Baladitya, 



Narasirioliaryya, 
Narafittdia^Baiii 
Narasimliavarman, 



82, 83, 84 ft w. 
852,855 

18S 188 
150,151 



Nlraya^an iclichan, m., . . * 

-, 342, 
or NarendrabhaHjadeva, 



Narendraditya, legend! o MM 



. 315 




te.-*emple ; wi.- village or town ; w.wioman ; W** Wertwn. 




[Vol. XVIII. 



rtuakesiraf 



PAGE 

ik cave inscriptions, . 155,157,267 

^ ' ' 

.anal, ' H 

.a.Mittb.JU ; ; I63 ' 1 1 6 65 

or grant of the Gujarat Chajukya' 



Navalahia, . 
a&k 
, state, 



17,18 

75 n. 
75, 76, 78 & w., 85 

288 n. 
75, 77, 79 

342, 343, 344, 345 
353, 356 
192, 195 
. 348 n. 

12, 15 
173, 175, 

176, 177, 178 
70 

12, 15 

68, 69 
122, 124 

ner-vayam, parifiaraj . -12,15 

Sja or mribhafijadeva, BlMja fc, 284, ' "* 

2r~3SsEr-T: 



4i, assembly hall, 

ta or JSTelaguata 
i-vartti, . 

Nelluru (More), w., \ \ 

Nelvayippakkam, ., 

Nema, Nemana or NSmayya, ., 



, work, 
kk am ^ vf., . 
,Wk of Choja tings, '. 



Nlgur, 



or Nidubaju, ef, ] 
grant of Jayasirhta, I, 



aternity o 



nitehepa, 



163, 165 
314, 315 
55, 56, 57 
. Iw. 
64, 67, 68, 69 
331 & ., 

333, 336, 338 



nivartana, land measure, 

official, 



PAGE 
257, 260 



or 



, used 



249, 256 

Nrimnda,^, ' 76> 78 ' 162 ' 1>64 ' 166 

Nfipatuflga,!., '.' '. ' ' - 23 > 27 >40,52 

"KT-*i.^.,,^ ^._ QJ^ - * * * "> 12, 15 

^** W rirtTT-J ., O * 



90 

160 

308 
307, 308 



numerals 

Teiugu-Kannatjia, 
uumercial symbols 
128, 

100, .' 
20, 
8* ."* 

%, used for jft, 



asarn!), . 

Nuvaragal Devasenevirattat, \ 

Nyayapadra, rf., . 

Nyayapadra suptodafd (seventeen) 



308 



318 & n . 
- 338 

321, 322 

322, 324 



0<Jraka, 00., 
OJajale,^., . 

>, denoted by a symbol, 



240, 245, 253 
-208,209,211, 213 



Nilgiri, tofe, . 

Nilgnnd inscription, . ' ' 
Ninefcy-eight sub-sects of the Idangai 

' 



7, II, U 
288 

" 10 "* 



P initial, retention of, 
initial, oianged to h, . 



inl, queen of Ealclca, 



178, 189 

208, 213 

156 & ., 157 

68 
62 

8> 90, 96, 98 
4 



Pahlavas; 

Paja inscription of Sam 

' 




INDEX. 



383 



PAGE 

Pala, dy., . , 89 ,, 104, 105, 106, 230, 240 

Paiakkada branch of the Pallava dynasty, * 149 
Palar, ***.,,.... 145 
Palaravayar, w., ....*. 68 
palavithida(Jca ?)va-(pa)KJca, official, . . 156, 157 

Palidhvaja, 244,252 

Palita, name ending . * . . . 75 * 

Pal Lahra, state, 288 

Pallava, myth. Jc.> 6, 10, 13, 116, 120, i3, 147, 

150, 151 

Pallava, dy. 9 7, 9, 12, 15, 23, 42, 52, 58, 59, 116, 
145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152 & * 241, 246, 

254, 331 * 

Pallavadi-Araiyar, m., . . . * 117 

Pallavamalla, mr. of Nandivarman II, . 116, 118 
Pallavamalla, prince, . * . * .117 
Panaingavu, palace, . * . * 342 

Pancha or Panchapa, myth, k., , 23, 27, 40, 51 
Pafiehalinga, te., . . . . 170, 201, 205, 208 
pancha-mahapataka, sins, . 337 

pancha-vnaha-yajna*, . . * . .78. 
Pancharatra, samaya or school, . . 176 . 
Pa$4aranga, m., .... 228, 234 & n, 

Pa$4ya, co 25, 27, 28, 54, 246 

Pa^dya, dy., 10 f 13, 21, 23, 24, 27, 43, 44, 52, 53, 254 

Pas<Jyas, people . . . .89, 116, 121, 123 
Pay4yakutontaka 9 title of Vira-Eajendra, . . ^ 54 
Pa^ini, author, .... 6 ., 95 n., 178 
Panjtar insoription of the 1st Sravana 122, 275, 

276, 277, 27, 279, 280 

Pappa6arma-Clia<Jangavl, m., . . . 122, 124 
Paracbakrarama, another name of Tijayadtiya 

III, 229. 

Paraohakrarama, wrong form of Parachafararama, 229 
Parakesari, myth. *., . . 26/28,89,51 

Parakesari, Chola title* 22 

Parakramabahu I, Ceylon fc., . * 66, 333, 336 

Paralia or Pa?:aliyaid, ri. 9 ... 21 

parama-ashta-kula-siiiilia, title of Via-Rdjendra, 48 
paramabhattaraka, title, 90, 174, 175, 179, 183, 
191, 197, 202, 221, 223, 225, 226, 231, 237, 

238, 249, 256, 306, 322 
ParaiaamilieSvara, title, 221, 223, 225, 226, 231, 

293, 295, 297 
Paramara, dy. 9 320, 321 



PAOK 
paramasaugata, title, ..... 306 

paramesVara, title, 82, 174, 175, 179, 183, 197, 
202, 215, 221, 223, 225, 226, 237, 238, 249, 

256, 306, 322 

Paramevaravannaii, Pallava L, . * 150, 151 
ParameSvaravarman IT, Pallava k., . . 117 
Paranga, wrongly written for Panfyxranga,, . 231 

Parantaka I, OJtdfa fc, . , 3,24,27,42,52,67 
Parantaka (H), OMjak., . . .24,44,53 
Paribrajaka Maharajas,. ... * 83 

Parava (ba) la, Mah^raMta ife., ... 305 
Paravur, vi., ...... 343 n, 

parihdras (exemptions), . 124 

Parivarakkondam, sub-sea of Vejaikfka^cui, 335, 337, 338 

parivrHi,, ....* 246, 254 n 

Parla-EImeiJi plates of Indravarman, * . 308 
Paru or Pertmatka{i, ki]l or MHi, wyft. Jt, 23, 

27, 41, 52 

paruvidu,, ,..* 235 * 
Pasanna(=Pasaiia), v*., . * * . 300 
pasuge* .....* 195 

Pasupata, school of religion or philosophy, . . 176 n. 
Patalamalla, Raff* cA., . . . . . 241 

P&tafijala, samaya or achoot f .... 176 n. 

Patanjali, author, ...... 154 

Pat Ga^eshvara Pal, m., .... 288 

pati, s- a. kudipatL 

Patika, Jf (xAafeAofmpa, . * 271,272,275 
Patika plate or inscription, . 262,273,275,280,281 
Pat Mmi Pal, m., ..... ^** 

Patna Museum grant of Ea^abhafijadSva, 2*1, 303 
paffa, piece of land, . * * . 61* 
dy district, .** 219 



pur (Patatupuram, or Pattupuram), m., 285, 

299, 302, 303 . 
t\, . 116, 119, 122, 12* 



Pattuppaffu, work, 
Patilastya (Bavai^), 



Pa^lttnika, m., 

pamtra, wrong Jorm of pautoa, 

Paylmma or 



work,. 



r lsl 
* 
75,76,78 



174 



17S 
3M 



.. The figures refer to pages : n. after a figure, Ao footnotes.; and oAl to the Addition on ffl?* 
The following other abbreviations are used :-^i.ehirf; co.oomitry ; A*.==distrifc or dmdoiu da. 

W* 



temple ; t?i,= village or town; tr.=woma#; 



384 



INDICA. 



[VoL. XVIII. 



< 
PSaibi<Ji (MhiUba4i), ri. 9 . 

Pellapelll, mmeofNarabliata,. 
Pe^mknparo, t. f . 

Perggummi, m. 9 . . . 
, toorir, .. 



PAGE 
100 

162, 163465 

. 8?, 95, 98 

314, 315 

201, 203, 205 

.. 21 



Pmyafur&wam, work, . . , 87 & ., 68 & ft. 

Perma or Permma, cR., . , 201, 203, 205 

Penttm4iraya, 203 n* 

Perth Museum, ...... 60 

pefnd&n&wtf * * * * . * 336 
Pemmal-Uttamanambi, TO., . , 189, 143, 145 
Permmba4appn Ga&gadkara Vira-Kemk Tinsk- 

kdyiladhikarigal, title of Cochin kin$$ 9 . a 342 
ferundaram or p&rundaram, titte t . t . 78 n* 
Peraneydal, w. f . . . 342, 343, 344, 345 

Peroneyil, i., ^ . . . . 340, 341, 343 

Penmeyil inscription, 341 

Pejruva Malli, m. f . * , . . 200 

Peshawar, ri., 19 f 282 

PHira grant, . 149 

Hlavayal (Vayalur) i. ( . 140 

PiJJaigaldanam, sub-sect of Vejaikkagas, * 335 9 

337, 338 

f^t ZZf J 1 !! mf^PfiWSy 7 Qf\ 

JST vyyw v f JL ?*/ti * 1 5 * n fe ft Ov/ 

K-lo-mo-lo, ^* a. BMlIamala, * ' . . 92 n. 
PMgala, anthor* 60, 67 S 236 



12 
. 316, 317 . 

201, 203, 205 



or Pro!unaij4taj <Z*. 58 S 5& 60 

aup&rvsing charitable i 



pmim adeyam (brahmadeya)> . 
\, . . . . 



Polomarova, *, . . , 830, 332 n. 9 888 9 330 
EW, coi% ....... jo 



* 352, 3o5 



Poygai, f a^ . . , . . 4 8, 29 
Prabliachaiidra Siddblnta/deYa^ w., , . 170 
Prabkakara, 60 



PAGE 
59 

PrabhakaraTardhaaa, fMnemr k^ 9 0, 91, 92 
Pra&Utfa-G&arfta, toorJb, . . . 101, 274 . 

Prabhiitavarsha (Goyiada BE), S^shtraMta, Jc** 

237, 239, 244, 252 
Prabhatavorsba, f . o/ Odvinda ///, 237, 241, 

246, 253 
Prabimtavarsha, aur . o/ Krishna I1 9 9 . 244 

Pfe&aiaditya, A., 81 

prahafiv, msed for prahaty 9 87 

Prakrit used in official documents, 87 

pramatri, official, 306 

306 

& used for prdptatfwtrida&a $ . 125 

6, 9, 11, 14 
. 242 

Prataparadra, Kafatitya Tc. $ . tt . 346 

f, twi, 348 

i, used for jxrt&i ?, . . w 128 
Pratlhara, insignia, . . c . .110 
$fatihara 9 official, * . 156, 157, 221, 226 

Ptatihattb, Pratt