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Vol. XIX ( 1927 - 28 ) 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE DIRECTOR GENERAL 

ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 

JATSPATH, NEW DELHI-1 10001 

1983 



Vt 






EPIGRAPHIA INDICA 



Vol. XIX. 1927-28. 






PUBLISH ED BY 

THE DIRECTOR GENERAL 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 

JANPATH, NEW DELHI-HOOll 

1983 



Reprinted 1983 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
1983 



Price : Rs. 80.00 



Printed at Pearl Offset Press, 5/33 Kirti Nagar Industrial Area New Delhi-110015. 



PUBLISHED TJKDEB TIE AUTHOEITT OF THE QOTOBBLEHT OP INDIA 



EPIQRAPHIA INDICA 

AND 

RECORD OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



Vol. XIX. 1927-28. 



EDITED BY 

EIRANANDA SASTRI, M.A., M.O.L., D.Liir., 

QOVEBNMEOT EPiaBAPHIST FOR INDIA. 



CALCUTTA: 

MANAGER, GOVERNMENT OP INDIA CENTRAL PUBLICATION BRANCH 

BOMBAY: BRITISH INDIA PRESS, 



LONDONi KEGAN PAUL, TEENCH, 



TBtJBNEB&Co. 



SEW YORKi WESTERMANN & Co. 
S, D. PEET. 



PARISt E, LEKOUX, 



CONTENTS. 



8. No. Pa eNo ' 

1. The Zeda Inscription of the year II 1 

2. Barah Copper-plate of Bhojadeva; Vikrama-Samvat 893 ^ 

3. Mamdapur Inscription of the reign of Kanhara: Saka 1 172 *' 

4. Two Inscriptions from Kolhapmr and Miraj; Saka 1058 & 1066 30 

5. Antirigam Plates of Japayhanjadeva ** 

6. Inscription of the time of Hammir of Ranthambhor, dated (V.S.) 1345 45 

7. Ahar Stone Inscription 

8. Jejuri Plates of Vinayaditya: Saka-Samvat 609 / 

9. Seven Inscriptions from Mathura 

Q 

10. The Kalvan Plates of Yasovarmman 

11. Amoda Plates of the Haihaya King Prithvideva I: ChediSamvat 'SSI 75 

12. Takkolam Inscription of Rajakesarivarman (Aditya I) 

13. A Further Note on the Bezwada Pillar Inscription of Yuddhamalla X 

14. The Kandukura Plates of Venkatapatideva I: Saka 1535 'A 

15. Mathura Pedestal Inscription of the Kushana year 14 

16. Patna Museum Plates of Somesvara II 

17. Rithapur Plates of Bhavattavarmman 

18. Two Inscriptions of the Pallava King Rajasimha-Narasimhavarraan H^' 

19. Two Lost Plates of Nidhanpur Copper-plates of Bhaskaravarman " 

20. The Second Half of a Valabhi Grant of Samvat 210 

2l! The Sohawal Copper-plate Inscription of Maharaja Sarvanatha-the year 191 

v/22. Peyalabanda Grant of Krishnarayav 

23. Vishamagiri Plates of Indravarmadeva 

24 Two Copper-plate Inscriptions of Eastern Chalukya Princes . ' 

21 Panchadharala Pillar Inscription of theKona King Choda III: Saka-Saravat 1325 

26. Panchadharala Pillar Inscription of the Eastern Chalukya King Visvesvara: Saka-Samvat 1329 16* 

27. A Fragmentary Pratihara Inscription ^ 

28. An Odd Plate of Paramara Siyaka of [VikramaJ-Samvat 1026 ^ 

29. Six Inscriptions from Kolur and Devageri ^ 

30. Shahdaur Inscriptions, one apparently of the year 60 ^ 
31 . Peshawar Museum Inscription of the year 168 ^ 
31 A Kharoshthi Inscription from Jamalgarhi of the year 359 ^ 
33 Rawal Spurious Inscription of the year 40 

34. Amoda Plates of the Haihaya King Jajalladeva II of the (Chedi) year 912 ^ 

35. A Note on the Velvikudi Grant of Nedunjadaiyan 



\ 



a. no. 

36, Kumbakonam Inscription of Sevvappa-Nayaka 215 

37, Gadag Inscription of the reign of Jayasimha II; Saka 959 217 

38, Two Inscriptions from Ron, of Saka 944 and 1102 222 

39, Two Harsola Copper-plate Grants of the Paramara Siyaka of V,S. 1005 236 

40, A Third Lost Plate of the Nidhanpur Plates of Bhaskaravarman 245 

41, A New Asokan Inscription from Taxila 251 

42, The Pulibumra Plates of the Eastern Chalukya King Jayasimha I (C, 632-63 AD,) ^ 254 

43, The Pedda-Vegi Plates of the Eastern Chalukya King Jayasimha I ^ 258 

44, The Barwani Copper-plate Inscription of Maharaja Subandhu; the year 16? 261 

45, Dhauli Cave Inscription of Santikara; the (Ganga) year 93 263 

46, Kondedda Grant of Dharmaraja 265 

47, The Addanki Stone Inscription of Pandaranga 271 

48, A Note on the Addanki Inscription of Pandaranga 275 

49, The Bhatera Copper-plate Inscription of Govinda-Kesavadeva (C 1049 A,D.) 277 

50, A Note on the Vappaghostiavata Grant of Jayanaga 286 

51, Jura Prasasti of Krishna III 287 

52, The Bhadavana Grant of Govindachandradeva of Kanauj 291 

53, The Rewah Inscription of Malayasimha, the year 944 295 

54, Three Semitic Inscriptions from Bhuj 300 

55, An Unpublished Grant of Dhruvasena I 302 
INDEX 305 



I? EHGRAPHXA OTtfCA. [ VOL. XIX. 



KoirQif, Snor, PH.D. 

Ho. L The Zeda Inscription of the year 11 ..... * t 1 

30 Shahdaur Inscriptions, one apparently of the year 60 ...... 1 W 

33. Rawal Spurious Inscription of the year 40 .,.... 203 

MAJTWBAB, N. 6., M.A. 

No. 31. Peshawar Museum lascripfcion of the year 168 ........ 202 

32. A KharoshtM Inscription from Jamalgarhi of the year 359 f 203 

Ibnt 9 N. C., LOS. 

No. 52, The Bhadarana Grant of Govindacfeandradeva of Kanauj . . 2ftl 

Hj TIB-LAMBERT 

5ee Buchanan Gray, Clermont-Ganneau, Cowley A, and Mayer^tamberfc. 



jKo. 25. Panchadharala Pillar Inscription of the Kona Bang Choda III ; Saka-Samvat 1325 t 155 
28. Panchadharala Pillar Inscription of the Eastern Chakikya King Viavesvara ; Saka- 

Samvat 1329 ........ . 164 - 

Pisramr, EAMAYYA, J., B.A., B*L 

2sTo, 13. A Further Note on the Bezwada Kllar Inscription of Tuddhamafla * . . S3 V 

w 48. A Not on the Addanki Insaription of Pandaranga ....... 275 

ElOTlCHAETA, V., M. A. 

No. 18, Two Inscriptions of the Pallava King Rajasimha-Naraaimhavarman II ... 105 ^ 

42. The Pulibumra Platea of the Eastern Ohalukya King Jayasimha I (0, 632-63 A,D) # 2S4 ^ 

43. The Pedda-Vegi Plates of the Eastern Chalukya King Jayasimha I , . . , 258 ^ 

Bio, LAKSHMA^A, K. V., M.A. ; 

No. 24. Two Copper-plate Inscriptions of Eastern Chalukya Princes . . , 137 v 

, 47. The Addanki Stone Inscription of Pandaranga ....... . 271 ,w 

BlO, LAKSHMBTABAYA3S", N. f SLA. 

No. 51. Jura Prasaati of Krishna TTI . ...... * . 287 

BAG, SBTTOTASA, G. V., B.A. 

No. 14. The Kandukura Plates of Venkatapa^ideva I ; Saka 1535 ...... 89 

RAO, VXSXOBI, G. 

No. 36 Kumbakonani Inscription of Seyvappa-Nayaka . . . m . . .215 
BATH, TAEA^JI CHASA^ B.A. 

No. 5. Antirigam Plates of Jayabhanjadeva , 41 

23. Yisfhamagiri Plates of Indravarmadeva ....,. t * 134 \/ 

SIHHI, DATA BAM, M.A., RAI BAHADTJE 

No. 7. Ahar Stone Inscription .......... - 

w 9. Seren Inscriptions from Mathura ....... e * 

n 15. Mathura Pedestal Inscription of the Kushana year 1* ,,..* gj 
SASTM, HmAsrAifDA, M.A* M.O.L., D.Lrrr. 

No 2. Barah Copper-plate of Bhojadeva Vikrama^Samvat 893 ...... 15 

SATAKOPABAHANUJACHAEYA, A. M. VIBVAST 

No. 35. A Note on the Velvikudi Grant of Nedunjadaiyan 2 14 
TATS, MABEO SAEUP, M,A, 

No. 55. An Unpublished Grant of Dhruyasena I . . aA9 

INDEX .......... ....... 

AppeEdk^AListoft^ ^ a ^ tte ; i 

from about A.C. 200, By Professor D. B. Bhandarkar, M.A., Pn.D 
Title-pftge, Contents, List of Plates and Additions and Corrections ..... . . I- H 



LIST OF PLATES. 



to face page 



15 

w 18 

between pages 44 & 4$ 
to face page 5ft 

60 

between pages 64 & 63 
n 66&67 
72 & 73 



to face page 

, between pages 



87 
97 

9S&99 
102 & 103 
to face page 107 

, between pages 118 41 19 
to face page 126 

, between pages J 30 & 131 
136&137 
142 & 143 
>t 144 & 145 
152 & 153 



Ifo. 1. Zeda Inscription : the year 11 during the reign of Kanishka . 
99 2. Barah Copper-plate grant of Bhojadeva, [Vikrama-]Samvat 893 

* 3. Antirigam Plates of Jayabhanjadeva 

4. Inscription of the time of Hamir of Ranthambor, dated (V.S.) 1345 

5. Ahar Stone Inscription 

6, Jejuri Plates of Vinayaditya : Saka-Samvat 609 .... 

7. Seven Inscriptions from Mathura 

fl 8. Kalvan Plates of Yasovarmman 

it 9, Amoda Plates of the Haihaya King Prithvideva I, Chedi Samvat 831 
10. Takkolam Inscription of Rajakesanvarroan (Aditya I) 
11. Mafchura Pedestal Inscription of the Kushana year 14 

12. Patna Museum Plates of Somesvara II 

13. Rlthapur Plates of Bhavattavarmman 

99 14. The Mahabahpuram Inscription of Rajasimha-Narasimhavarman II . 
15. Two Lost Plates of the Nidhanpur Copper-plates of Bhaskaravarman . 

16. Second Half of a Valabhi Grant of Samvat 210 

i, 17. Sohawal Copper-plate inscription of Sarvanatha, the year 191 . 

18. Yiahamagiri Plates of Indravarmadeva 

t, 19. Aiumbaka Plates of Badapa i to iva , , * * 

20, Miovb 

, t 21, Sripundi Plates of Tala II 

22, Panohadharala PiUar Inscription of the Eastern Chalukya King Visvesvara ; 

Saka-Samvat 1329 

^ 23. A Fragmentary Pratihara Inscription 

t> 24. An Odd Plate of Paramara Siyaka of [Vikrama-jSamvat 1026 . 

fl 25, Shahdaur Inscription A, of the year 60 

ff 26, B . , 

n 27, Peshawar Museum Inscription of the year 168 

ff 28, Janlgarhi Inscription of the year 359 

n 29, Shakardarra Inscription, the year 40 j Rawal Inscription, the year 40 , . ,. 208 

* 30, Amoda Plates of the Haihaya King Jajalladeva H of the (Chedi) year 912 . between pages 212 & 213 
w 31. Haraola Copper-plate Grants of the Paramara Siyaka (V, S. 1005} . 
2. A Third Lost Plate of the Nidhanpur Plates of Bhaskaxavaxman 

33. A New Asoka Inscription from Taxila ...... 

34. Pulibumra Plates of the Eastern Chalukya king Jayasimha I, (C. 632-83 A.D.) to face page 25ft 

35. Pedda-Vegi Plates of the Eastern Chalukya king Jayasimha I . between pages 260 & 261 

36. Dhauli Cave Inscription of Santikara ; The [Ganga] year 93 . . . to face page 264 

between pages 268 & 269 

, , . t .to face page 270 

39. Addanki Stone Inscription of Pandaranga . * n 274 

i, 40. Jura Prasasti of Krishna III w > 28ft 

41. Eewali Inscription of Malayasimia, the year 944 . . . . >* ** 296 



168 & 



to face page 



91 
II 
tl 



f> 37. KondeddafirantofDhannaraja (ttoiwa)] 
lf 38, , (*) 



173 
178 



203 
205 



242 & 243 
24ft 4247 

252 252 



42, Thm Semitic Inscriptions from Bhuj 



m 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



VOLUME XVEQL 

3?age 149, 1. 10 from bottom- For * who, one after another, were crowned on their thrones by 
Aryavarman/ read c who, one after another, crowiM on their thrones liyatai- 



bfetweea pj>. 48 and 240 a Tfee tegad on the seal reproduced here does not read 
&iimad~Amdfffatiar sfadewsdya, We can read it as : 5[r]i[ma]to(t)-ffan [4j 
chandradeva [sya]. 

Page 321, 11. 1344 from botixm Jto * $aikpa*0 Buee&ffsto, Vikiiamaditya V \ feat * Yikramv 
ditya V, grandson of Tailapa and swoesaor <$ fetabe^figa SatyftSray* '. 



VOLUME XIX. 

JPage 5, L 29. For finale read final* 
5, L 41, For murada read murafta. 
8, L 5, For bending a read bending at. 
>f 15, para. 2, L 6, For (i. e.) 9083 read (i.e., 8) 90 3. 



15, para. 2, L Q^For jflread ^!? 



Jt 17, last para., L 2,~j? l or Udtuh (vb) ara read Udiimv(1b)aj:a. 

18, text L 7, For <^(i*)fftw3r(* 

18, text L 16. For (-*<,*) read 

f , 19, L L For Valaka (or Balaka) read Valaka or ValSka (BalSkS of Balaka). 

, 28, translation (V, 20), L L For Lakkh5-dM read takhkha-divi 

f> 35, translation (LL 26-32), L 4. For panam read pa$am. 

38, L 31. Mr. N. L. Rao would read haga marana bhd%4i and tianSl&te it into * on each sale 

of a cart of wood/ In L 37 of this page he prefers to read tiwranu which he translates 

as c one winnow '. 
40, 1. 23. Mr. N. L. Rao explains s^aj^wick as * a wi'ck of the shape of a condiment 

called samdage ' which has a flat rounded bottom and a tapering head and is ia ua 

even in these days. 
f> 40, f. B.. 1. For ank read rank. 

42, 11. 21, 25 and 26. -For Khinjallyaga4a-vis%a read of KMnjaifyaga^a, 
f> 42, L 48. For ni read in. 
n 44, f. n. 8. For yitva read yitm. 
45, text 1. 26, For vassu dha read VastidhS, 
fl 45, text 1. 30.~JFor AsaiSpi 

45, text I/ 34. For SambTioh read 

w 45, text 1. 37. For Gane LJ vare?ia read 
9> 46, L 16.-- For fen?te read 

46, L 42. For Purana* rt**l 

46, 1. 43. For Sutradhara read sutradMra* 
47, 1. 7.~J l or Pjithvlraja read Pfithvlraja. 



Tiii EP1G1APHIA INDIOA. [Vox* XIX. 

Page 54, para. 3, L 5. lor KanchanadevI read Eanchaim&ridevL 
ft 59, text 1. 7. For n[q]*(w) read 
69, 1 a. 3. For fafe read 
60, i a. 2. Far f*ra*? read 
61, text 1. 23.Jor ^f^ra 
, 9 83 S text. Mark 1 , 2 and 3 for the first 3 hues, 
64, 1 n. 1. For Kaed read Read. 
85, text 1. 23. For =ayur- read =ayur~. 

86, Inscription No, II, text 11. 1 and 2. lor sa-bhikuniye read cha bhikuipye. 
67 } Inscription No. IV, text 11. 1 and 2. Perhaps we have to read Okharikaye as in tie 

other inscription, of the year 299 (Ind, Ant., Vol. XXXVII, p. 33). 
70, L 5. For Pramvara read Pravamra. 

70 S L 19, and p. 71, L 15. lor Svetapada read Svetapada as in the plate, 
72 ? 1. 21. For Samgama read Samgama. 

i 73, text L 34. lor ch^amimamta one might read v=anumamta also. 
tf 73, text 11. SUnd 38. Correct Agnishtom-saha^ra (sra)=cha | Vijapeya-6ata(te)shu 

cha \liiao Agnishtoma-sahasrena Vajapeya-^atena cha |. 

w 73, text 1. 40. Correct Sushati into ^hyati and read sarrt-sara (6) for sarisara (6) t 
74, 1. 13. For ludrahadi read Audrahadi as on p. 71. 
; f 74, L 20. For amavasya read aznavasya, 
, 74, 1* 38.! For pavittraka read pamtraka. 
lf 74, L m.Ior DttOaka read Desi. 
77, para. 2, L L JVr Vanke^vara add the following as a foot-note :~ 

[Yanka Is the- Prakrit form of Skt. Vakra, a name of Siva^N. P. . The BBndurtwl 

b r.~ d h au affied to * ana u ** 

80, text 1. 26.-JPor f () j^reai ^(^) ^^ 

82, f . n. lO.-r-Jor >SvasM read 'Svasti. 

84, para. 4, 1. 4. Jor Vatragiuja read Varagu^a. 

., 91, 1. 2. For Penner read Pemiar, 

91, 1. 3. for Krialina read Krishna. 

95, 1. 28. lor Tojjdava^I read " vadLi. 

95, L 30. Fm (MapalH read paili, 

98, text 1. 3.- lor yikyatah read vikhyatah 



t! 
,, iU^, text 1. 5. For Tnn read . 

102, text I. IQ.-For vm*Km*n read ^nw^R m 
103, text 1. 18,-Jor *" read V i^ 

" 1?)6 !' *i 3 7 J ^ CAie nofc ttese *fc MmeB of trees ?_Ed 1 
" i h , ' Unnatari a f Unnatarama. J> 

109 tTn at T f T< V" aB ^ UaUed r ^ " M 9^. 

109t S:s^t^ 

as'e 112 f. . 4^/or JfWtofa read ^am^a 
" 114 i ?7!f J of V 2 '-^ ^en read moon 



ADDITIONS AND CORBECTIQNS. ix 

Page 116, 1. 4 POT Chandrapuri read Chandrapuri ab in the plate and pp. 118-21. 

117, para. 2, 1. 2. For Gangim read Gangim as in the text and translation* 

118, t n. 6,-~For unamended read unemended. 

119, f . n. 3. For incised! n read incised in. 

M 124, serial no. 71. .For Yaasaneyin read Vajasaneyin 

124, serial no. 73. For Nandesvara read Nandesvara. 

124, serial nos, 75, 76.- For Prakasavara read PrakaSavara, 

j, 124, serial no. 84. For Varhaspatya read Barhaspatya. 

124, serial no. 97, For Saunaka read Saunaka. 

123, para 2, 1. 10 For DuJcata read Dutaka. 

128, f . n. 8, For c. 337 read c. 389, 390, 

130, 1 n. 9. For TO*; read wrci;. 

131, article no. 22, para. L 1, 4, For prates read plates, 

9) 133, text 1. 81. For *ffig read m*f> 

134, 1. 2. Omit M 

n 134, 1. 9.For theeight read the eight. 
Pages 134 to 137. For Chandapaka read Chandapaka. 
Tage 135, para. 4 3 11. 2 and 7. For Ganga read Ganga. 

136, text 1. 31 lor vigraM (hi) kah read vigrahi (hi) kah, 

136, text 1. 35. For pakenah read pakenak 

137, translation of 11, 32 to 35. Jor Kamsaraka read Kans&rAa* 
139, para. 3, 1. 12, For dayas read dayas. 

139, f. n. 3. jPor Maiatha read Maratha. 

140, para. 3, 1. 2. .For taluka read taluk*. 
141, 1 n. 5. Jor ^^. read w^. 

142, text 1. 11. For? \^ Q read fym*. 

148, f. n. 2. For 3 read 2. 

151, para. 2, 1. 12. Jor bounaries read boundaries. 

151, last line. Fo? Parames- read ParameS-. 

155, para, 2, 1. l.For limggas- read lirhggw-, 

157, para. 2, 1. 4. Jor Sulta nof read Sultan of, 
H 157, pa a. 5, 1. 2 and page 1*63, translation (v. 16). JPor Shatko^a read Shatko$a> 

157, para. 6, L 3. For Since read Since. 

159, f. n. 4.- For Sargdhara read Sragdharii. 

162, L n. 6. .For Chudara read Bhudhara. 

H 163,' translation (v. 12), 1, 2.-For Choda read Choda. 

163, f. n. 2,~-For Yaidyajivana read Vaidyajwana. 

in, translation of v. 25. For Kuberawith read Kubera with, 

175, p&ra, 2, 1. 4. For Rashtrakiita read k&ta. 

181, f. n. 3. For anusvara read anu. 

182 1 n. 7. For bJidginah read bhavinafy. 

H 184,' L 7, pai?e 187, 1 sb para. 1. 6, and page 189, 2nd para, of article D, 1. 5,-For Btavuia 
read Basavura or correct Basavura of p. 185, L 22. 

194, f . n. 4. Supply 4 in this foot-note, 

19s! L ILAdd " Lord of " at the end of the line. 

199 ? , text. Add note " For revised text see 0. L L, Vol. II, Pt. i, p, 16." 
" 203 ' text.' 4&J note " For revised reading by Sten Konov, see C, L L, Vol. II, Pt i, p. 79/' 



BPIGBAPHIA INMCA. [ VOL. XIX. 



Page 206, text. Adi not* " For revised reading by Sten EQBOW, see C. L I,, Vol. II, Jft. i pw 

US." 

205 Remarks, L II. 'For Pratyit-Sprachen read Qvwmatik Aer Pr akrit$pr acken. 

206. To the heading of article No. 33 add the following note. " For antbotf'* remark see 
also 0. L L, Vol. II, Pt. i, p. 161 L" 

206, article So. 33, para. 5, L 2. J<?r Kharo^hi read Khar$$h$M. 
205, text 1. 3. Jor droijivadra^ia read 
210, f. n., L 7. For Siva read 
fl 212 S text L 13. lor *qff> read 
222 9 text L 15. For ^JXJe 
M 212, textLlS. JforfiKfifXfWWXT)^ and ar^mifta: rwtf f%(^>l(i>Ac(v)^iV aad 











212, L 21 . 4dcZ note : Reading of foui letters after gfitore is not certain. 

212, -For fche second foot-note 3 read 4, 

214, article Xo. 35, para. 2, L 3. For vanda-$aikkum read 

22"), f. n, 2, For krimify read kfimfy. 

22S, i n. L For J. A. read Ind. Ant* 

2S3, translation of v. 6. For stone-piaces read stone-palaces. 

239, L 27. For Yakpati read Vakpati. 

239 S f. n. 6. For geneology read genealogy. 

241 , text of Grant B s 1. 1. For -kesara read -kesara- 

Grant B, 1. 6. For V (B) appai read V (B) appai- 
512, Grant B, L l.For -aradataya read -avadataya, 
i B. After -nayakah insert \ 
i 10. After -trukti 1 insert \ 

at the end of the line replace * by * 
L 14, sub-line 2. Insert = at the end. 
L 14 3 sub-line 3. Separate astuvah into astn v 
Grant A f i, 8.~ For sa after [4 f] A00* Sa. 

i 15. .For -avadharya read -avadhStya. 
242, f. n. 8. For trip have 



Grant B, 1. 18.~Ddete - at the end of the liae. 
1. 22, end : Replace 6y.. 

I. 28.-J r Vish^uh [I*] raj- have Vishi^h [1*1 E4i- 
24o. f. n. 9.-Jor M0bhM reacZ iAafcr,^ 

" ; f 3) ;~ Insert ' between ' ' and ' like '. 
mbne .last but 2:-^ Monday ^ Wednesday. 
2to. Ust IIM.-/W pfete * plates. 7 



and . yasfl8 . 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



Page 253, L 3. For " bahuvrihi " have " bahuvrihi." 

254, Enter 2 at the beginning of the last foot-note commencing with " Ep> 2nd", 
255, L 9, and para. 2, L 5. For Pulibumra read Puliburfira. 
256, text-line 2. For ^fftft read ^rftcft as in the plate. 
256, f. n. 5. Correct ^iftfcf into ^rdfa. 
256, text I 3. For ^psf read ^m. 
257, f .n. 8. For L n. 2 read la 1. 
?s 258, L 3. For Matris read Hatjis, 
258, article No. 43, L 3. Omti hyphen after Madras. 
259, para. 3, 1. 3, For SomaSaraman read Soma&arman. 
260, L 13, Correct vStea and K^izxt by a note into ^r'tftcSU and *ite^. 
260, f . n. 7. Commence this note with " Read ^Prafr." 
263, article No. 45, para. 2, 1 8, For Subhakara read Subhakara, 
M 263, f . n. 2. For jihvamuliya read j^Jwamutiya. 

264, 11. 4, 8, 11. For Kumuranga read Kumurangl and for MahSdevi read Mahadgvl. 
265, para. 3, 1. 2. For gunai read gunaih. 
265, para. 3, L 13. For yatJi=arhan(m) read yatk*8rhan(m). 
266, L 13. Far as under vead asunder. 
267, text L 2. For mrers read 
267, text L 5 For t%^1% read " 
267, f. n. 6. For p. 267 read p. 266. 
268, text L 15. After ^ insert [:]. 
268, text 1. 23. Join ^(^rr and ^. 
268, text 1. 28. for qi^T read 
269, text 1. 45, end. For c g^ 
270> text L 51. For tfc$| read 
270, text 1. 60. For $ft read [*f 
270, text L 61. Rem&ve the two dots after 
270, f. n, 3. for protty read pretty. 
27 1, translation 11 4241, L 13 beginning; For dedda re . 
272, para. 4, 1. IFor Yaddhamalla read Yuddhamaila. 
272, line last but one. before oppacfa insert *. 
274, para. 2, 1. 4. For Yatribhuvananku6a read ya 'Tribhtrva . 
275, translation (Verae 1), 1. 3. For Jcottams read koffiams. 
275, last para. L 4. For (foot note 4) read (foot-note 5 on p. 2T4 ante), 
275, last para. 1L 5 and 7 . For ch varga and t varga read cAa-varga and ffl^varga, 
277, last line. For of the plate read found elsewhere in the plate. 
278, para. 2, line last but one. For Ita read Ita. 
278, 1. 13 from bottom. For Badagama (L 30) read Va(Ba)<Jagam& (1. 30). 
278, 1. 10 from bottom. For Badapancala read Varapanchala (L 30 f .). 

278, L 5 from bottom. For Bhaskara or Bhas^ra-tengarl (31 and 37) read Bhaeana- (L 31) 
or Bhaskara-tengarl (1. 37). 

279, L 9. For Kaliyani read Kaliya?!. 

279, 1. 10. For Phompatipa read Phomphaijiya as in the text. 

279, L 20. For B5bachadia (44) read VovStucja ( 44). 



X21 



1PIGEAPHIA INDICA. [ VOL. XIX . 



70, 1 n, 2, Jar strekes read strokes and for dear read clear. 
2*1, text 1. 4. Jar katite read kati te. 
2*0, text 2, 10. Jar gopi- read! Gopi-. 
280, f, n. 9. Jar na**nyadfa read n*any~adhi. 
i, *51, text I, 25. Omfc hyphen after kritsna, 
2*1, text L 32, and pa^ge 282, text line 35. For Bhu* read bhiK 
n 28 1. text line 33. Jar V5lu=sigame read ValMgazne. 
28! s f . a. 3. Jar p. 231 read p. 280. 
r 282, text I. 39. Jar Bhogaubhuvai ra&<? Bhogau-Bhuvai-, 
n 282. teit 1.40 Jar vadasd read Va<Jaso. 

i, M2, text !. 42 beginning. For ka re^^ ke and for Pam&vo- read Paiii6iv6% 
282, text L IS, Jar arapa- read Arupa-. 
2* 2, text 1.48. Jar [sljzaiva read [gijmiva . 
it 2S3, translation, v. 1.^ Jar Brahma read Brahman, 
, 254, line L Jar -Gropi- read -Gopi-. 
< 2S4 f f. n. L Jar Bh&tera read Bhatera. 
i, 284, f , n. 3, Jor 1 n. 7 on p. 283 rea< f. n, 8 on p. 280. 
.1 285, translation IL 29-51, L 8f . Jar Bhotilahatika read BhotMlahataka. 
285, U. 29-51, i 15. Jar Bhaskaratengari read tengarL 
> 285, U. 29-51, L 18. For Vamayi read Dhamayi. 
i 285 B !i 29-51, 1. 19. for Bhuvai read Bhuvai. 
ii 285, IL 29-51, 1. 23.- For Na^akutigaina read Na4aktztf , 
i> 5, 11.29-51,1. 25. For Vanangajotti read Vanangajotti 
i 285, Mae last bit on^~For Itakhala read Hayekhala. " - ' 
ii 286, i. 2.J I 0f Simivaka read Simivaka. 

SJV I *> T *#/*> 

-, i. to 4^r Bhatapa^a en(er " 1 house belonging to the barber Go 
note 1 above ivory-worker. 

1 see ' and' by' after (1), (2) and (3) 



Itakur.theSsiapuram. 

" M f' 3 24 ^ 3 - 1 ' or ^"W read Karhad. 

t cts f L 22, J*- "!?*=* -t^ --- - v 



** - - 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



VOLUME XIX. 



No, 1, THE ZEDA INSCRIPTION OF THE YEAR 1L 
By STBN KONOW. 

Zeda is a village near Und (Ohind) in the Nortt-West Frontier Province, situated in 34 5' 
N. and 72 32' E. Here I. Loewenthal noticed " an unshapen piece of rock lying at the entrance 
of the village ", on which there was an inscription in Khar5shtM characters. 1 * 

The stone, which is now in the Lahore Museum, is, according to Cunningham, a rough block 
of quartz, i feet long and 1 foot broad. The inscription has been edited by Messrs. Cunningham, 2 
Senart,* and Boyer, 4 and some remarks concerning jts date and interpretation have been published 
by Messrs. B. Thomas, 6 G. Biihler, 6 E. D. Banerji, 7 EL Liiders 8 and myself. 9 

I now edit it from estampages kindly placed at my disposal by Dr. F. W. Thomas. 

The inscription consists of three lines and covers a space 2 feet long and about 8 inches broad, 
The size of individual letters varies from almost 4 inches in the beginning to 1 to 1] inches 
towards the end. M. Senart thought that 11 1 and 2 are perhaps incomplete, but such does not 
seem to be the case. 

The stone is very rough and the inscribed portion is damaged in several places. The reading 
and interpretation are therefore beset with considerable difficulty, and this difficulty is increased 
because the shape of individual characters is not consistent. In spite of all the care and ingenuity 
which has been bestowed on the record, it has not, therefore-, been possible to read and explain 
every passage with certainty, and I have not been able to arrive at satisfactory results throughout, 
and I sincerely hope that the new plate may induce other scholars to examine the record and pub- 
lish their remarks so that they can be utilized for the final edition in the Corpus Inscriptimwn 
Indicamm* 

The characters are of the same kind as in contemporary inscriptions. I may mention 
some details with regard to individual letters. 

* Cf. his remarks, J. A. 8. B., XXXII, 1863, p 5. 

* Archaeological Survey of India, V, pp. 57 ff. and Plate XVI, L 

a Journal Asiatique, VIII, xv, 1890, pp. 135 fi. and Plate opposite p. 13S. 

* Journal Amtique, X, iii, 1904, pp. 4=05 ft */ 2Z. .4, S , N. &, IX, 1877, p. 9 1 . 

* J. S. A. ft, 1894, p. 535. ' Ind. Ant.. XXXHI, 1908, pp. 46, 72, 
*S'taungrier{ck*e far Kdniglick PreiwrmeAea Akaleme der Wutonschften (henceforth quoted as J. 

J, W.) 9 1912, p. 826, 

*& A A. W., 1916, pp. 801, 806 ; Oiteioti* Si ZeittMJt, VIIJ, p, 2?0 j above Vol XIV, p, 132. 

A 




EflGRAPSlA 1NPICA. ___ 

n 



Ka is usually ^s^.KM. I * ; occasionowever, it i i. 
Jye, L 2. Similarly L has an angular top, as in the BUtu Dhen and JauhE 



ye, . m , 

Uode, L 2, but the same rounded shape as in the Ira record in fowmukhe, I 2. Jo, has the 
shape th a straight upright in nqM L 2. I* WW in the same line it has bee,: .beat BO * > 
avoid running up into the -matra of Mu, I 1, and in -ro^a, 1. 3, the uppSr nght-hand termm*- 

tion has been bent backwards, 

Only the cerebral p is used throughout 1 The e-matra has been added at the top in -pJ><WW> 
1. 1, but projects from the middle of the vertical in pujane, ! 2, 

De in Mode, L 2, has the same shape as in the ira inscription, with the e-matra at the bottom 
and the top resembling that of na. 

The rare pha occurs in -pJiaguye, 1. 1, and has the regular shape. 

Fa is narrow and angular as in the Sue Vihar inscription, and ^e, with the e-mStra in -the 
left corner, in He, I 1, has almost the same shape as in that record, 

Sa has different forms. The very last letter of the inscription has a strong backward bowl, 
evidently in order to avoid its running into the ja standing above it ; the first akshara in mm, 
where the sa looks almost like ra. Similar forms, without any break or bending of the vertical, 
are also found elsewhere, thus the second sa of masasa, L 1. A more regular form is found in 
Ka^iskJcasa, L 2 ; the sa which opens L 3 is a semi-circle opening towards the left and provided 
with a short top-stroke, etc, 

The compound rjh in marjliakasa, 1. 2, shows the loop-shape of r. In the compound $hk in 
RafyisJiJcasa, L 2, the verticals of sha and ia form one unbroken line as in Vajheshka in the Ara 
record. 

There are several flaws and accidental strokes, which resemble letters and considerably add 
to the difficulties of interpretation. The easiest portion of the whole record is 1. 1, which containn 
the date, and which has been written in very large letters. Abstracting frtai insignificant ddatb 
such as the transliteration of the nasal and the addition of an e in -phagurie I accept the reading 
of M. Boyer, who again agrees with M* Senart except in the reading of the numeral figure aft< i r 
di, which the latter read 10 : $am 10 1 asJiaftasa masasa di 20 utarapJiagu^e He k$hu<&ami* Thcru 
cannot, I think, be any doubt with regard to the figure 20, There is a distinct indenture m tho 
middle, and it is quite distinct from the figure for 10 which occurs after sam, I also think that t ho 
# of utamphagutye is certain. The restoration of that word is due to M. Senart ; Cunningham and 
Thomas read udeyana gu 1, The e of Ue was recognised by Professor Biihler, 

It will be seen that the date contains one detail which is not usually met with in Kliaroflhf hi 
records, z., the mentioning of the nakshatra current on the particular day when the inscription 
was engraved. There is only one other Kharoshthl epigraph where the same arrangement SB f otind 
t?w,, the "Und inscription, where I read sam 20 20 20 1 chetrasa masasa divase athami di 4 4 Ha b Au 
nam sa vimnakha (?) purvashafa. Und and Zeda belong to the same neighbourhood, and it in 
probable that the addition of the constellation was customary in that region. It should be bornt* 
ia mind that both inscriptions are essentially private records. I shall have something to BUV 
about the conclusions which can possibly be drawn from these dates later on/ 

L, 2 The first four ahharas were read chanam uspv by Cunningham, Manam uka bv M 
S*narfc and Mamm uspha by M. Boyer, who is the only one who has attempted to give a com i* 
mni * translation of tte^hole record. He was of opinion that three different donations are 
teeorded in the inscription, the first one being a Man*ft. This word he took to be a synonym 
1 See my remarki above, Fol. XIV, p. 131 f. "~" ~ -~-~~ _,, 

* For fte tanditantoo* M cf. my remark^ Deut^he m*raiumttun ff , WM, pj>. 1899 t, 



ZED A t^SCMHMQir Ql><-ffBE TBAB 11. 



Sanskrit WSfa, a dit<&, io^ae, a w<*U, amihe jDOMecte&it witjt tbe following f&.Jett^s, which 
d w^omt^^^a,,^^ $L& W0r4 %i*ww$te wM<& follows Jpto^on, $e jne^irig of $te whole* 
, according tp &im : the d^n&tion of U^wmu .t?ha, a ,we}L tippy stute at <^nce ,'tyat ap 
Interpretation >which -reckons with -three 4$wftt dpn^tipi^y djftteat ^oi^ yt teemed in ope 
***<!. %fcu& 32tfc& epigifcpji, fa not m <a^k&oe with ,tto j^fce Jji Kh^hthi Wiiptiops aa# 
^ jpriotti very unlikely to be light. The, supposed personal ,pawe Ujtpbamu. .<?Aa has, moreover, 
a. -Batter suspicious look, ^nd, Anally, this^jeadipg is ateipst certainly wrong* 

Professor Liidsrs 1 j*aw that the second oWana-has an^-JnatrS *ad read Ha^,aiid he rightly 
tiaie n^xt two letter hue, corresponding to htpe in, the Ara inscription, explaining khaye kup 
& 'dxag wll v as diatingtushed Jrom a natural one. Jle also pointed out that the fojjn kue is used 
the, Eaja and Muchai insoriptibns, A similar form Jcuo also occurs in the Mount B$nj epigraph, 
Analysis shows the way to the correct interpretation pf our record, and there is only one point 
I think it accessary 'to deviate from him. *TJ*e second gJwfcira, cannot be rie, because the 
e is never added at the bottom pf the vertical of #a. We find it above the top in Ra$e$hkasp 
in the Ma&ikiala inscription, aid, M.I >h&ve already remarked, it sometimes occupies the same 
place in our record. Our ajcsham is in reality identical with the de of devaputra, in the Ira 
inscription and we mu$t certainly read>Madfe, corresponding to Sanskrit Khafa, dug. 

Tken follow four^&s&afas, which wejre read AAam^aw by Cunningham. The first one was 
left untransliterated by M. Senart, while M. Boyer r^ad mu and Professor Liideis ve. Cunning- 
JbLa,m*s kha is out of the question, and so far a I can see M. Boyer was right w reading mu. Pro- 
fessor Liiders states that ve k fairly clear in an estampage in his possession. A comparison of the 
estampage before me and M. Senart's plate Beems, however, to show that the apparent va is in 
reality the continuation of the long fissure running below the ensuing seven afaharas. The next 
letter was read as ra by Cui^ningham, but Professor Liiders is no doubt right in stating 
fclxa,t it may be ro. I fail to understand how Messrs. Senart and Boyer arrive at their reading cha 
of the third afeAora. It is certainly $* as rqad by Cunningham. 

Mura$a$a, or probably murqcfasa, is the genitive of a word murafa or mwo$a, which has a 
distinctly un-Indian appearance. It is tempting to compare it with the words murta, murn^aga 
and muru^a, which seem to be different attempts at rendering a Saka word which the Indians 
sometimes translated with svamin,* and I think that we must accept that explanation. We kno^wr 
tluat tie titfe muru%4a was used byaka chieftains and Indo-^kythian rulers in India down to 
the 4th century A.D., when the -jSaJwrnuntwIas .are mentioned in Samudragupta's Allahabad 
prtz^asti, and I do not think that it can reasonably be doubted that it was this same Sakamu- 
rtjjti<ia or an older indigenous form of the word which the Chinese rendered with their Sai-wang, 
the designation of the tribe which was expelled by the Yiie-chi after the latter had been conquered 
by the Biung-nu. 8 I am- aware of the fact that wang has been considered to be part of the name of 
the tribe, and not the usual word for " king" , "pder ", and that Professor A, Hewrmann, 4 on 
the authority of the late Professor deGroot, wanted to change Sai-wang toSai-yu, Le., sak-yft or, 
according to the Nankin pronunciation, sak-giok, which he identified with tiacaraucae. The 
difficulty, however, which has puzzled some Sinologists in the designation Sai-wang, Saka lords, 
or, Saka' kings, and caused them to try to find another explanation of the word rang, seems to ma 
to ^disappear in the face of the corresponding designation fSakamuru^a. The Indian translation 
of t>his term by fiakanripati is an exact parallel to the Chinese word* 

i I.e. 

* Cf. Luders, S. B. A. W., 1913, pp. 422 1; Konow, 8. B. A. W.> 1916, pp. 790 ff.; Da* M'He Drama, 18. 

Cf. .<?., 0. Franke, Beitraje m* chimsischen QueUenmr Kenntni* der Tvrkvdlker und 
. Berlin, 1907, pp. 46 ff . 

* Fauly'a Meal Encyck$&Me der Classischen AUertumtwissenscfutft* sub uoce Socaraica. 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA, [Vox,. XIX. 



The designation &ahamviru'i^a, ) Sai-wang is not exactly synonymous with SaJca, Saht. Not 
all the akas were Sakamurundas. We now know that the Kushanas, who followed up the Yiie-chi 
'conquest of the Tokhara country by an invasion of India, acted as the successors of the Sakas. 
We also know that the home-tongue of the Kushanas was the language which we know from 
numerous documents recovered in the southern oases of Chinese Turkistan, and especially in and 
about Khotan. I have myself called this language Khotani and thought that it was related to, 
but not perhaps quite identical with the tongue of the Sakas. The prevalent opinion is, however, 
that Khotani is simply the speech of the Sakas. In reality there is only a difference in the 
terms chosen to designate the language. The necessary inference from all that we know at 
the present moment is that Khotani is a Saka dialect or, according to most scholars, the $aka 
language, in other words, that the Kushanas, and consequently the Yiie-chi, were Sakaa, not 
however exactly the same tribe as the Sai-wang. The difference was not of an ethnic nature 
but, if we may judge from the designation Sai-wang, it had some reference to the system of 
government or to the title used by the rulers of that particular tribe. The title mumifda was not 
used in the country where we find the Saka language or dialect used in literature and adminis 
tration. We there find other designations, rre, genitive rnmdi, king, and shshau. 1 Though 
rnmdi later on also occurs in the form rrwtfi, there can be no question about identifying it with 
murunfa, where ma evidently belongs to the base. SMau, on the other Jiand, is the title which 
was used in the coin-legends of Kanishka and his successors, shaonano, sJiao Kaneshki Konhano 
written in Gieek letters, with the same representation of a short w through o as in kozoulo for 
Ju/wZfl. The title shaunanu shau. is not met with in Eastern Turkistan. We can, however, infer 
that it was known from the fact that the designation of the Buddha as gyastanu gyasti i e tlio 
god of gods, is evidently framed in imitation of this title. There can be no doubt that it i an- 
adaptation of the imperial Persian title, and we have no reason for thinking that it was 
originally in use among the gakas of Eastern Turkistan. We know from the JHbfcfcAfryu. 
Mnaka that the gakas who invaded India before Vikramaditya used a slightly different fonn 
sUMnusMfa, which is evidently borrowed from Middle Persian, and this form was adopted by 
the Kushanas in their Brahmi inscriptions and also occurs in the Allahabad pratasti. sLunam 
*hau is the same title, but it is not simply borrowed, but translated, the Middle Persian th&M beta* 
replaced by the indigenous word ;**, formed with another suffix w f rom the base kshai wl 
must necessary infer that the aka chiefs of Eastern Turkistan, the ancient Yiie-chi, u d tM 
fate, in addxtion perhaps to ne, before they introduced the imperial Persian titulature 

* '" " 



sr" rr h i would u of 



^ 

1 V. 

* -trier i Vgnfimun, OittingeD, 1922, pp. 1051 200 

1 it oojweivftHe that the title mendafTA** 



enaf** >, ^ . 
pta tod m Egypt, u a* adaptation of the Ira^ tiltL m f k ^"V* of Selenoid age and 

. r . w.n^.iw i n * ^ etymolo?y ^ '* e word ? 



No, L] THE ZEDA INSCRIPTION OF THE YEAt^ 11. 5 

by Cunningham and mar$akasa by Messrs. Boyer and Liiders, while M. Senart states that he 
cannot understand how Cunningham arrived at his reading oi the second akshara. The r-loop 
is, however, quite distinct, and the upper part of the, compound only differs from $a in having a 
short stroke to the left of thet op. M. Boyer derives markka from the base mn$, to be 
gracious, and takes it to be a designation of the following word Kai&isJika. He admits that we 
should rather expect an honorific title of a different kind, but thinks that the designation 
" compassionate " is well suited in the case of the famous protector of Buddhism. He also 
mentions, however, the possibility of explaining mar$aka as a patronymic. 

So far as I can see, however, the reading mardaka cannot be maintained. The short stroke 
at the top of the akshara is the characteristic which distinguishes jha from $a, and I have, there- 
fore, thought 1 it necessary to read maryhakasa and % explained 2 marjhaka as an older form of the 
Khotani word malysaki, which occurs in the Maitreyasamitif where it is used to render Sanskrit 
g?ihapati, the sixth of the ratnas of a chakravartin. The grihapati is characterized 4 by the 
divine eye, through which he discerns hidden treasures and secures them for his master. 
Sfcarjhaka, malysaki is derived from the Iranian base marz, corresponding to Sanskrit mfij, to 
touch, to clean, to rub, and evidently means an official who has to examine treasure, a tutor of 
treasure and com. 

If marjhaka is the same word as Ehotani malysaki > we must draw the conclusion that the 
I of the latter is derived from an older r and that the change of r to I in this and in similar 
cases is subsequent to the date of the Zeda inscription. That the Iranian tongue of the 
Khotan country underwent certain changes between the first centuries ' of the Christian era 
and the oldest texts in which it is found has been shown by Professor Liiders, 5 and I can now 
add an example, which seems to be absolutely certain. The Khotani postposition bendi, 
on, near, concerning, is found as vatiiti, i.e., vandi, in the KharoshthI documents from Niya. 
We learn from this fact that the development of d to e in this word took place after the 
second century, and also that the language to which bendi belongs was spoken in the southern 
oases at the time when the Niya documents were written. 

The words following after murofiasa marjhakasa are certainly Rayishkasa rajami, as seen by 
M. Senart, while Cunningham read the finale mi as gam. Kanishka is of course the well-known 
Kusha^a emperor, and it seems necessary to infer that the preceding words muro$asa marjhakasa 
are titles used to characterize him, for we know that there is not a single KharoshthI inscription 
where the name of a ruler is used without any title being added. "We should, of course, expect 
to find some of the usual designations, as in the contemporaneous Sue Vihar inscription, where 
Kanishka is styled mahdraja, rajatiraja, devaputra. But then it should be remembered that we 
have not before us an official record, but a private document, so that we need not expect to find the 
official titles. And we know that the title mumqiLa, which I identify with muro[w]da 9 was used in 
India long after Kanishka's days, and Kanishka's accession meant a considerable strengthening 
of the power of the Indo-Skythian rulers. The result would naturally be a strengthening of the 
national feeling of the Sakas, and it would be intelligible if national titles were used, at least in 
records drawn up at the request of $aka individuals, as may have been the case with the Zeda 
inscription. There is, accordingly, nothing extraordinary in the use of the designation murada 
or muro$a. 

* S .B. A, W., 1916, p. 801. a Qstariat sche Ztitechrift VIII, p. 230. 
3 Ed. Lepmann, Strassburg, 1919, p, 67. 

* Of. Senart, JSuai sur la Ugende dv, Evddha. 8 <ck Paris, 1892, p. 29. 

* US. A. JTf.JWftpp.Waft 



BPIGRAPHIA INBICA. [Von. 



The explanation of the second title marjhaka is more difficult. If my analysis of the word 
is right, it might characterize Kanishka as a ruler rich in treasure. Now we know that thero WRM 
an Indian tradition 1 -about four " sons of heaven", the rulers of India, China, the Yiie-chi and the 
Eoman empire, and the country of the Eoman emperor was considered to abound in treasure. 
The title marjMka might accordingly be used in order to convey the idea that Kanishka had 
won the wealth of the Eoman empire, and as we know that the Roman title C&sar itself is uned, 
in addition to the common titles maharaja, rSjStirafa, devaputra, in the Ira inscription of Kaniishka 
II, the use of marjhaka might be considered as the first step in that direction. We should, of 
course, like to know the reason for such a reference to the Eoman empire in the two records, and 
expect it to be the result of a victorious war with the Eoman armies. We do not, however, hear 
about any such thing having happened, 

We know, on the other hand, that the Roman power in Asia was waning during the reign of 
Hadrianna (A.D. 117-138), who withdrew from Mesopotamia, which was then occupied by the 
Parthians. Buddhist texts preserved in Chinese translation 2 further state that the kinK of the 
Parthians tried to close the West to Kanishka, who then defeated him. If Kanishka'H <tot< 
coincided with the reign of Hadrianus and if the tradition about a victorious- war with Parthw 
is based on fact, it would be conceivable that the idea of a ruler of a country abounding in tmiHUn* 
was transferred from the Roman to the Parthian emperor, and further, after Kanishka'H triumph 
over the latter, to him, and that might be the reason for the use of the title marjbalca in our record 
and of the designation totom in the Ira inscription. It is at present impossible to make anv 
definite statement But at all events, it seems to me that the terms muroja and marjhaka 
oe considered as titles characterising King Kanishka. 



the whole record ' Cunningham 
a de ...... ; M ..Senart ..dadaUai 

M. Boyer 



. 

%,- ! 6Xai f^ T a8 * C mpOUnd f 0pea ' Which he identified th Pali sap P a l/tl 
and A^ Sanskrit^ and saw in sasa&ushe a Sanskrit sasyatoiha. He thus arrive,! aiihi' 
tranalatm : the gl ft of Usphama. .cha, a well for the obtainraent of ram-clouds in 

the hh-ta f 



I am unable to Mow the French scholar in this interpretation. I have already mrm^, ,l 
that the precedmg portion of the inscription cannot be explained as done by him AM Id t 

mob O. left ud nmhg tato ' ^%^ >,toke projecting bom ft, low, ,,.rt 
ve, I w^ U. Boy-, i^ te **"" ft ^ be & ' -. d, with , J t . ry 



tr* 

7 







0. 1.} THE 2EDA INSCBIPT10K Of *$m YEAR 1L 



mea* some a^pliai3^ lor drawing water otf SOH^ Qt*at^l orf^r for : <jomdw*lng, ip*t**t<Mfcf wall, 
but as long as even tie reading is not &rt*ia* it k tts&leaa tx^ tty to ? th^ 
The efcsaiteg akshara eannot be Za. It cofcsi$t& of aa ftpp$r curve, f 
A lifte which irat project towards the right, thfea ^d$ in a knee with a vertical finiung 
the bottom There to a f$mt eross^a* in t|e middle whieh, ^oweve*, sevens $o ba 
So far as I can see, tie only possibility is to *$&d eha. If the oiw-ba^ weiie a^t aotigaqtal, 1$ 
might think of the shape of chka which is use* in $& A65ka inscription? an & Central 4W 
documents to denote the old Sanskrit ohh, which is always caret uUy d^ing^ed from the Piakrit 
cAA derived from M, etc. 1 But there does pot seem to be any reason fo* thiDkiflg that the tlw 
stroke visible through the middle of the vertical reaVy beloiigs to the ai^ra. 

After this cJia M. Boyer read bhai, but there is a distinct w-loop at the bottom of 6JJa, and w 
mu3t read bhui. This fcftm" cannot be anything else $ian Sanskrit bhuyak, and loyaiWa (?) dia 
bhui seems to be one of those parenthetical sentences which are sometimes me$ with inEhaiosbtbi 
records. 2 

Then conies da^amuJcha 9 the only word in the whoU passage about wfaick thete coBnot be 
any doubt. 

The easming akslwra was read &tra by Cunningham, while M. Boyer saw in it a *a. It a*ems 
to me that the cross-bar is far too distinct to be accidental. On the other baad, I cannot follow 
Cunningham in reading jtra, for the compound letter st atomy* baa a. straight vertical, whil the 
zjpin portion of our letter is a founded line ending in a rounded bend to the left at the top, *ad 
another one to the right at the bottom. So far as I can see, it is exactly the same letter which 
stands at the beginning of 1. 4 of the SUB Yihar inscription, where it is certainly JW* I therefore 
read hi, and I follow M. Boyer in taking the ensuing akshara as pea, reading accordin^y Aipes 
instead of his sapea, 

I am not certain about the ensuing afaharas, which M. Boyer read dhia. There seems to 
have been a good deal of peeling off, and the result are some curious -strokes at th top of the 
apparent dhi and at the bottom of the second letter. They seem, however, to be accidental 
and I accept M. Boyer's dhia, biit I take the following sa to belong to the preceding letters 
and read the whole as hipeadhiasa. 

Now if we cotnpare other KharosEhthi mscriptions mentioning the digging rf wells, 1 it #ill be 
seen that the person or persons at whose request the well was dug, aie always mefctioaed. W& 
must therefore, I think, necessarily infer that hipeaMma is the naane of a perm. I cannot 
analyse this word ottfords. ffipea reminds us of Greek Barnes -such a* Hippeos," Higpi&md 
Dhia might be an adaptation of some Gfeek u&me. Of. Diya i& the Begfaftga* ootamti 
inscription. It would not, however, be safe to make any definite statement abofct the 
etymology of the name. The only thing which seems to be certain is t)iat Bipeadhfabffi is $h& 
name of the donor, perhaps a double name, Hipea Dhiasa, in which case Hipw should probably 
lie considered as the genitive of a base Hipe or Hipei, 

** i This sign is only met with twice in later Kharoshthi inscriptions, wfe., in an nnpubHshed fiftnaehra in- 
scriFfcion of the year 68 and on the MathnriL Uon Oapifcal, whre h has not, however, been recognized but bcea 
treated as a compound **f so that the wof d taKMfa*, Sanskrit parictekMnw, ha* bcett ftd jialMfMHk^ There 
is no other instance where it xjould possibly have been used, all th other cKscurrenosB of M i*pre*eo*iiig tj^ 
derived Prakrit sound, which was no doubt different from old chh and which I now te^slitierate as M* 

Of Luders, J. & 4* 8., 1909, p. 650 ; flf. B. A, W., 1918, p. 768 1 . 

* Mnohai : aafayaram kue vasMfugaw ; Mount Banj : maht^^trasa. ...km da^amtko ; Paj 

km karite ; Shakardarra torn 



B EPtGRAPfill INBIOA. [Yot. XIX. 



The next letter is again so-, and then follows, so far as I can see, a rva, though it may be ka 
as read by Cunningham, In M. Senart's plate the right-hand hook of the letter has disappeared 
and the afohwra runs into the following one, so' as to produce the appearance of a u, and the 
apparent 0-stroke, which dearly belongs to the aMara following after rva, looks as if it belonged 
to thfj* secorid dne. The letter following aitet what I read as rw consists of a vertical bending a 
tie 'top towards the left and provided with a cross-bar. The apparent e-matra protrudes below 
the upp3r bar and seems in reality to be an L With every reserve I therefore read sti. 

Then follows an unmistakable va. In M. Senart' s plate it runs into the preceding akshard, 
and thus M. Boyer arrived at Ms reading sAe, without taking any notice of the unusual place of 
the e-matra. This w I take together with the next afahwra, which I read da ; of. the shape of 
4 in (ti, 1. 1. 

Then follows ti, and then two letters which M. Boyer read wShe. The u of vu is not certain, 
And I prefer to read tw. The stroke at the right-hand corner of dhe seems to me to be a flaw in 
the stone, I therefore read mdha and connect vadha with the ensuing dkshara, which is certainly 
sa or se. I accordingly read sawstivadativadkase. 

Messrs. Senart and Boyer took the last aksJiara sa together with the two following ones, 
which they read as putra, The pu is certain, but the tra does not, so far as I can see, exist. If 
we compare the fourth aksJuw* from the end in 1, 3, which is certainly tra, it will be found to be 
quite different. It seems to me' that a portion of the stone has peeled off in this place 3 to the right 
W the u-loop of Itshu in L L It was therefore left open, and the content goes on to the left of th"e 
t*46op, with an akshara which M. Boyer took to be la> but which seems to me to be ja. The 
vertical has been bent to the right, so as to cover a portion of the open space, but the ja is, I think, 
easily recognizable. 

Then follows $a, with a sloping line running downwards from the middle of the vertical. 
M. Senart read the whole as na, while M. Boyer thought it necessary to read 1 npa, a compound 
which is in itself very unlikdy, and which would, at all events, scarcely look like our akshar a 
but b6 provided with an angular $a-hooL I take the letter to be #e, with the e-matra placed 
as in SaJcyamu^ in the "W&rdak vase inscription. Pujane corresponds to Sanskrit pujane, in the 
honouring of, and is synonymous with the common pujae, 

f he last three afoharas of 1. 2 were read by M. Senart asto%0 and this, taken together with 
the letter sa at the beginning of L 3, makes up the genitive Liakasa, which M. Boyer connected 
with Ms s&putrvbanpa into a comp'ound saputrctbanpaliabasa, to which he assigned the meaning 
l together with his sons Banpa and Liaka". Even if we were to accept the reading lanpa, it 
aeems to me that it would not be quite easy to follow M. Boyer in his analysis of the compound. 
The name Liaka is also known from the Taxila copper-plate of Patika, the son of the Ksha- 
trapa Liaka Kustduka, and we should naturally infer that the Liaka of our inscription was a descen- 
dant of _iaka Kusjiluka, the more so because he is evidently designated as a Kshatrapa. Tha 
f eadifcg of the word following after the first letter of L 3 is not, it is true, certain, but there can be 
IMe doiftt that it meajxs " of the Kshatrapa". M. Senart read Mdharasa and M. Boyer chhala. 
yam. The] former was partly influenced by the Patika plate where Kusuluka Liaka is usually 
aupposefl to ^ degagnated as ChhaJwraAa ChuJcfoasa cha Matrapa, Kshatrapa of Chhahara and 
ChuHfcsik In toy opinion; however, there cannot be any doubt that we must read Mahamtasa, 
there being room for two aMaras in, the damagecj pqrtipn, at the end of L L Moreover, M. ' Boye r * 
waa c^rtaiaJy right in jeatfing the thiii aMara as pa. The second one is scarcely jto, and it is 
.also d||fer^t|iQm la> the upper vertical starnding more to the left than the lower one/ There is,* 
^oieove*,"^ *tio& towards the right at the bottom* One aright .think of reading fra/bu't such a 
compound i* scwcdy possible. It is perhaps possible to assume that tie 'engraver has misundfer- 



tfo. 1]. THE ZEDA INSCRIPTION OP THE YE4B 11. 9 

stood Ms draft and placed the upper vertical too far to the right, while tra was in reality intended. 
As there cannot well be any doubt about the meaning I would, therefore, with every reserve, 
read ksha[tra]pasa. 

We are not in a position to decide the question about the nationality of the family of the 
Kshatrapa Liaka. If he was descended from the Kshatrapa Liaka Kusuluka of the Patika platej 
we should be inclined to think that he was a Saka, because the date of the Patika plate is referred 
to the reign of the King Moga. The designation Kusuluka seems to indicate relationship with the 
Kushanas, for Kusuluka is probably connected with the designation Kujula used about the first 
Kadphises. We know from the coin-legend of Liaka Kusuluka that the second u of Kusuluka was 
Jong and that the 5 was pronounced with voice, for the Greek legend is Kozoulo, as on the coins or 
Kujula Kadphises. 

If the Kshatrapa Liaka was a descendant of Liaka Kusuluka, we should think that he ruled 
in the neighbourhood of Taxila, in which case his province may very well have included the pre- 
sent Zeda. 

After ksha[tra]pasa M. Senart read .pa..a.da.ta dana and M. Boyer thupa dhola unamiia 
dana. The latter translated the whole passage as follows : the gift of Chhalapa together with his 
sons Banpa and Liaka, a stupa resplendent in whiteness and of great height. We should accord- 
ingly here have the record of the second donation mentioned in the inscription. Abstracting 
from the general objection to such an interpretation which I have already mentioned, I may 
draw attention to the curious arrangement which M. Boyer supposes to be followed in the enu- 
meration of the gifts : first a well, then a resplendent stupa, and thirdly, as we 'Shall see, a temple 
servant. It would be difficult to find any logical reason for such an arrangement, and I agree 
with M. Sylvain Levi 1 that we should expect the state of things to be different. 

An examination of the plate will, moreover, so far as I can see, lead us to other results than 
those arrived at by M. Boyer, also in the passage following after k$ha[tra]pa$a. 

The first akshara cannot possibly be thu. It consists of a rounded top, continued to the 
right in a vertical ending in a loop, which I follow M. Boyer in considering as an w-matra. There 
cannot, in my opinion, be any reasonable doubt about the nature of the letter : it is u, of the 
same kind as the u of utaraphagu^e, 1. 1, only shorter, and the w-loop has not-been continued up 
to the vertical. Then follows pa, as given both by M. Senart and by M, Boyer. The third akshara, 
on the other hand, cannot be dho. It consists of a broken vertical, bent towards the left at the 
top, and provided with the hook which we know from the usual ka. A similar break in the ver- 
tical is also found in one of the kas of the Manikiala silver desk, and similar forms occur in the 
Ara and Manikiala inscriptions and on the Kanishka casket. I think it necessaty to read ka. 

Then follows an akshara consisting of an upper curve connected with the lower part by a 
vertical. It is impossible for me to understand how it can be read otherwise than as cha. The 
next letter is clearly a and not u 9 there being no trace of an w-loop at the bottom, and I am unable 
to see how M. Boyer arrived at his reading unamita. The a is followed by a distinct ma, which 
k. Boyer leaves out of consideration. With regard to the next afahara M. Senart' s reading da 
is clearly preferable to M. Boyer' s na* even if we were to admit that the dental na were used in 
this place. The lower portion of da is, however, bent towards the left and I think that I can see 
traces of a complete w-loop. I therefore read du, and the following akshara cannot possibly be 
mi. It seems to me to be an unmistakable ka. Then follows ta as read by Messrs. Senart and 
Boyer, The whole passage accordingly runs : upakachaamadu kata. I analyse it as follows. 
In upakachaa I see the dative of upakacha, which consists of upa and the Prakrit word kachcha, 
which is given as a De&i word for kdrya in the De&namamala ii. 2 3 and which corresponds to a 

1 Cmquintenarie do I'ecoie pratique dea haute-* etudes. Melanges publics par lea directeurs d'etudcs cle la 
flection des sciences hUtoriques et phiioiogigaes. Pans, 1921, pp. 91 ff. 



BPIGRAPSIA INDICA, [Voi; XIX 



Sanskrit kfitya. 1 Upakachw accordingly means " for the benefit of ", and it should be connected 
with the ensuing madu, Sanskrit matu^ of his mother, 

Kata I take together with the following word, for which I unhesitatingly accept the reading 
dana. 

The concluding portion of the inscription was read by M/Boyer as follows ; anuga punavar* 
dhase Saghamitrasa dana, the gift of Samghamitra : a servant, in oider to increase his merit. I 
hare the same objections against this reading and interpretation which I have mentioned above i 
the improbability of a registering of many gifts in one and the same inscription, the absence of 
any intelligible reason for the arrangement of the three entries, and my inability to Accept the 
suggested Beading. It might also be questioned whether Sanskrit puyya could become puna 6r 
puria in the dialect of the inscription. We should certainly expect pufia as in the Kharoshthl 
manuscript of the Dhammapada* 

The two first aksharas are certainly aqu. M. Boyer draws attention to the shape of the 
ensuing akshara ga 9 which is turned towards the left and provided with a curve towards the right . 
He thinks that we are here faced with fissures in the stone. It seems to me, however, that such 
cannot be the case, and that we must read gra. Anugra might stand for a%uga 9 with a spirantic 
pronunciation of g, but I have my doubts about the possibility of translating aquga, standing alone 
as it does, by " servant". Moreover, I think it necessary to connect -atyugra with what follows 
and here I cannot accept M. Boyer' s reading puna, or, in my transliteration pu%a. There is no 
trace of an w-matra, and, so far as I see, the first akshara cannot be pa, but only lie. The 
akshara qa next seems to have an e-matra, but I think that na is intended. I therefore read 



The following word, seems to be vardJiase as read by M. Boyer. M. Semrt's plate favours 
this reading, while the r before dh is not distinguishable in my estampage. As stated by M, Boyer 
vardhase or vadftase may be an infinitive or the dative of a base vardhas. 

The reading Saghamitrasa dana was established by Cunningham and accepted by his sue* 
cessors, I do not think it possible to read the letter after to a as sa. It is the same ra which we 
find in rajami> 1. 2. Nor can I see how the two last aJcsJiqras can be read dana. Tjie first one 
cannot, I think, be anything else than ja, with a backward turn of the top, and the last one is 
evidently sa y turned back so as to avoid its running up into the akshara standing above it. A 
similar distorted sa is found before Mm Boyayasa in 1. 4 of the Gudufara record, where its shape 
likewise seems to be due to considerations of space, 

Who the SdmghamitrarZja was, we cannot say. Samghamitra seems to be used as a title 
in the Jaulif inscription 6, and it is conceivable that it is here used as an honorific designation of 
Kanishka. It is, however, more likely that Samghanitraraja was some peaeon connected with 
the place where the well was dug, 

The date of the Zeda inscription is about one month later than that of the Sue "Vijiar epigraph 
of thje 28th Daisios Sam 11, the Macedonian month Daisies roughly corresponding to the Indian 
Jyaishtha, the month preceding ishadha. I have already drawn attention to the fact that the 
dating is fuller than is usually the case in KharSshthi records, the name of tke nakshatra Uttara- 
pkalguna being mentioned as current on the 20th Ishadha, Professor Jacobi has kindly drawn 
my attention to the fact that we can infer, from this statement, that the months were puryimanta 
just as I have shown it to be the case in the calendar used in the Gudafara record. 2 The nakshatra 
TJttaraphalguna belonfgs to the Sukla paksha where it may occur between tine 5th and 8th day. 



C/. Ksciiel, Gramiwtik for Prajkr^r ac*f n, 284. * See above YoL XVIII, p, 272 |. 



Jfo. 10 THE ZBDA INSCRIPTION OF THE TEAR 11. U 

The puryimanta reckoning was no doubt an ancient Indian one, while the counting of all the days 
of the mftnth as a continuous series seems to be of foreign origin, as stated in my edition of the 
Gudufara record. 

With regaiA to the era used in ottr inscription, it has never been defatted that it is the so- 
called IJanishka era, but there is no consensus of opinion about the nature and the initial point of 
that reckoning- I do not thiftk that anybody would now be prepared to maintain, as was con- 
sistently done by the latd Dr. Fleet, that Kafcishka was the founder of the Vikrama era, aftet 
Sir John Marshall has succeeded in analysing the different strata of archsaological finds in ancient 
Taxila. He has conclusively proved that Kanishka succeeded the Kadphises kings. 1 Most 
scholars seem to be of opinion that Kaiiishka's accession marked the beginning of the Saka era. 
Professor Bapson, the latest authority who has dealt more fully with -the question, says :* " ^The 
evidence obtained by Sir John Marshall from his excavations of the ancient sites of Taksha6ila 
proves conclusively that the period of Kanishka* a reign must have been somewhere about the end 
of the first century A.D., and a comparison of this evidence with the statements of Chinese his- 
torians and with the dates supplied by inscriptions makes it seem almost certain that Kanishka 
was the founder of the well-known era which began in 78 AJX" 1 

I fail to see how Sit John's description of his excavations can be explained as done by Professor 
Rapson* I may qutfte his own words : 4 " The chronology of this period is very uncertain, but it 
seems probable that it was about 50 or 60 A.D. that Kujula Kadphises and Hermaeus wrested 
the Kabul valley and Taxila from the Parthians, and a few years later that Kujula was succeeded 
by Wima Kadphises, who consolidated and enlarged the empire which his predecessor had won. 
To about this period belong the coins of the nameless ruler commonly known as Soter Megas, 
who may have been a successor of Wima Itadphises there seems to have been a break between 
the reigns of Kadphises II and Kanishka. Then followed,* in the second century of our era, the 
great and powerful Kanishka, the most famous of all the Kushans, and after him Euvishka and 
Vasudeva. Kanishka made his winter capital at Purushapur^a, the modern Peshawar, and ex- 
tended his conquests over a wide area, from Central Asia to the borders of Bengal, and it is probable 
that this empire was maintained intact by his immediate successors. The death of Vasudeva 
probably occurred in 1 the first half of the third century AJX" 

I do not think that this statement can be reconciled with the assignation of the establishment 
of the $aka era to Kanishka, On the other hand, it is in thorough agreement with what Professor 
Liiders remarks : B " The exact determination of the era depends before all on the question.whether 
we should identify the king of the Ta-Yue-chi Po-t'iao, who sent in the year 229 A.D. an embassy 
to China, with Vasudeva, the successor of Hnvishka.* In that case tfye era would start at the 
earliest with 130 and at the latest with 168 A.D. None of the grounds which Oldenberg 7 has 

1 According to M. Sylvain I^vi, Jour* A&iat. XII, ii 1923, p. 52, Hadphises is not a personal name, but 
derived from the name of the country which is variously called JfcpUa, Kamboja, etc. 

* The Cambridge Hilary oj India, I, p. 583. 

8 I shall not in this place entet into a discussion of M. Foucher's theory that the Saka era is not originally 
& separate era but simply a continuation of the " Maurya " era, with omitted hundreds, because I hare done so 
in my edition of thB Gudufara record above, whera I also hope to have shown that it is impossible to follow Pip- 
lessor Eapaon in the conclusions he draws from the statements contained in Chinese historical tradition. 

4 See A Guide to Taxila, 2nd edition, Calcutta, 1921, pp. 16 i Sir John's latest account of his explorations* 

* S. A A. W., 1912, p. 830.!^. A*., XJLII, 1918 p. 137. 

* #/. Ghavannes, T*oung Poo, II, v, pp. 489 f, 

7 Nachriohten der Oottingkchen Gesellscfoaft der Wlsaenschafteu, Phil.. Hist- Hlneae, 1911, pp 4t7 ff. 
Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1910-12, pp. 1 fi. t specially pp. 17 L 



13 EPIGBAPHIA INBTCA. [Vox,. XIX, 



against this supposition is decisive. On the other hand, the identification of Po-t'iao 
with ySsudeva-ist, as observed by Chavannea, merely permissible and not necessary; besides 
there still remains the possibility that a later and another Vasudeva is meant." 

And, as a matter of fact, Sir John's statement agrees with everything that we k&ow from 
Chine :e sources. 

It is a curious fact, which has often been commented on, that Kanishka* s name never occurs 
in the historical books of the Chinese. It is difficult to think that such would have been the case, 
if he had tuled at a time when China was in contact with the Western Countries and received 
regular accounts of what was happening there, and it seems probable* therefore, that his tim^ 
was subsequent 4o A.D. 1.25, when China was cut off from Eastern Tuikistan, 1 where Kanishka's 
power, according to Hiuen-Tsang, made itaelf felt. 

Buddhist texts preserved in Chinese translations, on the other hand, more than once speak of 
Kanishka as a great and powerful ruler, Hiuen-Tsang, who tells us about his conquests, also 
quotes what pretends to be a prophecy of the Buddha, according to which Kanishka's accession 
was to take place in the year 400 of the Nirvana. M. Sylvain Levi has made it probable 2 that 
Hiuen-Tsang's source was the Tinaya of the Mulasarvastivadins. According to M. Foucher 8 
Kanishka reigned in the fifth century of the Maurya era, which was still in general use at the time 
of his accession. Later on, when the actual state of things was forgotten, and people no more 
knew anything about the Maurya era, which had, in the meantime been replaced by other reckon- 
ings, the memory of an interval of 400 years was still retained, but now this interval was referred 
to the era of the Nirvana. I do not think it necessary to make further comments on this theory 
in this place, because there is not the slightest reason for believing in the existence of the Mauryi 
era. But most scholars will unhesitatingly agree with M. Foucher that the tradition of an 
interval of 406 years between the Nirvana and Kanishka is due to some sort of misunderstanding. 

There are, as is well known, more than one estimate of the interval between the Buddha and 
Kaniahka to be found in the Chinese Buddhist works. 4 The biography of Vasubandhu places 
Asvaghosha, who was an older contemporary of Kanishka, in the sixth century of the NirvSna, 
and, according to the SamyuktaratnapitaJca, which was translated into Chinese in A.D. 472, 
Kanishka was a contemporary of the Arhat K'i-ye-to,oi whom we hear that he had left the world 
in the Buddha's time but reappeared seven hundred years afterwards in the kingdom of Ki-pin. 5 
This tradition, which is certainly older than Hiuen-Tsang, places Kanishka in the second century 
of our era. 

In this Connexion the statement found in the same work and quoted above, according to 
which Kanishka fought the Parisians, receives some, additional significance as compared with 
the use of the title marjhaka in our inscription. 

There are, moreover, some indications which seem to point to a considerable increase of the 
Kusha^a power and a simultaneous strengthening of the national pride of the Indo-Skythians 
in the second century ol our era. In the first place we find rulers using the same titles as the 
Kushajjas in Eastern Tuikistan, where even a Kushanasena is mentioned about this time. And 
secondly, some facts connected with the history of the Western Kshatrapas point to the same 
conclusion. I am speaking of the coins and inscriptions mentioning the name of Chashtana* 

* Cl Acta Qrieniatia, II, p. 133. * J. & A &, 1914, p. 1016. 

* '' a, II, p. 510. 



* <7/. F. W. Thome*, J. Jfc. A. &, 1933, pp. 646, 649, 1051, aud the literature quoted l y him 

* 0/. IM Jown, A*iat, t IX, viii, 1890, p. 463 3 Ind. Ant., XXXII, 1903, p. 886, 



1.] THE ZED A INSCRIPTION OP THE YEAR 11. 13 

According to Professor Rapson, 1 " all that is known as to the duration of Chashtana' s reign, 
, as kshatrapa and mahakshatrapa, is that it must be included, together with the reign of 
^is son Jayadaman as Kshatrapa, in the period limited by the years 46 and 72=A,D. 124 and 
if>0." From the Andhau inscriptions 2 we know that his grandson Rudradaman was associated 
. him as rajan in Kathiawar in Saka 52, i.e., A.D. 130. He cannot, accordingly, have been 
nuch later than A.D. 90, and his father Ysamotika must have held sway about the time 
i the Saka era was introduced. 

Now the names of Chashtana and Ysamotika point to the conclusion that they were of the 
i nationality as the $akas and Kusha^as. Dr. Morgenstierne tells me that, according to 
: Andreas, ChasUana is evidently identical with Pashto chashtan, a master, and the 
\ Seistanhas, up to the present day, preserved the memory of ancient Saka settlements in 
-A ighanistan. 3 And Ysamotika is derived from the word ysama, earth, which is well known front 
documents and books written in the Iranian language of the southern oases of Chinese 

""Turkistan. 4 

Now Ysamotika's name only occurs in the inscriptions and coin-legends of his successors. 
One coin, which has now disappeared, has, it is true, been ascribed to him, but Professor Rapson 
IB no doubt right m thinking 5 that it was in reality a coin of Chashtana with the name of his father 
cmly legible in the inscription. YsamoliJca, however, is practically synonymous with BhumaJca, 
i^xid I quite agree with M. Sylvain Levi 6 in thinking that the two names designate one and the sam,e 
^person, BhumaJca being only a barbaric Sanskrit translation of the real name. 

Now we must recall the state of things prevailing when Bhumaka entered on the Stage. Vikra- 
33aaditya had long ago replaced the Saka rulers in Central India. A national era had been 
introduced, which had even been used by the Saka Kshatrapa o<Jasa, and Indian notions had 
gradually reasserted themselves. If Bhumaka were one of the first governors appointed after 
-fch.e Saka re-conquest in A.D. 78, it would be natural for him to adopt an Indianized name, though 
lie' was a Kshaharada, i.e-., was, in some way, connected with the line of Liaka Kusuluka. 7 The 
tose of the title rdfan by Nahapana, who is also designated Kshaharata, Chashtana and his suc- 
cessors, may be due to similar considerations. 

The state of things became difierent with or during the rule of Chashtana. He reintroduced 
-fciie national name of his father, and this fact becomes easily intelligible if we assume that the 
power of his nation was essentially increased in his days. It is not necessary to assume that this 
increase began in India itself. If M. Sylvain Levi was right in explaining 8 Chen-t'an Ki-ni-ch 6 a 
of the SutralanJcara as Kanishka, king of Khotan, it js conceivable that Kanishka started on his 
in Eastern, Turkistan, after the Chinese had lost their hold on the country, and that these 
were rumoured in India and awakened the national pride of the Sakas, this awakening 
"being reflected in the introduction of the name Ysamotika instead of the Indianized BMmakfc 
the inscriptions and coin-legends of Chashtana. 

* Catalogue, of the Coin* of the Andhra Dynasty, the Western K$atrapas, the TraiMfaka Dynasty and toe 
JBodfai " Dynasty. London, 1908, pp. cxii ff, 

* Ef. Ind., XVI, pp. 19 ff. 

8 C?/. The important paper contributed by Dr. F. W. Tinmaa to the J, R. A. S., 1Q06, pp. 181 ft. 

* Of. Luders, S. B. A. W.> 1912, pp. 406 ft, where attention is also drawn to the curious use of the eompoimd 
in order to denote the voiced *. 

* Lc. 9 p 71. 

* Joitfw. Asiat., XI, v, 1915, p. 1919 ; cf. Konow, 8. B. A. W., 1910, p. 8? 4 
7 kthabarada, Icthahw&ta can of course be a title or the name of a family. 

,. 4ttt, IX, Yiii, 1896, pp. 453 ff. ; Ind. Ant,, XXXII, 1903, pp. 



BPIGBAPHIA ISDIOA. [Voi. XIX. 



Now we know that Chashtana's capital was Uj jayini afad that his name was known to Ptolemy. 
After Kanishka had consolidated his power in India he would naturally enter into relations with 
the Saka rulers of UjjayinL Now Ujjayini was the centre of the scientific study of astronomy 
after new methods which were taken ore* from the Greek astronomers. The results of this study 
are laid down in the Siddhantas, and if the late Dr. Thibaut was right in thinking 1 that these 
works may very weH be based on some Greek source older than Ptolemy, I do not see any reason 
against applying their methods to the date of the Zeda inscription, in order to settle the question 
about the initial point of its era by calculating which year or years fulfil the condition ; Ashiwjha 
20 coupled with Uttara-phalguna- 

I have therefore asked my Dutch friend, Dr, W. B. van Wijk, to examine the date in the light 
of the Siddhantas. I have taken it for granted that Kanishka's accession cannot be dated earlier 
than the initial point of the Saka era and not much later than A,D. 135. I have therefore for- 
mulated the question as follows : in which year during the peliod AD. 89 to A.D. 150 did the 
20th Ashadha coincide with Uttara-phalguna. 

Dr. van Wijk has discussed the question in^the Ada Orientalia,* and I shall, in this place, 
only summarise the results of his calculations. If these are made according to the system of the 
Suryasiddhanta and the equal space system, seven years during the period would answer the 
conditions, viz., the expired Kaliyuga years 3191, 3216, 3221, 3229, 3240, 3246 and 3248. 

This result is not very encouraging. I have, however, already mentioned that we possess, 
a second record, from the same neighbourhood, with the same details regarding the date as in our 
epigraph, viz., the TJnd inscription of the year 61, where the 8th Chaitra is coupled with the 
tiakshatra Piirvashadha. 

Applying the same methods to this date, Dr. van Wijk finds that the choice is, in this case, 
much more limited. It is, of course, sufficient to examine the state of things in the seven years 
coming 50 years after those which were found to be possible equivalents to the Zeda date. And 
among these only three years fulfil the condition : Chaitra 8 coupled with Piirvashadha, m. s 
the expired Kaliyuga years 3241, 3279 and 3296. 

If it is allowed to calculate the dates of the Kanishka era at the hand of the SuryasiddMnta, 
its initial date would accordingly fall in one of the years A.D. 79, 117 or 134. Dr. van Wijk has 
reckoned with current years. If the years were expired, the corresponding years would be 78, 
116 and 133 respectively. 

Dr. van Wijk has further calculated the two dates according to the system of the first Arya- 
siddMnta. His result is that in that case only the expired Kaliyuga years 3229 and 3279 fulfil 
the conditions required by the Zeda and the Und inscriptions respectively* He therefore thinks 
that, according to the equal space system, this latter correspondence is most acceptable. 

In his second paper, however, he maintains, that the ' equal space system is a late and 
artificial one, and that we must, therefore, reckon with unequal spaces. He arrives at the 
result that June 19 A.D. 139 is the only date which fulfils the couditions of the Zeda record 
and February 26 A.D, 189 those of the Und inscription The initial date of the Kanishka era 
would accordingly be A.D. 128429. Such a dating would explain the absolute silence about 
Kanishka in Chinese historical sources, which seems to show that his accession cannot be placed 
before A.D, 125. It would follow that the earliest known date of VasudSva corresponds to the 
rainy season A,D. 202, and the latest one to the rainy season A.D. 22ft, in which case Vasndeva, 
can very well be identical with Po-t'iao, whose embassy is stated to- have reached China in 
A, 0,229. 

* Attronomie* Astrologie und Mafaeiwtil\ pp s 4d ff. * Vol. Ill, pp 83 & 5 V, pp* 168 ft . 



No. ft] BABAH COPPEB-PLATH OF BHOJAD1VA; VIKBAMA-SAMYAT 893. '16 

I now give my reading and translation of the record* 

TEXT. 

1, Sam 10 ashadasa masasa di 20 uttarapha^une ie ksfeunami 

2, khade kue [mu]rodasa marjhakasa Kanishkasa raj ami [to]yamda oka bhur 

da^amukha Hipea DMasa sarVastivadativadhase pujane Liaka- 

3, sa ksha[tra]pasa upakacha^ mad[u] kata da$a ai^ugrahe^a va[rdiia]se Sa- 

ghamitrarajasa 

TRANSLATION. 

Anno 10, on the 20 day of the month Ash.Id.ha, in Uttaraphalgunl, at this instant 
this well was dug, in the reign of the lord, the master of treasure Kanishka, and further a 
" watergiver "as the gift of Hipe Dhia for the increase o! the Sarvastivada, in honouring of 
the Kshatrapa Liaka, for the benefiting of his mother ; the gift was made by the favour and for 
the increase of Samghamitraraja. 



No. 2. BARAH COPPER-PLATE 01 BHOJADEVA ; VIKBAMA-SAMVAT 893, 

BY HlEANANDA SASTRI, 

This copperplate, as the District Magistrate of Cawnpore wrote to the Director General 
of Archeology in India, while forwarding it lor examination, was discovered on the 17th of March 
1925 in the house of one Muhammad Baqar when the foundations of a ngw house were being 
<iug up in the village of Barah which is said to have been inhabited during the Mughal period 
and lies on the south side of the main road from Cawnpore to Kalpi at a distance of 23 miles west- 
$outh-west from the District Hea4-Qnarters and 4 miles .east of Akbarpur with which It 13 
connected by a branch metalled road. It measures 23!" by 16f", being Y/ ^hick an< i weighs 
1,250 tolas. The thuee big holes drilled at the left side of the plate show th$t there must have 
been a seal attached to it, though it is not forthcoming now. The plate was thoroughly cleaned 
under the direction of the Director General of Archaeology in India and is now preserved in the 
Provincial Museum, Lucknow. I edit the record from the^original plate as well as from the 
exeellant estampages kindly supplied to me by Sir John Marshall the Director General of 
A|ch*0ology in India. Only one side of the plat is inscribed, there being 16 lines of writing 
on it. The size of the letters which $re well shaped and deeply cut averages from I" to \" i 
height, and I" to f" in breadth. The record'is written in the Nigaii script of the perio4 ft&d ip 
$aafifcrit prose, excepting a somewhat defective &l5Jca at the end (11. 15-16) which gives tha 
name of the Dutaka. 

There are no orthographical peculiarities worth noting excepting the use of the upocft* 
manlyOf in 11, 7 and 12 and the usual employment of m for 60 as well a& the doubling of t 
before ra & in puttra (L 3). The yesCr when the grant under notice wa$ issued is given, in 
1. 16 where it is expressed by letters or letter numerals and a numerical figure, Th^t it is 
893 of the Yikrama era is pretty certain but the way in which it is written doea not 
tobeo As put down here it would read samvatsrd hra (ie.) 9083. The t in the ligature 
ahould go with samvat and the symbol sr$ be taken as representing hundred like the old 
symbol {A. The next symbol undoubtedly represents 8. Thus, I think, the yew should 
^ read 1 as samvat 10ttx8 (i.e. 800) 90 3 (i.e., 893). 

Tkeobfect of the inscription is to, record that Bhdjadeva granted the agraMra called 
which lay in the Udumbara-w^at/a of the Klafijara~ma^afo in the 
ii to the Byahrnaw born of the family of Bhatta-^acha,ra-v5xnip who 



1 1 hare read it in consultation with Rai Bahadur Gfturisljwknr H. 



16 EP1GRAPHIA IND1CA. [VOL. XXX' 

belonged to the Bharadvaja-grotfra and was a student of the Vajasaneya-^a&M, with all its 
income barring such as had already been granted to gods and Brahmanas. The document 
would show that the original grant was issued by sr~!arvvavarmraadeva and sanctioned, 
by Maharaja NSgab&atadeva. .It would further show that, owing to the incapacity 
of the controlling officer (Vyavahariri) in the reign of Rarpabliadracieva, it was disturbed for 
some time and Bhojadeva, the grandson of Nagabhatadeva, revived it on the old terms in t&0 
year 893 of th.e [Vikrama era] on tb.0 fiitli day of tlie bright fortnight of KILrtika which 
corresponds to Wednesday, 18th. October, jfl.D. 836. 

The charter was written by Rudrata, the Dutaka being BSladitya who was the son of 

HajyabhattSrika. I have already stated that the donor of the grant was Bhojadeva, the son 

of Kamabhadradeva and the grandson of Nagabhatadeva. That he was the G-urjara Prati- 

hSra king of Kanauj is too clear to require demonstration. The genealogy 1 given in the 

document is too strong a proof to require further support. The point worth consideration is 

the identity of the Sarvvavarmman spoken of in the document. We are told that the grant 

made by this chief was confirmed by Nagabhatadeva, This statement would make Sarvvavar- 

mman to be the contemporary of Nagabhata who flourished dr. 816 2 A.D. The~fact that he ia 

described as a Paramevara would show that he was a subordinate prince. The epithet of 

Ptxram$$vara reminds us of Sarwavarmman, the Maukhari king who is likewise called Parame&- 

vara in the Asfrgacjh 3 Seal inscription. But the identification dependjs on the contemporaneity 

of the Pratihara king Nagabhata. The Maukhari $arwavarmman, as I have shown 

elsewhere/ was the son of ISanavarmman, who flourished about the year 611 of the Vikrama 

era, that is, dr. 554 A.D., and that he ruled about the last quarter of the sixth century of the 

Christian era or some two hundred years before Nagabhata, the ambitious Pratihara ruler who 

confirmed the grant. SqjSarvvavarmnian of this inscription cannot be the homonymous prince 

of the Maukhari dynasty ; nor can we identify him with the Sarwavarmma-Maharaja of the 

NirmaiacU 5 grant of Samudrasena or other rulers of the same name who came long before him. 

The only prince whose identification will fit in with this chief, as far as I am aware, is the one 

mentioned in the Sanjan plates of Amoghavarsha which have recently been published in this 

journal. 6 The contents of this valuable document have been fully dealt with by Prof. D. R 

Bhandarkar. It tells us that G6vinda III, perhaps the most remarkable Kashtrakuta king who 

flourished dr. 793-815, vanquished Nagabhata of the Imperial Pratihara dynasty, who was the 

son of Vatsaraja or the father of Ramabhadradeva and the grandfather of Bhojadeva, the 

donor of the grant under notice. Further, it informs us that the same Rashtrakutg king 

after his victorious return from the north came to the Narmada on whose banks, at th$ foot oi 

the Vindhyas 5 he temporarily settled in the kingdom of a petty rider called Maharaja- Sarvan. 

It was here that a son was born to him who was called Amoghavarsha alias Maharaja-Sarvan. 

Mara6arva, as has been remarked by Prof. Bhandarkar, is the same as Maharaja-Sarvan and 

the Snbhavana of the Radhanpur plates of Govinda- III must have been his capital 7 To 

which dynasty this prince belonged, we are not told in any of these inscriptions. But that he 

must have been an important ruler seems to be clear. Our charter shows that he must have held 

sway over the tract around Kalanjara where the agrahara or the Brahmana village Valaka (or 

Valaka) lay, otherwise he could not have made a gift of it. That he was a tributary of Nagabhata 

can safely be surmised from the fact that the grant made by him was confirmed by the latter. 

*For tli genealogy of this dynasty see Kielhom's Northern List, No. 10, and the A. S. K. for 1903-04 pp 
277 ff. ; jgp. Ind., VoL XVIII, p. 100. 

*V. A. Smith, Early History of India, (4th ed.}, p. 393; KOEOW : Ep. 2nd., Vol. XII, p. 200. 

* Fleet : 0. 1. L, p. 219. * Above, VoL XIV, pp. 113-4. 

* Fleet - C. 1. 2. p. 590. 'Above, VoL XVIII, pp. 235 fL 

* Ibid p. 241, and Vol. VI, p. 250. 



No, 2.] BABAH COPPER-PLATE Of BHOJADEVA; VIKEAMA-SAMVAT 893, 17 



Subsequently, -when his liege lord, namely Nagabhata, was routed by the 
king lie, * driven by fear, quickly went to conciliate his mind by choice heirlooms such, as the 
Rashtrakuta king had never received before and feet by prostrations/ 1 Atout the beginning 
of the ninth century of the Christian era, the throne of Kanauj passed from one ruler to another 
very quickly. After Vajrayudha, came Indrayudha who was dethroned about S10 A.D. by 
Dharmapala king of Bengal and was succeeded by Chakrayudha jrtio * was consecrated 
with the consent of the kings of all the neighbouring states.'* About 816 A.D. he was dethroned 
by Nagabhat;a the Gurjara Pratihara king, Sarvvavarmman, apparently, must have taken 
advantage of the sifcuation and extended his territories towards the north, but had to submit to 
Nagabhata, when that ruler conquered Kanauj. Nagabhata was worsted by GSvinda III, but 
Bhoja, his grandson, was the undisputed master of Kanauj at the time to which our charter 
belongs. So, in both the cases, that is in the time of Nagabhatadeva as well as Bhojadeva, 
confirmation of the grant by the liege lords was necessary. That the grant was impeded, as 
remarked above, during the reign of Ramabhadradeva woufld lead us to surmise that the rule of 
this king was not free from turmoil. 

As stated above, the grant is dated 893 of the [Vikrama]-Samvat *.& 836 A.D. So this 
copper-plate carries the long period of the ride of Bhojadeva back to some four years and 
becomes the earliest known dated document of his time. 

Besides the donor, his ancestors &nd the donee, the grant mentions Bllftditya, the son of 
Rajyabhattarika, and also Rudrata. No details being given about them, r their identity remains 
obscure. Rudrata like the names Mammata, Jayyata, JCaiyyata, etc., seems to be a Kashmiri 
appellation. The word ngw would show that he acted as a herald in reading out the a$ana of 
BhSjadeva. 

It may be remarked here that this charter also employs the territorial terms bkufai, man$ala 
and vishaya in the same aeaae in which they are used in charters like tfte Nalanda copper-plate 8 
of DevapaladSva. 

The localities mentioned in this charter are these : Mahodaya, Kanyakubja, Kalanjara, 
Udum(vb)ara and V(B)alakagrahara. Of these, Mahodaya, as herein described, was a 
skandh&vara or camp only and was not identical with Kanyakubja (or Kanyakubja) for that is 
mentioned separately. Generally, Mahodaya is taken to be a synonym of Kanauj or Kanyakubja r 
but our charter clearly shows that it cannot always be taken as such. Fleet 4 was perfectly 
right when he remarked that the epithet of slcandMvara or camp could not have been an 
appropriate one for a rajadhani, like Kanauj, and that there must have been several 
Mahodayas. Kanyakubja and Kalanjara are the modern Kanauj and Kalanjara respectively. 
Valaka, (or Valaka), the agrahara village which was the object of the grant, and Udumbara, 
the head-quarters of the district (vishaya) where it was situated, I have not been able to locate 
definitely. 

TEXT. 5 



I ^STO^^FTOW^ 
^fW|T*H^q% 

2 



1 Above, Vol. YJ, p. 350. * Smith, Early History of Incfa'a, p, 393 

Above, XVH, pp. 310 ff. 4 /^ An ^ 9 y j t xy, p , U L 

* From the original as well as the Impressions. * Expressed by & symbol. 



EPIGBAPEU INPICA. [VOL. 




7 

8 

9 nfcretiw 



10 IF^WJf^^WITVi I Wl ( lTT3r1T'nT3^fP5'fWf ?WT IfW^ff HfT" 

11 Tt^r^nwwrs^^cT^ ^ri^ift'tt I^^Tf^RfwiraEftifH writ? IT- 

12 m fW[ H 

13 
14 



is SIT 

16 



TR4NSLATI03ST, 

Hail J Fiom tlue camp fui-oislied with, a number of stips, etep^ftnta, kis, 
situated at the prosperous Mah&day^ (there was) tfoe iBu*fiou 
, a moat deYout worahipper of God Vishnu ; Jiia SOE Wro ol Bkxlyi^Sd^vi was 
the illustrious Maharaja Yatsarja,who meditated on his (father's) feet and was a mesi* dw0ut 
worshipper of God MaheSvara ; his son, bom of Sundaxidivl, was the illustrious Maharaja 
N&gabltatadeva who was greatly devoted to (the goddess) Bhagavati and a meditator on the 
feet ol MS (father) ; Mg so^ w^o meditated OB his feel w3 the illustiious, Maharaja Rama 
biiadradeva born of Isatadeva and much devoted to JLditya (the Sujlrg^ a^4 his son bora 
of AppSdevi Txas the illustrious Maharaja B1i5jadva who, a meditator oatus (faj/h^'s) ieet, was 
the great worshipper of (the goddess) Bhagavati (he, 'i.e., Bhojadtva) (thus) commands all the 
residents and the officers appointed to their respective posts, that have a#3#mkid; $t the agrahSra 

1 We may read tj^ for tbe sake of uniformity. 
a lt was first correctly read by Bai Babadar Baya Ram Salinu 
8 Head trqff ^, 
15* 




da 
4 



MAMDAPUB INSCRIPTION OF KANHABA: SAKA 1172, J9 



of Vaiaka (of fealSka) &ttac!M to the Ud\ti3ib&*fc district which is included in the 
subdivision dl KUlftfijtoa in the division of Itanyakufaja t 

Seeing the $d6ana of the illustrious Pamm&&vara Sa^Wavafrmttiadeva and the apptoW 
ot the illustrious Mahar&fa Wf&gabHa^adSVa and fihdiag that the allotment was, lot the time be- 
ing, obstructed through the incapacity of a legal officer during the reign of the illustrious MaMr&ja 
Hamabhadradiva, the above-mentiohed agrahara together with all the income, exclusive of 
all the gifts already granted ior gods and Brahmaiias, has been given away by me to endure' as 
long as the Moon, tke Sun and the Earth exist, for the increase of the merit of my parents, to 
the Brahma^as born of the family ol Bhatfc-kachara-svamin of the Bharadvaja-0$ra and the 
Vajasaneya-^ofeM, after having rejected the obstruction (of the grant) which took place for 
some time, and in accordance with the same old apportionment. Thus understanding, you 
should assent to it ; the residents (of the village) also being obedient on hearing the order 
should take all the dues to theae donees. 

Here, Baladitya, the son of RajyabhAttrik,, was the dufaka of the amna of long duration 
which was brought into force by Rudraja. 

Composed on the fifth day of the bright fortnight of Kartika in the Samvatsara 
893, 



No, 3,-MAMDAPUR INSCRIPTION OF THE REIGN OF KANHABA : SAKA 1172. 

Bi LIONEL D, BARNETT. 

There are several tbwfcs or villages bearing the name of Mamdaptir (" Muhammad's 
$own ") in th Bombay Pre&id&ncy ; but the Mamdapfir where the present inscription was found 
is a villagfe in the GCkak tefofc* of Belgauai District' lying in lat. 16 6' and long, 74 59f '. On 
the Indi&tt Atlas, sh^et 41, the name is spelt " Miimdapoor." The inscription was found on a 
well-preserved stone tablet built into the wall on the left hand inside the local temple of Basa- 
vesvara and is 3 ft. llf in. high by 2 ft. 7| in. wide, There is no information as to sculptures. 
The text is here edited from an ink-impression prepared for the late Dr. Fleet and now preserved 
in the British Miiseum.w-The ehataotet is a very good and typical Kanarese hand of the 
period, upright and decorative, bnt becoming at the end somewhat crabbed as the mason 
became tired with his long task. The average height of the letters in the first two lines is 
about | in., and then gradually decreases to about | in. The cursive forms of m, y, and v are all 
found. 2 That of y occurs only 4 times altogether; the others are much commoner, that of m 
being ' found 19 times and that of v 8 times in lines 1-10 alone. The curious little hook on the 
top of a letter which seems to denote a short u, and to which I have called attention in dealing 
with the Ma4agihal inscription (YoL XV, p. 316), appears in U. 51, 54, 55, and 64 ; it is not 
certain whether we should read Mtar or Jcottaru in 11. 52 f. and Adi-setliyar or I$i~settiyaru in 
11 53 f . where the hook on top of the r looks like the ordinary vir&ma. The language in 
1L 1-46,' which are mostly in verse, is Sanskrit; 11. 47-66 are in Kjanarese prose, of the early 
medieval dialect. After r consonants are usually (but not invariably) doubled, and v is changed- 
to 6 (e.g. safbba , 1. 5). la. the Sanskrit we may note the word jagajjhampa (1. 19), on 
which see Dr. Fleet's note above, Vol. XII, p. 251, and in the Kanarese wjra-laisayig?, 
(1. 62), fcam&K fca#a&a (P), and harat (1 65), and nule (1. '66), on which see inloco. 

The Kfcfttter ot the inscription is as follows. Aiter^paying homage to Siva-ChandraSSkhara 
<v. 1), Vishnu in Ms Boar incarnation (v. 2), and Siva-ParvatI (v. 3), and describing the 
<ocean'M&ru, Jambu-dvlpa (v. 4), Bharata-varsha, the kingdom of tCuHtala, in the latter th 
of' Kfi$4i (v, 4), a towa in the latter, which was the first of a Thirty (v. fi) 



20 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX. 



and in the vernacular -was named Kurumbetta (v. 7), it proceeds to extol the Tadu race 
and its scion the Tsdava king Bhillama (v. 8), his son Jaitugi [I] and his son 
Simaana (v. 9), of whom the last-named is here said to have been a patron 1 to Bhoja and over- 
come Arjuna, the Gfirjaras, MSgadnas, CaSlas, Oaudas, the Turaga-pati (i.e. the Asva-pati> 
and BaliSla (v. 10), Simhana's son Jaitugi [H] (v. 11), and the latter's son Kanbara, who is now 
reigning after overthrowing his enemies and restoring the Vedio religion (TV. 12, 13), with 
his younger brother Mahsdeva as Heir-Apparent (v. 14). Then comes a prose prasasti of 
Kanhara (11. 18-20), giving him his usual titles, and stating that he had conquered the Majavas 
and Gurjaras, that he was suzerain to the Taila&ga king, and that he was reigning at Devagiri. 
Next we are introduced to one of his great officers. The minister Bioha, son of Chikkadeva, 
subdued, for his master Kanhara, the lands from Himalaya to Sstu and enjoyed half the king- 
dom; his eldest son was Malla (vv. 15,16). Malla's son Chsmunda conquered the PSndya 
kingdom, the Zoftkan, the region around the KSvSrI, and other lands (w. 17, 18). Chamun- 
da's preceptor is Vggisvara ; his wife is Lakhkhadevi (TV. 19, 20) j and he has set up many 
images of Siva (v. 21). Then follows a prose pramsti of Chamunda (11. 30-38), which states 
that he suppressed the arrogance of the haughty Hoysala emperor SSmeSvara and that besides 
setting up a " sapphire linga " in a certain " white temple " he consecrated in the Trikflta- 
prsssda of Kurumbetfca two liAgaa of Siva and an image of Madhava, in the name of his father 
Mallinatha (Malla) and his brother Deva-Setti, in the Saka year (elapsed) 1172, and deter- 
mined to give this sanctuary into the charge of an eminent divine. This divine is Vimalasiva 
or Vimalasambhu, disciple of BhflSankara, disciple of Tryambakesa, in the succession of 
LakshSdnySna, a sage in the spiritual lineage going back to the mythical Durvlsas (w. 23- 
-/). A prose passage gives the praises of Vimalaslva (11. 43-45), and a verse states that the 
gift was duly made (v. 28). Now comes a series of prose details of endowments to this sanc- 
tuary (11. 47-66), the first of which mentions a former foundation in gaka 1167 by Idi-Setti, a 
son of Malli (11. 47-48), who now gives the village of Sabbetta (11. 53-54). Prominent among 
the donors is the guild of merchants (Banafiju, on whom see above, Vol. XVI, p. 332), among 
whom Chamunda was a shining light (11. 56-65). 

Aa regards the Yadava kings and their exploits here mentioned, it is sufficient to refer to 
Eynast. Eanar. Distr., pp. 518-27, and Bombay Gaz., I. ii. pp. 239 ff., 243, 245. The family of 
Settis descended from CnikkadSva figures also in the inscriptions published in /. Bo Br At 

?7r 0l W X S' , P f 25 S " 42 *" Y L XV ' PP- 383 ff " Ind ~ Ant " VoL VI1 ' P- 3 ^. ^d 

f u I'?', J, ( Ve)VolVri) App " Nos - 351 ' 357 ^' 8nd ** these sources we can 
establish the following pedigree : 

Chikkadeva 



(Bichiraya) 



. . .. - ........... - 

Mallinatha (MalK-Sefti) Chaund'a (Ohamundia) 

Chamunda (Chaundi)-Setti, m. LakhkhadSvl Adi-Setti 

Two dates are given. The first is Saka 1172 elapsed, SSdnSrana ; VaisSkaa kri 5 - 
Sahirday (11. 35-36). This i. practically correct, for the titU specified, if calculated to 
true B*rya*Siddh8nta t ended 19 h. 33 m. after mean sunrise on Friday, 22 April, A.D 
JZ50, i. e . 1.33 A.H. on Saturday morning. The late Mr. R. SewelP, who with his usual kindness 

^ or ** d S not necessarily si(S uif y m oo. 




several yeara before the s ^ d death 



No. 3.] MAMDAPUR INSCRIPTION OF KANHAEA : SAKA 1172, 21 



verified my calculations in this paper, informs me that tlie result is practically the same by the 
Siddhtinta-Sirdmani and the " true " Arya-Siddhanta, and that by the mean system of the 
latter the date was quite regular. The second date is Saka 1187, Visvavasu ; Pusliya ba. 8 ; 
Monday ; the uttarSyana-samkranti (1. 47). This is utterly irregular. If the Southern Cycle 
is intended, the tithi corresponded to Eriday, 12 January AJD, 12*6, and the uttarayana- 
saitikranti occurred on Monday, 25 December, AD. 1245, If we emend Visvavasu to KrGdhu*, 
the result is slightly more satisfactory, giving the tithi in connection with Saturday, 24 
December, A.D. 1244, and the uttarayana-samkr&nti would then fall on Sunday, 25 December ; 
but this solution hardly commends itself. The result is no happier if we try the Northern Cycle, 
in which Vivavasu corresponded with Saka 1164 current ; and Mr. Sewell tells me that 
calculations by the Siddhanta-Siromani and both the true and the mean $.rya-Siddh&nta 
shew similar discrepancies. 

The geographical names mentioned are : the kingdom of Kuntaja 7) ; the Three-- 

thousand of KftrKji (11. 8, 61) ; Kurumbetta, an " immemorial town of the Bananjus," 

which gave its name to a Jcampana of 30 towns (11. 10, 34 f ., 48, 54, 61, 65) ; BvSravati 

(1. 18) ; Devagiri (1. 20) ; the Setu (Adam's Bridge) and Himalaya (1. 22) ; the Konkari 

(1. 24) ; the river Ksverl (1. 24) ; Huligere (1. 36) ; Satobetta, in Kuj-umbetfca (1. 54) ; 

Blgavicji (L 55) ; Aghapatti (1. 57) ; AMchchhattra (L 58) ; Ayysvale (L 59), and 

Xlkatiyab4a (1. 64), besides the kingdoms of the Gurjaras (11 13, 19), MSgadlias (1. 14), 

Ch51as (L 14), Gau4as (1. 14), MSlavas (11 19, 44), Tailsngas (L 19), aaid Pan4yas (I 23). 

On K%<Ji see Dr. Fleet's note in Ind. Ant., Vol. XXIX, p. 278 ff. Kujumbetta seems to be 

the village styled " Kurbet " in the Bombay Postal Directory, " Shkdi Knrbet" on sheet 247 

of the Bombay Survey, and " Kooreebet fl on sheet 41 of the Indian Atks, which lies in 

lat 16 12^ and long, 74 50'. Its Sanskrit name (li 940) is mutilated ; only the ending -jftri 

is legible. * Dvaravatl is the modern Dwarka in Kathia war, and Devagiri is now Daulatabad, 

in the Nizam's Dominions. Huligei;e is LakshmSshwar, in lat 15 7 ; and long. 75^ 31'. 

Ahichchhattra and Ayyavale are several times mentionea in connection with the Bananjus : 

cf above Vol. XVI, p. S32. Bagava^i (now Bagewaiji) is the " Bagehwarree " of the Indian 

Atlas which shews it in lat. 16 18 7 and long. 74 47^- Aghapat-ti, which also had some con- 

nection with the cult of the Bananjus, seems to be no longer traceable. 1 Kikatiyabada is 

possibly Kakti, in Sangli State. 

TEXT. 3 

[Metres- ?v 1, 11, 14, 20, Iniwfctebfc; vv.2,3, SikUnni ; vv. 4, 5, 10, 15-18, 21, 
Sragdhara; vv, 6,9,12,22, 23, Sardulavikndita-, vv. 8, 25 llWi-l; Y. 13 Ary^ v 19, 
TrisUM> v. 24, VasantatilaU ; v. 26, Eathsddhata ; v. 27, 0ft; v. 28, Praharsfan*. 
V. 7 is apparently IryS, but the text is imperfectly preserved.] 

Om nama^ ivaya amastuma-im-chumbi-chamdia-chama^-chravg \ 



trail5kya-nagar-&rambha-mflila-stambhaya Sambhav || [1*] 

2 Sthira yad-damshtr-a g r nivasati tadlya-dyuti-chayS Hiranyiksha-sparSa- 

prabhava-durita-dhvamsana-dhiya I vi- ^ 

3 varix(ya)d-Gamga-purS diruvam^iva^ vigaham vidadhati(t) Hanh kr5da-ioi4at 

sa jayati yati-stutja-vibhavah || [2*] Jayaty-a-kalpa-grl-kaUta-kamani^ 
amrita-ka[ra]- _ __ _ 

^TTlake thii opporfcnaity to correct an error i a my paper on the Belganm macriptioE A. above, Vol. XIII, 
p. 21, 1. 46, where the division of words should be prasannarumm=Aghapatti$*r<* . 

2 From the ink-impression. , ., , ., . . , t t .. 

The .tone mason has actually cut MrraftAa** d then made a slight inieufcahon m the l>p ^ thelcttom 

of the itAa, to *hew that it is to be reai as mi. 



IHT3IOA, [VOL. 



pridbil 
f) [3*] Asti 



6 k-6ttemaya|i I tan-maclliy WiSti M^rurxoniriipa^^ 

^ purS-jata-jaiiibi6-sattil[nali || 4*] 

vilasati Bkarata-ksli^toa 

i-agSra-gnrbbl 



aife^ 8aApat-aAjf)frit-5fei m jayati jagatf- 

Kum4i-deah || [5*] Dm tatra eh&kfefci vastaya-jana-Sri- 



9 patiaaam pfliqpi-anka4ataka-kiSpa-fiarasi(sl)-saihpatd-S6bK I 

HtSmta^pa^Ta-pbak-ksli^jft-ramy-drbWi^m tfi(tri)mgad-grama-yar-adi[-^ w] 

10 fM-nim srlmatanx-aSiiaya^ || [6*] Tad=iha KurumTbetfcam=iti pi*akhyata|>*] 

teka-biiasliay& magaraik | yatra sar-alaya-kalaaih sarddham samdihy^td 
[ - i|] E7*] 

11 B6.j-AT4it fl Mudita-mudiiEm-Mt^parttMTkiam kulanam y4durti Tadu-kulara 

tet*K^h^a-janm-ablMrmaia | nfipatir-ajani taira kshatr^-dharto-aika-dli&ma 
[*aj- 



12 vitej*aa-Ram$ BhUlamafe s&rbbab3iamma> (| [8*] Tasy=abMt=ianayali fiamagra- 
virayal. ^li-Jaitugi-kfihinapatili susvayatta-chatus-samudra-rasan-alamkara'bhn- 



13 tat-putrali 

[9*] Api 



prapatana-tat'inI-pfira-ramkQ 
15 liah || [10*] Tat*putr6 dliaTOla?HAohluatra.dioh 

pratipam h ? iday dvisMm || [IP] 



16 K|i*ia i^aiai^mto^m^la^kurbbE=Tadanam kukm- 

Kanhara iti 



jagafySm [w . || 12*] 
17 Api cha H 'Aft^pwa-Witaiipa-kaa^^^c^^ yasya, F l 1 prasaranti 

r^ ^1 "^^(W^ tl [13^] Tatha Rumasya Saumitn- 
[? DhanHmaJ- 



IS sy* Pialgacah | yuvaragS-nuiaa^tasya 2ah5devas=tath=abliavat || [14*] 

-Ptfthvi-vallablia-maharajadhirajali paramesvai-3 
Vislu?u-ramg.adbhava Ysdava-kula-kamala-[kali] 

* ^^^wl^Stt* * 8Dd f the 15M ' tb * m6fcre ^^ '' fc * ^ su P erftnou ^" 

* Tlw t?a wa Iwgnn a a /a, afld fiiiifhed as ca. 




JTo. 3.] MAMDAPUR INSCRIPTION Ofl KAffHARA : SAKA 1172. 23 



19 ka-TikSsa-blia8kari=ri-raya-jagajjhampil(pS) Mlava-raya-Madana-TrintrS 

r&ya-NSrayanab sakala-kala-pS[rS] - 



20 yana ity= a di-nam.aval^vi^aia^]in a -Bh^^ja-lmla.P^ a ^dha-p^atapa-cllakravarfcti-ri-KaIlhara 



rajyam karQti \\ Tatrp5da-p[<3i-5pjivi ?] 

21 Sri(ri)mSn=utsaha-dhimaii=abhavadli(d)=abMmatas=Chikkadev-atmajIta^ kbyataii 

pamch-amga-mamtra-sthiti-iui^pama-gaJtti-tray-sdatta-chittat . ! firl-Biobafc siddba- 
vacbab pratinripa-ratliiiil-dhTaiixsargaiidlia-dvipemdraf ]. 

22 prajya-rajy-Omiati-karana-patub. presbana-Vata-jatab || [15*] A SetOr=a Eimadrer- 

bbhuvam=aviclialitSm Kanhar-iSrbblsvarapya STayattl-kritya labdbv=5nvabliavad= 
abMmatam tasya rajy-arddham=Ssli[ab. | ] 2 

23 jyesb.tb-3 garisbthab. sakala-guna-ganair=Mmalla utpb.ulla-klrtti-]y5tsnS-saifapadita-srI. 

kalita-kuvalay5= 3 bb.ad=asau bb.iital-mdtLh 1 [16*] 



24 dana[ ]t*=Komkan-atamka-damdab. 

sakala-jaiia-manO-b.5ri-vidya-kararii4a 



25 ti jagad-abhtelxt-Sirttha-kyid-dSBa-Saumdah || [17*] Api eb H TTdyamy-Odyamya 

Ixhtyab. pratinrip%-dtara^i-mamdaHparyy=aesliSH=akramy=afcrftiHya 
turaga-maba-ratna-siitd-pradegan [|*] aday=adaya 6 b[ w] 

26 nam=abhila8hitm Kanhar-OrbbTa-laksb < aim=|an.dy=5JWwlya bfclgyam 

anubliavaty=esha Ohamum4a-r5ja^ || [18*] Vsglsvajro yasya. gwa 

SiT-agama-inana-vi[ w ] ,,.,,. ^. 

27 tab 7 I griC^-Ssmanatliab. 8 va-kul-SdMdeva=OhJmTa^4a-daicidafthajwfci8=i8 

dbauyah || [19*] Rapa-saumdaryya-saubhEgya-laTaipya-gH^arbliiisIja^S I 
LaktikliS-dTi satl yasya La[ksbmlr=iva] 

28 Mura-dvisbab. || [20*] S5=yam Cliamiiiiida-rSjah si;;i r ana-3ftTO-na9-T|mclicbh.it- 



pfijah | nirmmay=-aneka-dha[rmman ? 

29 jagati yaab-punya-laksbmi(ksbml)-sametab prSsadani prabbfitany=ami-iiagaram=asati 

dvatSnam vidbatts || [21*] RaroO Da| a ratbir=yyatha ki}a tatbj tlrtiOifisia 
nanat-nadl-t!rsb[ vj v-/ pa]- 

30 tltanSsbn pariW Umgani bba-mamdale | Inbtr-abliTaiBkasba-ktta-ka^bu mum- 

" grgsb^haib pra,tisMbapayaty=udyat-kTrtti-lat.amkuresbv=iva fcjitl CUSWUiiida- 
daifadadbipab II [22*] Svasti sajnasta- * * * 

31 vistara-laksbmi^hwlJ-samtSsbita-ia^ai-jam-lxridayabL gain-agata-pratyarttibi-parttb.rTa- 

sadayab samada-HoyaaJa-cliakravartti-Somesvara-mada-TikSra^O & * * 

32 fresbt'bi-g&Hdba-vanwab. sudubsaba-niia-pratap-atigaya-bbSaumSii 

paihcb-amga-Biamtra-pawcb [anaab] 



of) i - j QV js*vft *> ai*i/ciYn \.NATrtaTflr,nanftvn,-finH,Tin^ 



Makara-ktub 



1 Thia is written with a regular avagraha, quite modern in form. 

2 i&e gap m^y be filled by rea4mg %-^5. 8 Wr3fcfce witk an 

4 The letter after na seems to be incomplete, being like a da without a top. Perhaps we should read Malaya* 



Perhaps tvnur=jjayaii. * PossiWy ck. 

7 The gap may be filled by reacting vif 



24 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Vox,. XIX 



34 

gagana-maha-ni(al)la-limgam 
tasmmn=aiiadaa Zurum[be]- 

35 tta-pattan Trikfita-prasadS svasya pitur=1ffallinatlia8ya nStnna Wirtiir=DdeYa- 

sreshthino namna clia dYa-saptati-sat-6ttara-3aliasra-sainfeiiyain-atite Saka- 
saihtvatsare] 

36 SsdMraria-Yatsare varttamsne Vaisskfra-mSsasya krishna-paksli pamchamysih 

Sanaiiohara-vSre giva-limga-dvayam Madhava-pratimaih clia pratislitliapya 
Hulige&e]- 

3? nagare sukiia-samavasam k|itra dharmm-arttliarkman*yatlii-klam=anusaran tad- 
dharmma-sthanam Isksttamasya tapQdlianasya haste samarppayi[tav]ya[m=i]- 



38 ti dliiyam(yam) kritva || r *^)QN Srl-Kailasa-nivasinaL Pa^upateh iisky^na 
medinyam=avatarite-tivimalaBi SaaV-anvaye desikal. | LakshadhyS- 



39 pad^na vi^va-Yidito jajinl^ jagad-vamdites=tat-santana-saraja-blianTirab]iavat Sri 1 

TryaAbakefio gurui [) [23*] Tasmat prasanna-Siva-l^dliaka-cliakravarttl 
ksh[ma-oliakra]- 

40 vartti-mtikiiti-arclichita-p5da-padma^ | Salv-agam-fimtiiiiidhi-gita-karO babhftva 

prasamit-anata-janma-bMtilL || [24*] NikMla-mgama-vidyS 
si[sli]y[0 



41 malaAiva-muni(nl)mdr5 varttatg Samavedl 

tapddld [r ] =DraYi4a-vishaya- janma namra - janm-apaSSrl 
kavi-danti-k^sarl Saiva- [SSsa] - 

42 na-payadM-chamdramSh | klrtti-kamdalita-vilYa-din-mukli5 mSdate Vimajasainblm- 

[26*] Sahjidaya-li|idaya-'sar5jaiii pravisya pulakani janayati 



43 stktWakshmi(kshml)li sSMtya-kala-vilasa-nija-blinsha \] [27*] c^W Svasti 
yama-niyam-asana-prSn-Syama-pratylhara - dhara^a - dhyana -sam(sa)m5dlii-sariipamna- 



44 Saiv-aclilryya-niklii}a-mgama - vidyS - mahar^inava - kamna(rn9a) dhara - vadi - vgmi -kavi- 

cliakravarfctl MalavSmdra-pramuklia-cliakrayartti-cliakravSla-kirlt^ 

durllalita-pad-S[mblia]. - - , . 

45 ruhah P^^}a-tapah*praka[r*]sta-praamita-pranata-darita-iiivah^ 

giTO-muni(nI)mdrah sakala^bWtale tap5-vldy5-vibliavair=iinixupama iti nischiiya 

46 tasmai 



bhaktyl | sthanam tat*paramam=adad=vitIr^Ba-dh5r6 nirbbadlia[m] sakala- 
vamdanlyam || [28*] Sr[l] 



47 MS- Svasti ri(sri)-Saka-varslia 1187 neya VifivSvasu-saiiivatsarada 
ba 8 S5 ! uttaiSya^a-saihkrama^a-piifliya-diiaadalii JL 



l Bead 



2*0. 3.] MAMDAPCTR INSCRIPTION OF KANHARA: SAKA 1172. 25 

48 4i-settiya tamdey=appa ^nman-mahapradhanam Malli-sefctiyaru mumnani srtmad- 

anadiya Banam j u-yattanam Kiiiruhbefcfcadalii rlmanmaMprabli [u] 

49 muliga Holli-gavurhda-mukliyavagi mtla-stlian-acliaryya samasta^asanigara muriul* 

ittu-komiju maclida bratma-puriya hamneradu vpirfcti(tti)ya [brS]- 

50 hmauargge dhara-purbbakam=agi kotta yamana-mtidreya nalkum kall=o]agaiia 

niv<sanad=olage tamma hamneradii maneyim mftdala * 

51 kkarii batteg=emdu ra ]Y -hastada yik-kai-yareyam ka]adu vulida nivesanavani a 

br[a*]lima?iar[w] Malleyara-Deveyara-Mad]iava-devargge kottaru | mattam= 
a de var * a [chSiy] ya* 

52 ra matbakke a sasanigaru a brahma-puriya [dgvalyada] pauliya ni(nl)lada | 

25 hastadaga]ada i niye^anayam pauli-yiclida temka deseya[lu? ko]- 

53 ttaru i mattam=a brahma-puriya pa<Juvalu dariyim teriikal[] a sasaiiigaru a 

devarggey=amga4ige iiiiiga-mudreya kalla nadisi kottar | inattam=S devargge 
i- 

54 4is0ttiyar a Kurumbettada prayishta yadam Sabbettavaih a deyar^atiiga- 

blidga-raihga-bli^gakke sarbba-badka-pariliaram=agi kottar \ mattam=a 

devargge a. sasanigar[>] * * * 

55 mtdalu Bagavadiya batteyim paduval[w] kotita t5ta 1 a math^kke tota/ 1 

banabege ko^ta niysana 1 mattam^asanigar[zt] devarge kotta ga .* * 

56 -dwJO* Svasti samasta-bliuvana-yikhyata-pamcha^ata-vli^^asana-labdh-aneka-gu^a 

satya-Sancli-acliara-cliara-cliaiitra-iiaya-vlnaya-yijnana 




57 jn-ga(sa)maya-dharmma-pratipalana-vistLddlia 

Ottumgarum punya-pmsariigamrii ] Aghapatti-gur-ntpatti-JBalade[va- Va] - 

58 sudeva-Kh.andali-Mulabliadra-vaiia-Odba(dblia) varuiia i AMoliclilia[ttet*j -pun- 

lalana-lalata-tilakarum I Haii-VirimcM-PamcMM^ firi(SrJ)- 



59 dvi(vl)-labdha-yara-prasadarorii Vlra-lSrarayana-deya--ob.arana-smarana-paii3.3ftt- 

arntahkaranaf u m*=appa rimad- AyyS valey =aynurbbar=syamigalu f mu] - 

masta^muiiimuii-dam^amgalum elu-ya,re hamnomdu-rai'eya ubhaya-iiana 
desigaluih cliatuh-sa]nudra-miidiitam=appa bM-mam$alada sakala- [sa]- 
mp,vamtaruih samaya-cliakravariti Kalideva-settiyarurh Kum4i murum-sSeirada 
Kurumbefcta-kaiiiparLada modala aaadiya Banaiiaju-vattanam Elurumbefjala 
y * * 

62 yaira-baisa9igi(ge)y*=iigi kullirddu tamma samay-acharada t6jamaii=iiddhari.sLiva 

raya-3r6shtib.iy=appa OhSmumdaraja madisida Trikuta-EprssSda] - 

63 kke a silialada mu^rum balada gavum(Jugalaiii samyaYaintarnmam rantbil^ 

ittu-koihdu elu-yare ha[th*]nomdu-vareya v ^lage jala-margga-paJa* 
ma[r]gga[da]- 

64 1[] ane manikara h^jid-adam sumkav=ill=eradu kot/ta pariharad*ettu kCfria 

mnvattu yippatta [|*J Kakatiya^ad idali iii-MallesYa(sva)ra-d6vara 
nl(ni)y[e]dyals:[e] kotta gadde pamne[ra]- 

1 TMs -word w added IB smaller script over the word ba 



26 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX 



5 <Ju mattaru [ *] Zuruifabettada nrfiliga Holli-gati4a SrI-MallSBva(Sva)ra-dSvara 
namda-dlvl(vi)gege tamna mamnyad~olage kot$a harala keya kambha 100 
banaba 1 * 

66 -KTSgarasarn Kapila-Bhava(P)d3varige bi(bhi)ksheyake nuleyaK kotta kariibha 
200 [[]*] 



(Line 1.) Om ! homage to Siva ! 

(Verse 1.) Homage to &ambhu beauteous with the yak-tail fan that is the moon kissing his 
lofty head, the foundation-column for the construction of the city of the triple world ! 

(V. 2.) Victorious is that Hari whose majesty is praised by the saints and who took in 
sport the form of a boar, on whose tusk-tip dwells the constant mass of 'his peculiar radiance 
(and) with the design of dissipating the guilfc arising from the touch of Hiranyaksha affords as 
it were an assured bath in the flood of the celestial Ganges. 

(V. 3.) Victorious is the union of the Mountain's Daughter and Sankara enamoured in 
eternal love, which has the lustre of a lovely moon- endowed with splendour for as long as the- 
eon endures, the primal Pair in the birth of the universe who dissipate the sorrows of folk 
bowing at their blest lotus-feet, (and) who are the theme of holy speech* 

{V. 4) There is a splendid ocean, like a moat without to the massive mountain on its 
shores which has a form shaped like a rampart for the city of the earth, which of all worlds is 
the noblest ; in the midst of the latter shines Mra, beauteous in its likeness to a peerless palace 
of gods ; a continent like (in shape) to an ancient ^"amfr it-tree occupies the region to the south 
thereof, 

(V, 5.) In the midst of this Jambu-dvlpa is conspicuous the Land of Bharata, a vessel 
of joy. In it lies the region of Kuxitala, weighty with homes' pleasant with fortunes of glory 
arising for its folk, In it is supreme the province of Kuncji, which is a unique storehouse of 
incalculable merit (earned) by its people rejoicing in brightly smiling Fortune, and which fills 
the regions of space with its wealth, an ornament of the world. 

(V. 6.) In that province shines a city, a veritable haunt of popular fortune, a seat of 
splendour in its wealth of many full tanks, wells, and lakes ; which everywhere has its lands 
charming with flowers, buds, and fruit-trees ; (and) which bears the name of ... giri, 
the first of thirty towns, a dwelling of happy men. 

(V. 7.) This town here is known in vernacular speech by the naftie of 3&irumbetta, 
* n ft ..... is confounded with the finials of the celestials 1 dwellings. 

(Lt 11.) The Royal pedigree ; 

(V. 8.) The mighty race of the Yadus, which has been peculiarly h$j>py among princely 
families, is pleasing because of the birth of Krishna ( from if). In it was born a king who was 
a singular seat of knightly duty, a Rama in winning his way through battles, the Emperor 
BhiUama. 

(V. 9.) He had a son perfect in courtesy, the blest king Jaitugi, who held in due 
control the [circle] of the earth having as girdle-ornament the four oceans. His son Simkana 
occupied the great throne worshipped by companies of kings, which was the fruit of the adorn. 
tion paid (by him) to Sarugapani's lotus-feet. 

(L, 13.) Moreover: 

A V ' ?'i A moon to the lotus Bh6 J a an axe to tte f orest Arjuna, a furious storm- 
blast to the feeble crowd of the aurjara . . . . a thunderbolt on the mountain Magadha, 
aBamato thatPaulastya the CHola, a Sira to the poison the Oauda, a bestower of new 

widowhood to the dames of the Lord of Horses, a . . . river's raging flood in dashing 
upon the massive bank Ballala (was ho) * 



ffo. 3.] MAMDAPUE INSCRIPTION OP KANEAEA: SAKA 1172. 27 

(V. 11.) His son Jaitugi, wfco had the sarth reposing under the shade of hia white 
parasol, set his majesty 1 , in the heart of Icemen. 

(V, 12.) His son, who carries the fortune (srl) of an Emperor (chakravarttin) as Vasu? 
ctsva's son [Krishna] carries the Fortune (Sri) of the Discus-laarer (Chakravarttin), adorning 
like Krishna the perfectly stainless race of the Yadns, protecting the earth wherein he has with 
sportive ease torn up "by the roots the banded armies that were as thorns to his kingdom, intent 
on restoration of the Vedas, is famed under the name of Kanhara in the world , * , . 

(L, 17.) Moreover: 

(V. 13.) At the side of the mountains of sacramental rice 2 (thrown upon him) by the 
hands of Brahmanas busied in benediction gush forth new rivers arising from the water of the 
streams of dana [largesses, or ichor of elephants in rut], 

(V. 14.) His younger brother, the Heir- Apparent MahadSva, was to him as Laksbmaim, 
to Rama, as Arjuna to Yudhishthira. 

(LI 18-20.) Hail ! King Kanhara, the Emperor strong of arm and magnificent in 
majesty, who is resplendent with titles such as : " Great Emperor, darling of Fortune and Earth t 
supreme Lord, master of DvSravati best of towns, scion of the lineage of Vishnu, a sun for the 
efflorescence of the buds of the lotuses of the Yldava race, a jagajjhampa to hostile 'kingsj a 
Siva to the Love-God the Malava king, a goad to the elephant the Gurjara, a master architect 
of the Tailanga king, a Narayana of kings, perfectly versed in all arts, 1 ' is reigning for. 
as long as moon, sun, and stars at the standing camp of Devagiri in enjoyment of pleasant 
conversations. 8 

(L. 20.) One [that finds sustenance] at his lotus-feet: 

(V. 15.) The blest Bicha, Chikka-deva's son, was fortunate, energetic, and prudent, 
agreeable, famous, having a mind exalted by the triad of peerless powers 4 for maintaining five* 
membered policy, 5 approved of speech, a furious great elephant for destroying the hosts of rival 
kings, skilful in aggrandising the prosperous kingdom of . . . , a Hanuman m'( fulfilling) 
commissions. 

(V. 16.) Having made subject to king Kanliara the whole untroubled land from Sfetu 
to the Mountain of Snow, he obtained and enjoyed an acceptable half of the kingdom. [His] 
eldest [son], much honoured for all kinds of virtue, was Malla, a moon on earth, who filled 
the circle of the world 6 with splendour acquired from the moonlight of his blossomiBg glory. 

(V. 17.) Terrible in destruction of the Pan<Jya . , . a rod for the troubles of the 
Kofifcan, a cruel arrow for cutting off the numerous heads of the lords of the fastnesses 
on the banks of the KSverl, eminent among generals, a casket of learning attracting the 
minds of all men, his son Chamun4a is [successful ?], fulfilling* the objects desired by 
the world, impassioned for bestowing bounty. 

(L, 25,) Moreover : 

(V, 18.) Again and a#ain imposing control upon the provinces of many hostile kings 1 
lands, agai# and again invading all countries that are the native places of elephants, horses, and 
precious stones, again and ,gain taking desired . . . again and again gladdening kiug 
Kankara's fortunes, this Ci^murKja-raja has long enjoyed a happy lot. 

1 Literally, ** heat n ; the fi^re hence i-j that of vibhdoana, or " peculiar causation." 

2 Sesh-akshata, iu Kanarese feshe or sese, " raw rice over which incantations have been pronounced and which 
is thrown on the heads of the hride and bridegroom dnriujz; the marriage ceremony and other joyous rites " (Kiltf 1, 
&ict.i s.v* feshe)* 

* ^Vinodam is to be taken as gerund : see Speijer, Fed. u. &1ct.- Syntax, 2*24, Panini III, iv, 25 ff. 

* Viz, of prabku, utsaha, and manfra. 

* Ou the five members (a/i#cu) of policy cf. Kamandaka's Niti-tara, XII. 36, Sifujpala-vadha* II. 29, with 
Mallinatha' note, etc. 

1 A play on ktivalayq,, which means both "lotus 11 and "circle of earth*** 

D2 



28 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XIX 

(V. 19.) Fortunate is this General Chamun4a, whose preceptor is the great sage- 
Vlglsvaia [purified of mindP] by the lore of Siva's traditions, and of whose family the tutelary 
deity is the blest Sainanatha \ 

(V. 20.) Who has for consort Lakkha-devf, adorned "by tie virtues of shapeliness > 
beauty, happy fortune, and loveliness, as Yishnu has for consort Lakshmi, 

(V. 21.) This same Chlmurida-raja, a celestial tree for the desires of worthy men*a 
minds, performing adoration of Siva's pair of lotus-feet according to the order of perfect 
eightfold devotion, 1 having created many pious foundations * , . being endowed with 
f ame r godliness, and fortune, establishes in town after town, numerous temples to the gods, 

(V> 22.) Like Da&ratlia's son Kama, forsooth, the skilful General Chamun4a causey 
phallic images to be consecrated by most worthy sages everywhere in the circuit of earth, in holy 
places, on the banks of vaiious rivers, , . , in towns on tie peaks of bright cloud-grazing 
mountain-tops, which are as it were sprouts of the creeping plant of his lofty fame* 

(LI, 30-38.) Hail ! the high minister and controller of all [departments], the General 
ChamuiulBj gladdening the hearts of the people of the world by abounding fortune in all 
* , , merciful to hostile kings seeking his protection suppressing the arrogance of the 
haughty Hoysala emperor Somesvara, a furious elephant to the setti , . * , a sun in, 
the exceeding degree of his irresistible splendour,, a Hanuman in, (fulfilling) commissions, a. 
Four-faced [Brahman] in the four measures of policy, 2 a lion, 3 in, five-mepibered counsel, 4 
a Six-faced [K&rttikgya] in possession of the six qualities, 6 whose lotus-hands are purified by- 
adoration of the god Somanatha's feet, a tree of desire to all good folk,, a Love-god ravishing the 
mind of Lakhkb.a-devl, [Arjuna] in valour f having - caused to be consecrated in a temple 
white as his own fame a phallic image of sapphire (blue) as the sky, and having caused 
to be sfct up in the Three-turreted Temple in fchis immemorial town, of Kurumbetta 
two phallic images of Siva and an effigy of Madhava in the nante of his father Mallinatha ah4 
in the name of his brother Deva-sreshtMn during the Saka year passing the number one 
thousand one hundred and seventy-two,, the cyclic year Ssdharana bejing current, during 
the dark fortnight of the month VaiSskha, on the fifth (lunar day )> a Saturday, and having 
made an agreeable residence in the town of Huligere, pursuing religion,, worldly ends, and 
earthly love, each in its due season^ formed the idea that this holy establishment should b0 
handed over into the charge of an ascetic supreme i& the world. 

(V. 23.) In the Saiva lineage brought down to earth by DurvSsaa, disciple of PaSupati 
who dwells in the blest Kailasa, there was born a perfectly pure teacher known throughout the 
universe by the name of Lakshadhysna (and) adored by the world. A sun to the lotuses odf 
his succession was that preceptor the blest TryambafcSsa. 

(V. 24.) After him there was Bhusaftkara, an emperor among expositors of (th$ 
doctrine of) the gracious Siva, one whose lotus-feet were adored "by the diadems of emperors of 
earth, a moon to the ocean of Saiva traditions, who stilled his suppliants' dread of rebirth. 

(V. 25.) His disciple is the great sage Vimalasiva, an ocean of all scriptural lore, a 
student of the Saom-vSda, an ascetic whose feet are kissed by crests of monarchs* diadems, born 
in the Dravidian region, freeing suppliants from rebirth, 



1 The eight forms of worship are arckana, va^dana> Jtwaran** p&fia-sevana, ffava, 
ttd fitma*niv$dana or atmarpana : see Kittel's Die/,, s.v. a$ktaKidha*b&a&tikriye> 

3 Vfe. the fomenting of discord among rivals, bribery, negotiation^, and opon warfare, 
1 literallv, ** a fire-faced being/' It may also mean Siva. 

4 See &bove, 

1 These are thesis branches of military science, viz, sandU, vigrnfo*, #<$> m, dvaidhwiiavQ, an.d 



No. 3.] MAMDAPUR INSCRIPTION OF KANHARA ; SAKA 1172, 2 

(V, 26.) A lion to the elephants disputants, orators, and poets, a moon to the ocean of 
Saiva doctrine, making the face of all the regions of space to bud with his glory, the doctor 
"Vimalasambhu rejoices, 

(V, 27.) The beauty of Vimalasiva's goodly utterances, naturally adorned by the 
graces of literary art, enters the lotus of the hearts of men of taste and generates horripilation 
on their bodies. 

(LI, 43-45.) Hail! " the supreme master accomplished in major and minor disciplines, 
sitting -postures, exercises of the breath, retraction (of the senses*), meditation, and absorption,- 
the pilot over the ocean of the lore of all scriptures of Saiva teachers, the emperor of dispu- 
tants, orators, and poets, he whose lotus-feet are exceedingly gay with the sport of the tips of 
the coronets of a crowd of emperors headed by the Malava king, the great doctor who by the 
high degree of his most potent austerities annuls the multitude of suppliants' sins, the noble 
sage Vimala&va is without peer on the whole earth in the magnificence of his austerities and 
learning "i being thus convinced : 

(Y. 28.) Falling devoutly at his feet, the General Chamunqla gave to this blest 
Vimala&iva with bestowal of water this most excellent establishment, which should be free of 
exactions and honoured by all kings. 

(LL 47-51.) Hail! on the holy day of the uttarayanasamkmmana, being Monday, the 
8th (lunar day) of the dark fortnight of Pushy a in the cyclic year Visvavasu, the 1167th 
(year) of the Saka era, whereas SxJi-Setti's father the high minister Malli-Setti had formerly 
in the immemorial Banafiju town of Kurumbe$ta granted with pouring of water to the 
Brahmans of the twelve fiefs of the Brahma^ quarter, which he had founded in the presence of 
the Prior of the Mula-sthana and all the Controllers of Records headed by the high 
sheriff and muliga 1 Holli-Qavu^da twelve dwellings for themselves among the dwellings 
situate within the four stones inscribed with the figure of the Dwarf, these Brahmans granted 
to the gods MalleSvara, Devesvara, and Madhava 2 all the dwellings, sav^ and excepting a strip of 
two cubits by the king's measure to serve for a road . , , on the east of their twelve houses. 

(LL 51-53.) Also the controllers of records granted to the monastery of the Prior of 
these gods a dwelling of the same length as the wall of the temple of the Brahmans' quarter 
and 25 cubits in breadth, excluding the wall, on the southern side, 

(L, 53.) Also the controllers of records set up and granted to these gods for the bassaar 
a stone inscribed with the %u:r?e of fr phallus on the west of the Brahmans' quarter, to the south 
of the roftd. 

(LL 53-54.) Also JLqfi-Setti granted to these gods Sabbetta, a village forming part of 
'Kuyumbetta, for the personal enjoyment and theatrical entertainment of these gods, with 
immunity from aU imposts, 

(LL 54-55.) Also the controllers of records granted to these gods 1 garden east of 
f . , and west of the road of Bagavadh, 1 garden to the monastery, 1 dwelling for the 
fyanate. 3 Also the controllers of records granted to these gods . . . 

(LL 56-66.) Hail ! they who are adorned by a series of many virtues obtained by the 
decrees of tjie Five-hundred men renowned over the whole earth, possessing truthfulness, 
pure conduct, agreeable behaviour, policy, courtesy, and intelligence, pure in maintenance of 
the Vira-Banaftja religion, splendid with the banner (bearing the device) of a hill, exalted in 
abundant boldness, holding holy conversation, scions of the races of Balad^va, Vasudeva, 

1 On this word see the Miraj inscr.i below, p. 40, f. B. 1. 

2 These are the gods mentioned above on 1. 86. Mallesvara is the Siva consecrated in the name of Mallinathft, 
Devesvara the Siva set up in the name of Deva-Setti, 

9 Thi* word usually means a ' ptack *, 



EF1GBAPHIA INDICA. [Voi. XIX. 



Khandall, and Mtlabhadra- originating from the Master of Aghapa^ti, ornaments on the brow 
of that lady the city of AhieheJihattra, constant-in the worship of Hari, Brahman, Siva, and 
the great Jinas, having grace of boons from the blest goddess Padmavatl, having souls mature^ 
by remembrance of the feet of the god Vlra-Narayana, to wit, the Five-hundred Svarois of- the 
blest Ayyfivale, and all the chief bearers of mummun-ais&B, and the dwellers in various lands on 
both s:des (?) from the seven regions and the eleven regions, and all the liberty-holders of the 
land encompassed by the four oceans, and Kalideva-Se^fci the emperor of the community, being 
seated in the vajra-baisanige l in . . . of the immemorial Bananju-town of Kurumbetta, 
the first (town) of the .county of Kurumbetta in the Kun<Ji Three-thousand, headed by the 
Givunifus and liberty-holders of the three sections 2 of that place, granted for the benefit of the 
Three-turreted Temple constructed by the royal merchant CaSmun4arlja, who restored the 
glory of their community's practices, an immunity for bullocks and buffaloes thirty and twenty 
declaring that there should be no tolls on loads of ivory (?) and rubies in journeys by water 
and journeys on foot within the seven regions and the eleven regions ; they granted for the 
offerings to the god Mallesvara in the town of Kakati a wet-field of twelv* mattar, The 
m&liga Holli-Gauda of Kujumbefta granted for the perpetual lamp of the god Mallesvara 100 
kambM and 1 ... bcmaba? of gravelly land (?) within his honorary estate. Nagarasa 
granted 200 kambha for alms to the god Kapila-JBhava (?) at the (Fettival of the) Thread. 4 



No. 4.-TWO INSCRIPTIONS FROM KOLHAPUR AND MIRAJ: SAKA 1058 & 1066, 

Br LIONEL D, BABNETT. 

I "have thought it best to publish the two following records together on account of the close 
connection of the subject-matter, Both were issued within a few years of one another under 
tulers of the same dynasty, the SilahSras of Karhid, namely Gandaraditya and his son 
VijaySditya, and both record donations by that remarkable corporation of traders known as th<r 
Vlra-Banafijas or Vura-Vaiafijiya*, to whose records I have referred in my note on the Hulgur 
inscription of the reigns of Jayasimha II and Kanhara (above, Vol. XVI, p. 332). In our first 
inscription we find them blowing their own trumpets with the note of fantastic and ludicrous 
exaggeration which they occasionally affected; and in the second we have a full list of the 
names of the, various olaBeea constituting the syndicate. I have edited them from ink-impres- 
sions which formerly belonged to the late Dr. Fleet, and are now in the British Museum. 

A.-KOLHAPXJR INSCBtPTIOtf OF SAKA 1058. 

This record comes from the well-known town of KolhSpur (anciently and more correctly 
spelt Kollaplira?),- which is situate in the KolhSpur State, in lat. 16 42' and long. 74 16' It 
has been noticed in Major Graham's Account of Kolhapoor, p. 357, in Journ. B<M. Br. Asj'spc., 

'Baa Bahadur R. Narasiinhwhar has kindly pointed oat to me that this term occurs thrice in Eg. C ar , viz' 
XI., Davangere 59, 1. 79 (Hariharadah va.jra-l^sanig^&gi Mlirdn), V., Belflr 75, 11. 67-.6S (rl-ViriipSksh& 
* e * r ,l V { a '* n ~ pad '-P <tdmad *** n id ^^ and Iy>) Kr j Blll?ar -. gte g 

11. 3-5 (Mbaffil* &M* ma ndah eM&Ma.mj, a .b n yi 3 a*wffan*MkJ IcMMu], and ia inclined to think that it 
winer_ely a ynony* of /r M tt , the posture dofined iuTogic works thus , yA,M^A a jr aw t kritw ffudt . 

* See'atove, V$ g*? "^** fauo^ ,th Marathi Mf (Sanskrit paw/)> " to sit" ' 

. . * T " i *Jta"oHng' m <rftt, seems to be otherw'se unknown; the common word J<rat #> ,tack 
is itiappUcable i&rfi, ' J 



* Sec Kittel, S.T. nulu> aod Ind. Ant, ^ ^ oL XXXVIII, p. 52. 

* On the apelling of thk name sae JA Ant^ XXIX, P| 280, etc, 



No. 4] TWO INSCRIPTIONS FROM KOLHAPUB AND MIEAJ: SAKA 1058 & 1066. Si 

Vol. II, p. 266, tod in Kielhorn's List of Southern Inscriptions above, Vol. VII, App., No. 319 
and a transcript is given in Elliotts Collection (Vol. II, fol. 313a., of the Royal Asiatic Society's 
copy). The stone was found on the light side of the front of the Jain tample of Parsvanatha 
near the Sukravara gate of the town. It has a pediment rounded on the top, and containing 
some sculptures, viz. in the middle, a Jina sitting crofis-legged, with -hands folded in his lap, 
full front, inside a shrine; a little to the proper right of ihis, another, squatting digure, iall 
front, with uplifted hands ; still further to the right, a piicjier ; on the left of t&e -central Jina, 
a cow and calf; ahoye these, the sun (on left) and pioon (on right), , IJnderneath. this is the 
inscribed area, about 3 ft. 1 in. broad and 2 ft. 2| in. high. The character is, good Kanarese 
of the period, with letters varying in height from fa i n - * ^ * n ^he cursive y occurs in 
ayvattu (1. 26), and the palatal n in pancha* (11. 1, 5, 33), The language, except for the 
introductory Sanskrit verse, is throughout Kanarese prose, more or less in the ancient dialect in 
the formal titles and for the rest nearer to the medieval language. The old I is not found : instead 
we have alid*, 1. 33. Initial p in pure Kanarese and tadbhava words has become h ; but still we 
find palam po>ttu on 1. 28. Lexically the record is valuable, as it contains many rare words of 
daily life, such as the titles of various classes of traders and other words, e.g. mudgotfe, 1, 10, 
sisaniga and Tcajagara, 1. 22, hasara as a measure of capacity, 11. 26, 29 f., 32, samyafa I 27, 
malave, 11. 27, 28, karuse, 1. 28, "bUige, ibid., lomka, ibid., moraw, ibid., dantfige, 11. 31, 32, ar*d 
&fiie, 1. 32. The word dftyada in the sense of rival (1. 7) is also noteworthy. 

The record begins with the stanza usual in grants to Jain temples (1. 1), -and themrefeta 
itself to the reign , of the SilShara Mahdman^lesvara Qandaraditya (11. 1-5), to whom it 
gives the usual titles, including those of " Lord of Tagara best of cities, " " scion of the 
lineage of JimlitavBhana," and ^ possessing the golden Garttda-banner." 1 Then it introduces 
in 11. 5-10 one of his barons, the 3ah&$$manta Nimbadevarasa, -wh6 among his many other 
titles is described as "an awful rutting elephant to the beds o! the- lotuses the batons o 
Tondai," in other words r successful in some military operations against the Toi?4 a i* ma ii4 a l a ' m 
and who built in /the < marketplace of Eavadegojla a Jain temple. Next appears on tlie 
scene the important corporation of the "Vjra-Banafljas, with an enormous series of inflated seHf- 
bestowed titles of honour, and through specified representatives makes over to Srutakirtti, prior 
Qf the B(Spa ta nar2iyana temple . at Kollapura, certain revenues for the benefit of *thet temple $t 
Kava^iegolla. (11. 10-32). A short formula (U. 32-33) winds up the document. 

The date is specified on 1. 24 as : Saka 1058, Eakshasa ; Karttika ba. 5 ; Monday. This 
is slightly ine-xact The tithi ba. 5 was coupled with Tuesday, 29 October, A.D* 1135 ; but 
as it ended 1 h, 34 m. after mean sunrise (for Ujjain) on the Tuesday, and began 1 h, 21 nt. 
after mean sunrise on the preceding Monday, it was current for the greater part of Monday, 
though strictly it could give its name only to the Tuesday. 3 

The places mentioned are : Tagara, 1. 2 ; the nele-vidu or standing camp of Vajav&da* 
L 4 ; KaYadego|}a s 11. 10, 23 ; Ayyavole, also styled AMchchhatra, 11. 18, 23 ; Xollspura, 
11.20, 25 ; MMfije, 1:20; Ktudi-pattana, the town of Ktodi, 1.21; Torambage, 1. 22 ; 
Kayisige, 1. 22 ; Baleyavaftai^a, 1. 23 ; and the ttrtfas, L 33. Tagara, as Dr. JFleet has shown, 
is the modem Tr, or " Thair " (see f Jbwm. Roy. As. 800., 1901, p. 537, and above, Vol. XII, 
p. 253). Valavada is not to be identified with certainty (see Dyn. Kanar. Distr., p, 548, 
and Ep. Ind., Vol. Ill ,, p. 209). Ayyavole is now Aihole or Aivalli, in the Hungund ttiluko, of 
Bijapur District. On Kolllpura, now Kolhapur, see the preceding page. MiriSje is Miraj 

1 On the two last titles see Dr. Fleet's remarks in Dyn. Ranar. Distr.,^. 536, 538, 544-46, and above, 
Vol. XII, pp. 261-58. OnGann3aradityasee Dyn. Kanar. Dfotr.,pp. 54>7-48. 

3 Mr. E, Sewell, who witli his wonted kindness checked and supplemented my calculation* of the dutw m 
this papot, told me- thut the same result ww reached by using the ' 



32 EPIGBAPHIA IKD'ICA, [Vol. 



(" Meeraj" on tlie Indian Atlas sheet 10) in lat.^16 48' and long, 74 12'. On the town of 
Kn^4i see Ind. Ant, Vol. XXIX, p. 280 and on*the Kft^i province ibid,, Vok XIV, p, 16, 
XVI, p. 20, XIX, p. 244, and XXIX p. 278. Torambage may possibly be Turambe, in the 
Kolhapur State, near GrSrgflti. Baleyavatfca^a seems to be Baliapattani or VaJapattam, 
situate in the Chirakkal taluka, of Malabar District, in lat. 11 55' and long. 75 22'. This 
town is mentioned in Ptolemy's Geography, VII, t 6, as BaAaurarm (in some editions 
wrongly spelt BaAnTrarra), and is the IIaAat7rar/jta of the Periplus (cf. HcCrindle, Ancient 
India as described by Ptolemy, p. 45, and Commerce and Navigation of the Srythrean 
Sea, pp. 127, 129 j Lassen, Alterthiimer, III, pp. 181, 183) ; and probably Kem is right in 
identifying Balaipatna with the Baladeva-pattana of the Brihaf-samhita, siv, 16* 

TEXT.* 

[Metre : v. 1, AnwhtubJi.] 

1 ^ Srlmat-parama^ambhlra-syad-Yad-am5gha-lamchchhaiiAm jrySt-trailokya-aSthasya 

gSsanam Jina-Sasanam || [1*] Svasti samadhigata-pancha-maha-gabda- 
mahama- 

2 ^al@S?aram j Tagara-pTiravar-adhifivaram M-Sij.5h5ra-naremdram f Jimutavsliaii- 

anvaya-prasHtam | suvai^^a-Garuda^dhyajam maire-vokka^-sarppam | ayyana 

3 sijigam | ripu-man^alika-bhairaTam j vidyishta-gaja-ka^thlravam j idiuvar* 

idityam [ rflpa-Naraya^aih | Kali-yuga-Vikramadityam | Sanirara-siddhi 
giri-cj.ii- 

4 rgga-lamghaiiam | M-MahalakshmI-dgv^labdha-va^a-prasad-idi-samasta-mJ-aval!* 

Tirajitarappa Sriman-mahama^4al^svaram OandarSdityadevaru Vajavidada ne- 

5 le-vl(Jinalsukha-saiiikathavin5dadim rajyam-geyynttamdre [ tat-pada-padm-^pajivi 

Bamadhigate-pancha-maha-iabda-mahasimantarii | vijaya-la- 

6 kshml-kantam | ripu-simanta-simantinl-slmanta-bhamgam | vlra-vlramgana-priya- 

bhujamgam | vairi-samanta-mggha-vighatana-samlra^aiix f Nagaladeviya gandha- 
va- 

7 ra^am vidvishta-aSmanta-Tilaya-kalaih \ samanta-gaoda-GOpalam | dayada-samanta- 

Tar-asnra-vlra-Kumaraji 1 samanta-KMaram f Tonda*samanta-pa^c[arlka- 

8 sha^^a-pracha^da-paada-vedandam | OandarSdityadgva-daksha-dakshina-b^ja-dan^am | 

ySchaka-jana-mano-bhilashita-chintSmani \ samanta-girdma^i * j Jina-chara^ta- 
sarasiru- 

9 ha-madhukaram samyaktva-ratnakaran-ahar-abhaya-bhaishajya-sastra^ 

PadmavatI-dvMabdha-vara-prasadam | nam-a4i(di).samasta-prafesti-sahitam 

srlman-maiia- 

10 sSmantam ( Nirfibadevarasani | Kavadegol|ada baliya santeya mudgodieyal 

maijisida basadiya P3iivanatha-devar s asht^vidh-acchchanakkam5 basadiya iirnn- 
dddharakka- J ' 

11 m=all*ippa ri(i-i) S hiyar=ahara.dSnakkam | gyasti [|*] Samasta-bhnvana-yikhyata- 

pamcha4at a .yira.ga8ana.labdh-anka- g a w .gan-a]amk r ita satya-gauch-acham-charu- 
charitra-naya-yinaya- 

12 yijfina Vlra-Balamja-dharmma-pratipalana-yigtiddha gu^da^dhyaja-yirajaman-antin^ 

zhgft kfrtty-amgan-aHriigita mja.bhn].5parjjita-yijaya4akshmi-niya8a- 
J -sthalarum 



he ink-impression, 
2 Jie&d /^^u-tfaMa- or ma^vam^^ AS in other rersioms of tliis series of titles. 



No. -4] TWO INSCRIPTIONS FROM KOLHAPUR AND MIRAJ : SAKA 1058 & 1066. 



13 bhuvana-parakram-tooata Vasudeva-Kha^dalI-MQlabliadi*a-vanis-6dbliavarTim ] Btagavatl- 

labdha-vara-prasadarum | tavu kadi sdladarum | mara-vakka-marigalum I 
para-strl-para- 

14 dhana-varjjitariim cliatusli-stiaslifci-kalegalol pravlnarappudarim | Brahmaii=aimariim ' 

cliakramulludajrim Narayanan-annaruni I djishtiyo^nflcli kolvudajim I 
Kalagm-rudmn=annarnm | ko- 

15 ndaran^airasi kolvudapm | Para^uraman=aimarum I tulidu kolvo(lvu)darini 

mad-andlia-gand]ia-sindlmradaimarum ( giri-durggamam maje-vokkaram tegedu 
kolv=edeyol simliad*aTmaruEh 

l<6 Pataiamam pokkaram kolv=edeyol Vasngiy=annariim | akaadol=lrddararii kolv* 
edeyolGaratman=annarum I peiiipinal pritliviy^armaram | biupinal kula-gi- 

17 riy=aBnarum | gunpiiial=malia-samudrad=aiinarum | udydgadal Raman^amariirii I 

parakramadol Parttliaii=aiiiiarum | gaucliadol Gamggyan-aBnarum I sahasadol* 
Bhimananna- 

18 rum | dharmmadal Dharmma-pntraiLaiinariim | ]fianadal*Saliadgvaiiaiiiiarurii { 

bh5gadal=Imdranaiinaram | tysgadal=KarDnan=aBnarum 1 tejadal=Adityan* 
atmarnm | AMchclihatraniseBisiiv^Ayyavole-piira-pa- 

19 ramesvararumsapp-ayiilirvvar-svamigaluni gavajreyarum ( gatiiyarum \ settiya- 

rum | setti-guttamm | gamandaruth | gamandta-svamigaluih \ blra- 

20 rum 1 bi(bl)ra-vaaiganim j Kollapurada Bilpina^settiyum | G-ovinda-settiyuiii I 

Komara Annamayyanum | Miriiiijeya Bijja-settiyuih | Boppi-se- 

21 ttiyum | Gaadaradityadevara raja-greslitM Vesapayya-settiyarujii | a mandalg- 

^varana bl^ina Bammi-settiyum | Kui5idi-patta^ad=Aditya-grilia- 

22 da sasanigam teggade Rava-settiytnh 1 Chaudhore Boppi-settiyaih | Toram- 

bageya prabKu Kannapayya-settiynm | Mayisigeya kajagaram ChandliO- 
4 23 re Q-oravi-settiyuni | Baleyavattanadia(da) Ssnti-settiyum | Ayyavoley^aynfirwara 
simgam Haliya-sefctiyum | Kayadiegollada prabhu Kliapparayyani- 

24 dH(di)y=agi samasta-delam neredu | Saka-Yarshada sastrad=ayvatt-eihteneya 

Bakshasa-samvatsarada Earttika-baliuk pamchami S6mavSi*adaadu M-Mftla- 

samgha- 

25 Desi(Sl)ya-gana-Pustaka-gaclic]ikada Kollapurada irl-Ripa-nirayaijarbasadiy^aclxaryyar*: 

appa gri-Srutakirtti-traividya-devara kalam karchchi I dMra-pt 
126 rvvakam=agi kott=ayam=ent*endode a4ake Karimge ayvattu | ]avalakk=lrppattu 

hasarak-aydu I ele Heriinge nuru | tale-Toreg=ayvattu I h.asarakirppa- 
27 tt-aydu I tuppam=e^ney*embivu koJakk soilage siddigeg=ara-vanam samga4ig= 

or-mraanlim dusiga-vasarakk:am=akkasalegam homge lianam | batti inala.veg=a- 
^8 y-valam ! bliandiya karuseya malaveg=eradu blsige | javalakke palam pattu | 

lamkar=okkalalli aru timgalge manetivige maraviyemb=iv*ond=aktum | 

varstakke mam- 

29 cTaavond=akktLm \ allav=arisinam suntlai bell=ulll baje bhadramustey=emb=iva modal- 

agi tugi maruva bhandaihgalge lierimg=ay-yalaiii javalakk=ip-palaih tasa- 

30 rak=op-palam prage melasu sisaviy=eihb=ivu triTbg=om-manam javalakk^arp- 

vanain hasarakke soilage I uppu modal=agi "hadi(di)neihtu dhaByam- 

31 galgam bliam^ige kolagav=omdu hgrimge manav=:erad.u tale-voreg^or-mmSnaaii 

"badu kay=embivu bhamdige hattu tale-vorege nalkakkum j blia^^ige datidige 
Yomd[u] 

1 Probably meant for 



3* EPIftRAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XIX. 

32 seveyaydu hutey-eradarkkam dandige vomdu(du) sevey-eradu hftvina hedaligege 

male vondu kuihbararalli hasarakke ma4ake vondu j| Int*!ya~ 

33 yamanalid-atamte l Banaragi-Kurukshgtr-iidigalol pancha-maha-pai&kamam madtida 

phalaniakum || 



TRASBLATIQ1S". 

(Verse 1) Victorious be the command of the Lord of the Three Worlds, enjoined by the 
Jinas, which bears the infallible token of the blessed and supremely profound doctrine of 
possible predications ! 

(Lines 1-5)' Hail ! while the Mah&mandaletfvara Q-andarldityadeva, who is resplen- 
dent with the whole royal series (of titles) such as " the MahamaJdWevara who has obtained the 
five great musical sounds, Lord of Tagara best of cities, monarch of the blest SiJghSras, scion 
of the lineage of Jimutavaliatia, bearing a banner with (the device of) a golden Gteruda, a serpent 
to adversaries, a lion to his father, terrible to opponent barons, a lion to the elephants his foes, a 
sun of casters (of missiles), a Narayana in comeliness, a Vikramaditya of the Kali Age, successful 
(even) "oza Saturdays, passing through mountain*fastne3ses, obtaining grace bf boons from the 
blest goddess MahSlakshml," was reigning in the standing camp of Valav4a with enjoyment 
of pleasing conversations : 

(LI. 5-11) for the eightfold worship 2 of the divine Par&vanatha of the tempi? con- 
structed in the mudgo$e of the market-place in Kavadegolla by one who finds sustenance 
at his lotus-feet, the Mah$$$manta BTimbadevarasa, who has all the titles of honour such as 
" the Mahasamanta who has obtained the five great musical sounds, beloved of the goddess of 
victory, a breaker of the hair-parting of the dames of hostile barons, a gallant dear to the courte- 
sans of warriors, a wind dissipating the clouds opponent barons, a furious elephant to Nagalad^vf, 
a, time of world-dissolution to enemy barongf, a Gflpala to the worthiest of barons, an heroic Kumara 
to the demon Tara's rival barons, EMara to barons, an awful rutting elephant to the feeds of 
the lotuses the barons of Ton<Jai s rod for the skilful right hand of king Oamdaraditya, a wish- 
ing-gem for the desires of the goals of suitors, a crest-gem of barons, a bee to the Jina'n 
lotus-feet, a mine of the gems of godliness, delighting to bestow food, protection, medicine, 
and teaching, obtaining grace of boons from ' the goddess PadmSvatS," and for the restoration 
of outworn (parto) of the said temple, and for the supply of food to the holy men dwelling 
there : 

(LL 11*24) hail! they who are adorned by a series of many virtues obtained by the 
decrees of the Five-hundred men renowned over the whole earth, possessing truthfulness, 
pure conduct, agreeable behaviour, policy, courtesy, and intelligence, pure in mainten- 
ance of the Vfra-Balafija religion, splendid with the banner (bearing the device) of a hill, 
exalted in abundant boldness, embraced by the lady Fame, having their breasts a home for the 
goddess of victory (Von) by their own arms, lofty in prowess (extending) over the world, scions 
of the races of VasudSva, Khandall, and Malabhadra, obtaining grace of boons from the 
lady, unconquered when they strive/ destroyers of adversaries, abstaining from the wives 
ana property of others ; like Brahman in being skilled in the sixty-four arts ; like Narayana in 
having a chakra [discus, 0* association] like Kalagni-rudra in slaying with their gaze ; like 
Paj^surtaa in seeking out and slaying slayers ; like a rut-blinded furious elephant in trampling 
downed slaying; like a lion when they seize and slay those who take shelter in mountain- 
fesinassss ; like Vasuki when they slay those who come to the underworld ; like Garuda when 
they sky those who are in the sky; like the earth in greatness, like the central mountains in 
weightmess, like the ocean in profundity, like Rama in energy, like Pj*itha's son [Ayjuna] in 

2 Namely with water, scents, flowers, grain, incense, lamps, food, and betel. 



No. 4] , TWO INSCRIPTIONS FROM KOLHAPUB AND MIRAJ : SAKA 1058 1066. 35 

prowess, like Ganga's son [Bhlshma] in purity, like Bhima in boldness, like Dharma's son 
[Zudhishthira] in- righteousness, like Sahadeva in knowledge, like Indra in enjoyment, like 
Karpa in bounty, like the sun in brilliance ; they who are the supreme lords of Ayyavoje city, 
which is known as AMohchlxatra ; to wit, the Five-hundred Svamis, the gavares, the g&triy&s, the 
set ti$, the setti*gutta$, the gamdndtiS) the GkiQf-g&ri&ntfas, the men of valour, and the merchants 
of valour, Bilhaqa (P>8etti and Oovinda-Sefcti of Kollapura, Komara Attnamayya, Bijja-Setti 
and Boppi-Sefcti of Mirinje, Vesapayya-Sefcti the royal merchant of QatLdardityadva Bammi* 
Setti of the Ma^alesvara's household, the headman Bava-Setti, who is recorder of the house of 
the Sun-god in Ku^tjitown, Chaudhore Boppi-Safcfci, Kannapayya-Sefcfci the sheriff of Toram* 
bags, Chaudhore Goravi-S0|ti the intendant of Majisige, Santi-Sebti of Baleyavattana, Hlliya- 
Sefcti the lion of the Five-hundred of Ayyavole, Khapparayya the sheriff of Kavadegolja, and 
others, (representing) the whole country, being assembled : - 

(LI. 24-26) on Monday, the fifth of the dark fortnight of Karttika in the eyelid year 
Bakshasa,the thousand and fifty-eighth (year) of the Saka era, laved the feet of Srutakirtti 
Traividyadeva, of the Pustaka-Grachchha in the Deslya-Gana of the Mula-Sangha, who is the 
prior of the temple of Rupa-naraya$a in Kollapura, and with pouring of water gave the 
following revenues : 

(LI. 26-32) Areca-nuts, fifty on a load, twenty on a half -load, jive on a hasara ; betel 
leaves, one hundred on a load, fifty on a head-load, twenty-five on a hasara ; clarified butter and 
oil, a soilage 1 on each fco^a, half a maund on each siddige* one maund on each sangatfi.* On each 
cloth-merchant's shop and goldsmith's shop, a panam on every gold piece. Cotton, five palas on 
each malav& ; two bisige on each malave of karuse (sold) from carts, ten palas on each half-load' 
On each house of lankas* there shall be every six months (a due of) stools, tripods, and maravi* 
one of each ; every year there shall be (a due of) one bedstead. On goods sold by weight, such 
as green ginger, turmeric, dry ginger, garlic, fccye, 6 and bhadramuste? there shall be (a due o/) 
five palas on each load, two pala$ on a half -load, one pala on a hasara ; cummin, black pepper, 
and mustard, one maund on each load, a half- maund on each half-load, a soilage on each hasara ; 
on salt and the other eighteen kinds of grain, one kolaga on each cart-load, two maunds on each, 
load, one maund on each head-load ; dry and fresh fruits, ten on each cart-load, four on each 
head-load ; on each cart-load one dandige, five myrobolans ; on each pair of Mies one dandige, 
two myrobolans ; on each basket of flowers one garland ; for the potters, one pot on each shop. 

(LI. 32-33 : a Kanarese prose commonitory formula of the usual type.) 

B. MIEAJ mSCBIPTIOlf OP SAKA 1065 AND 1068, 

Miraj, the ancient Miriflje, is the chief town of the Miraj State in the Southern Maratha 
Country, and lies in lat. 16 48' and long. 74 12'. The present epigraph was found on a slab 
built into the wall in the gateway of the fort. A photograph, from the stone, was published 
in P.S.Q.O.I. (No. 96), and a notice is given in Kielhorn's. List of Southern Inscription*) 
above Vol. VII, App, No. 322. The stone bears on its top a triangular pediment containing 
sculptures, namely : in the centre a liriga on a stand; to the proper right of this a squatting 
bull facing it; above these, on the right the sun and on the left the moon. The inscribed area 

1 A measure of capacity, i of ft Jcudara or balfa (see Kittel, s v, sol age}* 

a Siddige or sidde means properly a leather bottle. As a measure, Sidde is defined by the KiKim rar &to**ary 
AS a dry measure of 86 tolas in Kumfca, Honawar, aiid Siddhapur, and 23 Mai in Bhatkal, and a* a fluid 
o! 33 tolas in Ankola and 28 tolas in Bhatkal (p. 171) . 
Apparently something like a double siddige* 

* Apparently " carpenters." * Some wooden article of furniture. 6 The aconw calamus 

* The cyperuv hexastachys (Bottler) or root of cyperus perteauis (Koxb) 



36 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA, [7oi. XT2T% 



below this is about 2 ft. broad and 4 ft. 1^ in. high. The character is good Kanarese of tha 
period, with letters varying in height from f in. to | in. The cursive ferm for m (above, Vol. 
XII, p. 335) is found in -sih&namurh, L 6, and that for v in vtf&vwramum, 1. 5, gavmt}a t i 7. 
Chavumda, I. 14, and Chavuda, 1. 17. The language is throughout Kanarese prose, of the transi- 
tional period between the ancient and the medieval dialects. The archaic I never appears; 
it has become I in el (1. 9), I.ZvaM- (1. 12), a.K (II. 57, 59), %da (I. 58), and r in erchchh$sirad& 
(1. 12), Initial p in pure Kanarese and tadbhava words has "become \ except in padina/uvaru 
(1. 6), perggade (1. 15), Piriyuguvarada (1. 18), piriya (1, 40, in a formula), pasarigaru (1, 50), 
fcomma (1. 51), and ponnah (1, 56, in a formula). The use of genitive as quasi -nominative 
(see Jew??. Boy. J.P, Soc., 1918, p. 105) is found in I 29, setti-guttaih tanna Utfeayam, The, 
lexical interest of the record is considerable, as it contains a large number of the special names. 
of the classes of traders (notably laclioha^ 1. 7; wiaw&a, 1, 8; bStrika, 1.8) and some other 
technical words, e.g. hasara as a measure of capacity (11, 22 f,), samdqge, (1. 29), wiSrw (1. 37), 
krenikara (1. 44), powma 1 (3. 51) } and atMnantara (1. 53), 

The record opens with a copious list of the titles and special class-names of the members. 
of the corporation of the Yira-Banafijas (11 1-12), and informs us that certain representa- 
tives of this syndicate, at a meeting held at Sedambal in Saka 1065, made a grant of various 
dues to the temple of Madhavesvara (Siva,) in ^edambal, which had be$n b^ilt by 
Madirajayya, the maha-prabhu or high sheriff of that place (11, 12-32) ; and these granta 
were supplemented by others made by the inhabitants and traders of the town, which are also 
specified (11. 32-38). A short formula (11. 38-41) ends the first section. Then comes $ 
paragraph. (11. 41-54) recording that in the reign of the MahamantfaUsvary Vijayditya (sou, 
of the Silahara Gandai^ditya), 31 in Saka 1066, two of his officials, Bhayipiayya-Hayaka arcl 
Halapayya JSayaka, granted to the same temple certain specified dues on the taxes collected 
in the town, the trustee being SovarasL A concluding formula (1L 54-59) ends the record. 

There are thus two dates. The first is given on 11 19-20 as : !aka 1066, Dundubhi 5 
Bhadrapada su, 2 ; Friday. This is irregular, for the iiihi u, 2 corresponded to Monday, 24 
August, A.D. 1142, on which tt ended about 15 h, 14 m. after mean sunrise (for Ujjain). Th 
second date is given on 11. 46-48 as : Jaka 1086, BudMrodgari ; Magha kri. 14 ; Vaddavara 
(here apparently in the meaning of Thursday) ; a the Siva-ratri festival. Strictly speaking, 
this is slightly irregular. Tiie tifhi kpi. 14 was coupled with Friday, 4 February, A,D. 1144, 
^vhen it ended about 13 h. 57 m. after mean sunrise- But it was current during the last 
10 h. 25 m. of the preceding Thursday, 3 February, having begun 4 h. 25 m. before midnight 
on Thursday ; and at that midnight began the Siva-ratri, the moon being then in the naksliatra 
Sravana, and being still there at mean sunrise on the Friday (see Dewa,n Bahadur Swamikannu 
Pillai's note above, Vol. XI, p, 28S) ; ao the Siva-r&tri day was Friday. 4 

The places mentioned are Ayyavale, also called AMcttehhatra, 1. 9 ; Mirifije, L 12, an<J 
its nadu, 1. 44; BIge, 1 14; Donikodu, i 14; Tolakale, i 15; Ktiridili ? 1. 16; SedambSl 
11. 16,19,20,45,49; the talas of Piriyuguvara, Siriguppe, and Jugnlakoppa, 1. 18; the 
tifthas, 11 38-40, 55, 57 ; and the nelev$4ty or standing c^mj\ of Valavada, 1. 42. On 
Ayyavale (Ayyavole), Mirinje, and Yalavada see above (p. 31). Bage may possibly be connected 
with the Bagadage or Bagenadu Seventy, or the Bage Fifty in the Tardavadi Thousand 
nt,, Vol. XXX, pp, 265, 267, 380). Sedambil is Sheclbal (the "Sherbal" of 



now means a tax on tobacco j but to understand that sense in our record ivould be an anachronism. 
2 See D^/jt. JTanaf. Distr., p. 548, and the preceding inscription. 
8 See Mr. Yenkatasubbiali's Some SaJca Dates in Inscriptions^ pp. 57 if. 

* This date lias also been examined by Mr. Venkatasubbiah in Some !a"ko, Dates in Irt$cri$tionc t p, 107, and 
|ie comes to practically the same result. 



JTo. 4] TWO INSCRIPTIONS FROM KOLEAPUR AND MIfiAJ: SAKA 1058 & 1066. 37 

the Indian Atlas sheet 40), in lat. 16 43' and long. 74 49|'. The Siriguppe ta^a seems to be 
connected with the modem Shirguppi or " Shirgoopee," in lat. 16 S7f and long. 74 47V, nd 
that of Jugulakoppa with Jugal or " Joogul " in lat. 16 36f ' and long. 74 44}'. 

TEXT. 1 
i @/ Svasti samastarT3buvam-vikhyata-panicha^ak-vIra-asana-labdh-5nka-gtina-[gan-S]- 

-2 lamkfita satya-sauch-achara-charu-charitra-naya-vinaya-vij&Sna Vira-Banamja- 

[dharmma-pra]- . _ . 

5 tipalana-Tiindhdha guddardhvaja-virSjit-infliia-salias-attuiaga kirtty-amgan-Slimgita 

4 bhu]a-vijaya-lak8hmiCkshml)-niv5sa-vak3ha[s*]-sthala bhuvana-parSkram-annata 

yasnd6[va-Kha]- 
ndall-Millabhadra-Tams-Odbhavariini dTatrimad-veia-vuramnm.a8htadaga-pafcfcanamTim- 

6 vatto-nSlka ghatikirsthanamum nanl-dei-abhyaiiitarad-emtu nada padinaruvaru 

fgaTal- , , . . , , 

7 fegamm gatrigarum settiyarum setti-guttarum baRhcharam balegatarum 

gamdbigamm gavunijaruiii gav[unda]- 

8 svamigalumm^arasugalumm-arasn-makkalum _mamkarrnh mathka-merevaruii. 

birudarum bi(bi)ra-vanigarum barikaruih b[a]- 

9 rika-jana-hastarari, sasirad=Sl-ntlru gavasegalumm^AhioliOliliatrft-Tiinrggatarumtn. 

Ayyavaie-pu[ra-para] - 
JLO m.6vararn[m*] |rl-BhagavatI-dgvi(Tl)-kbdha-yara-pra8ad-ady-aneka-n^m-aihka-mla- 

virajitarti [mappa] 

mummuri. 



\\ firlmad-aynarTTa[r*]-sy5migalTim 
dam4amum [mu]- 

12 khyaT=a g iy=filvatter-ohchhasirada prabhu Pyithvi-aet^i Mm[m*]]eya Boppanayya- 

raia-^rS [shthi ma]- 

13 ha-va4da-yyaTahaii Vesapayya-settiyarum samaya-samuddharana Sorana-Esetti]- 
M yarum' Bageya muUga Chikka-Chavumda-settiyum Donikcda mnmmuri-damda 

Da . . ... , 

15 va-settiyutix Jayasiifagada Tolakaleya Siriyama-settiyum nada perggade 

Hemma-setti[yum] 

16 Kflmdiliya setti-gutta Malla-settiyum Zuvara Lakka-settiy^a Niga}ada Keti- 

settiyuih {Se4am]- 
11 bala " BoAdalabbeya SQra-settiyuri) Aketa-settiyiuh Ohavu4a-setti alhya 

Koppa-setti . . 

18 ya Holla-setti Piriyuguvarada tala Siriguppeya tala Jugulakoppad* 

tLI3) * T. j / *v 

19 geya tala yintu samasta-talarmukhyav=agi SedambSlalu maha-nad-agl(gi) 



nerad[u - 

varsha 1065neya Dumdubhi-samvatsarada Bhadrapada-sudhdha 

i3ukravaradariidu Sedambala 
maha-prabhu Madirajayyam xnadisida M-MadhaTSSvara-d6var=amga-bhagakke ay 



1 From the 



38 EHSRAPHU TOPIC A", 




28 

29 B e tat Lj ag .-.tti vomdu [|] setti-gutoA ton. Mtt-^m-emt-emtodo 

basumbeTanaikku- ^ _ in . , , 

3U valll haseVa javali gamdiat-a-bafctalu omdu gOmtu vichai-am-geydiiYai-alli mudr4- 

31 ge^talam^ana bhamdi ndririi(ti)daffi inSla-dakk-omdu bharhdiyalu mSrida 

dhfiuva-varggakke ko- . i n. 1 1 

82 lagav^mdu [[*] Cliayitrada parvvakke pura-varggada prajegalu miOiunakke 

bitta liaga- 
S3 Tomclu Dlpavaliva parvvadalu belaguva so^ar-ewege u(ft)r-olftgana aSuigaru 

34 tanima manegaiige maneyal=omdu hSgaT-oindu bit^a liSgav-oiidu 

hasa[i*a*]- 

35 kke madake vomdu akkasale BammSja-halladim mfida hoihge hatiavma 

p&rikli-a* 

36 jadokge dSvargge bitta a44av*oriidu sariimmagararalli aru-diiiigalige ku^uvft 

pada- 
87 rakslie tod-omdu medaralli samtege kuduva m^ranu vomdu madegaralii 

aru-dimgalim- 
3S ge kmjava mili vomdu [|*] Yimt-I s5(ga)sana-iBaryyadeyani kidiisid-5ta[m*] 

Gamgc -Prayage-Va- 

30 I'afliii-KaraksliStradalu sayira kapileyam konda maha-p&takamaB*eydu- 

40 va Adityailrttliarhgalalli taima piiiya niagauarh kondu s^varia kapaladal* 



il lia-d^kunaneyduva || II Svaati srlman-maliamamcjalesvaraiii 



42 Vijayfdityadevarasaru Valavadada nelo-vidiiialu sukha-sariikath5-vi- 

43 Bddndim rajyam-gey^ r uttam^iralu tat-p5dii-padm=fipa]IvigiiUftppu mahapradha- 
li nain sujiikn-verggacle Bhayipayya-nayakaru Mirimje-nlda krenikaTam MS- 
45 Iapayya-nayakarant=ir\ yam Sedtahbahi prnbliu sanxuntam Msdirajayyfl rii- 

it) gain nmcjisJda sri-iliidluu esvara-de var-aihgu-bliflgakk-alliya tnpodhnuwi -Slulra* 

daxmkkatu Sa(Sa)ka-va- 
i? rsiia 1066 neya Budhirodgan-samvatsarada llagba-babula H Vaddavaradamclu 

?irar3tiv(tn)- 



ta be robtored an 



So. 4] TWO INSCRIPTIONS EEOM KOLHAPUB ANB MIBAJ ; SAKA 1058 & 1066. A9 

48 ya parvTa-nimittaT^agij^a dSrara m&thadacharj>ya irlmatu-SdTaijSsi-sidkdlKiiiti 1 - 

devara ka- 

49 lam karchchi dhtMrpflrvvakam mldi kofeta smimkam^ikWndo^S |3e<J&mbala 

mundana lialjadiih inn da pnra- 

50 varggav=*oiag=gi ka^ideamga^igajgaiii teHigaru pasarigara bhatterha$ig^ 

rokkalu-derB pa- 

51 rihira mattaih santeya volaga^a kotfad-e^ney^eleya 'hgjngala pomma Idjo- 

52 kttla dhanya-YarggamgaJa mofcteya sumkav^olag^Igi arddh-adana aHi ariitara- 

vattftdixb. tlvi- 

53 da ettiaa a$akeya hSrimge mel-a<Jake zrajr-ajrattu athinanta- 

54 radak nadava sumkigaru saupa(va ?)r:anjtkke tiwgalimge vomdn 



55 dharmmamam sa-dliarmmadim pratiplisidargge Q-amge-Tara^asi^uruksli5tradalu 

m- 

56 sira kavileya kQdl^ 1 ^ kolagumam ponnalu kattisi sasirvva biStmana- 

57 rige kotta plialam=akku mattamwidan*alidam(dam)ge Qaiiigi;-Yamiuiegal r eradarft 

58 samgamadol=aganBya-pu^nya-Yara-tIrtfclia-sthaKaBaga]olwilda tapddliaiiara gC-brahma- 

59 naranalidanmt*idarL*alida [| 



TBA3STSLATION. 

(Lines 1-12) Hail ! Headed by the Five-lmixdred Sv&mis, all the bearers of 
and all the bearers of immwttn-staffs, who are resplendent with a. series of TmraeKras titles such 
as " adorned by a series of many virtues obtained by the decrees of ,the vFive-Jhmdred men re- 
nowned over the whole earth, possessing tmthf ulness, pure conduct, agreeable behaviour, policy, 
courtesy, and intelligence, pure in maintenance of the Vira-BjB^aftjft religion, aplendid with the 
banner (bearing the device) of a hill, exalted in abundant boldness, embraced by the lady JPame, 
having their breasts a home for the goddess of victory (won) by their -own arms, lofty in prowess 
(extending) over the world, scions of the races of Vasudeva, Kha^idall, and MQlabhadra, (inhabit* 
ants of) the thirty-two coast^towns and eighteen paHanas* and si^ty-four ghatik&sthanas* th 
sixteen gamreg&sfr and gtitirigas and e^tV and &etti*guttas>B i jid. bachchas and bracelet-sellers and 
scent-merchants and g$wm$a,s and chief g&wndtts and ' kings ' and ' princes * and mankas* 
and maAkamerevas and title-bearers and merchants of valour and bSrikas* and 



1 The second dh lias been omitted and then inserted in very small script, 

2 Explained by some as a place to which there is access by land or water, by others as a plaue ot fe 
Cf - Kdmikagama, XX. 8-9, Yugadi'defana, V. 50, and my translation of Antagadct'dasdo, p. 45 n* 

This word is fairly common in inscriptions (cf, Spig. Cam,, V II. i. 8k. 94, XL i. KL 170, XIL gi. %%; Mad- 
ras Govt, Jffpt^r. %eport> 1912-3, p. 99, 1916-7, p, 115; Ind. Ant., XIVVpp. 19a5n, ; A /. J v II, p. 511^>at the 
meaxriag is not quite clear It seems to denote a place of assembly or synod, and so must "be connected with ghtfige* 
galigt, or ^rfta%, on which -see abote, Vol. XIII, p, 327 u. 3 and which ai;e obviously Prakrit forms otpkaffia. 
Perhaps these facts should be considered in the interpretation of the Manikiala inscription (see J. M A. ^., 1914, 
-pp. 641 if*) 9 seeing that the normal meaning of ghafifca is a certain division of time or a clock. 

* This is evidently the same as the modern ffawtfiga, "a man of the basket- ajad rntt-ma>*t- tribe or caste ** 
(kittel) s but tlfc meaning- seems to be different here. 

4 Perhaps connected with Skt. manMa-, on which see Hoernle's Uw&aga-datw, tBanslation, p. 108 n. 
'Of. Madras &Mt. Epfyr. &e$ort> 1912-3, p. 9, Brown's Mirw St^W, p, 74aid abave, VcL V, p* 33 n, 
weaning " fellows of tho ftari'tat," 



BPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX. 

and the thousand and seven-Kundred gamres of the eight provinces in the interior of various 
lands, wi.0 have come out of Ahie&eliliatraj who are supreme lords of the town of Ayyavale, 
and who obtain grace of boons from the divine Lady," 

(LI. 12-19) Prithvi-Setti, sheriff of the Seventy-thousand ; Boppanayya of Mirinje, the 
royal merchant ; the great trader Vesapayya-Setti ; Sovana-Secti, restorer of the church; 
Chikka Cbaviinda-Sefcti, the muliga 1 of Bage Da . . va-Sefcti of Dsnik5<Ju, the "bearer of the 
wmmwn'-staff; Jayasingada Siriyama-Setti of Tolakale; Hemma-Setti, head-man of the 
province j Malla-Setti, seiti-gutta of Knndili ; Kuvara 3 Lakka-Setti ; Wigalada Keti-Sefcti; SQna 
Sefcti, JLketa-Sefcti, (and) Chavuda-Setti, (sons ?) of Bondalabbe, of Sedambal ; Koppa-Setti, 
of the same place ; (and) . . . Holla-Setti, meeting at Sedambal as a general county- 
assembly representing all the districts, namely the district of Piriyuguvara, the district of 
Siriguppe, the district of Jugulakoppa, and the district of ... 

(LL 19-22) on Friday, the 2nd of the bright fortnight of Bhadrapada in the cyclic year 
DundubM, the 1005th (year) of the Saka era, holding the Friday's mai'ket in that town, 
granted the following revenues for the personal enjoyment of the god MadhavSsvara, (whose 
temple had been) constructed by Madirajayya, the high sheriff of Sedambal : 

(LL 22-29) on the sale of a half-load of areca-nuts, twenty nuts ; on a., shoulder-bag, 
twelve nuts ; on an ass-load, twenty- five ; on opening a [? buffalo's or] bullock's half -load, fifty 
areea-nuts ; for purchasers, twenty areca-nuts per gold piece ; on each load, a hundred-and-fif ty 
betel-leaves; on a hoda of oil, two solasa; on a "ko^a of clarified butter, two solasa ; on each 
Wiandi~go<fap one maimd of oil; for the various kinds of grain, on a buffalo-load six maunds, on 
a bullock-load one lafta,* on an ass-load two maunds, on a Jiamra one ladleful in every one 
maund, on an ottil one IcolagaP ; on each hasara of cotton, one sandage-vriok for wicks for the 
god's lamps, 

(LL 29-32) The setti-guttas on their part granted the following revenues : on laying down 
each shoulder-bag, one cloth for a couch (and) one gandhara-Kowl (?) ; for those who examine 
gdtytu, a stamped fanam, one quarter fanam on each gold piece ; on each sale of arana bkan$i* 
one stick of better quality (?) ; on the various kinds of grain sold in a cart, one kolaga. 

(LL 32-38) For the festival of Chaitra the people of the parish gave a quarter fanam for 
*ach pairing. For oil for the lamps to be lit at the festival of the Dlpavali the guUds^men within 
the town granted on their own houses one quafter-/#wam for each house ; on each shop 
of the potters, one pot ; the goldsmiths granted ta the god one adda 7 in the asaay-f ee of a fanam 
on every gold piece* In the case of the leather-workers, they gave one pair of slippers, for every 
six months. In the case of the basket- makers, they gave one msru 8 for every fair. In the caae 
of the cobblers, they gave one strap for every six months. 

(LL 3841) So he who infringes the constitution of this decree shall incur the deadly sin 

of slaying by the Ganges, in Prayaga, in Benares, or in Kurukshetra a thousand kine ; he shall 

incur the deadly ain of slaying his own eldest son at the JLditya-/5tf A$ and eating from his skull. 

(LL 4143) ^ Hail ! While the McA3may$aliivara Vijaysdityadevarasa was reigning in 

the standing camp of Valav&da with enjoyment of pleasing conversations : 

1 The meaning given by Kittel for m&lfya is "a ven-lor of (medicinal) roots "; but here it must denote some 
Cf. above. Vol. V, p, 27, \vliere tlie milligas rank after the mah ijanat. 

2 [Kuvara means son. Ed,] 

a A measure of unknown capacity ; literally, " cart-pot," 

1 Equal to 4 mtunds. 

*E,qual to 16 maunds; hence the offil (literally, "pile ") must be a large measure. 

* Obcure ; the literal meaning is " king's cart" * On thw weight -w Kittel, SJT. 

* Apparently meaning " head-load." 



No. 5,] ANTIRIGAM PLATES OF JATA-BHANJA-DBVA. 41 

(LL 4349) they who find sustenance at his lotus-feet, both BMyipayya-Nayaka the 
high minister and controller of taxes and Malapayya-Hayaka the "krefyikara of the province 
of Mirinje, for the personal enjoyment of the god MadhaveSvara (whose temple was) construct- 
ed "by the baron Madirajayya, the sheriS of Sediambal, and for the provision of food to the 
ascetics of that place, on Thursday, the 14th of the dark fortnight of Magha in the cyclic year 
Budhirodgari, the 1066th (year) of the Saka era, on the occasion of the Sivaratri festival, 
laved the feet of SSvarSsi Siddhantideva, prior of the monastery of the god, and with pouring 
of water granted the following dues : 

(LI. 49-54) For the shops built within the parish east of the river on the east of SedambaJ, 
the oilmen (and) shopkeepers shall give in the paddy-market, excluding the household-tax, 
half the takings within the market inclusive of a ko$a of oil, the pomma on loads of betel leaves 
and the petty dues, and the tolls on bags of the various kinds of grain ; on each bullock's load 
of areca-nuts filled up there from the antara-vatfa (they shall give) one hundred and fifty superior 
nuts ; the toll-collectors on duty in the revenue-office shall give every month an eighth on each 
sauvar^a coin. 

(LI. 54-59 : a Kanarese commonitory formula of the usual type.) 



No, 5. AOTIRIGAM PLATES OF JAYA-BHAJSJA-DEYA. 

El THE LATE TARINI CHABAN BATH, B.A. 

These Wee copper-plates were unearthed by a ryot while cultivating a piece of waste 
land situated in the village of Antirigam of Ptrva-khanda, Chatrapur Division, G&njam 
District, Madras Presidency. A similar set of three other plates was also discovered along with 
these which will be edited separately. 

The plates measure 7 inches by 3 inches, their thickness being about T \ of an inch. Each 
plate has a circular hole on its left side through which passes a copper ring of a diameter of 2 
inches, from which the plates are suspended, The two ends of the ring are not in this case 
secured at the bottom of an oval or circular seal as usual. We have here a lump of copper of a 
rather peculiar conical shape,-! finches high, which holds the two ends of the ring together* 
This mass of copper is at its bottom in shape a cube, measuring about | an inch on each side and 
lias at the top a pot-shaped finial marked by a number of circular ridges. On one side of the 
cube is the following inscription, written in two lines : 

finmad-subjia 
Jadevanripatih 

The word ' Jadeva ' in the beginning of the second line is obyiously'a mistake for ' Jayadeva/ 
the name of the king who made the grant. The first and third plates are inscribed on one side 
only, while the second or middle plate has inscription both on the obverse and reverse. The 
edges of the plates are not raised into rims. The inner side of the first plate and the two sides 
of the second plate have nine lines on each of them, while the inner side of the third or last plate 
contains ten lines, the total number of lines of the inscription being thus 37. The inscription 
is clear and the letters are fairly big in size. The plates with the ring weigh 72 tolas 

1 [It ts very unlikely that the name of tlie king wonld be written Jadeva by mistake for Jayadeva. The 
suffix bhanja, which is the characteristic title of the rulers of the Bhanja dynasty would in no case have been 
omitted. Hence I think we mnat read Bbamjadeva together ; and what is read in the beginning as frlmadsH is prob- 
ably rlmad~Yafa-. Besides, the last atobara in the first line clearly reads Iham. Thus we will have tha name 
Yasa-Bhanjadera which according to the author kimaelf was another name of Jaya-Bha5jadeva j aeo below page 43 
Ed.] 



42 EPIGRAPHIA INDIOA. [Toi. XIX. 

The language of the inscription is Sanskrit and the characters used are a highly specialised 
form of the old Northern Nagarl type. They deserve specmi notice, inasmuch as they very 
closely resemble the Uriya characters. The type is quite important for tracing the develop*- 
meat of the present Uriya alphabet. The following letters on the plates are no other than the 
modem Uriya ones : in (3rd letter!. 1), Jcha (19th letter 1. 5), go, (4th letter 1. 7), pa (4th 
letter 1. 6), na (5th letter 1. 1), Te*hi (last letter 1. 2), ksfwi* (21st letter 1. 1), ska (26th letter 
1. 10), wja (8th letter L 3) and jpra (8th letter L 10). Again the following letters also very 
closely resemble the present Uriya ones and are in fact their archaic forms : fo (14th letter 
I 1), glia (7th letter 1. 1), sa (9th letter 1. 1), \na (2nd letter 1. ),ja (26th letter 1. 2), ya 
(22nd letter 1. 1), ta (4th letter L 10), bha (20th letter 1. 3), to, (10th letter I 1), da (21st letter 
L 2) . Several other instances of both these classes of letters can be found in the inscription on a 
very close examination. Though Uriya was both, a spoken and a written language in Orissa, its 
Rajas or ruling chiefs were accustomed to use Sanskrit in their grants relating to landed pro* 
perty. On the whole, I think, it can be said that the characters of the inscription are the 
prototypes of the modern Uriya characters. 

The plates record the grant of a village by king Jaya-Bfcanjadeva, son of Baya-Bhanja 
and grandson of Vlra-Bhanja, on the occasion of a lunar eclipse on the 15th day of the 
bright half of the month of Jyeahtha (May-June) to a Brahman named m-Jagadhara, son 
of Patidita Dharadhara belonging to the MSdhyandina-s'aMa and the Bharadvaja-/ora. 
The name of the village gifted thereunder is Bengarada situated at the centre of the province 
Kbinjallyagada-ws/iaya. The grantor issued the charter from his camp Kolada in the third 
[year] of the victorious reign and proclaims this fact of his grant to Ms ministers, his heir- 
apparent VIra-Bhanja and other sons, and also the several administrative officers of the 
province. The inscription was incised by Ganesvara, 

The village Rengarada is stated to have been situated in the province Khinjaliyagada- 
vishaya. The grant was issued from the camping place known as Kolada, KhinjaK, according 
to traditional accounts, is believed to be a tract of country forming part of the Baud State and 
from it the smaller States of Gumsur and Dasapalla are said to have been carved out* 
Jtkdlada was the later capital of Gumsur which continued to be so till the extinction of its Bhanja 
line of kings It is popularly known now as Kullada. It is situated at a distance of about 4 
miles from BusselkondLa, the head-quarters of the Gumsur Division and Taluk, called after the 
Commissioner Eussel and is connected with it by a good metalled road. The remains of the 
residences of the old chiefs of Gumsur are still to be seen here covered by jungle growth. The 
place stands on the bank of a river adorned with, the venerable old temples built by the Gumsur 
Eajas who have richly endowed them with fertile lands and costly movable properties. It is 
hemmed in all round by beautiful ranges of hills. The name Khinjallyagada-w/iaj/a signifies 
tae division adjoining the fort of Khinjali, the former name of Gumsur, Gada in Uriya means 
n tort. Khinjallyagacia corresponds to the present name of " Gadanmtha," a subdivision of 
the old Guittsnr State, now a British possession ever since the year 1835 when its Eaja, late 
DKanaiajaya-Bhanja, died in the course of a campj^u'n with, the British and his minor son, late 
Brajaraja-Bhanja, was lemoved to Vellore as a Pi ate prisoner. Village names like Bhangarada 
and Gerada which are to be found to-day in the Guaisur Taluk may be compared with Renga- 
rada, the village granted. The copper-plate grant thus, I think, relates to the Ancient State of 
(hugsur, formerly known as the Khinjali country. 

The grantor is a scion of the illustrious dynasty of the Bhafijas, so very famous in 

Orissa. According to the tiaditional account of Gumsur it was founded in the ninth century 

A ,L by a son oi the brother of the Bhanjaraja of Keunjhar who had settled with, his brother 

m JBaud, fcotli haviagteen adopted by its king, Keunjhar was carved put from the ancient 



No. 5.] ANTIEIGAM PLATES OP JATA-BHANJA-DEVA. 43 

Mayurbhanja State of Orissa, both of which still exist. The account farther states that 
one of the Bajas of Grumsur named Pratapa-Bhanja captured the Khond Chief of Knllada and 
changed his residence bj constructing a big fort there, at a very great cost, during the twelfth 
century A,D. Jaya-Bhanja, son of Eaya-Bhanja and grandson of Vira-Bhanja, appears from 
what is stated in the inscription to have ruled the country around Kolada. The names of 
these kings are quite new and are neither met with in the traditional account of Ghimsur, nor in 
any one of the several Bhanja plates hitherto discovered and published. It is not possible at 
present to state how the latter are connected with the Bhanja kings whose names have been dis- 
covered by these plates. The second set of copper- plates found with the present one and referred 
tp in paragraph 1 above also mentions these very same names. The grantor and the 
grantee of both are identically the same persons, the occasion and the village granted alone being 
different, Jaya-Bhanja is, however, called therein 1 by the name of Yasa-Bhanja. These plates of 
Yaa-Bhanja have been noted as No. 10 in Appendix A of the Report of the Assistant Archaeolo- 
gical Superintendent for Epigraphy, Southern Circle, Madras, for the year 1917-lb and noticed 
at page 137 thereof. This king is described therein as the lord of the entire Khinjali country. 
The village Komyana granted thereunder has been observed as being situated in the Gumsur 
Taluk by the above-said officer, to whom the plates had been sent by me for examination, 

The grant of Jaya-Bhanja is said to have been made in the third year of the victorious reign, 
no particular era being given. According to the traditional account of Gumsur, <Kullada was 
conquered and made the capital in the latter part of the twelfth century A.D. The characters 
of the inscription are found to be later in date than those of the Gumsur plates of Ngtri-Bhairja 
edited at pages 667-671 of Volume VI of the Journal of tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal and the 
Baud plates of Rana-Bhanja edited at pages 321-328 of Volume XII of the Epigraphia Indices 
and the inscription has probably to be assigned to the twelfth century A,D. 



TEXT, 

First Plate. 

1 Om 3 [||*] Svasti sri-guna-saiiigha-samyuta-tare lok-[a]bhikirty-5ttame ((|) Lakshml[i-*] 

ya[tra] 

2 nivasinl suvirala jatas=cha vlr-5ttamah | Dharmd yatra sada sthitS ripu-jayah 

"khyatah kshi- 

3 tau sa[rvva]da variifitl Bhafija-susamjnake ripa-harih srI-V!ra-Bhanj=o[bha]vat || [1*] 

Tat-sunu[r^]=dvi(i)ja-deva-pu- 

4 [jana-ratah ^ri]-Raya-BIia&jo niipah durvvar-ari-narendra-darpa-dalan5 viryena 

Sakr-fipa- 

5 mah [|*] tat-putr6 Jaya-BhafijadSva-npipatl rajnam si(si)rah-se(se)kharah [rft]pairya 

6 Madan-Spamah kshiti-tale danau(ai^=pha Kar[n]n-5parn5(mah) || [2*] Manais=ch=api 

SuySdha- 

7 n-5pama-gatah Sakr-5pamd vikramaik durv var-ari-kuranga-marana-harih srl- Samka- 



1 [This is not so. They were apparently "brothers. Yasa-BhaSja was the elder of the two. Jaya-Bhaiija, 
issued this charter under the seal of hia brother the king. Ed.] 

2 [Expressed by a symbol. An interesting: paper on " The Swastika and the Omkara symbols * f is contributed 
by Mr. Harit Krishna Deb, M.A., to tta Jo. and Pro. A. S. . (new series), Vol. XVII, 1921, No. 3, This is *, 
direct refutation of the theory of some that the symbol represents a figure of Gai>apati. Ed,] 

v 2 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX. 



8 re bhaktimana(n) (||f) bhaktd vai pitn-matii-pada-yugale sfl-vaisb^avah sampratam 

|| [3*]i Sa cha ma- ' 

9 Ha-mand a lela(sva)ra-8a(sa)rvva-g[u]9- a lariikrita-rimad-raja(ja) Jaya-Bhafiia-dvah 

iusall|| Ko- 

Second Plate ; First Side. 

10 lsda-kataka-[stlxit5](tah)pravarddliamana-vijaya-rajye tpitiya-samvatsare Jyeshtha- 

sukla- 

11 paflchadasys(syl)ih soma-grahana-velsysm EMfljaliya-g[a]4 a .vishaya-madliya- 

varttl(i)-Bengara4a-gra- 

12 mam sa-jala-sthalam s-odvelam [sa-ni]dhi s-Spanidhikam sa-vitap-aranyam 

a-cha(cha)ta-bhata-[pra]- 

13 vesam su(sa)rvr-5padrava-vivarjitam sarvva-sas[y*]-atpatt[i]-saliitaih 

viclichliinnam ([|f) u[t]kl- 

m3 [a]dhi-vidliim ga 



13 -mudbha[va]m^gataya8 

ka 



-pmvai'aya 

17 Taju[i*].TSd-adhy4ii 7 i) a fi MadkyamdlCndiJnlya-gaktaya Pandita-Dharadharasya 

putraya Daivajna- * 

18 [SriJJagadliaraja bhnmi(m*).dana-yldkiiia hast-sdakam dat[t*]va 

*[t] samu(lf)- 



Second Plate; Second Side. 
19 prarthayati anyams^cha rajapat[r*]. am atya- 



f Superfluous. 

I S ??i UA "" VWSe 1S misslD S'-^-:i v erses 1 to 3 are in the SanfaWM^ metre. 



4 Cancel the risarga. 

" there seems to ^ a symbo1 for " which has been possibly 8c red - 



ANTIRTGAM PLATES OF JAYABHANJADEVA. 





-n/""" 



VIEW 



SEAL ( FBOW I-HOTOOJIAI-HH 



! 




X' r 't I 

fo ;f 
.V/'" /, 

V 

ii -, ( - ' 
s , i, -;* 



SIDE VIEW. 



No. 6.] INSCRIPTION OF THE TIME OP HAMMIB OF BANTHAMBHOE. 45 



24* vadbhih (|f) bhvibhi=c]ia (||t) a-ctandr-arka-ksMti-sama-kalam planlyam [||*] Atra 
dharm-anu- 

25 sam(iam)sma^ sl6k&h [||*] Bkumi-dana-samam danam na bhutana na bhavishyati ) 

danena ya- 

26 ta(t) phalam praktam palanena tatG=dhikaih ||[4#] Va(ba)kubhir*vassu dh, da[t*]- 

ta r&jabhih Sagar-a- 

27 dibhih [[*] yasyayasya yada bhumis*tasyatasya tada phalam. |j[5*] Ma hhtLxni- 

2 phala- 

Third Plate. 

28 amk, vah (|f) para-da [t*]t=gfci partMvab | sva-danatptialam.aiiaiLtya[m*] para- 

datt-anTipalanam || [6*] 

29 Sva-dattHm para-dattam*=va y5 b.areti(ta) vasundhar^m | sva-[vi]-s]itiliay,m 

krimir=bbntya pitribMk ealia 

30 pacliyate|| [7*] Asarepiclia samsare jivitasyapliala-dYayam. [|*] palanam para=klr*fci(tl)na[m] 

31 svayam kartFityam=evaclia || [8*] AnucMntya ^rl(i)yam jivyam padma-pai3r-&nu.vind[u]- 

vata(t) [| ] vu(bu) [dh] v*atr=Cdakri(hji)tarii 

32 sarvvam na iQpyah para-klrttayah. || [9*] Asmad-vamsa(ia)"ja-blinpatir*yadi 

punar=bhtip0nya- vams-0 (^-0) - 

33 dbhavo mad-dafetam paripala[ye]d=ilia mahlm tasmai diyit8smy*amjalim. j 

[| 10*] 8 Mata(t)-l(clichlia)saiie pi- 

34 tri(tri)-pit,mah.a-bk-ami-bhaga-madhya-pradatta iha yah. kurute-pakaram 1 Sa 



35 [L.u]-dvija-vatsa-pd(gliLa)ta-iiiiisantatih sakala-janma-iatSsliii bMyat || [11*] Slmmim 

yah. pratigri- 

36 [hriati] yasya(yas=cha) bhtmim praya[cli*]cliliatl i ubhau [t]au fpniiya-kariaa^aii 

niyatau svarga-ganiinau [||] [12*] *TO- || 

37 [Asya Kaia-pandi]ta[sya] vanika(g)"Gan[s]varSna li(li)kliitam*iti |[ 



No. 6. INSCRIPTION OF THE TIME OF HAMMIR OF RANTHAMBHOR, 

DATED (V.8.) 1345. 

BY R. R. HALDEE, RAJPUTANA MUSEUM, AJMER. 

This inscription is engraved on a stone slab which is built into a niche of the reservoir in fro/it 
of the temple of !avalj! (Kapal!6vara) lying in the Balvan estate of the Kotah principality of 
Rajputana. It was discovered by Rai Bahadur Pandit Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha, who 
gave a brief account of it in the Annual Report of the Rajputana Museum a1< Ajmer for the yar 
1920-21. It is in a g9od state of preservation. On account of its importance for the history 
of the Chauhans of Raijthaihbhor as well as the Par^maras of Malwa, $ detailed notice of it 
seems to be necessary, and is given b^low with the tezt based on tie ink impressions kindly 
placed at my disposal by the said scholar. 

t Superfluous. 

1 The syllable pita is written below the line. 

2 Bead bMfaaphala* as in other inscriptions 

3 The second half of verse 10 is mating. 



t 



J I No_ 



46 "EPISBAPHIA INDIOi, [VOL. XIX- 

The inscription contains thirty-nine verses written IB twenty-nine lines with nearly half a 
line of prose at the end. The character is Nagari of the thirteenth century A.D., common in 
Bijpiattoa during that period. The letters show no peculiarity except in one or two instances, 
namely, f in f *c and* ffir (lines 4 and 21 respectively) where it is written in a different way 
iroxa that in f>they lines. Also, w, when joined to a letter, is written in a quite different way 
$s in I&PQ[ (1. 5), %f?r (I 19} } etc. Such ss and *rs are generally found in the inscriptions 
of eaarfiey period. Also ? is written in two ways as in TOT* and <Eft*sr in lines 1 and 19 respectively. 
The letters are on the average about f " in height and the area covered by the writing is about 3 
sq. ft. The language is Sanskrit throughout with some occasional mistakes which are duly 
shown in the foot-notes accompanying the text. As regards orthography, it may be 

that v is used for b throughout. Consonants are mostly doubled after r as in 

*|W, snrjf, ftPwrfff, faftafi etc* (lines 5 r 7 r 9 and 16 res 



respectively). Anusvara is 

mostly used for nasals as in shftejft, 9*, 1%, ij^t, ^ etc., in 1L 1, 2, 11, 15 and 16 
respectively and also at the end of stichs and hemistichs, as in ^recrf (L 7), sfrfirt(l. 24), 
(1 36), etc*, $nd is redundant in tfmsqr (1. 7). The symbol T i is used in m (1. 22) and 
- but not in finfrr (! 1 9 ) Kedundant strokes are to be seen as in 11. 3, 10, 24, etc. 



TJie inscription is a praSasti of the Chauhan kings of Ajmer and Eanthambhor, and gives a 
eulogistic description of the family of the minister of Hammira, the last Chauhan king of 
Ranthambhor. After the usual invocation of Ganefia and KapalMvara Siva, it names the 
surroundings of the temple in front of which it is found, and mentions the Ghakratatiril r 
MandaMnl and KetnmtOjM as flowing close by it (vv. 1-2), It then praises thfe .Chaiiliaa 
rulers. Pfithvlrfija, the well-known Chauhan king of Ajmer, is mentioned in the "fifth 
verse ; while VSgbhata, the Chauhan king of Ranthambhor, in the sixth. Jaitrasixiiha, 
wfro succeeded Vagbhata, is mentioned as having harassed Jayasiifaha of Ma^dapa and 
killed the Ktoma king and a king of Karkaralagiri (vv. 7-8), He is also said to have 
defeated hundreds of brave warriors of the king of Malwa at Jhampaitha-^ate (Ghat), and 
kept them as prisoners at Ra^astarhbhapwa (v. 9). Hammira succeeded Jaitrasimha and 
is said to have defeated Arjtma m a battle, thereby depriving Malwa of the fame and glory 
which it then enjoyed (v. 11). He also erected a three-stoned golden palace called Pushyaka 
(? Puahpaka) at Ranastambhapura (v. 12), 

Next, the family of Eammira's minister is described. In it, bothNarapati, the minister 
of Jaitaaiihha aad Hammira (v. 35), and his wife NayaSrI stand prominent on account of their 
many acts of charity. Verse 13 says that Ananta, Sedha, and Srldhara were born in suc- 
cession in the Katariya-Ktyastha family, which migrated from Mathura. After them came 
Lakshaija whose son Pur^tapala had a son named Yamunapala (vv. 14-15). His son Somana 
matried Somaladevi, daughter of Devaraja (v. 16). His SOB was Narapati (v. 17), Narapati's 
Tonitger brotir was gripati and wife was Naya^rl, who got herself weighed against various 
nrftalB ten times 'fw. 18-20). She had five sons, namely, Padmasimha, THru Lola 
JLakshmidhara, and Sfcna (vv. 22-30). Padmasimha's son was Mokshasimha (v. 31) ' TUri 
tad two sons Eeteva and SS^ha (v. 32). Lola's son was Gangadeva, and Soma's was 
JayasiAha (v. 33). Then, the name of the composer of the record is given as Vaijaditya, 
who was the Pw5m : reciter at the court of king Hammlra (v. 89). In the prose line at 
the end, the date is given as Samvat 1345 (AJX 1288) and also the name of the Sutmdhara 
<eagraver), wz,, Gijtlka, soa of Trivikrama. 

As regards the places o* other names mentioned in the inscription KapalMvara (v 2) 
and KpdftitflttTOa (v. 34) are still represented by the local name KavaljL Phakratafinl b , 



No. 6.] INSCRIPTION OF THE TIME OF HAMMIR OF BANTHAMBEOR. 47 



the Chakana which flows to the left of Kavaljf s temple. Maadakiniis the Madakana which 
fl ows behind the temple, Mandapa ( v. 7) is the famous fortress of Mandu. JhampSitha 
Ghatta, as the name shows, might be a hill pass or a river ford soxhewhere in or about the 
Kotah territory. KetunrnkM (v. 2) and KarkarSlagiri (v. 8) I cannot identify. Ranas^ 
tambhapura is the fortress of Ra^atharhbhor in the Jaipur State. Pashyaka (v. 12) may 
be the oW palace of Hammira. 

As to the personages spoken of in the inscription, Prltlaviraja is the famous chivalrous 
Ch.auh.an king of Ajmer, Vagbhata was the fourth in succession from G-ovmdaraja, 1 and is also 
known as Bahada or Bahadadeva. He went for some time to Malwa owing to some internal 
dissension with his nephew, and consequently Rantharhbhor fell into the hands of the Muham- 
madans. He, however, soon returned and once more became master of Ranthambhor. 2 He wa 
twice attacked by Ulugh Khan in the time of 'Alau-^d-din Ebalji. 8 Jaitrasimha (v. 7) was the 
son and successor of Vagbhata. In Samvat 1339 (A.D. 1283), he handed over the reins of Go- 
vernment to his son Hammira and went into seclusion. 4 Hammira (v. 10) was the last inde- 
pendent Chauhan king of Ranthambhor. His fame is sung in many a Sanskrit and Prakrit 
verse. According to the Uammlra-mahakavya, the date of his accession is Samvat 1339 (A,D, 
1283), but, according to fhe genealogy given at the end of the Prdbandhakosha, it is Samvat 
1342 (A.D. 1285). He led a series of successful warlike expeditions into different countries. In 
one of the many battles -fought by him, he"ls said to have defeated Eaja Arjuna of Saraspura 5 
a fact which does not quite agree with that of this inscription. He was killed in Samvat 1*358 
(A.D. 1301). 6 Jayasimlia (v. 7), who was harassed by Jaitrasimha, was the Paramara king 
Jayasimhadeva III of Malwa. He succeeded Jayavarman II between Samvat 1317 and 1326 
(A.D. 1260 and 1269), and ruled from A.D. 1261-1280.7 The Kftrma king, who is said to have 
been killed by Jaitrasimha (v. 8), belonged to the Kachhavaha (Kachchhapaghata or Kachch- 
hapan) family of Amber. It is generally believed that the Kachhavaha prince Pajjirp, was 
one of the great vassals cf Prithviraja III of A]mer. 8 So, the Eurma king mentioned above 
must be a descendant of Pajju^a. The Kachhavahas of Amber belonged to the junior 
branch of the Kachhavahas of Gwalior. They were the descendants of Sumitra, the younger 
son of Maogalaraja, the third 9 Kachhavaha ruler of Gwalior. According to the writer Muhnot 
Nainsy(A.D. 16104670), S5dha(Sodhadeva), who belonged tothis^jumor branch, migrated to 
Rajputana and took Dyosa in Jaipur territory from the Baragujaras, and established his rule 
there. 10 -His descendants took i.mber from the Mmas and made it their capital. Amber remained 
the capital of the Kachhavahas of Eajputana till the time of Sawai Jaisirhha (A.D. 1699- 
1743) who founded the modern city of Jaipur. As to Arjuna (v. 11) of Malwa, who is said to 

1 He was the founder of the rulmg dynasty of the Chauhans of Banthambhor, After the death of hw 
father Pyithviraja m A.D. 1192, he was appointed governor of Ajmer by Muhammad Ghori but was soon driven 
out of Ajmer towards Ranthambhor by his uncle Hariraja (Hemraja or Hiraj). (Briggs' FerMta> Vol. I, p. 193.) 

2 Indian Antiquary, Vol. VIII, pp. 63-64. 

Elliot's History of India, Vol. II, pp. 367-70. 

* The Hammtra-mMMvya, Swga 8, Qloka 56. Ind. Ant., Vol. VIII, p. 64, n, 14. 

6 Indian Antiquary, Vol. VIII, p. 64. 
Hid., p. 73, n. 20 

7 Tlz Parmaras of Dhar and Malwa by Captain C. E. Luard and EL, K. We, p. 41. 

8 Tod's Rajaslhan, Vol. II, p. 717, n. 3. 

Cunningham's Arch. Sur. of India, Vol. II, p. 374* 

Mu*mot Nahisy's Khyata (manuscript), pp. 63-64. [Muhnot Namsy was the minister of the SHaMrJSja 
Jaswant Smgh (A D. 1635-78) of Jodhpur and wa^ ajeliable wrrer of historical accounts of RajputaniJ 

10 Muhnot Namsy's Kkyata (manuscript), p, 64. Supplementary notes to Tod's Rajasthan (in Hi*wH) by 
R, B, Pt, Gourishankar H. Qjha, p. 373, 



48 EPIGKAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX. 

have been defeated by Hammira (v. 11), he must be designated as Arjuna varman II in the 
genealogy of the Paramara mlers of Malwa, as stated by Pandit Gourishankar Hirachand Ojha 
and is different from the king named Arjuna or Arjunavarman who ruled Malwa, but died 
before Samvat 1275 (A.D. 1218) and consequently could not be the contemporary of Hammira 
of this record. In fact, he (Arjuna of this record) was the sixth in succession from Arjunavar- 
man I and, therefore, must be the successor of Jayasimhadeva III of Malwa, who was defeated 
by Hammira's father Jaitrasimha. The defeat of Arjuna might have taken place between 
Samvat 1339 and 1345 (A.D. 1283 and 1288) ; that is, between the period of Hammira's 
accession and the date of this record. 

The genealogy of the Chauhans of Ajmer and Ranthambhsr in the light of this inscription 
and other authorities would be : 

1 The Ghauhans of Ajmer, 

ArnSraja. 
2 Jnnalladeva. 
JLnaka. 
Anaka. 





4 


1 






Jagadeva. 


Vigraharaja IV, 
Visaladeva. 


Some^ 


vara. 


rlthvlbhata. 




1 






1 




ithvlraja II. 


Aparagangeya. 








ithvldeva. 
>tha<Jadeva, 


Amaragangeya. 
3 Amaragangu. 


Nagarjuna. 





Pjithviraja III. 

I I 

n . . J .. Hariraja. 

Uovindaraja. 

4 The ChauhSBS of RanthazhbliSr. 

1. GSvindaraja, 

2. Balhanadeva. 



Q p t1 L ,. 4- Vagbhata, 

& rrahladadeva, i 

^ I 5. Jajtrasiinna* 

viranarayana. i 

6. Hammira, (1283-1301 A.D.), 
^V^^^^ 1 ^^^ 11 ^ Hamm ' tra ~ majl&k ya and several inscriptions. 

i!1 ^T^tTme^f ' ive^b T1>6 ^^^ ' towever ' Mis " lnn ^ ad ^ a - 

p^ jggj y A ii Fazl in his Jini*Akbari, [Cnnninghain's J>cfc. ^ter. o/ Jw^ta, Vol. J 9 

4 According to the , 




fc&Y s ' ':.'' V*--. -L'rU 

FWy -,. i >.U-..,'.>^ ^^"-"-, 

^J-'x ''<'.,'-. ' ^'.3-''?.-' i '^' -J,"'^ ': 




PROFESSOR DB. E. HULTZSCH, PH. D. LATE GOVERNMENT EPIGRAPHIST 

(18861903). 

Born: 29th March 1857 Died. 16th January 1927 

at Dresden, Germany. at Halle (Saale), 

Germany. 



Photo engraved *c printed at the Offices of the Rur\ ev of India, Clcutta, 1927 



So. 6.] INSCRIPTION OF THE TIME OF HAMMIR OF RANTHAMBHOR. 

The position of Arjuna of this record in the genealogy of the Paramara rulers of 
commencing from Aijnnavarmau I. would be (according to the inscriptions) : * 

1. Arjunavarman L (1210-15 A.D.). 

2. Devapaladeva'(1218-35 A.D.). 

3. Jayatugideva or Jayasiihha II. (1243-57 A.D.)- 

4. Jayavarman II. (1257-60 A.D.). 

* 

5. Jayasimhadeva III. (A.D. 1269-.. ..J. 1 

6. Arjuna or Arjunavarman II. 

TEXT. 

[Metres : Vv. 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 15, 19 to 22, 28 to 39, Anushtubh ; T, 2, Sai dulavijcrifcta 
v.&^Arya; VT. 6 and 13, Glti; \v. 8 and 10, Vasantat^la]cd^ w. 11 and 26, Indravajrd; 
v. 14, Rathdddhatd ; v. 16, Svagatd ; v. 17, Pajjhatikd ; y. 18, Upajati ; v. 23, $afo>ii ; v. 24 r 
Hannli v. 25, Bhujangapraydta ; v. 27, 



^f?rfl:*ft 
nftre H^C: m[*] 



H f^ra srtwfsr, 



n [H*] 



rarer ^^f^^cf^w: i ^rftr w 

*] 



' His reign may have lasted longer tlian 1280 A.D., side t. n. 1 on p. 47 above. 

* Read ^. Bead gf^. * The strokes are redundant. * Bead 



EPIGRAPHU INDICA. [VOL. SIX. 







10 



*r?r i 
farm 



i s 



t sr: mtr 

'5rft?t itf B^^[ii*j ?ra ^3^f- 
12 



fwr 

*ft*H%\ imb*] ?wt ^^jfst 
13 



jK ut c [w*] 



i Read ^jj. * Bead wef. * Head 

< Read O qrsft. * TMsttrokfi i 

fhk stroke is leduadwit. find 



Na. 6.] INSCRIPTION OF THE TIttE OP HAMMIE OP RINTRAJMBEOB. 51 



17 



20 



16 ftfaft firateir! ^r*n *rtf until*] 



fag* 
18 



4 



- II 2 

19 



21 ftrfr- 



22 anf arart wsrr tre 



23 



24 



^L ft*] 



1 E d ^TS. 2 The strokes are rednndairt. 3 Bead <. 



7 Bead JT^. 8 Bead , f . i Better read 

Read . " Bead ^ f . n The strokes ara retodaat 

13 The strokes are redundant. 

x 2 



52 SPIGEAPH1A Iff DICA. [Voii. XIX. 



25 qr: 

fiil | 
H^[ii f ] II 






W IS 



ajjra; T| i ft 

it nuDi*3 ^%f k 

27 l 

im[*] |4 

i ?*T. 

2S if! Tf urd H**[ll*] 

g; i *wt 

iH*[ii*] ; *Wfaw^" 

29 TO i 

VJrarsr[:*] 

ii 



No, 7.-AHAR STONE INSCEIPT10N, 
BY DAYA EAM SAHNX, M.A., BAI BAHADUB. 

The stone slab on which this inscription is engraved is stated to have been discovered in a 
mined liouse in the ancient town of Aliar situated on the banks of the Ganges at a distance of 
seven miles &orth of Anupshahr and twenty-one miles from Bulandsfeahr. Mr, ^V", E. J. Dobbs, 
Collector of Bulandshahr, was informed of this discovery when he was camping at Ahar for the 
Christmas Wek of 1923, and at the suggestion of the Hon'ble Mr. R. Burn s C.S.L, of the Board 
of Eevenae, United Provinces, the inscribed stone has been transferred to the Provincial Muse- 
um, Lucknow. The impression published with ifeis paper has been kindly supplied by 
Mr. Ptayag Dayal, the Curator of that institution. 

According to Mr. H. R. Nevill, 4 I.C.S., the name of Ahar 5s locally derived from ahi and 
Mr (Sanskrit Mm), the killing of the serpent, 8 and the present town is said to be the place 
where Janamejaya performed the great Snake- sacrifice- Ahar is also locally believed to have 
been the residence of Rukmiiii, the wife of Krishna, and the temple of Ambikadevi at Muham- 
madpw is said to be that from which Epishiia carried her ofL a The numerous mounds in and 
about Ibar show that the to was the seat of a Hindu principality for some centimes pre- 
vious to the Musalman invasion. None of these mounds has yet been explored. 

1 Read sjt. ^ [Perhaps TO^if^f is meant. -Ed.] 

3 Read *-m^> * Bulanfohakr Ga:etteer a p, 172, 

5 [E\ii!ently an instance of popular etyiuoln^j . -Ed.J 
[Bat tbit was in VidMblia (Beiai) 1-Ed ] 



Uo, 7,] AHAR STONE INSCRIPTION, 63 

The inscription consists of twenty-eight lines which cover a space of 3' 4 /; x 1' 8|". The 
whole of the inscription is in a perfect state of preservation except for a portion measuring 
8" x 5" which is defaced on account of the flaking off of the stone in the upper left corner of the 
slab. Three or four letters have also mostly disappeared m the lowest or last line. The letters 
measure about half an inch in height exclusive of the vowel marks. The characters are Nagarl 
of about the 10th century A.D,, and are regularly and beautifully formed and artistically en- 
graved from beginning to end. The language of the inscription is Sanskrit prose throughout, 
though the author of the record would seem to have been equipped with a meagre knowledge 
of Sanskrit grammar while some of the mistakes appear to betray the influence of the vernacu- 
lar of the period. As regards orthography, ba has throughout been denoted by the sign for w, 
while the dental sibilant has often been employed in place of the palatal Besides this we notice 
many other mistakes and defects of various kinds. Some of these are 

The use of the vowel *& for ft and ft in OT?F in place of *fw (11. 14, 16 and 20) and POTrat 
for irftomt (I. 24) and $r for ft (11. 11 and 27) ; the use of w for *fa (1. 3), *wif for 
qHRSft (! 5) and ^ETOfl for srera (11. 12, 18 and 21) ; the use of short vowels in place of 
long ones as in RwroT*r m P^ce of WTftiTOTRT (1. 3, etc.) ; single consonants for double 
ones and vice versa, as in SIR for wpc (11. 1, 10, etc,), S*CTfTO for s*iupff (11. 7 and 20), 
*m5f% for *nfT3FR (11. 6, 20, etc.), *n*T? for ^ITO (11. 9, 10, 13, etc.) and WTO for m^ 
(11. 10, 11, 21, etc.). 

Examples of Throng sandfa are y*j*\ for wt^ (1.1); ^ftrw^i for rftr'nn (1. 5, 
etc.)- I& some cases sandfo is ignored between the component parts of the same compound as 
in Wflfifaf WT in L 2 ; sftaqw*rTOit in i G ; w^ in 1. 10 ; i*ff^rcmnwF (1. 13), etc. 
Specimens of extraordinary sandhi, one of which is repeated several tunes in the inscrip- 
tion, are TOrakrerer in place of *rrararf ^rerer and ijsrfft &i for wi ?t*f (I 4), Examples 
of wrong absolutives are <^T for sw (I 11), and Vft^r for VnJtw (11 8 and 18). Examples 
of irregular participles are TrfiraOTR: (L 3) and s[fa*R3RW; (1. 17), etc, 

As regards the treatment of nouns, we observe the omission of case-endings in ^(TJJ) 
ifMff (L 3), q^rajprOTT (1- 8), i^iTftf (I 10), etc. Sometimes wrong cases have been em- 
ployed : 

Of. flnrcterf for finrtf *r (1. 4), ^r^^t^r^^rt for ^wt^^tOT (i 4), ^q?Ht for *tntpr?r 
(I 7), etc. Bases ending in consonants are in some cases declined like those ending in 
% e.g., rik in place of ^wi (I 9), and ?ftr^r for ^ftrar (L 23), 

In connection with compounds s the visarga is sometimes wrongly used in the earlier com- 
ponents, cf. tff^T5^fT?f;i3[^j (1. 1). As instances of irregular causatives and their derivatives, 
y v e notice ^fi?iWW (13), ^?s^fim (L 7) and ^WH (11. 5 arid 28). In the text 
given below many of the mistakes have been corrected in round brackets. Owing to bad 
grammar the meaning of some of the passages remains uncertain. For tins reason only a com- 
prehensive summary of the contents instead of a complete translation is given. 

Like the Siyadoni stone inscription, the present epigraph is a collective public copy, of a 
series of ten separate documents recorded at different dates, The inscription itself is not dated, 
but each ol the component records contains its own date. Inscription No. 1 is interesting inas- 
much as it is dated in the reign of the Paramabhattfiraka MaliarajSdhiraja Parame- 
svara and illustrious Blaojadeva (of Kauiauj), the .successor and, presumably, the son of the 
Payumabhattaraka Mahapajadb.iraja Paranae&vara and illustrious RSmabhadradeva. Other 
inscriptions of this king are the Deogadh Jain pillar inscription of tjie Vikramayeaj 



M BPIGBAPHU INDICIA. [Voi. XIX- 

919 and tike aka year 784, the Peheva (Pehoa) inscription of the HarsharSamvat 276, the 
undated pratoi at Gwalior, the iBsCription in Pandavo-ka-kila at Delhi, 1 the Gwalior 
inscription of Yikrama-S&mvat 932, and the Crwalior inscription of Vikrama-Sai&vat 933.* 

The remaining nine documents of the present inscription do not mention the names of -the 
kings who were ruling at the time they were recorded. Nine of the ten dates mentioned in the 
inscriptions are given in terms of the Harsha -era, though the name of the era is nowhere speelfied. 
This is also th case in the Dighwa Bubauli plate of Maharaja Mahendrapaladeva and other 
inscriptions, the dates of which must evidently be referred to the Harsha era. It will be ob. 
served that the tens and units figures of the dates in the first two inscriptions are denoted by 
numerical symbols, and the hundredgfby ordinary numeral figures, as is the case with the dates 
of the remaining 'eight inscriptions* These dates range between the years 258 and 298, corres- 
ponding respectively to A.D. 864 and A,D. 904. The tenth inscription, i.e., ifo. IV of the series, 
is dated in the Vikratna year 943, TJbe -exact -duration of the s reign of Bhojadeva is not known and 
all that we know at pfesejat is that he was ruling at Kanauj (Mahodaya or Katiyaknbja) in the 
years 862, 875, 876 and 882. Smith 8 assigned to BhSja a reign of hall a century (ojroa 840- 
690 A.D.')> although no inscription of as warily a date as A.D* 840 and Attributable to his rule 
was forthcoming when he wrote. This want is now supplied by an inscription of Bh5}a fond 
at Barah, District Cawnpore, which is dated in the Vikrama-Samvat 893 (A.D. 836) amd 
baa recently been published.* It clearly shows that the king had come to the throne of Kanauj 
even four years sarlier than* had been tentatively supposed by the late Mr. Smith. 
There is, however, no epigraphical evidence of Bhoja having continued to reign beyond AJX 
882 and consequently we can only refer documents Nos. I, II and IX with certainty to Bhoja 
and Nos. Ill, VIII and X to his successor Mahendrapala, who, we know from the Siyja,<Joni 
inscription, was reigning between the years 903-04 and 907-08 A.D. The remaining four 
inscriptions (Nos. IV to VII) whose dates range between A.D. 886 and A.D. 902 must have 
been issued in the time of either Btioja <o>r MahSndrapala. 

Summary of the inscription. 

Document No. L [Lines 1-2.] This epigraph simply states that on the tenth tifki of tie 
dark fortnight of Marggaira, (Harsha)-Samvat 259 (=A.D. 865), (givenin words and figures), in 
thereignofMaharajadhiraja Bh6jadeva meditating on. the feet of Maharajadhiraja Bama- 
"bhadradeva, this excellent eulogy was engraved at Tattanaadaptira at the bidding ol tbe 
messenger, the daydapaMJca Amaraditya and under the orders of the illustrious (and) noble 
Chaturwaidya, i.e., the community of Brahma^as 5 acquainted with the four Yedas. 

Document No. II. [11. 2-6.] This -inscription appears to state that on the tenth t&hi 
of the dark fortnight of ABhacpfra, [Harsha-Samvat 258 (in words and figures), Bhadraprakafe, 
son of Bhaddaka Arh&avaka f the WtyiJc-v&TrTcJcata caste "which had migrated from Bhillamalq, 
fcud was midi&g at Tattimndapuira, and Mamhka, Bon of Go&tka and of the Lam- 
baka&ehtika-wt^ caste, purchased -with drammas belonging to the illustrious EafichanadSvf, 

i Ep. Ind., Vol. T, App. f List oj Inscriptions of Northern India, Kos. 14 15, 16 and 646 $ X & R., 1903-04, 
pp. Z17 se^^d-the Annual BepwtoJ tiht Ajmer Museum for 1923-2*, p. 3 respectively. The Delhi inscriR- 
tioa -was found Wit in a modern flight of steps inside the Talaqi gate ol the P&ndav8-k5kila or tbe Indrapat Forfe, 
m it is commonly called. At my jwggestMwa thie inacriptioo has been fca'ken out and placed in the Delhi fort 
Museum. 

* [The Barak copper-plate may also be added to this list. Ed,] 
Oxford History of India, p. 183. 

*See above, pp. 15 ft 

* TSow called Cbaube. Ed.] 



N0a 7 j AHAB STONE INSCRIPTION. &5 

an dvdn (a shop or enclosure), which contained three roomgy together with entire elevation, 
and that the community of the Sawwrtyni&a traders together with the two person Bkadra and 
Manmka assigned the Sochi in question to the aforesaid temple of Kanch&maiOTi to- provide 
funds for perpetual cleaning and plastering, sa&oo, flowers, incen&e, lamps, flags, whitewash- 
ing and the repairs of broken and cracked buildings. Obviously what is meant by the passage 
is that the materials, etc., mentioned above, were to be provided for out of the rent of the place 
acquired and the entire community f the sawarwUcas, with sons, grandsons and other descen- 
dants, is enjoined to re&pect the transaction mentioned in the record. The inscription contains 
a detailed description of the situation and boundaries (ckaturSghSta) of the 5wrS, whi^h stood in 
the centre oi the town (Xattanandapura), in, the middle portion ol the eastern bazaar. 

Document No. III. [11. 6-7.] Like document No, I, this epigraph also simply records 
that this inscription was engraved at Tattanandapnra at the bidding of the messenger Kaluva 
and under the orders of the illustrious Uttara-sabha (Supreme- association), on the eighth tithi 
of the bright fortnight of the month of Ohaittra, when two hundred years of the [Harsha] era 
Increased by ninety- eight (=A.D. 904) had elapsed. 

Document No. IV. [IL 7-11.] Thk inscription registers the fact that there weue foui 
person, named Madhava, the son of Maga y who was the son of . . . ., his (Madhava'a) younge r 
brother MadhusMana, Ke&ava, the son of Goviada, the son of Sarwaaa, aaaA Devanaga^ 
the son of Sarvvasa, and that, after bathing in the Ganges at a lunar eclipse, they gave, on the 
lith tithi of the dark fortnight of Pausha of [Vikrama]-Samsvai 943 (expired), for the increase 
of their parents' and their owa religions merit and fame, as surety for a monthly payment of 
ten vimsopakds to the illustrious KaiaakasridOTi* a house-site which had been acquired by 
their grandfather Maiiigalavarmman for a term of niiiety-nime years and on which they had 
themselves constructed with burnt brinks two apavarakas (inner apartments) which faced to th 
east, half of which wa* occupied by a large pillared hall, and which were entered by doorways 
on the east side. ' The donors further enjoin their sons, grandsons and other descendants in 
succession to enjoy the reat of the above-mentioned house after they had paid every month tern 
wvU&paka* to the temple of the goddess named above. The house in question was situated iu 
ita central portion, of the eastern bazaar oi Tattajmndapura amd its boundaries were :~- 

On the east, a lane ; on the south, the site of the house belonging to Vijatta, ; OH the west* 
ito site of the house belonging to Bhatta Imdra ; and on the north, the house of the merchant 
Ujtrvaka. 

Document BTo. V. [IL 11-14.] This inscription states that on the 8th tithi of the dark 
fortnight of Phalguna, when 280 ^ears of the [Harsha] era had elapsed, the gtehfhi purchased 
with money belonging to the "illustrious Eanaka^rldevf, by a deed of ninety-nine years, the 
southern half of a building site, measuring 27 cubits on each side, which was situated in the 
south-eastern portion of the same town and contained a dwelling of burnt brick facing to the west 
and two avdris facing to the south together with all the inner apartments and total elevation, 
from Bhatta I(I)6vara, the son of Mahadeva, and Mahadeva, the son of Asaiva, who belonged 
to the illustrious noble Chaturvaidya caste, residing at the illustrious Tattanandapura, with 
the consent of the mother lyatta and gave it to the temple. 

Document No. VI. [11. 14-16.] This inscription records that on the llth tithi of the 
daak fortnight of Marggafoa, when two hundred and eighty-seven years of the [Hareha] era had 
elapsed, a& dvdn comprising three rooms, and facing towards the west, which was sitoated in the 
middle 'portion of the eastern bazaar, inside the town of Tattanandapnra, was acquired, with 
padlocks and wooden doors together with entire elevation, with money belonging to tie 



56 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Voi. XIX* 

illustrious KanakaSridevi, from the kshatriya merchant Sahaka, the son of Ichchhuka, by a 
sale deed of the extreme duration of ninety-nine years. The boundaries of the place were : 

On the east, the house belonging to the merchant Paiieka; on the south, the avail of 
GandhasrldevI 5 on the west, the bazaar; on the north, the avari belonging to Sarvvadeva, 
tie son of the merchant Jayamti* 

Document No. VII [11. 16-20.] This document registers the fact that on the 14th 
tithi of the bright fortnight of Bhadiapada in the year 296 of the [Harsha] era," the Sauvarwika 
Mahajana acquired, with money belonging to the illustrious KanakafaidevI, by a charter of 
ninety-nine years' duration, anat>&i, which faced to the east, was constructed with burnt bricks, 
comprised three rooms, and was situated in the town of Tattanandapura in the middle portion of 
the eastern bazaar, together with the padlocks and doors and the entire elevation, from Bhatjsa 
Divakara, the son of Bhatta-Taraga^a, AchyutaSiva and DamodaraMva, the sons of Saiva- 
Bhatta-Diyaka, and InaiMa-Bhatta-Siva, the son of Achyuta&va, all of whom resided in 
Tattanandapura, belonged to the noble Chaturvvaidya caste, followed the Bahvjicha-AfitAS of 
the Rigveda and belonged to the arkarakshi-jora. 

The av&n in question was bounded on the east by the bazaar, on the south by the awl 
belonging to the illustrious DaSavatara-iIeva (ten incarnations), on the west by the temple be- 
longing to Sri-Nanda-BhagavatT, and on the north by the avari belonging to the temple of 
Sarwamaragaladevl in the orchard of Sutuvaka with the consent of the mother Bhattinf 
Mahadevl. 

Document No. VIII [11 20-22.] This inscription was recorded at the Bidding of the 
messenger Kavilaka and under the orders of the illustrious Uttara-salha at Tattanandapura on 
the 13th tithi of the bright fortnight of Jyeshtha in the year 298 of the [Harsha] era (=A.D. 
904). Here we learn %t formerly (U, in Vikrama-Samvat 943) Sarvvasa, the son of Mamgal'a- 
varmman mentioned above (inscription No, IV), together with sons and grandsons, had given a 
house, facing towards the east, as a surety for the monthly payment of ten vimsopaMs out of 
its rent. This inscription records that the hhatnyas Kokaka and Padmanabha, the sons 
of Madhustdana, who resided in Tattanandapura, also Lachchhika, the wife of Devanaga, 
and Sampat, the wife of Madhava, made over the entire rent by a deed of ninety-nine years 
to the holy KanakaSrldevI in consideration of payment out of the funds of the said temple 
by the Sauvanpiika Mahajana. 

Document No. IX. [11. 22-24.] This inscription states that on the 3rd tithi of the 
dark fortnight of Ishadha, when 2fU years of the [Harsha] era had elapsed, the Sauvaiwifa 
Mahajana purchased with money belonging to the illustrious KanclianaSridevI, by a sale deed 
of the extreme duration of ninety-nine years, 1 a house constructed with burnt bricks, together 
with its entire elevation, which faced towards the west, and was situated in the middle portion 
of fclia eastern bazaar in the town of Tattanandapura, from the merchant Madhava, the son of 
levanaga who belonged to the Mathura caste and was a seller of perfumes, residing in the 
above-mentioned town, who had originally purchased the house with his own money. 

Document No. X. [11. 24-28.] This inscription states that on the 5th tithi of the dark 
fortnight of BhSdrapada, in the year 298 of the [Harsha] era, the Sauvarniiika Mahajana 
acquired, by a deed of ninety-nine years, with money belonging to the illustrious KanakafaldevI, 
six amis, namely, one man measuring 27 cubits along each side, the northern half of which 
was occupied by a house built with burnt bricks, one other which comprised two rooms, 
also three amis, each comprising two rooms, and one man consisting of two rooms 
one of which faced to the ?iorth and the other to the west, from Bhatta Ianadatta, the 
eon of Bhatta Kc&iva, who belonged to the noble Chaturvvaidya caste, the Bharadvaja^ 
1 Er, H. Sustn inlunna uie that the nu^ty nine years 1 lea&e ia \r.'!i- known in Southern India, 



-No. t.] AHAE STONE INSCRIPTION, 5? 

gKra and the Bahvricha-^aMa (of the JJigveda). These avans were situated in the middle 
portion of the north-eastern part of the town of Tattanandapura, and had descended to the seller 
from his father and grandfather, after being duly partitioned with his uncle, grandfather and 
brothers. The boundaries of the property purchased are duly mentioned and it is further 
remarked that whatever rent accrues from this immovable property should be religiously applied 
to the provision of saffron, incense, flowers, lamps, flags and to whitewashing and the repairs 
of the broken portions of the temple. 

From the above extracts it will be seen that as many as seven of the documents included 
in the inscription record acquisition of land or houses with the revenues of a temple of the goddess 
KanakadevI which was situated in the town of Tattanandapura. This goddess is denoted by 
the synonymous name of Kanchanadevl, i.e. Kanchanadevi, in documents Nos, II and IX. Six 
of these purchases (Nog. II, VI-X) were effected by the Sauvarnnika-MaMjana while the seventh 
(No. V) was accomplished by gdslthis or a certain gdshthi, presumably the managing committee of 
the temple, which, apparently, controlled the MaMjana mentioned above*, This assump* 
tion is borne out by document No. X from which we leara that whereas the acquisition 
of the property mentioned therein was made by the Sauvariinika Mahajana, it was the function 
toi the goshthi to ensure the application of the rent derived from it to the provision of the usual 
materials of worship and repairs, etc. The Uttara-sabha mentioned in inscriptions Nos. Ill and 
VIII would appear to have been identical with the gdshthi referred to above or the general con- 
tx oiling body. The object of these purchases would appear to have been the safe investment 
of the income of the temple. The houses or other property thus acquired were let out on rent 
and the amount thus obtained was utilized for the maintenance of the temple, the entire capital 
thus remaining intact. 

The persona from whom the property referred to above was purchased were either 
merchants of different castes (Nos. II, VI and IX) or Bhattas, i.e., Brahmanas 
(Nos. V, VII and X), all of whom resided in the town of Tattanandapura. It will be noticed 
that most of these sales were subject to a lease of ninety-nine years' duration. Inscription 
No. IV is the only record of a free gift which was donated by four private persons after bathing 
in the Ganges at a lunar eclipse. 

The temple of Kanakadevi, mentioned above, was situated in the town of Tattanandapura, 
splt as Tatanandapura in one or two places, which must have formed part of the dominions 
of Bhojadeva as is evident from document No. I. This town was most probably identical witli 
the town of JLh.ar where the inscription under discussion has been discovered and like which it 
was situated on the banks of the Ganges. Tattanandapura must have been an important town, 
for, besides the temple of Kanakadevi, it contained temples dedicated to other Brahmamcal 
deities also. Such were the temples of the goddess Nanda-Bhagavat! and Vamana-svamin men- 
tioned in inscription No. II ; Gandhadevi (inscription No. VI) ; the ten incarnations of Vishnu 
and SarvvamamgaladevI (No. VII). Some of these edifices may still be buried in the mounds 
at JLhar. The town contained main bazaars (katta-margga), main streets (v(b]rihad~rathya) and 
small streets (ku-rathya)> and the houses in it "were constructed mostly with burnt bricks. 
It must also have been an important centre of trade, for merchants migrated to it from the 
distant towns of Bhillamala (modern Bhinmal or Bhilmal), the ancient capital of southern 
Rajputana mentioned in inscription No. II, and Apapura 1 (inscription No. IV) which cannot 
yet be identified. 

1 It 19 difficult to say if thia place has anything to do with Apapuii or P,~ i pl or Pav5, situated seven inilea 
to the south-east of Bihar towa, where Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara, died or attained Kevalihood. 
Geographical Dictionary cf Ancient and Medieval India, by Nandolal Bey. Indian Aitiquary, October 
Ijaje H8, 

I 



SB EHGRAPHIA 1ND1CA. [VOL. 

The only state official mentioned in the inscription is the ia%$wp<ttika AmarSditya in 
l"o. L Only two yarieties of corns are named in the inscription, Th^se ate the drammas (i 3) 
and the whiBpakas (II 10, 11 and 20), Coins of the former designation aw well k 
The vim$op&Jcas would appear to have been a fractional part of the dmmma. 



[Document No, L] 

1 

^T^lf^wq^i^^ 



II [Document No. II] 



W] 



5 [fa] 5 






1 [The floral designs eprating these documents, though seen on the plate, are omitted in tha text. -Si] 

[The conjunct letter ^ of the ligature goes with *amii<a an^, tlje syrnW for r5 stands for hundred. So ilta 
correct reading would be satnvat 100 x 2 (i.e., 200) etc. Ed.] 
1 Written below the line, 

The usual fom wpold be TTSlfcrfan^taf, ^ngh the wads in the origuiftl inscription might (Jo, ii 
h woniBJufJf;, TOftlf tc - wero royplied hy the rewfer. 
* Here two letters are miasin^, J5er three or fow letter* are twiag. 



No, 7.] 



6 



8 



9 



10 



12 



AHAE STONE INSCRIPTION. 



59 



[Document No. Ill] 



tt [Document No. IV] 

t fwiftt ^fr^THt ^r[^r]wiTTfiT: 



WWW 



No. V] 



H [Document 




i Here about 22 letters are imsaiug. 



: ,r3~ ^su* ' - - - * B - - * "* s 'T; 



60 EPIGRAPHIA JNDICA. [VoL. XIX, 

13 *si; weftwfof TO'^wnrafanrrer) air 



is 



18 



19 



16 



Tf u [Document No. VII] 
17 



1 Bcftd "l"^- 
3 Tl e \\nnl gj^ is 



u [Document 

. VI] 



No. 7.] AHAR STONE INSCEIPTION. 61 



20 w( 

[Document No. VIII] 



22 



23 



24 



26 



21 TOFiHrhi fiwr t^^Fi^ra! ^f^grr ?m 



ll [Document 

No. 






(2T) 



n [Document No. X] 



25 ^H^ra ! ^rr^a^im'WTT^T^H'ftw^(f)^'?r^ 



62 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. >XIX. 




No. 8. JEJUBI PLATES OF VINAYlDITYA : SAKA-SAMVAT 609. 
BY PROP. D. B. BHASTDABKAB, M.A. ; CALCUTTA. 

These plates, which belong to the earty Chalukya dynasty, came from a village called i 
in the Poona District. In September, 1917, Mr. P. B. Gothoskar of the Bombay Asiatic Society 
was good enough to *md them to me for inspection. But, as my hands were then too full with 
other matters and I had not enough leisure, I had to be content with merely publishing a short 
aotice of the inscription, for the information of scholars, in the Annual Progress Report of the 
Archaolognal Survey of India, Western Cirde, for the year ending 31st March, 1917. I have 
* ableto P re P are ^^ecess a ry transcript and am now in B position to edit the 



t |, 1 v 1 .u 6aCl1 f t3iein measurin S about 9f by 4". The first and the 

third platBs are mscnbed on one side only, while the second is on both the sides. The letteT 

-pnthewhole.aremanezcellentstateofpreservation.andhavebeenneatlyincised. The lamruaee' 

Tm^fto ; ? 5f **, T 00 ^ V6rSe at * he be ^ in and the benedicZ^l 

imprecatory verses at the end, the inscription is throughout in prose. In point of pliraseoC 



. o piraseo 

^her published records of the earlv^Chalukya family, espec theoral 
ts which abo belong, like the pre^nt^ilEe^ha-luka king Vinayaditya 



A DInK , 

A.D In tespect of orthography, the letters *, d, n and * are doubled after , as in 

IvedlTT f^f^ (1 : "> ' ""ftWMH^rtW^ (1. 21) and mV^cm (1. 30) 
ployed mstead of n only once m fc*t (1. 35). In many places the ommam is wrongly 

The mscnption refers itself to the 9th year of the reign of VteaySditya and is dated 

eclTthrit? (eX ^\rr Sfmdin t0 A ' D - 687 ' The Ob ^ ect ^ thelns^inl * to 
record the gift of a ullae called Vira situated between Kalahatthana Parafichika and 






No. S.] JEJURI PLATES OF YINAYADITYA ; ^AKA-SAMVAT 601 3 



is undoubtedly the present Budleebudrak (Atlas Sheet No, 39) s five miles south-east of 
fra, the village granted, is certainly the modern Veer of the Atlas Sheet (N. tat. 18 9", B. 
Loug. 74 9") 9 from which the surname Virkar among De^astha Brahmanas is derived. It is 
about 1 J miles to the north of the river Nlri, which again is identical with the river of the same 
name mentioned in this grant. The village of KalaitattMma cannot be identified at present. 
ParificMka is obviously Paramchi (or Porinche) and Hari^ayiga is the same as the modern 
HatQl, about 3 and 2J miles north and north-east of Vira, respectively. 1 

Before the discovery of these plates, eight records 3 of the reign of Vinayaditya were known. 
Of these, one, namely, the Lakshme^vara inscription, which professes to bear the earliest date 
(aka 608) among the dated records of Vinayaditya s has been proved to be spurious 8 by the late 
Dr. Fleet, So the Jejuri inscription, which bears the Sake, date 609, is to be regarded as the 
earliest of the dated records of that prince* 

This record is not altogether without some importance. One eminent scholar has said that 
Vinayaditya subdued the Pallavas, Kalabhras and others and made them his faithful vassals 
between Ms eleventh and fourteenth years, 4 He was led to this view, because this fact * c is not 
Mentioned in the grant of the eleventh year of his reign (Ind. Ant., Vol. VI, p. 89), while it does 
occur in that of the fourteenth year (p. 92) and in those of his successors." 5 But we can now say 
that the event certainly took place at least in the ninth year of his reign as it is found mentioned 
in this inscription, 

TEXT. 

first Plate. 
Svasti [I*] Jayaty=avishkrita[m*] Vish^6rwarahaih kshSbhit-axw^yazb [(*] dakshi^- 

onmta-damshtr-agra- vifecanta-bhuvanam vapuli [ |j *] Sri- 
matam sakala-bhuvana-sainstuyamana-Manavya-sagotraEiarli 7 Hariti s -putriiam sapta- 

loka-matribhi- 
s=asapta-matribhir*abhivarddhitanam KSrttikSya-pariiaksha^a-prapta-kalya^a-parania 

parartam Bhagayan-Na- 

4 rayaiia-prasada-samasadita-varaha-lanchhan-ekshana-ksta^a - va^lkrit - S&fsha - mahlbh?i- 

tarn Ghali- 

5 kyanam kulamala^arish^5r=a^vamedh-avabh|itha"Snana-pavitrikpta-g5te fed- 

Fulake^i-vallabha- 

6 maharaj asya simulj. paiakram-akra[m*]ta 9 - Vanavasy-adi-para-niipati-man^ala-praijii- 

baddha-[vi-] 

7 Suddha-Mrttih 6r!-E3rttivaraainia-p|:ithivivallabha'maharajas*tasy*atmajas 

samsakta-sakal- Ottarapa- 

8 th-efivara-ki-Harshavarddhaiia-parajay-opalabdha - parameSvar - .para - namadheyas- 

SatyaSray a- ^ 



1 Annual Progress Report of the ArcJil Surv. of India, Western Circle, 1917, p. 49. 

2 Fleet, Dynasties oj the Kanareae Districts, Son. Gaz t , Vol I, Part II, pp. 368-70 ; D.B, Bhandarkar, 
9 Vol. XL, p. 240, 

3 Dynasties of the Kunarew Districts, p. 308, note 8. 

* Eaily History of the DMan, .Second Edition, Bomb. @az, 9 Vol I, Pail II, pp. 188-89. 

* I&iU, p. 189, note 1. 6 From the original plates. 

* Bead "sagfttranum. & Boad 



61 EPIGRAPHIA IKDIOA. [Vol. XIX. 

9 llabta-maliarajadhiraja-parameSvaras^tat-priya-sutasya ikrami,ditya-parame^vaia- 
bhattarakasya 

10 pavi-sahaya^sahasa-iaBtra-samd - rajya - vibhavasya 

vividlia-rasi- 

Second Plate ; Fmt Side. 

11 ta-sita-samara-mukha-gate^^ - patak - avabhasita* 
r dig-a- 

12 ntarasya, timakara-kara-vimala-kula-paribhava-vilaya-lietu-Pallava- pati - parajay* 

ananta- 

13 ra-parigpMta-KBUcbl-purasya prabliava-kuliSa-dalita-Pan^ya-ChSla-Kirala-dhara* 

jntidhara-trayama- 

14 8 na-mana-5rimgasya ananya-samavanata-KMcM-pati-makuta"kata 4 -kirana-sali]-ablii* 

shikta-cliara- 

15 $a-kamalasya tri-samudra-maddhyavartti-bhEvana-mandal-adhiSvarasya sunuh pitur* 

ajna[ya] 

16 Bal-endu-&ekharasy*eva Senaiarddaitya-balam=atisamuddliatam trairajya-KSfi* 

cbl-pa- 

17 ti-balam=avashtabliya sairiasta-vIsliaya-praSamanad-vihita-tan-mano-nuraSjanaii at* 

yanta-vatsalatvadYu- 

18 dtishthira iva 6pI-R5matvadVasud5va Iva nrip"aibkuatvat*Para6urama iva raja^a* 

yatvad*Bha[rata i]- 

19 va Pallava-Kalablira-KIrala-Hailiaya-Vila-Malava-Glaola-Pandy-adyah yen* 

Aluva s -Gaiiig*' adyai- 

20 r=mraaulaissaina ::< bhrityatan3i!tab 



Second Plate ; Second Side* 

21 jadhiraja-parame^ara-bhattarakasya [|| *] Yiditaxn*aatU vosmabhir=nnav~5ttara~ 

sliat-clihateshti Saka- 

22 [va]rah5shvatit8riiu 6aka- varskBsli v^atltSshu c pravarddhamana- vij ay a-rSjya- 

samvatsare navarne vartta 

23 mane Palayattlia^a-pratyasanBa-Blia^aH-gramam^adliivasati vijaya-skandli5vare 

Asha- 



24 4 a7 "^ aur W ainas y^ i: " L Bliarnma^a-raja-vijnapaiiaya Kaundinya-gotrasya Dugga* 

fiarmmariat pautraya 

25 PanchalaSarmniaBal). putraya AllaSarrnma^ie Palayatthafita-^ishaye Sa (?)- 

26 timala-bhoge Nira-nady-uttara-tatasthalt Kalahatth,a^a-Paranchika-Hari- 



27 giamayor J mmadhyastliali Vlra-nama gramaa->sabhoga8sarwa*parihar-6peto dattah 



1 Kaed mati-satiaya . * Read 

3 Reo-i trSyamwa**. 4 JRead Knta. 

8 [The plate feeems to have JMT. Ed,] 

* Ivultmtlv tbib has been repeated through oversight 7 Head 

fi Better omit yor*ln or nad gramaq&m. Ed*] 



JEJURI PLATES OF VINAYADITYA: SAKA-SAMVAT 609. 



J-,tl&f 




^^?r<f(p^<g*:^#* 



. - 

tiii^^ 



10 




20 



20 



HIUANANDA SASTRI. 



SCALE TWO THIRD, 



SUKMS)\ OF INDIA, TALCOTTA, 








34 



No - 9 -3 SEVEN INSCRIPTIONS FROM MATHURA. 65 

iigjigrii.^^...^-...'.' M"-ag,Ti' IT ....... .in ..... ......... -.,^,. l .., , ;; ....... , jji,^. ,,-.,-, i .. J, 1 ' . .. !__.... .. ............ ,.,,, ...., ..... ....... ,,,,,.^, ......... .._,.., ........ .............. L .,, J ,, I ...... ^ ...... ^ ...... , , ' ., ^^rr^, 

28 Tad* agamibMr*asmad-vaifasyair*a'ayai-'3ha rSjabnir-ajTii-aifivaijy-adlnaih vilasita- 



Plate. 
29 m achirarii&u * chamchalam * avagachchhadbhii a - chandr-arka dhar - arnnava - sthiti- 



30 ya6aS*cHcMsh.ul)liis*Bva-dattl-tiirVTi6eslia2L paripalaniyam [!*] l Pr5ktaS-cLa Bha- 

gava- 

31 ta veda-vylsena VyasSna [I*] Bahubhir=vvasudha bhukta iSjabhis*Sagar-adibhir- 

yyasya- 2 

32 yaaya yada bh5mis*tasyatasya tada phalatB [j*] Svandaturii8mnahachchhakjraiii 

33 duhkham=anyasya palanam [[*] datiafm*] va palanam v*efci danacli*clilirey6^ 

niipala- 

34 narii [I*] Sva-datta[m*] para-datta[ni*] va yo tareta vasundtarafiii I*] shashti- 

varsha-sahasra^i vislitliayani jaya- 

35 te kTi[m]ih [I*] Maha-sandtivigratika-Sri-Bamapii^yavallabkena likMtam^idam 

6Saanaih [I*] Om 



Kb. 9.^-SEVEN INSCRIPTIONS FROM MATHURA. 

BY DATA RAM SAHNI, M.A., RAI BAHADUB. 

The seven inscriptions edited in this paper aie some of those brought to light in recent years by 
Rai Bahadur Pandit Radha Krishna, Honorary Curator of the Museum of Archseology at 
Mathurt* Some of these have been found in excavations carried out by him on behalf of 
the Director General of Archeology in India, while others have been acquired from private 
possession. All the seven inscriptions discussed in this note are comparatively short dedicatory 
records which register the installation of images or other objects on which they are inscribed. 
With the exception of inscription No. V, all the others are in a more or less damaged condi- 
tion, Like most of the other Brahmi inscriptions of the Kushana period, the documents edited 
here are composed in the mixed dialect, consisting partly of Prakrit and partly of Sanskrit 
words and forms. Peculiarities of this dialect have been fully discussed by Buhler 3 and it is 
not necessary to make any further remarks here. Six of the objects on which the inscriptions 
are engraved belong to the Buddhist faith, while document No JY is engraved on the pedestal of 
an image of the Jaina Tlrthankara Vardlamana- Only one of the inscriptions, ro., No, II, con- 
tains the name of the ruler of the time, namely, HuvislAa. No, I, which is dated in tHe year 
22 must have been installed in the reign of UO1*' while No. IV dated in the year 84 
would belong to the reign of VteudWtea point of inteiest in these documents is the mention 
Tf the names of four monasteries which existed at Mathura *^ ^^.^^ 
are the PravHrika^iMra or the monastery of the cloak-makers (No- I), the &riHrtiAra 

the monastery of the goldsmiths (No. VI) and the 



edifices appears to be referred to in 




of th Moyal AMfo Society *or 1924 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VoL. XIX- 



No. 1. Buddha image inscription of the year 22. 

This inscription, which consists of two lines, ia engraved on tie lower rim of the base of a 
headless image of Buddha (height 2' 1"; w, 1' 6|") which was found in the city of Mathuia afcd 
acquired for the Museum m 1918, The first line is in a good state of preservation but osriy one 
or two ahhaias have survived in the second. 

TEXT* 

L Om Siddhara Sa[rfa*] 20 2 gri 2 di 30 asyani p5ivvayai& Pravarika-vila5ri 
Buddha-pratiznft pratisht(th)apita 

2 ....... ' ...... [samdhi] ......... 

TRANSLATION* 

e ' Qiii Success ! On the 30th day of the 2nd [month] of siammer, in the year 22, 

oa this occasion as specified, (this) imag of Buddha wast installed in the Pravarika-vihara 

j? 

No* II, BddMsattva image inscription of the year 39, l 

TEXT, 

L [Maharajasa de^jvapntrasa Huv[]slikasya ^^s& 30 9 va 3 di 5 gtasyaiil 

purvayam blnkhujaij r e FtisajbLathiniyi sa 

2. bhikhuiiiye Bwdliadevayi BOdhisatvA pratithBpitG saha matapitihi sarva-satva* 



TRANSLATION. 

u (In the reign) of the Maharaja, the Devaputra, Huvishfca, on the 5th day of the 
3rd [month] o the rainy season in the year 39, on this date as specified above, (this) 
BSdMsattYa was set up hy a nun named Puiahathini, together with the nun Budtu&devig 
together with (her) parents, foi the welfare and happiness of all sentient beings/ 5 " 

No. XII. Bddhisattva image mscription. 8 

TEXT, 

1, Maharajasa D5va[putrasa] . . , . sa m . . , he . . , di 10 9 
[asySm] purvayam s[]rthavahSsa b3ia- 

2. vasa , , . [ni]sa kutubiniy Dlia[^ya]bhavay5 [danam 
d*attra p[u]-nya[m] ta[d=bhavatu] 



TKANSUITION. 

u On tlie 19th day of the , . . month of the cold weather in the ... 
of the reign of the Maharaja, the PeYapntra . . . . . this BddMsattva ia the gift 
of Dha[nya]bhava s the wife of . , . . , the caravan merchant. Whatever merit there 
5s in it, may it be ..... ......." 

1 The image in question is described in the A. S. E. for the year 1916-17, Pt, I, p, 13, and illustrated iu 
PI. VII, fig. (X Sec also the Annual Progress Eepori of the Superintendent, Arehaohpeal Suney, Hindu 
J/owen^, Northern CM tie, for the ywn ending 31st March 1917, p, 8. 



No 9/j SEVEN INSCRIPTIONS FROM MATH0RA. 67 

No. IV. Vard&amana image pedestal inscription of the year 84.* 

TEXT, 

1. Oih Siddha[m] fcatxii] 80 4 va 3 di 20 S etasmi purvva7a[iii] Damitrasyft 
dliit[u] Okha- 

2. rik5yi kutubiniy Datayi *danai& Yard&arn&zia-pratijma pratitiuapita 

3. gwatS KottiyatS [ba] , s[ya] Satyasfeas[ya] . . 

dliaravridMsya ni[ivartana*] 

TRANSLATION. 

" Om Success I On the 25th day of the 3rd (montfo) of the rainy season in the 
year 84, on this occasion as specified, (this) image of Vardhamlna, a gift of dkhariky* *b* 
daughter of Damitra, and Data (Sanskrit Dattfi), the wife of a householder,* was set up under the 
advice of .... Satyasina and . , . dliaravridM, of the X6ttiya-#$&," 

If o. V. Stone slab inscription. 

This inscription is engraved on a atone slab, measuring 2' 11* in length, 11* in width and 
2f " in thickness, which was reclaimed from the Gau-Ghat well in the city of If athura. It is roughly 
dressed on three sides. The fourth side contains an inscription of three lines, each measuring 
I' 2|" in length. The inscription is in a perfect state of preservation. 

Neither the date nor the name of the ruling king is mentioned. The inscription records the 
installation of an image of a BodMsattva, and the slab on which it is engraved must have 
been exhibited by the side of the statue. 

TEXT. 

1. B6dliisatv5 saha mata-pitihi saha upajhayena Dlmrmakena 

2. saha atevasikehi saha atevasinihi Siri-viliari 

3. achariyana SamitiyaLa parigrahe sarva-Budha-pujaye 

TRANSLATION, 

" (This) BddMsattva (was dedicated by somebody, whose name is not mentioned), toge- 
ther with parents, together with the preceptor, Dharmaka, together with male pupils, together 
with female pupils, at the Siri-viliara for the acceptance of the Samitiya teachers, for the 
glorification of all the Buddhas." 

No. VI. Stone bowl inscription. 

This inscription is engraved round the outer upper edg<5 of a hemispherical stone 
bowl supported on the broken head of a male figure (ht. 1' V). The fragment was lying in the 
Jamna Bagh on the right- bank of the Jamna river just outside the Mathura city and was being 
used for watering cattle. Bai Bahadur Pandit Radha Krishna acquired it for tlie Museum by 
substituting a little masonry reservoir for the aforesaid purpose. The head of the statue is 

i F ;de ^m^Z Pro0ws 1^ B*ddk*> Mon*- 

aunt*. Northern Circle, for tU year ending Blst March 19 J, p. 10. WVTTTT n , 

3 This name also occurs in a Mathura inscription of the year 299 (Ind. Ant., Vol XXXVII, p. 33 ana PL 

facing p. 2* tmiislatioii Qf the epigraph> i have interpreted the word tefu^^Bttiskrit totwMW in its generic 
sense as the wife of a householder. It might equally well be a proper name. If this suggestion were correct, it 
would be possible to identify the three female figures to the right of the wheel in fche centre of tea ba^e 
of the image with the three ladies who donated the image, and the three male figures on the opposite sidt with 
the th roe men who suggested the pious act, . 

K. tat 



S 8 EHGBAPHIA INDICA. [VoL. XIX. 

jnuch defaced and the features of the face and the ears are damaged. The turban is interlaced 
with a flower garland and we notice, above the forehead, a large round knot encircled with a garland 
and leaves. The inscription consists of two lines measuring 3' 7** and 8J respectively- The 
first line which begins immediately above the level of the right ear of the statue is preceded by a 
blank space of two inches to mark the commencement of the document. The inscription records 
that the bowl, on which it is engraved, was presented by Ayala, the son of Imdrasama or 
Idrasama, at the hospice of the goldsmiths in honour of all the Buddhas for the acceptance of 
the acharyas, who were great preachers. The name Imdrasama may be construed as equal to 
Indra" or it mav stand for the Sanskrit Imdrasarman. Another bowl similarly mounted on a well- 
.preserved female figure is now kept in the Fyzabad Museum. The bowl being described was pre- 
sumably used for worship. Fa-Hian informs us that in his time the Buddha's bowl was worshipped 
in a monastery at Purushapura {modern Peshawar).! There ate in the Mathura Museum_two 
or three other bowls of stone one of which (ht. 1' 11*, diameter 2' 1") is labelled a Mdkopatra* 
and must have been used for veneration as an imitation of the Buddha's alms-bowl. It is, how- 
ever, noteworthy that a stone bowl unearthed by Sir John Marshall afc Sanch! bears a short in- 
scription to the effect that the bowl in question was used for the storage of the food, which, having 
first been presented to the deity, was afterwards distributed among the pilgrims. 

TEXT. 

1. Imdrasama [or Idrasama]-putasa Ayalasa dana sava-BQdhanam pujaya 
Suvanakara-[vihSre] achariyana [ma]hopad[e]sakana 

2. parigahe 

TRANSLATION. 

" (His lowl is) the gift of Ayala, the son of Imdrasama (or Idrasama) in the 
monastery of the goldsmiths for the adoration of all the Buddhas (and) for the acceptance 
of the teachers who were great preachers." 

No. VII. Stone channel inscription. 

This inscription is incised on one side of a stone fragment (length 1 1") which probably formed 
part of a stone channel for carrying off water. The fragment was found in the debris of a house 
which fell down in 1917 in the Mata Gall lane of Mathura city and was acquired for the Museum 
in August of the same year. 

The inscription is complete at the top and at the bottom but broken of! ab both ends. A 
continuous translation of the document is not practicable. It is, ho'wever, manifest that it records 
the erection of something, possibly the channel itself, on a piece of which it is engraved, in 1 
monastery designated Chutaka-vihara which may possibly be interpreted as Chfctaka* 
vihara, i.e., the mango monastery. The last line contains the year 91 which presumably ia the 
date of the inscription. It should probably be referred to the Kushana era. The pious act 
mentioned in the epigraph was executed for the increase of the religious piety and strength of 
the [Ma]hasSaghikas, one of the eighteen schools into which the Buddhist church was split 
up early in the history of that religion. Two dkthanu at the end of the first line which may 
be read as ryasta cannot at present be explained, though I am inclined to think that the word 
intended was vastavya. -..- .-- r- 

1 Travels of Fa~Eia.ii, translated by Legge, p. 34. 

4iiMMl Bport of the Superintendent, A chceological Sur ey, H ndu and Bud Ih.tt Monument,, Northern 

Circle, for tht ysar ending 31st March 1917, p. 8. 

' See Sh- John Marshall's Ovicte to &*{. p. 104, au<J Catalogue 'of the Mwtum of Archeology at 

p. 37, No. B.I. 



No, 10.] THE KALVAN PLATES OF YASOVARMMAN. 69 

TEXT, 
!.,... pito Cliutaka-vIMrl vyasta . . 

2. . . [Ma]h[&]sAghikana dharma-va(ba)la[vpddhyartham*] 

3. , . [vajrslia^a 90 1 karuzilka ....... 



TRANSLATION, 

" was erected . . . . . . . * for tke increase of the 

religious merit and strength of the [MajhasangMkas (residing) at the Gbutaka-vihira 
, . . ninety-one years ..,,." 



No. 10. THE KALVAN PLATES OF YASOVARMMAN. 

By R, D. BANBBJI, SLA., CALCUTTA, 

The inscription edited below was discovered in a village near Kalvaa in the north-western 
part of the Nasik district of the Bombay Presidency. It was brought to the notice of Mr. A. H. A. 
Simcox, I.C.8., then Collector of the Nasik district, by Mr. GajananGopal Joshi, a teacher of & 
school at Kalvan, who also read portions of the inscription* In the first instance, only the first 
two plates were recovered from a BMI, but on a reward being announced the third plate also was 
found at the same place. The plates were purchased for the Prince of Wales Museum of Bombay 
through Mr. A. H. A. Simcox, I.C.S., who spared no pains to obtain them for that institution. 

The inscription is incised on three plates of copper each measuring 10*x5f*. There is 
a hole in the upper part of each of these plates proving that they were attached together at one 
time by a ring. The ring as well as the peal, that must have been attached to it, are missing. The 
first and third plates are inscribed on one side only, the second plate being inscribed on both the 
sides. The language of the inscription is Sanskrit and, with the exception of the imprecatory 
verses, the entire record is in prose. The inscription abounds with mistakes. Sa is generally 
substituted for &z : cf. yasa for yatafr (11 2, 4, 7, 8, 14), sira for sirafc (1. 3), astti for attti 
(11. 8-9), subha for Aubha (L 11) 3 &n&RalaJcalesvara,fQi KalaTcale^mra (L 12). So also we find ia for 
sa in sahasra instead of sahasm in 11. 8, 33 and 37. VaTcaigda (L 21), pamcfiamsa (1, 20 1), telagM* 
0afra (1. 22 f ,), jin-alaS (L 25), cMuriJca and daydavSsilsa (i 27) are instances of Prakyitism. 

The alphabet of the inscription is Nagarl of the Northern variety of the eleventh century 
A. D. and may be very well compared with that of the Ba&swara 1 and the Ujjain* plates o! 
Bh5jadeva. The at symbol is represented by the two usual strokes at the top of the consonant 
or by a single stroke and a vertical line placed before the letter. Long initial I is distinguished 
from the short by a rectangular stroke placed over the latter (1. 16). A peculiar final form 
of n is to be found in adln in L 28. The letter ya in i 2 (Slyaka) is not closed at tke top aa ia 
generally done. Na has two forms (see li 23 and 24), 

The inscription is not dated but refers itself to the reign of a subordinate chief named 
Yadvarmmaxi. Even the genealogy of this prince, in whose territory the land was gf anted, ip 
omitted. He is simply introduced as having obtained one-half of the town of Sellixka from tfye 
illustrious BMjadeva (I) and as being inite enjoyment of 1,600 villages. This BhSjadeva is said 

1 Above, Vol. XI, plate opposite p. 182. 
*fndian Antiquary, Vol. VI, pp, 53-54. 



EPIJKAPHIA INDIOA. 



[Vox- XIX. 




S,d (S H rS *"'**> 0" ) *"* " Difir , S - ^ e referee iBV^r 

Slyakadevai j ^ ^^ dynasty of Dhara, who wa* the son of Smdhuraja, the 

?!"";/, SOB ofVakpataaja II and the grandson of Slyalca IL The very fact that an ordinary 
fTd^oiy chief dares to make a grant of land without referring the matter to his stizeram shows 
* at the Dower of the Paramaras of Malava had weakened considerably at the time of theisaue 
X^ e rant It is known from the other inscriptions of the Paramaras of Milav* as well *0 
^V Haiavas of Tripuri that Bhoja I, the conqueror of the Komka^a and the great patron of 
Xsnae/liaa sufiered a crushing defeat and had most probably fallen on the battle-field while 
+-7lE2*to stem the tide of a combined invasion on the kingdom of Malava by Karn^a, the kifcg of 
T^'wrl, and BMma I of Gujarat. Though the successor of Bhoja I was on its throne in V. S, 1112 
^1055*4.0.), yet history shows that the kingdom of Malava lost its independence for a short 
tW about that period. It regained its independence under Udayaditya, a kinsman of Bhfija I, 
nd'coatinued to be a divided kingdom up to the twelfth century. It was during theso tremble- 
nome times that the grant was issued by a subordinate chief Ya^ovarmman, who, apparently, 
*ve the genealogy of Bhoja I, by way of custom only. The Svitap^da country, which m the 
as the northern part of the modern district of Nasik, was once conquered by the 
ffchaya king Lakshmanaraja 1 and again by Vapullaka, a general of Karnjgia, the king 
cf Tripuri, some time before the Kalachuri Chedi year 812 (=1061 A.D.). When he (ie* 
Vapuliaka) erected a temple of Siva, in the inscription recording its construction he eimrnef a^fced 
some of the famous battles in which he had fought for his king. Therein he also mentions his 
having defsated a king of Southern Gujarat named Trilochana, who is known from the Surat 
plate* of Saka 972 (=1051 A.D.), and a Jain ascetic named "Vljjala. The conquest of 
^vetapada, wbich is adjacent to Surat, must have taken place after 1061 AJ.X and 
"before 1061 JLD., i.e., about the tune of the fall of Bhoja L We know from the Nftgjmr 
pu&asii of the rulers of Malava that " Bhojadeva's d was "unfortunate 9 and that during the 
troubles which then had befallen the realm, Bhojadeva's relative Udayaditya became king, 
whose great achievement was that he freed the land from the dominion of (the CliSdl) Ejwnja 
who, joined by the Karptas, had swept over the earth like a mighty ocean." 8 The &ame fact 
;s referred to in v. 21 of the Udaipur praiasto of tlie rulers of Malava. 8 

TFe grant under notice differs from the regular knd grants of the Puramara kings of 
MSlava ^n the following details : (1) The absence of the Garu^a and nake aeal or the emblem 
cf the Paramaras. (2) The absence of the date and of the mention of the reigning king as 
Iwcwl \ 3} The absence of the customary verse at the beginning in praise of Siva. It is, there* 
fore, almost certain that this subordinate chief YaSovarmman had issued this grant during 
the period of anarchy which followed the fall of Bkoja I and the occupation of Malava (proper by 
Karga,the king of Tripuri, the anarchical state of things lasting up to the time of li defeat 
of Ksrna by Udayaditya. The Svetapada country whose location is now fixetl by the 
mf ation of the temple of Kalakale&vara, which still exists at a distance of ten miles from 
Kalvan, * as not included in Mfilava proper, but formed a part of the country that lay within 
CTe ! mfeence of the Par mfca rulers at the time of their ascendency. 






l. VII, p. 86 and nte 3, 89, 1. (S, 
*Antc, U1. II, p. 181. 

Vol. I, pp. 230, 233. 



&> 10-] THE KALVAN PLATES Of YA80VARMMAN. 71 

Tlie inscription belongs to the Svetanibara sect of the Jaina religion and is, therefore, 
important, for very few Jama grants have come down to us. Herein we are informed that the 
Bia^aka Ainma, who was a chief of the Gaiga family, while in the village of Muktftpali, in 
the district* of Audrahadi which consisted of eighty -f our rent-free villages (Manyakapatta), after 
hearing the exposition of Dharmma and Adkarmma from the mouth of the illustrious ieharya 
Ammadeva of the Svetambara sect and having been made to understand by his teaching that 
the principal Jaina-dhaimma gives more auspicious results than other dharmmas in this world 
as well as in the next, gave certain pieces of land at MaMshabuddhika in the holy tfrtha of 
KilakaleSvara, on the occasion of a solar eclipse, on the new-moon day of Chaitra. The grant 
consisted of several pieces of land, the first of which measured 40 nwartanas and the second 25 
nivartanas. The latter, however, appears to have been once given by a prince named 
Kakkapairaja, The third measured 35 nivartpnas while the fourth measured two nivartanas and 
consisted of a flower garden. In addition to these pieces of land two oil mills (taUa-gM^alas), 
14 Baniya shops (Vatyik-hattafy), and 14 drammas were also given to the illustrious Muni 
Suvratadeva in the temple of the Jina i& the country of Svetapada which was completely 
repaired (lupta-jlr^oddharam), The land, the oil mills and the shops were given to defray the 
&peuse& of worship, which are enumerated in detail (puj, abfosMka, naiv$dya&d Chaitra* 
pavitraka), as well as for the maintenance of the Jaina monks, who are called Ris-his. The 
officers mentioned areDmWa, Gramataka, GOkuhka, Cft&unka(Chmrika),Sanlkika (Saulhka), 
Damdavasika (Danclapasika), Pratirdjyika and Mahattama. There are eight imprecatory verse 3 
at the end oi the grant> which are numbered. The deed was written by the illustrious 
SamdhwigraJiika Y6givara of the twice-born race. 

Among the places mentioned, DMrS is the modern city of Dhar, which is the capital of the 
native state of the same name in the Malwa Agency of Central India. Kalakale&vara, spelt Kala- 
kdle&vara, is, as has been stated above, a temple of Siva, tea miles to the west of Kalvan, 
in the Nasik district of the Bombay Presidency, I am unable to identify the 'village oE 

Mahishabtaddbika, where the Kanaka Amma resided* and also the district of Atidrahadi* 

TEXT. 

First Plate. 

1 Svasti [I*] Srimam(n) 1 Dl]Laraya3iii Meru-maha-giri-tumga-Sriricig-opame Pravax!tt*-5nvay8 

aneka-samara-samghatta-[sa]- 

2 dhita-Satru-paksha-vistrita-yasa(^o)-dhavalitadig-ariitaraiah 3 - 6x1 - Slyakad9va-pad-anu 

dhyatah Sara[sva]- 

8 tl-mukha-tilaka-blmta(h) kpita-kavya-mukta-sayakaghurminayita 4 si(si)rahkavi-jana 
6atta(tru)-paksha- 

4 firi-Vakpatirajadeva-pad-anudliyatah aneka-mah-ahava-vijit-ari-jana-prathita-yasa^o)- 

nirmmali- 

5 kfita-sakala-dharadhara-dhara-jaladhi - slma - Sri - Sm(Suii)dliiirjadva - pad-[a t ]nu* 

dhyatah mahi,-va(ba)la-prachai!i4a-ri- 

6 pu-patoha-nirddanta-Ka^ - 

piabhpti-ripu-Yargga-nirddarita- 



1 111 it goes with Bhi&, we flhould expect fcrimatyafa instead. Ed ] a Bead 

8 Cancel the visarga [or tie css@-emding here as weU aa in $omo of tb^ 
* Eead 



72 EHGBAfcHlA EJDICA* [Voi* XIX. 



7 janita"trasa-yasa(^o)-dhavalita-b]mvaiia"traya,h Srl-Bhdjadeva^prasad^avapta-nagaia- 

Si[lluk-arddlia]- 
6 s-arddha-salia^ra(8ra)-grama9.ain bhokfcarah* &ri-Yas6(S5)varmma& 3 [ Tasmin* 

vishaye Mukti[pa]lyS*ia, chatur-asi(SI)- 

9 tl-Manyafca-patta-Audrahadi-vialiaye samamto Gai&gakula-tilaka-btitalj Sri- 
* A[mma]ra- 

10 ijtakena j Sve(Sve)tamva(ba)ra4rI-Ammade^ 

agama-vakya-pravo(bo)dliita- 

11 chili 4 [i3*]ena mukkha(k]iya 5 )-JiBadliarmm para-l6ka* 

su(Su)b3ia-pliala-dna [m**] iti vichizh- 

SeconA Plate ; First Side. 

12 [tya] jata-inanasa Mab.ishav(b)uddMIiayarh | sri-Kalakalis <7 /a(^va)r0 punya- 

tf[rtlie Cliai]- 

13 tra-ms*aml[va]syi[ya*]3dbt sHryya-graha^fe] sagara-taramga-cliamcliala*j!val5* 

[ka]ohcliha- 

14 ya-sama Lakshml phen-opamaih jlvitamarii(tam)avadharya mata-pittror^tmanasya* 

punya-yasa(^ah)" 

15 Sri-vriddhaye sopavltena patina pui^y-ottama-t&tthe aihvuiii(bu) gp&Itva 

[na] ka- 

It mamdaluna ChIluvy ? -aavaya-pras5ta-dliarmmapatnJ 4r!-CliaclichII-rajfiI-k 
[niksLipta]- 

17 jalena padati prakstalya bhfiniir^iyam datta MuktSpalyS uttareija Mahndala- 

grlm-ottara- 

18 disa(&a)yam bhum!(rQi)-nivarttanani cliatTariiiis(5)asya 8 sima pfirvve Bad! daksh%5 



19 ma-slma Kakadali pa^chime gartta uttare parwataiii(talL) evam chaturagliata- 

visu(Su)ddha bhumi(mi)[r*i*]yam ta- 

20 tha Kumlrlstana-d6mgariki-ubhaya-tate d-B:akkapal-rfiJa-datta-bhu-niva[r*]tta- 

nani [pa]riicha" 

n visa tatha ^rl-Vakaaigala-prabtpiti-nagareiiia SarhgSma'Hagara-sIma-pariJve Cha^aS- 

22 Hvate niva[r]ttanani pamchafp(tri)m^a[t*] puhpa^-vatika-bhiimi-nivarttana-dvayaiii 

taila [gha]- 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

23 naka-dvaya[m] vaijiika(k)hattaS-chaturdda6a dramma eva shatra" chaturddatein 

dadati [I*] Attani 12 - 

24 kEyaifc v6li[kam 1! J 

achaibdr-a- 



25 rkka-kalam ya[vat] Sve(&ve)tapadaJin-alae(ye) Srl-Miani-Suvratadivya nivfe*! 

dita | , Puj-abhishe- 



would indicate that Yasovarmman was a Samanta or lather some subordinate officer of fchoja. 1 

1 Cancel the syllable rah. 'Read varmna. 

* [Doubtful j Mhe(Ue)na would be more likely. Ed. ] 

[The reading seems to be muktm*Jina~dhammam*any dtwmma iMparaUkl mu(tu)bkapM(idQ, na iti Ed i 
RMdatmaiMj^K. i Read IMu*y.. [.Thereading should be 'iteri-o-w- Ed.] 

XV6), d 1'>/J'JW/X/9i*Wf*/ 1ft T>__ _1 .. .7 . .<%. -. --- ^ ** 



ft 





" [It seems to be p?[z]^^Ed.] u [DoubtfuI^Ed] 

w [Better read 



KALYA& PLATES OF YASOVARMMAK. 




SUKVEY OF ItfDU, CALCUTTA. 



iib. 





No. 10.] THE KALVAN PLATES OF YA80VARMMA& 73 



26 ka-naivdya-chaitra-pavitraka-gras-aclicliliadam(da)]iesliii 

asminavishasa(ya)-vasl(i) 

27 [de]silaka-grama[ta]ka - gokulika - chaii(au)rika - sau(6au)lkika - daimja(4a)va(pa)si($i)ka- 

pratiiajyi- 

28 %a-maliattama-kutumv(b)in6*nyaih^clia tan-nivasino janapad-adin v{b)5dhayatyasya 

(astu) vo 

29 viditam maya dattam I mad-vaihfia]air=anyairvvagami-npipati-bhogapatibBr4yam" 

asmad-da- 

30 yo*numamtavyah palayitavyaS*cha | yo vaajfia 

mdy[a]- 

31 dachchhiMyamanah sah pamchabhir^mmaliii-patakair^upapatakaih 

syaditi | U- 

32 ktaiii va(oha) bhagavati, Vyasena | Deva-dravyaiii gur6r*draTyairi drayyam cliaiTa 

Jinesva(^va)re [|*] t?i(tri)vidiam pata- 

33 nam drishtam dana-bhakshaija-Iamgliane | 1 I Shaslitir*warsha 3 -saliaSra(sra)9i svarggS 

tishtha(tlia)- 

Third Plate. 

84 ti btumidah [|*] achchhetta cli^antiinamta cha 8 tany=eva narake vaset |2,|- 

35 Sam(iam)kliam bhadrasanaih chchlia[tra]m | 4 var-asva(6va)vara-vahanah [|*j bhfimi- 

danasya chilinani 

36 dri8ya(6ya) [nte] tani Bharata |3| Sapta-januii-aiiitare9a(ai)va yat=pii9yaih ptiryva- 

sanicliitain I arddh-amgu- 

37 lena simaya haraijena pra?ia8ya(Sya)ti | [4] 1^ Agnishtoma-saliara(sra)^cha |* 

Yajapeya-fiata(te)- 

38 shu cha | gavam koti-pradanena | 4 bhumi-hartta na su(5u)dhyati I [5] 1 Kiribt slkyah* 

(s)=tlvra-tap5 daha- 

39 ti tesi(6i)-kala[m*] pavako*ti jvalaihte I* no ru^tam bhiimi-sasyaiii I* na vasati 

vishaye | 4 ma 

40 dhava=c]i=alpa-vfishtih | kirn goshu ksMram*alpam Sushati sarisara(6) jivalok na 

vriddtih 

41 yatr^ayam bliunii-liartta vasati parijane tasya chihnani*mani(tani) | 6 | Ya[smi]nti(n) 

kule jayati 

42 bhumi-data | 4 sa modate putra-kalatra-dhanyaiii | sustharh prajanam vasate clia 

yatra s[au]ktyam 6ji(6ri)ya- 

43 naMati bhumipala(lah) | 7 I Va(BajhabHi=vvasTidha bhukta rajabMK 5 Sagar* 

adibhih I yasya yasya ya- 

44 da bMmim(mih) tasya tasya tada phalam 1 8 1 Likhitam*idam Dvij-anvayg 

[sa]ndhivigrahika:Sri-J6ga(gfe)sva(fiva)- 

45 re^etil 4 

TRANSLATION. 

(Lines 18). Hail ! In the illustrious (city of) Dfcara, in the Paramara family, whict was 
as sublime as the high peaks of the great mountain of Meru, (was born) the illustrious Bh5jadev a 

1 [Note the symbol here* Ed.] 2 Read ^fm varska. 

8 [There seems to be a superfluous cha here. Ed,] 

is unnecessary, Ed ] s Bead 



U EHGRAPHlA BTD1GA. [VOL. XIX- 

who Had caused the three worlds to be whitened by his fame (won by) causing fear and by 
destroying his enemies such as the lords of Komkana, Chedi, Gurjara, Lata and Ran^a$0 
and who had destroyed the hosts of his fierce enemies by his great army, (and) who meditated 
oa the feet of the illustrious SiBdJiurljadeva, whose fame had become extensive by hi 8 
defeating the enemies in many great battles, (and) who had purified the entire earth, up to its 
boundaries of mountains and seas, (and) who meditated on the feet of the illustrious 
akpatirajadva who was, (as it were), the mark on the forehead of the goddess of learning, 
(and] who had caused the heads of poets and his enemies to be turned by his poems and arrows 
(respectively), (and) who meditated on the feet of the illustrious Slyakadeva who had caused 
the cardinal points' to be whitened by his wide fame (won) by his defeating the enemies in 
mafcy battles and engagements. Through his (i.e., Bhoja's) pleasure, the illustrious Ya5~ 
varmman had obtained one half of t"he town of Selluka and was enjoying 1,500 villages. 

(LL 817), In that province, in the (village) MuktApaU, in the AndrahaQi-vishaya (with 
its) 84 rent-free (villages), the s&manta, the illustrious Ba^aka Amma, who was the mark on the 
forehead of the Ganga family, having heard dharmma and adharmma from the illustrious Sv- 
tamfcara Ammadeva-AcMrya (and) being made to understand by him, by words as well as 
by signs,* that this particular Jina-dkarmma is superior to other dharmmas, in this world as well 
as in the next, in producing good results ; (and) having thought so and having made up his mind, 
thia land was given by him at MaMshabuddhikt, at the holy and illustrious ttrtika of 
K[i]lak[a]lesvara, on the occasion of a solar eclipse and the amavasya day of the month of 
Qiaitra, having ascertained that fortune is (as fleeting) as a shade (and) the world is as 
transient as the (moving) waves of the sea (and) the life (as worthless) as foam, for tte increase 
of ^ the merit, fame and fortune of his own self as well as of his parents, having taken water in 
this most holy tvfha with (his) sacred thread in his hand in a well-filled famaqfalu and having 
washed the feet (of the Jifca ?) with water thrown from the hands of his legal "wife (dharmma- 
fatoi) the illustrious Queen GhachcMI, (who) was born in the GMlukya family. 

(LI. 17 31)* This land which is to the north of Muktapali, on the northern side of fclie village 
, (measures) forty nimrttanas. Its boundaries (are) : on the east, the river, on the 



gouth, the boundary of the village Hathavada, and the Kahifatf), on the west, tlie water- 
courses, (and) on the north, the mountain. This land is thus defined with its four boundaries,. 
Again, the twenty-five nivarttanas of land given by the illustrious king Kakkapai on both slopes 
of tfee hill known as 'the breasts of the virgin'; also thirty-five mvartttmat (of land) by the 
Vakaaigala and others of the town, by the side of the town of Sangama at Chadamvata ; (a a 
well as) two nivarttartas of flower gardens ; 2 oil-mills ; 14 shops of merchants'; as well as 14 
dramma, coins, and in market* places (and) village streets, per leaf (?) fifty. Having caused 
endless repairs and restorations to be made, to last as long as the Sun and the Moon endure, in 
the temple of Jina in the Svetapada country, are dedicated to the illustrious. Muni 
SwratadSva for the purpose of worship, abhisUJca, nawedya, eJiaitra-'pamUraJca, for food and 
clothing of $ishis. (The following officers) and inhabitants of this mshaya :~D^il a 1 eai 
00*4*1, QgbuUca, Chaurika, Saullcika, Damfapatika, Pratirafyika, Mahattama, householders 
and others, the inhabitants of towns, are informed : " Let it be known to you, that tfcis (land) 
given by me, is to be recognized as a gift, by my descendants as well as other future kings and 
enjoyen and protected, and whoever, with his mind being covered with the dense darkness oi 
ignorance, violates this or causes this to be violated, will be connected with (i e 
with) the five great ySialm as veil as pj>otaitas." '' 



. ........ . ................. , ILIMIII1L _ 

1 [See footnote on text line 11 above, Ed .] 
* [See footnote on text line 23 above.--Ed(3 



No. 11.] AMODA PLATES OF THE EAIHAYA KING PBITHVtDEVA t 78 

(LL 3244). It has been said by the venerable Vyasa [here follow eight of the usual impreca- 
tory verses]. Written by the illustrious Sandhivigrahika JogS^vara of the twice-born 
race. 



No. 11. AMODA PLATES OF THE HAIHAYA KING PEITHVIDEVA I : 

CHEDI SAitVAT 83L 

BY EAI BAHADUR HIRALAL, B.A. (EETIRBD DEPUTY COMMISSIONER, CENTRAL PROVINCES), 

These copper-plates were found in a field in Araodsl village, about a foot below the suis 
face. Amoda is about 10 miles from Janjgir, the headquarters of a tahsil of the same name in 
the Bilaspur District of the Central Provinces. These are two plates, each measuring Il v x7$* 
the total weight of both being 107 tolas. Each has a hole, the first at the bottom and the 
second at the top, for being strung with a seal which is lost They are inscribed on one side 
only, the first containing 20 and the second 21 lines. The plates when found about May 1924 
were deposited in the Nagpur Museum, whence I obtained them for deciphering. The 
accompanying facsimile copy was prepared from impressions taken by Mr. Abdus Suboor, Coin 
Expert of the same museum. 

The writing is in a fairly good state of preservation, except where the metal has .been corroded, 
The size of the letters averages J" except in the last 5 lines in which it is reduced to ^". The 
characters are Devahagari of the Kalachuri type with the usual peculiarities found in the 
records of the kings of Tripuri and Eatanpur. No difference has been made between &a and 
t?a, both being expressed by the sign for va. The dental sibilant has been usually employed for 
the palatal and vice versa, for which the text may be read, where the correct sibilant has been put 
in brackets, just opposite the incorrect one. In many words the dental n has been used for 
the anusvara, e.g., in line 5 vansa stands for vamtia and in 1. 8 sinhah for siMafy. The letters 
ta, ra and na have been so formed that they are easily mistaken one for the other, and so is the 
case with pa and ya 9 and also with va, cha and dha. The letters a, t, kha, #a, dha, lha, ra and ia 
bear antique forms. The record is composed in Sanskrit verse and prose, there being alto- 
gether 22 verses of which 14 at the commencement are devoted to the eulogy of the donor and 
his ancestors and the remaining at the end to imprecation, benediction, and mention of 
officials like the minister for peace and war, under whom the department of gifts was usually 
placed, and the writer and engraver of the charter. Between these two sets of verses is 
placed the business portion in prose- The salutation to the deity in the beginning and the year 
at the end are also given in prose. 

The proper object of the charter is to record the grant of a village named Vasaha or 
Basaha of the Yayapara-map#aZa to a Brahma^a named Keava, son of Ghatta and grand- 
son of Thiraicha (who had come from a place named Hastiyamatha), on Sunday, the 7th tithi 
of the dark half of Phalguna in the Ghedi year 831, on the occasion of the dedication of a 
Chatuslikika or hall resting on 4: pillars to the god Vanke^vara at Tumajciaka, by Prithvideva I, 
son of Ratnadeva, and queen Nonnala, daughter of Vajuvarman, prince of Kom6-ma$g!aa. 
The genealogy is traced to Kartavirya, who imprisoned Havana, violently shaken to and fro by 
the waters of the great Reva. In his family were born the Haihaya kings, in whose line 
K6kkala became the lord of Ghedi and other countries. He raided the treasuries of the 
Kara^ata, Vanga, Gurjara, Konkazia, and Sakambharl kings and also of those born of the 
Turust&a and Raghu families. He had 18 sons of whom the eldest became the king of 
Tripuri, while the others were made feudatory chiefs near about. To one of the youngei 



76 EPIGBAPHIA INDIOA. [VOL. XIX* 

"brothers was born KaliAgarSja, whose son was Karnalaraja, The latter defeated an Utkala 
king and endeavoured to equal Gangejadera in prosperity. To him was "born Ratnarija 
or Ratnadiva, the father of the donor of this gift. 

$fithvldeva is described as the master of twenty thousand, the lord of the whole of Kdsala, 
& mahamafydalefoara, and sprung from, the Kalachuri family. These facts are important as 
showing that in spite of teing a lord of a very big country like Kosala extending west to east 
from Berar to Orissa and north to south from the Amarkaritaka to the Godavari, he continued to 
owe allegiance to the parental house at Tripurl near Jubbulpore. It is somewhat difficult 
to say what the ' master of 20-thousand J means, but it appears to be a measure of importance 
belonging to the class in which the Southern kings usually indulged. Some writers construed 
the figures against place-names referring to their revenue capacity, the value of the produce or 
the quantity of seed required for the cultivation of the tract, but Dr. Fleet in Lis note on Ancient 
territorial divisions of India contributed to the Royal Asiatic Society's Journal of 1912 haa 
clearly shown that the numerical figures refer to the number of cities, towns and villages 
assigned to each territorial division. In certain cases like Rattapacli 7,50,000, Kavadidvlpa 
1,25,000, Gangavadi 96,000, Nolambavadi 32,000, the figures look enormous, but these he ex- 
plains as conventional or traditional or at any rate greatly exaggerated. In the light of these, 
our figure of 20,t)00 for the lord of the whole of Kosala country is apparently very modest 
In a record* found in the Madras Presidency, referring to a gift made by the Kalachuri king of 
Tripuri, to Sadbhava-Sambhu, the head of Golaldmatha, the following occurs : w fwj^hrt 
W^ftwiwroiflftr; ! VTWurt fTO^fwsft?: f*Nt favd ^ 11 i.e., to him the Kalachuri .king 
Yuvarajadeva gifted 3 lakhs of villages. The same record assigns 9 lakhs of villages to the 
Dahala country, lying between the Jumna and the Narmada, %\hich Yuvarajadeva held, Foi 
our donor, therefore, to hold 20 thousand villages as a Maiutttiandalesmra of Tripuri, looks to 
be a normal affair. In those days the units must have been very small, as they are still 
found in backward places like the Bastar State. 

The importance of our charter lies in the fact that it is the oldest dated record of the HaK 
hayas of Mahakosala. Up till now Prithvldcva's son's record of tlie year 11 W was the oldest 1 
Of all the dated records of the Kalachuri kings, the one under notice stands second, the first being 
that of Kariiiadeva of the year 1042 A.D. 2 Karna was tlie son of Gaiigeyadeva, 3 who finds a 
mention in our record as a king to be imitated for augmenting one's prosperity. He had died 
in 1041 A.D., or 38 years before the charter under notice was issued. Tlie date of our record 
regularly corresponds to Sunday, tlie 27th January 1079 A.D. In tins charter the Saiiivat 
is given as CkedUasya (of the lord of Chedi), and not as Chedi or Kaladiuri Samvat, as lound 
in other records. This seems to support the hypothesis formulated by me about 15 j-ears ago 
that Chhattlsgarh owed its origin to Chtdlsagadha, meaning tlie forts or districts of the lord of 
Chedi, and not to the numerical word cMattls meaning 36. There is no proot ot the gofjhas 
or forts having been limited to 36. On tLc other hand the account books ol the kings of luitau- 
pur which were seen by the Settlement Officer of the Bilaspur Di&tnct about 60 years ago showed 
the names of 48 ga$has instead of 36. In no inscription Las the name Clihattisgaih been used for 
Kosala or Mahakosala. The BilSspnr District or at any rate a portion of it formed part of the 
Chedi country under the sway of the Tripuri kings and Hie rulers of Mahakoj-ula uere the 
scions of the same family and remained subordinate to that paramount po\\er. It was, therefore, 
natural to call all the new forts which formed units of power as belonging to the Chodiia or 
tord of Chedi, 

i See Jajalladeva's Ratuapur inscription in JE>, Ind. t Vol. I, pp. S2 ft'. a JE> //!*'., Vol. VI, pp 297 if. 

9 plje record of this king is alao found ^ifck a doubtful date corresponding to lOdb A,i>, 



No. 11.] AMODA PLATES OF THE HAIHAYA KING PRITHV1DEVA I 77 

The geographical names mentioned in the record include the Beva river, which is an alter- 
native name of the Narraada, the sacred river on whose banks Tripuri, the present Tewar, 8 miles 
from Jubbulpore, lay, and of whose sanctity the Sdroddharini speaks as follows : " The Ganges 
is very sacred at Kanakhala, the Sarasvati at Kurukshetra, but the Narmada is sacred every* 
where, in any village or forest.' 31 I have already spoken about the extent of the Kosala country 
in which Tumanaka or Tunimana, the present Tuman, is situate. It is 45 miles north of Rataa- 
pur, which in its turn is 16 miles north of Bilispur, the headquarters of the district of the same 
name. The district is formed of many old ma^dalas of which Komd-ma^dala y whence the donor's 
mother hailed, is still identifiable with the Pendra zamindari, m which there is still a village nataed 
Komo. The Yayapara-ma#$aZa, in which the village VasaM or Basaha lay, must have been the 
tract lying about the present village Jarjaipur, 10 miles from Amoda. Basaha apparently exist 
with its name unchanged in the Bilaspur talunl, a part of which must have been included in the 
Jaijaipur-wa^afa of ancient days. Among the countries mentioned as raided by Kokkala^ 
Kariinata, the present Karnatak, lies far away in the south. Close to it is Konkana, still retaining 
the same name. Further up one meets 6-urjara, the present Gujarat, to the east of which in 
Rajputana lies the country of Sakanibhari, the tutelary goddess of the Chauhans, Vaiiga is 
(Eastern) Bengal, but it is not clear what country the Tucushkas and Raghus tl&n occupied. 
Apparently, the latter's dominions had no specific name. Kamalara]a is stated to have 
vanquished an Utkala or Orissa king, but the personal names of the conquered have been left 
out in every case. 

The temple of VafikSfivara, as is clear from the record, was situated in Tum&ja, where a superb 
temple, now in ruins, still exists. For further details 1 may refer the reader to my article on a 
visit to Tumana published in the Indian Antiquary of 1924. The temple of this god has also 
been mentioned in a stone inscription of Jajalladeva of the year 1114 A.D. 2 But I cannot find 
a gocl of this name in the recognised Hindu pantheon. Apparently he was an aboriginal local 
deity, believed to exercise the greatest influence and was, therefore, adopted by the Kalachuris 
as their tutelaxy god in order to prevent him from doing any harm to the newcomers, unless it 
is another name for Siva, of whom 'the Kalachuris were the gieat worshippers. In fact they 
styled theuwclvcs as Pc'fama-Mahesv:tiav, as has been done m this charter also. They belonged 
to a sect which is known as Pa&upala-pantha, now believed to practise a degraded form of Siva 
worship. Vaukeyvara means the 'lord of vagabonds', a title equally applicable to an aboriginal 
god or to Siva, as the latter is always accompanied by an army of vagabonds. Prior to the advent 
of the Kalachuris in the Bilaspur District, the country was inhabited mostly by aborigines, as 
it is so even now in the portion where Tumana is situated. It is, therefore, very likely that Vank&i- 
vara was adopted from their pantheon, otherwise we should have temples dedicated to that 
deity in the Dahala country, at least in the capital at Tripuri, but we find no trace of him there, 
It is curious that, barring the names of kings, other names even of high officials like ministers 
of peace and war sound non- Aryan. The minister was named Dhodliaka or Dhodha in plain 
language. Although the donee was named as Kesava and was given the high title of ishi 
yet his father was named Chatta and his grandfather Thiraicha, both being out and out non- 
Aryan names. Even the prince of Kowa-mandala was named Vaju, which cannot be considered 
to be flattering. His daughter who was married to Batnadeva bore the name of Nonnala, more 
correctly Nonalla as found in other records of the same family. This seems to be an inflation 



TOT 

w$ 

a JSJp. IW., Voi I, pp. 



78 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA* [?OL. XIX 

of N5ni which in the Chhattisgarhl dialect of Hindi means ' a maiden, 9 as it does in Oriya and 
Bengali. The ladies of rank apparently had the termination " alia " added to their names, as 
we find other queens of the same family bearing names like Ivalla, Lachhalla, Rajalla, Rambhalla, 
Jasalla, Somalia and Trialla. 

In noticing these few points which the charter brings to prominent notice, I have been actuat- 
ed by the idea that the time has come when a broader Tiew of the manner of studying these re- 
cords might well be taken, than has been hitherto the ea&e. tip to this time attention was 
chiefly concentrated on kings, dates and places, but these tmu&ua! finds reveal a lot of unusual 
ethnographical and other data, which, is well worth collection* 

TEXT. 

[Metres : Vv. 1, 4, 10, 11, 12, 17-23, AnnsUubh ; v. 2, Up&ndnwjra ; v. 3, Sragdhara ; 
w. 5, 6, 8, 9, U, Vasantattta&a ; vv. 7, 15, 16, Upajati ; v. 13, 8iJchari%L] 

First Plate. 






by t^o diSereat signs, [The first symbol possiblj stands for f%% n ; see above, Vol. 



8 [Tke rfflnto are unnecessary* Ed,] Here the space enclosed by the two vertical lines and just below it 
in tbe second line was reserved for making a hole for stringing the first plate witfi the second plate, but the hole 
wag finally made at tna bottom instead of at the top 

8 CoDipure with the 3rd ilolca of the Benares copper-plate inscription of Karnadeva (2p, Ind tJ Vol. II, p, 305 L 

* Elsewnere ttiis reads as ^ % (see Ep. 2nd , VoL I, p. 34 floka ^ 



CM 




o 



I 

D 
CG 



I 



No. 11.] AMODA PLATES OF THE HAIHAYA KING PEITHVIDEVA L 79 



10 
11 
12 

13 



15 f 



16 TO Trm^^w t(^)srraT(f^)i%crT to: n[u *] 






17 ^w)T?rr i *Rtota<^?prTW I?TT ?n ^i^^i [u a*] 

18 

19 

20 



Second Plate. 



22 
23 



_ 

y\ should be short, but apparently it has been made long for the Bake of metre, with a view to make ft 
a f&da of Indravajra, like the third padaot the sametfoifca, the second and fourth being those of Vpendrtuojra. 
Elsewhere it reads fctia which appears to be better (see ^p. 7(f., ToL I, p. M, IZofta 9). 



"Delete the first five letters as superfluous. 

[These two letters seem to be unnecessary. The reading is not certain. Mr. Biralal conjectnrally suggests 



EPIGRAPHI"A INDICA. [VOL. XIX. 



24 

25 
26 
27 

28 

29 
80 

81 ^ 
32 



34 
35 
30 ftr, 
87 



i*] ^(sr 



frof 



*T % V th6 5ntentloa to mto ta AdnwtfW aetee, Eot through thefwl* 
it Las become irreular. 



12.] TAKKOLAM INSCRIPTION OF RAJAKESARIVARMAN (ADITYA I), 81 



39 fif * iwrfh [> n*] *r 



40 fawn ismirwiiN ^(^)T^nrt(^) f?rf%?r 

*wt^(i>?) 
* \\]\\\ w i 



No. 12. TAKKOLAM INSCRIPTION OF RAJAK1SARIVARMAN (ADITYA I), 

BY K. ?. SuBRAHMAtfYA AYYAE, B.A,, M.R.A.S., OoTACAMUND. 

TakkSlam, which is now a petty village in the North Axcot District 1 and a flag station on the 
Arkonam-Chingleput line of the South Indian Railway, was an important place in ancient times, 
It occurs under the name Tiruvuiral in the Dev&ram } and is stated to have been situated in Tog4ai- 
nadu. a It is celebrated for its Siva temple, referred to in the hymns of the Tamil $aiva saint 
Tirujnanasambandar,* who flourished in the middle of the seventh century A.D. Even at the 
present day, its Siva temple is an old structure of the Choja times, referable to the 9th century 
A.D., to judge from the inscriptions 4 engraved on the walls of the central shrine," Besides being 
a place of pilgrimage, it is historically important as one of the ancient battle-fields of South India. 
In the middle of the 10th century A.D., it witnessed a sanguinary encounter 5 that took place 
between the Cholas on the one side, and the Rashtrakutas allied with the Gangas on the other, 
the bone of contention being Tc^dai-mai^alam, the plum of the Pallava dominions, which 
had been snatched away by the Chojas from the Pallavas 6 in the third quarter of the 9th century 
A,D. The Chojas were under the banner of the great Parantaka I, the general being the valiant 
Chola prince Rajaditya, while the contending Rashtrakuta was the famous Krishna III, 7 allied 
withthe<5rangaButugaIL 8 In the encounter, Butuga managed to get into the howdah of the 

1 Kegarding the situation of T&kkolarn, see JSp. 2nd., Vol. V, p, 167. 

2 Tiruvural is included in the first Tirumufzi and is stated to be a place in Tojgujai-na^it 

3 Of the eleven verses composed by this saint verses 6 and 7 ate lost and the rest are preserved in the Dlvaram* 

* The inscriptions of Takkolam are registered as Nos. I to 19 of the Madras EpigrapMcal collection for 18"97 
and Nos. 243 to 277 of the same collection for 1921. The kings represented in them are Rajakesanvarman (No* 5 
of 1897 and No*. 255 and 260 of 1921), Parantaka I (Nos. 8 to 12 of 1897 and Nos. 245, 246, 248, 249, 251 to 254 
and 261 of 1921), Kan^aradeva (No. 2 of 1897), Parakesarivarman (No. 6 of 1897 aud No. 250 of 1921), Parthi- 
vSndravarman (Nos. 4, 7, 13 and 14 of 1897), RajaraJaI(No.$of 1897 and Nos. 247, 257, 258 and 259 of 1921), 
Rajendra-Chola I (No. 15 of 1897 and 256 of 1921), Vimaladitya (No. 1 of 1897), Bajakedarivarman Vijayarajen- 
dradeva (No. 262 of 1921), Rajak&jarivarmun Virarajendra (No. 19 of 1897), Kulottuiiga I (No. 18 of 1897 and 
Nos. 243, 263 and 268 of 1921), Tnbhuvanachakravartin Kulottunga (Nos. 16 and 17 of 1897), Tribhuvanacha- 
kravartin Rajaraja (Nos. 265 and 266 of 1921), Vijayagan<Jagopala (Nos. 264 and 267 of 1921), Rajanarayana- 
Sambuvaraya (No. 271 of 1921), Devaraya (No, 270 of 1921) and Sadaglva (Nos. 269 and 272 of 1921). One beara 
no king (No. 273 of 1921). 

5 This battle is mentioned in the Itakur stone inscription (see Ep. 2nd., Vol. VI, p. 65). 

* This fact was firat surmised by Mr. Venkayya in editing the Tinikkaluldainjjam inscription of Rijakesari- 
varman, dated in the 27th year of reign (E$>. Ind., Vol. Ill, p. 279), and subsequently proved to be correct by & 
statement in the Tiruvalangadlu plates (& L I,, Vol. Ill, p. 419, v. 49), 

1 Krishna III is invariably referred to in Tamil Inscriptions by the appellation " KacJichiyum Tanjalyum- 
koqda Kannaradeva" (Kanna,rade"va, the capturor of Conjeeveram andTanjore). The Doddaslvararn inscription 
(No*. 112 of 1899) refers to his having been encamped at Melpadi in the North Arcot district. 

1 Efr Ind , Vol. VI, pp. 55 and 57. 



2 BPIGBAPSU INDICA, |VoL. XIX. 



cm wMeh RajM^ya roda, engaged iim in & ha&d*toliaBd fight and put Mm to death, 
thus securing victory to Iiis overlord. 1 Soon after, Krishna III is said to have marched through 
Io$clai-mandalam. s 

To fix the date when the Eashtrakuta invasion of the Chala country took place, 3 we may 
briefly state here the events of the period : 

(1) A number of stone inscriptions of Parai$taka I have been found dated in years 40 and 

later and of these the latest known so far is one belonging to the 46th year of 
reign* 4 His accession being in A.D. 907, the last date takes us to A.D. 953. In 
the face of the existence of this record which has been recently examined and 
found to be clearly of the 46th year and of another dated in the 45th year, we 
cannot place Parantaka's death before A.D, 952-3, 

(2) The Kanyakumari inscription states that Parantaka I Mmself fought with K?ish$&rja 

and defeated him earning thereby the title Vlra-Cholu, though it does not state 
when and where the encounter took place. 5 If the success attributed to Parantaka I 
is to be taken seriously, we must regard this event as having happened before A,D. 
944 when, as will be shown in (3) below s Krisfojaraja was occupying 



(3) The Rashtrakuta king Krishna III occupied To$dai~man4alam in at least A,IX 944, 

for there is a clear record of his at Siddhalingama(Jam in the South Arcot District 
dated in the 5th year of his reign mentioning his conquest of Kachohi a&d Tafijal 6 
Records of Krishna III show that he reigned lor 28 years 7 and one of them states 
in unmistakable terms that he died in A.D. 967.8 Therefore, it is eerfe&m ttachia 
reign lasted from A.D. 9i to 967 and that his fifth year fell in A.D, 944, 

(4) A few yearsufter his occupation of To^dai-ma^afarm, Kpshna III had to fight against 

the Ch&las at Takkolam- We have definite information in contemporary records as 
to when this happened and the whole course of events that followed. The $%pu* 
ram record is dated in A.D, 949, which is stated to be two years afte* Kyis^a 
III had fought with Rfijfiditya and entered Tan^ai-ma^dalamJ Who it was 
that killed Rajaditya in the battle and what kind of entry is referred to here 
are clearly learnt from the itakur stone inscription, It states 11 that at the time 
_ when Krishna III was fighting against the Chok, Butuga II (the Gimga ally of the 

1 Ep Cam., Fo? HI, Md. 41 and J. H. A. for 1909, p. 443, 
3 Bp. Ind., VoL VII, p. 195, 

* Ep. Ind., VoL XV, p. 52. Some of the ^tatementd therein made fall self-condenmed, 

* Madzab Epigraphicai co'botioii Nos. 384 of 1903, 232 of 1894, 82 of 1896, 520 oj 1905, 310 of 1906, 22*5 of 
1915, 345 and 333 of 1918 belong to the 40th year ; No-% 88 of 1*92, 419 of 1903, 1B4 and 313 of 1900 and Itt 
of 1916 belong to the 41st year ; No, 465 of 1918 hateug to the 45th year and No, 15 of 1895 to tie 46th vear, 

* Tw. Arch. Series, Vol. Ill, p, 143, v 48. ' 
e No, 375 of the Madras Epigraphies.! collection for 190&. 

'Quite a large number of inscriptions of ihfc 28ii year of this king have been forod : see Nos. 125 ^ 1906 
aad 364 of 1902 of the Madras Epigmphical collection. 

8 Nx>,236o!the^Iadra3Epigrapkcal collection for 1913 from KoIagaJIu is dated in Saka SB9 RAaya 
Fbalguna, fa di. 6, Sunday, and states that Krishna III died in this year and Kottiga suocesded him* The date 
^uivaientis Siiaday, February 17th, A.D. 967. 

Since the DooK grant of K ? ish^a IE is dated In 040 A.D, and does not mention Ms oonquegi of the Cholas, 
tliat event should have happened after this date and mdst probably in A.D 044, 

3Bj> lnd.> Vol. VII, p. 195, The actual words used are - Swuii Sri yanju ir^du goto WnUm enntim* 
w Mkravartti Kannaradtva-ialkbhan Rajddittarai e t infa To^ai^mand^m ' 

* Vol VI, p. 57, 1 20 and J. B. A. 7?. 1909, p. 445. " '" 



12.] TAKKOLAM INSCRIPTION OF RAJAKESABIVARMAN (ADITYA I). S3 

Rashtra?kiita king) made the howdah of the elephant on which Kajaditya was 
mounted the battle-field, fought with Raj aditya, stabbed him with a dagger and 
killed him. In token of appreciation, Itpalma III gave Butuga the Banav&se 12,000, 
Bejvola 300, Purigere 300, KisukacJ 70 ^nd Bagenad 370. The same record further 
informs 1 us that Kpshna III having attacked MummacJi-Chola Rajaditya and 
having fought and. killed him at Takkolam was going in triumph. Thus, it is clear 
that this entry into To$<Jai-ma$d&l'am VrhiGh took place a few ye&rs after the 
Ra&htratorfck eyceupation of that part of the Choja dominions was the ftaai taniufflr 
pliant march w: state procession in the coaaqtieted territory when *U obstacles had 
been overcome. It will be noted that Ilajaditya died long before his father's 
death. Accordingly, we see that the Tiruvalangaelu plates do not state that he 
became king ^kite they do say so with regard to his brothers* 2 

<5) Twelve yeats altet Krishna III had *his state entty into Tondai-mai?4alam, i.e., on f tTie 
%h day of March 959 A.D., he was encamped with his victorious army at Melpa<Ji 
in the Chittoor district when he established his followers in the southern provinces, 
took possession of the estates of t?he provincial chiefs and began to construct temples 
to Salapriya, Gandamartantja, Kyishnesvara, etc. 3 

The events of *the "period, a the o'rder ol occurrence, may be given thus : 

1, Before A.D. 94i . . Parantaka I fought with the Rashtr^kuta king Krishna III and 

gained victory. 

'. A..D. 944 , , . KrishY^ ttl occupied Tonclai-mandalam. 

3, A,D. 947 . . . Battle of Takkolam : EajSditya killed by Butuga anS the 

triumphant march of Krishna III into Tondai-maijdalam. 

4. A.D. 953 . . . L'ast year of Parantaka's reign known so far. 

5, A.D. 959 . . . Krishna Ill's enc&tfxpment at Uelpadi and the establishment <rf 

{Rashtrakuta subordinates in the several .province of Ton.4ai- 



6. A.D. 967 . . . "D^atli 'of Krishna III. 

The subjoined inscription is engraved on the west Watl o"f the central shrine in the Jalanathe6- 
vara temple at Takkolam. 4 It is writ'te'n in the Tamil and Grantha characters of the ninth 
2<5ntuiy and is in the TamiJ language. The record is in a good state of preservation. The 
9-rantha letters used are svastM M'(L 1), suryya graha (L 5) and maheAvarafohai (L 11). Tke vu in 
Tiruvural (L 6) is shaped as in Grantha. A careful comparison of the characters employed in this 
record with those of Parantaka I found in the same place, shows that this inscription must belong 
fco a slightly earlier period. It is wcftthy -of note that while the Parantaka inscriptions in this 
place do not use the pulli or virdma, it is invariably marked by a small vertical line over t'hfc 
letters 5 throughout this inscription, wherever necessary. The characteristic Tamil letters that 

' ---- ..- -TI1L.--L- ----- -Li-i -------- ' ' 'i . 'I ..... - ..... - ...... ... ........... _."* -I- - -.-.- .............. .....LI ii.j..:.i- ..- ....... ..-* - _________ ....... j. ir --------- ....... -------- ...... ----- --uing- -n.... ................. ,-~w> ...... mr- - ........ --T ir i - _. . ...i ||IHH_, 

*'Ibid., p. 55, 1 2. 

*jSouth-lnd. IhMrs., Vol. Ill, p. 419, v. 54. 

3 Up, Ind, 9 Vol. IV, p. 28L It is stated'inlhis mgcn ptioii that Krishna III erected a high column of 
ricfeory at Rame^varam after making the Chera, Chola, and Pa^ya ^ a tributaries (V, 35 of the Karhadlplatds). 

* No. 5 of the Madras Epigraphical collection for 1897. 

* It is also marked in the Tirukkaluki-ui^ram inscription of the saEbe king (JEp. Jnt?., VoL HI, plate fach^g 
sage 284). 

M 2 



84 EPIGRAPHIA IKDICA. [Voi. XIX 

show an earlier type are a, rna and ta. The marking of the secondary i-symbol from right to left 
like a circle over the letter is another archaic feature that is worthy of note. The etymology and 
orthography of the record do not call for any remarks* 

The inscription is dated in the 24th year of tlie reign of Rajakesarivarman without 
any distinguishing epithets and registers the grant of a silver water-vessel with a spout, made 
to the temple of Tiruviiral-Mahadiva by Piridipadiyar, son of Miraraaraiyar, on the 
occasion of a solar eclipse which occurred on the first day of the bright fortnight 
in the month of &$i. The donor Piridipadiyar is no doubt identical with the Ganga Pfithvfr 
pati II, son of Marasimha, who is referred to by the name of Maramaraiyar here. 1 It was on this 
Ganga chief that the Chola king Parantaka I (A.D. 907 to 953) conferred later on the Baija 
kingdom which he had obtained by defeating the then reigning Bana chief, along with the 
feudatory title Sembiyan Mavali-Vanarayan. 3 Since before Parantaka I the only Chola king that 
bore the title Rajakesarivarman was Aditya I, this inscription must belong to him. Pateo 
graphical considerations and the fact that Prithvipati II figures as donor in this record point 
to the same conclusion. 

The importance of this inscription consists in the fact that it can 3 with certainty, be 
ascribed to the Cho}a Aditya I ; that it enables us to fix the date of his accession to the throne which 
has not hitherto been done ; besides, it also reveals the fact that the Gangas under Prithvipati II 
assumed a subordinate position under, or were at least friendly towards, the Cholas even 
during the reign of Aditya I 5 as they certainly were in the time of Parantaka I. 

It is reported in the Udayendiram grant that the Ganga king Prithvipati I, grandfather of the 
donor of our record, fought on the side of the Pallava Aparajita against the Paridya king Varagu^a 
in the battle at Sripurambiyam and secured victory for his ally, though he himself lost his life in 
the strife. 3 The Pandya king Varaguna, who was defeated in this battle, is no doubt Vatraguiia- 
rarman, the eldest son of Srlmara Parachakrakolahala. 4 Of bis reign an inscription had been found 
at Aivaimalai 5 in the Madura district dated in the 8th year and Saka 792, from which it is learnt 
that he ascended the throne in A.D. 862. It is clear that the battle of Srlpurambiyani must, 
therefore, have been fought some time after that date, perhaps in about A.D. 870. The victor in 
this battle, i.e., the Pallava king Aparajita, continued his rule for some time 6 when he had to en- 
counter a more formidable foe in the Chola Aditya I. The Tiruvalangadu plates state that Iditya I 
defeated the Pallava Aparajita, gained victory and took possession of his dominions. 7 This 
must have happened in about A,D. 870. 

The statement made in this inscription that in the 24th year of the king's reign there was a 
solar eclipse m the month of Api is of the utmost importance, for it enables us to fix the year of 
his accession to the throne as will be shown presently. Keeping A.D. 907, the year of accession of 
Parantaka I, as the last year of the reign of Aditya I, we have to look for the date mea$t in tha 



1 Prithvrpati I, having died in the battle of KSn[>ur<<mbiyam, it is nnrostoibie that he might be meant m 
this record though Maramaraiyar may be equated with Sivamara or M&ia^irnha. 

2 See S. I. L, Vol. II, page 384. See also Shohngur iawipcton of Parantaka I (tip. Intl., Vol. IV, page 224), 
where the following words ^^cf V%*{V TO15 ^wfqTORW'OTSi^rt are used with reference to the title ob- 
tained by Prith\ Ipati II from Farantaka I. 

* See S. L /., Vol. II, p. 384, v. 18, and Up. JW , Vol. IX, p. 87. 
M, Z? 07i Epigmphy for 1907, Pt. II, page 66 f, 
5 No 705 of the Madras Epigraphical collodion for 190o. 

8 r lhe inscriptions of Aparajita range in dr.te from the ;ird to the 18th year of reign {see No, i^S of (I\Q 
)I"dras Kp'graphcal collection for 1005 and No 3)1 of tlie gacu collet tbix foe 1908), 
7 8. L L Vol III, p. 419, v. 49. 



No. 12.] TAKKOLAM INSCRIPTION OF RAJAOSARIYAEMAST (ADHYA I). SS 

inscription, From Mr. L, B. Swamikkannu J?Ulai's Indian Ephemeris* Ifc is seen thai before 
A.D. 907 the following are the dates when sdar eclipses occurred in the month of i&i : 

L Saturday, 5th June 829 A.D, 

2. Thursday, 5th June 848 A.D. 

3. Saturday, 16th June 866 A.D, 

4. Friday, 6th June 867 A.D. 

5. Saturday, 27th May 876 A.D. 

6. Wednesday^ 16th June 885 A.D, 

7. Friday, 7th June 894 A.D, 

& Wednesday, 28th May 895 A.D. 

It may be noted at the start that as Parantaka I had hud a long reign extending to 46 year* 
Iditya I, his father, could not have reigned as long. And if the fact that the Pallava king Apara- 
jita and his Ganga ally Pf ithvlpati I fought at rlpurambiyam m the Tanjore district not far from 
the new capital of the Cholas, without the Cholas taking any part in it, against the Paijdya king 
Varagujga, which event must have taken place after A.D. 862, theyear of accession of Varagu^a 
and somewhere about 870, could suggest anything, it is that the Clidfas had not formed themselves 
into a power to count for much. For these reasons, we cannot plaoe the date of accession of Iditya 
I, prior to A.D, 862. As such, we can safely leave out of consideration the first six probable date- 
equivalents of the details given in our record, aimce they give an accession date earlier than A.D. 
862. Thus, the only two probable equivalents of ihe day of the solar eclipse in ini given in this 
inscription are 7th, June 894 A.D. and 28th May 895 A.D. which would place the accession 
of JLditya I in A.D. 870 or 871 and give him a rule of 36 or 37 years. The only other equiva- 
len that is worthy of consideration is 16th June A.D. 885. This would place Iditya' s accession 
in A.D. 861 and give him a long reign of 46 years. In the absence of any evidence to show 
that Iditya I was a mere boy at the time of his coronation, one would rather hesitate to adopt this 
as a probable date for the reason that the reigns of idibya and his son Parantaka I would cover 
a period of 92 years. 1 Sometime after his accession to the throne iditya I should have thought 
it opportune to try issues with the Pallava victor of Sripurambiyam, ie,, Aparajita. Whik 
the Tiruvala&gadu plates state that Iditya fought with the Pallava Aparajita and defeated 
him, 8 the Kanyakumari inscription goes further and explicitly declares that he killed him and 
got possession of the territory. 3 It is very likely that Aparajita, after having reigned for 18 
years, lost his life and his kingdom in the encounter with the Chola Aditya I 

Here it becomes necessary to consider certain inscriptions of EajakSsarivarman which have 
been thought, perhaps on palteographical grounds, to be of an earlier date than A.D. 907 and 
consequently as belonging to iditya I, noticed on page 96, para. 20 of Part II of the Annual Report 
on Epigraphy for 1915 and for which 5 possible equivalents are noted on page 72 of the same report. 
Of these equivalents, the only one that agrees with one of the equivalents of the present record is 
the first Tvhich places the accession in A.IX 861 and which also we consider as highly improbable. 
I think these inscriptions of Eajakesarivarman should belong to some sovereign in the Chfila 
line who came after Parantaka I and not to one that preceded him. My reasons for thinking 

1 South Indian history affords s,n odd example where the reigns of two consecutive sovereigns together 
lasted for more than a century. This is the case of Nandivarman Faliavamalla and his sou Dafitiv&raan ; 
but in this case we are assured that Nandivarmaa Pallavamalla was crowned king while he had not reached the 
teens. 

a 8. L /., Vol. Ill, p. 410, v, 49. 

3 Trai. Arch. fleri>, Vol TIT, p. 155, v. 55, where it is stated that iditya* called also Kdda^nrama,, pounced 
upon and killed in battle the Pallava king who "was wfced on a rutting elephant 



SPIGRAPHIA DTDIOA. 



[VOL. XIX, 



ihat they are later than the time of Paxantaka are(l) that in two of t'hess records, 1 which, palsogra- 
phically indicate the teme period, there occurs a tillage Called Uttama^fli-chaturvSdimangalatfi 
which should have been so termed after Uttama&li, one ef the sons of Parantaka I as we know it 
from his inscriptions; and (2) that these two inscriptions mention a chief named Vel&gi 
Viranarayana alias Sembiya& Vedi-VeJag, who must have been so called after Vlra&arayajja, one 
of the surnames of Parantaka I. The only two Rajakes&rivarmans to whom they coiild Be 
assigned in my opinion, are Sundara-ChoJa and Rajaraja I, both of whom coming after Parantaka 
I bore the title Rajaklsarivarman. The equivalents of the details of dates given in these 
records for either of these two kings are noted below : 



No. and year* 


Details of date. 


Equivalent for Sundara- 
Chola. 


Equivalent for 
Kajaraja I, 


74 of 1914 4 


$hjr. Makara, Friday, 
Piinarvasu. 


4th Jan. 964 A.D. 


2nd Jan. 991 A.D. 


101 of 1-914 . 


7th Makara, Tuesday, 
Irdra. 


27th D&V. 964 


19th Jan. 992 


104 6f 1-914 . 


7tTi Makara, Thursday, 
Mfife. 


lithJan. 964 


1 1th Jati. 9M >, 


t*5*flI4 .... 


7lh Siniha, Saturday, 
Rdhini. ] 


15th Aug. 963 


12th Aug. 9d5 


127 of 1&14 .... 


6th Makara, Tuesday, 
J3vL 


23rd Dec. 962 


17th Jan. 99J 


i30 of 1914 .... 


6tk ifakara, Tuesday, 
Ardrd. 


27th Dec. 964 


19th Jan. 992 J} 


133 of 1914 .... 


5th Mithtma, t^ednes- ' 
day, Svati. 


4th Ja&. 961 


27th May 91 


/depart played by theGangasm thepolitical affairs of the Tamil country calls for some re- 



. ..., cag were ar 

pressed by the Eashtrakujas wko under Dhrava II raided the Qafiga territory, actually took poa- 
aession of a part of it and twice kept in prison Sivamaran, the then reigning Ganga sovereign 
Not long after Sivamara II was set at liberty and reinstated on his throne by the Bashtrakflta 
Goyinda III he passed away, and the country became subject to the rule of Rajamalk 
Satyavakya I, who tried to regain possession of the territory lost under the late king, and when he 
was effecting this, he found a fierce opponent in Bankefia, a general of the Bashtrakiitas 
Fortunately for the Ganga this general was recalled owing to certain internal dissensions in' the 
Rashtrakufc realm, thus affording the "Gafigasa breathing time. Rajamalk'u successor Nitimarca 
Lad ^to face therising of the Banaswhotook up theplace of theRSshtrakiitas in causing disturbance 
to the Gangas, and this he did-effectively by gaining a victory over the Pallavaarmv atRaiaramadii 
aad capturing from the Banas Maharajara-na-Ju called also the Maharajavadi (in the Cuddapah 
district)." We find Rajamalla dccupying the North Arcot district which should have been 
previously held by the Banas and where their inscriptions are actually found* Whil^ 
f M was the case with the Gafigas, the cotintTy_o^ravija_wa8 not in a' state of 

1 Nos. 104 ani 105 of the Madras Epigraphical collection for 1914 ~- 

* Ep. Ind., Vol. VI, p. 26. 

* Bp. Curb., Kl. 00 Nj. 269. and Mb. -228. 
'* JEp. Intl.; Vol. IV, -page 140. 



TAKKOLAM INSCBIPTZON OF EAJAKESARIVARMAN (ADITYA I). 



f 




SCALE THREE-TENTHS. 



No, 12.] TAKKOLAM INSCRIPTION OF EAJAKESAEIYARMAN (ADITYA I), 8? 

quiet. The successors of Nandivarman Pallavamalla could not command his strength or tack A 
general like Uday&chaadra was also absent from the scene. The Pallava dominions were expose4 
to the rushing tide of the Paiidya aggression which was ever threatening to sweep off at least the 
southern parts o it since the time of Arikesan Maravarman. 1 Seeing that the Pallav^s were 
becoming weaker, the B&nas also appear to have a'med at independence. The trouble caused t? 
the Pallavas which is evidently manifested by the Pa$dya king Varagu^a-Maharaja marching a$ 
fat north as AraUur on the banks of the river Penpal, 2 $nd the pressure that was brought to bear 
on the G-angas by the Eashtr^kut^s and the Ba^as, as we have seen already, Appear tp have brought 
abput a u$io& of the Paflavas and the Gangas at this period. The Cholas were tfeen holding, be 
it noted, a subordinate official position uajder the PaJfovas and this is in evidence m t&e 
plates which state that the Cholam^haraj^ Kumaranku&a was o#e of 
IIFs principal officers. 3 The position of the several powers of South I$d^a at 
the tiiae ot which we are speaking is clearly brought out when the $in&am^Dfar plates at&t0 
that Srlmara Parachakrakdlahala fought at Kudamukku, i.e. 9 Kumbhakoriani against the 
Allied armies of the Ganga, Cfcola, Pallava, !ahnga and pther?.* Not long after, we noticp 
the Ganga Pfithvlpati I, son of $ivamar$ II, forming an alliance with the Pallava 
Aparajita and fighting against the latter's foe, i.e., the Pandya Varagu^a. 5 We can well 
imagine that friendly relations must have existed between the Gangas and the Cholas, the latter 
of whom held then a subo;dj&*te posit^a undei the Pallavas, while the former were their allies.* 
This relationship should h&ve continued even after the downfall of the Pallav^ power which was* 
brought about by S.dity$ I : it is not unlikely that the Grangas aufcd the Cholas uj $$ ^^de^vo^ 
The aim of the Gafigas must hg,y^ been to geuxe help against the Baijas which they needed 
badly and which was fully obtained in the reign of Aditya's successor Parantaka I. These 
tfitcumstances cleaarly show the interest taken by the Gangas in the affoirs of the 
country and account fox Pfithvlpati II figuring &s donor in wr record and the subseque 
^ition by him of the rule of the Ba$a kingdom together with the title 
from the hands of Paiantaka I. 



TEXT. 
1. Svasthi(sti) Ad [ ||*] Kov-Ira6aki- 



J3, irtibattu-naiavadu A- 

i. igi-ttalai-ppiffaiyal 

5. ti^4*& a Silryya-graha^at- 



1 Th& Pajjt4y a king Ankesan Ma^avarman is said to have gamed a victory over Pallavamalla. 
arfijja is reported to l*ave advauoed as far north as Araisur on the Peaaar and to hav-e e^amped there. * Siim&ra 
JPamchakrak^lahala called also Pallava bkufijaBA ia said to have fought the battle of Kudamukku against the 
jPallava and others 

Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, pp. 86 and 91. 

8 S* L /,> Vol. II, p, 512, v. 26 and the Taiap.il portion which follows it. It is said of him that he wasithe heroic 
jhead-'jewel of the Chola race, that has glory was well known, that he had the liljerakty of Kar^a and that 
thk conduct was upright. 

* Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1907, p. 68, para. 23, 

.*.. L /., Vol. II, p. 384, y. 18 and Sp. Ind. t Vol. IX, page 87. 

c All tbe circumstances so far known seem to suggest that Vijayalaya, the first member oi the revived .Choia 
line, could not have had any independence. There is no question of his valour or chivalry. At the sa,me time there 
is nothing to suspect the statement of the Tiruv&langa<Ju plates that he captured -the town of Taiijapuru 
WfaAt looks probable is that he might have done it being under the employ of the Pallava.' Perhaps, he was 
toft to protect the Pallava interest in the southern portion of their domiiuofts, i.e., the Tanjore disuict, whioii w^ 
for yean by the aggressive Pandyas. 



EHGRAPHIA INDICA. L^OL. XIX. 



6. tl- 
*7. rkkti Maramaraiyar magaQlr 

8. Kridipadiyar kudutta ve* 

9. lli-kken.di nirai murrau- 

10. |u-orubatt-elu kalauju 

11. idu pan-Maheva[ra*]-raksliaI [||*] 

TRANSLATION. 

Hail ! Prosperity f On the day of the solar eclipse which occurred on the first moon 
fo the month of A?i in the 24tfc year of (the reign of) king Rajakisarivarmaa, 
Piridipadiyir (i.e., Ppthvlpati), son of MSramaraiyar (i.e., Maxasiiiiha), presented a silver 
ean with a spout weighing three hundred and seventeen TcalaTiju, to (the temple of the god) 
Mahadeva at Tirwrft^aL This (gift shall be under) the protection of all Mahe^varas. 



No, 18. A FURTHER NOTE ON TEE BBZWADA PILLAR INSCRIPTION OF 

YTIDDHAMALLA. 

BY J. RAMAYYA PAFIULU, B,A M B*L. 

Mr* C. K. Krishnamackarlu's note 1 on the inscription, named above, and his readings or inter- 
pretation of it cannot be accepted except in one case. He says that the word " bayanna " in the 
3rd line of the 4th verse (1. 27 of the inscription) must be read as mayanna (mba does not scan 
well) and not as maiyunna as proposed by me. Apart from the difficulties of construction, 
Mr, Kiishnamacliarli& reading offends the law of prosody in a very important respect. It 
was shown in the original article that the verses of the inscription are in the Madhya-aktara 
metre. The scheme of this metre requires an indra-ga%a at the place where lay ami a stands, 
Bayanna is a ja-gana and a ja-ga%a cannot be an indra-ga%a. The possible contention that 
j^-gaya may have been regarded as an indra-gana at the period when the inscription was 
composed upsets the whole scheme of the metre adopted in the inscription. The emendation 
maiyunna meets this difficulty and renders the passage quite natural and clear. Admitting 
that emendations should not be proposed where the original reading can possibly be adopted, 
it inay be contended that this is a case in which the original wording of the inscription cannot 
be adopted and an emendation is necessary. 

As for the contention that the verse should be so interpreted as to mean that it was king Yud- 
dhamalla, and not the god Kumarasvami that went on a pilgrimage from Chebrolu to Bezwada, 
it must be admitted that this interpretation is literally possible, though the interpretation offered 
already is the more probable one, ChSbrolu does not appear to have ever been a Chalukyan capital 

The second point in the note concerns the prose passage in lines 29-36. The restoration of 
the lost letters suggested herein is problematical and rests upon emendations in other parts of 
the passage. 

The third point is in regard to the reading and interpretation of the word e <ve? cr u ' in lines 
39 and 40. The exact reading is certainly v&reru but the interpretation put upon it by Mr. Krish- 
namacharlu cannot be accepted, c Eru * is unknown to Telugu, In Kanarese, it is a verb mean- 
ing ' to be complete ', and h can hardly be used in Telugu as an adverb in the way suggested. 

The fourth and last point is in regard to the reading and interpretation of the concluding por- 
tion of the inscription consisting of the last two letters of line 44 and lines 45 and 46. The deei- 



1 [See above, Vol XV, p. B64 f , Ed.] 



No, 14.] KANDUKURU PLATES OF -VENEATAPATI BETA I. SAKA 1535. 89 

phering of this passage is quite correct. Mr. Krishnamacharlu takes the last two syllables kunda 
as a noun meaning 'a pillar's and interprets the passage nfipula kunda as meaning * piEar for kings 
( that recognize and maintain his charity).' The Kanarese word kunda is identical with the Telugu 
word kundamu and means the same thing, viz., c a pile of bricks or tiles 5 . This is not exactly a 
pillar. Nfifula kunda means kunda of nfipulu (kings) but not kunda for nripulu* ' Pillar of 
kings * does not give any sense. Yuddhamalla, apparently, erected this pillar for the purpose of 
1 h&ving Ibe inscription engraved thereon, and not to the honour of unnamed future kings whom 
he wants to maintain his charity. How does this pillar serve the latter purpose ? Is there any 
'other instance of such a pillar being erected ? 

' The passage, so far as it goes, scans exactly to the Madhya-akkara metre and the last syllable 
tfa which, for purposes of yati, matches with ta, the initial syllable of the passage, certainly sug- 
gests that the passage is part of a verse line, and 'a glance at the estainpage cannot fail to show 
'that the engraving is abruptly left off at this point. 



No. 14. THE EANDUKURU PLATES OF VENKATAPATIDEVA I : SAKA 1535, 

BY G. V. SRINIVASA RAO, B.A., HABEAS. 

These five copper-plates were secured on loan from M. R. Ry. Uddi Narasimhacharya of 
iKandukuru, Madanapalle Taluk, Chittoor district, in 1921-22. 1 They have raised rims and 
curved tops with a ring-hole, about $* in diameter, bored in the middle. They measure 9|* in 
.height together with the projections and 7 J* without them and are 6f" wide. To the ring, 
which is circular in shape with a diameter of 2f", is attached, by a hole at the back of it, 
a sliding circular seal measuring If* in diameter. On this is represented in high relief a boar; 
advancing to the proper left, and a dagger pointing downwards, both cut upon a horizontal 
.double line supported by a vertical line in the centre. Above the boar are the figures of the sun 
and the orescent. The plates with the ring and seal weigh 307 tolas. The ring had been cut 
i when the plates were received in the office of the Assistant Archaeological Superintendent for 
-Epigraphy ,at Madias. 

The inscription is engraved on the inner sides of the first and last plates and on both sides 
of the rest. The leaves are numbered in Telugu numerals incised to the left of the ring-hole on 
-the first written side of each plate. The alphabet of the grant is Nandi-Nagarl except the sign 
manual c $n-Venkati6a ' at the end which is in Telugu, and the language is metrical 
Sanskrit The portion in lines 148 to 152 is, however, in the Telugu language and is evidently 
an addition made after the original grant was completed. 

The inscription shows the various orthographical peculiarities usually seen in the 
Vijayanagara grants, such as (1) the invariable use of anusvara in place of the nasal and vice ver$a> 
(2) the treatment of the second letter as adjunct to the r^epka in conjunct consonants, (3) the 
omission of the visarga generally before the letters to and sa, and also in a few other cases, (4) the 
* -omission of the first member in double consonants, (5) the superfluous use of an anusvara 
before nasals, (6) the use of a stroke in addition to a hook aftet the vowel i to denote length as 
in consonants, (7) the occasional use of the letter a followed by t to denote ai sound in conso- 
nants, (8) the substitution of their mere vowels for the fetters ya and va and wee versa J 

The grant was issued by VeAkatapatideva of the Kar^a dynasty and is dated in 
, Pramathin, VaiSakha, 4u. 12, which regularly corresponds to A.D. 1613, April 21, 

i No 9 of Appendix A to the Madras Epiyraphwal Mepori lor l<921-22. 

See Ep. JM., Volrlll, p. 236, VoL IV, p. 299, Vol. XI, p, 327 and Vol XVI, p. 241, 



90 - EPIGE1PHIA INDIGA. [Vol. XIX. 

__ _ _ '-.I--"' ' " ' "-' : : ::' J . : - r "^- T^^.''--^'^'..^!!'''.'-!?!''^-'""^^ 1 

tfodnesdajv and is, therefore* nearly three months earlier than the British Museum plhtes of 
'the fcam.e king. 1 After the usual invocatory verses, the inscription begins with the genealogy oi 
the king which agrees with that given in all the other grants of the dynasty up to Tirumata t 
Like the DaJavay-Agraharam plates 8 and the Vijapakkam grant,* this record also mentions 
the tfro sons of Tirumala by VeAgaJamba, w&., SrlrafigaiSya and Yefika|;apatid5va. 

In the course of the narration of his ancestry and its panegyric, the document mentions Buldca 
as having firmly established SiJiava-NFisiiliJia on the throne, and Ms sonHImarftya ad having 
put to flight Kasappo<Jaya and captured the hill-fortress Idavani * protected by Sapada's army 
of 70,000 Sindh horse ' as well as KandanavSlu. Kasappocjaya has been surmised to be identical 
with Kachapa-Nayaka of idavaui* who figures as a subordinate of Sajuva Narasifigaraya in Saka 
1420. * Possibly Kachapa, for selfish ends, made common cause with the Mussalmans who 
invaded the Vijayanagara dominions in Saka 1425* e and Bamaraya continued his allegiance to the 
political successors of the Sajuvas under king Krish^arSya. 7 Sapada has been identified with 
Yftsuf Adil Shahi of Bijapur who is said to have borne the name Savaee* 8 The next important 
member of the line was Tiramala, the brother of &JiyaBfimarfiya,who was the first to adopt the 
title * SamrafS His successor was &Sraga and after him came Ve&ka^a, the donor of the grant 
and the last powerful king of the family. He was born about $aka 1471 (A.D. 1549-50) if we can 
rely on the testimony of Barradas wild says that he was 67 years 9 at the time of his death which, 
according to Floris, took place in A,D. 1614. 10 He figures as a subordinate of king Sa&Sfiiva in 
A.D. 1567-68. 11 We learn from the Vasuchdritramu and the Chikfad&arayfcvamiavdli that during 
hit father's tim& lie was the Viceroy of the Ohandragiri-rajya comprising the Tmgt$fra, Choja AnS 
P&gfya 1 6ouniries, and had his capital at Chandragiri while Ms brother S*!ra%a governed tte 
Tdugu dirftaiotri from Penuko^^ When the latter came to the throne, YeAkatapati continued to 
be the Viceroy 1 * and held the charge of the Telugu country also* This is gathered from' No. 541 
of 1909 whibh states 18 that in Saka 1502 (AJX 1580) the OoBconda SultShHazrat Ibrahim Pfidishai 
acquired Ufidagiri (i.e., Udayagiri) by driving out Vefl-kataraju and captured the regions around 
Viniko?4a, etc., and Kog^a^Ju- 14 ^ the same year Srlrafiga was taken captive by the Sultin 
who, with the help of the Ha$4e chiefs* gained effective possession of the territory lying to the 
ttorth of PeanfcoW*. This event is mentioned: in No. 70 of 1915 dated Saka 1506 (A.D. 1584) 
Which states th'at AhSbalam had been in the occupation of the Muhammadafi chief Vfohuramu 
and his HaJj^S allies for about 7 years* Probably it is these reverses that account for a grant of 
land in AD. 1579 to' a temple at Mahabalipuram by Gdburi Tirumalai-Nayakkar for .the merit 



, Vol. XIII, p. 231 /. 

* AM., Vol. XII, pp. 159 j^. 

* Ibid., Vol. IV, pp. 269 ff. 

* Ma&. $*$. Report for 1920-21, Part II, paragraph 12. 
1 No. 719 of the Mad, Ep. Collection for 1917. 

* Brigg's FerMta, VoL III, p, 348. 

* Tlie KfiBh^ray^mjayaf^ meEtions iravifci-BukkarSju as one of the chiefs who attended the coronation 
of the king. (Sources of Vij. Hist,, p. 129), 

Up. Ind., VoL XVI, p. 243, footnote 6, 

I SeweU's Forgotten Empire, p. 224. 

10 Swell's List of Antiquities, Vol. II, p. 25L 
n Hos, 240 of 1897 and 163 of 1905 of the Mad, Up. Collection. 

" In No. 383 of 1919 dated Saka 1496 ia Saradgft's reign he confirms certain appointments ma<J^ by 
charya, 

II Mad, Bp. Report for 1910, Part II, paragraph 64 

" These, according to the copper-plate grant No, 23 of 1910*11! had been centered by Sriraiiga la 
1498. Ibid, for 1911, Part II, paragraph 57. 



No. 14.] KANDUKUEU PLATES OP V1NKATAPATIDEVA I : SAKA 1535. 91 



of Vefi,katapatL l The Tehigu work Rymwajiyamu states that Vefikata chased the 
army back and defeating it on the batiks of the Fencer settled, with his vanquished and suppliant 
enemy, the river Krishna aa the fyoiifldary line between their territories. His faithful feudatories 
who helped him on these and other occasions were the Matk chief Ananta who calls himself * the 
right hand of the Kar^ata emperor,' 5 * and the Tanjore chief, Achyu^appa aa well as, his son Baghw 
natha who * brought all the Kar^ata territojy once more under Yenkatad:va;raya.* 3 ut he. had 
fcis own internal enemies to contend against ; for we hear of a revolt of the $an<$y$l <?hief Ifoislfc* 
$ama having been quelled by Venkata early in his reiga* and of Kyish^appa-NayaJra of fiijagse 
having been imprisoned by the emperor and subsequently set free* 8 VIiappa-Nayalfa of Madura 
also seems to h$ve aimed at independence. The ChilJcadevwaya-vam&avati krformsf us that shortly 
after his accession, Venkata sent his nephew Tkumala against Madura, but the latter zeceived 
bribes from the chief and retired with his army to Srlrangapattana. 1$ S pite of this> Venkatapati 
should have asserted his authority ovey Virappa as evidenced by later grants. 6 Wtj get some 
interesting glimpses into the history of this period from certain Jesuit letters 7 , noticed by the 
Eeverend Father Heras of Bombay. About A.D. 1607 Veftkata had removed his seat of govern* 
jne^t to Velur 8 though Chandragiri was still * the royal city.' Towards the close of his reign 
Venkata had to yield to the rising chief Eaja-U4aiyar of Mysore on whom he had to confer the 
viceroyalty o rlrangapatta$a, as his attentions were diverted again by the troublesome 
Oolkonda chiefs who threatened his dominions in the north. It was on this' occasioij that 
Jlaghunatha-Nayaka of Tanjore came to his rescue and saved the kingdom from tjb.# Muham- 
madan invasion f It is probable that Muttu-Virappa-Nayaka of Madura was also trying to ahake 
off the Vijayanagara sovereignty, &n&^ theretore espoused the cause of Jaggaraya in the 
oi succession after Venkata's death. 9 

! The object of the document is to record the grant of some gardenjands and fields 
giri and Gollapalle for the worship of the god and the goddess at Tirupati during certain festivals 
specified in it. The grant was made by Venkatapatideva at the request of Mahama^aUfaara 
Gdbttri SisMdriraja, the son of Venkataraja and the grandson of Papa-Timmaraja of the Solar 
race and the Ka&yapa-grra. Very little is known of these Goburi chiefs so far except the names 
of some individual members of the family. They first figure in the reign of Kf ish^araya at the time 
of his expedition against Kalinga, 10 but came into prominence during the rule of Sada&iva and his 
successors and had frequent matrimonial alliances with the latter, 11 We meet with a certain 

4 Mad. tip* Me$. for 1910, Part II, paragraph. 56* a Hid. for 1916, Bart II, paragraph 75. 

* Sources of Vij. Hist., p, 285. * lbid.> p. 243* 



(Raghun&th&bkyudayam of Eamabliadraniba > Canto VII, verse 73). 

* Sp. 2nd*, Vol. XII, pp, 159 jf. Copper-plates Nos. 9 of 1905-06 and 9 of 1911-12 of the Madras Epigra- 
pbical collection. 

f Mythfe Society Journal Vol. XIV, pp. 130-140 and 312-317. 

8 This is probably m coasec^ieace of the revolt of LtegamarNayaka whoin, according to BvlMtftfoacMnttam 
Chenna defeated on behalf of Venkata, 

SewelFs Forgotten J^mjpire, p. 230. * Sources of Vij, Mi*t., p. 131. 

** According to the Ram&rajfyamu, Kon<Jamma, one of the five queens of Venkatg, I, was a daughter of Oba 
r&ja, while two more daughters of Ms, Narasingamma and Bangar&mm% were respectively married to Bama ant 
Venkata II, the grandsons of AJiy a-Bainar&i a. Other memberEi of ,tbe family Vho had -marriage coiuiwtior 
with ,the Arayl^u chiefs were CJobuFi Venga|^ *^ e father of a certain PSpamma married to Srirange III, th 
adopted son of Oopala who was himself the son-in-law of (G5buri) Giriyappa, and Tatira ju whose daughte 
KcflGt<}amiaa was married t<? 



92 EP1GBAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX. 



Goburi Obayadeva-Maharaj a as a subordinate of SadaSiva in Saka 1469 in 
an Inscription at Ahobalam, l though we cannot say for certain whether he is the same chief who is 
referred to as MahamandaleSvara Gobfiri Aubhalarajayya in No. 543 of the Epigraphical collec- 
tion for 1915, dated in $aka 1482, from the Bellary district* About this period some more chiefs 
of tht family are brought to OUST notice, who were connected with the Kurnool, Cuddapah and 
MBgleput districts. For instance, we find a certain Ko$4raju in Saka 1473 at Koilkuntla, 8 
Narasaraju in Saka 1478 at To$4firu, s a Giriyapparaju in Saka 1529 at Dudyala, 4 a G5buti 
Tirumalai-Nayaka in Saka 1501, 5 and a MaMma%dalsvara Goburi Obarajayyadeva-MahS- 
*i6ja. $ Barracks 7 mentions a certain Obo Eaya as the brother-in-law of Veikata and a 
'CMmaobraya (Chinna-Obala-Raya) as a brother of the traitor Jaggaraya who also belonged to 
'the Goburi family, 8 and whose daughter Bliaffil w & s Carried to Venkata. This Obarajayyadera 
Should evidently have been different f rom Obayadeva, the subordinate of Sada6iva and possibly 
his grandson. He has been surmised 9 to be a son of Tirumalai-lSayaka of the Kunnattur in* 
scription with whom again, if we may hazard a guess, Papa-Timmaraja, mentioned above, and 
Timma, who married Obamba, the sister of Tirumala I, 10 and was the father of Narasa, might 
be identical. In that case Venkataraja, the father of Seshadriraja of the present grant, Oburaja 
or Obalaraja and Narasa should have been brothers. 

Of the places mentioned in the grant, Tirupati is called Seshachala and PhaJjISvaragiru 
Taigatflru is a village in the Proddutur taluk of the Cuddapah district Chandragiri is too well 
known to require identification. Venkatajammapeta seems to have been a part of Chandragiri 
itself, The name To^4ava4i-tataka seems to be connected with the modern Tondava<Ja near 
Chandragiri and Gollapalli is a few miles further east. I am unable to identify Gopidevipaiya. 
Like the Mangalampa<J charter of the same king 11 this grant was also composed by Chidain-' 
imra~Kavi and incised by KSmaylch&rya. 

TEXT. 

[Metres : Verses 44-69 and 73-76, Anuskfubh ; vv, 70-72, Irya ; v. 77, 

Fourth Plate ; first Side. 

111 * * 

112 tnf^% 



113 nmsfrofw ![i8*J 

114 



1 Ho. 63 of the Mad. Ep. Collection for 1915. x - 

1 Rangacharya'a Madras Inscriptions, KL 110. 
* Ibid., Oi 635. lhid.> KJ. 401. 

1 No. 255 of the Mad. Ep. Collection for 1909. See Ep. Rq$* for 1910, p. 105, para. 54 
1 No. 332 of Mad. Ep. Collection for 19Q& 
7 Sewell's Forgotten Empire, pp f ,223 and 228. 
1 Sources of Vij. Hwt., p, 263. 
1 Mod. $p, Eep. for 1910, Part II, para. 56, 
u "8owc&8 of Vij. Hist,, Genealogy on page XIV, 
** Ne&ore Inscriptions* Part I, p 26. 

14 In Hues 1 to 111 the first forty Teraea O f tfa r4apakkam granfc (Mp. AdL. Vol. IV, pp . 272-276) 

Petiagalum gmft ,s v T ai and 



[The name of the ye&r 



No, 14.] KANDUKURU PLATES OP VENKATAPATIDEVA I : SAKA 1535. 98 

115 
116 

117 

118 



136 
137 
138. 
189 



119 wnfsrart i[ijBc*3 rot 

120 

121 

122 

123 

124 

125 



126 ^^mrft^RT^wf^^ i[iV?*l 



127 tit ^W t ft^RTH f^lft ftWT Uftifff'TOZCTi] l[li8*] 

J^ottr^A Pkte ; /Second Sid$, 

128 2 qfa?n vm\ li^gtffdf^g: i 

129 

130 

131 

132 

133 

134 



UO ^irr^?r [i*] 

M'<lflt IT" 



Perhaps a mwtike for/ ' K|-rt Bead jrfif. ' fie4 3^. 

is Rename of a tanl at Tirupati. Almost every temple in South India has a tank or a 



weU with a saoredness attached to it. The literal meaning of the first part of the word is 3 crorea and the 
belief is that the tank has the collective virtue %>! so many sacred waters of the cQuatey. Compare fto, 
Kdti-Krtka at Bamesvaram and the Sarvajir th at 



94 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Voi. XIX 



141 **[:*] ft* 



i ftfirtfSf^D*] ^MN- 

: i 



145 em: IUH*] 



<;T(^ 1*541 li 




150 

Fifth Plate. 
151 Wfe 

152 

153 
154 

155 



156 ?rr [i*] 

157 

158 



Ll. 159-167 give five imprecatory stanzas D&napalanaydr, etc. etc. 
168 ^17*f 

ABRIDGED TRANSLATION. 

(Vv. 44-69.) In the Saka year computed by the arrows (5) , Sakti (3), Arrows (5) aad 
moon (1)- (i.e m , 153S) in the (cyclic) year called PramMin, in the month known as Vaii- 
kha, in the bright f ortoiglit, in an auspicious asterism on the sacred ti&i of DvSdaSl, at the 
holy lotus-feet of (god) Sri-Venkatea a the abode of all happiness, to the (same) glorious Vishnu 
known as Venkatanatha and Srlnivasa, and living at Seshachala, ever sporting in his residence on 
thebaiaks of the Syam-Pushkarinl (tank), whose chest is made the abode .of Indira, the mother, of 



a The second half of this verse is wanting though the sense is complete* 
1 This word is written below the line. 



* The tetter seems to be a correction from 

* 



** in Telugu 



No. 14.] KANDUKURU PLATfiS OF VENKATAPATtDEVA I : SAKA 1535. &5 

all the worlds and is adorned with the Srlvatsa (mark) hearing marks of musk frcm her breast, 
who bears on his chest the Vanamdlika (garland) 1 resembling the mossy creeper (growing) in the 
milky ocean clinging to his couch ; who holds in his hands the conch and the disc glowing 
with lustre, whose left and right eyes are the Moon and the Sun, who wears on his head the 
magnificent jewelled crown appearing (by its brilliance) as if it were the very halo of light of 
those dual luminaries settled (thereon), and who adorns like a crest-jewel the glorious Ve&kata, 
the king of mountains, for various cake oSerings and excellent unguents to this lord of 
Phanf&varagiri ($eshachala) who adorns every month the jewelled maytapa of great value 
illuminating with its splendour (all) the quarters, built in the pleasure-garden (founded by) 
the prosperous GSburi SashadrirSja, which is situated to the east of the Red Hillock, to the 
south of the fair garden* (called after) Narasana-Nayaka, to the north-west of the broad 
car-street and to the north of (the garden) Sayaskara^Jlyagaritota ; for worship with sandal 
and various offerings (to the god) in .the same place during the Brahmfttsava (grand annual 
festival) and VasantGtsava (spring festival), and for the 3 TOintermittent offering of flower- 
garlands particularly during the floating festivals of the goddess (Nachpharu) in the Mukk6$i* 
tirtha (task) ; with due regard to the wise request (made for this purpose) by the illustrious 
MaMwaw$aU&va>ra Qoburi Seshadriraja possessed of great exeellenpe &$d of splendour like that 
of the Sun, who was the grandson of the famous papa-Tixnmarija and the son of Venka^a- 
MahSpala, the destroyer of his foes, who was the gem of the Solar race and the light, as it were, 
of the Ka&yapa-05ra and was of the school of Ka&yapI-iaZya, and who was the foremost of 
the iortunate ; the glorious king VSra-Veft3a^apati-Mali5raya, being surrounded by pioua 
and amiable priests and several wise and learned men following the path prescribed by the Vedas, 
gave away with pleasure, to the accompaniment of libations of gold and water, excluding the small 
manya field of Kojg4u-Bhatt;a of Tanga$uru, the whole beautiful plot of garden-lands and fields 
called (after the canal) Surappa-kalva which is the very abode of &ama (Lakshmi) and the orna- 
ment of the capital city of Chandragiri and is situated to the east of the high-road to GSpidevf- 
palya and of the happy Venkatajammapeta, to the south of (the rock) Nuvtdaban^a, to the 
^est of the extreme border-line of the (tank) Ton4ava<j!-tataka and to the north of the field 
called (after the canal) GSparaja-kalva; and also the group of fields (known as) U}va$a-kalvS 
in doHapalll, together with the trees (growing on them) and (the other eight privileges such as) 
natural resources and deposited treasures, stones, realised and realisable (income), water, 
akshiyfi and agami, as a mrvamfinya with the four boundaries (marked out) on all sides tote 
enjoyed by the god (in perpetuity). 

(LL 148-152.) (The god) Sri-Veftkate&varasvancd ordained (the payment of) 24 mmha 
every year to the Dharmakarta SenS-Modaliii Kyish^ayagaru, For the watershed at the 
entrance oi the garden and for the maintenance of the gardeners, (He) was (also) pleased to 
command (payment to be made) from the cash (income) from the above kalva. 

V. 70. [In praise of king Ve6ka|;apati.] (This is identical with verse 124 of the Kuniyiir 
platea of Venka^a II.) 

i FftwamaZifca is thus defined : 



DaSarathais described as wearing a wreath or vanam&la on his crown while going out hunting, (Ragkuvamta I3C> 
5L) 

11 In the vernacular idiom any beautiful place ia known as the favourite haunt of Lakabmi, the Goddeaw 
of Prosperity, wh*> is supposed to dajwejbhere for sheer joy. 

11 The meaning of the word HW*f occurring in the verse ia not clear. Perhaps it is a Sanskrit . 
of the Tamil word 8if&ppu which means " offerings made on special occasions and distributed^ to ,thp -deyo 
then assembled. 1 * It ia called c ftarttjw in Kanareae and Telug-a. 




96 EPJGRA-PHIA INDICi. [YoL. XIX. 

(Vv. 71-72.) By the order of the king, Chidambara-Kavi, the sister's son of the poet Siva* 
Sfirya, composed this edict and Xamayacharya engraved it on the plates, 
(Vv. 73-77.) The usual imprecation and admonition. 
(L. 168.) 



No. 18.-JIATHURA PEDESTAL INSCRIPTION OP THE KUSHANA YEAR 14, 
BY DAYA RAM SAHNI, M.A., RAI BAHADUR. 

This inscription is an entirely new discovery, photographs and estampages of which have, 
with his characteristic promptitude, been supplied to me by Rai Bahadur Pandit Radha Krishna, 
the Honorary Curator of the Museum of Archseology at Mathura. The stone image pedestal on 
which the epigraph is engraved was found in an elevated part of the Dalpat-ki-Khifki Mohalla 
in the city of Mathura when an inhabitant of that town was digging foundations for his house. 
The excavation was not done with care with the result that the pedestal was broken into severa} 
pieces. Of the statue itself only the feet remain with the lower portion of a small standing figure 
at each side. There is thus nothing to show the exact nature of the central image, though from 
the tenor of the epigraph and other indications it must have been a standing image of Gautama 
Buddha. 

The epigraph consists of three lines (measuring respectively 14f*, 14f* and 4f*) and is in a 
perfect state of preservation, except for the two aksJiaras^ which have been partially cut, away at 
the end of the first line. The characters used belong to the Brahmi alphabet of the Kusha#a 
period. It must, however, be noted that the m everywhere shows the advanced form of the 
Gupta period with a small knob attached to the left of the letter instead of the triangular base. 
Similarly the akshara *W assumes the form peculiar to the eastern variety of the Gupta script in 
which the horizontal base-stroke is completely suppressed, the hook of the akshara being turned 
sharply to the left. The anusvara is throughout represented by a short horizontal stroke instead 
of the usual dot. The long medial a is in some cases not distinctly defined. The inscription is 
composed in the usual mixed dialect, though the deviations from tlie Sanskritic mode of spelling, 
the rules of sandhi and declension, etc., are much fewer than are generally found in the inscrip- 
tiSns of the Kusha$a period. The irregular forms met with in the inscription are :-a$mim 
divase in place of asmin, divase in 1. 1 ; bhagavatd pitamahasya in place of bkagavatafy pitX* 
mahasya, sammyasambuddha$ya in place of samyak-sambuddhasya in 1. 2 ; and dukkha instead 
of dufykha in 1. 3. 

The object of the epigraph is to record the fact that, on the lOtli day of the moath of 
Pausha in the year 14 of the MahtrSja, Devaputra Ksuciishka, a certain SaxhghilK, the 
wife of the Pravarika Hasthi (I), installed, for the cessation of all misery, an image for the 
worship of her favourite deity, the Lord, the PitSmaha, who is truly and perfectly enlightened. 
It will be noticed from the text given below that the name of Gautama Buddha is not men- 
tioned in the inscription. The title sammya-sambuddha (Pali, tammfaambuddhO) is ordinarily 
applied in Buddhist texts to any supreme Buddha. The term is, Aowever, often used as a 
proper noun, signifying Gautama Buddha himself, as for example in the sentence, namG ta$$_a 
arahatd $amma-sa7hbuddhas&a, which is generally written in the beginning of Buddhist texts'* 
The substitution of the word pitamahasya for arahatd in the inscription is inexplicable. Both in 
Buddhist and Brahmanical texts this word is commonly applied to the Hindu god Brahma, a 
I am unable to say why it is used here as an appellation of the Buddha. 

1 J^de Kachoaayana s Pah Grammar by Franci* Maton (Btbhotfuca ladica^ No. 123), p. 162. 



PEDESTAL INSCRIPTION OF THE KUSHAKA YEAR 14. 




(FROM A PHOTOGBAPH). 



HlRANANDA SASTRI 



SCALE ABOUT A THIRD 



SURVEY OP INDIA, CALCUTTA, 



No. 1'e.] PATNA MUSEUM PLATES OB 1 SOMESVARA II. 97 

The main, interest of the inscription lies in the fact that' it is the first BrShml inscrip- 
tion of the Kushana period which quotes the month of its date by its Hindu solar 
name instead of by the season name, which is invariably the case in other Brahmi inscriptions 
of this period. This remark, of course, does not apply to the KharoshthI inscriptions, as several of 
them contain the solar names of months. 1 The inscription is also important for another reason. 
Hitherto we possessed no inscription dated between the years 11 and 22* of-the Kushana era 
which was definitely assignable to the reign of Ka^ishka. The present inscription is clearly 
dated in tbe year 14 of that king. 



TEXT. 

1 Maliaraja-Devaputrasya Kanishkasya saihvatsare 10 4 Pausha-masa-divasi 

1O asmim divasS Pravarika-Ha[sthisya3 

2 bha(a)ryya Samghiia bhagavato pitamahasya Sammyasambuddhasya svamatasya 

devasya pujarttham pratima(a)ih pratishtha- 

3 payati sarvva-dukkha-prahajjarttham [H*] 

TRANSLATION. 

On the 10th day of the month of Pausha in the year 14 of the Maharaja DSvaputra 
Kanishka, on this day, Sariighila, the wife of Pravarika Hasthi (?), installs (this) image 
i of the veneration of her favourite deity, the Bhagavat, the pitamaha, Gautama Buddha (lit. who 
is tooly and completely enlightened), for the cessation of all misery. 



No. 16. PATNA MUSEUM PLATES OF SOMESVARA II. 
BY K. D. BANERJI, M.A. 

The inscription editsd below is inscribed on a set of three copper-plates discovered in 
Baud* State of Orissa by Mr. L. E. B. Cobden Ramsay, LC.S., Political Agent, Orissa 
States. The plates were sent to the late Dr. D. B. Spooner, B.A., Ph.D., then 
edent, Arohjogical Survey, Eastern Circle who had them sent to Rao Bahadur 
Krishna Sastri, the then Government Epigraphist for India. A short note on the in*rip. 
* Twls published in the Annual Report of iU AMbgM Survey, Mm Cvrck, for theyear 
e-n" A set of impressions of the rceord was supplied 'to me by DrD. B Spooner for 
pubLLt, Later on, at my request, Sir Edward Gait, LC.S K.C.S.I, then laeutenant- 



iCf.Jnrf.^.,Vol.XXXVI,p.. 19* 

a Seo iny article on " Three Mathura Inscriptions, eke." in tho J. J.. A. ft, -- 
4, para. 0. 



98 INDIOA. [Vcxu SIS. 



Tlx$ beginnings of the cptrsive Oriya script sire to be fpund m the form of in 
I 25. The first; eight linos contain three verses giving the genealogy of the donor. The first 
person mentioned is Challamaraja of the Cfadla lineage (L 2), whose son was Jasaraja 
(Yasoraja) I 5 whose son was 6mi$vara I. This prince was succeeded by his nepirew 
(bJiralrija] $ asaraja II. The donor of the grant ip the latter's son Sosnisyar?! II. An 
additional name is furnished in the prose account qf the genealogy in U. 8-14, according to which 
Somesvara It meditated on th$ feet of the faramamahe&vara J^sar^j a II, 3 who meditated on 
the feet of the ParaniamSheivara Cliaiidradityadeva, 3 The last named person may be the 
younger brother of S6me6vata I and the father of Jasaraja II. Some&vara II is styled the 
lord of the entire Kosala (saTccda*K5sal-adhUvara) 9 the devout worshipper both of Siva and of 
Vishnu (ParamamaMsmm-Paramavaish'ftava), a Jtyctfiavyuhapati, Raja and Ra^aka. These titles 
indicate his subordinate position and, most probably, he was a subordinate chief under the 
Eastern Ganga kings of Kalinga. He is also called the bee on the lofcu? feet of 
This Vaidyanatha is evidently the same as that meatioaect in the Mahada platea of 
deva vauman, and identified by Mr, B. 0. MazumdaE with a temple of that name kj. ihp Stqte of 
Sonpur. 

The object of the inscription is to record the grant of the village oi phull^wittyl 
together with Dohali situated, probably, in the vishaya of CharSda. The grant is 
addressed to the people of another village named Vaxdyavandlia, the connection of which 
with the two villages granted is not understood. The donees were TJtsavakara and Diva- 
kara, the two Brahmanas belonging to the Garggya-grom, who followed the Rig-veda and had 
studied the rites of the Yajur-veda, The grant was made with the object of pleasing the Lord 
Narayana (II. 23-24), on the sixth day of the bright half of the month of Jyaishtha IB 
the year 17, evidently of the reign of SomeSvara II. The inscription was written by Pan<Jita 
Narayana and incised by Lokanatha, a Vijnani (?). 

I am unable to identify any of the localities mentioned in this grant (viz*, Ch&iod.&'vishaya, 
Vaniyavandha, Phullamuthi and Dohall) 9 except Svarnnapura (L 14) which is the modern^ 
Sonpur IB Orissa. I edit the inscription from the original 



TEXT- 
First Plate, 

1 Qin 4 [Ji*] lalt kahatiiya-sattamo Kayi*aammtpana5tta Ch61-anvaye 6rl^ 

2 man Ghallamaraf^ %=ari-vadhii-vaidhayya:diksha-guruh | tat-putro 

3 JasarSjadeva iti vifcyat^t\ sata[ta*j vall^bho jitva v^iii-va(ba)lam v^(ba)- 

4 bhuva 

kshay a- dhuina 

hetuh Somemraro nripatfi^r^apratima-praiSpah | ted-bhr5triias*tadan[u*] 
fr nlti-vida[m*] varishthah ^riman=abha(bhu)n=narapati?-Jasara}adi{e)m^ if 
7 Tat-tanayo gui^a&all prasiddha-m^d(h)iinl jit-iri-vam-vargga[ti*l3 

1 [The script is not so late. See Mr, H. Krisfena Sastn's remark in the note referred to in tiie, preceding 

para. Ed] 

s TMscMef i& probably, meationed in the EanMli and Kawvdhaiw9^p,tionq No. 235 05! th? tyewriptivq 
L}sf<$ o/ ln&$n$tiQns in the Central Proving and $era%, by Bai B^ado^ Hkalal,, pp r . ^65*^6. 

3 Bao Bahadur, ELrisltna Sastei is mctined to Identify him with Challainaraja ; see Ann. %e$. of the Arch* 

Sur. of India, M,C t , 1916*17, p. 4, para. 5, A chief of this name Is mentioned in the Barsur inscription^ 
Pwcnptive Li*ts of Inscriptions in the C. P. and Berar t pp. 144-45, No. 19S> who also claims to be a Chdla. J 

4 Expressed by a symbol. 

f The metre is S&rd'&lavtkrtyita. @ The anmv&m iei snperftnous. 

* Delete the dan<ja Ta n^etre ia Va#tntotilaUi 



PATXA MUSEUM PLATES OF SOMESTARA II. 




tta. 



10 



12 



14 



16 




10 



12 



14 



16 



HlKAN'ANDA SASTRI. 



SCALE TWO-THIRDS 



SURVEY OF INDH CALCUTTA,. 



18 



20 



22 



24 



26 




III 



28 



30 



32 



34 



36 




No. 16.] PATNA OF fiOMBSVARA 11 99 



Plate ; fitti 

8 dharmm-aika-vasatli-amalalj sa j-ayatl Smesvar6 nppatih j| [3*] 1 Parainamaheavara- 

9 samasta-pra6asty-alamkrita4rimacl^ 

10 fa-samasta-pr a^ast^-aiamktita- Atfmaj "pad-amLdkyita-PgcramamaheSvata* 

lfc- I s 



12 ma*Mahad8vfrCh6l*W 

13 nkam(nka)ja-bliramara-sakaIa-K^ 

14 feoiHes^arkde^a^padaBi ku^ulinah | Safnaapnra*sainavasit [ Gh&Mdfi-vi- 

15 shayiya-"Vanly^aB'dlia-[gm]2xie 3 vr(bra}hma^-adi-tiainasta''i'anapad5n mana^anti | 

16 v6^bo)dhayanti s&inadi&anti ehd I Vidifeam=a$tii BliaTata[m] 4 gramo-yam 

17 " D62fedK 4 sahitafii c^atu^-sim^avathcliliiiinah Bajai-a-sthalah sainatsya^ 

Svbvnd Pli^e ; Btidond Stile, 

18 kacbcWbapali prastara-niklia(a) ta-kpta-slma^cii^taftta 1 ) -Wia^^pTaV'e^&.t aakala 



19 Mtak gamasta^aj^-d^a-mkaifa-^yfey-atji yatad-utpattlmSii 8 | blitiniclich]iidr-api(blii)dli- 

20 toUtyaySnla 1 8fclianfc&tk*-fcriiati-saib,akalaalx I Garggya-sago-trabhyam Tfy-arslia(e)ya- 
2-1 ptaVa/rabliya35i I Rig-v3dibfayiA Yajur-veda-yiiiit-ibliyasabliyam 

22 fan4di L SrfeVd^a A skibat^-kalm^sMbhyaiii nltya^sa 

33 2iialia-vr(bTa)limaii.y^''6bMtSbliyaTn sadliu-IiJtsavaSara-DIvakarlBliyaiii Bhaga- I s 

24 A^at5 Naraya^a-biiattSrakasya pritayS mata-pltror-atmaaia^-nBlia punya- 

25 yaftS-bhiVjiddhy-arthaih t^nlra-Sasaiilkfitya pfadatiio^smabhih | atah pra- 

26 bl?iti ei)a)y3i l *= l ad!ilnibliuya va[f*]Bkika-pratyaya- 

27 dfcdanah sukMih prativa^ats karskata cha 1' 



28 bHVibMS=cha raj abhirbhiimi-da[na-pa]Iana-punya- Sravanat liara^a- 

29 nnaraka i pata-bliayad^asmad-dattam=idaiii sva-dattera=iv=anum5dya pari- 7 

30 paripala&iyam | Bhavanti cli=atia dharmrn-anusa(a)msina^i 6lokah | BMmim yah 

prati- 

31 gjih^ati yaScha bhumirh prayaoko-hhati [I*] ubhau tan punya-karmma^au niyatain 

sva- 8 

32 rgga-gaminau U 9 [4*] Gamekam svar3ji:La;m=ekaiii oha bhumer=apy=arddhMn* 

anguin(gu)laiii I haran=na- 

33 Takama^noti yvad 10 =abhutisaiiiplatra(va)ra H [5*] Va(]Ba)hubhir^vaaudha datta 

rajabhilt Sa- 

34 gar-adibhih j yasya yaaya yada bliuinistasya tasya tada phalam || Samvat 

35 17 Jyaishlba fiudi 6 [ *] likhitara ]^ai]i4ita-NrayaneBa [|*] litklrnniam Vi]aani-Le(Ld) 



36 tMn-8t8(ti) 



The metre is Arm 2 Cancel the 

The letter gra was actually wrlttefi gya. 4> 2?lie anutfvara mark is peculiar, 
&agraha is used Jwe 

[Hardly any distinction ia made between t and ta, n find na arid also m and mo in sorer cases^- 
This word is superfluous. 8 The avogrrofce-like sign after sw Is siaperfluons, 

This and the two following verses are in the AnwJitubh metre. 
10 The letter da is written over the line. 

6 2 



100 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XIX- 



No, 17.-BITHAPUK PLATES OF BHAYATTAVARMMAN. 
BY Y. R, GOTTE, B.A., MJEU.S. 

These copper-plates were discovered at Ritfcapur (Riddhapur of the Mahaxmbhavas) m 

the lorsi taluka of the Amaravati (Amraotl) district of the Central Provinces, along with a set of 
copper-plates of theVakataka queen Prabhavatigupta, 1 and were lent to the Bharata-Itihasa* 
samMhaka-Mandaia of Poonaby Mahanta Dattaraja, Tte Secretaries of this Maij^ala handed 
them over to me for decipherment, and with their kind permission I edit the interesting record 
incised on them, in this Journal. 

The grant* is engraved on three copper-plates, which measure l^/ long, 3^ to 3-f-f * broad 
and ^ thick and weigh 87$ tolas. The first plate has no writing on its outer side ; the second and 
the third plates are engraved on both the sides. The letters are well-cut and well preserved, 
except a few on the back side of the third plate. Their average size is |" to I". There is tio seal 
attached to the plates though holes, 1" in diameter, apparently meant for the ring, are to ba 
ieca oa the proper right margin of each plate. 

The alphabet is of the box-headed type which was current in the Central Provinces 
abcut the 5th century A.D. The peculiarities are : (1) the contraction of the breadth af 
letters, and (2) the conversion of the curves, seen in older forms, into rectangular strokes* Though 
the box-headed type of the alphabet used here is decidedly Southern, 8 yet the influence of th 
Northern script is clear enough. The most marked Southern characteristics in the present 
lecord are ; (I) The retention of the ancient forms of pa, $ha> and sa open at the top, of the 
old ma and the semi-tripartite ya ; O/. nrifa^am&a- 1, 2, vishayQehitafy L 11 and $da&Qr 
1. 16. (2) The right hand stroke oi la is longer than the left ; Of. Idbh&t- L 14. (3) Ihe right- 
angled ornamental strokes to the left of the verticals of <v<5, ite, wa, ra, of the subscript ra, 
and of the medial u and #, which are evidently developed out of the curves, (4) The $a with 
two right angles, evidently an adaptation of the $a with the round back ; Cf. pfydaraka* 
L 19. (5) The medial ri with a curled curve to the tight ; C/. *nripa~ L 2, (6) The form 
of ^a; C/. kimwy-Sdayafa L 11* The inflmence of the Northern script is observable in the 
following cases; (l)0a and ia with bends at the left downward strokes ; Cf. giri-gr&m& 
L 3 and sadate- 1 16. There are two forms of the letters ga and ta> in this inscription, of 
which one ia with a hook and the other ha,s no hook^ (2) Na with a loop and ta without 
a loop ; Cf. Nandiwrddhanat 1. 1 and **anugrihlttna I 21 (3) The occasional peculiar 
matras above th Ifce, though the horizontal and the middle matras are most common 
aa in flie Southern script ; Cf. **asmalcain** 1 6 and *samvai(e)dye I 5. The raised marks 
for the long S are seen in the Southern alphabet also. 4 (4) The turn of frhe medial $ 
to the left ; Cf. a nivarttanikafy 1 16. There are akc some examples of the medial i turning 
to the left.* 5 

The pigrapMpal peculiarities of the present record are : (1) The loop on the left side 

of ya is complete in some cases while not so in others, thus shewing the transition from the tripar- 
tite form to the bipartite one : Cf. yd in -Yamunayds* I 5, ya in Mmraffiyaryyaya. I 7, 
a L 12. (2) The tha with a peculiar transitional ringlet at the base as in tho 



in 



J(mrnal f the ***** $** Mantfala, Vol. 

FP- 



e BuMefs lad. ?oL, Tafd VII col, 33V, 



No. 17.1 RITHAPUR PLATES OF BHAVATTAVARMMAN. 101 



Western script : Cf. eJcdda^etha 1. 20. (3) The form of ba is two-fold in this record : in 
Brahma^a L 3 where it is a correction from pa, and in Bdppadevem L 26 where it is open on the 
left side : but in Bakasdmalakam I 19 it is closed on this side. The initial a occurs in 11. 1, 13 
and 16 ; a in 11 10, 12, 22, 23 and 24 ; e in 11. 10, 12, 17 and 20. The finil t and m are reduced 
in size and slightly different in shape when compared to their usual symbols : Of. t m 11. 1, 15, 
16 and 24 and ma in 1L 6, 7, 9, 10, 21 and 23. The letter ma is written in this record 
in three different forms : (i) with the box-head attached to the left arm of the letter (11. 1 
to 5), (ii) with this head attached to the right arm of it (gramah in 1. 12), Q maryyddd (in 1. U, 
tc.), and (Hi) with the head attached to both the arms (Kwndro? in L 8, Q navamaga and 
Matra in L 10)* Similarly there are also two different forms of the subscript m, viz., 
one with one box-head (varmma and BrdJima^ in L 3, Q smabhify in L 4), and the other 
without the box-head at all (atma and $rdhma$a in 1. 10, wmabhify in L 16), The letter su 
is written in two different forms : one with the u- sign turned to the right as in L 11 and the 
other with the sign turned to the left as in 1.13. The letter su is written differently from 
this letter in the box-headed type shown in Biihler's Palaogmplucal Talk VII, CoL XI, where 
the u-sign is turned to the right of the letter and not to the left as in this record. On this account 
there is a very slight difference between the shapes of a and sa in our inscription. The medial i is 
^howB by one curve but the I is expressed by this curve supplemented by a smaller curve within it. 
With regard to orthography we may note the doubling of consonants (with the exception 
of sibilants) following r, BuohafiAfra^ySryyayaaiidI)ft8ryy(Mya L 7. In this process of doub- 
ling, if the letter is the 2nd or the 4th of its class, the first member is replaced by the 1st or the 3rd 
of its class, e.g., NandivarddJiandt I 1. The letter m is doubled when it comes after the anusmra 
either in the same word or in the following ; see samvvaidye in L 5 amd lojfam vva m L 15. 
The class nasals are generally used in this inscription : Cf. ^utumbinafy I 4, Gangd (I 5), etc, 
The rules of sandhi are often ignored ;~ vibhavali Nalanripa-vamsa-prasiUa^ tripataka* 1. 2 ; 
**asmaWiify Bhagavatafy 1. 4 ; cJi**ety**evam dtmanavymSya 11 9 and 10, etc. The Upadhndnfya 
occurs once (I 23) and is used wrongly, being followed by cfea. 1 It is likely that the engraver 
discovered his mistake and tried to change faha to ma. The engraver seems to have misread 
the draft in the following cases : For samahattara he has put in samQ-harttara 1. 3 ; for 
<*m**avichdlya,m he has engraved fafavacMlya'm I 23. l 

The language is Sanskrit prose, excepting tke ve*se in the Arya metre which gives the 
date and mentions the writer of the grant, 

Uhe inscription refers itself to Maharaja Bhattaraka-Artthapati Bhavattavarmman 
of the Nala family. Artthapati, I understand, is only an epithet. It literally means 'the 
lord of riches', that is, * a king '. But it is probably not used in its general sense in the 
present record. The Assistant Archaeological Superintendent for Epigraphy, Southern Circle, 
Madias, copied sometime ago at P64aga4h in the Jeypore Agency (Vizagapatam district), an 
epigraph of the 12th year of the son of king Bhavadatta, also of the Nala faimly. This docu, 
i^nt has beet* briefly noticed in the Annual Report on Epigraphy for the ym 192U2 wher, 
a facsimile of it is also given.' The possibility that Bhavatta may be a practised forn * 
is not altogether precluded.* But it is presumptuous at this stage to identify 



aldplate^L [Us fl>4 mfttod by tke late Mr. Robert Sewell who hi* 1-* 



written (|. 8) as Durggattha ', nd that m ' Dovadatta ' Jo ww added as a correction below tue line, Ed ] 



102 EPlGEAPHIA INDIOA, [VdL. XfX 

Bh&vadatia with Bhavattavaraasi a Aa very little was known ao far atoutthe Nalas, 1 these two 
records are of special value for they help us in determining the country over which they ruled. 

The inscription reooids the grant of a village called Kadambagiri-grama to Matracpiyi* 
ryya and his eight sons, namely, Devaryya* Bivadattaryya f KumSradatt&rya, Vi(VI)ra- 
dattaryya p Vasudattarya, Go(Gau)ridattaryya ? DJiruvadattlryya and Dnrggattli* 
(datt)aryya of the Parafiara-jr$ra h The grant was issued from Nandivardd&ana but 
actually made at Prayaga or the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna, However, 
it does not follow that Pray aga formed part of the dominions of Bhavattavarmman, for giants 
of distant villages, we know, were often made at exceptionally holy places or tvrthas like 
it or Benares. The charter was written at the oral instructions (of the king) by Ghulila, his 
confidential officer, and engraved by BdppadSva, the grandson of Paddopadhyaya. 

The document is dated on the 7th day of the fortnight of Karttika ol the litfc 

(regnal) year of king Bhavattavarmman. Palaaographically the record may be assigned to 
the latter half of the 5th or the first half of the 6th century A.D. 

Of the localities mentioned, Nandivarddhana, from where Bhavattavarmman issued the 
grant, deserves notice. Perhaps, it is different from the Kandiva?ddhana which has been 
identified by Rai Bahadur Hiralal with Nagardhana in the Nagpur district, and is identical with 
Nandur in the Yeotmal taluka of the Central Provinces, which has a good camping ground. 
Kadambagiri-grma is apparently Kalamba in the same district, without the appendage gfri* 
grama. Other villages I am unable to identify. 



First Plate. 

i 
2 

3 



5 

Second Plate; First Side. 

6 TO ^ 

( gf ) 



7 irra ^Twrwrarf g^rni ^r^T^r^Tii^ ?IWT 
8 

9 



10 wwwwnwn ^fwwfri ^ffrC^) m 
ftr- 



2 



See the DjrAaife* oftM Rammt Distrtete of the B&fflbay Presidency, p. 6, and the jforZy Hwtory of the 
n f p 49. 

From the original plates. 
3 The letter ^ seems to be a correction from XT. 

* [The plate reads ^^trCTT)^}^ \ bei3Q inwsed below *j. E<L] 
s Superfluous. [Or perhaps ^fq^ is meant. Ed.] 

* * Is added below the line by way of interlineation. The two horizontal bnes m the margin may be noticed 



PLATES OF BHAVATTAVAIUIMAN. 




10 



12 



14 



16 



HlllANANDA 



SCALE , THREE-FOURTHS. 



SUKVKY OF INDIA, (JALC'U'J 



IIM 




26 



No. 17.] KITHAPUR PLATES Of BHAVATTAVARMMAN. 1QS 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 



13 



15 

16 

T/wid PZaie; Fust Side. 

17 



[i*] 

18 ?tT*rei 

19 ^^?f^ 

20 g fg^: ^Twf^(^)^ [n*] 



21 ^HKITFI [l*] 

II 

22 



23 



24 
25 f?r 
26 



1 ft? is engraved below the Ime. 

s Tbe W ol 3(f?Wl is entered below the line. 

3 3T is written abpve the line, 

s Here follows a verse in the Aryz metre, 

[A letter like *T seems to be wiitton below the symbol for Ihi, apparently, as a correction. Ed.] 

The reading ig^mt is not quite certain ; but the traces of the damaged letters favour the reading 
any rate, [TUon ^^i^fii would require correction. Cf , reading m L 7 above. Ed ] 

7 [The correct reading seems to be w[fa]*ffi[fa]*ir^ H^feRr Ed] 

8 The engraver seems to* have inserted a, ^ above >$qW ao as to make fa 



BPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX, 



TRANSLATION. 

(Lines 1-21.) Perfection has been attained! Hail ! From Nandivarddkana. The illus- 
trious Maharaja Bhavattavarmraan, whose banner bears the Tnpat&kS (hand with throe 
fingers stretched out or whose banner consists of three pennons), who is born of the lineage of the 
Nala kings, upon whom lias been bestowed the glory of royalty by Alahe&vara (Siva) and Maliii- 
sena (KSrttikcya), orders the house-holders and great men headed by the Brahmans, residing in the 
village of Kadambagiri, as follows :(Know) ye (that) by us while staying at PraySffa, the 
place blest by the favour of the Divine Prajfipati (Brahma) at the confluence of the Ganges 
and the Jumna, (this milage) is bestowed for blessing the matrimonial relationship of ours, i-e* 
myself and (my) queen, with libations of water, on Matr4ky&ryya f the Para6ara~#otfm and 
his eight sons, namely, Devaryya, DevadattSryya, Kumixadatt&ryya, Vi(Vi)radattaryya, 
Yasudattaryya, G6(Gau)ridattaryya, Dfcruvadattaryya and Durggattli(datt)aryya f 
lie himself being the ninth (recipient). 

To these Brahmans, therefore, all the taxes including gold duly accruing from the place 
(mentioned below) should be given and (att customary) services should bo rendered. And this 
(grant of the] village is to endure wifch the moon and the sun (t .e, f for ever), free from all taxes. It 
is not to be entered by soldiers or horses, 1 It is to be free from tolls and customs duties and from 

disputes. 

Nothing shall be said (against this grant) with (reference to some) tamarind or paMUa tree 
or any boundaries in the village. Whoever out of covetousnoss or passion, levies taxes 
or takes away the land (granted), shall incur the five great sins. This village, measuring in 
extent ten nwartfanas, .is given together with (the right of) ploughing and the garden, for 
which nothing should be spoken (against it) by anybody. The "boundaries of this village are : to 
the north is the mountain, the extreme limit of the vishaya (district), Maluka-viraka* with the 
cultivated ground, Madhuka-latika, 8 Bakas&inalaka with the pomegranate tree, Trimandara- 
viraka, and the boundary of the district (rSjya*) ; which (royal grant) has been written at our 
oral command by Ghulla, the Confidential Officer, 5 on the seventh day of the dark fortnight 
of Xlrttika in tlie eleventh (regnal) year. 

(Lines 21-26.) THa ctpper-plate charter, which is the abode of the virtue of increasing the 
amdfaiQBof his father and mother, has been caused to be made by the illustrious MahS 
ArtthapatiBlia|tiraka f who has been favoured by the kindness of respectable people 
that it may last undisturbed (in the possession) of the (said) eight sons (enduring with the 
and tliemooiL (Jfaytiere be) prosperity to cows, Brahmans and subjects I May there be 
success ! Engraved by Bdppadiva, the son's son of Paddopadhyaya. 




particular or a conveyance in general. 
!y riudihen as well as below (1. 2) for a village or its suburb. 

ate apparently the names of bordering 



or 



No. 18,] TWO INSCRIPTIONS OF BAJASIMHA-NABASIMHAVARMAN II 105 

So. 18. TWO INSCRIPTIONS OP THE PALLAVA KING RAJASIMHA-NARA- 

SI31HAVARMAN II. 

Br V. RANGACHARYA, M.A. 
A. THE MAHABALIPURAM INSCRIPTIONS 

This record is engraved on the plinths of two platforms in the western side of the second 
courtyard of the Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram (Mamallapuram), and was discovered by 
the Archaeological Department in 1912, The platforms have been, surmised to be either the 
balipUhas of the two main shrines of that temple or the supports of their missing flagstaffs. One 
of the three Chola inscriptions 3 of the Shore Temple, discovered in 1887, calls the god of the 
temple 'the Lord of Tirakkadalmallai.' Another calls the temple itself Jalasayana, while the 
third mentions the shrinea of Kshatriya-siihba-PallaveSvara-deva, Rajasiriiha-Pallavesvara-dova 
and Pallikondarnliya-deva. Rao Saheb Krishna Sastri 3 believes that the two platforms, above 
mentioned, and the monolithic dhvajastamlha in the sea are the probable remnants of the three 
Btrines referred to in the last of the Ch5la epigraphs. The discovery of the inscription on the 
platforms is important for the fact that it throws light on the identity of the king who 
built these shrines, a question about which nothing definite has been known, It is true that the 
names Eajasimha and Kshatriyasimha, after which two of the deities were named, indicated 
a Pallava origin to the temple ; but no direct or contemporary evidence had been available to 
prove ifc. The present inscription supplies it. 

The inscription 4 is written in the Pallava- Grantha character and consists of a single line 
running round the plinths. It is much damaged. The existing portion comprises sis: Sanscrit 
Terses in the Aryct, Va$ctntatila"ka and the Anusfatubh metres, besides the attributes 
[Bhayalrahitah and Bahunayah after the first verse and the title &vi-Udayachandrah after the 
-second verse, which are in prose. They contain the names, surnames arid titles of a Pallava king 
who, as will be shown presently, has ta be identified with Narasimhavarman II. The first 
Terse, which is wanting in the last three syllables, gives the king the epithets of Apratima, 
Avanibhushana, Akalanka, Dharanichandra, Arimardana, Afrulabali and Koilittilaka. The 
second verse gives him, among others, the titles of Atyantak&ma, Apirjita, Oliandrardliasi- 

1 Sec my Topographical List oflnscrns t9 Vol. I, pp. 327-329. The local inscriptions heroin noted (Cg. 60-81 
f.) do not include those taken from the Mack. Mis,, winch are 31 in number. Of the thirty -six included in the list 
twenty (Cg. 58-74 & 77-79) have been edited by Dr. flulfczsch in 8. L Z, Vol. I, pp. 1-16 and ~Rp. Ind., Vol. X, 
pp. 1-11. Two inscrns. (Cg. 75 and 76) discovered by the late Mr. Venkayya in 1907 arc edited in Dp, Ind, f Vol. X, 
p. 8, under NOB. 18 and 19. All these belong to the Pallava kings from Mahendravarnian I onward. Of the remaining 
nine epigraphs five belong to the Chola kings Rajaiaja I, lUjoi.dradeva, Vira-Rajondra and Knlotfcunga-Ch6"la I $ the 
details of two (Cg. 63 and 54) are not available j and one (Cg, 56) is dated in the reign of the Vijayanagara empeior 
Acliyntaraya. The inscription which is edited above, foirns No. 566 in that year's official list of epigraphs ami 
Cg. 80 in ray Topographical Jjis* 

These are Nos. 1, 2 & 3 of 1887 and Cg. 50-52 in the Topographical List. They have been edited by the late 
Dr. Hultzsch in S. J. L, Vol. I, under Nos. 42, dO and 41 respectively. 

3 Mad)\ Epigr* JB^jp.,1913, p. 88, para. 8. The Bao Saheb surmises that god Taln&iyann whom Tii-nmangai- 
J54var refers to was Vishnu and the Saivite god, Kshatriyasimha-Pallave^vara * who is directly facing the sea and 
Toeing even washed by ifc, appears to have received tLo name JalaSayana" the one being on laud, awl the other on 
water. It seems to me that Jalasayana is a later pauranio variant of Tala&ayana and that both the terms can refer to 
Vishnn Pallikondarnliyndeva alone, as 6iva is not iu the fat/ant posture. Moreover, TahJayinn 5s only a suortei 
form o Kadalmallai-ttalafai/cwa, and, as snch, need not be taken as a term of contrast to jalafayana, 

* It may be pointed onfc that the analysis given in thia paragraph is not based on the plate given in tlie Aladr. 
JBft^r. Rep., 1913 (p. 88), but a revise d one kindly prepared by the Government Epigraphist lor the 
eUtion, A comparison of the two plates will show that the order of the verses ia changed. 



106 EPIGHAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX- 



sekiiara-sikliamani and Chand&sani. Tlie third verse is identical with the last verse of the 
inscription round the outside of tke RajaalnihSbvara shrine in the Kailasanatha temple at Kafichl* 
puram, 1 Vorseb 4 and 5 give, among others, the Urudas Srl-karmuka, Kalakala 9 AbhirSms f 
RanabMma, Gunalaya, Sri-Vailabha, Atimstna, tlrjjita, Uanataraga and Yuddharjuna. 
The last verse, "which is damaged in the beginning and which cannot be satisfactorily read, 
makes, however, clear mention of the expression Narendrasimha in its latter part* 

The identification of the king who bore the above titles is, as Mr. Krishna Sastri has pointed 
out, easy enough. First, it is obvious that he wa.8 the same as the builder of the Kailasanatha 
temple at Kailchl. Secondly, the identity of verse 3 in the present epigraph with the last verse 
of the RujasimhgSvara epigraph at Kanchl givea a clue to the eulogy oi the same sovereign. The 
Kunelnpuram epigraph tells us that Rajasiihha was the son of Ugradaacja 3 or Para- 
inesvara, w ho was the destroyer of the city o Ilauarasika. Dr. Fleet has pointed 3 out that 
Ranurabika is an epithet of the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya I (A.D. 655-680), that 
Ugradamla IB identical with the Pallava king Paramesvaravarman I who, the Kftram 4 Plates 
toll us, crossed arms with Vikrazuaditya, and that Rajasimha (alias Narasiinhavisbua) must be 
identified with Narasitiihavarmau IL Now, an inscription 5 of Bfljasimha Narasimhavarman II 
dibcoveied at VayalQr in 1908 says that be had also the title o! Kbhattrasiihha (Kshatnyasimha 
of other inscriptions). To quote the passage itself ; 



It is thus clear that the two Sua sluines of the Shoro Temple, Rajasilnlla-Pallaves^'ara 
and E^haitiiyasimha-PaUavgfivara, were named after Narasimhavaimau II and are, therefore, 

his works. 

In Ms analysis of the scripts of the Mahabalipuram and Saiuvankuppam inscriptioDS 
Dr. Hultzsch distinguishes four stylos. Of these one is entirely northern and may be ignored 
for the present discussion. The remaining three, lie attributes respectively to the epochs of 
NarattnnUavarman I, Atyautakaraa (whom he identifies uith Paramg^varavarman I) and 
Atirariachanda (whom he assigns to the age of Namlivarmnn Pallayamalla). The paleography 
o our inscription closely resemble thab of the Atyantakama group. As will be seen from my 
oote 12 at page 108 below, I believe that toe attwbutioa of the second set of inscriptions 
to Paramesvaravarman I by Dr. Hultzach is without sufficient basis and that it cau be 
qnally legitimately ascribed to his son Narasimhararman II. I am also disposed to believe that 
AtiranaohaDda is Narasithhayarmaii II himself (see below, page 109, note 3). But this 
difference of opinion regarding the identity of the kings need not cause a doubt in regard 
to tie relative times of the three sets of scripts, though even from this standpoint there 
can be^ no agieement in regard to the exact chronological gaps dividing them. A comparison 
of their scripts from the fine facsimile plates given above <>e Vol. X, plates Kos 1 to 6) 
Hhows clearly thai tie first of these is archaically simple, the second very florid and ornal 
mentod with elaborate flourishes, and the third much simpler though not so simple in formation 
as the fiist set, 



., Vol. I, p. 13, v. 
A, verae 5. 



J., Vol. ,, 
varman I, but m ^p. Ind., Vol. X, lie accepts the conclusion of Dr. Fleet. 

See iines 4W1 : ] . s. i. j. f vol. i, p . 149, Text 149 1 



. , . , 

Oar.M35 in my TopoLM. I am thankf ,1 to the QoramwTt Epigraph for permissiou to cowolt 
liote from the office copy of this inscription, 



Ho. 18.3 TWO INSCRIPTIONS OF BAJASIMHA-NABASIMHAVAEMAK II 107 

A close study of the paleography of tlie present epigraph sliows that the Shore Temple 
inscription is later than tlie Atyaotakama and Kanohlpuram inscriptions and earlier than those 
of the Atiranachai4a group. Incidentally it shows that to judge of the identity of kings from 
the palaeography of their iuscriptions alone, is dangerous in-as-much as at least three styles, 
namely, those of the Atyanfcakama and Rajasiihha group, the Shore Temple inscription and 
the Atiranachanda group, have to be attributed to the same king, ie., Narasiriihavarman 
II. This question as well as the chronology of the epigraphs will be discussed in my paper 
B on the Panamalai inscription of the same king printed below. 



Platform A. 
West Side 






South SiAe 



East Sufo 



;H 

Nori7t Side-* 

fat ftjftipn^nfnwwil ^^IT^I wwftw ^^fti ftwNr: [n^*] 
wj?W5: AJ 7 

Platform B. 
West Bide 



: M [8*3 



_ _ 

m the plafce preparcd ^TEditor of this Journal. I mu-t also tlaank Ida, for hi, Laving permitted 






They n e an " kh " 



wo 

the EMbM temple i n .iptio n . See S. 1. 1, Vol. I, pp. 15 and 16. 
f S <^ o* tto ^'ord U seen in fte Dinning of the east side. 
is al> possible. 




10S EPIQRAPHTA IND1CA, [Vol. XIX. 



Hast Side. 

...... [*] 

[u **] 



urerro . *i 

IVJ 

TBANSLATION. 

(Verse 1.) ProRperity ! Those kings fare fortimate who) bow to (the king) who is 
siueqimlled^ the ornament of the earth, the spotless, 5 the moon o the earth,* the 
conqueror of enemies,* tho matchless in strength, 8 the ornament of (his) family. 9 

Tho fc'url SH (or tho guileless). 10 The great statesman. 11 

(V. 2.) The world of men, having obtained this (king) is happy, as if it has obtained 
(to) dusive the king whose desires are endless, 12 the invincible, 1 * the sole ruler, 14 - the wearer 
of Siva nta liia crest-jewel, 15 the "wonderful, 15 the fierce thunderbolt 1 ? who is intolerable 
to great (hostile) kings. 

i This bpoce should have been filled by six or seven letters representing eight mtitrt*. Sach as 



2 Aa TTO|W i a imperative, 2nd peraon, plural, we have to wppoie that this is an addiess, and an 
cxptessumlikc iwrflva: after gin*'* *ay * miderstood. The letter v b found im smaller aize after ^ 
and tlniN enables us to doi ipher the w*ord g^t^sr, whlcli is also found in S. I. L 9 Vol. I f No. 25, niche 15. 

s Thw reading is tentative. As the space available Ss for 32 letters, the rerse may be in the Anuahfrfo metre 5 
hut the la*t portion does not agree with this, and suggests the JLrya metre. The Government Epigraphi&t would read 
the earlier portion tlins : m ^% nur^mvi. ^Wf [*] ftWHim* ft*^. The wMe verfie * 80 defaced tUt 
the reading given above is, as it is, meaningless, [In the Vayaliir inscription also Mahamalla occurs as a surname 
of Namsiriihdvanuan II. Ed.] 

* Sic niche 27 in S. 1. 1., Vol. I> No. 26. 

& The same is found m niche* 8 and 19 above in modified forms. 

6 Cf . wfirf^qK in niolie 19 of the above, 

7 Ibid., niche 4, Compare also ^f^ifiw; ^ n niche 44, 

s IMiZ., niche 26. * Ibid., niche 4 

10 Ibid., niche 9 where the expression gggp^f^^ is found and niche 22 where the epithet vpT^flftf is given. 
n The epithets ^^fi^*, and ^T?ITl occur in the 3rd and 42nd alches of the above epigraph. 
Compare also ftf^e^fifu; in S. 1. 1., Vol. I, No. 24, verse 5, 

12 Tiiis biruda is touud in S. L I., Vol. I, No. 24, verse 5 3 tbid. t No. 25, niche 1 ; and the Vayalur and 
Tirupporur inscriptioni. Atyanta'ka.ma was also a biruda of Naraaimhavartnan I as is proved by No. 5 of tbe 
Dharrnarfijaratha inscriptions at Mfthabalipurarn. The late Dr. Hnltzsch believed that it was also the title of 
Paramos varavarinau I, to whom he attributed No. 17 of the Dhannaraja-ratba epigraphs and those in tbe Ganefo 
tompla (5. ALVoL J,p. 4, No. 18 and JSJp. I^ Vol. X, p. 8, No, 20) a the Dhsrmaraja-msn^apa (ibi& 9 
Na. 21) and &amanaja*flian<Jfipa (ibid., No. 22). The reason why he concluded thus h the mention of 
ParameSvaia. It seems to me to be, however, a mere pun and not a real name. The paleography of the epigraph 
in which it occurs, moreover, is the same as that of Rajasimha in, the Kailisanatha temple* On these grounds 
1 seriously doubt the correctness of identifying Atyantakama with Paramesvaravazman I and am disposed to 
think that all the limdas attributed by Hultzsch to this king must he attributed to NarasimhavartDan II. 
w S^e 8. L I,. Vol. I, No, 25, niche 2. Ibid., niche 37. 

"Compare finpnwqfc in 'verse 3 and q%^f%%lMfaffiff*^ in the Vftyalfir ^pigrayh. 
* Compare niclies^lO and 28 in S. L L Vol. I, No, 25. 
wliich gives the expression * 



No. 18,] TWO INSCRIPTIONS 01? UAJASIMHA-NAEASIMHAVARMAK II. 109 

The glorious rising moon. 1 

(V. 3.) [For the translation of tins see S. L I, Vol. I, p. 14,] 

(V. 4.) The blessed archer, 8 the death to Death 5 the beautiful, 4 the terrible in war, 5 the 
abode of virtues, --!* victorious. 

(V. 5.) (0 kwgs!) bow (/o 7f/w) who is ilio beloved of Sri 7 (Lalvshmi), who is 
highly proud, 8 the hero in battle, 9 .. .the mighty, 10 the exalted and lovely, 11 like 
in war. 

(V. 6.) The lion 13 among kings . . . .all kings obeyed , . , . 



B. THE PANAMALA1 INSCRIPTION. 

The subjoined inscription and the temple on which it lias been, engraved are mentioned 
in Mr* Sewell's Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I, p. 20!), and the Gazetteer of the district of South Arcot, 
p. 385. It was brought to the notice of the Assistant Archaeological Superintendent for Epigra- 
phy, Madras, by Prof. J. Dubreuil of Pondicherry in 1915. The village of Panamalai is situat- 
ed sixteen miles north of Villupuraiu. An inscription 14 from this place consisting of one Sanskrit 
verse which is identical with the last verse of the Kailasanatha inscription 15 df Rajasimha and the 
third verse of the Shore Temple inscription 10 of the same king at Mahahalipuram, has been 
published in S. /. /., VoL I, p. 24. Rao Sahib EL Krishna Sastri had the present inscription 
copied and registered as No. 616 of 1915 in his Report for 1916. A facsimile of the inscription 
is published, together with a summary of its contents, (p. Hi, para. 5 and plate III opp, p. 114) 
in the same Report. Prof. Uubreuil also has published a photo of the epigraph in his Pallava 
Antiquities (Vol. I, Plate I), together with a tentative translation of it by Prof. S. Kri&lmaswaml 
Aiyangar. 

It is stated in the Epit/raphical Report for 1916 that the beginning and the end of the in- 
scription are covered by the paved floor of a ma^aya in front of the temple. The visible 
portion of the record consists of a single line in the Pallava-Grantha script cut over a 

I Hid., niche 11. 

* Compare f^qrr*fa iT1 V6rse 3 an ^ u ^ c ^ e * 3 * n & * * ^' ^ an< * *ffaw43f * n Ibid.> No. 26, niche 16. 

8 This title Is proved by the MahondravanncSvara temple inscription of queen Rangapatfika (S. L L f Yol. I, 
No. 29) to be tho titlo of NarasiiKhavishnu and so the latter should be Kajasimha-Narasimhavarman IL It 
follows logically that the Mahoudravarmau of that epigraph is tho third king of that name. As Kalakala was also 
4;he title of Atiranachanfla (aeo }#. lnd n Vol. X,p* 12) we have to conclude that the latter was identical with 
Narasimhav a ruiati 1 1 . 

* See 8. T. L, Vol. I, No. 25, nielie L * Compare ^r^^t^ & n ^he 16, Hid* 
Ibid* niche 32. r !&k nicho 15. 

8 See S. L I , Vol. I, p, 3, No. 9. IW, No. 26, niche 24, 

10 Hid , niche 2 and Ikid. 9 No. 26, niche 4. 

* l This liruda i seen in both the inscriptions referred to in the previous note. See the 6th and 9th niche 
respectively. 

** Seo S. L I., Vol. I, niche 14 of No. 25. 

II This is only the vnriution of Rajasiiiiha and gives ft clue to the name of the king, Narasimhavarman II. It 
occurs aUo in the Vayalur inscription. 

i* This i* No. 31 in 8. L L t VoL I. Pro! Dubrenil points out that the inscription is not, as iti* gene- 
willy described, in a temple cut i i the rook, but*' simply on an anfractuosity of tho rodt within which an image 
of Kail (MahiBhasunwwaulonl) has boon placed." Sco hie Pallava Antiquities, Vol. I, p. 11. 

* S. L J. f VoL !, No. 24. 

w See above, p. 107. 



EPIGRAPBIA INDICA 




relt of granite running round the temple as in the case of the Kailasanatha inscription of 
<< -ala at Kanchipuram. It is a prdasti of king Rajasimha II and, like the one in the bhore i empie 
Tt MahSbahpuram, lias no reference to his building of the shrine. The close resemblance, however, 
vfcieh tie Panamaiai temple bears to the Kailasanatha temple in its style shows that the builder 
-/the one must also haTe been the builder of the other, 3 The similarity of the contents of the two 
inscriptions, moreover, proves the identity of their subjects of praise. The Panamaiai inscription 
consists of six verses in the Sragdhani and Vasantatilaka metres. It begins with the Barnes of 
AfcrattMman (Drauni) and his eponymous sonPallava, the founder of the dynasty (verses 1 and 
21. It then gives a eulogy of the Pallavas and mentions the birth of Rajasimlia to king fikamalla 
Paramesvara, 3 which it compares with the birth of Guha (Subrahmanya) to Paramesvara (Siva)- 
The next too verses describe the virtues of Rajasiniha, his valour and his devotion to Siva. Ine 
last verse is in the form of an assertion and mentions the revival, in his rfghne, of the tree of dhanna, 
in spite of the cruel and scorching sun of the Kali age. The Conjeeveram epigraph gives the same 
details, often the same expressions, In its description of Bajasimha, for example, the latter 
uses the phrases ipgr ^g tRW^^T^TSff^^WT (verse 5) and 



(rase II), which are practically the same as those occurring in the present inscription in verses 3 
and 4. The Kailasanatha record, however, is more elaborate and adds the titles ot AtyantaMtna, 
SSribhnw and Eanajaya to RFijasinilia. It may be noted here that two other inscriptions in the 
same temple 8 u Inch give more than 200 titles to Rajasimha must be attributed to the same king, 
This identification of the builders of the Kailasanatha and Panamaiai temples may be 
objected to on the ground of palaeography , for a comparison of the Panamaiai script with that 
o! the KSBchipuram temple shows that the former is much simpler and therefore later in date. 
In fact it bears a very close resemblance to the Atiranachanda group of Mahabahpuram and the 
Sajuvaokuppam epigraphy and not the Atyantakama group (winch is similar to the ICailasa- 
nRtha epigraph). Compare the letters, for example, % n, or, % *f, *? and the signs for the 
secondary vowels ^t, ^ and *?t and the correctness of the contention will be immediately 
obvious. It can be incidentally inferred from this that the Mahabahpuram Shore Temple inscrip- 
tion of Rajasimha \\hicli I have proved to be later than the Atyantakama and KaiLlsanatha group, ' 
and earlier than the Atiranachanda group, was slightly earlier than the present inscription. Dr. 
Hultzs^h, 4 who believed that palaeography alone could give a clue to the identity of the kings, wat 
of opinion that the earlier Kailasanatha script belonged to the age of Rajasimha or Narashuhavar- 
maB II and the Atixanaelian$a group to the time of Nandivarman Pallavaiualla of the KaAakiKJli 
plates, Regarding the last, he has said : u lt resembles, though it is not identical with, the 
alphabet of the Ka^akudi platS of Nandivarinan. The name or surname Athanac7iaii(la is 
unknown from other sources. As the alphabet of stone inscriptions sometimes differs slightly 
from that oi the contemporaneous records on copper, there would be no objection to assigning 
these records to the time of Nandivarm.au, the contemporary of the Western Chfijukya king 
Vikramadita II." 



. JUukemi with characteristic insight, enumerates tho 
\ranoub points of agieeircnt, e.g , the possession of collateial niches rlwajs opening towards the east or west the 
dedua^a t^ i^iratic (ei^t or sutcen-iaced and not the cjlindncal) typo of the Unga, the adornment of the 
Moetoaiy L ^itn the images o! Sdma^kaiada, Brahma and Vishnu, the i wing lion trpo of pillar-supports and 
* the siagle-&rjhed tirwfa'hts? 1J - 

t The TMipSJaijam plates (Madras Ep. Ap., 1911, p. 61) say that Naia^mtavamiaii was the son's *on 
5 Q* Iftn.ea . but it is alone in tb* version and is not so authoritative as the cxrtempbrwv 

at Kaficblpuram, MaMbalipurani and Panamaiai 
8 S. L I., V3l. I, Xoa. 25 and 26. 

* See Ep. b i, Vol. X, p. 3. 



No. 18.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS OF RAJASIMHA-NARASLMIIAYAIU! VX II. HI 

But I have endeavoured to show in my edition of the Shore Temple in^ripti is of 

Mahabalipuiam that the KailasaniLtha, the Atyantakama 1 and the Atirana^iQ^'Ja .rr:ps 

should'all be attributed to the same king, viz., Narasimhavarman II. Thy idcnt'fi< ;'~m of 

Atyantakama with him is proved by the Kafichlpuram, Viyalut, Tirropr.rur* a:>d S u o 

Temple* inscriptions and that of Atirar.iachanda with him by the KIPi-Mii'irar* and 

Tirupnorur 1 epigraphs (which were apparently rot known to Dr. Hultz^M. -.rh'le 

tho et)irai)hs at Sajuvankuppam show that Atyantakama and Atiranac'iun la w.rc the 

titles <5 the same king (see 8. I. L, No. 21, verses 1 and 5). The attrition cf the 

Atiranaehanda group to the age of Nandivar.nan II cannot thus stand. The pa^rnnV.ral 

comparison "of it with Kasakudi plates, moreover, shows that the inference of contempo- 

raneity which Dr. Hultzsch makes, cannot be maintained In regard to letters * *. % *, 

, d secondary vowel f , wo find that the Katfikudi plates are dwtmctly lat. r and more mMf rn 

than the corre.^ndnig letters in the Atira.adianda style. The saine renurks ^ to H, presen, 

inlriDtion which, as has been already mentioned, ,s cxncUy like that of Atira-'ac u. la . Th. ton 

mo,e archarc ad flo,,d alphabet pcrlaps to-^1 by tUe pl c,kor of Kajaa, 



r-t^^^'S^ss^ :; 
^s:^s(. f ui~ *--? I- tLc "-*-""" 1 







with a slanting stroke (as well as smaller si 

m ay be m ent,o M d he about * "< " * 







piooo No. 7. 

. Seo S. /. L, Vol. I, No. 23, nicho 3. 
7 Ticoo No. 4. 

o Sco bis PHw 4hj*tiS vol. 1, P- -J. whfch say , OT: . , . 

. Sec the Ud.ycuduam plates of Nan^varmau, Un^ ^ ^ ^ VlLun , Ml ija taU- 1 O.ght, covorcd 

engage* 



co s 

. Sec the Ud^oodnam rlato of Nan^varmau hw-l - ^^ ViLuniMlljil taU . io o.ght, covor 
K4WPlA. The Kuram plates of Paramesvara I d m id(Wwe , t) , . 

S^ss^sSr tttfc ~"' B " l 



.... the city of Vitaunlditya). ec . , , . 
Sec KL 1 and 4-6 m my Tpog,apl*cal Lul. 
u I6,rf., NL 483. Sco also Sf. M, VJ. IX, pp. 



212 BPIGEA PHIA INDICA. [YoL. XIX 



of Peruvajaiiallur is given in the Gadval Plates 1 of Yikramaditya I. These plates xecord a 
grant by him in A.D. 674, while lie was encamped at Uragapura on the southern "bank of 
the KavGrl in the Chola kingdom. Uragapura has been identified by Venkayya 2 with Uraiyftr 
and the correctness of this has been confirmed by Prof. Dubreuil 3 who has identified 
Peruvajanallfir with a village of the same name, about ten miles north-west of Trichinopoly. 
The latter scholar fuither points out how the Pallava Paramesvara was probably helped 
by the contemporary Pandya Kochchadayan and the Ceylonese king Manavamxua. 4 He further 
sunu&es that Kochchadayan married the daughter of the Pallava prince Rajasimha (later on 
Xara&imhavarman II) and hence had a son named Rajasimha, so named naturally after his 
maternal grandfather. However this might have been, Rajasimha must have succeeded 
ParaiuGbvaravarman I sometime after A.D. 675. He evidently did not distinguish his reign by 
any war. All his inscriptions, while describing his martial valour in vague and general terms* 
agree in calling him an ardent devotee of Siva, a saviour of Dharma and Truth. He seems to 
have furthered the arts and blessings of peace, if we are to attach any importance to his epithets 

etc - Itwaa 



he that built the central shrine in the Kailasanatha temple at Kafichipuram, the Shore 
temple at Mahfibahpuram, the Panamalai temple, and, as Prof. Dubreuil observes, the Aira- 
vateivara temple at KaSclupuram. To these must be added some other structures from which 
the pillars containing Rajasunha's bintdas were transferred to the later Kaadasvami and Vyaghra- 
pjirlsaira shrines at Tirupporur 5 and Vayaltir respectively. 8 

It only remains to be mentioned that the date of the present epigraph is not incapable of being 
ascertained. It has been already mentioned that Paramesvaravarman I won a victory at Peru- 
valanallffr over Vikranuditya I in A.D. 671. Supposing that Paramefivara lived for a few years 
after it, we may suppose that he ceased to rule, about A.D. 68U, The struggle between him and 
\ ikraiuaditya I was inherited and continued by their successors, the Pallava Narasimhavarman 
II, Mali'jmlra\anuau III, Paraniesvaravarrnan II and Nandivarinan Paliavamalla on the one 
hand, ami tlie Chalukyan kings Vmayaditya SatyuSraya (A.D. 680-90), his son Vijayaditya 
(\.D WO-733) and his son and successor Vikramaditya II (A.D. 733-74(5) on the other. Of 
these the last Pallava king was defeated by the last mentioned Cha{ukya king about A.D. 740. 
Now, as Narasimhavnrman II lived two generations before Nandivarman, we may reasonably 
suppose that he lived in the years winch immediately preceded and followed A.D. 700* 
And tins is in keeping with the date we have assigned for the termination of the reign 
of Paiam&Jvaravarman I. These facts enable us to fix the Panamalai epigraph at about 

1 Vide 3Jaflr. Ep Eep., 1910, p 10, paia. 10. Tlie iccord is dated in VaiSakha, full moon, S 500 (the uth 
ycMr of ] llb iri^ i. , y Tucbdaj, April 23, A.D, 674, according to Dr. Fleet, or the next day. See aKo Up. lnd. 9 
Vul X, pp. 100 ff. 

2 See Ep Ind , Vol. X, IS r o. 22, pp 101-2. 

3 S*e hib Pallm a*, 3917, p. 43, 

4 The oth king mlhoVchikndi grant, the father of Temar n Rajasimha I (Aiikesari PaiuuU&O, and 
e victur at Marudur and Mangalapuram over Maharatha. Piol Dubreuil believes that M,ihamtha was tie 
Cualuk\a Vikiamaditja I. Manavamma was king of Ceyloix from about 660 to 095, according to Dubicnil, but 
6U to 7215 according to the Makliamfa 

^ tfao Cg. 194 in the Top^jniphical List. The chief epithets found are Aviratadanah, liana 4aiapnlu Jfi;V 
g%rali f Guiiaviiuiah, Diiaraijitilakah, Atiranachan4a^, Arikankesaii, Prithrima^i Atyantakdauh and 



12ai Beaae^TinnTafullgonoalogyofthePallavap, the record givps the titles of Xo,r5ndv8Piralm f 
A*vantakaraa, Rwjaia}a, Siinidhi and Ksliattdyasimha to Rajasimha. TWs insciiption has been edited bv 
llj-o liahaduv IL Krulum Sa^tri, above Vol. XVIfT, pp. 145 fl. 



No. 18.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS OP RAJASIMHA-NAEASIMHAVARMAN II. 113 

A.D. 700. Prof. Dubreml ascribes it to between 700 and 710. The Shore Temple inscription 
at Mahabalipuram should be slightly earlier, while the scripts of the Kadasanutha-Atyantakruna 
group might be based on a script about 50 years earlier (i.e., A.D. 650), but engraved a few 
years before 700. 



TEXT. 1 



i 

2 



3 ^^fw^TW^'rfsrotf^rc ^ *ifc[>r, TO*]' *ro: D*] 

4 3rw%*r[:*] 6 . iffo fofawwwSf WT^ftft w<if**n[:*] 

5 ^f; SlfapT *3 WSTP5Rn m^TTTfl ffl 

6 i 8r 



7 ^Tmr?TTi f^w^cfvvr^rra^sfH^T'nf D*] 

8 

9 

10 . . . . 10 



11 f^?r: WT^^ 13 ir^Tiiw^: D*] 



From the plato published in Ep. Bep. for 1916, opp. p. 114. 

This is tho 4th quarter of a stanza in the Sragdkara metre. Tbo first three syllables (which should bo three 
gwvu) are wanting. 

Bead Iftftr. 

Prof. KrishnaBwami Aiyangar wrongly reads it aa f)jfa, 

There is an unwritten space of one foot here, capable of holding these three letters, *hich ^ fcmnd in the 
KifioWpuram inacnption. See 8. 1. L, Vol. I, No. 24, line 11 (verse 3). 

The space (about a foot) is uawritten. The three syllables which are necessary for the motie may bo j,^. 
or Tfsra 1 which will be tho predicate of w(:. 

Prof. Krishnaswmi Aiyangar corrects x,^ into ^^ (" a Aniivuitiv, p. 13)-, but tbai. 
absolutely unnecessary aa ^ n i) is plainly the adjective of 'qftf. 

a IrSjoajCL vj$\ 

t The stone'on which tho inscription IB mgra^ed is broken here and the p*age Verted ha, been taken from 

8. L I. 9 Vol. I, No. 24, voxse 0, 

to AS the metre of this verso IB TuimMUW, the tot si* syllables (a to-*a and a Ua^ova -- w - w w) 
ure wanting. An expression like ^tpftpfe wil1 do ' 

u Bead ^. 



wrongly reads it as w He also confounds , W ith ? and ^g^ tho 
wrong reading ^p, in place of TO. See PaZta ^^ m ' i<!S ' *' l)> 13 ' 4 



BHGRAPHIA INDICA. [Vot XIX 



12 ?ri^f^^ 

la If? Httty^tHW [^M^ ^ V^i W 4 ^*** i r<vrti( p*J 

14 

15 





is wr[i] u [i*] ^m 1 ^^!* w 

[ m 



TRANSLATION. 

Verse 1. (To him) was born Drauni, the part-incarnation 16 of Purisi who was famous fqr 
the strength of his shoulders. 

V. 2, From that AvatthSman who was spotless with the great penanej& performed hy 
him, there arose, like the extension of the Angavidya 17 (science of Vyakar^a, etc. contributing 
to knowledge) from the Veda, the beloved king of the earth called Pallava ; and from him 
who trod the path of purity, eam$, like the floods of the Mandating fjom the rctooi^ 18 tlus great 
family of the Pallavas. 

1 Read f$. 

2 Prof. Kriabnaswami Aiyangar mistakes it for $ (ift). 

3 This verse is in the Indrauajra metre. 

* Read 4. 

5 Read ^f. Prof. Krishnaswami Aiyangar has the wrong reading ^f^, (PaJtowa Antiquities, p. 14> note 1 J 

* This word is also wrongly read as ^ by Prof, Krishnawami 
7 Read f 



9 As the verse is in Sragdkara metre, seven syllables are missing here : two gwvs and fbr&kglw* like * * 
w \/ w w v/ 

10 Five syllables w are wanting. 

* Read if; 

12 Read Vtff. 

13 Four letters, vfe. -rr -n,w , a?e probably missing to make up this $Ada* 
i* The late Mr. H. K, Sastri thought that q wa$ the moro probable reading. 

wRead ^JfJf. If the reading gj^ is taken instead of !^f?r f then it is unnecessary to correct ^ 

i* Noticethe singular account which tihePallajVa, inscription at Amaravati (8. L L, Vol. I, No. 32) gives ol 
Asvatthama's origin. It says that Brona propitiated Siva for obtaining a eon who would found a race. 

Apte defines it not only as tha^f^i- ^^^n^^^^fW ^FWIW ^ ufc according to the Mfihat* 
*ambita, as 'the science of foretelling good or evil from the jaoveinenti* of the limbs, 1 

is The Ganges flows from the matted locks of Siva amidst which the moon also shines. The Kftfl&sana'tna 
inscription compares * Pallava ' to the first-born Maim in regard to Ma being the founder of a race of kings. See 
& 1. 1., Vol. I, p. 12, verse 3. The composers of the Pallava eulogies seem to have been vwjy tarfi <yf 
them the oaBaUa or the beloved (of the world). Of. Kuram plates, Saaskrifc portion! lint U, 



o. 19,] TWO LOST PLATIS 4)F KIDIASTPUB COPPER-PLATES. 1 18 



. 3 & 1 Pfom tie lotd fettQrtfitifti wiifote faitre spread tfvet the globe, cottquetfed by his 
might ft&d Wealth tod ^h6 Was the ^naffiettt (lit. ftag) tit the Mfif as ttto tterfe 
empetots, who shoiis "by the baths which deluded thfc performance 61 the A&atoSffiia, tvto 'were 
the enjoyers of fearth, Wh6 we're n&t touched (em) by a bit (Ivfoa) 6i dsiiigelr fe and Wltbhafl th^ijt 
origin in the highly ptife family *of Bkaradtftj&-~fieom him Was bofta, like (3tih&* (le., BoiMrfc) 
from the gffeat Ifivata, he who shofie by his. . , .might and wealth, Whose gtt&butes taa j&en ih 
the field of battle, who was v&liant and powerful, who Was Well kubWti as ttajafifittilik bi holy 
Deputation and Who Wftfc& ftiyal 4 lion tfo the etejph'ante of dating, h6sstil& fcbgs. 

V. 5* The conquerOtf of crowds of hostile kings, the doer of a series of auspicious acts, in 
whose mind, purified "by the feeling of incessant devotion,& Hiiglntamauli (Siva) rests his foot 

V. 6. The tree of Dharma 6 which has got many &akhds (i.e., Vedic divisions in the one case, 
and branches in the other) in the form of .......... the Vedas t.. k ; which is sprinkled 

incessantly by the waters of his virtuous acts ; and which bears the splendour of the fruits and 
flowers flourishes, though scorched by the cruel sun of the Kali age. 7 



No, 19.-TWO LOST PLATES OF THE NIDEANPUB COPPEK-PLATES OF 

BHASKAEAVAEMAN. 

BY MABEAMAHOPADHTAYA PANDIT PA^MAKATHA BHATT&CBARYA, VIDYIVINOBA, M.A. 

The three copper-plates which were discovered in 1912 at Nidhanpur in Panchakhagujftf 
Sylhet, containing an inscription of BMskaravarnaan were published by me in thia Journal 
{vide Vol. XII, No. 13, pp. 65 et seqJ). There I stated that one plate waa missing. It now 
turns up that the number of copper-plates missing 'was more than one, as I have got two 
plates, one of which is undoubtedly the 3rd plate, and the other the penultimate pkte ; and 
the rumour goes that a third missing plate is in the possession of a Musalman and efiorts 
are being made to get it from him. I have not, however, thought it advisable to defer any 
longer the publication of the two plates that have since been discovered) and if any missing 
plate be forthcoming at all, it will contain only a list of donees supplementary to what ia 
found in the two plates under discussion. 

The discovery of these iwo lost plates has rendered sonste of toy statements in the De- 
vious article, made, oioourse^ on Daefe conjecture, liable to revision. Itt facir thfc grant had 

1 It is plain that Bkamalla is the title of Paramesvaravarman I. The KSflchipuram inscriptioti (S. I. L 9 
Vol. I, No. 24) calk him Ugrada^da, the adversary of Ra$arasika (the W. Chajukya Vikramaditya I, A.D, 
655-80). Another inscription in the same place (ibid> No. 27) gives Paramesvara, the title of LSkaditya. 

8 Compare fWTl^f^Tqft*: W: in Hne 11 of Kiirain grant. 

Vide 8. L I, Vol. I, No. 24, veme 5. 

* Ci TO^flTO3nTO<I^3il ^TSrr in the KaSchipuram inacrn. (S.L I,,Vol I, Ho. 24, verse' 11). 
6 Compare the epithets Sankarabhaktafy, and Bvarabhaktalj, in the KancMpuram maotiptions. Also 

hke n4MtminiM.,.ijt flwftf vfim 



1 The epithets ^<=fl^, ^ftfc?|;, ^f^^^ found elsewhere show that the king had a great reputa- 
tion for virtue. 

* The simile of the Kali age is commonly met with in the Pallava inscriptions. In the KajasimtheSvara 
inscription the king is said to have heard the divine voice even in thia &ah age, and elsewhere in the same 
inscription he ia said to have saved the people from the jaws of the horrid monsto, the Kaliage. Similarly the 
Pallavas are given the title of v$N*n39ft*TOrffc. (See 8. 1. J, Vol. I, No. 24.) 



116 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Vox,. XIX. 



been made by BMtivarman (named Mahabhutavarman in the second plate of these inscrip- 
tions) who was the great-great-grandfather of Bhaskaravarman ; and it was only renewed 1 
by the latter in favour of the descendants of the original donees. The locality of the grant 
Mayfirasalmal=agrahara in the district of Claandrapuri I am unable to identify. While 
in my former article nothing was known of the donees 2 we find now that actually there was a 
host of them of different Vedas and gotras apparently the successors on the sons' and probably 
also on the daughters* side of those Brahmaijas who had got ths original grant from King 
Bhutivarman, A tabular statement of these, shewing the Vedas and the gOtras and shares, is 
given at the epd of this article. The total of these shares comes to 97^ which, with the addi- 
tion of seven shares more for bali-charu-satra* (worship, oblation and hospitality) comes to 
104 . Certainly the land could not have been divided into 104^ shares, involving the 
fractional part of an am&a. It is not impossible that the rumour about another missing plate 
may be true, or that there may be something wrong in my interpretation of the terms Kke 



These two plates, namely, the third and the penultimate plates, have great importance as 
they contain information about a good number of Brahma^as of many a different gdtra, and it 
is expected that this will throw a flood of light on the history of the Brahmaijas in this part of 
India, 

Bhaskaravarman is known to have ruled over Kamampa during the first half of the 
seventh century A.D., and if we calculate four rulers in a century, his great-great-grandfather 
Bhutivarman must have flourished by the end of the fifth or the beginning of the sixth 
century. It is remarkable that while in the neighbouring province of Gau<Ja (Bengal) the 
alleged import by Adi-Sura of five Brahmanas from Kanauj or the mythical creation of the 
Sapta&ati (700) Brahmaijas is not attributed to a period earlier than the eighth century A.D.,* 
there should be so many Brahmanas found in a single village in Kamarupa two centuries 
earlier. 

It will not be difficult to understand why the grant was made to such a large number of 
Brahmanas at a time. We learn from the accounts of Yuan Chwang that while the neigh- 
bouring kingdoms were full of Buddhist monasteries, the country of Kamariipa was altogether 
free from them. " They (i.e., the people of Kamariipa) worshipped the Devas and did not 
believe in Buddhism. So there had never been any Buddhist monastery in the land. The 
Deva temples were some hundreds in number and the various systems had some myriads of 
professed adherents * * * * His Majesty (Bhaskaravarman) was a lover of 
learning and his subjects followed his example ; men of abilities came from far lands to 
study here." 6 If such was the state of things in the Kamariipa of Bhaskaravarman's time, we 
might safely surmise that the condition of Kamariipa was the same also in Bhutivarman's time. 
Bhaskaravarman was only maintaining the tradition of his illustrious predecessors whose 
excellent qualities are recorded in these inscriptions. A party of Brahmaijas probably 

1 Tbat thin grant was a renewal after the burning of the original plates is known from the kst verse on the 
last plate (above, VoL XIJ, p. 76)* 

* In fact in the opening verse of the inscriptions plurality of the Brahmanas was indicated by " bhutimatam 
dvijanmanam " which was then looked upon as a case of honorific plurality. 

a Bali means offerings to gods as flour, fruits, rice, etc. (uncooked) ; chant signifies * cooked offerings '; and 
indicates ' distribution of food to the guests and the poor f . This wo aid show that there was a shrine or 
nnoxx place of worship m the locality for which a provision was made by allotment of these 7 shares 

* Above, Vol. XIII, pp 287 and 228, 

* Waiters : Jmn Qhwang, Vol, IL p 18G 



ffo. 19.] TWO LOST PLATES OE NIDH1NHJR COPPER-PLATES. 117 

annoyed at the Buddhist predominance in their own place (which was most likely in Mithila) 
came to settle in Kamarupa that was free fiom Buddhism and the rulers whereof were 
reputed to be the patrons of Brahma^as, the custodians of the old faith : l hence this grant was 
made to these Brahmanas and the name agrahara added to Mayura&ahnal! supports what 
has been stated above. 

The locality of the grant, though it cannot be positively ascertained, must have been 
very near the precincts of Karna-Suvarna, as the term Gangiru occurring in the description 
of the boundary of the grant indicates that the locality must be in some region where the 
word in its modern form of Gangina exists even now. In modem Kamrup the term is un- 
known whereas in the locality near about Karatoya (which was the western boundary of the 
ancient Kamarupa), < Gangina ' is still in useso the grant must have been located there 2 
and hence near Kar^a-Suvarna. 3 

How the plates containing the record could be found in Sylhet has yet to be answered. 
It is stated in the third plate (1. 12) that Manorathasvamin of the Katyayana- 
was a * yaUaJcapati,' i.e., the holder of the copper-plates, evidently, as he was one of 
leading men of the locality. There was still another person Sadhara$asvamin> apparently, 
the foremost of them all, as his naip.e mentioned in the first place would show, who was also 
termed * pattalcapati *: and though probably the plates were originally kept in the joint or alter- 
nate charge of both, yet they must have fallen eventually into the hands of the E&irs of 
Manorathasvamin of the Katyayana-j^ra who were among the Brahmanas who migrated 
to Sylhet as is inferred from the mention of c Katyayana ' amongst the 10 gotras of the 
Sampradayika Brahmanas 4 of Sylhet. The Sampradayika Brahmanas designate themselves as 
" Maithilas " (i.e. belonging to Mithila) and so do most of the Brahmagas even of the modern 
Kamrup, who, as well as the Sampradayikas, follow the smriti (law) of the Mithila school. It 
is quite possible that in course of time these settlers in Sylhet lost the memory of the place 
from which they had come, and the oblivion was helped by the eventual loss of the copper- 
plates which they had taken with them to Sylhet and which have lately been discovered about 
ten feet below the surface of the earth. Or, it may be that the migrators having belonged 
originally to Mithila gave themselves out as c Maithila ' when they settled in Sylhet. 

One thing worth remarking in these two plates is the abbreviations used : c Svd ' is written 
for Svami,* ' am&a ' for * ek-atfiia * and c gdtr-chhia * for e gotra'SaJiit=adhy*ar$&b-am<i \ A re- 
mark made in my previous article regarding the defective nature of the Arya metre which has 
been copiously used in these inscriptions, should be amended here : the remark was based on the 

1 It may be also that the settlers might have been students who haid come to Kamarupa for study (viie 
extracts from Watters' Juan Chwang, above). 

2 In the copper-plate inscriptions of Vatiamaladeva (vide Journal of tb& Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1840, 
pp. 766 ft seq.) we find ' Chandrapari* south-east of the grant, a village named Abhisuravalaka, west of Tnsrota, 
This ' TiisrotS, * I& the modern *Teesta', a river in Rangpar, Bengal* and is a little east of the river Karatoya. If 
this Chandrapari Toe the Chandrapuri (part in Vanamal&'s inscriptions may be an error of the reader for pwi t 
and the reading is full of errors) of BMskaravarman's inscriptions, within which district fche grant -waa 
aituated, then what has "been stated here would become substantiated, 

8 In fact in my former article c Ganginika * was deemed as one of the factors in coming to the decision that 
the grant belonged to Karna-Suvnrna (vide footnote No. 3, p. 68, Ep. 2nd., Vol. XII). 

4 These ten. gotrat are : Vatsa, Vatsya, Bharadvaja, Krishnatreya, Paraiara, Katyayana, Kasyapa^ Mau<%aJy&, 
Svarna-Kausika, and Gautama. Of these, seven gotrcts are found mentioned in the plates, exactly as stated abore s 
* Vatsa J and e Parasara ' are mentioned in fche plate as < Vatsa ' aud * Paralarya * (uatronymic forms) : while UM* 
remaining gotra, iris , ' Svartta-Kausika,* is evidently represented by < Kausika * in the plates, as the ra&iftoi/joA 
of the gotra into * svarna/ * rajata/ < ghrita/ etc., did not probably take place then. 

* The form Sva has in every case been taken as an abbreviation of Svamt (in the nominative case singular) 
a* la aifcar frw* ** H ^kere BadharanasTamji occurs as ^he atDiibuta o aihfa ctvctya 



118 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. (Tor,. XI. 

pros'Odica! test of verse No, 8 in which there wag something wrong in the 2nd foot that could 
not be improved by any tentative reading. The other verses seem to be all right and conform 

to the rules of prosody. 

TEXT,* 

Third Plate ; First Side. 

1 pijngana 2 -prakatit*abhika(ga)^ Kalfijyuga-parakram-akalita* 

vigra- 

2 hasya samuchchha(chchhYa)sa iva Bhagavato Dharmmasya nayasy^dhishthanam- 

aspadani gu^aniih nidhih 

3 pra^ayinam=upaghnah santrastanam M-sampadam==ayatanam Vasnmatl-suta-kram-adhi* 

4 gata-pada-samutkarsh=a(rsh=a)darshi^^ Sri* 

BMskaravarmma-* 

5 dSvah ku6ali || Chandraptiri-vishayg varttamana-bhavino vlshaya-patm^adhikara- 

6 Jiani cha samSjfiapayati [|*] Viditazn^astu bhavatam=etad-vishay-antahpati-Maya(ii}- 

ra- 

7 gamai-grahra-kshettram(tram) rajna M-Bhfttivarxnmaga t.amrapat'tikpitaiti 

yata[t] tat-tamra-patt-abha- 

8 vat=karadam=iti Maharaja(jena) Jyeshthabhadra(dran) vijnapya punar=asy^abhinamra 

(va)-pattakaranaya 6asam(sa)- 

9 nam datva(ttva) chandr-arkka-kshiti-samakalam=akinchit-pragrahyataya bhumi-chchhi- 

dra-nyayena purva-bho- 

10 ktu(ktri)-Brahina^ebhyah^ pratipaditam yattra(tra) Brahmar$(5a)-namani Prachetaso 

Vaj asaneyi-pattakapa- 

11 tih aMa{a^a) 5 "dvaya-bhokta Sadharariasva[ml3 6 || Srivasu(sur)-bhratri.ttra(tra)ye]?a ir 

eko=iMa(h) || Somavasu(sur)=bhartfisahit6-rddli-aai^a[hJ j| 

12 Katyayana-ChchhaC^ChhaJn^ogo Manoratha-sva chaturth-aMa-hino-dvir-a3i^a[h] pattaka- 

pati[h*]j| Arddh-an^a(So) Vish^ugh5sha-[sva] [||*] 

13 Vedaghosha-sva ek-aMa[h*] |j Yasko Bah\Ticha(chy6} Damadeva-sva an^afh*] II 

Gho&hadeva-sva arddh-ansa[h*] || Nandade- 

14 [va-sva] ardhdh-an^a[h*] || Bharadvaja-Chchhand6g-Orkadatta(tt6) gottra(tra)-sahit- 

adhyarddh-aMa[h*] || Tushtidatta-sva arddh-a- 

Third Plate ; Second Side. 

15 Aiaft] || Kayapa-sagotra-Vaj"asaneyi"Ilishidama-sva aMa[h*] || gubhadama-sva 

ansa[h*]|| Kautso Vajasane- 

16 yi-gani(nai)&charabhuti[r*]-g6ttr-aiisa[Ii*] II Bahvpicii6(chyo) Gauratr[e]ya-Sankarsha?a- 

sva dvii-aLte[h*] || Nara-sva 



iuapressions. 

i of the compound in the preceding plate i. sar^ 

a, where the last two words must be Jafe&mtaim*. ; see above Vol XII ' 
W UMglMttvuri v* the JR^, of Kaa.aBd.ka, iv. . 6-8 aid Fl'e^ Cores'. 

12t-'i.s \ 01. Illj p. I Do U. 



i ar8 Written esaotly ahbeia these ^riptions: o the same 

letter has been transliterated ss *ba ' or ' z ' as the case requires. 

oto is often spelt ' ^a ' ," as the correction is apparent it has been left micorrooted alwr this 
i JthT a8 9t&ted> " apparently aa abbrevia tion of * ml aud > ^ left as sueh ( 

seems to be understood. -Ed. ] 



TWO LOST PLATES OF THE NlDHANPUR COPPER PLATES OF BHASKARAVARMAN. 



THIRD PLATE. 




20 



22 



26 




(From photographs). 



HTKANANOA. SASTRT. 



SCALE ABOUT HALF. 



SUIIVEY OF INDIA, CAL< 



Penultimate Plate. 



30 



32 



34 



36 



38 



40 




34 



3*6 



44 



46 



48 



50 



52 



54 




42 



46 



SO 



54 



(From impressions). 



SCALE ONE-HALF, 



No. 19.] TWO LOST PLATES OF NIDEAKPTJR COPPEB-PLATES. 119 



17 sva arddh-an6a[t*] |) Vish^u-sva afiiapa*] || SudarSana-sva an&apj*] || Gopendra-sti 

an6a[k*]li Arkka-sva an6a[cb.*]=cliaturth6 bhagah 

18 Bkanu-sva* [a*]rddh-aMa[h*] || Bhuyaskari-sva arddh-ifiiaft*] |] Kyish^akeyo Vaja- 

saneyi-Yafia(66)bhuti-sva || l gottra(tra)-Ma[h*] || Bharadvaja- 

19 6=Chband6g6 Va>runa-sva aMaft*] || Kau^dinyo Vajasaneyi-Madhusena-sva aMa[b*] || 

GautamaS =aChhand5g6 

20 Dluuva$oma-sva aAiaft*] || Vishnusoma-sva anSa[h*]|| Bitaradwjo Vajaaaneyi- 

Visli^upalita-sva 

21 [a*]dliy*aTddli-an6aft*3 1| Suchipalitarsva aiiaft*] II Mittrapalit-lrttapalitayoft* 



22 Prajapatipalita-sva afiASoli^cliatTiitha-'bh&gaftL*] || Gautamo Vajasaniyi-Madliu-sva 

aftAaft*] |1 

23 Chakradeva-sva ardh-SiAaft*l I! Yatsa^Charakyo(at) Kushma^dapattra(tra)-sva 

ctiattirth-anSa-*Kina-pa(pa)da[h*] || I(I)6vata- 

24 datta-sva dvir-aifiaft*] || Maudgaiyo(a)-Vaja8aiieyi(yi}-Sudai^ana-Dmakara-svamibliyam2 



25 Vajasaneyi-Yajnakuiida.sva[a*]dhy-arddtan^*]l| YaSa[h*]ku^d M va pad-adhiko- 

n6a[h*](| graddhaku^da-sva aifiaft*] II 

26 Narayauaku^da-sva aMa[h*] |] I(I)^varaku^da. S va arddtapad-abtyaatika(o)-nsa[t*]|i 



27 a^ach=chaturtha-bhaga[h*] || 

Parafiaryya-Charakat _ 

28 Sadhu-sva an6a[h*] || A(I)6(Sva)layai)a(na)S=Chliand5go Ganga-sva ai^a*] j| Varah 

Ba[h*]vpchyo Nara*(?)-sva a 



Penultimate Plate ; First Side. 
29 ga(a)l a nkayano Vajasaneyi-Surya-sva aMa[h*] I BhfatdtfjU Yajasaneyi-BEavadeva-sva 

| Sa(a)vittra(ka)deva- S va 



30 

dvit-aMafli*] | Arkadva-sva ~ ... ., . 

I Ga[r*]gyo VaiaaanSyi-Damarata-sva anAa[^* 



31 
32 
33 
34 



_ 

35 JfedOftw.* arddh-a(a)Maft*3 II NandeSvara-sva 
Vaj asaneyi-Damabhiiti- 

are unnecessary. Ed.] , fnUowed by a word begin 



Dandas are unnecessary. . , fnUowed 

^'attl^aolaword^a^^ 

itb a vowel: yt ,uoh a change is seen here and **> m .ome ou P 
ayai). [But the pkte reads bhya^-M.} attempted to be incised! n its stead. 

. The letter ' ift ' seem, to * scratched and probably **-* ^ tot is m M . The name 
The name is illegible, but it seems to be of two syllables wherwt 
TSara occurs at another place also (vide. 1. 16 above). 
is expected. Ed.] 



120 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX 

36 sva aMa[h*] | KaSyapo Bahvjichcha4chya)[h*3 PrakaSavara-sva(a) bkratyi-sahfto* 

Ma[h*J I Yasko Vajasaneyi- 

37 Gayatri(i)pala-sva ana[h*] ParaSaryo Ba%vyichya[h*] antaarma-sva ansa[h*] |( 

KauSiko 

38 Bahvrichya[k*] || a Padmadasa-sva gotr-aMa[h*] || Govarddhana-Yajnapi&a-Pa^u. 

SudarSanasvami- 

39 bhyajn(m) 3 arddh-anah Pankalya6*Cithand6go GSpala-sva an6ah |[ KaSyapas- 

Taitta(tti)rlya Ugradatta-sva 

40 anah || Baihaspatyo BahvrichyS Bhattkanta(nda)-sva an^ah [j|*] Sadhu-sva 

am^aii |j [)[*] Devakula-sva am^ah || 

41 Janardana-sva [a*]rddh-aB^ah | Sunayana-Naraya^a-Vriddlii-svaini"bliy6-rddlianSah || 

Gautam5 Bahvpi- 

Penultimate Plate; Second Side. 

42 chya I[l]Svarabliatta"8va p am^ah || Bh.?igu-sva aiddli-aihSah || Bkaradvajo BahvrichyS 

Eudraghosha-sva aih6ah | Katyayanas^Charakat Kauris 6- 
iJ ma-sva am^ah || Gaufeamo Vajasaneyi-Prabliakarakirti-sva an^ah || Sa^ilyS Vajasaneyi- 

Ananda(nta)-svi am^a[h*| ] 1 
44 Saunako Bahvpichyo Gatibhatti-sva am^ah fl Teja-bliatti-sva aniSah (| Mana(ntra)glioslia- 

Tejabtatti-Nandabtu- 
4Bi ti-svamibliyaih(bliya)[m=a*]rddli-aMa]b J| Damabliatti-sva am&aJa || Medhabhat;ti-sva 

arhSah || Sumatibhatti-sva amSak [] 

46 Suyogabhatti-sva amSat|| Vatsya-Bahvrichy6(a^)*asv r atadama-sva amSaft*] [| Gaute- 

ma^CLhanidgo Tosha-sva 

47 aWah || Varaio BahviichyS Bhattihara-sva aMah fj Bhaxadvajo Vajasaneyi- 

Nagadatta-sva [a*]rddh-an^ah || 

48 llambayanS Durvevara-sva bliratra saJi=ardd]i-afifiah || Bharadvajo Riipaclliya-sva 



49 Bahvpchyo(chya)-Chandradasa-Vmiarddanadasa-svairuB6r=^ [\ Kas[y*]apo Vaja- 

ganeyl- 

50 Supratishthita-sva aiSa^ || Gantama(6) Nandana-svl aniah |j ^akatayano(as)=T6slia-sv 

51 arddh-an^iah. || Gautama-KaSyapaya(yo)[s*]Sarasa-Valoda-svaminor=eko=B^ah || BhI- 

xadva j 6(j a) - Vidusha- 

52 svamm6(r-a)arddh-anSa^=ch='eti H Bali-cliaru-satr~6pay6gaya sapt=an^a[hL*] || Yad 

etat=Ko(Kau)4ik=opach.itaka-kslietraia 

53 tat*pra(pha)la[ni*] pratigialiaka-olira(Bra)lima5Lanam=eva yat=tm Ganginy=upachitaka* 

kshetram tad-yatha-likhita- . 

54 ka-Bratma]Tiai[s*]=sarQam vibhajyatam~iti || Slmano yatra piirve^a Suslika-Kau&ka || 

Purva-dakshi- 

55 riena s=aiva Stishka-Ka^ika Durabarlc]iclilieda-samva(itive)dya DaksEi^en^api Dumvari 

clicklia(chclilie)da[h*] || Dakshiiia- 4 

ABRIDGED TRANSLATION. 

To whom was exhibited, wit^i a fast embrace, the course of love for the &lhigam%ka 
[by the Lakshml of Kamarupa drawn by an excessive sentiment of constant 

1 Tko loUw m (or b a) has also the ri-siga adidod to it at the bottom, 

* [Dandj,8 art) superfluous. --E'L] 

* [But the reading seems to be bliyali, not Q bhyam. Ed.] 
*lFQrpa$chtme'ia t etc., see the last plate (above, Yol. XII, p. 75). 

* Fleet translated it as * the virtuous qualities of an inviting kind.' See references in foot-note 3 on p. 118 abore. 



.] TWO LOST PLATES OF NIDHANPtJE COPPER-PLATES. 



121 



affection]* who is, as it were, the breath of the holy Dharma whose person has been seized by 
the powerful Kali (Iron age), the abode of Politics and good qualities, the receptacle of friends, 
the shelter of the terrified, the abode of good luck, whose dignified power was shown by the 
-elevated rank obtained in order of succession from (Naraka) the son of Yasumati (Earth) the 
ting of kings, the illustrious BMskaravarinan, in sound health, commands the present and 
the future district officers, as well as the courts of justice in the district of Qhandrapuri 
tyhus) : let this be known to you (all) that the land of the Mayftrastlmal~igraMra (grant to 
Brahmanas) lying within this district granted by issuing a copper-plate charter by king 
^Bhutivarrnan has become liable to revenue on account of the loss of the copper-plates, so 
by the Maharaja having informed the senior respectable persons 2 (and) having issued orders 
for making a fresh copper-plate grant, the land has been awarded to the Brahmanas who 
tad been enjoying the grant already in the manner of bhumi-chhidra* so that no tax is levied 
x>n it as long as the sun, the moon and the earth will endure. These are the names of the 
Brahmanas (donees). 4 For bali (worship), charu (oblation) and satra (hospitality) seven shares 
-are allotted. The produce of the land that is increased by the Kausika (river) will go to the 
Brahmanas, the donees of the grant, but the land which is enlarged by the Gangi^i shall be 
equally divided by the Brahmanas as tecorded. 5 These are the boundaries to the east, 
lies the dried Kauika> to the south-east, that very KauSika marked by a (piece of) hewn fig 
tree, to the south even, a (piece of) hewn fig tree, to the southwest, etc., vide the last 
plate * 



Serial No. 6 


VSda etc. 


Qolra. 


Name. 


Share. 


1 


VajasanSyin 
(i.e., Yajurvedin). 


Prachetasa , 


Sadharana-svamin (paftakapati, i.e. 9 
holder'of the copper-plates). 


2 


2, 3, 4, 5 


Do. 


Do. 7 


Srlvasu with his three brothers , 


1 


6,7 


Do. 


Do. 


Somavasu with his master 8 . 


i 



* The reading in the text may })&^MaMraja-JyeMMhadra'vijna^yd in which case the meaning will bo 
** at the request of Maharaja-Jyeshthabhadra.' 

a * CMdra ' means ' land not fit for cultivation* (vide Yadavaprakala's Vayayanti, Bhumika^da-Yaisy-a- 

^ - verse 18) t 'bhumi-' or 'bhu' prefixed to* chhidra,' is merely expletive. la the copper-plate grant; of 

Vaidyadeva (Sp. Ind., Vol. II, p. 353,1.51) we find 'bhuchchhidrancha afoncUtkwagrahyam* which indicates 
the meamn* of ' bhumi(oi> bhu-)chchMdra*nyayena' m copper-plate inscriptions : pe a (worthless) plot of land 
unfit for "cultivation *. Such land when granted would naturally be exempted from assessment of revenue. 
[See Mr. K. M. Gupta's Interesting note on the words bhumtcMhidra and mmicnMidra-nyaydjn Ind* Ant, 
Vol. LI (1922), pp. 77-79, Ed,] 

* See the list at the end- 

This special treatment of the accretion to the Katisika and the Gangini most probably shows that m 
the time of King Bhutivarman these boundary rivers had been streams with current and in the course of a 
century and quarter they became (m Bhaskaravarmaa's time) so much denuded of current that one .got the 
term teftfa (dried) prefixed to it and the other had the name Ganginika (meaning the bed of the 
r) given to* In such distances, it is imponUa now, after a lapse of more than ftwri** 
from Bhutivarman's Ume, to .dentify the locahty of the grant with the help of the descnpUon of the 
boundary. 



122 



BPIGBAPHIA ETDICA. 



(Toi* XIX* 



Serial No. 


.* 


* 


Name. 


Skace. 


g 


OUndfeft 


Kat ft am 


MinmtllasTaai^ lp*#ak*M*i) 






(i.e., Sainavedin), 











Do. 


Do. . , 


VssimTigtSBha^a^amm * 


X 








r & * 





10 


Do. 


Do, 


Vgdaghesha^vaafa .... 


i 


11 


Bahvrichya 


Yaska 


Dimad^va-svamiji . , , . 


i 


12 


Do," . . , 


3?o. , 


GB^adgva^vftmia , . , . 


i 


13 


Do. 


po. 


Nandadeva-wSmta .... 


i 


14 


Chhandoga ., . 


Bharadvaja . . 


Arkadatta-svaniin with his clajx shAC9v 


li 


15 


Do. 


Do. 


Tubtid^tMvfenta .... 


i 


16 


Vajjaaaniyin . 


Ka^yapa . 


SisMdSmawrraam .... 


i 


17 


Do, 


Do. 


Subhadama-svamin . , . 


i 


18 


Do. 


Kautaa 


Sanaiaohaiabhuti . , . . 


JjZ 





Bahvfichya , 


Gauratreyu * 


Sa^rcha^vairun .... 


cbnshare> 
2 


20 


Do. 


Do. 


Nara-avamin . . , . 


1 


21 


Do. 


Do. 


Narayajja-svamin , 


i 


22 


Do. 


Do. 




1 


23 


Do, 


Do. 




4< 
I 


24 


Do, 


Do. 


Gopendra-svamin .... 


1 


25 


Do. 


Do. 




1 


26 


Do. 


Do, 


BJianu-svamin , 


< 

1 


27 


Do. 


Do. 


Bhuyaskara-avamiE . 


a 


28 


Vajasaneyk * 


Krbhnatreya 


YaadbMti-svamin , * 


i* 


29 


Chhandoga , 


Bharadvaja . 




j 


89 


YajasanSyin * 




!Vi8bdnTisena",sv2;i]Q.in 


i 


31 


Chhandoga . 


Gaiitama , , 


jDlimvasoma^svsniin B ^ 


i 


32 


Do. 


Do. 


VislirnisomQj'SVSrfiiiiii . * 


i, 


33 


Vajasaneyin . 


Bharadvaja , 


Vishiiiipalita-svamin 


H 


34 


Do* 


Do, 


Suchipakta-svamin , , 


l 


35,36 


Do. 


Do. 


Mitrapalita and Arthapalita . , 


i 


37 


Do. 


Do. 


P^patip^av^ . . . 


i 



1 When only * atfutah ' (share) is stated, * one share * has been presumed 2 in the preceding case (serial Ity 

li {one share) is clearly mentioned ; but; for brevity's sake eka (one) has been omitted in subaequexat cases. 
t^G-otrafaiah' (clan share) seemstobeauabbreviafiaonof t gotra*MMt*adky-&r&b&Mah' t (one and half sharea 
with clan share), aa in serial No. 14 above ; so here, as also in other places, e gdtram/afa* is taken to mean 1| 
It is not, however, clear what * gotraihfali* indicates : it is given only in a few -cases either to the sole rep*eaent 
totiw head of the 



TWO LOST PLATES Off NIDEANPUR COPPER-PLATES. 



123 



Serial Ho. 


Veda etc. 


* 


Name. 


Share. 


38 


VaiasaneyHi 


G&iitajotia * 




1 


vO 

39 


Do. 


Bo. 


Chakradeva-svamm .... 


i 


40 


Charakya (i.e., Yaj- 
urvedin).* 


Vatsa , 


Kushmandapatra-svamm 


A 


41 


Bo. 


Do , 


lavaradatta-svamm , 


2 


42,43 


VajasanSyin , , 


Maudgalya 


Sudarsana and Dmakara-svamins * 


I 


44 


Bo, 


Saubhaka(? Saunaka) 


YajEakimda-svamm , 


11 


45 


Bo. 


Do. 


Yaaokunda-svamm .... 


1* 


46 


Bo, 


Do. 


Sraddhakuiida-svamm 


1 


47 


Bo, 


Do. 


Narayaijaku^da-svamin 


1 


48 


Bo. 


Do. 


l^varakunda-svamm .... 


1* 


49 


Bo. 


Do. 


Saktikxiiida-avamm .... 


1 


50 


Do. 


Do. 


Toshakn^da-svamin .... 


H 


51 
62 


Cbaraka , 
Chhaxido&a . * 


Parasarya , 


Sadhu-svamin 


1 
1 


53 

54 


Bahvyiohya . . 


Varaha . * 
Salaxikavazia . 


Nara-svamin ..... 


1 
1 


ViB 

55 


Do, 


BLaradvaja . 


Bhavadeva-Bvamm .... 


1 


56 


Do, 


Do. 


Sarvadeva-svamm . . 


1 


67 


Do. 


Do. 


G5mideva*svamin . * . 


i 


58 


Do. 


Do. . 


Savitradeva-svamin ... 


^ 


59 


Do, 


Bo. 


Arkadeva-svamm * . 


1 


W 


Do. 


Do. 


SJxdharana*svamin . 


1 


61 


Do. 


Gargya * 


Damarata-svamin .... 


1 


02 


Do. 


Bharadvaja . 


Vaaudatta-svaEito .... 


* 


63 


Do. 


Alambayana . 


Yago6vara-vamm .... 


2 


61 


Do. 


Do. 


Visveavara-ftvamin 


1 


65 


Do. 


Do. 


Divyesvara-Hvamin 


1 


66 


Do. 


Do. 


Ganeevara-svamra 


1 


67 


Do. 


Do. 


Buddlicsvara-avamm .... 


1 


68,69 


Do. 


Do. 


Jatesvara and Aftg^Vara-svamins 


1 


70 


Bo. 


Do. 


DhautciSvara-avamm 


k 



1 It is stated in tho tihagavata-Pur&iio, that Cha r aka was a disciple of Vaieampftyana who was a Yajurvedin 
53 and 61 of Chap. VI, Sk< 



124 



EPIGRAPHIA INDIOA. 



[Vot. XI X 



Serial No. 


Veda etc. 


Qoira. 


Name. 


Share, 


71 


Vaasaneyin . 


Alambayana . 


Maghe&vara-^vamin . 


t 


72 


Do. 


Do. 


Jahnavisvara-svamia , . 


t 


73 


Do. 


Do. 


Nandesvara-fivamia * . t 


I 


74 


Do. 


ingxrasa 


DSmabhiiti-svamiii . t . 


1 


75,76 I 


Bahvrichya . 


Kasyapa . * 


Prakasavara-svamin witk broths 


1 


77 


Vajasaneyin . 


Yaska * 


Gayatrlpala^svamiBL ... 


1 


78 


Bahvrichya , 


Para^arya. ^ 


Santaflarma-svamin N . . . 


3 


79 
80,81 

82 


Do. 
Do. 

Chhanddga , 


Kausika 
Do. 

Pankalya . ^ 


Padmadasa-avamm .... 

Govardhana Yajfiapila and Pa^u Sudar- 
iana-svamina. 1 

GopaLa-svamia 


1* 

clanakare^ 

1 


83 
84 


Taittirfya (Yajur- 
vedin), 
Bahvrichya * * 


Kasyapa 
Varhaspatya . 


Ugradatta-svamiDL . . . 
Bfcattinanda-avamm , 


1 
1 


85 


Do, 


Do. 


Sadhu-svamin 


I 


86 


Do, 


Do. 


Devakula-sramia . . 


I 


87 


Do, 


Do. 


Janardana-svamiu .... 


* 


88, 89, 90 
91 
92 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


Do. 

Gautama 
Do. , . 


Sunayana, Nar&yana and Vnddhi- 
svamins. * 
I^varabha^ta-svamia .... 

Bhyigu-svamin . . # 


* 
t 
& 


93 


Do. . 


Bharadvaja , 


Rudraghdsha-avamin, . t 


sF 
I 


94 


Charaka 


Katyayana n ^ 


Kausisoma-svamin * ... 


I 


95 
96 


Vajasaneyin t , 
Do. 


Gautama . 
Sandilya . 


Prabhakarakirtti-svamin , 


I 
I 


97 


Bahvjriohya . , 


Saunaka 


Gatibhatti-svamin . 


JT 
1 


9S 


Do. 


Do. 


Tejabba^-svamin .... 


1 


99 & 100 
101 


Do. 
Do, 


Do. 
Do. 


Mantraghosha, Tejabhatii ajid Nandi- 
bkuti-svamins, 8 
Damabhat"ti-svamin 


i 
1 


102 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Medhabhatti-avamin .... 


1 


103 


Do, 


Do. 


Sumatlbhatfei-svamio .... 


1 


lOi 

* 


Do. 


Do. 


Suyogabhatti-svamin . 


1 



If it were not for the dual sign * bkydm * after these names, these would be considered as three persona u 
not four. This ' blyam \ however, may be an error for * bhyo \ as * am ' and * 5 ' marks are easily interchangeable 
(0Kfa inscription, penultimate plate, II 38 and 39). [See f . n. 3 on p. 150 above. Ed,] 

t Hantnghfisha (or Mandra g h5sha)-tlie word in the plate is Managhdaha [or Hanju.-Ed.]-8eeiM to be an 
adjective to Tajabhatti, probably to distinguish faim from the preceding Tejabhatti (serial No. 98), 



TS T o. 20.] THE SECOND HALF OF A VALABHI GRANT OP SAMVAT 210. 



125 



Serial No 


Veda etc, 


G-otra. 


Hame. 


Share. 


105 


Bahvrichya 


Vatsya . 


Sa^vatadama-svamia . * , 


I 


106 


Chhandoga . 


Gautama . 


Tosha-svamia . 


I 


107 


Bahvyichya . 


Varaha . 


Bhattibara-svamin ... 


1 


108 


Vajasaneyin , 


Bharadva]a . * 


Nagadafcta-svamin .... 


i 


109, 110 


Do. 


Alambayaaa . 


Durveavara-svamia witk brother . 


4 


111 


Do. 


Bharadvaja . , 


Rupadhya-svamin. , . 


i 


112, 113 


Bahvyichya . 


Kauiika , 


Chandradasa and Vimardanadasa-svamins 


1 


114 


Vajasaneyin . 


Ka^yapa * . 


Supratishthifca-svamin .... 


l 


115 


Do. 


Gautama * . 


Nandana-svamin ... 


l 


116 


Do, 


Sakatayana * . 


Tosha-svamiE 


* 


-117, 118 


Do. 
Do. . * 


Gautaraa and 
Kasyapa. 
13haradvaj& * * 


Sarasa and Vakula-svamins . 


1 

i 










V 



No. 20.-THE SECOND HALF OB 1 A VALABHI GEANT OF SAMVAT 210. 
BY D. B. DISKALKAR, M. A,, EAJKOT. 

The plate published below was discovered in 1894 in Jthe small town of lyaveja which lies 
|0 miles to the south- west of Palitana in the Gohelwar prant of Kathiawar. It was found by 
Mr. Tudor Owen, I.C. 8.5 the Administrator of the PSlitana State some years ago, and is now 
preserved in the Watson Museum at Eajkot. As is clearly hown by the measurements, the 
distance between the holes of the ring, the characters and the opening words, it must be the 
second half of the grant the first half of which has Already appeared in Vol. XVII, pp. 108 ft, 
of this journal, 

The present plate, containing 15 lines of writing in clear and bold characters, is like the first 
one in an excellent state of preservation. There are comparatively few grammatical mistakes 
found in the inscription. The sandhi rules are many times not observed. The sign for upadh- 
manlya is found in lines 2, 5 and 6. 

The grant issued by Dhruvasena I, as may be seen from the first plate 1 and' from the year 
210 in this plate wheii as many as four other grants 2 were issued by him, makes a gilt in the follow - 

1 Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 108. 
3 (1) Ep. Ind., XV, p* 255^ 

(2) Ind. Ant., XXXIX, p. 130 and Ep. Ind. 9 XI, p. 109, 

<3) Ind. Ant., XXXIX, p. 130 and Ep. Ind., XI, p. ' " 
$ 14) J. J?. & & A* S. (N. S>, Vol. I), p. 65. 



326 EPIGRAPBIA INDICA, [Voi. XIX. 

ing way r (a) a hundred padavarttas in the south-east quarter of the village BfaadrtnikS in the 
Sur&s&tra to a Brahmaaa named anti6arman, resident of Nagaraka and of the Atreya- 
g&tra 1 a&d the Va}a&aney&-^a&&a a (b) a hundred padavarttas as well as a vaplbhollara with an 
area of twelve padavarftas in $tte same quarter, to Deva^arman, brother of the same (Brahma^a). 

The meaning of vapSbJiottara cannot be definitely given, but it seems to denote 'an 
unused well filled with earth '. 

The Dutaka who executed the present grant was Rudradhara. It may be mentioned that 
in the grants of Dhruvasena I, preceding the present one, the DutaJca is found to be Mammaka, 
while in this and in the subsequent grants be is Eudradhara, The writer, as in the preceding 
and the subsequent grants of the king, is Kikkaka, 

TEXT. 8 



5 
6 






8 
9 



10 

^TT^TfT ^Tg^f^T ^ 

t [i*] 



12 ^ ^; msrtfJr faftw(fi)rn [11^*] 
: [i*] 



1 So much account of the first grantee is known from the first Jlate, This must be read in continuation 
of test 1. 15 on p. 109 of 1 his jo urnai, Vol. XVIL 

2 From the original plate. 8 Zteflcte is superfluous. 
4 Head ^ in^place of j|. [Superfluous. Ed.] 



CD 



O 

M 

H 
3 



O 

^ 

M 

K 

ft 
O 




No. 21.] SOHAWAL COPPEB-PLAT1 INSCRIPTION OF SARVANATHA. 127 



13 

*(T*)CT* *fi? *. . . [i*3 

14 ^re^ft *w fl^w^iTOTTrsnsra^w- fsrwt ^?w [i*] 

T > *- 

ftrarfa)- 

15 ifo [i*] 



No. 21. THE SOHAWAL COPPER-PLATE INSCRIPTION OF MAHARAJA 

SAEVANATHATHE YEAR 191, 

BY R. R. HALBEE, RAJPUTANA MUSEUM, AJMER. 

This inscription, which is published here for the first time, was discovered at SoMwal in 
the Baghelkhand tract of the Central India Agency. It records a grant engraved on two 
copper-plates, which were brought to the Rajputana Museum, Ajmer, by Thakur Saheb 
Gopal Singh of Kharwa (in Ajmer-Merwara) for decipherment. An abstract of the contents of 
the inscription was published by Rai Bahadur Gourishankar Hirachand Ojha, Curator of the 
Museum, in the Annual Report of the Museum for the year ending 31st March 1924. 

The copper-plates are bored at the top, and their thick as well as somewhat raised edges 
have largely contributed towards the excellent preservation of the writing on them. The ring, 
which must have passed through the hole, and the seal, if there was any, are missing. The first 
plate bears inscription on one side only, while the other on both the sides, though it contains 
only five lines of writing on the back. The plates measure 7i"x5f" each and weigh about 
2| Ibs. or 95 tolas. The average size of the letters is |". 

The characters belong to the northern class of alphabets (Qifpta-lipi), being almost 
similar to those of the Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta. Excepting the usual 
benedictory and imprecatory verses which occur in 11. 21-27, the document is written in 
Sanskrit prose. 

As regards orthography, some of the points may be noted here : 
(]) Consonants are mostly doubled when combined (i) with a superscript r, as for instance, 

(i. Q) 



or ^fjg4 0- 33 )> etc - 1 an( * (") w ^k a 3U k scr rpt> r, as in ip?| (U- 1> %> 4 , etc.), 
fwf?cR (1. 29), ?JfF (1. 32), etc. (2) The conjunct consonant ^ is 
employed with the subscript y in ^*nrJT?ft (11. 3, 4, 5 and 6) ; (3) the 
occasional use of la for va, as in tH^fnWT (1 21), ^t^r^i; ( 1. 27), and vice 
versa, as in *rf*f (1. 15) and ^f*rarf (1 30) ; (4) the use of * 
instead of anuwara before i, as m ^T^W (1. 8), ^W^Sjf (1. 17), and 
before I in ?f^t*r (1. 19) ; (5) the use of *T instead of ^ in mtfa (I 22} i 
and (6) the use of uyadhmanlya in ^H^fw (1. 19). 



128 EP1GRAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XIX. 

The genealogy given in the record is identical with the one usually found in the grants 1 oi 
Sarvanatha, and the text is also similar. 

This inscription is also a charter of Maharaja Sarvanatlia which was issued from 
Uchohakalpa, Ite object is to record that Maharaja Sarvanatha granted the villag'e of 
VaiSyavataka, as an agrahdm on certain conditions herein laid down, for the maintenance of 
the temple of Kartikeya, to two individuals named ViSakhadatta and SaktL The date is given 
in words and reads as the year one hundred and ninety-one, and the tenth day of the 
intercalary month of AsMdha (Jirne-July). Assuming that the era used is of the Gupta, 
reckoning, the year of the issue of the grant would correspond to 510-511 A.D. The 
document was written by MahaaandhivigraJiika Mandratha, the son of the Bhvgika Vara- 
hadinna (=Skt. Varahadatta) and the grandson of the Bhogila, the Amalya Phalgudatta, the 
DuJcata being the MahabaladfaJcfita, the Kshatriya Sivagupta. These persons are identical 
with tho&e mentioned in the Khoh copper-plate inscription of Sarvafcatha. 2 

The Maharajas of Uchchakalpa ruled over the territories lying to the east and south-east 
of Bundelkhand (i.e., in Baghclkhand 3 ) at the time when the Parivrajaka Maharajas ruled over 
modern Bundelkhand 4 and its vicinity. Uchchakalpa was probably the name of their capital. 
The inscriptions of these rulers do not help us much to know the history of their family. G These 
chiefs seem to have been the tributaries of the Vakataka rulers of the Central Provinces 6 and 
Northern Deccan, 7 

Till now, four copper-plate inscriptions of Maharaja Sarvanatha have been discovered. Of 
these, three are dated in the years 193, 197 and 214, or A.D. 512-13, 516-17 and 533-3i respec- 
tively, No document of the successor of Sarvanatha has yet been found. The present grant 
is the earliest known record for this king. 

Antiquarians seem to differ in regard to the era to which the dates of these inscriptions be- 
long. Prof. Kieihorn was inclined to refer them to the Kalachuri era. 8 E. B. Gounshaiikar 
H. Ojha is of opinion that they should be referred to the Gupta and not to the Kalachuri 8 ' 
era, and I quite agree with him. My reason for holding this view is that the stone pillar 
inscription at Bhiunara 10 makes it certain that Maharaja Hastm ot the Panvrfijiika family 
and Sarvanatha were contemporaries, and the date of Hastm's inscription refers to the 
Gupta era. 11 

I am unable to identify VaUyavataka, Daadapall, Gaviiyanagartika and Mie river 
KardamilSi mentioned in the document. 

1 Corf. Ins. lad., Vol. Ill, Nos. 28 and 20. * /6u/, No 30. 

a Fleet's Gup. Ins., p. 126. 



*Ind.A*f.,Vo\ IV, p. 103. Dr. Burnett supposes them to be the f endatoi iw of the Guptas, f 
of India, p 47], while Dr. Fleet, of tfce KalacUuxi kings-, [&up. /n.,p. 8 (pieface)J 
6 Fleet's Gup. IMA., Nos. 55 aiid 50. Baruelt, Ant. of India, p. 51. 



Intci tphons from tU cave temples of Western India, by Dr J. Buigoas awl PL 1$. Imlruji, p. 89 
JBp. /*,, Vol. V, Appendix, p, 55, C. 337 and 392. 

9 Rajpwtanz Museum Report^ 1923*24, p, 2. 

10 C. L 1, Vol. Ill, p. 110, 

11 For Dr. Fleet's views on the question see 2nd. Ant., VoL XIX, p 228. Soe Prof. C, J. 
iciaarks on the dates of inscriptions of the Ikhchftkalpas in the 2nd. Ant., 11)20, . 103 Ed, j " 



No. 21.] SOHAWAL COPPER-PLATE INSCRIPTION OF SARVANATHA. 129 



TEXT. 1 

First Plate. 



3 g^rnft ^^it'^ri oRmrf^JTi?^^ inwFWPrermt LI*] 

[:] [i*j 



5 
6 
7 

8 3Tw4^ 5 *ar ^rraTXT^fcr [i*] 
9 
10 



12 jT^tmrfTOWTf?re^ 8 D*] 

IS 



15 



; First Side. 

16 t ia *nntot ^?wmi 

17 ^ramripnif^n^ ft*w [i*] 

18 itftiroftpr fWroift^n [] 

19 
20 



: [i*] 



This is expressed by u symool. 



, , 

not a correct Sanskrit word but it might have teen formed on the aualocy 
' Add ^ W t^ : tter 



Bead i5?, . 
Read ^fa 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX. 




: [l*] 

Second Plate ; Second Side, 



31 

3:2 ^T^fsETcr; [l*] 

33 



31 ^i^npifw* i ^'u-i^ff^f ^^^l Tt^r[w] 10 ^rorar. 
35 



TRANSLATION. 

Lines 1-8. Om ! Hail ' From Uckcfcakalpa (There was) the Maharilja 

His son, who meditatetl on his feet, (MW) the Maharaja Kumaradeva, boru of the MaluIdUlvi 

Kumaradevi.^ llt& sun, who meditated on lus feet, (wots) the Maluraja Jayasvlmin, born of 

the MahadevI Jayasvajtninl. His son, who meditated on his feet, (was) the Maharaja VyS,giira. 

born of the MahadevI Ramadfivi. His son, who meditated on his feet, (wa#) the Maharaja 

Jayanatiia, bom of the llahadevl AjjMtadevi. . , His son, who meditated on his feet, the Maha- 

raja Sarvanatfoa, bom of MahadevI Mtirundadvl, being in good health, issues a command 

to Brahuxans and others, householders, and all the artisans at (the village of] Vai6yavl|taJEa 

LL 8-12. ^ Be it kmnvn to you that this village is granted by me m a copper edict as 

jtii Qgrahara to Vi6aMiadatta and $akti, sons of JOiatMnH of Uttarapatha, (to be enjoyed by) 

then sons, (grandsons), great-grandsons and their sons, (and) to last as long as the moon and the 

sun will endure (i.e., in perpetuity), with the vdrawga and the upankara, (and with tho 

privilege that it is) not to be entered by the irregular or the regular troops, with (the nght to) 

taxes on ploughs, (but) with the exception of (fe right to) fines imposed on thjeves. 



1 The metre of this and tke following four vcrsea ia Amuktulh* 
* Kead 



* Kcad ^- [II 4*] *^. lieml 

8 Bead ^^ n^^ifil^^ . f 

M . [Why a 



SOHAWAL COPPBB-PLATB INSCRIPTION OF SARVANATHA, THE YEAR 191. 




28 



30 



HlRANANDA SASTBI. 



SCALE FOUR-FIFTHS. 



STOVE* OF INDIA, 




I * I 



No. 22.] PEYALABANDA GRANT OP KBXSENARAYA. 131 

LL 12-20. " Moreover, it is also given to them according to the same terms as men- 
tioned above (and) confirmed by me, for tie increase of my own merits, for repairs to whatever 
may be worn out or broken (in the temple) of Lord Kartikeya established by me, as also for the 
maintenance of bali, charu, sattra, perfumes, incense, lamps, and oil, 

" Therefore, you yourselves shall offer to these persons (donees) shares, the tribute of the 
customary royalties, taxes, gold, etc., and shall be obedient to (their) commands. 

" And this grant shall not be confiscated by those kings who will be born in our family, (hit) 
should be assented to, and preserved, as in the (previous) time. ( And) the tribute of the lya-tes 
which by custom should not belong to the king, should not be taken. 1 

" Whosoever confiscates this grant he shall be contaminated with (the guilt of) the five 
great sins and the minor sins." 

[LL 20-27. The usual benedictory and imprecatory verses.] 

LL 27 ff. (This charter) has been written, in a century of years, increased by ninety- 
one, on the tenth day of the second month of Ishadha, by the Jttahaaandhivigrahika Ma- 
ndratha, the grandson of the Bhogika, the Amatya Pihalgudatta, (and) the son of the Bhdgika 
VarShadinna. The Dutaka (is) the Mahabaladhikrita, the Kshatriya Sivagupta. Moreover 
the Dutaka, in the matter of conveying the letter (ordering) the remission of taxes on ploughs, 
(is) the Uparika MatxiSiva. 

The boundaries (are) : in the north, a boundary-trench as far as (its) mouth. On the 
east, the river Kardamila, On the south, again, (there is) a trench with a winding course up 
to (its) mouth. Near the village Gavayanagartika (there ^s) a low hill (kachchhaka)* m 
the middle of the trench facing DandapalP towards the south. On the west of the village, 
there is a western trench. 



No. 22. PEYALABANDA GKANT OF KEISHNAEAYA. 

BY Y. E. GUPTE, B.A., M.E.A.S. 

These copper-jfrtetes, which belong to Mr. Archaka Venkatachar, were obtained on loan by 
%he Tahsildar of Eayadrug for the Assistant Archa=jological Superintendent for Epigraphy, Southern 
Circle, Madras, who noticed the record incised on them in his Annual Report cr Epigraphy for 
1913.* The following is an extract from the description of the prates he has given there : < The 
plates which are well preserved are held together by a ring with a seal which bears on its counter- 
sunk surface the figure of a boar facing the proper right. The plates measure on an average 
about 74* from side to side and about 11^ from the highest point in the curved top to the 
bottom," 

The language of the record is Sanskrit verse throughout, with the exception of lines 88 to 
98 which are written in Kanarese prose. The alphabet is Nandinagari of the period to which 
the inscription belongs, i.e., about the 16th century A.D. As regards orthography, the record 
contains most of the peculiarities and defects common to the Vi]ayanagara grants of the period, 
which need not be mentioned here. 

* [Apparently from Fleet's 0. /. L, Vol. Ill, p. 129. Ed.] 
a Dongar in Central Hindi and Marathi 
8 Probably * a row of bars ', or ' a bridge ', 
4 See p, 13, Appendix A t No. 7. 



EPIGRAPH!! INDICA. 



[Vot.XIX. 



Ojuitting that portion of the grant which is common to the Hampi 1 and the Conjceveram 8 
records, which Lave already been published, we iiud that the inscription, incised on those pink's, 
refers to the reign of king Krashnaraya of the second Vijayauagara dynasty and records the 
grant of the village Peyalabanda, also named Kaslmariiyapiiram, which was situated within 
the limits of the principality of Nadugalla, to NnsimhadhvariSarman, son o Pafichfigiu- 
Vis!ina{bhnu)yajvfirya of (he Agastvu-f/o/w and the Bo(lliJiyana-*ttJa. It describes the 
donee as Laving commented on all the 0*1 1 a* and perlormed the Stirvaknttu sacrifice. 

The date given in the charter is purnima of the month, of VaiSakha in the Saka 
year 1446 corresponding to the cyclic year Tarana. Jt is regular and, according to the 
Jate Mi. L. IX SwaiiuUcannu Pillai's Efi/icincna, equivalent to 18th April 1524 A.D., 
Monday. 

01 the places mentioned in the grant, Peyalabanda is evidently P.ulbanda m the Mada- 
ksira Taluk of the Aiunt,ipur District and Kurrubasivara is appurentJy PalfiSivaram. Tho 
lattei might Lave been called Kiinubaaivuni because of its being inhabited by shepherds 
(Kunubas). 



TEXT. 



[For tli first 28 stands, winch are he on,,U,el, see above, Vol. I, pp. 3(K5ff., and 
Vol. XIII, pp. 126 ft I 



Second Male; timnul $/<(<: 



71 mm 

75 m^rt Hfhfe(fe)?f 




l AU>?o, VdL I,p|.3(n'UL 
8 Alwvu Vol. XU1, pp. 12G 



3STo. 22.] PEYALABANDA GBANT OF KRISfflSTABAYA. 133 



79 ntftfari D 

80 TOfT <sl^T3* irmwnf^H I [I ***] 

81 



82 flftqnffci ^s^ D 

83 w 
84 

85 



80 ft *reran[:] i ^f^^ri'af^f ^ro^rai ^RP^T i[i 8^*] 

87 
88 



00 
91 



PZae ; Jirst 



92 f (i) 

93 ^ 



91 vn^ro^ ^ [H*] 'ffi^ ^^ vu+i* ^H ^TOT- 

OS 5 % ^ffW I 



97 

98 Ttf^t W^lt 'WTO ^t H 

[Ll 99 to 105 contain four admonitory .verses.] 

loo 



ABRIDGED TRANSLATION. 

Ll. 64-87. In the year, computed by ten hundreds and four hundreds plus 
iorty-six determined according to the Saiivahana era and named Tarana, in the month 
of VaiSakha and on the pfirniinS-te'tA*', on the bank of the river Tungabhadra in the 
presence of ^rt-Virupaksha, to the best Brahman, named Nrisimhadhvari, who is calm, a 
great soul, well-known, expounder of all the &dslras, who has achieved success in discussions, is A 
aacrificer, who has performed all the great yogas (sacrifices), who has, controlled anger, is 

1 Written in Tclngu-Kannada characters. 



134 EPIGBAPHIA DTOICA. [Voi, XIX, 

the son of Pafictagni-Vislina(u)7ajvarya J knows the Vedas, the Vedanta and the traditional 
lore, i.e., who is studying the Yajus, is of the sutra of Bodhayana and of the family of Agastya, 
the well-known bearatiiul village o Peyalaba^KjLa which is adorned with the other name of 
K^ishnarayapnram, is included in the great principality of Nadugalladurga on the pleasant 
boundary of KurrubaSivara, whose boundaries have been defined (as follows), which lies to the 
east of the village eaU0d X&xhkfarS, to the south of the village called Halflru, lying to the 
west of the, great military road situated to the north of the village named Kurruba^ivara, free 
of alltfces,-on all sides well defined by the four boundaries, always rich in having all the 
plants, full of houses aM gardens, accompanied by theeight kinds of enjoyments (beginning 
with treasures^ deposit and stones)* having different fruits, to be enjoyed by one* with what is 
grown on 1 th6 laflct having ponds, wells, tanks, even with mounds or marshy grounds, to be 
enjoyed by ons, grandsons and others in succession till the moon and the stars 'last, with the 
due right of sale, mortgage and gift, the brave Krish^araya, king of kings, high-souled, and 
surrounded by the pious and devoted head priests with delight granted the village with 
dahhivia and libations erf water. 

Ll. 88-98. The boundaries of this agrahara are given in the language of the country. 
To the north-east of the village, to the west of the military road (the boundary stone 
having) the Vamana-mudra cut on it (planted) in the pit called Doddakariyagu^di ; from 
that place to the south the natural stone which is the boundary mark having the Vamana- 
madlra written on it posted near the pit called Kariyakallu ; the boundary of the stone planted 
(is) the eastern limit to the north of the margosa tree, the planted stone having Vdmana" 
mudrs, (is) the south-east limit ; from that place (to the) west upto the south-west the 
planted stone bearing the 7amanamudr& ; s6uthern boundary from the stone (planted) m 
the south-western corner (to the) north the stone planted ; the western boundary from the stone 
planted in the north-western corner upto the stone (planted) in the north-east stone (planted)- 
in the direction of the east ; the planted stones bearing Vamana-mudra (form the) northern* 
boundary. 

*** #*##:*# 

L, 106. &I-Virilaksilla, 



No. 23.-VISHAMAGIKI PLATES OF INDRAVABHADEVA. 

BY THE LATE TARINI CHARAN RATH, B.A. 

These copper-plates are three in number and were discovered from a piece of barren dry 
land, near the village of Yiskamagiri, situated within the Sanakhimedi Zamindari, Aska Taluk 
of the Ganjam District, when it was reclaimed for cultivation* They were found suspended 
by a ring on a small stick in an earthenware pot, filled up with sand, the two ends of the stick 
resting on the edges of the pot. 

The plates measure 7 inches by Sf inches each, their thickness being J of an inch. They are 
held together by a copper ring measuring 4 inches in diameter and passing through a circular 
hole on there proper right side. The ends of the ring are secured by a circular seal about I 
inch in diametfct, bearing marks which are not quite distinct. The figures on the seal appear 
to b6 a cotieMttt bull and a crescent* The plates together with the ring and the seal, we 
156 tolm. 



JS T o. 23.] VISHAMAGIBI PLATES OP INDRAVARMADEVA. 135 

The first and third plates are inscribed on one side only while the second plate has inscription 
on both t he sides. The edges of the plates are raised into well-formed runs to protect the writing. 
Tii letters of the inscription arc big enough and quite clear, their size being a little more than 
of an inch. There are m all 35 lines, each side having 9 lines on it, excepting the second hide 
of the second plate which contains only 8 lines. 

The language of the inscription is Sanskrit and the script used is later m form than thnfr of 
the Dhanantara plates of Samautavarinan \vhich I have already published m this journal 1 The 
record is not dated. 

The object of the inscription is to record that Maharaja Indravarmadiva of Kaliaga, a 
devotee o ^rl-Gokan.nioSvarusvamin seated on thejburuiuit of the Mahendra mountain (near 
Mantlasa 111 the Can jam district), granted some land whose boundaries are specified in it and 
which lav in the Amerasinga village of the Jalamvora-w/*u//a (district) of the anncut 
Kiihii^a "country , to Jakshasvami-fernaan, a Brahman of the Vajasan5ya-cA(wma, Kfniva- 
MX'/K'Tand ,K"itukari.ia-0<3//a, tor the increase of las and his parents' merit (pu#*ja). The Dulaka 
or messenger of the {irant was Mahasamanta &!-NBgakhSddi. The inscription oa the 
plates was* written by MaMpralihdra Adityavarman and the king's seal was affixed to it 
by the minister of peace and war (Mahasandluviyrahika) Ghandapaka. It was engraved by 
the brazier (KatnsSralsa) Devapila. The grant was issued from Svetaka. 

The record does not state the ancestry or lineage of the king, but there can be little doubt that 
lie belonged to the Eastern GaBga family of Kalinga. A grant of king Indmvarman I ot 
Kalmga, otherwise known as Hnjabiriiha, lias been published in this journal, 3 under the name ot 
the Achyutapurani plates. The characters of these plates appear to be somewhat older than tho*e 
used in this inscription. The kmi Indra\ariiuulcva of the present plates is not the same 
as that of the Achyutapuram plates. He cannot. I think, be identified with even Indravanuan II 
whose grants have also been published with specific years of the Eastern Ganga era. On 
paUwraplueal grounds, the characters of the present plates, which are an admixture of the 
northern and southern types, may be assigned to the eighth or nmth century AD These 
plates are noted as No. 9 m Appwdiz A of the Annud Report of the Assistant Archaeological 
Superintendent for Epigraphy, Southern Circle, Madras, tor 1917-18, to whom they had been 
sent by me tor examination. 

TEXT. 

First Plate. 

1 Cm 8 Svasti [|*| [Sve]tak-addii(dlai)sthanat I bhagavatfcaN^cliar-achara.Iguroh*] Ww- 
> k-sha(i&)sanka-i&khara-dharasya sthity-utpa[t*]ti-pralaya-kara- 

3 na4ietor=mMaliendracha[la*]-Bikliara-nivasi(s 1 )-SrIffi3rii i Gokarn^vara-bha- 

4 jtarakasya cbaraya-kamal-riradlxan-avv a (va)pta-punya(nya)^ichaya[^ 

6 prraSa[nte]-M r 8 a a)kal a -KaliBg-ad} 1 irajy6 parama-maliSSvaro mata- 

jr *" , +* fi s.trQ rii * I Kiio&n is 

7 pitp-pad-auuddhyato niaharaja-SrI-Indravanmnaaeva[ . j 

8 JaiainvSra-vishaye 1 y atha'kal-addhyi4i(si)-malilia(3a)m a nta-to- 



5 



136 



BPIGBAPHIA IHDIOA. [VOL. XIX 



Second Plate; Fir&t Side. 

10 nayaka-visliayapati"gramapati-vra(bra)hma-purogaman sss a- 

11 tya(nyaih)S*cha cbata-bhata-da^dapa^ika 1 -vallabha"]ati(tl)yam(n) | yathararlia[m*] a mS- 

12 nayati vo(b6)dhayati aha &a(sa)niadj6ati | viditam(ta)m=astu bhavatarii | S- 

13 tad-visa(sha)ya-fe(sa)mva(mba)iidha(ddlia) i Amera&ifcga-grame bhumifh*] | 

pu(pu)rva-die(si) | po(pu)- 

14 shkarmyaft*] paschiina-pali-pariclicliheda[h*] | nadi(dim) yavat-paSchima- 

15 pradese Ypd[dha*]bhogikasya bh.6gapataka-panclichhed6(dali) | u- 

16 [t*]ta[ra*]-prade^ebIiIslit]ia"parich!clilieda[iL sje ] I dakshi^a-di^ayam nua(na)di 

panc3icli}ie- 

17 da[h*] I aadilompani(nya-)ard]ia-bh6ga[h*] | Vv(V)ajaSena a -clia[ra sfe ]naya 



18 kliaya i Jata(tu)karnnagotraya I Vafii(si)sthatta[vat ?*]-Jatukarnn=eti-prava- 

Seeond Plate ; Second Side. 

19 raya ! JatukarnnaTva(va)tta(t) Jlva[dvi]]e[sht3b.a]va[d sfc ] i(-) anupravaraya 

20 Bhattaputra--Ja[k3li]asv(sva)ini--armana(^ie) I matta(ta)-pitroj:=atinana!=cha 

21 punya(ny-a)bkivriddhaye | Sa(sa)]ila-dhara-purasa(ssa)aren.=aoliaiidr-"arkka ksti- 

22 ti-sa(sa)makalam*a!rarikritya pratipadi[to*]=smabhi[k*J yatah | &a6a(sa) 

23 na-dar^anad=dharmina-gaiiraYa[d=a*]smad-gaiirava[cli*]=clia na kenaclii- 

24 t-flparipanthina*(na) bhavltavyam | tatha aha pathyate dharmmaMstre | Va(Ba)hubhih rj - 

25 r*vasudha datta raj ana 6 Sa(Sa)gar-adibhih [ |* ] yasya asya yada blium^s^*] 
28 tasya tasya tada phalam [||*] gva(Sva)-dattam para-dattamva(m va) yo ha- 

Third Plate. 

27 r[S]ti(ta) vasundhaiam [i*] svavishttayaiiL krirairbliutva pitribhi[3*=] 

28 ^a{sa)lia pachyate [,'j*] Mabliuya(bMd)=aphaia^anka va[h*] 'paradatteti pa* 

29 rthiva(vah) | Sva(sYa)-danat=plialaiii=anantyam |7 paradatt-anupalane [||*] I- 

30 ti kamala-dal-amvu(nibu)-biiidu4olarii ri[ya*]manuchi- 

31 ntya manu^ya(sliya)-ji{]i)Yitafi=clia 6a(sa)kalain-idam-nidfthfi- 

32 tafi^ha vu(bu)dJia(dkya) nahi purushaift*] para-ki(kl)rtayo vflBpyaftf J DuttagoftakoW- 
<5<j ttra MaLasamanta-fe!-Nagakhddl [|*] Mah&pratihara-Adi- 

8* tyavarmma^S |7 Bkhita[*l | lanchhitan^cha Maha(aa)ndhivigrahl(hi)kahrkal 

8D dhadaplUnali(na) [i*] utki(tki)n,nam Ka[^](mrt)r.ldlka.D^ 



D , 

ABKmGED TRANSLATION. 

^jgi^g. tt .^ rf u M M a 

L *t7 is written below the line between pa and ti 
1 Bead 



Bead 



ii b. 





VisHAMA<iTRi PLATES OF 




ii a. 



IO i 



iiftl^^ 
',;, J r^/->>->i^M'-V^'- 



161 



f/^mlMa^ 



Rrsvi\ OF I.N13IA, t'AI' 



No. 24.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS OP EASTERN CHVLUKYA PRINCES 



137 



residence of Svetaka, the Mahdsamatita, SrlOma^ Rajtonka, Kajnpuf^ K>nS,<t>*tva 
Upanka, Day4anayaka, Visliayapati, Gramapali and other officers in the Jalamv 
thus : 

LI. 12 to 24. Be it well known to you that the land in the village of Axnerasinga UI-H 
to this province, bounded on the east by the \\esteru face of the tank as far as t hoover 031 t;i" 
west by the Bhogapataka land of Vriddhabhogika, on the north by such limit as you hk> autl OB 
tiie south by the river as far as the middle of its bed, is granted to Khattaputra Ja[ks]ia]svami- 
fiarman of the VSjasaneya-cAara^ Kaava-MH, Jatukariia^olja, Vasihlitlsatta(\at). 
Jatukarna-praram and J5tukar9avat-Jivadvi]oshtbavat-*nyrat;am, for the increase of the incut 
of my father, mother and self, accompanied with the handful of water, to be enjoyed by lain as long 
as the moon, sun and earth last. Nobody, whoever he may be, should interfere" with tins, out of 
regard for virtue and myself. 

LI. 24 to 32. It is stated thus in the Dharma-tSstia. (Then follow four of the customary 
benedict ive and admonitory verses.) 

LL 32 to 35. The dutafai here is MahasSmanta M-Nagakkeddi. (The document was) 
written by MahSpratikara Adityavarman ; the king's seal was affixed (to it) by 
dhimgraJiika Chandapa&a ; and it was engraved by Kamsaral-a (brazier) Devapila. 



No. 21. TWO COPPER-PLATE INSCRIPTIONS OF EASTERN* CHALUKYA 

PB1NCKS. 

Ih r THE LATH K. V. LAKSIIMUNV rlvo, M.A,, MADRAS. 

The two copper-plate insoriptious which are now for the first time published, \vith plates. 
deserve special study by the students of South- Indian history. They are issued by the h\o 
brothers Badapa 1 and Tala II, sous of Yaddliamalla II, not hilherto known to us. The fir&,t <t 
tho plates r/r the Arumbaka Plates of Badopa AM!! be referred to us A and the second u:. 
the Srlpundi Plates of Tali II as 13. 

A.THE AEUMBAKA PLATES OF BADAPA, 

These plates were found in 1921, buried underground in a ptft, at n village called 
Polamfiru in the Tauuku taluka of the Kiishna District, Ihulraa? Presideney. I ivcvivud 
them from a gentleman of that place and fon\nrded them tor ^xtuuiniitiou io the Assisuuit 
Areliteological Superintendent for Epigraphy, Madras, The ring \\aH not cut \\hon they 
were first sent to me. They are noticed in the Annual Ihfort on $pujrtifhy for 19tiO-"Jl and 
are numbered as No. 1G of Appendix A, in that report. I edit the inscription from I he 
s original plates and from one set of ink-impressions kindly supplied ty Sir. G. Venkoba Rao, 
the Assistant Archaeological Superintendent for Epigraphy, Madrius. 

The plates are five in number and measure 4J* high and i)" broad nnd are hnng tcgetlioi 
on a ring 5" in diameter. A massive seal with a diameter of 3}" i fixed on to the ring. Ou iu 
surface are cut in relief at the top the figures of the crescent and an ankitia in horizontal posi- 
tion placed below it, with the legend 6VTpbhuvana[mJkusa cut below the latter. 2 Beknv the 

i Tim proper name lias been road as Biidapaia the Epigraplucal Hearts, Southern Circle, tor 1909, p. 10 
aad for 1920, pp. 86-7. But examining carefully all da>* and Ms in tlieao two inscriptions and comparing tbcin 
witli <meh other I have come to the conclusion that the second letter in thia word is a dental and not a lingual. 

a The lat syllable of the legend i* put in the second line, to tLe |ioper right of the boar, 



135 EPIGBAPHIA IBDICA, [Yoi XIX. 



legend is tie figure of the boar standing on a lotus. The figure of the sun, ia cut towards the 
proper left of the seal near the head of the boar. The bottom of the seal through which the two 
ends of the ring are inserted and in which they are fixed, has the petals of a lotus engraved on it. 
Tie plates are rather thin and their rims are raised to protect the writing. The material of the 
plates is pure copper and that of the seal is bronze. 

The discoverer of the plates appears to have subjected them to -several Hteehariical amd 
chemical processes of test. The second plate has therefore been broken and a amall piece ot 
it has dropped away. In almost all the plates several letters are hopelessly disfigured and could 

not be deciphered even with the help of a microscope. 

The language of the inscription is Sanskrit. There is an admixture of prose and poetrv 
throughout the inscription, Some of the phrases are bodily borrowed from the inscriptions of 
Amina II such as e.g. the NaMmiiriL grant published in Up. Ind., Vol. XII, pp. 61 ff. 

I propose to deal with alphabets the and orthography of both the inscriptions A and B 
together, for the sake of convenience. The secondary form of the vowel a, which is called tala 
Itattti in Tekgu, is a horizontal straight line in B, just as we find the< head line in N"agarl letters 
c to-day. Then, again, the secondary form of a in B is very peculiar. It bends at right angles 
to the horizontal line on the head of the original letter and generally comes down straight to 
the foot-level of the letter and sometimes is prolonged a little downwards on the right side 
e g. ta, ma (1. 1), and ra (L 9). Thus it almost resembles "the secondary form of a in Nagar^ 
letters, The secondary form of a in A goes up in a few cases, directly above the original letter 
like a tail, e.g. ma, na (1.1), m (1, 8), M (1. 23), jfa (1. 24) andja (139). We find two 
different symbols for the short and long initial forms of ri in B (see 11. 9 and 35); and 
in the secondary forms a clear distinction is made in both the plates, In A three different 
ways of representing the secondary form of the vowel tt are seen. The first of them and the 
one generally used here and in other inscriptions of the period is prominently to be seen in 
the letter bhu of llmvana (1. 1). The second form, which differs from the first, is found in mi 
of Hantiputrdnam (L 1). Both these forms are prominently visible in 1. 37. The third form of 
the secondary- tt is found in Xalpatoru (1. 22). Here the 'secondary form assumes altogether a 
different shape and resembles the secondary form now used in the K%arl alphabet All the 
three forms of ..are seen together in line 38, where they can be conveniently compared and 
contrasted. The first form is used for all the consonants, the second, for m, p andl and the 
third is seen only with the consonants r and * (11 21, 23, 25). !n B we find only the first and 
the kit of the secondary forms. The last form makes no distinction between the Ion* and 
short vowe (A, II 53 63; B. L 25), The secondary form of i is represented in two ways 
^ \rffL ;7 S V ?' aDd flK **fcftJra (1. 4). The first of these is placed on the left 

^. irji'.";^.* 1 " " jr**. " TI - md fom * Ter "* Ieto - d 

B has twr 



'ise His maybe due to the mistake of tie 



en as Chandenan - * ' ' tte snb-donee, 

de is short, 

the word -J tre called Wra^Va. We have again in A and 

both the 8 hoH 



-avs, e A. * 

Tt; fti vf^**?- 54); B - to ^^ 0. W), 90MKM (1.2). 
ecombmatTOBofthe eeoonrtary fonns of a ^nd i and the second one is i 



24,] TWO INSCRIPTIONS OP EASTESH CHALUKYA. PRINCES, 139 

independent symbol. The first method of gepraratiag is still fonini in Telnjni <mfr * n 
the case of a few consonants suck as m and y , The a&caa&aj form of a in A differ! from* that 
used in B. In A it appears twice in Kmftft (1 1), and Awcfa (I 38). This form is common to 
tlie other inscriptions of that period. But B Tisesa form which is the same as that of 5 (Ktitmte, 
1. 2). Perhaps this again is due to the error committed by the engraver. The Towel ri is 
usually confounded with the consonant ri md vice versa, e.g. on the seal of A ve have 
Tribhuvanamfatsa instead of Tribhwvanamkma, Wirisam for Ihrisam (L 33), 

Coming to the consonants, we must note the sxisteace of la, marked in this inscription Ij 
the symbol 60 (A. 1. 26 ; B. 1. 19), This sound is represented in Tamil by y&. Dravi- 
dian philologists were not aware of the existence of this sound in leiugn, The Bezwada 
pillar inscription 1 of Tnddhamalla II prominently brought it into light, 2 This is of course 
a purely Dravidian sound. In B it appears in the proper name Tala (11. 17, 19), The 
word Tala is found in many inscriptions -of the Eastern Chalukyas and is spelt in Tan DUB 
ways, siichas Ta4&> Tala, Tala, Tala, This Tariation in spelling is a sure indication that the 
aecond consonant of this word, ^vhich was originally la t gradually gave way to $a in the Teluea 
country and to la in the Kanarese country, 

In both the plates the anusv&ras followed by a letter of the ta-twja or ta-rarja a^e inva- 
riably changed into the nasal of that varga, e.g. A, manyante (1. 31), Gandaw&rayana (L 48) , 
B. Velananfa (1. 24). A special symbol is used for the compound letter ncha, e.g. A. L 65 , 
B. 1. 37. This symbol is almost similar in both these plates. In cases where letters of other 
vargas follow, the anusv&ra is shown as such invariably and the nasal of the varga is never use! 
in its place. So the soutliem system of representing the nasals of the vargas by anu$vdra$ was 
already in Vogue in the tenth century as far as the first, second and the fifth vary as (&, eft, p) 
were concerned, 

The inscription begins with the usual eulogy of the CMlukya race found in numerous 
other Chalukya inscriptions, and then enumerates in order the nameR, the mutual relations and 
the periods of the reigns of the Eastern Chalukya kings from Kubja-Vishnuvardhana to 
BMmaraja or Ohalukya-Bhlma II. All the details here given agree with those generally 
found in the other inscriptions of this family. The last king mentioned in the plates as the 
immediate predecessor of Badapa, the donor, is Amma II, sou of Chalukya-Bblma II. The 
length of his reign, which we know from other sources to be twenty-five years, is not giren in 
this inscription, Amma II is praised (11. 16-17) as a virtuous king who ruled the country of 
V@ngi together with Trikaliixga, properly and justly, according to the injunctions of dharma. 
However, Badapa, the donor, who was the son of Tnddhamalla H of a collateral branch, defeat- 
ed and sent into exile Amma II with the help of one Karnargja-Vallabha (1!. 1748), Badapa 
further claims to have defeated other dtyte (t.. f &ty*&w)i to ta hela the titles of ' Samasta ; 
bhuvonWraya^ Vijayaditya- Maharaja, Paramesvara, Paramamahevara and Paramabhattaraka ' 
(11. 22-23). He had also the title * Adhiraja * (v. 2). 



Tracing next, the genealogy of the donee, the pUtes refer &sft to a certain IBCmditya 
who Bad a son called Nripakama. His wife was Nayamambi. To them was born Ganda- 
BSr&yana who was a famous archer <1. 55). To this Ga^narayapa was'feiven fay Badapa the 
Tillage pf IrnmMka situated in the Velanandn-^^a. Gandanara} ana in his turn gave 

* ^J^VoLXV,p.l50, Mr. Bam W a Ml* however, thinks that the first portion of the iEScrip tic a 

may refer to Yttddbamalla I, 

2 See my note on tMs inscription ; ftbow, Vol. XV. , 

The system is now found among the Maratha, theTekgu and the Kawm people. The Tamihaw, H>wii, 

follow the nortli Indian aystem, [apparently, because there is no anusvara in that aiphabet,~Ed,J ^ ^ 



140 EPIGEAPHU INDIOA. [VOL. XIX, 

-. ............ , mi . i,.i ________________ ii , ........ I, ...... '"' ....... . ...... i ...... " .......... ". -' ....... . ....... .''..' ..... ..... ' .......................................... ' ...... ..... j_* 

the village to one Chandena who was the son of his mother's younger slater (11. 59-61). The 
boundaries of the granted village are : to the east Cherakuniballi, to the south Srlpundi, to 
the west Kavuru, to the north GromaduYU, The executor cf the grant was Katakanyipa ; the 

poet, Ayyana-bhatta ; and the engraver, Bhattadeva. 

Karnaraja-Yallabha, as the epithet Vallabha clearly indicated, waa a Rashtraknta king and 
evidently the same as Kanna (or Krishna) III who waa a contemporary of Amma II and ruled 
from A.D, 989 to 968, The poet of our plates, of course, mistook the word Kanna for the 
fadbhara of Kama, while in reality ii is the Pra'kr'ita-tad'b'hava of the word Krishna. 

Though no date is given in'ttte inscription itself, it is not difficult to fix it. Badapa claims 
to have conquered Amma II and to have reigned immediately after him. 1 We know from 
several Inscriptions that Amma II ruled for twenty-five years (A.D, 945-970). We can, there- 
fore, safely infer that Badapa issued this inscription after he established himself as the king of 
the Vengi country after A.D. 970. Following the statement made in the inscriptions of the later 
Chalnkya kings commencing ^ith Saktivarman, a period of 27 years, viz. A.D* 978-999, 
is generally considered by histoiiaus as an interregnum in the history of the Eastern Chalukyas, 
But these plates of Badapa and Tala reveal to ns for the first time that there was no real 
interregnum 'during that period, but that the collateral or junior line then ruled the country 
sending the senior line into exile. The interregnum was only from, the point of view of the 
senior line, whose members, driven away from the Telugu country,, h$d to spend their time for 
27 or 80 years in the Tamil or the Kanarese countries. The so-called interregnum (asvamika) 
does not connote absence of rulers or anarchy in the Telugu country, as lias been represented by 
the Chalukyan kings of the post-restoration period or has hitherto been believed by some 
scholars, but only suggests the complete exclusion of the members of the senior branch from 
the VeAgi and Kalmga countries. I shall discuss in detail the history of this period (the 
fro-called interregnum) in the light of these and other plates, in a separate article.* 

The villages mentioned in the inscription can easily be identified. Arnmbaka, the village 
granted, is found by the same name in the tSluka of Repalle in the Guntur District. The other 
villages^nieiLtioned in the plates are also found now in the vicinity of Arumbaka, They are all 
arouud it within a radius of four miles. Srlpundi is now known as SripMi ; CherakumbaUi 
is now called OherukTiinilli ; BBvfSru has nofc changed its name even now 3 I am told 
GomaduvuisthesameasGovadawMchisthree miles to the north of Arumbaka, m the 
leoali taiuka. I must bare add that the village Srlpundi, which is described as the souther 
taj^To J^zUahiathaaepUta^iatliaBubiectofa gift by Badapa's younger brother 



T Jf d <f ee * *e grant is one Gandanarayana and the sub-donee is his aunt's eon Chand- 
ena. lie donee and hi s ancestors are described in the plates at great length and with a flounsh 
d Ae^mnuw than thxrty lines (11. 25-55). The godfather of the donee was an Z r * 
archer hi. Parasurama and Arjuaa (1. 26). His aon tfripakama was also an archer and was 



h very doubtful if te I, so. The participle ftftrfw n* indicia that B^pa had once for aTl 
* 



U * or a The 

MangaUu p'.ates (A. E. on E fiffrapJi y for 19W, Part II, paragraph 24) clearly state that Amma II ia L mh 
yr of h,, re^a had to go to fight with K^na, ,.,. the Vallabha BMtrakute Mng K ri Z III who LfoLd J 
Badapa according to the Arnmbaka plates. H. K. S ] ^rwn^a ui, wlio befriends* 

[Itigvwy much to be regretted that this promised article is never to come for Mr IT v T , i. 
5s now dead. Had he boea apared to u ? ,he would have made his mark in STUrfT ^ ' V \ Lakstmsna 
M in his wide riches ia Tel.gn literature and f " "" ^ f ^^^ he - 



FiA Taluk map of Eepalle, published by the Survey Office, Madras 
S*e above, Vol. IV, p. 33. " 



No. 24] TWO INSCRIPTIONS OF EASTERN CHALUKTA PRINCES. Ml 

entitled * Karmmuk-arjuna ' (11 30-33) and the ' Lord of the Lake ' (Sar5*natha) (135), He was 
also called Satya-Ballata (1.49). MyipakSma seems to have been a petty chieftain perhaps 
of the Lake region, i.e. Kollerii, well known for Ms valour, benevolence and patronage to 
learning. He was a worshipper of god Siva (1, 41) and is said to have killed five warriors at 
a time with his sword (L 43), By his wife ETSyamamba, he had a son, the donee Bhaskara 
surnamed Gandanarayana (v. 23). We can identify the father and the mother of our donee 
with the father-in-law and the mother-in-law of Amma II, as stated in his Gnndugolann plates. 1 
These clearly tell us that Mripakama a?tas Saro-nitha (Lord of the Lake), also a -worshipper 
of god Siva, was the father-in-law of the king, and that Nayamamba was his mother-in-law. 2 
Thus Gandanarayana was the brother-in-law of Amma II. It is therefore very strange that 
Badapa -who drove away Amma II should patronise his brother-in-law Gandanaraya^ia. But 
we know that in times of revolt and revolution, political adventurers change their allegiance 
very often. Gandanarayana was, perhaps, also related to Badapa and was instrumental in over- 
throwing Amma II and the senior line. 

The sub-donee to whom Gaiidanarayana gifted away the village was the son of his mother's 
younger sister Sa[ma]MmM. As the plates were issued by and under the seal of Badapa and 
not by Gandaaarayaua, it is clear that the sub-donation was also recognised by the king. 



TEXT. 8 

First Plate. 

* [*] 



2 



8 JNOTTSTO^f^M 







ort.j 11 2^- 3 i' rom tbe original plates, 

Jnd. Ant., Vol. XIII, p. 248. - !**** * ^^ 6 Eead 

* A floral device precedes tkis word. fi &ead 



142 



EPIGEAPHIA IND1CA. 



[VoL.XIX, 



9 r. trsfvhtni i 



10 



12 



13 



15 

16 
17 



$] [i*] 



Second Plate ; First Side. 



w'ftrar 



i 



[H] 



is fcT]s*iHMi<9M3fi3r?i 5 [n] [ 



19 



:] [i*j 



20 ft 



.[i] 



[i*J 



: fi- 



21 



22 



Second Plate , Second Side. 



t [i*] 
: n[8 f ] w" 




TLe att*rom is marked on the left top corner of the letter ta. 

4 Read * '^ 0< 

e traoea of the letter in brackets indicate a %. Ed.] 

' 



Eead 



u 



ARVMBAKA PLATES or BADAPA, 



X % ' 




IB 



20 







30 ; 



SCALE 6 



0) INIHA, CALCITTA. 



36 




iiib. 




42 



44 



iv a. 




No. 24.} TWO INSCRIPTIONS OF EASTERN CHALUKYA PBCs'CES. 143 



23 
24 
25 
26 

27 
28 
29 

30 

31 
32 

33 
34 
35 
36 

37 



[*] 



(i) 



ar TO 



L [i*] 



(Tfctri PZaie ; First Side. 



[I] [ c * 






(0 



: [ 



|D 



n 




The letters if^afl g are written on an erasure. 



144 



EPIGEAPHIA INDIOA. [Voi XIX. 



Third Plate ; Second Side. 

38 ^[fzTfinJ^fainin^'SWTITWt^^fa [l*] 

89 



40 ^|>r]zmmro^ [u*] 



41 



Fourth Plate; First SiJa. 

45 



: [i*J 

,- Second Side. 

52 ^n%5Tw: n[^o] CT*TOR 
53 



s<ld J Read 



41 f?f: i wowart www^w 1 ^*!!^?^ f%*ftf?r IWTT: [ u H*] 



^repilrfT" 

42 iftf^ft"?^*^ ^^^JTT^T^^WT^(f%)?fli^t; [l*| T5*f;f%^^Erf wf% VTTf?T 



r^: [i*] mw 9 *TWT ftgr 

47 [VJwr i[i u*] 'ershwwhnrr ^^W^^?IT i ^r4^nir?R!WT srt- 

48 [s*r]ft ^ i[^*l fTOt nfij?mrat ^ ^w^roiwnv^L!] 11 D*J ^r- 

49 ogqsufiiTOfa?; m^ 5rwwN[5!?r [t?*] siTTiwt^fqt^- 

50 ETT : [n] 



T: [*J 



o is unnecoswy. Ed.1 



R,l c ^. The two letters at the beginning of the next liae look like ij : on the original plafcc 

*BdV. ' 

10 -r is placed on the syllables % . 

u T 

, [IwMmait W .- W .J u 



ARUMBAKA PLATES OF BAUAPA. 




H. KIXBBNA SASTRI 



SCALE -6* 



, 
(V 



SEAL, 



* \ 

* , i* 



* 

""( 



, 

^ , .' ^ i>' 
' " y '' 



V 



. ' IL ,^'" 

*U '../" 



A PHOTOGBAPH. 



No. 24.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS OF EASTERN CHALTJKYA PHINCES. 



145 



u[***3 



[i*J 



55 
66 

67 

68 



59 
60 

Cl [irr]rt w snr[l$ 



i: [i*3 to 



tfir a 



/f A Piate ; First Sidt. 



[*] w 



62 

63 
64 

65 
66 



67 * D*j 



m 



[i] 



Fifth Plate ; Second Side. 



t Keftd 

Bead perhaps ft** 
-The syllables ^ 
[The plate shows tf.-EA] ' Bead 

*" P 11064 OB the syllable ^ T '~ 



Read 

[D?K?oareunnece8ary. Ed.] * Bead 

Eed 



D*3 




for fl fecoM time have been erased m the or^nal. 



146 1HFBAJPHIA IRDICA. [ VOL. XIX 



(Lines 1)5-). Hail ! The bh>4lBirt>l S^t3rgjSraya-V-allal^ t eBd*a---aii ornament to the family 
of the blessed Chalukyas, wlio belonged to tlie gotra of the Manavyas praised by the wkole 
world, who are the SOBS of Hariti, who acquired (their) kingdom through the favour of (the 
goddess) OEauSjteBp who -aves^otectoA who mediUte oa the 

feet of god Mahasena, who have subdued the realms of (their) enemies in a moment by the (mere) 
sight of (their) superior boar-banner which was obtained by the grace of L'ord Waraya^a, and 
who have pu*tfi*d th$i*r bodies bjr ajsre<l bfttMag^ (performed) at-the; end of hjooras .sacrifices, 
was Kubj^-VUftnuvardhana. 

(DL 5 15), (He) ruMd^tfe VSftfef cotmtey for 18 years; his son JAyasimM, f6r*33 (s^ar*) ; 
Vistmuvardliana, the son of his younger brother IndrarSja, for 9 (years) ; his son Blangi- 
YuvaiSja, for 25 (yean) ; his son J&yashdalia, for 13 (years) ; his younger brother Kokkili, 
for 6 jnonto > dsttowiagf him, hia elder brother Vishnsivardhara, for 37 (yeari); his son 
VijaySditya-BliaUaraka, for 18 (years) ; his son Vish^uvardliana, for 36 (years) \ his son 
Vijayadtty^SurSiadra-MtigauSjdj for 48 (years) his son Eali-i'VistoUTardhana, for a year 
and a half? his son Goi^g^dikiirYiiaySditya^for 44 (years) \ king CJiSj.iiky.a-BMMa, the son 
of his younger brother YuvarSja-Vikramlditya, for 30 (year*) ; his son Kollabiga?4a- 
Vijayaditya, for 6 months ; his son Athbaraja, for 7 years; dethroning his son Vijayaditya, 
who was a boy, Tilapa-for one umth; having conquered him, Ohaiukya-Bhlma's son VikramS- 
ditya, for 11 months, Then Talaparija*s son Tuddhamalla (ruled) for 7 years. Having 
conquered him, Bkimaraja, the son of Kollabigancla-Vijayaditya (reigned) for- 12 years. 

(Iil-17). This king Kbima, tha pe^sonifiaation of. Mahivaraj; beg^t by Ms wife L5ka- 
BiahEdevIj who resembled Uma in form, a son called AmmarSja who resembled Kumara. This 
(Ammaraja) ruled well the Veng! country with Trikaiinga, according- to the injunctions of 



(T^rsel). Bsdapawitbthe help of the Vallabha (king) called KarparSja drove away 
from the country the prosperous (kinff) called AmmarSja. 

(V* 2Ju Hairing defeated the daya$ l (agnates) aad crushed tie multitude of enemies, given 
a heap of things to supplicants and honoured his relations, the Adhiraja called Badapa, son of 
king Yuddlxamalla, lord of Vengl, rules the earth and conducts himseif according to the injunc- 
tion^ of Majw adow$ with aU virtues He iat highly famous and' valoEous, a-man o salf -respect 
and a warrior. 

(V. 3). During the reign of this king the country, rich-with abundance of many and full- 
grown crops, was mindful of its duties (dharm-&nwa'kta) and free from calamities, diseases and 
thieves. 

(V, 4$* He wm$ Mann to all his Gbjeets> a tf&ther-to -all his BeEETante, Cupid to wemen and 
b desire-fulfilling tree to supplicants. 

(LI. 22-25). He, SamastalhuvanSJintya, ^-Vijaysditya, Wdh&rcijddKiraja, Paramehara 
P^fltt^i^^*raib&i the gmt worshipper of, Mahss^ara (iw), most ' hospitgcble to Brahmans, 
one wno concentrates his mind on the feet of his parents, having called together all the chiefs of 
families headed by the Rash^rakftas residing in Velauandu-^Maya, order (fh&m) thus j "Be 
it known to you". 

(V. 5). There is one who is well-known, by the famous name of [BE]4Sdifeya, a -superior 
whose greatness is taken forihat of a r8*incamiktioi3t.oi, the-Desteoyer ,of KHrtavIrya (i.e n 
ParaSurama) ir the Kali age, who is equal to Ram, ad -Arjunar (m.awh&yy^ is devoted to 
Dharwa, speaks the truth, and is the. saviour* of ..... it , , jaad^aJii^. of destruction to his 
enemies. 

5 ^ footnote on Test 1< "l8 E* ] ^ ....... 1TTri ' '"'"" " J " JJ " ........ " ........... " ........ " " LJ " 



No. 24,] TWO INSCRIPTIONS OF EASTERN CHALUKYA PRINCES. 147 

(Vv. 6 and 7), His son, known as 'NripakSaaa, is one who never swells from his word , . . 
* ...... , ... in tke practice of the bow and well-known as a mine of prowess. Besides, in 

his kingdom, on the roads, the cloths of the travellers are not even loosened by the winds ; the 
robbers . * . t . . . * by the fire of his prowess. He received the appellation of Karmnk-arjuna 
(an Arjuna in archery) because he conquered Ms enemies with a bow, and the title SatyaballSta 
because ........ 

(V. 8). The excellent king Karmukarjuna is taken by crowds of wise Brahmans to be the 
teacher (guru) Vyasa; by kings, to be a helper; .... to be their father; and by supplicants, 
to be the desire-fulfilling tree It is a wonder that by great archers, he is taken to be many 
Parthas (Arjunos) though (he is) one (unequalled) and victorious (hero), and by passionate 
women to be Cupid (the god of beauty), 

(V. 9), His valour, indeed, is born in the heavy blows dealt in battle-fields to the multitude 
of enemy-kings; his charity is charming by satisfying (fully the wishes of) Brahinans, depen- 
dents and supplicants; his glory, white a the moon, purifies (or makes white) the whole world. 
So shines he, the good Karmukurjvna, Sjiro aatlia (lord of the lake), powerful and victorious* 

(V* 10). The noble and good Ifj'ipakama, lord of the lake (Sarafypati), shines on this earth 
like the sun, a repository of brilliance (or rays) tu the delight of the lotus-like faces of his depen- 
dents, always rising and destroying the da^kues^ viz. the enemies. 

(V. 11). He is adorned with the pearl necklace of great virtues, such as charity, unstinted 
kindness, strength ..... proficiency, purity, forgiveness, respectability and inestimable worship 
of Siva ; he is the source of pleasure to the poor, the forlorn, the actors, the blind, the naked, the 
poets, great orators and Brahmans. So shines the illustrious and famous chief Satyaballfvta, 
the conqueror in battle-fields. 

% (V. 12), With pure virtues and unsullied fame, he brightens the points of the compass, 
destroying his enemies. He, the devotee of Bhava (Siva), enjoys the pleasures of this world 
through the grace of Bhava and is very famous, 

(Y, 13), With prowess like that of the sun he destroys his enemies and is the foremost of 
archers, the abode of wealth, modesty, forgiveness, authority and mercy, and the fearless one. 
This Sauri (Vishnu), viz. the good king Nyipakama, patronising truthfulness, shines always in 
this world, a destroyer of sins. 

(V. 14). Strong and glorious, he killed single-handed with his -sword five warriors (at a 
time), and with fnll(-stretched) bow, thousands of enemies in the battle-field. 

(V. 15), Just as the gods Brahma, Isa (Siva), Indra, HrishlkSsa (Vishnu) and Eumara 
(Skanda), have for their beautiful wives the Goddess of Speech (Sarasvfttl), Um&, Sachl, 
Ln-kshml and Jayasrl (the Goddess of Victory), respectively, 

(V, 16). so, Nripakama-Sarahpati, who resembled those gods, had a wife who was dear to 
him and who resembled those (goddesses) and was well-known as (i.6,, by the name of) 
Nayamamba, 

(V. 17). She had (on her body) all auspicious signs and was adorned with all ornaments. 
She knew the principles of all the duties of a woman, and was a house-wife (sail) possessed of 
virtuous character and conduct. 

(V. 18). By that devoted wife he, sumamed SatyaballSta, begot a worthy son named 



(V. 19). Just as Guha (Skanda) was born to TJma and Siva, (or) Jayanta to &aclii and 

a son was born to them who were equal to those two divine pairs. 
t (V. 20). With an expanded chest and shoulders like those of -a bull, he resembled "Skanok 
in valour. With strong arms and extraordinary strength, <he $ Guessed great -eneugy 
perseverance. 

u 2 



148 EPIGBAPHIA INDIOA. [VOL. XIX. 

(W. 21-23). The illustrious Ga^danarayana, the eldest son of Nnpakama-Sartaatha, was 
Mglilv intelligent and proficient in mounting elephants and torses. He " was strong, brave, 
pure, clever and possessed virtuous character and conduct and good qualities. He was the best 
among the archers and the most proficient in all the arts. This sun among men named 
Gandanarayazia is the best of all warriors and a bee at the lotus-like feet of (his) parents. 

(V. 24). To him Badapa, the king of kings, and the mightiest among great kings, being 
pleased, gave the big and famous village ArumbSka saying : 

(LI, 56-58). "I have given to Gandanarayana having issued an order on plates of copper 
the village called ArumbSka in Velatt3ij4u-rfsAaya f ree o ^ taxes," 

(LI. 58-62). Having accepted the village granted by Badapa, the best of kings, Ga^danara- 
yana, in his turn, gave, with an oblation of water, the thus accepted village named Arumbaka to 
Cliandena who was the son of Sa[ma]Jsa;mb } the uterine younger sister of his (Ganda- 
narftyana's) mother Nayamamba. After accepting the village, (the said) Chandena shone like 
the full moon ^ho receives the (sixteen) kalas (phases), 

(Y. 25). Resplendent is the good CitandenSrya, a brave young man, the foremost of good 
warriors, who, among men of the Sara* (lake-lords), possesses the knowledge of all the Sgamas, 
is compassionate, is the destroyer of proud enemies and is rising fortune. 1 

(Li 63-64). The boundaries of that village (are) : to the east OhepakumbaUi, to the aouti* 
Snpundi, to the west Kavura, (and) to the north Gomadnvu. 

(LI. 64-67). No one shall interfere with this village,' If any one so interferes, he shall 

incur the five great sins, 

[Here follow the two imprecatory verses (26 and 27), rw, ^f ^^f etc. and n frjm 
etc. (sung by Vyasa), which are well-known.] 

(V. 28}. The executor (Bjfiaptt) (of this order) is Kataka-npipa ; the poet is Ayyanabhatt* 
*ho knows all the iMm. The edict was written by BHattadeva, to last as long as the moon, 

the stars and the sun would last. 



B. THE SEIPUlSrpI PLATES OP TAI.A II 

These^copper.plat^ No. 5 of Appendix A of the Annual Report on South- 

r*ts 

1 jrnd pcsiesBc* a lovely appearance, -Ed~] "" """ - - - " - - - 



, 
and avvarm as 



No. 24.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS OF EASTERN CHALDKTA PRINCES. 

ends of the ring are soldered into the bottom of a circular seal measuring 2 T V in diamete . 
The bottom, is fashioned into a flower of several petals which support the seal. An expanded 
lotus flower and above it the legend $r?-Tribairvaaasiaa are cut in relief on the seal but are 
slightly damaged. Above the legend is a standing boar facing the proper left with the tip of 
its snont slightly raised. Above the boar is an a&kufo laid in a horizontal position and above the 
latter, the crescent with a dot -which latter, perhaps, stands for the symbol of the sun. The ric.j 
had "been cut when the plates reached the Assistant Archasobgical Superintendent's office. The 
plates are in a perfect state of preservation, and not a, single letter is illegible as the work uf 
engraving was most carefully clone. They are now deposited in the Madras llu-seum. 1 Remarks 
on the palaeography and orthography of this inscription have been included in my introduction 
to the grant A above, 

The inscription commences with the usual titles of the Eastern Chalukyas beginning v, ith 
the vvm-ds " Svasti SrimatSm " and ending with " 0/tSZiyto." It then enumerates the kings 
pf the Eastern Chalnkya line from Kubja-Viahnuvardnana, the brother of SatylSraya-Valla- 
"t>hemdra, down to the donor Vishnuvardaana-TaJa (II). Unlike the other inscriptions of the 
Chalukyas, the periods of reigns of the different kings are not given in this inscription. Thu 
genealogy also differs widely from the genealogy given in A above the Arnmbika plates of 
Baclapa-and from the other published grants nMchflapplya genealogical list of the Chalnkya 
kings. 3 The relationship, for example, of the ruling kings from Jayasimha-Vallabha to Mangi- 
T uvavaja, is different. The interval between the^e two kings includes five generations instead of 
the usual' two. Prom Vijayaditya-Bhattaraka to Amma [ the genealogy is correctly given and 
in the right order of succession. Nest, coming to Amma I, it is stated that he, Vikramaditya 
(II) nudTiiial, ruled one after another, and then came Yuddhamalla II and the latter's two 
sons Badapaand Taja II. The omission of the short reigns of Beta-Vijayaclitya V and Bhlroa 
III '-the two sons of Amma I, and the reversing of the order in the case of Vikramaditya II and 
Tala I perhaps suggest '-that the author of the record intended to represent that after 
Vikramaditya II, from Tala I to Taja II, there was an unbroken succession quite contrary to 
^hat is stated elsewhere. This seems to be the reason *by he took care to omit to mention 

the number of years each king ruled. Tur.v.ii 4 IT 

The donee is one Knppariayya, grandson of Kalivarma and son of MafcanyarSja He 



had cessiuUy atood the test rf the four kinds of honesty 

nTs, continence and courage, ,nd was a member of the family of Pal avamXUa. His father 
Makarivaraia is stated to have suffered and lost his life in serving his master. Thus it evident 

service of Tala II. The Vrfram p ates of Amma IP also 



occupied the position of a great feudatory and minister (whasanwMya under the kmg, 
had LcessiuUy atood the test rf the four kinds nest **, * - rested- 

nTs, continence and courage, ,nd was a membe 
Makarivaraia is stated to have suffered and lost hi 
thtt holh Sther and son were in the service of Tal 

donee by name Kuppanayya or Kuppantaatya ; but there, h 1S grandfa her was one 
TavWypeddiya ox Turkiy.-yajvan. We Wnot therefore identify Kuppanayya of our plates 

Regarding the tauly-iB" PU a ma ^'""f'' m * 717 t) 77?.' Ate tie Ml of the 
0. M g^at king of fte W'"'' '** ^t, ." . to ft. W^. ***, : ^ 

. - ti - - "-*- - : - TT ' 10 ; the " Cdtalogne of Copppr-plate Grants in the 
T7hey numbered as Eastern CbihAya plates No. 12, ffl i the J ^ ani muafc 

Government Vwm^ Madra 8 (.918). I, there^rks j ^^jjj^ ^ plates 
bve been made by Tala I who reigned for a month u> 925 A.U. Bat we 

W -ere issaed by Tala II, the grandson of Tala I. 

* Id. Ant., Vol. 3[X, p. 28$, Above ' V p1 ' 1A ' p 

G. J. DubteuU'i T* PaUaixu, p. ?4. 



BO EPIGR'APHIA INDIOJL [VOL, XDt 

Tie language of the plates is Sanskrit p^ose which is very carelessly written. Telugn 
wor^Js are, however, used in describing the boundaries. Some of these, are out of use ia the 
current spoken dialect and are not found in standard Telug-u lexicons. They are therefore of 
great interest and must be carefully interpreted with the help of cognate words in other Draridian 
languages : 

(1) 3Ian$i~monka>-chinta : mandi means s bent* (Kittel) and cJiinta means *a tamarind tree"*} 
monhi may be taken as mdka which means * a sprout ' or 8 a young tree '* m&n<fi~mon1ca-cliinba, wfll 
s the young tamarind tree which is bent s ; perhaps the tree was known in the village by that 



name. 



(2) JZodamadiwu, ,..We may try to interpret this compound word thus: The. top sill of 
a sluice is called go^ugubantfa (lit. the umbrella-slab) in Telngu, perhaps because it stands like 
an umbrella on the sluice. Similarly the top plank of a door- way is called a go<$ugu-balla. 
In Tamil and Kanarese, the cognate word for go<$ugu is tofat or Jcode. Maduva in Tamil 1 
means * a sluice *. Hence koda-maduva may mean * a sluice of a tank with a top sill \ i.e., a sluice 
with masonry construction, as contrasted with an ordinary sluice. If we take koifa as kon<fa 
then the word would mean ' a sluice on the Mil-side '. 

(3) Gogurevu : gogu means < hemp ' and rim beginning with r and not with r means in the 
current Telugu language, < & ford, a ferry, a landing place, a fort '. Kitfel'ja ^Kannafa Die- 
fimanj gives this word in both the forms remi and tew in the same sense. In the Nandama- 
pnadi plates of Rajaraja I, we have the terms tadla-reva (L 82) and gotta-reva (1. 86). We 
Lave in Telngu Ch&faK-revu, the place where washermen do their washing business. I take 
?ha and rtou to be the same word and interpret it as a place where a group of people or of 
trees is to be found. If this interpretation is correct, gOgurSw would mean' the plot of land in 
which generally gogu plants are cultivated or grown in abundance. 

(4) Radamukopu. Kspu is a conical bar or column as the small pillars of earth left 
in the middle of pits by earth diggers, to indicate the original depth of the pit at different 
places Bars of slate pencils are also called fcZajwpu fejmfe Kadamu may be Jcadambv, the 
Dnmdian form of the Sanskrit word Eaten**. The compound word then means * the trunk of 
a maamoa tree which was like a cone J . 

(5) Kal^lalagula-pedda^inta. To make some sense out of it I would like to correct 
tluB compound word as Sahehgula-fedda-cMnta. Kalis 'stone ' and nlagula or (velu 

^ff?-' WeC31ltraJ3slatethewllole P ll ^ a s 'the big tamarind tee adjoining 



(Q)Chirut S di- m addal u . Chir^di is perlzaps tte name of a village or a variety of 
and maddaln means < the maddi (briwdelia retusa) trees '. 



is a Saiva mendicant and P alla mu meam 
Therefore the first paraae xneana 'the paddy field 

^ constructed to i Jgate 
no distinction^ade 
ord as K"t!uM a lu and 



oaa ^- The meaning o f 



r ' M ' a slcice "w^ ^" or waifrn. Ed ] 

[The word may be greeted mto ka^la^^a, tha t is, bif aro ,ted wooeUpp!* tree. 



No. 24.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS OF EASTERN CH ALUKYA PRINCE 8. 161 

PSdari means * poor '5 pedariy&ku may be translated -as * jfoor-leafed 1 , (with very small leaves). 
The tree perhaps had peculiarly tiny leaves. The whole'^hrase May bfc translated as * the 
dwarf -leafed tamarind tree which is near the boundary limits of 



It is not clear from the test whether the village given away was ripfindi or the adjoining 
Adf EU or both: In 11. 29-30 it is stated that the small village (gramatika) of Sripftndi is given > 
while in 11. 35-36 Adam is mentioned as the hamlet (gramatika) which is the subject of the gift, 
I think this contradiction is due to a mistake of the writer. I believe that in 11. 29-30 he ought 
to have written (Ad&ru~gr$m%ntarvartinl) Srtpundi-nama-gv&matika maya datta but omitted 
"by mistake the letters put in brackets, and he ought to have repeated the same words in 11, 35- 
86* It may also be suggested that the mistake of the writer was rather in 1. 36 than in 1. 30* 
He ought to have stated smantarvartint-Ad^rii'{sahita-Srlpundi)'n&^a, gramatika eta. Thus 
it would be tha-t the king gave Siiptindi with Adfiru (as its upagrama). But it is not likely 
that AdElru formed part of the gift, because it is mentioned in the plates M a boundary to the 
place mentioned which is the subject of the gift (L 32) and because if Adam was one of the 
villages given, the donor in all probability would have defined its bbunaries also, Anyhow 
the limits of the village do not seem to have touched the boundaries of any of the neighbouring 
villages except that of Adftru in the south, It may, therefore, be inferred that instead of 
gifting away the whole village o either Sriptndi or Adtei, a new hamlet was carved out of 
the old village or villages for the purpose of ' this grant. This view is strengthened by the 
boundaries given in the plates of Badapa. There, Srlpundi is given as the southern boundary 
of Arumbaka (1. 64), If the whole village of SiipSndi was given, we should have expected 
the name of Arumbaka as the northern boundary of ripfba$i. Instead of that we have some 
embankments or bushes as the northern limit. 



There is no doubt about the identification of Srlpundi ; because it is given as the southern 
boundary of Arumbaka in A and we find it in the same position even now in the Eepalle 
taluka of the Guntur District. But Aduru is not found now. Perhaps it has* merged 
in the parent village. In describing the position of the village SrlpHrnJi it is said that it 
was in the middle of (or between) vagaru. But what is vagaru ? I think it is a compound word 
consisting of two words vagu and a?u, Vagu means ' a stream * and an* may be equivalent to 
flrw which means ' a river ' in Tamil, the^coguate of eru in current Telugu. The land given 
by the grant seems to have been situated within a delta formed by streams, one of 
which was known by the name of v&gu and the other aru 



The date of the grant, though not givett in the plates/ can easily be guessed. Of the kings 
mentioned in the plates Amtna II is the last oHfe' known 'to us and the grant nmet have been 
therefore issued subsequent to his reign and prior to the restoration. Whether Ta|a II of 
record B actually ruled for some time and whether this grant was issued daring his de facto 
rule or whether he considered the reign of his brother B&dapa as war&jya-samaya cannot be 
definitely determined. But the probability seems to be that Tala did not rule independently of 
his elder brother Badapa. The legend oil his (TajEa's) seal and the epithets used for Badapa 
&nd Tia in these plates support this view. The legend on the seal of Tala is ' Tribhuvana- 
siha ' instead of the imperial legend of 'TribhuVafo&ftkuSa* which 'we* find * on Badapa's *eal. 
In mentioning th& > prior kings the inscription ufees nd royal epithet^. But on coming to 
B&dapa he is styled as-' Badap&kJiya-Malidiraj^dUr^ja^Paif'amehara^ ' (11. 18-19).' This clearly 
indicates that the previous kings were dead and BMapa was the living supreme ruler according 
to the writer of the inscription. Again, in mentioning Tala, he is styled at onfc place only as 
Za (L 19) and at another place Mah&r&j%dh'ir$fo (L 24), but the epithet of 



152 BPIGEAPHIA 1NDIOA. [Vot, XIX- 

vara is not applied to him. We know that Pnlak^in II acquired this title as a sigi* of 
paramcmntcy after defeating Harsha, the paramount lord of the north, who had this title. 
From this we ca# infer that Badapa was ruling as the supreme lord of the kingdom, and Tala 
acted as a subordinate and lieutenant. It is not necessary that such charities should be con- 
ferred by the reigning prince alone, and $uar$jya~samaya, need not necessarily mean the reign 
of the donor. It may here mean the period during which the once-excluded junior line 
obtained possession of the kingdom, which, in their yiew, really belonged to them. Tala 3 of 
course, considered the possession of his elder brother as his own possession. 1 



TEXT* 

First Plate. 



2 

3 

4 

5 llf^^ WTf^W^^W 

Second Plate ; First Side, 



7 

8 

9 
10 



Second Plate ; Second Side. 

11 Trfif^r 11 ?TF3^r; ?lf**; ia i 

12 ?nr 



13 HWfTW, I mq'. f^JWTt [l*] 

14 



15 g^W^WTftf^^^Tf^^Jrt J 



1 Vide Fleet's Dynasties of the Ccinarese Diatrtets, p. 361. 

I Tbo mftrlcs of a fioral design Are faantly visible here. * Head 
4 The letter *f U cut above the line in fche plafce. 

8 Read ^trt V*. 6 Read ^inai . * Eead 

Bead ^^o^ g Read o f Wfrt ^^ M Bead 

II Bead #fivgroK:* 13 Bead iftfllh:, ls Bead 

1 




CO 

co 



00 

CO 



c 

tt 




o 

fi 



a 

CQ 



\ : 



'.. V/ 



No 2 k] TWO INSCRIPTIONS OF EASTERN CHALUKYA PRINCES. 153 

Third Plato ; First Side. 

16 



17 srwif^: D*] *53 tfmggr, tfes^ra: i ff?g?r[:*] 

18 vroi;: i*] 

19 ?:: i 
20 



Third Plate ; Second Side. 

21 Tra e 

22 

23 



25 



20 

27 

28 ^fT^r^fWi fg 12 ?ifiRW 

29 

30 



2 L ^y*a r< ^ *i '1 1 flf 1 TTOTf^fTT^r'. 

(l)* 

Fourth l'l,itc; First Side, 



Fourth Plate ; Bi'rontl 

31 TI" 

32 f 
33 



35 



* 



6 Head ' ea 



11 Kead 

ThranpTrscdption (here and in line 31 below) is written in the form of a final 5 while in other caies (sucL 
1. 6 fifiif), 1- 7 f(i5^|, etc.) it ii formed as in inoderu Tolngu. 



. " Eca4 ! ^- 

Raul q^tr. 



" K^ " Bead 



Read 

* Read ^n. ". B ad 



tl Kead J >! Bead ^P" l: ' 



EHGBAPHU HTOKJA. [Vol. XIX- 



36 fifrift] wTfj^OTsHft) vffl&w warorfhrflft 

37 

38 

39 ^ ift ^t?r ^rgsnci 4 jj*3 

40 gf 



TRANSLATION. 

(Lines 1-8). [The usual titles of the Chajukyas, and the mention of SatySsraya 
Vallabhendra as in 11. 1-4 of A.] 

(LI. 8-19). His brother .was Ka^a-Vig]^eTw4baaa ; his so Je-ynsiiblia-Vallabha j 
his sou VistmurSja ; his son Indra-B&attSraka ; his sonVishauvardhana; his son Satyslraya ; 
his son Mangi-YuvarSja; his son, Kokkili ; Ms brother, Vishntur&ja 5 his brother VijaySdrtya ; 
his son Vishnu Yardhana; his son Vi jaya^itya-BiiatSaalsa ; his so ViafeijjivardUana ; 
his son Narindra-Vijayaditya; his son ZaU-Vishnuvardhana j his son Gunakkenallsta- 
Vijaysditya; his younger brother's son BJrimswS-ja ; his aoa KoUabi-Vijaysditya; his SOB 
AmmaiSja; after him, Vikramaditya ; after him, Bhlma's younger brother Tajabhapaia ; 
his son tfif-Yuddhamalla; his son MakSrSijSdhir&ja Paramehara, BSdapa j his'younger brother 
Vishnuvardhana 



(LI. 19-26). (This) Vishnuvardhana-MaharajSdhiraja,, daring the period of his rale 
(si-amjya), (moved) with heart fall of great kindness on account of the various services rendered 
by one, who vas very mach devoted (to him)j who won the hrt of his msstesr by hard work 
and good behaviour, who belonged to the family of the Pallaras, wh.o came pure out of the four 
tests (loyalty, etc.), who was appointed -to the position of a great sSmanta and awStya, who was 
adcraedwituallTirtResandwhpwaspuremtiie cause of his jnaste&-senjb for the chiefs of 
families residing in VelanSndu-m%a headed by the Eashtrakatas and ordered them 
tlius : 



* -^t 3 !?' "**** kn Wn t0 ^ &at to i]da (* Mfl6 ) nam * 4 KaPBanayra, of the 
family of PaUava mails, grandson of Kalivarma, and son of MakariyarSja who has suffered 

* i , **?*** tert&vwi-he sn^ yiMage^^ah'te) WIHe d4rfpun4i (?to*teJ) 
in the middle of VSga^u. -*-%. ^ 



. 

-35). "Its boundaries are: to the east matfi*fta-oM*a, to the soutk-east 
to the south ^^^ which Jies *t ^ ^ of the bo^aaiy of MQru ; to the 
^pu , to the vrest Mwelalagvla-padto-Ma, to the ^orttx-west CJiirj^di, 

f **H to the north-east 




25-} PJLBTOHADHABALA PILLAR INSCRIPTION. 155 



No. 25, PAN'CHADHARALA PILLAR INSCRIPTION OF THE KONA KING CHODA IIL 

SAKA-SAMVAT 1326,* 



BY J. NOBEL, PH.D., 

An inked estampage of the inscription (No. 210 of 1899) was supplied by the late Mr. 
Venkayya and made over to me by Prof. Liiders. The inscription is engraved on three ftves of a 
square pillar at the eastern entrance of the Dharmaliiige^vara temple at Pafichadharala in the 
Vkagapatam district of the Madras Presidency, On the north face are five verses (pafichumtna) 
which are not connected with the inscription, but were composed, as stated m the first five 
lin^s of the west face, by a certain Chen[n*]apeg[g*]ada Chennakaviraja-kalahamsa in praise 
f thegodDharmalinga. That these verses were engraved at a later time than the inscription 
is ahown by a Telugu inscription 2 on a pillar at the western entrance of the same temple 
dated in Saka-Samvat 1465, which mentions a certain Chennapeggada Chennakaviruja, and 
by a pillar inscription 3 at the entrance of the Vishnu temple in the same village dated in 
jJaka-Samvat 1452, which contains a verse by a poet called Chennakavirftja, There can be no 
doubt that the person mentioned in these two inscriptions is identical with the author of the 



The inscription contains 93 lines of writing, The average size of the letters is 1 inch. 
The alphabet is Telugu. Peculiar is the subscript form of tha which resembles the ta m its full 
form (see e. g., SthanuSailah, L 14; paritr&w-arththwii, 1. 37). The same sign is used for express- 
ing the second dha in the ligature dMlia (see e.g., VcnasicUdhabn^ 1. 83). The language is 
Sanskrit, and, with the exception of the last remark in Telugu (tfflJMffti 20), the whole inscription 
IB in verse. Regarding the, orthography it may be stated that after anusvara as well as a fret 
r, consonants are sometimes doubled, as in limgga$4lrtktJiarh in 1. 43. 

The inscription is of some interest as it makes us acquainted with one of the smaller 
dynasties of Southern India, of which but little was known to us hitherto, 

After an invocation of god GaQ&a (v. 1) the inscription begins with a mythical genealogy 
of the Koisua dynasty. From Vishnu's navel sprang Brahma, his son was Marlchi, his son 
was KaSyapa, from him sprang Bhanu (the Sun), from him Mann, and in his race was born 
Arjuna Kartavirya (v. 2).* 

The historical genealogy begins with verse 3. In Afjuna Kartavirya's race there nas 
Ch64a I, who governed the country lying between the Vindhya mountain and the ocean 
(v. 3). His birudas are enumerated in verse 4 and are : ' Mahishmaty-adhipa, Saubliadia, 
Birttdafikarudra, 5 itreya-gotra Ga^davenda, Maiiiniya-kshmapali-mriga-vemtakara \ The 
title of ' the lord of Mhishmatl ' seems to be founded only on the fact that he derived ids 
descent from Arjuna Kartavirya. Choda I was married to Mallamba (v. 5). 

TheirsonwasUpndra(\.5), of whom nothing is recorded except that his biruda was 
Ga4ave^<Ja (v. 8), and that his wife was BimMmbika (v. 7), 

Prom her he had a fion, Ch5^A H (v. 7)1 Inverse 8 we are told that he ruled over the 
kingdom which was given to him by his father, the honoured Gaiidave^i^j the ruler of 

1 [I had to make a few alterations 5n this and the next article wad am alone responsible for them. Ed,] 

* See the AnMal Report m SoufhJndtuK Epi v ra,phy for 1900, p. 39, No. 211. 

* See i6,, p. 40, No. 220. 

* See Above, Vol. VII, J. 120. 

1 The d&xtfe MrvdaWa bo*Hte by A riii<xe Virapaar&j^ywlia is i&entioned in a Telugu inscription from tbe 
Bftme I)haTnSa*i&g4V'AMe tfcm^l'e at Paitelte&lrfiii*, dated- &afc*-feavat 141 [G], and "by a king Lakkaa^-ChWa 
in aa undated inscription from the same phce. See Annual Report for 1000, p. 39, No. 212 and p. 40, Ko, 222* 



J55 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA, [Voi. XIX". 

MadiiyacieSa. Madhyadeta ia usually taken to be the name of the country lying between the 
Ganga and the Yamuna. It seems impossible, however, that this region should be meant by 
the Madhyadesa of our inscription, because we are told in verse 5 that Choda I ruled over the 
country between the Vindhya mountain and the ocean* For this reason Madhyade^a must 
be taken in a sense different from the usual one. It apparently denotes the region lying 
between the two rivers Gddavari and Krishna, which by its natural condition bears a certain 
resemblance to the country between the Ganga and the Yamuna. In the same meaning 
Jladliyadesa appears to have been used in two other passages, In the Pithapuram pillar inscrip- 
tion of PfithviSvara, dated in Saka-Samvatll08 a l the chiefs of Velana^du claim their origin 
from Indrasena, whose capital is said to have been * Kirtipura in Madhyad&Sa, (a city) that 
T\as the only receptacle of the bliss of the enjoyment of all pleasures (aesha~sukha~8aihbk&gai 
bhayadkly-aika-bh&[ja]naih \ Madhyadee*=bhavat tasya sthanam KlHipuram maJiat (().* Since we 
know that the chiefs of Velanaridu ruled over a tract of the Telugu cauntry, it is highly 
probable that here also Madhyade^a is to be understood as the name of the country between 
the Godavari and the Krishna. This conclusion is corroborated by verse 23 of the same 
inscription. There we read that the king Vedura II won a victory over an unnamed PSg^ya 
king under orders of Vira-Chodia, who conferred upon him, as a reward, one half of Ms crown 
and the Sindhuyugmdntara, * the country between the pair of rivers/ The late Prof. 
Hultzsch was certainly right in identifying the ' pair of rivers ' with the two rivere 
and Godavail. Sindhuyuywanfara t then, would be the same as Madhyade6a. 



The second passage occurs in a verse in Riidrabhatta's commentary on the 

Jatr-agata Tryambakaparvat&ch*eha Godavari sindhunadena yuJctd \ tatr=asti Godatafa-Hadhya- 

lUe ShatkMtak&Khyam* nggamm swamytm |f. The Gddatata-Madhyadeta of this stanza cannot 

be the country between the Ganga and the Yamuna, but must be looked for in the vicinity of the 
Godavari, a s the region included by the Kpish^a and the Godavari. 

In verse 9 we are told that Choda II set about in aid of the harassed SulJSn (suratraya) ol 
Potfuva, vanquished the Emperor ol pilli (Delhi), a*d gave the goddess of victory together 

with twenty-two elephants to the Mag of Utkala (Orissa). 

The ' Sultan of Panduva ' is, apparently, Iliyfis Khwaja Sulian, the first independent ruler 
of Bengal who in 1353 A.D. transferred Ms capital from Gauy to Pandua in the Malda district/ 
and the verse of our inscription refers to the war between him and Flroz Tughlaq, the Empero? 
of Delhi and successor of the well-known Muhamad Tuglalaq. According to Ferishta the campaign 
took place in 1353 AD, which would agree well with the statement of the preeent inscription 
that the grandfather of Choda III, whose date was 1401 A.D., took part in the campaign against 

1 Above, VoL IV, p. 32. " ~ "" ~ """ ' 



* Cod. Sviscr. Bill Bodl.. p. 318* Se^ also above, VoL VI, p. 132, note 5, 

s Tne town of Shatkhe^aka I am unable to identify, 

* TJtere are altogether three places of the name ol Pa^uva, The first is a village in the Godavari dbtri.t 
.^^UouUO^estot^ 

l:;r; : T:T; uld b ; identical wath that piace **** & ^^ ** ^ ^ a SJ2 S 

w 4, rf tUA.f T oa,i Aaauu i*. the Pudency of &[***. Vol. I, p. 39, Mr. Sewell montionB that ^^ 
1-acopper.pIateinienptiondatedin Saka 1056 which records the grant of the rO^^^^ 

\ oL XIX p. 394). For the third place of the name of Pandu a in the Mald ft district, see ,'* p. 392. ' 



No ' 25 -] _ PANCHADHAEALA PILLAR INSCRIPTION. 157 

the Emperor of Delhi. Of the war Ferishta gives the following account in his History of tie 
wse of the Mahomedan Power in India l : - 



year 754 (*.e. 1353 A.D.) the King (Peroze Tughlak, the successor of the well-known 
Mohamed Tughlak) having hunted at Kallanore, caused a palace to be built oa the banks of the 
Soorsutty. In the month of Shuwal, of the same year, he appointed Khan Jeha n to the charge 
of Dehly, and himself marched towards Luknowty, to subdue Hajy Elias, This chief had assumea 
royal honours, and the title of Sums-ood-Deen, and had also occupied with his troops the whole 
of Bengal and Behar, as far as Benares. On the King's arrival in the neighbourhood of Gorukpoor, 
the zemindars of that place made the usaal presents, and were admitted to pay their respects. 
The King then penetrated as far as Bundwa, 3 one of the stations of Hajy Elias; and the latter 
retreated to Yekdulla, whither the King pursued him, and arrived there on the 7th of Rubbee-opl- 
AwuL An action ensued on the same day ; but Hajy Elias having entrenched Ms position 
very strongly reduced the King to the necessity of surrounding him. The blockade continued 
lor twenty days, when, on the 5th of Rubkee-ool-Akhir, Feroze, intending to change his ground, 
and to encamp on the banks of the Ganges, went out to reconnoitre. The enemy, imagining that 
he meditated a retreat, left their works 4 atid drew up in order of battle. On perceiving it was 
the King's intention to attack them, however, they again retreated, but with such precipitation 
and confusion, that 44 elephants and many standards fell into the King's hand. The rainy season 
soon after came on with great violence ; peace was concluded ; and the King returned to Delhy, 
without effecting his effects.'* 

The last remark leaves no doubt that Firoz Tughlaq did not succeed in subduing Iliyas 
KHwaja, which would be quite in harmony with the statement of the present inscription, that 
the Sultan of Pa^duva gained a victory over the Emperor of Delhi. From the inscription 
we may further gather that the Sulta nof Paj^duva was aided by the king of Orissa, an<J 
from the account that Chocja II gave ' the Sri of Victory together with twenty-two elephants 
to the king of Utkaja * it becomes likely that he was a, vaas^l of the ruler of Orissa, or a general 
in his army. 

According to verse 10, the BMmeSa-linga in DaksMrlma, 8 the modern Dracharam i$ 
the Godavari district, fqtjr miles from'Ramachandrapuram, was the idol of king Cho$a II. He 
was married to AttemambS (v. 11). 

The son of Choda II was Bhlma (V. 11), of whom nothing is recorded except that he was 
married to Lakkamba (v. 12). 

His son w$s Choda HI (v. 12), In verse 16 he is said to have protected the princes of the 
great Sha^ko^a. The name of Maha-Shatkflna seems to be identical with K6na-&Ima and Ko$a- 
mai>4ala the local designation of the Godavari Delta. 4 In the Nadupuru grant of Anna-Vein* 
dated in Saka-Samvat 1296, we find the name Konasthala which, according to the late Prof. 
Hultzsch, is the same as Koiia-mandala and K6$a-6Ima, 5 

From the Pithapuram pillar inscription of Mallideva and Manma-Satya IP we know of a 
certain dynasty that ruled over the Koi^a-maijdala. The last of the princes here mentioned 
is M^nma-Satya II, who ruled in Saka-Samvat 1117. Since the dynasty of our inscription has 
no connection with that older dynasty, it seems that in the 13th century a change of dynasties 

1 Translated by John Briggs, Vol, I, p. 448 /. 

* Bundwa undoubtedly 13 *he Paijduva ctf our inscription, Pandua is situated some twenty milea 
from Gaur. 

* With regard to the name of Daksharame, seeHultzsch's remark above, VoL IV, No, 37, note 3, 

*See above, VoL III, p. 287. 

above, YoL III, p. 287, and Vol. IV, p. 84 ; also VoL VII, ^ 75, 
above, Vol. IV, p 83, 



158 EKG&APHLi fittHOA, [Vol. 



tdok place, though 1 the catutfe of it is tmfeaotfr* to ui Pfcthaps it? will fee best to distingtefflh tlte 
new dynasty from the older one by calling it the second Koija dynasty, ltd pedigr-ee according 
to the present inscription would b &s follows : 



MallSmbL 



Upendra 
m, Biinbambika. 



IL 

m. 



Bhima 
xa Lakkamba. 



III 

Saka-Samvat 1325, 

With veise 16 we come to the real purpose of the inscription. We are told (VT. 16, 18 f 20) 
that Chocja HI built a g&pura, and laid out a grove at the eastern entrance of the Dharmalinge- 
fivara temple at Pafichadharala, the modern Paflchadharala in the Vizagapatam district. 

The date of this event is given twice s both times in chronograms. According to v. 18 it took 
place in the Saka year that is unfolded by tho arrows (5), the arms (2), the RSmas 
(3), and the moon (1) ; according to v. 20 in the Sakayear counted by the arrows 
(8), the arms (2), the RSmas (3), and the earth (1), in the year SvabhSnu, in the 
month of Radha, on the 6th day of the bright fortnight, on Friday. This date coire* 
spends to A.D. 1403, April 27, Friday. 



TEXT* 

West Face. 



2 

3 

4 
5 
6 



1 The anuav&ra stands at the beginning of the next line* 
* Metre : Mtilinl, 






15 
16 
17 

18 



20 w. 
21 



No. 25.] PANCHADHABALA PILLAB INSCRIPTION. l-9 

8 
9 

10 

11 ^T^Tft ^WTfall II [^*] 2 'SWB tj^jllT" 

12 

13 



30 srd f^tfrarrat 

31 : i 



I 

35 iwfarf^Plwwfwr u OT 



Read 
Read 

Sargdhara. * Bead 



* 



23 
2i 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 



^ r *k~IQ *** - - *- ^* 10 

33 



. 

t The anvs^ara stands at the beginning of the next line. 
U Iflacctadi, a variety of Olt< usually employed }D Teluga verse.-O, K. K, CS-J 



IrtO 



EP1GRAPHIA INDICA [VOL.XIX. 



36 
37 



38 wif4f33r 

South Face. 



39 
40 

41 

42 scffffifa if [<L*] a t^ 

1-3 

14 

45 ST 

46 

17 5 

4.8 

'19 wtir: fiira^ ^R nw?(: u [u*] 7 

50 
51 



56 
57 



59 

6u 
ci 
<a ft Trafiw: n Us*] 1 " 



The anus, fro. s-taaUft at the bogiuniug of the nest Ime, 
5 Head 



i H, .e for the .tk, ! ^ctro the vowel e u tc, be treated as abort. Tclugu rec o g n, a ,|uwt .- d, J 

The anu tto-a; .-.lauds at the beginning of the next hue. 
' Indw jrS. , SardOaHMdil*. 



No. 25.] PANCHADHABALA PILLAE INSCRIPTION, [..,1 



63 

64* 
65 
66 



67 w**3 im T^rmwwfanP n [u* 

68 



69 >H\syf ^iWl ? Hi fl U 
70 



71 ft 

72 

73 fiw iwifitinfey^gl^ii " [U*J 3 



75 

76 

77 *T: i^r^ ftirtftr 



78 
79 

80 

81 ^ qwdrq, [l^*] 7 ^' t 

82 

83 



83 

86 

87 ^\ii^i<ia^<: ii [**] 

88 

89 

90 



Bead garerr. 

* Va*antatiialc&. * i?tfnn^s?ffT corrected from 

The amwrdra stands at the beginning of the next line. ' rHitt. * Head 



162 EPIGBAPHTA INDICA. [Voi. XIX. 



01 Z 

2 

93 



TRANSLATION. 2 

(Verse 1.) May the Elephant- faced (Ganes'a) increase the splendour of your excellent qualities : 
lie whose playing ball in. the beginning of the creation of the world was the pleasant dwelling-place 
of the gods, while his majesty was praised by Brahman, the water moving in the cavity of 
whoso (G-xnesa's) navel became the garment of the earth. 

(V. 2.) From Vishnu's navel Brahma was born. His son was Marichi. His son was 
Kasyapa, the origin of beings. 3 His son \vas Bhanu (the Sun), whose body consists of the three 
forms. 1 ' His son was Manu, the first king, A jewel among the princes of his race was Arjtina, 
terrible to evil-doers. 

(V. 3.) Born in the race of the glorious king Arjuna-Kartavlrya, in whose prison he (Havana] 
who had uplifted the mountain of Sthanu (Siva) lived long, waiting his time, through the sport 
of the wielder of the disc (Vishrui) hiB realm had been conferred as a boon on the thousand- 
armed one 5 king called Choda, to whom the crests of kings bowed down, ruled with long- 
lasting power the country between the ocean and the Yindhya. 

(V. 4.) On account of the greatness of (hU) fame the kings honoured Mm as * Mahishmaty- 
adhipu ', on account of the sport of (7m) proud arm as c Saubhadra *, for his accomplishment 
as e Birudankarudra *, OQ account of (Ms) self-control as Atr5ya-gotra, on atcount of (his) valour 
as having the biruda ; Gandavenda *, on account of (his) warriors as * Mamniya-kshmapali- 
mrigji-veritakara '. 

(V. 5.) To that king Choda, <aiallSmba bore the honoured Upindra, the origin of fame, 
as Aditi (bore) Upendra (Vishnu). 

(\ T . 6.) While he, in whose shoulder there was no small strength, bore the burden of the 
eatrth descended from his father's arms, the elephants*of the quarters were unceasingly sporting 
with their females and Sesha was a favourite ornament in Siva's hand,* 

. (V. 7.) From that Upendra was born to BimbSmabika the august prince Gh6da, whose 
foot-stool was kissed by the crest-jewels of the hostile princes, vanquished (by him) in sport. 



3 [In some places it has become too literal. -Ed.] 

3 Kaayapa had numerous wives and far this reason a very large and heterogeneous progeny: deities, 
demons., serpents, birds, reptiles, in tiwe, all sorts of animated beings. Henoe he is ealteSd sometimes 
Prajapati ; see V ishnupuraya, traiisl. by Wilson, p. 122 ff, 

* Tt itnurti LS an epithet of the i3un ; c/. HemSdri (Btbl. Ind.) L611.9 ; 823:6 ; 2a. 126.11 ; the rfame dense 
has traijiniaya, in Ruyyaka's A lavtk3raaaroMt?a (Ktiv yam-Ma, No. 35), p. 99. See also Hopkins, The 
of India, p. 44 G/. 

5 1 take the compound ^TOff^fSf*! 1 !^* -s ^asa^T^^W ^ ^: I The Terse refets'to 
leTonds of Bavana's hftiag the Kailasa ou his inarch to attack Iiidra and his capture by Arjuna-iCartavirya j 
but the tnature alluded to in the first pada does not seem to oefcur in other versions of the story, [Tfee -first 
p'sda bcenw to imply that this (i.e. Arju^-Kartav-irya'a) realm had been conferred on him by tfco sport of 
Vishuu as a boon for his ono thousand arms, though h is said to have got Tarioua boons from Dattatreya, 

Tjl _1 "\ 

Bith the elophaata aud Sosha were released from their duties, for Upendra aetfd t8kayN& 



PAKCHADHABALA PILUB INSCRIPTION, 



(V. 8.) Being eatisfied by the king who was great on account of tie kingdom given 
(to htm) by his father, the honoured GaQfrveftja, the ruler of Hadhyadesa, the four castes laughed 
at tlie gift of the celestial tree, 

(V. 9.) But this was an unique (and) wonderful (deed) : having set out to protect the 
harassed army of the Sulfcitt of Pai?4uva, and Jtaving by the strength of (Aw) arm completely 
vanquished the ruler df pllll, that king gave the goddess of victory together with twenty-two 
great elephants to the king of Ut3*a}a, ad the Twfcs to the excellent damsels of the gods." 1 

(V. 10.) King Choda's idol (was) theBMmefe-lingaat BaksMrama, his bathing-place, 
(was) the Gada,* the banks of which were beset, with sacrificial stakes, his pure fame (was} 
complete through the seven sawtanas* and his Sri (was) the distributer of happiness. 

(V. 11.) From, him Attem&mbika bore a son, praised "by the wise, as tie second day of 
the bright fortnight (bears) the moon 4 ; he was called Bhlma by (his) father (because he said to 
himself) : " he will be terrible in battle by (Aw) wrath to (his) enemies n . 

(V, 12.) From king Bhiiiia who had gained victories by (his) arm, Lakkimba (whose 
girdle was set with many gems), the jewel among women, obtained as a son prince Ckdda who 
(was to exhibit) in future without effort the display of fortune, as the heavy earth, whose girdle 
are the oceans, (obtains) the growth of treasures, a happy conjuncture having been effected by 
the five auspicious planets. 

(V. 13.) While this king Chodia displayed the splendour of a rajahamsa praised by the 
world, the surlace of the earth became an ever-blossoming lotus-field (and obtained) perpetual 



(V. 14.) In reasoning, in (fid/illing) religious diities, in helping the people, in destroying; 
the enemies of the country, the four royal sciences, after they have attached themselves to king 
Choqla, at last attain to their real purpose on the earth. 

(V. 15.) Let the law of this king Chotja expand on the earth until (tJie end of) the 1calpa-~(of 
tTii$ king) 9 whose liberality granted more wealth than the miserable ones had asked for, whose 
glory was adorned with virtues, whose companion was SarasvatI, whose beauty was honoured 
by the noble ones, whose splendour, famous through Ms valour, took away the darkness of pride 
in the minds of (his) enemies, 

(V. 16.) To the delight of (god) DharmeSvara in the town of PaficfcadMra (of Dhw* 
mS&vara) renowned in the worlds, the glorious king Gho<Ja, by whom the princes of the great 
SUatkdna-land are protected, had a gdjwra (gate- way) erected at the eastern entrance (of the 
temple)> brilliant by its charms, a new pleasure-hill, as it were, for the damsels in heaven, to 
behold (from there) the charming festivals (in the temple)* 

(V. 17.) In the park of the town where the bread-fruit, the jambila,* the cocoa-nut, 
the plantain, and the mango-trees nursed by him, who bears the name of king Choda, are 
flourishing as if the five wish-giving trees had descended (from heaven) to witness his 
liberality* ______ _ *___ _ 

1 I.e., he killed them. 

2 G5dais an abbreviation of Godavari, </. e.0., Hcmachandra's AbhidhlnachintfaMvi 1084, 
XIII, 35 (antt-ti&ctam), and the verse m Rudrabhatta's commentary on the Patfyflfawwa, quoted above 
a The seven aaintdaaa or tafofatis ate enumerated above, Vol. VJ, p. 119, v, 15. 
* Dvit%y& is ths second day of the bright fortnight. See e.g. Ratnavdi, act II. 



n 

* Jamb&fa i&jambft or the c rose-apple 



T 2 



it>4 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX. 

(V. 18.) This gopura erected by king Ch5<J.a in the aka year that Is unfolded by the arrows 
(5), the arms (2), the Raxnas (3), and the Moon (1), and (for this reason), as it were, in its innate 
strength, (the displaying of which is like that of Kamachandra in whose arms there are arrows), 
shall flourish, together with the park, as long as the moon and the sun will last, 1 

(V, 19.) May this holy Eajarajesvaia, who, always surrounded by five hundred lingo*, 
is dwelling on Mount Nagendra, who by the ancients was formerly called Varasiddhalinga on 
account of his (granting) successes, (but) according to tradition later on DharmeSa on account of 
his being gracious to the faithful Pamela vas, 8 always protect king Choda,. 

(V. 20.) Let this excellent gOpura publicly established together with a grove by the 
glorious king Choda in the Saka-year counted by the arrows (5), the arms (2), the 
Ramas (3), and the earth (1) in the year Svabhanu, in (the month of) RSdha, on the 
sixth bright day, on Friday, endure as long as the moon aad the sun, for the repose of 
Par vat! and Dharmesa. 

(Line 93.) Twenty verses. 



No. 26.-THE PANCHADHAEALA PILLAK INSCRIPTION OF THE EASTERN 

CHALUKYA KING VISVESVARA : 3AKA-SAMYAT 1329. 

BY J. NOBEL, PH.D., BERLIN UNWEBSITY, 

Two inked estampages of this inscription were supplied to me by the late Mr. Venkayya 
through Prof. Ludets* The inscription is engraved on three faces of a pillar ia the Jcalyana* 
ttia^tipa in the DKarmahigeSvara temple at Pa&chadMralaln the Yizagapatam district The 
name of the engraver is DevacMri. 

The characters are Telugu not differing from those of tie pillar inscription of King Choda 
III of the Kona dynasty, dated in Saka-Samvat 1325 which has been published above, 8 The 
following peculiarities, however, may be noted. The remark about the combinations ttha, dd&a 9 
and stha does not hold good for the present inscription, In the former, da and dha, % and a 
could clearly be distinguished, in the latter, they are constantly mixed up. 

The language is Sanskrit verse throughout ; only at the beginning and the end there 
is some prose. In the beginning we have !ri-Vi$veivQr3ya namafy, which is an invocation to 
Siva, the illustrious lord of the universe. At the end comes the passage Hqri'HarfaHirawyagar* 
bhii(e)bhy& namaft which means < adoration to Vishnu, Siva and Brahma *, and is followed by the 
name of the engraver Devachari, written in Telugu as Devaehan-likh'itamu. The style is very 
similar to that of the foregoing inscription, from which one verse (v, 25) h$s been borrowed 
almost verbally. This is not surprising if we bear in mind that the former inscription is but 
four years older than the present. There can be little doubt that both originated from 
the same author. 

1 The "vror&prasara, not found elsewker eat the end of a chronogram, seeraia to have been used on account of 
tlie //es&a; it meaas : development, development of power, power. 

a With regard to the term bhaktavateala 9 c/, Bilhana'a Vifraanankadivaeharitt II, 50, 



\\ 

* Away with mortiJScation, thou ornament of the Chulukya priaces, let cease *he hard austerity, 
'y husband, gracious to the faithful, will bestow an unheard-of favour on you." Of. alio Jfa78^i ! I S8 t 
s Supra pp. 155 ff. 



26 -l PAHCHADHAEALA PILLAB INSCRIPTION. 1^5 

In regard to orthography, it may be stated that after anusvara and ra the doubling of 
consonants, unlike the preceding record, has not often been resorted to. The msarga, further- 
more, is sometimes to be found where it is out oi place (see vv* 19, 22, 25). Taking in view 
that it stands at the end of a verse, and once (v. 19) before a csesura, we may take it as some 
sort of hyphen. 

ilhe proper object of the inscription is to record that the Eastern Gkaltakya king Visves- 
vara erected a marulapa for the Jcalyaya festivals of the god Dharrnesa of Pafichadhftrala in 
^Saka-Samvat 1329, and that he set up an idol of Vishnu in the Upeadravar-agrahara 
built by himself. / 

After an invocation of Ga^SSa (v. 1) the inscription opens with some mythical ancestors 
of the Chalukyas. From Vishnu's navel sprang Brahma ; he had a son Atri, from whose eyea 
the Moon arose. His eldest son was Budha. His son was Puiuravas, and one of his descendants 
was Pandn (v. 2). His son was Arjuna (v, 3), his son Abhimanyu, his son Parikshit, his SJH 
Janamejaya (v. 4). From his race descended Visk^uvardkana (v. 5) with whom we come 
to the historical ancestors of YUveSvara. 

Vishiiuvardhana is said to have practised the life of an ascetic on the Ghalukya mountain 
which I am unable to identify. It is also mentioned in the Korumelli plates of the Eastern 
Ckalukya Maharajadhiraja Rajaraja I Vish^uvardhana 1 and also in a grant of Vira-Choda. 3 

In Vishnuvardhana's race was horn Cliaiukya~BMme6vara [I] 3 (v. 6). "We are told that 
the Siva temple Kumararama, being largely enriched with treasures by this king, was called 
after him Catxaiukya-Bhlmete. This temple is to be found even at the present time at 
Bhlmavaram near Cocanada in the Godavari district. 4 In other inscriptions this town is 
called ChalukyabhlmeSvara-pura, Chalukyabhima-nagarl, or Chalukyabhlma-pura. 5 That in 
former times the temple was named Kumararaina we may gather from some unedited 
inscriptions where the town Bhimapuram is called Kumararama or Skandarama. In the 
Pithapuram pillar inscription of Mallapadeva, dated Saka-Samvat H24, 6 we are told, in 
contradiction to the passage in the present inscription, that Chalukya-Bhima [I] himself 
founded the Siva temple, called after his own name Chalukya-Bhimesvara. But there is no doubt 
that the account of the new inscription corresponds with the real fact, 

From Chalukya-Bhima's race originated king Vimaiaditya,? who is said to have ruled 
over the land lying between the Vindhya mountain and the sea (v. 7). The same is recorded 
of the Kona king Chodia [I] in the Paachadharala pillar inscription (v. 3), noticed above. 
Of course, they were princes who ruled over a small part of that country. 

The son of Vimaladitya was Rajamahendra, called Eajaraja [I] in other inscriptions.* 
After him a town on the Godavari is named Raj amahSndra (v. 8), which is identical with 
the modern Kajahmundry. 9 _ _ _^ 

1 Ind. Ant Vol. XIV, p. 51, L 2$. 

2 South'lndian Inscriptions) Vol. I, p 53, 1. 22. 

8 He is also called DtoMrjuna (Ibid., Vol. I, pp 32, 38, 42). 

* See above, Vol. IV, p. 227. 

* See above, Vol. IV, p. 227. 

* S?w-tn.d to Kundava, the younger s.ter of the [ChOH tujg] B8jto*.-ClJ. md darter -4 
(the [Chola king] Ba^raja [I] of the solar race. See Ind. Ant., VoL XI\ , p. 50 ; Ep. M , \ oL B , p. 30. , \ I, 
p. 350. 



m^5uar a -n a garI,above,Vol.IV,p.323,1.33 ; -ra o. . , .., , p. 58, 

j%p.d JJajamahendra-pattvia, Vol. V, p. 32, v. 4. 



166 EPIGRAPHIA INDIOA. [Vot. 

Rajamahendra's SOB was Kul6ttunga-.Cb.6da (I). In verse 9 we are told, " that lie played 
with his majesty on the summits of the Sandal-Mountain, and against the horrible Pandya ". 
As may be coacluded from the Tamil inscriptions 1 of thia king, the name Malayachala(=Chanda- 
nachala) refers to the territory of the Chera king, generally called Malai-nadu. The modern 
designation of Malaya (or Malakotta) is Malabar. In this country, too, dwelt tie five 
Pandyas. 9 KuISttunga-Choda's victory over the Pandya princes and king Chera is very often 
mentioned in the Tamil inscriptions. In the same verse the king is called Kesarin, an 
abbreviated form' of Kisarivarman or RajakSsarivarman of other inscriptions. 8 

So far we had to deal with princes, already known from other inscriptions. The remaining 
verses introduce new kings. From Kulottunga-Choda's lineage arose Vijaytditya (v. 10), who 
was married to Chandambika (v. 11). His son was Mallapadeva (I) whose liruda 
was Sarvalokakaya (v. 11). His wife was LakshmS (v. 12). From her he got a son, Upendra 
(I) who, as verse 12 seems to hint, bore the two surnames Karavalabhairava and Dharanlvaraha* 
He was married to Gangamba (v. 13). TJpendra's son was MaUapadeva (II) (v. 13), who was 
married to Gh6d5xnbika (v. U). She bore him Upendra (II) whose Uruda was Rajasekhara. 
He is said to have founded the town ChSdamalla in honour of his parents (v. 14). His wife was 
Maliambika (v. 15) and his son was K6ppa with the surname Paragandabhairava (v. 15). He 
was married to Gaigamamba (v. 16). Koppa's son was Upendra (III) who bore the birwta 
Rajanarayana (v. 16). His wife was BimbamM (v. 17). From him originated Manum-Opin- 
dra (IV) (v. 17), to whose praise five verses (17-21) are devoted. He bore the three Mrudas 
Rajasekhara, Sarvajfia, and Samkara (v. 20). His wife was LakkambikS (v. 22). The son of 
Maaum-Opeadra (IV) was ViSveivara, also named Yisvanatha <v. 1), Visvabhumisvara (v. 26), 
V^adharanibhartri (v. 28), Visvanripa (v. 29), and Visvesa (v. 30). The record of hisdeeda 
must be cons^ered the ohiei object of the present inscription. From verse 23 we learn that hia 

Sr?~'*?T^^ 

?r ^', Dhar Tf f * \ Atl8t0rical - fact is reported verae2 *- We " toW that in 
he yea^ which is countedafter the gatis (5), the arms (2), tbe Saktis (3), and the earth 

1), and which iscalled Chitrabhanu (Saka-Samvat 1325), king ViivMvwa ove^me 






^==s^^E^^^^K!i 



\ rl?Sf!f" *?"*** V *> H P. 2, 236. 




No. 26.] 



PANCHADHARALA PILLAR INSCRIPTION. 



167 



The pedigree of the new princes may be xepre&egated thus : 

Vijayaditya 
m. Cfcandambika. 

MallapadSva I. 
xn. 



Upindra I. 
m. Gangamba. 

M-allapadSva II. 
m. Ch54ambika 

Upendra II. 
m. MaUambika. 

-1 
Eoppa 

m. Ga&gamSmba. 

Upindra III. 
m. Bimbamba. 

ManumrOpendra IV. 
m. Lakkambika, 



TEXT. 1 

[Metres : TV. 1 and IT, MaMOMi ^ 6, 23 and 25 to 28 
and 30, IndravaMa ; TT. 4, 5, 8, 14 and 18, Upajati ; TT. 7, 9, 13, 16, 20 and 21, 
10,^4 and 29, Glti ; TT. 11, 15, 19 and 22, Intravajrai and v. 12, 

South Face. 




1 From iak-impresaions. 



* Bend itm^. 



K0ad ^;. 



168 



EPIGRAPH!! INDICA. [Voi, XIX. 



12 lTWf?TITf%: 1 ^ I 
13 



14 $HTRefir?( 1 1 sy M i JTfaWT^KJcl Wl 

15 ^n^fttfl i it 3 w: i ^ i 

16 
17 



18 V9K ^pr. 8 I 8 I 



19 if; ^^^t 4 TTSf^fST 'ehfTrn I 

20 

21 ^m; 5 i 

22 



24 ^W^f^^nf*T pRTKKTWff^R: I ^ I 

25 Mt fi|*J^iit4<Sfl f^cb(lfc4nPc1%iRIT; I 
26 

27 



28 niirar: 



29 iri 13 *rof?r Ttaifti i c i irer gr 

30 
31 
32 
33 
34 



85 ^t^f^crf irlt nif^iTw; f^firsr 



2 Head ^Tlfcf The ofiMvOra staada at the beginning of the next line. 
Read 3*. * Bead ^,j : ^frft. 

Bead o^, f 

Wt . 10 



Read 

stands at the beginning of the next line. 



No. 26.] - PANOHADHARALA PILLAR INSCRIPTION. 



49 
50 
51 
52 



36 
37 

38 
39 
40 



43 
44 
45 

46 



JBusf 

47 

48 



10 



55 fSr ^ ^T'it srrat 

56 

57 

58 
59 

60 



Read B^Tt. 2 Head f^ft, Head 

The anusvara stands afc the beginning of the nest line. 

Bead ^f?4'. 6 Bead ^ 

This *jolfn must be dropped. 

Kead ftq^ijq 5 ti^ t The anusvara stftnds at the beginning of the next line* 

Bad f^7. " w V^ ^^^ tfaum for 

The eznwiara stands at the beginning of the^next line. 

Read <ar. is Bead . 



170 EPIGBAPHIA IKDICA. [To*. 



61 
62 



63 ft 



a 

oo 



66 i 

67 ft l|W*f I IIHt^Ttr Tf 

68 m ^r^NfT^Hl^rl: i ^t ' 

69 

70 

71 
72 

73 

74 



75 ?TT i 

76 < 

77 f% 



78 i i^ it 
79 
80 
81 

82 

S3 



85 

86 f; ^r^*f^;(t) 1 ^ \ 

North Face 

87 ?FW^fe^^ 

88 



1 Bead 

would be a better reading.* Ed*] * Bead 

Read * 7 



s Read iipf^F * * * ^^e owara itands at the beginning of the iwxt line. 

Bead 



o. 26.] 



PlNCEADHARiLA PILLAR INSCRIPTION. 



171 



89 

90 
91 

92 
93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 
99 
300 
301 
102 
103 



I* *( ( *^ 



trfw^: 8 



105 ttra: i ^d 

106 ft^ret^t(^t) 

107 t; I 
108 

109 
110 



[u*] 



TRANSLATION.^ 

Lbe 1. Salutatfon to (Ae) Blessed (firod!) ViSvesvara. 

(Verse L) May He 01 a long time exceedingly advance the progress of the fortune o* kbg 
Vi^vanatlxa (Vi^vesvara), the sun of the race of the GMlukyas, (be) the Elepkantrfaced 
(Ganes^), who combining his mother's (Parvatl's) mirror with the half-moon on hia father'^ 
(Siva's) head is making full, as it were, that disc of the moon. 

(V. 2.) From "Vishnu's navel-lotus originated Brahma whose soil was Atri. From AtrPs 
eyes arose the Moon whose eldest son was Budha. His son (was) PuiuraVas, whose enemies 



i Read 
* Bead 
7 



2 Read 
5 Bead 
s The letter ^f 



* Bead 

6 Rend 
somewhat like tf. f 



were 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Vot. XIX. 

.,_ afflicted and destroyed by (the mere hearing of) the noise of his chariot. When his de- 
scendants had passed away, Pa$du the crest-jewel of kings was born. 

(V 3.) His son was Aqima, the destroyer of his enemies, who pleased Sambhu (biva) by 
striking him with his bow-staff. Which king has been compared with him who received from 
&he Lord (Siva) the Pasupata missile ? 

(V. 4.) His son was Abhimaayu, who had Parlkshit for his son. His son was Jatiamejaya 
who tihone in the world in the Kali age, which was purified by the descendants of the Lunar 



(V. 5.) In his family was born Vishnuvardkana who promoted the (uninterrupted) line of 
the royal family, to whom power was given by (the deities) Durga, Achyuta (Vishnu) and 
others, because they rejoiced over his ascetic life on the Chalukya-mountain. 

(V. 6.) The most excellent prince of the Lunar race was G&alukya-BMme&vara. His 
following of Siva's doctrine purified by his qualification as aKshatriya was famous in the world. 
(Siva here worshipped as) Kumararama-Bhimesvara got, indeed, a new name of Chalukya- 
Bhiinesa (after him), on account of the richea he always bestowed on Him. 

(V. 7.) His descendant Vimaladitya, whose valour was like that of the enemy of Diti'a 
sons (Vishnu), ruled the earth (lying) between the Vindhya mountain and the sea, and dense!/ 
filled up by his fame. 

(7. 8.) His son was king Rajanarendra, (who) on account of (his) glory was called 
Raja-makendra. With his name glitters the lovely town of Rajamahendra on the bank of 
the Gautaxm (Godavari)* 

(V. 9.) His son KulSttiinga-CMcJa, Kesari 1 (Rajakesarivarman), played by means 
of his majesty (i.e., glory) on the summits of the Sandal-mountain (Malaya) and against the 
horrible Pandya. 

(V. 10.) In his family was born a king whose name was Vijayaditya. Because of the lotus- 
like red colour of his finger-nails (Je&raja), he resembled the rising SUJJL who has the redness of 
the lotus which is caused by his rays (karaja). 

(V. 11.) From him Chamdairibika bore king Mallapadeva who was honoured by 
princes and was the refuge of the whole world, because he satisfied men, gods, and his ancestors, 
{Y. 12*) Lakshmf sand king Mallapa's good son, prince Upindra^ attained, when govern*. 
ing the universe (these) two 2 (things) : the state of being ' Karavalabhairava * (i.e., terrible on 
account of his sword) in battles with the enemies, and similarity with * Dharariivaraha ' a in the 
case of his friends. 

(V. 13,) His son king Mallapa, begotten by him on Gamgamba, bore the burden of the 
earth, (otherwise borne) by the elephants, the Tortoise, the mountains, and the Boar* 

(V. 14.) From GhodLaiixbika, and king Mallapa was born the emperor Upindra, the crest- 
jewel of kings. 4 For the gratification of his parents he built as an agrahara the town named 
Chodamalla. 

(V. 15.; Mallambika bore from Upendra king Koppa %lia$ ParagandLabliairava. The 

four royal sciences attained their proper ain* through him whose character was nobl$. 

(V. 1C.) Gamgamazixba boie Upendra from king Koppa. Because of his sustaining 
the (whole) world, he became Rijanarayaiia. 

1 [as a Him,- Jffid.] 

2 dur is used instead oi dvayuin* 

3 The btrvda Dharanlvaraha was borne by ting Visvesvara, as may be concluded from v. 24 
* Probably, Rajasekhara was a birudg, of Upendra. 



No. 26.] PANCHADHABALA PILLAE INSCRIPTION. 173 

J m 

(V, 17.) Bimbaiiaba bore from Upendra king Manum-Opimdra. Wlio in this world 
will equal that scholar, honoured by princes, m the dharma relating to the Kshatiiya-tribe, 
known by "discipline, in charity devoid of corruption, 1 in the knowledge of the Veda and the 
tradition, and in the eternal Siva-doctrine ? 

(V. 18.) The fire which in the worship of Siva performed by Upendra assumed the form of 
many lamps, and which was satisfied by plenty of good vessels with good oil } 2 cared but little 
for the sacrificial offerings of priests. 

(V. 19.) From the fact that the five nectarian substances 8 dropped on the hoods (of Sesha) 
from Siva's head, besprinkled by him (Upendra), it is concluded 3 that the serpent Sesha became 
pure, though he has two tongues (and) carries poison in his mouth, 

(V. 20.) Already in this life Bhava (Siva) gave to king Upendra the state of being Raja- 
Sekhara, Sarvajna and Samkara Upendra who was the receptacle of the condition of assimila- 
tion to the deity. * 

(V. 21.) The famous king Upendia got, by feasts in which there were a hundred o! Siva- 
cUkshas, 6 union with Sambhu (Siva), very difficult to get even by one hundred of Vedic sacrifices. 

(V. 22.) The aon of LakkamMkS, and king Upendra was Vive&vara endowed with all 
the virtues. Through him shone the two excellent families 6 (offal/her andwother), as do the 
|aeavea and the earth through the powerful sun. 

(V. 23.) Because his first ancestor was Sambhu' s (Siva's) crest: ornament (the moon), (because) 
hi* behaviour was in accordance with the three vargas (dharma,> artha, &5wa), (fycau^e) his fame 
was the sandal- ointment of the ten regions, (because) his majestic lustre was a waving light 
(of the ten regions), (because) it was his pleasure to divert himself in the region of knowledge. 
(because) his Uruda was SarvalSkSfaaya can the wise ones adequately praise that Chalukya 
Vi&vesvara ? 

(V. 24.) The army of the Andhras defeated in the region (the town) of SarvasiddM 
(shattered ty means of his complete success), reckoning after the gatis (5), the arms (2), 
the constituents (3), and the earth (1) (considering their resources, th$ strength of their 
arms, and the extent of the place), fled before Dhara^ivaraha (ViSve&vara), the witness being 
(the year catted) Chitrabhanu (when the sun was present as witness), 

(V. 25.) The (god) Rajaraje&vara (in his temple) who formerly, b$ing founded by Kuberawith 
five hundred (subsidiary) tingas, was, on account of the fulfilment of the desires (of the devotees) 
called Varasiddhalinga, by those who know the tradition (and who) later on, on account of 
His affection towards His worshippers, tfye Pa&davaa, was famous as Dharme&a, (this) Sambhu 
(Siva) whose abode is the Nagendra-motrntain prospers through the aid (rendered) to the good, 

(V. 26.) The pious Vi^vabhumJsvara ( ViSvesvara) pfVish^uvardliana's family of the Chalukya 
race has built this magnificent and large mandapa for the iaZj/aua-festivals? of the worshipped^ 

1 1 am not sure if this translation is correct! As for upadana, Apte, in tl\e Prafftwd SansJcrfrEnglith Die - 
twwxry, gives : a gift made for procuring favour or protection, such aa a "bribe. 

2 Suggested meaning : satisfied by the profusion of his great love to very venerable persons. 

3 Milk, curds, ghee, honey, and sugar. 

4 S&rppya is one of the four atatea of mtt&fe : compare Sayujya in the next verse. 

8 The exact meaning of Swadiksha, whiph seems to signify a special ceremony, is unknown to me* Should 
diksha be used m the more general sense : self -devotion (to Siva) ? 

6 In Raghuvam&a VI, 45 Sushena is called foharaMdMbfay&mii^adipam* 

' Here, it seems, we are to suppose some local oult. Kittel in his Kanwda- English Dictionary gives My&not 
**a festival (marriage). It is usual to celebrate the marriage of the god and his consort every year aad thi^ 
annual festival is called kaly&t}8teava. 

s As will appear from verso 16 of the pillar inscription of King Choda III (supra p. 161) which gives 
'IdJb&Za^cMta-^a^W udamcbcMa here 13 uaod ia the MUMS of 'bright 

worshipped % 



174 EPIG&APHIA INDICA; [Vol. XIX. 

Dharmes'vara of the town of Fafiehadharala (of Dhametvara), who year by year is marrying 
(P5rvatl),~t'h& lord whose love (to PSrvatt) has appeared. 

(V. 27.) In the magnificent may4apa, with four sacred halls constructed, as it were, by 
the lord of the mountain (i.e., Himavat), which has celestial ^erhanes and which is- praised by 
the king of kings (Kvb&a, in the other case) and famous on account of its being extolled by 
great men (Indra, in the other ease) (in this may4apa), erected for the My^a-i&asta by king 
YisvesVara, shines (the god) Dharmesvara of the town Panchadhara with Parvatl. 

(V. 28.) King Visva (Yi vSsVara) oi the Chajukya dynasty has erected (this) magnificent ma^ 
$apa as & beautiful abode of the glorious Dharme'sa oi the town of Panchadhara (Paficha- 
dharala) for the celebration of the fcttfyaijja-fesfcival in the Saka year which is counted alter 
nine (9), tie arms (2), the Ramfts (3), and the Moon (1), in the bright half of (the 
month) &icM (Jyeshtha), OH the seventh day, on Sunday. 

(V. 29.) And king Yisva (Yisresvara), the RSyagandagSpala, has erected this magnificent 
(and) large temple with a beautiful hall 1 to the north, (which will endure) until the end of the 
kalpa. 

(V. 30.) King ViSvaa (Yi^vSsTara), the Dharanlvarlha, installed (the image of) Vishnu 
in a shrine is the tlpgndravar-agrahira laid out by himself, (which is) the pleasure-ground 
of the gods who are pleased by the Brahmans' six karmas.* 

(U. 108-109.) Adoration to Hari, Hara and Hiraijyagarbha. Hail ! Hail ! Hail J 

(1. 110.) Engraved by DSvIchSri. 



No. 27.^-A FRAGMENTARY PRATIHARA INSCRIPTION. 
BY D. B. DISKALKAB, RAJKOT. 

The following note is prepared from an impression preserved in the Barton Museum at Bhav- 
nagar. The name of the place where the inscription of which this impression is a copy was found 
has unfortunately not been recorded, nor did aaybody come across the record again. The im- 
pression measures l'-6* in height and the breadth varies from 1' to l'-2*. The stone from 
which the impression was taken must have originally been more than double the size of the 
eatampage. ^About 35 to 40 letters have been completely lost with the latter part of each line 
as the gaps m the verses would show. The concluding portion of the inecription is, however,' 
preserved in the Impression under notice. 

The record b written in characters of about the ninth century A.D., and exhibits certain 
peculiarities which are, found in the, western variety of the Rutila script. Attention may be 
drawn in paxticukr to the forms of the following letters : n* is sometimes made up of two pLs, 

f iST* fL ? ^ d T * T ^ tlier - ItS let Pftrt eoasists * f an P<* ^ ^ a bend 
tie right purt b^g verbal. It can thus be easily mistaken for ma (, in 1. U ). Some- 

tHnes the nght hand vertical line is absent (of . * in L 19). Palatal fe is also snarly sTeu 
todedin woparis, the vertical on the right and the double-looped limb on thelrft The C 
ta of the record is Sanskrit and, except the invocation in the beginning and the names of 
ter as the engraver at the end, the whole of it must have been in verse 



be oS Pt ttff r- 636 ^ * ******* ^ impression its contents cannot 
be known fully. But the following items of information may be noted ; The record opens with 

1 [Xfce test gives *oZem.~~Ed.] 



No. 27.] 



FRAGMENTARY PRATraABA INSCRIPTION. 




an invocation to god Siva. In the following lines S*va seejnsto b. pr#se,d ip 
tiuoro (half male and half female) form. In the eighth Kne-the Lunar race is referred to. la L 9 
a kins of the Western country is mentioned. Line 11 seems to mention a person whom people 
called [Valriha. Next is mentioned the river Riv.a. In 1. 12 is mentioned a king n$med 
Krishnaraja, who was made to retreat hastily to his own country. In 1. 13 some one referred 
to as having gone to heaven after distributing untold wealth to Brahmanas. In 1. 15, some town, 
the name of 'which began with Malava, is mentioned aa.the place where a very charitable man 
named GSgga, whose munificence is described in the following six lines seems to ve died. 
His faithful wife was named Manika. Line 22 records the building of a temple of Vishnu, 
*he enemy of the demoa Madhu. In 1.23 ISvara, the grandfather .of one BtddMdifet, 
mentioned, probably in connection with certain endowments to some temple. A verse in II. 24 
and 25 expresses the benediction for the long life probably of the temple. _ The pofa* was 
composed by gambhuvarman, son of Devavarman. The writer's aame is nussmg. Itw*s 
engraved by the son of DharxnalSlalaka. 

The name [Va]raha contained in the above account is significant and reminds us of Ad> 
varaha ', the tin* of BUoj^va, the famous kbg of th* *** dyoy. If it. 
'meant for the said ruler, as is very likely, the ^^^.^^ 
the king Krisbnaraja mentioned in 1. 12 can safely be identified with the 
Akilavarsiia Krishna II (875-911 A.D.), who was baa conteB^aiy. Ve knxw that the 
Pratiharas and the Eashtrakutas were constantly at war with each other and were alternately 
various. This inscription may be referring to a fight in which Bh6 ]8 deva defeated KpshnarSja, 
for poets usually record victories and not d.efeata of their patron krnga. 



TEXT. 1 



2 



3 *rer 



4, 



. . ft 



[Wt] 



"i Fjom > mWteg pwserred in the-Brton Mnsetim at-BhivnagM. 
* Expreued by 
'Thia symbol un 




176 EPIORAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XIX, 



8 ^|lffljj^ 

9 



13 [%] 



10 trnwt f^frrnra^ 



12 Sl^lJlfwfl^ 4ii{rrfa! 






. . 



15 AHif^d^w^N:^) PU 



N3 



16 [nw*] ircw[*0 i ^rf^fwrf^fM 1 ftrct^u 2 

17 

18 



[wn] ......... 

19 . ^?wr ^r i^r wf^F^ft 5 tftfff IRWT 



20 . m 






so. . 



r (t ) 



Bead o^ t 



A 




ONE-THiRD. 



No. 28 ] AN ODD PLATE OF PARAMARA SIYAKA OF V.S. 102rt. 



23 . . mm ii vstarmwwffl UraTf^aw tfow[: i] 
21 . . 
25 .[it] 



26 ..... QfrraT] .?. f%f<frf u 



No. 28. AN ODD PLATE OF PARAMAKA SIYAKA OF |VIKRAMA-:SAHVAT 10J6. 

BY D. B. DISKALKAR. 

This copper-plate was obtained from a copper-smith of AhinedSbad by some pleader 
of Kaira (m Oujar.lt), who made it over to Muni Jmavijayaji of the Gujarat Puratatt\a Handii 
oi AUmedribad some seven years ago. The latter kindly banded it over to me for publication. 

The plate, which is the second half of a grant, has two holes each measuring J of an 
i ich m diametor at ita top at a distance of 7 inches from each other. They arc meant tot 
the two copper rings holding the two plates together. The rings are missing. All the 
cd<'C3 of the plate arc fashioned into rims to protect the incised portion which is in a good state t 
preservation. It measures l'-l|" in length and 7J" in breadth, and contains ten lines of writins, 
t he last one containing, in about three times larger letters, the sign-manual of Sri-SIyaka 
In the left hand lower corner of the plate is engraved the figure of a Hying Garuda holdmg lu 
his left hand a cobra and having his right hand raised to strike it, as is generally seen m t.io 
<rrd,nts of the Paramara rulers of Malwa. 

The en-raver has done his work m a slovenly way. The letters are not straight but are seen 

inclined totbe left or more often to the right. Their average size is J* "by ?. There are a 

umber of grammatical mistakes even in this small portion of the record. The anus^a is uuny 

sr =s JSSE=S ss= : s,rg as 



recerd is S inskrit. As regards orthography nothing special is to be noted. 

A larger part of the plato, from the first lo to the eighth, is t..km up , by the five custo- 



EPIGBAPHIA ISDIC A. [VW XIX . 



line gives the 15th dty 1 of the dark half oi AAviaa oi the [Vikrama] year 1025 as the 

date of the record, and mentions Kaaa&apaika as the dapaka (or the persoa who caused tbe 
grant to be issued). 

By the loss of the first plate we are deprived of that portioa of the record which contained the 
details of the famity to which Siyaka belonged. There is, bxwrever, no doubt that this Siyafca 
wasthe illustrious Parainara king of Malwu. TheGarugla symbol found in the plates of the 
Paramaras, namely, Vakpati and Bhoja, is found here exactly in the same form, and the 
characters are similar. "We can even say that the Siyaka of out plate is the father of Vakpati 
Muaja, whose two grants of Y.S. 1031 and 1036 have been discovered. The dapaka* more- 
over, in this grant and in the grant of Y.S, 1031 is the same individual We know that Siyaka 
had reigned at least up to the year 1029 of the Vikranxa era, as the poet Dhanapala of Dhara 
says in verse 276 of his Prakjit Dictionary called Pailacckl, that he had composed the work for 
the sake of his sister Sundara in V.S, 1029, -when Manyakheta was looted by the people of 
Malwa. 3 This undoubtedly refers to the statement in the 12th verse of the Udayapur pra&asti 
that Sri-Harsha, (another name of Siyaka), had invaded the dominions and looted the- 
capital of Khottiga. 4 The present grant, being dated in V,S. 1026, is three years earlier than 
that date and twenty-one years later than the Harsola plates, 

A point which requires to be borne in mind here is that the present plate and the Harsola 
plates, which are the earliest known records of the Paramara family of Malwa, were discovered in 
the Ahmedahad district of Gujarat. The H&isola plates show that the property granted by the 
king consisted of the same tract of Gujarat We have, therefore, reason to believe that 
the Paramaras were connected with Gujarat in the early days of thj&ir power* 



TEXT. 5 

wf^tftw^ 



2 *<$>m^x 

3 to 8 [Five imprecatory verses.] 



' * ' ..... ... ----------- -' ............. 'fimm ...... "'- ............... " 

1 It will b$ seen that the tithi is given here as t&elMi of the dark half, wlrch is the amavasya day of the 
tk In the Harsola grants of the same king, which are dated m V.S. 1005, the same ttthj, amava$ya } 
i expressed as the 80th of the dark half as is done aw-a*days. Bteeema, therefore, that both the forms of 
the oj*a%5 day were in use m the mediaval period. Qtt* of tiw fligfety Val^bW grants, for 
ia as m&ny as nine places th^ lift* is *x#i#s8s4 \n the f oneei? way. 



2 The void <%ftfe* has b^en read !?y the editors of Vafcpati's grants of V.S. 1031 and 1036 ( Tnd. Ant., Vol. 
VI, p. 51* and Vol* XIV 4 p. 160) aj toyakt and comhiaed Tvith the preceding worda;il^ as 



'* 

it is to be aoted that fche word d&pa&a found fa these grants and In the grants of V.S, 1005 and in the present 
grant stands for the usual word dttoba and tta word ^^n?T means, as tha grants of \ r *S. J005clexl7 state 
: of ^ e ki^ * B o*h the e^preniooB ape quite separately given there thus ^T^Wt^ SIX 
i: I fTWTOff flfifW fl^^f^tur 1 Th0 word'<|dj?a^a conveys, I think, the same meaning as anothet 

-i i, , -witolookftorfte exwtionof the record) does. See I*d. Ant., Vol XJX 
p* 62 a. *>3, and "\. W , \ LV. p. 189, 



1 1*1 Ait. VoL JXXVI (1907), p. 159, Above, VoL I, ft 235. 

1 From the origioal plate. R fia d vm e 

B * 



AN ODD PLATE OF PAEAMARA SIYAKA OF [VIKRAMA] SAMVAT 1026. 




HlUANAKDA S AST III, 



SCALE FIVE-EJGHTH8, 



SURVEY OF INDIA, CALCUTTA. 



No. 29.] SIX INSCRIPTIONS ^BOM KOLttB AND DEVAGEM. 



9 * * * * ^ ^ 

10 Garuda figure 



No. 29. SIX INSCRIPTIONS PROM KOLUB AND DEVAGERL 

BY LIONEL D, BABKETT. 

Koltir is a village in the Karajgi taluka of the Dhirwar District, about 3 miles nearly 
vest from Karajgi town, in lat* 14 52' and longv ? 6 27', The name is ancient, aad is that given 
to the village in the records here published* On the nedghlwuiing village of DevagSri* 
anciently Devam^eri, I need only refer to Dr. Fleet's remarks in Vol. XI above, p. 1. The 
present series is now published for the first time 1 from ink-impressions which "ft ere prepared 
for Dr. Fleet, and on his lamented death passed into the British Museum* Pour of them 
(2fos. A., C>, D. s <and F.) are from Kolfir ; the rest (B. and E.) are from Devageri, They range 
in date from Saba 967 to the reign of the Yadava Siogha^ia, in the first half of the 18th century 
A.D. 

Kflltltr and Dvag$ri, together with the adjoining town of KulenUr, formed part of the 
manneya or seigniory (something like the modern in&m) of the district known as the BSsavura 
Hundred-and-forty, or Huadred-and-fOrty of B&savtir. In the present records, with the 
sole exception of No. C., this seigniory is mentioned as being under the control of a dynasty of 
nobles who claimed to belong to the JifiiStavahan-SnVaya oz 1 lineage of Jim-atayahana and the 
Khachara-vamsa or Race of the Birds> and bore on their banners the figure of a snuke (A,, 
1. 18. F., 1. 2?) This refers to the legend dramatised in the drat&a N3g&nanda 9 attributed to 
Har^havardhana, and brings them info connection with the SilShara dynasty of the Southern 
Konkau (circa 783-1008 A.D.), with the Northern branch of the same family, with GFoAkadevaj 
who was reigning at Terdal in A.D. 1122, 2 and with the Senavara or-Senamatra family ruling 
in the Kadflr district of Mysore from about the end of the 7th century, 3 all of whom claimed 
the same ancestry. This raises a point of peculiar interest* The N&r/SManda is one of the plays 
which the Chakyar of Travancore are in the habit of acting at religious festivals. 4 At first Bight 
it seems strange that a Buddhist drama should be habitually performed by orthodox Hindus in 
honour of their gods ; but the reason is now apparent* The scene of the N&y&nanda, is laid. 
on the Malaya Mountain, i,e. the Western GKats of Malabat and Travancore ; and its theme is 
indicated by the pedigrees of these three families. Hence either the plot of the drama was 
entirely fictitious, and these pedigrees were concocted on the basis of it ; or else it embodies a 
genuine legend of Malabar or Travancore, which was the source of these pedigrees, either 
directly or through the medium of the tlrftmai The former alternative seems to me to be quite 
untenable. The other alternative fully accounts for tlife facts, both the pedigrees of these 
neighbouring families and the appearance of a Buddhist play in orthodox Hindu festivals, 
Hence I venture to draw the inference that the performance of the Nag&nanda is one of the 
few cases in which a Hindu play is definitively associated With an ancient legend of the place 
where it is enacted. 



1 No. E. is included in the Elliot Collection, on fob 367a. of Vol. i of the Royal Asiatic Society's copy, 

2 See Dyn. Zo*ar. JKrir., pp< 4H9, 443* 450, 523, 5^6, 54S ; J&p. Ind. 3 Vol. XII, p. 252. 
See JSjp. Car. f VI. Cm, 61, 62, 75, 76, 94, 95, Kp. 3*3. 

* See Pandit Gauapati Saatri's preface to Vol. slii of tbe Trwandrttm Sanskrit Series 

: 2 A 2 



ISO EPIGEAPHIA INDICIA. [Vox.. 

A. KOLUS IJTSCEIPTIOlSr OP THE BEICHST OP SOMESVABA I s SAKA 067. * 

This is from a slab found in Kalfir ; but I can find no record of its site or other details^ 
The inscribed area is 2 ft, If in. wide and 4 ft. 10 J in, high. The character is good Kanareso 
of the period ; the letters in the upper lines are about f in, high, the rest about f in. The 
cursive m (above, Vol. XII, p. 335) appears in ma|>*]0aZa (1. 45). The language is Old 
Kanarese prose, except in the two Sanskrit verses on 11. 41-44. The I does not appear ; its 
place is taken by I. Initial p is preserved. The spelling -scheda^um for -teTihedamurh (1. 39) 
is interesting : cf. Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar, 227a, and Wackernagel, AUindische 
Grammati'k, I, p. 154. 

The record opens by referring itself to the reign of Trailokyamalla-deva (Some^rara I) 
iu 11. 1-4. Under him a certain functionary ivith the title of Rajagurudeva, of the KSdamba 
lineage, was governing the twelve towns "which were administered for the benefit of the temple 
of IndreSvara at Baiikapiira (11. 4-13) ; he is described as the < guardian of the Konkan ' 
(L 11), and much is said about his piety, valour, learning, and other merits. Next is intro- 
duced Kaliyammarasa, of the Jimutavahana lineage and the K&achara race, who was adminis- 
teiingthe manneya of the Hundredand-forty of Bssavtir (11. 14-23). He was a Jain by 
religion, the tutelary goddess of his family was Padmavatl, and their banner bore the device 
of a serpent. He is also termed P&yiga-dallalam, * a trouble to psyiga/ apparently some 
potentate whom he had defeated (L J21). Then follow the details of the endowment (11, 23-34), 
by which Bajagurudeva granted some land to the temple ol Kalidgygsvam at Kfllnr, and 
Kaliyaiamarasa assigned thirty houses to defray the cost of perpetual lamps in it. The writer 
of the record was Basavayya, and the sculptor Bammoja. 

The date is given on 11, 26-27 as : Saka 967, the cyclic year Parthiva; P&u&jfrsuddha 
5, Sunday; the uttarayana-samkranti. This is irregular. The given tithi corresponded to 
Monday, 16 December, AJX 1045 ; it ended ^t 12 h, 41 m. after mean sunrise on that day, 
and began 13 h. 1 in. after mean sunrise on the preceding Sunday. The uttarayana-samkr&nti 
occurred 23 h, 55 m, after mean sunrise on Monday, 23 December, *a week after the given 



The places mentioned are : Rocjcja (L 8), Bankgpura (11. 13, 27), the Hundred-and- 
forty of Basavtir (L 22), Koltr (L 28), Karage (1. 30), ilakere (L 30), the Varade river 
(1. 31), and the ttrthas (11. 36, 37, 39), On Bocldfc see above, Vol. VIII, p, 135n. Bankapnra 
is the modern Bai&apfir (see above, Vol. XIII, p. 168), On Basavtir and Kslnr see above, 
^Kfilur was one of twelve towns administered for the benefit of the temple of IndrSsvara at 
Bankapura. Karage may possibly be the modern town of Karajgi, which gives its name to the 
taluka, and lies in lat. 14 52' and long. 75 SO'. The Varade river must be the stream called 
" Verda " on the Bombay Survey map : Kdlur lies on its southern bank, and it flows thence 
westwards to the north of DevagSri and'J then turns southwards. There is a village 
k * Yardi " (so the Bombay Survey) on its bank in lat. 14 47' and long. 75 2*0', 



TEXT. 3 

[The metres are as follows : verse 1, S&lfai ; verse 2, 
I ^ Svasti samasta-bhuvan-a^raya Sii*Pri(Pri)thvl.vallabha maharaja$hiraja(ja) para 8 * 
2 mSsva(STa)ra parama-bhattarakam Saty Ssraya-kula-tilakanx ChSlnky-abharanam 

1 I have again to acknowledge my obligation to the late Mr, K, SeweU, who with his nsual kindness cliecke<J 
ay calculations for the dates in this series. 

2 From the ink-impression. 

* The engraver began this word with the ayllable dM t and then corrected it 



2So. 29.] SIX INSCRIPTIONS FEOM KOLUE AND DEVAGERI. 1S1 

5 grim a jjfc*] - Trai|5kya malla-devar sakha- [samjkamta^vinsdadim ra jyam-geyyu- 
4 tfcam*4re [] Svasti yama-iiiyama-svadhyaya-dliyaiia-dliaraiaa-pran-a- 

6 yama-praty ah&ra-japa-samadlii-sampaimar^lsvararp [a*] da-kamala 

6 b1iri(bliri)mga sahas-5fctumganaSrita-]ana-kalpa-vri(vri)kslia sa(sa)ran-agata-&iirak& T na 

7 midicl=ante marppam knre kurppam pratipannarKfiruv*Skariiga-vlrari*Asaiid]ia(nda)* 



8 Vir-avataraih Tlra-oliudamanl gStra-cHntamani Bo4E4 t ]^-^ a i Y;ral ^ Sai(Sai)va- 

prakaraiii sa(fia)ra- 

9 pariparinata 3 Bisamka-vairi-vri(vri)mdaka 3 -sa(^a)i'a-saiidl3iaiia "b&^a-fiikslia-gupa Kaii- 

ynga- 

I DrOiiacliaryya sarvva-sa(sa)stra-sa(sa)stra-visaradaiii n5rScha-Parasu(Sii)rama 

giri-durgga-bhattxja(ja)-' 

II n-Aihjaneya trailOkya-ramjanam kataka-mabklsam 4 Zomisna-raksMlaia 

Jad amb-anvay a*^ 

12 samuddliarana-nam-adi-samastaprasa(sa)st>saliitam srimat Rajaguriide?ar 

13 Baml^a;puradIiid[r : *]evara 5 -deTargga]va panner^um badamam siikiLadin*aluttain. 



ire 



14 Svasti samasfca-yasumatltala-kslia^ ta " 

15 iidliu^ana-kamal[i*]nl-ra]alianisa(sa) vidYa[]*]-]ana^inddam gsstyhl-nnodam Padma- 



1 6 ra-prasada raja-vidya-pariLya^a mUrtti-Narayanaiip. samyakt[v*]a-chft- 

1 7 dlamam bhri(biiri)tya-cliintamaiii pratapa-marttanda pagevarrga^da din- 

axiatlia-ja- 

18 na-8anta[r*]ppit^naiia-dana paBB.aga,dliva3a-vl(vi)ra]amaiia vidagdha-mngdM- 

19 vto[a*]ingaaii-inrEf-bMiAma clialad-amka.Rava(ma) Ji(Ji)na-pada-pamkaia-mja[L*]- 

20 punija-pimjarita-gatra par-&mgana-putra sakala-gn^a-ga^ttiimga 

21 ma^ana simga jita-Tairi-spbnxkula Dayiga-dallalam nam^ady-a(a)Tika.[na*]m^. 

22 lamkritam-sametanappa srimat-KaHi(U)yamma^asa3n BIsavuram(ra)-nti- 

23 rarnsivattw ma m e-1dii*7 Svasti 

Bvadiiyaya-dhyaTia- 

24 dhtoaua-mfl(nuw). -an . 

35 ta-dliarmma-chittarum-appa tomat VamarSsKsD-dSvaxa iBhyarappa 

26 rjjmxa-toadagge' svasji Sa<Sa)ka.varflh a 867neya 



- 

27 pamctaml Adiyara uttarayapa-samkrantiyandu Bamkapu ra d^ndr6 S va(va) 




I havelered the .pellh,, W~ l - Sri tt he c 

C..1. 8. Ontb6othoihand,theHottarin 8 criptiouof c. WaagaB (LU),1 

|t is possible that "both forma were in use, 






isa 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL, XIX. 



28 dflva[r*]gg^Jva pannera^um badada baliya Kolura KalideveSvara-devargge 

29 fetlmat BajagtirndSvara dhar[8*]-ptovvakadim sarvva-namasyam**- 

30 ge bitta Karageya bafcteyini teiiika Alake?eyimd=ftrajiinaram l 

31 pa4ttval bitta ere mattar-emtt(mt)u degulada k5de(de)yim paduva Varade- 

32 ya tojeyim temkal bitta kisu mattar*era4u antu mattar pattu [|*] 

33 Manneya Kaliyammarasarii nandi-divigege bitta parisfitrada manegal 

34 mtvattu san^a-badha-pariharam*Int=i dharmmamaiiii pratipalisuvar [||*] 
36 1 dhaimfnam^rh pratipSlisid-atagem 2 vijayasr!yum bal-aymii 8,^- ^ 

36 gy-abMviddkiyumm s iittar-5ttai'ain=akku [1*] matta[rii*] Kuruksh^tra VSranasi 

37 Prayage Arggliyatlrtt]iameinba ma(ma)lia-tlrtth.agamlol 4 s5sira kavlleya kodu[m*] 

ko]aguiaaiii 

38 pamckvratnadoi-katfcisl mi(ma)bft-braliinawrgge tibhayamnklii gott-a phalam*akku 

[1*] Idanali- 

39 dh(d)-atamge rOgam daridratram santati-geh$daTnurii 5 

kavileynm ksti 

40 brg&manarnm ek-k6tii-tap5dlianarumarii konda 

41 S&mauy^yaiii dlia[r*]Binia-sefcu[r*]*3inplnaiii kale kal5 p&Ioniya bliavadbliUi [I*] 

42 saiTvan=t&m(n) ch^gina 7 parttMvtadr6(ndrSn) I>lmy5 

Ramablmdrali [|| 1*] 

43 Svardatt[a*]m para-datt[a*]m va y5 liarSti(ta) vasundai^a 8 [!*] 



44 miskthayaib 10 jayats krimi 11 [||* 2*] Bareda s&nabova Basavayya besa-ge- 

45 yda Bam[m*]6ja [|*] Ma[m*]gala 



(Lines 1-4.) Hail ! Wteti the asylum of the whole world, favourite of Fortune and Earth, 
great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of SatyaSraya's race, embellishment 
of the C&IJukyas, king Trai|5kyamaHa, was reigning with enjoyment of pleasant couvei*sa 
taons : 

(li. 4-13.) Hail ! When he who observes the major and minor disciplines, scriptural 
Btmdy, meditation, spiritual concentration, suppression of breath, retraction of senses, prayer, and 
absorption, who is a bee to Igvara's lotus-feet, possessing all titles of honour snch as " lofty in 
courage, a tree of desire to dependents, a good guardian to seekers of his protection, an 
opponent (?) according to the word, 13 returning love for love, a MSru in exaltation, a warrior of 
{he body-gTOfd, valiant as Amnda [Vishnu], an incarnation of Vlra [Vlrabhadra], a crest- 
jewel of warriors, a wishing-gem to his gttra, a theme of praise to Bod4&, a palace 13 for Saivas, 
skilled m (the urn of) amwa, stringing arrows against troops of fearless foes, a master to teach 
archery, a Dr53?ichaiyB of the Kali age, accomplished in all weapons and books of instruction, a 
Pawiurimawitii arrows, an ABjanSya (Hantttnan) in shattering monntam-faataesae*, delighting 
the three worlds, great lord of the camp (?), guardian of the Ko&kan, reafdfer of the Kadamba 
word ii corrnpiu ^'"" L " ~~~" - . 



^ .. 

Ailing see Whey's Sanskrit Grammar, 227a, and Wacianagel, Jlf lllA Q rm I, p. 154, 

8** 

. i. Bead 



2Ho. 29f] SIX INSCRIPTIONS FEOM KOLUR AND DEYAGERL 185 

lineage," tke illustrious Kajagiirudeva, was liappily governing tlie twelve towns administered 
for {the benefit o/) the god Indr&svara of Bankspiara : 

(LI. 14-33.) Hail! While he who is sprang from the lineage of JlmHtavShaiia famed 
o*er the whole earth, possessing many titles of distinction such as * a royal swan in the lotus- 
lake of his kin, delighting in learned men, delighting in social circles, receiving the grace of 
boons from {the goddess) PadmavatI, versed in the science of kings, an incarnate Ngrlyana, a 
crest-jewel of goodliness, a wishing- jewel to servants, a sun of magnificence, a man of might 
to foes, satisfying by abundant gifts the miserable and forlorn, brilliant with the Serpent- 
banner, delighting the mind of witty and modest courtesans, a Rama in the characteristic of 
constancy, having his limbs yellowed by the mass of pollen in the lotuses of the Jinas 9 feet, a son 
to other men's wives, exalted by the series of all virtues, a lion of his uncle, conqueror of a 
multitude of enemies, a trouble to Dyig% the illustrious Kaliyammarasa, was ruling 
the seigniory of the Htmdred-and-fortjr of Basavur 1 : 

(LI. 23-26.) Hail ! to Mallikarjuiia-Bhatta (?), disciple of Vsmarlsi-deva, who is 
versed in the major and minor disciplines, scriptural study, meditation, spiritual concentration, 
and observance of the vuw of silence, who practises prayer and absorption, and is constantly 
inspired by godliness, 

(LI. 26-27.) Hail ! on Sunday, the fifth day of the bright fortnight of Paushya in the 
oyelic year Partthiva, the 907th (year) of tlie Saka era, at the uttarayana-sarhkranti,-"" 

(LL 27-34.) For (the "benefit of) the god KalidevgSvara of Xolftr, {one of the towns) 
included in the twelve towns administered for {the benefit of) the god Indresvara of BankSpura, 
the illustrious BSjagurudeva with pouring of wetter granted on sarva-namasya tenure, eight 
wattar of black-loam land north of the road of Karage, west . . . from the Alakere ; (and 
also) he granted two mattar of red land west of the wall (?) of the temple, south of the river 
of Varade : altogether ten mattar. The seignior Kalijraminarasa granted for the perpetual 
lamps thirty houses in the precinct, immune from all conflicting claims. So they shall protect 
this pious endowment. 

(LL 35-40 ; a prose formula of the usual type.) 

(Verses 1-2 : two common Sanskrit formulee.) 

(LI. 44-45.) The town-clerk Basavayya wrote (the record). BammSja executed (the 
order). Happiness ! 

B. DEVAQERI INSCBIPTION O!F THE REIG-BTS OF SOMBSVABA II AHD 
SOMESVABA HI: SAKA 097 AHD 1050. 

This record was found on a stone at DSvageri. ; but I have no information as to its site or 
character. The inscribed area is about 3 ft, 2| in. high and 3 ft. 6| in. wide* It contains 
two documents, in different hands, of which the second is imperfect at the end. The character 
is Kanarese ; the letters vary in height from | in. to f in. The cursive m (above, Vol. XII, 
p. 335) is used in sampannar (1. 9), dharwtmam (1. 27), Jcamma (L 28), madtam (1. 28) ; the palatal 
n appears in pancha- (11. 4, 6), The language is Old Kanarese, except for the introductory 
Sanskrit verse. The archaic I occurs in iUu (11. 11, 15, 23), galde (1. 28), anil wrongly in kafchi 
(L 13) ; elsewhere it is changed to ?. Initial p is preserved, except in hattakk* (L 17), and Halamft 
(1. 29). The word Jcottayurh on L 20 (if I have read it aright) is singular. On mattalu (L 28) 
of* above, Vol. XIII, p. 168, and Up. Own, TIL i. Sk. 8, 61, 70, 71, 322, HI. 7, 11, etc. Some 
words are of lexical interest, viz. k&sata (1. 16), malave (11. 16, 17), kechchan^appa (ib.) 

and iltwgfd (L 17). _ 

1 There, seeuaa to 1m something lost here ; seo above, 



184 EPIGEAPHIA INDIOA. [VoL XIX . 

The first document, after referring itself to the reign of Bhuvanaikaxnalli-deva, i.e. 
Somesvara II (1.3), mentions the General Udayaditya a Mahas&tnant&lMpati. high 
minister, commissioner for lien and for peace and war, and steward of the household as ad- 
ministering at the time the Bmwase Twelve-thousand (1L 4-5), while the 3fa/ws'i?/wita 
KaliyammaraBa 9 of the Jlmutwatiana lineage and Khactiara racej styled * a lion for Baja- 
ditya ' (apparently one of his family to whom he had rendered military services), 1 was govern- 
ing the rtianneya of the Blsavura Hundred-and-forty (11. 5-8). The details of the grant 
then follow (11. 8-21), according to which Vermamayya, a general, minister, and controller of 
the pQTJjunka taxes, together with the controllers of the two lilJcode taxes, assigned the proceeds 
of a toll on produce carried in a certain area to the temple of Kankalevara 2 at Devagori, the 
trustee being Gangarasi-Pan4ita. 

The second document opens by referring itself to the ninth year of the reign of Bhtiloka- 
malli, i.e. Somesvara III, and introduces another Kaliyammarasa, a kinsman of the Kaliyam- 
marasa mentioned above, perhaps Ms grandson, as governing the same seigniory (11. 21-23), A 
verse (11. 23-25) states that this dignitary, who is here named KUiga, made a gift of land to the 
same temple ; and the details of this donation, of which the trustee was Mallikarjima~Pan4ita, 
are given in 11, 25-28. This is followed by a record of a donation by some merchants, of which 
only the beginning remains. 

The date of the first record is given on 11. 11-12 as Saka 997, the cyclic year Bakshasa \ 
Paushya-.mtW/i& 14 ; Sunday ; the uttar&yana-saihhanti; the y5ga vyatip&ta. In those details 
the only error is in the week-day. The given tithi corresponded to Thursday, 24 December, 
A.B. 1075, when it ended about 3 h. 12 m. after mean sunrise. The uttar&yana-Baihkranti took 
place on the same day at 18 h. 10 m. after mean sunrise, the following Friday being reckoned 
as Makara. 

The second record is dated on 11. 21-22 as: the 9fch year of Bhfilakamalla (i.e. Saka 1056 
expired), Ananda; Paushya-SttdWTta 11; Monday; the iittarayana-samkranti ; the lyatipata, 
This is irregular. The quoted tithi corresponded to Saturda c /, 29 December, A.D. 1134, on 
which day it ended about Ih. 37 m. after mean sunrise. On the other hand, the uttarMjatya* 
snmkr&nti occurred according to the Arya-siddhanta 28 m. after mean sunrise on Tuesday, 25 
December. Mr, Sewell lias pointed out to me that by the Brahma-si cldlianta the sanhkraiiti took 
place on Monday, 24 December, at 1 h. 20 m. after mean sunrise, the current tithi for that day 
being Paushya Su. 7. Apparently then the record has mixed up two distinct dates, namely 
Paushya Su. 11 (Saturday) and the saMrSnti on Paushya su. 7 (Monday). 

The chief places mentioned are : the BlsavHra Hundrei-and-f orty, 1. S, or the Hundred- 
and-forty of B&savtir, 1. 22; Devaihgeri, 11. 14-15 ; Palavtir, 1. 15 ; EleyarTammuge, 1. 15 ; 
Birade, 1. 1C ; Bedabslu, 1. 27 ; Martileyanakere, 1. 27 ; Oliiniiicjagere, 11. 27-28 ; and Araker, 
I 28. On Basayar, DgFamgeri, and Barade s see above* The other pUees I am unable to 
identify, 

TEXT. 3 

[The metres are : verse 1, Anushtulh ; verse 2, Utpalamfila.'] 

1 [TSTa]mas*tT3 [mjga-si(si)ra^chumbita 4 -cha[m]dra-cliamara-charave [||*] tmlokyam(kya)- 

nagar-arambba-mula-stambhaya Sa(Sa)iixbhav || [1*] 

2 fSva]sti samasta-bhuran-asraya SrI-Pri(Pri)thvi-vallabha matarajadhiraia parame 

svaram parama-bhattarakam Satyasraya-kula~tilaka[m] Chaluky-a- 

i [Ordinarily it may al-o imply that he was a lion to (1.0. vanquished) Kajaditya. The previous plate has 
wk-fiwa simga (1. 21). Ed.] 

i 1b;s name is spelt on 1. 14 Eamka}&9ar& 9 onl. 24 JTaMMnrMan, nudon 1. 28 f. 
3 om the ink -impression, * Read - rh> 



No, 29.] SIX INSCRIPTIONS FEOM KOLUB AND DEVAGEB1, 183 

3 bharariam srlmat Bhuvaaaikamalla-dSva-jaya^ 

pravarddhamanam=a-clmmdr-arkka-taimm-*bararii saiuttam=ire [I*] 

4 [Ta]t-pada"p&dm~Qpajivi s^madhigata-pancha-iiialia-sa[lDda-ma]lia-samantadliipafL 

maha-praclia$da-da$danayaka makapradhanaiii heri-sa- 
6 [iidlu]-vig* i alii mane-varggacte dandanayakan-TJdayadityaih BanaYSse-pannircIi- 

ehliasiramiiman^aJutt^ire [|*J Svasti samadhiga- 
6 [ta]-panclia-iiiab.a-sabda-mahasamantam vijaya-lakshml-k&ntain samasta-YasuBiatltaia^ 



7 [tarn] baridliii-]ana-kamalml'r3,ja-hamsa(sa) KhacMra 2 ~vaiiig-ddbliavam PadmSvatl- 

iabdlia-vara-prasadam tyagA-vinOdam Bajldityaiiasimga srlmat 

8 Kaliy ammarasaih B isavUra-ntfa-HSilvattar kkam mann [e*] yamam sukhadinaras a - 

riJtlUftj. 

geyyuttam=lre \{jy Syasti samasta-rajya- 

9 bhara-nirtpita-maliamatya-padaTl-virajaraana man-6iiBata prabliu*mamt 

traya-s&mpaBnar*appa srimad-dand a- 

10 [n]ayakaiii perjjumkada V^nnamayyaibgaluiii ^rlmat-bilkode(de)ya 

mayyaiiuih Chik3ta-Ketayyaimiii antil perjjuiiikav=eradn 

11 [b]ilkode(<Je)yavaTum4lda Sa(Sa)ka-var^ha 997neya Eaksliasa-satiivatsarada 

Pansliya-sti(u)ddha 14 Adityavaram=uttarayaiia- 

12 sariikrSntiyrL[m*] vyatlpatamum kc?4idandu Svasti yama-niyama-svadliyaya-dliyana- 



1 3 paray a^a- japa-samadhi-sampannarappa Siimat Gam gar Ssi(si)-p anclitar& kalam 
kalcM(rclichi) -jdLara-piirvvakani m^- 

14 <Ji Bevamgeriya Karhkalesvara-devargge dhnpa--dlpa-nivedyakke bitta dharmmam^ 

ent=endadle [i*] Sriinat vad<Ja-ravn}ada perggade Be- 

15 cha3ryamim*ildu Dgvamg&riyaluih Palavuraluiii Eleya-Tariim3i(amiii)uge modal=agt 

m-ar*tira talada bhandadolam padinvalu Ma&nn(ari9)a- 

16 lyiiya po}e madalu Tammugeya Kalla-vole inodal=agi Baradeyiin temka pOpa 

bhan^^ke kasatada malave irppaitakk=ondu kechcliaii^a- 

17 ppa ntla pasina bii^igeya malave muvattakk-ondu pattiya malave ayvattakk 

ondu clavasada pgu iiattakkoii(lara siiriikamu- 

18 mam vadda-ravnlam pei*jjniiaka eradum bilkode((Je)ya sumkava[m*J pratlpalisuvar 

[||*] 1(1) dbarmmaVam pratipalisidjavar Prayage Ba* 

19 ^tarasi KuruksliStram Arggtyatlrttbadolam sash*vYar Vda-*p^ragarlge sasira 

kavileya kftdum kojagiimaiii pamclia-ratnadol=ka- 

20 t^isi ko^tayum plialav=akku [!*] 1(1) dharmtnavam pratipllisadaVaiii sasirwar vgcla- 

paragammam safiira 41 kavileyumam konda 

21 pamclia-malia-patakan=akkiim Sfasti gr!macli-Clialkya 5 -Bhaj,Qka[malla*]* 

varShada 



22 

Bssavtoa 

8*3 d=arasu-gey[y*]uttaTnildu || 8r-lgvaran*appa 

tanage mSdisI ko- 



1 Apparently what was intended was ancwa$6pannirchchM8iraman t 

* Possibly -JTAacActrrt- ; the first vowel is. not $u5te eleari * Read -o 

* tfndet th r is written A, * Read 

2s 



ISO EPIGK1PHIA IND1CA (Y. XIX. 



24 nrhi 

s\ a tam*=8g'e kottftnftkhil-flrvvar ba- 

|| [2*] Svasti yaraarni(m)pi]Qj^i^^ 



iff* sila-gnna-wiiiippftimftp^appa faix&aif* MaHikSrjjTina-pd^itapa kilam kaarehcfci 

pfirv \akuih mntji Iri- 

27 ttn clharmmfiin-eint^eihdade | BetJabSla bt$eyiria tezhka "| 

mtida ere inaitaru uulku | Qaiiau- 

28 dagerrya padova^a deseyalu bitta kisu mattalu 

1/ittii guide kainma 50 [||*] Mattam Kamkai^- 
^ [bMi,m-il35\a[rJige [r 3 parisfijtrada samlpaclalu Kisuva HalamS 



TBAWSLATIOIT. 

(Torse 1.) Homage to Snmblin, beauteous with the yak-tail fan, that is the moon, kissing 
lofty ht-.nl, tlio foiuidatioii-i'olumu for tho building of the city of the three worlds. 

(Line* 2-3) While the victorious reign of hail ! the asylum of the whole world, 
favonrito of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of 
Satyasriya's race, emMlinlimeiit of the ChSjukyas, king Bfcuvanaikamalla, was advancing in 
a conms of successively inn-easing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon,. sun, and stars: 

(ljl.4-5.) While one \\lio finds Kustenanee at his lotus-feet, the MaUsHmantSdhipati 
who luis obtained the fivo great (/) sounds, gi-eat august General, High Minister, commi- 
sionei' for affaira of fcpi/, peace, and war, steward of the household, the General TTdftyiditya, 
wiih ru ling the B imvSse Twelve-thousand : 

(LI. 5-8.) While-bail ! tht> UahatSmintn who has obtained the five great (murical) 
sounds, beloved of the ^ loss of vietoiy, scion of the lineage of JimHtavSliana famed over the 
whole earth, a royal 8au to the lotiw-pool-his kindred, born of the Khadhara j-ace, receiving 
(.he gnwe of boons from (/k- ^?A- W ) radmavatl, taking delight in liberality, a Ijon for 
BSjaditya, tlio illustr.ous Kaliyainmarasa, was governing happily the seigniory of EMavura 
Hundred-ana-forty : * 

(Ll.S-lt) He who is eminent in the office of high minister appointed for the adminis- 
tmtum ,.i the whole kmgdom, , sa lf e d in dignity, poking the three powers of lordship, 
.-.mnwl and entorpi-uso. the General Vennamayya (0* mtnlkr) of the perjjuMa taxes and 
mg a varm a yyaa 1 idCMkk a -Ket ay ya(</,,, owf ^Zc,v)ofthe UZfa^ taxes, that i, to say', the 
jonh-ol , o tlio ^fc, and of the two Wfa*., in ,oncert, on Sunday, the 14th of the bright 
f,rtn, .1 l I^hm , n the cyclic year Eakshasa, the ^n (,,<,,) of the-Saka era, coincid- 
^^^^ a "'l th -^^- 4 ^g '-d the feet d 



(1,1. 14-18) With the connumnoe of Bee* Wa , coBtrcJIer of the 

, n ( Itl Mrto fti le .coHli s lost. 



,.. of H, so,, of K ,ev,T aM ; !^ iSS" md - W?Wi A. c^e of the* 



SIX INSCRIPTIONS FBOM KQI/UR A<ND DEVAGERl. 



carried soilth of Barade beginning with the river of Ma^n&ndi on the west andthe-Kalla-river of 
Tstonnuge on tiie eastr * viz., one malwve upon every -twenty of kasata, one malave upon every 
thirty of blwige of 1 red'(?) 1 'iliread, one malave upon every fifty of cotton*pods, one 'load upon 
<eVety ten of grain, '(as) a'toll-df-the vaddaviivula, tlie perjjunka, and the two bilkades. 

(Li. 18-21 : a prose formula of the usual type.) 

(LI. 21-23,) Hail! At the nttaraya^-samkra^U on Monday, the llth of the bright 
fortnight of Paushya in the cyclic year Jbmnda, the etfc (year) of t}i6 CMlukya-Blmlo- 
kamalla era, in the vyatlpat, while the 'Mahdsamanta Kalj,yaa3imarasa was governing the 
seigniory of tlie Hundred- and-Yorty of Bisavur : 

(Verse 2.) This prince K&l^ga, of the lineage of the Kfceckara family, a lord of fortune, 
having caused to be performed fotf idmself the Makesvara consecration, bestowed in perpetuity, 
with the approval of the whole earth, good land for the great glory of KaokacSsvara, the lord of 
all gods of gods, arid for 1 his worship with oblations. 

(Li. 25-28.) 'Hail ! Having laved the feet of MallilsSritLna^Panditai who has the merit 
of practising the major and minor disciplines, scriptural study, meditation, spiritual concentra- 
tion, observance 6f silence^ prayer, and absorption, he granted with pouring of water a pious 
endowment, as follows : four mattar of black-loam land south of the road of Bedabalu, east of 
Maruleya's Tank; two mattal(r) of red land he -granted on the west of the Chimudagere; 50 
kamma of paddy-field he granted bel&w the \Amkeje. 

[Translation of the latter parti of 1. 28 and 1. 29 is omitted here, apparently because the 
*sense is not complete. As they stand, we might render them thus irFnrther, to the god 
Kaihkalesvaradeva, Kisuva Halama*se$ivala and Kalidgva-setti ..... in the vicinity 
of the enclosure. Ed,] 

0. EOLITH INSCRIPTION Qtf THE 4TH YEAB OE VIKEAMADITYA VI. 

This record was found on a fragment of a slab in the temple of Dhavajesvara at KSlftr, 
concerning which I have found no further details* The, upper half is v^y, , imperfectly pre* 
served. The maximum height of the inscribed area is about 3 ft. ; the width is 2 ft. 3 in. The 
character is a fair Kanarese of the period, the letters* varyig in height from f in. to f in. The 
cursive m (above, Vol. XII, p. 335) occurs in [pajntefra-wa/icS , 1. 9, ma[jidse']nadipat'i ) L 11, 
and palama , 1. 28. The language, except for the concluding Sansb.it verse, is Ojld 
Kanarese. The initial p is changed to /& only in haMyfy L 25. The jarcliaic I is preserved in 
ildu 11. 17-18, and is written irregularly in ka,rkhi> for karchchi, L 21 ; elsewhere it l?.as been 
replaced -by 1. The words khenik&ra, L 17, binige, L 24, kechchay&*appa, L 24, &nd malave, 
11. 24-25, are of some lexical interest, 

The record, so far as it is preserved, begins by referring itself to a time when $rai|.6kya*- 
malla-deva was reigning over the iMa}.ambaYSc3Li .TJxirty^two t Thousand and the <jnt>}ige 
Thousand (11. 1-6). This is probably Jayasimha III^ the younger brother of , Yifaam&tlitya 
VI, on whom see Dyn. Kanar, Distr^ p* .453. Then^ aftei? a mutilated reference to some religi- 
ous dignitai % y who was administering the demesnes of tke god Inclresvara of Bankgpura (of. 
above, A., 11 12-13), we learn that at the same time a mcwneya,, probably the ;BSpavpra Bten- 
dred-and-forty, was under the government of a Mdhas&manta wliose nn,me is lostj bilt was 
probably Kaliyammarasa (11. 6-10), while tke; General .fiaUdevayya, a devotee of the Jain 
church, was ruling the Banavfise Twolv0-thaasand and contfolinig th^ kil~vatt0 section of the 
vad^a-ravula taxes (1L 10-13), the General ->Batoittfcdevaarasa, was .controlling the pvrjjtinka 
and the two bilkode taxes of the Banavase Twelves-thousand (11. 13-15}, the. <p$rga$& 
also a pious Jain, was kliMmMrra of'the-^a^a-rfffw/a (1L 15-18), and,PaSi,-<3-$uy:u$L$a. 
Q-Svuncia were serving as gdvundas of Kolur (1. 18). Next comes the date (11, 18^20), { followed 



Possibly >ket'hckans*app<* is counected with ArecAcAa^ ^eduess'j l>ui it- ctftj *Ki&fti*y be connected r,::h 
in the sense of * warp ', 



188 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA, [VOL. XIX. 

by details of an endowment for the temple of the god Gramrara the " Tillage Lord", of 
which the trustee was a certain Kazm.adch&rya 9 and under which a toll identical in its rates 
with that specified in B. 3 11. 16*17, was to be levied on certain produce of the soil in KoISr and 
Aggalajflr under the provisions of the above-mentioned four taxes, and applied for the benefit of 
the temple (1L 20-26). 

The date is given on 11. 18-20 as : the 4th year of the Chalukya-Vikrama era, SiddhSrtha ; 
Paushya am&v&sej Sunday ; the uttarftyana-sam'kranti ; the vyatty&ta ; an eclipse of the sun* 
This again is somewhat irregular, The given tithi corresponded to Thursday, 26 December, 
A.D. 1079, ending about 3 h. 7 m. after mean sunrise. The uttarayanasamkr%nti occurred 19 h. 
after mean sunrise on the preceding Tuesday, i,<?, at 1 a,m, on Wednesday,, 25 December, 
which was hence reckoned as 1 Makara. The eclipse of the aim actually took place on Thurs- 
(Ufcjr, 26 December, as stated ; see Indian Calendar, p, 122, 

The following place-names occur : the Nolajnbav$4i Thirty-two- thousands 11. 4*5 ; the 
Ssntalige Thousand, i 5 ; Baftkspttra, I, 8 ; the Banavase Twelve-thousand, 11, 12, 14 ; Kolftr, 
11, 18, 22 ; AggalajHr, 1. 22 f . ; Earage, L 23 ; the ttrtAas, 1L 26, 27, 29. Nolambavadi lay 
somewhere about Bellaiy. Santalige was in the west of Mysore or thereabouts (J)yn, Kana?. 
Bistr., p. 306, n, 5). On Baiikapura see Vol. XIII, p, 168 ; on Karage, see above. 

TEXT- 1 

[The metre of verse 1 is Anmlitubli,"\ 

1 ......... .................. Pa]- 

2 [ra]n-agata-rakshama[^i] . . ! ....... ,,.,,,.,,. 

3 , . gajagarajam .................... 

4 . 8rlma[t*]-Trail5kyamaEaver s Nola[jfcbavSdi-mliva]- 

5 [ttijrchcha^iramumaiix Santa|igo-[sssiramu3* 

6 main suklm-saihkatha-vinodadiiii r[ajyam-geyyuttamire || Svasti yama-niyama- 

dhyana]- 

7 dharana-m5(mau)n-anuBhthSna-japa-samadhi ...... , ....... 

8 Bainks;purad==liiidre^vara-devarggalra Gorava(P) ...... [samadhigata]* 

9 [pa]mcha-mahasa(Sa)bda-mahasaniantam srimate ..... [Bssavuxa-tmya- 

nslva]- 

10 [ttara] manneyad=arasu-geyyut[t*]am=ire || Svasti .......... 

11 ma[has$]nidi(dln)pati maha*prachaiiida-dam<Janayaka 

ga [daih<jla] 

12 [n]ayaka Baladivayyaiii[ga*]|ti Banavase-pannirehchssiramiimain 

13 [da ?] kll-vat^eya fiumkaman*anubhavisuttam=ire j| . Srima^-dan^anayaka Betti- 

[mayyam P]- 

1* gala magam Bammadevarasaru Banavase-pannirehehasirada perjjumkamum 
era4Ti[in bi]- 

15 Ikcdeya sumkamananubhavisuttam*ire || Bvaati ^amasta-guna-saiixpanna nudid* 

am- 

16 t*ennam stijan-aiyka-mitm g5tra-pavitra 5irita-jana-kalpa-vri(vp)ksha bandhu-jana* 

chintamani Po 

17 ttiya simga Jina-charanakamala-btii(bliji)mga folmatt* va44a-i^vQlada 



^ 
18 Jdu |1 8rimatu-K5lu(]u)ra Dasa-gSvuntJanujii BSja-gSvu^ainiiii 



19 Vikrama-varsha 4neya Sidh(d)dhSrttha-saihvatsarada Paushyadamavase Adityava- 

ramuttar[&]- 



No. 29,] SIX INSCRIPTIONS FROM KOLUE AND DEVAGERL 189 



20 yana-samkranti vyatipata su(t)ryja-grahaiiadandu GramSsvara-devargge dhupa-dlpa- 

21 nivedyakke Kannacjaoharyyara kalam kai'lchi dhrfrpfiiTvakam5gi bitta dharm- 

mam*ent=enda [cle] 

22 Vadda-ravula perjjumka eradurii bilkode antum(ntu) nilkuiii suiiikadalum=aqi 



23 jfira Karageya tala*bhan4ainu[m* ?] a yeradum polege barppadda-vatteya 

kliasa- 

24 fada malave irppattakkcndu kechchan*appa nula pasina biidgeya malave 

25 rnHvattakk=ondu hattiya malave ayvattakk^ondu dava&ada peru i[r*]ppa- 

26 ttakk=ondu [|j*] Int=i dharmmamam pratipalisidavaru Varanasi Gu(Ku)rukshetra 

27 Prayageya(yo)l=sayira kavileya k<5cium kolagumam pamclia-ratnadolu katti- 

28 sl(si) veda-paragar=appa sasirvvaru bratmanargge malia-dSnaiii-gotta pa(plia)]am= 

akku || 

29 1 dharmmaman^alidarii Vaiiarasi Kurukshetradol sasira kavileyum sasira* bra- 

30 limanaran=alida pamclia-malia-patakan=akku || Sva-datt[a*]m para-da tt [a* Jm va 

y<5 liareti(ta) vasu- 

31 ndharam shasb.tIii(slitirri)-Yarslia-saliasranaiii(Bi) mi(vi)&htliayaiii jayate krimi 1 II 

[1*3(9 

D. KOLUE IFSCEIPTION OP THE 10TH YEAB OP VIZEAMABITTA VI 

This mutilated fragment is from a stone found at Kslnr, regarding which. I have no details 
It contains only the right-hand half of the record. Its heightjs about 3 ft. 5| ii. ,* its width at 
1. 1 is 12| in., and at I 3$ (the la^t line) 17| in. The character is fair Kanarese of the period 
and the letters vary between T 9 F in, and f in. The language is Old Kanarese, except in the 
formal Sanskrit verses on 11. 24-2^. The I is used irregularly in kamala and saJcala (1. 5), an( j 
in negaldalu (JL 14); elsewhere it is replaced by 1. We find the archaic participle 
sidwhge (1. 27) in a formula beside the later form alidammge (1, 29). 

The record refers itself iii 11. 1-3 to the reign of TribliuvaEamaEa-deva, i.e. 
VI, and then mentions in 11, 3-7 Bsjagurudeva (compare above, inscr. A.) as 
twelve towns, probably those comprised in the diocese of Indresvara, of B^nkspura, x 
appears again Kaliyammarasa, who figures in inscription B, (11, 8 and 22), as governing the 
inanneya of BSsavura. After the date (11 1243) begins a series of karida verses in praise of 
Basava and Ketamalla and their family, though of the latter only one name is preserved, m 
that of their grandmother (P) Baganabbe (1, 14). To judge from the words 0(Au)raya- 
kula-tilakam on 1. 13, this family also belonged to the Jlmttavahana lineage. One or both 
of these men held the office of gavundu in Kslfir (1. 18), and won the favour of Kaliyamarasa 
(1. 19), who was pleased because Basava risked his life (literally, < gave his head ') in his service 
and accordingly made a religious endowment (11. 19-22). The document was drafted bv 
Malapayya, the teacher of KStamalla, and was engraved by Ksjdja (11. 31-32). 

The date is given in 11. 1243 as the 10th year of the Chalukya-Vikrama era 
Krfldhana, Thursday, the month and fortnight being lost. The year KrOdhana corresponded 
to AD. 1085.6. 

The only decipherable plaae-names are: the Bssavura Hundred-and- forty (1 11). 

K5}tir (1. 18) ; and the tirthat (L 27). ' ' 



1 Bead 



180 



INDICA. 



TEXT. 1 

[The metres are as follow : verses 1-7, Kanda ; verses 8-9, Anushtulh.'] 

1 [Srasli samasta-bknTan-asraya Bn-Ppthvi-vallabha maharjajadhiraja 

parama- 

2 [bhaprakam Satyasraya-kuia- tilakaiii Chajuky-abliara^a] m srlma [t* J -Tribhu ?aaa- 

malia-devaru sujdta- 

3 [samkatha-vinddadim rajjam-geyynttam^ire | Svasti yama-nframa-fivjadbyaya-dhyana 



4 [shtbfaa] . , 
dkarmma-lata- 
5 , . , . va-kama]a(la)-iitartta?ijariitiai 

sakala(la)- 

6 sara^viratarnih cbaritra-Bira%arnm 

srlma- 
? vimdarumappa ESjagurudSvaru 

badainam 
8 

yijaj^a- 
9 [lakshml-kanta] Jimttavahan-anvaya-prasfita 

bandliu-jana- 

10 [kamalinl-raja-bamsa] [Padto]avati(tl)*labd]ia-vara;-pi'asada tyaga-vinOda 

biruda- 

11 [manneya-mada-nivara9a(?)] , , * rlmat 

Basa-vura-ntira-nalva- 

varsliaiii ICneya Krodha- 

13 [na-saiiivatsara] ..... [Br]i(Bri)liasspativarad=aiLdu 

prabku Vi(V"!)r-a- 

14 [vatEra] [r] uba-Ificliane nega]dal>(iw) dbarmiyo} 

Baganabbe , 

bh avana-bha [ vaiia}- jaiia-y inutam 



16 ; ' sMa-nirasa || [2*] Ata gltege 

do [t]e 

^ yasa(ga)rjjaniyisidarnniti-vidarrhl Basava- 

B3tatoa[l]la- 

15 '**** ^3*3 r*=KoltiroJ. gavu^n-geydu sukliadim- 



19 * * * * * ^am meclicM Kaliyam[m*]arasain dayeyi II fi* 

Enage tale-go- 

i>A Fff"| -I -T^. 

fc UVJ * / " ' n*emdu Kaliyam[m*]arasaih manamosed 

eradttm keiiya mane- 

21 itta II [5*1 



B - - - tale-gotti(tta)n=udagra-balam 
From tbe ink-impression. ~ ""^ ^~" - '""- - 



No. 29.] 



SIX INSCRIPTIONS F.ROM KOLUS AND BBVAGBEI. 




26 



27 [V6t ] '[9'] 



tappade prat,p*.dog. 



ant=a tlrtthadol sasi- 

80 [ra.kavileyu]m sasira-M^masarum sto-divya-tapOdhanarumaM 
31 [takam=akkr l ] || KetamaUauaB^disida upadtjayam Majapayyaih bareda 



bm- 



32 [yda] . . - aiyamojana magam 
E-DETAGBBI INSCRIPTION OP THE 48TH YEAE OF VIKEAMADITTA VI. 



TribhuvaTiasingi-Pan4ita (11. 23-29). Alter iormui u < , . . 



only small fragments of nine lines survive. 



lf2 EPIGEAPHIA IND1CA. [Vot,. XIX, 

mean sunrise, i.e., at 9.15 p.31. on the previous Saturday, so it actually took place before the quoted 
f'tftii began , "but ilae day to which it \\as attached, viss. from mean sunrise on Saturday to mean 
Minri^e on Sunday, "was still current when the titfw commenced, and hence the two Jates might 
legitimately be eonnected. Mr Sev\ell informs me that according to the Brahma-milk fiat a the 
u^Gra^ana-samkranii occurred on Friday, 23 December, a date which could not possibly be 
connected with the given tithi. 

The only place-names mentioned are : the Banavase Twelve-thousand (1. 12), the * Six- 
hundred consisting of the two Bejvalas ', i.e, Belvala and Puligeje (11. 12-13), the Basavura 
Hundred-and-forty (1. 20), Devageri (L 25), Marayagere (1, 26), and the tlrthas (L 30). 

TEXT. 1 

[The metres are: Terse 1, AiMskluVh ; verse 2, Salint] verse 3, Sardulavi"kndita^ 

1 [Nainas*inmga]-fi [i]raS-chlimbi-chamdra-cliamararcharav5 [ | *] frail [o] kya- 

2 nagar-arariiblaa-rsinla-stanibLaya Saiiibhav^ [|| P] ^^ Maihga[Ja] 

$ (> Srasti samasta-bhuvan*aiiuyam Srl-Pri(Pfi)thvl-[va]- 

i Habha mahSrajadhiraja paramesvara para- 

5 mabhattarakani Sat^asraya-kula-tijakam Chalti- 

r> ky-abharanam srlma[t*]-Tribiauvanamalla-devara vija* 

7 ya-rajyamsuttai^0ttaj>abhivri(vri)ddhi-pravarddhamn- 

S iiam*a*chamdr-Srkka-trarii"baraiii 8aluttam=sire 

9 Q/ Tat-pada-padm-apajivi Q/ Svasti samadhigata*pamcha- 

llj maha-Sabda-mahasamamtadhipati tnahapra- 

11 eha^da-dandanayakam mane-verggadey^fsvarajrya- 

12 dandanayaka[ni*] BanaYase-panmrcIicIiliasirarttuineih Belvala- 

13 v^rad-STUtttoumam snkha-samkatLa-vinadadimd-=aIuttam-ire 

14 Svasti samadigada 2 -parhcha-mahasabda-mahas a mamtaiii viiava- 

15 lakshmi-kamtam sama3ta-vasmatitala a -khyata-JImt3tavahan-[a*]"- 

16 nvaya-prasiltam bandhu-jana-kamalmi-raja-hamsaiii Kliaohara-va[ritl* 
1 7 fi-ftttamsam Padma?atl4abdha-vara*prasadam tyaga-vinffdarii b[i]- 

IS mda-fflainieya'inada-n!(ni)vrana-nata-adi*samasta- 

1ft pra^(sa)sti-sahitcVsrltQan-mahasa:mamtam Herintoldiyarasa- 

20 ru BasaTttpa-ntea-nslvattara, tnanneyad=arasu-geyyuita- 

21 m-irddu Chajukya-Vikrama-varfihada 4endya Hava-samva- 

22 tsarada PauAya-Suddha pu^nami idivarada[iii*]ct-tittaraya- 
ii3 na-Ramkr5*nti vyatlpatadalu Hermmidiya- 

24 rasun makesvara-diksheyatii kay-kondu grirna[t*]-Tribhuvane- 

25 sv-ara-derara niTedyakk[e} Devageriya hol^vei-ejim teriika \Lv 
20 myagereTim ba^aga toma[t*]-Trlbhuvanaslmgl.pBlhdltara ka- 
27 lam ka^chi dhSrS-pttirvakam madi dsvaigge bit fa yere ma- 
25 ttar-aydu alii Bhaiiwa-dfirargge yere mattaroriidii 

2i- amu mattfir=aru ['j*] Yl dharmmamam pratipalisi- 
20 darargge VSnufa(m)nJfii Kurukshetra 

kolagu- 




1 From ftbe iniiinpression. 
3 Itead - 



No. 29.] SIX INSCRIPTION'S FROM KOLUR AND DEYAGERL 193 

32 mam pamcha-ratnadalu khachiyisi chatur-vveda-piragarappa 

S3 sa[hasra*] brahmanargg=ubhayamukhigotta phalam=akku [|*] Yl dha- 

34 rmmamamn(n)=ar=orvvaralidaralidaYargge VHranasi Ku- 

35 rukshetra Prayagey=Arggiiyatirtt]iadalsayira kavile- 

36 yumam sasirvva[r*] bnihmanarumanalida pamoi.a-mah.a-pa* 

37 takan*akku ^) Samanyd=yam setu-dharmma 1 nri(nri)panam kal 

38 kale palanlyO bhavadbhih [|*J sarvvan*etam(n) bhag(v)ina[h*] partthi- 

39 [v]emdrO(ndran) bhuyff bhtiyd yachatS Bamabhadra[h || 2*] Q) 

40 [Ksh] Ir- ambhadhi-taiiujegam Vanaruha kshamgam mano-ragadi [m*] 

41 [Kamam(?) pu]fc[fc]uva volw Viyaciicliara-kiila-praclil-^ag-arkkam [mw]- 
4,2 [ ]m Lachchaladevigam Kaliyam-Orvvlpalakam- 

43 [gam w jmapati putfcidam nri(nfi)pa-Tarani Hrmm5(J.i-^u- 

44 [ w || 3*] ..,* prasata-nri(npi)-pu.tra- 

kar*armmige (?)^ 

TRANSLATION, 

(Verse 1 : identical with verse 1 of inscription B.) 
(Line 2.) Happiness ! 

(LL 3-8.) While the victorious reign of Kail ! the asylum of the whole world, 
favourite of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of 
Satyssraya's race, embellishment of the CM|nkyas f king Tjribliuvanamalla, was advancing 
in a course of successively rnqreasmg pr<jtsperity t (to endure) as long a$ moon, sun, and stars ; 

(LI. 9-13.) WKile one who finds sustenance a& Ms lotus-feet, hail! tie Mab&s* 
m&nt&dhipati who has obtained the five great musical sounds, great augu$t General, steward of 
the household, the General Kvarayya, was governing the BaxtavS&fc Twelve*tlioiisaiid and the 
Six- hundred consisting of the two Beival?s 3 with enjoyment of pleasant conversations : 

(LI, 14-21.) Hail ! the Mahas&manta, who has obtained the frve great musical sounds 
possessing all titles of honour such as " beloved of the Goddess of Victory, scion of the lineage 
of Jmmtavahana famed over the whole earth, a royal swan to the lotus-pool his kindred, chaplei 
of the Khachara race, receiving the grace of boons from (the goddess) Padmavatl, delighting 
in bounty, repressing the arrogance of titled seigniors," the Mah&samanta HermScJiyarasa, was 
ruling as seignior the Bssavura Hundred-and-f orty : 

(LL 21-29.) On S imday, the full-moon of the bright fortnight of Paushya in the cyclic 
year Plava, the 46th (year) of the Chalukya-"Vikrama(am) on the uttarayana-samkranti, in 
the vyattp&ta (y5ga), HermS^&rasa,, having performed the Mahesvara consecration, for the 
oblations of the god Tribhuvangsvara, assigned, with laving of the feet of Tribtmvanasingi- 
Paiicjita and pouring of water for the benefit of the god, five mattar of black-loam land south of 
the dry-land bounds of D^vaggri (and) north of Marayagej-e, (and) in the same place, for the 
benefit of the god Bhairava, one mattar of black-loam land, thus (moMng aUogQthtit) six mattar. 

(LI, 29-37 : a prose formula of the usual type.) 
(V. 2 : a common Sanskrit verse.) 

1 Bead dharmma-setur*. 

1 Nine more lines of writing are visible, "btifc very few woyds on them are legible. 

8 Xhat is, theJBeivala Tliree-linndred and the Puligqp Thr0e-]iiwdre<i ; see^above. Vol. XIJ1, p, 178. 



194 EPIGEAPBIA INDIOA. [Vol. SIX* 

(V, 3.) As to tfee daughter of the Milk-Ocean (Lakshml) and to the Lotus-eyed (Vishnu) 
of their souls' lore was bom [Kama] aSuuon the eastern mountain of the Viyaehchara* 
race ... to Lachchaladevi and to king Kaliyama was born a lord ... the excellent 
king Hermma(li the [ruler] of the earth. 

P.-KOLTTB UrSOHEPTION' OF THE EEIQ-lf OP SINGHANA. 

This is written on a slab found in the temple of Marta$4a-d$va or Holapa at KdlQr, The 
inscribed area is about 2 ft, 10 in. high and 1 ft, 9| in. wide, lines 1-5 occupying a com- 
partment about 4 in, high, and the rest of the inscription being about 2 ft. 6 in. high. 
The character is a rather "irregular ELanarese of the period; the letters generally vary in height 
from f in. to f in. The cursive m occurs about 24 times, the cursive v about 27 times, The 
language, except in the second verse, which is Sanskrit, is Kanarese, a mixture of the ancient 
and the medieval dialects. The upadhmamya appears wrongly in Pq&pa 9 1. 16 ; Z i* not found. 
Initial p has become h in Huligere, 1. 13, hamneradu, 1. 33, Mtv> (Mtiu ?), i 33, beside pafava 
1. 35, padedath and padeda, 1. 40. The first verse is of some lesical interest. 

The record refers itself in 11. 6-8 to the reign of Simgajadeva, i.e. the Yadava Singhana 
(circa A.D. 1210-46), who here bears the chief of the Chalukyan titles, together with thosa 
ol a Naraya^a of kings 1 and ' majestic Emperor r (cf. Dyn. Kanar. Distr^ p. 523), It then 
mentions the high minister Vanknva-Bavuta, with various titles, as governing the Bejvala 
Three-hundred, the Huligere Three-hundred, and the BanavSse Twelve-thousand (11. 9-14), 
while Kegava-Nayaka was administering the Hraidred-and-forty of Basav^r (11. 14-23), and 
the MaMniandalefaara, Itallidevarasa, of the JlmHtavShana lineage and Khachara family, 
was governing the manneya of the same Hnndred-aM-forty (1L 24-30) ; and under the auspices 
or this Mallidevarasa the representatives of Devageri made a grant to the sanctuary of the 
Kshtrapala of Kclur (11. 30 ff,). The change in the status of MalK-dgvaiusa's family is note- 
worthy. He bears the title of MahcHmandalehara^ and is said to be 'reigning in the chieftain- 
ship of the manneya ' (arasu-r&jyath-geyyuttam), whereas his ancestors were only Mahftsftmantas 
and were described as ' exercising the chieftaiaship ' (araw-g&yyuttam). But on the other 
hand, the previous records make no mention of a government of the Basavtr Hundred-and-forty 
distinct from that of the manneya> and it would, therefore, seem that in earlier times the former 
was included in the general administration of the whole province, and that later a special com- 
missioner was appointed for it, perhaps as a counterpoise to the rising power of the Lord of the 
manneya. The distinction between the two administrations is not clear. 

The place-names mentioned are : the Bel^vala Three-hundred (11. 12-13) ; the Htiligef e 
Three-hundred (1. 13) ; the BanavSse Twelve-thousand (1. 13) ; the Hundred-ond-forty 
of Basavtr (11. 22, 28) ; Devamgiri (I 31) ; K5pr (1. 33) ; Karage (1. 35 ; see above on 
inscr. A.) 5 MSvina-chavu<Ja-karve (1. 36) ; and M4ugeye (1. 37). 

TEXT. 2 

[The metres are as follows: verse 1, TaraZa 8 ; verse 2, Anushfa&h veisQ 3* 
apparently a Tripadi.] 

1 ) Nosala kamn^ kuclu-da^e tsk-vale pSvu kayya kapajftmum [mi}- 

2 supa balw niri-gfl^a kerix-jecje kalaWtta T)a(kala)lgalini [I*] misuni-jammapa* 

dg(v> 

1 A poetical synonym for K&achara* 

3 From the ink-impression* * See 7&gavarma'ft Zamt^a CAa*kam> <&* EiU.^ p. 69, L 186* 

Bead mi$uni~fiaqnada (or - 



No. 29.] SIX INSCRIPTIONS FEOM KOLUE AND DEVA&ERL 195 

3 trarnam pi4idaksiia*Bttradlia(d,) mUeyua^d^eseva gejjeyi Bh$(B1mi)ravam namag* 

Igai(ge) [be> 

4 Ipa varamgalam || [1*] ;NaBms*ttuiiga-si^ 

trailQkya s ~nagar- [i*]ram- 

5 bha-mulastabavasabave 3 [| [2*] 

6 Q} Svasti samastarprasa(ia)stiHsaliitani Srl-tjitvivalabliam 4 maMrajSdi(dld)* 

rSjam 

7 paramesvaram paramabliatitiSrakam Raya-N&rayana pratapa-cliakravartti 

8 frl-Simgala-dSvaru sukha-samkatM-vinodadim rajyam-geyyuttam*ire |] 
& @ Svasti srlmaii-maliapradliaiiam aarb-adhikari maha-pasayitam 

10 baliattara-my5g-adMpatiy=ankardhS&(d)S-adhipati 



11 yOga-YOgamdharam pati-kaJTya-dhiiramdliaram Bi(m)ti-0]i?a(9a)kyam sY&mi-vani- 

12 cliakara-gamdam Sara^-agata-vajra-pamjaraniim^appa Variatuva-BSvtitarti B0- 
1 8 belTivala 5 -munti]ni Huligegpe-mu^Sru Banavase-pamiiralioliasiramani 

14 suklia-samkatlia-viix6dadinid==alTittam*ire [j f Svasti samasta-prasasti-sa- 

15 Htaih rimamii(Q)-ina]iSpradlianam Dvija-ktila-l^i^ala-M[a*]rttamdam kSmini-mand- 

16 nayana-Puhipiiakodhamdaiium 6 gara^-agata-Tajra-pamiaranum yu- 
1? dhi dik-ku[m*]jaraatLm yativiama 7 -]aay-ara4a(4^)-P^ u 4^(4ba 

sva- 

18 mi-bliakta-HajLuma[m*]iaiiTii3d satya-Saucli-&cliaiu-charitranTim Bhara- 

19 dliva(dva)ja-g^tra-paYitranum sakala-saHtya-Yidliy(dy)-ady-a(a)Beka-astra- 

20 paranana 8 murfcti-Narayai^ann [m*] vairi-jsdna-natlia-jiY-Deholia- 

21 tana-mamtra-sidhdli(ddh)anum sakala-l(5k-e(ai)ka-prasidlidli(ddli)aiLTim yity-adh-y* 

aneka-gu- 

22 ^a-gai?.-5lanikritaniLm 9 appa Kesava-na(nSya)kam Basavtlra ntfa- 

23 nalvattumam dushtia-BigraTia-si(^i)8]ita-pratIpa}an-a(S) gi 10 a(a)luttam*irdhdu(rddn) 



24 ^f^y Svasti [j|*] 




25 han-anvayath (ya)-prasftta[aii*] bamdhu-jana-kamalinl-ra ja-tamsam Padma- 

26 vati(ti)4abdha-vara-prasdaih B3iacliara*vams-5tta[m*]sajh tyaga-vinodarii 

27 mamneya-bSmtekai-am sarppa-dhvaja-'Sobliitam mavana gamdha-varai^am 

28 Srlman-maliamamdal^svaraia Malli-dSvarasaru Blsavflra n'ufa-BiS- 

29 Ivattumarii sukha^samkatM-vmodadim mamiieyadarasu-T5- 

30 jyam-geyyuttam*ire || Tatw-pida-padm*5[pa*]jlvigalu || firlmatw-sama* 

31 sta-guna-sampamnar*ap[p*]a Bevaihggriya sayira parivaram 

32 14 aruvatt-u(o)kkalurh Maaana-gavurkcJ.a Icha-gavumcja mnkiyayada 

33 taifaneradu Mt[t*]u saMta bitta dharmma Kolura KsKetrap5ltih- 



Eead 

The Id has been omitted, and added in smaller script. 

Bead -miila-stamibhdya SdMhave. 4 Bead - 

The second be is superfluous. * Bead - 

Bead ativishama*. 8 Bead parayo,fkanum* 

Bead it^ddy'aneka'ffuna'ffan-alaMritanu^ lo Bead -r^tajnwarf*^ or 

3A2 



196 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX 

34* ge ramga"l)liOga-nivgdya(dya)]ds:e bitta datti vftrim muda yr(a)4da-dariyii}i 

85 padtava yere Gamgana mattaru 1 vflririi temka Karageya dari- 

36 yim "ba^aga kem-ga^u kamba 20 M[5*]vina Chavuda-karveyim 1 tem- 

37 ka Nidugejeya kelage kamba 10 s<3fcige yenn[e*] || Sri Sri [I*] 

38 Yimti(l) dharmmavam pratipalisida(da)mge maham$a 2 yidha(da)n*a- 

39 lidam pamclaa-malia-patakaiiaku(kkTi) |[ Sthana-pati 3 madaTari(m) samtati- 

40 pa4edaih sarvra-na[ma*]e(sya)v*agi dha(dha)reyam pa^eda 1 atana 4 satati(ta) 

bi4ey=abaleya 
4,1 Bichita [j] 3*] 

TBANSLATION, 

(Verse 1.) May Bhairava, with an eye in (the centre of Us) forehead, crooked tusks, serpents 
as armlets, a skull in Ms hand, a glittering sword, red matted locks In a neat horn, 5 and with 
anklets worn on his feet, holding a rod of golden hue, with loins adorned with a rosary of 
"beads, give us the boons whieh we crave. 6 

(V. 2 : identical with verse 1 of inscription B.) 

(Lines 6-8.) While hail ! the possessor of all titles of honour, favourite of Fortune and 
Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, a Narayana of monarchs, the majestic 
Emperor king Singala was reigning with enjoyment of pleasant conversations : 

(LI. 9-14.) While hail !- the High Minister, general controller, great favourite, 
administrator of seventy-two offices, administrator of many territories, holding the office of 
master of the whole treasury, a Yaugandharayana in offices of his lord, a Chanakya in polity, a 
man of might to traitors against his master, and an adamant chamber to seekers of his 
protection, Vankuva-Bsvuta, was governing the Bejvala T&ree-liundred, the Huligere Three* 
hundred and the Banavase Twelve-thousand, with enjoyment of pleasant conversations ; 

(LI. 14-23.) While hail ! the possessor of all titles of honour, the High Miniter f 
Decorated with a series of many virtues (denoted by the titles of) ' Sun to the lotuses of the 
Brahma^ race, a Love-god to the souls and eyes of amorous women, an adamant chamber to 
the seekers of his protection, an elephant of the sky-quarters in hattle, a Revanta of magnificent 
lype among those who ride most froward horses, 7 a Hanumto amoug those who are devoted to 
his lord, practising truth and purity of conduct, purifying the Bharadvaja-^^m, versed in all 
literature and much other lore, an incarnate Narayana, adept in spells destroying the lives of 
hostile generals, uniquely renowned among 'all men/ KeSava-Sfayaka, was governing the 
ttUHdred-and- forty of Bssavlr so as to suppress the wicked and protect the cultured :. 

(Li 24-30.) While hail ! the scion of the lineage of Jiinutav&haEa which is famed 
over the whole earth, a royal swan to the lotus-pool his kindred, receiving the grace of boons 
from (the goddess) Padm&vati, a chaplet of the Khaciiara rate, delighting in bounty, hunter 
of titled seigniors, adorned with the serpent-Mag, a furious elephant of his uncle, the MahS* 
man$al$ foara IIallidYarasa f was reigning as seignior ov^r the Hundred-ancW arty of Basavi3r f 
with enjoyment of pleasant conversations : 

(LI. 30-37.) They, who find sustenance at his lotus-feet, possessors of all virtues, the 
Thous&ud of Devaihgeri, the fourteen pariv&ras, the sixty Households, and the twelve hit fa 



1 Apparently for "kalveyiik, 2 Bead maha- 

* This verse is written in a very slovenly and inaccurate manner, and it 3 with tye utmost diffidence that 
ray present attempts at emendation and translation. 

Bare we read #adfe<#=at?o ? 

* [neatly poiited Hke a fcorn. Ed.] 

On this description of Bhairava-Kshetrapala see Gkxpinatha Bac/s %lmttt of Hindp leonogtapky, Yol, 2, 
405t ftnA YasTi'i Arch. Survey of Mayuraftkanja, p. ccciv. 

* See ftbove, Yol. V, p, flaftn., and Vol. XIII, p, 813n, 



No. 30.] SHAHDAUR INSCRIPTIONS, ONE APPARENTLY OF THE TBAft, 60. 197 

Iieaded by Masana-Gavunda and Icha-GaYunda, jointly granted a pions endowment : for the 
theatrical entertainment and oblations of the Kshetrapala 1 of Kolur they granted a gift, 1 
Ganga's mattar of black-loam land east of the town (and) west of the cross-road, 20 kamba of 
red forest-land south of the town (and) north of the road to Karage, 10 kamba south of the 
channel of Chauda of the Mango (and) "below the Long Tank (Nidugere) and oil for lights. 
Fortune 1 Fortune ! 

(LI, 38-39 : a prose formula of the usual type.) 

(V 8.) The prior of the establishment has obtained the monastery as a pious gift, 2 he 
lias got the land on sarva-namasya tenure, on condition that he shall certainly always avoid 
women. 



No. SO. SHAHDAUR INSCRIPTIONS, ONE APPAEENTLY OF THE YEAR 60. 

BY STEIN Kcwow. 

Shahdaur is a hamlet in the Oghi kanungo circle of the Mansehra tahsil, Hazara District, 
and is situated about two miles east of Shamdhara and about four miles due east of Oghi. It is 
shown as Shodaur on the one inch equal 2 mile sheet 43 F., N, W., at 34 30' 36" N. and 73 4' 20" E. 

One mile south-east of the hamlet there is a narrow glen descending from the Tanglai hill, 
which gives its name to the Tanglai Forest, one of the reserved areas in the Hazara District. In 
one of the small terraced fields of this glen, and overlooking a small spring in a contiguous gorge, 
is a firmly buried rock or large boulder of irregular shape, measuring 13' x 16', without any sign 
of dressing or design in position. The boulder marks the southern edge of a small field, and is of 
grey f liable sandstone wi%h a rough surface. 

The rock bears two Khaioshthi inscriptions, one in two lines on the perpendicular side facing 
the north, and another on the top. The latter shows remnants of five lines, but must, 
according to Khan Bahadur Mian Wasi-ud-din, have erfcended further to the south, where the 
surface is said to be greatly disfigured from age and other causes. 

The rock is said to have been brought to the notice of Mr. W. S. Davis, Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Police, Hazara, in 1893, but no records have been traced about the matter. 

In the hot weather of 1924 a villager of Shamdhara gave information about the existence 
of the inscriptions to Mr. T. (X Copeland, I.C.S., Deputy Commissioner of the Hazara District, 
who informed the Direct or- General of Archaeology of the matte* in a letter of the 24th October 
1924 and forwarded some photographs and rough tracings. A further report was sent to the 
Director- General on the 20th November 1924 by Khan Bahadur Mian Wasi-ud-din, who had in 
the meantime examined the rock and exposed it by excavation for several feet and found out 
that tteie was no continuation of the inscription on the perpendicular side below the surface. 
He also stated that an examination of the neighbourhood did not bring to light any further 
evidence or coins, but only some glazed fragments of coarse pottery* Local inquiries about 
oins are also said to have been fruitless, Every patch of level space in all directions has been 
lately brought under cultivation, and no ancient walls are said to be in evidence anywhere, 
though mention is made of the existence of * burja ' before Government occupied the vallev 

1 On this deity, a form of Bhairava, see above, 

* Samtana or samtt\, s a pious work. The sapta-saihtcina are enumerated in the verse: 

TatdJcaM dhana-nikshepam brakma-stfiapyam 

Vanani samiatih putra 

Cf. above, Vol. Ill, pp, 92 and 128, 




198 EPIGBAPEIA INDIOA, [ToL. XIX. 

The Khan Bahadur further states that the glen itself reminds one strongly of the locality and 
environs of Zaur Dhen across and beyond the Agror valley, where a stupa, of Kushan date is 
said to exist, which has been referred to in the Annual Report of the Frontier Cirde for 
1922-23. ! The inscriptions have also been noticed in the Epigraphical Summary in the Annual 
Report oj the Archasological Survey, 1924-25, but I have not seen this notice 2 . 

We do not know much about the history of the district in ancient times. It belonged to the 
kingdom of Urasa or Urasa, which is mentioned in the ganas to Panmi IV-ii-82 and IV-iii-93,and 
in the Rajakaranginl (V. 217 etc.) and has been identified with ty era, or Ouapcra, the name 
given by Ptolemy VII-i-45 to the country between the Vitasta and the Indus. Hiian Tsang 
mentions the country under the name of "Wu-la-shi. In his days it was tributary to Kashmir. 
Ptolemy mentions ISayovpo? as one of the cities of the *Apcra territory, and Sir 
Aurel Stein has shown that "iSayoupoi; can very well be a rendering of a Prakrit form Aityu- 
gura, which he identifies with Atyugrapura, mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangmi VIII. 3402 as 
conquered by the Kashmir Ian King Jayasimha (A.D. 1128-49) in a war against Dvitlya, the 
Urasa, Atyugrapura, Sir Aurel further identifies with the present Agror. 8 

We may infer from this that the Agror valley has played some r6le in the history of Hazara, 
and that some centre existed in the neighbourhood of Shahdaur. In later times Oghi was the 
residence of the Khan of Agror. 

A. 

The inscription on the northern side of the rock consists of two lines. The first extends 
over 6' 2" and contains altthanu varying in size from 3" to 4", the second is 1' 9" long and the size 
of the aksharas is 2* to 3$". 

Of individual letters we may note the cha at the end of 1. 1, which has almost the same shape 
as to the Sihila vase inscription ; the well-shaped and angular $h in votfAo, 1. 1, and the distinct 
prolongation of the lower vertical of sa, upwards and towards the left, at the point of juncture 
with the upper portion of the afahara, just as in the Patika plate. On the whole there cannot 
be any doubt that the inscription belongs, palssographically, to the Saka period. 

The first aMara is evidently ra, though the upper portion is somewhat damaged. The 
ecoQd seems to be ja. There is an apparent cross-bar, which is, however, so thin that I take 
rt to be a crack in the stone. There are, further, two apparent strokes protruding from the 
bottom, which might be taken to be remnants of an u-loop. But I do not think that they are 
anything else than fissures in the stone. The third letter is m, and I think that I can see 
traces of an o-matra. I therefore read rajano, Ski. rajfia^, 

Then comes a word which I read mmifadasa and explain as the genitive of a name Namijada. 
There * apparently a curve above the vertical which I take to be the i-matra, in the second 



f ka dama g ed > afl d the 

resi d " apparent bar between the 



1 STf ? Z! L^ A * a *W fca ' ** o/ India, 1922-23, p. 96. 
[See ibid, 1924-25, pp. H6 and 1 19. Ed.] 

' See hi, translation of the Mjatantgitf iJ, pp. 67 ud 434. 



Shahdaur Inscription A, of the year 60. 



/st third 




2nd third 







3rd third 




STEN KONOW 



SCALE 20 



C WHITTINGHAM & GRIGGS, PHOTO'LITH 



No. 30.] SHAHDAUR INSCRIPTIONS, ONE APPARENTLY OF THE TEAR 6u. 1&9 

the Patika plate. The ensuing aksham may perhaps be ra 01 re, I therefore tentatively rcai 
bat&are. But then the preceding sa must be drawn to this word, and we must read &aka 
sabat&are, or rather sakasabatsare, 

With regard to the interpretation of saka there may be some doubt. It may correspond to 
Skr, svaka> but a dating in " the own year " of a ruler is without any parallel in KharoshtU 
in scriptions. 

So far as I can see, the most probable explanation is to take saka as corresponding to Skr, 
6aka and explain sakasabaUare as meaning * in the Saka-year, 9 ; in the year of the Sakas, or 
the Saka king/ i.e., as almost synonymous with the later fakannpati-rajyabhuheka-kale^ It 
should be bosne in mind that the Sakas were Iranians and that the name under which they are 
known was not coined in India. The Persian, Greek and Chinese renderings point to a form sa1:a 
and not Saka, a&d if the name is Iranian, as we have every reason for assuming that it is, since 
it signifies an Iranian people, an initial i is not possible. Moreover, the word occurs in the form 
saJcra, where Jcr points to a spirantic pronunciation of the intervocalic fc, on the llathura lion 
capital, where Professors Thomas 2 and Liiders 3 are certainly right in explaining the sentence 
sarvasa Sakrastanasa puyae as ' in honor of all Sakastana.' 

After sabatiare I think that we may read shaslitiayhmi, though every akshara is uncertain 
The head of sha is indistinct but probable. The ensuing compound is without any parallel 
and my reading is only conjectural Then follows what looks like the head of an a with a bend, 
which I take to be the beginning of an amisvara> and, finally, an irregular a or mi. 

Then follow three signs which I take to be the numerical symbol for 20, thrice repeated. 
The ensuing word might be read sabharusa or sabhadusa. The latter seems to be the most 
likely reading because the vertical is distinctly projecting above the top line. Bhadu might 
stand for bhandu, which occurs in the gana to Pamni IV-ii-77 after the names Suvastu and 
Vary,u and may be the name of a country. Sabharusa would then mean 'together with the 
Bha^clu-rukr.* 

The next word is perfectly clear: samlavadTiapit[u]sa. The tu is perhaps uncertain and 
might be to. A comparison of the ta of inscription B rill show that our afaham differs in 
showing a forward bend of the leg, wherefore I think that tu is intended. I am in doubt about 
the explanation of this word. It may stand for sw&dwrdhajntasya, 'elevated by his own 
strength ' or for sa~Balavardha~pituh ' together with his father Balavardha.'^ 

The ensuing ahhara is apparently na, and the next one is certainly cha. I 
flacha to correspond to Skr. ;', though the a-suffix is strange. L. 2 opens with 
followed by a vertical, which apparently rises above the line and which ^ I tak 
tfacJiamitravadhane I take to mean < for the increase of relatives and friends. 5 

The last aksJiaras of the line I read ptoMtoe. and so far as I can see there can only be some 
doubt about the last letter. . ^ , 

Though I am considerably diffident about several detail* in the analysis I have attempted 
above, yet I give the following reading and explanation : 

TEXT. 

1 LEajano] Na[mi]jadasa sakasa[batare] sHaE^tiaiiiiBi] 20 20 20 

saValava4hapit[u]sa [fia]cha- 

2 mitrava4ba[ne] pntrahitafe] _____ _ . r _ 

i Kie&orn, List of Inscription* of Southern India, No* 3. 

a Up. JfxMX, p. 147. *S.B.AW, 1912 Pi >, 414 ff. 



take 
tfAa, 

take to be ne. 



200 EPIGRAPHIAINDICA. [Voi. XIX, 



TRANSLATION. 

Of the Raj an Namijada, in the sixtieth, 60, Saka-year, together with Bha$u 
(or, the Bhandu-king) and his father Balavardha, for the increase of relatives and friends* 
(and) for the welfare of his son. 

B. 

The second inscription, on the top of the rock, is much more damaged and, according to 
Mr. Wasi-ud-din, incomplete. There are remains of five lines* 

L. 1. The beginning has apparently disappeared altogether. There seems to be exactly 
room for four letters, and with great reserve I restore maharayasa. Then comes an 
almost certain a, where the only uncertainty is caused by an apparent stroke projecting upwards 
and towards the right from the lower half of the vertical ; a fairly distinct ya, and traces of a sa. 
I therefore read Ayasa, which is probably the genitive of the well-known name Aya, Azes. 
In my edition of the Takht-i-Bahi inscription, above Vol. XVIII, pp. 273 f, I have tried to 
show that Azes founded a new era in the old Saka year 77. We should therefore expect the 
inscription B to be somewhat later. 

Then follows sam, i.e., samvat&are or sambaUare, and afterwards traces of some signs which 
can be interpreted as 20 20 20 20 . The year may accordingly be eighty and something or 
even ninety. 

L. 2. The first ahharas which remain are clearly SivarahMtasa. Then comes a blurred 
akshara which might be tsa or shu, followed by t&sa. Shutasa would regularly correspond to 
Skr. irutasya* while tsdtasa reminds us of Khotani tsati, * rick *. 

L. 3. The first remaining afahara is quite uncertain, but looks like a. The second may 
be $ha s and the third is certainly sa. 

The next dkshara is quite uncertain. It may be va, ra or Ma. The second may be a or no, 
the third va, ra or thi, and the fourth and fifth are certainly tow. With great diffidence I tenta- 
tively read vznathitasa. Then follows what looks like cJia i. . , 

L. 4. The first akshara is perhaps da. The second and third ones are certainly tahi, and 
with some confidence the first word can therefore be restored as daidhi. 

Then conies JcaJiapa followed by some ahharas which I cannot make out, but which may 
perhaps be wa$db*[>e][A**]. The form Jcahapana seems to be common to all Prakrits. 

L. 5. The beginning of this line seems to run abhu yo Gotama. The last remaining 
word ^may be aalao, possibly corresponding to Skr. sthalakab, < a certain bone on the back % 
in which case a bone-relic of the Buddha would be meant. 

In such circumstances I am unable to give more than a fragmentary text, and even the frag- 
ments which I attempt to restore are uncertain, 

TEXT. 

1 [Maharayasa] Ayasa sarh [20 20 20 20] 

2 Sivaralcshitasa [shu]tasa 

3 [a<Jha]sa [vanathijtasa cha i 

4 [daJSahi kahapa[na]-sa[hasre .] . . 

5 abhu yo Gotams-fstalao] . .. 



Shahdaur Inscription 1). 




STEN KONOW 



C WHITTINQHAM & QRIGGS, PHOTO"LITH, 



No, SO ] SHAHDAUE INSCRIPTIONS, ONE APPARENTLY OF THE YEAR 60, 201 

TRANSLATION. 

Of the [mahZraja?] Aya, anno of SivaraksMta, the famous (?), wealthy (?), and 

staying in the wood (?), here (?).. for ten thousand Mrshapanxs . .. was, which the back- 
bon c ( ? j of Gotama ... 

The chief importance of the Shahdaur inscriptions rests with the fact that the era in which 
they are dated seems to he designated as a Saka reckoning. Their palaeography shows that 
there cannot be any question of the well-known Saka era, which began 78-79 A.D. The 
characters being of the same kind as these of the Patika plate, there can hardly be any doubt 
that both records are dated in one and the same era, and we now learn that this era was 
instituted by aka rulers, 

It therefore becemes impossible to follow those scholars who think that the Patika plate 
is dated in an unknown era instituted by Mithradates I after the incorporation of Seistan in the 
Parthian empire, or in the Parthian era of 248 B.C., with omitted hundred. We have to do with 
a Saka era. 

Professor Thomas has long ago 1 maintained that the reckoning used in the inscriptions ot 
Patika, Guduvhara, etc., was a Saka institution, and in a paper contributed to the Acta 
Orientalia* I have tried to show that it commemorated the establishment of an independent 
kingdom in Seistan or a Saka conquest of India. The Shahdaur inscriptions show that the era 
was still known to be a Saka era in the year 60, i.e., if the initial point was, as maintained by 
me in the paper just quoted, 84 B.C., about 2-4 B.C. 

It can of course, a priori, be maintained that the era which is usually known as the Vlkraraa 
era was originally instituted in commemoration of the Saka conqaest of India, and identical with 
the Saka-reckoning of the Shahdaur inscription and, as maintained by the late Dr. Fleet, with 
the era used in the Patika plate. But then we should have to state the use of another unknown 
era in the Sodasa inscription of the year 72. For, as explained in my edition of the so-called 
Takhb-i-Bahl inscription, 3 Sodasa, who was Mahakshatrapa when the record of Saih. 72 was 
executed, must be identified with the Kshatrapa $udaa of the Matluira lion capital, who as 
such, was contemporary with the Mahakshatrapa Patika, whom most scholars rightly identify 
with the chief mentioned in the Patika plate of the (Saka) year 78, at which dats his father was 
Kshatrapa. 

I may now add that Patika himself seems then to have been designated as jaum* The last 
words of the record are certainly, as read by Biihler, mahadanapati Patikasa jativafiae, and we 
have no right, as suggested by Professor Liiders/ to read jaumraye or some other equivalent of 
Skr. yauvarajye, for y is never changed to j in the dialect of the Kharoshthi inscriptions. On 
the other hand we know from the coin legends of Zeionises that an initial voiced s was some- 
times written j. There is not, therefore, so far as I can see, any objection to identifying jauva 
with the title which we find later on, in th coin legends of Kadphises I, in the forms yaOa, yamga* 
aQo, If I am right, we here have another example of the close connexion between the old 
aka conquerors and the Kushanas.- 

If my tentative restoration of the beginning of 1. 3 of inscription B is cdrrect, we farther 
seem to be justified in inferring that the Parthian dynasty of Axes had replaced the Sakas iu the 
Hazara district at an unknown date, perhaps about the year 80 of the old era. 

1 J. E. A. 8., 1913, pp, 633 ff. * ITT, pp. 57 ff. 

* Above^ Vol. XVIII, p. 273. * J. E, A. 8., 1909, pp. 664 /, 

3B 



202 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [ VOL. SIX 

In addition to the Rajan Namijada we are introduced to a certain Sivarakshita, whose 
name seems to show that he was an Indian, who may have been employed as a Kshatrapa by 
the S~akas or Parthians, presumably in or near Shahdaur, or perhaps in Taxila. 1 



No. 31. PESHAWAR MUSEUM INSCRIPTION OF THE YEAR 168. 
Br N. G. MAJUMDAB, M.A. 

In February 1924, while studying the antiquities kept in a store-room of the Peshawar 
Museum, I chanced upon an inscribed stone marked as " No. 20 " and labelled " Presented 
br Sir Aurel Stein on 4th July 1916." But there was no record in the office of the 
Peshawar Museum to show whence the inscription came. On my return to Calcutta I wrote to 
Sir John Marshall, Director- General of Archaeology in India, requesting him to kindly refer the 
matter to Sir Aurel Stem and ascertain whether the latter could throw any light on the point. As 
a result of the enquiry I came to know that the stone was presented to Sir Aurel Stem, in April 
1906, by Sir Harold Deane, to whom it had been brought by some Path an visitors, and that 
later on in 1916, when the former returned to Peshawar from his Third Central Asian 
Expedition, it was presented by him to the Peshawar Museum. I edit the record from, 
the excellent photographs kindly supplied to me by Khan Bahadur M. Wasi-ud-din. 

The inscribed surface of the stone is about 11" by 4i" ; and the letters vary in size between 1* 
and I'. The inscription consists of 3 lines and is in a good state of preservation. Below it there 
is engraved a Svastika symbol. 

The characters are KharoshtM of the Kushana period. Specially to be noted are the cur- 
sively written pa with anunSra and clia in pamctadata (1. 1), and la in km (1. 3). The first two 
might be compared with almost similar forms <m Stein's KharoshthI documents from Niya in 
Chinese Turkestan, and the third one with the form occurring in them as well as in the inscription 
oa the V ardak vase. The letter ,a shows no projection of the lower vertical line in two out 
of four instances (sam and d^^ase 1. 1); but in the other two, there is just a trace of a 
projected lower verbal (ma*e, 1. 1, and -satayana, 1. 2). The e-stroke does not touch the top 

6 " ^ L ' 



t l 

, IT P f ""I f the Iettei - S me Ietters a aia are .., , 

attached to sk m 1. 2 and the letter e innately before the word ari 



rt * P IT* 1 D0rth - Westera P ^ ]t as fo <! g^erally ia KharoshtM mscrip- 
ar re f m f the vord ^^ (**) calls 



n b , or ) cas or spe- 

ence.responsiblethe lin 



lingualisation of , m ^ b the 




piate 

Thomas, Jwr. B,y & . 1< y *' > revftrse ' K l and No. 248, L 4. Of. F. W. 

'See Barttiolomu,, A^ Wto (1904), col. 1874. 



'. * J:^LVM INSCRIPTION OF THE YEAE 168, 



?Ji ft V^?'. 1 -''^"' 



P;.r;v.r ; 4- 
i>:^.-4^. 

^-lA^v . ' 



W' 



<7<f V 



^v 4 / ""^r^l 

t; 1 , j. ... ^*.i A 



"' ' , < ' " . , *,;",/!( 

V., - ,;' :.-.;.,. .-^* 






,',, Vjwr- .^V' ,-^4^" 
^ V ' ' * ' tli'T f" ' 4< * l!l ' 




FROM i PHOTOGB.-iPH. 



OP INDH, CALCUTTA. 



No, 32.] A KHAROSHTHI INSCRIPTION PEOM JAMALGABHI OF THE YEAH 359. 203 

It is probably due to tlie peculiar pronunciation of the word as prevalent en the North- Western 
Frontier of India. l Clear instances 2 of linguahsation of the palatal sibilant occur in the word 
ishamana (^rama^a) in the two Charsadda earthen jar inscriptions 3 and the Hashtnagar pedestal 
inscription in the Lahore Museum, 4 in the name Shama^amitra (Stamanamitra) in a Taxila image 
inscription, 5 in the word shavaa (srdvaJca) in the Janmlgarhi inscription of the year 359, pub- 
lished below, and in the word Rashyavia (KaSyapiya) in a Bedadi copper ladle inscription, 6 
In the majority of cases, it appears, that the change of s into ska is the result of the proximity 
of the letter ra. This characteristic is very well represented by the Khotanese dialect in 
which Aryan r is regularly converted into Khotanese sh. 7 This old linguistic feature has 
survived in some of the modern dialects of the North- West as, e.g., the BaJbgah 8 and the 
Gilgit dialect of Shina. 9 

The object of the inscription is to record the excavation of a well inside a certain monas- 
tery. Travel is probably a Prakpit equivalent of Sanskrit trapd meaning 'bashf illness, ' 
which would be a gobd Indian personal name befitting a lady, It is veiy likely that she was 
the actual donor. Her father-in-law Agasahaj^a (Agrasaha/a), who calls himself 'humble' 
(kshudra), excavated the well probably to carry out her pious wish, namely, to "provide 
for drinkmg water, specially during the hottest part of the year The record is dated the* 
15th day of Jyaishtha, the year 168 of an unspecified era. The mode of reckoning is, 
however, the same as in other Kharoshthi documents such as the Pan]tar inscription ot 
the year 122, which aro now generally assigned to the era of 57 B.C. Referring the rear 
168 to that era the corresponding English date becomes 110 A,D. 

TEXT. 
1 Sarii 1 100 20 20 20 44 Jetha-mase divase pa:dichadasa(&e) 

"2 khudana Agasahayana Trava-fiashuraija dana-mu- 
3 khe kue khaiiavi[e}^ viharanii 

TRANSLATION, 

(In) the year 168, on the 15th day of tbe mont3a of Jyaishtlia, a \vell (which is] a gift, 
is caused to be dug, within the Monastery, by the humble Agasahaya (Agrasahaya), the father- 
in-law of Trava (Trapa). 



Xo, 32. A KHAROSHTHI INSCRIPTION FROM JAMA1GAEEI OF THE YEAR 359. 

BY N. G. MAJUMBAR, M.A. 

This inscription was discovered by Mr. Hargreaves m December 1920, from tin- 
debris of Court No. VII adjoining the Stupa at JamaigarM in the District of Peslia\m. 
It was afterwards removed to the Peshawar Museum where it is at present deposited. A short 

~~"* Cf. Ludors, AMI* Mtp. AIC/I. tiutv. 2nd., 1W3-4, p. ^90 and Sttz. Kan. Pteuss, Ak\ rf. IFwa., 1913, p. 421, 
n 1 ; also Vogel, Am. E y A^h Swv. Ind., U'03-4:, p. 252. 

2 If Prof Luders is right the feature would aUo occur in tlie word shtimelM (toavakcntj) in the Manilrala 
inscription of the year 18 (.l&i*. Hoy. As. Soc , 1909, p. 645). The reading of sJta m flashalatha in the in 
tions of A6ka's grandson at Barabar in Gay a District, and in all oases where one would expect other 
in tho Kalsi edicts of zuwi-ca is probably uu\v arrantcible. 

s Ann. Eep: Aicti. &ufv. 2nd., 1003-4, p, 289, 4 Ibid., p. 2;.Q. 

5 Mem. Aich* Surv* bid., Np. 7, p. 9. 

d Sec my edition m Jour. A*. Soc. Ecwpr., K S., Vol. XZIi (1023), p. 3i5. 

7 Konow,- J our. Roy* As. Soc., 19i* p. '&$. 

*Konow, Jour. Roy. 'As. Soc. 9 1911, pp. 30, 3L 

*Ct. Gi]gitffi/i(^a^^). Loriner, Jow. Roy* As* $ce*> 1024, p. 178. 

3 B 2 



EPiaRiPHIA INDICA, [ VOL. 



nonce oi the record has already appeared in the Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of 
7>i?ja, Frontier Circle, 1920-21, pp. 5-6. I now edit it from a set of excellent photographs and 
estanpagas which Mr. Haigreaves had very kindly sent to me. 

It is incited on a slab of stone which is slightly damaged. Excepting a few letters which 
have pseled off, it is in a sound state of preservation. The writing consists of only 2 lines 
covering a space of 21" x 3", and is neatly done. It is divided by a horizontal line drawn 
across the blank space between lines 1 and 2. The letters vary in size from l" to ". 

The characters are KJiaioshthI of the Kushana variety. According to Biihler 1 , this variety 
is " represented by the strong!}' cursive script of the first and second centuries A.D. (?), which 
begins with the Takht-i-Bahi inscription of Gondopheres and is fully developed in the inscrip- 
tions of the late: Kusana kings Eaniska and Huviska and occurs also in the MS. of the 
Dhammapadn flora Khotan." But the present record contains scarcely any cursive forms at 
all, a feature m its palaeography that is specially to be noted. The evidence of this inscription 
partially repudiates Buhlei's statement and shows that cursiveness need not be necessarily 
associated with the Kharo^hthi of the Kushana period. Of greater pakeographic significance 
are, m the present case, the superscript r expressed by a loop at the base of a letter 2 (in sarvc, 1. 2), 
and the form oi the letter s which is open to the left, without the least upward projection of 
the lower vertical line (e r,., in Aipauaa, 1. !). That the inscription cannot be earlier than the 
Kushana period follows at once from the presence of these two characteristics. Two conjunct 
forms deserve to be noted, viz., dn and ip. Of these, 4p (Aspawsa, I I) i s already well known from 
coins and inscriptions. But the ligature dn (radne, 1. 2) is new. It is composed of the signs 
for d and n simply joined together without any modification of their individual forms. 

The language is noith-wcstjrn Prakrit, called ' Gandharian ' by Buhler. The nomina- 
tive ^singular eiuh in e (c </., panyraJie). The letter t is changed into d (radne), th into ffi 
(pu&hainatMni}, p and m into v (pjethavide, ive] and v conjointly with & into p (Atpaiasa). The con- 
junct sr becomes sJi (shavaena). The r is often retained in groups, both as a posterior (e g., pan. 
qruite) and a prior member (e g , san-a). Cases of consonantal elision are rather abundant. 
The letter ,y is invariably elided, e.g., inAspaiasa (Atvayujasya), sa(f)haeht (saMyaih], dliamaute 
(dhawa-p'tiri,, and Odihahhi. The letter k is elided, e g., in shavaena (fravaUna) and Podae 
(na ?} (Potate-iti), and ;', m Avpaiasa. Elision of medial consonants is very rare m the 
Prakrit of th,' earliest Kharoshthi documents, namely, those of AfiSka from Shahbazgarhi and 
MZnsekri. Asr.m, tho MathurS lion-capital inscriptions, which belong to circa 1st century 
A.D , contain fewer mstances of consonantal elision,* when compared to the present record 
Fro* tiiu point of view, the language of the record would seem to represent a much more 
advanced sta- 5 e of development like the Prakrit of Indian dramas and of the Dutreml de Ehins 
MS oi the DhiuiiHioptrta trcm Khotan which has been assigned to the 3rd century A.D 

Ihe iiis^sion records the establishment of the 'jewel' (ratna,}, i.e., an image of the 
Budaha sy the disciple < 4r tai, Potaka, together with his companions, the Odiliakas the 
sons o fcuia. It Js dated the first day of the month of Asvayuja, th. year 359. ' 

It is by m means easy to decide the era in which thi s record ia dated. The Lmyan 
Tangai inscription of tne year 318^ and the Hashtnagar inscription of the year 384, 




l\. p. I2S. 
I V5- *cr, a . te, Vol XIT, n, 301 



JAMAL0AJRHI INSCEIPTION OP THE YEAB 359. 




JL KRISHNA SASTBL 



A PHOTOGRAPH. 



SUEVEY OF INDIA, CALCUTTA. 



No. 32] A KHAROSHTHI INSCRIPTION FROM JAMALGARHI OF THE YEAR 359. 205 

to be brought IE a line with the present record. Palseegraphically it cannot be placed 
earlier than the Kushanas and linguistic grounds would seem also to favour the conclusion 
that it has to be assigned to a period not prior to the 2nd 01 3rd century A.D. The 
numismatic finds, which Mr. Hargreaves made near the spot wnere the inscription was 
discovered, comprise issues of the Early and the Later Kushana dynasties. The latter 
have been generally assigned to the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D., which may be regarded 
as the latest limit of the date of the inscription. Under the circumstances I am inclined 
to refer the year 359, as also the two other years 318 and 384, to the Vikrama era of 57 
B-C The date of oui record would, accordingly, be 301 A.D. 



TEXT. 

1 Sarh 111 100 20 20 10(a) 441 ASpaiiasa padhamammi shavaeaa Podae[aa;] 

..(&) haehi Sida. -[p]u(c). . 

2 [O]diliakehi(tZ) ive radne(e) prethavide dhamaiite a.(/) pangrahe saiva-sa..(g) 



REMARKS. 

(a) Through the carelessness of the engraver this sign and the previous one have been jum- 
bled up. (&) There is space for about two letters here. Podaena sahaehi was perhaps intended. 
(c) Probably two letters are missing. Read puteM. (d) The lower portion of the first letter is 
broken, (e) The e-kara in uuine is placed on the top of d. (/) Read aye. After a there is 
just space for only one letter which was probably ye. I have to offer a few remarks on 
this restoration. The word </e=Sanskrit ay am. There is evidence to show that, so far as the 
North-western Prakrits are concerned, aya is sometimes used as a base by itself. The 
Shahbazgarhi,and Mansehra versions of the edicts of Aioka have" ayi dhnma-nipi and ayo 
dhrama-mpi. An unpublished Kharoshthi inscription in the Lahore Museum has aye pukarant. 
The Prakrits of a later period, also, sometimes use the form aya as a base, e.g., aammi and 
ayamsi=asmin(Pi SC te\, Prakrit- Sprachen,W-W). Quite in keeping with this system of 
declension, the Tasda silver-scroll inscription of the year 136 contains: sam 136 ayasa 
cuthafrua mauua divase 15. This portion of the record has been interpreted in a variety ef 
ways'; and scholars do not seem to be agreed as to the exact meaning conveyed by the 
word auasa in this expression. Those, who propose to take it in the sense of -Aw* 
cannot satisfactorily explain the anomalous position of a king without trtlea; andfurther, 
thev mnk* dependent on ayasa the preceding ' sam 136' (i.e. [ the year 136 of Azes ), whicfc, 
to judge from similar analogies, is not probable. Similarly, to interpret ayasaa as adyasya 
and .av that it means the first Ashadha ' is not quite convincing. If, on the other hand 
wc take ayasa^asyaS as aye or ayi^ayam, or ayami^mn, DO such difficulty would 
arise: ayasi might mean of this,' and when it is preceded by *m 136 it "&*.*** 
of this'veaiO^-e. 'of the ye^r 136.' The dated portion of ^ ^-^^^ 
translated as: 'The year 136. On the 15th day of the month of Ashaiha of tbs 
for two letters here. Readsatoa orsapcma on the analogy 



(year).' (g) There is space for two letters here. 

of similar votive inscriptions. _______ ..... 

i It was .0 token flrrt by Pa* JBA8* 1915, PP- 317-13. Cf. KOBOW, Sf **, *> V- 2S8 ' 



206 BPIGRAPHIA 1NDICA. [Vol. XIX, 

TRANSLATION. 

In the year 359, on the first (day) of A&vayuja, this Jewel (ratna)(a) has been instal- 
led(6) by tlie lay-hearer Potaka, together with his companions, the Q^iliyakas, (who are) the 
sons of iida. (May) this gift, endowed with merits, (c) belong to all living creatures. 

NOTES. 

(a) I.e., Buddha whp is one of the Tri-ratna : Buddha, Dhaima and Sangha. la the 
SaMharmapu%4ari]c& i however, the term ratna denotes a Bodhisattva (Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. XXI, p-66). The word ratnagriha which occurs in a Mathura inscription of Dhanabhuti 
(Liiders, List of Brahml Inscriptions No. 125), and two SanchI inscriptions (Fleet's Gupta 
Inscriptions, p. 32 and p. 261), probably means c the sanctuary containing the Buddha's 
image. 1 (6) Prasthapita ; cf . prethavatiye in another KharQshthI inscription (Thomas, JRAS., 
1916, p. 283). (c) dhamaute^dharma-yuJcta as Dr. Thomas suggests. 



No. 33. RAWAL SPURIOUS INSCRIPTION OF THE YEAR 40. 

By STEK Ko^ow. 

At the village of Rawal near Mathura an inscribed stone has been dug out of a mound. The 
stone is now in the Mathura Museum. 

The information which has been supplied by the Honorary Curator is to the effect that 
there is nothing suspicious about the find. The stone is stated to be, to all appearances, old. 

To judge from the photographs and estampages, the stone is square, about 4" high, 111" long 
and 6" broad. It is inscribed with four lines m KharoshthI of a very peculiar type, one line on 
the front edge of the upper surface, and three lines on the vertical face of the front. The inscribed 
portion measures about 4* by 8", and the size -of individual letters varies between J" and 1|". 

When the impressions reached me, I was hardly able to recognize a single ak&hara, and I 
was for some time in doubt whether I had before me a Khar5shtli! inscription or a record in some 
* unknown ' script. It was only when I chanced to think of the Shakardarra inscription of the 
year 40 that I realized that the Rawal record is nothing else than a clumsy copy of the former, 
evidently executed by a person who cannot have had but a very imperfect idea of the contents 
of 'his original. The only way of * editing ' the Rawal inscription is, therefore, to compare it, line 
by line, with the Shakardarra record, and to show how far the writer has been able to reproduce 
his draft. 

The various attempts at reading the Shakardarra inscription have been registered by Mr. 
N. GL MajTimdar, the last editor of the record, in his valuable List oj Kharo$thi Inscriptions, 1 
and I need not repeat what he has said. 

L. 1 does not present any serious difficulty. It runs : sum 20 20 Protharadasa masasa dwas., 
where we can only be in doubt whether the last word should be restored as divase or as divasaim. 
The edge is broken, and there seems to have been room for a mi after the mutilated s at the end. 
We may note the shape which the letter da has in this inscription. It looks like ta. 

It will be seen that the initial sam rises above the line. The copyist has exaggerated this 
feature and, besides, separated the ahhara in an upper and a lower part 

The ensuing numeral figures have come out fairly well., 
1 i J. db E A. "S. J., XX, 1924, p. 20. 



No. 33.] BAWAL SPURIOUS INSOEIPTION OF THE YEAR 40. 207 

The next word in the Shakardarra inscription is damaged in the beginning. The o-m&trS 
has caused a peeling off of the stone, the result being an apparent narrow semi-circle. The head 
of pa looks as if it were curved back, and a horizontal seems to connect the limb of this letter 
With the ensuing akshara. All these features have been faithfully reproduced on the Rawal stone, 
and the consequence is that Protha looks like a Nagarl w followed by a broken line, which might 
be taken to be KharoshtM vet, but is in reality a misread tta. The ensuing letters vadasa can 
"be recognized, though the final sa is quite distorted. 

If we abstract from the distorted shape of the sa's, the ensuing masasa is well recognizable, 
but the next word, divas., has not been properly reproduced, las. having become something like 
a Kfaaroshtlil $a, though it is possible that the last akshara is meant to reproduce the initial m of 
1*2. 

L, 2 of the Shakardarra record is clear, if we abstract from the last akshara, which has usually 
been read as Jca, but which seems to me to be la. With this reading it runs : msami di 20 atra 
divasakale ala. We may note the distinct difference between t in atra and the da of this record, 
and also the sign of the long a in kale. 

The copyist begins with an akshara which seems to correspond to the second one of the Sha- 
kardarra record, viz., 6a, and then adds a figure which evidently reproduces the somewhat peculiar 
20. Here we have the impression that he has felt that dnasafan] vi&ami di 20 is redundant 
and has tried to write di visa 20. 

Then conies a recognizable copy of atra divasakah, though the aksharas of the latter word 
are all misshaped 

The last two aksharas of the line have not been clearly visible in the original inscription 
and the copyist has simply tried to reproduce what he saw. The sa looks like an a, and the last 
alcsJiara has been drawn as an upright and a broken line. Only a comparison of the original 
can explain how he arrived at his reading. 

L. 3. The first three aksharas have usually been read as mkame. which has been explained 
as representing Skr. niqvmS. Mr. Baner]i read ekame. The first akshara, however, seems to 
be no, with the o-stroke added towards the top, and the ka is provided with a sloping bottom 
stroke which, I think, is the r-stroke. It, therefore, seems to me that we must read nokrame, 
Skr. naukrame. This word, which occurs in the Divyavadana, has been translated as 'bridge 
of boats,' but may also mean a ' boat-crossing/ * ferry-station.' 

If we take Bdanolmme as one word, its meaning must be fi at the Sala ferry-station,' and it 
is of interest to remember that we have a similar name, Salatura, on the other side of the Indus. 
It is probable that those two places were the starting points for those who wanted to cross the 
river. 

After nokrame, I think, we must read kuvo khadao droyivafraya sa.. The of too has got 
its w-loop blurred, because the stone has peeled of? where the rounding is most pronounced. There 
is not, however, any reason lor reading kovo. The d of toon*- ls ol the same sha P e ? s m *$*w 
divasa[mi] 3 etc., and quite different from the * of atra. The f-stroke of dm is of the same kind 
as in kra. I take dro% to be Skr. drflpi, Pali donl, which latter word also means ' a trough-shaped 
canoe', a doney. In vafaa I see Skr. <padra, village, and droniva$ra I take to be an adjective 
meaning ' belonging to the dojoey-village/ ., the village providing ferries for the crossing. 

The last letter of the line has a forward bend at the bottom, which seems to be tue to a desire 
of avoiding its running into the picture below and not to be a vowel-wf& I connect it with 
the first Moras oi * *, which I read as harana, and explain saharana as the genitive plural of 



208 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX- 

xahara 9 i.e. 3 sahayara, sahachara, companion. The well is accordingly the gift of the companions 
of the ferry- village, i.e., of the boatman-association at the Sala crossing. 

We shall now see what the imitator has made out of this. No has become o, and kra 
and me would hardly be intelligible without the guidance of the original. Of kuvo kJiadao only 
one akshara remains. It looks like o. Then we can, with some modifications, recognize 
drotyiva&atya sa. Then follow three signs which have nothing to correspond to them in the 
original The first one is repeated in L 4, below the final sa of 1, 3, and the last one looks like 
an attempt at reproducing the top of the picture shown in the Shakardarra inscription. 

L. 4. It will be seen that the first aksharas of the Shakardarra record are a little misshaped, 
the head of ha having become closed, the top of the na running into the preceding ra and being, 
besides, continued in a short stroke to the left, the latter being evidently due to peeling off. It 
also seems necessary to read the filial na as a dental, the same sign as in nokrame, though we 
should certainly expect %a, as usually between vowels in this record. Thus the last word is clearly 
dayamukho. 

The writer of the Eawal record has drawn the ha with a hook protruding from the upper 
part of the vertical ; the ra has become something locking like da, and the na has been read - 
with the forward protrusion and looks like va. 

The ensuing da$a is well imitated, but the remainder of the inscription has turned out very 
badly. The two first aksharas may be copied from mukbo, with a reversion of the mu, or they 
may be an attempt at supplying the word kuvo omitted in 1. 3. Then follows the same sign which 
we found after the final sa of L 3, and, finally, three signs which may represent an attempt at 
reproducing parts of the picture of the original It is not, however, of any use to speculate OB 
their meaning. 

In order to illustrate how the copyist went to work I shall give a transliteration of the Sha* 
kardaira record, adding, (in italics), the corresponding words or letters of the Eawal text where 
they have come out with something like the original 

TEXT. 
L. 1 saxh 20 20 Prothavadasa masasa divas[ami] 

$am 20 20 . vadasa masasa diva 

1. 2 Ti6aml di 20 atra divasakale Sa[la> 

6a 20 atra divasakale a 9 . , , 

L. 3 nokrame kuvo khadao dronivadrana sa- 
okr&me o drotyivadr&^a sa 

Ii. 4 [ha]ra[na] dajjamukho 

badava da^a . . . 

TRANSLATION, 

Anno 40 , on the twentieth day, d. 20, of the month PrausMhapada, at this time 
and day, at the Sala-f erry, this well was dug as the gift of the ferry- village associates. 



The Eawal inscription has not, it will be seen, any value aa an independent record. Tt is 
aerertheleaa of interest as throwing light on the way in which such inscriptions were looked on. 



Shakardarra Inscription the year 40, 




Rawal Inscription, the year 40, 




STEN KONOW 



SCALE -50 



C, WHITTINQHAM It QRIQOS, PHOTO-LITH 



No. 84. ] AMODA PLATES OF JAJALLADEVA II OF THE (CHEDI) YEAB 912. 209 

It is a well-known fact that several inscriptions were never destined to be read. They were 
buried and hidden from view in stupas or temples. They cannot, accordingly, have been 
intended to convey information to other persons. 3L Earth 1 has spoken of such records as aiming 
at a certain amount of publicity, no doubt, but a publicity intended especially for the next 
world. And we seem indeed justified in looking on many of the ancient inscriptions not as 
notifications but as a kind of charms or powerful formulas, intended to ensure good results from 
some pious act. 

Numerous examples might be quoted, bufc I do not know of any which is so clear as the Eawal 
record. The person who put it up in a well he had dug or in some other place endowed by him, 
evidently brought it to Mathura from Shakardarra, wheie he had seen the inscription and drawn 
the inference that it was a powerful charm, either for conferring merit on pious donors or for making 
the water of the well fresh -and abundant. And he copied the inscription for the benefit of his 
own donation in Mathura. 

The Rawal record does not, accordingly, hail from Mathura, though the person who executed 
it may have been a native x>f that place, who had seen the inscription on the occasion of some 
travel. But it cannot, no more than the inscriptions on the Mathura lion capital or the Mathura 
elephant, be taken to show that Kharoshthl was ever used by the native population of MathurS 
in the natural course of things. It is a distinctly north-western alphabet, while Brahnd sv&s tie 
usual script in and about Matlura. 



No. 34. AMODA PLATES OF THJE HAIFA YA KING JAJALLADEVA II OF THE 

(CHEDI) YEAR 912. 

BY RAI BAHADUR HIRA LAL, B.A. 

Amoda. is a village in the Bilaspur District of the Central Provinces, where eight copper 
plates recording four different charters* by three different kings were found while digging for the 
foundation of a temple in May 1924, They are now deposited in the Nagpur Museum. The two 
plates in band weie issued by the Haihaya king Jajaliadeva XL These are massive plates each 
weighing 150 tolas and measuring 13" x 10". Each plate Las a hole for being strung with the 
seal of the king, which is lost. The engraver commenced with letters as big as half an inch in 
size, but on completing the first line he apparently calculated or felt that the whole record would 
not come in, even within those two big plates. So with the second line lie reduced the size to 
which he continued almost to the end, with a very slight diminution in the closing eight lines. 
There are altogether 37 lines of which 18 are engraved in the first M the remaining on the 
second plate. The characters are Devanagarl of the well-known Kalachuritype. The whole 
of the record is written i&JSanskrit verses numbering 28 in all, except the initial salutation and 
the date and the names of the donees at the end, which are in prose. Many of the verses are taken 
from the ancestral eulogy composed once for all and added to later on according to the requirements 
of the generations coming into power, and sometimes improved upon by the Court Pandit dealing 
with the charters. The old verses are really beautiful The new ones appear to be rather crude. 
Spelling and grammatical mistakes are not wanting, but comparatively speaking, the charter in 

1 Comptes Rendv*, 1907, p. 387 ; 2nd. Ant. 37, 1908, p. 216. 

2 Two of these have been publisl ed in the Indian Historical Quarterly* Calcutta, Vol. 3, pp. 405 ft, and 

Another in Sj>. M., Vol. XIX, pp, 75 t 

30 



210 



EPIGEAPH1A INDICA, [VOL. XIX. 



hand is written better than others iouud along with it. As regards orthography, ba is not dis- 
tinguished from w, which stands for both. 8* and Sa have been confused. The sign for i re- 
sembles an arrow-head with a parallel stroke below it. 

Ordinarily* grants on copper-plates are made for increasing the religious merits of the donors 
and their parents, but this is an exception. It was made by way of thanksgiving on an escape 
from a great calamity, when the donor had almost lost his kingdom in a'battle with one 0Mr* 
who is described as a huge alligator clutching his victim. Dhlru is a non-Aryan name and it 
appears that a local aboriginal chief rebelled against Jajalladeva and put him into a precarious 
position. In fact it is stated that on regaining his kingdom he made the gift, which indicates that 
it was merely by a turn of fortun-3 that he became the king of his country once more. 

The genealogy of Jajalladeva is giveu as follows : -From Kartavlrya were born the JETaihayas, 

amoBg whom was born KokaHa, who had 18 sons. The eldest of these became the king of Tripuri 

and he made his brothers the lords of the Manilas or districts whch lay close by. One of these 

younger brothers had a son named Kalingaraja, who was very powerful. His son waa 

Karaalaraja, from whom was born Ratnadeva I. His wife was NSnalli, and from them was 

born Ppithvldeva I. He had for his queen RajalladevI, from whose union was born 

Jajalladeva I, The latter' s son was Pyithvldeva II, whose son was Jajalladeva II, tlie 

donor. By this charter a village named Bunderi, was granted to two Brahmans RSghava 

and Nimadeva, the former being the astro loger and the latter the royal priest. Their 

genealogies are also given. Baghava belonged to &gKra having five pravaras, viz., Yatsa, 

Bhargava, Chyavana, JLpnuvana and Aurvva. His father was Damodara, who was very 

learned. He was a great astrologer and was loved by the people and worshipped by kings* 1 

Damodara's father was Prithvidhara. Namadeva belonged to the Bharadvaja-^ra having 

three fravaras, to wit, Bharadvaja, Angiras and Barhaspatya. His father's name was 

Para&ara and grandfather's Mahadhana. At the end of the record Namadeva has a Tha before 

his name, which apparently stands for ^hakkura and would indicate the military tendencies of 

the royal priest* 

The charter was written by aVastavyaKayasthanamedCMtrabMnu, son of Vatsaraja* 
master of Jacjera (village), on Friday the 5th of the dark fortnight of a month which reads 
as Agrana, apparently a mistake for either Siavana or Agrahaya^a, in Samvat 91[2j. Al- 
though the era is not specifically stated, it cannot but be the Kalachuri one, as the king belong- 
ed to its founder's dynasty. The last figure of the year is corroded, but the bottom bend indi- 
cates that it could not but be 2 or 3. With the aid of the week-day we find that in 912, the 5th 
tithi of the dark fortnight fell on a Friday in SrSvana and not in Igrahayana. Friday did not 
fall on that tithi in either month in 9 IS. In the text there are only three letters for the month, 
which suit ^TT^ better than *niTWI*f which has five letters. So it is pretty certain that 
the reference is to the Srfiva^a month, and as such, the date is equivalent to Friday, the 14th 
July 1161 AD. 

* This Dam 5dara appears to be identical with one whose ttonc imag was found! in Kharocl^ a village in th 
Janjgir fcahsfl of Bi&spur District. He was being worshipped as a Devi, with the blood of hundreds of cocks and 
goats, until tJ?e writer's visit to *J?*,t locality about 20 >cara ago, when he proved to the satisfaction of the local 
people that the statue represented neither a dcvlnor a deua, but an ordinary male woishipper, as the figure 
and the pose clearly showed. The people then informed the writer that it bore an inscription at thebotton^which 
0(i digging up confirmed this guess. It read as follows : ijft*5Tl?rt**5 ^tPSft* Wff Of )$. At K3iarod 
there is an old temple of Siva knoTtn as kakhnes'vara-ww<? ra. It has two Kalachuri stone records affixed to 
the waU. Apparently the SdmMiu l^la referred to that temple with which Pandit Damodara might have been 
connected as a priest or worshipper. His merits given in om* record qualify him for being honoured with a 
nt&tue, which was restored at the writer's instance to the Lakhnesvam temple, some 20 years before thif 
was discofered, (See lOralaPs C. P. and Berar 7w6or^*ox, pp, 117 and 1180 



No. 34* J AMODA PLATES OF JAJAIIADEVA n Of THE (GHHDI) YEAB 912. ill 

There are only two geographical names mentioned, viz., Bunder&,th.e village granted and 
Jac|ea, the village to which the writer of the gift belonged. BundSra may be identical with 
Buudela in the Janjgir tahsU, situated about 13 miles from Aiaoda where the plates were found. 
is not traceable. 



TEXT. 1 

First Plate. 



i nnvra 

w; [Qi* tW 'ftwj'NTOWw wtfa; 



: i 
s 



4 

5 wui: 6 

6 






ta 



8 



9 43l: nu 10 TTfRT^fq 1 wHyff^^r^^n 1 ^r?r: in; 



* tpom the original platea and impressions kindly taken by Mr. F. F. Pike, Superintendent, GoTernmant 
Press,, Nagp,ur. 

This is expressed by the letter * with a dot ow it, while the firat one ii expwBsed hy a, peculiar fign 

wMoh tnda for Siddham of MddM^aatu (see above, VoL XVH, p. 352), I think this avoids another t*ong 
support in favour of Mr. Bhattasali's view f because dM is written here in quit* a different way and just after 

this very symbol See also the facsimile of the plates of PrithvidSva n published in th Indian 

QMarterlyVoLl, between pp. 406^^. Ed.] 

Metre Arwahjubh. 4 Eead 

Metre 



* 

Apparently * i made long for the eake of metre. lf> Metre 

^ S c 2 



EPIGRAIHIA INDIOA. 



[VOL.XIX' 




19 



21 
22 



Second Plate* 



ift% 



fw. 



4 a Metre Fcwarefaii/ota. 3 Metre Anwfyubh. 

' Melee /SSriiuZavtJri^tto. Metre Faantoit7aM. 

* Metre ^fiua^itft*. 

i This portion to the end of the line is superfluous and must be .omitted. Possibly the engraver left oat the 
throe p&da* of this verse ; the first could very well be *mrRsnif j| qHUwTltiegtfif; 

* Metre. fardittavikTi&ta. * Metre ^ii-ya, 



^ * 2 7^* h **f '. , sr- /-?? J n \. ^--'^ ' t 

*. Jt.ipi fc jT4. V.*. 1 fl i ^ <i ** . -^> , .'i r*l. ~ - *.,* 






rv^^^'C^^L^? 

< ' " ' - 






< 



No. 34. ] AMODA PLATES OF JAJALLADEVA II OF THE (CHEDI) YEAE 912. 213 



35 



23 

24 
25 
26 

27 ^ 1(1) prt 

28 

29 

30 

81 
32 
33 



; n(0 n: *T(*n)<mgimrwin: 



; (t) 



U 



f) 



tmfw: 



H [l*] 



n9 g 



IRS II 



1 



1 Metre Sragdh<*r&. 
Metre Upendravqjr& 
Metre Indravajrfr, 
Metre ^ wwAf^A. 
Metre A nwtyvbh. 
Read 



Metre Jtryel. 

Metre Jr^ 

Metre 



ao Metre A nusfyubh. 
u Metr6 



]BP!GRAI1IU IND1CA, [VOL. XIX. 



36 
37 x 



No. 85,-A NOTE ON THE VELYIKBKE GBABfT OF NEDUNJADAIYAN. 



BY A. M. S'ATAKOPAEAMAlSrTTJACHAETA, 

In the interesting article on the VeJviktKji grant of Ne"$u!lja4aiya, that was published 
In this journal 3 by the late Rao Bahadur H, Krishna Sastri, I find that some corrections are 
absolutely necessary in the text and the translation as given by him. These I should like to 
put down, below, together with a few suggestions in regard to one or two points raised by him 
in that article* 

In text line 95, for J#a, I should like to read J[y, and in line 132 for p$r, pom. Again, in 
lint) 120 of the text, instead of jffw|awe?atvaA-J?filt?awdtoi-^[y*]JE^w, I would read kuJtandai-vangul 
vwda-iaifckimi) correcting Kulandai and mwdai*>$e of the text into fatlandai and vandatai. 
Accordingly, in the translation of this passage, instead of * to the north of the field (called) 
Kujvandai-fiey of KuJandSvang*, I would prefer to have * waved (gently) by the tender 
btuze '(Mfiwwfaisatender, w%#Jbreeze, [mndu] a&&iKkum** waving). 

According to the Rao Bahadur, the Mangalapura of the inscription is identical with 
Mangalore, the district head-quarters of South Kanara* Mr, K. G. Sankara Ayyar also, I find, 
holds- the? same view/ In my opinion,, however, it* should be looked for soiaewh$re to the Tamil 
districts, 4 north of the KavSri, where we find many villages called Mangalam or having 
names ending in ' Mangalam \ because from the UdaySndiram plates* we leani that ParamSA. 
vaaavarnaan defeated the army of YallabhB in the battle of Peniva)anallur y on the northern bank 
of the Eaveri, and from the Gadval grant 6 , that VikramSditya was encamping at " Uraga* 
puram on the southern bank of the Kaveri " in 671 A.D. The Kendur plates 7 also say 
timt Yikramaditya I fought. with the PS^.4yaS an'd- odief Tamil' kingg. 8 



1 These strokes are unnecessary. Metre Sragdhara. 
*VelXVnpp. 291 & 



* [The plates do not my where Maigalapura vaa situated. As such, it is not pogaibte t<x definitely locate 
it. The MentiacatioBtof it witL Mangfrlore or any place in the Tamil districts IB only a ooc^ture, K. Y. S. 
Ayyar.] 

^.I.I.,Vol.n f p.37L 

Above, Vol. X, p. 101. 

*IfcittVoJ.IX,p.m 

Foi inrthtr details see DnbreuiF s The 'Pdlaws, p, 6L 



.No. 86.] KUMBAKONAM INSCRIPTION OF SEWAPPA-NAYAKA. 2ItS 

No. 36. KtTMBAKONAM INSCRIPTION OF SfiVVAPPA-HAYAKA. 

BY G. VSNKOBA Rio* 

Ttie subjoined Tamil rebotd 1 is engtaved on the door-jamb 6f the Entrance into the inner 
of the KumbheSvara temple at Kumbakonatn. It is dated in the cyclic year ViktaMa 
during the reign of Adw^pa-NSy^ka,- -frho was the first ruler of the N&yaka djhaifcty 
of Tanjore. The stone inscription (No. H5 of 1924) which is dated in the same cyclic ye&r and 
in the reign of Kpsh^adevaraya (corresponding to A.D, 1520) calk Sevvappa, a Dalavay 
(c6mmander) only. Possibly, therefore, the present record has to be assigned to AJX 1580, 
especially, because a copperplate record belonging to him and dated in Saka 1502 (-A.D. 15#Q) 
was also issued from Kumb&konam 2 . 

The history of the Nayakas of Tanjore remains yet to be written in detail) 3 although an 
excellent preliminary attempt has been made in A Short History of the fanjore NatfaJcas in 
Tami 1 by Mr. T. S. Kuppusvami Sastri of Tanjore. How and when the Nayaka dynasty of "Tanjoro 
arose is obscure. An unpublished Sanskrit poem Sahityaratnakara by the eldest soa of Govinda- 
Dlkshita, the Brahman prime-minister of the second and third Nayaka kings, says that Sevvappa 
obtained the Tanjore kingdom by his own valour. The Telugu poem Vijayavilasamu 
by Chemakiira Venkata-Kavi would show that $ewappa married the sister of the queen of the 
Vijayanagara king Achyutaraya, and got the Tanjore principality, perhaps, as a dowry. 

Like other old kings, Sevvappa was a tolerant ruler, though his leaning was specially to- 
wards Vaishgavism, Inscription No, 425 of 1924 relates to some gifts of land made by Sewappa 
to the mosque at Tanjore in the year Sadharana corresponding to A.D. 1549, and the record under 
publication is interesting in that it mentions a temple of Buddha at Tiruvilandupi. It regis- 
ters the gift of 2| (veli ?>j>f land as the charity of the king SeWappa-Nayaka in the Brahman 
village (agaram) of Tirumalairappuram for the repairs or the worshipping service in the 
temple {?), when a channel wi*s dug through the lands belonging to a certain individual (name not 
very clearly made out) attached to the Buddha 4 temple. The two villages Tiruvilandusai and 
Tirumalairajapuram cannot be definitely identified. TiruvalanjuU, which is 4 miles a/way from 
Kumbakonam, and was one of its wards 5 , ha a standing image of Buddha placed near the g&pura 
ol its Siva temple. Tiruvilandujai of this inscription has, perhaps, to be identified with 
Elandujai, a village about 9 miles distant from Kumbakonam which has a $iva temple with an 
inscription dated in Saka 1493 (A.D. 1571) of the time of Achyutappa-Nayaka (No. 239 of 
1927)* It may also be noted that Ilantu^ai has been mentioned in No. 222 of 1927 as one of the 
soptastMnas or seven sacred places round about Kumbakonam, I cannot say whether the Tiru- 
malairajapuram of this record has to be identified with Tirumalairajapuram alias Sungam- 
tavirtta66janallur which is mentioned in an inscription published in South-Indian Inscriptions, 
VoL II, p. 119, as adjacent toKaruntittaikku4iinTanjavur-paxru There is one seated image in 
the temple at Patti^varam near Kumbakonam, and another, now popularly called Bhagavajishi, 
lying outside the Ga&e&a shrine in the JLiaaiyadi street at Kumbakonam, both of which appear 
to be Buddhist* From these facts, it appears that Buddhism continued to survive in the 
Tanjore district till the 16th century. This would be natural when Negapatam in the Tanjore 
district was a stronghold of Buddhism. The large Leyden plates record the grant of the village 

-,- --.-. .--. -jf- ..i.. ,r i_.i.j." .jir.-j.T .-i-." -" " ...--- ---- -n --.. : ..-T.I-- -.IT.-, --.n i..-.mm-T.:-.Tiir-T-j-jrLrJT]ini"-ii ' r r "' T.. - ".:: :. " |-|T i B __ 

1 No. 292 of the Madras Epigraphical Collection for 1927. 
4 Mysore Archoed'ogical Repoit for 191 7* p. 55, para. 135. 

* A paper OE the detailed history of the Tanjore Nayakas by the author is almost ready, and -will apf ear 
very soon in this journal, 

4 In Tamil it is sometimes loosely applied to a Jaina temple al?o. 

* $fos. 629 and 633 of the Madras Epigraphical Collection Cor 1902. 



2W BPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [Tot XIT 

of Inaimangalam to a Buddha temple at Negapatain during the time of the Chola king Rajaraja 
I (AD. 9854010). Tha smaller Leyden giant dated in the 20th year of KulSttuAga I (A,D. 
1090) records gifts to two Buddhist temples. An ancient tower known as * Puduve}ig5puram ' 
or * Jaina Pagoda * was demolished by the Jesuits when they built the St. Joseph's College at 
Negapatam. 1 This tower might have belonged to one of these two Buddha temples. It Is 
interesting to note that a number of metallic Buddhist images were unearthed at this place 
recently. 

Though Jain families are living in Tan j ore, Eumbakonatn and Mannargudi even now, and 
we see Jain temples at Kumbakonam and Mannargudi, yet traces ol Buddhism are no longer 
visible there. 

The record bears at the end the expression " (the) GurukkaJ, (&.&, teachers) of the Conven- 
tion ", perhaps of Buddha. 



TEXT. 4 

1 VikMja- 15 nda-Nayakar- 

2 ma-varusham 16 nilatti[l]5 

3 [I]$-madam* 2- 17 Tirumalai- 

4 2* OL* 18 rafiapura[ttu] 

5 Sevuvap- 6 19 

6 pa-Nayak- 20 ga 

7 kar-ayya- 21 vakkal ve- 

8 5-damma- 22 [tfi] pogaiyil Ti- 

9 m*aga !Ji- 23 rumalairaiapurattil 

10 ruvilau- 24 agarattil tirup- 

11 dujai- 25 paijd4ervai= 

12 Buddar* 26 aga vi[i?ta] nilam 8 

13 kSyil- 27 [sa]mayattar Guru- 

14 Etta-M5[ma]ra- 28 kkal 61. 



VRANSLATION. 

(Lineo 1 to 26) (On) the 22ad day of the month of igi in the year Vikrama, all the people ol 
TiruinakirSjapuram assigned 2| (t$$ of) land in the brahman village (agaram) of Tirumalairaja* 

Ind. A**., Vol VII, pp. 224-27 and Amud R&p&rt m South-Indian Epigraphy for 1925-26, p. 2. 
9 From &n inkod estampa^e. 

* Expressed by an abbreviated symbol 

*The figure 22 is axprawed ia tie Tamil text by three digits, the numerical figure for ten intervening b$twen 
the tiro figures* 

8 This symbol stands for the word tedi meaning day, 

* Bead &&wap 9 , 

It may ** r*ad al?o 

* E tpresaed by an abbreviated symbol 

* Sxpiwtod by & Tamil numeral. 



No. 37,] GADAG INSCRIPTION OF THE REIGN OF JAYASIMHA II : SAKA 959. 217 

puram for repairs 1 as a charity 2 of Sevvappa-Nayakkar-ayyan as the channel was dug and 
passed through the land 3 belonging to 4 Tltta Mamarunda-Nayakar of the Buddha temple at 
TiruvilandusaL 

(LL 27 and 28) (This is under the protection of) the Gumkkal of the Faith (samayam). 



No. 37.GADAG INSCRIPTION OF THE REIGN OF JAYASIMHA II : SAKA 959. 

BY LIONEL D. BAENETT. 

Ttis inscription was found in the wall of the yard of the Vira-narayana temple at Gadag. 5 
An attempt at a transcript is given in the Elliot Collection, Vol. I, f . 37b. of the Eoyal Asiatic 
Society's copy : and good ink-impressions were prepared for the late Dr. Fleet, which are now 
in tlie British Museum. The stone is very dilapidated. On the ink-impression there seem to 
be some faint vestiges of effaced sculptures ; but Elliot's pandit found no sculptures surviving 
in "his day. The record itself is but a fragment. The ink-impressions record 64 lines ; but the 
stone has been broken off on the proper right, the break beginning on line 13 and increasing as 
it runs down, while the left side also is damaged below. I have therefore given only the text aa 
far as the eleventh verse, near the end of 1. 38, the rest being altogether fragmentary. The 
width of the slab is 2 ft. 5| in. ; the height is somewhat uncertain, as there seems to be a gap 
in tlie ink-impressions between 11, 43 and 4A, but it must be something over 6 ft, 8 in. The 
writing is a fine archaic hand of the period ; the letters vary in height from f in. to i in,, 
becoming smaller and more crabbed at line 61. The guttural nasal is used in satanga* 1. 4. 
The language in the portion edited below is Old Kanarese prose and verse, with two forma! 
Sanskrit stanzas (vv. 1 & 2). The ] is preserved in negalda (I 26), negaldam (1. 27), and falsely 
written for I in Chaluty- (1. 2) ; it is changed to I in alida (1. 15), pel (1. 24), pogaf/var (1. 25). 
The upadhmdnlya appears in bhavinah*p (L 17). The instrumental case in -e occurs in 
LoT$ki[gu?i(li\ije (1. 19 .) ; of. above, Vol. XIV, p. 277, n. 9. Lexically adagu[nti] (I 21) may 
be noted. 

The record begins by referring itself in 11. 1-4 to the reign of JagadekamaUa-JayasiAglia 
[II],* and then in 11. 4-11 relates that on a given date Maddimayya-Nayaka, mayor (w-oteya) 
of Lokkigu^idi, made over 7 an estate to one DmSdara-Setti, who a few months later assigned 
the same for the benefit of the cult of the Traipurusha gods and the Twelve Narayanas, After 
formal clauses of commonition (11. 11-18), the record bursts into poetry, expatiating, in a long 
series of verses, upon the excellences of Damodara (also named Dama and D&vala) and his 
family. First it mentions Dhoyipayya of Lokkigtiii^i, who built the temple of the Twelve 
Narayanas and the Traipurushas and set up a Garudla-column (v. 3, 11. 19-21), and Dhoyi- 
payya's'wife Gti^bbe (v. 4, 11. 21-23). Next appears Mibtiva-Setti, apparently their son, 
who is coupled with his sons Dlma or Divala (Dlmddara) and Dfc5yipayya (vv. 5-6, 11. 24- 

1 Tiruppawervai may also be translated into " worshipping service," 

2 It is generally translated as ** for the merit of ". 

* Tamil language will also allow of another construction. " The people of Tirumalairajajmram " may be 
taken as the subject of the predicate " dug and passed " and vefti pogaiyil will convey the same meaning aa 
vtttwg**!/* 1 (while digging). In this case, there will be no subject for the verb wtfa (assigned). But then we will 
have to translate " 2f was the land assigned. 9 ' 

4 Titta ^tands for tirtfia (a preceptor) and Mamarunda means Amrita, 

6 Cf . above, Vol, XV, p. 348, See Dyn, Ean, DM., pp. 435-7. 7 Sse however note on 1 7, 

3 



218 



IP1GKAPHIA INDIGA. IT *" 



27). The rest of the poetry seems to be devoted to tie praise of Dama, and continues as far as 
1. 61. Tien begins a section in prose, written in a smaller hand, and specifying an endowment 
made by the latter in the presence of the local MaMjmas for the benefit of the Traipurushas 
and soztfe other go'd j in the' midst of thi th6 stone breaks off, 

It is perhaps worth noting that the poet compares Mahuva to the legendary Dadhichi, 
Gutta, Charudatta, and Karna, and Dama to Karija, Vikramaditya, Harifchandra, Nala, 
ChaiaSatta, Ba'dMchi, fifoi, and Gtattt. The comparison with Jtarna and Nala is of course a 
commonplace, and HariSehaadra is one of the most popular figures of legend. On Charudatta 
and Dadhichi I may refer to my retoaifcs on the 8u<Ji inscription E (2) above, VoL XV, 
p, 83. The mention of Vikramaditya, which seldom occurs elsewhere in this period, shews 
tlitfb tie legend of the mythical king o! that na'me had firmly established itself at this^time in 
the 0ekkan. It may well be that the legend, as has beet suggested, is based upon traditions of 
the Gupta dynasty of the 4th-5th centuries A.D. and later, some members of which bore the title of 
Vikramadityaj 1 and if tins Be so, its appearance here by the side of that of Gutta is doubly 
Interesting, For there seems to be little doubi! that this legendary Gutta is to be connected 
with the Gutta dynasty of (Juttavolal or GFutt&l, probably as an eponymotts ancestor ; and this 
family claimed to derive its name and origin from the Gupta emperors as well as fronl a more 
or less mythical Vikramaditya of Ujjayml, 2 Hence it would seem that the two legends of 
Vikram&ditya and of Gutta are doublets, b'otli having sprung fiom vrigue memories ,of the 
glories of the Gupta emperors, 

Two dates are specified. The first is given on 11 4-5 as Saka 95'9, ISvara ; IsMrfha 6u. 
5 ; Sunday. This apparently refers to Saka 959 expired, which by the Southern Cycle was 
coupled with l&vara ; according to this, the tiifti Ishadha &1. 5 was connected with Monday, 
June 20, A.D. 1037, ending about 19 h. 38 m. after mean sunrise for Ujjain. Tfius the date 
is slightly irregular, the Sunday being named probably to lend auspiciousness, although the 
tithi was current only fot a short time at the end of it (ci Mr. Venkatasubbiah's Some Sakd 
Dates in Inscriptions, p. 60). The late lamented Mf . R. Sewell, who with his wonted kindness 
examined the dates in this inscription, informed me that by the Arya-siddhanta very similar 
restdts are obtained ; Su. 5 was connected with Monday, June 20, and was current oily for about 
1 h. 55 in. before mean sunrise on that day. He added that by the mean system, in $aka 959 
expired, in. 5 began 3 h. 50 m. before mean sunrise on Monday. The Northern Cycle? may be 
excluded from consideration, as it coupled ISvara with iaka 957 expired and 958 current. 

The second date is given on L 11 as the am&vSsya (k?l 15) of i&vayuja, evidently of the 
same year as the preceding date, coupled with an eclipse of the sun and the yfiga Vyat'p&ta* 
This is fairly satisfactory. The^i was connected with Tuesday, 11 October, A.D. 1037, on 
which it ended about 15 h, 26 m. after mean sunrise ; and on the same Tuesday there wafc 
an eclipse of the sun, which, however, was not visible in India (Oppolzer, Kanon der Fimternuse, 
p. 214). Mr. Sewell has pointed out that by the mea'n system this Tuesday was coupled with 
Iqt 14 and the f ollowing Wednesday with the amavasya, which tends to shew that the calculations 
here weie made by true tithis. 

The only names of places mentioned are Lokli!gti^i D. 5, 19 f ., the twthad, L 13 f the 
Himicliala, i.e. Himalaya, L 32, and Malaya, ibid. Lokkigui^i is Lakku<Ji (* Ltikoondee * 
of the luclan Atlas), in Iat.l523' and long. 75 45|', some 6 miles south-east from Gadag. 
ludrakila (L 30) i& probably meant to be purely mythical ; but there is a hill of the name at 
Bezwiida. 

i See tspadalfcr Mr. Allan's Catalogue of Coins of the Ovpto ltyn**tk* in the Bnfyl Museum, p, xli,n, I, 
* See Dyn. Kan. Di*l, t pp. 578-80. 



No. 57.] GADAG INSCRIPTION 01 THE EBKHST OF JAYASIMHA II : SAKA 959. 



TEXT. 1 

[Metres : v. 1, Salinl ; v. 2, Anushtubh ; vv. 3, 7, fSardtil-awfolQita ; w. 4, 12, 
lamala ; vv. 5, 11, Champakamala ; v. 6, Kanda ; vr. 8, 10, Matt$>havitoi4ita ; v. 9, 

Svasti samasta-bhuvan-a&raya Sri-Pri(Pri)tlivi-v J allabha mahaiajadlikaja 

paraine^vara 
2 paramabhattarakam Satyaraya-knla-tilakaih Ghaiu(Iu)ky-abharanam Jagadkar 



3 Srlmaj-Jayasirngliadevara ra]yam=uttarottar-abhi[vpddlii*]-pravarddhaniaiiama- 

chandr-arkka-t[a]- 

4 rani saluttam-ire Sa:Sa)ka*nri(n?i)pa-kal-S.tIta-samvatsarasa(a)taiiga[|*] 

959neya Isvara-sariivatsarada 

5 Ashada(dlia)-su(sLi}ddha 5 Aditya-varadandu Sr!mal-*Lokkigu^^y a iir-ode-volada 

per-vvasugeya 

6 Sa(Sa)mkarayyam(yya)-NIyakara magaih iir-0(Jeya Maddimayya-NSyakam 

artttainam kondu Damddara- 

7 Settiyargge sasirvvara sannidhanadal kal-garclicliagi danaiii-go^4 a ^ 2 keyi mattar* 

ayvatt-a^u a[m]- 

8 kadolam matta[r*] 56 a keyge jbeim=ijkkeyilla bfiimirkkey*eiidavaja svana 

gardnebha 3 cka^dajafrii*] I- 

9 da^a vyavasthe intutu [ 1 * ] Int*a bhiimiyaiii ko^u Tiaipurnsha-dSvatggaiJi J>axaha- 

Naiaya^a-devar^u- 

10 pacharadim mikkudarii bralimanar*U9ba[r*] [ I * ] Int4(I) s[th]itiyal Damodara-Setti 

bhtLmi-danaiii-go- 

11 tta tithi lsva(Sva)yujad*amavasye stryya-graha?ta-vyatipataiii latu ko^a 

diarmmavarii sasi- 

12 rv[v]arum rakshisuvar [J*] lEt^da^akama-guru-diarmma-prati(^^ ara(sa)d- 

ach,aranum*ollitta[m]ge 4 

13 [vya]bhichariyuih bliaksliakan^ad^ataiii" Prayage Varaijasi Argghyatirtliaiii 

Kurukshetra[iiL] 

14 [Pu]slikararii Sriparwatam-emba maba-tirtttaiiigaloi c^attH-yvSda-j>arftgaramaifa 

pannirchchlxaaiia Jkavi- 

15 [le]yumaa*a}ida patakarii sva-dh^rmmp-dol rakshiaidan, 6 -! t!rtthaiigttlamtt[jii] i(i)y 

ayadha(ta)namumani 

16 [iakshi]8ida5 maM-pii#y-adijb^ || SamaBy5*y^ifi dhannma-i5tu[r*J 

p n^i (uny i )p^^T" JkalS ia[J] 

17 [pala]ulyo bhavadbhi^ {!*] ssa(sa)rvvan*etan=bhavka^paittIiiV5[iii*]dran bMyS 

bhSyo yachatS 



1 From the ink-fonpressio^, * Apparently an error for -g 

4 Read #vaw gwQfabw * The gr* IB ^Udeii, in aiaaUler scrip.!, undbr the i?*o. 

* T]t* si has been omitted, and added in omiUJ ecript wider fcLe line, 

3D2 



EHGBAPHIA INDICA. 

a _- JIJIUL ., LIM u mi j_ _^__^__ __ __^_ 1T| _ i[u||| _ __ _ 

18 Emaoha3dia[h*] || [1*] Sva-datt[a*]ih para-datt[a*]rii va yo hareta vasun- 
dhararfi shashtirowarslia-sahasra?! vishtiiayairi jayate 1 krimi* [||* 2*] 



19 &Imat-pergga<3.e Dhayipayyan-adMkaih dharmmlkan-udyau-mahagramarfi 
Lokkifeu]- 



20 [*4i]ye nutarii kyrtti-dhvajarii sad-guijt-eddamaA dvadaaa(6a)- Vish^uvarfx Garu4a- 

mana-stambhamam etbapi[s J 

21 [ ]mam GCraipmusliarkka]am niUsidaih 8 pu9.y-adhika dhatriyoj || [3*1 I 



22 [ya 1]* pergga^e Dh5yipayyan=uddama-kulakke tafcka sati mikka patibrate Jaina- 
danfi-dharmm-aniiite- 5 

33 [? VTi]ddM-chaihdrike Gu^ilbbe gu^-adhike sanda Eugmi^I'-ramege Eama-rameg- 
e^ey-endode mattaran-enan-embenS || [4*] 

24 [w w w] Dadhichi puttidano Gutfcane bandaao OharudattaaS [n]iratiAay-lrkka- 
nandanano 



25 [kata]mosed=ittanatana magaih vibudt-agragiy^endu Damaih(ma)naiSi karam-atira- 

gadiiii pogajvar gn-esav-aatanQ pu- 

26 [? 9 ya]m-antaii5 || [5*] MShuva-Sefciya magan^tiaaiasikam negajda Dhayipayyan=' 

amarmmaifi mahatra[y*]-arjjita-gu^a-[saih> 

27 [dSk&] dhareg-eseye Davalaifc sale negajdaih [[) 6*]^gil.kanta-kamaniyam-adudu 

viaaj-5ra[8*]-sthajaih tanna vak Sii-ka[nta-ka], 

?8 [ma]myam-adudu mnkh-ambh5jatamudyaj.jaya-rl.kanta-rama9iyamadudu btma- 
da^daih, dig-ant[aii P] ^ 

29 [ya]Sa[6*]4rI-kanta-]aB(mnIyam=adudadajmd=gnpajxian^ddaman.5 I! [7*1 Sura- 
rSjendra-mad-ebha-mastakadoUr-] 

[dig-da^ti-dantaAgalol-Hara^ugr-asiyo^MdrakUa-tatadol-Nireiaputr^^^ 

suayadoJ-Mvirari- " 

31 [ya ?] gri(gri)h-odya[d*]-dYaia.ba I idkaiii g alolbaredat*Va g -vadhu Davalarh snfiukJU 

maha-dan-S4ya(dliya}ne]iibariikama,ii 1 || [8*] Smra-raj-adrp> 

32 [ndra-Hi]machala-MaHla)ya-n8 g .5panta-TOlli - van - abhyantaradoMina - vin5darfiealole 

nelasi vidyadhara-strl- 

38 C X-"^-T- W W - 3 ^f^ 1 * 11 * P^aga-yuratiyaxuih paduTat-kkfi4e Dam6dara- 
kirtti-$iiyaneneiid-adaja 

84 tW y^-^^^^^^P^-^^HC 9 *] Mole-voyt-Aikkajaniiti pasuxprru 
vadedatt-5 Yikramaditya-bhutala-natli-5tg>[ai)i> 

56 [yiihw-w w wHtt-etta* Hariteliariidraiuii! Fajaniih pfitudu Charudatta- 
- kaytud-5 bhuii-bhutajadol 



b9etta4dJ below feline. r 

The baa been omitted, aad added below. Or posaiblv 

This is the common Soather* spelling for the Sanskrit Zu*mW 
] [ Beferenoe to inscription No. 30 of the Nagamangala Taluq (line 66) Up. Can VoL IV Pt H A it, 



No. 37.] GADAG INSCRIPTION OF THE EEIGN OF JAYASIMHA II : SAKA 959. 221 

36 [w www 6]dara-kajpa-drumam |j [10*] Kali-yugam=ettamottarisi loba(bha)- 

gn^iam jagam^ellanaam p[w ] 
S7 [w w w w w vi]sliama-kaladolaiii budha-samkulakkanakulam=osed=iva 



38 [w w w w w] Dadhichiyo Si(Si)biyo Kaijnano Guttano Charudattano || [II*] 1 

TRANSLATION. 

(Lines 1-4.) While the reign of hail ! the refuge of the whole world, darling of Fortune 
and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of Satya&raya's race, 
embellishment of the Chaiukyas, king Jagadekamalla-JayasiBgha, was advancing in a 
course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) as long as moon, sun, and stars : 

(LI. 4-5.) On Sunday, the 5th (day) of the bright fortnight of Ashacjha in the 
cyclic year Xvara, the 959th (year) of the centuries of years elapsed since the time 
of the Saka Mng : 

(LI, 5-8.) Sankarayya NSyaka's son, the mayor MaddimayyaNayaka, having received 
money, laved the feet of DSmSdara Setti in the presence of the Thousand, and (?) made over 
(to him) in gift a field of fifty-six mattar, in numbers 56 mattar, (forming part) of the large 
section of the mayoral lands of Lokkig-un<JL Of this field there is to be no resumption : be 
that claims resumption (shall be reborn as) a dog, an ass, (or) a Chandala, 

(LI. 8-16.) Thus is its constitution. Having so obtained this land, what remains from 
the service of the Twelve Narayaija gods for the Traipurusha gods 2 the Brahmans shall consume. 
The lunar day on which Damddara Setti thus granted the land on this condition was the last 
of the dark fortnight of ISvayuja, (during) an eclipse of the sun and a vyatipsta (yogd). The 
Thousand shall preseryg the pious endowment thus granted. So lie who devours it, in. dis- 
obedience to the worthy man who preserves the holy law of the masters of his order and acts 
righteously, incurs the guilt of slaying (Brahmans) versed in the Four Vedas and twelve 
thousand kine at the great sanctuaries of Prayaga, Benares, Arghyatlrtha, Kumkshetra, 
Pushkara, and Sriparvata ; he who preserves it according to its proper rule shall abound in the 
same great merit as if he preserved those esanctuaris and those temples, 

(Verses 1-2 : two common Sanskrit formulae.) 

(V. 3,) The fortunate officer Dh6yipayya, peculiarly righteous, praised fitly by the 
exalted great town Lokkigu^di, having a b inner of glory, eminent in virtue, extraordinary in 
merit on earth, erected (a temple of) the twelve Vish^us (and) a column of honour for Garuda 
and , . . established (a sanctuary of) the Traipurushas. 

(V. 4.) The good wife worthy of the eminent race of the officer Dhdyipayya, that 
perfection of the display of dignity, uniquely devoted to her lord, moonlight for the increase (\) 
of the ambrosia of pious bounty to Jains, singular in virtue, Gunabbe, is peer to the excellent 
dame Rukmim, (and) to Rama's dame : when this is said, what other shall I name ? 

(V. 5.) " Say, . . . has a Dadhichi been born ? has a Gutta come, (or) a Charudatta, 
(or) the unsurpassed child of the Sun [Karna] ? "with men speaking thus, Mahuva gladly* 
indeed bestowed wealth on suitors ; as his son s a leader among the sages, men extol Darn a 
indeed with extreme affection ; who is his like in distinction, who is his like in righteousness ? 

(V. 6.) While MShuva-Setti' son, the exceedingly valiant (and) eminent Dhdyipayya 
free from weaknesses, possessing a multitude of virtues won by nobility of soul, was flourishing 
on earth 8 D&vala verily became eminent* 

> The rest of the inscription, which is continued on this and tho remaining lines, is hero oinitied, as it IP 
ve-y fragmentary. 

2 Brahrnftu, Vfchpu, and Sivo. 3 [See footnote 7 on page 220 



BP1GBAPPI4 INDtCA, fVpt. 



(V. 7.) His broad breast .was worthy of being desired by the lady Fortune { hifc speech 
was worthy of [being <?esired by the lady] Fortune ; the lotus of his face* 1 was worthy of tjie 
love of that lady the Fortune of high Victory ; his rod-like ana, extending through the regions 
of space, was worthy of being desired by that lady the Fortune of Glory ; thus how sptendid is 
Blina ! 

(V. 8.) On the head of the rutting elephant of tie great King of Gods, on the tusks of 
the elephants of the regions of space, on Hara's awful swoyd, on the slope of Indrakfla, on the 
cosmic egg of the Lotus-born [Brahman], on the home of the great Serpents [Patala], on the 
high door-posts of Murari's house, the lady Speech has written the title : "" Davala ig purei jich 
in great bounty," 

(V. 9.) Standing in divers sports amidst the groves of creeping plants on the sjorus ol 
the great mountain of the King of the Gods, of Himalaya, and of Mount Malaya, do not the 
wives of the Vidyadharas and the company of ladies of , . \ and the Serpent damsels sing 
in concert the splendour of Damodara's glory 1 hence who is able to praise (fittingly) itr 
[greatness] 1 

(V. 10.) The noble tree of desire . . . , throwing out its sprouts through the child 
of the Sun [Karoa], attained to greenness through Vikramaditya chief of monarchs, . . * . 
everywhere from Harichandra, flowered through Nala, put forth greeji fruit through tie lo;rd 
Charudatta, [and ripened into perfect fruit] through Dixna . , . on this vast earth. 

(V. 11.) Is not Pama, who makes gifts with calm delight to the company of 
even in [this] troublous time, [when] the Kali Age is rife everywhere and the quality 
greed ^pervades ] the whole universe ... to this world, a DadMchi, a $ibi, a Kar$&, 
Gutta, a Charudatta ? 



No. 38.-TWQ INSCRIPTIONS FKOM EON, OF SAKA 944 AND 1102. 

BY LIOKEL D, BARNETT. 

Bon (the word is spelt " Roan " in the Indian Atlas sheet 41) js the chief town of the 
taluka in Dharwar District, Bombay Presidency, and lies in lat. 15 42' and long. 75 47'. Both 
the present epigraphs, which are now edited from ink-impressions bequeathed by the late 
Dr. Fleet to the British Museum, come from the local temple of Kvara, From notes on the 
ink-impressions it appears that at the time when the impressions were taken both the stonep 
were on the outside of the temple ; the introductory note to the imperfect transcript of P. in 
the Elliot Collection (Vol. II, fd. 93b. in the Royal Asiatic Society's copy) states that ElKot'* 
agent found it " in the stone temple standing in front of the Re4<Jiyavar's house in Eo? ". 

A OP THE RETGN OP JAYASIMHA II : SAKA 944. 

Thus record is imperfect ; the latter part of the stone is missing, and it is moreover cracked 
across the middle. The inscribed area is about 2 ft. 7 in. wide, and the maximum heigh* of 
what remains is about 3 ft. 1 in. There seems to be no trace of any sculptures. The character 
is Kanarese : lines 1-28 are written in a fair sloping hand typical of the eleventh century, with 
letters of an average height of f in., and underneath them are portions of thiee more lines 



*[ We may construe tLe sentence as ; tanna vi&il-Srasthalam Srikanta^kamanlyam^adudu, 
bhdjatarh Vak.6nkanta-kamaDiyamaadudu tanna bhuj-ada^clam udyaj-Jaya&rikanta''kaii]aBlyam'4Uudu > etc,, 
and translate it accordingly >*- 



Nd. 88.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS FROM RON : SARA 944 AND 1102. 



iff slightly smaller 4ml mof e crammed fcand,- ^e&affe 4 later tfddrtfon. % tety Bttfe 
can be made out of the latter, I give only the text of 11. 1-28. The b$%wag is 



t*0 formal Sanskrit stands' (vv. JO anti II); The | is preserved w negoi$- (H. 6, 21 i)f, 
and ajida (1. 20) ; it appears' as J in pogaMar (I 10) fiid j&pafoj (t Si): Wirmmadhyam 
(L 18y is a rate "but classical Sanskrit word. In tandega mdftida llbum^^mrMh (L 34) we fiav* 
an example of the use of the genitive for nominative to which I haTz* catted attefcii* ife foum. 
Royal Asiat. Soc., 1918, p. 105. 

The record opens by referring itself to the reign of the Ghijtfkyja JagadSk^ifi^ttadeva 
(Jayaaimha II) (11, 1-5). It then describes in verse the town of BSiju*, th motterfe 
Ro$ (1L 3-5), and the virtues of an eminent local Brahman named A^varspofia anct Iris son 
SaAkixriayyi, the latter of whorf constructed a temple t>6' the MfilwtMM god fis R6$ 
(11. 5-10). Sankimayya had an elder brothet named MSchimayya, whose yoimger Brother 
was aefttfdmayya ; and Machimayya- granted land for a rest-house for Brahma^s (11 10-14). 
Next follow prose details of Machimayya's gift of some lands and three o'il-rfcills, etc., for th e 
maintenance of the temple of Siva, the trustees being the Hundred-and-four burgesses of 
Ron (11. 14-20). Next come three verses (11. 20-25), from which we learn that he also constructed 
a well, and that his three sons Aytavarma, Rudf amayya, and Dlchimayya made over $ieir 
father's land-endowment to the custody of the Hundred-and-four ; apparently there had been 
some delay in the formal transfer of the estates granted by MacMmayya, and probably he died 
in the interim. After this come two concluding Sanskrit stanzas (11. 25-27), and then begins 
a HeW section, of which the first Tfersfc (11, 27-28) speaks of a certain RaviMya-Bhafla, as pos- 
sessing some estate. From this point the stone becomes more and more dilapidated : there 
remain Only fragments of three more lines, which I have not thought worth while to print, as 
they give no consecutive sense. It is noteworthy that these three lines are in a slightly smaller 
and inote crabbed hand than the rest of the record, as I have remarked above. The rest of thp 
stone has been lost, and hence it is impossible to determine the exact date when the epigraph 
in its present form was set up. Apparently it was intended as a composite record of the various 
charities of the family. The reference to the reigning king in 1L 1-3 and the character of the 
script shew that it cannot be later than about Saka 964, and we have Saka 944 as a terminus 
ad quo ; hence it may be reasonably assigned to a date about midway between these limits. 

The date of the first donation is given on 11. 14-15 as : Saka 944, Dundubhi ; Pushya ba. 
14 ; Monday ; the uUaraya^a-sarfikranti. This i not perfectly regular, but may be accepted. 
The titU specified corresponded t& Tuesday; 26 December, A.D. 1022, whereas the sdrhkran* 
ti occurred 1 h. 8 m. after mean sutftise on Monday, 24 December ; but as the ttihi ba. 14 
began 3 h. 15 m: after me?ra sunrise on the Monday and ended 2 L 54 m. after mean dunrise* thus 
being current for 20 h. 45 m. on the Monday, the confusion is pardonable. 1 

Only two plrfces are mentioned, viz: Ro$a, the modern Hog. (li. 4 r 9, 16, 21); and a spot of 
which the name began with Pushpa- (1. 16), 

TEXT. 2 

[Metrfes: w. 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, Kanda; w. 2, 8, Ulwmpakwtiala ; v. S, SardufaviJcriilita ; 
v. fj, Matt$bhavikri$ita ; *v. 10, 11, AnushtubL] 

1 [0*Q] Svasti samasta-bhuvan-a&raya 5ri-Ppth^n[-vallftbha maMr&j&d&irSja para* 
meSvara paramabha- 

1 1 have again to thank Mr, R. Sewell, who unhappily has died since this papa? waa mitten, for hia kindness 
i n checking my calculations in this paper* 

2 From the ink -impression. 



224 EPIGRAPH1A INDICA. [Vox,. XIX. 



2 [$baka]di Satya&raya-bila-tilakaiti cata}uky-abhara^ari 6rimaj-Jagadkamalia-~ 

devara vijaya-iafya- 

3 [m*iitta]r-6tfcar4bMv^^ saluttam-ire I 

J\axfcdani J SiI*rai3^Bi"prri lyaix aB i'~' 
^ E^^ Dva]ravatigam 8urndran*=Amaiavatigaih aararii dli'aia^i-vaniteya lara[ih] 



6 [Yasujmatiyol I (||) [I*] Vpttarii [I*] Empa maK-agraiiaramadarol=Vana- 



6 [ ^]r*ene kottajiaa*negaldol-gulakke mikk*anupama-dani 

Ivara dyan*A3rtava[r*]miiiaiie 

7 [pa]ram-arttliaiiien*i dhare bawisngnrii vibudh^agraga^ya^tiijaiii I (f|) [2*] 

Kandam I JLtaihge sujana-jana-vikhyataiiige jagaj*ja- 

8 [nj-aika-nuta-cliaritaiii akdhdhut-agha-nichayam=tirvvi-ktjatajii Sii-Saxiiki3nayyan=adaiik 

taaayam | (j|) [3*] KsMti-yatayaiii 

9 [ba]^psal-tumatiyaiii ma4isidan*esevinaiii Bo^adol^unnatam-ene Miila-stlian-ayatana* 



10 ae poga]adarar I (||) [4*] Vyittam | Atariig=,uiina[t]a-ldrttig=agra}aB 

udagiam MacMmayyaifi jagat-ktyatam 1 nirmmaja-dliarmman*atan*a- 

11 nujazti M-(^andimayy-Mkaii*uddhut-agh-aughan^ M-AUchi* 

mayyajix dyija-VTatakk*unnata-satra- 

12 bhiimiyaixidaiii bittaiti mah-6tsahadiih ! (||) [5*] Ocjalarh taih sucharitradol 



13 yol*bhaktlyan*eyde tandeyo^tidagrarfi cMttamaiii santataiii Mp<Ja-pad-abjadoJ~ 

avagam basanamara sad-dharmmaddjta- 

14 ididam gadad*e va^pea-awa aact-charitamaiii Ari-Machimajy-aihkanain I (}|) 

[6*] Ad*ent*e[ndodle] 1 Saka-varsha 944aeya Duiii- 

15 dubM*samYatsarada Pushyabalu4a 14 Sdmavaram-uttaraya^a-saiiifaama^adandtt 



sa- 



16 tradL ma^i bamd*5 R6na-ma{ado! 50 mattar*ddanada keyyu[ih*] devargge 

Pusipa . . teijokahm 2 mattamiii 335 kammada torii* 

17 tamub so4ar-e W ege 3 ghanamumam sarwa-bMha-pariharaih manyam mai 

^riman-nSp-nalTa^ge pada-pfije[ge*] 50 

18 gadya^afm] ponBam ko^a dhannmamaih rakshistivudendu nirmmadliyam* 

oppisidar-I dharmmamaih mkshisidayargge Prayage^Vara^asi- 

19 KiimkslietradoHasim kavfleya kodlum kulaguniam swar W adol khacMyisi sa- 



20 rgge 8firyya.gralia^do|=kotta piM(yam^[kT^ 
inaha-patakan*ak|Tt*]uili I Ka- 



H m 
pogajal Bdniada maijiyara nega- 

22 ^^xj^s 
23 



' Wrfttpn aa WTrftte words, jagat My&tam. 

Apparently com** , we . hon]d expect something Ufa, init^iwumtn. 



No. 38.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS FROM EON : SAKA 944 AND 1102. 



225 



24 [3ryan3atyanupamar=mt-ivarkramade tandeya ma^ida bhumi-danamam [j| 8*] 

Parirakshisi vipra-kalehara-bhanu-ga 

25 [bhasti nu^aj-nalvargg-atyadaradinde samarppisidar=paripalisimendu chandra- 

tara[m*>baregam [|| 9*] Slokam [1*] Sva-dattam 

26 [para-dattam va yo har]eta vasundharam j shashtir=vvarsha-sahasrani visbthayarii 

jayate krimih I (|j*) [10*] Akarasya karam(rf)- 

27 [karanam go-sahasra-vadhah smri]tah I kara-pravritti-vichcli3iedad*g6-k6ti*plialam* 

a&iute I (||*) [11*] Kandam I Nettane shan-masam mugi- 

* 28 C is>^> ^t, MM MM MM MM ^M ^^ M^ MM ] kat[t]-al=en[d]iim 
Ravikiya-bhattaiii Nirgufliyan^uwa neleyan^tinnam | (||) [12*] 1 



TRANSLATION. 

(Lines 1-3.) While the victorious reign of tail ! the refuge of the whole world, darling 
of Fortune and Earth, great Emperor, supreme Lord, supreme Master, ornament of Satya- 
6raya's race, embellishment of the Chalukyas, king Jagadekamalla, was advancing in a 
course of successively increasing prosperity, (to endure) for as long as moon, sun, and stars : 

(Verse 1.) More excellent than the Dvaravati of Lady Fortune's lover [Krishna] or than 
the Amaravati of Indra, a pearl-necklace for the Lady Earth, the blest R6:tia is conspicuous 
on earth. 

(V. 2.) The great Brahmapc fief so named in it are men perfect' (?) in the conduct 
(prescribed) by Manu among the scions of the race of the Lotus-born [Brahman] ; one of this 
company, a man of peerless charities excelling in that illustrious good family, kindly to cultured 
men, a god of givers (of bounty), is Aytavarma in supreme truth ; in such terms does the world 
laud that most eminent of sages. 

(V. 3.) To him, who was renowned among good men, there was a son, the blest 
Sankimayya, whose conduct was uniquely praised by the people of the world, who dispelled 
the mass of sin, famed on the earth. 

(V. 4,) With the circle of earth lauding (his) eminence, this Sanldmayya constructed 
a Mula-sthana sanctuary such as to be conspicuous for magnificence in R6na ; for this who are 
there that do not praise (Mm) ? 

(V. 5.) He, exalted of fame, had an elder brother, the stately MacMmayya, world- 
renowned, stainless in religion ; his younger brother, named the blest dxandimajya, is known 
as having dispelled the flood of sin. Of the two, this blest MSchimayya with great generosity 
granted to the company of Brahmajis the land for a magnificent rest-house, 

("V. 6.) He kept his hody in righteousness, his wealth in noble charity, truth in speech, 
devotion fittingly towards his father, an eager spirit ever towards Mpda's lotus-feet, passion ever 
for the good Law : verily, brother, how can I (worthily) extol the righteous 1 man bearing the 
name of the blest Machimayya ? 

(LI. 14-20.) As regards the manner thereof : On Monday, the Uth of the dark fort- 
night of Pushya, in the cyclic year DtmdubM, the 944th year of tfce Sajtea (era), at die 
utear&yana-sarhlcranti, having made a rest-house for twelve Brahma^s, ' and having come and 
made into an honorary estate for the god with immunity from all conflicting claims a com-field 

1 Tbt) atone contains portions of three more lines, possibly by a later hand, on wbich see above (p 223). 



226 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Vol. XIX. 

of 50 mattar ia the meadows of Rona and south of Pushpa ... 2 matter and a garden of 335 
ka,M>w and 3 oil-mills to supply oil for lamps, he granted 50 c/adydya of gold for adoration of the 
feet to the Hundred-and-four, which pious endowment they undertook directly to maintain. To 
those who maintain this pious endowment will accrue the merit of decorating with gold the 
horns and hoofs of a thousand kine at Prayaga, Benares, or Kurukshetra and giving them, during 
an eclipse of the sun, to a thousand Brahmans learned in the Vedas ; he who destroys it will 
bear the same deadly sin as if he destroyed the same number of them. 

(V. 7.) Machimayya, leader of the company of sages, with the applause of the circle 
of earth caused to be dug in the splendid park of the intendents of Ro^a a well, beneficial to the 
people of the world. 

(Vv. 8 & 9.) As this sage Machimayya's sons became distinguished, the lord Aytavarma 
praised by the people of the earth, the truly righteous Rudramayya, and'Dichimayya, a most 
unceasing dispenser of boons, a leader of sages in the world, were quite without peer : these 
four, in order preserving the land-endowment founded by (their] father, with the utmost respect 
transferred it to the [Hundred and] four, who are [rays] of the sun in the bodies of Brahmans,. 
bidding them guard it for as long as moon and stars endure. 

(Vv, 10, 11 : two common Sanskrit formulae.) 

(V. 12.) .... everywhere Ravikiya Bhatta has enjoyed the estate that .... 
possessed. 

B. OF THE REIGN OF SANKAMA AND THE SINDA VIKRAMADITYA : 

SAKA 1102. 

The inscribed area of this epigraph is in width about 2 ft. 3 in. and in height nearly 5 ft. 
There is no record of any sculptures being attached to it. The character is Kanarese of the 
period, a generally well-formed ornate hand, decorated at the beginning with arabesque designs 
similar to those of the Kurgod inscriptions published above, Vol. XIV, p. 265 fi. The height at 
the letters varies from | in. to f in. The cursive forms of y and m noted above, Vol. XII, p. 335, 
are found here : that for m occurs in II. 38, 53, 75 (twice), and 77, and that for y in 1. 19. 
The language is Kanarese, the metrical part being m the ancient language and the prose 
medwval ; two formal stanzas (w. 1 and 26) and a quotation from Manu (v. 25) are in Sanskrit 
Sporadically ay is changed to ey, in V% (1L 2, 19), taneyam (1. 28), and abheyan (1. 28). The 
prothesis of y in yaupasan-agni (1. 62) is noteworthy ; so is the spelling Atoayija (\. 66), which 
is the first step to the modern vernacular pronunciation Mmfa. The ancient J has not been 
preserved : it has been changed to I mmgzP (passim), Mt= (1. 18), elmmm (1. 30), and to r in 
fr tear** 0. 26), I am. (1. 30), negardda (1. 39, prose), negarda (1. 43, prose), with loss in eppattuman 
(L 06). 7 changed to 5 k .^-^ H . ^ ^ .^ L ^ ^.^ L ^ ^ ^ 

ff^raioram , 1 .57 The change of p to h occurs in the verse portion only in Hoysahm (1; 32) 
and forto (1. 33 j but Torapa' in the prose titles, I. 63), and in the prose in ^riya (II. 67 
1, 73 , tow^ (L 70) and W (U. 71-72, 78-79), by the side of ^ (1. 71) and paduvalu 
(1. <8), both in prose The upaShmanlya appears ia atoafomP (1. 40). On the lexical side 
we may now jrtn*Hte (19), a M a (1. 12), the list of technical names of towns and 

; LU:itofe L M; kJMr ^ a > L 14 *! *** 1. 15; 

i Pa ' ? f " 'V' ; a]S " k tie Al5r kscr ' f ^ 9 ^> above, Vo 

P ' th6 ' ' the a < on 1. 6 to 



. ontomonl. 3 4etherwithw. 14, 1 1 

21, occur also m No. L. of th 8 inscriptions of Sudi pubMed above, Voi XV, pp. 109 * 



No. 38.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS FROM EON: SAKA 944 AND 1102. 227 

The record, after the opening verse, proceeds to extol the ocean (II. 2-6), Jamlu-dvij>a 
(IL 6-8), Mount Meru (11. 840), Kuntala (11. 11-16), and the king of Kuntala, the Kalaclaurya 
Sankaxna, to whose reign it formally refers itself (11. 16-21). ll then mentions the province 
of Kisukatju (11. 21-22) and the Mahamandalefivara ruling it, the Sinda Vikramadova. ako 
known as Vikkayya or Vikramaditya (11. 22-23), ] giving the pedigree of the latter as follows 
(11. 2349) : 



Acharasa, ) NaM Siriiha Dasaraa D5.ma Chavurjda [I] GhSxna 

or > I _,>",, 

Achugi [I] ) I , ; : ' 

' 



Bammarasa I or 

(Acharasa, w. MfidSviyarasi 



Pei-mSdideva CMvunda [II], m. Siriyadevi 

or Perma (d. of Bijj^a & Eehaladevi) 




(Vikkayya, Vikramadeva) 

This difiers in some sHght details from the pedigree given in tha Sudi record above, Vol. 
XV, p. 109. It moreover supplements it by adding the mention of Barnmarasa and by statmjj; 
that Achugi II conquered the Male or Highlands of the Ghats, defeated the king of Dahala 
(Chedi) sacked Uppina-katts, and killed the Ganga of Kadara (on winch soe below), and that 
Permadideva captured theHoysala king's elephants and treasure-waggons as well as the 
Toraha 2 himself (vv. 13, 15). Next, TO are introduced to Blthwa-Schani, a dhthgui;];^ 
Master of the Horse, general, and b^uatai^n^Sgi or 'holder of soveuty-two oiiices' in the 
service of the Sinda Vikramaditya (11. 49-55) ; it was on his petition that the present grant v.as 
made. The occasion of it was Avhen Vikramaditya, having been moved by hearing a sermon 
on the text Manu VIII. 15, was making a number of charitable endowments and gifts in homvu 
of his late father (11. 55-70), and the tnistee was GurubhaM^deva, a Saiva divine of the Par- 
vat a 'school of the Kalamukha church, the beneficiaries being the local sanctuaiies of Cfciini^. 
vara and Hajesvara. A specification of the boundaries of the laud then follows (11. 70-71), 
with a concluding verse (11.74-75) and some supplementary endowments by VimmSditya 
and his brother Bijjana or Bijjala (11. 75-80). 

. On the fiinda dynasty see above, Vol. XIV, pp. 268-270, and Dyn. Kan DiXr, p. 572 ff 
.SpaLlv tha* head of some hostJo tnbe of that name; cf. tho title Tor^ul^r. ' d^ , of 
the TorarLe"," applied iu the present record, 1. 03, to the burgesses of R8* and the xefetence m the Huh 

n.i.s k .iiM*. 

w B J 



228 EPIGEAPHIA INB1CA. [VOL. XIX. 

^ Y* 

The date is given in 1. 66 as : Saka 1102 (current), Vikari ; the new-moon day of livayuja, 
Monday. This is not perfectly regular. The tithi mentioned corresponded to Tuesday, 2 Octo- 
ber, A.D. 1179, on which day it ended 13 h. 28 m. after mean sunrise (for TJjjain). 1 

The places mentioned are Kuntala (11. 13 f ., 16, 21 f.), KisukMu (1L 22, 67) and the 
Kisiikadii Seventy (L 56), Daha?a (1.39), Uppina-katte (L29), Kadra (1. 30), Erambarag* 
or Yerambarage (U. 57 f., 61), Rona (11. 63, 68, 71, 78), Hiriya Maniyfir (1L 67, 71, 73, 78 f.) 
Chilika Maniyur (1. 72), Mudiyantir (11. 72, 77, 79), and Maniyur (1. 76). On Kisuka<Ju 
see InA. Ant., Vol. XXX (1901), p. 259 ff. Pahaja is the kkgdom of ckedi Ka<Jara, evidently 
the same as the Kidaram or Kaclaram of several other records, is rather difficult to locate. Mr. 
Venkayya (8.1 J., Vol. II, p. 109) and Dr. Hultzsch (above, Vol. IX, p. 231) seem to be right in 
placing it on the western coast of Burma or thereabouts in regard to other records ; but here it is 
rather hard to believe that the arms of the Sindas could reach so far. The words KcL$a,ra-Gamga 
in 1. 30 must mean a Ganga prince ruling in Kadara, and suggest that there was a place of that 
name in or near the territory of the Gangas in India^. from which a colonial Kadara on the 
other side of the Bay of Bengal might have taken its name. Erambarage is Yelburga, situate 
in Liagsugur District of the Nizam's Dominions, in lat. 15 37' and long. 76 3' ; we here learn 
(L 57) that it bore the title of Lakshmt-svayamvara. Rona is the modern town of Ron. Hiriya 
Maniyiir,. given as " Hire-Manur " on the Bombay Survey sheet No. 332 and as " Heereh Mun- 
noor " on the Indian Atlas sheet 41, is in long. 75 42' and lat. 15 42J'. Ohikka Maniyiir, the 
" Chik-Manur " of the Survey and " Chika Munnoor " of the Atlas, lies in long. 75 42 J' and 
lat. 15 40J'. Maniyur may possibly denote these two towns collectively. Mudiyantr may 
perhaps have some connection with the modern village of Mudengudi (" Moodiangoodee '* on 
the Indian Atlas), which lies in long. 75 <r 43 / andjat. 15 44|' ; the former name is to be analysed 
as Mudiyana fir, " the elder's village," and the latter as Mudiyana Jcudi, " the elder's homestead " 
(or perhaps gv$i> '* temple "), 

TEXT. 2 

[Metres :~ vv. 1, 25, 26, Anushtubh ; w. 2,24, Utpalamtld ; w. 3, 5, 6, 8, Mahssragdhart ; 
vv. 4, 13, 15, 17-21, HaUebhavifoi&ta ; vv. 7, 9 4 11 $ 12, 14, 16, 22, 23, Kanda ; v. 10, Champah*- 




i [1*] Namas^tumga-^iraS-chuinbi-chaiiidra-chamara-charave [!*] trailokya-nagar- 

arainbha-mula-stailibhaya Saifibhave || [1*] Vpitta [| 

2 Svasti samastabhu-vale(}a)ya-vishtitamuj[j*]vaja-mauktik-adi-sad-vastu-vl^ 

uchchaji(li)ta-tumga-taramga-sa- 

3 hasra-majika-nyasta-viyat-talaiii sogayis-irppudu bhavisi no^ie na<Je lcka-stutam*agi 

ma- 



B. Sewell has informed me that practically the same result is reached if we follow the 
i, which gives as titfo'-index 9809, as against the 9810 of the Jtrya-siddMnta. JTe also points out an 
interesting fact in this connection. As the am&v&sya-titM (ba. 15) ended shortly after sunset on Tuesday, the 
preceding Monday aight was the DipavaE festival ; see Kielhom's list of " Festal Days " in J. A., VoL XXVI, 
1897, p. 184. Kielhorn there says that the " principal day " of the festival waa the one in which the moon, was 
In the nakahatra Svati. Mr. Sewell's new tahle XL VIII A however shews that the moon entered Svati, accord* 
ing to the equal space system, 17 h. 7 m. after mean sunrise on Tuesday; hence Tuesday waa the " principal 
day" of the Dlpavali in A.D. 1170, thought apparently the festival at any rate began on Monday nighfc whik 
the amayafya-tittt was current* The Steffifafa-MrSmaQi also given mnilar result. 
a From tbe iukimpression. 



NO. as.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS FROM EON: SARA 944 AND 1102. 229 

4 tsya-makar-otkara-sarfistMta-gliiknnit-arwavani || [2*] JaJa-taBti-tiata-hast-aliatiyiii* 

ogedu nun-muttugaj^ suse tira-sthaliyolu 

5 mey-verclicM megarfing^ogedii terale nuiJnitte 6ubhr-abiramam 

kallol-aughadimdarb. gagana-talake ttih- *" 

6 t-i$ta v6l=Iksliisah* kaBL-goiibiiii bKugolamaii sutt*i^i 

dhanam || [3*] Vachana || Antu sogayi- 

7 suva mumnlre merey*agi ni(3d)kMla-dvipa-kula-loidhara-lmliara-]m^ 

aSesha-dosli-apaliarana- 

8 pari(ri)nata-prabhava-suk8lietramumsem(ni)si sogayisuva Jambfi-dvipada nat|ia 

nadnve || Vpi || Sura-kamta-rata-kiijita-pra- 

9 tirava-projrimbliitam 1 kiiibJiari-vara-git-araYa-moliita-dvipa-bilam sidhdh-amgana-pada* 

pamkaruha-praiiichita-kum- 

10 lrama-Bthag!(gi)ta-cliaiiicliach-cliamdra-kaM-opaJairi karam*=opp*ippudti ratna-kiita- 

ramanlyaih Meru-dhatrldharam || [4*] i f Karii- 

11 chan-achalada dakshina-dig-bhagadolw Bharata-kshetram*eihbud*kppiid*adaEolu || 

Polan 3 =ellam gamdha-6ali-prakara-pa- 

12 rivri(vri)tam naiiidaEa-keriiy*ellaiii phala-bhar-6(a)uaimia-cliiit-avam(ni)]a-lavalayitaiii 2 

dirggMk-amkam^ellarii dall(li)t-am.bli5jata- 

13 reiju-stliagita-lalitamur-iirggai*ellam pmja-samlnila-go-dhaEya-prakIrw-amcliitain=enal* 

esegum Kurhtal-orvvi-yilasam || [5*] 

14 A Kumtaja-de6adolw || Palavniii gramamgalim pattana-nikaiadl(de) samvatana- 

bratadim. pesha(4a)}a-kheda-vyuliadim kha- 

15 rvvada-nagara-ma^amb-aughadiih kii(Je chelwvaib. taleda droriamukha-Sreniyin*eseva 

nadi-j Sladim bhuribliii-maiii4a- 

16 |adolu king--e(J(Jam*ag-irppudii ruchiirateyiiii madliya-deSam Yi6esliarii || [6*] 

Tatw-KuriitaJ-adliipati bhasvat-ldrtti-TilasaE=udIidhiat-ara- 

17 timaliibhri(bh|ri)t-KaliSa-dam(Jan=adata ckamatkaraiii Sauryya4aji Saiiikamadevarh H 

[7*] A de^-adlii^varaiia bhuja- 

18 pratapam=emt*emda<Je || Balavad-vidvislita-bliupalakaraB.*uxade kilt=ikki tadd-rajya- 



19 vayavadiih kom^u sal-lileyirhdam jajadhi-vyavesbtit-6rv'vi-vaje(la)yav=aiiituiaarii 

ta]didam taiiina dor-mmamdia- 

20 iadolu ni^Samka-Lamkevaran*amaJa-ya6aiii Sariikama-kstonipajam || [8*] Ant 

tnisida Kalachuryya-cliakravartti(rtti) Samkaraa-devarasa- 

21 ra rajyam*uttar-ottar"&bMvri(vp)^ 




saluttam-ire || 4(m Vi|aBitam*enipa Kuril* 



22 tala-deSadoJw bahu-phaja-dianya-dhenu-dliana-piir^nav^enisuv*^ nel 

Kisukadu |j A nadan*a]van=arttM-jan-anari> 



9 The first fa is aupexduoua, 

8 The jpr z is imperfect, /rhyming witlil, in verses S- 6. 



230 EPIGBiPHIA 1HDICA. [VOL. XIX. 



23 di^{d&}m Sii3b^iiiaii4 a l i fe^^ka& tsj&niclju V^&^m^M^^^ Srl-namdanan- 
eseye tamna Mt-akarani || [9*] 1 j 



kali NaM4Mmipara suiuehka-kirtti 
25 vI(vi)Wiiiyaagpda Das^iafrii].aitLdale6varaih narapati 

dianam vixmtaA Ghauviiiiida I -l>liua?raE^ae miJjctti 
86 CJhinW"nripaii=eiii)}a sahodlia{da)iaradarervvaraih || [10*] 

biiipaiiigaYira|a-Si(si)ta-kirtti puttidain Bammarasarb. bhsiva- 

2T m-jana-stutyam pSrtthiva-Partfcliam Si4xda>am6a-ch.u4arat3aaiii || [IP] 
YUttldaih vMyata-yafem Siaiifea^bMmipa- 

2B Jaaa tan(aa)ywri pi|ti(ti)twipTi*iu:i(jifi)pa-Yarggam btutaladojw nega]dan 

ablie(blia}yan=Acliugi=l}liiipain || [12*] Maleyam 

29 sSdMsi 9ahaJ,-5dli|patiywoL bem-kom^ mikk^iidda dor-waladiixid=Hppina*- 

ka<3.^e(tte)yaih kavardldu(rdu) samgrSm-agradol^ saA- 

30 4a mey-gp,Ky*Ig?-irdda K^aran<Sa:!iigaftaaga^ komdu 



81 }ai!i SAda-TaiM-ottamaiii (| [IS*] I negaJd^Achaara^wiigaiia mining MSI- 

diviyarasigarh, pntisldaE^nrwi-nnta-Yibiiavaia satya^ 

82 ividliaaaiii Perinmadi-devaii^pratim^-yatem || [14*] Gtana-bata-baladimde 

Hoysalana matt-SbliaiiigaJain vastn-vaiiajiaraaiix korti- 

83 4=atidhiranam Topalianaiii beiibkom<jTi tujd-eydi mu^ti neram-barade katjii 

tamdu cta]adlii(di)m ChaiTikya-raya^gci kottan=anuna-pia- 

34 bala-pratapa-vibtavam Parmmadi-bliiipalakain || [15*] Ene negajda Permma- 
- 



35 ]am-karma-patra-viclichIiedanaE=apratima.pratapi Chavum<Ja-nri(nri)pam || [16*] 
Yara-li6m-agnita(ya) Yajimaiasaman*alaihpiiii melva 



36 kwa-koAbha-sUuta-rakta-pfaanw pi^a nislitIiura-ni(iu)striiliSa. 

ni(m}j-aaiyo{i* meredii Devl-samgaraiii sadMpar-dhdiurado- 

37 In cMtram4d*alte Satr^malipar-GheMvum^bhupaiamm || [17*1 Kula-6ailam 

rajat-adriya^ ja|adiu dugdi-Siiibliodi^am vahini- 

38 h^mMdhr(dr)-apageyaiii tamala-taru kalp-oryvljamam Vistnu ni(ni)rmmalp 

Gamgadtawam 4amam* ner*ye polt-irppa[rE]iie g aiii parvritt(t)u- 

39 *a-Hrtti dyutHileyi[m*] trijagamaih ChavuiH<?a-bli5paIanaiii(na) 

salias-6. * 



40 ttal^Tta^M patta-mahadeviy^aiiitahpura. 

m-ttMtft^darppar^e SariyMwi* J " p 

41 yaraBiyaiyay.Yata^^^^^ || Naraaiatli-agra.ti Bijjala^ Kalachuri^ 

JKaamapaJanayyaiii gun-akare- 

^^ fe! - Va ^ adg -* sahodaran.atyuxhnata- 
Chlrvurhdan=eifidaMe 



* To bft scanned Clwwnfa. 

Perhaps an error for Afaft or something of tie Mad. 



No. 38.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS FBOH EON: SAKA 944 AND 1102. 231 



44 igam GMvuxn^a-mamdale^vararbgam puttidar=ad*ejtnt=emdadie || Dtareyaiii 

palisal^emda Graurige Gajasyarii Shanmukham Slteg=u- 
5 dhdkura-tejaiii Laya^Mbbujatii Ku6a-nri(npi)pa3ii ^rl-Devaki-devig^adaiadimdam 

Bala""Kri(Kn)slinar=udbliavipa volt* 18- 
46 k-6ttamarpptittidar=Ssiriyadevig[e*] Vira-Bij j ala-nrl(np)paih Vikkayyan=emba 

atmajart* H [20*] A-var-ojage || Prajeyam pali(li)- ^ 
4T si dbarmmamam n!(ni)lisi isi(fii)shta-vratamaiii kad^ari-brajamam sodu miarhtararti 

vipu}a-lakslinii-dhaiiiaii=adam mahibhu- 

48 ja-cliudainani Sirnda-vam^yanajitam ^rI-Vikkramadityan=apta-jan-6dyaihnidlii mam- 

4ale^a-tilakarii Ghavuiiidadev-atmajam || [21*] Ktyatam balyadolam Mam. 

49 dh&tazh tan*eni(ni)si mamdalika-Mamdhatam btiitalamam palisidam niitana-Baliy* 

enisi Vikkramaditya-nri(nri)pam || [22*] Tatw-pada-padm-opa- 

50 jlvl 1 || Ihava-dbirana vidyii(dvi)d[-byiiha-bLiayamkarana Vi(Vi)kkrama'dityaiia 

saitinaliam taaene B&cheya-Saliam ^araiji-agat-aika-rakshamanl- 

i51 yaih || [23*] Satya-parakkramaiii paraMta-bratiy*eriitE| l akati Vikkramldityana 
bi<Jinolw nega Jdanariite j agani--niita-vira-ViMcrainaditya'- 

52 na bidinol'w rtegaldan=i ^u(su)bliat-agi:aniyemdu faannlkurii bhri(blii i i)tya-iiidhaiia- 

nam uegajda Bacheya-Salianiyam jagaj-janam || [24*] Ant-akhamdi- 

53 ta-dor-ddamda-pratapanumm 2 *avamdliye(mdhya)-kopanufi rana-ramga-sirhliaiiuiii 

vimala-kirtti-lata-kamdanuih vijaya4akslimi-kamtaiium=eni- 

54 sida maha-pradhanam senadhipati bahattara-niyogi mamdalika-sahaiil^iromani 



55 ya bimnapadirh || Svasti Samadhigata-pamcIiamaha^abda*maliamariidaleTaraiii 

uddamda-mamdalika-Tipu-Madaiia-MaheSvaram Simda-G6yimdamBUY 8 =iidatta-Ea- 

56 manum vair i-mam^alika-Sir 5- Va j ra-damdanum*emsida Mmanw-mahamamdalevarara 

Vlr a*Vikkramaditya diva-rasaiii Kisukad=eppatttt- 

51 man=aldu dush.ta-nigralia^is]i|;a-parip5ilaiiadim tribliog4bhyaiiitara-sidhdliiyiiQda|dii 
LakshrKiI-svayaiiibarani^enisida nij a-iajadMniy*app*E~ 

58 i^aihbarageya nele-vi^inol'W snklia'-saiiikatha-vinodadiiii rajyam-geyjmttam-irddn 

dharmnia-prasaiiigadok || 

59 Dharmma eva hato hamti dharmm.6 rakshati laksMtat [ 1* ] tasmad=dbarmmo na 

liamtavya[8**]sarw-ai6vaTyya-pliaJ 4 -epsubhi^ || [25*] emba subliaM(s]ii)ta- 
vacbanamgajaih kejdu taiii 

60 sajadirh dharmma-budiidhiy=appudaTimdam tamma bapparfi 

mabamaiiKjaleSvarara Chavmiidarasa-divargge paroksha-vinayam(ya)-pra~ 
6 1 yaSchitta-nimittatii Yer ambar ageyalu bM-dana-gri(gf iJlia- 
danamgalarii ma^uttam-irdda tat-kaladolu |[ Syasti Ya* 

63 
63 



* 6*d *Q99iJrtaiw* *H6'florib6^s0m to 



232 EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX; 

64 BSja-nalvar*a6e^a(sIia)-maIiajanamgaJa sazimidMnedal^alEya Ealla-majhad* 

acharyya-Gurubhaktadivargge |J Avara guru-lraiam*emt-emda4e Kaja- 

65 muHia-ParvYat-avali-tapo-iii(ni)shtl.a-parar*eiiisi negalda Koppina Vak2iklia:cmdevar~ 

avara fiishyaxri Hudra^aktidevaru avara ishya[rfi*] Jnana&aktidevar^ava- 

66 ra Sishyaiii Gurublaaktadevar^ge Sa(Sa)ka~vars3ia 1102neya Vikari- 

sarhvatsarada A^vayi(yu)jad*amayase Somavaradamdu tamma 

67 Kisiikada nacja bajiya ba<Jam Hiriya, Ma^iyiira samasta-gu:tia-vi6e!(sh)-6iiinatar 

app=fir-[o*]deya-muldiyamv 1 =al[l*]iy=ajiiYat[t*]*okka- 

68 lura samasta-prajegajti sahitam BSriada Kalla-mata(tta)da Chaine^vara-devara 

nitya-puja-naivedya-gaihdia-dhupa-dipa-Cliaitra-pavitraih na<Jev=aint=a- 

69 giy*alliy*acharyya Gurubliakta-devara pada-praksfialanam-geydu dhara-purwakaih 

ma<Ji raja-da ttiyagi sarwa-na-^ 

70 masyaiii macji kotta keyi raattaru itamnera^ aUiya Majevara-devara 

naiyedyakke kotta keyi mattar^eracju |j Amt*a vri(vri)ttige stlia- 

71 ]avavrid=emda4e Hiriya Ma^iyiira mu<Jana ioladiiii ka^eyalu Hdnada 

pa4uva-volada kaiiibi- 

72 vodduge teiiikalii Ghikka Maniyura toladini badagalu kaxhbi-vodduge batjagalu 

Mudiyaniira holadida temkalu kambl-vodduge am- 

73 tu nalkuiii deseyalu kavileya kallaiii naftu kottaru || Imtr dliarnimamaiii 

Hiriya Ma^iiyiira vur-o<JeyantLm samasta- 

74 prajegalum sadiarmmadim pratipalisuvam || Danaiii va palanaih v=api danaoli- 

dilireyo*iLupalaiiata [I*] danat=svarggam=avapnoti pa- 

75 lanad=acliyTitaiii padam || [26*] Vira-Bijjariadevanuiti Vikkarasanuiii kejege 

mattar^eracju ajavat[i*]gege mattar^era^n amtu 

76 bitta mattaru 4 Ma^iyura ur-cxjeyaruiii ajuvatt*okkalum pratipajisu- 

varu j| 

77 Mattam Vira-Bijiaa?tadevarasanuiii Vikkara[sa*]nuifi EaDa-iaafliada 

Chamesva(6va)ra-devarige bit|;a keyi Mudiyaniira 

78 he(ho)ladolage mattaru 6 R6?iada Ke(ho)lad,a kaifcbiy-oddugey=agi paqtiivalii 

Hiriya Ma- 

79 ^iyiira te(lio)lada kambiy-oddugey-agi ba4agak Mudiyanfira ur~odeyantik 



80 tt-okkaluih pratipapsuvaru || 

TRANSLATION. 

(Verse 1.) Homage to Samblm lovely witt tlie yak-tail fan ttat is tlie moon kissing Ms lofty 
head, the foundation-column foi the construction of the city of the Threefold World. 

(Verse 2.) Hail ! surrounded by the ring of the whole earth, abounding in goodly treasures 
of triliiant pearls and the like, decking the face of the sky mth garlands of thousands o upspring- 
iBg lofty wares, the tossing Ocean tenanted by crowds of fishes and dolphins, when one gases 
in meditation, is fair to th^sight, being exceedingly praised by the world. 

1 Bead 



No. 88J TWO INSCRIPTIONS FBOM RON: SAjIA 944 AMD 1102. 233 

(V. 3.) When, swelling up on Its shores, rising aloft, "beating against tie bright sky, it 
rocks about so that fine pearls arising from the blows of the trunks of troops of water-elephants 
are showered around, the Ocean, most incomparable in its thunders, surrounding the globe of 
the world, attracts the eye as one gazes, as though it were driving holes in the face of the heavens 
with, its floods of stainless billows. 

(LI. 6-8.) In the very middle of Jambu-dvlpa, which, with the ocean thus resplendent; 
&s Its bound, is brilliant in being adorned with grotto-bowers in the principal ^mountains of all 
the continents and in being a blessed land richly endowed with power to remove^ all guilt 

(V. 4.) Conspicuous indeed is Mount Mera, charming with jewelled peaks, which is full 
of echoes of the murmurs of celestial damsels' amorous dalliance, where the tribes of birds 1 are 
fascinated by the sounds oi Kinnarls* sweet songs, and where brilliant moonstones are besmeared 
with, lustrous saSron from the lotus-feet of Siddhas 5 wives. 

(LI. 10-11.) On the south of this Golden Mountain is the land of Bharata : in it 

(V, 5.) All the fields are encompassed by lines of fragrant rice-crops ; all the series of 
parks encircled by mango-trees bending with the weight of fruit ; aU the multitudes of pools 
iarmingly powdered with pollen of bursting lotuses ; all the towns splendidly abounding in 
crowds of people, kine, and grain : thus appears the bright aspect of the land of Kuntaja. 

(L. 14.) In this land of Kuntala 

(V, 6.) With many villages, with numbers of market-towns, with crowds of store-places, 
with, multitudes of elegant hamlets, with abundance of Marwgia-viliages, towns, and tnckbmfta- 
villages, together, with a series of beautiful cfrSwo-wmMa-towns, 3 with the multitude of rivers, 
the central province is unique amidst the realms of the vast earth in charming tke eye with its 
loveliness. 

(V. 7.) The lord of this Kuntala is the heroic king Sankaxna, brilliant with lustrous 
glory, a Thunderbolt- wielder [Indra] to the mountains, h&ughty foes, a miracle of valour. 

(LI. 17-18.) As regards the splendour of the arm of the lord of this land : 

(V. 8.) King Sankama, an intrepid Lord of Lanka, 3 stainless of glory, -unceasingly 
tearing up and destroying puissant hostile monarchy winning, member by member, their emblems 
of royalty (and) the treasuries of their noble lands, in fine sport has supported on the circle of 
his arm the whole ring of the ocean-encompassed earth. 

(LI. 20-21.) While the reign of the Kalactmrya emperor thus described, Sankama- 
cievararsa, was advancing in a course of successively increasing prosperity ,yt6 endure) as long 
as moon, sun, and stars : 

<LL 21-22.) In the bright land of Kuntala is KisukScJu, a province containing towns 
tfoat are full of abundant fruit, grain., kine, and money* 

(V. 9.) The ruler of this province is a delight to the needy, an ornament of Sinda 
Ma^alikas, a treasure of splendour, Vikramadeva, a child of Fortune, 4 whose own charming 
form is conspicuous. 

(LI. 23-24.) As regards the lineage of this world-hero : 

(V. 10.) There were seven brethren, to w% the warrior Adaarasa, who crushed hostile 
monaichs, the valiant king Naki, prince Sirhlia most brilliant of fame, the ^excellent baron 
OSsama, king Dama, lord of men, the famed person, rich in valour, known as king 
king 



_ 

1 [The text (p, 229, L 9 above) has dvipa, which means * elephant*. Perhaps dvija ia meanfe.Ed.] 
* Definitions of the terms gr&ma; patfava, #4to8hana, khe$a, kfarvafa^mgam, imfavntm* and 

to be found in the KamticSgama XX. 4-10 and TugMMMand V. 60 1 c& my feauMtai of Atiagad*. 
p. 45 n. 

9 A variation of the commoner title niUafika-Rdma. 
$r$~nandana, a play on the name of hi mother Siiiy&dSvi (see below), 



234 EHGBAPEIA INDIOA. [VOL. XIX. 

(V. 11. ) Among these, there was born to king Achugi, Bammarasa, possessing abund- 
ant bright fame, lauded by the folk of the world, a Pjitha's son (Arjtma) among monarchs, a 
crest jewel of the Sinda race. 

(V. 12.) The son of Ms (Achugi's) full-brother the renowned king Siihha, the fearless 
king Achugi (II), who laid low troops of hostile sovereigns* was illustrious on earth. 

(V. 13.) Overcoming the Highlands, driving into flight the lord of Da&ala, with ex- 
ceeding strengtff of arm sacking Uppina-katte, slaying in the forefront of battle that worthy 
man of true valour the Ganga of Kadara when his awful power of destruction was at its height, 
king Achugi, best of the Sinda race, was in turn illustrious on the earth. 

(V. 14.) To this distinguished Acharasa and his high-spirited consort Madeviyarasi 
was bom Permldldeva of world-renowned majesty,, a treasure of truthfulness, incomparable 
in glory. 

(V. 15.) By the strength of his robust arm winning the Hoysala's fiery elephants (and) 
treasure-waggons, driving into flight the very bold Toraba, pursuing, approaching, coming into 
touch, binding (him) with none coming to aid, Iring Permadi, splendid in perfect puissant majesty* 
boldly carried (him) off and handed (him) over to the CMMkya long. 

(Y. 16.) The younger brother of this distinguished long Perma was king CMvunda 
(II), who plucked away the leaves in the ears of hostile barons' mistresses, incomparable in 
majesty. 

(V. 17.) On meeting with the blade pertaining to (his) grim sword, which devours 
splendidly the flesh of horses (destined as it were) for noble oblation-fires, (and) stabbing drinks 
joylully draughts of blood lodged in the terrible temples of elephants, enemy kings, strange to 
say, do verily in battle fulfil the vow of the Goddess by means of king CMvunda. 1 

(V. 18.) The brilliant fame of king CMvunda has spread through the triple world with 
the sport of its lustre, so that the central mountains become verily like to the Silver Mountain 
(i.e., Vaitadhya), the ocean to the Sea of Milk, the series of rivers to Indra's stream, the tamala 
trees (Xanthochymus pictorius) to the Tree of Desire,, Vishnu to the stainless Bearer of the 
Ganges (Siva). a 

(LI. 3941.) As regards the lineage of SiriySdeviyarasI, the Fortune forming half the 
body of the MahamanclaleSvara king Vira-GMvundarasa exalted in valour who was thus 
illustrious, his royal consort, the inkror to the face of the seraglio : 

(V. 19.) Seeing that her father was the Ralaclmri monarch Bijjala, foremost of lords 
of men, her mother Bclialadevi, a mine of virtues, her brother the blest Vajradeva, best of 
kings, her husband CMvuncIa, scion of the most exalted Sxudas, what queens forsooth in the 
two races were so highly honoured as Siriyadevi ? 

(LI 4344.) As regards the (sons) born to this illustrious Siriyadiviyarasi and the 
Mandale^vara CMvuncIa : 

(V. 20.) As to Gauri, for the protection of earth, were bom the Elephant-faced (i.e^ 
GaneSa) and Sharimukha, as to Sita king Lava immense of splendour (and) king Ku^a, as to the 
blest lady Devak! by act of grace were born Bala and Krishna, (so) were born to Siriyadevi 
as sons, best of the world, king Ylra-Bijjala (and) Yikkayya. 

1 The meeting of the enemy kings with Chavu^da's sword is compared to tlie union of devotees ot Kali with 
the Merophant, Charuiid^s sword destroys their horses and elephants, w the priest's kuito daughters the 
victims presented by worshippers before they are burned in the fire, 

The whitattPfls oi his lame makes every dark-coloured object appear to beoi a brilliant while hue. The 
rhetorical figuie is tad-guqu. 



tfo. 38.] TWO INSCRIPTIONS FROM RON : SAKA 944 AND H02. 235 

(L. 46.) Of these (two sons) : 

(V. 21.) Guarding (his) subjects, establishing religion, protecting men of culture, driving 
away foes, the blest Vikraraaditya, crest-jewel of monarchs, scion of the Sindas, invincible, 
an exalted treasure to friends, an ornament of barons, son of king Chavta^da, has been ever- 
lastingly a seat of abounding fortune, 

(Y. 22.) King Vikramaditya, renowned even in boyhood as a very Mandhata, has pro* 
tected the earth, a Mandhata among barons, known as a new Bali. 

(LL 49-50.) One who finds sustenance at his lotus-feet 

(V. 23.) Bacheya-Sahaxd, a unique protective gem for seekers of his protection, known 
as the very armour of Vikramaditya stout in the fray (and) terrible to hosts of foemen : 

(V. 24.) " As flourished in the palace of Vikramaditya, E^aklti true in valour (and) 
devoted to the weal of others, so there has flourished in the palace of the world-famed hero 
Vikramaditya this most eminent of warriors " : thus the people of the world extol the illus- 
trious Biclaeya Sahani, a treasure to dependents* 

(LL 52-55.) On the petition of Baahayya Sahani, the High Minister, General of the 
Forces, holder of seventy-two offices, head-jewel of princely Officers of the Stables, who is thus 
styled c majestic with invincible rod-like arm, not to be baulked in wrath, lion on the stage of 
battle, root of the creeping-plant of stainless fame, beloved of the Fortune of victory'- 

(LL 55-61.) Hail ! While the Mahamandale^vara who has obtained the five great 
(musical) sounds, the Mahamandale^vara Vikramaditya~devarasa,who is styled "a Mahe^vara 
to the Love-god haughty hostile barons, a Govinda of the Sindas, a Kama among the noble, a 
Thunderbolt-wielder to the heads of opponent barons," administering the Kisukadu Seventy, 
and governing it so as to suppress the wicked and protect^the cultured, with internal authority 
over the three forms of enjoyment, 1 was reigning with enjoyment of pleasant conversations in 
his capital city the standing camp of Erambarage, which is styled Lakslnni's Svayarhvara, 
in the course of a religious address he heard the following moral verses : " Religion when harmed 
harms, religion when guarded guards ; therefore religion should not be harmed by those who 
desire fruits of paramount lordship/' 2 As he himself was naturally of a godly spirit, he dis- 
pensed in Erambarage gifts of lands, houses, kine, and gold in pious memory of his father the 
Mahaman^ale&vara Chavuaidarasa-deva and for the lustration (of his soul) ; and in the course 
thereof : 

(LL 61-64.) In the presence of all the Hundred-and-four Mahajanas of the Great 
Agralxara ol Rona, who are hail ! devoted to the performance of the major and minor dis- 
ciplines, scriptural study, meditation, spiritual concentration, and practice of silence, observant 
of prayer and absorption, attentive to libation in the domestic fire and to reverence of Brah- 
ma$s, eldets, and gods, having glory brilliant as the sun, destroyers of the race of the To^apas : 

(LL 64-66.) To Gtirubhakta-deva, prior of the Kalla-Matha (=Stone monastery) of 
that place : As regards his spiritual lineage : Xoppina VaKhkM^adeva, renowned as being 
devoted to the ascetic practice of the Paivat*avali (=Mountain-school) of the Elalamukhas ; his 
disciple Rudraakti~deva ? his disciple JMnaSaktideva ; to his disciple Gurubhakta- 
deva 

(LI. 66-70.) On Monday, the new-moon day of AS vayuja in the cyclic year Viktoi, tfce 
1102nd year of tfce Saka (era) (the Mahamewdaletwra Vikramadityadeva), in company with 
the local sixty households and whole population of Hiriya Magiyflr, a town forming part of 

__._ .. _ _ um-aminimiiiMnMi- LI '- r n i ' ' LI. ' - I*"" "" ^n ' "' ' "" """ " "" ' **> 

i gee rnd^., Vol. XIX, p. 271. " Maw mi, If. 

3 f 2 



236 EP1GBAPHIA INDIOA. 

i-sxssssi^^ agggasg" 

Ms province of headed by the mayor, who are eminent for all excellences of virtue, 

did with laving of the feet of the local prior GisntbliabtadSira and pouring of water make over 
as a royal gift on jara-namaqB tenure a field of twelve mattar for the maintenance of the 
regular woraMp, oblations, fragrances, incense, lamps, and CMfra-pavitr 1 of the god ChameSvara, 
in the Kalla-Mafta (stone monastery) of Rdjja, (and) a field of two w0ar for the oblations of 
tie local god Mal&Svara. 

(L. 70-74.) Now as regards the area comprised in this endowment : on the four aides* 
to wit, at the sid by the astern field of Hiriya Ma^iyto, the JbmW-jnnction of the western 
field of R&ga, on the south the JbmK-j motion on the north of the field of CMkka Ma^iytkr, 
OE the north the iqmW-junction on the south of the field of Mudiyanlir, they set up stones 
(myrowd with the figure) of a cow, Ttua the mayor of Hiriya Ma^iyflr and all the population 
ihaQ maintain this pious foundation according to its rule. 

(V. 26 : a standing Sanskrit formula.) 

(LL 75-76,) The 4 tmttar which Vira~Bijja:pa-*deva and Yikkarasa granted, namely 
two mxttwr for the tank (and) two matter for the alms-booth, the mayors of Ma^iyto and the 
tbrty Households shall preserve. 

(LL 77-80.) Moreover, the field granted by Vlra-Bijjaija-diirarasa and Vikharasa to 
the god Chame&vara of the Stone-monasterf, 6 mattar within the field of Mudiyanflr, on the 
west forming a fem&i-juijction of the field of R6^a, on the north forming a Aam6f-junction of 
the field of Hiriy^ Magyar, the mayors of Mudiyaulir and the sixty Households sjiall 
preservp* 



Ko. 39. TWO HAEBQLA COPPEE PLATE GEANTS OF THE PAEAMAEA SIYAKA 

OF V. 8. 1005. 

BY K. N. DIKSHIT, M,A. AISTB D. B. DISKALKAB, M.A. 

The two grants published here are in the possession of a Visanagara Nagar Brahman named 
Bhatt Magan Motkam of the village Harsola in the Parantij taluka of the AhmadabSd District 
of Gujarat. Rao Bahadur Keshaylal H. Dhruva'of Ahmadabad first obtained information about 
them and tried Ms best to secure them for the preparation of impressions. The owner was un- 
willing to part with them for any consideration. He, however, allowed Bao Bahadur Dhruva 
to have them photographed and lent them for a few hours for personal examination. The Eao 
Bahadur kindly placed the photographs at our disposal for the purpose of deciphering and, 
pblic^tion. Subsequently through the kind efforts of My- Dayabhai E Derasari, Bar-at-law of 
Ahmadabad* the Brahman lent to us the plates for a few days for taking impressions from which 
tlie accompanying facsimiles have been prepared, 

The grants, herein called A & B> consist of two plates each, engraved only on the inner side. 
AJ1 the four plates were most probably Joined together by means of a ring passing through a small 
Me in the centre at the Bottom of the first and third and the top of the second and fourth plates. 
Mr. Dhruva informs us thsttwo of the plates were found joined together by a ring, the remaining 
two being loose. From the presence of the Gait4a symbol on only one of the sets of the plates 
it, however, seemB probable that all the four plates were originally joined together, the grants 
being issued by tie same king on the same day to two Brahma^s, related to each other as father 
and eon. For the sake of convenience the father's grant has been designated in this urticle as grant 



No, 39.] TWO HAKSOLA GRANTS OP PARAMARA SIYAKA OF V, S. 1005. 237 

A and the son's, as B. At the left hand bottom of the second plate of grant A is incised the figure 
of flying Garuda holding a snake in his left arm. The Garuda symbol is found on some of the 
Kashtrakuta records, the newly discovered Ahmadabad grant of V. S. 1026 of Siyaka himself 1 
a&d the plates of the Paramara princes Vakpati-Munja and Bhoja, the son and the grandson, 
respectively, of Siyaka of these grants, 

The grant A has 27 lines of writing, 16 being written on the first and 11 en the second 
plate. In grant B, there are 29 lines, 13 in the first plate and 16 in the second* The 
first plate has "been more carefully engraved. The writer of the grant B began with bold 
letters and had to compress the concluding few lines within a short space, the penultimate line 
being incised practically on the edge and the last word written vertically on the right hand 
margin. 

The c&aracters used in the plates belong to the northern class of alphabets prevalent in 
the 10th century AJX and generally resemble the letters of contemporary inscriptions, e*g.> the 
Parlabgarh inscription 8 of the time of the Pratihara Mahendrapala II, dated Sanivat 1003. The 
use of the archaic as well as the advanced forms of letters in these two grants would indicate 
that the alphabet employed in them was undergoing a change during the period 'to which they 
belong. A few examples may be given to illustrate this point. Initial a is found in at least 
three different forms, (cf . a in ad?i$kta, in grant A 3 line 19 and grant B, line 21 and 
in anumantavyafy, in grant B, line 25). In grant A, the initial e is a triangle with the apex at 
the bottom (line 8). Of the consonants, kha occurs in grant A in the older form with loops 
to the left of each of the two verticals ; while in grant B it approximates to the modern Mgar! 
form (see kha in L 3). In grant A, ta occurs more frequently in the earlier form in which the 
top vertical is straight and the lower limb consists of two curves, the one ~on the right being 
at times longer. In grant B, the modern form of ta where the right curve is merely the 
continuation of the top vertical, is more predominant. The letter pha occurs in grant A in a 
rare form resembling the Greek (f>. 

Eegarding orthography., it may be noted that no distinction is observed between va and ba, 
as in most of the inscriptions of the period. Dental sa is substituted for ia in wsala (line 
11), The ha of simha is changed into gha in two places (11. 1 and 6), The use of the anusvara 
is generally preferred to that of the class nasal ; in some cases both the anwvara and the class 
nasal are used (cf. avalambita, grant A, line 11). Some mistakes are repeated in both the 
grants, e. g. y tfina is written as triya in trfyagra (grant A, line 16 ; grant B line 17) With r, the 
following ka, ja, n&, ma and va and the preceding t are generally doubled. 

The language is Sanskrit. Except for the opening verse in honour of the Man-lion incarnation 
of Vishnu, the three verses describing the pedigree of the donor and the two imprecatory 
verses at the end, the documents are in prose throughout* 

The grants open with an invocation of the God Vishnu in his Nrisirfiha incarnation. Then 
follows the mention of the two kings AmSghavarsha and AMavarsha, with the epithets Paramo* 
bhattaraka, Maharajadhiraja> and ParameSvara. The latter, who is mentioned as meditating on 
the feet of the former, has the two additional epithets PrithvwallabM and 

| _ t |M| ..,, 

Above Vol. XIX, p. 17? Above Vol. XIV, M>. 17 * 183' 



233 EPIGRAPHIA INDIOA. [Voi* XIX. 

Now,there ea&not be any doubt that the two kings here mentioned 1 are the well-known sovereigns 
of the Bashtrakiita dynasty of Malkhed, either Amoghavarsha I and Krishria II whose combined 
reigns extend over about a century (814-911 A.D.) or Amoghavarsha III and Kyishna III 
(934-961 A.D.). Possibly some portion of the original draft is missing here through the engraver's 
oversight for, immediately after this, follows a verse which mentions that ' in that family' was 
born the famous king Bappaiparaja whose son was Vairisiiiiha. The expression f in that family * 
presupposes the mantion of the family, but the immediately preceding expression is the genitive 
case-ending narendra-pSdSn&ifhi which is hardly appropriate. Then occurs a verse in praise of 
Yairisimha, which is followed by another, mentioning that the king Siyaka was born to him. In 
the subsequent prose eulogy of Siyaka, we find that he is called a Mahaman$alika~chu$ama%,i 
and Maharajadhirdja~pati< The grants are mentioned as having been made at the instance of 
the ruler of the Khetaka-ma^aZa (corresponding roughly to the modem Kaira District). The 
records say that on his return from a successful expedition against Yogaraja, the king was 
encamped on the banks of the Mahl, where, after offering worship to Sivanatha (most probably 
at the shrine of Sarnal, a place of considerable repute) he gave away the villages of Kumbha- 
rotaka and Sihaka in the Mohadavasaka-ws&aj/a respectively to Lall6padhy,ya, son of Govar- 
dhana and Nina Dlkshita, son of Lallopadhyaya, Nagara (Brahmans) of JLnandapura,, belonging 
to the GopaE-#df #. The dapaka* or person who caused the grants to be given, probably the 
officer who was entrusted with the duty of issuing the grants, was the Thakkura frl- Vishnu, 
The grants were written by the Kayastha Gu^adhara. The last line in both grants contains the 
sign-manual of the king Siyaka. 

The date of the grants is given as * Samvat 1005, Magha v(b)a di 30 9 Budhe 3 which corresponds 
to Wednesday, the 31$f January, 949 A.D.> thus showing that the year was a Kartilcadi* expired 
year and the month was amanta, The occasion for the grant was the chandrdrkka-ydga-parva, 
which may mean simply an amavdsya and not necessarily an eclipse of the sun. There was no 
solar eclipse on the date, 

The grants are of great historical interest, as they are the earliest records of the Paramara 
dynasty and as such have considerable bearing on the history of Gujarat. In regard to the 
details of the last years of Chavtja rule, especially the period from 940 A.D. to 960 A.D., the 
Jain Chronicles are hopelessly at variance. The late Dr, Bhagvanlal Indraji says in his history 
of Gujarat, 4 '* The period of Chavda rule at Anahilavacja is likely to remain obscure until the 
discovery of contemporary inscriptions throws more light upon it than can be gathered from 
the confused and contradictory legends collected -by the Solanfci historians, none of whom are 
older than the twelfth century." In dealing with the period when the Eashtrakiitas of Malkhe<ji 



1 The identical expression pamimbhaU<yaJca^aMr^ 

na^fc-lttraroa&teftf^ m 

lh*,naiarirad:va, is used to denote Krfch?a III in the KaiMcla plates of Krishna III, dated Saka 880 
(Jsp /&i, Vol IV, p. 2781.) and \rith the addition oi pmmamah.fam, in the DeSlI plates of the same king 
dated in Saka 862 (Ep. faZ , Vol. Y, p igSfi.). The date of tto present inscription (equivalent to Saka 870) is 
just intermediate between the Dioli and Kaihoda inscriptions. It is possible that Erishpa III was at this time 
the overlord of Siyaka and lus name may hare therefore been given the place of honour. The epithet wM- 
mavdaltbMhMamni is in comonaaee th this new But other indications may seem to favour the view that 
the expression ending mth narindm-pUWm in the present plates r fers to the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II 

2 fcee above \ ol. XIX, p. 178 /. n. L I " 

3 See alwve Yol. XV III, p 321. 

Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I. page 155, 



No.- 39.3 TWO HARSOLA GEANTS OF PARAMAEA SIYAKA 0F V. S, 1005. 239 

held sway over Gujarat, lie admits 1 that no materials exist for fixing liow long after AD, 914, 
Gujarat belonged to the Manyakheta Rashtrakutas, and ventures the suggestion that probably 
they continued until their destruction in A.D. 972 by the Chalnkya king Taila or Tailapa. 
The present grants, I think, would go to supply the required information to a large extent. 
It is possible that the YSgaraja of the present grants was a chief of the Chapotkata or Chavda 
dynasty of A^ahilavada-Patan (if the account of some Jain prabandfias that the Chavda rule 
ended in V, S. 1017 instead of in V. S. 998 is correct), or of the Chalukya dynasty of Southern 
KSthiawar. 2 As Siyaka, when returning from his expedition against Yogaraja was encamped 
(near Sarnal) on the banks of the Mahi, it follows that Yogaraja's principality must lie somewhere 
to the west of the Mahl and of the Khetaka-m^fMa, which was in his own possession. The 
Chapotkatas of Patan and the Chalukyas of South Kathiawar acknowledged the overlordship 
of the Pratihara kings of Kanauj and Siyaka 3 s intimate connection with the Eashtrakutas, the 
enemies of the Pratiharas, explains why he attacked Yogaraja. 

The Siyaka of the present grants is no doubt Slyaka II, the father of Vakpati-Munja, whose 
date in his Dharampuri copper plates being 974 A. D. 3 was 25 years later than the date of the 
present records or, just the period of a generation. In fact Mabel Duff 4 actually gives 950 A.D. 
as the date of Siyaka II, the Paramara, probably working backwards from the known dates of 
Vakpati-Munja. He is also identical with the Siyaka of the Ahmadabad grant of V. S. 1026. 
Siyaka's father's name is Vairisimha in this, as well as in all previously known Paramara 
records. The Vakpati-Munja grants give the name of the father of Vairisimha as Kpish^a, 
who may be identical with Bappaiparaja of the present grant and with Vakpati I of the 
NavasahasanTcacJiarita of Parimala and the Udayapur Praasti,* It may be noted that Bappai 
is a good Prakrit equivalent of Vakpati. 

The Udayapur PraSasti further mentions two forbears of Vakpati I, viz., Vairisimha I and 
Siyaka I, but as no historical fact is recorded regarding them except that they followed each 
other in the direct line of succession, we can assume that they had not established their power, 6 
and the first prince of the family who assumed importance was Bappaipa or Vakpati or Krishna. 
We find no mention in the present records of the mythical ancestor Pararnara, born of 
the sacrificial fire on Mount Abu. Mr, 0. V. Vaidya in his article 7 on the exploded myth of Agiii- 
kulas mentions that of the four supposed Agmkula families only the Paramaras seem to trace 
their descent to Agni, from their Udayapur inscription. At least the present records, which are 
earlier than any other record of the ParamaraSj are silent on this point. 

The presence of the birudas AmdgMvarsJia Pnthvtvdlabha and Snvallrtbha among the titles 
of Vakpati-Munja have never been explained before, but on the basis of the relationship of the 
Paramikas with the Rashtrakutas revealed by the present grants, it is now possible to do so. 
From the fact that only Amoghavarsha I and Akalavarsha (Krishna II) are mentioned in the 
plates a it seems that these two princes were held m special esteem by the early Paramaras. What 
exactly the relation between the two families was it is difficult to say, but possibly tbe Paramaras 
were descended from a Rashtrakuta princess As some of the Vakataka 53 plates begin with a 

* Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I, Part I, page 131* a Above Vol. IX, p, 2f. 

* 2nd. Ant., Vol. VI, p. 481 

TJi& Chronology of India, p 92. See also Journal oj Indian History, Vol. IV \ p. 80* 
Above Vol. I,j>. 2S3. 

* Or their names might have been repeated in tbe geneology through mistake. See Proceedings oftfia Madras 
Oriental Conference, p. 803ffi. and History of Medical Hindu India by C V. Yaify% Vol. IT, p, 118* 

i J. & 5. M. A. 8. 9 Vol. XXVI, p. 110. 

* Aboye Vol. XV, p. 39 and JA Ant , Vol. LUJ, p. 48 



540 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX. ' 

description of the Gupta Emperors, from whom queen Prabhavat! was descended, so tie 
Paramaras may have been descended from the Rashtralrata kings Amoghavarsha and Akalavarsha 




local branch of the Rashtrakutas sometime about 900 A.D. He or Ms son Vairisiriiha may have 
crossed over from Gujarat to Malwa and laid the foundation of the rule of their family in that 
province. Wrom the present records, 'it seems possible that Slyaka J s capital was ia MahrS. as 
he was marching to the east of tie Mahi, possibly through the modern Panch Mahlls and the 
Jhabua State. In Gujarat, Slyaka still had possession of the Khtaka-w0#$*&l at any rate. The 
iord of Ra4upati or Rudrapati, who, the NamsaMsSnkdehanta tells us, was conquered by Siyaka, 
may possibly have been the Yoga/raja of the present grant. If Slyaka was at the time of these 
inscriptions subordinate to some overlord, possibly the RashtrakSta king, it is apparent from the 
statement of the Udayapur inscription that he later on fought with and defeated the Rashtrakuta 
1kg Khotfriga (about 970 AD.). 

The connection of the Paramaras with Gujasat, after the date of these plates, no doubt 
lasted at least up to V. S. 1026, the date of Siyaka's Ahmadabad grant, although .Mularaja, 
the founder of the A^Mlwaja Chaulukyas, consolidated North Gujarat undeT his rule and the 
Paramaras must have lost to him some portion of Northern Gujarat they had held; It 

seems that in the time of the successors of Slyaka- Vakpati and Siftdhufaja, the PaiamSras had 
ceased to hold the portion of Gujarat under their smty. for in 975 A.D .we seejtfularaja fighting 
with Barappa, the Chalukya general or ruler of Lata, i , M Southern Gujarat. *This he could not 
have done had the Paramaras teen holding on their territory which lay between the A$MIva$ 
kingdom and Lata. Prom theTilakva<Ja plates 1 of V. 8. 1108 fcfthe time of Paramara BhSja 
it seems, however, that Bhoja seized again a portion of Northern GujfcrSt since his power waa 
acknowledged by a king ruling over the modern Sankhe<Ja mahSl of the Baroda State. 

It is not known when exactly the connection of the Paramaras with Malwa began. The 
Partabgarh inscription 8 of V. S. 1003 of the time of the Pratihara sovereign Mahendrapala II 
shows that Ujjain was then governed by an officer of Mahendrapala named Madhava. Though 
this fact cannot be totally inconsistent with the occupation of Dhar by the Paramaras the country 
round about Ujjain was obtained by them not before the latter part of Siyaka's reign or the early 
part of Vakpati-Munja's reign. 

A king of Khetakamc^te is mentioned in the grants as a subordinate chief of Slyaka. 
But unfortunately neither bis name nor that of the family to which he belonged is given. From 
the Kapatjvanj grant* of S. 832 (A*.D. 910) we know that Pracha^a of the Brahmavak family 
hadgainM^rprmcipaUtyofMetaka-ma^atoby the favour of the Rash^rakuta sovereign 
Akalavarsha and was ruling at Harshapura, modern Harsola, where our grants were discovered. 
The ruler of Khe^aka-ma^fo, who was the contemporary of Slyaka was probably the successor 
of this Prachatfa. Prom our Harsola grants and the Kapaclvanj grant it seems that the 
Bashfrakuta sovereign Akalavarsha had allotted certain portions of his territories in Gujarat 
to his nobles who would check the attacks of the Pratihara enemies. 

Of the localities mentioned, E3xe|aka-ina^ala is roughly equivalent to the modern Kaira 
and parte of Ahmedabad District. Hdhaflavasaka must be the same as modern Moh^a or 
* froc&edinffs of the Poom Oriental Conference ~~"~^ r------------**-^^ 

Above Vol. XIV, p. H7, 
8 An. Oaz. I. i. p. 129, 




RAO BAHADUR H. KRISHNA SASTRI, B.A., 
LATE GOVERNMENT EPIGRAPHIST FOR INDIA, 19201925. 



16th September 1870 

at Hoskote, 
Bangalore District. 



Died : 8th February 1928 
at Bangalore. 



N<x 39.] TWO HAKSOLA GBANTS OF PARAMAEA SIYAKA OF V. 8. 1005. 241 



Mod&sa in Print! j taluka of the District, of Ahmadab&d. The villages granted ttf*, 
toblrdfaka- and SHiakft can be identified with the present Kamro^J and SikS situated at 
a distance ol 13 miles to the east and 8 miles to the south oi Modasa, respectively. Sivaaltha, 
the shrine on the MaM, which was the place of the king's encampment, can be identified 1 with 
Sarnal, lying near the place where the Mah! is HOW crossed by the Anand-Godhra Section of the 
B., B. & 0. L By. It is still looked upon with sanctity in the neighbourhood 'and has an ancient 
Siva temple named GaJteSvara which is now a protected monument. It is near the village of 
Janod owned by a Thakttr in the fhasra taluka of the Kaira District, and can be approached 
by the railway station Angadi on the Anand-Godhra line. Anandapura was the original 
home of the Nagara Brahmansand is now represented by Vadnagar, a town in the Kheralu tduk 
of the Kadi praw** Baroda State. It is noteworthy that these documents give us the earliest 
known epigraphical mention of the Nlgaras though Brahma^as hailing from inaadapur are 
mentioned in some Valabhl inscriptions. 



TEXT.* 

Grant A 

Vidytich-chakra-ka4ara-kesara- 
iiivtbjuda-fire^ayah ioijaiii 
netra-hutafe-4aiiiv(b)ara-bh|ita^ sinigh- 



1 dm 8 [I*] 



Qwnt B. 
1 6m [I*] Vidyuk-chakra*-ka4ara-kesara- 



| visphurjjad-gala- 
garjji-tarjjita-kakun-mataAga-iiarp- 
odayah samrambhas-sukliayaintu 

vat khara-na- 

3 kha-kshuiiina^dvishad-vakshasa^ || [1 II*] 

Parama-bhattiraka-maharajadhiraja- 

parameSvara-firlmad-Amdglaavarslia- 

deva-pad-a 

4 nudhyata-parama-bhattaraka-maharaja- 

dhiraja-paramefivara-Srimad- 
AkSlavarshadSva-pyithvivallabha- 

Srivalla- 

5 bha-narendra-padanaih | Tasminknl kal- 

masha-mSsha-dakshe I 8 jatat pratap- 
agni-hut-ap-pakha^L | V(B)appaipa-* 

6 rfijeti nfipa^ prasiddhas-tasmat-stito* 8 

bhud-anu Valrislrfigtia^ 10 I fl 2 11*3 

Dppt-ari-vanita-vaktra-chaihdra- 

v(b)imv(b)akalaiii- 

i We are indebted to Mr. R, . Banerji, M.A., for this suggestion. 

19JO-21, p. 61. 

From the photog^apiw and the original plates. 
Uxpreesed by a symbol [I would read Siddjmm 



2 kjitek SarAgi^a^ 1 visphurjjafd]-gala- 
garj]i-tar]]ita-kakun-mataihga-darp- 
su- 



3 khayaihtu v*b khara-nakha-kshuiima.' 
dviahad-vakshasat H [1 11*1 Parama- 



vara-Srl- 

4 mad-AmSgJiavarsliadSva-pad-amidhy- 

ata-parama-bhatitaraka-maharajadhi* 
raja-parameSvara-Srlmad-Aii- 

5 lavarsbad8va-p|ithvIvallabJia4nvallabha- 

nat6rfid3:-pdanaih I Tasmkkul kal- 
masha-[to]8aha-dak[she] jata^ 

6 pratap-Sgni-hut-ari-pakslia%L I V(B)appaim* 

parJ=ti niipa^ prasiddhas* 
tasmi,t-sut6-bhfidaixu 
[I2f ]Dppt- 




is auperfluous. 

[Facsimite gives V (B) appaiya. Soe p. 239 above. Ed.] 
Eead FofriMilriba}. 



3 a 



242 



EPIGRAPEIA IHDIOA. 



[VOL. XIX. 



7 kata [*] no dhauta yasya klrty=api 

Hara-has-avadataya |J [3*11] Durwara- 
ripu-bhupala-rana-raihg-aika-na- 

8 yakah j njipat rI-Siyakas*tasmat= 

kula-kalpa-drumo-bhavat || [4 ||*] sa 
evainvidhah pranata-sakala-samariita- 

9 ^iromani-marlchi-ramjita-charana-yugalah 

^ri-Khetaka-mandal-adhipati-pratipatti- 
prativ(b)uddlia-trukti (?)- 

10 satFtryfi-ra\ a-samttrast-aneka-npu-samuhah. 

anCka-#aiiikha-dhvam-v(b)adliuita-pam- 
C'lia-varnijia-pataka-raji-vira- 

11 jJta-visala-vaksha[3*]-sthal-avalainv(b)ita- 

kamudi-v(b)andhavah atula-dana-sam- 
pd-dau-aika-kalpa-druniah inalia-inani- 
cla* 

12 IiJca-rhu^rimam-raaharajadliiraia-pati-firi- 

SIYAK A H, sva-bhujyarnana-MohacJa- 
vasaka-\isliaya-saiuv(b)add3ia-Kurix- 

13 bharotaka-graraah 3 | samasta-raja-puru- 

shan=prativasi"janapadams=cha v(b)odh- 
ayaty=-astu 4 vah yatlia Yogaraja- ( 5 

U sy=opari yattra-samaya-satiisid- 

clha-k;iry-ananitara-vydghutitair*Malii- 

nadl-tata-uivasibhir*asmabhiachamdr- 
a- 

15 rkka-y5ga-parwani Sivanatharii sama- 

bhya[r]chy- t ava[dha]rya || Vat-abhra- 
vibh ramam-idain vasudh-adhipa tyain* 

apata- 

16 mattra-aiadhiirS Tishay-opabhogah | 

praiiris-ttrio'-agra-jala-viifedii-sama na- 
ranrim | 6 dharnimah saklia param- 
aho- 

2nd Plate. 



7 ari-vanita-vaktra-cliaihdra-v(b)iiiiv(b}a-ka- 

lamkata [I*] no dliauta yasya kirty=api 
Eara-has-avadatayal [|3*l|] Durvvara-rl- 

8 pu-bhiipala-rana-ra[n*]g-aika-nayalah. 

nripah fir!-Siyakas*tasnut-kula-kalpa- 
dnimo-bhavat || [4* || ] Sa evamvi- 

9 dliah praTiata-sakala-stlniamta-^iromanl- 

marichi-ramjita-chararia-yiigaljb rl- 
Kh0taka-niaDi(iala 

10 dhipati-pratipatti-prafciv(b)atlt!l ii-trukti (?) 

sat[u]rya-rava-sa[iii*]tr?st-rur'ka-npu-sa- 
muliah aneka-Saiiiklia-dh v^ . 

11 m-v(b}adtinta-p[nnoha-vnrnm-|)rtnkS-rBji- 



v(b)iia-kuinuda-v(b)aihfllia- 

12 vah atula-d5na-sarii[p]rirlin-aiki-ki'lj)a- 

drumah mahii-maiiidalika-c \\\ ] llmani- 
znaharajadlii- 

13 raja-pati^rl-Slyakah sva-blnijyaraaiia- 

M5hadavasaka-vishaya-Bamv(b)a* 
ddJia-Sihaka-gri- 

Second Plate. 

H niah 3 | samasta-raja-purr^Iiriuapra- 
tivasi-janapadaiftficha v(b)o lhayaty 
astuvah* yatlui Yogara- 

15 jasy=opan yatra-samaya-saiiisiddha-kary- 
anantara-vyighutitair Mdhl-iucll-tata- 
nivasibhi- 



16 rasm<abhi,s=chamdr-a[r*]ka--yoga-p<'irvvani 
Sivanfitham samabhyarchy- ftvadharya 
t Vat-abbra-vibhramam=idani vasu- 



li para-loka.yane j] [5*] Itl jagad-anityaih 17 dtadhipatyam^pata-inatfcra.madlmrfl 
sakaUm-avadharr^pari-likhitS visliay-opabhogat | prSol 

gramat sa-sinia-tima-gochara-paWy^ jala-Yiudu-sama naranmu 

am- 




Read fan* 



PnLctr.aton is nut ncedocl, 



HARSOLA COPPBE PLATE GRANTS OF THE PAKAMARA SIYAKA (V. S. 1005) 





SCALE FIVE EIGHTHS. 



SUBVE* OF INDIA, CALCUTTA. 



B 




n 




18 ta[h*] soparakara^i 1 sarvv-adaya-samo(^)- 

petah 6rimad-inamda-puriya-Nagaraya 

Tryarsheyaya Gopali-sa- 

19 gottraya GovarddhajiarsQnave LaU- 

6pad.liyaya.ya mata-pittr6r=atnianas= 
cha punnya-yaso s -bhivriddliaye ad- 

pshta-pha- 

20 lam-aiiiglkrity-a-cliamdr-arkk- 
anjnava-kshiti-sama-kalaiii paraya bha- 
ktya fiasanena udaka-purwakam 
pratipadita i- 

21 ti ||Tam-mvasi 6 -ianapadair=yatha-diyamana- 

bh-aga-blioga-kara-liirany-adi-sarwam- 
ajna-rava^a-vidheyair=bliutva 

22 tat-puttra-pauttr-adibhyah samupaneta- 

vyam I iti vudhva' asmad-vamsa - 
iair-anyair=api bhavi-bhoktribMh 

mat-pradatta-dha- 

23 rmma-dayo-yarii manumamtavyah 10 

palaniya^cha | Uktam cha I V(B)anu- 
btir=wasudlia bhukta rajabhis=^aga- 
r-adibHl. | Yaaya 

24 yasya yada bMmis=tasya tasya tada 

phalamll [ 6 H * ] Yto-iha dttani pura 
naren-drair=ddana,ni dharmm-arttha- 
yaSaska-rani I ni- 

25 rmmalya-vanta-pratimani tarn ko nama 

sadhuh punar^adadita || [ 7 || * ] Samvat 
1005 Magha v(b)a di ,30 Budhe dapa- 



.^| l jiA. L iw7'''" g *'rn!".!- , .n, !"ll!^_-^ui- . 

18 ssakha paramaho para-loka-yanai a 

[5 H* ] Iti jagad^anityam sakalarn 
avadh^ry=6pairi"lik3iit6- > ^ 

19 gramah sa-sima-triga-gochiara-paryariitaft*] 

sopara%arat sarvv-adaya- 

samo(u)petah Mmad-lnamda- . 

20 pnriya-Kagaiaya Tryarsheyaya ; GopaH- 

sago[tra]ya Lall-opadtylya-siita- 

Mna-DiksMtaya 



26 ko-ttra Thakkura^ toI-Vidii* 

ajnaya likbtam Kayastha-Gunajii" 
dharena 13 || Svahasto-yam 



27 sya |1 8 [| 



JL V i 

adiislita-plialama 

amgikrity=a-cliamdr-arkk-ar^na- ^ 
22 va-ksliiti-sama-kalaiii patayS bhaktya 
Sasanena udaka-ptrwakam t ^ 13 ^- 

padita iti H ta-mva 5 = ' ' t 



23 si-ianapadair*yatKa-diyateana- 
* _ * - n 



'l : - a- 



24 



tva tatrputia-paiitr-adibliya^ , samu- 
panetavyaiii, _{!*] Iti",-yudva 7 .asmad- 
^'i,.Hft t^'-ruaij^n. ',- ' "b 11 ^- 



v?Hiajai r -r\aii-=y V| , , . ^vi- 
nat-jjra- 



2 5 



| bbukta 



_ 

ibfaifc ^yasya- ^ yasya, .yad 
^ tasya 



, I 6 | 



i 1 to 
/- "tan! -'W 1 nama 1 




244 BPiaEAPHIA INDICA. [Voi,. XIX. 

ABRIDGED TRANSLATION. 

(Verse 1) Invocation to the man-lion form of Vishnu. 

(Lines 3-5) Of the revered king P, M. R the great lord, lord of the earth, lord of wealth* 
the illustrious Akalavarsha, who meditated on the feet of the illustrious lord P, M. P. 
Amoghavarsha. 

(v. 2} In that family, skilful in removing sin, was born a famous king named Bappai- 
parija, who sacrificed his enemy 's forces in the fire of his valour ; to him was born a son, Vairl* 
eimha who succeeded him, 

(v. 3) His fame, though white like the god Siva's laugh, could not remove the spots 
from the moou like faces of the wives of his proud enemies. 

(v. 4) To him was bom king Siyaka, the desire-yielding tree of his dynasty, who 
was the sole hero on the stage ol battle between Mm and the hostile kings. 

(11. 8-20) He, whose feet wore tinged with the rays of the crest-jewels of all the feudatories 
rendering obeisance, who had invested Irukti (?) at the request of the lord of the Khetaka 
Division, terrorized many enemy hosts by the (very) sound of his trumpets (in battle), and 
deafened (the enemies) by the sound of his conch, (whose army was) shining with the rows of 
penta-coloured banners on whose spacious breast waa a pendent moon, who was the sole 
desire-yielding tree in bestowing unrivalled gifts, the crest jewel of the great feudatories, 
the lord, the overlord of kings, the illustrious Siyaka, thus commands all the officers and neigh- 
bouring villagers of the village of Knmbharotaka (grant A), SIhakS (grant B) comprised 
within the district (vishaya) of Mha<jLavsaka. 

Be it known to you that at the time of our invasion against Yogaraja, while returning after 
having accomph&hed our object, we were encamped on the bank of the river Mahl, after worship- 
ping the Lord Siva at the time of the conjunction of the sun ana the moon, and reflecting that 
* the sovereignty of this world is but the play of the wind and clouds, the enjoyment of sensual 
objects is sweet only at the outset, the life of man is like a drop of water on the tip of a blade of 
grass, but Dharma is the only companion on the journey to the other world, 9 also remembering 
that the whole of this world is evanescent, we have granted with great devotion the above-men- 
tioned village, together with a charter and accompanied by (a libation of) water, as enclosed 
within its boundaries, along with the pastures and cattle-gracing lands, with the claim to all 
the dues and taxes to the Nagara (Brahma^a) hailing from Inandapura, of the QdpUi-gdtra 
owning three rishis (as the Pravaras of his gOba) by name LallopidUbySya son of Govar- 
dhana (grant A), Nlna-DIksMta son of Lallopadhyaya (grant B), for the enhancement of the 
religious merit and the fame of our parents as well as of ourselves. Tae gift shall continue as long 
as the sun, the moon, the ocean and the earth endure. 

(U. 21 if.) So the inhabitants residing in that (village) being prompt in attending to our 
orders, shall offer him and his sons and grandsons, etc., in due succession, all the dues as are now 
paid such as the shares (of produce) royalties, taxes and gold, etc. 

Future rulers of our own dynasty as also the other princes enjoying (the sovereignty pf this land) 
knowing this (to be our wish) should concur in and continue this grant made by ua in (the cause 
of) religion and (it) has been said,-~[Here Mow two usual verses]. Dated Monday the 30th day ol 
Magha dark half of the year 1005. Thakkura Vision was the officer who caused this to be granted ; 
written by ffayutha Gu 9 adhara under the king's orders. Sign manual of the illustrious Siyaka, 



No. L] A THIRD PLATE OF THE NIDHANPUE PLATIS'OF BHASKARAVARMAN. 248 

No. 40, A THIRD LOST PLATE OF THE NIDHANPUR PLATES OF BHASKARA- 

VARMAN, 

BY M. M. P. PABMANATHA BEATTACHARYYA, VIDYAVINODA, M.A. 

When writing on the " Two Lost Plates " ol the Nidhanpur plates, I stated, " the rumour 
goes that a third missing plate is in the possession of a Musalman and efforts are being made to 
get it from him ".* Not having been successful in recovering the plate through other means, I 
myself went to Nidhanpur (in Sylhet) in April 1926 and purchased this third missing plate from 
if s possessor* From the enquiries I made in this connection, I have come to know that seven 
plates stringed with the ring attached to the seal were found, about 2J- feet below the surface 
of the plinth of a whilom house, and that the discoverer (Masharraf) sold the plates to different 
persons. Of these, three along with the seal fell to the lot of Bab a Pavitranath Das, a local 
uamindar, who, being an educated gentleman, realised their value and so sent them to Silchar 
to his friend Rai Saheb Dinanath Das from whom I got them in 1913. 2 Other purchasers who 
were illiterate people thought that the plates would some day be conducive -to some lucky 
bargain and kept them hidden until they came to know that the three which were sold to Pavitra 
Babu revealed nothing but some sort of information quite unprofitable to them : and then sold 
them off one by one at whatever they could make out of them, I purchased the present plate 
for Rs. 20. 

The present plate enumerates altogether 63| shares belonging to 86 persons of 24 gGtras 
of which 19 are new gdtras not found mentioned in the plates already dealt with. As the total 
of these shares amounts to 166ft, evidently there must be at least one more plate to complete 
the set, otherwise, the fraction will be inexplicable. 

Whether the plate tfnder consideration is the fourth or the fifth one of the set, it is very 
difficult to decide. The third plate ends with the complete record of a share and the penulti- 
mate plate abo opens with an independent record, so that none of these plates has any 
dependence on a subsequent or preceding one, respectively. The present plate, as it 
has been read and written here, also begins in such a way as it may be considered 
to be in continuation of the third plate or of the missing plate if that one ends with a complete 
record of share, like the third plate. I have, however, a suspicion that this plate was inscribed 
in a wrong way, t,&, what is the first side as shown here was inscribed after the inscription of 
what is shown as the second side. The first record of share in the second side of the plate does 
not give the proper name of the donee, which is not found even at the end of the first side. 
Again, the name of the last donee mentioned in the second side, w., GSminaga, ends in " naga " 
which also occurs in the first name recorded in the first side of the plate* Generally we 
observe that the names whose latter halves or component parts are similar (e.gr., ghSsha, dama, 
kuruja, palita, soma, etc.,) are put down in close proximity to one another. In these circum- 
stances it would appear that the proper name missing in the beginning of the second side (which 
may really be the first side) of this plate must be at the end of the plate not yet discovered. 
In that case, the missing plate will be the fourth, and the present one the fifth plate of the set 
that is said to have consisted of seven plates. 

This document vfe., the copper-plate grant as renewed by Bhaskaravarm&n has a 
special bearing on the ancient history of Kamarupa, The genealogy recorded in the 
first and the second plate gives the names of the kings (with their queens} who ruled 

1 See above, Vol. XIX, p. 116. 
Vol. XII, p. 65. 



246 EPIGR4-PHIA INDIOA- [Vox. XIX- 



that province prior to Bhaskaravannan. As tie grant recorde^ t in these plajtep is 
a renewal of what was 'ma3e by Bhasfcaravarman's great-great-grandfather Bhutivarman as 
noticed in tie thirtj plate ,it is proved that in the 5th or 6th century after Christ, ie 5 long before 
Bhaskaravarman/the kingdom of Kamarupa bad, even in one village, a very large number of 
Brhtaa&6of different gBtras and Vedas, The village mentioned in it was situated in & place 
lyitig very close- t< the kingdom of Qauda, between the rivers Teesta and Earatoya which ( was 
the western boundary oi fcamarupa, 1 and now forms part of the district of Bangpur in Northern 
Bengal. Thus, the story that AdiSiira, a king of Gau4a, had to import five-Brahmans from Efinaifj 
0n account of fete- paucity of Brahmans in the locality or vicinity would appear to be ground- 
less, especially when it has not yet been confirmed by any reliable document. Further, the Sam- 
piad'ajrika Brahmans o Sylhet with the ten gotras including Katyayana, were all along assert- 
ing that they had come from Mithila or still further north west ; but the discovery of this copper- 
plate in thfe very place Panchakhanda Nidhanpur forms a part of it where they say they 
settled originally, Would prove that they came there from Kamarapa. The inscription mentions 
all the ten jrflfrasy and as it calls Manoratha-svamin of Katyayana gdtra Pattakapati, it is evident 
that ttese plates came to Panchakharida with a (Katyayana) descendant of Manoratha-svamin. 
It may be stated further that there might have been other villages like this Mayftrafialmall- 
graMra teeming with Brahman population. In fact, the ancient kingdom of Kamarupa 
appears to have been a refuge of the Brahmans of the neighbouring kingdoms where Buddhism 
flourished. So far no ancient remains of Buddhism have yet been discovered there ; and as the 
tide rf Buddhism began to subside, the Brahmans of Kamarupa also began to spread 
westward, and, it may be, that most of the Brahman families in the neighbouring province 
of (modern) Bengal are the descendants of those Brahmans from Kamarupa. These copper- 
plate inscriptions, therefore, possess a special value as they throw much light on the social 
history of the Brahmans of this part of India , 

TEXT. 
Middle Pkte: First Side, 

1 Pravarabha(na?)ga-sva* chaturtha-bhaga-h[i]no 5 Ma[hJ || Apanaga-sva ana[lff |f 

T6shanaga-Hampinaga-svamibhya[m] 

2 aMach-chaturtho bhaga[h*] || K%ap5 Vajasaneyi Managh6sha-sva anSa[h] || 

VaisIinavriddhi^Chhandogo 

S Sarppi^(?)^sva aMa[h] || Janardanasva an^a[h] |) KauSiko V(B)ahv?ichya 

' . Arka ; sva [a*]dhy-arddh-afifia[h] || graddha-dasa- 
'*., $vft*' J( i <arddh-5flSa[h] || Gautamo Vajasaneyi Sanatana-sva 
-Haisip.prabha(bh6) gotrena saha ardh-a- 

|f Kautilyo Vajasaneji Khandasoma-sva [a*]-dhy-arddhan-6a[h] |j Sreyaskaya- 



^ Vakulasoma-sva 

svamibhyim=ard<ih-ina[h] || Krishiia- 

7 ttreyS Vajasaneyi Bhaya^a[h]-sva [a*]=dhy-arddh-an^a[h] |J Yajna-sva pad- 
J Ma[h] jj Daiva- 



U7 9 f.n. 2, 

*8v& stands for Svami and amfaj is almost always spelt as aftSa. [For ft] J read 
So no amendment has been made as the correct form is apparent, 




S 
V* 



:s 




tfo* 40,] A THIRD PLATE OF THE NIDEANPUR PLATES OF BHASKARAVAKMAN. 247 

8 sya pad-abhy-adhiko 'n^a[h] || Darddi-sva arddt-anSa[h] j| Pradyunna(mna)- 

sva [a]-dhy"arddt-anSa[h] |j Vriddii-sva dvir-ana[h] || 

9 Divakara-Hari-Adbliuta-Tvaslitfi-Toslia-nagebhyo ana('na)pb] || Kavcstaro 

Vajasaneyl 

10 Medha-sva aMa[h] || Ma^davyo Vajasaneyl Dliriti-svami(i) gotrcna saha 

ainSa-cliatii- 

11 rfcka bhaga[h*] || Ka&yapo Vajasana(no)yi Keava-sva ana[h] jj Bharadvajo 

Vajasaneyl Gauri-sva 

12 an^a[h] || Sucharita-sva arddt-an^a[h] || Bharadvajo Vajasaneyl Vappa- 

sva l an^a[h] || Kaundinyo Bahvrichyo(chyah) 

13 Karkadatta-sva aiSa[h] || Bharadvajo V[B]ahvrichyo(cliya) Udayana-sva 

aAa[h] || Vaslshtho Bahvrichyafli*] Merudatta-sva 
14: an6a[y || Agnive^yo Vajasaneyl Narendra-Renul huti-sva[mi*]-bliyaiii ansa[li] [| 

MedLabhuti-sva ardli-an^a[h] || 
15 S5akpitySyana[S*-] Chya(Cha)raky6(kya^) ;: Cliandrapakslia-sva an^a[h] [| YaakS 

V(B)alivTichya[Ii*j Kali-sva 



Middle Plate : Second Side, 

1 (?)sva [a*]-dhy-arddh-an6a[li] j| Bhatti-Malie^vara-sva ardh-ansafli] 

V(B)ahvyichyo Gdpalanandi-sva an^a[h] |) BharggavS 

2 VMvabhiiti-sva aAfia[h] || Surakshita-Sucharitalliya[m*]arddli-5n^ailt] [| 

Bharadvajas=Taittin(i)ya[^*]&vagana- 

3 sva an^a[h] || V(B)ahvrichya[h*] Katyayana (no) bhratp-trayena VasuSn-sva anSa[h] (| 

KauSiko Vajasaneyl 

4 Virabhuti-sva an^a[h] || Vishntibliuti-sva arddh-ansa[h] || PramSdabhuti-sva 

an^a[h] || Bharadvajo Vaja- 

5 saneyi Visknudatta-sva anfiaft] II Kaundiny5 Vajasaneyl V(B)rihaspati-sva 

anflaft] || Yasko 

6 V(B)ahvrichya(o) HaTshadeva-sva aAAa[h] || Jatukarnii,a(6) Vajasaneyl Medha-sva 

anfia[h] || KrisLna-sva anSa[h] || 

7 Madhava-Haribliyam(m) aMa[h] |j Bharadvajas=Cliliand6go Janardanadeva-sva 

a^a[h] || Maudgalyo 

8 Vajasaneyl Vishnusoma-sva ardh-an^afh] j| Gargyas=Cliarakyo Dhanasena-sva 

an^a[h] [f Pramo- 

9 dasena-Gli6shasenabliyam{m) an&a[h] |j Somasna-sva an^a[h] |j Gautamo 

V(B)ahvpcha(chy6) Bliaskara- 

10 mittra-sva afifetft] II Madh[u]mittra-sva ank[h] || Sadhara^a-mittra-Sadliu- 

inittrabliam(bhyam) ank[h] |j Dhfiti- 

11 mittra-sva arddh-aMa[h] |j Bharadvajo V(B)ahvrictya(S=*)^Dkrabliava-sva 

afiSa[h] || Pautrimasliyo(?) V(BJaRvTicliya[s*]Sudar&5(ri)ana- 

12 Phane6vara-svamibhyam(m) arddh-an^a[h] |] ^aajdilyo Vajasaneyl Bari-sva 

MadhTi-sva 



name being a Prakrit word (probably from Skt. Vapra) it iias been spelt mth B, fa and 
the same fown in these Kamarupa iEscriptiojosJ. . 4 ,? 



248 



EPIGEAPHU ItfPICA. 



[ Vol. XIX. 



13 Mahidhara-sva an&ft] |j Paunno(Paurnn61) V(B)a]r?Tichya(5) Bhatti-MaheSvara-ava 

an&a[k] || Bhatti-Matp-sva arddh-aMa[h] [j 

14 Eudiabhatti-sva arddh-anBa[h] [J KauSika^ChhandogS Adri('dri)-vilepana-8va 

a:d$a[h] || SSvarnni- 

15 ka-sagotro Vajasaneja Gominaga-sva aiSa[hJ || 

The shares enumerated in the text given above may be tabulated thus : 



Serial No. * 


Veda, etc. 


Gdtra. 


Name. 


Share. 


1 


Bahvrichya* . 


Varaha , 


Pravara(na)ga-svamin 


i 


2 


Do. 


Do. . 


Apanaga-svamin 


i 


34 


Do. 


Do. . 


Tdshanaga and Hampinaga sva- 

mills. 


* 


5 


VajasonSyin , 


KSIyapa 


Managhdfiha-svamin . 


i 


6 


Chhandoga . 


Vaislma-vriddhi . 


Sarppijji-syaniin 


i 


7 


Do, 


Do. 


Janardana-evaroin . . 


i 


8 


Babvrichya . 


Kautika 


Arka*6vamin , 


11 


9 


Do. 


Do. * 


Sraddhadasa-svamin . 





10 


V&jasaneyin , 


Gautama 


Sanatana-evamin 


i 


11 


Do. 


Do. 


Harshaprabha with his gdtra 


i 


12 


Do. 


Kautilya 


Khm4aB5ma.Bv&min . . 


n 


13, 14, 15 


Do. 


Do. 


Sreyaskara, Gati, Gauri, -soma 
^svamins). 


i 


16 


Do. 


Do. 


Vakulasoma-svamin . . 


i 


1718 


Do. 


Do. 


Dhritifidma, SiibhasCma (sv&inins) 


i 


19 


Do. 


KiiiMtte*a . 


Bhaya^ah-svamin 


i* 


20 


Do. 


Do, 


Yajna-svamin .... 


it 


21 


Do. 


Do. 


Daiva-avaiDJn .... 


ii 


22 


Do. . . 


Do. 


Darddi-svamin .... 


i 


23 


Do. 


Do. 


Pradyumna-svamin . . * 


ii 


24 


Do. 


Do. 


Vriddbi-svamin .... 


2 



1 The serial number does not exist in the original. 

* The third plate ends with "VarahS BahnichyS Nara(t).flva attaR]." The V5da and tie gdtra ore r*> 
peated here (trifc footnote 3 on page 120 above, Voi 2CIX), on the supposition that the present plate may be the 
fourth one. See remarks above. 

8 This seems to render questionable the correctness of my interpretation of '0o*raife*i* in foot-note p, 
I am now inclined to thiak that gdtrdmtali, wherever it occurs, should mean ' gdtrasahitd' iktap , t.e* one shaco 
with hii gdfra, where gotta does not mean * clan * (as apparently others of his * clan ' get shares separately men- 
tioned) but (loosely) 'family 1 or ' progeny * much as in Pagjni IV-M62 (^o/yaife^fltrfro-|>rfl^AriYf g^mj*) 
Oa this new interpretation the serial Nos. 18, 28 and 79 in the list of donees, as recorded m the third and the 
penultimate plates, should get J a share less each. The total of shares awarded in thoe plates should therefore be 
102$ instead "f 104& as stated in the preceding article* 



No. 40.] A THIRD PLATE OF THE NIDHANPUB PLATES OP BHASKARAVABMAN. 249 



Serial No. 


VMa, etc. 


Gotra. 


Name. 


Sha-re. 


2% 20, 27, 28, 29 


VajaaanSyin . 


Krishnattreya. 


Divakara, Hari, Adbhuta, 
Tvaebtn, Toahanaga (svamins), 


1 


30 


Do. , 


Kavestara . 


Medha-svarnia .... 


1 


31 


Do. 


Ma^tjavya 


Dhriti-svamiri with Ms gotta 


i 


32 


Do. . . 


KaSyapa 


KeSava*svamin .... 


I 


33 


Do. 


Bbaradvaja , 


Gauri-svamin .... 


I 


34 


Do. 


Do. 


Suoharita-SYamia 


i 


35 


Do. 


Do. 


Bappa-svamm .... 


P 


36 


Bahvnchya . 


Kaundinya . 


Karkadatta-svamin . 


1 


37 


Do. 


Bharadvaja . 


Udayana-svamin 


i 


38 


Do, 


Vasishtha 


Mrudatta-svamin 


1 


39,40 


Vajasaneyin . 


Agniv^^ya 


Nareadra-Retiiibhuti-evaniins 


1 


41 


Do. . . 


Do. . , 


Mcdhabhuti-svamin 


1 


42 


Charakya 


SaDkrityayftna 


Chandrapaksha-svamin 


1 


43 

44 


Bahvrichya . 

Do. , . 


YAska . 
Do. . 


Kaii-svamiti .... 
, . . -v,mia .... 


1 
11* 


45 


Do. , , 


Do, . 


Bhatti-Mahe^vara-svamiB . . 


1 


46 


Do, 


Paraarya 


Gopalanandi-svamin . 


1 


47 


Do. 


Bharggava 


Vi^vabhuti-sTimin . 


i 


43,49 


Do. 


Do. 


Surakslsita, Sucharita-avirains . 


i 


60 


Taittiriya 


Bharadvaja . 


SivaganasvajniQ 


i 


SI, 52, 53, 54 


Bahvrichya . 


Katyayana . 


Vaau^rl-avamin with three brothers 


i 


55 


VajaaaaSyin , 


Kanaka 


Yirabhuti-svamin 


i 


56 


Do. 


Do 


ViBh^tibhiitl*svaniin . 


i 


57 


Do. . 


Do. 


Praniodabhuti-svamin 


l 


58 


Do. , 


Bharadvaja . 


Vish^itidatta-flvamin . 


i 


59 


Do. 


Kau^ijinya . 


Bfihaspati-svamia 


1 


60 


Bahvrichy* , 


Yaska . 


Harshadeva-svamm . 


1 


61 


VajasanSyin . 


Jatukarijoa * 


Medba-svamia ... * 


1 



1 Here tho insertion of Vtd* and gdira is redundant as the nearest preceding Veda and gr<t are esactty 
the same a* here (vide footnote 2, p. 248). 

1 Vide the jpnaf atory remarks in this connoc-tioa. Tlie proper wune that ii miwaWR hew may have Sl 
mention iu the missing plate # along with the i*oord of Vda d &>*ra. If the record is really in cootinaation 
Of tto toit line in the other side, then the name has been dropped through mere oversight and VSdfc and 0a 
to the last donee recorded in that side, 



250 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. 



[Vot. XIX 



Serial No, 


Yeda, etc. 


Bdtra. 


Name. 


Share. 


62 


Vajasaneyin 


JMker Wa . . 


HUvMMi . . . 


i 


63,64 


Do, 


Do. . . 


Mad&ava-Harf-svaming 


i 


65 


Chhandoga . 


Bhaiadvaja . 


Janardana-svamin 


i 


66 


Vajasaaeyin . 


Maudgalya . 


ViflhpnsSina-avamia . 


i 


67 


Charakya 


Garggya 


Dhanasena-svamiii . 


i 


68,69 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Pramodasena, GMshasSna (sva- 
mins). 


i 


70 


Do. . . 


Do. . . 


Soznaaena-svarnin 


i 


71 


Bahvriclia . 


Gautama . 


Bhaskaramittra-svamin 


i 


72 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Madhumittra-svamiis . 


i 


13,74 


Do. . , 


Do. . . 


Sadhara^ainittra, SSdhumitrft 


i 


(avamins). 


75 


Do. . . 


Do. . . 


Diqitimittra-svamin . 


4 


76 


Do. , . 


Bharadvaja . 


Sukrabhava-svamin t 


i 


77,78 


Do. , , 


Pantrimashy'a 


Sudar^ana, Dhane^vara^yamins . 


4 


79 


VajaBanSyia . 


Sa ? 4ilya . . 


Ravi-svamin , 


l 


SO 


Do, . . 


Do. 


Madhti-avamin .... 


i 


81 


Do. , . 


Do. . . 


MaMdhara-svamln . 


l 


82 


Bahvjichya , 


Paurwa 


Bha^Mahe^arafiYimin . . 


l 


83 


Do. . . 


Do. . . 


Bhatti-Matri-svamin . . . 


i 


84 


Do. 


Do. . . 


Rudrabhatti-Bvamk . . 


4 


35 


ChUtadfiga . 


KauSika , 


Adrivilipanasvamin , 


i 


$6 


Vajasaaeyta , 




GdminSgasvamin 
TOTAL 


i 


63f 








Total shares in other plates. 
GRAND TOTAL . 


102f* 


166$ 


1 F#e footnote 3 p. 848 tbon. 



No. 41.] A NEW ASOKAN INSCRIPTION FROM TAXILA, 25! 

No. 4L A NEW ASOKAN INSCRIPTION FROM TAXILA. 

By DR. E. HBEOTELD. 

[The inscription which is published below was discovered at Taxila by Sir John Mar- 
shall who gave a facsimile of it in the Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India 
for 1914-15 l as well as in his Guide to Taxila*. In both these publications he has recog* 
nised the special bearing it has on the origin of the Kharoshthl alphabet. That it \\as 
a new inscription of Asoka, the great Mauryan Emperor, was not known till recently when 
its contents were deciphered by Dr. Herzfeld, who communicated his interpretation of it to 
Sir John Marshall in the following letter. To place this discovery before scholars, his letter 
is published as it is, though it is not in the usual form of an article. Even the tran Jitera- 
tion has not been disturbed. ED.] 

DEAR SIR JOHN, 

While trying to decipher the Aramaic inscription of Darius which I had dis- 
covered in 1923 on his tomb at Naqsh i Rustam, I gathered all the Aramaic material 
accessible to me here in Teheran, where I am almost deprived of ail books, and thus I came 
once more upon the squeeze of the Taxila inscription which you had been kind enough as 
to send me long ago, and which accompanies me on my various travellings. Having ev^n 
not your " Guide to Taxila " nor the publication in the Ind. Arch. Surv, at my disposal, 
I am unable to quote the work of deciphering that has already been done, nor can I take 
the great advantage of making use of such work. Moreover, having no sort of Aramaic 
glossary at my hand, the only thing left to me is just to let you know my reading ot the 
letters, as far as I am able to read, being no Aramaist at all. Nevertheless, the little I can 
do, may prove useful to other scholars, and in spite of its unsatisfactory condition, 1 thought 
it worth not to keep it back entirely. 

The following is a transcript of the inscription in Hebrew and Latin characters : 

1. .jn ... . . ut - 

2 * VJPJTVD3 1 ? i d /kmyrtyl 

3 hy Kmr3 kynvta '1 






4. /ny3W 1T3H a r /k y n zv gkynvta 

5 - mn 'mas^l v iabvhy huM 

6 - rot v 



7. *k bhvv 






- rnrr 

9. Tins 1*no njran pry dr 

. h.JkvtH 



12. ttnr-iB ^ab lmran 

Fig. 1 is a drawing of the inscription, exactly reduced to a quarter of its natural size. 
Fig. 2 gives an analysis of the Aramaic alphabet. These two drawings claim to be perfectly 
exact, as they are made directly from the squeeze by an extraordinary fine instrument 



2 Pp. 75-76. 



252 EPIGEAPH1A INDICA. [VoL. XIX, 

which. I use for similar purposes : the reduction scale is, of course, always the same, and 
also the position of the single letters in regard to th neighbouring ones, their inclination 
and height above or below the average, is exact. 



The letters g 3 , t D, s D, s X 9 and q p don't occur in the inscription, x ^ n ty once. 
Most of the letters are well shaped and cleatly distinguishable. But n 3 and r "1 are vary* 
ing, as in most Aramaic .inscriptions, to such a degree, that, as a matter of fact, palaeo- 
graphy alone does not furnish the means of fixing their value, and etymology must decide 
Fig. 2 shows, that, moreover, d 1 and k 3 can assume a shape so closely resembling r 1 or 
n 3 , that you will understand, why in several words that I am unable to explain, I have 
given, in the transcription, the various possibilities of reading. The true reading can 
only be reached at by the etymology of the whole word. 

The surviving slab being unfortunately only a fragment of the inscription, a continuous 
text and translation is far beyond my capability to give. I must confine myself to some 
remarks ; 

Line 1 : I do not venture to restore the word, although this seems not impossible to 
me, Its ending in m indicates a fern, plur. in the stat. indeterm. 

Line 2 : The first word has the prep. *? " to " and the termination of a fern, noun with 
encl. pron. of the 1. pers. The noun itself shows the pall form of a root "1O3 (priest), or 
of 101 . The second word is the prep, 7# " unto/' It is worth remarking that the *? in 
this preposition assumes already a distinct shape, the horizontal stroke being pronouncedly 
longer than in the othi r >x?rp!<> P! *?. This development, not unusual to Aramaic, leads 
through Parstk to the A wo lie lone- for o. 

Line 3: First word is a fern. plur. in the stat. determ. either from the root 113 * c to 
exist," hence NTD " essence, nature," or more probable, the same word as in the following 
line, the missing first letter V to be supplied at the end of the preceding line. The second 
word is the prep, by, as before. 

Line 4 : The first word seems to be a verb, at least, its termination in 1 is a common 
verbal termination. A root jjl exists, e.g. in Arabic, but I have no means to ascertain 
whether it is also found in Aramaic or not. Possibly, as the word stands at the beginning 
of the line, it might be incomplete, the preceding letters may have been at the end of the 
foregoing line. The second word is the stat, determ* fern. plur. ending in KJ11 of the noun 
f pa'il of the root p "to dwell," hence " the dwellings." 



Line 5 : Begins with the copula 1 , preposition ^ (dat.) and the noun UK , to which is 
attached the encl. pron. of the 3. pers M hence "to his father." The second word is the 
auxiliary verb mn " to be," the third letter partly destroyed, but certain. 

Line 6 : The first word does not look much like an Aramaic one. In taking the first 
letter n as the last one of the word preceding at the end of the foregoing line, and 
the second letter 1 as the copula, the word might be reduced to Aramaic dimensions, and 
become derived from th common root nns, as a pall fern, with pron. pers. of the 1. pers. 
But this is rather a forced way, and there are in the following lines three more words that 
look not only non-Aramaic, but resist every attempt of explaining them as Aramaic. 
They, too, begin with, or contain at least the same in at the \*,\ J-i'i> j -iMoh is well known 
to me from OP, and Greek, and, hence, must exist in Indiar. i " >f; ,. I prefer to leave 
the explanation of these words to Indologists. The fan-, Gr, ev, if this interpretation be 
right, shows that the words in question belong to a moral sphere of ideas, I mean some- 
thing like the Zoroastrian "good thoughts, good words, good deeds," to which there is 
probably something corresponding in Buddhism. The second word of line 8 seems to be, 
although its second letter is somewhat misshaped, the pron. dem, HJT * f this." 



253 



No< 41.] A NEW ASOKAN INSCRIPTION FROM TAXILA. 

Line?: Begins with the other pron.dem. T "that." Follows a word which begms 
also with in, if we consider the first letter 1 to be the Aram, prepos 1 with, by. 
Else Jt could almost be read bahuvrihi" and is apparently non-Semitic, Indian. 

1 ine 8 Aeain a word beginning with in of which I am unable to propose any Semi- 

verb mn. 

Line 9 : This line, as also 1. 12, is of high importance. There are clearly and beyond 
any doubts, the two words : mar ? na Priyadar. . . in 1. 12 : ii-marana Priyadars. . , . 
" our (or to) our loid PriyadarSa " 

Line 10: First letter n, either beginning of the 



ne : , 

queens," or, less probable " his kingdoms.' 



also his sons." 



interest. 



sequence of the phrase. 

Although the T d p-j-ges- ^^tss^ttTissi 

that he had adopted this tztle as ^^^ once the plural of even 

e emero n 



a once e 

become contradicted by the fact .that the empero^ ^n rf ^ guccessorS) 

that word in the sense practically of kings Dg anft na^a th y e word Cffi sar in Rome. 

used that ordination name as a * n \?fs tv le of the script, we are, I feel sure, not 
But there are better reasons : accordmg to the style *"^J > ^ IIIrd cent . B . Cl) 



l, the Ara.n script and language t 

nary a monument, I have written these lines. ^^ ^ ^ gir JohEj 

Yours very faithfully, 

HEBZFBLB. 



254 BPIQEAPHIA INDICT [Voi. XIX. 



No, 42.THE PULIBUMBA PLATES OP THE EASTEEN CBALUKYA KING JAYA- 

S1MHA I (0. 632-68 A. D,). 

BY V. KAKGACHABYA, M.A., KUMBAKONAM. 

The following copper plate grant was brought to the notice of the Assistant Archaeological 
Superintendent for Epigraphy, Madras, in 1914, by M. R, Ry. Jayanti Eamayya Pantdu 
Gam. It is registered in the Epigraphical Report for 1913-14 as No. 5 of Appendix A ; and a 
summary of it appears on p, 85 of the same Report. 1 edit the record here with the kind 
permission of the discoverer of the plates. The ink impressions of the plates were kindly 
furnished by the Government Epigraphist. 

The inscription is engraved on three plates, which measure slightly below six inches "by two 
and are strung together through ring-holes, measuring one-fourth of an inch in diameter. Re- 
garding the seal which must have originally secured the ends of the ring I possess no informa- 
tion. The plates are numbered, though tie figure on the first plate alone is clear. The 
engraving is distinct though at the end of lines 7, 13 and 18 there are erasures. 

Excepting the imprecatory stanza (BahuVkir etc.) which comes at the end, the record is 
written in Sanskrit prose. 

The alphabet and orthography do not call for any special remarks. Compared to the Tim* 
mapuram plates of Vishnuvardhana I Vishamasiddhi and the Pedda-Mad'dali plates of this very 
king ( Jayasiinha I), we, no doubt, find a few differences in the way some of the letters are written 
but they are too minor to be noticed in detail. The final it which in the Timmapuram plates is 
placed on the top of the succeeding letter and in the Pedda-Maddali plates sometimes comes as a 
full circle, is here written as a separate letter (L 1)* The final m is here shown, though only 

once, like (&) (L 2). The Timmapuram plates give it as a dot but the Pedda-Maddali plates 

put it both as a dot and as a curve. The doubling of consonants after r is to be seen here also, 
e.g., farakmm-oparjjita (1. 7) or fcarwma (L 18). Though the record is rather free from the 
grammatical blunders which characterise the grant portion of the Timmapuram plates, yet it 
contains errors like the wrong use of visargain Manufyriva (L 9) and of anusvdra as in Ihuvanaih 
macula (L 3). 

The inscription records a grant made by the Eastern Chalukyan king Jayasirhha I, who ruled 

from about 632 to 663 A. D. Only one record of this king had been discovered before 1914, 

namely, the Pedda-Maddali plates 1 * It is dated in his 18th year and distinguishes him by the 

title Sarmsiddhi. It was issued from the city of Udayapura, which has not yet been identified. 

From a number of inaccuracies in the language its genuineness has been questioned, but I think 

the faults are due to the composer and the record is authentic. According to it Jayasimha 

was the son of Viskamasiddhi Kubj a- Vishnuvardhana 1 and grandson of Kirtivarman, the 

Chalukyan king who ruled from circa 550 to 567 A.D. The number of his epithets would 

stow that he was a pious and successful sovereign. 

The present record (11. 12-13) calls him Ppthvi-Jayasifigha-vallabha, not JayasiriiLa as 
the other records do. The term 2 PntJwlvallabha, ]t should be noted, was a title of Kirtivarman I 

1 2nd. Ant,, Vol. XIII, p. 137. It IB registered as Kt. 337 in my Topographical Lit>t of Intcnytiow of the 
Madras Presidency* Meet's paper has been reproduced, without any alteration and without plates, m Burgess 
and Natesa Sastn'a Tamil and Saukrit Inwnptione (Arch. Sitrv. SouM India, Vol. IV), pp. lOfiff. Sec also 
Jnd* Ant. t Vol X, p. 2434 and SeweM's List of Copper Plates No, 3 for shorter notices of the record. 
p, 101. 



No. 42.] PULIBUMBA PLATES OP EASTERN OHALUKYA KING JATASIMHA 1 255 



as well as of Ms son Pulakefiin II, the paternal grandfather and the uncle respectively of 
the Eastern Chalukyan king Jayasiniha I. We have, therefore, to infer that the title was 
inherited by the Eastern Chalukyas from their ancestors of the West-Deccan, The record 
describes Jayasirhiia as a conqueror of the world of chiefs by his ever-growing puissance, as a 
valiant soldier whose fame shed lustre in all directions, as a man whose trident-like triple- 
might pierced through the stout hearts of all the forces of hostile kings ; as a Bfihaspati in 
diplomacy, a Manu in modesty, a Yudhishthira in the love of dharma, an Arjuna in invincibility 
and a scholar versed in the truths of the teachings of the iastras. It further tells us that he 
gave the village of Pulibflmra (Puliburu) in the Guddavadi-msfeat/a, to EudraSarman, a 
Brahman of Asanapura, who was of the Gautama^ $ra 9 was learned in two Vedas, belonged to 
the TaittiriJca 1 school and was the son of Siva&'arman and grandson of Dma6araan. The 
endowed village was s we are told, made into a tax-free agrahara called BarvasiddM-datti. 
The executors of the grant were Hastikosa and VirakSsa*. 

Guddavadi has been identified by Di. Hultzsch 8 with Gudivada, the headquarters of the 
taluk of the same name in the Kistna District. The late Mr. Sewell 4 has described the Jain 
and Buddhist antiquities of this place, besides the large numismatic finds of the Andhra period 
un-earthed here. They would indicate that the place must have been very prominent before the 
Chalukyan advent in the time of KubjVVishnuvardhana. Pulibflmra (Puhburu) may be 
identified with Polamuru in the Bhimavaram taluk. Asanapura which seems to have played 
an important part in the cultural history of this period, I am unable to identify. Might it be 
Annavaram of the same taluk ! 

So far as the reign of Jayasiihha is concerned, we are enlightened by a few other records. 
The Bezwada plates 5 of Chalukya-Bhima I tell us that Eubja-Vishnuvardhana, the father of 
Jayasimha I and the founder of the dynasty, ruled for 18 years. The Chipurupalli plates* 
of Vishnuvardhana I, dated in the 18th year of his reign, give a date which was equated by 
Fleet and Kielhorn with 7th July A.D. 632. It is clear from this that Vish^uvaidhana I (who 
came to the Eastern Chalukyan throne, as proved by Meet between 21st March and 19th 
April 615) ruled till at least July 632. We do not know when exactly Jayasimha was anointed 
king. It might have been any month after July 632, Nor are we aware of the length of his 
rule for the records do not agree in this point. The Bezwada plates of Chalukya-Bhima I and 
almost all other plates 7 give him a reign of 33 years. But the British Museum plates 8 of 
Amma II (Vijayaditya VI) give him only 30 years. As this record stands alone in its 
statement, Kielhorn preferred to accept the version of the other records and decided that 
Jayasimha ruled for 33 years. According to Fleet, 9 " the statement of the minority is 
certainly the correct one " and " from no point of view can a reign of 33 years be allowed to 
him." It seems to me, however, that both versions are inaccurate and must be considered to 

1 [Read Taittirtya. Tatitmka would mean ' one who catohee partridges,* Ed. j. 

a [For these namea and for the date see Annual Htp&ft an Epigraphy, Southern Circle, 1913-14, p. 85, para. 7 
and No. 5 of Appendix A.- EdJ. 

8 See Up. Ind., VoL IV, p. 34. The place had varkras namea, e.#. Gadravara (Ep. Ind. 9 VoL V, 123} ; G*xdra 
h&m (2nd. Ant., VoL VIH, p. 76) ; Gudrara (Jty, Ind., VoL IV, p 34). This Gudivada iaght not to be con- 
Bounded with Guddavadi in Eamachandrapur taluk referred to in the Pithapuram inscription of 
JI (Ep. Ind^ VoL IV, 83 ff.) 

4 Lwte of Antiquities, p. 52. 

* This is Kt. 91 in my Topo. List and No. 557 in Kielhom'a Southern List. See Sp. lnd.> V, pp. 

* See Vg, 16 in my Topo. U*t, Ind. Ant,, Vol. XVI (1891), p, 15 fl , besides 8. Ind. Pdaography, Plate 27. 
f E.&* Kt. 4, Kt. 320, B.M. 6, Kt. 8, etc., in my Tojpo, 

B.M. 7 Ibid, p. 1722 (Vol. III). 

* Ind. Ant., VoL XX, p, 11, footnote 15. 



266 EPrQBAPHfA INDICA, [7oL. XIX. 



be only general and vague statements regarding the duration of his reign. My reasons are the^e. 
The Nellore District plates 1 of Jay asimha*8 nephew and successor Vish$uvardhana II distinctly 
tell us th&t he made a grant on Wednesday, 13th March, A.D. 664, in the second year of bis 
reign. This shows that he must have come to the throne before 13th*March 663, Similarly, 
the MattewS4a plates of the same 8 king record a grant on February 17, A, IX 668, Which is said 
to be his 5th regnal year. It is clear from this that VishQuvardhafta II must have been 
anointed as king before February 17, AD. 664, which date would fill in the first year of his 
reign. From a study of these records we are able to ifafer that Vishnu vardhana's accession 
took place before 13th March, A.D. 663 but not earlier th&H 17th February, 663;A.D., as 17th 
February, A.D. 664, according to the Mattewada plates, fell within the first year of his rule. 
It is obvious from this that Vish^uvardhana II ascended the throne between 17th February 
and 18th March, 663 A.D. Fleet 8 also, after calculating a number of dates, concluded that 
his accession took place between 14th February and 24th March, A.D. 663. This is only 
another way of saying that the reign of Jayasimha I ended the&. It is true that between 
Jayasimha and Vish^uvardhana II there w&s his son Indra-Bhattaraka, but he ruled only 
for seven days. If Jayasimha came to the throne after July, 632 A,D. and if his reign ended - 
between 17th February and 13th March, 663, A.D. it is clear that he ruled for 30 years and 
a few months. Though Fleet brought his accession* down to March, 663 A.D. and assigned 
to him exactly 30 years, yet, I think he ruled for a space of 30 years and a few monthsfrom 
some time after July 632 to about February-March, A.D* 663. 

TEXT* 

First Plate. 

i ^w D*] 

2 ^lft 



3 w^^tiwcirei ^?i^^??w5w^^ 



5 



6 HfHN^ fiRRPRR 



Second Plate ; First Side. 



10 : 



i B.BL 2 (p, 1721) in Madras Topo. List. Also Ind. Ant., Vol. XX, p. 7. 

* B.M. 3 ; Ibid, p. 9, 

Ind. Ant,, Vol XX, p. 10, 

* J&d, table cap. 12. 



8 There is a vwarga wrongly engraved before ft. 



PULIBUMBA PLATES OF THE EASTERN CHALUKYA KING JAYASIMHA I 

(C. 632-63 A. D.) 



4 




S 



10 



12 




10 



12 



14- 



18 




14 



18 



20 




20 



22 



No, 42.] -PULIBUMRA PLATES OP EASTERN CHAI.UKYA KIKG JATASIilHA I. 257 



12 frwiT'Kft wrcfvci"MKiirR ! ?: 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

13 mwremsr: ij^rTfefeisrf^ from* 6 .. 



15 

16 fa^t 

17 

18 



Third Plate ; lirst Side. 

19 
20 
21 



22 *r if^r^r ^wtin [i*J 



23 wrrfar: 16 [i*] ^ifwin ^fn ^ifwr^rgtiTf^fTT [i*] 

[u*J tf ..... 17 



TRANSLATION. 

(1. 1) Hail ! From (his) victorious camp the grandson of Sri-Klrtivarman 18 whose fame 
adorned the circle of the whole world, who was a royal gem sprung out of the ocean-like 

1 Bead ^,. [The form qfajiqr; aeeda no correction. Ed.]. 
a The visarga is out twice. 3 Read f * 

* [What the author has taken to be the vsign is only a crack in the plafce. The e sign is clearly marked 
by a curve to the left of the first vortical line of ya as in v (1. 15), Ed.]. 

fi [In place of the dots read ^|i[fa . Ed.] 
[^f% is superfluous, Ed J. 
7 Dama might be a shortened form of Ddmodara. 
[See f. n, 2 on p. 255 above. Ed.]. 

* The letters are much erased here. 

10 There is a dot before q, n Read eft. 

u For if the engraver had cut ^. 

13 In jj we find the Inside stroke of ^ wrongly inserted. 

14 Bead qjpijjt. 

* s The letter ^7 is indistinct, the lower part alone being clear. It is farther beneath the punctuation m-wk 

not separate. 

1 6 [Evidently iffaf; wafl intended for only one verse is given ^^; is understood. Ed.]. 

17 For these 5 symbols see Annual Report on Epigraphy, Southern Circk for 1913-14, p, 85 and No* 5 of App?a- 
A.Ed.]. 

1S See Dyn. Kan. Dist. The epithet given to Kirtivarman is repeatQil wifch slight variations in ^U 

Cha!uJ$yan records. 



258 EPIGEAPHIi INDICA, 



family of the Chalukyas who were the performers of the a^t?amld[Aaisaorifioe who Were 
Haritiputras, who belonged to the gdtra of the Blanavyas (and) who were protected by the 
group of the Matris, 

(1 4) the beloved son of H-Vishijuvardhana-Maharaja who was a victor in many a battle- 
assault, l whose two feet were brightened by the rays of the gems of the crowns of other kings ; 

(1. 6) Sri-PrithivI-Jayasiigha-vallabha whose ever-growing Valoux reduced the circle 
of the Samantas ; whose fame, acquired by -the strength of his arms, lit all the directions j 
the trident-like triad* of whose power split the heart of all the forces of hostile kings; a 
diplomat like Bjihaspati ; disciplined like Manu ; righteous like Yudhishthira ; who, like 
Arjuna, had a manliness unsurpassed by that of other kings ; a knower of -the trtft'h of 
the meanings of many iastras ; the very pious one, who meditated on -the -feet -ol(iw) mother 
and father, 

(1, 13) orders, the people and (officers ?) of Guddavadi to this effect : let this be made 
known to you that we have granted by the gift called sarwasiddhi the village of PuHbSmra 
(lying) in the Guddavadi-w^aya, after making it an agrahSra, free from all taxes, to the 
purvmgraharika RudraSarman, who is a resident of Asanagura, belongs to the Taittirika* 
(school), whose mouth (literally, body) is adorned by the two Vedas, who belongs to *he Gotama 
gotra ; who is intent on the performance of his duties and is the son of $iva6arman who 
surpassed his father in virtues, and who is the grandson of Damaafma, the kn-ower Of the 
Vedas and the Vedangas. 

(L 21) Therefore, by yourselves and by others, who are virtuously disposed, let this be 
protected. Let no violation be done by anybody. The executors (are) HastikoSa* an4 
VIrakoSa. 

(11, 23-24) Vya$a says : [The usual imprecatory verse.] 



If o. 43.-THE PEDDA-VEGI PLATES OF THE EASTERN CHALTJKYA KING JAY A 

BIMHA L 

BY "V, EANGACHARYA, B1A,, E.UMBAKONAM. 

These plates were brought to my notice by a relative of mine several years ago. The 
plates were, I was told, found two or three feet below the surface of tfie earth durkg^ome 
excavations near Pedda-Vggi in the vicinity of Eilore. -They are *egiste*e<3 in the Madras 
EpigrapJiical Report ioi 191748, as No. 11 of Appendix A. A review of the record tfppa&ts on 
p. 130 of the game report, 



of the Pedda MaddaM plates. 

2 That is MauMiti, Prabhutakti and UtsahaMtti. 

3 [See I n. I an p. 255> above. Ed.]. 



" ' . '"' " 1 St " fa ** -* * i t 

Kp ls ,.ptel pctoB oot, oOw. [8 (. n. ! OD p. 1st .bov..-E4j. 



Kfc. 43.] WDDA-VBGI PLATES OF E ASTBEN CHALUKTA KING- JATASIMEA 1 259 

The inscription is engraved on three plates, the first side containing nothing and the last a 
single line, The plates were hung on a ring which carries a fixed circular seal engraved in 
relief with the ti$le j$ri-SrvasiddKi and jwasn**- about 7| inches in length arid 2| inches in 
breadth. The ring is about 3| inches in diameter. The engraving is on the whole cleat ; but 
the e&cU of lines 16 and 17 in plate 2 and of 19 and 20 in plate 3 are very much defaced. 

The language of the gmat is Sanskrit* The characters are identical with those employed in 
the Pullbumra as well aa the Nicjuparu plates which have "been noticed above. No special remarks 
are necessary regarding the alphabet and orthography of this grant. The Dravidiaa j occurs in 
1L 13 and 14 and the, upadkmamya in 11. 18 and 25. The final t and m have also been used. The 
former occurs as a separate letter in L 24 and the latter is generally written in the form of a dot but 
in L 23 is represented by a hook 

The contents of this grant have already been noticed by the Assistant Archaeological Superin- 
tendent for Epigraphy* The identification of the place names has also been discussed by him. 
All this need not be recapitulated here. The donee was S$xnaaramaB, son of $ivaarman 
and grandson of D&va&arman who was a resident of Kukkanur, belonged to the Gargya-gf$ra and 
was a pupil of the Taittirlya school of the YajuM&to. The grant was made for the increase cf 
the dham of the donoj and of his parents on the full-moon day of Karttika which was a wshuva- 
dina or the day of the equinox. 

THE TEXT. 1 
Plate L 

n*TO**i^^ 



2 wfw^ri\wr^ 



3 tFT?TOr^^ 

4 TO^nronimw^ 

5 marf^OTT^ra^"^ 
6 



Plate 11^ A. 



8 
9 

10 
11 
12 



1 From ink impressions, 

. 4 Read 



f he letters uTW?f $ re Q ^ ^ s^a^^ si^e below the line, 
Vasantatilaka metre, 

7 The anusvara sign is not above 5 but between ij and 3, 

3i2 



260 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. (Tot XIX- 

Plate H-B. 

13 gftf^^wreRrst: swif C 
u *?r 



15 ftpreTOrer**sRtF5T5{ *mt?rr3*raTm<raf?r [i*] 

16 r?r^T5fHT^(f%)nwfTi 6 5?r^cr^ 1 'CH^^r[<] *?tf vwrafff [i*] 7 



17 



Plate III- A. 

19 



20 

21 eg ^Tft^f ^rm: [*] ^T ^T^WT^R^^T g^ 3?<1f?r 

^T ITWT- 

22 ^romsisbjrt wrwfrr ^ ^T^r'fta'r ^t wwn; [u*J 



23 if^gTgTrf^JTT [i*] ?rer nm ^r ^^^ ?r9? ?T^T w**( [H*] 



24 ^^6rif^ ^n*f wT^ft ^Jr?^: [i*J 
Li*] ^- H 



25 ^f%t^if^xT^ fusr; *jdfa T^ H 

26 ^r fw^TTT^rfHTO: (^f ) ^ft^ 18 ^[l [*] 



Read fij. Bead ,,.. ' Sea4 ^T. 

'Bead ilt^, Pw,d ^a^, 

Read iff, 

7 Then 3 or 4 letters are tadly damaged. 
Read p$. 

8 The letter ^ looks like 37 for the sign of the conjunct consonant ^ is on the left side qf jf and not oq th.e 
tight side as usual. This is due to want of apace just before 3. 

"Read ft. "Read*-, 

i* The metre of this and of the following verse is Anuehtubh. 
Read %, u Upajdti metre. 1 

**I have not been able to mate any sense out of this, [ The reading seems to be iqfq^fl) n(5U| () which 
would mean that Naraathhasannan died in a battle-field and thus won ' triroyati.' Ed,], 
t* read Narasiriiha Soru a. 



PEDDA-YEGI FLATES OF THE EASTERN CHALUKYA KLVG JAYASIMHA I. 




if ft. 



10 



12 




12 






14 






16 



18 



HlhA.NA.MlA SASTfU. 



SCALE THREE-FOURTH6. 



SUBVEY OF I^DIA, CALOtTTTA. 



mu. 



20 



22 



24 




20 



22 



24 



26 




26 



- 44] BAEWANI CQPPER-PLATE INSCRIPTION OP MAEARiJA SUBANDHU. 261 

ABSTRACT OP CONTENTS. 

Hail ! Jayasiiiiha-Vallabha-Maharaja (1, 12), surnamed SarwasiddM (1 10) -the 
of VisHnuvarman (I. 7), the youngest son of Kirttivarman (L 6),-of the family of the 
ltxkyas (J. 5), orders thus the residents of the village named Kombairu (which lay) in the 
district (zt'5Aaya)ofKantheruvltlat(a distance of) a gavyiM to the south of VWnttou 
(II 13-15) : * ' 

* This village (Kombaru\ having been made into a tax-free agraMra (1. 20), has teen given 
by us to SSmaiarmman (L 19), who is a resident of Kukkaniir, belongs to the Taittiriya 
school and Garggya- gdtra (LIT), the son of Svi,misarman and grandson of DevaSarman 
(I- 5), on the vishuradina of Karttika-Parnima (I, 19)', Somasarmman is stated to have been 
a very learned scholar and hospitable and one who regularly performed his daily duties. 

The executor ( ajnapli) of this (grant) is stated to have been the beloved preceptor of king 
Sauvvasiddhi, polity incarnate as it were, the learned and noble Narasirii&asarman 
01* 25-26), 



No. 44. THE BAR WANT COPPER-PLATE INSCRIPTION OF MAHARAJA SUBANDHU; 

THE YEAR 167. 

BY R. R. HALDBB, RAJPUTANA MUSEUM, AJMER. 

This inscription comes from the Barwani State in Central India, and has briefly been noticed 
in the Annual Report of the Rajputana Museum for 1924-25. 

It is engraved on a copper-plate measuring about S^xZ^ and is well preserved. The 
sign -manual of the king, viz., firi-Subandhofy is written on the left margin. The charter was 
granted by Maharaja Subandhu. 

The characters belong to the e box-headed ' variety of the southern class of alphabets, 
and may be ascribed to about the fifth century A.D. The box-shape of the tops of the 
letters is scooped out hollow and is almost rectangular. The letters are more or less like those 
of the Chammak copper-plate inscription 1 of the Maharaja Pravarasena II of the Vak&taka 
family. 

The language is Sanskrit prose throughout, and is generally correct. It contains no bene- 
dictory or imprecatory verse, but merely records the grant as ordered by the donor, i.e., 
prince Subandhu. 

As regards orthography, the following points may be noted :-<- 

(1) Consonants axe generally doubled when combined with (i) a superscript r, as in 

-garttapathakafy, 1. 1, and -chandrarkkarntyava-, L 4. 
and (ii) with a subscript r, as in ~p#id!ra&, L 2, 
(2]r the combination of ta and tha with a superscript r in putyyapyayatarttha-, L 4, 

(3) the wrong use of i instead of i in Mahishmyti, and kuSali, L 1. 

(4) Sandhi is not observed in kuMi udumbara*, L l*etc. 

Other mistakes and irregularities are pointed out in the foot-notes accompanying the text. 

"" ' ~" '-- ' " Vljr - ' l ' jr:nn: ~ *" T "" "'" "r'TT"- " - -' " ll11 L| M. " .i)iiiiiu.iii*.uiii|niiiw.nriiiniiiFin-r-_..uiiiti junimnii .J_..__. 

1 lleet'a Qupta Inscription plate 84. 



262 EPKhBAPHIA IND1CA* [VOL. XI2C. 

The present inscription is one of Maharaja Suhaadhu, and the grant recorded in it is 
issued by him from tie city called MaMsteiatL It is dated the seventh day of the bright half 
of Bhadrapada of Sam. 167. The object of the inscription is to record the grant of a piece of 
land at the village (padraJca) Sdhajana in the Udumbaragarta district (pathaJca) to a Brahma^a 
named Sliashtiaisvamin for the spiritual welfare of the donor and of the donor's parents. The 
dutaka is GuhadBsa. The date of the grant is given in symbols of 100, 60 and 7 (=167), 
and should be referred to the Gupta era. It would, then, correspond to 486 A.D. The 
Subandlra of thia charter is apparently a new figure. That he k styled as a * Maharaja ' would 
show that lie was a vassal-chief. Possibly, like SuraSmichandra/ he was a subordinate of 
Budhagupta, who, as shown by the Eran 2 Pillar and the Sarnath 3 Buddha Image inscriptions, 
and by his coins 4 , flourished about that time. 

The fact that Maharaja Subandlu was connected with such an ancient and famous city as 
MShishmati is noteworthy. 

As to the places mentioned in the document MiMs&matl 5 is apparently the homonymous 
town of epic fame, which is, in all probability, n-ow represented by MahSSvara, though scholars 
like Pargiter would identify it with Mairdhata 8 on the Narmada. 

The other two places namely, Sohajana and Udumbaragarta, I am unable to locate. 



TEXT. 7 

0*] 
; (i) 



2 
3 



1 Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions, p. 89. 

2 Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions, p. 88. 



c' ' -' anarkar CoKmemorat ^ me , p. 203 . 

John AHon s Coins of the Gupta dynasties, coin no. 617 

It was founded by Mahishmat, a Haihaya chieftain, [Vi^Purana translated by H. H. Wilson, Vet IV, 

J.R.A.S, 1910, pp. 445-6. 

7 FroBi the original plate. 

8 Expressed 



"Read 
"Read 

" 



is i 



may be a clerical mistake for 



45,] DHAITLI CAVE INSCRIPTION OF JSAOTIKABA ; [GANGA] YEAR 98. 263 



[i*] ^ 3 

[i*] 



: [n*] 



No, 45. DHAUL1 CAVE INSCRIPTION 0F SANTIKARA ; THE [GANGA] YEAR 93. 

BY E. B. BANEBJI, M.A. 

Close to the boulder at Bhauli, on which the edicts of A6oka are inscribed, is a lofty hill, 
the highest part of which rises about 1,000 feet above the surrounding ground level. It is 
surmounted by a ruined temple dedicated to Siva. One side of this temple has disappeared 
entirely, and the gigantic phallus, enshrined therein, is thereby exposed to view. Below this 
temple, about a hundred yards to the east, on the southern face of the hill, thereris a small cave. 
According to the Puri Gazetteer the " northern ridge culminates in a temple-crowned peak, 
and at its western extremity are a number of caves, natural and artificial To the east of the 
temple and at a lower level is a natural fissure, full of bats ; and on a boulder at the top, near 
the entrance, is cut a small inscription in three lines." 8 I found the fissure and the bats, but 
could not get at the boulder or find the inscription of fliree lines. Close to the fissure, is an 
artificial cave, measuring 4' x 5' x 8 J ; approximately. There is a niche in the back wall of this 
cave, under which is inscribed Jaya-n-n () ; and on the right wall is a record in seven lines, 
Which is being edited below. The letter ta occurs on the level of L 1 at a distance. 

The object of the Inscription is to record the construction of a temple (mafha) of Ighyaka- 
varati by one Bhatta Lftydmaka, son of the physician Nanna^a and grandson of 
Bhimata, who was born of the womb olljyH, an inhabitant of VirajS, in the year 93, 
during the reign of the illustrious SSntikara-d5va. Santikara-deva is known from another 
votive inscription in the Ga$ea-gumpha at Khaijtjagiri, where Ijya, Bhimata and Nannata 
are mentioned*, The GaijeSa-gumpha inscription is not dated. We do not know anything 
yet about this king. A linfc of three kings with the suffix Kara in their names is mentioned in 
the J?eulpur grant of Subhakara. 7 Except the resemblance in the names, we have no data on 
the basis of which we can establish any connection between them. 

The chief importance of this record is its date, which supplies a datum for fixing the period 
of the dynasty. The adjectives in the Neulpur grant show that the dynasty was Buddhist in 
faith. The date of this inscription is 93. The form of the palatal fa indicates that it cannot 
be referred to the Harsha era (605-6 A.D,) The situation of the inscription precludes a reference 
to the Newar era (880 4.D.) The Chalukya-Vikrama era (1076 A.D.) would be too late. The era 
of the Gangagr, which was used in Kalifiga in its first century, is most probably the reckoning to 
which this record is to be referred, According to Mr. B. C* Mazumdar, the initial year of this 



Read ^ tnS^x ^1^ ; Jihv&muliya is used here. [But the symbol seems to represent wi, Ed ] 

^j{ stands for ^faw. 

4 Is engraved on the left margin. 

1 Puri Gazetteer, pp, 24646. 



Ante* Vol. XV \ pp* 



264 EP1GBAPHIA INDIOA, [Vol. XIX. 

era is equal to 772 or 778 A.D., 1 and the date of tie Bamanghati grant of Ragabhafij* of the 
year 288 is to be referred to the same reckoning. Thus, the date of this record would corre- 
spond to 865 A.D. 

A kins* named Santikara is also mentioned in the Kumuranga plates of DaQ^i-MahadSvi 
published by the late Mr, Haranandan Panday of the Archaeological Survey of India. 2 Accord- 
ins, to this inscription Santikara was the son of Lalitabhara and the father of Snbhakara s "whose 
consort Dandi-Mahadevi issued the Kumuranga grant. According to the late Mr. Panday* 
jSantikara of the Kumaranga inscription is the same as Kshemankara of the Neulpur plate. 8 
Both being Royal Charters embodying grants of land, it is extremely unlikely that Kshemankara 
and Suntikara were one and the same person, In fact, no other name except that of Subhakara 
agrees in the two genealogies. It appears to me that the Kumaranga plate of Dandl-MahadevI 
is much later in date' than the Neulpur plate of Subhakara. It is quite possible that some of 
the earlier names in the former inscription may be farudas of Sivakara, Kshemankara and 
gubhakaia of the Neulpur inscription. 

The characters of the inscription are much later than those of the Neulpur grant of 
fiubhakara and, therefore, it is probable that Santikara was a descendant or successor of 
Subhakara. The following tentative genealogy of this dynasty may be accepted : 

^de va . 



Sivakara-deva, 



Santikara-deva* 
TEXT. 4 



1 

2 mvat 90, B 3 Ijygarbha]ena 

3 Viraj 6 vasta vya- Vaidya-Na[nna-] 

4 ta-putra BMmata-pauttra Bhatta- 

5 Loydma[ke"ln== Agliyaka-Vara ti 

6 Biath=a(6)yam deyebhya(?) karita- 

7 ...... [bajraka 

TRANSLATION, 

(In) the year 93, (during) the reign of the illustrious Santikara-^deva, this temple of 
Aghyaka-Varati was caused to be made as a (?) gift by Bhatta L&yomaka, son of the 
physician Nsdmata (and) grandson of BMmata, who was born of the womb of XjyS (and 
was) an inhabitant of VirajS. 

1 Journal of the Bihar and Oriwa Research Society, Vol. II, pp. 36t>6 ( >* [Ihi^ req ires verification. It is 
not unlikely that the era commenced much earlier. Ed,] 

2 Journal of the Bihar and Onssa Research Society, Vol. F, 1919, pp. 864*79. 



t prom photographs and impression taken by me, 

* [The symbol though apparently damaged seems to be noteworthy. Ed.] 




<0 



No, 46.] KONDBDDA GRANT OF DHARMARAJA. 265 

No. 48.-KONDEDDA GRANT OF DHARMARAJA, 

BY Y. Ro GUPTE S B 9 A, 3 H.B.A,S. 

The existence of the copperplates* OB which this grant is incised, was brought to notice by 
the late Mr. T. C. Bath 3 B.A., when he was the District ilimsii at Chodavaram in the Goda* 
vari district of the Madras Presidency* The late MX* G, Venkoba Rao thus wrote a preliminary 
note on the giant in his Annual Report on Epigraphy for the year ending 31st March 1921, 
p. 93 : " It Is engraved on a set of three copper-plates hung together on a ring about 3J" in 
diameter. Ihe plates measure 6f" long and 4J* broad. The circular seal set on to the ring has 
a diameter of 3 J*. On its surface are cut in relief the figures of the crescent at the top and a 
seated bull in the centre and a line of letters at the bottom which is completely damaged." 1 

I owe the opportunity of editing this record for the first time to the late Eao Bahadur XL 
Krishna Sastri, B. A., who kindly placed the ink-impressions of it at my disposal 

The alphabet is an early type of the Northern variety of NagarL As regards orthography 
ba is not distinguished from va. The symbol for na (e.0f., see mri^ala, 1. 1, guyai L 29 and amgafyi* 
tataya 1. 33) is also used for n when it forms the first part oi a conjunct consonant ; cf.*va$tchhaffa 
1. 8, Krauwcharer-iva L Z^^upabhuvjanasya 1. 54, uktan^cha i 55 and la%cJihin(t)am 1. 60 ; but a 
different symbol is used for na when it f qyms the second part of a conjunct consonants in yajnair* 
L 19. Such similarities of symbols are probably to be attributed to the faulty local pronuncia- 
tions. The form ot pa occasionally approaches that of w; cf. gu^in^api 1. 5, the second pa in 
pap-avatarair** 1, 18, payinah i 24 and panvaritah i 29, The guttural nasal is used instead of an 
anusvara before ia as in the early Gupta records, cf, ush^-an^ateja[^]tof ush$-am&uteja[fy~l 1.21$ 
prabhas-dn$ubhify for prabhas-amubhify L 2, pran$ur>* for pram^ur^ L 3 S van&**etha for mm^etha 
L "14, It is still traceable in the pronunciation of the Oriyas, The doubling of consonants after 
r except in the case of sibilants and the aspirate ha is common ; cf. ma%er-ddigdha[Ji] L 2* 
-patir^mmahebha- L 17, -avatarair=*nnttam(ta)~ 1 18, akarskatya- L 23, Irshaya L 29, yath^arkan (m) 
1. 50. The exceptions however are : pran(m)sur^maMbka" and Sambh6r^jata[fy] (i 3), patir*gari* 
yam (n) (L 12), -durlaliti(t-a)sidhara(rali) and Meyair=bhuta- (L 17), -5kkilar5r^arud*iva and 
dayalur^narapatir^ (i 21 ) s etc. N is thrice wrongly replaced by an anusvara marked on the pre- 
ceding letter ; cf. praptavdm for praptavan (L 26), lav(b)dh~onnatm for lav(b)dh~$nnatw (L 30) s 
asmim for asmin (L 47) and thrice n takes the place of an anuw&ra ; c/. ckitran for chitmm 
(1. 26), sarvvan for sarwam (L 36) and yath^arhun for yath^drham (L 50), 

Of the initial vowels the test contains a, a, i, u, e and o In the Buguda plates a and 5 are 
denoted by one and the same sign. In this record, we have a different sign for the length 
of 5, which is denoted by a cup-like addition on the proper left of the letter ; e/, a in 11 24, 47* 
51 and 53 with a in 11. 10 and 39. The initial i occurs in 11. 1, 12, 14, 16, 25 and 27 ; e in L 30 
and 6 in L 52. The initial u is found in L 55. For medial u we have two signs : the ordinary one, 
viz., a rounded curve to the reader's left ; c/, tantubUr- L 1, pantu L 3, prabhufy L 9, -kumbha* 
I 17, -tungad- 1 $2, turaga- 1 44, etc.; and the perpendicular downward line with a straight 
small stroke to the left ; cf. pluU i 3, v (b) ahufy I 4, mwnuda(B) I 13, -patuna i 20, etc. Simi- 
larly, u is denoted by two signs, the first consisting of two rounded strokes, one to the right 
and the other to the left ; cf, svayambhur^api (L 8), bMmi* (I 12) and 6Mfa- (L 17), the 
other consisting of a downward horizontal stroke ending in a loop to the left as in the case of 
theTaleSvara copper-plates^*^^ 38 ) 

i Vid* also No. 3 of the Appendix A to tbe same Jteporft, 
a Ante Vol. XIII, plates faciag pages 114 and 115, 



266 EPIGRAPEIA IHDICA. [Vol. XIX. 

vtAti (L CO). Tbe division of verses in the text is not made ia ail the necessary places. 
In some cases &L in 1 25 the engraver lias marked the first half of a verse by a cursive stroke s 
which is also used along with t^o perpendicular strokes to indicate the end of a verse in 
s^vera.1 caces, as in 1. 15 

The Imgti?^ is Sanrfci t. Out of the first 1 1 verses in the Buguda grant of MSdhavavarmau, l 

f) r M'e ioLnc 7 in tins rccoicl The inscription opens with a verse invoking the protection of the plaited 

hair ol Siva. This seiollowed by fctn genealogy of the dynasty which starts with Pulindasina 

as in the Buguda and Pankucl plates. The construction ol the first half of verse 5 of the Bugu4a 

pbten, rrhich comes aa 4th in this records was noS clear to Kielhortij evidently on account of 

tlao wrong tosfc cc r^Sfofc/z/-^^^'' Tbe reading in this grant and in the Pariktid plates clears 

up the poizxfc. Here the terit reads " sila-^ccd-odbJieM 5S V7hioh is fco be construed with prabhuJf 

m 1, 8, The purport ol the verse m question is that Brahman created a ruler named 6ail6dbhava 

a rrho split aa u*id#c parts of a rock md was the founder of a dynasty'. The truth underlying 

this statement appears to be that the dynasty flourished originally in rocky regions. The 

record next meations Ra^Qb'&Ka, who was born in the lineage of Sailodbhava and who frightened 

many a time the wives of his enemies, 3 (as their husbands were sure to be killed in battles 

that were to be fought). To him was born Sainyabhlta, the kiag at whose successes, won by 

the strength of the impenetrable row of elephants in many a "battle, the earth rejoiced (v. 8) 9 

In Ms family was bo^a Ya6obiaSia p who was also a great warrior. His son was the benevolent 

ruler SainyabMta (Hadhavavarman II of the Buguda grant), who was a ' lotus to the bees, 

vi%* 9 the eyes ol charming women/ from Mm was descended YaiSbMtadeira (II), whose 

surname was MadbyamarftjadSva (v. II), His son was the king Bharramaraja, who was 

proficient in all the sciences and whose character was unblemished. King Mldhavay having 

obtained the kingdom by force and not being recognized (as a monarch^ formed the evil intention 

of expelling irom his province Ms elder relations, but was defeated in battle at PMsiM by 

Dharmmaraja. Thereafter lie resorted for help to king Strlvara but was again defeated 

by him at the foot of the Vitactliyas (v. 15). Dharmmaraja's surname was ManabMta 

( Tr * 16). He was pre-eminently a scholar and was, thereforej known as " salcala-iastra-visesh* 

vedl" i.e., one who had a critical knowledge ot all the sciences. He is said to have spent 1 his 

time in discussing religious matters in the assemblies of Biahinans. 

The possible identification oi Madhyamaraja with YaSobhita II on the analogy of Dr. 
Hultzsch's suggestion (which ivas accepted by Kielhorn) that SainyabMta was probably a 
surname oi Madhavavarman, 3 was proposed by Mr, B. D. Banerji in his article on the 
Parikud plates t 4 fcbough in Ms opinion the exact relationship of Madhyamaraja with a former 
long Yras a matter of doubt. Still, on the analogy oi the 'Buguda plafces 3 it may be presumed that 
YaiSobhita wos the suiBame of Madhyamarajadeva, 

Tiie prose portioa of the inscriptioa records a grant of half of the village of K6n4Sc|da in the 
district of EOiiddiag-aMra to Blbatfca G-d^adiva-sviiniiiij an agnihtitrin, who belonged to the 
K^usika-{7^m and the Va]asaneya-c^am-wa s and whose Pravaras were 0(Au)dalavat 3 Bevaiata 
,^nd Vi&vamitara. 

i would ^smbe the Buguda plates to the beginning of the 9th century A.D. although 
Kid horn tainted to relegate them to the 10th century* 

According to Mr* B. 3D, Banerji, the Parikud plates of Madhyamarajadeva, the father of the 

giv^rtor oi fche plates unde; esaminatioa, are-dated in the-Harsha era. The late Mi. Feukoba Bao 

2 Anic Vol. TTi, pp 43-44. 2 Verse 5. 

o Above, Vol. VI, p. 1&L * Above VoL XI, p* 283, 



^o. 46.] KONDEDDA GRANT OF DEARMARAJA. 2H" 

thought that they were dated in the Vikrama era. But I would side with the late 
Mr. V. Venkayya in taking the numerical symbol as standing for the regaal year and read it as 
10 or rather 30. The month can be made out with tolerable certainty but the actual hiki ci 
date is a matter of considerable doubt though the traces of the symbol favour the reading 8. 

I am unable to identify the localities mentioned in the record. KMgoda has alreadj 
been identified by Eaelhorn with Kong-u-t'o (Kong-yu-t'o) of Hiuen-Tsiang. 1 

TEXT. 2 
Ftret Plate. 

[] *$ifaw*Rn3f*rfa'.' ftrci: 



[i*] 



: i*3 



5 

nftr ^3- 

IT, tfmws srorc 



6 

w wfiffir [] 

7 uarrfW^f^trtw 

8 Tf^^i^t wreicft P[M*] fiwmwWhft 8 i^wrratw 



9 WTT [i] 
10 



11 ^r^ Ww ^rhrwrfrnft TOWwawf ^sn [**] 

12 ffYimnm ^tf:'] ^*&* ^ nfirofiriairt(in^ D*] 



Sea Kielhora's remarks ab<m, Vol. VI, p. 136. 

2 From ink-impressjons 4 The ^^ ^ raperflttoU8 

^Kc^Uertt^ud pla*3 praising ,ing M.dhav^a I, ^Jf * 

The reading a the Bugu^a P^s of MadhaTavarmfflan (^ Ji, Vol. IH, p. 48) 11 ftflp 

oomft iatof^T^^t- ^ r tbe zaterpretatio, c^ this read'.ag ^ p. W, above, 






263 EPIOEAPHIA EBTDICA. [Vox,. XIX. 



13 ^(ti^UWT^^Tf^f^^C^)!!^^^!! 115(3) itfvft [* *] 

14 ^^U)^ SSTTSTTTW SFTfTt sreftwta ^f?f f^<?fai: [l*] 

is 



Ptoe ; First Side. 

16 fcfcnft q*R5forfWt*Rinifl5!i**ft*iK 0*3 

17 



18 

19 [f4]wiTra [i*] 



20 gwftlfnQ *!{$ sfrf TZ'TT ^f*T^I%T ^1 '"'lltfi. N*] 



21 

22 f?! 2 'l^rsi1[^Tt?I^'Wt! D*] 

23 



24 

25 

^Traf9rT [fijaf] 

26 



27 ^f^^l^ ^twf^rnr tffr ^rw^nrwD i*] 

28 



29 u: ^r xrfbnft?n [i*] 



_ _.. . _ _ 

VErom the plates published above, Vol. VII, p, 100 1, the reading ifT^ appears to be certain. The reading 
ff instead (ante, III, p. 44, 1. 9} would look to be unjustifiable as also the one ^r? whict is only -sf.. , 

* [The plate reads rtanpatirayatdb&Ha, thus showing that the name wa Ayasobhita ( * one afraid of ill fame) 
aadaot Yasobhlta (= afraid of fame). In the Parikud plates also the reading in 1. 15 can very well be AyaMbh&t* , 
In Hot 21, too, scanning shows that one fetter it leit out between narapati and yagd and that letter is ro. Ed.] 

The Pirikud plates give ^(^<ff which has been corrected into ffapft. 

*Tie Pirikud plates read Q S rrfiR W nr^. Mr. BanerjPa correction into fcpr; is not warranted. The 
Intetttod rea<3ing appears to b ^ T5 tft r nong^. wnlch is given in our plates. The^idea conveyed by the ex- 
teenu to be that while others meditated upon it by practising Miteriftto, Madhyamarftja got the 
n 



KONDEDDA GRANT OF DHABMARAJA. 




14 



16 

(6 
20 
22 i 
24 i 
26 



<^c r 









16 
16 

20 

22 

! 24 

26 
28' 



SA8TB1. 



SCALE SEVEN-EIGHTHS. 



StJEVEY''OJr ISDIA, 'CUlOBttrAVi 



VW^ ; ^4' ,;V: -:;f?lF-- - ' ':* - : ->^ ~Y \t. '%*..&?& 

Wifg^' : -" (: * ^':;~.^ ^;;^3 

Qss^^H, - :.'-" \ .-;-.,--' ' - - * . -.< : . l y.v 



W:^^ : ---,'-- -: ; " :; : ': -'* '^^''^ 

f^%ft^^' '-'-^ - ''-' : " '^& 
gjBj^Si^ : v: ;'f* ,'i:.^^ -x>i^ 



^^^^f^^P'^^ ; ,-^ra 

3rJ5,^-ii^ **.^,'.i.*. ^a^^t ' '^,. " - - -* - v ^ ^ -. " * N 'J,. 1 

PjiTi^ ^T ^ "* '.'^7- ^ ?" * " --..=-,' '""-. r s t .- 








58 



47 



36 w TTwtiif n^Rsi [i*] 
37 



Third Plate ; JTirst State. 
45 

4S 



No. 46.] KONDEDDA GEANT OF DHARMAEAJA. 269 

/Second! Plate ; Second Side. 
30 



31 



32 fern: ?itaTtfor 5W i%n^f t^:(i:) MwlN? <-Mi[t8 *] 



33 

34 fliii T5Tf^^nrt D*] 

[:*] 4tRT^W 

35 u^M-nfu HTW g^ftr f^i^ fttn%5 ^^ H[UB*] 



0*1 



38 fcfin(f)rfirefW [i*] 
39 



40 



41 Tiw^r Wsrm fr|^ wfrm: s^ 5 ^ w^nipw irfnf^f 

42 
43 



48 irowi^^WWWWf 1 ^^^ 



270 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Von. XIX. 



49 

50 tf^T^siTi'(f <3rafa m'reanwrefH ^ faf^Tro n^mOri) fat- 

al 

52 
53 
54 



53 wUwfl isffafemt *rf&p3rftrf?r u <3HF^[ ^whir^F [i*] 

g(*f)ff*4- 
56 1^3T ^tTT ^TSTfk ^TCTf^ftn [l*J 

57 

58 wf ii [^o u*] w v tn3%fr mfwr[:*] 

rtwm- 

59 [ipjfa] 



Side. 

60 [^..] ^r[t?R^ T [f^rf], [zrtrar.. 

61 c|W..] 3 [||J ^o if [c] [|t*] 

ABRIDGED TRANSLATION* 

LI. 2642. His (Madliyamaraj ad eva's) son was the illustrious Dh.arrnmara]a F who studied 
all the iastras and who comprehended tUeir characteristic differences, and whose very untarnished 
and increasing fame removed human sufferings as do the feet of Han (Vishnu)* He was'possessed 
of excellent qualities and was free from all failings. At times he would kill foes who had risen 
to prominence in battle-fields and go into raptures over the tales of Siva's radiant deeds ; or he 
would devote himself to religious deliberations with Biahmans. His exploits were like those 
of the enemy of Krauncha (i e. Karttike} a). King Madliava, having obtained the kingdom by 
force, was defeated at Ptiasika for having formed the evil intention of driving away from the 
country his elderly relations. This king (Madhava) then resorted for "help to Strlvara, the 
king's enemy ; but being later on foiled even when accompanied by him, fell at tjhe foot of the 
Vindtiyas. Though bravery, prosperity, youth and sovereignty are -ever singly sufficient to 
cause perturbation, yet all of item came to the illustrious king ManabMta without producing 



; a -PP ear to have been subordinate officeis appointed by the above-montioned higher orEcials 

fur transacting: actual business as compared with supervising. 

*[ Something like ^^; s^f may be supplied after ^J^^T^ EcL] 

3 Ifae portion is much damageJ. ^ft4'* however, appears to be pretty certain. 



KONDEDDA GRANT OF DHARMARAJA, 




No. 47.] THE ADDANKI STONE INSCRIPTION OF PAHDAEAZGA. 2'i 

any change in Mm. The dust raised by his army alone conquers the bannered Iiost oi his foes uLa 
dust which rises from the earth beaten at the trampling of the hooves of tie horses, which ics 
enlarged by the movement of the chokies in the form of the ears of successful elephants and 
screens the heaven and the quarters by the spreading caused by the shields oi Iris grtat warriors. 
Having forcibly arrayed the troops with the multitudes oi elephants, horsemen;, and fcoktioldiei.^ 
he vanquished the rival kings. Others who were conquered by him, and who displayed formid- 
able prowess in the battle-field 5 were brought to the place of bliss, by his coming within their eight 
and were seen every morning in the courtyard of his palace ready to pay him their respects. 

LL 42-61. Prom his victorious camp located at Saumyapura the glorious 3hara=>ma,r]. 
deva, the jewel of the iSaiiodbhava family, the son of one who had Ms body purified by uiic 
ablutions taken after the celebration of the Hahamukha, 1 the Yajapeya and the ASvaraedlia 
sacrifice, who had a collection of proud elephants, excellent horses, and" weapons of foot-soldiers 
oi different kinds, who vanquished enemies in a number oi battles, who is famous all over the 
world for his heroic actions, who is very liberal, who won lauiels in many a battle, who is a 
great worshipper of Mahesvara (Siva), who meditates on the feet of Ms parents, in j-his province, 
called K5ng6daj honours, commands and worships/ as is befiutiag, the illustrioas ieiidaboiy 
princes, great feudatory princes, great kings, royal personages, princes^ superintendent 5 
over magistrates, 3 police officers, 4 and subordinate officers, appointed by them such as 
karatyas* and local persons, such as Brahmans and citizens : " Let it be known to you that in 
order to increase religious merit of our parents and ourselves, this half of the village, called E5?. 
dedda^ included in the district of KMddiiLgahapa rendered tax-free, has been bestowed with the 
libations of water on Blaatta G5nadivasvmln of the KauSika-jftrc, Vajasaneya-cfccro^a, 
and of the Audalavat(ha), Devarata and "Visvamitra pravaras, vho maintains ihe 
sacrificial fire. While he is in the enjoyment of it, so long as the nioon and the SUB endure, no 
body should obstruct him, out of regard for religious merit It has been laid down in the Code of 
Law : (Here follow the three of the usual benedictory and imprecatory verses,) The executive 
officer of this document is Gliarampadeva who is in charge (of suck duties). This charter is 
written by Baraddara. It is sealed by Tapala and engraved by Stliavira rlddha 
(Dated) the 8th day of the bright fortnight of ValiSkha oi the 30th (regnal) year." 7 



No. 47, THE ADDANKI STONE INSCRIPTION 0? PANDARANGA. 

BY THE LATE K. V* LAKSHMAFA Rid* M. A BJJ MADBAS. 

This inscription was firat published with an IB distinct plato in the Ndlwe Inscriptions* by 

Messrs. Butterwoith and V^nBgopaul Chetty* It waa act then thought that it contained any 

1 Mr. R, D, Banerji in the Parikud plates, Rp. lnd>, VoL XI, p 286, 1, 38, rewlo \^ But here the reading 

is clearly 3 m. ^ u ^ e Pirikud plates., too 9 1 would read ^^ B 
a osfe must be constroed with. Brahmasiis 

"inagifltrates* 
j** police officwa, 

|j correspond to Jculkayipu oi the Deccan. 
The words followmg ^q^| excepting ^q^sqf .9 aw not e!&r to mo 

? The symbol which I take as 30 may stead lor 10, but aaot lor 800, Tho Ifiiog's sesga vco perhsya soffio 
what longer than an ordiBary on* 
1 Vol. II, p. - 



272 INDICA. [VOL. XIX. 



Terse* While I was studying ancient Telugu inscriptions for an article on Telugu Philology to be 
published in my Telugu Encyclopedia, It arrc&ted my attention and I made a special study of 
it and came to the conclusion that the lines 3-7 contained a Telugu verse in the Taruv&ja metre. 
I published my results in Telugu in my presidential address at the Fifth Session of the Telugo 
Eesearch Society, Chitrada (GodSvari Diet.). I requested the Assistant Arc? eeological Superin- 
tendent for Epigraphy, Madras, to supply me with a feesh estampage of this and some other 
inscriptions, which I suspected contained Telugu verses of the period of Pa^idaranga and am 
now editing this inscription from the estampage kindly supplied to me by him. 

This inscription ia engraved on a stone now lying in a field at &ddanki in the Ongole 
Taluka of the Guntur district. The stone is broken at the top to the extent of three or four lines and 
also slightly at the bottom. As it is 5 all the letters of the first line are damagedj except the 
lower halves of the last two letters, which may be read as pura. The second line also is similarly 
mutilated except the last four letters winch seem to form the last portion of a verse that must 
have preceded the extant one. 

The alphabets are of the Eastern Chalukyaa type of the time of Gunaga-ijaySditya 
III to which the record belongs. There seem to have been two typea of characters which were 
then current. One is found in the Maaulipatam plates 1 of this king and another in Ms 
DpivutBru grant. 2 The first may be termed the round hand and the second square or aBgular 
hand, In this inscription which is in round hand s the upper portion of the consonant la and the 
mark for the secondary u when added to fc, are somewhat cursive, as compared with the same 
letters in the copper-plate grants of this king, 

There is a difference between the secondary form of e as seen in this inscription and the one 
seen m the Bezwada pillar inscription. 3 In the latter, we find that the secondary sign of e is 
maiked generally over the main letter and goes up from left to right like a tail, while in this 
inscription it is always placed at the left side of the main letter and is a small curved line with 
a downward bend. The letters a and a are written almost alike in this record. The forms of the 
letters Jea 3 ba, ma, ya and re are more archaic, and the secondary symbols for 5, ai 9 o and o are 
shorter and less ornamental here than in the Yadhamalla inscription. The subscript r which 
is not common is employed in this inscription in c lvan$rc$4u (1. 6) as in the Bezwada record, in 
go$$ru (1. 14). In one instance d is employed wrongly for t in vudlu (1. 10) for vutlu. The letter 
$fc is used indifferently in many cases where we should expect n : e.g. 9 la^cMna (1. 5), gorii (I. 6), 
6=at?a (I, 7) and Ka^dukur (I. 8). In two places & is replaced by s : in Makes varu%$u (I. 9)* 
and asvamedha (L 11). This last feature is very common in Kannada* inscriptions. 

The symbol representing the Dravidian sound I is found in i 6, This sound was represented 
by the same symbol in ancient Kannada also. The existence of this sound in early Telugu was 
first revealed by the Yuddhamalla inscription. 3 

The language is Telugu. The first eight lines (except the broken ones) are in verse and the 
remaining lines are in prose. The language, being that of the ninth century A. D., is a little 
archaic, and the meanings of certain obsolete words are to be inferred from cognate words in other 
languages. 

In ortfaograpliy it resembles the Bezwada pillar inscription of Yuddhamalla. Anusvara 
is used in several places. In some, it has the value of the modern Telugu ardhdnusvara (e.g., 
prdbJium- 1. 4) ; i& others, it serves as the class nasal (e.g n garvvariib-appaga L 3 /. and l^ottambu 
I. 6). For purposes of metre it has to be elided in some places in this inscription just as in 

1 Above, Vol V,p. 122. ' ~*~ ' ~ " 

2 C. P. No. 3 of 19)243 : Seo also Journal oj the Telugu dmdemy 9 Vol. I, p. !40, 
'Above, Vol. XV, p. 150. 



No. 47.] THE ADDANKI STONE INSCRIPTION OF PANDARAXGA. 273 

tlie Bezwada inscription, The absence of forms ending in mu or mmu and the frequent 
use of mbu instead would show that in early periods the latter was the only form adopted and 
that the former two are later developments of it. Scansion would require the elision of the 
basic I in golekhiya (I 6), cf. goragalga in 1. 10 of the Ynddharnalla inscription, 

The metre Taruvdja 1 in ^vhich the verse is written is a group of eight Dvipadas, whose two 
feet form one pada of it. The verse is transcribed below according to the modern Telugu ortho- 
graphy, showing the four feet separately ; the pros a (rhyming) letters are underlined and the 
places of yqti (caesura) are shown by asterisk and the ardhdnusvdra is represented by a 
semi-circle C- This long metre did not find much favour with the Telugu poets, On the 
other hand, the Dmpada metre is a very popular one. 

1 Pattaifabu C gattina* prathamambn nenidu* balagarwam^oppaga (*bai lechi sena- 

2 Pattambu gattinichi* prabhu C Barh4ararfcLgu' 11 bhaijchina samamta* padu vaso b5ya 

3 Kottamul path4rem(Ju* goni Vemgi-namti C* go[le]lchi ya Tribhuvanam* 

Hu 

ku6abana nilpi 

4 Kattepudurgambu* gadu bayal chesi Kamdukur-Bbeiavada* gavimche raeclicbi 
PandaraAga was the minister of Gunaga-Vijayaditya III of the Eastern ChiLlukya 

line. In almost every grant of Vijayaditya the name of Pandaranga is found as the executor 
(ajftapti). This king ruled from A.D. 844 to 888. We are told in this inscription that Pan4a- 
Tanga was made the commander-in-chief of the army in the first year of the king's coronation. 
The date of the inscription therefore can safely be put as A.D. 844-5. 

Pandaranga -took twelve Twttams of the B6yas, established the flags (or sovereignty) of the 
kings of VeAgi-na^du, and laid bare the fort of Katte (Kattepu-durgamu). He was a 
Parama-Mahttvara (great worshipper of Siva) and gave certain lands to the Aditya-Bhatara 
(Sun-god) at Dammavuram. 

This inscription is very important to the students of Telugu literature, as it furnishes a 
positive evidence of the existence of Telugu poetry in the middle of the 9th century A.D. The 
oldest Telugu work now extant is the MahabJiarata of Naanaya-Bhatta, the Poet Laureate in 
the court of 'the Eastern Chalukya Rajaraja I (A.D. 1022-1063) of Rajahmundry. It was, 
therefore, believed by many Telugu scholars that the beginnings of the Telugu poetry could not go 
to a period earlier than the eleventh century of the Christian era. But the Bezwada pillar 
inscription of Yuddhamalla took it a century back. The present inscription takes it a century 

further still. 

Of the places mentioned in this inscription Damtnavuraiiibu (11. 10-11) is the village of 
Dharmavaram which is not far ofi from Addanki and where two more stone inscriptions 2 
of Pandaranga are to be noticed. The reading ' Kandukur-Bejavada ' in 1. 8 is doubtful. But 
t Kandukur we have a stone inscription 3 of Pandaranga, containing a Telugu verse in Sisa 
metre. Pandaranga claims to have conquered twelve lottams of the Boyas. Ksttam is-an ancient 
geographical and administrative division, generally met with in Tamil inscriptions. It was bigger 
than the w& and smaller than the ma^alam. We have Kottam-sima in the Godavari district, 

i Brown's Orammer of the T&ugv, Language, Book XI. 

* Ndlon Ineenpticms, VoL II, Ongole NOB. 39 and 40. I belie\e these two inscriptions are also in verse. 

/ bid., VoL II, p. 544. Kandukur Nos. 31 and 32, It is a matter for regret that the original stone of this 
inscription' which was removed to the taluk office from Ramaswami-meda in Kandukur town by Mr. Veiragoral 
Chetty Is now missing. 



1PIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VoL SIX. 



which is almost identical with Tuni Zamindari. Boya is a hunter caste. These people are other- 
wise called Bedars, IB the Gazetteer of the Anantapur district we find it stated that the Boyas 
are the old fighting caste of this part of the country, whose exploits are so often recounted in 
historical works. The Poiigar's forces and Haider Ali's famous troops were largely recruited 
from these people and they still retain a keen interest in sport and manly exercises. 9 ' Their 
colonies are mainly found in the Ceded Districts, especially in Kurnool, Anantapur and BeUary 
districts. We may therefore suppose that the Bdya kottam, which Part<Jaranga claims to have 
conquered, belonged to the Kurnool 'district. Pa^daranga seems to have come to Addanki from 
that quarter. It is not known where Ka^tepu-durgam is situated 1 but might have been 
one of the forts in the Nallamalai Hills near Srl^ailam. 

The meaning of c golekhiya ' (L 6) is not clear. We find the pure Dravidian letter I in 
it. Gol means ' a mountain' in Kanarese. Elayu in Telugu means c to reach '. Therefore 
goklcU may mean * having reached the tops of the mountains or hill forts '. Fa may be 
connected with the next word. Yatribhuvananlcu6ab&v& would mean the (fa'mous) arrow 
known as ' TribhuvananMa (the goad that subdues the three worlds) 9 . If this interpretation 
is correct, it would lead to the conclusion that Pa^daranga had to win back many hill-forts in 
the Vengi country from some foreign kings (perhaps the Rashtrakfltas). We then come to 
the reading KandukwBbejavada in L 8 of which I am not sure. The other probable alternative 
reading would be Kan$u-kubbajavada(dha). We shall have to change the reading of the next 
two words as gavinoh^ vacfohi, to make the meaning complete by connecting several words. 
The whole can then be translated as ' having arrived after killing those who were proud and 
were longing to fight'. Kaqfa literally means 'itch' and figuratively a * desire to quarrel*. 
Kolbagu means a 4 proud man 'in Kanarese. A$u in L 10 may mean * paddy 5 as does the 
current vatllu. 

As the gift mentioned in the inscription was given to Aditya-Bhatra or the Sun-God 
there must have been a Sun temple at Dharmavarain at that time. At Arsavalli, Chicacole 
Taluka, Ganjam district, there is a temple of that deity which has an insertion of Saka-Samvafc 

1068. 2 

TEXT. 3 

1 ..... ..... ........ m [ pura ] 

o 

...... ' .......... [pu di] bhupalakuiidu [I*] 

3 Pattambu* gattina prathamambu ne^u bala-garwainb-o= 

4 ppaga bailechi seQa[I*] patta&bu gattfficlu prabhum 

5 Baijdaramgu ba[ncM]na 5 samatta e -padu Va[so] Boya- 

6 kottambul-vaijdresdu gop Yeriiginaijti golelcki ya 

7 Tribhuvapamku^a baga nilpj []*] Kattepudu^ggambu 



i [Tina has been suggested to be identic*! with Eatkevarain m tne'Teaah taluk. Guntnr ^t^t~ fee- 
Madras Epigraphical Report for 1923, p. 7. Ed.] 
No. 387 of 1896. 

3 From the estampage supplied to me by the Madras Epigraphy Office 
The anwara is generally placed above the letter neri to the oae to which it refere 
The reading is doubtful. Of the compound syllable the first consonant u certainly and consequently 

rss^ 

fl Read Samwte. 




10 



No. 48.] A NOTE ON THE ADDANKI INSCRIPTION OF PANDABANGA. 275 



8 bayal-sesi KaQdukuy^Bbejav^^a gavi&che mechcfai [|ji* ] 

9 Paij4&&*ngu parama-Mahesvaru^du 2 Aditya-batarani- 

10 Id ichchina bh[u]ii enubddi vucllu 3 a<Jlu pa$tu nela Ba- 

11 mmavuramtmna dammuvulu vim rakshmchinav[a]riki asva- 4 

12 medamburia palariibM agu 



TRANSLATION. 



(Line 1.) s ....... 

(L.2.) The king . ...... . . 

(Verse 1.) In the- first year after coronation, (the king) being proud of his army (or strength) 
and elated (tAcrefty), having anointed (i.e. appointed) Pandaramga, the Samanta. to the com- 
mand of the army and sent (him), he (i.e. Pairfaraftga) captured twelve /cop w belonging to ore 
[as6]-B6ya- He reached! (i.e. ascended and captured) the hill-top (i.e. forts on the top of the 
hill) of Veziigi-nan^ti and planted the goad of Tribhuvanariikusa (there)* He exposed 
fully (i.e. made bare after conquest) the fortof Kafte. He liked and piaised Kandukur 
andBejavada. 

(Lines 9-12,) Paiadaranga who was the best of the MaMvaras (i.e. tie worshippers of 
Mahe^vara ox Siva) gave to (the god) Iditya-Bhatfira, lafid sowable with eighty candies of 
paddy. This is a chanty at Dammavuram. ""Those who -proteet these chanties will acquire 
such merit (as is obtained) T>y (performing) the Asvamedha (sacrifice). 



No. 48. A NOTE ON THE ADDANKI INSCRIPTION OP PANDARANGA. 
BY J. EAMAYYA PANTULU, B.A., B.L. 

I am obliged to Dr. Hirananda Sastri for the opportunity of making a few remarks on this 
inscription ^hich is so valuable from the point of view of the history of the Telugu language and 
literature For the sake of convenience, I propose to group my remark-sunder the following 
headings, ., 1. reading, 2. characters, 3. orthography, 4. grammar, 5. vocabulary and 6. inter- 

pretatkm. 

Beading. . 

The reading garwantioppaga (lines 3 and 4) is correct as it is, but to make it grammatical.}' 
correct we must insert an anuwara both before and after the final go. The reading banMa 
(line 5) makes good sense, but I am afraid it has to be rejected on orthographical grounds The 
combination * is not merely a " mistake (foot-note 4), but it is unknown to the , artto rfr. 
the engraver) of the inscription, for it is always *, U, the last letter in the ch varga whidi u.ed 
rthe^oription in conjunction with ch as it should be. The second consonant of the svUable 
eration must, therefore, be sought for in the f varga but I am not certain what it should 
B is a Telugu verb mnm which becomes paw m Kanarese and Tamil and it means to 
or 'make ready '-as an army-which is not a quite unsuitable meaning. Or > 
that there was once the verb pa^ in Telugu which meant the same thing as 90***, , ., 



bin aouuuw. H we read Ka*d*t<***bwu&fa there comes 

B we shall have to consider to be the mist akc of the vnter. 

Xik>WJe IB oonieotural. 
a Bead Jtffi&^ 

a Read wftu* 
^Eoad 



276 EPIGEAPH1A INDXCA. [VOL. XIX. 

to * order ' or "* depute * ? The final syllable in line 6 i$ust be read as ya with a long a. Here 
ya stands for the remote demonstrative pronoun a < that 3 and goes with tribhuvanamkutia. The 
reading baya after tnbhuvan&mJeuto (line 7) is incorrect. The exact reading is ba^a which, I think, 
should be corrected into mbuna, the syllable %a being a favourite mistake with the author for 
na. The expression would then read as tribhuvanaMu$ambuna t meaning " with the tnbhuvanam- 
kusa ". 

Orthography. 

The use of the sign of anusvdra is an interesting feature of the Telugu inscriptions. In Telugtt 
proper, there is no anusvdra strictly so called. It always stands for and has the phonetic value 
of the final nasal consonant of the varqa to which the succeeding consonant belongs. Originally 
the nasals themselves were written in all cases. At a later stage, the bindu (dot or circle) was 
substituted fox the nasal consonant, and was placed exactly where the consonant originally stood* 
viz., on the top of the succeeding consonant, Later on, its position was shifted slightly to the 
left m the same line and later still, it was brought down to a place exactly between the preceding 
and subsequent consonants. This last is its present position. Owing, perhaps, to this position, 
the anusvara is now regarded as forming part of the preceding consonant and not that of the 
succeeding one. In the Yuddhamalla inscription, the anusvara generally occupies the second of 
the positions described above, while in the present inscription, it generally occupies the first 
position, thereby showing that the present inscription is older than the Bezwada one. The inter- 
mediate position is also met with in the present inscription (as in Pa^aramga in line 9) but it 
i rare. In Vemginanti (line 6) the anusvdra is to the right of gi but this is evidently due to a slip 
of hand on the part of the engraver. 

Grammar. 

Ptathamambunendu (line 3) is a compound of pratkamambu and eritftU. The augment n 
as the connecting link between thess two words is unusual and not in accordance with the accepted 
rules of grammai 1 . Asvamedhambuna phalambu, The augment na in cases like this is met with 
frequently in the writings of Nannaya-Bhatta and rarely in subsequent writers. The present 
inscription, like many other old inscriptions, shows that the grammatical rule that k, ch, t, t and 
p coming after a kala in sandM became g, j, $, d and v respectively, was originally held to be com- 
pulsory (nityam) while it is only optional (vaikalpikam) now. 

Vocabulary. 

Paduva : means army and is cognate with the Tamil padai (?) and the Kanarese pa$e. It 
has gone out of use in Telugu as a separate word but lingers in such derivatives as padavalu and 



Golalchi. The exact meaning of this word is not clear but it cannot certainly bear the mean- 
ing attributed to it by Mr, Lakshmana Rao. It seems to be used in the sense of c having 
conquered ' or 4 having captured \ 

Adlu. I do not think this word means * paddy '. I rather think that it is the older form of 
all 1 * which is another name of arikalu, a kind of inferior grain. 

Interpretation, 

I am afraid i must differ from Mr. Lakshmana Rao in one or two respects in the interpretation 
of the verse portion of the inscription consisting of lines 2 to 8. My interpretation 2 is as follows : 

The king, in the first; year of coronation, being proud of his strength and elated (tfa&reby), 
having appointed (anointed) Pagujaraihgu to the command of the army and deputed him, he (i.e.^ 

1 [Such sandhi consonants are known to Pill and Prakrit also Eel] 
* [See also Ep, Ref. for 1923, pp. 97 . Ed.} 



No. 49.] BHAIERA COPPE1-PLATE INSCEIPTION OF GOYENDA-KESAVABETA, 277 



Paij<Jaramgu) having, with the (help of the) tributary army, captured the twelve Boya principal- 
ities, having (also) wrested Vemgi-Mi^u and kept it by (means of) the TiibhuvanaiiikuSa 
(weapon), (and) having utterly demolished the fort of Kattembu, (he) admired and made (?) 
Kandukur andBejavgwJa. 

The concluding passage referring to Kandukur and Bejavada is unintelligible. The verb 
Mwfycke (ga is due to sandhi) literally means * caused to become '. The passage may mean that 
Pa$$aramgu caused Kandukur and Bejavada to exist, i.e., built them or that he caused Kandu- 
kur to become Bejavadb, neither of which interpretation is quite satisfactory- Is it possible that 
Mvittche is used in the sense of Mc&e, i.e., 6 saved 5 , in which case, the passage would mean that 
having destroyed the Kattepu Fort, Parujaraihgu spared Kandukur andBejavacla because he 
admired them ? 



No. 49.-THE BHATERA COPPER-PLATE INSCRIPTION OF OOVINDA-KBSAVADBVA 

(C. 1049 A.D.). 

BY PROF. DR. K. M. GUPTA, SYLHET, ASSAM* 

This plate along s with another, was discovered in a mound called Itertillah in the village of 
Bh&tSrft, about 20 miles froni Syihet. Mr* Luttman-Johnson, the Deputy Commissioner of 
Sylhet, in 1880, sent facsimiles of these plates to Dr. Rajendralal Mitra, who published his reading 
of the texts along with his translations in the Proceedings of ike Asiatic Society of Bengal, August 
1880, pp. 141-151. They are now in the possession of Mr. Umesh Chandra Chaudhury who veiy 
kindly lent the above-named document to me for examination. It has apparently suffered from 
fire, and as a result of it, one of its corners is damaged and some of the letters incised there have 
become mutilated. While examining the inscription, I found that Dr. Mitra had read and inter- 
preted some of its portions mongly, and it is on th^ that I am re-editing it 
here. 

The plate bearing this inscription measures 12J* by 11* and except for the damage by fire 
just mentioned, is in a good state of preservation. There is no seal attached to it It has 5$ 
lines in all, of which 27 are* written on the first and the rest on the second side. Lines 1 to 29 
are written in Sanskrit. Of the rest, lines 29 to 51 are couched in local Bengali dialect and the 
remainder probably in Kt&i. The characters are well cut and belong to about the llth 
century A*D* and are generally like those used in the Gaya Krishna-Dvarika temple inscription 
of the reign of Nayapaladeva, 1 the Tarpandighi grant of Lakshmaijasena* and the Tippeia 
inscription of Ranavankamalla. 3 

Some of the compound letters in the present record are different from those of the 
TarpandigM grant and the Tippera inscription. * Sri ' is like that given in Nayapala-deva'a; 
inscription, * ku * is like that of the llth century A.D., as given in Table V> Col. XVIII, No. 44 
of Biihler's Indian Palaeography. The numerals used in the plate, however, seem to he earlier 
than those of the flth century A.D. It may be noted here that the scribbled letters at the 
end of the reverse side of the plate, which presumably contains the date, do not resemble any 
of the letters in the main body of the document* There are a few letters which are recognisable 
as da, <pa> va and la. Of these da and pa are of a later type, The numerals, however^ mostly 
look like those of the plate. 

a tip. Jhi, VoL XII, p. 8. 
* VoL IX, 1807 (p. 402) ; [Bf> Ind? 9 oi Y 8 App,, No, 365, E4} 



273 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [VOL. XIX. 

The inscription under examination tells us that the principality of Sphatta ,was very pros- 
perous under the rule of a king whose name was probably Kiiarava^a and who had Gdkula- 
deva for his son. The latter had NSraya^a as hia son. From him came Govinda-Kefiava- 
dava, who was a great conqueror. This prince made a donation of 296 houses and 375 halus of 
land herein specified to god Siva in Bhatfcapataka or Bhatapada (modern Bhatera), He also 
appointed different persons from subject races to attend on this God. Then follows a long 
description. At the end of the imprecatory verses in the document the date, which con- 
sists of 13 letters pr rather groups of letters, seems to have been scribbled. Ea jendralal Mitra 
read it as c Pa$<3bva-kulMipalavda 4328 '==1245 A.D. 1 But I do not think he was right. In 
the 10th group of letters I find four numerals, namely,, 4, 1, 5 3 L For 5 cf. Ojha's Prachlna 
BMratiyaUpimalS, (plate LXXVI), which represents a 5 of the llth to the 12th century A.D. 
I read the eleventh letter as ' je \ the 12th as c ta * and the 13th as 9. If this reading be correct 
th,en the date of the inscription would fall in 1049 A.D., which is found by deducting 3102 
B.C. (the beginning of the Kali era) from 4151. 

If we assign, on the average, 25 years to each reign and treat the date 1049 A.D, as the 
middle of Govinda-Ke^avadeva's reign, then the time of the founder of the line falls roughly 
about 100Q A.D, With regard to the name Kharava^a (or Naragfrvvana) it is doubtful if this at 
all represents a name, first because it is not consistent with the naming of his successors and 
secondly because the second Bhatera inscription 8 omits it, I believe the name of the founder of 
the kingdom of Sphatta is purposely kept in a semi-mythical garb, as is too common in the 
genealogies of ancient Indian kings. He was probably a military leader only, as may be 
surmised from an epithet like kharavanafy, ancl came of the Lunar dynasty of kings of Tippera 
or Cactar. The greatest of the line, as it appears from both the inscriptions, was Govinda- 
ELe6avadjeva who se^ms to have been a versatile genius. The identification of some of the place- 
names goes to prove that Govinda-Ke^avadeva's rule extended over at least the modern 
parganas of Bhatera, Vanabh^a, Baramchal, Langla, Ita, Chuallis, Maurapur, Tengra, Tarap, 
Kau<Jiya, etc,, in Sylhet ; and probably some portions of Hill Tippera and Cachar also. 

Many of the place-names given in the inscription have still been retained though some of 
them are slightly altered j e.g. 

Ba^agama (line 30) is modern Bacjagao (Po. Bhatera). 

Mahurapura (30) is modern Maurapura, near Fenchuganj. 

Jtakhola (30) is modern Itakhala near Bhatera. 

Ba4$P#5c5l& (30-31) is. modern B&ramchll or Brahmachal (Ry. station)* 

^.matali (31) is modern Amtail (pargana Langl^). 

Katikhala (31) : there is a river of this name in the Hailakandi sub-division (Cachar) j 

there is also a Railway station (A. B. R.) of this name. 
Simhajara 3 (31) is modern Simrajur (par. Bhatera), 

Bhaskara or Bhasara-tengarl (31 & 37) is evidently a village in Tengra mouja. 
Gudavayl (31) is modern Gudiabhai 
Ikhp-likula (32) is probably modern Ikhailkul in par, Chuallis. It may also refer to a 

piece ; oi land on the river named lJ?haligang in par. Ita, 
Parako^a (32) is modern Barakona (Po. Bhatera). 
" " ' *" * " " - - " " .a *"" 

* See P. A. $. B*> August 1880, p, 143, 

ai&*'d,pp. 10M53. 

8 [The original and the transcript give $*'w 



No. 49.] BHATBEA COPPER-PLATE INSCRIPTION OF GOVINDA-KESAYABEVA. 279 

Valuslgama (33) is modern Bauslgama in far. Tarap. 

Sughara (33) is modern Sughara in par. Tarap. 

Navahati (33) is modern Noahati. 

Kada4iya (34) is modern Kau^iya (pargana}. It may also refer to Kadaiya in par. 

Ita. 
Varaiji (34) is modern Varutfi in par. Banabhiga (near P. S. Biswanath). It may also 

refer to Varu$agrama in par. Chuallis. 

Sarama (1 35) is modern Surma river on which Sylhet is situated, 
Kaliyani may be modern Kalain river near Kanihati on the border of Hill Tipper a. 
Phompatipa (36) may be a place -within Fill Tippera. 

Salachapa4a (38) may be modern Salchapra (By. station, A. B. R., in Cachar district). 
Sagara (38) probably refers to the famous HakalukI Haor. It should he noted that the 

word * Mor ' is a corrupt form of Sagar or sayara (lit. sea). 
Dhamayi (39) or Dhama-nadi (42) now goes by the name Dhamai. 
Chengachchhi4i (41) is modern Chenchhadl in par. Baramehal. There is also a place of 

this name in par. Langla. 

Vasud<va6asana is probably modern Vasudevapur. 

JacJIgang (43) is modern Ju<Jigang which flows by the Ry. station Juri (A. B. R)- 
PShaniya (44) is probably the village of this name in par. Chuallis. 
Bobacha^a (44) is the modern streamlet of this name near Bhatera. 
Kararagama (4344) is modern Karergram (par. Langla). 
The hala measurement of land still prevails in Sylhet : 

3 krantis=zl Tcada 

4 fca$as=l gratia 
20 gay4as=l paya 
4 pawas=zl reJcM 
4 reJckas^l jashfhi 
7 jashthiszzl poa 

4 poaszzl Icedara or Mydra 

12 kedams or keyaras^l hala or hala 

-about 10J W?^ 

zzabout 3| acres. 

" Z Tand about m But I am not sure if these figures have not been mandated. 

TEXT. 1 

Diverse. 



Vrahm-Opendra-Mahe^a^eti tam^ia ta- 



* 



280 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [Vol. XIX. 

3 smai namah || [1*] Tripuraliara^iratL-kirltaratnaih Smara-yuvater=abhislieka-raupya- 

kumbtali [I*] kusuma-viSMia-bana^ana-cliakram 

4 jayati niSa-tilakas=tushararocliih || [2*] VaiMe= sya bbumipatayah, katite 

nistpSra-pauruslt[fi] jatah [|] yesham yaa[h*]- 

5 pia6astir=blnivi Bliargttagamhit=aiv=asti || [3*] Atha vi&ruta-prabhavafc prabhavafc 

Sriharajya-Kamalayah | samajani na[ra]-girvva- 

6 nah Kharaviaia^ kshmabhujam Sreshthah. || [4*] Tasy~a[t*]majo raja-pitamaho- 

'bliiit 2 maMpatir=G6kuladevanama 3 | Yasya prata- 

7 p-arkaruchopl chi[tra]m diSanty*ari-kshma-pati-jadya-mudram || [5*] TasmadU 

amanda-bhuja-nG^ndara-matliyamana-pratyafr^thi-paithiva- 
S samudra-samuddhrita-Mh [|*] Ntraya^6* e jani mahipatir=anvakari yena sphata* 

sa bhagavana 5 Srita-nandakena |j [6*] Tasmad*asi* 
9 ma-guna-gaurava-glta-kirtt^ | Srlman kshi- 

tindra-tilako ripu-raja- 

10 gopi-Govinda ityajani Ke^avadeva eshah || [7*] Yah sim=adbliuta-paiiriishasya 

ya^asam dhama SriyamaSray6 vidya- 

11 naxh vasati[r=*]nayasya nilayo dLamnan=tad=ekaspadam | tyagasy*ayatanam 

vilasa-bhavaBam vachah kalana[m] nidkii | 6 

12 saujanyasya niketanam vijayate miirtto gu^anam ga^iah || [8*] Dor- ' 

da^dena samuddhrita-kshitibhrita samrakshya gO"irian<Ja- 

13 lam sad-vrindavanamadare]ja 7 vidadhan==nachchhanna-Kams-6tsavama 8 | Srlmat- 

Ke^avadeva esha niyatam cliakie'Va^eslia[m*] ruslia ya- 

14 tr=aikam Si^upalamaapy=ari-kule kshipt-ari-chakro nripah || [9*] Kjitva yena 

btuj-aujasa vasumatlm*ek-atapatram=i- 

15 mam loke=sminn*abhilashyate vajayiny=an-anyadhikara-sthithim 9 I panih kalpa- 

taroh pade dinakritah kjityB 

16 pratapo ya^ah 6itam&or=visltaye nyadhayi bhujagadMS-adhikare bhujah || [10*] 

Yasmina 10 Sasati nikh.ilaina- 

17 di-mahipala-diksliaya kshonirn [1*] Sruti-patha-langhana-mahasa-saslt 11 kanta-dp- , 

Sam=eva || [11*] Ayam suhrich-chakra- 

18 mudam vibhavayan prasadhit-a^at karavala-IOaya [|*] suduram-utsarita-raja- 

ma9<Jalo raraja purvv-avanibhpit- 

19 fiiioma^ili 12 || [12*] KarSti dhavalam jagat vinayate=ri-pa[dm]-odgamam 

tanoti kumudaih ya^ah sadyiSam*asya cha- 

20 ndr-ojvalam 13 | sitam kim-a[tha] ranjakam 14 =bhramadanaratam kim sthirani 

sa-karai?.am=idan=(5ha sat=kim=iva nityam=ityadbhu- 

i Koad the lullo^ving word as Srihattar&jya*. Dr, Mitra read it as tacAcMa-mj^a, [The use of the 
vowel ri for the consonant rl is noteworthy. Ed,] 
Bead 



8 Compare line 5 of the 2nd Bhafcera plate, P. A. S. JB. t 1880, p. 153. The name may also be read as 
Koiigana , 

4 Bead apkwtafo or sphutoh. Dr. Mitra read it as svayaih. 8 Bead thagavfrn. 

[Daqda not needed, Ed. ] 7 Bead mdadhad^chManna . 

* Bead 'dtoatwifc Bead vijayina n&*nyGdkikara-$thihh. 
1 Bead yamin. u Bead *la,ih 

12 Kead O b&r i&*ehhirt 9 . Bead O ojj't? 
14 Bead rafijaleam 



No. 49,] BHATERACOPPEBPLATEmS(^^ 281 

21 tarn |f [18*] Bishpait-uiwipatlnSiii yad*ayamanumito mSxchchhlto yad 

rip%arii kflalaiiyattan8ti dvishad-avani-bhujani 

22 jS^am^aichchir-vitanai^. | kashthanarfi yad*vyatitya prakaramupayayavanibaraxii 

Ieli3iSnas=tcii as 5Scharj r y'8iikai'SisS 1 jayati nara* 

23 patSlji k5pi tSja^-kiifianii^ |j [14*] KshSpbhuja yugapad-5hava*safigatgna 

ten5iinata"dvayam*aaa[mi] gu^a-dvaySna [I*] eke- 

24 [na] a karinmukam*a^ma-ma[ha]^-pral^rsha-gamyena vairi-uivaha^t sahasa=pare 

?a (I [15*] Mahibhuja}fyata chaEdrahasa-kar$a te- 

25 [na]*mita-vikram9a [I*] vilafighifr-anSka-paySdhin-eyasii sveava^ kptsna- 

yaSasa dharitrl || [IS*] AthSsti KaHasa-ni- 

26 [v5sa] a -nishpfihah. kfit"2vatar5 bhuvi Bhattapatake ] aH*adi-r5po jagad-Sdiiasapy* 8 

ayantri-loka-natho bhaga* 

27 [v&na* VatSJ^varah [| [17*] Sa4i*Sgkharaya tasmai njipa4ekhara-ratna- 

visphurach-charagafe i pracbdau nana^grame nMila-njipa- 



28 gra[ma]9ire[slia]^ || [18*] Adhikam paficha-saptatyS bhfi-halanam ata 
trayarfi | Sata-dvayaSoha vatinaih sta^ijavatya sa[ma]nvitain |f [19*] 



pradat Sp&atta-nath5yaifa 8 givaya 

fiiva-ldr[tta]na^ || [20*] Bhatapa^adSvaranve* b^hu- 
30 hala 35 1| VS|I 110 Va4ag5m6 bht-hala 13 10 - JMalmrapnre vatl 1 ItakhS- 

lakS bhii-hala^ 7 vatl ft D5gigam*SttarS btu-liala 1 Vara- 
81 pafichalS hala 5 va{;I 4 ImatatiB hala 7 11 SlmhaurS 11 vatl 1 Bia* 

sanatSngaiike 18 bhfike u 6 Gu<Javay!kg vatl 2 Katarfaa|le] i8 
32 bh[fi>liala 2 IkhalikulS bht-[ha]Ia 7 ParakS^ake vatl 1 Pithapinagare 18 BMk 

hala 17 vatl 4 Vgafivagame vatl 2 Po^ati- 
38 thak8mptakara lf aariihata 18 2 v50 11 Kaivame hala 8 va$I 1 VaJa=s!gam 

hala 5 Navahafi-pafehime hala 2 SugharS hala 5 va- 
34 $1 1 BhSfehHahatSkS 1 * bhu-hala 5 vat! 9 Ka<Ja4i7a-dakshiije 

G5vSt-6ttai3 



* Now lost in the original plate, but dearly efcowa in Dr. Mfcra's facsimile 

* 



9 Now lost in the original plate, bat seen in Dr. Mitra's facaimile. 

^ Bead tcumai. 

Dr. Mitra read it as nai%o, [Bead &rihatfa?. See footnote I oa p 281 E<L} 

* Dr. Mitra read it as diwmtoL [The reading seems to be d*va(b<*)ndhi.~~ Ed.] 

10 The lover pazt of the figure 1 ia effaced and 13 may be read aa 2. 

M May also be readf as 2. ls May be read Simhqjw& 

* ra * in Bhfaora looks Mks * not*. The word is probably ,J3M*tam (see I 37> 



Bead 

May also be read as pi 

irV Hi word is psobably 



* Ik. 



282 EHGBAPHIA INDICA. 



35 BhiMiala 19 Sarama-aadi-dakshi^e 1 bhu-hak 5 vajl 3 tathS nadyu$ta*S 

Wm-hala 35 vafl 12 tafcJia nady-uttaire IHa-fr!- 

36 [ralmblia-pilrvve 1 vatl 1 tatha nady-uttaie Gkata-bku-pa&diime Garwara- 

bhu-dakslii$S* bhfl-hala 7 KaliyS^I-nady-uttare Phompta^i- 

37 ya-pflrwe bhfi-hala 9 || vatl 7 tathi nadf-dakshi$ KharasSntt-purvre Bhas- 

karateflgarl-paScllime biu-hala 45 vfit! 91 

38 Jagapantare* Natap5na*grama<dvaye bM-hala 5 v5t! 20 Saiachapa^fake Mutl 

katlii-purvve sagara-paAohirne btu- 

39 hala 10 Kaliya^nadi-dakstiQ-ottarS bhi-liala 9 {j Dhamayi-na&dakalii? 

bhu-hala 6 ya$l 10 BbogaubMvai- 

40 [da]ttare bhii-liala 4 vatj 4 NatkdSasana-patehim? H4ttia-vasj-6ttaiS BM-hala 

7 vatl 10 SatakSpa-dakslii^e vacbso- 

41 pSibhe* hala 10 diengachchutjike bhu-hala 2 vatl i I^inakatiifce va$I 

9 bhiik^ 4 Gaaganapavike vatl 9 Meghapara- 

42 ka vatl 1 bhuk 6 PaiMivo-piirwe AtHvi-uttate bku-hak 9,6 va^I 12 

Nadakutlgame va|;I 9 tathagame Dhama-na- 

43 [d]y-uttare vai;I 9 bhukS 4 Gosuyakiata-pfirvve Gopattasy^ottare JaJI- 

ganga-dakslxi^e VanagajotfJi-pachime Karaga- 

44 mara hala 5 PoLaniya ^khalitta45Jk bhurhala 10 Vaspd@vaSfena-*pur 7 

bliii-liala 5 Vovatu^a-dakahi* 

45 $e JogavaEiya-uttare vafl 1 

Amyitakadi-gopa-gpiha 1, 

46 [tatha]k-6ttar 5 pakadite gph^ 5 tatliakS E5syar*65vmda-giili& 1 

aganxe gopargiihi 1 * I t^thadagke gfup3- 

47 nakadivara-giiita 7 Joga-uttara nididaaarai&uylte 11 gji&a 9 BUStapa^a 

khala Nikufijagattakadbgyiba 7 

48 Bha|;apada Vaxapaficliala I^aklialatidivakarakadiiaaAa^gplia 6 

nuvSkadi go-gpha 15 " 5 Bh.ata-' 

49 pa^ani napita-Govinda-gpha l rajjak^Sirupa-gpfca I Vo.vacliha^a-iuehaA 1 * va 

tapipakadi-gyiha 5 

60 tatham Potttharettapajkadi-gpilia, 5 Favaiatwi [DfevimiM-plkKdi-ffnba 2 
BMtapada Niva[ra> P aka- ^ 

51 di-hattiya-gpita 3 Pithapinagare DyotyemyikifeSdi-gjilia 2 SiiiJ 
dantavara 16 Rajariga-giiiha 16 [I] 17 

I * iw s ^ Sarama may be read as < fa ' or * go, \ TBFA tfceto is a riw named Surma,, wfcfc& 25 
later transformation of Sarami. [But the original 

* Dr. Mitra read Vatisastap&rwe. 
3 Dr. Mitra read! SarwabhtiP, 

* Dr. Mitra reads jagayantari, 

7 May be read &Bp&rvva* 

8 A coUoquial Bengali word meaning 

9 At fcst 7 was written an$,t}ig]i.Q^$HaU 
18 Griha can also be read as gad&. 

II dhisam may also 'be read as nimGra. 

it TW^Jcam may alao be read as nidivakara* and mata aa 



11 

w May also be read aa 

v Now lost in the original plate, but clearly eiown ta the facsimile, 



38a 49.] BHATERA COPPER-PLATl INBOBIPTIOS OS OOWDA-KESAVADEVA. 283 

52 ^oshp! huduka mahasackuha k5ahplsuchhiugi kotp!lak|itai3l chha^Sbhaiia 

harishpattotapatie apit na pi [thuya]* 

53 s apiyare bhalaaka^adayanakadayaJi pradatt&k || V(E)ahnbM*vasudha dattS ra* 

jabhi^ Sagai-adibhiryasya [yasya]* 

54 yasya yada bhumi&stasya tasyar*tada 5 phalaM || [21*] Sva-dattaih 

para-dattam va y5 haieta Tasnndharaiii [I*] sa vishfhayaiii kpmir* 
bhu[tva pi]- & 

55 t|ibbih saha pacityate |) [22*] PSi3i(Javafciilidipa!*S-T(b}aa 4151 jeta W 

TKAKSLATION. 

Om, Salutation to Siva ! 

V. 1. Salutation to that Lord of the Universe who is the Maker of the three realms, toy whose 
body (represented by) the earth and other elements, this universe is held, who alone is called the 
Supreme Being and who alone holds, on account of the difference in the three qualities (namely, 
sattva, rajas* and tamas), the three names Brahrna a , Upendra and Mahe^vara. 

V. 2. (May) he be victorious the crown-jewel on the head of the Destroyer of Tripuia, the 
silver-pitcher 8 (used) in the bath of the youthful wife of Cupid, the circular whetstone foi 
sharpening the arrows of the god with flowery arrows (i.e., Cupid), the ornament of the Bight, 
the coolrayed (^e M the Moon). 

V. 3. In his (Moon's) well-known dynasty were, born those kinga of Umitlesaprowess whose 
record of fame exists in the (Maha)bharata. 

V, 4. Now, was born the gieatly renowned KliaravajEta, (?) a god among men, the cause of 
the existence of Lakshnu (lit, Prosperity) of the kingdom of Srilaatta, the best among the 
rulers of the earth. 9 

V. 5. His Boa, a king of the name of G6kuladiva, was the grandfather of the (present) 
king. It is indeed strange that Ma prowess (which is) like the rays of. the Sun, imposed 
Inactivity on the kings among his enemies. 

V. 6. Unta him was born king Naraya^a who raised the goddess of Fortune irom the 
ocean of hostile kings violently stirred by his aims (which were} like the Mandara (mountain), 
just like Krish^a-Narayana who obtained Lakshmi as a result of the churning of the ocean 
with the ManAara, mountain ; by whom the god (Narayaz?.a) was verily imitated owing to his 
pleasing the people (nandaJca) or owing to his taking help of Nanda&a (minister or general in 
the case of king Narayaija, and the sword named Nandaka in the case of K$khns-Naraya$a). 



1 Dr. Mitra reads ; Kodyi huhuTcd mahasahu$h5 kodyi sahuna kodytno toitam 
ateie no, pith&ya. 

2 How lost in thfi r%iiat plate, but clearly shown i<a i tfee facsimile. 
s Dr. Mitra reads : apiy&che bhala da daya aJcadayah pradatt&k. 

4 To be found indistinctly in the facsimile. Portion of ' yd ' survives in. tha original plate* One yosyct is 
redundant. 



6 Indistinctly oecusaitt' the facsimile; 

7 I hava doiibia regandiug the leading oi i& date whkh- oonftie^ el l&tett&ra or grottps-of febters; 
ductory remafjca.) 

d Rati is conceived of as having her bath in the besutiM rays of- the Moon, which* accounts fou her beawty, 
9 The fact that the second Bhatera ins&rip&ion referred to in.tbe*iiitSiK>djaction doe ao* maatioa- thfe 1 name 

Kharavana^ w significant,, Thfi versd.ma^ uef^r to*aa unnamed king who m^, ia,addlidoa to these qaaiitai sharp ;- 

ia throwing arrows 




284 IND10A, [Vox,. XIX 

V. 7. Unto Mm was born this Kiiavadiira alias the EIpmraja^Gopi-GSvinda 1 whose fame 
is sung (on account of) his unlimited virtue and glory s whose foot stool is decorated with the 
crown-jewels of kings, (wko -is) illustrious and prominent among kings 9 

V. 8. who (is) the limit of wonderful prowess, the abode of fame and the refuge of riches, 
the abfrde {of all kinds) of knowledge, the shelter of diplomacy* the only famous dwelling place of 
glory, the &be,d$ of liberality, the pleasure-house of eloquences the ocean of cultural sciences, the 
seat of goodness and the group of virtues incarnate may he be victorious I 

V. 9. He* by preserving the earjbh with that force of arms which defeated kings, 2 protected 
with kindness the good people openly (achchhannakam 2 ) and with festivities (sdtsavam), jiist like 
K|ish$a who gave with kindness the festival of the destruction of Kamsa (uchcJihinnakaih* 
sdtsavam*) to the good people of Vfindavan. Also (this) king KeSavadeva, who with anger 
destroyed the circle of (his) enemies surely left one (alone, namely,) the protector of a child, to 
remain (with life) from among the race of (his) opponents (just like Kpishijia) who by being 
angry killed Sisupala. 

V. 10. Bringing the earth under one umbrella by the valour of arms this conquering (king)* 
(as if), desiring that in this earth there should not "be any control of any other (thing), placed 
the palm of his hands in the place of the Wishing Tree, Ms prowess in that of the Sun, his reputa- 
tion in that of the Moon and his arms in that of the duty of the king of snakes (i.e., in bearing 
the weight of the earth). 

V. 11. While he rules the earth with the vow (in virtuous principles) of the first kings of the 
earth, the daring attempt to transgress the Sruti (meaning the Veda and the ear) was found only 
in the eyes of women. 

V. 12. Having caused pleasure in the circle of friendly kings, having illuminated all the direc- 
tions by the skilful swaying of his sword, and having expelled the circle of (inimical) kings at a 
distance, he shone forth as the crest-jewel of the Eastern mountain (i.e., the Sun), thereby 
producing'gaiety among the delighted Aakra/vSta (birds), illuminating the directions by the play 
of the rays and by driving apart the mrb of the Moon or the circle of enemies. 5 

V. 13. His reputation, bright as the Moon, illuminates the world, hampers the growth of 
enemies (just as moonlight does the growth of , lotus) and causes the lily of joy of the world (it*- 
mu&a) to spread. It is white (i.e., spotless) and at the same time pleasing, it *s ceaselessly moving 
about though fixed, it is eternal though it is the effect of some cause. It is indeed wonderful 1 

V. 14. His amazing, fire-like prowess whose existence is inferred by the tears of the rulers 
of the earth (ordinary fire is however indicated by smoke and not water) ; which is increased by 
the blood of enemies (ordinary fire is however extinguished by watery substance like blood) ; 
by the diffusion of whose rays the inactivity of the hostile kings is increased (ordinary fire however 
removes inactivity), whose power (as if) to lick it repeatedly reaches the sky after surpassing all 
the directions (ordinary fire is however extinguished as soon as it over-reaches a pile of wood) _ 
may it be victorious ! 

V. 15. By that ruler of the earth engaged in warfares, two great things were bent simultane- 
ously by (reason of his) two gutyas by one gu^a (i.e., the string) the bow was bent, and by 
the other guya, which is guessed by his limitless great prowess, the host of enemies. 



seems to have been a biruda of KeSavadeva. Compare IL 8 and 9 of the 0eeond 
J$h&tir& copperplate inscription (P. A. & #., 1880, p. 153). 

* fit oaems to refer to Krishna*s lifting tbe GSvardhana &HL Ed,] 

* [See 1 a, 7 on p. 283 above. Ed.] * [But the text gives? achehJwwna t 

it suggests that he was a Mng of the 



JSTo. 49.] BHATEEA CQPPEB-HATE INSCRIPTION Of OOVINDA-KESAVADEVA. 285 

V. 16. By that ruler of the earth, with a sword In hand, of unparalleled valour, with an army 
of elephant-riders, w&s the whole of the earth conquered just as (it was conquered) by his fame which 
like the rays of the laughing Moon crossed many seas in long strides. 

V* 17. Now, this lord Vate&vara, who, though having no beginning (/or himself) is (yet) 
the beginning of the universe and is the lord of the three realms, has come into this world at Bhatta- 
pataka (i.e., Bhatapacla or Bhatera) as an incarnation and is living here, having given up the 
desire to live at Kailasa. 

Vv. 18 and 19. The leader of the kings (of this world)* whose feet are decorated with the 
crown-jewels of kings, gave 300 and 75 (i.e., 375) halas of land With two hundred and ninety-six 
houses in various villages to that moon-crowned (god Siva). 

V. 20. This worshipper of Siva (iva~kirttana), the lord of Srlhatta, gave to that &va different 
kinds of attendants belonging to (subject) races. 

Lines 29-51. 35 lid-as of land in Deva-forest (?) in Bhafcapada, as well as 110 houses. 13 
Jialas in Vadagama. One house in Mahurapura. 7 halas in Itakhala, as well as 6 houses. One 
hala in the north of Degigama. 5 hatas as well as 4 houses in Varapafichala. 7 houses in Amatali 
One house in Simhajara. 6 Icedaras of land in Bhasanatengarika. 2 houses in Gu4avayika. 2 
halas in Katakhala. 7 Jialas in Akhalikula. One house in Parak5$aka. 17 Jialas and 4 houses 
in Pithapinagara. 2 houses in Venuvagraina, 2 Jialas and 11 houses belonging to Amptakara 
of Potatithaka. 8 halm and 1 house in Kaivama. 5 halas in Valuslgama. 2 halas in 
the west of Navahati. 5 kolas and 1 house in Sughara, 5 halas and 9 houses in Bhoti- 
lahatika. 19 halas (lying) to the south of Kadadiya to the east of Gosuya, to the north of 
Gov&ta (lit. a pasture ground) and to the north of Varuni, 5 halas and 3 houses (lying) 
to the south of the Sarama 1 river. 35 halas and 12 houses (lying) to the north of that 
river. 1 house (lying) to the north of that river and to the east of Natirambha. 7 halas 
(lying to) the north of that river, west of Ghatabhu and south of Garvarabhu, 9 haUs and 
7 houses (lying to) the north of the river Kaliyanl and east of Phomphatipa. 45 halas and 91 
houses (lying to) the south of that river, east of Kharasont! and west of Bhaskaratengari. 5 halas 
and 20 houses in the two villages of Jagayantara and Natapana. 10 halas in Salachapa4aka, and 
to the east of MutikathI and to the west of Sagara. 9 halas lying north and south of the river 
Kaliyam. 6 halas and 10 houses (lyifcg) south of the river VSmayi. 4 halas and 4 houses in the 
north of Bhogau and Bhuvai. 7 halas and 10 houses in the east of Natho&asana and north of 
Hattavara. 10 halas south of Satakopa and east of Vadaso. 2 halas and 1 house in Chengach- 
chlmijika. 4 bhtt-hedaras and 9 houses in Idanakathlka. 9 houses in Manganapavika, 1 house 
and 6 bhu-kedaras in Mgghaparaka. 90 halas and 12 houses in the east of Pam&ivo and north of 
Athavl. 9 houses in Nacjakutiganm. 9 houses and 4 thu-Jcedaras in the same village in the north 
of the river Dhama. 5 halas in Karagama, east of Gosuyakhata, north of Gopatha (lit. a track 
for cattle to pass), south of Jacjigang and west of Vana6gajotti. 10 halas in Pohaniya in Ikhali- 
tt&4ka (Ikhalikule I). 5 halas in the east of Vasudevaasana, One house (lying in) the south of 
Bobachhada and nofth of Jogavaniya. In BhatapadS 10 outside houses 2 belonging to Kedaka 
and others. 1 house belonging to Amritaka and other Gopas. 5 houses to the north of that : 
5 houses as kitchens. 1 house belonging to Kasya-Govinda (lit. Govinda, the bell-metal worker). 3 
In Vatjagiama 1 house of Gopa and 7 outside houses with kitchen etc. belonging to irupa. In 
my own (village) Garasuya, north of Bhoga, 9 houses. In Bhatapada-Itakhala 7 houses belonging 
fco Nikufijabhatta and others. In Bhatapacpi, Varapanchala, Itafefaala etc. 6 houses belong- 

L ...i.|-:ni. -T_i.._n.. i -i.,-"v. -';..:.. -T-. U-m--irr-...- - -Lrnr-rm--r-Ln.j-m.--.iiniaT- Huntr-um... r i.--imur.T-iii' i r - - -a. in. rr. "l .rti' 'Jt :i ,n i jiui ' i_jirjm.-r. . i n "I" '".'-'' -J" " I'-Jry. ... _:v.- f TI~II - T in ... rni __-uf l"L~lf ' t 

3 [See footnote 1 on p. 283 above Ed.] 

a V&rogtiha. This word is probably the s&m as the modem colloquial Vdravftdt, 

8 Kaaya may imply either Mmsr/akara 8 bell-metal worker' or K,a6yapa0dJra, ie. f * o the line o! 



286 BHQRAPHU INDICA, [VOL. XIX- 



ing to the mother of Tictfv&kara %&d others. In Bhat;apa4a 5 cow-sheds belonging to 
Simivaka and others, In Bhatapafda I house belonging to washerman Sirupa, 5 houses including 
kitchen and pasture lower 4owR Bobachhada. 5 louses including kitchen there belonging to 
Dottharetta (?). In Navahati kitchen and other houses (belonging to) Degvimati 2. In Bhata- 
pa<Ja kitchen, shop-houses etc. (belonging to) Nivara 3. In Pithapinagara 2 houses (belonging to) 
Dyojye the boatman (nam'ka) and others. In Simhajara tillage 1 house (belonging to) Rajavigi 
the ivory- worker. 1 

L. 52, (The language of a portion is not known) ................ have been given* 

Verses 21-22 : (the well-known imprecatory verses)* 

The date : Jyaishtha 9, 4151, the era of the first of the Pan4avas. 



No. 50. A NOTE ON THE VAPPAGHOSHAYATA GEANT OF JAYANAGA. 

BY R. D. BANEBJI, M,A. 

The mshaya of Udumbara mentioned in the grant of Jayanaga recently published in this 
Journal is better known than is supposed by Dr. L. D. Barnett or Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatter jee. 
Audumbara existed as the name of a division of Bengal and elsewhere in India up to at least 
the end of the sixteenth century. It is mentioned as a SarJcar of the ubah of Bengal in the 
A^ln-i-ATtbarl. Blochmann read the name correctly as Audumbar, but unfortunately he did not 
live to translate the second volume of the I'm, and Jarrett, who took up the work, was not suffi- 
ciently acquainted with the topography of Bengal to recognise the difference between Udner 
and Audarnbar. Consequently in the translation published by the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
in 1891 the name is given as " Sarkar of Udner commonly known as Tanda." 1 Blochmann read 
the name correctly as Audambar and included it in the Sarkars to the south of the Gauges and 
tie west of the BhagirathL Among the Mahalh mentioned as being included in Sarkar Audam- 
bar in the Ji'in there are at least two which bear the same name in early British Eevenue Papers ; 
e.g., Akmahal and Kunwarpartab. The name of Ikmahal was subsequently changed into 
Kajmahal, and it is now a parganah of the Sonthal Parganas District. Kunwarpartab is really 
Kimarapratapa, and bears this name even now. It is a parganah in the northern part of the 
Murshidabad district. There cannot be any doubt therefore that portions of Sarkar Audambar 
Jay to the south of the Ganges and to the west of the Bhagirathl. I have proved before that 
oven up to tl?,e time of Akbar ancient or pre-Muhammadan names of Eevenue Divisions con- 
tinned unchanged. Ram&vati, the new capital built by Eamapala after the supression of the 
Kaivartta revolt in Northern Bengal, 2 continued to be a Mahall or SarMr Jannatabad or 
3 



Writing of the Eevenue Divisions of Bengal in the reign of Akbar, Blochmann says, " Sarkar 
Audaaibar or Tandah, comprising the greater portions of Birbhum. The name Audambar occurs 
also in other parts of India, e.y., ia Kachh." 4 After the publication of Blochmann's paper 

1 A*in-i*AkbarL Eng. Trans. Calcutta, 1891, Vol. II, jp. 129. The translator failed to notice Bloehmann's 
important contributions to the history and geography of Bengal. 

a Memoirs, A. 3. #., Vol. F, #. 14. 

3 4'**-4$arf, Eng. Trans. Vol U, 1801, p. 131. 

VowivzZ, A. 8. B. t Vol. XLII, 1873, part /, p, 211. Audumbar was also the name of a vtehaya in the 
maydala of K&Mja-ra and bhvkti of Kanyakubja IB the time of the Gurjaya-Pratihara Emperor Bhoja I ; See 
hi* Barah plates, of v.s. 893-4?*, V&L JC/.X, OT* 15*1$' 



No. 6L] JURA PRA3ASTI 01 KEISHNA III. 287 

Cunningham^ in tie fifteenth volume of his report, Spells the name correctly as Audambar. 1 
I Cannot understand how Jarrett came to read it as Udner, unless his Maulawis tnistook * 
and v lor ^ and ^ . 

As the name of an ancient Eevenue Division of Bengal is known to have been Audumbar 
or Audambar in the sixteenth century, there cannot be any reason to suppose that the name 
of the Vishaya in Jfayanaga's grant, which is also the same, was situated in the Delta of Bengal 
near modern Ranaghat, where no such Revenue Divisions can be proved to have existed. The 
term GaAginika is the 'diminutive of QaftginL Gam and Gangina are cotnmon terms in Western 
Bengal for a dried up river bed or a small river. The natne Gaftginika was equally common 
in Northern Bengal; cf. Khalimpur plate of Dharmapala 11.31-32, pa&Mmena Ganginikd ; 
l$&Asya ch-dnaretyo, Gahginika-sima ; 1L 39-40 srdtiMya Gahginikam pramshta , 11.4041 
Uttareya GanginiM.* 



No. 51. JURA PRASASTI OF KRISHNA III. 

Br N. LAKSHMI^ABAYAN RAO, M,A,, OOTACAMUNB. 

This inscription was discovered by Mr. R. D. Banerji, M.A,, in 1921. It is incised on a 
stone slab which, Mr. Banerji says, is being used as a lintel in a modern bungalow erected inside 
an old fort in the village of Jura which is a hatalet some twelve miles away from the Maihar 
railway station on the G. I. P. railway line. A brief notice of its contents has already appeared 
in the- Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India for 1921-22. 3 I edit it below from 
the impressions sent byjfr. Banerji in 1922 and kindly placed -at my disposal by the Govern- 
ment Epigraphist for India, 

The writing comprises 37 lines covering a space of 9 inches by 4 feet and is generally 
well preserved except in lines 3-13. The language of the record is Hale-Kanna4a, line s 
1-18 and 33-37 being written in prose and lines 17-33 in verse and the kanda metre. The use 
Of the word no&re as an interjection meaning " behold " is noteworthy- Only one more instance 
of the use of this interjection is known to me, viz., in verse 11 of the Sogal Inscription, 4 The 
efcaratftwfc are Kanarege referable to the 10th century A.D. The size of the letters varies from 
about 1 J" to about |". The vowel u siibsqript is denoted in three different ways, e.g., see 
(1) by ru in marula I 4, (2) by du in sSlaAu L 2$, and (3) by dhu in vadhu, 1.28. The e sign is 
formed sometimes by a superscript mark, as in me of farameSvara, L 2, and sometimes by a mark 
tfa the left of the letter, as in be of berinde 1. 1& No distinction is made between e and I when 
they are combined with consonants. The sign for the vowel ai which occurs only once in Kamai, 
1. 34, is worth notice. In respect of orthography, we may note (1) th correct use of the archaic 
I in tAJta (11 20-21), CAa|a (L 20) and ijd (L 32) ; (2) the doubling of consonants after r as in 
yantieyarJckal (L 11) ; and (3) the wrong use of s for & as in praaa&i (1. 36). 

The inscription is a panegyrid of Parama6hattarafaa> Parame&vara, fai-frtiMmtialka, JffoAa- 
T&j3dhiraja, Kaanaradeva. In the prose passage, with which the record opens, this ktog is 
introduced with the Urudas of naHara-naara|arh f tae-vedariigas&f, 
vairi-vil&sam, madagaja-mallam, par&ngana-putra!& y 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ __ ^^^^^_^^.^ m ^ m 

A Archaeological Survey Reports, Vol. XV, p. 38. 
p. 249. 



Ep. In&, VpL XVI, p. 3 and add. 



288 



BPIOBAPHIA INDICA [Voi. 



IWHMPi^v' ----- 

AkSUtavarshaxh, Nyipatuigaih and Kaohchegatii. 1 All these epithets except those of 
wttora-mamlam, wiri*wm<m, paraiiganap^rain and 'Nripatuigara 4 which are met with- for 
the first time in the present inscription are known to have been borne by the RIh$raJfcftta 
emperor Krishna III, as has already been pointed out by Dr. Fleet. 8 Again, as ia shosm by 
the Atakur,* the Solapuram* and other records, it was Kpshga III who uprooted the O}as* 
Accordingly, the king eulogised in this record must be identified with him, namely, 
Kjlsh^a III ol the Rash^rakiitas of Malkfced. 

The only historical event alluded to in the secord is tho destruction of the GhSJa power by 
Kpishtfa. Verse 2, describing this achievement, tells us that tie 3Lae-ve4e&ga (i.e^ K? ishga) 
" rooted out the Choja who had uprooted the Fa^flya." It may be noted in this connection 
that the expression Cholam beram Mrinde ki&an of this record is a Kaaarese rendering of qjWf 
PT found in the Karhad grant, 6 where we are told that KpshijarSja uprooted 



the race of tile Ch6}as with the intention of subduing the southern region. The GhSJa who is 
said to have uprooted the Paiicjya was ParEntaka I who ruled from A.D. 907 to 953 ; for 
not only was he a contemporary of Krishna III, but is alao known to have waged three Wars 
against the Pg4yas and captured their capital Madura.' And we learn from the Kanyi- 
kuinari inscription 8 that Parantafea killed the PSflflya king. It was during the reign of this 
Paranteka that K?ish$a III fought the famoua battle of Takkdlain, killed the Choja prince 
RSjaditya and took possession of the Chola territory. 9 Thus, it is evidently this incident, 
that is alluded to in the present inscription, Kpsh^a's occupation of the Choja dominions b 
also borne out by the large number of his records* found in that part of the country, which give 
fcira the epithet Kachchiyum Taiijaiyum fto^a, tX * be who took JCSficM and Tanjore, \ 

TJie existence of the present record in Jura near Jubbidpore showa clearly that Kpsh^a's 
eonquests were not confined to the south, but extended to the north akx The Kazhad grant 
tells us that he conquered the Kalaclmri Saliaararftma though he was an elderly relative of 
his mother and wife. The grant, however, says explicitly that this success was one of those. 
achieved by Krishna while he was yet a prince (kumara) and acting under the orders of his father 
(janaMjn&wfa), But it is clear that the expedition during which our inscription was engraved, 
was undertaken after he became king, since in this record he ia described as a paramount sovereign > 
Consequently, the latter expedition must be different from the one mentioned in the Karhad 
grant. The record ia not dated and it is, therefore, not possible to ascertain precisely the time 
when this expedition taok place. But the allusion to the clashing of the Choja power made 
in the epigraph would show that it was undertaken after thft overthrow of the ChSjas and after 
Kpshija III had killed the Choja prince KSj&ditya in A JX HI* 1 * It is quite reasonable to sur* 
mise, therefore, that the expedition to the north was led by Kpshjja III af tec A.D. 947. In the 

i On p. 119 of ihG-A.S* E n for 1921-22, the word is read as Jcabbeya and it ia stated that it occurs 
ai \tobbega in the Atakftr inscription, but the facsimile of the latter (faoiog p* 54, Jfc. Ind., VoL VI) shows 

clearly kachchega which is Fleet's reading. 

On the significance of the Kashtrakuta titlea ending u tonga see. $$. /&,. Yoi VI> p. 189. 

a Ibid, pp. 178-179. 
Ibid, pp. 50 f . 
Ibid, Vol. VII, pj>. 1945. 
Ep. Ind., VoL IV, pp. 27? ff. 
T Jd*o^ Bp* JBeyork 1907, p* 72, 
Trav. Arch. 8en** 9 VoL III, p. 111. 
Ep. Ind.* VoL XIX, p. 82. 

* See above, VoL XIX, pp. 82 and 83 and A. 8. J2. 5 for 1912 1 n Hem it may be Bointed.out that 
Jto,, Hultzsch was of opiwon that this eve.Et took pJ?e In A JD, 



' Jl ** A 



1st ni. 



PJecp. 



* m Piece. 




Kn. 



or 



No, 51.] JURA PRASASTI OF KUISHNA III. 2?<- 

Sravana-Beigola epitaph of the Gang a chief Marasithka 1 , we are told that he became ka< .-7; 
as the King" of the Gftrjaras by conquering the northern region for Kpsh^acaja < t ll\ 
Evidently, the same campaign is referred to v in the Kutjltr plates of AD. 963 which we: 
issued by the same chief and which tell us that Kiish^araja, when setting out on an exp*,ti'< 
tion to the north, himself performed the ceremony of crowning Marasiriaha as the ruler of Gangs * 
padi/ 2 If the northern expedition, in the course of which our inscription was written, is identic* 
with the one mentioned in the SraYa^a-Befgola and ELuxpk records, it must have taken plao 
in AJX 963-64 which was, according to Fleet, 8 the first year of Marasiiftha's rale. Cause* 
quently, the inscription under publication will have to be ascribed to that very year, TO., A, I>* 
963-64. 

The praiasti was written by Chimmayya at the instance of Tuyyala Giaandayja, 
the younger brother of Kimaisetfi. Both these persons appear to be new, for they are not 

known from other records, 

TEXT. 

1 Svasti [11*] parama-bhattara- 

2 ka paramefivara fal-^ri- 

3 thvl-va[llabha] maharaja[dhi] 

4 ra[ja ne(na)]llara-marulan--a- 

ne-[ve4e]ingam chalake-napla}- 

6 tam [vairi]-vi|asari]i mada[ga]- 

7 ja-mallam paramgana-pu- 

8 tram ga[n(Ja]-martag.^an*Aka}ava- 

9 riflh&ib* Nyi[patu]iiigarii ka[ch]chegam id- 

10 mat-Kannaradevam |j kanda [ \\ ] 

11 ...... vaniteyarkka* 

12 ...... galum bama* 

13 

14 du kaijt-nudliyadu ba[yku] 

15 4adu chittam ParSiiigaiia- 

16 putra&ajaa || [l*J ] Bharate* 

17 dol-i[pdanI]ndra 

18 Bana-[]a]9an-enipa Pa* 

19 ^4yana [kola]marn 

20 kilta [Ch5]iana berarii 

21 beri[ndeki]ltanJLneve- 

22 ^eAgaiii \\ [2 f] [Sffpade para-va- 
2S nitege [ka]fl8olada mo 

i Mp. Ind., VoL V, pp. 151 ff. 



p. 12, table). 
Read 



tto MM tatorfd M to tto itoM. ttptioo 



EPIQEAPHIA INDICA. C V<)L ' XIX * 




24 le-valan=u<Ji nadapida 

25 t5(ta)yam(yim) melene bagegum 

26 nodire soladu chittaiii 

27 Paraxhganaputrakana |j [3||*] 

28 Nodire para-vadhuge 

29 manarh kidadu sSl-sfi- 

30 lol^etti na[da]pida 

31 tol=u$d=adida mole "ba- 

32 sir=olag=41da<Jida chittarii 

33 ParMiganaputrakana 

34 Svastd [1|*] Ubbi~ 

35 tammam Tizyyala Chanda~ 

36 yyaxi* prasa(a)stiyam bareyi[si*> 

37 dam [H*] baredane GM[mma]yyarfi [1|*] 

TRANSLATION- 

(Lines 1 10,) Hail ! Supreme Master, supreme Lord, favourite of Fortune and Earth, 
great emperor, lie who amazed good men (ly Us goofau), a marvel with elephants, he who 
is beautiful on account of firmness of character, he to whom (encounter with) the enemy is a 
sport a wrestler against rutting elephants, a son to other men's wives, a (very) sun among 
heroes, AkElavarsHa, Nripattmga, he who wears the girdle of prowess ; the illustrious 
Kannaradeva . 

, Yerse l ) women the efe of ParSAganaputra (i.e., Kpsh^a HI) 

seeing, does not see,' '(Us) mouth does not speak and Ids mind does not unite. 

(Verse 2 ) Aneve^efiga (i.e., Kpshna) rooted out the Choja who had uprooted the Pandya 
tkat had become famous as one who had Hied (Au enemies) ia the Bharata (tear) and who was 
so skilful as to share with Indra one half of his throne.* 

(Terse S.) Unless one is overcome (with love} for another's wife, his eye will not be capti- 
vated (by her). But see ! the mind of ParMganaputra regards another's wife as more than 
his mother who has fed (him) on her breast milk and taught (Mm) to walJc. 

(Yerse4.) Behold! (Hw)mind cannot be attracted towaids others' wires; for it is tbe 
inmd of Paranganaputra who considers himself as having remained in the wombfl of others' 
wives and sported there, who regards their arms as those that repeatedly carried him aad 
taught him to walk and their breasts as those which he had sucfed (as a child) and played with. 
(Lines 34 ?7.) Hail! Tuyyala Chandayya, the younger brother of Ubbi KSmaisetti 
caused this eulogy to be written and Ohimmayya wrote it. 



1 Bead sSZ-swJoJ 8 . 

* Evidently a shortened form of Kamayyn- 

a Th kzeodary MooaatB of the achievements of the PMy kings aie lo tnentioned in the VelvilroiJ-. and 
, JiZiot grant, (&. M, Vol. XVII, p. 298, terWine 9 4 S. I. L, Vol. 311, Pi IV, *, 480 atd 468). 



No. 52.] BHADAVANA GRANT OB QOYimXAOHABTDEADEVA 01 KANATJJ. 291 

flb. 52. THE BHADAVANA. GRANT OF GO VINDACH \NDRADEVA OF KAKACJ. 

BY N. C. Mm*, LOB. 

The Gahadavala dynasty of Kanauj has left abundant inspriptional material during its short 
period of glory circa 1000-1193 A.D. Twenty five copper-opiates were discovered at Kaniauli 
near the confluence of the Berna and the Ganges at Benares in October 18S2 which have been 
fully described by Kielhorn in Volume IV of this Journal. Another copper-plate of this 
dynasty was presented to me by the Taluqdat of Tali, 6 miles from Partabgarh, United 
Provinces, who found it in the possession of one of his tenants, the latter having got it in 
exchange from a village woman for new utensils. The place where the plate was actually 
discovered is not known. The plate measures 17-5 inches by 13 inches and weighs 342 
tOlSs. 9 inches of the plate are covered with inscription on one side only. The writing is well 
preserved. A small space, left blank in the centre at the top, was probably intended for 
perforating the usual ring-hole. The abse-noe of the perforation seems to indicate that the 
plate was never issued from the royal record room. 

The inscription is written in Sanskrit language and engraved in the Nagari script. 
Regarding the orthographical peculiarities it is to be noted that ^ ' is sometimes used for 

q ' as in ^raft ' (-a*rt) and th * t tke letters * 1 *i * * nd * m some plftees ap?ear very 

much alike in form. The distinction between the different sibilants is not adhered to. The 
medial vowel "g 5 is sometimes indicated by merely a stroke attached below the consonant, 
as, for instance, in *rgs?TT in line 19. The name of the writer of the grant is not given. 

Like all the published grants of this family the plate recites the genealogy from the time of 
v fl fiavieraba. After describing the p*owess of king G6vindaohandradva (IL 1-8) it goes on 
to say that the village of Bhadava^a together with the hamlets of Bhatavali and Laghu-Bha- 
Lvana in the pottoM of Mahavisa was granted by the kbg to two Brahma* i by the name 
f SLarataan, son of Vachha and grandson of Thakkura gri-Pitha of the kaiayapa-^r*, 
^A Sttaiarman, son of Tingula and grandson of Thakkura Srl-Vavana of theBharadvaja-^r* 
While the three T ravaras of gflasarman are clear, thoae of K waraSarman of the KaSyapa-^ra 
art quite so explicit'. Govindachandradeva says that the grant was made by hm after he 

(Allahabad) according to the sacred rights, holding water 



P 
2f totecto^ ^ of the three worlds-and having made oblations to the fire The object 

of the gran ^ -id to be the acquisition of merit and renown for the donor and to 
narents The grant was formally announced in the presence of the queen, the hear-.pparent 
L P T t, "mSa^ 

^s^^ 

d customafy but incisive of the rights of mining, salt waste-land and the 
and custo y mctAM5j mangoe s, wood, natural growth, other trees, grass P / z and 




EdU] 



292 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XIX. 



is probably 



various kinds of taxes described are not easy to determine. The word 
a local term signifying the Tnve%l at Allahabad. 

[The date of the grant is Thursday, Phalgunl-Amavaaya of the (Vikrama-) Samvat 1184. In 
this year Phalgunl-Amavasya fell on Friday, the previous Thursday having -99 of Chaturdafi. 
But in the following year the tithi fell on Thursday and lasted up to -90. So the latter appears 
to be the intended date which, according to Mr. L. D. Swaimkaimu Plllai's Eplemeris^ corre- 
sponds to March 21, A.D. 1129. Ed,] 

I have been unable to trace the village of Bkatavall in the Allahabad district. The vUlage 
of Bhadavazia may be the same as the modern village of Budawan in tahsil Karchhana in the dis- 
trict of -Allahabad. 



TEXT. 2 



[i*] vgrotrisSv^ i 

; i [jjj 



: a 



ft 



[*] 



^prifir; 24 



[The original reads 
being bumble '. Ed.] 

* From the original plate. 



wtueh 28 probably a mistake for 



where 



would mean 



' Bead 
a Bead 
Bead 
*Eead 

*'Read 



Bead 



8 Expressed by a symbol [wMcfc possibly stands for * tiddktl '.Ed.] 

6 Be ^^f . Rea4 

Bead ^7^^. 9 Read 

" Bead ^wr . . . .qrf . " Bead 

"Read ^fifw^TO . "Bead 

"Bead 
w Bead 
s *Beaci 
* Bend ^iftftr, Bead 



tfo. 52.] THE BHADAVANA GRANT OF GOYINDACHANDKADEVA OS KANAUJ. 293 



6 



8 



9 



10 



11 



12 



13 



14 



, am 2 



: [i*j 









*wrfrairwBrat 



- fl 



* Bead ^ 
* Read 



a Read 



Bead 

Bead 

"Bead ^. 'B 6 * 4 ^: "Raid 

ij^ead iw^. u Rea * **' I But tlie * ext nt ^ a OSR !^' correctly .Ed.] 

t Bead v^n. *' ^^P OI -e qw. 

[Tlufl shOTild end in the instrumental case or the word ^jftq wil1 have to *** supplied. Ed.] 

t'Bead f?if. " Be ^ 1 WW:. 17Read ^" 

u Bead ;. " Read O flr:. [Se f. n. 3 on yage 29L-Ed.] 

tiRead ^tf^l *Bea 

Bed wft P [See f. n. 1 on page 292 
Bead R. ' Bd 



294 BPIGEAPEIA INDICA. 



15 
16 
17 
is 

19 



re% 
m ^t^ M 
20 

21 



1 Bead 
* 



Ed.] > Bead spW. 

* [The way in which the superscript r is written is noteworthy. . Ed.] Bead 

Bead O^^JT^. Drop the amsvara. 'Bead 

Bead ffi. Bea 4 ^^ "Read 

" Bead .reft. Bead ^. u Bead 

Bead fefir . M Bead 



ME. Diskalkar of the Watson Museum, Bajkot, has fciadly helped main writiag down the text of the 
inicriptiom .'' ' 



No. 53.] THE BBWAH INSCRIPTION OF MALAYASIMHA, THE YEAH 944. 295 

No. 3. THE BEWAH INSCRIPTION OF MALAYASIMHA, THE YEAR 944. 
BY PBOI-. R. D. BANEBJI, M.A., BBNAEES. 

\ 

The existence of this and two otter inscriptions was brought to 1117 notice by Diwan 
Bahadur Pandit JanM Prasad, II. A., LL.B., Home Member of the Council of Regency in the 
Eewah State, in A.pril 1920. No information is available at present regarding tfee find-spot 1 of 
this inscription and the date when it was brought to Eewah. 

The record is incised on an oblong plain slab of sandstone, measuring 4' 3|* x 1' 8^. It 
consists of twenty-seven long lines of ttrriting, and, with the exception of "tie words 6m 
&vasti, at the beginning, and the date in numerals in 1. 26, is entirely in verse. The inscription 
is probably Buddhist as it opens with an invocation to MaSjughosha, the Buddhist deity of 
learning, and mentions Buddha as Bhagavan ia L 20. There are altogether fifty-four verses id 
this record which are devoted to the description of the family of a feudatory chief named 
Bffalayasimha, his chief officers, the composer of the praa$ti and of the mason. 

The characters belong to the central variety of the Kagari alphabet of the twelfth century 
A.D. The language of the record is Sanskrit, but on account of the carelessness of the mason, 
apparently, it contains many mistakes. The record refers itself to a king named Vijayasixxiha 
who is mentioned in verse 5 as born of the family of Karnna. This king is again mentioned 
in L 26 in connection with the date in numerals 2 . He is, np doubt, the same as the last 
homonymous Ghedi king who ruled in Dahala at least up to 1196 A.D. 3 The date of the 
inscription is expressed both in words and in numerals : (Kalachuri-Chedi) year 944, the 
named 4 Sahasamalla on Friday the first of the bright half of Bhadrapada. 



In the description of the family of Malayasixfoha, the river Narmada is introduced in the 
fourth verse (L 2). On the banks of that river was the city of Tripiiri where ruled a king named 
Vijayadiva, born of the family of Kar^a (v. 5). There .was a chief named Jata, who was the 
adviser of the ancestors of this prince (v. 7). The illustrious Karajjaadeva had defeated hia 
enemies with the aid of the force of the arms of Ja$a (8j. From him was born Yaattpala F 
who was devoted to King GaySkarwa (v. 9). Ya&ahpala's son was Padmasiaiilia (v. 11), 
who was the unrivalled minister of Vijayasimha (v, 12) and the younger brother of GbaBdra- 
sizfcha; Padmasimha's son was Kirttisimtia (v. 13), Ms son Was Malayasirhha (v. 15). 
The description of this family occupies seven lines of this inscription. 

The next seven lines are devoted to ""the description of Malayasimha. Talha^adevi seems 
to tave been his mother. Some of his principal officers are named in 11. 14-15. The chief officer 
(Sawadbikarin), who was probably the Master of the Horse as well as the treasurer, was 
Ra^asimha, son of tfri-Gargga. The minister and Superintendent of the distribution of 
betel-nuts (Tamfyitta-dan-adhikfitiprayufaafy) was Harisiihha, son of Jagatsii&ha. Verses 
34-40 are devoted to the description of the tank* on the occasion of the excavation of wjiich 
the praiasti was composed. In the 41st verse we are inf ormad that the tank was completed 
at the cost of 1,500 tankakas stamped with (the effigy) of BhagavSn (i.e. the Buddha). 

1 [According to the label on the impression of this inscription received from the Director General of Archaeo- 
logy in India, it was found near the Kastara tank in the Bewah ta toT Ed.]. 

* [V. 6 givea Vijayadeva but L 26 haa Vijayasiihhadevft. Ed.]. 

* Ind. Ant., Vol. XTO, pp. 227-28. 

* [The significance of a%ho8amalla*ke is not dear. Does it mean * the year of SlhasamaBa' T The word 
ofe&a is at times used for dbd& or year, and Sahasamalla literally means athlete in boldness* But whether 
Sahasamalla refers t Vijifyastmha or to some other personage or whether it has some other significance here 
ia not- known. Sahasanka, it may however be observed, is one of the epithets of VIkramadity a, 

* [Is it not the same tank where the insori|rtiion was found P~Ed.]. 



EPIGRAPHIA IHDlOA, [VOL. XIX. 



Such coins, if they were current in the Chedi country, have not been discovered as yet. The 
genealogy of the officer who was in charge of the excavation of the tank is given in II. 21- 
23. The son of Uddharana was JSzidfaara and the latter's son was Thakkura 
Laks&midliara. His son Vidyadhara was ths Superintendent of the excavation of this 
tank (w. 4S-4Q). The genealogy of the poet is giyep. in 11. 24-25. The son ol Ramachandra was 
Divlkara. Hip son Purushottama, the composer of the pntiasti, is described as belonging to 
the Krishnatreya-gr^ra } an inhabitant of Benares, well versed in Logic, Grammar (Sabdatastra), 
MimaihsQ, VjdMnta and the Yoga philosophy. The mason was Auanta, son of Galha^a 
(1. 28). In the last line wo are introduced to an artisan named Rallaana, son of Dalhafga*] 
whose connection with the record is not made clear. [The context shows that he was a door- 
keeper, Ed.], 

In the genealogy of Malayasiiiiha the first person mentioned is Jata, a contemporary of King 
Karn^a, who reigned from 1041 to about 1Q70 A t D. Kanjna's son Yasahkarwa is not 
mentioned but Jata's son Yasahpala is, as tbo contemporary of Gayakargga, the grand- 
son of E^rnna and the son of Yasahkar^na. Evidently Jafa, as a young man, had served under 
Karnna in the latter's old age and was therefore the contemporary of king Yasahkarnjia as well. 
Ya&ahpala's elder son Chandrasirhha is EienUoj^d as the minister of Vijayasirhha. Thus, 
the kings Narasimha and Jayasimha are passed ow- Padmasimba, the grandfather of Mal^ya- 
sitaha^ and the latter's father Kirttisiiiiha were most probably the contemporaries of Gaya 
and his sons. The earliest known date of Vijay^iiilm i Kal^churi-Chedi yea,r 032 {5? 
A.D.), the date of hw Kiimbhi plates.* [13 latest kaown d^e, is, U^ A.D. meAtiojojepl jn tjae 
plates of the McthSrSqaka SaJakh^ay^wmaji pf S^ka^Qdi 2 , a feudatory of Vijuyaaiiftba. The 
date of this inscription is earlier thaii tjie last fcacmi* c^te, viz* V.S, 1253, by three or four years. 
Among the places mentioned in this record Tripuri is the modern Tewar, lyi^g six . miles 
from Jubbulpore and Karkaredi(U2) is the modem Kafereyi situated on the border qf the Bewah 
and Panna States in Central fedia. The Mah&rarialcas of Karkarecjl, it may be stated here a were 
at first the feudatories of the Haihayas of Tripurl aoad then, of the CKandellas of Jejakabhukti 

TEXT. 3 

1 [Qm] Svasti || Ashtara-c^kr-akriti-.pfen^^rc^aad^M padm-asanasthanx himafeila- 

gauram | savy-etara(a)-pa\iiga^ldiaiJga-p^ta,m-vakshyaiiLi natva khalu Mamjugho- 
sham [| [I*] 1 Malay asimha-kulam gunaxi=atha av^-samayeua yathochita 5 -salftilfa(tah) 
[ | ] ayataramti padani yatah svatajb. sumal^a; 

2 -tam nanu kena na klrttyate || 6 [2*] VM*a&ch*eraft*;] pravritta me B^y.er^va 

marichayah | Malayasimha-kula[bja]-p^Y(b)od]iaya saiasra^ah || [3*] 7 Ati- 

vimaia-jal-atio[haih plavayanti pavitrair^mHni-vara-purja,-lokatsamsJ;uta siddha- 
girbhih | apanayati suvamSajsjata-matra kumari kalija-kalusha-bharam dar- 
sa(fia)nan-Narmmada ya || [4*] 8 Tasya^tatesti Tripuri-purIti 

3 bhiit*Katn(ri)9a-kuU-prasutah [ rajngiii guruh ^rl-Vijay^^kJiya-deyo 

vidi^an=di^afi=cha [j [5*] 4 Yasya pr.atapanala4usika-kan4ha rajnafm] 
aiiiguH-saiii]fiay=api | s-a^amkam=vaih vivadanti chi(ni)tyam 
sadasi prapannah || [6*]* [Tat]-prvya-pfiiyva bhuvi ye [bab^i^]v 
ya^e-varddhana-mantra-mantri I 

* J. A. 8. %*. VoL XXXI, pp. 116-22. 2 See Jnd. Ant,, Vol. XVJJ, pp, 224 

8 From tlie otisinal. * Indravajra. 

There is a superfluous superscript In ya of yatif. 8 Drwtavila'mbtia 

Anushtufffc * Malim. 
Read 



No. 53,} THE RBWAH INSCRIPTION OF EALAYASIMHA, THE YEAR 944. 291 

4 jri-Jata-naina. visSiayS niyukto < VSohaspafcih sarvra-gu^aii-riv-eabbit [t[7*] 1 

-dhvaj5nSi dlium'r&=atge& gurvvIm-visranaBen=i/va]ia/t dvijSbhyah j 
v(b)ahvor=a[p*} pauruslieKea fei-Karn(5L)^a-d5va ]ifa'vaB2ripflm^=clia || 
[8*] 1 TasmadGayakaFa(^^a-m^]iKa-bhakt6 mantrasya gopta bbuvi vandi- 
]ivah | jajfie Yasahpala iti pratitas^Taratmajah 

5 Saumya iv^Endu-devat || [9*] 1 Tasy*atlia putro^pi visala-v(b)a]iuli 

jagadvikshya, tamo^JhirucHiam |i taddyobanayavayavi 
ddrpah prakilptah klialu inurttrman^iva 1 \\ [1Q*] 2 Padmam hi padni-alaya(e?) 
Padmasimhah sat-patra-iubhr-aiiikura-fiuddha-gotrah | ksbatrasya vaiiise sa 
nidana-vijl ^i>G3iandrasiii3fli-ava^a]O' vijaj'Se || [II*] 1 Sarvatia di- 

6 kshu(nmu)kba-visarppi-yaSab pradia^da-CLed^ndra-rad^Vijayasimiia-grili-aika-irian- 

tn 1 yd vipra-vlryya-taja-d^iia-v(b)alena " rakbhedfiandrj'a-ctaiiti-patalfi,-dvija- 
ruddha-deham |j [12*] 3 Sri-PM^asfiiilia-viduslio^tra nit5mta-T(b)abulL Srl-Kirtti- 
sirrilia iti sjiiiLa-v(b)alo s vlj&j'ne | Srati-chakra-hpidi samkur=a^ii visamko 
Ramah pura Dasarathad^iva Kosal^sab. 

7 || [13*J 3 Sadasi yasya hita vividha v(b)udliah snrapaler=iva mantra-vidah surah. I 

st\subliirc fiasi(Si)nah kinhamirah* prati[ga]ba jagatas=tamasa6*ehhide 
Samanta-mandara-^iroriflia-dliiinatfe^i mh])ailik^-pada-vana]u 
Srl-Klrttisiuilia-tanayah. sa babliiiVa vWaK kshatiafiya 
aika-mallah || [I5*i 3 ' Vi- 

8 dy-adh.ikara-kumad-akara-v(b)5dha-chandr5 ra/tn-akara=rthi-iuanu].eshu cha ratna* 

daiiaih | sarvve guna Malayasiriifoi; r nara-pratislitlia do$jlio=pi so^sya na mrigamka- 
kiitS' gu^-arhkaifi || [16*3 a Irati-mitra-kamal-^ 
dadaii fe da^a-dig : am\ r ('li)aram'==u[]^3iaiil y'ah |' Sitam^ur^rkka 
liasta nrvvyanl^bliutt^Malay^Sjiihlia 4 iti pra- 

9 vinah || [IT*] 3 Andolayed-yasya kfrpana(a)-vayu'r=vvIcln-gatani J 

madhye | arati-senam*av(b)alam v(b)alislithalt s6=bbud4sliu ifiaka 
visuddhalj || [,18*]* Avartta-sukt-i^ukt^-karije sarnudre plicnam mukhe vardhni 6 
padi3=pi vikshya j magn-ari-sfea- na- v('b)aMr]]againa yasy=asu so^bhuu* 
Malayasya^ smh&h, \\ [19*]?- V(B)feliryvi- 

10 ra,H pfada-tt^^trip^da-niiBitaiii 1 l&fi tri-bE\ivaiiaiii padaih dI^yam=ilnd5(u)-Ea,vi 

Hara-Har-Indr-Ijasu- nrina^ f | aliam jitva tSbhyiah 1 g^p^di karavalena 
cha vahu * . yab. sakaria* v=e-ti *vyavasitarv(b)al6 yat sa jayatu || 
[20*] 8 Ya^^-sanian1^6ir6-visaT^pi-ralrt* I sarh* 

prapa* tavat=ki ra;H.etra r . tri|>tirb.> Laihkam 

11 hi dag[dh*]v-api na Mau#Sr*=yaU' |[. [Sl^] 1 TittaeShaA jftvi Wi(4i)aani^i devan= 

ra^a-mukhe riiaHd8vi-&Eicliyl ! ' vichBWfcr n4j:Jgaakas=tiibliti^aii \ l ato t- 
shim pr5(?)gat(d>bliu]iiga-patiSesho vilasitum pyitbivyarii devo=yaiii 
janapada-janairukta iti yaE || [22*] 8 Kamani yatli-gniir=fihava-netrajanma 
krodh-atmakab 6atru-v(b)alaiL dad^ha ( Y 



1 Indravajra. 

8 Vasantatilakft. 

* Eead kiraqflyMk [Th& reading is 

c Bead murdhni. 

^dtf^t'1?^^ 



298 EPIGRAPHIA DJDIOA. 



12 duhldiendhaiia-dirglia-Tash.pai^ samdhuksMto yat-prati-kfila-vadKva || [23*] * S 
lakslaa^S nirggata4aksha9obhavatsuK^ ra^e yada 

siriihajat 



[24*] * Be re Vikrama-Sura dMvasi v^itha macli-chapa-v(b)a*aiiiblia4i(8i) magao- 
yasyasi n=a- 

13 tra kiifr tava krifce kha<Jg-agnim*ujSlain ye | * ity=uktv*abliiliatS 
raru-i nava-da^a-sthaaesKu v(b)a^air=liridi yato=dlia!i paribMta-vikrama-v(b)al5 
yAsmat=sa j!yaditi || [25*]* Prasada-mala dvija-devatanam srishta vichi* 
tra gaganaiii vilagna | yenapi yabhyas*tv=avarodlia-b]i!tya 
Blian6=ratlia 5u ti[ryak] || [28*] l Tlvram tapo duikha-karam prakp- 



J4 ty^(?) siddta Yrajamto divam=iir<id]ivam*uckcliaih ] yad*Eama-dev-alaya-v(b)5dMta 
ye praye^ta [te] TiSva-padam prayata^ || [27*] x To=yam sutas^Talita^a- 
devi(vi)-4^ySs*trayeta mitrani nitanti Satriin [ I*] BMstiao yath=aneka-sam-aim- 
varfcti jiyat*sa Ppth"vidhara[s*3*antij5=pi || [28*] 1 Sri-Gargga-nama ruchi- 
r-aihSu-dliania yasy^btavacli=chlixi-Ra^asiiiilia-sfiniLh | Dbarmuiasya vidya- 
haya-ko^a-le- 

15 kli sarw-adhikarair*iva Chitragnpt^ || [29*] 1 Tamv(b)iila-dan-adHlqiti prayuktalt 
SrJmaj-J^g^tsimlia-sutah sumamtrl 1 yasy*abhavack=eli]iri^ 

saryv-artM-sarhpat-paripiirit-aSaH || [SO*] 1 Praudha-praclia^di-ari-kari-pramatlil 



yay!va ra?e himarah || [31*] 1 VfBJrakmaijo 

16 ySna-vadena veda-tat-part^a- ^yoginl \ nistirn^^ani pasta? <Jani yatra ma^a- 

yakairapi || [32*]* Sa-8oma-fiygBragmn*nayati clisyaiiaiiitaidvija-gaijLO 
kfitva yupairavikar^-cliasial-orddhva-katakam | tato vdl-&ro$liii 
aatraili kpta-giraih vasan=yasnaiiB*tishtliann[yi]pTuram Kaa- 
thalakam^iti 

17 U [33*] 7 Bhuktv^api yaBmin^vara-pa^i-patpg chakras=tu naktam sva-vadliir* 

vyitaya | aiiLbho-airiksh-ahata-jIva-samghas^iaviam tapo va munayai* 
charamti [||] [34*] 1 Tlgmam6u4apa-Hama-noda-daksliattauksliaA vichakru[s*] 
striya atmanoiQge | pranefia-hasta-pratiklipta-yanka-idinmiTildja-^ 
sam kaij-atighaili || [35*] 1 Ktvali-cha(a)fa:air=mmadliur 

18 matta-mugdhaih*padmakar-^^ | akam(]3L)^ya mugdlia anu 

japayanti g[tam yaSo yasya cha naga-kanyai [I*] [36*] 1 Sevala- 1 
kalharaka-vaTiparn(^)jp-salfika-fiaitigliatakar eva-mashaii*[|] * btbhakstair * abha- 
kshair*yutam-ambu-^ijair*vvapraiiL sasarj]artM-fia(sa)ro ya !d|ik || [37*]* 
Kn4a-pra,*vrittalL patibhi^ ^(sajr-orwan 1 ? sariiyafmys,] 

19 chab]mt* u katliainasthitanBiii | tasaih bkniv6riig5m kuch-6m-jaihgli. drishtv- 

|| [38*] 1 



a Indrawjrfc * 

Bead *vftdaayl * 

* Bead *tato*&rtha. 



F Bead aivala $ * Bend aa>ttyliataka evan* 

P Bead ^omm^tt, >* 



53.] THE BEWAH INSCRIPTION OF MALAYASIMHA, THE YEAH 944. 299 

v(b)addh-a[sa]nastliairvvicM^^ I viprais- 

tripta amara-pitarah sapta divya manushya a^amsamti prathi[ta]- 

20 yatesam yam sa jlyad=bliiiviti || [39*] 1 Divy-amgan-ariiga 2 -nava-kuiiikuma 

pamka-pimga-vari-prapura4ava-cMtrita-r6ma-malaii | kridamti yatra sukhind 
bhuvi rajahamsa amblio-nid]ianam*atalani pras(s)arah sa[sa]rjja |[ [40*]* 
Etad^ambho-nidlianaya Satani daSapaficfra cha I bhagavan-mudraya yo*pi 
tamkakana[m] vya- 

21 yekarot || [41*] 4 Sarw-artlia-sartliai[s*]* stutijair=vvacli6bhir=vvamdl(di)-janait sa[m]a 

tuta eva yo=bMt | Siddliartha-yogi Malayanu-simhas*v(t)asmai bkavejruh 
fiubhadas=tiidevat || [42*] 3 Vastavya-Tritti-pratTiam=aika-limgam aamn=apy 
abMd=Uddliaran6 vipaSchit ] uddtritya maliyama(m=a)mritam griiutum lokaika- 

| [43*] 5 



22 Tasy=atha putrat piamad-abhiramd y(j)ushtah Sriya Sridkara-mBrttiy-fisIt 

"avani sarwa-guia.a gu^-augbaih. pu^yair=anekai^*clia kpita pavitra || [44*] 6 Tasy- 
api sunur=b]iuvi Thakkuro yo Lakshmidharo lakslia^a-kavya-vetta | Vidya- 
dhaias=tasya babhuva putrat sarw-adh.ikar-artha-guna-pravip.h |{ [45*] 6 Ar- 



23 m*api tatva-yuktah kamasya sare^a tu kiriichldeva | Vidyadtaro=tli*asya 

6(s)aro-dliikartta hetui*yatlx=abdheh. Sagaro babhiiva || [46*] S(S)aratsamstha- 
pane(?) vidvan-vastavyah Purushottama | h(h. | )Srimad-ValIiaELa"pTitro=bliud*ac]iarya* 
gridharo yatha || [47*] 4 Pancha-kratunam-api- - ya4cha kartta M-Rama 
ch.andr6=*tlia babhuva vidvan I tasy-atha pu- 

24 tropi Divakar-akhyat sarvvajna-kalpo dvija-mukhya eva || [48*] 5 Tasy*atlia putrS 

guru-bliakti-cMtto daiva[ch*]-chliiiya yai. pariMna jatah | Itreya-gotro nanu 
Krisli^a-purwak Ka&i-nivasi cha pai-opakiri j| [49*] 6 TarkkS jSanam-ativa 
yasya ckatura^i Sabd-artlia-Sastre tatha mimariis^adhigato < vipa^cliidablia* 
vadvedam- 



25 ta-yog-adii-dUh | ved-a[biya]sa-ratah sada suvidusharii m&cDini prava(ba)ddi- 

anjalir-vipralL Sri-Purusliottamo btuvi malianv(b)uddliya cha Vachaspatih || 
[50*] 7 Ten-eyam4slit*ainga-suvritta-vritta Mrasya yashti6*c]ia sad-artha- 
guclich]ia[ | *]sad-vaiil^a-miikta-pliala-ldrtti-siitra ^asta pra^astih 
[51*] UtMmfe^a sutra- 

26 (Jhare^ia 6rimad-Galliana-siinuiia | nanmIiiaiixtena cliandier*yah 8 

Tamfia-paddtatih || [52*]* Chatvririi6aty-ad]iike*v(b)d3 ctaturbliir=iinavam 
Sate | SukrS *SahasamaU-5mte NabMsye prathame dine || {53*]* Samvat 
944 BMdrapada-s(S)udi | Sukre firim.ad-Vijayasiihliadeva-rajye || Maifc- 



27 ^alaA maha^ ]\ || Srih || [D]auva(a)iya-karya"ksIiama-Ra[llia]^akliy5 yasy* 
abhavad*Dalhafea*]-sunu-vlrab. 1 dvar*Iva Na[m]di GiriSasya ynktah sarijgra- 
ma-su(4ii)ro ripu-darppa*marddi |] [54*] 1 



between 



300 BPIGB&HflttL INDIOlL [Vol. 



No. ^41 THREE 
BY A. COWLEY, CLBBMONT-GAKNBAU, BUCHANAN GEAY AND MAYEE-LAMBE-ET. 

Colonel H: F. Jacob 1 ; the Political Agent of'0ut61i, picM'np dllrtHg*l(09-10 thifce' inscribed 
stofi.es from'the'Ba'os* Slab's (bi'CMatris) at'Bhuj, as his'b'een Noticed iri'tibe Bdinbay Gazetteer, 
Volume V, dutch, page 218, and these remained with Mr, N. M. BiHiriioria* of Bhuj for some 
time till Mr, B.B Bhandarkar noticed them. Mr. Billimoxi% with the permission <of Oolouei 
Jacob, sent them over to' the Poona Museum. InthetSonthiof-Afril 1917, Mr. Bhaudarkar 
forwarded copiea of them- to Sir John Marshall^ noticing; thein first* in' Us- Beport for 1917 l , 
page 50. Sir John -sent tfce impressions on to Dr. F. W. Thoffl&wrifch the- requ^rt that they might 
be deciphered by some Semitic epigraphist. The result. was s tfe&t th^-in^criptions w&re examined 
by Dr. Cowley, Dr. Buchanan Gray, M, Mayer-Lambert and M. Clermont-Ganneau. The fol- 
lowing note'cdrnp'tises tfKat each oi these scholars has staged 



The largest- oth#threrepigraphs'is in Hebrew and t^'obikr-two are Himy&ritic. Eegarding- 
the Hebrew Inscription* M. Clermont-GaaneaE and Dl 



The inscription is of a later date and forms the epitaph of Eabbi Hiya. SOB of Joseph, who 
died in tfatf month of Marheshww of the year 1563 (?) (of tfe'-Seiencid& ?=1251 A.D.), with the 
usual entogMc foneral 3 formulae- <e may his soul rest " and <(fi< may his sdttl be bound up in the 
ahe&i cfrtfoUvirfg;" [' O.-Ganneaii]. 



Dr. Cowley remarks as follows ; 



Text in Hebrew. Text in Eom&a; Translation. 



n f a1 na Pe rai a iyaien 

**J I.^.TOMPM h\o-^ MarlieshwaEi wentto to rest in th- month o 
f-V:. j.J$r.2T. Marboshwan in the year 1563 



The inscription is of an ordinary type. The only uncertainty in the reading is with regard 
to the natnk wTiicli kfote like ffifJ** (for /V*H ? Yahya), but probably the first stroke is 
uninteiriSonal^na' Wefshotild resid ff*fl . The letters at the ettd, dfter the date, give a common 
abbreviated formula * may his soul be bound up in the sheaf of the living * (iSam. 25, 20). Tie 
date 1563 is no Joubt of the Seleucid era, and is, therefore, equivalent to 1252 A JD. It is difficult 
to' say if the style of the letters either agrees or disagrees with this, because the inscription was 
evidently cut by an unskilled person. The ~\l/ with a flat base, is the most noticeable letteyc : 

the totlaction between ^ and S is small, and the top of J0 is exaggerated. 



P. M, A. A, W. 0., 191647. 



Three Semitic Inscriptions from Bhuj. 
I. Epitaph of Rabbi Hiya, the year 1563 




X' > ' ,<$< t->^: --, ^-^ 

HE OWE-HAL.F X^i r p- ^V'-^V " ""- 



II. Sabaean Inscription A. 




HI. Sabaean Inscription B. 




SCALE ONE-THIRD 



SCALE ONE-THIRD 
F W, THOMAS 



WHITTJNQHAM & <3"fc!GGS, PHOTO'LITK 



No. 51] THEEE SEMIHO INSCRIPTIONS MOM BHUJ. 301 



It is'liigMy^mpTDbable dfcbat san epitepli of -this Mid 
place i in Nw&erfk In<i-ia,'t^loTrbtie^-the Report of tlie Aidiesokgical Survey, Westesm Circle, 
191647, p. 50, i& right >i&impp^^ 

perhaps from Aden. A numhei.\of .tomb-inscriptions (of a later date)iiom the Jewish cemetery 
at .Aden, were published i& IQOS.Uy J5. P. Chajes in the S'ltzb. d. pLthisL Kl d. k Ahademie of 
Vienna. As is well known, there have been Jewish settlers in South Arabia since early in the 
Christian era if not before it. 

The fact that this epitaph was associated with two South Arabian fragments is some reason 
for thinking that all three came originally from the same region. [A. owley]. 

On >the two Himyaritie inscriptions which ase on two sxaallar stories And bear South Arabian 



" The inscription in two lines (from left to right) is transcribed below : 

Y B II II 

B A D W 

The second line is very clear, although W has never the form in Himyaritic but is always 
expressed by the form 0. It is a formula Wadd'ab (Wadd= lather), frequently met with on 
talismans : see the' Corpus Inscriffiivnum 'Semiticantm, Port IV, T'o-hw M, j^g^ 118. 

With regard to the first fine; I Bin not a*ble to make it otrt -and $i<ratd tMfik tot, tikough 
it is very strange, it reads B(o)mb(a)y. 

The second m-scriptidn in on-e'lin-e xestds : 

S M H M B C Q 

which is entirely uimtelligiile. It may 5 perhaps, be read thus : 

Q C B M H M S 

that is to say ...... Qa, 'the son of Hamis ' ? though the meaning of BM=son is very doubtful 

The monuments are probably bad copies of original stones. [ Mayer-Lambert ]. 

* The rubbings ara of two inscriptions, one of two lines (A), and the other of a single 
Ike (B), 

A, 



Both the lines are read from left to tight ^nd, with ifce exception of the left hand letter of 
the top line, the rjeadiog seems to be obvious ; the first letter (II) is probably ghain and, trans- 
literating into Arabic letters read from right to left, he inscription reads i^ o|oo ^^ 



.Wadd'ab. 



The inscription tJrns belmgs to tie gwip of short Sabaean inscription^ found on buildings 
amideis, which- motion Wvdd'ixb, Wadfubm, Waddum, Abum, Abwodd or Abum 
Waddum ; see Corpus Inscriptionum S&miticawm, Part IV, Chap. IS, Art, YI, Nos. 470-486. 
The Bombfty- Museum' possesses, in addition to the present, another memptioB of this group 
(CJj& 482), fiist published by J,,Bird in tbe Journal of tU.Bowhmj Brcmk of the Royd Asiatic 
Society, Vol. II, No. VIII, 1844,- f. 30 ? it was also publistad by W.,5 1 . fwAwn in.ihe 
<?/ $MM Mmkgy, VI, 1879, p. 305. This^sc^ptfen |$ 



and hasbeea interpreted as '* image of Waddab." 



302 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. j Vot , SIX. 

la the present inscription the first word is obscure. If, as can be judged from the rabbin* 
the inscription is complete, it consists of not less than four, nor more than five letters the last 
letter of the word (yp) should therefore be the ending of tie construct case dual. The root ^^* 
is, it must be admitted, unknown and improbable; but with the less improbable alternatives 
for the first letter, the words ^ , ^ give nothing more satisfactory. If the third letter should 
be regarded as a mutilated ^ , 1* or ^, though for this there seems no good ground, roots known 
from the Arabic ( J* y <Jf+* ) would result, but the interpretation would remain obscure. 

Both the direction of writing and the forms of the letters point to an early date for the in- 
scription-(though the M is not quite the earliest type)-, say to the earlier part of the period of 
the kings of Sab'a ; if the transition from the style of Irings of Sab'a to that of kings of Sab'a and 
Dhu Kaidan be correctly dated as 115 B.C., this inscription must be earlier, perhaps considerable 
earlier than 115 B.C. ~W7 

The direction of the writing from left to right occurs in the alternate lines of the relatively 
rare and early boustrophedon inscriptions, see, e.g., CJ.S. 363, 367, 371, 379 381 383 386 387 
412, 413, 415, 417, 418, 421, 423, 439, 459 (from Abyssinia), 487, 491. Other ekmples of thfe 
direction maintained in two consecutive lines are much rarer : see C.LS. 474 in two lines. 

B. 

To judge from the form of M, this also is probably to be read from left to right, though the 
M, round as here, does very occasionally occur in inscriptions read in the usual manner from 
right to left (see C.I.8. 393). 

Transliterating into Arabic letters read from right to left, this- inscription reada :- 



The Ike immediately to the left of the first M is presumably the line of division ; the similar 
line to the left of this looks most like a second line of division ; but since two such lines together 
are most improbable, the line must rather be the remainder of a letter, of what, is not clear. 

The first word is obscure and perhaps incomplete ; the second seems to be a proper name 
having the form of a participle of the causative conjugation (Ac. IV) without nunation. 

The inscription belongs to much the same 'period as A, of an early, but not of the earliest 
{note the angular top of the H, and the bottom of the S ; see C. 7. S., 379) period. [<. 
Buchanan Gray].' " 

No. 55* AN UNPUBLISHED GRANT OF DHRUVASENA I. 

MADHO SABUP VATS, M.A. 

This paper relates to two copper-plates which oa cleaning have beea found to constitute a new 
Valabhi grant. They were handed over by Dr. S. K. Belvalkar of the Deccan College, Poona, 
some ten years ago to Professor D. R. Bhandarkar, the then Superintendent, Archaological 
Survey, Western Circle. 



O " " ~- v " v v.vjjj^w. JJAMUOPj PCVJ4. J4.O VXU.X t WSJ AlUjPP lUJ gHflpInO' 

them together by means of rings, now missing. The size of the plates is HJ*x V and the thickness 
is I". Each plate is broken into two krge and several small pieces. 

The letters are cut deeply. As to orthography, the use of the jiJwamuttya in fine 12 and of 
the upfidJimaniya m 11 &, 11 aad H and the change of the msarga into- & before HSkSfy (1 23> 
may b& noticed. 



55. ] AN UNPUBLISHED GRANT OF DHBUViSESA L 



of tie 



The inscription is one of the MdhSsamanta Maharaja Dhruvasena I w * . M w . 

family and records the grant from Yalahhi, of the village Kalahataka situate'. _ 

Hastavaprafcarani to two Brahma^as, VMvadatta and Vasudatta, ol tie BLlradvra j/Tfro 
for tbe maintenance o the sacrificial rites bali, charu, vaisvadeva, etc. That trie pistes cor.5m 
a previous grant is suggested by the expressions Ha$tavapr~ahara$yam Ealxh3*via-yr8ffiri]k 
pfarvva-bhukta-bhujyamanaTcafy (1, 14), purrv-Schara-sihityS pr&tipS^itafy (11. IS and 19 . 
The name of the donees' place of residence is broken. These expressions might be translate! 
as " tbe village Ealahalaka situated within the Hastavapra-haram territorial division vhi:h ha'l 
(formerly) been enjoyed and is being enjoyed (by ihe donees of ike original grant)** ,* fas bee: 
granted (by us) in accordance with the usual custom. " 

The writer of the published charters of Dhruvasena I, issued by him from the Gapta-Valabh! 
Samyat 206 to 217 is Kikkaka, but there are several changes in the office of the Dotaia or tie 
executive officer. Thus the Dutala PraMra Mammaka who is mentioned h all ccpper-plate 
grants of Dbrnvasena I issued from G. V. Satfi, 206 to ^ravap. tu. 15 of 210, gives place to 
RudradHara in the Palitana plates of A^vayuja U. 5, G, V. Sam, 210, issued like the other 
two grants of 210 from ValabhL Later, in the year 216, Rudradhara is replaced by the 
JtejasOtiMya Bhatti. Thus tbe chronology of various grants, so for as the Dttaleas are concerned, 
Is sufficiently clear and leads me to surmise that as the JWtoto of these plates is the PrailMTi 
Mammaka the charter may, even in the absence of date, be tentatively placed between the years 
^06 and 210, L, before the assumption of the WM* office by Eudradharx This must, however, 
remain a mere possibility as it is not necessary that there should be only one I)^a at a time, acd 
thatanother could not be appointed during the life-time or even the tenure of a certamBm^. 
Of tbe place names mentioned in the inscription, **W*^*^; 
may be identified with modern Koliak* (spelt as Koliyat by Col H. S. Jarret^ 
eastern bank of the creek near ITthab. 

TEXT, 

First Plate. 




304 EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. [ Vot. XIX. 



9 
10 



12 

13 
14 

[lTT*]RT 

Second Plate. 

15 _. _ 



17 

18 



19 [fesrr irf?r*]TiT^?T: [i] 
20 



21 

22 



26 f?f: [i*] 

27 



23 [^ *|wwiTJf^ft [i*] ^T'f ^i^dwwNtr [H^T 11 *rJftr{ft )- 

24 

25 



28 fsrfetf fIW%T [*] ------ $ 



INDEX. 



BY K. V* SUBRAHMANYA AlYfcB, B.A, 3O.A.S. 



ft and a, represented by same sign-, . , 265, 272 
6 ^initial.), three forms of- * . 237 

& 9 (secondary), form of > . . 138, 265 
4 tad tf, use bi to* off ... 89 

Afehayaiikara-h, epitM o/ Narwirhlmarrwn II 9 112n 

, 163n 
. 118n, 120 

a, epic faro, . . . 165, 168, 172 
* of NaratiMavMmh II, 106, 107 

71,72,74 

Abhisuravul&ka, t?f., H7n 

EbsolutiTB* wronfe tuse of - 1 -* . t $8 
Abul I*ari, ttw flhitttf 48n 

Abbn&i I or Acharasa, BMa L . 227, 230, 233, 234 

227, 230, 234 

a, M* VWfcuJtt, . 168, 172 
a, or -Nlywto| Tan$omNayaka> 

91,215 

Aehyutlpuram plates, 1S5 

, lOSa, 215 

. 56, 60 
. 217 

AdanakathSka, t 282,285 

90 

Adbhwta-sv&Bflin, w. . 247,249 

ti'^awiirMf * 8 ' ,38,40 
AddafJd,^, . . 272,273,274 

. 301 
. 71, 72, 74 

.acoiirfo/^ctcc,. t t . 118 

. 291n 
. 139, 142, 145, 146 

. 174s 

^ - 

^dhyayana, . * 







* 

* * 

* * 

* 9 

. . * 

. 

t * 



Adi-Sura, #.ff, Idistra . * 
Aditi,/., . 
Aditya I, C^Za k, 
Aditya, iJie Sun, . * 

Adifcya-Bhatara, ^4e Sun God* 
Aditya-tlrtlia, 

Adityavarman, m., . 
Adivaralia, 6inida o/ Blwyadez 
fa or i 



Adura, m, 9 . 
Mghanistan, co 



agami* 

agaram, a BraJimana mUogz, 



, 1W 

159, 182 
, 84, 85, 87 
. 18, 33 
273, 274, 275 
, 38, 40 
I35 f 136, 137 
. . . 115 
, 274, 278 
.- . 24S.250 
151, 153, 154 
. . . 13 
132, 145, 148 

A*3 QK 
t * VMJI Pv 

. 215, 218 

, . . 203 

Aggalajur, trf., * 188,189 

Aghapatti, w., 21,25,30 

Agni, descent from, . ... 239 

c^?tiAoJri7i, 266, 270 

Agniknla,/aww7y, .*-* *39 

^gfnwAiSma, sacrifice* ^ 

agrdhora, a BraJimana milage* 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 

116, 117, 118, 121, 128, 129, 130, 133, 134, 

156m, 169, 172, 231, 235, 246, 255, 

257, 258, 280 S 261 

Agrahayana or Igra^a, see months. 



.21,25,30,31,3^,35, 

36,37,40 
177,178,238 
237, 2S9, 240 
. 90, 92 
287 

. . . 31 
. 48a, 286, 303n 
. . . H2 
. )9 



lhar, ., 
AMchchhatra, rf., 



Afcmadabad or ABmedabad, 
Almadabad grant, 



aA (VOWB!}, symbol for, 
Aihole, t., 



EPIGRAPBIA IND1CA. 



,. SIX* 




li, s.a, AihoK 


Aivamalai, tra. ..* 

Afc, myth, k 

Ajjhitadevf, queen of the Uchchakalpa I. 

ghra, 

Aimer,**., 
ajnapti (executor), 



PAGE 

31 

84 



46,47,48,127 

. 145, 148, 257, 260, 261, 273 
Akala-nka, epithet of Narasimhavarman 11, 105, 107 



Akalavarsha, a title, * * 237, 240, 241, 244 
Akalavarsha, sur. of Krishna II, . 
Akalavarsha, sur. of Krishna III, , 
Akbar, Mughal k, t 

Akbarpur, vi 

lketa.-Setfo m., . 

Akhailkul, vi., * 

Akhaligang, n., 

Akhahkula, s.a. Akhailkul, . 

Akhalittadaka, vi., 

Akmahal, di. 9 

akshapafalin, official, . 

akshiw, " 

Alakere, vi>, .... 

Alamkdrasarvasva, a work, 

Alau-d-din-Khalji, k., * 

Ajiya Bainaraya, Vijayanagara prince 

alia, suffix to names, 

Allahabad, w,, 

Allahabad pillar inscription, . 

Allahabad prasasti of Samudragupta, 

Allateman, m., . * 

a\lu or arikalu, inferior grain* * 

Alphabet : 

Arabio 

Aiamaic, . . 

Box-headed, * 

Brahmi, 

Grantha, * * 

Gupta * 

E^natese, 19,31,36, 



175, 240 
288, 289, 290 
. 286 
15 

. 37, 40 
. 278 
. 278 

278, 281, 285 
282, 285 
. 286 
44, 293 
. 93, 95 

180, 182, 183 
. 162n 
. 47 
90, 91ii 
78 

291, 292 
. 127 
3,4 
. 62, 64 
. 276 



. 304,305 
. 251,252 
100,261 

. 4, 65, 96, 97, 209 
. ... 83 
96, 127 

., 180, 183, 187, 191, 194, 
222, 287 



Khar6shthi, 1, 2, 3, 5, l] 10, 97, 197 f 199, 201, 202, 
203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 209, 251 

Kutila, m 

Nagari or Beva- (or Nandi-)Nagari, 15, 42, 
46, 53, 69, 75, 89, lOln, 131, 138, 177, 

207, 209, 237, 265, 291, 397 
97,98 



Pallava-grantha, 
Tamil, , . 
Telugu, , 
Telugu-EarmaiJa, 



llur inscription, . 
l}uva, dy. 9 



Amaraditya, m., . 
Amarakajrfaka, a hill, . 
Amaravati, celestial city, 
Amaravati inscription, . 
Imatali, s.a. Amtail, 
amatya> an official, 
Amber, vi., . 
ambhojata or ambhdja t 
Ambikadevi, te>, . 
Ameraiinga, vi 



105, 100 

. . 83 

89, $4n, 133, 155 

. 133a 

* m 

64 
. 238- 
. 64, 5& 
. 76 
224, 225 



278, 281, 289 

44, 128, 130, 131, 149, 153, 1S4 
47 



135, 136, 137 



Amitra^ani, biruda of Nwasiinhavarman II , . 108n 
Amma I or Ambaraja, Jff. Chalukya k. 9 142, 146, 

149, 153, 154 

Amma II or Ammara/ja, E. GhaluJcya Jfc., 138, 
139, 140, 141, 142, 146, 140, 

Ammadera or Ammadeva-Acharya, Jaina 

71, 72, 74 
75,77,209,211 
237, 239, 240, 241, 244 



teacher 



Amoghayarsha, a title, . 
Amogfcavarsha I, Rashfra 
AmSghayarsha III, Matyrakufa k., 



238 



Amptakara, w., 



..... 281n, 285 
. 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122n, 246n 



Amtail, w". f 

AnaMlava4a or AnMlwada(Anhilvad) 



Arjaimangalam, w 
Ajjaiyacji, street, 
Inaka or Anaka, see Arnoraja. 
m., 



238,239,240 
216 
215 

5<* 60 



Anandapura or Anandapuri, *,a., Vadnagar, 238 f 

241, 243, 244 

Ananta,m ....... 46,50,296,209 

Anajata, Mafia ch. 9 . ^ **^ 
Ananta-svamin, m., * *20, 124 

Andhau inscriptions, ..** 
Andhra,co.ori>e(>2jfe, . . 166, 170,173,255 
AneYe4enga, biruda of Krishw HI, 287, 288, 280, 290 



re fer to pages ; n. after a figure, to footnotes; and aid. to the addition on pp. vn to A 

ther abbreviations are used :ch.** chief ; co.*country ; di.diatricfc or division; <*0.ditto ; . 
&. Eastern ; /,x*female ; Jfc.king; w.mak; mo. mountain ; .** 
f<s.stemple j w.^Tillage or towa ; If .*= Western. 



INDEX. 



307 



PAGE 

Angadi, vt 241 

Angavidya, science of Vydkaraqa, etc. . 113, 114 
AngeSvara,m., *** 12 * 

ASjaneya, s. a. Hanuman 
Ankola, vi., . 



36n 



anfetfa, emftfem, ..... 137,149 
AanaUadeva, see Arnoraja. 
Annavaram, m, t 



Antagafa-dasxo, wor &, , 
antahpurika, an official 



39n, 233n 



Arikesari Parankt^a, wr. o/Termasaa Baja- 



Arimardana, eptUef of NarasiMavanmn II, 105, 107 
Arinadana, epithet of Narasimhavarman II, . 108n 
ejpic aew, - 27, 28, 34, 109, 140, 
143, 146, 147, 165, 168, 172, 176, 234, 

255, 256, 258 



Antirigam, vi., . 

Anupshahr, vi ....... 

' . 99n, 158n, 159n, 16Qn, 161n, 165, 
181n, 199, 202, 259n, 272, 274n, 






anmvxra, change of into a aasal 

cfMWwra, wrong use of , 

anusvara, form of , * * 

anusvara, omission of , 

anusvara, superfluous use of , 

anusvara, use of - for nasal, . 46, 89, 237, 265, 272 

ipanaga-svamin, m., . 246,248 



275, 276 
. 139 
. 254 
. 96 
62, 177 
. 89, 98n, 237 



Arjuna, m. t ....... " 

Axjuna, s.a Kartavirya, . . 155,159,162 

Ariuna or Arjunavarman H, Paramara k. of 
Malwa ...... 46,47,48,49,50 

Arjunavarman I, Paramara king of Malwa, , 48, 49 
Arkadatta-svamin, m., . H 8 122 
Arkadeva-svamin, m., . 



Arka-syamin, .,.. 
Arkka-nandana, 5.a. Karna, 


Arkonam, w., 

arms (==two) 



. 1 W. ^2, 246, 248 

.... 220 

R1 

* OA 

- 158, 164, 166, 173, 174 



Arnoraja, InnalladSva, Anaka or Inaka, 

han k. of Ajmer, 
arrows (=five), 
Arsavalli, vi, 9 
artha 



158,164 

274 



Apapuri, s.o. Papa or Pava 

Aparagangeya, AmaragangSya or Amaragangu, 

Chauhdnk. of Ajmer t 
Aparajita, PaUava L, 



84, 85, 87 
105, 107 



apavaraka, the inner apartment, . 
Appadevi, queen of Mmab'hadraMva, 
Apratima, w&A of NaraM^wman 
Aia inscription ..... 
trahanta, epithet of Gautama Buddna, 
Araito, vi., ,. 



Artthapald, eptttet of Bhavattavarman, 101, 103, 104 
Artha-$a*tr<*, work on politics, ... 299 
Irumbika, t^,, . 137, 139, 140, 146, 148, 



105, 107 
2,3, 6,7n,9 

. 96 





. 

Aramaic Inscription of Parims, 



38> 



Arapota,fli., 



archana, one of the eight forms of worship, 
Ardhanan&oara, form of Siva, .. 



28n 
175 



. 182,185,192,193,219,221 



Aryan 

Arya-Siddhdnta, see Siddhantas. 



149, 151 

85 

77 



asana, one of the six branches of militc^ sciewse, . 28a 

255,257,258 



Asanda, 



23 



OAhfrvidha-bhaJai-kriye, eight forms of worship, . 28n 



16 



AMcga4ii seal inscription, * ... 
ASoka, or A9oka, Maurya emperor, 7, 203n, 204, 

205,251,253,263 

ASvagnSsha, Buddhist airf&of .... 12 
A&vamZdha, a sacrifice, . 63, 113, 115, 141, 152, 
256, 258, 259, 268, 269, 271, 275, 




rj^,t^S5SiTissr=iS' -^- * 

Jv.-anum , fc.-tnpl. i ri.-OlHP <* " i r.-WtD. 




308 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



[VOL. XIX- 



PAGE 



t^ a title, 293 

BfeAafe k - lift 113, 114 
IfeHiiir inscripticins . . 81n 9 82, 288, 28934 

lthavi,w. s ...**. 282,285 
AtimEna, bfouda of Narasimhavarman II, 106, 107 
Atiraaacianda, sur. qf Narasimhavarman II) 

106, 107, 109n, 110, 111, 112 

A fm&$akti 9 tine of the three laUi$, 258n 

farina o/ worship, 28n 

Atodyatumbura, eptthet d/ Narosmhavcvrman 



AM, rape, . 
40omiift 
Attemamba, wen 






165, 167, 171 



157 
158, 160, 168 

Attdafoala, epitfitot of Narasimhavarman II> 105, 107 
Atyaiiatakamaj $#Ze of Nwasimhavarman 

II, . . 105, 106, 107, 110, llli llSo, 113 

Al/yafttakama, title of NarasimJiavarman I, <, 108n 
Atyugrapura, s.a. Agror, , * . .198 
, secondary form oi , , . . ,139 
, Ooburi ch.> * 9S 

Audumbar^ ^ec Udmiiibara. 
Itidrahadi, di. 9 * i 71, 72> 74 

, i 189j 190 

sign of, , . , . . 99n 
Avalla,/., * ...... 78 

Avanibhiifiliana, epithet of Nar^mhavarman II, 

105, 107 

Avaaddivakara, biruda of Narasimhavarman 
l/ f .... 108n 

a^n, a shop or enclosure, 55, 56, 57, 5&, 59, 60, 61 
Avelladeva, mistake for Annalladeva., . . 48n 
Aviratadana, epithet of Narasimhavarman II, , 112n 
Ay, family, ...... 214 

o^, changed into ey, ..... ?26 

Aya, s.a. Azes, .... 200, 201, 205 

aya, aye, ayi t forms of Sanskrit ayam, * , 205 
Ayala, m., ...... 68 

ayamsi, aarhmi^asmin, . 205 



PAGE 

Ayyavaje, 01 Ayyavole, 5.a. Aihoje, 21, 25, 30, 31, 33^ 

35, 36, 37, 40 

Azes, Parthian L, . , . 200,201,205 
Apace or Ovapoa, co,, 168 



B 

6a, expressed by a and trfce t^-aa, * 19, 75, 121 210* 

285 



AytaVarina, m., . 



, 224, 225 
140, 145, 148 



, two-fold forms of , * W- 

W, 37, 3 
227, 231, S3& 

Bada (or Vada) gam% A fiadkgao, 278, 281, 232, 288 
Badagas, w.,, ... 278 

fcadapa, M. CMlulcya L, 137, 139, 140, 
141$ 142, 145, 146, 148, 149, 

151* 168, 153j 154 
Bada(-vara)pajacliala, s.a* Baramcnal Or Bfa^maobft! 

2?8j 281, 882, 28 
Badijra, w., ...... ISO, 151 

Mdtya-bofcyaftfafiMariyalfa'-fiMfy 150, 153* 154 
feagadlage, t., ...... 36 

feagahabbe,/., i 189,190 

ftagavfirii (Bagewadi) or Ba^liWai^^ t., 21, 25, 29 
Bage, rf.* ...... 36, 37> 40 

JBage Itfty, di,, ...**- 36 
Bagisnad 370, co., i . . 84 

feajgehadu Seventy, (!t., ... * 36 
babada or Balia4advaj dtt^. i^f tU Cbafihun Js. 
Gdvindar&fa, ...... 47 

iydgi, tifficfy i . 195, 227, 231 
..... ,161,170,171 

* * fc * 91n 
B^hunaya, foifttda of Naraaimhavarman II, 105>, 

107, 108n, 115a 

WsaTi^e, derivation of , . . . . * 30n 

baje=^acorus calamus, . . * * 33, 35 
Bakaaamalaka, trees t .... 103, 104 

Ba>la (Balarama), mythical personage, . 231, 234 
Baladeva, race of, ...... 25, 29 

Baladevapattana, m. 9 ..... 32 

Bclladevayya, m., ..... 187, 188 

BaUdxtya* w., . * . fc 16^ 17, 18, 19 
Baladitya, ch ...... 139, 143, 146 

Balaipatna, vi., ...... 32 



Tlae figures refer to pages: n.esftera figure, to footnotes; and add. to the addition on pp viito xiL 
following other abbreviations are used !^^=eluef ; co.= country; ^.-district or division; <foditto; 

; *e. temple | {. village or town; W>B Western. 



INDEX. 



see Valava4na, * 



PAGE 

199, 200 
, , . 37 

, s.a. Bajiapattam, . 31, 32, 33, 35 
a, CHuhan &, of Ranthambhor, . 48 
Bali, wytfafa* - 231,335,297 

i, uwdbp, . 116, 120, 121 ? 126, 129, 131. 

303, 304 

or Valapa^am, vi., ... 32 
....... 105 

a measure, . t, 35n 38, 40 

Ballala (II), Hoysafa fa, ... 20, 22, 26 
Balvan State, ...... 45 

264 

- 187, 188 
227,230,234 

^3, 35 

180,182,183 
84,86,87 
19, 26, 30 and n 
25, 29, 30n 
.. 279 
20,21,25,29,30 
. .34, 185 



grant, 
Bammadevarasa, m., 
Bammaraaa, fiinda k., 



BammSja,., 



, Za^ measure, . 

stack 

Banabhaga pargam, . 
-Bw*&jn guild of merchants, 
Ba^arliai or Banataii, .. Benares, . 



Banavase 12,000, co. 9 . 83, 184, 185, 186, 187, 

188, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196 

BaftgS.ramma, queen of Veakafa II 9 . * 9* n 
> or Bankapur, '., . 180, 181, 183, 

187, 188, 189 



Banpa, m. f . 

Banswara plat<j of BWjadSva, 



. 8,9 
69 
* 239 

Bappaiparja%.a. Paramwa k. V&lcpati J * 

^ 238, 239, 240, 241, 244 

247, 249 

Barabar inscription, 

184, 185, 187 

, . . 47 
, * W 
15, 64, 286n 
. . * 278 
278, 279 
. 278, 279 
. . . 240 



Barsur inscription, , 

Barton Museum, f . * . . i74, 

Barwani State ...... 

Basava, m., 

Basavaana, te. f . , . * . 1 < 

Baearayya, w., .... ;'ii\ Iii\ H3 
Basave^vara, ie., . . . . . I'J 
BSsavnra or BasaTOT Ht&ndmt$cd-forty, ^ 
179,180, 181, 183, 134, 1S5, ISS, 17, 

188, 189, 190, 191, 192, lv& 134, lt s JP 

BasBgali, dwtlect, 03 

Baud, i i i., <** '12 

Baud State, 42, 97 

Baud plates of PfeSb^a-Bliaiija, 43 

Bausigama, t?L, * . , , * 27^ 

Bayama, queen of Venlafa I, , t . . sr<- 

Bechayya, m., . 

Be<Ja, jAe hunter caste, . . . 

Bedabalu, w., . . *s^ *>&> !** 

Bedadi copper-ladle mscnptioa, . . * 203 

Behar, co,, i^7 

Bejavawda-, s.&. Beswada, U73^ JT4, ^To* -"T 
Befgaum inscription, * * *la 
Beliir, vi., S'-A 

Belvala 300 of 9 e ! v al a co., S3, 191, 1 92, 

193, 194, Ifi5 f 193 

Benares, t., . 40. ^^ 157, 2-21, 235, 29I 9 2 
Benares copper-plate inscription of KainadSra, 75n 
6ewd*, t .. 

Bengal, co ". 17. ". 116 ' 136 - 157 

Berna, ri* 9 ..* * 8A 
Besnagar column inscription, , . * 

SS,S18 
'. '* 



Barali ooppor-plate 



Bammoixal'or 
Batramohal jWflr^w^t 



Bezwada, t?i, * 

Bezwada pillar inscription, . * 3 
Bezwada plates of Chaluhya-Bhima I, 
Bha4aL, s#* Budleebudrols, * 
Boaddaka Am^uTaka, m., 
Bhadavana, * .a. Budawan, , 
Bha<Jra or J&adrapraka&k m., 
bhadrainuste, the cyperus pertenuu* . 
Blaadrenika, w., - 




291, 292, 203 
. 54, 55, $$ 
33, $5 

. 19% SCO 
. S18 
97. 3S& 

. 153* 
. IS, S3, 81 

"totk addition on f p. tii to aril* 
or difisii>n; &. ditto 5 
M; 



arisni, imag of 

Bhagavan, AO. Buddha, 



310 



EHGRAPHIA IND1CA. 



[Vol.. XIX. 



PAGE 



BhaglrathI, rt. 

Ahairava, god or fe., . 191, 192, 193, 195, 196, 197n 

BhaJrava-Kslietrapala,Sfod!, . *96a 

bhaktevatsala, 164n 

37 39 

38 > 40 

64 
Bbainma^a-raja, m. 9 

bhavidag:rika t a* otfzcwzZ, 29S 

Bhaftsareda, v*. 

Shaft]**-, ..-. ^> 42 > 43 

Bhafijaraja, founder of the kingdom of Baud, . 42 
BUM,* A* ...- 155,159,162 

Bhanu-svamra, nt- 119 122 

Bharadvaja, sage, 1]3 115 

Bharata, myth, h, , . 64, 73 

Bharata, twr, 289,290 

Bharata-varsha or -kshetra (the land of Bharata), 
C0ft 19,22,26,229,233 

Bhasananatenganka, '., * 281 285 
Bhaskara, w., 141 

Bhaskaramitra-svamin, wt. 247, 25 ^ 

Bhaskara (Bhasara or Bhasaaa) tengari, vt., . 278 

281n, 282, 285 

Bhaskaravarman, Pragjyotiaka Jb., . 115, 116, 

117n, 118, 121, 245, 246 

Mat, caste, 148 

Bhatakka, VdahM k* 9 ^ 

Bhafctapataka or Bhatapa4a, 9. a. Bhatera, . 278, 

281, 282, 285, 286 

BWJI,ri., . 291,292,293 
Bhatera, w,, . 277,278,279,285 
Bhatera (second) inscription, . 278, 280n, 283n, 284n 

35n 

dfu, Tefagu caste, I 48 

67 

Bhatta Amaka, m., . * 6 ^ 

Bhatta Chchhitaraka, m W 

Bhattadeva, m., . . WO, 145, 148 

Bhaijta Divakara, m., 56, 60 

Bhatta Diyaka, m., 60 > 6i 

3hatta Gonadeva-syamin, m. t 266, 270, 271 

Bhafta Goaaka, m., 58 

Bhatta Inidra, m., 55, 59 

Bha^a ISanadatta, m., 56, 61, 62 
Bhatta I(I)vara, m,, , 55, 59, 60 
Bhatta-Ivachara-svamin, w. . . * 15, 18, 19 
Bhatta KeSava, m., 56, 61 



PAGE 

Bhatta Loyomaka, m., . . . . 268, 264 
Bhattapataka or Bhatapadia, .a. Bhatera, 278, 

281, 282, 285 

Bhattaputra, Jakshasvam&arman, m, 9 1S5, 136, 137 
Bhattaraka, title, . . . .64, 101, 103, 104 

Bhatta Taragana, m. 9 56, 60 

Bhatta Tata, *., . . . . . 6i? 

Bhatti, m SOS 

Bhattihara-svamm, m., 120, 125 

Bhatti Mahe^vara-avamin, m.> . 247, 248, 249, 250 
Bhatti-Matri-svamin, m., 248, 250 

Bhattinanda-svamin, w., 120, 124 

Bhattini Mahadevi, /,, 56, 60 

Bhava, s.a.> Siya, .... 144, 147, 173 
Bhavadatta, Nda L, . . 101, 102 

Bhavadeva-svamin, m. 9 * 119, 123 

Bhavatta, Prakrit form of BJiavadatta, .101 
Bhavattavarman, JVo/a Jfc,, . . 101, 102* 104 

Bhavnagar, vL 9 174, 175n 

Bhayarahitah, biruda of Naraaimhavarman 

II 105,108n 

Bhaya^aVsvamin, m., . . . . 246, 248 
Bhayipayya-Kayaka, c^., ... 36, 38, 41 

Bhll, tribe, 69 1 

Bhillama, Yadava Jfe., . 20, 22, 26 

Bhiilamala, s.a., Bhinmal or Bhilmal, . 54, 57, 5S- 
Bhilmal or Bhinmal, w., 57 

Bhima, epic hero, . * . . 33, 35 

Bhima I, Gtujarat k 70 

Bhima III, E. CMliikya, L 9 . . . . 149 
Bhima, Kona L, , . . 157, 158, 160, 16& 
Bhimakarimika, epithet of Narasiifahavarman 

II, 109n 

BMmaraja, 8.a. Chalukya-Bhlma I, Ghalukya- 

Bhimall, . . . 139,142,152,154,156 

Bhimata, m 263,264 

Bhimavaram or Bhimaptirain, vi, f * . . 165 
BMmeSa-linga, god, . . . 157, 160, 163 
Bhishma, epic hero, . * * 35, 298 

Bhoga, vL, 285 

Bhogapataka, lewd, .... 136, 137 

HUg&o,ri., 282,285 

BMgifa, *n officitl, . * 128,130,131,303 
Bhoja, Qurjara L, * . ... 20,22,26 
Bhoja or Bhojadeva, Gftrjara PratiMra L, 

15, 16, 17, 18, 53, 54, 57, 58, 175, 286a 



The figures refer to pages : . after a figure, to footnotes ; and oM. to the addition on pp. to a. 
The Mowing other ahbreTiations are used :-*- chief 5 eo.- country ; ^.distriot or dvnmon; fe-ditto; 
;A-lta*W5/,-fpinA a.0iune as, 

e . ^e.=temple ; vt,*Tillage or town 5 F.** Western* 



INDEX. 



Sll 



Bh5ja I of Bh5jadeVa I, Paramara L of DMra, 

69, 70, 72, 73, 177, 178, 237, 210 
Bhdpala, m., .....* 44 
Bhotilahataka, rf., . 281,285 

Bhrigu-svamin, m., 120, 124: 

bhui, (~sH. &&%<$), 7 

Biraj, '., 300,301 

bhuja (arwa=2), 161 

Bhujabala-PrautJhapratapa, a *&& - 23 

bhu-Mdara, land measure, . 285 

&Wfefc*, a territorial division, 17, 286n 

BhulSkamalla, *.a. Somesvara III, * 184, 185 

BMmaka, s.a. Ysamotika, . * 13 
Bhumara stone inscription, .... 128 
AAfimi-cftdtoMZiro or -nyay<* * ^9, 118, 121 

BMSankara, m., 20,24,28 

Bhutivarman, a.o, Pragjyotiaha . MaaabMta- 

Yarman, .... 116, 118, 121, 246 

BhuvanaikamalladeYa or Bhuvanaikamalla, #& 

SomSSvara II 184, 185, 186 

Bhftvayi, f, . 282,285 

Bhuyaskan-svamin, m., . 11 9, 122 

Bhuyikadevi, queen of DewSafaidgw, . .17,18 
Bicha or Biohiraya, ch., ... 20, 23, 27 
bi$ha> land measure* * 279 

Bihar, vi., ...... . 57n 

Bijjala, Kdaehwri k., * * . 227,230,234 
Bijjala, Bijjana, Vira-Bijjala (Bijja$a}, Sinda 

Jfe., ..... 227,231,232,234,236 

Bijja-Setti, w., 33, 35 

Bilasptir, w., ...... 77 

Bilhana, author, ...... 164n 

Bilhanadeva, CAattJlatt /fc. of J2fl$towfefidfV * * 48 
Bilhana-Se^ti, w., . . . . . . 33 35 

dt7&o^e, a kind of tax, . . 184, 186, 186, 187 

Bimbamba, qveen of Upgndra III, . 166, 167, 169, 173 
Bimbambika, gueen of the KQwz fa Upendra* 155, 

158, 159, 162 

bindu, a dot or circle, . . * . 276 

Vtyige, 185, 187, 189 

biruda, ... 37, 166, 175, 264, 284, 287 
Bimdankarudra, biruda of Vtraparaja and Lafckama* 
Chdda, ....... 155n 

Birudankarudra, biruda of the Edwt k. 9 CM$a I, 

155, 159, 162 

hlsige t weight, * * * * . 33, 35 



Bisvanafch, t^., . 
boar, emblem, . 
boar, banner, 
Boar incarnation, . 
Bobachhada, n. A * 



279 



Bombay, w., 
Bombay Museum, 
Boiadalabbe,/., . 
Boppadeva, m., . 



Boppi-Sefrfci, m,, . 

bouatrophedon inscriptions, . 

bowlielie, . 

Boy a, & r a. Beda, . . 

Irahmacbdrin, 

brahTnadeya, . , 



. 14(1 
10 

279, 285 

66, 67, 206 

69, 180 

303 

. 37, 40 

102, 103, 104 

. 37, 40 

. 33, 35 

. 302 

63 

273, 274, 277 

. 60,61,304 

. 126 



Brahman or Brahma, god, . 28, 30, 33, 34, 

78, 96, 104, llOn, 144, 147, 

155, 162, 164, 165, 167, 171,211, 221n, 

222, 225, 266, 279, 288 

Brahman or Brahmana, . 15, 16, 19, 25, 

27, 29, 39, 42, 54, 57, 61, 75, 98, 99, 
102, 104, 116, 117, 118, 120, 121, 
126, 129, 175, 182, 189, 192, 219, 
221, 223, 224, 225, 226, 235, 241, 
244, 246, 262, 266, 269, 270, 271, 

294, 303, 304, $0* 

BraJima-SiddJtanta, see SiddMntas, 

Brahmavak, f amity, ..... 240 

Brabmdteava, a festive^,. . . . .93,95 

Brajaraja-Bhafija, Bhanja . of Gumsur, . 42 

Brfhaspafci, sage, .... 255,256,258 

Bphaspati-svamin, m., .... 247,240 

Bribat-samhita, work, .... 32, 114n 

British Museum, ... 19, 3Q, 179, 217, 2^ 
British Museum plates of Amma n, . . 255 
British Museum plates of Verxkatapati, . ^> 
Budawan, w., . . .... 292 

Buddha, one of the three Ratnas, . . SM 

Buddha, or Gautama Buddha, . 4, 12, 66, 67, 68, 
96, 97, 165, 167, 200, 204, 206, 216, 

216, 217, 295 

Buddhadeva, nun, * . . * * 66 
* 119, 123 



The figures refer to pages ; n. after a figure, to footnotes j and add* to the addition on pp. vii 
The following other abbreviations are used: cA.= chief ; co. country ; d&= district o? division; &?,== ditto ; 
dy,sdyiw8ty ; JJ.Ea8tern ; /.*=female; A:.==Ling; m.=-male; mo. 
aitr =uraame ; *e.temple; t.avi3Jage or townj IF,s= Western. 



teat 



1KDIOA* 



, SIX. 



PAGE 



5 f 117* 215, 216,, &i& 



12,96 



63 



' Bukkarajn, Arawfi c&., 



00 and n 
52 



*.a. Bnnd&a, . 

M. PajgLJwa, 

* . . 

U, If. $a%a fe, 



. 211 
SID* 811,213 

. 157 
*. . 197 



Caesar* <Jtomafe title, 



oaw eadings^ omission of^- . 

* irregular use o! and their 



278 
, 253 

202 
53 



> K 

fcm 

dW 9 f own. of 



53 

15 
112, 122 

. 7,198,202 
. 72, 74 
. 72, 74 
49 

. 38, 40 

71; 73, 74, 232, 236 
47 

33, 34 
110, 123 
*.a. Vishjgiiz, . , t 159 



Ohayitra, a festival, 



OKaka^a, 
9 
ofKanauj, 



CMlntya, 



. . 46, 49 

284' 

rr 

. 179 
* 287; 289 
.. 63 
.. 98 
.. 72; 74 
165, 168, 172 



., . 88, 139, 140, 141, 146, 
149, 152, U64n, 165, 167; 
171, 172, 173, 174, 254, 



272, 273 



PAGE 

CJialukya, Western, ^ . fi f 1W; no, 111, 

112, 116m, 180; 1, 184, 186, 190, 

192, 193, 194, 219, 221, 223, 224, 

225, 230, 234, 239, 256, 258, 259, 261 
Chahikya-BMma I, Bblme^a, BMme^Tara or 
Bhimaraja, M. CMlutya fc f . 142; 146, 

165, 168, 172; 265 
CMIukya-BMma II, B. OhOutya L, . 139, 

142; 146 



or Ch^lukya-nagari, $.a. BMmavaram, . . , 165 
ChalTikya-Bhimesa, s.a. Kumararama, 165, 168; 172 
Chama, Sinda prime, . . . 227, 230, 233 
Ch&me^ara, te., . 22T, 232, 236 

Cilammak oopper-plate inscription, . , 261* 

Okmu^da (Chau^4i)-Se1?ti, m., ... 20 
Chamunda, Chamun4araja or Chamrarfa-BantJa- 



dhjpa, c^., 
Chanakya, 



20, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30 



queen of V4jayaditya 9 



Caandanachala, *.o> Malayachala, . 



. 166, 
167, 168, 172 
16& 



Chan^a^ani, tftZe o/ Narawmliamrman I$ 9 106, 107 



Chandena, m. f 
Chandintayya, m., 
Chandra =1; 

Chandradasa-svamin, TM., 
Gkandradeva, Gahadawla le. 9 . 
Ghandradityadeva, CUla eh*, 
0fcandragiri, m. 9 + . , 



228,224,225 



co., 



120, 125 
292, 293 
. 98, 99 

90, 91, 92, 93, 95 
90 

247, 249 
117n 



Chandrapaksha-SYainin, m,, . 

Ghandrapari or Chandrajjuri; v*., 

Chandrapurl or Chandrapuri-vishaya, dL> 116", 

318,121 
4, ewSfe of ^om- 



simbavarman II, 
Qhandmrekha, ., 



105,107- 
175. 



Chandra^ekhara, 5.0. Siva, 
Chandraaunha, o&. 9 . 



295,297- 
239 



Charampadeva, 



Vto 



refer to gftgea: n. ^ter.^figpe, tafpotoato ; and add. to the addition on pp, vii to 
other abbreviations aj^ used ir^ft^oMel; co^cpjintry ; (Zi^^distriet o* diwion ; 
*'-*^^ 
} fe.tjexnpls 5 w village or town ; fF. Westeru, 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

* 98, 99 

* 203 

116, 120, 121, 126, 

129, 131, 303, 304 
. 218, 220, 221, 222 

* 95n 
. 12, 13, 14 
. . IS 
. 44, 129, 304 

Chattm m., 75, 77, 80 

ckaturtighaja, boundaries, , , 65, 58, 60, 61 
Chaluranana, a.a. Brahman, 23 

Chaturvvaidya or Chaube, =*one knowing the 



Charsadda inscriptions, 
charu, an oblation, 

Ch&rudatta, m. 9 
eharupu* 

Ghashtana, W. Kshatrapa h., 
ehetstan = master in. Bushto, 



CMkka 
CnikkadSva, ch. t 



f Kanarese work 9 



, 37, 40 

O|pl OO ^*""*7 



Chikka-Ketayya, m. 9 . 1 S3, 153 

Chikka Mardyfr, GMk-Manur or Chika Munrocr, 



Chimmayya, m., , 
CMmudagere, 



four 



54 & n, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61 
. 75, 80 



. 33, 35 
. 33, 35 

. 45, 46, 47, 48, 77 
. 240 
20 

. 71, 73, 74 
187, 188 
238, 239 
. 37, 40 
227, 230, 233 

0<la II, Auto &., . - 227, 230, 231, 234, 235 
88 

CMiclI, co., , 70, 71, 74, 75, 78, 227, 228, 295, 297 



Chaudhoro Boppi-Set^i, m., 

Chaudkoro 

Chauhan, dy,, 

ClAaiihikyas of 

Chaunda (Chumuiida), m., 

chaunfaz (Chaurilca), an official, 

ChavauT\a, m*, . 

ChavtLl, fwtniljh . * 

Chaviula-JScttji, m., 

Chavunija I, Sinda Jb. 9 



22S, 232, 236 
2SO, 290 
.184, lafS, 187 

China or Chinese, to., . . 3, 6 S 11, 12, 13, 14, 199 
Chinese-Turkistan, co,, . , . ,4, IS, 202 
Chingleput, vL, SI 

Chinnaobraya (Chinna-Obala-Eaya), Gdbiiri <$., 92 



ChiipTirupalli plates, 



Chitrabhanu, m., 

Chitrada, w., 

Chitragupta, a mythical personage, . 

Chitrakarrnuka, biruda of 2 



255 

50, 153, 154 
210, 213 

(,-)**;> 

. 293 



Choda II, Kdna L, 



. 155, 156, 15S t 15y, 1*J2, 1)5 

. 155, 156, 157, 15S, Llil, lr f 
102, 113 



Choda III, Knia L> . 156, 157, 158, 180, lf.2,, 



the fort or district of the lord of 



Chomakura Ycfikatakavi, an author* 
Chenchhadl, v*., . 
GhMigaohoUxwjil (or chhu4&a), M. 



76 
215 
279 



279, 282, 285 



91n 
Chenna, ch., 

Channakaviraja, Chennapegga4a or Chennaka- 
viraja-kalahamsa, m., 



Chodamalla, v., . 

Chodambika, queen of MdUpadeia II, . IBS, 



IfiS, 164, ITSa 
, 169, 172 



Chodavaram, i'i. : 



107, ICO, 172 
265 



Chola, co., 64, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 90, 105, 112, 



Chola, family, 

Cholas, people, 

Cholamaliaraja, wr. of Kum&rtnkuto, 

Chuallis, Pargana, 



155 



Cb^ra, <xr., 



83n, 166 

IL SM. CherukmnilH, . 140,145,148 

14-0 

Cherukumilli, w* 9 

7 
chha, form of , . 

Chhahara 

Cbhalapa, m. 9 

ChhalaraMta, epithet of Narwimhavarwan II, . 108n 

Chhattlsgarh, derivation of, 
Chhattlsgarh, 1H. . 
ChhattiBgarhi, dialed, 
Chidambara-Kavi, a poet, 



Chulla, wi., . 



165n f 216, 2SS, 2S9, 293 
. 98, 99 

. 20,21,22,26,64 
87 

273, 27& 
8 
102, 103, 104 



, ., 

Chutaka- or Chutaka-Yiliara, Buddhist nionwfey, 



76 
76 

78 



Cocanada, vi., 
Conjeeveram, vi. 9 



65, 68, 69 
. 165 
Sin, 93n, 110, 132 



constituents-Si, 
Controller o! Eecoids, 
crescent, on sea?, . 
crescent, emblem* . 



. ,29 

. 89 

4 137, 2W 



<w 

d and fc forms of Aramaic-resemblitg r and m 252 



314 



EPIGEAHU INDICA- 



[ VOL. XIX. 



<f , doubling o! after r, 
(fa, form of , . . , 

dfo, form resembling to, in Kharoshthi, 
da, resembling dha in Telugu, 
Ba^aratha, Maurya king, 



PAGE 
62 

. 277 
. 206 
. 164 
. 253 
Dadhlehi, *o0, . . . 218,220,221,222 

daggor, on seal, 89 

Bahala or Bahala, co., 76, 77, 227, 228, 230, 234, 295 
Baiva-svamin, w.,. .... 246,248 
Baksharama or Bracharain, vi f , 156n, 157, 160, 163 
Bakshiiia-Toshala, dL, ..... 44 

Bajavay, a commander, 215 

Balavay-Agraharam plates, .... 90 

B&lhana, m. 9 296, 299 

dattalani, 180,181 

Balpati-M-Khirki Mohalla, a part of Matbura, 96 

dama, ending of proper names, . . , 245 
Dama 9 shortened form of D&modara, . . 257n 
Bama, see Bamodara-Setti. 
Bama, Sinda &., . . . . 227, 230, 233 

Bamabhatti-svamin, m., . . . 120, 124 
Bamabhuti-svamin, m., ... 119, 124 
Bamadeva-svamin, m. 9 . . . . 118, 122 

Bamarata-svamin, m., . . . . 119, 123 

BamaSarman, m. f . . . . 255, 257, 258 

Bamitra, w 9 ...... 67 

Bammavuram, s.a. Dharmavaram, . . 273, 275 

Damodara, a name, 257n 

Bamodara, m., 210, 212, 270, 271 

Bamodara Setti 3 Bama or Davala, ^,, 217, 218, 

219, 220, 221, 222 

Bamodaraiiva, wi*, ,60 

Dan$anayaka, an official, 135, 137, 185, 188, 192, 

269, 271n 
128,130,131 

danftapafyJca or daifadavasilca, 
an official, . 54, 58, 71, 73, 74, 136, 269, 271n, 304 
dan$ige, a measure, ..... 33, 35 
Ban4I-Mahadevi, queen of SubMJcara, . . 264 
Bantivarman, Pallava fc., . . . . 85n 
d&paka or dayaka, s.a. dutaJca, 178 and n, 179, 

238, 243 

Barddi-svamin, w., 247, 248 

Basa-Gavujida, m* 9 187, 188 

Basama, Sinda prince, . . . 227,230,233 
Basapalla state, * . * . 42 
Basaratha, myth. Solar k., . . 28, 95n, 297 



PAGB 
23 

. 66,60 
. 203n 
67 



Balarathi, s.a. Eama, . 
Da^avatara-deva, god, . 
JDashalatha, 
Data(Datta),/., 

Date- 

expressed in words, .... 130 
expressed in chronogram, . . \x>$ f I$Q 

Battatreya, a sage, ..... 162n 

Baulatabad, vi. 9 . , . t f t 21 

Bavala, see Damodara-Sett?i. 

Bavangere, w. f ...... 30n 

Bays of tLe fortnight : 
Bright 

lst * 84,87,88,295,299,303 
2nd * ...... 36,37,40 

5th, . 16, 18, 19, 180, 181, 183, 238, 219, 221 
6th > .... 82n, 98, 99, 158, 161 

7th > - - - 166, 171, 174, 184, 262, 263 
8tll .... 55,59,267,270,271 

10th ' ...... 130,131 

1Ith > ..... 184, 185, 187 

''*.. ^9,92,94 

56, 6J 

14th > * 56,60,184,185,186,292 
15th (purnima, full moon), . 42, 44, 64, 132, 

Bark- 133 ' 191 ' m ' I93> 259> 26G| 261 ' 303 

3rd ' 

5th, . 



6t]h 
7fc3l 

8th 
10th, 

llth ' 



56, 61 
20,24,28,31,33,35,56,61, 

210, 214, 303 
127, 164 

75, 80, 102, 103, 104 
.. 21, 24, 29, 55, 50 
, . , 54,58,130,131 
55, 60 
. 55, 59 

14th, . , 36, 38, 41, 223, 224, 225, 293 
15th or 30th (arww&ya) or New moon, 72, 
74, 178, 188, 218, 219, 228, 232,' 

n * a. i. 235 ' 238 ' m > 24 

Bays of the week : 

Friday (Sukravara or U^anas), 21, 36, 37, 40, 
85, 86, 158, 161, 164, 184, 210, 214, 

292, 295, 299 

Monday (Somavara), , 21, 24, 29, 31 f 
33, 35, 36, 132, 180, 184, 185, 187, 
218, 223, 224, 225, 228, 232, 
235, 244 (mistake for Wednesday) 



The figures refer to pages : n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the addition on pp. vu to xii. 
The following other abbreviations are used: cA.= chief; co.= country; $.= district or division; eZ0.s= ditto* 
dy. = dynasty ; $.= Eastern ; /.*= female ; L = king; m.=male; wo. mountain ; ri* ** river; 0.a.=same a 

?u-avillage or town; F.= Western. 



INDEX. 



315 



PAGE 

Saturday (Sanivara), 20, 24, 28, 32, 34, 85, 

86, 184, 192 

Sunday (idi, Aditya, Ina, Bavi), . 75, 76, 
80, 82n, 160, 171, 174, 180, 181, 183, 184, 
185, 186, 188, 191, 192, 218, 

219, 221 
Thursday (Bphaspati), . 36, 41, 85, 86, 

184, 188, 189, 190, 292, 293 
Tuesday, . * 31, 86, 184, 188, 218, 223, 228 
Vaddavara, . . . 36, 38 
Wednesday (Budha), 16, 85, 86, 90, 188, 

218, 238, 243 



Days : 

ISfch day of Jyaishtha, 
152nd solar day, 
1st day of A6vayuja, 
15th day o# As&adha, . * 

Mya, (Le<, dayada) agnate, - 

Dayiga, L, - 

De, form of(KhardsJithi), 

Dechimayya, m., . 

Degigama, vi. 9 

Degveimati, m , . , * 

Delhi or Behly, m,> 

Delhi inscription, . 

Delhi Tort Museum, * 

Deogadh Jain pillar inscription, 

De6ll grant, . * * 

DeSastha Brahmanas, . 

Desilaka, an official, 



De&ya-Gana, 
Deva, a god, . 
JDeva-forest, 
jievachari, m., 
Devadatta, m,, 



. 203 
* 216 

204, 205 

. 205 

139, 142, 146 

180, 181, 183 

2 

223, 224, 226 

281, 285 

282, 286 ; 

156, 157 

54 

. * 54n 
53 

. 82n, 238n 
63 

. Tl, 73, 74 

* * * y 

. 33, 35 

. 116, 210n 

. 285 

164, 171, 174 

, lOln 



pevadattaryya, m., 102, 104 

JDvage"ri or Devariageri, vi. 9 . 179, 180, 1S3, 

184, 185, 186, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196 
Devagiri, s.a. Daulatabad, . . 20, 21, 23, 27 
Devak!, Toother of Kri*h$a> * 231, 234 
Pevakula-svamin, m. 9 * 120, 124 
Devanaga, T^, . 55, 56, 59, 61 

Devapaladeva, Paramara k. of Malwd, * . 49 
Pevapila, m,, 135, 136, 137 

Bavaputra, a title, . . 5, 6, 66, 96, 97 



PAGE 
. 46, 50 

81 



Bevaraja, m, . . . . 

Devaram, hymns, . 

Bevaraya, Vijayanagara &., . 

Bevaryya, m. f . . . . . 102, 1 04 

Bevasaktideva, Gurjara Pratihara l\, , . 17, 18 

Bevaarman, m., . . . 126,259,260,261 

Beva-Setti (Sreshthin), ch., , . 20, 24, 28, 29n 

Bevavarman, m., 175, 177 

Beve^vara, god f 25, 2^ 

devi, a goddess, 210n, 230 

dh f form of ELharosh^hl , . . . .198 

Bhamai, n., 279 

dhamaute^dharma-yukta, * . , 205, 206 
Bhamayl, Dhama-nadi, s.a. DUmai, 279, 282, 285 
Lhammapada, a work, .... 10, 204 
Bhananjaya, an author, , , 294 

Bhananjaya-Bhaiija, Bhanja L of Qum$ur 9 . 42 
Bhanantara plates of Samantayarman, . .135 

Bianapala, tn^ 3.7.8 

Bhanasena-SYamm, lexicographer, . * 247, 250 
Bhane^ara-svamin, m,, . , . 247, 250 

Bbanyabhava, / 66 

Dhar, vL, 71, 240 

DWLra, s.a. Dhar, , . . 70,71,73,178 

Bharanichandra, epith&t o/ Narasimhavarman 

II, 105,107 

Bharanitilaka, epithet of Narasimhavarm&n 

lit *** 112n 
Bhara^ivaraha, mr. of Upendra I t 166, 169, 

170, 172, 173 

Dharaitfvaraha, sur. of Vi$ve$vara, 166, 171, 174 

Bharasena, Valabhl king, . , . 9 303 

dhararridhi, w., 1 67 

Bharma, god 9 35 

dharma or dharmma, . 71, 72, 74, 110, 112, 

114, 115, 118, 121, 139, 142, 143, 146, 

169, 173, 231, 242, 244, 255, 256, 

257, 259, 260, 269, 270, .297, 298 
Bharma, one of the three Satnas, . . . #OG 
Bharrnaka, w., . * . f , . $y 
DharmaJearta, an official, . , . , . 94, 95 

Bharmakavacha, epithet of Warasimhavarman, 

nii* 
* ** 11 DQ 

Dharmalalalaka, m^ . " . . 175, 177 

Dharmalmga, Dharmalinge^vara, Bharme^a or 
Bharme^vara, Je., . 155, 158, 161, 162, 

163, 164, 165, 166, 170, 171, 173, 174 



The figures refer to pages i n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the addition on pp. vii to xii 
The following other abbreviations are used : cA. = chief ; co = country ; di. = district or division ; do. ditto; 
dt/.ss dynasty; E.*= Eastern ; /.wfemale; &.=kmg; w,a=male; mo.= mountain ; fi=rivit)T| s a.a=Bama ji|; 

or iowa; F. 



EPIGElf HU 



Bharmanitya, epithet of Narasimhavarman 

II, 115n 

Bhannapala, Pafo &.,.... 17, 287 
Bharmapuri copper-plate, .... 239 

Bharmaraja-ratha, 108n 

Dharma-sastra 1J$6, 107, 270 

Bharmavaram, t>f., * ... 273, 274 
Bharaavijayi, epithet of Narasimhavarman 

II, 115n 

Bharmma, Bharmaraja or Blmrmaputra, s.a. 
YudMshthira, 22, 33, 303 

Bharmmaraja, SailodhbMva &., , 266, 268, 

269, 270, 271 

dharma-nipif 205 

BhatiM, vi,> 263 

Bhaute^vara-svamin, m., , . 119, 123 

BhavaleSvara, te., 187 

dhi, corrected into pa 9 180n 

Bhia, 7 

BMrii, ch., 210,213 

BhSdhaka or Bhodha, m. 77, 80 

Bhoyipayya, m., . . . . 217, 220, 221 
Bhntuxdttra-svamin, m., , . 247, 250 
Bhritisoma-svamin, m. 9 , . . 246, 248 

Bkriti-svamin, m., .... 247, 249 
Bhiuva, Mashfrakftta &., 86 

Bhravasena I, Valabhi h, . 125, 126, 127, 

303, 304 

Bkrnvasoma-syamin, m., , 119, 122 
Bhruvadattaryya, m., . * . 102, 104 

Dim Eaidan, co. 9 , 302 

dhvajastambha, 105 

Bighwa Dubauli plate, 54 

pffli, *.a. Delhi, .... 156, 160, 163 
Binakara-svamin, . 119, 123 

Iftp&v&li, festival* . . , . 88, 40, 228n 

Biti,/., 168, 172 

Bhrakara, m., 08 S9, 296, 299 

Birakara-flvamin, m. 9 , 247, 249 

Divyavadana, work, 207 

BivyeSvaia-sramin, m., . . . 119, 123 

Diya, 7 

dn, form oi in Kharoshtlii 9 , 204 

Bod da Kanyagundi, pit, . . . 133, 134 
DocLda&varam, t v i. s . . . , 8 In 

B6hall, i. t 98, 99 

.* . 36,37,40 



Dottharetta, w., * 4 
dramm, a coin, . * , 
Drauni, s.a. Asvatthaman, . 
Dravida, co, 9 



2^ 288' 

54, 58, , 72f, 74 

110, 113n, 114 

. 24, 86 



Dravidian, ... 24, 28, 139, 150, 272, 274 
Brofcarjuna, &ur, of Chalukya-BMmefoara 



Bronaoharya, epic h&ro, . 114n, 181, 182 
d 5n&-mukha 9 or dronv-mufcha, . . 229, 233 
Dro^asimha, FdlabMk., .... 304 

droqi, foorii or dom, a trough-shaped canoe* 207, 208 
du, form of in KharSshthi, . . . 204 
Dudyala, vL t ...... 92 

DumbarI,$Aeji0free ..... 120 

Durga, goddess, ..... 168, 172 

Diirgatenan, m. 9 ..... 62, 64 

Durgattha, s.a. Durgga-datta, . . . loin 
Durgga-datta, m., . lOln 

Durggatth(datt)aryya, m., . . . 102, 104 
Durvasas, sage, ..... 20, 24, 28 

Dtpfe^vara-svamin, m. t * . , 120, 125 
duta or dutaJca, an official, 15, 16, 18, 19, 58, 61, 
126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 135, 136, 
137, 178n, 262, 263, 270, 291n, 

203, 3(F3, 304 

diaidhibkava,oneo/the six branches* of military 
science, ....... 28n 

Dvaiavati, s.a. Dwarka, . 21, 22, 27, 224, 225 
Dyftiya, king of Urata, ..... 198 

6warka, vL, ...... 21 

Byojye or Byotye, m ...... 282,286 

Dyosa, vi. 9 . ..... 47 



E 

e, instrumental case in in Kanarese, ,217 
e (initial), form of , * * . , 237, 265 
e (secondary), forms of , . . 138, 287 

e (secondary), form of , . , 272 

e and e, not distinguished, , ^ . .287 
e-matra in KharSshthi, . t . 2, 3, 8, 10, 202 

earth - one 158,164,166,173 

Eastern Turkistan, co., * . . . 4, 12, 13 
Echaladevi, queen of Kalachuri Bijjaja, . 227, 

230, 234 
eclipse, lunar ($omagrahana) 9 . . 42> 44, 55, 59 



The figured refer to pages ; n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the addition on pp. vii to xii 
The following other abbreviations are used: cA.= chief j co.s= country , db,= district or division; <fo, 
; E. = Eastern ; /.sfemalej A.=:ldng; m,a=malej mo.p=mountam j ririver; .ffl.aame 

or town 5 JF*We8tara. 



HffDEX. 



317 



eolipse, solar (suryagraJwm), . 71, 72, 74, 84, 
85, 87, 88, 188, 189, 218, 219, 221, 

224, 226, 238 

IBgypt, co 3 o * *. . . 4 
JSkamalla, Mruda of Paramesvaravarman 

I, 110, 113, 115 

Ekavira, biruda of Narasimhavarman II, . 107 

Elaadurai, *'., 215 

Eleya-Tammuge, w, 9 - . 184,185,186 

More, w., 258 

eras 

Chalukya^BMlokamalla . . 184, 185, 187 
Chalukya-Vikrama, . 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 263 

Ganga 263 

Gupta, . . - 128, 130, 131, 262, 263 

Harsha 54, 55, 56, 263, 266 

Kalaohiui-Ch&lI, - 70, 75, 76, 81, 128, 

310, 214, 295, 296, 299 

KaliorKaliyuga, * . . 14,278 

Kaniahka, ... 11, 14, 65, 66, 67, 69 

Kwh&W 6S, 96, 97 

Maurya, * lln, 12 

Newar, ....*.. 263 

"Nirvana, ...... 12 

Pitndava-kuladipala . . 278, 283, 286 
Parthian of 248 B.(V ... 201 

gahasamalla, 295, 299 

Saka of 84 B.C. , . . 193, 200, 201 
SaU, . 11, 13, 14, 20, 21, 24, 28, 29, 31, 
33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 54, 62, 
63, 64, 70, 82n, 84, 89, 90, 92, 
94, 132, 133, 155, 156, 157, 158, 
161, 164, 165, 166, 171, 179, 180, 
181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 201, 215, 
218, 219, 221, 223, 224, 225, 

226, 228, 232, 235, 238n, 240, 274 
Seleucld, * 4n, 300 

Valabhl or Gupta-Valabiu . 125, 127, 303 
Vikrama or Saravafc , of 57 B. 0., 11, 15, 
16, 17, 18, 19, 46, 47, 48, 52, 53, 64, 
55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, TO, 17T, 178, 
188, 201, 203, 205, 237, 238, 
239, 240, 243, 2M, 267, 292, 

293, 298 

Ejrakafo * Baoheya-Saha^i * 231, 235 

Era&barage or Yerambarage, a.a. Yeltraiga, 

228, 231, 235 



pillar inscription, 



262 

88 



Fa-Hian, Chinese pilgrim, .... 68 
Fenchuganj, *>t\, , , . * . 278 
Ferishta, a historian, . . 47n, 90n, 156, 157 
Firoz (Ferose) Tugilaq, rw^i% L, . 156, 157 
Five-limidred Svamis (ayniirvvir>8vamigali J of 

Ayyava]e), ... * 30, 33, 35, 39 
Flons, a Du^A traveller, . 90 
lour styles of writing in Pallava fuses., . . 106 
Fyzabad Museum, 68 



ga, two forms of , 
gada or gadha, a fort, 
Gadag, vL, . 
Gadamutha, dL, . 
Gadhipura, vi. 9 



. 100 
. 42, 76 
217, 218 
42 
. 292 



Gadval plates, 112,214 

gadyana, a coin, 224, 226 

Gaha^avala, dy. 9 291 

Gajapati, title, 293 

Gajasya, 5. a, fla^efia, . 158, 231 

Gajuka, m., 46, 52 

Galhana,m 296,299 

gahge or ghafagt 39a 

Galteavara, te. t 241 

Gam or Gangina (Gangina), a dried up riu& bed 
or stream, * 117, 287 

gatndMga, 37 

gftmandas, class, 33, 35 

gana, (metrical) . * * 88, 113n 

Gaiiapati, a god, .,* 48a 

ga^as, ^ 199 

Ga^apaya, w* t 4 

ga^da, a land measure, . 279 

Gaijdamarttanda, te., * * * * 83 
gandamartta^dam, biruda of Kr**h*a HI, 287, 289 
Ga^anaraya^a, ir . of BMekara, . 139, 140, 

141, 144, 145, 147, 148 
Gandaraditya or Ga^aradityadeva, SildMra L, 

30,31,32,33,34,35,36 
^da, biruda of the Ko^a L Gltifa I and 

. * * 155,159,162,163 



figures refer to pages; *. alter a figure, to footnotes; and oeU* to the addition on pp. TJI to . ru. 
The following otber abbreviationa ore med s-cA.= chief ; co-= country ; ^.-district or division; ^.Oitfcoi 
dy.-dynasty; ^^Eftatern j /.^female ; E-Ung; m.==male; o.= mountain J n.rirer ? w.**i*m w; 
; te.t0mpte; w.villflge or town; W*** Western. 



818 



EPIQRAPEU INDIOA, 



[ VOL. XIX. 



PAGH 
Gandhadevl or Gandha&idevl, /., . 56, 57, 60 

gandhara, 38, 40 

Gandhanan, form of Prakrit, . . . 204 
Gag&a, a god, . 46, 155, 162, 165, 171, 215, 234 

Gagtesa temple, 108n 

GajjjSsa-Gumpha inscription, .... 263 
GaneSvara, m., . , , , .42, 45 
Ganesvara-svamin, m., . . * . 119, 123 
Ganga, Eastern, dy., .... 98, 135 
Ganga, Western, dy,> . 81, 82, 84, 8% 86, 87,. 289 
Ganga, the Ganges, 35, 38, 39, 59, 77n, 102 f 

156, 191, 267 

Ganga, family, . . 64, 71, 72, 74* 227, 228, 230 

GaAga,/., 52 

Gangadeva, m., 46, 52 

(Jangadhara, s.a. Siva, . 230 

Gangamamba, queen of Koppfy, 166, 167, 169, 172 
Gangamba, queen of Upendra /, 166, 167, 169, 172 

Ganganapavlka, 282, 285 

Gangara&-Pan<lita, m., . . . 184, 185, 186 
Ganga-svamin, m,, .... 119, 123 
Gangavadi or Gangapacji 96000, di., . 76, 289 
Ganges, n,, . 26, 40, 52, 55, 57, 77, 102, 104, 

114n, 157, 234, 286, 291 

Gangeya, s.a. Bhishma/, . . , . 33 
Gangeyadeva, Kalachuri k, 9 . . . . 76, 79 
Owagini, Gangnn (Gangini), s a. Gai or Qaijgin& 

117, 120, 121, 287 

Ganginika, dimunitive form of Gangini , . 287 

Garasuya, vi f 285, 

Gargge^vara, w., 81 

Gargoti, vi., 32 

31, 32, 34 

. , .217, 220, 221, 236, 237 
Garu4a-aeaZ, ... 70, 177, 178, 179 

GarvrarabM, w,, . . . 282, 285 
Gatibhatti-svamm, w., . % , . 120, 124 
gatis,five, . . t . . 166,170,173 
Gatisoma-svamin, m. 9 , . . . 246, 248 
gatrigas, class, ... * 33, 35, 37, 39 
Gauda, s.a. Bengal, . 116, 2,46 

Gaudas, peopk, .... 20, 21, 22, 26 
Gau-Ghat, .,*. 6-7 

Gaufi, vi., 156, 157n 

Gaurl, 4.0. Parvati, .... 231,234 
Gauiisoma-svamin, w., . . , . 246, 248 



Gauri-svamin, m, 9 247, 24& 

Gautama Buddha, see Buddha. 

Gautami, $.a., Godavari, . . .51, 168, 172 
gavares, cZoww, . . . 33,35,37,39,40 

gavariga, class* .*.,. 392, 

Gavayamagartika, j. f . . . 128,130,131 

ffavunfta or ffavun$w 9 . , . 25, 30, 37 

39, 187, 189 

ffawnda-wami, .37 

gavyuti, a measure, e , 260, 261 

Gayakarsnina, CAe^i ^ . . . 295, 296, 297 
Gasya K?ishjgta-3Dvanka temple inscription,. . 277 
Gayatnpala-svamin, m., . ^ |20 124 

Gera4a, vi^ fc * . . ^ ^ ^ 

* 282,! 



gh6sha, ending of proper names . ^ ^ 
Ghoshadeva-svamm, m,, ... ng; 122 
ahoshasena-svamin, w.,. . . . 247,250 



Gilgit, dialed, ...... 203 

Gingee, vi., ....... QJ 

Girija, s.a. Panrat! f ..... 22 

Girls'a, s.a. Siva, ...., 299 
Girisuta, s.a. Parvati, ..... 152 

Giriyappa, Gdb%ri ch. t , , . , 9^ 

Giriyapparaju, dobuti ch* 9 . . .92 

Gobnila, m., ...... 21^- 

Goburi, family * . . 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95 
Gddata$a-MacLh.yade8"a, co., . ]j. 

Godavan or Goda, n'., , 52,76,156,160,163, 

165, 172 
Gogga, m. 9 ...... 175, 176 

goguflw, ..... 150, 153, 154 

Gokarnefivara, te., .... 135, 136 

Gokuladeva, prince, . . . 278, 280, 283 
Gro7culadJiiJcarin 9 an* official, * , ^ 293 
G-oJcuUJca,, an official, * 71, 73, 74 

Golakimatha, * . .76 

Gollapalli, vi., . . , 91,92,93,95 

golelchi, . 273, 274, 276 

Golkonda, w., ...... 90, 91 

Goma^uvu, 5.a. Govada . . 140, 145, 143 
Gomideva-svamin, m., . . . . 119, 123 

Gomirtaga-svamin, m., . . . 245, 248, 250 



The figures refer to pages ; n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the addition on pp. vii to xii. 
The following other abbreviations are used: c/&.= chief; co. = country ; <&",== district or division 5 
; J#, = Eastern ; /.*=female j Jfc.s=kiBg t w.=male; wo. = mountain; ri.a=river; ^^, 
vf.=avillge or tpwit 5 H 7 .= Western* 



INDEX. 



819 



Gondopheres, L 9 . 
Gonkadeva, Silahara 



PAGE 
. 204 
. 179 
. 38, 40 
282,285 



65pala, ch. 9 . . . 
Gdpalanandi-svamin, m. t 

Gopala-svamin, m., , 
Gopala, *.a. Kpsliaa, 

Goparaja-kalva, eanol, . 
Gopatiia, t., 

Gopendra-svamin, m., . 
Odpidevipalya, v*., 

gfypura, gate-way, . . 



Go(Gau)ridattaryya, 
Gorukpoor, vi>, * 
, an assembly, 



Gosuya, t?f ., . 



247,249 
120,124 
. 32, 34 
. 93, 95 
282,285 
119,122 
. 92,93,95 
. 158, 161, 163, 164, 215 
150, 153, 154 
102,104 
. 157 
. 55, 57 
. 54, 58 
281,285 
282,285 

GStama, s.a. Buddha, .... 200,201 
0toii, . . 116, 181, 182, 210, 244, 245, 246, 

248, 249, 250, 288 

Agaatya 132,134 

247,249 

. 119, 120, 123, 124, 125 
80, 119, 124 

ISvalayana, 119,123 

Atreya, . . 126,155,159,162 
Barhaspatya, .... 120,124 
Bharadvaja, . 16, 18,, 19, 42, 44, 56, 61, 
117n, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 
124, 125, 195, 196, 210, 213, 
247, 249, 250, 262, 291, 294, 303, 304 

BharggaTa, 247,249 

Garggya, . 98,99,119,123,247,250, 

259, 260, 261 

G&uratreyaj 118, 122 
, or GStama, 117n, 119, 120, 122, 
123, 124, 128, 246, 247, 248, 

250, 255, 257, 258 

. . . . 238,243,244 
Jatufcwja, . 135, 136, 137, 247, 249, 250 

Ka&yapa, - L M M, 117n, 118, 120, 
122,124,126,246,247,248, 

249, 285n, 291, 294 



Katyayana, . 

Kat^dinya, . 

Kau&ka, . 

Kautilya, 

Kautsa, . 

Kavestara, . 



PAOT 
117,118,120,124,246, 

247, 249 

. 62,64,119,122,247,249 
120, 124, 125, 246, 247, 
248, 249, 250, 266, 270, 271 

246,248 
118,122 
.... 247,249 

. 117n, 119, 122, 246, 

248, 249, 296, 29 

Mamvya^a-gotm, 63, 141, 146, 152, 256, 268, 259 
Majgnjavya, ..... 247,249 

Maudgalya, . . 117n, 119, 123, 247, 250 
Fankalya, ..... 120, 124 

Para^ara or Para^aryya, . 102, 104, 117n, 

119, 120, 123, 124, 247, 249 
Paurrma, ..... 248, 250 

PracMtasa, ..... 118, 121 

Sakatayaaa, , 120, 125 

Salankayanft, . 119, 123 

Sa$4ilya, . . * 120,124,247,250 
Safikptyayana, .... 247,249 

Sarkaraks"bi, * . * . * . 56, 60 
Saubh.a{na)ka, . . 119,120,123,124 
Svarna-Kau&ka, . . 117a 

Savarrinika, ..... 248,250 

Vaislusia-vTiddM, .... 246,248 

Varaha, . . . 119,120,123,125,248 
Vasisktha, ..... 247,24 

Vatsa or Vatsa* . * . 117n, 119, 128 
Vatsya, .... 117^,120,125 

Yaska, . . . 118,120,122,124,247,240 
Gotrapravaraviveka, a worlc, .... 294u 

gotra^ahit-adhy-ardh-aihSa, a share* 117, 118 
Govada, m\, .. 140 

GoYardhana, hiU, ...... 2S4& 

Gdwrdlmna, ., . 238,243,244 

Govardhana-svamiii, m., . * 120, 124 

Gftv&tavi. v ...... 281,285 

Gdvinda, a god, ..... 231t 235 

Gdvinda,w ..... . 55,59,282 

Go7inda IH, mfyraMfa k ..... 16,17,86 

Govindacliandradeva, (B^awto fc* . * 291,293 
Govinda-BikBhita, an a*Aor, * . * 215 
Govinda-Ke^avadSva, fc., . 278,280,284 
GSvindaraja, Chauhan & of Ajmw, . . 47, 48 



The figures refer to pages : n. alter a figure, to footnotes ; and aM* to the additioE on pp. fii to xii. 
following other abbw-viatiom are used ; c&.escMef ; co. country ; di.ditriot or division; <&>.=* ditto; 
(^.-dynasty 5 ^.-Eastern ;/.femiite; fcMBg; m.male; mo,iOTmtwn; li-rirowMMwne a& 

or townj IT. 



020 



EPIGRAPHIA INDICA, 



[ VOL. XEL 



Govindaraja, Ckauhan Je. of RanthaM&or, 



Gramapati, an official, . 
Gframatdlca, an official, . 
gramatiM, a hamlet, . 
GramesVara, 



PAGE 

48 



. 233n 
136, 137 

. 71, 73, 74 
161, 154 

188, 189 

H, sixth ratna f>f a chaforavartin, . . 5 

<Judabhal, vi., 278 

Gu4avayf, $a, Gu<pbhai, . . , 278, 281 
Gudavaylka, vi., .... 278,281,285 
Guddavadi, 3.0,. Gudivada, . . . 255, 258 
Gvdd&v&di'Vishaya, di., . . 255, 257, 258 

gu$i, a temple, 228 

Gudivada, m. 9 * 255 

Gudravara, Gudrahara or Gudrara, variants of 

G-uddavadi, ...... 255n 

Gudufara-record, 10, 11 

Gudiavhara inscription, ..... 201 
Guha *.<*. Subrahmanya, . 110, 113, lift 144, 147 

Guhadasa, m., 262, 263 

Gujprat, co., , . 70, 77, 177, 178, 238, 240 
Gumsur, vi., ,,..,. 4g 

Gumsur Rajas, 42, 43 

281, 284 
217, 220, 221 

Gunadhara, m f 238, 243, 244 

Gu$a/ga-, Gunaganka- (or Gunakkenallata) Vija- 
yaditya HI, E. CMlufya L, , 142, 146, 

152, 154, 272, 273 

Vijayaditya. 

biruda t$f Naraswhhawrman II, 106, 107 
%, epithet qf Narasimkavarman II, . 112n 

nu plates, 141 

96, 128n, 215,^40,^65 
Garjara-Pratihara, family, . . .16, 17, 286n 
Gmrjara, #.a. Gujarat, . . 70, 71, .74, -75, 77, 78 
Gurjaras, peopk, . . 20, 21, 22,- 23, 26, 27, 289 

gwu, <Xf lo&g syllable, 114n 

Guxubhaktadeva, m. 9 . . . 227, 232, 235, 36 



Gwalior inscription of Vik. Sam. 932, 
Gwalior inscription of Vik. Sam. 933, 
Gwalior undated prasasti, 
gyasffim gyasti (god of gods), $.a. Buddha, 



54 
54 
54 



Gkitta,%., . 
Gntta, &MJ Gupta, 
Guttavojal or. Guttal, m., 



,218, 220,^1, 



218 



H 

h, form of-, 9$ 

ha, change of into gha, , 237 

Hadrianus, Roman emperor, . , . , 6 

HaidarAli, k, 374 

Haihaya, dy., . 64, 70, 75, 76, 78, 209, 210, 

211, 262n, 298 

Hailakandi, &, 278 

Hajy EMas, eft., . 157 

Hakaluk! Haor, vi, 9 279 

hakt, or Mia, a land measure, . 278, 279, 281, 285 

Haliya-Setti, m., 33, 35 

Haluru, w., 132, 134 

Hands, m., 303 

Hammira, Cktuhdn k. of Ranhambhor 9 9 46, 

47, 48, 50, 52 
Hommwa-maMkavya, a work, e , .47, 43 

Hampi,w. f 132 

Hampinaga-svamin, m. t . . . 246,248 
hana or panam, a gold coin, . . f . 33, 35 
Hande chiefs, ...... 90 

Eanuman, monkey-chief, 23, 27, 28, 182, 195, 196 
Mor, corrupt form of Sapar or saywa (*sea), . 279 
Hara, *.a. Siva, . 164, 171, 174, 220, 222, 242, 297 

tem*l> 19, 2a 

Hari, M. Vishnu, . .21, 25, 26, 30, 164, 171, 174, 

268, 270, 297 

-Harihar grant, 62 

Harinayiga, s.a. Harni, .... 62, 63, 64 
Hariraja (Hemraj'a.or Hiraj), >ChauMn &. cf 

Ajmer, 47n, 48 

Hari^ohandra, myth* solar L $ . . 218, 220, 222 
Harisunha, .,...., 295, 298 
Hari-svaam, m., . , , , 247, 249, 25G 
Hariti, *oge> Haritlputra or Haritiputra, epithet, 

141, 146, 152, 256, 258 f 259 

Harni, **., 3 

Harsha<wHarshavardliana, Kanauj L, . 63,jl52, 179 
Harshadeva-svamir, m., 247, 249 

Harshaprabha, m., 246, 248 



%ars refer * to -pages: ^.afteioa figure, 4o l-ootrwstea; and odd. to*tJie.^ddit^ on .pp. vii to xa. 
The following oth$r afebr--viations ^axe^uaed.; e^.=cliif ; co.=cowitry;^4.= district or divisioiis e^.ssditio; 

?; fe.== temple; w s = village or, 



INDEX. 



321 



Harahapura, s.a. Barsola, 


PAGE 
. 240 
236, 240 


Hoysaja, dy., . . 20, 23, 
HrishlkeSa, s.a. Vishnu, 


2S, 227, 230, 231 
. 141, 147 




177, 178 


haxara, a measure, 
Haahtnagar inscription, 
Hastavapra, ft.a. Hathab, 

Hastavaprahara^I, dL, . 


31, 33, 35, 36, 38, 40 
203, 204 
. 303 
, 303, 304 
255, 257, 258 




^ A 7n 


Kuligere, s.a. lakshmeshwar, 
Hoiigere, 300, di 


, 21, 24, 25 
.194, 195, 196 
, 34, 35 


Hnvishka, EusMna fa, . . 

i 


ll f 65, 68, 204 

. 265 




. 128 


Hwtiyamatha, a place, * * 


. . . 303 




. 72, 74 






katta-margga, a wain bazaar, 


. 37, 58, 60 
282, 285 


', use of for i and tce versa 
Jolia*'2avnndaj w, * * 


. 164, 5G1 




. 282 


Hawat Ibrahim Padishah, 


BaJimani k of 

. 90 




2G3, 264 




215 




, 163n 


Iliyas Kwaja Sultan, L of Bengal, , 
Imdrasama or Idrasama, TO,, . 


156, 157 




162n 




. 37, 40 




. . 185, 186 




ISla 


Hermatjiyarasa, or H erl 


_A . rtrt l i\i\ 1 t\A 




50, 93, 94 




S 1? 



Hormaom, -fc,, 

Hill Tippera, pargana, 

H,madri, Himachala, Himavat, or Himalaya, 



11 

278,279 



. 20,21,23,174,218,220,222 
. 52,77,96,97,156nl79 



Indo-Skythian, %., 

India or Surendra, a go<i 33, 35, 68, 144, 147, 

162B, 174, 224, 225, 230, 233, 234, 

2S9, 290, 29S 
152, 154, 258 



a demon 



Jfipo Bhia, 
JiippooB or 
Hirai^yagarbha, s.a. Brahma, 

Hira-Manur or 



. 21, 26 



164,171,174 



noor, 



228, 232, 235, 236 
. . 195, 196 



pilgrim, 
Hitmg-nu, a 
Holapa, tev 



H oUi-G&vuiLfla or Gau^a, 



. 12, 116, 117n, 198, 267 
3 

. . 194 
. 37, 40 



25, 26, 29, 30 



Indra-Bhattaraka, i. CMfaJeua L 9 

Ladrakiia, a UH, . . 

Indrapat Fort, . 

Indraraja, 17. 

Indrasena, &.,.*' 

Indrasthana, co 

Indravarman I, JB. Gaiiga. L 9 . 
Indiavarman n, B. Qanga &., 
Indmvarman or Indrayarmmadeva,, E. 



215, 220, 222 

. 54n 

. 141, 146 

. . 158 

, 292 

. 135 

4 135 



Indrayudha, Zanauj L, 

or Indedvara, a god, 



Indu, s. 
Indus, f 



Ka, a 



135, 138 
17 

, 180,181, 
183, 1ST, 188, 189 
* 299 
! . . W3 

. 4n, 5, 199, 202 
. . 144, 147 




322 



EHGRA.PHU INDICA. 



PAGE 

Isatadevf, quwn of N&gMatadZm, 18 

Ovaatp*. . . 114115,181,182,222,279 
l&vara, m,, * * * 175, 177 
ISYarabhakta, epithet of 
II, .... 

in, &., 120, 124 
in, m, 9 * 119, 123 

Bvaraiya, .,.... 191, 192, 193 

ISvarakonda-mmin, m$ . * 119, 123 

, 279 

ia or Ipkhala, *'., . ^78, 281, 282, 285 
Itertilla, mound, ....* 277 

Itihasapnya, epi&e* o/ Narasimlavanmn 
II, . . . . . , . . 112 

lyatta,/., ....... 55, 50 

lyaveja, vi. t &* 125 
lyayonpos-Aitytigwa, 198 



j 9 elision of - IE BiaroslitM * . 204 
ja used f or ^# . . * * 291 
Ja, form of, (K roshtM), . 2 

Jabalpur, t?u, , 296 

Jad:era,w. s ..... 210,211,214 

Jadeva, a. d* JayadeTft, 41 

Jadigang, M. JudigMg, * . 279,282,285 
Jagadekamaila, wr. of Jayastotifa II, . 217, 

219, 221 9 22S, 224, 225 
Jagadekamalla II, IF, OMOwbya It., . . 186n 

Jagadeva, CJwwMn fa of Ajm&r* 48 
Jagadiara or Baivajna gn-JagadJbara, i,, . 42, 44 
JQ0ajj1wM>P&9 t . . 19, 2S, 27 
Jagapa{ya)atara, w., , 82, 285 

Jagatalmlaa, m., . 205, 298 

JafYaJge^vara-svamiB, m, 9 . , 119,123 
Jaggaiaya, cJi. 9 . * . . 91, 92 
(Jafane) JalmayldTaira-STaxcdn, m., * . 119, 124 
j w., ..* 77 

77 

Jain or Jaka s . 81, 65, 70, 71, 180, 187, 

215n, 216, 220, 221, 238, 239, 255 
Jainfa (Jiw)-dharmma 9 . . 71, 72, 74 

Jaipra 1 , *., 47 

Jaitrasiialia, CJiauhdn & of MaM<imbhor 9 46, 

47, 48, 49, 52 
Jaltugi I, Tadava *.,.... 20, 22, 26 



PAGB 
Jaltugl II, 7a$am *., . . . 20 9 22, 27 

Jajalladeva I, Zakubwi (HaiJmya) fa 9 qfltotna* 

& ura > * - . . .77, 210, 212 

Jajaladeva H, Hikaya k of M^napma, 20& 9 

210, 212, 213 



Jalaaathe^vara, e., . . . . . * 83 

Jalateyana^ SM. Shore Temp!, . . , 105 

JanaalgarM Inscription, ^03 

jambija or jambiila, see jambs. 

jambfi, jambija or JazabiLlft, tree, . 22, 20, 161., 163 

Jambu-dvipa, , . . 19, 22, 26, 227, 229, 2S3 

Jamna, see Jumna. 

Jamna-Bagh, a place f ..... 7 

Janamgjaya, myth. L, . . . 52, 165, 168, 172 
janapada ...... 260,293,290 

Jaiiardariadeva-svainia, m. 9 * * . 2|7 ? 250 
Janardana-STamin, m. f . . 120, 124, 246, 48 
Janjgir.w,, ....... 75 

Jaaaatabad, *,a., La^^autl f . 286 

Janod, *?i, .*.,,, 241 
Jasalla,/., ....... 7g 

Jasaraja I (Ya^oraja), Choja fa n 98 

Jaaaraja JJ, C^5?a dL, * * o f . 98, 99 
jaahfhi, a, land measure, ..... 279 

Jata, ch. 9 ..... 295,296^297 



44 



. 



Jathinaga, m,, 

Jaulif inscription, 

jafcva, s.a. yaha, ...... 201 

Jayadaman, Kahatrafa "k. 9 . 13 

Jaya-Blianja, Jaya-B!ianjadvaj Jayadeva of 

Jadeva, Bhanja & f . . 41, 42, 43, 44 

Jayadeva, see Jaya-Btianja, 

JayaAti, m. t , . , 56 9 60 
Jayanaga grant, <* 286,287 
Jayanatlia, Uchchahilpa L, , , . 129, 130 
Jayanta, o^ o/ Indra 9 ..... 144, 147 
Jayasimga SMyama-Setti^ #>,.. 37, 40 
Jayasimliaj O^eA' &. r . . 296 
JayaSimha, Kashmirian &. 9 . , . .198 
Jayasimlia I, Jayasimha-Vallablia, Jayasimto- 
Vallabha-Maliaraja or Sri-Pjitli'vi-Jayasingha- 



* The figures refer to pages 3 *. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the addition on pp. vii to xii. 
following other abbreviations are used; 0&.ehie; co* = country ; dt. district or division ; d0.*Eedftto; 

; JS7,, = Eastern j /.feuia{6 1 Aj.=3dng; w.=male; m>-= mountain 5 n.^river? ^a.=saine ae| 
; w,=viliage or town; |f,Wtoro 



INDEX, 



328 



PAGE 

Vallabha, -27. Chaluhja h, . 141, 146, 149, 152, 
154, 254, 255, 250, 257, 258, 260, 261 
JayasiiSiha or Jayasinga II, If. Chatutya k. 9 

30, 217, 219, 221, 223 

Jayaaiihha, E. CMlukya k. 9 . . . 141, 146 
Jayasimha II, Paramara k. of Malwa, . 49 
Jayasimha III, W. Chalukya L, 187 

Jayaeimha or Jayasimha (Jayasioihadera) III, 

Paramara k. of Malwa, . 46, 47, 48, 49 
Jayasimha, m., . -46, 52 

Jaya-ri, the goddess of victory, . . 144, 147 
Jayasvamin, Uchchakalpa k., . . 129, ISO 
JayasvamiaJ, queen of the Uchchakalpa k. Kwna* 

radeva, ... 129, 130 
Jayatugideva, 9. a. the Paramara k, Jayasimha II 

ofMalwa, ; 49 

Jayavarman II, Param&m k. of Mdlwa $ . . 47, 49 

Jayya^a, an author, 17 

Jejakabhukti, co,,. . .... 296 

J'ejuri, vi., . . . . * . 62, 63 

Jesuit letters, 91 

Jewish settlers, 303 

Jhampaitha-Ghatta, <* #Zoc0 . . ,46, 47, 50 

Jtttttawfltya, 263n 9 302 

Jlmttavahana, lineage, . 81, 32, 34, 179, 180, 
181, 183, 185, 186, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 

194, 195, 196 

Jina, 25, 30, 31, 32, 34, 71T72, 73, 74, 181, 183, 188 
Jnanasagara, epithet of Narasirt&hawrman II 9 * 1 12n 
Jianas*aktideva, m. 9 232, 235 

Jodhpur, vi 9 ... . . . 47a 

J6ga, w., .. 282 

JSgayanlya, a $ace 9 * ^^2, 285 

Joseph (Yoaepli), .,.. ^^ 

Jubbmlpore, w. f 76, 77, 288 

Jndigaiag, rt., ,* 279 

Jugul or Joogal, t, 9 ^7 

Jugujakoppa, *.e. Jiigul, < . 86, 37, 40 
Jumna, or JamnU, n., . * * 67, 76, 102, 104 
Jura, 0i., '* 287, 2 

Jim, 01., 279 

Jyoshtliabliadra, a senior* 118 



fc s elision of in 
fei, form of 



. S04 
. 2, 202 



11 



PAGI 

ka, cursive form o! , 272 

kabbega, misreading for kachohega, . 

Kabul valley^ 

Isachcha, s.a. karya (Skt. Isrilya), . . . d 
kaohchhaka, a low hill, .... 130, 131 
Kachohega, biruda of Krishna III, . . 288, 289 
KachcM, s.a. Conjeeveram, 82 

Kachchiyum-Tafyaiyum-konda, epithet of 

Krishnalll, 81n, 288 

Kachhavahas o! iaaber, ... 47 
Kaclihava,h?s of Gwalior, o . 47 

KLachhavalia, Kachchhapaghata or Kachchha- 

pari, family, * * * * * 
kada, a land measure, * * 279 
Kadadiya, j.o. Kaudiya, . . 279, 281, 285 



Kadamba,/am%, . . - ISO, 181, 182 

Kadambagin-grama, s.a. Kalamba, . 102, 104 
Kadamuldyu, 150, 154 

Kadara, co., . . . 227,228,230,234 

Kadaram or Kidaram, co. 9 . 228 

Kadphises I, Kushd^d L t . . .9, 201 

KadpMses II, Kusha^a k,, 11 

Jcahapana, s.a, kwshipatya* * * 200 
KaEasa,wo., . * 24, 28, 162o, 281, 285 

Kailasanatha, ^., . 106, 108n, 109, 110, 111, 

112, 113, 114a 



Kaisara, a Kushzn titk 9 



Kaivama, w., . 

Kaivartta, people* , . 

Kaiyyata, an author* * 

Kalcada 

Kakare4i-se^ Karkkaredi. 

Kakati or Kakatiyabada, w. Kakti, 

Kakkapai, prince, . . 

Kakreri, w., . 

Kakti, w., ... 

Kajabhra, people, 



.. 6 

177,238,240 

281, 285 
* 286 
17 

72, 74 

. 21, 25, 30 
. 71, 72, 74 

2S6 
21 

63, 64 



Kalachuri or Kalaciran, family, . 75, 76, 77. 

80, I28n, 209, 210n, 230, 234, 288, 293 

Kalaohtmya, family, . . . 227,229,233 
Ka{agm-rudra, form of Siva, . * * 33, 34 
Kalahafaka, s.a. Koliak, . * 303,304 
Kalaha^thana, w., . * t 62, 63, 64 
Kalain, ri., ...* 279 



The figures refer to pages : *. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the addition on pp. vii to sii 
She loBowing other abbreviations are waeds A= chief ; co.- country 5 ^.district or division; ^.dittoj 
; J^.-Bartein 5 /.-female; kk&og; w.= male 5 wo.= mountain; nWrmr; 5,a.=same as 5 
| w- village or towaj lf fi Wscrn, 



324 



EPIGEAPHIA INDICA* 



f toiu 



PAG* 

, a work, ... 4 
Kaiakala, biruda of Narasimhavarmm II, 

J06, 107, 109n 

KaiakaleSvara or Kalakaleavara, to., 70, 71, 72, 74 

Kalamba, w., 102 

Kalaraukha, s^ct, .... 227, 232, 235 
Kalailjara or Kalafijara-m<z#$afo, di., 15, 16, 17, 18, 

Ift 286n 
laiifyu, a weight, 4 88 

Kalapandita, m., 45 

Kalapriya, <i ^>4 83 

Kala Sang inscription, 7n 

Kalavdalagufa-pedda-cUnta, . a .150,153,154 
Kalha&a, author of Rajatarangini, . 



Kamalsetti or Hbbi Kamaisetti, m., 
Kamala, s a. Laksnml, .. 
Kamalanaka Bhattia Haradatta, w.*, t . 
Kamalaraja, Ratfiaya L of Ro&wpnra, . 76 9 



PAGS 
289, 290 
. 280 
. 62 



Kamancfaka, w cfc^Aor, . 



77, 79, 210, 211 
. . 27,118 
, f , 72, 74 
Kamarupa or Kamrup, co. 9 . 116, 117, 118n, 



198 



Kali, 



14, 32, 34, 49, 110, 114, 115, 



118, 121, 143, 146, 168, 172, 181, 182, 221, 222, 292 
Kail, goddess, ..... 109n, 234a 
Kaiideva-setti, ch,, + . .25, 30, 186, 187 
Kahdevesvara, te., . . . 180, 182, 183 
Kaliga, 5.0. Kabyammarasa, . , . 184 9 187 
Kalinga, co., . 87, 91, 98, 135, 136, 140, 263, 267 
Kahngaraja, Haihaya Js. of Batnapura, . 76, 

79, 210, 211 

Kali-STamin, m., . , , 247, 249 

Kahvarma, m., . 149, 153, 154 

Kali-Viskrravardhana, 5.a. ^Ae J57. Ckalukya L 

Vishnuvardhatia V, . 142, 146, 152, 154 

Kaliyama or Kaliyammarasa, EJiacJiara cb,> 

180, 181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 189, 190> 

191, 193, 194 



., ...... 291 

Kamayacharya, m. y 92, 94, 9^ 

Kamayya, m., ...... 2 90k 

fomftta, . . , 19,26,30,196,1^7 

to ^ ...... 232,236 

Kambdja, co., 

KamiMg&ma, a work, .. 

KaUkkeire, vi,, 

fcamma* a land measure,. . 

kampana> a division, 



. 39 n , 233rs 
132, 134 

186, 187, 224, 22S 
21, 25" 



135^ 



Ealiyammarasa IT, KhacJiara ch. f , 



. .184 
279,282,285 



Kamsa., a d&mon, 

kamsaraka, a brazier, . . 

M?w^aMm, bell '/netal worke*, 

Kanakhala, vi., ...... 

Kanaka^ridevi or Kaaaiadi^vi, SM. Kafiohana- 

dvj - * S5, 56, 67, 59; 60, 61, 
Kanauj, kingdom and village, 16, 17, 53, 

54; 116, 239, 246, 
s.a. Meru, . 



77' 



Kaliyani, s.a* Kalaia, . . 

Kalla, n\, ...... 185,187 

Kalla-Ma^ha, a stone monastery, * 232, 235, 236 
Kallanore, vi. 9 . * * . .157 



Kaloja, w., 

Kalpi, vi. t 

Kftlsi Edicts, 

Kaluva, m 

I(~lva 9 a canal, * . 

Kalran, m. 9 

lalyana, a, festival, . 

lalytna-mandapa, . 

Kama or Cupid, . 

lama, .....,. 

Kamii, aliortened form of Eamayya, 



189, 191 
15 

203n 
. 55, 59 
, 94, 95 
* 69, 70, 71 
165, 166 

164, 166, 171, 173, 174 
142, 283, 297 
. 173 



KaSciianadev! or Kafichanaindevi, te. 9 . 64, 

55, 56, 57, 58 

KMeh! or Kauchipura, s.a. 9 Conjeeveram, 
64, 106, 107, 110, 111, 112, 113n, 

115n, 28$ 

Kandanayolu, ., 9^, 

Kandasyami, te ........ n% 

Kandnkur, Kandnkuru or KanduJcHf, tf. 9 9, 



290n 



Kanhapaika, m., 

Kanhara, Yadava k., . 

Kanihafe vi** 

Kanishka or Kanislika, Kush&na k. 9 



274, 275, 27T 
577 

20, 22, 23, 27> SO- 



. 4, 6, 
6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 65, 9% 



91, 204 



Kanishka casket, , 



The figures refer to pages : . after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the addition on pp. vii to ssii, 
The following other abbreviations are used: ch. = chief ; co.= country; <!.= district or division ;,<fc>.ss ditto;* 
ds?. dynasty; ^?. Ea stern ;/.= female; &.=sking; w.s=inale; mo.=s mountain; n.ssriver; 

6itr.=BUTname; e. temple ; vL*= village or town* W. = Western. 



INDEX, 



325 



PAGE 

Kankaje^vara, KamkaleSvaradeva, Kamkales- 
vara, Kamkaneifrara or Kamkalejsvara], 
* god, ... 184 and n, 185, 186, 187 

Kankal! inscription, 98n 

Kanna, s, a. Krishna III, .... 140 
Kannadacharya, m., 188, 189 

Kannappayya-Sefti, m., .... 33, 35 
Kannaradeva or Kannaradeva-vallabha, s.a. 

Krishna III, . . . 81n, 82n, 287, 289, 290 
Kanthe>a(ru)vati-wftaya, di, 9 . - 260, 261 
Kanyakubja, Kanyakubja or Kanyakubja- 

bhukti, s.a. Kanauj, . 15, 17, 18, 19, 54, 286n, 293 
Kanyakuman inscription, . .82, 85, 288 

Kapadvan] grant, 240 

Kapall6vara, a, form of Siva, . . . 46, 49 
Kapila-Bhava, a god, 26, 30 



kara, suffix, 263 

Karagama, *.a. Karergram, . . 279,282,285 
Karage, vi., . 180, 182, 183, 188, 189, 194, 196, 197 
karaja, ray or firmer-mil, . . 168,172 

Karajgi, vi,, 179 > i8Q 

karana,s.a.kulkarni, . . . 270, 271 and n 
kdrapala, an official, . 178n 

Karatoya,n., "7,246 

Karavalabhairava, aur. o/ tfpfiwfeia I, 166, 169, 172 
Kardamale6vara, *.a. KaYaJji, . . -46, 52 
Kardamila,n 128,130,131 

97Q 

Karergram, w., * 

QA 

Karha&w-, du 

Karhad plates 83n, 238n, 288 

KariyakaUu, pit, 133,134 

Kiarkadatta-svamin, m.,. 247,249 
Karkarala g m,m, ... - *6, 47, 50 
Karkkaredi or Kakaredii, 90. Kakrep, . 296, 298 
torma^^-oftheBrahmanas, . . 174 and n 



PAGE 

Kartavirya or Arjuna-Kartavirya, mytL k, 

75, 78, 143, 146, loo, 159, 162, 210, 211 

Karttikadi, year, ..... 28 

Karttikeva, s.a. Skanda, . . 28, 63, 104, 270 
KartikeyMe ...... 128,129,131 

Karuntittaikudi, vi. t ..... 215 

kartt86 9 weight, . . - * . 33, 35 
Ka&kudi plates, ..... 110,111 

Ka^appodaya or Kachapa-Nayaka, ch., . . 90 
kasata ....... 185, 187 

Kashmir, co,, .... 17, 198, 227a 

Kashyavia (Ka^yapJya), .... 203 

KasI, s.a. Benares, .... 292,299 

Kastaratank, ...... 297n 

Kasya-Govmda ...... 282,285 

Kasyapa, a sage, .... 155, 159, 162 



Karmuk-arjuna, 



141, 143, 147 



Karna, epic hero, . 33, 35, 4% Wn, 218, 221, 222 
TTnrnA ^Karnnal o/ 1 KarnadeTa,J5ral<w:^t*ri <7MdIi ^. 

o/^W, 70,76,295,296,297 
Karnaraja-VaUabha, *.o. Krishna IH, . 139, 

1^0, 142, 146 



117 



Karna-Suvarna, co., * 
Karnata, Karnnata (Karnatak), CO., 70, 71, 74, 75, 

77,78,89,91 



Katakannpa, wi,, .... 140, 145, 148 
Katakhala or Katarhala, ri. and w,, .278, 281, 285 

Katariya,/aw/y, ^' 50 

Kathevaram, /or^, ^74n 

Kathiawar, province 13, 21 

Katte, Katcembu or Kattepu-durgamu, s.a. 

Katkevaram, . . . .273,274,275,277 
Kaltumbodah, .... 150,153,154 

Kaudiya, pargana, 279 

Kanaka, n., ^ i2i 

Kau^iM, goddess, .... 141, 146, 152 
Kau&s5ma-svamin, w., .... 120, 124 
Kavadegolla, vi., . * . 31, 32, 33, 34, J5 
Kavadidvipa, 125000, di., .... 76 
Kavalji (Kapalisrara), te., . . 45,46,47 

Kaver!,n 20,21,23,27,112,214 

KaviEka, m., 56 J 1 

kavifiche or kac"he,^saved t .... 277 

Kavuiu,,. 140,145,148 

Kavyaprabodha, epW o/ ffawfetew 

77WW 17, .**'* 

Kawardha inscription, 98n 

Kayastha,^, . - 46,50,210,238,243,244 

kechchan-appa v, > 

SET. ::'' ' *" 

jfcedom or keyara, a land measure, . ^79, 285 
Kendui plates, . ... 214 



U2 




. - 






W n*BUiname; ^.teiap]e; w. village or town; 



328 



DJDICA. 



* 



PAGE 



Kesada or Kesarivaxman, 0.0. Rajakesaxivar- 



man 

Kes*ava 9 m., . . 
K&TOdSva* *., . 

Kesava-Nayaka A, 



166, 168, 172 
46, 51, 55, 59, 75, 77, 80 
. 280,284 
194, 195, 196 



Ki-pin, Kingdom oi-, . 



PAOT 
187, 183 
,! 



Kesava-BYamm, ,, . 247,249 

Ketamalla, m., . . . . 189,190,191 

KetmmikM, ri., . 46,47,49 

Keunjhar State, ...... 42 

Kevaliliood, . ' , , ' . . . 57n 
Md> form of KhaTOshtM, . * 2 
%a, forms of , * . 237 

Khachara- (or Khechara*) VariiBa, .Race o/ .Bwk, 

179, 180, 184, 185, 186, 187, 191, 192,193, 194* 

195, 196 
* . . 202 



Kirtipura, *,, ... 15 



Kirttisimha, dl., . 
KirttiTannman, If. 



Kuamw&r glossary, quoted, * 
Basukaci or Easukadu-SeveEty ? cZ., 



. 295,296,297 

63^ 254 5 

256, 257, 259, 261 
35n 
. 83, 



227, 228, 229, 231, 232, 

233, 285, 



t&akhorna, JcMcomi(-1 
IQialimptir plate, . 
, mkr, . 
or %A0ft0, a 



287 
198 

2, 3 



Kla^dali, race of 
Kiandapala, m,, 



Khan Jehan, c^. 9 
JDiapparayya, m., 



epithet, 



* 263 
25, 30, 33, 34, 37, 39 

, 

246, 248 
. 157 

<OO QK 

& o JO, Ou 

282, 285 

278, 283 
. 278, 280, 283a 

- 210n 
229, 233 

3 



Kisuva Halama-s4tiYala s 



Kl-ye-to, 

Jsobbagu, a^roud man, . 

Kochchadaiyan, Pandya L 9 



Kodan^arama, a^r. of Adtoya J, 

Koilkuntla, vj,, . . 



. 129, 130 
233n 

. 187, 188 
. 238,239, 

240, 242, 244 
266, 270, 271 

42, 43 

a, . o 42 

. 42, 44 
Khoh. copper-plate inscription, 128 

Khond chief, * 43 

. . 4,5,13 



. 186 9 187 
12 

o 274 
. 113 

a measure* . . .33, 35, 38, 30, 40, 41 

150, 153, 154 
o 85n 
92 

ff&, a e 56, 61 

(Haihaya) L 

75. 77, 78, 210, 211 
141, 146, 152, 154 
. 42, 43, 44 
33, 35, 38, 40 

Kolagaliu, 0*"., 82n 

Kolani KS^appa-Nayaka, ch 9 . 156a 
Kolhapur, vi, 30, 31 

Koliak or Koliyat, w., . . . . 303 
KoOabiga^dia (or Koliabi) Yijayaditya IV, B. 
CMulcyaL, , , t 



Kokkala or Kokalla, 

of Tnpun, 
Kokbli, JB. CMluJcya L, 
K6l4a, &a. Kulla^a, . 



Kollapma, .a. Kolhapur 9 
Kolleru, fake, .. 



KMfijali, s.a* 



, co., . 
, see Kottiga, 
Khyata, ?or& 9 
Kiikaka, m,, . 



47 
o 126, 127,300, 304 



.142,146,153,154 
. 30, 31, 33, 35, 36 
..... 141 

179,180,182,183,187, 

188, 189, 190, 194, 195 

Honiara Aj^mayya, m., 33, 35 

Kombacu, *?., ..... 260, 261 
Komkana 5 see Eoftka^* 

1 . 77 

. 75, 77, 79 

* 43 
aw^ate, K6^a-sima or Ko^a-stliala, 

155, 157, 158, 164, 166 



Komya^a, w'., 



co., 



Kon<Jamma, queen of Venlcafa I, 
Kondararanga-vishaya, dt, 
Kon4ayI<J.u, w., 



. . 44 

90 
. 266, 270, 271, 327 



Tte figures refer to pages ; ft. after a figTire, to footnotes ; and add. to the addition on pp. vii to xii* 
The following other abbreviations are used ; <j^. = chief 5 co. = country ; ^'. = district or division ; do. = ditto ; 



; ^,=villag or town; W** Western, 



INDEX. 



327 



Kondraju, Goburi cL 9 

Kondu-Bhatta, m., 



92 
.. 93, 95 

.. 267,269,271 
Kong-u-t'o (Kong-yu-t'o), *.a. Kongoda, . . 267 

Konkaij or Komka^a, co., . 20, 21, 23, 27, 
70, 71, 74, 75, 77, 78, 170, 180, 

181, 182 
Koppa, 7. OMJw&a/a fc., . 166, 167, 169, 172 



232, 235 

^ 

258n 



Koppina Vakhkhajiadeva, m,, 
Koramelli plates, 
kds 9 meaning of , 
Kosakara, people, 



Kosaia, Mahakosak, or Uttarakosak, co*, 76, 

77, 80, 98, 99, 212, 292, 297 



feffam, 



.... 273,274,275 

, a division, . * .273 

Kotfcam-sima, s.a, Tuni Zamiadari . . 273 

Kottiga or Khofctiga, EasJitraUta fa, 82n, 178, 240 



ot 3.a* kvjula, ..... ^ 

Jwanti, a land measure, ..... 279 

Krauiicha, wo., ..... 269,270 

hrSwk&xa, ...... 30,38,41 

Krishna, ri., ..... 91 i56 

Krishna, a god, 22, 26, 27, 52, 225, 231, 234, 283, 284 
Krishna, s.a. Vakpati I, . 239 

II of Kjiahgaraja, Mshfrakiifa k. 9 . 175, 

176, 238, 239, 240 
ITT or Kfisnnaraja, EashtraMta L 9 81, 

82, 83, 140, 238, 288, 289, 290 
, Nandyal ch.> 91. 
a, a god . SS3 

Kiisanappa-Nayaka, Qingee ch. 9 . . 91 
, w., ..... S0n 

or Kpshnadevaraya, Yijayana- 
garak., . . * 90,91,132,133,134,215 
Kpsli^arayapura, vi, 9 . .132, 134 
KrishnaTaya-mjayo.'m, a Telugu work, . . 90n 



- 7 and note 



, ie,, 

Jb^ s f orm of ElsrSahth!, 
Kshaharada or Klsnaaarata, * 

Kshatrapa or liLdb-aksliatrapa, a title, 4, 

9, 13, 15, 201, 202 



PAGE 
Kshatriya, caste, . 56, 60, 61, 128, 130, 131, 

349, 172, 173 



Kshatnyasimha or Kshattrasimha, &ur, of Xa 
wmhavarman II, . , 103, 1C8, 112a 

Ksliatnya-siEiha-Pailavefevara or Esiiatnya- 
smiha-Pallavesvara-deTa, Shrine In the Shore 
Temple, ...... 105, 106 

Kshemankara, 1*, 9 264 

Kshetrapala, 194, 195, 197 

9 form of , .277 

Kubera, a god, . 170, I73 9 174 

Kub] a- Vishnu vardiiana, see Visanvardha^ia I. 
Kuclamukku, s.a. Kuinbhakonam, 87 

Jcudava, a measuie, . * . 3on 
fcwft, a homestead, , 228 

Kudlur plates, ...... 289 

kitjiila, title, , . . . . 4 S 9 

Kajula Kadphises, s,a. KadpMses I, . . 9, 1 1 
Kukkaniir, w., .... 259 ? 280, 261 

kulandai, Bender, .... 214 
Ivuiatilaka, epithet of Ncnashrihavannan II, 105 ? 107 
Kulenur, ri , . * - 179 
kuHcarm 9 an official* . . * . 27 In 

Kullada, vi., 42, 43 

Kolottunga I or Kulottunga-Ohola I (Olioda), 

Chala L 9 . * Sin, 105n ? 166, 168, 172, 216 

Kulottunga (III), Ohola L 9 . 81n 

Kumara or Kumaxasvamin, 5.0. Skanda, . 32, 

34, 88, 115, 142, 144, 146, 147 

Kumar adattarya, m., . * * 102, 104 
Kumaradeva, UcMiaMpa fc, f . . 129, 130 
Kumaradevi, gween of tfee UcJichaMlpa L, 

QghadSva, ...... 129, 130 

humaramatya, an official, * * 135, 137 
Bluniafaiikusa, 5^., * . 87 

Kumarapratapa, a. a. KuEwarpartab, . 286 
Kumararama or BliImesvara, fe,, . 165, 168, 172 
jLumarasafman, m., . * 291, 204: 

Kuinaristana-domganka, a h ill, 72 
Humbhakonam, w., * . * 87,215,216 
Kumbharotaka, .a. Kamrod, * 238, 241, 242, 244 
Kumbhesvara, U^ . .215 
Kumbhi plates, . * * * 296 
Kumta, w,, . . * S^ n 
Ktamurajaga plates, . * . 264 



The iiguies refer to pages : n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the addition on pp. vii to zii a 
The following other abbreviations are used : cft. chief ; eo. country ; $.=disfcnct or division ; do. ditto ; 
; JE. - Eastern ; /.female; Jb.king; m,male; mo, mountain ; ri. river; ^ c=same aa; 
j w,=viliage or town; fF*=Westenu 



328 



EPIGKAPHIA INDICA. 



[ VOL. XIX. 



Kuniyur plates, . 
Kunnattur, vL, . . 
or Kumtala, co., 



PAGE 
Kundava CJwla princess and gueen of Pma- 

ladUya* . I65n 

Kumdi or Kun<p Three Thousand, di., . 19, 

21, 22, 25, 26, 30 

Kunda, ending of proper names . 245 

31, 32, 33, 35 
. 36, 37, 40 
95 
92 
19, 21, 22, 26, 

227, 228, 229, 233 

Elun warpartab, pargana $ 286 

Kuppanayya or Kuppanamatya, m., 149, 153, 154 
Kiiram plates of Paramelvaravarman, . 106, 

llln, 114n, 115n 
Kurbet or Kooreebet, vL, . * * * 21 

Kurgod inscriptions, 226 

Kurma, co., 46, 47, 49 

KurrubaSlvara, s.a. Pala&varam, . . 132, 134 
Kurukshetra, w. 9 * 34, 38, 39, 40, 52, 77, 182, 185, 
189, 191, 192, 193, 219, 221, 224, 226 

Kurubas, shepherds, 132 

Kupraibetta, *.a. Ktorbet, * 20, 21, 22, 24, 

25, 26, 28, 29, 30 

Kus"a, myth* fe,, 231, 234 
Elushan or Kushana, % . 0, 9, 11, 12, 13, 

65, 68, 96, 97, 198, 201, 202, 204, 205 
Kushanas, tribe, * . . . . 4, 13 
Kushanasena, m. 9 * * 12 



, 292 

. 8,9 

67 andn 

, 37, 40 



iKusika, GO*, * 
Kusulnka, . . 
JZufubini (Kutumbint), 
Kuvara Lakka-Setti> ^-> 



|, change ol into I or f 6, 36, 180, 191, 217, 223, 226 

l t (basic), use of, 273 

h archaic use of, . . . . 183, 187, 287 
m j wrong use of * 183, 189 
^symlolfor inTelugu, ... 130 
|, use of in Kanarese, . . 217, 223, 272, 274 
LaohohaladSvi, Ehackara queen, . 191, 193, 194 
Laehchhika,/., * . ' , 56, 61 
78 



laghu, a short syllable, 
Laghu-Bhadavana, w"., 
Lahore Museum, . 
Lakhkhadevi,/., . 
i, dL 9 



te., 



Lakkama-ChocJa, ch. 9 

Lakkamba, queen of Rda L BU<ma 



PAGE 
. 114n 

291, 293 

1, 203, 203 

20, 23, 2$ 

. 23d 
. 2!0n 



157, 
158, 160, 163 

Lakkambika, queen of Manun-dpendra IF, 166, 167, 

170, 173 

Lakkundi (Lakoondee), w, 9 . , . .238 
Lakshadhyana, m., .... 20, 24, 28 

Lakshana, m., 46, 50 

Lakshmana, epic Jiero, . . . . . 27, 50 
Lakshmanaraja, Haihaya L, . . . . 70 
Lakshmanasena, Sena ft., . . . . 277 
Lakshmeshwar, vi., . . . . . 21 
Lakshmeshvara (war) inscription, . . 63, 186n 
Lakshmi or Mahalakshmi, goddess, 22, 23, 28, 
32, 34, 43, 51, 72, 95n, 109, 

118n, 120, 144, 147, 194, 28i 

Lakshmi, queen of Malfapadeva /, ^ 166, 167, 169, 172 

Lakshmldhara, m,, 46, 51 

Lakshmikalasa, m., 44 

Lafaihmi-svayamvara, sur* of Eramba/rcsge, 228, 

231, 235 

Lalitabhara, m., 264 

Lallopadhyaya, m 238, 243, 244 

Lambakanchuka-t7am.fe, caste, , . .54, 58 
Lamvodara, s.a. Gaije^a, , . , 49 
Langla, pargana, . . . 278, 279 



. 252 

251,252, 253 

. 252 

78, 277 

12 



. 204 

4, 7, 9, 14, 252 

251, 301 

300, 301 

78, 131n 

. 5,13 



Arabic, . 
Aramaic, * 
Aweatic, 
Bengali, 
Chiitese, 
PesI, . 
Gandharian, 
Greek, . 
Hebrew, 



Hindi, . 
Iranian, 



e figures refer to pages : n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the addition on pp. ?ii to xii. 
The follomng other abbreviations are used: <3A, chief ; co.=cOuntry ; di=district or division; db.^ditto, 
^ dynasty ; JS7.Eaiteni j /.-female ; Liking ; m.male ; mo.=mountain ; n.=river ; *,a,saw as | 

' or townj Tf. Western, 



INDEX. 



329 



PAC* 
languages mnid. 

Kanareae or Kanna4a, . 19, 27n, 31, 35, 

36, 88, 89, 95n, 131, 130, 140, 

150, 180, 183, 187, 189, 191, 

194, 217, 223, 226, 272, 274, 

275, 276, 287, 288 
4, 5, 200, 203, 204 

277 

251 

. 131n, 139n 
96 



Khotani, 
Kuki, . 
Latin, . * 
Marathi, * 
Mixed dialect, 



Pali, . 
Parslk, . 
Prakrit, 

Saka, . 
Sanskrit, 



Semitic, 
Tamil, . 



Telugu, 



. 6, 96, 207, 276n 

252 

. 7, 9, 39n, 47, 65, 178, 198, 
200, 202, 203, 204, 205, 239, 247n 

* 

. 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 15, 19, 21, 
81, 42, 46, 47, 63, 62, 65, 67, 
68, 69, 75, 89, 95n, 101, 105, 
109, 114n, 127, 129, 131, 135, 
138, 150, 155, 164, 174, 177, 
180, 182n, 183, 187, 189, 191, 
193, 194, 209, 215, 217, 220n, 
221, 223, 226, 237, 254, 258n, 

259, 261, 266, 277, 291, 295 

253, 300 

81, 83, 86, 87, 95n, 139, 149, 150, 
151, 166, 214, 215, 216n, 217n, 

258n, 273, 275, 276 
. 88, 89, 90, 138, 139, 140, 
150, 151, 155, 156, 159n, 160n, 

164, 215, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276 
, . . 42, 78 



TTriya or Oiiya, * 
, a carpenter, 
Lafcka, Ceylon, * 
La^a, co,, 

Lava, myth. &. 
Leydea plates, . * 
Liaka, Kshatrapa, 
Lkka Knsuhika, Kskato apa, . 
Mtyuxr &vdi&g*, 20, 24, 35, llta, 161, 164, 170, 173 
Ltagama-Nayaka, A f * 91n 

Hoo, emblem* ..* 7 
LSkaditya, title of ParamMmravarman I, , . 115n 
L5kamaliadevi, qwen of (Ml^/a, BMma II, 142, 146 
Idkanatlia, of., . * 98 w 



. 33, 35 

229, 233, 297 

70, 71, 74, 240 

231, 234 

215, 216 

8, 9, 15 

8, 0, 13 



LoLapala, . 

Lola, m* 9 

LoklagutKiu $* 

Loriyan Tangai inscription, 

Lucknow Museum, 

Lucknowty, vL, . 

Lunar race, 

M 



. 46, 51, 52 
217, 218, 219* 220, 221 

. 204 
. 15, 52 

. 157 
172, 174, 278 



96, 101 



m or ma, fonn of , * 

m, cursive form of in Kanarese, 19, 36, 

180, 183, 187, 191, 194, 226 



. 101 

. 254 

, 259 

. 204 

. 101 

. 174 

223, 224, 225, 226 



?7i (final), reduced size of 

m (final), form of , 

m (final), use of , 

m, changed to v in 

m (subscript), two forms of 

ma, similarity to na, 

Machimayya, m., . . 

Madagajarnalia, biruda of Krishna III, . 287, 289 

Madaka^a, n., 47 

madamba, 229, 233 and a 

Madana, a god, . , . .23, 27, 43, 231 
Madanapala, Q&hadav&ta L, . . . 292, 293 
Ma4agihal inscription, 19 

Madclimayya-Nayaka, m., . * 217,219,221 
Madeviyarasi, queen of the Sinda k. AcJiugi II, 

227, 230, 234 

Madhava, m., * . . .55,56,59,61,240 
Madhava, A-., . 266,269,270 

Madliava, Image of , . * 20, 24, 25, 28, 29 
Madhava-svamin, m., . 247, 250 

Madhavavarman II, SaiMhbMva & . 266, 267a 
Madhavendra, jSatiodhbhaw h., . . . 267n 



Madhave^vara, te. 9 
Madhu, demon, 
Madhuka-latika, free, 
Madiiumitti'a-SYamin, m 
MadliusSna-svamicg m. t 
MadLu-svamin, w., 
MadJiusudAna, m.,. 
Madhti-svamin, m, 
MadkyadeiSa, co., 



36, 37, 38, 40, 41 

. 175, 176 

103, 104 

247, 250 

119. 122 
. 247, 250 
55, 56, 59, 61 

119. 123 
44, 156, 159, 163 



Madhyamaraja or Madkyamarajadeva, eur. of 

TaUWtoll, .... 266,28,270 
-Madirajayya, w., ... 30, 37, 38 40 f 41 



to pages : . alter a figure, to footnotes ; and o&Z. to the addition on pp. jii to xtf, 
SSL^ are used^. - chief ; ^country ; ^-district or da^on; fc-AHa. 

* 
surname; fe,temple; d. village or town; W.** Western* 




330 



EPIGBAPHIA INDICA. 



[ VOL". SIX. 



Madras Museum, . 



Madura, vi. 9 
Magadfca, people, . 
Haghesvara-svamin, m., 
MaMbalZdhilsnta, an official, * 
Mahabalipuram, vi., 



PAGE 

. 149 

10 

91, 288 

20, 2i s 22, 26, 44n 

119, 124 
128, 130, 131 



90, 105, 106, 108n, 

109, 110, 111, 132, 113- 

Maltab'harata or BMrata, epic poem, 129, 280, 283 
Mafiabharata* Telugu work, 273 

Hah abhutavarm.au, Pragjydtitfta A., . * 116 
llahada plates of Yoge^aradSvavarman, , 97, 98 
Mahadeva, m., * * .55, 56, 59 
Mahadeva or Tiruvural-MahadSva, te, s . . S4 S 88 
Mahadeva, Tadava L t . . . * 20, 22, 27 
Mahadevi, a queen, . . 129, 180 
Mahadhana, &.,.*,, 210, 21^ 
Mahijana, . 40n, 57, 218, 232, 235 

MahalakshmL, .see Lakshiai. 

Mahall, a division, * , 286 
Mahainalla, 52r. of Nai astmhavarman II, . 108n 

i, c title, * 31, 32, 34, 35, 
36, 38, 40, 44, 76, 80, 91, 92, 94, 95, 

194, 195, 196, 227, 230, 231, 234, 235 
imani, a ttik** . 238, 242 
Manamulsha, a sacrifice, . * 209, 271 
Maf } d-nadu, asseinbh/* * . * . . 37 
Mahanubhava, a sect, . . , . , 100 
nahapdtaJca, 73, 74, 126, 129, 145, 154, 182, 185, 

224, 304 

Mah&paha, ..... 68 
Mah&'ptabhu^shigh sheriff, f * , 36, 37 
MahapjadMfia, a title, . . 38,185,195,231 
Mahapratikdra, an official, . , 135, 136, 137 
JI/xMraja, ^ $#fe, . 5, 6, 16, 17, 18, 19, 54, 63, 
66, 00, 97, 101, 102, 103, 104, 
118, 121, 127, 128, 129, 130, 
135, 136, 139, 201, 256, 258, 

361, 262, 269, 303, 304 

Mahmdjadhiraja, a title,. 22, 53, 54, 58, 64,118, 

143, 146, 151, 153, 154, 165, 180, 

190, 192, 195, 219, 223, 237, 238n, 

241, 242, 244, 287, 289, 2D3 

Maharajudhwaja-pati, a title, . 238 

Maharaja Jaawant Singh* Jodhpur &., , . 47n 
itfaharajara-nada, s.a. Maharajavadi, . . 86 
Maharaja-Sarvan, ch,, 18 



, sur, of AmdgJiavarsha J, 



PAGE 
16 
86 
296 
H2n 
200 



Maharanaka, a ^s5fe, . ^ , . 

Maliaratha, . . . , . 

Uaharaya, s.a. Maharaja, 

Makasamanta, an official, 31, 32, 34, 127, 135^ 

136, 137/149, 153, 154, 184, 

185, 186, 187, 188 5 190, 191, 

192,193,194,269,303,304 
l, an official, 184 , 185, 186,, 191> 
192, 198 
ojjicial, * 65 S 128, 

130, 131, 135, 136, 137 

Mahasanghika, a Buddhist school, . 68, 69 
Maliasena, s.a. Karttikeya, . 102, 104, 141, 146, 152 
mah&sen*adhtpati, an official, * . . 187, 188 
Makattama s an official, . * . .71, 73* 74 
Mohattara, an official, . 306 

maJia-vadda-vyavahri 9 a title, , *37 

Mahamnwa, a wofJ$ 9 , . . , 112n 
Mahavlra, a Jai?i Tirfkatikamy , . . 57n 
Mahavisa, v{., . 291 9 ^93 

Hahavyfthapatit a tAI^ . . , , , 98, 99 
Mahendra, mo,, . 135 S 136 

Maliendrapala, Kanauj L, 54 

Mahendrapala II, PratiMraJc.* . . 237 9 240 
Mahendravaraian I, Pallava h, . I05n 

Mahendra varman III, Pallava h . 109n, 112 
MahendravarmSSvara, ^e, . lOfkL 

Maliesvara, *.o. Siva, . . 18, 102, 104, 142, 

146, 231, 235, 271, 275, 279, 283 
Maliesvara, vi., .... 262 
Mahelvara-diksha, consearation, 185, 187, 192, 193 
Mabe&varas, . g^ 275 

Mahl, n., . . . 238, 239, 240, 241, 242^ 244 
Mabiohandra, Qahadavala k., . , , 292 
Mahldhara-svamin, w., , 248, 250 

Mahishabuddfrka, vL, , 71 72 74 

Mahishasuramaidanl, j.a. KaH^ , . . I09n 
Mahishmat, Myth. Haihaya &.,... 262n 
Mahishmati, a,a. Mahe^vara or MandMta* 155, 262 
MalusKmaty-adhipa, biruda of the Edna, L Choda 
I* ...... 155,159,162 

MahGdaya, s.a. Kanauj, . 17, 18, 54 
Mdhul, atue,. . . . .291 

MalmdaU, vi., ...... 72, 74 



The figures refer to pages : n. after a figure^ to footnotes ; and add. to the addition on pp. vii to xii. 
following other abbreviations are used: cA.*s chief co.=oountry 5 ^.=district or divisioa; cfo.idftio 
dynasty; J8. =^Eas tern ^ /.= female ; ^.=king; m.=smale; wo, = mountain ; nWriyers .aRsame wa 
B surname; te. temple; w*s village o^ town? IT,= Western, 



INDEX, 



Mahurapura, a.a. Maura pura, 
Mtihuva or Mahuva-Setti* ' m * 

Maihav, *v"., . 
Maithila, people, . 



ti) a work, . 
Hiii, s,a. Madan& 



Malnhar, ro., , 

Malai nu<Iu t co. 9 . * 
Majufwyya, w., . 

M : i I af >a, y \ a N iiyaka, e& . 



PAGE 

278, 281, 285 
. 217, 218, 

220, 221 

. 289 

. 117 

. 303 

5 

23 

149, 153, 154 

166, 179 

. 166 

189, 191 

, 30,38,41 

20, 21, 23, 24, 27, 29, 64 

70 

. 175 
33, 35, 185, 187, 189 



, s.a. 



Mamdlpui' or Mumdapcor, i* v 
Matodapur (==M\iliamiaad's tovrn 

Mamgalavannman, m, 9 . 
mamkas, , 



Malas a,., 

t?iri/<//r, tr 

Main \ a itr Malakotta, ft.tr. Malabar, , . 166 
Malaga, Male 01 Malayaehala (Sandal mountain), 
*,a, Uio W. Uhata, wo., * 300, 172, 179, 218, 

220, 222, 227, 230 

MnKva-iimha, <*., . 295, 296, 297, 299 

MuMvni'M*'., . 227,232,236 

M,ilUi<Ml,fu., 238,288 

MalKrA,., 20 > 2S 

Mai la or MalUnuUia, ch. . . . 20, 27 

M allamba, //wcw o/ ^ ff5wa A. Chuda I 9 155, 

158, 159, 162 

Muil.unlHKii, queen of UpFnfoa II, * 166, 167, 169, 172 
MulIajKidrvu I, J. Cki?t*kya k., . 166, 167, 168, 172 
Wallanatlova or Mallapa II, i 1 . OMhtkya k. 9 165, 

166, 167, 169, 172 
37 
25, 26, 29, 30 

. 20,24, 
25, 28, 29 

. 157 
194, 195, 196 
181, 183 
a,m., - t 184,186,187 

27u 
ri.vtha, commentator, 

103 104 

MwluKa-viraka, place / - 

^Malava,*)., . 45,46,47,18,49,50, 

71, 177,178,240 



mamma OE ^hw *; 
Mammaka, //&., . 

Mammata, a/a antler, , 
mana, measure, . 

Mamiii3'a-kbiiiiiapaiI-inTU2-YC^.t^ "r: , 

of iSAe Jiowitt i CAt; ?*u J, 
JVlaiiabiiita, sw/\ o/ 2^3 off ^sht^jn n a. ." - 



Managhosha-svamin, ?i., 

Manavumma, Ceylon I , . . . . I*- 

Mandakini, 5.a. Madukana, r * W, *" 4 * 

MandaLini, s.ff. Ganges, . . * .114 

mandala, a lemton^l cLitsfcn, . IT, T7. "S, 



MaijdalGsvara, a Wh, * 
Maudalila, a title, . 

Mandapa, s.a. Mandu, . 
Mandara, mo n . 
Mandasa, *;*., 
Mandhaiii, w?/f^. I*., 
Mandhaia, vi., 



230, ^1, iL 



i MalHuathaorMalli-SoWi, 

Mftllapadova, Jb., 
A'hachara eft., . 




3I S 235 

150, 153, 154 

Ma^tdu, a fortress, . * * e ** 
Mangalam, villages naic.ed s ... i.i4 
Mangalampad charter, .,** 
Mangalapura, identity of vith 3IaEgabre cr 

Mangalam, . e .211 
Mangalapuram, w, * ii*.a 
Mangalaraja, Kachhavaha L of GuzZlcr, . * 47 

Mangallu plates, 14jn 

Mangalore, vL 9 . 

Manin-Ynvaraja, -E. O^alw/^a *., . HI, 146, 

149, 152, 154 

m* i - f 1T5 S 176 

Mamka,/., ^ 

Mamkiaia iBScription, . * *i ^ ^^ - u ^ 

ManiMala silver desk, . * * " * 

Maniyfir, w., * J ^, 

Manjugh-oslia, a 5w^Ai^ ?%, ~ w ' *" yi} 



"uiu iigurus refer to ^ v 
Thn following other abbreviations are used : 
11 L . j.ssfemale ; fr 



^ At71f> tea- mdadd. to tbe addition on pp. ra to zii. 
, co. . 



332 



EPIOKAPffiA INBIOA. 



[ VOL. XIX. 



PAGE 


PAGE 
Matradhyarwa. TTZ.. 109 inj. 




Jlfflft, * i . 141,146,152,256,258,259 
Mitri^iva, m., 130# 131 


manned/a, . . 179, 180, 182 184, 187, 188, 
189, 190, 191, 192, 194, 195 
Matioratha, m., . 128, 130, 1?1 
Manfirathasvamin, m* 9 ^ . 117, IIS, 122, 246 i 
Manse&ra inscription, . . . 7n, 204, 205 


inattar (or mattal), a land measure, 30, 182, 
183, 187, 192, 219, 221 9 224, 226* 232, 230 




rafl$a#c6 or mandapd* * * 93, 95, 165 

Mantra (Mandra or Manjn) ghSsha Tejabhatti- 
evamin, m., 120, 124 and n 




Maurapur, pargana, . . . 278 


M 


Mann, myth. L, i 78, 114n, 142, 146, 155, 
159, 162, 211, 224, 225, 226, 305 
Mann, code o/ , . , . 227,255,256,258 

Mamim-opendra IV or Upendra, E> Chalulcya 
&*... 166, 167, 169, 170, 173 

Manyafcapafta, a rent-fi ee village, . , * 71, 72 ; 






Mavina-chavuda-Kawe, a place, . . 194, 190 


Mayurabhanja State, . o . 43 


Mayura^lmall, vt. t . . 116, 117, 118, 121, 246 
ihbu, use of for mu or mmu, . 273 
Mechaka, m., ^i 


Maramaraiyar, #.a. Marasimha, . . .84, 88 
Marana Lord, 253 


Medhabhat^i-svamin, m. 9 . t 120, 124 
Medhabhuti-svamm, w., # . 247 249 


Mara^arva, s.a. Maharaja-Sarvan, . . 16 , 
Marasimha, W. Ganga L, . . ,34, g8, 289 
maravi, oo o 


Meghaparaka, w., .... 282,285 


Marayagere, w., 192, 19E 


Mardaka, sic Marjhaka, ... 5 
Marichi, a sage t .... 155, jsg, 162 
Marguz inscription, ... 7 


meridarkhes, a title, ^ n 
Meni,mo., . , 19,22,26,71,73,181,182, 
227, 229, 233 
Merudatta-svamin, m., . , 247 249 


marjkaka, s.a. malysaki, . . . 5, 6, 12 




Metre 
Amsttobh or ftoka, 15, 21, 49, 78, 79n, 92, 
99n, 105, 107n, 108n, 130n, 159n, 167, 
180, 188, 190, 192, 194, 211n, 212n 
213n, 219, 223, 225, 228, 260n, 27^ 
296n, 298n, 209n 
ry&, . 21, 49, 92, 99n, 101, 103n, 105, 
107n, 108n, 117, 212n, 213n, 279 


Maru}oyana-kere, a tank, . . 184, 186, 187 
Mtoiti, s.a. Hanuman, . . . OQ.W 


Marz, s.a, MHj t . . K 


Masana-Gavuuda, m,, . , Ifi5 198 
Masulipatam plates, . 272 
Mata Gall, a lane, 6g 


Mathwa, vi., . . 46,50,65,66,67,68, 

96, 206, 209 
Mathura, caste, , K i 




Mathura elephant inscription, . . . 209 
Mathura inscription of the year 299, . , 67n 
Mathura inscription of Dhanabhiiti, . . 206 
Mathura Lion Capital, . . 7n, 199* 201, 204, 209 
Mathura-Mufleum, . , .66,67,68,96,206 
Matia,/aw%, Q1 

1wWfS * 100 


Bhujangaprayata, 4Q 
Champakawila, . . f 219, 223, 22S 
Drutavihmbita, . . . . 296n, 297n 

Dvipada, . . , oi- 

. * * i& 

mi > 21, 49, 159n, 167 
****** 49 

Indravajra, . 49, 79n, 114n, 138, 159n, 
160n 167, 213n, 296n, 297n, 298n, 29fl 



INDEX. 



333 



PAGE 
Metre contd. 

Indtavamsa, 167 

Kanda, . 189, 190, 219, 223, 224, 

225, S2ti, 228, 287, 289 

Madhya-akkara, 88, 89 

Mahdsragdhard, . . . . 219, 228 
MShm, .... 21, IfiSn, 296a 

Mandakranta, , . , 159n, 167, 299n 
Maitebliavikridita, . . . 219, 223, 228 
PajjkatiM, ...... 49 

Praharshim, 21, 167 

279 

, 279 

Eathdddhdta, 21, 49 

Salmi, ... 49, 92, 160n, 180, 192, 219 
jdrdulaviMditct t . 21, 44n, 49, 98n, 159n, 

160n, 161n, 162n, 167, 192, 
211n, 212n, 219, 223, 279, 298n, 293n 

Sdhwini, , . .21, 49, 78, 297n, 298n 

Biea, 273 

Sragdham, . 21, 78, 110, 113n, 114n, 

159n, 213n, 214n, 279 

Svctgata, ...... 49 

Tarala, ... ... 194 

Taruioja, 212, 273 

Tnpadii